(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The mammals and life zones of Oregon"

1 



c 



A 



118 



117' 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 55 



issued 




by the 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 



Washington, D. C. 



June 1936 



MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF 
OREGON 



By VERNON BAILEY, formerly senior biologist, Section of Mammalogy, 
Division of Wildlife Research 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction . 1 

The present study 2 

Physiographic features of the State 4 

Life zones of Oregon 11 

Upper Sonoran Zone 12 

Transition Zone 19 

Canadian Zone... 25 

Hudsonian Zone 29 

Arctic-Alpine Zone 30 

Mammals of Oregon . 54 

An important natural resource 54 

Annotated list of species 57 

Order Artiodactyla: Hoofed mammals. .._ 57 

Order Lagomorpha: Rabbits and conies. 93 

Order Rodentia: Gnawing mammals 117 



Mammals of Oregon Continued. 
Annotated list of species Continued. 

Order Carniyora: Flesh eaters 261 

Order Pinniped ia: Seals, sea lions, sea 

elephants, and walruses 330 

Order Cetacea: Whales and porpoises. .. 336 
Order Insectivora: Insect-eating mam- 
mals 349 

Order Chiroptera: Winged mammals- 
bats 368 

Order Marsupialia: Marsupials 393 

Bibliography - 391 

Glossary of Indian names of mammals 403 

Index... 404 



INTRODUCTION 

In the early pioneer days of North America the mild climate, 
rich-soiled valleys, towering forests, and teeming animal life of the 
Northwest attracted many adventurous explorers, and before the 
fur-trapping days were over the basis had been laid for the per- 
manent settlements that held the Territories of Oregon and Wash- 
ington for the United States. The early history of Oregon is a 
thrilling romance, full of the stern realities of struggle, endurance, 
and suffering, leading to eventual victory over appalling obstacles 
and the development of a great State by a hardy class of people. 
Even after three-quarters of a century much of the area still remains 
as public land or is held in large tracts for grazing or lumbering, 
while national forests protect the best timber. Irrigation already 
has reclaimed many extensive arid valleys. The extensive lum- 
bering operations have opened up rich lands suitable for agricul- 
ture in parts of the valley country, while over the higher levels, on 
private and public land, reforestation will undoubtedly give better 
returns than farming. Still other great areas unsuitable for agri- 
culture and of little value for grazing are ideal for native game and 
wildlife of valuable and attractive forms. 

7209^-36 1 1 



2 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

The first great attraction of the State was its wildlife, game for 
food and clothing, and fur-bearing animals for trade and interna- 
tional commerce. Agriculture, mining, and lumbering came later 
and, with other industries, gradually absorbed the wildlife resources, 
which were not inexhaustible, as they seemed at first. While Oregon 
is still one of the leading States for hunting, there is today only 
a fraction of the original supply of game. Some of the most valuable 
species are extinct or nearing extinction, and others are in need of 
suitable range and food, of better protection, and a definite plan of 
management that will build up and insure a future supply not only 
of game animals but also of the many other attractive and interesting 
forms of wildlife that add so much to the value of any region. There 
are great areas of publicly owned forest lands where game is next 
to the timber in value and where it should always be maintained in 
controlled abundance. Other types of open-land game, however, are 
not protected by the national forests and have not been able to com- 
pete with the overgrazing of domestic livestock. Much of this public 
domain is of little or no value for any purpose other than its native 
wildlife, and considerable areas could well be devoted permanently 
to a gradual restoration of native forms, including the antelope, 
desert mountain sheep, sage grouse, and in more elevated ranges the 
blue grouse and mountain quail. 

Stock raising on extensive grazing ranges has been one of the 
chief industries over much of the State east of the Cascades, but 
this is gradually giving place to cultivation of the land, or to the 
development of a greater volume of forage so that more stock can 
be raised on a given area. The concentration in smaller units of 
both grazing and agricultural activities does not mean less produc- 
tion but greater returns per acre. The days of the big ranch and 
easy-going methods are passing. Better grades of stock and more 
careful management are taking their place. Application of scien- 
tific methods will make this, as every other branch of agriculture, 
more productive. A greater diversity of livestock, including some 
of our native game animals, may be predicted for the future, with 
the same advantages that other diversified types of farming have 
shown. Some of the native animals of Oregon that might well be 
domesticated or better managed for man's use are the elk, deer, 
antelope, bighorn, beaver, and muskrat, some of the waterfowl, the 
sage grouse, blue grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, and mountain quail. 

With the future development and progress of the industries, a 
fuller knowledge of climatic and physiographic conditions will be 
a distinct advantage. Also a more complete knowledge of the habits, 
distribution, abundance, and economic relations of the native animals 
of the State often will save losses of property and waste of time, 
and will prevent the destruction of harmless, interesting, and useful 
species. 

THE PRESENT STUDY 

The present report is based primarily on field work of the Bureau 
of Biological Survey, carried on through varying periods since 1888, 
in addition to such published information as has been found. The 
systematic survey of the State was begun under the direction of 
C. Hart Merriam, who in 1896 led in person a small field party 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 3 

through the Blue Mountains, Steens Mountains, Warner Mountains, 
and from the Klamath region north through the Cascades to Mount 
Hood. Later the field work was carried on under the direction of 
H. W. Henshaw, and still later under E. W. Nelson, until fairly 
representative collections of mammals, birds, reptiles, and plants 
were obtained from every part of the State. The distribution of the 
species was thus ascertained with considerable detail and the sig- 
nificance of geographic variation generally explained. 

Valuable assistance came through the cooperation of the State 
university at Eugene, the Willamette University at Salem, the State 
agricultural college at Corvallis, Reed College near Portland, and 
the fish and game department of the State. The State university 
was represented in field work by Alfred C. Shelton, under John F. 
Bovard, and the university collections were made available for work- 
ing out species and ranges. F. V. Coville and S. F. Blake, Bureau 
of Plant Industry, rendered valuable assistance in the nomenclature 
of the plant lists. Morton E. Peck, of the Willamette University, 
contributed largely in general field work, especially in botany. The 
agricultural college collection has been drawn upon for such addi- 
tional material as it afforded, and the fish and game collection through 
William L. Finley gave every assistance possible, detailing Stanley 
G. Jewett, R. Bruce Horsfall, and O. J. Murie for field work, and 
building up a very useful collection of mammals and birds in the 
Reed College museum. The college museum, under the direction of 
Harry Beal Torrey, sent one of its student assistants, Mr. Launce- 
field, into the field on one of the collection trips, and also aided in 
every way possible with museum material. 

Private collectors have generously contributed to a knowledge of 
the State fauna. Of these, thanks are especially due to A. Brazier 
Howell, whose collection is now in the Natural History Museum of 
southern California ; H. E. Anthony, now of the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York ; Lee R. Dice, of the University of 
Michigan ; Alexander Walker, of Tillamook, Oreg. ; Stanley G. Jew- 
ett, long associated with the Biological Survey's game management 
and predatory-animal control in Oregon ; and Ira N. Gabrielson, then 
in charge of the Bureau's rodent control in the State, later its 
regional supervisor in the region that includes Oregon, and now 
Chief of the Bureau. 

The Biological Survey field work in Oregon has been carried on 
at various times and places since 1888 by Theodore S. Palmer, Clark 
P. Streator, Arthur H. Howell, Albert K. Fisher, Walter K. Fisher, 
J. Alden Loring, Stanley G. Jewett, Luther Goldman, Morton E. 
Peck, Alexander Walker, Ned Hollister, Harry H. Sheldon, Robert 
H. Becker, Edward A. Preble, and the writer. Some of this work 
has been done sporadically in connection with that in adjoining 
States, but all has helped. Much information and many important 
specimens have been obtained from the predatory-animal and rodent- 
control field workers in the Division of Economic Investigations of 
the Biological Survey formerly under A. K. Fisher and W. B. Bell 
and now part of the Division of Game Management under Stanley P. 
Young. 

Close and cordial cooperation with officials of the Forest Service 
has afforded important information on game matters and animal 



4 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

statistics that could not otherwise have been obtained. The infor- 
mation gathered from ranchmen, hunters, and others along the way 
has been of great value in supplementing field notes and has been 
used freely with credit under specific records. 

The natural-history studies of the Mazamas, the mountain-climb- 
ing club of Oregon, published in annual reports, have afforded val- 
uable information and have been freely drawn upon, as have the 
bulletins of the State university, agricultural college, experiment 
stations, Forest Service, Park Service, and United States Geological 
Survey. 

While the present report puts on record much that is not commonly 
known about animal life, it represents a beginning rather than the 
finished product of studies of the State's mammals. Its greatest 
value should be in enabling a large number of local people to observe 
correctly and record the habits of animals until much better under- 
stood than at present, to know what particular species they are 
observing, and to obtain definite and accurate information. Much of 
the animal life is a State and national asset and should be conserved 
and used to the greatest advantage consistent with wise use and the 
perpetuation of the species. In some cases this can be done only 
through the partial or complete control of other species of less value 
or of destructive habits. Only by applying the most thorough and 
reliable information can the wildlife of a country be managed 
efficiently. 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE STATE 

The surface features of Oregon (pi. 1) show wide variation, rang- 
ing from coastal plains and great inland valleys to broad plateaus, 
lofty mountain ranges, and snow-capped peaks. Three types of 
geological formation stand out : The very old non volcanic crystalline 
or metamorphic rocks, the comparatively recent but still ancient lake- 
basin deposits of the great valleys, and the volcanic deposits of both 
ancient and comparatively recent times. 

VOLCANIC AREAS 

A great part of the State, including most of the Cascade Range 
and the plains to the eastward, is of volcanic origin, consisting of 
numerous large and small craters and great areas built up by suc- 
cessive flows of lava. The enormous depth of these lava flows is 
well shown by the sides of the Deschutes, Columbia, Snake, Grand 
Ronde, and Imnaha Canyons, by the Kiger Gorge and the east 
escarpment of the Steens Mountains (pi. 2, J.), and by many other 
cliffs and canyons in the State. In numerous side walls and rim- 
rock cliffs consecutive layers of lava, ranging from 20 to 50 feet and 
sometimes 100 feet in thickness, may be counted to a height or depth 
of 2,000 or 3,000 feet. Sometimes these form beautiful series of basal- 
tic columns or layers of royalite, and there are various forms of 
amorphous lavas, cooled and hardened as they flowed out in surface 
sheets (pi. 2, B), or in places as shiny black sheets of volcanic glass 
(obsidian). The vertical cleavage of the lava sheets produces the 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 2 





STEENS MOUNTAINS (9,354 FEET ALTITUDE). 



B17230; B16313 



A, East face, showing successive lava flows and permanent snow banks in head of Kiger Gorge; B, com- 
paratively recent flow of surface lava, near Cow Creek Lakes, southeastern Malheur Ccunty (photo- 
graph by Edward A. Preble, 1915). 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 





B33207; B33194 



A, Steens Mountains, from near Alvord Ranch, showing east face of high part of range (July 7, 1927); 
B, Tumtum Lake, Alvord Valley, looking east from near base of Steens Mountains (July 6, 1927). 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 4 




CAVES IN DESCHUTES AND HARNEY COUNTIES. 

A, Lava River Cave, 22 miles south of Bend; B, one of the Arnold ice caves, 20 miles southeast of Bend; 
C, Malheur Cave, 30 miles east of Malheur Lake. All harbor bats and contain tones of recent 
mammals 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 5 




EAGLE CAP PEAK, WALLOWA MOUNTAINS. 
Photograph by Stanley G. Jewett, July 20, 1925. 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 5 

sheer cliffs and abrupt rimrock effects so common over the eastern 
part of the State. 

The great peaks of the Cascades, from Mount McLoughlin (Pitt) 
and Mazama on the south to Jefferson and Hood on the north, are 
all old craters from which the Cascade Kange has been augmented 
by enormous flows of lava that reach both slopes and spread out 
over the valleys. While the ice-clad peaks, some of them world- 
famous spectacles, are of special interest in their fauna and flora and 
of great value as sources of water, the broad basal slopes of the 
range, bearing dense forests of valuable timber, are especially impor- 
tant in human economy. 

The configuration of surface, various types of erosion, color and 
character of soils, and to some extent, the character of forest and 
other vegetation forming the ground cover, are modified by the gen- 
eral volcanic base so widely spread over the State. The general fer- 
tility of the valley soils is in part due to their volcanic origin, while 
even the resulting dark colors are in some cases an advantage in 
added ability to absorb light and heat from the sun. It is well known 
that species of plants and animals range to higher altitudes on dark 
soil than on light and that other high-ranging species range lower 
down on light-colored soils. 

The Paulina, Yamsay, Yanax, and Klamath Mountains, lying 
east of the Cascades, are of the same volcanic type, but are scattered 
in lower groups or buttes. Their height reaches generally only to 
about 7,000 feet, but this is sufficient to give them cold upper slopes 
with an extra amount of precipitation and relatively heavy growths 
of timber. 

Still farther to the eastward other types of ranges rise abruptly 
from the desert valleys. While composed mainly of volcanic mate- 
rials, they appear as elongated ridges with one or both sides broken 
and pushed up along more or less well-defined fault lines. These 
include the Winter Eange, Warner and Hart Ranges, and the higher 
and still more striking Steens Mountains. 

The Steens Mountains, a boldly tilted uplift from the lava plains 
of southeastern Oregon, are largely volcanic from near the base to 
the summit. Their sharply faulted eastern escarpment rises abruptly 
5,500 feet above the valley bottom, attaining a total altitude of about 
9,354 feet in the highest parts (pi. 3, A). Of them Eussell (1903, 
p. 19) 1 says in effect: 

The eastern slope of that splendid mountain is composed of the broken and 
eroded edges of sheets of basalt, which dip westward at an angle of about 
3 to 4 and present an aggregate thickness of not less than 5,000 feet, while 
the lacustrine sediments beneath their base reach a thickness of at least 1,000 
feet. Thin layers of sandstone separate some of the laval flows but even those 
which rest directly upon each other are easily counted in cross section and 
some 30 or 100 sheets, averaging about 60 feet thick, are more or less exposed 
in this escarpment. 

Deep canyons are guttered into the sides of the range, and canyon 
walls expose heavy stratifications of successive lava flows through 
which the mountains have been pushed up. At the northern end of 
the range several broad U-shaped canyons show evidence of glacial 
erosion, and several beautiful examples of hanging valleys along the 

1 Citations in italic in parentheses refer to the bibliography, p. 394. 



6 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

west side of the Kiger Gorge tell a part of the story of the glacial 
period. Summer snow banks or ice beds high up on the cold slopes 
in the old cirques still feed many permanent streams which are cutting 
sharp V-shaped courses down the valley bottoms to the arid plains 
below (pi. 3, B). The top of the range is just an inclined section 
of the desert pushed up to a height where plant life is still more de- 
pauperate than at lower levels. The peaks are merely the jagged 
edges of a much-eroded ridge ^with occasional notches cut clear 
through by the erosive action of ice and water. 

Over the great arid plains both east and west of the Steens 
Mountains are extensive fields of black and barren lavas, poured 
out by numerous small and medium-sized craters. Although cold and 
dead now, many of these craters appear so fresh and vivid as to sug- 
gest comparatively recent activity. In many places the long streams 
of wavy and twisted lavas tempt one to feel the rough surface to see 
if it is still hot. To the student of geology or the tourist it is 
unnecessary to go to the Hawaiian Islands or farther away than 
eastern Oregon to study picturesque and fascinating lava fields and 
craters, cinder cones, or lava caves. 

In many of the older lava flows where the surface had hardened 
over a long gentle slope, the still molten interior of a fresh stream 
broke out below, and the liquid interior escaping, left great tunnel- 
like subways, some of them miles in length, below heavy roofs of 
solid rock. The Malheur Caves, the Arnold Ice Caves, the Skeleton 
Cave, the Horse Caves, and the Lava River Cave are well-known 
examples (pi. 4), but there are many others without name or fame. 

Less attractive, but not less important, volcanic features of the 
State are the vast deposits of pumice, volcanic ash, and volcanic 
sand. In places these deposits cover the rocks to considerable depths 
and form great plains, sandy valleys, or deep sections of canyon 
walls. Notable among these are the great pumice plain between 
Crater Lake and the Paulina Mountains, the black-sand valleys east 
and south of the Paulinas and in various valleys farther east, and 
the numerous smaller but deep deposits along both sides of the Cas- 
cades. Such materials have a very practical bearing 1 on soil fertility 
and secondarily on distribution of plant and animal life. 

Volcanic activity in the State has practically ceased. At present 
Mount Hood is the only crater giving noticeable signs of remaining 
activity. Slight fumaroles of gas and steam occur in the old cup 
near the top of the peak, and at times the steam and sulphur fumes 
sweep over the summit in stifling gusts. No recent eruptions, how- 
ever, are known. 

NONVOLCANIC AREAS 

Nonyolcanic areas in Oregon are found in some of the peaks and 
high ridges of the Wallowa and Elkhom (or Baker) Ranges, in the 
Siskiyous, in most of the Coast Range country, and in the extensive 
lacustrine deposits of the older valleys. 

The higher parts of the Wallowa Mountains, while surrounded by 
the heavy base of lava of the Blue Mountain Plateau, are largely 
composed of such materials as granite, quartzite, limestone, marble, 
slate, and other nonvolcanic rocks. In general the topographic con- 
figuration resembles the Rocky Mountains, and moreover a large 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 7 

number of Rocky Mountain species of plants and animals occur. 
The main peaks rise to sharp pinnacles, 9,000 to 9,800 feet in 
altitude. The highest shown on the Forest Service contour map is 
the Matterhorn which reaches above the 9,800-foot level. Eagle Cap 
(pi. 5), formerly supposed to be still higher, is given as 9,675 feet; 
and Petes Point and Aneroid Point near Aneroid Lake are shown 
as reaching above the 9,600-foot contour. 

The peaks are sharp and jagged, separated by steep, ice-eaten 
cirques and upper slopes and deeply cut canyons. Extensive fields of 
permanent ice and snow persist on the high cold slopes, and one small 
glacier still clings to the declivity between Eagle Cap and Sentinel 
Peak. The many glacier-hewn valleys with numerous lateral and 
terminal moraines and many lake beds scooped out of the solid rock 
are conspicuous features of the landscape. Wallowa Lake at about 
4,500 feet on the northern side of the range is an especially beautiful 
example of a glacial scoop, deep, long, and narrow, with high lateral 
and terminal moraines. Higher up some of the numerous small lakes 
in rocky basins close to the snow banks are frozen over for the 
greater part of the year, but during the summer they send down 
torrents of ice-cold water. 

The Wallowa Mountains are well supplied with permanent streams 
that cut their way down through deep and picturesque canyons to the 
Snake River on the east, the Powder River on the south, and the 
Grand Roncle on the north. Most of the canyon walls are of basalt 
or other rocks of volcanic origin, but in many places on the south and 
east slopes the older geological formations are exposed. Some of 
these are rich in valuable minerals. 

While most of the Blue Mountain Plateau is covered with 
splendid forests, the higher parts of the range reach near or above 
timber line and are barren or but sparingly wooded. 

The Elkhorn (or Baker) Range, rising abruptly west of Baker 
City, is similar in general character to the Wallowa Mountains but 
slightly lower and less rugged. The highest peak, formerly known 
as " Rock Creek Butte " but changed by the Geographic Board of 
Oregon to " Hunt Mountain " in honor of Wilson Price Hunt, leader 
of the John Jacob Astor party in 1811 and so far as known the first 
white man to see the peak, is given on the Geological Survey quad- 
rangle as 9,097 feet in altitude. Many other points are almost as 
high, and the crest of the range is well above timber line, with bare 
peaks and upper slopes snow patched even in late summer. 

The high part of the range consists largely of crystalline, sedi- 
mentary, and metamorphic rocks, including many ore-bearing forma- 
tions, but the surrounding country is a part of the Blue Mountain 
Plateau. 

The Siskiyou Mountains, on the southwestern border of the State, 
represent one of the geologically very old land formations. They 
are composed largely of granite, quartz, limestone, marble, sandstone 
shales, and various metamorphic rocks. On the west they extend 
down to the coast and locally yield valuable deposits of gold and 
other minerals. Siskiyou Peak at 7,662 feet and Sterling Peak at 
7,150 feet reach slightly above timber line on their northern slopes. 
The higher parts of the mountains are steep and deeply eroded, 
numerous long narrow spurs or ridges winding down between deep 



8 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

V-shaped canyons coursed by rapid streams. In general features, as 
well as in plant and animal life, this region is a part of the Trinity 
or Klamath Mountain system of northwestern California, which also 
extends northward to include the Rogue River Mountains. 

It is a well-watered region, and except for the higher peaks and 
ridge tops it is generally well forested. 

The Coast Ranges of western Oregon, lying between the valleys of 
the Williamette, Umpqua, and upper Rogue Rivers, are largely parts 
of an elevated and much-dissected plateau, or old coastal plain, 
deeply eroded into flat-topped ridges with steep, and often terraced, 
slopes and innumerable deep V-shaped cuts and canyons between. 
The ridge tops range from 3,000 to about 4,100 feet in height, the 
highest, Chintimini Mountain, or Marys Peak, just west of Corvallis, 
being 4,097 feet. Both the Coast Ranges and the coastal plain are 
largely of sedimentary rocks sandstones, limestones, shales, or more 
recent alluvial deposits. In places basalt or other igneous rocks 
crop out on the surface or are exposed in terraces or canyon walls. 

The whole region is well watered. Dense forests and rich under- 
growth give a well-rounded and smooth appearance and hide most 
of the details of surface structure. 

The lacustrine and alluvial deposits of the broad valleys of Ore- 
gon are of special importance and interest because of their rich 
mellow soils, easily adaptable to profitable agriculture. Most of the 
larger valleys, such as the plains of the Columbia east of the Cas- 
cades and the Snake River Valley above the Snake River Canyon, 
owe their deep soil to the deposits of ancient lake beds long since 
drained by the lowered river channels. The broad rich valleys of 
the Willamette, the Upper Umpqua, and the Rogue River may be 
old lake beds or early embayments of the ocean. Nevertheless, parts 
of the valley floors are constantly receiving additions of silt from the 
mountains, spread out by innumerable small streams. Other parts 
are losing their best soil by erosion. 

The innumerable inland-lake basins of the high plains of eastern 
Oregon, each with its own type and age of soil and geological depos- 
its, all lie within the arid area. Generally they are devoted to 
grazing and ranching, but eventually should include some of the 
best game lands of the State. 

DRAINAGE 

Drainage is of two distinct types the river and stream drainage 
to the Pacific Ocean, and the inland-lake or basin drainage of the 
southeastern part of the State. The river drainage includes the 
Columbia River system, with its numerous tributaries, and the coastal 
streams that carry vast quantities of water from the high and humid 
slopes of the Cascades to the Pacific. 

In the more arid southeastern part of the State are many lake 
basins of purely inland drainage, really a part of the Great Basin 
area. Among the larger basins are Malheur, Harney, Alvord, 
Warner, Abert, and Summer Lakes, all occupying lava-encircled 
valleys and fed by surface waters or very limited streams from 
springs. Many extensive playas, or dry mud flats, occupy the bot- 
tom of other valleys where shallow lakes formed by rains quickly 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 6 







1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 9 

dry up, leaving miles of baked, glistening mud flats. Most of the 
basin lakes are shallow. The shore lines of some are steadily re- 
ceding because of the diversion of water for irrigation. Eventually 
some of these lakes also will be mere playas. Lake Harney has been 
reduced to that state for a decade. As usual, inland drainage is the 
result of rainfall that is not sufficient to overflow the valleys and cut 
out the rims to connect with lower levels. Added to this is an arid 
climate in which the evaporation over a large surface of standing 
water more than balances the precipitation over a considerably 
greater drainage area. 

Malheur Lake, which in 1897 when it was first seen by the writer 
was an enormous tule swamp overflowing into Harney Lake as it 
did when Peter Skene Ogden first saw it in 1826, was practically dry 
in 1931, when buffalo skulls were collected in its baked mud bed. 
Overutilization of the water of streams naturally flowing into it had 
ruined the hay and grain ranches around the borders of this great 
fertile valley, lowered the water table until the valleys became a part 
of the surrounding desert, and destroyed one of the most important 
wild-fowl-breeding grounds in the State. 

Eecently these conditions have been corrected by addition of a 
considerable part of the drainage of the Blitzen River (Donner und 
Blitzen) to the Lake Malheur Wildlife Refuge, allowing sufficient wa- 
ter to reach the lake to restore it to a normal level and extent of sur- 
face and swampy border. The enlarged circle of moist and fertile 
land restores the ranch values of the valley, and 30 miles of lake and 
tule swamp restore the spectacular breeding and resting grounds of 
swans, geese, ducks, pelicans, cranes, egrets, herons, ibises, curlew, 
and a host of swimming and wading birds and valuable fur bearers. 

Goose Lake and the Klamath Lakes, on the southern border of the 
State, have cut outlets through the southern rim of their basins, and 
their waters reach the ocean through Pit and Klamath Rivers. At 
one time these valleys may well have been a part of the Great Basin, 
with which they still closely agree in climate, flora, and fauna. 

Lakes of a yet different type many of them large, deep, clear, 
and cold lie along the higher parts of the Cascade Range in Oregon 
and serve as reservoirs of snow water that is let down during sum- 
mer months to thirsty fields below. The best known and most spec- 
tacular of these, Crater Lake (pi. 6) , half fills its cuplike crater to a 
depth of 2,000 feet and presents a unique picture of beautiful color 
and form. Although the lake is without visible outlet, the water 
remains at a uniform level. It seems not improbable that some of 
the large streams that burst out below may drain the lake through 
underground channels in the mountain side. Other lakes owe their 
origin to lava dams or terminal moraines and generally form the 
headwaters of important streams. 

Still another set of lakes is that of the immediate coastal strip 
old embayments or estuaries cut off from the ocean. Not much 
above the ocean level, they remain as land-locked bodies of fresh 
water held back by sand bars or dunes. 

Then, too, there are the prehistoric lakes such as once covered a 
great area in the Columbia River Valley east of the Cascades, the 
Snake River Valley above the canyon, the greater Malheur Valley, 
and the northern end of Lake Bonneville in Alvord Valley. Present 



10 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

interest in these ancient bodies of water lies mainly in the rich 
fossil beds that here and there mark the old shore lines. Some of 
the " badland " formations of these old beaches bear valuable de- 
posits of prehistoric mammal remains that open an important chap- 
ter in the geological history of the State. The John Day Valley, 
Camp Creek, Malheur, and Owyhee Valley fossil beds are probably 
the best known. 

GLACIATION 

Glaciation as a type of drainage has modified to some extent the 
higher elevations of the State and is still slowly eating away great 
cirques and amphitheatres on the upper slopes of Hood, Jefferson, 
the Three Sisters, McLoughlin (Pitt), the Wallowa, Baker, and 
Steens Mountains. Ancient moraines show glacial activity much 
lower on the mountain slopes than at present. Generally this evi- 
dence does not extend into the valley country, nor is it conspicuous 
after the great volcanic period. Glacial lakes are comparatively few 
in the State, although Wallowa Lake is a beautiful example of a 
glacial scoop and some of the smaller lakes high up in the moun- 
tains owe their origin to the ice. Many, if not most, of the lakes 
in Oregon, however, owe their origin directly or indirectly to vol- 
canic activity closing up valleys or damming streams of water with 
streams of lava. 

SOIL CONDITIONS 

Soils and land coyer, in special cases, exert considerable influ- 
ence on the distribution of species. Over much of Oregon the firm, 
rich, dark-colored soils from disintegrated lavas are generally fer- 
tile and produce dense plant growth. They vary endlessly, however, 
in texture, in mineral composition, and in mechanical structure. 
At one extreme are the fine precipitates of deep-water deposits, form- 
ing tenacious clays, commonly called " gumbo." Waxy when wet 
and hard when dry, they are extremely discouraging to most bur- 
rowing rodents. At the opposite are the deep mellow sands, fine 
and nonadhesive, that form light mellow soils. These always prove 
a great delight to burrowers. 

Only very limited areas of the light, water-washed sands, such 
as drift and change with every wind, are found, mainly along the 
Columbia River Valley above The Dalles, around the shores of 
Harney and Alvord Lakes, and in places along the coast. In these 
spots the light yellow sands drift back over the river banks, lakes, 
and seashore in dunes and ridges for considerable distances, giving 
their color and character to extensive areas. While attracting or 
developing certain species of plants and animals, these light sands 
have perhaps crowded out others with different affinities. Sand 
dunes in the desert are favorite haunts of kangaroo rats, pocket 
mice, lizards, and horned toads. Another soil type favorable to 
burrowing species of mammals, as well as horned toads and lizards, 
is composed of the deep, black, loose sands and volcanic ash, espe- 
cially conspicuous east and south of the Paulina Mountains. This 
soil is attractive also to sand- and heat-loving plants. 

Owing mainly to soil conditions, the extensive playas of the Alvord 
Valley and others east of the Steens Mountains, except for brief peri- 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 11 

ods after a rain or snow, are more nearly typical desert and more 
lifeless than any other part of the State. Such level valley bottoms 
without drainage can produce neither water plants, because they dry 
up quickly after rainfall, nor dry-land plants, because the occasional 
sheet of water kills them. Thus devoid of vegetation, they have 
an animal life limited to occasional antelope, jack rabbits, coyotes, 
swift foxes, badgers, and lizards that wander over them. 

In the more humid areas under the abundant growth of vegetation, 
the base soil is generally covered with rich humus of varying depths 
that is especially attractive to burrowing insects and a great variety 
of small invertebrates. Consequently this same mold-covered soil is 
most attractive to numerous species of insectivorous mammals and 
birds and holds the greater part of the shrew and mole population 
of the State. 

PLANT COVER 

Types of vegetation or plant associations, as modified by soil mois- 
ture and other local conditions, have a powerful influence on the 
distribution of species of animals. Next to altitude or latitude the 
varying degrees of humidity are most influential in determining the 
characteristics of these plant associations. In a general way the 
heaviest timber, as well as dense undergrowth, is found in the areas 
of heaviest annual rainfall and the lightest vegetation in the areas 
of lightest rainfall. The annual precipitation ranges from a maxi- 
mum of about 100 inches in places on the coast and in the mountains 
to less than 10 inches in the valleys of the southeastern part of the 
State. The gradual change from dense humid forest and under- 
growth through open forest, scattered woodlands, sagebrush, and 
shrubby cover to the low and scattered bunch vegetation of the 
desert valleys is shown in crossing the State from west to east. Most 
pronounced is the change following a line drawn from the northwest 
to the southeast corner. Coastal salt marshes, inland tule swamps, 
and open grasslands all have a bearing on the distribution of certain 
species of animal life. 

LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 

Owing to its broad extent, wide range of altitude, and varied 
physiographic features, Oregon shows great diversity of climate and 
contains 5 of the 7 primary life zones of the continent. ( See frontis- 
piece.) Only the hot Lower Austral and Tropical Zones are unrepre- 
sented. The Upper Sonoran, the arid western subdivision of Upper 
Austral Zone, characterized by greasewood, saltbush, and rabbitbrush, 
covers the low warm valleys of the State east of the Cascades, and en- 
ters the Eogue and Umpqua Valleys west of the mountains. The 
Transition Zone, characterized by the yellow pine, Oregon maple, and 
mountain-mahogany, occupies the higher valleys and bench lands 
east of the mountains and has a more humid subdivision in the val- 
ley foothills and Coast Kanges west of the Cascades. The Canadian 
Zone, the zone of spruce, fir, and lodgepole pine, covers the broad 
high part of the mountains. The Hudsonian Zone, the zone of the 
whitebarked pine, and dwarfed spruces and hemlocks near timber 
line, caps or surrounds the highest peaks in a narrow belt, rarely 



12 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

over 1,000 feet in vertical extent. The Arctic- Alpine Zone, of very 
limited extent, caps most of the highest peaks well above all timber 
growth and includes the dwarf alpine vegetation and a very few 
species of birds and mammals. 

Tables 1 to 8 (pp. 31 to 53) show the life-zone distribution of the 
mammals, reptiles, birds, and plants of the State. 

UPPER SONORAN ZONE 

The western arid division of the transcontinental Upper Austral 
Zone covers most of the Columbia and Snake River Valleys of 
eastern Oregon, and about half of the higher sagebrush plains area of 
the State east of the Cascade Range. This part of the zone, with a 
very limited rainfall and fairly uniform climate, can be treated as a 
part of the arid Upper Sonoran, with many of the characteristics of 
the Great Basin area, although the Columbia River Valley with 
slightly more rainfall shows some peculiarities of note and a part of 
it could be treated as belonging to the semiarid subdivision of the 
zone. 

West of the Cascades limited areas of the zone are found in the 
upper Rogue and central Umpqua Valleys. There is a narrow strip 
along the Klamath River on the southern border of the State, and 
east of the range a limited area occurs near the Klamath Lakes. 
These semiarid valleys are marked by plants, birds, and mammals 
that range mainly in northern California and clearly belong to the 
California Valley subdivision of the zone. 

SEMIARID DIVISION OF UPPER SONORAN ZONE 

In the California Valley division of Upper Sonoran Zone in the 
Umpqua, Rogue, and Klamath River Valleys the base level is low, 
about 500, 1,200, and 2,000 feet, respectively. Only a narrow upper 
edge of the zone shows in these valleys ; in the Umpqua Valley over 
the flats and warm slopes in the Roseburg section, east of the Coast 
Ranges, from 500 up to 1,000 feet; in the Grants Pass and Ashland 
part of the Rogue River Valley on the open bottoms and warm slopes 
from about 1,200 to 2,000 feet; and in the Klamath River Valley 
from about 2,000 to 3,000 feet on the warm exposures. This is below 
the Klamath Canyon which cuts off the zone from its higher and 
more arid division around the Klamath Lakes. In all of these valleys 
the Upper Sonoran elements are largely mixed and blended with 
Transition species from higher levels, as inevitably occurs in so nar- 
row a zone border, but still with sufficient character to indicate im- 
portant climatic conditions favorable to southern species as well as 
some of the less hardy crops. 

In these valleys are found the California jack rabbit, Rogue River 
kangaroo rat, brown-footed wood rat, California meadow mouse, 
white-toothed pocket gopher, gray fox, ringtail, Pacific pale bat, and 
such birds as the valley quail, long-tailed jay, brown towhee, house 
finch, bush tit, and long-tailed chat. 

The plants that indicate the zone in these valleys are found mainly 
on the warm slopes and open flat country, while on cool or shaded 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 13 

slopes a far greater number of Transition Zone species generally 
occur. Those most conspicuously indicating Upper Sonoran are sev- 
eral species of CeanotJyus (cuneatus, integerrimus, sanguinem) , man- 
zanita (Arctostaphylos viseida), bitterbush (Purshia Pridentata) , 
birch-leaved mahogany (Cercocarpus "betulaefolius), syringa (Phila- 
delphia gordonianus) , cherry (Prunm subcordata), silktassel-bush 
(Garry a fremonti), skunk bush (Rhus trilobata and diversiloba) , 
serviceberry (Amelanchier florida and pallida), lupines (Lupinus 
ore g 'onus pusttlus and subsericeus) , wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepi- 
dota and glutinosa), Hosackia (Lotus), several species, rabbitbrush 
(Chrysothamnus nauseosus) , and a great number of grasses and her- 
baceous plants. A few of these species extend northward into the 
Williamette Valley, indicating an approach in climate to the Upper 
Sonoran Zone, but not in sufficient numbers of species or abundance 
of individuals to warrant mapping even the warm slopes of the 
valley as other than Transition. 

In the Columbia River Valley east of the Cascades the climate is 
slightly warmer and more humid, with greater rainfall in winter, 
than over the Great Basin area farther south and east. Consequently 
the fauna and flora are somewhat peculiar, as shown by the follow- 
ing species: Townsend's ground squirrel, northwest pocket mouse, 
Dalles and Columbia pocket gophers, Scheffer's mole, and little 
canyon bat. There is generally a greater abundance of grass with 
a considerable number of other plants not found over the rest of 
the zone in eastern Oregon. Certain crops are also raised follow- 
ing the winter rainy season, without irrigation but through dry- 
farming methods and careful tillage. 

As a new country becomes settled and the best of the land is 
brought under cultivation, the native species of plants and animals 
are eradicated or supplanted by those introduced from other coun- 
tries, and even the stock range is so overgrazed as to destroy much of 
the original type of vegetation. It becomes increasingly more diffi- 
cult to define the life zones. But fortunately over most of Oregon 
there is still sufficient native life to give a good index to long-estab- 
lished climatic conditions. 

The practical value of this knowledge of life zones becomes 
apparent when a new valley, plain, or slope is brought under culti- 
vation and the question arises as to crops, fruit, or stock best adapted 
to its climate. In long-cultivated valleys these questions generally 
have been answered, although often by costly failures. Now expe- 
rience shows that the successful products of one valley may be safely 
extended into another having satisfactory indications of the same or 
closely similar native fauna and flora. In other words the study 
and careful mapping of life zones gives a practical aid to agricul- 
ture as well as a guide to management of wildlife resources. 

It would not be wise to try to restock the desert ranges of eastern 
Oregon, once inhabited by the rimrock mountain sheep, with 
Canadian Zone animals from the high Rocky Mountains, but any of 
the Upper Sonoran desert forms from Nevada, southern California 
or Arizona would thrive on these low ranges and canyon walls. 
Restocking and building up a depleted game supply will require 
careful consideration of life-zone conditions. 



14 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

EXTREME ARID DIVISION OF UPPER SONORAN ZONE 

One is impressed by the apparent nonconformity of the elevations 
of the Great Basin division of Upper Sonoran east of the Cascades 
over different parfe of the State. These variations, however, in- 
volve well-known and long-recognized principles of climatic con- 
trol of distribution. The actual altitudinal limits of zone levels are 
known to vary considerably with direction and steepness of slope 
exposure, elevation of base level, aridity, type of prevailing winds, 
and other less-apparent factors of modification, but the long-estab- 
lished fauna and flora serve as the most reliable index to zone level 
of any point as determined by average climatic conditions. For in- 
stance in the Columbia Eiver Valley with a base level of 100 to 300 
feet, the Sonoran Zone extends from the bottom of the valley up to 
about 2,000 feet on cold northerly slopes, lower on steep, and higher 
on gradual slopes, and to about 3,000 feet on warm southerly slopes. 
With a higher base level of about 1,000 feet at the junction of the 
Grand Ronde River with the Snake River near the northeast corner 
of the State, the Sonoran Zone extends up to about 3,500 feet on warm 
slopes in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha Canyons. Still farther up 
in the Snake River Valley with a base level of 2,150 feet at Ontario, 
the upper limits of the zone run correspondingly higher, while in the 
extensive lake-basin valleys of the Malheur, Warner, Abert, and 
Summer Lakes sections, with base levels of 4,100 to 4,500 feet, the 
upper limits of the zone reach to approximately 4,500 feet on north- 
erly and 5,000 feet on southerly slopes. The actually coldest points 
of slope exposure are northeast and the warmest southwest, as 
pointed out long ago by Merriam (1890, pis. /-//, following index). 

Thus the elevation of base level in eastern Oregon is shown to raise 
the upper limits of the zone in higher valleys fully 2,000 feet by 
simply holding up the absorbed and radiated heat of the sun's rays 
to a fairly uniform distance above the surface where they fall upon 
the earth. Other zone levels are modified in the same manner and 
by many other generally recognized factors of climate and distribu- 
tion, but the Upper Sonoran of eastern Oregon most admirably illus- 
trates the general principles of zone modification by change of base 
level. 

A somewhat detailed knowledge of the plant and animal life of a 
region is necessary for the recognition and full understanding of the 
lire zones in the field. The colored map is at best but a feeble guide 
to the actual areas which are far more detailed and graphic when 
spread before one in the garb of their native plant and animal life. 

MAMMALS 

In eastern Oregon the Upper Sonoran Zone is clearly indicated by 
the presence of black-tailed jack rabbits, little speckled and gray 
ground squirrels (CitellMs townsendii, vigilis, and canus), the ante- 
lope squirrel, desert wood rat, Oregon grasshopper mouse, silky cliff 
mouse, large-eared harvest mouse, several species of pocket mice 
(Perognathus parvus, lordi, Columbian^ and mollipilosus) , five-toed 
kangaroo rats, several species of pocket gophers (Thomomys town- 



1936] 



MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 15 

sendii, nevadensis, coliAnibianus, and quadratus], the desert fox, a 
little spotted skunk, and several species of bats. It has long been the 
winter range of the antelope, mountain sheep, and mule deer. 



BREEDING BIRDS 

The Upper Sonoran Zone is characterized by such breeding birds 
as the cinnamon teal, white-faced glossy ibis, black-necked stilt, 
mourning dove, burrowing owl, Arkansas kingbird, ash-throated 
flycatcher, Say's phoebe, Bullock's oriole, western lark sparrow, sage 
sparrow, Brewer's sparrow, long-tailed chat, catbird, rock wren, 
canyon wren, and long-tailed chickadee. 

REPTILES 

This zone is further characterized by such reptiles as the Oregon 
rattlesnake (Crotalus confluentus oreganws and Iwtosw) Heermann's 
and desert gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer heermanni and deserti- 
cola), western striped racer (Coluber taeniatus), western collared 
lizard (Crotapkytus collaris baileyi), leopard lizard (0. wislizenii) , 
western brown-shouldered uta (Uta stansburian^i) , sagebrush swift 
(Sceloporus graciosus), two horned toads (Phrynosoma douglassii 
and platyrhinos) , and the desert whip-tailed lizard (Cnenddophorus 
iessellatus) . 

The greater number of species as well as individuals of reptiles of 
the State are found in Upper Sonoran Zone, a smaller number in 
Transition Zone, and practically none in higher zones. 

PLANTS 

The plant life characterizing the Upper Sonoran Zone east of the 
Cascades is largely of desert types, among which desert shrubs are 
most conspicuous. Along the river valleys the hackberry (Celtis 
dowglasii) , a few willows (Salix amygdalcndes and argophylla) , and 
wild currants (Ribes awewn) are common, and over the dry slopes 
are found a few junipers (Juniperus occidentalis} , which, with the 
bitterbush (Purshia tridentata) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridenta- 
ta) , reach into the Transition Zone above. Other conspicuous plant 
indicators of the zone are greasewood (Sarcdbatus vermiculatus) , 
saltbushes (Atriplex canescens, nuttallii and conferti folia), woolly 
sage (Eurotia lanata) , Dondia depressa, Grayia spinosa, Tetradymia 
canescens and spinosa, Artemisia pedata, douglasii, and dracuncu- 
loides, rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosm and viscidiflorus] , 
wild sunflower (Helianthus annmvs), serviceberry (Amelanchier 
utahensis), sumac (Rhu glabra occidentalis) , Mentzelw albicaulis 
and laewcaulis, wild tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata), little bluebon- 
nets (Lupinus brevicaulis, laxiflorus, mediwn, mollis, ornatus, saxosus, 
and others), prairie clover (Psoralea lanceolata scaora), licorice root 
(Glycyrrhiza lepidota), plantain (Plantago pwsliii), yellow caper 
(Cleome lutea), sand dock (Rumex venosus), sandverbena (Abronia 
mellifera) , wild sage (Ramona incana) , low evening primrose (Pack- 
ylophus canescens), alfileria (Erodium ricutarium) , ricegrass (Ory- 
zopsis hymenoides). (See also p. 40.) 



16 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Many of these plants are dominant species over special areas and 
not only give color and character to the desert but have important 
value as forage, cover, windbreak, shade, conservers of soil and 
moisture, or shelter for birds and mammals. 

So much is said of the sagebrush and the " sagebrush country " 
that a word of explanation seems necessary. The name is well 
fixed by long usage and well defined, but the plants have no rela- 
tion to the real sages (Salvia) and other pungent mints. The sage- 
brushes are all shrubby wormwoods of the order Compositae, silvery- 
leaved desert shrubs, strongly and pleasantly aromatic, intensely 
bitter to the taste, and many of them beautiful and graceful little 
shrubs or diminutive desert trees. 

A pure stand of the commonest of the sagebrushes (Artemisia 
tridentata) growing over a rich-soiled but arid valley, makes a 
beautiful display of silvery gray-green and feathery foliage, and a 
single bush by itself, 2 to 6 feet high, is a perfect diminutive tree 
that might grace the rarest garden (pi. 7). There are half a dozen 
distinct species Artemisia tridentata, angustifolia, trifida, arbuscula, 
cana, borealis, pedatifida, spinescens, and some others all true sage- 
brushes. They are not good forage plants or they would have dis- 
appeared years ago, but in the absence of all other food sheep will 
live on them for a short time and often browse them severely. Sage 
hens will eat the leaves when other food is scarce, and even antelope 
and jack rabbits will nibble them at times. These bushes shade the 
ground and hold the snow, build up humus, bind the soil, conceal the 
sage grouse and young antelope, and provide choice fuel for the 
camp fire. Their* pleasant odor is one of the charms of the desert, 
and the smell of a dried spray brings back the memory of broad 
valleys and clean wholesome air. The sagebrush has no direct com- 
mercial value, but without it or an equivalent, the desert would be 
poor indeed. 

The rabbitbrush, or golden sage, of the genera Chrysothanwius and 
Tetradymia,, are often the dominant shrubby growth over part of the 
valley country of eastern Oregon, giving a golden glow to the vege- 
tation during the season of flowering or at other times a fine feath- 
ery gray from the slender leaves and stems. In either leaf or flower 
they are graceful and attractive plants and besides the important 
function of giving cover and protection to the soil they serve as 
shelter and to some extent as food for the animal life. They belong 
to the same family as the sagebrush and goldenrods. Each has its 
own peculiar taste and odor, some rank and repellent, others aro- 
matic and pleasing. The odors of the desert vegetation are as strik- 
ing as its color and form and to an old inhabitant are among the 
great attractions of desert life. 

Of the true greasewood only one species, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, 
comes into Oregon. It is abundant in alkaline valley bottoms and 
often the dominant shrub, giving its shiny bright-green color to 
miles of alkali-incrusted playa border or the saline shores of basin 
lakes. It grows where water is abundant not far below the surface 
and where most other plants cannot endure the mineral carried in 
the water. The abundant fleshy and juicy leaves, borne on the 
spinescent twigs, are soft and rounded, like so many smooth green 
caterpillars, hence the name vermiculatus. They are also very salty 






North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 7 



m 








B16314; B 

A, Hay ranch at Cow Creek Lakes, in typical sagebrush and stock country, in the arid southeastern part 
of the State (photograph by Edward A. Preble, July 8, 1915); B, irrigated ranches in Owyhee Valley, 
near Rome, Oreg., where alfalfa is the chief crop on the ranges for grazing cattle and sheep (photograph 
by Laura A. Mills, July 3, 1927). 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 8 




B 16300; B 16330 A 



, Typical rimrock valley, White Horse Creek, southeastern Oregon (photograph by Edward A. Preble, 
June 17, 1915); B, camp of Biological Survey collector (Mr. Preble), in southeastern Oregon, under the 
junipers, where even a little shade is grateful. 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 17 

in flavor but not unpleasant in taste and are generally eaten to some 
extent by sheep and other stock. The bushes are so very spiny, 
however, that only the tender tips are browsed off. Many other 
plants are wrongly called greasewood where the true Savoo$atu8 does 
not occur, but the name should not be used for any other bush. 
Dondia, or Suaeda, and Salicornia (samphire) are closely related to 
the greasewood and have somewhat the same habits. They are even 
more addicted to salt and alkaline ground and even more strongly 
impregnated with salt and soda. 

The saltbushes, several species of shrubby Atriplex including 
canescens, confer tifolia, patwa, nuttallii, and a number of herba- 
ceous species, are generally common over the desert Sonoran valleys 
and in places give a dominant character to the low vegetation. They 
generally indicate the presence of a little salt or alkali in the soil, 
and the leaves have a not unpleasant saline taste. Generally they are 
good forage plants and hence are often entirely eradicated over val- 
leys that are overgrazed. A. confertifolia with its abundant spines- 
cent twigs is the least likely to be destroyed by overgrazing. 

Woolly sage, the beautiful silvery white little shrub, Eurotia tanata^ 
called by the sheep herders " winterf at ", is one of the most valuable 
forage plants of the desert. Being so desirable as winter forage and 
so unprotected it is practically exterminated over most of its range, 
except at such long distances from water that stock cannot get to 
it 

A few scrubby junipers are found in the canyons and on steep 
slopes but rarely in extensive stands where accessible for ranch use. 
Their shade is often grateful and their fragrant wood is prized as 
camp fuel in the foothills and rim-rock canyons (pi. 8). 

Weeds, those hobos of the plant world and the pest of the farmer, 
have few friends or defenders. Out in the deserts of eastern Ore- 
gon, however, they seem to have found a use. Where sheep have 
eaten everything but the lava rocks and killed out all the native 
plants, even the sagebrush and cactus, the little exotic mustards, 
chickweeds, pennycress, tarweeds, prickly lettuce, foxtail, and brome- 
grass have volunteered to clothe the nakedness of the soil and in many 
places have bravely succeeded. Over great areas the little seeds of 
these weeds are the only available food for pocket mice, kangaroo 
rats, and other small rodents. These plants, too, are the principal 
food for thousands of sheep. 

In 1927, in Klamath Valley the county agent reported a flock of 
100,000 sheep, pastured all summer entirely on foxtail and China 
lettuce, that yielded thousands of fat lambs for market. The cash 
value of weeds' to eastern Oregon would amount to a high figure if 
it could be estimated, although insignificant compared with the value 
of native vegetation destroyed by overgrazing. 

CROPS FOR UPPER SONORAN ZONE IN EASTERN OREGON 

While arid and much of it unsuited to agriculture because of rough 
surface or lack of available water, eastern Oregon contains many 
extensive valleys of rich, mellow soil, with ample water supply for 
local irrigation. The Columbia Kiver Valley, including the Des- 

7209 36 2 



18 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

chutes and John Day Valleys, with an enormous extent of rich 
land, is being rapidly brought under irrigation. The Snake River 
Valley, including in Oregon the Malheur and Owyhee River drain- 
age valleys, still largely undeveloped, has a great agricultural future. 
The northern part of Malheur Lake Valley, including the inland 
drainage of the Silvies River and Silver Creek, with rich soil and 
good water has grown into a prosperous agricultural section. In 
many other valleys small streams and large springs provide water 
for ranch purposes and livestock centers, while others are used largely 
by game. These conditions obtain in the valleys of Warner, Goose, 
Abert, and Summer Lakes, with their limited water supply, and in 
many smaller isolated valleys over eastern Oregon. 

The Klamath Valley section with ample water for its rich-soiled 
valleys is just awakening from the lethargy of the old days of 
scattered grazing to its possibilities in terms of industries and inten- 
sive agriculture. 

Practically all of these valley and basin areas of eastern Oregon 
lie within the limits of Upper Sonoran Zone, with mild climate and 
open winters. There is, however, one great disadvantage that cannot 
be ignored without serious danger of losses and failure. The exces- 
sively dry climate of this part of the State during the summer causes 
occasional frosts at intervals during the growing season, and the 
irregular frosty nights often destroy flowers, young fruit, or the 
leaves of tender crops that would otherwise prove profitable. The 
climate is mild, the growing season is long, and the summer days are 
hot, but superdried air loses its heat so quickly that a sharp frost at 
night may follow a hot day in summer. As is well known, it is the 
moisture in the air that retains and equalizes the heat from the sun's 
rays, for excessively dry air has little power of retaining heat. 

This frost danger has greatly restricted the agricultural value of 
much of the arid interior of the country, especially that lying at eleva- 
tions above 4,000 feet, and while many hardy and frost-resistant 
crops and vegetables can be raised with partial success, the section is 
generally devoted to stock raising, or has been until much of it, over- 
stocked and overgrazed, no longer produces a food supply to make 
this industry profitable. 

Originally this arid interior when fully stocked with native game 
and teeming with wildlife was the hunting ground of numerous bands 
of Indians, who made little impression upon the game until horses 
and firearms were introduced among them. 

Now the game is scarce and scattered and some of the original 
species are gone past recall, but great areas in eastern Oregon are 
still better adapted to game production than any other industry and 
could with practical advantage be utilized for such purposes. 

Owing to their low altitude and greater moisture, the immediate 
valleys of the Columbia and Snake Rivers are comparatively free 
from the danger of serious frosts. The higher and drier basins, even 
with the same fauna and flora, must be carefully watched and studied. 

In the Rogue and Umpqua River Valleys west of the Cascades, 
where the proximity to the Pacific Ocean affords a greater moisture 
content to the summer atmosphere, the danger from frost is not notice- 
able. Here fruits and tender crops of the Sonoran Zone are produced 
in their perfection. 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 19 

These critical frost conditions apply not only to eastern Oregon 
but to a more extensive area of the Great Basin, involving parts 
of eastern California, Nevada, Utah, and southern Idaho. They must 
be understood if the area is to be developed to its best possibilities. 

Detailed information on climate and crop conditions, on recom- 
mended farm practices, and on suitable crops for the various sections 
of Oregon can be obtained in publications of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture and of the Oregon Agricultural College. 

TRANSITION ZONE 

The Transition Zone, as the name implies, lies between the Austral, 
or Sonoran Zone to the south or at lower altitudes, and the Canadian 
Zone to the north or at higher elevations. It derives a part of its 
fauna and flora by the overlapping of species of the lower and higher 
zones. In Oregon and the Pacific Northwest generally, it is unusu- 
ally broad and well defined with many restricted species of its own. 

In Oregon the zone may be divided into four well-marked subdivi- 
sions based on different degrees of humidity, varying from an annual 
precipitation of approximately 100 inches down to 10 or 15 inches. 
The humid division lying west of the Cascades is characterized gen- 
erally by heavy forests of pine, hemlock, Douglas fir, western hem- 
lock, and many Abroad-leaved trees (pi. 9) . Along its western edge lies 
the narrow coast strip, rarely more than a few miles in width, extend- 
ing from southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California 
and well marked by the Sitka spruce and accompanying species 
of plants and animals. Along the eastern side of the Cascades and 
over the Blue Mountain plateau with a much reduced rainfall, the 
semiarid or semihumid division of the zone is characterized by open 
forests of yellow pine (pi. 10, A). On the high plains and plateaus 
of the southeastern part of the State the more arid division of the 
zone is devoid of real timber and characterized by mountain-mahog- 
any (pi. 10, #), sagebrush, and the broad-leaved balsamroot. Al- 
though blending into each other, these subdivisions of the zone must 
be treated separately to be understood and recognized. 

COAST STRIP OF TRANSITION ZONE 

The coastal strip, or fog belt, as it is sometimes called, gets the 
first sweep of the damp, cool, but never very cold ocean winds. It 
has a remarkably even climate throughout the year, with an annual 
rainfall of 80 to 100 inches. While almost free from frost in winter, 
it is cold and damp in summer, thus allowing an unusually even 
temperature with an almost complete overlapping of Transition and 
Canadian Zone species. It has been mapped first as one zone and 
then the other, but the best authorities acknowledge it to be a mixture 
or overlapping of the two. 

To the southward the rainfall decreases slightly, and south of the 
mouth of the Coquille River the shores are steeper, more abrupt, and 
consequently drier and slightly warmer. Hence a considerable num- 
ber of California plants extend up the coast as far as the Coquille 
and not beyond. On plants alone Peck (1925a, p. 35) divides the 
strip at this point but the subdivision is not strongly marked in other 
forms of life. 






20 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

MAMMALS 

Aside from seals, sea lions, and sea otters, the mammals that can 
be considered closely associated with the coast strip are few and 
only very local subspecies, such as two forms of pocket gophers 
(Thomomys hesperus and helleri), a meadow mouse (Microtus cali- 
fornium angusticeps) , and possibly a shrew (Sorex paeificus yaqui- 
nae) . In general, it is occupied by the humid Transition Zone spe- 
cies of land mammals. 

BIRDS 

Of birds, the Pacific wren tit and a song sparrow may be charac- 
teristic; and the tufted puffin, pigeon guillemot, California murre, 
several cormorants, and the black oyster catcher are shore or island 
breeders along the coast. However, the strip is too narrow to restrict 
many of the free-ranging species such as birds and mammals. A 
close study might show a considerable number of reptiles, insects, 
and mollusks. 

PLANTS 

For most of the coast strip, the Sitka spruce, the most contorted 
form of Pinus contorta, and the Port Orford cedar are the dominant 
forest trees, but many others not restricted to it enter from the 
adjoining humid Transition or from the higher Canadian Zone. 

Western hemlock, lowland white fir, Douglas fir, western yew, 
and Sitka willow are abundant in the fog belt. They also have a 
wider range well up into the Cascades. The salmonberry, salal, 
evergreen blueberry (V actinium ovatum), California rhododendron, 
sweetgale, and Baccharis pillulairis are all common in this narrow 
belt, showing a mixture of southern and northern species. Of mosses, 
lichens, and other low forms of plant life, a long list of restricted 
varieties may be expected. 

The low beach plants such as Lupinus littoralis, Polygonum pa- 
ronychia, Abronia latifolia, Fragaria chiloensis, Convolvulus solda- 
nella^ and many others indicate an association of light- and sand- 
loving species, somewhat apart from the shaded forest belt and 
possibly of more southern origin. 

The sphagnum bog plants, in or just back of the forested coastal 
strip, are mainly northern species, such as Oxytioccus intermedius, 
Kalmia glauca, Myrica calif omica, Gentiana sceptrum, Eriophorum 
chamissonis, Drosera rotundifolia, and many others that have only 
a secondary relation to the life conditions of the fog belt. 

HUMID DIVISION OF TRANSITION ZONE 

The humid division covers a wide extent mainly of forested 
country from the coast strip east to the middle-west slopes of the 
Cascades in Oregon. In altitude it reaches from sea level up to 
3,000 and 4,000 feet, respectively, on the cold and warm slopes of 
Mount Hood, and to approximately 5,000 feet all around Mount 
McLoughlin (Pitt). The upper edge of the zone varies between 
these extremes of altitude along both sides of the mountains accord- 
ing to high or low base level of the adjoining valleys. 

The degree of humiditv to which this subdivision of the zone 
owes most of its characteristics varies from an average annual pre- 






North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 9 




HUMID TRANSITION ZONE TIMBER. 
Coast mountain section, Tillamook County (photograph by Alex Walker). 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 10 





A, Yellow pine timber of the Transition Zone, Blue Mountains, near Canyon City (June 26, 1915)- B 
mountain-mahogany, Transition Zone, Lake County (photograph by Stanley G. Jewett). 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 11 




B20374; B33204 

WHERE TIMBER LINE REACHES ITS LOWEST LIMITS. 
A, Mount Hood, 11,255 feet; B, Mount Jefferson, 10,523 feet; both views on cold slopes, from the northeast. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 12 




MIDDLE SISTER. OF THE THREE SISTERS PEAKS (10,029 FEET). 
Photographed from the northwest June 26, 1923, by Alex Walker. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 13 




North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 14 




MOUNT MCLOUGHLIN. FORMERLY MOUNT PITT (9,493 FEET). 
View from the southeast across lower end of Klamath Lake, showing approximate levels of the life zones. 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 21 

cipitation of 40 inches in the Willamette Valley to 80 inches near 
the coast and along the upper slopes of the Cascade Range. The 
greater part of this heavy precipitation occurs during the winter 
months, when the mountains are being heavily laden with the deep 
snows that lie late into the spring and in higher zones remain 
throughout the summer. This abundant supply of water is shown 
in the magnificent forest growth along the sides of the mountains 
and toward the coast where the moisture is in still greater abundance. 
The warmer and drier Willamette and other valleys are conspicu- 
ously less-heavily forested and better adapted to general agriculture. 

MAMMALS 

Some of the characteristic mammals of the humid Transition Zone 
of Oregon are Roosevelt's elk, Columbian black-tailed deer ? Oregon 
white-tailed deer, Washington rabbit, Oregon brush rabbit, silver 
gray squirrel, Douglas's squirrel, Townsend's chipmunk, Douglas's 
ground squirrel, Oregon flying squirrel, dusky wood rat, ruddy deer 
mouse, California red-backed mouse, tree mice (Phenacomys longi- 
cawlus and silvwola), white-footed phenacomys, Townsend's and 
gray-tailed meadow mice, Oregon creeping mouse, mountain beavers 
(Aplodontia rufa and pacifica), jumping mouse Zapus princeps 
trinotatus] , pocket gophers (Thomomys bulbivorus, oregonus, and 
niger), and northwest coast bobcat (Lynx fasciatus). 

BIRDS 

Some of the breeding birds of humid Transition Zone are : Sooty 
grouse, Oregon ruffed grouse, band-tailed pigeon, California pygmv 
owl, Harris's woodpecker, northern pileated woodpecker, Lewis s 
woodpecker, Vaux's swift, Steller's jay, Townsend's warbler, west- 
ern winter wren, California creeper, Oregon chickadee, chestnut- 
backed chickadee, wren tit, western golden-crowned kinglet, and 
black-headed grosbeak. 

PLANTS 

The abundant vegetation of this division of the zone is to a great 
extent peculiar to the Pacific slope and of species that range from 
western British Columbia to northwestern California. The princi- 
pal forest trees are sugar pine, Willamette pine, Jeffrey pine, nar- 
row-cone pine, Douglas fir, western hemlock, lowland fir (Abies 
(grandis), noble fir (Abies nobilis}, white fir (Abies concolor, includ- 
ing lowiana) , incense cedar, western red cedar, Oregon yew, Oregon 
maple, vine maple, Oregon alder, mountain alder, black cottonwood 
(Populus trichocarpa) , tanbark oak, Oregon white oak, California 
oak, western chinquapin, Oregon ash, madrone, California laurel, 
cascara, western dogwood, Oregon crab apple, and black hawthorn. 
The more characteristic shrubs are California hazel, wild cherry, 
manzanita, Oeanothus thyrsiflorus and integerrimus, Garrya ellyp- 
tica, mountain-laurel, salal, purple elderberry, devilsclub, red blue- 
berry, evergreen blueberry, salmonberry, and thimbleberry. Some 
of these humid Transition Zone species run more or less irregularly 
along the middle-eastern slope of the Cascades where the low sum- 
mit of the range allows considerable rain to pass over, but their 
main abundance will be found on the west slope. 



22 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

SEMIARID TRANSITION ZONE 

The semiarid (better called semihumid) division of the Transi- 
tion Zone as marked by the yellow-pine forests covers the broad 
basal slopes east and south of the Cascades and the extensive plateau 
levels of the Blue Mountain section. Its breadth and altitude vary 
with the configuration of the land, base level, and slope exposure. 

On the northeast slope- of Mount Hood the Transition Zone 
reaches from about 1,000 to 3,000 feet in altitude, although but 
a short distance west of The Dalles (near Mosier) it comes down to 
the banks of the Columbia River at less than 100 feet above sea level 
where the cool, moisture-laden winds from the west come up through 
the river gorge. On the southwest slope of Mount Hood the zone 
extends from the broad bottom of the Willamette Valley up to 
about 4,000 feet near Government camp but does not cross over the 
crest of the range so as to encircle the mountain completely (pi. 
11, A). 

On Mount Jefferson it reaches up to approximately 3,500 feet on 
cold slopes and to 4,500 feet on warm southwest slopes, showing a 
slight rise in altitude with slightly raised base level on both sides 
of the range (pi. 11, B). 

In the vicinity of the Three Sisters Peaks, with a base level of 
about 3,000 feet on the east and 1,000 on the west, the zone reaches 
up to about 4,500 feet on northeast slopes and about 4,800 on south- 
west slopes, although the zone does not reach to the actual base of 
the peaks nor cross over the crest of the range north or south of 
them (pi. 12). 

Mount Thielsen (pi. 13) and Crater Lake are more nearly in the 
zonal position of the Three Sisters, mainly above the Transition 
and passing through Canadian and Hudsonian Zones. 

In the Klamath section, with Mount McLoughlin (Pitt) as the 
highest center, and with base levels of 4,200 feet at Klamath Lake, 
3,000 feet in the Klamath River Canyon to the south, and 1,400 
feet in the Medford section of the Rogue River Valley on the west, 
the Transition Zone extends up to approximately 5,000 feet all 
around Mount McLoughlin (pi. 14). On the southwest slope it 
reaches from about 2,500 feet, east of Medford, to 5,000 feet on the 
west base of the mountains, while on the Klamath Valley side it 
runs from the level of Klamath Lake up to about the same altitude, 
5,000 feet, on the northeast slope of the peak. In the Klamath coun- 
try there is no lower limit of the zone shown on any northeast slope 
as the Sonoran Zone occupies only the valley bottoms and warm 
slopes. In the Klamath Canyon directly south of McLoughlin, 
Transition Zone comes down to 3,000 feet on local cold slopes and to 
about 4,000 feet on local hot slopes, but this deep, narrow canyon 
shows all the complications of such types of country. 

In the broad expanse of comparatively low country stretching 
north from Fort Klamath and the Klamath Marshes to the Paulina 
Mountains, where Transition Zone would naturally be expected, the 
plant and animal life show a predominance of Canadian Zone species, 
due to local influences, as noted under Canadian Zone (p. 25). 

In the Blue Mountain section, Transition Zone on the Columbia 
River Valley side extends on northeast slopes from about 2,000 to 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 23 

4,000 feet; on the Snake River Valley side on northeast slopes from 
about 2,800 to 4,800 feet ; and on southwest slopes from about 3,500 to 
5,500 feet. On the south side of the mountains, with a higher base 
level, the zone extends on southwest slopes near Burns from about 
4,500 feet up to 5,500 feet in the mountain north of there, and on 
especially steep, dry slopes up to 6,000 feet. 

Despite the varying levels of this division of the zone, the climatic 
conditions are fairly uniform with an average annual rainfall of 
approximately 20 inches, and it is sufficiently cool to allow generally 
a fair depth of snow on the ground for several of the winter months. 
Apparently the only climatic distinction from the treeless arid sub- 
division of the zone is the slightly greater humidity and the resultant 
difference in plant and animal life. 



MAMMALS 



Of mammals some of the most characteristic species of the semi- 
humid Transition Zone are the Rocky Mountain mule deer, Rocky 
Mountain elk, Klamath chipmunk, yellow-bellied chipmunk, Oregon 
and golden-mantled ground squirrels, Gambel's white-footed mouse, 
brown pocket gopher, and others less restricted to the division. 



BIRDS 

Of breeding birds the semihumid division of Transition Zone is 
characterized in part by Richardson's grouse, pygmy owl, MacFar- 
lane's screech owl, Rocky Mountain hairy woodpecker, white-headed 
woodpecker, western wood pewee, Oregon towhee, mountain tanager, 
Audubon's warbler, and pygmy nuthatch. 

PLANTS 

The semihumid division of Transition Zone is best characterized by 
the ponderosa pine, generally growing in clean open forests of great 
beauty and value. These forests reach their greatest perfection in 
the Upper Deschutes and Klamath country, but are also well devel- 
oped over much of the Blue Mountain Plateau. Other characteristic 
trees of the division are the western tamarack (Larix occidentalis) , 
western birch (Betula fontinalis), and many willows along the 
streams. The shrubby vegetation is represented by the bitterbush 
(Purshia tridentata), squawcarpet (CeanotJius prostratus) , buck- 
brush (Ceanothus velutinm) , snowberry (Symphoricarpos racemo- 
sus), bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva^ursi), and barberry (Berberis 
repens) . 

ARID TRANSITION ZONE 

The arid subdivision of Transition Zone in eastern Oregon covers 
the high valleys, plateau tops, and lower mountain slopes of approxi- 
mately the southeastern quarter of the State. It includes the moun- 
tains and plateaus east of Goose and Summer Lakes and south of the 
Blue and Maury Mountains, among which the Steens and Warner 
Mountains are the highest. In flora and fauna it is essentially a part 
of the Great Basin division of the zone, too arid for timber growth, 
with an average annual rainfall below 15 inches. 



24 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

The Steens Mountains, typical of the Great Basin type of arid 
ranges, are practically devoid of timber and show much distorted 
zone levels. Owing to the high base level of approximately 4,000 
feet on the east side and 4,500 feet on the west side of the range, 
the zones are pushed to unusual heights. Transition Zone, as nearly 
as it can be defined, reaches from about 4,200 to 6,000 feet on the 
northeast slopes and from about 5,000 to 7,000 feet on the southwest 
slopes. On the very steep eastern slope of the range there is much 
crowding and overlapping of the zones, and a general narrowing of 
Transition and Canadian. 

MAMMALS, BIRDS, AND PLANTS 

The mammals most characteristic of the arid Transition Zone are, 
or have been, the desert mountain sheep, Rocky Mountain mule 
deer, Idaho rabbit, woodchuck (Marmota flaviventris avarcti , and 
pygmy mouse (Microtus pcmpemmus). 

Its characteristic birds are the sage grouse, Brewer's sparrow, 
green-tailed towhee, and sage thrasher. 

It is practically treeless except for the low mountain-mahogany 
and some of the high-ranging junipers (Jwiiperus ocddentalis and 
scopulorum), which often ascend through it. Generally, it is char- 
acterized by open sagebrush slopes well covered with sagebrush 
(Artemisia tridentata, arbuscula^ and trifida), Balsamorhiza sagit- 
tata, Wyethia (miplexicaAdis^ and Paeonia brownii. 

Agriculture in this arid division of Transition Zone is practically 
limited to stock raising, mainly summer grazing of sheep and cattle. 
Where water is available for irrigation, there are ranch gardens and 
some hay, but water is scarce, and in the dry climate frosts are 
frequent during even the summer months. Ranches are few and far 
between and generally control extensive areas of grazing land. 

CROP ADAPTATIONS IN TRANSITION ZONE 

While little agriculture, except an occasional irrigated garden, is 
attempted in the arid Transition Zone, the semihumid bench land of 
this zone in the Blue Mountain section and along the eastern side 
of the Cascades produces excellent small-grain and potato crops, in 
most cases without irrigation. Still better crops of grains, potatoes, 
alfalfa, and some fruits, however, are grown where irrigation is 
possible. 

In the humid Transition Zone west of the Cascades a great variety 
of crops are raised small grains, wheat, oats, rye, barley, peas, hops, 
clover, vetch, timothy hay, potatoes, vegetables, nuts, and fruits in 
profusion. Most of the valleys are famous for their flowers, roses of 
wonderful beauty and variety, gladioli, dahlias, and a great variety 
of hardy flowering plants. Each valley and every section of a valley 
have slightly different climatic conditions, and with the varying soil 
and humidity each one shows special adaptations that cannot be 
covered by any generalized lists of crops. The only safe course for 
the grower in selecting crops of special advantage in each location 
is to follow the advice of the local county agents, the State agri- 
cultural college, and the experiment stations. 



1936] 



MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 



25 



Game and fur-bearing animals can be considered a legitimate 
crop, and much of the Transition Zone, both in the timbered and in 
the treeless arid divisions, is especially adapted to their production. 
The wildlife of the forests if well handled is often as valuable as 
any other forest product. 

CANADIAN ZONE 

The Canadian Zone in Oregon covers all but the high peaks 4 and 
ridges of the higher Cascade, Siskiyou, Blue, and Steens Mountains, 
and caps many of the lower groups, such as the Paulina, Yamsey, 
Winter, and Warner Kanges. On Mount Hood at the northern end 
of the Cascades in Oregon, with a 100-foot base level around three 
sides of the mountain, the zone runs correspondingly low (fig. 1), 



N.E. 




FIGURE 1. Life zones on Mount Hood from northeast to southwest exposures, with low 
base level on both sides and the zones consequently running low. 

reaching from 3,000 to 5,000 feet on the cold northeast slopes and 
from about 4,000 to 6,000 feet on warmer southwest slopes. This 
lowering of the life zones, in addition to the great height of the 
peak, accounts for the magnificent display of ice and snow above 
timber line on Mount Hood. 



I0,53 feet 



S.W. 



N.E. 




FIGURE 2. Life zones on Mount Jefferson from northeast to southwest exposures, show- 
ing approximate altitudes above sea level and slight elevation due to higher base level. 



26 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



In the middle section of the Cascades around Mount Jefferson 
(fig. 2) the zone extends from about 3,500 to 5,500 feet on the north- 
east slopes and from about 4,500 to 6,500 on the southeast slopes, and 
around the Three Sisters Peaks (fig. 3) there is a noticeable eleva- 
tion of the zone to about 4,500 to 6,000 feet on the northeast slopes, 
and a little under 5,000 to 7,000 on the southwest slopes in con- 
formity with the more elevated base level of the upper Deschutes 
and Willamette Valleys on the two sides of the range. 



s.w. 



10.352 feet- 



N. E 




Sea /eve/ 



FIGURE 3. Life zones on Three Sisters Peaks from northeast to southwest exposures, 
showing approximate elevation above sea level and effect of elevated base level on 
northeast slope. 

In the southern Cascades the zone extends generally from about 
5,000 to 7,000 feet in altitude on the cold, or northeast slopes, and 
from about 5,500 to 7,500 feet on the warmer southwest slopes, except 
on Mount McLoughlin, where it shows little variation from 5,000 
to 7,000 feet clear around the mountain (fig. 4). In many places 
west of the mountains with the low base level of nearby valleys, 



sw. 



N.E 




So no ran 



Sea level 



FIGURE 4. Life zones on Mount McLoughlin (Pitt) from northeast to southwest expo- 
sures, showing effect of elevated base level on northeast side in neutralizing the usual 
difference in zone levels on sunny and shady slopes. 

the lower edge of the zone falls 500 to 1,000 feet lower, or to 4,000 
or 4,500 feet in altitude, without corresponding change in its upper 
limit. 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 27 

In the Wallowa and Baker Ranges of the Blue Mountains, Cana- 
dian Zone covers the high middle slopes from approximately 5,000 
to 7,000 feet on the northeast slopes and 6,000 to 8,000 on the warmer 
southwest slopes, but varying considerably in different parts of the 
ranges (fig. 5). The highest peaks in the Baker Range reach to 
8,920 and 9,097 feet, according to the United States Geological Survey 
map, while in the Wallowa Range the Forest Service map shows the 
higher peaks reaching from 9,000 to 9,800 feet. Considerable masses 



s.vy. ^^T>\ N-C. 




So no ra n 
Sea level 



FIGURE 5. Life zones in the Wallowa Mountains from the northeast to the southwest 
exposures, the zones considerably elevated by moderately high base level around two 
sides of the mountains. 

of permanent snow and ice and one small glacier on these peaks 
indicate their altitude. 

The Steens Mountains, with a 4,000- to 5,000-foot base level all 
around, show the highest zone levels in the State. The Canadian 
Zone extends from about 6,000 to 7,500 feet on cold slopes and 7,000 
to 8,500 feet on warm slopes, but the mountains are so bare of timber 
and vegetation in general that their zones are not clearly marked 

9,354 feet 

S.W. ^ ^_ .A N.E. 




Sea /eve/ 



FIGURE G. Life zones of the Steens Mountains, showing approximate levels of life 
zones on northeast and southwest exposures and emphasizing the elevating effect of 
high base level on the full set of zones. 

(fig. 6). The extreme aridity of the climate prevents any real forest 
growth, while erosion and overgrazing have destroyed much of the 
native flora and fauna. 



28 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 56 

MAMMALS 

In the Cascades the Canadian Zone is characterized by the snow- 
shoe rabbit, brown and dusky conies, Cascade squirrel, flying squirrel, 
yellow-bellied marmot, red-backed mouse, lemming mouse, large- 
footed meadow mouse, mountain jumping mouse, Mazama gopher, 
and mountain mole. 

In the Blue Mountains the characteristic mammals are the Rocky 
Mountain mule deer, elk, mountain sheep, varying hare, Jewett's 
cony, Richardson's squirrel, Idaho flying squirrel, red-backed mouse, 
large-footed meadow mouse, Rocky Mountain meadow mouse, Ore- 
gon jumping mouse, brown pocket gopher, Rocky Mountain marten, 
Canada lynx, mountain shrew, hoary and silver-haired bats. 

In the Steens Mountains are found the Rocky Mountain mule deer, 
Taylor's cony, Rocky Mountain meadow mouse, Oregon jumping 
mouse, mountain shrew, and silver-haired bat. 

In summer the Canadian Zone has a peculiar value as a resort for 
some of the most important large game and fur-bearing mammals, 
the Rocky Mountain elk and mule deer, bighorn sheep, and formerly 
for marten, wolverine, Canada lynx, and red foxes. 

BIRDS 

Common breeding birds of the Canadian Zone in the Cascades are 
Barrow's goldeneye, three-toed woodpeckers, Williamson's sapsucker, 
red-breasted sapsucker, olive-sided flycatcher, black-headed jay, Ore- 
gon jay, Cassin*s finch, Bendire's crossbill, pine siskin, white-crowned 
sparrow, Thurber's junco, Rocky Mountain nuthatch, GambePs chick- 
adee, and ruby-crowned kinglet. 

The characteristic birds of the Blue Mountain Canadian Zone in- 
clude Richardson's and Franklin's grouse, Canada ruffed grouse, 
Williamson's sapsucker, olive-sided flycatcher, Rocky Mountain jay, 
Cassin's finch, Bendire's crossbill, siskin, white-crowned sparrow, 
and ruby-crowned kinglet. 

In the Steens Mountains are found the water ouzel, crossbill, junco, 
white-crowned sparrow, and rufous hummingbird. 

PLANTS 

The zone is generally characterized in the Cascades by lodgepole 
pine, western white pine, Engelmann spruce, Shasta fir, grand fir, 
silver fir, Alaska cedar, aspen, mountain maple, mountain-ash, high- 
bush cranberry, Shepherdia canadensis, Pachistima myrsinites, 
Vaccinium, erythrococcu/m, and Xerophyll/u/m tenax. 

In the Blue Mountain region dominant plants are lodgepole pine, 
limber pine, Engelmann spruce, grand and white fir, aspen, balsam 
poplar, mountain maple, mountain alder, mountain-ash, red elder, 
Arctostaphylos nevadensis, Shepherdia canadensis, Pachistima myr- 
sinites, Vaccinium scopariwn and erythrococcum, Lonicera involu- 
crata and conjugialis, Linnaea borealis, Clintonia miiflora, and many 
others showing a slight difference from the flora of the same zone in 
the Cascades. 

In the Steens Mountains the plant and animal life of Canadian 
Zone are similar to those of the Blue Mountain Canadian Zone with a 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 29 

much more limited list of species. For flora it can show only two 
tree species in sheltered gulches, aspen and balsam poplar, some 
willows along the streams, and considerable other shrubby vegetation 
of the Blue Mountain or Rocky Mountain types. 

HUDSONIAN ZONE 

Hudsonian Zone is the narrow timber-line belt just below the 
permanent snow and ice fields of the higher peaks of the State. In 
vertical width it is seldom over 1,000 feet and on the steep upper 
slopes where found is at most but a narrow belt with a limited number 
of characteristic forms of life. It varies considerably in altitude on 
different peaks and ranges, conforming to the other zones in the 
influence of high or low base level. 

On Mount Hood it ranges from about 5,000 to 6,000 feet on cold 
slopes and 6,000 to 7,000 on warm slopes; on Jefferson 5,500 to 6,500 
on cold and 6,500 to 7,500 on warm slopes; on Three Sisters from 
6,000 to 7,000 on cold and 7,000 to 8,000 on warm slopes; on Mount 
McLoughlin (Pitt) from approximately 7,000 to 8,000 all the way 
around; in the Blue Mountains from 7,000 to 8,000 on cold and 8,000 
to 9,000 on warm slopes ; and in the Steens Mountains about 7,500 to 
8,500 on cold, and 8,500 to 9,354 feet on warm slopes but with poorly 
defined limits. Thus a difference of 2,000 feet in the level of the 
zone on corresponding slopes, shown in the State, is traceable to a 
still greater difference in elevation of base level. 

PLANTS 

The plants of Hudsonian Zone, in spite of its scattered sections, 
are more nearly the same throughout the State than are those of the 
lower zones. Throughout the Cascades the species are largely the 
same around all of the peaks high enough to afford the Hudsonian 
climatic conditions. In the Blue Mountain section- the Hudsonian 
species differ somewhat in showing a close affinity with the Rocky 
Mountain flora, and in the Steens Mountains the greater aridity cuts 
out all trees and many of the shrubs from the zone list. 

In the Cascades the characteristic species of the zone are the white- 
stemmed pine, alpine hemlock, alpine larch, alpine fir, alpine 
juniper, alpine mountain-ash, pink heather, white heather, little 
wintergreens (CrOMltheriaovata and humifusa), little blueberry (Vac- 
cinium scoparium) , LutTcea pectinata, wild currant (Ribes howellii), 
creeping dewberry, white rhododendron, red monkeyflower, smooth 
alum root, mountain lily (Erytkronium montanum), louse- wort 
(Pedicularis surrecta), grass of Parnassus, stonecrop (Sedwrn 
divergens), and twisted polygonum. 

In the Blue Mountains around the Wallowa and Baker _ 
peaks the characteristic Hudsonian Zone plants include all of the 
timber-line trees of the Cascades, a part of the shrubs and smaller 
plants, and in addition a considerable number of Rocky Mountain 
species, such as Ledwn glandulosum, Lonicera utahensis, Ribes lacus- 
tre (molle?), Dasiophora fruticosa, Erytkronium parviflorum, Clay- 
tonia lanceolata, Hoorebekia greenei, Ligmticum leibergi, Merathropta 
intermedia, Gilia nuttallii, Epilobiwn fastigiatum and homemannii. 



30 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Dodecatheon tetrandrum, Angelica lyallii, Saxifraga mertensiana, 
Rhodiola frigida, Polygonum imbricatum, Pedicularis l>racteosa and 
racemosa, Ranunculus populago, Pentstemon fruticosus, and Aster 
integrifolius and cusickii. 

In the Steens Mountains the Hudsonian Zone is poorly denned, 
owing to the aridity of the summits, absence of trees and shrubby 
growth, and greatly denuded and eroded slopes. Still there is suffi- 
cient native life to serve as an approximate guide to the zonal divi- 
sions. The principal Hudsonian indicators in plants are dwarf 
willows, alpine juniper (Juniperus sibirica), thorny gooseberry, red 
currants, shrubby cinquefoil (D^asiphora frutioosa) , dwarf blueberry 
(V actinium scoparium), Kalmia glauca microphylla, Artemisia tile- 
sii, Eriogonum umbellatum and vweum, Saseifraga colunibiana, 
Sytmphoricarpos acutios, Spraguea multiceps, PolygonUm bistor- 
toides, Phacelia sericea, Quamasia leichtlinii, Dodecatheon puberu- 
Iwrn, Pedicularis surrecta, Helenium hoopesii, Phlewn alpinwni, and 
Delphinium cyanoreios. 

ARCTIC-ALPINE ZONE 

Arctic- Alpine, the last belt of dwarf plant and scanty animal life, 
corresponding to the Arctic tundra of the far north, is represented 
on most of the peaks in Oregon reaching above 9,000 feet in altitude. 
On Mount Hood it ranges from about 6,000 feet on northeast and 
7,000 feet on southwest slopes upward to the permanent ice and snow, 
which cover most of the higher parts of the peak ; and on Jefferson 
from 6,500 and 7,500 feet upward. On the Three Sisters the zone 
lies above 7,000 and 8,000 feet, respectively, on the cold and warm 
slopes; on Mount McLoughlin (Pitt), above 8,000; in the Blue 
Mountains and Steens Mountains, above 8,000 and 9,000 feet, varying 
somewhat in accordance with varying local conditions of slope, soil, 
wind, and moisture, running 1 lower on steep northerly slopes where 
the sun's rays are partially cut off and higher on the steep southerly 
slopes which catch the more nearly vertical rays of the sun. The 
effect of high and low base level is still apparent in this highest of 
the life zones. 

PLANTS 

In the Arctic- Alpine Zone of the Cascade peaks are such low or 
prostrate plants as Ranunculus eschscholtzii. Anemone hudsoniana, 
Antennaria media. Phlox douglasii and diffusa, Pentstemon menziesii, 
Veronica alpina, Silene suksdorfi, Saodfrag tolmiei and bongardi, 
Potentilla flab elli folia, Oxyria digyna, Polygonwn newberryi, Genti- 
ana calycosa, Lewisia columbiana, Epilo'bium alpinum and anagalli- 
di folium, Erigeron salsuginosus, Hieracium gracile, Oreastrum 
alpigaenum. 

Arctic- Alpine Zone in the Blue Mountains is marked by such dwarf 
vegetation as the dwarf willow (Salix nivalis), Dry as octopetala, 
Ivesia gordoni, Sieversia rossii, Potentilla flabe7tifolia, Sawifraga 
deMlis and ~bongardi, Silene acaulis, Phlox diffusa and douglasii, 
Arenaria vema, sajanensis and nuttallii, Claytonia megarrhiza, Epi- 
lobium, alpinum and anagallidifolium, Lewisia nevadensis and tri- 
phylla, Dodecatheon jeffreyi, Oxyria digyna, Eriogonum piperi,, 



1936] 



MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 



31 



Polygonum viviparum ana minimum, Veronica alpina, Mimulus al- 
pinus, Phacelia sericea, Pedicularis contorta, (J-entiana calycosa, 
Erigeron acris debilis and compositus, Hulsea nana, Arnica parryi, 
Antennaria media and lanata, Hieratium gracile, Phleum alpinum, 
and Phegopteris alpestris. 

In the Steens Mountains the vegetation is poorly represented in 
this zone, and the collecting has been but fragmentary. The follow- 
ing plants have been collected and noted as representing the zone 
on the peaks of these mountains : Ranunculus gloverianus, GUia nut- 
tallii, Aren-aria congesta and aculeata, Alsine ~boreaUs, Oxyria digyna, 
Veronica alpina, Drdba nemorosa, Spraguea umbellata&mimulticeps, 
Erigeron compositus trifidus, Achillea alpina, and Phleum alpinum. 

MAMMALS AND BIRDS 

Of mammals there seems to be no species restricted to the zone 
in the Cascades in Oregon, as the white goat does not come south of 
the Columbia River. Of breeding birds the rosy finch is perhaps the 
only characteristic species. In the Steens Mountains no mammals or 
birds are confined to the Arctic- Alpine. Collecting in the high peaks 
of the Wallowa and Baker Ranges has not been sufficiently thorough 
to establish any species of birds or mammals as breeding and occupy- 
ing in a restricted sense the Arctic-Alpine Zone. 

TABLE 1. Mammals of Oregon, try life zones 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


1 



Hudsonian 


Semiarid 


1 


Humid 


3 




"2 


Bison bison oregonus 


Oregon bison - 
















Ovis canadensis canadensis . 


Rocky Mountain bighorn 












X 


x 


canadensis californiana 


Riinrock bighorn 












Antilocapra americana oregona 


Prong-horned antelope 




x 






x 






Alces diner ica.no, shirasi 


Rocky Mountain moose 
















americana gigns- _ _ 


Alaska moose (introduced) 






x 










Cervus canadensis nelsoni 


Rocky Mountain wapiti, elk . _ 
















canadensis roosevetti . 


Roosevelt's wapiti, or elk 






x 










Odocoileubs hemionus macrotis 


Rocky Mountain mule deer 








X 


X 


X 


.... 


columbianm columbianus 


Columbian black-tailed deer 






x 


virginianus leucurus 


Columbian white-tailed deer 






x 










virginianus ochrourus 


Yellow-tailed deer 








x 








Lepus americanus bairdii 


Rocky Mountain snowshoe hare- 
Oregon snowshoe hare 












j 




amcricanus ktamathensis 
















americanus washingtonii 


Washington snowshoe hare 






x 










townsendii townsendii . . 


Western white-tailed jack rab- 
bit. 
California jack rabbit 
















californicus californicus 
















californicus wallawalla . . 


Oregon jack rabbit 




x 












Sylvilagus nuttallii nuttallii 


Oregon cottontail 
















bachmani ubericolor 


Redwood brush rabbit. . . 






x 










Brachylagus idahoensis 


Pygmy rabbit 
















Ochotona schisticeps taylori 


Warner Mountain cony, pika. 










x 






schisticepsjewetti 


Blue Mountain cony, pika 












x 




princeps brunnescens 


Brown cony, pika 
















fenisex fumosa. .. 


Dusky cony, pika 






x 






x 




Sciurus griseus griseus 


Silver gray squirrel 






X 

x 


X 








douglasii douglasii 


Douglas's squirrel 












douglasii cascadensis 


Cascade squirrel 








x 




x 




douglasii albolimbatus 


Sierra squirrel 








x 




X 
X 


x 


hudsonicus richardsoni... 


Richardson's squirrel... 








X 





32 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLE 1. Mammals of Oreyon, by life zones Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


G 
03 

i 






Hudsonian 


Semiarid 


1 


d 

w 


Semihumid 


3 
*n 

4| 


Eutamias townsendii townsendii 


Townsend's chipmunk . 
















townsendii cooperi - 


Cooper's chipmunk 






x 










townsendii ochrogenys 


Redwood chipmunk 
















townsendii siskiyou - 


Siskiyou chipmunk 






x 










townsendii senex 


Allen's chipmunk 












x 




amoenus amoenus 


Klamath chipmunk 
















amoenus luteiventris . . . 


Yellow-bellied chipmunk 








x 




x 




amoenus ludibundus 


Hollister's chipmunk 












x 




amoenus ochraceus - . 


Ochraceous chipmunk... 








x 








minimus pictus 


Sagebrush chipmunk 










x 






Callospermophilus chrysodeirus chryso- 
deirus. 
chrysodeirus trinitatis 


Golden-mantled ground squirrel. 

Tawny-mantled ground squirrel . 
Copperhead ground squirrel 








X 




X 














x 




chrysodeirvA connectens 








x 








Ammospermophilus leucurus leucurus-. 
Citellus douglasii. 


Antelope squirrel . 
















Douglas's ground squirrel 






x 


x 








coiumbianus columbianus 


Columbian ground squirrel . 
















oregonus - 


Oregon ground squirrel- 








x 








townsendii 


Townsend's ground squirrel 
Piute ground squirrel 


X 














mollis mollis -. 


x 












mollis canus 


Gray sage squirrel . . . 
















mollis vigilis . ... - 


Speckled sage squirrel 




x 












elegans nevadensis 


Nevada ground squirrel 










x 






Marmota flaviventris flaviventris 


Yellow-bellied marmot 












X 


X 


flaviventris avara 


Pale yellow-bellied marmot 








x 


x 


Olaucomys sabrinus oregonensis 


Oregon flying squirrel 






x 










sabrinus fuliginosus 


Cascade flying squirrel 












x 




sabrinus klamathensis 


Xlamath flying squirrel 








X 








sabrinus bulletins .. 


Sawtooth Mountain flying 
squirrel. 
Bangs's flying squirrel 










X 




sabrinus bangsi 












x 




Rattus norvegicus . .. 


Norway rat 






x 


x 








rattus rattus 


Black rat 
















rattus alexandrinus 


Roof rat. 






x 










Mus musculus musculus . .. _ 


House mouse 








x 








Neotoma cinerea occidentalis 


Western bushy-tailed wood rat.. 
Dusky bushy-tailed wood rat ... 
Dusky-footed wood rat 
















cinerea fusca - 






x 










fuscipes fuscipes 


X 














lepida. nevadensis 


Nevada wood rat 


x 












Onychomys leucogaster fuscogriseus 
Peromyscus maniculatus rubidus 


Oregon grasshopper mouse _ . 
















Ruddy deer mouse 


x 














maniculatus gambellii 


GambePs deer mouse 






x 




X 




maniculatus sonoriensis 


Sonoran deer mouse 
















maniculatus artemisiae 


Sagebrush deer mouse.. . 








x 




X 




crinitus crinitus 


Idaho canyon mouse 




x 














Gilbert's white-footed mouse 
















truei preblei 


Treble's white-footed mouse 
Desert harvest mouse _ . 




X 












Reithrodontomys megalotis megalotis 




x 












California harvest mouse 
















Clethrionomys californicus californicus.- 


California red-backed mouse 






x 










Dusky red-backed mouse 








x 








californicus mazama 


Mazama red-backed mouse 












X 




gapperi saturatus 


British Columbia red-backed 
mouse. 
Red tree mouse 












x 




















silvicola 


Dusky tree mouse .. 






x 










albipes 


White-footed phenacomys 






x 












Mountain phenacomys 














X 
X 


intermedius olympicus 


Olympic phenacomys 
















Peale's meadow mouse 








x 


















x 


x 






Gray-tailed meadow mouse 






x 


x 
















x 






























Rocky Mountain meadow 
mouse. 












x 










x 










mordax abditus 


Tillamook meadow mouse 






X 











1936 J MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 33 

TABLE 1. Mammals of Oregon, try life zones Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


c 

as 


Hudsonian 


Semiarid 


5 


Humid 


2 

X3 


1 




Cascade meadow mouse 












x 






Large-footed meadow mouse 


















Oregon creeping mouse - 






x 












Baird's creeping mouse 














X 




Pygmy mouse 










x 






Rocky Mountain muskrat 




x 






x 








Nevada muskrat - 




x 














Oregon coast muskrat 


















Pacific coast beaver 


I 


X 


X 


X 


X 
















Nevada beaver 




x 






x 






Aplodoniia rufa rufa 


Brown mountain beaver 






x 












Pacific mountain beaver 






x 










Ercihizon epixanthutn cpixanthum 


Yellow-haired porcupine 


X 


X 


X 

x 


X 


X 


X 


.... 




Northwest jumping mouse 


trinotatus pacificus 


Pacific jumping mouse 








x 










Mountain jumping mouse 












x 




princeps oregonus 


Blue Mountain jumping mouso. 
Coltimbian five-toed kangaroo 
rat. 
Preble's kangaroo rat - - 








x 


x 










x 












microps preblei 




x 












I>ipodomys heermanni californicus 


Northern California kangaroo 
rat. 
Qabrielson's kangaroo rat 


X 

x 




























Microdipodops megacephalus oregonus- . 


Oregon gnome mouse 




x 












Oregon pocket mouse 




x 












parvus Tnollipilosus 


Coues's pocket mouse . - 


x 
















Northwest pocket mouse 


x 














nevadensis 


Nevada pocket mouse 




x 












Thomomys bulbivorus 


Camas pocket gopher.. 






x 










townsendii townsendii 


Townsend's pocket gopher 




x 














Nevada pocket gopher 




x 












bottac ieucodon 


White-toothed pocket gopher. .. 


x 














bottae laticeps 


Huinboldt Bay pocket gopher. . 
Douglas's pocket gopher 






x 
















x 










douglasit oregonus 


Oregon pocket gopher 






x 












Black pocket gopher 






x 












Mazama pocket gopher 












X 


X 


monticola hflleri 


Heller's pocket gopher . 






x 








Deschutes pocket gopher 
















fuscus fuscus 


Brown pocket gopher 








x 








hesperus 


West coast pocket gopher 






x 












Dalles pocket gopher 




x 






x 






columbianus 


Columbia pocket gopher 


x 














Felis concolor oregonensis 


Oregon cougar 






x 










concolor hippolestet 


Rocky Mountain cougar 








x 




x 




cntus 


House cat _ - . 


x 


x 


x 


x 


x 






Lynx Tufus uinta 


Rocky Mountain bobcat 




x 






x 






rufus pallescens 


Cascade bobcat 








x 








rufus fasciatus 


Oregon bobcat -- 






x 










canadensis canadensis 


Canada lynx 












x 




Canis famUidTis 


Domestic dogs 


X 


X 


X 

x 


X 


X 






lycaongigas 


Northwestern timber wolf 






lycaon nubilus 


Plains wolf 










x 






latrans lestes . ... 


Mountain coyote.. 


X 


X 




X 


X 






Vulpes fulvus cascadensis 


Cascade red fox .. 








x 




fulvus inacrourus 


Rocky Mountain red fox 








x 








macrotis nevadensis 


Nevada long-eared fox _ ..... 




x 












Urocyon cinereoargenteus townsendi 
Afustela longicauda arizonensis 


Oregon gray fox. . 


x 














Arizona weasel 




x 




X 


X 






longicauda saturate 


Cascade weasel. 






x 






washingtoni 


Washington weasel 








x 










Oregon bridled weasel 


x 














cicognanii slreatori 


Puget Sound weasel 






x 










cicognanii tnuricus 


Sierra least weasel 












x 






Rocky Mountain least weasel 










X 

x 


X 




Lutrcola vison energumenos 


Western mink 






x 


x 




3-lartes caurina caurina 


Pacific marten 






x 






x 






Rocky Mountain marten 












x 




pennanti pacifica... 


Pacific fisher... 






X 











7209 36 3 



34 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLES 1. Mammals of Oregon, 'by life zones Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 





1 

c 

B 


I 


o 

c 
-< 


Humid 


Semihumid 


o 

3 


Gulo luscus luscus 


Wolverine 










x 


Lutra canadensis pacifica 


Western otter 


X 














Enhydra lutris nereis 


Sea otter. _ 




x 










Taxidea taxus neglecta 


California badger 


X 


X 






x 






Mephitis occidentalis occidentalis .. 


California skunk 


x 










occidentalis spissigrada 


Puget Sound skunk_ . . 






x 










occidentalis notata-.. 


Columbia Valley skunk... 


X 














occidentalis major 


Great Basin skunk. 


x 




x 


x 








Great Basin spotted skunk 


X 


X 












phenax latifrons 


Oregon spotted skunk 


x 










Procyon lotor pacifica 


Northwestern raccoon 








x 








lot or fxcelsus 


Snake River Valley raccoon ... 




x 












Bassariscus astutus raptor 


Ringtail 


x 














Euarctos americanus cinnamomum 
americanus nltifrontalis 


Idaho black bear 






x 


x 




x 




Olympic black bear_ 






x 










Ursus klamathensis 


Klamath grizzly 
















idahoensis 


Idaho grizzly 








x 










Yellowstone Park grizzly 




x 












Eumetopias jubata 


Steller's sea lion 






x 










Zalophus californianus 


California sea lion- 






x 












Northern fur seal 
















fhoca richardii richardii 


Hair seal 






x 










C etaceans 1 -- -- 


Whales and porpoises 
















Scapanus townsendii 


Townsend's mole 






x 










latimanus dilatus 


Klamath mole 








x 








latimanus alpinus 


Mazamamole 












x 






Coast mo] 






x 










orarius schefferi 


Schefler's mole 


x 






x 








Neurotrichus gibbsii gibbsii 


Gibbs's mole 






x 










Sorex palustris navigator 


Rocky Mountain water shrew .. 












X 


x 


bendirii bendirii 


Bendire's shrew 








x 




bendirii palmeri 


Palmer's shrew 






x 










trowbridgii trowbridgii 


Trowbridge's shrew 






x 










trowbridgii mariposae ... 


Yosemite shrew . .. 








x 








obscurus obscurus 


Dusky shrew 












X 


X 


obscurus bairdi . . 


Baird's dusky shrew 






x 






obscurus permiliensis 


Cascade dusky shrew 












x 




obscurus setosus .. . 


Olympic dusky shrew 






x 


x 








pacificus pacificus 


Pacific shrew __ 






x 










pacificus yaquinat . 


Yaquina shrew 






x 










vagrans vagrans 


Vagrant shrew . 






x 


x 








vagrans tnonticola _ . _ . 


Rocky Mountain shrew 












x 




vagrans amoenus 


Sierra shrew _ . 








x 








ornatus trigonirostris _ _ . _ _ 


Siskiyou shrew 








x 










Merriam's shrew. 
















preblei 


Preble's shrew 










x 






Myotis californicus californicus 


Little California bat 


x 


x 












californicus caurinus 


Northwest coast bat ._. - 






x 










subulatus inelanorhinus 


Black-nosed bat 




x 












tvotis evotis 


Little big-eared bat 






x 










evotis chrysonotus 


Desert golden bat 




x 














Dusky bat 






x 










yumanensis sociabilis 


Tejon bat 


X 


X 












lucifugus carissima 


Yellowstone bat 




x 


x 






lucifugus alascensis 


Alaska little brown bat 






x 










tolans longicrus 


Long-legged bat 






x 










volans interior 


Interior bat 








x 








Eptesicus fuscus fuscus 


Big brown bat 






X 


X 


X 






Lasionycteris noctivagans 


Silver-haired bat 






x 




Pipistrellus hesperus hesperus 


Little canyon bat 




x 












Nycteris cinerea 


Hoary bat 








X 




x 




Corynorhinus rafinesquit townsendii 
rafinesquii pallescens 


Jack-rabbit bat 






x 










Pale jack-rabbit bat 




x 






x 








Intermediate jack-rabbit bat 
















Antrozous pallidus pacificus 


Pacific pale bat 


x 














pallidus cantwelli 


Large gray bat 




x 












Didelphis virginiana virginiana ..- 


Virginia opossum 


x 































i Ocean; no zones given. 



1936] 



MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 



35 



TABLE 2. Reptiles of Oregon, by life zones l 
LIZARDS 



Species 


Common name 


Zones 


Sonoran 


Transition 


1 
O 


Hudsonian 


Semiarid 



'C 

< 


Humid 


Semihumid 


1 


Crotaphytus wislizenii 


Leopard lizard 


x 














silus. 


Short-nosed tiger lizard 


x 














collaris baileyi 


Western collared lizard 


x 














Uta stansburiana stansburiana __ 


Northern brown-shouldered liz- 
ard. 
Sagebrush swift.. 


X 

x 














Sceloporus graciosus graciosus 














graciosus gracilis 


Mountain swift 




x 












occidentalis occidentals 


Pacific blue-bellied lizard 






x 










occidentalis biseriatus 


Western blue-bellied lizard 




x 




x 








Phrynosoma douglassii douglassii 


Pygmy horned toad 




x 












platyrhinos 


Desert horned toad 


x 














Oerrhonotus principis 


Northern alligator lizard 






x 










scincicauda scincicauda 


Western alligator lizard 




x 


x 










Cnemidophorus tessellatui tessellatus. . . 
Plestiodon skiltonianus 


Desert whiptail lizard 


x 














Western skink . 






x 


x 



























SNAKES 



Charina bottae bottae 


Pacific rubber snake. . 






x 


x 








Diadophis amabilis 


Western ringneck snake 




x 


x 










Coluber constrictor mormon 


Western yellow-bellied racer 








x 








taeniatiistaeniatus 


Western striped racer 




x 












Pituophis catenifer catenifer 


Coast gopher snake 






x 










catenifer heermanni. 


Valley gopher snake 




x 












catenifer deserticola 


Desert gopher snake 


x 














Contia tennis 


Sharp-tailed snake 








x 








Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus 


Western garter snake 






x 










sirtalia infernalis __ 


Pacific garter snake 




x 




x 








ordinoides ordinoides 


Puget Sound garter snake 






x 










ordinoides biscutatus 


Klamath garter snake 




x 


x 


x 








ordinoides vagrans 


Wandering garter snake 


x 






x 








Crotalus oreganus 


Pacific rattlesnake __ 


x 


x 












confluentus 


Plains rattlesnake 


x 


x 































TURTLES 



Clemmys marmorata 


Pacific terrapin 


x 


x 


x 


x 








Chrysemys marginata bellii _ 


Western painted turtle. 


x 




x 


x 



























1 Specimen identifications by Remington Kellogg. 



36 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA 
TABLE 3. BreetiAng birds of Oregon, by life zones 1 



[No. 55 



Species 


. Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


Cana- 
dian 


Hudsonian 


Arctic-Alpine 


1 Semiarid 


S 

*c 

< 


Pi 
E 

CO 

5 


S 

3. 


2 
a 

x 


2 
< 


2 

W 


g 

1 

a 
5 


Qavia immer immer 


Common loon 






x 


X 






Colymbus nigricollis californi- 
cus. 
Aechmophorus occidentaiis 
Podilymbus podiceps podiceps . 
Oceanodroma furcata. 


Eared grebe 


x 


x 


















Western grebe 


X 


X 


















Pied-billed grebe 
Forked-tailed Petrel 






X 
















leucorhoa beali 


Beal's petrel 






X 
















Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 
Phalacrocorax auritus albocilia- 
tus. 
penidllatus 






x 


















Farallon cormorant . 


X 




I 




X 













Brandt's cormorant 






x 














pelagicus resplendens 


Baird's cormorant 






x 
















Ardea herodias treganzai 


Treganza's heron 




x 








x 










herodias fannini 


Northwestern Coast heron. 
American egret 






x 
















Casmerodius albus egretta 




X 


















Butorides virescens anthonyi 
Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli-.. 

Botaurus lentiginosus 


Anthony's green heron 


X 





















Black-crowned night 
heron. 
American bittern 


X 

x 


X 

x 






X 
X 


X 
X 




X 


Ixobrychus exilis hesperis 




X 

x 


X 

x 












Plegadis guarauna 


White-faced glossy ibis 










- 








Brant a canadensis canadensis. . 
Anas platyrhynchos platyrhyn- 
chos. 
C'haulelasTnus streperus 


Common Canada goo^e 


x 


x 






x 


x 








CoTmnon fnallard 


x 


x 






x 


x 


X 


x 






Gadwall 


x 


x 






X 

x 


X 

x 










Dafila acuta tzitzihoa 


American pintail 


x 
















Nettion carolinense 


Green-winged teal 


x 








x 


x 










Querquedula discors 


Blue-winged teal 


x 








x 


x 










cyanoptera 


Cinnamon t^ftl 


x 










x 










Spatula clypeata _ 


Shoveler 


X 








x 


x 










Aix sponsa 


Wood duck 








x 














Nyroca americana . 


Redhead 


X 




















valisineria 


Canvasback 










x 












Glaucionetta islandica 


Barrow's goldeneye 














X 


X 




Histriordcus histrionicus pacifi- 
cus. 
Erismaiurajamaicensis rubida . 
Mergus merganser americanus . 
Cathartes aura septentrionalis.. 
Astur atricapillus striatulus 
Accipiter velox velox 


Western harlequin duck 


















x 




Ruddy duck 


X 


X 






X 


X 










American merganser 










X 


x 






Turkey vulture 


x 


x 


















Western goshawk 














X 


x 






Sharp-shinned hawk 














X 


x 






cooperi 


Cooper's hawk 








x 


x 












Buteo borealis calurus 


Western red-tailed hawk 


X 


X 

x 






x 












swatnsoni 


Sv/ainson's hawk 






x 












regatis 


Ferruginous roughleg 










x 












Aquila chrysaetos canadensis. . . 
Haliaeetus leucocephalus alas- 
canus. 
Circus hudsonicus 


Golden eagle 


X 


X 
X 


X 

X 


X 




X 








Northern bald eagle 












Marsh hawk 






x 












Pandion haliaetus carolinensis . 
Falco mexicanus 


Osprey 










X 












Prairie falcon 




x 
















peregrinus anatum 


Duck hawk 




x 


x 


x 














peregrinus pealei 


Peale's falcon 






x 














columbarius suckieyi 


Black pigeon hawk 






x 


x 














sparverius phalaena 


Desert sparrow hawk 


X 


X 




x 


x 


x 




x 




Dendragapus obscurus rich- 
ardsoni. 
fuliginosus fuliginosus 
Canachites franklini 


Richardson's grouse 






x 






X 






Sooty grouse 






X 


X 














Franklin's grouse 












X 






Bonasa umbellus togata 


Canada ruffed grouse 










x 






x 






umbellus sabini 








x 


x 






x 






Pedioecetes phasianeUus co- 
lumbianus. 
Centrocercus urophasianus 
Colinus virginianus virginianus. 
Lophortyx californica calif ornica 


Columbian sharp-tailed 
grouse. 
Sage hen 










X 












x 








x 


















x 


x 










California quail 








x 












Valley quail 


x 




























x 










pictavicta..- 


Plumed quail.-. 










X 













i Listed with the assistance of Stanley G. Jewett. 



1936] 



MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 



37 



TABLE 3. Breeding 'birds of Oregon, &y life zones Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


Cana- 
dian 


Hudsonian 


Arctic-Alpine 


5 


3 


p. 

5 

00 

6 


"3 

w 


1 


s 

*c 

< 


Humid 


1 


Orus canadensis tabida 


Sandhill crane 




X 






X 












Rallus limicola limicola 


Virginia rail 


X 

x 


X 

x 




X 


x 














Sora 




x 


x 












Fulica americana americana..- 


American coot 


X 


X 




X 


X 












Black oyster-catcher 






X 
















Charadrius nivosus nivosus 
Oxyechus vociferus vodferus 


Western snowy plover 




x 


















Killdeer 


X 


X 


X 


X 

x 


X 

x 


X 

x 


x 


X 






Wilson's snipe 






Numenius americanus ameri- 
canus. 


Long-billed curlew 




X 






X 


X 










Spotted sandpiper 


X 

x 


X 

x 


X 


X 


X 

x 


X 

x 


X 


X 








Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 
inornatus. 
ftecurrirostra americana 


Western willet 


Avocet 


X 

x 


X 

\ 




















Black -necked stilt 


















Steganopus tricolor 


Wilson's phalarope 


X 


X 






X 


X 










Larus Occident 'alls occidentalis.. 


Western gull 


x 












California gull 


x 


x 






x 


x 










delawarensis 


Ring-billed gull -- . 


X 


X 






X 

x 


X 












Forster's tern 


X 

x 


X 

x 














Hydroprogne caspia imperator. 
Chlidonias nigra surinamensis - 
Una aalge californica 


Caspian tern 


















Black tern 




X 






x 












California murre 


x 


















Pigeon guillemot 




x 
















Lunda cirrhata 


Tufted puffin 


i 


x 
















Columba fasciata fasciala 


Band-tailed pigeon 


i 


X 


X 


X 












Zenaidura macroura margi- 
nella. 
Coccyzus americanus occiden- 
talis. 
Tyto alba pratincola 


Western mourning dove 


I 


x 




















x 














Barn owl 


x 




x 


















MacFarlane's screech owl. 
Kennicott's screech owl 


X 


X 






x 


x 










asio ksnnicotti 


X 


X 
















Flammulated screech owl- 
Dusky horned owl 




x 












Bubo virginianus saturatus 
virginianus pallescens 




x 


x 














Western horned owl 


X 


X 






X 
X 


X 










Olaucidium gnoma pinicola 
gnoma californicum 


Rocky Mountain pygmy 
owl. 
California pygmy owl 






















x 














Coast pygmy owl 








x 














Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea.. 


Western burrowing owl 




x 


















Northern spotted owl 






x 


x 




















x 




x 


x 












flammeus flammeus 


Short-eared owl 


X 


X 






x 












Cryptoglaux acadica acadica 
Phalaeonoptilus nuttalli nut- 
talli. 


Saw-whet owl 




x 


x 














x 


x 






x 


x 










Pacific nighthawk 








x 


x 


x 




x 






Chaetura vauxi 


Vaux's swift 






X 


X 






X 








Selasphorus platycercus platy- 
cercus. 

TUfuS 


Broad-tailed humming- 
bird. 
Rufous hummingbird 


X 


















X 


X 






X 


X 






Stellula calliope 


Calliope hummingbird 










X 


X 






Megaceryle alcyon caurina 
Colaptes cafer cafer 


Western belted kingfisher. 
Northwestern flicker 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 
X 

x 


X 


X 














cafer collaris 


Red-shafted flicker 






X 

x 












Ceophloeus pileatus picinus 

Balanosphyra formicivora 
bairdi. 
Asyndesmus lewis 


Western pileated wood- 
pecker. 
California woodpecker 






x 




x 


x 






x 




















Lewis's woodpecker. __ 


X 






X 


X 












Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis 


Red-naped sapsucker 
















x 






Northern red-breasted sap- 
sucker. 
Williamson's sapsucker 










x 




x 








thyroideus thyroideus 
















Y 








Harris's woodpecker 






X J X 




x 






villosus orius 


Modoc woodpecker 








x 










. villosus monticola 


Rocky Mountain hairy 
woodpecker. 






1 


x 




x 

























38 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 56 

TABLE 3. Breeding Mrd$ of Oregon, by life zones Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


Cana- 
dian 


Hudsonian 


Arctic-Alpine 


Semiarid 


1 


Coast strip 


w. 


!2 

A 

1 

02 


s 

*tM 

3 


Humid 


Semiarid 


Dryobates pubescens leucurus.. 
pubescens gairdneri 


Batchelder's woodpecker. - 










x 


x 










Oairdner's woodpecker- 






x 


x 


x 












albolarvatus albolarvatus 
Picoides arcticus 


Northern white-headed 
woodpecker. 
Arctic three-toed wood- 
pecker. 
Alaska three-toed wood- 
pecker. 
Eastern kingbird 










x 






x 


























Picoides tridactylus fasciatug 
Tyrannus tyrannus 
















X 


x 


- 


X 














verticalis 


Arkansas kingbird 


x 


x 


















Myiarchus cinerascens cinera- 
scens. 
Sayornis say a say a 


Ash-throated flycatcher 


x 


x 


















Say's phoebe 


x 


x 








x 








Empidonax trailli trailli 


Alder flycatcher 








x 


x 












hammondi 


Hammond's flycatcher 










x 






x 






wrighti . 


Wright's flycatcher 










x 






x 






gTlSCUS 


Gray flycatcher ... 




x 


















dilficilis difficilis 


Western flycatcher 








X 


x 












Myiochanes richardsoni rich- 
ardsoni. 
Nuttallornis mesoleucus . 


Western wood pewee 






x 


x 














Olive-sided flycatcher 














x 


x 






Otocor is alpestris arcticola 


Pallid horned lark 




x 








x 










alpestris merrilli 


Dusky horned lark 




X 








x 










Tachycineta thalassina lepida.. 
Jridoprocne bicolor 


Violet-green swallow. ._. 






X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 




X 

x 


X 

x 




, 


Tree swallow 








Riparia riparia riparia 


Bank swallow 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 










Stelgidopteryx ruficoltis serri- 
pennis. 
Hirundo erythrogaster 


Rough-winged swallow 
Barn swallow 


X 
X 

x 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 

X 


X 
X 










Petrochelidon albifrons albifrons 
Progne subis hesperia 


Northern cliff swallow 
Western martin 


















Perisoreus canad ensis capitalis.. 
obscurus obscurus 


Rocky Mountain jay 










x 






Oregon jay - 






x 








x 








obscurus griseus 


Gray jay 
















x 






Cyanocitta stelleri carbonacea.. 
stelleri annectens 


Coast jay 

Black-headed jay 


.... 


.... 


X 


X 


















x 


x 






Aphelocoma californica califor- 
nica. 
californica woodhousei 
Pica pica hudsonia 


California jay 


x 




















Woodhouse's jay 




x 


















American magpie 




x 








x 










Corvus corax sinuatus 


American raven . . 




x 








x 










brachyrhynchos hesperis 
brachyrhynchos caurinus 
Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus.. 
Nucifraga Columbians 


Western crow 


x 


x 






x 












Northwestern crow 






x 
















Pinon jay . . 


x 


x 


















Clark's nutcracker 










x 








x 




Penthestes atricapillus septen- 
trionalis. 
atricapillus occidentalis 
garnbeli gambeli 


Long-tailed chickadee 




x 






x 












Oregon chickadee 






X 


X 














Mountain chickadee 














x 


x 






rufescens rufescens 


Chestnut-backed chicka- 
dee. 
Oregon titmouse 






x 


x 














Baeolophus inornatus segues- 
tratus. 
inornatus inornatus _ .. 


x 




















Plain titmouse 


x 




















Psaltriparus minimus minimus 
minimus californicus 


Coast bush tit 






x 
















California bush tit 


x 




















minimus plumbeus 


Lead-colored bush tit 




x 


















Sitta carolinensis nelsoni 


Rocky Mountain nut- 
hatch. 
Slender-billed nuthatch .. 














X 
X 


X 

X 


---- 





carolinensis aculeata . 








X 


X 




canadensis 


Red-breasted nuthatch 






x 


x 






X 


X 






pygmaea pygmaea 


Pygmy nuthatch 










x 








Certhia familiaris montana 
familiaris zelotes 


Rocky Mountain creeper 














X 

X 


X 

X 






Sierra creeper 


















familiaris occidentalis 
Chamaea fasciata phaea 


California creeper 






x 


x 










Coast wren tit 






x 
















Cinclus mexicanus unicolor 
Troglodytes aedon parkmani 
Nannus hiemalis pacificus... 


Dipper 








X 

x 


X 


X 


X 


X 






Western house wren 












Western winter wren... 






X 


X 















1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 39 

TABLE 3. Breeding Urds of Oregon, by life zones Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


Cana- 
dian 


Hudsonian 


Arctic- Alpine 


I 


1 


o, 

i 

O 


Humid 





"3 
% 


S 

w 


Semiarid 


Thryomanes bewicki calophonus 


Seattle wren 








T 


X 












San Joaquin wren 


x 




















Telmatodytes palustris plesius.. 
palustris paludicola 


Western marsh wren 


X 


X 


















Tule wren 






x 


X 














Catherpes mexicanus punctula- 
tus. 
Salpinctes obsoletus obsoletus... 


