Bu MARTHA WILSON
State Supervisor of School Libraries, Minnesota Department
of Education, 1911-1917; Supervisor of Smaller
Branches and High School Libraries, Cleveland
Public Library, 1918-1920, Librarian,
Lincoln Library, Springfield, III.
Third Edition Revised
THE H. W. WILSON COMPANY
LONDON : GRAFTON & CO.
Published June, 1919
Second Edition December, 1920
Third Edition July, 1922
Printed in U. S. A.
SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
This manual is the 3d revised edition of "School library man-
agement," published by the Minnesota Department of education,
It is an attempt to state the problem of the library in the
school, particularly the smaller one, and to offer practical sug-
gestions as to its equipment, organization and administration and
to provide a reference aid for simple library methods for school
Suggestions from many sources have been incorporated;
especially from articles written by Miss Hall of Girls' high
school, Brooklyn (references marked M. E. H.) ; from Mr. Cer-
tain's Standardization report, and from "School libraries", pub-
lished by the Library Bureau.
Acknowledgment is also made to Mr. F. K. Walter, Libra-
rian of the University of Minnesota; to Miss Miller and Mr.
Libbey, of the Library Bureau, Chicago; Miss Pritchard, of the
Detroit College of education, for help in the second revision, and
to the High school librarians of Cleveland, and to Miss Har-
rington and Miss Keeler of Cleveland for suggestions re-
garding elementary school libraries.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART i. Library in the school I
Libraries in education I
State policies 2
School library room 5
Book selection 14
Book buying and ordering 22
PART II. Organization 25
Binding and mending 33-37
Charging system 68
Shelf listing 76
PART III. Administration 105
Discipline 1 1 1
Use of library 115
Teaching the use 119
INDEX , 149
SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
THE LIBRARY IN THE SCHOOL; EQUIPMENT.
BOOK SELECTION, MAGAZINES
The modern school library meets the teaching work of the
school at all points, and helps to carry it on, and is a definite
part of the modern educational program.
The library as an educational factor in the school, and
specialization in the public libraries, of the work with schools
has developed rapidly in recent years.
Through the work and zeal of individuals in school library
work, the attention and interest of educators has been enlisted.
Committees composed of teachers and librarians have collected
material covering varied phases of the work and have compiled
reports which have been of inestimable value in crystallizing
opinion and in presenting not only a program for work but also
definite suggestions for its fulfillment.
Libraries in Education
(Report of the N. E. A. Library Committee; presented at the
Des Moines meeting 1921. Adopted by the N. E. A. as a whole:
the A. L. A. and other school and library organizations.)
1 All pupils in both elementary and secondary schools should
have ready access to books to the end that they may be
a to love to read that which is worth while
b to supplement their school studies by the use of books
other than textbooks
c to use reference books easily and effectively
d to use intelligently both the school library and the pub-
2 Every secondary school should have a trained librarian and
every elementary school should have trained library service.
3 Trained librarians should have the same status as teachers
or heads of departments of equal training and experience.
2- SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
4 Every school that provides training for teachers should re-
quire a course in the use of books and libraries, and a
course on the best literature for children.
5 Every state should provide for the supervision of school
libraries and for the certification of school librarians.
6 The public library should be recognized as a necessary part
of public instruction, and should be as liberally supported
by tax as are the public schools, and for the same reasons,
7 The school system that does not make liberal provision for
training in the use of libraries, fails to do its full duty in
the way of revealing to all future citizens the opportunity
to know and to use the resources of the public library as a
means of education.
Copies may be secured from Mr. Sherman Williams, Pres.,
Library Dept., N. E. A. State Library, New York.
The library being an essential for carrying out the modern
educational program, it must, of necessity, be a part of the state
educational scheme. The majority of the states, have for years
carried laws regarding the school library.
The legislation has dealt chiefly with the elementary and
rural school, and provision for the purchase of new books.
A digest of the laws, prepared by Alice B. Long was pub-
lished in the Wilson Bulletin (H. W. Wilson co. N.Y.) Sep-
This Bulletin gives also the New standards in the various
states, grouped according to the six requisites of standard or-
ganization of the Certain report, and a list of the State-school
library book lists is included.
New standards are evidenced in the State high school board
rules of many states, in definite requirements as to equipment of
the High school library, and for service.
These rules have largely come about through the adoption
of the Certain report by regional associations of Colleges and
Many high schools have gone much further than state re-
quirements in the establishment and maintenance of libraries
and in the employment of trained librarians.
State school library lists, well selected, and arranged have
SCHOOL LIBRARY STANDARDS 3
been issued by many states, since the pioneer lists of Oregon
set a high standard.
State supervision of school libraries by a trained and ex-
perienced person is generally recognized as a necessity to bring
the school libraries of a state into the usefulness of which they
STATE SUPERVISOR OF SCHOOL LIBRARIES
This officer should be of training, ability and rank with the
other school supervisors.
The supervisor has an advisory relationship to all the, public-
school-libraries of the state; collects information and statistics
concerning them; prepares lists of books for rural, elementary
and high school libraries ; gives advice on furniture, equipment
of school library rooms, in the preparation of library budgets;
in methods of work; assists in the preparation of outlines for
instruction in the use of books for rural, elementary and high
schools ; of courses of instruction given to teachers ; and with
local and state public library workers, helps to bring all library
resources to bear on the education of the young people of the
School Library Standards
The most important general statement of the essentials of
school library equipment is found in the Report on standards of
organization and equipment for schools of different sizes, pre-
pared for the Commission on unit courses and curricula of the
North Central association of colleges and secondary schools, by
C. C. Certain of Detroit.
This report discusses in detail, the features of school library
organization and administration, and suggests a practical work-
ing standard for junior high schools and senior high schools
of varying sizes, in Housing and equipment ; the Librarian ;
Scientific selection and care of books ; Instruction in the use of
books and libraries ; Annual appropriation, and a general state-
ment regarding State supervision of school libraries.
The report has been widely adopted, and is accepted as the
Every school and every public library should have a copy of
4 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
It is obtainable through the A. L. A. pub. bd., 78 E. Washing-
ton st., Chicago. 400.
The Modern School and the Library
The modern school includes a modern library as an integral
part of the equipment because of the direct and tangible service
it renders in the training of the pupils.
It strengthens school work by furnishing collateral material
for all subjects taught.
It provides for interests outside the curriculum and for the
exceptional child, thus aiding in the acceleration work.
It teaches how to use books easily and effectively, pointing
the way to self education after school days.
It helps greatly in the preparation for college and in making
the transition from the school to the college method of study.
It tends to form a habit of reading that which is worth while,
thus creating a recreational resource and intelligence in citizen-
The modern school library, to accomplish these ends, is as
carefully planned for and equipped as any department in the
school, and with a view to serving all departments.
It is a place for work, not a study hall, a text book room, nor
a lounging place.
It must be a place devoted to the use of library books, prac-
tical as to working details but distinctly a place of order, re-
finement, and attractiveness.
For this library the essentials are: Adequate appropriation,
carefully planned room and equipment; well selected books; or-
ganization ; trained service.
School Library Equipment
The library in the school has been retarded in its develop-
ment because it has not always shared in the scientific planning
and management given to other departments in the schools. It
is still not fully understood that there are standards for library
equipment and organization that have been tested for usefulness
and economy and that much time, money and effort may be
saved by accepting plans and systems tried and approved rather
than inventing new ones.
SCHOOL LIBRARY ROOM 5
School Library Room
The library in the school supplements the work of every de-
partment and should serve every pupil in the school. It should
be planned thoughtfully and generously, to give fullest service.
The uses which the library may serve will influence the loca-
tion of the room, but it must always be placed with reference to
convenience of access. Practically all school libraries in small
towns serve the grades as well as the high school.
If it is for High school purposes only it has been found that
the most satisfactory location for a library is on the second
floor in a central position in the building, accessible to teachers
and students, and near the study room, but separate from it.
Care should be taken that the library is not located in the
front of the building if the fagade carries ornamental columns
which may throw heavy shadows into the room during part
of the day. A principal requirement in a library is plenty of
light and the light should come from one side, preferably north
The entrance to the library should be direct from the corridor
in the center of the long inside wall if possible: If additional
doors opening into the corridor are necessary, they should be
used only as emergency exits.
The library classroom should be located adjoining the library
room at one end, the librarian's work and file room, if one is
provided, at the other end.
If a direct system of radiation is used, radiators should be
located under the windows. The walls between the windows
and doorways should be kept as clear as possible, of all radiators
and pipes of every description, electric switches, ventilators,
thermostats, etc. If thermostats and electric switches must
be located on the wall, they should be placed as near as possible
to the door or window trim so as not to break up the wall space
available for shelving. Every inch of wall space below a point 7
feet from the floor is available book space, and should be con-
served, with as few exceptions as possible. It is wise to onpjt
from the walls, chair rails, wainscoting, and baseboards. The
6 SCHOOL LIRRARY MANAGEMENT
walls can then be plastered to the floor, arid after the book-
shelving is set in place, the space between the ends of the book-
shelving and door trim can be equipped with baseboards, etc. If
it is necessary for vertical pipes to pass through the rooms, they
should be located in the corners of the room, where the mitered
wall book shelving allows sufficient space for them. In this way,
the available book space is not encroached upon.
Care should be taken in the planning, to secure plenty of nat-
ural light for both the shelves and the reading tables. The
present type of school buildings, with large windows on one side
only, often makes it necessary to place most of the shelving on
the wall opposite the windows. If alcove shelving is used, it
should be so placed. The cases should never be extended into
the room in such a way as to shut off the light. Careful provi-
sion must be made for artificial light, particularly when the room
is to be used in the evening. Ceiling lights are preferable to
table lights, and the direct-indirect system is generally conceded
to give the most perfect light.
SIZE: The first size standard for an adequate library room is
based on present school attendance and should allow for probable
growth. The library perhaps more than any room in the school
should be equipped for permanence.
The minimum for a small high school, or school including
both the upper grades and the High school should be a room the
size of an average classroom.
In larger schools it should accomodate at one full period
from 6-10 percent of the total daily attendance of the school
seated at tables, with sufficient space between, and between
tables and chairs, to permit freedom in moving about. Tables
(3ft x 5ft) should be arranged in rows so that the end of the
table is parallel to the long exterior wall, that the greatest
benefit may be derived from light entering the room from the
windows. There should be a clear space of from four to five
feet between tables and between tables and cases. In smaller
schools, there should be two such rows of tables, while larger
schools require three. Thus for a small school, the width of.
the room should be twenty-five feet.
THE LIBRARY ROOM 7
The other element of size is wall space to accomodate shelv-
ing for all the library books owned by the school and to allow
for growth, a minimum of 10 books per pupil being the stand-
ard for the High school, and 3-5 for the Elementary school.
Open shelving should be provided, having all books in view
and within reach. Shelving should be built around the walls
and under the windows, if these are sufficiently high. Specifica-
tions for shelving and for tables and chairs given here are
adapted from Marvin Small library buildings (A. L. A. pub.
bd., Chicago), and from School libraries, Library Bureau,
Plain wood wall shelving is the best for this purpose. Li-
brary shelving must be built according to standard measure-
ments, and the shelves should be adjustable in height. Fixed
shelves either waste space or make it difficult to arrange books
of various sizes in the proper order. Uprights, base, and top
should be finished flush, with no projections on the front edges
on which books may catch. A projecting base becomes very
unsightly. Shelves need not be backed excepting for the sake
Uprights between shelves must be solid. The adjustment for
the shelves must be so designed that all parts between the
shelves will be flush with the surface of the upright, without
projecting members to wear or mar the books.
The usual faults of shelving are : making the shelves too
long so that they sag with the weight of the books, making
it too high so that the upper shelves are not easily reached,
having projections against which the books catch, and having
poor shelf supports.
The usual height for shelving is approximately 7', which
allows for seven shelf spaces. Each section or space between
uprights should be as near 36" wide as possible. No section
for books should be over 42" wide, as the shelves would sag.
Uprights should be solid, otherwise the books will slide through.
Shelving is ordinarily made of i" to 154" thick lumber.
If shelves are fixed, a space of 10" in the clear should be
allowed between all shelves. The base should be from 4" to 6"
in height, and the top 2" to 5". The depth of shelving is ordi-
narily 8" excepting for some reference books, where 9" or
8 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
10" is necessary. Where the shelves are adjustable the stand-
ard height is 6' 10".
The best shelf supports are good sized threaded metal pins,
fitting into a double row of holes in the uprights. The under
side of the shelves should be grooved to fit over the pins. The
holes in the uprights should be bored i" apart in height, and
care must be taken to have the holes in all uprights bored to
exactly the same measurements, so that the shelves will be per-
Where no workroom is provided, supply cupboards should
be built into the shelving.
CAPACITY OF BOOK SHELVES
To determine the shelving capacity, eight books are counted
to the running foot. One-third of each shelf should remain
vacant, to avoid constant shifting of books as additions are
made. Cases built seven shelves high, allow for fifty-six vol-
umes to the foot for the wall shelving.
Where wall space is limited and the room is sufficiently wide,
short doublefaced stacks not more than thirty-six inches long,
may be built from the wall shelving at intervals of four feet,
thus making alcoves. If there is any space under the windows
not needed for radiation, shelves may be placed there for refer-
ence books, allowing six inch base, two shelves one inch thick
and not more than nine inches deep. The top of such a case
should be flush with the window sill and be made into a shelf to
rest the book upon while consulting it.
Shelving near the desk is needed for many purposes, especially
if the 'librarian's desk is of commercial type, or not sufficiently
provided with shelves.
Books ordered by teachers, books on temporary reserve, new
books in process of preparation, files of special lists, books
coming from or being returned to the Public library must be
provided for, temporarily, near the desk.
To provide the quiet needed for study, the floor should be
covered with cork carpet or battleship linoleum.
SCHOOL LIBRARY FURNITURE
A laboratory requires special furniture, as does also the
drawing room and the commercial department. The library is
a department for a definite purpose and needs suitable and dur-
able furniture no less. Library furniture designed to meet the
requirements of library work is available. This should be pur-
chased that the work of this department may be facilitated,
not hampered by makeshift equipment.
Essentials in furniture are reading tables and chairs, table or
charging desk for the librarian, cabinet and stand for the card
catalog, magazine rack, vertical file and bulletin boards.
TABLES: The unit of table space required for a student in a
school library is approximately thirty inches. A table 3x5 feet
and thirty inches high is the ideal size. It conveniently accom-
modates six readers, two on each side and one more at each
end. A table of this size with a maximum of six students is con-
venient for work and makes supervision easy.
The table must be plain and substantial, and without drawers.
Foot boards should be omitted, and the legs bolted to give rigid-
ity. There should be no finish around the edge of the top.
Tables longer than five feet are objectionable. They permit
of larger groups, thereby encouraging conversation and restless-
ness. The 3x5 size permits of convenient aisles and allows free
use of the room. It is particularly convenient for rearrange-
ment into "U" or "T" shape forms for the grouping of a class
using illustrative material.
Round tables add to the appearance of the room and are good
for quiet study. They should not be more than four feet in
diameter. If tables for younger children are needed, they may
be the same size as the others except the height should be
twenty-six inches or twenty-eight inches with chairs sixteen or
seventeen inches from the floor with back of seat corresponding,
not large chairs cut down.
CHAIRS : These should be light but strong and without arms.
Bent wood chairs are light, and therefore easy to move, but tip
and break easily and they are not especially comfortable.
Solid chairs with seat of saddle type and properly constructed
back are more expensive, but are much more satisfactory in
io SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
comfort and durability. If the floor is not covered with cork
carpet, all chairs should have rubber tips to lessen the noise.
Every school library should have a well-equipped flat top
library desk for the librarian's use in the transaction of the li-
The top should be large enough to permit the charging and
discharging of books, the registration of borrowers and the
filing of book cards (5x3-01.) in a sunken book card tray, or in
a tray on top of the desk.
The space inside the desk should be divided into drawers
conveniently arranged for cash drawer with money tray; draw-
ers to hold card supplies and forms; and for registration card
file (cards 3x5) ; compartments for accession book (loxg-in.)
and registration book should also be provided and shelves for
temporary storage of reserve books and returned books.
The usual height for a low desk at which the librarian sits
in a chair of ordinary height is 325^ inches.
For the smaller school the straight type is used. The "U"
shaped desk used in the Girls' high school, Brooklyn, is thirty-
two inches high, eighty- four inches wide, eighty-three inches
deep. It groups all the materials within easy reach, so that one
person can do the various types of work comfortably in normal
times and it is sufficiently large to admit of an assistant at the
The wing type charging desk is desirable for large schools if
the shape of the "U" desk is not suited to the room. This is
commonly thirty-nine inches high and requires a high base swivel
PLACING THE DESK
It is desirable to place the charging desk near enough to the
central door to command the entrance and exit, and this brings
it often in the center of the room.
A shelf across the entrance to the desk if of the "U" shape,
closes the desk and gives additional working space for charging,
With the more open type a low free standing book shelf
near the end is a convenience.
SCHOOL LIBRARY FURNITURE IT
CARD CATALOG CASES
As soon as a card shelf list or card catalog is made, a case
must be provided. The drawers in these cases must be of
standard size, to accommodate standard library cards. The
drawers must be fitted with round rods. A stand must be pro-
vided for the catalog case.
Library catalog cases should be provided. Library of Con-
gress and Indexer cards are printed on cards cut to centimeter
measurements, as are also the plain catalog cards.
The commercial 3x5 card cases are not made in measure-
ments to correspond and have frequently ill-fitting or wrongly
These are sometimes made by the manual training depart-
ment. The usual dimensions are five feet, two inches high, three
feet six inches wide, one foot eight inches deep. This will
accomodate about thirty magazines.
Blue print should be obtained from a public library before
the work is attempted.
Racks which are of proper size to take care of a limited
number of current magazines, may be bought of library supply
Shelving may be used for housing periodicals when a
greater capacity is needed. Shelves should be twelve inches
deep, three inches apart and the sections may be made as long
as four and one-half feet if shelving of one and one-eighth
inch width is used to prevent sagging.
This shelving can be any height desired to fit in space under
windows. If on the wall it should be the same height as book
ATLAS AND DICTIONARY CASES
These are conveniently arranged for the care of atlases,
folios and large books which must lie flat. These have sliding
shelves and the top is made sloping to accomodate the diction-
12 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Space must be allowed for proper placing of bulletin boards.
If there are pillars in the room they may be placed on them.
They are usually made of cork carpet framed. A large one
should be provided for the daily clipped newspaper.
DISPLAY CASE WITH BULLETIN BOARD
A sloping-top case with or without shelves below is very
desirable for the display of a group of books, for a particular
subject or in special bindings. The bulletin board above permits
of lists or notices regarding them.
To properly care for the small pamphlets, bulletins, un framed
pictures and clippings so much used in high schools, the vertical
file is necessary. These are cases containing from 2 to 4 draw-
ers. The letter size is sometimes used but for both pamphlets
and pictures the legal size is better. Cases may be bought which
provide drawers for pictures combined with small drawers for
postal cards and trays for lantern slides.
Care should be taken in purchasing a case to secure one with
drawers mounted on roller bearing extension slides. Drawers
filled with pamphlets and pictures are heavy, and are prac-
tically useless unless they slide easily.
Manual training departments attempting to make file cases
will find it necessary to make special study of the slides and
purchase special roller attachments.
A book truck is desirable in a small library and indispensable
in a large one.
For effective work additional equipment is needed as follows :
celluloid holders for handling pictures, files for lantern slides,
post cards, and victrola records, a cutting machine, pamphlet
cases, book supports, shelf markers.
SUPPLIES FOR SCHOOL LIBRARIES
Library furniture and library supplies have been standardized
to meet the particular needs of library work. There are special
SCHOOL LIBRARY FURNITURE 13
forms for labels, accession books, record sheets, book pockets
and cards. Correct charging trays, book supports, ink for mark-
ing books, shelf label holders, magazine holders, and card catalog
cases are obtainable. These should be purchased for library use
instead of business forms and files.
Essentials for a good school library room:
Room of adequate size, conveniently located.
Shelving: Open wall shelving.
Furniture : 1
Reading tables to seat an average class.
Desk for librarian.
Card catalog case and stand.
In the suggestions for Room and equipment "School libraries" by
the Library Bureau (Boston, New York, and Chicago) has been freely
LIBRARY CLASS ROOM
The "New" high school library has a library classroom, ad-
joining the main reading room where a lantern and bulletin
boards make the use of pictures and slides possible with the
least inconvenience, as all the material is at hand in the li-
brary (M. E. H.).
This room is fitted with tablet arm chairs which can be
moved, and is equipped with dark shades at the windows for
darkening the room, white wall curtain for showing pictures,
reflectoscope, Victrola, and cases for holding slides, postcards,
Victrola records, etc.
A small platform or stage is useful. Wall cases for mapis
may also be installed in this room.
14 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
SCHOOL AND TOWN LIBRARY. PUBLIC LIBRARY BRANCH
Where the school has the only library in the town and must
give public library service also, or when a public library branch,
open to, the public, is contemplated, the only feasible location is
the first floor.
For this use, double space or two rooms thrown together
should be provided, with separate room for children if possible.
This is 4 necessary to accommodate the different types of readers
and also* for proper arrangement of the books.
At least during part of the day, the room and the services of
the librarian should be given over wholly to work with the stu-
dents in the school.
Public library collections of fiction are often unsuited for
school children and should be shelved as a separate collection.
More reading table space is also needed where the school
library serves as a town library.
It must have an outside entrance as well as one from the
school. With the library in the front of the building, an en-
trance may be placed in the vestibule between outer and inner
main entrance doors, and should be so arranged that it may
be shut off from the rest of the building for evening and sum-
mer use. When on the side, or in remodeling an old build-
ing, one window may be converted into a door, and outside
vestibule and steps added.
Heat is a practical consideration in planning for public li-
brary service in the school house.
In some places the heating system is so arranged that the
library is heated with exhaust steam, or it is heated by the
pipes leading to the greenhouse so that no additional heat is
required for evening service. If such service is contemplated,
separately controlled heat mains should be provided when the
heating system is installed.
The selection of books is of first importance in school library
On the increased use of books and improvement in the
SCHOOL LIBRARY BOOK SELECTION 15
quality of reading the whole success of the library as a part of
the educational work of the school, depends.
Indiscriminate purchase of books is one of the most wasteful
practices in the schools. The school libraries are over-crowded
with expensive sets, subscription books, obsolete books of teach-
ing methods, books too difficult for the students, and very cheap
editions with bad print and paper. In the same schools, the
books actually needed are often lacking.
As in the selection of any equipment, or tools, the selection
of books must be based upon the purpose for which the books
are to be used, and thorough knowledge of books. No book
should be bought for any school library without a definite idea
in mind that it will be of immediate use in connection with some
study, or for the help of some individual.
BOOK SELECTION FOR THE GRADES AND FOR COUNTRY SCHOOLS
1. Books should be chosen which have a direct bearing on all
the subjects taught in the school, including some on agriculture,
hygiene, nature study and science, a complete United States his-
tory for reference use, modern history, some one-volume collec-
tions of literature (not sets), books about children's reading and
story telling, handbooks of information, atlases and books of
simple reference. Books on domestic science, music, picture
study, should also be included.
