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Full text of "Manetho, with an English translation by W.G. Waddell"

rh 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

lOUSULC BY JAUES LO£B, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
tT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

fE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARmXGTON, 

U.A., F.R.HIST.SOO. 



MANETHO 



PTOLEMY, Tetrabiblos 



MANETHO 



WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
W. G. WADDELL 

PEOSKSSOR OF CLASSICS IS FTAD EI. AWAL USIVEKSIIV, 
CAIKO, EGYPT 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLXIV 



FiBST Printed . 1940 
REPKINTED . 194tj, 1956, 1964 



PA 
Mzfti 

mo 




Printed in Great Britain at The UnivenUy Press, Aberdeen 



CONTENTS 



Introduction ....... 

The Life of Manetho : Traditions and Con 
jectures ..... 

Manetho's Works .... 

The History of Egypt . 
Possible Sources of the AlyvTrriaKa 
Other Works attributed to Manetho 
The Book of Sothis 



BiBLIOQBAPHY ..... 

List of Abbreviated Titles . . 

Editor's Note ..... 

The History of Egypt . 

The Sacred Book .... 

An Epitome of Physical Doctrines 

On Festivals ..... 

On Ancient Ritual and Religion . 

On the Making of Kyphi . , 

[Cbiticisms of Herodotus] 

Appendix I., Pseudo-Manetho 
„ n., Eratosthenes (?) 
„ III., The Old Chronicle . 
„ IV., The Book of S6this . 

Map of Egypt ..... 

Illustrations : Plates I-IV . 

Ikdez 



PAGE 

vii 



IX 



XIV 
XV 
XX 

xxvi 
xxvii 



XXIX 

xxxi 
XXX ii 

1-187 

188 

196 

198 

198 

202 

204 

208 

212 

226 

2.34 

250 

facing 250 

. 251 
V 



Hermes Trismegistus speaks : 

O Aegypte, Aegypte, religionum tuarum solae 
supeierunt fabulae, eaeque incredibiles posteris tuis ; 
solaque supererunt verba lapidibus incisa, tua pia 
facta narrantibus. [" O Egypt, Egypt, of thy re- 
ligious rites nought will survive but idle tales which 
thy children's children will not believe ; nought will 
survive but words graven upon stones that tell of 
thy piety."] 

The Latin Asclepius III. 25, in W. Scott, Her- 
metica, i. 1924, p. 342. 



" Never has there arisen a more complicated 
problem than that of Manetho." 

— BoECKH, Manetho und die HundssteTupenode^ 
1845, p. 10. 



VI 



INTRODUCTION 

Among the Egyptians who wrote in Greek, Manetho 
the priest holds a unique place because of his com- 
paratively early date (the third century B.C.) and 
the interest of his subject-matter — the history and 
religion of Ancient Egypt. His works in their 
original form would possess the highest importance 
and value for us now, if only we could recover them ; 
but until the fortunate discovery of a papyrus,^ 
which will transmit the authentic Manetho, we 
can know his writings only from fragmentary and 
often distorted quotations preserved chiefly by 
Josephus and by the Christian chronographers, 
Africanus and Eusebius, with isolated passages in 
Plutarch, Theophilus, Aelian, Porphyrins, Diogenes 
Laertius, Theodoretus, Lydus, Malalas, the Scholia to 
Plato, and the Etymologicum Magnum. 

Like Berossos, who is of slightly earlier date, 
Manetho testifies to the growth of an international 

1 F. Bilabel (in P. Baden 4. 1924, No. 59 : see also 
Die Kleine Historikcr, Fragm. 11) published a papyrus 
of the fifth century after Christ containing a list of Persian 
kings with the years of their reigns (see further Fr. 70, 
note 1), and holds it to be, not part of the original Epitome, 
but a version made from it before the time of Africanus. 
It certainly proves that Egyptians were interested in 
Greek versions of the Kings' Lists, and much more so, 
presumably, in the unabridged Manetho. See Fr. 2 for 
Panodorus and Aimianus, who were monks in Egypt 
about the date of this papyrus. Cf. also P. Hibeh, i. 27, 
the Calendar of Sais, translated into Greek in the reign 
of Ptolemy Soter, i.e. early in the lifetime of Manetho. 



MANETHO 

spirit in the Alexandrine age : each of these 
" barbarians " wrote in Greek an account of his 
native country ; and it stirs the imagination to 
think of their endeavour to bridge the gulf and 
instruct all Greek-speaking people (that is to say 
the whole civilized world of their time) in the history 
of Egypt and Chaldaea. But these two writers 
stand alone : ^ the Greeks indeed wrote from time to 
time of the wonders of Egypt (works no longer 
extant), but it was long before an Egyptian successor 
of Manetho appeared — Ptolemy of Mendes,^ prob- 
ably under Augustus. 

The writings of Manetho, however, continued to 

* CJ. W. W. Tarn on Ptolemy II. in the Journal oj 
Egyptian Archaeology, 1928, xiv. p. 254 : (Activity at 
Alexandria had no effect at all on Egyptians) " Ptolemy 
S6ter had thought for a moment that Egj^tians might 
participate in the intellectual activities of Alexandria : 
. . . but, though Manetho dedicated his work to Ptolemy 
II., in this reign all interest in native EgyjDt was dropped, 
and a little later Alexandria appears as merely an object 
of hatred to many Egyptians. (Its destruction is pro- 
phesied in the Potter's Oracle.) " (See p. 123 n. 1.) 

The complete isolation of Manetho and Berossos is the 
chief argument of Ernest Havet against the authenticity 
of these writers {Mdmoire sur les ecrits qui portent lea 
noms de Bdrose et de MatiethoTi, Paris, 1873). He regards 
the double tradition as curious and extraordinary — 
there is no other name to set beside these two Oriental 
priests ; and he suspects the symmetry of the tradition 
— each wrote three books for a king. Cf. Croiset, His- 
toire de la Littdrature Grecque, v. p. 99 ; Abridged History 
of Greek Literature, English translation, p. 429 (Manetho's 
works were probably written by a Hellenized Oriental 
at the end of the second century B.C.) ; and F. A. Wright, 
Later Greek Literature, p. 60. 

2 See p. X. 



INTRODUCTION 

be read mth interest ; and his Egyptian History was 
used for special purposes, e.g. by the Jews when they 
engaged in polemic against Egyptians in order to 
prove their extreme antiquity. (See further pp. 
xvi ff.) Manetho's rehgious writings are known to 
us mainly through references in Plutarch's treatise 
On Isis and Osiris. 

The Life of Manetho : Traditions and Conjectures. 

Our knowledge of Manetho is for the most part 
meagre and uncertain ; but three statements of 
great probability may be made. They concern his 
native place, his priesthood at Hcliopolis, and his 
activity in the introduction of the cidt of Serapis. 

The name Manetho [Mavedcos, often written 
Mavidoiv) has been explained as meaning " Truth 
of Thoth ", and a certain priest under Dynasty XIX. 
is described as " First Priest of the Truth of Thoth ".^ 
According to Dr. Cerny ^ " Manetho " is from the 
Coptic UAWn^TO "groom" (UaMG "herdsman", 
and ^TO " horse ") ; but the word does not seem to 
occur elsewhere as a proper name. In regard to the 
date of Manetho, Syncellus in one passage ' gives us 
the information that he lived later than Berossos : 
elsewhere ^ he puts Manetho as " almost contempor- 
ary with Berossos, or a little later ". Berossos, who 

* W. Spiegelberg, Orient. Literaturz. xxxi. 1928, col. 
145 ff., xxxii. 1929, col. 321 f. Older explanations of the 
name Manetho were " Gift of Thoth," " Beloved of 
Th6th," and " Beloved of Neith ". 

^ Tn the centenary volume of the Vatican Museum : I owe 
this reference to the kindness of Dr. Alan H. Gardmer. 

» Manetho, Fr. 3. * Syncellus, p. 26. 

ix 



MANETHO 

was priest of Marduk at Babylon, lived under, and 
wrote for, Antiochus I. whose reign lasted from 285 
to 261 B.C. ; and Brrossos dedicated his XaXda'CKO. 
to this king after he became sole monarch in 281 B.C. 
The works of Manetho and Berossos may be in- 
terpreted as an expression of the rivalry of the two 
kings, Ptolemy and Antiochus, each seeking to pro- 
claim the great antiquity of his land. 

Under the name of Manetho, Suidas seems to 
distinguish two writers : (1) Manetho of Mendes in 
Egypt, a chief priest who wrote on the making of 
kyphi {i.e. Fr. 87) : (2) Manetho of Diospolis or 
Sebennytus. (Works) : A Treatise on Physical 
Doctrines {i.e. Fr. 82, 83). Apotelesmatica (or 
Astrological Influences), in hexameter verses, and 
other astrological works. (See p. xiv, note 3.) No- 
where else is Manetho connected ^vith Mendes ; but 
as Mendes was distant only about 17 miles from 
Sebennytus across the Damietta arm of the Nile, 
the attribution is not impossible. Midler suspects 
confusion with Ptolemy of Mendes, an Egyptian 
priest (probably in the time of Augustus), who, like 
Manetho, wrote a work on Egyptian Chronology in 
three books. In the second note of Suidas Diospolis 
may be identified, not with Diospolis Magna (the 
famous Thebes) nor with Diospolis Parva, but with 
Diospolis Inferior, in the Delta (now Tell el-Balamun), 
the capital of the Diospolite or 17th nome ^ to the 
north of the Sebennyte nome and contiguous with 

^ The Greek word vofxos means a division of Egypt, called 
in Ancient Egyptian sp.t, — a district corresponding roughly 
to a county in England. Pliny (Hist. Nat. 5, 9) refers to 
nonaes as praefecturae oppidorum. 



INTRODUCTION 

it. Diospolis Inferior lay near Damietta, some 30 
miles from Sebennytus. (See Strabo, 17. 1, 19, 
and Baedeker, Egypt and the Sudun, 8th ed. (1929), 
p. 185.) We may therefore accept the usual descrip- 
tion of Manetho (Fr. 3, 77, 80 : Syncellus, 72, 16), 
and hold that he was a native of Sebennytus (now 
Samannud) ^ in the Delta, on the west bank of the 
Damietta branch of the Nile. Manetho was a priest, 
and doubtless held office at one time in the temple 
at Sebennvtus ; but in the letter (App. I.) which he 
is said to have written to Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, 
he describes himself as " high-priest and scribe of 
the sacred shrines of Egypt, born at Sebennytus and 
dwelling at Heliopolis ". Although the letter, as 
we have it, is not genuine in all its details, this 
description may have been borrowed from a good 
source ; and while his precise rank as a priest remains 
in doubt, it is reasonable to believe that Manetho 
rose to be high-priest in the temple at Heliopolis.- 
This eminent position agrees with the important 
part he played in the introduction of the cult of 
Serapis. As a Heliopolitan priest, Manetho (to 
quote from Laqueur, Pauly-Wissowa-KroU, R.-E. 
xiv. 1, 1061) " was, without doubt, acquainted with 

1 See Baedeker *, p. 185. Sebennytus was the seat 
of Dynasty XXX., and therefore a place of great impor- 
tance shortly before the time of IManetho. In Ancient 
Egyptian, Sebennytus is Tjeb-niiter, " city of the sacred 
calf " : it is tempting to connect with Sebennytus the 
worship of the Golden Calf in O.T. Exodus xxxii., 1 Kings 
xii. 28 ff. (P. E. Newberry). 

^ Sec Strabo, 17. 1, 29 for the " large houses in which 
the priests had lived ". According to Herodotus (ii. 3, 1), 
"the Heliopolitans are said to be the most learned of the 
Egyptians". 



MANETHO 

the sacred tree in the great Hall of Heliopolis, — the 
tree on which the goddess Seshat, the Lady of Letters, 
the Mistress of the Library, wrote down with her 
own hand the names and deeds of the rulers.^ He 
did nothing more than communicate to the Greek 
world what the goddess had noted down.^ But he 
did so with a full sense of the superiority which 
relied on the sacred records of the Egyptians in 
opposition to Herodotus whom he was contradict- 
ing " (Fr. 43, § 73 : Fr. 88). His native town, 
Sebennytus, was visited as a place of learning by 
Solon when Ethemon was a priest in residence 
there (see Proclus in Plat. Tim. i. 101, 22, Diehl) ; 
and the Greek culture of the place must have been 
a formative influence upon Manetho at an early age. 
In the introduction of the statue of Serapis to 
Alexandria as described by Plutarch (Manetho, 
Fr. 80), Manetho the Egyptian was associated with 
the Greek Timotheus as a priestly adviser of King 
Ptolemy Soter. It is natural to suppose that the 
cult of Serapis itself, which was a conflation of 

1 See Erman-Ranke, Agypten, 1923, pp. 396 f. ; or 
Erman, Die Religion der Agypter, 1934, pp. 66 f. ; or 
the original drawing in Lepsius, Denkmdler, iii. 169. This 
illustration shows the goddess, along with Thoth and 
Atum, making inscriptions upon the leaves (or fruit) of 
the venerable tree. 

^ It may be added that the Egyptians are surpassed by 
no nation in their strong and ever-present desire to leave 
upon stone or papyrus permanent records of their history, 
their motive being to glorify the ruhng king. Cf. 
Herodotus, ii. 77, 1 (of the Eg;s-ptians who hve in the culti- 
vated country), " the most dihgent of all men in preserving 
the memory of the past, and far better skilled in chronicles 
than any others whom I have questioned". 



INTRODUCTION 

Egyptian and Greek ideas intended to be acceptable 
to both nationalities, had already been organized ^ 
with the help of the two priests, and the magnificent 
temple in Rhakotis, the Egyptian quarter in the 
west of Alexandria, had doubtless been built. The 
date is not certain : according to Jerome (Fothering- 
ham, p. 211, Helm. p. 129) " Sarapis entered Alex- 
andria " in 286 B.C., while the Armenian Version of 
the Chronicle of Eusebius says that in 278 B.C. 
" Sarapis came to Alexandria, and became resident 
there " (Karst, 200). Perhaps the two statements 
refer to different stages in the development of the 
cult : if the former describes the entry of the statue 
by Bryaxis, the latter may possibly refer to the 
final establishment of the whole theology. As a 
proof that the work of Manetho in building up 
the cult of Serapis must not be belittled, it may 
suffice to refer to the inscription of the name MaveOojv 
on the base of a marble bust found in the ruins of 
the Temple of Serapis at Carthage {Corpus Inscr. 
Lat. viii. 1007). The name is so uncommon that the 
probability is that the bust which originally stood 
on this base represented the Egyptian Manetho, and 
was erected in his honour because of his effective 
contribution to the organization of the cult of 

^ The earliest date for Serapis is given by Macrobius, Sat. 
i. 20, 16, a questioning of Serapis by Nicocreon of Cvprus, 
c. 311-310 B.C. For Dittenberger, O.G.I.S. 16 (an inscrip- 
tion from Halicarnassus on the founding of a temple to 
Serapis-Isis under (the satrap) Ptolemy Soter), the date 
is uncertain, probably c. 308-306 B.C. Already in 
Menander's drama, 'EyxeiplSiov (before 291 B.C. when 
Menander died), Serapis is a " holy god " (P. Oxy. XV'. 
1803). 



MANETHO 

Serapis.^ Hence it is not impossible also that the 
following reference in a papyrus of 241 B.C. may be 
to Manctho of Sebennytus. It occurs in a document 
containing correspondence about a Temple Seal 
(P. Hibeh, i. 72, vv. 6, 7, ypd(f>€Lv MaveOon). The 
person named was evidently a well-known man in 
priestly circles : he was probably our Manetho, the 
writer on Egyptian history and religion, if he lived 
to a considerable age.^ 

Manetho''s Works. 

Eight works ^ have been attributed to Manetho : 
(1) AlyvTrrLaKa, or The History of Egypt, (2) The Book 
of Sothis, (3) The Sacred Book, (4) An Epitome of 
Physical Doctrines, (5) On Festivals, (6) On Ancient 
Ritual and Religion, (7) On the Making of Kyphi 
[a kind of incense], (8) Criticisms of Herodotus. 

Of these, (2) The Book of Sothis (App. IV. and 

' Cf. Lafaye, Histoire du Culte des Divinitds d'Alexandrie 
(1884), p. 16 n. 1 : " At all events, there is no doubt 
that the adepts of the Alexandrine cult had great venera- 
tion for Manetho, and considered him in some measure 
as their patriarch ". 

^ Bouche-Leclercq {Histoire des Lagides, iv. p. 269 n. 4) 
holds a different opinion : " the reference is not necessarily 
to the celebrated Manetho, whose very existence is prob- 
lematical ". 

8 A work wrongly attributed in antiquity (e.g. by Suidas, 
see p. x) to Manetho of Sebennytus is 'AnoTeXeafxaTiKo., in 
6 books, an astrological poem in hexameters on the 
influence of the stars. See W. Kroll (R.-E. s.v. Manethon 
(2)), who with Kochly recognizes in the 6 books 4 sections 
of different dates from about a.d. 120 to the fourth century 
after Christ. Books I. and V. open with dedications to 
King Ptolemy : cf. Psoudo-Manetho, Appendix I. 



INTRODUCTION 

pp. xxvii. ff.) is certainly not by Manetho ; and there 
is no reason to believe that (8) Criticisms of Herodotus 
formed a separate work, although we know from 
Josephus, C. Apian, i. 73 (Fr. 42), that Manetho did 
convict Herodotus of error. Six titles remain, but 
it has long been thought that some of these are 
" ghost " titles. Fruin {Manetho, p. Ixxvii) supposed 
that Manetho wrote only two works — one on Egyp- 
tian history, the other on Egyptian mythology and 
antiquities. Susemihl {Alex. Lit.-Gesch. i. 609, 
n. 431) and W. Otto {Priester und Ternpel in 
Hellenistischen Agypten, ii. 215, n. 4) modified this 
extreme view : they recognized three distinct works 
of Manetho ( The History of Egypt, The Sacred Book, 
and An Epitome of Physical Doctrines), and assumed 
that the titles On Festivals, On Ancient Ritual and 
Religion, and On the Making of Kyphi referred to 
passages in The Sacred Book. In the paucity of our 
data, no definite judgiuaent seems possible as to 
whether Manetho wrote six works or only three ; 
but in support of the former theory we may refer to 
Eusebius (Man. Fr. 76). 

The History of Egypt. 

The Egyptian History ^ of Manetho is preserved in 
extracts of two kinds. (1) Excerpts from the 
original work are preserved by Josephus, along 
with other passages which can only be pseudo- 

^ Or Notes abotU Egypt. There are two variants of t he 
Greek title : AlYviTTiaKd (Josephus in Fr. 42), and AiyvnTtaKa 
vTToiJLt'TjfiaTa (Aegyptiaca monuinanta, Eus. in Fr. 1), witli 
a possible third form AlyvTTTioiv vnofxvTjfxaTa {Aegyptiorum 
monumenta, Eus., p. 359). 

XV 



MANETHO 

Manethonian. The Jews of the three centuries 
following the time of Manetho were naturally 
keenly interested in his History because of the 
connexion of their ancestors with Egypt — Abraham, 
Joseph, and Moses the leader of the Exodus ; and 
they sought to base their theories of the origin and 
antiquity of the Jews securely upon the authentic 
traditions of Egypt. In Manetho indeed they found 
an unwelcome statement of the descent of the Jews 
from lepers ; but they were able to identify their 
ancestors with the Hyksos, and the Exodus with 
the expulsion of these invaders. The efforts of 
Jewish apologists account for much re-handling, 
enlargement, and corruption of Manetho's text, and 
the result may be seen in the treatise of Josephus, 
Contra Apionem, i. 

(2) An Epitome of Manetho's history had been 
made at an early date, — not by Manetho himself, 
there is reason to believe, — in the form of Lists of 
Dynasties with short notes on outstanding kings or 
important events. The remains of this Epitome are 
preserved by Christian chronographers, especially by 
Africanus and Eusebius. Their aim was to compare 
the chronologies of the Oriental nations with the 
Bible, and for this purpose the Epitome gave an 
ideal conspectus of the whole History, omitting, as 
it does, narratives such as the account of the Hyksos 
preserved by Josephus. Of the two chronographers, 
the founder of Christian chronography, Sextus 
Julius Africanus, whose Chronicle ^ came down to 

1 For a later miscellaneous work, the Kearoi, see P. Oxy. 
iii. 412 (between a.d. 225 and 265) ; and Jules Africain, 
Fragments des Cestes, ed. J.-R. Vieillefond, Paris, 1932. 

xvi 



INTRODUCTION 

A.D. 217 or A,D. 221, transmits the Epitome in a 
more accurate form ; while Eusebius, whose work 
extends to a.d. 326, is responsible for unwarranted 
alterations of the original text of Manetho. About 
A.D. 800 George the Monk, who is known as Syncellus 
from his religious office (as " attendant " of Tarasius, 
Patriarch of Constantinople), made use of Manetho's 
work in various forms in his 'EkXoyt) Xpovoypa<f)iag, 
a history of the world from Adam to Diocletian. 
Syncellus sought to prove that the incarnation took 
place in Anno Mundi 5500 ; and in his survey of the 
thirty-one Egvptian dynasties which reigned from 
the Flood to Darius, he relied on the authoritative 
work of Manetho as transmitted by Africanus and 
Eusebius, and as handed down in a corrupt form in 
the Old Chronicle (App. III.) and the Book of Sothis 
(App. IV.) which had been used by the chronographer 
Panodorus (c. a.d. 400). 

Even from the above brief statement of the trans- 
mission of Manetho's text, it will be seen that many 
problems are involved, and that it is extremely 
difficult to reach certainty in regard to what is 
authentic Manetho and what is spurious or corrupt. 
The problems are discussed in detail by Richard 
Laqueur in his valuable and exhaustive article in 
Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, R.-E. s.v. Manethon ; and it 
may be sufficient here to quote his summary of the 
results of his researches in regard to Manetho (1) in 
Josephus, and (2) in the Christian Chronographers. 

(1) Manetho in Josephus, Contra Apionem, i. (see 
Fr. 42, 50, 54.) 

" (a) Extracts from the genuine Manetho appear 
in §§ 75-82, 84-90, 94-102o, 232-249, 251. Of these 

xvii 



MANETHO 

passages, §§ 75-82, 94- 102a, 237-249 are quoted 
verbatim, the others are given in Indirect Speech. 

" (6) A rationalistic critique of" the genuine 
Manetho was written by a Hellenist, and was used 
by Josephus for his work. The remains of this 
critique appear in §§ 254-261, 267-269, 271-274, 276- 
277. Perhaps §§ 1026-103 is connected with these. 

" (c) The authoritative work of Manetho was 
further exploited by Jews and Egyptians in their 
mutual polemic, in the course of which additions to 
Manetho's works were made : these additions were 
partly favourable to the Jews (§§ 83, 91), partly 
hostile to the Jews (§ 250). These passages, like 
those mentioned in (6), were collected before the 
time of Josephus into a single treatise, so that one 
could no longer clearly recognize what had belonged 
to Manetho and what was based upon additions. 

" {d) Josephus originally knew only the genuine 
Manetho (c/. (a)), and used him throughout as a 
witness against the aggressors of Judaism. In this 
it was of importance for Josephus to show that the 
Hyksos had come to Egypt from abroad, that their 
expulsion took place long before the beginning of 
Greek history, and that they, in their expedition to 
aid the Lepers, remained untainted by them. 

" (e) After Josephus had completed this elabora- 
tion, he came later to know the material mentioned 
in (6) and (c) : so far as it was favourable to the 
Jews or helpful in interpretation, it led only to short 
expansions of the older presentation ; so far, how- 
ever, as it was hostile to the Jews, Josephus found 
himself induced to make a radical change in his 
attitude towards Manetho. He attacked Manetho 



INTRODUCTION 

sharply for his alleged statement (§ 250), and at the 
same time used the polemic mentioned in (6) in 
order to overthrow Manetho's authority in general. 

" (/) From the facts adduced it follows that 
Manetho's work was already before the time of 
Josephus the object of numerous literary analyses." ^ 

Cf. the following summary. 

(2) Manetho in the Christian Chronographers. 

" (a) Not long after the appearance of Manetho's 
work, an Epitome was made, giving excerpts from 
the Dynasty-Lists and increasing these from 30 to 
31. The possibility that other additions were made 
is not excluded. 

" (6) The Epitome was remodelled by a Hellenistic 
Jew in such a way that the Jewish chronology 
became compatible with that of Manetho. 

" (c) A descendant of version (a) is extant in 
Julius Africanus : a descendant of version (6), in 
Eusebius." 

The Chronicle of Africanus in five books is lost 
except for what is preserved in the extracts made 
by Eusebius, and the many fragments contained in 
the works of Syncellus and Cedrenus, and in the 
Paschale Chronicon. For Eusebius we have several 
lines of transmission. The Greek text of Eusebius 
has come down to us in part, as quoted by Syn- 
cellus ; but the whole work is known through (1) the 
Armenian Version, which was composed in v./a.d.^ 

1 A further study of the transmission of Manetho in 
Josephus is made by A. Moniighano, " Intorno al Contro 
Apione," in Rivista di Filolof/ia, 59 (19.31), pp. 48;')-.'i03. 

^ The Armenian MS. G (Codnx Hierosolymitanus) 
printed by Aucher (1818) is dated by liini between a.d. 



MANETHO 

from a revision of the first Greek text,^ and is, of 
course, quite independent of Syncellus ; and (2) the 
Latin Version made by Jerome towards the end of 
the fourth century. 

Possible Sources of the AlyvTmaKa. 

An Egyptian high priest, learned in Greek litera- 
ture, had an unrivalled opportunity, in early 
Ptolemaic times, of writing an excellent and accurate 
history of Egypt. He had open access to records of 
all kinds — papyri ^ in the temple archives (annals, 
sacred books containing liturgies and poems), hiero- 
glyphic tablets, wall sculptures, and innumerable 
inscriptions.^ These records no one but an Egyptian 
priest could consult and read ; and only a scholar 
who had assimilated the works of Greek historians 
could make a judicious and scientific use of the 
abundant material. It is hardly to be expected, 

1065 and 1306. Karst quotes readings from this and two 
other Armenian MSS., but the variations are compara- 
tively unimportant. 

1 See A. Puech, Hist, de la Litt. grecque chrdtienne, iii. 
p. 177. 

" Herodotus (ii. 100 : cf. 142) mentions a papyrus roll 
(jSujSAos) containing a list of 331 kings. Diodorus (i. 44, 4) 
tells of " records {avaypa<f>aL) handed down in the sacred 
books " (eV rat? t'epats ^i/3Aois), giving each king's stature, 
character, and deeds, as well as the length of his reign. 

^ Cf. the Annals of the Reign of Tuthmosis III. (Breasted, 
Ancient Records, ii. §§ 391-540) : this important historical 
document of 223 lines is inscribed on the walls of a cor- 
ridor in the Temple of Amon at Karnak, and " demon- 
strates the injustice of the criticism that the Egyptians 
were incapable of giving a clear and succinct account of 
a military campaign ". 



INTRODUCTION 

however, that Manetho's History should possess more 
worth than that of his sources ; and the material at 
his disposal included a certain proportion of un- 
historical traditions and popiilar legends.^ 

There is no possibility of identifying the particular 
records from which Manetho compiled his History : 
the following are the kinds of monuments which he 
may have consulted and from which we derive a 
means of controlling his statements. 

(1) The Royal List of Abydos, on the wall of a 
corridor of the Temple of Sethos I. at Abydos, gives 
in chronological order a series of seventy-six kings 
from Menes to Sethos I. Dynasties XIII. to XVII. 
are lacking. A mutilated duplicate of this list was 
found in the Temple of Ramesses II. at Abydos 
(now in the British Museum : see Guide, p. 245) : 
it arranges the kings in three rows, while the more 
complete list has them in two rows. 

(2) The Royal List of Karnak (now in the Louvre) 
has a list of kings, originally sixty-one, from Menes 
down to Tuthmosis III., Dynasty XVIII., with 
many names belonging to the Second Intermediate 
Period (Dynasties XIII.-XVIL). 

The Royal Lists of Abydos and Karnak give the 
tradition of Upper Egypt. 

(3) The Royal List of Sakkara (found in a tomb at 
Sakkara, and now in the Cairo Museum) preserves the 
cartouches of forty-seven (originally fifty-eight) kings 
previous to, and including, Ramesses II. It begins 
with Miebis, the sixth king of Dynasty I. ; and like 

^ The popular tales introduced kings as their heroes, 
without regard to chronological order : see G. Maspero, 
Bibliotheqtie Egyptologique, vol. vii. (1898), pp. 419 ff. 



MANETHO 

the Royal List of Abydos, it omits Dynasties XIII.- 
XVII. Like (4) the Turin Papyrus, the Royal List of 
Sdkkdra gives the tradition of Lower Egypt. 

(4) More important than any of the preceding is 
the Turin Papyrus, written in hieratic on the verso 
of the papyrus, with accounts of the time of 
Ramesses II. on the recto (which gives the approximate 
date, c. 1200 B.C.). In its original state the papyrus 
must have been an artistically beautiful exemplar, 
as the script is an exceptionally fine one. It contains 
the names of kings in order, over 300 when complete, 
with the length of each reign in years, months, and 
days ; and as the definitive edition of the papyrus 
has not yet been issued, further study is expected to 
yield additional results.^ The papyrus begins, like 
Manetho, with the dynasties of gods, followed by 
mortal kings also in dynasties. The change of 
dynasty is noted, and the sum of the reigns is given : 
also, as in Manetho, several dynasties are added 
together, e.g. " Sum of the Kings from Menes to 
[Unas] " at the end of Dynasty V. The arrange- 
ment in the papyrus is very similar to that in the 
Epitome of Manetho. 

(5) The Palermo Stone ^ takes us back to a much 
greater antiquity : it dates from the Fifth Dynasty, 
c. 2600 B.C., and therefore contains Old Egyptian 
annals of the kings. The Stone or Stele was origin- 

^ See Sir J. G. Wilkinson, Fragments of the Hieratic 
Papyrtis at Turin, London, 1851 : E. Meyer, Aeg. Chron. 
pp. 105 ff., and Die Altere Chronologie Bahyloniens, As- 
syriens, und Agyptens, revised by Stior (1931), pp. 55 ff. 

2 Plate II. See H. Schafer, Abhandl. Akad. Berl. 1902 : 
Breasted, Ancient Records, i. §§ 76-167: Sethe, Urkunden 
des Alten R".ichs, pp. 235-249; and c/. Petrie, The Making 
of Egypt, 1939, pp. 98 f. 



INTRODUCTION 

ally a large slab ^ of black diorite, about 7 feet long 
and over 2 feet high ; but only a fragment of the 
middle of the slab is preserved in the Museum of 
Palermo, while smaller pieces of this, or of a similar 
momiment, have been identified in the Cairo Museum 
and in University College, London. Although the 
text is unfortunately fragmentary, this early docu- 
ment is clearly seen to be more closely related to 
the genuine Manetho than are the Kings' Lists of 
later date (1, 2, 3, 4 above).^ In a space marked off 
on each side by a year-sign and therefore denoting 
one year, notable events are given in an upper 
section of the space and records of the Nile-levels in 
a lower. A change of reign is denoted by a vertical 
line prolonging the year-sign above, on each side of 
which a certain number of months and days is 
recorded — on one side those belonging to the de- 
ceased king, and on the other to his successor. In 
the earliest Dynasties the years were not numbered, 
but were named after some important event or 
events, e.g. " the year of the smiting of the ^Iniv,^^ 
" the year of the sixth time of numbering ". 
Religious and military events were particularly 
common, just as they are in Manetho. A year-name 
of King Snefru (Dynasty IV.) states that he 
conquered the Nehesi, and captured 7000 prisoners 
and 200,000 head of cattle : cf. Manetho, Fr. 7, on 
the foreign expedition of Menes. So, too, under 

' More plausibly, according to Petrie {The Making of 
Egypt, 1939, p. 98), the text of the annals was divided 
among six slabs each 16 inches wide, both sides being 
equally visible. 

^ Borchardt, in Die Annalen (1917), quoted in Ancient 
Egypt, 1920, p. 124, says, "Manetho had really good 
sources, and his copyists have not altogether spoiled him ". 



MANETHO 

Shepseskaf, the last king of Dynasty IV., the 
building of a pyramid is recorded, and under 
Dynasties I., IV., and VI. Manetho makes mention 
of pyramid-building. It is especially noteworthy 
that the first line of the Palermo Stone gives a list 
of kings before Menes : cf. the Turin Papyrus, as 
quoted on Fr. 1. (For the Cairo fragments see 
Sethe, op. cit.) 



In regard to Manetho's relation to his Greek 
predecessors in the field of Egyptian history, we 
know that he criticized Herodotus, not, as far as 
we can tell, in a separate work, but merely in 
passages of his History. In none of the extant 
fragments does Manetho mention by name Hecataeus 
of Abdera, but it is interesting to speculate upon 
Manetho's relation to this Greek historian. The 
floruit of Hecataeus fell in the time of Alexander and 
Ptolemy son of Lagus (Gutschmid gives 320 B.C. as 
an approximate estimate) ; and it is very doubtful 
whether he lived to see the reign of Philadelphus, 
who came to the throne in 285 B.C. (Jacoby in 
R.-E. vii. 2, 2750). His Aegyptiaca was " a philo- 
sophical romance," describing " an ethnographical 
Utopia " : it was no history of Egypt, but a work 
with a philosophical tendency. Manetho and 
Hecataeus are quoted together, e.g. by Plutarch, 
Isis and Osiris, chap. 9, perhaps from an inter- 
mediary writer who used the works of both Manetho 
and Hecataeus. If we assume that Hecataeus wrote 
his " romance " before Manetho composed his 
History, perhaps one of the purposes of Manetho 
was to correct the errors of his predecessor. No 



INTRODUCTION 

criticism of Hecataeus, however, has been attributed 
to Manetho ; and it is natural that similarities are 
found in their accounts {cf. p. 131, n. 2). Be that 
as it may, Hecataeus enjoyed greater popularity 
among the Greeks than Manetho : they preferred 
his " romance " to Manetho's more reliable annals. 
Yet Manetho's Aegyptiaca has no claim to be 
regarded as a critical history : its value lies in the 
dynastic skeletons which serve as a framework for 
the evidence of the monuments, and it has provided 
in its essentials the accepted scheme of Egyptian 
chronology.^ But there were many errors in 
Manetho's work from the very beginning : all are 
not due to the perversions of scribes and revisers. 
Many of the lengths of reigns have been found 
impossible : in some cases the names and the 
sequence of kings as given by Manetho have proved 
untenable in the light of monumental evidence. 
If one may depend upon the extracts preserved in 
Josephus, Manetho's work was not an authentic 
history of Egypt, exact in its details, as the Chaldaica 
of Berossos was, at least for later times. Manetho 
introduced into an already corrupted series of 
dynastic lists a number of popular traditions written 

^ Cf. H. R. Hall, Cambridge Ancient History, i. p. 260 : 
" So far as we are able to check Manetho from the con- 
temporary monuments, his division into dynasties is 
entirely justified. His authorities evidently were good. 
But unhappily his work has come down to us only in copies 
of copies ; and, although the framework of the dynasties 
remains, most of his royal names, originally Graecized, 
have been so mutilated by non-Egyptian scribes, who 
did not understand their form, as often to be unrecog- 
nizable, and the regnal years given by him have been so 
corrupted as to be of little value unless confirmed by the 
Turin Papyrus or the monuments." 



MANETHO 

in the characteristic Egyptian style. No genuine 
historical sense had been developed among the 
Egyptians, although Manetho's work does illustrate 
the influence of Greek culture upon an Egyptian 
priest. He wrote to correct the errors of Greek 
historians, especially of Herodotus (see Fr. 88) ; but 
from the paucity of information about certain 
periods, it seems clear that in ancient times, as for 
us at the present day, there were obscure eras 
in Egyptian history.^ Before the Sa'ite Dynasty 
(XXVI.) there were three outstanding periods — in 
Dynasties IV.-VI., XI.-XIL, and XVIII.-XX., or 
roughly the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and 
the New Kingdom (sometimes called the Empire) ; 
and these are the periods upon which the light falls 
in all histories. 

The significance of Manetho's writings is that for 
the first time an Egyptian was seeking to instruct 
foreigners in the history and religion of his native 
land. 

Other Works attributed to Manetho. 

To judge by the frequency of quotation, the re- 
ligious treatises of Manetho were much more popular 
in Greek circles than the History of Egypt was ; yet 
the fragments surviving from these works (Fr. 76-88) 
are so meagre that no distinct impression of their 
nature can be gained. The Sacred Book (Fr. 76-81) 

1 Cf. H. R. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East *, 
p. 14: "In fact, Manetho did what he could: where 
the native annals were good and complete, his abstract 
is ^oorl : where they were broken and incomplete, his 
record is incomplete also and confused. . . ." 



INTRODUCTION 

was doubtless a valuable exposition of the details 
of Egyptian religion, as well as of the mythological 
elements of Egyptian theology. It testifies to the 
importance of the part played by Manetho in support 
of Ptolemy Soter's vigorous policy of religious 
syncretism. It seems probable that the Sacred Book 
was Manetho's main contribution in aid of this 
policy : it may have been the result of a definite 
commission by the king, in order to spread a know- 
ledge of Egyptian religion among the Greeks. That 
an Egyptian priest should seek to instruct the 
Greek-speaking world of his time in the history of 
Egypt and in the religious beliefs of the Egyptians, 
including festivals, ancient rites and piety in general, 
and the preparation of kyphi, is not at all surprising ; 
but it seems strange that Manetho should feel called 
upon, in the third century B.C., to compose an 
Epitome of Physical Doctrines (Fr. 82, 83) with the 
apparent object of familiarizing the Greeks with 
Egyptian science. One may conjecture that his 
special purpose was to give instruction to students 
of his own. 

The Book of Sothis (Appendix IV.). 

The Book of Sothis ^ or The Sothic Cycle is trans- 
mitted through Syncellus alone. In the opinion of 
Syncellus, this Sothis-Book was dedicated by Manetho 

^ Sothis is the Greek form of Sopdet, tho Egyptian 
name for the Dog-star, Sirius, the heliacal rising of which 
was noted at an early date : on the great importance of 
the S6thic period in Egyptian chronology, see Breasted, 
Ancient Records, i. §§ 40 ff., and H. R. Hall, Encyclopaedia 
Britannica ", a.v. Chronology. CJ. infra, Appendix III., 
p. 226, and Appendix IV., p. 234. 

xxvii 



MANETHO 

to Ptolemy Philadelphus (see App. I.). The king 
wished to learn the future of the universe, and 
Manetho accordingly sent to him " sacred books " 
based upon inscriptions which had been written 
down by Thoth, the first Hermes, in hieratic script, 
had been interpreted after the Flood by Agatho- 
daemon, son of the second Hermes and father of 
Tat, and had been deposited in the sanctuaries of the 
temples of Egypt. The letter which purports to have 
accompanied the " sacred books " is undoubtedly a 
forgery ; but the SOthis-Book is significant for the 
textual transmission of Manetho. According to the 
LXX the Flood took place in Anno Mundi 2242 
(see Frags. 2, 6 : App. III., p. 232). This date must 
close the prehistoric period in Egypt and in Chaldea : 
the 11,985 years of the Egyptian gods are therefore 
regarded as months and reduced to 969 years. 
Similarly, the 858 years of the demigods are treated 
as quarter-years or periods of three months, thus 
becoming 214^ years : total, 969 + 214| = 1183| 
years (Fr. 2). In Chaldean prehistory, by fixing 
the saros at 3600 days, 120 saroi become 1183 years 
6| months. Accordingly, the beginning of Egyptian 
and Babylonian history is placed at 2242 — 1184, or 
1058 Anno Mundi : in that year (or in 1000, Fr. 2) 
falls the coming of the Egregori, who finally by their 
sins brought on the Flood. The Book of Sothis 
begins with the reign of Mestraim, Anno Mundi 2776 
(App. IV., p. 234 : App. III., p. 232), i.e. 534 years 
after the Flood, and continues to the year 4986, 
which gives 2210 years of Egyptian rule — almost the 
same number as Manetho has in either Book I. or 
Book II. of his History of Egypt. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Greek text of Manetho in 

1. C. Miiller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ii. 
(1848), pp. 512-616. 

2. Manethonis Sebennytae Reliquiae, R. Fruin, 1847. 
Greek text of the Epitome in 

3. G. F. Unger, Chronologic des Manetho, Berlin, 1867. 
Greek text of Kings' Lists summarized in parallel columns ; 

4. R. Lepsius, Konigsbuch der alten Agypter, BerUn, 1858. 
Greek text of religious writings in 

5. Pontes Historiae Religionis Aegyptiacae, Th. Hopfner, 
1922-25. 

Accounts of Manetho and his work. 

1. Richard Laqueur in Pauly-Wissowa-KroU, R.-E. 
xiv. 1 (1928), s.v. Manethon (1). 

2. F. Susemihl, Alex. Lit.-Oeschichte, i., 1891, pp. 608-616. 

3. W. Otto, Priester und Tempel im hellenist. Aegypten 
(1908), ii. pp. 215 f., 228 f. 

Subsidiary Works. 
Josephus 

ed. Niese, Vol. v., 1889. 

ed. Thackeray (L.C.L., Vol. i., 1926). 

ed. Reinach and Blum (Bud6, 1930). 
Arnaldo Momigliano, Rivista di Filologia, 59 (1931), pp. 

485-503. 
Syncellus or George the Monk, in Corpus Scriptorum 

Historicorum Byzantinorum, W. Dindorf, 1829. 
Heinrich Gelzer, Sextus Julius Africanus, 1880-89. 
Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, E. H. Gifford, 1903. 
Eusebii chronicorum lib. I., A. Schone, 1875. 
Eusebius, Clironica (in Armenian Version) : 

(a) Latin translation by Zohrab-Mai, 1818 (in Miiller's 
F.H.O. ii.). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(6) Latin translation by Aucher, 1818 (partly quoted 
in R. Lepsius, Konigsbuch — see above). 

(c) Latin translation by H. Petermann, in Schone (above). 

(d) German translation by Josef Karat in Ensebius, 
Werke V. Die Chronik, 1911. 

Ed. Meyer, Aegyptische Chronologie, 1904 (Nachtrage, 

1907 : Neue Nachtrage, 1907). French translation by 

Alexandre Moret, 1912. 
Ed. Meyer, Qeschichte des Altertums *, I. ii., II, i., ii. 
James H. Breasted, Ancient Records, 1906. 
T. E. Peet, H. R. Hall, J. H. Breasted, in the Cambridge 

Ancient History, Vols, i.-vi. 
A. von Gutschniid, Kleine Schriften, iv., 1893. 

For further works and articles relating to Manetho, see 
the article by Laqueur, Pauly-Wissowa-KroU, R.-E. 



MSS. 

Syncelltjs 

A = 1711 of Paris (dated a.d. 1021), used by Scaliger 
and Goar, the first two editors. Editions : Paris, 
1652 ; Venice, 1729. 
B = 1764 of Paris — a much better MS. than A. 
G signifies readings of Goar. 

m signifies conjectures and notes in the margin of 
Gear's edition. 

EusEBius, Chronica (Armenian Version) 

G = Codex Hierosolymitanus (see Intro., p. xix n. 2). 
JosEPHTJS, Contra Apionem, i. 

L = Codex Laurentianus plut. Ixix. 22 of eleventh 

century. 
Hafniensis, No. 1570, at Copenhagen, fifteenth centiuy. 
Bigotianus, known from readings transmitted by 

Emericus Bigotius. 
Quotations by Eusebius (a.d. 264-340), sometimes best 

preserved in the Armenian version. 
Lat. = Latin version made by order of Cassiodorus, 

the minister of Theodoric, c. a.d. 540. 
Editio princeps of Greek text (Basel, 1544). 

XXX 



LIST OF ABBREVIATED TITLES USED IN 
REFERENCE 

Ann. Serv. Antiq. = Annales du Service des Antiquites de 
V^gypte, Le Caire, 1900- 

Baodeker * = Egypt and the SMdn, by Karl Baedeker 
(English translation, 8th edition, 1929). 

Karst = Joseph Karst's German translation Die Chronik, 
in Eusebius, Werke, v., 1911. 

P. Baden = F. Bilabel, Griechische Papyri (V eroffentlich' 
ungen aus den badischen Papyrus-Samtnlungen), 
Heidelberg, 1923-24. 

P. Hibeh = Grenfell and Hunt, The Hibeh Papyri, I., 
1906. 

P. Mich. Zen. = C. C. Edgar, Zenon Papyri in the Uni- 
versity of Michigan Collection, 1931. 

P. Oxy. = Grenfell, Hunt, and Bell, The Oxyrhynchu-a 
Papyri, 1898-1927. 

Petermann = H. Petennann's Latin translation in Schone 
(below). 

Schone = Eusebii Chronicorum lib. I., A. Schone, 1875. 

Syncellua = Syncellus or George the Monk, in Corpus Scrip- 
torum Historicorum ByzarUinorum, W. Dindorf, 1829. 



NOTE 

The editor wishes to acknowledge with gratitude 
the valuable help ungrudgingly given to him in all 
Egyptological matters by Professor Percy E. 
Newberry (Liverpool and Cairo) and by Professor 
Battiscombe Gunn (Oxford) ; but neither of these 
Egyptologists must be held responsible for the final 
form in which their contributions appear, except 
where their names or initials are appended. Thanks 
are also due to Professor D. S. Margoliouth (Oxford), 
who very kindly revised the Latin translation of the 
Armenian Version of Eusebius, Chronica, by com- 
paring it with the original Armenian as given in 
Aucher's edition : the footnotes show how much the 
text here printed has benefited from his revision. 

In a work which brings before the mind's eye a 
long series of Kings of Egypt, the editor would have 
liked to refer interested readers to some book con- 
taining a collection of portraits of these kings ; but 
it seems that, in spite of the convenience and 
interest which such a book would possess, no com- 
plete series of royal portraits has yet been published.^ 
For a certain number of portrait-sketches (25 in all), 
skilfully created from existing mummies and ancient 
representations, see Winifred Brunton, Kings and 
Queens of Ancient Egypt (1924), and Great Ones of 
Ancient Egypt (1929). 

^ For portraits of some kings, see Petrie, The Making of 
Egypt, 1939 , passim. 



THE AEGYPTIACA OF MANETHO: 
MANETHO'S HISTORY OF EGYPT 



AirvnTIAKA 

TOMOS nPQTOS 

Fr. 1. EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 93 (Mai). 

Ex Aegyptiacis Manethonis monumentis, qui in 
tres libros historiam suam tribuit, — de diis et de 
heroibus, de manibus et de mortalibus regibus qui 
Aegypto praefuerunt usque ad regem Persarum 
Darium. 

1. Primus homo (deus) Aegyptiis Vulcanus * est, 
qui etiam ignis repertor apud eos celebratur. Ex 
eo Sol ; [postea Sosis ^ ;] deinde Saturnus ; turn 

' Cf. Joannes Lydus, De Mensibus, iv. 86 (Wiinsch). 
On Mains, after speaking of Hephaestus, Lydus adds : 
Kara Se laropiav Mavedoiv AlyvrmaKwv vTTOfivT]fia.Tiov iv TOfxco 
TpLTw (firjaiv, oTt TTpwTos dvdpwTTOJv * Trap' AlyvnTiois f^aaiXivaev 
' H^aiOTOS 6 Kol evpeTTjS tov nvpos avrois yevofievos ' fi ov 'HXios, 
ov Kpovos, fJ-fd' ov "Oaipis, eneiTa Tv<j)(j)v, aheXiftos 'Oaipecus. 
From this passage we see that Lydus gives the sequence 
"Hephaestus, HeUos (the Sun), Cronos, Osiris, Typhdn," 
omitting S6sis as Eusebius does. After this passage in 
Lydus comes Fr. 84 'lareov Se . . . 

2 From Joannes Antioehenus(Malalas), Chron., 24(Migne, 
Patrologia, Vol. 97). 

* Bracketed by Hopfner, Fontes Hiatoriae Religionia, 
Bonn, 1922-3, p. 65. 

2 



THE AEGYPTIACA OF MANETHO: 
MANETHO'S HISTORY OF EGYPT 

BOOK I. 

Fr. 1 {from the Armenian Version of Eusebius, 
Chronica). Dynasties of Gods, Demigods, 
AND Spirits of the Dead. 

From the Egyptian History of Manetho, who com- 
posed his account in three books. These deal with 
the Gods, the Demigods, the Spirits of the Dead, 
and the mortal kings who ruled Egypt down to 
Darius, king of the Persians. 

1. The first man (or god) in Egypt is Hephaestus,^ 
who is also renowned among the Egyptians as the 
discoverer of fire. His son, Helios (the Sun), was 
succeeded by Sosis : then follow, in turn, Cronos, 

* The Pre -dynastic Period begins with a group of gods, 
" consisting of the Great Ennead of Hehopolis in the 
form in which it was worshipped at Memphis " (T. E. 
Peet, Cambridge Ancient History, i. p. 250). After summar- 
izing §§ 1-3 Peet adds : " From the historical point of 
view there is Httie to be made of this ". See Meyer, 
Oeschichte des AUertums *, I. ii. p. 102 f. for the Egyptian 
traditions of the Pre-dynastic Period. In the Turin 
Papyrus the Gods are given in the same order : (Ptah), 
R6, (Shu), Geb, Osiris, S6th (200 years), Horus (300 years), 
Thoth (3126 years), Ma'at, Har, . . . Total .... See 
Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p. 116, and cf. Fr. 3. 

3 



Fr. 1 MANETHO 

Osiris ; exin Osiriflis frater Typhon ; ad extremum 
Orus, Osiridis et Isidis filius. Hi primi inter 
Aegyptios rerum potiti sunt. Deinceps continuata 
successione delapsa est regia auctoritas usque ad 
Bydin (Bitem) per annorum tredecim milia ac non- 
gentos. Lunarem tamen annum intelligo, videlicet 
XXX diebus constantem : quern enim nunc mensem 
dicimus, Aegyptii olim anni nomine indigitabant. 

2. Post deos regnarunt heroes annis MCCLV : rur- 
susque alii reges dominati sunt annis MDCCCXVII : 
tum alii triginta reges Memphitae annis MDCCXC : 
deinde alii Thinitae decem reges annis CCCL, 

3. Secuta est manium heroumque dominatio annis 
MMMMMDCCCXIII. 

4. Summa temporis in mille et myriadem ^ con- 
surgit annorum, qui tamen lunares, nempe menstrui, 

^ Miiller : mille myriadas Mai. 



* The name Bydis (or Bites) seems to be the Egj'ptian 
bity "king" (from bit "bee"), the title of the kings of 
Lower Egypt : see the Palermo Stone, and cf. Herodotus, 
iv. 155, " the Libyans call their king ' Battos ' " (P. E. 
Newberry). Bitys appears in late times as a translator 
or interpreter of Herraetical writings : see lamblich. 
De Mysteriis, viii. 5 (= Scott, Hennetica, iv. p. 34) where 
the prophet Bitys is said to have translated [for King 
Ammon] a book {The Way to Higher Things, i.e. a treatise 
on the theurgic or supernatural means of attaining to 
union with the Demiurgus) which he found inscribed in 
hieroglyphs in a shrine at Sais in Egypt. Cf. the pseudc- 
Manetho, App. I. 

* Thei(9 is no evidence that the Egyptian year waa 
ever equal to a month : there were short years (each of 
360 days) and long years (see Fr. 49). 

' See Excerpta Latina Barbari (Fr. 4) for the beginning 
of this dynasty : " First, Anubia . . . ". 

4 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 1 

Osiris, Typhon, brother of Osiris, and lastly Orus, 
son of Osiris and Isis, These ^vere the first to 
hold sway in Egypt. Thereafter, the kingship 
passed from one to another in unbroken succession 
down to Bydis (Bites) ^ through 13,900 years. The 
year I take, however, to be a lunar one, consisting, 
that is, of 30 days : what we now call a month the 
Egyptians used formerly to style a year.^ 

2. After the Gods, Demigods reigned for 1255 
years,^ and again another line of kings held sway 
for 1817 years : then came thirty more kings of 
Memphis,* reigning for 1790 years ; and then again 
ten kings of This, reigning for 350 years. 

3. There followed the rule of Spirits of the Dead 
and Demigods,^ for 5813 years. 

4. The total [of the last five groups] amounts to 
11,000 years, ^ these however being lunar periods, or 

* Corroborated by the Turin Papyrus, Col. ii. : " of 
Memphis ". 

* " Demigods " should be in apposition to " Spirits of 
the Dead " (vexves -qixldeoi), as in Excerpta Latina Barbari 
(Fr. 4) and Africanus (Fr. 6. 1). These are perhaps the 
Shemsu Hor, the Followers or Worshippers of Horus, of 
the Turin Papyrus : see H. R. Hall, Cambridge Ancient 
History, i. p. 265. Before King Menes (Fr. 6), the king 
of Upper Egj-pt who imposed his sway upon the fertile 
Delta and founded the First DjTiasty, — the Shemsu Hor, 
the men of the Falcon Clan whose original home was in 
the West Delta, had formed an earlier united kingdom 
by conquering Upper Egj'pt : see V. Gordon Childe, 
New Light on the Most Ancient East, 1934, p. 8, beised 
upon Breasted, Bvdl. Instit. Franq. Arch. Or. xxx. (Cairo, 
1930), pp. 710 ff., and Schafer's criticism. Orient. Liter- 
aturz. 1932, p. 704. 

'The exact total of the items given is 11,025 years. 
So also 24,900 infra is a round number for 24,925. 

5 



Fr. 1 MANETHO 

sunt. Sed revera dominatio, quam narrant Aegyptii, 
deorum, heroum, et manium tenuisse putatur lun- 
arium anuorum omnino viginti quattuor milia et 
nongentos/ ex quibus fiunt solares anni MMCCVI. 

5. Atque haec si cum Hebraeorum chronologia 
conferre volueris, in eandem plane sententiam con- 
spirare videbis. Namque Aegyptus ab Hebraeis 
Mestraimus appellatur : Mestraimus autem <haud ^> 
multo post diluvium tempore exstitit. Quippe ex 
Chamo, Noachi filio, post diluvium ortus est Aegyptus 
sive Mestraimus, qui primus ad Aegypti incolatum 
profectus est, qua tempestate gentes hac iliac spargi 
coeperunt. Erat autem summa temporis ab 
Adamo ad diluvium secundum Hebraeos annorum 
MMCCXLII. 

6. Ceterum^ quum Aegyptii praerogativa antiqui- 
tatis quadam seriem ante diluvium tenere se iactent 
Deorum, Heroum, et Manium annorum plus viginti 
milia regnantium, plane aequum est ut hi anni in 

* Aucher's version runs : duae myriades quatuor millia 
et DCCCC. 

* haud : conj . approved by Karst. 

* Petermann's version of the first sentence of this sec- 
tion runs as follows : Itaque placet (licet) Egiptiis, priscis 
(primis) temporibus quae praecesserunt diluvium, se iactare 
ob antiquitatem. Deos quosdam fuisse dicunt sues, semi- 
deosque et manes. In menses redactis annis apud Hebraeos 
enarratis, lunarium annorum myriades duas et amplius 
etiam computant (computarunt), ita ut tot fere menses 
fiant, quot anni apud Hebraeos comprehenduntur ; scilicet 
(id est) a protoplasto homine usque ad Mezrajim tempera 
nostra computando ("And so, for the early times which 
preceded the Flood, the Egyptians may well boast of their 
antiquity. They say that certain Gods were theirs, as well 
as Demigods and Spirits of the Dead. Having reduced to 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 1 

months. But, in truth, the whole rule of which the 
Egyptians tell — the rule of Gods, Demigods, and 
Spirits of the Dead — is reckoned to have comprised 
in all 24,900 lunar years, which make 2206 ^ solar 
years. 

5. Now, if you care to compare these figures with 
Hebrew chronology, you will find that they are in 
perfect harmony. Egypt is called Mestraim ^ by 
the Hebrews; and Mestraim lived <fnot > long after 
the Flood. For after the Flood, Cham (or Ham), 
son of Noah, begat Aegyptus or Mestraim, who 
was the first to set out to establish himself in 
Egypt, at the time when the tribes began to dis- 
perse this way and that. Now the whole time 
from Adam to the Flood was, according to the 
Hebrews, 2242 years. 

6. But, since the Egyptians claim by a sort of 
prerogative of antiquity that they have, before the 
Flood, a line of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the 
Dead, who reigned for more than 20,000 years, it 
clearly follows that these years should be reckoned 

1 Boeckh, Manetho und die Hundssternperiode, p. 85, 
corrects this to 2046. 

* Mestraim : the Mizraim of O.T. Genesis x. 6 : Arabic 
Misrun, Cuneiform Musri, Misri (Egypt). Mizraim is 
a dual name-form, perhaps to be explained in reference to 
the two great native divisions of Egypt, Upper and Lower. 



months the years recorded by the Hebrews, they reckon 
20,000 lunar ynars and even more than that number, so 
that it comes to practically as many months as the years 
of Hebrew chronology, i.e. reckoning our times * from the 
creation of man to Mezraim.") 

* Karat emends this to " Biblical times". 

7 



Fr. 1 MANETHO 

menses tot convert antur quot ab Hebraeis memo- 
rantur anni : nempe ut qui menses continentur in 
memoratis apud Hebraeos annis, ii totidem intelli- 
gantur Aegyptiorum lunares anni, pro ea temporum 
summa, quae a primo condito homine ad Mestrai- 
mum usque colligitur. Sane Mestraimus generis 
Aegyptiaci auctor fuit, ab eoque prima Aegyptiorum 
dynastia manare credenda est. 

7. Quodsi temporum copia adhuc exuberet, re- 
putandum est plures fortasse Aegyptiorum reges 
una eademque aetate exstitisse ; namque et Thini- 
tas regnavisse aiunt et Memphitas et Saltas et 
Aethiopes eodemque tempore alios. ^ Videntur 
praeterea alii quoque alibi imperium tenuisse : 
atque hae dynastiae suo quaeque in nomo ^ semet 
continuisse : ita ut baud singuli reges successivam 
potestatem acceperint, sed alius alio loco eadem 
aetate regnaverit. Atque bine contigit, ut tantus 
numerus annorum confieret. Nos vero, his omissis, 
persequamur singillatim Aegyptiorum cbronologiam. 

(Continued in Fr. 7(6).) 

* Petermann renders : ac interim (iuxta eosdem) alios 
quoque, "and others too, besides these". 

*The Armenian version here confuses vo/xos "law" and 
vofjLos " nome " : the Latin translation corrects this blunder. 



^ For the contemporaneous existence of a niunber of 
petty kingdoms in Egj'pt, see the Piankhi stele, Breasted, 
Ancient Records, iv. §§ 830, 878, and the passage from 
Artapanus, Concerning the Jews, quoted on p. 73 n. 3. 
T. Nicklin (in his Studies in Egyptian Chronology, 1928-29, 

8 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 1 

as the same number of months as the years 
recorded by the Hebrews : that is, that all the 
months contained in the Hebrew recdrd of years, 
should be reckoned as so many lunar years of the 
Egyptian calculation, in accordance with the total 
length of time reckoned from the creation of man 
in the beginning down to Mestraim. Mestraim was 
indeed the founder of the Egyptian race ; and from 
him the first Egyptian dynasty must be held to 
spring. 

7. But if the number of years is still in excess, it 
must be supposed that perhaps several Egyptian 
kings ruled at one and the same time ; for they say 
that the rulers were kings of This, of Memphis, of 
Sals, of Ethiopia, and of other places at the same 
time. It seems, moreover, that different kings held 
sway in diflferent regions, and that each dynasty was 
confined to its own nome : thus it was not a succession 
of kings occupying the throne one after the other, but 
several kings reigning at the same time in different 
regions.^ Hence arose the great total number of 
years. But let us leave this question and take up 
in detail the chronology of Egyptian history. 

(Continued in Fr. 7(6).) 

p. 39) says : " The Manethonian Dynasties are not lists 
of rulers over all Egypt, but lists partly of more or less 
independent princes, partly of princely lines from which 
later sprang rulers over all Egypt. {Cf. the Scottish 
Stuarts, or the Electors of Hanover.) Some were mere 
Mayors of the Palace or princelets maintaining a pre- 
carious independence, or even more subordinate Governors 
of nomes, from whom, however, ilesccnded subsequent 
monarchs. (C/. the Heptarchy in England.) " 

9 



Fb. 2 MANETHO 

Fr. 2. Syncellus, p. 73. 

1. Mera 8e ravra Kal TTcpl idvcbv AlyVTTrtaKwv 
7T€VT€ €v TpioLKOVTa SvvaaT€LaLg LGTopel Twv Acyo- 
fji€vajv Trap* avrols deojv Kal rjpideojv koI vckvcdv koI 
dvr]Tcov, (vv Kal Evae^io? 6 /7aju.(^tAou fjLvrjadels iv 
Tolg XpovLKols avTOV (f)rjcrlv ovtojs ' 

2. " AlyvTTTioi 8e decov Kal ripudeajv Kal Trapd 
TOvroL? v€Kva)V Kal OvrjTCJv ir^poiv ^acriXecov ttoXXtjv 
Kal (f)Xvapov avveipovai (JLvdoXoyiav • ol yap Trap* 
avTol^ TTaXaioraToi aeXrjvaiovs e^aoKov €tvai rovs ^ 
cviavTOvg i^ TjjJLepoJv rpiaKovra arvveaTCOTag, ol 8e 
fiera tovtovs ■f]p.ideoL copovs eKaXovv rovs iviavrovs 
Tovs^ Tp(.p,r)viaiovs ." 

3. Kal ravra fxev 6 Evae^Los [X€fX(f>6[jL€V09 avrois 
rrj? (j)Xvapias evXoyois avueypai/jev, ov 6 Tlavo- 
hcopos ov KoXCbs, (x)S olfjiat, iu rovTCO /ie'/x^erat, 
XeycDV OTL riTToprjae 8i,aXvaaadai ttjv evvoLav rcai' 
crvyypa(f>€cov , t]v avros Kaivorepov tl Sokcov Karop- 
dovv Xdyei ' 

4. " ^ETTeiS-q aTTO rrjs rov *AhayL TrAaaeo)? eco? ' rov 

*Evi6x> yJTOL TOV KadoXtKOV KOapLlKOV ^aOTT^' €TOVS, 

ovT€ [Jbr)v6s ovre evtavrov dpidfios -qfxepcov iyvcjpi- 
(,€TO, ol Se eyprjyopoL, KareXdovre^ iirl tov KadoXiKov 

^ MSS. elvai roiis ,tiJ/' firjvialovs rovs eviavToiis '• ,Tiji' fxrjviaiovs 
Tovs seel. Scaliger. 

*MSS. Tovs t/i' TpifiTjviaiovs : ^' delet m. 
'ecus add. m. 

10 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 2 

Fr. 2 {from Syncellus). 

Thereafter ^ Manetho tells also of five Egyptian 
tribes which formed thirty dynasties, comprising 
those whom they call Gods, Demigods, Spirits of the 
Dead, and mortal men. Of these Eusebius, " son " 
of Pamphilus, gives the follo^N'ing account in his 
Chronica : " Concerning Gods, Demigods, Spirits of 
the Dead, and mortal kings, the Egyptians have a 
long series of foolish myths. The most ancient 
Egyptian kings, indeed, alleged that their years 
were lunar years consisting of thirty days, whereas 
the Demigods who succeeded them gave the name 
horoi to years which were three months long." So 
Eusebius wrote with good reason, criticizing the 
Egyptians for their foolish talk ; and in my opinion 
Panodorus ^ is wrong in finding fault with Eusebius 
here, on the ground that Eusebius failed to explain 
the meaning of the historians, while Panodorus 
thinks he himself succeeds by a somewhat novel 
method, as follows : 

" From the creation of Adam, indeed, down to 
Enoch, i.e. to the general cosmic year 1282, the 
number of days was known in neither month nor 
year ; but the Egregori (or ' Watchers '),^ who had 

^ This passage follows after Appendix I., p. 210. 

* Panodorus {fl. c. 395-408 a.d.) and his contemporary 
Annianus were Egyptian monks who wrote on Chronology 
with the purpose of harmonizing Chaldean and Egj'ptian 
systems with that of the Jews. Panodorus used (and per- 
haps composed) the Book of Sothis (App. IV.). 

' 'EypTiyopoi, " Watchers, Angels " — in Enoch, 179, of the 
angels who fell in love with the daughters of men. The 
Greek word 'Eyp-qyopoi is a mispronunciation of the Aramaic 
word used in Enoch, 179. 

11 



Fr. 2 MANETHO 

Koa/JiiKov )(i\ioaTOv erovs, avvavaarpa^ivres rots ov- 
dpojTTOL's eSlSa^av avrovs tovs kvkXovs twv 8vo (f)coa- 
TTjpoiv 8aj8e/ca^a>Sious" elvai e/c ixoipojv rpiaKoaiwv 
4^'^KOVTa, oi 8e a-no^Xeipavres els rov TrepiyeiOTepou, 
fxiKporepov koL €vhriX6repov Tpi,aKOvdrjpi.€pov (leXrj- 
viaKov kvkXov ideaTTiaav etV eviavrov dptdfjieladaL, 
8ia TO /cat Tov tov t^Xlov kvkXov ev tols avTols 
ScoSe/ca t,(x>hioLS TrXrjpovadai iv laapidfiois fJLoipais 
T^'. o6ev avve^Tj ras ^aaiXeias rcbv Trap' avrols 
fiaaiXevodvTOJv decjv yevecov e^, iv hvvaarelais 
e^, /car' errj ^ iv aeXrjviaKoXs TpiaKovdrjfxepoLS kvkXois 
Trap* avroL'5 dptOfieladai • d Kal avvfj^av aeXrjvta a 
^aihTTe' err), rjXiaKd Th^d • ravra Se avvapLdpLOvpLeva 
TOis TTpo TTJs Tovrcov ^aoiXetas rjXtaKols ,a.vt] erecri 
avvdyovaiv o/xctSa ctQ)V ^kL, . ofioicos 8e Kara 
rds Svo hvvaoTeias Tojv ivvia •qp.idioyv rcbv 
fjir]SeTTOT€ yeyovorcov ws yeyovorcov err) <nS' Kal 
yj/jitcrv GTTOvSd^eL Cfvviardv drro rcbv CDvrj' copojv,^ 
rjTOL TpoTTOjv, ojs yiveodat (jirjcn, avv 7t\^d' , ^aprry ^ 
Kal rjpLicrv errj, Kal avvaTrropbeva tols aTTO 'ASdfx, 
piiXP'' "^V^ '''^^ dedjv ^aoiXeias ^amq erecri (rvvdyew 
errj ^^ajx^' icos tov KaTaKXvajjiov. 

5. Kal TavTa jxiv 6 IJavoScopos rds Kara Oeov 
Kal Tcbv deom'evarcov ypa(f>cJbv AlyvTrTtaKas crvy- 
ypa(f)ds av[ji(f)a)veLV avraZs dycovtl^eTai SeLKVuvai, 
pLifx^opievos TOV Evae^LOv, p.rj etSco? oti KaB^ iavTOV 
Kal TTJs dXrjdeias drToSeSeLKTaL raura avTov to, 

^ MSS. €Tij alone : kut' Ittj m. 

^ lovij (Lpajv or opcov m. : cuvtcopwv MSS. s ivt,avQio)v copwv 
Scaliger. 

^ ^apny' m. : ,apvy' MSS. 

12 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 2 

descended to earth in the general cosmic year 1000, 
held converse with men, and taught them that the 
orbits of the two luminaries, being marked by the 
twelve signs of the Zodiac, are composed of 360 
parts. Observing the moon's orbit which is nearer 
the earth, smaller, and more conspicuous, as it has 
a period of thirty days, men decided that it should 
be reckoned as a year, since the orbit of the sun also 
was filled by the same twelve signs of the Zodiac Avith 
an equal number of parts, 360. So it came to pass 
that the reigns of the Gods who ruled among them 
for six generations in six dynasties were reckoned in 
years each consisting of a lunar cycle of thirty days. 
The total in lunar years is 11,985, or 969 solar years. 
By adding these to the 1058 ^ solar years of the period 
before their reign, they reach the sum total of 2027 
years." Similarly, in the two dynasties of nine 
Demigods, — these being regarded as real, although 
they never existed, — Panodorus strives to make up 
214| years out of 858 horoi (periods of three months) 
or tropoi, so that with the 969 years they make, he 
says, 1183i, and these, when added to the 1058 
years from the time of Adam to the reign of the Gods, 
complete a total of 2242 years down to the Flood. 

Thus Panodorus exerts himself to show that the 
Egyptian writings against God and against our 
divinely inspired Scriptures are really in agreement 
with them. In this he criticizes Eusebius, not under- 
standing that these arguments of his, which are in- 
capable of proof or of reasoning, have been proved 

^ See Intro, p. xxx. 

13 



Fr. 2, 3 MANETHO 

avaTToSeiKTO. re Kai dcrvXXoyLGTa, €t ye . . . ovre 
Ba^vXojv 'q XaXSaLKT) npo rov KaTaKXvafjLov ovre 
7) AtyvTTTOS npo rov Mearpefx ifiaaiXevd-q, of/xat 8' 
OTt ovh coKtadr) . . . 

Fr. 3. Syncellus, p. 32. 
IJepl rrjs rwv AtyvTrrioiv apxaioXoyias. 

Mavedaj 6 Ee^evvvrrjg apxicpev? ra>v iv AlyvTrra) 
fiiapojv LepoJv iiera B-^pcoacrov yei'opevo^ eVt TlroXe- 
jxaiov rov ^lAaSe'Ac^ou ypd^ei rco avra> UroXefxaLU), 
ipevSrjyopcjv Kal avro^ wg 6 Bj^pcoaaog, nepl Svv- 
aareiajv s" , rjroi dewv raJv firjSeiTore yeyovorcov s*',^ 
oi, <fiy]crl, SiayeyovaaLv em err] a ^a7t\TTe' . Siv 
rrpGiros, (f>r]al, deos "H(f)aiarros errj ^6 e^aaiXevae. 
ravra ra ^6 errj ttoXlv rivks ra>v /ca^' 7^/xa? laropLKOJV 
dvrl ixr]va)v aeXrjvLaKcov Xoyiadp,€VOL Kal jxepiaavreg 
ro ra>v rjp.ep6jv TrXrjdog rcov avrcjv fi aeXr]vicov Trapd 
rd? rpiaKoatas e^i]Kovra rrivre i^/xepa? rov eviavrov 
crvvrj^av err) ipKC,' ^8', ^evov ri hoKovvreg Karojp- 
dcoKevat, yeXoLcov Se fjidXXov ecTTelv d^iov to ipev8os 
Tjj aXrjdeiq. avp.^L^dl,ovres . 

npuirrj Svvaareia^ AlyvTTrioiv, 

a e^aaiXevaev" H^aiaros errj tjiKl,' ^8'.' 
^' "HXiog Hcfiaiarov , errj it' ?'. 
y AyadoSalfioJV , errj vs' wijS'. 

*MS. A has TrpwTT] Suvaareia after 'H<f>aicrros. 
•MiiUer: MSS. iPkS' ^S' (724^). 

14 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 2, 3 

against himself and against truth, since indeed . . . 
neither Babylon nor Chaldea was ruled by kings 
before the Flood, nor was Egypt before Mestrem, 
and in my opinion it was not even inhabited before 
that time. . . . 



Fr. 3 {from Syncellus). 
On the Antiquity of Egypt. 

Manetho of Sebennytus, chief priest of the accursed 
temples of Egypt, who lived later than Berossos in 
the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, writes to this 
Ptolemy, with the same utterance of lies as Berossos, 
concerning six dynasties or six gods who never 
existed : these, he says, reigned for 11,985 years. 
The first of them, the god Hephaestus, was king for 
9000 years. Now some of our historians, reckoning 
these 9000 years as so many lunar months, and 
dividing the number of days in these 9000 lunar 
months by the 365 days in a year, find a total of 
727| years. They imagine that they have attained 
a striking result, but one must rather say that it is 
a ludicrous falsehood which they have tried to pit 
against Truth. 



The First Dynasty of Egypt. 

1. Hephaestus reigned for 727j years. 

2. Helios (the Sun), son of Hephaestus, for 80^ 

years. 

3. Agathodaemon, for 56^^ years. 

15 



Fr. 3, 4 MANETHO 

8' Kpovog, errj /x'w. 

e' "Ocrtpis Kal ^Icng, irt) Ac'. 

s' Tv<f)(ov, eTTj kO' . 

t,' *Qpos rjiJiCdeog, err] /ce'. 

rj' "Aprjs rffjudeog, err) Ky . 

d' "Avov^is rjfXcOeo?, err) til,' . 
I HpaKXi]? rjfjLiOeog, err) le'. 

la' AttoXXcoi' rj/xideos, err) Ke . 

ijS' "AjjLjjLOJi' r)jxideos, err) A'. 

ly Tidorj? 7))iideos, err) k^' , 

i8' EcJouos r)pLLd€os, err) Aj3'. 

te Zeus" r)ixiUeo?, err) k . 

Fr. 4. Excerpta Latino Barbari (Schone, p. 215). 

Egyptiorum regnum invenimus vetustissimum 
omnium regnorum ; cuius initium sub Manethono ^ 
dicitur memoramus scribere. Primum - deorum qui 
ab ipsis scribuntur faciam regna sic : 

Ifestum [i.e. Hephaestum] dicunt quidam deum 
regnare in Aegypto annos sexcentos LXXX : post 
hunc Solem Iphesti annos LXXVII : post istum 

^ VTTO MaveOoivos Scaliger. 

*Frick {Chronica Minora, i., 1893, p. 286) restores the 
original Greek as follows : ■npotTov Oeaiv twv nap' avrols 
ypa<f>ofjLei'cov TToi-qaut PaaiXeias ovtcos- a ° H<j)aicn6v <f>aai rives 
Beov ^aaiXivaax ev Alyvirrct) enj ;(it'. 

1 Total, 969 years. 

* Total, 214 years. Total for Gods and Demigods. 
1183 years. See Fr. 2. 

16 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 3, 4 

4. Cronos, for 40i years. 

5. Osiris and Isis, for 35 years. 

6. Typhon, for 29 years. ^ 

Demigods : 

7. Orus, for 2o years. 

8. Ares, for 23 years. 

9. Anubis, for 17 years. 

10. Heracles, for 15 years. 

11. Apollo, for 25 years. 

12. Ammon, for 30 years. 

13. Tithoes,* for 27 years. 

14. Sosus, for 32 years. 

15. Zeus, for 20 years.^ 

Fr. 4 ^ {from Excerpta Latina Barhari). 

In the kingdom of Egypt we have the oldest of 
all kingdoms, and we are minded to record its begin- 
ning, as it is given by Manetho. First, I shall put 
down as follows the reigns of the Gods, as recorded 
by the Egyptians. Some say that the god He- 
phaestus reigned in Egypt for 680 years : after him, 
Sol [Helios, the Sun], son of Hephaestus, for 77 

• This extract made by an anonjonous and ignorant 
Bcribe depends chiefly upon Africanus. See Weill, La 
fin du moyen etnpire igyptien, pp. 640, 642 f., 655 f. 
Gelzer and Bauer have inferred that the Greek account 
translated by Barbarus was either the work of the 
Egyptian monk Annianus (see Fr. 2, p. 11 n. 2) or at 
least a source derived from him (Laquour, R.-E. xiv. 1, 
1081). 

* For the divinity Tithoes in two inscriptions of Coptos, 
Bee O. Gueraud in Ann. Serv. Antiq., 35 (1935), pp. 5 f. 

17 



Fr. 4 MANETHO 

Sosinosirim ^ annos CCCXX : post hunc Oron 
ptoliarchum annos XXVIII: post hunc Tyfona 
annos XLV.^ Colliguntur deorum regna anni mille 
DL. 

Deinceps Mitheorum ^ regna sic : 

Prota * Anube S[amusim, qui etiam Aegyptiorum 
scripturas conposuit] annos LXXXIII. 

[Post hunc Apiona grammaticus qui secundum 
Inachum interpraetatur annos LXVII quern sub 
Argios initio regnaverunt.] 

* Corrected by the first hand from Sisinosirim : Soain, 
Osirim Scaliger. Barbarus probably intended : post istum 
Sosin, post hunc Osirim. Cf. Cedren., i. p. 36, 2 : koX /xct* 
avTov £u)ais, elra "Oaipis. 

^ After XLV the digit I or II seems to have been erased. 

' Frick restores : 'E^rjs 'Hfiidecov jSaaiXeiaL ovtws' a' npuiTa 
'AvovPis err] iry'. j3' /xerd tovtov 'Afiovaiv K4>aai rives ^aaiXev- 
aai, ovy Airiiov 6 ypajx^aTiKOS o /cat ras AiyvTrTicov ypa(f>as avvOeis 
Kara 'Ivaxov dpfxr/vevei rov in Apyeiuiv o.px'rjs ^aaiXevaavra err} 

a'- 

fiera Tavra rovs NeKvcov paaiMas r/pfi-qvevaev 'Hfiideovs koXwv 
Kol avTovs . ■ . KparioTovs KaXutv iTt] ,j3p'. 

* Trpwra. Along with the reign of the demigod Anubis, 
Barbarus has preserved a note by Africanus referring to 
Ainosis : see Fr. 52. This note was, for some reason, trans- 
ferred from its original place between Potestas XVI. and 
XVII. See Unger, Manetho, pp. 163 f. This mangled 
sentence, as interpreted by Unger, Gelzer, and Frick, 
attests the value of the tradition preserved by Barbarus. 



^ The actual total of the items given is 1150 years. 
^ The translation follows the restored Greek original : 
see note 3 on the text. 

18 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 4 

years : next, Sosinosiris [Sosis and Osiris], for 320 
years : then Orus the Ruler, for 28 years ; and 
after him, Typhon, for 45 years. Total for the 
reigns of the Gods, 1550 years.* 

Next come the reigns of the Demigods, as follows : 
first, Anubes ^ for 83 years ; then after him, Amusis, 
some say, was king. About him, Apion the gram- 
marian,^ who composed a history of Egypt, explained 
that he lived in the time of Inachus * who was king 
at the founding of Argos . . . for 67 years.^ 

' Api6n the grammarian, born in Upper Egypt, lived 
at Rome in the time of Tiberius, Gaius, and Claudius : 
Tiberius called him by the nickname of " cymbal um 
mundi ". As leader of the anti -Jewish movement, Api6n 
was later attacked by Josephus in his Contra Apionem. 

The quotation from Api6n appears to derive in part 
from the History of Ptolemy of Mendfis : see Tatian, 
Or. adveraus Oraecos, § 38, in Migne, Patrologia Oraeca, 
vi. 880-882, and in Miiller, F.H.O. iv. p. 485 (quoted in 
F.H.O. ii. p. 533). (Ptolemy of Mendds dated the 
Exodus to the reign of Amdsis, who was contemporary 
with Inachus. Apidn in the fourth volume of his Aegyptiaca 
(in five volumes) stated that Auaris was destroyed by 
Am6sis.) Much matter must have been common to the 
works of Ptolemy of MendSs and Api6n : cf. Africanua 
in Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. x. 10, " Apidn says that in 
the time of Inachus Moses led out the Jews ". Cf. Fr. 
52, 1 ; 53, 9. 

* The founder of the First Dynasty of kings of Argos, 
Inachus is said to have died twenty generations before 
the Fall of Troy, i.e. circa 1860 B.C. Aegyptus and Danaus 
were fifth in descent from Inachus : cf. Fr. 50, § 102. 

* This appears to be the length of the reign of Amdsis, 
not of Inachus. Cf. Fr. 52, 1 , where Af ricanus as recorded 
by Syncellus omits the number of years. 

19 



Fr. 4 MANETHO 

I. Post hec ^ Ecynionim ^ reges interpraetavit, 
Imitheus ^ vocans et ipsos ^ . . . annos duo 
milia C, fortissimos vocans. 
II, Mineus et pronepotes ipsius VII regnaverunt 
annos CCLIII.'* 
III. Bochus et aliorum octo annos CCCII. 
IV. Necherocheus et aliorum VII annos CCXIV. 
V. Similiter aliorum XVII annos CCLXXVII. 
VI. Similiter aliorum XXI annos CCLVIII. 
VII. Othoi et aUorum VII annos CCIII. 
VIII. Similiter et aliorum XIV annos CXL. 
IX. Similiter et aliorum XX annos CCCCIX. 
X. Similiter et aliorum VII annos CCIV. 

Hec ^ finis de primo tomo Manethoni habens tem- 
pora annorum duo milia C. 

XI. Potestas Diopolitanorum annos LX. 
XII. Potestas Bubastanorum annos CLIII. 

^ For haec. 

* These words are perversions of Nckvohv and 'Hyudeovs 
respectively : see p. 18 n. 3. 

3 In the lacuna here, there would be an account of the 
mortal kings to whom the number 2100 (2300) belongs. 

* Cf. Fr. 6, Dynasty I. » For haec. 



^ The totals given by Barbarus are generally those of 
Africanus. Barbarus omits Manetho's Djoiasty VII. ; 
and Potestas X. is explained by Gelzer (Sextus Jvliiis 
Africanus, p. 199) as being Manetho's X. -f- XI. + 
Ammenemes (16 years) = 244 years. Total, 2300. 

' The actual total of the items given is 2260 years. 

^ Potestas XI. is Manetho's Dynasty XII. Barbarus 
therefore gives Dynasties XII.-XVIII. : the totals (cor- 
rected by Meyer, Aeg. Chron. 99, n. 2) are — XII. 160, 
XIII. 453, XIV. 184, XV. 284, XVI. 618, XVII. 161, 

29 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 4 

I. Thereafter he [Manetho] gave an account of the 
kings who were Spirits of the Dead, calling them also 
Demigods, . . . who reigned for 2100 years : he 
called them " very brave " (Heroes). 

II. Mineus and seven of his descendants reigned 
for 253 years. ^ 
III. Bochus and eight other kings reigned for 302 

years. 
rV. Necherocheus and seven other kings for 214 

years. 
V. Similarly seventeen other kings for 277 years. 
VI. Similarly twenty -one other kingsfor 258years. 
VII. Othoi and seven other kings for 203 years. 
VIII. Similarly fourteen other kings for 140 years. 
IX. Similarly twenty other kings for 409 years. 
X. Similarly seven other kings for 204 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho, which 
contains a period of 2100 years. ^ 

XI.^ A dynasty of kings of Diospolis, for 60 years. 
XII. A dynasty of kings of Bubastus, for 153 
years. 

XVIII. 262 (+ XIX. 209). Sum total for Book II. 
2221 years : c/. Fr. 55 Africanus, 56 Eus. (Arm.), 2121 
years. 

The names of Potestates XII. -XVII., or Dynasties 
XIII. -XVIII., come from some other source than 
Manetho : the Tanites of Potestas XIII. or Dynasty XIV. 
appear to correspond with the Hyksos, just as in the 
Book of SSthis (App. IV.) ; while others may be local 
dynasties of the Hyksds age. The kings of Hermupolis 
(Potestas XVII.) apparently denote the kings of the 
Eighteenth Dynasty, whose names indicate the cult of the 
Moon-deities 'loh and Thoth of Hermupolis (Meyer, 
Oeach.^ I. ii. p. 326). 

21 



Fr. 4, 5 MANETHO 

XIII. Potestas Tanitorum annos CLXXXIV. 

XIV. Potestaa Sebennitorum annos CCXXIV. 
XV. Potestas Memfitorum annos CCCXVIII. 

XVI. Potestas Iliopolitorum annos CCXXI. 
XVII. Potestas Ermupolitorum annos CCLX. 

Usque ad septimam decimam potestatem secun- 
dum scribitur tomum,' ut docet numerum habentem 
annos mille quingentos XX. Haec sunt potestates 
Aegyptiorum. 

Fr. 5. Malalas, Chronographia, p. 25 (Migne, 
Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 97). 

Tavra 8e ra TroAaia /cat apxoZa ^aaiXeia tcou 
AlyvTTTtayv MaveOcov avveypdiparo ' iv ols avy- 
ypayniaaiv avrov e/Lt^eperai aAAco? Xeyecrdax ras 
CTTCovvfiias Tcbv xrevre TrXavqTCov aaripoiv. Tov 
yap Xeyofxevov Kpovov dare pa eKoXovv rov Xdfi- 
TTovra, TOV 8e Ai6<; tov (fyaedovTa, tov 8e "Apeos 
TOV TTVpcoSr], TOV Se A(f)poSLT7]g TOV KroAAiarov, 
TOV 8e 'EpfjLov TOV OTiX^ovTa • OLTiva fxeTOL TavTa 
2J(OTdTr]9 6 ao(f)a)TaTos 'qpfi'qvevae. Cf. id., p. 59: 
AlyvTTTiojv 8e e^acriXevae TxpwTos ^acriXevs ttjs 
<f>vXrjs TOV Xdjx, viov Nwe, 0apadj 6 /cat Napa^d) 

' MS. to turn. Frick restores the original Greek as 
fo.lows : fiexpt Ttjs i^' bwaareias 6 Sfvrepos ypa^erot TOfios, dis 
Si}Ao( 6 dptOfios, (x^^ *"? ,a<f>K'. 



' The actual total of the items given is 1420 years. 
« 4407 codd. 



22 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 4, 5 

XIII. A dynasty of kings of Tanis, for 184 years. 

XIV. A dynasty of kings of Sebennytus, for 224 

years. 
XV. A dynasty of kings of Memphis, for 318 
years. 
XVI. A dynasty of kings of Heliopolis, for 221 

years. 
XVII. A dynasty of kings of Hermupolis, for 260 
years. 
The Second Book continues the record down to the 
Seventeenth Dynasty, and comprises 1520 years. '^ 
These are the Egyptian dynasties. 

Fr. 5 (from the Chronicle of Malalas). 

[After recording the reigns of Hephaestus (1680 
days), Helios (4477 ^ days), Sosis, Osiris, Horus, and 
Thulis, Malalas adds :] 

These ancient reigns of early Egyptian kings are 
recorded by Manetho, and in his writings it is stated 
that the names of the five planets are given in other 
forms : Cronos [Saturn] they used to call the shining 
star ; Zeus [Jupiter], the radiant star [Phaethon] ; 
Ares [Mars], the fiery star ; Aphrodite [^Venus], the 
fairest ; Hermes [Mercury], the glittering star. 
These names were later explained by the wise 
Sotates [? Sotades or Palaephatus ^]. 

The first king of Egypt belonged to the tribe of 
Cham [Ham], Noah's son ; he was Pharaoh, who 
was also called Naracho. 

' Palaephatus of Egypt, or Athens, wrote on Egyptian 
theology and mythology, c. 200 B.C., — more than seven 
centuries earlier than Malalas hini.self (c. a.d. 491-578). 

23 



Fr. 5, 6 MANETHO 

KaXovfxevos. To. ovv Trpo tovtov TraAaict jSacriAeia 
AlyvvTicov e^idero Mavedcov 6 aocfxxJTaros , ios 
TTpoeiprjTat. 

Fr. 6. Syncellus, p. 99. 

^ETTeiBrj 8e tcov oltto MecrrpatfJi AlyvTrriaKcov 
BvvaaTeLcov ^ ol ^povoi ecog NcKTava^oj ;^peiajSet? 
TVy^^dvoucnv iv ttoXXols tol9 Trepl ras ji^poi^tjca? 
KaTayivojxevois ^r]T7]a€LS, aural Se Trapo. Mavedco 
\r](j)deZaai rolg iKKXrjaiaarLKOLS laropLKols Sca- 
TTecfxDinrjjxevw^ Kara re ra'; avrcjv npoa-qyopiag Kal 
rrjv TToaorrjra roJv ■)(p6vo)v rrjg /SaatAetas" €KSe8ov- 
rai, €771 rlvos re avrcbv ^I(X)(jri<f) riye/jLovevae rrj^ 
AlyvTTrov Kal /zer' avrov 6 OeoTrrrjs Mcovarjs rrjs 
rod ^IcrparjX e^ Alyvirrov -nopeias '^yqcraro, dvay- 
KaZov rjyrjadpirjv Suo ra)v iinarjfxordrcxyv e/cSdcret? 
e/cAefaa^ai Kal ravras aXX-qXaig Trapadeadac, 
A^piKavov re ^rjpii /cat rov fxer' avrov Evae^iov 
rov UajjicfjiXov KaXovjjLevov, cos av Tqv eyyi^ovaav 
rrj ypa(J)LKfj dXrjdeia So^av opdcos eTn^dXXojv ris ^ 
Karapddoij rovro Trpo ye Trdvroiv elhojs aKpi^ajs, 
on A<j>pLKav6s pev e'iKoaiv errj TTpoaridiqcFLV ev rot? 
a770 M8d/x ecos" rov KaraKXvapiov xpovots, Kal dvrl 
^^ojJi^' ,^o^^' errj ^ovXerat elvai, oirep ov hoKet 
KaXcos ex^i^v. Evae^Log Se ^j8ct/x^' vyicbs edero Kal 
6p,o(f)a)vo}5 rfj ypa^fj. ev Se roZs drro rov Kara- 
KXvapiov dp,(f)6repoL SLT]p.aprov ecos rov A^padp, 

' SvvaoTiiiov Bunsen : ercbv MSS. * tis add. m. 

24 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 5, 6 

Now, the ancient reigns in Egypt before King 
Naracho were set forth by the wise Manetho, as has 
ahready been mentioned. 

Fr. 6 {from Syncellus). 

Since a knowledge of the periods of the Egyptian 
dynasties from Mestraim ^ down to Nectanabo ^ is 
on many occasions needful to those who occupy 
themselves with chronological investigations, and 
since the dynasties taken from Manetho's History 
are set forth by ecclesiastical historians with dis- 
crepancies in respect both to the names of the kings 
and the length of their reigns, and also as to who 
was king when Joseph was governor of Egypt, and 
in whose reign thereafter Moses, — he who saw God, — 
led the Hebrews in their exodus from Egypt, I have 
judged it necessary to select two of the most famous 
recensions and to set them side by side — I mean the 
accounts of Africanus and of the later Eusebius, the 
so-called " son " of Pamphilus, — so that with proper 
application one may apprehend the opinion which 
approaches nearest to Scriptural truth. It must, 
above all, be strictly understood that Africanus 
increases by 20 years the period from Adam to the 
Flood, and instead of 2242 years he makes it out to 
be 2262 years, which appears to be incorrect. On 
the other hand, Eusebius keeps to the sound reckon- 
ing of 2242 years in agreement with Scripture. In 
regard to the period from the Flood down to 
Abraham and Moses, both have gone astray by 130 

' See p. 7 II. 2. 

* Nectanabd or Nectanebus, the last king of Dynasty 
XXX. 

25 



Fr. 6 MANETHO 

Kal Miovaea)^ ereai pX' tov Sevrepov Ka'Cvdv vlou 
Ap(f)a^a8 Kal yevea fj.ia, rfj ly' , napa rtv dcico 
evayyeXiarfj AovkS., dno M8a/x KCLfievr). oAA' o 

fl€V 'A<f)pLKav6s €V TOls OLTTO MStt/X. TTpOCTTedelaLV 

avTU) Kai €7Tt, rov KaTaKXvapLOV erecnv k 7Tpoa(f>T^p- 
va^e TavTa, Kal ev toIs tov Ka'Cvdv Kal tcov fjLere- 
Tretra pi fiova AeiTTerat. 8io Kal eco? *A^paap, 
vpioTov CTOvg ^ycjS' CTT) iarotx^tcoaev. 6 Se 
Evae^Los oXoKXrjpios ra pX' v<f>€Xu)v, ^ypirh' ecu? 
TrpwTov CTOVs APpadfJL efe8ct»/ce. 

K4TA A<t>PIKANON. 

riepl Twv [ixeTO. rov KaraKXvaiiov\ * 
AlyvTTTov hvvaoTeLOJv, (hs 6 A<f>pi,Kav6s. 

a' Merd veKvas rov? rjfiidcovs irpoiTq jSacrtAeta ' 
KarapidjjielTai ^aaiXecov okto), (x>v TTpwros 

* Bracketed by Miiller. ' Swaareia Boeckh. 

* Arphaxad, son of Shem : O.T. Genesis x. 22. " Ar- 
phaxad " is probably a Mesopotamian name (W. F. 
Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible *, 
1932-3, p. 139). 

« N.T. Luke iii. 36. 

* Eusebius reckoned 2242 years from Adam to the 
Flood, and 942 years from the Flood to Abraham. 

« Dynasties I. and II., the Thinites : c. 3200-c. 2780 B.C. 

Note. — The dates which have been adopted throughout 
this book are those of Eduard Meyer, except where another 
authority is specified. Meyer's revised dates (as in 
Die Altere Chronologie . . ., 1931) may conveniently be 
found in G. Steindorff's chapter on Ancient History in 
Baedeker*, pp. ci. ff. In the Cambridge Ancient History, 
vol. i., H. R. Hall gives for the djmasties a series of dates 

26 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 6 

years belonging to the second Cainan, son of 
Arphaxad,^ even one generation, the thirteenth, from 
Adam, as it is recorded by the divine evangehst 
Luke,^ But Africanus, in the 20 years which he 
added between Adam and the Flood, anticipated 
this ; and in the period of Cainan and his successors, 
only 110 years remain. Hence, down to the first 
year of Abraham he reckoned 3202 years ; but 
Eusebius, completely omitting those 130 years, gave 
3184 years ^ as far as Abraham's first year. 

Dynasty I. 

According to Africanus. 

Here is the account which Africanus gives of the 
dynasties of Egypt [after the Flood]. 

1. In succession to the spirits of the Dead, the 
Demigods, — the first royal house * numbers 
eight kings, the first of whom Menes ^ of 

which differ from those of Breasted and the German 
School : he assigns earUer dates to the first twelve 
dynasties, e.g. Dynasty I. c. 3500 B.C. A. Scharff, on the 
other hand, dates the beginning of Dynasty I. c. 3000 B.C. 
(Joum. of Eg. Arch, xiv., 1928, pp. 275 f.). 

Dynasty I. For the identifications of Manetho's 
kings with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, 
Oeschichte des Altertums ^, I. ii. p. 140: he identifies (1) 
Menes, (2) Atoti I., II., III., (5) UsaphaTs, (6) Miebis. 

(3) KenkenSs and (5) Usaphals are two names of the 
same king : see Newberry and Wainwright, " King Udymu 
(Den) and the Palermo Stone " in Ancient Egypt, 1914, 
p. 148 ff. 

* On M6n6s (c. 3200 B.C.) see P. E. Newberry in Winifred 
Brunton's Great Ones of Ancient Egypt, 1929 : Min in Hero- 
dotus, ii. 4. 

27 



Fr. 6 MANETHO 

Mrjvrjs &iviT'r]s i^auiXevaev err] ^^' • o? 

V7TO nT7T07Tord{Jiov Siapnayelg SL€(f)ddprj. 
j3' "A 9 CO dig viog, err) v^' , 6 rd iv Mefxcfyei ^aai- 

Aeia ocKoSoix-^cras ' ov (f>epovTai ^i^Xoi dva- 

TOfJiLKai, larpos yap -^v. 
y KevKcvrjs vlog, errj Xa . 
8' Ov€V€(f)'rjg vlog, errj Ky • i(f)* ov At/io? Ka- 

T€<jx^ Trjv A'iyvTTTOv fxeyas. ovtos rag 

TTepl Kwxcof^'Tjv rjyeipe TTvpafxiBas. 
e' OuCTa^aiSo? vlos, €T7) k, 
S' Mie^iSos vlos, errj k^' . 
t,' Uefxcfxiffrjs vlog, errj ir)' • e^' ov (f>dopd 

[xeyLOTT] Kareox^ ttjv Aiyvirrov . 

7)' BlTjVeX'^S vlos, €T7] KS' . 
'OfJLOV, €T7j KJVy . 

Td rrjs TTpcorrjg SwaareLas ovtco ttcos xal Evcre- 
jSto? (OS 6 A(f>piKav6s €^edero. 



^ This (Anc. Egyptian Theny), near Girga, about 310 
miles S. of Cairo (Baedeker*, p. 231), the capital of the 
nome of This, and the seat of the First and Second Dyn- 
asties. The cemetery of the First Dynasty kings was 
near Abydos : see Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. and ii,, and 
Baedeker », p. 260. 

2 For a representation of a king fighting with a hippo- 
potamus, see a seal-impression in Petrie, Royal Tombs, 
II. vii. 6 ; and for a hippopotamus-hunt, see a year-name 
of Udymu, Schafer, PaLerm,o Stone, p. 20, No. 8. 

With the whole story, c/. the miraculous deliverance 
of Menas by a crocodile in Diodorus Siculus, i. 89. 

^ Building of palace at Memphis — by Min or MenSs, 
Herodotus, ii. 99, Josephus, Ant. viii. 6, 2, 155 ; by his 
son Athothis, says Manetho ; by Uchoreus, Diod. i. 50. 

28 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 6 

This^ reigned for 62 years. He was carried 
off by a hippopotamus ^ and perished. 

2. Athothis, his son, for 57 years. He built the 

palace at Memphis ; ^ and his anatomical 
works * are extant, for he was a physician. 

3. Kenkenes, his son, for 31 years. 

4. Uenephes, his son, for 23 years. In his reign a 

great famine seized Egypt. He erected the 
pyramids near Kochome.^ 

5. Usaphaidos,^ his son, for 20 years. 

6. Miebidos,^ his son, for 26 years. 

7. Semempses, his son, for 18 years. In his reign 

a very great calamity befell Egypt. 

8. Bieneches, his son, for 26 years. 
Total, 253 years.' 

Eusebius also sets out the details of the First 
Dynasty in much the same way as Africanus. 

*For the later study of anatomy (including, perhaps, 
the practice of vivisection) by kings of Ptolemaic Egypt, 
see G. Lumbroso, Olossario, s.v. 'AvarofiiKT^. 

* K6ch6me has been identified with Sakkara, and ex- 
cavations carried out there in the Archaic Cemetery from 
1935 by W. B. Emery (assisted by Zaki Saad) have gone 
far to confirm Manetho. Several tombs which date from 
the First Dynasty were discovered at Sakkara in 11)37 and 
1938. One of those, the tomb of Nebetka under the 5th 
king of Dynasty I., was found to contain in its interior 
a stepped -pyramid construction of brickwork : during the 
building the form of the tomb was altered to a palace- 
facade mastaba. 

' These forms are really the genitives of the names 
Usaphals and Miebis. 

' The actual total of the items given is 263 years. 

29 



Fr. 7 MANETHO 

Fr. 7 (a). Syncellus, p. 102. KaTA EYZEBION. 

Uepl ru)v [/LteTct rov /caTa/cAuor/xoi'] * 
AlyvTTTiuiv hvvaaT€La)v, (Ls Evae^ios. 

Mera vcKvas /cat tovs rjiiideovs 7Tpa)T7]v Svva- 
areiav KaTapidfiovaL ^aacXecov okto) • <Lv ydyove 
Mt^inrjg, o? SiacrqfKos avrcov rjyijaaro. d<f>* ov 
Tovs e^ eKaarov ycpovs ^acnXevaavrag dvaypd- 
tJ)Ofi€v <Lv^ Tj SiaSo;^ rovrov ej^ci rov rpoTTOv 

a M-qvTjs ©ivLTTjs Kal ol tovtov drroyovoi. [i^', 
€v dXXo) Se] ^ t,' , ov 'HpoSoTos Mrjva 
(hvofiaaev, e^aaiXevcrev erecriv ^' . ovros 
vnepopiov arpareiav €TToi,T]craTO Kal evSo^os 
cKpidrj, v7t6* Se LTTTToiTOTdpLov 'QpTrdadrj. 

/S' "Ada) 6 IS 6 TOVTOV utos" ^ip^ev ereaiv kI,' , /cat 
TO. €v M€fi(f>€i. ^aaiXeca wKoSofXTjaev, iarpi- 
Kijv T€ e^-qaKrjGe Kal ^i^Xovs dvaTopuKas 
avveypaifje . 

y KevKcvrjs d tovtov vlos, err) Xd' . 

h' Ovev€(f>r]s, €Tr] p,^' ' €<^' ov Xtp,6s Karecr^e 
TTjv ■)((jjpav, OS Kal Tas TTvpafxiBas rds nepl 
Kcox<j^py]v "qyeipe. 

e' Ovcra<f>d'Cs,^ €T7) k, 

r' iVtcjSai?/ €Tr) KS', 

^ Bracketed by MuUer. • Vulgo dvaypcupanevwy. 

* Bracketed by Gelzer, * lanov A, limov B. 

' OvaauftaTJS A. • Nie^aijs A. 

30 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 7 

Fr. 7 (a) {from Syncellus). According to Eusebius.^ 

Here is the account which Eusebius gives of the 
Egyptian dynasties [after the Flood]. 

In succession to the Spirits of the Dead and the 
Demigods, the Egyptians reckon the First Dynasty 
to consist of eight kings. Among these was Menes, 
whose rule in Egypt was illustrious. I shall record 
the rulers of each race from the time of Menes ; their 
succession is as follows : 

1. Menes of This, with his [17, or in another 

copy] 7 descendants, — the king called Men by 
Herodotus, — reigned for 60 years. He made 
a foreign expedition and won renown, but 
was carried oflP by a hippopotamus. 

2. Athothis, his son, ruled for 27 years. He built 

the palace at Memphis ; he practised medicine 
and wrote anatomical books. 

3. Kenkenes, his son, for 39 years. 

4. Uenephes, for 42 years. In his reign famine 

seized the land. He built the pyramids near 
Kochome. 

5. Usaphais, for 20 years. 

6. Niebals, for 26 years. 

^ The version (transmitted to us by S5mcellus) which 
Eusebius gives of the Epitome of Manetho shows con- 
siderable differences from Africanus, both in the names 
of kings and in the length of their reigns. Peet (Egypt 
and the Old Testament, pp. 25 f.) says : " The astonishing 
variations between their figures are an eloquent testimony 
to what may happen to numbers in a few centuries through 
textual corruption." Petrie (History of Egypt, i. p. viii) 
compares the corruptions in such late Greek chronicles 
as those of the Ptolemies (c.v./a.d.). 

31 



Fr. 7 MANETHO 

t,' Uefi emJjTjg, errj vx] • €^' ov -noXka, Trapdarrjiia 

eyevero /cat jxeylcr-rq (f)dopd. 
T] Ov^ievdr]?, errj Kg'. 

01 TTavres i^acjtXevaav errj ovjS', 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
pp. 94 sqq. 

Post manes atque heroas primam dynastiam 
numerant VIII regum, quorum primus fuit Menes,'^ 
gloria regni administrandi praepollens : a quo exorsi 
singulas regnantium familias diligenter scribemus, 
quarum successiva series ita contexitur : 

Menes Thinites eiusque posteri septem (quern 
Herodotus Mina nuncupavit). Hie annis 
XXX regnavit. Idem et extra regionis 
suae fines cum exercitu progressus est, et 
gloria rerum gestarum inclaruit. Ab hippo- 
potamo genio ^ raptus est. 

Athothis, huius filius, regno potitus est annis 
XXVII. Is regia sibi palatia Memphi con- 
struxit, et medicam item artem coluit, quin 
et libros de ratione secandorum corporum 
scripsit. 

Cencenes eius filius, annis XXXIX. 

Vavenephis, annis XLII, cuius aetate fames 
regionem corripuit. Is pyramidas prope Cho 
oppidum^ excitavit. 

^ CoiT. edd. : MSS. Memes. 

''Miiller conjectures the Greek original to have been: 
vv6 Saiftovos 8e iiTTTonoTdfiov. But the Armenian text, liter- 
ally translated, is: "by a horse-shaped river-monster" 
(Karst, Margoliouth). 

32 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 7 

7. Semempses, for 18 years. In his reign there 

were many portents and a very great calamity. 

8. Ubienthes, for 26 years. 

The total of all reigns, 252 years.^ 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

In succession to the Spirits of the Dead and the 
Demigods, the Egyptians reckon the First Dynasty 
to consist of eight kings. The first of these was 
Menes, who won high renown in the government of 
his kingdom. Beginning with him, I shall carefully 
record the royal families one by one : their succession 
in detail is as follows : 

Menes of This (whom Herodotus named Min) and 
his seven descendants. He reigned for 30 
years, and advanced with his army beyond 
the frontiers of his realm, winning renown by 
his exploits. He was carried oflF by a hippo- 
potamus god (?).^ 

Athothis, his son, held the throne for 27 years. He 
built for himself a royal palace at Memphis, 
and also practised the art of medicine, writing 
books on the method of anatomy. 

Cencenes, his son, for 39 years. 

Vavenephis, for 42 years. In his time famine 
seized the land. He reared pyramids near 
the town of Cho. 

* The actual total of the items given is 258 years. 

* See note 2 on the text. 

* Apparently = XCj KJjfj.-qi>, lor Kuj)(utfd.r]v. 

c 33 



Fr. 7, 8 MANETHO 

Usaphais, annis XX. 

Niebais, annis XXVI. 

Mempses, annis XVIII. Sub hoc multa prodigia 

itemque maxima lues acciderunt. 
Vibenthis,^ annis XXVI. 

Summa dominationis annorum CCLII. 



Fr. 8. Syncellus, p. 101. KaTA A^PIKANON. 

Acvripa SwaareCa Oiviriov ^aaiXdiov 
evvea, c5v TrpcoTOS Bo7)d6s, cttj Xrf ' i<f)' ov ■)(aap,a 
Kara BovfiaoTOv iyevero /cat olttcoXovto ttoAAoi. 

)8' Kai€)(a)s, CTTj \d' • €(f>' oS oi ^oes ^Attl? iv 

M€fM(f)€l. Kal Mv€VLS €V ' HXlOVTToXet Kal 6 

M€v8i]aios rpdyos €vojJiLcrdr)(Tav clvai, deoi. 
1 One MS. (G) has Vibethia. 



* Karst gives 270 years as the total transmitted in the 
Armenian version. The total of the items as given above 
is 228 years. 

^ Dynasty II. — to c. 2780 B.C. For identifications with 
the Monuments, etc., see Meyer, Oeschichte ^, I. ii. p. 146 : 
he identifies (1) Boethos, (2) Kaiech6s or Kech6us, (3) 
Binothris, (4) Tlas, (5) Sethenes, (7) Nephercheres, 
(8) Sesochris. For (1) to (5), see G. A. Reisner, The 
Development of the Egyptian Tomb, 1936, p. 123. 

* Bubastus or Bubastis (Baedeker *, p. 181), near Zagazig 
in the Delta : Aiic. Egyptian Per-Baste, the Pi-beseth of 

34 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 7, 8 

Usaphais, for 20 years. 

Niebais, for 26 years. 

Mempses, for 18 years. In his reign many portents 

and a great pestilence occurred. 
Vibenthis, for 26 years 

Total for the dynasty, 252 years.^ 



Dynasty II. 

Fr. 8 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Second Dynasty ^ consists of nine kings of 
This. The first was Boethos, for 38 years. In his 
reign a chasm opened at Bubastus,^ and many 
perished. 

2. Kaiechos, for 39 years. In his reign the bulls,* 
Apis at Memphis and Mnevis at Hehopolis, 
and the Mendesian goat were worshipped as 
gods. 

Ezekiel xxx. 17. See also Herodotus, ii. 60, 137 f. The 
kings of Dynasty XXII. resided at Bubastis. 

Earthquakes have always been rare in Egypt (Euseb., 
Chron. Oraec. p. 42, 1. 25 ; Pliny, H.N. ii. 82) ; but 
Bubastis is situated in an unstable region : see H. G. 
Lyons in Cairo Scientific Journal, i. (1907), p. 182. It 
stands on an earthquake line, which runs to Crete. A 
deep boring made at Bubastis failed to roach rock. 

* The worship of Apis is earlier even than Dynasty II. : 
see Palermo Stone, Schafer, p. 21, No. 12 (in reign of 
Udymu). For Apis, see Herodotus, ii. 153, and Diod. 
Sic. i. 84, 85 (where all three animals are mentioned). 
The goat was a cult animal in very early times : cf. 
Herodotus, ii. 46. 

35 



Fr. 8, 9 MANETHO 

y BivojOpi^, €Tr) fj.ll,'- i(f)* ov €Kpi9r] ra? 

yvvaiKas /SacrfAeta? yepa? '^X^''^' 
8' TXds, €77] it,'. 

e' Eedev7]s, (ttj fia , 

f' Xaip7]S, €T7) ill,'. 

^ N€(f)epx€p7]s, €Trj K€ ' i(f)* ov fivOeverai 
Tov NeiXov fxeXiri KCKpafievov rjfjiepa^ ev- 
Se/ca pvijvai. 

T] Ucaojxpts, €Trj jJir]' , os vipos ei^^e irrixiJov e', 
TToXaiaTOJV ^ y . 

6' Xeveprjs, ^tt] A'. 

'Oyiov, err) rfi' . 

'Ofxov TTpiOTrjg Kal Sevrepas Swaareia? [fJ-era tov 
KaraKXvofJiov] err] (f)ve' /card ttjv hevrepav e/cSoCTiv* 
^A(f>piKavov. 

Fr. 9. Syncellus, p. 103. KaTA EyIEBION. 

AevTepa ^vvaareia ^aa iXioiv ivvea. 

HpcbTog BaJxos, €(f)^ ov ;^aa)U,a Kara Bov^aarov 
eyev€TO^ Kal ttoXXol o-ttwiXovto . 

Med' ov Sevrepos Kaixcoos ,'^ ore /cat o ^Attis Kal 
6 Mv€vi£, dAAd Kai 6 Mevhrjoiog rpdyos deoi 
ivoidLiadrjaav. 



1 Boeckh, Bunsen : MSS. nXaros. 

* Miiller : MSS. /xc^' ov Kai bevrtpos Xtuos. 



36 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 8, 9 

3. Binothris, for 47 years. In his reign it was 

decided that women ^ might hold the kingly 
ofiice. 

4. Tlas, for 17 years. 

5. Sethenes, for 41 years. 

6. Chaires, for 17 years. 

7. Nephercheres, for 25 years. In his reign, the 

story goes, the Nile flowed blended with 
honey for 11 days. 

8. Sesochris, for 48 years : his stature was 5 cubits, 

3 palms. ^ 

9. Cheneres, for 30 years. 

Total, 302 years. 

Total for the First and Second Dynasties [after the 
Flood], 555 years, according to the second edition of 
Africanus. 



Fr. 9 {from Syncellus). According to Eusebius. 

The Second Dynasty consisted of nine kings. 
First came Bochos, in whose reign a chasm opened 
at Bubastus, and many perished. 

He was succeeded by Kaichoos (or Choos), in 
whose time Apis and Mnevis and also the Mendesian 
goat were worshipped as gods. 

' No queens' names are recorded in the Royal Lists 
of Abydos and Karnak. Herodotus (ii. 100) records 
one queen : Diod. Sic. i. 44 (from Hecataeus) reckons 
the number of Egyptian queens as five. 

- The stature of each king is said to be noted in tlie 
records mentioned by Diodorus Sicukis. i. 44, 4. Cf. 
infra, Fr. 35, No. 3, App. II. No. 6 (p. 216). 

37 



Fr. 9, 10 MANETHO 

y Bio(f)is, e^' ov eKpidr) /cat ras yvvalKas 

jSacrtAeia? yepas e^^"^' '^*^^ /Lierd tovtovs 

aXXoi rpeis, e(f> (Lv ovhev napdarjiJiov 

iy4v€TO. 
^' ^Ettl Se Tov e^Sofxov fivdeverai tov NelXou 

/jlcXlti K€Kpafx4vov TjfjLepaLg h'ScKa pvrjvai. 
7]' Med^ ov Uccrcoxpi-S <, €Trj> \x-r] , os Aeyerai 

yeyovevai vifjog e)(0)v 7n]x<^^ ^' . TraXaiaToiv 

y TO fieyeOos. 
6' 'EttI 8e TOV 6' ovSev d^LO[jivrj[x6v€VTOV VTTrjpx^v, 

Ot /cat e^acriXevaav ereac a^t,' . 

'Ofxov TTpcoTTjs Kal SevTcpas Swaar^ias errj (j)fi9' 
Kara t^v e/cSoatr Evae^iov. 



Fr. 10. EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 96. 

Secunda dynastia regum IX. 

Primus Bochus : sub eo specus ingens Bubasti 
subsedit multosque mortales hausit. 

Post eum Cechous, quo tempore ^ Apis et Mnevis 
atque Mendesius hircus dii esse putabantur. 

Deinde Biophis, sub quo lege statutum est, ut 
feminae quoque regiam dignitatem obtinerent. 

Tum alii tres, quorum aetate nullum insigne 
facinus patratum est. 

Sub septimo mythici aiunt flumen Nilum melle 
simul et aqua fluxisse undeeim diebus. 

^ Miiller: MS. idemque. 
38 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 9, 10 

3. Biophis, in whose reign it was decided that 
women also might hold the kingly office. In 
the reigns of the three succeeding kings, no 
notable event occurred. 

7. In the seventh reign, as the story goes, the Nile 

flowed blended with honey for 11 days. 

8. Next. Sesochris was king for 48 years : the 

greatness of his stature is said to have been 
5 cubits 3 palms. 

9. In the ninth reign there happened no event 

worthy of mention. These kings ruled for 
297 years. 

Total for the First and Second Dynasties, 549 years, 
according to the recension of Eusebius. 



Fr. 10. Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Second Dynasty consisted of nine kings. 

First came Bochus, in whose reign a huge hole 
opened at Bubastus, and swallowed up many 
persons. 

He was succeeded by Cechous, in whose time 
Apis and Mnevis and the Mendesian goat were 
worshipped as gods. 

Next came Biophis, in whose reign it was decreed 
by law that women also might hold the royal office. 

In the reigns of the three succeeding kings, no 
notable event occurred. 

Under the seventh king fabulists tell how the 
river Nile flowed with honey as well as water for 
11 days. 

39 



Fr. 10, 11 MANETHO 

Postea Sesochris annis XLVIII, quem aiunt quin- 
que cubitos altum, tres vero palmos latum fuisse. 

Sub nono tandem nibil memoria dignum actum 
est. 

Hi regnaverunt annis CCXCVII. 

Fr. 11. Syncellus, p. 104. A<PPIKANOY. 

TpiTrj Swaareia Me fK^LTCOv ^aaiXecov 
evvea, (Lv a iVe;^€pa)(/)r^S'/ errj ktj' • icf)^ ov 
Aleves a.TTicrr'qaav AlyvTTTLCvv , /cat rrjs creArji'Ty? napa 
Xoyop av^rjdecarjg Sia Seo? eauroy? TrapeSocrav. 

jS' Toaopd pos, CTT] kO' , <i(f)^ o§ ^Ifxovdrjs^>. 
ovTos AaKXrjTTios <7Tapa tols^> AlyvTrriois 

^ N€xop64>r)s A. * Conj. Sethe. 



' For this absurd perversion of the Greek words, see 
p. 36 n. 1 : nXdros was added, perhaps as a corruption 
of TToXaiaTiov, and replaced fieyedos in the Greek version of 
Eusebius. 

2 The Old Kingdom, Dynasties III.-V. : c. 2780-c. 2420 B.C. 

Dynasty III., c. 2780-c. 2720 B.C. For identifications with 
monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte *, 
I. ii. p. 174 : he identifies (2) Tosorthos (Zoser I. — " the 
Holy "), and holds that (1) Necherophes is one name 
of Kha'sekhemui, (6) Tosertasis may be Zoser II. Atoti, 
and (9) Kerpheres may be Neferkere' II. 

^ Zoser was not the first builder with hewn stone : his 
predecessor, Kha'sekhemui, used squared blocks of lime- 
stone for building pui'poses ; see Petrie, Royal Tombs, 
ii. p. 13. Granite blocks had already formed the floor 
of the tomb of Udymu (Dynasty I.). 

Two tombs of Zoser are known : (1) a mastaba at BSt 
Khallaf near This (Baedeker *, p. 231), see J. Garstang, 
Mahasna and Bet Khalldf ; and (2) the famous Step 

40 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 10, U 

Next, Sesochris ruled for 48 years : he is said to 
have been 5 cubits high and 3 palms broad. ^ 

Finally, under the ninth king no memorable event 
occurred. 

These kings reigned for 297 years. 

Dynasty III. 
Fr. 11 {from Syncellus). The Account of Afri- 

CANUS. 

The Third Dynasty ^ comprised nine kings of 
Memphis. 

1. Necherophes, for 28 years. In his reign the 

Libyans revolted against Egypt, and when 
the moon waxed beyond reckoning, they 
surrendered in terror. 

2. Tosorthros,^ for 29 years. {In his reign lived 

Imuthes,*)> who because of his medical skill 
has the reputation of Asclepios among the 

Pyramid at Sakkara, which was the work o. the great 
architect Imhotep (Baedeker *, p. 156 f.). 

* If the emendation in the text be not accepted, the 
statement would surely be too inaccurate to be attributed 
to Manetho. The Egj^ptian Asclepios was Imouth or 
Imhotep of Memphis, physician and architect to King 
Zosor, afterwards deified : on Philae (now for the most 
part submerged) Ptolemy II. Philadelphus built a little 
temple to Imhotep. See Sethe, U titer suchungen, ii. 4 
(1902) : J. B. Hurry, Imhotep (Oxford, 1926). 

One of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, edited bj' Grenfell 
and Hunt, P. Oxy. XI. 1381, of ii./A.o., has for its subject 
the eulogy of Imuth^s-Asclopius : the fragment pre- 
served is part of the prelude. See G. Manteuffel, De 
Opuscidis Uraecia Aegypti e papyris, oslracis, lapidibusque 
collectis, 1930, No. 3. 

41 



Fr. 11, 12 MANETHO 

Kara t^v LarpLKr^v vevojXKTTai, Kal rrjv 8ta 
^earcov Xidiov oiKoSofxiav cvparo • oAAd /cat 
ypa<f)7Jg eTTC/JLeX-qdr]. 

y Tvpeis^ exTy ^'. 

S' Meaojxpts, err) it,'. 

€.' Uci)V(f)(.S, €Trj LS'' . 

S*' Toaepraais. err] l6^ , 

rf Ui](f)ovpis, <eTr)> A • 
6' K€p<f)4prjs, €Tr] KS"'. 

'Ofiov, err] criS'. 

'Ofiov Tojv rpiGiv Bwaareiiov Kara *A(f)piKav6v 
err) tp^d' . 

Fr. 12 (a). Syncellus, p. 106. KaTA EyZEBION. 
Tpir-q hvvaareia M€fi(f>iTcbv ^aaiXecou 

OKTO), 

a Nex^poix^-s, e0' ot Aleves dTreaTrjaav AlyvTT- 
TLCjv, Kal TTJs creXijvr^g napa Xoyov av^r)- 
deicrqs hia hios iavTOVs vapeSoaav. 

j8' Med^ ov EeaopOo? . . . , os AaKXrjTTios "napa 
AlyvrTTioLS CKX-qdr] Sto. ttjv larpcK-qv. oStos 
Kal TTjp Sia ^earwv Xidcov olKoSofirfv euparo, 
oAAct Kal ypa^ris' eTTep.eXridrj. 

01 Se XoiTTol ef ovhev a^i,ofiu7]p,6v€VTOv eirpa^av, 

01 Kal e^acriXevcrav eVecrtr p'^rj' . 

'Ojxov Tibv rpiwv hvvaaTeioJv Kara rov Evae^iov 
err] t/jfxC . 

1 Tiipis A. 
42 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 11, 12 

Egyptians, and who was the inventor of the 
art of building with hewn stone. He also 
devoted attention to writing. 

3. Tyreis (or Tyris), for 7 years. 

4. Mesochris, for 17 years. 

5. Soyphis, for 16 years. 

6. Tosertasis, for 19 years. 

7. Aches, for 42 years. 

8. Sephuris, for 30 years. 

9. Kerpheres, for 26 years. 
Total, 214 years. 

Total for the first three dynasties, according to 
Africanus, 769 years. 

Fr. 12 (a), {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Third Dynasty consisted of eight kings of 
Memphis : 

1. Necherochis, in whose reign the Libyans re- 

volted against Egypt, and when the moon 
waxed beyond reckoning, they surrendered 
in terror. 

2. He was succeeded by Sesorthos . . . : he was 

styled Asclepios in Egypt because of his 

medical skill. He was also the inventor of 

the art of building with hewn stone, and 

devoted attention to writing as well. 

The remaining six kings achieved nothing worthy 

of mention. These eight kings reigned for 198 years. 

Total for the first three dynasties, according to 

Eusebius, 747 years. 

43 



Fr. 12, 14 MANETHO 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 96. 

Tertia dynastia Memphitarum regum VIII. 

Necherochis, sub quo Libyes ab Aegyptiis defec- 
erunt : mox intempestive ^ crescente luna territi ad 
obsequium reversi sunt. 

Deinde Sosorthus . . . , qui ob medicam artem 
Aesculapius ab Aegyptiis vocitatus est. Is etiam 
sectis lapidibus aedificiorum struendorum auctor 
fuit : libris praeterea scribendis curam impendit. 

Sex reliqui nihil commemorandum gesserunt. 
Regnatum est annis CXCVII. 

Fr. 14. Syncellus, p. 105. KaTA A^PIKANON. 

Terdpr-q Svvacrreia M€[j,<f>t,TOJV avy- 
yeveias irepas fiaaiXeZs rf . 

^ intempestive, Margoliouth ; importune, Aucher ; 
immaniter, Mai. 



1 Dynasty IV., c. 2720-c. 2560 b.c. For identifications 
with monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Oe- 
schichte *, I. ii. p. 181 : he identifies (1) Soris (Snofru), (2) 
Suphis I, (Cheops, Khufu), then after Dedefrd' (not men- 
tioned by Manetho), (3) Snphis II. (Chephren), (4) Men- 
cheres (Mycerinus), and finally (an uncertain identification). 
(7) Sebercheres (Shopseskaf). For (3) Chephren and 

44 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 12, 14 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Third Dynasty consisted of eight kings of 
Memphis : 

Necherochis, in whose reign the Libyans revolted 
against Egypt : later when the moon waxed un- 
seasonably, they were terrified and returned to 
their allegiance. 

Next came Sosorthus . . . : he was styled 
Aesculapius by the Egyptians because of his medical 
skill. He was also the inventor of building with 
hewn stone ; and in addition he devoted care to the 
writing of books. 

The six remaining kings did nothing worthy of 
mention. The reigns of the whole dynasty amount 
to 197 years. 



Dynasty IV. 
Fr. 14 [from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Fourth Dynasty ' comprised eight kings of 
Memphis, belonging to a different line : 

(4) Mycerinus, Diodorus i. 64 gives the good variants 
(3) Chabryes and (4) Mencherinus. On the Chronology of 
Dynasty IV. see Reisner, Mycerinus (cf. infra, note 2), 
pp. 243 ff. Reisner reads the name Dedofre in the form 
Radedef, and identifies it with Ratolses. 

The Greek tales of the oppression of Egypt by Cheops 
and Chephren, etc., are believed to be the inventions of 
dragomans. Cf. Herodotus, il. 124 (contempt for the 
gods), 129 (Mycerinus), with How and Wells's notes. 
Africanus has, moreover, acquired as a treasure the 
" sacred book " of Cheops. 

45 



Fr. 14 MANETHO 

a' EcjpLS, CTTj k9' . 

jS' 2Jov(f)cs, err) ^y' • o<s ttjv ixeyicrTTjv rjyeipe 
nvpa/JiiBa, -qv <f)rjaLV ' HpoBoTOS ^ vtto Xeonos 
yeyovevai. ovtos Be /cat vnepoTTTqs et? 
deovs iyevero /cat ttjv Upav avveypaif/e 
fii^Xov, T]v (Ls fj-eya XPVH-^ ^^ AlyvTTTO) 
yevofievos €KT7)adix7)v. 

y Uov(/}is, €Tr) ^s''. 

S' Mevx^prjg, erq fy'. 

e' 'Paroiarjs, ^tt) kg', 

?' Bix^pi-S, ^r-q K^' . 

C Ue^epx^prjs, err] $'. 

Tj' Qap.(f>d is, ^T7] d' , 

'Oixov, €T7j aol,' .^ 

'Ofxov tCjv 8' hvvaareiiov tcov [fxera tov Kara- 
/cAuCT/Ltov] err} ^a/i?' Kar 'A(f)piKav6v. 

iHdt. ii. 124. *aoS' A. 



* On the Pyramids of Giza, see Baedeker 8, pp. 133 ft. ; 
Noel F. Wheeler, " Pyramids and their Purpose," 
Antiquity, 1935, pp. 5-21, 161-189, 292-304 ; and for 
the fourth king of Dynasty IV. see G. A. Reisner, 
Mycerinus : The Temples of the Third Pyramid at Giza, 
1931. Notwithstanding their colossal dimensions and 
marvellous construction, the Pyramids have not escaped 
detraction : Frontinus {De Aquis, L 16) contrasts " the 



46 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 14 

1. Soris, for 29 years. 

2. Suphis [I.], for 63 years. He reared the Great 

Pyramid,^ which Herodotus says was built 
by Cheops. Suphis conceived a contempt 
for the gods : he also composed the Sacred 
Book, which I acquired in my visit to Egypt - 
because of its high renown. 

3. Suphis [II.], for 66 years. 

4. Mencheres, for 63 years. 

5. Ratoises, for 25 years. 

6. Bicheris, for 22 years. 

7. Sebercheres, for 7 years. 

8. Thamphthis, for 9 years. 

Total, 277 year8.3 

Total for the first four dynasties [after the Flood], 
1046 years according to Africanus. 

idle pyramids " with " the indispensable structures " of 
the several aqueducts at Rome ; and Pliny {H.N. 36, 8, 
§ 75) finds in the pyramids " an idle and foolish ostenta- 
tion of royal wealth ". But the pyramids have, at siny 
rate, preserved the names of their builders, especially 
Cheops, to all future ages, although, as Sir Thomas Browne 
characteristicaUy wrote (Urn-Burial, Chap. 5): " To . . . 
be but pyramidally extant is a fallacy of duration "... 
" Who can but pity the founder of the Pyramids ? " 
The modem Egyptologist says : " The Great Pyramid 
is the earliest and most impressive witness ... to the 
final emergence of organized society from prehistoric 
chaos and locaJ confiict " (J. H. Breasted, History of 
Egypt, p. 119). 

^ Africanus went from Palestine to Alexandria, attrsujted 
by the renown of the philosopher Heraclas, Bishop of 
Alexandria : see Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. vi. 31, 2. 

» The MS. A gives as total 274 : the items add to 284. 



47 



Fr. 15. 16 MANETHO 

Fr. 15. Syncellus, p. 106. KATA EyEEBION. 

TerdpTT) hwaareia ^aaiXdwv it,' MeyL(j)irct)V cruy- 
yevetas irepas ^aaiXetas. 

^Qv rpiTOS Uov(j>ig, 6 rqv [j.eyiar'qv TTvpafXiSa 
eyetpa?, rjv (f)rj(nv 'HpoSorog vtto Xeonos yeyovevai, 
OS Koi VTTepoTTTTjs els deovs yeyovev, ws ^eravoiq- 
aavra avrov ttjv lepav avyypdijjat ^i^Xov, rjv ojs 
fjieya xp'TJlJ'O- -^lyvTrTLOt TrepieTTOvcn. rcov Be Xolttcov 
ovbev d^iofjLi'rjijiovevTOv a.veypd(f>7]. 61 Kal e^aai- 
Xevaav ereatv vjjlt)' . 

'0[jlov tcjv S' hvvaaTeLU}v [/xerd tov KaTaKXvaixov] 
^ap^e' /card Evae^iov. 



Fr. 16. EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Quarta dynastia Memphitarum regum XVII ex 
alia regia familia, quorum tertius, Suphis, maximae 
pyramidis auctor, quam quidem Herodotus a Cheope 
structam ait : qui in deos ipsos superbiebat ; tum 
facti poenitens sacrum librum ^ conscribebat, quem 
Aegyptii instar magni thesauri habere se putant. 
De reliquis regibus nihil memorabile litteris man- 
datum est. Regnatum est annis CCCCXLVIII. 

* libros Sacrarii (Aucher), " the sanctuary books," 
" books for the shrine." 



48 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 15, 16 

Fr. 15 {from Syncellus). According to Eusebius. 

The Fourth Dynasty comprised seventeen kings 
of Memphis belonging to a different royal line. 

Of these the third was Suphis, the builder of the 
Great Pyramid, which Herodotus says was built 
by Cheops. Suphis conceived a contempt for the 
gods, but repenting of this, he composed the Sacred 
Book, which the Egvptians hold in high esteem. 

Of the remaining kings no achievement worthy of 
mention has been recorded. 

This dynasty reigned for 448 years. 

Total for the first four dynasties [after the Flood], 
1195 years according to Eusebius. 



Fr. 16. Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Fourth Dynasty consisted of seventeen kings 
of Memphis belonging to a different royal line. The 
third of these kings, Suphis, was the builder of the 
Great Pyramid, which Herodotus declares to have 
been built by Cheops. Suphis behaved arrogantly 
towards the gods themselves : then, in penitence, 
he composed the Sacred Book in which the Egyptians 
believe they possess a gTeat treasure. Of the re- 
maining kings nothing worthy of mention is recorded 
in history. The reigns of the whole dynasty amount 
to 448 years. 



49 



Fr. 18, 19 MANETHO 

Fr. 18. Syncellus, p. 107. KaTA A^PIKANON. 

nd/JLTTTT) hvuacTTeia ^aaiXecov -q' i^ '£Ae- 
<f)avTLi'rjs- 

a Ova€px€pr)s, err) kt)'. 

y N€(f>epx^pr)S, erq k, 

8' EiaipT]s, €Trj ^'. 

€ Aep-qs, €Tq k . 

i' 'Padovprjs, err) /x8', 

^' Mevx^prj^, €T7] 6'. 

f] Tavx^pf]^} ^TT\ /X.8'. 

ff "Ovvog,^ i-rq Ay'. 

'Ofjiov, errj ap.r)' . yivovrai avv roZ^ Trporeray' 
[xevoLs ^a/A? ereffi tojv reaadpiov Swacrreiajv €T7j 

Fr. 19 (a). Syncellus, p. 109. KaTA EySEBION. 
UefjnTTr] Swaareia ^aaiXicov TpiaKovra 

ovTos VTTo rojv 8opv(f)6pcov dvrjpedr), 

* TaTxef)7)s corr. Lepsius. * 'O^vos A. 

^ Djniasty V. c. 2560-c. 2420 b.c. For identifications with 
monumental and other evidence, see Meyer, Geschichte^, 
I. ii. p. 203: his Hst runs (1) Userkaf, (2) Sahur6', (3) 
Nefererkere' Kakai, (4) Nefrefre' or Shepsesker^', (5) 
Kha'neferre', (6) Neweserre' Ini, (7) Menkeuhor (Akeuhor), 
(8) Dedkere' Asosi, (9) Unas. 

50 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 18, 19 

Dynasty V. 

Fr. 18 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Fifth Dynasty ^ was composed of eight kings 
of Elephantine : 

1. Usercheres, for 28 years. 

2. Sephres, for 13 years. 

3. Nephercheres, for 20 years. 

4. Sisires, for 7 years. 

5. Cheres, for 20 years. 

6. Rathures, for 44 years. 

7. Mencheres, for 9 years. 

8. Tancheres (? Tatcheres), for 44 years. 

9. Onnus, for 33 years. 
Total, 248 years.^ 

Along with the aforementioned 1046 years of the 
first four dynasties, this amounts to 1294 years. 



Fr. 19 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Fifth Dynasty consisted of thirty-one kings of 
Elephantine. Of these the first was Othoes,^ who 
was murdered by his bodyguard. 

* The items total 218 years ; but if the reign of OthoSs, 
the first king of Dynasty VI. is added, the total will then 
be 248 years. 

* In the chronology of Eusebiua, Dynasty V. is sup- 
pressed : the kings whom he mentions belong to 
Dynasty VI. 

51 



Fr. 19, 20 MANETHO 

8e S' 0LCOifj, l^air-qs dp^dixcvos, c^aaiXevae 
fiiXP'-^ €TtDi' eKaTOV. yivovTai ovv avv rols npo- 
TerayixevoLg ,o-p^e' €T€(T(, tCjv reaadpajv hvvaoT^icbv 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica T. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Qiiinta dynastia regum XXXI Elephantinorum, 
quorum primus Othius, qui a satellitibus suis occisus 
est. Quartus Phiops, qui regiam dignitatem a sexto 
aetatis anno ad centesimum usque tenuit. 



Fr. 20. Syncellus, p. 108. KaTA A0PIKANON. 
'Ektt) Swaareia ^aaiXioiv If Me/x^iTcDv. 

a ^OOorjs,^ €Tq A', os vtto tcop Bopv<f>6pa>v 

dvrjpedr] . 
/3' 0i6s, errj vy . 
y MeQovaov^is, err) t,' , 

' 'Oedt-ris A. 



* Karst translates the Armenian as referring to the 
sixtieth year — " began to rule at the age of 60 " ; but 
Aucher's Armenian text has the equivalent of sexeniiia, 
"six years old " (Margoliouth). 

52 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 19, 20 

The fourth king, Phiops, succeeding when six 
years old, reigned until his hundredth year. Thus, 
along with the aforementioned 1195 years of the first 
four dynasties, this amounts to 1295 years. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Fifth Dynasty consisted of thirty-one kings of 
Elephantine. Of these the first was Othius, who was 
killed by his attendants. The fourth king was Phiops, 
who held the royal office from his sixth '■ right down 
to his hundredth year. 



Dynasty VI. 

Fr. 20 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Sixth Dynasty '^ consisted of six kings of 
Memphis : 

1. Othoes, for 30 years : he was murdered by his 

bodyguard. 

2. Phius, for 53 years. 

3. Methusuphis, for 7 years. 

2 Dynasties VI.-VIII., the last Memphites, c. 2420- 
c. 2240 B.C. Dynasty VI. Meyer (Oeschichte ', I. li. p. 236) 
identifies as follows : (1) Othoes (Teti or Atoti), then 
after Userkere', (2) Phius (Pepi I.), (3) Methusuphis 
(Merenre' I.), (4) Phiops (Pepi II.), (5) Menthesuphis 
(Merenre' II.), (6) Nitocris. Sethe {Sesostris, p. 3) draws 
attention to the intentional differentiation of the same 
family-name — Phius for Pepi I., Phiops for Pepi II. : 
so also (3) Methusuphis and (5) Menthesuphis, and cf. 
infra on Psametik in Dynasty XXVI. Are these varia- 
tions due to Manetho or to his source ? 

53 



Fr. 20, 21 MANETHO 

8' 0LOJijj, e^aerr]? dp^dfievos ^acriXeveiv, 8tc- 

e Mev9€aov(f)ts, ero? ev. 

^' NiTCjDKpig, yewiKCordTTj koX ev}iop^ora.Trj 
Tcbv /car' avrrjv yevojxevrj, ^avOr] rrjv y^poiav, 
Tj TTjv TpLTrjv TJyeipe TTvpafJiLSa, e^aaiXevaev 
err] l^' . 

'Ofiov, errj cry', yivovrai avv roZs Trporeray- 
[livois ^acr^S' t<jJv e Swacrreicbv errj ^av^t,' . 

Fr. 21 (a). Syncellus, p. 109. KATA EYEEBION. 

"Ekt-t) 8vva(TT€La. 

rvvrj N iTOiKpis i^aatXevcre, rojv /car avrrjv 
yevvLKCOTarr) Kal evixopcfyoTdrrj, ^avdij re Trjv xpotdv 
inrdp^aaa, 7] Kal Aeyerat nqv TpiTrjv TtvpafitSa 
cu Kohofx7]KivaL . 

^ The remarkable descriptions of social disorganization 
and anarchy, addressed to an aged king in the Leiden 
PapjTus of Ipuwer and known as The Admonitions of an 
Egyptian Sage, are, according to Erman, to be associated 
with the end of this reign : see A. Erman, " Die Mahnworte 
eines agyptischen Propheten " in Sitz. der preuss. Akad. 
der Wissenschaften, xHi., 1919, p. 813. 

* Nitocris is doubtless the Neit-okre(t) of the Turin 
Papyrus : the name means " Neith is Excellent " (c/. 
App. II. Eratosthenes, No. 22, 'Adrjvd viKri<t>6pos), and was 
a favourite name under the Saite Dynasty (Dyn. XXVI.), 
which was devoted to the worship of Neith. See 
Herodotus, ii. 100, 134, Diod. Sic. I. 64. 14 (if Rhoddpis 
is to be identified with Nitocris), Strabo 17, 1. 33 (a 
Cinderella-like story), Pliny, N.H. 36. 12. 78, and G. A. 
Wain Wright, Sky -Religion, pp. 41 f¥. 

A queen's reign ending the Dynasty is followed by a 
period of confusion, just as after Dyn. XII. when Queen 

54 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 20, 21 

4. Phiops, who began to reign at the age of six, 

and continued until his hundredth year.^ 

5. Menthesuphis, for 1 year. 

6. Nitocris,^ the noblest and loveliest of the women 

of her time, of fair complexion, the builder of 
the third pyramid, reigned for 12 years. 
Total, 203 years. ^ Along with the aforementioned 
1294 years of the first five dynasties, this 
amounts to 1497 years. 



Fr. 21 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Sixth Dynasty. 

There was a queen Nitocris, the noblest and 
loveliest of the women of her time ; she had a fair 
complexion, and is said to have built the third 
pyramid. 

Scemiophris (Sebeknofrure') closes the line : cf. perhaps, 
in Dyn. IV., Thamphthis, of whom nothing is known. 

In 1932 Professor Selim Hassan discovered at Giza the 
tomb of Queen Khentkawes, a tomb of monumental 
dimensions, the so-called fourth or " false " pyramid. 
Khentkawes was the daughter of Mycerinus ; and, dis- 
regarding the chronological difficulty, H. Junker, in 
Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts fiir Agyptische Alter- 
tumskunde in Kairo, iii. 2 (1932), pp. 144-149, put forward 
the theory that the name Nitocris is derived from 
Khentkawes, and that Manetho refers here to the so-called 
fourth pyramid, which merits the description (Fr. 21(b)), — 
" with the aspect of a mountain ". See further B. van de 
Walle in L'AntiquM Classiqiie, 3 (1934), pp. 303-312. 

'The correct total is 197 years : the reign of Phiops is 
reckoned at 100, instead of 94 years (the Turin Papyrus 
gives 90 + a; years). 

55 



Fr. 21, 23, 24 MANETHO 

Ot Kal i^aaiXevaav^ errj rpia' iv aXXio ay'. 

rivovrai avv toZs TrporerayfjievoL? /O^cr^c' t<^v 
TTCure Svvaareicijv err) ^av^rj' . 

Ur]fjLeiojTeov ottogov Evae^ios ^Ael)ptKavov AeiTrcrat 
aKpi^eias iv re rfj tojv ^aaiXecov TToaorrjrt, Kal rat? 
rcov ovofidTcov v(f)aLp4u€<7L Kal rots" XP^^'^''^> o'^cSoi' 
TO. ^A<f)piKavov aural? Xe^eori. ypd(j)a)V. 



(b) EUSEBIUS, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Sexta dynastia. Femina quaedam Nitocris reg- 
navit, omnium aetatis suae virorum fortissima et 
mulierum formosissima, flava rubris genis. Ab hac 
tertia pyramis excitata dicitur, speciem collis prae 
se ferens. 

Ab his quoque regnatum est annis CCIII. 



Fr. 23. Syncellus, p. 108. KATA A^PIKANON. 

'E^hofxi] Bwaareta MefKJuToJi' jSaatAe'cov o', 
ot e^aaCKevaav ^fxepas o' , 



Fr. 24 (a). Syncellus, p. 109. KATA EYSEBION. 

'E^Sofxr] hwaareia MeficfiLTcbv ^acjiXecov 
7T€vr€, 61 i^aatXevaav ry/nepa? oe . 

* rj Kal f^aatXevaev ni. 

56 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 21, 23, 24 

These rulers (or this ruler) reigned for three 
years : in another copy, 203 years. Along with the 
aforementioned 1295 years of the first five dynasties, 
this amounts to 1498 years. 

(Syncellus adds) : It must be noted how much less 
accurate Eusebius is than Africanus in the number 
of kings he gives, in the omission of names, and in 
dates, although he practically repeats the account 
of Africanus in the same words. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Sixth Dynasty. There was a queen Nitocris, 
braver than all the men of her time, the most beauti- 
ful of all the women, fair-skinned with red cheeks. 
By her, it is said, the third pyramid was reared, with 
the aspect of a mountain. 

The united reigns of all the kings amount to 203 
years. 

Dynasty VII. 

Fr. 23 {from Syncellus). According to x\fricanus. 

The Seventh Dynasty * consisted of seventy kings 
of Memphis, who reigned for 70 days. 

Fr. 24 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 
Eusebius. 

The Seventh Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Memphis, who reigned for 75 davs. 

' Dynasty VII. — a mere interrejiiuiin, or [)er oil of 
confusion until one king gained supremo jjower. 

57 



Fr. 24, 25, 26 MANETHO 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Septima dynastia Memphitarum regum V, qui 
annis LXXV dominati sunt. 



Fr. 25. Syncellus, p. 108. KaTA A<PPIKAN0N. 

^OySoT] Swaareia Men<j>LT&v ^aaLXecov 
kI,' , 61 e^aaiXevaav c-rq pju.?'. yivovrai avv 
TOt? 7TpoT€Tay[X€VOLS eTT] fO-x^B' Tcjjv OKTU) hvvao- 
reiwv, 

Fr. 26 (a). Syncellus, p. 110. KaTA EyEEBION. 

^OyhoT) Swaareia MefxcfyLTCOv ^aaiXiajv 
7T€VT€, OL i^aGiXevaav err) CKaTov. yivovrai 
avv rolg TTporeraynevots ^ttj ^a(f)^rj' rcbv oktoj 
BwaareLaJv. 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Octava dynastia Memphitarum regum V,^ quorum 
dominatio annos centum occupavit. 

^ V Aucher : aliter Mai. 

1 Dynasty VIII., according to Barbams (Fr. 4) fourteen 
kings for 140 years : according to Meyer, probably eighteen 
kings who reigned for 146 years. 

[Footnote continued on oppotUe page. 
58 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 24, 25, 26 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Seventh Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Memphis, who held sway for 75 years. 



Dynasty VIII. 

Fr. 25 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Eighth Dynasty ^ consisted of twenty-seven 
kings of Memphis, who reigned for 146 years. Along 
with the aforementioned reigns, this amounts to 1639 
years for the first eight dynasties. 



Fr. 26 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 
Eusebius. 

The Eighth Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Memphis, who reigned for 100 years. Along with 
the aforementioned reigns, this amounts to 1598 
years for the first eight dynasties. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Eighth Dynasty consisted of five ^ kings of 
Memphis, whose rule lasted for 100 years. 

" The Turin Pap5^rus closes the first great period of 
Egyptian history at the end of what appears to be 
Manetho's Vlllth DjTiasty (the last Memphites) " : it 
reckons 955 j^ears from Dynasty I. to Dynasties VII. 
and VIII. (H. R. Hall in C.A.H. i. pp. 298, 170). See 
A. Scharff in J. Eg. Arch, xiv., 1928, p. 275. 
* So Aucher, Petennann, and Karst. 

59 



Fr. 27, 28 MANETHO 

Fr. 27. Syncellus, p. 110. KaTA Ai>PIKANON. 

^Evdrrj Bvvaare ia ' H paKXeoiroXnwv 
^aaiXecov i6', ot i^ao iXevoav err) vd' • (Lv 
6 TTpcoTog A)(66rjs, Setvoraro? tcov irpo avrov 
y€v6}X€VO? , rols eV Trdar) AlyvTrro) KaKO. elpydaaro , 
varepov Se fxavia TrepteVecre Kal vtto KpoKohelXov 
hL€(f)daprj. 



Fr. 28 (a). Syncellus, p. 111. KaTA EyZEBION. 

'Evdrrj Svvaare ia HpaKXeonoXiTwv 
^acriXecov reaadpcov, oi e^aaiXevuav err] 
CKaTOV' (Lv TTpaJTOS A.)(da)rjg,^ Seii'oraTOS tojv 
rrpo avrov yev6p.evos, rol'S iv Trdarj AlyvTrrcp KaKo. 
etpydoaro, varepov Se fxavia TTepieTreae Kal vtto 
KpOKoBetXov Sie(j)ddpr]. 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Nona dynastia Heracleopolitanim regum IV, annis 
C. Horum primus Ochthois saevissimus regum fuit 

' "Axdos A vnilgo. 

^ Dynasties IX. and X. c. 2240-c. 2100 B.C. — two series 
of nineteen kings, both from Heracleopolis (Baedeker *, p. 
218), near the modern village of Ahnasia (Ancient Egj'ptian 
Hat-nen-nesut), 11 miles S. of Cairo, c. 9 miles S. of the 
entrance to the Fayum. 

The Turin Papyrus gives eighteen kings for Dynasties 
IX. and X. as opposed to Manetho's thirty-eight. 

[Footnote continued on opposite page. 

60 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fu. 27, 28 

Dynasty IX. 

Fr. 27 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Ninth Dynasty ^ consisted of nineteen kings of 
Heracleopolis, who reigned for 409 years. The first 
of these. King Achthoes,^ beha\dng more cruelK 
than his predecessors, wrought woes for the people 
of all Egypt, but afterwards he was smitten with 
madness, and was killed by a crocodile.^ 

Fr. 28 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of 
Heracleopolis, who reigned for 100 years. The first 
of these, King Achthoes, behaving more cruellv 
than his predecessors, wrought woes for the people 
of all Egypt, but afterwards he was smitten with 
madness, and was killed by a crocodile. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings of 
Heracleopolis, reigning for 100 years. The first of 
these. King Ochthois,'' was more cruel than aU his 

Manetho's account of Dynasty IX. is best preserved by 
Africanus. Barbarus has almost the same figures — twenty 
kings for 409 years. 

* Achthods : in the Turin PapjTus Akhtoi (Meyer, 
Geschichte *, I. ii. p. 247 — three kings of this name). Meyer 
conjectures that the " cruelty " of Achthoes may be violent 
or forcible oppression of the feudal nobility. 

' Cf. p. 28 n. 3. 

* Okhthovis (Petermann's translation), -ov- representing 
the long o. 

61 



Fr. 28, 29, 30, 31 MANETHO 

qui sibi praecesserant, universamque Aegyptum diris 
calamitatibus affecit. Idem denique vesania cor- 
reptus est et a crocodilo peremptus. 

Fr. 29. Syncellus, p. 110. KaTA A^PIKANON. 

AeKarr) Suvaarcta 'HpaKXeoTToXLTCov ^a- 
aiXicov id', ot e^aaiXevaav eTrj pire . 



Fr. 30 (a). Syncellus, p. 112. KaTA EysEBION. 

AeKOLTr) Swacrreia ' HpaKXeoTToXirwv ^aaiXitov 
id' , 61 ifiaalXevcrav errj pTre . 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Decima dynastia Heracleopob'tarum regum XIX, 
annis CLXXXV. 

Fr. 31. Syncellus, p. 110. KaTA A0PIKANON. 

'EvSeKarr) Swaareia A LoaTToXtrcov /Sa- 
CTtAecDV' ts*', ot i^amXevaav e-rt) fxy' . fxed^ ovs 
^AnpevepLT)?, erq i?' . 

M€)(pt ToCSe TOV TTpCJTOV TOflOV KaTayi]0)(€ 

Mavedoi. 

'Ojxov ^aaiXels p^^' , errj fir , rjixepai o' . 

1 The Middle Kingdom, Dynasties XI.-XIII. : c. 2100- 
r. 1700 B.C. 

[Footnote continued on opposite page. 

62 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 28. 29. 30, 31 

predecessors, and visited the whole of Egypt with 
dire disasters. Finally, he was seized with madness, 
and devoured by a crocodile. 

Dynasty X. 

Fr. 29 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of 
Heracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years. 

Fr. 30 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of 
Heracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Tenth Dynasty consisted of nineteen kings of 
Heracleopolis, who reigned for 185 years. 

Dynasty XI. 

Fr. 31 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Eleventh Dynasty ^ consisted of sixteen kings 
of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In 
succession to these, Ammenemes '^ ruled for 16 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho. 

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 70 days. 

Dynasty XI. (c. 2100-c. 2000 B.C.) with its seat at Thebes : 
sixteen kings of Thebes ruUng for only 43 years (Manetho) : 
Turin Papyrus gives six kings with more than 160 years. 

* Ammenemes is Amenemhet I. : see pp. 66 f., nn. 1, 2. 

63 



Fr. 32 MANETHO 

Fr. 32 (a). Syncellus, p. 112. KATA EyEEBION. 

'EvSeKarr] Swaareia A loaTToXiTCOv ^aaiXdcov 
ts*', ot e^aaiXevaav err] fty'. /ue0' ovs ^A^^ievi- 
fJ-r]?, err] t?'. 

Mexpi- TOvSe TOP TrpiOTOv TOfxov KaTayijo^ev 6 
Mavedaj. 'OixoC jSacrtAet? ph^' , ^Tf] fir' , rjjJLepai 

od'. 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 97. 

Uudecima dynastia Diospolitarum regum XVI, 
annis XLIII. Post hos Ammenemes annis XVI. 

Hactenus primum librum Manetho produxit. 
Sunt autem reges CXCII, auni MMCCG. 



64 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 32 
Fr. 32 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Eleventh Dynasty consisted of sixteen kings 
of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In 
succession to these, Ammenemes ruled for 16 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho. 

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years 79 days. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Eleventh Dynasty consisted of sixteen kings 
of Diospolis [or Thebes], who reigned for 43 years. In 
succession to these, Ammenemes ruled for 16 years. 

Here ends the First Book of Manetho. 

Total for the reigns of 192 kings, 2300 years. 



6S 



Fr. 34 MANETHO 

T0M02 AEYTEP02. 
Fr. 34. Syncellus, p. 110. KaTA A<PPIKAN0N. 
AeVTepov Tonov Mavedco. 

AojSe KOLTT] SvvaCTTGLa A LO (T7T oXiT COV ^aCTt,- 

Xecxiv iiTTa.. 

a Eeaoyxoais^ Ayiiiaviiiov vlog, errj fi?' . 
jS' yi/xfiavefXT]?, errj Xrj , o? vtto tcov ISlcov 

€Vvov)(Cov dvrjpedr). 
y EeaojarpLs,^ err] fxrj' , o? airacrav i)(€t.pa)- 

aaro ttjv Acriav iv iviavrols ivvia, kol 

TTJS Evp(l)TT7]S TO. fi€)(pL @paK7]S, 7TaVTa)(6<J€ 

* yeaovyoais (for 2ea6yxoais) B : ^eaoyx'^P'-S m. 

* A : HiaooTpis B. 



1 Dynasty XII. c. 2000-1790 b.c. (Meyer, GeschicfUe ^, 
I. ii. p. 270). Including Ammenemes whom Manetho 
places between Dj'nasty XI. and Dynasty XII., there are 
eight rulers in Dynasty XII. — ( 1 ) Ainmenemes ( Amenemhet 
I.y, (2) Sesonchosis (Senwosret or Sesostris I.), (3) Am- 
manemes (Amenemhet II.), (4) Sesostris II. (omitted by 
Manetho), (5) Sesostris (Senwosret III.), (6) Manetho's 
Lamar^s and Ameres (Amenemhet III., Nema'tr^'), 
(7) Ammenemes (Amenemhet IV.), (8) Scemiophris 
(Queen Sebeknofrure'). For (5), the great Sesostris 
(1887-1850 B.C.) of Herodotus, ii. 102, Diod. Sic. I. 53 ff., 
see Sethe, Unters. zur Gesch. . . . Aeg. ii. 1, and Meyer, Ge- 
schichte *, I. ii. p. 268. The name of Amenemhet bespeaks 
his Theban origin : he removed the capital further north 
to Dahshur, a more central position — " Controller of the 
Two Lands," as its Egyptian name means. Thus the 
kings of Dynastj' XII. are kings who came from Thebes, 
but ruled at Dahshur. 

[Footnote co/tlinued on opposite page. 

66 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 34 

BOOK II. 
Dynasty XII. 

Fr. 34 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

From the Second Book of Manetho. 
The Twelfth Dynasty ^ consisted of seven kings 
of Diospolis. 

1. Sesonchosis, son of Ammanemes, for 46 years. 

2. Ammanemes, for 38 years : he was murdered 

by his own eunuchs.^ 

3. Sesostris, for 48 years : in nine years he sub- 

dued the whole of Asia, and Europe as far as 
Thrace, everywhere erecting memorials of 

In Djmasty XII. the conquests of DjTiasty VI. in the 
south were extended ; and Sesostris III. was the first 
Egj-ptian king to conquer Syria. Among works of peace 
the great irrigation schemes in the Fayum perpetuated 
the name of Amenemhet III. in " Lake Moeris ". (See 
G. Ca ton -Thompson and E. W. Gardner, The Desert 
Fayum, 1934.) Manetho mentions his building of the 
Labyrinth : it is significant that after the reign of 
Sesostris III. and his wide foreign conquests, his son 
should have built the LabjTinth. Vases of the Kamares 
tjrpe from Crete have been found at Kahun, not far from 
the Labyrinth. 

*See A. de Buck {Melanges Maspero, vol. i., 1935, 
pp. 847-52) for a now interpretation of the purpose of 
The Instruction of Amenemmes : in this political pamphlet 
the dead king speaks from the tomb in support of his son 
Sesostris, now holding the throne in spite of strong opposi- 
tion, and violently denounces the ungrateful ruffians who 
murdered him. It seems probable that Manetho's note here 
refers to the death of Anunenemes I. (Battiscoinbe Gunn). 

67 



Fr. 34, 35 



MANETHO 



^ )/) A 



jxvTjfiocTVva eyetpa? ttjs rcov euvojv a^eaeo}^ , 
67rt fX€v Tot? yewaioL? dvSpaJv, €ttI 8e rot? 
dyeweai yvvaiKwv /xopia Tai? ari^Xais iy- 
Xapdaaoiv , (Lg ^ vtto Alyvirriajv nerd "Oaipiv 
TTpoiTOV uojJiLadrjvaL. 
Aaxo-prj^/ err) rj , o? rov ev ApatvoiTQ 
Xa^vpivdov iavTcp Td(f)Ov KareaKevaae. 

€ Afiep'qs, errj rj . 

g' AfXfieve/xTjs,^ err] t] . 

t,' UK€fxio<f)pLs, dSeA^T^, errj S', 

'Ofxov, errj p$' . 



Fr. 35. Syncellus, p. 112. KaTA EyZEBION. 

Aevripov rojxov Mauedo). 
AojSe Karr) hvvaoTeia At. 



oXi 



fia- 



OLXioiv eTTxa. div o irpoiTos 

*AfJifJL€P€fJLOV vtoS, CTTj fig' . 



,e(Toy)(oais, 



Karaaxeoecos m. 
' Aa^dp7]s Meyer. 
' 'AfievefiTjS B. 



»in. : osMSS, 

* 'Afi/xep'j^s A. 

• B : £ea6yx<opis A. 



' See Ayyptische Inschriften aus den Museen zu Berlin, 
i. p. 257, for a stele at Semneh with an inscription in which 
the great Sesostris pours contempt upon his enemies, the 
Nubians. 

^ For the sexual symbols represented upon pillars, see 
Hdt. ii. 102, 106, Diod. Sic. I. 55. 8 : c/. the representation 
of mutilated captives on one of the walls of the Ramesseum, 
Diod. Sic. I. 48. 2. It has been suggested that Herodotus, 
who saw the pillars of Sesostris in Palestine, may possibly 
have mistaken an Assyrian for an Egyptian relief. 

68 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 34, 35 

his conquest of the trihes.^ Upon stelae 
[pillars] he engraved for a valiant race the 
secret parts of a man, for an ignoble race those 
of a woman. ^ Accordingly he was esteemed 
by the Egyptians as the next in rank to Osiris. 

4. Lachares (Lamares),^ for 8 years : he built the 

Labyxintb * in the Arsinoite nome as his own 
tomb. 

5. Ameres, for 8 years. 

6. Ammenemes, for 8 years. 

7. Scemiophris, his sister, for 4 years. 
Total, 160 years. 



Fr. 35 (from Syncellus). According to Eusebius. 

From the Second Book of Manetho. 

The Twelfth Dynasty consisted of seven kings of 
Diospolis. The 6rst of these, Sesonchosis, son of 
Ammenemes. reigned for 46 years. 

•* For other names of Amenemhet III., see note on 
Mares, App. II., No. 35, p. 224. 

* The Labyrinth is correctly attributed by Manetho to 
Amenemhet III., who built it as his mortuary temple 
(contrast Herodotus, ii. 148, who assigns this monument 
to the Dodecarchy). The Fayum was a place of great 
importance during this dynasty, from Amenemhet I. 
onwards. 

The description of the nome a.s ' Axsinoit© " has often 
been suspected as a later interpo ation ; but if " Arsinoite " 
was used by Manetho himself, it gives as a date in his life 
the year 256 B.C. when Ptolemy Philadelphus commem- 
orated Queen Arsinoe (d. 270 B.C.) in the new name of 
the nome. (C/. Intro, p. xvi for a possible reference to 
Manetho, the historian of Egypt, in 241 B.C.) 

69 



Fr. 35, 36 MANETHO 

^' *Afji[Jiav€fJLr)s, err) Xtj' , o? vtto ribv ihicov 
€Vvov)((x)v dvrjpedrj. 

y' Hiaixiorpis} err) fxr]' , o? Xeyerai yeyovevai 
TT7])(^u)v S', TraXatcFTOiv y , haKTvXojv jS'. o? 
Trdaav €)(^ipcoaaTO rrjv Aaiav iv evLavrols 
ivvea, /cat rrjs Evpa)7T7]g rd jJi^XP'- ^ptt/cT^?, 
TTavraxocre fJLvrjpioavva eyeipas rrj? twv 
eOvcjv KaTaa)(4aeois , eTrl fxev rols yevvaioig 
dvSpiJov, €ttI Se rols dyevviai yvvaiKwv 
jjopia rat? ar'^Xats iyxo-pdcraajv , (os^ Kai 
VTTO Tcbv AlyvTTTLOJv <7Tpa>Tov> ^ fjierd 
"Oaipiv vojjiadrjvai. 

MeO^ oi> A dp apt?, errj r)' , 05 tov iv Apaevotrrj * 
Xa^vpivdov eavrqj Ta(f)ov KareaKevacrev ^ 

01 8e rovTov StaSo;^ot eVi err] /aj8', 01 Trdvres 
i^aaiXevaav ereat a/xe. 



Fr. 36. EusEBFUS, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 98. 

E Manethonis secundo libro. 

Duodecima dynastia Diospolitarum regum VII, 
quorum primus Sesonchosis Ammenemis filius annis 
XLVI. 

Ammenemes annis XXXVIII, qui a suis eunuchis 
interemptus est. 

Sesostris annis XLVIII, cuius mensura fertur 
cubitorum quattuor, palmarumque trium cum digitis 

' \ : EiaooTpLs B. " m : os MSS. * m. 

70 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 35, 36 

2. Ammanemes, for 38 years : he was murdered 

by his own eunuchs. 

3. Sesostris, for 48 years : he is said to have 
been 4 cubits 3 palms 2 fingers' breadths in 
stature. In nine years he subdued the whole 
of Asia, and Europe as far as Thrace, every- 
where erecting memorials of his conquest of the 
tribes. Upon stelae [pillars] he engraved for a 
valiant race the secret parts of a man. for an 
ignoble race those of a woman. Accordingly 
he was esteemed by the Egyptians as the next 
in rank to Osiris. 

Next to him Lamaris reigned for 8 years : he 
built the Labyrinth in the Arsinoite nome as his own 
tomb. 

His successors rided for 42 years, and the reigns 
of the whole dynasty amounted to 245 years. ^ 

Fr. 36. Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

From the Second Book of Manetho. 

The Twelfth Dynasty consisted of seven kings of 
Diospolis. The first of these, Sesonchosis, son of 
Ammenemes, reigned for 46 years. 

2. Ammenemes, for 38 years : he was murdered 
by his own eunuchs. 

3. Sesostris, for 48 years : he is said to have 
been 4 cubits 3 palms 2 fingers' breadth in 

1 The items given add to 182 years. 

* This variant spelling with -€- for -i- appears to be 
a mere scribal error due to confusion with words beginning 
dpaev-. 

71 



Fr. 37, 38, 39 MANETHO 

duobns. Is universam Asiam annorum novem spa- 
tio sibi subdidit, itemque Europae partem usque ad 
Thraciam. Idem et suae in singulas gentes domina- 
tionis monumenta ubique constituit ; apud gentes 
quidem strenuas virilia, apud vero imbellcs feminea 
pudenda ignominiae causa columnis insculpens. 
Quare is ab Aegyptiis proximos post Osirin honores 
tulit. 

Secutus est Lampares, annis VIII. Hie in 
Arsinoite labyrinthum cavernosum sibi tumulum 
fecit. 

Regnaverunt successores eius annis XLII. 

Summa universae dominationis annorum CCXLV. 



Fr. 38. Syncellus, p. 113. KATA A^PIKANON. 

TpiaKaiheKarrj Swacrreia AioaTToXnayv ^aaiXicov 
f , OL epacnAevaav ctt] vvy .'■ 

Fr, 39 (a). Syncellus, p. 114. KaTA EYSEBION. 

TpiaKaLSeKOLTTj Swaarela AlouttoXltcov jSaatAe'cov 
§ , oi epaaiAevaav err] vvy . 

1 B : pnS' A. 

^ The Armenian has a word here for " sufferings " or 
" torments " (Margoliouth) : Karst expresses the general 
meaning as — " he engraved their oppression through (or, 
by means of) . . ." 

* Karst translates this word by " das hohlenwendelgang- 
formige". 

'Dynasty XIII., 1790-c. 1700 B.C. In the Turin Pa- 
pyrus there is a corresponding group of sixty kings : see 
thn list in Meyer, Geschichte *, I. ii. pp. 308 f., one of them 

72 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 37, 38, 39 

stature. In nine years he subdued the whole 
of Asia, and Europe as far as Thrace. Every- 
where he set up memorials of his subjugation of 
each tribe : among valiant races he engraved 
upon pillars a man's secret parts, among un- 
warlike races a woman's, as a sign of disgrace.^ 
Wherefore he was honoured by the Egyptians 
next to Osiris. 

His successor, Lampares, reigned for 8 years : in 
the Arsinoite nome he built the many-chambered ^ 
Labyrinth as his tomb. 

The succeeding kings ruled for 42 years. 

Total for the whole dynasty, 245 years. 

Dynasty XIII. 

Fr. 38 {from Syncellus). According to African us. 

The Thirteenth Dynasty ^ consisted of sixty kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years. 

Fr. 39 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Thirteenth Dynasty consisted of sixty kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years. 

being a name ending in -mes, perhaps Dedumes, the king 
TouTL/xaios of Fr. 42. The twenty-fifth king in the Turin 
Papyrus, Col. VII., Kha'neferrS' Sebekhotp IV., is prob- 
ably the King Chenephres of whom Artapanus (i./B.c.) 
says that he was " king of the regions above Memphis 
(for there were at that time many kings in Egypt) " in 
tho lifetime of Moses (Artapanus, Concerning the Jews, 
quoted by Euseb., Prnepar. Evnmj. ix. 27 : see also 
Clement of Alexandria, Strom, i. 23, 154). 

73 



Fr. 30, 41 MANETHO 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

p. 99. 

Tertia decima dynastia Diospolitarum regum LX, 
qui regnarunt annis CCCCLIII. 

Fr. 41 (a). Syncellus, p. 113. KATA A0PIKANON. 

TeacrapeaKatBeKaTr] Bvvaareia So ircov ^acnXeojv 
0? , OL e^aaiXevaav err) pirh' } 

(b) Syncellus, p. 114. KaTA EYZEBION. 

TeaaapeaKaiSeKdrr] hvvaareia Eoltcov /SacriAecov 
OS , OL e^aoLXevaav errj pTrh' • ev aAAo) uttS'. 

(c) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 

p. 99. 

Quarta decima dynastia Xoitarum ^ regum 
LXXVI, qui regnarunt annis CCCCLXXXIV. 

1 B on y : a lacuna in A. 

^Aucher: Khsojitarum (Petermann's translation). 



1 Dynasties XIV.-XVII., the Hyksos Age : c. 1700- 
1580 B.C. 

Dynasty XIV. Nothing is known of the kings of 
Dynasty XIV., whose seat was at Xois (Sakha) in 
the West Delta — an island and town in the Sebennytic 
nome (Strabo, 17. 1. 19). They were not rulers of Upper 
Egypt, but probably of the West Delta only. At this 
period there was, it is probable, another contemporary 
dynasty in Upper Egjqit (Dynasty XVII. of Manetho). 