Dotted wren 




x 


















Common rock wren 




x 








x 










Catbird 


x 


x 






x 












Oreoscoptes montanus 


Sage thrasher 












X 










Turdus migratorius propinquus 
IXOTCUS naevius naevius 


Western robin 






X 
X 


X 


X 




x 
x 


x 






Pacific varied thrush 












Northern varied thrush 
















x 






Hylocichla guttata sequoiensis. . 
guttata auduboni 
















x 








Audubon 's hermit thrush- 
Russet-backed thrush 
















x 






ustulata ustulata 






x 


x 






x 


x 






ustulata, swainsoni 


Olive-backed thrush 










X 




X 








Sialia meiicana occidentalis 


Western bluebird 






X 


X 














Mountain bluebird 






X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 






Myadestes townsendi 
















Regulus satrapa olivaceus 
Corthylio calendula cineraceus.. 
Anthus spinoleita rubescens 


Western golden-crowned 
kinglet. 
Western ruby-crowned 
kinglet. 






x 


x 


























X 


X 
























x 


Cedar wax wing 






X 


X 


X 










Lanius ludovicianus excubi- 
torides. 


White-rumped shrike 


x 


x 












I In t ton 's vireo 






x 


x 














solitarius cassini 


Cassin 's vireo 






X 


X 

x 


X 














Red-eyed vireo 


















Western warbling vireo 


x 


x 




x 














Verjnivora ctlata lutescens 


Lutescent warbler 






x 


x 
















Calaveras warbler 








x 


x 




x 


x 






Dendroica aestiva aestiva 


Eastern yellow warbler 
California yellow warbler. 
Audubon 's war bier . . . 


X 


X 


















aestiva brewsteri 




x 


x 












auduboni auduboni 






X 


X 

x 


X 

x 














Black-throated gray war- 
bler. 
Townsend's warbler 
















townsendi 








x 


x 












occidentalis 


Hermit warbler 














X 


X 






Oporornis tolmiei 


Macgillivray's warbler 






x 


x 


x 








Geothlypistrichas Occident alis 


Western yellow-throat 


x 


x 


















trichas arizela 


Pacific yellow-throat 






x 


x 














Icteria virens longicauda 


Long-tailed chat 


x 


x 


















Wilsonia pusilla pileolata 


Northern pileolated war- 
bler. 
Golden pileolated warbler _ 
American redstart 














x 


x 






pusilla chryseoto. 






x 


x 














Setophaga ruticilla 










x 












Dolichonyx oryzivorus... 


Bobolink 




x 


















Sturnella neglecta 


Western meadow lark 




x 




x 


x 


x 










Xanthocephalus xanthocepha- 
lus. 
Agelaius phoeniceus nevadensis. 
phoeniceus caurinus. 


Yellow-headed blackbird 




x 








x 










Nevada redwing 


x 


x 






x 


x 










Northwestern redwing 






X 


X 














Icterus bullocki 


Bullock's oriole 


x 


x 














Euphaguscyanocephalus 


Brewer's blackbird-- 


x 


x 






X 

x 


X 

x 










Molothrus ater artemisiae. 


Nevada cowbird 


x 


x 














Piranga ludoviciana 


Western tanager 










x 












Hedymeles melanocephalus me- 
lanocephalus. 
Passerina- amoena 


Black-headed grosbeak 


x 








x 












Lazuli bunting 


x 




















Hesperiphona vespertina brooksi 
Carpodacus purpureus califor- 
nicus. 
cassini 


Western evening grosbeak- 
California purple finch -. 








x 


x 


















x 


x 












Cassin's purple finch 














X 


X 






. mexicanus frontalis 
Pinicola enucleator montana 

Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis. 
tephrocotis tevhrocotis... 


Common house finch 


x 


x 














Rocky Mountain pine gros- 
beak. 
Hepburn's rosy finch 


















x 






















x 

X 


Orav-crowned rosv finch.. 





















40 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLEI 3. Breeding birds of Oregon, by life zones Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Zone 


Sonoran 


Transition 


Cana- 
dian 


Hudsoaian 




!& 
^ 

6 
<j 


TJ 
I 

CO 


3 
<5 


O, 

*C 

to 

O 


5 

fi 


Semihumid 


5 
*C 
^ 


Humid 


Semiarid 


Spinus pinus pinus . .. 


Northern pine siskin 














x 


x 





.... 


tristis pallidus 


Pale goldfinch 




x 










tristis salica mans . _ 


Willow goldfinch . 


x 






x 


1 










psallria hesperophilus 


Green-backed goldfinch 


X 








x 












Lozia curmrostra bendirei .. _. 


Bendire's crossbill - 














x 


x 






Oberholseria chlorura 


Green-tailed towhee 










x 


x 








Pipiio maculatus curtains 
maculatus oregonus 


Nevada towhee - - 










x 


x 










Oregon towhee 






x 


x 














fuscus crissalis 


California towhee 


J 




















Passerculus sandwic hensis 
nevadensis. 
sandwichensis bryanti 


Nevada Savannah sparrow 
Bryant's sparrow 


X 


X 




















x 














Pooecetesgramineus affinis 
gramineus confinis. _ . .. 


Oregon vesper sparrow 








x 














Western vesper sparrow 










X 


X 










Chondestes grammacus striga- 
tus. 
Amphispiza bilineata deserti- 
cola. 
nevadensis nevadensis 


Western lark sparrow 
Desert sparrow 


X 


X 

x 






























Northern sage sparrow 




X 


















Junco oreganus shufeldti . 


Shufeldt's junco._ 








x 


x 




x 


x 






oreganus thurberi 


Thurber's junco. . 














X 


x 






Spizclla passerina arizonae 
breweri breweri 


Western chipping sparrow- 
Brewer's sparrow 










X 


x 












x 










x 








Zonotrichia leucophrys 
leucophrys. 
leucophrys pugetensis 


White-crowned sparrow 














x 


X 






Puget Sound sparrow 








X 














Passer ella iliaca schistacea 
Melospiza lincolni lincolni 
melodia fallax 


Slate-colored fox sparrow 










x 












Lincoln's sparrow.. . 














x 


x 






Mountain song sparrow 










x 


x 










melodia fisher ella 


Modoc song sparrow 


X 


X 


















melodia morphna 


Rusty song sparrow 






x 


x 







































TABLE 4. Plants of tha Upper Sonoran Zone in Oregon 









Semiarid 




Arid 


Species 


Common name 1 


Kla- 
math 
Valley 


EOPUG 
River 
Val- 
leys 


Co- 
lumbia 
Valley 


Inte- 
rior 
valleys 


Abronia inellifera 


Sandverbena 






x 


x 


Achyrachaena mollis 


Blowwives .. . . 




x 






Adenostegia ramosa 


Bird-in-the-bush 








x 


viscida 


do 




x 






Agropyron lanceolatum 


Wheatgrass 


x 








Allium bolanderi 


Slender onion 




x 






Allocarya mollis . 


Soft borage 






X 


X 


Amelanchier utahensis 


Utah serviceberry 






X 




Amsinckia tessellata 


Fiddleneck 






x 


x 


Anogra pallida 


Pale evening-primrose 






x 


x 


trichocalyx 


Low evening-primrose 








x 


Antennaria argentea 


White pussytoes 




x 




x 


luzuloides 


Slender pussytoes 










Aplopappus carthamoides 


Goldenweed 








x 


lanceolatus 


do 








x 










x 




Arctostaphylos viscida 


Whiteleaf manzanita 




X 






Arenaria frznklini 


Franklin sandwort 








x 




Douglas sandwort 




X 







1 Common names have been taken largely from Standardized Plant Names (published 
by the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature). 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 41 

TABLE 4. Plants of the Upper Sonoran Zone in Oregon Continued 







! 


Semiarid 




Arid 


Species 


Common name 


Kla- 
math 
Valley 


Rogue 
River 
Val- 
leys 


Co- 
lumbia 
Valley 


Inte- 
rior 
valleys 


. . 


Douglas sagebrush 






x 




Artemisia ao 9 s 


False tarragon 




x 


x 






Dwarf sagebrush .. 








x 




Bud sagebrush 








x 




Big sagebrush 


x 




X 


X 




Broadleaf milkweed 


x 


x 


x 


X 




Mexican milkweed--. 




X 


X 


X 




Milkvetch 




x 








do - -- 




X 








Spotted loco . -. 






X 


X 




Milkvetch 




x 








do 






X 


X 


stenophyllus - - 


do 






X 


X 




Silver saltbush 








X 




Fourwing saltbush 








X 




Shadscale 








X 


nuttallii 


Nuttall saltbush 








x 




Salt orach -- 








X 




Wild oat 




x 






BalsamoThizci hirsuta 


Balsamroot -- - 








X 




Downy chess 


x 


x 


x 


X 




Ripgut grass 




x 








Fairy mariposa 




x 








Tarweed 




x 




x 












x 




Yellow canbya 








x 


Castilleja pallescens 


Paintbrush 






X 






do 








X 




Hornbrush 




x 






integerrimus 


Deerbrush 




x 








Oregon tea-tree 




x 






Celtis douglasii 


Douglas hack berry 






x 






Spikeweed 




x 






Cercocarpus betuiaefolius 


B irchleaf -mahogany 


x 


X 








Brides-bouquet 


x 


x 


x 


x 


xantiana 


Fingerleaf 








X 


Chenopodiun fremonta 


Qoosefoot 








X 








x 






Chorizanthe watsoni 


Scratchweed 










Chrysopsis villosa 


Golden-aster . - 




X 


x 




CfiTysothamnus nauseosus 


Rubber rabbitbrush 


x 


x 


x 




puberulus 


Fuzzy rabbitbrush 










viscidiflorus 


Sticky rabbitbrush 


x 




x 




Chylismia scapoidea 


Evening-primrose (Oenothera) 










Cirsium undulatum 


Thistle 






x 




Clafkia pulchella 


Clarkia 






x 




Cleome lutea 


Yellow beeflower 






x 


X 


serrulata 


Purple beeflower 








X 


Coldenia nuttallii 


Coldenia 


x 




x 


X 


Coleosanthus linifolius 


Brickellweed 






x 


X 


oblongifolius 


. do -. 






X 


X 


Conanthus parviflorus 


(Waterleaf family) 






x 


X 


Convolvulus polymorphus 


Bindweed 




x 






Coreopsis atkinsoniana. 


Tickseed 






x 




Coriospermum hyssopifolium 


Bugseed 






x 




Crepis acuminata 


Hawksbeard 








x 


runcinata 


do 








X 


Cryptantheflaccida. . 


(Borage family) 


x 


x 


x 


X 


pterocarya 


do 








x 


torreyana 


do._. 


x 






X 


Damasonium californicum 


Water damason 








x 


Delphinium bicolor 


Larkspur 








x 


Dichelostemma capitata 


Brody 




x 






Distichlis 


Saltgrass 


x 




x 


x 


Dondia depressa 


Seepweed (Suaeda) 






x 




intermedia. 


do. . . . 








X 


Draba verna 


Whitlowgrass 




x 


x 


x 


Elynius arenicola 


Wild-rye 






x 




condensatus 


Giant wild-rye 


x 




Ji 


X 


flavescens 


Dune wild-rye 






x 




triticoides. 


Beardless wild-rye 


x 


x 


x 


X 


Emmenanthe lutea 


Whisperingbolls 








x 


Erigeron divergens . 


Fleabane. . 








X 


filifolius 


. do 








X 


concinnus 


do 






x 


X 


linearis.... 


...do. 


X 




X 


X 



42 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLE 4. Plants of the Upper Sonoran Zone in Oregon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Semiarid 


Arid 


Kla- 
math 
Valley 


Rogue 
River 
Val- 
leys 


Co- 
lumbia 
Valley 


Inte- 
rior 
valleys 




(Buckwheat family) 






x 


x 

X 


baileyi 


do 








do 






X 

X 


eldtutn 


do- 






X 

X 


ynicTOthccuTn, 


do 








do 






X 




do 




x 






do 




X 
X 


X 
X 




do 


X 






do - 


X 




Goldenyarrow 




X 
X 
X 
X 


X 
X 




Alflleria 


X 


X 


Euphorbia glyptospermd 


Spurge - . 




Winter fat 


x 




X 




(Aster family) 




X 




Qreasebush 






X 
X 




Bur-sage 






-_ X 


FritilldTid recurvd 


Fritillaria --- 




X 




Velvetweed 




x 














X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 




Oilia 


X 


X 


X 
X 
X 


filifolia 


do -- 




do 








do 






miCTomcTid 


do - - 










do 










Smooth licorice - 


x 


x 


x 




Sticky licorice 




x 
















X 




Purple milkweed 




x 






Spiny hop-sage 








X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 




Common sunflower 


X 




X 




Wild heliotrope 






Little crucifer 


X 
X 




X 
X 




Sumpweed - - 






B igleaf sump weed 






Torrey rush* 






x 




Western juniper ._ 


X 






X 
X 

X 
X 




Green molly 








Wild lettuce 






X 
X 

X 




Prickly lettuce 


X 


X 




Stickseed 




do 






X 
X 
X 




Starlily 






X 












Meadowfoam 




x 






do 




X 








( C elery family) 


x 




X 
X 






do 










(Mustard family) -. - 






X 






Biscuit-root - 






X 


X 
X 
X 

X 




Bluebonnet 








do 


X 




X 




do 






do 




X 




mollis 


do 




X 
X 






do 








sax os us 


do 






X 


X 




do 




x 


subvexus trdnswontdnus 


do 


X 




X 


X 

X 












Smooth malacothrix 










Torrey malacothrix 








Afentzelid dlbicdulis 


Desertstar 






X 
X 




Blazing-star 
















Patata goosefoot 










(Phlox family) 
















X 


Nitfophild occidentdlis 


Sodaweed - 








California broomrape 






X 
X 


















X 






Ricegrass 






X 

X 
X 

X 


hywenoides 


do - 






X 




(Buckwheat family) 






Pachvlovhus canescens. . 


Evening-primrose. - - 









1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 43 

TABLE 4. Plants of the Upper Sonorwn Zone in Oreffon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Semiarid 


Arid 


Kla- 
math 
Valley 


Rogue 
River 
Val- 
leys 


Co- 
lumbia 
Valley 


Inte- 
rior 
valleys 


Pdrrya mtnzitsii 


Purple mustard 








x x x x x 




Desert pentstemon 










White pentstemon 




x 


x 

X 
X 




Slender pentstemon 






Blue pentstemon .. 








Rough pentstemon 






lattus - 


Purple pentstemon 












Bushapple 








x 

X 
X 

X 
X 


PetalostemuTn ornotutn 


Prairieclover. 










Threadleaf 


x 




X 
X 




Phlox 








do 






viridis - 


do 






X 
X 




Bristle borage 


x 




. X 


Pldgiobothrys nothofulvus 


Borage 


x 




Indianwheat - .- 


x 




X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 
X 




(Mustard family) 




X 


Porter elld cdrnosuld 


Porterella 






C hokecherry 


X 


X 


X 
X 

x 




Scurf-pea 


Pteryxid terebinthind .. 


Wild parsnip 








White tarweed 






X 


xxxxxxxx 


Ptilorid exigud 


Ptiloria (Stephanomeria) 








do 






X 




Alkali-grass 


X 




nuttdllidnd 


do 






Purshid tridentdtd 


Bitterbush 


X 


X 


X 


Rdmond incdnd ... 


Beesage . 




Golden currant 






X 


celutinum .. - -- 


Desert gooseberry 


x 




Rigiopdppus leptoclddus 


Little composite 




X 




X 


Roripd columbide 


Watercress.. . 


x 


x 


sinudtd 


do 






X 




Rhus trilobdtd 


Skunkbush 


X 


X 




gldbrd occidentdlis 


Western sumac . 


x 




Rudbeckid cdlifornicd 


California coneflower 




X 






Rumex venosus 


Dock 




X 
X 

x 




Sdgittdrid drifolid 


Arrowhead 






X 


Sdlix dmygdaloides . . 


Almond willow 






drgophylld 


Coyote willow 








X 

X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


Sdrcobdtus vermiculdtus 


Greasewood 








Schoenocrdmbe linifolid 


Nasturtium. 








Scirpus nevddensis 


Nevada bulrush 








occidentdlis 


Western bulrush 








Scutellarid tuberosd 


Skullcap 








Senecio hydrophilus 


Groundsel 








Smelowskidfremontii 


Desert cress 








Solanum triflorum 


Cutleaf nightshade 






X 
X 


Sophidincisd 


Tansymustard 






Spdrtind grddlis . . 


Cordgrass 






Sphderdlced munrodnd 


Orange globemallow 






X 


Sphderostigmd dlyssoides. 








dndinum 


do 








hilydrdi.. 


do 








Sporobolus diroides 


Alkali sacaton 






x 


cryptdndrus 


Sand dropseed 










Stipd comdtd 


Needlegrass 






X 


X 
X 


thurberidnd 


Speargrass.. . 






Tdndcetum potentilloides . 


Tansy 








Tdrdxid grddliflord 


E vening-primrose. 




x 




hcterantha 


do 








X X X X 


tdndcetifolid 










Tetrddymid canescens 


Gray horsebrush 


x 






gldbrdtd 


Smooth horsebrush 








spinosd 


Spiny horsebrush 








Thelypodium integrifolium 


W hite-fl o wered mustard 






X 
X 


X X X X X 


Iddnidtum 


Desert mustard 






flexuosum 


Valley mustard.. 






Tissd didndrd brdctedtd 


Sandspurry .. 






X 

X 


Townsendid floriferd 


Townsend daisy 






Triteleid hendersoni _. . . .. 


Brody 




x 


Urticd holosericed 


Nettle 








X X H X 


Verbena brdctedtd. . 


Verbena... 






X 


Vtold beckwithii 


Violet 






Zygddenus pdniculdtus 


D eath cam as. 




- - 











44 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 
TABLE 5. Plants of the Transition Zone in Oregon 



[No. 65 



Species 


Common name 


Coast 
strip 


Humid 


Semi- 
arid 


Arid 


Abies grandis 


Great silver fir 










Abronia acutalata . - 


Pink sand verbena. .. . 


x 








latifolia 


Yellow sand verbena.. _ 


x 








Acer macTophyllutn 


Oregon maple 










circinatum 


Vine maple. . 










Achlys triphylla 


Vanillaleaf 




x 






Adenocaulon bicolor 


Woods composite . 










Agoseris apargioides . . 


Sheeplettuce 


x 








retrorsa 


....do 










Agropyron spicatum.. .- 


Bluebunch wheatgrass 










Agrostis pallens -. ~ .- 


Redtop... 


x 








Alliumdouglasii.- .. 


Wild onion 










Alnus oregona 


Red alder 










tenuifolia . 


Mountain alder 










Amelanchier florida 


Serviceberry. .. ... 










Anemone deltoides 


Windflower 










Antennaria dimoTpha 


Pussytoes 










geyeri 


do 










stenophylla - 


....do 






x 




Aplopappus lanuginosus . 


Goldenweed 








x 


nanus 


...do . 










stenophyllus . . 


....do 








x 


Arabis cusickii __ 


Rockcress . 










hirsuta 


Hairy rockcress 




x 






holboellii 


Rockcress . . 






x 




ATbutus tnenziesii 


Madrone 




x 






Arctostaphylos columbiana __ 


Hairy manzanita . 




x 






patula 


Green manzanita 










tomentosa . - -- 


Woolly manzanita 




x 






uva-ursi 


Bearberry 




x 


x 




Arenaria tenella __ 


Sandwort 




x 




" 


congesta 


. .do 






x 




Arnica fulgens . - -- 


Arnica .. _._ 






x 




Artemisia arbuscula 


Low sagebrush 










frigida 


Estaflata 








x 


suksdorfii 


Beach sagebrush 






x 




tripartita - 


Threeleaf sagebrush .. 








x 


Astragalus agrestis 


Milkvetch 








x 


arrectus 


...do... 






x 




collinus 


do 








x 


misellus _ - - 


...do... 


x 








sclerocnrpus 


do 


x 








reventus - 


.do... 






x 




succumbens 


do 








x 


Atriplex patula littoralis 


Fat-hen 


x 








Bdccharis pilulftris 


Kidneywort 


x 








Balsamorhiza sagittata . ... 


"RRlsamrnot, 






x 


X 


Berberis aquifotium 


Oregon hollygrape 




x 






nervosa - . 


Longleaf hollygrape .-. 




x 






repens 


Creeping hollygrape 






x 




Betula fontinalis 


Western birch; red birch.. ... . 






X 


X 


BTomus brizaeformis 


Bromegrass 








x 


pacificus 


.do -. 


X 








Tubens 


do 








X 




Reedgrass 


x 








Tubescens 


do 






x 






Pnrplft TnaripnsH 






x 




puTdyi 


White mariposa.. 




x 






Carum oreganum 


Eppaw 




x 


x 






Golden chinquapin 




x 


x 






Indian paintbrush 










Ceanotnus intcgeTTimus 


3D eerbrush 




x 








M ahala-mat 






x 










x 








Snowbrush 






x 




CeTcocarpus ledifolius 


Mountain-mahogany . . . 






X 


X 


Chatnaebatio, foliolosa 


Beannat 






X 




CirsiUTn foliosum 


Leafy thistle 






X 






Bull thistle 




x 






Tefnotifolium 


Slender thistle 




X 






Clarkia rhomboidea, 


Clarkia 






X 


X 




Springbeauty 




x 






diffusa 


do 




X 






Clematis hiTsutissima, 


Clematis 






X 




CoelopleuTum longipes 


Wild parsnip 


x 








Coliinsia grandiflora 


Coliinsia 




X 






Conioselinum gmelini 


Wild carrot 


x 








Convolvulus soldanella, 




x 














x 






occidentalis 


Western dogwood 




x 






stolonifera... 


Red-osier dog wood. .. 






X 





1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 

TABLE 5. Plants of the Transition Zone in Oregon Continued 



45 



Species 


Common name 


Coast 
strip 


Humid 


Semi- 
arid 


Arid 


Corylus californica 


California hazel - - - 




X 






Crataegus columbiand 


Columbia hawthorn 




x 




dougldsii . . - - - 


Black hawthorn -.. - 




X 






Crepis gracilis 


Hawksbeard 






X 


Cuscutd salind squamigera 


Dodder 


x 






Delphinium trolliifolium 


Thinleaf larkspur.. .- 




X 

x 






Disporum oregonum 


Fairybells 




x 






do 




x 






Dodecalheon conjugens 


Shootingstar -- - 






X 






do 




x 




Droserd rotundifolia 


Roundleaf sundew . - 


x 








Dryopteris spinulosa dilatata 


Mountain woodfern 




X 
X 






Echinopanax horridum . _ 


Devilsclub. 


x 






Elymus drenarius mollis 


Ryegrass - - - - - . - 


X 

x 








Empetrum nigrum 


Crowberry 








Erigeron dureus _.--.- 


Yellow fleabane 








X 


corymbosus 


Flat-top fleabane 






x 




Beach fleabane 


x 






poliospermus -_._.___. 


Fleabane - 








X 
X 


Eriogonum herddeoides 


(Buckwheat family) 








latifolium - - 


do . 


X 






niveum _ . - 


do 








X 


nudum 


do 




x 




ovdlifolium 


do 








X 


stellatum - - - - - 


do 






x 


sphacrocephalum 


do 








X 


Eriophorum chamissonis 


Cotton-sedge - 


X 






Eryngium drticulatum 


Eryngo - - - - 








X 


Erythronium giganteum 


Troutlily 




x 




Festucd idahoensls . 


Blue bunch fescue 




x 






megdlurd 


Foxtail fescue 




x 






occidentalis 


Westernfescue 




X 


X 




Fragarid chiloensis 


Chiloe strawberry 


x 




Frunxerid chamissonis 


Beach bur-sage 


x 








bipinnatifidd . 


Silky bur-sage 


X 








Frdserd nitidd 


Green gentian 




X 
X 




speciosd - .- - 


Deertongue 








Frdxinus oregona 


Oregon ash 




x 




Fritillarid Idnceoldtd 


Checkerlily 




x 






pudicd - 


Yellow missionbells 






x 




Gdilldrdid dristatd 


Gaillardia 








X 

X 


Gclium dsperrimum 


Bedstraw 






X 


cymosum 


do 


x 




multiflorum 


do 








X 


drryd fremontii 


Silktassel 




x 




elliptica 


do 


x 








Gaultherid shallon . 


Salal 


X 


X 






Gentiand oregana 


Oregon gentian 


x 




sceptrum 


Blue gentian 


X 








Geranium viscosissimum.. 


Sticky geranium 




x 




Geum oregonense 


Avens 






X 
X 

x 




macrophyllum . 


do. 




X 




Gilia aggregate . . . 


Scarlet gilia 






bicolor 


Bicolor gilia 




X 

x 






capitatd. ... 


Globe gilia 








leptalea . 


Slender gilia 








X 


harknessii 


Harkness gilia 






X 


Glehnid littoralis 


Beach-celery 


X 






Godetid amoena 


Morning-primrose 


x 






quadrivulnera 


do 




x 






Grindelid integrifolid 


Gumplant 




X 

x 






nand 


Little gumplant 








Helidnthelld douglasii .. . 


Little sunflower 






X 




Heucherd micranthd 


Alumroot 








ovalifolid _. 


..do 






X 

X 




Hierdcium longiberbe. 


do 








ffolcus lanatus 


Velvet grass 


X 


X 

x 




Hooker d cor onarid 


Harvest brody 






dougldsii 


Douglas brody 










Hor kelid fused 


Brown horkelia. 






x 




Hyddstylus br achy pus 


Golden-eyed-grass 


x 








Hydrophyllum tenuipes 


Water leaf 




* 






Hymenopappus filifolius 


Woolly composite 






X 


Iristenax 


Oregon iris 




X 




Jaumed carnosd 


(Composite) 


_ 






Juncus covillei ... 


Rush... 




x 






effuzus 


do 




X 






falcatus 


do 


X 






lescurii 


do 








orthophyllus. . . 


...do... 






X 





46 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLE 5. Plants of the Transition Zone in Oregon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Coast 
strip 


Humid 


Semi- 
arid 


Arid 


Juniperus occidentalis 


Western juniper 






x 
x 


X 


scopulorum 


Rocky mountain juniper 






Kelloggia galioides 


Kelloggia 










Lactuco pulchella .. 


Lettuce 






x 




spicata 


do 










Larix occidentalis 


Western larch . . 






x 




Lathyrus littoralis 


Beach pea 


x 








maritimus . 


Shore pea ... ._ 


x 








oregonensis 


Oregon pea 






X 





palustris 


Marsh pea._ 


x 




pauciflorus . - - 


Small-flowered pea 








X 

X 


rigidus 


Low pea 








polyphyllus . - 


Tall pea - - 




x 




Ledum columbianum 


Labrador-tea 


x 








Lepidium dictyotum 


Peppergrass . 






x 




Leptotaenia minor 


Wild parsley 








X 


Libocedrus decurrens 


Incense-cedar. 




x 


x 


Ligusticutn apiifolium ..... 


Loveroot - 




x 






Lilaeopsis occidentalis 


Creeping parsley 


x 








Linumdigynum _ . 


Yellow Sax :::::::::::: 






x 




tewisii 


Blue flax 






X 


X 
X 


Lithospermum ruderale 


Puccoon 






Lomntiutn cous 


Biscuit-root 






X 


gormani 


do 




X 


donnellii 


do 






X 
X 
X 




do 






X 


nevadense 


do 






utriculatum 


do 




X 

x 




Lupinus albicaulis 


Bluebonnet; lupine 








leucophyllus 


Bluebonnet 








X 


littoralis 


do 


x 






nanus apricus 


do 




x 






ornatus 


do 








X 


polyphyllus . 


do - 




x 


x 


rivularis ... 


do 


X 


X 






sulphureus 


do 




X 
X 


Madronella odoratissima 


Wild mint 








Melica bulbosa 


Oniongrass 






X 

x 


spectabilis - 


Purple oniongrass 








Mertensia nutans 


Bluebells 






x 




Micromeria, chamissonis 


Yerba-buena 










Mimulus dentatus - 


Monkeyflower . . _ . 


X 








Mitella, caulescens 


Bishopscap 


X 






Myrica californica . 


Waxmyrtle . 


x 






Navarretia breweri 


Yellow skunkweed 








X 




Blue skunkweed 




X 




Norta altissima - 


Mustard - - - 






X 


Opulaster opulifolius 


Ninebark 




X 


X 

x 


pauciflorus _ _ 


do 






Orthocarpus castilloides 


Painted orthocarpus 


X 








hisptdus 


Pale orthocarpus 




X 

x 




luteus 


Yellow orthocarpus 








pusillus 


Little orthocarpus 




X 

X 

x 






Osmaronia cerasiformis - 


Osoberry 








Osmorhiza divaricata 


Aniseroot 




x 






Woodsorrel 




X 

x 






trilliifolia 


do 








Parrya menziesii 


Purplecress 






x 




Pentacaena ramosissima _ .1 


Sandmat ... 


X 








Pentstemon aridus 


Beardtongue 






X 
X 
X 


cusickii 


do 








erianthus 


do 








fruticosus 


do 






x 


Peramium decipiens 


Rattlesnake-plantain 




X 






Phacelia heterophylla 


Curly bloom 






X 
X 
X 
X 


ramosissima 


do 








Phlox longifolia . 


Longleaf phlox . .... . 








viscida 


Sticky phlox 








Picea sitchensis 


Sitka spruce 


x 






Pinus contorta 


Shore pine 


x 








lambertiana _ . - 


Sugar pine 




X 






ponderosa 


Ponderosa pine 




x 




Pinus sp 


Willamette Valley pine 




x 






Piperia, michaeli . . . 


Piper orchid - - - - 


X 








Plantago maritima 


Sea plantain 


X 

x 










Smooth plantain 














x 






Poa confinis 


Bluegrass 


X 








cusickii 






X 




howelliL... 


...do.... 




X 





1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 47 

TABLE 5. Plants of the Transition Zone in Oregon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Coast 
strip 


Humid 


Semi- 
arid 


Arid 


Poamacrantha 




x 








nevadensis 


...do 








X 




... do 






X 


x 




do 








x 




Polygonum 


x 
















x 






do 






X 






Western polypody 




x 








Scouler polypody __ 




x 








Hollyfern 




x 








Narrowleaf'cottonwood 












Black cottonwood 




x 








Arrowhead cottonwood 






x 






Silverweed 


x 






















Slender cinquefoil. 




x 






nuttaUii 


Nuttall cinquefoil 




x 


x 






Bitter cherry 






X 






do 




x 












x 


x 






California-tea 




x 








Eaglefern 




x 






Ptiloria, tenuifolia 


Chicory 




x 








Winterlettuce 








x 


picta 


do -- 






X 




Pyrus diversifolia 


Oregon crab 




x 








Camas 




x 






quainash 


do 




x 


x 




Quercus chrysolepis 


Goldencup oak .. 




x 






densiflora _ _ . _ 


Tanbark oak 




X 






garryana 


Oregon white oak 










kelloQQii 


California black oak 












Buttercup 






x 




accidentally .. 


. do . 










oreganus 


do 












.. do 












do 






x 




Rhamnus purshiana 


Cascara 




X 








Coast rhododendron 


x 


x 






JRhus diversiloba 


Poison-oak 






x 




Ribts cognatum 


Umatilla gooseberry 






X 




ccrtum 


Wax currant 






x 




divaricatum 


Coast gooseberry 




X 






iTTiguum 


Rock gooseberry 






x 




lobbii 


Pioneer gooseberry . 




x 








Winter currant 




x 






Romanzoffia unolaskensis 


Romanzoffia 


x 








Rosa gymnocarpa 


Wild rose 




x 








. do 




x 






nutkuna macdougali 


do 






x 




pisocarpa 


do 




x 


X 




Tubiginosa 


Sweetbrier 




x 






Rubus leucodermis 


Blackcap . - ... 




x 






laciniatus 


Cutleaf blackberry 




x 






macropetalus 


Dewberry 




x 






parvifloTus 


Thimbleberry 




x 


x 




spectabilis 


Salmonberry 


x 


x 






strigosus ._ 


Red raspberry 






x 




Rumex maritimus fueginus 


Coast dock 


x 








Sagina crassicaulis 


Pearlwort 


x 








Salicornia pacifica 


Glasswort 


x 








Salix cordata 


Heartleaf willow 






x 




geyeriana 


Geyer willow 






x 




lasiandra . 


Black willow . 




x 






laniandra co.uda.td 


Whiplash willow _ 


I 




x 




hookeriana 


Hooker willow 


x 








piperi . 


Piper willow 




x 






scouleriana 


Scouler willow 




x 






sessilifolia 


Velvet willow 




x 






Skvmbucus caerulea . _. 


Blueberry elder 




x 


x 




callicarpa 


Redberry elder 




x 


x 




Sanicula bipinnatifida _. 


Purple snakeroot . 




x 






howellii 


Howell snakeroot 


x 








inemitsii 


Ofttn hie W Wd 




x 






Suxifraga colurnbiana. . .._ 


Saxifrage . . ... .. -.. . 






x 




or eg ana 


do 




x 






' Schizonotus discolor. 


Oceanspray (Holodiscus) 




x 


x 




Scirpus tnicrocarpus 


Bulrush 




x 


x 




validus 


do 






x 




Scribmria bolanderi... 


Scribner Erass... 






X 





48 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLE 5. Plants of the Transition Zone in Oregon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Coast 
strip 


Humid 


Semi- 
arid 


Arid 


Sedum douglasii 


Stonecrop 






x 




leibergii 


. do 










spathulifolium 


do 




x 






Senecio cymbalarioides 


Groundsel 










exaltatus 


do 










fastigiatus ... 


-. do ... 




x 






howellii 


do 










serra 


do 










Sidalcea campesMs 


Mallow 




x 






hendeTSonii 


do 


x 








oregana - - - 


do 










Silene scouleri 


Catchfly 










spaldingii .. . 


... do 






x 




Solidago glutinosa 


OnldpTirnd 


x 








elongata 


.. do... . 




X 






jnissouriensis - _ 


do 










Sophia incisa 


Tansymustard 










Spiraea corymbose, 


White meadowsweet . . . . . _ 






x 




douglasii 


Pink meadowsweet 




\ 






Statice ardica 


Arctic thrift 


X 








Stipa colufnbia.no. 


Columbia needlegrass 










occidentalis 


Western needlegrass 










Struthiopteris spicant . ... . .. 


Deerfern 


X 


x 






Symphoricarpos albus 


Snowberry 




x 






mollis 


do .- 




x 






Synthris TOtundifoiia 


Synthyris 




x 






Tubra 


do 






x 




Tanacetum huroncnse 


Tansy... 


X 








Taxus brevifolia 


Pacific yew 




x 






Telliina grandiflora 


Fringecup... ._ 




x 






partriflora 


do 










tenella 


Little fringecup. . 






x 




Thuja plicata . - 


Giant arboritae 




x 






Tissa macrotheca 


Sandspurry 


x 








marina 


do . . 


X 








Tonella collinsioides 


Tonella 




x 






Trientalis latifolia . 


Starflower 




x 






Trifolium douglasii 


Douglas clover 






x 




cyathifeTUTn 


Cup clover 










hallii 


Clover 




x 






macrocephalum 


Bighead clover 










tridentatum 


Tomcat clover 




x 






Tsuga hetcfophylla 


Western hemlock 


x 


x 






Umbellularia californica 


C al if ornia-laurel 




X 






Vacciniutn ovatuin 


Box blueberry 


X 


x 






parvifolium 


Red whortleberry 


x 


x 






uliginosum tnucronatum- 


Bog blueberry _. 


X 








Vagnera amplexicaulis brachystyla 


False Solomonseal 






x 






do 




x 






Valerianella congesta 


Little valerian 




x 






anomala 


do 




x 








do 










Vicia gigantea 


Vetch 


X 










Blue violet 




x 






langsdoTfii 


do 


X 








nuttallii 


Yellow violet 






x 




nuttallii praemorsa 


do 




x 






orbiculata 


do 






x 






do 




x 






Wyethia angustifolia 


Mule-ears 




x 






amplexicaulis 


do 






x 

















1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 49 

TABLE 6. Plants of tJie Canadian Zone in Oregon 



Species 


Common name 


Cas- 
cades 


Siski- 
you 


Blue 
Moun- 
tains 


Steens 
Moun- 
tains 


Rocky 
Moun- 
tains 




Cascade fir - 


X 










A.OIC8 dmdOUlS.- 


White fir 


x 


x 




x 




Pacific white fir - . . . . 




X 








Great silver fir - 


X 


X 




X 




X 
X 


X 

X 




nobilis Noble fir -- 








shdstensis >l Shasta fir 


X 
X 
X 
X 










Acer douoldsii \ Douglas maple - 


X 

X 


X 

X 




X 

X 




x 










X 


x 


X 




X 








X 












do - 


X 




X 










x 










Rockcress 


X 












do 






X 

x 








Sierra bearberry . . 


X 
X 










Golden arnica - 




X 






Idtifolid 


Broadleaf arnica 


X 
X 










Great aster - - 




X 

x 




X 




Broadleaf aster 










Cusick aster 






X 








Little barberry 


X 








Cdpnoides cusickii 


Corydalis 




x 








do 


x 










Cdstillcjd etdtd 


Paintbrush 


X 












do 


x 


x 


x 




X 


Chdmdecypdris wootkdtensis 


Nootka cypress 


X 

x 


X 

x 








Turtlehead 








Chimaphila umbellata occidentalis . . 


Pipsissewa - 


X 

x 


X 


X 




X 


Bugbane 




Cinna latifolia 


Drooping wood reed 


X 
X 










Cirsium aifiericanutn 


Thistle 












Clematis 






x 






Clintonict uniflora 


Queencup 


X 




X 




X 




Mazama 


x 








Goldthread .. .. 


X 

x 












Bunch berry 




x 




X 




Fairybells - 






x 




Dodecatheon aipinum 


Shootingstar 


X 


X 










Drymocallis 


x 






Echinoponax horridutn 


Devilsclub 


X 












Goldenyarrow 




x 










Deertongue -- .. .. 






X 

x 


X 

x 


X 




Bedstraw 


x 


x 


oregonum 


do 


X 










GUla nuttallii 


Nuttall gilia 






X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 








Alumroot 










Hydrophyllum albifrons 


Waterleaf 












Rush 


x 








Juniperus communis montana 
Kelloggia galioides 


Mountain juniper 


X 




X 


X 
X 
X 


Kelloggia 


X 






Rabbitberry 


x 








Washington lily 


x 






Linnaea borealis 


Twinflower 


X 


X 


X 
X 
X 

X 




X 




Sweetberry honeysuckle 






Bearberry honeysuckle 


x 




X 


X 
X 


conjugalis 


Twinberry 


X 




Lupinus andersoni 


Bluebonnet; lupine 


x 








lyallii lobbii 


do 


x 


x 




x 




sulphureus 


. do 






X 








Bluebells 


x 




X 

X 

x 








Lewis monkeyflower 


x 




X 

x 


X 




Yellow monkeyflower 


x 






Blue-eyes 






X 

x 


X 






Myrtle boxleaf 


x 




X 


JPatonia brownii 


Brown peony 


X 




X 


X 




Fernleaf 


x 






do 


x 












do-- 






X 








Blue pentstemon 


X 

x 


X 


X 

x 








Shrubby pentstemon 








Striped pentstemon 




X 

x 










Crimson pentstemon 










Reed canary grass 


x 








Phleum alpinum 


Alpine timothy... 


X 


X 


Z X 





7209 36 * 



50 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLE 6. Plants of the Canadian Zone in Oregon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Cas- 
cades 


Siski- 
you 


Blue 
Moun- 
tains 


S teens 
Moun- 
tains 


Rocky 
Moun- 
tains 


Picea breweriana... 


Brewer spruce 












engelmanni 


Engelmann spruce 


x 




x 




x 

X 
X 
X 


Pinusflexilis 


Limber pine 






X 




monticola ... 


Western white pine 








murrayana 


Lodgepole pine 


x 




x 




Pleuropogon refractus 


Semaphore-grass 


X 

x 








Poo kelloggii . 


Bluegrass . 










Polemonium carneum... 


Polemonium 


X 

x 










occidental 


do 




X 






Polygonum kelloggii . . 


Polygonum 


X 

x 


X 




X 
X 

X 


Populus tremuloides aurea 


Golden aspen 


X 

X 


x 

x 


balsamifera 


Balsam poplar 






Potentilla drummondii 


Cinquefoil 


X 

x 




Pyrola secunda 


Winterlettuce 




x 




X 
X 


Pyrus sitchensis 


Mountain-ash 


X 


X 

x 


X 




Quercus sadleriana 


Deer oak 




vaccinifolia 


Huckleberry oak 




X 
X 








Ribes binominatum 


Siskiyou gooseberry 


X 

x 








triste 


Drooping currant. 








lacustre 


Prickly currant 


X 


X 

x 


X 




X 


marshaUii 


Marshall gooseberry 




Rubus nivalis... .. 


Snow dewberry 


x 










Rudbeckia occidentalis 


Coneflower 




X 


X 






Sambucus melanocarpa 


Blackbead elderberry 






X 
X 


Sanguisorba latifolia . 


White burnet 


x 




x 




Saxifraga rufidula.. 


Saxifrage 


X 








Sedum obtusatum 


Stonecrop 


X 








Senecio triangularis 


Groundsel 


x 


X 
X 






pseudaureus 


do 






X 




Silene oregana 


Catchfly 






X 


Stenanthium occidental _ 


Slenderlily 


X 
X 


X 






Streptopus amplexifolius 


Twistedstalk 








Thermopsis montana 


Goldenpea .. .. 




x 






Thlaspi glaucum . 


Blueleaf pennycress_ 






X 
X 




X 


Trautvetteria grandis 


Bigleaf 


X 

x 




' 


Trientalis arctica 


Starflower 








Trifolium plumosum. 


Pussy clover 






X 






howellii 


Bigleaf clover 


X 

x 


X 

x 






Ttuga heterophylla __ 


Western hemlock 






X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


Vaccinium occidental 


Western bog blueberry 


X 

x 




X 

x 




macrophyllum 


Big whortleberry . 






scoparium 


Grouse whortleberry 


x 




X 
X 

x 




Valeriana sitchensis scouleri 


Valerian 


X 

x 






Veratrum californicum 


Snowy false-hellebore 






viride 


Green false-hellebore 


X 
X 

x 


X 


X 




Viburnum pauciflorum . 


Rayless cranberrybush 
Purple violet 




Viola purpurea . 


x 


x 


x 


Xerophyllum tenax 


Beargrass 


x 


x 























TABLE 7. Plants of the Hudsonian Zone in Oregon 



Species 


Common name 


Cas- 
cade 
Moun- 
tains 


Blue 
Moun- 
tains 


S teens 
Moun- 
tains 


Rocky 
Moun- 
tains 


Far 
North 


Abies lasiocarpa 


Alpine fir 










x 


Agoseris gracilens 


Sheeplettuce 


x 


x 








alpestris 


do 


x 


x 








Agrostis humilis 


Mountain red top 








x 




Alliummacrum 


Wild onion 




\ 








validum ... 


Swamp onion 


x 










Alnus sinuata 


Sitka alder 








x 




Aplopappus greenei 


Goldenweed 




x 








AquiUgia flavescens 


Cnlumbinft 




x 




x 




Arabis drummondii 


Rockcress 




x 








platysperma _ . 


do 












Arenaria capillaris.. 


Sandwort 




x 








pumicola 


do 












Arnica latifolia 


Arnica 




x 








longifolia.. 


do 




x 








Artemisia tilesii 




x 


x 


x 






Aster engelmanni _ 


Aster 


x 










foliaceu$ frondeua . . 


do 




x 




x 




integrifolius 


do 




x 


x 


x 




Astragalus hooker ianus.... 


Bal loon pod. _. 


X 


X 









1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 51 

TABLE 7Plcmts of the Hudsonian Zone in Oreyon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Cas- 
cade 
Moun- 
tains 


Blue 
Moun- 
tains 


Steens 
Moun- 
tains 


Rocky 
Moun- 
tains 


Far 
North 


Athyrium alpestre americanum 
Betula glandulosa 


Alpine ladyfern 




X 

x 




x 




Resin birch 








BTOTIIUS suksdorfii 


Bromegrass 


X 

x 


X 


x 






Calochortus lobbii 


Mariposa 






Calthd biflora 


White marshmarigold 


x 


x 








leptosepala ... 


Elkslip 




X 
X 

X 
X 




x 




Cardamine lyallii 


Bittercress . 


X 
X 
X 

x 






Carex mertensii 


Sedge 




X 
X 


x 

X 


Cassiope mertensiana. . . . 


Moss-heath 




Castillejd oreopola 


Paintbrush 






do 


X 

x 










Chatnaecyparis nootkatensis 


Nootka cypress - 








X 


Cheilanthes siliguosa 


Oregon cliffbrake 


x 


x 






Chelone nemorosa . 


Turtlehead 


X 

x 










Claytonid asarifolia 


Springbeauty 


x 








Cryptogramma acrostichoides 
Dasiphord fruticosa 


Rockbrake 


X 


X 
X 
X 
X 

x 




X 
X 


X 
X 


Shrubby cinquefoil 


X 
X 


Delphinium cyanoreios 


Larkspur 




depauperatum 


do 


X 

x 


x 




Dcschampsid atropurpurea 


Mountain hairgrass 




X 


X 


Dodecatheon puberulum 


Shootingstar 






X 


tetrandTum 


do 




x 






Drabd stenoloba 


Rockcress 


X 


X 




X 




Epilobiuin clo.vo.tuin 


Willowweed 






fastigiatuin 


- do - 


x 


x 








hornemannii - 


do 


X 

x 


X 




X 




luteum 


.-do.... 




X 


oregontnse. 


do 


x 








Erigeron membranaceus. 


Fleabane 




X 










(Buckwheat family) 










umbellatum 


do 






x 






tineum 


do 


X 










Eriophorum polystachyon 


Cotton-sedge 






X 


X 


Erythronium montanum 


Avalanche-lily 


x 






Bucephalus ledophyllus 


Asteroid 


X 










Gaultherid hmnifusa 


Creeping wintergreen 






X 
X 




Gilia nuttallii 


Oilia 




X 


X 




Helenium hoopesii 


Orange sneezeweed 






flemievd ranunculifolid . 


Saxifrage 


X 
X 






x 




Heuche TO, gldbrd .- . 


Smooth alumroot .. . 








X 


Juncoides glabratunt 


Woodrush 








pipcri 


do 


X 


X 








Juniperus communis tibirica 


Dwarf juniper 




X 


X 


Kalmia polifolia microphylla . 


Rocky Mountain kalmia 




X 


X 


Larix lyallii 


\lpine larch 


X 






Ledum glandulosum 


Labrador-tea 


X 

X 




x 




Ligusticum leibergi 


Lo veroot 






x 




tenuifolium 


do 


x 








L/onicero utahensis 


Utah honeysuckle 




x 




x 




Lupinus latifolius subalpinus 


Alpine bluebonnet 


X 










lyallii 


Lyall bluebonnet 










Mimulus lewisii _._ 


Lewis mimulus 


X 


X 




x 




Mitello, breweri 


Bishopscap 








pentandra 


do 


x 


x 




X 

x 


X 


Parnassia fimbriata .. 


Parnassia 


X 


X 




PtdiculdTis bracteosa 


Fernleaf 




X 
X 
X 




SUTTCCtd 


do 








X 


Pentstemon fruticosus. 


Pentstemon 




X 




Tupicola . . - 


do 


X 






Phacelia linearis 


Curlybloom 










newberryi .. 


do 


x 










sericca 


do 






X 






Phleum alpinuTn 


Mountain timothy 










Phyllodoce empetriformis. 


Red mountainheath 


X 
X 


X 

X 




X 




Pinus albicaulis 


Whitebark pine 






Poo lepiocoma 


Redtop 








Thizomata 


do 


x 










Polemonium humile 


Mountain polemonium 
Bistort . 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 




X 
X 


X 
X 


Polygonum bistortoides 


X 


Potentilld cnscadensis 


Cinquefoil 


Quamasid leichtlinii 


Camas 










Railldrdelld argentea 


Woollyleaf 


x 










Ranunculus alistnetlus 


Buttercup 




X 








populago 


... do 


x 








Rhodiold integrifolia ... 


Roseroot 


x 


x 




x 




Rhododendron albiflorum 


False-azalea 




X 




X 


X 


Ribes howellii 


Howell currant 






montigenum... 


Gooseberry currant 


X 


X 









52 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

TABLE 7. Plants of the Hudsoniwn Zone wi Oregon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Cas- 
cade 
Moun- 
tains 


Blue 
Moun- 
tains 


Steens 
Moun- 
tains 


Rocky 
Moun- 
tains 


Far 

North 


Rubus lasiococcus 


Downy dewberry 


x 










pedatus 


Dwarf dewberry 


x 










Salix lemmoni _ . 


Lemmon willow 


X 










Saussurea americana 


( Compositae) 




x 




x 




Saxifraga bronchialis . __._... 


Saxifrage 




X 




x 


x 


Columbians, 


do - 






x 






mertensiana 


do 




x 






x 


odontoloma. _ . . .. 


.... do 


X 


X 








odontophylla 


do _ . 




X 








Sedum debile 


Stonecrop 






x 






divergens . . - - 


do 












Senecio subnudus 


Groundsel 




X 








triangularis 


do 




x 




x 




Siiene oregana 


Catchfly 




X 








Sorbus occidentalis 


Mountain-ash 












Sparganium minimum 


Bur-reed 














Pink spirea 




x 




x 




Symphoricarpos acutus 


Snowberry 






x 






Tofieldia intermedia 


Boglily 




X 








Tsuga mertensiana 


Mountain hemlock 




X 






x 


Vaccinium deliciosum 


Timber line whortleberry 












scoparium 


Grouse whortleberry - - - 




X 








Valeriana sitchensis 


Valerian 




X 




x 


x 




Rayless cranberrybush 












Viola venosa 


Yellow violet -- - 




I 


x 






orbiculata 


do 


X 










Zygadenus elegans 


Deathcamas 




x 


x 





















TABLE 8. Plant* of the Arctic-Alpine Zone in Oregon- 1 



Species 


Common name 


Cas- 
cade 
Moun- 
tains 


Blue 

Moun- 
tains 


Steens 
Moun- 
tains 


Rocky 
Moun- 
tains 


Arctic 


Achillea alpina 


Alpine yarrow 






x 






Agrostis hiemalis geminata 


Tickle grass 


x 


x 




x 


x 


rossae 


Ross redtop 




x 






x 


Alsine borealis 


Starwort 






x 




x 


Anemone hudsoniana 


Windflower . 


x 


x 








Antennarid media 


Pussytoes 


x 


x 




x 




lanata. 


do 












Apiopappus lyallii 


Goldenweed 




x 




x 




Arcnaria aculeata 


Sandwort 






x 






nuttallii 


...do--- 




x 




x 




sajanensis 


do. 




x 




x 


x 


verna 


do 


x 


x 




x 


x 


Arnica parryi 


Arnica 




x 




x 




Aster andersoni 


Mountain ast.p.r 


x 










alpigenus... ... . . 


Timber line aster _. 


x 










Athyrium alpestre americanum 


Alpine lady fern 




x 








Campanula scabrella 


Alpine bellflower 


x 


x 








Cardamine bellidifolia 


Bittercress 


x 










Claytonia megarrhiza 


Springbeauty 




x 




x 




Collomia debilis 


Little collomia 


x 










Crepisnana .. 


Dwarf crepis . 




x 




x 


x 


Danthonia intermedia 


Oatgrass 


x 


x 




x 




Dodecatheon Jeffrey i. . 


Shootingstar _ - 


x 


x 




X 




Douglasia laevigata 


Douglasia 


x 










Draba lemmoni 


Whitlowgrass 




x 




x 




aureola 


do 


x 










nemorosa . . . 


do 






x 






Dryas octopetala 


White dryad 




x 




x 


x 


Epilobium alpinum 


Alpine willowweed 


x 


x 




x 


x 


anagallidifolium 


Purple willowweed 


x 


x 




X 


x 


delicatum 


Tall willowweed 




x 




x 




Erigeron acris debilis 


Fieabane 




x 




x 




compositus 


do 








x 




compositus trifidus 


do 




x 


x 






salsuginosus .. 


...do... 


X 


X 




X 


X 



1 Taken in part from Piper (1906) and in part from lists of plants collected or identified in the field by the 
writer and checked by Morton E. Peck. At best the list is fragmentary, but the species are so grouped as 
to show the relationship of the Blue Mountain and Steens Mountain flora to that of both the Cascades on 
the west and the Rocky Mountains on the east. 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 53 

TABLE 8. Plants of the Arctic-Alpine Zone foi Oregon Continued 



Species 


Common name 


Cas- 
cade 
Moun- 
tains 


Blue 
Moun- 
tains 


Steens 
Moun- 
tains 


Rocky 
Moun- 
tains 


Arctic 


Eriogonum coryphaeum 


(Buckwheat family) _ 




x 




x 






do 




X 

x 




x 




Eritrichiutn howardi 


Moss-forget-me-not 










Festuca, ovina brachyphylla 


Alpine fescue 


x 






X 

x 


X 




Greenleaf fescue 


X 

x 


X 

x 




Qentiana, calycosa 


Gentian 




x 






Alpine gilia 


X 


X 




x 




nuttallii 


Nuttallgilia 


x 






Hieracium gracile 


Hawkweed 


x 


x 


X 


X 




Alpine hulsea 


X 


X 

x 




Ivesia gordoni 


Chipmunktail 




x 




Juncus mertensianus 


Rush 


x 


x 




X 

x 


X 


parryi 


do 


X 

x 


X 

x 




subtriflorus 


do._ ... 




X 


X 


Lcptarrhena amplexifolia 


Saxifrage 


x 






Lewisid Columbians 


C olumbia bitterroot 


x 










nevadensis 


Nevada bitterroot . 




X 

x 




X 

x 




triphylla 


Threeleaf bitterroot 


x 






Lomatium angustatum.- . 


Biscuit root 


X 

x 


X 

x 




X 


X 


Lutkea pectinata 


Mountainmat . 




Mimulus alpinus 


Alpinfl TnimuHlS 




x 




X 




rubellus. ._ .. 


Red mimulus -.. 




X 
X 

x 






Oxyria digyna 


MnriTi tain-sorrel 


X 


X 


X 
X 


X 


Pedicularis contorta 


Fernleaf 


Pentstemon menziesii. 


Pentstemon.-. 


X 

x 


X 






menziesii davidsoni 


.do .. 


x 


1 


Phacelia sericea 


Curlyhloorn 




x 




X 

X 


X 
X 


Phleum aipinum 


Mountain timothy. 


X 

x 


X 

x 


X 


Phlox diffusa 


Phlox 


douglasii 


do 


X 

x 


X 




X 

X 




Phyllodoce glanduliflora 


Cream mountainheat h 




X 


Polygonum davisiae 


Polygonum 


x 






minimum 


do 


X 

x 


X 




X 


X 


newberryi 


do 






...do . 








X 


X 
X 


Potentilla flabellifolia 


Cinquefoil 


x 






dissecta, 


do 








x 


Pulsatilla occidentalis 


American pasqueflower 


x 






X 
X 


Ranunculus eschscholtzii 


Buttercup 


X 








suksdorfii 


do 






Salix nivalis 


Snow willow . 








x 




Saxifraga bongardi 


Saxifrage 


X 






X 
X 


X 




do 




tolmiei 


do 


x 








Scirpus caespitosus 


Sedge 


x 






X 


X 


Senecio fremontii 


Groundsel 








Sibbaldia procumbens 


Sibbaldia 












Sieversia rossii ... 


Sieversia. .. 








X 

X 


X 
X 


Silene acaulis 


Mr>ss narnpinn 








suksdorfii 


IVfoun tMn'caTnpinn 


x 






Smelowskia calycina 


Arctic crucifer 








X 


X 


Spraguea muUiceps 


Pussypaws 






X 
X 


umbellata 


do. 

Alpine pennycress 


X 
X 

x 




X 
X 
X 
X 




Thlaspi alpestre 




Trisetum spicatum 


Spike fisptnrri 




X 
X 


Veronica alpina 


Alpine speedwell 


X 




X 







54 NOBTH AMEBICAN FAUNA [No. 65 

MAMMALS OF OREGON 
AN IMPORTANT NATURAL RESOURCE 

Since the advent of the white man, the mammal life of Oregon 
has been an important factor in the development of the State, as it 
had been for ages before in maintaining the original native popula- 
tion. The quest of valuable furs brought hardy pioneers into the 
region, and the abundance of game enabled them to live and carry on 
extensive explorations that yielded a valuable knowledge of the 
country and its resources. As man and domestic animals filled the 
more fertile parts of the country, the abundance of native life de- 
creased; but in many parts of the State the game and fur-bearing 
animals still have a high value and can be maintained in reasonable 
numbers. Other forms of life destructive to game, livestock, poultry, 
and crops must be controlled and kept within reasonable bounds, 
while many of the useful species need careful protection and encour- 
agement. The merely harmless but interesting forms of small 
mammals may have a real value of interest and education that should 
not be overlooked in our human economy. Whatever may be our 
attitude toward the native wildlife, our course should be guided by 
a full knowledge of all of the species, their physical characters, dis- 
tribution, natural or controlled abundance, natural habits, and as 
far as possible their relations to our own lives and industries. 

The object of the present report is not only to give as full informa- 
tion as possible on all of the mammals of Oregon, but to give 
information that will enable others to go ahead with future studies 
based on present knowledge, until far better means for understand- 
ing, appreciating, managing, and controlling our native fauna are 
attained. 

A sequence of species has been adopted that brings many of the 
more important animals ahead of the smaller and more obscure kinds, 
and while not entirely in systematic order, this sequence seems 
logical for practical use. 

Both common and scientific names of the species are given, as well 
as native Indian names wherever possible, some of which eventually 
may well replace our names of less satisfactory application. Some 
of the native names were obtained direct from the Indians; others 
are quoted from manuscripts or publications as indicated by initials 
of the writers. 2 

Most of the measurements of the mammals are in millimeters as 
taken in the field by collectors and include total length, from tip of 
nose to tip of tail vertebrae in a straight line ; length of tail from tip 
of vertebrae to base with tail held straight at right angles to back; 
hind foot from tip of heel to tip of longest claw with toes held 
straight; and length of ear from the inner notch at base to tip, 
unless otherwise stated. 



2 Vernon Bailey, W. H. Dall, George M. Dawson, David Douglas, Luther J. Goldman, 
George Bird Grinnell, Lewis and Clark, Maximilian Prince of Wied, C. Hart Merriam, 
George Suckley, J. K. Townsend. 



1936] MAMMALS AND LIFE ZONES OF OREGON 55 

Weights are given in grams for the small mammals, and pounds 
and ounces for the larger species. 

The reports of the numbers of the larger mammals estimated to 
inhabit the various districts of the national forests (table 9), while 
rarely showing actual counts, are based on careful observations made 
throughout the year by rangers and supervisors and are the best 
records available of the numbers present on the forest areas. The 
national forests of Oregon cover nearly half the State and support 
much more than half the large game animals. The records are 
especially valuable as showing year by year the approximate increase 
or decrease of the species and as affording a basis for intelligent 
control efforts, or regulation of hunting. The annual game census 
of the Forest Service, district 6, for 1929, which has been selected 
because the data for that year are the most nearly complete for the 
various classes, gives the number of licensed hunters on the forests 
as 25,873; the number of mule deer killed by hunters as 2,864; black- 
tailed deer, 1,768; elk, 89; and black bear, 538. The report gives 
7,113 deer and 19 elk killed by predatory animals. 

Other notes of interest in the report are 3,201 coyotes killed on 
the forests by Biological Survey hunters, 85 by forestry officials, and 
3,043 by local hunters and trappers. Of bobcats, 295 are reported 
taken by the Biological Survey hunters, 12 by forestry officials, and 
1,369 by local trappers. Of mountain lions, 9 are credited to the 
Biological Survey hunters, 1 to forestry officials, and 134 to local 
hunters. 

Elk, deer, antelope, sage grouse, and porcupines are reported to 
be increasing. 

Predatory animals are reported as generally decreasing in 
abundance. 



56 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



FNo. 55 



a a 



11 



So o > 
Si 



ill 3 ! 



J 



O O rH 1^ 

^^ O O 



SOOQOOOiOO> 
COOO^M05(NiO 



So :8 



It- 



<N -T 



8co o < 
^ 



~.2 fl 
_rt *-? S 



^OOOOO'-H 

sSs 



IS- 



"3,8. 





11 



a a 



HI 

i! 8 



-302 m 

^22 






SIS 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



57 



ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES 



ORDER ARTIODACTYLA: HOOFED MAMMALS 

Family BOVIDAE: Cattle, Sheep, and Goats 

BISON BISON OREGONUS BAILEY 

OREGON BISON, or BUFFALO; GOO'-CHOO or GOOT'TSOO of the Piute (C. H. M.) ; 
GOO'-CHOO of the Pit River Indians (G. H. M.) ; TTT-PETSE-QUOTSU of the 
Piute at Burns (V. B.) ; YUHO of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Bison bison, oregonus Bailey, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 45: 47-48, 1932. 

Type. Skull and skeleton, collected at Malheur Lake, Oreg., by Geo. M. 
Benson, November 1931. 

General description. Similar in characters to Bison Mson bison of south- 
western Texas, but slightly larger, with relatively longer and straighter 
and less abruptly tapering horn cores, indicating wider and straighter horns 
of a somewhat larger animal. 
The rostrum or arch formed 
by the upper premaxillary 
bones is slightly longer and 
relatively narrower than in 
southern specimens ; interpter- 
ygoid fossa wider and larg- 
er ; auditory inflations smaller 
than in typical Texas skulls; 
molars larger. No external 
characters are or can ever be 
known as the form is long 
extinct. The cranial charac- 
ters distinguishing it incline 
somewhat toward those of the 
much larger athabascae but 
are no nearer to it on the one 
hand than to southern Texas 
specimens on the other. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. Buffalo once inhab- 
ited eastern Oregon in 
considerable abundance 
(fig. 7). On November 1, 
1826, Ogden (1910, p. 
207) in charge of a large 
party of trappers pene- 
trated the interior of Oregon to Harney Lake, which he graphically 
describes, and he notes in his journal, " Buffalo have been here and 
heads are to be seen." 

In 1873, O. C. Marsh found the bones of a buffalo, much decom- 
posed but perfectly characteristic, on Willow Creek in the south- 
eastern foothills of the Blue Mountains, which would mean some- 
where between the present towns of Vale and Ironside ( J. A. Allen, 
1876a, p. 119). 

In 1915 W. F. Schnabel gave to the Biological Survey an old horn 
of a buffalo picked up near Cow Creek Lake, Malheur County, Oreg., 
the preceding summer, and he told E. A. Preble of a skeleton in a 
cave several miles southwest of Jordan Crater. In a later letter 
dated March 21, 1916, Schnabel wrote : 

I went to the cave for the buffalo skeleton and it was gone. I have found 
two more heads on the Owyhee River and they are there to this day. The 




FIGDKB 7. Range of buffalo, Bison bison oregonus, in 
Oregon and adjoining States, with border line of 
original range. Spots indicate actual records. 



58 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

old chief Yakima Jim, about 110 years old, told me that when he was a boy 
there were lots of buffalo around the Cow Creek Lakes country, but he says 
they were all killed during a hard winter. 

Under date of- April 29, 1916, Schnabel wrote: 

The last time old chief Yakima Jim was at my ranch was in 1889 or there- 
abouts. He told me the last of the buffalo were killed during a hard winter 
when the snow was so deep they could not get grass and that a good many 
tumbled over the high bluffs on the Owyhee River. I know where there are two 
skulls near the Owyhee River. Mr. Riley M. Horn, who has a cow ranch 
on the Owyhee back of my old ranch at the Cow Lakes can show you where 
they are. The horn I have mailed you today was found about 30 yards from 
the Caldwell and Jordan Valley stage road near the Ditton Ranch on Cow 
Creek in 1915. This horn is in good condition, but thin and apparently from a 
young bull. 

In a still later letter, October 30, 1916, Schnabel wrote from Cald- 
well, Idaho: 

I have just returned from a trip to my old cattle ranch at Cow Creek 
Lakes. Where the creek has washed a channel about 6 feet deep I found a 
buffalo head imbedded in the old lake formation about 4 feet below the surface. 
The horns had been carried away and the skull is very old and fragile. 

A letter received in 1917 from R. M. Horn, referred to by Schnabel, 
states that he had found several buffalo skulls at different places in 
eastern Oregon during the previous 18 or 20 years. 

In 1826 Ogden (1909, p. 355) and in 1834 Townsend (1839, 
p. 82 ff.) recorded buffalo ranging west across southern Idaho to the 
Malad River, and Hornaday gives their range as along both sides of 
the Snake River west to the Fishing Falls (1889, p. 383). This 
brings them within historic time close to the eastern line of Oregon, 
but they soon after vanished from Idaho, as they had evidently disap- 
peared from Oregon before the white man could take a hand in their 
destruction. 

In 1921 fragments of buffalo bones mixed with those of deer, ante- 
lope, and cattle were found in the open mouth of Malheur Cave, a 
large volcanic tunnel about 18 miles southeast of Malheur Lake. 
Various large animals and in recent years cattle had evidently used 
this open tunnel as shelter from storms, and the debris near the 
mouth included many broken bones. While partly protected from the 
weather, the bones were in a mass of moist earth and still had a 
fresh and sound appearance indicating no great age. A few pieces 
of jaws containing molar teeth, a long dorsal process of a cervical 
vertebra, and some other bones brought back were identified by J. W. 
Gidley and O. P. Hay, of the United States National Museum, as 
unmistakably buffalo. 

William Renwick, of Folly Farm, recently told of finding a fairly 
complete buffalo skull in Barren Valley, east of the Steens Moun- 
tains, in 1907, and A. E. Brown, on his ranch near Malheur Cave, 
says that James Muse found buffalo skulls on his place in the tules 
at the west end of Malheur Lake in 1884. Brown saw the skulls and 
was sure they were buffalo. 

Early in December 1930, L. E. Hibbard at Burns took the writer 
to the office of R. M. Duncan, who had three buffalo skulls, recently 
picked up on the dry bed of Malheur Lake. An old bull and a cow 
skull he had promised to a friend in Portland for the Oregon State 
Museum, but he gave the writer the skull of a young bull and told 






1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 59 

where others could be found on the lake bottom. With Elmer Wil- 
liams the writer visited the lake next day and obtained 9 more 
skulls, 1 contributed by J. O. Ausmus, a rancher living on the lake 
shore near the mouth of Silvies River, who also showed where the 
best skulls were to be found. 

During recent dry years the water of Malheur Lake has receded 
to a small area of some few thousand acres, leaving many miles of 
dry, cracked, mellow bottom that was formerly soft mud to con- 
siderable depths. Over this dry bed white objects, quite different 
from the thousands of snow geese, were seen here and there, some- 
times half a dozen from one point. These all proved to be buffalo 
skulls lying on the surface of the ground, and in every case where 
the skull had not been recently moved the whole skeleton was found 
buried under it. Evidently the animals had bogged down in search 
of water at some dry period long ago when the water had receded ; 
or else, in attempting to cross the lake on the ice in winter or to 
get out to open water, they had broken through and drowned in 
the oozy mud of the bottom. Generally the skeletons were scattered, 
but in some natural depressions, that may have been regular water- 
ing holes, there were several skeletons close together. In a couple of 
hours dozens of skeletons were seen from which 8 of the best were 
saved and a box of 10 sent to the United States National Museum. 

Some of the skulls were fairly complete with full sets of teeth 
in the jaws. Others were broken or partly disintegrated. In view 
of the fact that they had been there for over a century they showed 
excellent preservation. Hundreds of others have been seen and 
reported, and many obtained by local collectors will give important) 
study material. Thanks to the efforts of George M. Benson, of the 
Biological Survey, there are now two almost complete skeletons 
with good skulls of large old bulls in the Bureau's collection. These, 
with many skulls picked up and contributed by others, afford a fine 
series for comparison and study. 

Ausmus told the writer that many old pieces of skulls and unmistak- 
able buffalo bones had been found for years past in the tules along 
the lake shore when the water was low, but never in such numbers or 
in so good condition as those now exposed over the lake bottom. 
Duncan also told of another buffalo skull recently taken from a 
spring on the Double-O Ranch (OO) west of Harney Lake, by Gus 
Hurlburt, marking the westernmost record from the Malheur Valley. 

In 1929 Stanley G. Jewett sent the writer a piece of buffalo rib 
picked up by Robert Sawyer, of Bend, on the site of Old Camp 
Warner, near Hart Mountain, on the east side of Warner Lake and 
giving the westernmost Oregon record of buffalo remains so far made 
known. This is especially important in connecting up the Malheur 
Valley range with the California range. 

Merriam (1926, pp. 211-214) has traced the buffalo well into north- 
eastern California through definite and reliable Indian records, show- 
ing its presence only two generations ago in the Madeline Plains 
country, near Eagle and Honey Lakes, and in Alturus and Surprise 
Valleys, as well as at half a dozen places named for them on the 
Nevada side of the line. Old Indians of several tribes said that 
their fathers had killed the buffalo on their own territory, and 
while one tribe considered them permanent residents in Pine Creek 



60 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Valley on the west side of Eagle Lake, the Indians generally believed 
that the buffalo came in small bands from farther north. This 
would mean that they came in from Goose Lake and Warner Lake 
Valleys, the natural highways from the ancient range of the buffalo 
in eastern Oregon. Probably also they came through the broad, 
open, grassy, and well-watered Quinn River Valley by way of 
Buffalo Creek and Buffalo Spring, Nev., below McDermitt and 
south through the broad, open southern end of the Alvord Valley. 

In 1916 Captain Louis, a chief of the band of Piute Indians near 
Burns, and for several years a scout with General Crook, told the 
writer that there used to be buffalo all over the Malheur Valley. 
He thought he was then (1916) about 70 or 80 years old, saying he 
was a young man, not married, at the time of the Modoc War. His 
grandfather, he said, was here when there were plenty of buffalo 
over the valley. They went into the mountains in summer and came 
down into the valleys in winter and were hunted by the Indians. 
He could remember, when a boy, seeing some of the very old men 
with much- worn buffalo skins as robes, and he found, he said, buffalo 
bones and horns in Malheur Lake when it was unusually low. His 
grandfather had told him about the buffalo going away. The In- 
dians followed them east to Crane Creek, to Malheur River, and 
then across Snake River, over to the Bannock country. He thought 
they left here about 100 years ago, but was not very clear in his 
dates. The Indians still have a song calling the buffalo to " come 
back, come back, and do not go away again." They sing it with the 
drum as they dance and try to keep alive the flickering flame of 
ancient hunting lore. 

It seems probable that these buffalo, which at one time were able 
to maintain an existence among purely primitive people, were forced 
to withdraw before the horseback Indians even before deadly fire- 
arms came into general use among them. Lewis and Clark found 
horses abundant among the Nez Perces in 1805; and in 1814 Fran- 
chere (1904, p. 339), while among the Umatilla Indians of the 
Columbia River, said: 

They are almost always seen on horseback and are in general good riders. 
They pursue the deer and penetrate even to Missouri to kill buffalo, the flesh 
of which they dry and bring it back on their horses to make their principal 
food during the winter. 

The Territory of Missouri of that time was of course no farther 
distant than what is now western Montana and but little farther 
than the Malheur Lake section from which the buffalo had probably 
already disappeared. 

Even after most of the buffalo had gone from Idaho the Oregon 
Indians followed them beyond. On October 13, 1843, Fremont 
(1845, p. 174) was overtaken near the Malheur River by a party of 
Cayuse Indians returning from a buffalo hunt to the Rocky Mountains. 

There is no question that only a few generations back buffalo 
covered in considerable numbers many of the large valleys of south- 
eastern Oregon and that they disappeared after the introduction of 
horses among the Indians and before many firearms were obtained. 
A thrilling page of history seems to be missing, when red hunters 
first mounted on horses learned their power to overtake and kill with 
comparative ease and certainty big game as well as their less for- 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 61 

tunate enemies. The balance of nature was disturbed almost as 
much by the advent of horses as by that of gunpowder. 

It is an interesting fact that buffalo, once native to Oregon, will 
thrive if returned to suitable valleys, but in even these great open 
valleys such dangerous and migratory animals must be restrained 
by strong fences. Although the Oregon subspecies is extinct the 
plains species is no longer in danger of extermination. There is an 
abundance available for breeding purposes. They are hardy and 
prolific, and there is no reason why Oregon should not have buffalo 
steaks and buffalo robes as well as a good showing of one of our 
most interesting forms of native wildlife. 

[OREAMNOS AMERICANUS AMERICANUS (BLAiNvnxs) 2 * 

MOUNTAIN GOAT; WHITE GOAT; WHITE BUFFALO; PIEYANIN of the Klikitat 
(Chambreau) ; KOKNIK of the Wasco 

Ovis montanus Ord, Guthrie's Geog., 2d Amer. ed., p. 292 (description on pp. 
309-310), 1815, earliest name but preoccupied by Ovis montanus the moun- 
tain sheep. 
R[upicapra] americana Blainville, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philomath, Paris, p. 80, 

1816. 
Mazama dorsata Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. 2:44, 1817 (Renaming Ovis 

montanus Ord). 

Oreamnos Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. 2 : 44, 1817. 
Oreapnnos montanus Merriam, Science (n. s.) 1: 19, 1895. 
Oreamnos americanus americwius (Blainville) Hollister, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 

25: 185-186, 1912. 

(All based on Ord's Ovis montanus after Lewis and Clark. Rafinesque's genus 
Mazama apparently applies to a Mexican deer; his Oreamnos seems to be 
the earliest generic name available for the mountain goat.) 
Type locality. "Cascade Range near the Columbia River in Oregon or 
Washington." This refers merely to the place near which Lewis and Clark 
saw their skins and the blankets woven of their wool among the Indians. 

General characters. Not a true goat, buffalo, or antelope, but structurally 
nearest to the Old World antelopes, with which it agrees in permanent hollow 
sheathed horns, similar to those of the chamois, one of its nearest relatives. 
Size considerably larger than the mountain sheep; form low and heavy, high 
over the shoulders with stout neck and large head ; tail a mere rudiment ; legs 
heavy and strong; feet large with heavy hoofs and small secondary hoofs 
(dewclaws) on all four feet; horns black, small, slightly recurved, with annular 
bases and smooth, sharp points ; hairy coat long, with coarse mane, beard, and 
chaps and fine dense wool over rest of body ; color normally pure white all over 
except black horns, hoofs, nose, lips, and eyelids. 

Measurements. A large male from British Columbia collected by E. A. 
Preble : Total length, 1,740 mm ; tail, 100 ; hind foot, 360. Weights of large males 
have been estimated at 300 to 500 pounds. A large male killed west of North 
Yakima, Wash., was reported by A. S. Harmer as 8 feet 3 inches from tip of 
nose to tip of tail; horns 10 inches; weight 507 pounds. (Outdoor Life, 1915, 
p. 459). 

Distribution and habitat. White goats do not now and perhaps 
never did inhabit Oregon, but they have been so often reported from 
the State that some explanation seems necessary. In the original 
description of the species in 1815 Lewis and Clark in their journal 
notes reported them along the lower Columbia River in 1804 and 
1805 and say: 

We have seen only the skins of these animals which the native dress with 
the wool and the blankets which they manufacture from the wool. They live 
in great numbers on the chain of mountains forming the commencement of 
the wooded country on the coast (the Cascades) and passing the Columbia 
between the falls and the rapids. 



2a Hypothetical. 



62 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Later, Ord, as ignorant as Lewis and Clark of the real range of 
the animal, credited it to both Washington and Oregon, and he was 
followed by Richardson (1829), J. K. Townsend (1839), Suckley and 
Gibbs (1860) 4 Grinnell and Fannin (18&0), Hornaday (1906), and 
even G. S. Miller in 1924. 

Goats are still common on Mount Saint Helens and the Goat Rocks 
half way between Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, and they have 
been reported in comparatively recent times from the north slopes 
of Mount Adams in Washington. So far as known, however, there 
is no authentic record of their occurrence south of the Columbia 
River in Oregon in recent years. The discovery of their bones in 
cave deposits near Mount Shasta in northern California, by John C. 
Merriam et al. in 1903 (Sinclair, 1904^ P- 18) is evidence that they 
once ranged this far south, and it is not improbable that in the days 
of Lewis and Clark they may have occupied Mount Hood and perhaps 
other snowy peaks of the Cascades in Oregon. Hood, Jefferson, 
Three Sisters, and several other peaks of the range are perfectly 
adapted to mountain goats ; and the fact that before the introduction 
of domestic sheep, they were the only animals except dogs with warm 
woolly fleeces, may well account for a receding range in a region well 
occupied by a primitive native people. Now their fine woolly fleeces 
are in less demand, and they might easily be protected on the higher 
peaks of Oregon where they would form a most interesting and 
attractive feature of wildlife. 

A record of mountain goats occupying the Blue Mountains, 
made by Lee R. Dice, cannot be ignored, although it seems very 
doubtful. He says : "Goats are reported by Floyd Kendall [Forest 
Ranger on the Imnaha] to have occurred at one time in the Blue 
Mountains of Washington but they are now absent from the region " 
(1919 , p.%1). On the Washington end of the Blue Mountains there 
is no suitable country for goats, but in the high peaks of the 
Wallowas, the southern section of the Blue Mountains in Oregon, 
they would find ideal range and might well thrive if once established. 
They have also been reported from the Seven Devils Mountains of 
Idaho, just across the Snake River Canyon from the Blue Mountains, 
but this, too, is a doubtful record as the animals are now not posi- 
tively known nearer than the Sawtooth Mountains of central Idaho. 
Still there is the possibility that in earlier times they may have 
occupied the high peaks of both the Seven Devils and the Wallowas. 
Further evidence on this point should be sought. 

If mountain goats ever ranged in this corner of Oregon it would 
naturally be the Montana form, Oreamnas americanus missoulae 
(Allen), described from the mountains north of Missoula and rang- 
ing througout the Bitterroots and mountains of central Idaho. 

So often have the female or young male mountain sheep with 
slender, curved horns been mistaken for mountain goats during the 
spring season, when the faded winter coats at a distance appear 
almost white, that goat records must be fully verified to be reliable. 
While many such records appear in literature of mountain goats 
south to the borders of Mexico, the present range of the species is 
known to reach south in the Rocky Mountains only to central Idaho 
and in the Cascades to southern Washington.] 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 63 

OVIS CANADENSIS CANADENSIS SHAW 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN BIGHORN ; MOUNTAIN SHEEP ; EMAH-KI-KINI of the Black- 
feet (G. B. GO 

Ovis canadensis Shaw, Naturalists Miscellany 15 : text to plate 610, 1804. 

Type locality. Mountains on Bow River, near Exshaw, Alberta. 

General characters. Large for a sheep; head and skull massive, with heavy 
coiled wrinkled, permanent, horns in the old males (pis. 15 and 16) ; females 
with small, slender, slightly curved horns; tail a mere rudiment, dewclaws 
present on all 4 feet; hair coarse, smooth, and dense in winter coat with a 
mere trace of fine wool concealed close to the skin, short and harsh in summer. 
Summer pelage dark gray or slaty drab all over except a large white patch 
covering rump, white stripes down back of hind legs from rump patch to heels, 
short white stripes down back of front legs and small whitish areas on front 
and back of belly, arotmd nose, and on ears; tail and line along back dark 
brown. In winter, pelage light gray fading to lighter gray in spring. 

Measurements. Adult female from type region in Alberta: Total length, 
1,540 mm; tail, 46; foot 140. Male from same region: Total length, 1,580; 
tail, 98; foot, 410. Upper tooth row in typical male canadensis 81 to 86. 

Distribution and habitat. These sheep of the high peaks are 
represented in the Biological Survey collection by one skin of the 
fine old ram, from the Wallowa Mountains above Wallowa Lake, 
taken about 1890 and presented by Harzinger of La Grande to 
Stanley G. Jewett, in 1923, for the Bureau's collection. There is no 
skull, but the skin is complete and in fairly good condition, taken 
evidently in late summer or early autumn while in the dark sum- 
mer coat. In color and pattern the skin agrees perfectly with the 
typical Ovis canadensis canadensis .from Alberta in comparable 
pelage, dark slaty drab all over except the large white rump patch, 
white stripes from rump patch down back of legs to heels, short 
white stripes down back of front legs, and a little soiled whitish on 
front and back of belly and around nose and ears. The little stump 
of a tail is brown, and a brown line from it along the back completely 
divides the white rump patch above. No measurements are possible, 
but in size the skin and hoofs seem to equal those of comparable 
specimens of typical canadensis. The only skull seen from the Blue 
Mountain region is a fragment of cranium with horn cores picked 
up on the Wenaha River, and contributed to the Biological Survey 
collection by W. H. Kendall. So far as it shows characters this 
skull agrees with canadensis rather than with O. c. calif orniana. 

In the Blue Mountain section sheep have held out longer than 
elsewhere in the State, and there only may be found a few (fig. 8). 
In 1889 the carcass of a dead sheep was found on the side of Straw- 
berry Butte and up to 1915, the writer was told, old horns were 
occasionally found there, although no sheep had been known there 
for many years. In the Baker Range there seems to be no record 
of their recent occurrence, although they were said to have formerly 
occupied these snowy peaks. 

In 1897 C. Hart Merriam was told that sheep had formerly oc- 
cupied Strawberry Butte and the Green Horn Mountains, and that 
one had been killed within 5 miles of Austin in 1895. 

In 1897 they still occupied the high ridges among the Wallowa 
Mountains in considerable numbers. In September of that year the 
writer found their tracks above timber line along the ridges above 
Aneroid Lake and saw one fine old ram lying down in a grassy 



64 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

basin far below but still among banks of permanent snow. When 
next in these mountains in 1915 he saw tracks of only domestic 
sheep, but was told that a few of the wild species could still be 
found in the most inaccessible places and on some of the high ledges 
along the rim of the Snake Eiver Canyon. 

The same year Jewett reported a few sheep remaining on the 
headwaters of the Minum River and on the divide toward Aneroid 
Lake. One sheepman told him of seeing 13 head in July of that 
year, and another had seen their tracks on the trail between East 
Eagle Creek and the Minum. Further information indicated a 
small bunch of sheep ranging on the rough divide between the 
canyons of the Imnaha and the Snake Rivers east of the Cloverdale 
crossing. 

In 1924 the Forest Service reported 45 and in 1925, 43 sheep on 
the Wallowa National Forest. In 1927 Jewett estimated a possible 
number of 50 sheep in this last herd in the State. 

In 1927 the Forest Service reported 40 on the Wallowa National 
Forest; in 1928, 45; in 1929, 50; in 1930, 60; in 1931, 61; in 1932, 60; 
and in 1933, 50. 

An effort was made to protect these remnants of vanishing species, 
and a State game preserve was created to include the scattered 
bands, but it was later abandoned. 

The Wilderness area, recently established by the Forest Service 
to include the higher part of the Wallowa Mountains, may serve 
to rescue these splendid animals from extermination if it does not 
encourage an overabundance of mountain lions and bobcats, their 
greatest enemies next to man. Coyotes, too, will penetrate to the 
open country above timber line in the hope of feasting on mountain 
mutton, but with a proper check on predatory species it should be 
possible to bring back the bighorns to adorn again these inspiring 
mountains. 

Their summer range is practically all on the Wallowa and Whit- 
man National Forests, but in winter they descend to the canyon 
walls of the Snake River and Imnaha Canyons, where especial pro- 
tection should be afforded and careful restrictions provided to keep 
them from contracting diseases of domestic sheep. With proper 
management this last remnant of one of Oregon's most valuable and 
interesting forms of big game could be increased and extended to 
other suitable areas in the State. Left alone to take their chances 
the end will soon be, as in the rimrock sheep, complete disappearance. 

OVIS CANADENSIS CALIFORNIANA DOUGLAS 

RIMROOK SHEEP; LAVA-BED SHEEP; TSNOOI* of the Warm Springs Indians at 
The Dalles ; QUOIPA of the Piute at Burns 

Ovis califomianus Douglas, Zool. Jour. 4 : 332, 1829. 

Type locality. "Falls of the Columbia", near the mouth of the Deschutes 
River. 

General characters. Size about the same as canadensis, horns generally 
more spreading and open, less closely coiled (pi. 17), upper molar series longer 
and heavier, nasal bones averaging wider. Coloration unknown except from im- 
mature and much-faded skins from the Steens Mountains, but these show 
extensive areas of white which with the general pale colors suggest the desert 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



J 







North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 16 



? 




SIX-YEAR-OLD RAM IN GLACIER NATIONAL PARK. 
Showing the heavy, upright horns of typical Ovis canadensis (courtesy of the National Park Service). 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 17 





B17244; B17243; B4626M; B4C25M 

HEADS OF OLD RAMS OF THE RIMROCK SHEEP FROM EASTERN OREGON. 
SHOWING TYPICAL Low WIDE HORNS. 

A, From Lava Caves west of Tule Lake, just below the California line; B, from Niggerrock Canyon, Mal- 
heur County (south of Vale); C, from Hampton Butte, Crook County. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



65 



sheep farther south. Upper inolar series 85 to 90 mm in old rams against 81 
to 86 in typical canadensis. No body measurements known. 

History of the name " Ovis calif ornianus" On Sunday, August 27, 1826, David 
Douglas on his way down the Columbia River from Walla Walla to Fort Van- 
couver traveled to a point 15 miles below the mouth of the Deschutes River. 
Earlier in the day at the " Great Falls of the Columbia ", which he locates about 
6 miles east of The Dalles, he procured the horns of a mountain sheep from an 
Indian and tried to barter for the skin of one of these animals which the 
Indian was wearing as a shirt. Three years later these horns and his notes on 
this skin furnished the foundation for his description of Ovis californianus, 
which he reported as "said to be found in subalpine regions of Mts. 'Wood' 
[sic]. St. Helens, and Vancouver, but more numerous in the mountainous 
districts of the interior of California." 

From his journal it is evident that Douglas never saw a mountain sheep 
alive and his information in regard to their range was all second-hand and 
more or less at fault. It is not improbable that the horns which became the 
type of the species were taken within a mile of where he procured them. The 
subalpine range may have 
been borrowed from the nar- 
rative of Finley, of Spokane, 
who described to him the 
range of the northern Rocky 
Mountain form from the high 
ranges east of there and 
promised to try to get a speci- 
men for him. His attribut- 
ing their range to Mount 
Hood, Mount St. Helens, and 
Mount Adams, where no one 
has found them since seems 
very questionable, as the 
heavy winter snowfall would 
permit only a short summer 
occupation of the high parts 
of these peaks. On the other 
hand, well into the present 
generation, mountain sheep 
have been common along the 
canyon walls of the Des- 
chutes River to near its 

mouth, and before the days of rifles they undoubtedly followed the terraced 
lava walls of the Columbia River Valley at least on the Oregon side, both 
above and below the mouth of the Deschutes River. 

In fact, on December 8, 1825, about 9 months before Douglas found his 
specimens, one of the hunters of Peter Skene Ogden killed a sheep in the rough 
little range of mountains about 40 miles south of The Dalles still known as the 
" Mutton Mountains ", and after crossing to the east side of the Deschutes River 
Canyon near the mouth of Warm Springs Creek a few days later Ogden reported 
a fine herd of sheep but " too swift for us " (1909, pp. 340, 342). 

On February 4 of the following winter, Ogden reports four sheep killed near 
the headwaters of Burnt River (1909, p. 352). On January 1, 1827, somewhere 
in the Klamath Lake section not definitely located he reports a " goat killed ", 
and on May 30 of the same year somewhere in the Warner Lake country he 
says: "An ibex 2b killed today and a young one taken alive. I shall feed it on 
mare's milk until we reach Fort Vancouver" (1910, pp. 212, 219). 

Distribution and habitat. Originally mountain sheep inhabited 
every canyon, cliff, and lava butte as well as many of the rough lava 
beds of Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains (fig. 8). They were 
common until recent years in the Steens and Warner Mountains and 
are still found in the Wallowa Mountains and along the canyon 




FIGURE 8. Range of Rocky Mountain bighorn and 
Oregon bighorn in Oregon : 1, Ovis canadensis 
canadensis; 2. O. c. calif orniana. Type locality 
circled. 



2b The names " goat " and " ibex " were undoubtedly applied to the female and young 
male sheep, names that are frequently misapplied to the animal even at the present 
day. 

7209 



66 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

walls of the Imnaha Eiver. In the Biological Survey collection are 
about 15 specimens, all more or less imperfect, of heads and horns 
and bones picked up at or near Fossil, Maupin, Hampton, Sheephead 
Mountains, Pine Mountains, Ureka Station, Adel, Steens Mountains, 
Hart Mountain, Crowley, Watson (10 miles northwest), Jordan 
Creek, Nigger Rock Canyon, Mahogany Mountains, in South Ice 
Cave, 40 miles south of Burns, and near Lower Klamath Lake. 

There are also records of sheep seen within the memory of many 
now living over most of the extensive lava beds and buttes of eastern 
Oregon. In 1916, the writer visited a camp of Warm Springs In- 
dians near The Dalles and talked with several of the older Indians 
about sheep. They knew the animal very well and promptly gave 
him its name as Tsnoon. They said a long time ago plenty of these 
sheep lived all along the Deschutes River Canyon and in the rough, 
rocky range of hills south of Warm Springs shown on maps as 
the Mutton Mountains. The eastern end of this range drops into 
the Deschutes Canyon about 40 miles south of The Dalles and pre- 
sents lofty terraced walls that must have been a paradise for moun- 
tain sheep, as were also many of the almost inaccessible lava cliffs 
along the Deschutes Canyon up nearly to Bend. Leading into it 
from the east is the similar canyon of the Crooked River. These 
Indians had never heard of any sheep on Mount Hood or Mount 
Adams. 

In a pool hall at The Dalles there were three mounted heads of 
sheep, said to have come from High Valley, on the desert east of 
Bend. All were large heads of old rams of the same general type 
with very long, wide-spreading horns, not very heavy at the base, 
strikingly different from the usually closely coiled, heavy-based, 
tapering horns of typical canadensis. In 1915 Lon Vobrath of Bend 
told Jewett of seeing two mountain sheep in the Deschutes Canyon, 
a short distance above the mouth of Metolius River in 1885. 

From the John Day River near Fossil, where no sheep had been 
known for 50 years, two incomplete skulls were sent to the Biological 
Survey by O. A. Philbrick in 1915 and 1918. One of these is an in- 
complete cranium with horn cores but no horns or teeth. The other 
is a nearly complete cranium of a 7-year-old ram with good horns 
and most of the upper teeth in place. These heads from about 60 
miles southeast of the actual type locality certainly may be consid- 
ered typical of the species. Another incomplete head, secured at 
Maupin by Jewett in 1927, is from still nearer to the type locality 
of the species. 

Farther up the John Day River on Bridge Creek, Jewett was told 
by old settlers who came there in 1873 of bands of 50 or more moun- 
tain sheep seen in the John Day section, but he did not learn when 
the sheep had become extinct, only that none had been seen for a long 
time. 

In 1916, at Burns, the writer was told by Dibble, proprietor of the 
Burns Hotel, that 25 years ago mountain sheep were numerous on all 
the rimrock of the surrounding country, from Burns to Bend, on the 
rough rim of Dry Basin, on Glass Mountain, Rams Rock, Juniper 
Mountain, in the Warner and Abert Mountains, around Christmas 
Lake, and even out on the sagebrush plains. He said they used to 
come down to the domestic sheep herds when these were first brought 






1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 67 

into this part of the State and that the old rams would attack the 
bucks in the tame herds. The sheep herders carried guns and often 
shot them to keep them out of the herds. One of the cowboys roped 
a ram out on the desert 65 miles southwest of Burns, and about 25 
years before a ranch owner on Buck Creek shot a huge old ram on 
the rimrock close to his house. He said the sheep were common in 
the lava beds near Bend and all along the Deschutes River Canyon. 
A few years after the tame sheep came into the country, he said, 
the mountain sheep began to die of scab and he thought this disease 
caused their rapid disappearance. 

An old Indian, Captain Louis, head of the Piute Band near 
Burns, told the writer practically the same in regard to the range 
of the sheep, but said they were common all over the rimrock of the 
plains country of eastern Oregon before the white man came. He 
said they crossed the sagebrush valleys so commonly that his father 
used to hunt them on horseback with bow and arrows. He said they 
left the Steens Mountains in Winter, going west to Warner Valley 
and Summer Lake and east to the desert ranges east of Alvord Val- 
ley. Many wintered on the low foothills between the Steens Moun- 
tains and the great Alvord Playa. This part of the mountains he 
called in his language Tudu paenaque Quoipa tevewa which means, 
hills where the sheep go in winter. He said his people hunted the ani- 
mals with bows and arrows on the Steens Mountains, where they 
could get very close to them along the crest of the range. This 
undoubtedly accounts for the unusual number of broken obsidian 
arrow points scattered over the top of this range. Captain Louis 
thought there might still be a few sheep in the Wagontire and 
Juniper Mountains, where some of his people reported them in the 
fall of 1915, and that there might be a few still in the Steens 
Mountains. 

In 1916 E. L. Hibbard, of Burns, gave the writer the mounted 
head and nearly complete skin of a 2-year-old ram that he had 
killed in the Steens Mountains in November 1906, and the incomplete 
head and horns of a 4-year-old ram picked up there. The writer also 
examined another mounted head of a 4-year-old ram that he had 
and a fine pair of horns of a 10-year-old ram, all from the Steens 
Mountains. Hibbard thought at that time that there might be a 
few sheep in the Steens Mountains, but he had not known of any 
since 1909, when a band of 10 and another of 6 had been seen. 
Sheldon was told that one had been killed in 1911 by Clifford Gros- 
beck, of Narrows, and this may well have been the last sheep in the 
Steens Mountains section. In 1916 a thorough search over a larger 
part of the range by H. H. Sheldon and the writer failed to reveal 
any trace of them. Sheldon carried the search from Kiger Gorge to 
Wild Horse Canyon and over the rough Alvord slopes and pockets 
for several days without finding a trace of them. 

In 1896 Merriam and the writer found a few along the crest of 
the range near Wild Horse Canyon, but even then they were no 
longer numerous and the domestic sheep covered most of their origi- 
nal range to the crest of the mountains. 

'In the rough country east of the Steens Mountains the sheep 
seem to have entirely disappeared, although there are occasional 
reports of a few at some remote point. On a trip through the south- 



68 NOBTH AMEKICAN FAUNA [No. 65 

eastern part of the State in 1915, Preble reported them as formerly 
common in most of the rough desert ranges and on the canyon walls. 
From Jordan Valley he wrote : 

Sheep have been harassed so long in these desert ranges that they have 
been practically gone for many years and I have been unable to find any 
heads. There are said to be a few in Red Canyon, in the Juniper Mountains 
just east of the Oregon line, but there is no possibility of any in the ranges 
north of here. 

Later he was told that there might be a very few in the northern 
part of the Mahogany Mountains, east of the Owyhee River. On 
the hills in the rough lava country about Cow Creek Lake in the 
southern part of the Mahogany Mountains, he was told, they had been 
very common, but had practically disappeared about 1885. W. F. 
Schnabel told him that they had evidently died of some disease, 
as they were found lying about everywhere. In a letter of March 
21, 1916, Schnabel wrote : 

I can vouch for the extermination of the sheep. Many people think they 
were killed by cowboys and game-hogs. It is not so. They all perished during 
the winter of 1884 and 1885. They did not starve but were killed by some 
disease. I found their carcasses everywhere and grass and feed were plentiful 
in those days. 

H. D. Glover, in sending some old heads and horns of mountain 
sheep from this region, wrote on February 13, 1916: "About the 
last mountain sheep seen around here was along in the nineties. 
There were a great many here in the eighties up to 1885." 

On April 6, 1917, R. M. Horn, of Nyssa, Oreg., wrote: 

There are no mountain sheep on the Owyhee near the Duncans Ferry country 
nor have there been for 15 years. They had a disease similar to the scab 
that affects domestic sheep and died from that disease. Old settlers tell 
me they believe the mountain sheep caught the scab from the domestic sheep 
as they had never been known to have it before the domestic sheep brought 
it into the country. 

At Riverside in 1916 the writer learned from Harry Fairman 
that two mountain sheep had been killed on the rimrock of the 
high butte just north of the station about 1894, but these were the 
last he had known in that section. 

In south-central Oregon the sheep also disappeared after the coun- 
try was settled by white men. In 1905 James H. Gaut was told 
by people living west of lower Klamath Lake that mountain sheep 
had been numerous on the lava ridges near there up to 1885 and 
that the last was killed in 1890. In 1916 the writer secured two 
old heads, one with horns and the other without, from the lava 
beds near lower Klamath Lake, but could get no direct information 
on how long they had remained there nor when the sheep were 
last known in these almost impenetrable lava fields. One of the 
Klamath Indians said that, when he was a little boy, his father 
used to go down there to kill them. In 1914 Harry Telford wrote 
from Fort Klamath: 

I could find no record of mountain sheep ever occurring near Fort Klamath. 
Mr. Reams who had cattle in the lava beds in the early days says they were 
plentiful there up to the winter of 1879 and '80, when he thinks they were 
winter-killed. A large number of cattle and sheep had been run in the lava 
beds during the summer and fall of 1879 and had taken most of the feed, 
and the hard winter following finished them, 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 69 

In 1888 Merriam saw in a hardware store in Portland a mounted 
ram, said to have come from the Siskiyou Mountains, and more 
recently he was told by the Shasta Indians that sheep formerly 
occurred on the Siskiyou Mountains and also on Goosenest and Bogus 
Mountains close to the Oregon line. (1921, p. 239.) 

In 1897 the writer was told by settlers that mountain sheep had 
been numerous in the rocky ridges about Silver Lake in Lake County, 
but had then almost disappeared. A few were said still to occupy 
the high ridges northeast of Abert Lake. 

In 1914 Luther J. Goldman made a trip into the Warner Moun- 
tains to learn if any sheep remained there. He was told by the 
old inhabitants that at one time sheep had been even more numer- 
ous than antelope, ranging from 4,500 feet altitude in Warner Val- 
ley up to the summit of Mount Warner (Hart Mountain on recent 
maps). Accounts varied as to when they were last seen on this 
mountain, which seems to have been their last stand in this section. 
Some reported the last seen as 10 years ago, others as 6 years ago, 
and one trapper who had wintered near Hart Mountain claimed 
to have seen two rams only 2 years before (1912). Ranchers of 
long residence in the country told him that the cause of the exter- 
mination of mountain sheep was the close grazing of the range by 
domestic cattle and sheep, which left but scant feed for the wild 
sheep, which weakened and died of starvation or fell an easy prey 
to their animal enemies. 

To anyone who has followed closely the history of the disappear- 
ance of pur mountain sheep, it is clear that they have been destroyed 
by scabies, the disease commonly known as scab among domestic 
sheep, wherever infected domestic herds have penetrated the range 
of the wild species. Like smallpox and measles among the early 
Indian tribes, scabies swept away whole bands and left only scat- 
tered bunches that later succumbed to the disease or were finished 
by hunters or predatory animals. Death was not from starvation, 
as so often reported, for the wild sheep can always find feed on 
steep slopes and rough cliffs quite inaccessible to domestic herds. 
The insidious mites left on the bushes and ground soon become 
attached to the healthy wild sheep and produced scabby skins, sores, 
fever, and lingering death. Unfortunately this rimrock sheep of 
the low country is apparently extinct, but some other form from 
the same life zones arid Upper Sonoran and Transition could be 
introduced, and, with proper protection from infected herds as well 
as from hunting and natural enemies, would doubtless thrive here 
in its place. 

What more delightful or useful adventure could be imagined than 
to take a tract of the roughest lava-bed country in eastern Oregon, 
now idle and worthless, fence a section with inexpensive coyote-proof 
fencing, 6 feet high, stock it with a ram and a few ewes of some of 
our native sheep preferably Ovis nelsoni from Nevada, and give these 
noble and valuable game animals a chance to thrive on this most 
favorable range? Old Indians, early settlers, and a few big-game 
hunters have pronounced the mutton of mountain sheep far superior 
to that of any domestic sheep or of any other game animal of North 
America. On good range the ewes often raise twins and increase 
their numbers about as rapidly as domestic sheep. They will live 



70 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

and thrive all the year around in deserts where no other stock or 
game can, and with proper management they would make profitable 
many areas now only picturesque. Moreover they would add to the 
picturesqueness of any rocky range, peak, cliff, or canyon wall, or 
to rough black lava fields and sagebrush basins between where they 
would find just the food and shelter to their liking. Who would not 
enjoy living for a part of each year where a magnificent old bighorn 
could be seen on a cliff above or a band of ewes and young following 
a heavy horned leader up a terraced wall, bounding upward from 
ledge to ledge to look back from the skyline above ? To him who has 
the time, the means, and vision to add such a resource to our national 
wealth and progress and pleasure the world will owe a debt of 
undying appreciation. 

Family ANTILOCAPRIDAE: Prong-horned Antelope 
ANTILOCAPRA AMERICANA OREGONA 



OREGON PEONGHORN ; PRONG-HORNED ANTELOPE ; PRONGBUCIK ; AMERICAN 
ANTELOPE; TE-NA' of the Piute; CHA-O of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Antilocapra americana, oregona Bailey, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 45 : 45-46, 1932. 

Type. From Hart Mountain (Mount Warner), Oreg., collected by Luther J. 
Goldman, September 22, 1914. 

General characters. The pronghorn is about the size of a small deer, very 
slender, graceful, and swift; horns deciduous, flat, each with one flattened 
prong and recurved tip ; hoofs simple ; no dewclaws ; tail short ; colors cinnamon 
buff with strongly contrasted black-and-white markings on head and neck; a 
rump patch of white is spread at will into a great white rosette or closed down, 
is small and inconspicuous. Young similar in color to adults with white of sides 
and rump at first obscured. It is neither a true antelope nor a goat, but belongs 
to a family of one-pronged deciduous-horned animals, including one species and 
several geographic subspecies peculiar to North America. 

The Oregon specimens represent a fairly well marked form distinguished as 
follows: Size about as in Antilocapra americana, or slightly larger, with rela- 
tively larger feet, longer horns, slightly paler coloration, less black about 
face and mane, and less white on crown and shoulder stripes. Color of body 
bright cinnamon brown, becoming dark tawny on mane and pale cinnamon 
on legs and ears ; muzzle, eyelashes, spots over anterior corner of eyes, edges of 
ear tips, and in males spot at angle of jaw, black or blackish; forehead dark 
grayish cinnamon; crown and nape dull gray or dark cinnamon without con- 
spicuous white markings. 

Skull. Similar to that of americana with slightly larger, more rounded 
audital bullae. Horns in type specimen very long, slender, and wide-spreading, 
but in another buck from the type locality about as in average americana. In 
a large old male from the Carnegie Museum, collected at Hart Mountain, Oreg., 
September 11, 1927, by O. F. Fuehrer, the horns are very long and broad with 
moderately heavy basal and lateral knobs or tubercules, less extremely devel- 
oped than in peninsulae from Baja California, but much more so than in typical 
americana or meaicana. 

Measurements. Of type: Total length, 1,473 mm; tail, 90 (measured dry) ; 
hind foot, 431; ear from crown, 155 (measured dry). Skull: Basal length, 
240; nasals, 94; alveolar length of upper molar series, 70; interorbital width, 
109 ; outer orbital width, 140 ; occipital width, 84 ; horns from base over curve, 
379 and 355 (tip gone) ; spread of tips, 400. Hoofs: Hindi hoof, base to tip, 
63 ; height of front edge, 40 ; width of one heel, 17 ; of both heels, 37. Front 
foot, base to tip, 66 ; height of front edge, 41 ; width of one heel, 25 ; of both 
heels, 52. 

Specimens examined from Oregon. Six from Hart Mountain east of Warner 
Lake, and a skull from Adel, near the south end of Warner Lake. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



71 



Distribution and habitat. Antelope originally covered practically 
the western half of the United States from Mexico to Canada, includ- 
ing all of the open sagebrush country of eastern Oregon, over not 
only the valley and plains area, but the open mesas and flat-topped 
mountain ranges, and in summer even over the broad, flat top of the 
central part of the Cascade Range (fig. 9). A few were found in 
the Rogue River Valley by early explorers. Records are few and 
far back for the immediate valley of the Columbia River, but it seems 
possible that they were kept out of this valley even in prehistoric 
times by the numerous Indians living along the river. At the present 
time a few shrunken herds occupy the country between Hart Moun- 
tain and the Steens Mountains, and small bunches stray back and 
forth over some of the surrounding valleys. 

The early expeditions into what is now Oregon made little men- 
tion of antelope, mainly because the explorers rarely entered the 
open plains country, where these animals were most abundant. On 
December 5, 1825, Peter 
Skene Ogden, on his way 
from Fort Nez Perce 
(now Wallowa) to The 
Dalles and up the west 
side of the Deschutes 
River, mentions in his 
journal an antelope killed 
by an Indian about a 
day's 'journey south of 
the present town of The 
Dalles, the first meat he 
had been able to obtain 
on the trip (1909, p. 329). 
Again, on January 24, 
1826, Ogden records two 
antelope killed as his 
party of trappers proceeded slowly up the North Fork of the 
John Day River. In his several trapping expeditions for the few 
following years across the Blue Mountain country to Snake River 
and along the Malheur and Owyhee Valleys, and in the Malheur and 
Klamath Lake section, he rarely mentions antelope. As beaver were 
his principal quest, this may have been only from lack of interest 
in other game. On August 28, 1834, Townsend reported one killed on 
the upper Powder River (1839, p. 145). In his journal, September 
27, 1841, Titian R. Peale reported 5 antelope seen 1 and 1 killed in 
the Rogue River Valley. In 1914, Harry Telford, of Klamath Falls, 
reported on the authority of Reams, one of the oldest settlers, whose 
veracity he vouches for, that in the early days antelope were plenti- 
ful in the Klamath Valley and other valleys 1 in the lower part of 
Klamath County, where they were said to have been found up to 
1884. 

Except in the vicinity of tribes of hunting Indians and along the 
traveled highways, antelope seem to have held their own or increased 
in abundance u 
century ago an 
much more recent times. 




FIG CHE 9. Range of Oregon antelope in Oregon : 
Antilocapra americana oregona. Type locality 
circled. 



ajo, aiiuciujjo o^ciii irv* iictve iiciu. i/iioir uwii ui increased. 

ip to the time of settlement of the Territory half a 
id to have remained locally in great abundance till 



72 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



In 1896, when the first work of the Biological Survey was begun in 
Oregon, Clark P. Streator reported them common in the Warner 
Lake and Alvord Valleys, and in the sagebrush country along both 
sides of the Steeris Mountains. The same year, Merriam, Preble, and 
the writer found them fairly abundant in the Silver Creek section, on 
the Steens Mountains, and in the Beatys Butte, Guano Lake, and 
Hart Mountain section, along Paulina Creek and the upper Deschutes 
River, in the Klamath marshes, and on the Pumice Desert between 
Crater Lake and Diamond Lake. The same year they were reported 
by George Bird Grinnell, on authority of Lester B. Hartman, as 
plentiful on the Pumice Desert at the head of the North Fork of 
Umpqua Eiver, where several hundred had been seen (1897, p. 6). 

In 1897 Captain Applegate, in Swan Lake Valley, just east of 
Klamath Falls, told the writer that antelope had not been seen in 
that valley for 10 years, although formerly they had almost always 
been visible in the open part of the valley. On the way north from 
Lakeview to Prineville that year, antelope tracks were seen in the 
sagebrush valleys north of Summer Lake, and the animals were said 
to be common in that section, although none was seen by the writer's 
party. A few also were found that year between Tule Lake and 
Goose Lake. 

In 1910 the Forest Service supervisors reported antelope as still 
found in the Malheur National Forest, as very scarce in the Deschutes 
National Forest, and as of very doubtful occurrence in the Umpqua. 
According to Finley (1908, p. 295) L. E. Hibbard, of Burns, estimated 
the number of antelope in Harney County at not more than 2,500, and 
said that a bunch of 45, which 5 years previously had lived on the 
Rye Grass Flats southeast of Burns, had entirely disappeared. 
Farther east from Ironside, Anthony (1913, p. 5) reported antelope 
formerly ranging over the open country in northern Malheur County 
in large numbers, where as late as 1908 a band of fifteen or twenty 
had been reported near Ironside. 

In 1913 Stanley G. Jewett and Harry Telford estimated about 
2,000 antelope in the Hart Mountain section 3 of southern Oregon. 
The following year, Luther J. Goldman visited the Hart Mountain 
section where he found antelope fairly common, usually in small 
bunches, not more than 25 being seen together at a time. 

In 1915 Jewett made a careful survey of the antelope in eastern 
Oregon and sent a full report to the Biological Survey. In the 
country lying east of Warner Lakes and south to the Nevada 
line in Lake County, he estimated approximately 1,000 head of 
antelope; in Malheur County, 500; Harney County, 300; Crook 
County, 30; and Klamath County, 10; a total of 1,840 for the State. 
He was also told by sheepmen at Willows of a bunch of 18 antelope 
having recently been seen in Morrow County south of Heppner. He 
learned also from a cattleman of an antelope seen on June 10, on the 
open hills south of Lookout Mountain and east of Prineville, and was 
told that Big Summit Prairie at the east base of Lookout Mountain 
had been a favorite summer range of antelope only a few years 
before. 



8 Called Warner Mountain region in field reports to include the long low range east of 
Warner Valley. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 73 

In 1916 Deputy Game Warden F. W. Triska, of Burns, estimated 
about 1,200 antelope in the country lying between the Warner (Hart) 
and Steens Mountains, an estimate agreeing well with that of Jewett 
2 years before for a part of this same area. Other estimates, running 
up to 5,000 and even 10,000 antelope in this section seem to have been 
mere wild speculation. 

In 1915 Preble made a trip through the southeastern part of the 
State and reported antelope in the vicinity of Crooked Creek, Owyhee 
River, and in the Cedar Mountains. The same year L. J. Goldman 
reported 25 or 30 in the Mahogany Mountains of eastern Oregon. 
Also that year, J. C. Bartlett counted 72 antelope in Barren Valley 
(Oreg. Sportsman 3: 85, 1915), and the following year E. F. Mickey, 
of Jordan, wrote to the Biological Survey that while riding the range 
for 2 weeks in late winter he had counted 186 antelope between 
Barren Valley and Crooked Creek. During the previous winter, 
Mickey estimated a possible 600 or 700 antelope in southeastern 
Oregon. 

In a letter of January 8, 1916, K. N. Dahle wrote to the Biological 
Survey as follows : 

I think I can give you a fairly accurate account, as I am riding nearly all 
the time and know nearly all of the antelope. Between the head waters of 
the south fork of Malheur River and Harney Valley, 50 head ; Stockade Moun- 
tain, Soldiers' Springs, etc., 250 head; Piute Lake region and Saddle Buttes, 
300; Juniper Mountain, Bull Creek, and Rhinhart ranch, 325; Crowley to 
Willow Springs, 75; Star Mountain and Rooster Comb, 100; Willow Springs, 
Antelope Flat, and Dry Creek, 250. In fact, 1,500 would be a safe estimate in 
the territory covering a scope of country 75 miles long by 65 wide. The 
antelope are noticeably fewer than when I came to the country nine years ago. 
Since the sheep got so numerous on the Lava Desert, the antelope have been 
robbed of their main winter browse, and are forced to subsist largely on sage- 
brush and dry bunch-grass. 

Along the Malheur Eiver Valley, Jewett, in 1910, reported a few 
antelope occasionally seen by cattlemen and sheep herders. He saw 
one fine buck about 20 miles north of the Cedar Mountains and was 
told that about 14 antelope were living in that general section. 

In 1916 the writer was told that there were still a few antelope 
scattered over the more inaccessible mesa tops back from Riverside. 
A few were also reported that year in the Malheur Valley, but they 
were very scarce and hy. A few were reported that year also on 
the mesas along the northern and western slopes of the Steens 
Mountains. 

In August 1916, Olaus J. Murie made a trip from Warner Lake 
through Cjuano Lake Valley north to Desert Lake which was then 
the main watering place of the principal antelope herd. He says 
the lake is a shallow basin surrounded by lime hills and rimrocks. 
There was still a little water in it, but completely hidden .from view 
by a kind of aquatic plant on which it is believed the antelope feed. 
The lake is said to go dry usually in summer and then the antelope 
go to desert springs for water. These springs are in a box canyon 
not far from the lake, forming a series of pools and ledges of rock. 
There were 4 or 5 containing water when he was there. He counted 
75 antelope in sight at one time and presumed it was the same herd 
which came each day. While not with the antelope enough to make 
a reliable estimate of their numbers, he considered the previous esti- 



74 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

mate made by Jewett as amply covering the number of 1,500 in this 
herd. 

In 1924 Jewett estimated approximately 2,000 anterlope in Oregon, 
all in the extreme arid southeastern quarter of the State. Nelson, in 
1925, estimated from the latent reports, 2,039 antelope in southeastern 
Oregon and considered them as unquestionably increasing (1925 
p. 47). On the writer's hurried trip over eastern Oregon in Decem- 
ber 1930, the antelope were reported as showing a slight increase, 
attributed to the decrease in numbers of predatory animals. In 1931 
Jewett estimated not less than 5,000 antelope in the State, mostly in 
Lake, Malheur, and Harney Counties. 

The Forest Service game reports for 1932 gave an estimate of 150 
antelope on the Deschutes National Forest, 75 on the Fremont, and 
30 on the Malheur. 

Several attempts to create an antelope refuge in Guano Valley 
have failed through opposition of local sheepmen, who have even 
been accused of destroying the antelope to save the forage and water 
for their flocks. In 1928 a small sanctuary was obtained by the 
National Audubon Society for the protection of antelope in north- 
western Nevada (pis. 18, 19) close to the Oregon line where many of 
the Guano Valley antelope come in winter after the local herds have 
moved farther south, showing the truly migratory habits of the 
species. This refuge, now appropriately called the Charles Sheldon 
Wildlife Eef uge, has done much to save the Oregon herd, and a recent 
Executive order extending the refuge area north across the Oregon 
line through Guano Valley to include Hart Mountain should insure 
the perpetuation of the antelope in eastern Oregon. 

General habits. These graceful animals, like the swallows among 
birds, have been always the wonder and admiration of naturalists 
and sportsmen. They are unique in shedding and renewing each 
year the hollow horns and are remarkable also for the wonderful 
flashlight display of the great white rosette of long hairs over the 
rump, which are raised at will until it is the most conspicuous ob- 
ject in the landscape, or closed down until scarcely noticeable at a 
distance. In the very young, these white hairs of the rump are 
concealed by a thin layer of fine, brown hairs, which apparently 
disappear within a few weeks when the young are able to escape 
enemies by running with the mother. Few animals afford such 
wonderful contrasts in directive and protective coloration, or such 
perfect adaptation to the open country. 

They are primarily animals of the open, depending for protection 
on remarkable vision and speed. The prominent eyes on opposite 
sides of the head look forward and backward apparently catching 
the slightest motion on the whole horizon. On occasion the animals 
penetrate open forest country, usually to pass from one valley to 
another, but they are rarely surprised near any cover. An inordinate 
curiosity regarding any object or motion which they do not under- 
stand often leads to their destruction, but usually they are so wary 
and swift that until long-range rifles came into general use they 
were fairly safe from most of their enemies. 

In habits they are more or less migratory or roving, often leav- 
ing one valley for another which affords better protection or forage 
and in winter seeking the warm valleys and in summer the higher 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 75 



mesas and mountain parks. In some places, their spring and fall 
migrations extend over at least several hundred miles, while in others 
they merely go back and forth over the higher and lower levels. 
Many of the antelope of southern Oregon are reported as wintering 
in the valleys of northern Nevada. It is not improbable that it is the 
migratory habits which keep the species so uniform in character over 
a wide range from Canada to Mexico and the Missouri River nearly 
to the Pacific. The characteristics of several subspecies show but 
slight contrasts. 

Breeding habits. In eastern Lake County, Oreg., Finley and 
Jewett captured two small young on May 25, 1927, but probably the 
breeding season is not very different from that in northern Nevada 
where the fawns are dropped about the middle of May (Nelson, 19<25, 
p. 19), or in the Yellowstone Park country where the antelope mate 
in October and the young are born in May or June. Twins are 
common. If protected from enemies the antelope would increase 
very rapidly. As would be expected from their habitat in the open 
grassland, the young are without spots or marking, their buffy- 
brown colors blending well with the dry grasses as they flatten them- 
selves close to the ground. 

The horns of the bucks are shed in November, soon after the Oc- 
tober rutting season is over. A new skin begins to grow over the 
flattened bony horn cores and pushes off the hard outer shell. This 
new hairy, black skin grows, thickening and hardening, first at the 
tip, then gradually downward during the winter and following 
spring, until new solid horns are ready for the fall fighting and mat- 
ing season. 