2. Books must be selected to train in habits of observation,
to aid in identifying the stars, birds, trees, wild flowers and wild
life in all forms.
3. Some books should be chosen for the library which will
help in planning for school activities; boys' and girls' clubs,
school entertainments, warm lunches, social center work, de-
4. The library should include those books which are gener-
ally accepted as the best of the world's literature, and which
should be placed in the way of every child while young. Some
of these are : Alcott, Little Women ; Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress ;
Baldwin, Story of Siegfried; Carroll, Alice in Wonderland;
Andersen, Fairy tales ; Hawthorne, Wonder book ; Harris, Uncle
Remus; Kipling, Jungle book; Lamb, Tales from Shakespeare;
16 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Macleod, Book of King Arthur; Mother Goose; Stevenson,
Child's Garden of Verses; Treasure Island. There are many
others which should be included.
5. In selecting stories, those should be chosen which are
strong in human interest, but which preserve the right ideals of
conduct and achievement.
6. Interesting biography should be provided for all the
grades, to follow the reading of the stories of imaginary people,
books which will inspire, as well as those which will give interest
to the study of history.
7. Books should be included to meet the children's interests
or to develop talents ; books of games, sports, drawing, occupa-
tions, such as simple books of sewing and basketry for the girls ;
mechanics, electricity and wood working for the boys ; also books
on vocations for older boys and girls.
8. The books should always be chosen with the pupils in
mind, selecting those which are easily within their comprehen-
sion, including something for all ages and interests.
9. Only those should be bought which are wholesome in tone ;
are written in good English, and which contain enough in-
formation, beauty or enjoyment to make them worth while. No
books should be bought because they are harmless, but all be-
cause they will contribute to the life and work of the school.
10. Books should be bought in as good editions as can be
afforded. An attractive looking book will be read and enjoyed,
while a book in small type, poor paper and dingy cover will not.
In all collections, standardization should be the chief aim.
New books for younger children are not especially desirable.
The books that have stood the test of time, and are real liter-
ature, should be provided first. Lists of such books may be ob-
tained free, or at little cost from the larger public libraries and
from state library commissions.
BOOK SELECTION FOR HIGH SCHOOLS
Books should be chosen to be used in connection with every
subject taught. The library is not for the History and English
departments alone, but every subject should be enriched.
The history department should be provided with carefully
selected books of biography and history, from all the periods
SCHOOL LIBRARY BOOK SELECTION 17
of history taught in the school. This would include a group of
the biographies, histories and personal accounts, of permanent
value, from the World war. Biography should be plentifully
supplied for all departments.
Books must be included which will strengthen civic and
social ideals, foster a feeling for America as well as the books
to give a knowledge of other countries and a sympathy for the
new American from foreign lands.
For the home reading for English, the library should pro-
vide not only the standard fiction, but also interesting books
of varied appeal ; vital biographies, travel and adventure : books
to direct the imagination ; poetry old and modern, plays, essays
on familiar subjects, etc.
In connection with vocational guidance, books of ethics, the
trades and professions, education and training, and biographies
of modern people must be furnished.
Science in readable form and with modern application, books
of art in all its forms, music, athletics and sports, books of handi-
crafts, all must be represented.
Every book in the library should pass the quality test, i.e. :
Truth, good English, wholesome ideas, high moral tone, readable-
ness, vitality. Care should be taken to secure the best on each
A fine edition collection should be built up in every library as
rapidly as funds will permit. These books serve to interest stu-
dents in classics, in owning books, and the teachers of various
subjects find them useful for typography, drawing, color, cos-
tume, and for the artist's interpretation of literature.
To assist schools in the selection of good and useful books,
library lists for schools are provided in several states. A
statement regarding such lists is given in the Wilson Bulletin,
September 1920. (H. W. Wilson Co. New York)"
These lists are carefully prepared to meet as far as possible
the needs of all the schools in the state and to give the teachers
a reliable guide to books that have been tried with young people,
and approved by librarians and teachers.
Generally speaking, they all include many of the same titles,
with additions to meet local needs. Library lists vary in
i8 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
arrangement, some grouping by grade, roughly by subject or
classification number according to library usage.
The advantage of a graded list is that an inexperienced
teacher finds ready help in selecting books for her classes. Since
the use of a book in a certain grade varies according to the read-
ing facility of the child, a graded list must repeat the same titles
in different grades.
A classed list serves as a guide to the arrangement of books
on the shelves and groups books by subject. Many of the classed
lists also indicate grades for the books.
Most state school library lists attempt to cite the best cheap
editions. The public library "Best" lists give the best editions
regardless of cost.
If not provided by the state, schools should obtain from the
State Library commission, or largest public library one or more
standard lists to be used as guides in purchase and arrangement.
Large schools with unlimited library funds will find The
Booklist (A. L. A. pub bd., 78 E. Washington St., Chicago,
$1.50 per year), of value for new books and for the list of Gov-
ernment documents useful to schools, which is a quarterly
feature, and for new books also, the Standard Catalog Bimonthly
(H. W. Wilson co., New York).
Other aids in Book selection for the larger high school are :
Horton. Out of door books. Women's industrial and educational
union, Boston; National council of teachers of English Report
of the committee on home reading. English Journal, Chicago;
Newark, (NJ.) Public library. Reading for pleasure and
profit ; Pierce, Catalog of literature for advisers of young women
and girls. H. W. Wilson co., New York; Portland, (Ore.)
Library association. High school supplementary reading; Rath-
bone. Viewpoints in travel A. L. A. pub. bd., Chicago ; and Stand-
ard catalog Biography section; Standard catalog Sociology
section. H. W. Wilson co., New York.
Economical book selection is not possible until the library is
put in order and classified. After this work is done, the shelves
or the shelf list will show where the collection is weak.
Teachers should be asked to check the school lists for books
to be added for the subjects in which they are most interested.
Lists of books in addition to those on the school lists should be
carefully considered and the bociks compared before purchase.
SCHOOL LIBRARY BOOK SELECTION 19
If a teacher is not interested in building up the library side of
her work, the teacher-librarian or the superintendent should
select books so that all subjects will be represented in the library.
Jf all the books wished cannot be purchased at once, an order
file is kept, as suggestive for later purchases.
Complete works of authors should be avoided. There are
very few authors of whose writings any library would want all.
The titles wanted, if bought separately, could be replaced at
any time, as they could not be if part of a set.
The size of the library and its needs will determine whether
books are bought in the cheapest editions or in the best. None
should be bought that are not on good paper, with clear print and
attractive in appearance. A school would not usually purchase
a finely illustrated edition unless the same book was in the library
in a cheap edition for home use.
In school library lists, this term is used to indicate that the
binding has been strengthened. Such books more than pay for
the extra cost in their wearing qualities. They should be pur-
chased whenever available. Some librarians have all their new
books reinforced before using.
Any new books will be reinforced by the H. R. Huntting co.,
Springfield, Mass., The Library book house, Springfield, Mass.,
or Chivers bindery, Brooklyn, N.Y.
General reference books must be selected with care, consider-
ing both subject-matter and price. With a well-balanced library,
i.e., one in which all subjects are represented, there is less need
for general reference books.
Encyclopedias must be of first quality, modern in subject-
matter and treatment, and of recent date. If a great saving can
be effected in the purchase of an older edition of the best
20 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
encyclopedia, schools may find it worth while to purchase it and
the year books which supplement it.
Encyclopedias should not be purchased without comparison
with other sets and verifications of prices.
If the school is limited in book funds, it is better to buy an
inexpensive atlas and replace frequently than to spend much
money for a large atlas.
STATISTICAL HAND BOOKS
The newspaper hand books such as the World almanac offer
a great amount of statistical and miscellaneous information at
very low prices. Such books should be replaced annually.
A list of especially valuable reference books will be found in
all the state school library lists.
Magazines are helpful in the work of the school library. The
cheap, sensational magazines which would admit to the library
stories which would be rejected in book form should be carefully
avoided. Magazines which are of current interest, and which are
valuable for debate work and general reference use, and worth
binding as a permanent part of the library should be bought
freely, giving preference to those which are indexed.
A periodical index is necessary to make all the material in
the magazines available. The Readers' guide to periodical litera-
ture, H. W. Wilson Co., 958-64 University ave., New York, is
invaluable in the use of magazines, either current "or bound. It
is issued monthly, and cumulates.
Schools with large agricultural departments will need the
Agricultural index (10 numbers per year, cumulative), H. W.
Wilson Co., New York.
This indexes scientific and technical journals on agriculture,
horticulture, forestry, and allied subjects; popular farm journals,
bulletins, publications of societies and organizations.
For either index, write the firm for prices, giving the list of
magazines for which the school subscribes.
SCHOOL LIBRARY MAGAZINES 21
MAGAZINES FOR LOWER GRADES
*Boys' life. Boy scouts of America, New York
*Current events (weekly) Current events, Chicago
*Littlefolks. Casino co., Salem, Mass.
St. Nicholas. Century co., New York
* Youths' companion (weekly). Youths' companion, Boston
*Wohelo. Camp fire girls, New York
MAGAZINES USEFUL FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS
American city. (Town & county ed) New York
*American cookery. Boston
Atlantic monthly. Boston
Current history. New York Times
Current opinion. New York
Good housekeeping. New York
Harper's magazine. New York
Independent. New York
Industrial arts magazine. Milwaukee
International studio. New York
Literary digest. New York
Mentor. New York
*Musical America. New York
National geographic magazine. Washington, D.C.
New Republic. New York
Outlook. New York
*Popular mechanics. Chicago
*Popular science monthly. New York
Scientific American. New York
Scribner's magazine. New York
Survey. New York
World's work. New York
MAGAZINES FOR TEACHERS
Educational review. Columbia univ.
Elementary school journal. Univ. of Chicago
fEnglish journal. Univ. of Chicago
^Historical outlook. Philadelphia
tjournal of geography. New York
22 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
tKindergarten-Primary magazine. Manistee, Mich.
fNature study review. Ithaca, N.Y.
School and society. New York
*School arts. Worcester, Mass.
School review. Univ. of Chicago
School science and methematics. Chicago
Science. New York
Teachers college record. Columbia univ.
*Not indexed in Readers' Guide.
tlndexed in Readers' Guide Supplement.
Prices may be obtained from the publisher or a periodical agency.
Book Buying and Ordering
Book buying practice varies. As before the war, buying
through the book dealer seems the most economical of time
and money. In states having a school list, there is usually a
contract dealer from whom the books must be purchased, the
contract having been let to the lowest bidder on the list as a
whole. Through the contract dealer one is assured of getting
the edition specified which is not always the case in the open
market, or through a purchasing agent.
In large schools, where all supplies are purchased through a
purchasing department, the librarian should have a fund from
which to purchase new books needed in response to a call that
could not be foreseen, or books which may become available at
Books sold only through agents, usually comprising complete
works of authors, sets of encyclopedias, and subscription books,
are the most expensive and usually the least useful books that
can be bought.
Practically all books sold by agents may be obtained at greatly
reduced price from a reliable dealer in second-hand books and
Names and addresses of dealers in remainders may be ob-
tained of the librarian of the public library or the State Li-
Prices have decreased somewhat since the war, but an aver-
age estimate of one dollar for lower grade books and one dol-
lar fifty to two dollars for Upper grade and High school books
SCHOOL LIBRARY BOOK BUYING 23
As requests for books, which are of special value and which
are not in the library are received, order cards are made.
Order cards may be bought, or blank cards filled out to give
the following information:
Author's surname, followed by Initials
Edition Publisher Price
L. C. eard No.
Is It In A. L. A. Catalog or A. L. A. Book list?
These cards are filed by author or grouped by publisher. The
latter arrangement is most convenient when book purchases are
made through the visiting representatives of publishing houses.
When purchases can be made, this list should be consulted
PRICES AND DISCOUNT
The discount which may be obtained by a school varies. The
dealer who handles a large stock is able to give a better discount
than the local merchant who orders through another dealer. All
regular dealers give some discount to schools.
Some of the best cheap editions are the Home university li-
brary, and the reprint editions : Everyman's library and Gros-
set and Dunlap reprints.
The Home university library includes new books on a great
variety of subjects. They are small in size, light to handle, have
fair paper and print, and are by authoritative writers.
24 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Everyman's library consists of reprints of a large number of
the classics of literature. The volumes are small and attractive
in appearance. The margins are narrow and the books cannot
be rebound and must, therefore, be purchased in library binding.
The print varies in size and in very long books is too small to
Grosset reprints are chiefly of fiction. They are reprints from
the original plates, and so retain the appearance of the original
edition. The plates are rented by this company from the original
publisher for a limited number of copies. When this number has
been printed the plates are returned and the book is only obtain-
able at the original price.
Organizing a school library quickly and accurately requires
a knowledge of library methods which comes from thorough
training and library experience.
The most advantageous procedure is to get the librarian first.
With a given amount of money to be expended, she would assist
in the preparation of a budget, proportioning it to the needs.
Then, in consultation with the principal and teachers and the
various supervisors, the titles would be selected and ordered.
Decision as to the records needed for the particular school
would be made before the technical work was begun. All short
cuts which would produce the maximum of usefulness with the
least technical detail, would be employed.
In starting a library, most schools have books scattered
throughout the building which must be gathered in, appraised,
sorted and made into a working collection, and the trained li-
brarian is not always at hand.
To assist those unfamiliar with this kind of work, the sim-
plest processes are described in detail and if carefully arid
thoughtfully followed will bring the library into order and use-
Putting a library in order is not a work for children ; it should
be done by a person of education and judgment, using student
help for mechanical processes only, and these carefully super-
vised, that the work may be done neatly and accurately.
Directions for each part of the work should be carefully
studied and thoroughly understood before that work is under-
taken, or the effort will be wasted.
It is desirable that standard library methods be used, but in
simplified form. Original systems of classification however good
in themselves are seldom practicable since the personnel of a
school staff is ever changing, and work done in an original way
is usually unintelligible to those who come after.
26 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Library classification and methods are becoming familiar to
an ever increasing group and trained librarians can continue
a standard system with little loss in adjustment.
Putting an old library in order takes time and the work must
be carefully planned to make the time spent upon it count to the
best advantage. ,
Experience in organizing public and school libraries has
shown the following routine to be the most economical of time :
Routine of Processes in Putting the Library in Order
1. Preparation of shelving
2. Collecting the books belonging to the library
3. Ordering supplies
4. Sorting the books into groups
1 i ) Discards
(2) Books to be rebound
(3) Books to be mended
(4) Books in good condition and of known usefulness
5. Mending books in need of repair
6. Removing old labels from the backs
7. Mechanical preparation of new books
8. Placing the book pocket on inside front or back cover
11. Writing book card
12. Marking books on the back
13. Arrangement on shelves
14. Marking shelves. Posting classification outline
15. Checking school list
16. Charging records
*I7. Making the card records
(1) Shelf list
The details for these processes follow in the same order.
^Country schools would omit Processes (16 and 17).
i. Preparation of Shelving
There should be enough shelving to accommodate all the
books belonging to the library and to allow for growth. It is
useless to attempt to put a library in order unless there is
SCHOOL LIBRARY ORGANIZATION 27
sufficient shelving upon which to place the books after they are
classified. See suggestions on shelving in the article on The
2. Collecting the Books
Before beginning the work all of the books belonging to the
school should be called in. Teachers and pupils should be asked
to bring in all of the books they have and a request put in the
local paper that all books belonging to the school be returned
from the homes. All of the library books belonging to the
school should be shelved in the library room that they may be
available when not in use. If kept permanently in the class-
rooms, they are lost to the rest of the school.
Library supplies have been standardized to meet the needs of
this kind of work, and library supplies, not business cards and
files, should be bought.
Supplies should be ordered for the part of the work that is
to be undertaken. If a library is wholly unorganized, the sup-
plies needed first will be: Mending material, pockets, cards and
Charging tray for charging system; white ink, India ink and
shellac for marking the books; accession book, and shelf sup-
ports. Catalog cards and catalog card cases should not be or-
dered until the other work is completed.
The following list of supplies may be recommended for use-
fulness. Price lists of library supply houses must be consulted.
They are omitted here because of frequent changes.
SUPPLIES FOR MECHANICAL ^REPARATION FOR 500 BOOKS
Accession book (1000 line) (paper)
Steel ink eraser
Loose leaf accession sheets
500 book pockets (open end, printed with name of library)
500 book pocket strips
28 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
500 book cards
500 date slips
Charging tray with guides (wood, without cover)
David White Letterine
Gaylord's White marking ink
Penholder, preferably cork
Pens Esterbrook Judges' quill No. 312
See under Mending, p. 37.
Book supports, black japanned
Shelf label holders, black japanned
(Give thickness of shelf.)
DIRECTORY FOR LIBRARY SUPPLIES
Staple supplies may be obtained through school supply houses
or obtained direct from manufacturers below. The list is by no
means complete, but may be useful for certain sections of the
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
Riverside Printing Co., St Paul
SCHOOL LIBRARY SUPPLIES 29
Catalog cases and cards
Boston Index Card Co., Boston
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin
Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y.
Globe-Wernicke Co., Cincinnati
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
A. L. A. Publishing Bd., 17 E. Washington St., Chicago
A. L. A. Catalog rules
A. L. A. List of subject headings
Hitchler. Cataloging for small libraries .
List of subject headings for small libraries (H. W. Wilson
Mann. A. L. A. heading for juvenile catalogs
Charging systems: book pockets; book cards; charging trays
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin
Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y.
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
Riverside Printing Co., St Paul
Cutter. 2 figure decimal alphabetic order table. Li-
Dewey. Abridged decimal classification. (New edition)
Globe-Wernicke Co., Cincinnati
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
Shaw-Walker Co., Muskegon, Michigan
Yawman & Erbe Mfg. Co., Rochester, Boston, New York
Lettering and stamping outfits
Allen Bros., Boston
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
30 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Wilson's gummed letters. Tablet and Ticket Co., 624 W.
Adams St., Chicago
Show card inks in assorted colors. Walbrun Kling co.,
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
American Library Bindery, Philadelphia (A. L. A. binder)
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin
Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y. (Bull dog)
H. R. Huntting Co., Springfield, Mass.
W. G. Johnston & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
S. A. Stewart Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. (Baldwin & Lockit hold-
Ward Bros., Jacksonville, 111. (Spring back)
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin
Waldorf Bindery Co., St Paul
Mounting board and paper
E. E. Babb, Boston
Carter, Rice Co., Boston
Thomas Charles Co., Chicago (agents for Milton Bradley)
Pamphlet binders and boxes
Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y.
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
H. Schultz & Co., Superior & Robert sts., Chicago
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin
Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y.
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York
SORTING THE BOOKS 31
4. Sorting the Books
The test of usefulness should be applied to every book put
in the school library. It is not the place for obsolete text-books,
indigent books, old books of teaching methods, gift books, dis-
cards from home libraries, subscription books, curiosities and
odds and ends from other departments of the school.
If the school owns a group of books old enough to be really
interesting as types, they should be kept as a separate collection,
not classified as a part of the school library.
UNBOUND BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS
These should be properly classified and arranged in pamphlet
boxes or in a vertical file, but until bound, are not to be con-
sidered library books, and should not be entered in the accession
Much valuable material is contained in government docu-
ments, but many of the documents are of unwieldy size, and re-
quire special shelving.
For a small school the documents are most useful that can be
classified and arranged on the shelves with other books.
Suggestions for documents to collect may be obtained from
Wyer Government documents for the small library, and the
lists appearing quarterly in The Booklist (A. L. A. pub. bd. 78
E. Washington st., Chicago. 25c)
No bound documents should be destroyed.
Bound documents of extra size and uncertain usefulness
should be given to the Public Library if it wishes them, or re-
turned to Washington.
A list of the United States documents of which the school
wishes to dispose should be sent to the Superintendent of Docu-
ments, Washington, D.C., and if acceptable to him, mail sacks
and mailing franks will be sent to the local postoffice that they
may be returned free of charge.
State documents may be returned to the Document Clerk at
the Capitol, but charges must be prepaid.
32 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Text-books in sets and sets of classics and other supple-
mentary reading should be kept in the text-book room, not in
the library. If bound books one or two of each title used as
supplementary reading may be put in the library.
SORTING THE BOOKS
The bound books are divided into four groups : discards ;
books to be rebound; books to be mended; books to be pre-
pared for the shelves.
( i ) Discards
Books too soiled or worn out to be of service to the library
should be discarded.
Old books of teaching methods and text-books of no value
for reference, are not worth the time it takes to put them in or-
A book which has been little used should not be discarded
without a very careful examination of the subject-matter to see
if it could be used. Some unused books may be of value and
only need to be known.
A.11 discarded books must be checked off the accession book
and other records.
Final disposition should be made of the books discarded
they should not be given to students or the janitor or allowed to
be distributed about the town to eventually find their way back
to the library.
As other materials in the school are used, worn out and dis-
carded, so the school library should be expected to wear out and
discard some books every year, and some books must be re-
Country schools usually have inadequate shelving and are
often overcrowded with books of little value. Books unsuited to
the pupils, and of no interest to the neighborhood, should be re-
moved from the shelves. If the school board is unwilling to
destroy them, they should be neatly packed in a wooden box and
USES FOR DISCARDED BOOKS
One book out of covers should be kept to show how a book
is made when class instruction is given in the care of books.
Portions of worn books may sometimes be used to advantage.
Illustrations having any value in connection with nature, lan-
guage or story work may be trimmed and filed in large envelopes
marked with the subject for which they are useful, or they may
be mounted on pulp board cut to uniform size, marked with the
subject and filed in cases or drawers. Single poems may be
mounted in the same way, filed and indexed. Stories for telling
may also be saved and filed in bulletin boxes. In some country
schools, books to be discarded are looked over for material for
booklets, such as a Longfellow booklet, containing a biographical
sketch and extracts from his writings. This material is marked
and filed away until needed.
When material has been culled from books, the residue should
be baled or put in bags and sold for waste paper. Thrift in
collecting and selling old books, magazines and paper has pro-
vided funds for many desirable new books for the school li-
(2) Books To Be Rebound
Good service cannot be given by books out of repair, there-
fore the physical care of books is a feature of school library
work. The physical make-up should be understood, so that the
librarian may know when a book must be rebound and when it
may be mended.
BINDING How A BOOK is MADE
Books are printed in sheets and folded to form sections or
signatures. The number of times the sheet is folded determines
the number of pages in a section and the size of the book. Four
folds makes a quarto book, eight folds an octavo, the usual size
of a library book. In making the sections into a book, they are
first "gathered" and arranged in order, then sewed. The best
sewing is done over tapes.
A sewing bench is a frame with tapes stretched from top to
bottom. The sections are backed to these tapes, one by one. The
sewer finds the middle of the section, sews in and out around
34 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
the tapes, then adds the next section. All the sections are sewed,
including the added section of title page, fly leaves and end
papers. When the tapes are cut an inch on each side is left to
project over the end paper.