In the Turin Papyrus there is a long series of rulers' 
names corresponding to this dynasty ; but the number 

74 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 39, 41 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Thirteenth Dynasty consisted of sixty kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 453 years. 



Dynasty XIV. 

Fr. 41 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 
Africanus. 

The Fourteenth Dynasty ^ consisted of seventy-six 
kings of Xois, who reigned for 184 years. 

(b) According to Eusebius. 

The Fourteenth Dynasty consisted of seventy- 
six kings of Xois, who reigned for 184 years, — in 
another copy, 484 years. 

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Fourteenth Dynasty consisted of seventy-six 
kings of Xois, who reigned for 484 years. 

given by Manatho (76) was not approximated in the Papyrus 
which shows between twenty and thirty names of kings. 
Not one of these names is preserved on the ^Monuments, 
nor on the Karnak Tablet. The kings of Dynasty XIV., 
and even the last kings of Dynasty XIII., reigned sim- 
ultaneously with the Hyksos kings : c/. the double series 
of kings in Dynasty XVII. In the Royal Lists of Abydos 
and Sakkara the rulers of Dynasties XIII. -XVII. are 
altogether omitted. The Royal List of Karnak gives 
a selection of about tliirty-five names of Dynasties XIII.- 
XVII., omitting Dynasty XIV. and the Hyksoa. 

75 



Fr. 42 MANETHO 



Fr. 42. JosEPHUS, Contra Apionem, I. 14, §§ 73-92.1 

73 "Ap^ofiaL St) TTpcoTOv oltto tojv Trap' AlyvTnioLS 
■ypajJLfxaTCov. avra pukv ovv ovx olov re napa- 
rideadai raKeivajv, Mavedojs ^ S' fjv to yevo? Ai- 
yvTTTLOs, dvTjp Trj<i EXXtjvlktjs fieTeax'TjKOj? TratSeiag, 
COS BrjXog eaTLV • yeypa(j)€v yap 'EXKahi (f)covfj rrju 
TTarpLOv laropiav ck SeATcov" ^ Upcov, cu? <j)r)ai.v 

' For §§ 73-75, 82-90, see Eusebius, Praepar. Evang. x. 13 : 
for §§73-105, see Eusebius, Chron. i. pp. 161-8, Schone 
(Arm.). 

*Eus. : Mavedojv L, Lat. (same variation elsewhere). 

^ SeArcov Gutschmid {sacris libris Lat. : sacris monumentia 
Eus. Arm., cf. § 226) : re rwu L. 

1 The invasion of the Hyksos took place at some time 
in Dynasty XIII. : hence the succeeding anarchy in a 
period of foreign domination. The later Egyptians looked 
back upon it as the Jews did upon the Babylonian 
captivity, or the English upon the Danisli terror. The 
keen desire of the Egj'ptians to forget about the Hyksos 
usurpation accounts in part for our ignorance of what 
actually happened : " it is with apparent unwillingness 
that they chronicle anj' events connected with it " (Peet, 
Egypt and the Old Testament, p. 69). In Egyptian texts 
the "infamous" (Hyksos) were denoted as 'Amu, — a 
title also given to the Hittites and their allies by Ramesses 
II. in the poem of the Battle of Kadesh (ed. Kuentz, § 97). 
Perhaps they were combined with Hittites who in 1925 
B.C. brought the kingdom of Babel to an end. It is 
certain that with the Hyksos numerous Semites came into 
Egypt : some of the Hyksos kings have Semitic names. 
For the presence of an imj^ortant Hurrian element among 
the Hyksos, see E. A. Speiser, " Ethnic Movements," 
in Ann. of Amer. Sch. of Or. Res. xiii. (1932), p. 51. The 

76 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 42 

The Hyksos Age, c. 1700-c. 1580 b.c.i 



Fr. 42 {from Josephus, Contra Apionem, i. 14, 
§§ 73-92). 

[Josephus is citing the records of neighbouring 
nations in proof of the antiquity of the Jews.] 

I will begin with Egyptian documents. These I 
caniiot indeed set before you in their ancient form ; 
but in Manetho we have a native Egyptian who was 
manifestly imbued with Greek culture. He wrote 
in Greek the history of his nation, translated, as he 
himself tells us, from sacred tablets ; ^ and on many 

Hyksos brought with them from Asia their tribal god, 
which was assimilated by the Egyptians to Seth, the god 
of foreign parts, of the desert, and of the enemy. 

In the first half of the second millennium B.C. the Hyks6s 
ruled a great kingdom in Palestine and Syria (Meyer, 
Oeschichte'", i. § 304) ; and when their power was broken 
down by the arrival of hostile tribes, King Amosis took 
advantage of their plight to drive the Hyksos out of Egypt 
(A. Jirku, " Aufstieg und Untergang der Hyksos," in 
Journ. of the Palestine Orient. Soc. xii., 1932, p. 60). 

A dim tradition of Hyksos-rule is possibly preserved in 
Herodotus, ii. 128. Perhaps "the shepherd Philitis " in 
that peissage is connected with " Philistines," a tribe which 
may have formed part of these invaders. There is 
confusion between two periods of oppression of the common 
people, — under the pyramid- builders and under the 
Hyksos. For a translation of the Egyptian records which 
illustrate the Hyksos period, see Battiscombe Gunn and 
Alan H. Gardiner, J. Eg. Arch, v., 1918, pp. 36-56, " The 
Expulsion of the Hyksos ". 

* The word " tablets " is a probable emendation, since 
Manetho would naturally base his History upon temple- 
archives on stone as well as on papyrus : cf. the Palermo 
Stone, the Turin Papyrus, etc. (Intro, pp. xxiii ft".). 

77 



Fr. 42 MANETHO 

avTos, iJLeTa<f>pdaas , 09 ^ kol ttoXXo. rov ' HpoBorov 
iXeyx^i^ 'Ta)v AlyvTTTiaKCJv vn dyvoCag iipevajjievov. 
74ouTO? 8rj Toivvv 6 Mavedcbs eV Trj hevrepa tojv 
AlyvTTTLaKU)v ravra irepl rjpwv ypd(f>eL • Trapad-q- 
CTo/xat Se Trjv Xi^tv avToO Kaddirep avrov CKelvov 
TTapayayojv fxaprvpa • 

75 " Tovrip-aio? .^ inl tovtov ovk otS' ottojs 6 ^ deos 
avreTTvevaev , Koi TrapaSo^cvg €k tcuv Trpos dvaroXrjv 
jxepajv dvdpcoTTOL to yevos acrr^/xoi KaraOappT^aavTes 
€771 TTjv x^P^^ earpdrevaav kol paBtcos dp.ax'fJTl 

76 TavTr]v Kara Kpdros ^IXov, kol tovs rjyepbovevaav- 
TttS" eV avTjj X'^ipojadixevoL to Xolttov ra? t€ TToXeis 
wfxcos iveTTprjoav i<al rd rcov dewv lepd Karecr- 
Kai/jav, Trdari Se rots' err l)(oj plots €-)(Qp6rard ttojs 

€)(pT]O^O.VTO , ToifS /U.€V Gr(f)dl^OVT€S , TOiV Sg KoX Ttt 

IT T€Kva Kal yvi^oLKag els SovXelav dyovres. nepas 
Be Kal ^aaiXea eva i^ avTcov iTTolrjaav, w ovofJLa 

^ OS Eus. : om. L. 

* Gutschmid : too Tcfiaios ovofia h, Eus. {ovofia probably a 
gloss: dve/xoj Gutschmid). 

' o Eus. (perhaps a survival of Ancient Egyptian usage) : 
cm. L : Meyer conj. deos ris. 



1 Cf. Manetho, Fr. 88. 

* This account of the Hyksos invasion is obviously 
derived from popular Egyptian tales, the characteristics 
of which are deeply imprinted upon it. Mej-er (Oeschichte *, 
I. ii. p. 313) quotes from papyri and inscriptions passages 
of similar style and content, e.g. Pap. Sallier I. describing 
the war with the Hyksos, and mentioning " Lord Ap6pi 
in Auaris," and an inscription of Queen Hatshepsut from 
the Speos Artemidos, referring to the occupation of 

78 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 42 

points of Egyptian history he convicts Herodotus ^ 
of having erred through ignorance. In the second 
book of his History of Egypt, this writer Manetho 
speaks of us as follows. I shall quote his own words, 
just as if I had brought forward the man himself as a 
witness : - 

" Tutimaeus.^ In his reign, for what cause I 
know not, a blast of God smote us ; and un- 
expectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders 
of obscure race marched in confidence of victory 
against our land. By main force they easily seized 
it without striking a blow ; * and having overpowered 
the rulers of the land, they then burned our cities 
ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the 
gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hos- 
tility, massacring some and leading into slavery the 
wives and children of others. Finally, they ap- 
pointed as king one of their number whose name was 

Auaris. See Breasted, Ancient Records, i. § 24, ii. §§ 296 ff. 
Meyer adds that he would not be surprised if Manetho's 
description reappeared word for word one day in a hieratic 
papyrus. Cf. § 75 o deos : § 76 the crimes of the Hyksos 
(Fr. 54, § 249, those of the Solymites and their polhited 
allies) : § 77 the upper and lower lands : §§ 78, 237 re- 
ligious tradition to explain the name of Auaris and its 
dedication to Typhon : § 99 hollow phrases about military 
expeditions of Sethos : <; 237 the form of the phrase oiy 
Xpovos iKavos BirjXOev, and many other passages. See also 
Weill, La fin du moyen empire dgyptien, pp. 76 ff. 

3 See Fr. 38, n. 3. 

* The success of the Hyksos may have been due to 
superior archery and to the use of horse-drawn chariots, 
previously unknown in Egypt (Maspero, Hist. Anc. ii. 
p. 51 ; Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities, p. 70 ; H. R. 
Hall, Anc. Hist, of Near East *, p. 213), as well as to superior 
weapons of bronze (H. R. Hall, C'.A.H. i. p. 291 n., 312 i.). 

79 



Fr. 42 MANETHO 

•^v UdXiTLS.^ Kal ovTog eV rfj M€iJL<f)L8L /careytVero, 
T-qv T€ av(x) Kal Kara) ;^ajpap' SaafJioXoycov Kal 
(jypovpav iv rots eTnrrjheLOTa.TOLS KaraXeLTTCov ^ 
TOTTOLS. /ActAtcTTa 8e Kal TO. TTpos avajoXriv rja(f>a- 
Xiaaro fJt-eprj, rrpoopcopLevog, ^Aaavpicov rrore [j,€lI,ov 
IS laxvovTOJV, eaopLev7]v iTndvp.La^ r-qs avrov ^aai- 
Aeia? €(/)oSov. €Vpo)v Se iv vojjlu) to) Uatrj] * 
ttoXlv eTnKatpoTaTrjv, Keiiievqv piev npo? duaroX-qv 
Tov Bov^aarirou TTOTajXoC, KaXoujJ.evrji' S' oltto 
Tivos apxciLag deoXoyias Avaptv, ravrrju €KTt.a4v 

1 Silitis Eus. Arm. : Zatr-qs Fr. 43, 48, 49. 
^Ed.pr.: KaToXi.TTwv'L. ^Bekker: emOvfilav h. 

*Conj. SedpoUr) Manetho, Fr. 43, 48, 49. 

^ The name may be Semitic (c/. Hebr. shalllt), but it 
has not been found on the monuments. Possibly it is 
not strictly a proper name, but rather a title like " prince," 
" general " : " sultan " comes from the same root. 

^ Cf. § 90. Manetho regards as historically true the 
Greek tales of the great Assyrian Empire of Ninus and 
Semiramis. The period referred to here is much earlier 
than the time when Assyria began to harass the Mediter- 
ranean regions. 

* If " Saite " is correct here, it has nothing to do with 
the famous Sais, but is probably used for " Tanite ": 
cf. Herodotus, ii. 17, Strabo, 17, 1, 20 (P. Montet in Revu^ 
Biblique, xxxix. 1930). The Sethroite nome (Fr. 43, 45, 
49) is in the extreme E. of the Delta, adjoining the Tanite 
nome. For Sethroe see H. Junker, Zeit. /. dg. Sprache 75. 
1939, p. 78. 

* For Bubastis see Fr. 8 n. 2. The Bubastite branch is 
the farthest E., the next being the Tanitic. 

' Auaris, in Ancient Egyptian Hetwa'ret, " town of the 
desert strip," but this meaning does not explain the 
" religious tradition ". (The older interpretations, " house 
of the flight," " house of the leg," were attached to the 
Seth-Typh6n legend : cf. n. 3 infra.) Tanis was a strong- 

80 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 42 

Salitis.^ He had his seat at Memphis, levying 
tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt, and always 
leaving garrisons behind in the most advantageous 
positions. Above all, he fortified the district to the 
east, foreseeing that the Assyrians,'^ as they grew 
stronger, would one day covet and attack his kingdom. 
" In the Salte [Sethrolte] nome ^ he found a city 
very favourably situated on the east of the Bubastite 
branch * of the Nile, and called Auaris ^ after an 

hold of the Hyksos : in O.T. Numbers xiii. 22, " Now 
Hebron (in S. Palestine) was built seven years before Zoan 
in Egypt," Zoan is Tanis (Dja'net), and the statement 
probably refers to the Hyksos age. Sethe cautiously 
said, " Seth is the god of the Hyksos cities, Tanis and 
Auaris ". But in Revue Bildique, xxxix., 1930, pp. 5-28, 
Pierre Montet, the excavator of Tanis, brought forward 
reasons to identify Auaris and Pi-Ra'messes with Tanis ; 
and Alan H. Gardiner (J. Eg. Arch, xix., 1933, pp. 122- 
128) gave further evidence for this view (p. 126) : " San 
el-Hagar marks the site of the city successively called 
Auaris, Pi-Ra'messe, and Tanis". In spite of the criti- 
cism of Raymond Weill (J. Eg. Arch, xxi., 1935, pp. 10-25), 
who cited a hieroglyphic document (found in the temple 
of Ptah in Memphis) in which Auaris and " the field (or 
land) of Tanis " are separate, Pierre Montet {Syria, xvii., 
1936, pp. 200-202) maintains the identity of Auaris, 
Pi-Ra'messes, and Tanis. [So does H. Junker, Zeit. /. dg. 
Sprache 75. 1939, pp. 63-84.] 

Meanwhile, a new identification of Pi-Ra'messes had 
been suggested : by excavi^tion M. Hamza (Annales du 
Service des Antiquites de V Egypte, xxx. 1930, p. 65) found 
evidence tending to identify Pi-Ra'mess§s with the palace 
of Ramessds II. at Tell el-Yahudiya, near Kantir, c. 25 
kilometres south of Tanis; and William C. Hayes (Olazed 
Tiles from a Palace of Ramesses II. at Kantir : The Metro- 
politan Miiseum of Art Papers, No. 3, 1937) supports this 
theory that Kantir was the Delta residence of the Rames- 
side kings of Egypt, pointing out that there is a practically 

[Footnote continued on page 83. 

81 



Fr. 42 MANETHO 

re Kal Tot? Teix^aiv oxvpcoTaTrjv eTToirjaev, iv- 
oiKiaas avTrj kol vXrjdog OTTXiTa>v els eiKoai /cat 

79 Tecraapa? /xuptaSa? dvSpcov 7Tpo<f)vXaK'qv . evda Se ^ 
Kara depeiav TJpx^TO, ra fxev aiTopLeTpcov Kal 
fjLt.ado(f)opLav 7rap€)(oiX€vos, rd Se Kal rat? i^oTT- 
Aiatai? Txpo? (l>6^ov tcjv e^codev iTTifieXiog yufxvdl^ayv. 
dp^ag 8' ivveaKaiScKa err), rou ^iov ireXevTH^ae. 

80 fierd rovrov Se erepos i^aaiXevaev rdcraapa Kal 
reaaapaKovra cttj KaXovfxevos BviLv,^ /xe^' ov 
dXXos 'Anaxydv ^ e^ /cat TpiaKovra errj /cat fXTJvas 
iiTTd, eTTeira 8e /cat '^Trox^ts' * ei' /cat l^rjKovra /cat 

81 '/arm? ^ TTCv'TT^/coi'Ta /cat jit'^t'a ^va, inl ndai 8e 
/cat "Aaais * ivvea /cat reaaapaKovra /cat nrjvag Bvo. 
/cat oyrot /xev e^ ev aurot? iyeviqOricrav Trpcjrot 
dpxovT€S, TTodovvTcs^ det /cat jLtaAAov'^ ttj? AlyvTrrov 

82 i^dpaL ttjv pit,av. eVaAetro 8e to avfXTrav avTCOV^ 

^ Hie autem Lat. : ev9d8e L. 
2 Manetho. Fr. 43, 48, 49 : Brjdiv L. 
' Apakhnan Eus. : TJaxvav Fr. 43 : Apachnas Lat. 
*^p/iO«isEus.^rm..- ''i4^o^tsMSS.,Fr.43: "^^w^ij Fr. 49. 
' Vaviaj ed. pr. .■ Samnas Lat. : .4non Eus. .4rm. ; *.i4»'vds 
or Vlwai' Gutschmid. 

* Ases Lat. : Aseth Eus. (Gutschmid and Meyer hold 
'AarjO to be the form used by Josephus). 

' Ed. pr. : nopOovvres L. 

* TToXffiovvTfs act fat nodovrres fidXXov MSS. Big. and Hafn. 
in Hudson. 

* avfinav avribv Eus., omne genus eorum Lat. : cm. L. 

82 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 42 

ancient religious tradition.^ This place he rebuilt 
and fortified with massive walls, planting there a 
garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to 
guard his frontier. Here he would come in summer- 
time, partly to serve out rations and pay his troops, 
partly to train them carefully in mancEUvres and so 
strike terror into foreign tribes. After reigning for 
19 years, Salitis died ; and a second king, named 
Bnon,^ succeeded and reigned for 44 years. Next 
to him came Apachnan, who ruled for 36 years and 
7 months ; ^ then Apophis for 61, and lannas for 50 
years and 1 month ; then finally Assis for 49 years 
and 2 months. These six kings, their first rulers, 
were ever more and more eager to extirpate the 
Egyptian stock. Their race as a whole was called 

unbroken series of royal Ramesside monuments which 
cover a period of almost 200 years. 

In 1906 Petrie discovered at Kantir a vast fortified 
encampment of Hyksos date and a Hyksos cemetery : see 
Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities, pp. 3-16 (the earthwork 
ramparts of the camp were intended to protect an army 
of chariots). 

* See Fr. 54, § 237, for its connexion with Seth-Typhon, 
to whom the tribal god of the Hyks6s was assimilated. 

^ Of these Hyksos names Bn6n and Apachnan are vm- 
explained. Apopi (the name of several kings — at least 
three), and perhaps Asdth (Assis), seem to be pure Egyptian : 
lannas is presumed to be Khian, whose cartouche turned 
up surprisingly and significantly on the lid of an alabastron 
in the Palace of Minos at Knossos in Crete, as well as on 
a basalt lion from Baghdad. On Khian, see Griffith in 
Proc. ofSoc. of Bibl. Arch. xix. (1897), pp. 294 f., 297. 

' In his History (and for short reigns in the Epitome, 
see e.g. Dynasty XXVII.) Manetho reckoned by months 
as well as by years, like the Turin Papyrus and the Palermo 
Stone : see Intro, pp. xxiv f. 

83 



Fr. 42 MANETHO 

cOvo^ 'Ykou)';} tovto 8e eariv /SacrtAei? TTOifxeves' 
TO yap VK Kad^ lepav yXoJaaav ^aaiXea crrniaivei, 
TO 8e CTa>? 7T0iiJn]v eWt /cat noi^ives /cara tt^v 
KOiv^v SidXeKTOv, /cat oyroj avvTiddfievou yiVerai 
'V/ccra)?. Tti'e? 8e Aeyouaiv' ayroi)? "Apa^as etvai." 

83 [ei^ ^ S' ctAAo) dvTiypd(f>(i} ov jSacrtAets' arjpLaiveadai 
8ta T'^s' Tou u/c TTpoarjyopias, oAAa TovvavTiov al^- 
jxaXcoTovs SrjXovadai noifxevag • ^ to yap i)/c TraAtv 
^lyuTTTtCTTt /cat TO a/c Sacrvvofxevov alxiJ-OiXcoTOvs 
prjTWS H7]vv€iv.^] /cat tovto fxoiXXov TTidava>T€p6v 
fioi <f)aLV€Tat /cat TraAata? ioTopias ixoficvov. 

84 TovTOVS Tovs 7rpoKaT(xjvopLaap.evovs jSaaiAea?, 
[/cat] ^ Tous" tcDj' UoLfievcov KaXovfxdvojv /cat tou? 
e^ auTcDi' yevofievovs, KpaTrjaai Trjs AlyvTTTOV 

* 'YWouaatijs Eus. (Hikhusin Ens. Arm.) : so also infra. 
*The bracketed clause (already in Eus.) is apparently an 

ancient gloss, derived from § 91 : c/. the similar marginal 
annotations to §§ 92, 98. 

* TToifxiva^ Eus. : ov iroifievas L. 
* /iTjvvetv Holwerda : nrjvvei, L. 

* Bracketed by Thackeray, Reinach. 



* Hyksos, " rulers of foreign lands " (Erman-Grapow, 
Worterbuch, iii. p. 171, 29). Another form of the name, 
Hykussos, is preserved by Eusebius, but it is uncertain 
whether the medial -u- is really authentic— the Egyptian 
plural (Meyer). Hyk = ruler of a pastoral people, a 
sheikh. 

" The Hyks6s, like the foreign Kassite Dynasty in 
Babylonia, adopted the higher culture of the conquered 

84 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 42 

Hyksos,^ that is ' king-shepherds ' : for hyk in the 
sacred language means ' king,' and sbs in common 
speech is ' shepherd ' or ' shepherds ' : ^ hence the 
compound word ' Hyksos '. Some say that they 
were Arabs." ^ In another copy * the expression 
hyk, it is said, does not mean " kings " : on the 
contrary, the compound refers to " captive- 
shepherds ".^ In Egyptian hyk, in fact, and hak 
when aspirated expressly denote " captives ".* This 
explanation seems to me the more convincing and 
more in keeping with ancient history. 

These kings whom I have enumerated above, and 
their descendants, ruling over the so-called Shepherds, 
dominated Egypt, according to Manetho, for 511 

country " (J. Garstang, The Heritage of Solomon, 1934, 
p. 62). 

- This is correct : for the Egyptian word i'sw, 
" Bedouins," which in Coptic became shos, " a herdsman," 
see Erman-Grapow, Worterhuch, iv. p. 412, 10 (B.G.)- 

^ In a papyrus (ii./iii. a.d.) quoted by Wikken in Archiv 
far Pap. iii. (1906), pp. 188 ff. (Chrestomalhie, I. ii. p. 322) 
ayLfjios vKouiiTiKri is mentioned — aloe [or cement (Preisigke)] 
from the land of the Hyksiotae, apparently' in Arabia. 
This gives some support to the statement in the text. 

* Josephus, in revising this treatise just as he revised 
hL« Antiquities, appears to have used a second version of 
Manetho's Aegyptiaca. Did Josephus ever have before 
him Manetho's original work ? Laqueur thinks it more 
probable that Josephus consulted revisions of Manetho 
made from the philo- or the anti-Semitic point of view : 
see Intro, p. xx. Since the third century n.c. an exten- 
sive Uterature on the origin of the Jews had arisen. 

^ This appears to bo a Jewish exjjianation (§ 91), to 
harmonize with the story of Joseph. 

* The reference here is to the Egyptian word h'k, " booty," 
" prisoners of war " (Erman-Grapow, Worterbuch, iii. p. 33) 
(B.G.). 

85 



Fr. 42 MANETHO 

86 (fyrjcrlv err] Trpog rot? TTcvraKoaioig evScKa. (xera 
ravra Se rcoi' €K rrj? ©rj^atSos Kal rrj? dXXrjg 
AlyuTTTov ^aaiXecov yeveadai (f)r]aLV inl rovg 
Tloi^xeva^ iTTavaaraaiv , kox TToXefiov^ avppayi^vaL 

86/xeyav Kal TToXv^poviov. cttI Se ^aaiXecos, co 
6vop.a elvai MLa<f)pa'Y}xovdco(ns ^ rjTTrjfxevovg ^ (f)r)at 
Tovs TIoLpievas '' €k [xev rrj? aXXr^g AlyvTrrov Trdarj^ 
iKTTeaeiv, KaraKXeiadrji'ai 8 eis tottov dpovpcov 
€XOVTa pi^vpicxiv rrjv Trepip^erpov • Avapiv ^ ovopa to) 

SlTOTTO). TOVTOv (f>r)cnv 6 Mavedojs arravra t€L)(€i, 
T€ peydXcp Kal la)(vpcp TrepL^aXelv tovs TIoLpievas , 
0770)9 T-qv re KrrjaLV drraaav exojaiv ev 6xvpa> 

88 Kal TTjv Xctav rr]v eavrcov. tov Se Micr(f)payp,ov- 
dojaeoj'S vlov Qovp^pojatv ^ eTnx^Lprjaai p,€v avrovs 
8ta TToAtop/cia? eXelv Kara Kpdros, oktoj Kal 
TeaaapaKovra pvpidai arparov TTpocreSpevaavra 
Tols Teix^aiv • eVet Se Ti]s TToXcopKias ' dTrdyvoj, 

^ + avTols L, Lat. : om. Eus. 

' Eus. : ' AXLa(f>paY^iov9wais L (Lat.) : so also infra. 

'Conj. Cobet: rjTTWfMevovs !-•. 

* + e^ avTov L : cm. Eus. : vn' avrov ed. pr. 
^Avapiv L (Lat.) : Avapis Eus. 

• Qovp.n<uaiv L : Qp.ovdu)aiv Eus. 
' L : Tr)v noXiopKiav Eus. 

^ This number of years, much too high for the length 
of the Hyksos sway in Egypt, may perhaps refer to the 
whole period of their rule in Palestine and Syria : see 
A. Jirku, in Journ. of the Palestine Orient. Soc. xii., 1932, 
p. 51 n. 4. 

2 Misphragmuthosis, i.e. Menkheperre' (Tuthmosis III.) 
and his son Thummosis, i.e. Tuthmosis IV., are here said 
to have driven out the Hj'ksos. In Fr. 50, § 94, Tethmosis 
i.s named as the conqueror. In point of historical fact the 

86 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 42 

years. ^ Thereafter, he says, there came a revolt of 
the kings of the Thebaid and the rest of Egypt 
against the Shepherds, and a fierce and prolonged 
war broke out between them. By a king whose 
name was Misphragmuthosis,^ the Shepherds, he 
says, were defeated, driven out of all the rest of 
Egypt, and confined in a region measuring within 
its circumference 10,000 arurae,^ by name Auaris. 
According to Manetho, the Shepherds enclosed this 
whole area with a high, strong wall, in order to safe- 
guard all their possessions and spoils. Thummosis, 
the son of Misphragmuthosis (he continues), at- 
tempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockad- 
ing the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. 
Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded 

victorious king was Amosis, and he took Auaris by main 
force : the genuine Manetho must surely have given this 
name which is preserved by Afrieaniis and Eiisebius, as 
also by Apion in Tatian, adv. Graecos, § 38. See p. 101 
n. 2, and c/. Meyer, Aeg. Chron. pp. 73 f. 

Weill, La fin du moyen empire dgyptien, p. 95, explains 
the error by assuming that the exploit of the capture of 
Auaris w£is usurped by Tuthmosis IV., as it was usurped 
earlier by Hatshepsut and later by Ramesses III. 

Breasted (C.A.H. ii. p. 83) holds that, since with the 
catastrophic fall of Kadesh on the Orontes before the 
arms of Tuthmosis III. the last vestige of the Hyksos 
power disappeared, the tradition of late Greek days made 
Tuthmosis III. the conqueror of the Hyksos. He points 
out that the name Misphragmuthosis is to be identified 
with the two cartouche-names of Tuthmosis III. : it is a 
corruption of " MenkheperrS' Tuthmosis". 

* Lit. " with a circumference of 10,000 arUrae ". The 
text (which cannot be attributed as it stands to Manetho 
— Triv TT€pifi€Tpov uiust bo a later addition) implies a wrong 
use of arUra as a measure of length ; it is, in reality, a 
measure of area, about half an acre. 

87 



Fr. 42 MANETHO 

TTOiriaaaOai avfjL^daeLg, tv-a rrjv AtyvnTOV e/cAiTTOvres' 
07T01 fiovXovr ai TTOLvres a^Xa^eig drreXdcocri. tovs 

89 Sc eVt TOLS ofioXoyiaLg TTavoiKTjGia /xera twv 
Krrjaecjv ovk eXarrovs fivptdScov ovras ^Xkool /cat 
reoadpcov aTTO rrjg AlyvTrrov rrjv eprjjxov eiV Evpiav 
SLoSoLTTOprjoat. (f>ofiovixivov<i 8e rr^v Aaovplcov 

90 Suv'aCTTetai', Tore yap eKeu'OVs t-^? ^CTia? Kparelv, 
iv Tjj vvv '/ouSata KaXovfxevr) noXiv OLKoSopirjcra- 
fxevovs ToaavraLS ixvpidaiv dvdpcoTTwv dpKecrovaav, 
'lepoaoXvfJLa ravrrjv ovofidaai. 

91 ^Ep dXXrj 8e tlvl ^l^Xu) tcov AlyvTTTLaKOjv 
Mavedois TOVTO (jy-qai <r6> ^ edvog, tovs KaXov- 
[xevovs TIoLpiiva^ , alxfJ-dXcorovs iv rats Upats 
avTcbv ^i^XoLS yeypd<j)dai, Xeyojv opdcos ' Kal 
yap rot? avoir droi Trpoyovois rjpojv to TTOipLaiveiv 
TrdrpLov rjv, Kal vofiaSLKOV exovres rov ^lov ovrcos 

92 €KaXovvTO UoipLeve^. alxp-dXoiroL t€ TrdXiV ovk 
dXoycos VTTO TCOV AlyuTTTLCDV dveypd^rjaav, ineLSi]- 
TTep o TTpoyovos rjpwv Ia)a7]7Tog ^ iavTov €(f)'q Trpos 
Tov ^acrtAea tcov AlyvTTTLCOV alxP'dXcoTov etvai, 

^ Bekker : om. L. 

*L (in margin) : ev irepu) avTiypaifiu) evpedrj ovrcos' KaT-q\9i) 
Tipadels TTapa twv dBfX<f>a)i' et'j AtyvnTOV npos tov ^aaiXea rrjs 
AlyvTTTov, Kai TrdXiv vartpov tovs avTov a8eX(f>ovs ixeTeneixiparo 
rov paaiXfOis emTpetpaPTOS. 



1 240,000 — the number of the garrison mentioned in 
§ 78, where they are described as " hoplites ". 

- On the origin of " Jeru-salem," see A. Jirku in Zeitschr. 
d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellscltaft, 90 (1936), pp. * 10 » f. : 
the first part, Jeru-, is non -Semitic (c/. O.T. Ezek. xvi. 2, 
45 : 2 Sam. xxiv. 16, and the names Jeru-ba'al, Jeru- 'el ; 

88 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 42 

a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt 
and go unmolested where they pleased. On these 
terms the Shepherds, with their possessions and 
households complete, no fewer than 240,000 persons,^ 
left Eg\'pt and journeyed over the desert into Syria, 
There, dreading the power of the Assyrians who were 
at that time masters of Asia, they built in the land 
now called Judaea a city large enough to hold all 
those thousands of people, and gave it the name of 
Jerusalem.^ 

In another book ^ of his History of Egypt Manetho 
says that this race of so-called Shepherds is, in the 
sacred books of Egypt, described as " captives " ; 
and his statement is correct. With our remotest 
ancestors, indeed, it was a hereditary custom to 
feed sheep ; and as they lived a nomadic life, they 
were called Shepherds.* On the other hand, in the 
Egj'ptian records they were not unreasonably styled 
Captives, since our ancestor Joseph told the king of 
Egypt ^ that he was a captive, and later, with the 

also, Jaru-watas in an inscr. of Boghazkoi) ; the second 
part, Salem, is a Canaanitish divine name, found in the 
texts of Ras esh-Shamra. The name of the city occurs 
in the El-Amarna Letters in the form " Urusalimmu," 
the oldest literary mention of Jerusalem. 

^ Cf. § 83 for the same information, there attributed to 
" another copy ". 

* Cf. O.T. Genesis xlvi. 32-34, xlvii. 3. 

' In the Biblical narrative Joseph told the chief butler 
or cup-bearer {Genesis xl. 15). 'J'ho mar(j;in of the Floren- 
tine MS. has a note on this passage : " In another copy 
(i.e. of the treatise A(/ainst Apion) the following reading 
was found — ' he was sold by his brethren and brought 
down into ICgypt to the king of I'^gypt ; and later, again, 
with the king's consent, summoned his brethren to Egypt '." 

89 



Fr. 42, 43 MANETHO 

Kai Tovs d8eX(f)ovg et? rrjv AtyvTTTOv varepov 
fi€T€Tr€iJ.ifjaro, tov ^aaiXeoJS eiriTpe^avTOS. oAAd 
Trepi ixkv tovtojv iv dXXoLs TTOiijaofiai rrjv e^eraatv 
aKpi^ecrrepav. 

Fr. 43. Syncellus, p. 113. KATA A^PIKANON. 

UevTeKaiheKdrTj Bwaareia Uoifievoyv. -^aav 
Se 0olviK€S ^ivoi BcLaiXels s'', ot /cat M€p(f)LV 
elXov, ot Kal iv ro) Uedpotrr) vofjico ttoXiv CKTiaav, 
d(f)^ t)? oppwfievoi AlyvTTTiovs €)(€Lpa)cravTO. 

'Qv TTpcoTog Eatrrjs i^aaiXevaev €Trj i,d' , d(f>' 
ov Kal 6 Eatriqs vofxos.^ 

jS BvoJVy CTTj JJiS' . 

y Tla^vdv, err) ^a . 

ZjTaav, errj v . 
e' "ApxXrjs, errj fxO' . 

$' "A^CJJcfilS ,^ €T7] ^a, 
'OfiOV, CTTj OTrh' . 

^ In B the words ol kox h> tw Sedpotr'jg vopLU) . . . exeiputaavro 
come after 6 I^atrrjs vojjlos- 
"ra.: 'A^iopisUSS. 

1 The reference seems to be to Fr. 54, § 227 ff., but ev 
aAAots usually refers to a separate work. 

^ Africanus gives a less correct list than Josephus {cf. 
the transposition of Apophis to the end) : there is further 
corruption in Eusebius (Fr. 48) and the Book of Sdthia 
(App. IV.). 

* This statement of the Phoenician origin of the Hyksos 
kings has generally been discredited until recently : now 
the Ras esh-Shamra tablets, which imply a pantheon 
strikingly similar to that of the Hyksos, have shown that 
the Hyksos were closely related to the Phoenicians. 

90 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 42, 43 

king's consent, summoned his brethren to Egj'pt. 
But I shall investigate this subject more fully in 
another place.^ 

Dynasty XV. 

Fr. 43 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus.^ 

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherd Kings. 
There were six foreign kings from Phoenicia,'' who 
seized Memphis : in the Sethrolte nome they founded 
a town, from which as a base they subdued Egypt. 

The first of these kings, Saltes, reigned for 19 
years : the Salte nome * is called after him. 

2. Bnon, for 44 years. 

3. Pachnan [Apachnan], for 61 years. 

4. Staan,^ for 50 years. 

5. Archies,^ for 49 years. 

6. Aphophis,^ (Aphobis), for 61 years. 
Total, 284 years. 

* See p. 80 n. 3. The Salte nome proper, as opposed 
to this " Tanite " nome, is mentioned in Egyptian texts 
of tlie Old Kingdom. For the famous Sals, the seat of 
Dynasty XXVI. (now Sa El-Hagar, see Baedeker,* p. 36 
— N.W. of Tanta on the right bank of the Rosetta branch), 
the centre of the cult of Neith, " the metropolis of the 
lower country " (Strabo, 17. 1, 18), of. Herodotus, ii. 62 ; 
Diod. i. 28, 4 (for its relation to Athens). 

* For Tannas (in Josephus), the Khian of the Monuments, 
see p. 83 n. 2. 

* Archies here, and in Eusebius (Fr. 48), corresponds 
with Assis (or Aseth) in Josephus (Fr. 42, 5 80) ; but the 
change in the form of the name is extraordinary. 

' The length of reign (61 years, as in Josephus) leads one 
to believe that Africanus has transposed Apophis from 
the 4th place to the 6th ; but in point of fact the Itist 
Hyks6s king whom we know by name was called Apepi. 

91 



Fr. 44, 45, 46 MANETHO 

Fr. 44 (a). Syncellus, p. 114. KaTA EYZEBION. 

IJevTeKaLSeKOLTr] hwacTTeta A LoaTToXiTOJv ^a- 
criXecov, ol efiaaiXevaav errj av . 



(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 99. 

Quinta decima dynastia Diospolitarum regum, qui 
regnarunt annis CCL. 



Fr. 45. Syncellus, p. 114. RATA A^PFKANON 

'EKKaiSeKarrj hwaarela UoLfieves aAAot iSaatXels 
AjS' • i^aaiXevaav err] (f)Lrj' . 

Fr. 46 (a). Syncellus, p. 114. KaTA EyZEBION. 

'EKKaiSeKOLTT) Suvaareta Grj^aloi ^aaiXels e',^ ot 
Kai i^aaiXevaav cttj pV. 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 99. 

Sexta decima dynastia Thebaeorum regum V, qui 
regnarunt annis CXG. 

^ ij' Boeckh. 
92 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 44, 45, 46 
Fr. 44 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of kings of 
Diospolis, who reigned for 250 years. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Fifteenth Dynasty consisted of kings of 
Diospolis, who reigned for 250 years. 



Dynasty XVI. 

Fr. 45 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Sixteenth Dynasty were Shepherd Kings again, 
32 in number : they reigned for 518 years. ^ 



Fr. 46 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 
Eusebius. 

The Sixteenth Dynasty were kings of Thebes, 5 
in number : they reigned for 190 years. 



(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Sixteenth Dynasty were kings of Thebes, 5 
in number : they reigned for 190 years. 

^ Barbaras gives 318 years (p. 23, XV.) ; Meyer conjec- 
tures that the true iiuinbor is 418 {Aey. Chron. p. 99). 
Contrast Fr. 42, § 84 (511 years). 

93 



Fr. 47, 48 MANETHO 



Fr. 47. Syncellus, p. 114. KATA A<PPIKAN0N. 

'ETTTaKaiSeKarr] Svvaarcia HoLfieves aAAot /Sa- 
o'lAeiS' /xy' /cat Orj^aloi rj^ ALoaTToXiTai ixy . 

'Ofxov ot /ToiyueVej Kal ol Orj^aloL i^aaiXevaav 
eT7^ pva . 

Fr. 48 (a). Syncellus, p. 114. K4T/1 EysebION. 

' ETTTaKaiSeKOiTTj Sfi'ttareta TIoLyLive? rjaav dSeA- 
(f>ol ^ 0OLv:K€g ^€voi ^aCTtAet?, ot Kal M€fX(f)iu elXov. 

^Qv TTpcoTog Z'atTTj? e^aaiXcvaeu ctt] id', d(f>* 
ov Kal 6 SatT7]s I'Ofiog iKX-qOrj, oi Kal iv rip 
Uedpotrrj vopo) ttoXlv eKTiaav, d(f>' -^s opfjicofxevoc 
AlyvTTTiov? i)(6ipd)aavTO. 

1 Miiller. 

^ A lapsus calami for 8e (Meyer) : Africanu3 (Fr. 43) pre- 
serves the true text : -qaav Se <PoiviKes ■ 



1 See H. E. Winlock, " Tombs of the Seventeenth 
Dynasty at Thebes," in J. Eg. Arch. x. pp. 217 ff. 

^Barbaras gis'es 221 years (p. 23, XVI.). According to 
Manetho the total length of the foreign usurpation prob- 
ably was 929 years (260 in Josephus + 518 + 151). 
Josephus (Fr. 42, § 84) gives 511 years. These statements, 
even if based on actual traditions, have no weight as 
compared with the certain data of the Monuments. The 
almost complete lack of buildings of the Hyks6s time and 
the close connexion of the Thebans of Dynasty XVII. 

94 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 47, 48 

Dynasty XVII 

Fr. 47 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Seventeenth Dynasty ^ were Shepherd Kings 
again, 43 in number, and kings of Thebes or Dios- 
poUs, 43 in number. 

Total of the reigns of the Shepherd Kings and the 
Theban kings, 151 years.^ 

Fr. 48 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Seventeenth Dynasty were Shepherds and 
brothers : ^ they were foreign kings from Phoenicia, 
who seized Memphis. 

The first of these kings, Saites, reigned for 19 
years : the Saite nome * is called after him. These 
kings founded in the Sethroite nome a town, from 
which as a base they subdued Egypt. 

with those of Dynasty XIII. tend to show that the 
Hyks6s rule in the Nile Valley lasted for about a hundred 
and twenty years, c. 1700-1580 B.C. Under one of the 
Theban kings, Ta'o, who bore the epithet " The Brave," 
war with the Hyksos broke out c. 1590 B.C. ; Kamose, the 
last king of Dynsisty XVII., continued the war of in- 
dependence, and Am6sis (of Dynasty XVIII.) fmally 
expelled the usurpers. 

* This must be a mistake of transcription : see note 2 on 
the text. 

* See Fr. 42, § 78, n. 3, Fr. 43, n. 4. 

95 



Fr. 48 MANETHO 

y ^ "A (f) o) (j) I s , CTiy tS' . 
McO' ov "Apx^f]9, eTT^ A . 
'Ofiov, errj py . 

Kara tovtovs AlyvTTTLcov ^aatXevs ^IcooTjcf) Set'/c- 
wrai. 



(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 99 sq. 

Septima decima dynastia Pastorum, qui fratres 
erant Phoenices exterique reges, et Memphin occu- 
parunt. 

Ex his primus Saites imperavit anuis XIX, a quo 
Saitarum quoque nomos nomen traxit. Eidem in 
Sethroite nomo urbem condiderunt, unde incursione 
facta Aegyptios perdomuerunt. 

Secundus Bnon, annis XL. 
Deinde Archies, annis XXX. 
Aphophis, annis XIV. 

Summa annorum CIII. 

Horum aetate regnavisse in Aegypto Josephus 
videtur. 

1 Om. A. 



1 See p. 95 u. 3. » See p. 80 n. 3. 



96 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 48 

2. Bnon, for 40 years. 

3. Aphophis, for 14 years. 

After him Archies reigned for 30 years. 
Total, 103 years. 

It was in their time that Joseph was appointed 
king of Egypt. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Seventeenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherds, 
who were brothers ^ from Phoenicia and foreign 
kings : they seized Memphis. The first of these 
kings, Saites, reigned for 19 years : from him, too, the 
Saite nome ^ derived its name. These kings founded 
in the Sethrolte nome a town from which they made 
a raid and subdued Egypt. 

The second king was Bnon, for 40 years. 
Next, Archies, for 30 years. 
Aphophis, for 14 years. 
Total, 103 years. 

It was in their time that Joseph appears to have 
ruled in Egypt.-^ 

The Armenian text of this sentence is ratlicr difficult, 
but Professor Margoliouth, pointing out that the Armenian 
present infinitive is used here for the perfect, approves 
of this rendering. Karst translates the Armenian in the 
following sense : " It is under these kings that Joseph 
arises, to rule over Egypt ", 



97 



Fb. 49 MANETHO 

Fr. 49. Scholia in Platonis Timaeum, 21 E 
(Hermann). 

ZaiTtAcd? • e/c toji' Maveduj AlyvnTLaKcov . Ett- 
Ta/caiSe/cciTTy Swaareia /Zot/ieVe? • •^aav dSeA^ot ^ 
0oiviK€S $€voi jSacrtAet?, ot /cai Me^(f)iv eiXov. 

*Qv TTpcvros Eatrrjs i^aaiXevaev errj id' , d(f) ov 
/cat o Uatrr]g vo/jo? eKX-qdrj • ot Kal iv Tip Zcdpoitrrj 
vofxw ttoXlv eKTiaav, a^' t)? opfxwfievoL Alyvvriovs 
i^eipwaavTO . 

Aevrepos tovtcjv Bva>v, err) [x . 

Tpiros Ap^o-rfs, ctt} A'. 

TerapTos "A cf) io (f) l £ , eTTj iS . 

'OpLov, py . 

'0 Se HatrT^g npoaed-qKe ro) pbrjvX c5pa? tjS', tu? 
efvai rjpepcov A', Kat to) eviavTco "qfiepas ?', Kai 
yeyoi/ev rjixepcop r^e. 

>S€ eonj.: c/. Fr. 48 (a). 



98 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 49 



Fr. 49 (from the Scholia to Plato). 

Saltic, of Sals. From the Aegyptiaca of Manetho. 
The Seventeenth Dynasty consisted of Shepherds : 
they were brothers^ from Phoenicia, foreign kings, 
who seized Memphis. The first of these kings, Saites, 
reigned for 19 years : the Saite nome - is called after 
him. These kings founded in the Sethroite nome a 
town, from which as a base they subdued Egypt. 

The second of these kings, Bnon, reigned for 40 
years ; the third, Archaes, for 30 years ; and the 
fourth, Aphophis, for 14 years. Total, 103 years. 

Saites added 12 hours to the month, to make its 
length 30 days ; and he added 6 days to the year, 
which thus comprised 365 days."* 

^Seep. 95n. 3. == See p. 80 n. 3. 

• The addition of 5 days (not 6, as above) to the short 
year of 360 days was made long before the Hyksos age : 
it goes back to at least the Pyramid Age, and probably 
earher. The introduction of the calendar, making an 
artificial reconciliation of the lunar and solar years, perhaps 
as early as 4236 B.C., is believed to give the earliest fixed 
date in human history : see V. Gordon Childe, New Light 
on the Most Ancient East, 1934, pp. 5 i. 



99 



Fr. so manetho 

Pr. 50. JosEPnus, Contra Apionem, I, 15, 16, 
§§ 93-105.1 

(Continued from Fr. 42.) 

93 Nvvl 8e TTJg dpxo-ioTrjTog ravrrfs TraparLdefxai 

TOVS AtyVTTTlOVS fjidpTVpaS. TTCtAlV OVV TO. TOV 

Mavedu) ^ TTcos e^et Trpo? ttjv ra)v ■)(p6vcov to^lv 
MuTToypdipo). (fyrjal Se ovrcjs ' " {xeTa. to i^eXdeLV i^ 
AlyvTTTOv rov Xaov twv TIoLixevaiv els 'lepoaoXvfia, 
6 eK^aXdiv avTom ef AlyvTtrov fiaaiXev's Tedynxiais 
e^aaiXevaev fierd ravra err) eiKoanrevre Kal 
fJiTJvas Tecraapas Kal ereXevrrjaev , Kal TtapeXa^ev 
T7]v dpx'Tjv d avTOv vlog Xe^pcov errj heKarpia. 

95 jxed' ov *AjJieva)(f>L5 eiKoai Kal firjuas eTTrd. rov 
Se dSeXcf)r) 'Afieaalg ^ elKoaiev Kal fxrjvas evvea. 
rrjg Se M'i](f}pr)g SwSeKa Kal fxrjvag evvea. tov 
Se Mri(f>paiJLOvda)(JL? eiKoaLTrevre Kal pLrjvas Se/ca. 

96 Toy Se OjJLdJais* evvea Kal p.7]vas oktcj. tov S' 
'Afievax^is TptdKovTa Kal fjiijvag SeKa. tov Se 

1 §§ 94-105 are quoted by Theophilus, Ad AtUolycum, III, 
20 f. §§ 103, 104 are quoted by Eusebius, Praepar. Evang., 
X, 13. 

" Niese : Mavidmvos L. 

' Naber : 'Afuvals Fr. 52 : 'Afieaaris L. 

« TveniLa-qs Manetho, Fr. 51 : Tovdncoais Fr. 52, 53. 



1 The New Kingdom : Dynasties XVIII. -XX. : c. 1580- 
c. 1100 B.C. 

Dynasty XVIII. c. 1580-1310 B.C. 

For identifications with the monumental evidence which 
is firmly established, see Meyer, Qeschichte^, ii. 1, p. 78 : 
the names and order of the first nine kings are : ( 1 ) Amoais 

100 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 50 

Dynasties, XVIII,i XIX. 

Fr. 50 (from Josephus, Contra Apionem, i. 15, 
16, §§ 93-105) — {continued from Fr. 42). 

For the present I am citing the Egyptians as wit- 
nesses to this antiquity of ours. I shall therefore 
resume my quotations from Manetho's works in their 
reference to chronology. His account is as follows : 
" After the departure of the tribe of Shepherds from 
Egypt to Jerusalem, Tethmosis,^ the king who drove 
them out of Egypt, reigned for 25 years 4 months 
until his death, when he was succeeded by his 
son Chebron, who ruled for 13 years. After him 
Amenophis reigned for 20 years 7 months ; then his 
sister Amessis for 21 years 9 months ; then her son 
Mephres for 12 years 9 months ; then his son Mephra- 
muthosis for 25 years 10 months ; then his son 
Thmosis for 9 years 8 months ; then his son Amenophis 

(Chebron is unexplained), (2) Amenophis I., (3) Tuthmosis 
I., (4) Tuthmosis II., (.5) Hatshepsut (apparently Manetho's 
Amessis or Amensis : the same length of reign, 21 years), 
(6) Tuthmosis III. (corresisonding to Mephres, i.e. 
Menkheperre' or Meshpere', and Misphragmuthosis, i.e. 
Menkheperre' Thutmose), (7) Amenophis II., (8) Tuthmosis 
IV. (the order of these two being reversed by Manotho), 
(9) Amenophis III. (Horus, the same length of reign, 
36 years). 

The remaining kings of the dynasty are : Amenophis IV. 
(Akhnaten, seep. 123 n. I), Semonkhkard' (? Acenchores), 
Tut'ankhamon (? Chehres), Ay (? Achorres) : see C.A.H. 
ii. p. 702. On rulers Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6, see VVm. F. 
Edgerton, The Thutmosid Succession, 1 933. 

For Dynasty XIX. see p. 148 n. 1. 

* Tethm6sis = Amosis : see note on Misphragmuthdsis, 
Fr. 42, § 86. For the scarab of Amosis see Plate 1, 3. 

101 



fr. so manetho 

^Qpog rpiaKovTae^ Kal firjva^ irevre. tov Se 
dvydrrjp Vl/cey;^epi^s' ScuSe/ca Koi firjva eva. TTjg 

97 8e 'PddojTLs dSeA^o? ivvea. tov 8e ^AKeyxTJpr)? 
SwSeKa /cat firjvag nevre. tov Se 'AKcyx'^pyjS 
€T€pos SioScKa Kal fJLTJvas Tpels. tov Se "ApfxaCs 
Tcaaapa Kal firjua eva. tov Se 'Papiiacnrj? ev 
Kal ixrjva? Teaaapa^. tov Se 'Apueaar]^ Miapbovv 
i^-qKOVTae^ Kal fjLrjvas Bvo. tov Se Vljuei'ax^tS" 

988eKaevv4a Kal fxrjvas e^. rov Se Eedcos 6 Kal 
' PafJLeacrrjg ,^ Ittttlktiv Kal vavTiKrjv exojv Svvajxiv, 
TOV iiev dheX^ov "ApfMa'Cv eTTiTpoTTOv ttjs AiyvTTTOV 
KaTear-qaeu ,^ Kal ndaav ixkv avT(o Trjv dXXrjv ^a- 
aiXiKrjv nepUd-qKcv i^ovaiav, yiovov Se ei^eretAaro 
StctSTy/ja 117] (f>op€LV fjLTjSe TTjv jSaatAiSa fxrjTepa t€ 

99 Toil' T€Kva>v dSiKelv, drrex^c^doLi- Se /cat twv dXXcov 
^aaiXiKcbv TTaXXaKiScDV. avTos Se evrt KvTrpov Kal 
0oiuLKr]v Kal vdXiv Aaavpiovs re Kal MijSovs 

^ Eus. : Ueduiois Kal 'Pafieaorjs L. 

*L (in margin): evpeOyj eV erepco avriypa^tp ovtco^- fied' ov 
Eidwois Kol 'Pafxfaarjs Svo d8eX<f>oi- 6 nev vavriKrjv f)(ojv StJi'a/x.u' 
Tovs Kara ddXaTrav f d77auTto»^aj Kal St.a)(€ipcofievovs f (SiaTreipco- 
fievovs Naber) eVoAtdp/cef ix€t' ov noXv Se Kal rov 'Paftiaa-qv 
dveXdtv, "Ap/xa'Cv dXXov avrov d8eX(f>6v i-nirpoTTov t-^j Alyvirrov 
KaTaorrjoai (for Karecrrqae). 



' Howard Carter (Tutankhamen, iii. p. 3) points out that 
monuments of Amenophis III. are dated to his 37th year, 
perhaps even to his 40th year ; and he explains that 
Manetho has given the length of his reign as sole ruler. 
More commonly, the high figures assigned to the reigns of 
kings may be explained by the assumption that over- 
lapping CO -regencies have been included. 

^ Miamun = Mey-amun, " beloved of Amun ", 

102 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 50 

for 30 years 10 months; ^ then his son Orus for 36 years 

5 months ; then his daughter Acencheres for 12 years 
1 month ; then her brother Rathotis for 9 years ; 
then his son Acencheres for 12 years 5 months, his 
son Acencheres II. for 12 years 3 months, his son 
Harmais for 4 years 1 month, his son Ramesses for 
1 year 4 months, his son Harmesses Miamun ^ for 
66 years 2 months, his son Amenophis for 19 years 

6 months, and his son Sethos, also called Ramesses,^ 
whose power lay in his cavalry and his fleet. This 
king appointed his brother Harmais viceroy of Egypt, 
and invested him with all the royal prerogatives, 
except that he charged him not to wear a diadem, 
nor to wrong the queen, the mother of his children, 
and to refrain likewise from the royal concubines. 
He then set out on an expedition against Cyprus and 
Phoenicia and later against the Assyrians and the 

' The margin of the Florentine MS. has a note here : 
" The following reading was found in another copy : 
' After him Sethosis and Ramesses, two brothers. The 
former, with a strong fleet, blockaded his murderous (7) 
adversaries by sea. Not long after, he slew Ramesses and 
appointed another of his brothers, Harmais, as viceroy of 
Egypt.' " This is intended as a correction of the text of 
Josephus, but it contains the error of the Florentine MS. 
in the reading EiOcoais kox 'Paiiioarjs. Sethosis is the 
Sesostris of Herodotus, ii. 102, where his naval expedition 
in the " Red Sea " is described. 

Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p. 91, considers the words "also 
called Ramesses " an addition to Manetho. See § 245. 

W. Struve (see p. 148 n. 1) would here emend Seth6s 
into Sesos, which was a name of Rameses II. : according 
to the monuments he reigned for 67 years (cf. Fr. .55, 2), 
and his triumphant Asiatic campaigns were told by 
Hecataeus of Abdera (Osymandyas in Diodorus Siculus, 
i. 47 fl.). 

103 



Fr. 50 MANETHO 

OTpaTevaas, airai'Tas toi)? jjLev Sdpari, tou? 8e 
dixax'r]Tl (f)6^a) Se rrjs TToXXrjg Svvd^eojs VTro^cipiovs 
eAajSe, /cat /Lie'ya (f)povT]Gas eVt rat? evrrpayiaLS ert 
/cai dapaaXewrepov eTreTTopeuero rd? Trpoj di'aToAa? 

lOOTrdAet? re /cat ;)^ajpa9 Karaarpe^oyLevo'S. XP^^^^ 
re iKavov yeyovoTO?, "Apfia'Cg 6 /caTaAei^^ei? ev 
AlyvTTTCp rravra rdixTraXiv oh dSeA^o? ^ Traprji'eL 
firj TTOLelv dSettJ? eTTparrev ' /cat ydp tt^i^ jSacrtAt'Sa 
jStatoj? eax^v /cat rat? dAAat? TraXXaKtatv d(f)€i8a)g 
StereAet xP^l^^^^^i TTeidopbevos Se ^ WTrd rdit' (f)LXojv 

lOlStd8r)pia icf)6pei /cat dvrrjpe ro) dSeA^o). d Se 
TCTayjJievos eVt rdiv lepecov ^ tt^? AlyvTTTov ypdipag 
jStjSAtoi' e7re/>t0€ to) UeOwcret, SrjXojv avrw Trdvra 
Koi OTi dvTTJpev 6 dSeA^o? ayroi ^pjnat?. vapa- 
Xpyjfxa. ovv VTreaTpeifjev elg IJrjXovcnov /cat eKpdrrjaev 

102 TTy? tSia? /SaCTtAe ta?. 17 8e X^P^ eKX-qdr] avrd tou 
auToiJ ovopiaros AiyviTTOS • Aeyerat * ydp drt d 
/xev Uedcog e/caAetro ^tyyTrro?, Mp/itats" Se d dSeA^d? 
avTOv Aavaog." 

^ dScA^os Gutschmid : d8eA<^os L. ^ re conj . Niese. 

' Upecov L (perhaps an Ancient Egyptian formula) : t'epcDK 
Hudson (sacra Lat., /ona Eus.) — with this c/. Revenue Laws 
of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 51' (258 B.C.) ol dm riuv Upa>v reray- 
ftevoi * Xeyerai Gutschmid : At'yei L {dicit Lat.). 

^ A frequent title from the Old Kingdom onwards is 
" overseer of the priests of Upper and Lower Egypt," 
later applied to the high priest of Amun. The emenda- 
tion iepujv (for iepecov) is supported by a reference in a 
papyrus of about the time of Manetho. 

-See Fr. 54, § 274, n. 1 (pp. 140-141). 

' With the return of Sethosis to a country in revolt, cf. 
Herodotus, ii. 107 (return of Sesostris and the perilous 

104 



i 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 50 

Medes ; and he subjugated them all, some by the 
sword, others ^vithout a blow and merely by the 
menace of his mighty host. In the pride of his con- 
quests, he continued his advance with still greater 
boldness, and subdued the cities and lands of the 
East. When a considerable time had elapsed, 
Harmais who had been left behind in Egypt, reck- 
lessly contravened all his brother's injunctions. He 
outraged the queen and proceeded to make free with 
the concubines ; then, following the advice of hia 
friends, he began to wear a diadem and rose in levolt 
against his brother. The warden of the priests of 
Egypt ^ then wrote a letter which he sent to Sethosis, 
revealing all the details, including the revolt of his 
brother Harmais. Sethosis forthwith returned to 
Pelusium ^ and took possession of his kingdom ^ ; and 
the land was named Aegyptus after him. It is said 
that Sethos was called Aegyptus, and his brother 
Harmais, Danaus." * 

banquet), Died. Sic. i. 57, 6-8. The tale appears to be 
a piece of folklore (Maspero, Journ. des Savants, 1901, 
pp. 599, 665 fi.). See Wainwright, Sky-Religion, p. 48. 

* Danaus : c/. § 231. See Meyer, Aeg. Chron. p. 75, for 
the theory that the identification of Sethos and Harmais 
with Aegyptus and Danaus is due, not to Manetho, but to 
a Jewish commentator or interpolator. 

The tradition is that Danaus, a king of Egypt, was 
expelled by his brother and fled to Argos with his fifty 
daughters, and there "the sons of Aegyptus" were slain 
by " the daughters of Danaus." The legend appears to 
have existed in Egypt as well as in Greece : see Died. Sic. 
i. 28. 2, 97. 2. For attempts to explain the story in terms 
of Aegean pre-history, see J. L. Myres, Who Were the 
Qreeks ? (19.30), pp. 323 ff. ; M. P. Nilsson, The Mycenaean 
Origin oj Greek Mythology (1932), p. 64. 

105 



Fk. 50, 51 MANETHO 

103 Tavra ixkv 6 MavcOcos. SrjXov 8' iariv €K twv 
elprj/jevcDV irtbv, rov jj^poi^oy GvXXoyiadevTos, on 
ol KaXovfievoL FIoLfxeveg, 7j[X€Tepoi, Se ^ Trpoyovoi, 
rpiGL Kai €V€vr]Kovra /cat rpiaKoaioL^ TTpoaOev ereaiv 
€K TTJs AlyvTTTov aTTaXXayevTCS rrjv )(copav TavTrjv 
€7TcpK7]Gav T^ Aavaov €Lg "Apyos d(f)LK4a9aL • Kairoi 

104 TOVTOv dpxoitorarov 'Apyeloi. vofiit^ovat. Svo roiwv 
6 Mavedws Tjpiv TO, fjieyicrra [xepapTvprjKev €k rajv 
Trap' AlyvTTTioig ypaix/xaTcov, TrpcJorov pikv ttjv ere- 
pojdev d(f)L^LV €LS AiyvTTTOv, eVeiTa 8e Tr)v eKeWev 
aTTaXXayqv ovtojs apxaiav tols XP^vots, cos iyyvs 
TTOV TTporepelv^ avrrjv twv ^IXtaKUJv erecn ;)(iAtot?. 

105 v7T€p Sv S' o MaveOojs ovk €k ra)v nap* AlyvTrriois 
ypapLpdrcjv^ oAA', co? avros (hfJLoXoyTjKev, €K tcov 
dSeaTTOTcos fJivOoXoyovfievcov TrpoariBeiKev, vcrrepov 
i^cXey^o) Kara (xepos OLTToBeiKviis ttjv diridavov 
avTOV ipevSoXoyiav. 

Ft. 51. Theophilus, Ad Autolycum, III, 20 (Otto). 

'O 8e Mcoarjs oSrjyqaas * tovs *Iov8aiOVS, <os 
e^drjpev €lpr]K€vai,iK^€^X7]fji,€vovs aTTO yrjs Atyvirrov 

1 8e Eus. : om. L, Lat. 

* TTOU nporepeiv Eus., Lat. : rov irporepov L. 

' ypafifidrcov ed. pr. {litteris Lat., libris Eus.) : npayfiaTwv L. 

*Sc. tJv: wSTyyijae Boeckh. 



1 This total is reckoned from Tethmosis (Am6sis) to the 
end of the reign of Sethosis, the latter being taken as 60 
years (c/. § 231, where Sethds is said to have reigned for 
59 years after driving out Hermaeus). 

106 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 50, 51 

Such is Manetho's account ; and, if the time is 
reckoned according to the years mentioned, it is clear 
that the so-called Shepherds, our ancestors, quitted 
Egypt and settled in our land 393 years ^ before the 
coming of Danaus to Argos. Yet the Argives regard 
Danaus as belonging to a remote antiquity.^ Thus 
Manetho has given us evidence from Egyptian records 
upon two very important points : first, upon our 
coming to Egypt from elsewhere ; and secondly, upon 
our departure from Egypt at a date so remote that it 
preceded the Trojan war^ by wellnigh a thousand 
years.* As for the additions which Manetho has 
made, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he has 
himself admitted, from anonymous legendary tales,^ 
I shall later refute them in detail, and show the im- 
probability of his lying stories. 

Fr. 51 ^ iffom Theophilus, Ad Autolyc. iii. 19). 

Moses was the leader of the Jews, as I have already 
said, when they had been expelled from Egypt by 

* The mythical King Inachus was held to be still more 
ancient : cf. Fr. 4, 1 (p. 19 n. 4). 

»The traditional date of the Trojan war is 1192-1183 

B.C. 

* This appears to be about four times too high a figure : 
250 years would be a nearer estimate. 

" Cf. Fr. 54, §§ 229, 287, for Manetho's use of popular 
traditions. 

•This list of Dynasties XVIII., XIX. is obviously 
derived wholly from Josephus, any variations from the 
text of Josephus being merely corruptions. Theophilus, 
Bishop of Antioch, wrote his apologia for the Christian 
faith (three books addressed to a friend Autolycus) in the 
second half of ii. a.d. 

107 



Fr. 51 MANETHO 

VTTO jSaaiAecos 0apao} ov rovvojxa Ted ficoais, og, 
<j)aaiv, jLteTO, rr^v eK^oXrjv rov Xaov e^aaiXevaev errj 
eiKoai. 7T€VT€ Kal [xrjvag 8', cos v(f)ripr]Tai Mavaidois. 

2. Kal [xera tovtov Xe^pajv, eTTj ly . 

3. Mera Se tovtov ^Aixivoj<f)LS, ctt] k' , fJLrjva? 

eTTTCt. 

4. MeTo. Se TOVTOV 77 dSeA^i^ avTOV ^A^iiaar], 

€Trj Ka , fiTJva a } 

5. Merct Se TavTTjv M'q(j)prjs, ctt] c^' , jxrjvas . 

6. Mera Se tovtov Mr)cl)pa[iiJLovdcoais, '^tt] 

K ^ fjbijvas i'. 

7. Kal fxeTOL tovtov TvOfxcoar]?, eTTj Q' , fxrjvas 

1 ' 

8. Kal {leTO. TOVTOV *Aixivco<j>is^ ^tt) A', {xrjvas 

f 

I . 

9. McTo. Se TOVTOV *Qpos, erry As",' fMtjvas € . 

10. Tovtov Se OvyaT-qp,'^ <M Kcy;^ep'>^S'>, ^tt) 

t[^'], fjirjvas a'.* 

11. Merd Se TavTTjv <'Pa6ajTLS, €tt] 6' >. 

12. <MeTd Se toutop' A.K€yx'>^P''^S, ctt; tjS', fxrjvas 

e'>. 

13. <MeTd Se tovtov Ak> €[y\x{'n\p'0^) ^"^ '-^'t 

fxrjvag y . 

14. Tov Se '^p/Mal'?, er?; S', [iT]va a! . 

15. /Cat /xerct tovtov 'PafjueaGrjs IviavTov, fxrjvas 

S'. 

16. Kat juerd tovtov 'Pafxeaarjs Miafifiov, 

CTT] ^s' ^ Kal fxrjvas ^' . 
108 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 51 

King Pharaoh whose name was Tethmosis. After 
the expulsion of the people, this king, it is said, 
reigned for 25 years 4 months, according to Manetho's 
reckoning. 

2. After him, Chebron ruled for 13 years. 

3. After him, Amenophis, for 20 years 7 months. 

4. After him, his sister Amesse, for 21 years I 

month [9 months in Josephus]. 

5. After her, Mephres, for 12 years 9 months. 

6. After him, Mephrammuthosis, for 20 years [25 

years in Josephus] 10 months. 

7. After him, Tuthmoses, for 9 years 8 months. 

8. After him, Amenophis, for 30 years 10 months. 

9. After him, Orus, for 36 years 5 months. 

10. Next, his daughter [Acencheres] reigned for 12 

years 1 month. 

11. After her, [Rathotis, for 9 years. 

12. After him, Acencheres, for 12 years 5 months. 

13. After him, Ac]encheres [II.], for 12 years 3 

months. 

14. His son Harmais, for 4 years 1 month. 

15. After him, Ramesses for 1 year and 4 months. 

16. After him, Ramesses Miammii(n), for 66 years 

2 months. 



' a i.e. €va, in error for ivvea, Josephus, Fr. 50, § 95 
(Miiller). 

*ror K(', tis in Josephus, Fr. 50, § 95. 

* Aafi€v6(f>i.s Otto. 

* Restored from Josephus (Boeckli): MSS. dvyar-qp Ittj t', 
H'^vas y' . ix€Ta 8« ravT-qv MfpxepT]<;, err] i/3', p.rlvas y' . 

* fitTO. Se TovTOv Aleaarjs Mia/z/xou, txTj [^Js" OttO. 

109 



Fr. 51, 52 MANETHO 

17. Kal fiera tovtov ^Aix4.va)<j)is, ctt) id', fiijuas 

Tov 8e EeQoiS, os^ Kal 'Pajxdacrqs, erT] i , 6v^ 
<j>aaLv ia)cqKevai ttoX\7]v Swafiiv iTnnKrjs Kai 
TTapdra^Lv vavTiKTJs. 

Fr. 52. Syncellus, pp. 115, 130, 133. 

Kata A^pikanon. 

'O/CTCU/catSe/cdrT^ Svvaareia AioaTToXiroJv 
^aaiXeojv i?'. 

^Qv TTpCbros Ap.w'S, €(f>' ov Mcovcnjs c^rjXdev ef 
AlyvTTTOV, cl»? r)ix€LS aTToSetKvvofxev, a»s" 8e rj irapovaa 
tjji](f)09 OLvayKa^ei, cttI tovtov tov Mcovaea <n»/>tj3aiVet 
veov €Ti elvat,. 

AevTepos KaTa*A(l>pLKav6v Kara ttjv it^' BvvacrTeiav 
i^aaiXevcre Xe^pdiis, erry ly , 

TpiTOS, AfX€VOJ(f)d IS, €Tr) k8'.^ 

TeTapTOS* AfjLevals,^ erry KjS'. 

* ToC 8e ©olaaos Otto. 

^ ovs Otto, adding after vavriic^s the words Kara rois tSCovs 
^povovs. 

* Ka' m. * TeTdpTT) Miiller. * 'Aufpais A. 



1 See p. 100 n. 1. 

* See p. 101 n. 2. On the basis of new evidence scholcirs 
now tend to conclude that the Exodus took place c. 1445 
B.C. (see e.g. J. W. Jack, The Date of the Exodus, 1925) : 
Jericho fell c. 1400 b.o. (J. Garstang, The Heritage of 
Solomon, 1934, p. 281). 

^ I.e. Africanus. 

110 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 51, 52 

17. After him, Amenophis, for 19 years 6 months. 

18. Then, his son Sethos, also called Ramesses, 

for 10 years. He is said to have possessed 
a large force of cavalry and an organized 
fleet. 



Dynasty XVIII. 

Fr. 52 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Eighteenth Dynasty ^ consisted of 16 kings of 
Diospolis. 

The first of these was Amos, in whose reign 
Moses went forth from Egypt,^ as I ^ here declare ; 
but, according to the convincing evidence of the 
present calculation * it follows that in this reign 
Moses was still young. 

The second king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, ac- 
cording to Africanus, was Chebros, who reigned for 
13 years. 

The third king, Amenophthis,* reigned for 24 (21) 
years. 

The fourth king (queen), Amensis (Amersis), reigned 
for 22 years. 

* I.e. by Syncellus. 

'This Greek transcription of " Amenhotpe," retaining 
both the labial and the dental, is the fullest form 
of the name, " AmendthSs " showing assimilation : 
" Amendphis," which is regularly used to represent 
" Amenhotpe," actually comes from another name, 
" Amen(em)6pe " (B.G.). The month Phamenoth 
(February-March) is named from the " feast of 
Amendthfis ". 

Ill 



Fr. 52 MANETHO 

UifiTTTog, MlaacfypLS, err) ly . 

"Ektos, Mia(f)payfx,ov6o)ais, ctt) k^ , i^ ot5 o 
eVt AevKaXlojvos KaraKXvajjiOs. 

'OfjLov €ttI yifxcoaeco? rov koI Mia(f>payixovd<x>aeoi^ 
apxrjs Kara ^A<j)piKav6v yivovrai err] ^6' . Tov yap 
Afxojs oi)S' oXcos itiTcv err], 

^ TovdfxcoaLs, GT-q 9' . 

•q' 'Afi €va)(f>ts, CTT] Xa Ovtos icmv 6 Me/Lt- 
voiv elvai uo/jLL^ofxevos Kal (l>d€yy6fjL€VOS Xidos. 
6' 'Qpos, eTT) A^'. 
I A)(€pprjs, err] Aj3 . 
la' 'Pad cos, cTTj ef. 
ij8' Xe^pi]?, err] tj8'. 
ly' A)(€pprJ9, ^TT] ij8 . 
iS' App.€ais^ err) e'. 
te' Pafxeaarjs, erog a 
If' A fi € V oj (f) a. d,^ err] id 
'Ofxov, errj a^y . 

• B : Vl/xea^s A. " B : 'A/i€vd><f> G. 



* This note about Memnon in both Africanus and Euse- 
bius should be transferred to the ninth king of the dynasty, 
Orus or Amenophis III. 

IFoolnote continued on opposite pagt. 



112 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 52 

The fifth, Misaphris, for 13 years. 

The sixth, Misphragmuthosis, for 26 years : in his 
reign the flood of Deucalion's time occurred. 

Total, according to Africanus, down to the reign of 
Amosis, also called Misphragmuthosis, 69 years. Of 
the length of the reign of Amos he said nothing at all. 

7. Tuthmosis, for 9 years. 

8. Amenophis, for 31 years. This is the king who 

was reputed to be Memnon and a speaking 
statue.^ 

9. Orus, for 37 years. 

10. Acherres,^ for 32 years. 

11. Rathos, for 6 years. 

12. Chebres, for 12 years. 

13. Acherres, for 12 years. 

14. Armesis, for 5 years. 

15. Ramesses, for 1 year. 

16. Amenophath (Amenoph), for 19 years. 
Total, 263 years. 

The reference is to the two monolithic colossi of 
Amen6phis III. (Baedeker*, pp. 345 f.) : see Pausanias, 
i. 42 (the Thebans say it was a statue not of Memnon, but 
of Phamenoph, who dwelt in those parts) with J. G. 
Frazer's note (vol. ii. pp. 530 f.), and Tacitus, Ann. ii. 61. 
Amendphis III. (Memnon) is correctly named in Greek 
Amen6th and Phamenoth by the poetess Balbilla (time of 
Hadrian) : see Werner Peek in Mitt, des DeiUsch. Inst, 
fur dg. Alt. in Kairo, v. 1 (1934), pp. 96, 99; Sanimelbuch, 
8211, 8213. 

* For possible identifications of Nos. 10, 12, and 13 see 
p. 101 n. 1. Nos. 14, 15, and 16 should be transferred to 
Dynasty XIX. : see p. 148 n. 1. Armesis (Armais) ia 
probably Haremhab : RamessSs, vizier of Haremhab and 
afterwards Ramessds I., was probably of Heliopolitan 
origin (P. E. Newberry). 

113 



Fr. S3 MANETHO 

Fr. 53 (a). SynccUus, pp. 116, 129, 133, 135. 

Rata Eyzebion. 

'OKTiOKaiSeKaTT] Swaarela Ai.oa7To\tTa>v 
^aaiXecov lS' . 

*Qv TTpcoTO^, "Afxojais, err) Ke', 
/3' Xe^pcov Sevrepos, errj ly , 

S' ML(j>prjs, err) i^' . 

e' Mia(f>payixovda}aLg, err] k^' , 

OfAov oltt' M/Ltojcreaj? tou TrpiLrov ttjs TrpoKeijievrjs 
try' Swaareias ecog Mtcr(f)payiJLOvda)a€aJS o.px7Js Kara 
Evae^iov err) ylvovrat oa , ^aaiXets nevre dvrl ra>u 
€^ • Tov yap rerapTOv Afxevcrr^v TTapaSpajxwv, ov 6 
*A(f)pLKap6s /cat ol XoiTTol fxe/jLUTjuTai, err] /cj8' avTOv 
eKoXo^ioaev. 

S"' TovOfxcoaLg, err) 9'. 

^' 'Afjiepcocfiis, €Trj Xa . Ovro? iariv 6 Mi^vcov 

elvat voiXLL,6pL€vos kol (fideyyo^xevos XiQo<:. 
rf ^Qpos, err] A?' [iv aXXco Xrj'). 
6' Ax^vx^pctTjg, <€Trj ij8'>. 

<'AdcopLS,€Tr)Xd'^>. 

<Kevx^P'r]S>, €Tr] L?' ? 

Kara tovtov McoiJarjs ttjs e^ Alyvirrov nopetas 
rwv ^lovSaicov 'qyqcraTO . (Syncellus adds : Movos 
Evae^iog enl tovtov Xeyei Tr)v tov laparjX 8id 
McoiJaewg e^oSov y jjrjSevog avTcp Xoyov fxaprvpovvTog , 
dXXa KOI TTavTcov evavriovyiivcov tcjv irpo avTOv, ojs 
fxapTvpet.) 
114 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 33 
Fr. 53 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Eighteenth Dynasty consisted of fourteen 
kings of Diospolis. 

The first of these, Amosis, reigned for 25 years. 

2. The second, Chebron, for 13 years. 

3. Ammenophis, for 21 years. 

4. Miphres, for 12 years. 

5. Misphragmuthosis, for 26 years. 

Total from Amosis, the first king of this Eighteenth 
Dynasty, down to the reign of Misphragmuthosis 
amounts, according to Eusebius, to 71 years ; and 
there are five kings, not six. For he omitted the 
fourth king, Amenses, mentioned by Africanus and 
the others, and thus cut off the 22 years of his reign. 

6. Tuthmosis, for 9 years. 

7. Amenophis, for 31 years. This is the king 

who was reputed to be Memnon and a speak- 
ing statue.^ 

8. Orus, for 36 years (in another copy, 38 years). 

9. Achencherses [for 12 years]. 
[Athoris, for 39 years (? 9).] 
[Cencheres] for 16 years. 

About this time Moses led the Jews in their march 
out of Egypt. (Syncellus adds : Eusebius alone 
places in this reign the exodus of Israel under Moses, 
although no argument supports him, but all his pre- 
decessors hold a contrary view, as he testifies.) 

iSee p. 113 n. 1. 

1 6' Miiller. 

*B omits 'Adiopis and Kevx^prji, reading 0' 'Axevxeparjs, 
trrj tS". 

115 



Fr. 53 MANETHO 

la! Xeppi]^, €Trj te'. 

ip Appiais o Kai Zlavaog, e-rq e , fieu a €K riy? 
AlyvTTTOV eKTTeacjv Kai ^evycov rov a.he\(f>6v 
AtyifTTTOv els TTjv 'EXXdBa a.(f>LKvetrai., Kpa- 
T'qaas re tov "Apyovs ^aaiXeveL Tojv Ap- 
ycLCOv. 

ly fapLeaarjg '^ o Kai, AiyvTTTOS, errj ^rj , 

l8' A/JlfJ.€POJ(f)l,S, €T7] yL , 

'Ofxov, err] Tfirj', 

npocrddr^Kev vnep tov A(f)piKav6v err) ne' Ev- 
ae^Log Kara rrjv irj' Suvaareiav. {Syncellus, p. 116 : 
Evcre^iog Svo ^acnXetg TrepLeKpvipev, errj Se TTpoa- 
€07) K€ Tre' , ryi,7] irapadels avrl a^y' tcop Trap* Acfipi- 
Kavco .) 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 99. 

Octava decima dynastia Diospolitarum regum 
XIV, quorum primus 

Amoses, annis XXV. 

Chebron, annis XIII. 

Amophis, annis XXI. 

Memphres, annis XII. 

Mispharmuthosis, annis XXVI. 

Tuthmosis, annis IX. 

Amenophis, annis XXXI. Hie est qui Memnon 

putabatur, petra loquens. 
Orus, annis XXVIII. 

*Dindorf : 'Aiitaa^s B. 
116 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOxME) Fr. 53 

10. Acherres, for 8 years. 

11. Cherres, for 15 years. 

12. Armais, also called Danaus, for 5 years : there- 

after, he was banished from Egypt and, 
fleeing from his brother Aegyptus, he arrived 
in Greece, and, seizing Argos, he ruled over 
the Argives. 

13. Ramesses, also called Aegyptus, for 68 years. 

14. Ammenophis, for 40 years. 
Total, 348 years. 

Eusebius assigns 85 years more than Africanus to 
the Eighteenth Dynasty. (Syncellus elsewhere says : 
Eusebius leaves out two kings, but adds 85 years, 
setting down 348 years instead of the 263 years of the 
reckoning of Africanus.) 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Eighteenth Dynasty consisted of fourteen 
kings of Diospolis. The first of these, Amoses, 
reigned for 25 years. 

2. Chebron, for 13 years. 

3. Amophis, for 21 years. 

4. Memphres, for 12 years. 

5. Mispharmuthosis, for 26 years. 

6. Tuthmosis, for 9 years. 

7. Amenophis, for 31 years. This is the king 

who was reputed to be Memnon, a speaking 
stone. 

8. Orus, for 28 years. 

117 



Fr. 53, 54 MANETHO 

Achencheres ^ . . . , annis XVI. Huius aetate 
Moses ducem se praebuit Hebraeis ab Aegypto 
excedentibus. 

Acherres, annis VIII. 

Cherres, annis XV. 

Armals, qui et Danaus, annis V ; quibus peractis, 
Aegyptiorum regione pulsus Aegyptumque 
fratrem suum fugiens, evasit in Graeciam, 
Argisque captis, imperavit Argivis. 

Ramesses, qui et Aegyptus, annis LXVIII. 

Amenophis, annis XL. 

Summa doniinationis CCCXLVIII. 



- Fr. 54. JosEPHUS, Contra Apionem, I, 26-31, 

§§ 227-287. 
26 

227 '£"(/)' €v6s Se TTpcjTov arrjcroj top Xoyov, co koI 
fxaprvpi, pLLKpov cpbTrpoadev rrjs dpxoii-OTrjros ^xpr)- 

228 craifj'qv . 6 yap Mavedoj? ovtos, 6 rrjv AlyvTmaKrjv 
laropiav eV raJv lepcbv ypapLpLarcov jJLedep/Jirjvevetv 
VTTeax'^jj.di'os, vpoetTTcbv tovs r^pLerlpovs Trpoyovovs 
TToXXals jjLvpLaaiv eTrl r^v AlyviTTOv eXdovras 
KpairjcraL tcov ivoiKOVvrtov , efr' avTos o/xoXoyayv 
Xpovu) ttolXiv vcFT€pov eKTT€a6vTas TTju vvv *Iov- 
Sai'at' KaTa<JX€iv /cat KTiaavras 'lepoaoXvfia tov 
V€(hv KaraaKevdaacrdai, pi^XP^ 1^^^ tovtojv tjkoXov- 

229 drjcre ratS" dvaypa<j)aZs. eTretra Se Sou? i^ovacav 

* A lacuna here, as in the Greek version. 

^ According to O.T. 1 Kings vi. 1, the building of 
Solomon's Temple was begun 480 years after the Exodus : 

118 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 53, 54 

9. Achencheres . . . , for 16 years. In his time 
Moses became leader of the Hebrews in their 
exodus from Egypt. 

10. Acherres, for 8 years. 

11. Cherres, for 15 years. 

12. Armais, also called Danaus, for 5 years : at the 

end of this time he was banished from the 
land of Egj'pt. Fleeing from his brother 
Aegyptus, he escaped to Greece, and after 
capturing Argos, he held sway over the 
Argives. 

13. Ramesses, also called Aegyptus, for 68 years. 

14. Amenophis, for 40 years. 
Total for the dynasty, 348 years. 

Fr. 54 {from Josephus, Contra Apionem, I. 26-31, 

§§ 227-287). 

(Josephus discusses the calumnies of the Egyptians 
against the Jews, whom they hate.) 

The first writer upon whom I shall dwell is one 
whom I used a little earlier as a witness to our anti- 
quity. I refer to Manetho. This writer, who had 
undertaken to translate the history of Egypt from 
the sacred books, began by stating that our ancestors 
came against Egypt with many tens of thousands and 
gained the mastery over the inhabitants ; and then 
he himself admitted that at a later date again they 
were driven out of the country, occupied wbat is now 
Judaea, founded Jerusalem, and built the temple.^ 
Up to this point he followed the chronicles : there- 

if the Exodus is dated c. 1445 B.C. (see p. 110 n. 2), the 
Temple was founded c. 965 b.o. 

119 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

avro) 8ta rov (f)dvaL ypan/jcLV to. fivdevofxeva Kal 
Aeyo/xeva nepl tcov ^lovSaicDV Xoyovg aTnddvovs 
TTapeve^aXev, dva/jii^aL ^ovXofievog rjfiLv TrXrjdos 
AlyvTTTiCov XeTTpcoi' Kal €7TL dXXoi? dppcocjTripiacnv , 
u)9 (f)r)ai, (jivyelv eV Trjs AlyviTrov KarayvcocrdevTOJv . 

230 MjLteVoj^iv yap ^aaiAe'a Trpodeis^ ifjevSeg 6uo[xa, 
Kal Bid TOVTO )(p6vov avTov rrjs ^aaiXelas opiaaL 
fi7) ToXpijcrag , KairoL ye inl rcov dXXcov ^acrtAe'coi' 
aKpi^ois Tct errj TTpoandeLS, tovtw TTpocrdnTei 
Tiva? fivdoXoyias , €TnXaQ6p.€vos cr;(e8ov on irev- 
raKoaloLS ereat Kal SeKaoKTO) TTporepov IcrToprjKe 
yeveadai rrjv tcov IJoijJievcxJv e^oSov els 'lepoaoXvpLa. 

231 TedjJicoaLS yap rjv ^aaiXevs ore i^rjeaav, aTro Se 
TOVTOV Tctjv fMcra^v ^ ^acnXeojv Krar' avTOV ecrrt 
TpiaKouia evevrjKovTaTpia err) p^^XP'' "^^^ ^^° 
a8eA</>tov' Eidoj Kal 'Eppaiov, Sv tov fiev Eidoiv 
AtyvTTTOV, TOV he "Eppaiov Aavaov [xeTOvopia- 
adrjvai cftrjaLV, ov eK^aXojv 6 Uedcog efiaaiXevaev 
CTT) vd Kal p.€T^ avTov 6 TTpea^vTepos rwv vlcbv 

2Z2avTov 'Pdpiprjs fs*'. tooovtols ovv irpoTepov cTeacv 
aTreXOeZv e^ AlyvrrTOV tovs TraTepas rjpicov cofxo- 
Xoy7]Kcos, eira tov Apevoj(f>iv eloTTOL-qcras epL^oXtpov 
jSafftAea, (f)r]alv tovtov eTTiOvpirjaaL decbv yevdadai 
deaTTqv, woirep *Qp els rwv irpo avTOV ^e^aatXev- 

* irpoOeis Cobet : npoodeis L. 

* TOVTOV Tcjv jxeTa^v conj . Niese (et ah hoc tempore regum 
qui postea fuerunt Lat.) : tovtcuv fxcTa^v tmv L. 



1 Cf. " the botch (or boil) of Egypt " (perhaps elephan- 
tiasis), Deuteronomy xxviii. 27. 

120 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

after, by offering to record the legends and current 
talk about the Jews, he took the liberty of inter- 
polating improbable tales in his desire to confuse 
with us a crowd of Egyptians, who for leprosy 
and other maladies ^ had been condemned, he says, 
to banishment from Egypt. After citing a king 
Amenophis, a fictitious person, — for which reason he 
did not venture to define the length of his reign, 
although in the case of the other kings he adds 
their years precisely, — Manetho attaches to him cer- 
tain legends, having doubtless forgotten that ac- 
cording to his own chronicle the exodus of the 
Shepherds to Jerusalem took place 518 years ^ 
earlier. For Tethmosis was king when they set out ; 
and, according to Manetho, the intervening reigns 
thereafter occupied 393 years down to the two 
brothers Sethos and Hermaeus, the former of whom, 
he says, took the new name of Aegyptus, the latter 
that of Danaus. Sethos drove out Hermaeus and 
reigned for 59 years ; then Rampses, the elder of his 
sons, for 66 years. Thus, after admitting that so 
many years had elapsed since our forefathers left 
Egypt, Manetho now interpolates this intruding 
Amenophis. This king^: he states, conceived a desire 
to behold the gods, as Or,^ one of his predecessors on 

* This number seems to be obtained by adding 393 + 
59 + 66 : in that case the reign of Sethosis is counted 
twice, (1) as 60, (2) as 59 years (c/. Fr. 50, § 103). 

* Or, or Honis, is the ninth king in Manetho's Hst of 
Dynasty XVIII. (Frs. 51, 52), in rcahty Amenophis III. 
Reinach points out that Herodotus (ii. 42) tells the same 
storj' of tlie Egyptian Heracles, and conjectures that there 
is perhaps confusion with the god Horus. 

121 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

KOTcou, dveveyKelv Se ttjv eVi^u/xiW o/xtom^jLtoi 
fxeu avTO) ^Afievaxfyci, Trarpos 8e TlaaTrios^ ovri, 

233 Oeias Se hoKovvri fxereax''^ Kevai (f)va€Ojg Kara re 
ao(f)iav Kal irpoyvcooiv TOJv €crofjb€vcov . enrelv ovv 
avTO) TovTov Tov ofxcovufjiov OTi huvqa€Tat, ueovs 
iSeti', el Kadapav oltto re Xenpcov Kal tcov dXXo)v 
Hiapibv dudpcoTTcou TrjV )^copav diraaav TioLrjaeiev. 

234 rjadevra Se tov fiaaiXea Trarra? rev's to. aw^ara 
XeXco^rjjjievovs eV tt^? AlyvTrrov ovvayayctv • yeve- 

235 cr^ai Se to ttXtjOos^ [xvpidSas oktco' /cat tovtovs 

1 Ed. pr. (cf. § 243) : /Tamos L 

2 Conj. Niese (after Lat.) : tov nXi^Oovs L. 



1 For this Amenophis, a historical personage, later 
deified {cf. the deification of Imhotep, Fr. 11), Amenhotpe, 
son of Hapu, and minister of Amenophis TIT., see G. 
Maspero, Neiv Light on Ancient Egypt (1909), pp. 189-195 : 
Sethe, in Aegyptiaca (Ebers, Festschrift), 1897, pp. 107-116 : 
Breasted, Anc. Bee. ii. §§911 f?. ; Warren II. Dawson, 
The Bridle of Fegasus, 1930, pp. 49-79. In 1934-35 
excavations by the French Institute, Cairo, revealed 
all that remains of the splendour of the funerary temple 
of Amenhotpe, son of Hapu, among a series of such temples 
to the N. of Medinet Habu : see Robichon and Varille, 
Le Temple du Scribe Boyal Amenhotep, Fits de Hapou, i. 
Cairo, 1936. An inscription of ill. B.C. (and therefore 
contemporary with Manetho), headed 'Afievwrov vTTodTJKat,, 
" Precepts of Amenotes or Amenophis," was published 
by Wilcken in Aegyptiaca, 1897, pp. 142 fT. It is in- 
scribed upon a limestone ostracon of Deir el-Bahri ; and 
the first three injunctions run : " Practise wisdom along 
with justice," " Revere both the gods and your parents," 

122 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

the throne, had done ; and he communicated his 
desire to his namesake Amenophis,^ Paapis' son, who, 
in virtue of his wisdom and knowledge of the future, 
was reputed to be a partaker in the divine nature. 
This namesake, then, replied that he would be able 
to see the gods if he cleansed the whole land of lepers 
and other polluted persons. The king was delighted, 
and assembled ^ all those in Egypt whose bodies were 
wasted by disease : they numbered 80,000 persons. 

" Take counsel at leisure, but accomplish speedily whatever 
you do ". 

An ostracon, found at Deir el-Bahri, and giving the 
draft of an inscription concerniiig the deified Amenophis, 
was pubhshed by A. Bataille, Etudes de Papyrologie, TV. 
(1938), pp. 125-131 : it celebrates the cure of a certain 
Polyaratos. See O. Gueraud in Bull. Inst. Fr. d'Arch. Or., 
xxvii. (1927), pp. 121 fl., P. Jouguet, "Les Grands Dieux 
de la Pierre Sainte a Thdbes," Melanges Glotz, II. pp. 
493-500. 

For the historical interpretation of this whole passage, 
§§ 232-251, see Mes'er, Ge-schichte^, ii. 1, pp. 421 ff. King 
Amenophis is at one time Memeptah. son of Rameses II. ; 
at another time, Amenophis IV. (Akhnaten), some 200 
years earUer. The doings of the polluted, the persecution 
of the gods, and the slaughter of the holy animals, clearly 
portray the fury of -Akhnaten and his followers against 
Egyptian religion. For a popular Egyptian parallel to 
§§ 232 ff., see the Potter's Oracle, one of the Rainer Papyri 
(iii. A.D.) edited by Wilcken in Hermes, xl. 1905, pp. 544 ff. 
and by G. Mantcuffel, De Opit^culis Grnecis Acgypti e 
papyris, oslracis, lapidibvsque collectis, 1930, No. 7 ; and 
cf. the prophecy of the lamb, Manetho, Fr. 64. 

For a theory about the identity of the polluted (they 
are the troops of Sethos I., sent to Tanis by his father 
Ramesses I. during the ascendancy of Haremhab), see 
P. Montet, " La St61e de I'An 400 Rotrouvee," in Kemi, 
iii. 1935, pp. 191-215. 

* In an incredibly short time (§ 257). 

123 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

els TOLS At^oTOjuta? rds" iv to) irpos avaroXr^v fxepei 
Tov NeiXov ifx^aXelv avrov, ottcds ipydl^oiVTO /cat 
TcDv aXXa}v AlyvTrrLCov etev K€)(OipLai.Levoi } elvai 84 
Tiva'5 ev avTol's /cat rcx>v Xoyiojv Upecov (j>r^al Xenpa 

236 crvv€a)(r]jjL€Vovs.^ tov Se Aix4voj(f>iv CKelvov, tov 
ao^ov /cat p^avTiKov dvSpa, VTToSelaat ^ TTpos avTov 
T€ /cat TOV ^acriAea x^Xov tcov Oecov, et jStacr^eVre? 
Offjdy'jaovTaL • Kal Trpoadepcevov elTrelv otl aupp,a)(7]- 
aovai tlv€S toIs piapoXg /cat ttj? AlyviTTOV /cpa- 
TTiaovaiv l-n errj Se/carpta, po] ToXprjaai pcev 
avTov eiTTelv TavTa tw /SaatAet, ypa(f)rjv Se /cara- 
XiTTOvTa TTepl TrdvTOJV iavTov dveXelv, iv ddvpiq. 

237 Se eti'at tov j^aaiXea. /caTretra /caret Xe^tv ovtojs 
y€ypa(f)ev • '^ rcvv 8' eV ^ rat? AaTO/xtat? cos xpovos 
iKavos StT^A^ei/ TaXaiTTCjopovvTCDv , d^icodels 6 jSacrt- 
Xevs tt'a Trpos ^ KaTdXvcnv avTols /cat aKerrrjv dwo- 
fjLepiarj ttjv totc tcov IJoLpLevcov ip-qpcodelaav ttoXlv 
Avapiv avvexcoprjaev • ecrTi S' rj ttoXls /card ttjv 

23S6eoXoytav di'coOev Tu(f)(i)VLOS . ol Se els TavTrjv 
elaeXdovTes /cat tov tottov tovtov et? ^ dTroaTaatv 
exovTes, rjyepova avTcov Ttva tcov ' HXlottoXitcov 
Updcov ' Oadparjcfiov "^ Xeyopevov^ eaTiqaavTO /cat 

' €?€!' KexiopiajiffOi conj. Holwerda : oi eyKexcopi'OfJ.evoi, L. 
^ awe(jx'']iJ-^vovs conj. Niese : avv^xofiivovs Dindorf : avy- 

K€XVfl€VOVS L. 

^ vTToSeiaai Dindorf : vTroSeladai. L. 

* §' iv Bekker : Se L. ^ npos bracketed by Niese. 

* els brackoti^d as apparently spurious by Niese : ^6piJ.r}- 
rrjpiov > els (xtt. Holwerda. 

' L : 'Oadpoi<f>ov conj. Hudson. 

8 Transj). Niese (a more natural place for the participle) : 
Xeyofiei'Of riva . . , 'Oa. L. 

124 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

These he cast into the stone-quarries ^ to the east of 
the Nile, there to work segregated from the rest of the 
Egyptians. Among them, Manetho adds, there were 
some of the learned priests, who had been attacked by 
leprosy. Then this wise seer Amenophis was filled 
with dread of divine wrath against himself and the 
king if the outrage done to these persons should be 
discovered ; and he added a prediction that certain 
allies would join the polluted people and would take 
possession of Egypt for 13 years. Not venturing to 
make this prophecy himself to the king, he left a 
full account of it in writing, and then took his own 
life. The king was filled with despondency. Then 
Manetho continues as follows (I quote his account 
verbatim) : " When the men in the stone-quarries had 
suffered hardships for a considerable time, they 
begged the king to assign to them as a dwelling-place 
and a refuge the deserted city of the Shepherds, 
Auaris, and he consented. According to religious 
tradition ^ this city was from earliest times dedi- 
cated to Typhon. Occupying this city and using the 
region as a base for revolt, they appointed as their 
leader one of the priests of Heliopolis called Osarscph,^ 

^ The quarries of Tura were known to Herodotus (ii. 8, 
124) as the source of building-stone for the Pyramids. 

On forced labour in quarries in Ptolemaic times, 
Reinacli refers to Bouch6-Leclercq, Histoire dea Lagides, 
iii. 241 ; iv. 193, 337 f. 

2 Cy. Fr. 42, § 78. 

^ Osarse})!!, the leader of the movement, is later (§ 250) 
identified with Moses. The name Osarseph is a possible 
Egyptian name : c/. Ranke, Personennanien I. p. 85, 
No. 3 wsir-sp\ Wilckon (Chrestomalhie, i. 1, p. 106) 
derives the name from a holy animal Seph ; but the Jews 
would naturally see in it a fonu of the name Joseph. 

125 



Fk. 54 MANETHO 

TOVTCp 7T€i9apx''^(yovT€g ^ €V TToiaiv wpKco^oTiTjcrav . 

239 o Be vpoJTOV fiev aurots" vofjiov edero ixrjre -npoa- 
Kvvelv deovs IJ'T]T€ tojv fxdXtara iv Alyvirro) 
de/jitaTevoiJieviov Upojv ^u)U)v aTrex^odai /xTySevos", 
TTovTa Se dveiv Kal avaXovv, cruvaTneadaL Se 

240)U'>ySevi ttAt^j^ t(x)v avvofjiojixoafievcov.^ Toiavra Se 
vopLoderrjaas nal irXeZcrra dXXa juaAiCTxa rots' 
AlyvTrrioLS edicrpioi'S ivavTLovfjieva eKeXevaev rroXv- 
;^etpta ret rrj? iroXecos eTnaKevd^eiv TeL)(r) /cat tt/do? 
TToXejxov eTOL[JLOVS yivecrOaL rov irpos AjxevaxfiLv rov 

241 ^aaiXea. auros Se, TrpoaXa^opievos /J-ed* eavrov 
Kal rojv dXXojv lepeoiv Kal cru/x/xejUta/xjueVcot' tlvols ^ 
e7re/xi/re Trpia^ets rrpos roiis vtto TedfJ-docrecos 
direXaaOevras TTot/ueVas' els ttoXlv ttjv KaXovfjievrjv 

Iepoa6Xv[xa, Kal ret /ca^' eavrov Kal tovs dXXovs 
rov9 GvvaTLjJLaaOevTag SrjXaxra? rj^iov ovveTnarpa- 

242 revetv op-oOviJiahov ctt' AlyvTrrov . eTTa^eiv * yikv 
ovv avTOVs eTTrjyyeiXaro TrpoiTov jxev elg Avaptv ttjv 
TTpoyovLKTjv avTcov TTarpiha Kal rd e7nT7]SeLa rot? 
o;^Aot? TTape^eiv dc^dovco?, vireppLa-^rjaecrdai Se ore 
Se'oi /cat paStO)? v7ro)(€LpLOV avrois ttjv ■)(^cLpav rroL'q- 

243 creti'. ol Se VTrepxapels yevofxevoi Travres Trpodv/xcos 
et? k' fivpidSas dvSpcov avve^cjpfJL'qcrav Kal /jer' 

^ Ed. pr. : -Tjoames L. * Niese : (rvvui/jLoafievcuv L. 

^Tivas add. Reinach {quosdam Lat.). 
* enavd^eiv conj . Cobet. 



* " Does the author know that the Decalogue begina 
with an admonition to have no other god but Jehovah ? 
Or does he recall Greek lists of duties (Xen., Mem. iv. 4, 

126 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

and took an oath of obedience to him in everything. 
First of all, he made it a law ^ that they should neither 
worship the gods nor refrain from any of the animals ^ 
prescribed as especially sacred in Egypt, but should 
sacrifice and consume all alike, and that they shoidd 
have intercourse with none save those of their own 
confederacy. After framing a great number of laws 
like these, completely opposed to Egyptian custom, 
he ordered them with their multitude of hands, to 
repair the walls of the city and make ready for war 
against King Amenophis. Then, acting in concert 
with certain other priests and polluted persons like 
himself, he sent an embassy to the Shepherds who 
had been expelled by Tethmosis,^ in the city called 
Jerusalem ; and, setting forth the circumstances of 
himself and his companions in distress, he begged 
them to unite wholeheartedly in an attack upon 
Egypt. He oflfered to conduct them first to their 
ancestral home at Auaris, to provide their hosts with 
lavish supplies, to fight on their behalf whenever need 
arose, and to bring Egypt without difficulty under 
their sway. Overjoyed at the proposal, all the 
Shepherds, to the number of 200,000, eagerly set out, 

19 ; Carmen Aureum, v. 1 ; cf. Dieterich, Nekyia, pp. 146 
f.) which inculcate reverence for the gods as the first 
precept ? " (Reinach). Add Isocrates, Ad Demonicum, 
§§ 13, 16, and the Precepts oj Sansnda (ii./iii. a.d.), as 
inscribed in Nubia, C.I.O. iii. 5041 (Wilcken, Ghrestomathie, 
I. ii. p. 147, No. 116) — the first precept is " Revere the 
divinity ". 

^ Of. Tac, Hist. v. 4 : the Jews under Moses sacrificed 
the ram as if to insult Ammdn, and the bull, because the 
Egyptians worship Apis. Cf. O.T. Leinticus xvi. 3. 

* Tethinosis for Amdsis, as in Fr. 50 (§ 94). 

127 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

ov TToXv TjKov 61? Avapiv. 'Afieva}(f)Lg 8' o rwv 
AlyvTTTLCjJv jSaCTtAeLis" tt>? CTTvOero to. Kara ttji' 

€U€LVCOV €(f)o8oV, OV flCTpLCD^ aVVC)(yd7] , TTJS TTapO. 

^AiJi€Vco(f)€a>9 Tov UadiTLOs fivrjadel? TrpoSrjXcoaeojg 

244 Kal TTpoTepov avvayayiov TrXrjOog AlyvTnitov Kai 
^ovXevad/jeuog perd rcbv iv rovrois rjyepovojv, tcx 
re Upd ^cua rd [Trpajra] ^ {JudXiura iv tols lepols 
TLpcopieva COS" iavrov^ pereTTep^iparo, Kal rots Kard 
pL€pos Upevai TTap'qyyeXXev (Ls da^aXiaraTa tcup 

245 ^ecDi' auyKpvipaL ret ^oava. rdv 8e vtdv Eedojv, 
TOV Kal ' Papieaarjv aTTO 'Paip-qovs rod Trarpd^ 
ajvopaopbivov, TTCvraerrj ovra i^edero irpos tov 
iavTov ^iXov. avTos Se Scalds <avv> ^ Toli 
dXXoLg AlyvTTTLOLS , ovoLV els TpiaKOVTa p.vpidha'? 
dvhpoJv paxi-P'<^Tdra)v, Kal toIs iroXepiLOLS dir- 

240 avTiqaas * ov (wve^aXev , dXXd piTj Selv ^ deofxaxeir 
vofiia'as TTaXLvSpofiT^aag rJKev els Mep<j)Lv, dvaXa^cov 
Te TOV re Z4.7TLV Kal rd dXXa rd eKetae pberaTTep- 
(f)devTa lepd ^wa, evdvs els AWioTTLav avv drravTi toj 
OToXcp Kal TrXijOei twv AlyvTTTtcov dv-qx^'Q ' X^P'-^'- 
ydp rjv avTO) VTTOxeiptos 6 twv AWiOTroyv ^aatXevs. 

247 OS ^ VTToSe^dpievos Kal tovs oxXovs rravTas vrroXa^ajv 
ots eaxev rj X^P^ "^^^ Trpos dvOpojTrivrjV Tpo^r^v 
eTriT7]8eLcov, Kal TToXets Kal Kcojxas Trpos ttjv roJv 

^ Om. Lat. : bracketed by Bekker. 
^ Cobet : ais ye avrov L. 
*Conj. Niese (cmto aliis Lat.). 

* Cobet (occurrens Lat.) : dnavr-qaaaiv L. 
^Herwerden (c/. § 263) : fxeXXeiv L. 

* Niese (after Lat.) : odev L. 

128 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

and before long arrived at Auaris. When Amenophis, 
king of Egypt, learned of their invasion, he was sorely 
troubled, for he recalled the prediction of Amenophis, 
son of Paapis. First, he gathered a multitude of 
Egyptians ; and having taken counsel with the lead- 
ing men among them, he summoned to his presence 
the sacred animals which were held in greatest rever- 
ence in the temples, and gave instructions to each 
group of priests to conceal the images of the gods as 
seciirely as possible. As for his five-year-old son 
Sethos, also called Ramesses after his grandfather 
Rapses,^ he sent him safely away to his friend.^ 
He then crossed the Nile with as many as 300,000 of 
the bravest warriors of Egypt, and met the enemy. 
But, instead of joining battle, he decided that he 
must not fight against the gods, and made a hasty 
retreat to Memphis. There he took into his charge 
Apis and the other sacred animals which he had 
summoned to that place ; and forthwith he set off for 
Ethiopia ^ with his whole army and the host of 
Egyptians. The Ethiopian king, who, in gratitude 
for a service, had become bis subject, welcomed him, 
maintained the whole multitude with such products 
of the country as were fit for human consumption, 

^ Rapses : doubtless an error for Rampses. There is 
confusion here : the grandfather is Ramesses II. See 
Meyer (Aeg. Chron. p. 91), who considers the words 
" Sethds also called " an interpolation (c/. § 98), intended 
to identify a Sethos son of Amendphis and a Ramesses 
son of Amenophis. 

* A curious indefiniteness : the reference may be to the 
king of Ethiopia, mentioned in the next section. 

• The truth is that Ethiopia (Xubia, Cush) was at that 
time a province of the kingdom of the Pharaohs. 

F 129 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

TTeTTpcDixevcov TpiGKaiSeKa ctcDv mro rrjg o.p'xfi^ 
avTov ^ eKTTTOioiv avrapKeis, ovx ^ttov Se Koi 
cnpaTOTTeSov AWlottlkov irpo'S <f)vXaKrjv ineTa^e 
TOLS Trap* ^AfjL€vu)(f>€cos Tov ^aaiXeois cttI tojv 
2i8 6pt(x)V rrjg AlyvTrrov. /cat to. jikv Kara rrju AWlo- 
Triav roiavra ■ ol Se EoXvpurat KareXdovres cwv 
Tols [xiapoZs Tiov AlyvTTTLcov ovTcos avoaicos koI 
<(hpLU)S>^ ToZs dvdpa)7Toi9 TTpocrT]ve)(driaav , cocrre rr^v 
Tibv TTpoeLprjfievoiv <noLp,€VOJV>^ KpoLTTjcnv )(pva6v 
(f>aLV€a6ai tols rore to. tovtcov aae^T^fJiara decj- 

249 fjLevois • Kal yap ov fxovov TrdAet? Kal Kojpias ivi- 
TTp-qaav, ovSe UpoavXovvres ovSe Xv/Jiaivofxevoi 
^oava decov rjpKovvTO, dXXa /cat rot? dSuTot? * 
OTTTavioig TOJV ae^aoTevofxevcov Upcov t,a)0)v XP^' 
fievoL Sl€t4Xovv, Kal dvTas Kal ai/>ayets" tovtcov 
lepeXs Kal TTpo(j>rjTas rjvdyKa^ov yiveadai /cat yvpi- 

250 j/oi)? i^e^aXXov. Aeyerat 8e ort <6>^ ttjv TToXtTciav 
Kal TOV£ vofjLovg avTols KaTa^aXofxevos upevs, to 
yevog ' HXLOTToXlrrjs , oVo/Lta ' Oa'aparj(f> ^ dno tov iv 
' HXcovTToXei deov 'Oaipecos, (Jos /uere'^T^ els tovto 
TO yevos, /XiTeTdOrj Tovvop.a Kal Trpocrqyopevdri 

27Miov(rrjs." 

251 M fX€V ovv AtyvTTTLOL (fjepovcTL nepl tojv ^Iov- 
^aioiv ravT' earl Kal CTepa irXeiova, a ■napi-qp.i 

^ -f «V Tr]v L (repeating npos r-qv above) : a verb (e.g. 
•napiaxev) seems to have dropped out. 

^ Add. Reinach. ^ Add. Reiiiach. 

* Bekker : airrols L. ' Cobet : oin. L. 

• CJ. § 238 : 'Ooapal<f> edd. 

^According to Meyer {Aeg. Chron. p. 77), this section 
with its identification of Osarsoph and Moses is due to an 
130 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

assigned to them cities and villages sufficient for the 
destined period of 13 years' banishment from his 
realm, and especially stationed an Ethiopian army 
on the frontiers of Egypt to guard King Amenophis 
and his followers. Such was the situation in 
Ethiopia. Meanwhile, the Solymites [or dwellers in 
Jerusalem] made a descent along with the polluted 
Egyptians, and treated the people so impiously and 
savagely that the domination of the Shepherds 
seemed like a golden age to those who witnessed the 
present enormities. For not only did they set towns 
and villages on fire, pillaging the temples and muti- 
lating images of the gods without restraint, but they 
also made a practice of using the sanctuaries as 
kitchens to roast the sacred animals which the people 
worshipped : and they would compel the priests and 
prophets to sacrifice and butcher the beasts, after- 
wards casting the men forth naked. It is said that 
the priest who framed their constitution and their 
laws was a native of Heliopolis, named Osarseph 
after the god Osiris, worshipped at Heliopolis ; 
but when he joined this people, he changed his 
name and was called Moses." ^ 

Such, then, are the Egyptian stories about the 
Jews,^ together with many other tales which I pass 

anti-Semitic commentator on Manetho. It is interesting 
that Osiris should be thus identified with the mysterious 
god of the Jews, whose name must not be uttered. 

* Cf. Hecataeus of Abdera (in Diodorus Siculus, xl. 3) : 
the Jews are foreigners expelled from Egypt because of a 
plague. See Meyer, Oeschichte^, ii. 1, p. 424. Hecataeus 
lived for some time at the court of Ptolemy 1. (323-285 B.C.), 
and used Egyptian sources for his Aeyyptiaca. VJ. Intro, 
pp. xxvif. 

131 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

avvTOfxtag eveKa. Ae'yei 8e d Mavedois ttoXiv oti 
fiera ravra eirrjXdev 6 ^Afi€vco(f>is d-TTO AldLOTTias 
jJLeTO. fJLeydXrjg Svvdjjiecos Kal 6 vlog avrov Pdjiipr^s, 
Koi avros exoiv Svvafxiv, Kal crvyi^aXovTes ol Bvo 
rots UoLfjLeaL Kal toIs fMiapols iviKTjaav avTovs Kal 

TToAAoU? d7TOKT€LVaVT€S eSlCO^ttV aVTOV? d-Xpt TOJV 

252 opicxiv rrjs Uvpiag. ravra fikv Kal rd roiavra 
Mavedwg cruveypaipev • on 8e Xrjpel Kal if/evSerai 
TT€pL^ava)s eVtSet^co, TTpoSiaCTTetAa/tefos' €Kelvo, rcbv 
varepov irpos dXXovs^ Xe-)(driaoyi4vcov eVe/ca. SeSojKe 
yap ovros rjfuv Kal (LjjioXoyTjKCV i^ dp)(7Js rd ^ fi-q 
elvai ro yivos AlyvTrriovs , oAA' avrovs e^codtv 
iireXdovra'S KparrjcraL rrjs AlyvTrrov Kal ttolXlv i^ 

263 avri]? drreXOelv . on S ovk dv€pLi)(dir]Gav "qjjuv 
varepov rcov AlyvTrriojv oi rd acofMara XeXco^r]- 
[jLevoL, Kal on €K rovrcov ovk rjv Mwvafjs 6 rov 
Xaov dyaycov, dAAa noXXalg eyeyovei yeveals 
nporepov , ravra TTeipdcrofxat Sid rcov vtt* avrov 
22 Xeyopiivojv iXiy)(eiv. 

254 Upcorrjv Srj rrjv alriav rov TrXdanaros vtto- 
rider ai KarayeXaarov . 6 ^acriXevs ydp, (f)7jaLV, 
AfX€vco(f)iS eTTedvix-qae rovs deovg ISelv. ttolovs ; 
el pbkv rovs Trap* avroZs vevopoder-qfxevovs, rov 
j8ow Kal rpdyov Kal KpOKoSeiXovs Kal KVVOK€(f)d- 

255 Xovs, €(x)pa. rovs ovpaviovs Se ttcos eSwaro ; /cat 
hid ri ravrrjv €cr)(€ rrjv CTnOvfiiav ; on vi] Aia 

* Niese : dAAijAous L (aUema gratia Lat.). 

* Conj. Niese : re L. 

132 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

by for brevity's sake. Manetho adds, however, that, 
at a later date, Amenophis advanced from Ethiopia 
with a large army, his son Rampses also leading a 
force, and that the two together joined battle with 
the Shepherds and their polluted allies, and defeated 
them, killing many and pursuing the others to the 
frontiers of Syria. This then, with other tales of a 
like nature, is Manetho's account. Before I give 
proof that his words are manifest lies and nonsense, 
I shall mention one particular point, which bears 
upon my later refutation of other ^vriters. Manetho 
has made one concession to us. He has admitted 
that our race was not Egyptian in origin, but came 
into Egypt from elsewhere, took possession of the 
land, and afterwards left it. But that we were not, 
at a later time, mixed up with disease-ravaged 
Egyptians, and that, so far from being one of these, 
Moses, the leader of our people, lived many genera- 
tions earlier, I shall endeavour to prove from 
Manetho's own statements. 

To begin with, the reason which he suggests for 
his fiction is ridiculous. " King Amenophis," he 
says, " conceived a desire to see the gods." Gods 
indeed ! If he means the gods established by their 
ordinances, — bull, goat, crocodiles, and dog-faced 
baboons, — he had them before his eyes ; and as 
for the gods of heaven, how could he see them ? 
And why did he conceive this eager desire ? 
Because, by Zeus,' before his time another king 

* A strange expression which seems to belong to an 
anti-Semitic polemic. In Josephus, c. Apion. ii. 263 (a 
passage about Socrates), jo) Jt'a has been restored to the 
text by Niese'a conjecture. 

133 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

Kal TTporepog avrov /SaaiAei)? aAAo? €(opa.K€i. 
Trap' eKetvov roivvv ineTTvaTO TroraTroi rives elai 
Kal riva TrpoTTOv avrovs efSev, oiare Kaivqs avru> 
2oQ Ti-)(vrj<5 OVK eSet. oAAd ao(j)6s tjv 6 fxavrtg, 8i* oS 
TOVTO KaTopdaxreiv 6 ^aaiXevs vneXafi^ave . /cat 
TTcos ov TTpoeyvo) TO dSvvarov avrov rrjg imdvfJLtas ; 
ov yap diTe^r]. riva Se Kal \6yov e?;^e Sict rovs 
■qKpcoTTjpiaafJLevovs rj XeTrpcovras d<f)av€LS elvai. 
Toiis deovs ; 6pyit,ovrai yap em rots dae^-q/xaaiv, 

257 OVK errl rois eXarrcofiaaL rcbv aoipLaroiv. OKroi 
he fivpidSas rcbv Xenpajv Kal /ca/cco? BLaKeifievcov 
7TC09 olov re fxia ax^Sov rjiiepa crv?^eyrjvai ; ttcD? 
Se nap-qKovaev rod fxavreois 6 ^aaiXevs ; 6 (xev 
yap avrov eKeXevaev e^opiaai rrjs Alyvirrov rovs 
XeXco^rj/xevovg, 6 S' avrovs els rag Xi9oTOfi,Las 
eve^aXev, ayanep rcbv epyaaofxevcov Seofxevos^ oAA* 

258 ovxl Kaddpai rrjv ;(copai' Trpoaipovfxevos. (f)7)ai 
Se rov jj-ev jjavriv avrov aveXetv rrjv opyrjv rcbv 
Oecbv 7Tpoopci)fM€Vov Kal rd cru/x^r^crd/Aeva Trepl rrjv 
Alyvrrrov, rcb Se /SatnAei yeypafji[xevr)v rrjv TTpop- 

259 prjcnv^ KaraXineiv. elra nebs ovk e^ dpxfjs 6 
[xdvrcs Tov avrov ddvarov TrporjiriOTaro ; TTcbs Se 
OVK evdvs dvrelnev rcb jSacriAe? ^ovXop.evoi rods 
6eovs ISelv ; nebs S' evXoyos 6 cf>6^os rcbv /jLTj Trap* 
avrov (TUfx^rjaofidvcDV KaKcbv ; 7] ri \elpov eSei 
TTadeZv ov Spdv^ iavrov earrevSev ; 

26U To Se St7 Trdvrojv ev-qdecrrarov tSco/xef. irvdo- 

^ Ed . pr. : rrpoaprjaLi' L. 

'^ Herwerden (quam quod se ipse perimere /esttnabat Lat.): 
ov?> av L. 

134 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

had seen them ! From this predecessor, then, he 
had learned their nature and the manner in which 
he had seen them, and in consequence he had no need 
of a new system. Moreover, the prophet by whose 
aid the king expected to succeed in his endeavour, 
was a sage. How, then, did he fail to foresee the im- 
possibility of realizing this desire ? It did, in fact, 
come to naught. And what reason had he for as- 
cribing the invisibility of the gods to the presence of 
cripples or lepers ? Divine wrath is due to impious 
deeds, not to physical deformities. Next, how 
could 80,000 lepers and invalids be gathered to- 
gether in practically a single day ? And why did 
the king turn a deaf ear to the prophet ? The pro- 
phet had bidden him expel the cripples from Egypt, 
but the king cast them into stone-quarries, as if he 
needed labourers, not as if his piirpose was to purge 
the land. Manetho says, moreover, that the pro- 
phet took his own life, because he foresaw the anger 
of the gods and the fate in store for Egypt, but left 
in writing his prediction to the king. Then how 
was it that the prophet had not from the first fore- 
knowledge of his own death ? Why did he not 
forthwith oppose the king's desire to see the gods ? 
Was it reasonable to be afraid of misfortunes which 
were not to happen in his time ? Or what worse 
fate could have been his than that which he hastened 
to inflict upon himself ? 

But let us now examine ^ the most ridiculous part 

^ The passage §§ 260-266 repeats unnecessarily the 
substance of §§ 2.'i7-2.50 : possibly these are extracts from 
two treatises utilizing the same material. 

135 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

fievos yap ravra Kal Trepl rwv /xeAAovTCOv <f>o^7)d€is, 
Tovs XeXio^rjjjLevovg ckclvovs, cov aura; KaOapiaai^ 
TTpoeiprjTO ttjv AcyvTrrov, ovSe rare rfj^ p^capa? 
e^T^Aacrei', oAAd BerjdeiGLV avrol? eScoKe ttoXlv, a>s 
(fy-qai, ttjv ndXai fJiev oiKrjdelaav vtto tu)v Uoiyiiviiiv , 

-lil Avapiv 8e KaXovfievTjv. ei? rjv adpoiadevTas avTovs 
■qy^ixova (f>r)alv i^eXeadai tojv ef ' HXiovnoXeois 
ndXai y€.yov6r(iiv Lcpecov, Kal tovtov avrots cict- 
rjyqaaadai [i-qre deovs TrpoaKVvelv p.'qTe twv €v ^ 
AtyvTTTU) dpr^aKevo/JLevajv t,cou)v aTrdx^crdai, TTavra 
Se dveiv /cat KareadUiv, avvaTTTcadai he fxrjhevl 
TrXrjv rcov avvopLOiHoap.evcov ^ opKois re to ttXtjOos 
ivhrjcrdixevov , rj fxrjv tovtol? ifj^evelv tols u6p,OLS, 
Kal TiLX^cravra rqv Avapiv Trpo? tov jSaatAe'a 

202 TToXefiov i^€V€yK€LV. Kal TrpoariOrjaiv on €7T€fn/j€v 
et? ' lepoaoXufMa TrapaKaXcov €K€ivov? avToZs crvp,- 
fiax^lv Kal Scoaeiv avTolg rrjv Avapiv V7n(T)(vov- 
fxcvo?, elvai. yap avrrjv rots' e/< rcbv 'lepoaoXvfjiwv 
d(f)i^o^evoL9 TTpoyoviKrjv, d<j) ^? 6pp.(x>jJ.€vovs avTovs 

2ioiTTa.Gav ttjv AtyvTTTOV Kade^eiv, elra rovs fiev 
€TTeXdelv e'lKoai arparov pLVpidai Xeyei, tov ^aaiXea 
8e rcjv AlyvTTTLWv AiJ.iva}(f)iv ovk olofxevov Setv 
6eop.axeiv els rrjv AWioTTiav evdvg drroSpdvai, tov 
8e ^Attlv Kal Tiva tcov dXXojv lepcjv l^wojv Trapa- 
TeOeiKevat, toIs lepevai 8ta(f)vXdTTeadai. KeXevaavTa. 

264 eira Tovg lepoaoXvfiLTas erreXdovTas ra? re TrdAet? 
dvLUTdvai Kal rd Upd /cara/caietv Kal tovs lepeas* 
136 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

of the whole stor^-. Although he had learned these 
facts, and had conceived a dread of the future, the 
king did not, even then, expel from his land those 
cripples of whose taint he had previously been bidden 
to purge Egypt, but instead, at their request, he 
gave them as their city (Manetho savs) the former 
habitation of the Shepherds, Auaris, as it was called. 
Here, he adds, they assembled, and selected as their 
leader a man who had formerly been a priest in 
Heliopolis. This man (according to Manetho) in- 
structed them not to worship the gods nor to refrain 
from the animals revered in Egypt, but to sacrifice 
and devour them all, and to have intercourse Adth 
none save those of their own confederacy. Then 
having bound his followers by oath to abide strictly 
by these laws, he fortified Auaris and waged war 
against the king. This leader, Manetho adds, sent 
to Jerusalem, iuA-iting the people to join in alliance 
with him, and promising to give them Auaris, which, 
he reminded them, was the ancestral home of those 
who woidd come from Jerusalem, and would serve as 
a base for their conquest of the whole of Eg^pt. 
Then, continues Manetho, they advanced with an 
army of 200,000 men ; and Amenophis, king of 
Eg^pt, thinking he ought not to fight against the 
gods, fled straightway into Ethiopia after enjoining 
that Apis and some of the other sacred animals should 
be entrusted to the custody of the priests. There- 
after, the men from Jerusalem came on, made deso- 
late the cities, burned down the temples, massacred 

*Ck)bet: KadaptCaai h. *Conj. Niese: eV L. 

* Niese : awaiixoa^evwv L. * Bekker : inirias L, Lat. 

137 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

dTToa(f>dTT€LV, oAco? T€ /AT^Se/wta? aTTexeadai irapa- 

265 vofiias /UTySe (hfxoTrjTo?. 6 Se ttjv TToXiTeiav koI 
Tovg vo/JLOvs aurot? /cara^aAd/iero? ^ lepevg, <f)YjaLV, 
rjv TO ycvo? ' UXlottoXltt)? , ovofjia 8' * Ocrapcrrjcf) ^ 
OLTTO Tov iv ' HXiovTroXei deov ^ Oaipeoys , p.eradefiei'os 

266 Se Mcovcrfjv avTOv Trpocrqyopevae. TpLaKaiSeKaTCp 
Se (f)rjaiv €T€i tov ^AideviocjiLV, — tooovtov yap avrw 
Xpovov etvai Trjg eKTrrcoaecJS TTeTTpcofJLevov, — e^ 
AldiOTTLas eTTeXdovra jLtera TToXXrjg arparLas /cat 
avfji^aXovra rots" TIoipieaL Kal toTs yuapols viKrjaai 
T€ rfi fidxj) Kal Krelvai ttoXXovs eTriSico^avra 

29 fxexpt' T&v rrjs Evplas opiov. 

267 ^Ev rovTois ttoXlv ov crvvirjcriv aTnOdvo)? ipev- 
Sofxevos. ol yap Xerrpol Kal to ^eT avTcov TrXrjdog, 
el Kal TTpoTcpov <hpyLt,ovTO Tw jSacriAet Kal tols 
TO, 7T€pl avTovs TTeTTOL-qKoai Kara [re] ^ Trjv tov 
[j,dvT€i05 TTpoayopevcriv, oAA' are TOJv Xi6oTop,La>u 
i^rjXdov Kal ttoXiv Trap* avTOV Kal x^P^^ eXa^ov, 
TTavTCOs * dv yeyoveiaav TrpaoTepoi Trpos avTov. 

268 et Se 817 ^ KaKelvov ep,iaovv, ISla [lev dv avTO) * 
€7T€^ovX€Vov, ovK dv Se TTpos aiTavTas "qpavTO 
TToXepov, hf\Xov oTi 77 Ae terra? exovTes crvyyeveias 

269 TOcroyTot ye to 77X7)60? 6vt€S. oficos Se Kat TOt? 
dvdpcoTTOLS rroXepLCiv SieyviOKOTeg, ovk dv et? tovs 
avT(jJv deovs TToXefielv cToXp-qaav ovS vjrevav- 
TicoTttTOUS' edevTO vopovg rots' Trarptoi? avTcov Kal 

270 of? ev€Tpd<f)'qaav. Set Se ly/xa? to) Mavedo)'' X'^P'-^ 

1 Ed. pr. : KaraPaXXo^evos L. 
' 'Oaapal<^ ed. pr. : 'Apar]<fi L. 

8 Om. Lat., Bekker. * Ed. pr. : Trat^res L, Lat. 

' 6t 8' €Ti conj. Niese {porro si adhuc Lat.). 
138 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

the priests, and, in short, committed every possible 
kind of lawlessness and savagery. The priest who 
framed their constitution and their laws was, ac- 
cording to Manetho, a native of Heliopolis, Osarseph 
by name, after Osiris the god worshipped in Helio- 
pohs : but he changed his name and called himself 
Moses. Thirteen years later — this being the des- 
tined period of his exile — Amenophis, according to 
Manetho, advanced from Ethiopia with a large army, 
and joining battle with the Shepherds and the pol- 
luted people, he defeated them, killing many, after 
pursuing them to the frontiers of Syria. 

Here again Manetho fails to realize the improba- 
bility of his lying tale. Even if the lepers and their 
accompanying horde were previously angry with the 
king and the others who had treated them thus in 
obedience to the seer's prediction, certainly when 
they had left the stone-quarries and received from 
him a city and land, they would have grown more 
kindly disposed to him. If indeed they still hated 
him, they would have plotted against him personally, 
instead of declaring war against the whole people ; 
for obviously so large a company must have had 
numerous relatives in Egj-pt. Notwithstanding, 
once they had resolved to make war on the Egyptians, 
they would never have ventured to direct their war- 
fare against their gods, nor would they have framed 
laws completely opposed to the ancestral code under 
which they had been brought up. We must, how- 
ever, be grateful to Manetho for stating that the 

' I'lv avTU) ed. pr.: avoj { = dvdpwTTU)) L: dv (alone) conj. 
Niese : au avOfxLTno RfMnach. 
' Niese : Mavedojvi L. 

139 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

ex^iv, OTL TttUTT^? TTJs TTapavo^ias ovxi rovs i^ 
lepoaoXvfJicov eXOovras apx'qyovs yevdaOai (f>riaiv, 
oAA avTovs eKeivovs ovras AlyvTrriovs Kal tov- 
TOJV fidXiara rovs lepdag imvorjaai tc ravra /cat 
opKcopLorrjaai to ttXtjOo?. 

271 ^EkcIvo fievTOt ttcos ovk dXoyov, rcJov jxkv olKeiiov 
avTOis Koi T<x)v (f>iXa)v crvvaTToaTrjvaL ^ ouSeVa firjSe 
Tov TToXiixov Tov KivSvvov (Twdpaadai, Tre/juftai Se 
Tovs piiapovs €is 'lepoaoXvua Kal ttjv Trap' eVetVojv 

272 irrdyeaOaL av/JL/xaxtav ; Trota? avTol'5 <f)LXias •^ 

TLVOS aVTOls OLKeLOTTjTOS TTpOVTTTjpyfievqS ; TOV- 

vavriov yap i)aav TToXefxioi Kal rotS" edeai ^ TrXelarrov 
St.€(f)epov. 6 Se cf)'qaLV evdvs inraKOvaai roig vtt- 
Lax^'ovfievois on ttjv A'iyvmov Kade^ovaiv, coaiTep 
avTchv ov (j(f>6Spa rrjs xwpa^ e/XTret'poj? i^ovriov, 

273 '^S' ^laadivres CKTreTrrcoKacnv. ei [xev ow aTTopcos 
7] KaKOJs enpaTTOv, tacos av Kal irape^dXXovro, 
ttoXlv Se KaroiKovvres evhaifxova Kal x^P^^ 

TToXXrjV KpeiTTO) TTJS AlyVTTTOV KapTTOvpievot, hid 

ri TTOT dv ixdpols piev TrdXai rd Se acu/xara Ae- 
Xoi^rjixevois, ovs /XT^Se rwv oiKetcov ovSel? VTrepieve, 
TOVTOLS efieXXov TrapaKivSvvevcreiv ^orjOovvres ; ov 
ydp St] ye tov yevqaofjievov Trporjheaav Spaap.6v 

274 TOV ^aaiXiois ' tovvovtIov ydp avTos eiprjKev cos 

* Bekker (consensit Lat. ) : avvaTToarrjaai. L. 
^Hudson (moribus Lat.): -qdeoi L. 

* In § 245 we are told that Amendphis himself led his 
host in this useless march, and that his son was only 
5 years old. Only here is Peiusium mentioned as the 
destination of the march. 

[Footnote continued on opposite page, 

140 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

authors of this lawlessness were not the newcomers 
from Jerusalem, but that company of people who 
were themselves Egyptians, and that it was, above 
all, their priests who devised the scheme and bound 
the multitude by oath. 

Moreover, how absurd it is to imagine that, while 
none of their relatives and friends joined in the revolt 
and shared in the perils of war, these polluted persons 
sent to Jerusalem and gained allies there ! What 
aUiance, what connexion had previously existed be- 
tween them ? Why, on the contrary, they were 
enemies, and differed widely in customs. Yet 
Manetho says that they lent a ready ear to the 
promise that they would occupy Egypt, just as if 
they were not thoroughly acquainted with the 
country from which they had been forcibly expelled ! 
Now, if they had been in straitened or unhappy cir- 
cumstances, they would perhaps have taken the risk ; 
but dwelling, as they did, in a prosperous city and 
enjoying the fruits of an ample country, superior to 
Egypt, why ever should they be likely to hazard 
their lives by succouring their former foes, those 
maimed cripples, whom none even of their own 
kinsfolk could endure ? For of course they did not 
foresee that the king would take flight. On the con- 
trary, Manetho has himself stated that the son ^ of 

Pdlusium, " the celebrated eastern seaport and key to 
Egypt" (Baedeker 8, pp. 197 f.), the famous frontier 
fortress, in Ancient Egyptian Snw. A scarab of the late 
Twelfth Dynasty or early Thirteenth, published by 
Newberry in J. Eg. Arch, xviii. (1932), p. 141, shows the 
place-name written within the fortress-sign. The name 
Pfilusium is from ttijAo's " mud " : cj. Strabo, 17. 1, 21, 
for the muddy pools or marshes around PSlusium. 

141 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

d TTttt? Tov Afi€vc6(f)LOS TpLOLKOVTa fJivpidSas e^coi/ 
€1? TO rirjXovaLov VTTrjVTiat^ev. koI rovro fxev 
fjSeicrav ttolvtcos ol Trapayivoiievoi, ttjv 8e ixerd- 
voiav avTov /cat Trjv (f>vyrjv irodev elKa^eiv e/x.eAAot'; 

276 eTTeiTtt ^ KpaTTqaavrds ^tjol TTys Alyvirrov noXXa 
Kal Seivd Spdv rous eV twv ' lepoaoXvp^cDV irri- 
arparevaavrag , /cat TTcpl rovroiv oveLhi^ei KaddTrep 
ov TToXepLLOvg avTOvs ^ iTrayaywi' ?} B4ov tols e^coOev 
iTTiKXrjdelaLV iyKaXeiv, 6tt6t€ Tavra irpo Trjs 
€K€Lva)v d(f)L^€(x}S €7TparTov Kal TTpd^eiv (hpoip.6- 

216 Keaav ol to yevos AlyvTTTLOi, dAAd /cat xpovois 
varepov Ap4va>(f)LS iTTcXdojv iviKrjoe p^dxj) Kal 
KTCivcov Tovs TToXcjjLLovg l^-^xpt, TTJ? Evpias TjXa- 
a€v ' OVTOJ yap TTavTdiraaiv iariv rj AcyvTrrog rots 

211 oTTodevhriTTOTOvv eTnovaiv evdXcoros. KairoL^ ol 
rore TroXefxa) Kparovvreg avn/jv, 1,'fjv TTVvdav6p.evoi 
TOV Ap.ivoj(f)LV , ovre rds 4k rrjs AldtOTrias €[x^oXd9 
wX^poiaav , TToXXriv els rovro rrapao'Kevrjv e)(ovr€s, 
ovre rrjv dXX7]v 'qroipaaav hvvapLiv. 6 hk Kal p-^xpt, 
Ti]S Hvpias dvatpdJv, (f)'rj(Tiv, avrovs 'qKoXovdrjae 
Std rrjs j/rd/ijuoy rrjs dvvSpov, SrjXov on ov pdhiov 
30ou8e dfxax^l arparoTreSo) BLeXdelv. 

278 Kara fxev ovv rov Mavedojv ovre e/c rrjs Ai- 
yvrrrov ro yevos rjjjicov eartv ovre rcbv eKeWev 
Tives dvefiLxOrjaav • rdJv yap Xeirpcbv Kal voaovvrcov 
TToAAoys fJiev et/coj ev rals Xidorop-iais aTTodavelv 
TToXvv "Xfiovov €Kel yevojjLevovs Kal KaKOiraOovvras, 
TToXXovs S' iv rals fierd ravra p.d)(ats, rrXeicrrovs 
S* ev rfj reXevraia Kal rfj <f>vyf}. 

1 Hudson : elra Niese : deinde Lat. : rd airt'o L. 
142 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

Amenophis marched with 300,000 men to confront 
them at Pelusium. This was certainly known to 
those already present ; but how could they possibly 
guess that he would change his mind and flee ? 
Manetho next says that, after conquering Egypt, the 
invaders from Jerusalem committed many heinous 
crimes ; and for these he reproaches them, just as if 
he had not brought them in as enemies, or as if he 
was bound to accuse allies from abroad of actions 
which before their arrival native Egyptians were 
performing and had sworn to perform. But, years 
later, Amenophis returned to the attack, conquered 
the enemy in battle, and drove them, with slaughter, 
right to Syria. So perfectly easy a prey is Egypt to 
invaders, no matter whence they come ! And yet 
those who at that time conquered the land, on 
learning that Amenophis was alive, neither fortified 
the passes between it and Ethiopia, although their 
resources were amply sufficient, nor did they keep 
the rest of their forces in readiness ! Amenophis, ac- 
cording to Manetho, pursued them with carnage over 
the sandy desert right to Syria. But obviously it is 
no easy matter for an army to cross the desert even 
without fighting. 

Thus, according to Manetho, our race is not of 
Egyptian origin, nor did it receive any admixture of 
Egyptians. For, naturally, many of the lepers and 
invalids died in the stone-quarries during their long 
term of hardship, many others in the subsequent 
battles, and most of all in the final engagement and 
the rout. 

* Keioach : ai^rois L. * Conj. Thackeray : Kal L. 

143 



Fr. 54 MANETHO 

o-i 

2_„ AoLTTov fjioi TTpog avTov elirelv 7T€pl Moivaioi? 
rovTOV 8e tov dvSpa davfxaarov fxev AlyvnTioL 
Kal deZov vojjLi^ovai, ^ovXovTai Se TrpoaTTOLelv av- 
TOLS fxera ^Xaa^rjuias aTnddvov, XcyovTCS 'HXlo- 
TToXirrjv etvaL tcov eKeWev Updcov eva hia ttjv 

280Ae7r|oai' avve^eX-qXaapiivov. ScLKwraL S' iv rals 
avaypa^als oKTcoKaiScKa criiv tols TrevTaKocrioLS 
TTpoTcpov ereai yeyovcbs /cat rovs rifierepovs 
i^ayaycov e/c rrjs Alyvirrov rrarepa? els rrjv 

281 -^^ajpav ttjv vvv olKovpLevrjv u^' rjfxcbv. otl 8' oySe 

(TVjl(f)Opa TLVt, TOLaVTT) TTCpl TO (TOJfJia KCXpf] fJ-^VOS 

T]v, e/c Tojv Xeyopiivcov vtt* avrov SrjXos eari • toi? 
yap XeTTpcJaiv a.TT€Lp7]K€ P'T^re fxevetv iv TroXei fi'^T^ 
€U Kcojxr} KaTOLKelv, dXXa fxovovs TrepLTrarelv Kar- 
€<y)(Lapi€vov£ rd ifxaTia, /cat tov di/jajjievov avrcov 

282 r) 6p.cx}p6(j>iov yevofxevov ov Kadapov rjyetTai. Kal 
/jbrjv Kav depaTT€v9fi to voarjfia /cat ttjv avTOv 
(f)vaiv aTToXd^T], TrpoelprjKev TLvas ayveta?/ Kadap- 
fiovs TT7]yaioiv vSdTcov XovTpoZs /cat ^vp-qaeus 
Trdcrq? Trjg Tpixdg, TroAAa? re /ceAeuet /cat Trat'- 
Tota? CTTtTeXecravTa dvalas t6t€ irapeXOelv els ttjv 

283 tepdv ttoXlv. /catVot ^ TOvvavTLOV et/co? rjv rrpovola 
TLvl /cat ^iXavdpoiTria ■)(p'qGaa6ai tov iv ttj avfx- 
<f>opa TavTT) yeyovoTa Trpos Toiis op-olcos ^ avTCo 
hvaTVxqaavTas . ov fxovov 8e irepl tcov XeirpCov 
OVTOJS evofxodeTrjaev, dXX* ovSe Tols /cat to ^pa^v- 
TaTov TL TOV acojuaTos rjKpa)T'rjpiaaix€VOLS Updadai 

284 crvyKex<Jopr)K€V, dAA' ei /cat /Lieraf u tis tepcoixevos 

* + Kal Lat., Reinach. * Ed. pr. : Kal L. 

^ Ed. pr. : o/ioiovs L, Lat. 

144 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

It remains for me to reply to Manetho's statements 
about Moses. The Egyptians regard him as a won- 
derful, even a divine being, but wish to claim him as 
their own by an incredible calumny, alleging that he 
belonged to Heliopolis and was dismissed from his 
priesthood there owing to leprosy. The records, 
however, show that he lived 518 years ^ earlier, and 
led our forefathers up out of Egypt to the land which 
we inhabit at the present time. And that he suffered 
from no such physical affliction is clear from his own 
words. He has, in fact, forbidden lepers ^ either to 
stay in a town or to make their abode in a village ; 
they must go about in solitude, with their garments 
rent. Anyone who touches them or lives under the 
same roof with them he considers unclean. More- 
over, even if the malady is cured and the leper re- 
sumes normal health, Moses has prescribed certain 
rites of purification — to cleanse himself in a bath of 
spring-water and to shave off all his hair, — and en- 
joins the performance of a number of different sacri- 
fices before entrance into the holy city. Yet it would 
have been natural, on the contrary, for a victim of 
this scourge to show some consideration and kindly 
feeling for those who shared the same misfortune. It 
was not only about lepers that he framed such laws : 
those who had even the slightest mutilation of the 
body were disqualified for the priesthood ; ^ and if 
a priest in the course of his ministry met with an 

1 518 years. See n. on § 230. 

* For the laws of leprosy, here summarized, see O.T. 
Leviticus xiii. (especially 4.5 f.) and xiv. 

* Cf. Leviticus xxi. 17-23 (exclusion from the priesthood 
of anyone " that hath a blemish "). 

145 



Fb. 54 MANETHO 

TOLavrrj )(p-qaaLTO <TV^(f>opa, ttju rifx'fjv avrov 

285 d(f)€iXeTO. ttcD? ow eiVo? eKetvov^ ravra vofxo- 
deT€iv dvoT]Ta)s <rj tov9> ^ drro tolovtwv cruyi- 
(f>opcJbv crvveiXeyiJidvovs TrpoaeaOai ^ Kad' eavTcov eis" 

286 6v€iS6s T€ Kal pXd^T]v vofxovs avvTidepLevovs ; dAAd 
fi-qv Kal Tovvofia At'av dTriddvcos fxeTardOeLKev • 
' Oaapcrr]<f> * yap, (f)r]mv, eVaAetro. tovto iikv ovv 
els Trjv fxerddcaLV ovk ivapp.6t,eL, to S' dXqdks 
6vo[xa SrjXol tov ck rod vSaros aa>devra [M(x>aT]v\'^ 
TO yap vScjp ol AlyvTmoL p.ojv KaXovaiv. 

287 Ikovo)? ovv yeyovevai vofjiL^oj KardSrjXov^ ori 
MaveddiS, ecu? p.ev rjKoXovdei tols dpxo-iaLS dva- 
ypa(f)al'5, ov ttoXv ttj? diXrjdeLag SiTjfxdpTavev, ctti 
Se Tovs dSeCTTTOTOus pLvdovs TpaiTonevos ^ avvidr]- 
K€v avToifs diTiddvojs rj tlol ra>v irpos dTT€-)(deiav 
elprjKOTCov eTTiOTevacv. 

^ 7] 'Kflvov Niese. ^ Add. Niese. 

* Niese : -npoioQai L. * Ed. pr. : 'Oapa^<f> L. 

'Bracketed as a gloss (Niese). 

•Bekker: kox S^Xov 8' L (S' om. ed. pr.). 



• The same etymology (with the necessary addition that 
va^s means " saved ") recurs in Josephus, Antiq. ii. 228: 
c/. Philo, De Vita Moysis, i. 4, § 17. There is a word in 
Ancient Egyptian, niw, meaning " water," but the con- 
nexion with the name Moses is hypothetical. Similar 
forms appear as personal names in Pharaonic times, e.g. 



146 



AEGYPTIACA Fr. 54 

accident of this nature, he was deprived of his office. 
How improbable, then, that Moses should be so 
foolish as to frame these laws, or that men brought 
together by such misfortunes should approve of legis- 
lation against themselves, to their own shame and 
injury ! But, further, the name, too, has been trans- 
formed in an extremely improbable way. According 
to Manetho, Moses was called Osarseph. These 
names, however, are not interchangeable : the true 
name means " one saved out of the water," for 
water is called " mo-y " by the Egyptians.^ 

It is now, therefore, sufficiently obvious, I think, 
that, so long as Manetho followed the ancient records, 
he did not stray far from the truth ; but when he 
turned to unauthorized legends, he either combined 
them in an improbable form or else gave credence to 
certain prejudiced informants. 

Ms.i from the Old Kingdom, Ala (very common) from the 
New Kingdom. In Exodus ii. 10 " Moses " is " drawn 
out " (Hebr. niashah) of the water — a derivation " hardly 
meant to be taken seriously " (T. H. Robinson, in Oesterley 
and Robinson, History of Israel, I. p. 81). 

See further Alan H. Gardiner, " The Egyptian Origin 
of some English Personal Names," in Journ. of Anier. 
Orient. Soc. 56 (1936), pp. 192-4. Gardiner points out 
(p. 195, n. 28) that varjs (mentioned above) is clearly 
a perversion of aai-qs [or taiijs, = Egyptian h-fy, " praised," 
Ly*J, the Greek equivalent of the Coptic hasie, " favoured " ; 
but an Egyptian became " favoured " by the fact of being 
drowned, not by being saved from drowning. 



147 



Fr. 55 MANETHO 



Fr. 55. Syncellus, p. 134. RATA A^PIKANON. 
'EweaKaiSeKaTT) Swaareia ^acnXiojv I,' ^ Aioa- 

TToXlTOJV. 

a Eedcjs, errj va . 

j8' 'PatpaKrj?, errj ^a'.' 

y' 'Afj,fX€P€(f>d'rjs, errj k, 

8' 'Pa/jieaarjs, errj ^' . 

€ /lfjifi€V€fJLV7Js, €rrj e'. 

?' Qovcjpis, 6 Trap' 'Ofi-qpo)^ KaXovfxevog 176- 
Au^o?j MA/cai'S/aa? a.vi]p, e0' ov* to "IXlov 

iaAo), €T7j 4 • 
'OfXOV, CTTj ad' . 

^MSS. : S" Miiller, who explains the error as due to 
someone who thought that '/4A/cav8paj drrjp denoted a 
seventh king. 

^^S*' Miiller. * Odyssey, iv. 126. 

* m. : ^' 'AXKavSpos avrip, i<j> ov MSS. 



* Dynasty XIX. : c. 1310-1200 B.C. The hsts given by 
Africanus and Eusebius for Dynasty XIX. are in very bad 
confusion. Armais (Haremhab) should begin the line, 
which Meyer gives as follows : — 

Haremhab : Ramessfis I. : Seth6s I. : Ramesses II. 
(the Louis Quatorze of Egvptian history : 67 years, see 
Breasted. Anc. Rec. iv. §471; C.A.H. ii. pp. 139 fi.) : 
Memeptah : Amenmes^s : Merneptah II. Siptah : Sethds 
II. : Ramesses Siptah : <Arsu the Syrian >. 

W. Struve {Die Ara a-no Mevo^peojs und die XIX. Dynastie 
Manethos, in Zeitschr. fur ag. Sprache, Bd. 63 (1928), pp. 
45-.50) gives a revised sequence with additional identifica- 
tions : (1) Harmais (Haremhab), (2) Ramesses I., (3) 
Amenophath (Seti I. Merneptah), (4) Sesos (Struve's 
emendation for Sethos), also called Ramesses Miamoun 

148 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 55 
Dynasty XIX. 

Fr. 55 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Nineteenth Dynasty ' consisted of seven (six) 
kings of Diospolis. 

1. Sethos, for 51 years. 

2. Rapsaces, for 61 (66) years. 

3. Ammenephthes, for 20 years. 

4. Ramesses, for 60 years. 

5. Ammenemnes, for 5 years. 

6. Thuoris, who in Homer is called Polybus, 

husband of Alcandra, and in whose time 
Troy was taken, ^ reigned for 7 years. 
Total, 209 years. 

(Ramesses II. Seso), (5) AmenephthSs (Merneptah), (6) 
[Amenophthes or Menophth#s, emended from the form 
Menophres in Theon of Alexandria], (Seti II. Merneptah), 
(7) Ramessds III. Siptah, (8) Ammenemes (Amenmeses), 
(9) Thuoris or Thuosris, also called Siphthas. Cj. Petrie, 
History of Egypt, iii. pp. 120 ff. Struve points also to a 
new Sothis date, 1318 B.C., in the reign of Seti I. (according 
to Petrie's chronology, 1326-1300 B.C.). 

'The Fall of Troy was traditionally dated 1183 b.o. : 
c/. p. 107 n. 3. 

In Homer, Odys.tey, iv. 126, a golden distaff and a silver 
work-basket with wheels beneath and golden rims, — 
treasures in the palace of Menelaus at Sparta, — are de- 
scribed as gifts to Helen from " Alcandre, the wife of 
Polybus who dwelt in Egyptian Thebes where the amplest 
store of wealth is laid up in men's houses " ; while to 
Menelaus himself Polybus had given two silver baths, 
two tripods, and ten talents of gold. See \V. H. D. Rouse, 
The Story of Odyaseiui, 1937, p. 56 : " Polybos was a great 
nobleman in the Egyptian Thebes, with a palace full of 
tresisures ". 

149 



Fr. 55, 56 MANETHO 

'EttI to avTO SeuTcpoy tojxov Mavedco jSaatAeis 



Fr. 56 (a). Syncellus, p. 136. Kata EyEEBION 
' EweaKaSeKaTT] Svvacrreia ^aaiXeiov e' Aioa- 

TIoXlT(JL>V. 

a He 6 cos, €T7y ve' . 
^ 'Pafitli-qs, €T7) fs*'. 
y' *AiJ.fi€V€(f)d Ls, err] /x', 
S' /4/i/ieP'e/Ln^S', err] k?' . 

e ©ovojpis, 6 Trap' 'OfMrjpu) KoXovfievos 116- 
Xv^os, ^AXKavhpas a,vqp, i<j)^ ov to "IXlov 

idXcxJ, €TT] C ' 

'Ofiov, €Trj p^B' . 

^EttI to avTO j8' Toixov MaveOoJ ^acnXiojv ^^' 
€Tr] ,apKa' } 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 102. 

Nona decima dynastia Diospoiitarum regum V. 

Sethos, annis LV. 
Rampses, annis LXVI. 
Amenephthis, annis VIII. 
Ammenemes, annis XXVI. 

* ,^PKa' corr. Muller. 
150 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 55, 56 

Sum total in the Second Book of Manetho, ninety- 
six kings, for 2121 years.^ 



Fr. 56 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Nineteenth Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Diospolis. 

1. Sethos, for 55 years. 

2. Rampses, for 66 years. 

3. Ammenephthis, for 40 years. 

4. Ammenemes, for 26 years. 

5. Thuoris, who in Homer is called Polybus, 

husband of Alcandra, and in whose reign 
Troy was taken, reigned for 7 years. 

Total, 194 years. 

Sum total in the Second Book of Manetho, for 
ninety-two kings, 1121 (2121) years. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Nineteenth Dynasty consisted of five kings of 
Diospolis. 

1. Sethos, for 55 years. 

2. Rampses, for 66 years. 

3. Amenephthis, for 8 years. 

4. Ammenemes, for 26 years. 

* For the corrected total of Book IT., spe Fr. 4, n. 4 (246 
or 289 kings for 2221 years). The wide difference between 
the number of kings (96 or 92 as compared with 246 or 
289) is puzzling : Meyer conjectures that about 150 or 193 
of the larger numbers were ephemeral or co-regents. 

151 



Fr. 56, 57 MANETHO 

Thuoris, ab Homero dictus Polybus, vir strenuus 
et fortissimus,^ cuius aetate Ilium captum 
est, annis VII. 

Summa annorum CLXXXXIV. 
Manethonis libro secundo conflatur summa 
LXXXXII regum, annorum MMCXXI. 



T0M02 TPIT02 

Fr. 57 (a). Syncellus, p. 137. 

KATA A0PIKANON. 

TptTOV TojjLov Mavedaj. 

ElKocrrrj Swacrreia ^aaiXdojv AioaTToXLTwv i^' , 6t 
€^aaiXevaav err) pXe . 

(b) Syncellus, p. 139. KATA EYUEBION. 

Tpirov rofjiov Mavedco. 

Elkoutt] Swacrreia ^acnXecov zJioctttoAitcDv tj3 , 
oi e^acriXevaav err] por] . 

' I.e. dv-fjp 'AXKavBpas Miiller. 



1 Dynasty XX. c. 1200-1090 B.C. 

Setnakht": Ramesses III. c. 1200-1168: Ramesses IV.- 
XI. c. 1168-1090. Manetho's 12 kings probably included 

152 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 56, 57 

5. Thuoris, by Homer called the active and 
gallant Polybus, in whose time Troy was 
taken, reigned for 7 years. 

Total, 194 years. 

In the Second Book of Manetho there is a total of 
ninety-two kings, reigning for 2121 years. 



BOOK III. 

Dynasty XX. 

Fr. 57 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 
Africanus. 

From the Third Book of Manetho. 
The Twentieth Dynasty ^ consisted of twelve kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 135 years. 

(b) According to Eusebius. 

From the Third Book of Manetho. 
The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 178 years. 

Ramesses XII. and Herihor. The Great Papyrus Harris 
(time of Ramess63 III.) describes the anarchy between 
Dynasties XIX. and XX. : see Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. 
§ 398. 

A revised list of Dynasty XX. is given by Newberry in 
Elliot Smith and Warren Dawson, Egyptian Mummiea, 
1924 : see also T. E. Peet in J. of Eg. Arch. xiv. (1928), 
pp. 52 £. 

153 



Fr. 57, 58 MANETHO 

(c) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 103. 

E Manethonis tertio libro. 

Vicesima dynastia Diospolitanorum regum XII, 
qui imperaverunt annis CLXXIL 



Fr. 58. Syncellus, p. 137. KaTA A^PIKANON. 
ripcoTrj Kal eLKoarr) bwaareia ^aaiXioiv Tavircov 

jS' W ovaivvrjs^^ errj jits'', 
y' Netpepx^p'^s,^ errj 8'. 

S' AlX€VOi(^dLS, €.r7] 6', 

e' ^Oao)(a)p, crrj $' . 
b' W ivaxT]s, err) 6' . 
I,' Wovaeuvrjs,^ err) tS'. 

'OfJLOV, CTT) pX' . 

' fovaevTjs A. ^ iVe^cA^cp^S MSS. • Sovoewrjs A. 



1 Dynasty XXI., resident at Tanis, c. 1090-c. 950 B.C. 
(a dark period in Egyptian history). For identifications 
with monumental and other evidence see Meyer, Ocschichte % 
ii. 2, p. 20 n. This Tanite Dynasty overlapped with the 
Theban Dynasty XX. : see the Report of Wenamon, 
Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. §§ 557-591 ; C.A.H. ii. pp. 192 8. 

154 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fu. 57, 58 

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

From the Third Book of Manetho. 
The Twentieth Dynasty consisted of twelve kings 
of Diospolis, who reigned for 172 years. 

Dynasty XXI. 

Fr. 58 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Twenty-first Dynasty ^ consisted of seven kings 
of Tanis. 

1. Smendes,^ for 26 years. 

2. Psusen(n)es [I.],^ for 46 years. 

3. Nephercheres (Nephelcheres), for 4 years. 

4. Amenophthis, for 9 years. 

5. Osochor, for 6 years. 

6. Psinaches, for 9 years. 

7. Psusennes [II.] (Susennes), for 14 years. 
Total, 130 years.* 

^ For Smendes or Nesbenebded, a local noble of Tanis, 
who seized the whole Delta and made himself king of 
Lower Egypt, see G.A.H. ii. p. 191 ; iii. pp. 253 f. 

' In Egyptian, Psusennds is Psukho'mnd, "' the star 
appearing in Thebes". In 1939-40 tombs of certain kings 
of Dynasties XXI. and XXII. wore excavated by P. 
Montet at Tanis, the most valuable being the intact tomb 
of Psusennes I., with its rich funerary equipment : in 
several chambers sarcophagi, vases of many kinds, and 
ewels were found, including the funerary outfit of Ameno- 
phthis (Amon-om-apt, son of Psusennes 1.) and the silver 
sarcophagus of a certain Sesonchosis (not the first king of 
Dynasty XXII.), (Ann . Serv. Anliq., tt. xxxix. f., 1939-40). 

* .A-ctuai total of items, 114 years. Eii.sebius is prob- 
ably correct with 41 years for 2nd king and 3.j years for 
7th (Meyer). 

155 



Fb. 59 MANETHO 

Fr. 59 (a). Syncellus, p. 139. Kata EyZEBION. 

ElKoarr] ttpcottj Svvacrreia ^aatXecou Tavirujv 
iirra. . 

a E^evhis, errj k?' . 

fi' W ova€vvrj<;, err) fia, 

y N (.^i.p\(.p-f]<5, err) 8', 

8' *A^€vaj(f}dLS, €rr] Q' . 

s' Wivax'^S, err) ff . 

t^ W ovaivvr]s, errj Ae . 

'Ofiov, err] pX' . 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 103. 

Vicesima prima dynastia Tanitarum regum VII. 

Smendis, annis XXVI. 
Psusennes, annis XLI. 
Nephercheres, annis IV. 
Amenophthis, annis IX. 
Osochor, annis VI. 
Psinnaches, annis IX. 
Psusennes, annis XXXV. 

Summa annorum est CXXX. 



156 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 59 

Fr. 59 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted ol seven kings 

of Tanis. 

1. Smendis, for 26 years. 

2. Psusennes, for 41 years. 

3. Nephercheres, for 4 years. 

4. Amenophthis, for 9 years. 

5. Osochor, for 6 years. 

6. Psinaches, for 9 years. 

7. Psusennes, for 35 years. 

Total, 130 years. 



(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-first Dynasty consisted ol seven kings 
of Tanis. 

1. Smendis, for 26 years. 

2. Psusennes, for 41 years. 

3. Nephercheres, for 4 years. 

4. Amenophthis, for 9 years. 

5. Osochor, for 6 years. 

6. Psinnaches, for 9 years. 

7. Psusennes, for 35 years. 

Total, 130 years. 



157 



Fr. 60, 61 MANETHO 

Fr. 60. Syncellus, p. 137. Kata A0PIKANON 

EIkoutt] Sevrepa Svvaareia Bovjiaamibv ^a- 
aiXiojv 6' . 

a EeaatyxL^} err] Ka . 

j3' ^OaopBd>v,~ errj te'. 

y' 8' e' "AXXoi 7 pels, err) K£ ? 

S TaKeXiodis, err] ly . 

^' 1] 6' "AXXoi Tpels, €Tr] nP' , 

'OflOV, €T7j pK , 

Fr, 61 (a). Syncellus., p. 139. KATA EyZEBION. 

ElKoari) Seurepa Svifaareia Bov^aariTcbv )Sa- 
aiXecov Tpiiov. 

a EeaojyxoiOLS ,* er-q /ca', 
)8' ^Oaopdcov, errj le'. 
y' TaKeXojdis , errj ly'. 

'Opov, err] fxd' . 

• B : UeooyxiS A. * B : 'OacopBatv A. 

' k6' Boeckh. * Ueaoyxcoais A. 



1 Dynasty XXII. c. 950-c. 730 B.C., kings of Libyan origin 
resident at Bubastis. For identifications with the monu- 
mental and other evidence see Meyer, Qeachichte *, ii. 2, 



158 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 60, 61 

Dynasty XXII. 

Fr. 60 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Twenty-second Dynasty ^ consisted of nine 
kings of Bubastus. 

1. Sesonchis, for 21 years. 

2. Osorthon,^ for 15 years. 

3. 4, 5. Three other kings, for 25 [29] years. 

6. Takelothis, for 13 years. 

7, 8, 9. Three other kings, for 42 years. 
Total, 120 years.s 

Fr. 61 (a) {from Syncellus). According to Eusebius. 

The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted of three 
kings of Bubastus. 

1. Sesonchosis, for 21 years. 

2. Osorthon, for 15 years. 

3. Takelothis, for 13 years. 
Total, 49 years. 

p. 58. The first king, Sesonchdsis (Shishak, O.T. 1 Kings xiv. 
25, 2 Chron. xii.) overthrew the Tanites c. 940 B.C. About 
930 B.C. he captured Jerusalem and plundered the Temple 
of Solomon : see Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, 
pp. 158 ff. Albright (The Archaeology of Palestine and the 
Bible *, 1932-3, p. 199), dates the conquest of Judah by 
Shishak between 924 and 917 B.C. 

* The name Osorthdn is another form of Osorchd 
(Dynasty XXIII. No. 2 — Africanus), the Egyptian 
Osorkon. 

• Actual total of items, 116 years. 

159 



Fr. 61, 62 MANETHO 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 103. 

Vicesima secunda dynastia Bubastitarum regum 
III. 

Sesonchosis, annis XXI. 
Osorthon, annis XV. 
Tacelothis, annis XIII. 

Summa annorum XLIX. 



Fr. 62. Syncellus, p. 138. KaTA A^PIKANON. 

TpiTT] Kai €LKoaTr] Syvacrreia TaviTcbv jSaatAecuv 
h'. 

a nerov^oLT-qs, cttj yj , e'^' ov 'OAu/iTTid? 

)S' *Oaopx<J^, €Tr] 7)', ov 'HpaKXea AlyvTTTioi 

KoXovai. 
y ^afifiovs, €Trj i . 
8' Z'QT, ery] Xa } 
'Ofxov, err] ttO' . 

1 A8' B. 



^ Osorthds (Aucher, Karst). 

^ Dynasty XXIII., resident at Tanis : the records of 
these kings (dated by Breasted 745-718 B.C.) are much 
confused. The name Petubatds (see Fr. 63 for the usual 
Grecized form Petubastis) represents the Egyptian 
Pedibaste. For King Osorcho (Osorkon III.) see the 
stele of Piankhi, king of Ethiopia, whose vassal Osorkon 
became (Breasted, Anc. Rec. iv. §§ 807, 811, 872, 878). 
Psammus has not been identified. 

160 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 61, 62 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-second Dynasty consisted ol three 
kings of Bubastus. 

1. Sesonchosis, for 21 years. 

2. Osorthon,^ for 15 years. 

3. Tacelothis, for 13 years. 
Total, 49 years. 

Dynasty XXIII. 

Fr. 62 {from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Twenty-third Dynasty ^ consisted of four 
kings of Tanis. 

1. Petubates, for 40 years : in his reign the 

Olympic festival ^ was first celebrated. 

2. Osorcho, for 8 years : the Egyptians call him 

Heracles.* 

3. Psammus, for 10 years. 

4. Zet,« for 31 years (34). 
Total, 89 years. 

^ The date of the first Olympic festival was convontion- 
aily fixed at 776-775 b.o. 

* See G. A. Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp. 35 f . 

* The fact that tlie name Zdt, occurring in Africanus 
alone, is wrapped in obscurity, has led Flintiers Petrie to 
suggest ("The Mysterious Zet " in Ancient Egypt, 1914, 
p. 32) that the three Greek letters are a contraction for 
^rjTelrai or other word connected with C-qreoj, meaning "A 
question (remtiins)," or 'Query, about 31 years": for 
31 years at this time no single ruler seemed to be pre- 
dominant, and further search was needed to settle who 
should bo entered as the king of Egypt. " Zct." is found 
in wall-inscriptions at Pompeii : see Diohl, Fo7npeianische 
Wan'lin-schrijten, No. 682. The next inscription, No. G83, 
gives " Zoteiiia " in full : a riddle follows. 

G 161 



Fr. 63 MANETHO 

Fr. 63 (a). Syncellus, p. 140. F<^ATA EyEEBION. 
EiKoaTT) Toirrj 8vuaaT€ia Tavncjv BaaiXioiv 

a FleTOV^daTLg, ctt) k€' . 

/8' 'Oaopdcou, erj) 6', ov 'HpaK^ea AlyvTmoi 

eKoXeaap . 
y Wafj fxovs, err) i , 



(b) EuSEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p 103. 

Vicesima tertia dynastia Tanitarum regum III. 

Petubastis, annis XXV. 

Deinde Osorthon, quern Aegyptii Herculem nxin- 

cupaverunt, annis IX.^ 
Psaramus,^ annis X. 
Summa annorum XLIV. 

* annis IX. (Aucher). 

*Phrainu8 (Petermann): Psamus (Aucher, Kaisi/ 



162 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 63 
Fr. 63 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted of three kings 
of Tanis. 

1. Petubastis,^ for 25 years. 

2. Osorthon, for 9 years : the Egyptians called 

him Heracles. 

3. Psammus, for 10 years. 
Total, 44 years. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-third Dynasty consisted ot three kings 
of Tanis. 

1. Petubastis, for 25 years. 

2. Osorthon, whom the Egyptians named Her- 

cules : for 9 years. 

3. Psammus, for 10 years. 
Total, 44 years. 

* For a demotic romance of the time of Petubastis in 
one of the Rainer Papyri, see Krall in Vienna Oriental 
Journal, xvii. (1903), 1 : it is also found in papyri of 
Paris and Strassburg. Parallels may be drawn between 
this romance and Manetho ; c/. Spiegelberg, Der Sagenkreis 
des Koniga Petubastis (Leipzig, 1910), pp. 8 f. 



163 



Fr. 64, 65 MANETHO 

Fr. 64. Syncellus, p. 138. KATA A^PIKANON. 

TerdpTTj Kal elKoarr] hwaareia. 
Boxx^P''^ ^GLtrrjg, err) ?', icf)' oS dpviov €<f>- 
dey^aro . . . cttj 7t\^' . 

Fr. 65 (a). Syncellus, p. 140. KaTA EyEEBION. 

EtKOCTTrj TerdpTT] Svvaareia. 

Doxxoipi^^ 2jairr]g, err) fio , €<f) ov apvtov 
e^dey^aro. 'Op.ov, err) jjlS' . 



^ D3masty XXIV., c. 720-c. 715 b.o. Before Bocchoris, 
his father Tefnachte of Sais (Tnephachthus in Diodorus 
Sicuhis, i. 45, 2) became the most powerful among the 
chiefs of the Delta (c. 730-720 B.C.). 

For King Bocchoris see Alexandre Moret, De Bocchori 
Rege, 1903. Cf. Diodorus Siculus, i. 65, 79, 1 (law of 
contract : Bocchoris legislated for commerce), and 94, 5. 
See Breasted, Anc. Rcc. iv. § 884 : the only extant monu- 
ments of King Bocchoris are a few Serapeum stelae and a 
wall inscription, which record the burial of an Apis in the 
sixth year of his reign. 