Food habits. The antelope is a good illustration of how little is 
known of the habits of our native animals. Supposedly they are 
grass feeders. Domesticated individuals may be seen picking grass 
and other plants, but there is some evidence to show that they are 
not mainly grass feeders. In winter, at least, they pick the tips 
and buds from a great variety of bushes and plants that come above 
the surface of the snow, but they also seek the warmer slopes and 
sheltered spots where dry grass may be obtained. Too, they will 
eat dry hay of various kinds when other food is covered by deep 
snow. They are fond of alfalfa, dry or green, and often may be seen 
in an alfalfa patch picking daintily among the leaves and heads. Un- 
doubtedly, a great variety of plant flowers and seeds are included 
in their diet, for they are dainty feeders, picking skillfully here and 
there. Usually they are plump and in good condition, although 
rarely showing much accumulation of fatty tissue. 

Economic status. Half a century ago the antelope was one of the 
most abundant game animals over the western half of the continent, 
inhabiting an immense area of country. Today, their numbers are 
shrunken to comparatively small bands, mainly in Wyoming, Mon- 
tana, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, and 
Oregon. If the decrease in their numbers continues as in the past 
though recently they have slightly increased a few more years will 
number them among extinct species. For ages past they furnished 
food to native tribes, and during the exploration and settlement of 
the country, they played an important part in supplying food to 
explorers, pioneers, and settlers. Their destruction, however, has 



76 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

been unnecessarily rapid and wasteful a part of the national dis- 
grace that characterizes our treatment of so many of our best game 
animals. It would seem now a national duty, as well as an honor, 
to protect in a few scattered areas remnants of the species for the 
pleasure and admiration of future generations. No better places 
could be found for antelope preserves than on some of the wide ex- 
panse of thin-soiled lava fields of eastern Oregon, where the animals 
are still in sufficient numbers to stock the country, if given adequate 
protection. 

Antelope meat, which by many is considered one of the rarer delica- 
cies afforded by our native game, is tender, juicy, and delicate, with 
a flavor unlike that of any other meat. It has been in such demand 
as to hasten the destruction of the species, but under no circumstances 
will it again be brought into general use for a long period. Even- 
tually, when the habits of the animals are sufficiently understood, so 
that their breeding in captivity can be assured and controlled, it might 
again be added to our list of choice viands. 

No animal could be more gentle, affectionate, and lovable than 
young antelope when carefully reared and tamed. They quickly 
learn to follow a person and love to be fondled and petted. Only 
the males in maturity ever become cross or dangero'us. In many 
cases a single antelope has been kept for years in a small yard with 
only a low fence to restrict its range, and in their native climate 
they seem healthy and hardy if kept from the fatal sheep scab and 
other domestic diseases that have played an important part in their 
reduction. 

Extensive areas in southeastern Oregon that have been so long 
overgrazed that they will not support even domestic sheep would 
still carry a limited number of antelope and gradually improve in 
forage, general vegetation, and carrying capacity. The numbers of 
antelope, mountain sheep, mule deer, and sage grouse originally rang- 
ing over this arid land would, if wisely managed, add an actual cash 
value as well as a spectacular attraction to exceed by far any present 
value attached to the areas. 

Family CERVIDAE: Moose, Elk, Deer, and Caribou 

ALCES AMERICANA GIG AS MILLEB 

ALASKA MOOSE; GIANT MOOSE 

Alces ffiffas Miller, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 13 : 57, 1899. 

Type locality. North side of Tustumena Lake, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

General characters. Very large, largest of the North American deer ; antlers 
broadly flattened, many pronged in front, annually deciduous; hoofs deerlike, 
long and slender with well-developed and wide-spreading secondary hoofs or 
dewclaws ; tail very short ; color mainly blackish but with grizzling of brownish 
black on sides, and clear brownish on legs, ears, and median line of belly. 

Measurements. Type, an old male : Total length, 3,149 mm ; tail, 101 ; height at 
shoulder, 2,034. 

Distribution and habitat. The moose inhabit the timbered portions 
of Alaska. In October 1923, five moose calves from the Kenai Penin- 
sula, Alaska, were released near Lake Tahkenitch, Oreg., just north of 






North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 18 







FOUR-YEAR-OLD BUCK ANTELOPE. 

One of the young brought from northwestern Nevada in 1924 to the Grand Canyon of Arizona 
(photographed July 29, 1928). 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 19 




A, Young antelope on ranch in northwestern Nevada, captured and raised by hand for restocking depleted 
ranges (photographed when 3H months old by E. R. Sans, September 4, 1924); B, 3-year-old Nevada 
antelope in Grand Canyon (photographed by C. F. Welch in 1927). 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 77 

the mouth of the Umpqua Kiver in western Douglas County. On 
March 30, 1925, State Game Warden A. E. Burghduff, writing to the 
Biological Surey, reported these moose in excellent condition with in- 
dications that the 3 cows would calve that spring. He said the moose 
had not gone entirely wild but remained semidomesticated in the 
vicinity where released and could be readily approached at any time. 
They were seen daily by hunters and fishermen, and there seemed every 
indication that the planting was proving a complete success. The 
weight of the larger of the 2 bulls was then estimated at 1,000 pounds. 
Under date of February 20, 1928, Jewett wrote that the most recent 
report on the moose near the mouth of the Umpqua River was to 
the effect that there were 2 cows and 1 bull of the original planting 
from Alaska, 1 yearling born in 1926, and 3 calves born in 1927, 
making a total of 7 animals. Of the original 5 head, 1 had been 
killed by a railroad train and another, which became considerable 
of a pest about the ranches and dooryards, had been wounded so 
badly by a local gunner that it had died. In the game-census reports 
of the Forest Service only 2 moose were reported on the Siuslaw 
National Forest in 1929, against 9 in 1928, and 6 in 1927. In a letter 
of February 2, 1931, Jewett says the Alaska moose of Oregon are 
no more. The last bull was shot by a State deputy warden at 
Tahkenitch Lake, in Douglas County, after it had been wounded and 
blinded by a charge of bird shot by some local resident. 

ALCES AMERICANA SHIRASI NELSON 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MOOSE 

Alces americanus shirasi Nelson, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 27 : 72, 1914. 

Type locality. Snake River, 4 miles south of the Yellowstone Park, Lincoln 
County, Wyo. 

General characters. About the same size or slightly smaller and grayer than 
typical Alces americana of eastern North America; head, neck, ears, and 
legs especially grayish brown. 

Measurements. Type specimen, adult male: Total length, 2,540 mm; hind 
foot, 762. 

Distribution and habitat. The Rocky Mountains from north- 
western Wyoming and central Idaho northward to British Columbia. 

A published note by Dice, on the authority of Forest Ranger 
Floyd Kendall, reports moose as formerly occurring in the Blue 
Mountains but no longer found there (1919, p. 20). Probably the 
nearest point at which they now occur is central Idaho, but there 
are old records for the Salmon River and Payette Mountains in 
central and western Idaho, and it would not be strange if at times 
in their early abundance they occasionally extended across the Snake 
River into the Blue Mountain country, which was well suited to 
their needs. If so the form would undoubtedly be the same as the 
Yellowstone Park moose. 

Other early records or any old horns or bones ever found in this 
section should be carefully preserved and put on record as throwing 
light on the original range of this important big-game species. 



78 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

CERVUS CANADENSIS NELSONI BAILEY 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN WAPITI; ELK; PATUOHA of the Piute at Burns, Oreg. 

Cervus canadensw nelsoni Bailey, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 48 : 188, 1985. 

Type locality. Yellowstone National Park. 

General characters. Next to the moose and the Roosevelt elk, these are the 
largest of our North American deer. Antlers deciduous, large, long, with 
rounded beams and branches, normally with six prongs each in adult males; 
tail a mere pointed stub, 2 or 3 inches long ; hoofs heavy and rounded, cow- 
like; upper canine teeth present in both males and females. In winter 
pelaige, body light buffy gray; tail and rump patch, chin, eyering, inside and 
base of ear, white or buffy; head, neck, breast, and legs, dark brown, or 
nearly black on throat, with belly reddish brown; metatarsal gland white 
in buffy ring. Summer pelage, rusty brown or light bay, rump but little 
lighter; head, neck, and legs, brownish. Young, tawny, thickly spotted with 
white over back and sides. 

Measurements. Two-year-old male from the Gros Ventre, Wyo. : Total length, 
2,015 mm; tail, 160; hind foot, 670; measured in the flesh. Ear (dry), inside 
measurement, 190 ; outside from upper base to tip, 230. Skull of 4-year-old bull 
from Nebraska, basal length, 414; orbital width, 202; length of upper molar 
series, 130. 

Distribution and habitat. The elk of the Rocky Mountain region 
originally occupied the whole of the Blue Mountain timbered plateau 
in northeastern Oregon, but there seems to be no record to indicate 
that the range ever connected with that of the herds on the west 
side of the Cascades. Some of the original stock are still found in 
the Blue Mountain country, where they have doubtless become mixed 
with those introduced from the Yellowstone National Park in 1913. 
As these were undoubtedly the same form, the mixture is of little 
consequence and may even serve to add new strength to the herd 
(fig. 10). 

At Burns in 1920 some of the old residents said that in the early 
days elk were found in plenty all through the Blue Mountains, and 
that horns were picked up along the Silvies River where Burns now 
stands. Mr. Moore, of Klamath Falls, tells that in 1876 he saw an 
elk in the tule swamp on the Blitzen River between Malheur Lake 
and the Steens Mountains. In December 1930, when Malheur Lake 
nearly dried up, elk horns and bones were found on the dry bed 
where the water had receded near the mouth of Silvies River. In 
1878 Charles E. Bendire reported elk in the Wallowa Lake section, 
in the mountains east of Umatilla on the head of Silvies Creek, and 
on the head of Bear Creek in the Blue Mountains. Ten years later, 
in 1889, elk were reported in Forest and Stream near the head of 
John Day River. In 1919 George G. Cantwell, while working in the 
Blue Mountains, 25 miles north of Enterprise, wrote that " old set- 
tlers tell me that 35 years ago elk were plentiful almost everywhere 
throughout this section of the mountains." In crossing the Blue 
Mountains from the north in 1895-96, the writer saw old elk horns 
at the ranches and was told that there were still a .few elk in the wild- 
est parts of these mountains. They were scarce then, reaching their 
lowest ebb later, about 1910, not long before the Yellowstone elk 
were brought in. 

In 1912 and 1913 the imported elk were placed in the fenced en- 
closure known as " Billy Meadows " on the Imnaha National Forest. 
In 1914 the herd in the pasture was said to comprise 28 animals, in- 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



79 



eluding the 8 calves born that spring. Later the herd was reported 
as rapidly increasing, and in 1917 some of these were captured and 
transported to the Cascade Range and liberated near Crater Lake 
Reserve. Later reports have shown that the elk are increasing in 
the Blue Mountain forests. In 1915 Jewett reported quite a band 
ranging over the region of Meadow Creek on the Whitman National 
Forest, where miners and sheepmen estimated their numbers at 50 
or more. The same year Peck reported elk signs frequent in the 
Canadian Zone in Baker County between the Beaver Meadows and 
the head of Anthony Creek, and farther west elk were reported 
spreading through the lodgepole pine .forests west of the Grand Konde 
Valley, and farther south about the headwaters of the John Day 
River. The Oregon Sportsman for April 1915 reported 37 elk in 
the Billy Meadows pasture and an estimate of 265 in Wallowa 
County. In 1916, 56, including 17 calves, were reported in the Billy 
Meadows pasture, 110 in Umatilla County, and 175 in Union County. 
In 1918, 74 were reported in the Billy Meadows pasture. 

Table 10 shows the number of elk on the national forests since 
1926, according to the estimates of the Forest Service. Most of these 
may be considered Rocky Mountain elk from introduced stock but 
may include some Roosevelt's elk from native stock on the west slope 
of the Cascades. The totals indicate a steady increase in numbers. 

TABLE 10. Elk on national forests in Oregon 

[Data from estimates by U. S. Forest Service] 

CERVUS CANADENSIS NELSONI 



Forest 


1926 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


Mount Hood 


(i) 


i) 


137 


125 


125 


115 


Santiam J 


0) 


i) 


20 


20 


20 




Cascade 2 


(1) 


i) 


256 


265 


275 


1 a 330 


Rogue River 8 


0) 


i) 


60 


80 


50 


(i) 


Deschutes 


0) 


(i) 


71 


105 


110 


(i) 


Malheur - 


47 


75 


P) 


0) 


180 


0) 


Ochoco 


0) 


(i) 


n 


6 


15 


20 


Umatilla 


2,035 


2,995 


3,100 


3,085 


2,785 


3,080 


Wallowa 


669 


1,590 


2,151 


2,515 


2,770 


2,265 


Whitman 


912 


2,195 


2,597 


3,225 


3,690 


5,665 
















Total 


3,663 


6,855 


8,392 


9,425 


10,020 


11,475 

















CERVUS CANADENSIS ROOSEVELTI 



Siuslaw 


(i) 


279 


430 


440 


390 


350 


Siskiyou 


25 


30 


35 


35 


40 


45 
















Total 


25 


309 


465 


475 


430 


395 


Grand total 


3,688 


7,164 


8,857 


9,900 


10,450 


11, 870 

















1 No estimate available. 

2 Santiam and Cascade Forests now consolidated in Willamette National Forest. 
5 Formerly Crater. 

NOTE. No estimates available for 1927 or 1928. 

General habits. The range of the elk of the Blue Mountain sec- 
tion is apparently continuous with the Rocky Mountain form to 
which the name Cervus canadensis has been generally applied. Ap- 
parently their habits are the same, as they occupy typical Rocky 
Mountain forest country, moving up with the snow banks to the 



80 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

higher peaks and ridges in summer and down into the warm canyons 
in winter. When few in numbers and scattered in small bands they 
are almost as shy and wary as the deer, but where more numerous 
they collect in larger bands and in winter often come into the settle- 
ments in search of food. If undisturbed they soon become compara- 
tively tame, as they have in Yellowstone Park and the Jackson Hole 
section, where they follow the loads of hay and eat it from the 
sleighs or even from people's hands. In the mild canyons of Oregon, 
however, they will never suffer from deep snows or cold weather, 
and on the steep canyon walls they find abundance of forage that 
cannot be reached by domestic stock. With the mule deer and moun- 
tain sheep they will climb the steep, rocky cliffs for forage that even 
the domestic sheep cannot reach. 

Their only danger now seems to lie in overstocking of the range 
and starvation after the food supply is exhausted. This can be ob- 
viated by making a careful study of the carrying capacity of the 
range and by the annual removal of the surplus by shipments, hunt- 
ing, or scattering out to new ranges. 

breeding habits. The mating season begins in September and runs 
into October, when the bulls are in prime fighting trim and their 
flute-like calls and challenges are heard through the forests. Savage 
fighting takes place for mastery of the herds and the heaviest, strong- 
est bulls drive out the weaker and pass on their progeny to the 
betterment of future generations. The calves are born in May and 
June and are kept hidden away until late in summer, when, after 
losing their spots, they join the herds, but they are not all weaned 
before the early part of November. The bulls shed their antlers in 
March and April and the new sets grow, harden, shed the velvet, and 
are ready for fighting again in August. 

Food habits. While depending in summer largely on grass and 
succulent vegetation for food, elk also eat much browse, and in winter 
their main food is the tips and buds and twigs of trees and bushes, 
with such dry grass and low vegetation as are available. In times 
of deep snow they often gather the twigs and leaflets of evergreens, 
and to some extent the tree mosses and lichens. They are eager for 
salt, often making long journeys to natural salt licks. Doubtless elk 
could be kept to some extent in desired areas by a properly placed 
salt supply. 

Econovnio status. There is no finer game animal nor one affording 
better meat than the elk in its prime, and many thousands could 
be maintained on the national forests and the rough unoccupied 
land in Oregon without detriment to livestock or agricultural inter- 
ests. A good supply for hunting could eventually be provided if 
the animals could be properly protected. Besides, few game animals 
are more easily raised in captivity or become more fully domesticated 
and tolerant of fences. The breeding of elk for market has long 
been advocated by the Biological Survey, and in 1910 a bulletin on 
raising elk and deer in captivity was published but is out of print. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



81 



CERVUS CANADENSIS ROOSEVELTI MERRIAM 
ROOSEVELT'S WAPITI ; ROOSEVELT'S ELK ; OLYMPIC ELK ; MOLOK of the Wasco 

Cervus roosevelti Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 272, 1897. 
IClervus] occidentalis Hamilton Smith, Griffith's Cuvier, Animal Kingdom, v. 4, 
p. 101, 1827. 4 

Type. Collected on Mount Elaine, near Mount Olympus, Wash., by Hans 
and Chris Emmet, October 4, 1897. 

General characters. Size of Cervus canadenste nelsoni or slightly larger. 
Color darker, horns shorter, heavy and often flattened, or " webbed ", toward 
the ends. In winter pelage, the body is dark buffy brown to dark gray-brown ; 
tail, rump patch, chin, eyering, inside of ear, and spot at base rich fulvous 
or buffy brown; head, neck, legs, and breast dark brown or blackish; belly 
reddish chestnut; metatarsal gland white. Spring coat is darker than fall, 
as fulvous tips of body hair wear off; rump patch is yellow. Summer coat 
is not seen, but probably nearly uniform deep rusty or bay. 

Measurements of type. Measured in the flesh : Total length, 2,490 ; tail, 80 ; 
ear (dry), inside from notch to tip, 208, outside from upper base to tip, 225. 
Skull of type: Basal length, 
455; orbital width, 219; up- 
per molar series, 138. Weight 
of large bull estimated by 
Forest Ranger Chris Morgan- 
roth at 1,500 pounds. 

Distribution and abun- 
dance. Unfortunately 
there is not a good mu- 
seum specimen available 
for comparison of the elk 
from western Oregon. 
Several heads and many 
pairs of horns have been 
examined in the coast 
country of Oregon, how- 
ever, and they appear to 
be all of this very dark 
form, with heavy and rel- 
atively short antlers (fig. 10). There are still considerable numbers 
of these elk (pi. 20) in the coast ranges from the Columbia to the 
southern border of the State, and it is to be hoped that good speci- 

4 The name C[ervus] occidentalis Hamilton Smith, in Griffith's Cuvier, Animal King- 
dom, v. 4, pp. 101-103, and pi. opposite p. 95, 1827 ; and v. 5, p. 308, 1827, was based 
in part on a drawing and description obtained from a voyageur near Montreal who had 
" traveled in the fur countries " and had a sketch of an elk with abnormal horns evi- 
dently combining some of the characters of the mule deer, and in part on 1 of 2 pairs 
of horns in the British Museum " that there is some reason to believe were brought to 
England by Captain Vancouver." The drawings of these horns of immature animals 
merely show small double forks near the tips and no real characters of any species of 
elk. The description of an animal with tufted tail 5 or 6 inches long could apply onjy 
to the mule deer and the white markings on chin and ears and inside the legs could 
have applied to the Rocky Mountain elk, but not to this darkest of our species of elk 
with no white except a small spot on the metatarsal gland. The statement, apparently 
from the voyageur, that it resides in the utmost limits of North America beyond the 
Rocky Mountains and the possibility that the horns in the British Museum may have 
been brought to England by Captain Vancouver, and if so, may have come from the region 
of Puget Sound, has led several authors to use this name for the elk of the Olympic 
Mountains. Even if Vancouver did bring these horns to England, he may have picked 
them up in California, where another well-marked form of elk occurs, and on the next 
page (p. 309, v. 5) the statement that the mule deer inhabits the remotest parts of 
northwestern America, while as a matter of fact it does not go beyond the crest of the 
Cascade Range or into the country of the Olympic elk, shows how vague the knowledge 
of geography was at that time. There is so much doubt as to the application of the 
name occidentalis to the form of elk inhabiting the Olympic Mountains and the coast 
ranges of western Oregon that it seems unwise to use it instead of a name in current use 
based on known characters, a good type specimen, and a definite type locality. 

7209 36 6 




FIGURE 10. Range of Rocky Mountain elk and 
Roosevelt's elk in Oregon : 1, Cervus canadensis 
nelsoni; 2, C. c. roosevelti. 



82 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

mens of both summer and winter skins, accompanied by skulls and 
flesh measurements, will be preserved for museum collections and 
study before it is too late. 

Originally the elk inhabited the western slope of the Cascade 
Mountains and the region thence to the coast over all of western Ore- 
gon. In 1805 Lewis and Clark on their way down the Columbia re- 
ported elk as seen near The Dalles ; as plentiful across the river from 
Camas, Wash.; three killed near Point Adams, several near Cape 
Horn, and many taken during the winter just below the mouth of the 
Columbia (1893) v. 2, pp. 671, 734, 743, 754, 794, 795, 798, 920, 935). 
In 1811-14 Franchere reported them as abundant throughout a great 
part of the Willamette Valley (1904, PP- %4?, 3*4, &&3). In 1841 
Wilkes reported them as plentiful in the vicinity of Willamette Falls 
(1845, pp. 348, 386). In 1841 Peale reported elk in the mountains 
south of the Columbia River of unusual size and in considerable num- 
bers (1848, p. 306). From observations made about 1854, Suckley 
and Gibbs reported them as abundant in the mountains west of 
Astoria (1860, p. 133). 

Later as the country was settled, elk were reported from almost 
every valley and mountain range of western Oregon, including the 
west slope of the Cascade Mountains, but there seems to be no record 
from the east slope of the range. In recent years, under rigid pro- 
tection, apparently they have been holding their own, while in some 
localities actually increasing. The continual spread of settlement, 
though, is restricting their range, and the greater number of hunters 
each year makes it more difficult to prevent poaching in out-of-the- 
way places. 

Forest Service officials in 1910 reported elk as very scarce in the 
Siskiyou and Siuslaw National Forests, as formerly abundant in the 
Umpqua National Forest, and approximately 15 head ranging on each 
of the Crater and Cascade National Forests. In 1913, according to 
the Oregon Sportsman, there were 6 or 7 small herds in the Loon 
Lake district, about 35 miles from Roseburg. In 1914 the same 
periodical mentioned about 48 elk in Lane County, a band of 25 on the 
head of Drift Creek in Lincoln County, and a small band in Wasco 
County near the southeast slope of Mount Hood. In 1915 elk 
were reported as increasing in southern Oregon, where 31 were 
counted in 1 day. One was seen in Tillamook County, and 2 or 3 
small bands in Clackamas County. In 1916 the animals were said 
to be increasing in Lane, Lincoln, and Douglas Counties, 8 were 
counted in Coos County, and a few in Tillamook and Clatsop Coun- 
ties. In 1917 numbers were reported in Lane County, a herd of 80 
was estimated in the Fall Creek country in Coos County, a small 
band of 35 or 40 in Curry County, and a few in Columbia County. 

In the official report ot game animals on the national forests of 
Oregon for the years 1924, 1925, and 1926, a slight decrease in num- 
ber of elk is shown on the Cascade and Siskiyou Forests, and an 
increase on the Crater, Hood, Santiam, and Umpqua. The number 
reported for 1926 on the Crater was 16, the Siskiyou 25, the Santiam 
40, Mount Hood 130. and the Cascade 225 elk. This total of 436 
elk on the national forests of western Oregon probably covers the 
greater part of the Roosevelt's elk in the State in 1926. In 1929 the 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 83 

Forest Service reported on the Cascade 245, Crater 70, Deschutes 
60, Mount Hood 129, Santiam 30, Siskiyou 30, Siuslaw 279, a total 
of 843 elk in western Oregon. Most of these however, were intro- 
duced Rocky Mountain elk. 

In the big-game report of the Forest Service for 1932, 40 elk were 
estimated on the Siskiyou National Forest and 390 on the Siuslaw, all 
that can be positively ascribed to Cervus c. roosevelti, although some 
of those from the west slope of the Cascades may belong to this 
native form. 

General habits. Originally the elk of Oregon were largely animals 
of the open country as well as of the forest, but with the settlement 
of the open valleys they were soon driven back into the denser timber 
and brush land of uninhabited mountain ranges. Naturally they 
have held their own longer in the impenetrable forest and chaparral 
of the coast ranges, where the large game have all found a natural 
refuge. 

They are gregarious, often gathering in large bands that keep to- 
gether through the fall and winter, and, in part, throughout the 
year. The bulls shed their horns in February or March. The new 
horns soon begin to start from the bases and grow rapidly through 
the summer. By September they are full grown, hardened, and the- 
velvet covering is peeling off. The bulls then begin to try their 
horns on bushes and small trees, to challenge and bugle, and engage 
in fierce combats with rivals for control of the herds. Only the 
most powerful and vigorous bulls are able to pass on their characters 
to future generations and so insure a strong race. 

Breeding habits. The mating season is mainly in October, and 
the calves are born in June. One young is the rule. Twins are a 
rare exception. The young are irregularly spotted over the sides 
and back with white on a dark fulvous or tawny coat that is highly 
protective in coloration. They are hidden away in the bushes until 
old enough to run with the mother, when they gather into the bands 
again. 

Food habits. While largely grazing animals, elk also browse on 
a great variety of bushes, leaves, twigs, and branches of trees, and 
to some extent on tree lichens. They are especially fond of the devils- 
club, raspberry and salmonberry bushes, willows, blueberry bushes, 
vine maples, cherry, Ceanothus, Holodiscus, and wild rose. A great 
variety of herbaceous plants, including pea vines and clovers, are. 
eaten, as well as the rich mountain grasses. They have the advantage 
of domestic stock in a far wider range of food plants, and at all 
seasons in this region they are assured an ample food supply. Deep 
snow within their range is of rare occurrence and of short duration, 
so that winter losses of this elk are rare. 

ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS MACROTIS (SAY) 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MULE DEER; TUHUYA of the Piute at Burns 

Cervus macrotis Say, Long's Exped. to the Rocky Mountains, 2:88, 1825. (In 
2-v. ed.) 

'Type locality. Mora River, near the present town of Mora, N. Mex. 

General characters. Size, largest of our North American small deer ; antlers 
forked, often in adults twice forked ; ears very large ; tail 5 or 6 inches long, 
slender, with bushy black tip; hoofs slender and pointed; metatarsal gland 



84 



NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



above the middle of the metatarsal bone and 4 or 5 inches in length, conspicu- 
ously marked by long, coarse hair ; skull long and large with deep lachrymal 
pits; molar teeth light. Winter pelage: Body dark gray, with much black on 
the breast, forehead, nose, mane, and tip of tail ; rest of tail, large rump patch, 
and back part of 'belly whitish or buffy ; face usually dull gray, rarely whitish 
(pi. 21, A). Summer coat: Yellowish or rusty brown instead of gray. Young: 
Fawn color, thickly spotted, with white over back. 

Measurements. Of an adult male: Total length, 1,720 mm; tail, 130; hind 
foot, 510; ear (dry), inside, 200, outside, from base to tip, 240. Skull: Basal 
length, 290 ; orbital width, 142 ; length of upper molar series, 81. 

Weights of adult bucks are generally given as 200 to 300 pounds, but very 
large, fat old bucks have been recorded as high as 400 to 450 pounds. Most of 
these weights are based on dressed deer that have been brought home and 
weighed bodily or in pieces and a correction of 20 percent of the dressed weight 
added for the live weight, so that a slight factor of uncertainty is introduced. 
A full or empty stomach may make a difference of 10 or 20 pounds. A large 

buck from the head of the 
Grand Ronde River weighed 
dressed 260 pounds (Amer. 
Field 72 : 502, 1909). In Wai- 
Iowa County 100 bucks were 
reported killed in October 
1913, of which several dressed 
250 to 275 pounds (Oreg. 
Sportsman 1 (4) : 17). One 
large mule deer buck was 
killed by George B. Marsden, 
of Burns, that dressed 314 
pounds (Oreg. Sportsman 1 
(4) : 14). George Humphries 
records a buck killed at Dog 
Lake, Lake County, that 
weighed 415 pounds, but this 
was not given as dressed 
weight and is assumed to 
have been weighed entire 
(Evening Herald, Klamath 
Falls Aug. 26, 1916). The 
California Fish and Game Com- 
mission records a buck in Modoc County of 350 pounds dressed (Calif. Fish and 
Game, January 1924, p. 19) and Seton records one vouched for by Dr. Tinsman, 
of Adin, Calif, close to the Oregon line, that dressed 380 pounds (1927, v. 3, 
p. 




FIGURE 11. Range of Columbian black-tailed and 
Rocky Mountain mule deer in Oregon : l,Odocoil- 
eus columManus columbianus ; 2 O. hemionus ma- 
crotis. Type locality circled. 



Distribution and habitat. Mule deer originally occupied prac- 
tically the whole of eastern Oregon, including the dry eastern slope 
of the Cascade Mountains (fig. 11). At the present time they are 
found throughout the rough, mountainous parts of this area, well 
back from settlements and where they have received adequate pro- 
tection. They are absent from most of the open country. They are 
holding their own in the very rough parts of the Blue Mountains, 
in the Steens Mountains, and in some of the desert ranges along the 
eastern part of the State, and in recent years are showing remarkable 
increases in some sections. 

Unlike the Columbian black-tailed and white-tailed deer, mule deer 
are largely animals of the open country or open forests, and espe- 
cially of the steepest, roughest slopes to be found. Generally they 
do not depend on dense cover for protection from their enemies, 
but more on their swift flight and the advantage in being able to 
run rapidly up or down rough slopes. At one time they were com- 
mon out over the sagebrush plains, where every little canyon draw 
and rocky ridge afforded them shelter and protection. In these 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 20 




B4601M; B4602M 



A, Roosevelt's elk in typical habitat in dense forest country, Olympic Mountains (photograph by 
Mathewson); B, young bull elk in fall, with heavy neck and mane (photograph by Wm. E 
courtesy of the Forest Service) . 



W. J. 

verett, 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 21 




B4605M; B4604M 

A, Rocky Mountain mule deer buck in early winter coat, in Yellowstone Park (photographed by M. P. 
Skinner); B, black-tailed deer from western Oregon (photographed by Wm. Everett, courtesy of the 
Forest Service). 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



85 



open situations, however, they have been so easily killed that they 
are now practically confined to the forests and steep mountain slopes. 

Abundance. In the Lower Deschutes Valley and the Columbia 
Eiver Valley east of the Cascades mule deer have been scarce for 
a long time, owing probably to the great amount of hunting in 
proximity to well-settled agricultural valleys. But the best reports 
available indicate an increase on the national forests and unoccupied 
mountainous areas of eastern Oregon. 

Table 11 shows a steady increase in the number of mule deer esti- 
mated by the Forest Service on national forests from 1926 until 
1931. In 1932 the total decreased appreciably, and in 1933 a slight 
decrease continued. As some of the ranges were overstocked, this 
may however, represent a healthy tendency. The figures refer only 
to deer on the national forests but probably include three-fourths of 
the deer of eastern Oregon. A few hundred whitetails would be 
included. 

TABLE 11. Mule deer on national forests in Oregon 
[Data from estimates by IT. S. Forest Service] 



Forest 


1926 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


Wallowa 


4,500 


6,700 


8,300 


10 300 


10 640 


11 250 


Umatilla 


8,850 


10,900 


11,275 


12,200 


8,795 


7 950 


Whitman 


7,209 


14,220 


15,580 


19,550 


12 600 


11 250 


Malheur 


2,570 


3 200 


3 360 


4 710 


5 010 


5 010 


Ochoco . .- 


1,400 


1,170 


1,360 


1,850 


3,635 


3 565 


Deschutes 


1,625 


2,600 


2,800 


2 860 


3 055 


2 995 


Fremont- 


2,500 


3,000 


3,425 


4,100 


4,000 


3,980 
















Total 


28,654 


41,790 


46 100 


55 570 


47 735 


46 000 

















NOTE. No estimates available for 1927 or 1928. 



General habits. As might be expected from the prominent eyes 
and the very large ears, thes deer depend for protection from 
enemies largely on their keen senses. Their favorite bed ground 
during the daytime is on a steep slope often near the crest of a ridge 
overlooking a wide scope of country, where the approach of any 
enemy will be detected. 

To some extent the mule deer are locally migratory. Usually as 
the deep snows of winter come on they leave the higher slopes and 
work down into the foothills, canyons, and valley draws where bare 
ground and an abundance of food are generally found on steep, 
sunny slopes, or in brushy bottoms. In spring and early summer they 
migrate back toward the higher levels, and the bucks, especially, with 
their sensitive, growing horns, seek the crests of wind-swept ridges 
during the worst of the fly time. 

The bucks shed their antlers during the latter part of winter, 
varying from January to March. In April the new set begins to 
grow, and by July the beautiful brown velvet-covered antlers are 
practically full grown. In September the velvet peels from the 
hardened beams and prongs, which are soon polished and ready for 
the fall season of fighting. 

Breeding habits. The mating season throughout the Rocky Moun- 
tain region seems to be mainly in November. These deer are to some 
extent gregarious and migratory. During the mating season an old 



86 NOKTH AMEKICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

buck will sometimes gather a few does and keep off the smaller 
bucks, but more generally he will stay with one doe for a few days 
and then seek another mate. In places the herds or bunches remain 
together for at least a part of the winter. More often, though, they 
get scattered out and are kept more or less stirred up and on the 
move. Usually twin fawns are born in June, rarely 1 and as rarely 
3, beautifully spotted with white over a tawny or fawn-colored back 
and sides. The spotted coat is worn until the first molt in August or 
September, when the fawns are well grown and running with the 
mother. 

Food habits. Mule deer are mainly browsing animals, picking 
the buds, tips, leaves, flowers, and seed capsules from a great variety 
of bushes and plants. Mountain-mahogany is one of their favorite 
food plants, and the leaves, buds, and seed capsules are often closely 
browsed. Bitterbush (Purshia) and various species of CeanotJms 
are eaten, and raspberry and rosebushes are closely cropped. Only 
in early spring do they feed to any extent on green grass or newly 
sprouted grains. Generally no trace of grass is found in the stomach 
contents. 

The practice of killing bucks only should be carefully considered. 
As soon as there are too few bucks for the number of does the re- 
striction should be removed until the herd again becomes well 
balanced in sexes not more than 5 does to 1 buck. Studies of game 
management have not gone far enough to determine definitely how 
often a season of hunting both sexes should be allowed, or whether 
an occasional open season on does is preferable. But in many States 
these important questions are being earnestly considered. When 
each doe is not bearing and raising her usual two fawns, there is some 
good reason, generally not enough male deer, or too many coyotes or 
bobcats on the breeding grounds. 

Econcmtie status. Over much of the rough arid mountain country 
of eastern Oregon the mule deer is the most valuable game animal, 
suited as it is to a type of country in which neither domestic stock 
nor other game animals will thrive. If given proper protection these 
areas could support thousands of deer and provide good hunting 
where now there is little or none. The usual method of unrestricted 
hunting soon cleans out the deer in the open country they naturally 
inhabit; and only a limited license system, based on the estimated 
number of deer to be spared each year in each area, would serve to 
maintain the breeding stock as desired. 

ODOCOILEUS COLUMBIANUS COLUMBIANUS (RICHARDSON) 

COLUMBIAN BLACK-TAILED DEER ; BLACKTAIL ; ELULA of the Wasco ; MOOS-MUS of 

the Klamath (O. H. M.) 

Cervus macrotis var. Columbians Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Amer., v. 1, p. 257, 

1829. 
Cervus lewisii Peale, U. S. Exploring Exped., v. 8, pp. 39-41, 1848. Type from 

mouth of Feather River, Calif. 



locality. Mouth of Columbia River. 
General characters. Smaller than the mule deer, and darker, with forked 
antlers (pi. 21, B), medium-sized metatarsal glands, lower down on the hind 
legs than in the mule deer and higher up than in the whitetails ; tail, bushy, not 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 87 

so long as that of the whitetail, and much wider than that of the mule deer, 
whole upper surface black, whole lower surface white; ears large; skull 
relatively short and wide, with deep lachrymal pits and light molar teeth. 
Winter pelage (September to June), rich brownish gray, darker or blacker 
along median line of back from nose to tail; full top of tail, forehead, nose, 
and brisket black or blackish; legs tawny, lower surface of tail, inside of 
ears, and edges of lips white; back of belly, inside of front legs, and chin 
whitish. Summer pelage: Body rich tawny, top of tail, dorsal line, forehead, 
and nose blackish ; back of belly, inside of legs, throat, and lips white. Fawns 
thickly spotted with white over dark tawny upper parts. 

Measurements. Of adult male: Total length, 1,640 mm; tail, 180; hind 
foot, 450. Ear (dry), inside, 160, outside, from base to tip, 180. Skull: Basal 
length, 233; orbital width, 128; length of molar series, 71. Weight of large 
bucks about 200 pounds, but there are records of 200 and 219 pounds dressed. 

Distribution and habitat. The Columbian blacktails inhabit the 
region from the summit of the Cascade and northern Sierra Nevada 
Mountains west to the Pacific (fig. 11). In Oregon, they occupy also 
most of the eastern slope of the Cascade Range to its timbered base, 
their range meeting, but rarely overlapping, that of the Rocky 
Mountain mule deer. They are peculiarly animals of the dense forest 
and chaparral country of both mountains and lowlands, but they 
do not extend into the open desert country. Formerly they were 
abundant over most of their range, and they have held their own 
better, perhaps, than any other species of western deer. In many 
parts of western Oregon, they are still abundant, and with proper 
protection can be maintained in large numbers wherever the country 
is not thickly settled. The dense forests and almost impenetrable 
thickets which they inhabit protect them not only from natural ene- 
mies but to a great extent from excessive hunting. 

Abundance. In former days, from the time of the early explora- 
tions in Oregon Lewis and Clark in 1805 and 1806, Henry Thomp- 
son in 1813, Franchere in 1814, David Douglas in 1825, Nathaniel J. 
Wyeth in 1832, Townsend in 1839, Wilkes and Peale in 1848, and 
others up to the beginning of the Biological Survey field work of 
1888, there seems to have been no mention of excessive abundance 
of deer in western Oregon. Such statements as "observed ", " speci- 
men obtained ", " plenty of deer ", " a few observed ", " in great 
abundance (Franchere)", "considerable deer found here", "deer 
abound (Wyeth)", would seem to indicate no greater numbers locally 
than during recent years. The greater abundance of wolves, moun- 
tain lions, and other predatory animals in earlier times evidently 
kept the number of deer at a low ebb. In recent years the deer have 
been crowded from much of their old range in the valleys by settle- 
ments and much hunting, but in unsettled areas and on the national 
forests they seem to be holding their own or slightly increasing. 

Table 12 shows the numbers of black-tailed deer on the national 
forests in Oregon, according to Forest Service estimates. The figures 
naturally include a few white-tailed and mule deer along the eastern 
slope of the Cascades. Because of the great extent of foothill, semi- 
forested, and chaparral country in the State it seems probable that 
as many more deer occupy the range outside national forests and that 
the total black-tailed population for the State in any year may pos- 
sibly be twice the total estimated as in the national forests. 



88 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



TABLE 12. Black-tailed deer on national forests in Oregon 
[Data from estimates by U. S. Forest Service] 



Forest 


1926 


1929 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


Mount Hood 


2 500 


1 865 


5 227 


5,250 


2,340 


2,470 


Santiam i 


2,000 


2,300 


2,410 


2,510 


2,010 




Cascade 1 


4,765 


5,000 


5 227 


5,250 


5,460 


> * 7, 295 


Rogue River 8 


3,645 


5,330 


5,050 


7,565 


6,060 


4,610 


TTmpqna 


(3) 


4,350 


3,200 


3,250 


3,000 


2,900 


Siskiyou 


20 000 


13 300 


13,500 


14 000 


13,900 


6, 100 


Siuslaw. . 


6,450 


7,325 


6,950 


7,000 


7,845 


12,300 
















Total 


39 360 


39 470 


41 564 


44 825 


40, 615 


35, 675 

















Santiam and Cascade Forests now consolidated in Willamette National Forest. 

Formerly Crater. 

No estimate available. 

NOTE. No estimates available for 1927 or 1928. 

The number of deer legally killed each year, if known, would be 
of great importance as an index to numbers maintained on the range, 
but only meager data are available. In 1916 Deputy Game Warden 
J. M. Thomas reported 318 deer killed in Coos County, and esti- 
mated 7,500 remaining (Oreg. Sportsman 5 (1) : 43, 1917). In 1916 
Joe L. Skelton, of Klamath Falls, estimated 5,000 black-tailed deer 
in the western part of Klamath County west of Klamath Lakes 
(Oreg. Sportsman 5 (1) : 17, 1917). Deputy Game Warden Orrin 
Thompson, of Roseburg, the previous year estimated 2,000 deer 
killed in Douglas County (Oreg. Sportsman 4 (1) : 47, 1916). The 
same year Curry County, with a human population of only 2,628, was 
estimated to contain 20,000 deer (Oreg. Sportsman 4 (4) :242, 1916). 
It is evident that the available range and food supply would in 
many localities support a far greater number of deer than at present 
occupy western Oregon. 

General habits. Unlike the mule deer, which depend upon watch- 
fulness and rapid flight, these timber-loving deer hide in the thickest 
parts of the forest, coming cautiously out at evening to feed, and 
depending largely on stealth and caution for protection, in which 
their dark colors aid them in avoiding observation. Usually they 
are resident wherever they occur, but in some parts of their mountain 
range they are driven down by deep snows of winter to the lower 
slopes, and in summer work their way back to the upper slopes and 
wind-swept crests where the flies and mosquitoes are less troublesome. 
Like other species of deer they become very tame and unsuspicious 
when not hunted or chased by dogs, but when much hunted quickly 
become wary and difficult to nnd. 

Breeding habits. The mating season is usually in October or 
November, and the fawns are born in May or June, although there 
are many records of earlier breeding and of fawns born in March 
and April, indicating a prolonged and irregular mating season. 
The spotted coat of the fawns (pi. 22) changes to the gray coat of 
the adult in autumn, and even before the change the fawns are 
sometimes found running with their mothers. The horns of the 
bucks are shed in January or February and renewed during the 
spring and summer months. By the first of September the velvet has 



North American Fauna No 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 22 




BUACK-TAILED DOE AND FAWNS FROM COTTAGE GROVE, OREG. 
Photograph by C. A. Bartelh 






North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 23 




B 



SKULLS AND ANTLERS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER. 

A, Adult buck of the Columbian whitetail (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus], from near Roseburg, Oreg., 
collected by Stanley G. Jewett in 1915; B, type of Idaho whitetail (O. virginianus ochrourus) from Coolin, 
Idaho, collected by Frank Lemmer, December 19C8. 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 89 

usually disappeared and the horns are hard and in good fighting 
trim. 

Food habits. Most of the food of these deer consists of browse 
from the leaves, buds, tips of branches, seed capsules, and berries of 
a great variety of trees, shrubs, and other plants. Not a trace of grass 
could be found in the stomachs of a considerable number examined, 
but this does not prove that they do not at times eat green grass. 
They are fond of the leaves, buds, and seeds of many species of 
Cecmothus, commonly called buckbrush or lilac, also of the ever- 
green barberries, willows, mountain-mahogany, snowberry, blueberry, 
raspberry, salmonberry, salal, and rose. In the fall they regularly 
fatten on the abundant acorns as these fall from the trees or are 
picked from the shrubby oaks. Flowers, fruit, ferns, fungi, and 
lichens are also acceptable food. But this list of plants is a mere 
fragment of what they undoubtedly choose as food. In a dense, 
brushy, and forested country there is scarcely a limit to the food 
supply for such animals. Most of the plants eaten are not taken by 
any domestic stock. They are fond of salt and visit salt licks and the 
ocean beaches. For the most of the year they are in good condition. 
In the fall they become very fat and furnish one of the most delicious 
of wild meats. 

Economic status. The value of these game animals, living almost 
entirely on the waste products of the country and furnishing a valu- 
able meat supply and a means of attracting a large number of people 
to outdoor sport and exercise each year, cannot be overestimated. 
The importance, therefore, of protecting and maintaining them in 
large numbers is evident, and a thorough study of the habits, needs, 
distribution, and abundance of the deer should form a basis for actual 
control and maintenance of the game supply. 

ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS LEUCURUS ( DOUGLAS) 

COLUMBIAN WHITE-TAILED DEER; WHITETAIL; FLAGTAIL; FANTAIL; MOWITCH of 

the Indians (D. D.) 

Cervus leucurus Douglas, Zool. Jour. 4: 330, 1829. 

Type locality. Falls of the Willamette and mouth of Columbia River, Oreg. 
(Description based on specimens from both places.) 

General characters. Small, about as in typical virffwiarwst or smaller ; tail 
not very long; skull small (pi. 23, A) ; horns small and slender and closely in- 
curved; ears small; metatarsal glands, as usual in the whitetails, small and 
below middle of metatarsus; skull slender with shallow lachrymal pits and 
light molar teeth. Winter pelage (adult male from near Roseburg taken Jan. 
4) : Body dark brownish gray, slightly darker along back of neck; forehead 
dark brown; brisket, edge of ear tips, eyelids, nose pad, 3 spots on top and 
sides of nose and 2 on sides of lower lip blackish ; top of tail and legs clear 
ochraceous ; tip and lower surface of tail, belly, throat patch, lower lip and 
edges of upper lips, inside and spot at base of ears, inside of legs to and 
including heel gland and stripe down front legs to hoofs, leg and foot glands 
white ; sides of nose and eyering light gray ; base of hairs on top of tail dusky. 
Summer pelage and young not seen, but Douglas says they change to reddish 
brown in summer and that the young are spotted with white until the middle 
of the first winter. Skulls of 3-or 4-year-old bucks from near Roseburg are 
small and slender with slender rostrums, flat frontal regions, deep pits above 
orbits, narrow nasals and palates and very small, slender, closely incurved 
antlers. 

Measurements. Tanned skin from near Roseburg, adult male: Total length, 
1,575 mm (62 in,) ; tail, 178 (7) ; hind feet imperfect; ear, inside, 110 (4%), 



92 NOKTH AMEBICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

with larger horns, heavier skull (pi. 23, JB), longer tail, but very similar 
coloration. Not so large or dark as boreatis. Winter pelage, upper parts 
dark buffy gray, becoming bright ochraceous on top of tail, legs, and' edges of 
belly; forehead and top of head dark brown; brisket dusky; eyelids, nose 
pad, 3 spots on top and sides of nose and 2 on sides of lower lip black ; sides 
of nose and eyering light gray; tip and lower surface of tail, belly, throat 
patch, and lower lip, inside of ears, inside of legs to below heels and knees, 
metatarsal and foot glands white. Summer coat (June 25 from Coeur d'Alene 
Mountains) : Upper parts bright tawny or light bay, legs but little lighter, not 
yellowish as in macrourus, and with no real black on top of tail as in macrourus 
and borealis. Young spotted with white over back and sides. Skull very 
similar to that of macrourus with about the same type of horns, larger, more 
massive and with much heavier horns than in leucurus. 

Measurements. Type: Total length, 1,752 mm; tail, 265; hind foot, 483; 
ear (dry), inside, 120, outside, base to tip, 150. Skull of type: Basal 
length, approximately 275; nasals, 100; orbital width, 120; postorbital width, 
105; brain case, 75; mastoid width, 91; upper molar series, 74; lower molar 
series, 84. 

Distribution and habitat. This mountain valley form of the west- 
ern white-tailed group apparently occupies the lake and stream val- 
leys of Idaho, northwestern Montana, southeastern British Columbia, 
and parts of eastern Washington and Oregon, east of the Cascades 
(fig. 12). There are specimens from Buck Creek in Grant County, 
and Davis Creek in the southwest corner of Crook County, that are 
referred to this form. 

Until specimens of typical Odocoileus teucwus were recently ob- 
tained by Jewett from near Koseburg, Oreg., the deer of eastern 
Oregon, Idaho, and northwestern Montana were supposed to belong 
to that species. Comparison of the material showed that this north- 
ern Eocky Mountain valley deer is a well-marked form of the 
white-tailed group. 

Lewis and Clark in 1805 and 1806 and Douglas in 1825 and 1826 
recorded these deer along the west base of the Rocky Mountains, 
but they included them with either leucurus or macrourus, in which 
they were followed by later authors. Ogden in his journal of No- 
vember 18, 1826, while on the Deschutes River, southeast of the 
Paulina Mountains records "seven white-tailed deer brought in" 
(1910, p. %10). Newberry (1857) in 1855 reported them on the 
Deschutes (lat. 4327' and 4340'). Jewett and Murie collected 
three specimens on Davis Creek, a branch of the upper Deschutes, 
in January 1913, and 2 years later Jewett reported them along the 
Metolius River west of the Deschutes, and on Mill Creek at the 
northeast base of Mount Hood. In the John Day Valley he was 
told that they were formerly very common throughout the valley, 
and there were still a few in some of the more remote valleys north 
and south of the river. He also reported them as formerly com- 
mon In the Powder River Valley and along Pine Creek and gave 
some reports of whitetails seen in recent years. In 1916 he saw 
one in Fox Valley north of the John Day River. Preble and the 
writer obtained reports of them in 1896 near Elgin in the Grand 
Ronde Valley and saw one on the ridge west of the valley. Accord- 
ing to numerous reports from Forest Service officials, hunters, and 
residents, it appears that these deer were once an abundant species 
throughout the valley and stream bottoms of the Blue Mountain 
section, and there are evidently a few remaining in out-of-the-way 
places. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 93 

In 1916 William F. Schnabel, of Caldwell, Idaho, wrote to the Bio- 
logical Survey that in 1880 he saw two white-tailed deer on top of 
the Mahogany Mountains, in eastern Malheur County, the only ones 
he ever saw there, although he had seen hundreds of them on the 
Snake River Plains in Idaho. 

At Klamath Falls a Mr. Moore, an old resident, told the writer 
of killing a white-tailed deer near Fort Klamath about 1885. There 
are also records of deer south and west of Lower Klamath Lake that 
may be provisionally placed under this subspecies. 

In the California Academy of Science collection are a pair of old 
white-tailed deer antlers from Ashland, Oreg., collected by William 
C. Butler in 1898, and labeled, in B. W. EvermamVs handwriting, 
ki old horns from the wall." These are typical heavy, rough antlers 
of 0. v. ocJwawrus and may well have been brought from Davis 
Creek or anywhere, but they are not the O. v. leucwrus type of antlers. 
Two other pairs of interlocked antlers in the academy collection, nos. 
5579 and 5580, are labeled " eastern Oregon, bequest of Tom C. Grant, 
March 12, 1926." They seem to be typical O. v. ochrourus. They are 
old and yellow and may have been picked up long ago, possibly in 
the John Day River country. 

Another very important pair of antlers in the academy collection 
comes from Modoc County, Calif., well below the Oregon line labeled 
" South Fork of Pit River in the Warner Mountains. No. 877, John 
Rowley collection, collected October 1911, by L. H. Sisson, of 
Alturas." They are heavy rough antlers with heavy base and long 
brow points of typical 0. v. ochrourios and mark the southernmost 
point from which specimens have been examined. 

General habits. There is very little on record of the habits of these 
deer in Oregon, except that they are found mainly in thickets and 
willow bottoms along the streams and valleys. In recent years they 
are sometimes found back in the hills, crowded back probably by 
settlements. Like most of their group they are secretive and would 
rather hide than run. In the more extensive thickets and forests of 
Idaho and Montana they are still abundant in favorable locations, 
but over much of their ranges they are doomed to be crowded out by 
settlements, or killed by predatory animals as they gather on winter 
ranges and are easily pulled down by coyotes and dogs in the deep 
snows. 

ORDER LAGOMORPHA: RABBITS AND CONIES 

Family LEPORIDAE: Rabbits and Hares 
LEPUS AMERICANUS BAIRDII HAYDEN 

ROOKY MOUNTAIN SNOWSHOE HARE 

Lepus bairan Hayden, Amer. Nat. 3 : 115, 1869. 

Type locality. Near Fremont Peak, Wind River Mountains, Wyo. 

General characters. In size intermediate between the cottontails and the 
jack rabbits, ears moderately long, feet large and hairy, tail small, not con- 
spicuously white underneath. Summer coat, upper parts rusty gray, with 
much black on rump, back, and ears; belly, chin, inside of legs, feet, edges of 
ears, and sometimes speck on crown, white. Winter coat usually pure white, 
with sometimes a trace of gray or buffy over head; back of ear tips dusky. 
Young are grayish brown, without much white. 



94 



NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



Measurements. Total length, 447 mm; tail, 40; hind feet, 143; ears (dry), 
inside from notch to tip, 68. 

Distribution and habitat. This Eocky Mountain form of the 
snowshoe hare comes into eastern Oregon over most of the Blue 
Mountain Plateau. There are specimens in the Biological Survey 
collection from Wallowa, Strawberry Butte, and from near Sumter, 
and in the Jewett collection from the Ochoco National Forest, from 
15 miles north of Burns, and from Sled Springs, 22 miles north of 
Enterprise (fig. 13). Numerous records cover the Canadian Zone 
forest area of these mountains. In Oregon, however, their range 
apparently does not connect with that of Mamathensis in the Cas- 
cade Mountains. They are denizens of the deep forests and dense 
thickets, sometimes ranging to near timber line through both Cana- 
dian and Hudsonian Zones. 

General habits. While often common, these hares are less con- 
spicuous than most other species, because in summer they hide away 

in the dense growth, 
where their shadowy 
colors afford them excel- 
lent concealment. In win- 
ter their tracks and run- 
ways are often conspicu- 
ous ; but the rabbits, 
when pure white, are 
practically invisible on 
the snow fields except in 
motion. They are fleet of 
foot and have little 
trouble in saying them- 
selves when directly pur- 
sued but are much hunted 
by the Canada lynx, 
bobcats, and owls, which 
stealthily pounce upon 
them. At times they become fairty numerous and again are ex- 
tremely scarce, their abundance varying from unknown causes in 
different years or series of years. 

Breeding habits. The young of this snowshoe hare are born in 
May or June, usually 4 to 6 in a litter. They are well furred at birth 
and soon are running about getting a part of their living from the 
tender green vegetation. 

Food habits. In summer these hares feed on the tender green 
vegetation, grasses, clover, and a great variety of plants, but in 
winter their food is mainly buds, tips, and bark from the branches 
of shrubs and young trees. In spring in a good rabbit thicket the 
wild dogwood, raspberry, and a great variety of other bushes will 
be found nipped off as though by a sharp knife, and the peeled tips 
and stems lie scattered over the ground where they have been eaten. 
As the snow gets deeper the rabbits are brought up to a fresh and 
ever-abundant supply of shrubby food, and the wintertire seems to 
be their season of greatest activity and most vigorous bodily condi- 
tion. While not becoming fat as many animals do, they often show 
between the shoulders two narrow strips of tallow, which indicate 
their condition. 




FIGURE 13. Range of the three forms of snowshoe 
hares in Oregon : 1, Lepus americanus washing- 
tonii; 2, L. a. klamathensis ; 3, L. a. bairdii. 
Type locality circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 95 

Economic status. These hares are perhaps the best of all for food 
and are almost always sound and healthy. They are much hunted 
and usually prized as game animals. In some parts of the country 
they are protected by game laws. Generally, however, they are able 
to protect themselves quite effectively where there is considerable 
extent of dense forest growth. In very rare cases they have been 
known to cut young fruit trees and ornamental shrubbery during the 
winter, but usually they are not in a position to do any serious dam- 
age. In mountainous regions they may be considered practically 
harmless and of considerable value as game. In some of the na- 
tional parks and in forest areas where not hunted they show little 
fear of man and often become half tame around camps and cabins, 
thus affording one of the most attractive features of wildlife. 

LEPUS AMERICANUS KLAMATHENSIS MEREIAM 
OREGON SNOWSHOE HARE; CHI of the Klamath (C. H. M.) ; ELOOUS of the Wasco 

Lepus klamathensis Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 16, p. 100, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Fort Klamath, Oreg., January 25, 1898, by B. L. 
Cunningham. 

General characters. Size about as in the other snowshoe hares, ears medium, 
tail small, feet large and hairy ; brown in summer, and either brown or white 
in winter. Summer fur, upper parts grayish brown with back and edges of 
ear tips black; throat brownish; belly, chin, inside of legs, top of feet, outer 
edges of ears, and sometimes speck on crown white. Winter fur: Some in- 
dividuals are merely slightly grayer than in summer, but most are pure white 
all over except for dusky spots on back of ear tips. Young, like summer adults, 
but duller with little or no white below. 

Measurements. Total length, 414 mm; tail, 39; hind foot, 126; ear (dry), 
from notch to tip, 64. Weight of adult male, by Dice, 1,068 g=2 pounds 5 
ounces. (1926, p. 9.) 

Distribution and habitat. Found throughout the Cascade Moun- 
tains in Oregon from Mount Hood south to California, and in the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains south at least to Lake Tahoe (fig. 13). 
Along the' western base of the Cascades these snowshoe hares grade 
into Lepus washingtonii of the coast region, and along the east base 
they come down as low as the edge of lodgepole pine and spruce 
timber and across into the Paulina Mountains. Their range is 
mainly in the forest and thickets of Canadian Zone, where they are 
generally distributed but never very numerous. 

General habits. These forest hares are shy, secretive, and rarely 
seen unless driven from their hiding places under low evergreen 
bushes in the forest or dense thickets of willows in the creek valleys. 
Even then they are not easily seen as they slip away under cover or 
behind logs, trees, or bushes. Their well-worn trails and their pellets 
are often the only evidence of their presence. In winter their large 
tracks on top of the snow or their well-worn and often deep runways 
are better evidence of their presence and numbers, but the white 
coats of most of the hares keep them well concealed even in the open. 

In March 1914 Harry Telford, of Klamath Falls, found them plen- 
tiful in the lodgepole-pine thickets on the head of Wood River, 
where they had burrows under the snow in brushy places and around 
the tops of down trees. 



96 NOBTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Of food and breeding habits very little is known of this particular 
subspecies, but there is no reason to suppose that they differ materially 
from those of Ixdrdii and other members of the group in similar 
situations. 

LEPUS AMERICANUS WASHINGTON!! BAIBD 
WASHINGTON SNOWSHOB HAKE; BROWN HABE; RED RABBIT 

Lepus wazMngtontt Baird, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. 7 : 333, 1855. 

Type. Collected at Steilacoom, Wash., by George Suckley, April 1, 1854, 
General characters. Approximate size and general form of the varying 
hares, but more rusty or reddish brown at al], seasons, not changing to white 
in winter. Summer and winter fur, dark grizzled rusty or reddish brown over 
upper parts and throat; top of very small tail and back of ear tips blackish; 
belly, chin, inside of legs, edges of ears, and sometimes toes and speck on 
crown white; underside of tail buffy or gray. Young similar to adults, with 
less white. 

Measurements. Average of five adults : Total length, 429 mm ; tail, 41 ; hind 
foot, 125; ear (dry), from notch to tip, 62. Weight 2 pounds to 2 pounds 7 
ounces. Dice records a female carrying embryos at 1,720 g=3 pounds 12 ounces. 

Distribution and habitat. These brown rabbits occupy the lower 
country west of the high Cascades of Washington and Oregon, 
ranging to the tops of some of the coast ranges and probably all, but 
only onto the western foothills of the Cascades (fig. 13) . Their dark, 
rich colors are a product of , the humid west-coast climate of abun- 
dant rain and little snow, of dense shadowy forests and dark fern 
and chaparral undergrowth. Just how far south they go is not 
known, a specimen from near the headwaters of Kogue River being 
the southernmost of any examined. It is not improbable that they 
may range to the southern border of the State in humid Transition 
Zone of the coast region. 

Specimens from the western foothills of the Cascades clearly show 
intergradation with klamathensis, which occurs higher up the slope, 
and there now seems ample evidence of the intergradation of all 
the western forms of this group. 

General habits. The Washington hares are mainly forest dwellers, 
but in many extensive areas of dense shrubby growth they find even 
safer cover and better protection than in the forests. They are 
rarely seen except as occasionally one hops put into a road or trail 
or dodges back into impenetrable cover. Their dark colors are highly 
protective, but most of their enemies are such stealthy hunters as 
owls and cats, which pounce upon them unawares. On the upper 
slope of Chintimini Mountain the writer came on one lying freshly 
killed in the trail where a bobcat had evidently just dropped it. It 
was still warm and made a good specimen. 

In Oregon these rabbits are so scarce and so well hidden as to be 
of little value as game, but they add to the forest the interest and 
lure of a rare animal. 

Breeding habits. Dice reports females containing 3, 4, and 5 em- 
bryos and the mammae varying in number from 4 to 5 pairs, usually 
1 pair of pectoral and 3 pairs of abdominal, but in one case 2 pairs 
of pectoral and 3 of abdominal. 

On April 15, 1916, Alex Walker found a small young at Tillamook, 
measuring only 153 mm in total length, and probably only a few days 
or a week old. Dice found females containing small embryos on 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



97 



July 26, 28, and 29. At the same time, on July 28, a half-grown 
young was collected which would seem to indicate more than one 
litter of young in a year (1986, p. 7) . 

LEPUS TOWNSENDII TOWNSENDII BACHMAN 

WESTERN WHITE-TAILED JACK RABBIT; POOLALIK of the Walla Walla and Nez 

Perce" (J. K. T.) 

Lepus townxendii Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 8 : 90, 1839. 

Type locality. Walla Walla, Wash. 

General characters. A rather heavy-bodied rabbit of about the same size 
and weight as the black-tailed, Lepus c. wallawalla, but with less length of 
body, legs, and ears; tail large and mostly white at all seasons; whole body 
usually turning white in winter. In summer pelage, head, body, and legs clear 
gray; edges and back of ear 
tips and eyelids black; nar- 
row line along top of tail 
gray or dusky; feet and 
throat buffy gray; most of 
tail, belly, chin, eyering, and 
back of ears white. Full 
winter pelage generally all 
pure white, except edges and 
back of ear tips and eyelids 
black, and sometimes gray 
or buffy markings on ears, 
face, and feet. In the low, 
warm valleys many do not 
turn white in winter, but be- 
come lighter, frosted gray. 
Young more buffy gray than 
adults. 

Measurements. Average of 
typical adults: Total length, 
575 mm; tail, 79; hind foot, 
149; ear (dry), inside from 
notch to tip, 100, upper base to tip, 120. Weight given by Dice of specimen 
taken at Wallula, Wash., adult female, 3,070 g=6 pounds and 13 ounces; of 
two other females from Kiona, Wash., 2,020 and 2,690 g ; and of a male, 2,090 g 
(1926, p. 7). 

Distribution amd habitat. In varying numbers these rabbits cover 
practically all of the open country of Oregon east of the Cascade 
Mountains and range north into British Columbia, south into Ne- 
vada and California and east to western Wyoming and Colorado 
(fig. 14). From the plains of the Columbia at 100 feet above sea 
level in Upper Sonoran Zone they range up over the high valleys 
and plateau tops in grassy and sagebrush country, and in the moun- 
tains often find their way to the open slopes above timber line, well 
into Hudsonian if not Arctic- Alpine Zones. Their main range and 
abundance, however, are in Transition Zone. Their boundaries ex- 
cept on the south are largely formed by timbered areas, which they 
do not enter. On the east they grade into the subspecies campanms 
of the northern Great Plains region, but to the south are held back 
by some of the potent, invisible forces controlling zonal distribution. 
Their greatest abundance seems to be on the high plains of the 
Columbia where at times they become almost as numerous as the 
black-tailed " jacks " on the lower areas. In 1834 J. K. Townsend 
(1839, p. 325) in his description of them at the type locality said 
they never turn white in winter. They are used by the Indians and 

7209 36 7 




FIGURE 14. Range in Oregon of Townsend's hare, 
or white-tailed jack rabbit, Lepus townsendii town- 
sendii. Type locality circled. 



98 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

whites as food. The Indians kill them with arrows and in winter 
take them with nets, several hundred in a day. 

General habits. These are primarily rabbits of the grassy plains 
where they crouch, well concealed, in shallow, scooped-out forms 
under tufts of grass or in the shadows of weeds or low bushes, and 
only when almost stepped on burst from cover with a startling flash 
of white and striking colors that might well cause a momentary hesi- 
tation in a hungry coyote while the rabbit is getting safely under 
way. It certainly gives the hunter somewhat the same thrill as a 
white-tailed deer bounding from cover, or the prairie chicken burst- 
ing from the grass, and the first glance makes the rabbit seem twice 
its real size. With their puffy white tails and the white and black 
backs of their erect ears showing as they bound high and far, they 
are as remarkable for their conspicuous appearance as they are for 
their baffling invisibility when crouched with tails and ears down, 
and eyes half shut. Their speed is apparently about the same as that 
of the black-tailed jacks, and usually permits them to escape from 
all native enemies in a fair race, though not from the greyhound nor 
from the strategy of relay or pack hunting, nor from the attack of 
some of the larger winged hunters. The writer has measured their 
tracks in soft snow and found them clearing from 4 feet to 17 feet 
10 inches, the longest leaps always following 2 or 3 shorter hops. 

They have little power of defense except concealment or flight, 
but when wounded and captured alive, they will kick and strike 
fiercely with the straight, sharp claws of the hind feet, inflicting 
long, deep gashes in the hands of a careless hunter. When wounded 
or captured they sometimes utter a shrill scream of pain or terror, 
but otherwise seem to our coarse ears to have no voice. 

They are active at all seasons of the year and with their dense 
coats of pure-white fur are able to withstand the coldest of weather 
and deep snows. ^ They burrow deep in the snowdrifts and dig long 
tunnels from which they can escape at either end, and in which they 
sit during the day, screened from the eagle eyes of enemies soaring 
overhead. They have many enemies. The coyote and bobcat pounce 
upon them unawares, or when soft snow puts them at a disadvantage, 
and at times wolves hunt them systematically and successfully. 
Eagles hunt them, and hawks and owls undoubtedly get many of 
the young. 

Breeding habits. In this group of rabbits the mammae are in 4 
pairs, arranged along the sides of the belly, on 2 long parallel mam- 
mary glands. They are generally given as 1 pair of inguinal, 2 pairs 
of abdominal, and 1 pair of pectoral. The young are usually 4 to 6 
and at birth are surprisingly well developed, heavily furred, with 
eyes open and incisors showing. They are nursed until about quarter 
grown and able to shift for themselves. 

Food habits. In summer these rabbits nibble dainty grasses and 
wild clovers and a great variety of tender green plants, but the 
minute sections of grass stems in the large spheroidal pellets show 
grass to form the bulk of their food. In winter they eat the buds, 
twigs, and bark of bushes and young trees, and the increasing depths 
of snow serve to lift them to higher levels and a fresh supply of food. 
In times of scarcity the tips of sagebrush, rabbitbrush, and such 
unpalatable browse are eaten, but only when the more acceptable 






1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 99 



kinds are exhausted or are not available. Berry, and other fruit 
bushes, and trees are generally favorites. Clover, alfalfa, grains, and 
many garden vegetables are eagerly eaten when available. In some 
cases standing crops and haystacks are seriously reduced. 

Economic status. In some cases these rabbits do considerable 
mischief to grainfields, alfalfa, and clover meadows, and even gar- 
dens, but their greatest damage is probably to the grazing and in 
winter to stacks of hay, at which they often gather in large num- 
bers. Locally they also destroy some young fruit trees by cutting 
off the tops or eating the bark from the trunks as high as they can 
reach. Over most of their range, however, they are not sufficiently 
numerous to do noticeable damage and their value as food and game 
is sufficient to overbalance their slight consumption of forage and 
crops. They are rarely infested with parasites. Usually they are in 
good condition and make excellent eating. They have a good market 
value, and over part of their range might well be given sufficient 
protection to prevent undue reduction of their numbers. 

LEPUS CALIFORNICUS CALJFORNICUS GRAY 
CALIFORNIA JACK RABBIT 

Lepus calif arnica Gray, Zool. Soc. London, Proc. p. 88, 1836 (nomen midum). 
Lepus calif oniicus Gray, Charlesworth's Mag. Nat. Hist. 1 : 586, 1837. 
Lepus californiums vigilax Dice, Univ. Mich., Mus. Zool., Occasional Papers, 166, 
p. 11, 1927. 

Type. Collected at St. Antoine, Calif, (near Jolon, Monterey County), by 
David Douglas in 1831. 

General characters. Large, ears very long; dark, brownish gray, with upper 
surface of tail and tips of ears black. Winter pelage, upper parts dark buffy 
brown, darkened by long black outer hairs; top of tail and back of ears near 
tips black ; lower parts and flanks dark buff or salmon. Summer pelage paler 
and grayer than in winter. Young heavily furred at birth, dark, coarse gray, 
becoming paler and less grizzled when half grown. 

Measurements. Average of typical specimens: Total length, 604 mm; tail, 
95; hind foot, 131; ear (dry), from notch, 125, upper base to tip, 145. Weight, 
variously given as 5 to 7 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. These big rabbits extend from Cali- 
fornia northward into the open country of the Kogue, Umpqua, and 
Willamette Valleys, commonly reaching as far north as the country 
about Salem, and more rarely to the Columbia River (fig. 15). 
Nominally an Upper Sonoran Zone species, they often crowd a little 
beyond the upper limits of this zone. Generally they occupy the 
open spaces, natural prairies, clearings, old fields, and pastures, but 
more than most other jack rabbits they enter the thickets and 
patches of chaparral of the valley slopes. In most of their Oregon 
range they are not numerous, although in favorable locations fairly 
common. On November 26, 1930, nine of their crushed bodies were 
counted on the road from Eugene to Salem, recent victims of traffic. 

General habits. During the day these big brown hares lie con- 
cealed in a shallow form under some weed or tuft of dry grass where 
their brown colors blend perfectly with the dry vegetation and dark 
soil. Often depending on their protective coloration, they will lie 



100 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



until almost stepped on before bounding out and away in great 
leaps with a startling display of legs and ears and, to anything but 
a greyhound, a hopeless display of speed. Toward evening they 
may be seen hopping about, nibbling at various green plants or loping 
along to the nearest clover patch or grainfield for a choice supper, but 
always alert with sensitive ears erect and constantly changing posi- 
tion and bulging eyes keen for any approaching enemies. While 
mainly nocturnal they are also active during the evening and morning 
hours, and at any time of day if disturbed. They see well in bright 
sunlight, as well as at night, the pupils of their eyes enlarging and 
contracting to suit the light conditions. 

Breeding habits. The females have normally 6 mammae, 2 pairs 
of abdominal and 1 pair of pectoral, arranged on 2 long mammary 
glands on the sides of the belly. The young are usually 2 to 6 

in number, densely furred 
when born, with eyes 
open and incisor teeth 
well deve loped. Just 
how or where the young 
are kept hidden away un- 
til old enough to run and 
take care of themselves 
seems not to be generally 
know n. The breeding 
season appears to be very 
irregular, and in favor- 
able years it is probable 
that several litters are 
raised. 

Food habits. Green 
grass and a great variety 
of wild plants are eaten by 
these rabbits, but their favorite food seems to be clover, alfalfa, 
growing grains, and garden vegetables. In winter, or when other 
green vegetation is scarce, they eat buds, twigs, and bark, and 
seem especially fond of the bark of young fruit trees, such as apple, 
pear, peach, and plum. During the dry time of late summer they 
are most inclined to visit fields and gardens where succulent food may 
be obtained. 

Economic status. In Oregon these rabbits seem generally sound 
and healthy and are good for food and game. They are rarely so 
numerous as to be of serious importance in destruction of crops or 
orchards, and in most cases a few simple precautions will prevent 
losses. Orchards of young trees are most likely to suffer from them 
in winter or dry weather, but a paper or wire netting or wood ve- 
neer wrapped around each tree up about 20 inches will prove ample 
protection, or the few rabbits that visit the orchard may be hunted 
down and killed. In a country of abundant vegetation they have 
little effect on grazing or forage crops, but in grainfields or gardens 
they may do slight damage at times. There seems to be no record of 
their increasing to such numbers in Oregon as to become a menace 
to agriculture as they have at times in California. 




FIGURE 15. Range of the California and Oregon 
jack rabbits in Oregon : 1, Lepus californicus cali- 
fornicus; 2, L. c. wallawalla. Type locality 
circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 101 

LBPUS CALIFORNICUS WALLAWALLA MEBEIAM 

OREGON JACK RABBIT; KA-MOO of the Piute 

Lepiis texianm uallawallto Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 17 : 137, 1904. 

Type. Collected at Touchet, Wash., by Clark P. Streator, September 18, 1890. 

General characters. Slightly smaller and slenderer than typical calif orwicus; 
clearer gray with only a slight suffusion of pinky buff, top of tail and back 
of ears with the same black areas. Winter pelage, upper parts clear iron gray 
with a pinkish buff suffusion, darkened by tips of long black hairs ; top of tail 
and back of ear tips bright black (pi. 24) ; lower parts whitish bordered with 
buffy ; tip and under side of tail buffy gray. Summer pelage, paler and clearer 
gray. Young at birth densely furred, coarse buffy gray, later paler and finer 
gray. 

Measurements. Average of adults: Total length, 581 mm; tail, 101; hind 
foot, 135; ear (dry), from notch to tip, 120, upper base to tip, 140. Weight of 
large individuals given by Dice as approximately 5 to 6 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. These jack rabbits cover practically all 
of the arid sagebrush plains of eastern Oregon, from the eastern 
base of the Cascades to the foothills of the Blue Mountains and into 
Idaho, and from the Columbia River south into Nevada, mainly in 
Upper Sonoran Zone; they are so free of foot, however, that zonal 
boundaries are considerably overstepped. In places they enter the 
edge of open timber, but their main range is on the sagebrush, 
rabbitbrush, and greasewood plains (fig. 15). 

Abundance. Their greatest abundance is usually in the wide low 
valleys where water or moist areas insure at all times a supply of 
green food. In lesser numbers they are scattered over the widest 
areas at long distances from water or moist land. They fluctuate in 
numbers over a series of years and seem to have a more or less regu- 
lar increase to maximum abundance, then a rather rapid decrease 
to minimum, and again a long, slow period of increase, covering 
several years. In the summer of 1896 in central and southern Ore- 
gon, they were very common, and^in July and August of 1916 on his 
way across eastern Oregon the writer found them in groat abundance 
from the eastern edge of the State to the Malheur Valley and west- 
ward. Apparently they were then at their maximum abundance. 
They were being destroyed in great numbers and also were suffering 
heavy mortality from various diseases. Again in 1920 across this 
same route the writer found them in even greater numbers, appar- 
ently again at the crest of their abundance and also rapidly dying off 
from disease. Their abundance can best be illustrated by the num- 
bers killed. In 1915 Harney County was paying a bounty of 5 
cents each for rabbit scalps. Records show that during that year 
1,029,182 scalps were presented for bounty on which $51,459.10 was 
paid out (Oreg. Sportsman, 4 (2): 155, 1916). In 1914 several 
rabbit drives were organized in the vicinity of Silver Lake, Lake 
County, and more than 6,000 rabbits were thus destroyed (Oreg. 
Sportsman, 2 (3) : 15, 1914). In the following year, in a rabbit 
drive in Lake County, 2,000 rabbits were killed (Oreg. Sportsman. 
3 (6) : 128, 1915). In 1916 about 100 sportsmen of Union County 
made a rabbit drive near Telocaset and with shotguns killed about 
2,000 rabbits, about a thousand of which were picked up and saved. 
These few cases give some idea of the abundance of the rabbits in 
the years of plenty. 



102 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



In August 1920, on the south side of Malheur Lake, the rabbits 
were especially abundant along the edges of the lake marshes, where 
they gathered in from the sagebrush plains, which at that season were 
exceedingly dry and where little green food was available. Along 
the edges of this valley they could be seen at all times of the day. 
Standing at one point in the open just before sundown the writer 
counted 69 rabbits. In an old barnyard of about an acre where the 
saltgrass was especially green he counted at one time (about 5 p. m.) 
39 rabbits feeding on the grass. Hundreds and thousands could be 
counted as one walked through the sagebrush or traveled along the 
roads. These numbers, however, do not apply to the whole of their 
range, but usually to local areas where they have gathered in from 
less favorable country. In the immediate Malheur Valley at that 
time 5 jack rabbits to the acre were estimated, but for their general 
range not more than 1 to the acre. As they range over nearly half 
of the State, the total number of these jack rabbits may reach 
20,000,000 or more. 

General habits. Jack rabbits are largely nocturnal, but their eyes 
adapt themselves to light or darkness, so that they see well both at 
night and in the daytime. Unless disturbed, they normally sleep 
during the middle of the day and probably during the middle of the 
night also. They are especially active throughout the evening from 
a little before sundown until it is too dark for human eyes to follow 
them. They also are active early in the morning, especially just 
before sunrise ; but if the nights are cold, they usually sit and warm 
themselves in the early sunlight before hopping quietly away to their 
forms under the bushes. 

They are a homeless lot, moving where there is food and sleeping 
where they happen to be at bedtime. Sometimes they merely creep 
into the shade of a bush and sit there throughout the day unless 
disturbed, again they dig out a neat form in the shade of a bush or 
weed, fitting it to their body and smoothing it underneath until some- 
times the body is half sunk into the ground. The forms vary from 
an inch to 2 or 3 inches in depth, and some of them seem to have 
been used for a considerable time. Others are merely temporarily 
dug out and apparently never returned to. They serve various pur- 
poses. In hot weather they give better contact of the body with the 
cool earth, and in cold weather provide partial shelter from cold 
winds. At all times they aid in concealing the rabbit from its 
numerous enemies. 

The rabbits make well-worn and conspicuous trails and runways 
through the brush or weeds, through meadows, fields, and even over 
the dusty or sandy surface of the desert valleys. In many places 
seen from the roads and railway trains, these rabbit trails are a 
conspicuous feature of the landscape and indicate to some extent 
the abundance of the animals. While the rabbits are peculiarly soli- 
tary in habits, they are often so numerous as to appear social animals. 
Usually, however, they seem to pay no attention to each other, even 
where so numerous as to be feeding or sitting close together. Still 
they appear to be on friendly terms, and it is rare to see any ani- 
mosity or even playfulness among them. Apparently they have no 
calls or voices for communication with each other, and rarely make 
any sound except when captured or wounded, when they sometimes 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 103 

utter a shrill squeal or scream in very distressed tones. One night 
near the writer's cabin pitiful screams were heard repeated in fainter 
and fainter tones until they died out in the darkness. In the morn- 
ing one of these rabbits 1 was found just back of the cabin. It had 
been killed and partially eaten by some small carnivore, apparently 
a skunk, possibly the little spotted skunk that lived under the cabin. 
It was probably a sick rabbit. 

Usually jack rabbits are ease-loving animals, hopping quietly about 
in search of dainty grasses, nibbling and chewing contentedly in the 
meadows, but always on guard with long ears tilted and turned to 
catch the faintest sound of possible enemies. Their keen eyes are 
also constantly on duty; and, unless well hidden where there is a 
chance of escaping observation, they are quick to take alarm and 
speed away at the first sign of danger. A healthy rabbit in good 
running condition will easily outdistance any of its native enemies, 
wolves, foxes, coyotes, and all but the swiftest-running hunting dogs. 
In eastern Oregon their speed has frequently been tested by automo- 
bile speedometer and found to be about 35 miles per hour at a 
maximum. They are frequently run over in the roads and killed by 
cars speeding beyond this. When sick or diseased, however, their 
speed is greatly reduced and they are easily picked up by almost 
any of their enemies, even becoming so stupid and slow as to become 
a prey to skunks and badgers. 

Breeding habits. The increase of rabbits is at times very rapid. 
Again in dry seasons or in times of scarce food it seems to be rela- 
tively slow. The normal number of young in a litter is apparently 
4 to 6, but sometimes may be as many as 8. The mammae are ar- 
ranged in 6 pairs, 2 each of inguinal, abdominal, and pectoral, on 2 
long parallel mammary glands. The females give a copious supply 
of milk, and the young are nursed until nearly half grown before 
being turned adrift to shift for themselves. Little is definitely known 
of the dates of birth and the number of litters raised in a year, as 
both apparently vary with the character of the season and the food 
supply. In June, young are found varying from just out of the nest 
and hopping about, to half grown, but as late as the middle of July 
young that are not half grown are often seen, indicating an irregular 
breeding season or that more than one litter is raised during the 
season. The young are well developed and well furred at birth, but 
there is very little actual knowledge of their early life history. 

Food habits. While the Oregon jack rabbits are mainly desert 
animals that depend largely upon growing vegetation, at least during 
the summer period, apparently green grass forms the greater part 
of their food, and the youngest, tenderest grass is selected, and most 
of it is nibbled off before it is large enough for even sheep to graze. 
On favorite feeding grounds the best grasses are often cut down 
close to the surface of the ground. In very dry times when the 
young grass is not growing, the best of the other green grass blades 
are taken, even the saltgrass and tougher varieties. Tules and a 
great variety of other green plants along the marsh borders are also 
eaten. At Malheur Lake they were feeding on pigweeds (three or more 
species), greasewood, leaves and young twigs, shadscales (Atriplew 
and Grayia), rabbitbrush (T etradymia and Chrysothamnus), and 
even some of the tips of sagebrush (Artemisia} , but the stomach con- 



104 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

tents and the pellets showed that grass formed the greater bulk of 
their food in this section. Alfalfa and clover are their favorite 
foods, for which they will come long distances from the surrounding 
country. Also any growing grains and most garden vegetables are 
eagerly sought and eaten when available. In winter their native 
food consists largely of browse buds, twigs, and bark, of a great 
variety of small bushes and young trees and a deep snow helps by 
raising them to a fresh and more abundant food supply. They are 
also very fond of well-cured hay and will gather from all the sur- 
rounding country at haystacks, either of meadow grasses or alfalfa, 
the latter being apparently their favorite winter food. At times they 
gather in such numbers as to cause heavy losses to unprotected stacks. 
They often gather along the banks of ditches and edges of ponds 
and streams, but the writer has never seen them actually drink water, 
and believes that they are in search of fresh vegetation, from which 
apparently they get most of their water supply. As much of their 
food consists of saline plants, they seem not to be attracted to salt, 
as rabbits are in many other places. 

Economic status. In moderate numbers these jack rabbits would 
have a value as game animals. Even when abundant they might be 
utilized to advantage. Usually when not abundant they are in fairly 
healthy condition and are good food, especially the not-fully-grown 
young of the year, which may be used in country districts when 
other game is out of season and meat is scarce. As many of the 
diseases with which they are troubled are merely local parasites under 
the skin or in the body cavities, the use of the animals as food need 
not be seriously affected. As game animals these rabbits afford some 
sport in hunting either with dogs or as still hunted in the open sage- 
brush areas. To obtain a jack rabbit running at full speed through 
the sagebrush requires a degree of skill with a shotgun fairly com- 
parable with wing shooting. With a rifle, they tax the best marks- 
manship. If their numbers could be kept down to a harmless abun- 
dance, free of disease, they could well rank as a food and game 
animal. 

On the other hand, when uncontrolled, they become one of the 
most serious of farm rodent j)ests. Especially in the arid part of 
eastern Oregon their destruction of forage and crops has been a 
serious handicap in the development of the country. The destruc- 
tion of grass and other forage plants by the rabbits takes just that 
much from the support of livestock on the range and in pastures 
and fields. Like most arid regions the sagebrush plains were orig- 
inally fully stocked with native animals so that in dry times there 
was only sufficient food for those present. Later, as the game was 
killed and the country filled up with sheep, cattle, and horses, the 
open range generally became overgrazed and the vegetation greatly 
reduced in abundance. At present on much of the open range there 
is barely enough food left for the jack rabbits without any stock, 
and parts of the country have been practically given over to them. 
In seasons of unusual drought the food supply for the rabbits be- 
comes so reduced that these animals have to seek the valley bottoms 
for a more permanent supply. Thus their inroads on meadows and 
pasture land become serious. In the Malheur Valley much of the 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 24 




B4606-7-8-M 



OREGON JACK RABBITS. 
In typical rabbitbrush and sagebrush habitat in eastern Oregon (photographs by O. J. Murie). 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 105 

pasture land has been reduced in its carrying capacity for stock 10 
to 20 percent by the rabbits. 

In the Malheur Valley in August of 1920 on 1 square yard of salt 
grass meadow 403 rabbit pellets were picked up; most of the sum- 
mer's accumulation. These were mostly old and dried out until very 
light, but they weighed 46 g, almost 2 ounces. One hundred fresh 
pellets that had not been rained on weighed 20 g. These are rounded, 
slightly flattened bodies about one-half inch in greatest diameter, 
entirely the undigested particles of plant tissue, mainly the hard bits 
of grass stems. At 2 ounces to a square yard there would be 605 
pounds, or over a quarter of a ton of dry pellets to an acre. Just 
how much green grass this would represent is at present only a con- 
jecture, but certainly twice the weight of the pellets and probably 
more. They must at least represent more than their weight in cured 
hay. In most of the valley bottoms they covered the ground in 
great abundance, often making a complete layer over the surface 
where the rabbits had been feeding. Around the bases of the grease- 
bushes they were especially numerous, but they had generally been 
washed off the bare spots. The amount of vegetation represented by 
these pellets is enormous. Various estimates of the forage taken by 
the rabbits range from 20 to 90 percent, but these estimates are for 
local areas. To be sure they return to the soil some slight value as 
fertilizer, but nothing to compare with the heavy loss of vegetation. 

In fields of alfalfa and grain the depredations of these rabbits 
are often serious, and small fields in a rabbit-infested valley are 
sometimes entirely destroyed. Raising crops without rabbitproof 
fences has been practically abandoned in many of the valleys. Even 
so-called " rabbitproof fences " are not a complete protection, as some 
of the rabbits almost invariably find their way under or over these 
fences, so insistent are they on getting at the choice food supply. 
A supplementary protection of corral traps in the corners of the 
fields has in some cases proved effective in capturing the rabbits 
after they obtain entrance into the fields. 

Young orchards of almost any kind of fruit trees are sure to 
be injured, and in some cases completely destroyed, unless protected 
by rabbitproof fences or by wrapping each tree with paper, wood 
veneer, or tin as high as the rabbits can reach. 

Natural enemies. Babbits are extensively preyed upon by coyotes, 
foxes, bobcats, badgers, skunks, eagles, hawks, owls, and ravens. 
Many animals that cannot catch them in a fair race, pounce upon 
them while hiding in their forms or pick them up when diseased 
and unable to escape. In the Malheur Valley ravens kill and eat 
a great many, but only in the last stages of their diseased condition. 

Diseases. During August 1920 at Malheur Lake the rabbits were 
dying off rapidly from various diseases, almost as many dead as alive 
being seen along the trails, and many sick individuals so far gone 
as to be so stupid that they could be approached and picked up 
by the ears without attempting to escape. Many were watched in 
their last death struggles and then examined for symptoms. Most 
of these were heavily infested with Cutere'bra larvae, and some had 
both eyes destroyed or so crowded with these parasites as to be 
unable to see. The writer counted as many as seven large grubs 
in the head of one rabbit, and they were often scattered over the 



106 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

body just under the skin. Many of the rabbits also had tapeworm 
larvae in large bunches of transparent fluid with white specks in 
it under the skin and in the body cavities. Sometimes these bunches 
were as large as a man's fist, and several of them on one side of 
the rabbit's body seriously interfered with his speed in running. 
In some of the individuals the body cavities were largely filled 
with these cysts or groups of parasitic larvae. Other rabbits were 
dying apparently from other diseases that were not parasitic. One 
examined after the death struggle was found to have a greatly 
enlarged heart filled up with white hard tissue, congested and 
spotted liver, congested lungs, with many hemorrhagic spots, en- 
larged and softened kidneys, and dark red muscle. Apparently 
the most destructive disease, which carries off thousands of them 
at times of their greatest abundance, is tularemia, a dangerous and 
often fatal disease when conveyed to the human system through 
careless handling of infected rabbits. The disease may be conveyed 
not only by contact of the rabbit blood and body juices with the 
hands or human skin, but by the bite of ticks and flies that have 
been in contact with the rabbits. Experiments have shown that 
the germs of tularemia are not destroyed in lightly cooked or rare 
meat, but well-cooked rabbit meat may be safely eaten. 

One of the Bureau's field collectors, R. H. Becker, after collect- 
ing series of specimens of these rabbits in 1916, at the height of an 
epidemic among them, was taken with all the symptoms of tula- 
remia infected finger, swollen glands, fever, and general debility, 
supposed at the time to be from blood poisoning, and necessitating 
hospital treatment at several periods during the summer. Com- 
plete recovery was not until the following year, and since the dis- 
covery of this disease there seems little doubt that his case was 
tularemia. 

Protection from rabbits. Some of the means of defense against 
the depredations of jack rabbits have been fencing, rabbit drives, 
organized hunts, shooting, trapping, snaring, and poisoning. Fenc- 
ing is effective if carefully done and used in connection with perma- 
nent traps to capture the rabbits as they go through regular open- 
ings or in the fence corners after they have obtained admittance to 
the enclosure. At Riverside, a Mr. Fairman made a trap under 
the fence enclosing his haystacks by digging a deep pit and cover- 
ing it with a tilting cover so the rabbits would fall in as they passed 
through this only opening in the fence. Sometimes he would take 
out as many as 15 rabbits from this pit in the mornings and use 
them to feed his hens, hogs, and dogs. At a ranch on Crooked 
Creek in the Owyhee River Valley, H. H. Sheldon examined the 
traps in the corners of a large field enclosed by rabbitprpof fence. 
As fast as rabbits gained admittance they were driven into these 
corral traps in the corners from which they escaped by a small door 
into a small corral where they were killed with clubs. At each of 
these points was a pile of carcasses which well substantiated the 
ranchman's statement that he had killed 4,000 rabbits during the 
summer by this method. 

Many of the ranchmen have reported shooting over 100 rabbits 
a day with .22-caliber rifles. Near Crane one ranchman had shot 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



107 



240 rabbits in his spare time during July around the edges of his 
20-acre rye field. Drives and hunts have been referred to above. 

Poisoning is generally considered the most effective means of 
combating rabbit pests, but this must be done with great care to 
avoid the danger of killing domestic stock, especially in winter when 
the rabbits are most effectively destroyed by poisoned alfalfa around 
the stacks. Poisoning is best carried on under the directions of 
experts of the Biological Survey rodent-control force in cooperation 
with the local county agents. 

SYLVILAGUS NUTTALLII NUTTALLII (BAOHMAN) 
OREGON COTTONTAIL; SAGEBRUSH COTTONTAIL; TA-PU-OO of the Piute 

Lepus vwttallii Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 7 : 345, 1837. 
Lepiis artemisia Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 8 : 94, 1839. Type from 
Walla Walla, Wash. 

Type. Collected in eastern Oregon (near Vale), by Thomas Nuttall in 1834. 

General characters. Size medium for a cottontail, ears rather long; tail 
large and cottony below. Winter fur, upper parts light cinnamon gray, dark- 
ened by black tipped hairs; 
sides and rump ashy gray; 
nape, throat, and legs clear 
cinnamon ; upper edgfes of 
ears blackish ; lower side of 
tail, belly, chin, inside of legs, 
and top of feet white; soles 
brownish. Summer coat 
darker and duller. Young, 
fur soft and fuzzy, finer and 
more buffy gray than in 
adults. 

Measurement s. Total 
length, 352 mm ; tail, 44 ; foot, 
90; ear (dry), inside, 60, out- 
side, 70. Weight of adults 
about 2 pounds. Dice (1926, 
p. 18) gives 2 males as 768 
and 737 g; 4 females as 868, 
916, 923, and 985 g. 

Distribution and habitat. These cottontails are generally common 
over the open sagebrush valley country of Oregon east of the Cas- 
cades, mainly in Upper Sonoran Zone, but also in places extending 
slightly into the open edges of Transition Zone. They evidently 
also extend into the Rogue River Valley where Luther J. Goldman 
reported them near Ashland and collected a half-grown specimen 
(fig. 16). 

Generally they are found near rocks or cliffs where safe cover is 
afforded from a host of enemies or else in or near thick brush or 
some protecting cover. The numerous lava flows of east Oregon 
afford endless chains of rimrock, escarpments, and rocky slopes 
where they find safe retreats from which to forage out as far as 
brushy cover will afford protection. 

General habits. These little rabbits are not very fleet and are 
well aware of their disadvantage before coyotes, foxes, bobcats, or 
even the common yellow dog, In a country of badgers and skunks 




FIGURE 16. Range of the brush rabbit and cotton- 
tail in Oregon : l,Sylvilagu8 bachmani ubericolor; 
2, S. nuttallii nuttallii. Type locality circled. 



108 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

they do not dare to enter burrows, so their only protection is to 
keep within easy reach of rocky cover. They are almost as quick 
and skillful in running over masses of broken lava and dodging 
into its deep caverns as the little rock cony. Their abundance seems 
always to depend on the nature of available cover. In the rock 
slides around the base of a basaltic butte near Riverside they were 
especially common, and the writer often saw several at a time scamp- 
ering for their dens. Almost every talus slope at the base of a 
rimrock shelters a few or many. 

Like other rabbits they are largely nocturnal but usually begin 
their evening activities before sundown, and are fond of sitting 
in the morning sun to warm up after a chilly night. Often in prefer- 
ence to sitting in a dark corner under the rocks all day they occupy 
a shaded form under a sagebrush, so close to the rocks that only a 
few quick leaps are necessary to gain a place of greater safety. 

Breeding habits. Adult females have usually 4 pairs of mammae 
arranged in 2 pairs of abdominal and 2 of pectoral on 2 long parallel 
mammary glands. The young, usually 4 to 6 in number, are born 
in April, May, June, and July; but whether there is more than 
1 litter a year is not positively shown by the dates. At birth the 
young apparently are hairless, blind, and much less developed than 
the young of the jack rabbits and wood hares. They are said to 
be kept in fur-lined nests until able to run about. Few details of 
the animal's breeding habits are known. 

Food habits. Their food in summer is mainly green vegetation, 
which supplies both food and water, as there are often months with- 
out rain and usually no open water within reach. Green grass and 
numerous succulent plants are eaten, and sometimes fields or gardens 
are visited for clover, alfalfa, growing grain, or other crops. In 
winter they browse on buds, tips, and bark of many shrubby plants 
and might injure young fruit trees or shrubbery planted close to 
the rocks where they live. Their rounded pellets, scattered thickly 
where they live, are made up of the indigestible particles of plant 
fiber, much of which shows bits of grass stems and leaves in summer, 
and bits of bark and woody tissue in winter. 

Economic status. Generally these little rabbits are free from 
disease, plump, and in good condition. Occasional Cuterefira, larvae 
of botflies, are found under the skin but do not necessarily injure 
the rabbits as food. The young are especially delicious broiled 
or fried, while even the oldest and largest are good in stews or pot 
roasts with a bit of bacon or fat pork included. To many campers, 
ranchers, and newly located settlers, they have an especial importance 
when other fresh meat is not available. To the community at large 
their game value is second to that of few other mammals. 

Since the discovery of tularemia among rabbits has shown the 
danger to human beings of this disease, especial care should be 
exercised in handling any rabbits. Rubber gloves have been recom- 
mended to prevent the blood or body juices getting on the hands. 
Examination of the liver and internal organs of the rabbits will 
usually show if they are in a healthy condition and suitable for 
food. Thorough cooking should be ensured to render rabbit meat 
safe as a food. Well-cooked stew or fricassee is considered safe. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 109 

Locally they may occasionally do slight damage to crops or young 
trees, but in most cases this can be prevented at no great trouble 
or expense, and the economic value of the rabbits for game and food 
should entitle them to a reasonable degree of protection. 

SYLVILAGUS BACHMANI UBERICOLOR (MnxEE) 
REDWOOD BRUSH RABBIT; OREGON BRUSH RABBIT 

Lepus bachmani ubericolor Miller, Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila. Proc., p. 383, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Beaverton, Oreg., by A. W. Anthony, February 25, 1890. 

General oliaracters. Small and form compact; tail, ears, and legs short; 
colors dark gray, without any white. Winter fur, upper parts dark rusty 
brown, grizzled and clouded with black-tipped outer hairs, fading to clearer 
brown toward spring; sides more grayish; top of feet, bottom of tail, belly, 
and chin light gray or buffy gray. Summer coat slightly lighter brownish with 
less black. Young almost the same as adults but fur more woolly or fuzzy in 
appearance. 

Measurements. Total length, 310 mm; tail, 28; hind foot, 75; ear (dry), from 
notch inside, 52, from upper base to tip, 60. Weight of adults, 1.25 to 2 pounds. 
Dice gives weight of 3 adult females from Blaine as 768, 848, and 899 g, 
respectively. 

Distribution and habitat. These dark-colored brush rabbits occupy 
the humid coast section of Oregon from the Columbia River south 
to California, and, with the redwoods, south to Monterey Bay (fig. 
16). Generally they inhabit the brushy valley country and have 
not been taken high up even on the coast ranges. A. K. Fisher re- 
ported them at Glendale, at about 1,700 feet in the Umpqua Moun- 
tains, and they extend up the McKenzie River Valley as far as 
McKenzie Bridge at 1,800 feet. Their eastern limit of range seems 
to be the western base of the Cascade Mountains. There are no 
specimens of 8. b. ubericolor from the upper Rogue River Valley 
above Grants Pass and the presence of S. nuttallii there would indi- 
cate that they do not occupy this more open and arid valley. 

They are strictly brush rabbits, being most abundant where dense 
cover of bushes affords safe retreats, but often found in the grassy or 
weedy openings within easy reach of the thickets. They rarely enter 
dense timber, and it may be the timbered slopes of the mountains 
that keep them at low altitudes. Their short legs render the more 
open valley spaces unsafe. 

General habits. Trusting in their concealing colors, these little 
rabbits often sit motionless by the roads or trails and are passed by 
unnoticed. On damp mornings they are fond of sitting in the roads 
or trails basking in the early sunshine and drying the dewdrops from 
their coats, but they soon hop away to some well-concealed form 
under grass, sedges, weeds, or low bushes, where they sit during most 
of the daytime. Even more than most cottontails they are mainly 
nocturnal, and in the daytime are usually seen as frightened from 
their forms or chased by dogs. In the early evening they may often 
be seen nibbling the clover leaves and tender grass blades along the 
edges of open fields and pastures. 

Breeding habits. Very little is known, or on record, of the breed- 
ing habits of this group of cottontails, but they have the same num- 
ber and arrangement of mammae 2 pairs of abdominal and 2 pairs 
of pectoral as the other species of the genus and probably similar 
breeding habits. 



110 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



Food habits. Their food consists mainly of green grass, clovers, 
and a great variety of tender plants, also of some buds and twigs 
and barks of bushes. Usually they find abundance of green food at 
all seasons so that comparatively little browse is eaten. 

Economic statuts. Generally these little rabbits are plump, sound, 
and healthy, and as good as any of the group for food. Their value 
as game and food is not generally appreciated because of the abun- 
dance of larger game over most of their range, but as the valleys 
become more populous they will remain after other game animals 
are forced out. 

The slight damage to crops or bushes that they may occasionally do 
is insignificant and in most cases easily preventable. 

BRACHYLAGUS IDAHOENSIS (MERBIAM) 
PYGMY RABBIT; SAGE RABBIT; TSE-GU-OO of the Piute 

Lepus idahoensis Merriam, North Amer. Fauna, No. 5, pp. 75-78, 1891. 

Type. Collected in Pahsimeroi Valley, Idaho, by Vernon Bailey and B. H. 

Dutcher, September 16, 1890. 

General characters. A very small rabbit with short, wide skull, short ears, 

short legs, soft fur, large audital bullae, minute, all gray tail; and unique 

coloration (pi. 25). Winter 
pelage in very long, silky fur ; 
upper parts clear lavender, 
fading to maltese blue, plain 
drab, or light bluish gray; 
nape, back of ears, throat, 
feet, and legs cinnamon buff ; 
belly and chin whitish. Sum- 
mer coat, upper parts dull, 
dark gray, with buffy or cin- 
namon nape; feet and legs 
cinnamon; throat and tail 
buffy gray; belly and chin 
whitish. Young, dull buffy 
gray with clear buffy feet and 
nape, and pale buffy lower 
parts. 

Measurement s. Total 
length, 300 mm ; tail, 18 ; hind 
foot, 71; ear (dry), inside, 
45; upper base to tip, 58. 
Weight about 1 pound. Dice 

(1926, p. 28) gives 4 females as weighing 360, 384, 446, and 512 g, respectively. 

Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale give average of 12 females as 423 g and of 6 males 

as 405 g (1930, p.554). 7 

Distribution and habitat. The pygmy rabbit was first discovered 
in 1890 near Big Lost River, Idaho, and since then has been traced 
over a large part of the Great Basin, the sagebrush plains in Idaho, 
Nevada, ^Oregon, and southern Washington, and into the edges of 
California and Montana, in both Upper Sonoran and Transition 
Zones (fig. IT) . In Oregon they extend from the southern foothills 

7 Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale have placed these pygmy rabbits under the genus 
Sylvilagus on the ground of showing skeletal characters and certain habits suggesting 
relationship with the brush rabbits of the west-coast region. On the other hand they 
almost might be placed in the genus Ochotona, in another family, on the characters of 
short legs, short ears, much reduced tails, and vocal accomplishments. It seems better, 
however, not to upset the present familiar use of these names until much more thorough 
studies of all related groups are made and a permanent system of character values 
established. 




FIGURE 17. Range of the pygmy rabbit, Brachy- 
lagus idahoensis, in eastern Oregon. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 111 

of the Blue Mountain Plateau and the eastern base of the Cascade 
Kange over about the southeastern quarter of the State, wherever the 
sagebrush is sufficiently dense to protect them from enemies. They 
are absent from all open country where there is not an abundance 
of Artemisia tridentata or Ckrysothamnus and hence have numerous 
wide gaps in their range. Locally they are abundant, but only 
where conditions are most favorable. Over wide areas they do not 
occur. 

General habits. The pygmies are burrowing rabbits, living in 
well-made underground dens (pi. 25) of their own construction and 
usually in family groups, or at least the old and young together. 
Their burrows are unmistakable in both size and general plan, being 
generally about 4 inches in diameter and entering the ground on one 
side of a sturdy sagebrush and coming out on the other. There are 
always 2 and sometimes 3 or more doorways for entrance and escape, 
and while a badger is digging down on one side of the bush the 
rabbit can pop out and escape on the other side. Some old dens have 
been used for years and have many openings and seem to run deep 
down. Those dug out have been rather simple, only 1 or 2 feet deep 
and 6 or 8 feet long. Occasionally a new burrow has not been dug 
clear through, but these are generally avoided. No trace of nests 
or food was found, nor anything but enlarged chambers where the 
rabbits could sit and turn around comfortably. 

The burrows are used as refuges by the young, or as last resorts 
by adults when hard pressed, the rabbits depending more on their 
trails and regular runways for protection. The trails lead away 
from the burrows, through and under the densest sagebrush, and at 
frequent intervals between sturdy trunks where no larger animal 
can follow. The rabbits are not swift and would be easily caught in 
the open, but they disappear as if by magic in the shadows of the 
bushes. A ranch boy at Imperial told the writer that he had caught 
them on foot when they were forced out of the center of a patch of 
grain he was mowing, but that was in the down grain and stubble. 
In their trails, the writer could not catch even the young in a fair 
race. 

Apparently they are more diurnal than most of our rabbits, as 
they are often seen moving about in the sagebrush at any time of 
day, although more often jumped out of their shady retreats under 
the bushes. As many as eight have been collected in an hour, and 
probably 40 seen in that time. Some were sitting near their door- 
ways, others in shallow forms under the bushes, and others feeding 
or hopping along the trails. 

Dispositions. Often several sage rabbits are seen near together, 
but they seem not to notice each other. One half -grown young or 
the year and a larger one that the writer drove into one burrow and 
dug out were found close together in the farthest end of a side 
tunnel. They were evidently not of the same family as the larger 
one tried to keep the other out, making a scolding quer, quer, quer 
at it, until finally both were driven down. When kept in a cage 
together they frequently quarreled, and the second day, while un- 
watched, the larger one killed the other, tearing the skin off its back 
and cutting deep into the flesh with the knife-like hind toenails. 
Later the writer discovered these savage weapons by receiving sev- 



112 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

eral long cuts across his hands in trying to hold the rabbit long 
enough to move him to another cage. After a time the rabbit be- 
came quite gentle and would sit in one's lap or crawl under one's 
coat for a nap. 

Voices. Thomas Large, of Eden, Idaho, has reported these rabbits 
making a " barking sound like a half -grown chicken " from the 
mouth of their burrows, probably the same call that was heard at 
Voltage, Oreg. It is not unlike the sound sometimes made by a 
cony (O&hotona) from deep down under the rocks and may have the 
same use as a warning to others. 

Breeding habits. Adult females have the mammae arranged in 
5 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 2 pectoral on 2 long mam- 
mary glands, and the number of young at a birth are shown by 
sets of embryos to be usually 5 to 8. There is some evidence that 
two litters are raised in a season, but little is known of the actual 
breeding habits. 

Food habits. At Crane, Oreg., in July 1916, when these little 
sage rabbits were abundant, many stomachs were examined and all 
were found filled, mainly with green leaves of sagebrush (Artemisia 
tridentata). Their flesh also smelled and tasted strongly of this 
plant. One man said he had seen them up in the tops of the bushes 
picking sage leaves, but the writer has some doubt of the correctness 
of this observation. The animal observed may have been a ground 
squirrel. A few green leaves and stems of rye were found with 
the sage leaves near a grainfield. In other places and at other sea- 
sons, May to August, the writer found their flesh flavored with 
Artemisia. At Malheur Lake in August 1920 they had been feeding 
on Artemisia and Tetradymia leaves, a little pigweed (Ohenopod- 
ium), and other little green plants and grasses. In captivity, they 
ate rolled oats, three species of Chenopodiwn, Atriplex rmttcUli, 
fSarcobatus, Dondia, dock, nettles, many grasses, including saltgrass, 
cabbage, cantaloup, and apple parings, the last three the most 
eagerly. 

Their winter food is probably more exclusively sagebrush as at 
Paradise, Nev., S. E. Piper reported them in February 1908 as " not 
eaten by the inhabitants because of their strong taste of sage." 

Economic status. Although more prolific than other rabbits, these 
little fellows have but slight economic importance. Wlri^ 6 plump, 
generally healthy, and sometimes excellent eating, their small size 
and usual flavor of sagebrush render them of little game or food 
value. On the other hand, their short legs and inability to live away 
from dense cover keeps them back from clearings and settlements, 
and almost precludes any serious damage to crops, while their food 
habits are not of a nature to reduce seriously the grazing capacity 
of a range. As pets for children they might have especial advantage 
in the small size, short legs, and gentle dispositions. 

Family OCHOTONIDAE: Rock Conies 

OCHOTONA SCHISTICEPS TAYLORI GBINNELL 

WABNER MOUNTAIN CONY ; TAYLOR'S CONY ; PIKA 
Ochotona taylori Grinnell, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 25 : 129, 1912. 

Type. Collected on Warren Peak (9,000 feet), Warner Mountains, Oalif., 
by W. P. Taylor, July 18, 1910. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 25 




B23489-90 93 



PYGMY RABBIT AND ITS BURROW UNDER SAGEBRUSH, EASTERN OREGON. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



113 



General characters. This little short-eared, short-legged, almost tailless 
animal is very similar to Ochotona schisticeps from the northern Sierra 
Nevada but darker colored. Summer fur, upper parts dark buffy gray, much 
darkened over back by black-tipped hairs; top of head and face clear dark 
gray; lower parts buffy or cinnamon; back of ears and soles of hind feet 
dusky or black; edges of ears and top of feet buffy. Half -grown young simi- 
lar to adults. Winter fur unknown. 

Measurements. Total length, 180 mm; hind foot, 27; ear (dry), inside 18. 

Distribution and habitat. These dark-colored little rock conies 
go with the dark-colored lava fields of southeastern Oregon and 
northeastern California. There are specimens from the type locality, 
Madeline Plains, and Sugarloaf Mountain in northeastern Cali- 
fornia, and in Oregon from the northern end of the Warner Moun- 
tains, Adel, Jack Lake (20 miles northeast of Adel), Fort Warner 
Creek, Guano Valley, and 
the northern end of the 
Steens Mountains. Oth- 
ers reported from west 
of Lower Klamath Lake, 
Drews Creek, and the 
lava beds near the head 
of the Owyhee River are 
undoubtedly of the same 
form (fig. 18). While at 
present they seem to be 
scattered and of irregular 
occurrence, their distribu- 
tion probably is far more 
continuous and connected 
than we now realize, as 
their vertical range 
reaches from 5,000 to 9,000 
feet, and they seem to occur wherever there is suitable cover and 
extent of slide rock, or broken talus. 

General habits. While in no way related to the conies of the 
Bible, these animals are a " feeble folk " and make their homes in 
the rocks. Otherwise, they would be eaten up by a host of hungry 
enemies. Neither cold nor hot weather has terrors for them, for 
deep in their rocky caverns they can keep cool in the hottest season, 
and buried under the deep snows of winter they are comfortable and 
safe even above timber line. On fur-cushioned feet they scamper 
over the roughest rocks, silent and surefooted, alert and keen of 
sight and hearing, and quick to dive below at the first sign of 
danger. 

In a way they are social animals, working either together or inde- 
pendently, but always keeping track of each other by occasional 
calls and warning each other of danger. Their regular note is a 
nasal squeak, well described as like the bleating of a young lamb, a 
slow eamp, eamp, repeated at varying intervals and with a force 
and energy expressive of inquiry, alarm, or excitement. Usually the 
call is made from the top of a rock or the doorway of a cavern 
between rocks, but sometimes it is faintly heard from deep below 

7209 36 8 




FIGURE 18. Range of four forms of conies in Oregon : 
1, Ochotona schisticeps taylori; 2, O. 8. jewetti; 
3, O. princeps brunnescens ; 4, 0. fenisea fumosa. 
Type localities circled. 



114 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

the surface, or it may run into a trill of alarm as the animal dives 
down the nearest crevice. 

Breeding habits. In the Steens Mountains Sheldon reported the 
mammae of females arranged in 2 pairs, 1 pair of inguinal and 1 
of pectoral, on 4 widely separated mammary glands ; but in the fully 
adult females there seem to be generally 1 pair of inguinal and 2 
pairs of pectoral. There are no records of number of young for 
this form, but in others sets of 3 to 5 embryos have been noted. Very 
little is definitely known of their breeding habits. The half -grown 
young are out by July and by September are actively helping with 
the hay gathering. 

Food habits. The food of rock conies is entirely vegetable, green 
or dry. In summer they eat the tender green grasses and clovers 
and a host of other plants, including the leaves, flowers, buds, and 
stems of most of the species growing on or around the rock slide; 
and in autumn these same plants are cut and carried under the 
shelter of some large boulder and stacked up green to cure for 
winter food. The plants dry slowly and keep as green and fresh 
as the best cured hay, and there is generally an ample supply for a 
long winter under the deep snow. Sometimes their haystacks are 
made up mainly of grass, but more often they are a mixture of all 
the plants available. In the Warner Mountains', the writer recog- 
nized in one the leaves and twigs of aspen, Ceanothm velutinus, wild 
currant, Spiraea, Symphoricarpos, Eriogonwm, Phacelia, mint, and 
grass, but there were many other plants represented. In the Steens 
Mountains H. H. Sheldon saw them feeding on the leaves of the 
bitterbrush, Purs Ma. They sometimes store even the green twigs of 
sagebrush. 

Economic statins. Few rodents are so entirely harmless as these 
little fellows or of more fascinating interest where they can be 
watched and studied. Although good eating they are too small to be 
classed as game. May they long remain to stack their hay and 
enliven the rock slides with their cheery squeaks. 

OCHOTONA SCHISTICEPS JEWETTI HOWELL 
BLUE MOUNTAIN CONY; JEWETT'S CONY 

Ochotona schisticeps jewetti Howell, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 32: 100, 1919. 

Type. Collected at head of Pine Creek, near Cornucopia, Oreg., by Stanley 
G. Jewett, September 3, 1915. 

General characters. Darker colored than scMstteeps and paler than taylori. 
Summer pelage, upper parts cinnamon gray, becoming ashy gray across back of 
neck ; ears dark gray or dusky with whitish margins ; feet and belly buffy ; 
throat and cheeks cinnamon; chin whitish. 

Measurements. Total length, 182 mm; hind foot, 31; ear (dry), from notch 
to tip, 18. Weight: Dice gives 2 males as weighing 178 and 180 g, and 2 
females as 150 and 182 g, respectively. (1926, p. 8.) 

Distribution and habitat. In the higher parts of the Blue Moun- 
tains these gray conies occupy the granite and other gray rock slopes 
from the base of the mountains at 5,000 feet up to above timber line 
at 10,000 feet. In no place has the writer found them in the dark- 
colored lava rock with which their colors would not harmonize. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 115 

There are specimens from, Pine Creek, near Cornucopia, near 
Anthony, Forks of Imnaha, Crescent Peak in the Wallowa Moun- 
tains, Aneroid Lake, Bourne, near Austin, Strawberry Butte, and 
Strawberry Lake. Others reported in the Wallowa and Baker 
ranges undoubtedly belong to- the same species (fig. 18). Ex- 
tensive masses of broken rock on the mountain slopes, sometimes the 
talus from high cliffs, sometimes old moraines or washed-out rock 
beds are their usual homes; but always there must be a safe depth 
under the surface of the rocky mass to afford cover and protection. 
Rarely, if ever, are they found beyond the cover of their rocky 
strongholds. 

General habits. So perfectly do these little gray bodies harmonize 
with the broken rocks among which they live that they are rarely 
seen until their familiar call note, a slow nasal camp, or amp, is 
squeaked from the rock slide. Even then one's eyes may fail to 
detect the form until the head is turned, the ears raised for another 
amp, or some other motion catches the eye. Although gentle and 
timid they have much curiosity and cannot refrain from peeping at 
one from one point and then another; and if the observer has 
patience the animals usually come closer and closer until often good 
photographs can be obtained. The writer has had them within 
4 feet of the camera, but could not change the focal distance before 
they were gone. Their furry soles make no sound on the rocks and 
never miss their footing, and but for their shrill little voices few 
people would ever know of their presence. 

Their busiest, and perhaps most noisy season, is during hay- 
gathering time late in summer, especially just before a rain or snow- 
storm, when they work with frantic haste and energy. 

Breeding habits. On the north slope of Strawberry Butte, July 
10, 1915, Jewett collected 2 females that contained 4 foetuses each, 
and on the same date collected a half -grown young. This may mean 
that 2 litters are raised in a season, but more probably that the 
breeding season is irregular and that the young of the previous year 
do not breed so early as do the more fully adult females. 

Food habits. Like all of the family they are great storers, and 
their winter food is better known than the summer, as the well-cured 
plants in their stacks of winter hay are as easily recognized as in the 
herbarium. Usually the plants stored include all of the species 
within easy reach of the home rock-slide, and a few feet beyond its 
margins grasses, small herbaceous plants, weeds, and bushes. 

On the side; of Crescent Peak, above Aneroid Lake in the Wal- 
lowa Mountains, in mid-September 1897, they were found up to 
500 feet above timber line, where they were still working about, 
digging out a few little plants that stuck up through newly fallen 
snow and adding them to already full larders in dry cavities under 
the rocks. The previous year up to July 13, on Strawberry Butte, 
they had not begun to store their winter's hay, and only the sticks 
and refuse of the previous winter's stacks were to be found. In the 
early part of August 1915, near Bourne, in the Baker Range, Jewett 
found them with small stores largely composed of chokeberry leaves. 



116 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

OCHOTONA PRINCEPS BRUNNESCENS HOWELL 

BROWN CONY; CASCADE CONY 

Ochotona fenisex brunnescens Howell, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 32 : 108, 1919. 

Type. Collected a,t Keechelus, Wash., by George G. Cantwell, August 23, 
1917. 

General characters. Slightly larger than the other Oregon forms, rather 
uniformly brownish. Summer fur, whole upper parts, except ears, uniform cin- 
namon brown, slightly darkened over back by black-tipped hairs ; ears blackish, 
margined with white; belly buffy; throat clear cinnamon. Half -grown young 
very similar to adults in coloration. 

Measurements. Total length, 205 mm; hind foot, 34; ear (dry), from notch 
20. Weight : Two males, 143 and 152 g ; of 2 females 153 and 170 g, respectively, 
(Dice, 1926, p. 3). 

Distribution and habitat. Extending from British Columbia 
down through the Cascades of Waslri n gt on 5 these brown conies 
occur on Mount Hood, and in the high part of the range on Mount 
Thielsen at Crater Lake and Anna Creek, and on and around Mount 
McLoughlin, mainly above the black lava flows of the lower levels 
(fig. 18). Generally the rock slides in which they live are of the 
dark-gray basalts, more or less covered with lichens and mosses, 
with which their colors harmonize perfectly. 