The majority of books of fiction and popular books are
sewed on a machine which fastens the sections together with a
After the book is sewed it is trimmed to exact size. Next a
strip of thin cloth called super is glued fast to the back, with a
portion about one inch wide projecting on either side and well
pasted to the end paper to form a hinge for the cover. It is in
the hinge that the book usually becomes weak first. When the
glue is nearly dry, the book is backed by clamping it, back up,
between iron plates, and the back rounded with a hammer. The
groove made by hammering the back over the iron plates helps
to fit the book to the cover.
The ordinary book is case-bound ; that is, the case or cover
is made separately and the book set in. It is made by covering
the two stiff sides, called boards, with book cloth, the space for
the back being lined with a strip of heavy paper.
The book is placed in the case, the boards fitting into the
groove in the book.
The extra sheets, known as end papers, which were attached
to the first and last sections of the sewed book, are now pasted
on the inside of the cover. These are often of decorated paper.
"Library binding" involves special sewing, reinforcing or
strengthening the joint of the end paper with cloth and lining
the end papers with super. Books should always be ordered in
"Library binding" when this edition is noted in the school lists.
The additional cost is from ten to fifteen cents, but the book
will give that much additional service.
Pressing and drying are accompaniments ,of the binding
process at every step so that a book comes to us stiff and dry.
CARE OF NEW BOOKS
A little care in the handling of new books will save trouble
later on. It is necessary to loosen the stiff glue on the back
without breaking the stitches of the sewing. Opening the book
according to the directions will gently loosen it throughout
How to open a new book : Hold the book with its back on a
table or smooth surface. Press the front cover down until it
touches the table, then the back cover holding the leaves in one
hand while you open a few at the back, then at the front, al-
ternately, pressing them down gently until you reach the center
of the volume. Never open the book violently nor bend back
the covers ; it is liable to break the back and to loosen the leaves.
White or very light covered books should be coated all over
with white shellac and thoroughly dried before they are used.
The shellac must sometimes be thinned below the average com-
mercial standard to obtain satisfactory results. A cord stretched
between two chairs makts a convenient drying arrangement.
Books must be kept upright on the shelves, not too tightly
crowded. The constant use of book supports will save much
mending and binding.
CARE OF BOOKS IN USE
When books are returned the condition should be observed
and none should be replaced on the shelves which are in need of
mending or binding.
BINDING WHEN NOT TO REBIND
Do not rebind books with pages missing or with inside mar-
gins less than one-half inch. As a rule, do not rebind books
costing fifty cents or less. Exception is sometimes made to this
rule in the case of picture books. All books sent to the bindery be-
fore the stage of complete dilapidation are much stronger after
rebinding than in original covers.
Do not rebind badly soiled books.
Books with pages missing at the beginning or end of the
book should not be rebound.
WHEN TO REBIND
If the stitches are broken and the sections are loose through-
out the book it must be rebound at once if it is to give further
service. Rebind books costing more than fifty cents if they are
of value to the library.
Bind magazines needed for reference work if indexed.
36 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Reference books in constant use, like encyclopedias, diction-
aries, periodicals, indexes and atlases, should be carefully
watched for torn or loose leaves. As soon as the binding shows
signs of giving way the volume should be sent to the binder.
PREPARATION FOR THE BINDER
Examine books to see if any printed pages are missing. This
is important, as a book with many pages missing, particularly at
the front or back, is worthless.
Be sure to send the title page.
If the accession number of the book has been entered on the
book plate only, enter it in the proper place (the first right-
hand page back of the title page) before sending the book to
The usual material for rebinding is art vellum or library
buckram. Either is sufficiently strong for all ordinary books.
Color desired should be specified; red is a good color for little
If the book is one of a set such as encyclopedias, instruct the
binder not to trim, and indicate color and style of binding and
lettering that it may match the rest of the set as nearly as pos-
Instructions for charging books sent to the bindery, are given
on page 72.
COST OF REBINDING
The usual cost of rebinding a book of ordinary size in art
vellum is 60-70 cents, and some what more in library buckram.
Large books cost five cents additional for every inch over the
Binding of magazines costs from eighty-five cents for size
of Harper's magazine upward.
It is hardly worth while to bind magazines which are not in-
dexed in periodical indexes since the use would be limited.
Those magazines which have been most frequently consulted
for material of permanent interest would be the first choice
Single numbers of a magazine when devoted to one subject
such as the National Geographic may be put in pamphlet binder
and treated as a book.
Back numbers may be kept in order for consultation by
means of bulletin boxes described on page 100.
When magazine covers are not used, and for magazines to
be circulated, reinforcing is necessary, to prolong the period of
This is done before the magazine is used at all. The orig-
inal cover is removed and a cover of heavy paper the exact size
is fastened to the magazine with strips of double stitched cloth,
or sewed through.
The original cover is then pasted on and dried. If the mag-
azine is to be circulated the pocket or slip can then be pasted on
in the usual way.
(3) Books To Be Mended
Early and careful mending greatly prolongs the usefulness
of the book.
If the sewing of the book is firm, the stitches unbroken, it
may be mended to good advantage.
Before beginning work, materials must be procured. These
need not be expensive or elaborate,
(i) Mending cloth strips.
These are strips of white cambric, one inch wide, which
may be bought accurately cut in packages of 30 yards.
The strips may be cut from material bought by the yard.
.It should be of fair quality cambric, cut very carefully and
accurately. Using a ruler as a gauge, the material should be
marked in inch spaces, lengthwise of the goods. Crease well
and cut cleanly with sharp scissors, or cut along mark with
sharp knife, using ruler as guide.
38 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
(2) Outing flannel for recasing.
Double faced outing flannel of thin, cheap quality may be
used for this. Since the need for this type of mending does
not occur frequently, one-half yard will be an ample supply.
(3) Art vellum for mending torn books.
It may sometimes be bought in assorted colors from the
bindery in packages containing six colors, 3 yards, 4 inches
wide, each, or by the yard.
(4) Bond paper.
Used for hinges for leaves and illustrations.
(5) Onion skin paper.
Used for mending tears.
These papers may be bought in sheets and cut as needed,
or bought in strips ready cut in packages of 500 strips, I
inch by II inches.
One-half inch flat or oval brush with long handle for
One-fourth inch brush for shellac.
A good paste may be made according to the following
One tablespoonful of alum.
One quart of water.
One-half pint of flour.
Mix the flour with a small quantity of water and stir into
a cream ; bring water to a boil ; stir in the cream and cook for
twenty minutes ; dissolve the alum in the water and stir into
the paste about three minutes before it is cooked ; stir while
cooking, strain and add twenty drops of oil of cloves.
"A substitute for flour is Spon-tem obtained from any
paper hanger. To use: mix with hot water and let boil up.
Keeps indefinitely if covered. Any paste will spoil if left
open." Wisconsin Bulletin, May, 1918.
The library paste found in the schools has usually proved
A dry paste powder to be made into paste, as the need
arises, may be obtained in a one-half pound carton making
two quarts of paste, or may be obtained by the pound from
the paper hanger.
Other supplies to have on hand:
Bone paper folder.
Cheese cloth for paste work.
Eraser or kneaded rubber.
Tissue paper (white).
Japanese tissue for mending dictionaries.
PROCESS OF MENDING
All mending must be done very neatly, carefully and ac-
curately. Before any work is begun, books should be examined
for all defects and tears arid loose pages should be repaired be-
fore hinges are put on.
Never use mucilage or glue in mending books which are to
Pencil marks should be removed with soft eraser or kneaded
rubber. Book covers may be cleaned with Ivory soap and water,
or vinegar and water. If the latter is used, take two parts vine-
gar and one part water. Vinegar should not be used on leather
If the paper is soft and is torn with an edge, it may be
mended in this way: Place a piece of tissue paper under the
page, carefully match the print, put a little paste on each edge
and rub the edge down gently. Cover with another piece of
tissue paper. When thoroughly dry, tear away superfluous
If there is no edge on the tear, cut a strip of onion skin
paper, cover lightly with paste, taking care to wet as little as pos-
sible, and rub down gently.
For torn edges, cut a strip of very thin bond or onion skin
paper, paste on leaf, smoothing out carefully all torn or crumpled
40 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
edges. Be careful that the added strip does not make the page
wider than the others so that it protrudes.
In the ordinary book, the illustrations are merely pasted in
and drop out quickly. The frontispiece usually pulls out the
title page. If the illustrations are ordinary, such as are found
in fiction, they are not worth the time required to put them back.
Important illustrations, such as plates from bird and wild flower
books, should be carefully reinserted.
Sometimes the illustration may be replaced by "tipping in."
Place the loose leaf on a sheet of waste paper, then cover it with
another piece of paper, leaving one-eighth of an inch of the
inner or sewed margin exposed. Apply a very thin coat of paste
to the margin and then carefully insert the leaf in its proper
place in the book. Rub down carefully.
Many illustrations are on heavy coated paper and must be
replaced by a paper hinge. Take a strip of paper one-half inch
wide and of the same length as the leaf ; carefully fold this strip
down the center, apply a thin coat of paste to one side of the
hinge thus formed and paste on to the inner or sewed margin of
the leaf. When this has dried sufficiently, apply a very thin coat
to the other half of the same side of the hinge and put the leaf
in its proper place in the book. Push in as far as possible, rub
down gently and firmly.
By joint is meant the hinge or strip by . which the cover is
attached to the body of a book. - If the sewing is intact through-
out the book, the first and last sections firm and the super strip
loose, but not torn off, the book may be mended satisfactorily
by adding a cloth hinge. The cloth hinge is used only between
the cover and the fly leaves or first and last section, never
Before putting in strip, find the end of the first section, put
a very little paste between last page of first section and first page
of second, and rub page down well. Be careful that this pasting
does not extend over more than one-eighth inch of the page.
Be sure that the title page is in place. This is often loose and
must be tipped on the first section.
PLACING THE HINGE OR STRIP
Open book and place a closed book under the front cover.
Cut the inch strip of white cambric (described under materials)
a little shorter than the book. Fold through the center; paste
lightly but thoroughly; apply one-half to the inside of the book
cover and the other half to the fly leaf. With the bone paper
folder, press well into the book. Wipe off all superfluous paste.
Place a sheet of oiled paper between the sides of the hinge
formed by the cambric, close the book, with the bone paper folder
press the original crease between back and sides of book into
place, and place under weight to dry. When dry, open very care-
fully, following directions given for opening new books.
If the back is torn, paste down edges of tear very carefully.
Cut a piece of art vellum two inches wider than the back of the
book and one and one-half inches longer than the back of the
book. Paste strip and place carefully on the back, getting center
of strip in the center of the back. Turn in at the top and bot-
tom, having edges exact with top and bottom of book. Press
cloth into original crease and paste the vellum on the sides, rub-
bing down well. Replace author's name and title of book on the
back in white ink letters. Coat lettering with shellac when dry.
This form of mending is not usually employed if book is to
be rebound. It can only be used if the sewing is intact and the
sections firm. It is used for a book when the super strip which
holds it in the case is torn.
Take the book from the cover and tear off the old super from
the back of the book and inside of the covers. Cut a strip of
double-faced outing flannel an inch shorter than the book and
three inches wider than the back of the book. Apply paste
thickly to back of book, place center of cloth strip to middle of
book. When partly dry, cover this in turn with paste.
Paste the cloth which extends at the sides to the fly leaves
and then cover the whole fly leaf with paste. Before inserting
the book in the covers, put paste on the sides where the old
super was removed, then press the book into the cover and close.
42 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Open at once and if the fly leaf does not cover the old end
paper, slip it into place and down. If there is not an extra leaf
to use for the end paper, add a sheet of good paper, neatly cut
and pasted on.
Useful pamphlets on mending are Sawyer How to care for
books in the library, Democratic Printing Company, Madison,
Wisconsin, and Brown and Stiles Mending and repair of books,
A.L.A. pub. bd., Chicago.
(4) Books in good physical condition and of worth to the library
If these books have labels on the back, which are half off or
carelessly placed, they should be removed at this time. Place
books of uniform size in groups on the table, back up, with book
supports at each end of the group to hold them together closely.
Put pieces of very wet blotter on the labels. As soon as the
labels are thoroughly moistened, remove them and dry the books
gently with cheesecloth. Do not rub hard or scrape as this re-
moves the sizing from the binding and makes it difficult to mark
the book with white ink.
PLACING BOOK POCKET
See directions below.
7. Mechanical Preparation of New Books
When the books are received they are checked with the bill
and with the order, to see that all have been received.
This information is useful in accessioning and in determin-
ing quickly the cost of a book. It includes the date of the bill,
place where bought, and the price, written in pencil in the book,
in the inner margin of the first right-hand page back of the
This entry is made as neatly and compactly as possible, using
abbreviations for date and source (place where bought) or
donor's name if gift).
MECHANICAL PREPARATION 43
When working with the books, open each one carefully ac-
cording to directions on page 35.
The library stamp should be in small, clear type; it is usually
in two lines, e.g.
Public School Library
The books are stamped on the title page, in the upper right-
hand corner, and on the $ist or loist page. The stamp is placed
squarely, taking care not to blur.
Bills should be filed with the clerk of the school board. If
state library aid is asked for, the receipted order must be sent to
the county superintendent.
8. Placing the Book Pocket
The book pocket is a part of the charging system described
on page 68.
The simplest form is the manila book pocket strip which is
held in place by pasting the diagonal edges to the book. In or-
dering a statement should be made as to whether the strip will
be used in the front or the back of the book.
Open end pockets are most commonly used. These should be
printed with the name of the library, at the bottom of the pocket,
leaving the top free for other information. Pockets should be
accurately folded, the flaps around the back.
POSITION OF BOOK POCKET
Since in many libraries a book plate or a slip giving the rules
of the library is pasted on the inside of the front cover of the
book, the book pocket is usually put on the inside of the back
The edges of the pocket and the flaps are carefully pasted,
taking care that no paste gets under the flaps. The pocket is
placed squarely, in the same relative position in each book, one
inch from the bottom. It is rubbed down well with clean cloth,
and all superfluous paste wiped off.
Sealed pockets are obtainable and save much time in book
44 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Classification is the putting together of like objects or facts
under a common designation Standard dictionary.
Library classification is for the purpose of bringing books
that are on the same subject together on the shelves.
A school library should be classified by a standard system,
because a library classified by an original system cannot readily
be used by anyone except the originator, and the school per-
sonnel changes frequently. By the use of a standard system,
the library is brought into harmony with other library work, is
intelligible to anyone who has ever used a library and pupils who
become familiar with the classification of a school library can use
a public library with ease.
All the material in the library should be classified, whether
books, bulletins or pamphlets.
Many books for younger children are in story form, but if a
book gives real information on any subject it should be given
the class number for the subject.
Conforming to public library classification.
While the decimal classification is the most generally used
and understood by library workers, many public libraries use
it in adapted form. It is desirable that the school library should
use the same form as the public library in the town, that stu-
dents and teachers may go from one to the other easily.
The library classification scheme in most common use in pub-
lic and school libraries is the Dewey Decimal classification,
named from its author, Mr. Melvil Dewey, Director of the New
York State library, 1889-1904, and founder of the New York
State Library school.
PLAN (ADAPTED FROM DEWEY ABRIDGED DECIMAL CLASSIFICA-
TION 20 ED., 1912)
"In this classification the field of knowledge is divided, into
nine main classes, numbered i to 9. Cyclopedias, and other
books so general in character as to belong to no one of these
classes are marked o and form a tenth class. Each class is sim-
ilarly separated into nine divisions, general works belonging to
no division, having o in place of the division number.
"Divisions are similarly divided into nine sections.
"Where o occurs in the class number, it has its normal zero
value. Thus a book numbered 510 is class 5, division i, but be-
longs to no section, i.e., it treats of the division mathematics in
general and is limited to no one section; whereas Geometry,
which is so limited, is marked 513.
"500 indicates a treatise on science in general, limited to no
Arabic numerals are used for notation. The class numbers
or symbols have been compared to shorthand. In a system
of shorthand each character has a meaning which must be
learned, so in classification, each number has a meaning which
may be learned and which is only to be used to mark a book
having the same meaning.
Characters to modify the class numbers are used for special
To facilitate arrangement on separate shelves, the class
number for reference books is preceded by R. and the number
for grade books is preceded by j or y.
Every large school should have a copy of Dewey Abridged
Decimal Classification (Forest Press, Lake Placid, N.Y. ) for
use in connection with the school library lists.
An abridgment for school libraries was suggested by Miss
Cornelia Marvin in the Oregon List of books for school li-
braries, 1907. This abridgment, with some additions, has been
used in the Minnesota School Library lists, and in the Minnesota
The changes made in the Abridged classification to adapt it
for school use are chiefly in the use of general numbers (3d
summary) rather than specific numbers, e.g., 320 for all books on
government, including the books on Administration of govern-
The class 400 is often omitted in school libraries. The study
of language in school is so closely allied to literature that all
the books may properly be placed in the literature numbers.
In 630 Agriculture and 640 Home Economics, newer group-
ings of the topics are suggested.
920 is used for all Collective biography and 921 for all In-
SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Dewey Decimal Classification
ABRIDGMENT FOR SMALL SCHOOLS
The ten classes showing the relation of the subjects and some
of the sub-divisions used :
R General reference
ooo General works
028 Easy reading books
220 Bible stories
320 Government -
398 Fairy stories and leg-
550 Geology, Physical
571 Primitive life
600 Useful arts
607 Vocational guidance
630.1 Country life
640 Household economics
680 Manual training
700 Fine arts
793 Indoor amusements
807 Study and teaching
808 Composition, rhetoric
808.8 Readers and
810 English and American
811.8 Poetry collec-
814 Essays and prose mis-
814.8 Essays col-
815 Orations collections
870 Greek and Latin
900 Travel, Biography, History
920 Biography collective
921 Biography individual
930 Ancient history
940 General and modern
942 English history
973 American history
Fiction No number. Arranged
alphabetically by author.
This scheme is sufficiently detailed for rural and small village
Larger schools, with many books in the school libraries, will
need the more detailed scheme for some or all classes. The
number of books in a class (on a particular subject) or likely to
be added, will determine the extent to which the classification
will be carried.
Schools with large collections of books on Pedagogy for
Teachers' training departments, Agriculture, Home economics,
English and American literature or American history, will find
all or part of the larger scheme useful.
ABRIDGMENT FOR LARGER SCHOOLS
The ten classes showing the relation of the subjects and some
of the subdivisions used
020 Library economy.
029 Reference aids.
030 General encyclopedias.
220 Bible stories.
370 Education General works.
370.15 Educational Psychology.
370.9 History of education.
371 Principles and practice of teaching.
371.1 Teachers. Salaries. Certificates. Pensions.
371.2 School organization and administration.
371.3 Methods of instruction.
371.5 Government and discipline.
371.6 School buildings and equipment. Grounds.
371.7 School hygiene.
371-73-4 Gymnastics. Play. Recreation.
371.9 Education of special classes.
48 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
372 Elementary education. Story telling.
372.1 Child study.
372.8 Collection of stories to tell.
373 Secondary schools.
374 Self-education. Extension teaching.
374.71 Home and school. Use of school buildings.
37543 Foreign languages.
375-5 Nature study. Science.
375.61 Physiology and hygiene.
375.62 Industrial education. Clubs.
375-^3 Agriculture. School gardens.
375.64 Home economics.
375.7 Art. Music.
375.8 Reading. English.
375.9 History and civics.
377 Religious, ethical instruction.
378 Colleges and universities.
379 Relation of state.
379.19 Rural schools.
380 Commerce. Commercial geography.
551 Physical geography.
571 Primitive life.
600 Useful arts
607 Vocational guidance.
630.1 Country life.
630.13 Agricultural economics.
630.2 Farm management.
630.3 Dictionaries of agriculture.
630.4 Essays. Addresses.
632 Plant husbandry.
633 Field crops.
633.1 Cereal crops.
633.2 Forage crops.
636 Animal husbandry.
637 Dairy farming.
638 Other agricultural industries.
640 Home economics.
641 Food. Nutrition.
643 House planning.
646 Textiles and clothing.
647 Home management.
'648 Care of the sick.
650 Business. Communication. Transportation.
680 Manual training. Shop work.
700 Fine arts
740 Drawing. Design.
741 Mechanical drawing.
790 Outdoor amusements. Sports.
793 Indoor amusements : plays for acting.
807 Study and teaching.
807.3 Fiction. Short story.
808 Composition. Rhetoric. Collections.
808. 1 Poetry
808.2 Drama T
50 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
808.3 Cyclopedias of quotations.
808.8 Readers and speakers.
810 American literature. American and English.
810.8 Collections: Illustrative prose and poetry.
811 American poetry.
812 American drama.
814 American essays and prose miscellany.
815 American orations.
820 English literature.
820.8 Collections: Illustrative prose and poetry.
821 English poetry.
822 English drama.
822.3 Shakespeare including works, criticism, etc.
824 English essays and prose miscellany.
825 English orations.
870 Greek and Latin,
ooo Travel. Biography. History.
910 Geography and travel.
910.9 Exploration and discovery.
914 Travel Europe.
915 Travel Asia.
916 Travel Africa.
917 Travel North America, Central America, West
918 Travel South America.
919 Travel Australia and the islands. Arctic regions.
920 Biography Collective.
921 Biography Individual.
CLASSIFICATION : AGRICULTURE 51
930 Ancient history.
940 General European and modern.
940.2 Modern Europe.
940.3 World war.
940.5 Later 2oth century.
970 Indian life and history.
973 American history.
9734 Constitutional period.
973-5 War of 1812.
973.6 War with Mexico.
973-7 Civil War.
974 New England.
976 South Central or Gulf.
977 North Central or Lake.
978 Western or Mountain.
980 South America.
990 Oceanica. Polar regions.
SPECIAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME
Where classification of agriculture bulletins is desired, the
following scheme will be useful. It will be noted that the
numbers correspond to the classification used for books of Agri-
culture in "Library books for High schools" (U.S. Bur. of edu-
cation Bulletin 1917 no. 41) but are more extended.
Classification for Agriculture Literature
by Mrs. F. H. Ridgway,
Berea College Library, Berea, Kentucky
Library Journal O, 1913
.1, Rural sociology; .11, Statistics; .13, Agricultural eco-
nomics; .131, Labor; .134, Co-operation; .136, Finance;
52 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
.138, Production" .14, Agricultural legislation; .18, Trans-
portation; .19, Country life; .191, Farm home; .192,
Farm women; .193, Farm boys and girls.
.2, Farm management; .22, Organization and equipment
of farm; 221; Farmstead, Fields, etc.; .222, Farmhouse,
Outbuildings, Fences (See also 728) ; .223, Farm ma-
chinery and implements; .23 Administration of farm;
.231, Farm accounting.
.3, Dictionaries. Cyclopedias.
.4, Essays. Addresses. Popular literature about agricul
ture and country life.
.6, Societies. Proceedings, etc.
.7, Study and teaching ; .71 Elementary schools ;
.72, Secondary schools; .73, Colleges and universities;
.74, Extension work; .75, Schools and experiment sta-
.76, Institutes, Summer schools; .78 Fairs, Exhibits.