* See especially the demotic story (8 B.C.) of the pro- 
phetic lamb, quoted by Krall in Festgaben filr BUdinger, 
pp. 3-11 (Innsbruck, 1898) : the lamb prophesied the con- 
quest and enslavement of Egypt by Assyria, and the 
removal of her gods to Nineveh. Cf. Aelian, De Nat. 
Anim. xii. 3, and Manetho, Fr. 54, §§ 232 ff. A reference to 
Manetho's description of the oracular lamb is preserved in 
Pseudo-Plutarch, De proverbiis Alexandrinorum (Crusius, 
1887), No. 21, TO dpviov aoi XeXdXrjKev. AiyvTrrioi tovto 
dveypo-'P^^ '"S dvdpcoTTila (f>ojvfj XaXfjoav (or, as in Suidas, ev 
AlyvTTToj, LOS <f>aaiv, dvQ poJiTiiq. <f>u)vfj (XdArjaev). ivpedr) Se e}(ov 

164 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 64, 65 

Dynasty XXIV. 

Fr. 64 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty.^ 

Bochchoris of Sais, for 6 years : in his reign a 
lamb 2 spoke ^ . . . 990 years. 



Fr. 65 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty. 

Bochchoris of Sals, for 44 years : in his reign a 
lamb spoke. Total, 44 years.* 

^aaiXiiov SpaKovra enl rijs K€<(>aXTJs avrov irrfpcoTOV, (Suidas 
adds, ix'^'^'^ niJKOS mjxfov 8'), Kai twv ^aaiXtcov rivl XeXdXrjKe 
rd fj.eXXovra. (" The lamb has spoken to you. Egyptians 
have recorded a lamb speaking with a human voice 
[or, in Egypt, they say, a lamb spoke with a human 
voice]. It was found to have upon its head a royal 
winged serpent [4 cubits in length] ; and it foretold the 
future to one of the kings.") See Meyer, Ein neues 
Bruchstilck Manethos iiber das Lamm des Bokchoris in 
Zeitschr. filr Ayypt. Sprache, xlvi. (1910), pp. 135 f. : he 
points out the Egyptian character of the description — the 
royal uraeus, four cubits long, with ostrich feathers on both 
sides. Cf. Weill, La Jin du m,oyen em,pire dgyptien, pp. 
116, 622. 

' Here some essential words have been omitted from the 
text. 

* Contrast the " 6 years " assigned to Bocchoris by 
Africanus (Fr. 64) : it is suspicious that Eusobius should 
give 44 years for each of Dynasties XXIII., XXIV.. and 
XXV. 

165 



Fr. 63, 66, 67 MANETHO 

(b) EusEBius. Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 104. 

Vicesima quarta dynastia. 

Bocchoris Saites, annis XLIV, sub quo agnus 
locutus est. 

Fr. 66. Syncellus, p. 138. Kata A^PIKANON. 

riiiXTTTi) Kol elKocrTT) SwacTTCia AWlottkov j3a- 
atXdiov TpLwv. 

a Ua^aKcov, os alxfidXcoTov B6)Q(0ipiv iXojv 

€Kava€ l^cbvra, /cat i^aatX^vaev €T7j tj' . 
jS' Ee^t^^^ vlos, err) tS'. 

I tin / V / 

y 1 apKos, CTT^ IT] . 

'O/JiOV, CTT) fl'. 

Fr. 67 (a). Syncellus, p. 140. KaTA EysEBION. 
EIkootti 7T€{j,TTTrj SuvaCTTCttt AWiOTTOJV ^aoiXiuyv 

TpiiOV. 

a Ea^aKcov, o? aixP'O-Xcorov Boxx^^P''^ iXojv 

CKavae ll,a)VTa, Kal i^aalXevaev err) tj3'. 
/S' EefiiXfJ^S VLOS, €Tr] tj8'. 
y' TapaKos, ctt^ k. 
'Ofiov, err) /xS'. 

1 Dynasty XXV. (Ethiopian), c. 715-663 B.C. : the 
three kings are Shabaka, Shabataka, and Taharka. 

2 Cf. Herodotus, ii. 137 (Sabacos). 

Shabaka had a great reputation for mildness and kind 
rule: Petrie {Religious Life, 1924, pp. 193 £.) explains that 

166 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOiME) Fr. 65, 66, 67 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty. 

Bocchoris of Sais, for 44 years : in hjs reign a lamb 
spoke. 

Dynasty XXV. 

Fr. 66 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty ' consisted of three 
Ethiopian kings. 

1. Sabacon,^ who, taking Bochchoris captive, 

burned him ahve, and reigned for 8 years. 

2. Sebichos, his son, for 14 years. 

3. Tarcus, for 18 years. 
Total, 40 years. 

Fr. 67 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 
Eusebius. 

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted ol three 
Ethiopian kingfe. 

1. Sabacon, who, taking Bochchoris captive, 

burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years. 

2. Sebichos. his son, for 12 years. 

3. Taracus, for 20 years. 
Total, 44 years. 

Bochchoris was treated like a mock king in the ancient 
festival, the burning ceremonially destroying his kingly 
character. See Wainwright, Sky-Religion, pp. 38 ff. 

•Taharka : in O.T. 2 Kingn xix. 9, Tirliakah, Kmg of 
Ethiopia. See Peet, Egypt and the Old Testament, 1922, 
pp. 175 ff. 

167 



Fr. 67, 68 MANETHO 

(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 104. 

Vicesima quinta dynastia Aethiopum regum III. 

Sabacon, qui captum Bocchorim vivum combussit, 

regnavitque annis XII. 
Sebichos eius filius, annis XII. 
Saracus,^ annis XX. 

Summa annorum XLIV. 

Fr. 68. Syncellus, p. 141. KaTA A<PPIKAN0N. 

"Ektt) koL CLKoarrj hvvaaTela Ea'CTOJV ^aaiXiojv 
ivi'da. 

a Urecfyiva.T'qg, err] t,' . 
jS' Ne;^ei/raj9j err] s"'. 
y' Nexo.u), err] t] . 

e' Ne)(aa> h€vrepo<5, ^rrj ?' . ovrog etXc Trjv 
'lepovaaXr^^, koL ^lajaxat '''ov ^aaiXea 
alxfrnXcDTOi' els AiyvTrrou aTT-^yaye. 

?' WdfX[xovd L? erepo<s, err] e^. 

• Taraeus, Aucher, m. : Tarakos, Karst. 

1 Dynasty XXVI., 663-525 B.C. 

Sais (see p. 91 n. 4), now grown in power, with foreign 
aid asserts independence, and rules over Egypt. Hero- 
dotus, ii. 151 ff., supports the version of Africanus 
but differs in (5) Necos 16 years (Ch. 159), and (7) Apries 
25 years (Ch. 161) (22 years in Diod. Sic. i. 68). Eusebius 
(Fr. 69) has preserved the Ethiopian Ammeris (i.e. 
Tanutamun) at the beginning of Dynasty XXVI. : so in 
the Bjok of Sothis (App. IV.), No. 78, Amaes, 38 years. 

168 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 67, 68 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-fifth Dynasty consisted of three 
Ethiopian kings. 

1. Sabacon, who, taking Bocchoris captive, 

burned him alive, and reigned for 12 years. 

2. Sebichos, his son, for 12 years. 

3. Saracus (Taracus), for 20 years. 
Total, 44 years. 

Dynasty XXVI. 

Fr. 68 (from Syncellus). According to Afrtcanus. 

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ^ consisted ol nine 
kings of Sais. 

1. Stephinates, for 7 years. 

2. Nechepsos, for 6 years. 

3. Nechao, for 8 years. 

4. Psammetichus,"^ for 54 years. 

5. Nechao ^ the Second, for 6 years : he took 

Jerusalem, and led King loachaz captive 
into Egypt. 

6. Psammuthis the Second, for 6 years. 

' Psammetichus I. (Psametik) = Psammdtk, " man, or 
vendor, of mixed wine," c/. Herodotus, ii. 151 (Griffith in 
Catalogue oj Demotic Papyri in the Rylands Library, iii. 
pp. 44, 201). See Died. Sic. i. 66, 67. 

' Nechao is an old name, an Egyptian plural form, 
" belonging to the kaa " or bulls (Apis and Mnevis), 
O.T. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 2-4. Battle of Megiddo, 609 B.C. : 
defeat and death of King Josiah by Necho (2 Kings xxiii. 
29, xxiv. 1, XXV. 26). Johoahaz, son of Josiah, was led 
captive into Egvpt. For these events, see Peet, Egypt and 
the Old Testament, 1922, p. 181 3. 

169 



Fr. 68, 69 MANETHO 

^' Ova(f)pis, err) i6' , <L TTpoa€<f)vyov dAoucrrys' 
WTO "Aaavpicov lepovaaXr^fi ol tcov ^lovhaiojv 

VTToXoiTTOL . 
1) "AflCOCrtS, €T7] fx8' . 

6' Wafifxex^piTTj^, nrjvas S*, 
'OfJbov, err) pv koX firjvas s' . 

Fr. 69 (a). Syncellus, p. 143. KATA EYZEBION. 
"Ekttj Kai eiKOGTr) Swaareia Za'CraJv ^acnXecov & , 
a 'A fi fie pis AWLoij), err) ij3', 

jS' 2JT€(f>lvddtS, fTT) C' 

y Nexeifnos, cttj ?'. 

8' Ne\aii), CTT] rj' . 

e' ^a/jLfjLi^Tixos, €Tr] jxe' } 

s' Nexo-d) Seurepo?, err] s^. oStos etX€ T^v 
'lepovaaX'qfjL, Kai ^Icjdxat, tov ^aaiXda 
alxiidiXixiTov ets Alyvmov dnriyaye. 

I,' Wdfjifiovdis erepos, 6 Kai Waiifi-qrixoSt ^Tt] 

» fih' Miiller. 



1 Uaphris or Apries, in Egyptian Wahibprd', the Hophra 
of the O.T. Capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, 
king of Babylon, 587 B.C. See Peet, op. cit. pp. 185 ff. 

170 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 68, 69 

7. Uaphris,^ for 19 years : the remnant of the 

Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was 
captured by the Assyrians. 

8. Amosifl,^ for 44 years. 

9. Peammecherites,' for 6 months. 
Total, 150 years 6 months. 



Fr. 69 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings 
of Sais. 

1. Ammeris the Ethiopian, for 12 years. 

2. Stephinathis, for 7 years. 

3. Nechepsos, for 6 years. 

4. Nechao, for 8 years. 

5. Psammetichus, for 45 [44] years. 

6. Nechao the Second, for 6 years : he took 

Jerusalem, and led King loachaz captive 
into Egypt. 

7. Psammuthis the Second, also called Psam- 

metichus, for 17 years. 

• Amdsis should be Amasis (la'hmase), the general of 
Uaphris or Apries : Amasis was first made co-regent with 
Apriee (569 B.C.), then two years later, after a battle, he 
became sole monarch. 

On the character of Amasis, " the darling of the people 
and of popular legend," see the demotic papyrus translated 
by Spiegelberg, The Credibility of Herodotus' Account of 
Egypt (trans. Blaekman), pp. 29 f. 

* Psammfitichus III., defeated by CambysSs the Persian, 
52.5 B.C. The three Psamotiks are differentiated as 
Psammfitichus, Psammuthis, and Psammecheritds [cf. 
Fr. 20, n. 1). 

171 



Fr. 69 MANETHO 

T] Ova^pis, err) /ce', o) Trpoae^vyov aXovcrq? 
v7t6 'AaavpLiov Trjg ' lepovaaXrjfi ol t<x>v 

^lovSailOV VTToXoLTTOL, 

6' "Afxcoai?, eVrj ft^'. 
'Ojxov, €T7] piy , 



(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 104. 

Vicesima sexta dynastia SaTtarum regum IX. 

Ameres Aethiops, annis XVIII. 

Stephinathes, annis VII. 

Nechepsos, annis VI. 

Nechao, annis VIII. 

Psametichus, annis XLIV. 

Nechao alter, annis VI. Ab hoc Hierosolyma 

capta sunt, lochasusque rex in Aegyptum 

captivus abductus. 
Psamuthes alter, qui et Psammetichus, annis 

XVII. 
Uaphres, annis XXV, ad quern reliquiae ludae- 

orum, Hierosolymis in Assyriorum potestatem 

redactis, confugerunt. 
Amosis, annis XLII. 

Summa annorum CLXVII. 



172 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 69 

8. Uaphris, for 25 years : the remnant of the 

Jews fled to him, when Jerusalem was 
captured by the Assyrians. 

9. Amosis, for 42 years. 
Total, 163 years. ^ 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebtus. 

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty consisted of nine kings 
of Sals. 

1. Ameres the Ethiopian, for 18 years. 

2. Stephinathes, for 7 years. 

3. Nechepsos, for 6 years. 

4. Nechao, for 8 years, 

5. Psametichus, for 44 years. 

6. Nechao the Second, for 6 years : he took 

Jerusalem, and led King loachaz captive 
into Egypt. 

7. Psamuthes the Second, also called Psam- 

metichus, for 17 years. 

8. Uaphres, for 25 years : the remnant of the 

Jews took refuge with him, when Jerusalem 
was subjugated by the Assyrians. 

9. Amosis, for 42 years. 
Total, 167 years. 

' If 44 years are assigned to (5) Psamradtichus, the actual 
total is 167, aa in the »Vrmenian Version. 



173 



Fr. 70 MANETHO 

Fr. 70. Syncellus, p. 141. KaTA A<PPIKAN0N. 
E^ofiT) /cat ekKoaTT} hvvacrreia Hepacvv ^aatXecDV 

a KafJL^varjs erei e' ttj? iavrov jSacriAeta? 

Tlepaojv i^aaiXevaev AlyvTTTOV eri^ i' , 

j3' Aapelos ' YoTaaTTOV , erq As*'. 

y' Sep^r]^ 6 fieya?, errj ko! . 

8' Apra^avos, fjiijvas C' 

e' Apra^ip^-qs, err] fxa . 

S" liidp^r)?, /xrjvas 8vo. 

^' UoySiavos, pirjvas $'• 

rf Aapelos Eip^ov, err) id', 

'Ofiov, errj p/cS', nrjves S'. 



^ Persian Domination, 525-332 B.C. 

Dynasty XXVII., 525-404 b.c. After conquering 
Egypt, Cambysds reigned three years, 525/4-523/2 B.C. 
See Cambridge Ancient History, vi. pp. 137 ff. 

An interesting papynis fragment (P. Baden 4 No. 59 : 
V. / A.D. — see the facsimile in Plate III) contains this 
Dynasty in a form which differs in some respects from 
the versions given by Africanus and Eusebius. Like 
Eusebius the papyrus inserts the Magi, and calls Artaxerxes 
" the Long-handed " and his successor Xerxes " the 
Second " : as in Africanus, Darius is " son of Hy8ta[spe8] " 
and Xerxes is " the Great ". To Cambyses the papyrus 



174 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 70 

Dynasty XXVII. 
Fr. 70 (from Syncellus). According to Africanus. 

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty ' consisted of eight 
Persian kings. 

1. Cambyses in the fifth year of his kingship over 

the Persians became king of Egypt, and 
ruled for 6 years. 

2. Darius, son of Hystaspes, for 36 years, 

3. Xerxes the Great, for 21 years. 

4. Artabanus,"^ for 7 months. 

5. Artaxerxes,^ for 41 years. 

6. Xerxes,^ for 2 months. 

7. Sogdianus, for 7 months. 

8. Darius, son of Xerxes, for 19 years. 
Total, 124 years 4 months. 

gives 6^ years : to the Magi, 7 J months. The conquest 
of Egypt is assigned to the fourth year of Cambyses' 
reign, tind it was in that year that the campaign began. 
ArtaxerxSs is described as "the son" {i.e. of Xerxes); 
while Darius II. is correctly named " the Illegitimate ". 
See Bilabel's note on the papyrus (I.e.). 

* Artabanus, vizier, and murderer of Xerx6s I., 465 B.C. 

* ArtaxerxSs I., " Long-hand " (" whether from a 
physical peculiarity or political capacity is uncertain," 
C.A.H. vi. p. 2), 465-424 B.C. 

* Xerxfis II. was murdered by his half-brother Sogdianus, 
who was in turn defeated and put to death in 423 B.C. 
by another half-brother Ochus (Darius II., nicknamed 
Nothoa, "the Illegitimate,"), not "son of Xerx6s". 
Dariua II. died in 404 b.c. 



175 



Fr. 71 MANETHO 

Fr. 71 (a). Syncellus, p. 143. KaTA EyEEBION. 

ElKoarr) i^Sofxrj Svvaareia Hepacbv ^aaiXioiv r\ . 

a Kafx^varjs €T€i ni/jLTTTO} tt)? avrov jSa- 

atAeta? e^aalXevcrev AlyvTTTOv errj y , 

/S' Mayoi, fiijvas C'. 

y' J ape To?, errj A? . 

S' Sep^rjs 6 Aapeiov, €T7) /ca'. 

e' 'Apra^ep^r)? 6 ^xaKpox^i-P, €Tq fJL . 

S' Sep^ris 6 SevTepog, jxrjvas )3 . 

(,' UoySiavos, jJLrjvas ^' . 

7] Zlapeto? o Eep^ov, errj id', 

'OfMov, errj pK /cat iirjues 8'. 



(b) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 105. 

Vicesima septima dynastia Persarum regum VIII. 

Cambyses, qui regni sui quinto ^ anno Aegyptiorum 

potitus est, annis III. 
Magi, mensibus septem. 
Darius, annis XXXVI. 
Xerxes Darii, annis XXI. 
Artaxerxes, annis XL. 
Xerxes alter, mensibus II. 
Sogdianus, mensibus VII. 
Darius Xerxis, annis XIX. 
Summa annorum CXX, mensiumque IV. 

lAucher: XV. MSS. 
176 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 71 
Fr. 71 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 

EUSEBIUS. 

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight 
Persian kings. 

1. Cambyses in the fifth year of his kingship 

became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 years. 

2. Magi, for 7 months. 

3. Darius, for 36 years. 

4. Xerxes, son of Darius, for 21 years. 

5. Artaxerxes of the long hand, for 40 years. 

6. Xerxes the Second, for 2 months. 

7. Sogdianus, for 7 months. 

8. Darius, son of Xerxes, for 19 years. 
Total, 120 years 4 months. 

(b) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty consisted of eight 
Persian kings. 

1. Cambyses in the fifth ^ year of his kingship 

became king of Egypt, and ruled for 3 
years. 

2. Magi, for 7 months. 

3. Darius, for 36 years. 

4. Xerxes, son of Darius, for 21 years. 

5. Artaxerxes, for 40 years. 

6. Xerxes the Second, for 2 months. 

7. Sogdianus, for 7 months. 

8. Darius, son of Xerxes, for 19 years. 
Total, 120 years 4 months. 

* The Armenian text has " loth ". 

177 



Fr. 72. 73 MANETHO 

Fr. 72 (a). Syncellus.. p 142. KaTA A<PPIKAN0N. 
ElKocnrj oyBoT] Svvaarreia. M/xuprco? UatTrjs, 

(b) Syncellus, p. 144. KaTA EySEBION. 

EIkootti oySoT^ hwaareia . M/xyprato? 27a n-jy?, 
er-q s' . 

(c) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 105. 

Vicesima octava dynastia. Amyrtes Saites, 
annis ^ VI. 

Fr. 73 (a). Syncellus, p. 142. KaTA A<PPIKAN0N. 

*EvdT7} /cat eiKocrrq Bvuacneia. M^yB'qaiot 
^acnXels S'. 

a N€(f>epiTT]9, err] s^, 

y' W aixjxovd Ls, eros a . 
8' N€(f}€piTrjs, firjvag S', 

'OflOV, €T7) K , fJLTJveS 8'. 

* Aucher, m. : mensibus MSS., according to Muller. 



1 Dynasty XXVIH.-XXX., Egyptian kings: 404-341 
B.C. — a brief period of independence. 

Dynasty XXVIII., Amyrtaeus of Sais, 404-399 B.C. : 
no Egyptian king of this name is known on the monuments. 
See Werner Schur in Klio, xx. 1926, pp. 273 fi. 

178 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 72, 73 

Dynasty XXVIIl. 

Fr. 72 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 
Africanus. 

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty.^ Amyrteos of Sals, 
for 6 years. 

(b) According to Eusebius. 

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtaeus of Sale, 
for 6 years. 

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. Amyrtes of Sals, 
for 6 years. ^ 

Dynasty XXIX. 

Fr. 73 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 
Africanus. 

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty : ^ loiu kings of 
Mendes. 

1. Nepherites, for 6 years. 

2. Achoris, for 13 years. 

3. Psammuthis, for 1 year. 

4. Nepherites [II.], for 4 months. 
Total, 20 years 4 months. 

* 6 years (Aucher, Karst) : 6 months (Miiller). The 
Armenian words for " month " and " year " are so similar 
that corruption is Ukely (Margoiiouth). 

^ Dynasty XXIX., resident at MendSs in E. Delta 
(Baedeker*, p. 183), 398-381 B.C. On the sequence of 
these rulers see U. K. Uall in C.A.H. vi. p. 145 and n. 

179 



Fr. 73 MANETHO 

(b) Syncellus. p. 144. KATA EyEEBION. 

ElKoarrj evdrrj Swaarela. MevBrjaioi, j8a- 
aiAei? S'. 

a N€(f>€pLTr]s, CTTj sr', 
j8' "Axojpi-?, €Tr) ly' . 
y ^ 6.[i[iovQis, eVo? a . 
8' Ne(f)€piT7]5, fxrjvas S . 
e' MovOls, €tos a'. 

^O^ov, errj /ca' /cai nrjves S'. 



(c) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 106. 

Vicesima nona dynastia Mendesiorum regum 
quattuor. 

Nepherites, aunis VI. 
Achoris, annis XIIL 
Psamuthes, anno I. 
Muthes, anno I. 
Nepherites mensibus IV. 

Summa annorum XXI, mensiumque IV. 



180 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 73 

(b) According to Eusebius. 

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty : four kings ^ of 
Mendes. 

1. Nepherites, for 6 years. 

2. Achoris, for 13 years. 

3. Psammuthis, for 1 year. 

4. Nepherites [II.], for 4 months. 

5. Muthis, for 1 year. 
Total, 21 years 4 months. 

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty consisted of four kings 
of Mendes. 

1. Nepherites, for 6 years. 

2. Achoris, for 13 years. 

3. Psamuthes, for 1 year. 

4. Muthes, for 1 year. 

5. Nepherites [II.], for 4 months. 
Total, 21 years and 4 months. 

^ Muthis or Muthes was a usurper, hence the number of 
kings is given as four. He is unknown to the Monuments. 
Aucher suggests that the name Muthis may be merely a 
repetition, curtailed, of the name Psammuthia. 



181 



Fr. 74 MANETHO 

Fr. 74 (a). Syncellus, p. 144. Kata A<!>PIKAN0N. 

TpiaKoarr] Swaareta Ue^evvvTOJV ^aaiXiiov 
rpicov. 

a NeKTave^T)?, err) irj' , 

^' Tea) 9, err) j3'. 

y' NeKTave^os, err] Lrf , 

'Ofiov, errj Xrj' . 

(b) Syncellus, p. 145 KaTA EySEBION. 

TpiaKoaTY] hwaareia Se^evvvribv jSaacXecov 
rpiojv. 

a NeKTave^rjs, err) i\ 

j8' Teijjs, errj ^' . 

y NeKTave^os, erT] 7)', 

'Ofiov, err) k . 



* Dynasty XXX., resident at Sebennytus (see Intro. 
p. xiii), 380-343 B.C. : Nectanebes I. (Nekhten^bef ), 380-363, 
Te63 or Tach6s (Zedhor), 362-361, Nectanebus TI. (Nekht- 
horehbe), 360-343. 'See E. Meyer, Zur Geschichte der 30. 
Dynastic in Zeitschrift fiir Agyptische Sprache, Bd. 67, 
pp. 68-70. 

It is certain that Manetho knew only 30 dynasties and 
ended with the conquest of Egypt by Ochus : see Unger, 

182 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 74 

Dynasty XXX. 

Fr. 74 (a) {from Syncellus). According to 
Africanus. 

The Thirtieth Dynasty ' consisted ol three kings 
of Sebennytus. 

1. Nectanebes, for 18 years. 

2. Teos, for 2 years. 

3. Nectanebus,'^ for 18 years. 

Total, 38 years. 



(b) According to Eusebius. 

The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of three kings of 
Sebennytus. 

1. Nectanebes, for 10 years. 

2. Teos, for 2 years. 

3. Nectanebus, for 8 years. 

Total, 20 years. 

Chronol. des Manetho, pp. 334 f. Under Olymp. 107 (i.e. 
352-348 B.C.) Jerome (Chronicle, p. 203 Fotheringham, 
p. 121 Helm) notes : Ochus Aegyptum tenuit, Nectanebo in 
Aethiopiam pulso, in quo Aegyptiorum regnum destructum 
est. Hue usque Manethos. (" Ochus possessed Egypt, 
when he had driven Nectaneb6 into Ethiopia : thereby 
the kingship of the Egyptians was destroyed. So far 
Manetho [or, Here ends the History of Manetho] "). 

' For the later renown of this king as magician in 
popular legend, see the Dream of Nectonabde, in Wilcken, 
Urkunden der Ptolemderzeit, i. pp. 369 ff. 

183 



Fr. 74, 75 MANETHO 

(c) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 106. 

Tricesima dynastia Sebennytarum regum III. 

Nectanebis, annis X. 
Teos, annis II. 
Nectanebus, annis VIII. 

Summa annorum XX. 

Fr. 75 (a). Syncellus, p. 145. KaTA A<I>PIKAN0N. 

Upcorrj Kal rpiaKoarr] hwaareia Hepacov j8a- 
aiXecjv rpicjv. 

a ^Q^os^ eiKoarw eret rrjs davrov ^amXeias 

TlepaoJv e^aaiXevaev AlyvTrrov ctt^ ^'.^ 
/S' Mpcrrj?, errj y . 
y Aapelog, ern] S . 

'Ofjiov, err] rplrov tojjlov ^av .' 
Mexpi- TcovSe Mavedcb. 

^ Syncellus (p. 486) thus describes the scope of Manetho's 
History, wrongly putting Aa' for X' : ecus 'Qx°^ '<^'- iVe;cTavej3a) 
o Mavedw ras Aa' Swaareias Atyvvrov Tnpiiypwfit. 

^ This /3' (instead of S") is probably due to confusion 
with the |3' at the beginning of the next line (Aucher). 

'a>v' Boeckh, Unger. 



^ Dynasty XXXI. is not due to Manetho, but was added 
later to preserve the continuity, — perhaps with the use of 
material furnished by Manetho himself. No total is given 
by Africanus and Euscbius, — a further proof that the whole 
Dynasty is additional. In another passage (p. 486) 
Syncellus states : " Manetho wrote an account of the 31 

184 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOME) Fr. 74, 73 

(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Thirtieth Dynasty consisted of 3 kings ol 
Sebennytus. 

1. Nectanebis, for 10 years. 

2. Teos, for 2 years. 

3. Nectanebus, for 8 years. 
Total, 20 years. 



Dynasty XXXI. 

Fr. 75 (a) (from Syncellus). According to 
Africanus. 

The Thirty-first Dynasty ^ consisted of three 
Persian kings. 

1. Ochus in the twentieth year ^ of his kingship 

over the Persians became king of Egypt, 
and ruled for 2 years. 

2. Arses, for 3 years. 

3. Darius, for 4 years. 

Total of years in Book III., 1050 years ^ [850]. 
Here ends the History of Manetho. 

(^n error for 30) Dynasties of Egypt down to the time of 
Ochus and Nectanebo " : althougli mistaken about tho 
number of the Dynasties, SyncolUis is yi tho main correct. 

^ The 20th year of the kingship of Ochus was 34.'J B.C. : 
the phrase is parallel to that used in Fr. 70, 1, and appears 
therefore to be Manetho's expression. 

' The totals given by Africanus in Book III. are 135, 130, 
120, 89, 6, 40, 150 + , 124-1-, G, 20 h, 38, i.e. S.-)8+ years. 
To reduce to 850, assign 116 years to Dynasty XXII. 
(as the items add), and 120 to Dynasty XXVII. (Meyer). 

185 



Fr. 75 MANETHO 

(b) Syncellus, p. 146. KaTA EYEEBION. 

TpiaKoarr) TrpdiTT] hwaareia HepaaJv jSacriAetov 
rptwv. 

o' ^Qx^^ ciKoara) crei rrjs avTOV Ilepaojv jSa- 
aiXeias Kparel Trjg Alyvrrrov err) ?'. 

jS' Med* ou \4parjs "Q^^v, err] 8'. 

y' Me6* ov Aapelog, er-q e^ • ov ^AXe^avSpos 6 
MaKeSojv KadelXe. 

Tavra tov rpirov <r6ixov> Mavedco. 
Mcxpi TCJvSe Mavedcb. 



(c) EusEBius, Chronica I. (Armenian Version), 
p. 107. 

Tricesima prima dynastia Persarum. 

Ochus vicesimo iam anno Persia imperitans 
Aegyptum occupavit tenuitque annis VI. 

Poslea Arses Ochi, annis IV. 

Turn Darius, annis VI, quem Macedo Alexander 
interfecit. Atque haec e Manethonis tertio ^ 
libro 

' Aucher, m. : secundo MSS., according to Miiller. 



' Third Book (Aucher, Karst) : Second Book (Miiller). 
The Armenian words for " second " and " third " have 
similar forms ; hence the corruption (Margoliouth). 



186 



AEGYPTIACA (EPITOxME) Fr. 75 

(b) According to Eusebius. 

The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of three Persian 
kings. 

1. Ochus in the twentieth year of his kingship 

over the Persians conquered Egypt, and 
ruled for 6 years. 

2. His successor was Arses, son of Ochus, who 

reigned for 4 years. 

3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years : he was put 

to death by Alexander of Macedon. 

These are the contents of the Third Book of 
Manetho. 

Here ends the History of Manetho. 



(c) Armenian Version of Eusebius. 

The Thirty-first Dynasty consisted of Persian 
kings. 

1. Ochus in the twentieth year of his kingship 

over the Persians seized Egypt and held it 
for 6 years. 

2. His successor was Arses, son of Ochus, who 

reigned for 4 years. 

3. Next, Darius reigned for 6 years : he was put 

to death by Alexander of Macedon. 

These are the contents of the Third Book ^ of 
Manetho. 



187 



Fr. 76, 77, 78 MANETHO 



H lEPA BIBA02 . 

Fr 76. EusEBius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 
II Prooem., p. 44 C (Gifford). 

ridcrav fiev ovv rrjv AlyvTTTLaKrjv laropiav et? 
ttAcito? rfj EXXrjvayv iji€TeiXr](f)€ (ficovfj lSlcos re ra 
TTepi Trjs Kar avrovs deoXoyias Mavedo)? 6 
AlyvTTTios, ev re t) eypaipev *Iepa ^l^Xco Kal 
iv erepot? avrov avyypdfifiaat. 

Cf. Theodoretus, Curatio, II, p. 61 (Rader) : 

MaveOcbg Se to. Trepl "laiBos Kal 'OcripiSos" /cat 
"AttiSos Kal UapdmSos /cat rwv dXXa)v decbv twv 
AlyvTTTLwv epivdoXoyrjcre. 

Fr. 77. Plutarch, De Is. et Osir., 9. 

"Etl Se Tojv 7ToXXa)v uojJii,l^6vTCOV tSiov Trap 
AlyvTTTLOLS ovofia rod Alos elvai tov Apiovv (o 
irapdyovres ripelg "Apfxajva X^yojiev), Mavedcbg 
pev 6 Uej3evvuTrj<; to KeKpupLfxevov oterat /cat tt^i' 
Kp'uijfLV v7t6 ravTTjs hrjXovodai rrjs (f)coi'7J? . . . 

Fr 78. Plutarch, De Is. et Osir., 49. 

Bdf^oji'a Se rives ftev eva rcbv rod Tvcf>a)vos 
iralpayv yeyovevat Xeyovaiv, Mavedcjs 8 avrov 

* Manetho's interpretation is from imn, " hidden, 
secret " : see Sethe, Abhandl. Bed. Akad., 1929, p. 78, 
§ 153. Herodotus, ii. 42, 3, tolls a story which is probably 
related to this meaning of Amun. 

188 



THE SACRED BOOK Fr. 76, 77, 78 



THE SACRED BOOK. 

Fr. 76 (from Eusebius). 

Now the whole history of Egypt and especially 
the details of Egyptian religion are expounded at 
length in Greek by Manetho the Egyptian, both in 
his Sacred Book and in other writings of his. 

[From Theodoretus.) 

Manetho rehearsed the stories of Isis. Osiris, Apis, 
Serapis, and the other gods of Egypt. 

Fr. 77 {from Plutarch, Is. and Osir., eh. 9). 

Further, the general belief is that the name Amun,^ 
which we transform into Amnion, is an Egyptian 
proper noun, the title of Zeus 2; but jManetho of 
Sebennytus is of opinion that this name has a mean- 
ing — " that which is concealed " and " concealment." 

Fr. 78 {from Plutarch, Is. and Osir., ch. 49). 

Some say that Bebon ^ was one of the comrades of 
Typhon ; but Manetho states that Typhon himself 

■'The title Zeus Ammon was already known to Pindar in 
the first half of the fifth century B.C. (Pythians, iv. 16, 
¥t. 36; see Pausanias, ix. 16, 1). 

* The name " Bebon," given to Typhon, does not mean 
" prevention," but is the Egyptian b^by. an epithet of S6th. 
In Greek, besides the form Bi^wv, Bd^vs was used (Hel- 
lanicus in Athcnaeus, xv. 25, p. G8Uo). Typhon, an un- 
popular deity, came into favour in Dynasty XIX., two 
kings of which were Sethds I. and II. 

189 



Fr. 78, 79 MANETHO 

Tov TvcfxJijva Kal Be^cova KaXeladai • arjiiaivei 8e 
Tovvofxa Kade^LV tj kcLXvulv, cus rols 7Tpa.yy.aaiv 
ohu) ^ahit,ovaL Kal Trpos o )(prj ^(.poyi4voi<£ eV- 
LarafxevT]? Ti]g tov TvcfxjJvos Sum/xea»j. 



Fr, 79. Plutarch, De Is. et Osir., 62. 

"EoLKe Se TOVTOL^ Kal TO. AlyVTTTia. TTjV fJ.€V 

yap 'Iglv ttoXXolkl'S tco rrj^ Adrjpd? ovofxarL KaXovai 
<f)paL,ovTi. TOLOVTOV Xoyov " rjXdov oltt' i/JLavrfjs," 
07T€p earlv avTOKivqTov (f>opd? StjXcdtikov • 6 Se 

Tv(j>(xJV, OJOTT^p €ip7]Tai, UtjO Kal B€^a)V Kal Sp.v 

ovofxdt,eTaL, ^laiov riva Kal KcoXvrcKrjv eTrlax^Giv 
<rj Ttv'>^ VTTevavricoaLV t) dvaarpocfirjv ijJLcfiaLveiv 
^ovXofjL€vcoi> ra)v ovopidru^v. ert rriv atSrjplTiv 
XWov, oareov "Qpov, Tvcfxjji'os 8e tov aiSrjpov, 
ct)? ioTopel MaveOoj's, KaXoCaiv. waTrep yap 6 
aihrjpos TToXXdKLS p-kv iXKop.€vcp Kal eTTOfievcp Trpos 
T7}v Xidov opiOLOS ioTL, 77oAAa/ctS' 8* dTroaTp€(f)€Tai 
Kal aTTOKpoveTai. irpos TOVvavTiov, ovrcos ij aojT'qpios 

^ <ij Ttv') Pohlenz. 



^ Explanation is difficult. The name of the goddess 
Neith with whom Athena is often identified has been 
interpreted " that which is, M exists " (Mallet, Le Culte 
de Neit a Sa'is, p. 189). As a genuine etymology of the 
name, this is impossible ; but it may be that in the late 
period a connexion was imagined between Nt, " Neith," 
and nt(t), " that which is " (B.G.). It is suggestive that 
the Coptic word meaning " come " is na (A. Rusch, 
Pauly-Wissowa-KroU, R.-E. xvi. 2 (1935), col. 2190). 

190 



THE SACRED BOOK Fr. 78, 79 

was also called Bebon. The name means "' check- 
ing " or " prevention," and implies that, when 
actions are proceeding in due course and tending to 
their required end, the power of Typhon obstructs 
them. 

Fr. 79 (from Plutarch, Is. and Osir., ch. 62). 

The usage of the Egyptians is also similar. They 
often call Isis by the name of Athena, which expresses 
some such meaning as " I came from Myself," ^ and is 
indicative of self-originated movement. But Typhon, 
as I have already mentioned, is called Seth, Bebon, 
and Smy,^ these names impljnng a certain violent 
and obstructive force, or a certain opposition or over- 
throw. Further, as Manetho records, they call the 
loadstone " the bone of Horus," but iron "' the bone 
of Typhon." ^ Just as iron is often like to be at- 
tracted and led after the stone, but often again turns 
away and is repelled in the opposite direction, so the 

' Smy is not a name of Typhon, but may mean '" con- 
federate " in Egyptian (from sm>, to unite). In religious 
texts the phrase Seth and his sm^yt, i.e. " Seth and his con- 
federates," often occurs. See Kees on S6th in Pauly- 
Wissowa-KroU, R.-E. ii. A. 2 (1923), cols. 1896 ff. 

' Interesting confirmation of the correctness of Plutarch 
and Manetho is given by G. A. Wainwright in his article 
"Iron in Egypt" (J. Eg. Arch, xviii. 1932, p. 14). He 
compaxes Pyramid Texts, § 14, " the 6i' which came forth 
out of Setesh," and refers to Petrie's discovery at I;vaw (an 
important centre of S6th worship) of great quantities of 
gigantic bones, collected in piles : they were chiefly of 
hippopotami, — mineralized, heavy, black bones, of metallic 
lustre and appearance. It is clear that they were con- 
sidered sacred to S6th, as they were wrapped in linen and 
were found here and there in tombs at Kaw. 

191 



Fr. 79, 80 MANETHO 

/cat dyaOrj kul Xoyov e^ovaa rov Koajiov Kivqaig 
eTnaTpi<f)erai re Koi -npoadyeraL kol jiaXaKcorepav 
TToiel, TTcidovaa ttiv aKXrjpdv eKeivqv /cai TV(f)a)V€iov, 
eiT audis dpaa^edelcra els eavrrjv dvecTTpeijie Kal 
Karehvuev els tt^v airopiav. 

Fr. 80. Plutarch, Be Is. et Osir., 28. 

TlroXepalos 8e o Uwrr^p ovap etSe tov ev Eivoj-nrj 
rod nXovTcoi'os KoXoaaov, ovk inLordpuevos ovhe 
ecxjpaKcbs TrpoTepov olos <^v> rriv piop(f>rjv, KeXevovTa 
Kopiiaai Tr]v Ta)^Lar7]v avrov els AXe^dvhpeiav . 
dyvoovvTL S' avra> Kal drropovvri, ttov KaOihpvrai, 



1 The story of the transport of the colossus of Serapis to 
Alexandria is told with variants by Tacitus, Hist. iv. 83, 
84, Clement of Alexandria, Protrep. iv. p. .37, Stahlin, and 
Cyrillus in Jul. p. 13, S[)anh. : c/. also Plutarch, De 
sollert. anim. 36, Eustathius on Dionys. Perieg. 254 
(Miiller, Oeogr. gr. min. ii. p. 262). Both Tacitus and 
Plutarch agree in assigning the introduction of the statue 
to Ptolemy I. : Clement and Cyril attribute it to Ptolemy 
II. See Parthey, Vber Is. und Osir. pp. 213 ff. Tacitus 
gives (from Lysimachus) the more circumstantial account, 
adding the name of the King of Pontus, Scydrothemis ; 
but Plutarch mentions other names {e.g. Manetho) which 
Tacitus omits. The new cult of Serapis was intended to 
unite the Greek ruling class and their Egyptian subjects. 
(See Intro, p. xiv.) Georg Lippold {Festschrift Paul Arndt, 
1925, p. 126) holds the sculptor of the statue to be the 
famous Bryaxis of Athens, c. 350 B.C. ; and thus the image 
was worshi[)ped at Sinope for about 70 years before it was 
taken to Alexandria. The most trustworthy copy of the 
statue is that in the Museum at Alexandria : see Athen. 
Mitt. xxxi. (1906), Plates VI, VII (A. W. Lawrence in 

192 



THE SACRED BOOK Fr. 79, 80 

salutary, good, and rational movement of the world 
at one time attracts, conciliates, and by persuasion 
mollifies that harsh Typhonian power ; then again, 
when the latter has recovered itself, it overthrows 
the other and reduces it to helplessness. 

Fr. 80 {from Plutarch, 7s. and Osir., ch. 28). 

Ptolemy Soter dreamed that he saw the colossal 
statue ^ of Pluto at Sinope,^ although he did not 
know what manner of shape it had, having never 
previously seen it ; and that it bade him convey it 
with all possible speed to Alexandria. The king was 
at a loss and did not know where the statue stood ; 
but as he was describing the vision to his friends, 

J. Eg. Arch. xi. (1925), p. 182). Only the Greek statue by 
Bryaxis was brought from Sinope : the cult was organized 
in Egypt itself, and Serapis became the paramount deity 
of Alexandria with a magnificent temple in Rhakotis. 
If there were forty-two temples of Serapis in Egypt 
(Aristides, viii. 56, 1, p. 96 Dind.) — this number being 
one for each nome, the majority have left no trace : 
Parthey (op. cit. pp. 216 f.) identifies eleven. 

See Wilamowitz, Hell. Dichtung, i. p. 154, Wilcken, 
Urkunden der Ptoletnderzeit, Intro, pp. 77 ff. (a full discussion 
of the origin of the cult of Serapis). Cf. also Rostovtzeff in 
C.A.H. vii. pp. 145 f. 

For the dream as a vehicle of religious propaganda, cf. 
P. Cairo Zenon 34 (258-257 B.C. : see Deissmann, Light 
from the Ancient East, pp. 152 ff.), and Inscr. Or. xi. 4, 1299 
(c. 200 B.C.). 

^ In the districts by the Black Sea, a great god of the 
underworld was worshipped ; and this deity, as Rostovtzeff 
holds, must be set in close connexion with the Alexandrine 
Serapis. See Julius Kaorst, Ge-ichichte des Helleninmua ^, ii. 
(1926), pp. 246 f., and cf. the late Roman coins of SinCpe 
with the Serapis-type (Plate IV, No. 3). 

H 193 



Fr. 80, 81 MANETHO 

Kal SLTjyovfxevo) Tot? (/•t'Aot? ttju oifjiv, €vpedrj ttoXv- 
TrXavrj^ avdpioTTos, oVo/Lta Uojai^tos, iv Uivwttjj 
(f)dfi€vo£ ecopuKevaL tolovtov KoXoaaov, otov 6 
jSacrtAeu? ISelv e8o^€v. eTrepujiev ovv UcoreXr] Kal 

AlOVVGLOV, OL ^(^pOViO TToXXo) Kal /UoAl?, OVK dv€V 

fxevTOL Oetag Trpovoias, rjyayov eKKXeiJjaPTCs. iirel 
8e KOjJiiadels a>(f>9r), avp^aXovres ol irepl Tipiodeov 
rov e^TjyrjTrjv Kal Mavedcjova tov Ue^evpvrrjv TIXov- 
Tiovos ov dyaXpLa, tco Kep^epco reKpaipopi^voL Kal 
rep SpaKOVTL, TTetdovcri tov nroXepLalov, djs irepov 
deojv ouSevos" dAAa Eapdinhos iariv. ov yap e/cet- 
dev ovrcos 6vopat,6p.€vos 'qKev, aAA' els ^AXe^dvSpeiav 
Kopaadels to Trap' AlyvTTTiois ovofia tov IIXovTUiVOS 
CKTiqaaTO tov Edpamv. 

Fr. 81. Aelian, De Nature Animalium, X, 16 
(Hercher). 

'Akovco Se Kal Mavedwva tov AlyvTTTiov, ao(f>ias 
is dKpov iXrjXaKOTa dvSpa, etVeiv OTi yciAa/CTO? 
veiov 6 yevadpevos aX<f)cx)v VTroTTipLTrXaTai Kal Ae- 
TTpag • fiiaovcrt 8e dpa ol Amavol TrdvTCS raSe Ta 
Trddrj. TTeTTLCTTevKacn Se AlyvrtTLOL ttjv vv Kal ^qXicu 
Kal aeXrjVTj e^^dioT'qv elvai • OTav ovv 7Tav7]yvpL^a)ai 
rfj aeXTjvrj, dvovaiv avvfj dira^ rov erovs vs, dXXore 
Se ovTe eKelvp ovTe dXXo) tco tcov deojv rdSe to 
C,a)Ov ideXovGL dveiv. 

* Timotheus (of Eleusis), the Eumolpid, is believed to 
have introduced the Eleuainian Mysteries into Eleusis, 
the suburb of Alexandria. 

194 



THE SACRED BOOK Fr. 80, 81 

there came forward a far-travelled man, by name 
Sosibius, who declared that at Sinope he had seen 
just such a colossus as the king had dreamt he saw. 
He therefore despatched Soteles and Dionysius, who 
after a long time and with difficulty, though not un- 
aided by divine providence, stole away the statue. 
When it was brought to Egypt and exhibited there, 
Timotheus ^ the exSgetes (expounder or interpreter), 
Manetho ^ of Sebennytus, and their colleagues, 
judging by the Cerberus and the serpent, came to the 
conclusion that it was a statue of Pluto ; and they 
convinced Ptolemy that it represented no other god 
than Serapis. For it had not come bearing this 
name from its distant home, but after being conveyed 
to Alexandria, it acquired the Egyptian name for 
Pluto, namely Serapis. 

Fr. 81 {from Aelian). 

I am told also that Manetho the Egyptian, who 
attained the acme of wisdom, declared that one who 
tastes sow's milk is infected with leprosy or scaU. 
All Asiatics, indeed, loathe these diseases. The 
Egyptians hold that the sow is abhorred by both 
Sun and Moon ; so, when they celebrate the annual 
festival in honour of the Moon, they sacrifice swine ^ 
to the goddess, whereas at any other time they refuse 
to sacrifice this animal to the Moon or to any other 
deity. 

* Manetho's connexion with the Serapis cult is vouched 
for by a bust in the Serapeum at Carthage, Corptut Inscr. 
Lot. viii. 1007 : see Intro, p. xv. 

' Cf. Herodotus, ii. 47, and see Newberry in J. Eg. 
Arch. xiv. p. 213. 

195 



Fh. 82, 83 MANETHO 



EniTOMH TON *Y2lKnN 

Fr. 82. Diogenes Laertius, Prooem, § 10 
(Hicks, L.C.L.). 

©€ov9 8' elvat tJXlov Kal aeXrjvrjv tov fuev "Oaiptv, 
rrjv 8' ' laiv KaXovjJieirqv. alvirreaOai re avrov? 8ta 
re Kavddpov /cat SpaKovrog Kal te'pa/co? Kal aAAa>i^, 
wg (f)T]cn Mavedcbs iv rfj tcjv 0vaiKa)v ' E7nTOfj.fj . 



Fr. 83. Eusebius, Praepar. Evang., Ill, 2, 
p. 87 d (Gifford). 

Tr}i> ^laiv (f)aat Kal tov "OaipLv tov tJXlov Kal ttjv 
aeXi^vrjv elvai, Kal Ala fiev to 8ta TrdvTCov )(^cupovv 
TTvevjJia, " H(f)aLaTov 8e to TTvp, Ty]v Se yVji^ ArjixriTpav 
iTTOvofJidaaL' ^QKeavov re to vypov ovofid^eaOaL Trap' 
AlyvrrTLOLS Kal tov Trap' avTols TTOTapiov NelXov, J) 
Kal Ttts TtDv decov dvadelvai yeveaeis ' tov 8e ddpa 
(f)aalv avTOvg TrpoaayopeveLv 'Adrjvdv. tovtovs Se 
Tous" 7TevT€ deovs, TOV 'Aepa Xeyco Kal to "YScop to 
T€ rivp Kal TTjv Frjv Kal TO rivevfxa, ttjv irdaav 
oiKOvpievriv iTTiTTopeveadaL, dXXoTe dXXcos et? jiop(f>ds 
Kal i8eaf dvOpwrrajv re /cat TravTOLCov ^ojcov a-xfJlJ'O.- 
TL^ofxevovg • Kal tovtcov 6^a)vvfiovs Trap auTots 
AlyvTTTCoLs yeyovivai 9vr]Tovs dvdpu}7Tovs, "HXiov 



^ The Ancient Egyptian name Ha^pi is applied both to the 
River Nile and to the god of the Nile. Cf. Diod. Sic. i. 
12. 6 (tlie same phrase, with npos a> for u>, and inrdp^at for 
dvadeivai, : ras yeve'aeij — the same plural in Diod. Sic. i. 9, 6, 

196 



AN EPITOME OF PHYSICAL DOCTRINES 

AN EPITOME OF PHYSICAL DOCTRINES. 
Fr. 82 {from Diogenes Laertius). 

The Egyptians hold the Sun and the Moon to be 
gods, the former being named Osiris, the latter Isis. 
They refer darkly to them under the symbols of 
beetle, serpent, hawk, and other creatures, as 
Manetho says in his Epitome of Physical Doctrines. 

Fr. 83 (from Eusebius). 

The Egyptians say that Isis and Osiris are the 
Moon and the Sun ; that Zeus is the name which they 
gave to the all-pervading spirit, Hephaestus to fire, 
and Demeter to earth. Among the Egyptians the 
moist element is named Ocean and their own River 
Nile ; and to him they ascribed the origin of the 
Gods.^ To Air, again, they give, it is said, the name 
of Athena. Now these five deities, — I mean Air, 
Water, Fire, Earth, and Spirit, — traverse the whole 
world, transforming themselves at different times into 
different shapes and semblances of men and creatures 
of all kinds. In Egypt itself there have also been 
born mortal men of the same names as these deities : 

dfwv yevtofis vnap^ai). See also Plutarch, Is. et Osir. 66, 
p. 377 C. The name NelXos appears first in Hesiod, 
Theogony 338, which may be dated to the eighth century 

B.C. 

In a Hymn to the Nile, engraved upon the rocks at Gebel 
Silsileh in Upper Egypt by command of Ramesses II., the 
river is described as " the living and beautiful Nile, . . . 
father of nil the godsj " (Wiedemann, Religion oj the Ancient 
Egyptians, pp. 146 f.). 

197 



Fr. 83, 81, 85 MANETHO 

/cat Kpovov Koi Peav, stl 8e Aia Kal "Hpav koL 
"H(f)aiaTOv Kal 'Ear Lav eTTOvofxaaOevras . ypa.(f)€i. 
8e Kal Ttt TTcpL TOVTOJV TrXarVTcpov fiev 6 MaveOcos, 
eTTiTeTfJirjixevajg 8e o AioSajpog . . . 

Cf. Theodoretus, Curatio, III, p. 80 (Rader). 



HEPI EOPTON 

Fr. 84. Joannes Lydus, De Mensihus, IV, 87 
(Wunsch). 

'lareov 8e, co? o Mavidcov €v to) Trepl iopraiv 
Xeyei rrjv rjXiaKrjv eKXeu/ftv TTOVqpav eTrlppoiav dv- 

dpWTTOLg €Tn(f)€p€LV 7T€pi TC TTjV K€(f>aX'^V Kal TOV 

arofiaxov . 



nEPI APXAI2M0Y KAI EY2EBEIA2 

Fr. 85. PoRPHYRius, De Abstinentia, II, 55 
(Nauck). 

KareXvae 8e Kal iv 'HXtov ttoXcl ^ rrjs AlyvTnov 
TOV T-fjs dvdpa)7TOKTovias vofMov "/l/xcocTt?, to? jLiap- 

' ElXeiOvias iroXei conj. Fruin. 

• If the reference is not to a separate treatise, but to a 
passage in the Sacred Book, translate : "in his account of 
festivals ". 

* On human sacrifice in Egypt, see Meyer, Oeschichte^, 
I. ii. pp. 98 f. Herodotus, ii. 45, denies that men were 
sacrificed in Egypt in his time ; but Seleucus, under 

198 



ON ANCIENT RITUAL AND RELIGION 

they were called Helios, Cronos, Rhea, as well as 
Zeus, Hera, Hephaestus, and Hestia. Manetho 
writes on this subject at considerable length, while 
Diodorus gives a concise account. . . . 



ON FESTIVALS. 

Ft. 84 (from Joannes Lydus). 

It must be understood that Manetho in his book 
On Festivals ^ states that a solar eclipse exerts a 
baneful influence upon men in their head and 
stomach. 

ON ANCIENT RITUAL AND RELIGION. 

Ft. 85 {from Porphyrius). 

The rite of human sacrifice ^ at Heliopolis (Eilei- 
thyiaspolis) ^ in Egypt was suppressed by Amosis,* 

Tiberius, wrote an account of human sacrifice in Egypt 
(Athen. iv. p. 172d), and there is evidence for the sacrifice 
of captives in Dynasties XVIIT. and XIX. See Diod. 
Sic. i. 88, 5, and c/. Frazer, Oolden Bough, ii. pp. 254 ff. 

Some writers have suggested that the contracted human 
figure (the tekenu), wrapped in a skin and drawn on a 
sledge, who is a regular feature of funeral processions in 
the New Kingdom, may have been a remnant of human 
sacrifice. This, however, is very doubtful : cf. N. de G. 
Davies, Five Theban Tombs, pp. 9, 14. See further 
G. A. Wainwright, Ski^-Rdigion, pp. 33 f. 

' See Fr. 86. The mention of Hera (see infra) makes 
it very probable that " Eileithyiaspolis " is the correct 
reading here. 

* AmOsis, c. 1570 B.C. 

199 



Fk. 83, 86 MANETHO 

Tupet Mave.6d>s iv tco Trepl dpxo.'Cafiov Kal evae^cias, 
idvovro Se rfj "Hpa, Kal eSoK't/xa^ovro Kaddnep ot, 
^TjTovfxevot Kadapol fjiocrxot Kal (7va(f)payL^6iX€Voi ' 
idvovTO 8e TTJg rip.epas rpelg, dv9' Sv KiqpLvovs 
CKeXevaev 6 "AficoaLg tovs tcrovs iTTLTLdeadai. 

See also Eusebius, Praepar. Evang., IV, 16, p. 155d 
(Gifford) : Theodoretus, Curatio, VII, p. 192 (Rader). 

Fr. 86. Plutarch, De Is. et Osir., 73. 

rioXXibv he XeyovTCov eh ravra rd t^ata ttjv 
Tv(f)U)vo? avTov hL7)prjodat ^ i/»y;^7yv, alviTTeadai 
So^'iLei' dv 6 {Jivdos, oTi TTaaa ^vais aXoyos Kal 
6r]pi(vSr]? 7rjs tov KaKov Baipiovos yeyove jxOLpas, 
KdKelvov eKpeiXi<7a6[J€Voi Kal Traprjyopovvreg irepi- 
eTTovai ravra Kal OepaTrevovGiv • dv 8e ttoXus ejJL- 
TTiTTTTfj Kal ^^XeTTos aj5;^ju.6? eTTaycDV vTrep^aXXovTuts 
r) v6aov<; dXedpiovs t) ovjjcjiopds dXXas TrapaXoyovs 
Kal dXXoKOTovs , evta rcbv Tijxoiixevoiv ot, tepet? 
d77dyoi'T€<; vtto ctkotco fierd aicoTrrjg Kal rjavxta? 
' Wyttenbach : Sidpaodai MSS. 

^ or " . . . . in discussing ancient ritual and religion. 

^ Drought is said to be a particular manifestation of 
Typhon ; see Plutarch, Is. et Osir., 45, 51 Jin. In re- 
ference to Egypt, drought naturally means, not absence of 
rain, but insufficient inundation. 

^ For this striking trait in Egyptian religion see Erman- 
Eanke, Agypten, 1923, p. 184 n. 2, with the reference to 
Lacau, Recueil de travaux, 26 (1904), p. 72 (sarcophagi of 
Dynasty XII.) ; and cf. Alan H. Gardiner, Hieratic 
Papyri in the British Museum, iii. (1935), No. V. C (a spell 
of c. 1200 B.C. in which the reciter threatens the gods that 
he will cut off the head of a cow taken from the forecourt 

200 



ON ANCIENT RITUAL AND RELIGION 

as Maiietho testifies in his book On Ancient Ritual and 
Religion.^ Men were sacrificed to Hera : they were 
examined, like the pure calves which are sought out 
and marked with a seal. Three men used to be 
sacrificed each day ; but in their stead Amosis 
ordered that the same number of waxen images 
should be offered. 

Fr. 86 (from Plutarch, Is. and Osir., ch. 73). 

Now many say that the soul of Typhon himself is 
diffused among these animals ; and this fable would 
seem to hint that every irrational and bestial nature 
is partaker of the evil spirit, and that, while seeking 
to conciliate and appease him, men tend and worship 
these animals. Should a long and severe drought ^ 
occur, bringing Avith it an excess of deadly diseases 
or other strange and unaccountable calamities, the 
priests lead off some of the sacred animals quietly and 
in silence under cover of darkness, threatening them 
at first and trying to frighten ^ them ; but, should 

of the temple of Hathor, and will cause the sky to split in 
the middle), No. VIII. B (the Book of Banishing an Enemy, 
also dated c. 1200 B.C., containing threats to tear out the 
soul and annihilate the corpse of Osiris, and set fire to 
every tomb of his), and The Attitude of the Ancient 
Egyptians to Death and the Dead, 1935, pp. 12, 16 f., 39, 
note 17. 

Threats to the gods also appear later in the Greek papyri : 
see L.C.L., Select Papyri, i. (Hunt and Edgar), pp. 309, 345, 
Th. Hopfner, Griechisch-Agyptischer Offenbarungftzauber 
{= Stud, zur Pal. und Pap., \\'esBe\y,xxiu. 1924), §§ 187,210 
et al., and rj. Porphyrius, Epititula ad Anebonem, 27, who 
remarks that this is peculiarly P^gyptian. See Wileken, 
Chrestomathie, i. 1, pp. 124 f. (" perhajja a remnant of 
ancient fetishism "). 

201 



Fr. 86, 87 MANETHO 

OLTTeiXovai Kal SeStTTorrai to TrpcoTOV, av 8* iTTifxevrj, 
Kadi,€p€Vovm Kal a^aTrovaiv , a>? h-q TLva KoXaaixov 
ovra Tov Satjuovos" tovtov tj Kadap[j.ov aXXcog fieyav 
eVt /xeytWoi? ' Kal yap iv ElXeidviag ttoAci ^oivrag 
dvdpcoTTOvg KaTeTTLjJiTTpaaav, cu? MavedoiS laropr^Ke, 
Tv(f)a>V€LOV? KaXovvres , Kal Trjv r€(f>pav avriov Xlk- 
ficovres rj(f>dvt,l^ov Kal hUoTreipov . aXXd tovto fi€v 
iSpdro (f)avepu)s Kal Kad eva Kaipov iv rai? Kvvdacv 
■qfxepais ' at §€ rdjv rLpiOjp.€vo)v ^(pcov KadiepevaeLS 
dTTopprjTOL Kal xpovoig drdKrois Trpos rd ovfiTTiTT- 
Tovra yivofievaL, rovg ttoXXovs Xavdavovai, ttXtjv 
orav <''A7nSos^> ra^dg ep^coat, /cat tcDv aAAtuv dva- 
SeLKVvvTes evia vavrcov -napovTOiV crvve^^dXXcoaLV, 
olofievoL TOV Tvj>u)vos dvTiXvneZv /cat KoAoueiv to 
•jJSo/iei'ov. 



HEPI KATA2KEYH2 KY^IfiN 

Fr. 87. Plutarch, De Is. et Osir., 80. 

To 8e KV(f)L fxiyfia fi€v e/c/cai8e/ca fXipiov crvv- 
Tidefidvcov iari, ixeXnos Kal otvov Kal (jTa<f>iBos Kal 

^ CA-TTihosy add. Xylander. 



^ El Kab on the right bank of the Nile, 63 miles S. of 
Luxor (Baedeker*, p. 365 ff.), the seat of Nekhebyt, the 
goddess of childbirth, and in prehistoric times the capital 
of the southern kingdom. 

* Kyphi (Anc. Egyptian k>pt, from k^p, to burn) is 
mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus (Wreszinski, 98, 12 f.), 
where ten ingredients (without honey and wine) are given. 

202 



ON THE MAKING OF KYPHI Fr. 86, 87 

the visitation continue, they consecrate the animals 
and slaughter them, intending thus to inflict a kind 
of chastisement upon the spirit, or at least to ofl"er 
a great atonement for heinous off'ences. Moreover, 
in Eileithyiaspolis,^ as Manetho has related, they used 
to burn men alive, calling them " Typhon's fol- 
lowers " ; and their ashes they would winnow and 
scatter broadcast until they were seen no more. 
But this was done openly and at a set time, namely 
in the dog-days : whereas the consecrations of sacred 
animals are secret ceremonies, taking place at ir- 
regular intervals as occasion demands, unknown to 
the common people except when the priests cele- 
brate a funeral of Apis, and, displaying some of the 
animals, cast them together into the tomb in the 
presence of all, deeming that thus they are vexing 
Typhon in return and curtailing his delight. 



ON THE MAKING OF KYPHI. 
Fr. 87 (from Plutarch. Is. and Osir., ch. 80). 

Kyphi ^ is a mixture of sixteen ingredients — honey, 
wine, raisins, cyperus [? galingale], resin, myrrh. 

Recipes of a similar nature have been found at Edfu (two) 
and at Philae (one) : they were inscribed in hieroglj'phs 
on temple-walls. Kyphi had a double use — as incense and 
as medicine. See further Ganszyniee in Pauly-Wissowa- 
Kroll, R.E. (1924). Parthey (Isis und Osiris,' pp. 277 ff.) 
describes the results of experiments with the recipes of 
Plutarch, of Galen (also sixteen ingredients), and of Dios- 
corides (ten ingredients) : he gives first place to the kyphi 
prepared according to the prescription of Uioscorides. 

203 



Fr. 87, 88 MANETHO 

KVTTepov, prjTLvrjg re. koL afxvpvq? Kal danaXadov 
Kal aeaeXeoJS, eVi 8e a^i^'ov re Kal dacfxiXTov Kal 
Opvov Kal Xairddov, irpos he tovtois dpKevdihcov 
dp<f)OLV (c5v rrjv fiev pLei^ova, rrjv 8' iXdrrova 
KaXovai) Kal Kaphaficofiov Kal KaXdjMov, 



[TA nP02 HPOAOTON] 
Fr. 88.* Etymologicum Magnum (Gaisford), s.v. 

AeOVTOKOfJLOS. 

To Se XecDV TTapd to Xdo), to detopco • d^uSep- 
Keararov yap to drjpLov, cS? (f)r]aL Mavedojv iv to) 
Trpos 'HpoSoTOV, OTi ovBcTTOTe KaOevSei 6 Xeojv, 
TOVTO Se dTTidavov . . . 

1 Cf. also Fr. from Choeroboscus, Orthogr., in Cramer, 
Anecd. Oraeca Ox., ii. 235, 32 { = Etym. genuinum) : . . . ciTro 
TovTOV rov Xdat yeyove Xewv o^vbepKeoTaTov yap to dr]piov <f>aai 
yap OTi ovhiTTOTi Kadfvhfi. 6 Xeiov. tovto 8e arridavov . . . See 
Aelian, De Nat. Anim., v. 39 : AlyvnTiovs vntp avrov KOfind^eif 
if>aal Xeyovras ori Kpelrrwv vttvov Xecov earlv dypvnvwv dei. 



^ Aspalathus = Calycotome villosa. 

' Cardamom = Elettaria cardamomum. See L.C.L., 
Theophrastus, ix. 7, 3 (Hort). 

' Manetho's note may refer to such passages in Herodotus 
as ii. 65 ff. and iii. 108. 

[Foolrwte continued on opposite page. 

204 



[CRITICISMS OF HERODOTUS] Ff. 87, 88 

aspalathus/ seselis [hartwort] ; mastic, bitumen, 
thryon [a kind of reed or rush], dock [monk's rhu- 
barb], as well as of both junipers (arceuthids — one 
called the greater, the other the less), cardamom,^ 
and reed [orris-root, or root of sweet flag]. 



[CRITICISMS OF HERODOTUS] 
Fr. 88 ^ (from the Etymologicum Magnum). 

The word Xeojv (" lion ") comes from Xdco, " I 
see " : the animal has indeed the keenest of sight, 
as Manetho says in his Criticism of Herodotus that 
the lion never sleeps.* But this is hard to believe. 

Choeroboscus, in his work On Orthography (iv./v. A.D.), 
gives the derivation of Accov according to Orus or H6rus 
in almost the same words as those quoted above from the 
Etymologicum Magnum ; but he omits the clause " as 
Manetho says in his Criticism of Herodotus " (Cramer, 
Anecdota Oraeca e codd. rrhanuscriptis bibliothecarum 
Oxoniensium, ii. p. 235, U. 32 f?. = Etymologicum 
Oenuinum). 

Cf. Aelian, On the Nature of Animals, v. 39 : " the 
Egyptians, they say, boast about this, adding that the 
lion is superior to sleep, being always awake." Aelian 
quotes from Apion (see p. 19 n. 3), who may well have 
taken his statement from Manetho. 

' By a curious coincidence, in Egyptian also the words 
for " lion " (inH) and " to see " (m") are very similar, and 
the word for " lion " is sometimes written as though it 
came from the verb " to see ". Manetho possibly had 
this fact in mind when he stated that the lion never sleeps 
(Battiscombe Qunn). 

20& 



Fr. 88 MANETHO 

Eustathius on Homer, Iliad, XI, 480 : 

(Tives \eyovatv) on €K tov Adcu, to jSAeTrco, 
yCverai oiairep 6 Xiojv, ovtco koL 6 Xis, Kara tov 
ypafjLfjiaTLKOv ^Qpov, (hs o^vSepK-qg, Kai on, co? 
^T^CTi Mavedcov eV toIs Tipos ' HpoboTOv , ov KadevSei 
6 Xeojv o7T€p aTTidavov . . . 



206 



[CRITICISMS OF HERODOTUS] Fr. 88 

{From EuSTATHius.) 

(Some say) that from \dco, " I see," comes not only 
Xeojv, but also At? (a lion), according to Orus the 
grammarian,^ because of its keen sight ; and they 
add, as Manetho states in his Criticisms of Herodotus, 
that the lion never sleeps. This is hard to believe. 

^ Orus or Horns (v. a.d.) was, according to Suidas, an 
Alexandrian grammarian who taught at Constantinople : 
none of his numerous works is extant. 



207 



APPENDIX I 
Pseudo-Manetho 

Syncellus, p. 72. 

TIpoKCirai 8e Xolttov /cat irepl rrjs rdv AlyvTtrluiV 
Bvvaareias fiiKpa StaXa^elv e/c tcjp Mavedtb tov 
He^evvvTov, os ctti UroXefxaiov tov ^tXaSeXcfiov 
4 dpxi€p€vs Tcbv iv AlyviTTa) elScoXeiojv ;(pT]/xaTicras" 
€K Tcov iv rfj E'qpLabiK'fj yfj KeLjjLevcov arrjXcbv Upa, 
(f>riaL, StaXeKTO) Kal l€poypa(f)tKOLg ypappaai Ke- 

XO-pO.KT7]pLap€l'COV VTTO Oojd TOV TTpCOTOV 'EpfJiOV, Kal 

epprjvevdeLacov fxeTo. tov KaTaKXvapiov [e'/c ttj? Upas 
SiaXeKTOV €LS TTjv 'EXXrjVLSa (fxjDvrjv] ^ ypappaaiv 
L€poyXv(f)LKols , Kal aiTOTeQevTOiv ^ iv ^i^Xol? vtto tov 
AyadoSaijJLovos , vlov tov SevTcpov 'EpfJLov, iraTpos 
12 Se TOV TaT, iv toZs dSuroi? tcDi^ Upojv AlyvTTTOv, 
Trpoae(f)a)vr)a€ Tcp avTch 0iXahiXj>cp ^aaiXel BevTepco 
IlToXefxaLcp iv vfl Bi^Xcp ttjs HcoOeos ypd<f)a)v 
iirl Xi^ecos ovtcos ' 

^ The words bracketed are probably a later interpolation. 
^ dnoTedeiawv conj. Scaliger, Miiller. 



^ S6riadic land, i.e. Egypt, cf. Josephus, Ant. i. 71. In 
an inscription the home of Isis is Ueipias yv> ^"^^ ^^i^ herself 
is NeiXaiTis or Ueiplas, the Nile is Ueipios : see Reitzenstein, 
Poimandres, p. 183. 
»,For the god Thoth inscribing records, see p. xiv n. 1, 

208 



APPENDIX I. 

Pseudo-Manetho. 

{From Syncellus). 

It remains now to make brief extracts concerning 
the dynasties of Egypt from the works of Manetho 
of Sebennytus. In the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus 
he was styled high-priest of the pagan temples of 
Egypt, and wrote from inscriptions in the Seriadic 
land,^ traced, he says, in sacred language and holy 
characters by Thoth,^ the first Hermes, and trans- 
lated after the Flood ... in hieroglyphic char- 
acters. When the work had been arranged in 
books by Agathodaemon, son of the second Hermes *' 
and father of Tat, in the temple-shrines of Egypt, 
Manetho dedicated it to the above King Ptolemy 
II. Philadelphus in his Book of Sothis, using the 
following words : 

' The second Hermds is HermSs Trismegistus, the teacher. 

For a discussion of the whole passage, see W. Scott, 
Hermetica, iii. pp. 492 f. He pointed out manifest breaches 
of continuity after ;^p7;/xaTt'CTas (end of 1. 4) and after 
AiyvTrrov (end of 1. 12). If the intervening 8 lines are cut 
out (cV Twv . . . AlyvTTTov), the sentence runs sinoothly; 
and Scott suggested that these 8 lines originally stood in 
Manetho's letter after a ffiadov. Even with this insertion 
there still remains a gap before Upa j3i/3Ai'a. but apart from 
that lacuna, the whole becomes intelligible. 

209 



App. I PSEUDO-MANETHO 

'ETTtaroArj MaueOoj rod Uc^cvvvtov Trpos 

n ToXifialoV TOV 0L\dS€X(f>OV. 

" BaaiXel fxeydXco TlToXe^aiu) CPtAaSe'A^o) a€- 
jSacTToi Mavedo) dp;^iep€i)j Kal ypafifxaTei)^ tcov 
Kar* AtyvTTTOv Upcov dSvTOJV, yeVet Ue^evi/vrr]^ 
v7Tdpx<ov ' HXLOVTToXtTrjg , TO) SeanoTr) fxov UroXe- 
fiato) )(aipeLV. 

'Hfid^ Set Aoyt^cCT^at, fxeyLcrre ^aaiXev, nepl 
TTavTcov a)v idv ^ovXrj rjfxds i^erdaai TTpayfidroiv. 

eTTl^'QTOVVTL OVV^ OOl TT€pl TCOV fieXXoVTOiV TW KOafXO) 

yiyveardai, KaOcbg eKeXevad? fioi, TTapa<j>avrjaeraL 
aoi d ef^adov iepd j8t/8Ata ypa(f)evra vtto tov irpo- 
ndropos, rpicrneyiaTOV 'Epfiov. eppcoao /uoi, Se- 
anord fiov jSacrtAey." 

Tavra Trepl rrjs ipyi'qveias tcov vtto tov Scvrepov 
*EpfjLov ypa<l>ivTcov ^l^Xlojv Xeyei. fieTO. Se 
ravTa Kal nepl idvcbv AlyvTTTiaKcov tt4vt€ iv 
rpiaKovra SwaaTeiacs Icrrop^Z^ . . . 

' ovv add. Boeckh. 

* For the continuation of this, see Fr. 2, p. 10. 



* Augustus, a title of the Roman emperor, was not used 
in Ptolemaic times. 

* For a curious juxtaposition of Manetho and HermSa 
Trismegistus, see Wellmann in Hermes, xxxv. p. 367. 



210 



PSEUDO-MANETHO App. I 

Letter of Manetho of Sebennytus to Ptolemy 
Philadelphus. 

" To the great King Ptolemy Philadelphus 
Augustus.^ Greeting to my lord Ptolemy from 
Manetho, high-priest and scribe of the sacred shrines 
of Egypt, born at Sebennytus and dwelling at 
Heliopolis. It is my duty, almighty king, to reflect 
upon all such matters as you may desire me to 
investigate. So, as you are making researches con- 
cerning the future of the universe, in obedience to your 
command I shall place before you the Sacred Books 
which I have studied, written by your forefather, 
Hermes Trismegistus.^ Farewell, I pray, my lord 
King." 

Such is his account of the translation of the books 
written by the second Hermes. Thereafter Manetho 
tells also of five Egyptian tribes which formed 
thirty dynasties . . . 

(Fr. 2, p. 11, foUows directly after this.) 

A MS. oi Celsus gives a list of medical writers, Egyptian 
or Greek and Latin : they include (col. 1, 11. 9-13) Hermfes 
Trismegistus, Manetho (MS. emmanetos), Nechepsd, 
Cleopatra regina. Here Manetho is followed by Nechepsd, 
to whom, along with Petosiris (perhaps another name of 
Nechepsd), works on astrology were attributed in the 
Second Century B.C. : see W. KroU and M. Pieper in 
R.E. xvi. 2 (1935), s.v. Nechepsd. 



211 



APPENDIX II 

Eratosthenes (?) 
Fr. 7 (a). Syncellus, p. 171. 

MTToAAoSco/aos ;^ot't/<:o9 ciAAt^v AlyvTrriojv ru>v 
@7)^aia)v Xeyofievcov ^acriXetav dveypaaJjaTO ^a- 
QiXioiv Xt)' , €t6jp ^aos"'. tJtls rjp^aro fj.€v tu) 
'^Tti erei tov KoafjMv, cAt^^c 8e els to ^y/xc' ^ 
eros" Tou KOCTfjLov, <Lv TTjv yvcjcriv, ^rialv, 6 
^EpaToadevTjs Xa^ojv ^lyuTrrta/cot? VTTOfimrjfjLaai 
Kal ovofiaai Kara Trpoara^iv ^aaiXtKrjv rfj 'EX- 
XdSt (fxxjvfj 7Tape(f)pacr€v ovtcos ' 

@rj^aia)v ^aaiXewv tcov /xerd ^ap/c8' cttj rijs 
SiaaTTopds Xt)' ^acrLXeicov, 

' ,yJI>os'' m. 



* This list of kings was said to have been taken by 
Apollodorus (ii. B.C.) from Eratosthenes of Cyrene (ill. 
B.C.) whom Apollodorus often followed as an authority ; 
but according to Jacoby [Apollodors Chronik, pp. 399 &., 
Fr. 117 — Pseudo- Apollodorus) the list of " Theban " 
kings owes nothing either to Apollodorus or to Eratos- 
thenes, but is the work of one who sought to recommend 
his compilation under two distinguished names. The list, 

212 



APPENDIX II. 

Eratosthenes (?) {From Syncellus), 

Ft. 7 (a). 

Kings of Thebes.* 

Apollodorus, the chronographer, recorded another 
dynasty of Egyptian kings, — the Thebans, as they 
are called, — thirty-eight kings ruling for 1076 years. 
This dynasty began in Anno Mundi 2900, and came 
to an end in Anno Mundi 3045 [3976]. The know- 
ledge of these kings, he says, Eratosthenes took from 
Egyptian records and lists, and at the king's com- 
mand he translated them into the Greek language, 
as follows : 

Of the Theban kings in thirty -eight dynasties ruling 
1124 years after the Dispersion, 

containing thirty-eight kings, who ruled for 1076 years, ie 
of Theban origin, derived from a Royal List such as that 
of Kamak : the explanations of the names are interesting, 
and the variations in Nos. 11 and 15 may be due to the 
priests themselves. Historically the list is of no great 
worth : several of the names are not proper names, but 
Throne-names, such as are found in the Royal Lists and 
the Turin Papyrus (Meyer, Aeg. Chron. pp. 99 ff.). 

Kings 1-5 correspond to Dynasty I., 13-17 to Dynasty 
IV., 18-22 to Dynasty VI. 

213 



App. II PSEUDO-MANETHO 

a' <77-pcL»T09> ^ i^aaiXevae M-^vrjs Orj^alos,^ o 
ipyi-qveverai alojvios^ ■ e^aaiXevaeu errj ^jS'. 
Tov 8e Koafxov rjv €Tog ,^7ts' . 

jS' Orj^altov Seurepo? i^aaiXevaev Adcodrjs, 
vtog Mrjveoig, ctt) vd' . ovtos ipixr]V€V€Tai 
'EpfxoyevTjs. CTO? tov Koajjiov fi7t\^^' . 

y Q-q^aicDV AlyvTrricov rpiros i^aaiXevaev 

Ad (JO 07]? OpLWVVHOg, €T7y A^'. TOV §€ 

Koafiov rjv €Tos ^y^a . 

Syncellus, p. 180. 

8' Orj^aiOJv ejSaCTiAeucre 8' Mia^ar}?* uto? 
AdcoOecos, ^TTj id'. OVTOS epprjveveTai 
(f)iX6Tavpos.^ TOV 8e Koapiov riv ctos 

e' Orj^aLOJU i^aaiXevcre e' IlefKfxx)?,^ vlos 
Ada)9ovg, 6 ioTiv 'HpaKXelS-qs, €TTj irj' , 
TOV 8e Koofjov rjv ctos ,yo^' . 



Ft. 13. Syncellus, p. 180. 

s' 0T7/3ai'a»v AlyvTTTioju i^aaiXevaev ?' Mofx- 
X^i-pi- MepLcfilTrjs, €Trj od' . ovtos ep- 

^ irpwTos add. Goar. 

" Q-q^alos conj. Meyer : Grivirr^s B : ©rj^ivlrrjs Otj^oios Din- 
dorf. 

^ alatvios corr. Jablonski : Siwvios B, Aiovios A. 

* AiapLTJs B. 

* (fyiXoravpos Bunsen : <f>iXtrfoos codd. : (fnXeraipos Scaliger. 

* Se/nlid)'; Biiusen. 

214 



ERATOSTHENES (?) App. II 

1. The first was Menes of Thebes, whose name, 

being interpreted, means " everlasting ".^ 
He reigned for 62 years. Anno mundi 2900. 

2. The second king of Thebes was Athothes, son 

of Menes, for 59 years. His name, being 
interpreted, means " Born of Hermes ".* 
Anno mundi 2962. 

3. The third king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Athothes II., for 32 years. Anno mundi 
3021. 

4. The fourth king of Thebes was Miabaes, son 

of Athothis, for 19 years. His name, being 
interpreted, means " Bull-lover ".^ Anno 
mundi 3053. 

5. The fifth king of Thebes was Pemphos 

(? Sempsos, Semempses), son of Athothis. 
His name is " descendant of Heracles," and 
he reigned for 18 years. Anno mundi 3072. 

Fr. 13. 

6. The sixth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Momcheiri of Memphis, reigning for 79 
years. His name, being interpreted, means 

* The Egyptian form of the name Menes may quite 
well be interpreted as " the abiding one," from mn, 
" to endure ". 

* This etymology obviously assumes the presence of 
the divine name Thoth in the name Athothes. 

' The first element of the name Miabaes is clearly some 
form of the verb mr, " to love ". 

215 



App. II PSEUDO-MANETHO 

fi7]i'€V€Tai rjyrjaavSpos ^ ' TTcpiaaofxeX-qg, 

[roiyap apaxos].^ tov 8e Koapov rjv /y^' . 
^' @r)^aiojv AlyvTrriojv e^aaiXevaev ^' Hr olxos, 

Dtos" avTOv • 6 iariv "Apr^s dvaLadrjTOS, err) 

?'. TOV 8e Koapov rjv erog ^yp^d' . 
Tj' Qrj^aicov AlyviTTLCov e^acriXevaev oyBoog Po- 

aoppbirj'S, 6 icTTiv aLT-qcnTravTog ,^ €T7] A. 

TOV 8e Koapov rjv erog ^ypoe' . 
6' ©-q^aicov AlyvTTTlojv i^aaiXevoev 6' Mdprjs, 

vlog avTou, 6 iariv HXt68ojpog, cttj k^ . 

TOV Se KOUpiOV TfV €TOS ,y(J€. . 

Syncellus, p. 190. 

I ©rj^aiojv AiyvTTTLCov i i^acrlXevaev *Avojv- 
<f>i?, 6 eariv eTTiKcopios,* cttj k . tov Se 
Koopov rjv €Tog ^yaXa . 

to,' Qrj^aiwv AlyvTTTLOJV la i^aaiXevae Uipios, 
6 ioTiv viog Koprjg, w? Se erepoi d^daKav- 
Tog, €Tr] Lrj' . TOV Se Koapiov rjv eTog ^ycrva. 

ij3' ©rj^aicov AlyvTTTLCov i^' i^auiXevcre Xvov^os 
r} Fvevpog, 6 ecTTi Xpvaog rj Xpvaovs 

' Conj. Bunsen : ttjs di'Spos codd. : Itt;? di-Spoy Gutschmid. 
^ A gloss, wliich the codcl. have before Moiixei.pl. 
* eTTjOiTTavTos A : cttjs Travros Gutschmid. 



^ A gloss, winch the codcl. have befoi 

* eTTjOiTTavTos A : cttjs Travros Gutschm 

* B : eniKOfios A. 



' With this interpretation of the name Mares (which 
may correctly explain the second element as Re, " the 
Sun "), cf. ijAios ev^tyyTjs, " a brilliant Sun," in Hymn IV., 

216 



ERATOSTHENES (?) App. II 

*' leader of men ". He had exceeding 
large limbs (and was therefore irresistible). 
Anno mundi 3090. 

7. The seventh king of Thebes in Egypt was his 

son, Stoichos. The name means " unfeeling 
Ares ". He reigned for 6 years. Anno 
mundi .3169. 

8. The eighth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Gosormies, whose name means "all-demand- 
ing ". He reigned for 30 years. Anno 
mundi 3175. 

9. The ninth king of Thebes in Egypt was his 

son, Mares, whose name means " gift of the 
Sun ".^ He reigned for 26 years. Anno 
mundi 3205. 

10. The tenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Anoyphis, whose name means " revelling ".^ 
He reigned for 20 vears. Anno mundi 
3231. 

11. The eleventh king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Sirius, whose name means " son of the iris of 
the eye," ^ or, as others say, " unharmed by 
the evil eye ". He reigned for 18 years. 
Anno mundi 3251. 

12. The twelfth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Chnubos or Gneuros, which means " gold " * 



line 32, A. Vogliano, Madinet Madi, Primo Rapporto { 1 936) : 
see note on No. 35 infra, p. 224. 

* Possibly this oxplanatioii is based upon the Egyptian 
word unof, " to rejoice " (B.G.). 

' In Egyptian si-iri means " son of the eye ". 

* Niib is Egyptian for " gold ". 

217 



App. II PSEUDO-MANETHO 

vlos,^ errj k^' . tov Se Koa/xov ■^v ctos 

vy' ©rj^aicDV AlyvTTTicov ly i^aaiXevae 'Pai^- 
cDori?, o iariv ap)(LKparo)p, err] ly' . rod 
Se KoafJ-ov rjv ero? ^ycr^a' . 

iS' Qrj^aiiDv AlyvTTriuiv ih' e^aariXevcre Bivprjs, 
errj i . tov Se Koafiov "qv eros iYtB' . 



Ft. 17. Syncellus, p. 190. 

le' @rj ^alcDv AlyvTrricov le' i^auiXevae Ua(vcf)is, 
/ccD/iaaxTys', Kara Se eviov? xprjjJLaTiaT'qs, 
€TT] kB' . TOV 8e Koafiov fiv €TOS ^yxiS'. 

Syncellus, p. 195. 

t?' @7]^aicov ts*' ejSaoriAeucre 2a6j(f)ig $' , err) k^' , 

TOV Se KOGHov rjv €tos lyT/xy . 
t^' ©Tj^aLcov i^' i^aaiXeva^ Moax^P'^'S,^ -qXio- 

SoTOi', err] Xa' . tov he KoajJLov tjv eTOS 

17]' Ot^^alcov LTj' e^aaiXevae Moadrjs,^ €T7] Xy\ 

tov 8e Koap^ov ■^v €tos ,yva . 
id' Qrj^aiojv id' i^aaiXevae Ilap.p,rjs, dpxoeiS'qs* 

€T7) Ae'. TOV Se KoapLOV Tjv €Tos ^yvXS . 

'■ Corr. Bunsen : Xvov^os Fvevpos, o ioTi Xpvarjs Xpvaov vios 
codd. 

'•'Meyx^P^S conj. Bunsen. 

^ Meyxfpfjs /3' conj. Bunsen. 

* Conj. Gutschmid : apxovSTJs codd. 

218 



ERATOSTHENES (?) App. II 

or " golden son " (or his son). He reigned 
for 22 years. Anno mundi 3269. 

13. The thirteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Rayosis, which means " the arch-master- 
ful ".^ He reigned for 13 years Anno 
mundi 3291. 

14. The fourteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Biyres, who reigned for 10 years. Anno 
mundi 3304. 



Fr. 17. 

15. The fifteenth king of Thebes in Egypt was 

Saophis, " reveller," or, according to some, 
" money-getter, trafficker ". He reigned for 
29 years. Anno mundi 3314. 

16. The sixteenth king of Thebes was Saophis II , 

who reigned for 27 years. Anno mundi 
3343. 

17. The seventeenth king of Thebes was Moscheres 

(? Mencheres), " gift of the Sun," who 
reigned for 31 years. Anno mundi 3370. 

18. The eighteenth king of Thebes was Mosthes 

(? Mencheres II.), who reigned for 33 years. 
Anno mundi 3401. 

19. The nineteenth king of Thebes was Pammes, 

" leader-like," who reigned for 35 years. 
Anno mundi 3434. 

^ Possibly, according to this explanation, Ra- (or Rha-) 
is the Egyptian hry, " master," and the rest of the name 
*wdse{r), " powerful " (B.G.). 

219 



App. II PSEUDO-MANETHO 

Fr. 22. Syncellus, p. 195. 

k' Orj^aicov K i^aaiXevaev ^A-ndTnTovg, fidyi- 
aros". ovTos, u)S ^acrt, -napa. (Lpav /uiar 
i^aaiXeuaev err] p' . tov Se Koufiov T^r 
€Tos ^yv^d' . 
Ka Orj^aLcov ko! i^aaiXevaev 'E)(€GKoaoKd~ 
pa?/ €TOS a . TOV 8e Koafiov rjv eros 

KjS' 0r)^aLOJV K^' e^acriXevae NiTCOKpis, yvvrj 
dvrl dvSpog, 6 eariv A9r]i'd VLKrj(f)6pos, 
€Tr) ?'. TOV 8e Koofiov rjv eros ,y(f)0 . 



Fr. 33. Syncellus, p. 196. 
Ky' Qfj^alcov Ky e^aaiXevac Mvpralos^ M/u- 

piLOVohoTOS , €T7j K^ . TOV §6 KOOpiOV "qv 

€TOS ^y(f>o?' ? 

Syncellus, p. 204. 

kS' Srj^aioiv k8' ifiaaiXevaev OvcoaipLdp-qs* 

KparaLOS ianv^ -rjXios. err] t^' . tov 8e 

Koapov rjv era? ^ycji^rj' . 
Ke Qr]^aia)v Ke' i^aalXevae SediviXos,^ o 

iariv av^tjaag to naTpiov KpaTos, CTr) r^ . 

TOV Se Koapov -qv eTOS ,yx'- ■ 

^ B : ixeoKos oKcipas A * Conj . 'A/xvpTaios. 

'm.: y^^iy' codd. *Jablonski: ©uwat/xapijs B. 

' Bunsen : 6 ianv codd. 

« B : dipiXXos A : GivMos Dindorf . 

220 



ERATOSTHENES (?) App. II 

Fr. 22. 

20. The twentieth king of Thebes was Apappiis 

(Pepi)/ " the very great ". He, they say, 
ruled for 100 years all but one hour. Anno 
mundi 3469. 

21. The twenty - first king of Thebes was 

Echeskosokaras, for 1 year. Anno mundi 
3569. 

22. The twenty-second ruler of Thebes was 

Nitocris,^ a queen, not a king. Her name 
means " Athena the victorious," and she 
reigned for 6 years. Anno mundi 3570. 

Fr. 33. 

23. The twenty-third king of Thebes was Myrtaeus 

(Amyrtaeus), " gift of Ammon," ^ for 22 
years. Anno mundi 3576. 

24. The twenty-fourth king of Thebes was 

Uosimares, " Mighty is the Sun," '* for 12 
years. Anno mundi 3598. 

25. The twenty-fifth king of Thebes was 

Sethinilus (Thirillus), which means " having 
increased his ancestral power," for 8 years. 
Anno mundi 3610. 

' Apappus is the Pliiops of Fr. 20. 4, with a curious mis- 
undorstaiiding of his reign of 94 years. 

* See p. 54 n. 2, and Wainwright, Shy-Religion, pp. 41, 45. 

* This interpretation is based upon the common Egyptian 
name Amenerdais, " Amun has given him ". 

*The Egyptian WSse-mi-Ee means " Mighty like the 
Sun " : Udsimares may however be intended for the first 
half of the prae?wnien of RamossSs II., Wese-me-Re, but 
this means " RS is mighty in justice " (B.G.). 

221 



App. II PSEUDO-MANETHO 

6 ioTLv 'HpaKXrjg 'ApTTOKpdTrjg, errj irj . 
Tov 8e Koafiov ■^u cros /'yX'-V • 
K^' Qrj^aiojv kC,' i^aaiXevae Xovdrjp, ravpos 
Tvpavvos, err) t,' . tov 8e Koapiov -qv eros 

KT)' ©Tj^aicov Kt]' i^aaiXevae Mevprjg} ^iXos 
Koprj?,^ err] ij3'. tov 8e KoafjLOv rjv €tos 

^yxi^y'- 

kO' Q-q^aioiv kO' i^aaiXevare XaijJLae<f>dd^ Koa- 

fxog (f)LX'^(f)ataTog , eTq la . tov Se /coct/xou 

■qv cTos ,yyy^' • 

A' &rj^aLOju X' ijSaoiXevae Uolkovvlos * oxoTvpav- 

vos,^ €Trj ^' . TOV Se KoapLov rjv €tos ,yx^^ • 

Syncellus, p. 233. 

Aa' ©ri^aioiv Xa i^aaiXevae n.€T€advpr\s, ctt; 
is' • TOV 8e Koapiov t^v eros" ,y^Ks' . 

Fr. 37. 

Aj8' ©Tj^atcov XP' e^acriXevae (.UTapLfievefJLTjs a',' 

€T17 K^' . TOV 8e KOaflOV ^V €TOS ^yi/jfi^'. 

^ Cony M(.€ipi]s. * Gutschmid : ^lAda/copoy codd. 

* Tu}ixa€(f)dd Bunsen. * ^JoikoSvls Bunsen. 

* dis ^iix°s Tvpavvos Bunsen : Zovxos rvpawos Gutschmid. 
® 'AfiiJ.fvfiJ.rjs Bunsen. A lacuna here in codd. 

' The first syllable of the name ChuthSr may represent 
the Egyptian ko, " bull ". 

^ In Egyptian, " loving the eye " is mai-iri. 
222 



ERATOSTHENES (?) App. II 

26. The twenty-sixth king of Thebes was 

Semphrucrates, which means " Heracles 
Harpocrates." for 18 years. Anno mundi 
3618. 

27. The twenty-seventh king of Thebes was 

Chuther, " bull-lord," ^ for 7 years. Anno 
mundi 3636. 

28. The twenty-eighth king of Thebes was Meures 

(Mieires), " loving the iris of the eye," ^ 
for 12 years. Anno mundi 3643. 

29. The twenty-ninth king of Thebes was Cho- 

maephtha (Tomaephtha), " world, loving 
Hephaestus,"^ for 11 years. Anno miindi 
3655. 

30. The thirtieth king of Thebes was Soicunius 

(or Soicunis), f hochotyrannos, f * (or 
Soicuniosochus the lord), for 60 years. 
Anno mundi 3666. 

31. The thirty-first king of Thebes was Pete- 

athyres,^ for 16 years. Anno mundi 3726. 

Fr. 37. 

32. The thirty-second king of Thebes was 

<Stammenemes I. (Ammenemes I.), for 26 
years. Anno mundi 3742. 

' As to the latter part of the name, " loving 
HSphaestus " is in Egyptian mai-Ptah : the emended 
T6- represents the Egyptian to, " world " (B.G.)- 

* Bunsen emends this vox nihili to mean " a tyrant 
like Ochus " : Gutschmid, to mean " Suchus the lord". 
The latter description may refer to one of the Sobekhotpes. 

* Petoathyrfes, a well-formed name Pedo-hathor, which 
does not occur as a king's name. 

223 



App. II PSEUDO-MANETHO 

Ay' Qy]fiaicx)v Xy' i^aaiXevae) Srafifjievefi-qs^', 

errj Ky' . rod 8e kog/jlov '))v ero? yi/j^y/ . 
AS' ©Tj^aLcov AS' i^auiXevae IJcaToaLX^p^TJ?, 

'HpaKX-qg Kparatd?/ err] ve' . toC Se Koafiov 

rjv eros ^yip^-ja' . 
Ae' ©iq^aiojv Ae' i^acrlXevae Mdprjs, errj fiy' . 

Tov Se Koafiov -^v €tos ^yoj/ts''. 

Fr. 40. 

A?' @r)^aiiov As'' i^aaiXevae S^^das^ o kol 
'Epfxrjg, vlos 'H(fiaLaTov, err] e'. rod Se 
KoajjLov 7)1' erog ^ycoTrd . 

Syncellus, p. 278. 

A^' Qrj^aioiv XI,' e^acriXevae 0povopu) ^ -qroL 
NelXoi, errj e'.^ rov Se KoapLov rjv eros 
,yai^h'.^ 

Xr]' ©Tj^aiajv Xrj' e^aaiXevae 'Apovdapralos, errj 
^y' . rov Se Koapcov tjv erog ^yTCMy' . 

^ EeaopToiais, 'Epfj.rjs r/ 'HpaKXfjs Kparaios conj. Bunsen. 

* Bunsen : Uic^oas codd. * <Povopa) Bunsen. 

* id' corr. Miiller. ^ ^yiond' codd. 

^ Besides Mares and derived forms (Marres, Aelian, 
De Nat. Anim. vi. 7 ; Marros and Mendes, Diod. Sic. i. 
61, 1 ; Imandes, Strabo, 17. 1. 37, 42), there are two types 
of variants on the name of Amenemhdt III. — (1) Lamar^s 
(Fr. 34), Lamaris (Fr. 35), Labares, Labaris ; and (2) 
Pramarres, Premanres (Pr- = Pharaoh) : cf. Poremanres, 
P. Mich. Zen. 84, lines 18, 21, Porramanres in A. Vogliano, 
Madinet Madi, Primo Rapporto (1936), Hymn IV., Hne 
34, where the first two syllables must be eliminated if 

224 



ERATOSTHENES (?) App. II 

33. The thirty-third king of Thebes was> Stam- 

menemes II. (Ammenemes II.), for 23 years. 
Anno mundi 3768. 

34. The thirty-fourth king of Thebes was Sis- 

tosichermes, " valiant Heracles "' (Sistosis or 
Sesortosis, " valiant Hermes or Heracles "), 
for 55 years. Anno mundi 3791. 

35. The thirty-fifth king of Thebes was Mares, ^ for 

43 years. Anno miindi 3846. 

Fr. 40. 

36. The thirty-sixth king of Thebes was Siphthas,^ 

also called Hermes, " son of Hephaestus." 
for 5 years. Anno mundi 3889. 

37. The thirty-seventh king of Thebes was 

Phruoro ^ (Phuoro) or " the Nile," for 5 
(? 19) years. Anno mundi 3894. 

38. The thirty-eighth king of Thebes was Amu- 

thartaeus, for 63 years. Anno mundi 3913. 
[Syncellus then adds (p. 279) in much the same 
phrase as that quoted at the beginning of Appendix 
II. : " These names Eratosthenes took from the 
sacred scribes at Diospolis and translated from 
Egyptian into the Greek language."] 

the pentameter is to scan. [See note on p. 50. The temple 
at the vestibule of which the Hymn was inscribed is 
dated 95 B.C.] 

^ Siphthas is King Siptah ("son of Ptah "), probably 
Thuoris (Thudsris), of Dynasty XIX. 

' The Egyptian name for the River Nile is pyeor-o. 
For comparisons of the King of Egypt with the River 
Nile, see Grapow, Die BUdllchen Ausdruckedes Aegyptischen, 
p. 62. 

I 225 



APPENDIX III 

To TIaaaion Xponikon. 

Syncellus, p. 95. 

0€p€Tat yap Trap' AlyvTTTiots TraAaioi' tl \povo- 
ypa(j)€lov,i^ ou Kal tov Mavedu) TTCTrXavfjaOai vopiil^u), 
7T€pL€xov A' SwaareLaJv iv yeveals ttolXiv piy' )(p6vov 
direipov [Kal ov tov avrov tov * Mavedcj] iv jxvpLdai 
rpial Kal ^s'^/ce', TTpcorov ^ikv ratv AepLTOJv,^ Sevrepov 
be Tcov Mearpaiajv, rpiTOv Se Alyvirrioiv, ovtoj ttojs 
6774 Ae^ecos" €xou • 

@€cbv /SaCTiAei'a /card to TlaXatov XpoviKOV. 

*H<l>aiaTov )(p6vos ovk ecrrt Std to vvktos Kal 
Tjfjiepas avTov (fiaiveiv. 

* Hopfner : tov A : ov Boeckh, Bunsen. 

* AvpiTuiv codd. 

*The Old Chronicle is dated by Gutschmid to the end 
of the second century after Christ. Gelzer would refer its 
statements to another source than Manetho, perhaps 
Ptolemy of Mend^s ; while Meyer regards it as the work of 
Panod6rus, c. a.d. 400 (c/. Fr. 2). 

* By the name Manetho Syncellus refers, as always, to 
the Book of Sdthis (App. IV.)- 

* The actual total of years from the items given, if 6 years 
be assigned to Dynasty XXVIII., is 36,347, i.e. 178 years 

226 



APPENDIX III. 
The Old Chronicle. 

(From Syncellus). 

Now, among the Egyptians there is current an old 
chronography,^ by which indeed. I believe, Manetho ^ 
has been led into error. 

In 30 dynasties with 113 generations, it comprises 
an immense period of time [not the same as Manetho 
gives] in 36,525 years,^ dealing first with the Aeritae,* 
next with the Mestraei, and thirdly with the 
Egyptians. Its contents are somewhat as follows : — 

Dynasties of the Gods according to the Old Chronicle. 

Hephaestus has no period assigned, because he 
shines night and day. Helios [the Sun], son of 

le88 than the total given in the text. The number of 
generations, 113, is obtained by counting 1 for Dynasty 
XXVIII. and 7 for XXIX. This vast world-period of 
36,525 years is 25 times the Sothic period of 1461 calendar 
years (or 1460 S6thic years): see infra, and for the S6thic 
period, Intro, pp. xxix f. 

* Aerit£ie and Mestraei are really the same as the third 
race, the Egyptians, the three names apparently referring 
to Egypt at three different dates. Aeria is an old name 
of Egypt (Euseb., Chron. in Syncellus, p. 293, Armenian 
Version (Schone, p. 30), Acgyptus quae prius Aeria dice- 
batur . . . ). Mestraei (Josephus, Antiq. 1. 6. 2) — from 
Mestraim (p. 7 n. 2). 

227 



App. Ill PSEUDO-MANETHO 

"HXlos 'H^aiarov e^aaiXevaev IrGiv fivpidSas 

Tpels. 
"ETTiLTa Kpovos, ^T^cri, Kal ol Xoittol TTavres 

deol ScuSe/ca e^aaiXevaav err) ^yjtiTrS' . 
"Eireira r^fxideoi ^aaiXels oktco errj aiXJ . 
Kal fi€T* aiiTovs yeveal te' Kvvlkov kvkXov 

aveypd(j>rjaav iv ereatp vp^y . 
Etra TavLTcov tt' Swaareia, yevecov t] , irojv 

IJpos OLS t^' Swaareia Me jxcfytTcbv, yevecou 8', 

irojv py . 
Med^ ovg irj' hwaareia Me p.(l)iTOJv, yevecbv tS', 

iriov rpLT] . 
"Eireira id' Swaareia A iogttoXltcoVj yevecov 

e , ircov p^8 . 
Elra K Bvvaareia A loaTToXtraJv, yeveaJv tj', 

erajv ctktj' . 
"ETTeira Ka' Swaareia Tavircov, yevecov ?', 

era)v p/ca . 
Elra K^' Swaareia Tavircov, yevecov y\ ercov 

"ETTeira Ky' Swaareia A loaTToXircov, yevecov 

jS , ercov l6 . 
Elra kS' Swaareia Ea'ircov, yevecov y , ercx)v 

npos of? Ke' Swaareia AlOlottcov, yevecov y\ 

erGiv jxS . 
Med^ ovs K?' Swaareia Mepi(j>Lraiv, yevecbv t,' , 
ircbv pot,' , 
228 



THE OLD CHRONICLE App. Ill 

Hephaestus, ruled for 30,000 years. Then Cronos 
(it says) and the remaining gods, 12 in number, 
reigned altogether for 3984 years. Next, the eight 
demi-gods were kings for 217 years ; and after them 
15 generations of the Sothic Cycle are recorded with 
443 years. ^ 

Then follow : 

The Sixteenth Dynasty of Kings of Tanis, in 

8 generations, for 190 years. 
The Seventeenth Dynasty of Kings of Memphis, in 

4 generations, for 103 years. 

The Eighteenth Dynasty of Kings of Memphis, in 

14 generations, for 348 years. 
The Nineteenth Dynasty of Kings of Diospolis, in 

5 generations, for 194 years. 

The Twentieth Dynasty of Kings of Diospolis, in 

8 generations, for 228 years. 
The Twenty-first Dynasty of Kings of Tanis, in 

6 generations, for 121 years. 

The Twenty-second Dynasty of Kings of Tanis, in 

3 generations, for 48 years. 
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Kings of Diospolis, 

in 2 generations, for 19 years. 
The Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Kings of Sais, in 

3 generations, for 44 years. 
The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Ethiopian Kings, in 

3 generations, for 44 years. 
The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Kings of Memphis, 

in 7 generations, for 177 years. 

* This total cornos, not from the Book of S6thia which 
gives 395 for the first 15, but from Eratosthenes (App. II.). 
A smaller total tlian Manetlio's 3357 years was desired in 
order to shorten the duration of the historical age of Kp,vi)t • 

229 



app. hi PSEUDO-MANETHO 

Kal /xer' aurou? kI,' Suvaareia * Fl^paojv, yeveibv 



'E^TTciTa kO' Swaareia Taviroiv yeve&v <$'>, 

irajv Xd' . 
Kal eVt ndaaig A' SuvaoTcta Tavirov ivos, erq 

Ta TTavra o/xov rcDv A' bvvaarciwv irr) My' 
Kal ^s'0/cc'. 

Tavra avaXvofxeva, eiroxjv fi€pit,6fj,€va, Trapa to. 
^au^a' erq CLKoai nevTaKis, Tr)v nap* Alyiymiois Kal 
"EXXrjcriv aTTOKardaTaaiv tov ^a>8ia/coy /JLvdoXoyov- 
lji€vr]v BrjXoL, TOVT ecTTt T7JV aiTO rod avrov ar^fieiov 
€TtI to avro crq^elov, o iaTi Trpatrov Xctttop ttjs 
TTpiLrr^S fiOLpas tov larqfMepivov ^ojStou, Kpiov Aeyo- 
fievov nap' avrols, wanep Kal iv toZs FevLKols 
TOV 'Epjxov Kal iv KvpavvLOL jSi^Aois' etprjrat. 

*EvT€v6€v 8e ot/jiaL Kal IJToXefiaiov tov KXavSiov 
TOV? npox^l-pov? Kavova? Trjs darpovofiLa? 8id Ke' 
eTT]piha)v ilir](f>i^€a6ai deaniaai . . • 

^Evrevdev 8e ecrri koI to davnclxovov twv toiovtojv 
€KS6a€U)v npo? re Tag deias rjfxcov ypa(f)dg Kal npos 
dXXrjXa iniyvwvai, on aun; fxev rj naXaiOTcpa vofii- 
^ofxevTj AlyvnTLOiv crvyypa(f)rj ' H(f)aiaTov [xev dnetpov 
eladyei xpovov, tojv 8e XotnoJv kO SwauTeicov eTrj 
TpiayLvpia ^^^Ke' , KatTOL tov 'H(f)aiaTov noXXols 
€Teai /ierd tov KaTaKXvafxov Kal Trjv nvpyonouav 

* Scaliger : codd. fiera ras k^' Swaareias, omit, yefewv. 

230 



THE OLD CHRONICLE App. Ill 

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Persian Kings, in 
5 generations, for 124 years. 

[The Twenty-eighth Dynasty is here omitted — 
one king of Sais reigning for 6 years.] 

Then comes the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Kings 
of Tanis in <7> generations for 39 years ; and finally 
the Thirtieth Dynasty consists of one King of Tanis 
for 18 years. The sum total of aU the 30 Dynasties 
comprises 36,525 years. 

If this total is broken up, or divided, 25 times into 
periods of 1461 years, it reveals the periodic return 
of the Zodiac which is commonly referred to in 
Egyptian and Greek books, that is, its revolution 
from one point back to that same point again, 
namely, the first minute of the first degree of the 
equinoctial sign of the Zodiac, the Ram as it is 
called by them, according to the account given in 
The General Discourses of Hermh and in the 
Cyranides. 

Hence it was, I suppose, that Claudius Ptolemaeus ^ 
announced that the ready astronomical tables should 
be calculated in periods of 25 years . . . 

Hence, too, the lack of harmony between such 
systems and our Holy Scriptures, as well as between 
one system and another, may be explained by the 
fact that this Egyptian record, which is held to 
be of great antiquity, assigns an immense period 
to Hephaestus, and to the remaining 29 ^ Dynasties 
36,525 years, although Hephaestus ruled over Egypt 

1 Claudius Ptolemaeus, the famous mathematician, 
astronomer, and geographer, c. a.d. 100-178 : for his Ready 
Tables see p. 5 in the other section of this volume. 

* An obviously incorrect summary of the enumeration 
of Dynasties given above. 

231 



App. Ill PSEUDO-MANETHO 

Trj^ AlyvTTTov ^aoiXevaavTos , (l>s heL-)(dricf€rai €v to) 

SeOVTL T07TC0. 

'0 Se Trap* AlyvTTrlois CTTicrr^juoTaTOS' MaveOoJ 
nepl T(x)v avTwv A' SwaoTeicov ypdipas, eV tovtcov 
SrjXaSr] Xa^ojv ras a^opuds, Kara ttoXv hiat^xjovei 
TTcpl rovg ;)^povoi'S" Trpos Tavra, Kadthg cctti /cat e'/c 
TtDi^ TTpoeiprjiJievojv r)[xlv dvoirepco [ladelv Kal e/c ratv 
€^rjs XexOi^crofievajv . tcov yap iv Tots rpial rofiOLS 
pty' y€V€a>v iv hwaarelai? A' dvayeypajjfievcov, 
avro) ^ 6 )(p6vos rd rravra avvrj^ev errj ^y^ve', 
dp^df-ieva rco ^a(f)7T^ eVet rov Koajj-ov Kal X-q^avra 
els TO ^ep/x^' ^ KocrfJtKov eros, rjroi Trpd ttjs ^4Ae^ai'8- 
pov Tov MaKeSovos KoajJiOKparopias err) ttov te'. 

^Ek tovtcov ovv d(jieXd)v tls Ta Trpd tov i<aTa- 
KXva/Jov x^^ TTpos dvairX'qpcoaLV tcjv ^^ojjl^ e^ 
ASd/Ji ecos TOV KaTaKXvapLov, a»? ipevBrj Kal dvv- 
TrapKTa, Kal to. dird tov KaTaKXvapov ecus' ttjs- 
TTvpyoTTOitas Kal crvyxvaeujs tcDv yXcoaacjv Kal 
hiaoTTopas tcov iOvojv (f)Xb , e^ei aa(f)djg tt^v dp^rfv 
TTJ? AlyvTTTiaKTJs ^aaiXeiag €K tov irpcoTOV ^a- 
aiXevaavTOS Trjs AlyvTTTov MeoTpatfi, tov Kal 
Mrjveos XeyofJLevov Trapd tco Mavedaj, dird tov 
fi^o^' CTOVS TOV i^ ASd/Ji ecus' NeKTava^dJ tov 
eaxdTOV ^acriAe'cos' AlyviTTOV, (Lg efrai Td rrdvTa 
aTTO MeaTpatp. ewg tov avTOv NeKTava^dJ eT-q 
^^T^e', a Kal €^9aaev, cog TrpoeiprjTat, eis to kog- 

pLLKOV ^ep/Ll^' ^ €TOS TTpO TT^S AX^^dvhpOV TOV KTLOTOV 

dpx^s €T€aL le iyyvs- 

^ Boeckh : avrwv codd., probably corrupt. 

232 



THE OLD CHRONICLE App. Ill 

many years after the Flood and the Building of the 
Tower, as will be shown in the appropriate place. 

The illustrious Egyptian Manetho, writing of 
these same 30 Dynasties, and obviously taking this 
as his starting-point, is widely divergent thereafter 
in the dates he gives, as one may learn both from 
what I have already said above, and from the re- 
marks that will follow immediately. For in his 
three books, 113 generations are recorded in 30 
Dynasties, and the time which he assigns amounts 
in all to 3555 years, beginning with Anno mundi 
1586 and ending with 5147 [5141J, or some 15 years 
before the conquest of the world by Alexander of 
Macedon. 

If therefore one subtracts from this total the 656 
years before the Flood in order to make up [with 
1586] the 2242 years from Adam to the Flood, — 
these 656 years being regarded as falsely assigned or 
non-existent, — and the 534 years from the Flood to 
the Building of the Tower, the Confusion of Tongues, 
and the Dispersion of the Peoples, one will clearly 
find the rise of the kingdom of Egypt under the first 
Egyptian king, Mestraim, who is by Manetho called 
Menes, which began in the year 2776, the year of 
Adam, and continued down to Nectanabo, the last 
king of Egypt. Thus the sum total from Mestraim 
down to this Nectanabo is 2365 years, which takes 
us, as has already been stated, to Anno mundi 5147 
[5141], approximately 15 years before the rule of 
Alexander the Founder. 

*1. ,epfj.a'. * ,epiia', marginal note in Goar. 

233 



APPENDIX IV. 

7/ BiBAOE Ths SQeEQS *H V Kynikos Kykaos, 

Syncellus, p. 170. 

AlyvTTTov rrjs TraAai Mearpaias ^aaiXdiov 
errj. 

a' Mearpatfj, 6 Kal Mrjvris, ctt} Ae', 
j3' Kovpoihrjs, Grr] ^y' . 
y ^Apiarapxos, errj AS'. 

8' UTToiviOS, €T7J A?'. 

e' Kal s*', ^aaiXewv hvolv av€7TLypd<f>(tjv erq ojS', 
4 LdaipoTTi^, err) Ky . 
rj' UeaoyxoiCTLs, err] fxd', 
6' *Afj,€v4fir]s, €Tr) kO' . 

Syncellus, p. 179. 

t' "Anaais, CTT] j3'. 
la' A.K€a€(f>dpr]s, err) ly', 
ij8' Ayxopevs, errj 6'. 
ly 'Apfi,ivai]s, crrj 8'. 

* Cod. B : o EoLpams Goar, Dindorf . 

^ The Book of Sdthis which Syncellus believed to be the 
genuine Manetho, but which in its original form was based 
upon Eusebiufl and Josephus, is dated by Gutschmid to the 

234 



APPENDIX IV. 

The Book of Sothis ^ or The Sothic Cycle. 

{From Syncellus.) 

The years of the kings of Egypt, called Mestraea of 
old. 

1. Mestralm, also called Menes, 35 years. 

2. Kourodes, 63 years. 

3. Aristarchus, 34 years. 

4. Spanius, 36 years. 

5 and 6. Two kings, unrecorded, 72 years. 

7. Osiropis, 23 years. 

8. Sesonchosis, 49 years. 

9. Amenemes, 29 years. 

10. Amasis, 2 years. 

11. Acesephthres, 13. 

12. Anchoreus, 9 years. 

13. Armiyses, 4 years. 

third century after Christ. It is not possible to divide 
the kings of this " Cycle " into dynasties, for their sequence 
is unchronological : e.g. 18-24 belong to Dynasties XIX. 
and XX., 26-29, 32 to the Hyksos period, 33-48 to Dynasty 
XVIII., 49, 58 to Dynasty XIX., 50, 51 to Dynasty 
XXVI., 59-61 to Dynasty I., 63-67 to Dynasty XXI., 
68-70 to Dynasty XXIII., 74 to Dynasty XXIV., 75-77 
to Dynasty XXV., and 79-86 to Dynasty XXVI. 

The Book of S6this includes names taken from another 
source than Manetho. 

235 



App. IV PSEUDO-MANETHO 

tS' Xafiots, €.Tr] L^'' 

1$ AjjLeorjai';, err] ^e . 
It Uvorjs, €Tq V . 

Syncellus, p. 189. 

K UvaL/Jbaprj, err) Aa . 
/ca' 'Pajxeaat^aecog, err] Ky . 
/Cj8 PafAeaaa/Jievco, errj id'. 

OvTOS TTpcbros 0apacb iv rfj Oeia ypa(f)rj 
fivT^fjLoieveraL. enl tovtov 6 7TaTptdp)^rjs 
A^paajJL KarrjXdev ei? AiyvTrTov. 
Ky' 'PajJiecrcrrj ^lov^aaarj, cttj Xd' , 

Syncellus, p. 193. 

/cS' 'Pajxecrarj Ovd(f)pov, err) kO', 
/ce' Koyxo-pLS, gtt] e'. 

TovTO) TO) e' €T€i Tov Ke ^acnXev- 
aavros Koyxo-peoj? rrjs AlyvTTTov eVt r-qs 

* B : 'Pa^ieaaofifvTJs A. - B : Ovaifidprjs A. 



* The name Chamois is probably the Greek form of the 
name Khamuas : for Khamuas, the principal son of 
Ramesses II., see Griffith, Stories of the High Priests, 
p. 2 n. 2. 

236 



THE BOOK OF SOTHIS App. IV 

14. Chamois,^ 12 years. 

15. Miamus, 14 years. 

16. Amesesis, 65 years. 

17. Uses, 50 years. 

18. Rameses, 29 years. 

19. Rames(s)omenes, 15 years. 

20. Usimare(s),^ 31 years. 

21. Ramesseseos,^ 23 years. 

22. Ramessameno, 19 years. 

He is the first Pharaoh mentioned in 
the Holy Scriptures. In his reign the 
patriarch Abraham went down into 
Egypt.4 

23. Ramesse lubasse, 39 years. 

24. Ramesse, son of Uaphres,^ 29 years. 

25. Concharis, 5 years. 

In this 5th year of Concharis, the 25th 
king of Egypt, during the Sixteenth 

* The name Usimar6(s) is the first part of the praenomen 
of llataosses II. : see p. 221 n. 4. 

* It is tempting to see in this name the Egyptian 
Ramesese-o, " Ramesses the Great," although this term, 
so commonly used in modern times, is not found in 
Egyptian records (B.G.). 

* On Abraham's descent into Egj'pt, see Peet, Egypt and 
the Old Testament, 1922, pp. 47 ff. (Abraham went down into 
Egypt in the First Intermediate Period, during Dynasties 
VII.-X., and loft Egypt before 2081 B.C.) Sir L. Woolley, 
on the other hand, is satisfied with the traditional date of 
the birth of Abraham at Ur, c. 2000 B.C. ; but he believes 
that the patriarch was not a single man, but a composite 
character (Abram, Abraham) — see Abraham : Recent 
Discoveries and Hebrew Origins, 19.36. 

'■ This description " son of Uaphres " is a remarkable 
anachronism : a king of Dynasty XIX. or XX. is said to 
bo the son of a king of Dynasty XXVI. 

237 



App. IV PSEUDO-MANETHO 

ts*' Swaareias rov KvviKov \eyo- 
fxevov kvkXov irapa tw Mavedo), oltto 
rov TTpJjTov ^aatXeoJS Kal oiKiaTov Mca- 
TpatfJL rrjs AlyvTTTOv, TrXrjpovvrat errj if/', 
jSacriAecov kc' , rovr* ccrriv oltto rov KadoXi- 

KOV KOafJLLKOV ,^^0?' €TOVS, Kad* OV XP^VOV 

ri SiaaTTopa ycyopcv, iv rut AS' crei ttJ? 
ijye/xovia? *Ap(f>a^dS, e' Sc eret rov ^aAe'/c. 
Kal BieSe^avTO TavZrai jSaCTiAet? 8', 
oi /cat i^amXevaav Alyvirrov cttI ttj? i-C 
Swaareias err) av8' ,^ a»? e^rjs e'orotp^eicoTai. 

Syncellus, p. 195. 

/c? UtXirrj^, cTTj id', rrpaJTOs ra)v g' Tijs i^' 
BwaoTeias Trapa Mavedu). 

Syncellus, p. 204. 
K^' Baicov, €Tr] fxS' . 

Kf] AtT aXV O.'S , €T7] As'. 

kO' ''A<f)a}(f>is, CTTj fa'. 

TovTOV Xeyovai rives vpcorov KXrjOrjvai 
0apaa), Kal to) rerdpro) erei rrjs jSaatAeta? 
avrov rov 'Iwarjij) eXdeiv els Aiyvrrrov 8ov- 
Xov. ovros Karearrjac rov ^Io)(rT](f> Kvpiov 
AlyvTTrov KOI Trdcrqs rijs ^aaiXeias avrov 
ru) il, erci rrjs dpx'^S avrov, rjviKa Kal rrjv 
Tcov oveipojv Siaad(f>r]aiv efxade rrap' avrov, 
Kal rrjs deias avvdaecos avrov 8td rreipas 

1 avd' corr. Miiller. 
238 



THE BOOK OF SOTHIS App. IV 

Dynasty of the Sothic Cycle as it is called 
in Manetho, the total of years from the 
first king and founder of Egypt, Mestraim, 
is 700 belonging to 25 kings, i.e. from the 
general cosmic year 2776, in which the 
Dispersion took place in the 34th year of 
the rule of Arphaxad ^ and the 5th year 
of Phalec.2 Next in the succession were 
4 kings of Tanis, who ruled Egypt in the 
Seventeenth Dynasty for 254 [259] years, 
according to the following computation. 

26. Silites (the first of the 6 kings of the Seven- 

teenth Dynasty in Manetho), 19 years. 

27. Baion, 44 years. 

28. Apachnas, 36 years. 

29. Aphophis, 61 years. 

Some say that this king was at first 
called Pharaoh, and that in the 4th year 
of his kingship Joseph came as a slave into 
Egypt. ^ He appointed Joseph lord of 
Egypt and all his kingdom in the 17th 
year of his rule, having learned from him 
the interpretation of the dreams and 
having thus proved his divine wisdom. 

* Arphaxad, son of Shem : O.T. Oenesia x. 22. See p. 26 
n. 1. 

* Phalec or Peleg ( = division) : " for in his days was the 
earth divided " {Genesis x. 25). Cf. the name of the town 
Phaliga on the Euphrates, — not that the y)atriarcli Peleg 
is to be connected directly with this town (W. F. Albright, 
TAe Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible ^, 1932-.3, p. 210). 

' For the Sojourn in Egypt during the Hyks6s period, 
BeePeet, Egypt and the Old Testament, pp. 73 ff. ; Albright, 
The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible^, pp. 143 f.; 
Garstang, The Heritage of Solomon, 1934, p. 147. 

239 



App. IV PSEUDO-MANETHO 

yeyovev. rj Se 9ei,a ypacf)'?] Kat tov eVt 
rod ^A^paoLfx jSacriAea AlyvTTTOv 0apa<l) 
KaXel. 

Syncellus, p. 232. 

A' He 6 COS, €Tr} v' . 

Xa Kriprojg, errj Kd\ Kara * laxrrjTTTTov , Kara Se 
Tou MavedaJ, err) /iS'. 

A)8' Aaijd, err] k' . 

Ovros TTpoaedrjKe rcov evtavrcov ras e 
eTTayofievas , Kal errl avrov, (Ls <j>aai.v, 
€)(pr)pdrLaev r^e' rj/Jiepiov 6 AlyvTrriaKos 
eviavro'S, r^' jxovov rjpepojv npo rovrov 
perpovfJLevog. em avrov 6 [x6(T)^os deo- 
TTOi.r]delg ^Ams eKXrjdr]. 

Xy' "AyLOiais 6 Kal Tedficoaig, errj /c? . 

Syncellus, p. 278. 

AS' Xe^pojv, err) ty' . 

Xe' AfxeijL(f)Lg,^ err) le' . 

As"' ApLevarjs, err) la . 

A^' MLa(f)payiJLovd(xiats, err) ig • 

At^' Mia(f>pr)s, err) Ky' . 

Xd' Tovdjxwais, err) Xd . 

Syncellus, p. 286. 
yj 'A)JL€voJ(f)dis, err) AS . 

Ovros 6 Ap.€Vii)^dis iariv 6 Mefivayv 
elvai vofitl^oiieuos Kal (fjOeyyo/xevos Xioos ' 
240 



THE BOOK OF SOTHIS App. IV 

The Holy Scriptures, however, give the 
name of Pharaoh also to the king of Egypt 
in the time ot Abraham. 

30. Sethos, 50 years. 

31. Certos, according to Josephus, 29 years; 

according to Manetho, 44 years. 

32. Aseth, 20 years. 

This king added the 5 intercalary days 
to the year : ' in his reign, they say, the 
Egyptian year became a year of 365 days, 
being previously reckoned as 360 days 
only. In his time the bull-calf was deified 
and called Apis. 

33. Amosis, also called Tethmosis, 26 years. 

34. Chebron, 13 years. 

35. Amemphis, 15 years. 

36. Amenses, 11 years 

37. Misphragmuthosis, 16 years. 

38. Misphres, 23 years. 

39. Tuthmosis, 39 years. 

40. Amenophthis, 34 years. 

This is the king who was reputed to be 
Memnon and a speaking statue. Many 

' See p. 99 n. 3. 

^B : '^/jt/u^T^s A. 

241 



App. IV PSEUDO-MANETHO 

ov XlOov ^(povois varepov KafM^varjs 6 
Uepacov Tc/jivei, vofJiL^ojv efvat yo-qreiav iv 
avro), COS UoXvaivos 6 ^Adrjvalog laTopel. 
AWioTTes 0.77-0 'IvSov TTorayLOV dvacTToivTCS 
TTpos TTJ Alyvirrcp (VK7]aav. 

fia iJpos, err) /jltj . 

fi^' 'Ax^vx€p''js, err] Ke , 

fxy' Add) pis, €T7) kO'. 

jmS' Xevx^p'qs, err] ks'. 

Syncellus, p. 293. 

fie Ax^pp'qs, CTTj Tj 7] Kai A . 

fi$' ^Apfxalos, 6 Kal Aavaos, ctt] 9 . 

Apfxalos, 6 Kal Aavaos, <f>€vyo}V rov 
ab€X(f)6v ' Pafieaarjv rov Kal AtyvnTOV ^ 
iK7TLTTT€t T^? /cttx' AtyvTTTOV jSacTtAeta? 
avTOv, €LS 'EXXdSa re d<j>iKveiTaL. *Pa- 
ixeaarjs 8e, o dBeX(f)6s avTOv, 6 Kal A'lyvTT- 
ros KaXovfxevos, i^aaiXevaev AlyvTTTOV ctt] 
^7)' , [xerovofidaas tt^v ;^66par AtyviTTOv to) 
iSi'o) ovofxaTL, rjrLS Trporepov Mearpaia, 
•nap' "EXX-qai Se A€pla iXeyeTO. Aavaos 
Be, 6 Kal Apiialos, Kparrjoas rov "Apyovs 
Kal eK^aXdiv EdeveXov rov KporcoTTOv Ap- 
yeicov e^aaiXevae • Kal oi diroyovoL avrov 
fier avrov Aavathai KaXovfievoi in* Ev- 
pvadea rov EdeveXov rov Ilepaeois ' p-ed 
CVS oi IJeXoTTiSat diro UeXoTTOS Ttapa- 
Xa^ovres rrjv dpx^v, (Lv npcoros *Arpevs. 

* AlyvTTTiov codd. : Aiyimrov Scaliger : km add. Miiller. 
242 



THE BOOK OF SOTHIS App. IV 

years later Cambyses, the Persian king, 
cut this statue in two, deeming that there 
was sorcery in it, as Polyaenus of Athens ^ 
relates. 

The Ethiopians, removing from the 
River Indus, settled near Egypt. 

41. Orus, 48 years. 

42. Achencheres, 25 years. 

43. Athoris, 29 years. 

44. Chencheres, 26 years. 

45. Acherres, 8 or 30 years. 

46. Armaeus, also called Danaus, 9 years. 

This king, fleeing from his brother 
Ramesses, also called Aegyptus, was 
driven from his kingdom of Egypt and 
came to Greece. Ramesses, his brother, 
whose other name was Aegyptus, ruled 
Egypt for 68 years, changing the name of 
his country to Egypt after his own name. 
Its previous name was Mestraea, and 
among the Greeks Aeria. Now Danaus 
or Armaeus took possession of Argos and, 
driving out Sthenelus the son of Crotopus, 
ruled over the Argives. His descendants 
thereafter were called Danaldae down to 
Eurystheus son of Sthenelus, the son of 
Perseus. Next to these, after Pelops the 
Pelopidae succeeded to the kingdom : 
the first of these was Atreus. 

* Polytienua of Athens ( ? of Sardis or of Macedonia), a 
writer of history, lived in the time of Gaius (Cahgula). 

243 



App. IV PSEUDO-MANETHO 

Syncellus, p. 302. 

fxJ^' *Paii€aarjs, 6 Kal A'lyvTTTOS, e-rq ^rf . 
fiTj' 'AiJi€vaj(f)ts, err) -q' . 
^6' ©ovcopis, €Tr] t^'. 

va WafifMovdCs, err] ly' , 

v^' — , CTTy 8'. 

vy KrjpTCos, errj k . 

I/S' 'PdfuljLS, €77} fxe'. 

ve' 'Afieva-qs, 6 Kal Afifievdfxrjg , err] kS*. 

Syncellus, p. 319. 

i/S"' '0;^upa?j errj iS'. 

i'^' 'AfievS-qs, err] kI,' , 

vy\ ©oviopts, e-rr) v . 

Ovt6<s iaTLV 6 Trap 'Op,'qpcp UoXv^og, 
MA/cavSpa? av-qp, iv ^Ohvaaeia (f)€p6fX€vos, 
Trap" CO (f>riai rov MeveXaov avv rfj 'EXevr) 
/Hera -7-171' dXojaiv Tpoias KaTrjx^o-'- "nXavco- 
fievov. 

vd' "AOojOl^, 6 Kal ^ovaavos, i(f>' oS areiapiol 
Kara rrjv AlyvTrrov iydvovro, jjLr^BeTTU} ye- 
yovores iv avrfj Trpo rovrov, err] kt] . 
^' KevKevr]s, err] Xd . 

^a Ov€vv€(f>Lg, err] ]i^ .^ 

' Corr. Goar : tj' codd. ■ A/3' cod. B. 

244 



THE BOOK OF SOTHIS App. IV 

47. Ramesses, also called Aegyptus, 68 years. 

48. Amenophis, 8 years. 

49. Thuoris, 17 years. 

50. Nechepsos,^ 19 years. 

51. Psammuthis, 13 years. 

52. — , 4 years. 

53. Certos,^ 20 years. 

54. Rampsis, 45 years. 

55. Amenses, also called Ammenemes, 26 years. 

56. Ochyras, 14 years. 

57. Amendes, 27 years. 

58. Thuoris, 50 years. 

This is the Polybus of Homer, who ap- 
pears in the Odyssey as husband of Al- 
candra : the poet tells how Menelaus and 
Helen dwelt with him in their wanderings 
after the capture of Troy. 

59. Athothis, also called Phusanus,^ 28 years. 

In his reign earthquakes occurred in 
Eg}^pt, although previously unknown 
there. 

60. Cencenes, 39 years. 

61. Uennephis, 42 years. 

'See p. 211 n. 2. Nechepsds appears again as 
Nechepsus, No. 80. 

* 53-58 raay be the 6 kings of Dynasty XIX., some of 
them repeated. 53 Certos may be Seth6s : 54 Kampsis 
= 47 Ramesses : 55 Amenses = Amenmeses : while 
Thu6ris appears as 58 and 49. 

• With Phusanus c/. Psusennfis of Dynasty XX I . 

245 



App. IV PSEUDO-MANETHO 

Syncellus, p. 332. 

^jS' SovaaKcifx, err) AS . 

ZovaaKel^ Ai^vag Kal AW toTras kox 

TpajyAoSuTa? TrapeXa^e npo ttjs lepov- 

aaX-qpi. 
^y' ^ov€vo?, err) Ke . 

f§' AfJifM€VCO(f>Lg, CTTj 6 . 

fS* ZaLTrjs, CTTy le . 

^^' Wivdx'T}^, €T>7 ^'. 

^r^' UeTov^daTr)?, err) /xS . 

^^' ^Oacopdcov, err) 6', 

I 17/ ' V / 

O TaflflOS, CTT) I . 

oa.' Koyxo.p'-Si ^Tf] Ka. 

Syncellus, p. 347. 

ojS' ^Oaopdojv, €T7] te'. 
oy' TaKaXa)(f}LS, err) ly , 
oh' B6kx<j^PI-S, €Tr] /u,8'. 

BoKXiopig AiyvTTTLoig ivofioOdrei, €<f) ov 
Adyos" dpvLov t^dey^aadai. 
oe' Za^aKCov AWLOiff, err} i^' . 

OvTos, TOP BoKxojpt-v aixp-dXojrov AajScov, 
t,(x)vra €Kav(T€v. 
or' Ee^rixcoVj €77] tjS'. 
246 



THE BOOK OF SOTHIS App. IV 

62. Susakeim,^ 34 years. 

This king brought up Libyans, Ethio- 
pians, and Troglodytes ^ before Jerusalem. 

63. Psuenus, 25 years. 

64. Ammenophis, 9 years. 

65. Nephecheres, 6 years. 

66. Saltes, 15 years. 

67. Psinaches, 9 years. 

68. Petubastes, 44 years. 

69. Osorthon, 9 years. 

70. Psammus, 10 years. 

71. Concharis, 21 years. 

72. Osorthon, 15 years. 

73. Tacalophis, 13 years. 

74. Bocchoris, 44 years. 

This king made laws for the Egyptians : 
in his time report has it that a lamb spoke.' 

75. Sabacon, an Ethiopian, 12 years. 

This king, taking Bocchoris captive, 
burned him alive.* 

76. Sebechon, 12 years. 

* Susakeim, apparently, is Shoshenk, or SesonchSais, the 
first king of Dynasty XXII. (Fr. 60, 1): Josephus, Antiq., 
viii. § 210, has Susakos. 

* In O.T. 2 Chron. xii. 3 it is said that Shishak brought 
up, along with the Ethiopians, the Lubims (Libyans) 
and the Sukkiims : in the LXX the last are the Tr6glody tes, 
i.e. the " Cave-dwellers " along the west shore of the Red 
Sea (see Strabo, xvi. 4. 17). G. W. Murray, Sons of 
Ishmael, 1935, p. 18, suspects that the Ethiopians were 
negro troops or perhaps Boja nomads (i.e. Bedouin). " At 
any rate Shishak, like the great Mohammed Ali after him, 
realized the importance of Bedouin auxiliaries on a desert 
campaign." 

» See p. 164 n. 2. * See p. 166 n. 2. 

247 



App. IV PSEUDO-MANETHO 

Syncellus, p. 360. 

o^' TapaK-q?, errj k. 

or] *A\iar\s, (tt] Xr] . 

oB' Sr€<j)Lvddy]S, €T7) k^'. 

tt' Nexajjo';, err) ly' . 

Syncellus, p. 396. 

7Ta' Nexctfu, eVry rj' . 

77-jS' Tafji^-qrixo?. err] tS'. 

Try' Nexa(J^ &' ^apao), eTrj 6'. 

■jtB' Wafiovd-qg erepos, 6 Kol f^ajti/iijrixoj, 

err] ^b • ^^ 
rre' Oua^pt?/ 4x7; AS'. 
TT?' M jU, a> o- 1 ?,' eVry v'. 

1 Ova^p-qs codd. * M/iaffts codd. 



248 



THE BOOK OF SOTHIS App. IV 

77. TaraCes, 20 years. 

78. Amaes,^ 38 years. 

79. Stephinathes, 27 years. 

80. Nechepsus, 13 years. 

81. Nechao, 8 years. 

82. Psammetichus, 14 years. 

83. Nechao II. (Pharaoh), 9 years. 

84. Psamuthes the Second, also called Psammeti- 

chus, 17 years. 

85. Uaphris, 34 years. 

86. Amosis, 50 years. 

* Amaes corresponds to Ammeris or Aineres the 
Ethiopian, Fr. 69, 1, i.e. Tanutamun, Dynasty XXVI, 



249 



Manetho 




a, I Sl^iiTurtl !.■', tendon 



PLATE 1 



SCARABS 




1. Apophi 



..a. 





2. Khian. 



3. Ainosi; 



PLATE II 




The Palekmo Stone. 



Old Egyptian Annals of the Kings. Dimensions of 
fragment: c. l~\ inches high by 10 inches wide. 



PLATE III 



m 



\ 









^a% 






Facsimtt.k of p. Badkv 4. 59. 
Pajji lus of ail Epiiomu ol Maaetlio, v.jA.D. 



PLATE IV 



(1) 




(2) 



(3) 





INDEX TO MANETHO 



Abraham, 25, 27, 237, 241. Ammanemes, 67, 71. 

Acencheres I. (Kine), 103, 109, Ammenemfes, 63, 65, 69, 71 ; (I.), 

Amme9^P5^j.8ee Amen6phi3. 



Achenc8«iW,'2^3r Amtnenflphis i.se 

AchencteQe^fcislft. .Vs-vS eloo*I) iQta«l©Hb, W8" 

Achdris, 179, 181. .^aBto,'/HIl„taaLlbsH. TO 

Arhtlioes, 61. AnKisls (Amoses, Amusis), 19, 113, 

Adam, 7, 11, 13, 25, 27, 233. ,. 115. lU, 171, 17avia?r2tU*241, 

Aeria, 243. Arayrtaeua (-t«i*,Mfesp'ft'9, 221. 

Aeritae, 227. Anchoreus, 235. 



Agath' 



Air, 19^.1 ,MMO03A\i ?.<^11VK«W« h^^f^W' ^^^S^^^ 

.(^ftt/99, ^<^9,''*ret», 1^7^189, 208, 



Alexandria, 193, 195 

Amaes, 249. 

Amasis, 235. 

Ameinphis, 241. 

Amende, 245. 

Amenem^s, 235. 

AmenOph, Amendphath, 113. 

AmenAphls I., 101, 109, 115, 
? 245, ? 247 ; II., 101, 109 ; 
III., 103, 109, 113, 115, 117: 
IV., 103, 111, 113, 117, 119, 121, 
123 n. 1, 127, 129, 131, 133, 137, 
139, 143. 

Amendphls, son of Hapu, 123, 125, 
129. 

Amendphthto, 111, 155, 157, 241. 

AmeoA^ (-is). 111, 115, 241, 245. 

Amerco, 69, 173. 

Amersis, 111. 

Amen&sis, '^37. 

Ames!*(', 109. 

Amessla, 101. 



241. 
Apollo, 17. 
ApoUodorus, 213. 
ApAphiB (Aphobis, Aph6phis), 83, 

91, 97. 99, 239. 
Arabs, 85. 
Archa^, 99. 
Archlfts, 91. 97. 
Ar68, 17, 23, 217. 
Argives, 107, 117, 119, 243. 
ArKOS, 19, 107, 117, 119, 243. 
Aristarchus, 235. 
Armaeufl, 243. 
Armals, 117, 119. 
Armesis, 110. 
ArmlyBte, 235. 
Arphaxad, 27, 239. 
Ar8*8, 185, 187. 
ArsinoTte nome, 69, 71, 73. 
Artabanus, 175. 
Artaxerxfes, 175, 177. 

251 



(1) 



PLATE IV 




(1) Barge of 
seated in 
to the rig 
of Greek 
of Hadria 

(2) Temple of 
Serapis seated, with Cerberus at his feet (ibid.. 
No. 872). 

(3) Serapis reclining, an eagle in his right liand, 
a scep^M) in his left (Babelon et Reigach, 
Recueil general des monnaies grecques, I., 

[)ronz€ 




INDEX TO MANETHO 



Abraham, 25, 27, 237, 241. 
Aceneheres I. (Kine), 103, 109, 

119 ; TI. (King), 103, 109. 
Aceneheres (Queen), 103, 109. 
Acesephtlires, 235. 
Achencheres, 243. 
Achencherses, 115. 
Acherres, 113, 117, 119, 243. 
Aches, 43. 
Achfiris, 179, 181. 
ArhthoM, 61. 

Adam, 7, 11, 13, 25, 27, 233. 
Aegyptiaca. 99. 
Aegvptus, 7, 105, 117 119, 121, 

243, 245. 
Aeria, 243. 
Aeritae, 227. 
Aesculapius, 45. 
Africanus, 25, 27, 29, 37, 43, 47, 67, 

111, 113, 115, 117. 
Aeathodaemdn, 15, 209. 
Air, 197. 

Alcandra, 149, 151, 245. 
Alexander the Great, 187, 233. 
Alexandria, 193, 195. 
Amaes, 249. 
Amasis, 235. 
Amemphis, 241. 
Amendea, 245. 
Amenemes, 235. 
Araen6ph, Amendphath, 113. 
Amen6phis I., 101, 109, 115, 

? 245, ? 247 ; II., 101, 109 ; 

III., 103, 109, 113, 115, 117; 

IV., 103, 111, 113, 117, 119, 121, 

123 n. 1, 127, 129, 131, 133. 137, 

139, 143. 
AmenOphls, son of Hapu, 123, 125, 

129. 
AmenAphthis, 111, 155, 157, 241. 
Amenses (-is). 111, 115, 241, 245. 
Amereo, 69, 173. 
Amersis, 111. 
Amesesis, 237. 
Amesse, 109. 
Amessis, 101. 



Ammanemes, 67, 71. 
Ammenemes, 63, 65, 69, 71 ; (I.), 

223 ; (II.), 225, 245. 
Ammenem(n)es, 149, 151. 
Am(m)enpphth68(is), 149, 151. 
AmmenOphis : see Amendpbis. 
Ammeris, 171. 
AmmOn, 17, 189, 221. 
Amophis, 117. 
Am6a, 111, 113. 
AmOsis (Ameses, Amusis), 19, 113, 

115, 117, 171, 173, 199, 201, 241, 

249. 
Amfin, 189. 
Amuthartaeus, 225. 
Amyrtaeus (-teos, -tea), 179, 221. 
Anchoreus, 235. 
Annianus, 11 n. 2, 17 n. 3. 
Anflyphis, 217. 
Anubis (-es), 17, 19. 
Apachnan (-as), 83, 239. 
Apappils, 221. 
Aphrodite, 23. 
ApiOn, 19. 
Apis, 35, 37, 39, 129, 137, 189, 203, 

241. 
Apollo, 17. 
ApoUodorus, 213. 
Apfiphis (Aphobis, Aphflphis), 83, 

91, 97, 99, 239. 
Arabs, 85. 
Archafes, 99. 
Archies, 91, 97. 
Ares, 17, 23, 217. 
ArRives, 107, 117, 119, 243. 
Arcos, 19, 107, 117, 119, 243. 
Aristarchus, 235. 
Armaeus, 243. 
Armals, 117, 119. 
Armeais, 113. 
Annlys&s, 235. 
Arphaxad, 27, 239. 
Arses, 185, 187. 
Arsinolte nome, 6"?, 71, 73. 
Artabanus, 175. 
Artaserx^, 175, 177. 

251 



INDEX 



Asclepios, 41, 43. 
Aseth, 241. 
Asia, 67, 71, 73, 89. 
Asiatics, 195. 

Assyrians, 81. 89, 103, 171, 173. 
Atlienn, 191, 197, 221. 
Athens, 243. 
Athflris, 115, 243. 
Ath6thes I., 215; 11., 215. 
Atliflthls, 29, 31, 33, 215, 245. 
Atreiis, 243. . 
Auaris 81, 87, 125, 127, 129, 137 

Babylon, 15. 

Baion, 239. 

Beb6n, 189. 191. 

Bcr6ssos, 15. 

Bicheris, 47. 

Bicneches, 29. 

Bindtliri'J. 37. 

Biophis, 39. 

Bites, 5. 

Bivres, 219. 

BnOn, 83, 91, 97. 

Bocch6rls, Bochrh6ris, 165. 167 

169, 247. 
B6chos (-us), 21, 37. 39. 
Boethos, 35. 
Bubastis (-us), 21, 35, 37, 39, 159, 

161. 
Bubastite brancli, 81. 
Bydis, 5. 



Cainan, 27. 

Calendar, xxviii., 99 n. 3, 23; 

Carabyses, 175, 177, 243. 

Cechous, 39 (.see Kaicchos). 

Cencenes, 33 (see Kenkenes), 

Cenchcres, 115. 

Cerberus. 195. 

Cert6s, 241, 245. 

Chaire.s, 37. 

Chaldea, 15. 

Cham (Ham), 7, 23. 

Chamois, 237. 

Chcbres, 113. 

Chebrdn, 101, 109, 115, 117, 

Chebrfls, 111. 

Chenchcres, 243. 

Cheneres, 37. 

Cheops, 47, 49. 

Chares, 51. 

Cherres, 117, 119. 

252 



3, 241. 
, 245. 



Clinubos, 217. 
Cho, 33 (see K6rhftra6). 
Chomaephtha, 223. 
Ch6os, 37 (see Kaich6os). 
Chuther, 223. 
Concharis, 237, 247. 
Cronos, 3, 17, 23, 199, 229. 
Crotfipiis, 243. 
Cyprus, 103. 

Danatdae, 243. 

Dauaus, 105, 107, 117, 119. 121, 

243. 
Darius 1., 175, 177; II., 175, 177. 
Darnis, 3, 185, 187. 
Denieter. 197. 
Deucalion, 113. 
Dio'loriis, 199. 
Dionysiu?, 195. 
Diospolis (or Tliebes), 21, 63, 65, 

67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 93, 95, 111, 

115, 117, 149, 151, 1.53, 155, 

225, 229. 
Dispersion,' 213, 233, 239. 

Karth. 197. 
. Earthquakes, 35 n. 3. 

Kcheskosokaras, 221. 

lOsrcsori, 11. 

Egypt, 3, 5, 7, 15, 17, 19, 23, 25, 
27, 29, 41, 43, 45, 47, 61, 63, 85, 
87, 89, 91, 95, 97, 101, 103, 105, 
107, 111, 115, 117, 119, 121, 123, 
125, 127, 129, 133, 135, 137, 139, 
141, 143, 145, 169, 171, 173, 175, 
177, 185, 187. 189, 195, 197, 199, 
209, 211, 215, 217, 219, 231, 233, 
235, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245 ; 
Lower, 81 ; Upper, 81 

Epjptians, 121, 125, 129, 133, 139, 
141, 143, 145, 147, 161, 163, 191, 
195, 197, 227, 247. 

Kileithyiaspolis, 199, 203. 

Klephantine, 51, 53. 

Enoth, U. 

Eratosthenes, 213, 225. 

Ethiopia, 9, 129, 131, 133, 137, 139, 
143 

Ethiopian, 167, 169, 171, 173, 229, 
243, 247. 

Europe. 37, 71, 73. 

Eurystlie\is, 243. 

Euscbius, 11, 13, 25, 27, 29, 31, 39, 
43, 49, 67, 115, 117. 



INDEX 



Exoda", 19 n. 3, 107, 110 n. 2, 
115, 119. 

Fire, 197. 

Flood, 7, 13, 15, 25, 27, 31, 37, 47, 
49, 113, 209. 233. 

Gneuros, 217. 
Gosormies. 217. 
r.reecp, 117, 119, 243. 
Greeks, 243. 

Ham, 7, 23. 

Harmals, 103, 105, 109. 

Harmesses Miamfin, 103 

Harpocrat*«. 223. 

Hebrews, 119. 

Hecataeua oi Abdera, ssiv., 131 

n. 2. 
Helen, 245. 
Heliopolis, 23, 35, 125, 131, 139. 

145, 199, 211. 
Helios, 3, 15, 17, 23, 199, 227. 
Hephaestus, 3, 15, 17, 23, 197. 

199, 223. 227, 229, 231. 
Hera, 199, 201. 
H?'racleopolie. 61, 63. 
Heraclfe", Hercules, 17. 161, 163, 

215, 223, 223. 
Hermaeiis, 121. 
Hermes, 23, 209, 215, 225. 
HcniiM (TrisniegUtus), 209, 211 
Hemuipolia, 23. 
Herodotus, 31, 33, 47, 49, 79, 205. 

207. 
Hestia, 199. 

Homer, 149, 151, 153, 245. 
H6rus, 23, 191. 
Hyk'j6a, 85. 
Hystaspes, 175. 

I annas, 83. 
Imuthes, 41. 
Inachus, 19. 
Indus, Kiver, 243. 
I6acliaz, 109, 171, 173. 
Isis, 5, 17, 189, 191, 197. 
Israel, 115. 

Jenisalem 88 n. 2, 89, 101, 119 
121 127, 137, 141, 143. 169, 171. 
173. 247. 

Jews, 77, 107, 115 121. 131, 171. 
173. 

Joseph 25, 89, 97, 239 



Josephus, 77, 241. 
Judaea, 89, 119. 
Jupiter, 23. 

Kaiech6s, Kaichdos, 35, 37. 
Kenkenes, 29. 31. 
Kerpheres, 43. 
Khian, 83 n. 2. 
Kings, co-eSistiug, 8 n. 1. 
K6ch6nie, 29, 31. 
KourOdes, 235. 
Kyphi, 203. 

LabjTinth, 69, 71, 73. 

Laciiares, Lamares (-is), Lampares, 

69, 71, 73. 
Lamb, prophetic, 164 n. 2. 
Libyans, 41, 43, 45, 247. 
Luke, 27. 

Macedon. 187. 

ilagi, 177. 

Malalas, 23. 

Manetho, 3, 11, 15, 17. 21, 23, 25 
63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 77, 79, 85. 87 
89, 99, 101. 107, 109, 119, 125 
133, 135, 137, 139, 141, 143. 145 
147. 151, 153. 155, 185. 187. 189 
195, 197, 199, 201, 203, 205, 207 
209, 211, 227, 233, 239, 241. 

Mares, 217, 225. 

ilars, 23. 

Medes, 105. 

MemnOn, 113, 115, 117. 241. 

Memphis. 5, 9, 23, 29, 31. 33, 35, 
41, 43, 45. 49. 53, 57, 59, 81, 91, 
95, 97, 129, 215, 229. 

Meniphres, 117. 

Slenipses, 35. 

Mencliere.s 1., II.. 47, 51, 219. 

Meudes, Mendeslan. 35. 37. 39, 
179, 181. 

Menelaiis, 245. 

Meues, Men, Min, Miueua, 21, 29, 
31, 33, 215, 233, 235. 

Menthesuphi.*, 55. 

Mt-phram(m)utti6si3, 101, 109. 

Mephres, 101, 109. 

Mercury, 23. 

.\IesO( hris, 43. 

.Mestraea, 235, 243. 

.Mestraei, 227. 

.Me.stralin, Mestrem. Mizralm, 7, 9, 
15, 25, 233, 235, 239. 

.Melhusuphis, 53. 

253 



INDEX 



MeurSa, 223. 

Miabaes, 215. 

Mlamfls, 237. 

MiebLs, 29. 

Mleires. 223. 

Mln, Mineus : see Menes. 

Mlphrea, 115. 

Misaphris, 113. 

Mispharmuthosls, 117. ' 

Misphragmuthdsls, 87, 113, 115, 

241 
Mhphres. 241. 
MnevLa, 35, 37, 39. 
Momcheirl, 215. 
Moon, 195, 197. 
Moscheres, 219. 
Moses, 25, 107, 111, 115, 119, 131, 

133, 139, 145, 147. 
Mosthes, 219. 
Muthea (-is), 181. 
MyrUeus, 221. 

Narachfi, 23, 25. 

Nechao I., 169, 171, 173, 249; 11., 

169, 171, 173, 249. 
Nechepsi^s, 169, 171, 173, 245. 
Nechepsus, 249. 
Necherocheus, 21. 
Necher6chis, 43, 45. 
Necher6phes, 41. 
Nectanal,6, 25, 233. 
Nectanebes (-is), 183, 185. 
Nectanebus, 183, 185. 
Nephecheres, 247. 
Nephelcheres, Nephercheres, 37, 

51 155 157. 
Nepherites I.,' 179, 181 : II., 

179, 181. 
Niebais, 31, 35. 

Nile, 37, 39, 81, 125, 129, 197, 225. 
NiWcris, 55, 57, 221. 
Noah, 7, 23. 

Ocean, 197. 

OchthOls, 61. 

6chii8, 185, 187. 

Ochyras, 245. 

Oiiys/ey, 245. 

Olympic festival, 161. 

Onnns, 51. 

Or, Orus, 5, 17, 19, 103, 109, 113, 

., lis, 117, 121, 243. 

Onis the grammarian, 207. 

Osarseph, 125, 131, 139, 147. 

254 



Osiris, 5, 17, 19, 23, 69, 71, 73, 131, 
. 139, 189, 197. 
Oslropis, 235. 
Osochdr, 155, 167. 
Osorch6, 161. 

OsorthOn, 159, 161, 163, 247. 
OsOrthdn, 247. 
OthiuB, 53. 
Othoes, 61, 63. 
Othol, 21. 



Paapis, 123, 129. 

Pachnan, 91. 

Palaephatus, 23. 

Pammes, 219. 

Pamphilus, 11, 25. 

Panoddrus, 11, 13. 

Pelopidae, 243. 

Pelops, 243 

Pelusium, 105, 140 n., 143. 

Pemph6s, 215. 

Pepi, 221. 

Perseus 243 

Persian 'Kings, 175, 177, 185, 187, 

231, 243. 
Persians, 3, 175, 185, 187. 
Peteathyres, 223. 
Petu bastes (-is), 163, 247. 
Petubates, 161. 
Phaethdn, 23. 
Phalec, 239. 

Pharadh, 23, 109, 237, 239, 241, 249. 
Phidps, 53, 55. 
Phius, 53. 

Phoenicia, 91, 95, 97, 99, 103. 
Phruor6 (Phuord), 225. 
Phusanu?, 245. 
Pinto, 193, 195. 
Polyaenus, 243. 
Polybus, 149, 151, 153, 245. 
Potter's oracle, vlii. n. 1, 123 n. 1. 
Psammecheritfis, 171. 
P8am(m)etichus I., 169, 171, 173, 

249 ; II., 169, 171, 173, 249 : III., 

171. 
Psammus, 247. 
Psammfls, 161, 163. 
Psammuthis, Psamiithte, 169, 173, 

179, 181, 245, 249. 
Psin(n)ach6s, 155, 157, 247. 
Psuenus, 247. 
Psuaennes I., 155, 157 ; II., 165, 

157. 
Ptolemaeus, Claudius, 231. 



INDEX 



Ptolemy of Mendes, viil., x., 19 

n. 3, 226 n. 1. 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, 15, 209, 211. 
Ptolemy SOter, 193, 195. 
Pyramid, the Great, 47, 49. 

Queens, 37 n. 1, 54 d. 2. 

Ram, 231. 
RamessamenO, 237. 
Raaiesse, 237. 
Kamessc lubasse, 237. 
Rame8(B)e3, 103, 109, 113, 117, 119. 

237, 243 (= Aegj'ptus), 245. 
Ramesses 11., 103. 149. 
Ramesses Miammfl(n), 109. 
RamesseseOs, 237. 
Ramcs(8)omene8, 237. 
Ramps^s (U), 121, 133, 151, 245. 
Rapsaces, 149. 
RapsM, 129. 
Rath6s, 113. 
RathOtU, 103, 109. 
Rathures, 51. 
RatoUes, 47. 
RayOais, 219. 
Rhea, 199. 

SabacAn, 167, 169, 247. 

Sacrifice, human, 198 n. 2. 

Sais, 9, 91 n. 4, 99, 165, 167, 168 

n. 1, 169, 171. 173, 179, 229, 231. 
Saite nome, 81, 91, 95, 97, 99. 
Sh\te». 91, 95, 97, 99, 247. 
Saitlc, 99. 
SalitU, 81, 83. 
Sadphis I., 219 , II., 210. 
Saracus, 169. 
Saturn{us), 2, 23. 
Scemlophrifl, 69. 
Scripture, Holy Scriptures, 18, 25, 

231, 237, 241. 
SeWchOn, 247. 
Sebennytus, xl. n. 1, 15, 23, 183, 

185, 189, 195, 209, 211. 
Sebercherfia, 47. 
SeMchds, 167, 169. 
Semcmpsts, 29, 33, 215. 
Semphrucrat^, 223. 
Sempsfls, 215. 
Sephri^s, 51. 
S^phurla, 43. 
Serapls, 189, 195. 
8*rladlc, 209. 
Se««chrl9, 87, 30, 41. 



SesOnchis, 159. 

Sesonchosis, 67, 69, 71, 159, 161, 

235. 
Sesorthos, Sosorthus, 43, 45. 
SesortAsis, 225. 
Sesdstris, 67, 71. 
Seth, 191. 
Sethenes, 37. 
Sethinilus, 221. 
Sethos (RamessSs), 103, 105, 111, 

121, 129, 149, 151, 241. 
SethOsis, 105. 
Sethrolt* nome, 80 n. 3, 81, 91, 

95, 97, 99. 
Shepherds, Shepherd Kings, 85, 87, 

89, 91, 93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 107, 

121, 125, 127, 131, 133, 137, 139. 
Silitfe, 239. 
Sin6pe, 193, 195. 
Siphthas, 225. 
Siriu?, 217. 
Sisires, 51. 
SistoaichennSs, 225. 
Sistosis, 225. 
Smendes (-is), 155, 157. 
Smy, 191. 

Sogdianus, 175, 177. 
Soicuniosochus, 223. 
Soicunls (-iu3), 223. 
Sol, 2, 17. 
Solymites, 131. 
SOris, 47. 
Sfisibius, 195. 
Sosinoslrls, 19. 
Sfiais, 3, 19, 23. 
SAsus, 17. 

SOtates (? SfltadSs), 23. 
SOteles, 195. 

Sothlc Cycle, xxvii. f ., 229, 235, 239. 
S6thU, xxvU n., 235. 
Sdyphls, 43. 
Spanius, 235. 
Spirit, 197. 
Staan, 91. 

SUmmenemes I., 223 ; II., 225. 
St«phlnates (-thfis, -this), 169, 171, 

173, 249. 
Sthenelus, 243. 
Stolchos, 217. 
Sun, 3, 16, 17, 105, 107, 217, 221, 

227. 
SuphLo I., 47, 40; II., 47. 
Susakelm, 247. 
Susenn^s, 155. 
Syria, 89, 133, 139 143. 

255 



INDEX 



Taealdphis, 247. 

Tacelothls, Takeldthis, 159, 161. 

Tancheres, 51 

Tanis, 2.S 15f> 1.7 161,163,229 

231, 239. 
Tanite nome, 80 n. 3. 
Taraces, 249. 

Taracus, Tarcus, 167, 169. 
Tat 209 
Temple (Solomon's), 118 n., 119, 

159 n. 1. 
Tethmdsis, 101, 109 121, 127, 241 
Teds, 183, 185. 
Thamphthis, 47. 
Thebaid, 87. 
Thebans, 213. 
Thebes, 93, 95, 215, 217, 219. 221. 

223, 225 : see Diospolis. 
Thirillua, 221. 
This, 5, 9, 29, 31, 33, 35. 
Thmdsis, 101. 
Th6th, 209. 
Thrace, 67, 71, 73. 
Threats to the goda, -'OO n. 3. 
Thulis, 23. 
Thummdsis, 87. 
ThuOris, 149, 151, 153, 245. 
Timotheus, 195. 
Tithoes, 17. 
Tlas, 37. 

Tdmanphtha, 223. 
Tongues, Confusion of, 233. 
Tosertivsis, 43. 
Tosorthros, 41. 
Tower (of Babel), 233. 



Troglodytes, 247. 

Trojan war, 107. 

Troy, 149, 151, 153, 245. 

luthmft^ « fis). 109 113, 116 117 

241 
Tutimaeus, 79. 
Typhon, 5, 17, 19, 125, 189, 191, 

201, 203. 
Typhonian, 193. 
Tyreis, Tyris, 43. 

Uaphres (-is), 171, 173, 237, 249. 

Ubienthes, 33. 

Uenephes, 29, 31. 

Uennephis, 245. 

U6si mares, 221. 

Usaphais, 29, 31, 35. 

Uscreheres, 51. 

Uses, 237. 

U3imare(s), 237. 

Vavenephis (see UenephSs), 33. 
Venus, 23. 
Vibenthis, 35. 
Vulcanus, 2. 

Water, 197. 

Xerxes I. (the Great), 175, 177. 

II., 175, 177 
Xois, 75. 

Zet, 161. 

Zeus, 17, 23, 133, 189, 197, 199. 

Zodiac, 13, 231. 



256 



PTOLEMY 

TETRABIBLOS 

EDITED AND TRANSLATED INTO 
ENGLISH BY 

F. E. ROBBINS, Ph.D. 

UNIVIIKSITV OF MICUIGAN 




*w*-tS<S-' 



CAMBRIDOK, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD. 

MCMLXIV 



PiFST Printed . 1940 
RepkINTED . 1948, 1956, 1964 



Printed in Oreat Britain at The University Press, Aberdeen 



CONTENTS 



Introduction . . . . 
The Luminaries and Planets 
The Signs of the Zodiac 



XXIII 

xxiii 



BOOK I 

1. Introduction ..... 

2. That Knowledge by Astronomical Means is 

Attainable, and How Far 

3. That it is also Beneficial . 

4. Of the Power of the Planets 

5. Of Beneficent and Maleficent Planets 

6. Of Masculine and Feminine Planets . 

7. Of Diurnal and Nocturnal Planets 

8. Of the Power of the Aspects to the Sun 

9. Of the Power of the Fixed Stars 

10. Of the Effect of the Seasons and of the 

Four Angles ..... 

11. Of Solstitial, Equinoctial, Solid, and 

BicoRPOREAL Signs .... 

12. Of Masculine and Feminine Signs 

13. Of the Aspects of the Signs 

14. Of Commanding and Obeying Signs 

15. Of Signs which Behold each other and 

Signs of Equal Power 

16. Of Disjunct Signs .... 

17. Of the Houses of the Several Planets 

18. Of the Triangles .... 

19. Of Exaltations ..... 

20. Of the Disposition of Terms 

21. According to the Chaldaeans 

22. Of Places and Degrees 

23. Of Faces, Chariots, and the Like 

24. Of Applications and Separations and the 

Other Powers . . . . . 



4 

20 
34 
38 
40 
42 
44 
46 

58 

64 
68 

72 
74 

76 

76 

78 
82 
88 
90 
98 
108 
110 

112 



BOOK II 

1. Introduction ...... 

2. Of the Characteristics of the Inhabitants 

OF the General Climes .... 

3. Of the Familiarities betwee.w Countries anii 

THE TrIPLICITIES AND StARS 



116 

120 

128 
iii 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

4. Method of Making Particular Predictions . 160 

5. Of the Examination of the Countries 

Affected ...... 162 

6. Of the Time of the Predicted Events . .164 

7. Of the Class of those Affected . . .168 

8. Of the Quality of the Predicted Event . 176 

9. Of the Colours of Eclipses, Comets, and 

THE Like . . . . . . .190 

10. Concerning the New Moon of the Year . 194 

11. Of the Nature of the Signs, Part by Part, 

AND their Effect upon the Weather . 200 

12. Of the Investigation of Weather in Detail 206 

13. Of the Significance of Atmospheric Signs . 212 



BOOK III 

1. Introduction ..... 

2. Of the Degree of the Horoscopic Point 

3. The Subdivision of the Science of Nativities 

4. Of Parents 

5. Of Brothers and Sisters 

6. Of Males and Females, 

7. Of Twins 

8. Of Monsters 

9. Of Children that are not Reared 

10. Of Length of Life 

1 1 . Of Bodily Form and Temperament 

12. Of Bodily Injuries and Diseases 

13. Of the Quality of the Soul. 

14. Of Diseases of the Soul 



220 
228 
234 
240 
250 
254 
256 
260 
264 
270 
306 
316 
332 
362 



BOOK IV 

1. Introduction 

2. Of Material Fortune . 

3. Of the Fortune of Dignity 

4. Op the Quality of Action 
6. Of Marriage 

6. Of Children 

7. Of Friends and Enemies 

8. Of Foreign Travel 

9. Of the Quality of Death 
10. Of the Division of Times 

Index .... 



372 
372 
376 
380 
392 
408 
412 
422 
426 
436 
461 



INTRODUCTION 

I. 

From his own day well into the Renaissance Claudius 
Ptolemy's name was well-nigh pre-eminent in astro- 
nomy, geography, and astrology alike. " The divine 
Ptolemy," he is called by Hephaestion of Thebes,^ 
and the expression shows that the reverence accorded 
him fell little short of idolatry. In such circum- 
stances it is surprising that all we know of Ptolemy's 
personal history must be pieced together from 
passages in his own works, two scholia in ancient 
manuscripts, and brief notices to be found in later 
writers, some of them Arabian.^ The result, when 
the reliable is summed up and the false or fanciful 
subtracted, is meagre indeed. We can probably rely 
upon the reports that he was born at Ptolemais in 
Egypt ^ and lived to the age of 78 ; * he tells us that 
his astronomical observations were made on the 

' In Catalogus Codicum Astrologicorum Oraecorum (here- 
after cited as CCAG), viii. 2, p. 81, 2. 

* The sources are collected and discussed by F. Boll, 
" Studien vibor Claudius Ptolemaus," Jahrb. f. CI. Ph., 
Supplementbd. xxi. 1894, pp. 53-66 (hereafter cited as 
Boll, Studien). 

' Theodore of MelitS is the authority ; Boll, op. cit., 
pp. 54-5.5. An eleventh-century work of Abulwnfa (ibid., 
])[). 58-G2) gave rise to the belief that lie was born at 
I'clu.siuin, so that, e.g., he is called n-rjXovaievs in the title 
of the first edition of the Telnthiblos. 

* This comes from Abulwafa. 



PTOLEMY 

parallel of Alexandria, which convinces Boll that 
Alexandria was his home, although there is another 
tradition ' that for 40 years he observed at Canopus, 
which was about 15 miles east of Alexandria, and it 
is known that he erected votive stelae in the temple 
at Canopus inscribed with the fundamental principles 
of his doctrines.^ Combining the various traditions 
with the fact that the earliest of his observations 
recorded in the Almagest was made in 127 and the 
latest in 151, we may conclude, further, that his 
life fell approximately in the years 100-178,^ covering 
the first three-quarters of the second century of our 
era and the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus 
Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. 

A detailed and not too flattering description of 
Ptolemy's personal appearance and habits goes back, 
again, to the Arabic tradition, and has been repeated 
in some of the modern editions of Ptolemy's works,'* 

* Preserved by Olympiodorus (fourth century), In Plat. 
Phacd., p. 47, 16 (Finckh). 

^ Boll, Studien, p. 66. Heiberg gives the text in his 
edition of the Opera astronomica minora of Ptolemy 
(Leipzig, 1907), pp. 149 ff. 

^ This is Boll's conclusion {op. cit., p. 64), accepted by 
Christ, Griechische Litterafurgeschichte, 6th ed., 1924, ii. 2, 
p. 896. Boll, ibid., pp. 63, 65, cites the passages of the 
Almagest which refer to the dated observations. He points 
out that a very slight change in the text of Almagest, x. 1, 
would make the date of the latest observation 141 instead 
of 151, but though this would, perhaps, agree better with 
some of the traditions, there is no real reason for altering 
the figure. 

^ E.g. in the preface of the Latin version of the Almagest 
puhHshed at Venice in 1515 ; and the preface of the 
translation of the Tetrabiblos by Whalley (see below, 
p. xiii). 