General habits. Like other species of the group, the brown conies 
live in the cavities of deep masses of broken rocks, the talus from 
cliffs and peaks, or the slide rock on steep slopes, where they feed 
and play and squeak in summer, stack their hay under the rocks in 
autumn, and live buried under deep snow in winter. In the spring 
only the sticks and hard parts of their haystacks remain under the 
rocks with handfuls of little dry, hard, shotlike pellets to mark their 
feeding and sitting places and runs. In summer their interesting 
ways are readily observed by all who visit the mountains, but little 
is known of their winter life deep under the snow and rocks. 

OCHOTONA FENISEX FUMOSA HOWELL 
DUSKY CONY 

Ochotona fenise fumosa Howell, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 32: 109, 1919. 

Type. Collected at Permilia Lake, west base of Mount Jefferson, Oreg., by 
J. Alden Loring, October 4, 1897. 

General characters. Medium size, and very dark. Whole upper parts dark 
grayish brown, much darkened over the back by black-tipped hairs, sides more 
brownish ; ears dusky with buffy margins ; lower parts and feet buffy or brown- 
ish gray ; soles of hind feet dusky ; darkest in fresh fall pelage. Young similar 
to adults. 

Measurements. Total length, 200 mm; hind foot, 32; ear (dry), from notch, 
19. 

Distribution and habitat. This very dark-colored cony is merely 
a local color-form inhabiting the fresh, dark lava flows of the 1 lower 
slopes of the Cascade Range south of Mount Hood. There are 
specimens from the west slope of Mount Jefferson, the Clackamas 
River, 15 miles above Estacada, a few miles above McKenzie Bridge, 
and around the base of the Three Sisters Peaks. Those reported by 
Stanley G. Jewett and R. Bruce Horsfall from near Multnomah 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 26 




SILVER GRAY SQUIRREL AND FLYING SQUIRREL. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 117 

Falls, and by Luther J. Goldman from the Paulina Mountains, also 
may be this form (fig. 18). 

General habits. From other forms, the dusky conies differ only 
in adaptation to their peculiar habitat, dark lava rocks and a humid 
climate, the two factors that seem to have produced the dark- 
colored race. They live under and among the rocks, run over the 
rough surfaces with their well-cushioned feet, or sit still and invisi- 
ble at their dark doorways. The shade of more or less dense vege- 
tation around the edges of the rock slides where they gather their 
food conceals and protects them from hungry and keen-eyed ene- 
mies. 

At the base of the Three Sisters one very small young was taken 
the middle of July, but generally the young were not yet appear- 
ing at the surface of the rocks and the old conies were keeping 
very quiet. 

Their winter stores of food seem to include most of the plants 
within reach of their homes, but only the left-over refuse has been 
examined, and the species of plants have not been listed. 

A marten caught in a trap set for mountain beaver had its stomach 
well filled with cony fur and in other places martens have been 
found hunting them. As a source of marten food conies may have 
a greater value than some more conspicuous game animals. 

ORDER RODENTIA: GNAWING MAMMALS 

Family SCIURIDAE: Squirrels, Chipmunks, and Woodchucks 

SCIURUS GRISEUS GRISEUS ORD 

SILVER GRAY SQUIRREL; COLUMBIAN GRAY SQUIRREL; CUDON of the Wasco at 

The Dalles 

Sciurus griseus Ord, Jour. Phys. 87: 152, 1818, from description by Lewis and 
Clark. 

Type locality. The Dalles, Oreg. No type specimen. 

General characters. Large (pi. 26) ; tail very long and plumose; ears rather 
long, not tufted. Upper parts clear bright gray, much frosted by white-tipped 
hairs; tail gray above and below, edged and tipped with white beyond an obscure 
zone of concealed black; top of feet dark gray; back of ears rusty brown; 
whole lower parts, except tail, white. Color essentially the same at all sea- 
sons; fur short and harsh in summer, full and soft in winter pelage. 

Measurements. Total length, 570 mm; tail, 270; hind foot, 82; ear (dry), 
from notch, 28. Weight: Grinnell and Storer give the weight as 26 to 32 
ounces. (1924, P- 196.) 

Distribution and habitat. These great tree squirrels occupy the 
Transition Zone forests of western Oregon on both sides of the 
Cascade Kange, and extend northward to Puget Sound and south- 
ward through the Sierra Nevada of California (fig. 19). In places 
they reach the coast but are more common in the interior valleys 
with the oaks, maples, yellow pines, and sugar pines. 

General habits. Usually much hunted and among the shyest of 
wild game, these handsome squirrels are rarely seen except where 
given special protection, which they are quick to recognize and to 
which they respond with full confidence. In a few Oregon towns 
they occupy the much-frequented parks and become as fearless as 



118 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



any other park squirrels. In the forest the most stealthy methods 
and much patience are necessary to get sight of one, and then, when 
the observer is discovered, the squirrels vanish as if by magic on 
the opposite sides of trees and branches, where they hide with such 
skill and persistency that rarely can one be seen again unless two 
people work together on opposite sides of the tree. 

Their homes are generally in hollow trees where these can be 
found, but large leaf and stick houses are also built in the forks or 
branches of trees, well-matted structures sometimes as large as a 
half-bushel measure with thick walls and a dry, warm nest cavity 
in the center. These are especially the summer nests, but in some 
cases evidently are used also through the winter. 

The squirrels are usually silent and shy, but where permanently 
protected or far back in the forest where rarely hunted, an occa- 
sional husky bark is 
heard, not unlike the 
voice of the eastern gray 
squirrel if this were more 
than doubled in volume, 
but slower and hoarser, a 
soft chuff, chuff, chuff, 
seemingly both a call 
and a warning signal of 
danger. The writer has 
heard it only in late sum- 
mer or autumn when the 
nearly full-grown young 
were out feeding in the 
treetops. 

Breeding habits. The 
adult females have 4 
pairs of mammae 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 1 pectoral and the 
usual number of young in a litter in apparently 4. The main mating 
season seems to be in January and February, as indicated by a note 
from C. H. Townsend in Shasta County, Calif., where on January 13, 
1883, he collected 5 males. The males, he said, gather in groups in 
January and February, and frequently he shot half a dozen males out 
of a single tree (1887, p. 174). This is the same as the gray squir- 
rel custom in the mating time. On March 25, 1855, at Fort Dalles, 
Suckley records a "female having young was seen" (1860, p. 95). 
In California a female containing 2 small embryos was taken April 
27, by Frank Stephens, and another with 2 embryos on June 2, by 
A. S. Bunnell. Another collected by J. F. Ferry in Humboldt 
County, Calif., October 30, was nursing young. These early and late 
dates indicate 2 litters a year while the small number of 2 embryos 
only mean the first litters of last year's young, which are irregular 
in their time of breeding. Adult squirrels are usually very regular 
in their dates of breeding, and with the eastern gray squirrel the 
question of a second litter seems to depend entirely on the food 
supply. 

Food habits. The presence of the squirrels can often be told 
by the remains of their meals, the scales of large pine cones scat- 
tered over the ground under the feeding trees or the scattered shells 




FIGURE 19. Range of Oregon gray squirrel, Sciurus 
griseus griseus, in Oregon. Type locality circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 119 

of acorns and jackets of UmbelMaria nuts on the ground. The 
large cones of the sugar pine furnish one of their favorite foods, 
and as soon as the seeds are full grown the cones are cut off and let 
drop to the ground or carried, to safe perches on branches of the 
tall trees, where the scales are cut away and the seeds eaten. No 
smaller squirrel could handle these heavy cones, which are often over 
a foot long. The cones of yellow pine and Jeffrey pine are eaten in 
the same way, and in places the cones of Douglas fir furnish 
some food. Acorns of any available species of oak are a standard 
food of these squirrels, and the large nuts of the Oregon myrtle, 
Umbellularia calif arnica^ when abundant, are extensively eaten. 
The seeds of many other trees and shrubs are probably eaten, and in 
places there have been reports of these squirrels eating bark from 
the branches of trees evidently cases of starvation when other food 
supply had failed. 

Econ&m&c status. The recent development of nut culture as an 
extensive industry in the Willamette Valley has placed these squir- 
rels on the list of local rodent pests and quite naturally. A well- 
laden grove of English walnuts or giant filberts soon draws the 
squirrels from the neighboring pine groves in considerable numbers 
and in many cases bushels of the nuts are eaten or carried away to 
be stored for winter use. In some cases a small grove of nut trees 
is entirely stripped of fruit before it is ripe enough for harvest. 
Naturally the nut growers use every possible means of protecting 
their crops, but shooting, trapping, and poisoning have not proved 
satisfactory and the Biological Survey has been appealed to for help. 
At last accounts, trapping the squirrels alive in simple wire cage 
traps seems the most promising method of control. 

Probably no squirrels excel these in value as game and food, and 
during the early settlement and development of the State they have 
played an important part, which for generations to come will con- 
tinue, if they are given the protection they merit. Another value 
rated by many above that of game is the opportunity for everyone to 
see these beautiful creatures unafraid and loping with plumy tails 
over the grass or frisking in the trees of fully protected woods and 
parks, or even coming to take nuts from the hands of delighted 
children. At Ashland, the tameness of these great squirrels makes 
them an attractive feature of the beautiful city park. 

SCIURUS DOUGLASII DOUGLASII BACHMAN 

DOUGLAS'S SQUIRREL; ORANGE-BELLIED CHICKAREE; AP-POE-POE of the Chinook 

(J. K. T.) 

Sciurus doufflasii Bachman, Zool. Soc. London, Proc., p. 99, 1838. 

Type locality. Near the mouth of the Columbia River. 

General characters. Small as in the red-squirrel group, ears short and slightly 
tufted, tail bushy, wide, and flattened. Summer pelage, upper parts dark 
brownish gray from mixture of orange and black-tipped hair; ear tufts and 
stripe on each side of the body black; middle of tail reddish brown, edged 
and tipped with orange beyond a dusky submarginal zone, and a broad sub- 
terminal area of black; whole lower parts and top of feet dark rich orange. 
Winter pelage, back and top of tail dark rufous ; sides olive gray ; lower parts 
orange obscured by dusky hairs ; side stripes indistinct ; top of feet dark gray. 



120 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



Half -grown young just out of the nest similar to summer adults, but more 
olive gray above and paler orange below. 

Measurements. Adult of about average size: Total length, 310 mm; tail, 
125; foot, 50; ear (dry), 20. 

Distribution and habitat. This darkest and most richly colored of 
the small tree squirrels occupies the humid coast region of Oregon, 
and north through the coast region of Washington (fig. 20) . Speci- 
mens from as far south as the mouth of the Rogue River are typical 
of the species, but in the Umpqua and Willamette Valleys they show 
a tendency to paler coloration and a gradation toward the form occu- 
pying the Cascade Mountains. While not usually found in the open 
valley country, they are abundant throughout the heavily forested 
coast ranges of the State. 

General habits. Like all of the chickarees, these are bright, active, 
and at times noisy little denizens of the forest. From their homes in 
hollow trees or their leafy nests among the branches they range 

through the woods, each 
squirrel or each family 
claiming its own terri- 
tory, and usually defend- 
ing its premises from in- 
trusion in a vigorous 
manner. At times they 
come out along the rail 
fences or travel from tree 
to tree a short distance 
from the timber ? but usu- 
ally they keep within easy 
reach of trees or large 
bushes, which are their 
only protection against 
numerous enemies. As a 
chickaree sits on the 
branches of a tree eating 
a nut or shelling the seeds 
from a cone, its eyes and ears are keenly alert for danger or tres- 
passers. If a squirrel of another family approaches, it is vigorously 
chased away, and often far beyond the boundary that could right- 
fully be claimed. If a larger enemy appears, a vigorous scolding or 
long chattering announces to other squirrels a possible danger. As 
one passes through the quiet forest he will occasionally hear a low 
chirrrr from the treetops, which is neither a warning of danger nor 
a complaint of aggression, but seems more of a conversational nature. 
At certain times in the year, especially in the spring and before the 
young are out of the nest, the animals are mainly silent and are 
rarely seen, but as soon as the young are out, they are noisy and 
active for the rest of the summer, and especially so during the storing 
season of autumn. 

Breeding habits. The young of the Douglas's squirrel, usually 4, 
but sometimes as many as 6 or T are brought forth in warm nests 
apparently at irregular times during the summer. At Portland, 
Fisher collected a female on June 24, 1897, which contained 7 small 
embryos, and at Tillamook, on June 30, 1897, he took another which 
contained 4 large embryos. There are other records of embryos 




FIGURE 20. Range of four forms of the spruce 
squirrels or chickarees in Oregon : 1, Sciurus doug- 
lasii douglasii ; 2, S. d. cascadensis; 3, . d. albo- 
limbatua; 4, 8. hudsonicus richardsoni. Type lo- 
calities circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 121 

later in the season and of females nursing young well into the fall. 
The females have 4 pairs of mammae 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 
1 pectoral and while 4 seems to be the usual number of young, it 
is probable that 8 is the maximum number. The young are blind 
and naked at birth and remain in the nest for a considerable time. 
When they first come out of the hollow trees or leafy nests, they are 
usually nearly half grown, and are soon able to climb about and 
take care of themselves. They remain together as a family, however, 
until practically full grown, the mother caring for and protecting 
them as long as they are in need of her help. The young apparently, 
in some cases at least, keep together during the first winter, storing 
and feeding from the common supply about their home range. A 
hollow tree, with entrance at the top, side, or bottom, is a favorite 
nest site for these squirrels, especially for raising the young. It has 
many advantages in safety and possibly warmth; but nests built 
by the squirrels of twigs and leaves and lined with moss, in the 
branches of evergreens, are more often used in this region of sound 
timber, where there are few hollow trees. These leaf and moss nests 
are well matted and woven together in a great ball securely anchored 
among the branches and entered by 1 or sometimes 2 doors at the 
side. The central cavity is well lined with soft moss or bark fiber, 
and the thick walls and roof are impervious to wind and rain. Where 
hollow trees are not available, these nests are always used. 

Food habits. A great part of the food of these squirrels con- 
sists of the rich, oily seeds of the conifers, the Douglas fir, Sitka 
spruce, hemlocks, balsams, and pines. As soon as the cones are 
full grown and the seeds within are half ripe in summer, they are 
cut off and carried to branches or regular feeding places, where the 
scales are clipped off and the seeds eaten out from underneath. As 
the cones ripen in autumn, great numbers are cut from the trees and 
stored in shallow pits in the ground or under logs and roots of trees. 
These usually furnish much of the food for the following winter and 
even later. 'Where hazel and oak occur, the nuts and acorns are 
eagerly sought for food. A great variety of seeds, berries, and 
mushrooms are also eaten. At times even buds and bark serve to tide 
over a period of scarcity of more acceptable foods. McLellan records 
seeing one of these squirrels carry a large apple in its mouth, and 
at another time he found them eating the red and black blueberries. 
Fisher found them drinking the sap where red-breasted sapsuckers 
had punctured willow trees. They are active throughout the year 
and seem usually to have an abundant food supply available*. 

Econoirdc status. In rare cases one, or a family, of these squirrels 
may do some slight mischief by collecting the nuts or fruit or grain 
not intended for their use. There are few complaints of damage by 
them, however, and in most cases it is necessary only to shoot or trap 
a few individuals to prevent further losses. Although sometimes 
considered edible, they are too small to be valuable as game. Their 
food is so largely the seeds of conifers that their flesh often has an 
unpleasant flavor of pitch or turpentine. Their greatest value, how- 
ever, is associated with their cheery note and their bright interesting 
ways as they scamper and sing in the forest. Without them the 
forest would lose one of its greatest charms. 



122 STOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

SCIURUS DOUGLASII CASCADENSIS ALLEN 
CASCADE SQUIRREL; YELLOW-BELLIED CHICKAREE 

Soiurus douglasii cascadensis Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. BulL 10 : 277, 1898. 

Type. Collected on Mount Hood (near timber line on west slope), Oreg. 

General characters. Similar to douglasn, but lower parts yellow instead of 
orange, and long tail hairs tipped with white instead of orange. Summer 
pelage, upper parts dark brownish gray, with black stripe along each side and 
black ear tufts ; tail dark gray, rusty above, with white edgings and tip beyond 
obscure dusky zone and subterminal area of black; lower parts and feet pale 
orange or yellow. Winter pelage, often worn through June; upper parts dark 
gray with rusty back and top of tail, and obscure black side stripes ; tail much 
flattened and edged with white ; top of feet gray ; lower parts salmon or buffy, 
clouded with gray or dusky. 

Measurements of type- Total length, 320 mm ; tail, 130 ; foot, 50 ; ear, 20. 

Distribution and habitat. These Cascade squirrels inhabit the 
whole Cascade Range from Mount Hood south through the Umpqua, 
Rogue River, Siskiyou, and Trinity Mountains, and down the coast 
ranges of northwest California, grading into douglasii on the west 
and albolinibatus on the east of the Cascades (fig. 20). They occupy 
the pine, spruce, and hemlock forests of practically the whole Cas- 
cade Range in Oregon, but as Allen pointed out, they show every 
intergradation between the dark and rich douglasii and the paler 
albolimbatus, and a definite border to their range cannot be satis- 
factorily given. They range from near timber line down to the 
edges of the valleys. 

General habits. These, like all of their group, are tree squirrels, 
and are never found far from the edges of the forest, although often 
coming to the ground and scampering over logs and rocks and along 
fences from tree to tree, or from grove to grove. Their homes are in 
hollow trees, or where these are not available, in nests of leaves, 
twigs, and moss, which they construct among the branches of ever- 
greens. During the spring they are silent and shy, and therefore 
inconspicuous ; but late in June after the young are out of the nests, 
the squirrels become noisy and are much in evidence. During the 
busy season of autumn, while storing their winter supply of food, 
they are most energetic and vigorous in their work, putting in long 
days, and often scolding and fighting to hold their feeding and 
storing grounds. 

Breeding habits. The 4 to 6 or 7 young are born in early sum- 
mer and in July begin to leave the nests as half-grown squirrels. 
It seems doubtful if more than one litter^ of young is raised in a 
season, as the time is all too short for raising the litter and gather- 



8 The writer finds no character on which to separate this form from Sciurus douglasii 
mollipilosus Aud. and Bach., 1841, from the coast section of northern California. Rather 
than use that name, however, which is likely to fall before the older name 8. lanuginosus 
Bachman, 1838, when material is obtained from the type locality, Fort McLaughlin, on 
Hunter Island, north of Vancouver Island, in British Columbia the Oregon name casca- 
densis is used provisionally until this group of squirrels can be thoroughly revised in the 
light of the great amount of material at present available. The type of lanuginosus in the 
Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia is an albino and gives no clue to specific 
characters, and the status of the name will not be known until specimens are collected at 
the type locality. Rather than add further confusion by any provisional change of name, 
Allen is here followed in his use of cascadensis for the squirrel of the Cascade Mountains 
in Oregon. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 123 

ing the necessary stores of winter food, especially in the mountains 
where the summers are short and the winters long. 

Food habits. Most of the food of these squirrels consists of the 
seeds of conifers of whatever species fall within their range. If 
the cones of one species fail, there is usually an abundance on some 
other pine, spruce, or hemlock, and the squirrels gather where the 
food is most abundant. As soon as the seeds are ripe, the cones are 
cut from the trees and great quantities buried underground, or in 
cavities of rocks, under logs or roots of trees, where they can be 
found during the winter no matter how deep the snow. As soon as 
the snow falls, the squirrels make long tunnels over the surface of the 
ground, and as the snow hardens these are kept open and in use 
throughout the winter. Fresh snow piling up deeper and deeper is a 
help rather than a hindrance to their winter activities. High up 
in the mountains, where the snow often reaches a depth of 10 or 15 
feet, the squirrels are as active during the winter as lower down 
where little snow has accumulated, and are as healthy and happy as in 
the spring. Little heaps of cone scales show where the squirrels have 
been in the habit of eating their meals on some low branches of 
trees or under the snow in comfortable quarters well protected from 
cold and wind, and safe from enemies. Sometimes a bushel or more 
of freshly cut cone scales are found in a heap. Under some trees 
the accumulation of scales dropped year after year reaches a depth 
of several feet in a mass of many bushels. Other seeds, nuts, fruits, 
berries, mushrooms, and insects are eaten to a more or less extent, 
but the cones furnish most of the food. 

Economic status. Complaints of mischief by these squirrels are 
rarely heard. Many of the ranchers, campers, and foresters in the 
mountains appreciate their cheerful notes and bright, interesting 
ways. To the forester they are even a great help in furnishing the 
tree seeds necessary for reforesting, as a share of the cones they 
have stored are often taken and always are found to contain sound 
seeds. It is also evident that while the squirrels consume for food 
vast quantities of tree seeds, great numbers of the buried cones are 
never claimed but remain just underneath the surface of the ground 
where they may grow and help to replenish the open spaces in 
the forest. These little squirrels might well be considered the ori- 
ginal foresters of the mountain slopes. 

SCIUKUS DOUGLASII ALBOLIMBATUS ALLEN 
SIEBBA CHICKAEEE; GOWACK of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Sciums hudsonius calif ornicus Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3 : 165, 1890. 

Preoccupied. 
Sciurus doufflasU allxfiimbatus Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 10: 453, 

1898. 

Type. Collected in Blue Canyon, Placer County, Calif., by J. A. Allen, 
October 13, 1886. 

General characters. Slightly larger than d&uglasii with pale yellowish or 
white belly and white frosted tail. Summer pelage, upper parts dark brown- 
ish gray, with black ear tufts and stripe along each side; tail dark gray, 
bordered and tipped with pure white beyond dusky zone and subterminal 
black area; lower parts pale yellowish or buffy or almost white, shading into 
yellow on sides of legs and top of feet. Winter pelage, back rusty; sides 



124 KOETH AMEEICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

gray, with black stripe obscured; tail more frosted along sides and at tip; 
lower parts white ; sides of feet buffy. 

Measurements. Total length, 340 mm; tail, 142; foot, 53; ear (dry), 21. 
Weight: 218 to 299 g (7% to 8% ounces). (Grinnell and Storer, 1924, p. 203.) 

Distribution and habitat. This chickaree extends throughout the 
whole length of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and northward to 
Mount Shasta, and the Klamath and Warner Mountain country in 
Oregon, and east of the Cascades to the Paulina, Maury, and southern 
part of the Blue Mountains south of the John Day River (fig. 20). 
Along the east base of the Cascades they grade into cascadensis, but 
in the Blue Mountains they are sharply distinct from Sciurus hud- 
sonicus richardsoni, which occurs north of the upper John Day 
Eiver. They occupy both Canadian and Transition Zones and in 
places extend into the Hudsonian where forest trees are sufficiently 
large and numerous to furnish homes and food. Their greatest 
abundance is in the spruce, fir, and lodgepole pine forests, where con- 
ditions seem most favorable for protection and an ample food supply. 

General habits. These mountain squirrels differ in habits from 
other forms of the douglasii group only in adaptation to higher 
country and more arid climate. They occupy the coniferous forests 
and climb to the tops of the tallest trees, even the giant sequoias, 
from which they cut the cones to be gathered and stored for food. 
At times they are shy and silent and rarely seen, but again noisy 
and conspicuous. Nelson says that in districts where they are com- 
mon they may be heard at all hours of the day, but especially early 
in the morning. Their common note is a trilling or bubbling noise 
which is liquid and musical in effect and difficult to locate. It it 
more like the song of some strange bird than the note of a mammal. 

John Muir has written one of his most delightful chapters on this 
little squirrel but makes the mistake of calling it the Douglas squirrel, 
of which it is a well-marked subspecies (mountains of California). 

Breeding habits. Apparently the young of the Sierra chickaree 
are not produced until some time in June, as they usually do not ap- 
pear out of the nests until July. The usual 4 to 6 young ara 
raised in the trunks of hollow trees, or the leafy nests among the 
branches. As soon as the young are out of the nests the mother 
squirrels are very solicitous and alert, watching for enemies and 
scolding any intruders, warning the young and sending them scur- 
rying to cover at the first warning of real or imaginary danger. 

Food habits. Like others of the group these squirrels live in great 
part on the rich oily seeds of conifers, gathered from the hemlocks, 
spruces, firs, Douglas spruce, lodgepole, yellow, and Jeffrey pines, 
and even the huge cones of the sugar pine, and the little round cones 
of the giaiit sequoias. They often store bushels of cones in hollows 
and cavities, or tuck them under logs and roots enough food to 
last nearly or quite the year around. They are great storers and in a 
good cone year are sure of ample food for the winter, if they are 
not robbed. They also gather acorns from some of the oaks within 
their range and such other nuts and seeds as are available. Fruit, 
berries, and mushrooms are also eaten and possibly a wider range of 
insect and animal food than is generally known. When other food 
is scarce or locked up by snow and ice, these squirrels can always eke 
out a living on buds and bark cut from twigs of trees or bushes. The 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGOK 125 

tips of branches are cut off, the bark eaten back of the terminal buds 
or tufts of leaves, and the leaves and peeled sticks dropped to the 
ground. At times under the pines, especially the lodgepole, the snow 
or ground will be found carpeted with branch tips thrown down by 
the squirrels, but the trees seem not to suffer from this occasional 
pruning. 

Economic status. A closer study of habits is necessary before the 
economic status of these squirrels, especially in the semiarid forests, 
is fully determined. Their consumption of tree seeds may well be 
offset by their habit of planting cones for food, and usually leaving 
some where they may grow and spread the forest. Their accumula- 
tions of cones, stored for food, are often levied upon by the forest 
rangers, to whom the gathering of seeds is an official duty. The 
squirrels thus win the good will of the Forest Service, but their 
greatest value is in the life and interest and music with which they 
fill the forests. 

SCIURUS HUDSONICUS RICHARDSONI BAOHMAN 
RICHARDSON'S SQUIRREL; BLACK-TAILED SQUIRREL 

Seiurus richardsoni Bachman, Zool. Society London, Proc., p. 100, 1838. 

Type. Collected at head of Big Lost River, Idaho. 

General characters. This is a very dark form of the red squirrel group, 
with always white belly and mainly black tail. Summer coat, upper parts dark 
rusty gray, ear tufts and legs rusty ; stripe along side black ; tail mainly clear 
black, dark gray centrally toward base; lower parts white. Winter coat, back 
and top of tail deep rufous; sides rusty gray with trace of black stripe; ear 
tufts black; long brush and sides of tail black, sometimes slightly edged with 
rusty ; feet gray ; lower parts white or slightly grizzled. 

Measurements. Total length, 340 mm; tail, 130; foot, 52; ear (dry), 22. 

Distribution and habitat. From the mountains of Idaho these 
squirrels extend across into the Blue Mountains of Oregon where 
they occupy the pine and spruce forests north of the John Day River 
Valley, almost if not quite meeting the range of albolimbatus, but 
showing no trace of intergradation (fig. 20). They occupy the for- 
ests from timber line down through the yellow pines, at times even 
coming down to the willows and cottonwoods along the stream val- 
leys. Their greatest abundance, however, seems to be in the spruces 
and lodgepole pines of Canadian Zone. 

General habits. No marked peculiarities of habits distinguish 
these Rocky Mountain squirrels from the yellow-bellied forms of 
western Oregon, and one cannot be sure of a difference in the voices 
of any of the whole red-squirrel group. They are all the same 
bright, active, little forest singers, at times bold and impudent, and 
again shy and wary. Their long chr-r-r-r-r-r-r-r-r, whether given 
from the top of a spruce tree on a mild morning in September, or 
from a snowy branch above the deep crusts in January, is always a 
happy song, but with many shades of pitch and tone that probably 
mean more to the squirrel tribe than to our coarser ears. A great 
variety of barking and scolding, chattering, arid talking notes may 
be mere expression of feeling, but more probably have definite mean- 
ings to themselves. 

The old squirrels are mainly solitary in habits, each occupving 
and vigorously defending the section of forest where his nest, food, 



126 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

and winter stores are located, but calling and answering neighbor 
.squirrels from their equally well-protected areas on all sides. Quar- 
rels and fights over boundaries are not uncommon. These differ- 
ences, though, are generally settled before the winter stores are com- 
pleted, and rights once established are generally respected. 

Breeding habits. The 4 to 6 young in a litter of these squirrels 
are usually born in June but are rarely seen put of the nests 
until a month later. At birth they are naked, blind, and helpless, 
but in the soft, warm lining of hollow trunks, or the big grass-ball 
nests in the branches, they are cared for by devoted mothers until, 
as nearly half -grown, well-furred, and bushy-tailed little squirrels, 
they are first allowed to come out of the nests. Even then they con- 
tinue to nurse until they have learned to find and eat the flowers 
and green seeds of trees and plants, and make an independent living 
for themselves. The old squirrels furnish a copious supply of milk 
from the 4 pairs of mammae, arranged in rows on the 2 long parallel 
and continuous mammary glands, extending under the skin from 
the pectoral to the inguinal region. There seems no evidence that 
more than 1 litter of young is ever raised in a season. 

Food habits. Most of the food of these forest-dwelling squirrels 
consists of the seeds of conifers, from the little seeds of spruce and 
hemlock and fir to the larger nutlets of some of the pines. Other 
seeds, buds, bark, and mushrooms are eaten at times. When the cone 
crop fails, the squirrels are sometimes forced to seek other feeding 
grounds. In April 1911, H. E. Anthony in a letter from Ironside, 
Oreg., wrote that Richardson's squirrels had come down the pre- 
vious fall into the valley where they remained all winter among 
the ranches ? raiding grain bins and root cellars. The cone crop in 
the mountains was almost or quite a failure, and no doubt this was 
the cause of the migration to the valley. This was the first time in 
10 or 15 years, he said, that it had occurred. Again in September 
1913, he wrote that the squirrels were again working down, several 
being seen 6 or 7 miles from the timber, following the lines of willows 
along the creeks. He went up into the pines and found again that 
there were practically no cones. These notes have an important 
bearing on the often-reported migratory habits of squirrels. 

In a good cone year the bushels of cones stored under the trees, 
under logs, in hollow places in the ground, or in the old heaps of 
cone scales, usually last well through the winter, though not beyond 
the coming of the next cone crop. A failure of this food supply, 
therefore, is a serious matter to the squirrels. 

Economio status. On account of their small size these squirrels 
are rarely used as game, but in absence of any other food, one will 
make a substantial meal, roasted over the coals and eaten without 
salt. Indirectly they have a value as food for marten, fisher, and 
other fur-bearing animals of the forest, but like many of our birds 
their highest value is in the element of life, music, and beauty that 
render our forests attractive. Their assistance to the foresters in 
gathering cones generally wins them the good will and protection 
that they well deserve. 

Their value as seed planters in forest extension is generally recog- 
nized as far outbalancing their consumption of seeds for food. Many 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



127 



of the cones are buried beyond the shadows of the tree, and often 
an accident leaves these cones and seeds to grow during the next 
summer. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII TOWSENDII (BAOHMAN) 
TOWNSEND'S CHIPMUNK; QUIS-QUIS of the Chinook (J. K. T.) 

Tamias toivnsendii Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 8: 68, 1839. 
Tamias tovmsenito littoralis Elliot, Field Columbian Mus. Pub. Zool. 3: 153, 
1903, from Marshfleld, Oreg. 

Type. C ollected along 
Lower Columbia River (prob- 
ably lower mouth of Willam- 
ette) about 25 miles below 
Portland, Oreg., by J. K. 
Townsend in 1834. 

General characters. Large 
for a chipmunk ; tail long and 
bushy; ears large; fur long 
and lax ; colors dull and dark. 
Summer pelage, back with 3 
black and 2 outer brown 
stripes, and 4 yellowish 
stripes between ; sides of head 
with 2 yellowish and 3 brown 
stripes; sides and most of 
upper parts and feet snuff 
brown; tail bright rusty 
brown below, black above and 
on tip and margins, above 
frosted with buffy tipped 




FIGURE 21. Range of five chipmunks in Oregon : 1, 
Eutamias townsendii townsendii; 2, E. t. ochro- 
genys; 3, E. t. cooperi; 4, E. t. siskiyou; 5, E. t. 
senex. Type localities circled. 



hairs; a patch back of each, ear, and throat and belly, white. Winter pelage 
slightly darker above with stronger markings of black and white. Young simi- 
lar to adults in summer. 

Measurements. Average of several adults : Total length, 258 mm ; tail, 115 ; 
foot, 38; ear (dry), 16. 

Distribution and habitat. These large dark chipmunks occupy the 
coast region west of the Cascade Mountains from southern British 
Columbia south to Myrtle Point, Oreg., including the Coast Ranges 
and the Willamette and lower TJmpqua River Valleys, where they 
occupy the forests and dense thickets (fig. 21). 

General habits. Chipmunks of this group have strangely marked 
habits, which go well with their large size, long plumy tails, and 
soft fur. They are quiet and gentle in actions, keeping much in the 
shadows and under the bushes out of sight. Often they would pass 
unnoticed but for their birdlike voices, musically whistled chippers 
of alarm, or the soft far-away chuck, chuck, chuck of contentment 
given from a branch, stump, or log, as the plumy tail is slowly 
waved from side to side. Though the nervous scurry character- 
istic of the smaller species is lacking, they are quick when escape 
is necessary expert climbers and skillful at hiding in trees, bushes, 
hollow logs, or holes in the ground. 

Their real homes are in underground burrows, where warm nests 
and ample stores of nuts and seeds afford all the comforts of chip- 
munk life. In the fruitful country they inhabit there is no occasion 
for strenuous exertion. Like most of the squirrel family they are 
daylight workers, beginning activities with the first clear dawn, 
and retiring to their nests for the night with the twilight shadows. 



128 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 



^ In the mild climate where these chipmunks occur, 

hibernation is apparently rather irregular, if it be true hibernation. 
At Salem in November 1893, Streator reported them as common, but 
not very active. McLellan found them common at Drain, in Novem- 
ber 1894, but later at Oakland, in November and December, and at 
Olalla, in December, he could not find any, although they were said 
to be there in summer. At Wells, December 1 to 5, 1904, Hollister 
could find none, although they were reported as common earlier in 
the season. At Philomath, in March 1919, Cantwell was told that 
they were active and about all winter. 

Breeding habits. In females of the Townsend's chipmunk the mam- 
mae are arranged in 4 pairs 1 inguinal well back, 2 abdominal, and 
1 pectoral about evenly spaced on the 2 long mammary glands ex- 
tending the whole length of the belly. From 4 to 6 embryos have 
been noted in females collected for specimens in April and May, 
but usually the young do not appear aboveground until some time in 
June. By August the young are nearly full grown and apparently 
each one lays up its own food store for the winter. It seems doubtful 
if more than 1 litter of young is raised in a season. In some cases 
only 2 or 3 embryos occur, probably in young of the previous year, 
but the increase is generally sufficient to keep up the normal abun- 
dance of the animals. 

Food habits. Like most species, Townsend's chipmunks have a wide 
range of foods, including nuts, acorns, seeds, berries, and other fruits, 
roots, bulbs, green vegetation, insects, and other small animal life. 
At Multnomah Falls, Merriam noted one that lunched with his party 
in a friendly way, coming repeatedly to the table spread on the 
ground, and stuffing his cheek pockets with food, showing a prefer- 
ence for bread and grapes, which he carried away to his den across 
the creek. He would quickly return for more, running fearlessly 
among the members of the party seated on the ground, and gathering 
up the food thrown to him. At Wilson Eiver, Fisher reported 
them eating salmonberries and other berries, and along the coast 
country McLellan noted them feeding on salmonberries, red and black 
elderberries, gooseberries, crab apples, plums, and prunes; also the 
seeds of maple, boxelder, rose, thistles, grasses, and grains. The 
writer has found them feeding also on raspberries, thimbleberries, 
blackberries, salal berries, seeds of spruce and hemlock cones, and a 
great variety of other seeds. Hazelnuts and acorns are much sought 
for winter stores. 

Economic status. In many places these chipmunks are common 
in the timber and thickets along the edges of fields of grain and 
berries and other fruits, and it would be strange if they did not 
make some inroads on the crops. In one place McLellan reported 
the trunks of plum and prune trees wrapped with tin to keep the 
chipmunks from getting the fruit, but there have been few com- 
plaints against them. The abundance of wild berries, nuts, and 
seeds undoubtedly prevents serious injury to domestic products. 

Their consumption of tree seeds may have some influence on the 
welfare of the forests, and with other rodents they may help to 
keep down some reforestation that should naturally occur. On the 
other hand, the burying and storing of seeds may in some cases 
where left to grow be of great value in forest extension. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OBEGON 129 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII COOPERI (BAIRD) 
COOPER'S CHIPMUNK 

Tamias cooperi Baird, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. 7 : 334, 1855. 

Type. Collected at Klickitat Pass, Cascade Mountains, Wash., by J. G. Cooper 
in 1853. 

General characters. Similar to typical townsendii, but paler, the browns more 
mixed with gray. Summer pelage, back with 3 black and 2 outer brown stripes, 

2 grayish white, and 2 yellowish gray stripes ; sides of head with 2 whitish and 

3 brown stripes; sides and most of upper parts and feet grayish brown; tail 
pale rusty brown underneath with black top and tip and margins, frosted above 
with white tips of long hairs ; patch back of each ear and lower parts white or 
whitish. Winter pelage and color of young scarcely different from summer. 

Measurements. Average of adults: Total length, 250 mm; tail, 112; foot, 
36; ear (dry), 16.8. 

Distribution and habitat. These chipmunks occupy the Cascade 
Range from southern British Columbia south to Mount Jefferson and 
thence southwest along the west side of the range to Glendale in the 
Rogue River Mountains, mainly in Transition Zone, but in places 
also in Canadian Zone (fig. 21). 

General habits. Like other forms in the group these are mainly 
forest chipmunks, although often found in the underbrush or out in 
dense chaparral, or along fence rows at a distance from the main 
forest. They climb trees readily but depend on their burrows, hollow 
logs, or trees for refuge, or on flight under cover of dense brush and 
low vegetation. In voice and habits generally they seem not to differ 
from typical Eutamias townsendii. 

Breeding habits. On the slopes of Mount Hood at 2,800 feet, 
Cantwell found them out on the snow, on March 23, actively running 
about in their mating activities. At McKenzie Bridge the writer's 
party found the young out of the nests in the latter part of June, 
most of them not long abroad and scarcely half grown. There 
seems to be no evidence of any second litters of young, which, since 
August and September is their time for harvesting and storing winter 
food, would mature top late to permit securing of the necessary stores 
and carrying on the vital processes of hibernation. 

Food habits. The food of Cooper's chipmunks consists mainly of 
nuts, seeds, berries, roots, green vegetation, and insects, varying 
with the season and the local supply. Along the west base of Mount 
Jefferson in October, they were feeding extensively on the seeds of 
dogwood, Oornus nuttallii, the scarlet berries of which were found 
scattered on logs and stumps all through the woods. On Mount 
Hood, in September, they were gathering the seeds from hemlock 
cones, getting the rich little seeds from under each scale as it was 
clipped off, and leaving piles of cores and scales where they were 
feeding. 

Economic statics. Except for the fact that Cooper's chipmunks 
live more in the mountains and less in agricultural regions their 
economic relations are practically the same as those of Townsend's 
chipmunk. 

7209 36 9 



130 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII OCHROGENYS MEBBIAM 

REDWOOD CHIPMUNK 
Eutamias townsendi ochrogenys Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 195, 1807. 

Type. Collected at Mendocino, Calif., by J. E. McLellan in 1894. 

General characters. Distinguished from typical townsendii by its rich rusty 
yellow lower parts, and more contrast in lighter summer, and darker winter 
pelage ; tail the same as in townsendii. Size about the same. 

Measurements. Average of adults : Total length, 265 mm ; tail, 116 ; foot, 38 ; 
ear (dry), from notch, 17. 

Distribution and habitat. The redwood chipmunks occupy a nar- 
row coastal strip from Port Orford, Oreg., south to Bodega Bay, 
Calif. There are Oregon specimens from Port Orford, Gold Beach, 
State Line, and the Rogue River Mountains about 18 miles back 
from the coast. To the north they apparently grade into Eutamias 
townsendii and to the east into the siskiyou form (fig. 21). They 
are found mainly in the redwoods of the coast region of northern 
California and extend slightly beyond them in Oregon, in the coast 
division of Transition Zone. 

General habits. In voice, actions, and habits, generally, these 
chipmunks are not noticeably different from typical townsendii. In 
the redwood forests where they climb over the logs and trunks of the 
great trees, they find the deepest shade and richest colors of any 
forest in the country, and have taken on similar rich coloration for 
their own protection. In the deep forest shadows they would be lost 
but for their shrill, whistling chipper, or the slow chuck, chuck, chuck^ 
and the graceful waving from side to side of the plumy tails as they 
sit on points of brown bark or against the huge trunks. 

Their food includes a wide range of nuts, seeds, berries, fruits, 
plants, and insects found in the southern part of the State, as well 
as the nuts of the tanbark oak and California buckeye, 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII SISKIYOU HOWELL 
SISKIYOU CHIPMUNK 

Euta/mias townsendii siskiyou Howell, Jour. Mammal. 3 : 180, 1922. 

Type. Collected in Siskiyou Mountains, Calif., near summit of White Moun- 
tain at 6,000 feet, by N. Hollister, in 1909. 

General characters. Slightly smaller than Eutamias townsendii and much 
paler; nearest to E. t. senex, but showing gradation toward E. t. ochroffenys, 
and evidently grading into both of these forms as well as into E. t. cooperi. 
Summer pelage, back with 1 black and 4 brown stripes and 4 gray stripes 
(pi. 27, A) ; sides of head with 2 gray and 3 brown stripes ; sides grayish brown ; 
tail almost as in typical townsendii; spot back of each ear light gray; lower 
parts lightly washed with ochraceous. Winter pelage duller, darker, and 
grayer than in summer. 

Measurements. Average of adults : Total length, 255 mm ; tail, 110 ; foot, 36.5 ; 
ear (dry), 16.6. 

Distribution and habitat. This chipmunk is found in the Siskiyou 
Mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon, 
and the Rogue River spur of the Cascades west of Crater Lake, in 
Transition Zone, and also in the limited areas of Canadian on the 
Siskiyous (fig. 21). Its range is more open and less humid than 
that of townsendii or ochrogenys, but less so than that of senex. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 131 

General habits. Hollister, who collected the type of this form and 
wrote of its habits in the Siskiyou Mountains, says that these chip- 
munks were common above 3,000 and 4,000 feet altitude, and most 
abundant in the pine forests of the Canadian Zone near the summits 
of the ridges. In the open rocky and chaparral-covered areas they 
were wild and hard to collect, but in the forest areas they were 
more numerous and easily secured for specimens. Sixty-nine, includ- 
ing young of the year and adults, were taken in the Siskiyou Moun- 
tains in September and October of 1909. Several of those taken 
were infested by grubs, Cvterebra, and the scrotum and testes were 
often completely destroyed by these parasites. 

In September, he says, they were feeding a great deal on the 
little wild cherries (Prunus emwginata) and were often seen up 
in the bushes gathering the red fruit. During October they were 
feeding more on acorns and pine nuts and it was remarkable that 
their cheek pouches would hold so much. One had its pouches full 
of wild currant seeds, another was carrying 2 acorns, and another 
5 acorns, in its pockets. Different individuals had 3, 5, 6, 17, and 
19 seeds; of sugar pine, and others had 4, 5, 11, 23, and 65 seeds of 
mountain pine in their pockets. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII SENEX (ALLEN) 
ALLEN'S CHIPMUNK; WAS-LA of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Tamias senex Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3 : 83, 1890. 

Type. Collected at Summit of Donner Pass, Placer County, Calif., by Lyman 
Belding in 1885. 

General characters. Smallest of the subspecies of this group, tail less plumy, 
colors palest, fur relatively harsh and thin in summer. Summer pelage, back 
with 5 brown (rarely 1 or 3 blackish) stripes and 4 light gray stripes; sides 
of head with 2 light gray and 3 brown stripes; sides rich rusty brown; feet 
ochraceous; tail below light rusty brown, top and edges and tip black, frosted 
with white-tipped hairs ; patch back of each ear light gray ; lower parts white 
or creamy. Winter pelage clearer gray. 

Measurements. Average of several adults: Total length, 243 mm; tail, 103; 
foot, 36; ear (dry), 17. One adult male collected by Joseph Grinnell measured 
250; 110; 36; 16; and weighed 89.8 g; others weighed as high as 100, 108, 
and 123 g, respectively. 

Distribution and habitat. In Oregon these chipmunks range from 
Mill Creek and Warren Springs, east of Mount Jefferson southward, 
keeping mainly east of the Cascades, and in the Paulina, Yamsey, 
Klamath, and Warner Mountains (fig. 21). In California they in- 
habit the Sierra Nevada and Cascades to the Yosemite ; also Warner 
Mountains, Modoc County. They occupy Transition and Canadian 
Zones in the drier, more open parts of the forests, especially the 
yellow pine and lodgepole pine areas. 

General habits. These gray chipmunks are in habits as well as 
general characters the farthest removed from typical tawnsendii of 
any of the subspecies. Smaller, quicker, more dependent on escape 
in open places, they are more like some of the other forms of moun- 
tain chipmunks in general acivities. Still they have the shrill voice 
and the lateral waving of the less plumy tail common to the town- 
sendii group. Primarily forest dwellers and expert climbers, they 
are often found running over logs or rocks or through dense tangles 
of Ceanothus or shrubby oak chapparal, and their homes are usually 



132 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

in burrows or natural cavities underground. Sometimes they live in 
hollow logs or clefts among the rocks, but the permanent homes seem 
to be underground, where the winter stores are located near the frost- 
proof nests. 

Breeding habits. Like other members of the townsendii group 
these chipmunks have 4 to 6 young, born in May or June and appear- 
ing aboveground in July. These have barely time to grow up and 
store their winter's food before the first snows come, in September 
or October, and bury them up for 5 or 6 months, until the March 
thaws bring them out to begin another breeding cycle. 

Food habits. Acorns, chinquapins, hazelnuts, seeds of pines, 
spruces, and hemlocks, cherries, berries, seeds of grasses, and a great 
variety of plants, roots, tubers, green vegetation, flowers, insects and 
small animal life, and around camp, scraps of bread, pancakes, 
grains, and most camp supplies, are eaten or stored for the winter food 
supply. They are very fond of the fruit and seeds of the little bitter 
cherry (Prunm emarginata) and are often seen up in the bushes 
gathering them. The writer has found as many as 112 of these little 
cherry pits in the cheek pouches of one chipmunk, and the pulp of the 
fruit is often found in their stomachs. Manzanita berries, currants, 
gooseberries, raspberries, thimbleberries, blueberries, and strawberries 
are eaten, and the seeds often separated and stored. Many species of 
mushrooms are eaten, and the little bulbs or tubers of fireweed 
(Gayophytum) , and traces of insect remains, are usually found in 
the stomachs. 

They do not become fat in autumn as do most hibernating animals, 
and the large ^stores of food laid up for winter and spring use may 
indicate only incomplete or partial hibernation during the long, cold 
winter of deep snows. 

Economic status. This mountain species is found mainly above 
the zone of agriculture and its vital relations are with the forest. 
The extent to which the forest suffers by the loss of tree seeds eaten 
by chipmunks is not easily determined, but it may be considerable 
at times. The habit of hoarding the food supply in deep burrows 
prevents the general distribution of seeds as by the squirrels and 
most of the seeds thus hoarded are eaten or if left would decay. In 
a few cases the burrows are dug out by badgers or skunks, the chip- 
munk eaten, and the seeds scattered; but this may not be of suffi- 
ciently common occurrence to have a great value. On the whole a 
large number of chipmunks must, in some cases, retard the re- 
forestation of the mountains, especially where the lower vegetation is 
closely grazed by domestic animals and little rodent food is obtain- 
able except from tree seeds. In places it may be necessary in future 
to destroy by artificial means many of the rodent population before 
a stand of young timber can be renewed on cut-over or burnt-over 
ground; but once a good stand of timber is established and grazing 
controlled, there is some protection afforded the forest by the chip- 
munks in the destruction of insects and planting of seeds. It would 
certainly be a great mistake wholly to condemn or attempt a whole- 
sale destruction of the chipmunks, as they have a practical value 
besides being one of the brightest, most friendly, and attractive 
forms of animal life in our forests, parks, and national recreation 
areas. 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 27 




B3896M; B 15922 

1, Siskiyou chipmunk at the Oregon Caves; B, Klamath chipmunk near Fremont, Oreg. (photograph by 

Luther J. Goldman). 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



133 



EUTAMIAS AMOENUS AMOENUS (ALLEN) 
KLAMATH CHIPMUNK; WAS-LA of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Tamias amoenus Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3 : 90, 1890. 
Eutamias amoenus propinquus Anthony, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 32: 6, 
1913. Type from Ironside, Oreg. 

Type. Collected at Fort Klamath, Oreg., by J. H. Merrill in 1887. 

General characters. A small, richly colored chipmunk, with slender tail, 
pointed ears, and nine stripes on the back (pi. 27, B). Summer pelage: Back 
with 3 black, 2 brown, 2 gray, and 2 white stripes ; sides of head with 3 dark 
and 2 white stripes; sides, shoulders, and lower surface of tail rich rufous or 
orange brown ; top and margins of tail black, overlaid with buffy brown ; back 
of ears mainly black; belly whitish or slightly ochraceous. Winter pelage: 
Slightly duller and more grayish. Young as in summer adults. 

Measurements. Total length, 197 mm; tail, 84; foot, 31; ear (dry), from 
notch, 13.8. 

Distribution and habitat. These little chipmunks cover most of 
Oregon east of the Cascades, a large part of northeastern California 
and central Idaho (fig. 22). They do not occur in the open plains 

country of the Columbia 

River Valley, nor the 
sagebrush valleys of 
southeastern Oregon, and 
are replaced by the yel- 
low-bellied subspecies hi,- 
teiventris in the northern 
part of the Blue Moun- 
tain plateau. 

They range through 
Transition and Canadian 
Zones, mainly in open- 
forest country and often 
out over the rocks and 
brush beyond the edge of 
the forest, but never far 
into the open valleys or 
sagebrush plains. 

A specimen in the United States National Museum collection taken 
by J. K. Townsend, probably in 1834, and labeled " Columbia River, 
Oregon ", apparently came from the vicinity of The Dalles, 

General habits. While expert climbers, often seen running up 
trees, Klamath chipmunks generally are found on the ground running 
over logs and rocks or climbing about in the bushes. Their homes 
are generally underground, in hollow logs, or in clefts of the rocks, 
and from these the chipmunks range out for considerable distance, 
keeping close to safe cover above or below the ground. Their bright 
colors are often seen flashing through the leaves or bushes and their 
shrill chipper of alarm or curiosity is heard along the trails. Some- 
times a slow, soft chuck, chuck, chuck is heard from a distance as 
one sits on a stump, log, or low tree branch a chipmunk calling 
quietly to his friends far and near. Their voices have many degrees 
of pitch, time, and quality that may mean much to members of their 
own clan, but little to uninitiated ears. 




FIGURE 22. Range of four chipmunks of the amoe- 
nus group in Oregon : 1, Eutamias amoenus amoc- 
nus; 2, E. a. luteiventris ; 3, E. o. ludibundus; 4, 
E. a. ochraceus. Type locality circled. 



134 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

In places where they come around camps and cabins they often 
become very tame and will even take food from the hand. Generally, 
however, they are shy and timid and have need to be constantly alert 
for enemies. 

Hibernation. When the snow gets deep they disappear, and no 
tracks are seen until spring. At Fort Klamath, Harry Telford said 
they had not appeared when he left there on March 9, 1914, and that 
the first one noted at Klamath Falls that year was on March 12. The 
fact that they do not become very fat in the fall makes it somewhat 
doubtful if true hibernation is practiced. Further observations are 
needed to settle this point. 

Breeding habits. As usual in chipmunks the mammae of the fe- 
males are arranged in 4 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 1 
pectoral. The young are usually 4 or 5, as shown by embryos in 
specimens collected in April, May, June, and July. This variation 
in dates may mean two litters of young in a season or merely the 
irregular breeding of females of different ages. The young do not 
appear out of the nest until nearly half grown and well able to take 
care of themselves. Little is known of the actual breeding habits 
or of the early lives of the young in their underground nests. 

Food habits. The food of these beautiful little chipmunks is com- 
posed largely of seeds of various flowering plants, grasses, berries, 
bulbs, roots, green vegetation, and insects. The animals are great 
storers, and their cheek pouches are often found distended with seeds 
or other food to be carried to their underground storehouses for win- 
ter use. It is not definitely known, however, whether those stores 
near their warm nests are eaten during the winter, or whether the 
aiiimals sleep soundly in hibernation during the long, cold, snowy 
time and save their hoarded food for the early spring when other 
food is scarce. 

Economic status. From their wide range and abundance these 
small chipmunks may be of considerable economic importance. Their 
actual destruction of crops is rarely of consequence, although small 
grainfields in the woods or on newly cleared land sometimes show 
ragged borders where they have harvested the grain for their winter 
stores. Their consumption of grass seeds and clover seeds may have 
a slight effect on the grazing capacity of the range, but apparently 
their eager search for the rich oily seeds of pines and other conifers 
leaves little chance for these valuable trees to reproduce and reforest 
the land. In places, where artificial reforestation is undertaken, it 
has been found necessary to destroy the chipmunks and other rodents. 
This is not difficult as they readily take poisoned grain, and success- 
ful methods of control at slight expense have been perfected by the 
Biological Survey. 

Where rapid reforestation is not necessary and no serious damage 
is being done by the chipmunks, there is some practical value at- 
tached to them as insect destroyers and an esthetic value in adding 
a delightful feature of life and interest to the forests and mountains. 
In many camps and ranger stations, tin-lined cupboards and storage 
boxes are provided to protect supplies, so the chipmunks can be left 
to run at will about the buildings and afford much interest and com- 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 135 

panionship. Although nervous and timid, they are easily tamed so as 
to take food from the hand and even climb over a person in search 
of nuts or seeds. 

EUTAMIAS AMOENUS LUTEIVENTRIS (ALLEN) 
YELLOW-BELIED CHIPMUNK 

Tamias quadrivittatus luteiventris Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3: 101, 
1890. 

Type. Collected at Upper Waterton Lake, north end of Glacier National 
Park, Mont., by Elliott Coues in 1874. 

General cliuraeters. Slightly larger than E. amoenus with blacker stripes 
on the back and more completely buffy or yellow belly. Summer pelage with 
5 black, 2 creamy white, and 2 gray stripes; sides of face with 3 dark and 2 
Light stripes; sides and shoulders bright rufous; lower parts, feet, and lower 
surface of tail dull ochraceous; top and edges of tail blackish, washed with 
ochraceous ; back of ears buffy and blackish. Winter pelage duller and grayer. 
Young as in summer adults. 

Measurements. Average of typical specimens : Total length, 221 mm ; tail, 
102 ; foot, 33 ; ear, 13.5. 

Distribution and habitat. With a wide range in the Rocky Moun- 
tain region of Canada, western Montana and Wyoming, and central 
Idaho, these yellow-bellied chipmunks extend into northeastern Ore- 
gon in the Wallowa and northern part of the Blue Mountains, and 
there merge into amoenus to the south and west (fig. 22). They 
are forest chipmunks, occupying mainly Transition and Canadian 
Zones, but sometimes found well up in Hudsonian close to timber 
line. They prefer the more open forests and are most abundant in 
the yellow-pine Transition Zone area. They also live in the brush 
or among rocks but never out in the open country. 

General habits. In habits these yellow-bellied chipmunks differ 
little from their near relative, Eutamias amoemis. They occasionally 
climb trees but depend mainly for protection on burrows in the 
ground, hollow logs, or broken rocks. They are skillful climbers, 
however, and run up trunks, through the branches, and through the 
tops of bushes in search of food. When alarmed, they generally 
rush to the ground and with a shrill chipper disappear under the first 
cover or into the nearest hole. 

Over most of their range the winters are long and cold, and the 
snow deep. Late in October, or in November, the chipmunks disap- 
pear and are not seen again until some time in March. This is their 
long, sleepy time. Then comes the spring awakening and the breed- 
ing season of April, May, and June; then the play month of July, 
when the young are out and frisking about, not taking life too 
seriously; then the harvest months of August and September, the 
busy time of the year, when food must be gathered to last through 
the winter and spring, and a warm nest must be made deep under- 
ground below the frost line. 

Breeding habits. As the deep snow begins to melt in March, the 
chipmunks tunnel up through it to the surface and begin to travel 
in all directions from their burrows, and soon the males are actively 
searching for mates. At Wallowa Lake on April 9, 1919, G. G. Cant- 
well reported them out over the snow that still covered the ground. 



136 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

They were silent but very active, and a dozen or more caught in traps 
were all males. The females were evidently remaining at home, but 
were not inactive, as specimens collected by Cantwell at Sled Springs 
in the Imnaha Forest on April 26 contained small embryos. At 
Elgin the writer found females late in May nursing young, but the 
young are not usually seen out of the nest until well along in June, 
when nearly half grown. Two to six embryos found in the females 
examined would indicate a normal number of young in a litter as 4 
or 5. Whether more than one litter is raised in a season is not 
definitely known. 

Food habits. During the summer much of their food consists of 
fruit, berries, green seeds, flowers, and even green foliage, roots and 
bulbs or tubers, with a mixture of grasshoppers and other insects 
and small animal life, but later in the season, as seeds, grains, and 
nutlets ripen, these form more of the food and are stored up for a 
winter supply. The seeds of conifers are eagerly sought, and grass 
seeds form a substantial portion of the food and stores. 

The chipmunks do not become very fat in the fall, and the ques- 
tion of complete or partial hibernation has not been fully determined. 

Eoonomio status. Aside from their possible influence in retarding 
reforestation and reseeding of forage plants, these chipmunks have 
little effect upon agriculture or human industries. In camps and 
forest cottages supplies are easily protected from them. In rare 
cases a few may have to be destroyed where doing mischief, but this 
is not difficult. Their value as food for numerous fur-bearing animals 
and as an attractive form of wildlife generally far outweighs their 
occasional destructive habits. 

EUTAMIAS AMOENUS LUDIBUNDUS HOIXISTER 
HOLLISTER'S CHIPMUNK; CANADIAN MOUNTAIN CHIPMUNK 

Eutamias ludibundus Hollister, Smithsn. Misc. Collect. 56: 1, 1911. 

Type. Collected at Yellowhead Lake, British Columbia, Canada, by N. 
Hollister, 1911. 

General characters. Conspicuously larger than E. amoenus with bushier and 
browner tail, and blacker back stripes. Summer pelage with 5 black, 2 gray, 
and 2 white stripes on back; sides dull rufous; tail bright rufous with black 
top and edge, the long hairs tipped with rufous ; feet ochraceous, throat, inside 
of legs, and middle of belly whitish. 

Measurements. Average of typical specimens: Total length, 217 mm; tail, 
96 ; hind foot, 33.5 ; ear, 12.2. 

Distribution and habitat. These chipmunks range from the Rocky 
Mountains of northern Alberta and British Columbia southward 
along the Cascades to Mount Hood, Three Sisters, and O'Leary 
Mountain in Oregon (fig. 22). Specimens from the east slope of 
the Cascades, from Wapinitia, Warm Springs, and Mill Creek, show 
the nearest approach to typical E. ludibundus, but all of the Oregon 
specimens are more or less intermediate in characters. They are 
the small chipmunks of the Mount Hood and the northern Cascades 
in Oregon, most abundant in the yellow pine forests of the lower 
slopes, but also ranging to near timber line at Cloudcap Inn and to 
the top of the range on McKenzie Pass. They are not often found 
in dense forests but prefer the half -open timber, old burns, and 
lava fields. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 137 

General habits. In habits, Hollister's chipmunk is practically in- 
distinguishable from the Klamath chipmunk, with which it inter- 
grades to the southward, the same nervous active little sprite, but 
easily distinguished by voice and actions from the larger, slower 
Cooper's chipmunk, with which it comes in contact along its western 
border line. 

EUTAMIAS AMOENUS OCHRACEUS HOWEIX 
YELLOW CHIPMUNK; OCHBACEOUS CHIPMUNK 

Eutamias amoenus ochraceus Howell, Jour. Mammal. 6 : 54, 1925. 

Type. From Siskiyou Mountains, Studhorse Canyon, Calif. 

General characters. Slightly larger and paler than typical amoenus. 
Summer pelage usually with only 1 black dorsal stripe, 4 brown and 4 whitish 
stripes, sometimes 5 brown and 4 gray, and sometimes 3 black, 2 brown, 2 gray, 
and 2 whitish ; stripes on sides of head, and patch back of ears, conspicuously 
white; sides bright ochraceous; lower parts and feet buffy; lower surface of 
tail pale ochraceous, edges and top black with buffy tipped hairs. Winter 
pelage darker and grayer, the back with 3 black and 4 gray stripes. 

Distribution and habitat. This pale form of chipmunk has a 
rather restricted distribution in the Siskiyou Mountains of south- 
western Oregon and northwestern California (fig. 22). There are 
typical specimens from near Ashland and along the line of the rail- 
road over the Siskiyous, but the limits of range have not been well 
established. 

At the type locality Hollister collected two specimens in the canyon 
at 6,500 feet altitude, but was unable to get more or to find them 
in other parts of the western end of the range. 

General habits. Apparently nothing has been written on the habits 
of these chipmunks to indicate that they are in any way different 
from those of typical amoenus over its wide range. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS PICTUS (ALLEN) 

SAGEBRUSH CHIPMUNK ; GREAT BASIN CHIPMUNK ; DESERT CHIPMUNK ; 
PAINTED CHIPMUNK 

Tamias minimus pictus Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3: 115, 1890. 
Eutamias minimus scrutator Hall and Hatfleld, Calif. Univ. Pubs., Zool. 40 (6) : 
325, 1934. Type from White Mountains, Calif. 

Type. Collected at Kelton, Utah, by Vernon Bailey, June 1888. 

General characters. Very small (pi. 28, A), form slender, tail long, color 
gray with 9 narrow stripes on back. Summer pelage, back with 5 black, 2 light 
gray, and 2 dark gray stripes; sides and feet and middle of tail below buffy 
gray; sides, top, and tip of tail black, with gray tips to long hairs; belly 
white or light gray. Winter fur clearer gray with less buffy. 

Measurements. Average: Total length, 200 mm; tail, 86; foot, 30; ear (dry), 
12. An adult female at Malheur Lake measured 190; 93; 31; 14 mm, and 
weighed 33 g. 

Distribution and habitat. These tiny chipmunks occupy most of 
the sagebrush valleys of the Great Basin region, including the sage- 
brush plains of Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains, in upper 
Sonoran and Transition Zones (fig. 23). They are rarely found in 
the timber or away from sagebrush, in which they climb as other 
-larger chipmunks do in the trees and larger bushes. 

General habits. The homes of these little chipmunks are in bur- 
rows in the ground which they dig or borrow from other rodents, and 



138 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



from which they range out widely for food and exploration through 
the Lilliputian forests of sagebrush. They run swiftly from cover 
to cover, with tails erect, darting over open ground from one patch 
of sagebrush to the next, then through the branches and tops of the 
bushes, or, pausing a moment on one of the highest twigs to inspect 
the country for danger, with a sharp little chipper are off again in 
another direction. 

When at a long distance from a burrow or other safe retreat these 
chipmunks run so swiftly and hide so skillfully in the bushes that 
specimens are not easily obtained. Even on a good hunting horse 
the writer has been led many an exciting chase without securing a 
specimen, while on foot it is useless to pursue one. A little patience 
and skill, however, will yield more specimens than hard hunting. A 
few squeaks of the lips will bring one to the top of a sage bush 
where with alert ears and lashing tail he will answer back in excited 

chippers and fall an easy- 
prey to his nervous curi- 
osity. More specimens are 
secured in mousetraps set 
among the sage bushes 
than in any other way, as 
the chipmunks are eager 
for rolled oats or almost 
any of the baits used for 
rodents. 

B T e e ding haibits. 
Little is known of the 
breeding of these chip- 
munks other than that 
the female has 4 pairs of 

FIGURE 23. Range of the sagebrush chipmunk, rnammap 1 incrninal 9 

Eutamias minimus pictus, in Oregon. mgumai, A 

abdominal, and 1 pecto- 
ral and that 4 and 5 are the usual numbers of embryos found in 
those collected for specimens in May. There seems to be no evidence 
of more than one litter being raised in a year, but there might be a 
second litter under favorable circumstances, such as mild climate, 
abundance of food, and freedom from persecution of enemies. The 
young are generally nearly full grown by harvest time in the fall, 
and apparently each makes its stores independently. 

Food habits. The sagebrush furnishes food as well as shelter for 
these tiny squirrels, its abundance of minute seeds being gathered 
/and carried away in the cheek pouches all through the late sum- 
mer, fall, and early winter. In return for this food supply, the sage- 
brush is to some extent protected from insects by the chipmunks, 
which in summer often subsist largely upon the little green cater- 
pillars that devour its leaves. The stomachs of the chipmunks often 
show traces of grasshoppers and numerous other insects, but the bulk 
of their food generally consists of seeds of a great variety of flower- 
ing plants and grasses, berries, green vegetation, roots, bulbs, and 
fungi. They are fond of grain and often gather around the edges of 
fields to feast on this unusual food supply and store as much as 
possible for winter use. They do not become very fat in the fall 
and probably do not hibernate for any long period, if at all. 




1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



139 



Econonvic status. Except very locally these little chipmunks are 
not destructive to crops, but their consumption of seeds of grass and 
other useful plants may have considerable influence on abundance of 
vegetation in the arid valleys where they live. Their consumption 
of insects must partly, or may wholly, compensate this loss of vege- 
tation. A closer study of food habits is necessary to decide the 
balance of account for or against them. 

CALLOSPERMOPHILUS CHRYSODEIRUS CHRYSODEIRUS (MEERIAM) 

GOLDEN-MANTLED GROUND SQUIRREL; YELLOW HEAD; CALICO SQUIRREL; CHIL-LAS 
of the Klamath (C. H. M.) ; WO-TAH of the Piute at Burns 

Tamias chrysodeirus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 4, p. 19, 1890. 

Type Collected at Fort Klamath, Oreg., by Samuel Parker, in 1888. 

General characters. Larger and heavier than the true chipmunks; ears 
prominent ; tail moderately bushy ; feet large with naked soles and palms ; toes 
5 on each foot, thumb a mere rudiment; mammae in 4 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 
abdominal, and 1 pectoral ; in- 
ternal cheek pouches ample. 
Summer pelage, sides of back 
with 4 black and 2 white or 
buffy stripes ; middle of back, 
rump, and hams rusty gray; 
shoulders, neck, cheeks, arms, 
and lower surface of tail, 
bright ochraceous tawny; 
crown hazel ; lower parts and 
feet buffy gray, or dull ochra- 
ceous; upper surface of tail 
black, washed with pal 
ochraceous. Young, as in 
summer adults. Winter pel- 
age with the same black and 
whitish stripes but without 
the golden mantle and with 
general coloration much dul- 
ler and grayer; lower surface 
of tail as in summer. 

Measurements. Average of 
five adults: Total length, 258 
mm; tail, 90; foot, 40; ear (dry), 15. 
(Grinnell and Storer, 1924, P- -*73). 

Distribution and habitat. This ground squirrel is one of the most 
widely ranging forms of the genus, showing only slight variation 
from the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California north to 
Mount Hood and the Columbia River in Oregon, and from the west- 
ern slopes of the Sierra Nevadas and Cascades east through most of 
the mountain ranges of Nevada, eastern Oregon, and into southern 
Idaho (fig. 24). Apparently the Columbia Eiver Canyon is sufficient 
barrier on the north to separate them sharply from Cattospermopki- 
Lus lateralis saturates of the Cascades of Washington, while the 
Snake River Canyon on the east separates them as sharply from C. I. 
cinerascens of central Idaho. 

Their principal range is in Transition and Canadian Zones, but in 
places they reach up into Hudsonian and in other places down into 
Upper Sonoran Zone. Generally they inhabit the timber, but in the 
edges of the valleys come down along lines of rocky cliffs and ledges 
where they find safe cover among the rocks and ample food supply 
from the bushes and small plants. 




FIGURE 24. Range of two forms of Callospermo- 
philus in Oregon : 1, Callospcrmophilus chrysodei- 
rus chrysodeirus ; 2, C. c. trinitatis. Type locality 
circled. 



Weight: 135 to 239 g (4% to 8V 2 ounces) 



140 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

General tidbits. In, habits as well as structure they are between 
the arboreal squirrels and the true ground squirrels. They are not 
good climbers, but occasionally climb trees if no other escape is 
possible. They are fond of running over logs, stumps, and rocks, 
or sitting on logs, fences, or some other elevated perch where a wide 
view is obtained; but their homes are in underground burrows, to 
which they quickly retreat if alarmed. In disposition they are less 
nervous and active than the chipmunks, often sitting for a long 1 time 
without a motion and finally gliding away without a sound or a flip 
of the tail. 

Their voices are not frequently heard, and the single shrill whistle, 
or sharp squeak, is so ventriloquial that often it is not associated 
with the animal. The single call is not frequently repeated, which 
renders it still more difficult to locate. 

Like all of the true squirrels and chipmunks they are strictly di- 
urnal, working only during daylight hours, and like the ground 
squirrels they hibernate for a long period during cold weather. 

Their homes are often among the rocks, either in clefts and cracks 
in cliffs, or in the open spaces in steep rock slides, masses of talus, 
or broken rocks. Of their nests, dens, and storehouses under rock 
cover little is known or even of their breeding and wintering nests 
in burrows in the ground. Occasionally a nest and food cache is 
found where dug out by a badger or a bear, but always so messed 
up as to give little idea of original plan and structure. 

In autumn, usually about the middle of September, or with the 
first freezing nights, they enter their dens for the winter and do not 
reappear until some time in May, the dates of entering and emerging 
from hibernation varying with altitude and weather, as well as with 
age and condition. The old males become fat and enter hibernation 
first, the young of late litters remaining out latest to acquire the 
necessary amount of fat for the winter. 

Breeding habits. The mating season of these squirrels begins in 
spring soon after they emerge from hibernation, and the young are 
generally born late in June or early July. There are usually 4 to 6 
young at a birth, but 7 and 8 have been recorded. The mammae of 
fully adult females are usually in 5 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, 2 
pectoral but in females only a year old the anterior pair of pectoral 
mammae are usually undeveloped. Only one litter of young is raised 
in a year, and these have scant time to grow up and get fat in time 
to hibernate. In fact many of the later young are not fully grown 
and not very fat when the snow and cold weather shut them in, and 
if they come through the winter they are not fully grown or in breed- 
ing condition the next spring. The young usually begin to appear 
out of the nest when a quarter or a third grown, late in July at 
middle altitudes, but near Huntington in the Snake Kiver Canyon, 
young were collected on May 18 and 19, while on top of the Cascade, 
around the base of the Three Sisters, no young were found up to 
July 20. 

Food habits. Voracious and almost omnivorous, these potbellied 
little semiground squirrels eat almost anything of an edible nature 
that they can find. Green vegetation, roots, bulbs, seeds, grain, nuts, 
fruit, berries, mushrooms, meat, fat, bread, rolled oats, or any camp 
food that they can find, will help to fill up their capacious stomachs 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 141 

and put under their skins the necessary store of fat for winter use. 
Different foods are favorites at different seasons as available. In 
spring much green vegetation is eaten as it appears, and roots and 
old seeds are dug up. Later as berries ripen they are eagerly sought, 
and service berries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries, manzanita 
berries, and others are eaten, seeds and all, or the seeds removed and 
carried away in the cheek pouches to be stored. Sheldon found 
them feeding on service berries and weed seeds, the pouches of one 
containing 150 and another 750 seeds of service berry and of another 
410 weed seeds. Later in the season they feed more exclusively on 
seeds and nuts, in places getting acorns, chinquapins, hazelnuts, and 
numerous seeds of grasses and flowering plants. 

They are fond of fresh meat of almost any kind, eagerly taking the 
bodies of mice and birds that have been skinned for specimens and 
used for trap bait. They also get into traps baited with bacon or any 
fat meat and pick up meat scraps around camps. At Cloudcap Inn 
on Mount Hood, H. D. Langille wrote that when he skinned a fat 
ground hog these squirrels gathered around and voraciously devoured 
both fat and meat, seeming to be crazed by the smell of the meat and 
refused to be driven away. Luther J. Goldman, near Bend, Oreg., 
found it necessary to visit his meat-baited carnivore traps every 
evening to take out the " calico squirrels " caught during the daytime. 

To what extent they catch small game and insects is not well 
known, but apparently they are less insectivorous than are the chip- 
munks. 

Economic status. In places where numerous, the "Callos" are 
accused of doing some damage to grain crops, tearing down and 
carrying away the ripening heads of wheat, oats, and barley along 
the edges of fields in or near the woods or cliffs. This damage is 
rarely of serious consequence, however, and can be easily prevented 
by shooting, trapping, or poisoning. 

Around camps and cabins they sometimes cut holes in sacks and 
carry off some grain and injure other camp supplies unless pre- 
cautions are taken to prevent such mischief. They quickly gather at 
a source of food supply and become tame and bold in helping them- 
selves. On the long freight-road grades of the Deschutes River 
Canyon they were numerous, picking scattered grain from the road, 
and reluctantly moving out of the road for horses to pass. At camps 
they become very tame and most companionable pets if given friendly 
protection, and in the parks are one of the most attractive forms of 
small life. Writing from Fort Klamath in 1914, Harry Telford 
reported that Miss Copeland had kept one as a pet for 11 years. It 
hibernated in winter just as in the wild state. 

They are less inclined to gather tree seeds than are the chipmunks, 
but undoubtedly do have some effect in checking reforestation and 
still more effect in keeping down the grazing, both of grass and 
many other useful forms of vegetation. They have numerous 
enemies, however, from snakes to predaceous mammals and birds of 
prey, and generally their numbers are kept well within bounds. It 
may sometimes be necessary to destroy them locally in which cases 
the methods worked out tor ground squirrels in general will be 
-found effective. 



142 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

CALLOSPERMOPHILUS CHRYSODEIRUS TRINITATIS MEKRIAM 
TAWNY-MANTLED GROUND SQUIRREL 

Callospermophilus clirysodeirus trinitatis Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 14: 
126, 1901. 

Type. Collected in Trinity Mountains, east of Hoopa Valley, Calif., by 
Vernon Bailey in 1898. 

General characters. Size of typical clirysodeirus or slightly larger; colors 
duller and darker. Summer pelage, crown and most of mantle tawny, be> 
coming ochraceous tawny on sides of neck ; back, rump, and hams rusty gray ; 
two black stripes enclosing buffy stripe along each side of back; sides and 
lower parts buffy ochraceous ; lower surface of tail dark tawny, top and mar- 
gins black, long hairs tipped with ochraceous. Winter pelage grayer, less tawny. 
Young as in summer. 

Measurements. Average of 6 specimens from type locality: Total length, 
283 mm; tail, 100; foot, 43; ear (dry), 16. 

Distribution and habitat. These brown-mantled squirrels occupy 
the Yolla Bolly, Trinity, and Siskiyou Mountains of northwestern 
California and southwestern Oregon, the northernmost specimens be- 
ing from the Siskiyous and a ridge near Briggs Creek west of Grants 
Pass (fig. 24). In 1909 Hollister reported them common all along 
the summit of the Siskiyous from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, and specimens 
were collected on White Mountain Peak. 

General habits. In no particular does there seem to be any dif- 
ference in habits from typical Callospermophilus chrysodeirus, but 
owing to their limited range they have been much less studied. In 
1897 Loring reported them as common in the Siskiyou Mountains, 
living under logs, rocks, and stone piles along the roads, and sitting 
on logs or stumps until approached within a few feet before dodging 
into their holes. In 1909 Hollister in the western part of the range 
found them very wild and hard to approach within shotgun range, 
but at that time they were very fat and evidently ready for 
hibernation. 

CALLOSPERMOPHILUS CHRYSODEIRUS CONNECTENS HOWELL 
COPPERHEAD GBOUND SQUIRREL 

Callospermophilus ohrysodeirus connectens Howell, Jour. Mammal. 12: 161, 
1931. 

Type. Collected at Homestead, Oreg., June 1, 1916, by Harry H. Sheldon. 

General characters. Size and general appearance of the golden-mantled 
ground squirrel but slightly darker over head and shoulders, more russet and 
less golden yellow. Back more vinaceous, less ochraceous ; lower surface of tail 
cinnamon brown but not so dark a brown as in Callospermophilii'S cast'anurus. 
In summer pelage, head, ears, shoulders, and sides of neck russet, shading on 
sides of face and neck to cinnamon-buff, nape and fore back more brownish ; 
sides of body and feet pinkish buff; two light dorsal stripes creamy white, 
bordered on each side by shorter black stripes of the same width ; tail cinnamon 
below, dusky above ; lower parts whitish. 

Measurements. Type, adult male: Total length, 275 mm; tail, 95; foot, 42; 
ear from notch (dry), 14. 

Distribution and habitat. This slightly darker form of the 
golden-mantled ground squirrel occupies the Blue Mountain section 
of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington but varies 
somewhat within this range. It may have no direct connection in 
range with the parent species but is not widely separated if at all. 
In zonal range it is mainly Transition and to some extent Canadian. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



143 



General habits. In no way has this form been found to differ in 
habits from typical chrys&devrus. 

AMMOSPHERMOPHILUS LEUCURUS LEUCURUS (MEBBIAM) 

ANTET.OPE SQUIBREL; WHITE-TAILED SAND SQUEKREL; TA-WATZ of the Piute 

(L. J. G.) 




FIGURE 25. Range of the antelope squirrel in eastern 
Oregon : Ammospermophilus leucurus leucurus. 



Tamias leucurus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 2, p. 20, 1889. 

Type. Collected in San Gorgonio Pass, Calif., by Frank Stephens, May 1G 
1885. 

General characters. S i z e 
of a large chipmunk (pi. 28, 
B), with shorter, heavier 
body, shorter tail, very short 
ears, palms naked ; soles 
hairy up to posterior edge of 
plantar tubercules; claws but 
slightly curved; inner cheek 
pouches ample. In thin harsh 
summer pelage, upper parts 
grizzled cinnamon brown, be- 
coming clearer cinnamon on 
rump and legs, a broad white 
stripe along each side of 
back; lower parts including 
lower surface of tail clear 
white; top and margins of 
tail blackish, frosted with 
white tipped hairs. Winter 
pelage fine and silky, lower 
parts and side stripes silvery 

white; upper parts much grizzled pinkish cinnamon, brightest on legs and 
sides. Young as in summer adults. 

Measurements. Adult from type locality : Total length, 220 mm ; tail, 68 ; 
foot, 40; ear (dry), 8. 

Distribution and habitat. With a wide range over the desert area 
of southeastern California and much of Nevada the antelope squirrels 
reach their northern limit in the Upper Sonoran valleys of south- 
eastern Oregon (fig. 25). There are specimens from Warner, Alvord, 
and Owyhee Valleys, and records of occurrence in the Malheur 
Valley. While in the southern part of its range it is largely a Lower 
Sonoran Zone species, it also extends well into the arid Upper 
Sonoran. 

General habits. These little desert squirrels live in the open, bar- 
ren valleys far from timber, but usually where tufts of greasewood, 
sagebrush, and low desert shrubs furnish cover, protection, and 
food. With their short, flat tails curled up over the rump so the 
white under surface shows like the white flag of the antelope, they 
go scampering from bush to bush over the hot, sandy valleys, run- 
ning with remarkable speed and hiding in the shadows with such 
skill that specimens are not easily obtained. In places they take 
refuge among broken rocks and sit on top of the high points to watch 
for enemies, but more often they are out in the open, where they 
watch from the tops of bushes and at the approach of an enemy fly 
to some far-away retreat. Their homes are usually in burrows, but 




144 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

sometimes among the rocks. In a barren country where wide forag- 
ing is necessary the speed and alertness of these little sand squirrels 
is of vital importance. 

Their voice, a shrill, prolonged chipper or bubbling whistle, is 
often heard during the summer when the young are out and the old 
females are watching for danger, or the young call back and forth, 
but at other times they are rarely heard. 

In winter they become very fat but apparently do not regularly 
hibernate, as specimens are taken throughout the year. In very 
cold weather or deep snow, they may hibernate for a time, but their 
tracks are sometimes seen on the snow, and they are often found 
active in freezing weather in midwinter. 

They are sturdy, vigorous, energetic little animals, quick to run 
but fierce fighters when cornered, with none of the gentle, quiet ways 
of some of the little ground squirrels. One kept in captivity for 
more than a year never became tame, nor would allow handling. 
When disturbed, it would rush to the vertical wheel and spin it with 
intense energy. It would even run the wheel at night if alarmed, 
although in the wild the species is wholly diurnal. 

Breeding habits. The young are usually 6 or 8 in number, but 
there is one record of 12 large embryos in a female collected April 1. 
This is evidently an abnormal number as the mammae of the females 
are in 5 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 2 pectoral. Farther south 
the young are born in early April and are out of the burrows by 
the middle of May, but in Oregon the dates may be a little later. 
The young are about a quarter grown when they first come out of 
the burrows and remain for some time under the care and protection 
of the mother. When nearly full grown in the late summer they 
scatter out and live independent though not unsociable lives. 

Food habits. In summer these squirrels eat a great deal of green 
vegetation, cactus fruit, and berries and green seeds, but in autumn 
and winter they live largely on seeds and grain. One collected in 
Warner Valley by Jewett on September 26, 1915, had its cheek 
pouches filled with several hundred seeds of Russian-thistle, and 
nothing else. They are fond of all kinds of grain, also, and will 
gather about stacks, barns, or corrals for scattered grains. 

Economic status. In the Oregon part of their range these little 
squirrels are so scarce as to do no harm and are important only 
as objects of interest. In fact, throughout most of their wide desert 
range they have very little economic significance, but are always an 
attractive form of desert life. 

CITELLUS DOUGLASII (RICHAUDSON) 

DOUGLAS'S GROUND SQUIRREL; DIGGER SQUIRREL; GRAY DIGGER; CHO-CHUCK 
the Klamath (C. H. M.) ; WASCHOI of the Wasco 

Arctomys (Sperm-ophilus) douylasii Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Amer., v. 
p. 172, 1829. 

Type. Collected along banks of Columbia River, Oreg., by David Dougl 
in 1825. 

General characters. As large or larger (pi. 29, A) than the eastern gr* 
squirrel; ears about as long; tail long and bushy but less full and spreadii 
than in the tree squirrels; claws fossorial; palms naked; soles hairy back < 
tubercles; cheek pouches ample. Pelage coarse and harsh; in summer, upper 
parts dark brownish gray, mottled and scalloped with white specks and wavy 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 28 




B23229; B33210 



A, Little sagebrush chipmunk, common over the sagebrush plains of eastern Oregon; B, antelope squirrel, 
found in the low hot desert valleys of southeastern Oregon. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 29 




B4610M; B4609M 



A, Douglas's ground squirrel in western Oregon (photograph by Alex Walker); B, Columbian ground 
squirrel in Glacier National Park (photograph by Walter L. Huber). 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



145 



black crosslines; middle of back with a large black or dusky V-shaped area 
between posteriorly diverging light gray shoulder stripes ; lower parts and feet 
buffy ochraceous; tail dark gray with three concealed black or dusky lines 
along each side and around tip. Winter pelage more gray with less con- 
spicuous markings. Young as in summer adults or more strikingly marked. 

Measurements. Average of 10 adults : Total length, 458 mm ; tail, 200 ; foot, 
60; ear (dry), 22. Weight about the same as the California ground squirrel, 
iy 4 :o 1% pounds (Grinnell and Dixon, 1918, p. 603). 

Distribution and habitat. These big ground squirrels extend from 
the Columbia River south along both sides of the Cascades into 
northern California and west of the Sacramento Valley to San Fran- 
cisco Bay. West of the Cascades in Oregon they cover practically 
all except the densely timbered areas toward the coast, but east of 
the Cascades only a narrow strip along the east base of the mountains, 
mainly in the Deschutes and Klamath Valleys, reaching their eastern 
limit of range in Goose 
Lake and Warner Valleys 
(fig. 26). They are most 
abundant in the dry inte- 
rior Upper Sonoran val- 
leys but are scattered well 
over the more open parts 
of humid Transition val- 
leys, not usually ranging 
high in the mountains 
nor entering heavily tim- 
bered areas. 

General habit s. Al- 
though squirrellike i n 
appearance and fairly 

o-nnrl plimhprQ thpca nr FIGURE 26. Range of Douglas's ground squirrel, 
liniDeiS, tnes Citellus douglasU, in Oregon. 

true ground squirrels, liv- 
ing in deep burrows of their own excavation, in hollows among the 
rocks, or temporarily in hollow trees or logs. They often climb trees 
for acorns, nuts, or fruit, but if surprised in treetops always rush to 
the ground and away to the nearest burrow for refuge. Their bur- 
rows, if deep, are usually marked by large mounds of earth at one 
side, and by trails leading off through, the grass and weeds to other 
burrows or to feeding grounds. They are often excavated under the 
edges of rocks, stumps, or logs, but sometimes out in the open or even 
in fields or meadows. 

Vigilance is the price of safety, and the utilization of open ground 
or convenient stumps, logs, or boulders as watch towers are necessary 
in their home economy. In a colony the sharp, barking whistle of 
alarm may be heard at intervals, and is passed on from rock to rock 
or stump to stump as some enemy is sighted or danger threatens. 
It is strangely like the call note of the marmots or woodchucks, and 
used in the same manner as warning of danger. Sometimes at close 
quarters or on sudden alarm it runs into a long churrrrr or a guttural 
chuck as the squirrel dives for its burrow and disappears. 

Hibernation. In late autumn these squirrels become very fat and 
apparently hibernate for 4 or 5 months during the coldest weather, 
which generally includes November and February. But this period 

7209 36 10 







146 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



varies locally with the weather, the amount of fat accumulated, and 
the age, the smaller young of the year being the latest to enter winter 
quarters. Occasionally on warm days in November a few may be 
seen out long after general hibernation has begun, and in the Rogue 
River Valley warm days sometimes bring them out even in December. 

Breeding habits. The young are usually 5 to 8 in a litter, but the 
mammae of adult females are regularly 5 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 ab- 
dominal, and 2 pectoral. In Oregon most of the young are born in 
May, but they do not usually appear aboveground until the latter 
half of June, and for a considerable time keep close to the burrow, 
where they are carefully watched by the mother. It is doubtful if 
more than one litter of young is raised in a season, as there is only 
enough time for them to grow up and get fat before cold weather 
comes. 

Food habits. The digger squirrels have very large stomachs and 
are hearty eaters, in summer gorging themselves on green foliage, 
roots, bulbs, flowers, and green seeds, and in autumn eating more 
ripe seeds, grains, and nuts. Some grasshoppers and other insects 
are eaten, and fresh meat bait often lures them into traps set for 
other animals. In June 1915, near Eugene, they were digging and 
eating great numbers of camas bulbs, but at the same time they were 
eating much green stuff and some insects. Later in the season they 
gather acorns from the oaks, not waiting for them to fall off, and 
eagerly search for the nuts on the beaked hazel bushes. Some spruce 
and pine-cone seeds are eaten, the scales being cut off and left in 
little heaps on the ground, or on logs or stumps. Many grass and 
weed seeds are gathered for food, and grains of all kinds are eaten 
wherever they can be found. Much scattered grain along roads or 
in harvested fields is gleaned, but grain is eaten from the time it 
begins growing until it is ripe. Fruits, wild and cultivated, are 
extensively eaten, as well as a great variety of berries, cherries, plums, 
prunes, peaches, apples, and pears. 

Economic^ status. Locally these squirrels are very destructive to 
crops, especially as their choice of habitat is the open valley country 
where most of the agriculture is carried on, and where much grain 
is raised. They begin feeding on the seed of all grains as soon as 
sown in spring, then eat the sprouting grain, the growing blades 
and stems and the green, ripening heads, and when the kernels are 
ripe carry away and store them in the burrows. If the grain is cut 
and shocked, or stacked, the destruction often continues until it is 
threshed and disposed of. Many other crops are also injured by 
them. Apples, pears, prunes, plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, 
almonds, and other cultivated fruits and nuts suffer from their 
depredations. 

Fortunately the squirrels have a potential food value that should 
help to keep their abundance under control. If properly prepared 
and, cooked they are just as good eating as the tree squirrels, and 
their use as food should be encouraged. Sometimes it is necessary 
to shoot, trap, or poison them to protect crops, and very successful 
methods of poisoning have been perfected by the Biological Survey. 
The use of poison should not be left in unskilled hands, as serious 
damage to valuable wildlife is sure to follow. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



147 



CITBLLUS COLUMBIANUS COLUMBIANUS (ORD) 
COLUMBIAN GROUND SQUIRREL; BURROWING SQUIRREL 

Arctomys columbianus Ord, Guthrie's Geogr., 2d Amer. ed., 2, p. 292, 1815, from 
description by Lewis and Clark. 

Type locality. Camas Prairie on Jim Ford Creek about 7 miles northeast of 
the mouth of Lolo Fork of Clearwater River, Idaho. 

General cliaracters. Body large and heavy (pi. 29. B) ; tail short, wide and 
bushy; ears short; soles half naked, heels hairy; cheek pouches small and 
little used ; fur soft and lax with coarse outer hairs. Summer pelage, upper 
parts coarsely grizzled brownish gray, lighter gray across top of neck; face, 
feet, and legs, and sometimes whole top of tail deep rufous or rusty brown; 
tail usually dark gray or rufous above and below with three concealed black 
lines along each side and around tip and with tips of long hairs frosted with 
white or fulvous; lower parts pale fulvous, becoming deep fulvous or rusty 
brown in anal region. Winter pelage and young essentially the same. 

Measurements. Average of 
10 males: Total length, 375 
mm; tail, 107; foot, 54; ear 
(dry) from notch, 13, from 
crown, 6. Weight of adults 
about 1 pound ; of very large 
males, 1% pounds. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. From northeastern 
Oregon and central Idaho 
the range of these big 
ground squirrels extends 
northward over Idaho, 
eastern Washington, and 
western Montana into 
British Columbia and Al- 
berta (fig. 27) . They occu- 
py Canadian, Transition, 
and Hudsonian Zones, mainly in the open country but often in 
brushy or sparsely timbered areas. They are rarely found in heavy 
timber but seem to find all the little meadows and parks scattered 
through the forest. As the Canadian is generally the zone of heavy 
forest, they are largely crowded into the more open Hudsonian above 
or onto the edges of the Transition plains below. In Oregon- they 
occupy the Blue Mountain section but do not reach into the south- 
western part of this plateau. Although they are numerous locally 
they are not generally distributed over their range. 

General habits. These burrowing squirrels were well named by 
Lewis and Clark, who first made them known to science, for they 
live the greater part of their lives underground in extensive bur- 
rows. Although almost as sociable as prairie dogs, they are less 
colonial in habits and are often found alone or in families, scattered 
far apart. In favorite sections, however, they are so numerous and 
so noisy in their barking, whistling, squeaking calls as to give the 
impression of community interdependence. 

Their call note is usually a short, sharp whistle, or chirp, some- 
times repeated at intervals of about 1 second for several minutes 
at a time, one and then another taking it up until in a populous part 
of their range one or several may be heard much of the time during 




FIGURE 27. Range of the Columbian ground squirrel, 
Citellus columlHanus columbianus, in Oregon. 



148 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

the day. The note varies with circumstances, seeming at times 
unemotional, but in the face of imminent danger being sharp and 
forceful, and even crowded into a wild, blended chirrrrr as one is 
surprised by an enemy, or even into a shriek of alarm at a narrow 
escape. Each takes its turn at calling or occasionally reports its 
presence by a few short chirps, while feeding. 

Feeding and preparing deep burrows and warm nests for winter 
are their principal summertime activities. New burrows are dug or 
the old ones deepened and extended, and before cold weather begins 
dry grass is carried in for big warm nests. A new burrow is gen- 
erally simple, with a front door w r here all the earth is thrown out, and 
a concealed back door some 10 or 15 feet distant. The nest cavity 
is usually 2 or 3 feet below the surface of the ground and large 
enough for a big nest a little above the lowest part of the tunnel. 
Several smaller cavities and short side tunnels are generally dug for 
sanitary and unknown purposes. Old dens that have been used for 
many years are often more elaborate with many openings and several 
nest cavities and numerous other cavities and side tunnels. 

Hibernation. Apparently the old males, which are the first to be- 
come very fat, enter hibernation about the last of July; the others 
follow as soon as their skins are well lined with fat. By August 
15 most of the squirrels have disappeared into their burrows, but up 
to the middle of September, especially at higher elevations, half- 
grown young from late litters occasionally are found active, busily 
stuffing their large stomachs with seeds and forage in an effort to 
accumulate the fat necessary to carry them through the winter. 
In the spring of 1919 Cantwell caught the first one at Wallowa Lake 
on April 13, one that had appeared through 6 inches of snow. By 
April 18 they were common in warm grassy places among the 
yellow pines. The large ones were still very fat, but some small 
ones were poor, with the skin clinging tight to the flesh. On April 
28 he found them abundant at Sled Springs and over the Imnaha 
Plateau, where they had appeared about April 20. These localities 
are in the middle elevations of their range. Higher and lower 
the hibernation dates may vary somewhat. 

Breeding Tidbits. According to W. T. Shaw, who has made an 
intensive study of these squirrels, the mating season begins shortly 
after they come out of hibernation. The period of gestation is 24 
days. The naked, blind, and toothless young grow rapidly and begin 
to open their eyes on the seventeenth day and to come out of the 
burrows when 21 to 24 days old. Shaw (1925, p. 108) gives 5 as 
the average number of young in a litter. The mammae of the fe- 
males are arranged in 5 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 2 
pectoral borne on 4 separate mammary glands. 

Food habits. In early spring young green plants, roots, and bulbs 
form most of the food of these squirrels. With the store of fat left 
over from the fall, these carry them through the mating season. 
As soon as the early flowers appear the squirrels eat them. Later 
the green and ripening seeds of a great variety of native, intro- 
duced, and cultivated plants form most of the food. Berries and 
grasshoppers, caterpillars, and other insects are eaten to a slight ex- 
tent, but toward fall the ripe seeds and grains are especially sought 
and the large stomachs are distended with the richest food available. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



149 



Apparently no food is stored for winter use nor do they carry food 
in the rather small cheek pouches. 

Economic status. In Washington, Idaho, and Montana these 
squirrels are among the most destructive rodents in the grainfields, 
causing heavy losses each year. Their limited range in Oregon, how- 
ever, is fortunately not in an extensive grain-producing section. 
Around the edges of the Grand Konde and Wallowa Valleys and over 
part of the Imnaha Plateau they do come in contact with grainfields, 
and locally destroy much of the growing and ripening grain, feeding 
on it from the time the seed is sown until the harvested crop is 
securely shut away from 
them. Their large size 
enables them to pull 
down the standing grain 
and eat the heads, so that 
in addition to the con- 
siderable amount eaten, 
much is tangled and 
wasted. On the stock 
range they also consume 
much valuable forage, so 
that it is necessary to 
destroy them locally. 

Lewis and Clark found 
them good food when 
other game was scarce, 
and in camp the writer 
has enjoyed many good 
meals from them. Their habits are exemplary as food animals, and 
their use for food should be encouraged. 

\^4 *> 
CITELLUS OREGONUS (MEERIAM) 




FIGURE 28. Range of the Oregon ground squirrel, 
Citellus oregonua, in Oregon. Type locality 
circled. 



OREGON GROUND SQUIRREL; ME-SAS of the Klamath (C. H. M.) ; KUA-PA of the 

Piute at Burns 



Spermophilus oregonus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 12 : 69, 1898. 

Type. Collected at Swan Lake Valley, Klamath County, Oreg., by Vernon 
Bailey in 1897. 

General characters. A medium-sized ground squirrel about half as large as 
Citellus columbianus and twice as large as C. mollis canus; ears short; tail 
iy 2 times the length of hind foot; soles half naked; fur short and soft. Color 
about the same at all seasons and ages, upper parts buffy gray, becoming 
brownish gray on nose and back; tail clear chestnut below, with black tip 
and margins; top dusky gray with buffy tips to long hairs; feet and lower 
parts buffy gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 280 mm; tail, 68; foot, 42; ear (dry), 10, 
from crown, 5. Average weight of adults, 302 g (about 10 ounces). (Grinnell 
and Dixon, 1918, p. 658.) One large moderately fat male, in eastern Oregon, 
weighed 1 pound on August 2. 

Distribution and habitat. These medium-sized and plain-colored 
ground squirrels are the most abundant and widely spread species 
in the State, occupying the more open parts of the Transition Zone 
in Oregon east of the Cascades, and extending into northeastern 
California, northern Nevada, and southwestern Idaho (fig. 28) . They 



150 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

are not a forest or desert species, but occur most abundantly in the 
meadows and grassy parks and openings in or along the edges of the 
yellow pine timber. A few often follow down the stream courses 
into the edges of the valleys, but not far below their zone, except in 
such cases as the colony that reaches to the Snake River at Home in 
Baker County. 

General habits. These are typical ground squirrels, living on 
or under the surface of the ground, generally in the open, and de- 
pending entirely on their burrows for protection. At one moment 
they may all be standing up like a lot of stakes in a meadow, and 
the next all out of sight underground, a few short sharp whistles 
or squeaks having given the warning of approaching danger. The 
burrows are usually numerous and seem always to be close at hand. 
In a few minutes the heads begin to pop up from one burrow and 
another to inspect the field cautiously and when the danger has 
passed the squirrels are soon out feeding again. In tall grass, weeds, 
or grain they make numerous little roadways, and run from place to 
place under safe cover. A field of alfalfa or growing grain affords 
both food and cover, and a favorite site for new burrows. 

Hibernation. Fortunately these squirrels are inactive during 7 
or 8 months of the year, from the middle or last of July to the first 
or middle of March. The beginning of hibernation varies with the 
seasons, altitude, and age of the animals; the old males become fat 
earliest, disappear first at the lower levels, some early in July; 
the smaller young remain out latest, but rarely beyond the 1st of 
August. At higher elevations they are sometimes a month later in 
entering hibernation, which probably means a month later in coming 
out in spring. At Fort Klamath, Telford reported them still se- 
curely buried under 14 inches of snow on March 9, 1914, but out of 
their dens at Klamath Falls on March 12. 

Breeding habits. Six or seven young in a litter seems to be the 
usual number, but as high as 12 and 15 have been reported (Grinnell 
and Dixon, 1918, p. 658). The mammae of adult females are in 5 
pairs 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 2 pectoral and 10 young would 
supposedly be the normal maximum. 

The time of breeding varies with the altitude and time of emerg- 
ing from hibernation, the mating season beginning soon after the 
spring awakening. The small young begin to appear out of the 
burrows early in May, but at higher elevations many small young 
are seen in June. By the first of July many of the young are 
scarcely full grown and apparently some are forced to hibernate 
before they have had time to accumulate a large supply of fat. 
Whether these survive the winter will not be known until the species 
is more closely studied, but it seems probable that the improvement 
of the race depends on the survival of the fattest. 

There is scant time for one litter in the short season of activity 
and no possibility of a second. 

Food habits. The food of these squirrels in spring and early 
summer consists mainly of roots, bulbs, and green vegetation, in- 
cluding grasses, clovers, and a great variety of succulent plants, 
which fill the large stomach with juicy green pulp, mottled with 
bright colors from many flowers, and occasionally bright berries. A 
few bits of grasshoppers and other insects are also found in the 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 151 



stomachs, and later in summer the ripening seeds and grains form 
more of the food. By the time the summer is half over many of 
the squirrels are so fat that they fairly waddle as they run, and 
their feeding time is nearly over for the season. No stores are laid 
up, and the cheek pouches are little used. 

JSconorrdo status. These are by far the most numerous, widely 
distributed, and destructive ground squirrels in Oregon, generally 
common over the principal grain-producing area of the State east 
of the Cascade Eange and often exceedingly numerous. Formerly 
they occupied the best grass area, which has now become the best 
wheat area. 

In Swan Lake Valley in June 1897 the writer counted 30 of the 
squirrels standing up watching him on a quarter of an acre of pas- 
ture land, and they seemed to be no more numerous there than over 
the greater part of the valley. Probably 100 to the acre would be 
a fair estimate of their numbers in many fertile valleys in the State. 
In Hay Creek Valley, May 10, 1915, Jewett saw the bodies of several 
hundred of these squirrels on about 2 acres of alfalfa land that had 
been treated with poisoned grain the night before. Apparently the 
squirrels were about as numerous in this grain- and hay-producing 
valley then as when the present writer recorded their abundance 
there 19 years before, although poison, guns, traps, dogs, and cats 
had been used against them since the early settlement of the valley. 
In many places their numbers are temporarily reduced by poison or 
bounties, but they are soon back to original abundance, and it is 
doubtful if they are less numerous in the State today than they were 
25 or 50 years ago. 

They feed on the spring grain when it is first sown and while 
sprouting, growing, and ripening, and even after harvest if it is left 
in the fields. Winter wheat and rye partly escape, but the writer 
has seen a 30-acre field of rye with 2 or 3 rods of the edges crumpled 
down and practically ruined by the squirrels in June, before it was 
ready for harvest as hay. Their destruction of hay and forage, 
alfalfa, clover, grass, and other forage plants, while less noticed, is 
probably as serious as their destruction of grain. Of the heavy tax 
laid on farm products in Oregon by rodents, these squirrels may 
probably claim the largest share. 

There is no reason why they should not make some returns as a 
meat supply, however, as they are good eating, and their abundance 
partly compensates for their small size. 

The destruction of their natural enemies hawks, badgers, weasels, 
skunks, bobcats, foxes, coyotes, and snakes probably accounts for 
their being able to hold their own in the face of the sporadic warfare 
waged against them. Only an efficient organization and the best 
modern methods of destruction will materially reduce the losses from 
these animals. 

CITELLUS TOWNSENDII (BAOHMAN) 

TOWNSEND'S GROUND SQUIRREL; SPECKLED GROUND SQUIRREL; TBTNO of the 
Walla Walla and Nez Perc6 (J. K. T.) 

Spermophilus tcmnsendU Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 8 : 61, 1839. 

Type. Collected at mouth of Walla Walla River, Wash., by J. K. Townsend 
in 1834. 



152 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



General characters. Size between Citellus mollis canus and C. oregonus; 
ears and tail short ; soles mainly naked ; fur short and thin. Colors about the 
same at all seasons and ages, upper parts ashy gray, the whole back thickly 
dotted with small white spots; nose and hams and lower surface of tail pale 
rusty ; lower parts and feet buffy. 

Measurements. Average of 10 adults : Total length, 222 mm ; tail, 44 ; foot, 
34.5; ear (dry), 8, from crown, 2. 

Distribution and habitat. These little fat, short-tailed, gray, 
speckled-backed ground squirrels are abundant in the hot, dry, sandy, 
Upper Sonoran Zone bottom of the valley south and east of the 
Columbia Eiver from near the mouth of the John Day Elver to Walla 
Walla, and north over the lower parts of the plains of the Columbia 
to Spokane, Wash., and east in the Snake River Valley to Lewiston, 
Idaho (fig. 29). They meet but rarely overlap the ranges of the 

larger Oregon and Co- 
lumbian ground squir- 
rels, which may help to 
determine their bound- 
aries, but apparently the 
limits of range of all are 
zonal. They occupy the 
open sagebrush or grass- 
land country and show a 
preference for sandy soil 
where digging is easy. 

General habits. Pro- 
tected by their gray and 
speckled colors in the 
gray vegetation of their 
somewhat arid habitat 
these little squirrels 
would be inconspicuous 
but for their great numbers and their lisping whistle, which sounds 
from one and another on all sides over the grassy prairies, from the 
steep hillsides, the gulch banks, and sandy bottoms. They are social 
in habits, but not colonial, gathering most abundantly where there 
is most food, living in harmony and to some extent mutually bene- 
fited by numbers, always on the watch for danger and ready to signal 
an alarm. When undisturbed they creep quietly about or run low 
over the ground. At the first suspicion of danger, they stand 
straight up on the hind feet, the short tail not reaching the ground, 
and the hands dropped at the sides^ as they watch for the menace. 
A whistle from one will bring all within hearing to their picket-pin 
attitude of vigilance, and as the whistle is passed along others take 
it up until hundreds may be seen standing motionless. In places the 
ground is honeycombed with their burrows (as many as 620 have 
been counted on a measured acre), and in case of danger each squirrel 
darts down the nearest burrow. A whole field of them may dis- 
appear in a twinkling. 

The burrows are generally simple, or but little branched, going 
down 4 or 5 feet and back several feet to a nest cavity. There seems 
usually to be but one opening to the surface, but this may apply only 
to the new or temporary burrows. No breeding or wintering dens 
were explored. 




FIGURE 29. Range of the sage and Townsend's 
ground squirrels in Oregon : 1, Citellus mollis 
mollis; 2, C. m. canus; 3, C. m. vigilis; 4, (7. 
townsendii. Type localities circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 153 

Food habits. In June these squirrels were found feeding on green 
leaves, tender plant stems, flowers, roots, bulbs, insects, seeds, and 
young grain. In places the seeds of alfilaria formed over half the con- 
tents of all the stomachs examined. Seeds of plantain, grasses, and 
wild mustard were also recognized in the stomachs, also a few cater- 
pillars, cicadas, and small beetles. In a garden they were eating 
young cabbage plants, green peas, and young corn. In the fields they 
were cutting down the growing rye and eating out tender sections of 
the stems and the flowering heads, cutting many stems for the little 
food obtained. Later as the grain forms, all of the kernels are eaten, 
wheat, rye, and barley especially suffering from their depredations. 
By the middle of harvest time, however, having become excessively 
fat, they enter a state of hibernation. Apparently they do not lay 
up any stores of food, and rarely is any food found in their rather 
small cheek pouches. 

Breeding habits. The females have the usual arrangement of 
mammae in 5 pairs 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 2 pectoral. The 
5 to 10 young are born apparently in March and April, and appear 
out of the burrows in April and May, are well grown by the middle 
of June, and well fattened by the first of July. In the very mild 
climate of the Columbia Valley they keep about a month ahead of 
the higher country ground squirrels. 

Hibernation. During the early part of July most of these little 
squirrels have accumulated about as much fat as their skins can hold, 
and they disappear into their burrows to be seen no more until the 
latter part of February or early March of the following year. When 
first emerging from their 8 months of inactivity they are said still to 
be well supplied with fat, which is soon lost during the breeding 
season, and before food becomes plentiful. Their unusually early 
hibernation, or aestivation, is probably due to the long, dry summer 
period and scarcity of moisture. 

Economic status. The great abundance of these little squirrels 
in an almost exclusively grain-producing area renders them almost as 
serious a pest as some of the larger species. Over the most populous 
part of their range in 1896, their numbers were estimated at 50 to 
100 to an acre and 620 of their burrows were counted on a measured 
acre. Small fields of grain are sometimes entirely destroyed by them 
before ripe enough for harvest, and every field within their range 
suffers to greater or less extent, according to the expense and effort 
put forth in destroying the squirrels. 

Poisoning, trapping, and shooting are the usual methods of de- 
struction, but the native enemies of the squirrels should, as far as 
possible, be protected and encouraged. Of these the badger prob- 
ably stands first in importance. On 1 acre near Pendleton in 1896 
62 holes were counted where a badger had dug out the burrows and 
evidently in most cases had feasted on a fat squirrel at the bottom. 
Weasels, skunks, bobcats, and coyotes help to keep down, the pest, 
and numerous hawks and day-hunting owls do their best to protect 
the crops. 

The squirrels are good eating if the oily fat is removed. 



154 .NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

^W}^enii 

CITELLUS MOLLIS MOLLIS (KENNICOTT) 

SAGE SQUIKBEL; PIUTE SQUIRREL; KOOP or GOOP of the Piute at Pyramid Lake 

(C. H. M.) 

Spermophilus mollis Kennicott, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 157, 1863. 

Type locality. Camp Floyd, near Fairfield, Utah. 

General characters. Small, short, and plump with short tail, short legs, and 
minute ears. Fur short and soft. Plain huffy gray over back and warm 
fulvous over head, neck, legs, and tail ; feet and lower parts well up onto the 
sides clear huffy; winter pelage, feet and lower parts pale huffy or whitish, 
but with the same fulvous head, collar, legs, and tail. 

Measurements. Largest adult female: Total length, 210 mm; tail, 46; foot, 
34 ; ear, inside, 7, outside, 1. Two large and moderately fat specimens weighed 
8 ounces each. 

Distribution and habitat. From a wide range over the upper 
Sonoran sagebrush deserts of western Utah, southern Idaho, and 
much of Nevada these soft little squirrels come into the Owyhee and 
Alvord Valleys of southeastern Oregon in their typical form (fig. 29). 
In 1915 Preble collected specimens at Home and reported them all 
along the Owyhee Valley and up onto the slopes of the Juniper Moun- 
tains. In 1927, July 2 to 7, the writer found them abundant through- 
out the Owyhee, Jordan, and Rattlesnake Valleys, up Crooked Creek 
and over to the Sink of White Horse Creek, over the low divide to 
Alvord Valley and all over the sagebrush bottom of this great basin 
from the Nevada line on the south to its northern end. Also they 
were abundant in the headwaters basin of Quinn River, north of 
Old Fort McDermitt on the Oregon-Nevada line, but their real con- 
nection in range with the Nevada Valley country is through the wide 
open southern end of Alvord Valley south of Denio, where it joins 
the upper Quinn River Valley. 

Along more than 100 miles of desert road they were common, and 
many were shot for specimens, examination, and study. They seemed 
especially partial to sandy soil and fairly revelled in the extensive 
sand dunes and sandy shores of the great playas of the Alvord and 
White Horse Valleys. In places their little burrows were in the 
open and afforded almost the only cover, but generally they were 
under the protecting shade of sagebrush or greasewood or some of 
the low desert shrubs. Generally the little squirrels were seen run- 
ning for the nearest burrow, but occasionally one would be seen 
standing erect like a stake or sitting on top of a sagebrush watching 
for danger. 

General habits. Their fine little squeally whistle was often heard 
from behind a bush, but it would give little clue to their position, 
and the gray sand colors were most effective in concealing them from 
view until they moved. Often the only glimpse of one was a mere 
twinkle as it scuttled into a burrow and out of sight. During the 
hot part of the day they were less abundant, and numerous tracks 
about their burrows and along the trails and roads indicated the 
morning and evening hours as the busy times of day. 

In early July the young were nearly full grown, but they remained 
at the parent burrow or near by, while the adult males were getting 
a heavy coat of fat and the females and young beginning to show 
fatty deposits under the skins. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 155 

Hibernation. These little squirrels usually begin to hibernate 
about the first of August, although a few late young may be seen 
out a little later. Generally they reappear during March and 
promptly begin breeding operations. 

Food habits. The stomachs of those shot for specimens were well 
filled mostly with green vegetation, seeds, and flowers, with usually 
a trace of insect remains. The moist stomach contents could easily 
supply all the water necessary for their bodily needs, as little is 
carried off by the dry, hard pellets, and much of the food would 
run 50 to 75 percent of water by weight. They are thus well adapted 
to desert conditions and to life in dry valleys where often no rain 
falls for months at a time. 

Economic status. Over most of their range these squirrels are of 
little economic importance, and they add a bit of wildlife interest 
to the deserts, but in the fertile and irrigated valleys they sometimes 
gather along the edges of alfalfa and grain fields in sufficient numbers 
to do serious damage to crops and must be reckoned with accordingly. 

Among the Piute Indians they have long been a source of food sup- 
ply and are often hunted by the boys with bows and arrows, sticks, 
and buckets of water. A gallon of water poured down a burrow 
will often bring out the occupants, blinking and choking, to be easily 
killed with a stick or shot with an arrow. Their meat is very 
palatable, rich, and tender. No animal could be cleaner or more 
exemplary in its own food habits. 

TjfljA'ltefl?^ 
CITELLUS MOLLIS CANUS (MEREIAM) 

GRAY SAGE SQUIRREL 

Spermophilus mollis canus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 12 : 70, 1898. 

Type. Collected at Antelope, Oreg., by Vernon Bailey in 1896. 

General characters. Small and plump, ears minute, tail insignificant, fur 
short and very smooth. Smaller and grayer than C. mollis mollis. Colors 
much the same at all seasons and ages; upper parts clear, fine, uniform buffy 
gray ; nose and hams dull ochraceous tawny ; feet, sides, and lower parts 
clear buffy ; tail gray, edged with buff. 

Measurements. Average of 10 adults : Total length, 208 mm ; tail, 40 ; foot, 
31; ear (dry), 6, from crown, 1. 

Distribution and habitat. These little soft gray ground squirrels 
occupy the Upper Sonoran sagebrush plains from the type locality on 
the high ridges between the Deschutes and John Day Rivers, south 
through the valleys to northwestern Nevada, and east into the 
Malheur Valley of Oregon (fig. 29). They are a northern form of 
the mollis group, which occupies the Upper Sonoran Zone of prac- 
tically the whole of the Great Basin region. 

General habits. These are quiet, secretive little squirrels, soft 
voiced as they are soft in body, fur, and colors. They blend into 
the gray soil and gray sagebrush colors, and but for their abundant 
numbers and soft, lisping whistle, or long squeak, would be passed 
by unnoticed. 

They burrow under sage bushes or in the open and keep close 
to their burrows, or, rather, seem always to have burrows close to 
where they are. Mellow soil is preferred, and ditch banks, which are 
often honeycombed by them, are a favorite site for the burrows. 
Plowed fields and dry meadows are also sought for homes if food 
is abundant. In places they seem almost colonial, but apparently 



156 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

only from gathering on suitable soils or near supplies of favorite 
food. 

At the first alarm of danger they dive into the burrows, and it 
may be a few minutes or a half hour before a little black eye appears 
cautiously at the edge of the doorway, and the little smooth head 
gradually comes farther and farther out until the animal stands up 
and makes a careful survey to see if the coast is clear before resum- 
ing the usual occupation of gathering food. 

Hibernation. In the latter part of July or early in August these 
squirrels gradually disappear in their burrows, the oldest and fat- 
test going in first, and the youngest last. They are not seen again 
until early in March, except by badgers that dig them out. There 
are no definite records of appearance in spring but the records of 
young out of the burrows in May would indicate that the mating 
season begins in the early part of March. 

Breeding habits. On May 24, 1915, Jewett found these squirrels 
common on the dry mesa east of Hay Creek, where he caught 21 in 
his traps, mostly small young. To have been out at that date, 
they must have been born some time in late April or early May. 
There seem to be no records of embryos or families of young to 
indicate the number in a litter, but the usual number of 10 mam- 
mae 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 2 pectoral pairs judging from 
related species, would indicate 5 to 10 young at a birth. There is 
no possibility of more than one family of young in a season and 
scant time for these to grow up, get fat, and be ready for hibernation 
by the first of August. 

Food habits. Many green plants, roots, and bulbs, a great variety 
of seeds and grains, and a considerable variety of insects make up 
the list of known foods of the species. Alfalfa, clover, and various 
grasses all green and growing as well as ripening grains and 
many valuable forage plants, are eaten. In places where cicadas 
were numerous the squirrels were found feeding quite largely on 
these insects. Their stomachs are very large and usually are well 
filled, especially late in the summer when all their efforts are con- 
centrated on storing sufficient fat for the period of hibernation. 

Economic status. Over most of their range these little desert 
squirrels do not come in touch with agriculture, but in some of the 
wheat-growing mesa tops and in some of the irrigated valleys they 
are numerous and destructive to crops. 

They are poisoned, shot, trapped, and generally destroyed at con- 
siderable expense of time and materials, while their principal 
enemies the badger and numerous hawks and a few owls are in 
many cases wantonly destroyed also. 

If the squirrels are as good eating as their relative, mollis, they 
might be partly controlled by utilizing them as a food supply. The 
Piute Indians are very fond of them. 

CITELLUS MOLLIS VIGILIS MERRIAM 
SPECKLED SAGE SQUIRREL 

Citellus canus vigilis Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 26 : 137, 1913. 

Type. Collected at Vale, Oreg., by Stanley G. Jewett, April 29, 1910. 
General characters. Small and plump; ears minute, tail insignificant, soles 
naked except heels ; fur soft and smooth, but browner and more grizzled than 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 157 

in mollis or camis. Color, similar at all seasons and ages; upper parts finely 
specked or coarsely grizzled brownish gray; nose and hams touched with pale 
tawny; tail dark gray, bordered with buffy; feet, sides, and lower parts clear 
buffy. 

Measurements. Average of 10 adults: Total length, 210 mm; tail, 38; foot, 
34; ear (dry), 6; from crown, 1. 

Distribution and habitat. These little ground squirrels occupy the 
low, hot valley of the Malheur and Owyhee Rivers in extreme eastern 
Oregon, representing the mollis group of the whole Great Basin area 
in this limited area of low, hot desert country (fig. 29). They ap- 
parently blend into mollis on the south and canus on the west. 