.8, Applied sciences ; .83, Agricultural physics ; .84 Agri-
.9, History. Travel and description.
.4 Crop rotation.
.9 Special areas.
.91 Dry farming.
.92 Irrigation farming.
.93 Mountain farming.
632 Plant husbandry.
.03, Dictionaries. Cyclopedias; .05, Periodicals;
.06, Societies; .07, Study and teaching; .09, History.
.1 Seeds and germination.
2 Planting and transplanting.
.3 Training, pruning.
CLASSIFICATION : AGRICULTURE 53
.5 Pests and diseases.
.511 Animals (also beneficial).
.6 Protection from frost, drought, etc.
.7 Harvesting. Curing. Storing.
.8 Marketing. Exhibiting.
633 Field crops.
.01, General culture and care; .011, Seeds, Germination;
.012, Planting; .014, Breeding; .015, Pests and diseases;
.016, Protection; .017, Harvesting; .018, Marketing;
.03, Cyclopedias ; .05, Periodicals ; .06, Societies ;
.07, Study and teaching ; .09, History.
,i Cereal crops.
(May arrange cereals in alphabetical order. Same
arrangement may be made for other crops, for
vegetables, fruits, etc., and for breeds of horses,
.2 Forage crops.
.3 Root crops.
.4 Sugar plants.
.5 Textile plants.
.6 Alkaloidal plants.
.01, General culture and care; .on, Seeds. Germination;
.012, Planting; .013 Pruning; .014, Breeding; .015, Pests
.016, Protection; .017, Harvesting; .018, Marketing;
.05, Periodicals ; .06, Societies ;
.07, Study and teaching; .09, History.
.11 Edible roots.
54 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
.12 Edible stems.
.13 Edible leaves.
.14 Edible flowers.
.15 Edible fruits.
.16 Edible seeds.
.17 Edible fungi.
.24 Small fruits.
.31 Greenhouses. Conservatories.
.32 Hotbeds. Coldframes. House plants.
33 Outdoor floriculture.
.34 Bulbous and tuberous plants.
35 Cut flowers.
.37 Other flowering plants.
.38 Non-flowering plants.
.39. Trees and shrubs.
.03, Cyclopedias; .05, Periodicals; .06, Societies; .07,
Study and teaching; .09, History. Travel and descrip-
.2 Forest protection and preservation.
.21 Pests and diseases.
.3 Forest economics.
.31 Forest policy.
.311 Forest reserves.
.5 Forest influences.
CLASSIFICATION : AGRICULTURE
636 Animal husbandry.
.003, Cyclopedias; .005, Periodicals; .006, Societies; .007,
Study and teaching; .009, History. Travel and descrip-
tion; .01, Breeds; .02, Feeds and feedings; .03, Care and
housing; .04, Breeding; .05, Pests and diseases (See also
619) ; .08, Exhibiting. Judging.
.in Light horses.
.112 Draft horses.
.13 Feeding ad care.
.18 Exhibiting. Judging.
.19 Asses. Mules.
.211 Beef breeds.
.212 Dairy breeds.
.213 Dual purpose breeds.
.23 Feeding and care.
.33 Feeding and care.
637 Dairy farming.
O3, Cyclopedias; .05, Periodicals;
Study and teaching; .09, History.
638 Other agricultural industries.
.1 Bee culture.
.2 Silkworm culture.
.3 Fish culture.
639 U.S., state, and foreign government documents.
Feeding and care.
Feeding and care.
.06, Societies ; .07,
56 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
HOW TO CLASSIFY
To classify successfully, a very careful study must be made of
the classification tables to get an understanding of the relation of
subjects and the significance of the numbers.
Classification is based on subject-matter; therefore, the book
to be classified must be carefully examined to find out what it is
about, as the title does not always indicate the subject. Table of
contents must be studied, the introduction and at least part of
the book read, before the subject can be fully determined. If
there is an apparent choice of numbers the book is placed where
it will be most useful.
A course in classification in a library training class is in-
dispensable to good work. Those unable to have such a course
should follow closely the classification given in the Standard,
Classified library lists for schools, for the titles given there,
and get advice of a trained librarian for the others. Otherwise,
confusion will ensue.
CLASSIFYING BY MEANS OF A CLASSIFIED SCHOOL LIBRARY LIST.
Through the index at the back, the page on which the book
is listed may be found. On turning to this page it will be no-
ticed that a number of books are grouped alphabetically by
author under a class number. The number printed at the head
of the division is the classification number for every book in that
division, thus all books listed under 290 Mythology would be
marked 290, those figures being the symbol for the subject
Mythology, and indicate its position on the shelves.
Fiction is not usually classified, but is arranged on the shelves
alphabetically by author's name.
Children's books or grade books are classified in the same
way as adult or high school books, that is, by subject-matter,
even though the story form is used. As a convenience in arrang-
ing on separate shelves the character (y or j) is placed before
the class number for the grade books and (Y or J) for grade
No numbers should be used that are not found in the School
library lists or in the Abridged decimal classification.
BOOK NUMBERS (also called Author number)
In order to arrange the books alphabetically in each class,
some libraries add below the classification number, a designation
made from the author's surname.
The first letter is sufficient for small collections. When exact
arrangement is desired the Cutter alphabetic table may be used.
From this, numbers are obtained to follow each author's initial
and make strict alphabetical arrangement possible.
BOOK NUMBERS FOR INDIVIDUAL BIOGRAPHY
Aii exception to the rule of assigning book numbers from
the author's name is made in Class 921 Individual biography.
Here the book numbers are assigned from the name of the per-
son written about, the reason being that it is more useful to have
all the biographies of a person grouped than to have them scat-
tered according to author's name.
BOOK NUMBERS FOR SHAKESPEARE
Many schools have a large collection of Shakespeare's works,
including collected works, individual plays, biography and
criticism. To each book the number 822.3 is assigned and the
group is arranged by use of the following book number .scheme :
Shakespeare scheme Book numbers :
Ai Collected works M4 Merchant of Venice
A2 All's well that ends well M5 Merry wives of Windsor
A3 Antony & Cleopatra M6 Midsummer night's dream
A4 As you like it M7 Much ado about nothing
C2 Comedy of errors O2 Othello
C3 Coriolanus ?2 Pericles
C4 Cymbeline ?3 Poems, including Sonnets
H2 Hamlet R2 Richard II
H4 Henry IV R 3 Richard III
US Henry V R4 Romeo and Juliet
H6 Henry VI T 2 Taming of the shrew
H8 Henry VIII T3 Tempest
J 2 Julius Caesar Timon Athens
K2 King John
K 3 King Lear TS Troilus & Cressida
L2 Love's labor lost Twelfth night
M2 Macbeth T8 Two gentlemen of Verona
M3 Measure for measure W2 Winter's tale
58 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
X plus author's initials for books about Shakespeare; biog-
raphy, criticism, etc.
Y plus initial for editor or compiler for concordances, dic-
Thus the number for As you like it would be 822.3; for
Raleigh- Shakespeare 822.3 A4
BOOK NUMBERS FOR FICTION
Fiction is arranged on the shelves, alphabetically by author's
name. Since the author's name is on the back, no marking is
necessary. If however, some marking is preferred, the initial
letter of the author's surname should be sufficient. Where ex-
act arrangement is desired, the book is marked with numbers
taken from the Cutter 2 figure alphabetic order table.
MECHANICAL SIDE OF CLASSIFICATION
When classifying, slips of paper are marked with the number
and the slip placed in book so that number shows. It is left in
book until it has been marked and is ready for the shelf.
CLASSIFICATION MARKS IN BOOK
The classification number is printed in pencil in the book, in
the upper left-hand corner of the first recto (right hand page)
back of the title page. It is also printed on the upper left-hand
corner of the pocket and the left-hand side of the book card, on
the third line. The latter marking should be ink, and it is more
convenient to do it at the time the accessioning is done.
As the books are classified, they should be grouped by class
on the shelf and accessioned in order.
10. Accession Record
This is an important business record, particularly when there
is changing and inexperienced service in the library.
Trained librarians find it possible to combine this record
Suggestions as to a substitute may be found on p. 73.
The accession book is a chronological list of books added to
It should show at a glance how many books the library has
ever had, what they cost and whether they have been withdrawn
and why. It identifies each book and provides an inventory
record for the library. All bound books belonging to the li-
brary should be entered in it. It should never be kept in the
same book with the charging record.
A standard accession book only should be used. For schools,
the Simplified accession book answers the purpose, and is the
least expensive. Loose leaf accession books, for typewriter use
may be obtained. They are preferred by the more experienced
workers, who find no difficulty in keeping the sheets in proper
WORK OF ACCESSIONING
Accessioning must be done neatly, accurately and in a busi-
ness-like way. Good ink should be used, the writing must be
clear and neat and the spelling exact.
In accessioning an old library, the books are grouped to-
gether by class before beginning the work. All the volumes
in a set are brought together before any one is entered. This
is a saving of time as ditto marks can be made for the author,
title and publisher. Sets with first volume missing should not
The standard rules for accessioning are given in the Intro-
duction to the Accession book. These should be carefully
studied before the work is begun and followed exactly.
A few of the rules should be especially emphasized.
No group of information should run beyond the space al-
lotted to it.
Enter only one book to a line, whether a single book or a
volume in a set.
Do not use an accession number a second time. If the book
is lost or withdrawn, make note in withdrawal or notes column,
but do not erase entry.
6o SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Do not accession books in bad conditions, unbound pam-
phlets, government or state documents unless they are classified
as part of the library.
The columns are rilled as follows: (See p. 63-4)
DATE OF BILL
This information is given by the business entry in new
books; see page 42.
Use real author's name, if author's name is known, surname
only. When two authors, both surnames connected by "&."
For collections, use editor's name.
Brief but distinctive.
First name in a firm, e. g. : Houghton, for Houghton,
When the name is a phrase ; abbreviated as A. L. A. pub.
for A. L. A. publishing board.
The title page date or copyright.
Name of firm from whom the book was bought. Give in
Cost to the library.
ADDED BY GIFT
Check mark is made in this column if book was obtained in
ADDED BY BINDING
This column used only when pamphlet or volume of maga-
zines has been bound and then accessioned.
Used only when book is in more than qne volume, or dupli-
cate copies of the same book are added to the library. In the
latter case Cop. 2, etc., is given.
Call number is given in this column, thus connecting acces-
sion record with the shelves and the shelf list.
When book is lost, destroyed or discarded, entry is made in
withdrawal column, giving date and cause.
Cost is never omitted when obtainable, but can rarely be
given in accessioning an old library.
ACCESSION NUMBER IN BOOK
In doing the work, the book to be accessioned is opened to
the title page, and the information given there used, not that on
the back of the book. Care must be taken to get the real au-
thor's name and to distinguish between title and series. In
shortening the title, the distinctive part should be retained so
that it represents this book and no other.
The person writing in the Accession book should complete
the entry there and put the accession number (the number of
the line on which it was entered) in ink, in the book, in the
lower margin of the first recto (right-hand page) back of the
title page. The accession number should also be printed on '
the book pocket in the upper right-hand corner, and on the
book card, on the third line, right side. It is also placed on
the shelf list card.
II. Writing the Book Card
At the time of accessioning, the book card is written, using
the same form for author's name, and title, as given in the
SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Mo1K>r- Crook's mt^oAi c*, eA bo Uhealcr-
Sdit^anA ^o\lj ",v\ SvA-mnidt*
P.-T^>- TinA"^^ , ^ wm1?T-
1 "/ l ir
Swi^fc -Carnilu '^o\i(-nion "A U. 5t\c,lfY^p-v/
T / '1 '
Lou.s^ VA^v, ft \crfrt-
Wiooin A JmTtK" tA
Accession book. The information is usually placed in the fol-
First line: Author's surname.
Second line : Brief title. - ;
rrni i o
Third line, left side: Class number.
Third line, right side : Accession number.
For sample see page 70.
In some libraries the class number and accession number
are placed at the top of the card above the author and title.
64 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
IKTER CASTRA ITINERA OTIA NEGOTIA LITTERARUM
AMOREM OLIM DEDICATUM
NUNC MEMORIAE EJUSDEM CARISSIMI
AMICI APUD ULUNDI OCCISI
Marks placed on first recto or right hand page back of the title page:
upper left corner, call number; inner margin, business entry; lower margin,
As the books are accessioned they are transferred to another
table to be marked. Care is necessary to prevent mixing the
books and accessioning one the second time.
If erasures in the Accession book are necessary, they are
made with a sharp steel eraser and the erased spot well rubbed
down with the hard end before another entry is attempted.
The classification process is not complete until the books are
marked on the back with the call number. Each book is marked
in the same relative position, two inches from the bottom. Plain
print figures are used, making all of uniform size, not too large
but clear enough to be readily seen.
LABELS vs. WHITE INK
The objections to labels are : It takes as much time to put on
a label as it does to mark directly on the book, and the marking
must be done in addition; the labels come off easily and must
be replaced constantly.
The advantage of labels is that they are easier to print on
than the book cloth, especially when it is soiled, and if poor
marking has been done, it may be more easily remedied than
when placed directly on the book.
If labels are used, the book must be carefully prepared. A
guide card is cut with a hole the exact size of the label, at the
height it should be placed on the book. The guide is placed over
the book and the sizing is removed with ammonia. The label is
then put on and rubbed down very carefully. Each label is placed
in the same relative position two inches from the bottom of the
book. Round labels are usually used, and those of cloth are pre-
ferred. Those with colored edges should never be used.
WHITE INK MARKING
Many librarians mark directly on the book, using white
marking ink for dark books and India ink for very light ones.
Special marking ink should be used, not writing ink, which is
The chief difficulty in marking with white ink comes from the
ink clogging on the point of the pen. This may be obviated by
working with two pens, keeping one in water when not in use.
The ink should be well shaken before beginning work and should
66 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
be thick enough to make a clear mark the first time. Water may
be added to thin, when needed. If faint, the marking may be
traced over, but the effect is not so good. If a mistake is made,
the mark may be wiped off with a damp cloth.
If the books are very soiled, the place to be marked is first
cleaned with benzine.
If labels have been taken off, the book must sometimes be
shellacked and thoroughly dried before marking.
On leather back books the place to be marked must first be
The writer sits at right angles to the work. A short, thick
penholder is used and is held between the first and second
fingers. Placing the book with front cover on the edge of the
table, the book is supported by the left hand, while being marked.
A guide card is used to insure uniformity of position of the
marks on the books. A square is cut in the guide card large
enough for the number. The guide card is used for each book,
placing it even with the bottom. The call number is blocked at
the left side that is, the first letter of the book number placed
directly under the first figure of the class number.
Library or conventional figures are used. See page 94.
After the marking is dry the number is lightly coated with
thin white shellac, to prevent its rubbing off, or the entire back
may be coated. If more convenient, this can be done after
the books are returned to the shelves.
Books are arranged on the shelves by classes in numerical or-
der, running from left to right down the tier. In each class they
are arranged alphabetically by author's name.
Fiction which is not usually given a number, but only marked
with author's initial, may be shelved before the 8oo's or at the
end. It is arranged alphabetically by author's name.
If the public library is housed with the school library, the
public library fiction is arranged on separate shelves, not with the
high school fiction. It is usually placed near the entrance most
used by the public library patrons.
In public libraries what is known as the "ribbon" arrange-
ment of fiction is sometimes used. The fiction is placed on the
top shelf, running around the room, with the classed books ar-
ranged in regular order below.
Grade books are kept in separate tiers of shelves. Here the
numerical order is sometimes changed to place the books in yo28
First reading, y2OO Mythology and y398 Fairy stories, which are
read by the smaller children, on the lowest shelves.
Reference books : i.e. those to be consulted for specific points
of information, often in sets, such as encyclopedias, are placed
on separate shelves; the handbooks and books of general in-
formation are usually kept near the librarian's desk.
Books assigned by a teacher for special use of a class for a
limited time are placed ,on special shelves during that period
and their use is restricted to pupils in that class.
Shelves near the librarian's desk are commonly used, for
purposes of supervision. The shelf is marked with the sub-
ject and course designations, e.g. English II. A complete list
is posted near the shelf or kept in the librarian's desk in a
folder. Each book has a temporary book card of unusual
color marked Reserve in large letters, or a temporary date slip
marked similarly is pasted in the book. These books may
not be taken from the room, except for overnight, i.e., from
hour of closing school in the afternoon until hour of opening
next morning. When the time of special use is over, the books
are returned to their regular place on the shelves.
Pamphlets are filed in a vertical file or in pamphlet boxes. If
in boxes, they are classified and arranged on the shelves with
the books on the same subject. Suggestions as to treatment of
pamphlets will be found on p. 72.
When organizing, one-fourth of the space on each shelf is
left to allow for growth. If shelves are filled full at the begin-
ning, it soon becomes necessary to shift books and makes much
A book support should be supplied for each shelf to keep the
books upright on the shelves. This is a great saving of wear on
68 SCHOOL .LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
the books. All books should be placed flush with the edge of
the shelf. Neat shelves add very greatly to the attractiveness of
14. Shelf Marking
As an aid to finding books quickly, each shelf is marked with
number of the class and the subject: e.g., 320 Government.
A label is made for every class in which there are books, and
where there are several shelves of the same class each is marked.
The simplest form of shelf marker is made of a strip of white
Bristol board or catalog card, a little narrower than the shelf.
The number and subject of the class are printed with rubber
type or by hand, and it is fastened to the shelf edge with small
Shelf label holders may be bought and tacked to the shelf
edge. Other holders of olive Japanned tin fit over the shelf.
These are convenient because they can easily be moved. In or-
dering, the thickness of the shelf must always be given. Many
librarians used gummed letters and figures, placing them directly
on the shelf edge.
This is neatly printed or typed and posted near the shelves as
an aid in finding books. A chart of the classification and one
describing the catalog is available.
15. Checking the School Lists
If the books are classified according to a school library list,
the list itself will serve very well as an index to the library.
Checking the classed part will show what books the library has
on a subject and in a list, giving grades, for what pupils they
are suited. This gives not only an index to the library, but is an
aid in selection of books.
Checking the author and title index gives additional help in
finding books. A checked school list is more useful than a
hastily compiled card index made by someone who has not been
trained for this work.
1 6. Charging System
If the library is conducted in a business-like way, any book-
belonging to the library may be located quickly. If it is in the
CHARGING SYSTEM 69
library it should be found on the shelf in its proper class number,
if it is out, there should be a record showing to whom loaned
and when it is due. This record is called the Charging record.
For school libraries, a charging system must be used that is
simple, speedy, reliable but flexible.
BOOK CHARGING SYSTEM
This is the simplest form and is commonly used in country
schools. It is best for this purpose, when teachers are not
trained to prepare and use the card system. A book may be
bought for this purpose or a blank book ruled.
The charging record is never kept in the accession book.
The information a charging book should give is as follows :
Title of book; To whom loaned; Date loaned; Date returned;
Condition, or Fines.
CARD CHARGING SYSTEM
This system is installed as soon as there is a Teacher-
librarian or Librarian.
Some schools use slips for the charging of books, making out
one each time a book goes out. This method takes more time
than making the book card once for all.
An adaptation of what is known as the Newark charging sys-
tem is commonly used in schools. The essentials are: (i) the
book pocket pasted in the book; (2) the book card; (3) the
dating slip, and (4) the charging tray with date guides.
1. The book pocket should bear the name of the school
library stamped or printed upon it at the bottom. At the top
(left side) the call number should be printed and the accession
number at the right.
2. The book card represents the book in the library, when
the book itself has been borrowed. The author's name, brief
title, call number and accession number are written or typed
upon it in the order shown on page 61.
The information is given briefly, but must so represent the
book that it cannot be mistaken for any other. Title should be
exact, and volume or copy number may be added if desired.
When the book is on the shelf, the book card is in the book
pocket. When it is out, it is in the charging tray.
3. The date slip is used to show the borrower when the book
must be returned. This may be a slip of paper pasted on the fly
70 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
leaf opposite the book pocket or a slip the size of a book card
put in the book pocket when the book card is taken out. In
either case the date the book is due is stamped on the dating
slip with a rubber stamp.
PROCESS OF CHARGING BOOKS FOR HOME READING
The book card is taken from the book pocket and on it is
written the name of the borrower and the date due. This date
is also written or stamped on the date slip, as a guide to the bor-
rower in the return of the book. If the date slip is loose it is
slipped into the book pocket.
Pufclio School Library
CHARGING SYSTEM 71
CHARGING RESERVE BOOKS
In loaning books for over night, the book card is taken out
and a slip marked Reserve and date due placed in book pocket.
COLORED TIME CARDS
The following account of the charging system of the Girls'
High School, Brooklyn, is quoted from Ward. The High School
Jl 2 5 1;
72 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
"The essentials are the book card and time cards of three
colors, brown, pink and blue, which are employed according to
whether a book is lent for a study period, for overnight, or for
two weeks, and which bear printed information to that effect. In
charging books for over night or for a single study period the
reader's name and room number are entered upon the book card,
and a pink or brown time card is slipped into the book pocket.
No dating is done. If the book is needed for two or more study
periods the librarian writes *5th' or '6th' on the brown card be-
fore slipping it into the pocket. When a book goes out for two
weeks, the date due is added to a blue time card and to the book
card. Circulation is counted each period."
Books loaned in sets to teachers for class-room use should be
charged as a collection to the teacher, who in turn will assume
responsibility for the charging to individual students if any books
are taken out. For this reason, a book card must be left in the
book when it goes to the class-room. A duplicate card is made
for each book and kept in the library, the whole group of cards
being kept together as a charge against the teacher. The books
are returned as a group, at which time the count of circulation
is made from the record on the cards.
BOOKS SENT TO BINDERY
In preparation of books for the binder, the book cards are
taken out and the date sent and the name of the binder written
upon them. They are filed in the charging tray in front of guide
card marked "Bindery."
In charging pictures, they are given to the borrower in an
envelope or folder, large enough to take them without folding.
A charging slip is made giving subject of pictures, number,
name of borrower and date due. A slip bearing the date they
are due is attached to the folder.
Those in covers heavy enough to carry a book pocket are
treated like a book.
CHARGING SYSTEM 73
They are usually loaned for a shorter period than a book,
but demand will determine this.
Very thin pamphlets or leaflets are treated as pictures,
The length of time for which a book is loaned depends upon
local needs. Reserve books are not loaned for a longer period
than over night, or from Friday to Monday.
The usual period for books of home reading is two weeks.
Teachers are allowed to borrow books for class room use for
an unlimited period, subject to recall of any book if it is greatly
Every library should have rules regulating the length of time
a book may be kept, and the rules should be printed in the hand-
book of the library, on the book plate, or framed and hung in
The following rules are suggestive :
RULES FOR BORROWERS
Any pupil is entitled to draw books by making application to
the librarian. Any resident of the district may borrow books not
needed in school work.
Books may be retained two weeks, and may be renewed once
for the same period, unless reserved for another borrower.
Suitable fines (not more than one cent a day, or five cents a
week), should be paid for books kept over time, and for loss or
injury of books beyond reasonable wear.