INTRODUCTIOiN 

but on examination it proves to be nothing but the 
stock characterization of the philosopher given by 
the Greek physiognomists.^ There is, in fact, no 
more to be learned about Ptolemy from external 
sources, and his own works contain little that is 
biographical. We learn from them, however, that 
he took, in general, an Aristotelian position philo- 
sophically, though his predilection for mathematics 
led him to regard that division of science with far 
greater reverence than the more biologically minded 
Aristotle.^ One of his minor works and chapters 
in the longer ones are philosophical and testify to 
his knowledge of and interest in the subject. Though 
he was himself amplv capable of original thought, 
he was acquainted with the work and writings of 
his predecessors, of Menelaiis in mathematics, of 
Hipparchus in astronomy, of Marinus of Tyre in 
geography, of Didymus in music, and of Posidonius 
in astrological ethnology and the arguments whereby 
astrology was defended. He drew freely and openly 
from them, and had the gift of systematizing the 
materials with which he dealt, a characteristic which 
is especially evident in the Tetrabiblos. 

The works, genuine and false, ascribed to Ptolemy 
are : (1) the Almagest or Syntaxis Mathematical 
in 13 books, the great treatise on astronomy ; 
(2) 0da€i? arrXavaju aarepojv kol awaycoyr) eTTiarjfia- 
aicji' (" On the Apparitions of the Fixed Stars and 
a Collection of Prognostics ") ; (3) 'YTTodeaci^ rujv 
TrXavojiiiuiov (" On the Planetary Hypothesis ") ; 
(4) Kaviuv fiaaiXeiow (" Table of Reigns "), a chrono- 

' Boll, Stiulien, pp. 58-62. 
^Op. cit.. pp. 66-111, 131-163. 



PTOLEMY 

logical table of reigns ; (5) ' ApixoviKcbv /3t/SAt'a y' 
(" On Music," in three books) ; (6) the Tetrabiblos, of 
which later ; (7) IJepl dvaXt^ixfiaros, De Analemmate, 
the description of a sphere on a plane (extant only 
in translation) ; (8) Planisphaerium, " The Plani- 
sphere " ; (9) the Optics, in 5 books (its genuineness 
has been doubted) ; (10) the Kaprros or Centiloquium, 
a collection of astrological aphorisms (generally 
thought to be spurious); (11) the Geography; 
(12) the np6x€LpoL Kaioves or " Ready (astronomical) 
Tables " ; (13) npo-)(eipiov Kavovojv hiaTa^is Kai 
^r](f>o(f>opia. " Scheme and Manipulation of the 
Ready Tables " ; (14) TlepL Kpm]piov Kai rjyefio- 
viKov, a short treatise dealing with the theory of 
knowledge and the soul. Of these, the Almagest, 
since it is mentioned in the Geography, the 'Y-nodeaeis, 
and the Tetrabiblos, and since it contains no reference 
to observations after the year 151, was certainly not 
the latest. The three books mentioned, and possibly 
others, belong to the last third of the author's life. 

II. 

The treatise with which we are especially con- 
cerned is now, and usually has been, called the 
Tetrabiblos or Quadripartitum, but more accurately 
it should be MadrjfxaTiKrj Terpa/St/SAo? avvra^is, 
" Mathematical Treatise in Four Books," which 
is the title found in some of the MSS.^ and is 
likely to have been that used by Ptolemy himself. 
Many of the MSS.. however, use the title To. npo? 

' E.g. N (see below). TeTpajSijSAos alone is used by P 
and E. 



INTRODUCTION 

Zvpov d-iToreA€0[j.aTLKd,^ " The Prognostics addressed 
to Syrus," in which certain of them substitute the 
similar but less common word au/LtTrepaa/iart/ca for 
dTToreXeafiaTLKd.'- The book is a systematic treatise 
on astrology, but it should be remembered that in 
Ptolemy's time the two words darpoXoyia and 
darpovoixia meant much the same thing, " astro- 
nomy," and that he called what we mean by 
" astrology '' ~6 Si' da-povop.ia'S TTpoyvioarLKOv,^ " prog- 
nostication through astronomy," which indeed it was, 
in his estimation. 

In antiquity and the middle ages no one thought it 
inconsistent with Ptolemy's reputation as a scientific 
astronomer that he should also have written upon 
astrology, and consequently the Tetrabiblos passed 
without question as genuine.^ More lately, however, 
this wedding of astrology to astronomy has come to 
seem incongruous and for that reason the authenticity 
of the work has been challenged by certain scholars.'^ 
In this brief introduction the question, of course, 
cannot be argued fully. There are, however, two 
reasons for dismissing any doubts concerning the 
authorship of the book. The first is that by the 
second century of our era the triumph of astrology 

' E.g. VMDE. Syrus is otherwise unknown. The 
Anonymous who comments on the Tetrabiblos says that 
some considered it a fictitious name, others that Syrus 
was a physician skilled in astrology. Several other works 
of Ptoleniy — notably the Almagest — are dedicated to him. 

' E.g. A. ' Tetrabiblos, i. ad init. 

« Boll, Studien, pp. 127-131. 

• Chiefly Hiiltsch. Cf. Boll's remarks in his paper 
■' Zur Ueborlicferungsgcschichle dor griechischen .^strologie 
iind Astronomie," Silzungsber. d. Milnch. Ak.. phil.-hist. VI., 
1899. pp. 77 ff. 

ix 



PTOLEMY 

was complete.^ With few exceptions every one, 
from emperor to the lowliest slave, believed in it, 
and having weathered the criticism of the New 
Academy, astrology was defended by the powerful 
Stoic sect. Its position was strengthened by the 
prevalence of stellar and solar religion throughout 
the world, and it even captured the sciences, such 
as medicine, botany, mineralogy, chemistry, and 
ethnography. Furthermore, this continued to be 
the situation, in general, well into the Renaissance. 
Regiomontanus, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Galileo, 
Kepler, and Leibnitz all either practised astrology 
themselves or countenanced its practice. There is 
really no basis, therefore, for thinking it incongruous 
that Ptolemy should have believed in astrology or 
written upon it. The second reason for accepting 
him as the author of the Tetrabiblos is, as Boll '^ has 
sufficiently demonstrated, that the book, in its general 
philosophic views, its language, and its astronomy, 
is entirely in accord with the Ptolemaic works whose 
genuineness has never been questioned. These 
arguments are too lengthy to be repeated here. 

IIL 

Though the Tetrabiblos enjoyed almost the au- 
thority of a Bible among the astrological writers of 
a thousand years or more, its Greek text has been 

' See, for example, Chapters II-III of Boll-Bezold, 
Sternglaube utid Sterndeutung (ed. 3, revised by W. Gundel). 
Leipzig : B. G. Teubner, 1926. F. Cumont, Astrology and 
Religion among the Greeks and Romans. New York : 
Putnam, 1912. 

^Studien, pp. 111-181. 



INTRODUCTION 

printed only three times, and not at all since the 
sixteenth century. The editions are as follows : 

(1) The first edition, edited by Joachim 
Camerarius, was printed by Froben at Nurnberg 
in 1535 in quarto. Besides the text, it contains 
Camerarius' Latin translation of Bks. I-II and of 
parts of Bks. III-IV, and his notes on Bks. I-II, the 
Greek text of the Kapnos, and a Latin translation 
by J. Pontanus. 

(2) The second edition, also by Camerarius, was 
printed by Joannes Oporinus in octavo at Basel in 
1553.^ This contains the Greek text of the Tetra- 
biblos, a Latin translation by Philip Melanchthon, 
and the Kapnos in both Greek and Latin. In the 
preparation of the first edition Camerarius had 
relied upon the Nurnberg codex (N in the list on 
p. xvii), in which his marks to guide the printer are 
still to be seen. He claims for his second edition 
to have corrected many mistakes in the text, and he 
has indeed managed to do away with many errors 
and misprints which are to be found in the first 
edition ; but apparently, too, he made use of one 
or more additional MSS., probably of the general 
type of A in our list below, from which he introduced 
nearly a hundred readings at variance with N, and 

^ KXavBiov TjToXefiaiov UrjAovoUws reTpapifiXos avvragis rrpos 
Uvpov d8eX<f>6i>. Tov avrov Kapnos, Trpos rov avrov Uvpof. 
Claudii I'tolemaei Pclusiensis libri quatuor, composlti Si/ro 
fratri. Eiusdem Fruclus lihrorum suorum, sive Centum 
dicta, ad eundem Syrum. Innumcris quibus hucusque 
acatebant mendis, purgati. Basileae, per loannorn Opori- 
nuin. This is the title page of the Groek text. The 
portion containing the translations has a separate title 
page. 



PTOLEMY 

in some seventy-five other instances he altered the 
text by outright emendation. In spite of the at- 
tempted improvement the second edition retains 
some forty misprints or mistakes, half of them newly 
introduced ; its punctuation is most illogical, and it 
is far from reproducing what seems to be the best 
tradition of the manuscripts, 

(3) Fr. Junctinus included the Greek text of the 
Tetrabiblos in his Speculum astrologiae, the second 
edition of which, in two folio volumes, was issued at 
Leyden in 1581. Junctinus made no attempt to 
improve the text as already published. 

Professor Franz Boll, whose studies of Ptolemy 
have been cited many times already, had begun 
work upon a new edition of the Tetrabiblos prior 
to his lamented death, July 3, 1924. His pupil, 
Fraulein Emilie Boer, however, continued Boll's task, 
and the appearance of their completed text has 
been awaited since 1926. '^ I regret very much that 
my own work on the present text and translation 
could not have profited from the results of the 
textual studies of these two scholars. 

Translations of the Tetrabiblos have been more 
numerous than texts. The oldest of them is the 
Arabian version, by Ishaq ben Hunein, made in the 
ninth century. Thence in turn Plato Tiburtinus, in 
1138, and Aegidius de Thebaldis, in the middle of 
the thirteenth century, made Latin translations, 

1 I am told that the work was completed in this j'ear. 
It has been announced as Vol. III. Fasc. 1, of Ptolemaei 
opera omnia in the well-known Bibliotheca Classica. pub- 
lished by B. G. Teubnor, Leipzig. The year of publication 
is imknown to the writer as this is written. 



INTRODUCTION 

which were the chief means whereby Western 
Europe knew the Tetrabiblos up to the time of the 
first edition of the Greek text. Printed editions of 
these translations — the first dated 1484 — appeared,^ 
and they were also circulated in manuscript form. 
More important are the Latin translations made 
directly from the Greek, beginning with that of 
Camerarius himself, which Mas printed both with 
his text, as noted above, and by itself.^ The trans- 
lation by Antonius Gogava, first issued at Louvain 
in 1543, was several times reprinted at other places, 
for instance, at Padua in 1658, and was the version 
used by Cardanus to accompany his commentary. 
Philip Melanchthon's translation made its appear- 
ance in 1553, as we have seen ; this, too, was issued 
separately later.^ An English translation by John 
Whalley was pubhshed in 1701 and in a second 
edition in 1786,^ which, as Ashmand says, " was not, 
in any one instance, purified from the blunders and 
obscurities which disgraced its predecessor." In 

^ On the early Latin versions see Thomdike, History of 
Magicand Experimental Science (New York, 1923), I, p. 110. 
MSS. of the Arabic version exist at the Escurial and in 
the Laurentian Library at Florence. 

* Printed by Joannes Petreius, Niimberg, 1535, with 
Camerarius' notes. 

' E.g. a rudely printed duodecimo from the press of the 
heirs of Petrus Thomasius, Perusia, 1646, is in the writer's 
own library. 

* The Quadripartite ; or, Four Books Concerning the In- 
fluences of the Stars . . . by Claudius Ptolemy. . . . By 
John Whalley, Professor of Physic and Astrology, and 
Others. The Second Edition, Revised, Corrected, and 
Improved. London : Printed for the Editors, and sold 
by M. Sibley ... and E. Sibley . . . 1786. 



PTOLEMY 

truth, Ptolemy is not easy to translate accurately, 
and though Whalley's version is worse than the 
others, all show a certain willingness to disguise 
the difficulties with smooth-sounding but non-com- 
mittal phrases.^ 

The importance and popularity of the Tetrahihlos 
is shown by the number of commentaries upon it 
which have been made. In antiquity, as we deduce 
from expressions used in writings still extant, a con- 
siderable number existed ; ^ the name of one com- 
mentator, Pancharios, survives, but none of his 
work except a few quotations.^ Three such treatises 
which did survive, however, were edited by Hierony- 
mus Wolf and published with Latin translations in 
folio at Basel in 1559. These are (1) an anonymous 
commentary on the Tetrabiblos, attributed by some, 
as Wolf says, to Proclus ; (2) an introduction to the 
Tetrabiblos, to which the name of Porphyry is at- 
tached, though its authorship is by no means certain ; 
(3) the scholia of Demophilus. These have not been 
republished, but are to be found in a number of 
manuscripts. Of greater importance for the study 
of the Tetrabiblos is the Paraphrase attributed to 
Proclus, but which, of course, may not have been 
his at all. Since it follows the Tetrabiblos very 

^ German translations also exist ; e.g. by J. W. Pfaff in 
his Astrologisches Taschenbuch, 1822-23 (mentioned by 
Christ, Gr. LiUeraturgeschichte), and one by M. E. Winkel, 
Linsoverlag, 1923, which is based on the Latin of Melanch- 
thon (v. W. Gundel in Jahresb. U. die FortschrUte d. Kl. Alt. 
241, 1934, p. 74). 

^ BoW, Studieti, p. 127. 

3 E.g. ap. CO AG, viii. 2, p. 67, 18 ff. ; c/. Kroll, Pliilologus, 
Ivii (1897), p. 123. 



INTRODUCTION 

closely, and since, as it happens, one manuscript of 
the Paraphrase is older than any of those of the 
Tetrabibljs. this document must be taken into con- 
sideration by any editor of the latter work. The 
first and only edition of the Paraphrase, with a pre- 
face by Melanchthon, appeared at Basel in 1554,^ 
and the standard Latin version, from which at least 
two English translations have been made,^ is that 
of Leo Allatius (Elzevir, Leyden, 1635). Besides 
the Paraphrase and the ancient commentaries, the 
elaborate commentary by Hieronymus Cardanus, 
published in the sixteenth century, should also be 
mentioned.^ 

IV. 

There are in European libraries at least thirtv-five 
manuscripts containing all or a large part of the 
Tetrabiblos, besides a considerable number which 
contain partial texts or astrological miscellanies in 
which Ptolemy is cited along with other writers. 
Parts of the Tetrabiblos, too, are quoted by other 

^ npoKXov rov 8ia8d;(oy tcui' aoa(f>oJs eiprj^evwi' FlToXeyLaicx), 
Kal hvOTTapaKoXovd'qrws tv ru> avroC TcrpajSt'/SAoj, ewi to 
aa^lcrrtpov koX hvanapaKoXovdrfTov [ajc] fxeraxiiprjais. Prodi 
paraphrasis in quatuor Ptoleniaei libros de Siderum 
effectionihus. Cum praefatione Pldlippi Melanthonis. 
Basileae, apud Joannem Oporinum [1554]. 

" J. M. Ashmand, Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos or Quadripartite, 
etc. London : Davis and Dickson, 1822. James Wilson, 
T/te Tetrabiblos or Quadripartite of Ptolemy, etc. London : 
W. iluyhes 1 1828'. Charpulior, Lea Diacourses, etc., liiti, 
n. 2, cites a i'tolemy's Tetrabiblos, by J. M. Ashmand, 
London, 1917. 

* Editions were published at Basel in 1554 and 1579, at 
Loj'den in 1555, and in the fifth volume of Cariianus' 
works (Leyden : Huguetan and Revaud, 1603). 



PTOLEMY 

authors, like Hephaestion of Thebes. Finally, there 
are a few manuscripts with Latin or Arabic trans- 
lations. In spite of this volume of material, how- 
ever, the earliest text of the Tetrabiblos itself is only 
of the thirteenth century. There is but one full 
manuscript even of this degree of antiquity, and 
only two or three from the fourteenth century ; most 
of them are from the fifteenth and sixteenth. In 
view of this fact it is fortunate that we have one 
(but only one) manuscript of the Paraphrase which 
antedates all of these, having been written in the 
tenth century. 

In preparing the present text of the Tetrabiblos I 
have been obliged to work entirely with photographs 
and photostats. However, by a fortunate circum- 
stance, I was able to secure a collection of these 
which had been brought together by a German 
scholar unknown to me and which apparently in- 
cludes the most important manuscripts.^ Those 
manuscripts, therefore, which have been collated 
and used, and the symbols which I have used to 
refer to them, are as follows : " 

V : Vaticanus gr. 1038, S. XIII. Contains a num- 
ber of the works of Euclid, Hypsicles, and Hero, and 
an almost complete collection of the writings of 
Ptolemy, with the Tetrabiblos on ff. 352-384v. ; the 
ending, after p. 207, 19 (Cam.^), does not appear. 
Heiberg {Deutsche Litteraturzeitung, 1900, p. 417) 

' The purchase of this collection was made possible by 
the Faculty Research Fund of the University of Michigan. 
It was accompanied by an anonymous description of the 
MSS. of the Tetrabiblos, to which I am indebted for infor- 
mation about many MSS. which I could not personally 
inspect. 

2 Of F and H only a few sample pages have been available. 



INTRODUCTION 

believes that it was largely copied from Vat. gr. 
1594, S. IX, which contains other Ptolemaic texts in 
a relatively pure form but does not, now at least, 
include the Tetrabiblos. A distinctive feature of this 
manuscript is the large number of small lacunae 
left by the scribe when he could not read his 
archetype or found it defective. In this Boll sees 
an indication of faithfulness and reliability. Cf. 
F. Boll, " Zur Ueberlieferungsgeschichte der grie- 
chischen Astrologie und Astronomic," Sitzungsberichte 
d. K. B. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Miinchen, phil.-hist. CL, 
1899, pp. 77 ff. ; CCAG, v. 1, no. 9. 

D : Parisinus gr. 2509, S. XV. Contains the 
Tetrabiblos on ff. 14-81 v., followed by the Kapiros. 
Cf. Omont, Inv. ii. 274; CCAG, viii. 3, no. 82. 
A copy of V, but the lacunae were filled in from 
another source. 

P : Parisinus gr. 2425, S. XV. Contains the 
Tetrabiblos on If. 8-63v. The most immediately 
striking feature of this manuscript is its constant 
mis-spelling of words due to the confusion of at, and 
€, €i, 7], and t, o and co, for example : that is, the 
confusions typical of late Greek. They may indicate 
that the manuscript (or an ancestor) was copied 
from dictation. P also has an ending which differs 
from the final sentences of the Camerarius editions 
and most other manuscripts. 

L : Oxon. I.aud, gr. 50, S. XVI. A copy of P, 
of no independent value. Paris. Suppl. gr. 597 is 
another copy of P. 

N : Norimbergensis Cent. V, app. 8, S. XVI. 
This is the basis of Camerarius' text. It contains 
the Tetrabiblos (to p. 187, 6 Cam. only) on fl". l-59v. 
Cf. CCAG, vii. no. 42. 



PTOLEMY 

A : Vaticanus gr. 208, S. XIV exeuntis. This 
manuscript uses the term avfiTrepaafiaTiKo. in the 
title instead of aTroTeXeaixarLKd. F and H below are 
related to A. Mercati and De' Cavalieri, Codices 
Vaticani graeci, i (Rome, 1923) ; CCAG, v. 1, no. 6. 

E : Monacensis gr. 419, S. XIV. In this manu- 
script book and chapter headings are missing, and 
the ending is omitted (from p. 212, 7 Cam.). It 
is closely related to M (below), but in the latter 
the missing parts have been supplied in a second 
hand. 

F : Venetus Marc. 323, S. XV, Contains the 
Tetrabiblos on ff. 403-461. Zanetti, Bibliotheca, p. 146; 
Morelli, Bibliotheca, p. 195 ; CCAG, ii. no. 4. 

G : Vindobonensis philos. gr. 115, S. XIII. Con- 
tains a portion of Book II of the Tetrabiblos in 
ff. 7-16v. Cf. Boll, Sitzungsb. Miinch. Ak. 1899, i. 
p. 84. 

H : Venetus Marc. 324, S. XIV-XV. The Tetra- 
biblos is on ff. 156r.-189v. Zanetti, p. 149 ; MorelH, 
p. 207 ; CCAG, ii. no. 5. 

M : Venetus Marc. 314, S. XIV ineuntis. Con- 
tains the Tetrabiblos on ff. l-76v. See on E, above. 
Zanetti, p. 146; Morelli, p. 195 ; CCAG, ii. no. 3. 

Besides the manuscripts of the Tetrabiblos itself 
the oldest manuscript of the Paraphrase has been 
utilized : Vaticanus gr. 1453, S. X, containing this 
text on ff. 1-219. This is cited as Proc. Camerarius' 
two editions of the Tetrabiblos are cited respectively 
as Cam.^ and Cam.^, or simply Cam., if they agree. 

A puzzUng problem connected with the manu- 
scripts of the Tetrabiblos concerns their ending. In 
one group the conclusion is entirely missing, and has 



INTRODUCTION 

either been left so ^ or an ending supplied which is 
identical \v-ith that of Proclus' Paraphrase ; - in the 
other an ending appears which is considerably 
longer than the former, but which is precisely the 
same in its general content, and is to be found in 
the Arabic version of the Tetrabiblos.^ One thing is 
certain : the first of these endings is spurious. Of 
course it does not follow that the other is genuine ; 
if it is not, however, the original ending of the book 
must have been lost so early that it is missing in 
all the manuscripts. This is a situation that not 
infrequently occurred in ancient times, especially 
when a book was from the first existent in the form 
of a codex, not a roll ; yet I am not ready to concede 
it in this instance, for these reasons : (a) the ending 
shown in P could readily, from its language, have 

1 V breaks off at p. 207, 19 Cam.^, E at p. 212, 7 (the 
bogiruiing of the conckiding passage). N also in its present 
state lacks the conclusion (from p. 187, 6 Cam. 2), but this 
may have been lost at the time the first edition was made, 
and since Camerarius probably made some use of at least 
one other MS. we cannot be sure whether N originally had 
the conclusion or, if so, if it was of the type which 
Camerarius actually printed {i.e. the one taken from the 
Paraphrase). N in general resembles P and one would 
have expected it to have the same conclusion as P. On 
the other hand, if it did, one would have expected 
Camerarius to reproduce it, for it is unlikely that he 
would have departed from his preferred MS. in so important 
a particular. 

^ MAD. D, after the point at which V ends, is written 
in a different ink ; the conclusion of M (p. 212, 7 ff. Cam.^) 
is in a different hand. 

^ P and its copies alone have this ending. My colleague. 
Professor William H. Worrell, has examined the conclusion 
of the Arabic version as it appears in Cod. Laur. Orient. 
352, ff. 234v.-235r. It is close to, but perhaps not identical 
with, the ending of P. 



PTOLEMY 

been written by Ptolemy himself ; * (b) the ending 
taken from the Paraphrase is obviously a summary 
of that found in P, and I cannot conceive how any- 
one (except perhaps Ptolemy) could have reversed 
the process and evolved the tortuous, crabbed 
Greek of the latter from the comparatively simple 
language of the former. Thus the ending found in 
P has the better claim to originality, and if it was 
not written by Ptolemy in the first place it is ex- 
tremely difficult to explain how it came to be written 
at all in the form in which we find it. Since the 
question, however, is admittedly complicated, and 
not all the extant manuscripts could be studied in 
preparing this edition, both endings have been in- 
cluded in the text and translation. 

In constructing the text which follows, my under- 
lying purpose has been to abide by the best manu- 
script tradition ; very few emendations have been 

* It echoes many words and thoughts found in p. 106, 
25-108, 10 Cam. 2, which need not be separately enumerated; 
not, however, in a manner which would indicate that it is 
a forgery based on the passage, for Ptolemy elsewhere 
repeats phrases in much the same way, especially when 
he wishes to point out that he is carrying out a pre- 
determined scheme. Note, however, in addition, that 
dpfio^eiv and i(f>apix6leLv are favourite words of Ptolemy, 
and c/., for example, pp. 17. 1-2, 117. 6, 120. 9 Cam.2 and 
p. 1. 21 (with Boll, Studien, p. 171) ; cf. with SioBevoixivov 
the similar forms of e<f>o8evu) and e^oSi/ctu?, pp. 103. 13, 
18; 106. 26; 202. 16 Cam.^ ; and Boll, op. cit., p. 179; and 
with Sia TT]v . . . TTpodeaiv, cf. p. 202. 18, aiairep iv apx^J 
TTpoedefieda. In fact practically every word of the passage 
excejit the doubtful ;:^pr;/LtaTetais is to be paralleled in the 
Tetrabiblos, usually many times ; to arrange them in so 
exact an approximation to Ptolemy's usual style would 
demand a forger of superhuman ingenuity. 



INTRODUCTION 

attempted, and I think no great amount of emenda- 
tion is necessary. My collations have been made 
against Camerarius' second edition, because thus 
far this has been the standard text and it was 
most convenient ; I have not, however, allowed 
Camerarius' choice of readings to influence me 
unduly, for his text, in the first place, was not based 
upon the oldest and best manuscripts and it is, 
besides, full of his emendations. It was quite 
evident that this edition of the Tetrabiblos should 
be built up anew, independently of Camerarius' 
work. Without making the exhaustive studies of 
the relationships of the manuscripts which should 
eventually be carried out, I have proceeded on the 
assumption that V and P best preserve the original 
text, representing somewhat different strains. With 
V and its copy D, the oldest text of Proclus' Para- 
phrase is evidently in close alliance, and among the 
Tetrabiblos manuscripts MAEFHG are inclined in 
general to follow the lead of V, ME and AFH being 
related between themselves, as has already been 
stated. N apparently belongs rather to the P 
family, if there is such, but it is far from presenting 
a pure text ; its peculiarities are, in my opinion, the 
result of attempts to edit or improve. The later 
manuscripts, however, all show aberration to a 
greater or less extent, and VPLD Proc. are frequently 
to be found arrayed against MNAE (I leave FGH 
out of consideration because only a few pages of 
each of them have come into the reckoning). In 
such cases I have seldom hesitated to follow VPLD, 
and in general, too, I agree with Boll that V is the 
best single guide that we have. 

I am conscious that in many passages this 



PTOLEMY 

translation falls short of the intended goal, a version 
which, in spite of the technical, unfamiliar subject, 
could readily be understood by itself or at least with 
the help of a few notes. Ptolemy, however, was a 
difficult author even for the ancients ; the existence 
of the Paraphrase and the frequent flounderings of 
the anonymous commentator testify to this. He 
displays a certain enthusiasm for his subject, but 
beyond this it would be impossible to commend his 
literary style or even the clearness of his exposition. 
He is fond of long, involved sentences and has a 
number of mannerisms, among them a fondness for 
the infinitive with the article and an almost Teutonic 
habit of piling up long strings of modifiers between 
article and substantive, which often results in 
sequences of two or even three articles. It would, 
under the circumstances, be almost impossible to 
make him crystal clear, but I trust there are not 
too many Heraclitean passages. 

Annotation of the Tetrabiblos could be carried to 
great lengths by collecting comparable passages 
from other astrological writers. The comments 
attached to this translation, however, are intended 
only to help the reader over difficulties and have 
been kept at minimum length. 

Many friends have assisted, in one way or another, 
with this work. Some I cannot thank as I would 
like to do ; but I must express appreciation to Pro- 
fessor W. Carl Rufus for criticizing the astronomy of 
my translation ; to Dr. William Warner Bishop, 
Librarian of the University of Michigan, for procuring 
much-needed books and the photostatic reproduc- 
tions of the manuscripts ; and to Franz Cumont for 
ever helpful interest and suggestions. 



THE LUMINARIES AND PLANETS 



Sun O 
Moon ([ 



Symbols. 

Saturn ]^ 
Jupiter y. 

Mars ^ 



Venus 9 
Mercury ^ 



Effect (i. 6). 
Beneficent 7/ ? ([ 
Maleficent I^,^ 
Common ^ 



Classifications. 

Gender (i. 6). 
Masculine hl/^ 
Feminine ([ 9 
Common ^ 



Sect (i. 7). 
Diurnal © ?/ F"? 
Nocturnal ([ 5 (^ 
Common ^ 



THE SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC 

Symbols and Order. 

Aries T Cancer 2B Libra ^^ Capricornus )"^ 

Taurus tt Leo ^^ Scorpio IT|^ Aquarius esc 

Gemini II Virgo TIJ Sagittarius /^ Pisces }{ 

The order Aries to Pisces is that "of the following 
signs," or direct ; from Pisces to Aries that " of the leading 
sign.-,," or reverse. 



THE SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC, CONTINUED 

Classifications, 

i. 11 

Equinoctial T =^ 
Solstitial SS y^ 

Solid «^ni.r.c 

Bicorporeal IinjXK 
i. 12 
Masculine and diurnal T 11 ^ =^^i55 
Feminine and nocturnal H 5[5l1jn]_V^}{ 
Commanding and obeying (i, 14) b K ! ^T ',:.■: : 2251'^ ; ^|'; 

Beholding each other (i. 15) U^; » TIJ ; T — ; KflU C5sX 



THE TRIANGLES (i. 18). 







Signs. 


Gorernors. 


I. 


N.W. 


. 'Cilt 


0.7/ 


II. 


S.E. 


. »T1JK^ 


?(d.), din.) 


III. 


N.E. 


. II^r,c 


h{<^-). 5(n.) 


IV. 


S.W. 


• 2sn\^)f 


<?, 9(d.), din.) 



d., day ; m., night. 
HOUSES, EXALTATIONS, DEPRESSIONS (i. 17, 19). 



la net 


Solar house. 


Lunar house. 


Exaltation. 


Depress; 





a 




T 


=^ 


d 




QB 


« 


ni 


h 


n 


t/A 


lii: 


T 


'H 


t 


H 


as 


^^ 


6 


K 


rp 


n 


2B 


? 


:^^ 


« 


7f 


nj 


^ 


W 


n 


llje 


K 



PTOLEMY 

TETRABIBLOS 



KXavSiov TlToXe {xaiov ^aOrj ixarLKrjs 

BIBAION A'. 

<a. npooiiJLiov> 

Cam.2 Twv TO St' duTpoi'Oixiag vpoyvcoariKov reXos 
^' napaoKevat^ovroiV ^ c5 Evpe, hvo tcov fxeyLarcov Kal 
KvpLOjrdrajv v-nap^ovrayv , eVo? /nev rod vpcoTov Kai 
Ta^ei Kal SwdpLet, /ca^' o roi)?- yivoixevovs eKdarore 
a)(T][xarLGiJLov^ rwv Kiviqaeojv rjXiov Kal ueXr^vrj^ /cat 
darlpoiv ^ irpo^ cxAAtJAou? t€ /cat Tr]v yfju Kara- 
XapL^avopieda ■ Sevrepou Se KaO' o Std rrj? (f)vaLK7J? 
Tcov (rxrjfxariajJiwv avrwu l^iorpoTnas ras" aTToreXov- 
fxevas iJbera^oXds tcov epLnepLexoixevajv imaKeTTTo- 
fieda ■ TO iikv npiOTOv tStW ^xov Kal St eavTrjv 
alpeTrjv decoptav, kolv firj to €K ttJ? em^ev^ecog tov 
Sevrepou reXos GVfnrepaa'rjTaL, Kar' IStav avvra^iv 
COS" /xctAtara evrjv aTToheiKTCKOis ooi ^ Trepicooeurat. 
TT€pl 8e TOV SevTepov Kal jxrj coaavTcos avTOTeXovs 
rjixelg iv to) vapovTi TTOLrjaopieOa Xoyov Kara tov 
apjuo^ovra (f)iXoao(f)la TpoTTOV Kal cu? dv tl^ (piXa- 
Xt]9€i pidXiuTa ;^p(o/Ltei^o? gkotto) /xT^re Tr]v Kara- 
Xrjifjiv avTOV irapa^dXXoL Tjj tov TrpojTOV /cat aei 
iooavTcog e~)(ovTO<; ^e^aioTTjTi, to iv ttoAAois" aaueveg 

* KaTaaKfva^oi'Twi' P. 

'tcov darepcov NCain. ; twi' om. VPMADE. 

^ aoi] eV tt; awrd^ei P. 



THE QUADRIPARTITE MATHEMATICAL 
TREATISE, OR " TETRABIBLOS," OF 
CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY. 

BOOK I. 

1. Introduction. 

Of the means of prediction through astronomy* 
Syrus, two are the most important and valid. One, 
which is first ^ both in order and in effectiveness, is 
that whereby we apprehend the aspects of the move- 
ments of sun, moon, and stars in relation to each 
other and to the earth, as they occur from time to 
time ; the second is that in which by means of the 
natural character of these aspects themselves we 
investigate the changes which they bring about in 
that which they surround. The first of these, 
which has its own science, desirable in itself even 
though it does not attain the result given by its 
combination with the second, has been expounded 
to you as best we could in its own treatise '^ by the 
method of demonstration. We shall now give an 
account of the second and less self-sufficient method 
in a properly philosophical way, so that one whose 
aim is the truth might never compare its perceptions 
with the sureness of the first, unvarying science, for 
he ascribes to it the weakness and unpredictability 

' /Vstronoiny proper. 
* The Almagest. 



PTOLEMY 

2 /cat SvcreiKacrrov rrj? vXiKTJg ttolottjto? TrpouTTOtov- 
fJLiVOS, /xr^TC TTpos rrjv Kara to ivSexofJi-^vov irri.- 
OKeipLV oLTTOKVOLrj, Tcov T€ ttXcigtcov Kal 6\oa)(^epu)v 
aviiTTroifxarcov ivapycb? ovto) Trjv oltto rod rrepi- 
€)(ovros air Lav efj,(f)avil^6vrcov. irTel 8e Trdv jxev ro 
Bva€(f)LKrov rrapa rots ttoXXoIs evhid^X-qrov e;)(et 
(f)vaLv, em Be rwv Trpo/cet/Ae'vcov Svo KaraX'qifj€a>v 
at fxev rrj? irporepas ^ Sta/SoAat rv(f)Xcbv av eiev 
TTavreXaJs, at 8e ttjs Sevrepas evTvpo^aaiarov^ 
exovcTi ras dcfjopfids (r) yap ro Irr Ivioiv Svadeco- 
prjrov OLKaraXfjifjlag reXeias Bo^av ^ rrapeaxev, rj 
ro rcbv yvu>adivru)v Bva<j)vXaKrov /cat ro reXog ojs 
o-xpyjorov Buavpe), rreipaaop^eda Bid ^pa^^cov Trpd 
TTJs Kara piipos v(f)r)yT]Gecx)s ro piirpov eKarepov rov 
re Bvvarov Kal rov xPl'^'-h'-'^^ '^V^ roiavrrjg rrpo- 
yvcoaeios iirtaKeiJiaadaL • Kal rrpcorov rod Bvvarov. 

<j8.> "On K ar aXr] TT r I KT) rj St' darpo- 
vo p,ia<5 yv Ota LSy Kal puexp f- r ivo s 

"On fxev roivuv BiaBiBorai Kal BuKvelrai res 
BvvafJLis drro ri]s aWepcoBovs Kal diBlov (f)vaeoJS 

^ Td$€i Kal Swct/iei post nporepas add. NCam. 
^ Soiav om. NCam. 

^ Ptolemy is contrasting, after the manner of Aristotle, 
the unchangeability of the heavenly bodies and their 
regular motions, which can be known and predicted by 
astronomy, with the constant and unpredictable changes 
of material oVjjects in the suVjlunary region. 

* On the argmnents against astrology, see Bouche- 
Leclercq, pj>. 570 £f. The Academic school, led by 

4 



TETRABIBLOS I. 1-2 

of material qualities found in individual things,^ nor 
yet refrain from such investigation as is wthin the 
bounds of possibility, when it is so evident that most 
events of a general nature draw their causes from 
the enveloping heavens. But since everything that 
is hard to attain is easily assailed ^ by the generahty 
of men, and in the case of the two before-mentioned 
disciplines the allegations against the first could be 
made only by the blind, while there are specious 
grounds for those levelled at the second — for its 
difiiculty in parts has made them think it completely 
incomprehensible, or the difiiculty of escaping what 
is known ^ has disparaged even its object as useless — 
we shall try to examine briefly the measure of both 
the possibility and the usefulness of such prognos- 
tication before ofi'ering detailed instruction on the 
subject. First as to its possibility. 



2. That Knowledge by Astronomical Means is 
Attainable, and How Far. 

A very few considerations would make it apparent 
to all that a certain power emanating from the 
eternal ethereal substance * is dispersed through and 

Carneades, initiated the most serious attack against it in 
antiquity. The answers given by Ptolemy in the two 
chapters following are, as Boll (Studien, pp. 131 S.) shows, 
largely derived from the Stoic Posidonius, who defended 
divination. 

* Proclus paraphrases, " the difficulty of retaining in the 
memory what has been learned," but the reference is 
clearly to the subject discussed in i. 3. 

* The ether, or fifth element, contrasted with the usual 
four ; this is an Aristotelian (Peripatetic) doctrine. 

5 



PTOLEMY 

em Trdaav rrjv Trepiyeiav Kai 8i' oXcov fiera^X'q'njv, 
Twv V7TO rrjv aeXrjvrjv TTpcoTCOv aTOL)(€Lcov 7wp6<; koi 
aipo<; TT€pL€Xoiiivoiv fi€v /cat rpeTTOixevu)v vtto tcov 
Kara rov aWdpa Kivrjcrecov, TTeptexovTOJV Se /cat 
ovvrpeTTOvrcov ra Xolttcl Travra, yrjv /cat vScop /cat to. 
iv avTols <j>VTa /cat ^wa, irdaLV av evapyiararov ^ 
3 /cat St oXiyojv (f)av€t'q. 6 re yap rjXiog hLariOrjai 
TTOis ael jxeTO. tov irepUxovTO^ TrdvTa rd Trept rrjv 
yrjV ov [Jiovov Std tcDj^ /caret ra? irrjcrLovs cupa? 
jxeTa^oXwv TTpos yovd? ^cocov /cat cf)vrcov Kaprro- 
(fiopias /cat pvaeis vhdrajv /cat aoj/JLarcov pLerarpoTrds 
dXXd /cat 8ta Toyv Kad^ iKaarrjv -qpLcpav TrepioScov, 
Oepfxaivajv re /cat vypaivoiv Kai ^-qpaivoiv /cat 
ijjvxojv Terayjxevcog re /cat aKoXovdoJS rots -npos 
TOV /caret Kopv(f>r]v -qpiajv yivo/xevois opLOLOTponoLS 
(T)(rjfxaTi,aiJLOL<; -q re aeX-qvrj TrXelaTT^v,^ a»? Trepiyeto- 
Tarr], StaSiScoatt' eVt rr]v yrjv ^ ttjv drroppoLav, cn>ix- 
TTadovvTcov avrfj /cat avvrpeTTopuevayv ratv TrXeio'Tcov /cat 
diljv)((x)v Kai ifxi/jvxojv, Kai TTOTapLoyv piev avvav^ovrcDV 
Kai avpip,eLOvvTOiv tols (fjcoalv avrrjg rd pevpiara, 
daXarrojv 8e crvvrpeTTOvacov rat? dt^aroAat? /cat rat? 
SvaeaL Tag tSta? opp-d?, (f)UTcov 8e /cat t,a)a)v r) oXojv 
r) /caret rtva p-epr] crupLTrXripovpiivcov re avrfj Kai avpt.- 
pieiovfievojv. at re rcDi' darepcov rcov re aTrXavdjv 
Kai rcL>v TrXavcopievcov TrdpoBoi TrXeiara's noiovai 
eVtcrTj/Ltaoria? rov Trepiexovro? Kavp-arajheis Kai Twev- 
/LtarcuSet? ^ /cat vicftercoSeLS , i5(/>' Sv Kai rd em rijg 

' ii'^pyiorarov MAECam. - trXdarriv om. NCam. 

' eVt TTji' yrjv VMADE, vtto T-qv yjji" P, npos TJj yfi NCam. 
* KoX mevfiaToiBeii om. NCam. 



TETRABIBLOS I. 2 

permeates the whole region about the earth, which 
throughout is subject to change, since, of the primary 
sublunar elements, fire and air are encompassed and 
changed by the motions in the ether, and in turn 
encompass and change all else, earth and water and 
the plants and animals therein. For the sun,^ 
together with the ambient, is always in some way 
affecting everything on the earth, not only by the 
changes that accompany the seasons of the year to 
bring about the generation of animals, the pro- 
ductiveness of plants, the flowing of waters, and the 
changes of bodies, but also by its daily revolutions 
furnishing heat, moisture, dryness, and cold in 
regular order and in correspondence with its posi- 
tions relative to the zenith. The moon, too, as the 
heavenly body nearest the earth, bestows her effluence ^ 
most abundantly upon mundane things, for most of 
them, animate or inanimate, are sympathetic to her 
and change in company with her ; the rivers increase 
and diminish their streams with her light, the seas turn 
their own tides with her rising and setting, and plants 
and animals in whole or in some part wax and wane 
with her. Moreover, the passages of the fixed stars 
and the planets through the sky often signify hot, 
windy, and snowy conditions of the air, and mundane 

^ Boll, Studien, pp. 133 ff., enumerates parallels to this 
passage concerning the sun and the moon in Cicero, Philo 
Judaeus, Cleoniodes, and Manilius, and ascribes their 
likeness to the influence of Posidonius. 

* This word, dnoppoia, has another meaning, " separation," 
as a technical term of astrology ; see c. 24 below and my 
note on P. Mich. 149, col. iii, 33. 



PTOLEMY 

yfjg oIk€lcos Stari^eTai. tJSt) 8c Kai ol Trpo? dAAi^- 
Aou? avrcov ax^fJ'CLTLanoi, avvepxojJLevcov ttojs ^ Kai 
cruyKLpvaixevojv TCtJV' StaSocrecur, vrAetWa? /cat TTOiKiXas 
fiera^oXas aTrepydt^ovrai, KaraKparovaTjs jxev rijs 
rov rjXcov Swdfieo)? Trpos to Kad" oXov ttj? TTOLorrjTog 
rerayixevov, avvepyovvTOJV 8e r) aTTocrvvepyovvroiv 
4 /caret rt roip' XoLTtayv, /cat t^s" jitei' oreAi^KJ^? iK(f)ave- 
arepov /cat cwv€)(€aT€pov cos ev rat? crup'dSots' /cat 
BLXOTOpiOLS Kai TTavaeX-qvois , rcov §e daripuiv TreptoSt- 
Kcorepov /cat dcnqixorepov d>s iv rats (fyaaeat Kai 
Kpv^cai /cat 77poo-j'eu<7€crtt'. OTt 8e TOUTa>v ovro) 
6ea>pov[X€Vcov ov [jlovov to. rjSrj ovyKpadevra 8ta- 
rideadai ttojs vtto ttjs tovtcov Kiviqaeajs dvayKalov 
<xAAa Kat Tcov GTzepfxarcov rds dpxd-s Kai rds TrXripo- 
^opiqaeis SiaTrXdrreadaL /cat Siajj.op(f)OVcr6aL Trpos 
TTjv OLKeiav rov rdre TTepu^^ovros TTOLOTTjTa, Trdcnv 
av Sd^eiev dKoXovdov etvai. ol yovv Traparrjp'qTiKa)- 
TepoL ra>v yecDpycjv Kai ribv vofxecDV ajro ra)v Kara 
rds 6)(€Las Kai rds rwv GTrepfidrcov Karaddaeis avfj,- 
^atvovrcov nvevpidroiv aro)(dl,oi'rat rrjs TTOLorrjros 
rdjv d7ro^7]aoiJL€vo}v , Kai 6Xa)s rd [xev dAoa;^€peCTTepa 
/cat 8td rd>v iTTicjiavearipoiv cruax'flP'O.rLa picjv tjXlov 
Kai GeX^U7]s Kai dcrrepojv emorniaLVop-eva Kai 77apa 
rols pLT] (f)vaLKa)S, p-ovov 8e 7TaparT]pr]riKibs aKeirro- 
jxevoLS, COS" €771 TTav 7TpoyLva>aK6p.€va decopovpLcv, ra 
fxev e/c fxeli^ovos re 8vvdp,€a}s Kai drrXovarepas 

^TTws] T€ NCam. 

' Positions relative to one another in the heavens. For 
the names of the aspects recognized by Ptolemy c/. the 
note on i. 13 (pp. 72-73). 
8 



TETRABIBLOS I. 2 

things are affected accordingly. Then, too, their 
aspects ^ to one another, by the meeting and minghng 
of their dispensations, bring about many compli- 
cated changes. For though the sun's power prevails 
in the general ordering of quality, the other heavenly 
bodies aid or oppose it in particular details, the 
moon more obviously and continuously, as for ex- 
ample when it is new, at quarter, or full, and the 
stars at greater intervals and more obscurely, as 
in their appearances, occultations, and approaches.^ 
If these matters be so regarded, all would judge it 
to follow that not only must things already com- 
pounded be affected in some way by the motion of 
these heavenly bodies, but likewise the germination 
and fruition of the seed must be moulded and con- 
formed to the quality proper to the heavens at the 
time. The more observant farmers and herdsmen,^ 
indeed, conjecture, from the winds prevaihng at the 
time of impregnation and of the sowing of the seed, 
the quality of what will result ; and in general we see 
that the more important consequences signified by 
the more obvious configurations of sun, moon, and 
stars are usually known beforehand, even by those 
who inquire, not by scientific means, but only by 
observation. Those which are consequent upon 
greater forces and simpler natural orders, such as 

* By "stars" {aorepoiv) in this passage Ptolemy means 
primarily the planets rather than the fixed stars. Their 
"appearances" and "occultations" are their heliacal 
risings and settings (c/. Bouche-Leclercq, p. Ill, n. 3). 
TTpoavevais is used to mean both " inclination " and, as here, 
the " approach " of one heavenly body to another. 

* Cicero, de divinalione, i. 112: Miilta modici, multa 
gubernatores, agricolae etiarn multa praesentiunt. 

L 9 



PTOLEMY 

Ta^ecog Kal Trapa rot? ndw Ihicorais, fiaXXov Se Kal 
Trap' ivLois tcjv aXoyatv t,<I)a)v, ojs rojv wpwv Kal tcov 
TTvevpLarajv ras eTqaiovs hLa(f>opds ' tovtojv yap cos 
im TTav 6 rjXios atrios • to. Se -^ttov outo)? exovra 
napd Tols rjSr) Kara to dvayKalov Tals Traparrjpr]- 
5 aeaiv iveidiopiivoLS, (1)£ rols vavTiWop-ivois rds /card 
jjidpos TCOV x^Ljjicovcov Kal TCOV TrvevjxdTcov imar]- 
fxaalas, oaai yivovTai /card to TrepLoSiKcoTepov vtto 
TCOV Trjg aeXrjVTjS r] Kal twv aTrAavoip' daTepcov 77/30? 
Tov -qXiov avaxf]P-'^TLaixcov . Trapd jxevTOi to jx-qTC 

aVTCOV TOVTCOV TOVS XpOVOVS Kal TOVS TOTTOVS VTTO 

dneLpLas aKpL^cos Swaa^at KaTavoetv, fit^Te Tas tcov 
TTXavcojJLevcov daTepcov TrepioBovg, nXelaTOv Kal avTas 
(Wfx^aXXofxevas, to TToXXdKLS avTols ^ a(f>d)^€adai crvfi- 
jSatVet. TL St] ovv kcoXvcl tov rjKpt^coKOTa fxev rds" 
TrdvTcov TCOV daTepcov Kal rjXiov Kal aeXrjvrjs Ktvqaeig, 
oTTcos avTov fjLTjSevos TCOV a)(rjpLaTLay.6i)v pLTjTe o tottos 
fi-qTe 6 xpovos XavddvoL, hieiX-qcfiOTa 8e eK ttjs cti 
avcodev avvexovs laTopias cos em Trdv avTcov Tag 
<f>vaeLS,^ Kav jxt] rds" /car' avTO to VTroKeLfxevov aAAa 
rds ye Swdfjiet TTOL7]TLKds,^ oiov cos tt]v tov tjXlov otl 
OepfxaiveL Kal ttjv ttjs aeX'qin]s otl vypaivet, Kal inl 

TCOV XoLTTCOV OjJLolcOS, LKOVOV Sc TTpOS TaVTa TOtaUTtt 

ovTa (f>vaLKa)s dp.a Kal evaToxoJS eK ttjs ovyKpdaecos* 
TrdvTcov TO lSlov TTJs TTOLOTTjTos StaAajSetv, d)s Svva- 
adai fxev ecf)^ eKdoTov tcov SiSo/xeVa>v Kaupcov eK 

^ avTois VPMNDE ; avroiis ACam. 

^diS . ■ . (f>vaeis post 8iei.Xrj(f)6Ta 8e NCam. ; avruii' PMAE, 
aura VDNCam. ; rdj ^uaeiy MAEProc, ^Jaet VDNCam., 

4>T^OT) P. 

10 



TETRABTBLOS I. 2 

the annual variations of the seasons and the winds, 
are comprehended by very ignorant men, nay even 
by some dumb animals ; for the sun is in general re- 
sponsible for these phenomena. Things that are not 
of so general a nature, however, are comprehended 
by those who have by necessity become used to 
making observations, as, for instance, sailors know 
the special signs of storms and winds that arise 
periodically by reason of the aspects of the moon 
and fixed stars to the sun. Yet because they cannot 
in their ignorance accurately know the times and 
places of these phenomena, nor the periodic move- 
ments of the planets, which contribute importantly 
to the eft'ect, it happens that they often err. If. then, 
a man knows accurately the movements of all the 
stars, the sun, and the moon, so that neither the place 
nor the time of any of their configurations escapes 
his notice, and if he has distinguished in general their 
natures as the result of previous continued study, even 
though he may discern, not their essential, but only 
their potentially effective qualities, such as the sun's 
heating and the moon's moistening, and so on with 
the rest ; and if he is capable of determining in view 
of all these data, both scientifically and by successful 
conjecture, the distinctive mark of quality resulting 
from the combination of all the factors, what is to 
prevent him from being able to tell on each given 
occasion the characteristics of the air from the rela- 



' TToirjTiKa.^ VPMXDKCain.' ; TToioTTjTas ACam.^ 
*avyKpio€ws PUaia. 

11 



PTOLEMY 

Trjg Tore tcjv (^aivoixivojv ax^accog rots' tov TTcpi- 
i)(ovTOs IhiorpoTTias elTrelv, olov on depjJLOTepov rj 
vyporepov earai, Svvacrdai Se /cat Kad^ iva eKaarov 

TOJV dvdpCOTTCOV TTjV T€ Kad oXoV TTOLOT-qra TTJS 

6 IhiouvyKpaaiag oltto tov Kara ttjv crvcrracrLV irepi- 
ixpvTog avviheZv, oiov otl to fiev acopLa rotoaSe, tt^v 
8e ipvx'Tjv TOtdaSe, /cat to, /cara /catpous" cru/ZTrrai/xaTa 
Sia tov to fxev tolovBc TT€pii)(Ov tjj rotaSe ovyKpaaei 
avpipi€Tpov T] /cat TTp6a(j>opov yiveaOai rrpos eve^iav, 
TO Se TOLOvhe davp-fJieTpov Kal 7Tp6cr(f)opov Trpo? 
KaKcoaiv ; dXKd yap to p.ev SvvaTov rrjs TOiavrrj'S 
KaraX'qipeoJS Sta tovtojv Kal twv opLoioiv eaTi 
avvtSeiv. 

"Otl Se evvpo(f>aaiaTCog p,€v, ov TrpoarrjKOVTOJS 8e, 
TTjv irpos TO dhvvaTOV ecrp^e Bia^oXrjv ovtojs av 
KaTavo-^aaLp,€v. TrpaJrov p,ev yap to. TTTaiap-aTa 

TCOV pLT] OLKpL^OVVTiOV TO CpyOV, TToXXo. OVTa, (XJS iv 

fieyaXj) Kal TToXvpLepel decopia, Kal tols dXrjdevo- 
pAvoL£ TTjv TOVTOV c/c TV^f]? TTapea^e ho^av, ovk 
opdwg. TO yap tolovtov ov rrjg eTnoTripL-qs , dXXd 
TCOV p-eTax^ipt^o p.eva)v iarlv dhvvapiia • eiTGLTa koL 

ol TrAetCTTOt TOV TTOpil,€LV €V€K€V CTepaV T€)(m)V TO) 

TavTTjg ovopuaTL KaTa^L07naTev6p,evoL ^ tovs fjt,€v 
iStcora? i^aTraraJGL, ttoXXo. TrpoXeycLV SoKOVvres Kal 
TU)v /XTjSejLttav ^vaiv ixovTOJV vpoyLvcoGKeadaL, rols 

' KaTa^ioTTiarevonevoi. VPMADE ; Sia ttjv a^ufniariav Proc. ; 
Kai d^ia Trpoarrjodfievoi Kat Tnarevofievoi NCam. 

* The first part of the pseudo-Lucianic Ilepl dcnpoXoyl-qs 
closely parallels this passage, as Boll, iStudien, pp. 151-153, 
shows. 

12 



TETRABIBLOS I. 2 

tions of the phenomena at the time, for instance, that 
it will be warmer or wetter ? Why can he not, too, 
with respect to an individual man, perceive the 
general quahtv of his temperament from the ambient 
at the time of his birth, as for instance that he is such 
and such in body and such and such in soul, and predict 
occasional events, by use of the fact that such and 
such an ambient is attuned to such and such a tem- 
perament and is favourable to prosperity, while 
another is not so attuned and conduces to injury ? 
Enough, however ; for the possibility of such know- 
ledge can be understood from these and similar 
arguments. 

The following considerations might lead us to 
observe that criticism of the science on the score 
of impossibility has been specious but undeserved. 
In the first place, the mistakes ^ of those who are 
not accurately instructed in its practice, and they 
are many, as one would expect in an important and 
many-sided art, have brought about the belief that 
even its true predictions depend upon chance, which 
is incorrect. For a thing like this is an impotence, 
not of the science, but of those who practise it. 
Secondly, most, for the sake of gain, claim credence 
for another art in the name of this,^ and deceive the 
vulgar, because they are reputed to foretell many 
things, even those that cannot naturally be known 

' Cardanus (p. 104) gives a number of examples, among 
tliem the geomantici, those who make elaborate predictions 
from the mere fact that a man was born on a certain day 
of the week, of the moon, or of the month, those who pre- 
dict by reckoning the numerical equivalents of the letters 
in a man's name (arithmologists), and so on. Cf. also 
Plato's remarks about unworthy pretenders to philosophy. 
Republic, 495C ff. 

13 



PTOLEMY 

Se t,r]TrjTLKOJTeiJOLS Std tovtov -napea^ov a(j)op^rjv iv 
laci) ' /cat Tcbv (f)vaiv e)(ovTcov TrpoXeyeadai ^ Kara- 
yivcvGKeiv. ovSe rovro heovroj'i ■ ouSe yap (j)iXo- 
aoi^iav avaipeTeov , eVei rives tojv TrpoaTToiovfievcDV 
avTTjv TTovqpoL KaTa<f)aivovTai . dAA ofxcos ivapyes 
icrriv on Kav Stepeui^rtKcDs" rig d)s €vl jxdXiaTa 
Kal yurjatcos rolg jxad-qfiaaL 7Tpoa€p)(rjTai, ttoXXolkis 
TTTaUiv avrov ei'Se)(erat, Sc ovSev jxev rwv elprj- 
jxivcjv, St avTr]v Se tt^v tov Trpay/xaros' c^vulv /cat 
7-17^ vpog TO ixiyedog rfjs eVayycAta? aadeveiav . 
Kad' oXov yap irpos toj ttjv Trepl to ttolov Trjg vXrjg 
decopLav TTauav eLKauTLKTjv eti/at /cat ov Sta^e^atco- 
TLK-qv, /cat fxaXiGTa T'qv e/c ttoXXwv avopLoioiv avy- 
KLpvajJievqv , €ti /cat rot? iraXaLoZs tcjjv TrXavojyLevcjv 
(Tvax7]yiaTiapiols , a^' (x)v €(f)apiJi6i,o[ji€v rot? coaauroj? 
€)(Ovai T<j)v vvv TOL'S VTTo T(x)v 7Tpoyeve(TT€pcxiv err 
eKeivajv TTapaTerrjprjfjLevas TrporeAeaet?,^ Trapo/xoLOi 
jxev * 8i»^'a^'Tat yiveadai /zdAAo^ -q -qrrov /cat ovroi 
Stct /xa/cpcD^ Trepiohojv , dnapaXXaKTOL 8e oi)Sa/xa>s', 
T^S TTCttTcut' eV Toi ovpai'o) fxerd rrjs yrj? Kara 
TO OLKpL^es (rvvaTTOKaracTTdaeajs, et fxr] tls k€vo- 

^io(i) VPD : tKacTTU) MXAECam. 

^ irpoXfyeaOai. VMADEProc. ; ttcos Kiytadai (post <^t)crii') P : 
TrpoyivcuoKeodai NCaui. 

^^17 Kaddna^ roi'S avTOVS avfjL^ePrjKfvai toIs vvv add. NCara. ; 
om. VPMADE Proc 

*yap add. codd. ; om. Proc. 

1 On rascals in philosophy c/. Plato, Republic 487D, and 
the discussion which follows. 

^ By various ancient authors it was claimed thai the 
Chaldaean observations extended over periods of from 
470,000 to 720,000 years : Boll-Bezold-Gundel, pp. 25. 99. 

14 



TETRABIBLOS I. 2 

beforehand, while to the more thoughtful they have 
thereby given occasion to pass equally unfavourable 
judgement upon the natural subjects of prophecy. 
Nor is this deservedly done ; it is the same with 
philosophy — we need not abolish it because there 
are evident rascals among those that pretend to it.^ 
Nevertheless it is clear that even though one ap- 
proach astrology in the most inquiring and legitimate 
spirit possible, he may frequently err, not for any 
of the reasons stated, but because of the very nature 
of the thing and his own weakness in comparison 
with the magnitude of his profession. For in general, 
besides the fact that every science that deals with 
the quality of its subject-matter is conjectural and 
not to be absolutely affirmed, particularly one which 
is composed of many unlike elements, it is further- 
more true that the ancient configurations of the 
planets,^ upon the basis of which we attach to similar 
aspects of our own day the effects observed by the 
ancients in theirs, can be more or less similar to the 
modern aspects, and that, too, at long intervals, but 
not identical, since the exact return of all the heavenly 
bodies and the earth to the same positions,^ unless one 

' " The Stoics say that the planets, returning to the same 
point of longitude and latitude which each occupied when 
first the universe arose, at fixed periods of time bring about 
a conflagration and destruction of things, and that the 
universe again reverts anew to the same condition, and 
that as the stars again move in the same way everything 
that took place in the former period is exactly reproduced. 
Socrates, they say, and Plato will again exist, and every 
single man, with tlie same friends and countrymen ; the 
same things will hapjien to them, thoy will meet with 
the same fortune, and deal with the same things," etc. 
(Nemesius, De natura hominis, 38, p. 309, Matthaei). 

15 



PTOLEMY 

ho^otrj TTcpl Tr)u rcjv aKaraXrjTTroiV KaTaXr^ipLV Kal 
yvcbarti'} rj /jL-qS' oAca? 7]^ fjirj Kara ye tov aludrjTOv 
dvdpcoTTCp )(p6vov d7TapTil,0fX€vrj(; , oi? 8td tovto rds 
TTpopprjaeig ^ dvo^oioiv ovrcov tcov VTroKeifxevcov 
TTapaSeiypbdrcxiv iucore SLafxaprdveadai.. Trepl fJiiv 
ovv rrjv eTTiaKei/jiv tcDp' Kara to 7Tepi€)(ov yivo^ivcjjv 
cnJiJL7TTOJ[xdra)v , tout dv etrj fjiovov to Svax^peg, 
^rj8efjnds Ivravda crviXTTapaXa^^avonevrjg aLTiag Tjj 
KLV7](7€L TCx)v ovpavLCOv. TTepl Se xd? yevedXio- 
lAoyt/cctS",* Kal oAco? Tas KaT Ihiav ttjs CKdarov 
(jvyKpiaccog,^ ov yuKpd ovhk ret TUXovTa eartv ISelv 
avvaLTia Kal avTa yivofxeva Trjg twv cwv lot a^evoyv 
LO lOT pa 7T tag . at re ydp tcov airepixaTcov hia(j)opal 
TrXelaTOu SvvavTai npos to tov yevovs ihiov, eVet- 
SrjTTep TOV TTeptexovTos Kal tov 6piL,ovTO<; VTroKeifxivov 
TOV avTOV KaTaKpaTel tcov uTrepixaTajv eKaarov et? 

TTJV Kad oXoV TOV OLKCLOV /LtOp(^c6/i,aTO? StaTVTTCOCTLV, 
olov dvOpCOTTOV Kal LTTTTOV Kal TOJV dXXcOV • ol T€ 
TOTTOL TTJg y€V€a€U)S ov ^LKpdg TTOLOVVTai Tag 776/31 

ra avviGTdixeva TrapaXXaydg . Kal twv OTrep^dTcov 
yap Kara ydvos VTroKeLfievcov tcov aurcDi^, oiov 
dvdpojTTLvojv, Kal TTJs TOV TT€pii)(OVTO'5 KaTaoTdoeoj^ 
Trjs avTTJs, TTapd to tcov )(copcov Sidcf)opov ttoXv Kal 
Tolg acofjiaai Kal Tats ipv^o-ls ol yevoixevoi SiijveyKav. 
rrpos Se tovtol'; at re Tpo(f>al Kal Ta edr], ndvTcov 
TCOV TTpOKet-fxevcov d8ia(f)6pcov VTroTidefJievcov, (TV/x^dX- 
Xovrai tl irpos Tas Kara jxipos tcov ^icov 8 Lay coy ds. 

^ Kai yvaioiv om. Cam. 

* ^ . . . fj VMADE ; ei . . ei NCam. : i] . . . rfyiiv P. 
' TrpoppTjaeis libri (npio- P) Proc.Cam.' (*notatum); 
TrapaTrjpTjoeis Cam.'^ 

16 



TETRABIBLOS I. 2 

holds vain opinions of his ability to comprehend and 
know the incomprehensible, either takes place not at 
all or at least not in the period of time that falls 
within the experience of man ; so that for this reason 
predictions sometimes fail, because of the disparity of 
the examples on which they are based. As to the in- 
vestigation of atmospheric phenomena, this would be 
the only difficulty, since no other cause besides the 
movement of the heavenly bodies is taken into con- 
sideration. But in an inquiry concerning nativities 
and individual temperaments in general, one can see 
that there are circumstances of no small importance 
and of no trifling character, which join to cause the 
special qualities of those who are born. For differ- 
ences of seed exert a very great influence on the 
special traits of the genus, since, if the ambient 
and the horizon are the same, each seed prevails to 
express iii general its own form, for example, man, 
horse, and so forth ; and the places of birth bring 
about no small variation in what is produced. For 
if the seed is generically the same, human for example, 
and the condition of the ambient the same, those who 
are born differ much, both in body and soul, with the 
diflPerence of countries.' In addition to this, all the 
aforesaid conditions being equal, rearing and customs 
contribute to influence the particular way in which a 

^ The first three chapters of Book ii deal with astrological 
ethnology, and in iv. 10 Ptolemy points out that in all 
nativities such general consiiiorations as nationality and 
age take precedence over more particular details. 

* yece^AioAoyi/f dj VD, cj . Proc. ; yeveOXioXoyia^ cott. Cam. 
' ayy/fptaeois VP (-Kprj-) MDKCam.' ; auy/cpdcrecus Cam.'^ 

17 



PTOLEMY 

ojv cKaarov ear ixr] avvSLaXaf-L^dvrjTai rat? arro tov 
7repL€)(OVTog atTtai?, el Kal on fxdXiara rr)v TrXeiar-qv 

k)(€t TOVTO SuvajJill {tO) to fXeV 7T€.pi€)(OV KOLKeivoig 

avTOL£ €LS TO TOiolaSe elvai avvaLTiov yiveadai, 
TOVTCp S' eKeiva /xjjSa/xoj?) , ttoXXtjv aTTopiav hvvavTai 

TTap€)(€LV Tols CTTL TWU TOlOVTCOl olofieVOLS OLTTO flOVTTjS 

>T7Js T(x)v [xeTecopojv KLvrjaecos, TrdvTa, Kal to. firj 
TeXeov err avTjj, hvvaadai SiayivMaKeiv. 

TovTcov Se ovTcog i)^6vTOJV, TTpoarJKOv dv e'i-q p^r\Te, 
eTTeiS-q hcajxapTdveadaL ttot€ ttjv TOLavTr]v TTpoyvcoaiv 
€v8€^€TaL, Kal TO TTav auT'^S' dvaipeLV, warrep ovSe 

TTjP KV^€pvr]TLKrjV ^ Sttt TO TToAAct/CtS' 7TTai€lV aTTO- 

boKiiJidt,ofxei' • dXX a*? ev p^eydXoig, ovtoj Kal deioLg 
eTTayyeXjJLaaLv , duTrd^eaOai Kal dyaTTTjTOv rjyeladai. 
TO SvvaTOv, pir]T av ndXiu rrdvTa ^ 'qplv dvOpcorrlvcos 
Kal iaTO)(aafMev(x)s aiTelv Trap' avTrjs, dXXd crujLi^tAo- 
KaXeiv, Kal eu oig ovk rjv eV avTrj to -ndv i(f)ohLdt,eLV ' 
Kal (varrep Tois laTpols . OTav imtpriTcbaL Tiva, Kal rrepl 
avTTJs Trjs uoaov Kal rrepl Trjs tov KdpLvovTOS 18lo- 
TpoTTias ov /x€/x0o/xe^a Xeyouaiv ^^ ovtio Kal ivTavda 
Tct yevTj Kal ra? ;^ajpas Kal Ta? Tpo(f)ds, r^ Kal Tiva 
TcDv rjSrj crvixf^e^rjKOTOiv, [xyj dyavaKTelv V7TOTi.de- 
fxevoLs. 

^ r-qv Kv^epvrjTiK-qv VPMDEProc. ; KvPepvTjriKovs NACam. 

^ TrdiTo] ^iT] ndi'Ta VPD. 

^Xiyovrnv NCam., Aeyoi'Tts VPMADE. 



18 



TETRABIBLOS I. 2 

life is lived. Unless each one of these things is ex- 
amined together with the causes that are derived 
from the ambient, although this latter be conceded 
to exercise the greatest influence (for the ambient 
is one of the causes for these things being what they 
are, while they in turn have no influence upon it), 
they can cause much difficulty for those who believe 
that in such cases everything can be understood, even 
things not wholly within its jurisdiction, from the 
motion of the heavenly bodies alone. 

Since this is the case, it would not be fitting to 
dismiss all prognostication of this character because 
it can sometimes be mistaken, for we do not dis- 
credit the art of the pilot for its many errors ; but 
as when the claims are great, so also when they are 
divine, we should welcome what is possible and 
think it enough. Nor, further, should we gropingly 
and in human fashion demand everything of the art, 
but rather join in the appreciation of its beauty, 
even in instances wherein it could not provide the 
full answer ; and as we do not find fault with the 
physicians, when they examine a person, for speak- 
ing both about the sickness itself and about the 
patient's idiosyncrasy, so too in this case we should 
not object to astrologers using as a basis for calcula- 
tion nationality, country, and rearing, or any other 
already existing accidental qualities. 



19 



PTOLEMY 

<y.> "Otl Kal d) <f> € Xi fxo g 

Tiva fxiv ow rpoTTOv hvvarov yiveTai to Si* 
aarpovoidas TrpoyvojarLKOV, Kal otl fJ'€)(pL fxovov 
dv (f>6dvoL TU)v re /car avro to 7r€pL€)(OV crvpLTTTO)- 
IxoLTCov Kal rajv aTTO rrj^ Toiavrrjg aiTt'a? TOtS" 
dvOpcoTTOig TTapaKoXovdovvTcov, Tavra S' ai' eirj 

776/01 T€ TaS €^ OiRXV^ eTTlTT^SetOTT^Ttt? TCOV 8vvdfJL€COV 

Kal 7Tpd^€(ov adjpLaTO's Kal il/vxrjs Kal ra Kara 
10 Kaipovg awTciJt' ndOr], TToXvxpovLOT-qrd? re Kal 
oXiyoxpovioTTjTas , eVt Se /cat ooa tcov e^codev 
Kvpiav T€ Kal (f)uaiKr]v ex^i npos ra irpcbra cn>n- 
TrXoKiqv, (Ls TTpos TO aajfxa pcev rj KTTJaig Kal rj 
avu^icoais, Trpos Se Trfv ifju^'^v rj T€ Tifirj Kal to 
d^icop,a, Kal to.^ tovtcov KaTO. Kaipovs TV)(a9, 
ax^Sov (x)s €V K€<f)aXaLOL9 ^ yeyovev rjfilv SrjXov. 

XoLTTov S' dv ei7^ TcDf TTpOKeijJieVOJV Tr]V KaTO. TO 

XpriaipLov iTTtaKeiftiv Sict ^pax^iov TToi-qaaadai, Trpo- 
Tepov hiaXa^ovai, Ttra Tpoirov, Kal Trpo's tl tcXos 
d(f)opa)VTes tt^v avTov tov \prjaLixov hvvapuLV eKhe^o- 
fxeda. el fiev yap Trpos to. tt^j ^jf^x^S ay add, tL 
dv eiTj avfX(f)op(x)T€pov ^ Trpos evTrpayiav Kal ;i^a/oai/ 
Kal oXo)s evapdaTTjCTLv ttjs TOiavT-qs Trpoyvwaecus, 
Kad^ T^v TCOV T€ dvdpojTTivcov Kal TCOV delcov yLvojxeda 
avvopaTLKoi ; et Se Trpos Ta tov acofiaTOS, TrdvTcov 
dv pdXXov 7] ToiaiWr] KaTdXrjiJjts €TnyLvc6aKot to 
OLKeiov T€ Kal TTp6a(f)opov rfj Kad^ €KdaT7]v avyKpaaiv 
iTTiTTjdeiOTqTi • el Se jut) TTpos ttXovtov r) So^av ij 

' Ke(f>aXaiot.s libri, -oi Cam. 

'^ avijL<f)op(OTepoi' VD, avp(f>€p6Tepov PL, anovSaioTepov MAE 
Cam. ; post Trpoyvioaecos MAE. 

20 



TETRABIBLOS I. 3 



3. That it is also Beneficial. 

In somewhat summary fashion it has been shown 
how prognostication by astronomical means is pos- 
sible, and that it can go no further than what happens 
in the ambient and the consequences to man from 
such causes — that is, it concerns the original endow- 
ments of faculties and activities of soul and body, their 
occasional diseases, their endurance for a long or a 
short time, and, besides, all external circumstances 
that have a directive and natural connection with 
the original gifts of nature, such as property and 
marriage in the case of the body and honour and 
dignities in that of the soul, and finally what befalls 
them from time to time.^ The remaining part of our 
project would be to inquire briefly as to its useful- 
ness,^ first distinguishing how and with what end in 
view we shall take the meaning of the word useful- 
ness. For if we look to the goods of the soul, what' 
could be more conducive to well-being, pleasure,' 
and in general satisfaction than this kind of forecast, 
by which we gain full view of things human and 
divine ? And if we look to bodily goods, such know- 
ledge, better than anything else, would perceive what 
is fitting and expedient for the capabilities of each 
temperament. But if it does not aid in the acquisi- 
tion of riches, fame, and the like, we shall be able 

' Note that in this sentence Ptolemy refers to several of 
the subjects of chapters in Books iii and iv. 

* According to Cicero, Dedivinatione, ii. lOo, Dicaearchus 
wrote a book to prove that divination was useless ; 
Plutarch took the other side, m an essay of which only 
fragments are preserved. 

21 



PTOLEMY 

TO. Toiavra avvepyel, 7Tpoxcop'i]creL Kal Trepl Tratny? 
(f)LXoaocf)tas TO avro tovto (f}a(JKetv • ovSevos yap 
TCx}v rotovTOiv icTTLV, OGOv i(f)^ iavrfj, TTepiTTOtrjTLK'q. 
aAA' out' iK€LV7js 8ta rovT av ovre ravrr)? Kara- 
yLva)(TKOL[xev St/caio)?, d</>€jLtei'ot rod Trpos to. fxeit,o} 
avpcfyepovTOS. 

"OAcos" S' oiv i^€Tdt,ovai (jiaveZev av ol to d)(p7)crToi> 
11 TTJ? KaTaX'i'nJjecx}? e'mp.epi<f)6iJLevoi irpog ovSev tu>v 
KvpLOiTaTCJV a(f)op(jjVT€s, aAAa wpos avTO tovto 
jxovov, OTi ToJv TTOVTrj TTavTws eaojxevojv rj Ttpo- 
yvcoai's TTepLTTrj, Kal tovto 8e aTrAoj? ttolvv, Kal ovk 
€V SteiXrjufxdvojs. irpcJTov pieu yap Set aKOTrelv, 
OTi Kal €776 TOJV i^ dvdyK'qg drro^-qaoixevcov to p,kv 
drrpoaBoKTjTov tovs t€ dopv^ovg eKOTaTiKovs Kal 

Ta? X^P^^ e^OLOTLKaS pLoXlUTa 7T€(f)VK€ TTOielv • TO 8e 

TTpoytvcoaKeiv e'^t^et Kal pvOp.Ll,€i ttjv ipv^'^v Tjj 
p-eXeTj] TOJV aTTOVTOJv a>? TrapovTcov, Kal irapa- 
aK€vdll,€L p.€T elprjvrjs Kal evoTadeias eKacTTa tcov 
i7Tepxo[.t€va)v dTTohlx^adai. eTreid^ otl /xTyS' ovtojs 
€Ka(jTa XP'^ vopbit^etv tols dvdpcoTTOLs (xtto ttj? dviodev 
aiTLa's TrapaKoXovOeZv , coanep i^ dpx^js diTO tivos 
dXvTOV Kal detov TrpooTdypiaTos Kad^ eva eKacrrov 
vevopLodeTrjpLeva Kal i^ dvdyK7]g dno^rjaopieva, pLrjhe- 
(xids dXXrjs arrXaJs atTias dvTnrpd^ai SvvapLdvrjs , dAA' 
(Ls pcev TTJs Tcov ovpaviojv Kivrjaeoi's Kad^ €ljxapp.€vr)v 
Qeiav /cat ajxeTaTTTCOTOv e^ alcovos dTTOTeXovjxevrjs, 
Trjs Se TCOV eTTLyeicxJv ^ dXXoLcoaeoJS Ka9^ elp-appilvriv 
(pvaiKTjv Kal pieTanTcoTTjv Tag TrpcoTag alTias dvatdtv 
Xajx^avovarjg /card avpi^e^rjKos Kal /car' enaKoXov- 
Or^GLV ' Kal COS" Tcur pcev 8td KaOoXiKOTepag Treptord- 

22 



TETRABIBLOS I. 3 

to say the same of all philosophy, for it does not 
provide any of these things as far as its own powers 
are concerned. We should not, however, for that 
reason be justified in condemning either philosophy 
or this art, disregarding its greater advantages. 

To a general examination it would appear that 
those who find fault with the uselessness of prog- 
nostication have no regard for the most important 
matters, but only for this — that foreknowledge of 
events that will happen in any case is superfluous ; 
this, too, quite unreservedly and without due dis- 
crimination. For, in the first place, we should 
consider that even with events that will necessarily 
take place their unexpectedness is very apt to cause 
excessive panic and delirious joy, while foreknow- 
ledge accustoms and calms the soul by experience 
of distant events as though they were present, and 
prepares it to greet with calm and steadiness what- 
ever comes. A second reason is that we should not 
believe that separate events attend mankind as the 
result of the heavenly cause as if they had been 
originally ordained for each person by some irre- 
vocable divine command and destined to take place 
by necessity without the possibility of any other 
cause whatever interfering. Rather is it true that 
the movement of the heavenlv bodies, to be sure, 
is eternally performed in accordance with divine, 
unchangeable destiny, while the change of earthly 
things is subject to a natural and mutable fate, and 
in drawing its first causes from above it is governed 
by chance and natural eequence. Moreover, some 
tilings happen to mankind through more general 

' Treptyeicoc PMi£CaiQ. 

23 



PTOLEMY 

aeis Totg avOpcoTTOL? crufJi^aivovTCOV, ovxl Se ck ttj? 
2 tStW eKOLUTOV ^ ^uatKTj? iTTLTrjSeLOTTjTos , CVS orav 
Kara fieydXas Kal Bv(jcf)vXdKrovg rov TrepUxovrog 
rpOTTas €«• wpojaeoiv tj XoLjJioJv rj KaTaKXvaficov 
Kara. TrX-qdr] hia(f>dap(ji)(nv, VTroTTLTTTOvarjs del ttjs 
^pa^yrepas atria? rfj fxei^ovL /cat Icrxypcxirepa, tcov 
Se Kara rrjv ivos eKdarov <f)vaLKrjv ISioavyKpaatav 
Sid fXLKpds /cat Tct? Tuxovaas rov irepiexovTOS dvTt- 
TradeCas. rovrcov yap ovtcd BiaXrj(f)6evrcov , (f>avep6v 
OTL /cat /ca^' dXov /cat /caret [xepos, oacov fxev avfiTTTCu- 
ixdrcov TO TTpdJTOv aiTLOv ^ dfJLaxov re ecrrt /cat iX€ll,ov 
TTOVTOS Tov dvTLTTpdTTOvros , TavTa /cat TTavrrj nav- 
Tcug diTo^aiveLV dvdyKT] • ocra Se /xt) ovtcos e;^et, 
TOVTCOV rd [xev eTnrvyxdvovTa ra)v dvrLTradrjaovTCDV ^ 
evavdrpcTTTa yiverai, rd 8e pt,r^ evirop-qaovra ^ /cat 
aurct rat? Trpcoraig ^vaeatv dKoXovdeZ, 8t dyvoiav 
fxevTOL /cat ovketl Sid rrjv rrjs laxvos dvdyKT]v. ro 
avTO S' dv Tis tSot ovjji^e^-qKOS Kat ctti TravTCOV 
aTrActJ? Tcbv (f)vaLKds exovrcov ra? apxcs- Kai yap 
/cat Xtdcov Kal <^vrcx)v /cat t,coojv, kn Se TpavfxaTOJV 
/cat TTaddJv /cat vocrrjixdrojv, rd p.€V e'^ dvdyKy]s rt 
TTOLeiv 7T€(f)VK€, rd 8' et fiTjSev tcov ivavTicov dvTi- 
■npd^ei. ovTcos ovv XP'H vofjLL!l,€Lv Kal rd rols dvdpcJo- 
TTois (TVix^Tjaofxeva rrpoXeyew tovs ^vgikovs rfj 

^ eK Tr)s iSt'as e/cacrrou VMADE ; tSi'a? om. PL ; ano iKaor-qs 
(f>vaiKrjs tSias Cam.- 

^o post alriov add. Cam., om. libri. 

^ avTiTTadrjaovTcov VADCam., -advTwv PME. 

* fVTTopijaoi'Ta VADCam., -aavra PME. 

* Cf. ii. 1, " the particular always falls under the 
general." Ptolemy distinguishes carefully between uni- 

24 



TETRABIBLOS I. 3 

circumstances and not as the result of an individual's 
own natural propensities — for example, when men 
perish in multitudes by conflagration or pestilence 
or cataclysms, through monstrous and inescapable 
changes in the ambient, for the lesser cause always 
yields to the greater ^ and stronger ; other occur- 
rences, however, accord ^vith the individual's own 
natural temperament through minor and fortuitous 
antipathies of the ambient. For if these distinc- 
tions are thus made, it is clear that both in general 
and in particular whatever events depend upon a 
first cause, which is irresistible and more powerful 
than anything that opposes it, must by all means 
take place ; on the contrary, of events that are not 
of this character, those which are provided with 
resistant forces are easily averted, whUe those that 
are not follow the primary natural causes, to be 
sure, but this is due to ignorance and not to the 
necessity of almighty power. One might observe this 
same thing happening in all events whatsoever that 
have natural causes. For even of stones, plants, and 
animals, and also of wounds, mishaps, and sicknesses, 
some are of such a nature as to act of necessity, 
others only if no opposing thing interferes. One 
should therefore believe that physical philosophers 
predict what is to befall men with foreknowledge of 

versal (KadoXiic^) and particular or genethlialogical 
(yevedXiaXoyt-Ki^) astrologj'. The former deals with astro- 
logical influences which affect all mankind or whole 
countries and races of men, and is treated in Books i-ii; 
the latter concerns the nativities of individuals, and is the 
subject of Books iii-iv. 

25 



PTOLEMY 

TOiavTrj TTpoyvcoaei , /cat ^ir] Kara /cem? So^a? vpocr- 
€p)((^fxevovs, CO? Tcuu ixev Sta to ttoXXo. Kal jxeydXa 
13 ra TTOL7]TiKa Tvyxo-veiv, dcjjvXdKTOJv ovtcov, tojv he 
8ta rovvavTiov fxeraTpoTrd^ eTnhe)(op.iv<jDV . KadaTrep 
Kal Tcjv laTpcjv ocroi SvuaTol crqueiovaOaL to. Tradrj- 
fxara TrpoyivaxjKovai rd re Trdvroj's dveXovra} /cat 
Ttt )(wpovvTa ^ ^oijOeLav. enl Se rcov jxeTaTreaelv 
huvafxevoiv , ovtoj? aKOvareov tov yevedXiaXoyov , 
cf>€p eliTelv, OTt rfj romSe cwyKpdaei Kara rrjv 

TOldvBe TOV 7T€pL€XOVTOg ISlOTpOTTLaV Tpa7T€taCOV €7tI 

TO TfXeov r) eXaTTov twv VTroKeip-evcov ovjjipieTpLoJv, 
TO TOLOvSe "* TrapaKoXovdr]U€L irddos ■ d>s Kal tov jxev 
laTpov, OTi rdSe to f'A/co? uoixr^u -q crfjipLv ifiTTOieX, 
TOV Be [xeTaXXiKov, Xoyov eveKev, otl tov aihr]pov rj 
Xidog Tj fxayi'TJTL^ eXK€L. ajairep yap tovtojv cKdTe- 
pov, eaOev /jbev Sl dyvcoaLav tcjv avTiTrad-qoovTcov , 
TTavTrj irdvTCos TrapaKoXovdiqaeL Tjj ttjs TTpcoTTjg 
(f)vaeu)s Svvdfiei, ovt€ Se to cXkos Tqv vofirjv rj ttjv 
arjiptv KaTepydaeTaL rfjs dvTiKeLfievrjg depaTrelas 
TV)(6v, ovT€ TOV aiBrjpov 7] fMayvTJTLs iXKvaeL rrapa- 
rpi^evTog avTrj cjKopohov. Kal aura 8e raura to. 
KCoXvovTa (f)vaLKaJs Kal Kad el/JLapfxevTiv avTeTrdQi)- 
aev • ovTO) Kal Irr" eKeivoiv, dyvoovfieva fxev to. 
(Tvp^TjaoiJLeva toi? dvdpcoTTOig, r) iyvcDap-eva fxev, /lit) 
TVXovTa Se t€)v dvTnradovvTCJV, TrdvTri ndvTOig 
aKoXovO'qGeL to) ttj? TrpcoTrjg (f)vaea>s etp/xo). Trpo- 
yvoiadivTa Se Kal evvopi^oavTa tujv deparrevovTajv 

^ dvaipovmai Cam.', dvaipovvra Cam.^ 

*;^a>poi5rra VMADE ; cf. tol depaTreiav emSexofieva Proc. ; 
■)(Oipi)yowTa Cain.^, Cani.'^ ixop-), P (;^a)pi-). 
^ dv post Totoi'Se add. PMECariu. 

26 



TETRABTBLOS I. 3 

this character and do not approach their task under 
false impressions ; for certain things, because their 
effective causes are numerous and powerful, are 
inevitable, but others for the opposite reason may 
be averted. Similarly those physicians who can re- 
cognize ailments know beforehand those which are 
always fatal and those which admit of aid. In the 
case of events that may be modified we must give 
heed to the astrologer, when, for example, he says 
that to such and such a temperament, with such and 
such a character of the ambient, if the fundamental 
proportions increase or decrease, such and such an 
affection will result. Similarly we must believe the 
phvsician, when he says that this sore will spread or 
cause putrefaction, and the miner, for instance, that 
the lodestone attracts iron : just as each of these, if left 
to itself through ignorance of the opposing forces, will 
inevitably develop as its original nature compels, but 
neither will the sore cause spreading or putrefaction 
if it receives preventive treatment, nor will the lode- 
stone attract the iron if it is rubbed with garlic ; ^ and 
these very deterrent measures also have their resist- 
ing power naturally and by fate ; so also in the other 
cases, if future happenings to men are not known, or 
if they are known and the remedies are not applied, 
they will by all means follow the course of primary 
nature ; but if they are recognized ahead of time 
and remedies are provided, again quite in accord 

• A current belief ; c/. Thorndike, History of Magic and 
Experimental Science, I, p. 213, for uu instance of its 
occurrence in Plutarch. 

27 



PTOLEMY 

(f)vaLKC^S ttolXlv Kad^ eljxapiJieinjv, rj ayevYjTa ^ tcXcov, 
Ur) iierptihrepa KadLararai. oAoj? 8e rrjg Toiavrrj? 
8vvd[JL€aJS TTJs avTTJg ovcrrjs ^ttL re Tcbv 6Xocr)(€pcbg 
decopovp-dvcov Kal em tcov Kara fjuepog, daufxaaecev 
dv Tis Sta TiVa S-q ttotc alriav em pikv tu>v ^ /ca^' 
oXov TTicrrevovai Trdvres Kal ra> hvvarip rij? Trpoyvco- 
aecos Kal to) irpos to (ftvXdrreadai -x^prjaipLCp (ras" Te 
yap wpas Kal rd'S tcov aTrAavoji' e77toTy/xacrta? /cat 
Tovs Trjg aeXrjvrjg G)(r]fxaTLaixovs ol TrXelaroi Trpoyivai- 
OKetv 6p,oXoyovaL, Kal ttoXXtjv irpovoiav TTOLovvrai 
TTJs (f)vXaKrj^ avTCOv^ TrecfipovTiKoreg ael Trpog fxev ro 
64pos rwv ipv)(eiv hwajxeucDV , TTpos Se rov x^Lfxcjva 
rcbv OepfiaLvovTcov, Kal oXios 7Tpo7rapaaK€vdt,ovT€S 
avrojv TO.? <f>va€L£ irrl to evKparov ■ Kal ert Trpo? /xev 
TO da(f)aXes riou re (l)pa>v Kal tcov dvayojyiov irapa- 
(f)vXdTTovT€s TO.? TCOV drrXavcov aoTepaJv eTTtcnj/u.aatas', 
TTpos 8e ra? dp^ds tcov ox^tcbv Kal <j>VTeLcov tous 
Kara rrX-qpcoaiv tcov <f)coTcov ttjs aeXr]vr]s axT^p^o-Tia- 
pbovg, Kal ovSels ov8ap.rj twv tolovtcov KareyvcoKev 
ovd^ cos dhvvdrcov , ovd^ cos dxpi]CTTCov),iTTl Se tcov Kara 
jj-epos Kal e/c ttjs tcov Xolttcov crvyKpdaecos tStcu/xa- 
Tcov, olov naXXov Kal tjttov, x^ifxcovcov rj Kal 
KavpLaTcov, Kal ttjs Kad^ eKaoTOV IhioavyKpaaias , 
ovTe TO TTpoycvcocTKeiv €TL SvvaTov rjyovvTai TLves 
ovre rd TToXXd iy^copelv (f)vXd^acrdai ' KaiTOi Ttpo- 
15 StJAou Tvy-^dvovTos , otl TTpos xd /ca0' oXov Kavfxara 

^ ayiv7)Ta VADE, dyevvi^Ta PMCam. 
2 Toll' libri, Tots Cam. 

iHesiod's Works and Days, 383 &. (ed. Flach), well il- 
lustrates how such stars and constellations as the Pleiades, 

28 



TETRABIBLOS I. 3 

with nature and fate, they either do not occur at all 
or are rendered less severe. And in general, since 
such power is the same whether applied to things 
regarded universally or particularly, one woxild 
wonder why all believe in the efficacy of prediction 
in universal matters, and in its usefulness for 
guarding one's interests (for most people admit that 
they have foreknowledge of the seasons, of the 
significance of the constellations, and of the phases 
of the moon, and take great forethought for safe- 
guarding themselves, always contriving cooling 
agents against summer and the means of warmth 
against winter, and in general preparing their own 
natures with moderation as a goal ; furthermore, to 
ensure the safety of the seasons and of their sailings 
they watch the significance of the fixed stars, and, 
for the beginning of breeding and sowing, the aspects 
of the moon's light at its fuU,^ and no one ever 
condemns such practices either as impossible or 
useless) ; but. on the other hand, as regards par- 
ticular matters and those depending upon the 
mixture of the other qualities — such as predictions 
of more or less, of cold or of heat, and of the in- 
dividual temperament — some people believe neither 
that foreknowledge is still possible nor that pre- 
cautions can be taken in most instances. And yet, 
since it is obvious that, if we happen to have 
cooled ourselves against heat in general, we shall 

Orion, Hyades, Sirius, and Arcturus, and the solstices 
were observed in ordinary rural life in such connections as 
those mentioned by Ptolemy; also in navigation (018 ff.). 
The favourable and unfavourable days of the month (i.e. 
of the moon) are enumerated in lines 769 ff. 

29 



PTOLEMY 

el rvxoifiev TrpoKaTaifju^avTes lavrovs tjttov Kavaov- 
fieOa, SvvaraL to o/jlolov ivepyelv /cat TTpog to. IhicDS 
rrivhe rrjv avyKpaatv et? d/jieTpiav av^avra ^ rov 
depfjiov. dAAa yap airiov rijs roLavrrjs a.p.aprias 
TO re hvoKoXov /cat arjdes TTJg tcov /cara jxepos 
TTpoyvcjaecos , onep /cat CTrt tcov dXXojv ax^^ov 
dirdvTOJV aTTiaTLav ^puTTOieZ. /cat ro jxrj cwvaTTTO- 
fjievr^s cos €7tI ndv Trjg dvTLvadovGrjg Suvdfiecog ttj 
TTpoyvojGTLKfj , bid TO OTrdvLov TTJs ovTio TeActas" 
Siadeaecos, /cat TTcpl Tas TrpajTa? <j)va€LS dvejXTrohi- 
OTCos d7TOTeXoviJL€V7]s , Sofav cus" Trepl aTpeTTTCov /cat 
d(l)vXdKTCL)v TTapeax^ /cat TravTcov (itt-Acu? tcjv dno- 
firiaopLevojv 

"QcTTep 8e, olfxai, /cat ctt' avTOv tov TTpoyvwaTiKov , 
/cat et fir)^ Sid Trai^TO? tJj^ aTTTaiaTOV, to ye SvvaTov 
avTov iJLeytGTTjg d^tov GTTOvSrjs /care^atVero, tov 
avTov TpoTTov /Cat em tou ^uAa/crt/cou, Kat et /xi) 
Travrajt' e'crrt deparreVTiKov, aAAa to y' evr' ii'lcov, 
Kav oAiya /cclp" /x-t/cpd 7y, ayaTrat' /cat da7TdC,€o9ai /cat 
Kephos ov TO Tvxdv rqyeladaL 7TpocrrJK€L. 

TovTOLS 8e', COS" €oi,K€, GvveyvojKOTes ouTOjg exovai, 

/cat oi /LtdAtCTTa rryt' ToiavTTjv Svvajjiiv Trjg Texi'i^s 

TTpoayayovTeg AlyvTTTioL avvrjipav TravTaxrj tco 8t' 

16 (XCTTpot'o/x/.as' TTpoyvcoaTLKOj TTjv laTpiK-qv. ov ydp 

^ aviavTa PL, -oi^a VMADECam. 

' Kal €1 fiT] MAE, Kav fjLTj VDCam., Kai ^ firj P, xal ei /xer L. 

1 Ptolemy's language is highly condensed and obscure; 
the translation gives the probable moaning. Proclus' 
Paruphra.-'e, pp. 31-32, thus renders the passage: "But 
the reason for such an assumption is the difiiculty of 
prognostication in particular cases, the accurate and truth- 

30 



TETRABIBLOS I. 3 

suffer less from it. similar measures can prove effec- 
tive against particular forces which increase this 
particular temperament to a disproportionate amount 
of heat. For the cause of this error is the difficulty 
and unfamiliarity of particular prognostication, a 
reason which in most other situations as well brings 
about disbelief. And since for the most part the 
resisting faculty is not coupled with the prognostic, 
because so perfect a disposition is rare, and since the 
force of nature takes its course without hindrance 
when the primary natures are concerned, an opinion 
has been produced that absolutely all future events 
are inevitable and unescapable.' 

But, I think, just as with prognostication, even if 
it be not entirely infallible, at least its possibilities 
ha^ e appeared worthy of the highest regard, so too 
in the case of defensive practice, even though it does 
not furnish a remedy for everything, its authority 
in some instances at least, however few or un- 
important, should be welcomed and prized, and 
regarded as profitable in no ordinary sense. 

Recognizing, apparently, that these things are so, 
those who have most advanced this faculty of the 
art, the Egyptians, have entirely united medicine 
with astronomical prediction.^ For they would 

ful handling of these matters, and the tact that, because a 
f)er.son is rarely found who has so (K-rfect a disposition that 
none of the remedies escapes him, the lacnlty whicfi 
generally resists the force which, unhindered, is effective 
through the primary natures, is not coupled with the 
prognostication, and, not being so coupled, creates the 
opinion concerning all future events without exception 
that they are Inevitable and that it is impossible to ward 
them off." * See Bouche-Leclercq, pp. 517-520. 

31 



PTOLEMY 

av 7TOT€ oLTTorpoTTLaanovg Tiva^ Kal (f)vXaKT7]pLa Kol 
depaneLa? ovvlaravTO irpos ra? e/c tov TT€pi€)(ovTOS 
imovaa^ rj TTapovaa<; TTepiardcreis KadoXiKas re Kai 
fxepLKo.'S, €1 Tts" auTot? OLKLvrjcrias /cat afxeTarpe^ias 
Tcbv iaofxevcov vnrjpx^ 86^a. vvv oe /cat to Kara 
rag i(f)€^rjg (jyvaeis avmrpa^aL hvvdjxevov ev SevTepa 
;^6(jpa TOV Kad^ elfxapnemjv Xoyov ^ TideiJ-evoL, crvv- 
€(^ev^av TTJ TTJs TTpoyviLaeois 8vvdixei ttjv Kara, ro 
Xp-qcnjxov Kal axfieXifjLOV Sia t&v KoXov^evoiv Trap 
avTols larpofJLadr]fji,aTiKOJi> crvvTa^ecov,^ ottcds Sia 
fiev darpovopLias ra? re Tibv VTTOKGLjxevojv ovy- 
Kpdaecov TTOLorrjTas ^ etSeVat crvfJL^aLvrj , Kal rd 8ta 
TO 7T€pL€)(ov iaofjLcia avfjiTTTw^aTa, Kal ras" tSia? 
avTcov aiTias (to? dv€V tt]S tovtojv yvwaecog, Kal 
Twv ^or]6rjfidTCt)v Kara to TrXelaTOV StaTTLTTTeiv 
6(j)€iX6vTOJv , are /xtj Trdai acoixacnv ^ Trddeai tcov 
avTOJv avix^eTpoiv ovtojv), hid 8e tt]? laTpiKrjs 

aTTO TcDv eKdcTTOL? oIk€LO)S aVU-TTadoVVTWV 7) avTi- 
TTadoVVTCOV, TCt? T€ TOJV fieXXoVTCDP TTadcOV 7TpO(f)V- 

XaKdg Kal to,? ratv iveoTCOTCOv 6 e pane lag aSia- 
7Tra)TOV£: (Ls €VL [idXicrTa, Troiov}ievoi htareXcjaLV } 

/4AAa Tavra [xev fJ^xpt ToaovTOJv rjfjuv Kara to 

K€cf)aXaia)h€s TTpoTeTuncoado}. TTOL7]a6fxe9a Se rjSr} 

TOV Xoyov Kara tov elaaycoyiKov Tpoirov, dp^djjievoi 

TTepl TTJs eKdoTOV T(x)v ovpavUov nepl avro to 

17 TTOfqTLKOv IhiOTpoTTias, aKoXovdoJS rals vtto tG)v 

^\6yov VMADE, \6yov PL, om. Cam. 

2 Post avvTa^ewv add. nedohov Cam. ; in iibris deest. 

* TTotoTTyra? libri, ibLOTTjTas Cam. 

* SiaTcAoOai Cam. 

32 



TETRABIBLOS I. 3 

never have devised certain means of averting or 
warding off or remedying the universal and parti- 
cular conditions that come or are present by reason 
of the ambient, if they had had any idea that the 
future cannot be moved and changed. But as it 
is, they place the faculty of resisting by orderly 
natural means in second rank to the decrees of fate, 
and have yoked to the possibility of prognostica- 
tion its useful and beneficial faculty, through what 
they call their iatromathematical systems (medical 
astrology), in order that by means of astronomy they 
may succeed in learning the qualities of the under- 
lying temperatures, the events that will occur in the 
future because of the ambient, and their special 
causes, on the ground that without this knowledge 
any measures of aid ought for the most part to fail, 
because the same ones are not fitted for all bodies 
or diseases ; ^ and, on the other hand, by means 
of medicine, through their knowledge of what is 
properly sympathetic or antipathetic in each case, 
they proceed, as far as possible, to take precautionary 
measures against impending illness and to prescribe 
infallible treatment for existing disease. 

Let this be, to this point, our summarily stated 
preliminary sketch. We shall now conduct our dis- 
cussion after the manner of an introduction,- begin- 
ning with the character of each of the heavenly 

'Perhaps "affections," the more general sense of the 
word TTados. 

" " Introductions " (eiaayfuyou), or systematic elemen- 
tary treatises, are a common literary form in antiquity. 
Nicomachus' Introduction to Arithmetic (fiaayoryq apidyL-qriK-q) 
is a good example. The " art " {t(x^) was a similar form 
of treatise, and might deal with any art or science. 

33 



PTOLEMY 

7TaXaia)v /caret tov (f)vaiK6v Tponov i4>ripiioa ixevaL? 
■napaTTjprjaeai, Kal Trpcurats' ^ rah tcov TrXavco 
fxevcov a(TTep<x)i' Svvdjjeai rjXtov re Koi GeXrjvrj^s 

<h.> Tie pi TTJS T(X)V TT Xau OJ fJL € u OJV 

aGTepoiV" hvvdixeoi<; 

'0 ■tJXio<; KaTeiXrjTTTaL to ttoitjtikov €)(cov ttj? 
ouata? €v TO) depfxaiveLV, Kal rjpiixa ^rjpaiveiv. 
ravra Se j.idXiara rcov dXXojv tjixIv evaiaOrjrorepa 
yiveraL Sid re to fieyedog avTou Kal to tcov Kara 
Ttt? cupa? iJ,€Ta$oXdJv iuapyeg, iTTeiS^jTrep ocro) dv 
fxdXXov iyyt^r) tov KaTa Kopv(f>7]v r]fx<x)v tottov^ 
/.tdXXop rjiJLd<; ovtoj hiaTidrjaLv. -q he aeXr^vq to 
fxev ttX4ov e)(€i Trj<; Bvvdfxeojs iv tw vypaiveiv , 8ia 
TTjv TTepLyeiOTrjTa S-qXovoTi Kal ttjv tojv vypdiv 
dvaOvpiiauLV. Kal hiaTidrjatv ovtojs dvTiKpvg to. 
awfxaTa TrenaLvovaa Kai htaar^TTOvaa ra TrAetcrTa, 
K€KOivu)vr]K€ Se r]p€fxa /cat tov depfiaiveiv Sia tovs 
aTTO TOV rjXiov (fyajTiayiov'S. 

'0 Se TOV Kpovov daTrjp to nXeov e)(€L TTJg ttoio- 
TTjTOS €V TU) ipv^eiv Kal TO) r]pefJLa ^rjpaiveiv , hid to 

} Trpwrais VD, npcoTrjs MAE, npo rijs P, irpos rijs L, irpaiTov 
Proc, npcoTcos Cam. 

^ TrAai'aj/nevcDv darepcov VADEProc, om. dcrrepwv M, rrAa- 
vr)Ta)v PLCam. ' roi . . . tottoj MAECam. 

1 In this chapter and elsewhere Ptolemy makes use of 
the four AristoteUan principles, hot, cold, wet, dry (e.g. 
De generatione et corruptione, ii. 2, 3). Cf. Boll-Bezold- 
Gundel, p. 50. 

* It was a doctrine as old as Thaies that the moisture 
arising from the earth nourished the heavenly bodies ; cf. 

34 



TETRABIBLOS I. 3-4 

bodies with respect to its active power, in agreement 
with the physical observations attached to them by 
the ancients, and in the first place the powers of 
the planets, sun, and moon. 

4. Of the Power of the Planets. 

The active power of" the sun's essential nature is 
found to be heating and, to a certain degree, drying.^ 
This is made more easily perceptible in the case of 
the sun than any other heavenly body by its size 
and by the obviousness of its seasonal changes, for 
the closer it approaches to the zenith the more it 
affects us in this way. Most of the moon's power 
consists of humidifying, clearly because it is close 
to the earth and because of the moist exhalations ^ 
therefrom. Its action therefore is precisely this, to 
soften and cause putrefaction in bodies for the most 
part, but it shares moderately also in heating power 
because of the light which it receives from the sun. 

It is Saturn's ■* quality chiefly to cool and, mode- 
rately, to dry, probably because he is furthest 

Diels, Doxographi Oraeci (Berlin, 1879), p. 276 ; J. Burnet, 
Early Greek Philosophy (London, 1920), p. 49. 

^ Ptolemy ordinarily says " the (star) of Saturn," " the 
(star) of Jupiter," etc. (o tov Kpovov, 6 tov Aios), and less 
often merel3' " Saturn," ' Jupiter," and the like, a form 
of speech which tends to identify the planet and the 
divinity whose name it bears. On the other hand, ho does 
not use the older Greek names such as 'Poja4>6pos, <PaU'wv, 
etc. (though Uvpoeis occurs for 'Ap-q^ in one of the iVlSS.). 
See F. Cumont, " Antiochus d'Ath^nes et Porphyre," 
Annuaire de I'lruit. de Philologie et d'Histoire Orienlalr, ii. 
139, and " Les noms de planetes et d'a-strolatrie chez les 
grecs," L'Antiquild Classique, iv. 1, pp. 5-43 ; Boll- 
Bezold-Gundel, p. 48. 

35 



PTOLEMY 

TrXetarov, a»? eoLKev, a7re';^etv ' a/xa rrjg re tov rjXiov 
Bepfiaaiag /cat ttjs tcov Trepl rrjv yrjv vypcov dvadv- 
ixidaecos. avviaravTaL he Swajxeis e77t re tovtov 
Kal TCOV XoLTTCov^ Kal Sid rrjs tcjv Trpog tov tJXiov 
/cat TTjv aeXrjvrjv ax^jP'OLTLajxcbi' TTapaTTjp-^aews , CTrei- 
l8hr]7Tep ot jxev ovtcos, ol 8e ovroi ttjv tov TrepiexovTos 
KaTOLOTaaLV im to pidXXov rj ^ttov avvrpeTTOVTeg 
(f>aivovTaL. 

'O Be TOV "Apecog ^ ^rjpaiveiv fjidXiOTa /cat Kavaovv 
€)(eL (f)vaLV, Tip re TwpcoSet tov ;^pa)/xaTOS' ot/ceta>? 
/cat TTJ TTpos TOV rjXiov iyyvT'qTL, v7TOKeip,evr)g avTcp 
TTJg T^Aia/crj? cr^atpa?. 

'O Se TOV Zlto? evKpaTov e\€L to ttol-^tlkov ttjs 
Svvdfjieios , fJLera^i) yivopevrjs ttj? Ktvi^aeo)? avrov tov 
T€ /caret TOV Kpovov ifjvKrtKov /cat tov /card tov "Ap-qv 
KavoTiKOu. OepjxaLvei re ydp dpLa /cat vypaivei, 
Kal Bid TO [idXXov etvai deppavrtKog, vtto tcov 
VTroKeipLevcov (j(f>aipcx)v, yovipuDv TTvevpiaTOJv yiverai 

TTOLrjTLKOS- 

Kal 6 TTJg A(f)poSiTr)g 8e tcov pcev avTOJv ioTi 
/card TO evKparov TTOirjTiKog,^ dAAa Kara to evavTiov. 
depfxaivei fxiv ydp -qpefia Sid ttjv eyyvT-qra ttjv 77/30? 
TOV rjXiov jxaXiara Be vypaivei Kaddrrep r) aeXrjvr] 
/cat ayrd? 8td to p.eye9og tcov iBiojv (j)(joTa)v, voacpii^o- 
fxevos TTjv drro tcov Trepiexovrajv Tqv yfjv vypcov at'a- 
dvixlacTLv . 

' dnexeii' VMADE. cm. PLCam. : dc/xardvai add. post 
dvaOvfiido ecus Cam. 

- livpoevTos ME. Ordincm restauravi qiiam praebent 
VPLADProc. ; in MECam. ordo est 6 Se tov Jios . . . 
jToi/qriKOS- 6 8e tov Apeios . ■ aifxiipas. 

36 



TETRABIBLOS I. 4 

removed ^ both from the sun's heat and the moist 
exhalations about the earth. Both in Saturn's case 
and in that of the other planets there are powers, too, 
which arise through the observation of their aspects 
to the sun and the moon, for some of them appear 
to modify conditions in the ambient in one way, some 
in another, by increase or by decrease. 

The nature of Mars is chiefly to dry and to burn, 
in conformity with his fiery colour and by reason 
of his nearness to the sun, for the sun's sphere lies 
just below him. 

Jupiter has a temperate active force because his 
movement takes place between the cooling influence 
of Saturn and the burning power of Mars. He both 
heats and humidifies ; and because his heating 
power is the greater by reason of the underlying 
spheres, he produces fertilizing winds. 

Venus has the same powers and tempered nature 
as Jupiter, but acts in the opposite way ; for she 
warms moderately because of her nearness to the 
sun, but chiefly humidifies, like the moon, because 
of the amount of her own light and because she 
appropriates the exhalations from the moist atmo- 
sphere surrounding the earth. 

• The order of the heavenly bodies followed by Ptolemy 
is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury. Moon ; c/. 
Bouch6-Leclercq, pp. 107-108. 



'noirjTiKOS ■ . ■ ivavriov VPLMADE (koX Kara ME); cf. 
Proc. ; rCo Zrfvl Kara yiivroi to dvTiKtifievof ttoitjtikos Cam. 
(om. Tu> Zi)vi ed. pr.). 

37 



PTOI,EMY 

O Se TOV ' EpfXOV tU? €771 TTO-V €^ LOOV 7TOT€ flCV 

^rjpavTLKo^ KaraXajx^dverai koL tojv vypcov dvaTTOJ- 
riKog^ hid TO fjnqheTTore ttoXv ttj^ rov TjXiov dep- 
fjiaariag Kara. p.'fJKog d(l>iGTaGdai , ttotc 8' av vypav- 
TiKos, Sta TO rfj TTepiyeiOTdrr) a(j>aLpa tt)? aeXrivT]^ 
€7nK€LadaL , raxeiag he TTOieladai ra? eV dp,<j)orepois ^ 
19 p.€Ta^oXdg , TTvevfxarovixevos cjainp vtto Trjs Trept 
avTov TOV tJXiov d^vKLvqaias. 

<€.> n € p I dy ad o 7T o i cbv k al k a k o tto i cov^ 

ToVTCOV OVTCO'S exdvTOJV, €TT€L8r) TCOV TeTTapoiv 

"Xyp-dTOiv hvo jxev ioTi ra y6vLp,a /cat notrjTLKd, to 
T€ TOV depfjiov /cat to tou vypov • 8ia tovtojv yap 
TTtti'Ta cwyKpiveTat fcai av^eTai • 8vo Se Ta (f>dapTiKd 
/cat TTadrjTLKa, to t€ tov $r)pov /cat to tov tjjvxpov, 
8i' J)v TTavra ttoXiv 8ta/cpiVeTat /cat (j>div€i,'^ tovs 
[xev Svo Toiyv TrXavrjTCJv , tov Te tov Aiog /cat tov ttjs 
^ A(f>pohiTri? , Kal €tl t-t^v ueXi^vrjv, cos dyadonoiovs oi 
vaXaiol TTapeiX'^<f)a(n, 8ta to evKpaTOv /cat to ttX4ov 
^x^i-v €v T€ TO) Oepficp /cat Tcp vypcp, tov 8e tou 
Kpovov /cat TOV TOV "ApecDS ^ ttjs ei'ai'Ttas' (f>va€ajs 
TTOLTjTiKov?, TOV jxev TTJg dyav tjjv^eco? eVe/cev, toj^ 
8e TTJs dyav ^rjpoTTjTos • tov 8e -^Xlov /cat roi^ toC 
'EpjjLOv 8ta to Koivov TCOV (f)va€U}v cl»9 dp.(f>6T€pa 
bvvap.€vovs , /cat pdXXov avvTpeTTOfxevovg , ot? av tcDi/ 
dXXcov TTpoayevuiVTai.^ 

^ dvanavTiKos PL. 

* iv dfj.(f>oTepois VMADE, dfx<l>OTep P, afi4>0Tepai L, eir afuftO' 
repa Proc. Cam. 

3 Titulum capitis om. Cam., iiabent VPLMADE. 

38 



TETRABIBLOS I. 4-5 

Mercury in general is found at certain times alike 
to be drying and absorptive of moisture, because he 
never is far removed in longitude from the heat of 
the sun ; and again humidifying, because he is next 
above the sphere of the moon, which is closest to the 
earth ; and to change quickly from one to the other, 
inspired as it were by the speed of his motion in the 
neighbourhood of the sun itself. 

5. Of Beneficent and Maleficent Planets. 

Since the foregoing is the case, because two of the 
four hvimours are fertile and active, the hot and the 
moist (for all things are brought together and in- 
creased by them), and two are destructive and 
passive, the dry and the cold, through which all 
things, again, are separated and destroyed, the 
ancients accepted two of the planets, Jupiter and 
Venus, together with the moon, as beneficent because 
of their tempered nature and because they abound 
in the hot and the moist, and Saturn and Mars as 
producing effects of the opposite nature, one because 
of his excessive cold and the other for his excessive 
dryness ; the sun and Mercury, however, they 
thought to have both powers, because they have 
a common nature, and to join their influences with 
those of the other planets, with whichever of them 
they are associated. 

*<f>divti, VMADE, 8ia(f>d€ipfTai LCain., 8ia(f>deipT] P, i^delpfToi 
Proc. 

' Post 'AptMS add. KaKOTroiovs, cos MAECam., cm. VPLD. 

* TTpooydvaivrai. VMADE, irapaylyviovrai. P, TtapayivovraL L 
Cam. ; add. ois fxeaovs Cam,*, fiiaovs Cum.* 

39 



PTOLEMY 

<?.> n e pi dppevLK ojv Kal 6 7] Xv k cov 
aoTepcov 

TldXiv e7T€LBrj TO. Trpajra yivrj roJv (j)vae(x)v ian 
Svo, TO T€ dppevLKOv Kal TO drjXv, rwv 8e Trpo/cet/xe- 
vo}v Sum/xecov -q rrjg vypds ovaias fxaXiara drjXvKri 
rvyxdvet {irXeov yap eyyiverai Kad^ oXov tovto 
TO iiepos TTaai rois dt^Xeai, rd S' aAAa fxaXXov TOt? 
20 appecTLv) , cIkotcos ttjv [xev (J€Xt]vt]v Kal tov ttjs 
^ A(j>pohiTr]s daripa drjXvKOV? rjiMV TrapaBeSwKaaL 
Sio. TO TrXeov €)(^eiv iv tw vypcp, tov be ^Xiov Kai tov 
TOV Kpovov Kal TOV tov a tog Kal tov tov "Apecos 

dppeVlKOVS , TOV 8e TOiJ 'Ep/XOV KOLVOV dljL(f)OT€pCOV 

TUiv yevd)v, Kad" o i^ loov Trjg t€ ^yjpdg Kal ttjs 
vypdg ovaiag ioTL ttolt^tlkos. dppevovadai Be (f>acn 
Tovs doTepas Kal drjXvveudai vapd Te tous" Trpos 
TOV rjXiov G)(^r]fxaTLajJLovs ' icoovs [X€V yap ovTas Koi 
7Tpo7]yovfX€vovs dppevovodai, eanepiovs 8e Kai eiro- 
[jLevovg 6r)Xvvea6ai. Kal cVi rrapd Toi/s vpos tov 
6pil,ovTa • iv jjiev yap Tolg dm dvaToX-qg P-^xpt 
fi€aovpavi]a€CDS , rj Kal dm Svaewg fi^xpL Trjg vtto yrjv 
avTifieoovpavr^acoj? ^ a)(r^p.aTLa^OLS, (hs dTrrjXicoTL- 
Kovs dppevovadai • iv 8e Tot? Xolttols Sucti TCTapTr)- 
fJLopiOLs CO? Xi^vKovs ^ drjXvveaOaL, 

' fieXP^ TraAti' tov avTiKei^ivov fxeaovpavrjuaros Cam. ; om. PL. 
" SvTiKovs Cam. 



* Or matutine ; that is, stars which are above the earth 
when the sun rises, as evening, or vespertine, stars set after 
the sun. Cardanua (p. 127) aays that whatever planet is 

40 



TETRABIBLOS I. 6 

6. Of Masculine and Feminine Planets. 

Again, since there are two primary kinds of natures, 
male and female, and of the forces already mentioned 
that of the moist is especially feminine — for as a 
general thing this element is present to a greater 
degree in all females, and the others rather in males — 
with good reason the view has been handed down to 
us that the moon and Yenus are feminine, because 
they share more largely in the moist, and that the sun, 
Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars are masculine, and Mer- 
cury common to both genders, inasmuch as he 
produces the dry and the moist alike. They say 
too that the stars become masculine or feminine 
according to their aspects to the sun, for when they 
are morning stars ^ and precede the sun they be- 
come masculine, and feminine when they are evening 
stars and follow the sun. Furthermore this happens 
also according to their positions with respect to the 
horizon ; for when they are in positions from the 
orient to mid-heaven,^ or again from the Occident 
to lower mid-heaven, they become masculine be- 
cause they are eastern, but in the other two quad- 
rants, as western stars, they become feminine. 

less than 6 signs removed from the sun in the order of the 
signs is feminine and occidental ; any that is more than 
6 signs distant, mascuUne and oriental. 

* Cardanus {I.e.) remarks that some do not accept this 
statement but count all stars from the inferior to the 
superior mid-heaven (4th to tho 10th house) masculine 
and from the superior to tho inferior mid-heaven (10th 
to tho 4th house) feminine. Planets may also become 
masculine or feminine in con.sequenco of occupying a 
masculine or feminine sign ; see Bouch6-Leclercq, p. 103. 

M 41 



PTOLEMY 

<^.> IJepl 7] fxe p IV CO V Kal vv k t € p lv cov 

'OfJLoicDS 8e €7T€iSr] rix)v ttolovvtcov top )(p6vov TCt 
iK<f)av€aTaTa SiaarT^/xara Svo ravra Tvy)(dvei ro re 
ri]g T^/xepa? rjppevojj^ievov jxaXXov 8ta to iv avrfj 
depfxou Kal hpaoTLKOv /cat to rrj'? I'VKrog redrjXva- 
fjidvov fJidXXov Sto. TO Kar avT-qv Slvypov /cat dva- 
TTavoTLKOv , WKTepLVOv'S fxcv oiKoXovdcos TTapaSeSco" 
/caot ttJu T€ aeXi^vrju /cat rou rrjs ^ AcfipoSirrj? , 
rjixepLVOvs Se toi' re tJXlov /cat tov rod /J to?, CTrt- 
21 KOLVov Se Kara ravra. rov rod Epixov Kal iv 
p.ev ro) €0)0) axi^fiari rifxepivov, iv Se to) iaTrepiio 
vvKrepLvov. TrpocreveLfJiav 8e eKarepa rojv aLpeaeojv 
Kal Tovs Svo roug rrjg cfidapriKrjs ovatas, ovk en 
fxevroL Kara rag avrdg rrjg <f>vaeo}g alrtag, dXXa 
Kara, rag ivavriag. rolg jxev yap rrjg dyadr^s 
Kpdaecos OLKeLOVixeva rd ojjioia [j.eLt,ov avrojv ro 
(x)(f)€XifJiov TTOiel, roZs 8e (f>daprLKOig rd dvoLKeia 
lJi,iyvv[ji€va TTapaXvei ro ttoXv ^ rijg KaKcoaecos 
avrajv. evdev rov fxev rov Kpovov tjsvKrLKOv ovra 
r<2) dep^o) rrjg rjfxepas aTreVetjuav, rov Be rov "Apeios 
^rjpov ovra ro) vypco rrjs vvKros • ovroj yap e/ca- 
repos VTTo rr]g Kpdaecog ^ ri]s avfifierpiag rvxdiv 
OLKelos yiverai rijs ro evKparov 7Tapaa)(OvaT]s 
alpeaeois . 

^TToXi) VMADEFProc, kukov PL, o<fio8p6v Cam. 
■■* evavrias Kpdaeios Cam. ; evavTias om. iibri. 

42 



TETRABIBLOS I. 7 

7. Of Diurnal and Nocturnal^ Planets. 

Similarly, since of the two most obvious intervals 
of those which make up time, the day is more mas- 
culine because of its heat and active force, and night 
more feminine because of its moisture and its gift of 
rest, the tradition has consequently been handed down 
that the moon and Venus are nocturnal, the sun 
and Jupiter diurnal, and Mercury common as before, 
diurnal when it is a morning star and nocturnal as 
an evening star. They also assigned to each of the 
sects the two destructive stars, not however in this 
instance on the principle of similar natures,'- but of 
just the opposite ; for when stars of the same kind 
are joined with those of the good temperament their 
beneficial influence is increased, but if dissimilar 
stars are associated with the destructive ones the 
greatest part of their injurious power is broken. Thus 
they assigned Saturn, which is cold, to the warmth 
of day, and Mars, which is dry, to the moisture of 
night, for in this way each of them attains good 
proportion through admixture and becomes a proper 
member of its sect, which provides moderation. 

* These are the sects {alpeais, conditio, aecta) of the 
sun and moon respectively ; c/. Vettius Valens, ii. 1, iii. 5 ; 
Rhetorius, ap. CCAO, i. 146. 

* I.e. that " birds of a feather flock together," in 
various forms a proverbial expression in Greek ; e.g. 
Odyssey, 17. 218, toj alel tov ofiotov dyti Seoj cos tov 
ofxolov ; Plato, Republic, 329 A, Fhaedrus, 240 C, etc. 

43 



PTOLEMY 

<^.> n € pi T fj g Swajxecx)? t cov tt p 6 <; 
r 6v rjXLOv a ^(^ri fji a T L a ^ o) I 

"Hhrj p,ivroL Koi irapa tovs irpos tov t^Xlov crvaxrj- 
fiariaixovs rj re aeX-qvrj Kol ol rpelg tcjv TrAavco- 
fxcvoiv ^ TO yLoXXov Koi rjTTOv Xaix^dvovGLv iu TaXs 
OLKetaLS eavrcov Swdfjieatv. ^ re yap aeX'qin] Kara 
fi€V Trjv a-TTo dvaToXrjg fJ'^XP'- '''V^ TrpcoTT)? SixoTOfiov 
av^rjatv vyporrjTos ioTi fxaXXov TTonyri/o) • Kara. 
8e TTji' dno TrpcoTTjs Blxoto/jlov fJ-expi TravGeXrjvov , 
depfjLOTTjTos ■ Kara Se ttjv aTTO TravaeX'qvov P-^XP'- 
22 Sevrepas SixoTojJiov ^rjpoTrjTOS • Kara Se ttjv dno 
Sevrepas hixpr6p.ov ^ p^XP'- Kpvilj€0}<; ^ tpvxpdTTjTos. 
ot T€ 7rXav(x)p.evoi Kai ewoi p.6vov diro p,ev rrjs 
uvaToXrjg p-^XP'- "^^^ Trpcorov aTqpiypiov p.dXX6v 
eloLv vypavTLKoi, drro Se tov Trpcorov arrjpiypLOv 
p-^xpi- TT^? dKpovvKrov p-aXXov depp-avriKoi, dno Se 
Tf)s dKpovvKTov p-^XP^ '''^^ Sevrepov anqpiypiov 
p.aXXov ^rjpavrtKOL, diro Se rov devrepov anqptypLOv 
p.^XP'- Suaecu? p^aXXov ifjvKriKol • SrjXou Se ort. Kai 
dAX'qXoLS avyKipvdpievoL TrapLTTXrjdels hia^pds ttoio- 
Tqrojv els ro Trepiexov r]p.ds aTrepyd^ovrai, Kara- 
KparovarjS p.ev cos ^ttl rrdv rrjs IBias CKdarov 
SwdpLecos , rp€7Top,ev7]s Se Kara ro ttooov vtto ttj? 
rcbv axTip-ant^opLlvcov } 

^ Post TrXavoi ij.iv(x)v add. o re rov Kpovov Kai 6 tov Aios koI 6 
TOV 'Apfcos AFCam., om. VPLMDE. 

^ ^iiuxjiv post hixoT6p.ov add. Cain.^ 

^ Kpvijjeuis VMDKProc.Cam. ; TpT^i/tecus P, Tpeipeuis L; 
fjvvoBov AFH ot Cam.^ in inar^;. 

■• iiavTicoaeuis post crxrjixaTiL,ofi€fa>t' add. Cam., cm. libri. 

44 



TETRABIBLOS I. 8 

8. Of the Pouer of the Aspects to the Sun. 
Now, mark you, likewise, according to theii' 
aspects to the sun, the moon and three of the 
planets ^ experience increase and decrease in their 
own powers. For in its waxing from new moon to first 
quarter the moon is more productive of moisture ; 
in its passage from first quarter to full, of heat ; 
from full to last quarter, of dryness, and from last 
quarter to occultation,^ of cold. The planets, in 
oriental aspects only, are more productive of mois- 
ture from rising to their first station,^ of heat from 
first station to evening rising, of dryness from evening 
rising to the second station, of cold from second 
station to setting ; and it is clear that when they 
are associated with one another they produce very 
many variations of quality in our ambient, the proper 
force of each one for the most part persisting, but 
being changed in quantity by the force of the stars 
that share the configuration. 

' Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars ; a gloss to this effect has 
been incorporated into the text of certain MSS. and of 
Camerarius' editions (see the critical note). 

^ I.e. new moon. 

' By " rising " heliacal rising is meant. The stations 
are the points in the motion of the planets at which they 
appear to stand still before beginning retrograde movement. 
Ptolemy explained these irregularities of movement by the 
theory of epicycles. Cf. Bouch^-Leclercq, pp. 111-123. 

45 



PTOLEMY 

<d.> n e pi TTJs T(x)v anXav (x)V 
darepcov Svudfieats 

'E^rj? 8e DITTOS" Kal ra? tcoi' oLTrXavaJv (f)v<7€i9 Kara. 
TO tSi'co? avTcov TTOL-qriKov einhpayLelv , eKdrjOofxeda 
Kal ra? ctt' avrcor rerrjprjiJievas tSiorpoTrta? Kara 

TO OjXOLOV TOis Tcbv TrXaVCOyLeViliV (fiVUCGL TOV ifx- 

(f)avt,aix6v TTOLOVixevoL • Kal -npaJTOv TOiv ircpl avTov 
TOV hid jxeacov kvkXov^ i)^6vTa)v Td<; ycop^waeis 

ToV KpiOV TOLVVV ol fX€V iv TTJ Ke(f)aXfj TO 
TTOVqTlKOV 6p.OLOV CXOVGL KCKpapiivOV TTJ T€ TOV 

"Apecas Kal rfj tov Kpovov Svvdfiei • ol 8e iv tw 
OTOixaTL TTj T€ TOV ' Epjjiov Kal rjpdiia ttj tov 
Kpovov • OL 8e €v TO) oTTiadio) TToSt Tjj TOV "Apea}£, 
'• OL 8e €vl Trjs ovpd? ttj t'^? 'A(f)pohLTr]S. 

Ta)v 8e eV to) Tavpco doTdpcov ^ ol [xev eVt Trjg 
dTTOTOfJLTJs opLoiav exovcri Kpdcnv to) re t-^? 'A(f)po- 
^LTTj?, Kal r]p€p,a tw tov Kpovov • ol 8' iv ttj 
nXeLdhi Tjj T€ Trjg a€X^]vr]? Kal tw tov Alos ' tcHv 
Se iv TTJ K€(f)aXi] 6 pev Xap^irpos 6 Tr)<; 'Ydhos'^ Kal 
VTTOKLppos ,^ KaXovp,evos 8e /Ia/Lt77a8ia?, tw tov 
^Apecos ■ OL Se XoiTTol ^ tw tov Kpovov Kal rjpipba 

tw tov 'EpfJLOV ■ ol 8' iv aKpOLS TOLS KepaGL TTJ TOV 

"Apews. 

' 8ia ^iaojv kvkXov] ^ooOta/cof NCam. 

^roiv . . . darepoji'] Toi! §€ Tavpou NCam. 

^OTTis 'VaSos VDProc. ttjs 'Yahos PLMAEFH, ribv 'Yahcov 
NCam. 

* anoKippos NCam. 

^01 8e XoiiTOL . . . T<x> TOV ' Ap€u>s] liapc post I. '2\. 'Aptcus 
VPLMADEProcom.NFHCam.i; post 1. 16, rou JidsCam.*; 
post AoiTToi add. eVei ovns Cam.*, cm. libri. 

46 



TETRABIBLOS I. 9 

9. Of the Power of the Fixed Stars. 

As it is next in order to recount the natures of the 
fixed stars with reference to their special powers, 
we shall set forth their observed characters in an 
exposition like that of the natures of the planets, and 
in the first place those of the ones that occupy the 
figures in the zodiac ^ itself. 

The stars in the head of Aries, then, have an effect 
like the power of Mars and Saturn, mingled ; those 
in the mouth like Mercury's power and moderately 
like Saturn's ; those in the hind foot like that of 
Mars, and those in the tail like that of Venus. 

Of those in Taurus,^ the stars along the line where 
it is cut ofi" have a temperature like that of Venus 
and in a measure like that of Saturn ; those in the 
Pleiades, like those of the moon and Jupiter ; of 
the stars in the head, the one of the Hyades that is 
bright and somewhat reddish, called the Torch,^ has 
a temperature like that of Mars ; the others, like 
that of Saturn and moderately .ike that of Mercury ; 
those in the tips of the horns, like that of Mars. 

^Strictly, "around the ecliptic itsolf." Properly, the 
zodiac is o l^wSiaKos kvkXos, and the ecliptic, the path of 
the sun through its middle, is o <yia fieacuv {sc. tcuv Cuibiuiv) 
kvkXos or o Sia (xfaov (sc. tov ^u>8iaKov) kvkXos, " the circle 
through the midst of the signs " or " through the middle 
of the zodiac." 

* Taurus was represented as the head and fore parts only 
of a charging bull. 

' Aldebaran. 

47 



PTOLEMY 

Tajv 8e €v ToTs Aihufioig aaripoiv ol /xev iirl 

TOJV TToScOP Trj^ OfUOLa? K€KOLVCOVriKaaL TTOLOTrjTO? 

TO) T€ rod ' Epfiov Kal rjpejjia tw rrjs ^A(f>poSir-q? • 
OL Se TTcpl Tovs prjpov^ XafiTTpol TO) rod Kpovov 
rcjv Se ev ratg K€(f)aXaL9 Svo XafiTTpcov 6 ^ikv ev 
rfj TrpoTjyovfievrj rqj rod 'EpfjLov, KaXctrai 8e Kal 
MttoAAcoi'o? ■ 6 Se iv rfj eTrofxeur] ra> rov "Apeojs, 
KaXelraL Se Kal HpaKXeovs. 

Twv Se ev ro) KapKLva> aarepojv ol fiev em rajv 
6(f)6aXiJ.a)v 8vo rrjs avrrjg evepyeia'S elal TTOfqrLKOL 
rep re rov 'Epfxov Kal -qpep-a ro) rov "Apecog • ol Se 
iv raXs )(rjXaL9 ra> re rod Kpovov Kal ro) rod EpfJLOv. 
rj Se ev ra> anqdei ve(f)eXoei8r]g avarpo(f)i^, KaXov- 
fxevq Se 0drvr), rep re rod "Apewg Kal rfj aeXrivr) • 
Ol Se eKarepwdev avrijg Svo, KaXovfJLevoL Se "Ovoi, 
rep rod "Apecos Kal rcu -qXiO) 

Tiov Se nepl rov Aeovra ol fxev errl rrjg Ke<f)aX7Js 
Svo ro ofxoLOv rroLodoL ro) re rod Kpovov Kal rjpefxa 
rip rod "Apeojg, ol Se ev rep rpa)(rjXep rpelg rep rod 
24 Kpovov Kal rjpefjia rep rod 'Epfiod ■ o Se em rijg 
/capSi'a? Aa/XTTpds", KaXovfJuevos Se BaenXiaKO? , rep 
rod "Apeeo? Kal rep rod Ai6<5 ■ ot Se ev rfj oacfjvi 
Kal 6 errl rijs ovpdg Xaunpos rep rod Kpovov Kal rejj 
TTJ? ' A(f)poSirrj£ • ol Se ev rolg prjpoig rep re rijs 
*A<f>poSLrrjs Kal rjpep.a ro) rod Eppod. 

Tebv Se /caret rrjv [JapQevov ol jxev ev rfj Kee^aXfj 
Kal 6 eTr' dVpa? rrjs voriov irrepvyos ofioiov exovai 
ro TTonqriKov rep re rod Eppiod Kat 7ype/xa t<£» rod 
"Apeeos ■ ol Se XolttoI rrjs Trrepvyos Aa/HTrpoi /cat ot 
48 



TETRABIBLOS I. 9 

Of the stars in Gemini, those in the feet share the 
same quality as Mercury and, to a less degree, as 
Venus ; the bright stars in the thighs, the same as 
Saturn ; of the two bright stars in the heads,' the 
one in the head in advance the same as Mercury ; 
it is also called the star of Apollo ; the one in the 
head that follows, the same as Mars ; it is also called 
the star of Hercules. 

Of the stars in Cancer, the two in the eyes produce 
the same effect as Mercury, and, to a less degree, as 
Mars ; those in the claws, the same as Saturn and 
Mercury ; the cloud-like cluster in the breast, called 
the Manger,'- the same as Mars and the moon ; and 
the two on either side of it, which are called Asses,^ 
the same as Mars and the sun. 

Of those in Leo, the two in the head act in the same 
way as Saturn and, to a less degree, as Mars ; the 
three in the throat, the same as Saturn and, to a 
less degree, as Mercury ; the bright star upon the 
heart, called Regulus, the same as Mars and Jupiter; 
those in the hip and the bright star in the tail,^ the 
same as Saturn and Venus ; and those in the thighs, 
the same as Venus and, to a less degree. Mercury. 

Of the stars in Virgo,^ those in the head and the 
one upon the tip of the southern wing have an effect 
like that of Mercury and, in less degree, of Mars ; 
the other bright stars of the wing and those on the 

' These arc Castor (" in arlvance ") anil Pollu.x. 

* Praescpe ; more popularly. Beehive. 

^ .Asinus Borealis and Asinus Australis. 

* P Leon is. 

* Virgo was represented as a winged woman boaring in 
her loft hand a stem of wheat, the head of which was 
marked by the bright star Spica. 

49 



PTOLEMY 

Kara to, Trepit,wfxaTa ro) re tov Ep^xov fcat rjpefxa 
TO) rrj? *A(f)poSiTr)s ■ 6 Se ev rfj jSopeia Tiripvyi 
XafiTTpos, KoXovpLevo? 8e TJpoTpvyrjTrjp, tcv tov 
Kpovov Kal TO) TOV Ep/xov • o Se KaXovfxevos 
Eraxys Tip T7J9 ^A(f)pohtTT]^ Kal r]pip.a tw tov 
"Apecos ■ ol 8e iv a/cpot? rot? TTocrt /cat to) avppaTi ^ 
TOJ Tou 'Epfiov^ Kal -qpepa tco tov "Apeojs. 

Tcbv 8e XrjXcov tov EKopirLov "' oi /Lter ev a/cpat? 
ayTat? oicrauTCDS' Start^eacn T(iJ re tou ^to? Kai t<3 
TOV Epfiov ■ ot Se ei^ f^teaatg tco re rou Kpovov Kol 
ripifia TO) TOV "Apeojs 

Tcov 8e €v TO) acvpaTL tov EkopttLov ol p,€V iv to) 

IJi€T(X)TT(p XafJLTTpol TO aVTO TTOLOVGL To) Te TOV 'MpeCD? 

Kal "qpe/xa toj tov Kpovov • ol Se iv tco acop,aTi, 
Tpeis, (^v 6 fjieao? VTTOKippos Kal Aa/u Trpdrepo?, 
KaAetrat 8e Vli'Tapi^?, roi roy "Apeco? Kal rjpepa to) 

TOU AlOS ■ Ot 8€ et" TOLS GcfiOl'SvXoLS TCO T€ TOV KpOVOV 

Kal rjpepa tco ttjs V4(/ipoSiT7j? ol 8e eVt tou KevTpov 
25 to) re roC 'Eppiov Kal tco tov "Apecos ' r) 8e Aeyo- 
fievT) vecfjeXoeLbrjS avoTpo^T] tco tov "Apecos Kal ttj 
aeX-^vrj. 

Tcov 8e 7T€pl TOV To^OTrjV ol jxiv €Trl TTJS a/CtSoS" TOV 

^eXovs opLOiov e)(ovaL to TTOirjTiKOv tco tov "Apecog 
Kal TTJ creAryp'Ty ■ ol 8e rrepl to to^ov Kat T-qv Xa^rjv 

TTJS )(€ip6s TCO T€ TOV A LOS Kal TCO TOV "ApCCOS ' Tj 

^Post avpfxari add. tov nariov NProc.Cam. ; om. 
VPMADEFH. 

2 TOV 'Epfwv VPADEFHrroc, tov 'A<j>po8iTris MNCam. 

^UKopmov VPDProc, Zvyov NCam., om. LN (lac. 6 litt.) 
AEFH. 

50 



TETRABIBLOS I. 9 

girdles like that of Mercury and, in a measure, of 
Venus ; the bright star in the northern wing, called 
Vindemiator, like those of Saturn and Mercury ; the 
so-called Spica, like that of Venus and, in a less 
degree, that of Mars ; those in the tips of the feet 
and the train ^ like that of Mercury and, in a less 
degree. Mars. 

Of those in the Claws of the Scorpion,^ the ones 
at their very extremities exercise the same influence 
as do Jupiter and Mercury ; those in the middle 
parts the same as do Saturn and, to a less degree. 
Mars. 

Of the stars in the body of Scorpio, the bright 
stars on the forehead act in the same way as does 
Mars and in some degree as does Saturn ; the three 
in the body, the middle one of which is tawny and 
rather bright and is called Antares, the same as 
Mars and, in some degree, Jupiter ; those in the 
joints, the same as Saturn and, in some degree, 
Venus ; those in the sting, the same as Mercury and 
Mars ; and the so-called cloud-like cluster, the same 
as Mars and the moon. 

Of the stars in Sagittarius,^ those in the point of 
his arrow have an eff"ect like that of Mars and the 
moon ; those in the bow and the grip of his hand, like 
that of Jupiter and Mars ; the cluster in his forehead, 

^ " Of the garment " is added in the Nuremberg MS., by 
Proclus, and in the printed editions ; see the critical note. 

* " Claws of the Scorpion " was the earlier name of Libra 
(Zvyos) ; the latter came into general use in the first century 
before Christ. Ptolemy uses both names. 

" Represented as a c(>ntaur preparing to shoot an arrow ; 
a mantle flies above and behind his shoulders 

51 



PTOLEMY 

oe ev Tw TTpoacuTTCo auarpocfj'q r<x> t€ rjAicp /cat rco 
Tov "Apeco^ ■ ot Se iu rat? €(f)a7TTi,aL ^ Kal ro) rajTOj 
TO) TOV AiO'; Kal rjpejJia to) tov 'Epjxov • ot 8e iv 

ToZs TTOul TO* TOV AlOS KOl TOJ TOV KpOVOV ' TO Se 

CTTi Ti]S ovpds TeTpdnXevpov tco Trjg ^At^pohiTiqs koI 
ripifia TOJ TOV Kpovov. 

Ta>v Se /card tov AlyoKepcov doTepcov at fxev inl 
TCJV Kepo-Tcov (haavTOJS ivepyovai tco ttjs ^A(f)po8LT7jg 
Kal rjpepLa tco tov "Apecos • ol Se iv tw ardjuart to) 
TOV Kpovov Kal rjpefJLa tco ttjs A(f)pohiT-q's ■ ot Se 
iv Toi? 7700-t Krai ttj kolXlo. tco tov "Apecos Kal tco 
TOV Ep/jLov • ot Se eVt Trjg ovpds tco tov Kpovov 

Kal Tcl) TOV A LOS. 

Tcbv Se Trept tov 'YSpo)^6ov ol jxev iv rots' co/Ltot? 
ojxoicjjs Start^e'ttCTt tco re tov Kpovov Kal tco tov 
'EpfJiov, avv rot? iv tjj dpiUTepa ;^e£pt /cat tco 
LjxaTLCp ■ ol Se CTTt Tcjiiv p.rjpcbv jjLaXXov fiev tco tov 
*EpjjLov, TjTTOv Se TCO TOV Kpovov ' ol Se iv Tjj pvcjei 
TOV vdaTos TCO re tov Kpovov /cat rjpepLa tc2) tov 
Aios. 

Tcov Se Trept tovs ^I^Ovs ol jxiv iv tjj K€cf)aXfj tov 

VOTLCXiTepOV L)(9vOS TO aVTO TTOLOVOL TCO TOV EpfJLOV 

Kal TjpifjLa TCO tov Kpovov ■ ol Si iv tco aaj/iart 
TO) TOV Alos Kal TO) TOv ' Ep[Xov ' ol Se €7Tt Trjs 
26 ovpds Kal TOV votlov Xlvov tco tov Kpovov /cat 
rjpifxa TCO tov 'Epfiov ■ ol Se iv tco acofxaTL Kal ttj 
aKavdrj tov ^opeiov l-)(dvos tco tov Alos^ Kal -qpifia 

1 e^aTTTtai VMADEFHProc. ; i(f>aTTTpioi Cam.^ ; irripj^^iv P, 
TTTipv^i LNCam.i 

2 Jios VMADFHProc, 'Apews PLNCam., 'Epfxov E. 

52 



TETRABIBLOS I. 9 

like that of the sun and Mars ; those in the cloak and 
his back, like that of Jupiter and, to a less degree, of 
Mercury ; those in his feet, like that of Jupiter and 
Saturn ; the quadrangle upon the tail, like that of 
Venus and, to a less degree, of Saturn. 

Of the stars in Capricorn,^ those in the horns act 
in the same way as Venus and. in some degree, as 
Mars ; those in the mouth, as Saturn and, in some 
degree, as Venus ; those in the feet and the belly, as 
Mars and Mercury ; and those in the tail, as Saturn 
and Jupiter. 

Of the stars in Aquarius, those in the shoulders 
exert an influence like that of Saturn and Mercury, 
together w-ith those in the left arm and the cloak ; 
those in the thighs, like that of Mercury in a greater 
degree and like that of Saturn in a lesser degree ; 
those in the stream of water, like that of Saturn and, 
in some degree, like that of Jupiter. 

Of the stars in Pisces,- those in the head of the 
southern Fish act in the same way as Mercury and 
somewhat as does Saturn ; those in the body, as do 
Jupiter and Mercury ; those in the tail and the 
southern cord, as do Saturn and, in some degree. 
Mercury ; those in the body and backbone of the 
northern Fish, as do Jupiter and, in some degree, 

' Represented as a monster with a goat's head and fore 
feot and a fish's tail. 

* The southern Fish (not to be confused with the extra- 
zodiacal constellation Piseis Aiistralis, mentioned lat«r) 
is toward Aquarius ; the two fishes are represented as 
being joined by a cord from tail to tail. 

53 



PTOLEMY 

TCp TTJS 'AcfipoSlTT)? • Ol 8e €V TO) ^OpeLcO TOV XlVOV 

Toi TOV Kpouov Kai rep rov Aios ' 6 8e em rov 
(TVvheapLov XapLirpos to) rov "Apecos Kal T^pe/xa rip 
TOV 'EppLov. 

Tojv Se iv Tat? ^opeiOTepaLS tov ^a»8ia/cou pi,op(j>o}- 
G€aLV ol p,ev TTepl rrjp piKpav "ApKTOv XapLTipol rrjv 
opioiav e)(OV(JL TTOiorrjTa raJ re rov Kpovov /cat 
rjpepia rip rrj? Acf)pohLrr]s ' ol Se Trepi rrji^ pLeydXrjv 
"ApKTOv ro) rov "Apeojg • r] 8e vtto r^v ovpav 
avrrjg rov nXoKapLOV (xvarpocfnj rrj aeXy^vrf /cat rtp 
rrjs ^A<j)pohirrj'5 • ol Se iv rip ApaKovri XapLirpol 
rip rov Kpovov /cat roj rov "Apecos /cat rip rod Aios ' 
ol Se rod Kiq(f)€OJS rip re rov Kpovov /cat rip rov 
Alos ' ol Se Trept tov Bowr'qv rip rov 'Epp,ov /cat 
rip rov Kpovov • 6 Se Xap^rrpos Kal imoKippos rip 
rov Alos /cat "Apecos, 6 /cat ApKrovpog KaXovp,€vos ' 
ol Se ev rip ^opeicp Urecfxivco rip re rrjs A(f)poSLrr]s 
/cat rip rov ' Eppov • ol Se /caret rov iv yovaai rip 
rov 'Epp,ov • ol Se iv rfj Avpa rip rrjs A<f>pohirr]S 
/cat rip rov ' Eppov • /cat ol iv rrj "Opvidi Se ojaav- 
ra>s ■ ol Se Kara rr)v KaaaierreLav rip re rov 
Kpovov Kal rip rrjs ^A(f)pohirrjS ' ol Se Kara rov 
riepuea rip rov Alos Kal rip rov Kpovov- rj Se iv 
rfj Xa^fj rrjs p-axalpas avarpo<f)r] rip rov "Apeojs 
/cat rip rod 'Eppiov • ol Se iv rip 'Hvl6)(<p Xapbrrpoi 
rip rov "Apecos Kal rep rov 'Epp-ov • ol Se Kara 
rov ^0(f)Lov)(ov rip rov Kpovov Kal rjpepLa rip rrjs 
^A(f)po8Lrr]S ■ ol Se Trept rov 6(I)lv avrov rip re rod 
Kpovov /cat rip rod 'Apeojs ' ol he Kara rov 
27 ^Olgtov rip re rod "Apeojs Kal rjpep,a rip rrjs 
54 



TETRABIBLOS I. 9 

Venus ; those in the northern part of the cord, as 
do Saturn and Jupiter ; and the bright star on the 
bond, as do Mars and, in some degree. Mercury. 

Of the stars in the configurations north of the 
zodiac, the bright stars in Ursa Minor have a similar 
quality to that of Saturn and, to a less degree, to 
that of Venus : those in Ursa Major, to that of Mars ; 
and the cluster of the Coma Berenices beneath the 
Bear's tail, to that of the moon and Venus ; the 
bright stars in Draco, to that of Saturn, Mars, and 
Jupiter ; those of Cepheus, to that of Saturn and 
Jupiter : those in Bootes, to that of Mercury and 
Saturn ; the bright, tawny star, to that of Jupiter 
and Mars, the star called Arcturus ; the star in 
Corona Septentrionalis. to that of Venus and 
Mercury; those in Geniculator,' to that of Mercury; 
those in Lyra,^ to that of Venus and Mercury ; and 
likewise those in Cygnus. The stars in Cassiopeia 
have the effect of Saturn and Venus ; those in Per- 
seus, of Jupiter and Saturn ; the cluster in the hilt 
of the sword, of Mars and Mercury ; the bright 
stars in Auriga,^ of Mars and Mercury ; those in 
Ophiuchus, of Saturn and, to some degree, of 
Venus ; those in his serpent, of Saturn and Mars ; 
those in Sagitta, of Mars and. to some degree, of 

' I.e. Hercules. 

* Tho Ijrif^ht star Vopa is in Lyra. 

* Cupulla is the brightest in this constellation. 

55 



PTOLEMY 

'AffypoStrr]? • ol Se Tzepl top 'Aerov to) rod "Apeco? 
Kal rep rod Alos' ol 8e iv rw AeX^lvL rep rov 
Kpovov Kal rw rov "Apecos • ol Se Kara rov "Ittttov 
Xap.TTpoL rep rov "Apeojs Kal rw rov 'Ep/xov • ol 8e 
ei' rfj 'AvSpojJieBrj rw rij^ A^pohirris ' ol 8e rov 
Tpiywvov ^ rw rov 'Epp,ov. 

Twv §€ eV rols uortwrepoLS rov ^wSiaKov fxop(f)w- 
IxaaLv 6 p.ev iv rw aropLari rov voriov 'I)^6vos 
Xa/XTTpos opLOiav e^et ry]v evepyeiav rw re rijs 
A(f)poBirr)s Kal rw rov Eppiov • ol Se rrepl ro 
Kfjro? rw rov Kpovov • rwv 8e rrepl rov 'Qpuova ol 
fiev eVt rwv co/xcot' rw re rov "Apew9 Kal rw rov 
'Eppiov, ol Se XoLTTol Xap,rrpol rw re rov Atos Kal 
rw rov Kpovov • rwv 8e ev rw TIorapLW 6 fxev 
eaxoLTOS Kal 6 Xap,7Tp6s rw rov Alos, ol 8e XolttoI 
rw rov Kpovov • ol Se ev rw Aayw rw re rov 
Kpovov Kal - rw rov 'Epp.ov ■ rwv Se nepl rov Kvva, 
ol fxev dXXoL rw rrjs A(f)poSLrr]s, 6 Be cttI rov arop.aro'S 
XapLTTpos rw rov Alos Kal -qpefxa rw rov "Apewg ' 6 
Se ev TO) LfpoKVvl XapcTTpos rw re rov 'Epp,ov Kal 
■^pefia rw rov "Apewi • ol Be Kara rov "YSpov 
XajjLTrpol rw re rov Kpovov Kal rw rrjg Aejypohiry]? ' 
ol 8e ev rw KparrjpL rw re rrjg A(f)poSLr7]£ Kat 
rfpejia rw rov 'Eppiov • ol 8e Trepl rov KopaKa rw 
rov "Apews Kal rw rov Kpovov • ol Se rrjs Apyovs 
XafiTTpol rw rov Kpovov Kal rw rov Alos • rwv Se 
TTepl rov Kevravpov ol pLev ev rw dvOpwrreiw owpLarL 

'toO Tpt.yd)vov VMADEFHProc, tow AiXrco P, tou L, iv 
Tco AeXra NCam. 

*TaJ re tov Kpovov Koi oiu. Cam. 

56 



TETRABIBLOS I. 9 

Venus ; those in Aquila/ of Mars and Jupiter ; 
those in Delphinus, of Saturn and Mars ; the bright 
stars in the Horse,- of Mars and Mercury ; those in 
Andromeda, of \ enus ; those in Triangulum, of 
Mercury. 

Of the stars in the formations south of the zodiac 
the bright star in the mouth of Piscis Australis ^ 
has an influence simdar to that of Venus and 
Mercury ; those in Cetus, similar to that of Saturn ; 
of those in Orion,* the stars on his shoulders similar 
to that of Mars and Mercury, and the other bright 
stars similar to that of Jupiter and Saturn ; of the 
stars in Eridanus the last bright one ^ has an in- 
fluence like that of Jupiter and the others like that 
of Saturn ; the star in Lepus, like that of Saturn 
and Merciuy ; of those in Canis, the others like 
that of Venus, and the bright star in the mouth, ^ 
like that of Jupiter and, to a less degree, of Mars ; 
the bright star Procyon, hke that of Mercury and, 
in a less degree, that of Mars ; the bright stars in 
Hydra,' like that of Saturn and Venus ; those in 
Crater, like that of Venus and, in a less degree, of 
Mercury ; those in Corvus, like that of Mars and 
Saturn ; the bright stars of Argo,^ like that of 
Saturn and Jupiter ; of those in Centaurus, the ones 

* Altair is in this group. 

* Pegasus. 

* The bright star is Fomalhaut. 

* Rigel and Betelgeuse are the brightest stars here. 
' Tlie " last bright star " in Eridanus is Achemar. 

* Sirius, which is in Canis. 

' The brightest star is Alphard. 

* These are Canopus and Var. 

57 



PTOLEMY 

ru) T€ rrjg ^A^pohirrjS /cat rw rod Epfxov, ol 8e iv 

TO) ITTTTCX) XaflTTpol TO) T€ T7J? 'Acl)poS{,T'r]S Kal TO) TOV 

Alo? ■ ol Se TTepl TO Qripiov XafXTrpol tco t€ tov 

Kpovov Kal rjpd[xa ro) tov "Apeco'S • ol 8e €V Tip 

QvpiLaTrjpicp tw Te Trjs A(f)pohlTr)s Kal rjpefia tw 

28 tov 'Epp,ov • ^ ol he iv rep votio) ETe^dvco Xajxrrpol 

Tip T€ TOV Kpovov Kal TCp TOV 'Epp,OV? 

Al fJiev ovv Tcbv oLGTepcov Kad' eaurd? Suva/Liet? 
TotavTT]^ eTV)(Ov VTTO Tcijv TTaXaiOTepiov rrapaTTjpi^- 
aeojs. 



<i.> Tie pi rrj? t(jjv (hpcov Kal 8' ycovicov 
Svvdfieoj^ 

Kal Ta>v (vpcbv 8e tcDv tov ctov? S' ovaojv, eapos 
T€ Kal depovs Kal p,€T07Tcopov Kal ;^;eijU.aii'os', to [xev 
eap €)(eL to pidXXov iv tw vypco Stct Tiqv Kara to 
7Tapcp)^T^p,evov ifjv)(09, dp^^op.ivqs 8e t'^s' depfxaaias, 
SidxvoLV • ^ TO 8e Qipos to nXdov iv Tip Qeppxp hia. 

TTJV TOV rjXLOV TTpOS TOV KaTCt KOpV(f>r]V rjjjLlOV TOTtOV * 

iyyvTTjTa • TO 8e fjiCTOTrajpov to fxaXXov iv tw ^rjpip, 
Blol TTjv Kara to ira pip)('>]H€vov Kavp,a tojv vypdjv 
avdrrioTLv • d Se )(€L[xiov to TrXeov iv Tip tfivx^pip hid 
TO TOV tjXlov nXelaTov d<f>iaTaadaL tov Kara Kopv(f>'qv 
rjfxdiv TOTTOV. SioTTep, Kal tov ^cohiaKov ju.7y8e/Lttds' 
ov(Tr]s (f)va€L dpx'']^ ct»? kvkXov, to aTTo Trjs iapivfjs 
larjixeplas dp^opievov SioheKaT-qfiopLOv , to tov Kptov, 

^'Epfiov VPLMADEFHProc, Kpovov NCam. 
^Titulum capitis post 'Epfiov poauerunt PLMNEFH. 

58 



TETRABIBLOS I. 9-10 

in the human body, like that of Venus and Mercury, 
and the bright stars in the equine body Uke that of 
Venus and Jupiter ; the bright stars in Lupus, Uke 
that of Saturn and, in less degree, of Mars ; those 
in Ara, like that of Venus and, to a lesser degree, of 
Mercury ; and the bright stars in Corona Australis, 
like that of Saturn and Mercury. 

Such, then, are the observations of the eflPects of 
the stars themselves as made by our predecessors. 

10. Of the Effect of the Seasons and of the Four Angles. 

Of the four seasons of the year, spring, summer, 
autumn, and winter, spring exceeds in moisture on 
account of its diffusion after the cold has passed and 
warmth is setting in ; the summer, in heat, because 
of the nearness of the sxin to the zenith ; autumn 
more in dryness, because of the sucking up of the 
moisture during the hot season just past ; and winter 
exceeds in cold, because the sun is farthest away 
from the zenith. For this reason, although there 
is no natural beginning of the zodiac, since it is a 
circle, they assume that the sign which begins with 



^ 8id Trfv Siaxvaiv] ttjs Kara to Trap. ip. avaraaecos, 

dpx- Se Trjs d. biaxfiadai NCam. 
* Tonov QUI. NCam. 

59 



PTOLEMY 

/cat Ta>v oXcov dpx'^v VTroTtdevrat, KaOdvep iinliv)(OV 
t,(x)OV rov l,(x)SiaKou rrju vypdv rov eapos VTTep^oXrjv 
TTpoKarapKTiKrjv TroLOvp-evoL, Kal e(f>e^rj<5 Ta.<; Xolttols 
29 Jj/aa? Std to kol ttolvtcov ^cocov rds /xev' Trpcuras" 
rjXiKLag to ttXcov ex^ii' ttjs vypds ovaias, Trapa- 
TTXrjaLOjg tu> eapi aTraXds ovaas Kal en Tpv(j>epds ' 
Ta? Se BevTepa? ra? P-^XP'- '''V^ dKpaiOTrjTog ^ to 
TrXiov €)(eLV iu tco deppLO) ^ TrapaTrXrjaiixiS Tcp depet. ' 
Ta? Se TpcTas Kal rjSrj iv TrapaKpifj Kal dpxfj (j>Qiaeoi'S 
TO rrXeov rjSrj Kal avTas €.)(€iv iv tw ^y)pd> irapa- 
TrX-rjaicog tco jUeroTrajpoj • Tas 8e io^dTag Kal vpos 
Trj htaXvaet to ttXcov e^^eiv iv tco i/juxpo) Kaddirep 
Kal 6 jj^ei/xtuv."* 

'Opioicvs Se Kal toju S' tov opi^ot'TO? tottcov Kai 
ycDViOJV, d<f)^ a)V Kal ol Kad' oXa p.€prj TTveouTeg 
dv€p,oi Tct? dpxd<; €)(ovai, 6 p-ev rrpog Tag dvaToXdg 
avTos T€ TO TrXiov €)(eL iv TCO $'r]p<^ Sia to /car 
avTov yivopivov tov rjXiOV Ta aTTO ttjs vvktos 
vypavdivTa tote TrpcoTOV dpx^(^do-i- ^rjpacveadai ' ol 
T€ (Xtt' avTov TTviovTes dvepLOL, Ol)? KOLVOTepov 

^ aKfiaioT-qros VMADEF, aKy.aioTa.Tqs PLNCam. 
^depuM VMADEF. depyiaUw PLNCam. 

^Hic inser. titulum flepl rrjs tcuv TeTrdpcov ycovicov 8vvd(x(U)s 
VADFProc. 



1 Cf. Almagest, iii. 1 (p. 192, 19-22), where Ptolemy 
defines the year as the return of the sun to the points fixed 
by the equinoxes and solstices. The sign of Aries, defined 
as the 30° beginning with the vernal equinox, is, of course, 
very different from the sign considered as the actual con- 
stellation. Tliis gave rise to an argument against astro- 
logy, first expressed by Origen. Cf. BoU-Bezold-Gundel, 

60 



TETRABIBLOS I. 10 

the vernal equinox, that of Aries, ^ is the starting- 
point of them all, making the excessive moisture of 
the spring the first part of the zodiac as though it 
were a living creature, and taking next in order 
the remaining seasons, because in all creatures the 
earliest ages,"^ like the spring, have a larger share 
of moisture and are tender and still delicate. The 
second age, up to the prime of life, exceeds in heat, 
like summer ; the third, which is now past the prime 
and on the verge of decline, has an excess of dry- 
ness, like autumn ; and the last, which approaches 
dissolution, exceeds in its coldness, like winter. 

Similarly, too, of the four regions and angles of 
the horizon, from which originate the winds from 
the cardinal points,'^ the eastern one likewise excels 
in dryness because, when the sun is in that region, 
whatever has been moistened by the night then first 
begins to be dried ; and the winds which blow from 

pp. 131-132 ; Bouche-Leclercq, p. 129, n. 1 ; Ashinand, 
Ptolemy's Tetrahiblos, p. 32, n. 

^ Ptolemy here enumerates four ages of man, as do also 
many Pythagorizing arithmologists, when they praise the 
number 4, as, for example, Theologoumenn Arithmetica, 
p. 20 Ast, Diogenes Laertius, viii. 1. 10 IMartianus Capella, 
vii. 734, etc. Ptolemy later (iv. 10) spealis of seven ages, 
assigning one to each planet; the arithmologists have 
also a series of seven ages which they cite in praise of the 
number 7 ; c.(f. Philo, De mundi opificio 36. There are 
also lists in which the ages are merely made up of hebdo- 
mad ic groups of years. 

' Proclus' paraphaso for ol koB' oXa fitfyq TTviovres dvefiot is 
ol KadoXiKol avifxoi, which is closer than the Latin trans- 
lations, tolas illas partes occupanten venti ((iogava), 
and veniiy qui tolas iilas partes occupant (Molanciithon ). 
Ptolemy means the winds from the cardinal points and 
around them. 

61 



PTOLEMY 

OLTT-qXiioras KaXovfxev,^ aviKfioi, re elai Kal ^rjpav- 
riKoL 6 Se TTpo? yiearjix^piav tottos auro? re eart 
dcpfJLOTarog Std re to rrvptodeg roiv tov r^Xiov 
ixeoovpaviqueayv Kol 8ia to TauTa? Kara tt]v rrj? 
rj[jL€T€pa? OLKOvpiivrjS eyKXcaiv npos ixearjpi^piav 
(jLoXXov oLTTOKXiveLV * OL T€ oru avTov TTveovres 
avefJiOL, ovs KOivws votovs KaXovp^ev, dep/JLOi t€ etm 
/cat [xavajTLKOL. 6 8e rrpo? ralg Svafjualg totto? 
auTO? T€ ioTLv vypos Sta to /cut' auToi^ yiuofievov 
30 Tou rjXiov TO. OLTTo T-q? rj[jL€pag dvanodevTa Tore 
■npihrov a.px^(yQo.L Sivypaiveadai • 61 re arr avrov 
<l)ep6[jbevoi dvefioi, ovs KOivorepov l,e(f)vpovs koXov- 
fxev, veapoL re elcri koI vypavriKoi. 6 8e TTp6<s rals 
dpKroLS roTTOs avros re earc ipvxporaros Sta ro 
Kara, rrjv rijs rjpierepas OLKOufiePT]? eyKXiaiv rds 
rr]g depfjiorrjros alrias ru)v rod rjXiov jxeaovpavrj- 
aeoiv irXeov avrov SieardvaL, atoTrep ^ dvrtpbeaov- 
pavovvros ' ot re aTT* avrov TTveovres avepiOL, ot 
KaXovpLevoL kolvcos ^opeai, ijjvxpol re VTrdpxovai 

Kal TTUKVOjriKOL. 

XprjalpLT] Be Kal rj rovrwv 8idXr)if)i? rrpos to rds 
avyKpdaeis Trdvra rpoTTOv eKaarore Svvaadai ^ 
biaKptveLV. evKaravor^rov yap Slotl Kai rrapd ra<s 
TOiavras Karaardaei'S tJtol rchv d>pd)v t) tcDi' -qXiKLcbv 
rj rd)v ycxjvLoyv rpeTrerai rroiS ro ttoltjtlkov rrj'S row 
dorepoiv hvvdpLeoiS , Kal ev puev rals oiKetais Kara- 
ardaeatv dKparorepav re e^ovai rrjv TTOLorrjra Kal 
TTjv evepyeiav laxvporepai' , olov ev rats deppals ol 

1 KaXovaip NCam. 

*Po8t (LoTTfp add. TOV -qMov NCam., om. alii. 

62 



TETRABIBLOS I. 10 

it, which we call in general Apeliotes,^ are without 
moisture and drying in eflFect. The region to the 
south is hottest because of the fiery heat of the sua"s 
passages through mid-heaven and because these 
passages, on account of the inclination of our in- 
habited world, diverge more to the south ; and 
the winds which blow thence and are called by 
the general name Notus are hot and rarefying. 
The region to the west is itself moist, because when 
the sun is therein the things dried out during the 
day then first begin to become moistened ; likewise 
the winds which blow from this part, which we call 
by the general name Zephyrus, are fresh and moist. 
The region to the north is the coldest, because 
through our inhabited world's inclination it is too far 
removed from the causes of heat arising from the 
sun's culmination, as it is also when the sun is at its 
lower culmination ; and the winds which blow thence, 
which are called by the general name Boreas, are 
cold and condensing in effect. 

The knowledge of these facts is useful to enable 
one to form a complete judgement of temperatures in 
individual instances. For it is easily recognizable 
that, together with such conditions as these, of 
seasons, ages, or angles, there is a corresponding 
variation in the potency of the stars' faculties, and 
that in the conditions akin to them their quality is 
purer and their effectiveness stronger, those that are 
heating by nature, for instance, in heat, and those that 

' This is the usual Attic form ; the alternative. d<f>7]Aicu-rqs, 
shows more clearly its derivation from ^Aios, " the wind 
that blows from the sun." 

^ hwaadai om. NCam. 

63 



PTOLEMY 

OepfiavTiKol T-qv (^vaiv^ Kai iv rai<; vypaig ol vypav- 
riKoi, iv 8e rat? evavriatg K^Kpajxlv-qv koL daOevea- 
Tepav • (h? iv rat? ifivxpous ol deppiavTiKol Kal iv 
Tat? ^-qpai^ ol vypavriKol /cat iv rat? aAAat? Se 
ojaavTCD<; Kara to dvdXoyov rfj Sta t'^s' fit^eois 
orvyKipvaixevT) ttol6t7]tl. 

31 <ia.> Uepl TpoTTiKCJv /cat I arr) p. e p lv ojv 
Kai arepecov^ /cat 8 i g w p cjv ^(oS lojv 

TovTcov Si ovTco TrpoeKTedivTivv aKoXovdov av elrj 
auvdijjaL Kai rds avrcbv rG)v tov ^coSta/coi} SajSe/carry- 
poplcov TTapaSeSopevag ^ycrt/ca? tStorpoTTta?. at 
piv yap 6Xoa)(cp€(JT€pai /ca^' eKaarov avrtov 
Kpda€LS dvdXoyov e^oucrt Tat? /car' aura ytvopivais 
copais, avvLaravrat be rives avrcbv IbLorTjres dno re 
rrjs TTpos rov i^Atov /cat rr)v aeXiqvrjv /cat rovs 
darepag OLKeidiaeco'S , co? iv rots i(f)€^rjg SieXevcro- 
peda, TTpord^avre<5 rds /caret ro dpiyes avrcbv 
povcov rcbv ScjoSeKarrjpopicov Kad avrd re /cat npos 
dXXrjXa decopovpevag Svvdpeig. 

Upcbrai pev roivvv elal 8ia(j)opal rcbv KaXovpevcav 
rpoTTLKcbv /cat larjpepivcjbv /cat arepecbv /cat Siac6p,cov. 

' Kai arepecov om. MNECam. Titulum post 1. 19 Swd/ieis 
ponunt VDProc. 

' Kpdaeis, " mixtures " ; astrologically used to designate 
the resultant qualities derived from the mingling of various 
influences. Cf. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, 
Bk. I, Chapter 11, " who . . . seemed not to have had 
one single drop of Danish blood in his whole crasis." 

64 



TETRABTBLOS I. 10-11 

are moistening in the moist, while under opposite 
conditions their power is adulterated and weaker. 
Thus the heating stars in the cold periods and the 
moistening stars in the dry periods are weaker, and 
similarly in the other cases, according to the quality 
produced by the mixture. 

11. Of Solstitial, Equinoctial, Solid, and Bicorporeal 
Signs. 

After the explanation of these matters the next 
subject to be added would be the natural characters 
of the zodiacal signs themselves, as they have been 
handed down by tradition. For although their more 
general temperaments ^ are each analogous to the 
seasons that take place in them,^ certain peculiar 
qualities of theirs arise from their kinship ^ to the 
sun, moon, and planets, as we shall relate in what 
follows, putting first the unmingled powers of the 
signs themselves alone, regarded both absolutely and 
relatively to one another. 

The first distinctions, then, are of the so-called 
solstitial, equinoctial, solid, and bicorporeal signs.* 

* That is, when the sun is in these signs. 

* otVei'ojais, also translated "familiarity," is a cominon 
astrological term denoting the variotis rolationships of 
affinity derived from the positions of signs or planets with 
reference to the universe or to each other, as, for example, 
through the aspects (c. 13). 