General habits. At Vale where he collected the type and a good 
series of specimens in May 1910, Stanley G. Jewett reported them as 
common all over the valley and even up on the rocky foothills to the 
south. He says they make their burrows anywhere that suits their 
fancy from the river banks to the highest hills. When alarmed, they 
fairly fall over themselves in their haste to get into the burrows, 
uttering a shrill whistle. 

When a burrowing owl flies over a field, the alarm is spread in all 
directions and every squirrel disappears as if by magic. In 1916 
Robert H. Becker, collecting specimens at Yale and Ontario, reported 
them abundant in the fields, along the fence lines, on the levees 
and ditch banks, out among the sagebrush and boulders, and on valley 
slopes and hillsides no place was free of them. They were espe- 
cially numerous in grain and alfalfa fields where they were doing 
much damage. 

Hibernation. On July 16, at Riverside, they had mostly gone into 
winter quarters, but one was secured and a hawk was found eating 
another that was still warm. On July 19, 1896, Merriam saw them 
along the stage road from Westfall to Beulah. On July 28 and 29, 
Preble found where they had been numerous over the Cedar Moun- 
tains but had all denned up except one caught in a gopher trap and 
another seen but not secured. From August 4 to 6, he could find 
none over the valley from Riverside to Vale as they were all deep 
in their dens for the rest of the summer and most of the winter. 
Nothing definite is known of the time of appearance in spring, but it 
must be early, probably in February or March, as the young are 
appearing out of the burrows in the latter part of April and early 
in May. 

Breeding habits. The mammae of the females) are arranged as 
in others of the group in 5 pairs, 1 inguinaf, 2 abdominal, and 2 
pectoral. The number of young in a litter is probably 5 to 10 
as in other forms of the group. Small young out of the burrows on 
April 30 and in the early part of May would indicate that they are 
born early in April or throughout the month. 

Food habits. Near Huntington on May 18, 1896, a colony of 
several hundred of these little squirrels were living on a sandy flat 
just back from the river. The stomachs of those collected for speci- 
mens all contained green herbage, flowers, and unripe seeds. The 
yellow heads of sunflowers and other composites and the purple 
flowers of legumes and alfilaria were conspicuous in the food of both 
old and young. Even at that early date all were laying in their 
store of fat, At Vale, Jewett reported them feeding largely on wild 



158 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

sunflower seeds, flowers, and foliage, but eating other green vegeta- 
tion and getting into traps baited with meat. Growing or ripe grain, 
alfalfa, and many other farm crops are extensively eaten. 

Economic status. These are the only ground squirrels in the val- 
leys where they occur, and while small they are often so numerous 
as to be as destructive to crops as some of the larger species. There 
is much irrigated and highly cultivated land within their range, 
and much more that will eventually be brought under cultivation. 
When a new field is cleared and planted the squirrels flock in 
from the surrounding sagebrush and wild land, and if the field is 
small, they sometimes destroy the whole crop, eating the seed, the 
growing grain, and the ripening heads. The borders of large fields 
are often left in a ragged and much injured condition, and serious 
losses are sustained in both grain and meadow crops. 

As with other species of ground squirrels poison, traps, and guns 
are used to keep down their numbers, and only by constant vigilance 
can serious losses be prevented. The protection of such natural 
enemies as badgers, skunks, weasels, hawks, and owls is rarely given 
the importance it deserves, and many of these best friends of the 
farmer are wantonly destroyed. Like other members of the Citellus 
mollis group these little squirrels could be utilized as food with a 
double advantage. 

CITELLUS ELEGANS NEVADENSIS HOWELL 
NEVADA GROUND SQUIRREL 

Citellus elegans nevadensis Howell, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 41 : 211, 1928. 

Type. Collected at Paradise, Humbolt County, Nev., by Stanley E. Piper, 
March 3, 1908. 

General characters. Somewhat larger than the Oregon ground squirrel, and 
with relatively longer tail; lower surface of tail ochraceous instead of rusty. 
Summer pelage, upper parts buffy gray, specked with buffy and dusky ; ears, 
feet, sides, and whole lower parts clear rich buff or ochraceous ; winter pelage 
lighter, more grayish above and clear ochraceous below. 

Measurements. Adult male: Total length, 315 mm; tail, 98; foot, 48; ear, 
inside, 13, outside, 7. Weight, 1% pounds (not much fat, stomach full). 

Distribution and habitat. This extreme western form of the Citel- 
lus richardsonii and elegans group reaches into southeastern Oregon 
on the high Transition Zone plains north of Fort McDermitt, and 
may well have a continuous range through the Bruneau Mountains 
of northern Nevada and southern Idaho to the previously known 
range of elegans in southeastern Idaho and Wyoming. 

t Three specimens were secured by the roadside on top of the 
divide between the headwaters of Quinn River and Rattlesnake 
Creek, in Malheur County, Or eg., and others were seen along the 
road over the top of this plateau and easily recognized by their strik- 
ingly yellowish colors. 

The one old male collected on July 2, in full summer pelage, was 
not very fat but was in good condition. Its stomach was well filled 
with green foliage, flowers, and seeds of various plants, and its 
cheek pouches were stuffed to their utmost capacity with ripe seeds 
of Collomia in 1,160 capsules, a few small seeds of Coltinsia, and a 
little crucifer. The cheek pouches were so large as to give the 
head the appearance of being triple its normal size. The smaller 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



159 



male and female collected the same date were apparently young 
of the previous year, showing no indications of breeding. 

In the broad valley near McDermitt, Preble found them living 
in the same meadows with oregonus and collected four specimens 
in early June of 1915. So far these two localities show the only 
Oregon records. 

The specimens collected at the type locality, Paradise, Nev., by 
Piper, March 3, 1908, and others collected at Mountain City, Nev., 
by W. K. Fisher, in 1898, and by the writer at Elko and in the Ruby 
Mountains the same year carry the range of the form well across 
northern Nevada. 

MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS FLAVIVENTRIS (AUDUBON and BACHMAN) 

YELLOW-BELLIED MARMOT; WOODCHUCK; GROUND HOG; ROCKCHUCK; MO-E of 
the Klamath (C. H. M.) ; CHIK-CHIK-NO of the Wasco 

Arctomys flaviventrfe Audubon and Bachman, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., 
p. 99, 1841. 

Type locality Fixed as 
Mount Hood by A. H. Howell 
(1915, p. 40). Type skin in 
British Museum ; collected 
by David Douglas, but no lo- 
cality given. 

General characters. Large 
and heavy ; legs short, tail 
short and bushy, ears low, 
soles wholly naked, thumb a 
mere rudiment with flat nail ; 
fur long and lax, concealed 
by coarse outer hairs. Color 
approximately the same at 
all ages and seasons, upper 
parts dark brown, coarsely 
grizzled over back and sides 
with buffy white subterminal 
sections of coarse outer 
hairs ; tail plain or rusty 
brown, fading to yellowish; 
sides of neck and hams 

bright buffy ochraceous; legs, feet, and lower parts tawny; nose and chin 
whitish, and sometimes a whitish or grizzled bar across face in front of eyes. 

Measurements. Adult male: Total length, 700 mm; tail, 180; foot, 90; ear 
(dry), 20, from crown, 10. 

Distribution and habitat. These large, richly colored marmots 
inhabit the Cascades of Oregon, and extend south through the 
northern Sierra Nevadas to the Lake Tahoe section, mainly in Tran- 
sition and Canadian Zones wherever there are extensive rock masses. 
Their range is very irregular and apparently not continuous, as the 
smaller plains form, avara, comes to the summit of the Cascades 
north of Three Sisters, while south of Crater Lake there are no 
records of marmots in the mountains until the Mount Lassen section 
is reached. They seem to follow the lava fields of the Klamath and 
Pit Kiver country, and to have a roundabout, partial connection 
between the Cascades and the Sierra Nevadas (fig. 30) . 

General habits. These western representatives of our eastern 
woodchucks are neither " woodchucks ", as they rarely live in the 
woods, nor " ground hogs," as they rarely live in the ground. They 




FIGURE 30. Range of two forms of woodchucks, 
or ground hogs, in Oregon : 1, Marmota flaviven- 
tris flaviventris; 2, M. f. avara. 



160 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

are sometimes called " rock chucks", because they live usually among 
the rocks, but the Old World name of marmot seems best suited to 
them. Being heavy, slow, and to their numerous enemies defenseless 
and very toothsome animals, they must of necessity have secure pro- 
tection, which is found among the rocks. Clefts and caves in ledges 
and cliffs or the deep interminable interstices of great talus slopes 
are their favorite haunts, and the seemingly erratic distribution of 
the species is due to the irregular uplifting and outcropping of rocks. 
A sloping mass of huge broken and angular blocks at the base of 
a lofty cliff is a favorite home for a family, or several families, some- 
times. Such homes appear almost as a friendly colony. Some perch 
or lie flattened on high points to watch for enemies, while others 
wander out only a short distance from cover to feed on the short 
grass, native clovers, and other green vegetation. A short, sharp 
whistle, or metallic chirp, from a sentinel sends all rushing for the 
rocks with rolling gallop and flapping tails. They dive into the 
dark caverns or pause at the doorways to see if the danger is real 
or imaginary. Sometimes a chorus of short sharp whistles sounds 
from all parts of the rock slide but usually only the one or several 
sentinels keep up the calls until the danger is passed or all have 
taken refuge deep under the impenetrable mass of rocks. 

So impregnable are their strongholds that little is known of their 
home habits, where or how their nests are placed, the appearance of 
the very young, or where they sleep through the long winter. It 
is probable that in many places burrows are dug under the rock piles, 
as occasionally they are at the edges or under some big boulder; 
but frequently the animals live in cracks and small caverns that go 
back into solid cliffs and walls where extension of the cavities would 
in many cases not be possible. 

Hibernation. The marmot provides no food stores for winter 
except the dense layer of fat inside of the skin, another layer over 
the outside of the muscular walls of the body, and as much stored 
inside as the body cavities can well accommodate. The full accumula- 
tion of fat must double the weight of the animal, but unfortunately 
actual weights are not available for comparison. Usually in August 
or September, with the coming of frosty nights, all disappear in their 
nests and sleep securely until the warm days of February or March, 
the time of entering and emerging from hibernation varying con- 
siderably with the weather, age, and food supply. 

Breeding habits. The females have 5 pairs of mammae 1 ingui- 
nal, 2 abdominal, and 2 pectoral as in most of the ground squirrels. 
The number of young is probably as in other subspecies of the group, 
usually 4 to 6 but sometimes as high as 8. Half-grown young in 
June would indicate May as the time of birth and March as the 
mating season. Late in August the young are not full grown but 
large enough to take care of themselves and, except for late litters, 
are usually fat and ready to hibernate. 

Food habits. The principal native food of these marmots is green 
vegetation, short, tender nutritious grasses, little native clovers, 
stonecrops, and a great variety of tender plants. Later in summer 
it consists more of flowers and green or ripening seeds, always the 
richest food they can find. The stomachs are large and usually 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 161 

are found full to capacity, especially as the time for hibernation 
draws near and the storage of fat becomes of vital importance. 

Economic status. Fortunately these animals rarely come in touch 
with any kind of agriculture except grazing, and they are rarely 
found in such numbers as to be of any serious economic importance. 
In many of the most picturesque and inspiring mountain parks and 
over rugged cliffs and rock-strewn slopes, they give a wildlife thrill 
that has a real value beyond the mere utilitarian needs of food and 
clothing. 

MARMOTA FLAVIVENTRIS AVARA (BANGS) 

PALE YELLOW-BELLIED MAEMOT ; WOODCHUCK ; GBOUND HOG ; KE-DU of the Piute 

at Burns 

Arctomys flaviventer avarus Bangs, New England Zool. Club Proc. 1 : 68, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Okanagan, British Columbia, by Allan C. Brooks, July 
17, 1897. 

General characters. Slightly smaller than flaviventris ; colors paler, espec- 
ially the buffy underfur, and light buffy ochraceous sides of neck and hams; 
generally a whitish bar across face besides whitish chin and nose. 

Measurements. Adult male: Total length, 660 mm; tail, 178; foot, 80; 
ear (dry), 19, from crown, 9. A half -grown young from the Mahogany Moun- 
tains weighed 4% pounds. A yearling male from Jordan River, not very fat, 
on July 3, weighed 8 pounds. Large and very fat adults would probably 
weigh much more. 

Distribution and habitat. These marmots of the lower country 
cover most of Oregon east of the Cascades wherever there are masses 
of rocks and extend from northern Nevada well into British Colum- 
bia (fig. 30). Over the low pass in the Cascades north of Three 
Sisters Peaks they come up to the summit of the range, evidently 
extending up in the great lava deposits that run down to the Des- 
chutes Valley. Over wide areas of valley and prairie they are 
entirely absent, but generally in the rimrock, cliffs, canyon walls, 
and lava fields are more or less common. Most of their range lies in 
Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones, but little choice of habitat is 
shown other than safe cover of rocks and a satisfactory food supply. 

General habits. In no important respect do their habits differ 
from those of M. flwviventris except that in lower, warmer, drier 
country they may come out of their dens earlier, breed earlier, and 
hibernate earlier than at higher levels. In the Steens Mountains, 
however, they range in Kiger Gorge up to at least 6,800 feet, where 
Sheldon and Becker saw them out as late as August 23, after they 
had all disappeared at the lower levels about Diamond. 

At Westfall, in Malheur County, Robert H. Becker found them 
unusually numerous, making their homes in the rocks along the edge 
of the valley, and some making burrows out in the alfalfa and grain- 
fields at some distance from the rocks, where they were doing con- 
siderable damage. One of the ranchmen was obliged to poison them 
to protect his fields and claimed to have killed more than 90 during 
the spring and early summer. 

Near Drewsey, where he was collecting specimens, Becker could 
get no marmots, as some Indians camped near there had killed them 
all for food. 

7209 36 11 



162 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Near Juntura, Sheldon saw one in a meadow near the river, where 
it had evidently come down from the hills half a mile distant to 
get green plants and grasses during the dry season in July. Gen- 
erally, however, they are found only in the proximity of rocks, from 
which they make quick journeys to the nearest grass patches for 
food, or sometimes to fields and gardens that have been planted close 
to the rocks. 

At Elgin, in May, they were found feeding on green vegetation, 
unripe seeds, and to a great extent on the yellow flowers of a wild 
parsnip. In the Cascades, near Three Sisters, in July, they were 
feeding on green vegetation, including the leaves of elderberry bushes 
and squawgrass (Xerophyllum tenaa). 

Along the Owyhee and Jordan Rivers the writer found these 
woodchucks common wherever the cliffs and broken masses of lava 
rock afforded shelter and protection. Generally they were seen sit- 
ting on the rocks overlooking the valleys, but some were surprised 
in the meadows and alfalfa fields along the road. These always 
rushed to the nearest rocks for protection, and it was noticeable that 
no burrows were found in the open ground where badgers could 
easily dig out the occupants. Among the rocks the woodchucks could 
penetrate into narrow cavities where the badgers could not get them, 
but even then they were not safe from other enemies. Eagles and 
large hawks hunt them from above, and it is a wonder that any 
remain. 

Along Cocomungo Creek, at the northern base of the Steens Moun- 
tains, many jaws and bones of young and half -grown woodchucks 
were found under the old nests of Swainson and red-tailed hawks 
and the nests of the great horned owl. The canyon was perfectly 
adapted to the needs of woodchucks ; but they were scarce, evidently 
due to the numbers of their enemies. 

One old male woodchuck, shot among the rocks on Jordan Creek, 
July 3, 1927, was moderately fat, and its stomach was well filled 
with green vegetation from the meadow below. Besides the green 
food, the skins of 55 large caterpillars were counted. They were 
freshly eaten and the skins, generally complete, were of black and 
yellow larvae about 1% inches long and a quarter of an inch in 
diameter with a hornlike appendage at one end. Specimens saved 
and identified by Dr. Dyar of the Bureau of Entomology proved 
to be the larvae of the sphynx moth, Deilephila lineata Fab. Ap- 
parently a quarter of the stomach contents consisted of bodies and 
food of these large caterpillars. 

On July 28 Preble caught a marmot at a burrow in the Cedar 
Mountains after all had been in hibernation for some time. It had 
evidently come out to get one more good meal as its stomach was en- 
tirely empty. On October 12, at Cord, near the head of Malheur 
River, Sheldon found one that a badger had just dug out of its bur- 
row, where it had evidently been hiberating for some time. The 
stomach was empty except for the natural juices. A half inch of fat 
covered the body under the skin, and the intestines were almost 
invisible under the dense layers of fat surrounding them. 

Economic status. In a few localities these marmots prove trouble- 
some in fields and gardens near extensive rock masses where they 
live, but in most cases their mischief is easily controlled by shooting 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



163 



or poisoning. In most localities they are practically harmless and 
could easily be made of some slight value as food. One that the 
writer cooked in camp at Jordan River was greatly enjoyed. The 
meat was dark, but rich and tender, and of very good flavor. Preble 
and his teamster, while camping in eastern Oregon in 1915, ate 
many of the nearly grown young, and on several occasions used the 
clear oily fat for shortening and with good success. These wood- 
chucks are just big fat squirrels, and there is no reason why they 
should not be commonly utilized as food. 

Subfamily PTEROMYINAE: Flying Squirrels 

GLAUCOMYS SABRINUS OREGONENSIS (BACHMAN) 

OREGON FLYING SQUIRREL 

Pteromys oregonensis Bachman, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Jour. 8 : 101, 1839. 

Type locality. " Pine woods of the Columbia near the Sea." 
General characters. Fur long and very soft; tail wide and flat, skin of 
sides full and attached to wrists and ankles so as to form a broad monoplane 
when the feet are extended (pi. 26). This is the darkest and richest colored of 
the four forms of flying squirrels in Oregon, and apparently the smallest, al- 
though all are of the large northern group, and vary but little in size. Upper 
parts washed with rich hazel 
or chestnut brown over dark 
plumbeous underfur; tail be- 
coming dusky towards tip; 
ring around eye dusky, cheeks 
brownish gray; under parts 
creamy white, washed with 
buffy or cinnamon, darkest 
on lower surface of tail. Im- 
mature specimens duller and 
more dusky. 

Measurements. Total 
length, 300 mm; tail, 127; 
foot, 39; ear (dry), 17. 
Townsend's original descrip- 
tion gave the length as 12% 
inches and spread of mem- 
branes 8 inches (1839, p. 329). 




FIGURE 31. Range of four forms of flying squir- 
rels in Oregon: 1, Olaucomys sabrinus oregonen- 
sis; 2, G. s. fuliginosus: 3, G. 8. klamathensis / 
4, G. 8. bullatus. Type localities circled. 



Distribution and habi- 
tat. T h e s e dark and 
richly colored flying 
squirrels occupy the 
dense forests of the humid coast region of southern British Colum- 
bia, Washington, and Oregon, south at least to the mouth of the 
Rogue River, and east to the base of the Cascade Range (fig. 31). 

General habits. These beautiful large-eyed, soft-furred squirrels 
are mainly nocturnal and hence are rarely seen and little known. 
Trappers find them in traps set for marten in the woods, wood- 
choppers see them as they soar away from falling trees in which they 
had their homes, and field naturalists get a few for specimens by 
setting traps on stumps, branches, or leaning trunks, and sometimes 
in old cabins and abandoned houses. They are never found far from 
timber and rarely on the ground. Their usual method of travel is 
to run up one tree and soar away to the next, always alighting at 
a lower level than the starting point. 



164 NORTH AMEEICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Their homes and nests are generally in hollow trees and, where 
these are not available, in masses of moss or old leaf nests of other 
squirrels, or in moss and leaf and twig nests built by themselves in 
forks or branches of trees. At Gold Beach, McLellan found one 
occupying a small spherical nest of sticks and moss in the branches 
of a fir tree, and some of the many nests examined in the tops of 
conifers undoubtedly belong to them instead of other squirrels. 

The females have 4 pairs of mammae 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, 
and 1 pectoral and the young are probably 3 to 6 in number, as in 
closely related forms. 

The food of this form is not well known but like others of the 
group it undoubtedly includes a varied list of nuts, seeds, fruit, 
insects, and meat. Traps baited with rolled oats, bread, nuts, grain, 
or a bunch of cotton will catch them wherever they are common. 

Economic statm. On rare occasions these squirrels get into attics, 
barns, or storehouses and do slight mischief, but generally they are 
scarce about buildings or in the open, where cats and owls prey upon 
them. Usually they are quite harmless and, although rarely seen, 
form an interesting feature of the forest wildlife. 

GLAUCOMYS SABRINUS FULIGINOSUS (RHOADS) 
CASCADE FLYING SQUIRREL 

Sciuropterus alpinus fuliginosus Rhoads, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 321, 
1897. 

Type. Collected in Cascade Mountains at 8,000 feet near Martin Station, 
Kittitas County, Wash., by Allan Rupert, March 1893. 

General characters. Slightly larger than oreponensis, and lighter brown. 
Upper parts washed with pale brown over plumbeous; tail sooty toward tip; 
eyering dusky; cheeks gray; lower parts soiled whitish or buffy. Immature 
specimens duller and darker. 

M easurements. Total length, 308 mm; tail, 144; hind foot, 41; ear (dry), 19. 

Distribution and habitat. These squirrels inhabit the Cascade 
Eange from southern British Columbia south through Washington 
and Oregon into the Siskiyous of northern California (fig. 31). 
Specimens have been taken in Oregon at Vida, McKenzie Bridge, 
Belknap Springs, 20 miles west of Crescent Lake, Fish Lake, and 
Crater Lake, all in the coniferous forest of the Cascades. 

General habits. At Crater Lake Preble caught one in a trap set at 
the base of a dead stub in open woods about a quarter of a mile south 
of the crater run. At Vida on the upper part of McKenzie River, 
Luther Goldman caught one in a trap set under a log in the spruce 
woods and baited with rolled oats and a bit of sausage. At Mc- 
Kenzie Bridge, farther up the river, a few specimens were taken in 
the heavy forest of conifers, alders, ash, and maples. The trunks 
and branches of maple and ash trees were heavily laden with tree 
mosses, great cushions, sheets, and streamers of deep soft old fleeces 
in which the flying squirrels had their nests and under which they 
had well-worn trails up the trunks and along the larger branches. 
The nests were well-lined cavities made in the middle of some hang- 
ing or resting masses of this soft moss where no hollow trees were 
available. A trap set at the bottom of one of these nest trees and 
baited with rolled oats and bits of cracker with a watermelon seed 
on the trigger caught an old flying squirrel the first night. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 165 

Breeding habits. Specimens taken have the usual 4 pairs of 
mammae 1 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 1 pectoral, or, as sometimes 

fiven, 3 abdominal and 1 pectoral, because the posterior pair is so 
ar forward as to be readily classed as either inguinal or abdominal. 
Although there seem to be no records of young of this form from 
Oregon, 3 to 6 young are common to this group. 

GLAUCOMYS SABRINUS KLAMATHENSIS (MEEBIAM) 
KLAMATH FLYING SQUIRREL; KOK-KOTCH of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Sciuropterus alpinus klamathensis Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 225, 
1897. 

Type. Collected at Fort Klamath, Oreg., by B. L. Cunningham, January 
11, 1897. 

General characters. Slightly larger than fuliginos,us t and paler. Upper parts 
washed with light brown or cinnamon drab over plumbeous ; tail dusky toward 
tip ; eyering dusky ; cheeks clear gray ; lower parts creamy white or buffy ; 
soles of hind feet yellowish. 

Measurements. Total length, 319 mm; tail, 144; hind foot, 41; ear (dry), 19. 

Distribution and habitat. This is the flying squirrel of the yellow- 
pine forest east of the Cascade Mountains, at least from the Paulina 
Mountains south to the Klamath country (fig. 31). There are speci- 
mens from Paulina Lake, Davis Creek, Fort Klamath, Sun Creek, 
and Crater Peak (4 miles south of Crater Lake), and Upper Klamath 
Lake. It is probable that the form inhabits the whole length of the 
yellow pine east slope of the Cascades in Oregon. 

General habits. Luther Goldman, in August 1914, reported flying 
squirrels at Paulina Lake and along Paulina Creek and collected a 
specimen at a hollow tree, where it evidently came for the rain water 
held in a cavity of the trunk. 

Harry Telford, in February and March 1914, obtained specimens 
from a marten trapper 8 miles north of Fort Klamath, where they 
proved very troublesome by getting into the marten traps. About as 
many flying squirrels as pine squirrels were caught. The 3 males 
secured showed sexual development indicating the presence of the 
breeding season, but the 2 females did not show signs of embryos. 

GLAUCOMYS SABRINUS BANGSI (RHOADS) 
BANGS'S FLYING SQUIRREL 

Sciuropterus alpinus bangsi Rhoads, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 321, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Raymond, Idaho County, Idaho, March 8, 1897, by Harbi- 
son and Benjamin. 

General characters. Slightly grayer than typical sabrinus, smaller than any 
other of the Rocky Mountain forms of the group. Upper parts in winter fur 
pale wood brown, sometimes tinged with vinaceous cinnamon, feet pale brown, 
shading to grayish brown, or on the toes to grayish white; tail above wood 
brown, more or less tinged with cinnamon and hair brown ; under parts whitish, 
strongly washed with pinkish cinnamon ; summer pelage more yellowish. 

Measurements. Average of six adult specimens from Idaho and Montana: 
Total length, 315 mm ; tail. 142 ; foot, 39.5. 

Distribution and habitat. Western Wyoming and Montana across 
Idaho and into the Blue Mountain section of Oregon. There are 
specimens from Anthony and Wallowa Lake in the Wallowa Moun- 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

tains, from Bourne in the Baker Kange, and from the northern part 
of the Blue Mountains just over the line in Washington. Near 
Bourne, Jewett caught one in an old cabin, and at Wallowa Lake, 
Cantwell took one in a trap set on an old log in the deep woods. 
Generally they are found in Canadian Zone forests of spruce, fir, and 
lodgepole pine. 

General habits. These squirrels are well known to the fur trappers 
who catch large numbers of them in marten traps set in the woods, 
and especially in those set on the side of tree trunks above the snow. 
Some trappers report several hundred flying squirrels taken from a 
line of marten traps during a winter and consider them to be as 
numerous and active at night as the spruce squirrels are by day. 

They live in hollow trees where these are present but also make 
nests of soft bark fibers in the branches and forks of trees in which 
they sleep during the day and raise their young. 

The young, usually four, are born in late May or early June, and 
in this cold high zone there would be scant time for more than one 
litter in a season. 

The food, like that of all flying squirrels, is quite varied, as is 
shown by the different baits that attract them to traps rolled oats, 
bread, biscuit, bacon, and the meat used for marten bait. They 
often gather around old camp sites for the scattered grain and food 
scraps thrown out and seem to be rather omnivorous in their tastes. 

Cantwell picked up an interesting flying squirrel story near Wal- 
lowa Lake that has every indication of being authentic. In a log 
cabin back in the mountains where some old settlers resided, an old- 
fashioned spinning wheel was long stored in the attic. This wheel 
was sometimes heard revolving at night when no one was near it 
and was often found still in motion when examined. The house 
finally acquired the reputation of being haunted until one brave 
member of the family stole silently up to the dark room when the 
whirring of the wheel was heard and with a flashlight saw one of 
these flying squirrels running on top of the wheel as it spun beneath 
the animal's skillful tread. 

GLAUCOMYS SABRINUS BULLATUS HOWELL 
SAWTOOTH MOUNTAIN FLYING SQUIRREL 

Glaucomys lullatus Howell, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 28 ; 113, 1915. 

Type. Collected at Sawtooth (Alturas) Lake, Idaho, by B. H. Dutcher, 
September 28, 1890. 

General characters. Similar to klamathensis but larger, with much larger 
audital bullae, brighter brown back, and darker tail. Upper parts washed with 
bright yellowish brown over plumbeous ; tail dark above and dusky toward tip ; 
eyering dusky ; cheeks and sides of neck clear ashy gray ; belly soiled whitish ; 
lower surface of tail dark buff y or dusky ; soles of feet yellowish gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 336 mm; tail 142; foot, 43; ear (dry), 21. 

Distribution and habitat. High mountains of central Idaho north 
to southeastern British Columbia and west throughout the Blue 
Mountains of Oregon in both Canadian and Transition Zones (fig. 
31). It seems to show closer affinity with Mamathmsis in Oregon 
than with its nearer neighbors bangsi and latipes, in Idaho and 
British Columbia. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 167 

General Tidbits. These large handsome flying squirrels live in both 
the yellow pine timber, and higher up through the lodgepole pine 
and spruce forests, always among the tall trees where they travel 
through the air from trunk to trunk or come down the trunks to 
gather food on the ground. They rarely get far from the trees, 
which are their main protection from enemies. Even the marten, 
which may follow them to the top of the tallest tree, is left behind as 
they soar away to distant trunks. The type and two others were 
caught in traps set for marten at the base of trees and baited with the 
bodies of birds and small mammals that had been skinned for speci- 
mens. The flying squirrels are always a great annoyance to trappers 
as they are fond of meat and constantly get into marten traps. 
They are rather omnivorous in taste and accept almost any camp 
supplies, regularly visiting camp grounds for the scraps of food to 
be found. At the type locality one stole a biscuit one night from the 
grub box, and when Merriam fired into the treetop it dropped the 
biscuit at his feet. The animals are fond of rolled oats, bread, nuts, 
seeds, or any grain used as trap bait, and like other varieties of the 
group probably eat many insects and insect larvae. 

Economic status. These forest dwellers rarely come about build- 
ings or clearings and so are not likely to cause any loss of crops or 
property. The suspicion that they rob birds' nests may have some 
basis in fact but needs careful investigation before it can be accepted. 
Also the extent and nature of their insect food should be given care- 
ful study, as it would not be surprising to find that they contribute 
much to the protection of the forests and to the control of insects. 

Family MURIDAE: Rats and Mice 

RATTUS NORVEGICUS (EEXLEBEN) 

NORWAY RAT ; BROWN RAT ; HOUSE RAT ; BARN RAT ; WHARF RAT ; SEWER RAT 

[Mu$~\ norvefficus Erxleben, Syst. Regni. Anim. v. 1, p. 381, 1777. 

Type locality. Norway. 

General characters. Large and heavy ; tail about as long as head and body, 
tapering, annulated, scantily haired; ears medium large, nearly naked; soles 
naked; pelage coarse and harsh. Color in adults, upper parts rusty gray, 
lower parts soiled yellowish white or dirty gray. Young dusky gray above, 
lighter gray below. 

Measurements. Good-sized adult male. Total length, 400 mm; tail, 200; 
foot, 45; ear (dry), 18; from crown, 13. Weight 1 to 2 pounds, but very 
large individuals weighing more than 2 pounds have been recorded. 

Distribution and habitat. Supposedly native of Asia, these rats 
spread to Europe in 1730 to 1750, and to North America in 1775, 
and are now found over much of the inhabited earth. 

They have kept close behind the vanguard of civilization in its 
progress across the continent of North America and were probably 
taken to Oregon on ships in the early part of the last century. A 
specimen was collected at Astoria by Lieutenant Trowbridge in 
1855 (Baird, 1857, p. IfiS} . At the present time they are common all 
along the coast country of Oregon, throughout the Willamette Valley, 
and in the Columbia River Valley. At Millers, near the mouth of the 
Deschutes, Jewett reported them in 1915 as a serious pest in the grain 



168 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

warehouses. Apparently they have not yet penetrated the more arid 
parts of eastern Oregon. 

General habits. Wharf rats usually enter a new region on ves- 
sels or railway trains and then spread rapidly from place to place, 
concealed in boxes, crates, or household goods on trains or freight 
wagons, or for short distances on foot. They are secretive animals, 
keeping much under cover or in burrows that they dig in banks 
or under buildings, rocks, or logs. From one stronghold to an- 
other they make short trips in the open, mainly at night, although 
they are often active in the daytime as well as in the dark. They 
seem to prefer the filth of stables, manure heaps, garbage, and 
trash piles where they can burrow and revel in dirt and decaying 
food. They swim well and haunt the wharves and sewer pipes, 
traveling thence into markets, cellars, and pantries if these are not 
ratproofed with concrete, brick, stone, or metal. 

Breeding habits. Rats are prolific breeders, having usually 6 
or 8, but occasionally as many as 15 or 20, young to a litter. The 
mammae of the adult females are normally 12, 3 pairs of inguinal 
and 3 pairs of pectoral on 4 distinct mammary glands, 3 mammae 
on each elongated gland. The period of gestation is 21 days, and 
many litters are produced throughout the year if sufficient food 
and shelter are available. 

Foods habits. Scarcely a food or food product can be mentioned 
that rats will not eat and many nonedible materials are cut, gnawed, 
and injured in efforts to get at food stores or in burrowing or mak- 
ing nests. They are filthy and wasteful and often destroy far more 
than they can eat. They kill and eat chickens or^any young ani- 
mals they can get, and even gnaw the feet of and injure many kinds 
of livestock. 

Economic status. Bats have been called the most destructive of 
all animal pests, not only destroying more food and property than 
any other animal, but being responsible for the death of more 
human beings than all the wars of history. They are the hosts of 
fleas, ticks, and other parasites that convey the germs of disease, 
including bubonic plague and other fatal maladies. Science and 
education are waging relentless warfare on the rat and many bulle- 
tins and circulars have been published giving specific directions 
for their control and destruction. 

RATTUS RATTUS RATTUS (LINNAEUS) 
BLACK RAT 

[Mus] rattus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, v. 1, p. 61, 1758. 

Type locality. Upsala, Sweden. 

General characters. Somewhat smaller than the common rat, slenderer; tail 
much longer than head and body, slender and nearly naked; ears large and 
naked; soles naked; pelage in adults coarse and harsh, with long spinescent 
hairs. Color, black, plumbeous, or sooty, usually plumbeous over lower parts; 
tail, ears, and feet sooty. Young usually plumbeous all over. 

Measurements. Adult male: Total length, 390 mm; tail, 216; foot, 38; ear 
(dry), 20, from crown, 15. 

Distribution and habitat. The black rat was brought to North 
America from Europe in ships at an early date and became abundant 
before the brown rat was introduced, but it has largely disappeared 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 169 

before its larger and more aggressive rival. At present it is found 
in localities scattered over the country, mainly near the coast, but an 
occasional individual may be carried to any part of the country. 

The only record the writer has found for Oregon is based on a 
half -grown young taken in a trap set under old logs in the Sitka 
spruce forest near the shore at Empire. It is likely to be found near 
any of the shipping ports of the State and probably in the woods 
or among trees where it can escape from the brown rats. 

General habits. An expert climber, the black rat often makes its 
home in trees, thatched roofs, or any place that is inaccessible to the 
brown rat. In other ways it seems to be similar in habits to the 
brown rat, but has been given less study on account of its scarcity. 

The mammae have the same arrangement as in the brown rat and 
the breeding habits are said to be approximately the same. 

Economically the black rat is of local importance only. 

RATTUS RATTUS ALEXANDRINUS (GEOFFEOY) 
ROOF RAT 

Mus alexandrinus Geoffrey, Catal. Mainmif. Mus. Nat. Hist Nat., Paris, p. 192, 
1803. 

Type locality. Alexandria, Egypt. 

General characters. Similar in form and' general characters to the black rat, 
but grayish brown above and clear white or yellowish white below. Tail very 
long and slender ; ears small and naked ; hair on back coarse and bristly. 

Measurements. A fair-sized individual : Total length, 435 mm ; tail, 230 ; foot, 
37; ear (dry), 21. 

Distribution and habitat. While native around the Mediterranean, 
these rats have been carried in ships around the world and have 
become established in many parts of North America, especially near 
the coast. In Oregon there are two specimens in the Jewett collec- 
tion from Netarts Bay and one in the Gabrielson collection taken at 
Portland. 

General habits. Apparently these smaller, lighter bodied rats are 
driven out or killed by the common brown rat and thus prevented 
from gaining a foothold over the country at large. They are found 
at most of the principal shipping ports and near the coast in colonies 
where they occasionally get a start, but usually in the woods or at 
some spot where brown rats do not occur. Being expert climbers, 
they often build nests in trees or vines or inhabit the roofs of old 
buildings reached by climbing vines or tree trunks. Heaps of drift- 
wood along the shores or river banks sometimes afford shelter and 
protection to colonies of them. 

Usually they are counted of little economic importance except on 
islands or in places where other rats do not occur. 

MUS MUSCULUS MUSCULUS LINNAEUS 

HOUSE MOUSE 

[Mus] musculus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, v. 1, p. 62, 1758. 

Type locality. Upsala, Sweden. 

General characters. Small, slender, with medium long tapering and half- 
naked tail ; ears large ; soles naked ; incisors not grooved ; fur rather thin and 



170 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

harsh. Grayish brown above, lighter brown or buffy gray below, very similar 
at all ages and seasons. 

Measurements. Adults: Total length, 167 mm; tail, 82; foot, 18; ear (dry), 
12, from crown, 9. Weight of adult female, 23.5 g; length, 162 mm; tail, 75; 
foot, 17. 

Distribution and habitat. House mice are more or less common in 
towns, houses, and at ranches over most of the inhabited parts of 
Oregon, and in the more fertile parts in the fields and meadows. 
Some of the widely isolated ranches in the arid part of the State may 
still have escaped the inroads of these pests, but eventually they 
probably will be invaded. 

Introduced from Europe in the early days of the settlement of 
North America, these mice have followed so closely the advance of 
civilization that they now outnumber many of our native rodents 
over much of the continent. 

General habits. House mice are largely dependent on the works 
of man, occupying houses, barns, and outbuildings, feeding largely 
on stores of grain and foods of any kind within their reach, hiding 
in rooms, cellars, and boxes and making long journeys from place to 
place in boxes of household goods or loads of supplies. Once estab- 
lished they multiply rapidly, and with the protection afforded by 
buildings, often become so numerous as to extend out into the fields 
and meadows, under cover of grass and grain, until they overrun the 
most fertile parts of the valley country. They burrow into banks, 
under walls, rocks, or logs, and establish safe retreats of their own 
and show more skill than most of our native mice in avoiding enemies. 
While largely nocturnal, they are often out voluntarily searching for 
food in daylight and seem to see equally well in light or dark. They 
climb and dig and gnaw holes through boards and walls and are not 
easily restrained from getting at supplies. 

Breeding habits. House mice breed more or less regularly at all 
seasons of the year, if food is abundant and comfortable quarters 
assured. Six to thirteen young are recorded for the litters, and the 
period of gestation is given as 21 days. The 12 mammae in adult 
females are arranged in 3 pairs of inguinal and 3 pairs of pectoral, 3 
on each of 4 separate mammary glands. 

Food habits. These mice are more than usually omnivorous for 
rodents, eating not only grains, seeds, nuts, and fruits, but all kinds 
of meat, fat, butter, cheese, milk, cream, bread, cake, vegetables, and 
any cooked or uncooked food they can get. They do not lay up stores 
for winter and are active at all seasons. 

Economic status. These are among the most annoying and de- 
structive of mouse-size rodents, because, concentrated about buildings, 
granaries, stacks, and grainfields, they constantly devour and 
destroy valuable property. In the fields and open country they are 
to some extent controlled by such enemies as owls, hawks, shrikes, 
weasels, skunks, foxes, cats, and other predatory animals, and to 
some extent about buildings by house cats. Trapping, poisoning, 
and other methods of destruction are often necessary. Directions for 
the best methods of combating such pests are always available from 
the United States Department of Agriculture or State agencies. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



171 



NEOTOMA CINEREA OCCIDENTALIS ( COOPER Ms.) BAIBD 

WESTERN BUSHY-TAILED WOOD RAT ; CHO-CHO of the Klamath ; TE-KA-WA of the 

Piute (C. H. M.) 

Neotoma occidentalis (Cooper Ms.) Baird, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. 7: 335, 
1855. 

Type. Collected at Shoalwater Bay, Wash., by J. G. Cooper in 1854. 

General characters. Large for a wood rat; tail bushy, wide, and almost 
squirrel-like; ears large and nearly naked; whiskers (vibrissae), about 4 inches 
long ; fur long and soft ; eyes rather large and prominent, appearing shiny black 
(pi. 30, A, C). Color of upper parts dark cinnamon brown more or less clouded 
with dusky ; feet, lower surface of tail, and lower parts white or creamy with 
sometimes a touch of bright cinnamon on throat. Immature more plumbeous. 
Winter fur darker, summer fur showing more of cinnamon. 

Measurements. Total length of large male, 440 mm; tail, 200; foot, 47; ear 
(dry), 30, (fresh) 32, from crown, 20. Weight of not very large male, 12 ounces. 

Distribution and habitat. These large, dark bushy-tailed wood 
rats cover most of the region from southern British Columbia to 
northern California and 
Nevada, most of Idaho, 
and all of Washington 
and Oregon, except a 
narrow coast strip where 
they run into the still 
darker N. c. fusca (fig. 
32). In their caves and 
sheltered retreats among 
the rocks (pi. 30, B) they 
have little regard for 
life zone lines, and while 
largely in Transition, 
they occur freely in up- 
per Sonoran and Cana- 
dian Zones. They live 
mainly in cliffs or masses 
of broken rocks, but at 
times must wander considerably, as they suddenly appear in camps, 
barns, or houses in either forests or in open country at a distance 
from rocks. They are never numerous except very locally, where 
unusual protection is afforded. 

General habits. Wood rats are mainly nocturnal, sleeping most 
of the day and working very actively at night. Occasionally, how- 
ever, they move about in the daytime, and they seem to see well in 
either light or dark. 

In Oregon their favorite haunts are the rimrock cliffs or broken 
lava beds and caves, where they revel in safe retreats and comfort- 
able winter or cool summer quarters. They are noted builders and 
endeavor to fortify their rocky caverns by piling them full of rub- 
bish, sticks, chips, stones, bones, thorny branches, dried manure, ref- 
use food material, and anything they can find to carry and fill up 
the vacant spaces and hide or protect their nests and young. Some- 
times a house is built over a hollow log or around the base of a 
hallow tree, or even in the branches of a tree, but houses are rarely 
built at a distance from the rocks, as they are by many other species 
of wood rats. 




FIGURE 32. Range of the two bushy-tailed wood 
rats in Oregon : 1, Neotoma cinerea fusca; 2, N. 
c. oocidentalis. Type locality circled. 



172 NOKTH AMEKICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Their habit of gathering material for building gives them the 
name of pack rat and a reputation for dishonesty, as they often carry 
away objects not intended for their use. Anything of a convenient 
size, a cake of soap, a knife, a pen, or a watch may oe taken. Mouse 
and rat traps and cartridge shells are often gathered up and used 
for building material, and around camps it is customary to look 
for lost objects in neighboring wood rat houses. 

The nests are neatly made, cup-shaped with thick, soft walls for 
cold weather, always clean, even when made from shredded gunny 
sack or a bit of old rope or the cotton out of a quilt. Sometimes they 
are concealed by the heaps of sticky and rubbish and sometimes 
placed on a shelf in the corner of a cabin. 

Wood rats are good climbers, not only in trees, but over rocks, walls, 
and the rough boards of outbuildings, over roofs and perpendicular 
or sloping surfaces. Their claws are short, but curved and sharp and 
are used in self-defense as effectively as those of a cat. They are 
quick and agile in running, dodging, and jumping. The bushy tails, 
like those of squirrels, are useful in climbing, balancing, steering, and 
turning abruptly. 

Their voices are rarely heard, although an old male caught in the 
writer's hands and held securely against his will screamed and 
screeched savagely. The young make a crying or whining sound if 
taken from their mother. In other ways they are noisy, often making 
a great racket running over floors, boards, and walls, or dragging 
sticks, blocks, and tins over the floors. Their regular and unmistak- 
able sounds, however, are the tapping or drumming with the sole of 
one hind foot on the ground, floor, rock, or any smooth surface, a 
slow tap, tap, tap, at about 1-second intervals. The speed and force 
of the taps vary with the occasion, sometimes quick and hard, again 
soft and slow with evident variation of expression. The sound is 
made by both males and females, not only when alarmed, or 
disturbed, but often when alone and unsuspicious. 

The animals have a strong musky odor emanating from an elon- 
gated abdominal gland, a thickened strip of skin that secretes a 
musky, oily substance that undoubtedly enables them to recognize 
the presence of their own species and possibly to distinguish indi- 
viduals. A cave, room, or box, occupied by them is usually notice- 
ably musky, even to our feeble noses, although not unpleasantly so. 
No animal could be neater, cleaner, or more sanitary in habits. The 
dry, black, elongated pellets are mostly placed in definite corners 
not used for other purposes, and the urine is deposited on the points 
and edges of certain rocks away from the nest or along the face of 
the cliffs, where it forms white calcareous encrustations on the rocks 
which may be seen from a distance and are always evidence of the 
presence of wood rats. In course of years this deposit becomes 2 or 3 
mm thick, as hard as rock, and with every appearance of a geo- 
logical formation. In some of the dry caves old deposits of the 
pellets have become solid, black, waxy masses with the appearance of 
asphalt, and might also be easily mistaken for geological deposits. 

Breeding habits. The females have 4 mammae, arranged in a 
quadrangle on 2 parallel mammary glands in the inguinal region. 
The young, generally 2, but sometimes 3 or 4, are born usually in 
spring or early in summer, and are nearly full grown by autumn. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 30 




WESTERN BUSHY-TAILED WOOD RAT. 



A; B17221; B23310 



A, At its nest; B, typical stick house in a cleft of the rocks in eastern Oregon; G, captive in photographing 

box. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 173 

There is no indication of more than 1 litter a year. The reproduction 
is less than half that of the squirrels and chipmunks, but the safe 
retreats of the wood rats afford partial immunity from many 
enemies and their numbers keep up to very limited standard. They 
are never abundant. 

Food habits. Wood rats are dainty feeders with small stomachs, 
usually containing green foliage or unripe seeds of the plants where 
they live. They do not become fat or hibernate, but store up food 
for winter ; a " hay " composed of numerous plants is commonly eaten. 
At Malheur Lake, captives kept for study of habits were fond of 
the leaves and tender shoots of pigweeds (Chenop odium), a herba- 
ceous Atriplex, nettles, and Suaeda (Donaia). They ate some tips 
and leaves of greasewood (Sarcobatm) and rabbitbrush (Chryso- 
thamrms) , and a little grass, but were more partial to such domestic 
foods as cabbage, cantaloup and watermelon rinds, apple parings, 
rolled oats, biscuit, cheese, and such scraps from the table. They 
drank a little water but preferred it in the form of melon rinds or 
juicy fruits and plants. The writer found where they had stored 
leaves of the wild currant (Ribes aureum) and large quantities of 
nettle leaves and nettle stems loaded with seeds. Some had their 
stomachs filled with these seeds, which are pleasant, rich, and 
mucilaginous, like the seeds of elm trees. Jumper twigs and berries 
are often stored for food, and any seeds, nuts, and grain are eaten 
occasionally. Green vegetation, however, seems to be preferred. 

Economic status. Wood rats feed mainly on green foliage of 
weeds and worthless plants, rarely coming in contact with crops, 
and doing practically no damage except as one occasionally gets 
into a barn, shop, camp, or cabin and cuts or carries off property. 
They sometimes cut harness, saddles, or other leather goods; eat, 
carry away, or muss up food supplies ; carry away small objects for 
building material ; and cause much annoyance until destroyed. Gen- 
erally it is necessary to trap or otherwise remove them from occu- 
pied buildings. The common rattrap catches and kills them quickly 
and mercifully, but a box set inverted on a board with a baited 
oval trigger under one edge will catch them alive, when they can 
be carried away or kept in a cage for study or as interesting pets. 
They are very fond of running in a squirrel wheel, and if given a 
wheel and good quarters are contented and happy. 

NEOTOMA CINERBA FUSCA TRUE 
DUSKY BUSHY-TAILED WOOD RAT 

Neotoma occidentalis fusca True, U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 17: 354, 1894. 
Neotoma fusca apicalis Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. Pub. 74, Zool. Ser. 3: 
160, 1903, from Gardiner, Coos County, Oreg. 

Type. Collected at Fort Umpqua, Douglas County, Oreg., by E. P. Vollum 
in 1859. 

General characters. Large; tall wide and bushy; ears large and nearly 
naked ; vibrissae about 4 inches long ; fur dense and almost woolly. Color much 
the same at all seasons, upper parts dark cinnamon brown heavily obscured 
with black or dusky outer hairs; tail blackish above, dark gray below; feet 
and belly whitish. 

.Measurements. Large male: Total length, 470 mm; tail, 217; foot, 48; ear 
(dry), 28, from crown, 18. 



174 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Distribution and habitat. These large and very dark-colored wood 
rats are found along the coast region of Oregon from the lower Co- 
lumbia River south to Gardiner and old Fort Umpqua, on the 
Umpqua River below Roseburg, in humid Transition Zone (fig. 32). 
Generally they are in heavily timbered country, among rocks well 
overgrown with vegetation. 

General habits. These black wood rats, as commonly called, differ 
from the western wood rats only as is necessary in adaptation to a 
more humid and heavily forested area. They are often caught among 
old logs or under log piles, as well as among the rocks, and their 
finding and taking up quarters in any camp or cabin in the woods 
indicate considerable travel under shelter of logs, brush, and dense 
vegetation. In camps and around buildings generally they have the 
same reputation for noise and mischief as other wood rats, and 
their building and carrying habits are also the same. 

At Philomath, Cantwell caught them in traps set for squirrels 
in the heavy timber. Near Wells, Hollister shot 1 that was driven 
from its nest in an old deserted house, and caught 2 others in the 
barn. At Mapleton, Luther Goldman found a deserted cabin in the 
forest where they had piled up sticks and brush in the corners and 
between the double walls and had stored a quantity of green alder 
twigs and leaves as food. At the base of Chmtimini Mountain, the 
writer caught 1 in a vacant building. McClellan found them in old 
camps, cabins, stables, and vacant buildings at Florence, Gardiner, 
and Seton. The scarcity of rocks of the broken-cliff type, which they 
like, forces them to depend more on other cover and to welcome 
any shelter more secure than an old log. 

Their food and breeding habits probably do not differ materially 
from those of their closest relative, N. c. occidentals. 

Economically, they are of little consequence, as those causing 
annoyance are easily destroyed by guns, traps, or poison. 

NEOTOMA FUSCIPES FUSCIPES (COOPER Ms.) BAIKD 
DUSKY-FOOTED WOOD RAT 

Neotoma fuscipes (Cooper Ms.) Baird, Mammals North Amer., p. 495, 1857. 
Neotoma monochroura Rhoads, Amer. Nat. 18: 67, 1894, from Grants Pass, 
Oreg. 

Type. Collected at Petaluma, Calif., by E. Samuels in 1856. 

General characters. Large for the round-tailed group; tail almost as long 
as head and body (pi. 31, A), round, tapering, and short haired; ears large 
and thinly haired; vibrissae about three inches long; fur not so long and soft 
as in the bushy-tailed species. Color much the same at all seasons, upper 
parts dark cinnamon brown, darkened by blackish outer hairs; tail blackish 
above and below; feet mainly dusky with usually whitish toes; lower parts 
whitish, washed across belly with buffy or pale cinnamon. 

Measurements. Large male: total length, 445 mm; tail, 216; foot, 43; ear 
(dry), 25, (fresh), 30, from crown, 20. A large male weighed 11 ounces. 

Distribution and habitat. These large, dark, round-tailed wood 
rats extend from San Francisco Bay, Calif., north to the Wil- 
lamette Valley, Oreg. (fig. 33). The northernmost record is of a 
specimen taken at Mulino, near Oregon City, by Jewett. In Cali- 
fornia they reach to the coast, but in Oregon are in the drier interior 
valleys of the Rogue, Umpqua, and Willamette Rivers, mainly back 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



175 



of the coast ranges. Their main distribution is in Upper Sonoran 
Zone, and where found they usually accompany other species charac- 
teristic of the zone. 

They are chaparral dwellers over much of their range, but also 
enter the open forest and build their houses among the trees or even 
in treetops. 

General habits. These are among the most noted of wood rat 
builders, generally preferring their own structure to those of man, 
or even to the strongholds of the rocks. Their houses are generally 
in dense chaparral or in the underbrush of the woods, built up 
around old logs, hollow trees, or many-stemmed clusters of rugged 
shrubs. They are generally 4 or 5 feet high, as wide at the base, 
conical, well formed, with 2 or 3 rooms aboveground and 1 below 
the surface, aptly described as 2 or 3 stories and basement. The 
houses are generally made 
of sticks, twigs, bark, 
chips, bones, leaves, and 
moss, with strong, inter- 
laced walls and supports, 
in a peaked form that 
will shed water and keep 
the nests and food stores 
dry and safe from most 
enemies. Doorways lead 



under the houses and 

usually some doors and 

windows open out on the 

sides. The chambers are 

large enough for the 

well-formed, cup-shaped 

nests of soft moss and 

bark fibers and ample 

food stores conveniently near the nests. Runways, or well-worn trails, 

lead away from the houses to feeding grounds, to other houses, or to 

the base of trees, for these rats are great climbers and not only get 

much of their food from the treetops, but sometimes build large 

houses high up among the branches. 

They are active mainly at night, but if alarmed in the daytime 
will run from house to house or climb trees and hide among the 
leafy tops. They often visit barns or outbuildings, but rarely take 
up their residence in them. Occasionally they carry away tools or 
small objects for building material, but less commonly than do some 
of the other species. The writer often missed his mousetraps and 
found them on the nearest wood rat house. 

Breeding habits. Two to four embryos found in females taken 
for specimens indicate small families, as do also the 4 mammae 
arranged on 2 large glands in the inguinal region. Embryos noted 
in February, March, April, May, June, and September indicate 
much irregularity in the breeding season or more than one litter 
a year. The animals are never numerous, however, and their increase 
is evidently not rapid. 

. Food habits. While a large part of the food of these rats con- 
sists of green vegetation, they also eat many fruits, nuts, and seeds, 




FIGURE 33. Range of the two round-tailed wood 
rats in Oregon: 1, Neotoma fusoipes fusoipes; 2, 
N. lepida nevadensis. 



176 NORTH AMEKICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

storing up in their houses rose haws, cascara berries, manzanita ber- 
ries, laurel fruits, acorns, and such other nuts as are available. Green 
and dry leaves of ferns, Ceanothus, Umbellularia^ Rhamnus, and 
other plants are found in the storerooms, while the stomachs of the 
animals collected for specimens usually show much green vegetation. 

Economic status. Only in rare cases do these builders ever come 
in conflict with human interests. They generally prefer their own 
houses to ours, but sometimes explore outbuildings for any choice 
food or building material, and in certain places may appropriate 
more than a fair share of nuts, fruit, or vegetables growing near 
their homes. They are so easily destroyed, however, by traps or 
poison, or driven away by the destruction of their houses, that they 
cannot be considered a serious pest. 

Their meat is excellent food, better in flavor and quality than 
squirrel, more nearly like young rabbit, and their food and general 
habits are wholly exemplary for a game animal. 

NEOTOMA LEPIDA NEVADENSIS TAYLOR 
NEVADA WOOD RAT 

Neotoma nevadensis Taylor, Calif. Univ. Pubs. Zool. 5 : 289, 1910. 

Type. Collected in Virgin Valley, Humboldt County, Nev., in 1909 by Annie 
M. Alexander. 

General characters. Slightly larger and duller colored than typical lepida or 
desertorum from Death Valley, but still one of the small, silky-furred, round- 
tailed wood rats of this group; a beautiful animal with large, almost naked, 
ears, large bright eyes, long trembling vibrissae, and a gentle, intelligent ex- 
pression of face. Upper parts of adults rich salmon-buff, much obscured over 
the back by dusky tips of long hairs, sides clearer buffy; top of tail dark 
buffy gray to black; lower parts, feet, and lower surface of tail white or 
creamy, the belly sometimes tinged with delicate salmon-buff. Skull relatively 
wide, heavily ridged with large, quadrate interparietal when compared with 
that of lepida. 

Measurements. Average of 7 males from Oregon: Total length, 282 mm; 
tail, 118; foot, 31.5; ear (dry), 25, (fresh) 28, from crown, 18. Weight of not 
fully adult male, 4 ounces; of old male, probably 6 ounces. 

Three specimens from Diamond and one from Voltage are much darker than 
those from Watson and Vale, and have wholly black upper surface of tails. 

Distribution and habitat. These little wood rats (pi. 31, B) 
occupy the arid sagebrush Upper Sonoran valleys of northern 
Nevada and southeastern Oregon. There are specimens from Vale, 
Watson, Voltage, Diamond, White Horse Creek, and Warner Lake, 
and records from near Owyhee and Cow Creek Lakes in Malheur 
County (fig. 33). They live among rocks or build small houses out in 
the sagebrush. 

General habits. These little desert wood rats live both among the 
rocks and in the open. Without rocky cover they generally burrow 
under some bush, and among its sturdy roots, where comparatively 
safe from attacks, they build mounds of sticks, brush, and cow chips 
over the doorways of their underground homes. To save unnecessary 
labor they sometimes appropriate old burrows of kangaroo rats or 
ground squirrels, fortifying the approaches. Often a bushel or more 
of sticks and rubbish are piled over their doorways, but houses with 
nest and living chambers are rarely found. The building material is 
mainly for protection from enemies, the hot gun, and possible rains. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 31 




B 



WOOD RATS. 

A, Brown-footed wood rat at Lagunitas, Calif., captive photographed in glass box; B, the little round- 
tailed Nevada wood rat comes into southeastern Oregon in some of the lowest and hottest valleys, where 
it builds stick houses in the sagebrush or among the rocks. 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 32 




B 



E25193; B4611M 



A, Brown grasshopper mouse of eastern Oregon (drawing by R. Bruce Horsfall from life); B, Gambel's 
white-footed mouse, the common deer mouse over most of Oregon. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 177 

Among the rocks the same building material is used to fill and block 
the passages leading back to the nest cavities. The nests of soft plant 
fibers are placed in cool, clean chambers deep underground or well 
back in cavities among the rocks. They are always neat and clean, 
and even those found on shelves or beams or under the floors of de- 
serted buildings are as well made and uniform in design as many 
birds' nests. 

One of the wood rats kept in captivity at Malheur Lake during 
July and August was gentle in disposition, timid but not nervous, 
and soon submitted to being stroked as it sat in its nest. It never 
made any vocal sounds, but tapped with one hind foot on the boards 
or in the nest with a soft thud, thud, thud, sometimes with one foot 
and sometimes with the other. It would spend a large part of each 
night running in its hollow wheel, but slept most of the daytime 
curled up in its soft nest. On cold nights the nest was drawn up 
around its neck or over the top of its head. 

Breeding habits. As in other species of wood rats, the mammae 
are arranged in 2 pairs of inguinal, and the young are usually 2 to 
4 in number, but there are several records of 5 embryos. The young 
are born from February to May, and some as late as July, and in 
some cases more than one litter may be raised in a year. 

Food habits. In the free wild state the food of these wood rats 
consists of a great variety of green plants, fruit, seeds, and any 
scattered grain that comes their way. The captive was a dainty 
feeder, never eating much at a time and picking the choice bits, green 
leaves, tender tips, and branches of plants. Pigweeds of 3 or 4 
species were eaten, as also were Atriplex, Dondia, Sarcobatus, Poly- 
gonumi, nettles, dock, grasses and grass seeds, cabbage, cantaloup, 
apple parings, lettuce, green corn, rolled oats, bread, cheese, and many 
of the scraps from the table. He would not eat meat, cooked or raw, 
and did not kill the meadow mice or white-footed mice kept for 
several days in his cage. 

Economic status. Over most of the range of this species the desert 
valleys do not produce enough forage for stock, so the little green 
vegetation eaten is of no importance. In only rare cases do the rats 
come in contact with camps or ranches where some slight mischief 
might be done, and here they are so easily controlled as to prove of 
little economic importance. 

ONYCHOMYS LEUCOGASTER FUSCOGBISEUS ANTHONY 
OREGON GRASSHOPPER MOUSE; BROWN SCORPION MOUSE 

Onychomys leucogaster fuscogriseus Anthony, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 
32: 11, 1913. 

Type. Collected at Ironside, Malheur County, Oreg., by H. E. Anthony in 1912. 

General characters. A sturdy little animal, with short, thick, tapering tail 
(pi. 32, A) ; short legs; erect ears; and a keen, bold, almost weasellike, expres- 
sion of face. Color: Upper parts of adults, dark reddish brown with dusky 
along middle of back and on face and ears and top of tail ; whole lower parts, 
feet, lower half and tip of tail, nose, and tuft at anterior base of each ear 
snow white. Immature specimens with slaty gray or plumbeous upper parts. 
The darkest specimens are from the Klamath region. 

Measurements. Average of several adults: Total length, 143 mm; tail, 38; 
foot, 19.2; ear (dry), 15. Of large female: 150; 40; 21; 16. Weight of appar- 
ent subadult male when captured, 22 g ; after 2 years of captivity, 45.5 g. 
7209 < 



178 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



Distribution and habitat. The whole arid sagebrush Upper Sono- 
ran plains of eastern Oregon are occupied by these little animals, 
which also extend in the same sort of country north in eastern Wash- 
ington and south into Nevada and California and on the east grade 
into Onychomys leucog aster bremcaudus in Idaho (fig. 34). They 
are typical desert animals, living in the lowest, hottest, and dryest 
valleys they can find. 

General habits. These insectivorous and carnivorous little rodents 
have many of the habits of the weasel family. They are hunters, 
wanderers, freebooters, apparently never common, and without per- 
manent homes of their own. They are generally caught in traps 
set for other animals at any kind of burrow or in trails or long marks 

made by running the 
heel or toe along the sur- 
face of the ground to be 
followed b y inquisitive 
animals. They evidently 
frequent and probably 
appropriate the burrows 
of other small rodents, 
driving out or eating the 
owners at will. Their 
large front feet and claws 
suggest digging powers, 
but the writer has never 
found burrows that could 
be attributed to them and 
suspects that the claws 
are weapons rather than 
tools. They are much 
used in catching and holding their prey and also used in fighting and 
for defensive purposes. 

In many years of trapping these animals for specimens about all 
that could be learned of their habits was from the contents of the 
stomachs of those caught and from the many species of other small 
animals eaten by them when caught in traps. From captive indi- 
viduals, however, much concerning their habits and natures has been 
learned. One taken on the south side of Malheur Lake on August 31, 
1920, was kept alive for nearly 3 years. He was not afraid from 
the first but was not so gentle and tame as others kept in captivity. 
He resented being handled and would bark and nip one's fingers, 
and if bothered too much, would on rare occasions actually bite. He 
was exceedingly quick and nimble and not easily caught in the hands, 
even in his cage. 

While mainly nocturnal, he could see well in any light and came 
out of his nest box at any time when hungry, or if he heard the foot- 
fall of an insect or smelled a mouse of some other species. 

He was a keen hunter and often searched his cage for any grass- 
hopper, cricket, beetle, or scorpion that might be available. He 
would pounce on them and kill them, even though he did not eat 
them at the time. A live mouse in his cage was hunted down and 
cornered, if it could not be captured in the open. He would per- 
sistently follow its trail, creeping up in the grass, eager, alert, tail 




FIGURE 34. Range of the grasshopper mouse, Ony- 
chomys leucogaster fuscogriseus, in Oregon. Type 
locality circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 179 

twitching, until he could pounce upon it. If he got a good hold, the 
struggle was short, and the mouse quickly dropped, limp and help- 
less, as his long sharp lower incisors penetrated its brain near one 
ear. If the mouse was of his own size and caught by the back end, 
there was a rough-and-tumble mix-up. The victim might be allowed 
to escape in order that a better hold might be obtained next time, but 
the pursuer was persistent and only awaited his chance. White- 
footed and meadow mice of his own size were regularly killed and 
eaten. In one case a white-footed mouse was not killed, and two 
mornings later it was sleeping with him in a better nest than he 
usually made for himself. For a couple of weeks he lived with the 
white-footed mouse on friendly terms, possibly waiting for a scarcity 
of food, or he may have been lonesome or cold, or needed a good nest 
builder as assistant. The white-footed mouse was then returned to 
his home in the sagebrush, and Owjchamrys accompanied his captors 
on a long journey. 

In Arizona he was given the company of four individuals of the 
smaller species (Onychomys tomdus) of his own genus, and from 
the first all were friendly and slept together in one nest. In dispo- 
sitions they seemed surprisingly friendly and peaceful, in striking 
contrast to some of the gentler and more timid rodents. 

Ony had a, strong musky odor that was probably the result of a 
diet composed largely of insects and meat, though it did not vary 
noticeably with different foods. His house at first became very rank 
if not kept well cleaned out and sanded, but later when given a sand 
box for a toilet he used it exclusively and kept his house neat and 
clean. His fur would become mussy and rough when he did not 
have plenty of clean sand to roll in, but after a sand bath it was 
clean and fluffy. He did not usually make a good nest, but just 
pulled anything warm up around him when it was cold and sat on 
top of the nest material when the weather was warm. 

His common everyday voice was a series of rapid, short, sharp 
squeaks, each, each, each, or chip, chip, chip, just what a little dog of 
his size would do in the way of barking, and it was used in the same 
way as a protest when annoyed, angry, or cornered. 

His call note was a fine, shrill, prolonged whistle, insectlike in 
quality, but so thin that only keen human ears could detect it. It 
was heard only at night, most commonly in the spring but occasion- 
ally through the summer. It may be a sex or mating call and also a 
hunting call or recognition signal. The writer had occasionally 
heard it at night in the sagebrush country, but not until he had kept 
the animals in captivity did he learn its source. In Arizona, early in 
the spring of 1921, with no companions of his own species, Ony 
was evidently lonesome, and every evening when he first came out 
of his nest would sit on top of his nest box, lift his nose in the air, 
and with wide-open mouth send out his call. The howl of a wolf 
of his size would not be very different and the manner of giving 
it would be identical. The call was repeated several times each 
evening until he gave up the hope of calling a mate. At home in 
Washington, where he was kept in the library all winter, the call 
was not heard until the springlike days of February set the other 
animals to breeding while he, alone, was evidently calling for a mate. 

At night he was active and energetic, darting about his cage or 
running at top speed on his revolving disk by the hour. In cold 



180 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

weather he slept a great deal, but showed no signs of hibernation in 
the coldest weather at Washington, down to 11 F. 

Breeding habits. The mammae in this as in other forms of the 
group are arranged in 2 pairs of inguinal and 1 pair of pectoral, 
and the number of young as shown by embryos noted in specimens 
collected are usually 4, occasionally 5 or 6. A female carrying 4 
embryos was taken at Klamath Falls, August 11, but throughout 
the group embryos have been noted in April, May, June, July, 
August, and September, probably indicating irregularity in the 
breeding season, rather than numerous litters m a season. The ani- 
mals are never very abundant and reproduction is apparently not so 
rapid as in many other mice. 

Food habits. The names " grasshopper mouse " and " scorpion 
mouse " have been applied to different subspecies of this group, be- 
cause of their fondness for grasshoppers and scorpions, but in no 
species is the diet limited to any one or even a few kinds of insects. 
Insects and small animal life generally form most of their food, but 
any kind of meat is eagerly eaten, and occasionally some seeds and 
a little green vegetation are taken if their chosen food is not plentiful. 

During 2 years and more the captive from Oregon ate all the 
grasshoppers of any species he could get, up to 20 individuals a day, 
also crickets of many species, mole crickets, wild and domestic cock- 
roaches, katydids, cicadas and their pupae, dragonflies, flies and fly 
larvae and pupae, hornets, ant eggs and larvae, beetles of almost 
every species offered including many large hard-shelled species, May 
beetles, snap beetles, lady beetles, cotton-bollweevils and other 
weevils, potato beetles, and such larvae as are commonly called 
" grub worms ", " cutworms ", " corn worms ", and " wireworms ", a 
great variety of moths and butterflies and their larvae, and cater- 
pillars of the smooth kinds. He would eat angleworms but did not 
care much for them. He was very fond of scorpions, especially the 
large fat ones in southern Arizona, where he spent one winter, and 
also of the large praying mantis there. He refused ants, myriapods, 
blister beetles, hairy and spiny caterpillars, and slugs. 

Lizards and salamanders were killed and eaten but were not much 
relished. 

He killed and ate white-footed mice, house mice, pocket mice, and 
meadow mice, enjoying especially the newly born young meadow 
mice. Some of the mice killed were approximately of his own size 
and were nearly eaten in one night. The meat of larger animals, 
such as chipmunks, ground squirrels, and kangaroo rats, and of small 
birds, and even of a phalarope and a prairie falcon, was eaten, also 
beef, mutton, chicken, or any meat offered. If fresh meat was not 
available, he would eat cooked meat of almost any kind, and de- 
lighted in a chop bone to gnaw, putting his feet on it and tearing at 
it much as would a little dog on a large bone. Later, when from 
lack of his favorite foods he was fed mainly on rolled oats, sun- 
flower seed, and hempseed, he grew fat and lazy and lost his appetite 
and much of his hunting spirit. When given the freedom of the 
kitchen every night for a month or more, he cleaned out the cock- 
roaches until no more could be found except a few that lived on the 
shelves and did not come down to the floor. 






1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



181 






Economic status. So far as known the habits of these mice are 
mainly beneficial to man in the agricultural field, not only in destroy- 
ing insects, but in keeping down the abundance of other rodents. 
Undoubtedly some of the insects eaten are of predatory and beneficial 
species, but the check on abundance would be greatest in the numer- 
ous and usually most destructive species, such as grasshoppers, 
crickets, cockroaches, beetles, and beetle larvae. Some of the most 
abundant predatory species, such as ants and myriapods, are re- 
jected by them, and others do not commonly come within their reach. 
The number of adult mice they are able to capture is probably not 
great, but their fondness for young mice would indicate that these 
might furnish a considerable item of their summer diet. 

The possibility of using them in gardens, greenhouses, cellars, or 
other restricted areas to control insect pests has been considered but 
not demonstrated. 

Their destruction of ground-dwelling and burrowing insects 
locally may be almost equal to that of the birds on insect life above- 
ground. 

PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS GAMBELII (BAIRD) 

GAMBEL'S DEER MOUSE; WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE; MEKO-KA of the Klamath 

(C. H. M.) 

Hesperomys gambelil Baird, Mamm. North Amer., p. 464, 1857. 

Type. Collected at Monterey, Calif., by W. P. Trowbridge about 1854. 

General characters. Size medium (pi. 32, B) ; tail less than half of total 
length; ears smaller than in rubidus, colors paler. In summer, adults, upper 
parts light cinnamon brown ; 
top of tail the same; feet, 
lower parts, and lower half of 
tail white or whitish. Im- 
mature, slaty gray above, 
whitish below. Colors bright- 
est in winter. 

Measurements. Average 
of a series of typical adults: 
Total length, 159 mm; tail, 
72; foot, 20; ear (dry), 15. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. This is a widely 
distributed form, ranging 
from Baja California to 
central Washington and 
covering most of Oregon 
east of the Cascades, as 
well as the less heavily 
timbered part of the Cascade Range, and the upper Rogue River Val- 
ley from Grants Pass to Ashland and across to the Klamath country 
(fig. 35). Its place is taken in the southeastern corner of the State 
by P. m. sonoriensis, and in the northeastern corner by P. m. arte- 
misiae. It belongs to the more open, semiarid area lying back from 
the humid coast region and reaching to the edges of the more arid 
interior. As it is mainly a color variety of its group, humidity, 
light, and shade determine its range, rather than altitude and life- 
zone factors. Specimens taken from sea level to timber line have 




FlGDRE 35 '~ Ran ?em f 



maniculatu8 



182 NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

essentially the same characters. Open timber and brush land are its 
main habitat. 

General habits. These mice adapt themselves to all sorts of cover 
and conditions, from meadows, grassland, sagebrush, chaparral, open 
coniferous and deciduous forests, to rocks, cliffs, and earth banks 
wherever they obtain safe homes and a food supply. Generally they 
are the most abundant mammal found within their range, causing 
much annoyance to collectors by filling traps set for other more desir- 
able specimens. Even out in the sagebrush country they are often 
numerous where there is growth enough to hide them from owls. 
Many live in burrows in the ground, usually those of pocket gophers 
or other rodents, borrowed for the occasion, but rarely dug for 
themselves. 

Breeding habits. The females have normally 3' pairs of mammae 
2 inguinal and 1 pair of pectoral on 4 widely separated mammary 
glands. The young are usually 4 to 6 in number, but in rare instances 
as many as 8 or 9. They are born at all times of the year, but mostly 
during the spring and summer months, and in some cases probably 
several litters are produced during the year. The rate of reproduc- 
tion depends in these as in other mammals on the nature and abun- 
dance of their food supply. 

Food habits. Seeds constitute their principal food, including 
almost every available kind, from acorns and hazelnuts down to the 
smallest seeds of grass and many other tiny plants. Berries and 
berry seeds are often eaten, also a little green foliage, and many 
insects and probably insect eggs. Almost every kind of food is 
acceptable to them, and in camp stores they sometimes do slight 
mischief. 

Economic statute. Although exceedingly quick at running and 
dodging and skillful at climbing and hiding, still these little mice 
are an important article of diet for bobcats, foxes, coyotes, skunks, 
badgers, marten, mink, and weasels. Next to the meadow mice they 
probably feed more owls than any other mammal of their area, and 
their abundance and scarcity have a direct relation to the numbers of 
their enemies. While their destruction of insects may be of benefit 
to vegetation in general and to some cultivated crops, their con- 
sumption of seeds must in some cases, and especially in semiarid 
areas, serve as a serious check to the reseeding of the vegetation, and 
even to reforestation by many of the trees that scatter edible seeds. 
The potential damage by a great number of these mice could be 
heavy, but their hosts of enemies generally keep a fair balance of 
abundance and prevent serious losses. 

The mice are easily poisoned or trapped, but it is generally better 
economy to protect such of their enemies as are otherwise harmless 
and leave the mice to natural control. 

PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS RUBIDUS OSGOOD 
RUDDY DEER MOUSE; WESTERN WOODS MOUSE; WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 

Peromyscus oreas ruUdus Osgood, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 14 : 193, 1901. 
Peromyscus perimekurus Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. Pub. 74, Zool. Ser. 3 : 156, 
1903. Type from Gold Beach, Oreg. 

Type. Collected at Mendocino City, Calif., by J. Alden Loring in 1897. 
General characters. Large for the maniculatus group, tail about as long or 
longer than head and body, slender, not crested ; ears medium, nearly naked ; 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



183 



mustaches long, reaching tips of ears ; fur in summer close and dense, in winter 
longer and softer. Color of adults in summer, upper parts rich cinnamon 
brown, more or less darkened with dusky hairs ; top of tail dusky brown ; feet 
and whole lower parts and lower half of tail white or whitish; in winter 
slightly brighter colored ; immature, plumbeous above, whitish below. 

Measurements. Average of several typical adults : Total length, 193 mm ; tail, 
96; foot, 21.5; ear (dry), 16. Adult male from Lagunitas, Calif.: Total length, 
178 mm ; tail, 85 ; foot, 22 ; ear, from notch, 18. Weight, 21.6 g. 

Distribution and habitat. This very dark colored form of the 
white-footed mouse inhabits the coast region from San Francisco 
Bay, Calif., to the Columbia River, and east in Oregon to the west 
slope of the Cascades, except in the upper Rogue River Valley (fig. 
36). It is mainly an inhabitant of dense forest or chaparral in a 
humid climate. 

General habits. Whatever is known of the habits of these little 
forest dwellers has been chiefly gathered by collectors who find them 
in the morning rounds of 
their trap lines, usually 
on or under old logs, on 
stumps^ in old camps or 
houses in the woods, or 
among broken rocks. 
Sometimes, however, they 
are caught in traps set 
under low vegetation, 
in the marshes, or even 
among driftwood on the 
ocean beaches. While 
primarily woods mice, as 
often called, they are able 
to adapt themselves to al- 
most any habitat afford- 
ing cover and a food sup- 
ply. To what extent they 
climb the tall forest trees is not well known, but they are good 
climbers and are often caught well up on the branches and trunks 
of trees, or in the hollows of trunks where they frequently make 
their nests. In many cases also they build their nests under or in 
the great fleeces of moss that drape the trees in the coastal forests. 

The mice are so strictly nocturnal as to be rarely seen except 
when caught in traps or occasionally surprised in their nests in 
camps or buildings. They can see fairly well in the daytime, but 
their large, dark eyes are better adapted to the night. 

They do not accumulate fat or hibernate for winter and are active 
all the year. 

Breeding habits. In this group the females have 3 pairs of mam- 
mae 2 inguinal and 1 pectoral on 4 widely separated glands. The 
young, as shown by sets of embryos usually number 4 to 6, but on 
rare occasions as many as 8 or 9. They are found at all times of 
year, but mostly from March to October. There are a few records of 
embryos noted in December, January, and February. Under favor- 
able conditions of food and protection several litters may be pro- 
duced in a year, but under unfavorable conditions there may be none. 
Usually the mice are common but not present in great numbers. 




FIGURE 36. Range of three subspecies of deer mice in 
Oregon : 1, Peromyscus maniculatus rubidua; 2, P. 
m. sonoriensis; 3, P. m. artemisiae. 



186 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



Distribution and habitat. This form ranges widely over south- 
ern British Columbia, western Montana, and northern Idaho, and 
extends into northeastern Oregon in the Blue Mountain section (fig. 
36). While found mainly in the Transition Zone in this area, iti 
seems to have no zone limits but ranges from the lowest valleys 
to timber; line on the mountains. These mice are more partial to 
a forest and brush country but adapt themselves to almost any 
habitat. 

General habits. In habits they show no well-marked differences 
from Gambel's mouse, occupying as does that form the open 
timbered area and brushy country, including the sagebrush from 
which their name is taken. In the early settlement of the Blue 
Mountains they were often troublesome in camps and new buildings 
in the timber, and even in 1916, in a forest ranger's cabin near 
Sheep Creek on the Wenaha Forest they kept running over the 
writer all night and making a great racket in the cabin. The grub 
box was) lined with tin and the pantry well screened, however, so 
they could do no serious mischief. 

In food and breeding habits they are practically identical with 
garribelii, and their economic status is essentially the same. 

PEROMYSCUS CRINITUS CRINITUS (MERRIAM) 
IDAHO CANYON MOUSE 

Hesperomys crinitus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 5, p. 53, 1891. 

Type. Collected at Shoshone Falls, Snake River Canyon, Idaho, by Merriam 

and Bailey, in 1890. 

General character's. A rather small, slender, silky-furred mouse with long, 

hairy tail, medium large, very thin, and nearly naked ears, mostly naked 

soles, and only four mam- 
mae. Upper parts of adults 
dull dark buffy gray with a 
touch of rich buff along sides ; 
top of tail dark brown or 
blackish ; feet, lower parts, 
and lower half of tail white 
or whitish. Immature, ashy 
or slaty gray over upper 
parts. 

Measurements. Average of 
typical adults: Total length, 
176 mm; tail, 95; foot, 20; 
ear (dry), 16. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. These beautiful lit- 
tle mice are found in the 
Great Basin area of Ne- 
vada, Utah, Idaho, and 
Oregon wherever deep canyons and lava-rock cliffs and rimrocks 
afford their favorite habitat in arid Upper Sonoran Zone (fig. 37). 
In Oregon they are found in the Snake, Malheur, and Deschutes 
River Valleys wherever there are suitable cliffs. 

General habits. Bock, cliff, and canyon dwellers, these silky little 
mice must be expert climbers among and over the rocks. Their 
long, well-haired, and almost bushy tails undoubtedly serve to 
steady and balance them on lofty walls, or to guide and steer them 




FIGURE 37. Range of the silky cliff mouse, Peromys- 
cus crinitus crinitus, in Oregon. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



187 



in long leaps through the air. Their real homes are back in cracks 
and little caverns of the cliffs, where their tiny tracks show on dusty 
shelves, and where traps baited with rolled oats get a few speci- 
mens. They seem never to be numerous and are very local in dis- 
tribution. They are caught only at night and, like other members 
of the genus, seem to be closely nocturnal. 

Breeding habits. The females have but 2 pairs of mammae, all 
close together on 1 pair of mammary glands well back on the abdo- 
men. The usual number of young is probably 2 or 4 as in other 
members of the group and the slow rate of reproduction may well 
account for the rarity of the species. 

Food habits. Little shells and husks of a great variety of seeds 
scattered along their rocky shelves in well-hidden holes of the rocks 
show the general nature of their food. Hackberry shells are often 
found, and chaff from grass seeds and bits of wild currant and 
rose seeds under the bushes at the foot of cliffs give some clue to 
their diet. The stomach contents show mainly a white dough from 
well-masticated seeds with occasional traces of insects. Rolled oats 
is a favorite bait, but almost any grains or seeds are eaten, also 
bread, meat, or other of our standard foods. 

Economic status. In their cliffs and canyons these mice fill a 
niche at present unoccupied by man and only in rare cases can 
they be considered in any way harmful. 

PEROMYSCUS TRUEI GILBERTI (ALLEN) 
GILBERT'S WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 

Sitomys gilberti Allen, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 5 : 188, 1893. 

Type. Collected in Bear Valley, San Benito County, Calif., by C. H. Gilbert 
and W. W. Price in 1893. 

General characters. Large ; 
ears very large and nearly 
naked ; tail about half of to- 
tal length, long haired at tip. 
Skull long and narrow with 
especially long rostrum ; mam- 
mae in three pairs. Adults, 
upper parts dark rich cinna- 
mon, considerably darkened 
over back by dusky; top of 
tail brownish black; feet, 
lower parts, and lower h,alf of 
tail whitish. Immature, dark 
plumbeous over upper parts. 

Measurements. Average of 
a series of typical adults: 
Total length, 200 mm ; tail, 
98; foot, 24; ear (dry), 20. 




FIGURE 38. Range of Gilbert's and Treble's white- 
footed mice in Oregon : 1, Peromyscus truei ffil- 
lerti; 2, P. t. preWei. Type locality circled. 



Distribution and habi- 
tat. From the interior 
valleys of California 

these big-eared mice extend northward from the Klamath River 
Valley into the Rogue River Valley, where specimens have been taken 
at Grants Pass, Grants Peak, Galice, Brownsboro, and Briggs Creek 
(fig. 38) . They occupy Upper Sonoran Zone, generally in open forest, 
chaparral, or cliff country. 



188 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

General habits. Generally these mice are cliff, tree, or log dwellers ; 
but specimens are often obtained in traps set on the ground under 
dense chaparral at considerable distance from their real homes, and 
during the dry season they may even occupy old burrows of pocket 
gophers and ground squirrels. More often, however, they are caught 
among the rocks, on or under old logs, or at the base of some old 
hollow tree. 

They are strictly nocturnal and rarely seen, except when caught in 
traps or driven out of their nests. Occasionally they come into cabins 
or houses in or near the woods and make some racket at night, but 
they are rarely so common as to be much noticed. 

Breeding habits. The mammae of the females are arranged in 
2 pairs of inguinal and 1 pair of pectoral, and the number of embryos 
found in breeding females is usually 2 to 4 with a probable maximum 
number of 6. 

Food habits. Like others of the genus they live mainly on seeds, 
nuts, berries, and a few insects, are eager for rolled oats and other 
grains used as trap bait, and probably have as varied a diet as other 
white-footed mice. 

Economic status. Not common, and rarely found in cultivated or 
inhabited areas these mice can do little damage. The seeds that 
they consume may have some slight effect on reforestation, but gen- 
erally they are not in a real forest country and their effect on 
chaparral could not be of much consequence. They would well repay 
closer study in regard to the function and development of the very 
unusual ears. 

PEROMYSCUS TRUEI PREBLEI, SUBSPECIES NOVUM 
PEBBLE'S WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 

Type. Male adult, no. 78660, U. S. Natl. Mus., Biological Survey collection, 
from Crooked River, 20 miles southeast of Prineville, Oreg., collected June 
28, 1896, by E. A. Preble. Original number, 1079. 

General characters. Considerably smaller than gilberti and slightly smaller 
than typical truei; ears relatively larger than in gilberti, almost naked; tail 
long and hairy at tip; skull smaller with relatively shorter rostrum and wider 
braincase than in gilberti, lighter and slenderer than in truei. Color, upper 
parts of adults dull buffy gray with a touch of rich fulvous on shoulders and 
cheeks; top of tail brownish black; feet, lower parts, and lower half of tail 
white. Immature, light ashy gray over upper parts. 

Measurements. Type: Total length, 175 mm; tail, 86; foot, 23; ear (dry), 
20. Topotype, male adult, 173 ; 82 ; 23 ; 20. A young adult male from Warm 
Springs, 166 ; 80 ; 23 ; 20. Skull of type : Basal length, 24 ; nasals, 9.8 ; width of 
braincase, 13 ; length of upper molar series, 4. 

Distribution and habitat. This form of the truei group is known 
from 2 specimens taken by Preble at an overnight camp on Crooked 
River, 20 miles southeast of Prineville in 1896, 3 in the Jewett col- 
lection and 1 in the Gabrielson collection from Prineville, and 1 taken 
by Jewett near Warm Springs in the Deschutes Valley in 1915 (fig. 
38). Undoubtedly they occupy the high basaltic cliffs all along 
the deep canyons of the Crooked and Deschutes Rivers, but there is 
little probability of any direct connection in range at the present 
time with either truei or gilberti. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



189 



General habits. At both localities where specimens were taken 
they were caught at the base of cliffs or canyon walls. This would 
indicate habits more nearly like those of truei, which is largely a 
cliff dweller, than like the timber and brush-loving gilberti. 

REITHRODONTOMYS MEGALOTIS MEGALOTIS (BAIRD) 
DESERT HARVEST MOUSE 

Reithrodon megalotis Baird, Mammals North Amer., p. 451, 1857. 
Reithrodontomys megalotis nigrescent Howell, North Amer. Fauna No. 36, p. 32, 
1914. Type from Payette, Idaho. 

Type. Collected in northeast corner of Sonora near San Luis Spring, N. Mex., 
by C. B. R. Kennerly, in 1855. 

General ohwraoters. Slight- 
ly smaller and paler colored 
than the common house 
mouse, with longer and softer 
fur and whiter lower parts, 
with deeply grooved upper 
incisors, terete, well-haired, 
tail, and hairy ears. Color, 
upper parts buffy gray, paler 
on the sides ; lower parts, 
feet, and lower half of tail 
white or whitish. 

Measurements. Average of 
several typical adults: Total 
length, 140 mm ; tail, 71 ; foot, 
17.6; ear (dry), 12 to 13. 




FIGURE 39. Range of the two subspecies of harvest 
mice in Oregon : 1, Reithrodontomys megalotis 
lonyicaudus ; 2, R. m. megalotis. 



Distribution and habi- 
tat. These mice show 
surprisingly little varia- 
tion over a range extend- 
ing from central Mexico up through the interior desert country to 
eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington (fig. 39). They prac- 
tically fill the dry Upper Sonoran Zone area of Oregon east of the 
Cascades wherever there is enough moisture for a good growth of 
vegetation. They are partial to marshes, meadows, ditch banks, or 
the borders of irrigated fields. Often they, are locally abundant in 
suitable situations, but over the dryer parts of the region they are 
entirely absent. 

General habits. These little harvest mice are mainly ground 
dwellers, making their little roadways over the surface of the ground 
under cover of growing or fallen vegetation, and living in grass 
nests, on or under the surface of the ground. They make tiny bur- 
rows, but seem to spend much of their time in their runways or in the 
nearby vegetation searching for choice bits of food. They are 
active all winter, and seem to be almost as diurnal as nocturnal, often 
getting into traps during the daytime and occasionally seen darting 
through their runways. 

Breeding habits. The females have normally 3 pairs of mam- 
mae 2 inguinal on 2 large mammary glands and 1 pectoral on a pair 
of smaller glands. The young, as indicated by sets of embryos, are 
usually 4 to 6. They seem to be found at all seasons except mid- 
winter in the North, and evidently several litters are raised in a 
season. 



190 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Food habits. About all that is known of their food is from exami- 
nation of the stomachs, which usually contain a combination of green 
vegetation, seeds, or grain. Grass stems are found cut in short sec- 
tions on their feeding grounds, and their abundance in and around 
alfalfa fields would imply a fondness for the green leaves and tender 
shoots of these plants. They are always eager for rolled oats used 
as trap bait, and their very small stomachs indicate a diet of rich 
food, more seeds than green vegetation. 

Economic statics. Too small and well hidden to be much noticed, 
these little harvesters of the meadows often become very numerous 
in the most fertile fields and meadows, where they take a small toll 
of the forage and a share of the seeds. Their depredations seem 
never to be noticed, but added to those of several other species of 
rodents help to swell the total of serious losses. 

Clean fields, meadows, ditch banks, and borders would leave them 
exposed to overhead enemies and be by far the most economical and 
effective method of preventing their overabundance and possible 
mischief. 

REITHRODONTOMYS MEGALOTIS LONGICAUDUS (BAIRD) 
CALIFORNIA HARVEST MOUSE 

Reithrodon longicauda Baird, Mammals North Amer., p. 451, 1857. 

Type locality. Fixed at Petaluma, Calif. No type designated. Type series 
collected by E. Samuels in 1856. 

General characters. 'Size, color, and general appearance much as in the com- 
mon house mouse, but structural characters widely different; upper incisors 
deeply grooved; tail well haired and not tapering noticeably; ears larger and 
more hairy. Upper parts rich buffy brown, darkened with dusky along median 
line of back and clearing to buffy orange along sides; feet, lower half of tail, 
belly, and chin light gray or whitish ; breast buffy orange. 

Measurements. Average of a series of typical adults : Total length, 139 mm ; 
tail, 73; foot, 17; ear (dry), 12. 

Distribution and habitat. From a range covering practically the 
whole of western California these little mouselike rodents extend into 
southern Oregon in the upper Rogue River Valley (fig. 39). There 
are specimens from Grants Pass, Slate Creek (20 miles southwest of 
Grants Pass), and Ashland. They undoubtedly occupy the whole of 
the upper Rogue River Valley and" connect in range with those of the 
Klamath Valley over the low ridge east of the Siskiyou Mountains 
and grade toward the paler meoalotis in the Klamath Lake basin. 
They are mainly in Upper Sonoran Zone. 

General habits. Usually these little animals are found in 
meadows, on grassy or weedy uplands, or along weedy fence rows 
bordering fields. In dry seasons they gather on the low moist 
grounds, and even in wet marshes, but with the fall rains spread out 
over higher country. They live as do the meadow mice under the 
protecting cover of dense vegetation and make tiny runways over 
the ground and numerous little burrows below the surface. Their 
nests are usually placed on the surface of the ground, neat little 
balls of grass with soft lining. 

Breeding habits. The females have normally 3 pairs of mammae 
2 inguinal and 1 pectoral on 4 distinct mamary glands. The young, 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



191 






as shown by embryos, usually number 4 to 6. There are records of 
embryos in specimens taken in almost every month of the year, and it 
seems probable that several litters may be produced in a year by 
each female. 

Food habits. Like many other rodents, they live on partly green 
vegetation, grass, and other plants, and the seeds of grass and other 
grains. Their little stomachs often show mainly green food and 
again mainly the white starchy dough of seeds. 

Economic status. A small quantity of grass, other forage plants, 
and seeds are consumed by these little animals, which added to that 
taken by numerous other rodents causes a serious loss each year to 
the farmers. 

CLETHRIONOMYS CALIFORNICUS CALIFORNICUS (MEEBIAM) 
CALIFORNIA RED-BACKED MOUSE 

Evotomys californicus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 4, p. 26, 1890. 

Type. Collected at Eureka, Calif., by T. S. Palmer, in 1890. 

General characters. The 

compact form, short legs, 
small tail, and long fur that 
partly conceals the ears, gives 
the red-backs much the ap- 
pearance of meadow mice, to 
which they are related as a 
subfamily. This is one of the 
large, dark-colored, long- 
tailed forms in which the red 
of the back is much obscured 
or sometimes wholly con- 
cealed by black. Color of 
adults, deep chestnut over the 
back, much obscured by dusky 
hairs ; sides dark buffy gray ; 
belly buffy or ochraceous over 
dark underfur; toes white or 
whitish; tail indistinctly bi- 
color, dusky above, whitish 
below. Young much darker, 
sometimes almost black. 

Measurements. Average of typical adults: Total length, 165 mm; tail, 53; 
foot, 20.5; ear (dry), 10. 

Distribution and habitat. The coastal area of western Oregon 
and northwestern California, mainly in heavy forests of humid 
Transition Zone (fig. 40). 

General habits This is a scarce or rarely collected species, repre- 
sented in Oregon by specimens from only four localities Astoria, 
Yaquina Bay, Wells, and Oregon City. The animals live mainly on 
the ground, and are generally caught under old logs in the woods. 

They feed largely on green vegetation, grass, seeds, and various 
small plants. They are eager for rolled oats or any kind of grain 
used for trap bait. 

Little is known of their breeding or other habits. 




FIGURE 40. Range of the four forms of red-backed 
mice in Oregon: 1, Glethrionomys calif ornicus caili- 
fornicus ; 2, G. c. obscurus; 3, G. c. mazama*; 4, 
G. gapperi saiuratus. Type localities circled. 



192 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

CLETHRIONOMYS CALIFORNICUS OBSCURUS (MERRIAM) 

DUSKY REEHBAOKED MOUSE 

Evotomys obscurus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 72, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Prospect, upper Rogue River Valley, Oreg., by Edward A. 
Preble in 1896. 

General characters. This is a smaller, lighter colored interior form of cali- 
fornicus, with red of back less obscured. Back of adults light chestnut brown, 
not much obscured by black hairs; sides dull buffy gray; belly buffy gray; 
feet whitish or gray with whitish toes ; tail but slightly bicolor. Young darker, 
duller, and more plumbeous. 

Measurements. Average of typical adults : Total length, 144 mm ; tail, 44.5 ; 
foot, 18.2; ear (dry), 10. 

Distribution and habitat. These rather dull-colored little rodents 
are shown by the present series of specimens to be intermediate be- 
tween calif ornicus and mazama, not only in characters but in distri- 
bution, occupying the more open Transition Zone valleys between the 
heavy timber of the humid Coast Ranges and the Canadian Zone 
forests of the Cascades, and extending from northern California up 
through the edges of the Rogue, Umpqua, and Willamette River 
Valleys in Oregon (fig. 40). They are generally found in the 
woods under old logs or stumps or dense vegetation in either wet or 
dry situations. 

General habits. Apparently little is known to distinguish the 
habits of these from calif ornicus, except that they are generally in 
less dark and gloomy forests. At the type locality, Prospect, on the 
upper waters of Rogue River, Preble took two specimens in damp 
mossy and grassy places near the river. At Grants Pass, Streator 
took one under a log in the edge of the woods back a mile from 
town, and in the Siskiypu Mountains, Hollister trapped a few in 
damp fir forests and one in a mountain beaver runway. At the west 
base of Mount Jefferson, Loring took a series of specimens under 
logs, stumps, brush heaps, and rocks in the dry woods at some dis- 
tance from streams, using rolled oats and bacon for trap bait. 

CLETHRIONOMYS CALIFORNICUS MAZAMA (MEKRIAM) 
MAZAMA RED-BACKED MOUSE 

Evotomys massama Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 71, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Mount Mazama, south side of Crater Lake, Oreg., by C. 
Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey. August 15. 1896. 

General characters. Large, but smaller than californicus, about as in o&- 
scurus, colors brighter and clearer than either. Back of adults light hazel in 
a fairly well-defined area ; sides light buffy gray ; belly washed with buffy over 
plumbeous; feet white or whitish; tail sharply bicolor, sooty above, whitish 
below. Young darker, more plumbeous. 

Measurements. Average of several typical adults: Total length, 157 mm; 
tail, 52; foot, 18.75; ear (dry), 11. 

Distribution and habitat. This is a boreal mountain form, occupy- 
ing apparently all the Canadian Zone area of the Cascade Mountains 
in Oregon and of Mount Shasta in California, grading into obscurus 
on the lower slopes (fig. 40) . 

General habits. These bright-colored little animals are generally 
caught under logs or around stumps and hollow trees in the open 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 193 

mountain forests of pine, spruce, fir, and hemlock. They are in part 
diurnal, and seem to get into the traps about as much in daytime 
as at night. Preble saw one running in the spruce woods near Anna 
Creek in the early afternoon. In this, as in many other habits, they 
resemble the common meadow mice, except that they rarely make 
runways. 

They feed mainly on green vegetation and seeds, the contents of 
the stomachs usually being dominated by green pulp of grass and 
other plants. They are always eager for rolled oats, which are gen- 
erally used for trap bait. 

There seems to be only one record of breeding for this subspecies, 
a female taken near the Three Sisters, July 19, containing 4 well- 
developed embryos; but the females have 4 pairs of mammae 2 
inguinal and 2 pectoral and like other forms of the genus the young 
probably vary from 4 to 8 in a litter. 

Their abundance and scarcity probably depend on the extent to 
which they furnish food for the smaller carnivores and birds of prey. 

CLETHRIONOMYS GAPPERI SATURATUS (RHOADS) 
BRITISH COLUMBIA RED-BACKED MOUSE 

Evotomys gappcri saturatus Rhoads, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 284, 1894. 

Type. Collected at Nelson, British Columbia, by Samuel N. Rhoads, in 1892. 

General characters. Size about the same as mazama, but of the shorter tailed, 
brighter colored yapperl group. Whole back of adults bright chestnut, with 
scarce a trace of black-tipped hairs ; sides buffy gray, belly washed with 
whitish or very pale buffy ; feet and lower surface of tail whitish or light gray. 
Young duller and darker colored. 

Measurements. Average of several typical adults : Total length 149 mm ; 
tail, 45; foot, 18.2; ear (dry), 12. 

Distribution and habitat. From a wide range over British Colum- 
bia, Washington, and northern Idaho, this form of the eastern group 
of red-backed mice comes into northeastern Oregon in the Blue 
Mountain section, filling the Canadian Zone and coming down cold 
slopes and gulches into what seems to be Transition (fig. 40). 

General habits. They are forest dwellers, but in Oregon are found 
mainly in the open pine and spruce forests of the Rocky Mountain 
type, living around the trees and logs and under cover of low vegeta- 
tion in the driest parts of the forest as well as along streams and the 
edges of meadows. They are to a great extent diurnal, and where 
abundant are often seen in the daytime, running over the ground or 
on logs, and occasionally up the trunks of trees. They have larger 
eyes and ears, and are much more active and keen, than the meadow 
mice and less restricted to cover and runways. In fact they rarely 
make noticeable runways but burrow under the mellow surface of 
the woods earth and leaves, and in part live in hollow logs and trees 
or under loose bark of logs. 

Occasionally they are as abundant as meadow mice and are the 
most abundant animal of their habitat. At Sled Springs, 25 miles 
north of Enterprise, in April and May 1919, Cantwell reported them 
taken every day in 75 percent of his traps, and in several of the 
traps 1 every day for a period of 10 days. More often, however, 
they are rather scarce and very irregular in distribution, seeming to 
find existence possible only where there is especially favorable cover. 

7209 36 13 



194 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



The females have 2 pairs of inguinal and 2 of pectoral mammae, 
and the young, as shown by embryos, are usually 4 to 6. Probably 8 
is the maximum number, as occasionally recorded in related forms. 

Their stomachs are usually filled with green pulp, and many bits 
of cut grass and small plants, cut and drawn under cover to be eaten 
In safety, are found under the logs where they feed. Traces of grass 
and other plant seeds are also found in the stomachs, and rolled oats 
or other grains are eagerly taken as trap bait. 

Very little mischief can be ascribed to these beautiful little forest 
dwellers, and their value as food for fur-bearing mammals may well 
overbalance any destruction of vegetation. 

PHENACOMYS LONGICAUDUS TRUE 
RED TREE MOUSE 

Phenacomys longicaudus True, U. S. Natl. Mus. Proc. 13: 303, 1890. 

Type. Collected at Marshfield, Coos County, Oreg., by Aurelius Todd, in 
1890. 

General characters. Next to the largest of the genus; tail hairy, about as 
long as body without head; legs short, toes long, and claws sharp and well 
curved; eyes small; ears low, nearly concealed in fur; fur long, fine, and 
soft; upper parts uniform light rusty or cinnamon rufous; lower parts washed 
with buffy white over plumbeous underfur ; tail dark brown or blackish above 
and below. 

Measurements. Average of 5 adult females : Total length, 182 mm ; tail, 73 ; 
foot, 21; ear (dry), 11. Weight, 27 g (A. B. Howell, 1926, p. 52). 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. Specimens of the 
red tree mouse have been 
taken in western Oregon 
at or near Marshfield, 
Coos County; Port Or- 
ford, Lobster Creek, and 
Agness, in Curry Coun- 
ty; Salt Creek, north of 
Bybee Springs, in Jack- 
son County ; Meadow, 
Eugene, and Mabel, in 
Lane County; and near 
Marmot, i n Clack ; iamas 
County (fig. 41). The 
animals or their unmis- 
takable nests (pi. 33) 
have been reported on the 
Coquille River, in Coos County; on Elm Creek and at Melrose, in 
Douglas County ; on the Willamette, at Cottage Grove, and at Vida, 
in Lane County; on the upper Clackamas Eiver, in Clackamas 
County; and near Bonneville, in Multnomah County. 

These localities indicate a range over most of the timbered parts 
of western Oregon, from the foothills to the coast, unless, as seems 
probable, its place is taken west of the Willamette Valley by the 
darker colored dusky tree mouse. To the south the species ranges 
down the timbered coast region of northwestern California as far 
as Mendocino County. 




FIGURE 41. Range of four forms of the genus Phc- 
nacomys in Oregon : 1, Phenacomys silvicola; 2, 
P. longicaudus; 3, P. intemnedius intermedius; 4, 
P. i. olympicus. Type localities circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 195 

With their homes in the treetops, they naturally occupy only the 
areas of extensive forest or areas of recently isolated forest. They 
are found mainly in the branches of Douglas fir, but occasionally 
also in Sitka spruce and grand fir. A few years ago they were con- 
sidered one of the rarest mammals in North America, known only 
from two specimens, but when their tree-dwelling habits became 
known, they were found to be common over a wide extent of country 
and are now better known than most of the small mammals. 

History. The red tree mouse was first made known to science 
by its discoverer, Aurelius Todd, of Eugene, Oreg., when he sent a 
specimen to the National Museum in 1890. It was collected near 
Marshfield, in August, and was described in the Proceedings of 
the United States National Museum of November of the same year, 
by F. W. True, curator of mammals, with a letter from Todd giving 
the first information regarding the habits of the species. For sev- 
eral years he had known of them in southern Douglas County and 
knew of their tree-dwelling habits, but the type from Marshfield, 
Coos County, was the second specimen he had seen. Their nests 
on the branches of the Douglas spruce had been found in consid- 
erable numbers not only in Douglas, Coos, and Curry Counties, but 
in Lane County, a considerable range being thus indicated in this 
first account of the species. 

In 1907 William Bebb, of Los Angeles, Calif., showed several 
specimens that he had taken the previous year at a lumber camp near 
Marmot, Oreg. When the tall Douglas spruce trees were felled for 
lumber these mice were found stunned or killed by the crashing of 
their nests, often located 100 feet up in the treetops. 

In 1914 Alfred Shelton, while at the University of Oregon, secured 
two specimens of this rare mouse and learned to recognize their bulky 
nests in the treetops. He found the nests on Spencer Butte, and 
together he and the writer alternately climbed a lot of tall trees and 
examined many nests but secured only one of the mice at that time. 

In 1917 Jewett found them abundant along the lower Rogue River 
Valley in Curry County, where their bulky nests were seen in the 
spruce trees from 15 to 80 feet above the ground. He secured a 
couple of the mice alive but they failed to survive a long, hard pack 
trip. 

Meanwhile the tree mice had been found in several places in north- 
western California and very carefully studied by H. E. Wilder, 
Walter P. Taylor, and A. B. Howell, so at present few of our small 
native mammals are better known. 

In July 1927 a piece of dried skin with the unmistakable red fur 
of the tree mouse was picked up by Jewett, who was on his way up 
Salt Creek in northwestern Jackson County, which establishes a new 
locality record in the Rogue River Valley. 

General habits. These mice are well named, for, so far as known, 
they live almost entirely in the treetops, often at a height of 100 
feet or more from the ground. In young forests, of low branching 
trees they are sometimes found on lower branches, but in old forests 
of tall trees they are generally 60, 80, or 100 feet up in the green 
branches, where they travel freely from treetop to treetop. They 
climb well, although not rapidly, and follow the slender branches 
with ease and security, the long and well.haired tail serving some- 



196 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

what the function of a squirrel's bushy tail in enabling them to keep 
their balance. 

In California Wilder has discovered several of the males living in 
burrows under logs and woodpiles on the ground under the trees 
where their food is obtained, but this is where they live in compara- 
tively low trees with nests in the branches often not far above the 
ground. In Oregon the mice have not as yet been found on the 

f round, although tracks in snow at the base of the trees were thought 
y Todd to have been made by tree mice. Hundreds of traps set on 
the ground on logs and low branches have failed to secure any speci- 
mens, but this may in part be due to the fact that the mice refuse 
the ordinary trap baits used. 

The nests of the tree mice are of various sizes from the new or 
freshly built nests of the males, the size of ordinary mouse nests, to 
the old breeding nests in large trees that have been used and built 
up for many years until they attain the size of a peck or half -bushel 
measure. In fact, some would apparently fill a bushel basket and 
have the appearance of permanent houses on as elaborate a scale as 
a wood rat or muskrat house. The smaller nests are often well out 
on the branches away from the trunks and at first are a mass of clean 
dry twigs and leaf fibers with a hollow cavity inside where the mouse 
sleeps and eats the leaves from fresh green twigs brought in nightly 
for food. The nests are largely built up from the leaf fibers left as 
food refuse and slowly grow in size and solidity, those on firm and 
broad foundations eventually becoming large and solid, while those 
in young timber are smaller and fresher in appearance. The nests 
built high up on large limbs or forks of old trees, 60 to 100 feet from 
the ground, are the oldest and largest. They are usually close to 
the trunk and in some cases surround the tree trunk and rest on a 
whorl of 5 or 7 limbs. 

These large structures are really houses, containing in some cases 
as many as five nests in excavated cavities connected by burrows or 
tunnels, winding spirally up and down through the .mass and open- 
ing out on the top of the supporting branches or close to the tree 
trunk. The main mass of these old houses consists of packed and 
settled leaf fibers and twigs with which the mouse pellets of years 
have become compacted into an earthy mass more or less solid and 
substantial. There is no reason why one of these houses should not 
continue for hundreds of years, or as long as the tree lives, and some 
already have the appearance of great age. Usually they are rounded 
above and more or less dome shaped and apparently shed water dur- 
ing the rainy season and keep the inmates dry and comfortable. 

Some of the larger houses have been started on old hawks' or 
squirrels' nests as shown by large sticks at the base which the mice 
could not have brought together. Such strong foundations have 
undoubtedly been a factor in the size and endurance of the tree 
mouse houses. 

When the house is disturbed the mice usually slip out quietly along 
the branches or up the trunk of the tree and if possible escape to the 
next tree, but they rarely come down the trunk to the ground unless 
forced to. They run slowly but securely along the tops of the 
branches and from one tree to another over the interlacing tips, hid- 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 33 




RED TREE MOUSE. 
Mother and two young in an opened nest on spruce bough (photograph by A. Brazier Howell). 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 34 




B23352; B1654M 

COMMON MEADOW MOUSE OF EASTERN OREGON. 
A, Live mouse in captivity at Malheur Lake; B, from a drawing by Kako Morita. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 197 

ing among the leaves or against the trunks of trees or in the forks of 
the branches. 

Breeding habits. The females have but 2 pairs of mammae, on 
the posterior part of the belly. Sets of 1, 2, and 3 embryos have 
been noted in those taken for specimens. Four is probably the nor- 
mal maximum number of young for fully adult females, about half 
the number of most microtines. On September 14 jewett took a 
female in Curry County that contained 3 embryos, and Shelton took 
2 young from a nest on Spencer Butte near Eugene on February 21. 
In California, Wilder found young in the nests in January and Feb- 
ruary, and Taylor records young found in the nests at Mendocino 
City on July 15 and 17 and half-grown young in Humboldt County 
in July (1915, p. 151). From these dates it would seem that breed- 
ing may occur at any time of year, but it is probable, as believed 
by Wilder and Clay, who have had unusual opportunity for observ- 
ing these mice, that the main breeding season is from early spring 
until late summer. 

Howell found the young at birth in about the same helpless and 
primitive condition as young meadow mice, but with the difference 
that the eyes did not open until the young were 19 days old and that 
the}^ showed no inclination to leave the nest until 29 days old. For 
the first 2 weeks they were generally found attached to the mother's 
teats, and when the family was disturbed the young clung so tightly 
that she would drag them all around the cage and could even be 
lifted if one took hold of one of the young. This habit and the slow 
development of the young are excellent adaptations for the protec- 
tion of arboreal species. The slow development is almost squirrel- 
like, and the small number of young in a litter in comparison with 
ground-dwelling microtines is paralleled by the corresponding con- 
ditions in the tree squirrels as compared to the large litters of ground 
squirrels. 

Food habits. The stomach and intestines of one collected near 
Eugene were full of the green pulp of Douglas fir leaves, and the fresh 
pellets in numerous other nests examined in that part of Oregon were 
all of pure green material, indicating that their food was all, or 
mainly, derived from these leaves. None of the rolled oats placed in 
their nests or on the feeding platforms was eaten, and no trace of 
food other than the millions of leaf fibers containing in some cases 
the central vascular bundles and in others the marginal resin ducts 
were found on or around the houses. Apparently the animals are 
active throughout the year and a permanent supply of their ever- 
green leaves is always available. 

Howell in a careful study of their food habits in captivity could 
not induce them to eat anything but the leaves of conifers, of which 
Douglas fir was preferred. Grand fir (Abies grandis) was also 
eaten, as well as the leaves of the large cone fir (Pseudotsuga 
macrocarpa) ) of an exotic fir from the Caucasus (Abies nordman- 
niana), and of the deodar cedar (Cedru<s deodara). 

Their usual method of feeding is to cut off the terminal twigs of 
green branches and eat the leaves or carry them to the nest or house 
each night to provide enough to last through the day, placing them 
within easy reach of the nest. These are eaten at frequent intervals 
as determined by Howell, averaging about 100 leaves an hour for 



198 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

both night and day, or about 2,400 Douglas fir leaves weighing 
about 18 g in 24 hours. 

Normally these green leaves must furnish both food and moisture 
as the mice refused water except when forced to eat dried leaves. 

Economic status. In a large number of tree nests examined in 
Oregon no trace of injury to the trees or foliage was found and no 
complaints of injury have been reported. It is possible that the tree 
mice may have a slight value as food for martens and fishers, the 
two species of tree-climbing fur-bearing animals of the region, and 
they have certainly added a feature of living interest to these mag- 
nificent forests of the Pacific slope. 

PHENACOMYS SILVICOLA A. B. HOWELL 
DUSKY TREE MOUSE 

Phenacomys silvicolus A. B. Howell, Jour. Mammal. 2 : 98, 1921. 
Phenacomys silvicola Miller, U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 128 : 400, 1923. 

Type. Collected 5 miles southeast of Tillamook, Oreg., by Peter P. Walker, 
October 25, 1916 (collection of Alex Walker). 

General characters. Slightly larger and much darker than Phenacomys 
longicaudus but with the same general proportions of total length, tail and foot, 
the same hairy tail and long soft fur; ears small, not projecting much beyond 
the fur; skull long, narrow, ridged, and with heavy molar teeth. Color dark 
brown ; upper parts sayal brown of Ridgway, the long hairs sparsely tipped with 
black ; lower parts washed with whitish ; nose dusky ; tail blackish ; feet dark 
gray. 

Measurements. Total length, 191 mm; tail, 81; foot, 22; ear (dry), 10. 

Distribution and habitat. The type was found dead on a log on 
a ridge covered with first-growth Douglas fir near Tillamook (fig. 
41). Other specimens from near the type locality were later col- 
lected by Alex Walker, and one other adult and four young were 
taken by H. M. Wight from a nest in a tree near Corvallis. 

The limits of its range remain to be established. At present it is 
one of the rarest and most interesting of Oregon mammals, present- 
ing problems to baffle as well as tempt the most daring naturalists. 

Walker contributes the following notes : 

The type specimen of Plienacomys silvicola was taken near Tillamook, Ore- 
gon, October 25, 1916, and remained unique until 1924 when a female and 
four small young were taken from a nest in a tree near Corvallis, Oregon, and 
recorded by H. M. Wight (Journ. of Mammalogy, vol. 6, p. 282, 1925). I am 
now able to record two more specimens of this rare species. 

On February 1, 1926, my brother, Peter P. Walker, who secured the type of 
Phenaoomys silvicola, presented me with another specimen in the flesh, taken 
6 miles south of Tillamook under the following circumstances. Employees of 
the Coates Driving and Boom Co., in the course of their logging operations, 
removed by blasting a hemlock snag about 2 feet in diameter and 20 feet high. 
Quite a hole was blown in the earth under the stump, and immediately after 
the blast workmen saw 4 or 5 mice in this excavation. My brother, who was 
employed by the company, captured one of the mice but the others escaped. 
Fragments of what was unquestionably the nest were noted at the time. On 
the following day I visited the place but the shattered pieces of the snag had 
been removed and no trace of the nest could be seen. However, while examin- 
ing the debris in the pit, the somewhat mangled remains of another tree mouse 
was found, this one undoubtedly having been killed by the blast. 

On examination the hemlock snag was found to be hollow, and the cavity, 
though small, extended the entire length. Now from the fact that immediately 
after the explosion several of the mice were noted alive in the pit, it is ap- 
parent that they must either have had a nest underneath the stump, or, as 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 199 

seems more probable, low down in the cavity, and not, as in the case of the only 
other nest of this species that has been discovered, on, or in, the broken-off 
top of the snag. The snag stood on a hillside, and the surrounding country was 
very rugged and clothed with first growth Douglas fir and hemlock of large* 
size. In the immediate vicinity of the place where the mice were taken the tim- 
ber, which was exclusively hemlock, had recently been cut and still lay upon the 
ground. 

The first of the two specimens here recorded was a male, and the measure- 
ments are : total length, 177 mm. ; tail vertebrae, 71 ; hind foot, 22.5. The other, 
a female, measured: 174; 71; 22. This, I am informed by Mr. A. B. Howell, 
is the first time that a fully adult pair of either species of tree mouse has 
been found in one nest. (1928, p. 254.) 

At later dates, March 4 and June 1, 1929, live dusky tree mice 
were captured not far from Tillamook and kept by Alex Walker 
for some time in captivity and much information on their habits 
obtained. He found them in nests usually 40 to 50 feet from the 
ground in Sitka spruces, but one only 15 feet up in a hemlock tree. 
None was over a foot in diameter, all were placed on the branches 
close to the tree trunks and made of branch tips and food refuse. 

Walker says further: 

It is probable that the habits of this species do not differ greatly from those 
of Phena corny r s lonffioau&a. My captive specimen proved very gentle and was 
often given the liberty of a large hemlock bough where it seemed perfectly 
happy and at home, running back and forth and out to the tips of the smallest 
branches, occasionally stopping to cut off a twig and eat it on the spot. Though 
sure-footed it was extremely cautious and never attempted to leap from one 
branch to another in the manner of other mammalian dwellers of the tree tops. 
Often it would dangle by one hind foot from a tiny twig at the end of the 
branch, only to recover itself if another branch could not be reached with its 
fore feet. 

Experiments in feeding convince me that it is utterly futile to attempt 
the trapping of these mice by the use of bait. Rolled oats, meat and other 
such materials used for bait were completely ignored by my specimen, as 
were plants and parts of the foliage of deciduous shrubs and trees commonly 
found in the woods. A few clover leaves were eaten on one occasion, but an 
acquired fondness for apples constituted the only real departure from a straight 
diet of conifer leaves. Hemlock was preferred at all times and neither spruce 
nor fir would be touched when hemlock was available, though they were eaten 
at other times. In season, the tender new growth at the ends of the branches 
of the evergreens mentioned seemed to be particularly appreciated and was 
taken in preference to the older leaves. As previously noted, hemlock twigs 
were found on the nest examined in the hemlock tree and only spruce twigs on 
the nests in spruce trees. It seems probable tliat the young are fed entirely 
on the twigs of the tree in which they live and when fully grown still have a 
decided preference for the same kind of food. My captive animal was provided 
with a dish of water, which it rarely touched, and then only in an awkward 
sort of way as though it had not yet learned to drink. A small wad of moss 
saturated with water was readily accepted, however, and this led to the use of a 
water soaked sponge in the cage until the animal learned to eat apples, which 
seemed to supply all the water necessary. (1930, p. 233.) 

PHENACOMTS ALBIPES MEBEIAM 
WHITE-FOOTED PHENAOOMYS 

Phenacomys alUpes Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 14 : 125, 1901. 