No books may be taken from the library by any person with-
out being charged.
ROUTINE OF CHARGING
Since the time when books must be charged is the time when
the librarian is busy assisting students to find books, the stu-
dents should be taught to do the charging of their own books;
that is, write their name on the book card and the date due, on
the book card and on the date slip, and deposit the cards in a
74 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
In the charging system here described no record is shown
of what books any student has drawn. Where this informa-
tion is desired a borrower's card must be used.
In the Newark system, the borrower has a card which he
takes to the library when he wishes to draw a book. This is
stamped with the date due and the number or name of the
book written on it.
Where the library is used by the public, borrowers' cards
may be used for the town people, but are not always felt to be
necessary if the users are few.
In the larger schools, borrower's records include the ap-.
plication card, application file, registration book and borrower's
card. On the application card, the student writes his name,
his address, and home room number, and secures a teacher's
endorsement. The information on this card is entered in a
registration book with numbered lines, the number of the line
is printed on the application card, and on the borrower's card.
The application cards are filed alphabetically by name
The borrower's card given to the student bears the name
of the school library, his name and registration number and the
Re-registering is done every year.
In borrowing a book, the borrower gives his number and
name, the librarian verifies the information from the borower's
file, and the number is written on the charging slip and book
card opposite the date due.
TAKING THE COUNT
The number of books loaned gives an idea of the use of
the library, though it does not always show it fully. It is
therefore worth while to keep this record for a report on the
library. When the time of issuing books is over, the cards are
counted and a record made. For the small libraries the head-
ings: High school classed; High school fiction; Grade classed;
Grade fiction will serve.
Since this information is given on the charging cards, this
work is simply done. The blank, called "Record of books
loaned in school libraries," is arranged with spaces for these
items, for every day of the 10 months' school year. This blank
should be provided and kept accurately. It will pay for itself
in the saving of time in counting up the number of books
loaned throughout the year.
In the larger schools or in those schools connected with
a public library system, this record is kept more minutely by
classes, on circulation statistics forms used in public libraries.
RECORD OF BOOKS LOANED
Second Month M. To -W. Th.
FILING THE CARDS
The usual way of filing is by date due either by class, acces-
sion number, or alphabetically by author's name. Using this
method, overdue books are easily noted. However, if a par-
ticular book is desired, it takes some time to locate it as the file,s
for each day must be scanned.
Filing alphabetically by author's name, instead of by date,
makes it easier to find a particular book, but overdue books
are hard to trace.
DISCHARGING THE BOOKS
When a book is returned, the date on the date slip is a guide
to the librarian in finding the book card in the charging tray.
No stamping is necessary. The book card is put in the book
pocket and the book is returned to the shelf.
If a borrower's card is used, the date the book is returned
is stamped or written upon it, or the date stamped out.
76 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
17. Shelf Listing
A shelf list is a card list of books in the library, the cards
being arranged as the books are arranged on the shelves, i.e.,
by classes, and alphabetically in each class, by author.
It is an index to the shelves; it shows the number of books
the library has in each class and forms a subject index to the
classed books and an author list for the fiction. It -bears the
same relationship to the library that the table of contents does
to a book.
MAKING A SHELF LIST
To make a shelf list, only one card is made for each book;
it therefore takes much less time than the making of a full
It is more economical of service to do the other work of
organization first, that the books may be put into circulation.
Shelf listing is done one class at a time. All the books in
the class that are on the shelf are listed and the charging tray
examined, to see if any of the books of the class are out. As
they are returned, the shelf list card is made before the books
are returned to the shelf. A mark is put in the book to show
that it has been shelf-listed.
White cards of standard make are used. These are of rag
stock and are accurately cut and well finished to give good
Standard cards are approximately 3x5 but to centimeter
scale, and are punched for round rods. They should be of
light or medium weight.
Ruled cards should be bought for hand-written cards
and plain cards, for those to be typewritten. On the ruled
cards the vertical red lines indicate the position for the infor-
mation. The author's name is placed at the first red line; the
title at the second red line. These are called first and second
indentions. If the work is done on the typewriter, care must
be taken to get the information in the same relative position.
Card attachments may be bought for the machine, to assist
in uniformity. Each card is put in the typewriter at the same
SHELF LISTING 77
place. Writing is begun two single spaces from the top. If
call number is begun at I, author's name is placed at 8; title at
12. If carried over to next line, writing is begun at 8. The
numbers 8 and 12 correspond to the first and second indentions
on the ruled cards.
Call number is placed in the upper left corner; the class
number on the same line with the author's name, author's
initial, author number or book number on the second line directly
under the first figure of the class number; author's name, on
top line, beginning at first indention; title, on second line, be-
ginning at second indention. Author's name is given briefly,
surname first, followed by comma, then forename if but one,
initials if more than one. This is called secondary fullness of
author's name. If the book is by two authors, names of both
are given, connected by &; e.g., Beard, C. A. & Beard, M. R.
If book is by more than two authors, the name of the first is
given, in secondary fullness "& others." If the book is a com-
pilation, "ed" is added one-half inch after editor's name. In
the case of classics which have been edited or translated by
different persons, the original author's name is used for entry.
Title is given briefly; enough, however, to clearly distin-
guish the book. If the book has been edited by some one of
importance the title statement includes "ed. by ."
To correspond with the arrangement on the shelves, shelf
list cards for 921, Individual biography, have on the top line,
second indention, the name of the person written about; on
the second line, first indention, author's name; on the third line,
second indention, title of the book, if distinctive. Call number
is placed as on any shelf list card.
SHELF LIST CARD SAMPLE CARD
320 Beard, E. A.
B American citizenship
78 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
SHELF LIST CARD INDIVIDUAL BIOGRAPHY SAMPLE CARD
M Isaacs, A. S.
Step by step
The accession number is placed under the call number, leav-
ing one line space between.
If the book is in more than one volume the accession numbers
are placed in columns, followed by volume numbers. Duplicate
copies are treated in the same way. Accession numbers should
not be grouped.
SHELF LIST AS SUBSTITUTE FOR ACCESSION BOOK
The shelf list is 1 sometimes used as a substitute for the acces-
sion book. This seems particularly desirable in organizing a
large, old school library where no business record has been kept
of the purchase price, etc. In this case the shelf list is made as
soon as the books are classified.
As new books are shelf listed, publisher, date of purchase and
price are included on the shelf list card.
HOW TO TAKE THE COUNT FROM SHELF LIST
The number of items on the cards is counted and an entry
made on a guide card filed in front of shelf list, e.g. :
Number of books recorded on shelf list Date
When new books are added, make entry on the same card. e.g. :
Books added Date
The library is not equipped for fullest service until a catalog
is provided which lists all the material available. The catalog
bears the same relationship to the library that an index does to
The catalog should answer the questions:
What books by a certain author are in the library?
Has the library a book of a certain title?
What material on any subject the library contains, whether
whole book or part.
It should also give information about the book, such as
edition, publisher, and date of publication.
A printed catalog is out of date as soon as it is printed, and
is never complete. This and the expense of printing discounts
the advantage of being able to use it away from the library.
This is the modern form of index to libraries and may be
constantly kept up to date. The dictionary arrangement is used;
that is, author, title and subject cards are arranged in one
alphabet like the words in a dictionary.
MAKING A CATALOG
This is a technical piece of work and should not be under-
taken without study of cataloging methods and definite instruc-
It is a waste of time and money for the untrained person to
attempt to make a catalog. Librarians in school libraries should
have at least the course offered in elementary cataloging in a
summer school of library training before attempting this work.
SUBSTITUTES FOR THE CATALOG
Since school library lists are arranged by subject and have
full author and title indexes they will serve very well as substi-
tutes for a catalog of books in a school library. The titles found
on the shelves should be checked on the list in the subject part
and also in the author and title index.
THE SHELF LIST
A shelf list is a list on cards of all the books in the library,
arranged in the same order in which the books are placed on
the shelves, that is, by class numbers. It shows how many books
the library has on any subject. It may serve somewhat as a sub-
ject catalog, of all the books on a subject, if an alphabetical in-
dex of subjects is also provided to help those who are un-
familiar with the numbers used for the different subjects. It
So SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
does not by any means take the place of the subject catalog
which indicates all the material on a subject in the library,
whether a whole book or a part.
USE OF PRINTED CARDS
Printed catalog cards may be bought for school libraries
These are of two kinds :
The Indexers, 5526 So. Park Avenue, Chicago, have cataloged
a large number of titles in civics, history and other subjects ex-
tensively used in schools. It is their policy to make a large
number of cards for each book to bring out under a suitable
subject heading, every bit of material. The cards are marked
with the subject heading and are sent accurately arranged for
placing in the card catalog cabinet. The classification or call
number must be added. The price is by card and the cost of
cataloging each book will depend on the number of different
topics, or subjects, of which the book treats.
Library of Congress cards
Printed cards may be obtained from the Library of Con-
gress. These give very full information concerning the book.
The cards are not filled out for use in a dictionary catalog.
Each card is identical and to adapt for dictionary catalog use,
call number, title and subjects must be added at the top, and
the cards filed. To adapt them requires trained ability and they
are not recommended for schools where there is not a trained
Ordering Library of Congress cards
If cards are ordered by Library of Congress number the
cost is less than when author and title are given. Prices
and information as to the procedure in ordering cards should
be obtained from the Library of Congress Card division.
The order number for L. C. cards is given in the A. L. A.
Catalog, A. L. A. Book list, "Library books for High Schools."
(U.S. Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1917, no. 41). Thus the
order number for Holland Builders of United Italy, is
8-24568/11 and the number following the slanting line indicates
that eleven cards are needed to fully catalog the book. Since
this is a book of collective biography, more cards are needed
than for a book largely or wholly on one subject. In the latter
case, one card for author, one for title and one for subject is
sufficient. Order numbers for L. C. cards are also given in the
United States Catalog, and the Cumulative Book Index found
in the larger public libraries.
Library of Congress cards are used with success in larger
libraries where a trained cataloger is employed. Unless there is
some one in the school who understands how to adapt them,
it is a waste of money to purchase them.
The making of a card catalog is sometimes regarded as an
interesting piece of work, merely as a task. It can only be
effectual when the cataloger understands clearly the func-
tion of the catalog in the school library, that it must make
all the material in the books in this particular library quickly
available and that no card should be made, and no information
put on any card that does not contribute to this purpose.
A well made catalog is of infinite value in school library work.
With a good catalog a small collection of books will give better
service than a large collection without one. It is obvious that
fuller cataloging is needed when the collection is small than
when there are a great many books.
New books are much easier to catalog than old ones, which
often involve many problems. Unless the old book is of known
value to the library, time should not be spent in cataloging it.
Place in the routine
In the organization of an old library, the other parts of the
work, classification, .accessioning, charging system, marking
and shelving should be finished before the work of cataloging
is begun, so that the use of the books may not be delayed.
One class should be done at a time, in the order in which the
material is needed. A check should be made in the book and
on the shelf list card when the book is cataloged. This is
desirable in the event that the work begun may not be com-
pleted by the same person. All records should show, at all
times, the state of the work.
82 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
The same kind of cards are used for cataloging as for the
shelf list. See page 76.
In making typewritten catalog cards it is desirable to have
a bichrome, red and black typewriter ribbon, so that the sub-
ject heading may be put on in red. Some libraries also give
call number in red
Cataloging details and practice
If the catalog is to be useful, the person making it must be
accurate, neat, have a knowledge of the whole field of books,
be acquainted with reference books, have good judgment, and
the technical training necessary to get all of the above. No
book can take the place of instruction and practice under
Reference books for catalogers
Biographical and other reference books must be consulted
to determine correct form and fullness of author's names. The
A. L. A. catalogs and the A. L. A. book list follow library
usage. For names not included there, the following books are
Century Book of names and New International encyclopedia
for all nationalities.
Dictionary of national biography, index and epitome; and
Who's Who, for English, and Who's Who in America, for
The usage of each biographical dictionary in form of entry
must be taken into account and the form chosen made to con-
form to cataloging rules.
The most complete manuals of cataloging rules for the small
library are Hitchler Cataloging for small libraries, A. L. A.
pub. bd., 78 E. Washington st., Chicago, $1.25, and A. L. A.
Catalog rules; author and title entries, 1908, A. L. A. pub. bd.,
60 cts. These should be bought before the work of cataloging
is begun. This discussion does not attempt to include all the
rules for cataloging, but only to lay emphasis on certain
essentials and adaptations for school library uses.
The rules covering all points should be studied, in relation
to the particular library to be cataloged. After a rule is
adopted it should be consistently followed in all similar cases,
and it should be marked as a guide to succeeding librarians.
In simplified cataloging, only the essential items are given.
These must be carefully chosen for accuracy and exactness of
information, and represent the book so clearly that it may
not be mistaken for any other. The judgment to choose the
essentials comes from training and accurate instruction.
Each entry card bears the call number, showing the location
of the book on the shelf and thus connecting the classification
and cataloging records.
Fiction usually has no. call number.
The information is placed on the cards in the same relative
positions as on the shelf list cards, call number at left; au-
thor's name, inverted, at first indention; title begins at second
indention, second line, returning to first indention if more than
one line long. For example see page 77-8.
No words are capitalized excepting the first word, and
Rules are given in the A. L. A. Rules. Avoid double
punctuation. Period is not used after author's forenames in
heading, but is used at the end of the title. Semi-colon is used
between the title and the secondary, or explanatory title.
KINDS OF CARDS
To give the information desired, three kinds of cards are
essential: Author, title, and subject cards.
This is called the main entry card and is the one which repre-
sents the book most fully. It is a transcript of the title page.
The simplest form of author is made for fiction, and gives
author, title or titles, only.
84 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
The main entry card for all classed books, i.e., all books other
than fiction, gives on the face of the card, the call number;
author's name in full; title; imprint, i.e., publisher and date.
When of special importance edition statement; collation; series
note ; and contents are also given.
To insure uniformity, the author's name as given on the title
page must be verified with the catalog if the library has one, or
with the reference books.
The making of the author card involves choice of form of
name in a number of cases:
Anonymous classics: e.g. Mother Goose, Arabian nights
Compound names: e.g. Lloyd-George
Married women's names
Names with prefixes
The rules for these entries are given in Hitchler Cataloging
for small libraries. The usage of "Library books for High
schools" (U.S. Bureau of ed. Bulletin, 1917, no. 41.) should be
Conforming to the rules for the particular kind of name the
usual practice is to enter a book under the real author's name in
the best known form, placing the surname at the first indention,
followed by a comma and the forenames commonly used. Un-
usual practice is to enter a book under the real author's name in
Hugo, Victor, not Hugo, Victor Marie.
If two authors have worked equally upon a book, the names
of both are given : name of the first author in full, followed by
&, and the name of second author in secondary fullness, i.e.,
surname and initials. With three authors, the name of the first
"& others" is given.
EDITOR AS AUTHOR
When one person has gathered and edited the work of several
writers, the name of the editor is used as author. The abbrevia-
tion "ed." is placed one-half inch after the name.
BODY AS AUTHOR
State and national publications and those of societies are en-
tered under the official name of the body which issues them :
e.g., the book on Diseases of the horse, issued by the Bureau of
animal industry at Washington, would be cataloged thus :
(Author) U.S. Animal industry bureau
(Title) Diseases of the horse
When choice is made of form for author's name, a reference
card is placed in the catalog directly from the unused name to
the form chosen for entry, e.g.:
Twain, Mark, pseud. See
Clemens, Samuel Langhorne
TITLE ON THE MAIN CARD
The title is given as it appears on the title page, omitting the
initial article unless such omission destroys the sense. In the
case of well known titles, portions preliminary to the real title
may be omitted, such as (Personal history of) David Copper-
field. All the title used is to be written in one sentence, separat-
ing secondary or explanatory portions by a semicolon. The title
is to be followed by a period. If the book is notably illustrated
this information is given as a portion of the title, separated by
a semicolon, e.g., Alice in Wonderland; illus. by Arthur Rack-
ham. Similarly, the statement regarding editor or translator, if
important, is given, using the abbreviations : ed. & tr.
Many books bear on the title page a statement regarding
edition. If the copyright dates show that the book has been re-
copyrighted it is evident that new material has been added and
that the book is a new edition, and note of this should be made.
Edition statement follows the title and is placed one-half inch
after it, on the card, e.g.: 3d ed. rev. & enl. Series statements
given as edition are disregarded, e.g.: Camelot edition.
86 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
On all classed books, imprint, which is a statement of pub-
lisher and date of publication, is given on the main card, one-
half inch after title or after edition statement. Publisher's name
is given in same abbreviated form as used in accessioning, that
is, first name in a firm. If both English and American firms are
given, the American is used. Place of publication is not given
for well known publishers. Publisher and date are separated by
a comma, unless a period used for abbreviation takes its place.
Statement is finished with a period, e.g., Houghton, 1912.
Give last copyright date. If no copyright date, give title page
Collation includes pages, volumes, illustrations. In school
library cataloging, paging is not usually given. Volumes (when
more than one) are noted for all books whether fiction or
classed. Place volume statement one-half inch after imprint,
e.g., 2v. If illustrations are valuable but are not by an artist of
sufficient importance to be mentioned in the title, they are noted
as part of the collation (e.g., 2v. illus.), using the term to cover
several kinds of illustrations. If the book has only one kind of
illustration, that kind is mentioned, e.g.: maps.
If a book is one of an important series, one that adds value
or authority to the work, a series note is added on the main
card of a classed book. This information follows the last
group of information on the card and is separated from it by
one-half inch space. The statement is enclosed in ( ) and
briefly given, omitting the word series unless necessary to the
sense, e.g.: (American men of letters).
Important information about the book, not covered by the
title, is given in a note. The usual cases are sequels, or
CATALOGING 8 ?
changed titles. Space of one line is left between main body of
title and the note, beginning note at the second indention.
The last group of information given on the face of the
main card is the contents note. "Contents" is given for short
stories, plays, collective biography, works in sets where the
general title does not show the scope of the separate volume.
The word Contents is placed on the second line below the main
body of the title, at the second indention, with a colon. Chap-
ter headings follow immediately. Each title begins with a cap-
ital and each item is separated from the next by a period and
dash. If each chapter is by a different author, the name of the
author is included.
Giving Contents for sets in volumes, the word Contents is
placed as usual on the second line below the title at the second
indention, and on the next line between the first and second
indentions, the volume number is given, the title beginning at
the second indention, followed by the author's name. If one
volume of the set is missing, space for the contents of that
volume is left. No writing should be done on the card lower
than the line above the hole, continuing contents on second
card. The cards are numbered and the first card bears at the
bottom, the statement: See next card. On the succeeding cards,
call no., author's name and Contents cont'd are given.
These are marks placed on the back of the author or main
entry card to show what additional cards have been made for
that particular book. In case of a book being withdrawn from
the library, all cards would need to be removed from the
catalog, hence the convenience of having them indicated on the
author card. Since tracings are for the cataloger's use only,
and would be confusing to the public, they are placed on the
back. They are so placed that they may be seen without re-
moving the card from the drawer, "t" indicates that title card
has been made; subject words are written out.
88 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
All cards made in addition to the author or main entry card
are called secondary entries. The information on these is
given in briefer form. The author's name is placed on the
second line, and is given in secondary fullness, i.e., initials are
used instead of full name, if the author has more than one.
Title card or title entry
This answers the question: Is a certain book in the library?
Since the majority of persons think of books by title, it is
necessary to make title cards for all the books which might
be asked for by title. If the title of the book is the same as
the subject heading the title card is omitted. If the secondary
title is distinctive and the book might be known by it, title
card for this would be made also. On this card, call number
is given, as usual, brief title placed on the top line, second in-
dention, omitting the articles for titles in English unless neces-
sary to the sense, in which case it is enclosed in ( ). For
foreign titles, article should be given, e.g., (L)'avare. The
author's name is given on the second line, surname beginning
at the first or author indention, comma, forename in full if but
one, initials if more than one forename. Date is not necessary
on title card. If more than one volume, the statement follows
Subject card or subject entry
This card answers the question: Has the library any ma-
terial on a certain subject? A subject card is made for every
book about any subject, and as many subject cards may be
made for any book as are necessary to list it under all the
different subjects of which it treats. Occasionally subject
cards are made for literary forms or kinds of books such as
atlases and encyclopedias.
Subject cataloging is the most useful of all cataloging be-
cause it makes all the material in the library available. It is
also the most difficult as it requires a wide knowledge of books
and subjects, and their relationship; good judgment, discrimina-
tion in the use of terms, and technical knowledge of cataloging
practices and cataloging tools.
CHOOSING A SUBJECT HEADING
Choice of a subject heading for a book in any library will
be determined (i) by the content or subject-matter of the book,
and (2) by the needs of the particular library.
When working with new books, the subject heading would
be chosen at the time the classification number is decided upon.
The library must own a subject heading book and when a
heading is chosen from it, the word is checked as a guide for
Standard guides for subject headings are:
A.L.A. Guide to subject headings. A.L.A. pub. $2.50
Mann. A.L.A. headings for juvenile catalogs. A.L.A,
A. L. A. Book list. Subject index. A. L. A. pub. 25c
For new subjects the Reader's guide to periodical literature
Discussion of subject cataloging, including choice of head-
ings, forms of headings and country sub-divisions, is found in
Hitchler Cataloging for small libraries. This should be care-
Personal names, geographical names, names of months, days,
processes in arithmetic, and parts of speech are not included in
the A. L. A. Subject headings.
CHOICE OF SUBJECT HEADINGS
Careful choice of subjects is necessary, to bring out all the
material in the books.
The title page, table of contents and introduction are exam-
ined and the book scanned to find out what it is about. The
classification number gives some indication of the content, but
classification confines the book to one particular place or sub-
ject, and as many subject headings may be chosen as there are
different subjects treated in the book.
To answer the question: What is the book about? the most
specific term is chosen ; for example, having a book about Flow-
ers only, this word would be used as a subject heading rather
than the term Botany.
If a book treats of two subjects which are similar, but not
expressed by the same or synonymous terms, subject cards are
90 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
made for both. All words used as subject headings are verified
with the subject heading book that the work may be kept uni-
form. Exactness in the use of terms must be cultivated. For
example, the heading Books and reading would not be used for
Ward Practical use of books and libraries, which is about
Personal names used as subject headings, as in the case of
biography and criticism, must be verified as if they were author's
names, in the biographical reference books.
Official names of societies and organizations are determined
from such usual reference books as the World almanac and the
Geographical names must also be verified for form and
spelling. This verification is done once for all the first time the
term is used and note made in the subject heading book.
The A. L. A. Book list indicates subject headings under each
title listed. The needs of the particular library will determine
whether more subject cards should be made. The librarian
should be thoroughly familiar with the course of study in the
school and in cataloging the library, list all material that would
FORM OF SUBJECT CARD
Call number is given as usual, the subject heading sometimes
in red, or in black, on top line at second indention. Author's
name on second line at first indention, in secondary fullness.
Title, imprint and other information is given in the same fullness
as on the author or main card.