* All but Virgo are roprosonted as bicorporoal in fact. 
Ptolemy, as a learned writer, pays loss attention to the 
fanciful and mythological classification of the signs into 
terrestrial, aquatic, four-footed, etc. (although ho refers 
to them in i. 12), and gives greater proniinonce to the 
astronomical classification. 

65 



PTOLEMY 

Svo fxev yap eon rpoTTiKa, to re TrpaJTOv oltto rij? 

BepLvfj? TpOTTrjg X' flolpOV, TO TOV KapKLVOV • Kal TO 
TTpCJTOV OTTO TTj? )(€ipiepiP'fjg TpOTTTJ? , TO KaTCL TOf 

AlyoKepcop. TcxvTa Se otto tov ovfi^e^rjKOTo? 
€L\r]<f)e Tr]v ovopiaoiav. TperreTai yap ev Tal<; appals 
avTcbv yivopiei'o? 6 rjXiog, €7noTpe(f>cov els to. evavTia 
T7JV KaTO. irXaTos vdpoBov, Kal Kara p.ev tov KapKi- 
vov depos TTOLCov, KaTO. 8e toi^ AlyoKepcov )(€Lp.6Jva. 
Svo 8e KaXecTai Icn-jfiepwd, to t€ drro Trjs eaptvijg 
larjpLepias TTpwTov hojheKaTiqpiopLov , to tov Kptov, 

Kal TO (XTTO T7J9 jXeTOTTCOpivfjS TO Tcbv XrjXojV, 

32 (vvofiaaTai 8e Kal TauTa TrdXiv dvo tov avfi^e^r]- 
KOTOS, €TT€thrj KaTa Ta? dp)(ds avTcov yii/ojjLevog 6 
■fjXios loag TTOLel TTavTa-^i) Tag vvKTas Tat? -^pLepats- 
Twv Be XoiTTcbv OKTOJ hcxiheKaT-qpiopiojv TeTTapa 
fiev /caAetTtti OTeped, TeTTapa 8e hiou>p.a. Kal 
UTeped piev eoTi rd eiropieva tols Te TpomKols 
Kal Tol? lorjp.epivols, Tavpos, Aecou, EKopirios, 
'YBpo)(6os, eVeiSi) Tcov iv eKeivois dpxopievtov (bpcov 
at Te vypoTTjTes Kal OeppLOTrjTes Kal ^-qpoTTjTes Kal 
ijjv)(poTT]Tes , €v TOVTOtg yivopievov tov -qXiov,^ pidXXov 
Kal OTepecoTepov rjpiiov Kad LKVovvTai , ou tcjv KaTa- 
OT'qp.dTOiv (jjvaei yivopievoiv totc dKpaTOTepcou, dXX' 
7)ijid)v eyKexpovLKOTcoi' avTols ^'8ry Kal Bid tovto ttjs 
laxvos ^ evaiaQrjTOTepov dvTiXapi^avopievojv . 

Aiaojpia Be eoTi to. toi? OTepeol? eTTopieva, AiBv- 
JXOL, Uapdevos, To^6tt]9, ^Ix^vs, Bid to p,eTa^v Te 

iPost rjXiov add. koI tTrmrayfiivai Cam., i-niTiTaynivai N ; 
om. alii. 

*Post laxvos add. avrCbv NADECam. 

66 



TETRABIBLOS I. 11 

For there are two solstitial signs, the first interval 
of 30° from the summer solstice, the sign of Cancer, 
and the first from the winter solstice, Capricorn ; 
and thev have received their name ^ from what takes 
place in them. For the sun turns when he is at 
the beginning of these signs and reverses his lati- 
tudinal progress, causing summer in Cancer and 
winter in Capricorn. Two signs are called equinoc- 
tial, the one which is first from the spring equinox, 
Aries, and the one which begins with the autumnal 
equinox, Libra ; and they too again are named from 
what happens there, because when the sun is at the 
beginning of these signs he makes the nights exactly 
equal to the days. 

Of the remaining eight signs four are called solid 
and four bicorporeal. The solid signs, Taurus. Leo, 
Scorpio, and Aquarius, are those which follow the 
solstitial and equinoctial signs ; and they are so 
called because when the sun is in them the moisture, 
heat, dryness, and cold of the seasons that begin 
in the preceding signs touch us more firmly, not that 
the weather is naturally any more intemperate at that 
time, but that we are by then inured to them and 
for that reason are more sensible of their power. 

The bicorporeal signs, Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, 
and Pisces, are those which follow the solid signs, 

' I.e. TpoiTiKov, " having to do with turning (t^otttj)." 
Astronoiners to-day usually call thorn ' solstitial " in- 
stead of "tropical," since "tropic" generally refers to 
the terrestrial circles, the Tropic of L'aiicer and the Tropic 
of Capricorn. 

67 



PTOLEMY 

etvai Tcbv arepewv Kal rajv rpoTTtKwv kol Icqfie- 
pivcov, Kal wGTTep Kei<oivojurjK€vai Kara ra TeXrj Kal 
ras dpxas rrjs rojv 8vo Karaarrip,dru)v <j)VaiKy\s 

IhlOTpOTTiaS. 

<tj8.> Tie pi dppeviKcJv /cat Q r^Xv k oiv 
t,iph ioiv 

ndXiv 8e coaavTOJS e^ fiev tojv ScoSeKar'qfioplioi' 
aTTeveLfiav rfj (fivaei rfj dppei'LKrj Kal rjnepivfj, rd Se 
taa rfj d-qXvKJj Kal vvKrepivfj. Kal rj [xev ranis' 
33 auTOts' iSod-q Trap' iv Std to avvel^evx^ai Kal iyyvs 
del rvyxdvcLv rijv re rjfxcpav rfj iwktI Kal to drjXv 
TW dppevi. TTJs Se dp)(rj? diro tov KpLov 8t' as 
eLTTOfxev alrias Xaix^avofievrjs , ojaavrois Se /cat rov 
appevos dpxovTos Kal TrpcorevovTos, eTreiSr] Kai to 
TTOLrjTLKOv del TOV TTadrjTLKOv rrpaJTOV eoTt ttj Svvd- 
puei, TO jJiev TOV Kpiov SwSeKaTrjfJiopiov Kal €tl to 
Tcov X-qXtbv dppeviKa eSo^e Kal rjfjLepivd, Kal afxa 
eTTeiSrJTTep 6 larnxepLvds kvkXos St' avTCOv ypa(f>6- 
fxevos TTjv TTpwTTjv Kal lar)(vpoTdTr]v Tcbv oXcov <l>opdv 
aTToreAet • ra Se e(j)e^7J£ avTcov dKoXov6ct)9 ^ rfj Trap' 
ev, 609 e(j)ap.ev, rctfet. 

XpcbvTai Se' Ttv-e? ttj Td^ei tojv dppeviKcbv Kal 
6rjXvK(ji)v ^ Kal (XTTO TOV dvaTeXXovTOS ScoSeKaTTj- 
fxopiov, 6 8r) KaXovoLV (hpooKoirov, ttjv dpxy]v tov 
dppevos^ TTOLovpievoL. cjarrep yap /cat Tr]v tojv 

^aKoXovdcos VMDEProc, aKoXovOa PLNACam. 
* KOI d-qXvKcov oni. NCain. 
^ TOV dppevos om. NCam. 

68 



TETRABIBLOS I. 11-12 

and are so called because they are between the solid 
and the solstitial and equinoctial signs and share, as 
it were, at end and beginning, the natural properties 
of the two states of weather. 

12. Of Masculine and Feminine Signs. 

Again, in the same way they assigned six of the 
signs to the masculine and diurnal nature ^ and an 
equal number to the feminine and nocturnal. An 
alternating order was assigned to them because day 
is always yoked to night and close to it, and female 
to male. Now as Aries is taken as the starting-point 
for the reasons we have mentioned, and as the male 
likewise rules and holds first place, since also the 
active is always superior to the passive in power, 
the signs of Aries and Libra were thought to be 
masculine and diurntd, an additional reason being 
that the equinoctial circle which is drawn through 
them completes the primary and most powerful 
movement of the whole universe.^ The signs in 
succession after them correspond, as we said, in 
alternating order. 

Some, however, employ an order of masculine and 
feminine signs whereby the masculine begins with 
the sign that is rising, called the horoscope.^ For 
just as some begin the solstitial signs with the moon's 

' The signs of the zodiac, as well as the planets, are 
divided between the two sects {cf. i. 7). 

' I.e. the general revolution of the lioavons, carrying the 
fixed stars and the other heavenly bodies (according to the 
I'tolomaic and other ancient systems). 

"Obviously, in a system like this, a given sign would 
uut always belong to the saiuu sect. 

69 



PTOLEMY 

rpoTTLKCov o.px'^v O-TTO Tov areXTjvtaKov ^ojSiou ^ Aa/x- 
^dvovaiv evLOL 8ta to Tavrrjv ra^Lov rcov aXKojv 
Tperreadat, ovrco Kal ttjv ra>v appeuiKcov airo tov 

(hpOGKOTTOVVTOg StCt TO d7TrjXl<X}TLK(x)T€pOV ,^ Kal OL 

fxev ofXOLOJS Trap' €V ttolXlv ttj rafet -x^puipLevoi, ol be 
Kad^ oXa T€TapTrjp,6pi,a SiaipovvTe? /cat icoa fxev 
'qyovpievoL ^ /cat dppevLKa to re oltto tov ajpooKonov 
fj^^xpi- TOV fxeaovpavovvTOS /cat to /car' avTiOeaiv 
drro TOV Svvovtos p-^XP^ '^'^^ ^'^^ VW P'^'^ovpavovv- 
34 Tos,^ iairepia Se /cat drjXvKo. to. Xonrd Svo TCTap- 
TTjp.opia. /cat oAAa? Se TLva? rot? ScoSe/caxTj/ioptots 
TTpoarjyopias i(f)rjpp.o(jav drro tcov rrepl avTo. p.op(f)a)- 
aecov • Xeyu) Se otov rerpaTToSa /cat )(€paaZa Kat 
rjyefioviKo. /cat TToXvairopa /cat ra TOtaura • 
a? ^ avTodev to re airtor ^ /cat to ip.^avia- 
TLKOV i)(OVGa? TTepLTTOV TyyovpLeda KaTapiupieiv, ttjs" 
e/c TCOV' TOLOVTOJV SiaTVTTcoaeoJV ttolott^to^ €u at? av 
TCOV TTpoTeXeaecjv xRV^^H-V ^cttt^rat 8vvapL€vr]s ' 
TTpoeKTldeadai. 

1 CwSi'ou VPLADE, /fuVAou MNCam. 

*t6 ainjAtft*Tt/fdJT€poi' VD (d<^ijA-) Proc. ; T'qv din)Xiu>T-qv alii 
Cam. 

^ riYovfievoi. VMADE, om. PLNCam. 

*vn6 YV" tieoovpavovvTos VMADEProc, avrifitaovpayowros 
PLNCam. 

^ as VDME, om. PL, cos NACam. ; KoXiaavres post 
Totaura inser. PLMNCam., om. VDAE. 

^ TO T€ oItiov om. Cam.'''. 

' Suia^eVijs VD, Swa^Tjs P, 8uVa/iis LMNAECam. npofK- 
rideadai VlIDEAProc, n-pwe/cTttfijS P, npoeKridTjs L, irpoeicn- 
deiarjs NCam. 



70 



TETRABIBLOS I. 12 

sign because the moon changes direction more swiftly 
than the rest, so they begin the masculine signs with 
the horoscope because it is further to the east, some 
as before making use of the alternate order of signs, 
and others dividing by entire quadrants, and de- 
signating as matutinal and masculine signs those of 
the quadrant from the horoscope to mid-heaven and 
those of the opposite quadrant from the Occident 
to the lower mid-heaven, and as evening and feminine 
the other two quadrants. They have also attached 
other descriptions ^ to the signs, derived from their 
shapes ; I refer, for example, to " four-footed," 
" terrestrial," " commanding," " fecund," and similar 
appellations. These, since their reason and their 
significance are directly derived, we think it super- 
fluous to enumerate, since the quality resulting from 
such conformations can be explained in connec- 
tion with those predictions wherein it is obviously 
useful. 

' For this type of classification, cj. Bouclie-Leciercq, 
pp. 149-152. Vettius Valens, pp. 5tt'. (Kroil), attaches many 
epithets to tlie signs ; cf. al.so Antioehus, ap. CC'AG, viii. 
112 ; Rhetorius, up. C'CAG, i. 164 H. Some of tliem figure 
in ii. 7, below. 



71 



PTOLEMY 

<ty.> Tie pi Tcov ava)(rjfiaTit,o[xeva)v 
8a)8eKaT7)ixopioji> 

OiKeLovTaL Se aAAT^Aot? tcov yiepu)v rov ^ajSia/coO 
rrpaJTov ra ava)('rjp-o.TtC,6iJLeva. ravra 8' iarlv oaa 
hi.dp,€Tpov e^et aTaaiv, irepUxovTa hvo opdas ycovias 
Kal ef ra>v hcoZeKarrnjiopicDV kol jxoipas pn' • Kal 
oaa rpiyojvov k^^t ardaiv, 7T€pi€)(ovTa pilav opdrjv 
yoiviav Kal rpirov Kal S' ScoSe/carT^/xopia Kal pioipas 
pK ' /cat oaa reTpaycovl^eLv Aeyerat, TTepU^^ovra 
fjLiav opdrjv Kal y' SojSeKarrjfiopia Kal pxiipas ?'' 
Kal en oaa i^dycovov Trotetrat ardaiv, Trepiexovra 
hipiOLpov puds opdrjs Kal )3' SojSeKarrjpLopLa Kal 
pLoipas i'. 

AC r\v Se alriav avrai p-ovai tcSv "^laardaeoiv 
7rap€X'r](f)drjaav e/c tovtcov dv p,ddotp.ev. Tr]9 p.ev yap 
Kara to SidpLerpov avrodev iarlv 6 Aoyo? <f)av€p6s 
€TTeihrjTT€p €7tI /xta? evdeia? TToieZrai rds avvav- 
35 Tiqaeis. Xap,^avop,€va}v 8e twv Svo p.eyiaTOiv Kal 
hid avp.(j)(xivias pbopicov re /cat impLopLOiv, p,opio)v 
pLev rrpos ttjv roiv j3' opddiv Sidp^erpov rov re 
■qpLiaovg Kal rov rpirov, rd pikv els Svo rrjv rov 

1 Cf. the note on olKeUaais (i. 11). oiKeiovadai is the corre- 
eponding verb. 

^ The aspects are geometrical relationships between the 
heavenly bodies. Ptolemy recognizes here only fom" — 
opposition, trine, quartile, and sextile — as having signifi- 
cance, and does not class " conjunction " as an aspect, 
although it is treated as such throughout the Tetrabibloa. 

72 



TETRABIBLOS I. 13 

13. Of the Aspects of the Signs. 

Of the parts of the zodiac those first are familiar * 
one to another which are in aspect.^ These are the 
ones which are in opposition, enclosing two right 
angles, six signs, and 180 degrees ; those which are in 
trine, enclosing one and one-third right angles, four 
signs, and 120 degrees ; those which are said to be in 
quartile, enclosing one right angle, three signs, and 
90 degrees, and finally those that occupy the sextile 
position, enclosing two-thirds of a right angle, two 
signs, and 60 degrees. 

We may learn from the following why only these 
intervals have been taken into consideration. The 
explanation of opposition is immediately obvious, 
because it causes the signs to meet on one straight 
line. But if we take the two fractions and the two 
superparticulars ^ most important in music, and if 
the fractions one-half and one-third be applied to 

Kepler is said to have invented several others, based on 
other aliquot parts of 360°, the semiquadrate, quintile, 
sesquiquadrate, biquintile, et<;. (c/. Ashmand, pp. 40-41, 
nn.) ; these have been employed by modern astrologers, 
but the Ptolemaic doctrines of this and the 10th chapter 
are inconsistent with their use. The intervals between 
bodies in aspect in the four ways here mentioned can be 
measured in whole signs. 

* Nicomachus of Gerasa, Introduction to Aritfnnetic, i. 19, 
defines the superparticular as "a number that contains 
within itself the whole of the number compared with it, 
and some one factor of it besides." The " two super- 
particulars most important to music " are the first two in 

the series, the sesquialter (x) ^^'d the sesquitertian (3). 
which correspond to the diapente and diatessaron respec- 
tively (c/. Nicomachus, op. cit., ii. 2U). 

K 73 



PTOLEMY 

rerpaywvov TreTTOLTqKe, to he et? rpia ttjv tov 
e^ayojvov Kal r'qv tov Tpiyojvov • ' eTnyiopicov 8e 
TTpos TO Trjs jJ-idg opdrjs TCTpdycovou /xera^u Xa/u.- 
^avopievov tov t€ -qpnoXiov /cai tov cttltpltov, to 
p.€v TjpLLoXiov eTTOLiqae ttjv tov TeTpaycovov Trpos 

TTjU TOV i^ayOJVOV, to he eTTLTpLTOV TTjV TOV 

Tpiyajvov TTpos ttjv tov TeTpaycovov. tovtcjv 
p.evTOL Tcbv a^rjpLaTLap.oji' ol pcev Tpiycovoi /cat 
l^dyoivoL avp,(f)ojvoi. KaXovuTai Std to e^ op-oyevcbv 
avyKeloBai hoiheKaT'qpLopiojv r^ eV TrdvTOiv drjXvKOJv 
r] dppePLKcoi' davpicfiajvoL 8e ot TeTpdycovoL /cat ol 
/cara hidpLeTpov Stdri /cara dvTiOeaiv tu)v ofxoyevcjv 
TTfv avoTaaiv Xafxl^dvovaiv. 

<t8.> He pi TTpooTaTTOVTCov Kal 

a KOV OVT cov 

'QaavTCJS he TrpoaTdTTovTU /cat aKovovTa Ae- 
yeTai r/XT^jLtara to. /car' la-qv hidoTaaLV drro tov 
avTov, r) /cat oTTOTepov , tcov lar}p.epLvojv arjp.eLaji' 
eo-)(7]piaTLap.eva hid to iu tols taoLg xpovots ai^a- 
<f)€peadaL /cat eVt toji' tacov eti'at TrapaXXr^Xcov. 

' Ka. T-qv TOV rpiycovov libri oinnes Proc. ; /cat t. t. TeTpaycivov 
Cani.^ ; om. Cain.'^ 

' That is, I of 180'' = 90° (quartilo) and ^ of 180° = 60° 
(sextile). All the MSS. and Proclus add here " and trine," 
which perhaps we should, with Cainerarius (ed. 2), discard. 
The trine, however, could be regarded as J of 360° or as 
twice the sextile. 

^ That is, the sesquialter = o. = ano and the sesqui- 



74 



TETRABIBLOS I. 13-14 

opposition, composed of two right angles, the half 
makes the quartile and the third the sextile and 
trine. ^ Of the superparticulars, if the sesquialter and 
sesquitertian be applied to the quartile interval of 
one right angle, which lies between them, the ses- 
quialter makes the ratio of the quartile to the 
sextile and the sesquitertian that of trine to quartile.^ 
Of these aspects trine and sextile are called har- 
monious because they are composed of signs of the 
same kind, either entirely of feminine or entirely of 
masculine signs ; while quartile and opposition are 
disharmonious because they are composed of signs 
of opposite kinds. 

14. Of Commanding and Obeying Signs. 

Similarly the names " commanding " and " obey- 
ing " ^ are applied to the divisions of the zodiac 
which are disposed at an equal distance from the 
same equinoctial sign, whichever it may be, because 
they ascend * in equal periods of time and are on 
equal parallels. Of these the ones in the summer 

* Cf. Bouch6-Leclercq, pp. 159-164, on this and the 
following chapter. The pairs which " coinmand " and 
" obey " (the " commanding " sign first) are : Taurus- 
Pisces, G«mini -Aquarius, Cancer-Capricorn, Leo-Sagit- 
tarius, Virgo-Scorpio. Aries and Libra are left out of the 
scheme, being the equinoctial signs from which the start is 
made; so Manilius, ii. 485, 501. The original notion 
seems to have been that these signs " heard " (aKomw) 
each other, and the idea of " obeying " (vTTOKoveiv) was 
a pseudo-scientific elaboration. 

* Cf. the note on iii. 10 (pp. 286 ff.) for the ascension 
of the signs. 

75 



PTOLEMY 

TOVTOJV §€ TO, jj-ev iv ray Oepncp tjixlkvkXloj irpoa- 
Tarrovra /caAeirai, to. S' iv tw ;^et/xe|0ti'aj 
VTTaKouovra, Sto. to kut' eKelvo fxev yivojjLevov toi 
tjXlov ii€Lt,ova TTOLetv rrjg vvktos rrju -qixepav, /cara 
TOVTO 8e iXdrro). 

36 <ie.> Tie pi ^XeTTovrojv /cat laoSvva- 
jxov V r o}v 

ndXiv he laohvvapLelv (j)a(nv dXXiqXoig H'^PV "^^ "^^^ 
avTOV KUL oTTorepov t<jl>v rpoTTiKOJv a7)p.eicov to Laov 
d(f)eaTa)Ta, 8ia to Kad^ eKaTepov avTU>v tov tjXlov 
yivofJLevov ra? re -qfiepag Tat? rjpiepaLS /cat rds" 
vvKTag rat? vv^l /cat ra StaCTrr^juara rcDt' oiKeicov 
(Lpojv l(JO)(p6vcog ' OLTTOTeXelad ai. raiJra Se /cat j3Ae- 
Treti' d'AAy^Aa Aeyerai 8td re to. 7Tpoeiprjp.eva /cat 
eTreiSrjTrep eKaTepov avTcov e/c re rail' aurcDv fxepajv 
TOV 6pL(,ovTOS dvaTeXXei /cat et? to. aurd /caraSwet. 

<(?•> He pi davvSeTcov 

^AavvheTa Se /cat dTTrjXXoTpicofieva /caAetrat t^'»J- 
/Ltara oaa firjSeva Xoyov aTT'Adis' e\;et Trpd? dAAT^Aa 
TcDi' TTpoKaTeiXeypievcjjv oiKenvaeajv. TavTa Se 
ioTLV d p-riTe tu)v TrpooTdTTOVTCov -q aKovovTcov 
rvyxdvcL pLiqTe tcov ^XerrovTOiv rj laoSuva/jLovvTcov , 
en /cat tojv eKKeip-evojv TeTTapojv a-)(r]p.aTi.aix6jv, 

* looxpoi'ws VMAE, -cov P, -OS D, -a Proc, -la NLCam. 

^In the summer hemisphere are the signs Aries, Taurus, 
Gemini, Cancer, Leo, and Virgo ; Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, 

76 



TETRABIBLOS I. 14-16 

hemisphere ^ are called " commanding " and those in 
the winter hemisphere " obedient," because the sun 
makes the day longer than the night when he is in 
the summer hemisphere, and shorter in the winter. 

15, Of Signs which Behold each other and Signs of 
Equal Power. 

Again they say that the parts which are equally 
removed from the same tropical sign, whichever it 
may be, are of equal power,' because when the sun 
comes into either of them the days are equal to the 
days, the nights to the nights, and the lengths of 
their own hours ^ are the same. These also are said 
to "behold" one another both for the reasons stated 
and because each of the pair rises from the same 
[>art of the horizon and sets in the same part. 

16. Of Disjunct Signs. 

" Disjunct " and " alien " are the names applied 
to those divisions of the zodiac which have none 
whatever of the aforesaid familiarities with one 
another. These are the ones which belong neither 
to the class of commanding or obeying, beholding 
or of equal power, and furthermore they arc found 

I Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces are in the winter hemi- 
sphere; see the diagram in Boufhe-Loclercq. p. 161. 

* These pairs are Gemini-Leo, Taurus-Virgo, Aries-Libra, 
I'iscos-Scoqjio, and Aquarius-Sagittarius ; Cancer and 
Capricorn are left without mates {dCvya). 

' " Their own hours " are " ordinary " or " civil " hours 
iKaipiKai aipai ; cf. p. 28G. n. 3), which are always one- 
iwolfth of tlio day (aunnsi! to sunset) or night (suiiset to 
sunrise). Of course, they are equal if tlio days and nights 
are equal. 

77 



PTOLEMY 

Tov re Siaixerpov Kal rov rpiyiovov Kal rov rerpa- 
ya>vov Kal tov i^aycovov Kara to Trai'TeAe? dp,eTO)(a 
KaToXapu^avofxeva, Kal tJtol Si' evo? r) Sia ttcvtc 
yLvopieva hoiheKaTrfpuopicov , eTreiS-qTrep to. pikv St' 
eVo? d7T€GTpa7TTai oiUTTep dXXriXiov Kal Suo aura ovra 
evo5 77epte;^et yojvtav, to. Se Sia nevTe elg dviaa 
37 Siatpet tov oXov kvkXov, tcov dXXcov o)(r)piaTtap,a)v 
ei? icra Trjv ttjs TrepipieTpov SLaipeatv TTOiovpievcov. 

<it,.> Tie pi OLKCov € K da T o V d (T T € p o g^ 

UvvoiKeiovvTai Se /cat ol TrXdvrjTes to'l? tov 
l^coSiaKov fidpeoL /caret re tovs KaXovp^evovs o'lkovs 
Kal Tplyojva /cat viJia>p.aTa Kal opia Kal ra rotaura. 

Kal TO p,€V Ta>V OLKOJV TOiaVTrjV e)(€L (f)VaiV. €7T€lSrj 

yap Tojv tj3' ^cpSiojv to. jSopetdrara /cat ovveyyll^ouTa 
pidXXov Ta)v dXXoiv tov /caret Kopv^rjv rjfxojv tottov, 
dep/xaoLa? re /cat aAea? Sta tovto TTepnTOLrjTLKd 
Tvyxdi'ovTa, to re roiJ KapKivov cotI Kal to tov 
AiovTOSy ra Suo ravra rot? ixeyioTOLS Kal KVpLcoTd- 
TOLS, TOVTeoTL TOLS (fxiJOLv, (ZTTeVet/xat' ot/cou?, ro 
jLtev rou AeovTOS dppeviKov ov to) rjXicp, to Se tov 
KapKLvov drjXvKov ttj oeX'qvr). Kal dKoXovda>g to 
[lev drro tov AiovTos fiexpi-S AlyoKepo) tjpllkvkXiov 
rjXiaKov VTTedevTO, to Se aTTo 'Yhpo^oov p-expi- 
KapKivov oeXrjvLaKov, ottojs iv eKaTepco tcov rjpLLKV- 
kXlcdv iv t,cp8iov Kad* eKaaTOv twv TreVre^ daTepatv 
oi/ceta)? dnove 1X7)9 fj_. to p,kv TTpos rjXiov, to Se Trpos 

^Titulum sic habent VADEProc. ; om. eKaoTov darepos 
alii Cam. '^■jrevre om. PLNCam. 

78 



TETRABIBLOS I. 16-17 

to be entirely without share in the four aforesaid 
aspects, opposition, trine, quartile, and sextile, and 
are either one or five signs apart ; for those which 
are one sign apart are as it were averted from one 
another and, though they are two, bound the angle 
of one, and those that are five signs apart divide 
the whole circle into unequal parts, while the other 
aspects make an equal division of the perimeter. 

17. Of the Houses of the Several Planets. 

The planets also have familiarity with the parts 
of the zodiac, through what are called their houses, 
triangles, exaltations, terms, ^ and the like. The sys- 
tem of houses is of the following nature. Since of 
the twelve signs the most northern, which are closer 
than the others to our zenith and therefore most 
productive of heat and of warmth are Cancer and Leo, 
they assigned these to the greatest and most power- 
ful heavenly bodies, that is, to the luminaries, as 
houses, Leo, which is masculine, to the sun and 
Cancer, feminine, to the moon. In keeping with 
this they assumed the semicircle from Leo to 
Capricorn to be solar and that from Aquarius to 
Cancer to be lunar, so that in each of the semi- 
circles one sign might be assigned to each of the 
five planets as its own, one bearing aspect to the 

' opia, termini, literally " boundaries '" ; see c. 20. The 
triangles or triplicities are treatud in c. 18 and the exalta- 
tions in c. 19. 

79 



PTOLEMY 

aeXrjvqv €a)(rjiiaTLaix4vov. aKoXovQoiS rat? tcSv 
Kivrjaecxiv avribv cr^at/)at? Kal rats' tcov (f>vaco)v 
ISiorpoTTLatg. ra> jjiev yap rov Kpovov ipVKTiKip 
fjidXXov ovTi rrjv (f)vaiv /car' ivavTcorrjTa rov depjJLOv 
Kai rrjv avcordrct} koi p.aKpdv tcjv (Jxjdtcov e)(OVTi 
t,covr]i' iSodrj rd hiajxeTpa ^oSSta tov re KapKivov 
38 Koi TOV A€OVTO<;, 6 t€ AlyoKepojs Kal 'Ydpo)(6o9, 
fierd TOV Kal ravTa to, SajSearaTTj/xopia ifjv)(pd Kal 
)^€Lp,epti>d Tvyxdveiv, Kal eVt tov Kara Sidp-eTpou 
avaxy]P'O.TLaii6v davfX(l)a}vov Ttpo'S dyadoTToiiav elvaL. 
TO) Se TOV A log dvTL evKpdro) Kal vno Tiqv tov 
Kpovov a(f)alpav ihodiq rd e;^OjLtera hvo rdv TrpoKei- 
fjievojv TTvevfiaTiKa dvra Kal yovifia, o re To^oT-q? 
Kal ol 'I)(dv5, Kard Tpi.ya)VLKr}v Trpos" ra (jxjjra 8ta- 
GTaaiv, rJTLg earl avpi<f)(x)VOV Kal dyadoTTOiov ax^rjP-o.- 
TiafJiov. i(f)€^7)s 8e to) tov "Apeois ^rjpavTiKa) 
fxaXXov ovTL rrjv (f)vaLv Kal vtto ttjv tov Aid'; e^ovTL 
T'f}v a<f)alpav rd €)(6pieva TrdXiv eKCLVCDV eSodr) 
ScoSeKaTTjfXopLa tt^v o/xoiav e^ovTa (jivaiv, o re 
SKopirio; Kal 6 Kpios, UKoXovdcx); rfj (f)6apTLKfj /cat 
dcrvpicf)covcp ^ ttolottjtl, ttjv Terpdyoivov Trpog ra <f)a>Ta 
TTOiovvra SidaTaaiv. tco Se Trj; 'Acf)po8iTr]g €v- 
KpaTO) re ovti Kal vtto tov tov "Apecos rd e)(opieva 
iSodr] Svo ^ujSta yovLjxwTaTa dvra, at re XrjXal Kai 
6 Tavpo£, TrjpovvTa rrjv avfX(f)a}VLav ttjs e^aycovov 

1 davfi^wvu) VPLMADE, aKoXovOais N, om. Cam. (locum ♦ 
notans). 

80 



TETRABIBLOS I. 17 

6un and the other to the moon, consistently with the 
spheres of their motion ^ and the peculiarities of their 
natures.^ For to Saturn, in whose nature cold pre- 
vails, as opposed to heat, and which occupies the 
orbit highest and farthest from the luminaries, 
were assigned the signs opposite Cancer and Leo, 
namely Capricorn and Aquarius,^ with the additional 
reason that these signs are cold and wintry, and 
further that their diametrical aspect is not con- 
sistent with beneficence. To Jupiter, which is 
moderate and below Saturn's sphere, were assigned 
the two signs next to the foregoing, windy and 
fecund, Sagittarius and Pisces, in triangular aspect * 
to the luminaries, which is a harmonious and bene- 
ficent configuration. Next, to Mars, which is dry 
in nature and occupies a sphere under that of 
Jupiter, there were assigned again the two signs, 
contiguous to the former, Scorpio and Aries, having 
a similar nature, and, agreeably to Mars' destructive 
and inharmonious quality, in quartile aspect ^ to the 
luminaries. To Venus, which is temperate and be- 
neath Mars, were given the next two signs, which 
are extremely fertile. Libra and Taurus. These 

' That is, they are in the order of their distance from the 
centre of the universe, the earth. 
^ Cf. c. 4. 
' Capricorn opposes Cancer and Aquarius Leo. 

* Sagittarius is triangular to Leo, the sun's house, and 
Pisces to Cancer. CJ. c. 13 on tiie " harmonious " nature 
of the trine and sextile, in contrast with quartile and op- 
position. 

* Aries is quartile to the moon's house. Cancer, and 
Scorpio to the sun's house. Loo. They are, however, also 
triangular to those houses, Aries to Leo and Scorpio to 
Cancer. 

81 



PTOLEMY 

oiaardaccog, Kat eTreihrJTTep ou TrXeov Svo BcoSeKa- 
TTjiioptajv 6 aorrip ovrog icf)^ cKarepov ro TrXelarov 
a^iararaL rod r^Xiov ■ irrl re'Aei 8e to) rod 'Epfxov 
^7]8evoTe TrXiov €v6s hoiheKaTiqixopiov ttjv avo tov 
■qXiov iffy' CKOLTcpa SidaTaaiu TTOLOVfxevcp Kal vtto fxev 
Tovg dXXovg 6vti_ avveyyvs Se fidXXov ttcos dpi(j>ore- 
pojv r(x>v (j)cord)v, rd XoLTid Koi avve)^rj rols eKeiviov 
oi/coi? iSodrj Svo BioSeKarrjuopia to t€ riov Aihv- 
fjicov Kal TO TTJs Ilapdevov. 

39 <Lr].> He pi t p ly cv v cov 

H 8e 7T/30? Ta Tplyojva avvoiKeicooLS TOtavTrj ti? 
ovaa Tvyxdvei. eVetSi^ yap to TpLycovov koX 
laoTrXevpov u^^r^jxa oviKJycovoTaTov cgtiv eavTU> /cat 
o CwhiaKos VTTO Tpiu)v kvkXojv opi^eTai, rod re 
larjfjiepivov /cat twv Svo rpoTTCKcbv, StaipetraL Se Ta 
<)S' avTOV fJi€pr] €15 Tpiycvva laoTrXevpa 8'/ to fiev 
TrpojTOv, 6^ eoTL 8ta re tov Kpiov /cat tov AeovTO? 
/cat TOV To^OTOV, €/c Tpicdv dppevLKibv ^OjStCUV 
avyKeipL€vov, /cat o'lkov? €)^ov tjXlov re /cat "Apems 
Kal id to?, iSodrj to* ryAtoj /cat zltt irapd tt]v alpeaiv 
TTjv rjXiaKTju dvTOS ^ tov "Ap€ix)S. Xap-^dvei 8e 
avTOV TTju TrpdiTiqv oLKoheoTroTLav rjfJLepa? p-ev o 
tJXlos, vvktos 8e d tov zJtd?, /cat eo'TtP' d [xev Kpios 
/LtdAAot" TTpos Toi larjiiepivo) , 6 8e Aewv p,dXXov 

' top post S' add NCam. 

2o VAD ; om. cett. Cam. 

'oPTOs libri Cam.' ; inrdpxovTos Proc. ; (^wadevros Cam.* 

82 



TETRABIBLOS I. 17-18 

preserve the harmony of the sextile aspect ; ^ another 
reason is that this planet at most is never more than 
two signs removed from the sun in either direction. 
Finally, there were given to Mercury, which never 
is farther removed from the sun than one sign in 
either direction and is beneath the others and closer 
in a way to both of the luminaries, the remaining 
signs, Gemini and Virgo, which are next to the 
houses of the luminaries. 

18. Of the Triangles. 

The familiarity by triangles is as follows. Inas- 
much as the triangular and equilateral form is most 
harmonious with itself,^ the zodiac also is bounded 
by three circles, the equinoctial and the two tropics, 
and its twelve parts are divided into four equilateral 
triangles. The first of these, which passes through 
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, is composed of three 
masculine signs and includes the houses of the sun, 
of Mars, and of Jupiter. This triangle was assigned 
to the sun and Jupiter, since Mars is not of the solar 
sect." The sun assumes first governance of it by 
day and Jupiter by night. Also, Aries is close to 
the equinoctial circle, Leo to the summer solstice and 

• Taurus is sextile to Cancer and Libra to Leo. 

^Thisstatement savours of Neo-Pythagoroanism ; cf., for 
example, the demonstration by Nicomachus {Introduction 
to Arithmetic, ii. 7. 4) of the proposition that the triangle 
is the most elementary plane figure, which is also Platonic 
doctrine {Timaetus r)3C ff.); note likewise the much re- 
peated statement that the number 3 is the first plane sur- 
face ; Theon of Smyrna, p. 46, 14 (ed. Hiller), Macrobius, 
Somnium Scipionis, i. 6. 22, etc. 

3 See c. 7. 

83 



PTOLEMY 

npos TO) Bepivaj, 6 8e To^orrjS irpo'S rw )(€i[iepLva). 
yLverai Se Kal Trpo-qyovfievoj? fxev tovto to Tpiycovov 
^opeioVy 8ta T'qv rov A Log avvoiKoSeaTTOTiav, ineL- 
hrjirep ovTog yoviixos re eart Kal TTvevjxaTcoSrjg 
OLKeicos TOtS" OLTTo T<x)v apKTCOV avipLOL? . 8ta 8e 
Tov Tov "Apecog oiKov Xap^dvei pX^iv rov Xl^os 
Kal avviararaL ^ ^oppoXi^vKov, CTreiSTyTrep o rov 
"Apecos TOLOvrcDv iorl 7TV€vp.dTOJv Tvoirjri/cos', 8ia 
T€ Tr]v Trjs aeXrivris alpeutv Kal to tcov Bvapicov 
T€6rjXvap,€vov. 

To T€ SevT€pov rpiyojvov, 6 iari 8ia re tov 
Tavpov Kal Uapdevov Kal AlyoKepco, avyK€Lp.€vov 
CK Tpicov dr]XvKa)v, aKoXovOo)? iSodrj aeX-qvrj t€ 
Kal A(j>pohiTr^, OLKoSeaTTOTOvcrrjs avrov ^ vvkto^ p-ev 
40 Trjs aeXrjvTjs, rjpepag 8e tov Trjg ''A(f)po8iTrjs. 
Kal eoTLV 6 p,€V Tavpog Trpos tw depivo) kvkXo) 
p^aXXov, Tj 8e HapOevos Trpos to) tarjpeptvw, 6 Se 
AlyoKepcos TTpos tco ^eipiepivw. ytVerat 8e Kai 
tovto to Tpiycovov Trpo'qyovp.evcos p-kv votlov 8ia 
TTiv TTJs A(f)po8iTrjg oiKoSeaTTOTiav, eTreiSr^Trep a 

aOTTIp OVTOS T(Jl>V OpLOlCOV €OtI TrVCVpLOLTCOV SlOL TO 

OeppLov Kal eviKpiov ttjs hvvdp,€ajs ttoltjtlkos- 
TTpocrXa^cjv 8e pZ^iv aTrrjXnoTOV 8ta to tov tov 
Kpovov oIkov iv avTcp Tvyxd-veiv tov AlyoKepcov 
ovviaTaTai Kal ovto voTaTrrjXicoTLKov /car' avTideaiv 
tov 7Tpa)T0v, eTTeihrjirep Kal 6 tov Kpovov tolovtiov 
cgtI TTvevp^aTcov ttol-^tlko? OLK€Lovpievog Kal avTOS 
Tois dvaToXal'5 8ta t7]v Trpos tov tjXlov aLpecriv. 

* ovvicrraTai] ytVerat VDProc. 

" avTov PLMA, avroii' VDNECam. 

84 



TETRABIBLOS I. 18 

Sagittarius to the winter solstice. This triangle is 
preeminently northern because of Jupiter's share in 
its government, since Jupiter is fecund and windy, ^ 
similarly to the winds from the north. However, 
because of the house of Mars it sufi'ers an admixture 
of the south-west wind - and is constituted Borro- 
libycon, because Mars causes such winds and also 
because of the sect of the moon and the feminine 
quality of the Occident."* 

The second triangle, which is the one drawn 
through Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, is composed 
of three feminine signs, and consequently was as- 
signed to the moon and Venus ; the moon governs 
it by night and Venus by day. Taurus lies toward 
the summer tropic, Virgo toward the equinox, and 
Capricorn toward the winter tropic. This triangle 
is made preeminently southern because of the 
dominance of Venus, since this star through the 
heat and moisture of its power produces similar 
winds ; but as it receives an admixture of Apeliotes 
because the house of Saturn, Capricornus, is included 
within it, it is constituted Notapeliotes * in contrast 
to the first triangle, since Saturn produces winds of 
this kind and is related to the east through sharing 
in the sect of the sun. 

*■ Cf. c. 4. * Africut, Lips. 

' In c. 10 tho woHt is charafteriznd as moist, which is 
regarded as a ft'iniiiiiio cjaality (ff. u. H). 
* I.e. soutli-east. 

85 



PTOLEMY 

To 0€ rpiTOv rpiyoivov 6 iari ^ to 8ta re 
AiSvficop Kal XrjXoJi' /cat 'Y8po)(6ov, ck Tpiajv 
appevLKOiv l,(x)hLU)v avyKeifJievov, Kal irpos fxev rov 
Tov "Apews fiTjSeva Xoyov €)(Ov, rrpos Se top rov 
Kpovov Kal tov tov 'Eppiov Std tovs olkovs, 
TOVTOL9 a.TTevepi'qdrj,^ TrdXiv oiKoheoTTOTOvvTOS rjfxepa^ 
fxiu TOV Kpovov Sia ttjv alpeatv, vvktos Se tov 
EpfJiov. Kal eoTL TO p.€v Tcov AtSvpicov ScoSe- 
KaTrjfxopLOv irpos Ttp depivo), to Se t(x)v XtjXiov Trpo? 
to) larjuepLvcp, to Se tov 'YSpo^oov irpo'S tco 
■)(€LjxepLva). avvloTaTai Se Kal tovto to Tpiycovov 
7Tporjyovp,evu)s fiev oiTTrjXicoTLKov Sto. tov tov Kpovov ' 
/card Se t7]v pu^iv l^oppaTrrjAicoTLKov Std rrjv tov 
A LOS aipeaiv to) tov Kpovov ■npo'; to tov rjixepivov 
Xoyov avvoLK€LOvadai. 
41 To Se TeTapTOv Tptycovov, o e'art Std re KapKivov 
Kal UKopTTLov Kal ^Ixdvcov, KaTeXei(f)dri fiev ^ Xolttw 
ovTL T(x) tov "Apecos Kal Xoyov exovri irpos avTo Std 
TOV oIkov tov EKoprriov ' avvoLKoheoTTOTOVcn Se 
avTO) Std re ttjv a'lpeaiv Kal to drjXvKov Totv 
t,a}hlojv vvKTOs [xev rj aeXi^vr], rjp^epas Se d ttjs 

^A(f)pohiTrjS , Kal CGTLV 6 fl€V KapKLVOS TTpOS TO) 

OepLvo) kvkXco, 6 Se EKoprrios Trpos rep x^ifiepLvip 
fxaXXov, OL Se Ix^vs Trpos toj larjpiepLva). Kal tovto 
Se TO Tpiyiovov avvloTaTaL TTporjyovfxevcDS fiev 
Xi^VKOv Std TYjv TOV "Apccos Kal TTJS" acX-qvTjS 
OLKoBeuTTOTiav , Kara pLL^iv Se votoXl^vkov Std ttjv 
Trjs A<^poSlti]s olKoheoTTOTiav. 

' rpLTOv Be Tpiyuivov iari PLNCam. 

2 djreie^iy^T? VPMADE, om. L, dnoyefnjdev NCam. 

86 



TETRABIBLOS I. 18 

The third triangle is the one drawn through 
Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, composed of three 
masculine signs, and having no relation to Mars 
but rather to Saturn and Mercury because of their 
houses. It was assigned in turn to these, with Saturn 
governing during the day on account of his sect and 
Mercury by night. The sign of Gemini lies toward 
the summer tropic, Libra toward the equinox, and 
Aquarius toward the winter tropic. This triangle 
also is primarily of eastern constitution, because of 
Saturn, but by admixture north-eastern, because the 
sect of Jupiter has familiarity with Saturn, inasmuch 
as it is diurnal. 

The fourth triangle, which is the one drawn through 
Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, was left to the only re- 
maining planet, Mars, which is related to it through 
his house, Scorpio ; and along with him, on account 
of the sect and the femininity of the signs, the moon 
by night and Venus by day are co-rulers. Cancer 
is near the summer circle, Scorpio lies close to the 
winter one, and Pisces to the equinox. This triangle 
is constituted preeminently western, because it is 
dominated by Mars and the moon ; but by ad- 
mixture it becomes south-western through the domi- 
nation of Venus. 

'■^H€v VD, oiu. I'L. (xoioi MNAEC'ain. 

87 



PTOLEMY 

<t9 .> n € p I VljiOJ^aTlOV 

To. 8e KaXovfieva rajv TrXaucofidpajv uifiatfiaTa 
Xoyov €)(€i roLovSe eTretS-j] yap 6 rjXLog cV fxev tco 
Kpioj y€v6[ieuo9 rrjv els to v^tjXov /cat (iopeiov 
tjixikvkXlop iJLerd^aaLv voieLTaL, eV 8e rat? XrjXals 
rrjv eiV to Tarreivov /cai votlov, €lk6to)s ^ tov [xev 
Kpiov (1)S vijjwiia avaTedrjKaaLv avTco Kad^ ou 
apx^TUL /cat TO TTJg rjfiepag [xeyedo? /cat to ttjs 
</)va€cos avTOv depixavTLKov av^eaOai, ra? Se Xr)Xas 
(VS TaTreivcjjfxa 8ia to. ivavTia. 

'O Se TOV Kpoi'ov ttoXlv Iva irpos tov tjXlov Sta- 
fi€Tpov OTaaLv €XJ], ojcnrep /cat €7tl tu)v olkojv, tov 
jxev Zvyov avTLK€Lixeva>s d)S vipcofxa eXa^e, tov Se 
Kpiov (x)S TaTTeivojfia. ottov yap to depfiov au^erat, 
fjL€iovTai eKel to ipv)(p6v, /cat ottov eKelvo fieiovTai, 
42 TO ifjvxpov au^eTat.' TrdXiv ineiBrj^ iv to) vijtai- 
fxaTL TOV rjXiov iv tco Kpico avvoSevovaa rj aeXrjvr] 
TTpojTrjV TTOLetTai (fxiow /cat ap)(7jv ttj^ tov ^ujtos 
av^iqaeais /cat wcnrepel vijjojaeojs iv toj tov ISiov 

TpiyWVOV TTpCOTO) ^wBlU) tco TavpCO, TOVTO fiiv 

avTrJ9 vifjcojJia iKXrjQiq, to Se hidpi^Tpov to tov 
I^KopTTLov TaireLvcofJia 

MeTO. TavTa Se o jJiiv tov Alos toiv ^opeicov /cat 

TCOV yOVLjJiCOV TTVeVjJidTCOV aTTOTeXeCTTlKOS cov iv 

KapKLvcp fidXtaTa ^opeioTaTog ywofxevog av^eTai 

^eiKOTws VMADE, oiKeiios (oiKitus) PLNCam. 

• Kai OTTOV av^erai NMAECam. (av^avei NECam.); 

#c. OTTOV TO i/jvxpoi' av^fTai, eKil eKfieioGrai, to dtpfiop VD ; 
K. &nov eKeit-'O) (xfiovre, to Oepfiov av^tToi P. 

88 



TETRABIBLOS I. 19 

19. Of Exaltations. 

The so-called exaltations ^ of the planets have the 
following explanation. Since the sun, when he is 
in Aries, is making his transition to the northern 
and higher semicircle, and in Libra is passing into 
the southern and lower one, they have fittingly 
assigned Aries to him as his exaltation, since there 
the length of the day and the heating power of his 
nature begin to increase, and Libra as his depression 
for the opposite reasons. 

Saturn again, in order to have a position oppo- 
site to the sun, as also in the matter of their houses,^ 
took, contrariwise. Libra as his exaltation and Aries 
as his depression. For where heat increases there 
cold diminishes, and where the former diminishes 
cold on the contrary increases. And since the moon, 
coming to conjunction in the exaltation of the sun, 
in Aries, shows her first phase and begins to increase 
her light and, as it were, her height, in the first sign 
of her own triangle, Taurus, this was called her 
exaltation, and the diametrically opposite sign, 
Scorpio, her depression. 

Then Jupiter, which produces the fecund north 
winds, reaches farthest north in Cancer and brings 

' These have nothing to do with aphehon or perihehon ; 
the planets are exalted or depressed in power in these 
positions : BoU-Bezold-Gundel, p. 59 ; Bouch6-Leclercq 
pp. 192-190. 

'^ Cf. c. 17; the houses of Saturn are the signs in 
opposition to the houses of the sun and moon. 

^TToAtk' eVetSjj VADE ; TrdAti' tni Sei P; TraAik*. (nti hf libri 
alii Catu. 

89 



PTOLEMY 

TrdXiv Kal TrX-qpol rrji' ISiav Svvafiiv ■ oOev tovto 
[xep TO ScoBeKarrjixopLOV viptofjia rreTTOL-qKaaLv avrov, 
Tov Se AlyoKepojv raTreivojiia. 

'O 8e TOV "Apeios (f)va€L KavacoSrj^ iov Kal ixdXXov 
€v AlyoKepcp Sto. to voTid)TaTOv ytveadai KavoTiKui- 
repo? yivojJLeuog , Kal ayro? [xev clkotcos eXa^ev 
viltcojjia KaT duTiOeGiv tw tov Alos tov AlyoKCpcov, 
raTTeivcopLa Se tov KapKivov. 

TIoXlv 6 piev ' TTJ9 A(f)po8LT7)9 vypavTLKOs iov (f>va€(. 
Kal pLa.?^Xov iv rot? ^I)(dvai, iv ot? -q tov vypov eapog 
^PXV TTpoa-qpiaiveTaL, Kal avTos av^dvojv ttjv oiKeiav 
hvvap^LV, to pikv vijjcopia ea)(€v iv T0I9 'I)(9vaL, to 8e 
Ta7T€ivajp.a iv ttj Ilapdivo). 

'0 Se TOV 'EppLOv TO ivavTLOv p.dXXov ^ inro^rjpos 
cov eLKOTWi Kal KaTO. TO avTiKeipievov ev pLev rfj 
Ilap6ev<jj_ Kad^ rjv to ^iqpov pieTOTTcopov TTpoarj- 
/Ltati^erai/ /cat avTos atanep vijiovTai, /cara Se Touff 
^IxOvg TaTTeLvovTai. 

43 <K.> lie pi opicov 8 l ad i a € co 9 * 

Ilepi Se Tcbv opicov hiaaol pLaXtOTa (fiipovTat 

rpOTTOL, Kal 6 p,€V ioTLV AlyVTTTiaKOg , 6 77/30? TO.? 

rcbv otKwv d)S CTTt TToiv Kvpias ' 6 Se XaXSaiKos, o 
TTpos ra? Tcov Tptycovcov ot/coSecTTroTias". o piiv ovv 
AlyvTTTiaKog 6 Tcov Kotvojg (f>epopi€va)v opicov ov ndw 
TOL aai^ei Tr)v dKoXovdiav ovtc Trjg ra^ecu? ovt€ TTJg 
Kad^ eKaaTOv TToaoTTjTog . TTpdJTOV piiv yap ctti ttj? 

' naXu' 6 fiev PLME ; ttoAii' o VAD ; ndXiv. 6 fievroi NCam. 
^IxaXXof VP {fidXov) AD. ndXii' MNECam., iraXiv rj /xdAAo*' L. 

90 



TETRABIBLOS I. 19-20 

his own power to fullness ; they therefore made this 
sign his exaltation and Capricorn his depression. 

Mars, which by nature is fiery and becomes all 
the more so in Capricorn because in it he is farthest 
south, naturally received Capricorn as his exaltation, 
in contrast to Jupiter, and Cancer as his depression. 

Venus, however, as she is moist bv nature and 
increases her own proper power all the more in 
Pisces, where the beginning of the moist spring is 
indicated, has her exaltation in Pisces and her 
depression in Virgo. 

Merciiry, on the contrary, since he is drier, by 
contrast naturally is exalted, as it were, in Virgo, 
in which the dry autumn is signified, and is depressed 
in Pisces. 

20. Of the Disposition of Terms. 

With regard to the terms two systems are most 
in circulation ; the first is the Egyptian,^ which is 
chiefly based on the government of the houses, and 
the second the Chaldaean, resting upon the govern- 
ment of the triplicities. Now the Egyptian system 
of the commonly accepted terms does not at all 
preserve the consistency either of order or of in- 
dividual quantity. For in the first place, in the 

^ Probably the system of the mythical Nechepso and 
Petosiris ; it is the system of Dorotheus of Sidon, Firmicus 
Matemus, and Paulus Alexandriiius. C/. Bouche-Leclercq, 
pp. 206-210, who discusses Ptolemy's criticism of the 
Egv'ptian termini. 

■^ TTpoarjficuveTai XCam. ; TTpocjT]fj.aiuei VLMADE ; npooT}- 

P-iVfj P. 

*Sic VADEProc. ; /J. tCiv opiotv NCam. ; /J. opLojv PLM. 

91 



PTOLEMY 

rd^ecog irfj yckv rols tcou olkcop KvpCoig ra Trpcoreia 
SeSttJ/cacnv, ttyj 8e rot? tu)u Tpiydivoiv ivion. St 
KOL ToZs ra)v vipoj [JLOLTCDV. inel TrapaS eiyfjuaTOS, 
eveKev,^ el' ye " rols otKoig rjKoXovdrjKacTL, Sto. tl to) 
rov Kpovov el TV)(Oi Trpajrw hehojKacnv eV Zvyuj 
Kal ov TO) rrjs ^A(f>pohirT)s , Kal Std ri eV Kptw rip 
Tov Ad Kal ov TO) rod "Apeoi<s ; e'lre rots' rpiyajvois, 
Sta ri ro) rod Epfxov SehcvKaaiv ev AlyoKepco /cat 
ov rtp rrj? 'Acf>po8Lrr}9 ; etre /cat rot? vifjcofiaoL, Sid 
Tl rep rod "Apecos eV KapKivco kul ov rep rov Ai6<s ; 
etre rols rd TrXelara rovrwv e;^oucrt, Sta ri ev 
'Yhpo)(ocp rep rov Eppiov SeSwKacn, rpiycovov 
exovTL piovov, KOL ov\L rcp rov Kpovov • rovrov 
yap /cat olkos eon /cat rpiycovov. rj Sta ri oAco? ^ 
iv AlyoKepcp rip rov Eppov rrpcorcp * SeSdj/cacri 
fxrjBeva Xoyov e)(ovri rrpog ro ^coSlov OLKobeanoriag ; 
/cat evrt r?^? AotTTT^S" Stara^ecu? ^ rr^v avrrjv dvaXoyiav * 
dv Tts" evpoL. 

Aevrepov he /cat -q rrocrorrjg riov opicuv ovhep,iav 

OLKoXovdiav €)(ovaa (f>aiveraL. 6 ydp Kad' eva 

CKaarov darepa e7navvay6p,evos e/c Trdvrcov dpid- 

44JU.OS", TTpds ov cf)acnv avrijjv ra ;^poi'i/cd eVt/xept- 

^ea^ai, ouSeVa oiKelov ovSe evavoSeKrov e;^et Xoyov. 

^ enel TrapaSety/uaros iveKev VD ; eni nap. Se ev. PL, dm wap. 
TOV (to E) ye ev. ME, napaSeiYno-Tos 8e ev€K€v NCam. 
'^ et ye AIE, etre VD, etTrep yap A, ore PLNCam. 
3 BXcos VMNDE. oAo P, oXov L, oXos ACam. 
* TTpwToj VMADE, -ov PLNCam. 
^ Siard^ecos P (-fat-) L, 8e rafecos alii Cam. 
" dt'oAoyiac libri, d»'a<coAoi'(?i'ai' Cam. 

92 



TETRABIBLOS I. 20 

matter of order, they have sometimes assigned the 
first place to the lords of the houses and again to 
those of the triplicities, and sometimes also to the 
lords of the exaltations. For example, if it is true 
that they have followed the houses, why have they 
assigned precedence to Saturn, say, in Libra,^ and not 
to Venus, and why to Jupiter in Aries and not to Mars ? 
And if they follow the triplicities, why have they 
given Mercury, and not Venus,^ first place in Capri- 
corn ? Or if it be exaltations, why give Mars, and 
not Jupiter, precedence in Cancer ^ ; and if they 
have regard for the planets that have the greatest 
number of these qualifications, why have they given 
first place in Aquarius to Mercury, who has only his 
triplicity there, and not to Saturn, for it is both the 
house and the triplicity of Saturn ? Or why have 
they given Mercury first place in Capricorn at all, 
since he has no relation of government to the sign ? 
One would find the same kind of thing in the rest 
of the system. 

Secondly, the number of the terms manifestly has 
no consistency ; for the number derived for each 
planet from the addition of its terms in all the -igns, 
in accordance with which they say the planets 
assign years of life,* furnishes no suitable or ac- 
ceptable argument. But even if we rely upon the 

* Libra is tho solar houses of Venus ; Saturn's houses are 
Capricorn and Aquarius. Similarly Mars is at homo in 
Aries, Jupiter's houses being Pisces and Sagittarius. 

* Cf. c. 18 ; Venus and the moon govern the second 
triangle. ^ Cf. c. 19 ; Mars' exaltation is in Capricorn. 

* For the doctrine that the sum of the terms of each 
planet determines tho life-time of those born under its in- 
fluence, c/. Bouche-Leclercq, p. 408. 

93 



PTOLEMY 

eav Se Kal tovtco tco Kara rrjv emavvaycDyy^v apiQixcb 
inarevacD^ev, <hs duTLKpvs vtt' AlyvTTriojv ofioXo- 
yovfxevo}, TToAAa^^cDs" (J-ev Kal aAAco? Trjg Kara to 
^wSlov TToaor-qros ivaXXaaaoiX€v~q? , 6 avTO'S dptdfxos 
av avvayoixevo? evpedeirj. Kal o TTidavoXoyelv 8e 
Kal GO(f>it,€aS ai tlv^s €ttl-)(€lpovgl Trepl ayroji', otl 
Kara navros KXifxarog dva^opLKov \6yov ol Kad* 
CKaarov darepa (Tvux'rilJ'<iTLt,6yi€voi ttcus" ;^'pdyoi 
Trjv avT-qv €7TLavvdyovaL TToaorrjra, ipevSos ^ eari. 
TTpcoTov [Jbev yap aKoXovdovai ^ rfj kolvtj irpay- 
pbaTCta Kal rfj irpo's ojuaAd? vnepoxd? rcbv dva- 
<j>opd)v avviarafievrj , jjir] Kara puiKpov iyyv? ovar) 
rrj? dXrjdcLag • Kad^ ■^v errl rod 8id rrjs Karco 
^wpag rrjs Alyvrrrov TrapaXXrjXov ro /xev ri]S 
TIapdivov Kal rdju XrjXcop hcoSeKarrjiJiopLov iv Xiq 
)(p6voLS eKdrepov Kal eVt rpircp diXovaiv ava- 
(fyepeadat, ro 8e rov Aeovrog Kal rov EKopinov 
eKdrepov iv Ae', heiKwiievov hid rcbv ypajxpLcbv on 
ravra p.kv iv TrXeiouL rdjv Xe' xpovcav dva(j>ip€rai, 
TO Se TT^? IJapdivov Kal ro rcbv Xr]Xcbv iv iXdrroaiv • 
€7T€ira Kal ol rovro im^^eLp-qaavre? KaraoKeva^eiv 
ovKeri (f)aLvovrat KarrjKoXovOrjKore? ov8 ovroj 
rfj rrapd roZ? TrXeiarois (jiepopiivri TToaor-qri rdv 
opioiv, Kara ^ ttoAAo, SiT^vay/caa/xeVot Karaipevaa- 
i5 odaL • Kai ttov Kal fxoploLg [xopLcov ixprjcraivro , 
rov acocrai ro TrpoKeip-evov avroLS €veK€v, ovo 
ayrot?/ cos e<f)ajxev, dXrjdovs ixofxivois ^ okottov. 

> ipevSos VMADEProc, .^euSe's PLNCam. 

* TjKoXovOiqKaoi NCam. 

^ Kara PL, Kal to. VMDE, /catVoi NACam. 

94 



TETRABIBLOS I. 20 

number derived from this summation, in accordance 
with the downright claim of the Egyptians, the sum 
would be found the same, even though the amounts, 
sign by sign, be frequentlv changed in various wavs. 
And as for the specious and sophistic assertion ^ 
about them that some attempt to make, namely that 
the times assigned to each single planet by the 
schedule of ascensions in all the climes add up 
to this same sum. it is false. For, in the first place, 
thev follow the common method, based upon evenly 
progressing increases in the ascensions, which is not 
even close to the truth. By this scheme they would 
have each of the signs Virgo and Libra, on the 
parallel which passes through lower Egypt, ascend 
in 38J times,^ and Leo and Scorpio each in 35, 
although it is shown by the tables ^ that these latter 
ascend in more than 35 times and Virgo and 
Libra in less. Furthermore, those who have en- 
deavoured to establish this theory even so do not 
seem to follow the usually accepted number of 
terms, and are compelled to make many false state- 
ments, and they have even made use of fractional 
parts of fractions in the effort to save their hypothesis, 
which, as we said, is itself not a true one. 

' This perhaps means that the sum of the times of 
ascension of the two signs assigned as houses to each planet 
gave, according to the theory of those unnamed astrologers, 
the number of years of life whicli they assigned to those 
born under them ; c/. Bouche-Leclercq, p. 209. 

* A " time " is the period taken by one degree of the 
equator to rise above the horizon. 

^ In Almagest, ii. 8. 

* aino'is VMDE, avrfjs APL, atrro N'Cam. 

' e'^o/xtVots VIJE, -Tjs M, -01' NACam., exofiev L, e^oj/iev P. 

95 



PTOLEMY 

Ta fxevTOL (f>€p6iJ,€va TTapa TOt? vroAAots' Std rrju 
TTJ? eTTavuydev rrapaSoaeaJS d^toTnarLav tovtov utto- 
/cetrat rov rponov} 









p I a K ar' A 


'yuTTT t'ous* 








Kpiov 






Tavpov 




^(Sv/UOf 


11 


S" 


s" 


9 


v' 


1?' 


5 


S'' ?-' 


? 


r' 


'^' 


5 


?' 


t8' 


2/ 


S" 'iS- 


5 


i?^ 


f' 


n 


'',' 


^^' 


5 


€' ,r 


(? 


e' 


K€' 


b 


e' 


x^' 


<f 


r kZ' 


«? 


f ' 


A' 


«? 


y 


A' 


»? 


?' y 




KapKivov 




AeovTos 




riapOivov 


<r 


i\ 


C 


2/ 


i^ 


< 


5 


I' i' 


? 


i 


'V' 


S 


€' 


la' 


9 


\ 'K 


9 


r' 


ifl' 


»? 


C 


«;' 


2/ 


8' Ka' 


2/ 


C' 


K^' 


2 


r' 


k6' 


<? 


C K-q' 


>? 


8' 


A' 


<r 


?' 


A' 


»? 


?' A' 




Zvyov 






UKOpniov 




To^orov 


•? 


s" 


S^ 


<? 


c 


r 


2/ 


i^' t/S' 


? 


'Z' 


i8' 


? 


8' 


ta' 


? 


c; tr 


n 


r 


>fa' 


? 


'?' 


id' 


5 


8' Ka 


? 


r 


xv' 


2/ 


e' 


*cS' 


»? 


e' /fs" 


<? 


B' 


A' 


h 


?' 


A' 


<r 


8' A' 




AiyoKtpi 


X) 




yBpo;^oou 




'JxOvajv 


5 


i' 


r 


2 


c 


c 


? 


tiS' 1/3' 


2Z 


c 


tS' 


? 


r' 


ly' 


2i 


8' ts-' 


? 


v' 


x^' 


:^ 


r 


K 


5 


/ id' 


>? 


8' 


K?' 


cT 


e' 


Ki' 


<? 


d' KTt' 


<f 


8' 


y 


h 


c' 


A' 


»? 


P' A' 



'Post hanc lineam add. VMPLADProc. haec ant 
similia : ovfayerai St (KaoTov avriov 6 dpidfios ovtcos ■ Kpovov 
fiev ixoipai p^', Aios od' , "Ap€cos i^', ' A<fipohiTT]S n^', 'Epfxov o^' ' 

ytVOVTOl T^'. 

96 



TETRABIBLOS I. 20 



However, the terms most generally accepted on 
the authority of ancient tradition are given in the 
following fashion : — 



Term- 


s accord; 


hig to the Egypt < 


ians.^ 




Aries 


V6 


?6 


98 


<f 5 


bS 


Taurus 


?8 


56 


2/8 


^0 


(^3 


Gremini 


26 


2/6 


9 5 


<? 7 


'?6 


Cancer 


<f 7 


96 


96 


2/7 


'?4 


Leo 


2/6 


9 5 


^7 


96 


j6 


Virgo 


§7 


9 10 


2/4 


,^7 


K2 


Libra 


'?6 


98 


2/7 


97 


<?2 


Scorpio 


<?7 


94 


98 


2/.") 


'?6 


Sagittarius 


yl2 


9 5 


94 


"jS 


<?4 


Capricornus 


97 


2/7 


?8 


'?4 


rf4 


Aquarius 


§7 


96 


2/7 


(?5 


•jo 


Pisces 


? 12 


2/4 


93 


rf9 


'?2 



* The Greek tables on p. 96 show also, within each sign, 
the cumulative totals up to 30'' ; these have been omitted 
in the translation. C'f. p. 107, n. 1, and for the symbols 

p. XXV. 



*Tabulas codicis Vat. gr. 145.'} (Procli Paraphrasin 
continentis) secutus sum, cum illis quae ab Camerario im- 
pressae sunt congruentes solis lineis 26 ot 28 (sub AlyoKepoj) 
exceptis ubi Cam. 9 ^'ot <f e' offert. Tabulae in PLM NAD 
inventae sunt ; om. VE. 



97 



PTOLEMY 

<Ka .> Kara X aXS a lo v ? 

Se XaXScuKog rporrog arrX-qv /xei' riva €)(€L Kal 
fidXXop TnOavrjv, ovx ovrco Be avrapKrj ^ Trpog re ^ 
TO? rcov Tpiycovajv SeoTTOTLa? aKoXovQiav ^ Kal Trjv 
TTJs TToa6Tqro<; t6.^lv, coare fievroi Kal )(a)plg dva- 
ypa(f)'fjs Svvaadai paStoj? rtra * errtfiaXeZv aurat?. 
ev fjiev yap rcu TTpoiro) Tpcycovcp Kpuo Kal Aeovri 
46 w'at To^oTTj rrjv avTr^v e)(ovrL nap' avrols Kara 
t,cpSLOv Siaipeaiv, TrpaJrog jxev Xapuf^dvei 6 rov 
rpiywvov Kvpios, 6 rov Zltds', eW e^rj? 6 tov 
i(/)e^rjs rpiyajvov, Xeyco Srj tov tt^s 'Acf)poSlTrig , 
e<^e^7jS" 8e o rcov AiSujjian',^ 6 re tov Kpovov Kal 6 
TOV Epi-Lov • reXevralos Se o tov Xolttov Tpiycovov 
KvpLos, 6 TOV "Apecos. ev he to) Sevrepco Tpiyowo) 
Tavpo) Kal TJapdevo) Kal AlyoKcpco rrdXiv Trjv 
auTT^v" Kara ^coSiov e^ovTi SiaipeuLv 6 fiev rrj? 
'A(f)poBLT'QS TrpwTog, etd' 6 rov Kpovov, TidXtv Kal 
6 TOV EpfJLOv, ixeTa raura he 6 tov "Apeat^, 

' TTjv T€ post avrapKrj add. PNCani., rrjs T€ L, oni. VMDE, 
T17V aKoXovdlav A. 

'Ttpos re VMADE, re om. PLNCam. 

^T^.. iKoXovdiav VMDE. 

*Tiva VMADE (post hwaadai ME) : om. PLXCam. 

^d Tvjv JiSu/xojv VPLDProc, oi t. J. ME, d rov rpirov 
NCam. 

1 This method, as Bouche-Leclercq remarks (p. 210), is 
less "optimistic" than the Egjqitian or the Ptolemaic 
method, because it assigned to the maleficent planets a 
larger number of terms and more first places in the various 
signs. 

* The Paraphrase of Proclus, by connecting the ware 

98 



TETRABIBLOS I. 21 



21. According to the Chaldapans. 

The Chaldaean method ' involves a sequence, 
simple, to be sure, and more plausible, though not 
so self-sufficient with respect to the government of 
the triangles and the disposition of quantity, so 
that, nevertheless, one could easily understand 
them even without a diagram.^ For in the first 
triplicity, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, which has with 
them the same division by signs as with the Egyp- 
tians, the lord of the triplicity, Jupiter,'^ is the first 
to receive terms, then the lord of the next triangle, 
Venus, next the lord of the triangle of Gemini, 
Saturn, and Mercury, and finally the lord of the 
remaining triplicity. Mars. In the second triplicity, 
Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, which again has the 
same division by signs, Venus is first, then Saturn, 
and again Mercury, after these Mars, and finally 

clause solely with the expression ovx ovrw Si avrapK-q k.t.A., 
interprets this sentence to m^an that because of tlie lack 
of self-sufficiency mentioned one cannot rea lily \inclerstand 
the Chaldaean system without a diagram. Against this 
view two considerations are to be urued : ( 1 ) the Chaldaean 
system actually is simplicity itselt compared with those of 
the Egyptians and of Ptolemy; (2) the adversative fievroi 
("nevertheless," "in spite of all this") and the intrusive 
Kal have no meaning in Procjus" inter[jretation of the 
passage. The wan clause is really dependent upon all that 
precedes, not merely a portion of it. The anonymous 
commentator (p. 41, ed. Wolf) agrees with tiie present 
interpretation. What Ptolemy misses in the Chaldaean 
system is the elaborate accompaniment of justifying 
reasons, dear to his heart even in a pseudo-science. 

^ The sun is the diurnal ruler of tins triplicity (see c. 18), 
but no terms are assigned to the luniuiaries. Similarly the 
moon is disregarded in the second and fourth triangles. 

99 



PTOLEMY 

TeAtzUTalos Se o tov Aios cr;^eS6i' Se /cat eVt raju 
AoLTTOJv Svo rpiyajviov r) rd^LS -fjSe avvopdrai. tcov 
fxeuTOL TOV avTOV rpLyojvov SJo KVpicuv, Xeyoj Se 

TOV TOV KpOVOV Kol TOV TOV 'EppLOV, TO TTpojTeZoU 

TTJ? /cara to OLKelov Ta^ecog rjp.epa'; p.ev 6 tov 
Kpovov Xapi^dvei, wktos Se o tov 'EppLov. Kal rj 
KaO^ CKaoTOv 8e TToaoTTjs olttXtj tl? ovaa Tvy)(di'€i. 
Lva yap Ka9^ vTTof^aacv Trjg tcx)v TrpcoTeicov ra^etu? 
Kal 7) TTOGOT-qg tcou cKdoTOV opicov fxia pLoipa 
AetVrjrat tt^S" 7rpoT€Tayp.€inr)g, to) p,ev TTpcoTO) 
TrdvTOTe StSoacri p^olpag r]', tco he SevTepco XJ , tco 
Se TpiTcp s'', TO) Se TCTdpTCp e , to) 8e TeXevTaico 
S', Gvp-irXvpovpievoiv ovtoj tojv Kara to t,a>hLOv X' 
piotpaju. avvdyoi'Tai 8e Kal €/c toutoji^ tov p,ev 
Kpovov p-olpai Tjpiepas piev orj', WKTog Se ^s*'' 
TOV Se Alos ojS'- TOV Se "4pea»? ^6'- T-qg Se 
*A(f)pohiTrjg oe'' tov Se EppLov -qpidpag pbev ^s"', 
VVKTOS Se 017'. yivovTai pLolpat t^' . 

ToVTCxiV pL€U OVV TCOV opLcOV d^tOTTLGTOTepa, CO? 

47 €(f)a[JL€v, Tvyxdv€L ^ to. KaTO, tov AlyvTTTiaKov Tpoirov 
Kal Sia TO Trjv avvayojyrjv avTcov Trapd TOt? Alyvrr- 
TLOLS avyypa(f)evaiv cvg )(p-qaipirjv dvaypa(f>r]g 
rj^LOjuOai Kal Sia to avp,(f)cov€LV avToZg cu? evrt irdv 
ra? pLoipas tcov opicov Tat? KaTaTCTay/txevat? vtt 
avTcov TTapaheiypiaTLKalg yeveaeacv. avTcov pcevTOi 
tovtcov TcDt' avyypa<f)€cov pirjhapirj tt^i^ avvTa^iv 
avTcbv pcrjSe tov dpidpov ipicfjavLGdvTCjJv, vttotttov av 

^ cos i(j)afj.ev Tvyxdvu VPLNAD, ^a/xev ruyx*'''*"' ^tE. O^Q* 
Cam. 

100 



TETRABIBLOS I. 21 

Jupiter. This arrangement in general is observed 
also in the remaining two triplicities.^ Of the two 
lords of the same triplicity, however, Saturn and 
Mercury, by day - Saturn takes the first place in the 
order of ownership, by night Mercury. The number 
assigned to each is also a simple matter. For in order 
that the number of terms of each planet may be less 
by one degree than the preceding, to correspond with 
the descending order in which first place is assigned, 
they always assign 8^ to the first, 7^ to the second, 6° 
to the third, 5° to the fourth, and 4^ to the last ; thus 
the 30' of a sign is made up. The sum of the number 
of degrees thus assigned to Saturn is 78 by day and 
66 by night, to Jupiter 72, to Mars 69, to Venus 75, 
to Mercury 66 by day and 78 by night ; the total is 
360 degrees. 

Now of these terms those which are constituted 
by the Egyptian method are, as we said, more worthy 
of credence, both because in the form in which thev 
have been collected by the Egyptian writers they 
have for their utility been deemed worthy of record, 
and because for the most part the degrees of these 
terms are consistent with the nativities which have 
been recorded by them as examples. As these very 
writers, however, nowhere explain their arrangement 
or their number, their failure to agree in an account 

• I.e. the order of the planets is always the same, but the 
leader (or pair of leaders, in the case of Saturn and Mercury) 
in one triangle is shifted to the last position when one comes 
to the next triangle. Hence, since the numl)er of tei-ms 
in each sign are also always 8, 7, 6, .5, 4, the Chaldaean 
system makes the assignment of terms exactly the same in 
the corresponding signs of each triangle. 

* I.e. in a diurnal nativity. 

101 



PTOLEMY 

etVoTOJ? Kal €v8idpXr]Tov avrajv yivoLTO to rrcpl ttjv 
rd^LV dvoixoXoyov.^ rjSr] /LteVrot ■n€pLr€TV)(r^Ka^ev 
rjfxe'is avTLypd(f)a) TraAatoi Kal rd rroXXd ^ Sie(^0ap- 
fjidvo), TrepiexouTt ^vaiKov kol avpLcfiOJVOv Xoyov rrjs 
rd^eojs Kal rrjg TToaorrjrog auTOJP' fxerd tov rds re 
Toju TTpoeip-qyiivciiv ^ yeveaecov iJiOLpoypa^ia<s Kal tov 
TOiv avvaycjycov dpiOpiov ctu/x^oji^oi^ evpiaKeadai rfj 
Twv TToXaLOJv dvaypa^fj. to Se wara Xe^iv tov 
^i^Xiou irdvv jJ-aKpov -qv Kal fxeTa nepLTTTJg (XTroSet- 
^eojs", dBLdyvojGTOu * Se Std to Siecfiddpdai,^ Kal fioXig 
avTTjv TTjv TOV Kad' oXov TTpoaipeatv Svvdp,€vov 
rjjJLLv VTTOTVTTwaaL ■ Kal rawra (Jvv€(j)ohLat,ovarj<5 Kal 
Trjs avTwv TcDv optwv dvaypac/)rj? fidXXov ttco? Sid 
TO TTpo? TW TcXei TOv ^i^XLov KaTaT€Td)(dai 8ia- 
aeaojaixevTjg . e^et yovv 6 tutto? ttjs oXrjs avTcijv 

48 eTTL^oXfjS TOV TpOTTOV TOVTOV ' 6771 flCV ydp TTJS 

Td^ecog Trjg Kad eKaoTOv SioSeKaTrjjjLopLov napa- 
Xapi^dv€Tai Ta re u^cu^Ltara Kal ra rpiycova Kal ot, 
oIkol. Kad^ oXov fi€v ydp 6 fxev j3' tovtcov 6;^a>v 
daTTjp OLKoSeoTTOTLag ^ €v Tcp avTip ^ojStoj Trpo- 

TdTT€TaL, KaV KaKOTTOLO? fj ' OTTOV 8e TOVTO OV 

avjx^aLveL ot fiev KaKoiroiol rravTOTe eaxo-TOi 

TdTTOVTai, TTpdjTOL §€ ol TOV VlfjCOpiaTOg KVpLOL, 

elTa ol TOV Tpiycxjvov, etra ot tov o'lkov dKoXovucos 

^ dvo/xoXoyov VPLD, dvoiJi.oXoYTqTOv MAE, dvcu^oXoyrjTOv N 
Cam. 

* Ka' TO noXXd VMLAD, Kara noXXd PNECam. 

^ TTpofLprjfj.dvcov ME ; TTpoyei'Ofiei'wv PLNCam. {npco- P, -yiv- 
L) ; om. A ; Tcovyev€a€ojPTTpoei.pr]ixei'as fxoip.VD. LI. 6-14 om. 
Proc. 

* dSidyvcDaTOv MAE, dBidacocrrov alii Cam. 

102 



TETRABIBLOS I. 21 

of the system might well become an object of sus- 
picion and a subject for criticism. Recently, how- 
ever, we have come upon an ancient manuscript, 
much damaged, which contains a natural and con- 
sistent explanation of their order and number, and at 
the same time the degrees reported in the aforesaid 
nativities and the numbers given in the summations 
were found to agree with the tabulation of the 
ancients. The book was very lengthy in expression 
and excessive in demonstration, and its damaged state 
made it hard to read, so that I could barely gain 
an idea of its general purport ; that too, in spite of 
the help offered by the tabidations of the terms, 
better preserved because they were placed at the end 
of the book.^ At any rate the general scheme 
of assignment of the terms is as follows. For their 
arrangement within each sign, the exaltations, tri- 
plicities, and houses are taken into consideration. 
For, generally speaking, the star that has two ruler- 
ships of this sort in the same sign is placed first, even 
though it may be maleficent. But wherever this 
condition does not exist, the maleficent planets are 
always put last, and the lords of the exaltation first, 
the lords of the triplicity next, and then those of the 

' Ptolemy's ancient manuscript, therefore, if it really 
existed, was probably in the form of a roll, for there the 
last i)ages would be protected. The first and last pages of 
a codex would be liable to damage, since they would be 
outermost. 



* 8ta TO huif>9a.pdai VMADE, Kai 6i.€(f)9a.p9ai, PL, Kai Bie^Oap- 
fiivov NCuni. 

• oiVoS€CT7roT(€)ias VMADKProc. ; oiu. alii. 

103 



PTOLEMY 

TT] €(f)€^rj^ Tct^et Tiov (,o)S(,cov, TTaXiv 8e i<f)e^rjs ol 
am Bvo e)(ovT€S oiKoBccrTTOTias TrporaTTOfievoL tov 
[xiav exovTOS iv rw avTcp ^oiStoj. o fievroi Kap- 
KLVog Kal 6 Adojv oIkol ovreg -qXlov Kal acXi^vrjSj 
€7Tet ov StSorat roi? (fxjjcrl opta, aTTOvipiovTai toZs 
KaKOTTOLoZs Sta TO ev ttj rd^ei. TrXeoveKreiadai, 6 
fji€v KapKLvos Tcp TOV "Apecos, 6 Se Aeojv tw rati 
Kpovov, iv olg Kal 7] rafis" avrot? rj OLKeia (f)vXdT- 
rerat. inl 8e ttj? ttogottitos tcov opicov, (hs fiev 

fJLT]Sev6s evpLOKOfJidvOV /Caro. Svo TpOTTOVS Kvpiov 

tJtol iv avTCp tco ^a)8ta> rj Kal iv tols i(f)€^rjs p-ixP^ 
TeTaprrjiJLopLov, tols p-ev dyadoTTOLolg, TovTcaTi Tip 
T€ TOV A LOS Kal T(p TTJs A(f>pohLT'ris CKaaTO), St- 

SoVTaL pLOLpaL XJ , TOLS §€ KaKOTTOLOLS , TOVTiOTL Tip 

TOV Kpovov Kal Toi TOV "Apeios eKaoTip pLoZpaL e', 

Tip Se TOV 'EppLOV iTTLKOLVip OVTL pLOlpai $' , cls 

avpiTrXrjpijjaLV TibvX' } CTrei 8e €)(ovai Ttves del Svo 
Xoyovs, d yap ttjs 'A(f)poSLTr]s p-ovos ytrerat olko- 
49 heGTTOTrjS tov /caret tov Tavpov TpLyiovov ttjs 
aeXTjvr]s els Ta opia pi-f] 7TapaXapi^avop,€VT]s , npoa- 
8i8oTat pi€V eKaaTip twv ovtcos ixdvTcov dv re iv 
avTU) Tip ^ipBiip dv re iv tols i(f)€^-fjs P'ixP'- Terap- 

TTjpiOpLOV pLolpa pLLa, OLS Kal 7Tap€K€LVTO iTTLypLaL. 

d<f)aLpovvTaL 8e ai TrpoaTLdep-evaL ttjs SLTrXrjs ano 

TiOV XoLTTiJjV Kal pLOVaX^iV , ibs €m TO TToXv 8e ttTTO 

TOV TOV Kpovov, efra /cat tov tov Alos, 8td to 

' Post A' add. glossa in marg. codicis N et Cam.* ei ye fiif 
fXovai Tti-es 8vo Xoyovs ; om. libri omnes et Proclus. 

104 



TETRABIBLOS I. 21 

house, following the order of the signs. ^ And again 
in order, those that have two lordships each are pre- 
ferred to the one which has but one in the same 
sign. Since terms are not allotted to the luminaries, 
however. Cancer and Leo, the houses of the sun and 
moon, are assigned to the maleficent planets because 
they were deprived of their share in the order, Cancer 
to Mars and Leo to Saturn ; ^ in these the order ap- 
propriate to them is preserved. As for the number 
of the terms, when no star is found with two pre- 
rogatives, either in the sign itself or in those which 
foUow it within the quadrant, there are assigned to 
each of the beneficent planets, that is, to Jupiter and 
Venus, 7° ; to the maleficent, Saturn and Mars, 5° 
each ; and to Mercury, which is common, 6^ ; so that 
the total is 30"^. But since some always have two pre- 
rogatives — for Venus alone becomes the ruler of the 
triplicity of Taurus, since the moon does not par- 
ticipate in the terms — there is given to each one of 
those in such condition, whether it be in the same 
sign or in the following signs within the quadrant, 
one extra degree ; these were marked with dots.^ 
But the degrees added for double prerogatives are 
taken away from the others, which have but one, 
and, generally speaking, from Saturn and Jupiter 

1 I.e. in the order Aries, Taurus, Gemini, etc., which the 
Greeks called "the order of the following signs" and 
regarded as proceeding to the left. 

* According to the anonymous commentator (p. 42, ed. 
Wolf), this is because Mars belongs to the nocturnal sect 
and Saturn to the diurnal, the leaders of which are, re- 
spectively, the moon and the sun. 

* In Ptolemy's ancient manuscript ; so says the anony- 
mous conunentator (p. 44, ed. Wolf). 

o 105 



PTOLEMY 



^paSvrepov avTCov r-qg KivT^aecos. 
TOVTCOV TcDr opicDv eKdccTtg TOiavrTj. 



^ KpioC 



Tavpov 



eari 8e /cat rj 



dlSv/jUOV 



2/ 5" 

? v' 

? C 
i e' 
h 8' 


iS' 
X' 


? 
2/ 


■n' 


■n' 

le 
A' 


9 

2/ 
? 


<r' ly' 
8' A' 


KapKLvo 


V 




/le'oiTOS 




UapOevov 


J S" 


ly' 
A' 


2/ 
9 

9 




ly' 

id' 

fee' 
A' 


9 
? 

2/ 
I, 


s" ly' 

e' iri' 
S" /fS' 
S" A' 


ZiryoC 






EkopttLov 




To^OTOV 




ta' 

kS' 
A' 


? 
2/ 
9 


y' 


sr' 

'^/ 

»fa' 
A' 


2/ 
? 
9 


V v' 
S-' tS' 

^', '^' 
b' fe' 

«' A' 


AlyoKepo) 




'y8po;fooii 




'IxSviov 


9 S" 

2/ C 


id' 

Ke' 
A' 


9 
? 


5"' 


'^' 
If' 

KC' 

A' 


? 
2/ 

9 


v' v' 

S" tS' 

e' Ki' 
e' A' 



' Tabulas quae in cod. Vat. gr. 1453 (Procli Para- 
phrasiii continentis) inventae sunt sequor. Hae cum illis 
quae ab Camerario impressae sunt congruunt solis 11. 4-5 
sub AlyoKepo) exceptis ubi ordo Canierarii est : S e', k ^'. 
Proclus autem non nullas notitias duplices liabet, viz.: 
I. 4 sub Tavpov, h ^' aut 8'; 1. 2 sub KapKivov 9 aut V , 

106 



TETRABIBLOS I. 21 



because of their slower motion, 
these terms is as follows : — 



The tabulation ^ of 



Terms according to Ptolemy. 



Aries 


2/6 


?8 


97 


<?5 


V4 


Taurus 


?8 


5 7 


vi 


'?2 


cr6 


Gremini 


57 


iz6 


?7 


cr6 


hi 


Cancer 


<r6 


2/7 


97 


?7 


'?3 


Leo 


2/6 


2 7 


i?6 


?6 


<f5 


Virgo 


57 


?6 


2/5 


^6 


cr6 


Libra 


'?6 


?5 


95 


2/8 


^6 


Scorpio 


cr6 


?7 


2/8 


96 


f?3 


Sagittarius 


2/8 


?6 


95 


'?6 


cTS 


Capricornus 


?6 


96 


2/7 


i?6 


<?5 


Aquarius 


bd 


96 


?8 


2/5 


cfS 


Pisces 


?8 


2/6 


96 


<J5 


"jS 



' The Greek tables contain, under each sign, ( 1 ) the name 
of the planet, (2) the number of its terms in this sign, and 
(3) the cumulative totals of terms, up to the 30° of the sign. 
The third detail has been omitted in the English tables. 
The anonymous commentator (pp. 44—47, ed. Wolf) demon- 
strates in detail how the assignment of terms is made. 



2/ aut 5 ; 1. 3 sub Aeovros k aut ? ; 1. 3 sub ZvyoS 

t 2/ , e'aut T]', 1. 4 2/ aut 9 , tj' aut e'; 1. 2 sub SkopttIov 

t 11.1' aut T)'. 1. 3 2/ aut ?, tj' aut t,' ; 1. 4 sub 

i aut I? ; 1. 4 sub 'Ixdvouv s e' 



1. 3 

9 aut 

9 aut 2/ , 5' aut 
AiyoKfpuj ^ aut rf , 1. 5 
aut s"'. !• 5, •? e' aut S'. 



107 



PTOLEMY 

<K^.> TI e pX TOTTOiV KaX [lOipGiV^ 

Ai^XKov 8e TtP'es' KoX €LS en tovtcov XeTTTOfJiepe- 
arepa r/xry/xara '^ TTJg OLKoSeoiroTLag, tottovs /cat 
jjLolpa? 6vop,daavT€S, /cat tottov fxkv vvoTidepLevoi 
TO Tov BcoSeKaTi]piopLOV hoiheKaTrjp.6pi.ov, TOureaTt 
50/xoi/3as' j8' rfpnuvj^ /cat StSovre? ayrcDv tt^v Kvpiav 
Tolg i(f>e^rJ9 ^a»8tot?. aAAot Se /cat /car' aAAa? rivets' 
dAdyou? Ta^eis, p.olpav 8e eKaGTrjv * ttolXlv oltt* 
dpx'rj? e/cacTTO) ^ StSovre? tcDv doTepiov d/coAou^oj? 
T^ Tci^et TtDv X^aASat/cciji' optcov. raura /Ltev ow 
TTidavov Kal ov (f>vaLK6v dAAct /cevdSo^ov e^ovra 
Adyov TTapiqaop.ev. €K€tvo he eTrtardCTeaj? d^iov 
Tvyxo-vov oil 7TapaXeiifjop.ev, otl /cat rd? tcDv StuSe- 
KaTrjp,opiojv dpxo.9 oltto tow lar^p-e pivoJi' /cat tcDv 
TpoTTLKCJv ar]p.€io}v evXoyov ioTi TTOielodaL, /cat 
Toiv avy'ypa<f)eojv tovto tto)? €p,(f)avL(TdvTa)v, /cat 
jLtdAtcTTa Stdri rd? (f)vaeLS /cat rd? Swd/nets' /cat rd? 
avvoiK€LO)a€is avTO)v 6po)p.€v €K Tcov TTpoaTTohe- 
heiyfievcov oltto to)v TpoTTiKOJV /cat larjixepLvaJv dpx<ov 

'Post tabulas add. VI\lDProc. haec aut similia : yiVerat 
Se Kat TovTcov €K TTJs iTnavi'diacws Kpovov fiolpat i'^', Aios od', 
'Apfws ^^', 'Acf>po8tT-qs 7vj3', ' Epp.ov o^' ■ yivovrair^' . Titulum 
habent VPLMADEProc. ; om. NCam. 

^TCt Tp.riiJ.ar a PLNCam. 

^ ap\6p.eioi (1770 TOV io)heKaTrjp.oplov Ka9' o iariv 6 aoTTjp add. 
NCani. ; om. VPLMDEProc. ; dpx6p.aoi dtro tov I H j Kal 
StSoi-re? A. *iKaaTqv VMADE, -w PLNCam. 

* eVaoro) VPLMADE, -ov NCam. 



' After the tables and before this chapter -heading some 
of the MSS. have : " There result from the addition of 

108 



TETRABIBLOS I. 22 



22. Of Places and Degrees.^ 

Some have made even finer divisions of rulership 
than these, using the terms '' places " and " degrees." 
Defining " place " as the twelfth part of a sign, or 
2^°, they ^ assign the domination over them to the 
signs in order. Others follow other illogical orders ; 
and again they assign each " degree " from the 
beginning to each of the planets of each sign in 
accordance with the Chaldaean order of terms. 
These matters, as they have only plausible and not 
natural, but, rather, unfounded, arguments in their 
favour, we shall omit. The following, however, 
upon which it is worth while to dwell, we shall not 
pass by, namely, that it is reasonable to reckon the 
beginnings of the signs also from the equinoxes and 
solstices,^ partly because the writers make this quite 
clear, and particularly because from our previous 
demonstrations we observe that their natures, powers, 
and familiarities take their cause from the solstitial 

these, of Saturn, 57°; of Jupiter, 79'; of Mars, 66"; of 
Venus, 82° ; of Mercury, 76° ; the total is 360 ." 

2 One MS. and the printed editions insert here, " begin 
with the sign in which the star is and " ; cf. the critical note. 

^That is, Ptolemy's zodiac, made up of 12 divisions of 
30' each, measured on the ecliptic from one of the solstices 
or equinoxes, is entirely different from the zodiac made up 
of signs determined by the actual constellations. Because 
of the precession of the equinoxes the two by no means 
coincide ; and because the powers of the signs are derived 
from their relations to the solstitial anrl equinoctial points, 
says Ptolemy, the former definition of the zodiac is pre- 
ferable. Cf. cc. 10-11, and the distinction between solstitial, 
equinoctial, solid, and bicorporeal signs, as an example of 
what he means. 

109 



PTOLEMY 

/cat ovK arr aXXov tlvos e;^ouaa? ' rriv alrlav. 
dXXojv fji€v yap dp)((jbv VTTortd^iiivcxiv -q fx-qKCTi 
avyxpyjcrdai rats' cf)va€uiv avrcov et? ra? TrporeAe- 
cret? dvayKaaO-qaofxeda rj avy)(pcofi€i>oi SiaTTiTTTeiv, 
TTapa^dvTOjv Kal d7TaX\oTpLaidev~a>v ~ toju rds 
Swafxeig avTol? eiXTT€pL7TOL-q<jdi>ru)u rov l^coStaKOV 
SiaaTTj^dTCOv. 

<Ky.> He pi TTpoaanrojv Kal X a fXTT r] v cb v 
Kal T dj V TOLovrtov 

At ixkv ovv avvoLKeicoaet? tcov darepcov Kal tojv 
ScoSeKarrjp.opicjDi' a)(€86v dv elev Tooavrat . Xiyovrai 
51 8e /cat iSioTTpoocDTTOi fiev orav eKaoTog avrdjv 
Tov avTOV hiaaditpr^ npos tJXlov rj Kal aeXijvqv 
a)(rj liana fiov dvirep Kal 6 oiKog avrov TTpog rovg 
eKeiviov oIkovs ■ oiov orav 6 tt^? 'A(f)poSiTrjg Xoyov 
€V€K€v i^dycovov TTOLTJ TTpo's Ttt (f)djra SLaaraoLV, 
aAAa TTpog tJXlov fiev eaTrepto? a)v, irpos aeXtjvrjv 
8e €a)og, dKoXovOcog rots' e'^ ^PXV^ ot/cot? • Xa/XTTrj- 
t'ats' 8e ev ISiaig elvai Kal dpovoig Kal rot? rotoJrots' 
OTav Kara hvo r) /cat TrXeioug Tci)v TrpoeKTedeiixevcuv 

' €;^oi'Tas NCam. 

^ a.TraX\oTpLoj9evT(ov VPLD dXXoTpicodevrioi' MNAECam. 
(dXXco- Cam.). 

' Just as. with tlie precession of the equinoxes, the fictive 
sign Aries is now ahiiost entirely in Pisces. 

* The scholiast on Ptolemy says that, in addition to the 
conditions laid down by Ptolemy, a planet, to be in proper 
face, must also be in its own house and must be in the 
necessary aspect with both the luminaries (not with one of 
them, as Ptolemy says). 

110 



TETRABIBLOS I. 22-23 

and equinoctial starting-places, and from no other 
source. For if other starting-places are assumed, we 
shall either be compelled no longer to use the natures 
of the signs for prognostications or, if we use them, to 
be in error, since the spaces of the zodiac which 
implant their powers in the planets would then pass 
over to others ' and become alienated. 



23. Of Faces, Chariots, and the Like. 

Such, then, are the natural affinities of the stars 
and the signs of the zodiac. The planets are said 
to be in their " proper face " ' when an individtial 
planet keeps to the sun or moon the same aspect 
which its house has to their houses ; as, for example, 
when Venus is in sextile to the luminaries, provided 
that she is occidental to the sun and oriental to the 
moon, in accordance with the original arrangement 
of their houses.^ They are said to be in their own 
" chariots " and " thrones " ■* and the like when they 

' Venus' solar house, Libra, is sextilo dextor {i.e. toward 
the west) to Leo, the sun's house, and her lunar house, 
Taurus, is sextile sinister (i.e. toward the east) to the moon's 
house, Cancer. 

* Ptolemy pays little attention to the thrones and 
chariots, which were apparently, as Bouche-Leclercq 
(p. 244) assorts, not to his tasto as a scieiuific- astrolop;or. 
In the Michigan astrological roll (P. Mich. 14!), col. .'5A, 
22-.34) the " thrones " are identified with the (astrological) 
exaltations and the depressions of the planets are called 
their " prisons " {<f>v\aKai) ; upon the thrones the planets 
have " royal power," in their prisons they " are abased 
and oppose their own powers." Sarapion (CCAG. viii. 
4, p. 228, 2.5, and p. 2:}1, 13) and BalbiUus (ibid., p. 237, 
8) use the word Ihwdponlv. 

Ill 



PTOLEMY 

rpoTTCov avyoiK€iovnevoL rvy)(avo}aL toi? tottois cr 
oi? KaraXajji^avovTaL , totc ^ [laXiaTa rfjs SvuajJLea)? 
avTOJv av^avofxevT]^ irpo? ivepyeiav Std to ofJLOLOv 

Kal (TVlXTTpaKTLKOV TTJg TOiV TTepL€)(6vTCOU SloScKa- 

Tr]pLopla>v 6ixo(f)Vovs oiKeioTrjrog.'^ ^^aipew 8e <j>aaLv 
avTovg orav Kap ix-q Trpos avrovg f] rj avvoLKCiojais 
Tiov nepiexovTCDV t^cpBtoju aAAa [xcvtol TTp6<; tov<; tojv 
avTcbv alpeaecov, e/c fxaKpov pudWov ovroi yLvofievrj? 
rrjg avfirradeLa^. KOLvwvovcn 8e ofxo)? Kal Kara top 
avTov rpoTTOv rrj^ ofxoior'qros ' ayoTrep orav ev rots' 
rjXXorpicopLevoL^ Kal rrj? ivavrias atpeVecDS" r67Toi<^ 
KaraXa/ji^dvcDvrai, ttoXv irapaXverai ro rfjs otVei'a? 
avrcijv Swdfjiea)? , aXXrjv rivd (fiUGLv puKrrjv anore- 
Xovarj^ rrj? Kara ro auofxaiov raju 7TepL€)^6vr(t}v 
t,(phio)v Kpdaeio^. 

52 <kS.> He pi Gvva(^€La)v Kal aTToppoicbv 
Kal r oj V dXXo) V Buvdjxewv 

Kal Ka9^ oXov Se owdTrreLV [xev Xeyovrai rolg 
eTTOfxevoig oi TrporjyovjjievoL, aTTcppviqKevaL 8e ol 
eTTOjuei'ot raJv Trporjyoujjievojv , icj)^ oaov dv jxtj puaKpov 
fj ro fiera^v avrcbv hidur-qpia. vapaXafx^dverai 8e 

* Tore yap MNAECam. ; y^P om. VPLD. 

- tSioOpovelv Koi Aa/Lnreiv Ae'yoiTat add. MNAECam. ; om, 
VPLD. 

* Vettius Valens uses this word several times in a broader 
sense than that of this definition. 

* I.e. are more occidental. 

' avvdiTTew, npplicare (noun ovva<f>iq, applicntio) is used 
of planets which are on or are closely approaching the same 
meridian. KoXX-qai^ is a similar term. " Separation," 

112 



TETRABIBLOS I. 23-24 

happen to have familiarity in two or more of the afore- 
said ways with the places in which they are found ; for 
then their power is most increased in effectiveness 
by the similarity and co-operation of the kindred 
property of the signs which contain them. They say 
they " rejoice " ^ when, even though the containing 
signs have no familiarity ^^^th the stars themselves, 
nevertheless they have it with the stars of the same 
sect ; in this case the sympathy arises less directly. 
They share, however, in the similarity in the same 
way ; just as, on the contrary, when they are found 
in alien regions belonging to the opposite sect, a 
great part of their proper power is paralysed, because 
the temperament which arises from the dissimilarity 
of the signs produces a different and adulterated 
nature. 

24. Of Applications and Separations and the Other 
Pollers. 

In general those which precede - are said to 
" apply " ^ to those which follow, and those that 
follow to " be separated " from those that precede, 
when the interval between them is not great.* Such 

dnoppoia, defluxio, on the contrary, refers to the movement 
apart of two bodies after " application." anoppoia is also 
used by astrologers to designate the " emanations " of the 
heavenly bodies which afToct the earth and its inhabitants, 
as for example in Vettius Valens, p. 160, 6-7 ; 249, 3 ; 
270, 24 ff. ; 330, 19 n. 

* Ashmand says this is generally understood to mean, 
when the heavenly bodies are within each other's orbs 
(Saturn 10", Jupiter 12\ Mars 7" 30', sun 17°, Venus 8\ 
Mercury 7° 30', moon 12' 30'). The anonymous com- 
mentator mentions 15 as the maximum distance (p. 51, 
ed. Wolf). 

113 



PTOLEMY 

TO TOiovTOV idv Te ocoiiaTLKOj? eav re Kai Kara riva 
Twv TTapa^ehofMevcov a-xjq^aTia^Giv avfji^aivrj, ttXtju 
OTL ye TTpo? fxev rag 8t' auroii' rcov cra»/xaTCor 
crvva(f)as Kal aTToppoia? koI to. ttAcittj TTaparrjpclv 
avTcbv )(^pr]cnpLOV els to p,6vas rag €ttl ra avra p-ep-q 
Tov Sta piiaiijv evpiaKop.4vas Trapohovs Trapahe^^a- 
daL. TTpos Se TO,? 8ia ra)v ava^^rjp.arLap.Giv ^ irepLTTov 

iuTL TO TOIOVTOI', TTaGOJV ttCt TCOV aKTU'COV 6771 TttUTa, 

TOVreaTLv irrl to Kevrpov ttjs yyjs, cj^epo [xevoju Kai 
6[xotcos TTavTa'^oSei' ovpL^aXXovaiov. 

^Ek hrj TOUTOJf aTrdvTOJv evcrvvoTTTOV on to p,€v 
TTOiov eKaoTov Ta)i' aarepoji' eTTiOKeTiTeov e/c re tt^? 
Ihias avTCJv (f>vaiKrjs tStorpoTTta? Kal ert rrjs tcov 

TT€pL€)(OVTlOV Boj8€KaTr][jiOpiCOV, t] /Cat T7J9 T(ji)V TTpOS 

re TOV tJXlov Kal tcls yojvias G)(rjfxaTLapicov Kara 

TOV iKredeijxevov rjfuv irepl ttolvtcov tovtcjv Tporrov ' 
TTjv Se hvvajJLLv rrpwrov p.kv e/c tov tJtol dvaroXiKOVS 
avTOvg elvai Kal TrpoaOerLKOV? TaZg tSt'at? KLvrjcreaL, 

^ TOis Std Tu>v avoxr]^arioyL(i>v^ tov yivofiefov a;^7j/iaTt(T^op 
NCam. 



^ That is, when the planets themselves come to the same 
meridian, as opposed to the conjunction of one planet with 
the ray projected by another from the sextile, quartile, or 
trine aspect. 

* The ecliptic bisects the zodiac longitudinally. Planets, 
to "apply " in the " bodily" sense, must both be to the 
north, or the south, of it ; that is, in the same latitude. 
Cf. the anonymous commentator (pp. .50-51, ed. Wolf). 

^ See the note on iii. 10 concerning the projection of rays 
{aKTivoPoXia). To judge from the remarks of the anonymous 

114 



TETRABIBLOS I. 24 

a relation is taken to exist whether it happens by 
bodily conjunction ^ or through one of the traditional 
aspects, except that with respect to the bodily ap- 
plications and separations of the heavenly bodies 
it is of use also to observe their latitudes, in order 
that onlv those passages may be accepted which are 
found to be on the same side of the ecliptic." In 
the case of applications and separations by aspect, 
however, such a practice is superfluous, because all 
rays always fall and similarly converge from every 
direction upon the same point, that is, the centre of 
the earth. ^ 

From all this, then, it is easy to see that the quality 
of each of the stars must be examined with reference 
both to its own natural character and that also of the 
signs that include it, or like\vise from the character of 
its aspects to the sun and the angles, in the manner 
which we have explained. Their power must be de- 
termined, in the first place, from the fact that they 
are either oriental and adding to their proper motion * 

commentator, the thought is that, while the rays of planets 
closely approaching each other but in different latitudes 
would miss each other, the rays of those in aspect in any 
case mingle at their comnion meeting-place, the centre of 
the earth. 

* The theory of epicycles assigns to each planet at least 
one epicycle, on which it moves from west to east, while 
the centre of the epicycle likewise moves from west to east 
on the orbit, or deferent. Thus when the planet is in the 
outer semicircle of its epicycle (away from the earth) both 
motions will be in the same direction and the planet will 
be " adding to its motion " ; conversely on the inner semi- 
circle (toward the earth) the motion on the epicycle is in 
the opposite direction to that on the deferent and the 
apparent speed of the planet is diminished. 

115 



PTOLEMY 

t6t€ yap fidXiOTa elaiv la)(vpoi • •^ ^vtlkov^ KaX 
a(f)aipeTLKOvg , t6t€ yap aaOevear^pav €)(ovai ttjv 
ivepyeLav ■ eTrecra /cat eV tov ttius ^x^tv irpo's rov 
6plt,ovra, pL€aovpavovvTes fiev yap t] i7TL(f)€p6fi€VOL 
Tw fieaovpavy^ixari /xaAiCTxa etat SwafxiKoi ■ 8eu- 
T€pov Se OTav ctt' avrov tov opi^ovrog cocnv iq in- 
ava(f)€pcovTai, Kal juaAAoi' orav eVt tov dvaToXiKov , 
■fjTTOV 8e OTav vtto yrjv (lecrovpavayaLV rj aAAo)? av- 
a-)(y}P-0'TLt,o)VTaL TO) avaTeXXovTL tottco ■ fxr] ovtco §€ 
exovTes dSvvafioL iravTeXihs Tvyydvovatu, 



BIBAION B' 
<a.> npooipiiov 

Td pi€V St) Kvpi(x)T€pa T(ji)v TTLvaKCKO)? TTpoeKTedci- 
[Jb€vwv vvv els rrjv twv /card fxepos Trpopp-qoioju 
etriaKcifjiv <1)S ev Ke<j>aXaiois p-^XP^ ToaovTuyv rjp^lv 
i(f)oS€V€a6co, avvdiJjo}p,€v 8e rjSr] /card to e^-iy? Trjg 
aKoXovdias rds Kad* e/caara tcjv ets to Sui^aTov Trjs 
TOLavTrjS TTpopp-qaecos ipLTTLTTTovTOiv TTpayp,aTeias, 
ixdpievoi vavTax'fj ttJ? /caTa tov ^volkov Tporrov 
V(f)rjyT]a€Ci)S . 

Els Suo Toiwv Ttt fxdyiaTa koI KvpicoTaTa p^cprj 
8iaLpovpi€VOV TOV St' daTpovop,Lag TrpoyvcoaTLKov , 
/cat TTpcoTOV fxev ovtos Kal yeviKCDTcpov tov KaO' 
116 



TETRABIBLOS I. 24—11. 1 

— for then they are most powerful — or occidental and 
diminishing in speed, for then their energy is weaker. 
Second, it is to be determined from their position 
relative to the horizon ; for they are most powerful 
when they are in mid-heaven or approaching it, 
and second when they are exactly on the horizon 
or in the succedent place ; ^ their power is greater 
when they are in the orient, and less when they cul- 
minate beneath the earth or are in some other aspect 
to the orient ; if they bear no aspect ^ at all to the 
orient they are entirely powerless. 



BOOK II. 

1 . Introduction. 

Let it be considered that thus far we have furnished 
in brief the most important details of the tabular 
exposition needful for the inquiry into particular 
prognostications. Let us now add in proper sequence 
the procedures for dealing in detail with those matters 
which lie within the limits of possibility of this kind 
of prognostication, holding everywhere to the natural 
method of exposition. 

Since, then, prognostication by astronomical means 
is divided into two great and principal parts, and 
since the first and more universal is that which 

'That is, the space of 30° (" place," or " house ") im- 
mediately following, or rising next after, the horoseopic 
sign (cf. iii. 10, p. 273). This place is called the iTtava4>oija of 
the horo9co[>o. 

"That is, if they are disjunct (c/. c. 16). 

117 



PTOLEMY 

54 oXa edvrj /cat ■)(wpa<; /cat TroAet? AajLt^ai/o/xeVou, o 
/caAetrat KadoXiKov, Seurepov Se /cat et'St/cajTepou 
Tou /ca^' eVa eKaarov rcov dvdpcoTTcov, o /cat awro 
/caAetrat yei'e^AtaAoyt/cdr, TrpoarjKeLV rjyovjjieda nepl 
Tov KadoXiKov TTpaJTOv TTOLt]aaadaL rov Xoyov, CTret- 
S'qTTep raura jxev /caret juei^ous' /cat Icrxvporepa^ 
atrta? rpeTreadai 7T€(f)VK€ jj.dXXoi' tcjv jxepiKcog oltto- 
TeXovfievojv. VTTOTnTTrovaayv Se aei rchv dadeveare- 
pcov (f)vaea>v rats hwarcoripais kol tcjv /card /xe'po? 
rat? KaQ oXov, iravTaTTaaiv dvayKalov dv e'iq tols 
TTpoatpovfJievoLS Tvepl ivos eKaarov a/coTretr ttoXv -npo- 
T€pov TTepl rdju 6XoG)(^epear4p(x>v 7T€pi€iXr](f)dvaL. 

Kal avrrj? Se rfjg KadoXiKrjs eTTLOKeifjeajg to jxev 
TcdXiv /caret ^cvpa'S oAas" Aa/x^ctrerat, ro Se /caret 
TToAet?.^ /cat ert to fxev /caret jLtet^ou? /cat Trept- 
oSt/ccurepa? rrepLcjTdaeig, oioi' TToXepnov "q Xificou rj 
XoipLWV "^ -^ aeiafjicov 7) KaTaKXvafxcbv /cat roii/ 
rotoi;rcui^ • ro Se /caret eXaTTOVs kol /catpt/ccore'pas',^ 
ofat etCTtt' at TOJv eTiqaicjv d>pu)v koL /caret to 
jjidXXov /cat rJTTOV dAAotcucTei?^ Trept re dve'cret? ■^ 
iTTLTaaeLg x^LiKjjvoyv /cat KavfJiaTOiv /cat TTvevjJidTCOv 
eu^opta? * re /cat a<f)opias /cat ret rotaura. Trpo- 
Tjyeirat Se /cat roi;rcot' eiKOTCos eKaTCpov to re ^ 
/caret x^P^^ dXa? /cat rd /card jxei^ovg nepi- 

55 CTrdaet? Std ri^i' avTTjv atrtav rry Trpoeiprjfievrj • 

* TO 8e Kara x'^P'^S xai Kara TrdAet? NCam.Proc. ; /cara x'^po-S 
KoX oin. libri alii. 

■^ ^ Aificoi' •^ Xoificov VMD ; /cat Aoi/^. /cai At/u. Proc. ; ^ Aoi/u. 
^ Ai/x. A ; ^ Aoi/x. ij Aot/i. E, ■^ Xoifxcov PLNCam. 

^ KaipiKcoTipas VAD, Kaipicorepas ME, c/^. Proc. ; /xt/cpore/aas 
PLNCam. 

118 



TETRABIBLOS II. 1 

relates to whole races, countries, and cities, which 
is called general, and the second and more specific 
is that which relates to individual men, which is 
called genethlialogical, we believe it fitting to treat 
first of the general division, because such matters 
are naturally swayed by greater and more power- 
ful causes than are particular events. And since 
weaker natures always yield to the stronger, and 
the particular always falls under the general,^ it 
would by all means be necessary for those who 
purpose an inquiry about a single individual long 
before to have comprehended the more general 
considerations. 

Of the general inquiry itself, a part, again, is 
found to concern whole countries, and a part to 
concern cities ; ^ and further, a part deals with the 
greater and more periodic conditions, such as wars, 
famines, pestilences, earthquakes, deluges, and the 
like ; and another with the lesser and more oc- 
casional, as for example the changes in temperature ' 
in the seasons of the year, and the variations of the 
intensity of storms, heat, and winds, or of good 
and bad crops, and so on. But in each of these 
cases, as is reasonable, procedure by entire countries 
and by more important conditions is preferred, for the 
same reason as before. And since in the examination 

1 Cf. i. 3. 

* Or, as the variant reading has it, "to concoru both 
countries and cities." See the cr. n. 

* Literally, " variations of more and less." 

* ■^ f.v<f>opia£ l'L.M\'AK(,"ani, ^ om. VD. 
^ oKOTtilv ri TO AafifidveaOai add. post ro re Cam.^, oin. libri 
Cam.' 

119 



PTOLEMY 

TT/Do? 8e T7)v tovtcjov i7TLaK€ipLv /xaAtcTTa TTapa- 
Xafi^avofjicvcov Svo toutojv, ttjs re tcov ScoSe/carTy- 
fjiopLOiv Tov i^ioStaKov Kal €TL TTJs Tcov daTcpajv 
irpos eKaara roJu KXifxaTCov avvoLKeLwaeoJS Kal rojv 
iv TOLS OLKetOLS fxepcGL /card Kaipov'S yLvopLevcDV 
€7nar)piaaLa)v, Kara jj-ev ras avt,vyia<; rjXlov Kal 
aeX'qv'qg rcov e/cAetTrri/ctut', Kara Se tols rd>v TrXavoj- 
liivcov TrapoSous tojv rrepl rd? avaroXa.<; Kal tov<; 
arrjpLyijiovs, TrpoeKdrjaofieda tov tcou elprjixevcov 
avjXTTadeioJv cf)vatK6v Xoyov, d'/xa TrapiarduTe? i^ 
iTTiBpoixTJ's ^ Kal TOLS /ctt^' oAtt edvT] decjpoujJievas d>s 
em TToiu GcofiaTLKas re Kal rjdiKds IhioTpoTrias , ovk 
dAAorpta? Tvy)(avovaa£ riy? tcov avvoLKeiovpievcov 
daripoiv re Kal SajSeKarrjp.opLOJi' (f)vaLKi)<s TTeptard- 
aecos. 

<B.> He pi T u) V Kad^ oXa /cAt/xara^ 
Ih L lo pi ar oj V 

T(JL)U Toiwv idvLKWu IhicopLaruiv to. fJiev Kad^ 
oXovs TrapaXX'qXovs Kal ycovias oAa? SiaLpeladaL 
(jVfxISe^tjKe vTTo rrjg Trpog tov 8td fieacov tcov l^coSlcov 
kvkXov Kal TOV -qXiov avTiov a)(€(jecx)S. ttj? yap 
Kad" rj/xd? oIkov p.ivrj's iv evl tcov ^opeitov rerap- 
TTjpLoplcov ovarjs, ol p-ev vtto tovs voTioiTepovs 
TTapaXXrjXovs , Xiyoi Se tovs diro tov la-qpLeptvov 

' eniSpofi-qs VPLNDE, vTToSpofiijs MA, nepiSpofiiis Cam. 
2 KAlfxara VPLMADProc, edvq NCam. ; tit. om. E. 

120 



TETRABIBLOS II. 1-2 

of these questions these two things particularly 
are taken into consideration, the familiarity of the 
signs of the zodiac and also of the stars with the 
several climes,^ and the significances of heavenly 
bodies in their own proper regions ^ at a given time, 
manifested through the ecliptical conjunctions of 
the sun and moon and the transits ^ of the planets 
at rising and at their stationary periods, we shall 
first explain the natural reason for the aforesaid 
sympathies, and at the same time briefly survey the 
bodily and ethical peculiarities generally observed 
to belong to whole nations, which are not alien to 
the natural character of the stars and signs that are 
familiar to them. 

2. OJ the Characteristics of the Inhabitants of the 
General Climes. 

The demarcation of national characteristics * is 
established in part by entire parallels and angles,^ 
through their position relative to the ecliptic and 
the sun. For while the region which we inhabit is in 
one of the northern quarters, the people who live 
under the more southern parallels, that is, those 

^ Latitudes, or general regions determined by latitude. 

* Such as houses (i. 17) or terms (i. 20-21). 

^ TrapoSoi ; the passage of a heavenly body through the 
zodiac. 

* In the astrological ethnography which follows Ptolemy 
probably depends upon the Stoic Posidonius. Boll, 
Sttulien, pp. 181-238, enumerates many details in which, 
for this reason, Ptolemy here diverges from views expressed 
in the Geoyraphy. 

'"Parallels" relate to latitude, i.e. position north or 
Boutli ; " angles " to position east or west. 

121 



PTOLEMY 

^i^XP^ "^"^ ^eptvoiJ rpoTTLKov, Kara Kopv(f)rju Aa/x- 
5{i ^auovres rov tJXlov /cat SiaKaiofievoL, fxeXaves to. 
awixara /cat ra? rpixoiS ouXol re /cat Saaet? /cat 
TO,? /xo/D(/>d? avv€aT7aaixevoL /cat ra ixeyedrj avv- 
renqyixivoL /cat rd? 0uaet? depjJiol /cat rot? rjOeaiv 
oj? eVt TTai' dyptoi Tvy^dvovaL 8td ttjv utto /cau/xaro? 
avvex^iav rcov OLK'qcTecov, oy? Si) KaXovp-ev kolvcos ^ 
AlOiona's. /cat ou jxovov avrovs opaJpLev ovrco? 
exovras dXXa /cat to irepiexov avrous rod ae/ao? 
/caTctCTTT^/xa /cat to. d'AAa ^oja /cat rd <^yTd Trap 
auTot? ipi(j)avl(,ovTa ttjv hiaTTvpcoaiv.'^ 

01 8e UTTO Toy? ^opecorepov? TTapaXXrjXovg , Xeyw 
8e TOi)? UTTO rd? dpKTOVs rov Kara Kopvcfiiqv e^j^oi^re? 
TOTToi^j TToAu Tou ^ajSta/cou /cat rrjs rov -qXlov dep- 
fx6rr]ros d(/)eCTTa)r€?,^ Kareipvyp^evoL /LteV etort 8td 
TOUTO, SaijjiXearepas * Se pLeraXajJi^dvovres rrj^ 
vypd'S ovaias, dpeTrriKcordrr]? ovarj's /cat vtto pLrfhevos 
dvamvop^evrj'? Oepfiov, XevKOL re rd ;^ptu/xaTa etcrt 
/cat rerai^ot rd? rplxa? rd re aoj/xara pbeyaXoi /cat 
evrpacjiel's rol? pueyedeuL /cat vTToifjvxpoL rag (jivaet?, 
dypiOL Se /cat aurot rot? rjOeai 8td ttjv' utto rov 
Kpvovs avvexetav rchv ocK-qaecov. dKoXovdeX 8e 
TOUTOi? /cat d rod rrepiexovros avrovs aepos x^'-l^^^ 
Kal rdjv (f)vrwv rd pieyedr) /cat ro hvaiqpiepov rcou 
^ajcui'. KaXovjiev Se /cat toutous' o/? ctti Trap' UKvdas. 
01 Se pLera^v rod depivov rpomKov /cat rdiv 
dpKroJv, pi'qre /card Kopv(f)r)v yivopieuov rrap avrols 

* K^oiioij VMADEProc, oin. alii Cam. 

'^ SiaTTvpojaii' VDP(-7ri/3-)L(-'7rioi'-), to Sidirvpov Proc, Stddeaiv 
MNAECam. 

122 



TETRABIBLOS II. 2 

from the equator to the summer tropic, since they 
liave the sun over their heads and are burned by it, 
have black skins and thick, woolly hair, are con- 
tracted in form and shrunken in stature, are sanguine 
of nature, and in habits are for the most part savage 
because their homes are continually oppressed by 
heat ; we call them by the general name Ethiopians. 
Not only do we see them in this condition, but we 
likewise observe that their climate and the animals 
and plants of their region plainly give evidence of 
this baking by the sun. 

Those who live under the more northern parallels, 
those, I mean, who have the Bears over their heads, 
since they are far removed from the zodiac and the 
heat of the sun, are therefore cooled ; but because 
they have a richer share of moisture, which is most 
nourishing and is not there exhausted by heat, 
they are white in complexion, straight-haired, tall and 
well-nourished, and somewhat cold by nature ; these 
too are savage in their habits because their dwelling- 
places are continually cold. The wintry character 
of their climate, the size of their plants, and the 
mldness of their animals are in accord with these 
qualities. We call these men, too, by a general 
name, Scythians. 

The inhabitants of the region between the summer 
tropic and the Bears, however, since the sun is 

^ d<^eaTtoT€s VD, -ra A, SieoTTj/coTcs NLCain., SteaTijK-toTes' Pi 
-Kora .ME ; cf. aiTix^'- I'roc 

* Bai/jiAeoTtpas VMDK, -pais LNACam., baiprjXearaipui 

123 



PTOLEMY 

57 Tov rjXiov firJTe ttoXv Kara tols ixear^fi^pLva? rrap- 
ooovs a(f)LaTan€wov , rfj? re tcou depcou evKpaaias 
lxereL\ii'](f)aaL, /cat avrrfs fJ-ev 8i.a(f)€povarjg aAA' ov 
a(f)oopa ixeyaArju rr^v TTapaXKayqv raJv Kavp,a.TOJU 
rrpos TO. i//vx^ Aap.^avovarji . evdev Tot? )(pa)fiaai 
fidaoi i<al Tols pLeyeQeat. pLerpioi /cat rat? ^vaeoLV 
evKparoL /cat rat? ot/CT^CTeat avu€)^€LS /cat rot? rjOeat-v 
ripLcpoL Tvy^avovaL. tovtcdv 8e oi Trpos uotou cos 
€77t TTo.i' a.y)(LvovaT€poL /cat evp.'qxo-^OL p.dXXov /cat 
7T€pl Trjv rijjv deicov laropiav LKaviorepoL Std to 
cwv€yyit,€LV avrcbv tov /cara Kopv(f)rjv tottov tov 
^coSta/cou /cat tcjv nepl avTOV vXavajpiuajv doTepoiv ^ 
ols ot/ceto)? /cat aurot tols j/'y;^t/cd? Kiurjaets even-q- 
jSoAou? ^ T€ €)(ovaL /cat Stepeui'T^Tt/cd? /cat Ttuv iSta*? 
KaXovpevcDv pLaQrjpdTcov TreptoSeyrt/cd?. /cat TOUTajp" 
8e TTCtAtt' oi /Liev TTpd? ea> juaAAop' etaii' rjppevojpLevoi /cat 
evTOvoL TCLS iftv)(0.s ^ /Cat vduTa €K(j)aLvovTes , eTretSiy 
Ta? d^^aroAd? dr rt? elKOToos ttjs T^Ata/c^? (f>v(jeoi'5 
UTToAdjSot ' /cat TO pepos eKeZvo -qpLcpLvov re /cat 
dppeviKov KoX he^Lov, Kad o Kav rot? ^cootg 6pa)p,€V 
TO. Se^id peprj pidXXov i7TLTr]8et6Tr]Ta e^pvTa tt/jo? 
lo^yv /cat evTOviav. oi hk rrpos ioTripav TedrjXva- 
pevoi paXXov eloL /cat Tas ipv)(ds dnaXcoTepoi. /cat 
Ta TToAAd KpvTTTOvres, iTTeiSri TraXiv tovto to p-ipog 

58 cjeAr^i'ta/cdv Tvyxdvei, rrdvTOTe Ti]s aeXT^vrjS rds 

' Tw ^coSia/cii (cat toIs nAayui/xevois Trepl avroy aarpdaiv NCain. 

2 eiJeTrt/SoK'Aouj VPLD. 

^Tois ipvxals PLNCaiii. 

* Std TOVTO post vTroXd^oL add. NACam. 

124 



TETRABIBLOS II. 2 

neither directly over their heads nor far distant at 
its noon-day transits, share in the equable tem- 
perature of the air, which varies, to be sure, but has 
no violent changes from heat to cold. They are 
therefore medium in colouring, of moderate stature, 
in nature equable, live close together, and are 
civilized in their habits. The southernmost of them ^ 
are in general more shrewd and inventive, and better 
versed in the knowledge of things divine because 
their zenith is close to the zodiac and to the planets 
revolving about it. Through this affinity the men 
themselves are characterized by an activity of the soul 
which is sagacious, investigative, and fitted for pursu- 
ing the sciences specifically called mathematical. Of 
them, again, the eastern group are more masculine, 
vigorous of soul, and frank in all things,^ because one 
would reasonably assume that the orient partakes 
of the nature of the sun.' This region therefore 
is diurnal, masculine, and right-handed, even as 
we observe that among the animals too their 
right-hand parts are better fitted for strength and 
vigour. Those to the west are more feminine, 
softer of soul, and secretive, because this region, 
again, is lunar, for it is always in the west that the 

'The anon3'Tnou8 commentator (p. 56, ed. Wolf) says 
that he means the Egyptians and the Chaldaeans, and is 
referring to the fact that they discovered a,stroIogy. 

^This phrase (ndm-a tKtfxuvovres) is contrasted with to. 
iToXXa KpvTTTovris, below. The anonymous commentator 
says that some understood it to refer to the freedom of 
speech of the ea-stern group ; others, to their gift of 
fehcitous expression. 

' C/. i. 6; not only the sun, but also the oriental 
qua<lrant, is masculine. 

125 



PTOLEMY 

TTpdjrag eTTtroAas' ^ai ^ avo avvoSov (fyavraoLa'; aTTO 
At/3o? TTOiovjJievr]^. 8ta Brj tovto vvKrepwov 8ok€l 
/cAi'jLta drjXvKov ^ Kol evcovufjiov avrt/cet/xeVcDS' ro) 
di'aroAtKo). 

"HSt] Se Tweg Kal iv eKaaroL? tovtols tcov oXcov 
fxepcov ^ IBtorpoTTOL TrepLardaeis 'quwv Kal vopiiixcov 
(j)voiKa)s e^TjKoXovdrjoav . uiairep yap eVt rojv rod 
7T€pL€Xopros KaraaTTjfjidTCOv Kal eV rot? * cos €ttI tt3.v 
KareiXeypiivoLS depfxols ■?) ijjuxpols r) evKpdrois Kal 
Kara jxepos iSia^ouCTt tottol Kal ^^cD/aai Tives iv rep 
fidXXov rj rjTTOV tJtol Std deaeojs rd^Lv rj vi/jos rj 
raTTeivoTrjTa r^ hid irapadeoLv ■ en Se oj? lttttlkoi. 
Tweg jjLaXXov Sid to rrjs p^cupa? TreBivov, Kal vavriKol 
Sid TTjv rrjs daXdrrrjs iyyvT-qra, Kal rjfJiepoi Sid ttjv 
TTJs )(a)pas evdrjviav, ovro) Kal eV ttjs Trpos rovs 
darepas /caret rd SojheKariqixopia cfivaiKrjs twv /caret 
f.L€pos KXifxdrwv ^ avvoiKeicvaecos ISiOTponovs dv ns 
evpoL (f)va€is Trap e/cctorrots", /cat aurct? Se cos" evrt Trdv 
ovx CVS Kal /ca0' eVa e/caaror Trdvrcos ivvTrapxovaas . 
dvayKalov ovv ecf) cLv dv etr] ;^p7]crt|U,ov rrpos rds 
/caret fjiepos iTnaKeifjeis Ke(f>aXaico8dJs eTreXdelv.'^ 

1 Kal om. NAECam. 
^ KXifia drjXvKov om. Cam. 

^ oAoji' fiepcov VMADE, SajSe/ca fiepiov PL, BwBeKaT-qf^iopiiov 
NCam. 

^Tor? VD, auToiy PMNAECam., om. L. 

^ K'At/xaTwi' VLMADE, Xr]niiaTa)v PNCam. 

* Post i-neXdelv capitis titulum habent VMADProc. 



126 



TETRABIBLOS II. 2 

moon emerges and makes its appearance after con- 
junction. For this reason it appears to be a nocturnal 
clime, feminine, and, in contrast with the orient, left- 
handed. 

And now in each of these general regions certain 
special conditions of character and customs ^ natur- 
ally ensue. For as likewise, in the case of the 
climate, even within the regions that in general are 
reckoned as hot, cold, or temperate, certain localities 
and countries have special peculiarities of excess or 
deficiency by reason of their situation, height, low- 
ness, or adjacency ; and again, as some peoples are 
more inclined to horsemanship because theirs is a 
plain country, or to seamanship because they live 
close to the sea, or to civilization because of the 
richness of their soil, so also would one discover special 
traits in each arising from the natural familiarity 
of their particular climes with the stars in the signs 
of the zodiac. These traits, too, would be found 
generally present, but not in every individual. We 
must, then, deal with the subject summarily, in so far 
as it might be of use for the purpose of particular 
investigations. 

* I.e. variations from the normal or general char- 
acteristics of the whole region. 



127 



PTOLEMY 

<y.> ricpl T-fJ? Toit' x^P^^ Trpo? ra rpt- 
yoiva Kal tous" aarepas avvoLK€Lwaew<; 

Terrdpwv Srj rpiycovLKcov axT^p-drajv €v ra> 
59 t,cohLaKco deojpovpidvojv, ca? SeSei/crat Sia rcov eju,- 
TTpoaOev ripuv, on to fiev Kara Kptov /cat Aeovra 
Kal To^orrjv ^oppoXv^VKOv re eari Kai oiKoBecnTO- 
TclraL pikv TTporjyovfjievcog vtto tov rov Aios 8ta 
TO ^opeLov, avvoiKoSeaTTorelrai Se K'ai vtto tov 
"Apeco? Slo. to Xl^vkov • to 8e Kara rov Tavpov 
Kal TTjv IJapdevov Kal rov AlyoKepcov voraTTrjXi- 
ojTiKov T€ ecTTi Kal oiKoSeoTToreLraL TrdXtv -npo- 
Tjyovfxevcos puev vtto tov ttjs A(f)po8iTr)s Sid to votlov, 
avvoiKo^eaTTOTelraL Se vtto tov Kpovov Sta to 
dTTTjXiWTLKov ' TO 8e KaTCi Tovs AiSvpiovg Kal ra? 
XrjXds Kal rov 'YSpoxdov ^oppavqXicoTLKOv re 
iari Kal OLKoSeaTTorelrai vporjyovjJievco^ fxev vtto 
TOV Kpovov Sid TO aTT-qXiioriKov, avvoiKoSeaTTorelraL 
Be VTTO TOV A LOS Sid TO ^opeiov • TO Se Kard rov 
KapKLVOv Kal rov Ukopttlov Kal rovs Ix^^'5 voro- 
Xl^vkov re ecrrt Kal olKoSeaTTorelraL vpo-qyovixevats 
fjbev VTTO TOV rov "Apecog Std to Xl^vkov, ovvoiko- 
SeCTTTOTeirai Se vtto rov rrj? A(f)po8irrjs Sia to 
votlov — 

TovTOiv Se ovTcos exdvroiv SLaLpovpLevrjs re rrj? 
KaO^ '^fidg OLKOvfievr^s els rerrapa reraprrjiJiopLa, 
Tolg rpiycovoLS ladpLdpba, Kard jxev ttAcitos" vtto re 
TTJg Ka9^ rjuds daXdrrris aTTo rov 'HpaKXeiov 
TTopdpiov P'exp^ TOV 'laaLKOv koXttov Kal rrjg ecf)e^r]9 
128 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

3. Of the Familiarities between Countries and the 
Triplicities and Stars. 

Now of the four triangular formations recognized 
in the zodiac, as we have shown above, ^ the one which 
consists of Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius is north- 
western, and is chiefly dominated by Jupiter on 
account of the north wind, but Mars joins in its 
government because of the south-west wind. That 
which is made up of Taurus, Virgo, and Capricornus 
is south-eastern, and again is governed primarily 
by Venus on account of the south wind, but con- 
jointly by Saturn because of the east wind. The 
one consisting of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius is 
north-eastern and is governed primarily by Saturn 
because of the east wind, and conjointly by Jupiter 
because of the north wind. The triangle of Cancer, 
Scorpio, and Pisces is south-western and is governed 
primarily, because of the west wind, by Mars, who is 
joined by Venus as co-ruler on account of the south 
wind. 

As this is so, and since our inhabited world is 
divided into four quarters,^ equal in number to the 
triangles, and is divided latitudinally by our sea 
from the Straits of Hercules ^ to the Gulf of Issus 
and the mountainous ridge adjacent on the east,* 

1 Cf. i. 18. 

* Cardanus, p. 181, diagrammatically figures the " in- 
habited world " as a trapezium, narrower at the top 
(north) than the bottom, and bounded by arcs ; this is 
divided into quadrants by north-south and east-west linos. 
The " parts closer to the centre " are then marked off by 
lines joining the ends of the two latter, dividing each quad- 
rant and producing 4 right-angled triangles at the centre. 

' Straits of Gibraltar. * Probably the Taurus range. 

129 



PTOLEMY 

TTpos avaToXa? opecvrjs pa)(ecx)?,^ i3^' a>v ;^a»pt^€Tai 
TO T€ voTLOv Kal TO ^opciov avTTJg fjLcpog, Kara Se 
firJKOS V7t6 tov ^Apa^LKOv koXttov, Std Kal tov 
60 Alyaiov TTeXdyovs Kal Uovtov Kal rrj<5 MaiojTihos 
XlfivTjs, v(f)' (hv ;;^oj/3t^eTai ro re aTrrjXLCDTLKov Kal 
TO Xl^vkov fiepog, yLverai reraprrnxopia Terrapa, 
avp,(f)cova rfj deaei tcov rpLycovtov • iv fxev Trpos 
^oppoXi^a ^ rrjg oX-qs OLKOvp.ivi^'s Keip.evov, to KaTO. 
T7]v KeXToyaXaTtav , o 8r) koii'ujs EvpcoTTrjv KaXovpiev • 
TOVTcp Se dvTLKeLfiei'ov Kal Trpos tov voTarr'qXiwT'qv 
TO KaTCL rrjv ecLav AWiOTriav, o Srj ttJs fieydX-qs 
'Aatas VOTLOV fiepo? dv koXoZto ■ Kal TrdXiv to jxev 
Trpos ^oppa7rTqXnx)T7]v ttjs oXr)g oiKovjxevrjs to KaTa 
Tiqv UKvdiaVy o Brj Kal avTo ^opecov jxepos ttj? fte- 
ydXrjs Aatas yiveTai • to 8e dvTLK€ip.€vov tovto) 
Kal Trpos Xl^ovotov dvepuov to KaTa ttjv iaTTeptav 
AWiOTriav, o Srj koivcl)S Al^vtjv KaXov/xev. 

TJdXiv 8e Kal eKdoTov tojv TrpoKeipievcjv TCTapTrj- 
fjiopLcov Ta piev Trpos to pidaov pLaXXov ea'XjqpiaTLa- 
p.eva TTJs oXr^s oiKovp.€vrjs ttjv ivavTiav Xap-^dvet 
deoLV ^ Trpos avTO to Trepiexov TeTapTr^pLopiov, (LoTrep * 
eKelvo Trpos oXrjv ttjv otKOvpt-evr^v, tov t€ KaTa tttjv 
EvpcoTrrjv Trpos ^oppoXi^a /cet/xeVou ttjs oXtjs olkov- 
jjLevrjs Ta vepl to p.eaov avTOV Kal dvTLyiovia Trpos 
voTaTrrjXicoTqv tov avTOV T€TapT7]piopLOV ttjv deaiv 
€)(OVTa (f)aiV€TaL. Kal eTrl tcov dXXiov opLOLCos, d)S 

^ pdxecos VMADE, paxeias NCam., paxaias PL. 
^ fioppav Kal Ai'/3a NMECam. 
» deau' VMADE, (f>vcjiv PNCam., cm. L. 
* (Lanep VB.rjnep NCam., rji'TTep PLMAE. Cf. Proc. : o'ai'- 
Tiws Kclrai Trpos .... Kad' wonep eKelvo . . . KeiToi ktX. 

130 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

and by these its southern and northern portions are 
separated, and in longitude by the Arabian Gulf, the 
Aegean Sea, the Pontus,^ and the Lake Maeotis, 
whereby the eastern and western portions are 
separated, there arise four quarters, and these agree 
in position with the triangles. The first quarter lies 
in the north-west of the whole inhabited world ; it 
embraces Celtic Gaul ^ and we give it the general 
name Europe. Opposite this is the south-eastern 
quarter ; this includes eastern Ethiopia,^ which would 
be called the southern part of Greater Asia. Again, 
the north-eastern quarter of the whole inhabited 
world is that which contains Scythia, which like- 
wise is the northern part of Greater Asia ; and the 
quarter opposite this and toward the south-west 
wind, the quarter of western Ethiopia, is that which 
we call by the general term Libya. 

Again, of each of the aforesaid quarters the 
parts which are placed closer to the centre of the 
inhabited world are placed in a contrary fashion 
with respect to the surrounding quarters, just as are 
the latter in comparison with the whole world ; 
and since the European quarter lies in the north- 
west of the whole world, the parts about the centre, 
which are allied to the opposite angle, obviously are 
situated in the south-east part of the quarter. The 

1 The Pontus Euxinus, or Black Sea. The Lake Maeotis 
is the Sea of Azov. 

* As opposed to Galatia in Asia Minor. 

' The designation of India as " Eastern Ethopia " is 
at variance with Ptolemy's Geography, and a mark of the 
influence of Posidonius (BoW, St udim, pp. 211-212). The 
distinction of two Ethiopias rests on the well-known 
Homeric ptissage, Odyssey, i. 22-24. 

131 



PTOLEMY 

CK TOVTOJV cKaarov Tihv rerapr7]fxopLOiv hval tols 
avTiK^ilxivois Tpiytovois ovvoiKeiovadai • rwv fxev 
61 dXXcov fjiepcbv TTp6<s rrjv Kad^ oXov TrpoavevoLv €(f)- 
apiJiot,op.evcL>v , rcov Se vrept to fxeaov 77/30? rrjv Kar 
avTo TO fJiepos dvTiKeLjJL.evqv avinrapaXapi^avopievcov 
npo? TTjv OLKeioyaiv, /cat rcbv ev tols ot/cetot? 
TptycovoLS 'T'r]v oiKoBeaTTOTiav i)(6vT(ou darepcov, ctti 
fxev rwv dXXcov oiKi^aeojv TrdXiv avrcbv p-ovoiv^ ctti 
Se rcbv TrepL to fxeaov rrjg oiKovfievr]^ KaK€LV(vv Kai 
eVi Tou Tov 'Epjxov 8ia to fjieaov Kal kolvov avrov 
V7Tap)(€iv Tojv aipiaeojv. 

^Ek Srj TTJ? ^ TOiavT7]9 SiaTa^eca? Ta fzev dXXa fi^pr) 
TOV TTpcjoTOV Tcbv TeTapTT^fjiopicov , Xeyoj 8e tov Kara 
TTji' Evpd)7T7jv, Trpos ^oppoXi^a Kelfxeva ttj? oXrjS ^ 
oiKovpuevrj'S, avvoLKeiovTai pikv to) ^oppoXi^vKco Tpi- 
ycoi'O) TO) KaTa tov Kpiov Kal AeovTa Kal To^oTrjv, 
OLKoSeaTTOTetTaL 8e et/coTCo? vtto tcov Kvpioiv tov 
Tpiycovov A Log Kal "Apecog iarrepioiv. koTi 8e TavTa 
Kad^ oXa eOvT] XajX^avopieva BpeTTavia, EaXaTLa, 
PepnavLa, BaoTapvia, '/TaAt'a, i^aAAt'a, AirovXia, 

^fjioiiov VPLNE, -ov MADCam. 

2 €K 8r] T-qs ktX. VPLMADE ; cf. Proc. ; evSerj} ktX. NCam. 

3 S\r,s VMADEProc. ; cm. PLNCam. 

1 Cardan us (p. 182) gives four reasons why Mercury 
governs these central portions ; that he may have some 
dominion in the world ; because the inhabitants of the 
central regions are more given to the arts and sciences, 
of which Mercury is the patron ; because they are addicted 
to commerce, likewise in Mercury's field ; and because 
Mercury's nature lies midway between those of the other 
four planets. 

" That Jupiter and Mars must be in the occidental 

132 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

same holds of the other quarters, so that each of 
them is related to two oppositely situated triangles ; 
for while the other parts are in harmony with the 
general inclination of the quarter, the portions at 
the centre [of the world] share in familiarity with 
the opposite inclination, and, again, of the stars that 
govern in their own triangles, in all the other 
domiciles they alone govern, but in the parts about 
the centre of the world likewise the other group, and 
Mercury besides,^ because he is mid-way between 
and common to the two sects. 

Under this arrangement, the remainder of the 
first quarter, by which I mean the European quarter, 
situated in the north-west of the inhabited world, 
is in familiarity with the north-western triangle, 
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and is governed, as one 
would expect, by the lords of the triangle, Jupiter 
and Mars, occidental.^ In terms of whole nations 
these parts consist of Britain, (Transalpine) Gaul, 
Germany, Bastarnia,* Italy, (Cisalpine) Gaul, Apulia, 

position is an additional requirement which does not ap- 
pear in the original statement of the government of the 
triangles. Cardanus, p. 182, points out that in Ptolemy's 
scheme Jupiter governs the whole north, Venus the south, 
Saturn the east, and Mars the west, but in the first quad- 
rant Mars and Jupiter dominate no7i simpliciter, sed occi- 
dentales, in the second, Saturn and Venus, not absolutely, 
but in oriental aspects, and so on. This, he says, is to 
display the variety of the customs of the nations, for a 
planet in oriental aspect is so different from the same planet 
occidental that practically it is two planets instead of one. 
' The south-western part of Russia and southern Poland. 
Boll, op. cit., p. 197, n. 2, points out that Hephaestion, 
who follows Ptolemy closely, and Proclus do not mention 
Bastarnia, and tliat the name may not have been in 
Ptolemy's original text. 

133 



PTOLEMY 

EiKeXia, Tvpprjvia, KeXTiK-q, 'laTTavia. eLKortog 
8e Tols 7TpoK€t[xevoi.s edvecnv d)S cttI ttoLv ovveTreae ,^ 

Sid T€ TO dpXt'KOV TOV TpiyCOVOV Kai T0V9 avvoiKO- 

heanoTiqaavra'; aarlpas, awTToraKroLS ^ re etvat /cat 
(f)LXeX€vdepoLS /cat ^tAovrAots' Kal (f)iXoTT6voLS Kal 
TToXeiXiKcoTaroLS Kal r^yepiovLKols /cat Kadapols /cat 
pL€yaXo^v)(OLs • 8ta /xeWot tov ioTrepLov a)(7}[xaTia- 
p,6v Aio? /cat "Apeixis, Kal ert Std to tov TTpoKCLfxevov 
^•Irpiyojvov rd p,e.v €[Ji7Tp6a6ia rjppevihoQai, ra Se 
oTTLaSia redrjXvadai, vpog fiev rds yvvaiKas dl^TJXois 
avTOL? elvaL avve-neae ^ /cat Kara(f)povrjTLK6lg rcjv 
d^pohiaiiov, TTpos 8e 1-171' r<2)v dppevcov crvvovaiav 
KaraKopearepois re Kal fxdXXov t,r]XoTV7TOL9 ' avrols 
Se TOi? hiaTidepLevois p-i]T€ alaxpov -qyeladaL to 
yivofievov /x^yre a»9 dXrjddJg dvdvSpois 8ta tovto Kal 
/xaAa/cot? drro^aiveLv , eVe/cev tov jxtj Tra^T^Tt/ccD? 
Start^eCT^at, avvTrjpelv Se rds" fpv)(ds iirdySpovs Kal 
KOU'CovLKds Kal TrtCTrd? /cat ^LXoiKeiovs Kal evepye- 
TiKds. Kal TOVTOJV 8e auToii' rail' ^cupdJv BpeTTavia 
[ji€v Kal i^aAarta /cat Peppiavia Kal BaoTapvia 
fxdXXov TO) Kpio) avvoLKeLovvTai /cat to) tov 
"Apeiog • o^et' c6? €7rt TTav 01 er avrat? ayptcurepot 
/cat avdaSeaTcpoL Kal di~ipto)heis Tvy)(dvovaLv . 
'/raAta Se /cat VlTrouAt'a, PaAAta /cat EiKeXia tco 
AeovTt Kal TO) rjXicp • hioTrep rjyepioviKol juaAAoi' 

' avpfTTeae VADE, avventTai alii Cam. 

" di'UTroTaACToi? ktX. VMADE, -ovs PLN Cam. 

^ avyeTTeae(v) VADE, avvfireTai PLN, om. MCam. 

* Tuscany. 

" Probably western Spain (Boll, op. cit., p. 205). 

131 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

Sicily, Tyrrhenia,^ Celtica,^ and Spain. As one 
might expect, it is the general characteristic of 
these nations, by reason of the predominance 
of the triangle and the stars which join in its 
government, to be independent, liberty-loving, fond 
of arms, industrious, very warlike, with qualities of 
leadership, cleanly, and magnanimous. However, 
because of the occidental aspect of Jupiter and 
Mars, and furthermore because the first parts of the 
aforesaid triangle are masculine and the latter parts 
feminine,^ they are without passion for women * and 
look down upon the pleasures of love, but are better 
satisfied with and more desirous of association with 
men. And they do not regard the act as a disgrace to 
the paramour, nor indeed do they actually become 
efi"eminate and soft thereby, because their disposition 
is not perverted, but they retain in their souls man- 
liness, helpfulness, good faith, love of kinsmen, and 
benevolence. Of these same countries Britain, 
(Transalpine) Gaul, Germany, and Bastarnia are in 
closer familiarity with Aries and Mars. Therefore for 
the most part their inhabitants are fiercer, more head- 
strong, and bestial. But Italy, Apulia, (Cisalpine) 
Gaul, and Sicily have their familiarity with Leo and the 

raXaria is used to designate Gaul proper, between the 
Rhine and the Pyrenees, and FaXXia for northern Italy. 

* All the signs of this triangle are masculine ; cf. i. 17. 
Perhaps Ptolemy merely means that when Aries is rising 
Sagittarius will be occidental and therefore feminine ; 
so Ashmand. 

* This preference of the northern barbarians is charged 
against them by Aristotle and following him by Posidonius, 
Diodorus, Strabo, Athenaous, Sextiis Empiricus and others ; 
cf. the instances collected by Bouche-Leclercq, p. 340, n. 2, 
and the discussion in Boll, Sludien, pp. 207-208. 

135 



PTOLEMY 

OVTOL Kal evepycTLKOL Kal koivcovlkoi. Tvpprjvia 
Se Kal KeXrLKT] Kal laTravia to) To^ott) Kal rth 
Tov Alos ' odev TO ^iXeXevdepov^ avTols^ Kal to 
arrXovv Kai to (jiiXoKadapov. to. Se iv tovtco jxev 
ovTa TO) TCTapT'qp.opicp , irepl 8e to fxiaov €G)(r)- 
fiaTiafxeva ttj? OLKOVjjLevrjs, QpaKT] re Kal MaKeSovia 
Kal ^IXXvpia Kal *EXXas Kal Vl;^aia Kal Kp-qTT], en 
8e at T€ KvKXdSes Kal to. TTapdXia T-q? puKpas Vlcrta? 
/cat KvTTpov ^ Trpos voTaTrrjXicoTrjv K€Lp,eva tov oXov 
G3 TCTapTripLopiov , TrpoaXafx^dvet ttjv avvotKeioiaiv tov 
voTaTTrjXLOJTLKov TpLywvov, TOV KaTOL TOV Tavpov 
Kal T'r]v TlapOivov Kal tov AlyoKepoiv , CTi 8e crvv- 
oi/coSeCTTToras" tov t€ ttj? 'AcfipoSiTqs Kal tov tov 

KpOVOV Kal TOV TOV *Epp,OV • odev ot KaTOlKOVVTCg 

ras" X'Ujpa'S * avyKaTeax'flP'aTiafievoL (xaXXov oltt- 
e^Tjaav /cat K€Kpa[X€VOL rot? re acop-aoL Kal Tat? 
^v)(al? ■ rjyep,ovLKol p,€v Kal avTol TvyxdvovTes Kal 
yevvaloL Kal dvuTTOTaKTOi 8ia tov tov "Apecos, 
^iXeXevdepoL 8e /cat avTOVopLOL /cat Sry/iio/cpaTt/cot 
/cat vopLodeTLKol hid tov tov Alos, (f>LX6fjiovaoi ^ Be 
Kal (f)LXopLadels Kal (f}iXaya>viaTal Kal Kaddpioi Tals 
Statrat? * 8td tov ttj? A(f)pohiTrjs , kolvcdvikoI Se 
Kal ^iXo^evoL Kal <j>LXohiKaLOL Kal ^tAoypa/Lt/Ltarot 
/cat iv Adyots" irpaKTLKCoTaTOL 8td tov tov 'Epp,ov, 
p.vcrT'qpLcov 8e p-dXiaTa avvTeXeoTLKol 8td tov ttjs 
Acf>poSLTr)s ianipLOv ax^jP'aTLap.ov. TrdXiv Se KaTtx 
fiepos Kal TovTOJv ol pikv irepl Ta? /Cu/cAdSa? /cat Ta 

* TO (fiiXeXevdepov . . . atrXovv koX om. Cam. 

« avTols VD. -iov PLMNAE. 

' Kvirpov VDProc. ; Kvupov al. Cam. 

136 



TETRABIBLOS 11. 3 

Bun; wherefore these peoples are more masterful, 
benevolent, and co-operative. Tyrrhenia, Celtica, and 
Spain are subject to Sagittarius and Jupiter, whence 
their independence, simplicity, and love of cleanliness. 
The parts of this quarter which are situated about 
the centre of the inhabited world, Thrace, Macedonia, 
lUyria, Hellas, Achaia,^ Crete, and like'wise the 
Cyclades, and the coastal regions of Asia Minor and 
Cyprus, which are in the south-east portion of the 
whole quarter, have in addition familiarity with the 
south-east triangle, Taurus, Virgo, and Capricornus, 
and its co-nders Venus, Saturn, and Mercury. As 
a result the inhabitants of those countries are 
brought into conformity with these planets and 
both in body and soul are of a more mingled 
constitution. They too have qualities of leadership 
and are noble and independent, because of Mars ; 
they are liberty-loving and self-governing, demo- 
cratic and framers of law, through Jupiter ; lovers of 
music and of learning, fond of contests and clean 
livers, through Venus ; social, friendly to strangers, 
justice-loving, fond of letters, and very efiective 
in eloquence, through Mercury ; and they are par- 
ticularly addicted to the performance of mysteries, 
because of Venus's occidental aspect. And again, 
part by part, those of this group who live in the 

' Hellas is northern Greece and Achaia the Peloponnesus. 



* fKfiias post )(u>pas add. MNAECam. 
^ <f>i\6fj.ovaoi . . . (fnXofxaBfis i)ost 'Apfws iiis. NCam. 
^ KaOdpioi rats Staixats V.MADE, ku.0. ras Stayotydy Proc. ; 
(f>iXoKd6apoi Tals Kaphlais i'LNL'uiil. 

137 



PTOLEMY 

TTapdXia rrj^ jxiKpa.? 'Aala? Kal Kvirpov ^ toj re 
Tavpu) Kal TO* tt}:? ^AclypooiT-qs {JidXXov aruvoLKeiovv- 
rai • o6eu ojs eTrl to 77oAl' Tpv(f)r]TaL re elat Kal 
KaddpioL Kal Tov acojJiaTos eVt^eAeiat- 7Tolov[jl€vol. 
ol Sfc 7T€pl TTjv 'EXXdha Kal ttjv Axaiav Kal ttjv 
Kpi'iT-qv rfj re TlapOevo) Kal rep rod Epfxou, 8c6 
fjidXXov XoyLKol Tvy)(dvovat Kal (fnXofxadels Kal ra 
TTJs 01^X^5' daKOvvres Trpo tov awfiaros. ol 8e Trepl 
T7]v MaKehoviav Kal ©paKTjv Kal IXXvpiSa tco re 
04 AlyoKepo) Kal tco tov Kpovov • Sio (f)iXoKTrip.aTOL 
[xev, ovx rjixepoi Se ovtoj'S, ovhk kolvojvlkoI toIs 
vopiOL?. 

Tov Se SevTepov TCTapTrjfioptov tov /caret to 
uoTLov jj-epog ttjs ixeydXrj^ Vlata? Ta fiev dXXa fJ-dprj 
TO TTepcexovTa ^IvhiKiqv, ^Apiainjv, FehpcoaLav, Uap- 
diav, Mr^hiav, Ilepoiha, Ba^vXcovLav, MeaoTTOTa- 
jjiiav, Aaavpiav, Kal Tr]v Oeaiv e^ovTa Trpos voTaTT- 
r]XiCi)Tr]v Trjg oXrjg OLKOVfxevrjs, et/coTcu? Kal auTO. 
awoiKGLOVTaL jxev toj voTaTr-qXiaJTiKO) Tpiycovto tov 
Tavpov Kal IJapdevov Kal AlyoKepo), OLKoBeaTTO- 

TOVUTai 8e VTTO ^ TOV TTJS ^A<f}poStTT}S Kal TOV KpOVOV 

iirl idicov u)(rifxaTLap.a)v • SioTrep /cat TCt? (f>vaeL^ tcov 
iv avTolg aKoXovdcos dv tls evpoL tols vtto rcDr 
ovTa}<; ol KoSeaTTOTTjadvTOiv dTroTeXov/xeva^ • ae^ovai 
T€ yap TOV fxev ttj? Ac/ipoSlTrjs "Iolv 6voiJidt,ovT€S, 
TOV Se TOV Kpovov Midpav -^Xiov.^ /cat TrpodeanL- 
l^ovaiv ol TToXXol Ta fieXXovTa • KaOiepovvTai re rrap 

^ Kvrrpov VPLDProc. ; Kvnpov al. Cam. 

^ oihoSeoTToroCt'Tat Se vtto kt,\. PLMNAECam. (oiKoSeanoTei- 
Tai MAE, -ovi'Ta L) ; avyotKeiovTai. 8e Ta> t^s 'A<f>p. VD, cf. Proc. 

138 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

Cyclades and on the shores of Asia Minor and Cyprus 
are more closely familiar to Taurus and Venus. For 
this reason they are, on thewhole,luxurious, clean, and 
attentive to their bodies. The inhabitants of Hellas, 
Achaia, and Crete, however, have a familiarity with 
Virgo and Mercury, and are therefore better at reason- 
ing, and fond of learning, and they exercise the soul in 
preference to the body. The Macedonians, Thracians, 
and lUyrians have familiarity with Capricorn and 
Saturn, so that, though they are acquisitive, they are 
not so mild of nature, nor social in their institutions. 
Of the second quarter, which embraces the southern 
part of Greater Asia, the other parts, including India, 
Ariana, Gedrosia,^ Parthia, Media, Persia, Babylonia, 
Mesopotamia, and Assyria, which are situated in the 
south-east of the whole inhabited world, are, as we 
might presume, familiar to the south-eastern triangle, 
Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, and are governed by 
Venus and Saturn in oriental aspects. Therefore 
one would find that the natures of their inhabitants 
conform with the temperaments governed by such 
rulers ; for they revere the star of Venus under the 
name of Isis,^ and that of Saturn as Mithras Helios. 
Most of them, too, divine future events ; and among 

' Godrosia is modern Baluchistan, and Ariana lay north 
of it, between Parthia and the Indus. 

* For this region it would have been more accurate to 
identify Venus with Astarte or Istar. It was, of course, 
the original home of the worship of Mithras. 

'■' MiOpav TjXiov VPLMDE, Midpav-qXiov Proc, oin. riXiov A, 
Midpav 8e Tov t^Xlov NCam. 

139 



PTOLEMY 

avTol^ TO. yevvrjTLKa /JLopia 8ta tov tcuv TTpoKeifidvioi' 
auT€pojv avax'QfJ'O.TLafjLoi' OTrepfxaTiKou ovra <f)ua€L. 
en Se depixol Koi 6)(€VtikoI Kal KaTa(f>€pels rrpos" 
Tct d(f)po8Laia Tuy;;^'ai'oi;CTti/ • opxT^CTTiKoi re /cat 
TTTjSrjTai Kal (J>lX6kooixol jj-ev Sta roi' ttj? ^A^pohirris , 
a^pohiaLTOL ^ Se Sta tov tov Kpovov. ava^avhov 
Se TTOiovvrai Kal ov Kpv^Sr]v tcls rrpos ras yuvaiKa'S 
avvouaias Sict to iayov tov a)(7]yi,aTiaixov, tcls Se 
G5 7T/50S" TOWS' dppevag VTrepey^OpaLVOvai. 8ta raura 
Se Kal TOLS TrXelaTOig auTtDt- avveTreaev €k tcjv 
[xrjTepcop T€Kvovvj" Kal ra? TrpoaKVvqaeLS tw aTijdei 
TTOLeladai Sia to.? ecpas ai^aroAd? Kal to Trjg /capStas" 
■qyefJiOVLKOv OLKeicos ^^ov irpos ttjv rjXLaKrjv SvvafJiLV. 
elal 8e cog evl tto-v Kal raAAa jxev ^ to. rrepi Tas 
OToXas Kal Koapiovs ^ Kal oXws Tag acopLaTLKas 
ax^cFeis Tpv(f)epol Kal TedrjXvapiivoi Sia tov TTJg 
^A(jipohLTT]s , TO.? Se tfjvxo.s Kal tcls Trpoatpecreis 
[xeyaX6(l)poveg Kal yewaloL Kal TToXepuKol bia to 
ot/ceiojs' e'x^'^ '^°^ '''^^ Kpovov TTpog to tCjv avaToXojv 
ax'^P-Oi. Kara p-epos Se ttolXlv tco p,kv Tavpu) Kal 
TO) Trjg ^A^pohiTrjS pidXXov ovvoLKeiovTai rj t€ 
Tlapdia Kal rj A/rySt'a Kal r] Flepaig • ^ odev ol ivTavda 
aToXalg re dvOivaig ^ p^poii^Tat KaTaKaXvTTTOVTes 
iavTOvg oXovg ttXtjv tov OTi^dovg , Kal oXujg etaiv 
d^pohiaiTOL Kal KaQdpioi. tjj Se FJapdevo) /cat tco 
TOV ' EppLov TO. irepl ttjv Ba^vXaJva Kal MeaoTTO- 
TapLLav Kal Aaavpiav Sto /cat Trapa rot? ivTavOa 



' djSpoSiaiToi MNAECam. Anon. (ed. Wolf, p. 61); aTrAoSi- 

oc VLPD ; aTrXws . . . Siayoi'xes Proc. 

^TeKtoOi' VMADE, rewa PLNCam., re/cvon-oioiJat Proc. 

140 



aiToi 



TETRABTBLOS II. 3 

them there exists the practice of consecrating the 
genital organs because of the aspect of the afore- 
said stars, which is by nature generative. Further, 
they are ardent, concupiscent, and inclined to the 
pleasures of love; through the influence of \ enus 
they are dancers and leapers and fond of adornment, 
and through that of Saturn luxurious livers. They 
carrv out their relations with women ^ openly and 
not in secret, because of the planets' oriental aspect, 
but hold in detestation such relations with males. 
For these reasons most of them beget children by 
their own mothers, and they do obeisance to the 
breast, by reason of the morning rising of the planets 
and on account of the primacy of the heart, which is 
akin to the sun's power. As for the rest, they are 
generally luxurious and eff^eminate in dress, in adorn- 
ment, and in all habits relating to the body, because 
of Venus. In their souls and by their predilection 
they are magnanimous, noble, and warlike, be- 
cause of the famiharity of Saturn oriental. Part 
by part, again, Parthia, Media, and Persia are more 
closely familiar to Taurus and Venus ; hence their 
inhabitants use embroidered clothing, which covers 
their entire body except the breast, and they are as 
a general thing luxurious and clean. Babylonia, 
Mesopotamia, and Assyria are familiar to Virgo and 

' Here again see the citations collected by Bouche- 
Leclprcq, p. 341, n. 2, of tho charges of sexual immorality 
anfl incest mado in antiquity against these peoples. 

'rdA/Xa ^tev VD, ra ftfv aXAa PLMAE, om. NCom. 
* Kai Koofxov? VMAI) (koct;xo?) E, Kara re roiis Koa/iovi 
NCam., dvaroWas Kal KOOfiovs P, araroXiKas Kal kookov L. 
' rjtpaiKT) NC^am. * di'^Tjpars NCain. 

141 



PTOLEMY 

TO fiaOrjjJiariKov /cat TTaparrjp-qrtKov tcov tt€vt€ ^ 
dfJTepojv (^aiperov GvveTreae.^ tw 8e AlyoKepco 
Koi TO) rov Kpovov to. irepl rrjv ^IvBlktjv /cat 
'Apiavrjv /cat reSpaxjiav, odev /cat to twv vefJLO- 
[X€vo)v ^ ras -)(<jjpas apiop^ov /cat aKaOapTOv /cat 
6r]pia>Seg. to. Se Aot77a rov TeTaprrjjjLopLOV p.€prj 
TTepl TO piecrov iaxT^p^CLTLcrpLeva rfjs oXtj? OLKovp,€vr)S 
^ISoupLata, KolXt] Hvpia, lovSata, 0OLi'LKr), XaXSa'C- 
66 /C7y, ^Opxjjvla, Apa^ua Evhaipicov, rrjv deatv ey^ovra 
TTpos ^oppoXi^a Tov oXov TeTapTT) p^opLOV TrpoaXap,- 
Pdvei ttolXlv ttjv avvoiKeicocnv rov ^oppoXi^vKov 
TpLycoi'ov, Kpcov, AeovTog, To^otov, eVt §e uvvolko- 
SeCTTTora? rov re tov Alos /cat rov rov "Apecog /cat 

CTt TOl^ TOV ' EppLOV ' StO pidXXoV OVTOL TCOV dXXoJV 

ipiiTopLKcoTepoL /Cat avvaXXaKTLK<x)T€poi, TTavovpyo- 
TepoL Se /cat 8eiXoKaTa(f}p6vr)TOL /cat eTTL^ovXevTLKOL 
/cat 8ovXGifjv)(Oi /cat oXojs aXXoirpoaaXXoL Sto. toi' 
Tcvv TTpoKeipievajv doTepcov avoxi^pctTiapLov. /cat 
TOVTCxiv hk ttoXlv ol p,€v TTepl Tr]v KoiX-qv Evpiav 
/cat ^ ISovpbaiav /cat lovhaiav rco t€ KpLco kul roi 
TOV "Apecos pidXXov avvoiK€LOVvTaL • SiOTrep cu? evvt 
Trdv dpaaelg re eluL /cat ddeoi /cat €7Tl^ovX€vtlkol. 
0oiVLK€9 Se /cat XaASatot /cat 'Opx'>]viOL ro) AdovTL 

^TTe'i'Te VProc, om. alii Cam. 

^ avveneaf VMADE, auvcVeTai NCam., aureVeart P, awe- 
Tierai L. 

^ TO Twv vefiOfievwv ktX] ol iffio/iet'ot. .... dfiop<f)Oi ktX. 
NCcani. 

^ Iduinaea is the region around the south end of the Dead 
Sea ; Coele Syria, north of Palestine and between Lebanon 
and Anti-Libanus ; Judaea, between the Dead Sea and the 

142 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

Mercury, and so the study of mathematics and the 
observation of the five planets are special traits of 
these peoples. India, Ariana, and Gedrosia have 
familiarity with Capricorn and Saturn ; therefore 
the inhabitants of these countries are ugly, unclean, 
and bestial. The remaining parts of the quarter, 
situated about the centre of the inhabited world, 
Idumaea, Coele SjTia, Judaea, Phoenicia, Chaldaea, 
Orchinia, and Arabia Felix,^ which are situated 
toward the north-west of the whole quarter, have ad- 
ditional familiarity with the north-western triangle, 
Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, and, furthermore, have as 
co-rulers Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury. Therefore these 
peoples are, in comparison with the others, more 
gifted in trade and exchange ; they are more un- 
scrupulous, despicable cowards, treacherous, servile, 
and in general fickle, on account of the aspect 
of the stars mentioned. Of these, again, the in- 
habitants of Coele Syria, Idumaea, and Judaea are 
more closely familiar to Aries and Mars, and there- 
fore these peoples are in general bold, godless,^ and 
scheming. The Phoenicians, Chaldaeans, and Orchi- 
nians have familiarity with Leo and the sun, so that 

coast ; Phoenicia the coastal strip north of Judaea and 
Samaria ; Chaldaea, south-west of the Euphrates and 
north of the Arabian peninsula ; what, is meant by 
Orchinia is somewhat doubtful ; and Arabia Felix is the 
south-western coastal region of the Arabian pcniiisida. In 
the Geography, v. 20, Chaldaea is treated inerolj- as a j)art 
of Babylonia, not an entirely separate couiitry, as hero 
(c/. Boll, Sludien, p. 205). 

* The Jews, because of their motiot hcism and disregard 
of all pagan gods, were generally biundud as atheists by 
their neighbours. 

143 



PTOLEMY 

/cat TO* "qXio), hiOTTep aTrXovarepoL Kal (f>iXdv6pco7TOi 
Kal (f)tXaaTp6Xoyoi Kal pLaXiara Travrcov ae^ovreg 
TOP tJXlov. ol Se Kara rrju ^ApafSiav rrjv Evhaip,ova 
Tcp To^OTT) Kal TO) Tov zjtof ' odev a.KoXovdoj's rfj 
TTpoar^yopia to re rrj^ ^^copa^ ev(f)opov avviireae Kal 
TO Tcov dpwfJbaTcov TrXr^dos Kal to tcov dvdpcoTTcov 
eudpjJLoaTOv Trpos t€ Biayajyag iXevdepov Kal avvaX- 
Xaydg Kal Trpay/xaTeta?. 

Tov Se TpiTOV TeTapT7]/jiopiov tov Kara to ^opeiov 
fi€pos TTJs fxeydXrjs Vlcrta? Ta [lev dXXa [lep-q to. 
7T€pL€XovTa TTjv 'YpKaviav, 'ApiJieviav, MaTiavrjv, 
67 BaKTptavr]v, KaaTrrjpiav ,^ ErjpLKrjv, I^avpofiaTLK-qv, 
^O^eiavrjv, UovyStavrjv, Kal to, rrpos ^oppaTT-qXicoTrjv 
K€LfJL€va TTys" oAr^S" oiKovfJievr}? avvoLK€LovvTai fjiev Ta> 
^oppaTrqXuDTLKO) Tpiycovco, zJtSujLtcuv Kal Zvyov Kal 
'Yhpo)(6ov, oLKoSeaTTOTeiTaL Se eiKOTCos vtto re tov 
Kpovov Kal TOV A LOS em ax-qjjidTwv avaToXiKoyv • 
SioTTcp OL TavTas €XOVT€9 Tas x^P'^^ ae^ovoL /xev 
Aia Kal Kpovov,^ TrAoucrtcoTarot Se etat /cat ttoXv- 
Xpvaoi, TTepi re tol? SiaLTas KaddpLOL Kal evSiaycoyot, 
ao(f)OL re evrt Ta QeZa Kal jj-dyoL Kal Ta rjdr] St'/catoi 
/cat iXevOepoL Kal ras" ^'vxds fxeydXoL /cat yevvaZoL, 
[jLLGOTTOvrjpoL T€ Kal (f)LX6aTopyoL Kal virepaTTodm]- 
OKOVTes €TOLpuCx}S TCOV OLKeLOTdTWv €veKev TOV KaXov 
Kal oaiov, npos re rd? d^poStCTtoy? XPI'^^'-^ aejxvol 

^ Kaaneipiai VD, -Tqpiav NMAE, -ipLav Proc, -iav Cam., 
om. PL. 

2 ijAiov VMADEProc, Kpovov PLNCam. 

1 Astrology indeed began in the ancient Babylonian and 
Assyrian kingdoms. 

144 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

they are simpler, kindly, addicted to astrology,^ and 
beyond all men worshippers of the sun. The in- 
habitants of Arabia Felix are familiar to Sagittarius 
and Jupiter ; this accounts for the fertility of the 
country, in accordance with its name, and its multi- 
tudes of spices, and the grace of its inhabitants and 
their free spirit in daily Life, in exchange, and in 
business. 

Of the third quarter, which includes the northern 
part of Greater Asia, the other parts, embracing 
Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana, Bactriana, Casperia, 
Serica, Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana, and the 
regions in the north-east of the inhabited world,^ 
are in familiarity with the north-eastern triangle, 
Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and are, as might be 
expected, governed by Saturn and Jupiter in oriental 
aspect. Therefore the inhabitants of these lands wor- 
ship Jupiter and Saturn, have much riches and gold, 
and are cleanly and seemly in their living, learned 
and adepts in matters of religion, just and liberal 
in manners, lofty and noble in soul, haters of evil, 
and affectionate, and ready to die for their friends 
in a fair and holy cause. They are dignified and 

* Of these Armenia lies south of the Caucasus between 
the Black Sea and the Caspian ; Matiana and Hyrcania 
are around the south end of the Caspian, the former to the 
east and the latter to the west ; Bactriana, Oxiana, and 
Sogdiana are still further east, around the upper courses 
of the Oxus ; by Casperia is probably meant the region 
around the northern part of the Caspian Sea ; Serica is 
China, or its western portion, and Sauromatica (called 
Sarmatia by the Romans) is the general name for Russia, 
here used of its Asiatic part. In tho Geography, vi. 12, 
Ptolemy treats Oxiana as but one part of Sogdiana (Boll, 
Studien, p. 205). 

145 



PTOLEMY 

/cai KaddpiOL kol Trepl rd? eadrjrag TToXvreXels, 
Xapi-crTiKOL T€ Kal fX€'yaX6(f)pove^ , airep at? eVi ttov 
6 rod Kpovov Kal 6 rod Alos dvaroXiKwv uva)(rj- 
fiaTiapios airepydt^eTai} Kal tovtcov 8e TrdXt,v tcov 
iSvwv rd fjuev Trepl rrjv 'YpKaviav Kal 'Apfjievlav Kal 
MarLavrjv pidXXov avvoLKeiovrat toi? re idtSujaoi? 
Krai Tcp rod EpjjLov • SioTrep evKLvrjrorepa /i.aAAov 
/cat VTTOTTOVTjpa. rd 8e rrepl rrjv BaKrptavrjv 
Kal KaarnqpLav Kai Ur]pLKr]v rw re Zvyw Kal ro) 
Tijs A^pohir-qs ' odev ol Kar^xovre'S rds xo)pas 
TrXovaicoraroc Kal (jiiX6p.ovuoL Kal fxdXXov d^po- 
Siairot. rd 8e rrepl rrjv UavpopLariKrjv Kal riqv 
'O^eLavrjv Kal Eovyhiavriv rw re 'YSpoxdco Kat rat 
68 rov Kpovov • Sio Kal ravra rd eOvrj pdXXov avijfzepa 
Kal avarrjpd Kal drjpuLhr]. rd he Xonrd rovrov 
rov reraprrjpopLov Kal Trepl ro fieaov Keipieva rrjg 
oXrjg OLKovjjievrjg, Bidwia, ^pvyia, KoXxtKrj, Uvpia, 
Konpayrji'T], KaTTirahoKia, Avhia, AvKia,^ KiXiKia, 
Ilap.<jivXia , rrjv deoiv exovra rrpds Xt^ovorov avrov 
rov reraprrjpopiov , vpoaXafJi^dveL rr]v avvoiKeioiatv 
rov voroXi^vKov reraprrjfxopiov KapKivov Kat 
UKoprrlov Kal 'IxOvcvv, Kal avvoiKo^eoTTorag rov re 
rov "Apeojs Kal en rov r-qs A<j)pohiry]s Kal rov rov 
'Epfxov • SioTTep Ol Trepl rd<; ;>^6upa? ravra? ae^ovai 
fiev (OS eVt TTav rrjv AcfypoSlrrjv to? fir^repa dea>v, 
TTOLKiXois Kal eyx^J^p^oig di-OjU.acri rrpoaayopevovres , 
Kal rov rov "Apecos cu? "ABojviv rj d'AAoj? ttco? TrdXtv 
6vof^d^ovres ' Kal fivarijpid riva perd dprjvwv aTTO- 

^ dvaroXiKwi' avaxyj/J-aTiaixos aTre/jya^crai VD, -6s -OS -erai 
MAE, -6v -Of -€Tai PL, Kara -6v -ov -om-ai NCam. 

146 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

pure in their sexual relations, lavish in dress, gracious 
and magnanimous ; these things in general are 
brought about by Saturn and Jupiter in eastern 
aspects. Of these nations, again, Hyrcania, Ar- 
menia, and Matiana are more closely familiar to 
Gemini and Mercury ; they are accordingly more easily 
stirred and inclined to rascality. Bactriana, Casperia, 
and Serica are akin to Libra and Venus, so that their 
peoples are rich and followers of the Muses, and more 
luxurious. The regions of Sauromatica, Oxiana, and 
Sogdiana are in familiarity with Aquarius and Saturn ; 
these nations therefore are more ungentle, stern, 
and bestial. The remaining parts of this quarter, 
which lie close to the centre of the inhabited world, 
Bithynia, Phrygia, Colchica, Syria, Commagene, 
Cappadocia, Lydia, Lycia, Cilicia, and Pamphylia,^ 
since they are situated in the south-west of the 
quarter, have in addition familiarity with the south- 
western quarter, Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces, and 
their co-rulers are Mars, Venus, and Mercury ; there- 
fore those who live in these countries generally 
worship Venus as the mother of the gods, calling her 
by various local names, and Mars as Adonis,^ to 
whom again they give other names, and they cele- 
brate in their honour certain mysteries accompanied 

* These are all parts of Asia Minor. 

* Ptolemy identifies Venus and Mars, who are coupled in 
Greek mythology, with the female and male divinities of 
this region worshipped under various names us the Mother 
of the Gods, Magna Mater, etc., and Attis, Adonis, etc. 

- AvKia VDl'roc, om. alii Cam. 

147 



PTOI.EMY 

SiSoi/res" avTOL?. TTeptKaKOi Be et'cri Kai SovXoifjvxoi 
Kal 7TOVLKOL Kai TTOvrjpol Kal ev iJLLado(f)6pois arparel- 
at? Kal apTTayals /cat alxp-aXcoataig yivopLevoL, Kara- 
SovXovfi€VOL T€ avTOV? Kal TToXepLiKots aTTCoXeiaLS 

7T€pL7TL7TTOVT€S . Sia T€ TOV TOV "ApCCDS Kal TOV T'^? 

A^pohirrjS Kara avaroXiKriv Gvvappboyqv, on iv 
likv TO) TrjS A(f)pohirris rpiycoviKip ^ojBlo) to) 
AlyoKepcp 6 TOV "Apecog, iv 8e rw toO ''Apea)S 
TpiycouLKCp ^a>Sta» rotS" 'Ix^vcn 6 rijs ^A(f)pohLT'qs 
vifjovTat, Slo. tovto ras yvvaiKas avve^rj Trdoav 
evvoiav 77/509 toi)? dvSpag ivheiKwaQai, ^iXooTop- 
yovs re ovaas Kal oiKovpovs Kal epyariKas Kai 
69 I'TT-qpeTiKas Kal oXcds ttovlkcls Kal UTTOTeray/xeVa? . 
rovroiv 8e ttoXlv ol fxkv Trepi ttjv Biduviav Kai 
Opvyiav Kal KoXx^Krjv avvoLKeiovvrai fj,dXXov rat 
T€ KapKLVcp Kal TTJ ueX-qi'Tj • StoTre/o 01 fxev dvSpes 
60S eTTt 7Tdv elaiv euAa/^et? Kal vnoraKTiKOL, tcvv 8e 
yvvaiKOiv at TrAetcrTat Sta to ttjs (reXrjmj? avaro- 
Xlkov Kal rjppevcopLevov ^ a^'^l-io. eiravhpoL Kai 
dpxiKal Kal TToXe^uKol KaOdirep at Afxat^oves, 
<f)€vyovaai ^ fxev rd? rd)v dvhpojv avvovaia?, (f)iXovXoi 
Se oyaat /cat dppevoTToiovaat rd OiqXvKd Travra ^ 
0,770 ^pe<f)ovs, aTTOKOTrfj rd)v he^iwv fiaarcbv X^P'-^ 
Twv aTparicoTiKiov ;^peta>i'* /cat aTToyvfXvovaai ravra 
rd pi^pr] Kard ^ rdg Trapard^eig ® 77pos' eTTiSei^iv ' 
rov ddrjXvvrov rrjg cfiuaeco^. ol 8e 77€pt r'r]v Evpiav 
Kal KofMfxayqvrjv Kal KaTTTTaSoKiav r& re UKopTTiip 

^ rip(p)evo)iJ.ivov PLME, -oiv N, rippcjfievov alii Cam., 
apofviKov Proc. ^ (f)evyovai{v) PLMA. 

^To. drjXvKO. iravra VD, to OijXv (aut 6vXr}) PLNCam., to 

148 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

by lamentations. They are exceedino;ly depraved 
servile, laborious, rascally, are to be found in mer- 
cenary expeditions, looting and taking captives, en- 
slaving their own peoples, and engaging in destructive 
wars. And because of the jimction of Mars and Venus 
in the Orient, since Mars is exalted in Capricorn, 
a sign of Venus's triangle, and Venus in Pisces, a sign 
of Mars's triangle, it comes about that their women 
display entire goodwill to their husbands ; they are 
aflfectionate, home-keepers, diligent, helpful, and in 
every respect laborious and obedient. Of these 
peoples, again, those who live in Bithynia, Phrygia, 
and Colchica are more closely familiar to Cancer and 
the moon ; therefore the men are in general cau- 
tious and obedient, and most of the women, through 
the influence of the moon's oriental and masculine 
aspect, are virile,' commanding, and warlike, like 
the Amazons, who shun commerce with men, love 
arms, and from infancy make masculine all their 
female characteristics, by cutting off their right 
breasts for the sake of military needs and baring 
these parts in the line of battle, in order to display 
the absence of femininity in their natures. The 
people of Syria, Commagene, and Cappadocia are 

' CJ. the myth of Modea, the Colcliian princess. 

OrjXu irav ME, rod drjXfos nayros A ; cf. tiov drjXvKoiv ^pe^cDt 
Proe. 

* ;(P€ta)i' VP (xp'?-) L.MAEFroc, xPV'^ftoi' NDCam. 

* Kara VMADE, 8ia PLNCain. 

* napaTa^eii VMADE, -rjs P, -ews L, -rrpd^fis NCam. ; ev rais 
Trapard^eaii' Proc. 

' TTpos (nibei^iv VD, €15 «'. MAE, cos eniBfi^Tji' P, a»s fmBei^iv 
L, ai£ (TTibfiKivaOai, NCum. 

149 



PTOLEMY 

Kai Tw Tov "Apecog ■ SioTrep ttoXv Trap" aurot? cruv- 
eVeCTe to dpaav Kal TTOvripov kol iTn^ovXevriKOV koX 
iTTiTTOVOV. ol 8e nepl ttjv AvSiav Kal KiXiKiav kol 
riapL^vXiav toI<s re I)(9v(n Kal tco tov zJto?" 

odev OVTOl jxdXXoV TToXvKTTjIXOVeS re Kal ijJLTTOpLKol 

Kal KOivojVLKol Kal eXevdepoi Kal tticttoi Trepl ra? 
crui/aAAayct?. 

Tov Se XoLTTOv rerapTrjixopLOV tov KaTO. ttjv 
KOLVO)? KaXovfxevTjv ^ Ai^vrjv, to. p-kv aAAa to. nept- 
exovTa NovpLiqhiav ,^ Kap)cqSovLav, 'A(^pLK'qv, 0a^a- 
viavj^ NaaapiovlTLV , Fapap.avTLK'qv, MavpLTaviav, 
70 FairovXiav , MeraycoviTLv , Kal to. tt^v deaiv €)(ovTa 
Trpog Xl^ovotov ttj? oXr}s OLKOvpLevrj?, avvoLKCLOVTai 
[JL£V Tip voToXi^VKO) Tpiywvcp KapKivov Kal EKop- 
TTiov Kal ^I)(9vajv, otVoSeCTTroretrat 8e et/corco? vtto 
TC tov "Apeojs Koi TOV rrjs A(f)pohiTr]s irtl ax'^P'O.TO's 
iaTTepiov • Storrep ovveTreae TOt? rrXeiaTOig avTU)v 
eveKev tt^? elpYjfievqg tcov dcTTepcov avvapfioyrjs vtto 
dvSpog Kal yvvaLKog * Svolv ojxopiTjTpLOJv aSeA</>aii', 
PaaiXeveadat, tov [xeu di'hpos tcDi' di'Spiov dpxovTOS, 
T'qs 3e yvvaiKog raji' yvvaiKiJjv , GVUTT^povp.eurjs tt]9 
TOiavTT]? Sta5o;)^7^?. 6epp,ol Se elat a(f)6Spa /cat 
KaTa(f)€p€LS TTpos TO,? TCOV yvvaLKCov avvovuias , d)S 

^ KoXovixivTjv om. NCam. * NovfjitBiav ACam. 

* 0vCaviav NCam. 

* Post ywaiKos add. 17 PLNCam., om. VMADEProc. 

' Here used of tlie continent in general ; Africa is the 
Roman province. 

150 



TETRABIBLOS 11. 3 

familiar to Scorpio and Mars ; therefore much bold- 
ness, knavery, treachery, and laboriousness are found 
among them. The people of Lvdia, Cilicia, and 
Pamphylia have familiaritv with Pisces and Jupiter ; 
these accordingly are more wealthy, commercial, 
social, free, and trustworthy in their compacts. 

Of the remaining quarter, which includes what is 
called by the common name Libya, ^ the other parts, 
including Numidia, Carthage, Africa, Phazania, Nasa- 
monitis, Garamantica, Mauritania, Gaetulia, Meta- 
gonitis,^ and the regions situated in the south-west 
of the inhabited world, are related by familiarity to 
the south-western triangle, Cancer, Scorpio, and 
Pisces, and are accordingly ruled by Mars and Venus 
in occidental aspect. For this reason it befalls most 
of the inhabitants, because of the aforesaid junction 
of these planets, to be governed by a man and wife 
who are own brother and sister,^ the man ruling the 
men and the woman the women ; and a succession of 
this sort is maintained. They are extremely ardent 
and disposed to commerce with women, so that even 

' Along the Mediterranean coast, eastward from the 
Straits of Gibraltar, the regions are, first, Mauritania (of 
which Metagonitis is the portion east from the Straits), 
then Numidia, Africa (the Roman province, which in- 
cludes Carthage), Tripolitana, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, and 
Egypt. The other nations mentioned are further inland 
and south of these, Gaetulia in the west, Garamantica 
and Phazania south of Tripoli, and Nasamonitis near 
Cyrenaica and Marmarica. 

' Marriage between those of the same blood was a 
common practice in Hellenistic Egypt, including tiie royal 
family of the Ptolemies. CJ. Cur ont, L'Ejypte dea 
Aslroloyues (Brussels, 1937), pp. 177-179. 

151 



PTOLEMY 

/cat Tou? yd/JLOvg 8i' apTraywv TTOietadai ^ /cat ttoA- 
Xax'T] rat? yajLtou/xeVats- toi)? ^aatAeas" Trptorovg ^ 
avvepx^odai, rrap^ ivLOis Se /cat /cotms" efvai ra? 
yvi'aiKas Travrcov. ^tAo/caAAcuTrtcTTat 8e Tuyp^a- 
vovoL ^ /cat Koafxovs yvvacKelovg vepLt,(x}VwvraL 8td 
TOP" TT)? *A^pohiTT]<; , eTTavhpoi p.€VTOL rat? ifjv)(ai^ 
/cat VTroTrovrjpoi /cat jxayevTiKoi, vodevrai oe /cat 
TTapd^oXoi /cat piifjoKLuSwoL Std rdi' roy '14p€a;?. 
ToyTOJt' 8e TTciAti^ ot /Ltei' Trept T17V iVoi»/x7j8tat' /cat 
Kapx'']^ova * /cat ^A(f)piKr]v awoiKeLOVvraL /xoAAov 
to) re KapKLVcp /cat t^ oeX-qyr) • hioTrep ovtol kolvco- 
VLKOL re /cat epiTTopLKol TuyxduovaL /cat ei/ evQ-qvia 
TTaarj StaTeAowTe?, ot 8e wept tt^v M€Taya>vtTtv 
71 Kat Mavpiraviav /cat FairovXiav rep t€ EKopTTito 
/cat to) tou "Apecxjs ' odev ovroi drjpLOjhearepoL re 
elai /cat [xa)(ifJiiorarot /cat Kpeo(f)dyoL /cat a(f)68pa ^ 
pufjoKiiSwoi /cat Karaf^povqrLKol rov l,rjv, to? /xi78e 
dAAT^Aait- drrex^adaL. ol 8e vrept tt^v 0a^avtav /cat 
NaoapLOJi'lnv /cat FapajjLai'riKrjv rotg re ^Ix^vai 
/cat to) Toy zJtd? • StoTrep eXevdepoi re /cat aTrAot 
rot? rjOeat Kat (f^iXepyol /cat evyvcopioveg KadapioL 
re Kat di/u7TOTaKTOi etcrti' to? em Trdi' Kat ** rdi^ tou 
^td? CO? "ApLpLcova^ dprjaKevovres. ra Se Xoltto. rov 
reraprrjpLopLOV p^eprj koI irpog ro p-eaov eax^jP-CLTia- 
pLeva rrj'; oX-qg ocKovpLevrjg, Kvprjva'LKi], Mapp-apLKT], 

^ TToieiadai] ylveodai, VAD. 

2 irpwTovs VMDE, cf. Proc. ; npcoTa PLNACam. 
*Ti;y;^di'ouat(»') VMADE, vTrdpxovai.{v) PLNCain. 
*K<ipxvB6i'a VDProc, Kapx-qhoviav P (-8w-) LMNAECam. 

* a4>6hpa VMADEProc, om. PLNCam. 

* Koi (post im -nav) VMADE, hia NCam,, om. PL. 

152 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

their marriages are brought about by violent abduc- 
tion, and frequently their kings enjoy the jus primae 
noctis with the brides, and among some of them the 
women are common to all the men. They are fond 
of beautifying themselves and gird themselves with 
feminine adornments, through the influence of Venus ; 
through that of Mars, however, they are virile of 
spirit, rascally, magicians, impostors, deceivers, and 
reckless. Of these people, again, the inhabitants of 
Numidia, Carthage, and Africa are more closely 
familiar to Cancer and the moon. They therefore 
are social, commercial, and live in great abund- 
ance. Those who inhabit Metagonitis, Mauritania, 
and Gaetulia are familiar to Scorpio and Mars ; 
they are accordingly fiercer and very warlike, 
meat-eaters, very reckless, and contemptuous of life 
to such an extent as not even to spare one another. 
Those who live in Phazania, Nasamonitis, and Gara- 
mantica are familiar to Pisces and Jupiter ; hence 
they are free and simple in their characters, willing 
to work, intelligent, cleanly, and independent, as a 
general rule, and they are worshippers of Jupiter as 
Ammon. The remaining parts of the quarter, which 
are situated near the centre of the inhabited world, 
Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Egypt, Thebais,' the Oasis, 

' Upper Egypt. By " Egypt " lie doubtless means 
Lower Egypt. Cyrenaica and Marinariea are to the west. 
Troglodytica lies along the west coast of the Red Sea and 
Azania about where is now French Sonialiland. By 
Arabia he may mean .A.rabia Petraea, the Sinai Peninsula 
and vicinity. Parts of Troglodytica, too, were sometimes 
called Arabia. The Greater and Lesser Oases lie west of 
th e Thebais. 

' ois 'Afincova VMAUE ; cf. Proc. ; T<Ji 'Anfioui PNCam. ; 
Tcu odfiuiva L. 

153 



PTOLEMV 

AlyvTTTOS, Qr^^atg, "Oaais, TpcoyXoSvriKt] , Vlpa^ta, 
^A^avia, fxearj AWtoTTta, Trpo? ^oppaTTr^Xicorrjv re- 
Tpaixfxeva rod oXov TeTapTrjfxoplov , TrpoaXapi^dveL 
rrjp avvoLKeicoaiv rod ^oppaTn^XicorLKOv rpiycLvov 
At-hvpnov, Zvyov, Kal 'YSpoxoov, /cat avuoLKoSea- 
TToras 8id TOVTO rov re rod Kpovov /cat rov rod 
Alos /cat ert rov rov 'Ep/xov • odeu ol Kara ravra? 
ras x^P^^ KeKOLVojvTjKores ax^Sov ri]S ruiv rrevre ^ 
TrXaptjrcov OLKoSeairorias iaTrepiov (f)iX6d€oi fxev 
yeyovaai /cat SeiaiSaLjjioves /cat deorrpoaTrXoKOt, ^ 
/cat (f)LX60pr]voL Kal rov? OLTToOvqaKovras rfj yf) 
KpvTTroureg Kal a(f)auc(,ovres 8td ro ioTTepiov ax^jp-a, 
iravroiois Se vopbtpLOLS Kal edeai Kal deuJv TTavrotojv 
6pr)(7K€LaLS ;^/36(j/xei'ot, /cat eV p,€v rals vrrorayalg 
raneLvol Kal SetAot ^ /cat puKpoXoyoi /cat VTTopbOvqri- 
72 Koi, iv Se rat? -qyepiovLaLS euijjvxoL Kal /xeyaAd- 
(f)poi>€S, TToXuyvvaioL Se /cat 7ToXuau8poL Kal Kara- 
(f)€p€LS Kal ratS" dSeA^at? avvappiot,6p.evoi, Kal ttoXv- 
OTTopoL pikv ol dvhpes, evavXXiqTTroL Se at yvvaiKeg 
aKoXovdios ro) rrjs x^P^'S yovlpbcp} rtoXXol 8e /cat 
rix)v appivojv aadpol Kal reOr^XvapLevot ral? i/jvxal^, 
evLOL he Kal roJv yevvrjriKcbv piopicov Kara(f>povovvres 
8td rov rGiv KaKonoicbv pLera rod rrjg A(f>poSLrT]S 
ioTTepiov ^ axf]parLap.6v. Kal rourcov 8e ot piev 
7T€pl Kvprp/aLK-qv Kal MappLapiKr^v /cat pLoXiara ol 
TTepl rrjv Karco x'^P^^ ''"')? AlyvTrrov pdXXov awoL- 
KeLovvrai rolg re Ai.Svp,OLS Kal rep rov Eppiov ' 

^TT€vre libri Proc, fxkv Cam. 

* BeoTTpooTrXoKOi VPLD ; TrpooTrXeKo^ei'oi npos deovs Proc. ; 
QeonpoairoXoi. MNAECarn. 

154 



TETRABIBLOS TI. 3 

Troglodytica, Arabia, Azania, and Middle Ethiopia, 
which face the north-east of the whole quarter, 
have an additional familiarity with the north- 
eastern triangle Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius, and 
therefore have as co-nders Saturn and Jupiter and, 
furthermore. Mercury. Accordingly those who live in 
these countries, because they all in common, as it 
were, are subject to the occidental rulership of the five 
planets, are worshippers of the gods, superstitious, 
given to religious ceremony and fond of lamentation ; 
they bury their dead in the earth, putting them out 
of sight, on account of the occidental aspect of the 
planets ; and they practice all kinds of usages, cus- 
toms, and rites in the service of all manner of gods. 
Under command they are humble, timid, penurious, 
and long-suffering, in leadership courageous and 
magnanimous ; but they are polygamous and poly- 
androus and lecherous, marrying even their own 
sisters, and the men are potent in begetting, the 
women in conceiving, even as their land is fertile. 
Furthermore, many of the males are unsound and 
effeminate of soul, and some even hold in contempt 
the organs of generation, through the influence of the 
aspect of the maleficent planets in combination with 
Venus occidental. Of these peoples the inhabitants of 
Cyrenaica and Marmarica, and particularly of Lower 
Egypt, are more closely familiar to Gemini and 
Mercury ; on this account they are thoughtful and 

« 8«Aoi VMADEProc. ; Seivol LNCam., 87/roi P. 

*yovLfni) VDMAEN (rag., yevvrifxari) Cam.^ ; yajvi^ P, 
ywiiofi.aTL L ; *yfvvT]ij.aTi. Cam.^ 

■'' (aneplov VI) ; (/. Proc. ywofj.ei'oi' €K riov KaKOiroiiuv (Ktol 
rov bvTiKoO T-qs ('A<f>.) ; ioTrdpiov libri alii Cam. 

155 



PTOLEMY 

SioTtep ovTOL hiavo-qriKoi re Koi avv€Tol koL eveTTiq- 
jSoAoi Tvy)(^dvovaL TTepl navra koL jxaXiaTa Trepl rrjv 
rcbv ao(j}(jL)v re /cat deicov evpeaiv ■ fiayevTLKol^ re 
KOL Kpv(f)LCov pLvarripiiDv eTTireXeariKol koL oAcd? 
LKavol TTepl TO. /xadij jxara . ol he Trepl ttjv ©rj^atSa 
Kal "Oaaiv /cat TpcoyXohvriKrjv rw re Zvya> /cat to) 
TTJs 'A(f)po8LTr]s , odev /cat aurot deppLorepoi re etat 
TO,? (f)vaei£ /cat /ce/ctfTy/xeVot /cat ev eixjiopiais e^ovres 
ras Stayajya? ol he Trepl rrfv ^Apa^iav /cat 'At,avLav 
/cat p.ear]v AWioTTLav ro) 'Yhpoxoco Kal rw tov 
Kpopov,^ hio /cat OVTOL Kpeo(f)dyoL re /cat i)(dvo- 
c/)dyoL /cat vofxahes elaiv, dypLov /cat drjpnohri ^iov 
t,a)vres. 

At jJLcv ovv avvoLKeLojaeLS rajv re aarepojv /cat rait' 

73 hojheKaTrjjxopLCDv Trpos rd /caret pLepog edvr) Kal rd 

d)s €7rt TTau avTibv IhnLfxara /cara to Ke^aAatcDSe? 

TOVTOV 'f]ixlv VTTOTeTVTrCOadcoaaV tov TpOTTOV. €/c- 

drjaojxeda he Kal 8ta to r^? xpriaeois eveTrrj^oXov i(f)^ 
eKaoTOV Tojv hioheKaTripbopiuyv /card ipLXr]v Trapd- 
deoLv e/caaTtt to/v' avvoLKeLov ixevojv edvdjv aKoXov- 
6a}£ TOLS TTpoKaTeLXeyfievoLS Trepl auTOJi' toi' Tpovou 

TOVTOV. 

KpLos ^ ■ BpeTTavia, FaXaTLa, FeppLavia, Baa- 
Tapvia ■ TTepl to /xeaov KolXtj Svpia UaXaLaTLVT], 
'/Sou/Ltata, '/ouSata. 

Tavpos • Tlapdia, Mrjhia, Tlepais ' Trepl to p,eaov 
KvKXdhes vrjaoL, KviTpos, Tra/aaAta t?^? p,LKpds 
'Aalas. 

^ liayiVTLKOL VPLMADEProc, fiayiKot NCam. 
*Kp6i'ov VPLNDProc.Cam.S Aios AECam.» 

156 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

intelligent and facile in all things, especially in the 
search for wisdom and religion ; they are magicians 
and performers of secret mysteries and in general 
skilled in mathematics.^ Those who live in Thebais, 
the Oasis, and Troglodytica are familiar to Libra and 
Venus ; hence they are more ardent and lively of 
nature and live in plenty. The people of Arabia, 
Azania, and Middle Ethiopia are familiar to Aquarius 
and Saturn,^ for which reason they are flesh-eaters, 
fish-eaters, and nomads, living a rough, bestial life. 

Let this be our brief exposition of the familiarities 
of the planets and the signs of the zodiac with the 
various nations, and of the general characteristics 
of the latter. We shall also set forth, for ready use, 
a list of the several nations which are in familiarity, 
merely noted against each of the signs, in accordance 
with what has just been said about them, thus : — 

Aries : Britain, Gaul, Germania, Bastarnia ; in 
the centre, Coele Syria, Palestine, Idumaea, Judaea. 

Taurus : Parthia, Media, Persia ; in the centre, 
the Cyclades, Cyprus, the coastal region of Asia 
Minor. 

* "Mathematics" (literally, "the studies") here means 
astrology ; cj. the title of Soxtus Empiricus' book Flpos 
fiaOrjfiaTiKovs, "Against the Astrologers." 

^ Some MSS. and Camorarius' second edition have 
" Jupiter " in place of " Saturn." 



' Haoc omiserunt omnino usque arl eKKeifievwv 8e tovtcdv 
PLNCam.' ; VMADEProc. res in columnis disponunt sig- 
norum nominibus in capit« additis, verbis etiam ■rrept to fttaov 
(quae om. Cam.*) in propriis locis insertis. 

157 



PTOLEMY 

Aihv^oi ■ 'YpKavia, Mp/Ltet-ia, Mariavrj • rrepl to 
ixeoov Kvprjva'LKT],^ MapfxaptKT], rj koltcd X^P^ "^^ 

AlyVTTTOV. 

KapKLvog • NovfJLrjSia, KapxrjSovia, 'A(f)piK'q ' 
Trepl TO fxdaov Btdwia, 0pvyia, KoXxtK-q. 

AecDu • 'IraXia, PaAAta, UiKeXia, AjrovXta irepl 
TO fxeaov ^oivlkt], XaXhaia, ^Opx^^via. 

IJapdevos MeaoTTorapLia, Ba^vXuivia, ^Aaavpia ' 
7T€pl TO pidaov EXXds, AxatoL. Kprjrrj. 

Zvyo's • BaKrpiavq, KaoTrrjpia, U-qptK-^ • nepl 
TO fjiiaov Qrj^ats, "Oaaig, TpojyXoSvTLKrj . 

UKopTTiog ■ Merayiovlns , MavpiTavia, Pai- 
TOvXia • nepl to fieaop Zvpia, Kofifxayrjvq , Kair- 
TraSoKLa 

To^oTTjs ■ Tvpprjvia, KeXTiicq, 'larravia Trepl 
TO fuLeoov ^Apa^ia rj evSaiixcov. 
74 AiyoKepcog ■ ^IvSlktj, ApLavrj, FeSpcocrLa ■ Trepl 
TO fxecTOv OpaKrj, MaKehovia, 'IXXvpis. 

'YSpoxoos • UaupofxaTLKT], ^O^eiavT], UovyBiavq ■ 
Trepl TO fxeaov ^Apa^ia, AiC,avia, jxear] AldiOTTia. 

^Ix^vs ' 0a^avLa, NaaafxcovLTig , FapapLavTiKT] • 
Trepl TO fjieaov AvSta, KiXiKia, Tlapn^vXla.'^ 

^EKKeijjievcov 8e toutcoi^ evXoyov KaKeiva tovto) 
TCp pbepei vpoadelvaL, Slotl Kal TOJv aTrAat'cDv 
aoTepojv eKaoTO's avvoiKeiovTai Tai? ^^djpai? oaais 
Kal TO. Tov ^cuStaKou p-epr), pied cbv kxovaiv ol 
aTiXavels to.? irpoovevaeLS evl tov 8ta tcjv ttoXcov 

^ Kvprffa'iKrj libri, om. Cam. 

^ytVocTai xwpa' ojS' post haec add. VJVlProc. 

158 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3 

Gemini : Hyrcania, Armenia, Matiana ; in the 
centre, Cyrenaica, Marmarica, Lower Egypt. 

Cancer : Numidia, Carthage, Africa ; in the 
centre, Bithynia, Phrygia, Colchica. 

Leo : Italy, Cisalpine Gaul, Sicily, Apulia ; in the 
centre, Phoenicia, Chaldaea, Orchenia. 

Virgo : Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Assyria ; in the 
centre, Hellas, Achaia, Crete. 

Libra : Bactriana, Casperia, Serica ; in the centre, 
Thebais, Oasis, Troglodytica. 

Scorpio : Metagonitis, Mauritania, Gaetulia ; in 
the centre, Syria, Commagene, Cappadocia. 

Sagittarius : Tyrrhenia, Celtica, Spain ; in the 
centre, Arabia Felix. 

Capricorn : India, Ariana, Gedrosia ; in the centre, 
Thrace, Macedonia, Illyria. 

Aquarius : Sauromatica, Oxiana, Sogdiana ; in 
the centre, Arabia, Azania, Middle Ethiopia. 

Pisces : Phazania, Nasamonitis, Garamantica ; 
in the centre, Lydia, Cilicia, Pamphylia.' 

Now that the subject at hand has been set forth, 
it is reasonable to attach to this section this further 
consideration — that each of the fixed stars has 
familiarity with the countries with which the parts 
of the zodiac, which have the same inclinations as 
the fixed stars '^ upon the circle drawn through its 

'"Total, 72 countries," is found in some MSS. and 
Proclus. There are actually 73 in the Hat as gi\f<n here, 
but there is a certain amount of confusion in the MSS. 

^ These are the so-called TrapavariXXovTa, stars which rise 
and set at the same tim(> as the (i(>grees or sections of the 
ecliptic, fjut to the north or south of thcni. See Boll- 
Bozold-Gundel, pp. 55, 141 ff. 

159 



PTOLEMY 

avTOV^ 'ypa(f)OfJL€vov kvkXov, (f)aiverai iroiovfieva 
Trjp aufXTrddeLav, Kal on inl tojv yi-qrpoTToXecjv 
€K€Li'OL [JidXtara avfiiradovcnv ol tottol rod ^coSiaKOv 
Kad' cbv ^ iv Tois KarapxoXs rcbv Kriaeoiv avrojv UiS 
€7TL yeveaeojg ^ o re rjXLog Kal 7) aeXijvT] rrap- 
oSeJoi^re? irvyxavov Kal rcoi' K€VTpa>u /xaAtcrra to 

(hpOOKOTTOVV • €(j) (hv 8 OL p^pOt'Ot TOJV KTiaeoiv ovx 

eupiGKovTat, Kad cjv * eV rat? ^ twv Kara. Kaipov 
dpxovrojv Tj ^aaiX^vovTOiv yeveaeaiv e.KTTLTrre.i to 
jxeuovpdvrjpa. 

<h.> "E (f) o 8 o 9 et? rd? Kara jxepos 
TT p o r e Xe a € i<s 

Tovrcov ouTCu? 7Tpo€7T€aKep.p.evcx)v " aKoXovdov av 

€17) XoiTTOv rag rcov irpo-eXeaewv i(f>68ous K€(f)a- 

AaituScD? eTTeXddlv, Kal Trpcorov tcou Kad oAa? Trepi- 

75 ardaei? ;^a)pa»i' •^ TToXeatv Xafx^avofxevcui' ? eorai 

8 O rpOTTO? TTJS €TrL(TK€llj€CO'; TOLOVTO? " 7] p.€V OVU 

TTpwrr] Kal laxvpoTaTT] roiv tolovtojv ovyiTTTOjpdrojv 
alria yiverai irapd ra? eKXenrTiKas tjXlov Kal 
creX-qv-qg av^vyias Kai rd<? iv avralg rrapohovs twv 
darepoiv. rrjs 8e TrporeXeoeo)? avrrj<; to pev Tt 
ioTL TOTTLKOV, Kad^ o Scl TTpoyivwaKeiv TToiaig 

J avTwv NACara. ^ j;„ pMAE, ov VLNDCam. 

' yei'CCTetoy VD, -ewv (-aicDv) PNMAEOam.. emyeveanov L. 

* Kad' wv MAE, Kad' ^f VD, oni. PLNCam. 

* ev rais VPLMADE, et's T171' . . . yeveaiv NCam. 

* TrpoeTreoKfinievixiv VD, npoeaKrjfifi'wr P, TTpof.OKevaafx4von- L, 
irpoKfLixevcav A, TrpoeKKeififvwv (-eyx-) MNECam., TTponprjiuvojv 
Proc. 

' Xan^ayoiicvuiv VME, -ov D, -as NACam., Xafipdvofuv PL. 

160 



TETRABIBLOS II. 3-4 

poles, appear to exert sympathy ; furthermore, that, 
in the case of metropolitan cities, those regions of 
the zodiac are most sympathetic through which the 
sun and moon, and of the centres especially the 
horoscope, were passing at the first founding of 
the city, as in a nativity. But in cases in which 
the exact times of the foundations are not discovered, 
the regions are sympathetic in which falls the mid- 
heaven of the nativities of those who held office or 
were kings at the time.^ 

4. Method of Making Particular Predictions. 

After this introductory examination it would be 
the next task to deal briefly with the procedure of 
the predictions, and first with those concerned with 
general conditions of countries or cities. The method 
of the inquiry will be as follows : The first and most 
potent cause of such events lies in the conjunctions 
of the sun and moon at eclipse and the movements 
of the stars at the time. Of the prediction itself, 
one portion is regional ; ^ therein we must foresee 

' The procedure, thpretore, is to tnat a city like a person 
and cast its nativity, u-sing instead of the tini" of birth the 
time of founding. If thie latto- is not accurately known, 
the astrologer should take the nativity of the founder, or 
other individual [)romnient in the enterprise, and observe 
wliere its mid-heaven tails. 

^ Ptolemy divides inquiries about cities and countries 
into four heads ; what place is affected, the time and 
duration of the event, the generic classification of the 
event (i.e. what classes, f/enera, it will aflect), and the 
quality, or nature, of the event itself. His termiiK>logy is 
Aristotelian. The next four chaptorss deal with the four 
phases of the inquiry. 

161 



PTOLEMY 

X^opaig Tj TToXeaiv at Kara [xepos eKXeiifiets rj koI 
ToJv TrXavcopLevojv at Kara Katpovg ejxfiovoi ^ araaeis • 
avrai 8e elui Kpovov re /cat Aiog /cat "Apecos, orav 
arrjpL^ojaL • ^ TTOLOvvrai yap Tore rag ^ CTTtcTTyjuacrtas' * 
TO 8e Ti ;)^pop't/coi', /ca^' o tov Kaipov tcov iniar]- 
jxaaLcov Kal ttjs Traparaaews Tr]v TToaorrjTa Serjaei 
TTpoytvioaKeiv • ro Se rt yevcKov, /ca^' o TTpoai^Ket, 
Xapu^dveiv Trepl rrola tcjv yevojv dno^'qaeTaL to avp,- 
TTTCOfxa TeXevralov 8e to elSiKov, /ca^' o ttjv avTOV 
tov dTToreXead-qaopLevov TTOioTTjTa Oeoipr^aojxev. 

<€.> IJepl Trjs T tu r' S l aT i 6 € fie p o) v 
)(co p CO V eTTtcr/ce^eoj? 

riepl jxev ovv rod TrpwTov /cat tottlkov Trjv Stct- 
Xi^jjLv TroirjaojJieOa roiavT-qv • Kara yap rds yivo- 
jLteVas" eKXeiTTTLKd? av^vyiag -qXiov /cat aeXrivrj's, Kal 
[jLaXiara rds evaiaO-qrorepa? , eTTtcr/ce^d/xe^a rov re 
eKXeiTTTiKov rod ^ajSta/cou ronov Kal ra? rdjv /car 
avrov * rpiyajvijov ^ avvoiK€iovp,ivag ** ;^aj/>as' " /cat 
d/xotcos" TtVe? TCtJt' TToAecuf ^Vot e/c ttjs- /caro. tt^p' 
76 Kriaiv copoaKOTTcas Kal (f)a)a(f)opias r) €K ti^? tcup' 

' efifioi'OL VMAD, e/i^Tjvoi PNECam., efiiirjva L ; c/. ai tcoi' 
TrXavcj/xevcov eTrififi'ovaai Kara Kaipovs ardafis Proc. 

'^ crr-qpiiuioi VADProc, -ovrai L, -oires PNMECam. 

^ TTOioCi'Tai . . . ras ktX. VDProc. ; ■noi.u}ai{v) (aut TToirjawai) 
rds /ctA. alii libri Cam. 

'' Kar^ aVTOv VMADE, /car' avTuiv L, Kara r<bv P, xard rd 
NCam. 

* rpi.y<I)vwv VPLMDE, -a> A, -a NCam. 

* avvoLK€t.ovfiivas VADE, -wv MNCam., -etcofievas P, 
-eicondvojv L. 

162 



TETRABIBLOS II. 4-5 

for what countries or cities there is significance 
in the various eclipses or in the occasional regular 
stations of the planets, that is, of Saturn, Jupiter, 
and Mars, whenever they halt, for then they are 
significant. Another division of the prediction is 
chronological ; therein the need will be to foretell the 
time of the portents and their duration. A part, too, 
is generic ; through this we ought to understand 
with what classes the event will be concerned. And 
finally there is the specific aspect, by which we shall 
discern the quality of the event itself. 



5. Of the Examination of the Countries Affected. 

We are to judge of the first portion of the inquiry, 
which is regional, in the following manner : In the 
eclipses of sun and moon ' as they occur, particularly 
those more easily observed,^ we shall examine the 
region of the zodiac in which they take place, and 
the countries in familiarity with its triangles, and in 
similar fashion ascertain which of the cities, either 
from their horoscope ^ at the time of their founding 
and the position of the luminaries at the time, or 

' Johannes Laurentius Lydus {De ostentis, 9) deals with 
a sj'stom of prediction whereby eclipses of the sun refer 
to Asia and those of the moon to Europe. Ptolemy 
makes no such sweeping distinction. 

^ Ptolemy takes no account of eclipses not visible at the 
place concerned. 

^ That is, the sign in the ascendant, or horoscopic posi- 
tion, at that time. 

163 



PTOLEMY 

Tore rjye fxovcvovTCOv [xeaoupain^crea)? avfJiTrad eiav 
e^ovoL TTpog TO rrjg eKXelipewg hcoSeKaTrjjjioptov. 

€0' OaOiV S' O.V ■)(COpiX)V 7] TToXeOJV evpLGKOJlJLeV TTjV 
7TpOK€llX€Vr]V (XVVOtK€L(XJULV , 7T€pl TTaaaS ^ fJi€V CO? €7TL 

TToiv VTTOvorjTeov eaeodai tl avp.TTTCOixa, fxaXiara 8e 
TTcpl rds" Trpo? avro to ttj? €KX€Lifj€(v^ ScoSeKarq- 
fiopiov Xoyov ixovaag arat eV ouais avrcov VTTep yrjv 
ovaa Tj €kX€hJsls It^aivero.^ 

<§',> n e pi Tov )( p 6 V o V T 6j V OLTT o T eXov- 

fJL € V CO V 

To §€ Sevrepov i<al ^(^poviKov Ke(f)dXaiov, Kau o 
Tovs Kaipovs Ta)v eTnarjpiaaLcvv Kal rrjg Traparacreajs 
TTfv TToaorrjTa Trpoa-qKei SiayLvwaKeiv, emaKeipofJieOa 
TpoTTO) roLwhe. rcov yap Kara tov avTOV )(povou 
yLVOficvcuv e/cAetj/feoii' /X17 /cara Trdaav oiKiqaiv iv 
rat? avTOL? KaipiKals copai^ aTTOTeXoviievajv, tojv re 
i^XiaKaJv Tcbv avrdjv ^ ijLrjSe to. [xeyedrj tojv eTTicr/coTTj- 
aeojv r) tov xRovov tcov TrapaTacreiov Kara to lgov 
TTavraxT] Xafx^avovaoJv , rrpaJTOv fxkv KaTo. ttjv ev 
eKO.GT'q TcDi' Aoyov i)(ovaa)v OLKijoecov eKXenrTiKrjv 
wpav Kal TO TOV ttoXov e^apjjia KevTpa * (Ls ctti 

' ndaas] cf. Proc. naaai : ravras NCam. 

^f(f>aivero VADEProc, (f>aiv€Tai P (4>€v-) LMNCam. 

* Ttui' avTwv VPLDProc. ; h-qXahi] Kai riuv aeXr]viaKcJiiv 
NACani. ; Kal rwv aiXrjviaKow rtui' av-uiv ME. 

* Kei-rpa VADPl'Oc, to. re Kfvrpa PLNCam., kol to. Kivrpa 
ME. 

IC4 



TETRABIBLOS II. 5-6 

from the mid-heaven of the nativity ^ of their then 
rulers, are sympathetic - to the zodiacal sign of the 
eclipse. And in whatsoever countries or cities we 
discover a familiarity of this kind, we must suppose 
that some event ^v'ilI occur which applies, generally 
speaking, to all of them, particularly to those which 
bear a relation to the actual zodiacal sign of the 
eclipse and to those of them in which the eclipse, 
since it took place above the earth, was visible. 



6. Of the Time of the Predicted Events. 

The second and chronological heading, whereby 
we should learn the times of the events signified and 
the length of their duration, we shall consider as 
follows. Inasmuch as the eclipses which take place 
at the same time are not completed in the same 
number of ordinary hours ^ in every locality, and 
since the same solar eclipses do not every^vhere have 
the same degree of obscuration or the same time of 
duration, we shall first set down for the hour of the 
eclipse, in each of the related localities, and for the 
altitude of the pole,* centres, as in a nativity ; 

' The mid-heaven weis regarded by many, including 
Ptolemy, as the most important of the centres, or angles, 
even sm"passing the horoscojie itself in its significance in 
certain ways. Cf. Bouche-Leclercq, p. 271 (with n. 2). 

* That is, bear an aspect to. 

^ Civil hours, twelfth parts of the tlay-time or the night- 
time. They vary in length according to the latitude and 
the time of the year. CJ. the note on horary periods, iii. 
10 (p. 292, n. 2). 

* That is, the latitude ; from this the centres or angle* 
can be determined. 

165 



PTOLEMY 

yepeaect)^ Siad'^aoixev • eTTcira /cat em rroaag^ larjiie- 
pLvas a)pas ev eKOLGTr) ^ TTapareivei to iTnaKiaajjia rrj^ 
77 e/cAetj/recus" " tovtojv yap l^eraadevroiv oaas av larjfie- 
ptvas ojpas €vpcofi€V, e</>' rjXi.aKrjs p.€V e/cAeti/(eaj? em 
ToaovTOVS eviavrovs TrapafxeveLV VTrovo-qaofxev to 
aTTOTeXovpievov , evrt Se aeXrivLaKT^s ivl roaovrovs 
pirjvag, Tcjjv pievroL KarapxoJV /cat rwv 6Xoa)(€p€(TT€- 
pojv €7nrdaea>v ^ dewpovpievcov * eV rrjs tov e/cAeiTT- 
TiKOv roTTOV TTpos TO, KevTpa a)(eaea)S. irpos piev 
yap TO) anrjXLOJTLKtp opt^ovTC 6 tottos eKireauiV rqv re 
Karapx^Ji^ tov avpLirrcopiaTOS Kara rrjv TrpcoTrjv rerpa- 
pLrp'ov oiTTo TOV \p6vov TT]? c/cAei^eo)? aT]pLaiv€L /cat tols 
oXoax^peis ^ €77tTacrei? nepl to TrpuJTOv TpiTTjpiopLOV 
TOV Kad^ 6Xr)v ® T17V' TrapaTaatv ' xpovov • Trpos ^ Se to) 
p,eaovpavripLaTL, /caret re T-qv hevTepav T€Tpap,rjvou 
/cat TO p-iaov TpiTrjpi6pt,ov • Trpos Se to) Xl^vko) 
6pit,ovTL, /card ttjv TpiTTjv TeTpdp,r]vov /cat to ea^aTOv 
TpLTTjpiopiov. TOiv §€ /caTO. pidpog av€<j€Oiv /cat 
iiTLTdaecov aTTO tc tcDj' dm pidaov avt,vyLCOv , orav 
/card TCtJV' to atTtov' epLTTOiovvTCOv tottojv t} tcuv 
av(T)(r)pLaTLt,opievct)v tottcov avTolg avp-TTiTTTOjai , /cat 

1 <ij em rroaas PLMNECam., om. cij VADProc. 
^ Post iKaoTT] add. rtoi' Adyoi' e;^oi;CTa)i' oiKijaecov PLNCam. ; 
om. VMADE. ' 

•^ rpoTTovs post emTaaecov add. Cam., om. libri. 

* 6iu}povjx4vu)v VMDE. Bewpovfxfv (6eop-) PLNACam. 

^ ras oXas oXoaxepds PLNACam. ; oXas om. VMUEProo. 

6 KaO' oXrjv VMDE, Kad' oXov PLNACam. 

' tt)i' TTapdraaw VPLMADE, rris TrapaTaaecos NCam. 

* npos libri et Cam.*, ev Cam.* 

166 



TETRABIBLOS II. 6 

secondly, how many equinoctial hours ^ the obscura- 
tion of the eclipse lasts in each. For when these 
data are examined, if it is a solar eclipse, we shall 
understand that the predicted event lasts as many 
years ^ as the equinoctial hours which we discover, 
and if a lunar eclipse, as many months. The nature 
of the beginnings ^ and of the more important in- 
tensifications * of the events, however, are deduced 
from the position of the place of the eclipse relative 
to the centres. For if the place of the eclipse falls on 
the eastern horizon, this signifies that the beginning 
of the predicted event is in the first period of four 
months from the time of the eclipse and that its 
important intensifications lie in the first third of the 
entire period of its duration ; if on the mid-heaven, 
in the second four months and the middle third ; if 
upon the western horizon, in the third four months 
and the final third. The beginnings of the particular 
abatements and intensifications of the event we 
deduce from the conjunctions which take place in the 
meantime,^ if they occur in the significant regions or 

' An equinoctial hour is the time measured by the passage 
of 15° of the equator (^V of 360°) past the horizon or other 
fixed point. 

^ A distinction is made because solar and lunar eclipses 
are of very different lengths; a total lunar eclipse may last 
nearly two hours, compared with eight minutes in the ease 
of the sun. 

^ Karapxai, that is, when the predicted event is due. 

* eViTaaeij, " intensifications," as opposed to " re- 
laxations " ; a metaphor drawn from the tightening and 
loosening of the strings of a musical instrument. 

* During the period of the predicted effect (Bouch6- 
Leclercq, p. 351). 

167 



PTOLEMY 

\a)v TTapohojv,^ orav ol TTotrjriKol tov 
TrporeAeCT/xaros" dorepe'S dvaroXas r) hvaeis r) a-nf- 
pLyixovs rj aKpovvKTOvs cfxiaetg TToicjvrai, <Tva)(7j- 
/Ltart^d/xet-ot tols to airiov €)(OV(n 8ojS€KaTr)[xopLOis • 
78 eTTeiSTJvep dvareXXoi're^ jxcv r) arripit^ovTes imTaaeLs 
TTOLovvrai raji' avjiTTTCJiidTCov , hvi'ovre'S Se /cat vtto 
rds avyd? ovres i) aKpovvKTOVs TTOtovpLevoi TrporjyT]- 
aeis" dveaiv rcbv dworeXov jxevcov ttolovolv. 

<l,> lie pi rod yevovg roJv hiarid e pbiv cov 

TpLTOV S' ovros Ke(f>aXaLov roC yevcKOV, Kad" o Set 
hiaXa^elv Trepl TVoZa rwv yevcov dno^'qaeTai to 
avpLTrruijJia, Aa/x^a^erai /cat tovto Sta t"^? tu>v 
^coBlcov tStorpoTTia? Kal piop(f)CL)a€0)S Kad^ Sv av 
Ty;)^coa(,p' 6vt€s ol re rcbv eKXeiipeajv roiroL Kal ol rrfv 
OLKoSeuTTOTLav Xa^ovres rcbv durepcov, rcbv re TrAavcu- 
fievcov Kal rcbv dTrXavwu, rou re rrj'S eKXeiifjeaJS 
hcoSeKarrjjjLopLOV Kal rod Kara, to Kevrpov to irpo ^ 
ri^s €kX€liJj€(jjs. XajJi^dveraL Se 7} tovtojv olkoSc- 
OTToria eirl [xev rcbv TrXavcopievwv aaripoiv ourcos. 
6 yap rovs rrXeiarovs Xoyovs €)(Ojv irpos diJL(f)OT€povs 
Toys" iKKeifievovs tottovs, tov re ttj? eKXeiifjecos Kal 
TOV tov evopievov aurcb Kevrpov, Kara re rds eyycara 
Kal ^aivopieva? avva(f>ds rj aTToppoias Kal tovs 
Xoyovs e^ovras rcbv avux'>]P'arLapLa)v , Kal eri, Kara 
rrp' Kvplav rcbv re o'Ikcov Kal rpiycbvatv koI vifjco- 
fidrcov rj Kal opicov, eKelvos Aryj/rerat ^..ovos rrjv 

^ TTapoBwv VP {irapp-) LDProc. ; TTapavaTiXXowritjv MNAE 
Cum. 

168 



TETRABIBLOS II. 6-7 

the regions in some aspect to them, and also from 
the other movements of the planets, if those that 
eflfect the predicted event are either rising or setting 
or stationary or at evening rising, and are at the 
same time in some aspect to the zodiacal signs that 
hold the cause ; for planets when they are rising or 
stationary produce intensifications in the events, but 
when setting, and under the rays of the sun,^ or ad- 
vancing at evening, they bring about an abatement, 

7. Of the Class of those Affected. 

The third heading is that of generic classification, 
whereby one must determine what classes the event 
will affect. This is ascertained from the special 
nature and form of the zodiacal signs in which happen 
to be the places of the eclipses and in which are the 
heavenly bodies, planets and fixed stars alike, that 
govern both the sign of the eclipse and that of the 
angle preceding the eclipse. In the case of the 
planets we discover the rulership of these regions 
thus : The one which has the greatest number of 
relationships to both the regions aforesaid, that of 
the eclipse and that of the angle which follows it, 
both by virtue of the nearest visible applications or 
recessions, and by those of the aspects which bear 
a relation, and furthermore by rulership of the 
houses, triangles, exaltations, and terms, that planet 

* Too near the sun to bo visible ; comhustus ; cf . Bouch6- 
Leek-rcq, p. Ill, n. 3. "Advancing" is the same as 
"adding to its motion " ; cf. above, p. 115, n. 4. 

'^ TO K. TO -npo \' (rrpo)) L ; tov Kevrpov tov vpo MAE; Kara 
rod KivTpov npo rijs kt\. i'loc. ; to npo uiu. VDNCuiu. 

o 169 



PTOLEMY 

oiKoSeaTTOTLav • ei 8e [xrj 6 avTog evpiaKoiro ttj? 
re e/cAei^eoi? Koi rov Kevrpov KvpLOS, Suo ' tov? 
79 TTpos eKarepov ratv tottcdv ras- TrXetovs e^ovTas, 
COS" TTpoKenai, (tvvolk€lco(J€L£ avp.7TapaXT]7TTeov, Trpo- 
Kpivofxeuov Tov ri]? e/cAetj/reco? Kvpiov • el Se TrAetou? 
evpioKOLVTO Kad^ eKOLTepov icfxipuXXoL, rov c-mKevrpo- 
repov ^ ;\;pT^/LtaTtaTt/ccijTepoj^ r) ttj? alpeaeojs fxaiXXov 
ovra 7TpoKpLVOv[M€v €LS Trjv olKoSeaTToriav . errl Se 
TOJV' aTrAai^coi^ cwpLTTapaX-qijjopLeOa rov re avrco rto 
eKXeLTTTLKO) )(povcp ^ (JvyKexpy^P'O.TLKora Trpcjrov tu)V 
XapLvpcov ^ iiTL rfjs TTapcp)(r}P'^vri'5 Kevrpojaecjs Kara 
Tovs hi.ojpLaix4.vovs rjp-lv iv rfj Trpcorrj avvTa^ei tojv 
ivvea rpoTTCov (f)aLVop,€vovs axruiaTLopLOvs , koI tov 
iv rfj cf)aLvop.evrj Kara rrjv iKXeLTTTLKrjv wpav oia- 
diaei, tJtol avvavaTeiXavra rj avfipLeaovpavT^cravTa rto 
KaTO. ra eTTOfxeva Kcvrpcp ■* tov tottov rrj? iKXeltpecus. 
Oeajpy^devTCOv 8e ovtcjos tcjv els ttjv aiTiav tov 
aviJL7TT(x)[xaTOS TTapaXaiJL^avopLevojv aaTepojv, crvveTn- 
crK€ifjwiJ.eda Kal tols rait' ^ojSccui' fxop(f)U)aeLS iv of? 
^ re e/cAen/d? Kal ol t7]v Kvpiav Xa^ovTes aarepes 
eTV)(ov ovTes, co? 0.770 ttjs TovTOiv ISiorpoTnas /cat 
TOV TTOLov Tcov SiaTt^ejLteVcov yevcijv oi? evt, rrdv 
Xa[X^avop,evov. to. fxev yap dvdpco7T6[JLop(f)a Totv 
^ioSiajv Tojv T€ TTepl TOV Sta p.eacov tojv l,a)Bt,0JV 

1 Svo Be PLNCam., dAAa 8vo MAE, Se om. VDProc. 
* Xpo^V VDProc, TOTTU) alii Cam. 

^Twv Aa/iTrpcDi' VMADEProc, Toi' Xafnrpov PL, tw \a(xnpio 
NCam. ■• K€VTp<x> VMADEProc, -a PLNCam. 

^ The anonymous commentator on Ptolemy gives as 
examples of reasons for preferring one to another that it is 

170 



TETRABIBLOS II. 7 

alone will hold the dominance. However, if the same 
planet is not found to be both lord of the eclipse and 
of the angle, we must take together the two which 
have the greatest number of familiarities, as aforesaid, 
to either one of the regions, giving preference to the 
lord of the eclipse. And if several rivals be found on 
either count, we shall prefer for the domination the 
one which is closest to an angle, or is more significant, 
or is more closely allied by sect,^ In the case of the 
fixed stars, we shall take the first one of the brilliant 
stars which signifies upon the preceding angle at 
the actual time of the eclipse, according to the nine 
kinds of visible aspects defined in our first com- 
pilation,^ and the star which of the group visible at 
the time of the eclipse has either risen or reached 
meridian with the angle following the place of the 
eclipse. 

When we have thus reckoned the stars that share 
in causing the event, let us also consider the forms 
of the signs of the zodiac in which the eclipse and 
the dominating stars as well happened to be, since 
from their character the quality of the classes 
aff'ected is generally discerned. Constellations of 
human form, both in the zodiac and among the 

in the superior hemisphere, or is " adding to its motion," 
or rising, or if these characteristics appear in all the rivals, 
that it is of the proper sect. 

* The reference is to the Almagest, viii. 4. They are 
npwivos dTrr]Xici)TTjs (matutine subsolar), npojivov fieaovpdvrjfia 
(matutine culmination), Trpcoivos Ai'</r (matutine setting), 
IxfcrqixPpu'os aLTrrjXiuiTTjs (meridianal subsolar), ixecrqfxPpn'ov 
fifoovpdinripLa (meridianal culmination), fifcrqfippivos At'^ 
(meridianal sotting), oipivos dTnyAicoTTjs (vespertine sub- 
solar), oipivof fifaovpdtnr)ij.a (vespertine culmination), and 
oijiivoi Xii/i (vespertine setting). 

171 



PTOLEMY 

KVK^^ov KOL rcov Kara roitg aTrXavel? dare/Da?, Trepl 
TO Tcbv avdpa)TT(x)v yevo'S Troiet to aTToreXovfjievov. 
80 Tojv 8e dXXoji' )(€paai(X)v ra fiev rerpd-noha Trepl to. 
ojjLO ta rcov dXoytov ^cocov, ra Se eprrvarLKa Trepl 
roiig o(f)eLg Kal ra roiavra. Kal ttolXiv ra pev 
diqpLOjhrj Trepl ra dvr'jpepa rcov l,a)OJV Kal ^XaTrrLKo. 
rou rcov dvdpcoTTWv yevovs, rd Se rjpepa rrepl rd 
)(pr]ariKd Kal xeipoijOr) ^ Kal avvepyrjriKa rrpos 
rds everrjpias dvaXoycjj'S rolg Kad' eKaara popcfxv- 
pacTLv, oiov ItTTTCov ri ^odJv Tj TTpo^drcjJv Kal rcov 
roLovrcxiv. eVt Se rojv x^paaicov rd p,ev rrpog 
Tat? dpKroLs pdXXov Trepl rd^ rijs yfJ9 at^j/iSt- 
ovs KLvijaeig, rd Se Trpds peurip^piav Trepl TCt? 
aTTpoaSoKT^rovs e/< tou depog pvaeis. TxdXiv he ev 
pev rolg rcov Trrepcorcov pop(f)copacnv ovres ol Kvpioi 
roTTOL olov IJapdevcp, To^orr], "Opvidt,^ 'Aerco ^ Kal 
roi£ roiovrotg, Trepl rd TTrrjvd Kal pdXiara rd els 
rpo^riv dvdpcoTTCJv rd avpTircopa ttolovolv, ev he rols 
vr]KroLg * Trepl rd evvhpa Kal rovs I'x^t'S'. Kal rovrcov 
iv p,ev TOts" daXarrioLS , olov KapKivw, AlyoKepip, 
AeX(f)lvi,^ Trepl rd daXdrria, Kal en rds rcov aroXcov 

^ Kai KaTaxpTjariKo. post \eiporiQr} add. PLNCam. ; cm. 
VMADE. 

2 'O/jFt^i VMADE, -OS PNCam.. 'Opviojv L. 

3 'Aerai VMADE, cf. Proc. ; rols 'Opi'fois PLNCam. 

* v-qKTols NAECam.^ ; cf. vr]x6fx€va Proc. ; vvktois alii 
Cam.^ 

* ^fX<f>wi VMADE, -uw PL, -I'a NCam. 

' Cf. i. 12 for classifications of the signs. Rhetorius, 
ap. CC'AO, i. 164 ff., names as signs of human form 
Gemini, Virgo, Libra, Aquarius, and (in part) Sagittarius. 

172 



TETRABIBLOS II. 7 

fixed stars, cause the event to concern the human 
race.^ Of the other terrestrial signs,^ the four- 
footed ^ are concerned with the four-footed dumb 
animals, and the signs formed like creeping things * 
with serpents and the like. Again, the animal '^ signs 
have significance for the wild animals and those which 
injure the human race ; the tame signs concern the use- 
ful and domesticated animals, and those which help 
to gain prosperity, in consistency with their several 
forms ; for example, horses, oxen, sheep, and the like. 
Again, of the terrestrial signs, the northern tend to 
signify sudden earthquakes and the southern un- 
expected rains from the sky. Yet again, those domi- 
nant regions that are in the form of winged creatures,^ 
such as Virgo, Sagittarius, Cygnus, Aquila, and the 
like, exercise an effect upon winged creatures, par- 
ticularly those which are used for human food, and 
if they are in the form of swimming things, upon 
water animals and fish. And of these, in the con- 
stellations pertaining to the sea,' such as Cancer, 
Capricorn, and the Dolphin, they influence the 

Among the extra-zodiacal constellations might be cited 
Orion, Perseus, Andromeda, etc. 

* Rhetorius, loc. cit., names Aries, Taurus, Gremini, Leo, 
Virgo, Libra, Scorpio. 

' Aries, Taurus, Leo, Sagittarius (Rhetorius, loc. cit.). 

* To be sought among extra-zodiacal constellations, such 
as Draco, rather than the zodiac. 

^ 8rjpiu)8r] ; Taurus, Leo, and Scorpio, according to 
Rhetorius, loc. cit. 

* Rhetorius, loc. cit., names Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces. 

' Rhetorius, loc. cit., designates as watery {ifvBpa) 
Pisc(!8, Cancer, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Sagittarius, of 
the zodiac. 

173 



PTOLEMY 

dvayajyai? iv Se rots' TTora^iiois olov 'YSpo)(6a) /cat 
'I)(dvaL, TTepi TO. TTOTCtjitta /cat to. TT-qyala ■ Kara Se 
TT]!' ^Apyaj TTepl dfx<f>6T€pa to. yeinrj. ojaavTOis 8'^ 
eV rots rpoTTLKol^ rj iGiqfxepivoZ? 6vt€9 KOivojg /xev 
7T€pi TO. Tov depos Karaar^piaTa /cat ra? otVeta? 
eKaaroL^ avTOJv c5pa? dTroreAouCTt rd? eina-qfiacrias, 
81 I'SicDS' Se /cat Tzept to eap /cat wept ^ ra e/c tt^? yr)? 
(I)v6p.€va. /caret /u-et' yd/3 rT]^ eapivTqv ta-qpiepiav 
6vr€<; TTepl rovs ^Xacrrovs rcbv SevhpLKoJv Kaprrtov, 
olou dp^TTeXov, CTVKTJg, /cat rcDi' (TvvaKp.ail,6uTaju • 
/card Se ri]!^ OepLvrjv rpoTTrjv TTepl rd? tcov /ca/arro- 
(f)opr)6evrcov (7uy/co/xtSd? /cat dvodeaetg • ev AlyvTrrcp 
Se tSi/cdi? /cat 7re/Jt tt^i' tov NeiXov dvd^aaiv • /card 
Se TTjv p.eroTTCopti'rjv la-qpLepiav rrepl rov anopov /cat 
rd xopTLKa /cat rd rotaOra • /card Se Tr]v -x^eLpiepLvriv 
TpoTTTjv TTepl rd^ Xaxciveia<; /cat rd /card tovtov tov 
Kaipov eTTiTToXdl,ovTa opveojv rj Ixdvcov yevrj eTt, 
Se /cat rd fxev IcnqpLepivd tols iepoi^ /cat rat? vrept 
Tovg deovg dp-qoKeiatg eTTicrr^fiaivet • rd Se TpoTTiKd 
Taig Tcbv depcov Kal ra?? rcDt- ttoXltlkcov etdLapLei'ojv^ 
/Ltera^oAat? ■ rd Se areped rots ^e/xeAtot? /cat rot? 
OLKohopLrjjiaoL ■ rd Se SlacofMa Kal tols dvdpojTTOi's 
/cat rot? ^aatXevaiv. op.oioi'S Se /cat rd /xei' Trpos 
Toi? dvaToXals [xdXXov exovTa ttjv deaiv ev to) 
Xpdvo) TTJg e/cAeif/recu? TTepl tovs Kapvovs /cat T-qv 
veav -qXiKLav /cat tovs dep.eXiovs to ioojJLevov 
ar)p.aivei • rd Se TTpos to) vTTep yrjv pLeaovpavrj- 
/Ltart TTepl rd iepd /cat tovs ^aaiXeas /cat T-qv p.earjv 
■qXiKLav • Td Se Trpos rat? SuCT/xat? Trept rd? rcDr 

' oiaauTois. ol S(€) MNCam. 

174 



TETRABIBLOS II. 7 

creatures of the sea and the sailing of fleets. In the 
constellations pertaining to rivers, such as Aquarius 
and Pisces, they concern the creatures of rivers and 
springs, and in Argo they affect both classes alike. 
Likewise stars in the solstitial ^ or equinoctial signs 
have significance in general for the conditions of the 
air and the seasons related to each of these signs, 
and in particular they concern the spring and things 
which grow from the earth. For when they are at 
the spring equinox they affect the new shoots of the 
arboreal crops, such as grapes and figs, and what- 
ever matures with them ; at the summer solstice, the 
gathering and storing of the crops, and in Egypt, 
peculiarly, the rising of the Nile ; at the autumn 
solstice they concern the sowing, the hay crops, and 
such ; and at the winter equinox the vegetables and 
the kinds of birds and fish most common at this 
season. Further, the equinoctial signs have sig- 
nificance for sacred rites and the worship of the gods ; 
the solstitial signs, for changes in the air and in 
political customs ; the solid signs,^ for foundations 
and the construction of houses ; the bicorporeal, for 
men and kings. Similarly, those which are closer to 
the orient at the time of the eclipse signify what is 
to be concerning the crops, youth, and foundations ; 
those near the mid-heaven above the earth, con- 
cerning sacred rites, kings, and middle age ; and 

iC/. i. 11. ^Ibid. 

' TO tap Kod nepl PLNCam.Proc, cm. VMADE ; kcu (post 
lap) om. PLN. 

^ i6iap.(vu)v VD, iQioyiutv MAE, dOi/icui' NCain., tdn'jfxojv P, 
eidvfiwv Li. 

175 



PTOLEMY 

vofiifxcov ixerarpmras /cat ttjv TTaXaiav rjXiKiav Kal 
Tovg KaTOi)(o^ei>ov^ . 

Kal nepl to ttoutov Se ficpo^ rov VTTOKcifxevov 

82 ycVou? r] SidOeai? eTveXevaeTai , to re Trjg €7naKOTrj- 

aecos Tcov GKXeiipeojv jxeyedog inro^aXXei Kal at twu 

TO a'iTlOV €{X7TOLOVVTOJV aUTepiOV npO? TOV eKXcLTTTlKOV 

TOTTOv a^eaeL's. iarrepioi jxev yap G)(rjixaTLl,6pL€voL 
TTpos TO,? rjXiaKo.'S €KXet>p€L'S,^ ea)oi 8e 77^09 ras" 
aeXr^viaKa? , eVt to eAarrov cog inl ttolv hiaTidiaai • 
hiafxeTpovvTe? 8e errl to rj[xi(Tv ■ dcooi Se a)(rjpLaTL- 
t,6fi€voL 77p6? Tag rjXiaKag rj ecTTreptot npog ra? 

<7€X7]ViaKa9 €771 TO TrAetoi' 

<7}.> n € pi T rj 9 av T ov TOV aTT o T eXi a- 

fXaTOS TTOLOTTjTO'i 

TerapTOv 5' cctti Ke(f)dXaLov to nepl avTrjg ttjs 
'OV drroTeXeapLaTO'; iroLOT-qTOS, tovt€Gtl, noTepov 
dyadibv rj tcov ivavTtoju cctti TroLrjTLKov Kal rrohaiTov 
e^' cKaTepoi' KaTO. to tov e'tBovs Ihiorpoirov. tovto 
8e (XTTo Tijq t(x>v OLKoSeaTTOTTjadvTiDv aoTepojv toj)? 
Kvpiovs TOTTOvs TTOirjTLKrjs <j)V(T€(xig KaTaXafi^Bduerat 
Kal Trjg avyKpda€co<; Trj<; t€ npog aXXr^Xovs Kal rovg 
TOTTOU? Kad^ Sv dv (hat T^TVXjqKOTe? . 6 pcev yap 
t]Xlos Kal rj aeXrjinj hiaTdKTai /cat ^ (jjoTrep -qyenoueg 

»eVAfiVe'J V.MADEProc, om. PLNCain. 
^SiaTOLKTai Koi VD, BiaTeraKTai Kai MAE, SiaTaKriKol (om. 
Ka) P (-T01K-) LNCam. 

1 Planets become feminized by the occidental position 
(c/. i. 6) and hence opi^oso the sun; in oriental position 

176 



TETRABIBLOS II. 7-8 

those near the Occident, concerning change of cus- 
toms, old age, and those who have passed away. 

To the question, how large a portion of the class 
involved will the event affect, the answer is supplied 
by the extent of the obscuration of the eclipses, and 
by the positions relative to the place of the eclipse 
held by the stars which furnish the cause. For 
when they are occidental to solar eclipses,^ or oriental 
to lunar, they usually affect a minority ; in oppo- 
sition, a half; and the majority, if they are oriental 
to solar eclipses or occidental to lunar. 

8. Of the Quality of the Predicted Event. 

The fourth heading concerns the quality of the 
predicted event, that is, whether it is productive of 
good or the opposite,^ and of what sort is its 
effect in either direction, in accordance with the 
peculiar character of the species. This is appre- 
hended from the nature of the activity of the 
planets which rule the dominant places and from 
their combination both with one another and with 
the places in which they happen to be. For the 
sun and the moon are the marshals and, as it were, 

they are masculinized and oppose the moon. Hence the 
effect is minimized. When, however, they work with the 
sun (in oriental position and masculine) or with the moon, 
the eclipse has a greater effect. VJ. Bouche-Leclercq, 
p. 353, n. 3. 

* As Bouche-Leclercq (p. 355) points out, the natural 
tendency in antiquity would be to assume that any eclipse 
portends evil. Ptolemy's predilection for classification 
causes him to examine tlie (|u<^stioii in the iiglit of the nature 
and characters of the planets (c/. i. 5). 

177 



PTOLEMY 

eicri. Twv aAAcoi^, avTol atVtot yevofjievoi tov t€ Kara 
TTjV evepyeiav oXov kol rrjs tcov aar€po)v oIkoBc- 
aTtOTLas KOL eVi TrjS rcbv otKobeGvorrjadvTOJV loxvos 
rj dSpaveiag. rj he raJv tt^v Kvpiav Xa^ovruiv avy- 
KpaTLKTj Oeojpia r-qv twv dTToreXeafiaTCOv SeiKwai 

TTOLOTT^Ta. 

83 ^Ap^ofxeda 8e rrjs Kad eKaarov tcDi' vXavoiixevwv 
TTOir^TiK-qs ^ tStoT/JOTTt'a?, eKelvo koivojs Trpoe/c^e'/xevot 
6Tt T'^S" K€(f)aXaLa)hovs VTTOixvrjaeios eveKev (hs orav 
Kad^ oXov rivd Xeycofxev rcov TreVre darepcov Trjv 
Kpdaiv /cat to TToi-qriKov rrj^ opioia^ <f)va€a)s vvo- 
XrjTTTeov, idv re avTog eV rfj iSi'a 7} Kara- 
ardaei, idv re Kal tcov d77AaP'a;v' rt? f) ratv tov 
^6t)8ta/co£! TOTTCov Kara rr^v oiKetav avrov Kpdaiv 
Oecjprjrai • Kaddrrep dv et tcov (f>va€OJv kol tcov 
TToiOTr]TO}v avTU}v Kal fjir] tcov doTepojv CTvyxo-vov 
at TTpoarjyopLat Kal otl ev Tat? avyKpaaeoi TraAtv 

OV fJiOVOV TTjV TTpOS dXXljXoV9 TCOV 7TXaVOJ[X€VO)V jJU^LV 

Set aKOTTelv, dXXd Kal tyjv npos tovs TTJg avTrj? 
(f)va€cos KeKOLvojvrjKOTas tJtol drrXavels doTepa? r] 
TOTTOV? TOV t^cobtaKOV Kara ra? (XTroSeSety/xeVa? 
avTCJV TTpos Tovs TrXdvTjTas avvoiKeicoareLS. 

'O fjiev ovv TOV Kpovov doTTjp pLovos Tr]v oiKohe- 
OTTOTiav Xa^ojv Kad^ oXov p.ev (f)6opd^ Ti]s Kara. 

' TToi-qTLKijs VMADEProc, 4>vaiKfjs PLNCam. 

'According to the anonymous tomnientator (p. 71, ed. 
Wolf), the reason why the kuninaries exert such power is 
that they are tlie ones which submit to ecHpse and thereby 
determine the places of eclipses and the rulers of these 
places. 

^ Cardanus, p. 201 : "... when he says, for example, 

178 



TETRABIBLOS II. 8 

leaders of the others ; for they are themselves re- 
sponsible for the entirety of the power, and are the 
causes of the rulership of the planets, and, more- 
over, the causes of the strength or weakness of the 
ruling planets.^ The comprehensive observation of 
the ruling stars shows the quality of the predicted 
events. 

We shall begin with the characteristic active 
powers of the planets, one by one, first, however, 
making this general observation, as a summary re- 
minder, that in general whenever we speak of any 
temperament of the five planets one must under- 
stand that whatever produces the like nature is also 
meant,^ whether it be the planet itself in its own 
proper condition, or one of the fixed stars, or one of 
the signs of the zodiac, considered with reference to 
the temperament proper to it, just as though the 
characterizations were applied to the natures or the 
qualities themselves and not to the planets ; and 
let us remember that in the combinations, again, we 
must consider not only the mixture of the planets 
one with another, but also their combination with the 
others that share in the same nature, whether they 
be fixed stars or signs of the zodiac, by virtue of 
their affinities with the planets, already set forth,^ 

Saturn,* when he gains sole dominance, is in 
general the cause of destruction by cold, and in 

that Saturn does this or that, he understands this to refer 
not only to Saturn but to any star, even a fixed star, that 
may be of Saturn's nature ; as those in Cetus and some 
in Orion " (c/. i. 9). Similarly signs of the zodiac, or 
terms, could thus substitute for the planets. 

» i.e. in i. 9. 

* Cj. i. 5. Saturn is one of the maleficent planets {ibid.). 

179 



PTOLEMY 

if/v^LV earlv airio? ■ ibicog 8e Trepl jxkv avOpcoTTOvs 
yivo/xcvov Tov avfjiTTTWfiaTO? voaov? jxaKpas Kal 
(f)6ia€t,g /cat crvvT'q^eig Kal vypcov o;;^A7^CTei? /cai 
pev/JLariaiJiovs Kal TerapraiKa^ €7nar][xaaiag, (f)V'ya- 
Seia? re Kal aTTopias Kal (TVvo)(as Kal vevdrj Kal 
(f}6^ov9 ' Kal davdrov? pLaXiara rwv rrj i^Ai/ct'a 
TTpo^e^TjKoroJv ifXTToiel. rcjv Se dXoyoJV t,(x)it)v 
TT€pl rd €V)(pr]aTa cos inl Trdv, andvLv re /cat 
Mtu)v ovtcov (f)6opds acjopbariKas Kal pogottolovs, v<f>' 
wv Kal ol xpi^f^dficvoi rCbv dvdpwircov avvSiaTLddixevoi 
htacjydeipovTai . Trepl Se rrjv rov depog KaraoTaaiv 
ifjvx'^ (f>o^epd Trayojhrj Kal ofJiLxXcohr) Kal Aot/xiKa, 
Svaaeplas re Kal avvve<j>ias koX ^6(f>ovs ' en 8e 
vi(f)eTCx)P TrXrjdos ovk dyadcop dXXd <f)6opoTTOi(vv, d<p 
a)v Kal rd KaKovpra ttjp dp6pco7TLPr)p (f)VGLP rdJp 
epTTeTOJP ovyKpiper at. Trepl he Trora/Ltoy? r] 6a- 
Xdrras kolvws /xer ;^et/xcL)vas' /cat aroXcop pavdyia 
Kal hvGTrXolag Kal twp 1)(6vcop eVSeiai^ /cat <f)Qopap, 
iSioj? Se eV fxep daXdrraig d/xTTcoTets' /cat TraXippota?, 
€771 8e TToraf^uvp VTreppuerpiap Kal KdKcoaip tcov -nora- 
fXLOJV vSdrcov. irpds 8e rovs rfjs yrjs Kapirov'S eVSetav 
Kal airdpLP Kal drrcoXeiap fidXiara rdJp eh ra? 
dvayKatas jj^peta? yipofiepcop rjroL vtto /caju-TTTj? r) 
aKplSos iq KaraKXvaiJbcop vbdrcov ?} o/xj8pa>»' eTn(f)opds 
7) ;;^aAd^7y? 7} tix)p tolovtojv, ojs Kal p-^XP^- At/xou ^ 
(f)ddpeiP Kal TTJs TOLavTTjs tcop dpdptvTTCDP dTTOjXeias . 

' <f)6povs \TVrADICN (mg.) Proc. Cam.^ (asterisco notatum) ; 
(fovovs NCam.' (asterisco notatum), (f>wv' P, ^ocoi L. 
« Xifxov VMDEProc, Xoinov PLNACam. 

180 



TETRABIBLOS II. 8 

particular, when the event concerns men, causes 
long illnesses, consumptions, withering, disturbances 
caused by fluids, rheumatisms, and quartan fevers, 
exile, poverty, imprisonment, mourning, fears, and 
deaths, especially among those advanced in age.* 
He is usually significant with regard to those dumb 
animals that are of use to man, and brings about 
scarcity of them, and the bodily destruction by 
disease of such as exist, so that the men who use 
them are similarly aff'ected and perish. With regard 
to weather, he causes fearful cold, freezing, misty, 
and pestilential ; corruption of the air, clouds, and 
gloom ; furthermore, multitudes of snowstorms, not 
beneficial but destructive, from which are produced 
the reptiles ^ harmful to man. As for the rivers and 
seas, in general he causes storms, the wreck of fleets, 
disastrous voyages, and the scarcity and death offish, 
and in particular the high and ebb tides of the seas 
and in rivers excessive floods and pollution of their 
waters. As for the crops of the earth, he brings 
about want, scarcity, and loss, especially of those 
grown for necessary uses, either through worms or 
locusts or floods or cloud-burst or hail or the like, 
so that famine and the destruction of men thereby 
result. 

^ Saturn (Kronos) is pictured as an old man. 

* For rains of fish, frogs, and other things c/. E. S. 
McCartney, Tra?is. Am. Phil. Assn., 51, 112 ff., and 
CUmsical Weehiy, 24, 27 ; also A. S. Pease, ed. of Cicero, 
De divinatione, p. 274. Mice, frogs, insects, and the like 
were thought to be spontaneously generated from earth, 
mud, or rain ; cf. Tliorndike, Hiitory of Magic and Ex- 
perimental Science, i. 325, 491. 

181 



PTOLEMY 

O Se Tov A log /Ltdz^o? rrjv Kvpiav Aa^^cov Kad^ o\ov 
fxev av^rjaccog ioTL TToirjTLKog, ISCwg 8e Trepl yikv 
ai'dpcjTTovs yevopievov tov aTToreXeapiaTOS Sd^a? 
aTToreAei /cat everrjpiag ^ Kal evdrjvLag Kal Kara- 
ardaeig elprjVLKas ^ Kal rcvv €7nTT]S€LCov av^rjaeis, 
€ve^iag re aio/jLariKas Kal iJjvxi-Kds ' en he. evep- 
yecrta? re Kal Scvpeas and rwv ^aaiXevovTcov , avrcbv 
T€ €Keivojv av^-qaeis Kal fieyaXeLOTrjras Kal jxeyaXo- 
t/jvxio.s. Kad^ oXov T€ evSaLfjLovias ia^rlv atriog. 
Ttepl he TO. aXoya t,(x)a rojv jxev eiV XPV^'-^ dvOpco- 
TTLvrjv haifjiXetav Kal TToXvTrXr^diav TTOiel, rcov he eig 
TO evavTLOV <j>dopdv re Kal dircjXeLav . evKpaTOv he 
TTjv Tojv depoiv KaTaoTaaiv /cat vyLeLVT]v Kal 
TTvevpLaTcohr) Kal vypdv Kal dpeTTTLKTjv tcov eTTiyeioiv 
drrepyd^eTai, gtoXcov re evTrXoias Kal TTOTapLcjv 
cnjp.p.eTpov<; dva^daeis Kal Tcbv KapTTtov hatffiXeiav 
Kal oaa tovtois TrapaTrXT^aia. 

'O he tov "Apems fxovos ttjv OLKoheoTTOTLav Xa^dyv 
Kad^ oXov fiev ttjs KaTa ^-qpaaiav cf)6opd9 ioTLV 
a'iTios, IhiCDS he Trepl p.ev dvdpcoTTOvs yivofxevov 
TOV avp.TTTO}fxaTOS TToXepiovg ep,Troiel Kal OTaaeig 
epi(f)vXiovs Kal alxP'O.Xojaias Kal dyhpaTTohiapLovg 
Kal eTTavaoTdaeis ^ Kal X'^^^^^ rjyefxovojv tovs 
T€ hid Twv TOiovTOiv QavaTOVS al(f)VLhiovs , en oe 
voGovg TTvpeKTiKas Kal TpiTa'tKag iTnarjpLaaiag Kai 
atfJidTajv dvayojyds Kal o^eias ^Laiodavaatag * 
/ACtAiCTTa Tciir dKfxaLiov • o/jLOLcog he ^iag re /cai 

* eratjoeiay Cam.' 

2 Post elp-qviKUS add. /cai (verrjpias Cam. 2, om. libri Proc. 

182 



TETRABIBLOS II. 8 

When Jupiter ' rules alone he produces increase in 
general, and, in particular, when the prediction is 
concerned with men, he makes fame and prosperity, 
abundance, peaceful existence, the increase of the 
necessities of life, bodily and spiritual health, and, 
furthermore, benefits and gifts from rulers, and the 
increase, greatness, and magnanimity of these latter ; 
and in general he is the cause of happiness. With 
reference to dumb animals he causes a multitude and 
abundance of those that are useful to men and the 
diminution and destruction of the opposite kind. He 
makes the condition of the air temperate and health- 
ful, windy, moist, and favourable to the growth of 
what the earth bears ; he brings about the fortunate 
sailing of fleets, the moderate rise of rivers, abund- 
ance of crops, and everything similar. 

Mars, when he assumes the ridership alone, is in 
general the cause of destruction through dryness and 
in particular, when the event concerns men, brings 
about wars, civil faction, capture, enslavement, 
uprisings, the A\Tath of leaders, and sudden deaths 
arising from such causes ; moreover, fevers, tertian 
agues, raising of blood, swift and violent deaths, 
especially in the prime of life ; similarly, violence, 

' A beneficent planet. 

' oxXwv (naiaordafis PLNCam., Xauiv t-navatrrdods Proc. ; 
o;^Aa>i' om. VM.ADE. 

* dpfi'as ptaiodaiaaias VD, 6^€is Kol piaioi ddvaroi Proc, 
o^fias fiiodavaaia^ MAE, o^eias Kai ^lodafaaias P (/3icu-) L, 
dfet'aj voaovs Kal fiiodavaaias NCani. 

183 



PTOLEMY 

v^peis Kal TTapavofxcas e}XTTp-qa€LS re /cat avhpo- 
<f)OVLas Kal ap-nayas Kal XrjaTeia? • irepl he rrjv tov 
aepos KaraoTacrLv Kavoojvas Kal rrvevpLara Oeppia. 
saXoiixiKOL Kal avvr-qKriKa Kepavviov re a.(f>€a€i^ Kal 
TTprjorrjptxiv Kal avop-^piag • rrepl he ddXarrav ^ 
aroXojv {xev alcf)vihta vavayia 8ta TTvevfidroiV 
araKrojv r) Kepavvwv rj rcjv roiovrwv , TTorajxajv he 
XeiifjvhpLag Kal dva^-qpavaeis Trrjycop Kal (f)6opdv rwv 
7TorLp.a>v ^ vhara)v • Trepl he rd inl rrjs yrjs ^ 
eTTirr^heLa Trpos ;^p7jatv dvdpcjTTLvrjv ru)v re dXoyojv 
t,ix)0}v Kai ru)v e/c rrj^ yrjg ^vopievoiv airdviv Kal 
(f)dopdv Kapiruiv rrjv yLvop.evrjv rJTOi €K rcov rov 
Kavp.aros Kara^Xe^etov -q ^pov^ov 7} ttj? toDv 
7Ti>ev[xdra)v eKrivd^eajs ^ "q eV tt^s" ev rat? dTTodecreai 
avyKavaecos. 

'0 he rrjs 'AcjjpohLrrjs p.ovo'S Kvpios yevopievos rov 
avpL^aivovros Kad' oXov p.ev rd TrapaTcXiqaLa rw roP' 
ZJto? p.erd rivos eVa^poStcrtas' diroreXel, Ihiojs he 
TTepl fxev dv9pcx)TTOvs ho^as Kal rip.ds Kal ev(f)poavvas 
Kal everrjpia? evyap^iag re Kal 7ToXvreKvia<; Kal 
evapearrjaeis rrpos rrdaav avvappLoyrjv Kal rutv 
Krrjaeojv avvav^-rjaeLS Kal Siatra? KaQapiovs Kai 
evayojyovs Kal rrpog rd ae^dajxca rip-rfTiKd^ • en he 
awpuariKag eve^iag Kal Trpos rovs rjyepLovevovras 
cruvoLKetivaeis Kal rcov dpxdvrojv eTra^pohioias '^ 
TTepl he rd rov depo? TTvevpiara ^ evKpaaias ' Kal 
hivypcov Kal dpeTrrtKcordrajv Karaardaeis evaepias 

* irept 8c daXaaaav AG ; c/. Proc. ; tt. OaX. 8e ME ; it. Se 
BaXdooas VD ; rrdXiv Se eV daXdaaais PLNCam. 

* noTLncDv VDGProc. ; noraniwv alii Cam. 

184 



TETRABIBLOS II. 8 

assaults, lawlessness, arson and murder, robbery and 
piracy. With regard to the condition of the air he 
causes hot weather, warm, pestilential, and withering 
winds, the loosing of lightning and hurricanes, and 
drought. Again, at sea he causes sudden shipwreck 
of fleets through changeable winds or lightning or the 
hke ; the failure of the water of rivers, the drying 
up of springs, and the tainting of potable waters. 
With reference to the necessities produced upon the 
earth for human use, he causes a scarcity and loss 
of dumb animals and of things which grow from the 
earth, and the loss of crops by drying as the result of 
hot weather, or by locusts, or by the beating of the 
winds, or by burning in places of storage. 

Venus, when she becomes sole ruler of the event, 
in general brings about results similar to those of 
Jupiter, but with the addition of a certain agreeable 
quality ; in particular, where men are concerned, she 
causes fame, honour, happiness, abundance, happy 
marriage, many children, satisfaction in every mutual 
relationship, the increase of property, a neat and well 
conducted manner of life, paying honour to those 
things which are to be revered ; further, she is the 
cause of bodily health, alliances with the leaders, 
and elegance of rulers ; as to the winds of the air, 
of temperateness and settled conditions of moist and 



' enl rfji yfjs VG, e'jrr/ y^s D, tK rijs yi^j Proc. ; om. 
PLMNAECain. 

* ^ Ppovxov . ■ . iKTivd^ewi era. NCam. 

* (■na<f)pohiaias codd. Cam.*, ewot'aj Cam.* 

* TTVivixara VAD, -wv alii Cam. 

'' iVKpaaias VMADKG, (VKpdruiv PLNCam. 

185 



PTOLEMY 

re /cat aWplas Kal uSarcuv yovi^cov haifjiXeZs irrofi- 
^ptag, CTToXcDV re evTrXoiag Kal €TnTV)(Las Kal imKep- 
Sia? ^ Kal TTorapicJJv TrX-qpeig ava^daeis " en ^ 8e 
87 rcui^ ei);^pT^CTT6DP' ^uScuv' ^ /cat tcui/ ttjs" yrj? KapTTcov 
/xaAtCTra SaifjiXeLav Kal ev(f>opLav Kal ovqaLV ijJiTTOLel. 
'0 8e Tov 'EppLov TTjv OLKoSeaTTOTLav AajSojp' Kad* 
oXov pL€v, wg dv fj crvyKipvdpievos eKaaroj tojv dXXoiv, 
avvoLK€iovrai ralg eKetvojv ^vaeatv • lhico<s 8e ecrri 
Trai'Tajp' pidXXov avyKiv^TiKos /cat er /xei^ avOpannvoLS 
aTTOTeXeapaaiv o^vg Kal TTpaKTiKoiraros /cat npog 
TO v7TOK€Lp,€vov evp,ri)(^avo's , Xr^aTrjpLOJv 8e /cat /cAo- 
TTCuv /cat TTeiparLKajv €(f}6hcxiv Kal eTTideaecov * ert 8e 
SuCTTrAotas" ^ TTOLrjTLKog eV rot? 7t/)6? roy? /ca/coTTOtou? 
o)(rjpaTLapLols, voawv re atrto? ^rjpcov Kal api(f>'q- 
fiepivcov €7TLar7] p,aGia>v Kal ^tj^lkcov Kal dva<j>opLKa>v * 
/cat (f>6ia€cov • dTroreAeCTri/co? re /cat roii' 77epi toi/ 
UpaTLKov Xoyov Kal rds rojv deujv dpT]aK€Las /cat 
TO.? /3acrtAt/ca? TTpoaoSov? eTTLavp-^atvovTCDv Kal t^? 
Tcui' idifjicov rj vopiipaiv Kara /catpou? ivaXXonoaeojs 
OLK€LOjg rrj Trpos avrovs eKacrrore rdJv acrrepiov 
auyKpdaei. -npos 8e ro Trepiexov /xaAAo;^ ^r]p6s iov 
Kal evKLvrjro'S 8ta tt^v Trpo? toi^ i^Atov eyyvrrjra /cat 
TO Ta;(o? TT/? di'a/cy/cAT^oecus' 7TV€vp,arojv araKrcov 
Kal o^eojv Kal evperajioXcov p.dXiara KivqriKos 
VTrdpxei-j ^povrajv re eiKoroiS /cat 7Tp-qarr]p(jov Kat 
j^acr/xciTCOi' /cat aeiapicbv Kal darpajrcov aTToreXea- 
riKos • rrj? re 8id TOUTa>v eviore rrepl rd rcbv ^ojcov 

* eiTt.Ktp8{e)ias VMADEG, eniKfpSfis NLCam., infiKepSeis P. 
« In VMADEG, eV PLNCara. 

186 



TETRABIBLOS II. 8 

very nourishing winds, of good air, clear weather, 
and generous showers of fertilizing waters ; she 
brings about the fortunate sailing of fleets, successes, 
profits, and the full rising of rivers ; of useful animals 
and the fruits of the earth she is the preeminent 
cause of abundance, good yields, and profit. 

Mercury, if he gains the rulership, is, generally 
speaking, in nature like whatever of the other planets 
may be associated with him. In particular, he is 
above all stimulating, and in predictions concerning 
men is keen and very practical, ingenious in any 
situation ; but he causes robbery, theft, piracy, and 
assault, and furthermore, brings about unsuccessful 
voyaging when he is in aspect with the maleficent 
planets, and occasions diseases of dryness, quotidian 
agues, coughs, raising, and consumption. He is the 
cause of events taking place which concern the priestly 
code, the worship of the gods, the royal revenues, 
and of change in customs and laws, from time to 
time, in consistency with his association with the 
other planets on each occasion. With reference to 
the air, since he is very dry and swift on account 
of his nearness to the sun, and the speed of his 
revolution, he is particularly apt to arouse irregular, 
fierce, and changeable winds, and, as might be ex- 
pected, thunder, hurricanes, chasms in the earth, 
earthquakes, and lightning ; sometimes by these 

* Toil' evxprjOTwv ^ojcuv ktX (gen.) VMADEG, rois evxp^cnois 
^ciots ktX. (dat.) PLNCam. 

* xal i-nuOiofwv VMADE ; kox om. GPLCam. ; im&l N, 
(TTidfiKos Ciiin.*, cTTideriKos PLCam.' 

''BvanAolas VMADECProc. Svow{o)(as PLNCam. 
" avmfiopiKijjv libri (d<f)opiKcov D) Cam.^ Proc. ; dvairvoiKciv 
Cam.* 

187 



PTOLEMY 

Koi Tojv (f)VTCov €vxpy]OTa <f>dopd9 TTOirjTiKos , vSaroiv 
i T€ Kai TroTajjLcov iv fxev rais" Svaeai GTcp-qriKo^ , ev 
8e Tat? dvaroXal'; TiXrjpmriKo? . 

'ISloJS ixev ovv TTJs OLKeias cf)va€(jog €TnTV)(cov 
CKaaros to. roLavra aTTOTeAei, uvyKipvafxevog 8e 
ctAAo? aAAoj Kara tov9 avax'r]P'O.Tt(J[xovs /cat ra? twu 
t,(x)SLOJu evaXXota)G€LS ^ Kal ra? rrpog ■^Xlov (f>daeLS, 
avaXoyojs re Kat rrjv ev rot? evepyiqpLaai avyKpaaiv 
Xapu^dvajv , /cat jjLeixtyfievrju e/c tcou K€KOLvojvr]KVi,o}v 

(f>Va€CxiV TTjV 7T€pl TO aTTOTeXoVfieVOV IhiOTpOTTLaV 

■noLKiXrjv ouaav dTT€pya.Z,eraL • aTrelpov '^ 8e ovtos 
Kal dhwdrov tov /ca^' eKdaTrjv avyKpaaiv to thiov 
V7TO[xv7]fxarl^eLv diroreXeaixa /cat rrdvrag d7rAa>9 tov9 
Had oTTOLOvovvBTQTTore rpoTTOv ava)(rip-o-Tiap.ovs 8t- 
e^eXdelv ovtco ye TroAu/xepcD? voovfxevovs, eiKOTCos 
av KaTaXei^Oeirj to toloOtov etSo? eirl rfj tov 
fxadrjiJiaTLKOv tt/do? Tas" KaTa fiepos hiaKpiaeis 
em^oXfj Kal eTTivoia. 

UapaT-qpelv Se Sei^ Kal ttws exovai OLKetcoaeajg 
ot Tou TTpoTeXeafxaTOS ttjv Kvpiav Xa^ovTes aaTepeg 
TTpos auTd? Tas x^^po-^ ^ ^ds" TrdAet? at? to avp.TTTa>jxa 
StaoTjjLtatVeTat • dya^OTrotoi p.ev yap ovTeg aaTepeg 
Kal avvot.K€LoviJL6voi Tolg SLaTLdejxevoig Kal /xr) 
KadvTTepTepovjjievoL vtto twv ttjs evavTias alpeaeois 
€Ti /xdAAot- d7Tepydt,ovTaL to KaTa ttjv oiKeiav (f}vaiv 

' evaXXoKoaeis] ei'oAAayds NCam. 
^ OLTTfipov] dnopov NCam. 
3 Sei] 8eov NCam. 

' That is, exchange of houses. 
^ CJ. i. 8. 



TETRABIBLOS II. 8 

means he causes the destruction of useful animals 
and plants. At setting he diminishes waters and 
rivers, at rising fills them. 

Such are the effects produced by the several 
planets, each by itself and in command of its own 
nature. Associated, however, now with one and now 
with another, in the different aspects, by the ex- 
change of signs,* and by their phases with refer- 
ence to the sun,2 and experiencing a corresponding 
tempering of their powers, each produces a char- 
acter, in its effect, which is the result of the mixture 
of the natures that have participated, and is 
complicated. It is of course a hopeless and im- 
possible task to mention the proper outcome of 
every combination and to enumerate absolutely all 
the aspects of whatever kind, since we can conceive 
of such a variety of them. Consequently questions 
of this kind would reasonably be left to the enter- 
prise and ingenuity of the mathematician,^ in order 
to make the particular distinctions. 

It is needful to observe what affinity exists between 
the planets which govern the prediction and the 
countries or the cities for which the event is signified. 
For if the ruling planets are beneficent, and have 
familiarity with the subjects affected, and are not 
overcome ■* by planets of the opposite sect, they more 
powerfully produce the benefits natural to them ; 

* fiadyjuariKos is here used to mean "astrologer," as 
foroxam])loat the very end of the Tetrahiblos (p. 458, 1. 21). 

* KadvTTfpTfprjais, supereminentia, exists when oiio pliuiot 
is superior to another, or is to the right of another in the 
astrological sense (i.e. preceding it in the direction of the 
diurnal movement of the heavens). C'J. Bouche-Leclercq, 
p. 250. 

189 



PTOLEMY 

d)(f>4XlfJLOV, OJGTTep flT] CrVVOLK€lOVfJ,€VOl Tj KadvTTCp- 

S9 TepovfxevoL vtto t(x)v auTLKeifxevcov ^ttov ci)(f)eXovai. 
TTJg 8e ^XaTTTLKTJg KpdoeoJS ovres kol Tr]v KvpLav 
Xa^ovres rou TrporeXdapiarog , iav fiev avvoiKeiov- 
fxevoL Tolg BiartOep^evoLg Tvx<J^crLv rj KaOvTreprep-q- 
dcoaiv VTTO T(jL)v TTJg evavria^ alpeaecos , rjrrov 
^XaTTTOvaiv • eav Be p-'qre rrjv oiKoheaTTOTiav excooi 
Tcov x<Jjp<^v H-V'^^ KaduTTeprepcovTai vtto ru)v otVetcus 
TTpo'S avras ixovrcjv, a<^ohp6T€pov to ck rrj? Kpdaecos 
i^dopoTTOLov eTnaKrjTTTOvaiv . 6l»? evrt ttoLv fievroi 
cn>vep,7TLTTTOvai Tols KaOoXiKols Trddeaiv €K€lvol tcov 

dvdpcOTTCOV OCTOl TTOt' oiv ^ KaTCL TOLS tSl'tt? y€v€a€is 

TOV9 ai^ay/catOTarous' tottovs, Xeyoj Br) tovs (f>aja(f)o- 
povvTas Tj Tovg twv KevTpcov , tovs avTovs tvxojglv 
€XOVT€S Tols TO acTiov ip-TTOi-qaaai tcov KaOoXiKcbv 

aVfXTTTCOfJLdTajV, TOVt4gTI tols €kX€LTTTLKOLS r} KOL 
TOLS TOVTCOV BLaflCTpOLS. TOVTWV Be eTTlCTC^aAcCTTaTat 

fidXLGTa Kal BvacfjvXaKTOL TvyxdvovGLV al jJLOLpLKai 
Kade^eis r} Biap.eTp'qcreLS tcov eKXeLTTTLKcbv tottcov 

npOS OTTOTepOV tcov (f>COTO)V. 

<d.> He pi ;)^pa)ju.aTajt' tcov eKXeitpecov 

Kal K O jXTj T CO V Kal TCOV TOLOVTCOV 

Tr)pr)Teov Be Trpos ra? Kad' oXov TrepLOTdaeis Koi 
TO. nepl Tcts eKXeLiJjeLS ;^/3aj/^taTa tJtol tcov c^cotcov 

' 77ot' Slv om. PLNCam. 

' A geniture (horoscope, nativity) of any individual or 
event has as its point of departure the horoscope in the 
proper sense, i.e. the degree of the ecliptic which is rising 

190 



TETRABIBLOS II. 8-9 

even as, when they beeir no familiarity, or are over- 
come by their opposites, they are less helpful. But 
when they are of the injurious temperament and 
govern the prediction, if they have familiaritv with 
the subjects affected or are overcome by the opposite 
sect, they do less harm ; but if they are neither 
lords of the countries nor are overcome by the 
planets that have familiarity with those countries, 
they exert all the more intensely the destructiveness 
of their temperament. Usually, however, those men 
are affected by the more universal ills who in their 
own genitures happen to have the most essential 
places,^ by which I mean those of the luminaries or 
of the angles,'^ the same as those that furnish the 
cause of the general misfortunes, that is, the places 
of the eclipses or the places directly opposite. Of 
these the positions most dangerous and hardest to 
avoid are those in which either of their luminaries 
is in possession of the verj' degree of the place of 
the eclipse, or the degree opposite. 

9. Of the Colours of Eclipses, Comets, and the Like. 

For the prediction of general conditions we must 
also observe the colours at the time of the eclipses, 

above the horizon (in the ascendant) at the moment. 
This point determines a series of divisions of the ecliptic 
of 30° each, a duodecimal system superimposed upon 
that of the zodiacal signs and differing theretrom. 
These divisions are the " places " (also called " houseg," 
somewhat ambiguously) of the geniture. 

*Tho angles, or centres, of a geniture are the horoscope 
or orient, the superior mid-heaven (upper culmination), the 
Occident, and the inferior mid-heaven (lower culmuiation). 
See Bouch^-Leclercq, pp. 257-269. 

191 



PTOLEMY 

avrojv 7j Tcov rrepl aura yivofjLevojv avcrrrjiiaroiv , 
OOoiot' pdfihow r) aXiov 7) ra>v tolovtojv . /xe'Aava /xev 
yap 7] VTTox^copo- cf)au€VTa arjjJiavTiKa yiverat rayv em 
TTJ^ rod Kpovov (fyvoecog eip-qp-evwu ■ XevKo. 8e rcbu 
€771 rfjs rod Ai6<; • VTTOKippa he rajv errl rrjs rov 
Apecog • ^ai^^a 8e rwv errl rov rrjs ^A(l>pohLrr]s " 
TTOLKiXa Se ra)v eVi rrj? rou 'Epfiov. Kav jxev iv 
oXois rolg CToj/xaat rcov (f)ajra)v rj ev oXols rols Trepl 
avra roTToig ro yLvop-evov i8t6t»/xa T7y? xpoids cfjaC- 
vTjrat, TTepl ra irXeZara p-eprj rwv )(u>pa>v earai ro 
dTToreXead-qaofievov idv 8e oltto pepovs olovhrj- 
TTore, TTepl eKelvo p.6vov^ ro pepog, Kad ou dv Kal 
Y) TrpoGvevuL's rov tSiaj/xaro? yiurjrai. 

T-qprjreov 8e ert Kal to,? avviarap^evag rjroi Kara 
Toi;9 eVAetTTTtKroi)? Kaipovg rj Kal oreSi^TTore Kop,r)ra)v 
€77i0ai'et'a? Trpog rag Kad^ dXov TrepLordaeig, olov 
roJv KaXovpeioju SoklSojv rj aaXTriyycov 7) rriOojv Kal 
rwv roLOvrcov^ d)g dTToreXeapariKas fxev <f)vaei rwv 
inl rod "Apews Kal rwv rov ' Epjxov ISiwpdrwv Kal 
TToXepwv 8e Kal KavawSwv ^ rj KivrjrLKWv Karaarrj- 
fidrwv Kal rwv rovroig emavpi^aLvovrwv , S-qXovaag 
Se Sid piev rwv rov ^cuSta/cou pepwv, Kad^ wv dv 
ol avordaeis avrwv (fjaivwvrai , Kal rwv Kara rd 

-• fiovov VMADGProc, nev ov PL, om. NECam. 

^ Kavoiobwv VMADE ; c/. Proc. ; Kavcrcovcav alii Cam. 

' " Luminous sheaves," according to Bouche-Leclercq, 
p. 355. The expression must refer to rays of light. 

192 



TETRABIBLOS II. 9 

either those of the himinaries themselves, or those 
of the formatious that occur near them, such as 
rods,^ halos, and the hke. For if thev appear black 
or liv-id they signify the effects which were men- 
tioned in connection with Saturn's nature ; ^ if white, 
those of Jupiter ; if reddish, those of Mars ; if yellow, 
those of Venus ; and if variegated, those of Mercury. 
If the characteristic colour appears to cover the 
whole bodv of the luminary or the whole region sur- 
rounding it, the predicted event will affect most of 
the parts of the countries ; but if it is in any one 
part, it will affect only that part against which the 
phenomenon is inclined. 

We must observe, further, for the prediction of 
general conditions, the comets ^ which appear either 
at the time of the eclipse or at any time whatever ; 
for instance, the so-called " beams," " trumpets," 
" jars," and the like,* for these naturally produce the 
effects peculiar to Mars and to Mercury — wars, hot 
weather, disturbed conditions, and the accompani- 
ments of these ; and they show, through the parts of 
the zodiac in which their heads appear and through 
the directions in which the shapes of their tails point, 

^ Cf. i. 4, for the powers of Saturn and the other planets. 

»C/. BoU-Bezold-Gundel, pp. 51, 129; who quote 
Julius Caesar, ii. 2, " When beggars die, then are no comets 
seen ; the heavens themselves blaze forth the death of 
princes." 

* Other astrologers and non-astrological writers classified 
the comets much more elaborately by their shapes and 
their associations with the planets, of which they were 
supposed to be the fiery missiles ; Ptolemy is much more 
conservative in what he says. See Bouche-Lodercq, pp. 
.3.58-.3")9. and for a more detailed ancient account Hophaos- 
tion of Thebes, pp. 97, 31—99, 22 (ed. Engelbrecht). 

193 



PTOLEMY 

ap^^T^/iara rfj? kojxt]^ Trpoavevaeojv tou? tottous' of? ctti- 
aKrjTTTOvai ra uufXTTrcv [xara • Sia 8e tcov avTrjg rfjs 
avardaecDg (vavep fiopcficoaecov to ctSo^TOvaTToreXea- 
fxaro? Kal to yevo'^ Trepi o to -nddos aTTO^-qaerai ' 
91 8td Se Tou XP^^^^ "^^ eTTLfxovrjg ttjv Trapdraaiv rojv 
(TVHTTTCOfjidTCOv ' Sto. 8e rfjg Trpog rov rjXiov ax^crecog 
Kal ' rrjv Karap)(ijv, €TT€ihrjTT€p iwoL fjiev cttI ttoXv 
(fiaLvofxevai rd^iov eiriarniaivovaLV , iaTrepioi Se 
jSpctSiov. 

<i.> He pi T rj g tov Itou? vovfirjvia?^ 

^eScLypLdvrjg 8e Try? e<f)68ov rrjs Ttepl rag Kad* 
oXov TTepiardaeis x^P^^ "^^ '^ci' TToXecov, Xoittov av 
etr] Kal irepl roJv XeTTTOfiepeaTepajv VTTOjjbVT^fjLarL- 
aaadai • Aeyco 8e tojv evLavatojg rrepl rag copag 
aTTor^Xovpievoiv , vpog t]v eTTiaKufjiv Kal nepl Trjs 
KaXovjJievqs tov ctovs vovjxrjviag dpjJLO^ov av e'lrj 
7rpo8iaAa/Setf . oVt [jl€v ovv dpx'^v TavTTjv etvai 
TTpoorjKeL TrJ9 tov tjXlov Kad^ eKdarqu 7T€piaTpo(l)r]v 
aTTOKaTaaTdaecDg , St^Aoi' ioTtv avTodev Kal aTTo ttjs 
Svvdfjieivg Kal aTTO ttjs dvopLaaias. Tiva 8' av tc? 
dpx'^v VTTOGTT^aaLTo ev kvkXcx) pLev avTo piovov ctTrAai? 
oi)8' dv €7Tt,voT](TeL€v, €v 8e T<2) Sid pieaov tcov t^cpStcov 
piovag dv eiKOTcog dpxdg Xd^oi Ta vtto tov la-q- 
pLipivov Kal TCOV TpoTTLKwv d<f>opit,6pi€va GTqpLcla, 
TOVT€(TTt TCt T€ Svo Larjpiepcvd Kal Ta 8vo TpOTTLKa. 
ivTavda pLiVTOi tl? drropi^aeiev dv rjSr), tlvl TUiv 

» /cat VPLDG ; om. alii Cam. 

* Titulum post TTpoSiaXaPilv inser. GMProc. 

194 



TETRABIBLOS II. 9-10 

the regions upon which the misfortunes impend. 
Through the formations, as it were, of their heads 
they indicate the kind of the event and the class 
upon which the misfortune will take effect ; through 
the time which they last, the duration of the events ; 
and through their position relative to the sun like- 
wise their beginning ; for in general their appearance 
in the orient betokens rapidly approaching events and 
in the Occident those that approach more slowly. 

10. Concerning the New Moon of the Year. 

Now that we have described the procedure of 
prediction about the general states of countries 
and cities, it would remain to mention matters of 
greater detail ; I refer to events that happen yearly 
in connection with the seasons. In the investiga- 
tion of this subject it would be appropriate first to 
define the so-called new moon of the year.' That 
this should properly be the beginning of the sun's 
circular course in each of his revolutions is plain 
from the thing itself, both from its power and 
from its name. To be sure, one could not conceive 
what starting-point to assume in a circle, as a general 
proposition ; but in the circle through the middle 
of the zodiac one would properly take as the only 
beginnings the points determined by the equator 
and the tropics, that is, the two equinoxes and the 
two solstices. Even then, however, one would still 

' The new moon closest to the first of the year, as ex- 
plained later. 

195 



PTOLEMY 

T^rrapcov oj? TTporjyovfx^vcp xprjGaLTO. Kara fiev 
ovv TTjv dnXi^v Kal kvkXlkt^v (f)uaLv ovBev avTU)v 
iariv (Ls €TTi fjLLds o-px^S TTporjyovpievov ■ KexpT^vrai 
92 Se ol Trepi tovtcov ypdifjavTes, ev ri ^ vnoTidefievoi 
Siacf>6pcog , eKaara) tcov Terrdpcov cus' dp\'r]v Kara 
TLva? OLK€iov? Xoyovs Kal (f>vaiKdg avp-TraOeia^ ^ 
iv€)(GevTe's . Kal yap e;!^et ti tcov [xepdJv rovroiv 
cKaarov i^alperov d<f> ov dv apxf] Kal veov ero? 
€lk6t(d^ vofJLL^oiTO * TO fJi€V iapivov laT)p,€pivdv hid T€ 
TO TTpcoTCos" TOTe fi€LC,ova Trjv ripilpav rrjs wktos 
dpx^odat yiveadai Kal 8ta to tt]? vypd? tSpa? elvai, 
ravTTjv he rr)v (f)vaLV, co? Kal -npoTepov e(f)apLev, 
dpxopievai^ Tat? yeveaeat TrAeiOTT^v iwirdpx^i-v ' to 
8e depivdv rpoTTiKov 8ta to KaT avrd ttjv pieyiaT-qv 
•qfidpav dvoTeXeladai, irapd Se AlyvirrioLS Kal Trfv 
Tov NclXov dvd^aaiv Kal kvvos darpov e7nroXr)i> em- 
ar^ixaiveiv • to 8e fxeTOTTCoptvov larjpLepivov ^ bid to 
yeyovevai. TrdvTOJV rjS-q twv Kapirajv avyKOfLihriv, 
t6t€ 8e ttTr' dXXrjs dpx'fj'^ tov tmv €<Top,€va)v arropov 
Kara^dXXeaOai • to 8e ;!^ei/x.e/3ti'6t' TpoTTLKov 8ta to 
TTpcoTOv * dpx'^odai TOTE TO /xcyc^o? Trj9 rifjiepag aTro 
ixeicoaeio^ av^-qoLv Xajx^dveiv. OLKeioTepov Se p,oi 
So/cei Kal cf)vaiKa)Tepov irpos Tas eviavoLovs erTLCKe- 
^eis Tais T€TTapaLv d/ap^ats' XPV<^^^''> TTapaTy]povvTas 

1 €v ri VPLMADE, evC Tivc NCam.. ev r^ G. 

'^ ovfxnadelas VPLMADEG, efxTraOeias NCam. 

^ lo-qixepivoi om. NCam. ,,, 

* npcJTov VPLG, vpwTuis alii Cam. 

196 



TETRABIBLOS 11. 10 

be at a loss which of the four to prefer. Indeed, 
in a circle, absolutely considered, no one of them 
takes the lead, as would be the case if there were 
one starting-point, but those who have \vTitten on 
these matters have made use of each of the four,^ 
in various ways assuming some one as the starting- 
point, as they were led by their own arguments and 
by the natural characteristics of the four points. 
This is not strange, for each of these parts has some 
special claim to being reasonably considered the 
starting-point and the new year. The spring 
equinox might be preferred because first at that 
time the day begins to be longer than the night 
and because it belongs to the moist season, and this 
element, as we said before,^ is chiefly present at the 
beginning of nativities ; the summer solstice because 
the longest day occurs at that time and because to 
the Egyptians it signifies the flooding of the Nile and 
the rising of the dog star ; the fall equinox because 
all the crops have by then been harvested, and a 
fresh start is then made with the sowing of the seed 
of future crops ; and the winter solstice because then, 
after diminishing, the day first begins to lengthen. 
It seems more proper and natural to me, however, 
to employ the four starting-points for investigations 
which deal with the year, observing the syzygies 

* Bouch6-Leclercq, p. 129, with n. 1, points out that the 
Egyptian year began with the rising of SiriuB, which is 
close to Cancer ; that Cancer was the horoscope in the 
so-called Egyptian " theme of the world " (the horoscope 
of the universe, in which the planets, etc., were in the 
positions which they occupied at the very beginning) ; 
but that after Posidonius Aries was definitely recognized 
as the starting-poiiit of the zodiac. • i. 10. 

197 



PTOLEMY 

Ta? eyyiara avrcbv 7rpoyLi>ofX€pag rjXiov Kal aeX-qvrj^ 
avt,vyia^ crui^oSt/ca? 7] TravaeX'qvLaKa.s , Kal fidXiara 
ttolXlv rovTcov ras iKXenrriKas , tva oltto (lev rijs 
. iv rrj^ 7T€pl Kpiov apx^js to cap o'nolov earai 8ta- 
93 aKiTTTioixeda, oltto Se -njs" irepl rov KapKtvov to dipos, 
aiTo Se TTy? irepl ra.'s XrjXas to fieroTnopov, dno 8e 
rfj^ TTepl Tov AlyoKepcov tov ^^ei/u.cDi'a. ra? fiev yap 
Kad^ oXov TOJv (Lpcjv TToioTTjTas Kal KaTaaTO.aeL's 6 
■qXios TTOtet, Kad a? /cat ol navTeXaJs aTreipoi, fxadrj- 
p,aTOJv TTpoyvcoaiv exovai tov fxeXXovTOS. 

"Eti Se Kal ra? tcov ^ojSt'cDV ISiOTpoTTias €is t€ tcls 
Trapaarjixaaias dvefiojv t€ Kal tojv oXoax^pearepcov 
(f)va€a)v TTapaXrjTTTeov. rds" 8' iv tw fxoAXov rq '^ttov 
Kara Kaipovs ivaXXouoaeLS Kad^ oXov p,kv ttoXlv at 
TTepl TO. TrpocLprjpieva a-qfiela yivofievai CTU^uyiat /cat 
Ol TCOV TrXavqTcov irpos auras axfJp-OLTKifJLol Sclkvu- 
ovaL, KaTo. [xepos 8e /cat at Kad^ eKaaTOv ScoBeKaTT]- 
fiopiov avvoSoL Kal TravaeXrjvoi Kal TOiv daTcpcov 
eTTLTTopevaets , tjv 817 /x-qvLaiav^ CTTiaKeifnv dv ti? Trpoa- 
ayopevoi.^ 

UpoeKredrivaL * 8' 6(f>€LX6vTiov eiV tovto Kal tu>v iv 
fiepet Kara. l,o)Siov Tipos ra iviavaia /caraCTTTjjuaTa 
Toir (f>vaiKa>v tStCD/AciTcai' /cat ert tojv Kad' eKaoTOv 

' ev Tjj VDG, ev to) ME, om. PLNCam. ; dwo fitv t^s nepl 
rov Kp. a.px7Js A ; nepl ttjv tov Kpiov o.pxh^ Cam. 

• 7]v Si] p,r]v. VMDE, fjv S HTJV- G, fjv Sifirjveav PL, ^v 
Si/xr/viaiav Nt'am.^, ^v fx-qviaiav Cam.^, rjv hi) vovp/qviaiav A. 

^ TTpoaayopevoi VPLND. -rj G. -orf A, -aot, MECam. 

^ TrpoeKrtdrjvai. P(-7redij-)LMGE, -dilvan VNADCam. 

198 



TETRABIBLOS 11. 10 

of the sun and moon at new and full moon which 
most nearly precede them, and among these in 
particular the conjunctions at which eclipses take 
place, so that from the starting-point in Aries we 
may conjecture what the spring will be like, from 
that in Cancer the summer, from that in Libra the 
autumn, and from that in Capricorn the winter. 
For the sun creates the general qualities and con- 
ditions of the seasons, by means of which even those 
who are totally ignorant of astrology can foretell the 
future.* 

Furthermore, we must take into consideration the 
special qualities of the signs of the zodiac to obtain 
prognostications of the winds and of the more general 
natures ; ^ and the variations of degree from time to 
time are in general again shown by the conjunctions 
which take place at the aforesaid points and by the 
aspects of the planets to them, and in particular also 
by the conjunctions and full moons in the several 
signs and by the course of the planets. This might 
be called monthly investigation. 

As it is proper that for this purpose there be 
enumerated the peculiar natural powers of the several 
signs to influence annual conditions, as well as those 

' Cf. i. 2. 

•The Latin versiona interpret this sentence in sub- 
stantially the way here shown. The Paraphrase of Proclus, 
however, understands it to mean that the sun governs the 
qualities of the signs, the winds, and " certain other general 
matters " ; and the anonymous commentator also (p. 79, 
ed. Wolf) says, ■npovTraKovariov 6 ijAtos iroifl. By " the more 
general natures" doubtless are meant temperature and 
other things, besides the winds, that go to make up the 
weather. 

199 



PTOLEMY 

aaT€pcDv, Trjv fiev twv TrAai t^tojv Kal riov r^? ofjioia? 
Kpdaecos aTrXavcov Trpos tovs depas re Kai tov9 
dvejxovs ovvoLKeLcoaiv /cat en rrjv tcov oXoju ScoSe- 
Ka-rq/Jiopicov Trpos re toi)? dv€px)vg Kal rdj (Lpas, 
€Ka(JTa ^ SeBrjXcoKafJLev iv rot? ep-Trpocrdev. vttoXoi- 
94 7TOV 8' av 6117 Kal rrepl ttjs irrl p.epovs Tuiv ^(odicov 

<ia.> riepl TTJg p. e p L K rj s tt p 6 s rd k a t a- 
a T 7] p. aT a (f) v a e uj £ rtuv ^ coh I co v 

To p.kv ovv Tov KpLov ^coSeKarrjp.opLoi' Kad^ oXov 
fxev ioTL Bid Trjv la-qp.epLV7]v e7narip.aaiav ^povrdjBes 
7] j^;aAa^C(jSes" " Kara p-dpos Be iv tw p,dXXov Kal 
"^TTOv dTTO TTJs TCOV Kard Twv dTrXavibv darepajv 
lOLOTTjTO? rd /xev ■nporjyovp.eva avrov 6p.^pa)8rj Kal 
dvep-coSr], rd Se p.ecra evKpara, rd S' iTi6p.eva 
Kavawhrj Kal XoLp-iKa, rd 8e ^opeia Kavp.arcoBr^ /cat 
<f)dapTiKd, rd Se voria KpvaraXXcoSr] Kal vTTOilivxpa.. 

To Be rod Tavpov BwBeKaTrip,6pLOV Kad' oXov p.ev 
eoriv e7Tiarjp.avriK6v dp.(f)ore pcov rcov Kpdaeojv /cat 
VTTodeppov, Kard p.epos Be rd p.ev 7Tporjyovp.eva 
avrov, Kal /ioAtara ra Kara rr)v IJXeidBa,^ aeia- 
puLBrj Kal 7Tvevp.ara)Brj Kal op-ixXcoBr] , rd Be /xe'cra 
vypavrLKd Kal ifwxpd, rd Be e-nop-eva Kard ttjv 

^ fKaerra VMADK, 0111. alii Cam. 

«Tjjv mtidBa VMADEGProc., rag HXeidBas P {/7Aot-) 
LNCam. 

2U0 



TETRABIBLOS II. 10-11 

of the several planets, we have already, in what pre- 
cedes, explained the familiarity of the planets,^ and of 
the fixed stars of Uke temperament,^ wath the air and 
the winds, as well as that of the signs, as wholes,^ 
with the winds and seasons. It would remain to 
speak of the nature of the signs, part by part. 



11. Of the Nature of the Signs, Part by Part, and 
their Effect upon the Weather. 

Now the sign of Aries as a whole, because it marks 
the equinox, is characterized by thunder or hail, but, 
taken part by part, through the variation in degree 
that is due to the special quality of the fixed stars, 
its leading * portion is rainy and windy, its middle 
temperate, and the following part hot and pestil- 
ential. Its northern parts are hot and destructive, 
its southern frosty and chilly. 

The sign of Taurus as a whole is indicative of both 
temperatures and is somewhat hot ; but taken part 
by part, its leading portion, particularly near the 
Pleiades, is marked by earthquakes, winds, and 
mists ; its middle moist and cold, and its following 

»i. 4 and 18. * i. 9. 

• Cf. the chapter on the triangles, i. 18. 

* Ptolemy characterizes three parts of eawih sign, leading, 
middle, and following, besides the portions north and 
south of the ecliptic. The "leading" portion is so-called 
because it is the part which first rises above the horizon 
in the apparent diurnal movement of the heavens ; the 
"following" portion is the last of the sign to appear. 
" Leading " degrees, or signs, are regarded as being to the 
right of the " middle" and the "following." 

R 201 



PTOLEMY 

'Ydha TTvpcLhrj kol KepavvcoSr) /cat aarpaTTCov ttoitj- 
TLKO. • TO. he ^opeia euKpaTa, to. 8e voria Kiv7]TiKa 
/cat dVa/cra. 

To 8e TcJov AihvfJiajv hojheKaTrjfxopiov Kad' oXov 
/^teV iartv evKpaaias TTOL-qriKov, Kara fj-dpos 8e ra 
/Lter TTporjyovfiei'a avrov hlvypa /cat (f)daprLKd, to. Se 
fjLeaa evKpara, rd he erropLeva pLepny pieva /cat ara/cra • 
rd he jSdpeta TTi'evjxaTcohr] /cat aeiapLOTTOid, rd he 
voTia ^rjpd /cat Kavacohrj. 

To he rod KapKivov hojheKarrjpiopiov /ca^' oXov /xeV 
95 eariv evhiov /cat deppiov, /caret p-epos he rd piev 
7rporiyovp.eva avrov /cat Kara rriv 0drvrjv TTVLyuihr] 
/cat aeiapLOTTOid /cat d)(Xvd)hrj, rd he p,eaa evKpara, 
rd he eTTop-eva TTvevpLarcohrj • rd he ^opeia /cat rd 
uoria eKTTvpa^ /cat Kavacohr]. 

To he rod Aeovros hcoheKarr)p.6piov Kad^ oXov piev 
eari Kavpuarcohes /cat TTViycohes, /caret p-epos he rd 
piev TTpo-qyovpueva avrov TTViyojh-q Kol XoipuKa, rd 
he pieaa evKpara, rd Se eTTop-eva evt/CjLta ^ /cat (f)6opo- 
TToid • rd he ^opeia KLvqriKd /cat TTvpibhrj, rd he 
voria hivypa. 

To he rfjg Tlapdevov hajheKanqpiopiov Kad' oXov 
piev eon hivypov /cat ^povrcjhes , /card p.epos he rd 
p.ev TTporjyovpieva avrov deppLorepa /cat (fidapriKa, 
rd he pieaa evKpara, rd he erropieva vharcohr^ • rd he 
jSdpeta TTvevpLarwhr], rd he voria evKpara. 

1 Post eKTTvpa add. /cat <f>6afiTiKa PLNCam. ; om. VMADEG 
Proc. 

2 eviK^a VP(evTj»c/ta)LMADE ; evirypa Proc. ; dn/c/xa NCam. ; 

202 



TETRABIBLOS II. 11 

portion, near the Hyades, fiery and productive of 
thunder and lightning. Its northern parts are 
temperate, its southern unstable and irregular. 

The sign of Gemini as a whole is productive of an 
equable temperature, but taken part by part its 
leading portion is wet and destructive, its middle 
temperate, and its following portion mixed and ir- 
regular. Its northern parts are windy and cause 
earthquakes ; its southern parts dry and parching. 

The sign of Cancer as a whole is one of fair, warm 
weather ; but, part by part, its leading portion and 
the region of Praesepe is stifling, productive of earth- 
quakes, and misty ; its middle temperate, and its 
following parts windy. Its northern and southern 
parts are fiery and parching.^ 

The sign of Leo as a whole is hot and stifling ; but, 
part by part, its leading portion is stifling and 
pestilential, its middle part temperate, and its follow- 
ing portion wet and destructive. Its northern parts 
are unstable and fiery, its southern parts moist. 

The sign of Virgo as a whole is moist and marked 
by thunder-storms ; but, taken part by part, its 
leading portion is rather warm and destructive, its 
middle temperate, and its following part watery. 
Its northern parts are windy and its southern parts 
temperate. 

* " Fiory, destructive, and parching," according to 
certain MSS. See the critical note. 

203 



PTOLEMY 

To 8e rcx)v XrjXcov ha>heKarrjii6pLOv KaB* 6\ov [xeu 
ccTTi rpeTTTLKov Kai jxeTa^oXLKov ,^ Kara p.epo's he. ra 
fjiev TTporjyov^eva avTOV Kai ra /xe'cra iarlv evKpara, 
TO. he eTTOixeva vharcvh-q • to. he ^opeta TTvevjxarojhri, 
TCI he voTia eviKjjLa Kai XoipuKo.. 

To he Tov UKopTTLOV hcoheKaTTjiiopiov Kad^ oXov 
fxev ioTL ^povrcbhes Kai nvpcbhe^, Kara fiepos he to. 
fiev TTpo-qyovfieva avrov VKfyeTcohn), ra he jue'aa 
evKpara, ra he eirofieva aetaficohrj • ra he ^opeia 
Kavacohrj, rd he voTia eVt/c/xa. 
96 To he TOV To^oTOV hcoheKarrj/xopLOv Kad^ oXov jxdv 
iari TTvevpiaTOjhes, Kara [lepos he ra p.ev Trporjyov- 
fxeva avrov hivypa, ra he jxeaa evKpara, ra he 
eTTOfxeva TTvpcoh-q • ra he ^opeta 7Tvevp,ara)hr), ra he 
vona Kadvypa Kai pLera^oXiKa. 

To he rov AlyoKepio hcuheKarrjfXopiov Kad' oXov 
fiev iari Kadvypov, Kara [xepog he ra p-ev irporjyov- 
p.eva avrov Kavacoh-q Kai (f^dapriKa, ra he fxeaa 
evKpara, ra he eTTop-eva 6p,^piov KLirqrLKa • ra he 
^opeia Kai ra vona Kadvypa Kai (ftdaprLKa. 

To he rov 'Yhpoxoov hcoheKarrjfJiopiov KaO^ oXov 
jxev iart tpvxpov Kai vharcbhes, Kara pepos he ra 
pLev TTporjyovpeva avrov Kadvypa, ra he peaa ev- 
Kpara, ra he errop-eva rrvevparcLhrj ' ra he ^opeia 
Kavaojhrj, ra he vona vi^eroihrj. 

To he rcov 'Ix6va>v hioheKarrjpopiov Kad' oXov 
fxev can ipvxpov Kai TTvevparaJhe^, Kara p.epog he 
ra p,ev Trpor^yovpeva avrov evKpara, ra he peaa 
Kadvypa, ra he eTTopieva Kavacoh-q • ra he ^opeia 
TTvevparujhr], ra he vona vharcohrj. 

204 



TETRABIBLOS II. 11 

The sign of Libra as a whole is changeable and 
variable ; but, taken part by part, its leading and 
middle portions are temperate and its following 
portion watery. Its northern parts are windy and 
its southern moist and pestilential. 

The sign of Scorpio as a whole is marked by thun- 
der and fire, but, taken part by part, its leading 
portion is snowy, its middle temperate, and its fol- 
lo^vang portion causes earthquakes. Its northern 
parts are hot and its southern moist. 

The sign of Sagittarius as a whole is windy ; but, 
taken part by part, its leading portion is wet, its 
middle temperate, and its following part fiery. Its 
northern parts are ^vindy, its southern moist and 
changeable. 

The sign of Capricorn as a whole is moist ; but, 
taken part by part, its leading portion is marked 
by hot weather and is destructive, its middle tem- 
perate, and its following part raises rain-storms. 
Its northern and southern portions are wet and 
destructive. 

The sign of Aquarius as a whole is cold and watery ; 
but, taken part by part, its leading portion is moist, 
its middle temperate, its following part windy. Its 
northern portion brings hot weather and its southern 
clouds. 

The sign of Pisces as a whole is cold and windy ; 
but, taken part by part, its leading portion is tem- 
perate, its middle moist, and its following portion 
hot. Its northern parts are windy and its southern 
watery. 

' fitra^oXiKOv VLADE, nerapioX-qTiKov P, fxera^XTiTiKov 
MNGCam. 

205 



PTOLEMY 

<iP.> riepi T rj s €771 ficpovs T O) V 
KaTaarrifidrcDV eTTiCTfce'^eoj? 

Tovrojv Be ovtcos Trpoe/cre^et/xeVan^ at Kara fxepos 
€(f)oSoL TcDi' €771.07] ixaaicov 7r€pie)(Ovai rov rpoTTou 
TOVTOv. fxia fxev yap eariv rj oXoay^eplarepov Trpos 
97x0, TeraprrjixopLa voovixevrj, KaB^ rjv r7]peiv, <hs 
e<f)aixev, heiq<j€i ra? yLvojxevas eyyiara irpo ^ roiv 
TpoTTtKwv Koi LOT] fxe p Lvojv or^jjieiajv ^ avvoSovs iq /cat 
TTavareXrjvovs , /cat Kara tt^v fiolpav ^ tJtol avvoBiKr^v 
•^ TTavaeXrjvtaKTji' r-qv ev eKaaTCp tmv eTn^-qTOVixevcov 
wAtju.arcop' * to. Kevrpa to? eVt yeveaeojg Start^eVat • 
eTretra rovs olKoBearroras Xaj^i^dveiv rov re crvv- 
odtKov T] iravaeXrivLaKov tottov /cat rov eTTOfievov 
avTip K€vrpov Kara rov VTToSedeiyjjievov tjimv rponou 
if rolg epLTTpoodev Trepl rcou e/cAeti/feojVj /cat ovrcog 
TO jJiev /ca^' oXov Oecopelv e/c rijs rcov rerapr'qp.opLcov 

1 npo PLMNEProc.Cam.', npos Cam. 2, nepl to. TpomKo. ktX. 
A, om. VD. 

^ crqfxeiiov VDMEProc, a7]ij.ela A, arjfiaaiwv alii Cam. 

^ fiotpav GMEProc, om. in lacuna fere 3 litt. VD, av^vyiav 
A, om. alii Cam. 

* av^vyiav post KXifidrcov add. NCam. 



^ In the latter part of ii. 10. Cardanus, pp. 228-229, 
commenting on this chapter, says, after admiring the 
genius of Ptolemy, " For in this chapter he does five things. 
In the first place, he has declared the proper nature of each 
part of the year in general, which is predicted from the 
new moon or full moon preceding the ingress of the sun 
to the cardinal point. In the second . . . , the quality 
of each month from the new or full moon, following the 
ingress of the sun to the cardinal point. In the third 

206 



TETRABIBLOS II. 12 

12. Of the Investigation of Weather in Detail. 

Now that these facts have been stated in intro- 
duction, the method of dealing with the significa- 
tions in detail involves the following procedure. 
For one method is that which is more generally 
conceived, with relation to the quarters, which will 
demand, as we have said,^ that we observe the new 
moons ^ or full moons which most nearly precede 
the solstitial and equinoctial signs, and that, as the 
degree of the new moon or of the full moon may 
fall in each latitude investigated, we dispose the 
angles as in a nativity.^ It will then be necessary 
to determine the rulers of the place of the new moon 
or full moon and of the angle that follows it, after 
the fashion explained by us in the preceding sections 
dealing with eclipses,* and thus to judge of the 
general situation from the special nature of the 

place, he tells us how to know the nature of the weather 
of the fourth part of each month . . . and this is dis- 
covered not only from new moons and full moons but also 
from the quarters. ... In the fourth place, he shows us 
how to recognize each day the quality of the air . . . from 
the rising or sotting of the bright stars. In the fifth he 
teaches us to learn that same thing hour by hour from the 
passage of the luminaries through the angles at the time." 
The " quarters " mentioned by Ptolemy are the quarters 
of the year, or of the zodiac. 

* Literally "conjunctions" (awoSovs), but with special 
reference to those of the sun and moon ; hence, " new 
moons." 

* That is, determine the horoscopic point, mid-heaven, 
Occident, etc., at the time of the conjunction and construct 
the horoscope for the event as though it were a birth. 

* The rcfercnc(( is to ii. 4-8, especially c. 5, where the 
method of procedure is explained. 

207 



PTOLEMY 

iSi6t7]tos, to 8e /xaAAov ^ rj tjttov iTrndaecov koi 
aveaecov ck ttjs tcov oiKobeaiTOTrjadi'TOJv <f>va€ios 
SiaXafJi^dvovTas TToias re 77010x7^x0? et'o-i /cat Tioiojv 
KaTaarrjixaTcov klvtitikoL. 

Aevrepa 8' iarlv €(f)oSos rj iirjviaia, Kad* t]v he-qaei 
ras Ka9^ eKacrrov SojBeKaTqfiopiov Trpoayivoyiivas 
avvohov; r) iravaeXrjvov? Kara, tov avrov rpoTTOv 
€Tn<jKOTT€LV, eKelvo fiovov TTjpovvras, Iva avvohov 
fxev ipLTTeaovarjs ^ rfj? eyyiara rov TTapcoxy]lx€vov 
rpoTTLKOv r) larjfjiepLvov arjfjietov /cat rat? /^e'xP^ '''^^ 
i(f)e^rjg Teraprrjp.opLOV avvoSois ;^p7^CTca/xe^a, Trai^- 
aeX'qvov Se Trai'aeXijvoi? ' emaKOTrelv 8e 6p,oiois ra 
Kevrpa /cat tovs OLKoSeaTTorag dpL(f)OTepcov rcjv 
roTTcov /cat pLoXiara rdg eyyiara (f>da€LS avva(f>ds 
98 T€ /cat OLTToppoLas raJv nXavcofievcov darepcov, rd? 
T€ tStOTTjras' avTcov /cat roJv tottcov, /cat ttoloji' 
dvefiojv etCTi klvt]tlkoI avroi re /cat ra fiepr) roJv 
l^cphiojv Kad^ (Lv av rvx^iOLV • en 8e /cat a) to TrXd- 
rog TTj? aeXtjvrjg dvefJico TrpoavdvevKe Kara rrjv 
Xo^oiaiv rov 8ta fxeacov, oncjg e^ drrdprajv rovroiv 
Kara rr]v eTTiKpdrrjaiv rd cu? e-m ttolv rchv [xtjvcov 
KaraarijfJiara /cat TTvevfxara TrpoyivcuaKOJiJiev, 

TpLrrj 8' ecrrt to rds en XcTTrofxepearcpas eTnar)- 

» Twv fiaXXnv NAECam., rdlv om. VPLMDG. 

^ efineaova-qs VDG ; efiTrdarj Proc. ; eKireaovcnjs alii Cam. 

* The signs are taken as marking the months, and the 
new or full moons first occurring while the sun is in the 
several signs (hence following the entrance of the sun into 

208 



TETRABIBLOS II. 12 

quarters, and determine the question of degree of 
intensification and relaxation from the nature of 
the ruling planets, their qualities, and the kinds of 
weather which they produce. 

The second mode of procedure is based on the 
month. In this it will be necessary for us to 
examine in the same way the new moons or full 
moons that take place, in the several signs,^ observ- 
ing only this, that, if a new moon occurs nearest 
to the solstitial or equinoctial sign just past, we 
should use the new moons which take place as far 
as the next quadrant, and in the case of a full 
moon the full moons. It will be needful similarly 
that we observe the angles and the rulers of both 
the places, and especially the nearest appearances ^ 
of the planets, and their applications^ and recessions, 
the peculiar properties of the planets and of their 
places, and the winds which are aroused both by the 
planets themselves and by the parts of the signs in 
which they chance to be ; still further, to what wind 
the latitude of the moon is inclined through the 
obliquity of the ecliptic. From all these facts, by 
means of the principle of prevalence, we may predict 
the general conditions of weather and the winds of 
the months. 

The third step is to observe the even more minutely 

the sign, as Cardanus says) are to be observed. However, 
if, for example, in predicting the weather for the first 
quarter (spring), a now moon had preceded the first of 
Aries and had boon used in determining the prediction in 
the way just described, we are to use the new moons in 
Aries, Taurus, and Gemini for the monthly predictions of 
this quadrant ; if a full moon, the full moons. 
* Or apparitions. * See i. 24. 

209 



PTOLEMY 

fjiaaia? aveaecov Kal eTTLrdueoji' TTapaTrjpeiv. deco- 
pelrai he Kal tovto 8ta re rcov Kara fxepog rod 
rjXiov Kal TTJg aeX-qv-qg (JvaxflP-o.TLapLihv , ov jjiovov 
Twv crvvoSiKcbv ^ TTavaeX-qvLaKow dAAo, Kal tcov 
Kara ras BixoTOfJiovs , Karapxofievrjs cos eTTt ttoLv ttjs 
Kara rrjv eTTLarjfjLautav ivaXXotcoaecos irpo Tpicov 
rjfxepcbv, evLore Se Kal [xera rpels Trj<s laoaTa.9p.ov 
TTpos TOP -qXiov eTTLTTopevaeajs, Kal Sta rov Kad^ 
eKaarrjv ^ rcov tolovtojv ^ ardaeajv rj Kal tcov dXXcov, 
olov TpLycovcov Kal e^ayojvcov , Kal Trpos tovs TrXavrj- 
TttS" avaxi^p-o-Tiapiov. tovtcov yap aKoXovdcog ttj 
cf)vaeL Kal rj Trjg ivaXXouoaecos ihiOTpoiria /caraAa/x- 
^dv€Tai avfjic/jcovcos Talg re tcl)v eTTidecopovvTcov 
doTepcov Kal Tals tcov l,cpdLcov Trpos re to Trepii-^pv 
Kal Tovs dve/xovs <j>vaLKats crvvoLKeLcoaeaLV . 

AvTcbv 8e TOVTCOV TCOV KaTCL /Lte/DO? 7TOtOTy]TC0V ai 

99 Kad^ Tjpiepav eTrtraaei? ^ drroTeXovvTai , pidXtoTa puev 
OTav TCOV dvXavwv ol XapLirpoTepoi Kal SpacrTiKco- 
Tepoi (f)da€is icpas t) eaTTepcag dvaToXiKas tj Surt/cas' 
TTOiwvTai Trpog tov rjXiov ■ TpeTTOVcn yap cos em 
TToXv Tas KaTa p^epos /caracrTaCTets' Trpos" rds eavTCOv 
(f)va€is, ovhev Se eXaTTOv Kal OTav tlvI tcov KevTpcov 
TO. <f)C0Ta €TrnTopevrjTaL. 

ripos yap TOiS TOiavTas avTcbv o';^eCTe£? at Kad 
wpav dveaeis Kal eTriTdaeis tcov KaTacrTr)p.dTCOv 
/xerajSaAAoucrt, Kaddrrep TTpos tcls ttjs aeXrjvrjs at re 

^€Kaar-qv V^IADGProc, -ov P, -ov NLECam. 
'^ruyv roMVTwv VMADEG, tovtcov tCjv PL, tovtwv NCam.^, 
avTwv Cam.- 

^ tTTiTdaeis ^ dveaeis NACam, 

210 



TETRABIBLOS II. 12 

detailed indications of relaxation and intensification.^ 
This observation is based upon the configurations 
of the sun and the moon successively, not merely 
the new moons and full moons, but also the half 
moons, in which case the change signified generally 
has its beginning three days before, and sometimes 
three days after, the moon's progress matches that of 
the sun." It is based also upon their aspects to the 
planets, when they are at each of the positions of 
this kind, or likewise others, such as trine and 
sextile. For it is in accordance with the nature of 
these that the special quality of the change is appre- 
hended, in harmony with the natural affinities of the 
attending planets and of the signs of the zodiac for 
the ambient and the winds. 

The day by day intensifications of these particular 
qualities are brought about chiefly when the more 
brilliant and powerfid of the fixed stars make 
appearances, matutine or vespertine, at rising or 
setting, with respect to the sun.^ For ordinarily 
they modulate the particular conditions to accord 
^•ith their own natures, and none the less too 
when the luminaries are passing over one of the 
angles. 

For the hour by hour intensifications and relaxa- 
tions of the weather vary in response to such positions 
of the stars as these, in the same way that the ebb 

^ That is, in the predicted event. Ptolemy also uses the 
expression " the more or less " (to fxaXXov rj -^ttov) to refer 
to intensification and relaxation. 

*/.e. conjunction. 

'Holincal risings and settings may be meant; but see 
also the list of configurations given in the note on ii. 7, 
p. 171. 

211 



PTOLEMY 

afXTTOJTeig Koi at TTaXippoiai, Kal at tcov TTvevjidTCOV 
8e rporrai pcaXiara Trepl to.? rotauras" rcbv cfxDTCov ^ 
Kevrpcoaeig dTToreXovvTai irpo's oug dv tcov dvejxcov 
€7tI rd avrd to ttAcitos' ttj? aeX-qvrjg rag Trpoavevaeis 
TTOiovpievov KaTaXajJL^dvrjTai . -navraxov^ p,evTOi 
TTpoariKei StaXajji^dveiv to? Trpo-qyov piivqs ixkv rrjg 
KaB* oXov Koi TTpcoTT]? uTTOKet/Liei'Tj? alrlas, Itto- 
jjievrjs 8e rrjg rdJv Kara piepos eTnavpL^aivovToyv, 
^e^aiovpevrjg 8e pLaXiara /cat iG)(vpoTTOi,ovp,€vrj9 rrjg 
evepyeias , drav ol twv Kad^ oXov (f)uaea)v oiKoSeaTTO- 
T-qaavreg dcrrepeg Kal rat? eVt p,€povs Tu;^a»(7t 
ava')(riP'O.Til,6pievoi . 

100 <ty.> Tie pi TTJg r to v fierecLptov arqpLeno- 
a e CO s 

Xprjaip,oi S' dv etev Trpos rds twv Kara fJiepos 
eTTKJrjp.aaiihv Trpoyvcoaetg Kal at tcov yivop^evcov 
arjp.eicxjv Trept re tov tJXlov Kal ttjv aeXr]viqv Kal tovs 
dcrrepas TtapaTripiqaeis . 

Tov pi€V ovv rjXiov TTapaTrjprjTeov Ttpos jttev ras 
rjfJLeprjatovs KaTaaTdcretg dvaTeXAovra, irpos Se rds 
vvKTcpivas Siivovra, Trpos 8e rds TTapaTCivovaas 
Kara rovs Trpos ttjv aeXi^vrjv axy]p^o.Tiapiov?, (hs 
eKdoTov ax^P'CLTOs rr)v p-expt tov e^rjs KaTdaracnv 
(OS CTTt TTav TTpoarjpLaivovTog . KaBapos jJiev yap Kai 
dv€7TL<JK6Tr]TOS Kal evaTadrjS Kal dv€(f)eXos dvareX- 
Xcov ^ Svvcjov evSieivrjg Karaardaecos ian SrjXcu- 

Tt/COS"^ TTOLKlXoV 8e tov KVkXoV €X<J^V 7) VTTOTTUppOV 
T] dKTlVaS ipvdpds d7T07T€p,7TCOV TjTOL CtV TCI €^CO 7] 

212 



TETRABIBLOS II. 12-13 

and flow of the tide respond to the phases of the 
moon, and the changes in the air-currents are brought 
about especially at such appearances of the lumin- 
aries at the angles, in the direction of those winds 
towards which the latitude of the moon is found 
to be inclining. In every case, however, one should 
draw his conclusions on the principle that the univer- 
sal and primary underlying cause takes precedence 
and that the cause of particular events is secondary 
to it, and that the force is most ensured and 
strengthened when the stars which are the lords of 
the universal natures are configurated with the par- 
ticular causes. 



13. Of the Significance of Atmospheric Signs. 

Observations of the signs that are to be seen 
around the sun, moon, and planets would also be 
useful for a foreknowledge of the particular events 
signified. 

We must, then, observe the sun at rising to deter- 
mine the weather by day and at setting for the 
weather at night, and its aspects to the moon for 
weather conditions of longer extent, on the assump- 
tion that each aspect, in general, foretells the con- 
dition up to the next. For when the sun rises or 
sets clear, unobscured, steady, and unclouded, it 
signifies fair weather ; but if its disk is variegated or 
reddish or sends out ruddy rays, either directly out- 
ward or turned back upon itself, or if it has the 

^ <f>wTu>i> VJ'LDEO, (}>da€oji> NACam., <f>va(iov M. 
*7rai^axoD I'LNEPioc.Cam., TravTaxTJ VMADG. 

213 



PTOLEMY 

COS e^' ^ iavrov KVKXov^iva'S ^ 7) to. KaXovfiepa ^ 
TTaprjXia v€<f>iq e^ eVo? fjiepovg ex<JOv tj ax'^ilJ-o.ra 
V€(f>a)v VTTOKippa Kal cbael p.aKpas OLKrlvag oltto- 
[XTjKvvojv, dvep.CL)v acjyohpcov eari ar^jxavrtKo? Kal 
roiovroiv Trpos as av yojvias to. TrpoeiprjjjLeva arjp.eia 
yiirqraL. [xdXas 8e t] vrroxXcopog avaTeXXuiv r) 
hvvo}v fiera avvve(f)Las r) aAco? €X<JJv irepl avrov Kad^ 
ev jxepos T] e^ 6.pL(f}OT€pa>v rajv [xepoJu TTapiqXLa ve^r] 
Koi aKrlvas t) inroxXcLpovs "* r) fxeXavas, ;)(et/xajt'a>t' 
101 Kal vercov ecm SvjActJTtKOS". 

Trjv Se (jeXii^vr]v Trjpiireov ev Tats irpo rpicov 
rj/Jiepcov Tj /xera rpels TrapoSot? toov t€ cwvoSajv Kal 
TTavareXrjvcov Kal SixoTOfxatv. X^tttt] jxev yap Kal 
Kadapa (fyaivojJLevq Kal jxr^Sev exovaa irepl avTiQV, 
evBieLvrjs Karaardaecos iarL BrjXojTiKiq • XeTTTrj 8e 
Kal ipvdpd Kal oXov rov rod dcfxjjTLarov kvkXov 
exovua hia^avrj Kal VTroKeKLvqixivov , dvep,a}v iarlv 
imurjfxavTLK'q, Kad^ cLv av ^ jJidXiara TTOLrjrat. t-^v 
Trpoavevoiv • p-iXaiva 8e rj x^ojpd * Kal Trap^eia 
deojpovfJLdvT] ;^etjLic6va)v Kal opi^pwv earl hrjXiOTLKrj . 

riapar'qpyjTeov Se Kal rds rrepL avrrjv ytvopcevas 
dXws. €1 piev yap /xta eurj Kal avrrj Kadapd Kat 
r^pipia VTropLapatvopbivri , evhiav • el 8e Suo rj Kal 
rpeZs elev, x^i-P-divas hr]XovaLV • viroKippoi. piev ovuat 
Kal (Zairep ' p-qyvv^Lev at, rovs Sid a(f)oBpd>v avepicov • 
dxXvojheis 8e Kal Trap^etat, rovs 8ta vi(^er6Jv • 
VTToxXojpoi 8e 7] p.eXaivai Kal prjyvvpLevaL, rovs 8t' 
dp,(f)OTe pojv • Kal ocroj ^ civ TrXeuovs c6cti, ToaovTU) ' 

* i<{>' om. AECam. 
214 



TETRABIBLOS II. 13 

so-called parheliac clouds on one side, or yellowish 
forniations of clouds, and as it were emits long rays, 
it indicates hea\y winds and such as come from the 
angles to which the aforesaid signs point. If at rising 
or setting it is dark or livid, being accompanied by 
clouds, or if it has halos about it on one side, or the 
parheliac clouds on both sides, and gives forth either 
livid or dusky rays, it signifies storms and rain. 

We must observe the moon in its course three days 
before or three days after new moon, full moon, and 
the quarters. For when it appears thin and clear 
and has nothing around it, it signifies clear weather. 
If it is thin and red, and the whole disk of the un- 
lighted portion is visible and somewhat disturbed, it 
indicates winds, in that direction in which it is 
particularly inclined. If it is observed to be dark, 
or pale, and thick, it signifies storms and rains. 

We must also observe the halos around the moon. 
For if there is one, and this is clear, and gradually 
fading, it signifies fair weather ; if there are two or 
three, storms ; if they are yellowish, and broken, as it 
were, storms accompanied by heavy winds ; if they 
are thick and misty, snowstorms ; pale, or dusky, 
and broken, storms with both winds and snow ; 

^ KVKXovfjitvas G ; /cotAoJ/ievoc VMDE, -05 A ; KoXXovfievov P, 
KoXovfiivov L ; icAoj/xeVaj NCam. 

^ /foAou^eva VADEGProc. ; Xcyofxtva PLMNCam. 

* vTTox^^copovs VMAUEGProo. ; v-nwxpovs PLNCam. 
*Ka^' toK av VAD, Kad' av ME, KaO' o Nl'LCam. 

* X^ojpa] cf. Proo. ; ;)fAopd VD ; aixpa PLNACam. ; c!)xpa rj 
X^ajpa M, Tj x^^'P^ V ^XP^ ^• 

' aianep VMADE ; cuaet PXCam. ; oi? L. 

* 0010 VMADE, -ov PLNGam.Proc. 
'roaovTw VADE, -ovs M, -oi> PLNCam.Proc. 

215 



PTOLEMY 

fiei^ovag. Kol at Trept tovs darepag Se ^ tovs re 
TrXavo) {xevovs Kal tovs Xa^nrpovs twv OLTrXavajv aXu>s 
avvLardixevai eTnarnxaivovaL rd oiKela rot? t€ 
Xp(j^>lJ'0.ai.v iavTWv ^ Kal rat? riov ivaTreiXrjfiixevwv 
(f)va€ai. 

Kal rcjv (XTrAavaip' Se rcx>v Kara tl ttXtjOos avvey- 
yvs ovTCjv TTaparr^prjTeov rd xP^t^'^'''^ '^^^ "^^ 
102 fJt-^yedr) . XafnrpoTepoL ydp Kal fi€it,ov€S opcofievoL 
TTapd Tct? cruvqdeLs (jiavraaiag etV OTTOiovhriTTore fxepos 
OVTCS dvefxovs tovs dird rod oIkclov rorrov Siacrr)- 
fxaivovGiv. ov [i7]v dXXd Kal rwv iStcos ve<f)eXoei.ha>v 
avarpocfxjjv olov rfjs 0drvrjg Kal rcov o/xolcov, i-ndv 
aWpias ovarjs at avardaeis dfxavpal Kal a)aiTep ^ 
d^avels Tj TTeTTaxv/Jievai decopcovraL, (f>opds vBdrwv 
elal SrjXuirLKai • Kadapal Be Kal TTaXXofxevai avve- 
X'^'S O(f)ohpcx)v TTvevfidrcov • indv Se ra)v daripcov 
ra)v Trap e/carepa rrjg 0drvr]s ra>v KaXovpiivcJV 
"Ovcov 6 [xev ^6p€Los d(f)avrjs yevqrat, ^opeav 
TTvevaeiv arj/LtatVet, o Se vorios vorov* 

Kal r<ov imyivopiiviov Se Kara Kaipovs iv rots 
fierecopois at fxev rdJv KOjjirjriov avarpo(f)al tu? 
eTTt 7751^ avxP'OVS Kal dvdfxovs Trpoarjixaivovai Kal 
roaovrcp pL,eit,ovas oaoj dv e/c TrXeioviov jxepcov Kal 
€771 TToXi) rj avaraoLS yevqraL. 

Al Se StaSpojLtot ^ /cat ol aKovriayiol ^ rwv darepcov, 

^ TOVS darepas 8e VMADE ; om. alii Cam. 

* eavTOJv VMAD, avTcov alii Cam. 
^(LoTrep VMADEProc, naaai PLNCam. 

* enav . . . votov soli habent VDN(mg.)Caiii. ; om. 
PLNMAEProc, 

216 



TETRABIBLOS II. 13 

and the more of them there are the more severe the 
storms. And the halos that gather about the stars, 
both the planets and the brilliant fixed stars, signify 
what is appropriate to their colours and to the 
natures of the luminaries which they surround. 

As for the fixed stars which are close together in 
some number, we must observe their colours and 
magnitudes. For if they appeal- brighter and larger 
than usual, in whatever part of the sky they may 
be, they indicate the winds that blow from their own 
region. As for the clusters in the proper sense, 
however, such as Praesepe and the like, whenever in 
a clear sky their clusters appear to be dim, and, as 
it were, invisible, or thickened, they signify a down- 
pour of water, but if they are clear and constantly 
twinkle, heavy winds. Whenever, of the stars called 
the Asses on each side of Praesepe, the one to the 
north becomes invisible, it means that the north 
wind will blow, and the one to the south, the south 
wind.^ 

Of occasional phenomena in the upper atmosphere, 
comets generally foretell droughts or winds, and the 
larger the number of parts that are found in their 
heads and the greater their size, the more severe 
the winds. 

Rushing and shooting stars, if they come from one 

'This sentence is perhaps an addition to the text, since 
it does not occur in all the MSS. nor in Proclus ; it is 
to be found, however, in Hophaostion, p. 100, 31-33 (ed. 
En{j;c'lbrocht). Hephacstion's compilation dates, according 
to Engelbrecht, from the year 381. 

^ Sidhpofxoi VD, -at ME, 8ia8po)xiKal A, 8p6fj.oi Proc, 8te/c- 
hpofial PNCam., cVSpo/iut L. " dKovTiaral NCain. 

217 



PTOLEMY 

€1 fji€v 0.770 /xta? yLVOLUTO yojvlag, tov avr eKeivqg 
dvefjiov hrjXovcTLv • el 8' 0.776 rcbv evavricDv, aKara- 
araaiav TTvevfxaTCOV • el Se a776 tcDj.' rerTapajv, ttov'- 
TOLOvs ;\;etjixa>vas' l^'^XP'' ^povrcov /cai darpaTriJov /cot 
Tcov roLOVTOyv . dicravTCog 8e /cat to v€<f>'q ^ ttokol^ 
eplcov ovra TrapaTrX-QcrLa 7TpoSr]XcorLKd eviore yiveTat 
103 x^'-H'^^^^' ^^ "^^ avvLardpievaL Kara Kaipovs ipiBes 
)(€LfxdJvag [M€v ef evhlas, evhias Se eK p^et/xcoi/cuv 
TTpoorjpLaivovuL • Kal d)S e77t 7701^ avveXovTi elirelv, ai 
Kad^ 6X0V rod dipos eTnyLvopbevai IStoxpooL ^ <f>av- 
raaiai rd opiOLa S-qXovai rots vtto rcov olKeloiV 
crupiTTrcopidrcov Kara rd TTpoheSrjXojpieva Bid rd)v 
epbTTpoadev dTToreXovpievoi's . 

'H pL€V Bt} rcov KaOoXiKcov eTriaKeifjis, rd)v re 
oXoaxepearepcov decopovpievcov Kat rdjv em puepovs, 
p-expi- roaovrcov rjpilv /card to Ke^aXaicbhes inropiVT]- 
pLarLaOco. rrjs 8e Kard ro yeveOXiaXoyLKov eiSo? 
TTpoyvojoecog rds rrpayp-areia? iv rolg e^Tj? Kard 
rrjv TTpoo'qKovaav dKoXovdiav ecpodevuopiev. 

^ Post v(<f>r) add. ev ottolois av Jtoiv opiois NCam. ; om. alii 
Proc. 

- ISioxpooi MA, l8i6xp(jJOL VPLD, IBioxpovoi, NECara. 
(* notatum) ; cf. to. . . . xpti/^aTa Proc. 



218 



TETRABIBLOS II. 13 

angle, denote the wind from that direction, but if 
from opposite angles, a confusion of winds, and if 
from all four angles, storms of all kinds, including 
thunder, lightning, and the like. Similarly clouds 
resembling flocks of wool are sometimes significant 
of storms. And the rainbows that appear from 
time to time signify storms after clear weather and 
clear weather after storms. To sum up the whole 
matter, the visible phenomena, which appear with 
peculiar colours of their own in the atmosphere in 
general, indicate results similar to those brought 
about by their own proper occurrences, in the 
manner already explained in the foregoing.^ 

Let us, then, consider that thus far, in outline, 
there has been given an account of the investiga- 
tion of general questions, both in their more uni- 
versal aspects and in particular detail. In the 
following we shall supply in due order the procedure 
for the prediction which follows the genethlialogical 
form. 

^The purpose of this clumsy sentence seems to be merely 
to refer the reader to the account already given in ii. 9. 



219 



PTOLEMY 



BIBAION r 

<a.> npOOL/JLLOV^ 

*E(f>(x)h€viJL€i>rj<; rjiXLV iv rot? einrpoadev ri]'; TTcpl 
ra Kad' oXov cru/LtTTTCuyuaTa ^ deojplag, cog Trporjyov- 
jxevT)? Kal ra ttoXXo. KaraKparelv dwafieinr^g tcov 
776/31 eva eKaarov rcov dvOpcovcov Kara ro lSlov Tr]s 
^vaeiog aTTor^Xovpievcov , cbi' to Trpoyvcoari-Kov p-ipos 
lO'^yevedXiaXoyiKov KaXovpLev, ByuapiLu p.ev^ p.iav /cat 
Trfv avr-qv ap.(f)orep<jiv tojv etScDv rjyelaOaL TrpoarjKei 

Kal 7T€pl TO TTOnqTlKOV Kal TTepl TO QecoprjTLKOv, 

eireihriTTep Kal rcov Kad^ oXov Kal rwv Kad^ eva 
CKaarov avp.7Trcx)p,drwv alria piev rj rcov rrXavco- 
p.€vcov darepcov rjXiov re Kal aeX-qvrjg KLvrjatg, 
TTpoyvcoariKYj Sc rj rrjg rcov v7TOKeip,€vcov avrrjg 
(f)vaecov rpoTrrjg * Kara rag op.oLoax'tjp-ovag rcov 
ovpavicov TTapohovs hid rov rreptexovros eTTcari]- 
fiovLKT] TTapar-qptjaL'S , ttXtjv ecj)^ oaov rj fxkv KadoXiKt] 
TTepLoraaig jxei^cov re Kal avroreX-qg, rj 8' ctti 
pLepovs ovx op-oLcog. dpxds S' ovKert rds avrds 
dp.(f)orepcov vopLiareov elvai, d(f>* Sv rrjv rcov 
ovpavicov Siddeaiv virondepievoi rd Sid rcov rore 
ox'f]P-o.riapicov Grjp.aLv6p.eva Treipcop-eda Trpoyivco- 
OKeiv, dXXd rcov p.ev KadoXiKcbv TToAAas", eTteihrj 
fiiav rod Travrdg ovk exop.ev • Kal ravras ovk a7T 

' Ilpooifiiov VDProc. ; Uepl anopds kol fKrpoirijs PL (oTTwpds) 
NCam. 

^ Twv av^TrT<xiy.6.TCDV XCam., ovfiTmofiaTiov PL. 
' fiev om. PLNCam. 

220 



TETRABIBLOS III. 1 

BOOK III. 

1. Introduction. 

As in what precedes we have presented the theory of 
universal events, because this comes first and for 
the most part has power to control the predictions 
which concern the special nature of any individual, 
the prognostic part of which we call the genethlia- 
logical art, we must believe that the two divisions 
have one and the same power both practically and 
theoretically. For the cause both of universal and 
of particular events is the motion of the planets, 
sun, and moon ; and the prognostic art is the scien- 
tific observation of precisely the change in the sub- 
ject natures which corresponds to parallel movements 
of the heavenly bodies through the surrounding 
heavens, except that universal conditions are greater 
and independent, and particular ones not similarly 
so. We must not, however, consider that both 
divisions ^ employ the same starting-points, from 
which, by reckoning the disposition of the heavenly 
bodies, we attempt to foretell the events signified 
by their aspects at that time. On the contrary, in the 
case of the universals we have to take many starting- 
points, since we have no single one for the universe ; 

i/.c. general astrology and genethlialogical astrology. 

* ai^TTJs (fivafujv Tpo-rrfji PL, outtJ? <f>va(o)s jp. VD, ainwv 
4>vacoiv rp. A, avrwv (f>vaeujs rp. ME ; ovti^s TpoiTrjs NCain. 

221 



PTOLEMY 

avToyv Tcov vvoKeLixevcov TrdvTore Xajx^avoyLivas , 
dAAa Koi aiTo tcou Trepie^^ovTCjov kol t6.s alriag 
i7n(f)ep6vT<x)v • G)(€h6v yap rraaa^ ^ arro re roJv 
TeXeiorlpoiv eKXeiifjecov Kal tCjv einarnicos Ttap- 
ohev6vrix)v daTcpcov iTTLOKeTTTOfxeda • ^ tcjv 8e Kad* 
eva eKaGTOv rtov avdpwTTOJV Kai jxiav Kal TToXXds ' 
jXLav jjiev T7]v avrov tov GvyKpifxaTOS ap)(rjv ■ koi 
TavTqv ^ yap e)(OjJLev • iroWds Se rds Kara to e^rj9 

TOJV 7T€pL€)(6vTOJV TTpO? TT^V TTpCOTqV apX^jV €7TL(jr]- 

105)U.aaia9 avjjL^aivovaas,^ 7Tporjyoviu,€vrjs fxevrot ttj? 
jUta? evddhe etKorco?, eTreih-qTrep avrrj /cat Ta? 
dXXas ^ dTToreAet. tovtcov 8' ovroj'S exdvTCov (xtto 
fiev T7J9 TTpcjTTi's ap^^js deojpelraL Ta Kad oXov rrjs 
avyKpiaecos ISLcojxaTa, Sid 8e rcov dXXcov Ta Kara 
Kaipov? TTapd to fiaXXov kol tjttov crv[Ji^r]a6p.€va 
Kara Tas Xeyofxevas twv e^e^rjs )(p6v<jov Staipeaet?.* 
Apx'^s 8e ;\;/30vtK7j? VTrapxovar]? tojv dvdpcjTrivojv 
ri^eiov ' (jivaet puev ttjs /car' avTTjv ttjv airopdv, 
hvvdjx^i 8e Kal /card to avjji^e^rjKog ttjs /card t')7I' 
aTTOKviqaLV eKTpoTrrjg, iirl fiev tcDv iyvojKOTCov tov 

T7^? OTTOpds KaipOV tJtOI aVfXTTTCOIJLaTLKCOS ^ Kal 

7TapaT7]prjTtK<x)s eKeivu) ^ p.dXXov Trpoa-qKCL Trpos re 

' ndaas VPLAD ; iraoais MNECam.* (sed in mg. rj ndaas 
eTTioKeTTTOfieda). 

^ iTnoKeTTTOfxeOa VADECam.^, Cam.'' mg. ; -w/xeOa PL; 
fTiiaK-qiTTonida MNCam.* 

' KoX ravT-qv VPLD ; koi om. alii Cam. 

* avfi^aiveiv VPLMDE, -ovaas NACam. 

' Post aXXas add. cos to viroKeifxevov €l8iku>s (i8i/ftos NCam.*, 
■qSi-K-q P, ioriKfi LjPLNCam. ; om. VMADEProc. 

* Po8t 8iaipeo€is titulum Tltpl anopas Kal eKrponrjs add. 
VMADProc. ; om. E (spatio relicto) PLNCam. 

222 



TETRABIBLOS III. 1 

and these too are not always taken from the suhjects 
themselves, but also from the elements that attend 
them and carry with them the causes ; for we in- 
vestigate practically all the starting-points presented 
by the more complete eclipses and the significant 
passages of the planets. In predictions affecting in- 
dividual men, however, we have both one and many 
starting-points. The one is the beginning of the 
temperament itself,^ for this we have ; and the many 
are the successive significances of the ambients which 
are relative to this first beginning, though to be sure 
the single starting-point is naturally in this case of 
greatest importance because it produces the others. 
As this is so, the general characteristics of the 
temperament are determined from the first starting- 
point, while by means of the others we predict events 
that will come about at specific times and vary in 
degree, following the so-called ages of life.- 

Since the chronological starting-point of human 
nativities is natiirally the very time of conception, but 
potentially and accidentally the moment of birth, 
in cases in which the very time of conception is known 
either by chance or by observation, it is more fitting 
that we should follow it in determining the special 

'"Temperament" here is used in its astrological sense, 
of the mingling of physical and other traits which make 
up the individual. Cf. the similar use of Kpdais in i. 11, 
p. 64. 

^The "divisions of the successive times," i.e. the ages 
of man, are discussed in iv. 10. 

' re'^ecui' VD ; yeveafoiv (mg. : . . e^iov) N ; i^ecav A ; 
yeveatiuv alii Proc.Cam. 

* eVeiVw MAEProc. ; dKelvo alii Cam. 

223 



PTOLEMY 

TO. rov CTco/xaTO? koI to. t7J9 ^^XV^ iSicofJiaTa 
KaraKoXovdelv , ro TTOir^TiKov rov Kar^ avrov rcbv 
dcrrepcov axruJ^artafJiov Siacr/ceTrro/Ltei/ou?. drra^ 
yap iv oipxjj to OTrepiia ttolov ttcd? yevofxevov €K 
rrjg rod 7T€pU)(ovros StaSoaecus', Koiv Scdcfyopov rovro 
yivrjrai Kara rous icfie^rjs rrj^ acojxaroTroL'qaecos 
Xpovovs, avro rrjv oiKeiav fiovrjv vXrjv (J)V<jik(Jjs 
TTpoaemavyKpivov iavrio Kara rr]v av^rjoiv en 
fidXXov i^opLOiovrai rfj rrjs TTpcorrjS TTOLorr^ros ^ 
IhiorpoTTLa. 

'Ettl 8e rojv [xr] yivoiaKovroiv, orrep co9 cttl rrav 
avjJi^aLvei, rr] Kara rrjv iKrpoTrrjv apxf} xal ravrrj ^ 
106 TTpoaavex^tv dvayKalov, co? jJieylarr] /cat avrfj ^ /cat 
piovo) rovrcp rrjs Trpcx)rr]g XeLTTopievrj, ra> St' eKelvT^s 
/cat rd TTpo rrjg eKre^ews Swaa^at irpoyivixyaKeodai ' 
/cat yap el rrjv jjiev apx^jv dv rt? etTTOt, rr^v S warrep 
Karapx'^v, to pieyedog avrrjg ru) pLev xpovo) yLverai 
Sevrepov, 'iaov he /cat pidWov reXeiorepov rfj Swapuei, 
ax^hov re SiKatcus' eKeivrj piev dv 6vopidt,oi,ro (nrep- 
jLtaro? dvdpcoTtivov yevecng, avriq Se avdpcorrov. 
rrXetard re ydp rore TrpoaXapL^dvei ro ^pecfiog a purj 
Ttporepov, ore /caret yaorpos rjVy TTpoarjv avrw, /cat 
aura to, tSta pLovrj? rrjg dvdpojTrivrjS (f>vae(x)g, 6 re 
acopbarcoSrjg ax'rjpiarLapiO'S ' Kav pir]Sev avro) BoKrj 
ro /caret rrjv cKre^Lv Trepiexov els ro rouohe elvac 
avp,^dXXeadai , avro yovv ro /caret rov oIkclov rov 

^ TToioTTjTos VMADEProc. ; ISioTrjTos P {ISiw-) LNCam. 
^ TavTT) VAD, els ravra PNCam., els TavTr]v L, els r^v fiera 
ravrrj M, els r-qv fiera ravra E. 

8 'avT^ VPLMDE, ravrrj NACam. 

224 



TETRABIBLOS III. 1 

nature of body and soul, examining the effective 
power of the configuration of the stars at that time. 
For to the seed is given once and for all at the 
beginning such and such qualities by the endowment 
of the ambient ; and even though it may change 
as the body subsequently grows, since by natural 
process it mingles with itself in the process of growth 
only matter which is akin to itself, thus it resembles 
even more closely the type of its initial quality. 

But if they do not know the time of conception, 
which is usually the case, we must follow the starting- 
point furnished by the moment of birth and give 
to this our attention, for it too is of great importance 
and falls short of the former only in this respect — 
that by the former it is possible to have foreknow- 
ledge also of events preceding birth. For if one should 
call the one " source " and the other, as it were, " be- 
ginning," its importance in time, indeed, is secondary, 
but it is equal or rather even more perfect in poten- 
tiality, and with reasonable propriety would the 
former be called the genesis of human seed and the 
latter the genesis of a man. For the child at birth 
and his bodily form take on many additional at- 
tributes which he did not have before, when he 
was in the womb, those very ones indeed which 
belong to human nature alone ; and even if it 
seems that the ambient at the time of birth con- 
tributes nothing toward his quality, at least his 
very coming forth into the light under the appro- 
priate conformation of the heavens contributes, 

225 



PTOLEMY 

TTcpiexovrog a)(7]iiari(Jix6v elg (f>chs iXdelv cru/xjSaA- 
Aerat, ttjs (f>vc7eoJS fxera rrjv TeXeiojaiv Ttpos ro 
ofJLOioTVTTOV Kard(TTr]jjia rw Krar' ap)(a9 SiafJLopcfxjL)- 
aavTi pLepiKws rrjv opixrjv rrj'; e^oSou TTOLOvfjievrjg • 
OiUT ei)Adyaj? koX tcov tolovtojv rj-yeLodat SrjXu)- 
TLKov €Lvai rov Kara Tr]v eKTpoTnjv ^ tCjv aarepcov 
axr)iJiaTLapi6v, ovx to? TTOLrjriKov [xdvroL ttolvtcos, dAA' 
ibg €^ dvdyK-qg exovra Kol Kara <f)V(Tiv opLOLorarov 
rrj SvvdfX€L to TTOtrjriKov. 

ripodeaeojs 8e /card to rrapov tjixIv ovar]g Kal 
TOVTO TO fJiepog €(f)oSiKa)S dvaTrXrjpwaai Kara tov 
107 €v dpxjj TTJaSe ttjs avvTd^ecos V(j)rjyrjp,ivov im- 
XoyiapLov TTepl tov SvvaTOV ttJ? TOtavTrjs Trpo- 
yvwaecos , tov jjcev apxo-iov tojv rrpoppiqaecov TpoTTOv 
TOV /card to avyKpaTiKov ~ etSo? tojv duTepcov 
TrdvTCOV rj tojv irXeiaTiov , ttoXvxovv re ovTa /cat 
ax^^ov aTreipov, e'i tls avTov aKpt^ovv ideXoi /card 
TTjv Ste'foSov, Kal fxdXXov eV ratS" /card fxepog ctti- 
jSoAai? Tcov (j)vaLKd)S eTnaKeTTTOixevcov rj iv tols 
TTapaSoaeoL avadecopelaOai Bvvafxevcov, TrapatT-qao- 
jxeda Sid re to SvaxpyjoTov /cat to SuaSie^oSov. 
Ta? Se 7TpayixaT€ia9 aurd? 8t' cov e/caoTa rcDf 
elbdjv /card tov eTTL^XrjfxaTiKov Tporrov avvopaTai 
Kal Tas /card to IhioTpoTTOv /cat oXoax^p^OTepov 
tG)v doTipoiV Tipos e/cao-Ta Trotr^TtKd? Suvd/xeis' <h<s 
€vi fidXiOTa TTapaKoXovdrjTLKcos tc d/xa /cat eVt- 

^ fKrpoTTTjv VADEProc, Tponrjv PLMNCam. 
* ovyKpariKOV VAE ; cf. Kara ttjv ovyKpaav r€>v aoTepcou 
Proc. ; auyKpiTiKov MNDCam., -KpouKov PL. 

226 



TETRABIBLOS III. 1 

since nature, after the child is perfectly formed, 
gives the impulse to its birth under a configuration 
of similar type to that which governed the child's 
formation in detail in the first place. ^ Accord- 
ingly one may with good reason believe that the 
position of the stars at the time of birth is significant 
of things of this sort, not, however, for the reason 
that it is causative in the full sense, but that of 
necessity and by nature it has potentially very 
similar causative power. 

Since it is our present purpose to treat of this 
division likewise systematically on the basis of the 
discussion, introduced at the beginning of this com- 
pendium, of the possibility of prediction of this kind, 
we shall decline to present the ancient method of 
prediction, which brings into combination all or most 
of the stars, because it is manifold and well-nigh 
infinite, if one wishes to recount it with accuracy. 
Besides, it depends much more upon the particular 
attempts of those who make their inquiries directly 
from nature than of those who can theorize on 
the basis of the traditions ; and furthermore 
we shall omit it on account of the difficulty in 
using it and following it. Those very procedures 
through which each kind of thing is apprehended by 
the practical method, and the active influences of 
the stars, both special and general, we shall, as far 
as possible, consistently and briefly, in accordance 

' An assumption which Ptolemy does not think it neces- 
sary to demonstrate. The statement that the sign in 
which the moon was found at the conception would be in 
the ascendant at the nativity is attributed to " Nechepso 
and Potosiris " ; Boil-Bezold-Gundel, p. 154 ; c/. Bouche- 
Leclercq, pp. 376, 379. 

227 



PTOLEMY 

TeTfJir]ixevcos Kara rov ^vaiKov aTO)(ot,<y[x6v eKdrjcro- 
jxeda • Toys' fJ-^v rod vepLexovrog tottous rrpo'S ovs 
e/cacrra decopeirat rcbv dvdpcjoTTti'cov auiXTTrajpidTCDV, 
Ka9a.7T€p GKOTTOV ov Set KaTaaTOXo-^^adai,^ vpouTTo- 
TidefxevoL, TOiS Se rojv toi? tottoi? /car' iTTLKpd- 
rrjaiv rcov avvotKeiovfxlvoiv acojxaTCJV TroLrjTiKas 
SvvdjJieLS, u)UTT€p d^eaeis ^eXcjv, Kara to 6Xoa)(ep€- 
arepov i^appi6t,ovT€s , to Se e/c TTys" ovyKpdaecos 
rij? e/c TrXeLovcov (j>v(yeoiv TTepl to vTTOKciixevov efSo? 
avvayopu^vov aTTOTeXeafxa KaTaXnrovTeg, axTrrep 
108 e?3CTTo;^a) TO^orr^y toj tou SiaaKeTrTOfJievov AoyiCT/xo). 
TTpojTOv 8e 7T€pl Tcbv Kad oXov Sto. T7J9 KaTCL rqv 
eKrpoTTrjv dpx'rjs Oecopovfievcov TTOLiqaopLida tov Xoyov 
Kara ttjv rrpoa'qKovaav ttjs Ta^ecu? aKoXovdiav • 
TTavTiov ix€v, COS ecfiafjiev, tcov (f)V(nv i-)(ovTO)v Sta 
TavTTjs Xajx^dveadai hwafxivcov , avvepyrjaovrwv Se 
et Tt? eVt TT€ pie pydl,€<yd at diXoi irpos jJiova to, /car' 
avTrjv TT^v avyKpLGLV ^ ISicLfiara Kal tcov Kara tov 
ri]9 OTTopas ^ XP^^^^ ^ ^'■^ "^V^ avTrjs Oecopias 

VTTOTTlTtTOVTCOV IhlOjpidTOiV . 

<^.> lie pi /no I pa? (h poa KOTT OV 07]s 

'ErreLBr] rrepl rod 7Tpa>T0v Kal KvpicoTaTOV, rovTean 
TOV pLopiov TTJ? Kara ttjv iKTporrrjv copas, arropia 
yiverai TVoXXaKis, [lovrjg [xev (L? em irdv rrjg 8i 
dcTTpoXd^oJV copoaKOTTtoJV Kar avTTjv tt^v" eKTe^iv 

* Karacrroxd^eadai VMADE, TTpoKaTaaroxo-CeaOai. PLNCam. 
^ k-qt' avT-qv ttjv avyKpiaw VDPr(ic. ; /card rrjv avyK. PL A ; 
KOTO. avyK. NCani., r-qv avyK. (om. /card) ME. 

•' rov TTJs anopds VADE, rijs anopds PLM, ras anopias NCam. 
^ Xpovou libri ; -cov Cam. 

228 



TETRABIBLOS III. 1-2 

with natural conjecture, set forth. Our preface 
shall be an account of the places in the heavens to 
which reference is made when particular human 
events are theoretically considered, a kind of mark 
at which one must aim before proceeding further ; 
to this we shall add a general discussion of the active 
powers of the heavenly bodies that gain kinship with 
these places by dominating them — the loosing of the 
arrow, as it were ; but the predicted result, summed 
up by the combination of many elements applied to 
the underlying form, we shall leave, as to a skilful 
archer, to the calculation of him who conducts the 
investigation. First, then, we shall discuss in proper 
sequence the general matters the consideration of 
which is accomplished through the time of birth 
taken as the starting-point, for, as we have said, this 
furnishes an explanation of all natural events, but, if 
one is willing to take the additional trouble, by the 
same reasoning the properties that fall at the time of 
conception will also be of aid toward ascertaining 
the peculiar qualities that apply directly to the 
combination. 



2. Of the Degree of the Horoscopic Point. 

Difficulty often arises with regard to the first and 
most important fact, that is, the fraction of the hour 
of the birth ; for in general only observation by 
means of horoscopic astrolabes ^ at the time of birth 

1 An iiistiuiiiont consisting of a graduated circle with 
a movable arm by which angles above the horizon could 
be taken. 

229 



PTOLEMY 

hlO7TT€Va€C0? TOL? iTnaT1]^OVlKCl)<; TTapaTTjpovGi TO 

A€7tt6v ' TT^s" a>pas VTTO^dXXeiv hvvaixivrjs , twi' 8* 
aAAcut" ax^^ov aTrdvTCOv (LpooKOTricov, of? ol TrXeLaroi 
Toyv eTTLjjLeXeaTepcov Trpoaexovcn, TToXXaxT] ^ Sta- 
ifjevBeadai ttjs dXrjdeias Swafievajv, rdv p.kv rjXLaKCJv 
irapd TOLS Tcov deaecov Kal tcov yvcopLOvoyv eTncrvix- 
■niTTTOvcrag SLa<JTpo(f)ds , tojv Se 8i^ vSpoXoyiajv Trapa. 
Ttt? T^? pvaecos ^ rod vSarog vtto Bia^opiov alrLcbv 
Kal 8ia TO Tvxov CTTop^a? t€ Kal dvcopiaXlas , dvay- 
Kolov av elrj TrpoTrapaSodrjvai riva av rig rpoTTOV 
109 evpiGKOL rrjv 6<f)elXovaav dvareXXeiv (xolpav tov 
^coSia/cou Kara rov (^volkov Kal (XKoXovdov Xoyov, 
TTpovnoredeiaris Trjg Kara, rrjv StSo/zevTyi' avveyyvs 
wpav Sid rrjg rcov ava<j)opaiv Trpay/xaTeia? evpiaKO- 
HevTjS. Sei St] Xafji^dveLv rrjv ttjs €KTpo7Trjg Trpo- 
y€vopL€V7]v eyyiara avt,vyiav, idv re avvoSos 17 eav 
re TTavaeXrjvos , Kal rr]v fiolpav (XKrpijSa)? StaaKeipa- 
/xeVou?,'* avvoSov ^xev ovaiqs rrju dix(f)orepa)V rcov 
<l>oira)v, TtavaeXrjvov Se rr]v rov vrrep yrjv avrdJu 

' TO XeTTTov VMADE, Ta> XfirTov P, TO) Xenru) NLCatQ. 
^ TToXXaxrj libri, noXXaxoO Proc, voXXaKi Cam. 

* T-^s pvaews PLME, pvaecos VAD. pvaeis N, ttjv pvaiv Proc, 
<f)vaei.s Cam. 

* BtaoKeiJiafievovs VAD, -ai/xeVous P, -oixevovs LMNECani. 



* The " solar instruments " are sun-dials, the gnomons 
of which cast shadows, the position and length of which 

230 



TETRABIBLOS III. 2 

can for scientific observers give the minute of the 
hour, while practically all other horoscopic instru- 
ments on which the majority of the more careful 
practitioners rely are frequently capable of error, 
the solar instruments by the occasional shifting of 
their positions or of their gnomons,^ and the water 
clocks by stoppages and irregularities in the flow 
of the water from different causes and by mere 
chance. It would therefore be necessary that an 
account first be given how one might, by natural 
and consistent reasoning, discover the degree of 
the zodiac which should be rising, given the degree 
of the known hour nearest the event, which is 
discovered by the method of ascensions.^ We 
must, then, take the syzygy ^ most recently pre- 
ceding the birth, whether it be a new moon or a full 
moon ; and, likewise having ascertained the degree 
accurately, of both the luminaries if it is a new moon, 
and if it is a full moon that of the one of them that is 
above the earth, we must see what stars rule it at the 

are significant. Clepsydrae, or water-clocks, operated on 
the principle of the hour-glass, except that water was 
used instead of sand. In addition to these instruments 
the practitioner would undoubtedly have tables of various 
sorts, including epheinerides, which gave the position of the 
sun, moon, and planets from day to day, tables of ascen- 
sions, etc. Examples of them are preserved among the 
papyri. 

* The " ascensions " are the times, measured in arcs of 
the equator, in which the signs of the zodiac (which do 
not lie on the equator, but along the ecliptic, which is 
oblique to the equator) rise above the horizon. They will 
vary for the individual signs, and for the latitudes (Greek, 
" climes," KXifiara) at which observations are made. 

•A conjunction or an opposition. 

231 



PTOLEMY 

ovTO?, Kara, re^ tov xpovov rrj^ iKrpoTrrjg Iheiv rovs 
Ttpos avrrjv oiKoheoTTOTLKov €)(Ovras Xoyov tu)V 
aarepojv, tov rpoTTov Kad oXov tov Kara Trjv 
OLKoSeaTTOTLav iv TrevTC rovrots deojpovp^evov, 
rpiycova) re /cai olko) Kal vipcofiaTL /cat opLco Kal 
(f)da€L r) avaxi)lJiaTtapLCx), roureWiv OTav iv tl iq 
irXeiova rovrcov t] Kal Trdvra 6 t,riTOvp.evo's e^et 
TOTTOS TTpos TOV jLteAAovxtt OLKoSeaTTOTTQaeiv. idv 
fiev ovv kva rrpos Tavra TrdvTa 7] to. TrXelara 
olKeia>'5 SiaKeifievov evpiaKa>p,ev, riv av €7x4x1} 
pLoZpav ovTOS aKpi^cos Kad^ o napoSevei ScaSe/car)^- 
IxopLov, iv Tcp TTJs eKTpoTTTJg XP°^V "^W ^f^dpidfiou 
avTTJ Kpivovp.€v dvaTeXXeLV ev tco hid Trjg twv 
dva(f>opcov TTpayfJiaTetas evprjiJLevcp eyyVTepio ScuSe- 
Karqpiopio). idv Be 8vo 7} Kal TrXelovs crvvoiKo- 
SeaTTorovvrag , ov av avTcijv rj Kara ttjv eKTpoTTTjV 
llO fMocpLKT] vdpoSos iyyvrepov exj] tov dptdfiov ttj 
Kara rds dva<f)opds dvareXXovarj, tovtov ttj ttocto- 
TTjTL Tcbv ixoipdJv KaTaxp'TjOoiJieda. el he hvo •^ /cat 
TrXeiovs eyyvs elev^ toj dpiOfjicp,^ tco ^aAAov exovri 
Xoyov TTpog re Ta KevTpa Kal ttjv alpeaiv Kara- 
KoXovdrjGoixev • edv jLteWot TrXeioiv rj 7) hidoTaais 

TU)V TTJS OLKoheGTTOTiag fMOtpCOV TTpds TTJV /CaTO. TO 

oXoaxepes (LpooKOTTtov rJTrep rrpos ttjv /cara to 

^T€ VPD ; cf. Anon. p. 91, Wolf; om. libri ceteri Proc. 
Cam. (sed * notat Cam.- et in nig. add. videtur redundare). 

^ iyyvs elev VPAD, eyyvs ev L, e'yyvj e;)(oto' E, fx^*-^^ 
MNCam., eyyvs eiaiv Proc. 

* Ta> dpiOfxui VPLAD, TOV dpiOfMov MNECam. 

232 



TETRABIBLOS III. 2 

time of the birth. ^ In general the mode of domina- 
tion is considered as falling under these five forms : 
when it is trine, house, exaltation, term, and phase 
or aspect ; that is, whenever the place in question is 
related in one or several or all of these ways to the 
star that is to be the ruler. If, then, we discover 
that one star is familiar with the degree in all or 
most of these respects, whatever degree this star 
by accurate reckoning occupies in the sign through 
which it is passing, we shall judge that the corre- 
sponding degree is rising at the time of the nativity 
in the sign which is found to be closest by the method 
of ascensions."^ But if we discover two or more co- 
rulers, we shall use the number of degrees shown by 
whichever of them is, at the time of birth, passing 
through the degree that is closer to that which is 
rising according to the ascensions. But if two or 
more are close in the number of degrees, we shall 
follow the one which is most nearly related to the 
centres and the sect. If, however, the distance of 
the degree occupied by the ruler from that of 
the general horoscope is greater than its distance 

'The text adopted is that of the two inost important 
MSS. and is supported by the anonymous commentator. 
Bouche-Leclercq (p. 388, n. 1) would discard the words 
Kara tov xpo^ov r-qs fKTporrrjs, but he had made no examina- 
tion of the MSS. and presumably did not know that the 
best of them support Kara re ktX., the reading mentioned 
by the commentator. To observe the position of the 
luminary above the earth at the time of conjunction, 
rather than that of the one that is above the earth at the 
time of the nativity, seems much simpler and more 
natural. 

* On Ptolemy's rule for determining the ascendant 
degree, c/. Bouche-Leclercq, pp. 387-388. 

s 233 



PTOLEMY 

ofxoiov fxeaovpduTjiJia,^ roj avrco apidfxco Tipo? Tr]v 
fxeaovpavovcyap piolpav Karaxp'^jCJaifxevoi , 8ta ravTrjs 
Kat TO. XoLTTO. T<JL)V K€vrpcov ^ Sia(TT7)a6fi€da. 

<y.> AiaipeoL? yeuedXtaXoyias 

TovTCov 8r] TTpoeKTedeipiivcjv , el Tig avTrjs ttj? 
rd^ecos eVe/ca SiaLpoLr] to /ca^' oXov rijg yevedXia- 
XoyiKrjg deiopiag, evpot dv tojv Kara. (f)vaLv /cat 
SvvardJi' KaraXi^ifjecov rrji' jxev rajv vpo rfjs yeveaeojg 
ovaav avpLTTTCJixdrcoi' jjlovov, cLs ttjv rov Trept yoveojv 
Xoyov, TTjv 8e rcbv Kal Trpo rrjs yeveaeojs Kat /xero. 
Tr)v yeveuiv^ cos rrjv rov -nepl aSeA^aii/ Xoyov, rr^v 
8e r<ji)v /car' avrrjv rrjv yeveuiv, ovKeu' ovrco fxiav 
ovaav Kal aTrXrju • reXevraiav Se ttjv rdjv p,€Td rrjv 
yeveaiv, TToXvfiepearepai' Kal ravTqv decopovjjievqv. 
ecTTi 8e Tcbv jxev /car' avrrjv ttjv yeveaiv ern^-qTOV- 
pcevcov o re Trepl dppevLKCou Kal OrjXuKcJov Xoyos /cat 
o TTepl BiSvjjLoyovwv rj TrAetaroydi'co^ Kat o Trept 
1 1 1 repdriDv Kal 6 irepl drp6(f)Cjov ■ rwv 8e jj-erd rJ^i' 
yeveaiv d re Trepl ■)(p6vcx>v ^ t,o)i]s, eTretSi^Tre/) ov 
arvvrJTTTai rep Trepl drp6(f>a)v, eveira 6 Trepl pLopcprjs 
awjjLaros Kal 6 Trepl Tradcjjv * rj aivojv aatpLarLKCov ' 
e^rjs Se 6 Trepl ipvxrjs TTOi.6rrjTOS Kal 6 Trepl Travail' 

* fi€oovpdyr}ixa VMDEProc, -lofia PL, -ijnari NACaxa. 
*Ttov Kevrpojv VPLADEProc, TotJ Kevrpov MNCam. 
^XPoi'cuv VPLMDEProc, -ov NACam. 

* 6 77-ept nadwv VPLD, om. 6 E, om. 6 nep. MNACam. 

' Ordinarily the horoscope, or ascendant, would be the 
point of reference by which the other centres (mid-heaven, 
Occident, inferior mid-heaven) of the nativity would be 

234 



TETRABIBLOS III. 2-3 

from that of the corresponding mid-heaven, we 
shall use this same number to constitute the mid- 
heaven and thereby establish the other angles.^ 

3. The Subdivision of the Science of Nativities. 

After this preface, should any one simply for the 
sake of order attempt to subdivide the whole field of 
genethlialogical science, he would find that, of all 
the natural and possible predictions, one division 
concerns solely events preceding the birth, such as the 
account of the parents ; another deals with events 
both before and after the birth, such as the account 
of brothers and sisters ; another, with events at the 
very time of the birth, a subject which is no longer 
so unitary and simple ; and finally that which treats 
of post-natal matters, which is likewise more complex 
in its theoretical development.^ Among the subjects 
contemporary with the birth into which inquiry is 
made are those of sex, of twins or multiple births, of 
monsters, and of children that cannot be reared. To 
those dealing with post-natal events belong the ac- 
count of the length of life, for this is not attached 
to the account of children that cannot be reared ; 
second, that of the form of the body and that of bodily 

established. In this case the mid-heaven is made the 
point of reference. The "general" {oXoaxfpes ; Proclus 
paraphrases with Kara to Kad' oXov) horoscope seems to be 
the " presumable " one. 

* What follows is practically a list of chapters in Books 
iii and iv. Since the subject of the last chapter of Book 
iv (the divisions of time and the ages of man) is not in- 
cluded, its genuineness has been questioned, but not 
seriously doubted. 

235 



PTOLEMY 

^V)(iK(x)v • €7Tei6^ 6 TTcpl rv^rfs KT'qriK-rj? Kal 6 Trepl 
rv)(rjs d^iCD/jLaTLKrjs, fiera Se ravra 6 vepl Trpa^ecu? 
TTOLorqTog • etra 6 irepl crvjx^icoaecos yafxiKr]'; Kal 
6 TTepl reKVOTTOuas Kal 6 rrepl avveTnTrXoKCJV Kal 
avvapjxoycbv Kal <j)i\(x}v • ^ e^iy? 8' o Trepl ^evtreta? 
Kal reXevralos 6 irepl rrjs rod davdrov TTOLOTTjrog, 
rfj /xer SwdpLCL GWOLKeiovfJuevos tw Trepl xpoi'cov 
t,coijs, rfj rd^ei S' eiKorcos cttI irdai tovtols ridd- 
fjievos ■ VTTep wv eKdcrrov Kara to /<re(^aAata»8€S' 
TTOLrjaofxeda ttjv vcfji^yqcnv, avrds rds rrjs CTrt- 
aK€ifj€cos TTpaynareiag [Jierd ifjiXwi' rcbv ttoltjtikcov 
Svi^dfjLeajv, ws e^ajLtep", €Kridep.evoL, Kal rd fjiev 
Trepie'/oycos" vtto to)v ttoXXwv (f)Xvapou[xeya Kal pA^ 
TTidavov ^xovra \6yov irpos Ta? d-nd rrjg TrpcoT'qs ^ 
<f>ua€cos atTi'as' dTTOTTep.TT6p.evoL • Ttt Se ivhexop,€vr]v 
e^ovTa TTjv KardXrjiljLv , ov Bid KXrjpcov Kal dpidpicov 
dvacTioXoyqTcov , aXXd 8t avrrjs rrjs Tcbv ax'^p^OL- 
Tio-p,(x)v TTpos TOV9 ot/cetous" roTTovs decoptas im- 
aK€TTr6p.€voi • Kad^ dXov pievroi Kal eVt TrdvTCOV 
(177 AcD?, tva p.7] Ka6^ eKaarov elSos ravroXoycopLev . 

112 UpWTOV p,€V XPV (fKOTtelv^ rOV OLKeLOVp.€VOV 

TOTTOV rov t,a)BiaKOV rco C,'qTOvp,€vcp rrj? yeviaeois 
Kar eiSo? Ke^aXaico, KaddTrep Xoyov €V€K€v tco 
TTepl TTpd^ewv rov rov p.€aovpain]piaTOS , t] tco Trepl 
TTaTpos Tov rjXiaKOV • CTretra deojpelv tovs Xoyov 
e^ovTas TTpos TOV VTTOKeip.evov tottov tu)v doTepcov 
OLKoSeaTTOTLas Kad^ ovs eTrdvoj * TrpoeiTTopLev TrevTe 

* Kal (f>L\u}v VPLD, Kal oni. MNAECam. 
^irpwrris VPMADE, om. NL (in lacuna) Ccim. 

* OKOTTiiv ora. MNCam. * endvaj om. NCam. 

236 



TETRABIBLOS III. 3 

illnesses and injuries ; next, that of the quality of 
the mind and illnesses of the mind ; then that which 
concerns fortune, both in the matter of possessions 
and in that of dignities ; and after this the account 
of the quality of action ; then that of marriage 
and of the begetting of children, and that of 
associations, agreements, and friends ; followng 
comes the account of journeys, and finally that of 
the quality of death, Avhich is potentially akin to the 
inquiry about the length of life, but in order is reason- 
ably placed at the end of all these subjects. We 
shall sketch each of these subjects briefly, explaining, 
as we said before, together with the effective powers 
by themselves, the actual procedure of investigation ; 
as for the nonsense on which many waste their 
labour and of which not even a plausible account can 
be given, this we shall dismiss in favour of the 
primary natural causes. What, however, admits of 
prediction we shall investigate, not by means of lots 
and numbers of which no reasonable explanation 
can be given, but merely through the science of the 
aspects of the stars to the places with which they 
have familiarity, in general terms, however, which 
are applicable to absolutely all cases, that we may 
avoid the repetition involved in the discussion of 
particular cases. 

In the first place, we should examine that place of 
the zodiac which is pertinent to the specific heading 
of the gcniture which is subject to query ; for 
example, the mid-heaven, for the query about action, 
or the place of the sun for the question about the 
fallifr ; then we iniisl obsrrve those planets which 
have the relation of rult-rship to the place in question 

237 



PTOLEMY 

rpoTTOvg. Kav fxev et? fj 6 Kara iravra^ ' Kvpio'S, 
TOVTCp ^ SiSovai rrfv iKeivqs rrjg TrporeXecrecos olko- 
SeoTTOTiau ■ iav 8e Bvo ^ rpeZ<s, tols tol^ vXelovg 
exovGL iprj<f>ov'5 ■ /Ltera Se ravra rrpos fiev to ttolov 
rod aTToreAea/xaros' OKOTreiv rd'S re avroiv roav 
olKoSeavor-qadvrcou aarepcov cf)vaeLS Kal rag rcov 
ha)heKar7]p,opLojv iv ols elaiv avroi re Kal ol 
avvotKciovfxevoL^ roTToi- rrpos Se to [xeyedos avrcov 
OKOTTetv Kal rrjv hvvapiLv * irorepov evepycjjs rvy)(a- 
vovai SiaKei/Jievoi Kara re avro ro KoofxiKov Kal ro 
Kara rrjv yeveaiv r) ro evavriov • SpaariKcorarot 
fiev yap elaiv orav KoafiiKcbg [xev ev tSiots" t) iv 
olKeioLS (Lgl roTTOis ■ Kal TrdXtv orav dvaroXiKol 
rvyxdvcoai Kal TrpoaderiKol roZs dpiOpioZs ' Kara 
yeveaiv 8e orav errl ra)v Kevrpojv rj rcov e7Tava(f)opa)v 
TrapoSevcoGL Kal fxdXiara rajv Trpwrojv, Xeyco 8rj 
r<x)v re Kara rds dva(^opds Kal rds fieaovpavqaeis ' 
dhpaveararoL he orav KoapuKws fiev^ ev rois aAAo- 
rpioLS r^ dvoLKeiois (xxjl roiroig Kal SvriKol t] 
113 ai'ttTToStCTTt/coi ^ TOTS' SpofjLOL? (I)(JL ' Kara yeveoiv Se 
orav aTTO/cAtVcuCTt r6i)v Kevrpojv • irpos Se toj^ Kad^ 

^■navras VPMDEProc, navra LNACam. 

* TovTo) V AD ; cf. ovTosXruJieraiVvoc. ; ayro) PLMNECam, 

^ ovvoiK€iov(x€voi VP {-01KL-) LADProc. ; Kvpievo^evoi MNE 
Cam. 

^ /ca T)7vSwa/i»' VMNA (post auToJv) DE; om.Cam.; noOev 
Kpii'cofxev (-o/iev L) 17 /xeya Kal laxvpov to dnoTeXfafia rj/uv Kal 
TTjv Suvafiiv TTOTepov ktX. PL. 
* KoafiiKWS nev orav NCam. 

® dvaTToSioTiKol VMADEP (-ttjk-) L {-Bea-) ; t] d<l>aLp€Ti.Kol in 
mg. A; dva-nobiTiKol N; *di'a7ToBvTiKol Cam. (in ing. d<^ai- 
periKoi). 

238 



TETRABIBLOS III. 3 

by the five ways aforesaid ; ' and if one planet is lord 
in all these ways, we must assign to him the ruler- 
ship of that prediction ; if two or three, we must 
assign it to those which have the more claims. After 
this, to determine the quality of the prediction, we 
must consider the natures of the ruling planets 
themselves and of the signs in which are the planets 
themselves, and the places familiar to them. For 
the magnitude of the event we must examine their 
power ^ and observe whether they are actively situ- 
ated both in the cosmos itself and in the nativity,^ or 
the reverse ; for they are most effective when, with 
respect to the cosmos, they are in their own or in 
familiar regions, and again when they are rising 
and are increasing in their numbers ; * and, with 
respect to the nativity, whenever they are passing 
through the angles or signs that rise after them,' 
and especially the principal of these, by which I 
mean the signs ascendant and culminating. They 
are weakest, with respect to the universe, when they 
are in places belonging to others or those unrelated 
to them, and when they are occidental or retreating in 
their course ; and, with respect to the nativity, when 
they are declining from the angles. For the time of 

1 See c. 2, p. 233. 

* The power of the ruling planets. 

* The horoscopic point and other angles change for each 
nativity ; the signs of the zodiac, houses of the planets, 
ternis, etc., are cosmic, as being related to the universe 
itself and therefore fixed. 

* I.e. when their movement in the zodiac is direct, not 
retrograde. The theory of epicycles was used to explain 
the stations and changes of direction in the movement 
of tlie planets. 

* Or, the signs succedent (eVavai^opai) to the angles. 

239 



PTOLEMY 

oXov xpoi'ov Tou ajToreXia^aros rrorepov ccvol etaiv 
rj iairepioi vpos re rov tJXlov /cat rov copoGKonou, 
eTreiSr^Trep ra [xev Trporj-yovixeva eKarepov avrcov 
rerapTTqpiopia koL to. hidpierpa Touroi? icoa. yiVerat, 
Tct Se XoLTTo. KOL inofxeva ioTrepia • /cat TTorepov cttl 
TUiv Kevrpcov Tvyxo-vovoLV t] Ttjjv €7Taua(f)Opa)v ' 
icpoi fxkv yap ovres r) eTTtKevrpoL /car' d/sp^a? 
ytvovTai SpaoTLKcoTepoL, eaTre'ptot Be ^ CTTt tcov 
e7Tava(j)opu)v ^paSvrepoi. 

<S.> n e p I y o V i a> V 

'0 fiev ovv TTporiyovpievos tvtto'S ^ rrjg /car' eiSo? 
CTTiCT/ce^eaJS', ou 8t,a rravrog ex^f^dai Trpoa-qKei, 
TOVTOv e^et rou rpoirov. ap^opieda 8e t^'St^ /caret 
Tr)v eKKeipbevr^v rd^tv drro rrpwrov rov nepl yovecov 
Xoyov. 6 jxev roivvv rjXios /cat o tou Kpovov 
daTTjp rep TTarpiKO) TrpoGcoTTCp avvoiKeiouvraL Kara 
(f)vaLv, rj Se aeXijur] /cat o r'qg ^A(f)poSirr]s rw 
fxrjrpiKcp • /cat ottcos dv ovroL 8ta/cei/xevot rvy^d- 
vcoai TTpos T€ dXXtjXovg /cat npos roug dXXovg, 
roiavra Set /cat ra Trepl rov? yovias virovoelv. 
ra p.kv yap rrepl rijg rvxf]'S koI rrj<; Kr-qaecos 
avrcou eTrta/ceTrreov e'/c tt^s" Sopu^opt'as" rd)u (fxjorwv, 
i-TTeiS-qirep TrepLexofJievot jxev vtto rcbv ayaOoTTOielv 
Bwap^evcov /cat rcjv rrjs avrrjs alpeaecog, rjroi iv 
rot? avroLS ^a)Stot? ■^ /cat iv rot? e^rJ9, eTncfyavrj 
/cat XapLTTpd ra nepl tou? yoveas Stao'rjfxaivovaL, 
114 /cat ixdXiaO^ orav rov pikv rjXiov eojoi hopv^opujOLV 

^ TVTTos Vi'LD, TOTTos MNAECam. 
240 



TETRABIBLOS III. 3-4 

the predicted event in general we must observe 
whether they are oriental or occidental to the sun and 
to the horoscope ; for the quadrants which precede 
each of them and those which are diametrically 
opposite are oriental, and the others, which follow, are 
occidental. Also we must observe whether they are 
at the angles or in the succedent signs ; for if they 
are oriental or at the angles they are more effective 
at the beginning ; if they are occidental or in the 
succeeding signs they are slower to take action. 

4. Of Parents. 

The guiding style of the specific inquiry, to which 
we should adhere throughout, runs after this fashion. 
We shall now, therefore, begin, following the order 
just stated, with the account of parents, which comes 
first. Now the sun and Saturn are by nature associ- 
ated with the person of the father and the moon 
and Venus with that of the mother, and as these 
may be disposed with respect to each other and the 
other stars, such must we suppose to be the affairs 
of the parents. Now the question of their fortune 
and wealth must be investigated by means of the 
attendance ^ upon the luminaries ; for when they are 
surrounded by planets that can be of benefit and by 
planets of their own sect, either in the same signs 
or in the next following, they signify that the cir- 
cumstances of the parents will be conspicuously 
brilliant, particularly if morning stars attend the 

' Bopv(f>opia, " attendanco," aiul 8o/)i'^opos, "spear-boarer," 
" at tcii(hitit,"outsi(Jo of astrology rofor to tlie hired military 
guards of princes and tyrants. 

241 



PTOLEMY 

acTTepeg, rrjv Se aeX-^vqi' eaTrepioi, /caAco? koi avTol 
SiaKeLjJLevoL Kad^ ov €lp-qKaixev rpoTTOv} iav 5e koI 
6 Tov Kpovov KOI 6 TTJg A(f)poSLT7]s Kal avTol 
Tvy)((xvojGiv dvaroXiKoi re Kal IhiOTTpoaoiTTovvre? 

Tj Koi €7TLKeVTpOl, evhaip^OVLaV TTpohiqXoV VTTOVOTjreOV 

Kara to otKelov eKarepov rcbv yovecov • ro Se 
ivavTLOv, iav KevoSpopiovvra fj to. (fx^Jra Kal dSopv- 
^oprjra rvy^^avovra, raireLvoTriros Kal dho^ias rtov 
yovecov earl 8r]XcoTLKd Kal fxaXiad' orav 6 rrjg 
^Acf)poSLT7]9 t) Kai 6 TOV Kpovov pirj KaXoJs ^ 
(f)aLva)vrat StaKCt/xei'ot. edv Se 8opv(p6pr]TaL /xeV, 
[XT] [JLevTOi VTTo Tcjv TT^s avTTJ? alpeaectjs, cos orav 
"Aprjs p-kv e7rava(f)€prjTai. rqj rjXi.a), Kpovos 8e rfj 
aeXtji'Tj, t) jUT^ VTTO KaXcos Keip,4vwv rcjv dyadoTTotcbv 
Kal Kara rrjv avrrjv a'lpeaiv, p^erpiorrira Kal dvoj- 
p^aXt'av Ttepl rov ^iov avrcbv VTTOvo'qreov. kolv pikv 
avp.(f)a)vos fj 6 hLaGr]piav9r]a6p.€vog Trjs tvx^S KXrjpos 
€V rfj yeveaei rol<; tov rjXiov r) tt^i' aeXrjvriv ^ em 
KaXo) hopv^opiqaaGL, TrapaXt^ipovraL ad>a Ta twv 
yov€(x)v • edv Se davpLcfiajvog fj r) ivavrlog, p,rjSev6s 
rj Tcbv KaKOTToiaJv elXiqi^oTOJV ttjv hopv^opiav, 
dxP'>^crTOS avTOLS Kal ivt^Xa^rjS rj rcov yoveoiv 
carat kttjctls. 

Tlepl 8e TToXvxpovLOTTjTOs rj oXiyoxpoviorrjTos * 

avrcbv aKCTTreov a.7ro ra)v dXXa)V ava^xripLariajxayv . 

€7tI p.€V yap rov rrarpos, iav 6 rov Zitos" rj 6 

115 rrjs A(f)pohLrr]s ava)(rjp,arLa9a)ai.v oTTajarhTjTTore 

* KaO' ov . . . rpoTTOv om. NCam. 

*/ui7 KaXws MNAECam.Proc, KaKws VD, om. fxrj PL. 
^aeXrjvrju VPLADProo., "Acfipohirriv MNECam. 

* ri oXLyoxpovioTTjTos om. NLCam. 
242 



TETRABTBLOS III. 4 

sun and evening stars the moon, while the luminaries 
themselves are favourably placed in the way already 
described.^ But if both Saturn and Venus, likewise, 
happen to be in the orient and in their proper 
faces,^ or at the angles, we must understand it to 
be a prediction of conspicuous happiness, in accord- 
ance with what is proper and fitting for each parent. 
But, on the other hand, if the luminaries are proceed- 
ing alone and without attendants, they are indicative 
of low station and obscurity for the parents, par- 
ticularly whenever Venus or Saturn do not appear 
in a favourable position. If, however, they are 
attended, but not by planets of the same sect, as 
when Mars rises close after the sun or Saturn after 
the moon, or if they are attended by beneficent planets 
which are in an unfavourable position and not of 
the same sect, we must understand that a moderate 
station and changing fortunes in life are predicted for 
them. And if the Lot of Fortune,^ of which we shall 
make an explanation, is in agreement in the nativity 
with the planets which in favourable position attend 
the sun or the moon, the children will receive the 
patrimony intact ; if, however, it is in disagreement or 
opposition, and if no planet attends, or the maleficent 
planets are in attendance, the estate of the parents 
will be useless to the children and even harmful. 

With regard to the length or the shortness of their 
life one must inquire from the other configurations. 
For in the father's case, if Jupiter or Venus is in any 

' I.e. ill the preceding chapter. 

2 C/. i. 23. 3 See iii. 12. 

243 



PTOLEMY 

TO) T€ rjXiw KOi TO) Tov Kpovov , r) Koi aVTOS 6 
Tov Kpovov avix(j)U}vov exj] axrjlxaTiafXov irpos 
TOV TjXiov rjroi avvd>v 7) e^aycovL^wv rj rpiyco- 
vit,OiV, €V SwdjieL jjuev ovtojv avTcov, TToXv^poviorriTa 
TOV TTarpos Karaaroxo-orreov • dhvvaixovvTOJv Se ovx 
oixoLcos, ov fxevTOLye ovSe oXLyoxpovLorrjTa' idv^ 
he Tovro fxev jjirj VTrapxi), 6 8e tov "Apeco? Kad- 
VTrepTeprjar] tov tJXlov tJ tov tov Kpovov, ■^ Kal 
€7Tav€V€xdfj avTolg, "q /cat avTos ttolXlv 6 tov Kpovov 
firj (jvpL^ojvos fi Tvpos TOV -^Xlov aAA' tJtol T€Tpd- 
ycovos 7^ SiajJLeTpos, aTTOKeKXiKOTes fxev tcjv KevTpcov 
dadevLKOvs jjlovov ^ tovs Tzarepa? ttolovolv, e77t- 
KevTpoL 8e rj €7ravacf)€p6ii€voi Tot? KevTpot? oXiyo- 

XpOVLOVS T] €7TLaLV€LS ' oXlXOXpOVlOV? fJi€V OTaV iv 
TOLS TTpWTOLS COGi BvGL KeVTpOLS, TO) T€ avaTeXXoVTl 

Kal TO) fJLeaoupavovvTL, /cat Tal? tovtojv i7Tava(f)opaLg ' 
eTTLaivels 8e t] iiTivoaov? oTav iv toIs Xoittols hval 

KeVTpOLS (L(Jl, TW T€ SvVOVTL Kol TCp V7TOy€l(X), Tj Tat? 

TOVTOJV iTrava(f)opals ' ^ 6 fxev yap tov "Apeoys tov 
tjXlov ^Xlifjas /ca^' ov elprjKapiev Tpoirov al(j>vLhio)S 
dvaipel TOV Trarepa * rj aivq rrepl to.? oifjeis ttolcZ, 
TOV 8e TOV Kpovov ^Xeifjas rj davdrois rj pLyorrvpe- 
Tois iq aiveGL 8ta TOfjLOjv /cat Kavaecov Tre/jt/cuAtet. 
o 8e TOV Kpovov /cat avTos /ca/ctDs" (TxrjfiaTLadels 
Trpos TOV rjXiov Kal Tovg davdrovs tovs Trarpt/couff 
CTTLvoGovs KaTaaKevdi^eL Kal rrddrj Ta Std ttjs tcov 
vypojv oxXrjGecog. 

^eav VPLDProc, orav MNAECara. 

^ novovs MNACam. 

^ eTTiaiveis . . . eVai'ai^opatj libri Proc. ; Oin. Cam. 

* TOVS -nardpas MNACam. 

244 



TETRABIBLOS III. 4 

aspect whatever to the sun and to Saturn, or if 
Saturn himself is in an harmonious aspect to the 
sun, either conjunction, sextile, or trine, both being 
in power, we must conjecture long life for the father ; 
if they are weak, however, the significance is not 
the same, though it does not indicate a short life. 
If, however, this condition is not present, but Mars 
overcomes ^ the sun or Saturn, or rises in succession 
to them, or when again Saturn is not in accord wth 
the sun but is either in quartile or in opposition, 
if they are declining from the angles, they merely 
make the fathers weak, but if they are at the angles 
or rising after them, they make them short-lived or 
liable to injury : short-lived when they are upon the 
first two angles, the orient and the mid-heaven, 
and the succedent signs, and liable to injury or 
disease when they are in the other two angles, 
the Occident and lower mid-heaven, or their succe- 
dent signs. For Mars, regarding the sun in the way 
described," destroys the father suddenly or causes 
injuries to his sight ; if he thus regards Saturn he 
puts him in peril of death or of chills and fever or of 
injury by cutting and cauterizing. Saturn himself 
in an unfavourable aspect to the sun brings about 
the father's death by disease and illnesses caused by 
gatherings of humours. 

' The anonymous coininontator on Ptolemy says tliat 
" stars are said to overcome {KaOvneprepeiv) when they 
are of a smaller number of degrees," i.e. of the zodiac. 
The right takes precedent over the left, as a general rule. 
C'f. Bouche-Loclcrcci, p. 250, n. 1. 

* In quartile or opposition. 

2i5 



PTOLEMY 

^EttI 8e TTJg fJLrjrpos, iav fX€V 6 rov Zlio? crvaxr]- 
fxaTtaQfj rfj re creX-qvTj Kal ro) Tri<5 ^A(f)po8lTrj^ 

116 oTTioaST^TTOTe •^ Kat avTOS 6 Trjs 'A(f>poSLTr]g crvfi- 
(f>ix)V(ji)S €XD Trpo? TTjv aeXrjVTjv, i^dycovos (x)v •q 
Tpiyoivos r] avvcjv avrfj iv Sum/xet ovreg, ttoXv- 
XpovLOv SeiKvvovat rrjv [jb-qrepa. idv Se o rov 
"ApeiDS pXeipTj Tr)u aeX'QV'qv rj rov rrjg 'A(f>poBiTrj? 
eTTavevexdels ■^ Terpaycoviaa? -^ Biapierp^cra^, t] 6 
rov Kpovov Trjv a-eXijvrjv /jLovqv cbaavrcos, d</>at/)e- 
TLKol fxev ovres tj aTTOKeKXiKores y irdXiv avriTTTCo- 
jjLaoL pLovov r) dadeveiaLg TrepiKvXiovcji • TrpoadertKol 
he r) CTTtKevrpoi, oXiyoxpovLOVS rj emaiveLS ttolougl 
rds iJL7)T€pas, oXiyoxpoviovs fiev 6p,OLOJS cttI TaJu 
dTTrjXiojTLKOJV ovreg Kevrpcov t] €7Tava(f)opcov, cttl- 
atvels 8e cttl twv Svtlkwv. "Aprjs picv ydp ^Aei/ras" 
rrju aeX'qmjv rovrov rov rporrov, avaroXiKrjv p,ev 
ovGav, rovs re davdrovs rovs p.7]rpiKOV£ al(f)VLhL0V^ 
/cat aivr] nepl rds oijjeis TTOieZ, airoKpovariKrjv 8e 
rods davdrovs arro eKrpojapiCov rj rcov roiovrcov Koi 
rd OLvrj Sta rop,cov Kal xavaecov • rrjv he A<^pohlrriv 
jSAei/ra? rovs re Oavdrovs TTvpeKriKOvs aTrepyal,erai 
Kal Ttddr) rd Si' d7TOKpv(f)cov Kal OKoriapicdv Kal rrpoa- 
hpop,a)v alc^vihiayv. 6 8e rov Kpovov rrjv aeX-Qvrjv 
^Xeipas davdrovs Kal Trddr] TTOiel, avaroXiK'qs p-ev 
ovaiqs avrrjs 8td ptyoTTvpercov, aTTOKpovarLKrjs Be 
8ta. vop.a)v ^ varepiKcov Kal dva^pcoaecov. 

IIpoaTTapaXr)7Treov he els rd Kard p-epos ethr) ra>v 
aLvojv ri KoX Tra^aip' ri /cat davdrwv Kal rds rojv SojSe- 
Karr)p,opLOJv ev ols elaiv ol rd atrtov epLTToiovvres 

117 IhiorpoTTLas , inrep Jjv evKaiporepov iv rols nepl avrrjs 
246 



TETRABIBLOS III. 4 

In the case of the mother, if Jupiter is in any 
aspect whatever to the moon and to Venus, or if 
Venus herself is concordant \vith the moon, in sextile, 
trine, or conjunction, when they are in power, 
they signify long life for the mother. If, however, 
Mars regards the moon or Venus, rising after her or 
in quartile or in opposition, or if Saturn similarly 
regards the moon by herself, when they are diminish- 
ing or declining, again they merely threaten with 
misfortune or sickness ; but if they are increasing or 
angular, they make the mothers short-lived or subject 
to injury. They make them short-lived similarly 
when they are at the eastern angles or the signs that 
rise after them, and liable to injury when they are 
at the western angles. For when Mars in this way 
regards the waxing moon, it brings about sudden 
death and injury of the eyesight for the mothers ; 
but if the moon is waning, death from abortions 
or the like, and injury from cutting and cauterizing. 
If he regards Venus, he causes death by fever, 
mysterious and obscure illnesses, and sudden attacks 
of disease. Saturn regarding the moon causes death 
and illnesses, when the moon is in the orient, by chills 
and fever ; when she is in the Occident, by uterine 
ulcers and cancers. 

We must take into consideration, also, with refer- 
ence to the particular kinds of injuries, diseases, or 
deaths, the special characters of the signs in which 
are the planets which produce the cause, with which 

^ vofiwv Vl'LD ; voaojv MNAECaiD. 

247 



PTOLEMY 

TTJ? yeveaeo)? eire^epyaaofjieda} kol ert Trapa- 
TTjprjreov -qfiepa^ fxev /xaAiara rov re I'jXtov Kal ttjv 
A(f)pobLTr]v, vuKTos Se tov rov Kpovov Kal rrjv 
aeXTjvYjv. 

AoLTTov 8e €7TL ru)v Kar efSo? e^epyaatwv^ 
dpjJio^ov Kal OLKoXovdov dv e'irj rov rrjg alpeaetos 
rrarpiKov rj pnqrpLKOv rorrov aiOTrep wpoaKOTTOv 
VTTOcrrrjaaiJLevovs ^ rd AotTra cos im yeveaeois avrcov 
roiv yovecov eTnoKOTrelv * Kard rds e(f)€^7Jg vtto- 
8et;^07^CTOjueVas' rcbv 6Xoa-)(epearepoiv elhoiyv rrpaK- 
riKcov re Kal avpifiarLKcbv ^ ecf^oSovs • rov pLevroi 
avyKpariKOv rpoTTOV * /cat evravda kol e-nl Trdvrcov 
fjiefjiVTJadai. TrpoarjKeL, Karaaroxall,op,€Vov? , edv ixrj 
fiovoecSelg dXXd hLd(l>opoi tj rdjv evavricjv rroi'qrLKol 
rvyxdvajOLV ol rds KVpias rcov eTntpqrovyLevoiv roTTCov 
elXrjcf)6res darepes, rive? e/c rcjv nepl eKaorov ' 
avix^e^rjKoriov ^ irpos hvvapnv TrXeoveKrrj jjidrojv 
irXeiovs e)(ovreg evpioKovrat ifj'^(f)Ovs irpos rrjv 
eTTLKpdriqaiv rcov d7ToreXea6r]aopLevaiv , Iva 7] rat? 
rovrcov (f)vaeaiv dKoXovOov TTOLcofxeda riqv eTnaKeijjLV, 
"q rd)V i(jri<^Ci)V laoppoTTCuv ovacjv, orav fxev dpca cbaiv 
ol eTTLKparovvres , ro e/c tt^? KpdaecDS rcov hia^opcov 

^ i-ne^epyaaofieda VAD, -lofieda PL, enepyaCofieda MNE 
Cam. ; sententiani om. Proc. 

2 €^€f)yaaiu>v VPLD, ine^epyaaiaJv MNAECam. 

* VTroarrjaafxevovs VPLDE, im,aT7jaafj.ivovs MA, eTrtarajuevous 
NCam. ; vnoanqaaadai Proc. 

* aKOTTilv NCani. 

* ITpaKTlKciJV T€ Kal OVfX^aTlKWV VD, TTap€KTlK<J}V T. K. OTjfiaV- 

TiKwv PL (arjuavTOTLKcijv L), elSwv twv re /caret npa^LV Kal Kara 
avfx^aaiv Oewpovfitvcov Proc. ; irpaypLaTtKas re Kal avii^oTLKas 
MNAECam. 

248 



TETRABIBLOS III. 4 

we shall find more appropriate occasion to deal in 
the discussion of the nativity itself,^ and furthermore 
we must observe by day particularly the sun and 
Venus, and by night Saturn and the moon. 

For the rest, in carrying out these particular in- 
quiries, it would be fitting and consistent to set up 
the paternal or maternal place of the sect as a horo- 
scope- and investigate the remaining topics as though 
it were a nativity of the parents themselves, follow- 
ing the procedure for the investigation of the general 
classifications, both practical and casual, the headings 
of which will be set forth in the following. However, 
both here and everywhere it is well to recall the mode 
of mixture of the planets, and, if it happens that the 
planets which rule the places under inquiry are not 
of one kind but different, or bring about opposite 
effects, we should aim to discover which ones have 
most claims, from the ways in which they happen to 
exceed in power in a particular case, to the rulership 
of the predicted events. This is in order that we 
may either guide our inquiry by the natures of these 
planets, or, if the claims of more than one are of 
equal weight, when the rulers are together, we 
may successfully calculate the combined result of the 

»C/. iii. 12, iv. 9. 

^ The anoiiyiaous commontator, on this passage, says 
that the significant planet is to be taken as the horoscope. 
Cf. a similar statement at the end of c. 5 and Bouch6- 
Leclcrcq, p. 394. 

' Tponov VAD, -ov P, -ovs Li, tottov MNE(Jum. ; toD rponov 
T^S (jvyKpaaecos Proc. 

' (.KaaTov VMADE, -a PLNCam. 
* avfipf^-qKOTa NCam. 

249 



PTOLEMY 

(f)va€cov avvayo/JLevov evcrroxf^? emAoyt^oj/xe^a • orav 
8e Steo'TTy/coTes' am /xepo? e/cacrroi?^ Kara rov? tSt'oy? 
/catpou? Tct ot/ceta rcDt' cru^TVTCo/xaTCOv aTTOjxepi- 
118 t,co[X€v,^ TTporepoLS jxev toi? cmols p-aXXov, varipois 
he rol'S eaTTepioLS. air* apxv^ l^^^ "Y^P o.vdyKr] 
avvoLK€L(jij6r\vai rco ^t^tou^cVo; tottw top ixeXXovrd tl 
7T€pi avTov d7T€pyd(,ea9aL rcov doTepaJv, Kal tovtov 
fiT) ^ a-vjJi^e^rjKorog ovSev olov re Kad^ oXov SiadeLvai 
fieya * tov /xtjS' oXcos rrj? dpxyj? KOLvcovrjoavra, 
Tov fievTOi ;)^poi/oy Trjg Kara ^ to drroreXovpi,€vov 
CK^daeoj^ ovk4t(. to Trjg Trpcorrjs SeCTTroria? at'riov, 
dAA' rj TOV KvpievaavTos rrois rrpos re rov tjXlov Kal 
rd? TOV KoajJLOv yiovias SidaraaL^. 

<€.> n e p L dSeX(f)a)v 

*0 fiev ovv TTepl yoveojv ronog axeSov Kat ano 
rovrcov dv -qfJiLV yevoiro Kara^av-qs • 6 he Trepi 
dheXffxjw, ei rig Kdvravda to Kad^ oXov piovov 
e^erd^oi Kal p,rj irepa ^ rov Svvarov rov re dpidpiov 
aKpL^cbs Kal Kara jiepog eml^iqroirj, Xapi^dvotr dv 
(jivaiKOjrepov d re Trepl op.opi'qrpLajv pLovov Kat arro 
TOV p.eaovpavovvro's hajheKanqpLoplov rod pLTjrptKOv 
roTTOV, rovrean rod Trepiexovros r)pLepag pLev rov 
Tr]s 'A(f)pohLTrj5 ^ WKTog he rrjv aeX7]vrjv, eTreihrjTTep 

^ fKaoTos codd. Cam. 

* dnofj.epiCoiiJ.ev MNAECam., -oneOa PL. -o^ev VDProc. 

' TOVTOV fjij VPLAD ; tovtov yap fjr] av/iPavTOS Proc. ; tovtov 
MNECam.i, tov Cam.^ 

■* fjeya VD ; oi)8ev Swarat yiveadai jxeya. Proc. ; om. alii 
Cam. 

6 KaTOL VPLD ; irepi MNAE. * Trepas Cam.* 

250 



TETRABIBLOS III. 4-5 

mixture of their different natures ; but when they 
are separated, that we may assign to each in turn 
at their proper times the events which belong to 
them, first to the more oriental among them and 
then to the occidental. For a planet must from 
the beginning have familiarity with the place about 
which the inquiry is made, if it is going to exercise 
any eflFect upon it, and in general, if this is not the 
case, a planet which had no share whatsoever in the 
beginning can exert no great influence ; of the time 
of the occurrence of the event, however, the original 
dominance is no longer the cause, but the distance of 
the planet which dominates in any way from the sun 
and from the angles of the universe. 

5. Of Brothers and Sisters. 

The preceding may perhaps have made clear the 
topic of the parents. As for that of brethren, 
if here too one examines only the general subject 
and does not carry beyond the bounds of possibility 
his inquiry as to the exact number and other par- 
ticulars, it is more naturally to be taken, when it is 
a question of blood-brethren alone, from the cul- 
minating sign, the place of the mother,^ that is, 
that which contains by day Venus and by night the 

* This is the reading of all the MSS. and Proclus. 
Camerarius, inserting a koI before toC iiriTpiKoO tottov, would 
make it " the culminating sign arid the places of the 
mother." While the best-attested reading has boon left 
in the present text, the passage is extremely difficult to 
understand, whichever reading is preferred. 

251 



PTOLEMY 

TOVTO TO ^ojSiov Kal TO €TTava(f)ep6fjievov avrco 
yiveTai rrj? jJL'qTpos 6 Trepl reKvoiv tottos, 6 avrog 
ocfieiXiov elvaL rco rod yevpcojxdvov vepl dSeA<^a)i'. 
eav p,ev ouv ayadoTTOiOL tco tottco (jva')(y]ixarit,a)vrai., 
' Bai/jiXeiav aSeXcfxjjv ipovpiev, rrpos re to ttXtjOos 
llOauToii' Toil' doTepcov tov aToxao-piov iroLOVfxevoi, 
Kat TTOTepov ev /xoi'oetSeat Tvyxa^ovoL ^ojStot? r/ iv 
hiacojxOLS ■ €av S' ol KaKOTTOiol KaduTrepTcpaJaiu 
aVTCov rj Kal ivavTHodaJai /card hidpieTpov, airav- 
aSeA^ia? etat BrjXcoTtKoi, p^dXiOTa 8e kolv tov -qXiov 
avfiTTapaXapi^dvcDaLv • et Se Kal im tujv K^vTpcov 
"q evavTiojais yevoLTO Kal fxdXiUTa tov ojpocTKO- 

TTOVVTOS, €TTL pL€V KpoVOV Kal TTpOJTOTOKOL •^ TTpOJTO- 

TpotpOL yivovTai, eVt Se "Apecos OavdTCO tcov 
XoLTTCJV^ a'navaheX(f>ovaLv. €tl'^ p,€VTOi Tihv hihov- 
rojv daTepcov idv pikv KaXcjg KaTa to KoajxtKov 
Tvyxdvojai Sta/cet/Ltevot, evaxTJp-ovag koI evBo^oug 
•fjyrjTeov tovs SiSofidvovs dSeA^ou? * cdv 8e ivavTioJS, 
TaTT€ivovg Kal dveTTi^dvTovs " €dv 8e Kadv-nepTe- 
prjacoai tovs StSdi^ras" t] €7Tev€)^6a)aLv avTols ol 
KUKOTTOioL, Kal 6Xiyo)(^poviovs ■ hojcrovai 8e tov'S piev 
appeva? ol Koap-CKcos r^ppevcxypievot, rd? 8e diqXeia'S 
ol Te6r]Xvap.evoi, Kal vaXiv tous p,€V vpcoTOvs ol 
aTrqXLcoTLKWTepoL, tovs 8e vaTepovs ol Xi^vKajTepoi. 
TTpos 8e TOUTOt? idv ol hiSovTeg tov? d8eX(j)ovs 



1 XoiTTwv VPLD, ovTcoi- MNAECum. 
«€Tt VPLDProc, tVi MNAECam. 



252 



TETRABIBLOS III. 5 

moon ; for in this sign and that which succeeds it 
is the place of the children of the mother, which 
should be the same as the place of the brethren of 
the offspring. If, then, beneficent planets bear an 
aspect to this place, we shall predict an abundance 
of brethren, basing our conjecture upon the number 
of the planets and whether they are in signs of a 
simple or of a bicorporeal form. But if the mal- 
evolent planets overcome them or oppose them in 
opposition, they signify a dearth of brethren, es- 
peciallv if thev have the sun among them. If the 
opposition is at the angles, and especially at the 
horoscope,^ in case Saturn is in the ascendant, they 
are the first-born or the first to be reared ; in case 
it is Mars, there is a small number of brethren by 
reason of the death of the others. If the planets 
which give brethren are in a favourable mundane ^ 
position, we must believe that the brethren thereby 
given will be elegant and distinguished ; if the re- 
verse is the case, humble and inconspicuous. But 
if the maleficent planets overcome those that give 
brethren, or rise after them, the brethren will also be 
short-lived ; and the male planets in the mundane 
sense ^ will give males, the female females ; again, 
those farther to the east the first and those farther to 
the west the later-born. Besides this, if the planets 
that give brethren are in harmonious aspect with the 

' " Horoscope " is used here in its more original sense of 
the point rising above the horizon at the time the observa- 
tion is made. 

* See the note on iii. 3, p. 239. 

' I.e. in the quadrant from the orient to niid-iioaveti or 
that from the Occident to lower mid-heaven ; c/. i. (3. 

253 



PTOLEMY 

(TV[X(f)d)vcD'; iayrjixariaixivoL rvy^avoiaL tco Kvpievovri 
Tov TTepi rcxiv dSeA^cov hatheKarrniopiov , TrpoacfuXcL? 
TTOLTjaovaL rovs ^ StSo/xeVous" aSeX(j)ovg • iav 8e Kal 
TO) KXrjpo) ri]9 tvx'tjS, Kal KOivo^iov? • iav 8e iv 
roLS aavvSeroLS rv\ojatv rf /caret rrjv evavTiav 
120 CTaoLv, (fitXex^povs Kal (f)9ov€povg, Kal ws ctti irdv 
eTTi^ovXevTiKOVS . Xolttov Se Kal ra KaO' eKaarov 
avTcov €t Tt? iTTLTToXvTTpayfJiovoir) ,^ avv€iKdl,oLT av 
Kol ivravda ttolXiv, tov SlSovtos aarepo's vnoride- 
{xevov Kara tov (hpoaKOTTLKov Xoyov Kal tcov Xolttwv 
ojs em yeveaecos avvd ecopovixivcuv .^ 

<?.> IJepl appeviKcov Kal 6 rj Xv k u)v 

'Ytt' * oifjLV rjSrj Kal tov irepl aSeXcficnv Xoyov /caret 
TOV appioi^ovTa Kal cf)vaiK6v rporrov rjjjblv yeyovoros ^^ 
i^rjs av e'ir] tojv /car' avTTjv Trjv yivecnv dp^aaOaij 
Kal irpaJTOv eTTidpaixelv tov Trepl appevLKcbv re /cat 
di)XvK(jjv eTTtXoyLGfxov. OecopelraL S' ovtos ov 
fMovoeiSco^ oi)S' d(f)^ ivos T1.V09 aXX airo re TOiv 
(f)OJT6jv apL,(f)OT€pixiv Kal tov ojpooKOTTOv Tojv re 
Xoyov ixovTCov TTpos avTov'5 daTepcov, p^dXiara [xev 
KaTOL TTjv TTJs (TTTopa? SiddeaLv, oXoax^picTTepov 8e 
/cat /caret ttjv ttjs eKrpoTTrjg. to 8' oXov irapa- 
Ti]p'r]r€Ov, TTorepov ol TTpoe(.prjp.€voi rpet? tottol /cat 
ol Tovrojv OLKoSeaTTOTovvres aarepes r] iravTes rj 
ol TrAetcrrot Tvyxdvovaiv -^ppeviOfidvoL vpos appevo- 

» Tovs VPLADE, n€v MNCam. 

* i-mTToXv-rrpay^ovoi-r) VPLAD, iTt ttoX. MNECam. 

' avvdecopovnevaiv om. NCani. 

254 



TETRABIBLOS III. 5-6 

planet that rules the place of brethren,^ they will make 
the given brethren friendly, and will also make them 
live together, if they are in harmonious aspect with 
the Lot of Fortune ; ^ but if they are in disjunct signs 
or in opposition, they will produce quarrelsome, 
jealous, and for the most part, scheming brethren. 
Finally, if one would busy himself with further in- 
quiries about details concerning individuals, he might 
in this case again make his conjecture by taking the 
planet which gives brethren as the horoscope and 
deaUng with the rest as in a nativity. 

6. Of Males and Females. 

Now that the topic of brethren has been brought 
before our eyes in suitable and natural fashion, the 
next step would be to begin the discussion of matters 
directly concerned with the birth, and first to treat 
of the reckoning of males and females. This is deter- 
mined by no simple theory based upon some one 
thing, but it depends upon the two luminaries, the 
horoscope, and the stars which bear some relation 
to them, particularly by their disposition at the time 
of conception, but more generally also by that at the 
time of the birth. The whole situation must be 
observed, whether the aforesaid three places and the 
planets which rule them are either all or the most 
of them masculine, to produce males, or feminine, 

1 I.e. tho place (literally, " twelfth part " of the zodiac) 
which governs tho inquiry about brethren ; see tho begin- 
ning of this chapter. 

* For tlif Lot of Fortune see iii. 10. 

* in' VPDE, eV MNLACnm. 

* imyeyovoTos MNECam. 

255 



PTOLEMY 

yovLav rj rediqXvGfxevoL -npo? drjXvyoviav , Koi ovrco? 
aTro(f)avreov. SiaKptreov {.tevroL rovs re rjppevoj- 
jLieVou? Kal TOV9 TedrjXvcr[X€vovs Kad^ ov vneOefxeda 
rpoTTov €v raZs TnvaKiKois eKdeaecn iv o.p)(fj rfjs 
avvTd^€a>9 aTTO re rijg rcov hojheKarrjjjLopioiv iv 61? 
121 etat (f)V(Tea>?, /cat arro rijs avTOJv raju aarepoiv, koL 
€Ti aTTO Tri<; rrpos rov Koajjiov a)^€aecv£, eTTCLS-qvep 
dTTrjXLCOTLKOL jxkv OVT€S OLppevovvTaL, Xl^vkol 8e 
dr]XvvovTaL Trpos Se rovrotg oltto ttjs Trpos tov 
rjXiov, iaJOL j^uv yap ttolXlv ovres appevovvTai, 
6r]XvvovTaL §e ioTrepioi • St' a)v TrdvTWv ttjv Kara. 
TO TrXeLGToi' iTTLKpoLTrjcnv TOV yevovs Trpoa-qKet, 
KaTaaToxd-t^eadai. 

<t,.> riepl h ihv p.oy ov a>v 

Kal TTepl Twv yevvu>ixe.va)v he ojjlolo)? dvd Svo -q 
Kai TrXeiovoiv tovs avTOvs Bvo tottovs TTapaTrjpelv 
TTpoG'qKeL, TOVTeGTi Ta T€ Svo (fxjOTa Kal TOV (Lpoa- 
KOTTOV. TTapaKoXovdelv 8e eicode tovto to avjx- 
TTTcofxa ^ vapd " ras" crvyKpdcreig, OTav ol Suo rj Kal 
OL rpet? TOTToi 8Laa>iia nepUxcJcn ^coSta, Kal fxaXicTTa 
OTav Kal OL OLKoS€aTr6t,ovT€9 avTuiv duTepes to avTO 
TTaOcocnv ^ rj Tives jxev iv StacojJLOL?, tlv€9 Se dvd Suo 
Keif-ievoL TvyxdvoJCTLV t] Kal rrXeiovs. irrdv Se Kal 
ev hiacjiioLs cbaiv oi Kvpioi tottol koI Kara to avTO 

' TOVTO TO avfiTTTcoiia VD ; cf. (TvuPatvei Se ovrco yeveadai 
Proc. ; TO roiovTov avfxTTTojfia libri alii Cam. 

^ napa VD. nepl libri alii Cam. 

' ■nadoDoiv VI'D ; eiV rovs oiKoSeaTToroCvTas . . . to avTo ovft^y 
Proc. ; KadopwoLv MNAECam., TiOwaiv L. 

256 



TETRABIBLOS III. 6-7 

to produce females, and on this basis the decision 
must be made. We must however distinguish the 
male and the female planets in the way set forth by 
us in the tabular series in the beginning of this com- 
pilation,^ from the nature of the signs in which they 
are, and from the nature of the planets themselves, 
and furthermore from their position with reference 
to the universe, since they become masculine when 
they are in the east and feminine in the west ; and 
besides, from their relation to the sun, for again 
when they rise in the morning they are made 
masculine, and feminine when they rise in the even- 
ing. By means of all these criteria one must con- 
jecture what planet exercises preponderating control 
over the sex. 

7. Of Twins. 

Likewise with regard to the births of two or even 
more, it is fitting to observe the same two places, that 
is, the two luminaries and the horoscope. For such an 
event is apt to attend the intermixture ^ when either 
two or the three places ^ cover bicorporcal signs, 
and particularly when the same is true of the planets 
that rule them, or when some are in bicorporeal signs, 
and some are disposed in pairs or in larger groups. 
But when both the dominant places are in bi- 
corporeal signs and most of the planets are similarly 

' See i. 6. 

*That is, of the influences of luminaries, signs, etc. 
' The places or houses in whiich the luminaries and the 
horoscope are found. 

257 



PTOLEMY 

TrAetore? ^ Tajt" darepcDv avveax'^jj-aTiaiJievoi, tot€ 
Kal vXelova tojv 8vo Kv'tuKeadaL ^ avfiTTiTTTeL, tov 
[xev TrX-qdovg oltto tov to ISiCDfxa ttolovvtos actTepos 
TOV dpidixov avveiKat,op,€vov , tov 8e yivovs d-no 
Tiov crvveGX''i][J'<XTiaiX€i'ajv daTepoju to) re tJAioj /cat 
Tji aeXrjVT] Kai toj d)pooKOTrcp irpos appevoyoviav tj 
QriXvyoviav Kara toi)? ev tols ep-Trpoadev eip'qiJievovg 
TpoTTOvs. OTav Se rj TOiavTrj StdOeatg jjltj avfnrepL- 
122 XajJi^dvrj tols (f)a>ai to tov (LpooKOTTOV KevTpov, 
dXXd TO ^ TOV iieaovpa\>rjixaTO<; , at rotaurai tcDi' 
fjLTjTepojv SlSvixa cog cttI tto-v tj kol TrAetova Kvta- 
Kovaiv. Ihiois Se Tpelg jxkv dppevag 7rXrjpo(f)opovaiv 
VTTO Trjv Tcbv 'AvaKTopoju yeveoLv a/xa toi? Trpo- 
K€i[X€voLg TOTTOig €v StCTco/AOt? av(j-xr]jxaTLadivTeg 
Kpovog, Zevg, "Ap'qg • Tpeig Se di^Xelag vtto Trjv 
Tcov XapiTOiv AcfipoSlTTj, GeXt^vr] /xe^' ' Eppiov Tedr]- 
Xvayievov • 8vo 8' dppevag /cat fxiav Oi^Xeiav vtto 
Tqv Ttov AiocxKovpcou Kpovog, Zevg, '^(/>/)o8iTrj • 
hvo 8e diqXeiag Kal dppeva eva vtto ttjv Arjfx-qTpog 
/cat Koprjg* 'AcftpoStTr] , GeX-qvq, "Apr]s • €(f>' Sv co? 
€ttI to ttoXv avfi^aiveiv eicode to re pir] TeXea- 
(f>opeLa6ai to. yivopieva /cat to piCTa TTapaa-qp,a)v 

' nXeiovfs VP (-ovaLs) LDProc, nXeioai MNAECam. 

^ KvtoKioOai VAD, Kveadai PL, TiKTeaOai MNEProc.Cam. 

3 dXXa TO VADEProc, dXXa toj PL, dXX' dno MNCam. 

* Kal Aiovvaov post K6pr]s add. NCam., om. libri alii Proc. 



' That is, from the planet tiiat governs the dominant 
place. 

2 In the preceding chapter. 

258 



TETRABIBLOS III. 7 

configurated, then it befalls that even more than two 
are conceived, for the number is conjectured from the 
star that causes the peculiar property of the number,^ 
and the sex from the aspects which the planets have 
with respect to the sun and the moon and the horo- 
scope for the production of males or of females, in 
accordance with the ways stated above.^ But when- 
ever such an arrangement of the planets does not 
include the horoscopic angle with the luminaries, but 
rather that of the mid-heaven, mothers with such 
genitures generally conceive twins or even more ; 
and in particular, they give multiple birth, to three 
males, by the geniture of the Kings,'' when Saturn, 
Jupiter, and Mars are in bicorporeal signs and bear 
some aspect to the aforesaid places ; and to three 
females, by the geniture of the Graces, when Venus 
and the moon, with Mercury made feminine, are so 
arranged ; to two males and one female, by the 
geniture of the Dioscuri, when Saturn, Jupiter, and 
Venus are so ordered, and to two females and a male, 
by the geniture of Demeter and Kore,'* when Venus, 
the moon, and Mars are thus ordered. In these cases 
it generally happens that the children are not com- 
pletely developed and are born with certain bodily 

^ Bouche-Leclercq, p. 398, n. 3, after remarking upon 
the various interpretations given this passage, says : 
" The title 'Ai'dKropes {'AvaK-fs, 'Afanes) having been borne 
by the Dioscuri, the Cabiri, and the Curotes, I do not 
liiiow to which group ho aUudes, and possibly ho did 
not know very well liinisolf." Cnrdaiius remarks that 
Ptolemy regards three children us the largest number that 
CUM bo born at one birlli and survive. 

* MS. N and Camurarius add hero "and Dionysus," but 
the other MSS. agree in omitting the expression. 

259 



PTOLEMY 

Tivwv ao)fxaru<(ji)v anoKviGKeadai Koi eVt to yiveadai 
TLva Tols TOTTOis i^aipera Kal dTrpoaSoK-qra Sia ttjj 
Tcov TOLovroiv avinrrcopbaTOiv cooTrep i7n(f)av€ias . 



<7].> n € pi T e p dr o)v 

OvK aAAoTpto? 8e Trjg 7TpoKeL[Ji€vqg aKeipecog ouS' 
o TTcpl Twv r^pdroiv^ \6yos. irpGiTOV jxev ydp 
irri rcbv tolovtojv rd fiev <f)cJjTa dTTOKCKXiKora 
rj ^ davvScTa tw (hpouKoiTcp Kard ro TrXecarov 
cvpiaKerai, rd 8e KevTpa SieiArj/x/iteVa vtto tcov 

, KaKOTTOLOJV . OTaV OVV TOiaVTT) TL9 VTT OlfttV 7T€Grj 

123 SLadeaLS, iTreiSrj ytVerat TToAAa/ctS' /cat nepl ret? 
raTTeLvds Kal /caKoSai/^ova? yeveaeis, Kav [xr] repa- 
TCoSet? oJaLv, evdvs eTnaKorreZv Trpoa-qKet rr^v irpo- 
yevofxevqv ^ (ju^uyiai/ (TVvoht,Kr]v iq TTavcreXrjviaKrjv 
Kal rdv OLKodeGTTOT'qaavTa TavTrjg re /cat tcov rr)? 
€KTpovr]S (fiOiTaJv.* idv ydp ol ttj? €KTpo7Tfjs avTcbv 

TOTTOL Kal 6 TTJS GcX'qVT]? ^ Kal 6 TOV (hpOGKOTTOV 

•ndvTe? t) ol TrXeioves dawSerot Tvy)(^avo)aLv ovTes 
TO) TrJ9 TTpoyevopiivr]^ (jv^vyiag totto), to yevvcL- 
[ji€vov alvLyfiaTcoSe? vTTOvorjTeov. idv fxev ovv 

TOVTCOV OVTCjOS i)(6vTOJV TCt T€ (f)iOTa €V T€Tpa7TOGLV 

^ OrjptcoSeaLv €vpiaK7]Tai ^ojStots" Kal ol 8uo KeK€v- 
TpcofjL€voi TCOV KaKOTTOLcov, ovS^ i^ avdpcoTTCOv koTai 
TO yevvcoixevovy dXXd [xr)8ev6s [Ji€v piapTupovvTOS 

' TepaTUihcov VD. 

2 r, VPLMNDProc. ; Kal AECara. 

^ npoyevonevrjv EProc, Trpoyiv- A, Trpoyeywvviav P, npore- 
yoviav h, yevoixivijv MNCain,, om. VD. 

260 



TETRABIBLOS III. 7-8 

marks, and again the governing places may bear 
certain unusual and surprising marks by reason of 
the divine manifestation, as it were, of such portents. 



8. Of Monsters. 

The subject of monsters is not foreign to the pre- 
sent inquiry ; for, in the first place, in such cases the 
luminaries are found to be as far as possible removed 
from the horoscope or in no way related to it, and 
the angles ' are separated by the maleficent planets. 
Whenever, then, such a disposition is observed, for 
it frequently occurs in humble and unlucky nativities, 
even though they are not the genitures of monsters, 
one should at once look for the last preceding new 
or full moon, and the lord of this and of the luminaries 
of the birth. For if the places of the birth, of the 
moon, and of the horoscope, all or the majority of 
them, happen to be unrelated to the place of the 
preceding syzygy, it must be supposed that the 
child will be nondescript. Now if, under such con- 
ditions, the luminaries are found in four-footed or 
animal-shaped signs,^ and the two maleficent planets 
are centred, the child will not even belong to the 
human race, but if no beneficent planet witnesses to 

* Cardanus and Wlialley say the ascendant and the mid- 
heaven are meant. 

* Cf. i. 12. The only human signs are Virgo, Gemini, 
Sagittarius, and Aquarius. 



*(f>ci)TU)v VPLMDEProc., tottwv NACam. 
'' 6 rrjs atXTqvTjs MNAECam.*, -q T-ijs aeX. P, 01 rrjs ae\. 
VDLCam. 

201 



PTOLEMY 

TOt? (f)0)m ayaOoTTOiov } ruiv Se KaKOTTOicov,* 
reXeov avT^jjiepov /cat tcov aypiav /cat KaKcorLKrjv 
ixovTOiv (^ucrif • [xapTvpovvTCov Se Alos t] ^Acftpo- 
S1T17?, TCOV eKdeia^ofxevcov, otov kvvcov ^ alXov- 
pcjv ^ ^ TCOV TOiovTcov ' ' EpfMov 84, TCOV €1? ;!(petav 

dvdpCjJ7TLV7]V, OLOV OpVidcOV ^ GVCOV T] ^OWV t} 

alycov /cat tcDi' tolovtcov. iav 8e ev avOpcoTToeiBiaL 
TO, (f)coTa KaTaXafjL^dvqTaL. tcov dXXcov (LaavTCos 
ixdvTCOv, VTT dvdpcoTTCOv pikv Tj Trap' dvdpcLiroLS 
CCTxat ra yeyevrjpiepa, repara Be * /cat alviyfxaTcoSr] 
TTy? /caret to ttoiop' tStoTTyro?, /cat et'rau^a avvopco- 
124 p-evrjs e/c tt^? Tajr ^aiStojr /xopcficocrecos, iv ols ol 
8L€LX'rj(f>6T€s TCI <f>cx)Ta 'q Ta KevTpa KaKOvoLol rvy- 
)(dvovaLV. idv fxev ovv KdvTavda fiiqSe et? tcDi/ 
aya^OTTOtcDv doTepcav TrpoajJiapTvpfj ^ ixrjSevl tcov 
TTpoeipiqiJievcov tottcov, dXoya /cat cos dXiqddJs atvLy- 
fiaTcoBrj yiVcTat TeXeov • idv Se 6 tov Alos t] 6 t^S" 
M^poStTT]? fiapTvp-^crrj, TipLCxipievov /cat €va)(r]iJLov 
ecTrat to to£> TepaTO? lSlov ' ^ ottolov Trepi tov? 
e/OjLta^/JoSiTOUS" ■^ Toys' KaXovfX€vovs dpiroKpaTia- 
Kovs /cat Toi)? TOLOVTOvg e'lcode au/jL^aiveiv. et 8e 
/cat o Tou 'Epp,ov [xapTvpy^aeLe [xeTa tovtcov puev 
/cat dTTo(j)deyyop.ivovs /cat Sta ' tcDp' toioutcoi' -nopL- 
OTLKOvs ' fxovos ^ 8e o Toy 'EpfjLoG ® i^coSou? /cat 

* dya^oTTOtoi; PLMNEProc.Cam., dyadoTTOiaiv VD, tcDj' 
dyaSo77oicov A ; pos. post fiev MNECam. 

^ Ta)v 8e KaKOTTOiov P, dnoiovvrcov Se KaK-owotajv L, TfSv 
KOKOTTOLoiv MNECam.^, rdlv KaKonoiwv fiapTvpowTOJv Cam.-, 
dAAd Toiv KaKOTTOtoJv Proc. 

^ Post aiAoJpoji' add. ■^ ■ni.OrfKwv MNAECam., ora. VPLD. 

* 8e om. MNECam. 

262 



TETRABIBLOS III. 8 

the luminaries, but the maleficent planets do so, it 
will be completely savage, an animal with wild and 
harmful nature ; but if Jupiter or Venus witness, 
it will be one of the kinds regarded as sacred, as 
for example dogs, cats,^ and the like ; if Mercury 
witnesses, one of those that are of use to man, such 
as birds, swine, oxen, goats, and the like. If the 
luminaries are found in signs of human form, but the 
other planets are disposed in the same way, what is 
born will be, indeed, of the human race or to be 
classed with humans, but monsters and nondescript in 
qualitative character, and their qualities in this case 
too are to be observed from the form of the signs 
in which the maleficent planets which separate the 
luminaries or the angles happen to be. Now if even 
in this case not one of the beneficent planets bears 
witness to any of the places mentioned, the off- 
spring are entirely irrational and in the true sense 
of the word nondescript ; but if Jupiter or Venus 
bears witness, the type of monster will be honoured 
and seemly, such as is usually the case with herma- 
phrodites or the so-called harpocratiacs,^ and the like. 
If Mercury should bear witness, along with the fore- 
going, this disposition produces prophets who also 
make money thereby ; but when alone, Mercury 

• The later MSS. here add " or apes." 

* Deaf mutes. 

^ TTpoafiapTvpfj PLProc, TrpoanapTvpovpava VD, avfifiaprvpij 
MNAECam. 

" ISiov VPLAD ; cf. Proc. ttjc Ibiorr^ra t^ti ; cm. MNECam. 

'8id VPLAD, aTTo MNECam. 

•ftovos VPLMNADProc., -ov ECam. 

•o ToO 'EppLOv VADProc. ; cm. PLMNECam. 

263 



PTOLEMY 

KO)(f>ovg, ey^yet? [xevroi Kal Travovpyovs aWcos 
a.TT€pydt,eTai?- 

<d.> IJepl dr p 6 (fxx) V 

AoLTTOV 8' OVTO? Ct? TO. /Cttx' aVTTjV T7]V yiv€<JlV 

rov TTepl dTp6(f>o}v \6yov, TrpoarjKei hiaXa^elv on 
TTTj [Mev 6 rpoTTOs 0VT09 cx^Tai Tov TTepl -x^povoiv 
^coTy? Xoyov,^ eTxeihrj to t,rjrovix€vov etSo? ovk 
aXKoTpiov eKaripov, tttj 8e /ce;)^ctjptCTTat -napd ro 
Kar avTrjv ttjv ttjs iTnoKei/jecos SvvafiLv 8ia(/)epeiv 
TTOiS. 6 jxev yap Trepl xpoi^^v ^w^? eirl roJv oXios 
ixovTiov XP^^^^S aladrjTOvs decopeZrai, rovrioTi 
fjLTj iXaTTOvas rjXLaKrjg vreptdSoi; fxids ' XP^^^^ V^P 
Ihtcog 6 TOiovrog iviaurog KaraXafi^dverai • Swdfiet 
8e Kal 6 iXdrrcDV tovtov, [xijveg elai Kal rjjJLepaL 
125 /cai cSpai. o Se Trepl dTp6(f)a)v em rajv /xrjS' oXcog 
(l)6av6vTO)v errl rov TrpoKeifjievov xpovov, dXX ev rot's 
iXdrroGtv dpidjxoig 8t' VTrep^oXrjv rrjs KaKcocreoJS 
<f>deLpoix€voiv. evdev KaKelvos fxev rroXvpiepearepav 
ex^>- Triv eTTLaKeijjtv, ovros he rrjv oXoax^P^^^^P^^ • 
ctTrAaJS' ydp edv re KeKevrpojjjievov t) ro erepov rdtv 
^iordJv Kal rdJv KaKOTTOicjv 6 erepos crvvfj t] /cat 

' aTTepydl,€rai VMDE, e'pya^cTcu PL, aTTipyat,-qTCu. NACam. 
^ Xoyov ora. MNECam. 



^ Either because they do not survive or because they 
are exposed ; Ptolemy treats both classes in the same 

264 



TETRABIBLOS III. 8-9 

makes them toothless and deaf and dumb, though 
otherwise clever and cunning. 



9. Of Children that are not Reared. 

As the account of children that are not reared ^ 
is still lacking in the discussion of matters related to 
the birth itself, it is fitting to see that in one way 
this procedure is connected with the inquiry con- 
cerning length of life, for the question in each case is 
of the same kind ; but in another wav they are 
distinct, because there is a certain difference in the 
actual meaning of the inquiry. For the question of 
length of life considers those who in general endure 
for perceptible lengths of time, that is, not less than 
one circuit of the sun, and such a space is properly 
understood to be a year ; but potentially also lesser 
periods than this, months and days and hours, are 
perceptible lengths of time. But the inquiry con- 
cerning children that are not reared refers to those 
who do not attain at all to " time " thus defined, 
but perish in something less than " time " through 
excess of the evil influence. For this reason the in- 
vestigation of the former question is more complex ; 
but this is simpler. For it is merely the case that 
if one of the luminaries is angular ^ and one of the 
maleficent planets is in conjunction with it, or in 

chapter, as does Firmicus Materiius, vii. 2 {De expositis et 
non nutritie). Cumont, U £gypte des astrologues, p. 186, 
remarks that whereas the ancient Egyptian custom had 
been to bring up all children born, the Greeks introduced 
the practice of exposing unwanted babes. 

* I.e. at Olio of the angles — rising, setting, or culiniiiatiiig. 

T 265 



PTOLEMY 

hiaix-qKiCrj, ravra 8e fjLOLpiKwg Kal Kar laooKeXeiav, 
jjLTjhei'os fiev ayadoTTOLOv avax'QfJ-ciTLl^ofj.evov, rod 
8 ^ OLKoSearroTov riJov ^ojtcjv iv tol? tcov /ca/co- 
TTOLcvv TOTTOis KareiXr^fxixivov , to yevv(x}yi€vov ov 
Tpa(f)-)]0€Tat, Trap' avra Be efet to reXog rfj? t,a)rjg.^ 
eav Be p-rj Kar' luoGKeXeiav pikv tovto crviJi^aLinrj 
dXX iyyvs €.TTai'a(f)4pa)VTaL tois" t(x)v (f)U)Ta>v tottois 

ai TUJV KaKOTTOLOiV jSoAai, BvO S' (LaiV ol KaKOTTOtOl, 

Kal tJtol to CTcpov rcjjv (f)ajTcov ^ /cat d/x^orepa 
^XoLTTTOVTes ^ Kar' e7Tava(f)Opa.v r) Kara Bidpierpou 
rj €v p-epei ro erepov 6 erepos ^ o fjiev erepos Sia- 
pLerpcjv 6 8e erepos i7Tava(f)ep6pi€vos, Kal ovrats 
o-xpova yiverat, rod TrXr^dovg rcbv KaKa)aecov a(f>avi- 
t^oi^rog TO eK rod Biaor-qp.arog rrjg irravacfyopd^ eis" 
eTTifjiovrjv rrjg C,cvr]S (juXdvdpcoTTOv. ^Xdirret 8e 
i^aiperoj£ Kara p,ev rds irrava^opd'S rjXiov fxev o 
rov "Apeoig, (jeXrpnqv Be 6 rod Kpovov, Kara Be rds 
BiapierprjaeL'5 rj KadvTrepreprjaei'S dvaTTaXiv rjXiov 
p.ev 6 rod Kpovov, aeXr]V7]v Be 6 rod "Apecog, Kal 
\26 fidXiara edv Kardax<J^OL romKcos rjroi,^ rd (jxjbra 

^8' om. NCam. ''t^j ^co^s om. NCam. 

» rJToi VD, cf. Proc. ; twv MNAECam. ; ^' L. 



' Kar' loooKeXeiav, literally, " by equality of leg." 
The anonymous commentator does not explain this ex- 
pression. Cardanus (pp. 264-265) understands it to mean 
that the two are exactly in opposition not only in longitude 
(" in degrees "), but also in latitude (as when the moon is 
in 10° of Aries, 3° north latitude, and Saturn or Mars in 
10" of Libra, 3° south latitude). 

* The planet which governs the sign in which the 
luminaries are found. 

26b 



TETRABIBLOS III. 9 

opposition, both in degrees and with equality of 
distance,^ while no beneficent planet bears any aspect, 
and if the lord of the luminaries ^ is found in the 
places of the maleficent planets, the child that is 
born will not be reared, but will at once come to its 
end. But if this comes about without the equality 
of distance, but the shafts of the maleficent planets 
succeed closely upon the places of the luminaries, 
and there are two maleficent planets, and if they 
afflict ^ either one or both of the luminaries either 
by succeeding them or by opposition, or if one afflicts 
one luminary and the other the other in turn, or if 
one afflicts by opposition and the other by succeed- 
ing the luminary, in this way too children are born 
that do not live ; for the number of afflictions dispels 
all that is favourable to length of life because of the 
distance of the maleficent planet through its succes- 
sion. Mars especially afflicts the sun by succeeding 
it, and Saturn the moon ; but conversely in opposition 
or in superior position Saturn afflicts the sun and Mars 
the moon, most of all if they occupy as rulers the 

' Affliction, which in general is damage done by a 
maleficent planet to a beneficent one, is defined by the 
astrologer Antiochus (C'C'AG, viii. 3, p. 106, 34-38) as 
existing " when (sc. a beneficent planet) is smitten by 
the rays of maleficent planets, or is surrounded, or is in 
application with one of them, or in glutituitio (KoXXrjais), 
or is governed by one of them, when the maleficent planet 
is in the inactive (non-signifying, dxpTjuaTicrroL) places. 
These are the sixth, third, second, eighth, and twelfth 
from the horoscope." Ptolemy says little about the 
" places " (less correctly " houses ") of a gonituro ; they 
are twelfth parts of the zodiacal circle marked off from the 
horoscope, each with some special significance ; cf. Boll- 
Bezold-Gundel, pp. 02-G3. 

267 



PTOLEMY 

rj^ TOP dtpoGKOTTOv OLKoheoTTOT'qaavre'; } iav Se 
Suo Tvyxdvojoi Sta/xerpT^cret? eVt Kevrpojv ovtiov 
rcov (f)COTa)v Kal rcov KaKOTTOicbv /car' laooKeXeiav, 
Tore Kal veKpa r) rjindavrj riKTerat to. ^p€(j)r). 
TOVTcav Se ovrojs exovTCOv, iav jxev aTToppoiav 0,770 
TWOS r(x)v ayadoTTOLOJV e)(Ovra ra (fxjora TV'y)(di''r) ^ 
rj Kal a'AActJ? avrolg fj GVV€a)(rip.aTL(y pieva, iv tols 
7Tpor]yovpi€voi£ avTcov ^ pbepeai jueVroiye rds OLKTivas 
awTtDv iiTtcfxpoi'Tiov, €Tnt,rjaeraL ro t€)(6€V axpi- 
rod piera^v rrj? re dcf^eaeco? Kal rcov iyyvrdpcov ^ 
rwv KaKOTTOtcbv aKrivoji' dpidpiov, rcov pLOtpcjv rovs 
'iaovg pii^vas 7) rjpiepag r) Kal wpas irpos ro p.iyedog 
rrjg KaKwaecog Kal rrjv SvvapiLV rcav ro a'iriov 
TToiovvrcov. idv Se ai rcov KaKOTTOtcov aKrlves et? 
Tct TTpoTjyovpieva (jiipcovrai rcov (f)a)rcov, at Se rcov 
dyaOoTTOLcov elg ra eTTopieva, ro yevvcvpievov cKredev 
dvaXrj(f)6iijaerai Kal ^Tyaerat. Kal TrdXtv idv pi€v ol 
avaxf]p-o,ria6€vres dyaOorroiol KaOvTrepreprjOcoaiv 
V7TO rcov KaKOTTOicov elg KdKcoaiv Kal vrrorayqv . idv Se 
Kal KaOvTTeprcprjOcoaLV els vtto^oXtjv aXXcov yovecov. 
€L 8e Kal rcov dyadoTTOicov ri? ^ dvaroXrjv rj rrjv 
avvacjiiqv TTOiotro rfj aeXrjvrj, rcov Se KaKOTToicov vtto 
hvaiv Tis" eiT^, utt' avrcov rcov yovecov dvaXr](f)6ijaerat. 
Kara rov avrov Se rov rporrov ' Kal eirl rcov TrXeiaro- 

1 ^ VLDProc. ; Kal MNAECara. 

'^ oiKoSeanoT-qaavres VLDProc, -cjv MNAECam. 

^ Tvyxavj] libri, -01 Cam. * eavTcov VLD. 

* Ta>v iyytnipoiv VLDProc. ; rov (.yyvripoj MNACam. ; tojv 
('yyvrepw E. 

* Post TIS add. T] TTjv MNECam.Proc. 
' Kara Se avrov rov rpoTTOV Cam. 

268 



TETRABIBLOS III. 9 

places of the luminaries or of the horoscope. But 
if there chance to be two oppositions, when the 
luminaries are at the angles and the maleficent 
planets are in an isosceles configuration, then the 
infants are born dead or half-dead. And in such 
circumstances, if the luminaries should chance to be 
removing from conjunction with one of the benefi- 
cent planets, or are in some other aspect to them, 
but nevertheless cast their rays in the parts that 
precede them, the child that is born will live a number 
of months or days, or even hours, equal to the 
number of degrees between the prorogator ^ and the 
nearest rays of the maleficent planets, in proportion 
to the greatness of the affliction and the pov/er of 
the planets ruling the cause. But if the rays of the 
maleficent planets fall before the luminaries, and 
those of the beneficent behind them, the child that has 
been exposed will be taken up and will live. And 
again, if the maleficent planets overcome ^ the bene- 
ficent ones that bear an aspect upon the geniture, 
they will live to affliction and subjection ; but if the 
beneficent planets overcome, they will live but as su|> 
t'osititious children <»f other parents : and if one of the 
beneficent planets should either be rising or apply- 
ing -^ to the moon, wliile one of the maleficent planets 
is setting, they will be reared by their own parents. 
And the same methods of judgement are to be used 

' A luminary, planet, or portion of tho zodiac which 
d'Mcnninps tho length of life or tho duration of souio event. 
The pror();j;ators are (liscussinl in tho next chapter. 

* See on iii. 4 above (j). 24.5, n. 1). ' See i. 24. 

269 



PTOLEMY 

\21 yovovvTOiv . eav fiev vtto hvaiv tls fj tojv Kara 
hvo ri /cat TrXeiovs avv€a-)(rj^aTLayieva)v aarepcuv, 
■^fXiOaves TL^ rj adpKOjfxa /cat areXeg to yevvojixevov 
aTTOTC'xB'qaeTaL. iav Se vtto KaKOTroioJv Kadvirep- 
reprJTaL, drpo(f)ov rj axpovov earai to vtto Trjg /car 
avTOV atria? avyyeyevrjiJievov. 

<(,.> Ilepl XP^^^^ ll,(jorjs 
T(x>v 8e [X€Ta TT]v yiveatv avpiTTTCopidTCOV i^yetrai 
pikv 6 TTepl xpoi'<J^^ ^cjorj? Xoyos, cTretST^Trep /cara 
Tov dpxO'ioi' yeXoLov ioTC to. /ca^' eKacrra toji' 
dvoTeXovfievajv i(j>apix6l,eLv tw /X7]8' oAa»? e'/c ttjs 
TO)v ^LCOGLpbcov CTCov VTToaTaaewg eVt tovs dvo- 
TeXeoTiKovs avTCJv xP^vovs rj^ovTi. decopelTai Se 
ovTOS ^ ovx cittAcDs' ovS^ dTToXeXvjJievcos , aXX avo 
TTJs TcJbv Kvpi,a)TdT(x)v TOTTcxjv eTTLKpartjaecos TToXv- 
[xepcbg XapL^avofievog. eart 8' o /xaAiara re avpi- 
(f)a>vcop rjixlv /cat a'AAco? exop-^vos <j)va€a>s Tporrog 
TOiovTOS. rjpT7]Tat piev yap to Trdv e/c re Trjs tcov 
dcf)€TtKa)i' TOTTCov ^ StaAyji/^eco? /cat e^ avTcbv tcov 

TTJ? * d<f)€G€COS eTTLKpaTOVVTCOV /Cat €Tt €K TTJ? TOJV' 

dvatpeTLKcov tottojv rj doTepcou. Sta/cptWrat Se 

TOVTiOV CKaOTOV OVTOJS . 

i Ti VPLD ; ioTLv MNAECam. 

^ovTos MNAEProc. ; ovrcos VPLD, om. Cam. 

^TOTTOJv PLAEProc, om. VMNDCam. 

* avTcbv TCOV TTJs VPLD ; TCOV TTJs avTrjs MNAECam. 

* Perhaps a reference to Petosiris. The passage is in- 
cluded by E. Riess among the fragments of Nechepso and 
Petosiris, Philologus, Supplementband 6, p. 358. 

" Aphetic is also used. Hyleg is the Arabic term. 

270 



TETRABIBLOS III. 9-10 

also in cases of multiple births. But if one of the 
planets that two by two or in larger groups bear an 
aspect to the geniture is at setting, the child will 
be born half-dead, or a mere lump of flesh, and im- 
perfect. But if the maleficent planets overcome 
them, the infant born subject to this influence will 
not be reared or will not survive. 

10. Of Length of Life. 
The consideration of the length of life takes the 
leading place among inquiries about events following 
birth, for, as the ancient ^ says, it is ridiculous to 
attach particular predictions to one who, by the 
constitution of the years of his life, will never attain 
at all to the time of the predicted events. This doc- 
trine is no simple matter, nor unrelated to others, but 
in complex fashion derived from the domination of 
the places of greatest authority. The method most 
pleasing to us and, besides, in harmony with nature 
is the following. For it depends entirely upon the 
determination of the prorogative^ places and the stars 
that rule the prorogation, and upon the determination 
of the destructive "^ places or stars. "* Each of these is 
determined in the following fashion : 

^ Or anaeretic. 

* Bouch^-Loclorcq's (p. 411) summary of Ptolomj''3 
system of prorogations is helpful : " His theory rests es- 
sentially upon the likening of the zodiac to a wheel upon 
which the life of the individuals is cast with a groator or 
loss force from a certain place of departure (tottoj arfxTiKos) 
and finds itself arrested, or in danger of being arn^sted, by 
barriers or destructive places {tottol dvaipiriKoi), without 
being able in any case to go beyond a cjuarter of the circle. 
Tlie number of degrees traversed, converted into degrees 
of right ascension, gives the number of the years of life." 

271 



PTOLEMY 

ToTTOv; ^ fJiev irpcoTOv rj-yr^reov d(f)€TiKovs iv oig 
etvat Set TrdvTOJS rov fjieXXovra rr^v Kvpiav rrjs 
lsd(})€a€OJS Xaix^dveiv, ro re Trepl rov cbpooKOTTOv 
hojheKaTrjixopLOv diro rrevre pLOtpcov tcov rrpoava- 
(f)€po[xevcov avTov rov opil^ovTO^ P'^XP'- "^^^ Xolttcov 
Kal evava(f)€poixeva>p e'lKoaL Trivre. [xotpaJv, kol ra? 
ravraig rat? A' yLoipai's Se^td? i^ayojvovs re rod 
dyadod SaLpLovog^ Kal r€Tpaya)vovs rod vrrep yrjv 
yueaovpavripiaTOS, Kal rpiycLvovs tov KaXov [xevou 
deov, Kal Siaixerpovs rod Svvovtos • TvpoKpivoyievcov 
Kal iv TOVTOLg els Svi>ap.Lv eTTiKpar-qaecos Trpco- 
rov jxev rajv " Kara to vrrep yrjv peaovpdvr^jJLa 
eaTOJTCov,^ etra rcov Kara rrjv avaroXijv, eira rcov 
Kara rrjv €TTava(j>opdv rov fxeaovpavqfJLaTOs, eira 
T<JL}V Kara to hvvov, eira rwv Kara ro Trpo-qyovpievov 
rov ixeoovpaviqpiaros . ro re yap vtto yrjv ndv 
eiKoroiS aderrjreov Trpd? rrjv nqXiKavrriv Kvpiav, 
ttXyjv p.6vov rdv rrap" avrrjv rr)v dva(f)Opdv els (pdJs 
ep)(opLeva>v, rov re vrrep yrjv ovre ro aavvherov 
rep dvareXXovrt ScoSeKari^p^opLOv * ap/^d^ei irapa- 

^ Hie tituhim liabent Flepi tottwv a4>eri.KU)v NCam. ; cm. 
VPLMADEProc. 

2 Toil/ AE, cm. PL ; Tfjs NCam., to VMD. 
» eoTcuTajv VPLD, om. MNAECam. 

* o XtyfTai TOTTos dpyd? add. mg. N et Cam., om. libri omnes. 

' Sc. degrees. 

* Though he pays little attention to the system of 
" places " or " hoiise.s " so much used by the astrologers in 

272 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

In the first place we must consider those places 
prorogative in which by all means the planet must be 
that is to receive the lordship of the prorogation ; 
namely, the twelfth part of the zodiac surrounding 
the horoscope, from 5° above the actual horizon 
up to the 25° that remains, which is rising in suc- 
cession to the horizon ; the part sextile dexter to 
these thirty degrees, called the House of the Good 
Daemon ; the part in quartile, the mid-heaven ; 
the part in trine, called the House of the God ; 
and the part opposite, the Occident. Among these 
there are to be preferred, with reference to power 
of domination, first those ^ which are in the mid- 
heaven, then those in the orient, then those in the 
sign succedent to the mid-heaven, then those in 
the Occident,'^ then those in the sign rising before 
mid-heaven ; for the whole region below the earth 
must, as is reasonable, be disregarded when a 
domination of such importance is concerned, except 
only those parts which in the ascendant sign itself 
are coming into the light. Of the part above the 
earth it is not fitting to consider either the sign that 

the actual casting of nativities, Ptolemy here deals with 
four besides the horoscopo itself. Their usual names 
are : I, Horoscopo, wpooKOTTos ; II, Gate of Hades, 
'^418011 TTvXrj ; III, Goddess, &ed {i.e. moon) ; IV, lower 
mid-heaven, vnoye'ioi'; V, Good Fortune, dyadr] tvxv '< 
VI, Bad Fortune, KaKT) rvx-q ; VII, Occident, Siiais ; 
VIII, Beginning of Death, apxr) Oavdrov ; IX, God, Oeos 
{i.e. sun) ; X, mid-hoavon, fxeaovpaurj/xa; XI, Good Dae- 
mon, dyaOos 8aifjt<x)v ; XII, Bad Daemon, ko/coj Saifxcoy. 
Cf. P. .Mich. 149. col. ix, 13-19. whore slightly different 
names are given. In this passage Ptolemy has mentioned 
liumlxrs I, XI, X, IX, VII. 

273 



PTOLEMY 

XafxPdv€iv ovre ro TrpoavareiXav, o Koi Kokelrai 
KaKOv Saiixovos, cTreiS-qTrep KaKol^ ttjv em rr]v yrjv 
OLTToppoiav rwv iv avrco aarepcov yLterct tov /cat 
OLTTOKeKXiKcvaL ' doXol TC ^ /cttt waTTcp d^avt'^et to 
avadvpiiiopL€vov eK tcov ttj? yrj^ vypcov iraxv xaX 
d;^AucLt8€S' Trap' o kol tol^ ^pcopiaai /cat rot? fieyedeav 
ov Kara (f>vaLi' exovres <j)aivovTaL? 

Mera 8e raura ttolXlv d^e'ras" TTapaXrjrrTeov tovs 
T€ KvpLajTOLTOvg 8' Tovovs rjXiov, aeX'qvrjv, (Lpo- 

129 OKOTTOV, KXrjpOl'TVX'']? Kal TOVS TOVTCOV OLKoBeaTTOT-q- 

aavras* 

KXrjpov jxeuTOL tu;^7j? tov avvayofxevop arro tov 
apidpiov TTOLVTOTe /cat i'vktos /cat rjfiepa? tov re ano 
rjXlov €771 aeX'^vrju, /cat to. taa (f)epovTog ^ arro tov 
(hpoaKOTTOv /caret ret eTTopLCva tcov l,a)hioiV,^ Iva ov 
e;\;ei Xoyov /cat axy)ixaTLap.6v 6 i^'Ato? Trpo^ tov 

' K-ttK'or V ; KaKOi D ; cf. jSAaTrrct Proc. ; vnepKaKrj (= eVet- 
Si^Trep /ftt/coi) P ; orrep KaKfl L ; om. MNAECam. 
2 T€ VD ; ix€v PL ; om. MNAECam. 
' Kara ^vaiv exovTfs <^aiVorrai libri ; /cara^aiVoiTai Cam. 

* Post hoc verbiim inser. tituliim Flepl tov nX-qpov ttjs 
Tvx^s NACam. ; om. libri alii. 

* (f>epovToi VPLD ; d^aipowre? MNAECam. ; Kal to. taa 
exovTos OTTO TOV tjS' Kara to inofieva tojv ^wbicov Proc. 

^Hic add. NACam: o-nov 8' av eKnear] 6 dpidnos e'/ceiViji; 
T^v fioipav TOV ScuBiKaTTjidopiov /cat TOV TOTTOi' ^aixev enexetv 
TOV kX^pov T-fjs Tvxrjs. 

'The eighth house. " Sign," of course, in this passage 
means not the fixed signs of the zodiac, but the places or 
houses of the nativity. One MS. adds here, "which is 

274 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

is disjunct from the ascendant,^ nor that which rose 
before it, called the House of the Ev-il Daemon,^ 
because it injures the emanation from the stars in it 
to the earth and is also declining, and the thick, 
misty exhalation from the moisture of the earth 
creates such a turbidity and, as it were, obscurity, 
that the stars do not appear in either their true 
colours or magnitudes. 

After this again we must take as prorogatives the 
four regions of greatest authority, sun, moon, horo- 
scope, the Lot of Fortune, and the rulers of these 
regions. 

Take as the Lot of Fortune ^ always the amount 
of the number of degrees, both by night and by day, 
which is the distance from the sun to the moon, 
and which extends to an equal distance from the 
horoscope in the order of the following signs,* in 
order that, whatever relation and aspect the sun 

called the Inactive Place," probably a scholion which hew 
entered the text. See the critical note. 

2 The twelfth house. 

^ The directions given amount to this : Take the angular 
distance from sun to moon in the order of the following 
signs, i.e. in the direction in which the zodiac is graduated ; 
then lay out the same distance, in the same sense, from 
the horoscope. The point reached is the Lot of Fortune, 
and it will be located with respect to the moon as the horo- 
scope is with respect to the sun ; hence it can bo called 
a " lunar horoscope." With the older MSS. and Proclus 
we read ^epovroj instead of d(f>aipovvTes in this passage. 
On the various accounts of the Lot of Fortune see Bouche- 
Leclercq, pp. 289-296 (who, however, read d<f>aipovvres here). 

*Hero two MS.S. and Camorarius (see the critical note) 
add : " and wlu-rover the number falls, we may say that 
the Lot of Fortune falls upon that degree of the sign and 
occupies that place." 

275 



PTOLEMY 

(hpoGKOTTOv ^ rovrov e)(rj /cat r] aeXi^viq tt/dos" tov 
kXtjpov rrj'; rv)(ri<; koi fj cDOTrep aeX-qvLaKO^ ojpo- 

130 FIpoKpiriov Se kol eV ^ tovtojv rjjjiepag fxev 

TTpCOTOV TOV tJXiOV , idvTTep fj iv TOLS d(f)€TLKOig 

TOTTOig • el Se jxrj, , i]v aeX-qvriv • el 8e iirj, rov'^ 
TrXeiovas e^ovra Xoyovs otKroSeffTTOTta? 77pd? re. tov 
tJXlov Kal TTjv Trpoyevojjievrjv avvoSov Kat rrpos ^ 

TOV cLpOOKOTTOVyTOVTeUTLV OTaV TU)V^ OLKoSecrTTOTLKCOV 

TpoTTwv e' ovTOJV Tp€is exfj TTpos €va rj Kal TrXelous 
Tibv elp-qpievcov ■ el Se jirj, TeXevTaiov tov cJupo- 
OKOTTOv. vvKTos §6 TTpcoTOV TTjv oeX'qvqv, efra tov 

' cbpooKOTTOv VDProc. ; avaroXiKov opi^ovra PLMNECam. ; 
rijv (LpooKOTTOvcrav fiolpav tov avariXXovTOS tj3' Trjfiopiov A. 

^ Hie add. NACam. : 7rAr)v o(f)€LXoiiev opdv nolov twv (fxxiTwv 
evl ra enofxeva evpioKerai tov erepov. el /xev yap rj oeXrjvr] tos irpos 
ra enofxeva /uaAAoi' evplaKeTat. tov ■qXiov, tov eV^aAAo/nevov airo tov 
(jipodKOTTov apidixov inl tov kXtjpov ttjs TV)(rjs <l)s Trpos to. eirojieva 
TcDv l,cp6iu>v Set ij/xas tovtov hieK^aWnv ■ el 8e cLs Trpos to. TTporjyov- 
fiiva TOV TjXiov jiaXXov evpioKeTai rj aeXiqvr], tov avrov apidjxov cos 
Trpos ra nporjyovjjLeva tov cbpoaKonov SieK^aXXeiv. Om. VPLMDE 
Proc. Deinde pergunt VPLMNDCam. : taws Se aiiro tovto 
dlXei, Kai SvvaTai vapa rip avyypa(j>el to toIs vvktos yewcofxiiois 
arro aeXrjvrjs eVi rjXiov apiOj^ielv Kal avarraXiv arro tov ibpoaKonov, 
TOVTeaTiv eij ra irporjyovfxeva, hieK^aXXeiv. koX ovtcu yap KaKelvos 
6 avTOS TOTTos tov KXrjpov KOi 6 avTos tov avaxfjjJ-O.TLOji.ov Xoyos 
(KpTjoeTaL. Om. tacDS 8e . . . SieK^aXXeiv A, tcrcos Be . . . 
eK^rjaeTai E; in mg. N scriptum est oxoXlov; habent eo-Tt 
re pro deXei MNCam., evpeOrjoeTai pro eK^rjoeTai MNACam. 
Titulum capitis Ilocroi a<f>eTai post haec add. NCam., cm. 
VPLMADE. 

■' Kal iK VPLD, cf. Proc. ; om. MNAECam. 

^ TOV VD ; Tijv PL, cf. Proc. ; tovs MNAECam. 

^ Trpos om. NDCam. * tojv om. MNECam. 

276 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

bears to the horoscope, the moon also may bear to 
the Lot of Fortune, and that it may be as it were a 
lunar horoscope.^ 

Of these,^ by day we must give first place to the 
sun, if it is in the prorogative places ; if not, to the 
moon ; and if the moon is not so placed, to the 
planet ^ that has most relations of domination to the 
sun, to the preceding conjunction, and to the horo- 
scope ; that is, when, of the five methods of domi- 
nation "* that exist, it has three to one, or even more; 
but if this cannot be, then finally we give preference 
to the horoscope. By night prefer the moon first, 

^Camerarius and cei'tain MSS. add here: "We ought, 
however, to observe which of the himinaries is found 
following the other. For if xhc moon is found following 
the sun, we must lay out the mmiber which intorvi-nes 
between the horoscope and the Lot of Fortiuie in tlie 
order of followins sijjns ; but if the moon is found preced- 
ing the sun, wo must sot forth this same number from the 
horoscope in the order of leading signs. Perhaps this is 
what he means, and the writer's intention is to count from 
moon to sun in the case of those born at night, and to 
make the interval in the; other direction from the horo- 
scope, that is in the order of leading signs ; for thus it will 
turn out to be the same place for tlie Lot of Fortune and 
the same relation of aspect which he mf'iitions." The 
first ])art of this passage can hardly be genuine because it 
is at variance with the general directions just given by 
Ptol( my ; the introductory phrase of the last part clearly 
shows that it originated as a scholion. 

^ I.e. sun, moon, horoscope. Lot of Fortune, and the 
rulers (see above), 

^ In an aphetic (prerogative) place, says Cardaima 
(p. 4fi!)). 

* See iii. -2 (p. 2:J3). 

277 



PTOLEMY 

"qXiov, eXra rov nXetova? exovra ^ Adyou? oIko- 
heaTTorlas TTpos re rriv aeXi^vrjv Kal TTpos rrjv rrpo- 
yevo^evqv Trava€Xr]vov Kal rov KXrjpov rrjg rv^r]? ■ ei 
§€ fXTj, reXevralov, GvvohLKr]g jxev ovaiqs rrj? rrpo- 
yevopievr^s au^uytas', rov cLpoaKOTTOv, 7Tava€Xr]viaK7]S 
Se rou KXrjpov rrjs TV)(r}S-^ et 8e /cat api^orepa ra 
(fxjjra r) Kal 6 ttj? oiVeta? alpeaecos olKobeaTTorrjs 

€V rot? d(f>€TLKOLS €L€V TOTTOtS", TOP iv ^ Tip KVpiCOTepCp 

TOTTO)^ rcbv (fjcoTCov TTapaXrjTTTeov ' totc 8e piovov 
rov OLKoSeaTTorrjv api(f)or€pa}v TrpoKpireov^ orav /cat 
Kvpiiorepov eirexj} roTTov Kal Trpos dpi(f>orepa£ rds" 
alpeaeLS OLKoheaTTOrias Xoyov e'x??-^ 

Tov 8e d(f)€rov SiaKpidevrog , €ri Kal rwv acfieaeiov 

131 hvo rpoTTOvs napaX-qTrreov, rov re els ra irropieva 

rojv t,(phia)v piovov vtto rrjv KaXovp,evY)v aKrcvo^oXlav, 

^ TOV . . . t^ovra VP (e;;^6o»^a) LD ; c/. Proc. ; tovs . . . 
exovras MNAECarn. 

^Hie add. MNECam. : et Se fj.^, TeXevraiov 6 cLpoaKonos 
a<f)lr]ai tovs xpovovs ; om. VPLADProc. 

* TOV eV VMNDE, TOV P, Tojv L, Tu)v €v A, TO (xkv Cam. 

*T07Taj VMADEProc, om. PL, Tponcp NCam. 

^ Post e^?? add. capitis titulum, Iloaoi Tponoi a^eaecos 
NCam. ; om'. VPLMADEProc. 



^"But otherwise finally the horoscope is the proro- 
gator" is added here in certain MSS. 

^ I.e. a planet which may be the prorogator. The 
" proper sect " will be diurnal in diurnal genitures, noc- 
turnal in nocturnal. 

278 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

next the sun, next the planets having the greater 
number of relations of domination to the moon, to 
the preceding full moon, and to the Lot of Fortune ; 
otherwise, finally, if the preceding syzygy was a new 
moon, the horoscope, but if it was a full moon the 
Lot of Fortune.^ But if both the luminaries or the 
ruler of the proper sect ^ should be in the prorogative 
places, we must take the one of the luminaries that 
is in the place of greatest authority. And we 
should prefer the ruling planet to both of the 
luminaries only when it both occupies a position of 
greater authority and bears a relation of domination 
to both the sects. 

When the prorogator has been distinguished, we 
must still further adopt two methods of prorogation.^ 
The one, that which follows the order of the following 
signs, must be used only in the case of what is called 

' Bouche-Leclercq's (pp. 418-419) exposition may bo 
quoted : " The prorogator once determined ... it is 
necessary to determine the sense in which it launches the 
hfe from its prorogative place ; the direct sense, that is, 
in accordance with the proper movement of the planets, 
when it follows the series of [following] signs . . . ; retro- 
grade . . . when it follows the diurnal movement. . . . 
At all events there is in both cases unity of measurement, 
the diurnal movement. In the sense here called direct the 
diurnal movement brings the anaeretic planet or ' following 
place ' to meet the ' precetling place ' where the prorogator 
is lodged. In the contrary sense it is the prorogator which 
is carried to the anaeretic place, which is always the Oc- 
cident. By either manner the length of life was equal to 
the number of degrees of right ascension between the 
prerogative jjlaco and the anacrotic i)laco, at the rate of 
one year to a degree." Ho proceeds to point out that it 
therefore becomes necessary to convert degrees of the zodiac 
into degrees of right ascension measured on the equator. 

279 



PTOLEMY 

orav ev rotS" aTTr^AtcoTtwrot? tottois", Tovrian rols 
OLTTo Tov ixeaovpaut^fxarog eirl tov ojpoaKOTTOV, fj 6 
a.(f)errjs • Kal rov ov [jlovov et? to, iTTOfieva dAAa kol 
TOV ^ els TO. TTporjyov jj-eva Kara rrjv Xeyoixevrji' 
ajpifiaiav, orav iv rot? dvoKeKXiKocn tov pieaov- 
pavrjpLaTOS tottois fj 6 d^erT^s'. 

TovTCov he ovtcds e-)(ovTO)V avaiperiKaL yivovTai 
jjiolpai Krard jxev Trfv els to. Trporjyov pieva tcou 
t,cphioiv a(f)eaLV rj tov Svtlkov 6pli,ovTOS povrj Std 
TO dcl)avL(,eLv tov Kvpiov ttjs ^(otj? • at Se tcov 
ovTios VTTavTCovTOJV t) papTvpovvTwv aoTepayv a(pai.- 
povGL pLovov Kal TTpooTideaaiv eTH] rols ^ P-^XP^ "^V^ 
KaraSvaecos tov a.(f)€TOv avvayop.evoLS Kal ovk 
dvaipovoL Std to /xt^ avTOvs e7TL<f)epeadai tw 
d<f>erLKa> totto) aAA' CKeXvov rot? avTcov • Kai 
TipoariQeaai pkv ot dyaOorroLol, d(f)aLpovai 8e ot 
KaKOTTOLol, rov 'EppLov ^ ttolXlv oTtorepoLS av avrcov 
avaxf]po.Tiadfj TrpoariBepevov .^ 6 he dpi6p,6s rrjs 
TTpoudeaecos rj dcfiaLpeoeajs deojpeZrai Std rrfS Kad* 
eKaarov pioipoOealas ' oool yap av (Ijglv copLaloL 
Xpovoi rrjs eKaarov p.oipas, rjpiepas p^ev ovarjs ol 

> r6v VAD, om. PLMNECam. 

^ Post Tois add. vtto tov a<l>lTov avvayofievois MNAE ; haec 
omittunt et awayofx^vois post 6.(f>4Tov inser. VPLD. 

^ TOV 'Epfiov VD ; rov 8e 'E. PL ; tovtov 'E. A ; d 8e tov 'E. 
MNECam. 

* TTpoaTiOenivov VP {-TyO-) LMADE, -os NCam. 



^ On projection of rays {aKTivo^oMa) see Bouche- 
Leclercq, pp. 247-250. The planets, by their rotation 
in their orbits moving, as the astrologers said, " from 

280 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

the projection of rays/ when the prorogator is in the 
orient, that is, between mid-heaven and the horo- 
scope. We must use not only the method that 
follows the order of following signs, but also that 
which follows the order of leading signs, in the so- 
called Jiorimaea, when the prorogator is in places 
that decline from mid-heaven."- 

This being the case, the destructive degrees in the 
prorogation that follows the order of leading signs 
are only the degree of the western horizon, because it 
causes the lord of life ^ to vanish ; and the degrees 
of the planets that thus approach or bear witness * 
merely take awav and add years to the sum of those 
as far as the setting of the prorogator, and they do 
not destroy because they do not move toward the 
prorogative place, but it moves toward them.^ The 
beneficent stars add and the maleficent subtract. 
Mercury, again, is reckoned with the group to which 
he bears an aspect. The number of the addition or 
subtraction is calculated by means of the location in 
degrees in each case. For the entire number of years 
is the same as the number of hourly periods of each 

right to left," " in the order of the following signs," " re- 
gard " those that precede them and " cast rays," like 
missiles, at those tliat follow them ; always, however, if 
the action is to be effective, at the angle of one of the 
recognized asjiects (opposition, quartile, etc., these two 
having the greatest offensive force). 

^That is, in such cases either method may bo used. 

•" Tlie prorogator, which in this case moves toward the 
ana<,Tetic place. 

* Planets in aspect to one another are said to " bear 
witness." 

' In this case the rays of tlie planets are cast away from 
the prorogator ; Boucho-Leclorcq, p. 420. 

2iil 



PTOLEMY 

rrj? rjjiepas, vvktos 8e oi rijs vvkto?, tooovtov 
vXrjOog €ra>v ecrrai to reXeiov, oTTcp ^ ctti ^ t^? 
avaroXri'S avTwv ovtcov ^ Xoyiareov, etra Kara to 
132 avdXoyov rrJ9 aTTo^^^ajprjaews ixpaipereov, ecos dv 
TTpos ras Svajxas els to jirjhev KaravTrjarj. 

Kara 8e ttjv els to. CTTopieva tcjv ^oiStcDV d(f)€cnv 
avaipovaiv ol re Ta)v KaKortoiojv tottoi, Kpovov Kal 
"Apeojs. rjroL aajfiarLKCvs VTravrcuvTcou t) oLKrlva 
e7n(f)ep6vTcov oOei'h'qTTOTe rerpdycovov tj BidixeTpov, 
ivLOTe 8e Kal errl ^ tcov aKovovriov rj ^XeirovTcou 
/caT* laohvvapiiav e^aycovcov,^ Kal avros 8e o ro) 
d^erLKO) roTTO) rerpdycovos dno tcov e-nop-eviov • 
eviore Se Kal eirl ^ tcou TroXv)(povLOvi>Tcvv ScuSe- 
Karrjpuopiojv KaKwdels 6 e^dycovos ,^ e-nl he twv 
6XLyo)(povicjov ^ 6 rptycovos ' aeX-qvrjs he d(f>ieiar]s 
Kal 6 rod rjXiou tottos.^ ia)(vovaL yap at Kara 
TTjv TOLavT7]v d(f)eaLv diTavT'qaeLS Kal duatpelv Kal 
aa)t,eLv, eTreiSrj avrai rcu rod d(f)erov rono) eni- 
(f)epovraL. ov Txdvrore [xevroL rovrovs rovs rorrovs ^^ 

» oTTep VPLADE ; ottcos MNCam. 

2 6m VPLMADEProc. : eV NCam. 

^oXov post wTcov add. MXAECam., oni. VPLD. 

* enl VPLADProc. ; d-no MNECam. 
^l^ay<Lvoiv VPDProc, -ov MLNAECam. 

* enl VADEProc. ; eVt fxkv PL ; dno MNCam. 

' Post e'^ayoiras ins. avatpd NACam. ; om. VPLMDEProc. 

* oXi-yoxpovLwv VPLDProc, -xpoviovvrtov MNAECam. 
■naXiv KaKwdtls ins. post oXiYoxpoviwv NAECam. ; om. 
VPLMDProc. 

» Post to'ttos ins. dvai.pd MNAECam. ; om. VPLDProc. 

^^ TovTovs Toiis TOTTovs VPLDA (add. Kal A) ; T0I,0VT0VS Toiis 
Tonovs xal M (c/. Proc); Toiovrois tois tottois Kal E, rovs 
TOLOvrovs Kal Cam. 

282 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

degree, hours of the day ^ when it is day and hours 
of the night when it is night ; this must be our 
reckoning when they are in the orient, and subtrac- 
tion must be made in proportion to their departure 
therefrom, until at their setting it becomes zero. 

In the prorogation which follows the order of 
following signs, the places of the maleficent planets, 
Saturn and Mars, destroy, whether they are ap- 
proaching bodily, or project their rays from any 
place whatever in quartile or in opposition, and 
sometimes too in sextile, upon the signs called 
" hearing " or " seeing " - on grounds of equality of 
power ; and the sign that is quartile to the pro- 
rogative sign in the order of following signs likewise 
destroys. And sometimes, also, among the signs 
that ascend slowly the sextile aspect destroys, when 
it is afflicted,^ and again among the signs that ascend 
rapidly the trine. When the moon is the proro- 
gator, the place of the sun also destroys. For in 
a prorogation of this kind the approaches of planets 
avail both to destroy and to preserve, since these are 

1 " Hours " were merely twelfth parts of the day (sun- 
rise to sunset) or of the night, and hence " hours of the 
day " are not of the same length aa " hovirs of the night " 
except when day and night are equal. 

« aj. i. 15. 

'See above, p. 267, concerning "affliction." Aries, 
Taurus, Gemini, Pisces, Aquarius, and Capricorn wi-re 
classed as rapidly ascending signs; the others, a^* .slowly 
ascending signs. 

283 



PTOLEMY 

TTavrcos avaipelv rjyrjreov, aXXa jjlovov orav (hai 
K€KaKa>iJ.evoL. irapaTToh il^ovr ai yap eav re eis 
dyadoTTOLOV opiov epLTreacoaiv, idv re rig rcbv dyauo- 
TTOiaJv dKTiva avveTTK^eprj ^ rerpdycovov 7] rpiycovov 
Tj hidpierpov tJtol rrpos avrrjv Tr]v di'aiperiKrjv fiolpav 
Tj elg rd eTTOfieva avTrjg, im jxev Aiog jjlt] virep rds 
L^' fxoipas, em Se ^A(f)poSLTrjg p.T] virep rag r\ ' 

5/ / U -III ^ 'J' 

eav re aayp-aToov ovtojv afxcporepcov rov re acpievros 
/cat rov VTTavTOjVTOSi [Mtj ravTO rrXdros fj dp.(j)OTe- 
ISS/Jcuv'.^ orav ovv hvo r) Kal rrXeiova tj eKarepcodev 
rd re ^or]dovvra Kal rd Kara ro ivavriov dvai- 
povvra, GKeTTreov rrjv eTTLKpdr'qcnu oirorepov rdjv 
clScov^ Kard re ro TrXrjdo? rdJv avXXaix^avopLevoiv 
avroL? Kal Kara rrjv hvvap.Lv • Kara p,ev ro TrXrjdog, 
orav alaOrjro)'; rrXeiova fj rd erepa roJv erepcov, 
Kara 8vvaf.uv he, orav rcov ^orjdouvra)v -q dvai- 
povvrojv darepcov ol p.€V ev otVeioi? ojcrt roTTOLS, ol 
he p,rj • pLoXiara 8' orav ol piev chaiv dvaroXiKoi, ol 
he hvriKOL. Ka9^ oXov yap rcov vrro rds avydg 
dvrcov ovheva rrapaXyjirreov ovre rrpos avalpeaiv 
ovre TTpog ^orjdeLav, TrXrjv el p,rj aeXT^vr}<; d(^erlhog 
ovai-js avros 6 rov rjXtov roTTOS dveXrj,^ avvrerpap.- 

' avv€Tn(f>eprjTai ECam. 

' dix(f>0Tepcov libri omnes ; cf. Proc. ; eKaripwv Cam. 

^ aviXx) VJMDE. -€t PL, -01 NCam., avaipd A. 

^In this type of prorogation the diurnal movement of 
the heavens is carrying the planets toward the prorogative 

284 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

in the direction of the prerogative place. ^ However, 
it must not be thought that these places always in- 
evitably destroy, but only when they are afflicted. 
For they are prevented both if they fall within the 
term ^ of a beneficent planet and if one of the bene- 
ficent planets projects its ray from quartde, trine, 
or opposition either upon the destructive degree 
itself or upon the parts that follow it, in the case of 
Jupiter not more than 12'', and in that of Venus not 
over 8' ; also if, when both the prorogator and the 
approaching planet are present bodily, the latitude 
of both is not the same.^ Thus when there are two 
or more on each side, assisting and, vice versa, de- 
stroying, we must consider which of them prevails, 
both by the nunaber of those that co-operate and 
by power ; by number when one group is perceptibly 
more numerous than the other, and with regard to 
power when some of the assisting or of the de- 
stroying planets are in their own proper places, 
and some are not, and particularly when some are 
rising and others setting. For in general we must 
not admit any planet, either to destroy or to aid, 
that is under the rays of the sun, except that when 
the moon is prorogator the place of the sun itself is 
destructive, when it is changed about by the presence 

place; cf. Bouche-Leclercq, pp. 420-421 (esp. 421). He 
points out the complexity of the calculation and the 
multitude of choices that lay open to an astrologer in his 
interpretation of a geniture. 

2 See i. 20-21. 

* This would bo true only in cases of the bodily approach 
of ])laiiets, not in as|)fct. The notion is that the ray will 
not hit its mark if the two bodies are not in the same 
latitude. 

285 



PTOLEMY 

LteVo? IX€V VTTO rod avvovrog KaKOTTOiov, vtto jxriSevos 
§€ ToJv ayadoTTOiaJv dvaXeXv jjievog .^ 

'O fxivTOi Tcbv ircbv aptd^os ov TTOiovaiv ot twv 
fxera^i) SLaaTaaecov tov re acfieriKov tottov /cat tov 
dvaipovvTog ovx OLTrXo)? ovS^ to? ervx^v ocpeiXet 
Xaji^dveadaL /cara to.? toiv 77oAAa»i' TrapaSoaet? e/<r 
Tcbv a.va(f)opLKa>v TrdvTore xpo^ojv ^ e/caaxTj? pioipas? 
el p-rj p,6vov orav rjroi auro? o dvaroAi/cos' oplt^ojv 

TTjV d<f)€(7LV fj €lX7]({)d)g 7] Tl? TCOl' /CttT ttUTOl' TTOiOV- 

pLevojv dvaroXriv. ivos yap €k iravTog rporrov rep 

<j)VGLKcb'5 TOVTO TO pbCpO? iTTLGKeTTTOpieVa) TTpOK€l- 

^ ^0-qdovfievos Kox avaXeXvfiivos MACam., ^o. rj av. NE ; 
po-qdovfievos Kal om. VPLDProc. 

2 Kal post xpovcov add. MCam. ; om. alii. 

^ fKdarrjs fj-oipas Proc. ; eKaarr) fiolpa VD ; eK-dora? /loipas 
PLMNAECam. 



1 As the anonymous commentator says (p. 120, ed. Wolf), 
the sun is of a " middle temperature " (Kpdais), and takes 
the character, good or bad, of the planet associated with it; 
c/. i. 5 above. 

2 Some of the MSS. have ^orjdovnevos Kal (or ij) dvaXeXvfievos, 
" assisted or released " ; probably an explanatory gloss 
which worked its way into the text. The anonymous 
commentator explains the word to mean that a beneficent 
planet does not permit the sun to retain the "affliction" 
attached by the evil planet, but " releases " it. 

3 The following general description is intended to apply 
to Ptolemy's lengthy account of this method. In each 
prorogation, two points on the ecliptic are concerned, the 
prorogator or precedent and the subsequent or anaeretic 
place, which we may call P and S respectively. S may or 
may not be occupied by a planet, but in this type of pro- 
rogation it always follows P, that is, lies east of it and comes 
to the horizon later. P, as a point on the ecliptic, may 
(a) lie at the intersection of the ecliptic and the equator or 

286 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

of a maleficent planet ^ and is not released ^ by any 
of the beneficent ones. 

However, the number of years, determined by the 
distances between the prorogative place and the de- 
structive planet, ought not to be taken simply or ofi"- 
hand, in accordance with the usual traditions, from 
the times of ascension of each degree, except only when 
the eastern horizon itself is the prorogator, or some 
one of the planets that are rising in that region. For 
one method alone ^ is available for him who is 

be (6) north of the equator or (c) south of it. The vernal 
and autumnal equinoxes, the beginnings of Aries and 
Libra, are the only points of the ecliptic which can occupy 
position (a) ; if, however, P is one of these, since it is 
also a point on the equator, it will pass, like all points on the 
equator, from horizon to meridian in 6 hours, at the rate of 
15° in 1 hour (this is the hour called " equinoctial hour " 
by the Greeks). If P is to the north of the equator, in 
a north latitude, its ascension from horizon to meridian 
will be along a path parallel to the equator and longer than 
the distance from horizon to meridian on the equator ; 
hence it takes longer than 6 equinoctial hours. Conversely, 
points south of the equator take a shorter course and ascend 
in times correspondingly shorter than 6 equinoctial hours. 
Nevertheless, since the Greeks defined " day ' as the period 
from sunrise to sunset and divided it into 12 hours, similarly 
dividing the night, the ascension of P from rising to cul- 
mination, wherever it is situated on the ecliptic and what- 
ever the latitude, takes place in 6 hours of the day, that is, 
ordinary or civil (/caipiK-ai) hours, which may bo longer 
or shorter than equinoctial hours, and equal to them 
only when P occupies position (a), described above. 
The " horary magnitude " or " period " of a point on the 
ecliptic is the exjjrcssion in terms of equinoctial times (see 
p. 95, n. 2) of the length of the civil hour when the sun is 
at that i)oint ; in north latitudes, horary magnitudes are 
greater than 15 for points north of the equator and loss 
[For continuation of foolnole, see pages 288 and 289. 

287 



PTOLEMY 

f.iivov, OKOTTelv ' /xera ttocjovs larjjxepLvovs \p6vovs 
131 o rod irroyiivov (Tcojj.arog t) axt] f-'-o-rog tottos eVt 
TOP ^ rod 7Tpor)yovfJi€i'ov Kar avTiqv r-qv yeveaiv 
TTapayiverai yhia ro Tovglarjpiepii'ovs XP^vovs o/u,aAa»? 
hiepx^fydo.'- Kol Tov opi^ovra Kal top ixea-qfif^pivov, 
TTpo'S ovg ayi(j)OTepovs at Ta)v tottlkcjv aTToaTaaeojv ^ 
6^oi6rrjT€S Xaj^LpdvovTai, Kal laxvetv * Se e/cacTTOV 
Tcov xpov^v iptavTov eva rjXiaKov eiVoro)? • oTav 
fxep eV avTOv rod dparoXiKOv opt'^oi/ro? fj 6 
dffyeTLKo? Kal TTpoiqyovpL^pos totto^, tovs dva(f)opL- 
Kous XP^^^^^ '^^'^ P'^XP^ '''V^ VTTaPT-qaeaJS fjuoipajv 
TTpoGT^Kei Xapi^dveLP • juerd ToaovTOvg yap larj- 
[xepipovs XP^^'^^'S ^ ai'atpeTTjs" im tov tov d(j)€TOv 
TOTTOP, Tovriariv errl top apaToXiKOP opi^oPTa, 
rrapayiPeTai • OTap Se e7r avTOv tov fxeaT^jjil^pivov, 
Tag ctt' 6p9rjs Trj<s o<f)aipag dva(f)opd'5, iv oaaig 
CKaaTOP TpLrjfia hUpx^Tai tov fx,e(T7][jb^pLPov • oTav 

^ oKondv VPLD, TOV oKOTTilv MNAECam. 
'^Tov VDProc. ; rT]v alii Cam. 

* aTToaTaaicov VPMADEProc, vnoaraaewv L, om. NCam. 

* laxveif VPND, cf. Proc. ; loxvei LMAECam. 



for points south, 15 being the horary magnitude of the 
two equinoctial points. All that has been said about P 
applies of course to S, which is another point on the 
ecliptic. The problem of prorogation is simply to dis- 
cover after how many equinoctial periods or times S 
comes to the position originally occupied by P with re- 
lation to the meridian (or other centre, such as the western 
horizon). This position is defined as the one in which S 
is just as many civil hours removed from the meridian 
(or the point of reference) as was P in its original position. 

2i]8 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

considering this subject in a natural manner — to cal- 
culate after how many equinoctial periods ^ the place 
of the following body or aspect comes to the place of 
the one preceding at the actual time of birth, because 
the equinoctial periods pass evenly ^ through both 
the horizon and the mid-heaven, to both of which 
are referred the proportions of spatial distances, 
and, as is reasonable, each one of the periods has 
the value of one solar year.^ Whenever the pro- 
rogative and preceding place is actually on the 
eastern horizon, we should take the times of ascen- 
sion of the degrees up to the meeting-place ; for 
after this number of equinoctial periods the de- 
structive planet comes to the place of the prorogator, 
that is, to the eastern horizon. But when it * is 
actually at the mid-heaven, we should take the 
ascensions on the right sphere in which the segment ^ 
in each case passes mid-heaven ; and when it is on 

One therefore determines how far S was originally removed, 
how far it is removed when it comes to the position of P, 
and takes the difference, in equinoctial times, as the 
answer. 

^ An " equinoctial period " or " time " is the length of 
time which it takes one degree on the equator to pass a 
fixed point, i.e. 1/360 of 24 hours. An " equinoctial hour " 
is 15 " equinoctial times." For the definition cf. Holio- 
dorus (?) in CCAO, vii. 122, 20 ff. 

* At the rate of 15 per hour, in contrast to the varying 
horary periods of degrees on the ecliptic. 

^ In jjredicting the life of tlie subject of the horoscope. 
Cf. P. -Mich. 149, col. xii. 11. 10-11. 

* The prorogator. 

^ The " Boginont " is the arc (of the ecliptic) between the 
two places, but the ascension of tlio following body is to 
be inonsured on th'> riglit sphere ; that is, it is right as- 
cension, which is measured on the equator. 

289 



PTOLEMY 

8e ctt' avrov rov Svtlkov 6pi(,ovTog, ev ocrai? 
eKaarr] twv t^S" hiaardoeajs jJiotpcvv Kara^epcTai, 
TovreoTLV eV oaais at Sia/xerpouorat Tavra? ^ dva- 
(f)epovTai • rov 8e Trporj-yovpLevov tottov jxiqKer ovtos 
iv Tols Tpial TOVTOis opoLS dAA' ev rat? jaera^y 
StaCTTctCTeCTtP', ou/c ert tcSi' TrpoKeLfxevcov ava(f)opcov 
rj KaTa(f)opa)v rj fxeaovpavi^aeayv ^ ol ;^povoi tou? 
iTTOfxevovs TOTTovs o'iaovaiv em tov9 avrov? rols 
TTporiyovjxevoLS , dAAd SLd(f}opoL. ojxolos jxev yap 
Kal 6 avros rorros iorlv 6 rrju ofjioiav /cat em rd 
135 avrd p^^pf] Oecrw e^cjov dp,a irpo's re rov opi^ovra 
Kal rov [xeaiqiJi^pivov. rovro Se eyyiara Gvp.^e^r}Ke 
Toig e(^' ivos KeLfievoLS rjpLLKVKXiov rcov ypa(f)op,evcov 
8td rcov ropbcbv rod re pLearipL^ptvov Kal rov opi- 
t,ovro'5, (Lv eKaarov Kara rrjv avrrjv Oeaiv rrjv larjv 
eyyiara KaipiK7]v ^ (vpav ttolcI. a>aTT€p S'/ dv 
TTepidyqraL rrepl rds eiprjp,evas ropidg, epx^rai p,ev 
CTTt rrjv avrrjv deoiv Kal ra> opt^ovrL /cat ro) p.ea'qfJL- 
Ppivo), rovs Se rrjg SteAeucreo)? rov ^coSta/cou 
ypovovs dviaovs e^' eKdrepov ^ TTOtet, rov avrov 
rpoTTOv Kal Kara rag rdJv dXXojv arroaraaeajv 

* TavTos VDMLE ; c/. Proc. ; ravrai? PNACam. 

* ovfifxeaovpaviqaewv NCam. 

8 KaipiKTjv om. MNCam. * S(e) om. MNCam. 

* eKdrepov VD ; -ov cett. Cam. ; om. Proc. 



* Comes to the meridian in the same time, and is on 
the same side of the equator (" in the same direction "). 
Ptolemy introduces this characterization of " same and 



290 



TETRABIBLOS III 10 

the western horizon, the number in which each of 
the degrees of the interval descends, that is, the 
number in which those directly opposite them ascend. 
But if the precedent place is not on these three limits 
but in the intervals between them, in that case the 
times of the aforesaid ascensions, descensions, or 
culminations will not carry the following places to 
the places of the preceding, but the periods will be 
different. For a place is similar and the same if it 
has the same position ^ in the same direction with 
reference both to the horizon and to the meridian. 
This is most nearly true of those which lie upon one 
of those semicircles ^ which are described through 
the sections of the meridian and the horizon, each of 
which at the same position makes nearly the same 
temporal hour. Even as, if the revolution is upon 
the aforesaid arcs, it reaches the same position 
with reference to both the meridian and horizon, 
but makes the periods of the passage of the zodiac 
unequal with respect to either, in the same way also 
at the positions of the other distances it makes their 

similar places " because the whole system of prorogation 
depends on determining the period after which a sub- 
sequent body will come to the same place as, or a similar 
place to, that occupied by a precedent body. It cannot 
come to exactly the same place, because both bodies are 
on the ecliptic, oblique to the equator. Hence it is neces- 
sary to define " similar [jlacos." 

* He rpf(!rs to the arcs of circles, parallel to the equator, 
passing through the (logr(>o of the oclifitic in question, and 
cutting both horizon and meridian, which are intercepted 
between the horizon and the meridian. 

291 



PTOLEMY 

deaeis 8i' dviacuu eKetVot? ;;^pdi'cai/ ra? rrapoSovs 
dTrepya^erat. jata 8e ti? T^/xti^ e^oSo? earco ^ 
TOLavTT}, 8i' •^9, eat' re dvaToAtK:?)!^ ecti' re nea-qfj.- 
^pivrjv Tj hvTiKTjV, idv T€ d\X7]v TLvd exj] deatv 6 
7Tpor]yovixevo<; roTTog, to dvdXoyov rdjv ctt avTov 
(l)ep6vTOJv ;!^pova)V rov eTTOfievov tottov X'rjcf)d'qa€TaL. 
TTpoStaAajSot-res' yap rrjv [xeaovpavovaav tov 
^oiStaKOu ixolpav Kal €tl rtjv re TTporiyovfX€vr]v /cai 
rrfv eTTepxofJievrjv, vpcorov aKei/jofieda rrjv rrjs 
Trpor^yovjJLevrjS deaiv, rrooag KaipiKas copas a7re;^et 
TOV fxear^fji^pu'ov, dpi^/XT^CTavre? rd? [xera^v avTrjg 
Kal ^ TTJs jJLeaovpavovcrrjs olk€icos tJtoi virep yfjv tj 
UTTO yrjv fjioipas ^ e^r' opdrj? Trj? a^aipas ava(f)opa? 
Kal jjLeplaavTes etV to ttAtj^o? twv avrrjg ttjs 
13G 7Tpor]yov[X€vr]s fxoipas (hptaioiv xpovcov, el p,ev imep 

1 foTco VDProc. ; earai, PLMNAECam. 

2 ftal om. LCam. 

^ fioipas MAE, fiolpav VPD, j[x°' N, neaovpavol Cam. 

^ This obscure sentence is thus explained by the anony- 
mous commentator : "If you imagine a star moving either 
from the horoscope (sc. to mid-heaven), or from mid-heaven 
to the horoscope, you will discover the temporal periods 
of the distance ; in the same way also when they are not 
upon the degrees of the angles." 

^ (LpLoioi ;)(pdi'ot ; the expression cLpiaiov fj.ey€9os, " horary 
magnitude," is used further on, when Ptolemy gives 
examples. In the Almagest, ii. 8, there is a table which 
gives the time, in degrees and minutes of the equator 
{i.e. equinoctial times), in which each arc of 10° of the 
ecliptic rises above the horizon in each of eleven latitudes 
beginning with the equator (right sphere) ; the table also 
gives the cumulative sums of these ascensions for each 
arc from the beginning of Aries. In the following chapter 
Ptolemy tells how the horary magnitude may be determined 
292 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

passages in times unequal to the former.^ We shall 
therefore adopt one method only, as follows, whereby, 
whether the preceding place occupies the orient, 
the mid-heaven, the Occident, or any other position, 
the proportionate number of equinoctial times that 
bring the following place to it will be apprehended. 
For after we have first determined the culminating 
degree of the zodiac and furthermore the degree of 
the precedent and that of the subsequent, in the 
first place we shall investigate the position of the 
precedent, how many ordinary hours it is removed 
from the meridian, counting the ascensions that pro- 
perly intervene up to the very degree of mid-heaven, 
whether over or under the earth, on the right sphere, 
and dividing them by the amount of the horary 
periods ^ of the precedent degree, diurnal if it is 

by the use of this table. His directions are, in brief, to 
take the sum of the ascensions for the degree of the sun 
by day (or the opposite degree by night) both in the right 
sphere and in the given latitude ; to ascertain the differ- 
ence between the two and take ^ of it ; and then, if the 
degree was in the northern hemisphere, to add this fraction 
to the 15 " times " of one equinoctial hour, or, for a southern 
position, to subtract it. This will give the length of the 
ordinary or civil hour for the latitude and time of the 
year in question, in terms of the ascension of degrees of 
the equator, or " equinoctial times," or as Ptolemy puts 
it, " the number of (equinoctial) times of the civil hour 
under consideration." The civil day-time hour was ^i of 
the period from sunrise to sunset, or, of course, -J of the 
time from sunrise to noon. In Alnvnjest, ii. 9, I'tolemy 
gives the same directions for reducing periods exj)ressed 
in equinoctial times to ordinary or civil hours ; multiply 
the given equinoctial hours by 15 (in order to express 
them in " equinoctial times," as are the ascensions dealt 
with in the present passage) and divide by the horary 
period. 

293 



PTOLEMY 

yrjv eiTy roiv' rjfxcpriaicxyv, el 8e vtto yrjv tow rrjs 
vuKTOs. €7T€l §€ TO. Ta? avTOLg KaipiKo.'s (Lpas 
aTTCxovra rov ixecrqix^pivov rpLrjixara rov ^coSia/cou 
Kad^ evo? /cat rov avrov yiveTai tcuv TrpoeiprjiJLevcov 
rjfjLLKVKXLCtiv, /cat ^ Seijaei Xa^elv [xeTO. iroaovs Icrq- 
[xepLvov? Xpovovs ^ /cat to iTTopievov Tp.rjfxa tcls 
iCTa? /catpt/ca? a>pag d(l)e^€L tov avTov ixeaiqpL^ptvov 
TTJ 7Tpor]yov[ji€vrj. raura? 8e StetAi^^dres' eirt- 
(jK€ij}6pieda TToaovg re /caret tt^i' e^ ^PXV^ deaiv oltt- 
€t;;^ev laiqpiepLvovs XP^^^^^ '^^^ ''7 eTTOfievrj p,oZpa Trjg 
/caret ro auro ixeaovpdvrjfxa Sta rcDi' ctt' opdrjg 
TTaXiv TrJ9 a(f)aLpas dva(f)opcov, /cat Trdcrous' ore ra9 
t'cra? /catpt/cd? (Lpas €7toUi ttj TTporjyovpLevrj • ttoXv- 
TrXaaidaavTes re /cat raura? eTTt rd TrXrjdog tojv ttj? 

€TTO[l€VT)S pLoipaS OjpiaLCOV XP^^^^> ^^ P'^^ TTpOS TO 

VTTep yrjv eXrj [leaovpdvqpa ndXiv rj ovyKpiais tcov 
KaipLKCjv ibpojv, TO ^ Tcov rjp,€p7]aicov , el 8e vrpd? to 
VTTO yrjv TO rcDi/ Trjs wkto?, Kat tov9 yivopevov? ck 
TTJs VTT€poxT)S dpi(j)OT€pu>v Tcov SiacrracTecuv Xa^ovTe? 
e^ofxev TO tcov l^rjTOvpievcov ctcov TrXrjdog* 

"Iva 8e (f}av€pa)T€pov yevrjTat to Aeyd/xevov, vtto- 
Keladco TTporjyovpevog p,ev TOTTog rj o-pXV ^ "^^^ 

KplOV XoyOV €V€K€V, €7T6[JL€VOg Sc 6 TTJg dpX^]? ToiiV 

Aihvpojv, /cAt/xa Se ottov rj p.€V peylcrTrj -qpiepa 
137 (Lpojv icTTL tS', TO 8' wpcaiov fxeyedos rT^s" dpxrjs 

> Kal VPLD, om. MNAECam. 

^Xpoi'ovs PLAProc, om. VMNDECam. 

3 TO (post wpwv) . . . TO (post y^v) VPLD, om. MNAECam. 

* Post TrX-^dos ins. cap. 'YnoBeiyfia NCam., om. libri alii. 

*i} apxT) VDProc, o ttjs dpxrjs alii Cam. 

294 



TETRABIBLOS III 10 

above the earth and nocturnal if it is below. But 
since the sections of the zodiac which are an equal 
nunaber of ordinary hours removed from the meridian 
lie upon one and the same of the aforesaid semi- 
circles, it \vill also be necessary to find after how 
many equinoctial periods the subsequent section will 
be removed from the same meridian by the same 
number of ordinary hours as the precedent. '^ 
When we have determined these, we shall inquire 
how many equinoctial hours at its original position 
the degree of the subsequent was removed from the 
degree at mid-heaven, again by means of ascensions 
in the right sphere, and how manv when it made the 
same number of ordinary hours as the precedent, 
multiplying these into the number of the horary 
periods ^ of the degree of the subsequent ; if again 
the comparison of the ordinary hours relates to the 
mid-heaven above the earth, multiplying into the 
number of diurnal hours, but if it relates to that 
below the earth, the number of nocturnal hours. 
And taking the results from the difference of the two 
distances, we shall have the number of years for 
which the inquiry was made. 

To make this clearer, suppose that the precedent 
place is the beginning of Aries, for example, and the 
subsequent the beginning of Gemini, and the latitude 
that where the longest day is fourteen hours long,^ 
and the horary magnitude of the beginning of Gemini 

' For it will then have " come to the same place " that 
the precedent originally occupied. 

* Or, horary magnitude. 

* This is the latitude of lower Egypt ; cj. Almagest, ii. 6, 
p. 108, 15 ff. (Heiberg), and the table in ii. 8, pp. 134-141. 

295 



PTOLEMY 

Tcov AihviJUov iy/LOTa xp^vcuv larjfiepLucdv i(J ^ /cat 
dv'aTeAAeraj TrpGirov i] 6.pxr] rov Kptov, iva fjieaovpavfj 
7] a.px'^ Tov AlyoK€pojros, kol aTrex^Tto ^ rod inrep 
yrjv ixeaovpavrjjjiaros rj apx^] tojv AiBviJicov xpovovs 
la'r)ix€pi,vov<s pfJ-i]'-^ evrei ovu tj rov Kpiov o.px'f] dvex^i 
rov fiearjfi^pLvov jxeaovpav^jjiaros /catptKa? cSpa? 
ef , ravras TToXXaTrXaaidaavres em rovs iQ' xpo^ovs, 
OLTTep elat rov (hpiaiov ixeyeOovs rrj'? apx^]? twv 
AlSvixcov, e7T€t8rj7Tep rrpos ro inrep yrjv ixeaoupdp'iqfjid 
eariv -q rwv p/xT]' XP^^'^^ ci'"'oX'?» ^^ofxev /cat ravrr)s 
rrj? Siaardaecos XP'^^^^^ P^'* pt-^rd rovs ttjs 
VTTepoxrjS dpa p^pop'oy? fi^' ^ 6 eTTOfievos rorros cttI 
rov rov Trporjyovfieiov fiera^'^aerai. roaovroi 8' 
eiCTtv eyyiara ^^pot'Ot /cat rijg dva(f)opds rov re 
Kpiov /cat rod Tavpov, iireLhri 6 d(f)erLK6s rorrog 
VTroKelrai copoaKOTToJv. 

Meuovpaveirco Se ofiOLCOs rj dpxt] tov KpLOv, tva 
aTTexj] Kara rrjv rrpojrTqv Oeaiv rj dpx"^ tcov AiSvjJicov 
rov v7T€p yrjv {jLeaovpavrjixarog p^poi/ou? larjixepLvovs 
vrj. eTTeihrj ovv Kara rrjv Sevrepav deaiv 6(j)ei\€L 
fieaovpavelv rj dpx'^ tojv /iLSvfiojv,^ e^ofxev rrjv rtov 
hiaardoeajv VTrepox^jv^ avrcov rcov^ vrj' ^ xP^^^^i ^^ 

1 iC VPLMDEProc, iC rj' NACam. Sic et infra. 

^ dnexeTco VAD, ecrraj dnexovaa Proc, dvexei PL, aTrexTj 
MNECam. 

3 PUT]' VPLMDEProc, p/x-q' ^^ NACam.i, pfx-q' fi-rj' Cam.^ 

Vi8' VPLMDEProc, p^' nr,' NACam. 

^ fiS' libri omnes Proc. Cam.\ /xe' Cam.^ 

* rj dpxri rcov AlSv/xcov Proc ; /iiSvfxoiv om. VD ; om. PLME ; 
6 d<i>eTiK6s TOTTos NACam. 

' TTjv ruiv SLaardoicov vrrepoxrjv VPLD ; rj vnepox^ t^S 8ia- 
CTTQcrecoj Proc, T171' rrjs npoTepas Staardanos vrrfpox'fjv MNECam,, 
rijv TTjS TOiavTrjS BiaoT. vtt. A, 

296 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

is approximately 17 eqmnoctial times.^ Assume first 
that the beginning of Aries is rising, so that the 
beginning of Capricorn is at mid-heaven, and let the 
beginning of Gemini be removed from the mid-heaven 
above the earth 148 equinoctial times. ^ Now since 
the beginning of Aries is six ordinary hours ^ removed 
from the diurnal mid-heaven, multiplying these into 
the 17 equinoctial times, which are the times of the 
horary magnitude of the beginning of Gemini, since 
the distance of 148 times relates to the mid-heaven 
above the earth, we shall have for this interval also 
102 times. Hence, after 46 times, which is the diflFer- 
ence, the subsequent place will pass to the position 
of the precedent. These are very nearly the equi- 
noctial times of the ascension of Aries and Taurus, 
since it is assumed that the prorogative sign is the 
horoscope. 

Similarly, let the beginning of Aries be at mid- 
heaven, so that at its original position the beginning 
of Gemini may be 58 equinoctial times ^ removed from 
the mid-heaven above the earth. Therefore, since 
at its second position the beginning of Gemini should 
be at mid-heaven, we shall have for the diflerence 
of the distances precisely this amount of 58 times, 

^ The method described in Almagest, ii. 9, cited above, 
applied to data from the table in Almagest, ii. 8, gives 17 
times 6 min. 30 sec. 

"^ This is reckoned on the right sphere. The data from 
the table in the Almagest will give 147 times 44 min. 

" Likewise 6 equinoctial hours, since it is an equinoctial 
point. * I.e. 148 minus 90. 

" avruiv Tu)v i.'i£t, Tuiv rtjjv VL), rwv LFroc, ai;Tj)i' Ti]v rijov 
MNACiim. " vl,' fx6' A. 

u 297 



PTOLEMY 

oaoLg TTciXiv 8td to jjicaovpavecv top a^eTiKov tottov 
Siepx^rai rov fjbearjfjb^pivov 6 re Kpios Kal 6 Tavpos. 
138 Avv€TCO hk Tov avrov rporrov rj o.pxrj rov Kpiov, 
Lva jxeaovpavTJ fiev -q dpxr] rov KapKivov, aTrixj) 8e 
rod v7T€p yrjv fxeaovpavrjiiarog rj o.pxh "^^^ Ai.hvp.(x>v 
els TO. TTporjyovfxei'a ^po^ovs larj^epivovs Aj3'.' eVei 
ovv ttolXlv €^ (Lpas KaipiKas aTTi-)(€i rov fiearjfx^pLvov 
rj apxr] rov Kptov Trpos hvafid?, idv eTTTa/catSe/ca/ci? 
ravrag Troirjocojxev, e^oybev p^' ^ ;^pdrous', ovg d(f>€^€L 
rov fxecrrjiJi^pivov /cat -q dpyrj rojv AibvpiOiv orav 
SvvYj. aTTelxe Se Kal Kara rrjv rrpcorrjv ddaiv em 
rd avrd xpdvovs X^' "^ iv rots rrjs VTTepoxrj? d.pa 
XpdvoLS e^boixrjKovra'^ em rd hvvov rjvexdf], ^v ols Kat, 
Kara^iperai fiev 6 re Kptos /cat o Tavpos, dva^epe- 
rai Se rd Siapt-erpovvra hoiSeKarrjp,6pia ro re ru)v 
XrjXwv Kal ro rov EKoprriov. 

'YTTOKeLodco roLVVv eVt ^ jxrjSevdg^ p,ev ovaa rcov 
KevTpcov rj dpxr] rov Kpiov, drrexovaa Se Xoyov 
eveKev els rd rrporjyovfxeva rrjs jiemjji^pias KaiptKds 
wpas rpels, lva [xeaovpavfj [lev rj rov Tavpov pbolpa 
oKrcoKaiheKarrj , drrexij Se /caret rrjv TTpdtrrjv deaiv rj 
Tchv ZltSt'/xcov dpxrj rov vrrkp yrjv jxeaovpavrjjiaros 
els rd eTTOjxeva xpdvovs larjfxepivovs Se/carpet?. edv 

1 Aj8' VP.MDEProc, X-q' L, A^' is" NACam.', AjS' 1/3' Cam.» 

«p^' VPLMDEProc, pj3' n-q' NACam. 

»A^' V^PLMnEProc, AjS' t?" NACam. », AjS' ijS' Cam.* 

* iv Tots TTJs vnepox'fjs oipa xpovois ePSofiijKOvra VD, cf. Proc. ; 
iv Tois TTJs dpa VTT. 6 xpov. P, iv TavT7]i dpa inr. 6 xpovos L, ev toIs 
(add. TTjs E) v7T€p yrjv {yfjs E) dpa xpo^- o' MNAECam., o' A)3' A. 

6 €771 VPLDE, vTTo MNACam., iv Proc. 

6 fi-qSevos VPLMDE, /iijSev NACam. 

298 



TETRABIBLOS III 10 

in which again, because the prerogative sign is at 
mid-heaven, Aries and Taurus ^ pass through the 
meridian. 

In the same way let the beginning of Aries be 
setting, so that the beginning of Cancer may be at 
mid-heaven and the beginning of Gemini may be 
removed from the mid-heaven above the earth in the 
direction of the leading signs ^ by 32 equinoctial 
periods. Since, then, again the beginning of Aries 
is six ordinary hours removed from the meridian 
in the direction of the Occident, if we multiply 
this by 17 we shall have 102 times, which will be 
the distance of the beginning of Gemini from the 
meridian when it sets. At its first position also it 
was distant from the same point 32 times ; hence 
it moved to the Occident in the 70 times of the 
diflFerence, in which period also Aries and Taurus 
descend and the opposite signs Libra and Scorpio 
ascend.^ 

Now let it be assumed that the beginning of Aries 
is not on any of the angles, but removed, for example, 
three ordinary hoiirs from the meridian in the direc- 
tion of the leading signs, so that the 18th degree of 
Taurus is at mid-heaven, and in its first position the 
beginning of Gemini is 13 equinoctial times removed 
from the inid-heaven above the earth in the order of 

* Tho table of the Almagest gives 45 times 5 min. for 
the combined ascensions of these two signs in the latitude 
of lower Egypt. 

* I.e. beyond the meridian and toward Aries. 

* The table of the Almagest gives 70 times 23 min. 

299 



PTOLEMY 

ovu ttolXlv Toy? t^' ^ ■)(p6vovs €7tI to,? y' copa? TToA- 
Xa7TXaaidao)fX€v , d(f)€^€i fjuev Kal Kara rrju Sevrepav 
deaiv Tj Tcov AiBufxcov dpx'^ ttjs fJLearjfjbl^piag et? to. 
IZd TTporiyovpieva )(p6vovs va' ,'^ roug Se Trdvras noir^aeL 
Xpovovs ^h' ? eTToUt 8e Bid ttj? avrrjs dycoyrjg, ore 
ixev dvereAAev o dcfyeriKos tottos, xpovovs {Xf',* ore 
8e ifieaovpdvei xP^i'ovs vq' , ore Se eSuve ;^pdi'ous" 
o -^ SiTyj/ey/ce jLtei^ d'pa /cat d /caret tt^i^ /Ltera^i) diaiv 
TTJg re [jieaovpavijaecos /cat Tr^? Suaecos' tcDp" xRovojv 
dpiOixos eKdarov rdjv dXXcov. yeyove yap xp^vcov 
^3' , StT^vey/ce 8e /caret ro avdXoyov rrjg rdJv y ojpojv 
VTTepoxfjS, eTTeihiqrrep avrrj ^ enl fxev ra)v dXXcov ' 
Kara rd Kcvrpa reraprrjjjioplcou ij3' xpovcov rjv, iirl 
Se Try? rojv rpia)v (Lpdjv dTToardaecog ef ;^pova»v. 
€7Tet Se /cat eTit Trdvrwv rj avrrj axeSov avaXoyia 
avvrrjpelrai, Svvarov ecrrat Kat /caret rovrov rov 
rpoTTov drrXovarepov rfj ixe968cp XPV^^^'-- "^dXiv 
ydp dvareXXovar^g fxev rrjg TTporjyovfxevr]? pLoipas 
rat? P-^XP'- '^V^ eTTojJievrjg dvacf>opal9 XPV^^P-^^^' 
jxeaovpavova'qs Se rat? eV opdfjs rTJs cr^atpa?, 
Svvovarjs Se rat? Kara^opals. orav Se /xera^u 
rovroiv fj, otov Xoyov eveKev eTTi rrjs e/c/cet/xeVr^? 
Staffrdffea)? rov Kpiov, X-qipopLeSa Trpcorov rovs 

1 li' VPLMDEProc. ; i^ v' NACam. 

* va' VPLMDEProc. ; va /cS' ACam. ; va 8' N. 

« ^8' VPLMDE ; ^S' k8' NACam.^. ^S' kC Cam.i 

*/iS" libri Proc. Cam.^ ; /le' Cam.^ 

6o' VPLMDEProc. ; o' A^S' NACam.', A?" Cam.' 

' avTT) VAD, avTT] PL, avTos MNECam. 

' dXXcuv VPLADProc, o\wv MNECam. 

300 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

the following signs.' If, then, again we multiply 17 
equinoctial times into the three hours, the beginning 
of Gemini will at its second position be distant from 
mid-heaven in the direction of the leading signs 51 
equinoctial times, and it will make in all 64 times. - 
But it made 46 times by the same procedure when 
the prorogative place was rising, 58 when it was in 
mid-heaven, and 70 when it was setting. Hence the 
nimaber of equinoctial times at the position between 
mid-heaven and the Occident differs from each of the 
others. For it is 64, and the difference is propor- 
tional to the excess of three hours,^ since this was 
12 equinoctial times in the case of the other quad- 
rants at the centres, but 6 equinoctial times in the 
case of the distance of three hours. And inasmuch 
as in all cases approximately the same proportion is 
observed, it will be possible to use the method in this 
simpler way. For again, when the precedent degree 
is at rising, we shall employ the ascensions up to the 
subsequent ; if it is at mid-heaven, the degrees on 
the right sphere ; and if it is setting, the descensions. 
But when it is between these points, for example, 
at the aforesaid interval from Aries, we shall take 

' Thus, the first of Aries is west of the meridian and the 
first of Gromini east of it. 

- I.e. 13 times to reach the meridian, phis 51 times 
beyond it. 

' I.e. the centres are 6 hours removed from one another, 
end a ditt'oronce of 12 times is ol)servecl when the movo- 
mont of tlie subsequent place up to one of the centres is 
compared with its movement to the next centre in order. 
Hen{;e when the prorogative place does not move between 
centre and centre, G hours, but only halt' of that time, this 
dilTcirential also will be only J of its full amount, 6 times 
instead of 12 times. 

301 



PTOLEMY 

eTTi^dXXovTas xpovovs ^Karepco ' twv TTepi€)(6vTCDv "^ 
KevTpoiv, evp'qaopiev Se, eTreiSi^ /Ltera to fieaovpdvr^fxa 
TO v7T€p yrjv v7T€K€LTO 7] o.pX'"] "^^^ Kpiov jxera^v TOU 
re fxeaovpavovvro^ Kevrpov koX tov Svvovrog, tovs 
em^aXkovTa? xpovov? ^ f^^XP'- "^V^ ^PXV^ "^^^ •^'" 
HoSu/^cot-, tG)v jxev aufxpLeaovpavqaecov vrj' , tcov Be 
avyKaraSvaecov o'. eTreira fxadovres,'^ cl»? rrpo- 
Kelrai, TToaas KatpiKas copa? a7re;^ei to rrpo- 
Tj-yovfievov Tjxrjixa onoTepov tcov KevTpojv, oaov^ 
ai' d>GL fxepo? avTat, tcov tov re TeTapTrj/jiopiov 
KaiptKoJv cvpcov e^, tooovtov jxepos Trjg dpL<j)OTepa)v 
TCOV avvaycoycov VTrepox^iS Trpoadriaoixev r^ d(f)eXov[j.€V 
TCOV avyKpivoixevcov KevTpcov -^ oiov errei tcov rrpo- 
Keifxevcov o' Kal vrj' ' rj virepox'^} eart p^poi^'coi' i^' , vtt- 
eK€LTO 8e ras" (-'eras' KaLpiKas cupa? y 6 Trporiyovfievo^ 
tottos €KaTepov TcJiJv KeuTpcov direxcov, at elai tcov ef 
ojpojv rjixicrv [xepos, Xa^ovTes * Koi tcov l^' to -^paau 
Kal rjroL rots" vrj' npoadevTe? rj rcbv o' dcf>eX6vTe?, 
evprjaoixev rrjv iTTi^oXrjv xpovcov ^S .* et 8e ye Svo 
KaipiKCLS copas direlxev oirorepov rcbv Kevrpcvv, at 
etCTi rcJbv s"' cbpcov rpirov ju.epos"/*' ro rpirov ttciXiv tcov 
rrjs vnepox'^S tjS' p^pdi^cot', rovrearL tovs 8 , ei p-ev -q 
TcJiJv Svo copcov aTTOXT) aTTO rov peaovpavrjparos 

' (Karepw VMADE, -cov PLNCam. 
'^ TTfpiexovTcov V'P (-€xii>vTojv) LD, -ofxevojp NMAECam. 
^ Post xP^vovs add. ^8' iyyicna NACam. ; om. 
VPLMDEProc. 

* fiadovres VPLMADEProc. ; -wnev NCam. 

* Post oaov add. 8' Cam. ; om. libri. 

^ Tu>v avyKpivo^LiVfxiv Kevrpcov VLDProc, tm avyKpivofxtvio 
Kivrpo) PMNAECam. 

' o' Koi. vTf' VPLDPioc. ; irwv add. VD. ; djpwv MNAECam. 

302 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

first the equinoctial times corresponding to each of 
the surrounding angles, and we shall find, since the 
beginning of Aries was assumed to be beyond the 
mid-heaven above the earth, between mid-heaven 
and the Occident, that the corresponding equinoctial 
times up to the first of Gemini from mid-heaven 
are 58 and from the Occident 70. Next let us 
ascertain, as was set forth above, ^ how many ordinary 
hours the precedent section is removed from either 
of the angles, and whatever fraction they may be 
of the six ordinary hours of the quadrant, that 
fraction of the difference between both sums we 
shall add to or subtract from the angle with which 
comparison is made. For example, since the differ- 
ence between the above mentioned 70 and 58 is 12 
times, and it was assumed that the precedent place 
was removed by an equal number of ordinary hours, 
three, from each of the angles, which are one half 
of the six hours, then taking also one-half of the 12 
equinoctial times and either adding them to the 58 
or subtracting them from the 70, we shall find the 
result to be 64 times. But if it was removed two 
ordinary hours from either one of the angles, which 
are one-third of the six hours, again we shall lake 
one-third of the 12 times of the excess, that is, 4, 
and if the removal by two hours had been assumed 
to be from the mid-heaven, we would have added 

'Spo p. 297. 



* Si post XaPovTfs add. MNCnm. 

•^a' NMCam.' *" rpirov fitpos om. MC'nra 

303 



PTOLEMY 

VTreKeiTO,^ TrpoaediJKafxev dv rol? vq' )(p6voi,^ • el S' 
drro rod 8vvovto£, d(f>€iXoiJt,ev dv oltto twv o' . 

'0 i^iev ovv r POTTO'S Trjg tcov xpovLKcbv Siaardaeoiv ^ 
TTO(j6rr]Tos ovTCog rjULV /caret to olkoXovOov ocfieiXei 
/\ajxj3dveadai. SiaKptvovjJiev 8e Xotrrov e<^' cKaarr]? 
roiv 7Tpoe(pi]iJi€POJV vnavTrjaeoiv r) /caraSuaecov, Kara 
Trjv diTo T(x)v oXiyoxpovLOiTepcov rd^iv, rdg re dvaipe- 
141 TiKas /cat rds KXijxaKTrjpLKds /cat rds ctAAco? TTapoSi- 
/cas", 8ia re rov rj /ce/ca/caJCT^at Trjv vTrdvrrjaLV iq 
^orjdelardai Kara rov 7TpoeLp7]p,evov rjpLiv rpoTTOv, /cat 
8ta rdjv Kad" eKaarov tcov SiacrrjixaLvoixevcov e/c ttj? 
VTvavT-qacaJs XP^^'-'^^^ €7T€ fxjSdcrecov . K€KaKCop,€vcov 
re yap a/xa Toiv tottcov /cat ttjs Trpog ttjv GTripL^aaiv 
TcDt' eTcvv TTapoSou Tojv aoTepoJv i<aK07Totovarjs Tovg 

KVpiCOTdTOVS TOTTOVS, dvTLKpVS davdTOVS V7TOVOrjT€OV ' 
TOV S' eTCpOV TOVTCDV (f)t.Xavdpa>7TOVVTOS /cAtjLta/CTTjpa? 

fjieydXovs /cat eTrta^aAetS" • diJi(f>OT€pcov 8e ^ vcDdpia? 
jjiovov iq ^AajSa? /cat KaOaipiaeis rrapohiKag , ttj? Kat 
€v TOVTOig ISiOTrjTOS XajjL^avojxevrjg aTTo rry? tcov 
vTravTLKoJv ■* TOTTCOV vpos Ta TTJs yeveaeojg Trpay/xara 
avvoiK€uo(T€cos. ovSev 8e evioTe kcjoXvcl, 8icrTa^o- 
fjLcvcov TCOV TYjv dvaipeTLKTjv Kvpiav XapL^dveiv 6<f)€i- 
Xovtcjov, ra? /ca^' cKaaTOv avTcJov VTravTi^aeis eTnXoyi- 

' Tj . . . aTToxTj . . . vTT€KeLTo VPLDPfoc. ; at . . . dnoxoLi . . . 
vTTiKeivTo MNAECain. 

" SiaCTTaaecoi/ PLA, -eojy VMNDECam. 

^ 8e om. ECam. * vTTavrr]riKU}v MNECam. 

^ The prorogations, which are determined by the aj)- 
proach of the anaeretic place to that of the prorogator, 
or the setting of the prorogator. 

304 



TETRABIBLOS III. 10 

them to the 58 times, but if it was measured from 
the Occident we would have subtracted them from 70. 
The method of ascertaining the amount of the 
temporal intervals ought in this way consistently to 
be followed. For the rest, we shall determine in 
each of the aforesaid cases of approach or setting,^ 
in the order of those that ascend more rapidly, 
those which are destructive, climacteric, or otherwise 
transitional,^ according as the meeting is afflicted or 
assisted in the way we have already explained,* 
and by means of the particular significance of the 
predictions made from the temporal ingresses of the 
meeting.'' For when at the same time the places 
are afflicted and the transit of the stars relative to 
the ingress of the years of life afflicts the governing 
places, we must understand that death is definitely 
signified ; if one of them is benignant, great and 
dangerous crises ; if both are benignant, only 
sluggishness, injuries, or transitory disasters. In 
these matters the special quality is ascertained from 
the familiarity of the occurrent places with the cir- 
cumstances of the nativity. Sometimes, when it is 
doubtful which ought to take over the destroying 

■'' I.e. we shall discover whether the periods dotorinined 
by such prorogations as have been described are terminated 
by actual death, some important crisis, or an event of 
less importance. CJ. Hephaestion ap. GCAO, viii. 2, p. 81, 
1 ff. 

^ The reference is to what was said earlier in the chapter 
about the influence of t\u) various planets; see pp. 281 ff. 

* (Jf. what is said about the chronocrators in the latter 
part of iv. 10. 

305 



PTOLEMY 

^ofievovg rjroi rals ixaXiara Trpos to. iK^dura rj8r] T(ji)V 
avfiTTTCofiarajv avyi<l)iOvovaais Koi Trpos ra fieXXovra 
KaraKoXovdelv , r) Trpos OLTrdaas (vs Kar' laorrjTa rijs 
Svvdfxecos laxvovaas TTapaTr)p7]TLKcos ^x^tu, to fidXXov 
Kai "^TTOv auToiv Kara, tov avrov rpoTTOv CTrta/ceTTTO- 
liivovs. 

<ia.> Uepi ixop(f>ijs k al k p da e oj^ 
a CO fiar I KT] s 

' EcftoSevojxevrjs Se Kal rrjs rod Trepl xpovoiv t,o)i)s 
142 Xoyov TTpayfxaretas, Xeyofiev dpx'Tjv rrjv Kara fxipos 
Xa^ovTes Kara ttjv otKelav rd^tu Trept re ri^s jJiopcfyrjs 
Kai TTJs acDpbarLKTJs htarvTToyaeoiS , eTTechr] Kai rd tov 
awfjiaros rcov rrjs ^vx^S ^ TrpoTVTTOvrai Kara fjivaiv, 
TOV jjiev acoi-LaTOS Sid to vXiKCorepov avyyevvoi- 
fievas exovros ax^^ov Tas rcov ISioavyKpdaecov 
<f)avTaaias, rrjs 8e ipvx'^S jJierd Tavra Kai Kara 
fjiLKpov rds aTTo ttjs TTpcor-qs aiTLas eTnn^SetoTT^Ta? 
dvaSeiKinJovarjs, rcov S' cktos eVi pcdXXov varepov^ 
/cara tov i(f)€^rjs xpoi^ov emavixTnTrrovTOiV . 

IJapaTrjp-qreov ovv /ca^' oXov fX€V tov dvaToXiKov 
opit^ovTa Kai tovs ivovras t) tovs rrjv olKoheoTTOTiav 
avTOv Xafi^dvovTas rcov TrXavo) fjcevcov Kad' ov elp-q- 
Kafxev rpoTTOV, eVi fxepovs Se /cat rrjv aeXtjvrjv <haav- 
TOis. Sta yap rrjs rcov tottcov rovrcov d[JL(f>OT€pcov 
Kai rrjs rcov oiKoSeoTTor'qadvrcov hLapiop^corLKrjs 
<f)va€cos Kai rrjs /ca^' cKdrepov etSos cruyKpdaecos 

' TcDvT^s 'P^XV^ VPL {tov . . .) D, trpos Tjjv i/iy;^Tji'MNAEProC. 
Cam. 

2 voTtpov VP (e'lar-) LDProc. ; om. MNAECam. 

306 



TETRABIBLOS III 10-11 

power, there is nothing to prevent our calculating 
the occourses of each and then either following, in 
predicting the future, the occourses which most agree 
with past events, or observing them all, as having 
equal power, determining as before the question of 
their degree. 

11. Of Bodily Form and Temperament. 

Now that the procedure in the matter of the length 
of life has been explained, we speak about the form 
and character of the body, beginning the detailed 
discussion in the proper order, inasmuch as naturally, 
too, the bodily parts are formed prior to the soul ; 
for the body, because it is more material, carries 
almost from birth the outward appearances of its 
idiosyncrasies, while the soul shows forth the char- 
acters conferred upon it by the first cause only after- 
wards and little by little, and external accidental 
qualities come about still later in time. 

We must, then, in general observe the eastern 
horizon and the planets that are upon it or assume 
its rulership in the way already explained ; * and 
in particular also the moon as well ; for it is through 
the formative power of these two places ^ and of their 
rulers and through the mixture of the two kinds,^ 

» See iii. 2 (p. 233). 

*The eastern horizon and the place where the moon is 
found. 

■* Apparently, the influence of the places and that of 
their rulers are the two " kinds " to which reference is 
made. 

307 



PTOLEMY 

/cat €Tt rrj? rCov avvavareXXovTOiv avrols d77Aai'aji' 
darepojv a)(y]^oiToypa(f>La9 to. Trepl ras" StaruTrajCTets' 
Toit' acoixdrcov decopeirai, Trpcorevovroiv fJLCv rrj 
Sum/xet rcbv r7]v OLKoheoTToriav exovrcuv darepoiv, 
€Tnavv€pyovar]s 8e Koi rrJ? tojv tottcov avrajv 
IhiorpoTTLas ■ 

To fievTOt Kad^ eKauTOv, kol ojs dv rig olttXcos 
ovrcos aTTodotr], rovrov e^et tov rpoTTOv. Trpujrov 
yap €ttI riov darepow 6 jxev tov Kpovov dvaro- 
143AtKos' cov TTjv [xev [xopcfirjv fxeXlxpoas TTOieZ /cat 
eveKTiKov? Koi p^eXavorpixo-s /cat ovXoKe(f)dXovs kul 
haavaT€pvov<5 ^ /cat jJL€ao(f)ddXiJiovs ^ /cat arvp,iX€Tpovs 
Tols p-eyeOeoL, rfj Se Kpdaet to jjidXXov exovTa's ev 
TW vypa> /cat ipu^pdi ' Svtlkos Se VTTdpx<J^v Tjj 
fxev iJLop(f)fj jxeXavas /cat OTTLvwheLS /cat puKpovs /cat 
a7rAdTpt;(as' Kat vvoifjlXovs /cat VTToppudjxovs Kal 
lieXavo^ddX^LOvs , ttj he Kpdaei to ^ fxaXXov e^ovTas 
iv Tw ^ripd) /cat ipu)(p(p- 

'O 8e Tou Aios OLKoSeaTTOTt^aas Tovg 7TpoKeLp.€uovs 

TOTTOVS dvaToXtKOS TTJ flkv jJLOpcfifj 7TOL€L AeU/COU? CTTL 

TO evxpovv /cat [xeaoTpLXO-S Kal jjLeyaXocjiddXp.ovs'^ 
/cat evp^eyideis /cat d^'toj/xaTt/coi/?, Trj Se Kpdaei to 
TiXeov exovTas iv tco depfjicp Kal vypw. Svtikos 8e 
VTTapxcov Tjj pi€v XP'^9- XevKous jU-eV, ovk cm to 
evxpovv 8e o/xota>? • ^ reraroTptp^d? re rj Kat at'a- 
(jiaXdKpovs ^ Kal p^eaocfyaXaKpovs /cat p^eTptovs tois 

* Kcu baavarepvovs VPLD, cf. Proc. : om. MNAECam. 

^ fieao(f>9dXfiovs VPLDProc, neya\o(f>ddXfiovs MNAECam. 
3 TO oiu. MNECam. 

* fj.eyaXo(f>9dXi.iovs VP (-/xas) LDE Proc, ^i\avo<j>ddXfj.ovs 
MNACam. 

308 



TETRABIBLOS III. 11 

and furthermore through the forms of the fixed 
stars that are rising at the same time, that the 
conformation of the body is ascertained ; the ruling 
planets have most power in this matter and the 
special characters of their places aid them. 

The detailed account, then, as one might report it 
in simple terms, is this : First, among the planets, 
Saturn, if he is in the orient, makes his subjects 
in appearance dark-skinned, robust, black-haired, 
curly-haired, hairy-chested, with eyes of moderate 
size, of middling stature, and in temperament hav- 
ing an excess of the moist and cold. If Saturn is 
setting, in appearance he makes them dark, slender, 
small, straight-haired, v,ith little hair on the body, 
rather graceful, and black-eyed ; in temperament, 
sharing most in the cold and dry. 

Jupiter, as the ruler of the aforesaid regions, when 
he is rising, makes his subjects in appearance light of 
skin, but in such a way as to have a good colour, 
with moderately curling hair and large eyes, tall, and 
commanding respect ; in temperament they exceed 
in the hot and the moist. When Jupiter is setting, 
he makes his subjects light, to be sure, but not as 
before, in such a way as to give them a good colour, 
and with lank hair or even bald in front and on the 



'8c post oixoioji add. MXECara. 

'^ ava(f>aXdKpovs Proc, avuxfxiXaKpov^ Cam.'', ava^aXavralovs 
VD, di'a<^aiToAia/cous P, 6.va^avTaXi.aiovs L, avatfioMvhovs 
MNAECain.'. 

309 



PTOLEMY 

/xeye^CCTi, rfj 8e Kpaaei to ttXcov e^ovras €v tw 
vyp&. 

*0 8e Tov "Ape(x)^ ofxoicos ^ dvaroXiKos rfj fxev fiop(f)fj 
TTOiel XevKcpvdpovs Kal eu/xeye^et? Kai eue/CTa? /cat 
yXavKO(f>ddXfJiovs Kal Saaei? /cat iieaoTpixa^, rfj 8e 
Kpdaei ro ttXIov exovras ev rut depjxa) koI ^f]p<^' 
SvTtKos 8e VTrdpxojv rfj fiev fj,op(f)fj ipvdpoiis aTrXcbs 
Kol fxerpLOVs rols ixeylQeai /cat [jiLKpo(f>6dXnovs ^ 
144 /cat VTroijjtXovs /cat ^avdorpixP-s /cat reravovs, rfj 
he Kpdaei to rrXiov e^ovras iv ro) ^r^pco. 

'0 8e T'^? ^A(f)po8iT7)s rd TrapaTrX'qaLa voiei ra> 
TOV Aids, €77t fxevroL ro evpLopcjiorepov /cat cttl- 
XapiriLrepov /cat yvvaiKOTrpeTTcu^earepov /cat drjXv- 
fjLop(f)6r€pov ^ /cat eiixvp-orepov Kal rpv<f)ep<j[)r€pov. 
ISlcus Se rov9 6(f>daXfiovs iroiel [xerd rov evTrpeirovs 

V7TOXO.p07TOV9 . 

'O Se rod 'Epfiov dvaroXiKos rfj fiev P'Opcjyfj rroict 
fxeXixpoag Kal avjJLfierpovs rols fxeyedeai, Kal evpvd- 
jjiovs Kal yiiKpo^ddXpiOV? Kal [jLea6rpLxo-S> 'HJ ^^ 
Kpd(j€L ro TrXiov exovras iv ro) depixo) • SvrLKos Se 
VTrdpxoJv rfj fxev fxopcfyfj XevKOvs fJiev, ovk eTTt ro 
evxpovv 8e ofxoicos, reravorptxo-S ,^ jxeXavoxXcopovs^ 
Kal OTTLvovs ^ Kal laxvovs /cat Xo^ocfyddXfJLovs re ' 
Kal alyoTTovs ® /cat vTrepvdpovs, rfj Se /cpaaei to 
rrXiov exovras ev ra> i'tjpw. 

» ofioiws VPLD, om. MNAECam. 

' HiKpo4>0dXnovs VPLDEProc, fj.i,KpoKe(f)dXovs MNACam. 
^ Kal dr)Xv^ofxf>6r€pov (or -(f>wT-) VPLDProc, koX eua^i?- 
fiovearepov MNAECam. 

* XevKovs . . . Teravorpixas VPLDProc, om. MNAECam. 

310 



TETRABIBLOS III. 11 

crown, and of average stature ; in temperament they 
have an excess of the moist. 

Similarly, Mars, when rising, makes his subjects in 
appearance red and white of complexion, tall and 
robust, gray-eyed, with thick hair, somewhat curly, 
and in temperament showing an excess of the warm 
and dry. When he is setting, he makes them in 
appearance simply ruddy, of middle height, with 
small eyes, not much hair on the body, and straight 
yellow hair ; their temperament exceeds in the dry. 

Venus has eflfects similar to Jupiter's, but is apt to 
make her subjects more shapely, graceful, womanish, 
effeminate in figure, plump, and luxurious. On her 
own proper account she makes the eyes bright as well 
as beautiful. 

Mercury, in the orient, makes his subjects in ap- 
pearance sallow, of moderate height, graceful, with 
small eyes and moderately curling hair ; in tem- 
perament, showing an excess of the warm. In the 
Occident he makes them, in appearance, of light 
but not of good colouring, with straight hair and 
olive complexion, lean and spare, with glancing, 
brilliant eyes,^ and somewhat ruddy ; in tempera- 
ment they exceed in the dry. 

1 The text is perhaps corrupt ; aiyoiros seems to be other- 
wise unknown. 

' fXiXai>ox^c!>povi PLProc, fitXayxXiJupovs VD, fxeXixpoai 
MNAECam. 

* anivoiis PLKProc, onipovs VD, onavovs MNACam. 

'' Xo^o<f>9dXiiovs T( PL, X7]^o<l>ddAfj.ovi re V, ^po<f>9a\fxovi re 
D, Koivo<f>9dXfjLovs N, Kvvo<f>da.Xfxov$ Cam.*, Koi.Xo<f>6dXfj.ovi; 
MAKCain.^ 

" alyoTTovs P {-iorr-) LProc., aiyonXovi VD, alyoiroSas 
MNAECam.', alyiXoTta^ Cam.* 

311 



PTOLEMY 

UvvepyovcTL 8' eKaarco rovrcov ax'^fiartaOevTe^, 
6 fJiev -rjXios ivl TO jxeyaXoTrpeTreaTepov Kal ev€KTLKw- 
Tepou, 7] Se aeX')^vr], Kal jxaXtad^ orav rrjv aTToppoiav 
avrrJ9 e7Te;^a»CTt, Kad' oXov jxev errl to avfijJLeTpiorepov 
Kai LGX^orepov Kal rfj Kpdaei vyporepov, Kara fiepog 
S' dvaXoycog rfj roiv ^atTLapicjov ISiottjtl Kara Trjv iu 
dpxfj T'fjs avvrd^ecos e/cre^eijuenji^ Kpaatv} 

TldXiv he Kad^ oXov €(2)ol /xev ovre? Kal ^daeig 

TTOirjcrdfJLevoL jxeyaXoTTOLOvai rd acojJLara, arr]pLl,ov- 

re? Be ro Trpiorov lu)(ypd Kal evrova, TTpoTqyovpbevoL 

145 he davfifierpa, to he hevrepov arripit^ovres dadevecr- 

repa, hvvovres he dho^a pcev iravreXdjs , olariKa he 

KaKOV)(L(x)V Kal GVVO)(^U)V .'^ 

Kal Tcjv roTTOjv he avTcov Trpog tovs a-)(rjixarL(y- 
fiovs fxaXiara twv hiarvnojaecov Kal to.? Kpdaeis, 
ws €(f>a[JLev, avvepyovvTOiv ,^ Kad^ oXov he TrdXiv 
TO fiev aTTo eapivrjg larjpiepLas errl depLvrjv rpoTTrjv 
TeTapTTqpiopiov iroiel ev)(poas evjxeyedeLS eveKras 
ivocfiddXpLOVs, TO TrXeov e^ovrag iv to) vyptp 

' KaTOL . . . Kpdoiv VPLD, Kad' cLs Trepl Kpdaecos ev apxj] rr}s 
ovvrd^fioS e^afiev Proc, Kaddnep iv dpxfj ttjs ovvrd^ecos e^edi- 
fieda MNAECam. 

^ Kal avvoxwv libri, c/. Proc. ; om. Cam. 

' avvepyovvTojv VPLDProc, ovvoiKeiovvrwv MNECam., 
OvvoiKeiovvTiov Kal avvepyovvTOJV A. 



' See i. 24. 

^Probably a reference to the last paragraph of i. 10, but 
the anonymous commentator (p. 136, ed. Wolf) seems to 
think it refers to i. 8. 

^ The commentator's (I.e.) explanation of this phrase 
is " being oriental " (dvaroXtKol Tvxdvns)- The <l>daeis, 

312 



TETRABIBLOS III 11 

The luminaries assist each of these when they bear 
an aspect to them, the sun tending to a more im- 
pressive and robust effect, and the moon, especially 
when she is separating ^ from the planets, in general 
tending toward better proportion and greater slender- 
ness, and toward a more moist temperament ; but in 
particular cases her effect is proportioned to the 
special quality of her illumination, in accordance 
with the system of intermixture explained in the 
beginning of the treatise.^ 

Again, generally, when the planets are morning 
stars and make an appearance,^ they make the 
body large ; at their first station, powerful and 
muscular ; when they are moving forward,^ not 
well-proportioned ; at their second station, rather 
weak ; and at setting, entirely without repute but 
able to bear hardship and oppression. 

Likewise their places, as we have said,^ take an im- 
portant part in the formation of the bodily characters 
and temperaments. In general terms, once more, the 
quadrant from the spring equinox to the summer 
solstice makes the subjects well-favoured in com- 
plexion, stature, robustness, and eyes, and exceeding 

"appearances," "phases,'" are the positions of the 
planets with respect to tho sun. 

* Strangely enough, according to the ancient terminology, 
when the planets are " moving forward " (in the direction 
of the diurnal movement, " in the direction of the leading 
signs," or east to west) tlioy are " retn^ating " (dvaTroSt- 
l,ovT{s) with respect to their (west to east) motion in their 
own orbits ; cf. Bouch^-Lockrcq, p. 429, 1 (on this passage) 
and p. 117, 1. The commentator (I.e.) hert* says, TouTeariv, 
atfxTLKoi (probably a<f>aipeTiKoi should be read). 

'He refers to places in tlie zodiac and to i. 10. 

313 



PTOLEMY 

Kal depfjio) • TO 8' CLTTo depivrj? rpoTTrjs fJ^XP'' 
IxeroTTCoptvrjg tcnj/xepta? fxecroxpoag avpip,4Tpovs 
TOL9 fJieyedeaLv eveKrag jJceyaXocfiddXfiov? ^ Saaels 
ovXorpLxas, to irXiov exovra^ iv Tip depficp Kal 
i^jpo) ■ TO 8' (XTTo iji€T07Tcopi.vrjg lorjfMepia? P'^XP'- 

)(€Lp€piVrj? TpOTTT]? pLcXiXpOaS LGXt^OVS aTTLVCoSeiS 

TTadrjvovs ^ pieaoTpLXO.^ evo(f)ddXpLov£ , to ttXcov exov- 
ras" €v TO) ^rjpcp Kal ifivxpco- to 8' oltto ■)(^eLpL€pLvrjS 
TpoTTTJ? ea>? eapivijg laiqp.epias p,eXav6xpoag avpLp,€T- 
povs Tols p-eyedeoL TeTavoTpixc-S uttoj/tiAou? virop- 
pvdpiovs,^ TO TrXeov exovras iv tw vypa> Kal ifjvxpcp- 
KaTOL pLepos 8e to. p.ev dv9pa>7TO€iSrj tcov l,ipSLOJv 
Tctjv T€ iv TO) t,o)hiaKa) Kal tcov eKTog evpvdpLa Kal 
avpp-eTpa toi? ax'ripacn to. acop^aTa KaTaaKevd^ei. 
Ta 8' €Tep6pLop(^a peraax'^p-aTi^ei Trpo? to ttjs 
ISlas pLopcJicoGecos oIk€lov to.? tov acop.aT09 crvp,- 
146 juerpia? Kal /cara Tiva Xoyov d^o/xoiot to. ot/ceta 
piiprj TOLS iavTcjv, tJtoi em to pcell^ov Kal eXaTTOv tj 
inl TO laxvporepov Kal dadevearepov * ■^ cttI to 
€vpvdpa)T€pov Kal dppvOpuxJTepov • ^ im ro piel^ov 
p,ev a»s" Xoyov €V€K€v 6 Aecov Kal rj IJapdevos Kal 6 
To^oTTjS, €7tI to eXaTTOv 8e (i)S ol ^IxOvs Kal 6 Kap- 
KLVog Kal 6 AlyoKcpcog. Kal TrdXiv co? ^ tou Kpiov 
Kal TOV Tavpov Kal tov AiovTOS to. pLev dvcj /cat 
epLTTpoadia em to eveKTtKcoTepov, to. 8e KaTOJ Kat 
OTTLudia cttI to da6evea~epov • to 8 ivavTiov ws to 

' lxeyaXoff>ddXfxovs VDProc, fi€\avo<f>ddXfj.ov5 MNAECam., 
vo^ddX/xovs P, (vOdX/xovs L. 

- nadjjvovs VD, TTaQivovs PL, fooepoiis Proc. ; anavoiis 
NACam., oiravtiwovs ME. 

314 



TETRABIBLOS III. 11 

in the moist and warm. The quadrant from the 
summer solstice to the autumn equinox produces 
individuals \vith moderately good complexion and 
moderate height, robust, with large eyes and thick 
and curly hair, exceeding in the warm and dry. The 
quadrant from the autumn equinox to the winter 
solstice makes them sallow, spare, slender, sickly, 
•with moderately curling hair and good eyes, exceeding 
in the dry and cold. The quadrant from the winter 
solstice to the spring equinox produces individuals of 
dark complexion, moderate height, straight hair, with 
little hair on their bodies, somewhat graceful, and 
exceeding in the cold and moist. 

In particular, the constellations both within and 
outside of the zodiac which are of human shape pro- 
duce bodies which are harmonious of movement and 
well-proportioned ; those however which are of other 
than human shape modify the bodily proportions to 
correspond to their own peculiarities, and after a 
fashion make the corresponding parts like their own, 
larger and smaller, or stronger and weaker, or more 
and less graceful. For example, Leo, Virgo, and 
Sagittarius make them larger ; others, as Pisces, 
Cancer, and Capricorn, smaller. And again, as in 
the case of Aries, Taurus, and Leo, the upper and 
fore parts make them more robust and the lower 
and hind parts weaker. Conversely the fore parts of 

' vTTop{p)vdfiovs VNMADE, vnoepvOfiovs PL, fiapfiocn-ovs 
Proc, om. Cam. 

* Post aadevforepov add. ^ eVl to VPLD, Kai MNAECara. 

^ Kol dppvdfiOTfpov E; apvOfMcoTtpov (dpiO- L) Kal ivpvd- 
fjicoTfpov PL ; c/. Proc. ; koI dpp. om. VMNAUCam. 

• f-nl post ai£ add. MNAECam. 

315 



PTOLEMY 

rov To^orov Kol rov EKoprriov Kai tojv ALhufxajv 
TO. jJLev i[jL7Tp6a6La ivl to la-xyoTepov} ra Se OTTiadia 
eTTL TO eveKTLKCjJTepov • op.oico'S 8e (hs r) fiev IJapQi- 
vos Kol at XrjXal /cai o To^ottjs evrt to avfxneTpov 
KOL evpvdjjiov, 6 8e UKopmos /cac ol 'Ixdvs Kal 6 
Tavpos eTTL TO dppvdjjiov /cat aavp-pieTpov, koI cttI 
TU)v aXXiov ofJiOLcos. dvep d-TTavTa avve(f)opu)VTa^ 
/cat avveTTLKipvavTa? ^ 7Tpooy]K€L ttjv e/c ttj^ Kpdaeco? 
avvayopL^viqv IhiOTpoTTiav Trepi re ra? jJbopcfjcoaeLS /cat 
ra? Kpdaeis ruJv acofiaTCov KaTaaTo^^d^eadai. 



<L^.> Tie pi aivcov /cat 7ra6d>v 

a (x) jJi aT L K dj V 

'ETTOfievov 8e tovtois rod nepl rd CTco/Ltart/cd aivr) 
re /cat Trddrj Xoyov, avvdifjofjiev avTolg /card to "* 
i^rj? Ti^j' /card tovto to eiSos cruvtcrTaiJLeurjv €77t- 
aKCijjiv e^ovaav otnoi'S. /cat evTavda yap * rrpos 
yikv TTjV Kad^ oXov hidXrufjiv drTo^XeTTeLv Set 77pd? 
rd Tov 6pil,ovTOS ^vo /ceVrpa, TOVTeoTL to avaTeXXov 
147 /cat TO Bvvov, fidXtaTa Se vrpo? tc to Svvov avTo 
/cat 77po? TO TTpohvvov,^ o ioTiv davvBeTOU tcv 
dvaToXiKcp KevTpo), Kal TrapaTrjpeZv tovs KaKOj- 
TLKOvs Tcor aaTepwv Trd)S €a)(ripiaTiajJievoL rrpog 
avrd Tvyxdvovatv. idv yap Tip 6s rds evrara^epo- 
fidvas fJiolpas rd)v elpiqpilvojv tottcov (Lglv eWtoTe? 

^ laxvorepov VPA, Tuni laxvoTepcov L, laxvporepov D, aode- 
veoTepov MNECam.Proc. 

'^ ovveTTiKipvavras VD ; cf. Proc. ; avveTTiKpivovTas PLMNAE 
Cam. 

316 



TETRABIBLOS III. 11-12 

Sagittarius, Scorpio, and Gemini cause slenderness 
and the hind parts robustness. Similarly too Virgo, 
Libra, and Sagittarius tend to make them well- 
proportioned and graceful, while Scorpio, Pisces, 
and Taurus bring about awkwardness and dispro- 
portion. So it is with the rest, and it is fitting 
that we should observe and combine all these things 
and make a conjecture as to the character which 
residts from the mixture, with regard both to the 
form and to the temperament of the body. 

12. Of Bodily Injuries and Diseases. 

Since the subject which comes next is that which 
treats of the injuries and diseases of the body, we shall 
attach here in regular order the method of investiga- 
tion devised for this form of query. It is as follows. 
In this case also, to gain a general comprehension, it 
is necessary to look to the two angles of the horizon, 
that is, the orient and the Occident, and especiallv to 
the Occident itself and the sign preceding it, which 
is disjunct ^ from the oriental angle. We must also 
observe what aspect the maleficent planets bear to 
them. For if they, one or both of them, are stationed 
against the ascending degrees of the aforesaid 

* See i. 10 ; tin's sign is the fifth from the ascendant and 
is the so-called sixth house. 



' auTotj Kara to VPL (xai to) ADE ; cf. Proc. ; oni. 
NCam. 

*yap VPLADE, fv M, cm. NCam. 

'' TTpobvvov P, Bvvov VMD, om. LE, to npo buatojs Proc, 
•qyovnevov NACani. 

317 



PTOLEMY 

rJTOi aa)fiaTLKCL)S t] TerpaycoviKco? i^ Kal Kara 8ia- 
fi€Tpov, tJtoi oTTorepog avrcjv ^ Kal ajjicfjoTepoL, aivq 
Koi TTadrj acopbariKa 7T€pl tov9 yevucofxevovs vttovot]- 
T€OV, fidXiaTa 8' civ Kal rcov cf)a}Ta)v tJtol to erepov 
iq Kal dfiffyorepa KeKevrpcofJieva Kad ov eLprjKapLev 
rpoTTOV Tvy)(dinrj r) dfia t) Kara hidjxeTpov. totc 
yap ov fjLovov idv eTTai'acfjeprjraL tls tcov KaKOTTOtwv, 
dXXd Koiv TTpoava(f>ep7]Tai tcov (f)a)T<jjv, auro? K€Kev- 
Tpa)[ji€vos, LKavos eGTL Sta^eii^at ti tcoi' eKKeLfxevatv 

OTToloV dv OL T€ TOV 6pit,OVTO<5 TOTTOL Kal OL TO)V 

t,whio}v v7TO<f>aLVO}aL aivos ri irddos, Kal ai Tibv 
darepojv (f)VGeis tcov re KaKovvrcov Kal rcov KaKov- 
fi€vcov Kal en rcov avaxqp.aril^opiivcov avrols. rd 
re yap P'^prj rcov t,cpSLCov eKdarov rd Trepiexovra 
TO dhiKOvpievov [xepog rov 6pit,ovros SrjXcoaei ro 
liepos rov acofJiaTog rrepl o earat ro atriov Kat 
TTorepov aivos '^ irdOos rj Kal dp^orepa to hrjXov- 
fxevov pidpog eTriSe^aadaL Svvarov, at re tcov 
darepojv (f)V(jeLS rd eiSrj Kal rd? atria? rcov avpi- 
TTrcofxdrcov TTOiovcrtv,^ eirethrj rcov Kvptcordrcov rov 
148 dvdpoiTTOV fxepcbv 6 [Jtev rov Kpovov Kvpto? eartv 
aKocov re Se^tcov Kal aTrXr^vo? Kal Kvareco? Kal 
(f}XeypLaros Kal oarcov ' 6 Se rov Aids d(f)rj9 re Kat 
TTvevfiovo? Kal dprr^picov Kal OTrepfiaro? ■ 6 8e rov 
"Apeco? dKocov evcovvpicov Kal ve(f)pa>v Kal cffXe^cov 
Kal ixoptcov • 6 he rjXto? opdaecos Kal eyKecf)dXov 
Kal KapSias Kal vevpcov Kal rcov Se^tcbv Trdvrcov • 
o 8e rrj? 'AcfipoStrrj? oa^priaetti? re Kat rjTTaros Kat 

' noiovaiv VPLADProc, om. MNECara. 

318 



TETRABIBLOS III. 12 

places, either bodily on them or quartile or in op- 
position to them, we must conclude that the subjects 
born will suffer bodily injuries and disease, especially 
if either one or both of the luminaries as well chance 
to be angular in the manner described,^ or in op- 
position. For in that case not only if one of the 
maleficent planets is rising after the luminaries, but 
even if it is rising before them and is itself angular, 
it has power to produce one of the aforesaid injuries 
or diseases of such kind as the places of the horizon 
and of the signs may indicate, likewise what is in- 
dicated by the natures of the afflicting and the 
afflicted ^ planets, and moreover by those that bear 
an aspect toward them. For the parts of the in- 
dividual signs of the zodiac which surround the 
afflicted portion of the horizon will indicate the 
part of the body which the portent will concern, and 
whether the part indicated can suffer an injury or 
a disease or both, and the natures of the planets 
produce the kinds and causes of the events that 
are to occur. For, of the most important parts of 
the human body, Saturn is lord ^ of the right ear, 
the spleen, the bladder, the phlegm, and the bones ; 
Jupiter is lord of touch, the lungs, arteries, and 
semen ; Mars of the left ear, kidneys, veins, and 
genitals ; the sun of the sight, the brain, heart, 
sinews and all the right-hand parts ; Venus of 

' I.e. in cither the first or seventh house (orient or 
Occident), and not at either of the other two angles. 

2 See on iii. 9 (p. 267). 

' A phmctary rnclothesia (distribution of j^urts of the 
body to the planets) follows. On such vf. Boll-Bezold- 
Gundel, p. 138, and P. Mich. 149, col. ii., 31 ff. (University 
of Michigan Studies, Humanistic Series, vol. xl.). 

319 



PTOLEMY 

aapKwv 6 8e tou 'Epjxov Xoyov koL Siavoia? Kal 
yXioacr-qg Kal ;^oArj9 /cat eSpa? • rj 8e aeX'qurj 
yevaecog re Kal KaraTroaecos Kal OTOixaxov Koi 
KoiXias Kal fj-qTpas Kal riJov evcovvfxcjv ttolvtcov. 
"Egtl Se Toji' KaO oXov Kal ra aivq jxev (hs i^rl to 

TToXv aVfJiTTlTTTeiU OLUaToXLKcJoU OVTOiV TiOV TO aiTLOV 

TTOLovvTOiv KaKOTTOicjv , TTaOr] §€ Tovvavriov SvriKOJP 
avToJv v7Tap)(6vrcov eTretS'QTTep Kal huoptarai 
TOVTCoi (KOLTepov TO) TO fxcv OLVos aVtt^ hiaTidivai 
Kal [jiTj SiaTeivovaav e^etv- ttjv dXyrjSova, to Se 
TTado? tJtol Gvvexojg '^ eTTtXrjTTTLKwg TOLS TTaaxovaiv 

iTTlOK-QTTTeiV. 

ripog Se TTjv KaTOL pipos eTTi^oXrjv TJBr] rtva 
TTapaT-qpt^aecog eTV^'^v e^aipeTov aivcoTLKa re /cat 
TTadrjTLKa ax'rip-aTa, 8ta Ta>v o)? €1tI ttolv /caro. 
Ta? ojJLOLoax'rjp.ova'? deaeig TrapaKoXovdovvTCDV avjj,- 
TTTCopLOLTCDv. TTrjpcouei'S yo.p oipecos aTTOTeXovvTai, 
KaTOL fji€v TOU €Tepov Twv 6(f)daXpa)v OTav re r] 
aeXiQUT] Kad^ avTrjv ' €ttI tcov TTpoeiprjp.4vo}v ovaa 
149 K€VTpa)v rj avvoSevovaa rj TravaeXrji'id^ovaa tuxJ}, 
Kal OTav €<^' fTepov ^ jxeu r^ npos tov tJXlov 
ax^]l-icLTOS Tcof Xoyov ^ ixovTOjv, avvaTTTr) Se * tlvl 
Ta>v v€(f)€Xo€iSa)v iv tw l^coSiaKcp (jvaTpo(f}(Jov, cti? 
Tcx> v€(ji^Xicp ^ TOV KapKivov Kal TTJ 77Aeta8t tov 

TavpOV " Kal TTJ OLKL^L TOV To^OTOV Kal TO) K€VTp(x) 

TOV EKopiTLOV Kal TOL9 TTepl TOV UXoKap^ov pbepeoi 
TOV AeovTog r} ttj /caATTtSt tov 'YSpoxoov • Kal 

' Kad' {e)auTr)i. VPADKProc, KaD' iavrovs L, Kar aurrjv 
MNCam. ; post haec verba add. eKTpoirTjv. Cam., om. libri 
Proc. 

320 



TETRABIBLOS III. 12 

smell, the liver, and the flesh ; Mercury of speech 
and thought, the tongue, the bile, and the buttocks ; 
the moon of taste and drinking, the stomach, belly, 
womb, and all the left-hand parts. 

For the most part it is a general principle that 
injuries occur when the significant maleficent planets 
are oriental, and diseases, conversely, when they are 
setting. The reason for this is that these two 
things are distinguished thus — an injury aS'ects the 
subject once for all and does not involve lasting 
pain, while disease bears upon the patient either 
continuously or in sudden attacks. 

For the purpose of ascertaining particulars, cer- 
tain configurations significant of injury or sickness 
have been specially observed, by means of the events 
which generally accompany such positions of the 
stars. For blindness in one eye is brought about 
when the moon by itself is upon the aforesaid angles, 
or is in conjunction, or is full, and when it is in 
another aspect that bears a relation to the sun, but 
applies to one of the star clusters in the zodiac, as 
for example to the cluster in Cancer, and to the 
Pleiades of Taurus, to the arrow point of Sagittarius, 
to the sting of Scorpio, to the parts of Leo around 
the Coma Berenices, or to the pitcher of Aquarius ; 

^ erepov VPLD, eKortpov MXAECaru. ; sequitur in 
MNACarn. twv, PL fxev, VD ^ev ■^, E fiev tcHv. 

' TWV Xoyov ktX. me, t<jl>v X6ya)v VD, tov Xoyov PL, Xoyov 
NAC'am. 

* awaTTTT) 8e PEProc, avvdrrrei Se VLMD, kou. orav avvairrrf 
NA (-Tj-iai A). 

^ roi vt((>(.Xico VMNADEProc, rwv e(f>eXiwv P, tojv v{(f)fXl(ov 
L, Din. (Jam. 

« ToC Tavpov VADProc, oin. PLMNECam. 

321 



PTOLEMY 

orav 6 Tov "Apecos rj Kal 6 tov Kpovov eTTiKivrpcp 
ovoT) avrfj /cat dTTOKpovariKfj dvaroXtKol avrol 
ovres €Tn<j)€pojvrai rj TrdXiv tov rjXiov avTol eTrt- 
KevrpoLovres TTpoava(f)epojVTai. idv 8e dp.<f)OT4poLS 
dfia rols cfxoalv tJtol Kara to avro ^coSlov t] Kal 
Kara Sta/xerpor, cos e'LTTop.ev, ava-)(riixartada)(JLV , icooi 
fiev TW TjXia) 6vT€S, TTJ Se aeX'qvTj ioTrepioi, TTCpi 
dfji(f>orepovs rovs o^^aA/xou? to aLTiov ■noi'qcrovaiv, 
6 jxev yap ' tou "Apeojs dvo TrX-qyijs rj KpovafiaTOS 
■^ CTtST^pou rj KaraKavjJLaros rroiel rds TrrjpcocreLS, 
fierd §€ 'Epjjiov avaxrjp-arLodeis €v TraXaiarpats 
Kal yvpLvaaioLs rj KaKovpydJv i(f)68oLS. 6 Se tov 
Kpovov 8t' VTTOxvaeoJv ?) ijjv^ecjv rj drroyXavKoyaecov 

Kal T(X)V TOLOVTCOV ' TTaXLV edv 6 TrjS AcfypoSiTTjS €7X1 

Tivos fj Tojv TTpoeiprjjilvojv Kevrpojv, jidXtGTa 8e 

€771 TOV hvVOVTOS, TO) jxkv TOV KpOVOV OVVOiV Tj Kol 

av(j)(rj[JLaT(,^6p€vos t) ivrjXXaxd^s tou? tottous', vtto 
Be TOV "Apecos KadwepTepovfievos t) hiajieTpovp-evos , 
ol fjiev dvhpes dyovoi yivovTai, at Se yvvalKe'S 
eKTptoojxolg ^ cu/itOTO/ctai? rj Kal ejx^pvoTopiiais ^ 
\50 TTepLKvXiovrai,^ p^dXiara he ev KapKLVcp Kal Uap- 
devcp Kal AlyoKepcoTt..* kolv rj aeX-quT] 0,71' 
dvaToXrjg tco tov "Apecos cjvvdTTrrj, edv 8e Kal 
T<p TOiJ 'Eppov Kara to avro avax^jp-aTtadfj 
avv TO) TOV Kpovov, TOV TOV "Apecos TidXiv Kad- 
vnepTepovvTOS rj ScapeTpovvTos , evvovxoi ^ epjia- 

^ fikv yap VD, fxh ovv PLProc, fiev MNAECam. 

^ efiPpvoTOfiiais VNADECam.^, en^pv^orofilais M; cf. ra 
efi^pva . . . KaraKonrjaiTai Proc. ; efx^pvoTOKiais Cam.'*, om. 
PL. 

322 



TETRABIBLOS III. 12 

and whenever Mars or Saturn moves toward the 
moon, when it is angular and waning and they 
are rising, or again when they ascend before the 
sun, being themselves angular. But if they are in 
aspect with both luminaries at once, either in the 
same sign or in opposition, as we said, morning 
stars with respect to the sun and evening stars to 
the moon, they will affect both eyes ; for Mars 
brings about blindness from a blow, a thrust, iron, 
or burning ; when he has Mercury in aspect, in 
palaestras and gymnasiums or by felonious attack. 
Saturn causes it by suffusion, cold, glaucoma, and 
the like. Again if Venus is upon one of the afore- 
said angles, particularly the Occident, if she is 
joined with Saturn or is in aspect with him or has 
exchanged houses, and is inferior to Mars or has 
him in opposition, the men who are born are 
sterile, and the women are subject to miscarriages, 
premature births, or even to embryotomies, par- 
ticularly in Cancer, Virgo, and Capricorn.^ And 
if the moon at rising applies to Mars, and if she 
also bears the same aspect to Mercury that Saturn 
does, while Mars again is elevated above her or is 
in opposition, the children born are eunuchs or 

* Certain MSS. here add, " when the moon applies to 
the star clusters she incapacitates the eyes," which, as 
Camerarius notes in the margin of the second edition; 
is redundant here. 



' nfpiKvXiovToi VNMDECam.*, ■nfpiKrjXvovrcu P, napa- 
lOjXvovTai L, (mKvMovrai A, KTfXoCvrai. Cain.^ 

* Post AlyoKepojTi add. Kal rots v«f>eXo(iS(ai avvamovoa 
6<f>daXfj.6v TTTjpoi Tj oiXijvT) VNADCum. (in nig. *notatum ot 
haec redundant in hoc loco Cam.^) ; om. I'LMEProc. 

323 



PTOLEMY 

(f)p6Si,roi rj arpcoyXoi Kal arp-qTOi^ yivovrai. tovtcov 
8e 0VTC09 ixovTcov, inav /cat d rjXios av(j)(ir)}xarLGdfj, 
Tcbv jJLev (jicoTcvv Kal Tov rrj^ ^A(f>pohirris rjppevco- 
fxevtov, OLTTOKpovaTtKrjs 8e rrjs aeXr^vqs ovarjs /cat 
TcDv KaKOTTOicbv cv TOLS iTTava<j)€popL€vai^ ^ piolpais 
CTn^e/JOju.evcuv, ol jxev avSpe? drroKOTroL ^ ra fiopia 
aeaivcopiivoL yivovrai /cat /xaAtcrra ev KpL<x> Kal 
AeovTL Kal EKopiria) Kal AlyoKepu)^ Kal 'YSpoxoco, 
at Se yvvaiKes oltokol /cat arelpai. €vioT€ 8e oj}8' 
daivels rals o^eaiv ol toiovtol Stap.€vovaiv, e/x- 
TToSi^ovrat 8e ttjv yXcorrav Kal yivovrai rpavXol 
rj fioyiXaXoi oaoi tov tov Kpovov Kal tov tov 
'Eppiov avvovTag i-nl tcov elprifxevcov Kevrpcov 
cxovcri Tip rjXio), ndXicrra 8' dv Kal Svtlkos fj 6 
rod 'Epixov Kal avaxr]ixaTit,iovTai dp^oTepoi ttj 
aeXi^vr] • tovtois 8' d tov "Apecos "naparvxcov Xveiv 
e'iiodev cos ifrl to ttoXv to ttjs yXd)TTr]s e/jTToBiov 
d(f)' ov dv 7] aeXr^vrj t7]v vpos avTov avvavTrjaiu * 
TTOLTjariTai, rrdXiv idv tJtoi to, (f)d)Ta eTrt/ceVrpot? 
Tot? KaKoiTOLOis i7Ti(f)€pr]Tai ^ dfia ^ /caret SidjxeTpov, 
7] idv TO IS (f)0)alv ol KaKOTToioi, /cat pidXiara ttjs 
aeX-qvrjs em (rvvhlapLajv r) eTrt KapbTTicxiv ova-qs r^ 
151 6771 T(x}v eTTaiTicov i,cpSLcov, olov Kpiov, Tavpov, 
KapKivov, UKopTTLOV, AiyoKepu), yivovTai Xco^rjoeis 
TOV acofiaTOS KvpTcoaeiov ^ KvXXcjaeoiv rj ^^wAcoaecoi^ 

* drpayyAoi Kal drpT^Toi VAD, drpw. k. drpoiTr] P, drpoy^oi k. 
drpwroi L, drpcoyXoL Kal om. MNECam., fiij €;^oi't€s TpvTTi}fj.aTa 
fi-qhk hU^ohov Proc. 

■^ €v rals (xoipais rals (.Ttava^ipofxivais Proc, rals iiravatf). 
fioipais PVAD, Tols (TTaia<f)€pofi€Vois /loipais L, Kara rds enava- 
(f>€poii4i'as fxoipas MNECam. 
324 



TETRABIBLOS III. 12 

hermaphrodites or have no ducts and vents. ^ Since 
this is so, when the sun also is in aspect, if the lumin- 
aries and Venus are made masculine, the moon is 
waning, and the maleficent planets are approaching in 
the succeeding degrees, the males that are born will 
be deprived of their sexual organs or injured therein, 
particularly in Aries, Leo, Scorpio, Capricorn, and 
Aquarius, and the females will be childless and sterile. 
Sometimes those who have such genitures continue 
not without injury to the sight also ; but those suffer 
impediment of speech, lisp, or have difficiilty in 
enunciation who have Saturn and Mercury joined 
with the sun at the aforesaid angles, particularly if 
Mercury is also setting and both bear some aspect 
to the moon. When Mars is present with them 
he is generally apt to loosen the impediment to the 
tongue, after the moon meets him. Again, if the 
luminaries, together or in opposition, move toward 
the maleficent planets upon the angles, or if the 
maleficent planets move toward the luminaries, 
particularly when the moon is at the nodes ^ or her 
bendings, or in the injurious signs such as Aries, 
Taurus, Cancer, Scorpio, or Capricorn, there come 
about deformations of the body such as hunchback, 

' Proelus i)arai>hra8es thus : rj fir] exoi^ts TpvTrquara fir]8i 
hU^obov. 

^The points at which tho moon's path intersects the 
ecliptic. The " bendings " are tho points quartile to the 
nodes (c/. the anonymous commentator, p. 139, od. Wolf). 

^ Kui Aiovri . . . AlyoKfpw Vl'LDProc., oni. MNAECam. 
* avvavrrjoiv Vl'LADProc, aTTamrjaiv MNECam. 
^ fTn(f>€pr]T<u Vi'LDl'roc., tVai'a^f'pijTai MNAECam.', eVwa- 
(fieputyrcu Caia.^ 

325 



PTOLEMY 

7) TTapaXvaeoiv, iav fj,€V avv toI? cfxjoalv Jyaiv ol 
KaKOTTotol aTTo TTJg y€V€(T€0)S ttyTT^S", €av Se ev Tols 
fjLeaovpavqfiacri KadweprepovvTeg ra (f)coTa 7] 8ia- 
IXTjKi^ovre? dXX-qXovs uJcrLV oltto kivSvvojv fJceydXcov , 
ws Tcov oLTTOKprifxviapiwv TJ avpLTTTwaecov Tj \rjaTr]piojv 
7) TerpaTToSiov • "Apecos ixkv iTTiKparovvros , tcov 8id 
TTvpos ■^ rpavfJidTcov ^ ;)(;oAt/ca>v ^ rj XrjaTTjpicov • 
Kpovov Se Tcijv Sid avp,TTT<I)aecov -^ vavayiojv t] 
a7Taap,a>v. 

'Q? €7Ti TO TToXi) Sc ytVeTttt aCvrj Kal Ttepl rd 
rpoTTiKd Kal Icrqiiepivd arjfiela r^? aeXT^vrjs ovarj?, 
[xdXiara 8e Trept fiev to iaptvov ra 8i* dX(f>wv, 
rrepl Se to depivov Td 8ia Aet;!^r)i'a»v • vepi Se to 
fiCTOTTioptvov Td Sid Xcvpcijv • TTepl 8e TO xeLpiipLvov 
Ttt 8ta <f)aKU)V Kal tcov ofxoLCov. Trddrj 8e avfx^alveiv 
etcoOev oTav cttI tiov TrpoKeifxevajv arTaaeojv ol KaKO- 
TTOiol ava'xriP'O.Tiadioai , /caTct to ivavTLOv fxevTOi, 
TOVTecTTtv eoTTepioi [X€V TO) "qXicp, TTJ 8e aeXt^vr) eoioi. 
Kad^ oXov ydp 6 fiev tov Kpovov t/wxpoKoiXiovg ttoicI 
Kal TToXv<f)XeypLdTovs Kal pevfiaTwSeis, KaTiaxvovs 
T€ /cat dcrdevLKOvs Kal iKTcpiKovg ^ Kal SvacvTepi- 
Koiis Kal ^-r]xi-><ovs Kal dva(f)opLKOvs Kal KcoXiKovg /cat 
iXecjjavTLwvTas ' Tds 8e yvvaiKas €tl /cat vaTepiKag. 
152 o he TOV "Apeoi? alfxaTTTOiKovs pLcXayxoXiKovg ^ 
trvevnoviKovs t/tcopiivvTas ' CTt 8e tov? 8ta tojjlcov t) 
Kavaeoiv * KpvTTTcov tottcov avvexoJs ivoxXovfidvovs 
avpiyyoiv €V€K€v ^ alpLoppo'ChaJv •^ /coi^8uAct)/xaTa»v ^ 

1 T] xoAtKtoi' VP (xoiXoiK-) LADProc. ; oxAi/cwv MNECam. 
* Kal iKTepiKovs om. Cam. 
' fj.fXayxo\iKovs om. Cam. 

326 



TETRABIBLOS III. 12 

crookedness, lameness, or paralysis, congenital if 
the maleficent planets are joined with the luminaries, 
but if they are at the mid-heaven points, elevated 
above the luminaries or in opposition one to the 
other, the deformations will result from serious 
dangers, such as falls from a height, the collapse of 
houses, or the attacks of robbers or animals. If 
Mars prevails, the danger is from fire, wounds, 
bilious attacks, or robberies ; if it is Saturn, through 
collapse of buildings, shipwreck, or spasms. 

For the most part injuries come about when the 
moon is near the solstitial or equinoctial signs, particu- 
larly at the spring equinox, injuries by white leprosy; 
at the summer solstice, by lichens ; at the fall equinox, 
by leprosy ; at the winter solstice, by moles and the 
like. Diseases are likely to result when at the 
positions already described the maleficent planets are 
in aspect, but in the opposite sense, that is, evening 
stars with respect to the sun and morning stars to the 
moon. For in general Saturn causes his subjects to 
have cold bellies, increases the phlegm, makes them 
rheumatic, meagre, weak, jaundiced, and prone to 
dysentery, coughing, raising, colic, and elephan- 
tiasis ; the females he makes also subject to diseases 
of the womb. Mars causes men to spit blood, makes 
them melancholy, weakens their lungs, and causes 
the itch or scurvy ; and furthermore he causes them 
to be constantly irritated by cutting or cautery of 
the secret parts because of fistulas, haemorrhoids, 

* Post Kavaeojy add. ^ PLMNAECam ; cf. Proc, 8id 
Kavaews ^ to/i'^s «'? KpvrrTovs tottovs ktX. 

'- 17 KovSuXwfj.aTojv VP (-Xofi-) LUEProc, om. MNACam. ; 
add. Tj Kvu TTvpcofj-aTutv MNACam. 

327 



PTOLEMY 

•^ /cat rcov TTvpcoSoJv eXKioaecav r) vojjlcov • ra? 8e 
yvvaiKas eVi Kal e/CTpajcr/Aots' y) e^^pvoroybiais ^ 
•q ava^poiaeaiv e'ioide TrepLKvXULv. Ihiojs 8e /cat 
Trapa "^ to.? Trpoeipiqixevas ra>v avaxf}fi-o.Tit,oiJb4vojv 
darepcov <f>vaeLg Trpos rd p-eprj tov auip.aTOS to. 
iStci/iaTa TTOLOvai rojv TraOcov. 

Hvvepyel 8' avroZs /xaAtara 77po? rd? eTrtraaei? 
Tojv (j>av\oiv 6 TOV EppLov darrjp. Tip piev tov 
Kpovov irpos TO ipvxpov avvoiKeiovpLevog /cat pioXXov 
iv KLvrjaei avvex^l ttolcov tovs pevpiaTiapLOVS /cat 
Tct? Tcov vypcbv oxXt^Geig, e^atpercos' 8e rail' Trept 
OcopaKa /cat (fxipvyya /cat OTOpiaxov ' Ttp hk tov 
"Apeo)^ TTpos TO ^rjpavTLKWTepov avvemaxvoi^ , tti? 
em re Ta>^' eA/ca)8ajv' TmXojcjecxiv ^ /cat iaxo-pcov /cat 
dTToaTrjpLaTOJv Kal ipvanreXaTcov /cat A6t;)(7^i^a)r 
dypiuiv /cat pieXaivrjg ;)^oA7j? ■^ piavla? * ■^ wcroy 

lepd? '^ Toiv TOLOVTCOV. 

Kal rrapd tols tcov ^ajStoii^ eVaAAayd? tcDv' Toy? 
TTpoeiprjpidvovs evrt roir 8uo KevTpcov auCT^^T^/xarta- 
/Ltoys 7T€pL€x6vTOJV ylvovTai TLves TTOioTTjTes iradajv. 
tStco? ydp o ju.ev' KapKLvos Kal 6 AlyoKepojs /cat ot 
^Ix^vs Kal oAo)? rd ;)^€pCTata /cat rd IxdviKOL ^a»8ta 
153 rd 8td Tcor vopLibv TrdOy] vrotet /cat Aet;^7Ji'cov 7/ 
Ae7ri8a)t' ^ r) ;(otpdScov' •^ avpiyycov r) eXe^avTtaaeiov 
/cat Toit' TOtot^TCOP'. o 8e To^ott]'? Kal ot /Jt8u/u,ot 

' eixPpvoTOKiais NCam. 

* wapa VPLD, Trepi MNAECam. 

* TTTiXcoaeojv ego ; ■nrrjXdiaecov PL, TriAAcoaeoji' VD, ifiiXwaecov 
MNAECam. 

* ^ ^aw'os VPLMADProc, cm. NECam. 

328 



TETRABIBLOS III. 12 

or tumours, or also burning ulcers, or eating sores ; 
he is apt to afflict women furthermore with mis- 
carriages, embryotomies, or corrosive diseases. 
Of themselves, they also bring about the properties 
of disease in agreement with the natures, which 
have been already discussed, of the planets in 
aspect, as they relate to the parts of the body.^ 

Mercury assists them ^ chiefly to prolong the evil 
effects, when he is allied with Saturn inclining toward 
cold and continually stirring into activity rheu- 
matisms and gatherings of fluid, particularly about 
the chest, throat, and stomach. When he is allied 
with Mars he adds his force to produce greater dry- 
ness, as in cases of ulcerous sore eyes, eschars,^ 
abscesses, erysipelas, savage lichens or skin eruptions, 
black bile, insanity, the sacred disease,* or the like. 

Certain qualities of disease are determined by 
changes among the zodiacal signs which surround 
the aforesaid configurations on the two angles. 
For in particular Cancer, Capricorn, and Pisces, 
and in general the terrestrial and piscine signs, catise 
diseases involving eating sores, lichens, scales, 
scrofula, fistulas, elephantiasis, and the like. Sagit- 
tarius and Gemini are responsible for those that come 

^ Tho reference is to the planetary melothosia, earlier in 
the chapter (p. 319). Acting in their own proper charac- 
ters (tSt'ojs), tho maleficent planets will affect those parts of 
the hody of which, in tho raelothesia, they were said to bo 
the " lords". 

* Saturn and Mars, tho maleficent planets. 

' Dry sloughs, crusts, or scabs. * Epilepsy. 



^ rj XtTriBcDV VD, -q XoimBcov P, 6 he Tiihwv L, ^ XeTTpibv MNAE, 
cm. Cam. 

X 329 



PTOLEMY 

TO. 8ta 7TT(x>naTiafJLa>v t] iTnXt^ifjeojv • kol iv rat? 
icrxoLTai.9 Se fJiolpaLg TrapaTvyxo-vovres ol aarepeg 
Tcov ScoheKarrjiJiopLCOv Trept to. aKpa p^aXiara to. 
TTaOrj ^ /cat ra aivq TTOiovai Sia Xco^-qaecov t) pev- 
ixariap^ayv, d<^' wv /cat iXe<j)avTt,a.aeis re /cat cti? eTTt 
TTai^ x^'-P^yP^'- '^ct^ TToSctypat avpL^aivovai. tovtojv 
Se OVTCD? exovroiv, iav puev /u-TySet? roji' ayadoTTOLwv 
<jvax'r]P'0,TL^rjTaL rot? ra atVta ttolovol /ca/coTTOtot? 
•^ rot? K€KevTpcoiJL€voL? (jxjJGLV , di'tttTa /cat eTTaxdrj ra 
re alvrj /cat ret TrdOr) yevrjaerai ■ coGavrcos 8e /cdv' 
avcrxrjp-arL^covraL jueV, KadvrreprepoJvrai 8e utto tcDv 
KaKOTTOLcov €v 8vvd[ji€i ovroiv . lav 8e /cat ayroi 
/caret Kvpiojv ovres GXT^p-oirojv KaOvrreprepoJat rovs 
ro aLrtov efnroLOvvras KaKOTTOiovs , rore ra aivr] 
evax'TjpiOva /cat oy/c CTTOveihiara yiverai /cat ret rrddr] 
[xerpia /cat euTraprjyoprjra, eaO^ ore he /cat eyaTTCtA- 
Aa/cra, di^aroAi/coiv' ovrojv rcbv dyadoTTOLcov. 6 jiev 
yap rod Aiog ^orjdelaLg dvOpoiTTLvais 8td rrXovroiv 
Tj d^Laijxdruiv ra re aivt] KpvTrreiv e'icoQe /cat ra 
irddrj Traprjyopelv • avv Se rw rov 'EpjJLOv /cat (f)ap- 
/Lta/cetat? r) larpcov dyadcov evrt/cou/Dtat?. o 8e t-^? 
^A^pohiriqg hid rrpo^daeajs Oecov /cat XPT^P'^^ "^^ 
154 /Ltei' CTiVrj rpoirov rivd evjjiopcfia /cat emxapr] Kara- 
aKevdt,ei, ra he Trddr) rals cxtto decjjv tarpetat? 
evTTapr)y6pr]ra • rov pcevroi Kpovov irpoaovros piera 
TTapaheLyjjLarLajjicov /cat e^ayopiojv - /cat rcbv roiov- 

* a«-pa fiaXiara ra ndOi] VPLD, aypia Koi judAiora -rradr^ 
NCam.', dypia fidXiara ndOr] MAE, eaxara fieXr) ra nddrj Cam.^ 

^ e^ayopiwv VD, -eioiv A, i^aywptojv P, e^aycuviwv L, c/. 
i^ayopeviiv Proc. ; e^ayopevaecov MNECam. 

330 



TETRABIBLOS III. 12 

about with falling fits or epileptic seizures. And 
when the planets are in the last degrees of the signs 
they cause diseases and injuries especially in the 
extremities, through lesions or rheumatism, from 
which elephantiasis and, in general, gout in the feet 
and hands result. Since this is the case, if no bene- 
ficent planet bears an aspect to the maleficent ones 
which furnish the cause, or to the luminaries on the 
centres, the injuries and diseases will be incurable 
and painful ; so also, if they bear an aspect but 
the maleficent planets are in power and overcome 
them. But if the beneficent planets are themselves 
in the authoritative positions and overcome the 
maleficent planets that bear the responsibility for the 
evil, then the injuries are not disfiguring and do not 
entail reproach and the diseases are moderate and 
yield to treatment, and sometimes they may be 
easily cured, if the beneficent planets are rising. 
For Jupiter generally causes the injuries to be con- 
cealed by human aid through riches or honours, 
and the diseases to be mitigated ; and in company 
with Mercury he brings this about by drugs and the 
aid of good physicians. And Venus contrives that 
through pronouncements of the gods and oracles 
the blemishes shall be, in a way, comely and attrac- 
tive,^ and that the diseases shall be readily moderated 
by divine healing ; if however Saturn is by, the 
healing will be accompanied by exhibition and 

^ Cf. the famous passage of tho Republic (474DE) in 
which Plato tolls how lovers praise tho irregular features 
and the complexions of thoir favourites. 

331 



PTOLEMY 

TO)v • rov Se tou ' EpjJiov fxer* imKovpia? Kol 
TTopiafMov Tii'os St avToJv Twv aivojv 7) Koi TTadcov 
Tols exovai TrepiyLvofxevov. 

<iy.> Tie pi 7T o LOTTj T o g ^^XV^ 

IJepl {xev ovv rojv aajfiarLKibv avpLTTTCxypLdriJOV 6 
rvTTos TTJs eTTLOKei/jeajg tolovtos dv tls c'lr). t<jjv 
Se tJjuxi-Kcov TTOLOTqrcov at p,ev Ttepl to XoyiKOv /cat 
vo€p6v p-epos KaraXap^^dvovrat Sta rij? Kara tov 
rod 'Epp.ov darepa 6€a)povp,evrjg eKaarore Trepi.- 
CTTaaeco? ' at 8e rrepl to aladrjTLKOv ^ kol dXoyov aTTo 
TOV acopLaTCoSearepov tcov (Jxjotcov,^ TOvreaTi rfjs 
creXijvTjs, /cat rcov 77/369 rds d-TToppolag rj /cat 
Tag avva(f)ds avTij? avvea)(ripLaTiap.€vcov aGTepcov. 
TroXvTpoTTCDTdrov 8' ovTOS TOV /cara Tas j/'u;^t/ca? 
oppids e'iSovg etKOTOJS dv /cat rrjv roLavr-qv eTTLOKCifjiv 
ovx dirXd)? ovh (L? eTV)(e TTOLoipLeda, 8ta TrXetovajv 
8e /cat ttolklXojv TrapaTrjp-qaecov , /cat yap at tcov 

^OjSi'cOV tcov 7Tepi€)(6vTO)V TOV TC TOV ' EppLOV /Cat 

rrfv aeXrjvriv rj tov? Tr]v iTTiKpdTrjGLV avrcov etXrjtfyo- 
ras" doTepa? Sta^opat rroXv SvvavTat ovpi^dXXeadat. 
Trpos ra tcDv ipuxt^Kcov ■^ tStctjjLtara, /cat ol rd)v Xoyov 
e^ovTCov Tvpos TO 7TpoK€Lp,evov clSos doTepcov CTXV' 
155 pLaTLapiol TTpos rjXiov re /cat Ta KevTpa, Kol ert ro 

* alodrjTiKov VDA (mg. : yp. rjdiKov), aladjjrov PL ; cf. a'adrjoiv 
Proc. ; rjdiKov MNECam. 

' TOV awnaTobearepov twv (f>u)Ta)v A ; similia habent VPLD ; 
Toil' acDfiaToBfOTepcov tfxjjTwv MNCam., tujv a. twv (j>. E. 

^ tpvxiKwv VP (-xv-i LDE, ipvx<^v MNACam. 
332 



TETRABIBLOS III 12-13 

confession of the disease,^ and such like, but if 
Mercury "^ is joined with her it will be with the accrual 
of use and gain, through the injuries and diseases 
themselves, to those that have them. 

13. Of the Quality of the Soul. 

The character, then, of the inquiry into bodily 
aflFections would be of this sort. Of the qualities 
of the soul, those which concern the reason and 
the mind are apprehended by means of the condition 
of Mercury observed on the particular occasion ; and 
the qualities of the sensory and irrational part are 
discovered from the one of the luminaries which is 
the more corporeal, that is, the moon, and from the 
planets which are configurated with her in her 
separations and applications.^ But since the variety 
of the impulses of the soul is great, it stands to 
reason that we would make such an inquiry in no 
simple or offhand manner, but by means of many 
complicated observations. For indeed the differ- 
ences between the signs which contain Mercury and 
the moon, or the planets that dominate them, can 
contribute much to the character of the soul ; so 
likewise do the aspects to the sun and the angles 
shown by the planets that are related to the class 
of qualities under consideration, and, furthermore, 

'The commontator (p. 141, ed. Wolf) says that this 
refers to the custom of taking; the sick to temples for 
healing. So the disease would be openly exhibited atul 
spoken of. Proclus indicates that the cure is through 
display and confession. 

* Hermes (Mercury) was the god of commerce and gain. 

« Cy. I. 24. 

333 



PTOLEMY 

Kar' avrrjv ry]v cKaarov tcov aarepcov (f)vaiv irpos 
ra? ifruxi-Kas Kivqaeis iSiot/jottov. 

Tcov iJi€v ovv (,a)hicov Kad* oXov to. fiev rpoTTiKa 
Sr]fioTLKCor€pa? TTOiel ra.'S ^fivx^as ox^t-Kcov t€ /cat 
ttoXltikwv TTpayixdrcDv eTndvfirjTiKa.^, en Se ^l\o- 

ho^OVS Kol deOTTpOOTrXoKOV? ^ €V<f>V€LS T€ Kal CVKLV^- 
TOV£, i,7]T'qTiKaS T€ Kal €Vp€TLKds, (.VeiKaOTOVS Kal 

darpoXoyLKOLS ^ Kal /jLavriKag • rd Se Sicrcofia 
TTOiKiXas, €vp,€Ta^6Xovs, SvcTKaraX-qTrTovs , Kov<f)as, 
€V[X€Ta6eTovs , SiTrAa?, ipcoriKdg, ■noXvrpoirovs, <f>iXo- 
fiovcrovs, padvfiovs, evTTopicrTOVs, fierafieXrjTiKds • 
rd 8e areped hiKaia?, aKoXaKevrov? , ivifiovovg, 
^e^aias, crvveTas, viTopiovrjTLKd?, (f)iXo7T6vovs , 
aKXrjpds, iyKparels, [xvrjaLKdKOVs, eVjSt^acm/ca?,^ 
ipiariKds , ^tAort/xou?, araaioiSciS', TrXeoveKTiKas , 
diTOKpoTOVs , dpLeradeTOVs. 

Tcov 8e ax'flP'O.riaixcbv at pikv di^aroAt/cat Kal 
(hpoaKOTTiaL Kal fidXiara at IhioTTpoacoTriai iXevdepl- 
ovs Kal avrAa? Kal av6d8ei,s Kal laxvpds Kal €V(f)V€L9 
Kal o^eias Kal dTrapaKaXvirrovs rds il/v^ds d-nepyd- 
t,ovTai ' ol 8e ecpoi arrjpiyfiol koI at p,€<jrovpavT]aei9 
iTTiXoyiCFTiKd? , imfiovovs , fjLV7)[xov€VTLKds , j8ej8ata?, 
crvverds, (JieyaXocfypovag , (XTroTeAecrTt/cds' cLv ^ovXov- 
rai, drpirrTOVS, pco[xaXeas, cufids", dve^aTrar-qrovs , 

KpirlKaS, ifMTTpdKTOVS, KoXaCJTlKds , eTTLaTTjIXOVLKd'S ' 

156 at Se 7Tporjyi]a€(.s Kal at Svacis evfMeTaddrovs, 

' OeoTTpooTToXovs NCam. 

* aarpoXoyiKas PLMAE, aarpoXoyias VD ; cf. Proc, arro- 
AoyiTi/cas N, -TjTiKas Cam. 

s eK^t^aaTLKas VP {--qKas) L (eViSajS-) MADEProc. Cam.' ; 
iK^iaaTiKUj NCam. 2 

334 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

that peculiar natural quality of each one of the 
planets which relates to the movements of the soul. 

Of the signs of the zodiac in general, then, the 
solstitial signs produce souls fitted for dealing with 
the people, fond of turbulence and political activity, 
glory-seeking, moreover, and attentive to the gods, 
noble, mobile, inquisitive, inventive, good at con- 
jecture, and fitted for astrology and divination. 
The bicorporeal signs make souls complex, change- 
able, hard to apprehend, light, unstable, fickle, 
amorous, versatile, fond of music, lazy, easily acquisi- 
tive, prone to change their minds. The solid signs 
make them just, unaffected by flattery, persistent, 
firm, intelligent, patient, industrious, stern, self- 
controlled, tenacious of grudges, extortionate, conten- 
tious, ambitious, factious, grasping, hard, inflexible. 

Of configiirations, positions in the orient and at 
the horoscope, and in particular those which are 
in proper face,^ produce liberal, simple, self-willed, 
strong, noble, keen, open souls. Morning stations 
and culminations make them calculating, patient, 
of good memory, firm, intelligent, magnanimous, 
accomplishing what they desire, inflexible, robust, 
rough, not readily deceived, critical, practical, prone 
to inflict punishment, gifted with understanding. 
Precessions ^ and settings make them easily changed, 

» See i. 23. 

• The advances of a planet, as opposed to its retrograde 
movement (avarroSiafios) or its stations {cn-qpiy/xoi) ; cf, 
Bouche-Leclercq, p. 111. The term can be ambiguous; 
see on c. 11 above (p. 313). 

335 



PTOLEMY 

a^e^aiovs , dadevel?, a(j>epeTT6vov?, i^TTadelg, ravei- 
m?, SecXdg, dii(f>i^6Xov<s , OpaavheiXov^, d/x^Aeia?, 
jSAaKTOjSei?, hvGKiviqTOVs • oi he iaireptoi (7Tr]piyfiol 
Kal at v7t6 yrjv /xeffoupai^aet?, en 8e /cat e<^' 
'EpjJLou Kal ^Affypohiriqs rjfJiepa^ fJi€v at iaTreptat 
Sucrei?, I'U/CTOS' 8e at icpoi, eu^uet? /Ltev /cat <j>pevq- 
pet?,^ oj)/c ayav 8e ixvr]p,oviKa.9 ^ oj}8' e7rt/xd;^^ou? 
/cat (f)iXoTr6vov9 , SLepevvrjTLKd? 8e tcuv" aTTOKpvcfiCov 
/cat t^rjTrjTLKag ruiv ddeajpy^rcov, olov /xayt/ca?, /xuct- 
TTjpiaKas, [xeTeoipoXoyiKas, opyaviKO.'S, fJirj^^auLKas , 
davp^aroTTOLovs , aarpoXoyiKa^, cf)LXoa6(f>ovg , olcovo- 
OKOTTLKag, oueLpoKpLTLKa? Kal rd? o/iot'a?. 

TIpos TOVTOig 8e ^ ep* t8tot? jLtev" t) /cat OLKeiotg 
ovres roTTOLg Kal alprjueaLV ol ttjv Kvpiav exovres 
Tcdv ipvxt'Kcbv, Kad^ ov iv dpxfj SicoptcrajLte^a rpoTrov, 
7Tpo(f)avrj Kal dirapaTTohiGTa Kal avdeKaara Kal 
€7TLTevKTLKd voLovGL TOi IhicopbaTa, Kal pboXiad^ orav 
Ol avTol rcbv 8vo tottcov eiTiKpaTTqaayaLV a/Lta, rov- 
rearL * toj p,ev rov 'Epp^ov oTTCoaSt^TTore Tuyxdvcoat ^ 
cruvecrx'f]P'0-Ti(jp,ivoi, rrfv 8e Trjs aeXrjvrjS diroppoiav "q 
Kal Gvuacf)rjv eTTexovres " /xry ovtoj 8e Sta/cetjuet'ot aAA 
iv dvoLKeLOLS ovreg roTTOig, rd p,€v rrj^ iavTcbv (f)vaea)^ 
OLKela TTpos Trjv i/juxt-Krjv evepyeiav dv€TTi<j>avTa /cat 
dp^avpd Kal areXeicora Kal dTrpoKorra KadLardai. 
157 rd 8e rrj? tcov iTTLKpaTTjadvraJv r) KadvirepTep-qadu- 

^ <f>pevqp€is] ({>povifj,ovs NCam.Proc. 

^ fivTjfLoviKas VP (-7j«-aj) LDE, cf. Proc. ; fivrjuovevriKas 
MNACam. 

' npOS TOVTOIS 6€ A, TrpOS TOVTU) §6 P, TTpO? TOVTOLS L, TTpo 

toJtois Se VD, €Ti 8e Proc. ; ore B-q MNECam. (tvxokv post 
ovres add. NCam.;. 

336 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

unstable, weak, unable to bear labour, emotional, 
humble, cowardly, deceitful, bullying, dull, slow- 
witted, hard to arouse. Evening stations and posi- 
tion at mid-heaven beneath the earth, and further- 
more, in the case of Mercury and Venus, by day 
evening settings and by night morning settings, 
produce souls noble and wise, but Avith mediocre 
memory, not painstaking nor fond of labour, but 
investigators of hidden things and seekers after the 
unknown, as for example magicians, adepts in the 
mysteries, meteorologists, makers of instruments 
and machines, conjurors, astrologers, philosophers, 
readers of omens, interpreters of dreams, and the like. 
When, in addition, the governors of the soul, as 
we explained at the beginning, are in their own or 
familiar houses or sects,^ they make the characters 
of the soul open, unimpeded, spontaneous, and 
effective, especially when the same planets rule the 
two places at once, that is, when they are con- 
figurated to Mercury in any aspect whatever, and hold 
the separation or application of the moon ; ^ if they 
are not so disposed, however, but are in places alien 
to them, it renders the properties of their own natures 
obscure, indistinct, imperfect, and ineffective with 
respect to the active quality of the soul. The powers, 
however, of the nature of the planets that dominate 

^ The governors of the soul are Mercury and the moon. 
For the houses, see i. 17, and for the sects, i. 7 and 12. 

-That is, when the moon is separating from thom or 
applying to them. 



* TovTfoTi cm. Cam.* * Tvyx<ifojcn oin. Cam.' 

337 



PTOLEMY 

T(ov t(T)(ypd T€ Kal eTnf^Xafii] rcov vTroKCLfxevtov,^ co? 
orav OL re 8ta KaKOiroioJv oiKeicoaLV aSiKoi Kal 



> « 



TTOvqpoi, KparovvTOiv fxev avrojv, evTrpoxojprjTOV r] 
Kal avejjLTToSiaTov Kal aKivBvuov Kal iviSo^ov e^ovat 
TTjv TTpos TO KaKoJs aXXrjXovg TTOtelv oppirjv ■ Kparov- 
fi€va}v 8e v7t6 ttjs ivavrlag alpeaeios, KaTa(j>opoL Kal 
dv€7TLT€VKTOi Kal evTipuopTjTOL ytvovTai. OL 8' av 

TToiXlV Sid TTJV Tcbv dyad OTTO iOVVT(X)V TTpOS TOVS €Lpr)- 

fievovs opovs avvoiKelcoatv dyadol Kal 8t/caiot, 

dKa6v7T€pT€pT]TCOV fJL€V OVTOJP, aVTOL T€ ^'O-ipOVai KoX 

ev(f>rjiJiovvTaL cttI rats' rajv dXJ^cov evTTOuais Kal vtto 
jjnqhevos dSiKovfievoi dAA' 6inf]aL(f)6pov exovres Trjv 
SiKaioavvqv SiareAouat • KparovyLevoiv 8e vtto tcov 
ivavTLOiv dvaTTaXiv, 8i' avTo to TTpdov Kal (f)iXdv9poi- 
rrov Kal iXerjTiKov ^ Kal €VKaTa(j)p6vr]Toi re /cat 
em/xe/xTTTOt r] Kal vtto tcvv TrXelaTCOv evaStKrjTOi 
Tvyxdvovaiv . 

'0 fjL€V OVV Kad^ oXoV TpOTTOS TTJS rjdLKTJS ' 

eTTLCTKeifjecvs tolovtos rt? dv eirj • Tas 8e /caret 
fxepos (itt' avTTJs ttj? tcov duTepoiv (^ucreco? /caret 
riyt' TOLavTT^v Kvpiav dTTOTeXovfxei'as t'SiorpoTTia? 
i^ijs /card ro /c6^aAata)8es" eTre^eXevaofieda ficxpi 
Ti]S KaB* oXoaxepeiav decopovfjiei'rjg orvyKpdaecos. 

'0 {xev OVV Tov Kpovov doTrip p.6vo<; ttjv oiKoSeaTTO- 
tLov TTJs f/f^xfis Xa^div /cat avdevTrjaas tov re 'EppLov 

' vTT0KeiiJ.4vu>v VPLDE, npoKei^ivuiv MNACam. 
* iXfrfTiKov VP {-XaiTj-) LMADE, iXiyKTiKov NCam. 
•"' fiei.Kris VP i-nd-qK-) MADE, c/, Proc. ; eiSi/f^s MNCam.^ 
I'SiK^s L. 

338 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

or overcome ^ them are vigorous and injurious to the 
subjects. Thus men who, by reason of the familiarity 
of the maleficent planets, are unjust and evil, find 
their impulse to injure one another easy, unimpeded, 
seciire, and honourable, if those planets are in 
power ; but if they are overcome by planets of the 
opposite sect, the men are lethargic, ineff'ective, and 
easily punished. And those again that through the 
familiarity of the beneficent planets to the afore- 
said boundaries are good and just, if these planets are 
not overcome, are themselves happy and bear a good 
repute for their kindness to others, and, injured by 
none, continue to benefit from their own justice ; if, 
however, the good planets are dominated by op- 
posites, simply because of their gentleness, kindness, 
and compassion, they suffer from contempt and re- 
proach or even may easily be wronged by most 
people. 

This, then, is the general method of inquiry as to 
character. We shall next briefly consider, in due 
order, the particular traits resulting from the very 
nature of the planets, in this kind of domination, 
until the theory of mixture has been treated in its 
most important aspects. 

If Saturn alone is ruler of the soul and dominates 
Mercury and the moon, if he has a dignified position 

^On tho expression "overcome," see above, on iii. 4, 
p. 245. Planets would "dominate" the governors of the 
soul (Mercury and tho moon) by exercising rulership 
(oiVoSeoTTOTia) ov<r the portion of the zodiac occupied by 
the governors; this could be dono in any of the five ways 
specified by Ptolemy in iii. 2 (p. 233). 

339 



PTOLEMY 

158 Kol TTJ? aeXr]V7]g, eav yikv eVSo^oi? e)(rj Trpos re to koo- 
fXLKov /cat TO. KevTpa, TTotel (fjiXoacofxarovs , lcr)(vpo- 
yvcofxova?, ^aOvcjjpova?, avcn-qpovs , fiovoyva)fj,ovag , 

€7TlfJi6xOoV£, iTTLTaKTlKOV?, KoXaGTLKOV^, TTepLOVaiaCT- 

TiKovg, (juXoxp'TjP'O.rovs, ^laiovs, drjaavpioTLKov? , 
(f)6ovepov9. ivavTiojg Se Kal dSo^cos K€Lp,evos 
pvrrapovs, [xiKpoXoyovs, puKpoijjvxovs} d8(,a(f>6povs, 
KaKoyvojpiova'S ,^ ^aGKavovs, SeiAou?, avaKexoj- 
prjKora^, KaKoXoyovs, <j>LX€piqpLOVS , ^LXodp-qvovs , 
dvaiheZs, SetmSat'/i.ov'a?, ^tAo/xop^^ou?, aaropyovs, 
eTTi^ouXevTiKovs tcov oiKeLcov, dv€V(f)pdvTovs , pnao- 
acjpLarovs. 

To) 8e Tov Alo? Kara rov iKKeipievov rpoTTov 
cruvoLK€i(xjdels em [xev ivSo^cov ttuXlv Siadecrecov ttol€.l 
dyaOovg, rtiJLrjTLKOvs twv Trpea^vrepcov, KaOearcoTas, 

KaXoyVCOlXOVaS , CTTLKOVpOVg,^ KptriKOVS, (jilXoKTTJflO- 

vas, iMeyaXoijjvxov? , pberaSoTiKovs , evrrpoaipirov? , 
^iXoiK€LOV<5 , TTpdovs, CWVCTOVg, dveKTLKOvg, epL- 
(f)iXoa6cf)ovs ' iTTL Se rcov ivavTtojv dTTeipoKaXovs, 
[laviioSeLs, ^o(f}oheGL'5 , SeiaiSaifiovas, LepocjiOLTwvras , 

* fiiKpoipvxovs om. MECam. 

^ KaKoyi'tufiovas VPLDProc, ^ovoyvcofiovas MAECam. 

^ a-nUpovs post iniKovpovs add. MAE, om. VPLDProc. 



1 Bouche -Leclercq, p. 309, enumerates the conditions 
which should exist if a planet is to act effectively, classify- 
ing them as relations to the circles of the nativity, to the 
zodiac, to the other planets, and to the planet's own 
movement and the sun. With reference to the zodiac, 
the planet should be in a " solid " sign, in a quadrant and 
a sign of the same sex as itself, in one of its own proper 
domains (house, triangle, exaltation, terms, decans), and 

340 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

with reference to the universe and the angles,^ he 
makes his subjects lovers of the body,"^ strong- 
minded, deep thinkers, austere, of a single purpose, 
laborious, dictatorial, ready to punish, lovers of pro- 
perty, avaricious, violent, amassing treasiire, and 
jealous; but if his position is the opposite and wthout 
dignity, he makes them sordid, petty, mean-spirited, 
indifferent, mean-minded, malignant, cowardly, 
diffident, evil-speakers, solitary, tearful, shameless, 
superstitious, fond of toil, unfeeling, devisers of plots 
against their friends, gloomy, taking no care of the 
body. 

Saturn, allied with Jupiter in the way described, 
again in dignified positions, makes his subjects 
good, respectful to elders, sedate, noble-minded, 
helpful,^ critical, fond of possessions, magnanimous, 
generous, of good intentions, lovers of their friends, 
gentle, wise, patient, philosophical ; but in the op- 
posite positions, he makes them uncultured, mad, 
easily frightened, superstitious, frequenters of shrines, 

not in its place of depression. With regard to the circle 
of the nativity, the planet should be upon an angle (especi- 
ally mid-hoaven) or in a favourable aspect (trine or sextile) 
to an angle, and not in a place which bears no aspect to 
the horoscope (is disjunct). This will explain what, in 
general, are "dignified" or "honourable" positions, and 
their oppositos. 

* Ptolemy's lists of characters and qualities attaching 
to the various planets, which occupy the rest of this 
chapter, are remarkably useful in reconstructing a picture 
of life in Egypt under the Roman Empire. F. Cumont, 
V Bgypte des astrolofjucs (Brussels, 1937), makes constant 
use of them for this purpose;. 

'Certain MSS. add "without sharpness" here; see the 
critical note. 

341 



PTOLEMY 

i^ayopevrds, vttotttov?, [xiaoTeKvov?, d(j)i\ovs, 
ivho[xvxovs, aKpiTovs, dTriarovs, [KopoKaKOVS,^ 
icoSet?, VTTOKpLTiKOvs, dbpavets, d^iXoriiiovs , juera- 
fieXtjTLKOvs, avdTTjpovs , 8va€VT€VKTOVs, hvairpoai- 
rovs, evXa^rjTLKOvs,^ €vr]deLS 8' op.oico'; /cat 
ave^iKaKOVS . 

To) he Tov "Apeo)? avvoLKCLCodels ctti fiev ivSo^ojv 
159 hiadeaeojv 7tol€l dStacfiopovs, eTTLTTovovg, TTapprjaiao- 
TLKOV5, 6xXf]pov?, dpaavhcLXovs, avarrjpoTTpd^ovg, 
dveXej^fjiOva? , Kara<j)povr]TiKovs , rpaxel'S, TToXejXi- 
KOvSj pixjfOKLvhvvovs , (jyiXodopv^ov? , hoXiovs, ev€- 
Spevrds, Svapi'qvLTag, dSrJKTOVs,^ oxXokottovs, 
TvpavviKovs, TrAeoi/e/CTa?, ntuoTToXiras , ^lAeptSa?, 
IxvqaLKdKovs , ^advTTovqpovg, Spdaras, dvvTTolaTOVS , 
ao^apovs, <j>opTLKov9, Kavxf]P'O.Tias , KaKcoras, 
dSiKovg^ dKaracfypovqrovs ,* pLiaavOpcoTTOVS, arpeir- 
TOV9, d[Ji€TadeTOV9 , TroXvvpdyfjLovas , €vavaarp6(j>ov'5 
fxevTOL /cat irpaKriKovs /cat aKarayoiviarovs /cat 
oAco? iTTLrevKTLKovs. €7Tt 8e rcJov evavTLOJV aprra- 
yas, X-qard'S, vodevrds, KaKOTTadels, alaxpoKepSels, 
ddeovs,^ dcTTopyovs, v^pLards, iirt^ovXevTiKOVS , 
/cAeTTra?, einopKov?, piLaL(f)6vovs , dd€p,LTO<f>dyovg , 
KaKovpyovg, di'hpo(f>6vovs , (^appLaK€vrds, UpoavXovs, 
dae^elg, TVpL^opvxovs /cat oAco? ^ irayKdKovs. 

* fiwpoKaKovs VADProc, ifuopoKaKovs PL, ficupoKoXovs 
MECam. 

^ avoTTjpovs .... €vXap7]TiKovs om. PLMCam., habent 
VADEProc. 

^ a8T]KTovs codd. Cam.*; fortasse dSerp-ovs legendum est 
ut coniecit Cam.^ : om. Proc. 

* aKara<f>povriTovs codd. et Proc, dKaraKpiTovs Cam. 

342 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

public confessors of ailments, suspicious, hating their 
own children, friendless, hiding within doors, without 
judgement, faithless, knavishly foolish, venomous, hy- 
pocritical, ineffective, unambitious, prone to change 
their minds, stern, hard to speak with or to approach, 
cautious, but nevertheless foolish and submissive to 
abuse. 

Saturn, allied with Mars, in honourable positions 
makes his subjects neither good nor bad, industrious, 
outspoken, nuisances, cowardly braggarts, harsh in 
conduct, without pity, contemptuous, rough, conten- 
tious, rash, disorderly, deceitful, layers of ambushes, 
tenacious of anger, unmoved by pleading, courting the 
mob, tyrannical, grasping, haters of the citizenry, 
fond of strife, malignant, evil through and through, 
active, impatient, blustering, vulgar, boastful, injiu-- 
ious, unjust, not to be despised, haters of mankind, 
inflexible, unchangeable, busy-bodies, but at the same 
time adroit and practical, not to be overborne by 
rivals, and in general successful in achieving their 
ends. In the opposite positions he makes his sub- 
jects robbers, pirates, adulterators, submissive to 
disgraceful treatment, takers of base profits, godless, 
without affection, insulting, crafty, thieves, perjurers, 
murderers, eaters of forbidden foods, evildoers, 
homicides, poisoners, impious, robbers of temples and 
of tombs, and utterly depraved. 



^adfovs VPLADProc, dOerovs MECain.*, adeofiovs Cam.' 
• oAwy cm. Cam. 

343 



PTOLEMY 

To) Se TT^S" *A(f)pohir'qg avvoLKciiodel? em fi€v ivho- 
^o)v Siadeaeojv TTOLel fiiaoyvvatovs , (f>LXapxo.^ov9 ,^ 
(jjLXepifjfxovs, arjSels Trpo? to,? ivrev^eig, a.(j)t\ori- 
jjLovs, pLiaoKoXovs , <f)dovepov9, avar'qpovg Trpos 
avvovaia<s, aavpLTrepi^opovg , piovoyva>p,ovas , (f>OL^a- 
ariKovs, 6pr]aKevrd?, ixvarrjpicjv /cat nXercjv 
iTndvpbrjrds, lepoTTOiovs, evdeaariKovs, deonpoaTrXo- 
Kovs, aepivovs 8e /cat evevrpeTirov?, alS-qfiovas, 
ICO i{x(j>LXoa6<l>ov'; , tnarovs Trpog aru^^icoaeis ,^ iyKpaTcls ^ 
eTTiXoyLarLKOvs , evXa^els, ayavaKTr^Tas re /cai Trpos 
rds TOJv yvvatKoJv VTTOipLag ^tjXotvttovs • cttI 8e 
rwv evavTLOiv Xdyvovs, daeXyeZs, alaxporroLovs , 
dSia(f>6povs Kal aKaddprovs "npos to.^ aruvovaiag, 
dvdyvovs , eTTL^ovXevriKovs drjXvKoJv TrpoacoTTOJV /cat 
fjidXiara tcov olKeLordriov , aadpov?^ Tra/Lu/rdyou?, 
Kara^epels , pnooKdXovs, pcoiii'qTt.Kovs, KaKoXoyovs , 
fiedvaovs, XaTpevTLKOvs, VTTOvoOevTds, ddep-irovg * 
TTpos rds avveXevaeis , SiarLdevras Kal StaTt^e/xeVou?, 
ov [xovov TTpos Ta Kara (jivacv aXXd /cat to. rrapa 
(j)vaiv TTpea^vripctiv /cat dripicov Kal TTapavop-cov Kai 
drjpiojScov fii^ewv iTndvjjLrjrd?, dae^els, Qea)v Kara- 
(f)pov'qTtKovs, iJLvarr]p icov Kal lepdjv SiacrvpriKov?, 
irdfJLTTav OLTriarovg, Sia^oXiKOvs, (fjapnaKovg, Travro- 

7TOLOVS. 

To) Se Tov 'Epfxov avvoLKeLcodels em fxev ivSo^cDv 
SLadeaecov Trotet irepUpyovs , <j>iXo'n€varas , vofXt[XOJv 

^ <f>iXapxaiovs VPLDProc, -apxtovs E, -dpxovs MACam.^* 
-dvSpovs Cam.^ 

" evaradeis post avu^iwans add. MECam., om. VPLAD 
Proc. 

344 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

Allied with Venus in honourable positions Saturn 
makes his subjects haters of women, lovers of anti- 
quity, solitary, unpleasant to meet, unambitious, 
hating the beautiful, envious, stern in social re- 
lations, not companionable, of fixed opinions, pro- 
phetic, given to the practice of religious rites, lovers 
of mysteries and initiations, performers of sacrifi- 
cial rites, mystics, religious addicts, but dignified 
and reverent, modest, philosophical, faithful in 
marriage,^ self-controlled, calculating, cautious, quick 
to take offence, and easily led by jealousy to be 
suspicious of their wives. In positions of the op- 
posite kind he makes them loose, lascivious, doers of 
base acts, undiscriminating and unclean in sexual 
relations, impure, deceivers of women and particu- 
larly their own kin, unsound, censorious, depraved, 
hating the beautiful, fault-finders, evil-speakers, 
drunken, servile, adulterators, lawless in sexual 
relation?, both active and passive, both natural and 
unnatural, and willing to seek them with those barred 
by age, station, or law, or with animals, impious, 
contemptuous of the gods, deriding mysteries and 
sacred rites, entirely faithless, slanderous, poisoners, 
rogues who will stop at nothing. 

Saturn, in familiarity with Mercury, in honourable 
positions makes his subjects meddlers, inquisitive, 

^At this point soino of the MSS. and Camorarius add 
"steadfast ". 



* aadpovs VPDProc, KaOpovs L, dpaods MAECam. 

* dOffjiiTovs Vr (-/xTjT-) LADE, -Tois Ml am. ; om. 1' 



roo. 

315 



PTOLEMY 

^rjTr)TiKovs , ^iXiaTpovs , (jlvcttlkovs , fiCToxovs oltto- 
Kpv(f)0)v /cat d'TTopp'qriov, reparovpyovs, TrapaXoyia- 
rds, i(f)r]fji€po^LOVs, ivrpex^ls, SioLK-qriKovg rrpay- 
HaTOiv Kal dyxi-4>povas , TrepiTTLKpovs koI a/cptjSets', 
yqTTTas, <j)L\6<j>povas ,^ ^iXoTrpaKrovs , eTTLrevKTiKovs ' 
6771 8e Tcov ivavTLCov XrjpcLSeis, fxvrjaLKOLKovs , vrjXeecs 
161 Tat? t/jv^als. eTTLiioxOovs, pnao'Chlovs , (f)iXo^aaavov£ ^ 
dv€V(f)pdvTOvg , WKrepepi^ovs ,^ iueSpevrds, TrpoSoras, 
dcTVinradeZs, KrAeTrra?, fjuayiKovs, (f>appLaK€VTds, 
TTXaaroypd<j)ovs, pa^Lovpyovs, dirorevKTiKovs Kal 

CVeKTTTCOTOVS. 

'0 8e Tov A LOS darrip [xovos ttjv olKoBeaTToriav 
rrj? iffvxrjs Xa^cbv cttI fjiev ivSo^cov Siadeaecov Troiet 
pLeyaXoijivxpvs , xctpto-Ti/coys", deocre^els, TifirjTLKovs , 
aTToXavariKovs , (f>LXav6pioTT0vg , jjieyaXoTTpeTTels , eAeu- 
depovs, BLKaiovs, p,€yaX6(f)povas , acfjivovs, ISioTrpdy- 
fxovas, iXe-qixovas, ^tAoAoyou?, evepyeriKovs* <I)lXo- 
aropyovs, r]yep,oviKovs " ctti 8e ttj? ivavria? 8ta- 
deaecDS rvyxdvojv rds ofiolas fJiev (f>avTaaia£ irepi- 
TTOiel ^ rats t/jv^ous, im to raTTeLvorepov fxevroi Kal 
dv€'ni<j)avT6repov Kal dKpLTCorepov • olov dvrl fiev 
lJi€yaXoipvx^o.g dacoTLav, dvrl 8e deoae^ecas 8eicrtSai- 

* (f)iX6<l>povas PL, -ovs VD, <f>iXo<f>povriTLKovs Proc, tfyiXonovovs 
MAECam. 

* <f>LXo^aaa.vovs VPLDEProc., 4>i.Xo^aaKavovi MACam. 

' WKrepe^povs VPLD, vvKTippi^^ovs A, wKrepipipL^ovs MNE 
Cam., vvKTo^iovs Proc. 

'' evepyiTiKOVS VPLDProc, evpiriKOVs MNAECam. 
^ TTipLTTouiTai MNDCam. 

346 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

inquirers into matters of law and custom, fond of the 
art of medicine, mystics, partakers in concealed and 
secret rites, miracle-workers, cheaters, living only 
for the day, facile, able to direct business, shrewd, 
bitter, accurate, sober, friendly, fond of practical 
affairs, capable of gaining their ends. In dis- 
honourable positions he makes them frivolous talkers, 
malignant, with no pity in their souls, given to toil, 
hating their own kin, fond of torment, gloomy, 
night-prowlers, layers of ambushes, traitors, unsym- 
pathetic, thieves, magicians, poisoners, forgers, un- 
scrupulous, unfortunate, and usually unsuccessful. 

If Jupiter alone has the domination of the soul, in 
honourable positions he makes his subjects magnani- 
mous, generous, god-fearing, honourable, pleasure- 
loving, kind, magnificent, liberal, just, high-minded, 
dignified, minding their own business, compassion- 
ate, fond of discussion, beneficent, aflfectionate, with 
qualities of leadership. If he chances to be in the 
opposite kind of position, he makes their souls seem 
similar, to be sure, but with a difference in the direc- 
tion of greater humility, less conspicuousness, and 
poorer judgement.^ For example, instead of magna- 
nimity, he endows them with prodigality ; instead 

* Ptolemy probably haa in mind Aristotle's famous 
doctrine that virtue is a mean {Ethica Nicomachea, 2, 
p. 11066, 27) and the examples cited by Aristotle, but 
Ptolemy's instances are only similar to, not identical with, 
Aristotle's. Aristotle, for example, makes tXevOfpior-qs, 
" liberality," the virtue of which aawrCa, " prodigality " 
is an excess ; contrasts fieyaXoipvxia, " magnanimity," 
with ;fawoTi7j, " vanity," and fiiKpotpvxia, " meanness of 
spirit " ; ai'Sjj/xwv, " modest," with the excessive quality 
KaTdnXri^, "shy," and with the deficiency avaiaxwros, 
"shameless." 

347 



PTOLEMY 

fWVLav, olvtI 8e atSous- SetAi'ai'j avrl 8e a€[xvoTr]Tog 
otrjaiv, dvTL 8e (f)LXavdpa>7TLag einjdeiav, dvTi 8e 
(f)iXoKaXiag (fii\r]hoviav, dvrl Se iJL€yaXo(f)poavvr]s 
pXaKeiav, o-vtI he iXevdepLorrjrog dhia(f)opLav, Kal 
oaa rovTOLS TrapanX-qaLa. 

To) he rod "Apecjs avvoiKeicodels inl /xev evho^uiv 
hiadeaecov TTOtel rpax^LS, /xa;^t/xous', aTpaTrjytKOvs ,^ 
hiOLKrjTLKovs , K€KLvrj[ji€vovg, awTToraKTOvs , depfiovs, 
TTapa^oXovs, TTpaKTiKovs , TTappiqataaTLKOvs, eXeyK- 
162 TLKOvs, di'vartKovs , ^iXovetKovs , dpx^Kovg, eveTn- 
^ovXovs, €TTL€LK€L£, eTrdvhpovs, viKTjrLKOvs, jueyoAo- 
tftvxovs he Kal (f>LXoTiiJLovg /cat dvpuKovs Kal KpiriKovs 
/cat eTTLrevKTiKovs ' errl he riov ivavricDv v^piard? , 
dhia^opov? , (hpuov'S, dve^iXdarovs , araGLaard'S , epia- 
TiKovs, [XovoTovovg ,'" hia^oXovs, otTj/xarta?, nXeoveK- 
rag, dpTrayas, raxvp-era^oXovs , kov(/)ous, pberap^eXn]- 
TLKOvs, dardrovs, TrpoTrerels, dTriarovs, aKptrovs, 
dyvwpLovas, eKoraTLKovs , ep.7TpdKTOvs,^ iiep.^Lp.0L- 
povs, dacLrovs, Xrjpwhei^ Kal oAco? dvojp,dXovs Kai 
7rapaKeKLvr]pLevovs . 

To) he rrjs 'A(f)pohlTrjg avvoLKeicodelg em p.ev ev- 
ho^Oiv hiadeaecov TTOiel Kadapiovs, dnoXavaTLKOvs, 
<j)LXoKdXov£, (jiiXoreKvovs , <f>LXo9ea)povg, (f)LXop.ov- 
aovs, athiKovs, (jyiXorpo^ovs ,* ev-qdeis, evepyeriKovs, 

^ OTpaTTjyiKovs] cn-paTt.CDTi.KOVS NCam. 

'^ fxovoTovovs PMEProc, fxovoirovovs VLAD, fiovorponovs 
NCam. 

^ ifxTTpaKTovs Proc, efiTTaTaKTovs VPL, evTraTOLKTOvs 
MNADECam. 

^ 4'iXoTp6<l)ovs libri Cam.*, -Tpv^ovs Cam.* 

348 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

of reverence for the gods, with superstition ; instead 
of modesty, with cowardice ; instead of dignity, 
with conceit ; instead of kindness, with foolish sim- 
pHcity ; instead of the love of beauty, with love of 
pleasure ; instead of high-mindedness, with stupidity; 
instead of liberality, with indifference, and the like. 

Jupiter allied with Mars in honourable positions 
makes his subjects rough, pugnacious, military, 
managerial, restless, unruly, ardent, reckless, prac- 
tical, outspoken, critical, effective, contentious, com- 
manding, given to plotting, respectable, virile, fond 
of victory, but magnanimous, ambitious, passionate, 
judicious, successful. In the opposite position he 
makes then insolent, undiscriminating, savage, im- 
placable, seditious, contentious, stubborn, slanderous, 
conceited, avaricious, rapacious, quickly changeable, 
light, readily changing their minds, unstable, head- 
strong, untrustworthy, of poor judgement, unfeeling, 
excitable, active, querulous, prodigal, gossipy, and 
in all ways uneven and easily excited. 

Jupiter, allied with Venus, in honourable positions 
makes his subjects pure, pleasure-loving, lovers of 
the beautiful, of children, of spectacles, and of the 
domain of the Muses, singers, fond of those who 
reared them, of good character,^ beneficent, com- 

' euTj^eta and tho corresponding adjective, evijOtjs, have 
two distinct senses, the original, etymological one, "good 
character," and a derived meaning, "simplicity" or 
" guilelossness," which ma\- amount to notliing more than 
fiownright folly. Plato, in Republic, 400 DE, uses evrjdeia 
in the first sense, specifically saying that he does not mean 
the other kind of (in]9eia. In tho present passage, the 
context clearly shows that f he first sense is intended ; but in 
the very next paragraph tvrjdrjs occurs in its second moaning. 

349 



PTOLEMY 

iXer)TLKOvs,^ aKaKovs, <^iXodiovs, dcrK-qrais, (f>tXa- 
ycoviards, ^poviyi.ovs , (f)tXrjTLKOvs , €7Ta(f)pohLTOVs iv 
TO) aefMvo), XafJLTTpoi/jvxovg, evyvcofiovas, fiera- 
SoTLKovSj <j)t.Xoypaixixa.rovs , KpiTLKov? , crvixpLeTpovs 
Kal evGX'^P'Ovas TrposTO. d<j)pohi(7ia, (f>iXoLK€iovg,^ evae- 
^el'S, cf)tXoSiKaLOVS , (fnXoTLfJiovg , ^tAoSd^ous' Kal oXcos 
KaXovs re Kal dyaOovg • im Se rojv ivavricov Tpv(f>7)- 
rds, rjSv^lovs, drjXvipvxovs , dpxrj'yri-Kovs, yvvaiKO- 
dvfiovs, Sarrav-qpovs,^ KaKoyvvaiOvg* epo}TiKOvs , 
Xdyvovg, KaracfyepeXs, AotSdpous"/ p,oixovs, <j>iXoK6a- 
163 /iou?, VTTopiaXdKOVs ^ padvfxovs, dacoTOVs, iTnfjLco- 
fjbovs,'' ifiTTadel?, KaXXojTnaTds , yvvaLKovo-qp,ovag, 
Upcjv iyKaroxovs, TrpoaycoyiKovs, fivarrjpLaKovs, 
iTiarovs fxdvToi /cat dTTovqpovs Kal iTn)(apLTOvs Kal 
evTTpocriTOVs ^ Kal evStaycoyovs Kal rrpos rds (Tvp,<f)o- 
pdg ^ iXevdepiiore p ovs • 

Tip Se Tov 'Epfiov crvvoiK€L(t)d€ig ivl fxev ivSo^cuv 
StaOeaeajv ttoi€l rroXvypapipidrovg}^ ^iXoXoyovs , 
y€(jjp.€rpas}^ piadrjpuaTLKOVS , ttoltjtlkous, Srjpirjyopt- 
Kovs, €V(f)V€ls, (TiO(f)povtKovs, dyad6<j)povas , KaXoavp,- 

^OvXoVS, TToXlTLKOVS, CVepyeTLKOVS , ilTLTpOTTLKOVS, 

^ fXeT)TiKovs VD, eXeT^fiovas Proc. , om. PL, eXeyKTiKovs 
MNAECam. 

^ <f>iXoi.Keiovs E, ifuXiKelovs VD, ^lAot/ciouj P, (fiiXiKiovs L, 
<f>iXoveiKovs MNACam. 

* Sairavrjpovs PLProc, Savdvovs cett. Cam. 

* KaKoyvvaiovs Proc, Karayvvaiovs VD, Kara ywawov PL, Kal 
ywaCovs MNAECam. 

^ XoiBopovs fiotxovs Proc, om. XoiSopovs PLMNECam., om. 
fioixovs VAD. 

350 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

passionate, guileless, religious, prone to athletic train- 
ing, fond of competition, wise, affectionate, charming 
in a dignified way, magnanimous, fair, charitable, 
fond of learning, of good judgement, moderate and 
decorous in matters of love, fond of their kinsfolk, 
pious, just, ambitious, seekers after glory, and in 
general gentlemanly. In the opposite positions he 
renders them luxurious, soft-livers, effeminate, 
fond of the dance, womanly in spirit, lavish in 
expenditure, evil in relations with women, erotic, 
lascivious, lecherous, slanderous, adidterous, lovers 
of ornament, rather soft, lazy, profligate, given to 
fault-finding, passionate, adorners of their persons, 
womanly minded, infatuated by religious rites, 
panderers, frequenters of the mysteries, trust- 
worthy however and not rascally, but gracious, 
easy of approach, and cheerful, and inclined to 
liberality in misfortune. 

Jupiter allied with Mercury in honourable posi- 
tions makes his subjects learned, fond of discussion, 
geometricians, mathematicians, poets, orators, gifted, 
sober, of good intellect, good in counsel, statesmen, 
benefactors, managers, good-natured, generous, lovers 



' VTTO^a)^dKovs VP (-/ioAA-) LADE, (f>iXofiaXdKovs MNCam. 

' emuwfiovs VPLProc, eVtjSaj/ious D, <l)iXofiwfxovs MNECam., 
om. A ; post hoc verbum add. vTromopovs MNECam., 4>iXotid)- 
povs A, om. cett. Proc. 

" Post finrpoairovs add. niarovs MXCara., om. cett. Proc. 

* avfi(f)opas VDProc, iTepiavncf>opas P (-<f>cop-) L, (m(f>opaj 
MNAECam. 

^'' TToXvypafifidrovs VADProc, (ftiXoypaiMfxarovs MNECam., 
TToXinrpaYP-diTovs (fnXonpaKTOvs PL. 

*' YiWfifTpas VPLDProc, <f>iXoy€<on€Tpas MNAECam 

351 



PTOLEMY 

Xp'tJf^TO'qdeig, (f)LXoha)pov?, (^tAo;\;Aou?, eveTT-q^oXovg } 
i7TLT€VKTLK0vg, ■qy€jjLOViKOV'? , cvaefieL?, (^iXodlovg, 
€vxpy]lJ'0.rLarovs y (f)i,\oar6pyous, (f>iXoiKelovs , euTrat- 
hevTOVS, ifi(f>i.Xoa6cf)ovs , a^icop.aTiKov'S • eiri Se rutv 
evavrioiv evrjdeis, XrjpcoSeig, acfyaXXofxevovs , evKara- 
(f>poi^rjTOVS , ivOovataaTiKovs , deoTrpocnrXoKovg ,^ (f)Xrj- 
vd(f)OUS, VTTOTTLKpOVg, TTpoaTTOLTqGLao^ovs ,^ avoiqTOVS , 
aXaL,ovLKOv^ , err Lrrj^evr as, fiayevrtKovg, uTTOKeKiirq- 
jxevovs, TToXvtaropas Se /cat fivrnxovLKOvs /cat * SiSaa- 
KaXcKovs /cat Kadapiovs rat? eTndvfjLLaL?. 

'O 8e Tov "Apecos daTrjp fj,6vos ttjv OLKo^eairoTiav 
rrjs i/jv)(rjs Xaf^ojv irrl jxev ivSo^ov hiadeaeoi's Trotei 
yevvaiovs , apxi-Kovg, dvjMKOvg, ^iAottAou?,^ TToXvrpo- 
TTOvg,^ adevapovs, napa^oXovs , pLtJjoKivSvvovs ,dvv7To- 
tolktovs, dStacjiopovs, fJiovorovovg , o^els, avddBeiS, 
Kara<j>pov7]rLKOvs , rvpawiKOvs, hpdaras, opyiXovs, 
'qyepiovLKOvs • cttI Se t^? ivavrias cofiov?, v^picnds, 
164 (juXaifjiovs , ^iXodopv^ovg, BaTrdvovs, Kpavyacrrds,^ 
TrXr^KTas, TrpoTreret?, fjiedvaovs, ap-nayas, KaKOvp- 
yovg, dveXei^fiovas, rerapayfjiivovs, /iavtcuSet?, pnaoi- 
Keiovs, ddeovs. 

Ta> Se TTJ? *A(f)poSLTrj9 avvoiKenjjdelg em p,kv 
ivBo^ojv hiadiaecxiv TTOiet eTTi^dpiras, evBiaycoyovg, 
(fyiXeTaipovs , rjhvfiiovs, eixfypouvvovs , Traiyvuxiheis , 

' eixTTq^oXovs ME, evem^ovXovs PLNCam., eVt/SoAouj VAD, 
om. Proc. 

^ deoirpoanXoKovs P (-ttAw/c-) L (-ttXcjk-) MAEProc, deonXo- 
Kovs VD, OfonpooTToXovs NCam. 

^ TrpoaTTOLriai,(j6(/>ovs ME, npoaiTOfqaei oo(f>ovs PL, npooTTOf^aeiS 
ao(f>ovs VD, TTpoanot,rJTovs ootftovs A, TrpoanoLTjaoipovs NCara. 

* fjLVT]noviKovs Kai om. Cam." 

352 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

of the mob, shrewd, successful, leaders, reverent, 
religious, skilful in business, aflfectionate, lovers 
of their own kin, well brought up, philosophical, 
dignified. In the opposite positions he makes them 
simple, garrulous, prone to make mistakes, con- 
temptible, fanatical, religious enthusiasts, speakers 
of folly, inclined to bitterness, pretenders to wisdom, 
fools, boasters, students, magicians, somewhat de- 
ranged, but well informed, of good memory, teachers, 
and pure in their desires. 

Mars alone, given the domination of the soul, in an 
honourable position makes his subjects noble, com- 
manding, spirited, mihtary, versatile, ^ powerful, ven- 
turesome, rash, unruly, indifferent, stubborn, keen, 
headstrong, contemptuous, tyrannical, active, easily 
angered, with the qualities of leadership. In a posi- 
tion of the opposite kind he makes them savage, 
insolent, bloodthirsty, makers of disturbances, 
spendthrifts, loud-mouthed, quick -fisted, impetuous, 
drunken, rapacious, evil-doers, pitiless, unsettled, 
mad, haters of their own kin, impious. 

Allied with Venus, in honourable positions. Mars 
makes his subjects pleasing, cheerful, friendly, soft- 
living, happy, playful, artless, graceful, fond of 

' The epithet constantly used to describe Odysseus by 
Hoinff. 



^ (fiMnXovs VPLMADE, <f>iXoTToXeiiovs Proc, (^tAoTrAourouy 
NCara. 

* TToXirrpoiTovs VP (ttoAA-) LDPror-., TToXvTp6<f>ovs MNAIOCam. 

'' Kpavyaardi PL, Kpavydaovs VD, xpavyacrriKOVS A Proc, 
xpavydCov^ MNECarn. 

353 



PTOLEMY 

d^eAec?, (vpvdfxovs, <f)iXopxT]crTds,^ epojTiKovs , ^tAo- 
rdx^ovg, jjitiirjTLKOvs , OLTToXavaTiKovs , StaCT/ceuaaTa?, 
eTTavSpovs /cat evKara^opov; p.kv TTpos ra? a^pohia- 
LaKas apiapTias, iTnrcvKTiKOvs Se kol evrrepiaroXovg 
Kal vovvexeis Kal SvaeXeyKTovs Kal StaKpiri/cous",^ 
eVi Se V€0)v eTndvurjTLKOv^ dppevcov re Kal drjXeLcjv, 
haTTavrjpovs re /cat o^vdvpiovs /cat ^TyAoruTTous" • ctti 
8e tcDp' evavrlcov pLil)o(j)da.XpLov£ , Xdyvov?, /cara^epets, 
dhLa(f)6povs, hiaavpras, poL)(LKOvs, v^pcards , ipevG- 
Tas, ooXottXokovs, virovodevrds oik€lcov re /cat dAAo- 
rpioiv, o^els dpia Kal TTpooKopels rrpos rd? imdvpLias, 
Sia(f)dop€as yvvaiKwv Kal napdevcov, Trapa^oXovs , 
deppLovs, ardKrovs,^ iveSpevrds, eViop/coi;?, eue/x- 
TTTcoTovs T€ /Cat (f>p€vo^Xa^eis, ii'LOT€ Se /cat aCTco- 
Tous", * ^iXoKoapLovs Kal dpaaeZs /cat Siart^e/xeVous' 
/cat dcreAyatVovTa?.^ 

Toi Se rov 'EppLov awoiKeicodels em /zei' ivSo^cov 
biadeaecov Trotet arpariqyiKovs, heivovs,^ hpdaras, 
165 €VKivr]Tovs, aKara(f)povriTovs , TToXvTpoTTovs, evperi- 
Kovs,^ (JO(f>tards , eTrnrovovs , iravovpyovs, TrpoyXcvcr- 
aovs, eTTideTLKOvs , SoXlovs, dardrovs, piedohevTas , 
KaKori-xyovs , 6^v(f)povas , e'^aTran^Ta?, VTroKpniKovs, 
iveSpevrds, KaKorpoirovs , TToXvTrpdypovas, (f>tXo- 

TTOVrjpOVS, €7TLT€VKTLKOV? 8' dAAcOJ Kal TTpOS TOVS 

6p,oiovs evavvdcTOVs Kal evavvSe^Ldarovs , Kal oXcos 

' (piXoTfxvovs PLProc. <f>iXoTf.Kvovc cett. Cam, 
^ BiaKpiTiKovs VPLADProc, dSiaKpirovs MNECam. 
' dra/cToi's libri ; oltottovs Cam. 

*dac!)Tovs VADProc, ainco tovs PL, avrovs MNECam. 
' Post daeXyaivovras add. dTrepya^erat MNAECam., om. 
VPLDProc. 

354 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13 

dancing, erotic, artistic, imitative, pleasure-loving, 
able to secure themselves property,^ masculine, and 
given to misconduct in matters of love, but still 
successful, circumspect, and sensible, difficult to con- 
vict and discreet, furthermore passionate for both 
young men and young women, spendthrifts, quick- 
tempered, and jealous. In contrary positions he 
makes them leering, lascivious, profligate, indifferent, 
slanderers, adulterers, insolent, liars, deceivers, se- 
ducers of those both in their own families and in 
those of others, at the same time keen and insatiate of 
pleasure, corrupters of women and maidens, venture- 
some, ardent, unruly, treacherous, perjurers, easily 
influenced and of unsound mind, but sometimes like- 
wise profligate, fond of adornment, bold, disposed to 
base practices, and shameless. 

Allied with Mercury, in honourable positions Mars 
makes his subjects leaders of armies, skilful, vigorous, 
active, not to be despised, resourceful, inventive, 
sophistic, painstaking, rascally, talkative, pugnacious, 
tricky, unstable, systematic workers, practising evil 
arts, keen-witted, deceitful, hypocritical, insidious, 
of bad character, meddlers, inclined to rascality but 
nevertheless successful and capable of keeping con- 
tract and faith with persons like themselves, and in 

* biaaKevaarrjt also moans one who arranges a text, 
"editor," but here a loss spi^cialiscd moaning seems to be 
called for. The vorb hiaoKtva^eiv has, in j^oneral, the active 
meaning "set in order," and in the middle voice "equip 
one's self." Proclus omits this word in the Paraphrase. 

• Seivovs VD, beiXovs MNAEProc.Cam. ; Seivovs . . uKara- 
<f)pofqTovi om. PL. 

' evperiKoiis] fvtKTi.Kovs NCam. 

355 



PTOLEMY 

exdpcbv fi€V pXaTTTiKovs , (fyiXiov Se einroirjTiKovg • 
€7rt 8e Tcav iuavricov Savavrjpov^, rrXeoveKrag, 
(hfjiovs, TTapa^oXovs, ToX[XT]povs, /xera/xeArjTt/coys", 
ifiTTapaKTOVS,^ TrapaKeKLvrjpLevovs, tjjevaras, kXctt- 
ras, adeovs, CTTLopKovs, iTndera?, araaiaara.<;, 
€fJi7Tprj(TTds, QeaTpoKOTTOvs , e^v^plarov?,^ X-qaTpL- 
Kovs, TOLXojpvxovs ,^ pnaicjiovovg , -nXaaToypaf^ovs , 
paSiovpyovs, yorjras, p^dyovs, <l>ap p,aKovs , dvBpo(f)6- 
vovs. 

'0 8e rrjg 'A(f)pohiTrjg [xovo? r-qv OLKoheaTToriav 
rqs fpvx'qs * Xa^ojv cttI p,€v ivBo^ov hiadiaeois TTOiel 
Trpoarjvei?, dyadovs, rpvjyiqrds ,^ Xoyiovs,^ Kada- 
pLovs, €V(f)poavvovs, <f>iXopx'q<yTds, KaAo^TjAous',' 
fjiiaoTTOvqpovs, (f)iXoT€Xvovs , (fiLXodecoTaTOVs ,^ evax'q- 
fiovas, evcKTiKovs, evovelpovs , ^iXoaropyovs , evep- 
ycTiKovs, iXeripiOvas, aiKxovs,^ evawaXXaKTOVs , 
eTTLTevKTiKOvs Kal oXcog €TTa<j)pohiTOVs • irrl 8e rrjg 
ivavrias padvp,ovs, ipcortKovs, TedrjXvap-evous, 
yvvaiKcoSeig, droXpovg, dhLa(f>6povs, /cara^epet?, 
liidiTTLi/joyovs, dve7TL(f>dvTOVs, €7roveihiaTOVs .^^ 

To) 8e Tov ' Epp,ov crvvoiKeLCoOels em p,€v ivho- 
^cov 8iadeaecov ttolcI (jiiXorexvovs , ip,(f)LXoa6<j>ov'S, 
eTnarrjpovLKOvs , €vcf)V€l5, TTOLrjTiKOvg , (f)LXop,ovaovs, 
(f)iXoKdXovs, XPl'^'^^V^^^^ > dTToXavariKovs, rpv(j>epo- 

^ iyLirapaKTovs VD, ifxTrpaKTOvs PLA, iinraraKTovs MNE 
Cam. ; om. Proc. Fortasso legendum est evrrapaKTovs- 

^ i<f>vppiaTovs VMNDE, om. PLProc, et^v^picrras ACam. 

^ Toixtupv'xous VP (-op-) DProc, rvfi^copiixovs MNAEL {-op-) 
Cam. 

* Trjs 'pvx'fjs om. VDProc. 

^ Koivovs post Tpv(j>T]Tds add. MNECam., om. VPLADProo. 

356 



TETRABIBLOS III 13 

general injurious to their enemies and helpful to 
their friends. In opposite positions he makes them 
spendthrifts, avaricious, savage, venturesome, daring, 
prone to change their minds, excitable, easily aroused, 
liars, thieves, impious, perjurers, ready to take the 
offensive, seditious, kindlers of fires, creators of dis- 
turbances in the theatre, insolent, piratical, burglars, 
murderers, forgers, villains, wizards, magicians, sor- 
cerers, homicides. 

If Venus alone takes the domination of the sovl, 
in an honourable position she makes her subjects 
pleasant, good, luxiirious,^ eloquent, neat, cheerful, 
fond of dancing, eager for beauty, haters of evil, 
lovers of the arts, fond of spectacles, decorous, 
healthy, dreamers of pleasant dreams, affectionate, 
beneficent, compassionate, fastidious, easily con- 
ciliated, successful, and, in general, charming. In 
the opposite position she makes them careless, erotic, 
effeminate, womanish, timid, indifferent, depraved, 
censorious, insignificant, meriting reproach. 

Joined with Mercury, in honourable positions 
Venus makes them artistic, philosophical, gifted 
with understanding, talented, poetic, lovers of 
the muses, lovers of beauty, of worthy character, 

' Certain texts add here " affable " (Kotvovs). 

• Xoyiovs VADProc, XoyiKovs PL, fXXoyi/iovs MNECam. 
' KaKoCri^ovs MNEProc.Cam., koXo^j'jXovs VPLAD. 

• <j)iXodt(jnaTovs libri Cam.', -deuipovs Cam.* 

• oiKxovs om. MXCam. *" fnovubltrrotfS cm. Cam. 

357 



PTOLEMY 

SiatTOU?/ €V(j)poavvovg, ^ (f)LXo(f>LXovs, evae^eZ?, avv- 
erov9, 7roXvfirj)(dvovg, StavorjTiKovs, cueTTtjSdAoi;?,^ 
KaropOiOTLKovs, Taxvfiadeig,* avroSSaKTOVs, t,7]- 
Xcoras Twv apiar(x)v, fiiixrjTa?^ rcbv KaXcov, evaro- 
[Movs Kal €Tn-)(o.pLra'5 ra> Xoycp, ipaafxtovg, evap- 
{xoaTOVs TOLS TJdea-Lj OTTovSatovs, (fnXddXovs, 
opdovs,^ KpiTiKovs , fji€yaX6(f)pova?, Ta>v 8e d<f)po- 
Slglcov TTpog fiev rd yvvaiKela (f)vXaKTLKOvs, irpos 
8e TO. 7ratSi/ca /zaAAov KeKivrjixevovs Kal t,r}Xo- 
TUTTOU? * €7rt 8e TTJg evavTias c-nideTas, ttoXv- 
fiTjxdvovg, KaKOGTonovg, dXXoTrpoadXXovs , KaKoyvoi- 
fxova?, i^a7Tar7]Tdg, KVKTjrdg, j/reyara?, Sia^oXovg, 
eTTLopKovs, ^advTTov-qpovs, iTTi^ovXevTLKOVS , davv- 
derovs, aSe^iaarous", vodevrdg, yvvaLKwv 8ia(f)6op€ag 
Kal TTaiSoiv, €Ti Se KaXXoyTnard'S , VTTOfxaXdKOVs, 
€7Tnfj6yovs ,^ KaKot^'qpLOVs , TToXvd pvXfjTOVs , rravTO- 
TTpd^ovg,^ Kal ivLore pukv inl hLa<j>Qopa. rd TOt-avra 
VTroKpLvopievovs , iviore 8e Kal rats aXTjOeiais, 
hiaTidepiivovs re Kal alaxpoTTOLOvvrag Kal ttoikiXol's 
TTadeaiv v^pi^oiJievovs. 
167 'O 8e rov 'Epfxou dcrrrjp [xovos rr]v OLKoSeaTToriav 
rrjs fpvx'TJs AajScuP' irrl p-kv ivBo^ov Siadeaecog irotet 
Tou? yevvoip,4vovs cruverovs, dyx^vovs, vorjfxovas, 
TToXvtaropas, evperiKovs, epLTreipov?, XoyiariKov?, 

> Tpv(f>epohi,aiTovs VP (rpv^aipohUrovs) L {rptcfxpoSuTovs) AD, 
Tpv(f)€poeTovs ME, Tpv<j)epo^iovs Proc, rpvcfxpovs NCam. 

^ <(>iXoa6(l>ovs post ev(f)poavvovs add. MNCam., om. cett. 
Proc. 

^ eveTTi^oXovs NACam., eveTtrj^oXovs ME, evemPovXovs 
VPLD ; om. Proc. 

* ^iXoi^iadels post raxvp-adels add. NCam., om. VPLADProc. ; 
TaxvifuXo/xadeis ME. 

358 



TETRABIBLOS III 13 

seekers after enjoyment, luxurious, happy,* fond of 
friends, pious, sagacious, resourceful, intellectual, 
intelligent, successful, quick to learn,^ self-taught, 
seekers after the best, imitators of beauty, eloquent 
and pleasing in speech, commanding affection, of 
well-ordered character, earnest, fond of athletics, 
upright, of good judgement, magnanimous ; in affairs 
of love, restrained in their relations with women 
but more passionate for boys, and jealous. In the 
contrary position she makes them pugnacious, re- 
sourceful, evil-speakers, unstable, of bad intentions, 
deceivers, agitators, liars, slanderers, perjurers, 
thorough rascals, plotters, faithless, unreliable, 
adulterators, corrupters of women and children ; 
furthermore, adorners of their persons, rather 
efiFeminate, malicious in censure and in gossip, 
garrulous, villains, sometimes^ feigning such acts with 
a view to corruption and sometimes performing 
them in earnest, lending themselves to base acts and 
performing them, and subjected to all sorts of base 
treatment. 

Mercury, by himself taking the domination of the 
soul, in an honourable position makes those who are 
born under him wise, shrewd, thoughtful, learned, 
inventive, experienced, good calculators, inquirers 

1 " Fond of wisdom " (<f>iXoa6<f>ovs) is added here by 
certain MSS. 

* Certain MSS. add " fond of learning " at this point. 

* Proclus oraits the rest of this paragraph. 

'' /ii/iTjTcts VPLADE Proc, CrjXwTas MNCain. 

* 6p9ovs VPLADProc. ; om. MNECara. 

' iiTulioyovs VP (-i/fcuy-) LADProc. ; KaKoipoyovs MNECam. 

* TravToirpd^ov; VPLMD, -npaKTOVS A, -TrpaKTas NECam., 
TrdvTa emveipouiTas Proc. 

3S9 



PTOLEMY 

^vaioXoyovs, OecoprjTLKOvs, eu^uets", l^rjXcoriKovs , 
evepyeriKovs, €7n\oyLaTiKovs, evaroxovs, /xa^ry/xa- 

TLKOVS, pLVaTTJpiaKOVS, €7TLT€VKTlKOVS ' CTTt Se TTJS 

ivavTLas TTavovpyovs , TrpoTrereis, emXriapLov as, opp-t)- 
jLiarias'/ Kovcfiovs, evp.era^6Xovs, p.erap.eX'qriKov'S , 
fxcopoKOLKOvs, a(f)povas, dp^aprtoXovs , ipevarag, dSta- 
(f>6povs, daTOLTOvs, OLTTLaTOVs, TrXeoveKrag, dSiKovs 
/cat oXcos a<j)aX€povs re rfj Siavoia /cat Kara(f>6povs 
TOt? dp,apr7]pLaaL. 

TovTOiv Se ovTCOs exdvTOiv crvp-^aXXerai p,evroi 
Kol avrr) rj ttjs aeXrjurjs KaTacrracng ,^ CTreiSi^TTep iv 
pL€v Tot? eTTLKap^TTLOis Tvyxdvovaa rov re votlov Kal 
Tov jSopetou TTepaTos avvepyel tols tjjvxi-KOLS iBno- 
pLaaiv cTTt TO TToXvTpoTTOirepov Kal TO 7ToXvpi.'r]xo-vo}- 
Tcpov KOL evpiCTa^oXiOTepov • iirl 8e tcov avvhiapnov 
eirl TO o^vTepov Kal TTpaKTtKcoTepov kol cvklvtjto- 
Tcpov ' €Ti he €v p,kv Tais" dvaToXals Kat toIs tcov 
<f)a}Ta>v av^T]cr€cnv inl to evcpveoTepov Kal 7Tpo(pavea'- 
Tcpov Kal ^e^atoTepov Kal Trapp-qaLaaTLKcoTepov • iv 
Se Tttis" ixeLcoaeai ^ tG}v (f)coTOJV ■^ rai? Kpvipeacv eirl 
TO vcJX^XeaTepov Kal dp^^XvTepov /cat p.eTafieXrj- 
168 TLKOiTcpov Kal evXa^earepov Kal dveTTL(j>aveaT€pov . 
EvpL^dXXeTai 8e ttcj? Kal 6 -^Xlos avvotKeiojdels tco 
TTJs iJjvxi-Krjs Kpdaeojs OLKoSeoTTOT'quavTi , Kara [xev 
TO evSo^ov TTaXtv ttjs Biadeaecos €7rt to hiKatOTepov 

^ opfxTifxaTLas VPLD, opfn^rds MAE, 6pfir)TiKds Cam.*, opfxt}- 
TiKovs NCam.- 

^ avrr) 17 rrjs aeXijvrjs KaTaaraois VAD, 17 avTTJs ttjs aeX-qin]s 
PLMNECam. 

^ txeLa)a€ai{v) P (p-oi-) LMAEProc, ^itoaeaiv VD, oUeiwaeai 
NCam. 

360 



TETRABIBLOS III 13 

into nature, speculative, gifted, emulous, bene- 
ficent, prudent, good at conjecture, mathematicians, 
partakers in mysteries, successful in attaining their 
ends. In the opposite position he makes them 
utter rascals, precipitate, forgetful, impetuous, light- 
minded, fickle, prone to change their minds, foolish 
rogues, witless, sinful, liars, undiscrimiuating, un- 
stable, undependable, avaricious, unjust, and, in 
general, unsteady in judgement and inclined to evil 
deeds. 

While the foregoing is true as stated, nevertheless 
the condition of the moon itself also makes a certain 
contribution. For when the moon happens to be at 
the bendings of its northern and southern limits,^ 
it helps, ^ with respect to the character of the soul, 
in the direction of greater versatility, resourceful- 
ness, and capacity for change ; at the nodes, in 
the direction of greater keenness, activity, and ex- 
citability ; again, at rising and in the increases of 
its illumination, towards greater natural endow- 
ments, renown, firmness, and frankness ; and in 
the waning of its illumination, or its occultations, 
towards greater sluggishness and dullness, less fixity 
of purpose, greater cautiousness, and less renown. 

The sun also aids, when it is familiar with the 
planet that governs the temperament of the soul, 
in an honourable position modifying it in the 

* See the note on iii. 12 (p. 325) concerning the bendings 
and nodes of the moon's orbit. 

* Here, as in the case of bodily form and temperament 
(iii. 11 ; c/. especially p. 313), the actual rulers are the five 
planets, and it is the r61e of the luminaries to assist, adding 
their influences to those of the former. 

Y 361 



PTOLEMY 

KOL dwOTLKCOTepOV Kal TllX7]TlKCL)T€pOV ^ Kat. a€[J,VO- 

T€pov Kal deoae^ecFTepov • Kara Be to ivavriov Kat 
dvoiKCiov 6771 TO raTTCivorepov Kal eTnirovuirepov 
Kal dcrqfiOTepov ^ Kal (JjfxoTepov /cat [Xovoyvcop,ovea- 
repov Kal avorriporepov Kal SvaSiaycoyoTepov Kat 
oXios cTTt TO SvGKaTopdcoTepov. 

<id.> IIcpl TTadojv iftvx^x<J^v 

'Errel 8e rots' t'^S' ^^X^^ tStcoptacrtv aKoXovdel ttco? 
Kal 6 TTepl ^ TCtJv i^atpercov avrrjs iTadihv Adyo?, KaO^ 
oXov fjicv TTaXtv eTTtar]pLaiveadat Kal Traparrjpetv 
TTpoorjKet rov re rod 'Epptov daripa Kal rrjv aeXTJmjv, 
7Tu)9 eyovat irpog re aAATyAofS' Kal rd Kevrpa Kat 

\ \ r ft ^ ■> > t ■> f 

rov5 Trpos KaKcoatv otKetovs rojv aarepcov • cos eav 
re avTol davvSerot ovres Trpos dAAT^Aous", eav re npos 
rov dvaroXtKov opi^ovra, KaOvTreprepr^daxTtv r] efx- 
TTeptaxeOcoatv r) Stap,r]Kiadcbatv vtto rcbv avotKetcos 
Kal ^XaTTriKcbs eax'')P'0.rtapieva)v , TrotKtXcov TTadoiV 
TTepl rds ijjvx<-Kd<; thtorpoTrias avptTTtTrrovrcov etat 
TTot-qrtKot, rrjs htaKpiaecos * avrihv TrdXtv decopov- 
(xevrjs ttTTo rrjs TTpoKaretXrjptpteinrjs rdjv rot? roTTOtS' 
avvotKetojQevTOJv darepcov tStorpoTrta?. 
IBS) Td ptev ovv TrXeZara rdjv pierptojrepojv TraOcJjv 
axe^ov Kal ev rots eptTrpoadev TTepl rdiv rijs fpvxyjs 
Ihtcopidrcov prjdetat Sta/ce/cptrat ttco?, rijs eTTtraaecos 
avrCov ck rrjs rajv KaKovvrcov VTrep^oXfjs cruvopdauai 
Bvvaptevqs ' eTTethrjTTep tJSt) ns dv etKoroJS etTTOt 

^ avvTiKutTepov Kal TifiriTiKWTfpov VAD ; npaKTiKiorepov Kai 
Tifj.r]TLKioTepov Proc. ; dvvriKcoTepov MNECam.^; om. PL; 
■fjdiKWTepov Cam.* 

362 



TETRABIBLOS III. 13-14 

direction of justice, success, honour, dignity, and 
reverence for the gods, but in the contrary and alien 
position making it humbler, more industrious, less 
conspicuous, more savage, more obstinate, harsher, 
with a harder life, and in general less successful. 

14. Of Diseases of the Soul. 

Since the account of the principal diseases of the 
soul, in a sense, follows upon that of the soul's 
characteristics, it is in general needful to note and 
observe the positions of Mercury and the moon 
relative to each other, to the angles, and to the 
planets whose nature it is to do injury ; for if, 
while they themselves are unrelated to each other, 
or to the eastern horizon, they are overcome, or 
surrounded, or held in opposition by unfamiliar stars 
in injurious aspect, they cause the incidence of various 
diseases which aflFect the soul's character. Their 
interpretation again is to be calculated from the 
previously described quaUties of the planets which 
are familiar to the places ^ in the sky. 

Indeed, most of the more moderate diseases have, 
in a way, already been distinguished in what has been 
said about the character of the soul, and their in- 
crease can be discerned from the excess of injurious 
influences ; for one might now with propriety call 

* I.e. of the moon and Mercury. 

* aarjixoTepov] dcnifiuiTfpov VD, d(rrifj.{f)i6Tfpov PL ; cf. a.<f>avia- 
7f pov Proc. ; aaenvorepov MNAECam. 

^ o TTtpi] (Lanepd Cam. 

* SiaKptafujs VPLMADE, SiaKpdaew^ NCam.', SvoKpaaias 
Cam.-' ; cf. Sidyvoiais Proc. 

."^63 



PTOLEMY 

Trddr) KOI TO. a/cpa ^ tojv rjdcov /cat •^ iXXeiTrovra rf 
7TXeovdt,ovTa rijs fxeaoTrjTO^ • to. 8 i^aiperov ^ 
exovra rr]v afierpiav /cat a)a7Tep voaTjixarcoSr] /cat 
Tra/)' oAryt" ttjp' (jjuatv /cat Trept re auro ^ to StavoT^- 
Tt/cov T':^? i}}V)(rjs [Jiepog /cat Trept to TradrjTLKov, cos iv 
TVTTCp, TOiavTrjs €TVX€ TTapaTTjp-qaeoj? . 

^ EttlXtitttlkoI fjiev yap d)s cTrt to ttoXv yivovrai 
oaot rrjg aeX-qvrjs /cat tou tov 'Epfjiov, ayoTrep 
eiTTopiev, 'q dWriXois r/ to) at'aToAt/coj 6pit,ovTi 
dcrvvSercov ovtcdv tov [Jiev tov Kpovov rjfMepas, 
TOV Se TOV "Apecos vvktos exovcnv eTTLKevTpov /cat 
/caTOTTTeyovra to TtpoKeipievov ax'rjP'CL ' [MaviwBeLS 
8' OTav eTTt TtDi^ avTibv dvaiTaXiv 6 fxev tov Kpovov 
VVKTOS, 6 Be TOV "Apeojs rjfiepas, KeKvpievKcbs ^ tou 
oxT^p-oLTOS, Kol jxaXiaTa iv KapKLvco r) Uapdevo) r) 
^Ix^vGL • Saip^ovLOTrXriKTOt 8e Kat vypoKi<j><xXoL oTav 
ovTCOs exovTes ol KaKOTTOiovvTCs CTTi (f)aa€OJS * 
ovaav ^ /caTe;^ajCTt ttjv aeX'qvqv, 6 fiev tov Kpovov 
avvoSevovaav , 6 8e tov "Apecos TravaeXrjvid^ovaaVf 
/LtaAtCTTa 8' iv To^OTQ /cat ^Ixdvai. [lovot, jxev ovv 
ol /ca/coTTotot /caTtt tov Trpoeip-qnivov Tpoirov ttjv 
iTTLKpdTrjGLV TOV CTX'qP'O.TOs Xa^ovTCS dviaTa p-iv, 
no dv€7Ti.(f)avTa 8e op^cos /cat d7rapa8ety/xaTtCTTa ttolovgl 

' aKpa MNECam., d/cpara VADProc, dKpdrtjTa P, aKpoTora 

^ i^aiperov] i^aipovra NCam. 

^ irepi T€ avTo VD, irepl avro PL, Trepi to Siavoijri/cov /ctA. 
Proc. ; Tra/)' oAov MNAECam. 

* enl (f>a.aecos] iTncfxxaews VPLDProc, ovtco ddaeais E, em 
^u)s MNACam. 

^ ovaav VPMD, ovs dv L, €;i(ouCTa»' E, lovaav NACam. ; oiJao 
Proc. 

364 



TETRABIBLOS III. 14 

*' diseases " those extremes of character which either 
fall short of or exceed the mean. Those aflFections, 
however, which are utterly disproportionate and as 
it were pathological, which relate to the whole 
nature, and which concern both the intelligent part 
of the soul and its passive part, are, in brief, to be 
discerned as follows. 

In most cases those are epileptic ^ in whose geni- 
tures the moon and Mercury are, as we said above, 
unrelated to each other or to the eastern horizon, 
while Saturn by day or Mars by night is angular and 
in the aspect previously described.^ They are vio- 
lently insane when, again under the same conditions, 
Saturn by night and Mars by day rules the position, 
particularly in Cancer, Virgo, or Pisces. They are 
afflicted by demons ^ and have water on the brain 
when the maleficent planets are in this position and 
control the moon in phase, Saturn when she is at 
conjunction. Mar when she is full, and particularly 
in Sagittarius and Pisces. When the maleficent 
planets are by themselves and rule the configuration 
in the manner stated, the diseases of the rational 
part of the soul which we have mentioned as being 



' Epilepsy and insanity were also mentioned among the 
bodily tlisoasos (c. 12 above, [)p. 329, 331). 

- Overcoming, surrounding, or opi)osing ; see above. 

•' On this 8ui)or8tition in Roman 10gy|)t, cf. Cumont, 
L' £yypte den astrologucs, 107-170. I'tolcmy apparently 
identifies seizure by demons with " water on the brain." 

355 



PTOLEMY 

ra TTpoK€L[xeva ^ rod SLavo-qriKOv rrjs ^v)(r}S voarf- 
fiara. avvoiKeLCodevTCOv Sercov ayaQorroicbv /ltd? re 
Koi ^A^po^LTrjs iiTL ixkv rcbv Xl^vkojv fxepcov ovres 
avToi, Tcov ayaOoTTOioJv iv rols aTrriXioiTLKols^ K€K€V- 
TpajfJieucop, laat/ia piev, evTrapaSeiy/Martara ^ Se 
TTOLovai TO. TTad-q' errl [xev rod rov Alos Blol OepaTreiwv 
larpiKcov Koi rjroi SiaLrrjriKrjs ^ aycoyijs 7} (f)appiaKecas, 
6771 8e rov rijg ^A(f>poSirrjs Sid xpy](jpt,(x)v Koi rrjg drro 
deci)V eTTLKOvpias- eVt 8e rwv aiT'qXLioriKibv avrol 
K€K€vrpiopt,€Voi, r(x)v dyadoTToicov Bwovrcov, avLara 
re dfia /cat TToXvdpvXX'qra Kal eTn<j)avicTrara ttoiovcti 
rd voarip,ara, Kara piev rd? eTTiX-qifiias ovvex^iaLS 
Kal TTepL^orjaLais Kal kivBvuois davariKols rovs 
TTaaxovras TrepLKvXiovreg • Kard §e rd? p-avla? Kal 
cKardaeis dKaraaraalais ^ Kal air aXXorpaoaeai rcov 
oIkclcdv Kal yvpLvrjreLats Kal jSAaa^rj/Ltt'atS' /cat rot? 
roiovrois ' /caret 8e rd? SaLpLoviOTrXrj^Las t] rdg rcov 
vypdjv oxXt](T€i,s, ivdovaiaapLOL? Kal i^ayopiais koX 
at/ciat? /cat rols opioioLS rcov TrapaSeLypLanapicov. 
iSt'of? 8e /cat rcbv ro axyjp-o. Trepiexovrcov roTTCov ol pLev 
r)Xlov Kal ol rov "Apecos Trpos rd? p,avLa? pidXiara 
avvepyovaiv, ol 8e Alos /cat 'EppLOV Trpos rds 
€7nXrjifjLa?, ol 8e ri]s AcfipoSlrrj? Trpos rds deo(f)opLas 
Kal i^ayopias, ol 8e rov Kpovov Kal aeXi^vTqs Trpos 
171 rds rcbv vypcbv oxX'qaeis Kal Trpos rds SaipLOVLO- 
TrXrj^ias. 

^ ndOr] KOI TO. post irpoKeifieva add. MNAECam , orn. 
VPLD. 

^ aiTr)Xia>TiKo'is (d<f>r)X-, dniX-) VPLMADEPi'oc, dyadonoiols 
NCam.*, dvaToXiKois Cam.* 

366 



TETRABIBLOS III. 14 

caused by them are, to be sure, incurable, but latent 
and obscure. But if the beneficent planets Jupiter 
and Venus have some familiarity to them when they 
are themselves in the western parts and the bene- 
ficent planets are angular ^ in the east, they make the 
diseases curable, but noticeable ; if it be Jupiter, 
curable by medical treatments, a diet, or drugs ; if 
Venus, by oracles and the aid of the gods. When the 
maleficent planets themselves are angular in the 
east and the beneficent planets are setting, the 
diseases which they cause are both incurable, the 
subject of talk, and conspicuous ; in epilepsy they 
involve the victims in continuous attacks, notoriety, 
and deadly peril ; in madness and seizures, they 
cause instability, alienation of friends, tearing off 
clothes, abusive language, and the like ; in demonic 
seizures, or water on the brain, possession, confession, 
torments, and similar manifestations. In detail, of 
the places that possess the configuration, those of 
the sun and Mars aid in causing madness, those of 
Jupiter and Mercury, epilepsy ; those of Venus, 
divine possession and public confession ; and those 
of Saturn and the moon, gatherings of water and 
demonic seizures. 

* I.e. at the angle, in this case the orient. 



' einrapaheiyiiaTiaTa VPDE : inKfiavij Proc. ; aTrapaSeiynd- 
Tiara MNACam. 

* biaiTirjTiKTJs ego ; 8iaiTt«-^S VD, SiayqTiKrjs PL, vno SiaiVijj 
Proc. ; laTpiKrjs MNAECain. 

* aKaTaaraaiais VD, cf. aKaraaTarovai. Proc. ; aKaTaaxioiais 
cott. Cam. 

367 



PTOLEMY 

*H fXeV OVV TT€pL TO TTOLrjTCKOV TTJ? ^^XV^ /Ctt^' 

oXag rag (f)vaeis voarjfxarLKTj TrapaXXayr) a)(€S6v 
€v re rot? TOtourot? ^ eiSecrt /cat 8td tcjv tolovtcov 
OLTTOTcXeLTaL ax'rjl^cLTLaijLa)v. rj 8e irepl ro rra- 
OrjTLKov, KaT avTo TToXiv TO e^aipcTOv deoypovixiv-q, 
/cara^atVerat ixa.Xi.aTa Trepl ra? /car avTO to yivos 
Tov appevo? /cat d-qXecos vrrep^oXas /cat eAAet^et? 
Tov /card (jtvaiv, StaAa/xySaver'at 8e €7naK€7TTiKcos 
/card TOV ofioiov to) 7rpo/cetjLteVa> TpoTTov, tov "qXiov 
fJLevTOi jLterd tt^s" CTeAT^rrj? dp'ri tou ' Eppov TrapaXapb- 
^avop.€vov /cat t"?^? tou 14pea>? cruv' to) T'^? ^A(^pohi- 
TTjg Trpos avTOVs (TVvoiK€Lc6aea>9 • toutcov ydp ovTcog 
utt' o^tv' TTtTTTorTcai^, edi' /xev /ioi'a to. (JxjoTa iv 
appevLKols fi ^wStot?, ol p.€V dvSpe? VTrep^aiXXovat. 
TOV /card cf>vaLV, at 8e yvvaiKes tov Trapa <j)vaLV 
Trpos TO enavSpov dnXajs ttjs ^XV^ '^^^ SpaaTLKco- 
Tcpov • idv Se /cat o rou "Apecos rj /cat o t^? *A(f>poSL- 
Tiqs rjTOi oTTOTcpos r) /cat dp,(f>6T€pOL ^ coaiv rjppevo)- 
[xevoL, OL fX€V avSpes Trpos tcls /card ^vaiv avvovaias 
yivovTai KaTa(f)€pels /cat fioixi-KOL Kal OLKopeaTOi ' 
/cat iv TTavTL Kaipw TTp6)(€LpoL Trpos T6 TO. alaxpo. 
/cat TO. TTapdvop,a twv d(f>poBLaiu}v • at 8e yurat/ce? 
TT-po? rd? vrapd <f)vaLv 6p.tXias Xdyvai /cat piip6cf)daX- 
p.oL /cat at /caAou/xei'at rptjSdSes' • SLaTideaat 8e 
OrjXeLaSi dvSpcoi' epya eTTLTeXovaai. K<dv {xev fiovos 
6 TTJs A(f)pohLTrjs rjppevcofievos 17, Xddpa /cat ojj/c 
1*72 di^a^ai'Soi' • edt' Se /cat o tov "Apecos, dvTiKpvs tSare 

* Post ToiouTOi? add. «CTTt(i') PLMNECara., oin. VADProc. 
^ aix4>6Tipoi VADProc, eVare/joj PLMNCam., -01 E. 
^ (XKopiOToi VPL, oLKopeoTi D, d«cdAa(rro( MNAECam. 

368 



TETRABIBLOS III. 14 

The morbid perversion of the active part of the 
soul in its general nature, therefore, is produced in 
some such forms as these and is produced by these 
configurations of the planets. The corresponding 
perv^ersion of the passive portion, as in the former 
instance viewed in its extreme cases, is most ap- 
parent in excesses and deficiencies in matters of sex, 
male and female, as compared with what is natural, 
and in inquiry is apprehended in the same fashion 
as before, though the sun is taken, together with the 
moon, instead of Mercury, and the relation to them 
of Mars, together with Venus, is observed. For 
when these thus fall under observation, if the lumi- 
naries are unattended in masculine signs, males 
exceed in the natural, and females exceed in the 
unnatural quality, so as merely to increase the 
virility and activity of the soul. But if likewise 
Mars or Venus as well, either one or both of them, 
is made masculine,^ the males become addicted to 
natural sexual intercourse, and are adulterous, in- 
satiate, and ready on every occasion for base and 
lawless acts of sexual passion, while the females are 
lustful for unnatural congresses, cast inviting glances 
of the eye, and are what we call tribades ; - for they 
deal with females and perform the functions of 
males. If Venus alone is constituted in a masculine 
manner, they do these things secretly and not openly. 
But if Mars likewise is so constituted, without 

' Cf. i. (i. 2 (jj p 4Q5^ „ 1 

369 



PTOLEMY 

iviore Kal vojjiLfxas waTrep yvvaiKag ra^ ^ SiariOc- 
IJi€vas dvaSeiKvveiv. 

To 8' evavTLOv, tcov (/xjdtwv /caret rov eKKei- 
fxevov a)(Tq[xaTLafi6v iv diqXvKol'S ^ojStot? virap- 
XOVTCOV fjiovoiv, at [xev yvvaiKes VTTep^dXXovcri rov 
Kara, (f)vaiv, ol Se dVSpes" rov rrapd (jivaiv, rrpos 
ro evdpvTTrov /cat reQriXvapiivov rrjs ^v)(rjs • idv 
Be Kal 6 rrjs M^poStVr^? fj red-qXvapievos, ai fxev 
yvvaiKes Kara^epet? re Kal /u,ot;!^a8e? /cat Actyvat 
yivovrai Ttpos ro hLarideadai Kara ^ (f)vaiv ev iravri 
re Kaipo) Kal vtto iravros ovrivoaovv, cos pLrjSevos 
(XTxAa)?, idv re aloxpov fj, edv re 7Tapdvop,ov, 
dTTe-)(eadai rwv d<^pohialoiv • ol 8e dvSpes [xaXaKot 
re Kal aadpol^ rrpos ret? rrapd (f)V(nv avvovaias /cat 
yvvaiKchv epya, BLaridejxevoL TTad-qrLKojs, aTTOKpvcfxvs 
fxevroi Kal XeXrjBorciJS • e'ai^ Se /cat o rov "Apecos 
fj red'qXvG/.ievos, dvriKpvg Kal jxerd Trapprjatas dv- 
aiu)(Vvrovai,rd TipoKeipieva /ca^' eKdrepov elSo? (xtto- 
reXovvreg,^ ro rropviKov Kal ttoXvkolvov Kal ttoXv- 
tpoyov Kal rrdvaLGXpov a)(f\iJia Trepi^aXXo/Jievoi jLte;^pt 
rrjs /caret re rrjv XoLSoptav Kal rr]v rrjs XP'?o'eco? 
v^piv arjixecwaecos.^ avp.^dXXovraL he Kal ol jjiev 
dvaroXtKol Kal ecvoi a)(ripiarLapLol rov re rov "Apeois 
Kal rov rrjs At^poSirr]? rrpog re ro eiravSporepov 
Kal evSia^oTjrorepov, ot Se SvrtKOi Kat eaTTepioi 
TTpog re ro OrjXvKcorepov Kal ro KaraaraXriKwrepov • 
173 o/xoitos' 8e /cat o ^ei' rov Kpovov avpLrrpoayevopievos 
cm ro daeXyearepov Kal aKadaprorepov rj Kal 
eTTOveiSiGrorepov eKdarco rcbv eKKeifxevcov 7Te(f)VK€ 

' ras om. MNAECam. * Kara libri ; napa Cam, 

370 



TETRABIBLOS III. 14 

reserve, so that sometimes they even designate the 
women -with whom they are on such terms as their 
lawful " \vives." 

But on the other hand, when the luminaries in the 
aforesaid configuration are unattended in feminine 
signs, the females exceed in the natural, and the 
males in unnatural practice, with the result that their 
souls become soft and effeminate. If Venus too is 
made feminine, the women become depraved, adul- 
terous, and lustful, with the result that they may be 
dealt with in the natural manner on any occasion and 
by any one soever, and so that they refuse absolutely 
no sexual act, though it be base or unlawful. 
The men, on the contrary, become effeminate and 
unsound with respect to unnatural congresses and 
the functions of women, and are dealt with as 
pathics, though privately and secretly. But if Mars 
also is constituted in a feminine manner, their 
shamelessness is outright and frank and they per- 
form the aforesaid acts of either kind, assuming the 
guise of common bawds who submit to general abuse 
and to every baseness until they are stamped -with the 
reproach and insult that attend such usages. And 
the rising and morning positions of both Mars and 
Venus have a contributory effect, to make them 
more virile and notorious, while setting and evening 
positions increase femininity and sedatencss. Simi- 
larly, if Saturn is present, his influence joins with each 
of the foregoing to produce more licentiousness, 

• aadpol VPLDProc. ; Oapofls NCam., dpaatis MAE. 

* aTToreXovvTes VD, -ov(ji{v) PL, iTureXovai MNAEC'ain. 

' cnjfKiwafojs MNACain. ; S-qfiioaiojs ecus VD (8i/x-) E, 
SlJ/itOCTi'toS cis PL. 

371 



PTOLEMY 

avvepyeiv, 6 8e tov Alos -npos to euaxTj/xoreWepov 
Kal (j>v\aKrLK<JjT€pov KoX aiSrjfioveaT€pov,6 8e tov 
'Epp,ov -npos re to irepi^o-qTOTepov Kal to tu)v 
TTadcjv^ evKLvrjTOTepov Kal iroXvTpOTTWTepov Kal 
evTrpoaKOTTWTepov. 

BIBAION A' 

<a. Up oo iniov> 

Ta fxev ovv vpo ttjs yevdaecog Kal to, KaT avTrjv 
rrjv yeveaiv hwdpi^va dcajpeiadat, Kal €tl tcov^ fieTa 
Tw yeveaiv oaa Trjg avoTaaeoiS ioTiV iSta to Kad 
oXov TTOLov Twv ovyKpiixoiTCDV i[M(f)aLVOVTa, ax^hov 
TavT av e'iq. rtSv Se KaTO. to €Kt6s avfi^e^T^KOTOJV 
Kal e(f)€^rj? 6(f)eLX6vTix)v StaAajU-^ai^ea^at^ TrpoTjyetTac 
IJi€V 6 irepl Tvxn? KTr^TLKrj? Te /cat d^icofiaTiKrjs^ 
Xoyos, avvrJTTTai 8' warrep -q fxev KT7]TiKrj Tai? tou 
acofJiaTOS olKeLCjaecLV, rj 8' d^io)ixaTiKrj Tois rfjs 
ilfvxns. 

<^.> Uepl rvxV^ KT