Type. Collected in the redwoods near Arcata, Humboldt County, Calif., by 
Walter K. Fisher, May 24, 1899. 

General characters. Slightly smaller than lonfficaudus; tail almost as long 
relatively but sparsely haired and sharply bicolor; nails not much curved, of 
the digging rather than climbing type ; fur rather short and smooth ; skull 
long, narrow, and smooth; upper parts and top of tail snuff brown, darkened 



200 NORTH AMEEICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

with black hairs; lower parts washed with buff; feet and lower half of tail 

Measurements. An adult male : Total length, 168 mm ; tail, 62 ; foot, 19 ; ear 
(dry), 10. 

Distribution and habitat. These rare mice are known only from 
a few adult specimens the type from Arcata, another specimen 
from Orick, and 7 from Trinidad, Calif. Others were taken in 
Oregon by Stanley G. Jewett and Alex Walker; 1 at Vida on the 
Mclvenzie River, 3 at Netarts on the coast near Tillamook, 2 at 
Elaine in Tillamook County, and 1 at Gardiner, Douglas County. 
All were taken in densely forested areas and all on or near the 
ground. The type was taken in a trap set on an old rotten log beside 
a redwood tree near Humboldt Bay, and the 7 Trinidad specimens 
at the edge of a little forest stream. The Vida specimen was caught 
among rocks under the bank of a small stream flowing through a 
dense forest of spruce and fir with an undergrowth of salmonberry 
and sword ferns. Those from Netarts were in a thicket of salmon- 
berry bushes among the Sitka spruces, and the Gardiner specimen 
on the brushy bank of a small stream. All were taken in small traps 
baited with rolled oats. Evidently they are ground dwellers of the 
dense coastal forests, either very scarce in numbers and scattered in 
distribution or, more probably, of peculiar habits that are not yet 
sufficiently known to enable collectors to locate their homes or hunt 
for specimens with any certainty of success. 

General habits. The first real clue to habits of these little ani- 
mals was obtained by A. B. Howell from the specimens collected 
at Trinidad, Calif., in July 1926. Of the seven specimens collected 
in a densely shaded gulch under the redwoods, bay, and maples, 
and back about half a mile from the sea, three full stomachs were 
saved and the contents examined by C. C. Sperry, of the Biological 
Survey. The stomach contents showed entirely the finely masticated 
pulp from underground roots of some unidentified herbaceous plant. 
This food preference may well explain the difficulty in securing 
specimens and their rarity in collections, and when the plant they 
feed upon is known they may be found to be a common and wide- 
ranging species. 

PHENACOMYS INTBRMEDIUS INTERMEDIUS MEBBIAM 
MOUNTAIN PHENACOMYS 

Plienacomys intermedius Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 2, p. 32, 1889. 
Phenacomys orophilus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 5, p. 65, 1891. From 
Salmon River Mountains, Idaho. 

Type. Collected 20 miles north-northwest of Kamloops, British Columbia, 
by Geo. M. Dawson, October 2, 1888. 

General characters. Small; tail short and slender, with little taper, thinly 
haired ; toes short ; nails not much curved, of the digging type ; ears conspicuous 
above fur; fur long and soft but not so fine as in lonfficaudus; side glands of 
males large and elongated, in front of hips; skull relatively short and wide; 
upper parts and top of tail buffy gray, lower parts washed with whitish ; feet 
and lower half of tail whitish. 

Measurements. Average of several adults : Total length, 152 mm ; tail, 34 ; 
hind foot, 18. 

Distribution and habitat. These obscure little mice have a wide 
range over the Rocky Mountain region from northern British Colum- 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 201 

bia to New Mexico, and into the Blue Mountains and Cascades of 
Oregon (fig. 41). In Oregon they are represented by specimens from 
Wallowa Lake and Aneroid Lake in the Wallowa Mountains, from 
north of Harney in the Blue Mountains, and from Diamond Lake 
and Crater Lake, in the Cascades, but by only 1 or 2 specimens from 
a locality. These localities are in Canadian and Hudsonian Zones, 
but the main range of the species is generally considered to be Hud- 
sonian. Beds of heather and dry slopes of short grass are the more 
general habitat, but any open, grassy ground, not too wet, suits their 
purpose. They are rarely found in the dense timber, which occupies 
most of Canadian Zone, and for this reason are sometimes crowded 
down to the more open grassy places in the upper edge of Transi- 
tion Zone, but are more generally found in the parks and meadows of 
the Hudsonian. 

General habits. Although widely distributed and doubtless far 
more common than the scattered records indicate, these little gray 
grass-colored mice are not well known. They burrow in the ground 
and hide under cover of grass and heather and old logs, so that they 
are rarely seen alive. Those caught in traps by collectors indicate 
both nocturnal and diurnal activity and in summer a mainly under- 
ground residence except when out foraging for food. As the spring 
snow melts, the winter nests are often found on the surface of the 
ground where their trails and runways have been covered and pro- 
tected by deep snows, while the mice ranged for food over the 
surface of the ground. Their nests are made of fine dry grass, 
thick walled and clean with soft warm central cavities. Little heaps 
of winter pellets nearby show good sanitation and also indicate a 
purely vegetable diet. 

Breeding habits. The adult females have 4 pairs of mammae 
2 inguinal and 2 pectoral and the number of embryos recorded in 
those taken for specimens is usually 4, 5, or 6. The dates of these 
embryos range from May to August, and it is probable that even in 
the short summer at high altitudes more than one litter of young 
may be raised in a season. 

Food habits. Like most of the microtines, they feed mainly on 
green grass and low vegetation, bark, leaves, twigs, and seeds of 
such plants as grow in their vicinity, and are fond of rolled oats 
used as trap bait. They usually show no trace of fat but seem to 
find abundance of food of satisfactory quality at all seasons of the 
year. 

Economic status. While too small and scarce and scattered to 
seem to be of any serious economic importance, these little mice fill 
a niche in the scheme of adjustment in plant and animal life that 
may be of more importance than we now realize. 

PHENACOMYS INTERMEDIUS OLYMPICUS ELLIOT 
OLYMPIC PHENACOMYS 

Phenacomys olympicus Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. Pub. 30, Zool. Ser. 1 : 225, 
1899. 

Type, Collected at Happy Lake, Olympic Mountains, Clallam County, Wash., 
at. 5,000 feet altitude, by D. G. Elliot, August 14, 1898. 

General characters. Slightly larger than typical intermedius, colors duller 
and darker; upper parts dark buffy gray or dusky gray; lower parts washed 



202 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



with dull buffy; feet and lower half of tail whitish in sharp contrast to the 
dark colors of body. 

Measurements. Average of 10 adult topotypes: Total length, 150 mm; tail 
43; foot, 20; ear (dry), 13. 

Distribution and habitat. This large, dark form from the Olym- 
pic Mountains extends down the Cascades from Mount Rainier to 
Mount Hood and the Three Sisters Peaks in Oregon (fig. 41). Some 
of the specimens from the Three Sisters are almost as large and 
dark as typical olympwus, while others could as well be referred to 
intermedius. One small female from the mouth of Davis Creek on 
the Upper Deschutes could be referred to either form, while farther 
south at Crater Lake they are all clearly referable to intermedium. 

MICROTUS MONTANUS MONTANUS (PEALE) 

PEALE'S MEADOW MOUSE; GIL-WA of the Klamath (C. H. M.) ; PA-MOTA of the 

Piute 

Arvicola montana Peale, U. S. Explor. Exped., v. 8, Mammalogy, p. 44, 1848. 

Type. Collected on headwaters of Sacramento River near Mount Shasta 

Calif., by Titian R. Peale, October 4, 1841. 
General characters. Size medium (pi. 34), about as in Miorotus pennsyl- 

vanicus; tail about twice as long as hind foot, slightly tapering; hip glands 

conspicuous in adult males; 
upper incisors projecting 
more than in most species; 
color of upper parts sooty 
gray, smoky gray, or dusky, 
sometimes blackish ; lower 
parts lightly washed with 
whitish ; feet plumbeous ; tail 
indistinctly bicolor, blackish 
above, gray below. 

Measurements. Average of 
a series of topotypes: Total 
length, 175 mm ; tail, 52 ; foot, 
21.5; ear (dry), 12. Weight 
of adult, but not large, female, 
from Malheur Lake, 48 g. Her 
measurements in the flesh 
were 164; 39; 20; 14 mm. 







FIGURE 42. Range of Peale's meadow mouse, Ml 
crotus montanus montanus, in Oregon. 



Distribution and habi- 
tat. This is a wide- 
ranging species in the Great Basin area and in northeastern Califor- 
nia. In Oregon it occupies almost every marsh, slough, and stream 
valley east of the Cascades and south of the Blue Mountains, in 
both Transition and Upper Sonoran Zones. The mice are most 
abundant in and around the large tule marshes, so extensive in some 
of the otherwise arid valleys (fig. 42). 

General habits. These little, long-furred " woolly bears " of the 
meadows are often called "moles" or "meadow moles" by the 
ranchers in the desert country where no real moles occur. They ap- 
pear to be black as they run through the grass or stubble in their 
little roadways over the surface of the ground and keep in the 
shadows of protecting grass and dense vegetation. They are rarely 
seen except after the meadows are mowed and are most often sighted 
when the hay is being hauled or sledded to the stacks with buck 
rakes. On the big hay meadows around Malheur Lake the writer 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 203 

caught 36 of the mice alive in his hands in a few minutes by follow- 
ing the buck rake, while the men were stacking. Usually 2 or 3 and 
sometimes a dozen would run from their nests as a haycock was slid 
from over them and in the confusion they were easily picked up and 
dropped into a tin can until more than enough were obtained for 
study of habits in captivity. Hundreds more could have been 
caught just as readily. Out in the uncut grass and tules their tiny 
roadways were easily found and traps set across them yielded all the 
specimens needed, while cut grass and fragments of food showed 
where and on what they had been feeding. In places they were more 
numerous than others, and on one spot in a dry meadow where the 
hay had been cut the writer counted 169 open burrows on a rectangle 
of 10 by 12 feet. This was in September, the season when the mice 
were most abundant, and in such places there were certainly 100 mice 
to an acre. In other places there were probably not more than 1 to 
an acre and for the whole 40,000 acres, roughly estimated, of marsh 
and grassland in the Malheur Valley 10 mice to an acre should be a 
fair estimate of abundance. 

They are good swimmers and like to live along the edges of water 
but also occupy dry meadows, where no water is available except 
from rain or dew and what they get in their green food. They are 
active all the year and about equally so in the daytime or at night, 
are sociable and friendly with one another and with many other 
species of native mice, but will fight savagely anything from their 
own size up to a hayrake, biting severely with their keen incisor teeth. 
One placed in a cage with a grasshopper mouse of about his own size 
fought off this predacious species all the evening, but in the morning 
there was only a bit of skin and bones left to show that he had been 
unequal to his antagonist. 

Breeding habits. The females have 8 mammae arranged in 2 pairs 
of inguinal and 2 pairs of pectoral, 2 on each of 4 distinct mammary 
glands. The young usually number 4 to 8, 8 being the full normal 
complement for fully adult females. The number of litters in a 
season or a year is not known and probably varies greatly with 
abundance and nature of food and congenial environment, but nor- 
mally there evidently are several litters during the summer. There 
are records of embryos in specimens collected in every month from 
March to October, and on August 17 young of 5 different ages 
were found under a few adjacent haycocks. Apparently they^do not 
breed during the winter months, as a large number of females 
examined during November in Nevada showed no signs of embryos. 

Food habits. Grass is the principal food of these mice, but with 
it are included the sedges, tules, and a great variety of meadow 
plants, including the edible parts of the green leaves, stems, roots, 
and seeds. These are obtained by cutting off the base of the stem 
or plant and drawing it down, often repeating the operation until 
the seeds are reached and a little pile of sections 1% to 2 inches long 
lie in a heap. Usually not half of the plant cut for food is eaten, 
and sometimes all but the seeds or a very small portion is wasted. 
Also the roots, bulbs, and running rootstalks are dug up and eaten, 
and the stomachs examined usually show a portion of well-masticated 
root pulp and seeds with the green tissue. Those kept in captivity 
are especially fond of rolled oats or any grain or seeds, grass, tule, 



204 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

nettle, pigweed, Atriplex, Dondia, and such vegetables and fruits as 
cabbage, spinach, cantaloups, and apples. They do not care much 
for potatoes but do eat them extensively when other food is scarce. 
They are especially fond of all the clovers and alfalfa. 

Economic status. In captivity one of these mice which weighed 
34.5 g reduced the weight of its bundle of green grass 27 g. almost 
an ounce, in 24 hours, but this was not choice food, and related species 
have been found to eat an average of their own weight in green 
food every 24 hours. Allowing 1 ounce a day to a mouse and 10 mice 
to an acre over the 40,000 acres of meadowland in the Malheur Valley, 
they would eat about 4,400 tons of green grass, or approximately 
2,200 tons of hay, in a year. Even 1 mouse to an acre, the lowest pos- 
sible estimate at any season, would at this rate consume 220 tons of 
hay in a year, an item of considerable importance in one valley. 

In Nevada in 1907 these mice devoured practically all the alfalfa 
and most of the other crops, and killed many of the fruit and shade 
trees in the lower Humboldt Valley, causing a loss to the ranchmen 
estimated at $250,000. In this case their numbers in some of the 
alfalfa fields were estimated at several thousand to an acre, far more 
than a heavy crop of alfalfa could support for any considerable 
length of time. Such conditions are possible anywhere under cir- 
cumstances favorable to the rapid increase and complete protection 
of the mice from their natural enemies. 

The remedy for much of the loss due to these mice i$ simple and 
inexpensive: Clean fields and meadows, clean borders, ditch banks, 
roadsides, and waste places so the hawks, owls, ravens, crows, mag- 
pies, gulls, herons, foxes, skunks, badgers, and numerous other ene- 
mies can see and capture these, their favorite prey. Only under 
protecting cover can the mice become seriously harmful. 

MICROTUS NANUS NANUS 8 (MERMAM) 
DWARF MEADOW MOUSE 

Arvicolu (Mynomes) nanus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 5, p. 62, 1891. 

Type. Collected in Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho, at 9,300 feet altitude, 
September 16, 1890, by Merriam and Bailey. 

General characters. Small; tail short; ears short and rounded; hip glands 
conspicuous in old males; incisors slightly protruding, not curved abruptly 
downward. Upper parts uniform sepia gray ; lower parts washed with white ; 
tail distinctly tricolor, dusky gray above, whitish below ; feet gray. 

Measurements. Average of several typical adults: Total length, 143 nun; 
tail, 37; foot, 19; ear (dry), 11. 

Distribution and habitat. These little gray meadow mice have a 
wide range over the Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico to 
Canada and reach their western limit in Oregon, occupying prac- 
tically the whole Blue Mountain section and west to Hay Creek on 
the ridge between the John Day and Deschutes Rivers (fig. 43). 
A specimen from the high ridge north of Crane, on the southernmost 
spur of the Blue Mountains, marks their southern limit in the State. 
Generally they are found in Transition and Canadian Zones in open 



9 Some of the specimens along the lower edges of the Blue Mountain section are grading 
toward the grayer subspecies, canescens, but none seen from the State is typical of that 
form and all are here referred to nanus. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



205 



grassland or dry meadows. Sometimes they are in wet places or 
along creek banks, but generally are in drier situations than those 
occupied by the larger, darker Microtus montanus from the lower 
meadows. 

General habits. Except for their smaller size, grayer colors, and 
ability to live in drier situations, these little mice are strikingly 
similar to Microtus montanus. They are ground dwellers, with sum- 
mer homes mainly underground in burrows and nest cavities, while 
their little roadways mark the surface in all directions under cover 
of grass and concealing vegetation. Often they are numerous in 
meadows and fields, but rarely so excessively numerous as to do con- 
spicuous damage to forage or crops, or to be frequently seen except in 
harvest time. 

Breeding habits. The mammae are in four pairs, and embryos 
show the young to number usually 6 to 8. Breeding continues 
throughout a long season, 
and reproduction is rap- 
id if conditions are fav- 
orable. 

Food habits. Their 
food consists mainly of 

reen vegetation, roots, 
ulbs, and seeds. Sec- 
tions of cut grass and 
fragments of plants cut 
for food and remains of 
grass tops are found 
scattered about on their 
feeding grounds, and the 
stomachs usually contain 
green food, mainly, with 
smaller quantities of 
white dough from seeds, 
or soft gray root tissue or sometimes traces of bright-colored flow- 
ers. They will eat others of their own kind found dead in traps, 
and seem fond of fresh meat, but apparently do not eat insects. 

Economic status. Owing to their ranging over the dry grassy 
uplands as well as in the meadows these little mice, when numerous, 
must do considerable damage to the stock range, reducing its carry- 
ing capacity in direct ratio to their abundance. They rarely become 
very numerous, however, as cover is usually not very dense and they 
are steadily preyed upon by a host of bird and mammal enemies. 

MICROTUS CANICAUDUS MILLER 
GBAY-TAILED MEADOW MOUSE 

Microtus canicaudus Miller, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 67, 189T. 

Type. Collected at McCoy, Polk County, Oreg., by B. J. Bretherton, in 1895. 

General characters. About the size and general appearance of nanus but more 
yellowish with grayer tail. Upper parts in summer bright yellowish gray; 
lower parts grayish white ; feet grayish ; tail mainly light gray or whitish with 
a half concealed dusky dorsal line. 

Measurements. Average of typical adults: Total length, 141 mm; tail, 35; 
foot, 20; ear (dry), 12. 




FIGURE 43. Range of gray-tailed and dwarf meadow 
mice in Oregon: 1, Microtus canicaudus; 2, M. 
nanus nanus. Type locality circled. 



206 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 56 



Distribution cmd habitat. Long known in the lower Willamette 
Valley in the open country where there were originally grassy 
prairies but now are fields and the best of the farming land, and 
recently found in the Deschutes Valley, east of the Cascades (fig. 43). 
There are specimens from McCoy, Albany, Sheridan, Beaverton, 
Portland, Hillsboro, Banks, Gresham, Corvallis, and Eugene, and on 
the east side of the Cascades from Warm Springs in the Deschutes 
Valley and in Washington in the Yakima and Wenatchee Valleys. 

General habits. These little gray-tailed mice are so scarce and 
local that few specimens have been taken and little is known of their 
habits, other than that they are found in fields, pastures, or grassy 
situations, where they make runways under the old grass and such 
cover as they can find. 

MICROTUS TOWNSENDII (BACHMAN) 
TOWN SEND' s MEADOW MOUSE 

Arvicola townsen&ii Bachman, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Jour. 8 : 60, 1839. 

Type locality. Lower Columbia River, near mouth of Willamette, on or 

near Wapato (or Sauvie) Island. 
General characters. Large; ears conspicuous above thin harsh fur; hip 

glands conspicuous in adult males; skull compared with that of califomieus 

longer and less arched with 
posteriorly constricted inci- 
sive foramen. Upper parts 
dark brown ; lower parts gray- 
ish brown or smoky over 
plumbeous ; feet plumbeous or 
blackish; tail blackish, but 
little lighter below than 
above. 

Measurements. Of typical 
adult male : Total length, 225 
mm; tail, 66; foot, 26; ear 
(dry), 15. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. These mice are 
found in the coast area of 
Washington, Oregon, 
northwestern California, 
and southwestern British 
Columbia (fig. 44). In 
Oregon they occupy the Willamette, Umpqua, and Eogue Kiver Val- 
leys, but keep entirely west of the Cascade Kange. They are marsh 
and meadow dwellers of the low country, preferring wet ground 
and dense cover of vegetation such as rank grass and tules. 

General habits. These are typical meadow mice with habits very 
much like the eastern Microtus pennsylvanicus. They live under 
cover of growing or dead and fallen vegetation, where their numer- 
ous little roadways may be found leading from one burrow to 
another, or away to their feeding grounds, and often through shallow 
water or to the edges of ditches or streams where the mice swim 
from bank to bank. Their nests are balls of dry grass placed on the 
surface of the ground under cover of protecting plants or in nest 
chambers in the underground tunnels. 




FIGURE 44. Range of Townsend's meadow mouse, 
Microtus townsendii, in Oregon. Type locality 
circled. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



207 



The mice are abroad throughout the year and seem to be about 
equally active day and night. 

Breeding habits. There is little on record of their breeding habits. 
The mammae are in 4 pairs, and the young, as in other species with 
this arrangement, probably number 4 to 8. One old female taken at 
Albany on October 2 contained 5 small embryos. 

Food habits. In food as in other habits they resemble M. mon- 
tofrws, cutting and eating the tender parts of grass and tule stems 
and roots, or drawing down the seed-laden tops for food. In the 
grainfields they cut the stems in sections as the heads are drawn 
down and eaten with sometimes considerable damage to the crop. 
They are especially fond of clovers and alfalfa and are always eager 
for rolled oats or grain with which the collector baits his traps. 

Economic status. There have been few complaints of damage 
by these mice, but they have great possibilities for crop destruction. 
On Government Island, in the Columbia River near Portland, in 
1911, Jewett reported them as "simply swarming in the alfalfa 
fields." The farmers had done nothing to check them but were 
becoming alarmed and asked for instructions for poisoning them. 
On one farm they had already killed about 80 young fruit trees. 

Such outbreaks, however, are insignificant in comparison with the 
unnoticed but steady drain on farm products by even the normal 
numbers of such mice over a wide extent of rich agricultural land 
like that of western Oregon valleys. 

MICROTUS CALIFORNICUS CALIFORNICUS (PEALB) 
CALIFORNIA MEADOW MOUSE 

Arvicola calif ornica Peale, U. S. Explor. Exped., v. 8, Mammalogy, p. 46, 1848. 

Type. -Collected at San Francisco Bay, Calif., by Titian R. Peale, on the 
United States Exploring Expedition, 1838 to 1842. 

General characters. Large ; 
ears conspicuous above fur; 
hip glands in adult males well 
concealed under fur; pelage 
relatively coarse and harsh; 
skull wide and angular with 
incisive foramina widest pos- 
teriorly, incisors abruptly de- 
curved. Upper parts dull 
buffy brown or clay color, 
slightly lined with dark hairs ; 
belly buffy gray or soiled 
whitish ; feet gray ; tail bi- 
color, brown above, buffy 
below. 

Measurements. Typical 
adults : Total length, 171 mm ; 
tail, 49 ; foot, 21 ; ear (dry ) ,15. 

7>9*o/W7>4s/4V>M //7 Ttsihi FIGURE 45. Range of California meadow mouse, 
L>^Str^OUl^On ana naOl- Microtus californicus oaUfomicus, in Oregon. 

tat. From a wide range 

in California these mice extend into Oregon in the Rogue River and 
Umpqua Valleys, reaching their northernmost points of known dis- 
tribution at Roseburg and Drain (fig. 45). They are found mainly 
in the dry upland meadows and grassy slopes of the open valleys, 
and belong primarily to Upper Sonoran Zone. 




208 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



General habits. These rather large, coarse-furred mice, while oc- 
casionally found in marshes and wet places, seem to prefer the drier 
uplands and to require less cover than the regular marsh species. 
Often their little roadways may be seen through the short dry grass 
or their little heaps of fresh earth where thrown out of their 
burrows on dry ground. In other respects they are similar in habits 
to Microtus montanus and townsendii. 

Breeding habits. The mammae of females are arranged as usual 
in this group in 4 pairs, and the young are usually 4 to 8. Breeding 
apparently continues throughout the year, since embryos are noted in 
specimens collected in winter as well as at all other seasons. 

Food habits. Green vegetation, grass, tules, young or ripe grain, 
roots, bulbs, bark, and a great variety of vegetable foods are eaten. 
Rolled oats or any grains are eagerly taken as trap bait, and fre- 
quently the mice caught in traps are eaten by their more fortunate 
relatives. 

Economd status. In Oregon these mice are not very widely dis- 
tributed nor generally very numerous, so their economic importance 
is slight, but they inhabit fertile valleys where favorable conditions 
of food and coyer might at any time result in great increase of 
numbers and serious injury to crops and fruit trees. 

MICROTUS MORDAX MORDAX (MEBBIAM) 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MEADOW MOUSE 

Arvicola (Mynomes) mordax Merriam, North Arner. Fauna No. 5, p. 61, 1891. 

Type. Collected at Sawtooth (or Alturas) Luke, on east slope of the 
Sawtooth Mountains, Idaho, (altitude 7,200 feet), by Merriam and Bailey, 
1890. 

General characters. Size medium; tail long; ears conspicuous above fur; 
hip glands rarely noticeable even in old males; fur long and soft in winter 
pelage, thin and harsh in summer; color in summer coat, back brownish gray, 
sides olive gray ; lower parts whitish ; feet gray ; tail indistinctly bicolor, dusky 
above, soiled whitish below. In winter lighter gray above, with clear gray 
sides ; whiter below with light gray feet and sharply bicolor tail. 

Measurements. Average of typical adults: Total length, 382 mm; tail, 66; 
foot, 22; ear (dry), 13. 

Distribution and habitat. These long-tailed meadow mice, which 
inhabit practically the whole Rocky Mountain region, reach their 
western limit in Oregon along the east slope of the Cascades and in 
the Siskiyous and occupy all of the mountains of the eastern part 
of the State high enough for a trace of Canadian Zone (fig. 46). 
Along the banks of cold streams they descend with other species of 
mammals and many plants as intrusions into Transition Zone, but 
primarily they are mountain animals. They live mainly along 
stream banks or in mountain meadows where for most of the summer 
there is an abundance of water. 

General habits. While partial to creek banks and cold water 
when available, these little mountain dwellers will remain for con- 
siderable time in grassy places that have become thoroughly dried 
out in summer. In winter they scatter out under cover of snow with- 
out regard to water and seek their food in the thickets and woods 
and seem to delight in the cover and protection of old logs and brush 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



209 




heaps. Each winter sees a spreading out over the mountain slopes 
and each summer a retreat to the meadows and brooks with the dry 
weather. When the spring snows disappear their old runways mark 
the surface of the ground in all directions and food refuse and little 
heaps of pellets -show where and how they have lived. Nests of dry 
grass on the surface of the ground thick-walled balls with 1 or 
2 side entrances that have kept the occupants warm through the 
winter are now abandoned for new nests in chambers of the under- 
ground burrows. 

Breeding habits. Like other species of the group these mice have 
four pairs of mammae, and usually bear 4 to 8 young. The young 
are born at irregular times from May to September, and possibly 
for the rest of the year 
under cover of deep snow. 
There are few data of ac- 
tual breeding habits. 

Food habits. During 
the summer these mice 
feed largely on green 
grass and sedges, roots, 
bulbs, and the green or 
ripening seeds of numer- 
ous mountain plants, al- 
ways finding abundance 
of food and keeping in 
good condition, though 
never fat. In winter 
when green vegetation is 
scarce they feed more on 
roots, dormant bases, or 
shoots of perennial plants, and the bark of bushes, trees, or fallen 
branches. Where green timber has been cut, they often strip the 
branches clear of bark before spring up as far from the ground as 
the depth of snow affords cover. Traps baited with rolled oats, 
other grains, or meat, and set in their runways, catch them readily, 
and occasionally one of those caught is eaten by the others. 

Economic status. Fortunately these mice do not often become 
excessively numerous, and they live mainly above the zones of suc- 
cessful agriculture. They do, however, occupy the areas of most 
valuable summer range for domestic stock and live largely on the 
grasses and forage plants of the region. Their present abundance 
must somewhat reduce the carrying capacity of the range but to 
what extent can be determined only by careful tests in field and 
laboratory. 

MICROTUS MORDAX ANGUSTICEPS BAILEY 
COAST MEADOW MOUSE 

Microtus angusticeps Bailey, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 12 : 86, 1898. 

Type. Collected at Crescent CJty, Calif., by T. S. Palmer, in 1889. 

General characters. Smaller and darker colored than typical mordax, with 
narrow, slender skull and small audital bullae. Summer pelage, upper parts 
dark bister, lined with black hairs, darkest on face and nose; sides slightly 

7209 36 14 



FIGURE 46. Range of three long-tailed meadow mice 
in Oregon : 1, Microtus mordax mordax ; 2, M. m. 
angusticeps; 3, M. m. abditus. Type localities 
circled. 



210 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

paler; belly washed with creamy white or smoky gray; feet plumbeous; tail 
blackish above, grayish below. 

Measurements. Average of adult topotypes : Total length, 177 mm ; tail, 64 ; 
foot, 22; ear (dry), 12. 

Distribution and habitat. This brown form of the long-tailed 
meadow mice occupies a narrow strip along the coast of southwestern 
Oregon and northwestern California, usually in the marshes or low 
fields, only little above high tide level (fig. 46) . 

General habits. In no important manner do the habits of these 
mice appear to differ from those of typical mordaw. The animals are 
numerous in the little marshes just back of the coast and sometimes 
extend into the fields and meadows and brush land. At the mouth 
of Rogue River the writer's line of 13 traps caught 11 of these mice 
during the day, and only 5 more at night, which indicates rather 
decided diurnal habits. 

MICROTUS MORDAX ABDITUS A. B. HOWELL 
TILLAMOOK MEADOW MOUSE 

Microtus mordax abditus A. B. Howell, Jour. Mammal. 4 : 36, 1923. 

Type. Collected at Walker's Ranch, Pleasant Valley (8 miles south of 
Tillamook), Oreg., by A. Brazier Howell, September 8, 1920. 

General characters. Large with very long tail and large hind feet, distin- 
guished from its nearest relative, Microtus mordaa macrourus by relatively 
larger hind feet, longer, narrower skull, and generally browner coloration. 
From M. townsendii with which it may occur it is distinguished by slightly 
longer tail, lack of conspicuous hip glands in adult males, and by radical group 
characters shown in the skulls. September pelage, upper parts dark sepia 
brown; lower parts light cinnamon or buffy gray; feet dusky; tail blackish 
above, brownish below. Skull longer, narrower and more slender than in 
macrourus, with narrower, more elongated audital bullae. 

Measurements. Type, adult male : Total length, 221 mm ; tail, 93 ; foot, 28.5 ; 
ear (dry), 14. Skull of type: Basal length, 28; nasals, 8.5; zygomatic breadth, 
16; mastoid breadth, 12.5; alveolar length of upper molar series, 7.2. 

Distribution and habitat. Ten specimens of this species are re- 
corded by Howell from the type locality near Elaine, and from Ne- 
tarts on the coast west of Tillamook (fig. 46). Two were caught in 
a small roadside ditch filled with cattails, and others in salal thickets 
bordering a small creek near the sea. Evidently they are scarce or 
rare over western Oregon or others would have been taken by some 
of the numerous collectors who have worked along the coast. 

MIOROTUS RICHARDSONI ARVICOLOIDES (RHOADS) 
CASCADE MEADOW MOUSE; WATER VOLE 

Aulacomys arvicoloides Rhoads, Amer. Nat. 28 : 182, 1894. 

Ttype Collected at Lake Keechelus, Kittitas County, Wash., at 8,000 feet, 
by Allan Rupert, September 1893. 

General characters. Largest of our meadow mice; tail long; incisors pro- 
jecting; side glands conspicuous on flanks in old males; tubercles on soles 
of hind feet only five; fur long and rather coarse. Upper parts dusky or 
smoky gray; lower parts thinly washed with whitish over plumbeous under- 
fur ; feet dark gray ; tail bicolor, dusky above, grayish below. 

Measurements. Average of typical specimens: Total length, 234 mm; tail, 
81 ; foot, 29.3 ; ear (dry) , 13. Large old male, 261 ; 92 ; 30 ; 14. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



211 



Distribution and habitat. This large form of the Richardson 
meadow mouse inhabits the Cascade Range of Washington and 
Oregon south to Crater Lake, mainly in Boreal zones (fig. 47). In 
places they come down into Transition Zone but only along streams 
of cold water from the mountains. They are rarely found far from 
water and generally inhabit creek banks or flooded marshes. 

General habits. More than any other species of American meadow 
mice these large, long-tailed, large-footed water voles are semi- 
aquatic in habits, being excellent swimmers and divers, and depend- 
ing in part on the water for protection. They generally live in 
burrows along the banks of the streams or in wet places not far 
away, and are often seen in daytime swimming across the streams. 
Their large trails are conspicuous in the grassy places, and are 
often strewn with stems of grass and sedges cut for food. High up 
at timber line and along 
the edges of permanent 
snow banks they often 
live in the beds or moun- 
tain heather or any scant 
cover that affords conceal- 
ment. In winter they 
spread out under the cov- 
er of snow over slopes 
that are dry in summer 
and make bulky nests of 
dry grass on the surface 
of the ground in addition 
to those in the burrows. 

Breeding habits. The 
mammae are arranged 
in 4 pairs 2 inguinal 
and 2 pectoral. Embryos found in females usually number 4 
to 7 ; 8 is probably the normal maximum. The length of breeding 
season is not known. 

Food habits. Most of their food consists of the green leaves and 
stems of grasses, sedges, mountain clovers, and numerous native 
plants, including the seeds during the short seedtime of the mountain 
summer. Roots and bulbs and bark form a part of their food, 
especially under the deep winter snows. Sometimes they are eager 
for rolled oats used as trap bait and again they will not touch any 
bait and can be caught only by concealing traps in their runs. 

Economic importance. Fortunately these big mice are not very 
widely distributed nor more than locally abundant, as they might 
otherwise do serious damage to the stock range of the higher moun- 
tain slopes. The open nature of their country generally exposes them 
to numerous enemies, and their increase is restricted to a point of 
little consequence. 

MICROTUS RICHARDSONI MACROPUS (MEBBIAM) 

LARGE-FOOTED MEADOW MOUSE ; WATER VOLE 
Arvico.la (Mynomes) macropus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 5, p. 60, 1891. 

Type. Collected in the Pahsimeroi Mountains, Idaho, at 9,700 feet, by 
Merriam and Bailey, 1890. 




FIGURE 47. Range of water voles in Oregon : 1, Mi- 
crotus richardsoni arvicoloides ; 2, M. r. macropus. 



212 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



General characters. Slightly smaller than arvicoloides; upper incisors less 
projecting; colors much the same or slightly grayer. 

Measurements. Type, an adult female : Total length, 220 mm ; tail, 71 ; foot, 
26; ear (dry), 12. Of adult male topotype: 218; 68; 29; 12. 

Distribution and habitat. These large mice are found in the 
higher Kocky Mountains of Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, and 
northeastern Oregon, in the Blue Mountain section. There are speci- 
mens from the Wallowa Mountains, the Baker Range, and Straw- 
berry Butte, all from Canadian and Hudsonian Zones (fig. 47). 
They live mainly along mountain streams and in mountain meadows 
or marshes. 

General habits. In no important manner do their habits differ 
from those of arvicoloides, from which they are at best barely dis- 
tinguishable. Their economic importance is not great and relates 
mainly to mountain grazing problems. 

MICROTUS ORBGONI OREGONI (BACHMAN) 
OREGON CREEPING MOUBE 

Arvicola- oregoni Bachman, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 8 : 60, 1839. 

Type. Collected at Astoria, Oreg., by J. K. Townsend, in 1836. 
General characters. Small, form rather slender ; ears short ; tail medium 
length; fur short and smooth, without long hairs; side glands inconspicuous 

in males; tubercles on soles 
only five ; color of upper parts 
dusky brown from a mixture 
of black and yellowish hairs ; 
lower parts dusky, lightly 
washed with dull buffy; feet 
dusky ; tail blackish, but 
slightly lighter below. 

Measurements. Adult male 
topotype: Total length, 140 
mm; tail, 42; foot, 17; ear 
(dry), 9. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. These little groum 
mice range west of the 
Cascades from Pugei 
Sound to northwest* 
California and cover all oJ 
Oregon west of the highei 
part of the Cascade ranj 

(fig. 48) . They occupy the dense forests as well as the brushy and o 
grassy areas of the uplands and dry slopes, seeming to avoid th< 
marshes and wet bottoms. 

General habits. As the smooth fur, short ears, and little eye 
suggest, these mice are largely burrowers, with habits similar to 
those of the eastern pine mice. In the mellow woods soil where they 
seem most at home they burrow just below the surface in Ion" 
tunnels, often pushing up the surface in little ridges similar to those 
made by moles, but smaller. Under a dense cover of old grass and 
leaves they often merely push up the plant layer and make their tun- 
nels as trails over the surface of hard ground but in all cases insist 
upon ample protection from above. Some of their little burrows are 




FIGURE 48. Range of creeping and pygmy, mice in 
Oregon : 1, Microtus oregoni oregoni; 2, M. o. 
bairdi; 3, M. pauper rimus. Type localities circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 213 

left open in places where the mice come out to feed or where a hard 
trail cuts across their line of progress, but so well hidden are the runs 
that few specimens are taken by inexperienced collectors, even where 
the animals are fairly common. They are easily caught, however, 
by digging down and setting the trap across the burrow a little 
below the bottom level. 

Breeding habits. The females have normally 4 pairs of mam- 
mae 2 inguinal and 2 pectoral 2 on each of 4 distinct mammary 
glands. The young as shown by embryos usually number 3 to 5, and 
the records indicate May to August as the main breeding season. 
This season may be only apparent, however, as comparatively few 
specimens have been taken in winter, and the breeding season may 
be more or less continuous throughout the year. 

Food habits. Comparatively little is known of the food habits 
of these mice beyond what is gathered from the few bits of green 
grass and other little plants found scattered about their burrows or 
along the lines of their surface trails. The abundance of camas and 
other underground bulbs and roots in their territory would suggest 
a diet mainly from subterranean sources, varied in times of scarcity 
by any green vegetation available. At times they will take rolled 
oats as trap bait but again refuse to touch them, and the traps must 
be set so they will be sprung without regard to bait. 

Economic status. There are few complaints of damage by these 
little burrowers, but they will bear watching and merit a much closer 
study of habits than has thus far been made. Injury to root crops, 
shrubbery, vines, and trees attributed to other rodents may be due in 
part to them. 

MICROTUS OREGONI BAIRDI MERBIAM 
BAIRD'S CREEPING MOUSE 

Microtus bairdi Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 74, 1897. 

Type. Collected on Glacier Peak, northwest side of Crater Lake, Oreg., at 
7,800 feet altitude, by Merriam and Bailey, in 1896. 

General characters. Similar to oregorii but colors lighter, brighter, and 
mainly clear yellowish bister above ; lower parts lightly washed with whitish ; 
feet and nose dusky ; tail slightly bicolor, dusky above, dark gray below. 

Measurements. Type specimen, adult female : Total length, 131 mm ; tail, 33 ; 
foot, 17.5; ear (dry), 9. 

Distribution and habitat. As yet no typical specimens of this 
form have been taken beyond the "type locality on an open timber- 
line ridge northwest of Crater Lake, where in the open exposed 
Hudsonian Zone they were living under beds of heather (fig. 48). 
Undoubtedly they have a more extended range along the higher levels 
of the Cascades, where the light and exposure have modified them 
into a recognizable form. 

Nothing is known of their habits except from the two specimens 
trapped in the beds of short grass, sedges, and heather close to exten- 
sive snow banks that were lying late in August on the wind-swept 
north slopes of Glacier Peak. 



214 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

MICROTUS PAUPERRIMUS (COOPER) 
PYGMY MOUSE 

Arvicola pauperrima Cooper, Amer. Nat. 2 : 535, 1868. 

Microtus (Laffurus) curtatus artemisiae Anthony, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 
32: 14, 1913. Type from Ironside. 

Type. Collected on Plains of the Columbia, near Snake River, Wash., by 
J. G. Cooper, in 1860. 

General characters. A small, short-tailed, light-gray mouse with lax fur; 
soles of hind feet with only five tubercles ; side glands in males on flanks ; 
skull short, wide, and rectangular. Upper parts uniform buffy gray; ears and 
nose tinged with clear buff ; lower parts and feet pale buffy ; tail buffy, with 
darker upper surface. Browner in summer and grayer in winter. 

Measurements. Average of three immature from Antelope, between Deschutes 
and John Day Rivers: Total length, 115 mm; tail, 20; foot, 16; ear (dry), 8. 
Of adult female from Waterville, Wash., on the Plains of the Columbia north- 
west of the type locality, 128 ; 27 ; 17 ; 9. 

Distribution and habitat. There are specimens of these little gray 
mice from Bakeoven, Antelope, Steens Mountains, Cedar Mountains, 
Skull Spring, McDermitt, Disaster, Creston, Ironside, Fort Rock, 
and Rock Creek ( north of Hart Mountain) (fig. 48). Undoubtedly 
they occupy all of the sagebrush country of eastern Oregon that lies 
within Transition Zone or upper edge of Sonoran but are very irreg- 
ular in distribution and abundance. Also their habits are ^uch as to 
shield them from observation and even render them difficult to locate. 
They live usually on dry ground among the sagebrush where trails 
and signs do not show and in burrows well hidden under the bushes. 

General habits. More than any other members of the genus 
Microtus, these little mice are adapted to desert conditions, usually 
living where no permanent water supply is within reach and where 
infrequent rains, snows, and dew must leave them for months at a 
time without available moisture, other than that obtained from 
succulent food. They live mainly in burrows, coming out to gather 
green plants for food and generally carrying them into the burrows 
to be eaten. To what extent they burrow for roots and underground 
vegetation is not fully known. They rarely make noticeable run- 
ways but run over the barren surface of the ground from one burrow 
to another, merely leaving lines of tiny footprints in sandy or dusty 
spots. 

They seem to be largely diurnal as more are usually caught in the 
daytime than at night, and they are often seen running through the 
sagebrush even in bright sunlight. At three different localities in 
Malheur County, Preble caught them in his hands in the daytime. 
He and Anthony each found one in the stomach of a rattlesnake, 
and as these snakes are mainly diurnal the mice were probably taken 
during the warm part of the day. 

Breeding habits. The females have the common microtine ar- 
rangement of 8 mammae in 2 pairs of inguinal and 2 pairs of pec- 
toral. The young are probably 4 to 8, as in the closely related 
cwtatus; 5 to 7 embryos have been recorded. 

Food habits. Apparently their food consists largely of green 
vegetation, grass, lupines, and other small plants found growing 
under or among the sage bushes. The little dry pellets scattered 
along the trails or on the feeding grounds are usually green in color 
but give no further clue to the nature of the food. Roots and bulbs 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



215 



are undoubtedly eaten when obtainable and may furnish an im- 
portant part of the food within the tunnels. 

Economic status. In a desert country with scant cover and food 
these mice can rarely attain even local abundance. They are not 
likelv to come in contact with agricultural interests and can have 
but little effect on abundance of native forage plants. 

FIBER ZIBETHICUS OSOYOOSENSIS LORD 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MUSKBAT; PAMUSE of the Piute 

Fiber osoyoosensis Lord, Zool. Soc. London, Proc., p. 97, 1863. 

Type. Collected at Osoyoos Lake, British Columbia, by J. K. Lord, in 1861 
or 1862. 

General characters. Large ; ears and eyes small ; hind feet large and heavily 
margined with bristles; front feet small; tail long, laterally compressed and 
nearly naked ; fur dense and 
soft when prime, half con- 
cealed by long, coarse, shiny 
guard hairs. Upper parts in 
fresh pelage, glossy dark 
brown ; hips blackish ; sides 
russet brown ; belly cinnamon, 
paler on throat and anal re- 
gion. In worn pelage often 
faded and much paler. Young 
more sooty brown than adults. 

Measurements. Average of 
10 adults: Total length, 589 
mm; tail, 271; foot, 83; ear 
(dry), 18. Weight of adults 
approximately 2 to 3 pounds. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. This large, dark, 

northern muskrat ranges, FIGURE 49. Range of two subspecies of muskrats in 
-P armfV>oT.r, "Rr>if ioVi Pr* Oregon : 1, Fiber zibethicus occipitaUs; 2, F. z. 

irom SOUtnern rJritlSn CO- osoyoosensis. Type locality circled. 

lumbia to northern New 

Mexico, including in its range northeastern Oregon east of the Cas- 
cades (fig. 49). Specimens from the Malheur Valley are clearly 
referable to it rather than to mergens of Nevada, while those south 
of the Malheur Valley are perhaps nearer to the paler mergens, al- 
though not typical. For present purposes, all of the specimens 
examined from east of the Cascades in Oregon can be treated under 
the single form osoyoosensis, rather than to include only intermedi- 
ates in a form not typical in the State. 

Muskrats are more or less common in the Columbia, Snake, Des- 
chutes, John Day, Malheur, and Owyhee drainages and also in the 
isolated Malheur Lake Basin, and one was taken in 1896 by C. P. 
Streator at Shirk, west of the Steens Mountains. They have not been 
taken in the Klamath or Pit River Valleys nor in Summer, Abert, or 
Warner Lake Valleys, although these great lakes and tule marshes 
seem admirably adapted to their requirements and very similar to 
the Malheur Lakes where they abound. Altitude and zonal condi- 
tions seem to have little influence on these aquatic mammals, while 
food supply and suitable habitat are the main factors in their 
original distribution and abundance. 

General habits. Muskrats are mainly aquatic in habits, swimming 
and diving with great skill, getting most of their food from under 




216 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

water or along shores, building houses surrounded by water, or living 
in bank burrows opening into the water. They are famous builders, 
constructing conical or dome-shaped houses of plant stems, roots, 
sods, and mud rising usually 3 or 4 and sometimes 5 feet above the 
surface of the water, with broad bases resting on the bottom of shal- 
low lakes or ponds. A single room occupies the center of the house 
just above the water level with usually 2 or 3 doorways opening 
downward through the water and out under the house into the lake 
or pond. The heavy walls, often a foot thick, keep out the winter 
cold and many of their enemies, and the room within often accom- 
modates a whole family of 6 or 8 animals in the moist bed of water 
plants close to the water level. Even in the coldest weather the in- 
side of the house is kept warm and the water is prevented from 
freezing by the body warmth of the muskrats, while the porous walls 
admit sufficient ventilation to afford them healthy existence. In case 
of danger or alarm the muskrats dive quickly through the water 
holes and swim long distances under water before coming to the 
surface, or swim under the winter ice to other houses or to bank 
burrows. 

In deep streams or lakes the muskrats usually live in bank bur- 
rows, or tunnels leading from well under water back into the banks 
and upward until a nest chamber is formed above the water level. 
In high banks these bank dens are usually well hidden and even 
safer from enemies than are the house nests, and in many places both 
bank dens and houses are used by the same animals. There is evi- 
dently much visiting back and forth among the houses and dens, but 
to what extent the sociability reaches beyond the family circle is not 
known. 

Breeding habits. Muskrats normally have 4 pairs of mammae 2 
inguinal and 2 pectoral and the usual numbers of embryos recorded 
are 6 to 8. On large old female containing 13 embryos evidently 
was abnormally fertile. The first young of the season are born in 
May and June, but later litters born during July and August may 
be second litters, or the first litters of young females. The number of 
litters produced in a season by one mother has not been satisfactorily 
determined. 

The young are born blind, naked, and helpless and do not come 
out of the house until well furred and old enough to swim and dive 
and take care of themselves. They mature rather slowly and appar- 
ently do not reach full size during the first season, or until a full 
year old. 

Food habits. The food of muskrats consists principally of roots, 
tubers, bulbs, and the tender basal portion of tules, sedges, cattails, 
grasses, and other marsh plants. The long rhizomes of cattails, rich 
in starch and gluten, furnish much food, while the blanched tender 
basal portion of the stems of both cattails and tules are extensively 
eaten. Waterlily roots and leaves are a favorite food. The tender 
young shoots of grasses, sedges, wildrice, and numerous other green 
plants are eaten, while clover and alfalfa are always acceptable food. 
Rolled oats are eagerly eaten as are carrots and many cultivated 
crops, but in wild lands, grains and seeds, except wildrice, are not 
often obtained. Small turtles, muscles, and crawfish are sometimes 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 217 

eaten, but there is no evidence that fish are ever captured for food. 
Muskrats rarely show much fat but are generally plump and well 
muscled. Their flesh is excellent food if properly cooked and brings 
a good price in the large city markets. 

Economic status. At present muskrats are kept scarce in most of 
the waters of eastern Oregon by vigorous trapping for their fur, but 
in Malheur Lake, where given special protection on the national bird 
refuge they have at times become normally abundant. In 1908-9, 
from November to March, 3 trappers took 5,600 skins around Malheur 
Lake, and other trappers took an unknown number. The next winter 
22 trappers secured only 1,500 skins. The next winter 2 trappers 
secured 2.000 skins and the following winter 2,258 skins, but the next 
winter (1912-13), only 890 skins. The season was then shortened to 
4 months, November to February, and for the 3 years following, the 
2 trappers took 1,480, 1,736, and 1,399 skins, respectively. There were 
a few other trappers but none making a regular business of it for the 
whole season as did these 2. The number of skins taken at this lake 
probably averaged 2,000 to 3,000 a year for the '8 years. 

In the winter of 1914-15 for some unknown cause most of the 
muskrats left the lake as soon as it froze over and scattered out for 
miles over the sagebrush valley where they died and were killed by 
hundreds. They were poor and possibly diseased, but more probably 
starving, as their regular food supply had been destroyed by unusu- 
ally high water that summer. Many of the ranchers killed 100 or 
more of the animals around their places and found others dead in 
the sagebrush, on the ice, and even in Spring Creek, which never 
freezes. Many thousands were estimated as killed outside of the 
lake, and many more died that were not recovered. The next sum- 
mer the writer saw their carcasses in the sagebrush over the valley 
and the animals were scarce in the lake. Still with a couple of years' 
suspension of trapping they increased again to normal numbers and 
in 1920 were abundant in the lake. 

A much fuller knowledge of the habits and requirements of musk- 
rats is necessary before they can be intelligently controlled, but on 
private or public land where they can be kept at a maximum abun- 
dance they afford a profitable fur industry. This large dark-brown 
variety yields an especially beautiful and valuable pelt. There are 
other lakes in Oregon that could undoubtedly be stocked with musk- 
rats to advantage, but it should be borne in mind that under certain 
conditions, especially in irrigated areas, muskrats are capable of 
serious injury to ditch banks and to crops along the ditches. In such 
localities more thorough trapping and a long open season usually 
afford all the protection necessary and the value of the fur amply 
pays for the control. 

FIBER ZIBETHICUS MERGENS HOLLISTEB 
NEVADA MUSKRAT 

fiber sibetMcus meryens Hollister, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 23 : 1, 1910. 

Type. Collected at Fallen, Nev., by S. E. Piper, in 1908. 

General characters. Slightly smaller than osoyoosensis and much larger 
than pallidtis. Typical specimens from the Great Basin valleys somewhat 
paler than O8Oyoosensi$ in comparable pelage ; upper parts dark grayish brown ; 



218 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



sides rusty; lower parts creamy white with central area pale cinnamon or 
russet. In worn pelage often pale yellowish brown. 

Measurements. Average of adults from type locality : Total length, 554 mm ; 
tail, 253; foot 80. 

Distribution cmd habitat. Mainly the inland lakes and streams 
of Nevada and the Great Basin generally. Specimens from south- 
eastern Oregon have been referred to mergens, but are more or less 
intermediate in characters and have been treated under osoyoosensis. 

FIBER ZIBETHICUS OCCIPITALIS ELLIOT 
OREGON COAST MUSKRAT 

Fiber occipital^ Elliot, Field Columb. Mus., Zool. Ser. 3 : 162, 1903. 

Type. Collected at Florence, Oreg., by Edmund Heller, in 1901. 

General characters. About the size of F. z. osoyoosensis but slightly paler 
and more reddish ; skull with narrower interpterygoid space. 

Measurements. Average of 4 specimens from type locality : Total length, 589 
mm; tail, 271; foot, 83.5. 

Distribution cmd habitat. This seems to be a well-marked local 
form occupying the Willamette Valley and a limited section of the 
coast from Florence to Coquille (fig. 49). It inhabits the streams 
and marshes of the more open country but not the streams of moun- 
tain and forest. The animals are rather scarce, and very few speci- 
mens have found their way into museum collections. 

Family CASTORIDAE: Beavers 
CASTOR CANADENSIS PACIFICUS RHOADS 
PACIFIC COAST BEAVER ; GANNOK of the Wasco 

Castor canadensis pacificus Rhoaids, Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. 19 : 422, 1898. 

Type Collected at Lake Keechelus, Kittitas County, Wash., by Allan 
Rupert, in 1893. 

General characters. Large, form heavy and compact (pi. 35) ; hind feet 
large and fully webbed; tail broadly flattened, naked and scaly; ears and 
eyes small; incisors large and chisellike; fur deep and soft, under cover of 
long, coarse guard hairs. Fresh winter pelage, dark chestnut brown over 
upper parts ; duller more sepia brown over lower parts ; cheeks yellowish brown. 
Spring and summer pelage fades out to rusty or yellowish brown. Young about 
the same color as adults. Skull large and long with heavy rostrum, long and 
medium width nasals and heavy dentition. 

Measurements. Type specimen, adult female: Total length, 1,143 mm; tail, 
330; foot, 185. A medium-sized male from Bear River, 12 miles east of 
Woodruff, Wash.: Total length, 1,016 mm; tail, 280; foot, 185. Weight 43% 
pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. These fine large beavers seem to occupy 
the whole drainage of the lower Columbia River Basin and the 
Snake River Valley (fig. 50). Specimens from the headwaters of 
the Deschutes, La Grande, Pine Creek, near Pine in Baker County, 
Oreg., from 5 miles south of Walla Walla, Wash., from Boise River 
west of Boise, Idaho, are typical pacificus, while those from the 
Owyhee River and Jordan Creek near Rome, in Malheur County, 
are near pacificus in external characters but show skull characters 
clearly grading toward the Nevada form. Specimens from western 
Oregon in the Rogue River Valley, the McKenzie and Willamette 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



219 



Valleys and two skins and skulls from Nehalem in Tillamook 
County, can be referred to pacifieus, although showing considerable 
variation. 

A century ago beavers were abundant in almost every lake and 
stream in Oregon, so abundant that the first trapping expeditions 
brought back rich returns in fur from the least-inhabited parts of 
the State. In the vicinity of extensive Indian settlements the 
beavers were less numerous, or even scarce, in those da?ys, and in a 
comparatively few years of vigorous trapping they became scarce 
over the whole State, and later, while unrestricted trapping was 
allowed, they were reduced to the verge of extermination. 

In 1805 Lewis and Clark reported beavers along the Lower Colum- 
bia. In 1812 Franchere, on a 20-day trip up the river from Astoria, 
brought back "450 skins 
of beaver and other ani- 
mals of the furry tribe." 
In December 1825 Peter 
Skene Ogden, with his 
large party of trappers, 
found beavers scarce along 
the Columbia and lower 
Deschutes, but east of the 
Deschutes on Hay Creek, 
Trout Creek, and Crooked 
Kiver they began to get 
from 15 to 29 beavers a 
day. Still farther east on 
the branches of John Day 
River, they took generally 
20 to 28 a day, and in 
January took 215 beavers 
and 16 otters. On Burnt River they took but 54 beavers but blamed 
the cold weather and thick ice for their not getting the 3,000 skins 
expected in planning this midwinter trip across new territory. 

A small party of Ogden's trappers was sent up the Owyhee the 
following winter, and although attacked by Indians and robbed of 
their horses, they brought back 650 beaver skins, while another party 
took 81 beavers in a brief time on the Malheur River. In this sea- 
son's round, his trappers over the State from October 1826 to March 
22, 1827, took 2,230 beavers and otters (only a few of the latter) 
(1910, p. 217). 

West of the Cascades beavers were reported as plentiful along the 
Willamette River in 1811-17 (Cox, 1832, p. 101), but in 1824 Douglas 
(Hooker, 1836, p. 101) reported them as "now scarce" although the 
valley had at one time been considered the finest hunting ground for 
beaver west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1827 Ogden first reached 
the Rogue River, only to be informed by the Indians that the trap- 
pers from the Willamette had visited the river and taken all the 
beavers (1910, p. 217). 

In 1860 Lord, traveling northward along the headwaters of the 
Deschutes River, reported " every stream thronged with beavers " 
and trees up to 4 feet in circumference cut down by them (1866, p. 




FIGDBE 50. Range of three forms of beavers occur- 
ring in Oregon: 1, Castor canadensis paoificus; 
2, C. c. shastensis; 3, C. c. baileyi. 



220 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No, 55 



291}). At their lowest ebb a few remained in the larger rivers, how- 
ever, and during the past quarter century under the awakened interest 
in wildlife and the most rigid legal protection that could be given 
them in an area of extensive wilderness they have come back to some 
of their old haunts and increased locally until they now may be 
found in many of the streams and lakes of the State. In fact, they 
are apparently more common now in the Grand Ronde and Walla 
Walla Valleys than they were a hundred years ago when these 
valleys were occupied by settlements of Indians who depended 
largely on the native animals for food and clothing. 

In recent years beavers have been reported as more or less common 
locally in Clatsop, Columbia, Tillamook, Benito, Lane, Hood River, 
and Jackson Counties west of the Cascades, and in Wasco, Sherman, 
Crook, Wheeler, Gilliam, Umatilla, Wallowa, Union, Baker, Grant, 
and Malheur Counties east of the range. * 

General habits. Beavers are so highly specialized for life in the 
water and so slow and clumsy on land as to be closely restricted to 
streams, lakes, and ponds, the shores of which they rarely leave for 
more than a short distance in search of food. In the water they are 
rapid and powerful swimmers and great divers, often remaining 
under water for several minutes at a time and swimming long dis- 
tances without appearing at the surface, digging, cutting roots and 
sticks, and gathering much of their food under water. The very 
large and fully webbed hind feet are powerful swimming members, 
while the broad, flat muscular tail is used in steering and diving, for 
a prop in standing up, or for striking a signal blow on the water or 
ground. Beavers are intelligent, skillful, and industrious workers, 
building extensive dams across streams to hold back sufficient depth 
of water in ponds to protect their houses and winter stores of food, 
and building large, strong, and comfortable houses in which to live 
and raise their young. They cut trees and bushes for food and build- 
ing material and show great skill and industry in getting material 
and carrying on their building and food-storing operations. When 
much hunted and trapped for their valuable fur they become very 
shy and difficult to catch, but when protected for a time become gentle 
and unsuspicious. They are easily tamed and make interesting pets 
if properly handled. Often in their native haunts they can be baited 
with favorite food plants, such as the aspen and cottonwood branches, 
thrown in the water or laid on the shore every day until they come 
regularly for the food. In this way they may be kept in localities 
where desired, and even induced to come out before dark to feed in 
places where they may be observed at close range. While largety 
nocturnal in habits, and strictly so when persecuted by much trap- 
ping, they usually come out and begin work before dark and continue 
their activities until after daylight if unmolested. 

Breeding habits. Female beavers have normally 4 pectoral mam- 
mae on 2 large breast mammary glands, and 4 seems to be the 
usual number of young in a litter. In yearling females breeding 
for the first time there are often only 2 young, while in older 
females the number is sometimes 6 and there are a few records 
of 8 embryos in old females. The young are nursed by the mother 
in the houses or bank dens until old enough to dive through the 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 221 

long waterway to the open water and begin to get a part of their 
own food from tender plants, twigs, and leaves. They remain with 
the mother during at least the fall and first winter, and if un- 
disturbed probably longer if the food supply is ample. The rela- 
tion of the males to the family life is not fully known, but they are 
sometimes found with the mother and larger young and are prob- 
ably on friendly terms with their various families. 

Food habits. Beavers are purely vegetarian, feeding mainly on 
bark, twigs, leaves, roots, and a great variety of water and shore 
plants. Aspens, cottonwoods, and willows are their principal tree 
food; these are cut along the shores, and the bark is eaten from 
the branches and the small trunks. In autumn the branches and 
sections of small trunks are cut and stored in masses in deep water 
near the houses or bank dens, where they are accessible all winter 
under the ice, but much winter food is also obtained from roots 
and water plants along the banks and on the bottoms of ponds and 
streams. During the summer much of the food is from green vegeta- 
tion in the water or on the shores and few trees are cut except as 
needed for building. Coniferous trees are rarely cut and not gen- 
erally used for food. 

Beavers eat large quantities of coarse food and under favorable 
conditions become moderately, and sometimes extremely, fat. 

Economic status. In past years the beaver has been the most val- 
uable fur animal of North America, and with proper control and 
management might well take again that place among fur bearers. 
While in many places beavers do serious damage and ought not to 
be encouraged, in suitable localities on public or private lands where 
they can be fenced and supplied with the right kind of food they 
should afford profitable returns in fur and meat. Great care should 
be taken, however, to stock areas with animals producing the dark- 
est, most valuable fur, as it is just as easy to raise high-priced as 
low-priced beaver fur, and there is a wide range of prices between 
the pale and the very dark beaver skins. As a private industry 
beaver farming promises to be a complete success, but many of the 
details have not yet been worked out, and if undertaken it should 
be at first on a small scale with careful experimental advances 
(Bailey, 1927). 

Since 1924 only partial protection has been given beavers in Ore- 
gon, and most of the animals have been destroyed. 

The report of the district forester for Oregon, dated February 14, 
1930, says : 

The open season on beavers in Oregon has proved an expensive mistake and 
every effort should be made to repeal the law. The present law allows trap- 
ping everywhere except on the national-forest land. However, the patented 
land is so intermingled that this restriction has no effect. A check on the 
raw furs shows that most of the beaver were caught before the fur was 
prime. This was because every trapper was afraid every other trapper would 
get in ahead of him. The number of beaver in the State has been reduced 
almost to the vanishing point and this has affected stream flow, fish, grazing-, 
and erosion to a serious degree. The beaver dams originally held back the 
run-off on the heads of streams, supplying the irrigation sections of eastern 
Oregon. The dams are now gone. These dams originally formed rearing ponds 
for the small fish and helped to restock the streams. * * * Erosion fol- 
lowed and many of our best grazing areas have changed in type from wet 
meadows of high carrying capacity to a dry, rapidly eroding type of extremely 
low or no carrying capacity. 



222 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

The following notes in the Portland Oregonian of June 1, 1931, by 
Ranger Ralph Elder of the Ochoco National Forest in semiarid 
northeastern Oregon give some idea of the beaver in conservation 
of water: 

The removal of beaver has been a large factor in the shortage of water during 
the drought through which we are passing. Streams have dried up below 
former beaver dams to an alarming extent and water for stock has been 
reduced. * * * During 1914, as forest guard, I assisted Forest Ranger 
Anderson and Homer Ross, supervisor, to survey a road across a virtually dry 
draw just below the Cold Springs ranger-station cabin. It was decided that 
a bridge was unnecessary, as not enough water ran across the prgposed road 
location to justify building one. During 1920 beaver moved into this draw and 
constructed a dam just above the proposed road location, near a large spring. 
Since that time these dams 1 have been increased, and at present approximately 
2 acres are wet beaver meadows and swamps, and springs have developed 300 
yards below this. During the past season, the driest on record, water was 
plentiful for a distance of a quarter mile below the beaver dams, and springy 
places were increased all down the draw. * * * The actual improved area 
is hard to estimate and the increase in water for the dry part of the season 
can only be guessed at, but there is plenty of water for a band of sheep at all 
seasons and at least 20 acres of land that were dry in the very wet season of 
1914 are kept fairly moist. 

Another example of more recent date is at Little Summit ranger station. 
This area was formerly full of beaver, but the last, as far as we could tell, 
were trapped out about 1925. From that date to 1929 the old ditch and the 
entire meadow were fast becoming a dust bed. During 1928 and 1929 no water 
ran out at the lower end of the station. * * * Some beaver moved back in 
1929 and by the fall of 1930 the meadow in the pasture was 75 percent irri- 
gated. The old ditches were full of water and a nice stream was running at 
the lower end of the station. While hardly sufficient handily to water a band 
of sheep this much had been accomplished' during two summers. I believe, from 
the evidence of a number of dams, that several beaver are there, which is 
probably the result of moving in rather than of natural increase. I have every 
reason to believe that by 1932 this entire meadow will be irrigated and that 
there will be plenty of water for a band of sheep at all seasons, below the 
station fence. * * * Water stored in this ground during the earlier part 
of the season will go a long way toward raising the water table for a consider- 
able distance below, and, as the country is flat, it will undoubedly improve the 
forage on an area of at least 40 acres, in addition to the land actually surface 
irrigated. It will also provide water for sheep one-half mile farther down the 
stream than has existed before. 

CASTOR CANADENSIS SHASTENSIS TAYLOR 
SHASTA BEAVER; POME of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Castor subawratus shastensis Taylor, Calif. Univ. Pubs., Zool. 12 : 433, 1916. 

Type (skull only). Collected at Cassel on Hat Creek, near Pit River, in 
Shasta County, Calif., by H. E. Williams, in 1893. 

General characters. External characters from two skins collected at Thomas 
Creek, Lake County, Oreg., by H. J. Roosa, October 19, 1921. Externally 
scarcely distinguishable from pacificus, unless slightly brighter chestnut about 
head and tail in fresh October pelage. Skull readily distinguished by shorter, 
wider outline, short, wide, posteriorly pinched in nasals and heavy rostrum. 

Measurements. Medium-sized female from Thomas Creek, Lake County, 
Oreg.: Total length, 1,046 mm; tail, 300; foot, 185; ear (dry), 25. Weight, 42 
pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. Known only from the Pit and Klamath 
River drainage in northern California and southern Oregon, from 
specimens taken at Cassel, Calif., and from Thomas Creek, a small 
branch of Cottonwood Creek, which flows into the northwestern 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 223 

corner of Goose Lake, Oreg. (fig. 50). It is probably safe to assume 
that the beavers of the Klamath section, Lost River, Sprague River, 
and the Yamsay Mountains, are also of this form. 

In January 1827 Ogden and his party of trappers in the Klamath 
Lake section nearly starved because they could not find enough 
beavers to furnish food for the party, but a few days later Ogden met 
McKay's party of trappers with " 735 beaver skins taken on two 
small rivers that discharge into Klamath River." Still later, in 
February, he found beavers abundant along the Pit River, his trap- 
pers bringing in large numbers every day, and on February 22, com- 
pleting their first 1,000 skins. On March 9, he says : " It is a sin 
to see the number of small beavers we destroy. Some females have 
no less than five young." On March 11, his trappers came in with 
72 beavers and 1 otter (1909, pp. %1%-217). 

On May 19, 1860, Lord on his way irom California to British 
Columbia with a drove of horses and pack mules crossed the Klamath 
River just above Lower Klamath Lake, which he described as a* 
great tule marsh with open patches of water, which seemed to be the 
" head center " of the beaver population of Oregon. This beaver 
colony of many acres in extent was so populous that in some of the 
ponds there seemed " no room to jam in even a tiny beaver cottage " 
among those already occupying the area. Back from the lake shores 
" the trees had been felled for a good half mile from the water " as 
if busy emigrants had been making a clearing. The branches had 
been cut from the trees and dragged along well-beaten roads to the 
rushes, through which roads had been cut to gain easy access to the 
open water (1866, p. $73). 

On Drew's Creek west of Goose Lake in 1897 there were several 
dams and ponds, a small beaver house in one of the ponds, and many 
trees and bushes cut for food and building material. In 1915 
Jewett reported two dams freshly built of aspens and willows on 
Drew's Creek. In 1914 L. J. Goldman reported them on the west 
slope of the Yamsay Mountains, on Sprague and Yamsay Rivers, and 
in the Klamath Marsh. In 1896, Preble reported them along Wood 
River and Diamond Creek, and in 1914, Harry Telford reported them 
on the head of Wood River and Diamond Creek, and near the mouth 
of Anna Creek Canyon. Evidently they have held their own or 
increased in this section in recent years. 

In July 1927 there were still a few beavers in Sprague River and 
its branches north and east of Bly, but the old colony on Drew's 
Creek that had been visited in 1897 was gone. 

In no noticeable way do the habits of these beavers differ from 
other species in similar type of country. They now live mainly in 
creeks or small rivers, where they build dams and houses and often 
live in bank burrows. 

CASTOR CANADENSIS BAILEYI NELSON 
NEVADA BEAVER ; HAK-NE-SHA of the Piute 

Cantor caiiadensis baileyi Nelson, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 40 : 125-126, 1927. 

Type. Collected in Humboldt River, 4 miles above Winnemucca, Nev., by 
J. H. Bunch, October 13, 1917. 



224 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

General characters. Relatively small; form slender; colors dull and pale; 
upper parts rusty brown ; lower parts drab brown ; under fur uniformly pale 
brown or drab; skull very long and narrow, with long slender rostrum and 
narrow nasals ; dentition light. 

Measurements. Adult male from type locality : Total length, 1,046 mm ; tail, 
254; foot, 183; ear (dry), 24. Weight not given. Young adult, a 1% -year-old 
female (Oct. 11), from same place measured 946; 368; 190; 24 mm; and 
weighed 32 pounds. 

Distribution omd habitat. In 1826 one of Ogden's beaver trappers, 
Sylvailles by name, discovered the river flowing into Malheur Lake 
from the north, since called Silvies River and reported it rich in 
beavers. The following year the party again visited this river in 
June, when they took 300 beavers in about a month, but complained 
that the natives of this section had destroyed upwards of 6,000 beav- 
ers, not 1 of which had reached their trading posts (1910, pp. 221). 
In 1828 Ogden and his party of trappers struck south across Alvord 
Valley onto the headwaters of streams flowing south, probably the 
headwaters of Quinn River and the North Fork of the HumBoldt, 
near the Nevada line, into country where " there were great numbers 
of Indians and abundance of beavers." Here in November his 6 
trappers brought in as high as 52, 58, and 60 beavers a day, and 
before the month was over they had taken 800 skins. In April of 
the following spring he returned to this " unknown river " with a 
larger party to complete the fur harvest and on May 8 reported 
1,700 beaver skins taken and said " in no part have I found beaver so 
abundant ". 

These desert- valley beavers are still found in the Great Basin 
drainage of northern Nevada along the Humboldt River, and its 
tributaries and in the Malheur Lake and S teens Mountains drain- 
age of southeastern Oregon (fig. 50). Two skulls from Fish Creek, 
a branch of the Blitzen River, which flows into Malheur Lake from 
the south, are typical ~boAleyi. There are a few beaver all along the 
Blitzen from its headwaters down to near Malheur Lake, and George 
Benson reports one shot at the edge of Malheur Lake in 1909. In 
1916 they were found in Big Fish Creek, McCoy Creek, and Kiger 
Creek. It is fair to assume in the absence of specimens that the 
beaver in the Silvies River and its branches on the north of Malheur 
Lake are also of this subspecies. In 1920 they were still common in 
many places along the Silvies and Blitzen Rivers, and while in places 
they were doing some damage by flooding the meadows, more often 
they were merely holding up the water to a better depth and 
improving the meadows by subirrigation. 

On the other hand they sometimes dam the irrigation ditches or 
locate in the banks of streams near fields and orchards where they 
do serious mischief and have to be removed, driven away, or de- 
stroyed. With intelligent handling and the introduction of a darker 
and more valuable fur variety they could become a valuable asset 
on many of the eastern Oregon ranches. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 35 




OLD MALE BEAVER. 

Just taken from a wire cage trap in Maine, and as easily handled as any domestic stock (photograph by 

W. B. Campbell). 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 36 




B15906; B15899; B15902 

CAPTIVE MOUNTAIN BEAVERS. 
Near burrow at Vida, on the McKenzie River, Oreg. (photograph by Luther J. Goldman, 1916). 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



225 



Family APLODONTIIDAE : Mountain Bearers 
APLODONTIA RUFA RUFA (RAFINESQUE) 

BBOWN MOUNTAIN BEAVER; MOUNTAIN BURBOWEBS; SEWELLEL (Indian name) ; 
NETATE (Tolowa of Crescent City, Calif.) (C. H. M.) 

Anisonyss f rufa Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. 2: 45, 1817. 

Type region. Neighborhood of the Columbia River, Oreg. Restricted to the 
Mount Hood section. Original description based on Lewis and Clark, from 
skins obtained from the Indians. 

General characters. Size about the same as a very large muskrat (pi. 36) ; 
form heavy compact; legs, tail, and ears short; eyes small; feet large with 
wholly naked soles and strong claws; mustaches long and bristly; fur short 
and dense, with short, coarse, shiny guard hairs ; upper parts dark rusty brown 
with dusky nose and ears and a small white spot at anterior base of each ear ; 
lower parts clear buffy brown with conspicuous dark brown nipple spots in the 
females. 

Measurements. Old female from Marmot, west of Mount Hood : Total length, 
330 mm ; tail, 34 ; foot, 55 ; ear in dry specimens, 16. Weight about 2 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. This large form of the mountain beaver 
extends along the lower slopes of the Cascade Range from southern 
British Columbia to 
northwestern California 
(fig. 51). In Oregon 
there are specimens from 
Marmot, Bissel, Eagle 
Creek, V i d a , McKenzie 
Bridge, Mount Mazama. 
Anna Creek, Fort Kla- 
math, Siskiyou, and north 
base of Ashland Peak. 
There are also records of 
their occurrence at Hood 
River, west base of Mount 
Jefferson, west base of 
Three Sisters, 20 miles 
east of Drew, near head 
of Rogue River, and at 
base of Mount McLough- 
lin (Pitt). Generally they are in Transition Zone timber country in 
the gulches and ravines, where there is considerable moisture and 
dense growth of vegetation. Their range is irregular, interrupted, 
and to some extent colonial. Locally they are often abundant, but 
they occupy only a small part of the range assigned to them. 

General habits. In many ways the habits and actions of mountain 
beavers suggest pocket gophers, as does also their general appear- 
ance, for if the big camas pocket gopher (Thomomys bidbi- 
vorm) were twice its present si/e its longer tail would be the only 
convenient means of distinguishing the two. The burrowing habits 
and similar mode of life are evidently responsible for this superficial 
resemblance. Mountain borrowers would have been a better name 
for Aplodontia and especially for this mountain-dwelling species. 
The animals are almost never seen except when caught in traps, but 

' 7209 36 15 




FIGURE 51. Range of the two forms of the moun- 
tain beaver in Oregon : 1, Aplodontia rufa, rufa; 
Type I 



2, A. r. pad flea. 



localities circled. 



226 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

the burrows, the size of woodchuck holes, are in places so numerous 
and so well hidden under ferns and low tangled vegetation that one 
traversing the home of a colony is constantly falling into them. 
Unlike gopher burrows they usually are left open and will readily 
allow a man to slump in up to the boot top. The burrows often go 
straight down for a foot or two and strike the main tunnels which 
extend for long distances underground, and often run through wet 
ground and springy places or carry small streams of water. 

The animals are mainly nocturnal, generally silent, and very shy, 
but when caught in traps they fight savagely anything that comes 
within tHeir reach, biting sticks and jumping at any object that 
moves near them. Their eyes are small and watery, sometimes milky, 
and their vision is short and poor. One that the writer caught un- 
injured in a trap was taken to camp with a firm grasp around the 
back of its neck and kept all day and part of the night before it 
escaped. It was extremely vicious when touched and tried to get 
hold of the captor's hands or feet but succeeded only in biting a hole 
in his heavy leather boot. It cut strings tied around its neck or to its 
foot. It was finally caged under a telescope top from which it 
escaped in the night but not until it had given up a few of its secrets. 
Several times during the night it made a long quavering cry some- 
thing like the call of a little owl and several times during the fol- 
lowing day the same cry was heard from the fern beds back of camp, 
where it was evidently trying to find its way home. These are the 
only sounds the writer has ever heard these animals make, and may 
be the sound called " whistling " by various authors. A quavering 
whistle would describe it fairly well. They also chatter their teeth 
at one in a menacing manner and are said sometimes to make a 
growling sound when caught in a steel trap. 

Ned Dearborn found that after being kept in captivity for several 
days they lost much of their shyness and could be handled safely 
with proper care, but were rather deficient in intelligence and affec- 
tion. T. H. Scheffer found it difficult to keep them alive for more 
than 10 days or a few weeks at most in captivity, even when supplied 
with abundance of their favorite foods and with living conditions 
as nearly normal as possible. Even when caught in box traps they 
would be found dead in many cases after a few hours of confinement. 

H. E. Anthony kept one for a week, and it became tame enougl 
to eat from his hand. It swam readily when put in water. 

K. Bruce Horsfall told the writer that in Wahtum Lake, on th< 
north slope of Mount Hood, the mountain beavers swam out into th( 
lake and from place to place along the, shores, like muskrats, foi 
which they were at first mistaken. 

At the lower levels they seem not to hibernate in winter, but ai 
more or less active under the snow, sometimes coming out on th( 
snow to cut branches and bushes for food. Near Hood River am 
Parkdale on the north slope of Mount Hood, G. G. Cantwell, 
March 1919, found their old tunnels leading 20 feet or more undei 
the snow, but could not catch any of the animals and thought they 
might be hibernating. Other records of inactivity in winter may 
indicate partial hibernation or merely the quiet utilization of food 
stores in their underground storehouses. The animals are never fat 
enough to suggest possible hibernation. 






1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 227 

Breeding habits. The females have an unusual arrangement of 
mammas, 2 pairs of pectoral and 1 pair of anterior abdominal, all 
conspicuously marked by large round spots of dark brown. Even 
the nipples of the males are sometimes indicated by small brown 
spots in the fur. Scheffer gives the number of young as generally 
2 or 3, scantily haired and blind at birth, but there are other reports 
of 5 or 6. He thinks that but one litter is raised in a year and says 
the young are born about the middle of April in well-sheltered 
nests in the burrows under logs, stumps, or upturned roots of trees. 

Food habits. ApUdontias are purely vegetarian with a wide 
range of food plants. One brought into camp alive would eat almost 
any plants offered him. A little lily (probably Vagnera sessilifolia) 
seemed to be its favorite, but vetch, lupine, salal, and ferns were 
eagerly eaten. Willows, alders, maples, thimbleberry, salmonberry, 
dewberry, fire weed, valerian, and in fact most of the shrubs and 
plants available are cut and eaten on the spot or carried into the bur- 
rows for future use. The habit of leaving bunches of cut plants 
around the mouths of the burrows, on logs or stones to dry, has given 
the animals credit for making hay; but green as well as dry plants 
are carried into the burrows, and some of the dried plants are left 
outside until they become well bleached. The haymaking is not 
thorough or systematic but is evidently a part of the preparation for 
winter for either food or nest material. Scheffer reports bark eaten 
from the roots and bases of tree trunks in winter, and many lower 
branches of conifers cut for food. 

Economic status. Generally these are harmless little animals of 
the forest, thickets, and waste places, rarely noticed unless a trail 
goes through one of their colonies or a place is cleared where their 
burrows are already located. While these occurrences are rare they 
usually occasion some annoyance and in case of fields a possible 
injury of crops. The animals quickly disappear, however, before 
clearings and cultivation of the soil and are of no permanent con- 
sequence to agriculture. Locally it may be necessary to trap or 
poison them at the edges of fields or where they burrow across trails, 
but they are easily trapped and readily poisoned. 

They are said to be used as food by the Indians, but one cooked 
in the writer's camp was strong, tough, and dark colored. No one 
seemed to enjoy it, and even the dog would not eat the meat. 

Apparently they are preyed upon by many of the fur-bearing 
carnivores and thus help to convert some of the abundant vege- 
tation of the mountain slopes into the valuable and varied fur crop 
of the State. 

Among the Northwest coast Indians the skins of these little ani- 
mals seem to have been in general use for fur robes and blankets in 
the days of Lewis and Clark, in 1805, and of Douglas, in 1827, and for 
clothing, according to Suckley, in 1860. The fur is short, but soft 
and when prime fairly dense and of an attractive neutral brown. 
The skins are strong and light and would seem well suited for lin- 
ings or for light outer garments. Camp says the skins of the Cali- 
fornia species bring only 8 or 10 cents in the fur market, and Jewett 
reports sales of Oregon skins at 10, 15, and 20 cents each. If taken 
when fully prime these skins should have a much greater value. 



228 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

APLODONTIA RUFA PACIFICA MEBRIAM 
PACIFIC MOUNTAIN BEAVEB 

Aplodontia paciftca Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 13: 19, January 31, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Newport, on Yaquina Bay, Oreg., by B. J. Bretherton 
in 1896. 

General cliaracters. Noticeably smaller than rufa with conspicuously nar- 
rower, slenderer skull, and slightly darker colors; generally more dusky on 
head and back and the basal ear spots mainly or wholly dusky instead of 
white. 

Measurements. Adult male at Astoria : Total length, 303 mm ; tail, 20 ; foot, 
53; ear in dry specimens, 16 to 20. 

Distribution and habitat. This is a coast form, extending prac- 
tically the whole length of the Oregon coast and inland to the open 
valley country (fig. 51). Specimens from Eugene show characters 
intermediate between rufa and paeifica, but seem to be nearer to 
pacifica. Over the heavily timbered and densely brush-covered 
slopes of this humid area they are more generally distributed than 
are those of the mountain form of the drier interior range, but even 
here they are more or less colonial or localized in the areas occupied, 
and often absent for wide intervals. 

General habits. Only as modified by the type of country are their 
habits different from those of the larger rufa. More often they are 
located on the broad slopes of the mountains and hillsides, where in 
the long rainy season there is abundance of water to trickle through 
their burrows. In places the slopes are fairly honeycombed by the 
burrows. A group of burrows may have 20 openings scattered over 
a few square rods of ground, some with considerable mounds of earth 
thrown out and others without a trace of earth around the mouth. 
Surface trails often lead from one burrow to another or out into brush 
or fern patches nearby. Many of the shallow tunnels have been 
broken into from above and often the line of a burrow may be 
traced for considerable distance. 

Food habits. In the coastal region their favorite or most generally 
available food plants seem to be salmonberry, thimbleberry, huckle- 
berry bushes, and the abundant ferns about their burrows. They 
also cut the branches from alders, vine maples, hemlocks, and cedars, 
and carry them to their burrows, supposedly for food. Many other 
plants are eaten and sometimes all of the bushes around their colonies 
are cut down until only stumps remain, but as these are mainly unim- 
portant growth and spring up again with the next growing season, 
the food supply is perennial and abundant. In examining large 
numbers of colonies the writer has not found where any number of 
young or larger trees had been injured by them. 

Family ERETHIZONTIDAE: American Porcupines 

ERETHIZON EPIXANTHUM EPIXANTHUM BRANDT 

YELLOW-HAIRED POBCTJPINE 

Erethizon epixanthus Brandt, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci., St. Petersbourg (6) 
3:390, 1835. 

Type locality. California. 

General characters. Next to the beaver our largest rodent; form short and 
broad, with short legs and short muscular tail; feet fully plantigrade, with 



North American Fauna No. 55. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 




REAR VIEW OF YELLOW-HAIRED PORCUPINE. 

When alarmed the porcupine draws the skin of its back forward and exposes the armor of quills from tip 
of tail to eyebrows (photograph by C. Hart Merriam, in Tuolumne Meadows, Calif.). 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 38 





YELLOW-HAIRED PORCUPINE IN JUNIPER TREE. 
Front view of animal at rest in treetop, eastern Oregon (photographed by Alex Walker). 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 229 

oval, denticulate soles, and heavy, curved claws; ears small and hidden in 
the fur; eyes small; nose soft and furry. Pelage in winter a dense coat of 
long, soft, blackish fur, thickly set over upper parts with stout, sharp, and 
terribly barbed quills from 1 to 4 inches long, partly concealed over back and 
sides by a loose outer coat of coarse, erectile yellow or yellow-tipped hairs 6 
to 10 inches long; lower parts covered with fur and coarse hair, and lower 
surface of tail with rigid bristles that help it to serve as a prop in climbing-. 
Summer pelage with but little fur, mainly naked quills and long outer hairs, 
the black-tipped white quills fully exposed when erected. Young, black all over. 
Measurements. Adult male : Total length, 765 mm ; tail, 211 ; foot, 105 ; ear 
(dry), about 20. Weight of large males generally estimated at 20 to 30 pounds. 
One taken in Yellowstone Park, Wyo., weighed 33V 2 pounds. Weight of 7 
males from Oregon, excluding young of the year, given by Gabrielson as 18 
to 22,1/2 pounds ; of 8 females, as 12 to 14 pounds. This series evidently included 
no very old animals. 

Distribution and habitat. The yellow-haired porcupine occurs 
over most of the western United States from the edge of the Great 
Plains to the Pacific, but the areas where it grades into the more 
northern and southern forms have not been fully determined. In 
Oregon it covers almost the whole State from desert valleys to the 
coast and from the hottest upper Sonoran Valleys to timber line 
on the mountains, seemingly with no regard to well-established life 
zones. It is much less common in the humid coast region, however, 
than in the dry interior of the State, and the writer has seen no 
specimens from west of the Cascades. 

General habits. Porcupines are slow, rather stupid, timid ani- 
mals, depending mainly on their spiny armor for protection, but 
always eager to get under cover or up a tree, or into a cave or cleft 
in the rocks for additional safety. Their only method of defense 
is to present the back with erect spines (pi. 37) to the enemy and to 
strike upward and sideways with the powerful, spiny tail, but in 
most cases this is ample defense. The quills are not thrown, as is 
commonly believed, but may be driven deep into an enemy by a 
blow of the tail, and if only lightly imbedded will work their way 
by means of their barbed points in through skin and flesh. 

These animals are slow but industrious travelers, often leaving 
their lines of oval tracks in dusty trails for miles in a single night, 
wandering at random over deserts or open valley country, finding 
an abundance of plant food wherever they are, and taking advantage 
of any available cover for places to sleep during the day. 

They have squeaky, querulous voices, with many modifications 
to express anger, fear, or pain, and softer little squeaks and grunts 
for friendly feelings or entreaty. A treetop song has been re- 
ported in the mating season, but this needs further study. Gen- 
erally, however, they are silent and by many are supposed to be 
voiceless. 

They are excellent climbers and spend much of their time among 
the branches of large trees (pi. 38), where they are comparatively 
safe and where much of their winter food is obtained. They do not 
hibernate even in the coldest winter weather and the deeper the 
snow the more easily available becomes their food of twigs and 
bark. 

Breeding habits. The females have four mammae in a large rectan- 
gle on the abdomen, but often only the anterior pair is developed. The 
young are sometimes 2, but more commonly only 1, born usually in 



232 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. r>o 




General characters. Large for a Zapvs; tail Tery long and slender and almost 
naked ; hind feet long with long slender toes and naked soles : ears long and 
narrow; upper incisors deeply grooved, dark orange In color: pelage appro- 
harsh, and bristly. Color with strong pattern, back from nose to tail dusky with 
but a trace of yellow ; sides deep rich orange with coarse black bristles scattered 
through ; whole lower parts white or creamy white. 

'Measurement*. Large typical adult female: Total length, 235 mm: tail, 
135; foot, 33; ear (dry), 13. Weight of adult male, 27.5 g. 

Distribution and habitat. This large, dark, richly colored, and 
beautifully marked form occupies the coast country from southern 
British Columbia to southern Oregon and extends inland to include 
Ln its range the Willamette, Umpqua and lower Rogue River Valleys 

(fig. 52). Specimens 
from Eugene are fair- 
Iv typical but show a 
slight tendency toward 
mo n tan us from the Cas- 
cades, while others from 
Grants Pass are grading 
toward pacifists of the 
upper Rogue River Val- 
ley. Humid Transition 
Zone in Oregon seems to 
be fully occupied by them. 
They are largely marsh 
and meadow dwellers but 
are often caught along the 
creek banks or under 
ferns and weeds in the 
woods. In places they a re 
occasionally abundant but more generally they are scarce in numbers 
and scattered in distribution. 

General habits. Although of mouse size, these graceful little ani- 
mals in disposition and habits have little in common with ordinary 
mice. Naturally quiet and phlegmatic, they are easily captured alive 
in the hands and if gently handled rarely bite and seem not much 
afraid. When startled they progress rapidly in long leaps but usu- 
ally after 3 or 4 jumps they stop and sit motionless to see if they 
pursued, and then if closely watched may often be approached 
stealthily and captured under the hollowed hand. In dense vegeta- 
tion such as ferns or marsh grass or weedy cover their method of 
escape is generally successful. 

While mainly nocturnal they are occasionally seen in day light 
when frightened from their grassy nests on the surface of the ground. 
They do" not make runways nor leave any trace of their presence 
except the little heaps of grass stems where they feed. These are 2 
to 3 inches long and are readily distinguished from the shorter, more 
scattered cuttings found in the runways of meadow mice. 

The animals burrow into the ground to make their winter nests, 
become very fat in autumn and hibernate long and closely during the 
cold winter weather, remaining unconscious for about half the year 
in the colder parts of their range and apparently also in that part 
of Oregon where the winters are comparatively mild. 



FIGURE 52. Range of the four forms of jumping mice 
in Oregon: 1, Zapus trinotatus trinotatus; 2 Z. t. 
montan*s; 3, Z. t. pacific**: 4, Z. princepa ore- 
yonus. Type localities oiroloil. 



1936] MAMMALS OP OREGON 233 

Breeding habits. The females have 4 pairs of mammae 1 ingui- 
nal, 1 abdominal, and 2 pectoral. The number of young ranges from 
4 to 8 in a litter; apparently but one litter is born in a season. 
In some cases the young have scant time to get their growth and lay 
in a stock of fat before winter. 

Food habits. These mice are dainty feeders, living mainly on 
small seeds of grasses and other plants which they reach by cutting 
off the stems, drawing them down and biting off the lower sections 
until the seed-laden heads are reached. The small grains wheat, 
barlev, rye, and oats are treated in the same manner and are also 
favorite foods. Many other plants are also cut for their seeds, and 
rolled oats used for trap bait are eagerly eaten. 

In the early autumn the animals accumulate an excessive amount 
of fat in thick layers under the skin, over the muscles and especially 
in the abdominal cavity. In the case of other subspecies this oily 
fat will more than double their weight and supply ample food 
material to carry them through the long winter's sleep. 

Economic status. Generally these little animals are not numerous 
enough to be of any serious economic importance, but where they 
are unusually numerous the meadows suffer in spots from the amount 
of grass that they cut to get the seeds. In places an acre or more 
of the best grasses may be found noticeably thinned by them. The 
loss of seed locally may also prove a serious check on the reproduc- 
tion of the grasses. Potentially they are thus capable of serious 
injury to grain and forage crops, and every encouragement should 
be given to their natural enemies, owls and other nocturnal birds, 
weasels, skunks, badgers, and beasts of prey. 

ZAPUS TRINOTATUS PACIFICUS MERBIAM 
PACIFIC JUMPING MOUSE 

Zapus pacific^ Men-lam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 104, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Prospect, Rogue River Valley, Oreg., by Edward A, Preble, 
August 29, 1896. 

General characters. Small; form slender; skull narrow and slender; colors 
bright, with much yellowish in dorsal area and unusually clear yellow sides, 
lightly lined with black hairs; belly and lower surface of tail white; feet gray; 
ears slightly or not at all edged with yellow. 

Measurements. Type, adult male: Total length, 225 mm; tail 141; foot, 31; 
ear (dry), 12. 

Distribution^ and habitat. This mouse is found in the upper Rogue 
River Valley in Oregon and extends southward into northern Cali- 
fornia, in semiarid Transition Zone (fig. 52). 

General habits. No peculiarities of habits have been observed for 
this form except the habit of swimming, which is probably common 
to all. On the side of Preston Peak, Calif., X. Hollistef, in 1909, 
gave the following interesting note : 

While I was walking around the grassy border of a small pond one jumped 
ut at my feet and struck in the water like a frog, which at first it was thought 
to be, until it was seen swimming across the pond on the surface of the water, 
when it was shot for a specimen. The animal may not have intentionally 
jumped into the water but he certainly handled himself as if perfectly at home 
and swam with little effort and great speed over the still surface of the pond. 



234 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

ZAPUS TRINOTATUS MONTANUS MERBIAM 
MOUNTAIN JUMPING MOUSE; KANGABOO MOUSE 

Zapus trinotatus montanus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 104, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Crater Lake, Oreg., by Edward A. Preble, August 21, 1896. 

General characters. Slightly smaller and lighter colored than trinotatus; 
skull slenderer and more delicate; back dusky, lightly grizzled with orange; 
sides light orange, lined with black hairs ; lower parts creamy white ; feet gray ; 
tail whitish below. 

Measurements. Average of eight topotypes : Total length, 228 mm ; tail, 135 ; 
foot, 31; ear (dry), 12. 

Distribution and habitat. This is a mountain form inhabiting 
mainly Canadian Zone for the whole length of the Cascade range in 
Oregon. Specimens from McKenzie Bridge are clearly intermediate 
between trinotatus and montanus, and intergradation between the 
two may be expected all along the west base of the Cascades (fig. 52). 

General habits. These mountain jumping mice, as do other forms 
of the group, live in meadows and marshes or near mountain brooks 
and streams, feeding on grass seeds and such other seeds as are avail- 
able, even the fiery seeds of western skunkcabbage, becoming very 
fat in autumn and sleeping soundly during the long winter period of 
cold and deep snows. Actual dates of entering and emerging from 
hibernation are not available and it is not known if the period is longer 
in the high mountains than in the lowlands. 

ZAPUS PRINCEPS OREGONUS PBEBLB 
BLUE MOUNTAIN JUMPING MOUSE 

Zapus princeps oreffonus Preble, North Amer. Fauna No. 15, p. 24, 1899. 
Zapus major Preble, North Amer. Fauna No. 15, p. 24, 1899, from Hart Mountain 
(Warner Mountain), Oreg. 

Type. Collected at Elgin, Blue Mountains, Oreg., by Edward A. Preble, in 
1896. 

General characters. Large, about the same as Zapus princeps of the Rocky 
Mountains, but less sharply marked, with grayer head and obscurely margined 
ears ; back and head dusky, lightly flecked with yellow ; sides and cheeks broadly 
dark ochraceous or light orange yellow, lined with coarse black hairs; lower 
parts white ; feet and lower surface of tail whitish. 

Measurements. Average typical adult : Total length, 132 mm ; tail, 138 ; foot, 
33; ear (dry), 12. 

Distribution and habitat. The Blue Mountain jumping mice cover 
practically all of the Transition and Canadian Zone areas of Oregon 
east of the Cascades, including such scattered desert ranges as the 
Yamsay, Hart, Steens, and Mahogany Mountains and the high coun- 
try at the headwaters of the Owyhee River (fig. 52). Being lovers of 
meadows and brooks, they are not found in the desert valleys, which 
are also below their zone level, hence their range is more or less broken 
and scattered. Zapus major from Hart Mountain (Warner Peak) 
proves, on comparison with abundant material, to be typical oregonus^ 
while those from the southeastern corner of the State are grayer and 
may be grading toward nevadensis, but at present are better referred 
to oregonus. 

General habits. In no way have the habits of these little animals 
been found to differ from those of other subspecies. They are locally 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



235 



common in the grassy and flowery mountain meadows and under 
the fringing willows along the creeks, and are often taken in con- 
siderable numbers by collectors. 

In August they become fat, and none are taken between the early 
part of September and May. They hibernate for 6 or 7 months in 
underground nests, laying up no food but depending entirely on 
their accumulated fat to carry them through the winter. In food 
and breeding habits they show no subspecific peculiarities. 

Family HETEKOMYIDAE: Kangaroo Rats and Pocket Mice 

PERODIPUS ORDII COLUMBIANUS MEEBIAM 
COLUMBIAN FIVE-TOED KANGAROO RAT ; WAPOTA PITSUA of the Piute 

Perodipus ordi oolumbianus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 9: 115, 1894. 

Type. Collected at Umatilla, Oreg., by Clark P. Streator, October 18, 1890. 

General characters. A small, five-toed, buff-colored kangaroo rat, with long 
crested tail (pi. 39, A) ; long hairy soled hind feet; small hands; wide head; 
large eyes ; small hooded ears ; 
and very long mustaches. 
Skull with inflated mastoids 
and broad antorbital arches; 
upper incisors narrow, equal- 
ly grooved and strongly re- 
curved. Upper parts dark 
buff with dusky ears, sides of 
nose, heels, and soles, and 
plumbeous stripes along top 
and bottom of tail; lower 
parts, feet, sides of tail, hip 
stripes, brow and ear patches 
and lining of cheek pouches 
white. The white side lines 
of the tail are broad and usu- 
ally meet below just back of 
the tip of tail. 

Measurements. Type : To- 

FIGURE 53. Range of three forms of kangaroo 
rats (Dipodomys and Perodipus) in Oregon: 1, 
Perodipus orclii columbianus; 2, Dipodomys heer- 
manni calif ornicus ; 3, D. h. gabrielsoni. Type 
localities circled. 




tal length, 254 mm; tail, 148; 
foot, 40; ear (dry), 11. 
Adult female from Malheur 
Lake: 242; 135; 42; ear in 
flesh, 13. Weight 50 g. 

Distribution and habitat. These are the common kangaroo rats of 
eastern Oregon, occupying practically all of the Upper Sonoran sage- 
brush valleys east of the mountains, except in the Klamath section 
(fig. 53). They prefer sandy or mellow soils, but are occasionally 
found on firm or even hard soils on the uplands, but never in such 
numbers as in the sandy areas. They prefer the open and avoid dense 
vegetation. 

(jf-eneral habits. The name "kangaroo rat" is wholly inappro- 
priate and misleading for these beautiful little rodents. The large 
hind feet and legs and long tails are the only points of superficial 
resemblance to kangaroos and these are structurally entirely different 
from those of any marsupial. Neither are they closely related to 
rats or in any way ratlike in appearance. Still the name seems 
hopelessly fastened upon them. 

They are beautiful little animals with short, arched bodies, large 
heads, large black eyes; short rounded ears; fur-lined cheek pouches; 
long, slender, tasseled tails; long hind feet and legs; and small hands. 



236 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

In ordinary travel they go hop, hop, hopping over the ground on 
the two hind feet or in rapid flight skimming over the surface with 
tail straight out behind and used as a rudder for keeping their 
course or making quick and devious turns. 

The use of the long tail always raises a query. It is not powerfully 
muscular as in the kangaroos but has many uses besides that of an 
efficient steering apparatus. It balances every motion of the animal 
and at rest lies partly on the ground. At other times as the animal 
reaches up for seeds or leaves from plants, the tail serves as a prop 
or with the two hind feet makes a firm tripod, while the delicate 
hands reach up for food. In climbing among the branches of tall 
weeds or sagebrush the animal presses the tail against the stems and 
steadies itself, and even when sitting on a man's arm or fist one will 
press its tail down over the side to keep its body in a stable position. 

The long hind feet and heavily muscled thighs are powerful aids 
to speed and are also used in digging and fighting, while the tiny 
hands are used with great skill in gathering and holding food and 
tucking it into the cheek pockets, in making nests, and in loosening 
up the earth to be kicked far back by the hind feet. Kunning is 
accomplished entirely on the hind feet, by long leaps, the tracks 
in the sand often showing 20, 24, and 28 inches from toe to toe. 

The ample, elastic fur-lined cheek pouches, extending back under 
the skin of the cheeks and sides of neck, when well filled with seeds 
or grain or rolled oats, hold about a tablespoonful each of food, 
enough to last the animal for 1 full day and enough to make the 
storage of an excess food supply a rapid process. They are filled 
rapidly with the hands and emptied instantly with a single motion 
of both hands at once, pressing forward from the rear on the 
outside. 

A little warty gland on the back between the shoulders appears 
to serve at least two purposes. It has a faint musky odor that may 
have recognition purposes very useful to the individuals of the 
species. It also yields an oily substance that may serve as an im- 
portant hair dressing. If kept in a clean box or cage for a few 
days the animals become very rough, mussy, and oily in appearance. 
Given dry sand or dust for a vigorous bath, which they greatly 
enjoy, they again become sleek and fluffy with removal of excess oili- 
ness from the fur. 

The animals are so strictly nocturnal that people rarely see them 
or even know of their presence. Even tame individuals kept in 
the house would not come out of their nest boxes until long after 
dark, and all would retire for the day before the first signs of day- 
light. Still they did not sleep through all of the 15 hours spent in 
the nest boxes, for they carried in at least their pockets full of 
food, or more than one load if a supply was available, and ate it dur- 
ing the day ; they also moved about considerably inside the boxes, 
and repaired their nests. Behind closed doors in their burrows they 
apparently do some digging and considerable moving around dur- 
ing the day, and if a closed door is opened from the outside they 
usually soon replug it with earth. They see well in the dark and 
in a moderately lighted room, but sunlight or any bright light 
causes them to blink and half close their eyes. Their eyes are 
always closed in sleep, but when awake in a dim light they are 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 39 




A, Columbian kangaroo rat in glass photographing box at Malheur Lake; B, pocket mouse dug out of its 
burrow in the sagebrush near Malheur Lake. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 237 

wide open and very large. In the dark they shine with reflected 
light as two glowing yellow balls just the color of the full moon 
well above the horizon. 

In disposition the animals are surprisingly gentle and tame with 
man and to a limited extent social and friendly with each other 
in a family or colony. With others from different dens they are 
savagely unfriendly. Seven were caught alive at one group of bur- 
rows and kept in a two-room cabin. When put in a box together 
they all fought like cats and dogs, but given the run of the house 
they selected separate quarters in boxes, tin cans, boots, the stuffing 
of a lounge, and in a corner of the wood box. They did much chas- 
ing and fighting around the rooms at night and several were killed 
by the others, but finally several became wonted to the wood box and 
slept together or in different corners of it. 

Dens and burrows that were dug out and mapped were often found 
to be elaborate and complicated. One large den in an old barren 
field covered about 12 by 20 feet, with 4 main entrances where con- 
siderable earth had been thrown out, but each entrance kept closed 
during the day. Aji elaborate system of connected burrows led to 
several nest and food chambers a foot to 1% feet below the surface, 
and 10 blind burrows were traced to points near the surface where, 
in case of danger, an animal might easily break through and escape. 
Two main and five smaller storage chambers contained a little food 
and food refuse. At least 2, and probably a family of 5 or 6 animals, 
occupied this den. Other burrows examined were much simpler in 
nature, some with only a single burrow with a main entrance and 
blind exit and a small nest and food chamber at the bottom. Usually 
the occupant escaped by breaking out through the back door and 
making off at a flying pace to some other burrow. 

Climbing. Those in captivity have shown unexpected skill in 
climbing, in running through branches of sagebrush in the wood 
box and through the slender branches of large weeds and bushes, and 
in balancing on edges of boxes and thin boards. They will hop to 
the top of a 15-inch box, sit on the edge of the thin board, hop across 
to the other edge, or to the edge of another box, swarm up a big 
dry mustard plant and sit on the branches with tails pressed against 
the branches or stems to keep a balance, climb to the tops of screen 
doors and then jump down, and climb up a bed blanket that reaches 
near the floor and find their way into bed in a friendly fashion. The 
wild mustard plants, often 4 or 5 feet high, from which much of their 
food is gathered, are evidently climbed as the small branches are cut 
off and the seeds stored for food. 

Fighting. When two strangers meet there is sure to be trouble. 
One will jump on the other, or both will sit up and spar with their 
hands each trying to get hold of the other with its teeth. Sometimes 
they will clinch and bite and kick each other until one breaks away 
with a bloody nose or torn skin or broken tail and runs for its life, 
with the other in hot pursuit. One was found dead in the morning 
on the floor with its nose and tail bitten and dozens, of little holes 
through the skin of the back and into the flesh, where the sharp toe 
nails of the hind feed had been driven in with great force. Later 
two other dead ones were found behind the wood box, torn and 



238 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

punctured, and others had bloody noses and damaged tails. Old 
Hopsy, the first one taken and the gentlest of the lot, was twice 
rescued from combats with a bloody nose, and between sniffles she 
kept up a belligerent undertone of chur, chur, chur, and had to be 
held and comforted for some time to be kept from going back on the 
warpath. 

There seems to be no age or sex distinction in the fighting, both 
males and females being attacked indiscriminately by the other. The 
younger and weaker animals suffer most. In the open where escape 
is easy the fighting is probably not often serious, but occasionally 
specimens are taken with ragged ears or injured tails. The fighting 
instinct is evidently an outcome of the storing habit, each animal be- 
ing of necessity compelled to protect and defend its food supply. 

Voices. Generally the animals are silent, but close association 
shows that they have many little sounds and notes that mean dif- 
ferent things. When disturbed in a nice warm nest, they often make 
a complaining note. Again, when hopping about the floor at night, 
a low birdlike chirp, chirp, chirp is occasionally heard, or when on 
the warpath this note becomes an angry chur, chw, chur, and if two 
come to blows there are sharp squeaks and squeals, sometimes franti- 
cally shrill in pain or anger. 

Breeding habits. The females have normally 3 pairs of mammae, 
2 inguinal on a pair of elongated glands and 1 pectoral on short 
glands. In 1 female there were also 2 pairs of pectoral mammae. 
Three and four embryos have been found in females taken for speci- 
mens in June and July, but the breeding season is probably as irregu- 
lar and uncertain as in other desert mammals. Apparently no small 
young have ever been found, and little is known of the breeding 
habits. 

Food habits. Their food consists largely of seeds of a great vari- 
ety of plants, including grasses, grains, pigweeds, wild mustards, 
capers, shadscale, Dondia, wild sunflowers, lupines, and the small 
desert star Mentzelia albicaulis. In captivity they are fond of rolled 
oats and any seeds or grains but also eat green leaves of weeds, fresh 
cabbage, and the rinds of ripe cantaloups. At first they would not 
touch water but were eager for juicy cabbage and cantaloup, but 
after a week or more in the house they were noticed drinking the 
drops of water spilled on the kitchen floor, and when some water 
was given them in shallow dishes they drank eagerly but in a peculiar 
way, dipping it up and licking it from the hands, usually both hands 
together and not from one hand as does Perognathus. In the desert 
they evidently obtain their water from succulent vegetation, and in 
the dry season they were found carrying both ripe and green seed 
capsules of Mentzelia in their pockets. Each of these little green 
capsules, half an inch long and a tenth of an inch in diameter, con- 
tains a good-sized drop of clear green juice, not unpleasant in flavor 
and affording an ample supply of water during the hottest, driest 
part of the summer,. 

Economic status. In the warm, arid valleys where most of these 
little kangaroo rats are found there is generally no form of agricul- 
ture for them to interfere with, but occasionally where dry farming 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 239 

is attempted they feast on the sown seed and later on the growing 
and ripening grain. In irrigated sections they may do some mis- 
chief around the edges of the fields. On the stock range, which in 
eastern Oregon has been almost ruined by overgrazing, they have 
doubtless done their share to exterminate many of the grasses and 
forage plants by consuming the few remaining seeds. In fact there 
are now not enough seeds to support them over wide valleys where 
there is nothing for stock to eat. Wild mustard and shadscale were 
the only seeds they were getting in some localities. Their numbers 
are not sufficient to do serious harm in a more fertile region, but in 
places they can now take all the seed that is left. 

As pets they are gentle, cleanly, inoffensive, interesting, and amus- 
ing. They are contented in captivity and are fond of running on 
revolving wheels or inclined disks, thus getting good exercise. 

PERODIPUS MICROPS PREBLEI GOLDMAN 
PEBBLE'S KANGAROO RAT 

Perodipus microps preblei Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 2 : 233, 1921. 

Type. Collected at the Narrows, Harney County, Oreg., by Edward A. 
Preble, July 23. 1896. 

General characters. In external characters scarcely distinguishable from 
columbianus but slightly larger, with relatively longer, darker tails, and dusky 
lining of cheek pouches ; skull slender, with narrower antorbital arches ; upper 
incisors unequally grooved, not recurved, set approximately at right angle to 
plane of palate. 

Measurements. Of type, female : Total length, 263 mm ; tail, 154 ; foot, 41 ; 
ear (dry), 11. Of female topotype: 168; 156; 42; 11. Weight of adult female 
topotype 65.5 g. 

Distribution and habitat. There are specimens from Narrows, 
Tumtum Lake, White Horse Creek, and Summer Lake in southern 
Oregon, and from Granite Creek in northwestern Nevada, all from 
the sandy bottoms of low, hot desert valleys in Upper Sonpran Zone. 

General habits. The only striking peculiarity of habits of this 
species observed to differ from those of columbianus is that of 
building mounds over the den or group of burrows. In the light 
sandy soil and mellow sand dunes around Harney Lake and extend- 
ing along the side of the valley to Narrows their mounds are com- 
mon, often a foot high by 5 or 6 feet across, with several openings 
into the sides. In the White Horse Creek Valley some of the mounds 
are 10 or 12 feet across with a dozen openings. Part or sometimes 
all of the doorways are closed if the occupants are inside. The earth 
from the burrows is thrown out and then kicked back onto the 
mounds, and thus with age and use the mounds increase in size. 
Some become almost as well developed as those of Dipodomys spec- 
tabilis in Arizona, but never so large. 

Trails and runways lead from mound to mound or off to the feed- 
ing grounds, and the paired tracks of the hind feet show in the 
sandy or dusty trails in short or long hops according to the speed 
of the animals. Feeding and breeding habits seem to be the same 
as in colwribianus, while the economic importance in these sandy 
desert areas is negligible. 



240 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

DIPODOMYS HEERMANNI CALIFORNICUS MEBBIAM 
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA KANGAROO RAT 

Dipodomys calif ornicus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 4, p. 49, 1890. 

Type. Collected at Ukiah, Mendocino County, Calif., by T. S. Palmer, May 4, 
1889. 

General characters. Largest of the kangaroo rats found in Oregon; form 
compact, with large head and hooded ears ; tail very long and slender, with well- 
developed terminal white-tipped brush ; hind legs and feet very long ; feet with 
four toes and sharp, nearly straight nails; hands small, with short thumb 
and slightly curved nails; cheek pouches ample and fur-lined; skull broadly 
triangular, with inflated mastoids and grooved upper incisors. Upper parts dark 
rich buff, heavily clouded with dusky, becoming blackish on nose, ears, hams, 
soles, and along top and bottom of tail ; lower parts, feet, the tip, sides, and 
base of tail, stripe across hams, and ear and brow spots, pure white. 

Measurements. Average of typical adults : Total length, 312 mm ; tail, 184 ; 
foot, 46; ear (dry), 14. 

Distribution and habitat. These large, dark kangaroo rats occupy 
the interior valleys of northern California from near San Francisco 
Bay north into southern Oregon in the Klamath Valley (fig. 53). 
There are specimens from Klamath Falls, Tule Lake, and Swan Lake 
Valley in Klamath County. The specimen from Swan Lake Valley 
was collected by Elmer Applegate in 1898. They occupy upper 
Sonoran Zone valleys, usually in the open but in places among the 
chaparral on lower slopes of the foothills. 

General habits. Like other kangaroo rats these animals are noc- 
turnal burrowers, usually keeping the doorways of the burrows 
closed during the day, and preferring mellow or sandy soil, but 
sometimes burrowing in hard clays or gravels. The long, paired 
tracks of the two hind feet are often seen in dusty trails or sandy 
places near their haunts. In sand or soft ground they make con- 
spicuous trails from one burrow to another or from the burrows 
away among the grass and small plants, but often they live where 
the ground is so hard that trails are not conspicuous. 

Breeding habits. The females have 3 pairs of mammae 2 ingui- 
nal and 1 pectoral and sets of 2 and 4 embryos have been recorded 
in April and September. 

Food habits. The ample cheek pouches of these little animals 
yield some light on the food habits. Berries and seeds of the 
manzanita, seeds of buckbrush (Oeanothus cuneatus), rabbitbrush 
(Chrysothamnm), lupines, bur-clover, wild oats, and some small 
tubers have been found in the pockets, and there is usually much 
chaff and refuse from seeds of many wild grasses and other plants 
scattered about the burrows. The animals are fond of rolled oats 
and are said to do some damage in grainfields by cutting down the 
stalks of grain for the seeds. During the long, dry season they 
must depend on green vegetation, roots, and tubers for their mois- 
ture, as usually no water is available where they range. 

Economic status. Owing to their general scarcity these kangaroo 
rats are of very little consequence, but locally they may do slight 
mischief in grainfields or cause a slight check on reproduction of 
grass and other forage plants by the consumption of seeds. With 
the destruction of their natural enemies, foxes, coyotes, owls, and 
snakes, they may at some future time become numerous and require 
artificial control. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 241 

DIPODOMYS HEERMANNI GABRIELSONI GOLDMAN 

GABRIELSON'S KANGAROO RAT 

Dipodomys heermanni galyrielsoni Goldman, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 38: 33-34, 
1925. 

Type. Collected at Brownsboro, Jackson County, Oreg., by Ira N. Gabriel- 
son, June 21, 1924. 

General characters. Similar to Dipodomys heermanni californiciis but 
silghtly darker, and witb broader maxillary arches and smaller mastoid 
inflations of the skull. Tail long and white-tipped. Upper parts dark buff, 
heavily overlaid with black over top of head and back; face marked with 
black; soles of hind feet, and top and bottom of tail blackish; lower parts, 
sides and tip of tail, stripe across hams, and ear and brow spots, white. 

Measurements. Type, male adult : Total length, 294 mm ; tail, 188 ; foot, 46. 

Distribution and habitat. All of the specimens examined are 
from the vicinity of Brownsboro, some 15 miles northeast of Med- 
ford, where they were collected by Gabrielson, Jewett, Moore, and 
Heckner, but the tracks and trails may be seen in the open chaparral 
parts of practically all of the Upper Sonoran area of the Rogue 
River Valley from Grants Pass to Ashland (fig. 53). 

General habits. In a letter of June 25, 1923, Ira N. Gabrielson 
wrote that these kangaroo rats were found in the Brownsboro 
country below 4,000 feet altitude where they inhabit the chaparral, 
making their burrows at the base of the bushes and around old 
stumps. They were not abundant, and while no specimens were 
secured in traps, several were picked up where poisoned grain was 
put out for rodents. In June they were feeding mainly on foxtail 
grass, which in places forms a solid cover for the ground. The 
refuse where the seeds had been removed from the grass was often 
found scattered on the ground where they fed, and its seeds along 
with some of the poisoned wheat were found in the one nest burrow 
dugout. 

MICRODIPODOPS MEGACEPHALUS OREGONUS MERBIAM 
OREGON GNOME MOUSE 

Microdipodops megacephalus oregonus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 14 : 127, 
1901. 

Type. Collected on Wild Horse Creek, 4 miles northwest of Alvord Lake, 
Oreg., by Clark P. Streator, August 18, 1896. 

General characters. Size of a large mouse ; body short and wide ; head large 
and wide with large eyes, short rounded ears, and ample fur-lined cheek 
pouches ; skull with greatly inflated mastoids and audital bullae ; hind feet long 
with densely hairy soles and five well-developed toes; tail thickest in the mid- 
dle, tapering to a point, and a little longer than head and body, not crested or 
tufted; fur long, lax, and silky. Upper parts buffy gray with white ear 
patches ; sides of nose, edges of ears, and narrow border along sides clear buff ; 
lower parts white or creamy ; feet gray ; tail dark buff above with dusky tip, 
light buff below. Immature pelage darker and grayer. 

Measurements. Of type, male adult : Total length, 153 mm ; tail, 88 ; foot, 24 ; 
ear (dry), 8. Of a larger male, 163; 96; 25; 9. Another male measured 167; 
97 ; 25 ; 10, and weighed 13.9 g. 

Distribution and habitat. There are specimens of these quaint 
little animals in the Biological Survey collection from near Alvord 
Lake, near Tumtum Lake, head of Crooked Creek, White Horse 
Sink, and the Narrows, all in extremely arid Upper Sonoran Zone 

7209 36 16 



242 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



valleys of eastern Oregon (fig. 54). In the collection of the late 
Donald Dickey, of Pasadena, Calif., are 2 specimens from Oregon, 
1 collected by Gabrielson near Beatys Butte in Harney County, and 
1 by Jewett near Powell Butte, Crook County, in arid, sandy, 
Sonoran desert country. 

General habits. Like their relatives, the kangaroo rats and pocket 
mice, these quaint little gnomes are desert dwellers, lovers of sandy 
or mellow soil among the sagebrush, and able to live where there is 
little rain and long periods of drought. They are nocturnal bur- 
rowers, sleeping underground during the day and rarely seen except 
when taken in traps at night. The little paired tracks of the two 
hind feet, too large for pocket mice and too small for kangaroo rats, 
are easily recognized in the dusty trails, but the closed burrows, well 
hidden under the sagebrush, are not easily found. Like many other 

small animals they will 
follow a long mark made 
with the foot in the soft 
soil and may be caught 
in traps set delicately 
across these artificial 
trails and baited with 
rolled oats. 

They run in little short 
hops on the two hind feet, 
rarely leaving a print of 
the little hands, which are 
generally folded on the 
breast and used mainly 
for feeding, digging, and 
all the general purposes 
of hands rather than feet. 
Their speed is so great 
that when frightened they disappear like a flash of light over the 
sandy soil of their own color. In captivity, if quietly handled, they 
are gentle and unafraid. They are closely like the kangaroo rats in 
disposition and habits. 

Near the Narrows, where Preble found them in 1896, the writer 
camped overnight on July 13, 1927, to collect more specimens. In 
a sandy sagebrush spot near a point of lava rocks about 2 miles 
southwest of Narrows tracks of the gnome mouse were found and 
a line of 66 mousetraps set in the most promising localities. The 
next morning the traps contained the usual numbers of pocket mice, 
kangaroo rats, white-footed and grasshopper mice, but only one 
gnome. Their tracks were around many of the traps, and they 
had taken the bait from several without being caught, but they 
seemed not to care much for rolled oats. Their tracks in the early 
morning before the wind and ants had obliterated most of them were 
easily followed and generally led from the burrows out into patches 
of the abundant little desert weed, Mentzelia albicaulis, then well 
laden with flowers and green and ripe seed capsules on which they 
were feeding. This plant, only 5 to 7 inches high, was loaded with 
little capsules, half an inch long and half filled with tiny seeds, 
that, before they are ripe, are full of clear green watery juice, A 




FIGURE 54. Range of the gnome mouse, Microdipo- 
dops megacepJialus oregonus, in Oregon. Type lo- 
cality circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 243 

drop of good water could be squeezed out of each capsule between 
the thumb and finger, and half a dozen of these would furnish a 
good drink for a gnome, besides a good lunch on the ripening seeds. 
The cheek pockets of the one specimen taken were empty but its 
stomach contained, besides a bit of rolled oats and some other seeds, 
some of the green pulp and black seeds of these Mentzelia capsules ; 
bits of the refuse of the capsules were also found in one of the 
burrows ; and it was evident that this was one of their principal foods 
at that season, as it was also of the kangaroo rats and pocket mice. 
One of the kangaroo rats had its pockets stuffed full of the ripe 
and green capsules. Many other little plants were full of seeds, 
and many tender shoots, bulbs, and tubers were to be found just 
below the surface of the ground. There was no lack of food and 
water for these desert dwellers, even if it did not rain again all 
summer. 

Living in the dry, hot, sandy desert they might be supposed to 
be very thirsty animals, but as they are out only at night when the 
air close to the ground is moist and cool, and spend the daytime 
in closed burrows a foot below the surface in a cool, moist atmos- 
phere, they probably do not require a great amount of water and the 
little they need can be readily secured at any time from their food. 
Several burrows were dug out in the hope of learning more of the 
habits of the occupants; but in only one was the owner at home, 
and it ran with such lightning speed from bush to bush that only 
a buffy streak on buffy sand marked its course. The burrow entered 
the ground, beside a bunch of sagebrush, had several pockets or 
little rest rooms a foot below the surface, and came out on the other 
side about 4 feet away. The doorway was securely closed from 
within by fresh sand pushed out after the animal entered, and the 
occupant escaped by merely breaking out through the thin crust 
on the other side as the writer dug in along the line of the burrow. 
In this case there was no nest material, and the clean, soft sand may 
be pleasanter to the furry feet and soft fur coat of the gnome in its 
cave than would be a soft warm winter nest. Neither were any food 
stores found, for the ample cheek pockets provided enough storage 
room for 1 day's lunches, and the season was too early for the winter 
storing to have begun. 

Two other burrows dug out did not have closed doors and con- 
tained no occupants, but were of the same simple plan, one about 
4 and the other 6 feet long, and dipped about a foot below the 
surface. It is probable that more elaborate burrows are provided for 
winter. 

In trapping for specimens it often happens that few of these 
little animals are taken even where they are fairly abundant, and this 
is due to two causes. (1) It often seems that they do not care for 
the bait offered them as they are getting an abundance of certain 
seeds, which they prefer to anything else. (2) They are so light, 
so skillful, and delicate in touch, and such dainty feeders, that they 
may not spring the traps even when they take all the bait. Their 
bodies are so light and the soles of the teet so soft and hairy that 
only the most delicate trap will be sprung as they step on it, in case 
they do not entirely avoid it. Before good series of specimens are 
readily secured it will be necessary to modify some small trap, to 



244 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

give it a more delicate support for the trigger and also to extend and 
lower the trigger or pan so that the trap can be set across the artificial 
runway in the sand in such a way that the lightest step on an in- 
visible trigger will spring it. 

Breeding habits. Practically nothing is known of the breeding 
habits of these rare little animals, except that the females have 3 
pairs of mammae 2 inguinal and 1 pectoral as do the kangaroo 
rats. 

Food habits. Little is known of the food of these mice beyond 
the few seeds that have been found in the fur-lined cheek pouches, 
and the rolled oats and other grains available as trap bait or fed to 
them when in captivity. Seeds of Eriogonum, lupine, little burs 
(Krintzkia), and the little desert plantain (Plantago purshii), and 
the seeds and green capsules of desertstar (Mentzelia albicaulis] 
are eaten. In captivity they eat rolled oats or any small seeds, 
and stuff their pockets so full that their cheeks stick out in a 
grotesque manner, then carry it to a corner of the cage, dig a hole in 
the sand, and quickly empty the pockets and go back for more. Evi- 
dently they are regular storers, laying up food in times of abundance 
to last through times of scarcity. Their stomachs are small and usu- 
ally contain a clean, white mass of starchy material from the carefully 
shelled seeds. 

There is no trace of fat even in cold weather and no indications 
of hibernation. In Nevada the typical form, Microdipodops mega- 
cephalus, was found active well into November in freezing weather 
at altitudes above 5,000 feet. 

Economic status. It would be difficult to accord any commercial or 
economic value to these dainty little denizens of the desert nor can 
any serious sins of omission or commission be laid to them. Still 
they have a value sufficient to warrant many in making a long journey 
into the desert to gain a few specimens of a unique type and to learn 
a little of the causes that have glided its development along lines 
different from all other forms of life. As the writer looks back more 
than 45 years to the capture of the type of this genus and the first 
thrill of realizing its remarkable characters, so different from even 
its nearest relatives and opening up a whole new field of possibilities 
for the multiform kinds of desert life, it is no wonder that the hard- 
ships of bitter winter and scorching summer camps should have 
vanished before the fascination of this first-hand study of desert life. 
With all our intelligence and versatility of adaptation we are still 
far behind such animals in the perfection of physical mechanism for 
our needs, and we can surely learn humility if not wisdom from 
many of our inferior mammalian brothers. 

PEROGNATHUS PARVUS PARVUS (PEALE) 
OREGON POCKET MOUSE 

Oricetodipus parvus Peale, U. S. Expl. Expd., 8, pp. 52-54, 1848. 
Peroffnathus monticola Baird, Mammals North Amer., Pacific R. R. Rept. 8: 
422, 1857. Type probably from the region of The Dalles. 

Type locality. Given as Oregon, assumed to be The Dalles, Oreg. 
General characters. Rather large for a pocket mouse (pi. 39, B) ; tail long 
and slightly crested toward the tip; ears small with distinct inner lobe at 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



245 



base ; cheek pouches well developed and lined with short hairs ; upper incisors 
deeply grooved as in all of the family ; skulls with mastoids and audital bullae 
moderately inflated ; pelage long, appressed, and very silky. Upper parts buffy 
gray with clear buff along sides; ears dusky inside with buff spot at lower 
base; lower parts buffy with usually white on breast; feet buffy gray; tail 
clear buff below, buffy brown above with dusky tip. Young grayish buff. 

Measurements. Average of adult specimens: Total length, 172 mm; tail, 
92; foot, 22.4; ear (dry), 7. Adult male at Voltage, Oreg.: Total length, 170; 
tail, 97; foot, 24; ear, 8. Weight 18 g. 

Distribution and habitat. These pocket mice occupy practically 
the whole Upper Sonoran area of eastern Oregon and extend into 
southern Washington as far as North Yakima and slightly into Idaho 
along the Snake River Valley (fig. 55). In the sandy or mellow 
soil of the arid valley bot- 
toms they are often abun- 
dant and so easily taken 
as to be well represented 
in collections by large 
series of specimens. One 
specimen was taken by 
Jewett at about 7,600 feet 
on the Steens Mountains , 
in aspen country, where 
the ground was barren 
and much sheeped over. 

General habits. In the 
dry sagebrush valley 
south of Malheur Lake 
these beautiful, silky little 
pocket mice were as com- 
mon as the writer ever 
found them anywhere, 
ranking next to the white-footed and meadow mice in abundance. 
Some mornings as many as 5 or 6 were found alive in his line of a 
dozen tin-can traps placed near their burrows where the slender 
tracks and tail marks were noticed. 

Their burrows are generally placed under sagebrush in mellow soil 
where the scattered vegetation furnishes food and some concealment, 
but still leaves open spaces for free travel. Usually a little heap of 
fresh sand marks the main entrance, which is securely closed during 
the daytime. Half a dozen other doorways may be standing open 
under the bushes, but these are unmarked by earth and are used only 
as exits. Still others come close to the surface but are not opened 
except in case of danger when the animals burst out and flee to other 
burrows. Several escaped in this manner as the writer dug out their 
dens and kept a careful watch for them. Usually the burrows run 
2 or 3 feet deep, with many branches and winding shafts, one or more 
storage chambers, and a nest cavity. 

The animals are strictly nocturnal and spend the daylight hours in 
their closed underground retreats, but if a closed burrow is opened 
up at any time of day they soon close it again with earth from within. 
They are dazed by bright sunlight when driven out of their burrows, 
but in the house or in the shade of bushes they see well. 




FIGURE 55. Range of the five species and subspecies 
of pocket mice in Oregon : 1, Perognathus parvus 
parvus; 2, P. p. mollipilosus; 3, P. lordi lordi: 
4, P. I. columbianus; 5, P. nevadensis. Type 
localities circled. 



246 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

They run on all fours like other mice, and are quick and difficult 
to capture as they flash from bush to bush. Their tracks are in 
fours, the large hind feet showing in front of the smaller front feet. 
In feeding, the hands are used to hold the food and to fill and 
empty the pockets. They are also used in digging and are provided 
with strong claws. 

Like all storing animals they are not sociably inclined, and usually 
but one adult is found in a den. The litter apparently disbands as 
soon as full grown and each begins storing for itself. In captivity 
the animals prefer to be solitary, but for a week or more 5 were 
kept together in a box. They quarreled much of the time and even 
fought occasionally, and as far as possible each made a separate nest. 
Sometimes on cold mornings 2 or 3 would be found cuddled up 
together, but as soon as the weather warmed up they would begin 
to quarrel and separate. Two males that were taken in a box on a 
long journey fought until one was killed, its nose and feet being 
much bitten and the skin over its back punctured with so many 
small holes from the hind claws of the other that the skin, when 
removed, looked like a sieve. 

Their discord is clearly caused by the storage habit. Each would 
fill its cheek pouches with food, then hunt for a safe place to store it, 
but another was sure to find it and carry it away to some other 
corner. And thus they would steal from each other all night. One 
large and one small mouse in a box were given a cup with a hole 
in each side, so the smaller one could not be cornered in its nest. In 
the morning all the choice seeds and a grape were stored in the cup 
and covered with sand and the larger animal was guarding it, while 
the other had to content itself with rolled oats in a far corner. The 
storage habit, the selfish greed of gain, seems to destroy all better 
sentiments of these little animals. 

They show no signs of playfulness with each other, but each 
greatly enjoys a hollow wheel or an inclined disk, running it by the 
hour with evident signs of exhilaration. If two got into the wheel 
together they would quarrel until one got out. 

Their voices are rarely heard when alone, unless one becomes cold 
or hungry, is held too closely, or is in some way hurt or injured. 
The complaining squeak, or que^ que, que, is made, varying from a 
faint whimper to a whine or a shrill squeal, according to circum- 
stances. When two or more are together their que, que note is often 
heard as they meet and scold, threaten, fight, or try to get each 
other's stores or as one disturbs another in his nest. They seem to 
have no pleasant conversational notes. 

Hibernation. The pocket mice do not become excessively fat in 
autumn, but with the aid of their stored food supply they seem to 
keep within their burrows during the cold winter weather, and 
not improbably spend a part of the time in partial or complete 
hibernation. 

Breeding habits. The females have 3 pairs of mammae 2 in- 
guinal and 1 pectoral. The number of embryos recorded varies 
from 3 to 5. The young are born at irregular times during sum- 
mer, but there seems to be no data to indicate more than one litter 
in a season. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 247 

Food habits. They feed mainly on seeds of a great variety of 
plants, including grasses, little wild beans, borages, wild sunflowers, 
and other composite plants, pigweeds, nettles, docks, Solanum seeds, 
and even wild plants of the mustard family. Generally they are 
fond of rolled oats but sometimes, when more acceptable seeds are 
available, refuse to touch the rolled oats used for trap bait. One 
taken by K. H. Becker at Ontario, May 17, 1917, had 960 seeds of 
Solarium, (sp. ?) and 3 of Amaranthm in its pouches. At The Dalles. 
Streator dug open many burrows and in each found small stores of 
wild mustard seed, varying up to half a pint in a chamber. 

In captivity they accepted almost every kind of native seed offered 
them, also mixed birdseed, grain, and many green plants and juicy 
vegetables, such as cabbage, lettuce, and apple, but ate only a little, 
evidently just for the moisture it contained. They occasionally 
drank a little water, using their hands to dip it up or eating the 
drops scattered on plants in their cages. In a wild state they must 
go long periods with only the moisture obtained from vegetation. 

Economic status. Over most of their arid range these mice could 
do little damage to crops or grazing because there is neither, but 
locally they might gather a little seed grain along the edges of 
fields or possibly cut some of the ripening grain for the seed-laden 
heads. On owned and protected grazing lands they might, in con- 
nection with many other species of rodents, place a serious check 
on the reseeding of grasses and other forage plants and thus do 
serious injury to the grazing industry. 

At Diamond one was taken from the stomach of a small rattle- 
snake, and at Malheur Lake the tame grasshopper mouse killed and 
ate as many as were put in its cage. Burrowing owl pellets are 
generally well filled with their bones and fur, and other owls un- 
doubtedly get many. Badgers dig out their burrows and probably 
catch some of the occupants. As with many other rodents the 
most economical means of control is a wise protection of their not 
too harmful enemies, 

PEROGNATHUS PARVUS MOLLIPILOSUS COTJES 
COUES'S POCKET MOUSE 

Perognathus mollipilosus Cones, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 296, 1875, under 
P. monticola. 

Type. Collected at Fort Crook, Shasta County, Calif., by John Feilner, in 
or about 1860. 

General characters. Very little smaller than parvus; slightly more dusky 
over back; ears noticeably larger with white or buffy spot at base more 
conspicuous. 

Measurements. Average of three adults from type locality: Total length, 
163 mm; tail, 88; foot, 22.3; ear (dry), 8. 

Distribution and habitat. These little mice extend northward 
into the Klamath Valley from northeastern California but are not 
typical, and all of the Oregon specimens might almost as well be 
referred to parvus, as mollipilosus (fig. 55). There are specimens 
from Tule Lake, Lost Kiver, Swan Lake Valley, and Williamson 
Kiver, all in Klamath County. 

In habits they seem not to differ from parvus. 



248 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

PEROGNATHUS LORDI LORDI (GRAY) 
NORTHWEST POCKET MOUSE 

Alromys lordi Gray, Zool. Soc. London Proc., p. 202, 1868. 

Type. Collected in southern British Columbia, Canada, by John Keast Lord, 
probably in 1860. 

General characters. Largest of Oregon pocket mice, a little larger than 
parvus with relatively larger audital bullae and narrower interparietal. Duller 
and darker, more grizzled brownish over upper parts and ear spots scarcely 
noticeable; lower parts mainly dark buff with generally a white patch on 
breast and sometimes another on back part of belly; tail strongly bicolor, 
dusky above, buffy below. 

Measurements. Typical adults: Total length, 183 mm; tail, 98; foot, 23.2; 
ear (dry), 7. 

Distribution and habitat. From Ashcrpft and the Okanagan 
country in southern British Columbia this species ranges down 
through the Okanagan Valley to Wenatchee, diagonally across the 
plains of the Columbia to Snake Eiver, and up the Grand Eonde 
Valley into the extreme northeast corner of Oregon (fig. 55). A 
specimen taken by Cantwell near Paradise, Wallowa County, Oreg., 
is the only record for the State, and this is labeled 15 miles north of 
Paradise, which would put it back in Washington. Assuming that 
Cantwell knew in which State he was working and merely exag- 
gerated the distance from Paradise down a steep and tiresome grade, 
the species may be provisionally accepted for the State list until 
other specimens are taken on the Oregon side of the Snake River 
Canyon, or the lower valleys of Joseph Creek or the Imnaha Eiver. 

General habits. In habits these mice seem to differ but little from 
parvus to which they are closely related, but generally they occupy 
a more fertile and grassy country. 

Breeding habits. A female taken by L. E. Dice at Prescott, Wash., 
July 7, 1914, contained eight small embryos, while half -grown young 
were taken at the same time, implying more than one litter in a 
season or an irregular breeding time. 

[PEROGNATHUS LORDI COLUMBIANUS MERRIAM 8a 
COLUMBIAN POCKET MOUSE 

Perognathus columbianus Merriam, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 263, 1894. 
Perognathus lordi columfiianus Osgood, North Amer. Fauna No. 18, p. 40, 1900. 

Type locality. Pasco, Franklin County, Wash. Inasmuch as the Columbian 
pocket mouse has been collected south of the Columbia River in the State of 
Washington close to the boundary of Oregon, it probably occurs also in Umatilla 
County. Since, however, specimens have not yet been taken in Oregon, this 
subspecies is not here definitely included in the list of Oregon mammals.] 

PEROGNATHUS NEVADENSIS MERRIAM 
NEVADA POCKET MOUSE 

Peroanathus nevadensis Merriam, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 264, 1894. 

Type. Collected at Halleck, Nev., by Vernon Bailey, July 4, 1893. 

General characters. Smallest of the Oregon species; ears small without 
inside lobe at base ; tail slender, not crested, longer than head and body ; cheek 
pouches thinly lined with hair ; pelage silky ; color of upper parts buffy gray 



Oa Hypothetical. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OEEGON 249 

with dusky tips of hairs and clear buff margin along each side; ears dusky 
with white specks at upper and lower base; feet and lower parts buffy with 
white on breast ; tail buffy gray above, clear buff below except dusky tip. 

Measurements, Average of typical adults: Total length, 133 mm; tail, 72; 
foot, 18.7; ear (dry), 6. 

Distribution and habitat. Found in the Upper Sonoran sagebrush 
valleys of central and northern Nevada, northwestern Utah and 
southeastern Oregon (fig. 55). Three specimens taken by Streator 
at Tumtum Lake in 1896 and one by Preble at Rome on the Owyhee 
Eiver in 1915 are the only records for Oregon. 

General habits. In habits these tiny pocket mice seem to be much 
the same as parvus, which is twice as large and lives in the same 
localities. Even their tracks and burrows are easily recognized by 
their small size, the burrows sometimes being mistaken for those of 
the mole cricket, Stenopalmatus. They are found under sagebrush 
or greasewood on mellow soil, but the main entrance is usually kept 
closed during the daytime and only a tiny mound of earth is seen to 
mark the place. Where common the animals are readily caught in 
traps baited with rolled oats and set near their burrows, or in 
long smooth lines made by scraping the foot over the surface of 
the ground and with the traps set across these lines. 

Breeding habits. One taken by H. C. Oberholser at Stillwater, 
Nev., May 7, 1898, contained 4 embryos, and another recorded by 
Taylor from Big Creek ranch, Nevada, on June 10, 1909, contained 3 
embryos. 

Family GEOMYIDAE: Pocket Gophers 

THOMOMYS BULBIVORUS (RICHARDSON) 
CAMAS POCKET GOPHER 

Diplostoma "bulbivorum, Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Amer., v. 1, p. 206, 1829. 

Type. From banks of the Columbia River, Oreg., probably near where 
Portland now stands. Collector unknown. 

General characters. Largest of the genus ; compact and robust ; ears small, 
merely thickened rims; eyes small; incisors protruding; tail weak and taper- 
ing, almost hairless; winter coat long and furry; summer thin and harsh; 
color dark sooty brown, nearly the same above and below ; chin and anal spot 
usually white. 

Measurements. Average of adult males: Total length, 300 mm; tail, 90; 
foot, 42; ear (dry), 5. Average of females: 271; 81; 39; 5. 

Distribution and habitat. Willamette Valley, Oreg., from Port- 
land and Forest Grove south to Eugene, west to Grand Ronde Valley 
(fig. 56). Generally common in the more open parts of the valley 
country but not entering the coniferous timber. 

General habits. These big pocket gophers have relatively rather 
weak claws for an underground life, but by the use of their protrud- 
ing incisors they are able to loosen up the hard-baked earth through 
which they tunnel, and in consequence their large mounds thrown 
out on the surface of the ground are often a mass of small cakes and 
lumps of well-baked clay. The burrows are large and extend in end- 
less labyrinths a foot or two below the surface of the ground, 
coming to the top at intervals of a few feet to a few rods where the 
surplus earth is pushed out in little heaps called " gopher hills." 
The entrance is then securely packed full of earth and the tunnel 
continued until it is necessary to open a new doorway or one of the 



250 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



old doors through which to dispose of the refuse. Except for these 
occasional visits at the surface, almost the whole life of the gopher is 
passed in the utter darkness of its tunnels. No wonder its eyes are 
small and weak and rarely opened, and its vibrissae, naked nose, and 
naked tip of tail well sensitized for work in the dark. No wonder 
its disposition is morose and savage and that each works alone for 
most of its life. 

Breeding habits. Little is actually known of the breeding habits 
of these rodents except that the females have 2 pairs of inguinal 
and 2 pairs of pectoral mammae, arranged on 4 widely separated 
mammary glands, indicating 4 to 8 young. Before they are half 
grown the young have left the parental burrow and each is extending 
its own tunnel and getting its own living in happy solitude that con- 
tinues for the rest of its life except during brief mating periods. 

Food habits. Most of 
the food of these pocket 
gophers is obtained from 
roots, bulbs, and tubers 
encountered in extending 
their tunnels, but when 
they come to the surface 
they usually fill the capa- 
cious cheek pouches with 
green vegetation gathered 
near the opening, prefer- 
ring clover, alfalfa, dan- 
delions, thistles, and suc- 
culent vegetation, but also 
taking grasses, grains, 
and a great variety 01 
crops and vegetables as 
they are encountered. 
The roots of many plants 
are eaten, and the bark from the woody roots of bushes and trees 
is sometimes eaten so persistently as to destroy the plants. The 
roots of apple and pear trees unfortunately are a favorite food, but 
many other fruit or ornamental trees and many shrubs and vines are 
injured by the gophers. The original name of camas rat was un- 
doubtedly based on their fondness for the bulbs of the camas, which 
grows in great abundance in their valley but is generally scarce 
where the gophers are common. 

Economic status. For unknown ages these pocket gophersl have 
been plowing the ground, burying vegetation with their mounds, 
enriching and improving the soil for the use of man, but when the 
white man arrives they must go for they like his crops and thrive and 
multiply in his fields and orchards, and even in his dooryards and 
along his streets. On Council Crest, the scenic section of Portland, 
in 1914 their big mounds, a bushel of black earth in a place, were 
seen on some of the best-kept lawns and again were thrown out over- 
night on the concrete sidewalks so that pedestrians had to go around 
or jump over them. Again on the grassy campus of the agricultural 
college at Corvallis long lines of pocket-gopher hills added more 
biological interest than beauty to the closely mown turf. The 




FIGURE 56. Range of five forms of pocket gophers in 
Oregon: l,Thomomys bulbivorus; 2, T. bottae leu- 
codon; 3, T. &. laticeps ; 4, T. townsendii town- 
sendti; 5, T. t. nevadensis. Type localities circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 251 

farmer and orchardist, however, have a more serious grievance, for 
the gophers regularly reduce their incomes unless persistently de- 
stroyed by every possible means. 

Ordinary-sized pocket-gopher traps are not large enough to hold 
this species, and special large-size traps have to be made for them. 
These rodents are easily poisoned, however, by dropping pieces of 
sweetpotato or carrots containing strychnine into their burrows. 
Green leaves of clover or alfalfa moistened and dusted over with 
strychnine and pushed well down into the burrow would probably 
kill these as well as it does other pocket gophers. 

THOMOMYS TOWNSENDII TOWNSENDII (BACHMAN) 
TOWNSEND'S POCKET GOPHER 

Geomys toivnsendii Bachman (from Richardson's Manuscript), Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila. Jour. 8: 105, 1839. 
Tfiomomys nevadensis atrogriseus Bailey, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 27: 118, 

1914. Type from Nampa, Idaho. 

Type. Erroneously labeled "Columbia River" but evidently from southern 
Idaho and probably from near Nampa where Townsend, who collected it, 
camped to trade with the Indians on August 22, 1834. 

General characters. Large, next to bulbivarus ; ears small but pointed ; mam- 
mae in four pairs ; skull wide and angular, with slightly protruding incisors ; 
dichromatic, a dark gray and a black phase; in the gray phase upper parts 
dark buffy gray or sooty gray ; nose and face blackish ; ear patches black ; feet 
and tail gray; lower parts washed with rich buff. In the black phase dull 
slaty black all over except white patches on chin and toes and usually on lower 
part of feet. 

Measurements. Adult male: Total length, 305 mm; tail, 100; foot, 38; ear 
(dry), 7. Female: 276; 75; 35. 

Distribution and habitat. These very large and dark-gray or 
black pocket gophers occupy the fertile valley bottoms of the Snake 
River in Idaho and the Malheur, and Owyhee Valleys in Oregon, 
a rather restricted range in Upper Sonoran Zone (fig. 56). They 
do not extend into the dry sagebrush country beyond the moist and 
fertile bottom lands and usually do not overlap the range of the 
smaller forms of the surrounding country. In favorable locations 
they are abundant, and their large hills of mellow sand sometimes 
cover nearly half the surface of the ground. 

General habits. Like all pocket gophers these animals live mainly 
underground in endless tunnels, throw up numerous earth mounds, 
or " gopher hills ", and travel only as fast and as far as their burrows 
carry them. This is sufficient, however, to bring them into choice 
fields of alfalfa or other crops affording favorite food, and new 
fields in the irrigated valleys often suffer severely until the gophers 
are caught, poisoned, or driven out. On well-irrigated lands the 
water fills their burrows and soon drives them out but only to the 
edges of the fields where they soon work back if not destroyed, or 
into other fields where the water has not flooded the ground. 

Breeding habits. These pocket gophers breed early in the spring 
as shown by Everett E. Horn in experiments near Vale, Oreg., in 
1921. On March 27, a female and 5 young not yet weaned were 
taken from one burrow, and the old female was found to contain 
6 well-developed foetuses. Nine other females taken in the few 
days following were suckling young, and 4 of these also contained 



252 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

foetuses, so that at least 2 litters are produced in rapid succession 
in the early spring, and the fact that half -grown young are taken 
in traps all summer would indicate that under favorable circum- 
stances of food supply a considerable number of litters are produced 
each summer. The specimens recorded by Horn contained gen- 
erally 6 to 8 embryos, with one set of 3 and another of 10. The fe- 
males have normally 8 mammae in 2 pairs of inguinal and 2 of 
pectoral, and 8 young evidently is the normal maximum. 

Food habits. Their native food consists of a great variety of 
roots and green vegetation gathered in the burrows or about the 
openings made for throwing out earth. In places the blanched 
running root stalks of saltgrass are a staple food, but all grasses 
are eaten tops and roots, especially the tender bases. Legumi- 
nous plants seem to be favorite foods and the gophers take eagerly 
to alfalfa, eating tops, roots, and all. Most of the cultivated crops, 
including grains, vegetables, and especially potatoes and other 
root crops are eaten. 

Economic status. Locally these rodents do serious injury to crops 
and prove very annoying by running their big burrows through the 
banks of irrigation ditches and causing serious breaks, with waste 
of water and injury to flooded crops. It is thus often necessary to 
eradicate them locally, and for this purpose efficient and economic 
methods have been worked out by the Biological Survey. 

THOMOMYS TOWNSENDII NEVADENSIS MEBRIAM 
NEVADA POCKET GOPHER 

Thomomys nevadensis Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 213, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Austin, Nev., by Vernon Bailey, November 11, 1890. 

General charactws. Similar to toimisendii but slightly smaller, paler, more 
buffy gray in the gray phase, and more plumbeous black in the dark phase. 

Measurements. Type, adult male: Total length, 275 mm; tail, 90; foot, 38; 
ear (dry), 6. Female: 255; 82; 35. 

Distribution and habitat. The fertile valleys of northern Nevada 
and north into Alvord and Malheur Lake Valleys, Oreg., are occupied 
by this Upper Sonoran, Great Basin form of the townsendii group 
(fig. 56). Its present-day connection in range with townsendii is 
interrupted by many arid stretches of desert country where none 
occur, but in a series of rainy years some of these gaps could be 
passed over easily. 

General habits. In no noticeable way do the habits of this pocket 
gopher differ from those of its close relative townsendii. The coun- 
try occupied is more generally uninhabited desert, but in places the 
gophers are abundant in cultivated grounds, where their large size 
renders them especially destructive. 

THOMOMYS BOTTAE LEUCODON MERRIAM 
WHITE-TOOTHED POCKET GOPHER 

Thomomys leucodon Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 215, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Grants Pass, Rogue River Valley, Oreg., by Clark P. 
Streator, December 17, 1891. 

General characters. Rather larger than oregonus; ears very small; incisors 
slightly protruding and white tipped ; upper parts dark rusty ochraceous ; lower 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 253 

parts bright buffy ochraceous; feet, cheeks, chin, and often spots on belly 
white. 

Measurements. Average of typical males: Total length, 233 mm; tail, 70; 
foot, 30.5; ear (dry), 6. Females: 188; 60; 28. 

Distribution and habitat. From a wide distribution in Upper 
Sonoran valleys of northern California these pocket gophers extend 
up the Klamath Valley west of Lower Klamath Lake and into the 
Rogue River and Umpqua Valleys in western Oregon, reaching their 
northern known limit of range at Cottage Grove in the upper Wil- 
lamette Valley (fig. 56). 

General habits. These pocket gophers burrow extensively in hard 
clay or volcanic soil, a habit that seems to account for the protruding 
and white-tipped incisors, the tips showing scratches and wear that 
have removed the yellow enamel surface and indicate much use as 
digging tools. The animal's mounds are often composed of lumps 
of baked clay, and the burrows extend through hard ground as well 
as in the mellow soil areas in the open valley country. Rarely are 
they found in the timbered areas. Little mounds mark the lines of 
underground tunnels, and the animals are rarely seen except as 
trapped in the burrows. Often they are difficult to catch because 
they so frequently push a load of clay lumps into the trap and spring 
it ahead of themselves. 

Breeding habits. Like other members of the bottae group, they 
have 4 pairs of mammae, and the regular number of young seems to 
be 4 to 8. 

Food habits. The food of these pocket gophers includes a great 
number of the roots and plants encountered in their excavations, and 
in a fertile and well-settled valley country they find native plants 
scarce and introduced and cultivated plants abundant and often very 
acceptable food. All of the clovers and alfalfa are eaten, root and 
branch, with great relish. In a district especially noted for its fine 
fruit they do considerable damage and have to be destroyed in every 
possible way. 

THOMOMYS BOTTAE LATICEPS BAIRD 
HUMBOLDT BAY POCKET GOPHER 

Thwnomys laticeps Baird, Acad. Nat Sci. Phila. Proc. 7 : 335, April 1855. 

Type. Collected at Humboldt Bay, Calif., by W. P. Trowbridge, February 
21, 1855. 

General characters. Size and general appearance of bottae but colors 
warmer and brighter brown, less clouded with black tipped hairs ; skull aver- 
aging slightly wider and nasals especially wider ; incisors less projecting than 
in leucodon and without white tips. Upper parts rusty ochraceous or almost 
snuff brown ; lower parts light buffy ochraceous in strong contrast to upper 
parts; feet and usually half of tail, lips, and chin whitish. Summer and 
winter colors the same. 

Measurements. Average of five adult males from type locality : Total length, 
264 mm; tail, 88; foot, 33. 

Distribution and habitat. Transition Zone coast section of north- 
western California from Eel Kiver north to the Oregon line. In 
the year 1927 Jewett took some specimens on the Oregon side of 
the line near Chetco on the coast, adding this second subspecies of 
the bottae group to the Oregon list (fig. 56). 



254 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 




FIGURE 57. Range of five forms of pocket gophers in 
Oregon: 1, Thomomys douglasii douglasii; 2, T. d. 
oregonus; 3, T. niger; 4, T. quadratus quadratus ; 
5, T. columbianus. Type localities circled. 



ETHOMOMYS DOUGLASII DOUGLASII (RICHARDSON) 

DOUGLAS'S POCKET GOPHER 
Geomys doufflasii Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Amer., v. 1, p. 200, 1829. 

Type. Collected " near the mouth of the Columbia " at Fort Vancouver, 
Wash., by David Douglas, probably in 1825. 

General characters. Size medium, claws rather heavy, ears medium with 
rounded tips, skull long and narrow with flat top and abruptly decurved 
incisors minutely grooved along inner margins ; interparietal small ; pterygoids 

U-shaped. Upper parts uni- 
form dull hazel, slightly paler 
on sides; lower parts lighter, 
more ochraceous, with usually 
a white spot on breast; nose 
gray; feet and tail soiled 
whitish; usually no black 
ear patch. 

Measurements. Average of 
typical males: Total length, 
215 mm; tail, 64; foot, 30. 
Average of females : 200 ; 58 ; 
28.6. 

Distribution and habi- 
tat. Previously known 
only from the vicinity of 
Vancouver, this old spe- 
cies has been recently 
added to the Oregon list 
by A. W. Moore, who in 
1926 and 1927 collected a series of specimens at Scapoose, on the 
Oregon side of the Columbia River, some 20 miles northwest of 
Portland (fig. 57). These specimens are almost typical and certainly 
nearer to douglasii than to oregonus. 

THOMOMYS DOUGLASII OREGONUS MEREIAM 
OREGON POCKET GOPHER 

Thomomys doufflasU oregonus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 14: 115, July 
19, 1901. 

Type. Taken at Ely, near Oregon City, Oreg., by Clark P. Streator, October 
24, 1893. 

General characters. Size medium, not half as large as bulbivorus ; ears short 
and rounded ; incisors abruptly decurved ; fur long and soft in winter, short 
and harsh in summer ; yellowish or bright hazel with dusky nose and cheeks 
and black ear patch ; lower parts more ochraceous ; feet and tail soiled whitish 
or gray. 

Measurements. Average of typical adult males : Total length, 216 mm ; tail, 
67; foot, 29.5; ear (dry), 5. Females smaller. Weight 4 to 5 ounces (A. W. 
Moore). 

Distribution and habitat. For many years these little yellow 
pocket gophers were known only from the type locality, near Oregon 
City, where a good series of specimens were taken by Streator, in 
1893 ; but in 1921, Ira N. Gabrielson sent for identification specimens 
collected near Canby and Sherwood and later others were taken by 
A. W. Moore near Hillsbpro, Forest Grove, Falls City, Pedee, and 
Summit (fig. 57). A series of specimens taken by G. G. Cantwell 
2 miles west of Parkdale, Hood County, are not typical, but are best 
referred to oregonus. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



255 



General habits. The original series of 28 specimens collected by 
Streator were taken in orchards and gardens in October when heavy 
rains had washed away the mounds and all external traces of the 
gopher's work, so the burrows were located by his feet breaking 
through into them or by thrusting a cane into the ground until a 
burrow was penetrated. In August 1922, A. W. Moore secured 
specimens near Canby, Forest Grove, and Hillsboro, considerably 
extending the range of the species and learning that the pocket 
gophers were doing damage on one of the farms. He found them 
mainly in cultivated fields where the mounds were destroyed by 
cultivation and the burrows were not easily located. The farmers 
complained of their destruction of potatoes. Theo. H. Scheffer 
found them in grain and clover fields as well as on the waste land 
outside. 

THOMOMYS HESPERUS MERBIAM 

WEST COAST POCKET GOPHEB 
Thomomys Hesperus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 14 : 116, 1901. 

Type. Collected at Tillamook, Oreg., by J. Ellis McLellan, November 9, 1894. 

General characters. Small, with the small pointed ears of the fuscus 
group; color of upper parts dark rich auburn; nose and cheeks dusky; large 
ear patches black; lower parts lighter, more ochraceous; lining of cheek 
pouches white; feet and tip of tail whitish. About 10 percent of the indi- 
viduals are partly or wholly black. 

Measurements. Of large old male : Total length, 222 mm ; tail, 64 ; foot, 30 ; 
ear (dry), 6. Of adult female: 205; 60; 28; 6. (Type, immature female: 175; 
54; 24; 6.) 

Distribution and habitat. These little richly colored pocket 
gophers are found in the open valley spots in Tillamook County, 
and in southern Clatsop 
County (fig. 58). They 
are reported from 8 or 10 
miles east of Tillamook in 
the Wilson Kiver Valley 
and some 20 miles south in 
the Nestucca River Valley. 
Specimens have been ex- 
amined from Tillamook, 
Elaine, and Mount Hebo 
in Tillamook County, 
from Alsea in Benton 
County, and from Elsie in 
Clatsop County. A speci- 
men from the top of 
Chintimini Mountain and 
one from Philomath, west 




FIGURE 58. Range of five forms of pocket gophers in 
Oregon : 1, Thomomys hesperus; 2, T. monticola 
mazama; 3, T. m. helleri; 4, T. m. nasicus; 5, T. 
fuscus fuscus. Type localities circled. 



of Corvallis, are not fully 

typical of this species and probably have no connection with it in 

range, but can be referred to it better than to any other form. 

The range of this, as of many other species of pocket gopher, is 
interrupted by soil and forest conditions, and each isolated colony 
shows some slight peculiarities recognizable by the critical student 
but not worthy of recognition by name. 

General habits. These little pocket gophers make very small bur- 
rows and throw out small mounds of earth in the old fields, pastures. 



256 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

and waste places, and they would be practically harmless if they 
did not also enter the cultivated areas. They are not very active 
or energetic burrowers, evidently because the rich, mellow soil is so 
full of bulbs and roots, and so covered with dense vegetation, that 
little work is necessary to procure abundance of food. Their door- 
ways are lightly closed and often can be pushed open with the 
fingers. 

Food habits. Grass and clover are the plants most commonly cut 
about the doorway^ of the pocket gophers, merely because they are 
the most abundant plants. Over many of the little native prairies 
where they occur the wild blue-flowered camas grows in great 
abundance. In pastures where there was no camas, their stomachs 
contained only green vegetation, but the camas is undoubtedly their 
native food. 

Economic status. The county clerk at Tillamook said that $4,000 
had been paid out in bounties on moles and pocket gophers during 
1914, and over half of it on gophers, at 25 cents each. One man, he 
said, had made as high as $100 a month catching them, and one little 
girl had earned $80 in a month. Then the boys all got busy and the 
bounty fund was soon exhausted, while the pocket gophers remained 
numerous. In this mild climate where dairying is the principal in- 
dustry and clover is the most important crop, these rodents, even 
though small, are capable of doing considerable damage. 

THOMOMYS NIGER MEBBIAM 
BLACK POCKET GOPHER 

Thomomys niffer Merriaru, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 14 : 117, 1901. 

Type. Collected at Seton, near mouth of Siuslaw River, Oreg., by J. Ellis 
McLellan, October 6, 1894. 

General characters. About the size of oreffonus and similar in general char- 
acters, but with short, heavy skull. Upper parts uniform glossy black, with 
purple and green iridescence ; lower parts duller and more plumbeous ; feet 
and tip of tail white. One albino specimen was taken at Scottsburg. 

Measurements. Type : Total length, 225 mm; tail, 81; foot, 30; ear (dry), 6. 

Distribution and habitat. Known only from near the mouth of the 
Umpqua River, at Seton and Scottsburg, and in the Siuslaw Valley 
at Mapleton, Deadwood, 10 miles northeast of Deadwood, and 
Mercer (fig. 57), they occupy the small open spaces near the coast 
but have not been found in the dense timber covering most of that 
country. No peculiarities of habits have been noted. 

THOMOMYS MONTICOLA MAZAMA MERRIAM 
MAZAMA POCKET GOPHER; MO-NANA-TAM-HAS of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Thomomys mazama Merriam, Biol.. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11: 214, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Anna Creek, near Crater Lake, Oreg., by Edward A. 
Preble, September 3, 1896. 

General characters. Size medium, about as in oreffonus; rather light and 
slender; ears well developed and pointed, about 6 mm in dry skins: upper 
incisors not protruding, curved downward at right angles to axis of skull; 
upper parts bright russet brown ; ear patch blackish ; nose plumbeous ; lower 
parts rich buff or ochraceous; feet and tail whitish; tail usually gray above 
at base. 









1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 257 

Measurements. Typical males: Total length, 209 mm; tail, 66; foot, 28; 
ear dry), 6. Females : 202 ; 66 ; 28. 

Distribution and habitat. These are mountain pocket gophers 
inhabiting the Cascades, Siskiyou, and Trinity Mountains of Oregon 
and northern California, mainly in Canadian Zone, but in places 
reaching into Hudsonian (fig. 58). While living mainly in the 
meadows and open parklike places, they are often found scattered 
through the more open timber. 

General habits. The small size of these pocket gophers is generally 
compensated by the greater abundance of individuals in the mountain 
parks and meadows, where they burrow actively, not only during 
the short summers, but all winter under the deep snows. In spring 
when the snow disappears long snakelike plugs of earth lie over the 
surface of the ground, where the excavations from deeper down have 
been pushed into snow tunnels on the surface and left to freeze and 
harden. In melting and disintegrating in spring these earth coils 
show all the bits of bark, stems, wood, and refuse of the under- 
ground food pushed out with the earth and help to explain how the 
gophers can keep active during the winter. They sometimes store 
food in the burrows but do not become fat in the fall and evidently 
do not regularly hibernate, 

Breeding habits. These pocket gophers have normally the usual 
number of 8 mammae, but occasionally an extra pair of pectoral, 
making 10. Little is known from actual observation of their breed- 
ing habits, but young of various sizes are taken in traps all through 
the summer, which would indicate several litters during a season. 
Judging from other species 4 to 8 would be the probable number of 
young in a litter. 

Food habits. In summer their large stomachs are generally found 
filled with both green vegetation and the white pulp from roots, 
bulbs, and tubers, with occasionally spots of bright colors that 
serve to identify local flowers or bright-colored roots. The surface 
vegetation is gathered at the openings of their burrows before the 
earth is thrown out, or at openings made merely to reach the plants 
and then closed without throwing out a mound. In camp near 
Three Sisters one came up in the middle of the tent where the 
writer was at work, quietly preparing specimens. There was a 
muffled gnawing or scratching, then an aster stem began to move, 
and soon the tip of a little brown nose showed in the middle of a 
tuft of short grass, and the hole was quickly enlarged to allow the 
pocket gopher's head to protrude. The aster stem was cut off and 
drawn down into the burrow ; then some wide leaves and some grass 
blades were cut and stuffed into the pockets. Within a minute a 
good meal was thus gathered and the hole securely plugged from 
within. The pocket gopher safely enjoyed its morning meal below. 

Economic status. These mountain pocket gophers are often so nu- 
merous in the mellow-soil parks that their mounds cover from 5 to 10 
percent of the surface, and the burrows 6 inches to a foot below 
the surface are so numerous that one's feet keep breaking into 
them, while cattle, sheep, and deer tracks often make so many open- 
ings that the gophers are kept busy closing them. The mounds are 
usually small, a few quarts to a half bushel of earth in a place at 

7209 36 17 



258 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No, 55 

intervals of 3 feet to 1 rod apart along the line of each tunnel. The 
tunnels are constantly extended and gradually fill up as they are 
abandoned and the old nests, food refuse, and excrement are buried 
well below the surface, while the mounds are constantly burying the 
surface vegetation deeper and deeper underground. The soil is kept 
mellow and porous, and a great part of the rainfall is held in the 
ground instead of running quickly from the surface in destructive 
floods. The meadows are enriched, the forests are benefited, and 
soil erosion, the menace of the mountain ranges, is largely checked. 
To be sure, many plants are eaten that would make forage for sheep, 
but every bit of vegetation taken is eventually returned to the soil 
in such a manner that fire cannot reach it and some of the disastrous 
effects of overburning and overgrazing of the mountain parks is 
thus prevented. In very few places does this species range down 
into valleys to the level of any agriculture. 

One day in camp the cook, armed with a few traps, caught 20 of 
these little animals near the tent and dressed and cooked 16 of them 
for a supper for five. They made a good meal and were enjoyed by 
all, the meat being somewhat like squirrel, but more tender and 
rather better flavored. Broiled on the coals they are especially good, 
and they provide an always available source of meat supply in the 
mountains when game is out of season. 

THOMOMYS MONTICOLA HELLERI ELLIOT 
HELUSR'S POCKET GOPHER 

Thomotnys helleri Elliot, Field Columb. Mus., Zool. Ser. 3 : 165, 1903. 

Type. Collected at Gold Beach, mouth of Rogue River, Oreg., by Edmund 
Heller, in 1901. 

General characters. About the size and general appearance of T. mazama, 
but darker and richer in coloration, and with slenderer skull ; upper parts dull 
chestnut or mars brown ; sides and under parts becoming ochraceous ; ear 
patches intense black ; nose and face blackish, rarely a trace of white on lips ; 
tip of tail usually white. 

Measurements. Average of typical males: Total length, 203 mm; tail, 55; 
foot, 29; ear (dry), 6. Females: 195; 57; 27; 6. 

Distribution and habitat. This very dark and richly colored form 
of the monticola-mazama group is common on both sides of the 
mouth of the Kogue Kiver, at Gold Beach and Wedderburn, and 
their hills were seen back a couple of miles from the coast along the 
river bottoms (fig. 58). One set of pocket-gopher hills was also found 
on the open ridges north of the river, about 20 miles inland. 
Other hills at Port Orf ord and Pistol River, and several places south 
of the Rogue River near the coast, may also be made by this species. 
They occupy the sandy bottoms and grassy ridge tops only in the 
openings, which are scarce and isolated along this coast section. 

General habits. The pocket-gopher burrows are but lightly closed 
and easily dug open with one's fingers, or a small stick. With only 
2 gopher traps 8 gophers were caught in 1 day by going around fre- 
quently to examine the traps. The animals were active all day and 
soon came to close the openings of their burrows and were caught. 
Some had a little wild mustard, grass, and other plants stuffed in 
their pockets, showing that they had been feeding during the day. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 259 

THOMOMYS MONTICOLA NASICUS MERBIAM 

DESCHUTES POCKET GOPHER 

Thomomys naswus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 216, 1897. 

Type. Collected at Farewell Bend on the Deschutes River, west of Prine- 
ville, Oreg., by Edward A. Preble, August 4, 1896. 

General characters. Size and general characters of maza/ma but lighter and 
more yellowish in coloration; skull long and narrow with long, spreading 
nasals ; upper parts bright yellowish hazel, with plumbeous nose and ear 
patches ; lower parts rich buff ; feet, most of tail and chin, usually whitish. 

Measurement s. Type, adult male: Total length, 214 mm; tail, 69; foot, 27; 
ear (dry), 6. 

Distribution and habitat. This is the pocket gopher of the yellow 
pine forest east of the Cascades, from Farewell Bend on the Des- 
chutes to Fort Klamath, and in the Paulina and Yamsey Mountains 
(fig. 58). 

General habits. In the open yellow pine forest country these 
pocket gophers live among the trees as well as out in the meadows, 
fields, and cleared pastures. In habits they differ little from mazama 
except that at lower levels they more often come in direct conflict with 
agriculture and in many places prove so troublesome that their de- 
struction in the fields and among the irrigation ditches becomes 
necessary. 

THOMOMYS FUSCUS FUSCUS MEERIAM 

BROWN POCKET GOPHEB 

Thomomys clushis fuscus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 5, p. 69, 1891. 
Thomomys qua&ra-tus icalloica, Hall and Orr, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 46: 41, 

1933. Type from Catherine Creek, 7 miles east of Telocaset, Wallowa 

Mountains, Oreg. 

Type. Collected in mountains at head of Big Lost River, Idaho, 8,000 feet 
altitude, by B. H. Dutcher, September 28, 1890. 

General characters. Small, relatively light and slender; ears small but 
pointed; incisors not protruding; upper parts light brownish or dull walnut 
brown, not so bright as in nasicus or mazama; ear patches blackish; nose 
plumbeous; lower parts buffy; feet and tail soiled whitish or buffy. 

Measurements. Average of typical adult males : Total length, 203 mm ; tail, 
70; foot, 27; ear (dry), 5. 

Distribution and habitat. This is a small mountain pocket gopher 
of the northern Rocky Mountain region, extending west into eastern 
Washington and the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon, mainly 
in Transition and Canadian Zones (fig. 58). 

General habits. These little pocket gophers live in the meadows, 
parks, and open woods of the Blue Mountain section and range down 
into only the higher of the agricultural valleys. Their small 
" gopher hills " are often thickly scattered over the most beautiful 
and fertile parks and open places where they bury some of the grow- 
ing vegetation, and, in course of time, thoroughly plow the parks 
and mountain slopes, stirring, mixing, and mellowing the soil as 
well as enriching it, and providing mellow spots for the seeds of 
such plants as could not grow in a crowded turf. 

Breeding habits. The mammae are in four pairs, and young 
of various sizes are found throughout the summer months. Little 
is oh record, however, of their actual breeding habits. 



260 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Food habits. In places they feed extensively on. the great tuber- 
ous roots of Balsamorhiza, the broad-leaved compass plant of the 
mountains, and some of those caught have a strong odor of wild 
onions. A great variety of green plants also are eaten, and any 
grains and many other crops where raised on gopher-infested ground. 

Economic status. In unsettled country these little pocket gophers 
may be considered beneficial rather than injurious, but in fields and 
gardens, and especially in orchards and yards, where flowers and 
shrubbery are grown, they should be destroyed. 

THOMOMYS QUADRATUS QUADRATUS MEERIAM 
DALLES POCKET GOPHER; YA-ZE-BA of the Piute 

Thomomys quadratus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11: 214, 1897. 

Type. Collected at The Dalles, Oreg., by Clark P. Streator, November 2, 
1893. 

General characters. Size medium, about as in mazama; ears small; skull 
relatively short and wide, with posterior tip of nasals truncate; mammae 
normally in five pairs. Upper parts light russet brown; ear patches black; 
nose dark plumbeous ; lower parts dark buff ; tail brownish except at tip ; feet 
whitish. 

Measurements. Average of typical adult males : Total length, 210 mm ; tail, 
64; foot, 27; ear (dry), 5. Females: 195; 62; 26; 5. 

Distribution and habitat. These light-brown pocket gophers are 
more or less common over most of the sagebrush plains of eastern 
Oregon, and extend slightly into northwestern Nevada, northeastern 
California, and into southern Washington, mainly in Upper Sonoran 
Zone (fig. 57). They are most abundant along streams or in valley 
bottoms, where there is some moisture and green vegetation, and 
are absent from wide stretches of arid or barren uplands. In the 
Steens Mountains and some other desert ranges they reach high into 
the Transition Zone without sufficient variation for subspecific sepa- 
ration. 

General habits. In habits these pocket gophers do not differ much 
from fuscus except in their adaptation to more open and arid coun- 
try, where they burrow, often in great numbers, along the more 
fertile stream valleys and in the native meadows. As these are the 
choice lands for agriculture, the gophers are now mostly occupying 
fields, pastures, or meadows on farm or ranch lands. On the stock 
ranches they generally do as much good as harm, but in fields, 
gardens, and orchards they have to be destroyed to prevent loss of 
crops. 

THOMOMYS COLUMBIANUS BAILEY 

COLUMBIA POCKET GOPHER 

Thomomys fuscus columbmnus Bailey, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 27: 117, 1914. 

Type. Collected at Touchet, Walla Walla County, Wash., by Clark P. 
Streator, September 10, 1890. 

General characters. Slightly larger than quadratus; skull heavier; mammae 
normally in six pairs ; colors pale, upper parts light wood-brown or buffy gray ; 
ear and postocular patch blackish; nose slaty gray; tail gray with white tip; 
feet whitish. 

Measurements. Type, adult male : Total length, 209 mm ; tail, 60 ; foot, 28 ; 
ear (dry), 5. Female topotype: 208; 68; 27. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 261 

Distribution and habitat. The low, hot arid sagebrush country 
around the Great Bend of the Columbia in northern Oregon and 
southern Washington and up the Snake River Valley to Lewiston, 
Idaho (fig. 57). 

General habits. These large valley pocket gophers, occupying the 
sandy bottoms of the Columbia River Valley, are now found mainly 
in cultivated fields of alfalfa and grain. At Umatilla, Peck found 
them common in alfalfa fields and along irrigation ditches. Near 
Willows, or Heppner Junction, Jewett found them common through- 
out the cultivated valley in alfalfa fields and orchards and in the 
ditch banks, where they are often forced to take refuge to escape be- 
ing drowned out by irrigation of the level fields. On April 2 he 
caught a well-grown young of the year, and on April 5 took a male 
and female in the same burrow. Evidently in this mild climate 
they begin breeding early, and the large number of 12 mammae would 
indicate a prolific species. Only in adult 'females are all of the 
mammae usually developed, and some variation is shown even in 
adults. 

Unless controlled, this large, prolific pocket gopher in an irrigated 
district of intensive agriculture is potentially a serious menace to 
crops. 

ORDER CARNIVORA: FLESH EATERS 

Family FELIDAE: Cats 

FELIS CONCOLOR OREGONENSIS RAFINESQUE 

OREGON COUGAB ; MOUNTAIN LION ; PANTHER ; DOS-LOTCH of the Klamath 
(C. H. M.) ; SWO-WAH of the Nisqually (G. S.) 

Fells oregonensis Rafinesque, Atlantic Jour. 1 : 62, 1832. 

Type locality. " Western Oregon Mountains." 

General characters. Largest of Oregon cats (pi. 40, B), almost as great as 
that of the Rocky Mountain cougar, but colors darker and richer with more 
black on tail; upper parts dark tawny, or rusty brown, becoming bright cin- 
namon brown on sides ; top of tail darker brown than back, darkening into the 
long black terminal part; back of ears and spot on each side of nose black; 
lower parts whitish on chin, chest, and belly; throat tawny. Young light 
tawny, coarsely and irregularly spotted over upper parts; legs and tail dusky 
or dark tawny. 

Measurements. A large cougar killed in Josephine County measured 7% feet 
from tip to tip and weighed 150 pounds (Oreg. Sportsman 2: 15, 1914). Others 
have been recorded up to 8 and 9 feet in length, but the largest skulls do not 
equal some from the Rocky Mountains. 

Distribution and habitat. The Oregon mountain lions inhabit 
the western part of the State (fig. 59) and extend southward into 
California and northward into Washington to an unknown distance, 
as the group has not yet been monographed and limits of range are 
not definitely known. There are specimens from numerous localities 
in Oregon in and west of the Cascade Mountains, all of which are 
referable to this dark, richly colored form. They are mainly deep- 
forest animals and are generally most abundant where the greatest 
number of deer are to be found, without much regard to type of 
country. 

Abundance. Apparently they have been common in Oregon since 
the "earliest explorations as they have been mentioned by most of the 



262 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



naturalists since the days of Lewis and Clark, David Douglas, J. K. 
Townsend, Cooper, Suckley, and Gibbs. In 1884 Cope reported them 
abundant throughout the Cascade Range and said fresh tracks were 
seen daily. In 1896 Merriam, Preble, and the writer found tracks 
common along the Cascades. In 1910 reports from the Forest Serv- 
ice gave them as common on most of the national forests in western 
Oregon, and the supervisor estimated 250 cougars in the Crater Lake 
National Forest. In 1908 the Forest Service reported 14 killed on 
the Fremont National Forest. In recent years better statistics have 
shown more nearly the actual abundance of these animals. Records 
show that for the period from October 1, 1913, to December^ 31, 
1914, bounties were paid on 269 mountain lions in Oregon, the high- 
est number from one county being 85 from Douglas County. Of the 

remainder on which 
bounty was paid. 60 were 
killed in Curry County, 
28 in Jackson County, 24 
in Lane County, 18 in 
Coos County, 11 in Jose- 
phine County, 10 in Linn 
County, and 1 to 5 in 14 
other counties. The total 
amount of bounty paid on 
these animals for that 
period was $4,035. (Oreg. 
Sportsman, 3: 40, 1915.) 
In the fiscal year 1930 
Jewett reported 17 cpu- 

ars killed by Biological 
urvey hunters in Ore- 
gon, where they had been 
reported killing stock or game. While the number is insignificant, it 
shows a marked decrease in these big cats during recent years and 
that their destruction of livestock and game is being well curbed. 

General habits. Few animals are more stealthy and secretive than 
mountain lions as they hunt through the shady forests and dense 
undergrowth or lie in wait near the deer trails for their prey. Soft- 
footed and silent they sneak away at the approach of hunters and 
are rarely seen even by those much in the woods and accustomed to 
catching every motion and sound of the forest. While largely noc- 
turnal in their hunting they also under stress of hunger or necessity 
hunt in broad daylight and apparently can see equally well in day- 
light or the darkest night. They are great wanderers and except in 
the breeding season while the young are small rarely remain for 
long in one locality. For this reason they are not easily trapped, 
especially where their game is abundant and easily captured. They 
are generally hunted most successfully with dogs. Their lack of 
fighting courage is strikingly shown by the ability of any little cur 
to drive one up a tree. In rare cases a lion will refuse to tree for 
a considerable time and will fight off even a pack of hounds and keep 
running from place to place as it is overtaken. The animals are 
swift but not long-winded runners and rarely pursue their game if 
it cannot be captured with a few quick bounds. Though usually 




FIGURE 59. Ran 
in Oregon : 1, 
Jiippolestes. 



; of two forms of mountain lions 
zlis concolor oregonensis; 2, F. c. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 263 

cowardly before man and dogs they are bold in attacking large game 
animals. Apparently no choice is made between small or large deer 
or those with or without horns, and they are known to attack and 
kill a large bull elk or the largest horse if other game is not avail- 
able. They rarely attack full-grown cattle, however, but will kill 
calves and yearlings without hesitation. 

Voice. That much-discussed subject, the " scream " of the moun- 
tain lion, is a delicate one because of some confusion in the inter- 
pretation of the scream. Generally the animals are silent, but they 
are by no means without vocal powers. When treed or cornered 
they have a repelling growl and snarl and hiss, and at times when 
they are free and alone they utter a loud call or cry that suggests 
a fair compromise between the caterwaul of a tomcat and the roar 
of a lion. It is heavy and prolonged, slightly rising and falling and 
fairly well indicated by the letters o-o-W-O-U-H-u-u. On two occa- 
sions, in the woods, on dark nights the writer has heard this cry 
repeated several times at frequent intervals, and once from a cage 
in a zoological park. There was no mistaking its catlike quality in 
any of these cases, but it could hardly be called a scream. Still, if 
the animals have the vocal range of some other felines, it is not 
improbable that they make sounds that could be called screams. 
The most common mistake in regard to mountain lions is in attribut- 
ing to them the shrill " woman-in-agony scream" of the full-grown 
young of the great horned owl, which is often heard, and when close 
on a dark night is fully as terrifying as any sound a real mountain 
lion could possibly produce. 

Breeding habits. Mountain lions usually have from 2 to 6 young, 
4 being the common number. The period of gestation is about 3 
months, and the young are born irregularly from April to August, 
and by the following autumn may be half -grown cubs able to travel 
with the mother and eat a large share of the venison killed. By the 
following spring they are generally large enough to kill game and 
to take care of themselves under favorable circumstances. Whether 
they breed when a year old seems not to be known, but it is doubted 
that they do. The male assumes no family duties or responsibility 
after the young are born and is rarely found in company with the 
female except at the brief mating time late in winter or early in 
spring. 

Food habits. So far as is known, mountain lions live entirely on 
meat and almost entirely on game that they kill. Occasionally one 
will return to its kill for a second meal, but in a country of abundant 
game another animal is usually selected for the next meal. A mother 
and 3 or 4 well-grown young of the year will fairly well pick the 
bones of a deer at one sitting, and during the time when the young 
are following the mother game is killed almost daily. Just how 
often it is necessary for them to eat is not known, but evidently they 
can go for several days without eating and lose no flesh. Generally 
they are lean and muscular; but sometimes the immature animals, 
especially in a good game country, will be found with considerable 
excess fat under the skin. They do not hibernate and require food 
more or less regularly throughout the year. 

Economic status. No other predatory animal, unless it be the wolf, 
compares in its destruction of game and livestock with the mountain 



264 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

lion. The estimate that has been sometimes made of 50 deer a year 
to each mountain lion is undoubtedly far too small except in a 
country where deer are scarce and it is necessary for the animals to 
consume each kill entirely and help out its menu with stock and small 
game. A hundred deer a year to each lion would seem more nearly 
the probable destruction of these game animals. If deer are abundant 
domestic stock is usually not seriously molested, except colts, which 
are often killed in preference to deer. Calves, pigs, and sheep are 
taken wherever they are available, and in a district where game is 
scarce and domestic stock is common the financial losses caused by 
even a few mountain lions are intolerable. For this reason it has 
been found good economy to employ experienced mountain-lion 
trappers and hunters to destroy as many of the animals as possible. 
At the present time the mountain lions have been so reduced over 
most of Oregon that they are no longer a serious menace to livestock 
industries. 

Generally the cougars are cowardly and much afraid of man, but 
there are many authentic cases of their voluntarily attacking men 
and children. A man was attacked by one in 1883 near Mount Hood 
(Anonymous, 1884, p. 1161). 

The Oregon Sportsman gives credence to an account of one that 
attacked a little girl in Curry County and was killed as it sprang 
at her mother, who had come to the rescue (Oreg. Sportsman 4: 61, 
1916). 

More recently, in December 1924, a 13-year-old boy was killed and 
partly eaten by a mountain lion in Okanogan County, Wash., and the 
facts fully verified and widely published at the time (Finley, 1985). 

FELIS CONCOLOR HIPPOLESTES MERRIAM 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN COUGAR ; MOUNTAIN LION ; PANTHER ; TO-QUA-TO-HOO-OO of the 

Piute 

Fells Mppolestes Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11: 219, 1897. 

Type. Collected in Wind River Mountains, Fremont County, Wyo., by John 
Burlingame, November 1892. 

General characters. Largest of the cougar group; dull tawny with less 
black above and more white below than in oregonensis. Upper parts, including 
top of tail, dull tawny ; tip of tail, back of ears, and spot on each side of nose, 
black; lower parts whitish on chin, breast, and back part of belly, the tawny 
reaching across throat and sometimes middle of belly. 

Measurements. A large male measured in Colorado by Theodore Roosevelt 
was 8 feet from tip of nose to tip of tail, and weighed 227 pounds, and a large 
female measured 6 feet 9 inches and weighed 124 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. These large, dull-colored mountain 
lions range over the Eocky Mountain region from northern New 
Mexico to Montana and western Idaho, and probably over eastern 
Oregon, although there are no specimens from the State east of the 
Cascades (fig. 59). Hunter's skins seen in the Blue Mountains were 
certainly not of the dark west-coast form. There are records from 
many localities in the Blue Mountains and from the Steens and 
Mahogany Mountains, but apparently none from the open-plains 
country. The animals inhabit mainly forested country or canyons 
and cliffs where there is cover and concealment for them as well as 
for the large game animals on which they feed. 






North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 40 




B4617M; B4618M 

A, Oregon bobcat in Olympic Mountains (photograph by O. J. Murie); B, Oregon mountain lion killed 
in Lane County by C. A. Bartell 1 of the 4 young, inset in corner. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 265 

On September 1, 1834, J. K. Townsend in his camp in the Blue 
Mountains of Oregon heard " as we thought, a loud halloo, several 
times repeated and in a tone like that of a man in great distress." 
Early next morning a large panther was seen prowling about camp 
and the hallooing of last night was explained. The panther is said 
to inhabit these mountains in considerable numbers and has not in- 
frequently been known to kill the horses of a camping party. It has 
seldom the temerity to attack a man unless sorely pressed by hunger 
or infuriated by wounds (1839, p. 11$) . 

In 1896 mountain lions were reported as occasionally met with 
along the canyon of the Grand Ronde River. In 1897 one was seen 
freshly killed near the Wallowa River, and in the Wallowa Moun- 
tains near Aneroid Lake, at about 7,600 feet altitude, Merriam and 
the writer saw one walking leisurelv across an open meadow in the 
lodgepole pines in bright sunlight in midafternoon. The new 
snow was about 5 inches deep, and the cougar was evidently starting 
out to catch its supper. Before a shot could be fired between the 
trees, the animal had entered a willow thicket and was not seen 
again. Apparently it had slipped out through a little gulch and 
returned across its pursuers' tracks, past their horses, and up over 
the mountain side, where the horses could not go. The animal was 
followed for several miles on foot at a rapid pace, but could not 
be overtaken, although its tracks showed only a steady, long, swinging 
walk. 

In 1908 Supervisor H. Ireland reported to the Forest Service six 
mountain lions killed on the Blue Mountain National Forest. In 
1914 Jewett reported one killed near Strawberry Lake in the moun- 
tains east of Prairie City. In 1916 a few mountain lions were re- 
ported in the Steens Mountains; H. H. Sheldon saw fresh tracks 
in the trail from Diamond up to the Kiger Gorge; and one of the 
predatory-animal trappers caught one in a small trap from which 
it escaped. In 1917 L. J. Goldman reported them as occurring 
rarely in the Mahogany Mountains in Malheur County. In 1920 
G. G. Cantwell reported them as seldom seen in the Wallowa coun- 
try, but one with only 3 feet had quite a reputation in the district 
about Flora. 

In the Wenaha National Forest E. F. Averill in 1916 reported a 
small bear that had been caught in a trap by A. B. Ballard killed, 
partly eaten, and buried, trap and all, under leaves, pine needles, 
and earth at some distance from where it was caught, evidently by 
a mountain lion. 

FELIS CATUS LINNAEUS 
HOUSE CAT; DOMESTIC CAT 

Type from Europe introduced into North America in early days. 

General characters. About half the size or weight of a bobcat, with short 
legs and long tail. Colors variable, black, white, gray, yellow, spotted, striped, 
and mottled. Too well known to need description and too variable in color 
and characters to fit any description. Weight usually about 6 to 12 pounds 
but occasionally up to 22 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. Found on almost every ranch and 
farm in Oregon, as well as in city homes and in the back yards!, 
streets, and alleys. Also found commonly in forests, around fields, 



266 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

and in waste places, generally where there is cover and protection, 
but not in wide open places, for here coyotes and bobcats range 
and take especial delight in killing these smaller competitors in 
their own field of depredation. 

General habits. Tame cats are generally kept on the theory that 
they kill mice and rats, and some of them dp to some extent. More 
often, however, they prefer birds and find it easier to catch young 
birds just out of the nest than mice or rats. In the woods and 
fields they prey upon many young game birds, such as quail, grouse, 
and partridge ; upon young squirrels and rabbits ; and, where abun- 
dant, they become a serious menace to the increase of small game. 
Their depredations are mainly at night or under cover, where they 
are rarely seen, but there seems little doubt that the half -wild do- 
mestic cat is one of the most abundant and destructive of the preda- 
tory animals in the State. In future years as larger predatory 
species are destroyed the problem of controlling these introduced 
felines will certainly become more acute, as it has in other older 
States. 

The menace of pet cats as disease carriers, especially among chil- 
dren, is becoming better understood than formerly, and this has ban- 
ished these night prowlers from the family circle in many homes. 

Control methods. The spread of house cats into the woods and 
open country is in large part due to a careless and unfeeling system 
of leaving pets to shift for themselves when houses or camps are 
abandoned, or of carrying supernumerary cats or kittens to some 
lonely place in the woods and abandoning them instead of humanely 
ending their careers and giving them decent burial. To the credit 
of the cats they are not too far removed from the wild state to main- 
tain a successful existence in any mild climate where birds and 
small game abound, and as they multiply rapidly the woods are 
soon well stocked with them up to the limit of available food sup- 
ply. In Pennsylvania where their destruction of useful birds and 
small game has been appreciated at its actual significance the De- 
partment of Conservation has requested hunters to kill all cats found 
in the woods and report the number killed with their reports of 
game. As a result 6,000 to 7,000 cats have been reported destroyed 
in a year, which in part accounts for the relative abundance of small 

ame in that State. The intelligent cooperation of the people of a 
tate is all that is necessary to control this and many other local 
problems. 

It is well to see that pet cats are well fed and cared for and 
as far as possible restrained from wandering at night or hunting 
birds. A superabundance of kittens should be guarded against, and 
preferably only emasculated male cats should be kept. When it is 
necessary to kill a tame cat, drop it into a tight can or box (a metal 
trash can with tight cover is the best) ; pour in an ounce of ether, 
carbon bisulphide, or gasoline ; and keep the cover on tight for hali 
an hour. The cat inhales the gas and becomes fully anesthetized, 
goes to sleep in about 1 minute, and by being kept in the gas for a 
long time never wakes up. With carbon bisulphide or gasoline gas 
it will usually not revive after the first 10 or 15 minutes. A blow on 
the head while the animal is totally unconscious will save time in 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



267 






waiting for the fatal results of the anesthetic and will cause no pain 
to the cat. Care must be taken with any of these gases not to use 
them near a fire or light as they are highly explosive. 

LYNX RUFUS UINTA MERRIAM 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN BOBCAT; TOO-HOO-OO of the Piute at Burns 

Lynx uinta Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 15 : 71, 1902. 

Type. Collected at Bridger's Pass (18 miles southwest of Rawlins), Wyo., 
by Vernon Bailey, May 11, 1890. 

General characters. A large, long-legged, short-tailed cat with small feet, 
erect, slightly tufted ears, conspicuous side whiskers or throat ruff, skull short, 
wide, and high. Perhaps the largest of all the bobcats, skull large, heavily 
crested, and with narrow rostrum, colors pale, considerably paler than pallescens. 
In winter pelage, upper parts light tawny or rich buff, heavily frosted with 
white-tipped outer hairs, obscurely mottled with brown or dusky spots, and often 
striped along center of back with blackish; face striped and lined with black 
and white ; back of ears black with large gray central spot ; lower parts white, 
heavily spotted with black and buffy throat band; tail tawny above with 
one wide subterminal crossbar of black and 2 or 3 narrow crossbars of brown 
back of it ; tip and lower surface white. Summer pelage light tawny above 
without gray frosting. Young at first finely spotted and striped with dusky or 
blackish. 

Measurements. Of type, large adult male : Total length, 1,030 mm ; tail, 195 ; 
foot, 200; ear (dry), 60; ear tuft, 25; whiskers, 60. Skull: Basal length, 114; 
zygomatic breadth, 94. Weight of type 31^ pounds. An old male at Baker, 
Oreg., after remaining 2 days in a trap, being shot and bleeding profusely, 
weighed 27% pounds ; normally it probably weighed 30 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. These large, light-colored bobcats fill 
the Transition Zone area of the Rocky Mountain region west to the 
east base of the Cascades and north into southern Alberta and south- 
eastern British Columbia. 
In Oregon they cover all 
the sagebrush country 
east of the Cascade Range 
in both Transition and 
Upper Sonoran Zones 
(fig. 60). Their greatest 
abundance is along the 
numerous lava-rock cliffs 
and canyons, the rimrock 
country so generally dis- 
tributed over eastern 
Oregon. 

General habits. In the 
open sagebrush country 
where they abound these 
big bobcats find safe and 
comfortable homes in 
caves and caverns of the broken lavas. From these strongholds the 
cats at night prowl in the gray sagebrush, which they match so per- 
fectly in color as to be almost invisible, even by daylight, and hunt 
for such small game as mice, gophers, kangaroo rats, rabbits, and 
grouse. Also along the shelves and walls of the cliffs and canyons 
they catch wood rats and other small rodents or slip through the 
tules and tall vegetation of the lake shores in search of game birds 
and smaller prey. The whole surface of the country is covered and 




FIGURE 60. Range of three forms of bobcats in Ore- 
a : 1, Lynx \ 
Li. r. uinta. 



?on : 1, Lynx rufus fasciatus ; 2, L. r. pallesccns; 
Type localities circled. 



268 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

combed for their food supply which often includes sheep, deer, and 
antelope, where such game is to be found. They hunt mainly at 
night and are silent and little noticed, even where they are as 
numerous as the more conspicuous coyotes. 

Breeding habits. Four seems to be the usual number of young to 
a litter, but sometimes there are only 2 or 3, and again 5 or 6, born 
generally in May or June in dark caverns of the cliffs. 

Food habits. In the examination of 200 stomachs of bobcats from 
eastern Oregon by the Biological Survey predatory-animal hunters, 
95 contained rabbits of the 4 common species; 27 contained sheep 
meat ; 23, sage hens ; 13, mice of various species ; 12, ground squirrels ; 
8, pine squirrels; 3, deer meat; 3, wood rats; 1, woodchuck; 1, chip- 
munk, 3, quail; 3, small birds; 2, pheasants; and 1, sharp-tailed 
grouse. Seven others contained bird feathers and 1 grasshopper. 
This gives only a part of their food, however, as they are known to 
take pocket gophers, kangaroo rats, and practically every rodent of 
the region, besides any kind of poultry whenever it can be obtained. 
One of the common complaints is that they kill all of the domestic 
cats introduced at some of the isolated ranches, and it has been gener- 
ally observed that these Old World cats do not thrive where coyotes 
and bobcats occur. 

Econ&mic status. Next to the coyote these big cats are the great- 
est menace to the sheep herds of eastern Oregon, and their destruc- 
tion of poultry and game birds and mammals makes it necessary to 
wage constant warfare against them. On the other hand they serve 
as an important check on overabundance of rodents and wandering 
house cats, so that total extermination is not desirable, even if it were 
possible. Their fur value serves in part to limit their abundance, 
but in the sheep and ranch country it is necessary to reduce their 
numbers further by employing expert hunters and trappers. 

From October 1, 1913, to December 31, 1914, bounties of $1 each 
were paid by the State on 5,425 bobcats : 1,039, from Harney County ; 
595, from Malheur County ; 452, from Lake County ; 409, from Crook 
County ; 182, from Grant County ; 144, from Wallowa County ; 104, 
from Baker County; and smaller numbers from other counties in 
eastern Oregon. These were additional to those taken by the Biolo- 

fical Survey and State hunters and represent but a part of those 
illed by private individuals. State bounties were then discontinued, 
and control of predatory animals has since been carried on by expert 
hunters and trappers employed by the State and the Bureau of Bio- 
logical Survey. The 410 bobcats taken by Biological Survey hunters 
in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930, would indicate sufficient re- 
duction in numbers to obviate any serious losses to game, livestock, 
or poultry. 

LYNX RUFUS PALLESCENS MERRIAM 

CASCADE BOBCAT; WAL-KOT-SKA of the Klamath (C. H.M.); E^QUA of the Wasco 

Lynx fasciatus pallescens Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 16, p. 104, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Trout Lake, south base of Mount Adams, Wash., by D. N. 
Kaegi, January 10, 1895. 

General characters. Size and skull as in Lynx rufus fasciatus but general 
coloration paler, with less black on face, ears, and tail. Winter pelage, upper 
parts frosted with long white tips of outer hairs over pale tawny, faintly dappled 
with dusky and brown spots, striped and spotted along middle of back witA 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 269 

black ; stripes above and below eyes and spot on back of each ear whitish ; lower 
parts, except buffy band across throat, whitish, heavily spotted, and blotched 
with black or dusky; legs tawny, thickly spotted and specked; tail brownish 
above with 1 or 2 narrow and 1 wide subterminal bars of black ; tip and lower 
surface white. Summer pelage more reddish and less gray. Young, finely 
spotted and striped. 

Measurements. Of type, well-made skin of adult male : Total length, 930 mm ; 
tail, 130; foot, 170; ear, 50. Shelton in his field report gives the weight of 
a large male as 22 pounds 12 ounces, and another male as 23 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. This mountain bobcat is a transition 
form, ranging between typical fasciatus and uinta, and occupying 
both slopes of the Cascades from southern Oregon north to British 
Columbia (fig. 60). The specimens from the yellow pine forest 
country seem to be most nearly typical. They are rarely found in 
the spruce and fir country of the Canadian Zone summit of the range. 

General habits. Only as their type of range differs from that of 
the more western and more eastern forms of the bobcat do these inter- 
mediate animals differ in habits from the other Oregon subspecies. 
Generally they find abundance of lava-rock cliffs and caverns for 
homes and strongholds, and do part of their hunting in the forest 
and part in the open. Rabbits, squirrels, chipmunks, gophers, moun- 
tain beavers, small birds, game birds, and deer are their regular 
prejr, while the sheep herds that come into the mountains in summer 
suffer from their depredations. 

LYNX RUFUS FASCIATUS RAFINESQUE 
OREGON BOBCAT ; NORTHWEST COAST BOBCAT 

Lynx fasciatus Rafinesque, Amer. Monthly Mag. 2 : 46, 1817. 

Type locality. " Northwest Coast ", based on Lewis and Clark's description of 
specimens obtained near the mouth of the Columbia, on "Netul" River (now 
Lewis and Clark River) near Astoria, December 13, 1805. 

General characters. A large, long-legged, short-tailed cat with small feet, 
erect, slightly tufted ears, conspicuous side whiskers or throat ruff, and dark 
rich coloration (pi. 40, A). Skull short and wide with wide muzzle and heavy 
dentition. Winter coat, upper parts dark rich tawny or hazel brown, finely 
speckled with darker or blackish, obscurely striped with black on face and 
crown and sometimes along nape and back ; sides and legs more or less frosted 
with white-tipped hairs; top of tail rusty brown with 2 narrow and 1 broad 
subterminal bar of black, extreme tip and lower surface of tail white; chin, 
breast, and back of belly whitish; throat and middle of belly light tawny; 
whole lower parts and inside of legs coarsely spotted with black. Summer fur 
thin and harsh and more reddish brown. Young at birth finely striped and 
blotched above, coarsely spotted on sides and belly and striped on throat and 
cheeks. 

Measurements. Large male from Blue River, Oreg., measured by hunter: 
Total length, 915 mm; tail, 178; foot, 203; ear (dry), 63; tassel, 15; side 
whiskers, 65 ; in inches, length, 36 ; tail, 7 ; foot, 8. A well-made skin of male 
from Estacada measures 36; 6; 7 inches. Weight of large males said to be 
from 20 to 23 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. This most richly colored of all our 
bobcats occupies the humid and heavily forested area west of the 
Cascade Mountains from southern Oregon and northwestern Cali- 
fornia to southern British Columbia (fig. 60) . It is mainly a forest 
dweller, living and hunting under the deep shade of tall timber, or 
in .the dense tangle of west-coast chaparral. 

General habits. While largely nocturnal in habits, these cats oc- 
casionally hunt in the daytime. On a clear day in midafternoon 



270 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

one was surprised eating a rabbit on the side of Mount Chintimini, 
but the cat disappeared so suddenly that it left the warm and bleed- 
ing rabbit in the trail. Owing to the dense cover, their highly con- 
cealing coloration, and secretive habits, they are rarely seen alive 
except when treed by dogs or caught in traps. Their tracks are 
occasionally seen in trails or on sandy beaches, and the fur of a 
rabbit or feathers of a bird often show where they have dined in the 
forest. They are primarily hunters of small game, from mice and 
small birds to rabbits and game birds, but do not hesitate to kill 
sheep and deer when hunger demands and opportunity offers. They 
climb trees readily and quickly take refuge in the tops when chased 
by dogs. Only when trapped or cornered will they fight, and while 
no match for a good-sized hunting dog they will severely punish 
with teeth and claws any dog so rash as to attack them. 

Breeding habits. The young, as shown by examination of preg- 
nant females caught in spring, range in number from 3 to 6, and 
are generally born in April or May. They are kept in hollow logs, 
trees, or among the rocks until old enough to follow the mother and 
take part in the hunt. The male apparently a,ssumes no responsi- 
bility in the family affairs. 

Food habits. Stomachs examined by predatory-animal hunters 
have been found to contain remains of red squirrels, gray squirrels, 
snowshoe rabbits, brush rabbits, deer, sheep, and blue grouse. The 
bobcats' droppings along the trails often contain mouse hair, bones 
of gophers, Aplodontia, and feathers of birds. Generally the 
animals are able to catch plenty of game, which they prefer .fresh 
and warm, but at times they will eat cold meat when used as trap 
bait. More often they are attracted to traps by tufts of rabbit or 
squirrel fur, or by bird feathers hung above or scattered about the 
traps. 

Economic status. Besides the sheep and poultry killed by these 
invisible prowlers, the small game suffers severely wherever they are 
numerous, and they occasionally kill even deer, especially fawns. 
The extent of damage depends on their abundance, which is best 
shown by State records. From October 1, 1913, to December 31, 
1914, a $1 bounty each was paid on 5,425 bobcats ; these included 327 
in Douglas County, 271 in Coos County, 269 in Jackson County, 258 
in Lane County, 139 in Lincoln County, 121 in Clatsop County, 111 
in Josephine County, 101 in Clackamas County, 97 in Tillamook 
County, 86 in Columbia County, 78 in Linn County, 68 in Curry 
County, 38 in Washington County, 21 in Yamhill County, 20 in 
Multnomah County, and 19 in Benton County (Oreg. Sportsman 3 
(2): 40, 1915). ^ 

The destruction of mice, pocket gophers, chipmunks, ground 
squirrels, and mountain beavers affords an important check on over- 
abundance of these rodents, while the .fur value of the bobcat skins 
taken each year by hunters and trappers brings considerable money 
into the State. When the high prices of fur have prevailed the re- 
duction of these, as other fur-bearing animals, has been evident, but 
during low prices they increase and in areas where sheep are raised 
and there is relatively little trapping, it has been necessary to keep 
hunters employed all the year to reduce the number of such preda- 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



271 



tory animals. During the year 1929, the Biological Survey and 
State hunters turned in skins of 410 bobcats from the State. This 
was in addition to those taken by private parties. 

LYNX CANADENSIS CANADENSIS KEEK 
CANADA LYNX 

Lynx canadensis Kerr, Animal Kingdom, 1 : 157, 1792. 

Type locality. Eastern Canada. 

General characters. Size about as the bobcat, but with much larger feet, 
longer legs, shorter tails, longer ear tassels, longer side whiskers, and longer 
fur, giving them in winter the appearance of a much larger animal. Skull wider 
interorbitally than that of the bobcat, with heavier dentition, smaller audital 
bullae, and U-shaped instead of W-shaped interpterygoid fossa. 

Winter pelage, upper parts light frosted gray, the buffy brown underfur 
being almost concealed by the white tips of the long, soft outer hairs ; back of 
inner edges of ears, ear tassels, tufts in side whiskers, and whole tip of tail 
black; lower parts, legs, and feet light buffy gray, with generally little trace 
of spotting. Summer pelage, upper parts dark brownish gray with dusky line 
along back ; ear tips and tassels, tufts in side whiskers and tip of tail black ; 
legs and tail yellowish gray ; lower parts buffy gray to soiled whitish, faintly 
spotted along sides with dusky. Young more yellowish and more spotted and 
striped than adults. 

Measurements. Of large male: Total length, 954 mm; tail, 100; foot, 203; 
ear, (dry), 60; tassel in winter, 60; whiskers in winter, 100. Skull of adult 
male : Basal length, 110 ; zygomatic breadth, 94. Largest weight 28 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. The Canada lynx is scarce in Oregon, 
but specimens have been taken at Fort Klamath, Bend, North Fork 
John Day River, near Pendleton, at Granite in Grant County and on 
Kiger Creek in the Steens 
Mountains (fig. 61). 
There are also a couple 
of records for northern 
Nevada, which seems to 
be the southern limit of 
this boreal species in the 
Great Basin country. 
There are several verbal 
reports of their occur- 
rence west of the Cas- 
cades in Oregon, but these 
are unsupported by speci- 
mens. The general range 
of the species is across 
boreal North America 
and south in the moun- 
tains to Pennsylvania and Colorado. Subspecies have been described 
from Labrador and Alaska, but the characters remain surprisingly 
constant over an enormous area, perhaps due to the wandering 
habits of the animals. Primarily they belong to Canadian and 
Hudsonian Zones, but in times of scarcity of food, they wander long 
distances into lower zones. The Cascades and Blue Mountains are 
probably their real home, and other records are of wanderers from 
these boreal areas. 

General habits. Peculiarly adapted to life in the forest and to 
cold weather and deep snows, these big-footed cats remain in the 




FIGURE 61. Range of the Canada lynx, Lynx cana- 
densis canadensis, in Oregon. 



272 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. [No. 55 

forests as long as snowshoe rabbits and grouse are sufficiently abun- 
dant to furnish them food. Hunting by stealth, soft footed, silent, 
and invisible, they pounce upon their prey or wait by the trails until 
game comes their way. If the game proves undesirable or a man 
appears, they vanish like ghosts, and many hunters who have been 
for years in their country have never seen one alive except one 
trapped or treed by dogs. Their shadowy-brown summer coats and 
frosty gray winter coats afford remarkably perfect concealing colora- 
tion at all seasons, a protection they certainly do not need except in 
stalking their prey. In the presence of man they are usually as 
timid as rabbits, but there are records of their attacking man when 
desperate with hunger. 

Food habits. Generally their food consists of snowshoe rabbits, 
grouse, and such other small game as they can capture, but in 
Alaska Charles Sheldon found them killing mountain sheep in 
winter, and there is good reason to suspect them of killing deer and 
other large game animals when opportunity offers. Although the 
lynx is a valuable fur animal, yielding a light, fluffy fur of un- 
usual beauty and value, it is perhaps fortunate that it is not more 
abundant in the State, 

Family CANIDAE: Wolves, Foxes, and Dogs 

CANIS LYCAON GIGAS (TOWNSEND) 
NORTHWESTERN TIMBER WOLF ; GRAY WOLF ; BLACK WOLF ; ESKILOX of the Wasco 

Lupus gigas Townsend, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 2 : 75, 1850. 

Type. Collected near Fort Vancouver, Wash., by J. K. Townsend, December 
19, 1835. 

General characters. Larger than the eastern timber wolf, colors generally 
darker and richer. Size about as in nubilus of the Great Plains but much 
darker. Pelage long and dense in winter, thin and coarse with little fur in 
summer ; a long coarse mane on back of neck, a triangular cape over shoulders, 
and narrow glandular line of bristles on top of tail near base. Normal winter 
coat dull pchraceous, heavily clouded over back and tail with black tips of long 
coarse hairs ; lower parts buffy ochraceous, sometimes whitish on throat and 
back of belly ; legs and feet bright ochraceous ; occasionally black or dusky all 
over. Summer colors much the same or slightly darker and more rusty. Young 
black at birth, paling later to dusky and dull ochraceous. 

Measurements. Taken from well-tanned skin from Estacada, Oreg. : Total 
length, 1,610 mm; tail, 420; hind foot, 245; ear, inside, 94, from crown, 84. 
Skull of adult male : Basal length, 230 ; zygomatic width, 145. Skull of Town- 
send's type: Total length, 273 [10.70 inches], greatest width, 150 [5.90 inches], 
from Baird. Weight probably about 100 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. A few of these large, dark gray wolves 
are still found in the timbered country west of the Cascades in Ore- 
gon, and locally northward to British Columbia and Alaska (fig. 62). 
In recent years they have been found mainly along the west slope of 
the Cascade Range, but before extensive white settlements were made 
in the State they seem to have been common in the Willamette Valley 
and west to the coast. In 1805 Lewis and Clark reported them at 
the mouth of the Columbia, and in 1835 Townsend secured the type 
of this subspecies near Fort Vancouver, just north of the Columbia 
River. In 1834 Wyeth reported several killed along the Deschutes 
River, and in 1854 Suckley collected specimens near The Dalles. In 
1897 Captain Applegate reported them as formerly common, but at 
that time extremely rare in the southern Cascade region, 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



273 



From October 1, 1913, to May 10, 1914, bounty was paid on 30 
wolves in Oregon from Douglas County, 10; Crook County, 6; 
Clackamas County, 6; Linn County, 6; Lane County, 1, and Jackson 
County, 1 (Oreg. Sportsman 2 (6) : 19, 1914). These records prob- 
ably represented at that time the areas of greatest abundance of 
wolves in the State, and the high bounty of $25 each for timber 
wolves $20 paid by the State Game Commission added to the reg- 
ular $5 paid by the State brought in an unusual number. As they 
were submitted to Finley and Jewett for determination, the skins 
were unquestionably of wolves and not coyotes. 

Jewett reports one large male wolf taken by Fred K. Sankey, 
August 20, 1930, near Balm Mountain on the Umpqua National For- 
est, where it had recently killed several of Winlock Hendrick's sheep. 
The animal was very old with teeth much worn. Another old male 
wolf was taken by Charles 
Anway on the shore of 
Crescent Lake in Klam- 
ath County, where it 
seemed to be the only 
wolf ranging through the 
previous winter. Two 
other wolves were killed 
in Douglas County and 1 
in Lane County during 
1930, and 1 near McKen- 
zie Bridge in Lane Coun- 
ty, January 1', 1931. 

General habits. These 
large, dark-gray wolves 
are forest dwellers and 
forest hunters, rarely seen 
except when caught in 
traps and rarely caught except by the most skillful trappers. Usually 
silent, shy, and stealthy, they follow the game trails or slip through 
the deep shadows of the forest, disappearing at the first sign of 
danger. The long musical howl of the wolf cannot be mistaken for 
the yap-yap of the coyote. They are exceedingly intelligent in recog- 
nizing and avoiding danger and have only man to fear, either as a 
competitor in the hunt, or as a deadly enemy. Originally their game 
was the black-tailed deer and powerful Roosevelt's elk, but now it 
is mainly deer and any domestic cattle or sheep that come within 
their reach. Usually they catch their prey by the ham or flank, tear- 
ing out the flesh and sinews, often hamstringing the larger animals 
and rendering them helpless to be torn and eaten at leisure. Blood- 
thirsty in their hunting methods and terribly destructive to game 
and livestock, they are nevertheless among the most intelligent of our 
native animals and most difficult to trap or hunt successfully. 

Breeding habits. The Oregon Sportsman reports a female con- 
taining four foetuses taken near Estacada the last week in March 
and cites other records of young or mothers suckling young in 
summer, but these give little data regarding breeding season. How- 
ever, there seems no reason for supposing that the breeding habits 
differ from the better-known gray wolves of the Great Plains, which, 

7209 36 18 




FIGUBE 62. Range of the two forms of the t>ig 
Oregon : 1, Canis lycaon gigas; 2, O. I. 
Type locality circled. 



wolves inJDregon 
nubilus. 



274 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

when fully adult, usually have from 7 to 11 young at a litter in 
March or April, and remain associated as a family, or pack, led by 
the old male through summer and fall to the beginning of the next 
breeding season. The breeding dens are usually large holes in banks, 
under rocks, log jams, or in hollow logs where the little black puppies 
are guarded with great care until they are large enough to come out 
and follow the parents to the kill and later to join in the hunt. 
Apparently the first litter of young is small, often only 3 or 4 pups. 
The male and female mate for one or more seasons. The male de- 
votes all his time and energy to protecting, feeding, and leading his 
family until the young are full grown and able to kill their own 
game. 

Food habits. The wolves are hunters, and, where game is plentiful 
kill as they need food and usually more than is eaten. If large game 
is scarce, they will kill rabbits or any small animals, or attack do- 
mestic stock on the range. Their diet is almost entirely meat, 
usually freshly killed, but in case of hunger any old carcass that 
can be found will furnish a meal. Among the Olympic Mountain 
elk herds, wolf droppings along the trails are generally composed 
entirely of elk hair, while in areas where there are no elk and plenty 
of deer, deer hair predominates. Stomachs examined by trappers 
show deer, sheep, and rabbit meat, accompained by enough of the 
hair to readily identify the animals. Deputy Game Warden Ben S. 
Patton, of Estacada, caught an old female wolf on the upper Clack- 
amas Kiver on June 6, 1914. With her family of young, she had 
eaten all the skinned body of a recently killed bear. The old wolf 
was caught in traps baited with fish heads (Oreg. Sportsman 2 (7) : 
16, 1914). 

Economic status. These large wolves are so destructive that 
neither game nor domestic stock can be successfully maintained 
where they are present in any considerable numbers. Fortunately, 
however, they keep as far as possible from settlements and civiliza- 
tion, and owing to this restricted range are more easily controlled 
than are the coyotes. In Oregon, at the present time, they are so 
nearly under control that their damage is negligible, but a careful 
watch must be maintained to keep them from getting a fresh start. 

CANIS LYCAON NUBILUS SAY 

BUFFALO WOLF; GRAY WOLF; PLAINS WOLF; LOBO; HOHNI of the Cheyenne 

(Wied) 

Canis nubilus Say, Long's Exped. to Rocky Mountains, v. 1, p. 169, 1823. 

Type locality. Engineer Cantonment, near Blair, Nebr. 

General characters. Larger than the eastern timber wolf with heavier 
skull and paler coloration. About the same size as gigas, but with longer, 
lighter skull and general coloration much lighter gray, some individuals be- 
coming almost white. In winter fur light gray from the combination of cream- 
colored underfur overlain with the black tips of long outer hairs ; back of ears 
and top of nose buffy ; face clear gray ; feet and legs creamy white, nose pad, 
lips, and eyelids black. Summer coat darker and more yellowish gray. Young 
black at birth, soon fading to dusky and buffy gray. 

Measurements. Adult male from Coif ax County, N. Mex., measured in the 
flesh by E. T. Seton : Total length, 1,575 mm; tail, 406; weight, 102 pounds. 
Well-tanned skin of large male from Miles City, Mont.: 1,750; 400; 245; ear, 
9o. Skull of large male from Montana: Basal length, 230; zygomatic breadth, 
145. Skull of large male from Fort Kearney, Nebr,: Total length, 258 (10.15 
inches) ; greatest width, 137 (5.4 inches). 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 275 

Distribution and habitat. These large, light-gray wolves of the 
Great Plains region still extend westward into central Idaho and 
supposedly belong to the form once found with the buffalo in eastern 
Oregon (fig. 62). In 1916 Wm. F. Schnabel, of Caldwell, Idaho, 
wrote to the Biological Survey that, about 1889, " Old Chief Yakima 
Jim told me that when he was a boy there were lots of wolves in the 
Cow Creek Lakes Country " in extreme eastern Oregon. The age of 
Yakima Jim was then supposed to be about 110 years, which carries 
the record back to perhaps 1789, the time when the buffalo were com- 
mon there. In most of the records of " wolves " killed by trappers 
of the early expeditions in eastern Oregon no distinction was made 
between large wolves and coyotes. In 1854 Suckley reported them 
very numerous in Oregon and Washington from the Cascades to the 
summit of the Rocky Mountains, and especially in the Blue Mountain 
country. In 1915 Jewett reported a large wolf killed in Logan 
Valley, Grant County, near the Strawberry Mountains in the Blue 
Mountain Plateau, the skin of which he saw. This is the only recent 
reliable record of a wolf killed in that section. 

On June 27, 1927, Elmer Williams, one of the Biological Survey 
predatory-animal hunters, trapped an old male wolf on the Sycan 
Marsh, east of Fort Klamath, that had been credited with killing 
a great number of cattle and some horses over a period of 12 years 
in that section. It was almost white, possibly owing to age, as the 
much-worn teeth showed it to be an old wolf. It had the heavy 
muzzle of gigas but less thickened carnassial tooth and a low, wide 
coronoid process of the lower jaw that suggest a variation from 
either typical gigas or nubibus, possibly a remnant of the form 
that occupied the sagebrush country when the buffalo were there in 
abundance. 

The lower jaws, some extra teeth, and a part of the skeleton of a 
wolf taken from the South Ice Cave, about 40 miles south of Bend, in 
December 1927, by W. J. Perry of the Forest Service, show the same 
tooth and jaw characters as the Sycan specimen, possibly even more 
strongly marked. These bones are old, but probably only a century, 
or such a matter, as the cave is not very dry and bones would prob- 
ably not have lasted for a great length of time in it. Until more 
material is obtained from caves or otherwise it is not advisable to 
recognize a separate form on such slight characters as are shown 
in the present scanty material, and for the present these specimens 
seem best referred to the plains wolf. 

Joseph Mailliard's (1927, p. 358) reports of two large wolves seen 
near Straw, Modoc County, Calif., just southeast of Tule Lake, by 
Game Warden Courtwright in October 1922, would suggest the pos- 
sibility of a few wolves then ranging in the Klamath section or 
possibly the Sycan wolf and his mate may have wandered down 
there at that time. The importance of obtaining specimens, even 
any old skulls, from this region or anywhere east of the Cascades 
cannot be too strongly emphasized. 

Senior Forest Ranger George O. Langdon reports a wolf track 
seen in the fall of 1930 near Desolation Butte on the Whitman 
National Forest in the Blue Mountains, probably the latest record 
of this species of wolf in Oregon. 



276 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 56 



CANIS LATRANS LESTES MERKIAM 

MOUNTAIN COYOTE; NORTHWESTERN COYOTE; EJA AH of the Piute; 
KO-LA-A WAS of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Canis lestes Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 11 : 25, 1897. 

Type. Collected on Toyabe Mountains, near Cloverdale, central Nevada, by 
Vernon Bailey, November 21, 1890. 

General characters. Large but slightly smaller than latrans, about the size 
of nebracensis, but darker and with lighter dentition. Wolf like in appearance 
(pi. 41), with erect, pointed ears, bristling mane on back of neck, and triangular 
cape of long hairs back of shoulders ; elongated, bristle gland on top of tail 
near base ; long, soft fur in winter ; thin harsh hair in summer. Winter pelage : 
Upper parts light brownish gray over buffy underfur, the long coarse outer 
hairs heavily tipped with black on mane, cape, back, top, and tip of tail ; back 
of ears rusty brown ; muzzle, crown, outside of legs, and lower surface of tail 
bright yellowish brown ; lower parts, except gray throat band, buffy or creamy 
white ; nose pad, eyelids, lips, claws, and soles of feet black. Summer pelage 
thin and harsh, darker and more brownish than in winter. Young dusky or 
dark brown at birth, becoming buffy gray later. Skull of medium size with 
heavy dentition when compared with southern forms, lighter dentition than in 
latrans and nebracensis. 

Measurements. Type, adult male, measured in flesh by collector: Total 
length, 1,116 mm; tail, 320; hind foot, 200; ear (dry), 85. Skull of type: Basal 
length, 170; zygomatic breadth, 102. Weight estimated at about 30 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. Coyotes cover most of the State, except 
the coastal slope west of the Willamette and Umpqua Valleys. In 
the southwestern corner of the State they occasionally reach almost 

to the coast on the lower 
Rogue River and on Pis- 
tol River (fig. 63). They 
are scarce west of the 
Cascades and in the 
higher part of the range 
but abundant and gener- 
ally distributed over the 
sagebrush plains east of 
the mountains. A large 
number of specimens, in- 
cluding both skins and 
skulls, from over the 
State show little constant 
variation except slightly 
darker colors west of the 
Cascades. However, the 
size and skull characters 

are near to those of lestes, to which they are all referred. Until the 
coyotes are more fully studied it seems best to refer all specimens 
from central Nevada north to Alaska to this large, northern form. 

General habits. Coyotes are far more adaptable to varied condi- 
tions and environment than are the large wolves, but seem to prefer 
the open country and especially the arid sagebrush areas. Bold and 
cunning, they have little fear of man or dogs and thrive among farms 
and often up to edges of towns. Though mainly hunters of small 
game, they will boldly attack and kill deer, antelope, sheep, goats, 
and calves, or feast on old carcasses of any game or stock found 
dead, proving somewhat useful scavengers as well as most destructive 
predatory animals. 




FIGURE 63. Range of the coyote, Canis latrans lestes, 
in Oregon. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 41 






PET COYOTE. 
Photographed at Guano, Oreg., by Stanley G. Jewett. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 277 

To a great extent they are wanderers, moving from place to place 
in search of food, following the sheep and game herds high into the 
mountains in summer and oack to the valleys in winter, or, in time 
of scarcity, seeking new ranges in quest of food. Still they seem 
to have a strong home instinct and apparently return to their home 
breeding grounds when possible. Easy and rapid travelers, they 
cover a wide nightly range, but are often seen abroad in daylight, 
gliding through the sagebrush, loping across meadows, or hunting 
for mice and ground squirrels in the fields. At times they are bold 
and inquisitive, coming close to unarmed humans, or actually into 
dooryards for poultry; but usually they are shy and wary, keeping 
well out of rifle range during daylight. 

Noisiest of all our wolf tribe, they are more often heard than seen. 
Their yap, yap, yap, yi, yi, yi, followed by a long shrill ow, ou, ou, ou, 
ou, rings far in a still night, so fast and jumbled that the voice of 1 
often sounds like 2, and 2 in chorus sound like 6, in a real call of 
the wild, and a neighboring cliff sometimes doubles or quadruples 
these sounds. On special occasions they are heard in the daytime, 
but most commonly in evening or early morning, at the opening or 
closing of the night's hunt. 

Breeding habits. Four years' records of the predatory-animal 
hunters in Oregon show January as the mating time and April in 
most instances as the month of birth. Females containing foetuses 
have been taken as late as April 29, while newly born young have 
been found in the dens as early as April 5 and 6. The period of ges- 
tation is about 65 days. Some of the females may not breed when 
a year old, but others apparently do, producing a small number of 
3 or 4 young. The number of young in a litter, as shown by exami- 
nation of embryos and litters of young in the dens in 110 cases in 
Oregon, runs as follows: One litter of 12 young; 7 of 10; 10 of 9; 
22 of 8; 11 of 7; 26 of 6; 22 of 5; 10 of 4; and 1 of 3. The average in 
this series is 6% young to a litter. 

At birth the young are very dark brown or sooty black, and almost 
invisible in the darkness of deep burrows, caves, or hollows of badland 
banks, or under masses of broken rocks. When old enough to toddle 
out of the den and play about the entrance, they are a yellowish-gray 
or clay color, harmonizing well with the bare ground or clay banks. 

Coyotes breed but once a year and the family, including the male, 
usually remains together well into the autumn, the old male doing 
much of the hunting and killing of game for the young. Often, 
however, the family is broken up and scattered by hunters or dogs, 
and only occasionally are they seen together after the young are full 
grown. Whether the same male and female remain as a pair year 
after year is not definitely known, but early in January they are 
found running in pairs and when the young are small the male is 
generally on guard near the den. In July when the half-grown 
pups are out of the den both parents are exceedingly active and 
anxious in guarding and leading them and will often risk their lives 
to attract hunters away from the young. 

Food habits. While mainly meat eaters, coyotes have a wide range 
of food besides the flesh of mammals and birds, including snakes, 
lizards, salamanders, frogs, insects, and a great variety of fruits 
and berries. The following list of foods noted in the field examina- 



278 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

tion of 450 stomachs of coyotes trapped, shot, or poisoned by the 
Biological Survey predatory animal hunters in Oregon, 1917 to 1920, 
give a rough idea of prevailing food. Many of the stomachs of 
animals long in the traps were empty or contained only sticks and 
earth, and some of the meat may have been from trap bait, but on 
the whole a fair range of food is shown. 10 Of these 450 coyote 
stomachs, 177 contained rabbits, including the two species of ]ack 
rabbits, cottontails, and snowshoe and pygmy rabbits ; 172 contained 
sheep meat, easily recognized by the wool; 77 disclosed ground 
squirrels, including several species; 38 contained mice; 8 contained 
porcupine; '5, woodchuck; 5, deer; 4, cattle; 3, pigs; 3, pine squirrel; 
2, antelope; 2, chipmunks; 2, wood rats; 1, gray squirrel; 1, pocket 
gopher, and 1, badger. One stomach contained a rattlesnake, and 1 a 
green frog. Thirty-seven contained remains of sage hens; 9, of 
poultry; 5, ducks; 2, prairie chickens; 2, quail; 2, meadowlarks; 
1, pheasant; 1, owl, and 4, bird feathers. Ten stomachs contained 
grasshoppers; 1, beetles, and 1, angleworms. Fourteen stomachs 
contained juniper berries; 3, chokeberries ; 3, apples; 2, rose haws; 
1, prunes, and 7, green grass. 

Other stomachs examined in the field have shown the shells of eggs 
of ducks, sage hens, and other ground-nesting birds, garter snakes, 
lizards, horn toads, salamanders, and greater numbers of pocket 
gophers and wood rats than are indicated in the foregoing list. The 
large number of stomachs containing remains of sheep may be ex- 
plained partly by the fact that the efforts of the predatory-animal 
hunters have been concentrated in areas where coyotes were doing 
most damage to the sheep industry of eastern Oregon. Otherwise the 
bulk of coyote food generally consists of game, rabbits, ground 
squirrels, meadow mice, and gophers. 

Economic importance. Because of its abundance and wide distri- 
bution, the coyote is the most destructive predatory animal in Oregon, 
if not in the whole continent of North America. The animals' dep- 
redations are most serious to the sheep industry, and in places, with- 
out some check or control, they would render the industry unprofit- 
able. They occasionally kill calves, pigs, goats, and poultry, and are 
very destructive to game, killing many deer, antelope, mountain sheep, 
young elk, sage grouse, prairie chickens, pheasants, quail, ducks, geese, 
and other small game, besides eating the eggs of ground-nesting game 
and other birds. The remarkable increase in certain localities of elk, 
deer, antelope, and sage hens in recent years can be credited largely to 
reduction in abundance of coyotes. 

On the other hand, they may serve a useful purpose in checking 
overabundance of jack rabbits, cottontails, ground squirrels, wood- 
chucks, gophers, meadow mice, and other small rodents. Even their 
insectivorous tastes may at times be useful in grasshopper and 
cricket plagues, while their destruction of house cats that have taken 
to the wilds has a value of growing importance. Still, in times of 
greatest abundance of these pests they have not prevented serious 
plagues of rabbits, meadow mice, and ground squirrels, 

10 Horse meat used for poison bait was reported in many stomach examinations but 
is not included in this list. Most of the trapping is done with scent bait, so that only 
in rare cases can any of the food be attributed to trap bait. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 279 

Absolute extermination of the coyotes over any considerable area 
is practically impossible and is undesirable, but a wise control of 
their abundance locally is necessary for the best interests of stockmen, 
farmers, and all concerned. Fortunately their fur has a value which 
partly checks their numbers and pays a considerable share of the 
expense of systematic and organized control. 

Highly efficient and economical methods of trapping and poisoning 
coyotes have been worked out and put into practice by Biological 
Survey experts, and full directions have been published, so as to 
enable others to cooperate in a wide-spread campaign for their con- 
trol. Directions for trapping and poisoning can be had by applying 
to the Biological Survey. Improved methods are given from time 
to time as they are discovered and tested. 

Hydrophobia became very prevalent among the coyotes of eastern 
Oregon in 1914 and continued up to about 1920, causing great loss of 
domestic stock and many human lives. Many dogs were bitten. 
These conveyed the disease to stock and people, and a serious epidemic 
of one of the most dreaded diseases ensued. The force of animal 
hunters was increased and concentrated in the localities where rabies 
was most prevalent until the number of coyotes was so reduced that 
the disease was checked and finally put under control, but not until 
serious losses of life and property and heavy expenses had been 
suffered. In future such outbreaks can be controlled much more 
promptly from the experience gained in this case, and if carefully 
watched need not spread over such extensive areas. 

CANIS FAMILIARIS LINNAEUS 
DOMESTIC DOGS 

Canis familiaris Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., p. 56, 1766-99. 

Type locality. Sweden. 

General characters. Varying widely from pug and poodle to bulldog, grey- 
hound, mastiff, great dane, and innumerable other varieties of unknown origin. 
Distinguished from our large wolves by generally smaller size, lighter dentition, 
relatively shorter, wider, higher skulls, and from the coyotes by less slender 
and elongated skulls and by lack of well-developed inner cusp, or protocone, 
of upper carnassial tooth. In this, as in other characters, they show closer 
affinity with the wolves of some ancient forms from which they are supposed 
to have originated, than with our modern wolves. 

Varieties. No attempt will be made to define or even list by name the 
domestic varieties of dogs in Oregon, as probably most of the well-known forms 
of the world would be included. A brief list of the varieties noted among 
the aborigines during the days of early settlement of the State may, however, 
serve a useful purpose in bringing to light further information and possibly 
the preservation of additional specimens and records for a later and more com- 
prehensive study of the Canidae. Any skulls or skeletons of dogs from caves 
or ancient burial sites should be preserved for study in local collections or 
museums, or sent to the United States National Museum, at Washington, D. C., 
accompanied by full data. 

To Suckley and Gibbs (1860, pp. 89-139) of the Pacific Kailroad 
surveys, the writer is especially indebted for important notes on dogs 
found among the Indians of Oregon in 1853 to 1855, and more re- 
cently to Glover M. Allen (1920, p. 431) of Cambridge, Mass., for 
bringing together in the Proceedings of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology for 1920 the scattered information on the aboriginal dogs of 
North America. 



280 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

PLAINS INDIAN DOG 

Canis familiaris canadensis Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Amer., v. 1, p. 80, 1829. 

Wolflike dogs, with erect, pointed ears, drooping tails, and yellow- 
ish gray, black, white, or spotted coats, were kept in great num- 
bers by most of the Plains Indians and reported among the Indians 
at The Dalles in 1854 by Suckley and Gibbs. These animals were 
generally considered to be a mixture of dog and coyote. This opinion, 
however, seems to have been based on general appearance, size, and 
on the well-known fact that they were often crossed with wild 
coyotes. 

These dogs were generally used by the Indians for hunting and 
packing and over much of the West were an important source of food 
for the natives. Suckley and Gibbs, however, state positively that 
none of the Oregon Indians ate their dogs, but that they used them 
for driving elk and deer. 

SHORT-LEGGED INDIAN DOG; CARRIES INDIAN DOG 

Canis familiaris novacalidoniae Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Amer., v. 1, p. 82, 
1829. 

A small, long-bodied, short-legged dog of the Turnspit kind, with 
large head, erect ears, fur short and sleek, longer on tail, was reported 
by Richardson from British Columbia, and by Suckley and Gibbs 
from The Dalles, Oreg., and Eel River, Calif. Usually white or 
spotted with black and white or liver color and white, these were 
kept by the Indians as playmates for the children and pets for the 
women. But even in the 1850's Suckley says that throughout Oregon 
the native dogs were intermingled largely with imported dogs. Some 
of the purebred original stock may still be found among certain 
Indians, but skulls from caves and old burial places and shell heaps 
will probably prove more satisfactory for study. 

KLAMATH INDIAN DOG 

Canis familiaris klamathensis, New name. 
Suckley (I860, p. 112} says : 

"On the Klamath is a dog of good size, with a short tail. This is not more 
than 6 or 7 inches long and is bushy, or rather broad, it being as wide as a 
man's hand. I was assured they were not cut and I never noticed longer tails 
on the pups. They have the usual erect ears and sharp muzzle of Indian dogs 
but are (what is unusual with Indian dogs) often brindled gray'' 

This seems to be the only mention of such a dog among any In- 
dians, and unfortunately there are no specimens from which to 
amplify this meager description. Some day, when the numerous 
lava caves of the Klamath country are carefully explored, there will 
undoubtedly be brought to light considerable numbers of skulls of 
dogs of unquestionable aboriginal origin, and these should be pre- 
served with the greatest care. 

CLALLTJM INDIAN DOG 
Canis laniaer Hamilton Smith, Jardine's Nat. Library, v. 10, p. 134, 1840. 

Described as a medium-sized dog with erect, pointed ears, sharp 
nose, and bushy tail, hair thick and woolly, white, or perhaps brown 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 281 

and black, the Clallum dog has the hangdog, thievish appearance of 
other Indian dogs. First reported by Vancouver, later by Suckley 
and Gibbs, and by Lord as abundant in the Puget Sound section 
among the Chinook Indians and at the mouth of the Columbia, this 
dog is now apparently extinct (Douglas Leechman, 1929, p. 176). 

Large numbers of these dogs were kept by the Indians and sheared 
for wool to be woven into blankets and rugs. Gibbs says that in 
his time (1855) the fur, or hair, was generally intermixed with 
ravellings of old English blankets to facilitate twisting with yarn. 
These were stretched over a frame and then interwoven, leaving 
when finished a fringe where the ends were separated. One of these 
dog's wool blankets made of this material and one made of dog's 
wool and duck's feathers mixed were sent to the Smithsonian. 
Suckley says the native dogs of Oregon subsisted well upon fish 
which "they did not hesitate to eat raw, though it would make any 
blooded dog from the East sick and scarcely 1 out of 10 would re- 
cover (Suckley and Gibbs, 1860] p. 11%). 

While the dog is often man's closest and most devoted friend, 
capable of deep and lasting affection, devoted service, and useful 
in a thousand ways, it is quite possible to accumulate so many dogs 
that they become a curse instead of a blessing. This seems to have 
been too often the case among the Indians, especially those who 
did not use them as food. Among the white races a great number 
of dogs is often considered a sign of poverty, varying in direct 
ratio to the number of dogs. Under such conditions there is a 
tendency to let the dogs live on the wildlife of the country as far 
as possible. In parts of Oregon in past years this has caused a 
heavy drain upon the game resources of the State, and various 
means of checking the abuse have been tried. Also with an un- 
necessary number of dogs there is always the great danger from 
the dread disease of hydrophobia, or rabies; and in special cases 
there have been considerable losses of domestic stock, sheep, pigs, 
and cattle through the depredations of neglected, half -starved, and 
half-wild curs. In some cases dogs have become entirely wild and 
proved even worse stock killers than wolves or coyotes. 

Thus the problem of dogs in their human relations is closely akin 
to that of the native animals of the State and is one that requires 
as careful study and intelligent consideration as any of the eco- 
nomic animal problems of the country. 

VULPES FULVUS CASCADENSIS MERMAM 

CASCADE RED Fox; YELLOW Fox; WAN-NA of the Klamath (O. H. M.) ; WA-NIE 

of the Piute 

Vulpes cascadensis Merriam, Wash. Acad. Sci. Proc. 2 : 665, 1900. 

Type. Collected at Trout Lake, south base of Mount Adams, Wash., by P. 
Schmid, March 3, 1898. 

General characters. Form slender and light with large, erect ears, long bushy 
tail, small furry feet, light skull with medium crest, small teeth, very long, soft 
fur, and conspicuous white tip to tail. Color varying from light yellow to dark 
gray or silver tipped and black. Yellow phase in winter, upper parts bright 
buffy yellow, richest on sides of neck and back of shoulders, palest on face and 
cheeks, slightly brownish on back and legs, and grayish on tail; back of ears 
and feet mostly black ; tip of tail white ; lower parts bright yellow or orange, 
with more or less white on throat and hinder part of belly. In gray or " cross 



282 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 




fox " phase, upper parts largely black or dusky, overlaid with whitish or straw- 
colored tips of long hairs, the clear yellow usually appearing on sides of shoul- 
ders, neck, and face ; back of ears, nose, tail, and feet black or blackish ; tip of 
tail always white ; lower parts yellow, with black throat and belly. In silver- 
gray phase all black, upper parts frosted with white-tipped hairs; tip of tail 
white. In black phase all black, except white tip of tail. Young at birth dark 
brown or black, with tip of tail white. 

Measurements. Average of three males from type locality: Total length 
1,070 mm ; tail, 412 ; foot, 178 ; ear (dry) , 83. Skull of type : Basal length, 133 ; 
zygomatic width, 70. Weight about 8 to 12 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. These yellow foxes inhabit the Cascade 
Range in Washington and Oregon, and extend south into the north- 
ern Sierra Nevadas, but the limits of their range are not well defined 

(fig. 64). There are spec- 
imens from Mount Hood, 
The Dalles, South Ice 
Cave (40 miles south of 
Bend), Fremont, and near 
Fort Klamath. Also they 
are reported from the 
Lower Deschutes Valley, 
the Klamath Lakes, from 
the mouth of the Colum- 
bia by Lewis and Clark in 
1805, from near Tilla- 
mook by A. K. Fisher in 
1897, and from Mount 
Hebo, west of Corvallis 
by Elmer Williams in 
1930. A beautiful speci- 
men was collected for the 
Biological Survey by H. D. Langille at Cloudcap Inn, near timber 
line on Mount Hood, on October 10, 1896, and another in the Wood 
River Mountains near Fort Klamath by B. L. Cunningham on 
December 24, 1897. 

In 1855 Suckley and Gibbs (1860, p. 113) collected specimens and 
reported them common at Fort Dalles, Oreg. (The Dalles), where 
large numbers of skins of all four forms red, cross, silver, and 
black were reported among those brought in to the fur traders. 
The great variation in color was very confusing to the settlers there, 
as every shade of intergradation was shown among the four color 
phases. 

In addition to the specimen records there are reports of foxes 
by Suckley and Gibbs from the Klamath Lakes country in 1855, 
by Lewis and Clark at the mouth of the Columbia in 1805, and 
by A. K. Fisher near Tillamook in 1897. In more recent times they 
have been reported from Swan Lake Valley, Yamsay Mountain, 
Klamath Lake, Crater Lake, Mount McLoughlin, Paulina Moun- 
tains, Cascade range west of La Pine, and about the Three Sisters 
Peaks. Also Cantwell in April 1919, reported seeing four very pale 
skins that had been taken at 6,000 feet on Mount Hood. Usually 
these foxes are absent from the densely timbered or brushy areas 
west of the Cascades, as well as from the arid sagebrush valleys 
east of the range. Open grassy parks and meadows afford their 
favorite hunting grounds, and the greatest abundance of mice and 
small rodents on which they largely subsist. 



FIGURE 64. Range of the two forms of red foxes in 
Oregon: 1, Vulpes fulvus cascadensis; 2, V. f. 
macrourus. Type localities circled. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 283 

General habits. Alert, cautious, cunning, swift, and quick to take 
alarm, these graceful and beautiful animals generally hold their 
own, even among settlements and where hunting and trapping is 
prevalent. They live largely in the open where their speed saves 
them from most enemies except men and dogs, and even from these 
their intelligence and cunning usually saves them. To a great extent 
they occupy the areas where coyotes are not common, either because 
these are rival hunters of mice and small game, or because they are 
old-time enemies with the size advantage all in favor of the coyote. 
Apparently there is little difference in speed of the two, but the 
big brush of the fox gives him a decided advantage in turning and 
dodging. It is a noticeable fact that in the range of coyotes red 
foxes live and breed mainly among or near rocks where they find 
safe retreats for their dens and young, while in the Eastern States 
they live mainly in earth burrows. Otherwise the habits of red 
foxes are much the same across the continent. 

Stealthy hunters of small game, they pounce upon mice, chip- 
munks, ground squirrels, birds, and rabbits, or catch them in quick 
runs and sudden turns. The great brush of a tail is not only orna- 
mental, but extremely useful in pursuit of prey as well as flight from 
enemies. Few animals are so quick and agile or so light and graceful 
in motion. 

They are more often heard than seen, their short, sharp little 
bark, like that of some small dog but more rapid and prolonged, 
being heard in the evening or morning. Usually the long lines of 
delicate tracks in the snow, the prints of the narrow, furry feet in 
dusty trails, or the pungent almost musky odor greeting one's nostrils 
in the dewy morning, furnish the only evidence that a fox has passed 
along in the night. 

Breeding habits. A litter of red foxes usually numbers 5 to 9, 
born in April or May in eastern localities. There seem to be no 
Oregon records of breeding. The young are raised in carefully 
hidden dens under rocks or in holes dug under or near a rocky 
cover. 

Food habits. To their staple diet of mice, gophers, ground squir- 
rels, chipmunks, rabbits^ and other small game, are added, in their 
seasons, birds, birds' eggs, poultry, insects^ and many berries and 
fruits. Meadow mice usually furnish a large item of their food, but 
whatever small game is most abundant and most easily captured 
seems to predominate in the animal's food. Their droppings scat- 
tered along the trails furnish a good index to their food, and hair, 
bones, teeth, feathers, and often the skins and seeds of fruit can be 
recognized in the old dry pellets. Their well-known fondness for 
poultry often gives them a bad reputation among the farmers, and a 
trail of scattered feathers is generally attributed to the work of a fox. 

Economic status. Red foxes serve as an effective check on over- 
abundance of mice and small rodents, but they also destroy much 
small game and the eggs of game and song birds, poultry, and prob- 
ably some young fawns and lambs. They are not sufficiently abun- 
dant or generally distributed to do serious damage, and their value 
as fur bearers probably adds to the wealth of trappers about as 
much as their depredations take from the resources of the farmers. 
On the other hand their destruction of rodents may increase the 



284 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

wealth of the fanners about as much as their destruction of game 
diminishes the bag of the sportsmen. It is difficult to balance these 
accounts to the satisfaction of all, and it is perhaps well that foxes 
are not more numerous in the wild state. In captivity the silver, 
black, and cross foxes are proving profitable fur producers, and 
fox farms are increasing in number in the Northern States and 
would be well suited to the Canadian and Transition Zone areas of 
Oregon. 

VULPES FULVUS MACROURUS BAIED 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN RED Fox 

Vulpes macrourus Baird, Rept. Stansbury Exped. to Great Salt Lake, p. 309, 
1852. Mamm. North Amer., p. 30, 1857. 

Type. From Wasatch Mountains, bordering Great Salt Lake Valley, Utah. 
A hunter's skin purchased by the Captain Stansbury Expedition in 1849 or 
1850. Cataloged in 1860. 

General characters. Larger and longer tailed than the eastern red fox, 
and paler fulvous or more yellowish, in the light phase, but more inclined 
to be dark or of the cross fox phase. Larger with heavier skull and teeth 
than the very similar cascadensis. In light phase it is pale buffy yellow along 
sides, sides of neck and cheeks, but always with darker fulvous across shoulders 
and along back, rump, and base of tail straw yellow, tail buffy gray or dusky 
with white tip, lower parts whitish or dusky gray, back of ears and feet black, 
a black line running half way up leg. In the cross fox phase it is yellowish 
fulvous on sides and belly, and over rump, dusky or black along middle of 
back, and across shoulders, and on throat, breast, and most of tail except 
white tip; feet, legs, and nose are blackish or somewhat grizzled with white- 
tipped hairs. Silver phase has all black except white tip of tail and white 
subterminal bands on long hairs over back. Black phase is glossy black all over 
except white tip of tail. 

Measurements. Young male from Wind River Mountains, Wyo. : Total 
length, 1,015 mm ; tail, 461 ; foot, 172. Weight about 8 to 12 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. The Rocky Mountain region from New 
Mexico to Montana and west to Idaho and the Blue Mountains, 
usually in open parks and meadows of the mountain ranges but in 
places down in meadow valleys along streams (fig. 64). Not found 
in deserts or arid valleys. Several skulls and summer skins from 
the Blue Mountains are clearly of this more robust Rocky Mountain 
form and not the light, slender Cascade fox. The skin of a breed- 
ing female taken by Elmer Williams on July 25. 1923, in Big Sheep 
Basin, 16 miles south of Joseph, Oreg., is in the typical cross fox 
phase, with much black on back, over shoulders, and along throat 
and breast, with light yellow cheeks and lower base of tail, rich 
fulvous sides and belly, and black feet, legs, and face. The belly 
shows a pinkish tinge of fur, as usual in nursing foxes, coyotes, and 
wolves. Another skin from Big Sheep Basin and one from Wallowa 
are both in the light-red phase, typical of macrourus. 

Red foxes were reported from the country about Elgin when 
Preble and the writer were there in 1896, and in 1919 Cantwell 
reported them in the Sled Springs and Grand Ronde section of 
Wallowa County, and as occasionally taken about Wallowa Lake. 
In 1920 a few red foxes were reported in the Blue Mountain and 
Steens Mountain Valleys north and south of Malheur Lake, but 
none in the sagebrush valley. 

General habits. The general habits of the Rocky Mountain red 
fox in no way differ from those of the Cascade red fox except as 



1936] MAMMALS OP OREGON 285 

their habitat affords them other species of small game, fruits, and 
berries on which to feed. Often they make their homes among 
broken rocks, where safe retreats protect them from various enemies. 
From these the} 7 go forth to hunt their food in the meadows and 
open woods where mice, gophers, and chipmunks abound, or lie 
curled up on the rocks to watch for the approach of enemies. 
Occasionally in the vicinity of the breeding dens or even at other 
times their sharp little staccato bark is heard, but usually they are 
silent, shy, and secretive. 

Trapping for fur has greatly reduced their numbers. From 25 
cents in the days of Suckley and Gibbs their skins have increased 
in value at times to $20, $50, and $100 each, but so cunning, cautious, 
and intelligent have the animals become in recognizing and avoiding 
traps that their extermination over any great area has not been 
accomplished. 

Now that the value of black and silver foxes, which was due to 
their scarcity in nature, has been destroyed by the production of 
large numbers of these choice-color varieties in captivity, there is 
likely to result a tendency to level the price of all of the color phases 
of foxes, as the prime skins of red and cross foxes are wonderfully 
beautiful in their native colors, and after all the value of furs is a 
matter of fashion and fancy based on real beauty and harmony of 
colors. 

VULPES MACROTIS NEVADENSIS GOLDMAN 

NEVADA LONG-EARED Fox; NEVADA SWIFT 

Vulpes macrotis nevadensis Goldman, Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21 : 250, 1931. 

Type. Collected at Willow Creek Ranch near Jungo, Humboldt County, Nev., 
December 14, 1915, by Mike Gill. 

General character's. A little, slender buffy-gray fox with large ears; round, 
puffy, black-tipped tail ; and small, furry feet. Fur long, soft, and beautiful in 
winter; short and harsh in summer. Upper parts huffy gray, becoming clear 
buff and ochraceous on sides r legs, lower surface of tail, and back of ears; 
throat, back of belly, and inside of ears white; tip and sides of nose, base and 
tip of tail, blackish. Skull small and slender with smoothly rounded brain case, 
large audital bullae, and very light dentition. 

Measurements. Somewhat smaller than typical macrotis, which measures: 
Total length, 770 mm; tail, 300; foot, 128; ear, 68. Weight about 4 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. These graceful little foxes have been 
found in the valleys of northern Nevada, southwestern Idaho, and 
southeastern Oregon, not far beyond the limits of Lower Sonoran 
Zone valleys, where the species generally ranges. One skin and skull 
from the Owyhee Valley between Rome and Pollock and several 
other skins reported by Jewett from the Owyhee Valley are the only 
actual specimens from Oregon, but the species may be looked for in 
the Alvord and adjoining valleys that open out into northern Nevada. 

General habits. These smallest of our foxes are among the most 
graceful and beautiful of the group. They are so swift and quick 
in their motions that they have little fear of enemies. They live 
and burrow in the open valleys, where they catch kangaroo rats and 
small rodents, dig ample burrows in sandy banks, or borrow old 
badger holes to live in. They are so gentle and unsuspicious that 
they quickly melt away before settlements and frontier civilization 
with its dogs, traps, guns, and poison. Only in wide areas of extreme 



286 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



deserts can they be found today, and tomorrow they will be gone. 
Gentle intelligent, and affectionate as any dog, they have a bright- 
ness arid keenness that should make them most attractive pets. The 
two that the writer has had in captivity for brief periods have 
thrilled him with their expressive eyes and their quick confidence, 
alertness, and intelligence. Why not keep such animals instead of 
cats and dogs and save a few from extermination? 

UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS TOWNSENDI MEBRIAM 
OREGON GRAY Fox; TREE Fox; SKETCH-LOO-IS of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Urooyon cdtifornicus townsendi Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 16, p. 103, 
1899. 

Type. Collected at Baird, Shasta County, Calif., by C. H. Townsend, Novem- 
ber 11, 1893. 

General characters. Slightly smaller than the red fox, with relatively 
shorter legs, smaller ears, longer and more curved claws, and shorter, coarser 
fur. Skull with conspicuous widely separated temporal ridges. Tail laterally 
compressed and with dorsal crest. Winter pelage, upper parts dark pepper 
and salt gray, the white and black-tipped outer hairs obscuring the wood-brown 
underfur ; muzzle and top and tip of tail black ; back of ears, sides, legs, and 
under surface of tail bright tawny or hazel brown ; throat, breast, and back of 
belly white. Summer pelage, lighter gray with brighter, more orange sides and 
legs; nursing females have pinkish fur on belly. Young, black or dusky at 
birth, soon showing buffy bellies and pattern of adults ; tip of tail always black. 

Measurements. Adult male from type locality : Total length, 1,030 mm ; tail, 
390; foot, 145; ear (dry), 65. Skull: Basal length, 118; zygomatic width, 70. 
Weight 4% to 10% pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. The gray fox ranges the Upper Son- 
oran Zone valleys of northern California and north through the 
interior valleys of western Oregon to the Columbia (fig. 65). It is 

common in the Rogue 
River and Umpqua Val- 
leys, and a few are re- 
corded as far north as 
Portland. In 1855 Suck- 
ley and Gibbs reported 
them as common on the 
Klamath River and as oc- 
curring at The Dalles 
(1860, p. 113), and re- 
cently some bones were 
found in Skeleton Cave 
near Bend on the east side 
of the Cascades. A few 
skins were found in a 
closet of the fur house at 
Fort Vancouver, Wash., 
but these were thought to have come from southern Oregon. 
Usually the gray fox is found in open timber or chaparral valleys 
and especially in rocky situations in Upper Sonoran Zone. 

General habits. In. motions these little foxes are exceedingly 
quick at dodging and turning but not very swift in a race, so they 
must of necessity take advantage of rocky or brushy cover, or when 
hard pressed, even take refuge up the first tree that offers escape 




FIGURE 65. Range of the gray fox, Urocyon cine- 
reoargenteus townsendi, in Oregon. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OEEGON 287 

from their enemies. Their curved nails enable them to climb readily, 
even up the straight trunks of moderate-sized trees, and hide among 
the branches, out of reach, and often out of sight, of the hounds. 
They have a sharp little bark much like that of a very small dog. 

Their dens are usually among broken rocks or in hollow logs or 
trees where entrance is barred to any larger animal. A favorite 
situation is some crack or narrow opening well up the side of a 
ledge or cliff that promises comparative safety from molestation. 

Breeding habits. Breeding females have 6 or 8 mammae, and 6 
and 7 young have been recorded in litters. The young are born in 
April or May, and both parents are said to take part in caring for 
them. 

Food habits. Like other foxes, these animals are hunters of small 
game, rodents, rabbits, game birds, and such small birds as they can 
catch, but even more than other foxes they depend on berries and 
fruit for a large part of their food. Berries of manzanita, juniper, 
cascara, and blueberries form a large part of their food, as shown 
by the droppings along the trails where they travel, but many other 
fruits, and feathers, hair, and bones are found in their pellets. They 
feed on mice, gophers, kangaroo rats, wood rats, ground squirrels, 
chipmunks, brush rabbits, and often trouble the mammal collector 
by robbing his traps of small rodents. On occasion they feast also 
on birds, grasshoppers, beetles, grapes, figs, prunes, cherries, apples, 
or any accessible cultivated fruits and capture poultry that is not 
protected. 

Economic status. These foxes undoubtedly have considerable 
value in rodent control, but this is perhaps balanced by their de- 
struction of useful birds and small game. Their destruction of 
poultry, and possibly of lambs is probably also balanced by their 
value as fur-bearing animals. Fortunately trapping usually keeps 
their numbers down to a harmless minimum and few complaints of 
damage are received. 

Family MUSTELIDAE: Weasels, Minks, Martens, Wolverines, Otters, Skunks, and Badgers 

MUSTELA LONGICAUDA ARIZONENSIS (MEABNS) 
MOUNTAIN WEASEL; ARIZONA WEASEL; KETCH-KETCH of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Putorius arizonensis Mearns, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3 : 234, 1891. 

Type. Collected 10 miles south of Flagstaff, Ariz., by E. A. Meanis, June 20, 
1886. 

General characters. Rather small (pi 42, A), form long and slender, with 
short legs, long tail, low, wide ears, and small bright eyes. Claws sharp and 
moderately curved for climbing ; fur thin and harsh in brown summer coat, soft 
and even in white winter coat ; tip of tail with brush of long stiff hairs always 
black ; skull short and wide with short, deep audital bullae. Anal glands well 
developed and secreting a strong musky fluid. Summer pelage, upper parts 
light snuff brown, darkest on face and nose; lower parts broadly rich buffy 
yellow, paler on chin and toes; tip of tail black for about 1% inches. Winter 
pelage pure white except for black tip of tail and a slight yellowish tinge to 
belly, and usually a buffy strain on tail and hind feet. 

Measurements. Adult male from Springerville, Ariz. : Total length, 363 mm ; 
tail, 140 ; foot, 41 ; ear ( dry ) , 20. Of female, type : 302 ; 109 ; 32 ; 19. Weight of 
large female 6 ounces, of male 12 ounces. 

Distribution and habitat. These weasels, with considerable local 
variation, occupy the Rocky Mountain and Great Basin country 



288 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



(No. 55 



from Arizona and New Mexico to southeastern British Columbia, 
and west to the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade 
Ranges (fig. 66). In the Columbia and Snake River Valleys they are 
as small or smaller than typical arizonensis, while in the higher 
valleys of the Great Basin they are almost as large and as pale as 
longicaudus of the Great Plains region. In fact the specimens from 
eastern Oregon could be sorted into longicaudus, arizonensis, and 
oribasus with many intermediates between these forms. Until more 
thorough study of the group can be made it seems best to refer the 
weasels of this group in eastern Oregon to arizonensis. They range 
from the lowest valleys to high up in the mountains, wherever food 
is available. 

General habits. These bold and savage little hunters cover much 
of the country in search of prey, ranging widely until good hunting 
is found and then killing and feasting on the fat of the land until 

game becomes scarce and 
they are urged by hunger 
or wanderlust to move on. 
Usually they are seen run- 
ning from one burrow to 
another in the open, or 
along fences or logs where 
small mammals live, or 
are caught in traps in the 
burrows of ground squir- 
rels, pocket gophers, kan- 
garoo rats, wood rats, 
mountiain beavers or in 
winter in traps set and 
baited for marten and 
mink. Their little paired 
tracks, widely spaced over 
the snow, are unmistak- 
able and, either in long curving lines or intricate network of cross 
lines, show a well-written record of the hunt for small game. 

Breeding habits. Fortunately for other forms of small animal 
life weasels are not very prolific. The females have, 5 or 6 pairs of 
mammae close together on the posterior part of the abdomen, and 
the litter probably numbers 5 or 6. When about half grown the 
young are sometimes found following the mother. More often, 
though, weasels are found alone even in the breeding season, and it 
seems probable that they do not breed with much regularity ; other- 
wise there would be a greater increase in numbers. 
Food habits. The food of these weasels consists largely of mice, 

fpphers, ground squirrels, wood rats, young rabbits, and occasionally 
irds. When game is abundant they eat the blood and some choice 
parts and often kill far more than they can make good use of, appar- 
ently for the pleasure of killing. Their slender form enables them to 
enter burrows of such small animals as ground squirrels and pocket 
gophers and capture the occupants, feast upon them, and then use 
their nests and burrows as comfortable homes. The young of such 
animals as well as the adults, trapped without possibility of escape, 




FIGURE 66. Range of Cascade and Arizona weasels 
in Oregon : 1, Mustela longioauda saturate; 2, M. I. 
arizonensis. Type locality circled. 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 42 









, t 



B4621M: B4620M 



A, Arizona weasel in Yellowstone Park (photograph by C. O. Schneider, July 12, 1924); B, Rocky 
Mountain marten in full winter fur, Glacier National Park, Mont, (courtesy of Ranger James Brooks). 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 289 

are killed and eaten. With all their abundance of easily procured 
food the weasels rarely show any signs of fat, being usually very thin 
and muscular. 

Economic status. Occasionally a weasel gets into an unprotected 
chicken house and kills young chickens or even some of the old hens. 
This is remembered for a whole generation, while their constant 
check on the overabundance of destructive rodents is unknown or 
little noticed. Their destruction of poultry is usually preventable, 
however, and should not be given undue importance. To what extent 
they destroy quail, grouse, or other ground-nesting birds is not well 
known, but it is certain that they do kill some young rabbits, which 
locally are counted as game. As fur bearers they have a small value, 
good white winter skins usually bringing the trappers about 50 
cents to $1 each, sometimes forming an important part of his catch. 
The greatest value of weasels, however, is their holding in check 
the rapid increase of numerous rodent pests, thus helping to main- 
tain an important and long-established check on abundance of 
meadow mice, ground squirrels, and other small rodents. 

MUSTELA LONGICAUDA SATURATA (MERBIAM) 
CASCADE WEASEL 

Putorius saturatus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 11, p. 21, 1896. 

Type Collected at Siskiyou, near southern boundary of Oregon, by Clark 
P. Streator, June 6, 1894. 

General characters. Slightly larger than typical arizonensis, colors darker 
and richer, skull relatively short and wide with short, deep audital bullae. 
Summer pelage, upper parts dark snuff brown, darkest on face with occasionally 
a white spot or specks between eyes ; lower parts rich clay or ochraceous buff ; 
tip of tail always black. Winter pelage pale wood brown with lighter underfur, 
darker face, and black tip of tail; lower parts whitish or tinged with pale 
yellowish posteriorly. If a white winter pelage occurs locally, it has not been 
recorded. 

Measurements. Adult male, type: Total length, 402 mm; tail, 154; foot, 46; 
ear (dry), 20. Female from Anchor, Oreg.: 339; 123; 39; 16. 

Distribution and habitat. The Cascade weasel ranges over north- 
western California to southwestern British Columbia, west of the 
Cascades (fig. 66). Specimens from Hornbrook, Fort Klamath, and 
Mount Mazama are intermediate and could almost as well be referred 
to arizonensis. The darkest specimens are from Salem and other 
localities in the coast country. 

General habits. The type of this weasel was taken in a trap set 
in an Aplodontia burrow, a favorite run for all weasels in this region. 
At the type locality in June 1897, A. K. Fisher called 3 of them out 
of the thick brush by squeaking, and shot 1 of them with his cane gun, 
but they would not come to his traps set and baited especially for 
weasels. In the timbered country where they live, relatively few 
specimens have been taken and their habits have been but rarely 
observed. There is no reason to suppose that their habits differ 
greatly from those of the more widely distributed and better-known 
arizonensis except as the animals have adapted themselves to a mild 
climate and humid habitat of timber and brush land. 

7209 36 19 



292 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 




where dense cover and dark soil have left their indelible stamp of 
color intensity. Ranging from southwestern British Columbia to 
southern Oregon west of the Cascades, they are typical only in the 
low country (fig. 68). 

General habits. Like other weasels the Puget Sound weasels are 
wanderers and hunters of small game, the size of the game being 
limited only by their power to overcome and kill it. Mice, gophers, 

chipmunks, and the young 
of larger species of rodents 
evidently constitute most 
of their prey and usually 
are to be found in abun- 
dance. If game is scarce 
in one locality the weasels 
hurry away to other and 
better hunting grounds, 
or add more energy and 
speed to their search until 
blood and meat satisfy 
their rapacious appetites. 
Too small to be a menace to 
poultry or game, or to be 

FIGURE 68. Range of the three small weasels in of Value for f Ur, they Can 
Oregon: 1, Mustela, cicognanii streatori; 2, M. c. -, J 11 

muficus; 3. M. c. leptus. go on destroying small 

rodents with little danger 

of interference by man. However, many are caught in traps set for 
the more valuable fur bearers, and perhaps in this way their abun- 
dance may be seriously curbed. 

MUSTELA CICOGNANII MURICUS (BANGS) 
SIEBBA LEAST WEASEL 

Putorius (Arctogale) muricus Bangs, New England Zool. Club Proc. 1 : 71, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Echo, El Dorado County, Calif., adult male, by W. W. 
Price and E. M. Nutting, July 15, 1897. 

General characters. Very small, the smallest weasel at present known in 
Oregon; skull long and narrow, bullae long and continuous with inflated 
squamosals; tail rather short; lower parts broadly white. Summer pelage: 
Upper parts light chocolate brown (close to natal brown of Ridgway) ; lower 
parts broadly white, including upper lips, toes, and inside of legs ; tip of tai 
for about 1 inch black. Winter pelage unknown but probably all white exc 
black tip of tail. 

Measurements. Of adult male type from Echo, Calif. : Total length, 220 mm ; 
tail, 60; foot, 31. Adult male from Warm Springs, Oreg.: 235; 68; 30. A 
female from Siskiyou County, Calif., recorded by Kellogg, measured 210 ; 55 ; 27. 
Weight of male 54.5 g (Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale 1930, p. 463). 

Distribution and habitat. The only specimen of this little weasel 
from Oregon was taken at Mill Creek about 20 miles west of Warm 
Springs, on the east slope of the Cascades, by Stanley G. Jewett, 
May 7, 1915 (fig. 68). It is in brown summer coat, slightly larger 
and darker than typical vnuricus, suggesting the first step of grada- 
tion toward streatori. Two specimens from Siskiyou County, Calif., 
were identified by Kellogg as murieus, and an unsexed skull from 
Fort Klamath if a male, is muricics; if a female, streatori. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 293 

General habits. Little is known of the habits of these little 
weasels, but it is fair to infer that they do not differ greatly from 
those of streatori or dcognanii. Because of their small size it is 
probable that their prey is chiefly mice, as was assumed by the au- 
thor of the name mwrww a mouser. At present it is not known 
that they turn white in winter, but from the high altitude of their 
habitat this seems probable. 

MUSTELA CICOGNANII LEPTUS (MERKIAM) 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LEAST WEASEL 
Putorius streatori leptus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 16: 76, 1903. 

Type. Collected at Silver-ton, San Juan County, Colo., by J. Alden Loring in 
1893. 

General cJtaracters. Very small; tail short with well-developed pencil; skull 
light and smooth, relatively shorter and wider than in muricus or streatori, 
with inflated bullae and mastoids. Summer pelage, upper parts drab brown, 
lacking the reddish or hazel ; tip of tail black ; toes and whole lower parts 
white, or yellowish white posteriorly. Winter pelage pure white or greenish 
white all over except black tip of tail. 

Measurements. Type, male: Total length, 243 mm; tail, 64; foot, 31. Fe- 
male: 195; 50; 26. 

Distribution and habitat. Ranging the Rocky Mountain region 
of the United States, south to northern New Mexico and west to the 
Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington, these weasels usually 
are found in Canadian Zone (fig. 68). There seems to be no definite 
record for Oregon; but a specimen taken by L. R. Dice on Butte 
Creek, Walla Walla County, Wash., was within a few miles of the 
Oregon line, and undoubtedly the species occurs throughout the 
Blue Mountain section, where tracks of a tiny weasel are reported. 

LUTREOLA VISON ENERGUMENOS (BANGS)" 

WESTERN MINK; PAHUNA-AH of the Burns Piute; ADETE of the Wasco; KLA-PA 
of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Putorius vison energumenos Bangs, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. 27 : 5, 1896. 

Type. Collected at Sumas, British Columbia, by Allan C. Brooks, September 
23, 1895. 

General characters. Form long and low, somewhat weasellike but heavier 
bodied ; feet fully webbed for swimming ; ears low and wide ; eyes small ; nose 
pointed ; outer hairs coarse and lax ; underfur dense, soft, and fine ; tail about 
one-third of total length, heavily furred and without long terminal pencil or 
brush as in the weasels ; anal glands secreting unmistakable mink odor. Nearly 
uniform dark brown all over. Adults in summer pelage, dull chestnut brown, 
fading to almost rusty brown, sometimes with white streaks on chin, breast, or 
belly; tail blackish toward tip. Young dark chocolate brown or blackish. 
Winter pelage full and soft, bright chestnut brown with blackish tail and the 
same white markings as in summer. 

Measurements. A large male near Mount Jefferson: Total length, 615 mm; 
tail, 211 ; foot, 72 ; ear from basal notch to tip of upper rim, measured dry, 20. 
Adult female from Beaverton : 503 ; 157 ; 61 ; 18. Weight of males about 2 to 
4 pounds, females considerably less. 



11 In retaining the genus Lutreola Wagner, 1841, rejected by recent authors on the 
ground that the minks are not generically separable from the weasels of the older genus 
Mustela, the writer is not passing final judgment on the value of generic characters 
beyond our North American species of the two genera. Such a decision must wait a 
final thorough revision of the Mustelidae of the world, which may show radical changes 
necessary in the nomenclature of the group. Such studies may even reveal intermediate 
characters in some remote part of the earth, between the two genera. In "our own 
species, however, the differences between the minks and weasels are certainly as great as 
those separating many other of our recognized genera. 



292 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No, 55 




FIGURE 68. Range of the three small weasels in 
Oregon : 1, Mustela cicognanii streatori; 2, M. c. 
muricus; 3, M. c. leptus. 



where dense cover and dark soil have left their indelible stamp of 
color intensity. Ranging from southwestern British Columbia to 
southern Oregon west of the Cascades, they are typical only in the 
low country (fig. 68). 

General habits. Like other weasels the Puget Sound weasels are 
wanderers and hunters of small game, the size of the game being 
limited only by their power to overcome and kill it. Mice, gophers, 

chipmunks, and the young 
of larger species of rodents 
evidently constitute most 
of their prey and usually 
are to be found in abun- 
dance. If game is scarce 
in one locality the weasels 
hurry away to other and 
better hunting grounds, 
or add more energy and 
speed to their search until 
blood and meat satisfy 
their rapacious appetites. 
Too small to be a menace to 
poultry or game, or to be 
of value for fur, they can 
go on destroying small 
rodents with little danger 
of interference by man. However, many are caught in traps set for 
the more valuable fur bearers, and perhaps in this way their abun- 
dance may be seriously curbed. 

MUSTELA CICOGNANII MURICUS (BANGS) 
SIEBBA LEAST WEASEL 

Putorius (Arctogale) muricus Bangs, New England Zool. Club Proc. 1:71, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Echo, El Dorado County, Calif., adult male, by W. W. 
Price and E. M. Nutting, July 15, 1897. 

General characters. Very small, the smallest weasel at present known in 
Oregon; skull long and narrow, bullae long and continuous with inflated 
squamosals; tail rather short; lower parts broadly white. Summer pelage: 
Upper parts light chocolate brown (close to natal brown of Ridgway) ; lower 
parts broadly white, including upper lips, toes, and inside of legs ; tip of tail 
for about 1 inch black. Winter pelage unknown but probably all white except 
black tip of tail. 

Measurements. Of adult male type from Echo, Calif. : Total length, 220 mm ; 
tail, 60; foot, 31. Adult male from Warm Springs, Oreg.: 235; 68; 30. A 
female from Siskiyou County, Calif., recorded by Kellogg, measured 210 ; 55 ; 27. 
Weight of male 54.5 g (Grinnell, Dixon, and Linsdale 1930, p. 463). 

Distribution and habitat. The only specimen of this little weasel 
from Oregon was taken at Mill Creek about 20 miles west of Warm 
Springs, on the east slope of the Cascades, by Stanley G. Jewett, 
May 7, 1915 (fig. 68). It is in brown summer coat, slightly larger 
and darker than typical muricus, suggesting the first step of grada- 
tion toward streatori. Two specimens from Siskiyou County, Calif., 
were identified by Kellogg as muricus, and an unsexed skull from 
Fort Klamath if a male, is muricus; if a female, streatori. 






1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 293 

General habits. Little is known of the habits of these little 
weasels, but it is fair to infer that they do not differ greatly from 
those of streatori or dcagnanii. Because of their small size it is 
probable that their prey is chiefly mice, as was assumed by the au- 
thor of the name nwrtcus a mouser. At present it is not known 
that they turn white in winter, but from the high altitude of their 
habitat this seems probable. 

MUSTELA CICOGNANII LEPTUS (MERBIAM) 

ROOKY MOUNTAIN LEAST WEASEL 
Putorius streatori leptus Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 16: 76, 1903. 

Type. Collected at Silverton, San Juan County, Colo., by J. Alden Loring in 
1893. 

General diameters. Very small; tail short with well-developed pencil; skull 
light and smooth, relatively shorter and wider than in muricus or streatori, 
with inflated bullae and mastoids. Summer pelage, upper parts drab brown, 
lacking the reddish or hazel ; tip of tail black ; toes and whole lower parts 
white, or yellowish white posteriorly. Winter pelage pure white or greenish 
white all over except black tip of tail. 

Measurements. Type, male: Total length, 243 mm; tail, 64; foot, 31. Fe- 
male : 195 ; 50 ; 26. 

Distribution and habitat. Ranging the Rocky Mountain region 
of the United States, south to northern New Mexico and west to the 
Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington, these weasels usually 
are found in Canadian Zone (fig. 68). There seems to be no definite 
record for Oregon; but a specimen taken by L. R. Dice on Butte 
Creek, Walla Walla County, Wash., was within a few miles of the 
Oregon line, and undoubtedly the species occurs throughout the 
Blue Mountain section, where tracks of a tiny weasel are reported. 

LUTREOLA VISON ENERGUMENOS (BANGS) 11 

WESTERN MINK; PAHUNA-AH of the Burns Piute; ADETE of the Wasco; KLA-PA 
of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

itorius vison eneroumenos Bangs, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. 27 : 5, 1896. 

Type. Collected at Sumas, British Columbia, by Allan C. Brooks, September 
5, 1895. 

General characters. Form long and low, somewhat weasellike but heavier 
lied ; feet fully webbed for swimming ; ears low and wide ; eyes small ; nose 

inted ; outer 'hairs coarse and lax ; underfur dense, soft, and fine ; tail about 
le-third of total length, heavily furred and without long terminal pencil or 
>rush as in the weasels ; anal glands secreting unmistakable mink odor. Nearly 

liform dark brown all over. Adults in summer pelage, dull chestnut brown, 
iding to almost rusty brown, sometimes with white streaks on chin, breast, or 
illy; tail blackish toward tip. Young dark chocolate brown or blackish. 
r inter pelage full and soft, bright chestnut brown with blackish tail and the 
ime white markings as in summer. 

Measurements. A large male near Mount Jefferson: Total length, 615 mm; 
lil, 211 ; foot, 72 ; ear from basal notch to tip of upper rim, measured dry, 20. 

lult female from Beaverton : 503 ; 157 ; 61 ; 18. Weight of males about 2 to 

pounds, females considerably less. 

11 In retaining the genus Lutreola Wagner, 1841, rejected by recent authors on the 
round that the minks are not generically separable from the weasels of the older genus 
lustela, the writer is not passing final judgment on the value of generic characters 
eyond our North American species of the two genera. Such, a decision must wait a 
inal thorough revision of the Mustelidae of the world, which may show radical changes 
ecessary in the nomenclature of the group. Such studies may even reveal intermediate 
laracters in some remote part of the earth, between the two genera. In* our own 
Jecies, however, the differences between the minks and weasels are certainly as great as 
lose separating many other of our recognized genera. 



294 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



Distribution and habitat. Mink are fairly common along most of 
the streams, lakes, and coast lines of Oregon and absent only from 
the high mountains and deserts or waterless areas (fig. 69). Semi- 
aquatic in habits, they follow streams, getting much of their food 
from the water, and hence are mainly restricted to areas of permanent 
water supply. They show no preference for timber or open country, 
as marshes with tall grass, reeds, and tules afford ample shelter and 
protection. They are equally at home though in the forests or wher- 
ever a satisfactory food supply is found. Their abundance depends 
largely on the price of fur and the energy with which trapping is 
carried on. No matter how thoroughly trapped out, they seem 
always to return and to increase slowly. Few of our fur bearers have 
held their own so successfully against the inroads of civilization. 

General habits. Mink 
are well adapted by their 
dense fur and webbed feet 
to a semiaquatic life. 
Their robust form and un- 
usual fighting powers fit 
them also for life on land. 
Their keen, well-curved 
nails enable them to take 
refuge or pursue prey into 
the treetops. Often they 
are treed at night by dogs 
hunting raccoons, and only 
with difficulty dislodged 
from the topmost branches 
of the tree. They are great 
travelers overland, but 
usually follow along the banks of a stream or on the ice or snow above 
its frozen surface, where they hunt under the banks and in hollow 
trees and logs for the small game that makes up much of their food. 
In the water they are nearly as much at home as the otter, swimming 
rapidly, diving, and remaining under to pursue and capture fish, 
frogs, and crustaceans or to escape from enemies by keeping below the 
surface until well out of sight. If pursued they always take refuge in 
the water, if possible, unless a deep burrow or hollow log or tree is 
available close by. In a burrow or hollow log or tree they are "bad 
medicine" for any dog that tries to get hold of them, for, of the weasel 
family, they are far quicker than any dog and always get the firsi 
hold, usually of the dog's nose or lip, in a way to fully command th< 
situation. As fighters they perhaps have no superiors of their owi 
size, and even in the open, a mink will often severely punish a dog oJ 
many times its size and send the dog home with a bloody face and a 
sad heart. The mink has a savage scream with which it threatens a 
dog or even a person coining near its retreat, and in the cruel jaws of 
a steel trap a mink will scream and fight to the last, never yielding its 
valuable pelt without a fierce struggle for life. Hunters and merciless 
killers themselves, they seem to have little sense of fear and great con- 
fidence in their own strength and skill. In domestication they are 
said to be gentle and affectionate pets, running at large on friendly 
terms with the dogs, cats, and poultry. 




FIGURE 69. Range of the mink, Lutreola vison encr- 
gumenos, in Oregon. 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OEEGON 



295 



Breeding habits. Apparently the mink breeds but once a year, the 
6 or 8 young being born in April or May and attaining maturity dur- 
ing the following winter. The young are kept in some burrow or 
hollow under rocks or logs until old enough to follow the mother, 
who hunts and brings them food before they are old enough to travel. 
The polygamous male apparently takes no interest in his family or is 
kept away by fear of the keen teeth of the mother mink. 

Food habits. From the water minks obtain fish, frogs, and crusta- 
ceans, the latter being apparently their favorite food, and where 
abundant, as in western Oregon, their principal food for the year 
around. Other small game such as muskrats, mice, ground squirrels, 
chipmunks, and birds in varying numbers form a part of the bill of 
fare. Undoubtedly some game birds are killed and some nests de- 
stroyed, as poultry is occasionally attacked and on rare occasions 
ruthlessly killed and left lying. In case of a raided poultry yard 
or any unusual supply of such food, apparently the blood only is 
taken, but normally the game is eaten bones, feathers, fur, scales, 
shells, and all as shown by the traces left in the droppings near the 
dens or along the shores. 

Economic status. On rare occasions there are complaints of ser- 
ious destruction of poultry by mink, but these are of local and in- 
frequent occurrence, and in most cases could be easily prevented. 
Some game birds and nests and such small game as rabbits and 
squirrels and some fish are undoubtedly destroyed by them, but a 
constant check on the abundance of destructive rodents serves to 
counterbalance in part these losses, while the value of the fur far 
outweighs all losses through their depredations. During the trap- 
ping season of November 1 to February 28, 1913-14, 2,466 mink were 
taken in Oregon, according to the records of the State Game Com- 
mission. These at an average price of $3.25 would bring into the 
State more than $8,000. The mink is one of the most permanent 

id valuable fur bearers of the State, and the least likely to be ex- 
>rminated. Still they require careful protection to keep the num- 

;rs up to the maximum, and to insure that they are taken only when 
>rime, in the 3 winter months. 

MARTES CAURINA CAURINA (MEBBIAM) 
PACIFIC MARTEN ; AMERICAN SABLE; PAP of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

tustela* caurina Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 4, p. 27, 1890. 

Tyye. Collected near Grays Harbor, Wash., February 4, 1886, by L. C. 
>ney. 

General characters. In size about the same as the mink, but apparently 
*ger because of longer legs, tail, and ears, longer fur, and especially more 
ishy tail ; upper teeth 18, lower 20, instead of 16 and 18, as in the mink and 
teasels ; nails, slender, sharp, and well curved for climbing ; toes webbed only 
it base ; males with elongated gland on belly ; summer pelage thin and harsh, 
inter fur long, fine, and silky. Color about the same in summer and winter, 
)per parts light or dark yellowish brown, near snuff brown or raw umber, 
ightly paler on head and shoulders, darker or blackish on tail and feet; 
iroat and breast and sometimes back of belly varying from yellow to rich 
>range. 

Measurements. A large male : Total length, 600 mm ; tail, 203 ; foot, 92 ; ear, 
[dry), 38. Female: 597; 206; 83; 35. Basal length of skull, 76; zygomatic 
>readth, 72. Weight of one male, from Three Sisters, 2.5 pounds. 



296 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



Distribution and habitat. This western form of the marten ranges 
from southern British Columbia to northern California through the 
Cascades and coastal area of Washington and Oregon (fig. 70). 
Specimens from southern Oregon are included but are grading toward 
Martes cawrina, sierrae characterized by Grinnell and Storer from the 
Sierra Nevada. In Oregon they are found mainly in Canadian and 
Hudsonian Zones of the mountains, and in the humid mixed zones of 
the coast and Coast Ranges. 

General habits. Martens are primarily forest dwellers, ranging 
mainly in the dense coniferous forests where they travel widely in 
search of small game. They are expert climbers and will leap from 
tree to tree in pursuit of their prey, or stalk it on the ground among 
the logs and undergrowth, or even range among the bare rocks high 

above timber line in search 
of conies. While mainly 
nocturnal they are often 
active during the day and 
seem to see well even in 
bright sunlight, and conse- 
quently do their hunting 
by night or day whenever 
they feel the urge of hun- 
ger. Where really com- 
mon they are occasionally 
seen running over logs or 
up trees in alarmat passers- 
by, but generally they are 
so scarce as to be rarely 
seen, except when caught 
in traps. Their nests and 
such temporary homes as 
they may claim are in hollow trees or logs, or among the rocks, but 
outside of the breeding season they seem to be wide wanderers with 
many temporary camps and shelters. In winter their unmistakable 
diagonally paired tracks, much larger than those of the mink, are 
occasionally seen leading from grove to grove or through brush 
patches where rabbits and grouse might be found, over hilltops or 
through deep woods in the manner of foxes or weasels rather than 
along the watercourses where the mink and otter hunt. 

Breeding habits. Female martens have usually 2 or 3 pairs of 
well developed mammae on the posterior, abdominal or inguinal 
region, and there are records of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 embryos or young. 
The young are born generally in April, May, or June. On June 19, 
1889, T. S. Palmer secured a young one only a few days old near 
Crescent City, Calif., taken from its mother by a farmer as she 
carried her young in her mouth, one at a time, across the road. The 
young are said to develop slowly but are half grown and out of the 
nest by the middle of July. 

Food habits. Martens might be called omnivorous carnivores, for 
they capture a great variety of small game, largely mice, chipmunks, 
squirrels, wood rats, conies, and rabbits, as well as any birds that 
come in their way, and they even feast on some insects and berries if 
these are numerous. The stomachs of two caught in August 1896 at 




FIGURE 70. Range of the two forms of martens in 
Oregon : 1, Martes caurina caurina; 2, M. c. 
oriyenes. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 297 

Crater Lake were filled with big brown, wingless crickets ( Cuphodir- 
ris piperi) which were also found in one collected near Three Sisters 
Peaks in July 1914. Feathers of birds and fur conies and other 
small rodents were also found in their stomachs, and birds, squirrels, 
chipmunks, rats, and mice are excellent bait for marten traps. Traps 
set in the runways and burrows of mountain beaver sometimes catch 
martens, and it is probable that the mountain beaver and pocket 
gophers are on their bill of fare. Fish are said to be good trap bait 
for martens, but it is doubtful if fish are caught or taken from the 
water by them. Food is generally abundant, but martens rarely 
show any signs of fat and are generally as lean and muscular as the 
mink or weasel. 

Economic status. According to the Oregon Sportsman for June 
1914, 518 martens were taken during the previous winter, November 
1 to February 28, by the registered trappers in Oregon. Of these, 
88 skins were taken in Klamath County; 87 in Union County; 82 
in Grant County; 60 in Curry County; 41 in Baker County; 23 
in Umatilla County; 22 in Douglas County; 21 in Lane County; 
19 in Crook County; 18 in Multnoman County; 15 in Lincoln 
County ; 14 in Wallowa County ; and smaller numbers in other coun- 
ties in the State. At the current price of trappers' skins, about $25 
each, these brought into the State nearly $13,000, about the same as 
was received for the greater number of skins of mink. 

Martens are not destructive to poultry and not seriously so to 
game. The beauty and high price of their fur make them one of 
the most important fur-bearing animals of Oregon. 

MARTES CAURINA ORIGENES (RHOADS) 
ROCKY MOUNTAIN MARTEN 

Mustela caurina orlyenes Rhoads, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc., p. 458, 1902. 

Type. Collected at Marvine Lodge, Garfield County, Colo., Sept. 16, 1901, 
by E. T. Setr>n. 

General characters. Size and proportions about the same as in cawrina 
>ut colors generally lighter, more drab brown with more distinctly gray head, 
ghter yellow or occasionally white throat patch, and light yellow traces along 
ledian line of belly (pi. 42, B). Skull relatively wide with slender rostrum^ 
and the same heavy molar teeth and wide heel of back upper molar as in 
lurina. 

Measurements. Adult male from Colorado: Total length, 610 mm; tail, 
L70; foot, 95; ear (dry), 30. Skull: Basal length, 76; zygomatic breadth, 49. 

Distribution and habitat. These beautiful fur bearers range from 
lorthern New Mexico through Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho 
ito the Blue Mountains of Oregon (fig. 70). There are specimens 
rom Strawberry Butte and vicinity in the Biological Survey col- 
lection, and one from Cornucopia in the University of Oregon col- 
action. In 1897 the writer found their tracks on the snow far above 
timber line on the Wallowa peaks, and in 1915 Jewett reported 
"iem as becoming scarce in the Wallowa Mountains, although dur- 
_ the previous winter of 1913-14 one trapper had taken $800 worth 
>f their skins in the lodgepole pine forest near Olive Lake, and 
" winter before that two trappers had taken 12 skins near Bourne 
in the Baker City Range. In 1896 a fine old male was collected on 
trawberry Butte, and in 1915 Jewett took 4 specimens near there 



298 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

at Strawberry Lake. In 1919 Cantwell reported them as rare but 
occasionally taken by trappers in favorable places in the Sled 
Springs district north of Enterprise, and in the Wallowa Mountains. 
In the Rocky Mountains these animals are found mainly in Cana- 
dian and Hudsonian Zones of the mountain ranges. 

General habits. The habits of the martens everywhere seem to 
be much the same; they are boreal forest hunters of small game, 
expert climbers, and great travelers over the winter snow fields, 
and keep generally in the shelter of the forests and away from the 
water or open country. They are to some extent weasellike in their 
methods of hunting over the ground, along logs, and even up the 
trees after squirrels or birds. They climb rapidly and hunt Rich- 
ardson's squirrels in their tree homes. Chipmunks, ground squir- 
rels, and various mice are common prey. At Strawberry Lake, 
where Jewett caught a whole family of martens, the old male 
had a water ouzel in its stomach. Rabbits and grouse are about the 
largest game on their list, but mice and insects are their " daily 
bread " in summer, and berries in their season are said to be a 
favorite food. 

MARTES PENNANTI PACIFICA (RHOADS) 
PACIFIC FISHER ; PEKAN ; AGABASTAM of the Wasco 

Musteld canadensis paciftca Rhoads, Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans, (n. s.) 19 : 435, 1898. 

Type. Collected at Lake Keechelus, Kittitas County, Wash., by Allan Rupert, 
1892. 

General characters. Much larger than the marten, with longer tail and 
heavier build, nearly as large as a fox but with shorter legs, tail, and ears; 
tooth and cranial characters as in martens, but with heavier skull and teeth; 
high sagittal crest; feet heavily furred in winter; toes webbed at base only; 
nails sharp and curved for climbing; without the conspicuous abdominal 
gland of the male martens. Summer pelage thin and harsh, the coarse outer 
hairs hiding thin underfur. Winter fur long, light and wavy, much obscured 
by very long, sparse outer hairs; tail heavily furred to tip with long shiny 
black outer hairs. Color much the same at all seasons; upper parts variable, 
buffy gray or snuff brown, coarsely grizzled with black-tipped white hairs 
over shoulders and becoming darker or blackish over back and rump; tail, 
feet, nose, and back of ears black or blackish; lower parts mostly black or 
blackish with often white spots on throat, breast, and in axils of front and 
hind legs. 

Measurements. Large male: 1,013 mm; 395; 128; 41. Weight 10 pounds 2 
ounces. Other weights given up to 12 and 18 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. The fisher of the Cascades extends from 
British Columbia south through Washington and Oregon to north- 
ern California and also through the Coast Ranges (fig. 71). No 
specimens have been seen from the Blue Mountain section, but pro- 
visionally the records are included under this name. Like the 
martens, they are boreal in habitat, but in Oregon they occupy also 
the cool humid Coast Kanges and coniferous coastal forests. They 
are forest dwellers and are rarely found far from cover of spruce and 
pine. 

General habits. Fishers are similar to the martens in habits, being 
great climbers and hunters, pursuing their prey on the ground 
or to the tops of the tallest trees, and even making long leaps from 
tree to tree in pursuit of squirrels or to escape their enemies. Their 
nests and breeding dens are said to be in hollow trees or hollow 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



299 




FIGURE 71 



pennanti 



logs. They cover much country in tireless pursuit of small game 
but keep well concealed and are rarely seen except when caught 
in traps. 

Breeding habits. Seton records one litter of 3 young fishers that 
were taken from a hollow tree about 40 feet from the ground, and 
says that the number varies from 1 to 5, born about the first of 
May. 

Food habits. In food habits they are similar to the martens, 
capturing a great variety of small game up to the size of rabbits 
and grouse, but depending 
largely on squirrels and 
smaller animals. They 
are said to be especially 
fond of porcupines. 

Economic status. Dur- 
ing the trapping season of 
1913-14, 9 fishers were re- 
ported to the State Game 
Commission by the regis- 
tered trappers of the 
State; 3 from Lane 
County; 2 from Curry 
County; and 1 each from 
Douglas, Josephine, Ma- 
rion, and Umatilla Coun- 
ties. At that time prime 
fisher skins were quoted at $25 each, but in 1920 to 1925 they went 
up to $100 and $150 for prime skins. They form beautiful and 
durable garments and are sufficiently rare to be highly desirable furs. 

GULO LUSCUS LUSCUS (LINNAEUS) 
WOLVERINE; GLUTTON; CAKCAJOU; MOUNTAIN DEVIL; SKUNK BEAB; MANEATEB 

[Ursus] luscus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 12, v. 1, p. 71, 1766. (Subspecies uncer- 
tain no specimens from Oregon available for study.) 

Type locality. Hudson Bay. 

General characters. Form robust; body short and wide with powerful head, 
neck, and legs ; ears low ; legs short ; tail short and bushy ; toes short and webbed 
at base only ; nails sharp and curved for climbing ; skull massive and power- 
ful ; pelage long and coarse with wholly concealed short dense underfur. Pelage 
long and dense in winter, thin and stringy in summer. Color approximately 
the same at all seasons ; back dark brown or blackish, almost encircled by a 
broad yellowish band along sides and across hips; shoulders yellowish brown 
or gray ; crown gray back of eyes ; face, nose, feet, and tail black ; lower parts 
dark brown or blackish except throat and breast, which are usually heavily 
mottled with white or salmon. 

Measurements. A large male from Alaska, collected by Charles Sheldon, 
measured 1,070 mm; 218; 190, and weighed 36 pounds. One brought to the 
National Zoological Park from Cordova, Alaska, in March 1928, weighed 28 
pounds. One recorded from Labrador by George Cartwright weighed 26 
pounds. A large male from the Sierra Nevadas, of California, recorded by 
Joseph Grinnell and Storer (1924, P- 85), weighed 25 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. Wolverines once occupied the boreal 
zone across the northern part of the continent and southward in 
the mountains to Colorado and California (fig. 72). At present they 
are rare in the United States, but probably are not yet extinct in the 



300 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 




FIGURE 72. Range of the wolverine, Gulo luscus 
luscus, in Oregon. 



Cascades and Sierra Nevadas. Adolph Aschoff reported them in the 
Mount Hood section in 1896, and George Moody caught one in the 
upper McKenzie Valley west of the Three Sisters Peaks, Oreg., in 
1912. 

General habits. Although of the weasel family, wolverines have 
much the build and habits of little bears. They are great wanderers, 
hunters, and scavengers, always searching for meat, and killing any 
kind of game that their short legs enable them to catch or corner, 
but actually feeding largely upon offal or the carcasses of game 
animals killed by hunters or found dead. Of powerful strength and 

build, they do not hesitate 
to attack any animal, even 
to the caribou and moose, 
that they can steal upon 
and get a death grip upon 
with their powerful jaws. 
They seem to have no 
fear, even of man, but are 
cunning and suspicious in 
stealing food and avoid- 
ing traps and are bold and 
dangerous fighters when 
cornered or captured. 
Fortunately for other ani- 
mals of the woods and for 
man, their legs and bodies 
are short and their best 
speed is but slow. Great strength and tireless energy enable them 
to secure food, even where it is scarce and widely scattered. 

Breeding Iwbbits. Litters of from 2 to 5 young wolverines have 
been recorded, born in April, May, and June. Seton says the site 
chosen for the young ones' home is almost any sheltered hollow in 
the ground or under rocks, and that in October they appear in 
families, the young still following their dam, though not much 
inferior in size. The mother is said to be savage in defense of 
her young and to bring them food before they are old enough to 
leave the nest. 

Food habits. While hunters of any large or small game which 
they can capture, 'the wolverines are credited with enormous appe- 
tites not always satisfied by the fresh kill and largely depending on 
dead carcasses of game found under the winter's snow or summer's 
sun. With keen noses they scent a feast from a distance and locate 
the meat or food cache of the hunter and even devour his cache of 
furs if by any device of skill or strength it can be broken into. 
Martens or any other fur-bearing animals found in traps are eaten 
until the trapper is sometimes obliged to move his trap line if he 
cannot catch the thief. The trap bait is also eaten along the trap line 
and the traps either avoided or sprung or broken up. A no. 4 steel 
trap is said to be required to hold securely a wolverine, and the no. 
1 traps set for marten and mink only educate him to greater caution 
in avoiding such devices. 

Economic status. Wolverine skins have never brought high 
prices for fur, the 1923 quotations for prime skins being only $6 to $8 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



301 



each. They are in great demand by the Eskimo for trimming hoods 
but among whites are used mainly for sleigh robes and heavy over- 
coats in the coldest parts of the Northern States. Occasionally a 
beautiful muff made from a single skin is seen. The fur is warm 
and durable, and the long glossy hairs and unique color pattern 
give it a distinguished appearance. 

LUTRA CANADENSIS PACIFICA RHOADS 

WESTERN OTTER; PAHTSUGO of the Piute at Burns; NANNOCKS of the Wasco; 
KOLTA of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Lutra hudsonica paeifica Rhoads, Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans, (n. s.) 19:429, 1898. 

Type. Collected at Keechelus Lake, Kittitas County, Wash., by Allan Rupert 
in 1892 or 1893. 

General characters. Appearance somewhat minklike but in size many times 
larger than the mink; body long and low with short legs; long, tapering, 
flattened tail; small head; small eyes and ears; hind feet large and fully 
webbed; front feet half webbed, soles mainly naked; fur dense and silky, 
wholly concealed by short glossy guard hairs. Color, dark chestnut brown, 
slightly paler below and with grayish-brown throat and cheeks. In summer 
pelage fading to lighter, more hazel brown. Young much the same as adults. 
Larger than typical canadensix with heavier skull and more gray on throat 
and cheeks. 

Measurements. Of old female from Birch Creek, Idaho: Total length, 1,150 
mm ; tail, 463 ; foot, 137 ; ear, 21. Weight 19 pounds. There are other records 
of otters weighing 20, 23, 25, and 28 pounds, but not all of these can be verified. 

Distribution cmd habitat. Otters formerly occupied practically 
all permanent streams and lakes in Oregon and after 100 years of 
trapping are still found sparingly in many of them (fig. 73). Cli- 
mate, altitude, and life 
zones are wholly ignored 
by these aquatic hunters 
and fishers, fresh water 
and an abundant food sup- 
ply being all they ask any- 
where between the Tropics 
and Arctic regions. 

General halt it s. 
Adapted to life in both 
the water or on land, ot- 
ters seem to prefer the 
water. They swim with 
the graceful motions of a 
fish or seal and with great 
speed, capturing most of 
their prey, fish, frogs, or 
crustaceans, in the water and eating them on the shore or on rocks 
and logs. They are great travelers, making long rounds up one 
stream and down another, or short trips overland to lakes or other 
streams. On bare ground they have a slow awkward gait and rarely 
go far from the water, but in soft snow they travel rapidly in long 
slides on their glossy bellies and sometimes strike off for several 
miles across country to some little-frequented stream or lake. They 
are gentle, playful animals with little of the savage disposition of the 
weasels and are easily tamed and make affectionate pets. They are 
savage fighters when cornered and more than a match for most dogs. 




FIGURE 73. Range of the western otter, Lutra 
canadensis pacifica, in Oregon. 



302 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Breeding habits. Female otters have 4 mammae arranged in 2 
pairs on the posterior part of the abdomen, and the young are usually 
2, 3, or 4, the normal litter of fully adult females numbering 4. In 
the far north the young are born in April (Kichardson 1829, p. 58), 
but the time is much earlier in southern latitudes. Overton Dowell. 
Jr., of Mercer, Lane County (Oreg. Sportsman, 1917, p. 15), says 
that otters have 2 to 4 young in May. 

Food habits. Otters feed on fish, frogs, crustaceans, snakes, birds, 
small mammals, or almost any small game they can catch. Fish 
and crawfish generally form most of their food, as shown by fish 
scales and bits of crawfish shells in the droppings along otter slides, 
or on the banks of streams where they come put to feed and roll. As 
their food is generally abundant and easily procured, they have 
ample leisure for sleep and play. 

Economic status. In 1805 Llewis and Clark reported otters plenti- 
ful along the " Multnomah " [Willamette] Elver, and in 1825 Ogden 
(1909, p. 34.4), recorded in his journals the frequent capture of otters 
by his beaver trappers in eastern Oregon. Next to the beaver 
they were perhaps the most important fur animal of that time. In 
1914 (Oreg. Sportsman, 1914, p. 20), it was reported that 143 otters 
were taken in the State by licensed trappers during the open season, 
November 1 to February 28, of the preceding winter; of these, 37 
were taken in Douglas County; 21 in Coos County; 12 in Klamath 
County, and lesser numbers in other parts of the State. At that 
time prime skins of Pacific coast otters were quoted at $11 to $17 
each. The fact that otters have so long been able to maintain con- 
siderable numbers in the face of persistent trapping leaves them 
among the more important fur bearers of today. 

They undoubtedly destroy some food and game fish but apparently 
feed extensively upon suckers, minnows, and nonfood fishes, and other 
unimportant animal life of the water. No serious charge of mischief 
has ever been brought against them, and such numbers as the waters 
of the State will reasonably support should be maintained. This 
could be accomplished by a system of limited licenses providing for 
taking only the surplus irom each drainage system. 

ENHYDRA LUTRIS NEREIS (MEBBIAM) 
SOUTHERN SEA OTTEE; E-LTJCK-KE of the Clatsop (L. and C.) 

Latax lutris nereis Merriam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 17: 159, 1904. 

Type. Collected on San Miguel Island, Santa Barbara Islands, Calif., by 
Geo. M. McGuire, 1904. 

General characters. Size large (pi. 43, A), form low and heavy, almost seal- 
like; tail flattened, club-shaped, about a foot long; legs short; hind feet large, 
fully webbed and paddlelike ; front feet small ; ears small and low down on side 
of head; eyes rather small; mustaches of stiff bristles; skull weasellike, but 
teeth 16 above and 16 below, the molars heavy and rounded for crushing instead 
of cutting; fur deep and soft with short even guard hairs. Color very dark 
brown or blackish over body, with gray head and throat; nose pad and lips 
black; in prime fur of adult animals long white-tipped hairs are scattered 
through the dark fur, giving a beautiful frosted appearance. 

Measurements. The type of nereis, an adult male, is a disarticulated skele- 
ton; the total length of the animal in the flesh is given as 6 feet. Measure- 
ments of adult given by Audubon: Total length, 5 feet 2 inches; tail, 1 foot; 
hind foot of young about 2 years old, e 1 ^ inches ; " height of ear ", % inch. 
(These are presumably measurements of California specimens.) Hoover 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OBEGON 



303 



(Forest and Stream 71: 488, 1908) gives the weight as 50 to 75 pounds. 
Lewis and Clark (1893, p. 853) say that the animal is the size of a large 
mastiff dog, and give measurements of 5 feet to tail and tail 10 inches. 

Distribution and habitat. Sea otters were originally abundant 
about the northern shores and islands of the Pacific Ocean from the 
Kurile Islands to Alaska and on down our coast to the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. Sufficient specimens have not been brought together to show 
the area of intergradation with the subspecies nereis, but all avail- 
able specimens from the coast of California, Oregon, and Washing- 
ton can be safely referred to this form, rather than to Iwtris of 
Kamchatka (fig. 74). 

In 1805 Lewis and Clark found sea-otter skins commonly worn as 
robes or blankets, among the Clatsop Indians near the mouth of the 
Columbia. One Indian 
was " dressed in three very 
elegant sea-otter skins" 
which he refused to sell 
for less than 3 fathoms of 
blue beads for each skin. 
As the supply of blue 
beads was down to 4 fath- 
oms, and white beads, 
knives, and all other ar- 
ticles of trade were re- 
fused, the skins remained 
with the Indian and prob- 
ably kept him warmer 
than the blue beads would 
have done, for this was 
on January 17. Two days 
later, however, they purchased a single sea-otter skin from another 
Indian for 4 fathoms of blue and 4 of white beads, and a knife. 

Later, on March 29, 1806, the explorers bought a robe of two sea- 
otter skins from Indians near Wapato Island for a belt of blue 
beads. 

The " sea otters " reported by Lewis and Clark as numerous in 
the Columbia near The Dalles on October 23 and 25, 1805, were later 
referred to by them as seals, and the authors state that the sea otter 
resides only on the coast or in the vicinity of salt water. 

In 1811 at the mouth of the Columbia, Franchere (1904, p. 229) 
said the Clatsop Indians came every day to the sides of the vessel 
to trade beaver and sea-otter skins. J. K. Townsend listed sea 
otters among the mammals found in Oregon in 1839 ; George Gibbs 
reported them as abundant at Port Orford; and as found at the 
mouth of the Columbia in 1855 and 1856. George Suckley obtained 
a skull of one at Port Orford about 1856 (received at U. S. National 
Museum in 1857), and R. W. Dunbar sent in a skull from there in 
1859. There is another skull in the collection labeled Oregon, 1874, 
and one from Pistol River, 1875. A femur of a sea otter in a good 
state of preservation was picked up by Jewett in a shell mound at 
the mouth of Pistol River in Curry County in 1930 and sent to the 
Biological Survey for identification. Its bleached and weathered 
condition does not indicate prehistoric origin. 




FIGURE 74. Range of the southern sea otter, Enhy- 
dra lutris nereis, on the coast of Oregon. 



304 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 



Scammon (1874, p* 69) gives Cape Blanco, Oreg., as one of the 
principal hunting grounds for sea otters from 1852 to 1872, and 
Allen (1898, p. 366) reported many taken in Oregon as late as 
1876. Since that time there has been only sad silence as to their 
occurrence on the coast of the State, although there are evidently a 
few left on the coasts of Washington and California, and if absolute 
protection over the whole world could be enforced for this most 
valuable fur bearer there would be a possibility of its increase to 
abundance. 

During the summer of 1928, Mrs. Stanley G. Jewett and her son, 
Stanley G., Jr., made a considerable collection of bones from the 
shell heaps at Netarts, on the coast in Tillamook County, and sent 
them to the Biological Survey for identification. Among the great 
number of bones of sea lions and seals are a few fragments of sea- 
otter bones. Just what the relationship of these animals to a pre- 
historic people may have been, whether they were used as food and 
clothing, or merely for ornament, is not evident from present 
knowledge, but their association in Oregon with primitive man is 
interesting and significant. 

General habits. Sea otters are highly adapted to an aquatic life 
and apparently are able to spend their whole time in the water, and 
on the floating beds of kelp, but in their early abundance they spent 
much time basking on the rocky islands of our coasts or the floating 
ice cakes of the far North. Originally they were very abundant 
and highly gregarious, and 50 to several hundreds or even thousands 
were found together on the feeding or sleeping grounds. All ac- 
counts agree that they were gentle, timid animals, rarely making any 
efforts at self-defense except in the case of mothers in defense of their 
young, their only desire being to get into the water where escape by 
diving and swimming long distances below the surface was possible. 
They are said to swim on their backs but to turn over in diving. In 
their early abundance they were unafraid and were easily slaughtered 
by the thousands with clubs and spears, but after being brought to 
the verge of extermination by years of ruthless slaughter they have 
become extremely wary and difficult to shoot even at long range, 
thus showing a degree of intelligence that may yet rescue the species 
from extinction. 

Breeding habits. Sea otters have 1 pair of mammae located on 
the posterior part of the abdomen, and normally they have but one 
young at a time. The young are said to be generally brought forth 
on the beds of floating kelp, but Steller speaks of them on the is- 
lands where the herds were in the habit of resting or out at sea with 
the mother, playing on or about her body as she floated on her back 
in the water. The mother will not desert her young and often 
sacrifices her life in protecting it. The young are found with the 
mothers at all seasons of the year, and most writers agree that there 
is no particular breeding season. 

Food habits. Only the statements of early writers are available 
as to the nature of the food of sea otters, and they generally agree 
that crabs, clams, and other forms of crustaceans and bivalves form 
most of their food. Other foods generally referred to are sea urchins, 
squids, small fishes, and some kelp. Scammon says they bring up 
their food to the surface and instantly resume their habitual atti- 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 43 





B3876M; B15917 



A, Sea otter (from drawing by Wolf, in Scammon's Marine Mammals); B, western badger (from photo- 
graph by Luther J. Goldman, taken at Fremont, Oreg.). 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 305 

tude on the back to devour it. The character of the molar teeth, 
with rounded, crushing surfaces, would indicate their use in crush- 
ing shells rather than catching fish or tearing and cutting any kind 
of flesh. The kelp which they are said to eat may be accidentally 
included with the crustaceans, mollusks, and other inhabitants of 
the kelp beds. The abundance of their favorite food in the past was 
undoubtedly a very important factor in determining their distribu- 
tion and abundance. 

At times they become very fat and are reported by some to be 
good eating and by others as not fit for human food. 

Economic status. Sea-otter fur has been generally considered the 
most beautiful and valuable fur in the world, and has brought the 
highest price, even up to several thousand dollars each for choice 
skins. Their high value brought about almost complete destruction 
of the species during a time when no international protection was 
possible. Now with the help of international laws and a partially 
awakened world conscience, it would seem to require mainly the effi- 
cient local enforcement of the laws to bring back gradually a fur 
bearer that under proper care would be worth more to the State 
than all of her present yield of fur. 

TAXIDEA TAXUS NEGLECTA MEABNS 

CALIFORNIA BADGES; HOONAH of the Burns Piute; AKOWA of the Wasco; 
KOLTZ of the Klamath (C. H. M.) 

Taxidea wnericana negtecta Mearns, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 3 : 250, 1901. 

Type. Collected at Fort Crook, Shasta County, Calif., by John Feilner in 
1859. 

General characters. Body heavy, low, and wide (pi. 43, B) ; tail short; 
legs short and powerful, with long digging claws on front feet; soles mostly 
naked and partially plantigrade; ears low and wide; eyes small; skin thick 
arid tough, especially over head and neck, and muscles of head, neck, and 
shoulders powerful; fur in winter long and loose, with very long coarse 
hairs projecting along the sides; in summer short, harsh, and hairy; skull 
heavy, triangular, with 34 teeth. Color, in summer pelage, upper parts coarsely 
grizzled buffy brown, from black and white tips of long hairs showing over 
clear buff underfur; top of head, back of ears, a spot on each cheek, feet, and 
legs blackish ; a narrow stripe from nose to back of neck or shoulders white ; 
lower parts buffy, paler on throat and sides of face around black spot and 
inside and edges of ears; a white stripe generally along middle of belly. 
Winter fur paler, more frosted with the long white tips of the hairs which 
partly obscure the dusky subterminal zones. 

Measurements. A large male from Antelope, Oreg., measured in the flesh: 
Total length, 800 mm ; tail, 120 ; foot, 130 ; ear from notch to tip, measured dry, 
about 30. A female from Yamsey Mountain measured 780; 154; 108; 30. 
Weight of a large male from North Dakota 25 pounds. Weight of average 
animals when lean about 16 to 20 pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. This form of the genus, characterized 
by slightly smaller size, darker colors and more inflated audital 
bullae than typical taxm from Saskatchewan, occupies the Great 
Basin region, including Oregon east of the high part of the Cas- 
cades (fig. 75). There is one record for the upper Kogue Eiver 
Valley where many of the desert species cross over the low pass 
west of Klamath Lakes. They are primarily animals of the sage- 
brush plains with no zonal restrictions wherever a convenient food 
supply may lead them. Their apparent aversion to forest country 

7209 36 20 



308 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



as rare as the marten and fisher if they are not given better protection 
than fur bearers usually get. Raising choice light-colored badgers 
for fur has proved a successful enterprise in some parts of the country 
and will perhaps be developed into a real industry. 

MEPHITIS OCCIDENTALS OCCIDENTALS BAIBD 
CALIFORNIA SKUNK; CHAW-SIS of the Klainath (C. H. M.) 

Mephitis occidental^ Baird, Mamm. North Amer., p. 194, 1857. 

Type. Not designated; description based on two specimens from Sonoma 
County, Calif. ; collected by E. Samuels in 1856 or earlier. 

General characters. About the size of a house cat, with heavy body, short 
legs, a large bushy tail, short ears, pointed nose, and small eyes; feet fully 
plantigrade, with naked soles and long front claws for digging ; teeth 16 above 
and 18 below ; fur full and soft with long, coarse guard hairs ; a pair of large 
glandular musk sacs at the sides of the anus, surrounded by a broad band of 
muscle that may be contracted, forcing fine streams of amber liquid of powerful 
odor through two nipplelike ducts at the edge of the anus. Color, fur dark 
brown and outer hairs black all over except a narrow white stripe through fore- 
head, a broad white band from top of head to shoulders, then dividing along 
sides of back and tail, and meeting across top of tail near the middle, leaving 
the tip of tail black ; long tail hairs white at base, mostly with long black tips ; 
the white hairs of nape, back, and tail longer than the black hairs and forming 
a sort of crest. White often tinged with creamy buff or salmon; pattern the 
same at all seasons and ages, but with varying proportions of white. 

Measurements. Average of adult males from type region: Total length, 
693 mm; tail, 303; foot, 78; ear (dry), about 20. Females slightly smaller. 
Grinnell and Storer give the weight as 3% to 8% pounds, but large fat indi- 
viduals may probably run even higher. 

Distribution and habitat. California and Oregon valley country, 
west of the Sierra Nevada, and the Cascades from the vicinity of 
Monterey Bay north to the Willamette Valley, in mainly Upper 
Sonoran and Transition Zones (fig. 76). Although valley rather than 

mountain animals, they 

in places go well up into 
foothills and high valleys. 
They generallypreferopen 
country with brush land 
and wood lots but some- 
times penetrate well into 
partially timbered re- 
gions. In southern Ore- 
gon this form reaches to 
the coast, but in the north- 
western part of the State 
it gives place to the 
broader striped Puget 

FIGURE 76. Range of four forms of the common Qrmnrl cL-nnlr 

skunks in Oregon : 1, Mephitis occidentals occiden- ou J K UI1K. 

talis; 2, M. o. spissifjrada ; 3, M. p. major; 4, M. o. General habit S. Skunks 

notata. Type locality circled. ,. , 

are entirely ground dwell- 
ers and great diggers, depending on their long, strong claws not only 
for digging out much of their food but for construction of numerous 
deep burrows in which they generally make their homes. In places 
they live under or among the rocks, in small caves, or even in hollow 




1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 309 

logs, but their winter homes are generally deep under ground. They 
are mainly nocturnal but are not infrequently seen abroad in the early 
evening, hunting for grasshoppers, or in the morning hours, racking 
along with a sideways gait toward home. Their best speed is but a 
sorry pace for escaping danger, and if pursued, they quickly face 
about with threatening attitude, knowing well their powers of defense. 

On such occasions, with tail erect and black and white plume strik- 
ingly spread, the skunks make little runs at the enemy, which 
generally keeps beyond the enchanted circle, but if not, jets of 
amber liquid are thrown with surprising accuracy to a distance of 
10 or 15, or possibly 20 feet, filling the air with the most stifling 
odor. An experienced hunting dog will usually keep beyond the 
danger limit and merely bark at a skunk, but one without experience 
or with a reckless disposition often rushes in and grabs the skunk, 
usually by the wrong end, and shakes the life out of it, greatly to 
his own and his master's sorrow. Often the dog becomes violently 
sick and loses his supper and would like to die, but cannot. If 
water is near he will plunge in and wash his mouth and his fuming 
coat, but to little purpose. If there is no water he will chew up 
the ground and leaves and roll and wallow in the grass or sand, 
but with little relief or improvement of his condition. Many a 
dog, however, never gets nearer than the first barrage, and the skunk 
safely reaches home before the enemy recovers from its surprise 
and discomfort. Under similar circumstances men, bears, mountain 
lions, and railroad trains are treated like dogs, with a full discharge 
of the weapons of skunkly warfare, and with varying but rarely 
enjoyable results. 

The skunk's weapon is the simplest of squirt guns, two glandular 
sacs at the sides of the anus, surrounded by a broad band of muscle 
which, contracted, forces the yellow fluid secreted by the gland 
through two nipplelike ducts in a straight line with considerable 
force. The strange part of it is that from the rear the skunk can 
aim and shoot with such precision. With a quick twist of the body 
it will fire over one shoulder or the other at an enemy directly in 
front or aim at an object at one side or the other, or in the rear, 
or even directly above, and generally with astonishing accuracy. 
The only really safe place is beyond the animal's range. 

However, the skunk is naturally a gentle, timid animal, fairly 
intelligent, and if met halfway in gentleness and wisdom, will prove 
harmless and exceedingly interesting. By moving slowly and talking 
softly to one, it is generally possible for a person to enter the charmed 
circle without unpleasantness. It is quite possible for one to coax 
a skunk into a box, a joint of stovepipe, a tile, or any dark retreat, 
cover the openings, pour in an ounce of ether, and after a few min- 
utes take the animal out and handle it safely as long as it is under 
the anesthetic. If the skunk is placed in a good lignt and allowed 
to revive without being excited, 1 or 2 good photographs can usually 
be obtained. If kept in captivity, the animals become gentle and 
make good pets, even without the removal of the scent glands. 

Breeding habits. The female skunks of this group have normally 
5 or 6 pairs of mammae 2 inguinal, 2 abdominal, and 1 or 2 pec- 
toral arranged in two parallel rows the whole length of the belly. 
The young 6, 8, 10, or possibly a dozen in a litter are born in 



310 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

May or June and begin to follow the mothers in July or August 
while still small. 

Food habits. Skunks are fond of meat, grasshoppers, crickets, 
beetles, beetle larvae, fly larvae and pupae, ant and hornet larvae, 
mice, rats, ground squirrels, birds and birds' eggs, frogs and cray- 
fish, and in fact, practically any small game that they can dig out 
or catch. Skunks have large stomachs and in times of abundance, 
as during a grasshopper or cricket year, stuff themselves to the limit 
on such choice food. They are fond of ripe prunes that have fallen 
on the ground, and of other fruits and berries, especially blueberries, 
on which they sometimes gorge themselves. In captivity they will 
eat a great variety of foods, such as bread, milk, mush, fruit, and 
berries. 

Economic status. Skunk fur forms an important part of the 
trapper's harvest each year, and while the price is not high, usually, 
in recent years, $2 or $3 for prime skins, the abundance of the 
animals and the ease with which they are caught give them an 
important place on the list of fur bearers. 

Farmers sometimes complain of damage to their poultry by skunks, 
but this is rarely serious and in most cases could be easily prevented 
by giving the poultry a safe place to sleep. The enormous con- 
sumption of insects, mainly injurious species, and destruction of ro- 
dent pests, give the skunks an economic value that generally out- 
weighs their occasional killing of poultry and their local destruction 
of eggs and young of both poultry and game birds. 

MEPHITIS OCCIDENTALIS SPISSIGRADA BANGS 
PUGET SOUND SKUNK 

Mephitis spissigrada Bangs, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 12 : 31, 1898. 

Type. Collected at Sumas, British Columbia, by Allan C. Brooks, 1895. 

General characters. Like occidentalis but with broader white stripes and long 
white hairs usually extending beyond black at tip of tail; skull shorter and 
broader than in occidentalis. The white stripes generally tinged with cream, 
buff, or salmon below the surface. 

Measurements. Average of 3 adult males from the type locality : Total length, 
653 mm; tail, 246; foot, 79; ear (dry), about 24. Females: 625; 235; 75. 
Weight of a large fat skunk taken by A. J. French, of Carlton, Oregon, 14 
pounds. 

Distribution and habitat. Puget Sound section of southern British 
Columbia, western Washington, and south to the coast country of 
northwestern Oregon (fig. 76). One specimen from McCoy in Polk 
County seems to be the only substantiated record for Oregon. 

General habits. Not known to differ from those of M. o. occi- 
dentalis. 

MEPHITIS OCCIDENTALIS NOTATA (HOWELL) 

COLUMBIA VALLEY SKUNK ; APISOUS of the Wasco 

Chincha occidentalis notata Howell, North Amer. Fauna, No. 20, p. 36, 1901. 

Type. Collected at Trout Lake, Skamania County, Wash., by Peter Schmid, 
1897. 

General characters. Size about as in occidentalis, but tail shorter, white 
stripes narrower and often incomplete, usually divided to back of neck or 
back of head ; tail sometimes without long white hairs, but if present reaching 
to near tip. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 311 

Measurements. Average of adult males from type locality : Total length, 633 
mm ; tail, 249 ; foot, 76. Of adult females : 659 ; 286 ; 69. 

Distribution and habitat. This well-marked but restricted form 
occupies the Columbia River Valley from the south base of Mount 
Adams eastward on both sides of the river to near the Great Bend. 
On the Oregon side specimens are referred to it from The Dalles, 
from Millers (near the mouth of the Deschutes), Willows, Umatilla, 
and Lena, all in semi arid Upper Sonoran Zone of the Columbia River 
Basin (fig. 76) . The name " Cascade skunk ", which has been applied 
to it, is misleading as its range is entirely in the Columbia Valley, 
east of the Cascades. 

MEPHITIS OCCIDENTALS MAJOR (HOWELL) 
GBEAT BASIN SKUNK ; PooNticHE of the Piute at Burns 

Chincha occidental^ major Howell, North Amer. Fauna, No. 20, p. 37, 1901. 

Type. Collected at Fort Klamath, Oreg., by B. L. Cunningham, January 5, 
1898. 

General characters. Size slightly larger than Occident alts ; underfur darker 
brown and outer hairs more shiny black; white stripes pure white, dividing 
nearer to neck and continuous along sides of back and tail and across top 
of tail well back of black tip. 

Measurements. Average of 5 adult males from type locality: Total length, 
705 mm ; tail, 306 ; foot, 84. 

Distribution <md habitat. The Great Basin skunks occupy the 
desert region from Utah, Nevada, and northeastern California to 
eastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and southern Idaho (fig. 
76). They cover most of Oregon east of the Cascades in Upper 
Sonoran and Transition Zones, and all of the low country except 
the immediate valley of the Columbia River. 

General habits. In adaptation to arid and open environment 
these big skunks of the Great Basin area are mainly restricted to 
the vicinity of streams, lakes, canyons, or areas where water and 
cover are to be found, and where insects and small rodents or birds 
are abundant. The skunks often travel long distances in roads or 
trails, but never beyond reach of water and cover ; consequently they 
are not found over wide spaces of desert country, but often rather 
abundant in restricted areas. In canyons or along cliffs they live 
under or among rock masses, or burrow in the dense growth of 
weeds and bushes near the rocks. Near lake shores they will bur- 
row anywhere within reach of the tule-bordered breeding grounds 
of water birds or mouse-infested meadows. In a mouse year they 
gather about the fields and feast on meadow mice. In a grasshopper 
year or a cricket year they fatten on these wholesome and nutritious 
insects ; in a rabbit or ground-squirrel year they aid in keeping down 
the surplus, capturing the young or even pulling down the sick 
jack rabbits in times of epidemic. On the breeding grounds of water- 
birds around some of the great tule-bordered lakes of eastern Oregon, 
they are a possible source of danger to eggs and young, and in some 
cases are evidently responsible for some broken eggs and small 
broods of young ducks. This, the most serious mischief of which 
skunks are sometimes convicted, is, however, almost wholly pre- 
ventable by allowing or encouraging more thorough trapping in 
areas where they are likely to prove destructive. Fortunately their 



312 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



fur is always of sufficient value to keep their numbers reduced to a 
harmless minimum without any expense for artificial means of 
control. On the whole this skunk is thus a valuable animal, from 
both the economic and commercial viewpoints. 

SPILOGALB GRACILIS SAXATILIS MERRIAM 

GREAT BASIN SPOTTED SKUNK ; HYDROPHOBIA SKUNK ; PHOBY CAT ; CIVET CAT ; 
CIVET; WApoiApfsNA of the Piute at Burns 

Spilogale saxatilis Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 4, p. 13, 1890. 

Type. Collected at Prove, Utah, by Vernon Bailey, November 13, 1888. 

General characters. A slender, graceful little skunk, with short legs ; plan- 
tigrade feet ; naked soles ; climbing claws ; short rounded ears ; a large plume- 
like tail (pi. 44, A) ; and a weasellike expression of face; fur very soft and 
full when prime, and colors dazzling in their intricate pattern of black and 
white. Scent glands almost as highly developed as in Mephitis, and used in the 
same way in self defense. Color, clear black, or sooty black all over except 
four white shoulder stripes and two side stripes ; a white spot on forehead and 
one on each cheek; eight white spots on rump and a large white tip to the 
tail, including half its length. Pattern the same at all ages and seasons. 

Measurements. Average of 2 males from type locality: Total length, 436 
mm; tail, 170; foot, 47; ear (dry), about 20. Average of three females from 
Oregon: 360; 129; 40. 

Distribution and habitat. The Great Basin area from Utah and 
Colorado through northern Nevada and southern Idaho to north- 
eastern California, Ore- 
gon, east of the Cascades, 
and southeastern Wash- 
ington in Upper Sonoran 
Zone (fig. 77). 

General habits. These 
beautiful little spotted 
weasel skunks are more or 
less wanderers in their 
desert range, along the 
lines of cliffs, canyons, and 
rimrocks, or in the arid 
valleys of eastern Oregon 
in the broken and cavern- 
ous lava fields. There is 
some doubt as to whether 
they follow the cliffs and 
canyons for shelter and 
protection, or merely because these are also favorite haunts of numer- 
ous small rodents and many forms of insect life on which they prey. 
They are great climbers, both among the rocks and in trees and bushes, 
and seem to be able to capture the most active of the small rodents, 
many of which are also good climbers. They often take up tempo- 
rary residence about barns, sheds, or even under houses where, if 
unmolested, they do good work in destruction of rats, mice, insects, 
and reptiles. They are so fully nocturnal as to be little noticed, 
even when living under the doorstep of a dwelling. At the warden's 
cabin near Malheur Lake, one lived under the house and came out at 
night and ate up some of the meadow mice from a box where they 
were kept under the window for study and ate part of a prairie f al- 




FIGURE 77. Range of the two forms of little 
skunks in Oregon : 1, 
2, 8. gracilis saxatilis. 



)tted 



skunks in Oregon : 1, Spilogale phenax latifrons; 
Type locality circled. 



North American Fauna No 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 44 




SPOTTED SKUNKS. 



A, Great basin spotted skunk on the run (from photograph taken at Malheur Lake, Oreg.); B, Oregon 
spotted skunk (from photograph taken at Tillamook, Oreg., by Alex Walker). 



North American Fauna No. 55, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey 



PLATE 45 




NORTHWESTERN RACCOON. 
Photograph by O. J. Murie. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OKEGON 313 

con that had been shot for a specimen. An inverted soap box was 
set on the steps with a trigger under one edge, baited with meat, 
which the skunk smelled and tried to get as soon as the writer turned 
away. A large gunny sack was slipped under and over the box and 
the little skunk transferred to it ; the sack was dropped gently into 
a tin can and carried out to the middle of a clean pasture, where the 
skunk was released and photographed as it ran, sometimes away 
from and sometimes toward the writer. It was no trouble to keep 
near the animal and take pictures at a 6-foot focal distance. 
Through all this unusual excitement the skunk did not throw its 
scent or become unpleasant in any way, except that while under the 
box it would stamp its feet in a fury. The next night it was back 
under the house and in response to friendly advances only stamped 
its feet in a threating manner. It seemed able to express much of its 
feelings in various forms of stamping with both front feet at once. 

At the next cabin out in the sagebrush valley one was caught at 
the side of the house, under a tin can set for wood rats. At the ranch 
beyond, a dog was kept and there were none of these interesting little 
animals about. 

In 1915 Jewett found one prowling about his room at night on the 
Hay Creek ranch. When the light was turned on it showed no alarm 
but continued its search until it found the bodies of three birds that 
had been skinned for specimens the day before. These were quickly 
appropriated and carried under a box to be eaten at leisure. 

Other specimens of these little skunks were obtained along the 
canyon of the Deschutes River by using the bodies of birds for bait, 
but at that time the animals had become scarce through years of 
persistent trapping for fur. The collector gets more of these animals 
in traps set for wood rats than in any other way, as they are always 
hunting for and following the runways of these rodents, but they are 
also attracted to any traps baited with meat and set for other skunks, 
foxes, coyotes, bobcats, or mink. 

They have a pair of scent glands, arranged as in the large skunks 
at the sides of the anus and operated by surrounding bands of muscle 
that on contraction force two streams of powerfully pungent amber 
liquid to a distance of 10 or 12 feet. Its odor is scarcely distinguish- 
able from that of Mephitis, but when not too strong has a little sug- 
gestion of the red-fox odor. It is used only in self-defense, and 
then only as a last resort when escape seems hopeless. When the 
animal is killed by a sharp blow across the back the rear muscles are 
mralyzed and no scent is thrown, or if an ounce of carbon bisulphide 
>r gasoline is poured into a small box or burrow where they are, they 
soon become unconscious without ejecting their fluid and may be 
handled freely without unpleasant results or kept under the influence 
of it until the heart has ceased to beat. Ether can be used in the same 
way but does not result in death unless its application is long 
continued. 

The popular belief that the bite of these little skunks will always 
produce hydrophobia has no foundation in fact. These and other 
skunks, as well as dogs, coyotes, and other animals, may convey the 
disease when they have contracted it, but at no other time, and there 
are very few authentic records of hydrophobia following the bite of 
iks. 



314 NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Breeding habits. The mammae of adult females are arranged 
usually in 5 pairs 1 inguinal far back, 2 abdominal, and 2 pectoral 
or in two parallel rows of 5 each. There are records of 4 and 5 
young in a litter, but the number of mammae would indicate the 
possibility of larger families up to perhaps 8 or 10 in some cases. 

Food habits. The food of these little skunks is largely insects 
and small rodents, but as in the case of others of the group probably 
includes lizards, snakes, salamanders, small birds, and crayfish, any 
kind of meat that becomes available, and some berries and wild fruits. 
There are many records of their clearing out the rats and mice 
around barns and houses where they have taken up their abode, but 
very few records of any destruction of poultry. However, it is not 
improbable that they may sometimes kill young chickens or other 
small poultry found roosting in unprotected places. 

At times they become very fat, but it seems doubtful that in the 
mild climate of their zone they should hibernate for long periods, if 
at all. 

Econoiwc statm. In recent years the fur of these little animals 
has become fashionable and is often seen in ladies' coats, collars, 
and muffs. It is very light and soft and fairly durable. The price 
per skin is not very high, but the considerable number of skins 
taken each year adds to the value of the trapper's harvest. On the 
other hand the animals may have considerable value as destroyers of 
insect and rodent pests, and might well be given a degree of protec- 
tion that would insure their perpetuation in reasonable abundance. 

SPILOGALE PHENAX LATIFRONS MERRIAM 
OREGON SPOTTED SKUNK ; HYDROPHOBIA SKUNK ; " CIVET CAT " 
Spilogale phenax latifrons Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 4, p. 15, 1890. 

Type. Collected at Roseburg, Oreg., by T. S. Palmer, July 13, 1889. 

General characters. Much larger and heavier than S. ffracilis saxatilis (pi. 
44, B) ; white areas much less extensive than the black and usually tinged 
with buffy or salmon ; white tip including less than half of tail. 

Measurements. Average of 6 males: Total length, 408 mm; tail, 127; foot, 
47.7; ear (dry), 20. Average of 11 females: 373; 122; 42.8. Weight of S. 
phenax 16 to 28 ounces (Grinnell, Storer, and Linsdale, 1930, p. 465). 

Distribution and habitat. Coast section of Oregon and Northern 
California in Upper Sonoraii and Transition Zones (fig. 77). 

General habits. In the absence of rocks in much of the low coun- 
try of western Oregon, these little spotted skunks live commonly in the 
timber among old logs and in such cover as the forest affords. Near 
the coast they find abundance of logs and dense growth, in which to 
hide away and are usually more numerous than in the interior val- 
leys. In food, breeding, and general habits, they differ but little 
from the Great Basin species, except as they adapt themselves to 
different cover and to different types of food. They come more in 
contact with agriculture and human affairs and thus seem more oft 
to do the only mischief of which they are accused, occasionally killing 
young poultry that is left unprotected at night. On the other hand 
their destruction of small rodents and insects on farms is of greatei 
economic importance than in a country of little agriculture. 

Their value as fur is not great but adds considerably to the trap- 
per's returns. The following notes from the Oregon Sportsman foi 
April 1914 give an idea of their local importance. John Vaughn oj 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



315 



Eugene brought in 2 cougars, 7 bobcats, 3 raccoons, 2 fishers, 2 mar- 
tens and 28 "civet cats." Another trapper brought 14 bobcats, 1 
covote, 3 mink, 5 fishers, 20 martens, 5 white weasels, 5 skunks, and 55 
" civet cats." Another brought in a coyote, 6 wildcats, and 30 " civet 
cats." While the skins of " civet cats , the trade name for the little 
spotted skunks, were quoted at that time at only 50 to 65 cents each, 
the numbers of skins taken gave them considerable importance in 
the fur yield. 

Family PROCYONIDAE: Raccoons 

PROCYON LOTOR PACIFICA MEKRIAM 

NORTHWESTERN RACCOON 

Procyon psora pacific^ Merriam, North Amer. Fauna, No. 16, p. 107, 1899. 

Type. Collected at Lake Keechelus, Kittitas County, Wash., by C. Hansen, 
January 15, 1898. 

General characters. Size of a badger or a small dog (pi. 45) ; body heavy; 
face short with pointed nose, erect ears, and crossed by a black mask; feet 
fully plantigrade with naked soles; claws curved for climbing; teeth 40 in 
number; tail round and bushy, encircled by black and gray rings; fur full 
and soft, mainly obscured by long coarse outer hairs. Color, upper parts dark 
coarse gray, produced by brown under-fur, white or yellowish subterminal 
portions and black tips of long guard hairs ; top of head blackish and a broad 
black band across face and eyes, connecting with brownish black throat patch ; 
a narrow band of whitish crossing forehead and cheeks, and three white spots 
covering chin and sides of nose; tips of ears whitish; tail tipped with black 
and encircled by 6 or 7 gray and 6 or 7 black rings ; top of hind feet dusky ; 
lower parts light brown, more or less silvered with scattered long whitish 
hairs ; throat dusky ; chin whitish ; nose pad and naked soles black. 

Measurements. An immature male from Easton, Wash., measured in the 
flesh: Total length, 780 mm; tail, 275; hind foot, 120; ear (dry), 40. An adult 
female from Steilacoom, measured 830; 270; 129; ear (dry), 40. Skull of adult 
male from Lake Cushman, Wash.: Greatest length, 120; zygomatic breadth, 
85 ; interorbital constriction, 26 ; alveolar length of upper molar series, 35. 

Distribution and habitat. These large raccoons of the Northwest 
range from southern British Columbia south to northern California, 
in and west of the Cas- 
cades (fig. 78). They are 
common along the coast 
and foothill streams and 
lakes in mainly Transition 
Zone, but absent from the 
higher parts of the moun- 
tains. Generally animals 
of forest and timbered 
areas, they are also much 
at home where cliffs and 
canyons afford safe re- 
treats, in which they may 
sleep during the daytime, 
or take refuge when pur- 
sued by enemies at night. 

General habits. Rac- 
coons are mainly noctur- 
nal, but when urged by hunger sometimes come out of their dark re- 
treats in hollow logs, trees, or caves before dark or on cloudy days, 
to catch a meal of frogs or crayfish. At night they wander far and 
wide along the creek or river banks, the lake shores, or ocean beaches, 




FIGURE 78. Range of the Northwestern and Snake 
River Valley raccoons in Oregon : 1, Procyon lotor 
paciftca; 2, P. I. excelsus. 



316 NORTH AMEEICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

or through the woods from one stream or marsh to another, or to 
some field of roasting ears, thicket of choke cherries, or orchard of 
prunes or other sweet fruit. Except in the fruit and nut season 
their food is largely obtained from or near the water and they are 
fond of wading, and even swimming, to get it. They have the well- 
known habit of washing or soaking their food or dipping it in water 
before eating it, but if no water is near they do not wait for this 
formality. They often make well-worn trails along the shores, and 
the baby like tracks of their long hind feet, found in the sand or mud 
where they have been searching for food, are unmistakable. 

Breeding habits. Adult females have 3 pairs of mammae 1 ingui- 
nal, 1 abdominal, and 1 pectoral. Two to five young have been 
reported in the litters. The mating season appears to be immediately 
after the awakening from hibernation, which varies from January 
to March, and young are born apparently in April and May, accord- 
ing to the local climate. The period of gestation has been deter- 
mined as about 65 days. 

Food habits. Raccoons are about as omnivorous as the bears, eat- 
ing any kind of meat or small game they can capture or find dead, but 
usually subsisting largely on frogs, fish, crayfish, clams, mussels, 
berries, and any sweet fruits, acorns, nuts, and green or ripe corn. 
In autumn they are especially eager for nuts and grain on which 
they fatten for a long winter's sleep. In the mild climate of the low 
country they do not hibernate for long periods or necessarily at all, 
but where snow lies deep and the weather is cold they often remain 
dormant for 3 or 4 months, coming out with the warm days of March 
when the snow begins to melt, even before its disappearance affords a 
remnant of the previous year's food. At such times they must de- 
pend largely on the store of fat left over from fall, on an occasional 
mouse or rabbit that may be surprised and captured, or on some animal 
found dead under the snow. 

Economic status. On rare occasions raccoons have been known to 
catch poultry, especially when the latter roosts in the trees, and 
they undoubtedly catch some small game and eat the eggs of water- 
fowl found nesting in marshes and along lake shores. They eat some 
fruit and also destroy some corn while in the roasting-ear stage, or 
even when ripe, but these depredations are usually overlooked in 
view of the general value of the raccoon as a game and fur-bearing 
animal. In many places the nocturnal " coon hunt " with dogs is an 
exciting sport. 

The fur value of the raccoon is not great, the prices reachi] 
usually but a few dollars per skin, but because of their genei 
abundance and wide distribution, they form an important part oJ 
the annual fur crop of Oregon. The fur is attractive, warm, an< 
very durable, and is much used in winter coats for both men an< 
women. 

PROCYON LOTOR EXGELSUS NELSON AND GOLDMAN 

SNAKE RIVES VALLEY RACCOON ; CANYON COON 
Procyon lotor excelsus Nelson and Goldman, Jour. Mammal. 11 : 458, 1930. 

Type. Collected on upper Owyhee River near mouth of North Fork 
southeastern corner of Oregon, by J. W. Fisk, April 15, 1920. 

General characters. Size largest of the raccoons; color light gray; ski 
large and angular, with elongated brain case, broad frontals, and high sagitt* 



1936] 



MAMMALS OF OREGON 



317 



crest. Color of upper parts light buffy gray, darker along the back where 
the brown underfur is heavily overlaid with black-tipped hairs; sides clearer 
gray; lower parts light buffy gray; face with the usual black mask and 
whitish markings; ears gray with black patches at posterior base; throat 
patch dark brown ; hind legs grayish with brown patches near heels ; tail with 
six black bands and black tip, alternating with broader buffy rings. 

Measurements. No body measurements available. Skull of type: Greatest 
length, 136.5 mm ; zygomatic breadth, 89 ; interorbital constriction, 30 ; alveolar 
length of upper molar series, 37. Other skulls from eastern Oregon and 
southern Idaho are larger than any seen from Minnesota or North Dakota, 
where the raccoons run large, and where fat individuals weighing 24 to 30% 
pounds have been recorded. 

Distribution and habitat. These large raccoons are common only 
locally along some of the streams of eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, 
and northern Nevada, where they find ideal conditions in some of 
the deep lava-rock canyons (fig. 78). The canyon walls, full of clefts, 
cracks, and small caves afford the safest kind of shelter and protection 
close to the water where an abundant supply of food is generally 
available on the brushy bottoms or in the water along the edges of 
streams and ponds. In such places along the Snake Kiver and its 
branches they are found in considerable abundance and are so close 
to safe retreats that many individuals reach full maturity or very 
old age. This is evidenced by some of the skulls that show excessive 
development of ridges, processes, and massive bony structure as well 
as much worn teeth. 

Food habits. Abundance of crayfish, frogs, minnows, mussels, and 
other small water life attracts them to the river banks, while numer- 
ous mice and small rodents, berries, and grapes afford a variety of 
foods along the canyon bottoms. In favorite spots the raccoon tracks 
are seen on every sandbar and mud flat, and the droppings scattered 
along the trails show the nature of their food. 

Economic status. Most of the range of these big raccoons is away 
from settlements, and little damage to crops or poultry is charged 
to them, but where cornfields are accessible these are likely to be 
raided for the juicy ears, and poultry is never safe from them if left 
within their reach. They are not inclined to come about ranches, 
however, especially where there are dogs, and their value for fur 
"reeps their numbers reduced to a safe minimum. 

In recent years many choice dark varieties of raccoons have been 
raised for their fur, which is beautiful and brings high prices when 
the black and gray strains are properly blended. 

Family BASSARISCIDAE : Cacomistles 

BASSARISCUS ASTUTUS RAPTOR (BAIRD) 

RINGTAIL ; CACOMISTLE ; CIVET CAT 

tassaris raptor Baird, Mammals, Mex. Boundary Survey, p. 19, 1859. 
Bassariscus flaws oregonus Rhoads, Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc. 1893 : 416, 1894. 
Type from Grants Pass, Oreg. 

Type. From California. A captive animal found on the street of Washing- 
ton, D. C., in 1852 and supposed by Baird to have been brought from California. 
Later identified by J. A. Allen and by Merriam as the form occupying California 
ind Oregon. A comparison of the more ample material now available clearly 
>roves this view to be correct. 

General characters. Size of a small house cat but slenderer, with larger ears, 
ind very long bushy tail, marked with black and white crossbars. Skull light, 
iparatively flattened with widely separated sagittal ridges and 40 teeth. 



318 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

Color, upper parts dark yellowish gray, heavily clouded with black-tipped, long 
hairs; face dusky gray with whitish spots above and below eyes and in front 
of ears; tail flattened, wide, with 7 transverse bars of white and 8 of bla,ck 
including the tip, the black predominating above and the white below; lower 
parts buffy or creamy white, approximately the same at all seasons. 

Measurements. Adult male from Glen Ellen, Calif. : Total length, 742 mm ; 
tail, 346; foot, 76; ear (dry), 40. Of adult female from Prospect, Oreg. : 745; 
361; 72; 40. Weight 28 to 39 ounces (Grinnell and Storer, 1924, P- 81). 

Distribution and habitat. The California ringtail inhabits western 
California and southwestern Oregon, mainly in Upper Sonoran 
Zone. There are specimens from Prospect, Grants Pass, and Gold 
Beach, Oreg., all in the Rogue River Valley, and reports of occur- 
rence at Riddle, in the Umpqua Valley, and along the west side of 
Upper Klamath Lake. The description by Mr. Winans of Follyf arm, 
east of the Steens Mountains, of a long-tailed cat with rings around 
its tail, killed there in 1915, apparently adds a record for eastern 
Oregon and possibly another form, Bassariscus astutus nevadensis 
Miller (192^, p. 113) , to the State. Ringtails, however, are so often 
kept as pets and escape after being carried long distances, that such 
isolated records are questionable. 

Near Prospect, on the upper part of Rogue River, Preble caught 
one of these animals in 1896 in a trap set at the base of a tree near a 
cliff of the canyon wall and baited with fresh meat, the bodies of 
small birds and mammals skinned for specimens. In 1910, A. B. 
Cameron wrote to the Biological Survey that he had caught several 
" ring-tailed cats " in 1896 near Crater Lake. He described them 
as about the size of a marten, with long tails ringed with black and 
white, and head, eyes, and ears resembling a small fox. In 1914 
Harry Telford of Klamath Falls, found tracks near Crater Lake 
that he " was pretty sure " were made by these animals, which he 
considered common on the west side of the Cascades. In 1916 Mr. 
Wampler, at Pelican Bay, told the writer that he had caught several 
ring-tailed cats along the west side of Upper Klamath Lake, where 
he usually trapped for fur in winter. 

Near Grant's Pass, Clark P. Streator in 1891, and Luther Gold- 
man in 1914, reported them as well known to hunters and trappers in 
that vicinity and usually found in the mountains and canyons. At 
Gold Beach, in 1909, the writer saw one skin brought into the store 
and was told that the animal was common in Rogue River Canyoi 
near there. 

General habits. Over a wid.e range in the southwestern Unite< 
States the ringtails inhabit mainly canyons, cliffs, and caves, but ii 
western California and southern Oregon, under cover of forest am 
chaparral, they range also to some extent over the lower mountaii 
slopes at a distance from protecting rocks. They are strictly n< 
turnal animals, hunting at night or in dark caves and rarely seei 
except as caught in traps, or when they come into camps and cabii 
at night to hunt for mice and rats. They are excellent climbers, botl 
over cliffs and in trees, and are noted for their quickness and skill 
in catching small animals for food. They have gentle dispositioi 
and in the early days were often tamed and kept instead of ca1 
to catch the mice and rats about the miners' cabins. 

Breeding habits. The females have usually two pairs of mamniJ 
arranged in a quadrangle on the posterior part of the belly, and th< 
young are, in the few instances known, 3 or 4 in number. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 319 

Food habits. Small mammals, largely mice and wood rats, are 
said to furnish most of their food, but like other closely related 
species the ringtails undoubtedly capture some small birds and eat 
insects and fruit when other game is scarce. They are readily 
attracted to traps by any kind of meat, fur, or feathers, and are easily 
caught. 

Economic status. As fur-bearing animals ringtails have but little 
value and often are not considered worth skinning when caught. 
Still their fur is fine and soft and when prime rather pretty, as well 
as light and warm. Perhaps the fur value, however, makes up 
for their occasional meal on poultry or small game, while their 
greatest value lies undoubtedly in their check on overabundance of 
wood rats, mice, and other rodents. To what extent they destroy 
insects and such small animal life is not known. 

Family URSIDAE : Bears 

EUARCTOS AMERICANUS CINNAMOMUM (AUDUBON AND BACHMAN) 

IDAHO BLACK BEAR ; CINNAMON BEAR ; YACKKAH of the " Chopunnish " Indians 
(L. and C.) ; TOKA'KUACHA of the Piute at Burns; WE-TAM of the Klamath 
(C. H. M.) 

Ursus americanus var. cinnamomum Audubon and Bachman, Quad. North 
Amer., v. 3, p. 125, 1854. 

Type locality. Lower Clearwater River, Camp Chopunnish, near mouth of 
Jim Ford Creek, western Idaho. Description based on skin purchased from 
Indians by Lewis and Clark on May 31, 1806 (1893, v. 8, p. 1030). 

General characters. Bears are heavily built and powerful animals with 
mere rudiments of tails, very strong limbs, plantigrade feet, strong claws, 
and heavy carnivore dentition. The black-bear group differs from the grizzlies 
in generally smaller size, relatively as well as actually lighter dentition, and 
in short well curved rather than long relatively straight claws on the front 
feet. Nose with large naked pad; eyes small; ears well haired, prominent in 
summer, almost buried in the long fur of winter; teeth normally 38, but some 
of the small premolars usually lacking. 

This subspecies averages larger than the eastern americanus, with higher, 
more arched outline of skull, relatively heavier canines and lighter molars. 
The skull is similar to that of amblyceps, of the southern Rocky Mountains, 
hut molar teeth larger and thicker. Color varying from black to dark and 
light brown and often fading in summer to yellowish or whitish in the old 
winter coat, sometimes with a white spot or patch on throat or breast ; nose 
usually brown or yellowish. Judging from specimens examined and field 
reports there are about one-third more brown than black bears in eastern 
Oregon, and about four times as many black as brown west of the Cascades. 
There are several records of twin cubs, 1 brown and 1 black, with either a 
black or a brown mother. 

Trustworthy measurements and weights of bears are greatly needed for all 
parts of the country, including Oregon. A well-tanned skin of a large male 
from the Blue Mountains measures in total length 6 feet ; hind foot, 7 inches ; 
tail, 3 inches; ear, 4 inches. Skull of old male from Wallowa: Basal length, 
275 mm; zygomatic breadth, 185. Published weights of from 200 to 500 
pounds rarely specified whether the animal was actually weighed or the weight 
merely estimated. 

Distribution and habitat. The black bears still occupy much of 
their original range in Oregon, but generally in greatly reduced 
numbers (fig. 79). They were once common throughout the Blue 
Mountain section and along the east slope of the Cascades. Ap- 
parently they never occupied the arid southeastern part of the State, 
or any part where water and timber were not within easy reach. 



320 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



The Forest Service reports of large game animals on the national 
forests of Oregon give the total number of black bears estimated as 
6,272 for the year 1930; 6,457 for 1931; 6,143 for 1932; and 6,240 for 
1933. This would naturally include the greater part of the bears of 
the State, although in western Oregon there is much good bear 
country outside the national forests. 

General habits. Black bears are especially forest animals, enjoy- 
ing shade and cover and many of the fruits and other foods found in 
the woods. They are timid animals, and the mere presence of trees 
that can be quickly climbed in the absence of no other means of escape 
from their few but powerful enemies, probably gives them confi- 
dence, especially so with young bears, which are quick to take to trees 
if danger threatens or the mother gives the climb-a-tree-quick signal. 
After a long and busy night searching for the large quantity of food 

required to satisfy their 
appetites they like to find 
some densethicket, swamp, 
or wooded canyon where 
they can sleep without dan- 
ger of disturbance through 
the day or until hunger 
urges them to continue the 
food search. They also 
love the water and in hot 
weather swim and wallow 
in it for sheer enjoyment. 
They do not hesitate to 
swim across rivers or 
lakes and in places find 
much of their food along 
the shores or in the water. 
They are endowed with 
great strength and endurance but are not swift runners compared 
with a dog or horse, or even a grizzly bear. They are usually not 
dangerous to people unless wounded or cornered, but an old bear 
with cubs will sometimes fight to protect her young. 

Breeding habits. The black bear usually has two young, born in 
January or February while the mother is in her winter den. The 
young, small and helpless when born, are nursed in the den through 
the winter and spring, when the mother brings them out, and then 
far into the summer. By the middle of June they are about the size 
of a raccoon, and by fall are very competent little bears, though 
still accompanying the mother. 

J. T. Jardine, of the Forest Service, wrote to the Biological Sur- 
vey an account of the killing of a large black bear by J. K. Casper, 
near Promise, in Wallowa County, Oreg., and the capture of her 2 
small cubs, 1 black and 1 brown, sometime in January 1909. The 
young, thought to be only a few hours old, measured 7 inches in 
total length. 

Economic status. Opinions in Oregon differ widely as to whether 
black bears are valuable game and fur-bearing animals to be pre- 
served, or destructive predatory animals to be destroyed. Both opin- 
ions seem to be well supported under different conditions and in 




FIGURE 79. Range of black bears in Oregon : 1, 
Euarctos amcricanus altifrontaUs; 2, E. a. 
cianamomum. 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 321 

different parts of the State. In many places, such as uninhabited 
wildernesses and mountains, the bears can do no serious harm to 
stock, game, and crops and should be considered a valuable and inter- 
esting form of game. In farming, fruit-growing, and stock-raising 
districts they may do serious harm, principally on the sheep ranges 
where they sometimes acquire the habit of killing and feasting on 
sheep. They rarely kill larger stock or game, except sick or crippled 
animals, but a bear that has formed the habit of killing stock is 
generally killed to prevent serious losses. The evidence should be 
fairly considered, however, and the bears should not be destroyed 
because they merely clean up carcasses of animals killed by 
wolves, coyotes, mountain lions, or by hunters. Prime bearskins 
in winter fur usually have a value of $10 to $20 each, which added to 
the value of the meat and oil gives them a value about equal to that 
of a deer. As game animals they also rank high for the chase as well 
as for fur and trophies. 

EUARCTOS AMERICANUS ALTIFRONTALIS (ELLIOT) 
OLYMPIC BLACK BEAR; ESKINKUA of the Wasco at The Dalles 

Ursus altifrontalis Elliot, Field Columb. Mus. Pub., Zool. Ser. 3: 234, 1903. 

Type. Collected at Lake Crescent, Clallum County, Wash., by D. G. Elliot 
expedition in 1898. 

General characters. Size large, about as in the Rocky Mountain black bears ; 
color mainly black, often wholly black, including nose, the brown form much 
less common. Records show about 4 black to 1 brown west of the Cascades. 
Skull generally short, wide, and high, the frontal region in old males often 
abruptly and conspicuously elevated. Dentition rather heavy and upper molars 
generally wider if not longer than in cinnamomum, its nearest associate on 
the east. 

Measurements. No reliable skin measurements are available. The Skull of 
an adult male from Hoodsport, Wash., measures: Basal length, 265 mm; 
zygomatic breadth, 190. 

Distribution. Specimens of black bears from the Olympic Moun- 
tains, western Washington and Oregon and northwestern California 
show more or less typical characters of this form, but along the east- 
ern slope of the Cascades in Oregon they combine the characters of 
cinnamomum with those of altifrontalis so completely that often they 
could as well be placed with one as the other (fig. 79). From Dufur 
at the east base of Mount Hood, the skulls go more nearly with 
altifrontalis, but from Paulina Lake, La Pine, Fort Kock, and Sil- 
ver Lake they are clearly intermediate or nearer to cinnamtftnum. 
No specimens have been examined from the Klamath country where 
black bears were once common and where calif omianus might be 
expected to occur, if anywhere in Oregon. 

General habits. In the densely forested range of these west-coast 
black bears there was and still is a wealth of food and cover to sup- 
port large numbers, and probably nowhere in North America were 
bears originally more numerous. In 1909, on a trip down the coast 
of Oregon the writer found them still abundant all along the way, 
although that part of the State had been well settled for many years. 
On one sheep ranch on Chetco Kiyer in southern Curry County more 
than a hundred bears had been killed within the year without much 
apparent impression being made on the general supply. In 1929 
the Forest Service credits the Siskiyou National Forest in that same 

7209 36 21 



322 NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA [No. 55 

general section as harboring 910 black bears, a fairly generous supply 
for even this extensive area of wild rough land. The dense cover of 
forest and undergrowth of the Coast Ranges has not only furnished 
protection but abundance of choice food for bears, so for actual num- 
bers they have been less destructive to livestock ? sheep, and pigs 
than in the more arid parts of the State where at times food becomes 
scarce. 

Hibernation*. In the late fall or early winter the bears generally 
become very fat, and in the mountains go into hibernation after the 
first deep snow in some cave, hollow tree, or log, or burrow under a 
log or brush pile, or in any secluded place. In the Fort Klamath 
country Harry Telford said they had not yet emerged from hiberna- 
tion on March 9, 1914. In the mild climate of the coastal slopes 
the bears apparently hibernate for only short and irregular periods 
during the coldest weather and may be found active at any season 
of the year. To what extent they become torpid is not well known, 
but the rest period seems generally to be utilized, even where the 
weather conditions do not make it necessary. 

Breeding habits. Apparently the breeding season varies somewhat 
over the State. J. C. Warner killed an old female bear near Myrtle 
Point in Coos County on February 28, 1914, and took her two cubs, 
only a few days old. He fed them on the bottle until their eyes 
opened, after 6 days (Oreg. Sportsman 2 (4) : 8, 1914). 

On February 14, 1914, Alva Addington killed an old female black 
bear with two cubs. Their eyes were not yet open (ibid). 

Apparently the breeding season is later or less regular in the 
coast country than in the mountains where hibernation begins at an 
earlier date. 

Food habits. Few carnivores are more nearly omnivorous than 
bears. Their food consists largely of berries, roots, green vegeta- 
tion, bark, acorns, nuts, grain, insects, crayfish, fish, small animals, 
or the meat of any animal they can catch, kill, or find dead. On 
emerging from their winter dens in the mountains before the snow 
has all gone they apparently fill their empty stomachs with dead 
grass, leaves, pine needles, or anything filling, without regard to 
food value. Then there is a vigorous search for carcasses of animals 
that have died during the winter, or have been preserved under the 
snow from the previous year's hunting or trapping season. Often 
this supply carries them up to the sprouting time of new plants or 
until roots, insects, and rodents can be dug from the ground to yield 
a food supply until the first berries are ripe. 

Thistles, cow-parsnip, hellebore, skimkcabbage, flower stalks of 
beargrass (XerophyUum tenax), camas bulbs, wild onions, and the 
inner bark of pines, spruce, balsam, tamarack, and hemlock all con- 
tribute to their summer food as shown by their droppings and the 
traces of food along their trails. These bears are especially fond 
of blueberries, salal, blackberries, raspberries, salmonberries, cascara 
berries, elderberries, and apparently all sweet fruits. A. G. Ames 
reports apples, mushrooms, pea vines, and grass in a number of 
stomachs examined. In autumn they feed extensively on acorns and 
any nuts, seeds, or grain they can find. They also dig out fat ground 
squirrels that have denned up for the winter and transfer the store 
of fat from the squirrels to their own supply. Where salmon or 



1936] MAMMALS OF OREGON 323 

any kind of fish become numerous in shallow water, the bears wade 

in and catch them or feast on dead fish found along the shores. In 
places they find crayfish so abundant that they apparently yield an 
important food supply. At Paulina Lake, where crayfish are ex- 
cessively abundant, Luther J. Goldman caught a bear by baiting 
his trap with crayfish, but the bear pulled his foot out of the no. 4 
trap. Bears are fond of meat whenever they can get it, but domestic 
sheep and pigs are probably the only large animals they are able 
to capture unless the animals are young, crippled, old, or sick. 

Economic status. Nature draws few hard and fast lines, and one 
is often in doubt whether to class the bears as game, fur-bearing, or 
predatory animals. They combine the characteristics of all three 
categories. A series of full and interesting statements from the for- 
est supervisors of Oregon in 1910 showed about an equal division in 
favor of killing black and brown bears as predatory animals on one 
hand and protecting them as game animals on the other. The recom- 
mendation of the district forester in letter of June 13, 1910, was that 
the Forest Service issue orders to its officers that no bears be killed 
when the fur was not prime unless they were actually killing stock. 

The policy of the Biological Survey has been to kill bears only 
when necessary to protect stock or other agricultural interests, and 
the number thus killed is relatively small. In 1929 the Survey re- 
ported 48 bears killed in the State for the protection of stock. The 
Forest Service in their game census of the national forests in Oregon 
for that year reported the number of black and brown bears esti- 
mated on the Cascade National Forest as 350; Crater, 290; Des- 
chutes, 200; Fremont, 50; Malheur, 140; Mount Hood, 400; Ochoco, 
49; Santiam, 325; Siskiyou, 910; Siuslaw, 480; Umatilla, TOO; Ump- 
qua, 500; Wallowa, 455; Whitman, 655; total, 5,504, of which 538 
were reported killed by all hunters. The national forests do not 
hold all of the bears of Oregon, but they do harbor the major por- 
tion, probably about three-quarters of the total. 

Black bears are intelligent animals, naturally playful, and good- 
natured, but temperamental and somewhat uncertain in disposition. 
Tame bears that have lost their natural fear of man are often danger- 
ous and should be avoided by those not familiar with their psychol- 
ogy, for it should be remembered that they are quick and powerful 
animals, well able to kill a person with a single bite of their powerful 
jaws or a blow from their heavily armed paws. Their eyes are 
small and their vision not very keen, but their senses of hearing and 
smell are unusually quick and far-reaching. Few animals are more 
difficult of capture without the use of traps or good hunting dogs 
that will trail and tree them or delay them for the hunter. 

URSUS KLAMATHBNSIS MEKRIAM 
KLAMATH GRIZZLY; LOK OF THE KLAMATH (C. H. M.) 

Ursus klamathensis Men-lam, Biol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 27 : 185, 1914. 

Type. From eastern end of Siskiyou Mountains, near Beswick, Calif. ; old 
skull presented to the Biological Survey by Charles F. Edson in 1912. 

General characters. In size rather large, larger than idahoenste; but not 
equaling calif ornicus ; skull high with broad flat frontal shield, long rostrum, 
heavy canines and short wide upper molars; back upper molar narrowed to 



324 



NOKTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 55 



a point posteriorly. Nearest in skull characters to idahoensis of the Rocky 
Mountain region, not closely related to other California forms. Skin charac- 
ters unknown. 

Measur