SUBJECT REFERENCE CARDS
When choice of term is made, a reference card is also made
for the catalog directing from the term not used to the subject
word under which all material is listed. These are of two
(i) See reference
These direct from other possible forms of a subject to
the one used in the catalog.
To illustrate : The A. L. A. Subject headings gives the
term Farm implements and machinery. To enable one who
might look under the heading Agricultural machinery to find
the material the library contained on that subject, a reference
card is made:
Agricultural machinery. See
Farm implements and machinery.
See references are made for synonymous and also for op-
(2) See also references
These direct to related subjects. A library may have a
book covering the whole field of botany, including something
on flowers. The subject heading for this book is, of course,
Botany. It might also have a book dealing wholly with flow-
ers, and for this the heading would be Flowers. To connect
the two, or any subject and its sub-division also represented
in the catalog a See also reference is made, e.g. :
Botany. See also
If red headings have been used on the subject cards, the
same color is used for subject references.
Cards are made for parts of books when the part is not in-
dicated by the author, title or subject card for the whole book.
These may be made for author, title or subject. The form for
analytic entries is the same as for other author, title or subject
cards,- with the additional statement giving the location and pag-
ing for the part analyzed. See sample card, page 93-5.
Series cards are sometimes made to list all the titles the
library has of an important series. See examples in Hitchler
Cataloging for small libraries, page 190.
Editor or translator cards are not usually called for in school
libraries. Illustrator cards are useful to show what work by an
artist is in the library.
FILING THE CARDS
The catalog cards are filed in a card cabinet, having drawers
fitted with round rods, on which the cards may slip easily. If
filed in drawers without rods, cards are easily lost and the
92 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
catalog becomes incomplete and useless. See description of
cases on p. 12.
Room for growth of the catalog is allowed and markers in-
serted in the label holders on the drawers.
The shelf list and the catalog are always filed separately.
Sample card to show placing of information
No. Title Edition statement Imprint
Collation Series note
A u thor card Fictio n
Blackmore, Richard Doddridge
Lorna Doone; a romance of Exmoor.
Author card Classed books
973.2 Thwaites, Reuben Gold
T42 The colonies, 1492-1750. Rev. ed.
Longmans, c. 1910. Maps. (Epochs of
Author card Contents
814 Crothers, Samuel McChord
C88 Among friends. Houghton, c. 1910.
Contents: Among friends. Anglo-American
school of polite unlearning. Hundred worst
books In praise of politicians. My missionary
life in Persia. The colonel in the theological
Author card More than 2 authors
580 Clements, Frederic Edward & others
C59 Minnesota trees and shrubs; an illustrated
manual of the native and cultivated woody
plants of the state, by F. E. Clements, C. O.
Rosendahl, and F. K. Butters. Univ. of
(Minnesota Geological & natural history sur-
vey. Reports: Botanical series, no. 9)
Blackmore, R. D.
973.2 U.S. History Colonial period, 1607-1775
T42 Thwaites, R. G.
The colonies, 1492-1750. Rev. ed.
Longmans, c. 1910. Maps. (Epochs of
Subject card "Biography
921 Clemens, Samuel Langhorne
C Howells, W. D.
My Mark Twain. Harper, 1910.
94 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Subject card Analytic
814 Books and reading
C Crothers, S. M.
Among friends. CIQIO.
Note Sample cards are not full size.
L. B. Library hand card
abcde fghtjkl m nop
Take great pains to have all
writing uniform in size, slant,
spacing & forms of letters.
Rules -for Arrangement of Cards in a Dictionary
Catalog, by Bertha R. Barden
A. General principles:
I. Arrange all cards or entries, whether author, title, sub-
ject or reference, alphabetically according to the
2. Alphabet letter by letter to the end of the word,
and then word by word, beginning with first word
on top line. Every word to be regarded except the
initial article e.g. Art of living At anchor
3. Arrange "nothing before something."
e. g. A. B. C. of electricity
Brown, T. L.
4. Consider punctuation, i.e., arrange first by that part
of the heading which is before a mark of punctua-
tion, then arrange when necessary by the part after
e. g. Green, Thomas Art Medieval
Green mountain boys Art in literature
B. Special rules:
1. Arrange separately names that differ slightly in
e. g. Brown, W. G.
Browne, W. H.
2. (a) Arrange German words spelled with the vowels,
a, 6, u, as if they were spelled a, o, u.
(b) Arrange German names written with ae, oe, ue,
according to the spelling,
e. g. Mueller, F. B.
Muller, A. J.
3. Arrange all abbreviations as if spelled in full : Me., St.,
Dr., Mr., Mile., as Mac, Saint, " Doctor, Mister,
EXCEPTION: Names beginning with D' L' O' are ar-
ranged as spelled. Initials standing for organiza-
tions are treated as initials not as abbreviations
e.g. The A. E. F., A. L. A. catalog.
4. Numerals in titles of books should be treated as if
written out in the language of the rest of the title,
e.g. ipth century
96 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
5. Disregard the apostrophe in the possessive case and in
elisions which are to be treated as one word,
e.g. Boy's & girl's book Who wrote the Bible?
Boy's King Arthur Who's who
Boys of '76
6. Arrange names compounded with prefixes as single
e. g. McAulay, A. Lacombe
Macaulay, T. B. La Farge
Mach, Ernst Lafayette
McKenzie, Alexander La Fontaine
MacKenzie, J. S.
7. Arrange personal names compounded of two names,
with or without a hyphen, as separate words,
e.g. Lane, William
8. Arrange proper names beginning with Saint, Sainte, as
Saint-Amand, Imber de Saint-Pierre, Jacques de
Saint-Beuve, C. A.
St. John, T. M.
9. Arrange compound names of places as separate words.
e. g. New, John New York
New Hampshire Newark
New legion of Satan Newfoundland
New Sydenham society Newspapers
10. Arrange as single, compound words which are printed
e. g. Bookselling
ir. Arrange hyphened words as if separate,
e. g. Book illustration
12. Arrange by forenames headings in which the surname
is the same.
(a) In a heading (not in a title) disregard the
prefixes: Mrs., Sir, Gen., Capt., etc.
e.g. Smith, Sir Charles
Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth
(b) When surname and forenames are the same,
arrange by whatever designation is used to
distinguish the two persons. Arrange chron-
ologically by date if there is no other distinc-
e. g. Smith, John
Smith, Capt. John
13. When the same word is used for several kinds of
headings, arrange alphabetically by the secondary or
explanatory part of the headings, but keep in sep-
arate groups, names of persons and subdivisions of
e. g. Washington, Booker Art, G. tr.
Washington, George Art (subject)
Washington, George (subject) Art Criticism
Washington, Conn. Art Study and teaching
Washington, D.C. Art education
Washington, Mount Art in flowers
~ Washington, Treaty of
Washington art association
14. Forenames used as headings precede the same names
e. g. James, St. the Apostle
James Pendergast free library
15. Arrange forenames which are the same, alphabetically
by the designation following. Disregard numerals
in the alphabetical arrangement, but arrange a name
followed by a numeral after one without.
98 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
e. g. John, Saint John Bull
John II, King of France John Halifax, gentleman
John IV, King of Portugal John of Austria
John, Eugenie John of Gaunt
16. Arrange all subdivisions of a subject alphabetically.
e. g. Art Ancient
Art Study & teaching
Exception: Under the subdivision History:
(a) Arrange period divisions chronologically.
(b) Arrange other divisions alphabetically
before the chronological divisions,
e. g. United States History Bibliography
United States History Sources
United States History Revolution
United States History Civil war
17. Under the names of places use a strict alphabetical
arrangement for all subheads, whether names of
official departments, subject divisions, or names of
organizations entered under place,
e. g, Washington (state). Constitution
Washington (state). History
\ Washington (state). State treasurer
Washington (state). University
Washington state historical society
18. Arrange see also reference after the subject entries.
19. Under an author's name adopt the following order:
(a) Works of author, whether single or collected,
arrange alphabetically by first word in title.
Include works as joint author and works as
editor or compiler.
(b) A criticism of a particular work is filed behind
the title criticised.
(c) A translation is arranged alphabetically by its
own title, not behind the original.
20. Arrange Bible headings as follows:
(a) Bible (texts)
Bible (as subject)
(b) Bible. N. T. (texts)
Bible. N. T. (as subject)
Bible. N. T. (single books or groups arranged
(c) Bible. O. T. (same arrangement as urider
Guide cards: General rule: One to every twenty-five cards.
Usually halves are used. Put whole word on guide card.
Where headings are complicated as U. S. & Bible, put in cards
Much material is obtainable in bulletin, circular and pamphlet
form which may be of help in the school library, by providing
timely information on many subjects, at small cost. From the
mass of such, only that of direct value to the library should
be collected and saved.
SOURCES OF MATERIAL
Government publications, particularly the reports and bulle-
tins of the U.S. Bureau of education and the U.S. Depart-
ment of agriculture should be regularly received. Bulletins of
other government departments and bureaus may be asked for
as needed. The A. L. A. Book-list includes quarterly an an-
notated list of Government documents of especial value.
Each department publishing bulletins furnishes them free as
long as the supply lasts. When the department supply is ex-
hausted and the pamphlet must be secured from the govern-
ment printing office, a nominal sum must be paid.
State documents, University bulletins, State society publica-
tions are obtainable free. College catalogs are sent upon request.
N. E. A. publications and bulletins, pamphlets of the Voca-
tional bureau of Boston, bulletins of the Drama league of
America, and those of other organizations are obtainable by
joining the organization.
ioo SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Information regarding other organizations and societies and
their bulletins may usually be obtained by writing the presi-
dent. Addresses of societies are given in the World almanac.
Miscellaneous material includes advertising pamphlets on
specific products, industries or occupations, pamphlet biogra-
phies issued by publishing companies, descriptive accounts of
localities by government bureaus or railroads, pamphlets ex-
plaining the work and organization of various societies. Lists
of such material are issued from time to time in school jour-
nals and library periodicals, and in bibliographies of books.
Such lists are soon out of date as the material goes out of print
in a short time.
Unorganized pamphlet material is worse than useless because
it becomes clutter in the library. Each piece must be classified
as soon as it is received, and filed at once. Whatever method
of filing is followed, it must be consistent, orderly and under-
The vertical file is preferred because it provides the most
substantial and permanent storage place for pamphlets. It
keeps them clean and in good condition, and makes them easily
accessible. The file should be of standard make and size
and with good rolling equipment. For pamphlets and for pic-
tures, especially when mounted, the legal size is better. For de-
scription of cases see p. 12.
Bulletin boxes are inexpensive and provide good temporary
filing places for pamphlets and volumes of magazines. Pam-
phlet binders are obtainable and make a good temporary case
for single pamphlets, or a group which are to be classified,
marked and shelved like books.
Manual arts classes will often bind pamphlets for the li-
METHODS OF FILING
Bulletins of which the library keeps a complete file are ar-
ranged by serial number, e.g. Bureau of education bulletins.
Miscellaneous bulletins are arranged by subject or by classi-
fication numbers. Using the first method, in the vertical
file, each pamphlet is marked with the subject word. A folder
or guide is used for each subject and all are arranged in
When the pamphlets are filed in boxes, they arc marked, on
the outside with the subject and alphabetically arranged on the
shelves, and kept as a separate collection.
An index to the pamphlets in the box may be pasted on the
outside of the box.
Subject headings like those for cataloging may be chosen
from the A. L. A. list of subject headings (see page 89), but the
headings in the Readers' guide to periodical literature are more
To keep all the material the library has on a subject, whether
books or pamphlets, together on the shelves, the classed and
numbered arrangement is necessary. Each pamphlet is marked
with the class number, boxes are labeled with number and sub-
ject, and the boxes are placed on the shelves with the books bear*
ing the same number.
When the library contains a very large number of pamphlets
on subjects like agriculture, or education, a more detailed clas-
sification is necessary than for the books. Detailed classification
schemes for agriculture and education are given on pages 51-5
When new pamphlets are received which supersede in inter-
est and information those in the file, the old ones should be re-
moved and destroyed.
RECORDS OF PAMPHLETS
Pamphlets are never entered in the accession book until after
they are permanently bound. A subject card for each pamphlet
may be made for the catalog in the usual form. The designa-
tion "pamph." is added to show that the material is in pamphlet
box or file rather than in a book on the shelves, or sometimes
a subject reference card is made for the catalog, giving the
subject heading at the top in the usual way and placing helow
102 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
th< statement "For pamphlet material on this subject see
Vertical file," or if kept in pamphlet boxes on the shelves.
"See Pamphlet box, class "
USE OF PAMPHLETS
No pamphlets should be taken from the room without being
charged by the librarian. A temporary slip may be made giving
the class number of the box and the number of pamphlets taken,
the date and name of the borrower. See charging system,
When pamphlets are assigned to a class for special work, they
should be put in a temporary binder, like those used in magazine
Newspaper and periodical clippings are also cared for in
the vertical file. They are pasted on cheap mounting paper
cut to file size, several articles on the same subject, or succes-
sive developments, being placed on the same sheet.
The object of mounting is to keep them from going to pieces
in handling, but little time or expense should be incurred. They
are marked with the source and date, the subject heading and
filed alphabetically between guides.
Another method is to place clippings in envelopes which are
marked with the subject word.
A collection of pictures is of very great use in the school,
and may be accumulated without great expense. Pictures from
the Mentor magazine, clippings from illustrated magazines and
worn-out books, and inexpensive prints will help 1 start the collec-
tion. The pamphlet by Dana & Gardner, Aids in High school
teaching: pictures and objects (H. W. Wilson co., 958-64 Uni-
versity ave., New York) discusses the subject fully and gives
addresses of sources. This is still valuable, though not all of
the pictures are now available.
Choice of pictures to buy or save will be governed by the
needs of the particular school. In the lower grades, the demand
is for pictures in connection with the language lesson and the
reading; for the Junior high school, the project booklets call
for infinite variety; industries, travel pictures, animal pictures;
and in the High school, portraits of authors, pictures for
design, and color for the art department, as well as all those
needed to illustrate and make vital, the teaching of civics,
history and English are wanted.
As pictures are collected, they should be trimmed, classified
by marking with subject word or by the regular classification
system of the library, and put in envelopes marked with the sub-
ject, or class number. The alphabetic arrangement by subject
word is most commonly followed.
Before they are allowed to circulate, the pictures must be
mounted. For very light pictures or prints, construction paper
may be used. This comes in sheets, 24x36, and will make eight
mounts 9x12. It may be obtained in all colors, the price varying
according to color. Heavier mounts are made from cover paper,
mounting and press board, which come in large sheets of varying
Uniform sizes of mounts are desirable because of the filing,
the two sizes being commonly used to take care of all ordinary
size pictures. They must be of a size that will file readily in the
vertical file. Gray, tan or brown are the most desirable colors.
The picture must be accurately placed on the mount and
carefully pasted to the mount with thin photo paste, then placed
under a press until thoroughly dry.
Subject word or classification number should be added to
facilitate filing. This may be placed on the front of the picture
in the upper right corner.
For charging pictures see directions on page 72.
City System of School Libraries
Adequate library service to the schools involves class room
libraries, in the smallest schools. When a school has ten teachers
or more there should be a library room in the building with a
good collection for a grade school and a trained librarian. Such
a library may serve also the adult residents in the neighborhood
if local conditions warrant.
The junior high school needs its own library.
Each Junior and Senior high school should have the best
sort of library equipment, books and service.
Continuation schools should be served with deposit collec-
tions carefully selected, and the night school program should
include the library for the circulation of books to these stu-
dents, with a specially chosen librarian.
The city Teacher's College, with practice school must be pro-
vided with libraries of model type, and trained librarians who
can carry full courses in the use of libraries and children's read-
ing for the prospective teachers.
The supervisor of city school libraries serves as the connect-
ing link betwen the various school libraries; advises on all tech-
nical matters, the purchase of furniture and equipment, book se-
lection and purchase, instruction courses, and all questions of ad-
ministration. Conferences are held that the groups interested
in the same phase may meet and discuss problems.
The office of the Supervisor should have a book stock from
which loans of books for special purposes may be made to the
The supervisor advises with other supervisors of the school
system with the city department of education and the Public
io6 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
library. The person holding this position should be chosen for
qualities of training, experience, administrative ability and
leadership that are considered in the selection of directors for
the other departments in the school system and should have the
same recognition by the school board and the public library.
(Abridged from Certain Report on Library Organization and
"Annual appropriation. The library should receive an annual
appropriation of sufficient amount in addition to salaries to pro-
vide means for the necessary correlation with other departments.
This appropriation should be increased annually in direct ratio
to the increasing library needs of each department and should
include specific amounts for the maintenance and supervision of
The maintenance of the library should not depend on in-
cidental sources of money, such as school entertainments and
"socials." Students may be encouraged to raise funds for the
library in appropriate ways, but these funds should be used only
for such accessories as make the library more attractive . . .
such as special equipment, finely illustrated editions; but the
high school should not be forced to depend upon such means
for necessary library service.
The initial expense of the library includes (i) the salaries of
the librarian and assistants, which should be on the same
schedule as those of other teachers; (2) the cost of books and
Funds for maintenance should provide for increase of sal-
aries, additional books, periodicals, binding and other repairs,
replacements, catalog cards, supplies, new equipment, etc.
Each department should file with the librarian definite state-
ments of needs as these needs are felt throughout the year, and
the librarian should make disbursements according to these
It should be borne in mind that the library is primarily for
Definite service is as necessary in the library as in any part
of the school. Without it, the library can never be effective.
THE LIBRARIAN 107
The library represents an expenditure of money. This money 'is
wasted unless the books bought are suited to the needs of the
scnool and the ages of the pupils, are so arranged that they are
quickly available, so recorded that they are not lost or misplaced,
and tne use directed so that they become a definite part of school
The library is a special department and must have specialized
service. No part of a teacher's training includes a study of
books from the library standpoint, or instruction in the care and
management of libraries. The school must therefore provide a
librarian as it provides a specially trained person for any other
(Summary from Certain. Report on Library organization
A. Qualifications. The librarian in the high school should
combine the good qualities of both the librarian and the teacher,
and must be able to think clearly and sympathetically in terms of
the needs and interests of high school students.
A wide knowledge of books, ability to organize material for
efficient service, and successful experience in reference work
should be demanded of every librarian. Most of all should the
personality of the librarian be emphasized. Enthusiasm, power
to teach and inspire, are as essential in the high school librarian
as in the teacher. . .
B. Professional requirements. The standard requirements
for future appointments of librarians in high schools should be
a college or university degree . . . together with at least one
year of post-graduate training in an approved library school and
one year's successful library experience ... in a library of
standing. . .
C. Salaries. The salary of a high school librarian should be
adequate to obtain a person with the qualifications set forth in
this report. It snould not be lower than that of the English
teacher, but it may be necessary to pay a higher salary when
there is an over supply of English teachers and an under supply
D. Administrative re quire me tits. . . Status. In high
schools having heads of departments, the librarian should be
io8 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
head of the library department, with status equal to that of heads
of other departments (The school librarian should be included
in Teachers' pension acts).
(1) CLERICAL WORK. Clerical work of the nature of office
work should not be demanded of the librarian. Under no cir-
cumstances should the librarian be expected to do clerical work
properly required in the principal's office such as keeping records
of attendance and keeping official records. . .
Free textbooks should not be stored in the library and should
not be handled by the library staff.
(2) ADMINISTRATIVE WORK may be summarized as follows:
Directing the policy of the library, selecting books, purchas-
ing books, planning the room and its equipment, keeping records
of expenses and planning the annual library budget, planning and
directing the work of trained and student assistants, building up
a working collection of pamphlets, clippings, and of illustrative
The librarian should be present at all teachers' meetings held
with reference to courses and policy governing instruction and
should have the ability to work for and with teachers so well
that mistakes in adaptation of book collections to needs may not
(The librarian should by all means be present at teachers'
meetings when regulations regarding the use of the library are
(3) TECHNICAL WORK may be summarized as follows: The
classifying, cataloging, indexing and filing of all printed matter
so that it may be readily available for use; establishing a prac-
tical charging system to keep track of books and other materials
borrowed from the library; attending to the proper binding and
rebinding of books ; keeping necessary records and statistics of
additions to library, use of library, etc.
(4) EDUCATIONAL WORK may be summarized as follows:
Reference. Helping teachers and students to find suitable
material on special topics, notifying teachers of new books and
articles on professional subjects, looking up answers to questions
which have come up in classroom or laboratory, preparing sug-
gestive reference reading for the course of study.
Instruction. Systematic instruction of students in the use of
reference books and library tools such as card catalogs, indexes,
THE LIBRARIAN 109
etc. . . In this instruction, the relationship of the high-school
library and the public library, and the relation of a library to
life outside of school should be emphasized.
Educational and vocational guidance. Cultural and inspira-
tional work in widening the interests of the students and in
cultivating a taste for good reading. This is done through
posting interesting material on bulletin boards, compiling lists
of interesting reading in books and magazines, through reading
clubs and personal guidance of the reading of individual stu-
dents. The librarian should also co-operate with vocational
counsellors in aiding the students in the choice of vocations and
should have on hand in the library, pamphlets, etc. on the occu-
Junior high school librarian
The librarian for this school should have educational and
professional training, as thorough as that of the high school
librarian and should have had good experience in the use of
the simpler reference books and a knowledge of children's books.
She should be interested in children and in helping them and
have an understanding and sympathy with Junior high methods.
To conform with school requirements in staff grading and
certification, the High School librarian is sometimes designated
as Librarian teacher. She is primarily a librarian, but is
secondarily a teacher because of giving instruction in the use
of books and libraries as a part of the required work of the
SERVICE IN SMALLER SCHOOLS
Schools unable to provide a librarian may give some measure
of service by the employment of a Teacher-librarian, i.e., a high
school teacher, with at least six weeks' training in elementary
library methods, one who gives part time to the library in addi-
tion to teaching.
This term was originally used in an effort to define a
librarian as a person of educational qualifications and pro-
fessional training. One who is primarily a teacher but with
some library training and who looks after the library in
i io SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
addition to her regular business of teaching is characterized by
TRAINING OF TEACHER-LIBRARIANS
The training for this work must be special and standardized.
Desk work in a large library, or incidental work in a public li-
brary does not fit one for the work. In such libraries, the work
done by the untrained assistant gives her no training in classifica-
tion and the records needed in even the smallest school library.
The records used in public libraries are usually more elaborate
and detailed than necessary in school libraries, where the system
used must be very simple, but still accurate and adapted to the
needs of the school.
Standardization of Work
Necessity for standardization of the library work in a state is
another reason for special training for teacher-librarians. The
training received in six weeks must of necessity be very rudi-
mentary. To be useful it must be based on actual conditions and
needs, and the teacher-librarian must be given specific directions
to meet those conditions.
In the school the portion of her time which may be given to
the library is restricted, and all work done must be made to
count toward getting the library on a working basis for the
future as well as the present. The teachers change very fre-
quently, and if the library service is to be consecutive and con-
tinuous, it must be done by a system that is understandable to
another having had similar training, and can be continued not
TIME ELEMENT OF SERVICE
The teacher-librarian must be given time in which to do the
library work, as well as her teaching. The amount of teaching
which she may do must be restricted and she must not be re-
quired to do outside work such as supervision of the assembly
room, or coaching.
In putting a library in order, speed is desirable, and for this
reason a routine of work is suggested in the division of organ-
ization that is the most economical of time. The work of each
process must be done accurately and neatly, so that it will not
need to be done over.
The teacher-librarian taking up the work for the first time in
connection with teaching in a school where the library has not
been organized, cannot be expected to do more the first year than
the processes preliminary to cataloging (see Routine, p. 21-74).
The teacher-librarian is a make-shift at best. Schools will
never secure the full measure of service until they employ a
trained librarian with the requisite knowledge, training and un-
divided time to give to the library.
Part time service of a trained librarian may sometimes be
secured through combining or contracting with the public library.
Use of Student Help
Students may not be entrusted with accessioning, cataloging
or any parts of the work which require mature judgment and
training. They are used to advantage in some schools in some
of the mechanical processes, such as opening new books, stamp-
ing, folding and pasting book pockets. Their work is carefully
supervised and they are required to be very neat and accurate.
Students capable of doing especially careful work may be taught
to mend books, and boys who have had mechanical drawing may
be trained to mark books acceptably.
Students in the commercial department may be taught to
make accurately spaced, typewritten shelf lists or catalog cards,
from copy furnished by the librarian.
Monitors for putting up books are of help after they have
been taught the classification and arrangement of the books and
the arrangement of magazines in the magazine rack. Charging
books may also be done by the students, to leave the librarian
free for personal work with the students.
Bulletin boards may be partly or wholly in charge of the stu-
dents, who will assemble, clip and post items of interest, and
change them frequently.
The library is not a study hall, but a place where books may
be used with profit and enjoyment. As a matter of courteous
consideration of the rights of all, order must be maintained.
The librarian is needed to give assistance to the students and
should be as free as possible from police duty.
iT2 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Self-government rules, made by the students and enforced by
them, are effective in some libraries. The following are sugges-
SELF GOVERNMENT RULES FOR SMALL SCHOOL LIBRARIES
Adapted from the Rules of the Girls' High School, Brooklyn
A library committee shall be elected by the students of the
This committee shall consist of five members, two from the
senior class, and one each from the junior, sophomore and fresh-
man classes, each class electing its own member.
It shall be the duty of the committee to give such service as
may be requested by the teacher in charge of the library, and to
see that the library rules are obeyed.
Rules of the library shall be drawn which shall give the
greatest use of the library for the whole student body, and shall
be ratified by it.
Resolved by the students of school that the
following library rules shall be in force on and after
1. The library is open to all students of the school for the
drawing of books from to
2. Use of the library during study periods
Students wishing to spend a study period in the library shall
report to the teacher and receive permission to do so. On en-
tering the library at the beginning of a study period, or later, a
student must register his name on the library bulletin board,
giving name and room to which he belongs, or bring a pass slip
from the teacher.
Students must register for each period in the library. They
may not leave before the end of the period.
The library must not be used during study periods for text-
book work excepting when the pupil wants to use library books
during the greater part of the period. When most of the period
is to be spent in text-book work, the pupil should remain in the
study room until that is completed and then come to the library.
(The latter arrangement is possible only when the library adjoins
the study hall.)
3. Order in the library
The Librarian will make someone responsible for the order
in the library during each period. At the close of the period,
the person in charge will see that the tables arc cleared of
books and papers.
Each student using books or encyclopedias, or other large
reference books, shall return them to the shelves. Other books
will be returned unless a student is doubtful where they belong.
When in doubt, leave the books on the table.
No conversation shall be allowed in the library, and no con-
duct not permissible in the classroom.
4. Books for use outside the library
No books, or other library property, may be taken from the
room until properly charged.
A book is not properly charged until the book card in the
book pocket has been removed, borrower's name (and room)
recorded on it, and a dating slip stamped to show when it must
be returned. The book card must be put in the box kept for this
Books in great demand may be loaned for one study period
only, or from the close of school until 9 A. M. the next day.
All other books are loaned for two weeks or for the time set
by the teacher in charge of the library. All books must be re-
turned on the date stamped on the date slip.
5. Care of books
Books must be used with care.
They may not be left face down on the table or used to carry
notes or memoranda, or otherwise misused.
They must be kept dry and clean.
No markings may be made in the books and no corners of
pages turned down.
Books lost or injured must be paid for.
For violation of any of these rules, fines may be imposed or
library privileges withdrawn.
Other rules relating to borrowing of books are given on
pages 68-73 under Charging system.
ii4 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Many of the larger schools use more elaborate systems of
library checking than that described above. Library permits are
cumbersome, are time-consuming and not infrequently hamper
the use of the library by the student.
In introducing a checking system, study must be made of the
needs it is to serve, that its purpose may be achieved with as
little strain as possible upon teacher, librarian and student.
From the school side, an attendance check is desired, so that
the study hall teacher can account for students not in the study
room at a specified time.
The purpose of the library must be kept in mind. It is in the
school to provide aid in reference work assigned by the teachers.
This help cannot be furnished if the librarian's time is consumed
with statistics of attendance.
The student has ordinarily but one library period a day, and
the number of subjects called for each period is often one-third
as many as there are students in the library. The checking sys-
tem must be reduced to the simplest form that the real work
may not suffer.
A simple but useful system is as follows:
A slip for each hour is posted in the home room. Students
going to the library write their names on this slip and on enter-
ing the library, on a similar one posted there.
At the end of the day, the slips from the library are re-
turned to the home room teacher for comparison with the slip
The chief objection to this system is that much of the
student's time is used in waiting his turn to sign the slip. In
the general economy, however, there is less loss than in employ-
ing a method which takes time each period from the teacher or
Where it is felt that a pass slip is especially desired, the fol-
lowing may be used :
The pass or library permit is issued by the class teacher. It
bears the name of the student, his home or study room, the
period (this information being filled in by the student himself),
the reference assignment and the class teacher's signature. It is
usually countersigned by the study room teacher for the hour in
USE OF THE LIBRARY 115
which it is used, but this is not considered essential. The per-
mit is taken to the library by the student, and the librarian
checks up the number of permits with the number of students in
the room. At the end of the day all permits are sorted, and re-
turned to the respective study rooms, to be compared with the
list of students due there during the different periods.
Supervised Study and the Library
Use of books is essential in supervised study but removing
large numbers from the library for use in any one study room
for any considerable period works too great a hardship on the
rest of the school.
In some schools, books which are to be especially introduced
during a class period are taken to the class room on the library
truck and shown. At the end of the period, they are returned
to the library and the students come there to use or draw them.
In a school having hour periods, supervised study is carried
on by having half hour recitation periods in the class room, fol-
lowed by a class visit to the library, accompanied by the teacher,
for a half hour's intensive reference work on the special subject.
Following another method, a committee of students come
to the library during a vacant period to look up material, and
ask to have it held on reserve during a specified period. They
then come for the books and return them at the end of the
period or they come for fifteen minutes research during the
period returning to the class to report on their findings.
A class comes to the library for a whole period, accompanied
by the Teacher, to examine all the material on a certain sub-
ject. The librarian is notified in advance so that she has all the
material collected, books, pictures, pamphlets, etc. and placed
on tables put together.
Use of the Library
Use is the summing up and the test of the library's value to
the school and the student. It is the end toward which all the
work of selection, organization and administration is directed.
n6 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
AIDS IN INCREASING THE USE I
Library well classified and arranged.
Shelves well marked.
Shelf list to show what books on each subject.
Catalog to bring out all the material in the library.
Librarian's personal work with the students:
Helps in selection of books.
Talks about the books.
Interests those who do not read by studying their tastes
and then bringing to their attention books on subjects
in which they are interested.
. Improves quality of reading done by suggestion of books
better than those being read.
Use of book lists:
Brief lists on interesting subjects.
Printed book marks.
Library sermonettes, such as "Don't be a quitter."
Book lists, book reviews, news items in school paper.
Library exhibits as part of all school exhibits.
Special exhibits as for Better Book week. Christmas gift
Instruction in the use of books.
Relation to Teachers
Since the library serves the whole school, the librarian or the
teacher-librarian must have the co-operation and support of all
the teachers. Teachers as well as students must learn the clas-
sification and arrangement of the library, and they must also
comply with its rules.
Special privileges are granted to teachers in number of books
which may be drawn and time they may be kept, but they may
not take any books from the library without having them
When teachers are to send a number of students to the
library to look up a subject, librarian or teacher-librarian must
be notified in advance.
When the public library loans groups of books to the
school, they should be sent to the library rather than to in-
Reports are valuable to show the size and value of the library
and to give some indication of its usefulness, even though it
cannot be fully measured in this way. If records are kept ac-
curately and continuously the most necessary figures may be
The Accession book shows the number of books in the
library and their cost, and number added during any year.
By means of the Record of books loaned or Circulation sta-
tistic forms described under Charging system, the number of
books borrowed for home reading is easily counted.
Closing the Library
At the end of the school year, the library must be put in per-
fect order before closing. All books belonging to the library
must be gathered in from the various departments and in-
dividuals and missing books traced. All cards must be taken
from the charging tray, put in the books and the books replaced
in their proper number on the shelves.
If any work, such as the cataloging, must be left unfinished,
a note must be left with it showing clearly the stage it is in.
Complete inventory should be taken occasionally, particularly
when there is to be a change of Librarian.
This is done by checking the books on the shelves with the
shelf list. Note is made of books missing, and search made for
these in the charging tray, and in the accession book which
should show if the book has been withdrawn.
The work of inventory is not complete until all the books
listed on the shelf list and in the accession book are accounted
for, and a report drawn up and filed.
If the books are not found within six months, annotation is
made in Remarks column in the accession book and opposite
each number on the shelf card and a nnal report made up.
This work may well be done at examination time in the
school when use of the library is lessened.
ii8 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
SERVICE IN SMALLER SCHOOLS
Keeping the Library Open
When a teacher-librarian is employed and the library service
thus limited, other teachers may be assigned to the library for
their vacant periods that it need not be closed. These library
periods give the teacher opportunity to supervise special refer-
ence work for her own classes.
Distribution to Grades
In small schools books for the grades are housed in the gen-
eral library, but on special shelves. Library days are assigned to
each grade to permit them to come to the library to select their
When such arrangement is not feasible, a classroom collec-
tion is sent to each room for a limited time and the teacher at-
tends to the charging of the books to the pupils. When the col-
lection is returned, the teacher makes a report on the circulation
of the books.
Interest in the library may be greatly stimulated by the forma-
tion of clubs of boys and girls who are interested in the same
subjects. One teacher aroused enthusiasm for research by asking
the members of one class to bring topics in which they were espe-
cially interested. The class was divided into groups, each group
investigating one subject and making final report to the whole
class. The teacher provided sources of information and directed
the work of the groups. An interesting result was that the school
found it must have a modern, well-organized library.
A library committee in the Parent-Teachers association is an-
other means of getting increased interest in the library. Such
committees have been of help in providing better reading for the
children in the town, getting books on special interests, providing
volunteer service for keeping the library open in the evening
for public use and in creating sentiment for a public library in
INSTRUCTION IN THE USE OF BOOKS 119
Teachers' Reading Clubs
Many high schools are in towns where there is no good public
library and the teachers find themselves without the facilities to
carry on reading in the subjects in which their interests were
awakened in college or to keep in touch with topics of the day.
While the school library is primarily for the students of the
school, it may be of real use to the whole teaching staff through
encouraging the formation of teachers' reading clubs and pro-
viding books for their use. From the United States Bureau of
education at Washington, D.C., a number of courses for such
clubs may be obtained. Other clubs take up the works of some
of the best modern novelists, several books by one writer or one
or more modern plays.
The magazines in the school library supply material for cur
Instruction in the Use of Books and Libraries
Instruction is a most important feature in the modern school
It should begin in the grade school and progress with the
school work through the high school.
Courses in the use of books and libraries should also be 3
part of the training of all types of teachers, rural, elementary and
high school, that they may make the library effective in their
Teaching the Use of Books and Libraries
( i ) REASONS
a. To give definite help and interest to daily school work.
b. For boys and girls going to college. Make work
easier and give facility in using the library.
c. For boys and girls leaving school. Give resourceful-
ness in finding out things for themselves ; use of public
libraries; how to obtain books; evaluation of books.
d. Pleasure of using a book intelligently. Value in club
work; in civic work.
120 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
e. Time saving for the librarian or teacher-librarian to
give definite instruction to groups rather than re-
peatedly to individuals.
(2) INSTRUCTION TO BE GIVEN IN THE GRADES AND RURAL SCHOOLS
How to open a new book.
Care of books: Maxson book mark, etc.
How to use a dictionary.
Table of contents.
Index in a book.
Parts of a book.
Arrangement of books in the school library.
(3) INSTRUCTION TO BE GIVEN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
The amount of time spent in instruction to students in
the use of the library in any high school will depend
upon how much the library can be used (adequacy
of the book collection, organization and arrange-
ment, records, such as catalog, etc.) ; upon how well
the librarian's training fits her to give such instruc-
tion ; the amount of time she can devote to it, and
upon the co-operation and interest of the principal
and other members of the faculty.
An elaborate course may be given or it may be re-
duced to a few lessons. The work is greatly needed
and a little is better than nothing.
Whatever instruction is given should be interesting,
definite, concrete and accompanied by practical
demonstrations. It should be followed up by prob-
lems to be worked out individually and it should be
carried over into every day handling of books and
use of the library.
It should be required of all students, and should be
credited as part of their regular work. It should be
given as early in the course as possible, and prefer-
ably to each class separately, as it is easier to work
with small groups.
The lessons should be progressive. The sequence fol-
lowing is one commonly approved.
INSTRUCTION IN THE USE OF BOOKS 121
SUGGESTIVE OUTLINE FOR LESSONS
1. Value and use of a library
How many have cards?
High school library
Use for reference
Returning books to shelves
Social attitude toward use
Arrangement of the library
The card catalog
2. The book
How to use
Study of the printed parts
Table of contents
List of illustrations and maps
How to judge a book
3. Reference books
What it contains
How to use it
122 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
What information given
How and when to use
5. Other reference aids
Books in the library
Card catalog as reference aid
Material on subjects of current interest
Pamphlets and government bulletins
Readers' guide to periodical literature
Debating aids may be given here if desired
How to collect
How to use
Note-taking for debate
Bibliographies ; use and making
0. Atlases. Year books. Handbooks. Reference books for
7. Books and reading
Reading for information
Joy of reading
Collecting and purchase of books
8. The library and the community
The public library
State library resources
The university library
The library commission
Methods of instruction.
By whom given.
Grade instruction mostly by teacher. High school
instruction in use of books may be given by teacher.
INSTRUCTION IN THE USE OF BOOKS 123
Any instruction concerning the library by the li-
brarian or the teacher-librarian.
The part taught by. English or history teacher may
be given in the classroom. Librarian or teacher-
librarian should give all the work concerning the
library in the library room.
Order of instruction.
It is obvious that instruction cannot be given on
any reference books not in the library or on
classification or cataloging until the library is put
Books useful in teaching the use of the library:
Baldwin. Writing and speaking. Longmans.
Fay & Eaton. Use of books and libraries.
Hopkins. Reference guides. Willard co.
McKnight & Dana. High school branch.
Rice. Lessons on the use of the library. Wis-
consin Dept. of education (Madison).
Slater. Freshman rhetoric. Heath.
Ward. Practical use of books and libraries.
F. W. Faxon co., Boston.
Ward. Suggestive outline for teaching the use.
F. W. Faxon co., Boston.
Printed notes on the library to be filed in students' note
books are useful in connection with instruction.
INSTRUCTIONS IN THE USE OF BOOKS AND LIBRARIES SUGGESTIVE
OUTLINE FOR LESSONS, P. 121
A Course Prepared by the High School Librarians of Cleveland
The work is planned as an integral part of the school in
strnction from the 7th to I2th grades, for students in all
I2 4 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
1. Round out the educational process by providing stimulus
to reading and instruction in using books most profitably.
2. Give help and interest to school projects in all subjects.
3. Develop and encourage interests not covered by the cur-
riculum. Assist in acceleration work of the school.
4. Prepare boys and girls who are going to college to take
up advanced reference work with ease.
5. Provide boys and girls leaving school with a means of
carrying on education through knowledge of how to use a
6. Train in reading habit for information and entertainment
Awakening of civic responsibility in use of school property
(care and proper use of library books).
Time saving for teachers and librarians to give definite in-
struction to groups rather than repeatedly to individuals.
Instruction in the Junior and Senior High Schools
SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION
The amount of instruction given will depend on the time
allowed for this work by the English classes and the adequacy
of the library staff.
The subject matter presented will be influenced by the train-
ing in the use of books and libraries which the pupils have had
In the period between the seventh and twelfth years in
school, the pupils should receive instruction in Use of the pub-
lic library; Use of the school library; its arrangement, resources
and regulations; Aids to self help in a library; The pupils'
responsibility toward the library; The care, handling and re-
turn of books ; and they should make definite directed study
of the common library tools, such as indexes in books; the
dictionary ; the encyclopedia ; the most used handbooks and
typical general reference books; the card catalog; the library
classification of books; the Readers' guide to periodical litera-
ture ; pamphlet and bulletin material. They should be taught
how to look up a subject in a library; how to take notes
INSTRUCTION IN THE USE OF BOOKS 125
on material found; how to arrange references and how to
compile a simple bibliography.
The work, particularly in the advanced years should be
closely correlated with the subject matter of the English course.
On the book side, the library instruction should foster a
taste for books having some literary merit, should awaken in-
terest in a variety of subjects, and should stimulate the owning
of books, the building up of the home book shelf, and the
use of public libraries in after-school days.
BY WHOM GIVEN
The instruction relating to books (physical make-up and
also joys of reading) might well be given by the teacher, but
the work on the library should be given by the librarian.
Whatever instruction is given should be interesting, definite,
concrete and accompanied by practical demonstrations. It
should be followed up by problems to be worked out individually
and it should be carried over into the everyday handling of
books and the use of the library.
The N. E. A. standard "A" gives as a minimum three recita-
tion periods per year in each English course.
The outline for instruction can be only suggestive, for the
reasons indicated. The librarian will adapt the topics to the
age and knowledge of the pupils taught and condense or
elaborate as the time permits.
The accompanying "Helps in the use of a library" is de-
signed for pupils' study and for filing in their note books.
These should be provided in separate form for this purpose.
Instruction Seventh Grade
(Instruction given in the library, by the Librarian)
The modern library
Public library. See "Helps" par. 1-4
What it is and does. Why "public?"
How many have used a library? Have card?
Library regulations. Why necessary?
Behavior in the library.
126 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
School library. See "Helps" par. 5-6
Relation to public library
Reasons for rules
Drawing and return of books
How to find books
Behavior in the library. See par. 7
(Instruction to be given by teacher if desired)
Review of information gained in lower grades
Care and handling of books (with explanation of how books
are made, increased cost of books, books for everybody, civic
PARTS OF A BOOK
(When this instruction is given, each pupil should have at
hand a book with a good index, in which to note each point
as it is discussed, also use "Helps" par. 10-12; and follow by:
Drill on the index
Compare use of index and table of contents
Phrases under word
Verify reference in book itself
Work out problem involving choice of word
DICTIONARY. See "Helps" par. 14-15
Use also publishers Dictionary leaflet "Introducing your dic-
tionary to you."
BOOK TALK, discussing books on the Home reading list for this
grade, with emphasis upon stories of individual success
and courage. Teacher or librarian will tell an incident from
one of the books, or read a portion to stimulate the in-
LIBRARY HOUR, conducted co-operatively by the teacher and
librarian, in the library. The teacher will notify the
INSTRUCTIONS IN THE USE OF BOOKS 127
librarian in advance that she will bring her class to the li-
brary for a specified period for the study of material
on a certain subject. The librarian will collect all available
material on the subject; books, pamphlets, magazines and
pictures. The teacher will come with the class for in-
tensive reference work during the period. The most satis-
factory work is done when each pupil is assigned a definite
phase of the subject to study and report upon.
A variation of the above plan is used in a school having
supervised study; several pupils are sent to the library to look
up a subject briefly, and in fifteen minutes or so, return to
class to report upon their findings, or a similar committee
spends a period in the library early in the day looking over
material, and has it put on reserve for their class for a period
later in the day, when it is taken to the class room for one
Instruction Eighth Grade
Review of seventh grade work
Review of parts of the books
Dictionary work continued
Encyclopedic features, see "Helps" par. 14
Encyclopedia, see "Helps" par. 16-17
How to look up a subject
Use of material found
Book talks on books about great men, great industries,
References for Instruction in Seventh and Eighth Grades
Barrette Use of the library as an aid in school work.
School and society, March 16, 1918.
(Value of the library hour)
Bolenius Everyday English composition.
Gildemeister Minnesota course of study for elementary
(Dictionary work, p. 98; literature, p. 200)
(Kroeger, (Publisher) Winona, Minn.)
128 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Portland, Oregon Elementary course of study (Outline of li-
( Public schools) brary instruction)
Rice Lessons in the use of the library
Wisconsin State dept. of education
Instruction Ninth Grade
Review of eighth year work on encyclopedia
Handbooks and typical general reference books, see also
"Helps" par. 23
Who's who in America
Freeman & Chandler World's commercial products
Rand, McNally Imperial atlas
Garnett & Gosse English literature
Use of catalog, see "Helps" par. 9
Classification, see "Helps" par. 8
Public library classification (study of detailed outline)
Problem developed individually or by .group, see par. 24
Instruction Tenth Grade
Reader's guide to periodical literature, see "Helps" par. 21-22
Review use of catalog
Review subject assignment by use of individual problem.
Book talk on use of good reading to increase vocabulary
(Readings from Muir Story of my boyhood and youth;
Choate, Rufus Life; or any others)
Study of a few typical magazines
Current events (weekly) Literary digest
(monthly) Review of reviews
General (weekly) Outlook or Independent
(monthly) World's work, Scribner's or
INSTRUCTION IN THE USE OF BOOKS 129
Instruction Eleventh Year
Review of tenth year work
Study of special reference books of immediate use, see
"Helps" par. 23
Special instruction for this grade
Note taking in the library
Special study of books and material on vocations following
outline of vocational courses
Instruction Twelfth Year
Review of eleventh year work
Talk on the public library as a continuation school
Each student to make a visit to the public library to in-
vestigate a vocation or subject of special interest
Talk on the home library on owning books, buying books,
References for High School Library Instruction
Baldwin Writing and speaking (chapter on Bring-
ing the library to bear) Longmans
Bostwick Making of an American's library
Fay & Eaton Use of books and libraries. Faxon Co.,
Lomer & Ashmun Teaching of English (making a bibliog-
raphy, p. 221-3 and other references)
Ward Practical use of books and libraries. Fax-
on co., Boston
Ward Suggestive outlines for teaching the use of
books. Faxon co., Boston
Wisconsin Library lessons for high schools: by O. S.
Rice, state dept. of education, Madison,
130 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
HELPS IN THE USE OF A LIBRARY
Notes to be printed on note book size sheets. Sets of the sheets
should be given to each person receiving instructions and
filed in note book for use and reference
1. PURPOSE OF LIBRARY INSTRUCTION
To show what a, library is and how it may be used.
To help in the use of a library, whether the public library
or the school library.
2. PUBLIC LIBRARY
What it is:
A collection of the best books for reading and reference
use; magazines, pamphlets and pictures.
3. What it does:
It gives every one a chance to find out anything he
wishes to know, and to study any subject in which
he is interested.
How to use it:
Visit the library nearest your home.
Ask the librarian to tell you how to take out a card.
Acquire library manners; walk quietly and speak in a
4. HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY
What it is :
Special collection of books, magazines and indexes,
pamphlets, clippings, pictures and maps kept in the
school for convenience of pupils and teachers.
5. What it does:
For information and study, supplies material for use
in connection with all subjects taught in the school.
For pleasure reading and outside interests, provides
books for home reading; how to make and do things;
club work; sports and amusements.
HELPS IN THE USE OF A LIBRARY 131
6. How to use it:
The library room is not a study hall, but quiet and
order must be maintained.
Show consideration of others by careful handling of
books and replacing of reserve books and volumes in
7. The librarian's part is to know the books and to direct
in their use. Help her by good conduct in the library
and by learning how to use the library yourself.
Always feel free to ask the librarian for help.
AIDS TO SELF HELP IN THE LIBRARY
Books on the same subject are grouped together on
the shelves. This arrangement is called classification.
Library classification is based on a decimal system, with
figures for notation. The same system is used in many
public libraries and school libraries. The great sub-
divisions are divided by tens.
Outline of classification,
ooo Reference books
500 Natural science
600 Useful arts
700 Fine arts
910-919 Geography and travel
920 Collective biography
921 Individual biography arranged by name of person
The books are marked with a call number. This is
a symbol representing the subject of the book and its
location on the shelves.
For fuller classification scheme see Dewey Abridged Classi-
132 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
9. THE CATALOG
The catalog is a list of the books which the library owns.
It bears the same relationship to the library that an index
does to a book.
It answers the questions:
What books by a certain author are in the library?
Has the library a book of a certain title?
What material is there in the library on any subject?
The information is on cards, arranged by author, title and
subject in one alphabet.
Each card also has the call number in the upper left corner.
How to use it:
To find out whether the library has a particular book,
look for the name of the author or title.
To find out what material is in the library on a subject
look for the name of the subject in red.
Observe the call number on the card. This directs to
the location of the book on the shelves.
Reference cards are also found which direct from other
possible forms of a name or subject to the form used
in the catalog; and from subjects to related subjects
under which books are also listed. These are called
Summary of classification in the library, showing the sec-
tions most used.
10. THE BOOK
What it is:
The book is a means of increasing one's store of knowl-
edge, of acquiring new ideas and vocabulary, of learning
about life and people in all places and times.
11. How to use it:
Some books are to be read through carefully, to study the
author's style, to master the new words and ideas. Others
are to be skimmed, to get at the information quickly.
Information to be gained from the different parts:
Title Page gives title, author, publisher and usually
date of publication and copyright date.
HELPS IN THE USE OF A LIBRARY 133
(Copyright is the exclusive right secured to an
author or artist, by law, to publish or dispose of a
work for a limited time.)
Preface gives author's purpose in writing the book.
Table of Contents Is a list of chapter headings and
outlines the subject matter in the order in which it is
List of Illustrations or Maps.
Text or body of book.
How to judge a book.
Is it written in good English?
Is the subject or idea presented truthfully?
Is it readable? Interesting?
Is there sufficient information or pleasure in
the book to make it worth while?
Does your opinion of the book agree with that
of more experienced critics?
Bibliography gives list of books for further reading,
Appendix gives fuller notes and added information.
Index is usually in the back of a book and in the last
volume of a set.
It lists alphabetically all the material in a book and
the page on which it is found.
Its use is the most direct method of rinding material.
12. INDEX DRILL
13. REFERENCE BOOKS
A reference book is one to be consulted for definite points of
information rather than to be read through, and is arranged
with regard to ease in finding specific facts.
Arrangement is usually alphabetical or with an index.
Those which treat of many subjects are called general refer-
ence books, e.g. dictionaries and encyclopedias.
If the full meaning of a term is not understood, the first
book to consult in the search for information is the dictionary.
134 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
14. What it is:
A book dealing primarily with words and giving alpha-
betically, a list of the words in a language.
Information given for a word: Spelling; pronuncia-
tion, parts of speech ; derivation ; definition ; quotations
and synonyms. The modern unabridged dictionary
includes in addition to ordinary words and phrases;
proper names, including mythology, abbreviations,
words and phrases in foreign languages, dialect,
slang, technical terms, obsolete words; illustrations,
and brief information about subjects.
15. How to use it :
Look for thumb index and for the guide word at top
of the page. The key to the abbreviations used in
the descriptions of the words, is found in the intro-
For a brief account of a person or subject, the quickest help
is often found in the encyclopedia.
16. What it is:
A reference work dealing with subjects rather than
words as the dictionary does.
The best encyclopedias are of recent date, are in many
volumes and include articles on a great variety of
Special features are reading lists at the end of the
articles, fine illustrations, maps and diagrams. The
arrangement is alphabetical or an index volume is pro-
17. How to use it:
Look first for the letter on the back of the volume,
then the guide word at the top of the page.
Note the arrangement of words on the page.
Subjects have headings and sometimes sub-heads.
The spelling of words must be kept in mind.
Follow up cross references.
Use the index volume if the subject wanted is not
found in its alphabetical place.
HELPS IN THE USE OF A LIBRARY 135
BOOKS IN 'THE LIBRARY
18. Any book may be used as a reference book.
For subjects on which a whole book has been written, the
book is a better source of information than the encyclopedia
article. It usually covers the subject more fully; gives more
recent information, is apt to be more authoritative, and often
has better illustrations.
19. The Card Catalog is a reference help because it shows on
what subjects the library has material whether it is a whole
book or a part of a book. The date on the card shows how
recent the material is.
20. REFERENCE MATERIAL ON SUBJECTS OF CURRENT INTEREST
Pamphlets, circulars .and government bulletins provide in-
formation on timely subjects.
These are arranged in pamphlet holders, by subject.
These contain recent information and the Readers' guide
shows where the articles are found.
Readers' guide to periodical literature is a monthly, quarterly
and yearly index to the best magazines.
It lists articles alphabetically by author, title and subject.
Includes references to portraits and poems.
References give in abbreviated form the title of the ar-
ticle, the name of the author, the volume, paging, date.
A complete list of the magazines indexed is given in the
front of the Guide.
22. How to use it:
Look for the name of the subject wanted as in the
index of a book.
Begin at the latest number or volume and work back.
Make a note of a reference by taking down the name
of the magazine, the volume number, the paging and
The general reference books are first aid in the search for in-
formation. For every subject there are special reference books
which may be consulted for fuller information.
136 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
23. REFERENCE BOOKS USUALLY FOUND IN HIGH SCHOOLS AND
Funk & Wagnall's New Standard dictionary.
,New International Encyclopedia.
New Americana Encyclopedia.
Statistics and social questions.
Bliss & Binder. New encyclopedia of social reform.
Statesman's year book.
Walsh. Curiosities of popular custom.
Bailey. Cyclopedia of American agriculture.
Bailey. Cyclopedia of American horticulture.
Freeman & Chandler. World's commercial products.
Grove. Dictionary of music.
Sturgis. Dictionary of architecture.
Bartlett. Familiar quotations.
Brewer. Dictionary of phrase and fable.
Brewer. Readers' handbook.
Chambers. Cyclopedia of American literature.
Firkins. Index to short stories.
Garnett & Gosse. English literature.
Granger. Index to poetry.
Hoyt. Cyclopedia of practical quotations.
Moulton. Library of literary criticism.
Stedman & Hutchinson. Library of American literature.
Stevenson. Home book of verse.
Warner. Library of the world's best literature.
SCHOOL LIBRARY MEASUREMENT 137
Foster. Debating for boys.
Phelps. Debaters' manual.
Robbins. High school debate book.
Roberts. Rules of order.
Thomas. Manual of debate.
Bartholomew. Atlas of economic geography.
Doubleday & Page. Geographical manual and new atlas.
Lippincott's new gazetteer.
Rand & McNally. Imperial atlas.
Robertson & Bartholomew. Historical atlas of modern
Appleton's cyclopedia of American biography.
Century cyclopedia of names.
Dictionary of national biography; index and epitome.
Lippincott's universal pronouncing dictionary of biography
U.S. Official congressional directory.
Who's who in America.
Hadyn. Dictionary of dates.
Harper's dictionary of classical literature.
Heilprin. Historical reference book.
Hodge. Handbook of American Indians.
Lamed. History for ready reference.
Low & Pulling. Dictionary of English history.
Shepherd. Historical atlas.
Problem Each student to be assigned an individual prob-
lem involving use of the dictionary, the encyclopedia, card
catalog and magazine index.
School Library Measurements
The score card is the modern and convenient way of check-
ing up with the standard.
Mr. Leon Smith of the Omaha Board of education has
SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
prepared a score for High schools. The following was arranged
by the High school librarians of Cleveland (1920) and is in-
cluded as suggestive.
High School Library Equipment and Organization
N. E. A. STANDARDS
Location of room : p.7
Central location on the
second floor is usually found
Size: p. 7
To accomodate at one full
period from 5-10% of the total
daily attendance of the school.
An area of at least 25 square
feet per reader is required.
Minimum for the small high
school should be that of an
Additional rooms: p. 9.
Library classroom should
adjoin; 30-60 chairs, small
stage, complete lantern outfit,
etc. Work room of at least
10x15 feet adjoining, with
shelving, typewriter, etc.
Equipment: p. 8
Lighting; indirect or semi-
direct. Decoration: white ceil-
ings and light buff walls.
Floor covering: linoleum or
cork carpet to deaden sound.
Furniture : p. 8-9
Open, wall shelving, not
over 7 feet, shelves 3 feet long.
Enough to accommodate pres-
ent collection and allow for
growth. Tables 3x5, seating
6. Comfortable chairs, charg-
ing desk for reference work,
SCORE FOR HIGH SCHOOL LI-
Location of Library room
Convenience of access
Book capacity. See shelving,
EQUIPMENT AND ORGANIZATION
card-catalog case, pamphlet
cases, magazine stand, news-
paper rack, vertical file, book
truck. Accession books, Li-
brary of Congress catalog
cards, desk and catalog . . .
supplies, stamps, book sup-
ports, shelf-markers, type-
writer, bulletin boards.
Book collection p. 24
Ten volumes to every stu-
dent in the school. Every
book a useful book and one
for constant use, p. 13-14
Librarian p. 10-12
Assistants: full time trained
assistant for every 1000
students in attendance.
Status : librarian, head of
library department ; attend
teachers meetings relating to
courses and policy governing
work; directing the library,
selecting books, planning room
and equipment, budget, etc.,
directing assistants and build-
ing up collections of pamph-
lets, clippings and illustrative
material. Technical work ;
making all material readily
available, charging all ma-
terial loaned, keeping neces-
sary records including use of
Size in relation to enroll-
Suitability to ages and
Supplied by Board of
Supplied by Public Libra-
Books borrowed last year
SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
Educational work ; ref-
erence, helping teachers and
students to find suitable
material, prepare lists, etc. In-
struction : systematic instruc-
tion in use of reference books
and library tools. Educational
and vocational guidance: read-
ing lists and personal guidance.
Instruction in the use, p. 14
Minimum of three recitation
periods per year in each Eng-
lish course. Use of the library
for educational guidance. Use
of books as tools. For recrea-
tion. Books as public property.
Relation of high school and
Relation to school
Appropriation, p. 15-16
New books SOG per student
Magazines : Not less than $40
Funds apportioned by li-
Relation to the public li-
Instruction in the use
Length of course
Classes receiving instruc-
Number of lessons given
Number given by librar-
Relation to school
Uses interfering with the
NOTE. The page numbers refer to the Certain Report on library or-
ganization and equipment.
RURAL SCHOOL LIBRARY 141
Instructions for Rural Teachers
The rural school library is an important link in the library
chain. Many states give library aid to rural schools and it is
possible to have good books.
The rural teacher should be prepared for this as for any
part of her work.
The teachers' training departments in the high schools pre-
pare teachers for the rural schools. One of the first things a
rural teacher has to do is to select a school library. She
often has little knowledge of children's books and little idea of
what the school library may be in the school.
The training school should include in its work some dis-
cussion of the rural school library, its purpose and use, afford
an opportunity for acquaintance with the best children's books
which are suited to the needs of the rural school, and give the
cadets a knowledge of the state school list, from which they
must select their books, so that they may use it to advantage. In
a state not having an authorized school list, the training school
should have reference copies of standard lists.
The following notes are designed to help the teacher of the
training class to give such instruction.
It is recommended that each student teacher be required to
read at least fifteen children's books and examine many others.
The teacher should assign the books to be read so that the books
will be selected from the different classes.
Every training department should have in the classroom,
where there is not a well organized school library, its own li-
brary of books helpful to the training department and the
The training department should also own or have access to
at least one hundred books suitable for a rural school library.
The Rural School Library
NOTES FOR LESSONS
Every teacher needs
(i) Knowledge and appreciation of books for help in her
school work and intimate acquaintance with the best children's
142 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
(2) A clear idea of the purpose and possibilities of a school
(3) Knowledge of school library aids that are obtainable.
(4) To know how to select a useful school library.
(5) To know how to order books.
(6) To know how to care for and use a school library.
1. Knowledge of books
The necessity for acquaintance with books needs no argu-
ment. Without them no teacher can perform her task of open-
ing the field of knowledge to boys and girls or give them full
training for successful living. Unless she knows children's
books herself, she cannot make them a power in her school.
The only way to know books is to read them, read good books,
and cultivate a taste for them. There are some books about
books, which are suggestive. Every teacher should read all
or parts of the following books :
Adler. Moral instruction of children.
Colby. Literature and life in school.
Lowe. Literature for children.
McClintock. Literature in the elementary school.
Olcott. Children's reading.
2. Purpose of school library
Supplement class work and make lessons more interesting.
Furnish books for home reading for information and enter-
Encourage the reading of good books.
3. What the state does for school libraries
Make a study of state law regarding school libraries, pro-
vision for books, assistance in organization of school libraries,
instruction in library matters.
4. Book selection for school libraries
STUDY OF A LIBRARY LIST
If the State department of education has no school list one
or more of the following should be provided in quantities for
class use. Students should buy a copy for personal checking.
RURAL SCHOOL LIBRARY 143
Minnesota Dept. of education. (St Paul). Library books
for elementary and rural schools.
Oregon State library (Salem) pt. I Books for elementary
schools pt. 2 Books for high schools. 25c.
Wisconsin Dept. of educ. (Madison). Books for township
libraries. Books for high schools.
Wisconsin Library commission. Children's books for . first
purchase. Netherwood co., Madison, Wis. 35c.
U. S. Bureau of education. Bulletin 1917, no. 41. Library
books for high schools. 2oc.
H. W. Wilson co. (958 Univ. ave. New York). Children's
Catalog (1917). $6.
EXAMINATION OF A LIST
Points to be noted:
Purpose of the list
What classes included? New books or standards.
By classes of books
Publisher, date, series, price, class no, grade.
Are best books indicated?
Editions fine or best cheap
Annotations descriptive or critical
Special lists, poems to be memorized. Suggestions on the care
of the library.
144 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
SCHOOL LIST AS A CATALOG OF A SCHOOL LIBRARY
Check the index for every book in the library, by author and
title; also check the entry under subject. Mark each book
with the number of the division where it is listed. Arrange
the books on the shelves, placing all of one number together,
alphabetically by author's name.
Book Selection for School Libraries. See also page 15.
Read the annotations under the title before ordering and note
the grade for which it is intended.
Do not buy all stories, but get interesting books on all sub-
jects. Get books of practical information how to make
and do things. In selecting titles, read the annotations
which tell something of the book.
Observe grade for which it is intended and buy for ages
represented in the country school.
Ordering books. Read Notes on Ordering, page 22.
Organization and records for country schools
See Routine in putting the library in order and description
of processes which follows. Pages 26-78
Note that for rural schools processes 16, 17 would be
Uses for discarded books
See page 32.
Use of the school library
The teacher must know the books in her library thoroughly
in order to use them successfully, it is "the book that
teacher says is good" that the child wants to read.
SUGGESTIONS ON THE USE OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LIBRARY
Adapted from Oregon State library School circular No. 2
What you may do to make it of service
1. Know your books.
2. Look them over for something:
a. To read aloud.
b. To interest the child who does not read.
RURAL SCHOOL LIBRARY 145
c. To help the one who has a decided interest
d. To make the lessons more interesting.
e. To suggest ethical stories which will help to correct
3. Read aloud from some of the best books.
4. Find out what each boy and girl cares most about and use
curiosity or interest which has been aroused. Cultivate
any decided aptitude, and awaken new interests.
5. Encourage home reading.
6. Substitute a good book for the fair or poor one which is
undermining the character of the child.
7. Read a "starter" from a big book, or from a neglected one
which is really worth while.
8. Allow individual reading in the schoolroom when the lesson
is learned, and do not make this a reward of merit.
9. Use the library to enliven the language lesson by Friday
afternoon "book talks," avoiding formal reports.
10. Use the library books to supplement the text-books. Assign
readings and allow class time for reports on outside read-
11. Ask questions to start search for information. (For in-
stance Did the cavemen have cloth?)
12. Choose a hero for each month and read about him, talk
about him, learn about his life and times. (Arthur, Sieg-
fried, Richard I, Charlemagne, Franklin, Paul Jones.)
13. Discuss interesting people in books. A debate on the com-
parative merits of certain boy-heroes in books may result
in more discriminating selection of ideals.
14. Read short stories to correct faults (and do not point the
15. Teach the use of table of contents and index. Let the chil-
dren see who can find most about some subject in a given
time in some certain book or books.
146 SCHOOL LIBRARY MANAGEMENT
16. Plan an annual "library day" with program from one author,
talks about the books, readings, a debate.
17. Plan for systematic reading of best literature through the
grades in preparation for literature in the high school.
Foundation work is essential in this subject as in others.
18. See that the library does three things for your school :
1. Makes the lessons more interesting.
2. Provides training in the use of books.
3. Cultivates the reading habit.
Story telling is one of the best means of interesting children
in reading. Use the story telling to direct to books, telling the
story from a book not read as it should be. Have the book at
hand to show when telling the story. Examine the books listed
under Story telling and Children's literature, many of them in-
clude lists of stories to tell.
A useful pamphlet on story telling is: Power. List of
stories and programs for story hours. Obtain of H. W. Wilson
co., 958-64 University ave., New York, N.Y. 2oc.
Pupils' reading circle
The reading circle is a good means of directing reading and
of arousing interest in books. It is desirable -that the children
should own the books they read, thus beginning a library of
their own. Parents might be willing to get them for birthday
and Christmas presents, or the children save their own money
to buy them.
The reading may be connected with the language work. In-
formal reports on the books read, are usually more satisfactory.
The children should be encouraged to tell what they liked best
in the book, which character they preferred and whether the
book was like any other they had read. The teacher should de-
cide the number of books to be read in a year.
Certificates may be given for the reading done.
Lessons in the use of the library for rural schools.
These may be given in the period for opening exercises and
should be given early in the year.
RURAL SCHOOL LIBRARY 147
Structure and care of a book.
How a book is made.
How to open a book. See page 35.
How to handle a new book.
The Maxson book mark.
Printed parts of a book and their uses.
Table of contents
Classification of the school library.
How to find books on different subjects.
(Get the dictionary leaflets.)
How to use the dictionary.
Accession book 27, 58-61, 78
Accessioning 26, 59
46, 47, 48, Si-5
Analytic entries 91
Appropriation . 106
Arrangement of books 66-7
Arrangement of cards 94-9
Author card 83
Author card samples 92-3
Bills ; 42
Binding 33-37, 72
Biography cards 57, 77
Book buying 19, 22-4
Book capacity 8
Book card 26, 28, 61
Book charging system 69
Book lists 17-18
Book numbers 57
Book pocket 27, 29, 43
Book selection 14-22
Book supports 35, 42, 67-8
Books per pupil 7, 139
Booklet material 33, 102-3
Borrower's cards 74
Bulletins 51, 99
Business entry 42, 64
Call number 57, 64, 65, 77, 131
Card catalog cases u, 29, 91-2
Card charging system. .. .29, 69, 72
Catalog .. 78-81, 132
Catalog cards samples 92-4
Chairs 9 . 10
Charging system 29, 68-73
Checking the school list 68, 144
City, systems 105
Classroom collections 72
Classification 44-58, 101
Cleaning books 39
Closing the library 117
Club work ! !n8
28, 69, 71
...... 1 1 1
Editions ............ I7 . ig - 4 8 ,
Elementary school library. .. .144-6
Filing catalog cards 91-2
Filing cases 12, 29, 100
Filing charging cards 75
Filing pamphlets 100
Furniture 9-12, 29
Government documents 31, 85
Grade books 15-16
Indexer cards 80
Instruction in books and libraries,
Junior high school 103, 109
L.C. cards 80
Labels 42 , 65
Librarian 107, 109
Library binding 19, 34
Library hand 66, 94
Library hour 115, 126-7
Library lists 17-19, 142-3
Library room 5-13
Magazines ...20-2, 30, 36, 128, 135
Marking 2 8, 65-6
Mechanical preparation 42
Mending ........... .28, 30, 37-9
Modern school library 4
Mounts ..30, 103
North Central Report 3
Notes on the use of library.. 123
Opening new books 34, 42
Pamphlet boxes 30, 100
Pamphlets 30 , 72, 99-100
Parent-Teacher association 1 18
Permits II4 _ IS
Pictures 72, 102-3
Prices 22 . 4
Public Library school branch.. 14
Reading circle I4 6
Record of books loaned 74-5
Reference books.. 19, 82, 121, 133-7
Reference cards. .85, 90, 91, 98, 132
Reports j x 7
Reserve books ...... . . .67, 71
Routine of organization 25
Rules 73, "2
Rural school library 141
Score card 137
Self-government rules 112-13
Shakespeare scheme 57
Shelf label holders 68
Shelf list 76-8
Shelf list cards samples 77-8
Shelf listing 76-7
Shelf marking 68
Shelving 7, 26, 28
- Space for tables 9
Stamping 28, 29, 43
Standards 3, 125, 137-8
State lists 18, 142-3
State policies 2-3
Story telling 146
Student help 1 1 1
Subject card 88-9
Subject card sample3 93-4
Subject headings 89-90, 101
Supervised study 115
Supplies 12-13, 27, 37-9, 76
Taking the count 74-5
Teachers' reading clubs 119
Teachers' training department. . 141
Teaching the use of books and
libraries 1 19-37
Time cards 71-2
Title cards 88
Title card sample 93
Use of the library. . 115, 119, 144-6
Varnishing 35, 66
Vertical file 12, 100
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY
Return to desk from which borrowed.
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below.
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY