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Full text of "Manitoba as I saw it, from 1869 to date; with flashlights on the First Riel Rebellion"

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With Flash-Lights on the First Riel 





Copyrighted Canada, 1909 by The Muison Book Company, Limited, 








Chapter No. Page. 

1 From Montreal to St. Cloud ; 9 

2 From St. Cloud to Sauk Centre 13 

3 First Important Information from Winnipeg 15 

4 Our Meeting with Mr. Turner and Mr. Sanf ord 19 

5 Crossing into British Territory 21 

6 The People of Winnipeg Excited 25 

7 I was a Neutral Observer 28 

8 The Schultz Blunder 32 

9 The Deputation to Ottawa 37 

10 The Arrival of the Commissioner 40 

11 Hon. Joseph Howe and MeDougall's Commission 44 

12 Arrival of Lieutenant-Governor Archibald 48 

13 Attorney-General Clark Early Made Himself Unpopular 52 

14 The Personnel of the First Legislature 57 

15 School Legislation 65 

16 'Arrival of the Wolseley Expedition 69 

17 Winnipeg the Western Headquarters of H. B. Company 73 

18 The University 77 

19 Lieutenant-Governor Cauchon 81 

20 Sir Daniel McMillan 85 

21 The ' ' Hotel ' ' Premier of Manitoba 88 

22 Premier Greenway 91 

23 Premier Eoblin 94 

24 Two Prominent Western Men 98 

25 Mr. A. McT. Campbell 100 

26 Hon. Edmund Burke Wood 101 

27 Colonel Rankin's Reception by Eiel 104 

28 Mr. D. E. Sprague 107 

29 Dr. Wm. Cowan 110 

30 Mr. A. R. McKenzie Ill 

31 Hon. Alex. Murray 112 

32 Hon. David Mar Walker 113 

33 Mr. A. W. Austin 115 

34 Mr. William Whyte , 116 

33 Chief Justice Howell 117 

36 Eiel's Departure from the Country 118 

37 Messrs. Archibald and Campbell 128 

38 Mayors of Winnipeg 131 

39 Mr. Alexander McDonald 142 

40 Sir Charles Tupper 146 

Appendix 153 


John H. O 'Donnell, M.D.C.M , Frontispiece 

Major-General Cameron Page 12 

Prairie Transportation, 1869 16 

Hon. Senator Turner 20 

Group of Hudson Bay Company's Factors 26 

Sir John Schultz 32 

His Grace Archbishop Tach6 40 

Lieutenant-Governor Archibald 42 

Hon. Francis Ogiltree 54 

Hon. Colin Inkster, Sheriff 56 

John H. McTavish 60 

Chief Justice Dubuc 78 

Lieutenant-Governor Cauchon 82 

Hon. Wm. Hespeler 92 

C. N. Bell 96 

F. J. C. Cox 98 

A. McT. Campbell 100 

Chief Justice Wood 102 

D. E. Sprague 107 

Harold C. H. Sprague 108 

A. E. McKenzie Ill 

A Scene in Winnipeg Suburbs 130 

Alexander McMicken 136 

Sir Chas. Tupper 146 

Prairie Transportation, 1909 154 

His Grace Archbishop Lynch, Toronto 156 


In placing before the public an account of 
incidents occurring in Manitoba from eighteen 
hundred and sixty-nine to date, the writer has, 
in order to avoid the difficulties incidental to 
such an undertaking, confined himself to per- 
sonal observation, in so far as the historical 
facts appear, such as reference to the details of 
the First Kiel Rebellion, and the organization of 
the new Province of Manitoba, the framing of 
the first Acts placed upon the Statute Book, 
with general remarks on their application, and 
the persons more intimately associated with 
such measures passed during the first and sub- 
sequent Parliaments. 

In Manitoba, just starting out on its career 
as a sequence of a Rebellion, political issues de- 
velop strong sympathies, and in some in- 
stances prejudices. The writer deems it of the 
first importance that references to public men 
shall be written with justice and with entire 
freedom from political bias. It is hardly to be 
expected that the writer 's estimate will, in 
every case, meet with universal acceptance. It 
is hoped, however, that no reader will dispute 
the fact that there has been an honest attempt 
to do justice to the character and actions of 
every man mentioned in this volume. 

Manitoba as I Saw It 



In September, 1869, having had induce- 
ments which I considered advantageous held 
out to me for some time, urging me to come 
west to Fort Garry, Rupert's Land, and, after 
giving the subject careful consideration, I 
decided to take the step. So, after having made 
the necessary preparation to surmount pos- 
sible contingencies, I took the west-bound train 
at the St. Bonaventure Station (Montreal) 
September, 1869, for the " Great Lone Land." 

On reaching Toronto, Ontario, the city was 
en fete to welcome His Royal Highness, Prince 
Arthur, Duke of Connaught, on his first visit to 
Canada. I spent a few days in the beautiful 
Queen City, securing needed information, after 
which I passed on to Guelph, where I re- 
mained long enough to consult a gentleman who 
had been many years in the Hudson's Bay 
Company's service, and the information gained 
at that interview was of the greatest possible 
value to me later on. 

10 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

I again took the west-bound train to Sarnia, 
crossing into the State of Michigan; went by 
train to Grand Haven; and from there to Mil- 
waukee by boat, and on to La Crosse by train, 
where I took a Mississippi River boat to St. 
Paul, Minnesota. The steamer was large and 
very comfortable. The autumn rains had 
swollen the river to nearly the capacity of its 
banks, and in some places flooded the adjoin- 
ing countryside. There had been a few sharp 
frosts, and the foliage that fringed the banks 
of the great river was, indeed, too beautiful for 
my pen to describe. There was a large pas- 
senger list, returning to their homes in St. 
Paul and adjacent country, from visiting East- 
ern friends. The trip up the river was slow, 
but delightfully enjoyable, and I reached St. 
Paul tired. The journey up to that stage had 
been most inspiring. 

A suitable rest, and then the "solemnities" 
of the occasion began ; which ^ere to prepare 
for a drive across four hundred miles of prairie, 
and the time of year made frosts and snow- 
storms quite possible; and from reports, other 
obstacles not easily overcome. 

I called at the office of Messrs. Hill, Griggs & 
Company, and presented a letter of introduc- 
tion to Mr. James J. Hill. After carefully per- 

From Montreal to St. Cloud. 11 

using the letter, he greeted me cordially, and 
remarked: "I am inclined to think you will 
have difficulty in reaching Fort Garry. The 
half-breeds are up in arms, and, if reports are 
correct, will not permit Governor McDougall 
to enter the Red River Settlement. I will see 
a gentleman who is at present in the city, Mr. 
William Gomez Fonseca, a man of influence in 
Winnipeg, and ask him to call and see you dur- 
ing the evening. You can rely upon any- 
thing he says, and if he asks you to become 
one of his party, I have every reason to be- 
lieve you will reach your destination with 
very little difficulty." 

The gentleman, Mr. William Gomez Fonseca, 
called, and said that Mr. Hill's introduction 
was all that was necessary to put himself at 
my service, and he would guarantee to see me 
safely to the "Land of Promise." After a 
lengthy conference, we agreed upon terms, and 
complete arrangements were made for our jour- 
ney northwards. 

We took the train to St. Cloud, to begin our 
travel with Red River carts, two covered light 
spring wagons, changes of horses, and suitable 
tents. At St. Cloud Lieutenant- Governor Mc- 
Dougall and party, including some members of 
his intended Council, were waiting for their 

12 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

luggage to arrive, which delayed us ten or 
twelve days. 

I was with the party, but not of it, and it con- 
sisted of Governor McDougall and Secretary, 
Miss McDougall and servants, Captain Cam- 
eron, wife, and servants ; Dr. A. G. Jacques, 
Mr. Eichards, Major Wallace, Mr. Charles Mair 
and wife, and others; also the men necessary 
to look after the pitching of tents, and to man- 
age a well-equipped camp. 




At times the nights were cold, but the weather 
was fine, and traveling pleasant. 

During our stay at St. Cloud, and while the 
Governor's freight and luggage were being re- 
moved from the cars to the carts and wagons, 
for transportation across the prairie to Win- 
nipeg, I observed a man always present. So 
constant was his attendance, that I asked him if 
he belonged to Governor McDougall's party. 
He answered in French: "Non, Monsieur." 
After leaving St. Cloud, I did not see him again 
until we reached Grand Forks. 

On the prairie, the first day out, we went into 
camp early, so as to familiarize ourselves with 
camp methods, and to test our skill in arrang- 
ing tents, camp fires, beds, and tethering our 
horses. A good supper, and the fatigue of the 
day prepared us for refreshing sleep, which we 
enjoyed without interruption, arising at 6 a.m. 
punctually; and the second day began. The 
weather was cloudy and cool, fine, excellent 
for traveling. The trail was good, and we 
made excellent time, reaching Sauk Centre 
early after midday, where we had two and a 
half hours' rest, and dinner. 

14 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

It was here that I got the first direct informa- 
tion from Winnipeg which I thought import- 
ant, but Governor McDougall made light of it. 
I was approached by two gentlemen from Fort 
Garry Major Robinson and Mr. Charles 
House, who were on their way to St. Paul. They 
said the natives were up in arms, had formed a 
camp at La Riviere Salle, and intended to pre- 
vent the Governor and party entering Rupert's 
Land, and advised me to return to St. Paul. 

I consulted the gentleman with whom I was 
traveling (Mr. William Gomez Fonseca), who 
asserted we would reach our destination who- 
ever failed, and I believed him from what Mr. 
J. J. Hill had said of him that we would, and 
we did. 

I conversed with Mr. Richards, one of 
the Governor's Executive- to-be, and while he 
was impressed, Mr. McDougall said he felt 
sure he could make it plain to the half-breeds 
that his mission was peace, and there would be 
no trouble. Mr. Charles Mair, a personal 
friend of the Governor, then in the Government 
service, and acquainted with the Red River 
Settlement people, talked the matter over with 
the Governor, and appeared not to be much con- 
cerned; and all faced the North cheerfully, as 
if on a pleasant outing. 



During the next few days our journey was 
delightful; the trail was smooth and dry, the 
days sunny, the sky without a cloud, the nights 
frosty, and the broad prairie dotted with beau- 
tiful little lakes, which swarmed with every de- 
scription of wild fowl swan, pelican, the dif- 
ferent varieties of geese the grey goose and 
the white wavy (Arctic goose) and every 
known variety of duck, were to be seen on those 
long-to-be-remembered Minnesota Lakes. 

One of Governor McDougall's party had a 
fine gun, and created much amusement one day. 
After lunching pleasantly, appeasing that ap- 
petite prairie traveling always gives, he went 
over to the edge of a small lake to shoot a 
brace of mallards. After adjusting his mon- 
ocle, he took good aim and fired one barrel at 
a bird sitting, and the other as the flock rose, 
but not a feather was ruffled. Some of his more 
intimate friends of the party chaffed him un- 
mercifully for shooting before flushing the 
bird. He, however, accepted the badinage with 
that stoical, cynical smile, always an excellent 
weapon of defence used by the refined English 
gentleman. He at times turned the tables on 

16 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

his tormentors so cleverly that they were glad 
to cry quits. 

We were now traveling on through that por- 
tion of the country which suffered so terribly 
during the Sioux Indian massacre, where whole 
families were wiped out by those cruel savages, 
who have now been brought into subjection by 
the United States troops. 

We arrived at the Otter Tail crossing (the 
head waters of the Bed River) just as the sun 
was sinking indescribably beautiful below the 
horizon. Autumn sunset on the prairie is some- 
thing to remember, and not likely to be for- 

There was a comfortable stopping place the 
first time we were able to secure a house to 
sleep in since leaving St. Cloud. We had an 
excellent supper and breakfast. The morning 
was sharp, but no wind, and the trail was good, 
and all started out cheerfully. 

During the evening at the Settlement, the 
probability of our meeting some opposition to 
our entering Rupert's Land was discussed, but 
Governor McDougall had no fears, feeling quite 
sure that all would be well. 

The evenings were perceptibly colder as we 
traveled northwards, and we continued to make 
good time, considering that the next comfortable 

First Information from Winnipeg. 17 

stopping place was at Fort Abercrombie, where 
we secured good meals and comfortable sleep- 
ing rooms, but many of the party preferred 
sleeping in their tents, which they did. 

The ice was floating in the river, but, not- 
withstanding, some of the party crossed, and 
were hospitably entertained by the officers of 
Fort Abercrombie, and returned at a seasonable 
hour highly pleased with their reception. 

At the hotel, I was much interested in the re- 
cital of the Honorable Joseph Howe's visit to 
Fort Garry, by two Americans, and what they 
had to say about the reception that awaited Gov- 
ernor McDougall at the boundary forty-ninth 
parallel of latitude. 

Mr. Howe and party crossed us on their way 
east, somewhere between Fort Abercrombie, 
and a place called Morris, the then terminal of 
the railroad in the direction of Grand Forks. 
There was a daily stage line from the Fort to 
Morris, where most of the travelers took the 
train when traveling east. The gentleman with 
whom I was traveling (Mr. William Gomez Fon- 
seca) was anxious to go on quickly, as it was 
getting cold, and a blizzard was possible. We 
therefore made an early start, and towards 
evening it began blowing and snowing in a way 

18 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

that was anything but pleasant, and we called 
in our distress at the Catholic Mission between 
Fort Abercrombie and Georgetown, where 
there was a small Hudson's Bay Post. The 
good priest took us in, and not only housed and 
fed us, but he nearly roasted us, so anxious was 
he to make us comfortable. 



Leaving the Mission, our next stopping-place 
was Georgetown. At midday we passed round 
a small clump of trees, and were pleased to 
find two gentlemen just preparing to start after 
having finished their midday meal, leaving 
us a fine fire on which to prepare our dinner. 
The gentlemen were Mr. James Turner and Mr. 
Sanford, of Hamilton, Ontario. They were 
supporters of the Federal Government, and 
were both elevated to the Senate later on. They 
felt sure that my escort would get through all 
right, but not Mr. McDougall ; giving some rea- 
sons which I carefully noted. 

We crossed the Bed Eiver the following 
morning with some difficulty, owing to the 
floating ice. However, the ferryman seemed 
to understand just what to do, and I was very 
pleased when we were safely over. We were 
three days traveling after that before we saw a 

The wild fowl had forsaken the small streams 
and lakes, and gone south, and the prospect 
was not enchanting. 

20 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

The evening of the third day after leaving 
Georgetown, we were preparing our evening 
meal, when two horsemen came galloping quick- 
ly toward us, and asked if they might boil some 
water to brew some tea. They seemed in a 
hurry, and my guide asked them in French, why 
they hurried, and they said they were anxious 
to reach home to repair shelter for their horses 
and cattle, as it was getting late, and we might 
have winter any day. I recognized in one of 
them the man I had seen in St. Cloud, who ap- 
peared to observe so closely all Mr. McDou- 
gall's goods. I learned on enquiry from the gen- 
tleman (Mr. William Gomez Fonseca) who was 
transporting me northward, that he was one of 
the sympathizing half-breeds of the Bed Eiver 
Settlement, and his name was Elezear Lajemo- 
niere. I learned later on why he scrutinized 
Mr. McDougall's baggage so closely, and why 
he was so anxious to reach the Ked River Set- 
tlement before the others. 

After the passing of the two men, I felt less 
easy in my mind, and began to reflect seriously 
on the event of not being able to enter British 
territory. Mr. William Gomez Fonseca was 
cheerful, but thoughtful, and talked but little 
as we approached the boundary line. We ar- 
rived at Pembina just at sundown, and halted 
at the Custom House. 




The officer was genial and talked very freely 
with my guide, and without hesitation declared 
the Governor and party would not be permitted 
to reach Fort Garry, and would be sent back 
across the line into American territory. 

We were permitted to cross into British ter- 
ritory, and I was much relieved in mind. We 
called at the house of an old person, a white 
man married to an Indian woman, the daugh- 
ter of a chief, and I suppose a princess; she 
hardly looked the part, and the house was not 
princely, but they did their best to make us 
comfortable. Our host seemed to think it amus- 
ing that Governor McDougall should even think 
it possible to reach Fort Garry, and outlined 
very clearly the preparations the half-breeds 
had made, and spoke of the church at La Riviere 
Salle being used as barracks by them, and 
the roadway had been barricaded; but said to 
my guide: "You and your party will be al- 
lowed to pass on without doubt." That assur- 
ance made us more hopeful. He said: "Your 
friend had better dress more like the people, 
and put on a Hudson Bay sash around his over- 

22 Manitoba as I saw It. 

coat, and a pair of moccasins." The sugges- 
tion was adopted, which I think was wise. 

I must say here, that two days before reach- 
ing Pembina, Captain Cameron, his wife and 
servant, with two men, left the party, traveled 
quickly in advance, and crossed at Pembina, 
and after a brief stay at the Hudson Bay Post, 
traveled on in the direction of Fort Garry. 
Our host with the Indian wife saw them, but 
felt sure they would be returned to the Ameri- 
can side. 

Our first night in Rupert's Land was re- 
freshing. We had rested well, and started at 
nine o'clock towards what we hoped would be 
the end of our journey. Twelve miles further 
on, we were met by twenty horsemen fully 
armed. They spread across the trail, and we 
at once stepped down. They knew our guide 
(Mr. William Gomez Fonseca), and after a 
short parley, they shook hands with us, and 
seemed friendly enough. They told us that 
Captain Cameron and his party had been 
turned back at La Riviere Salle, and an escort 
of eight armed men were to see them into Ameri- 
can territory; after which they would join the 
twenty-four horsemen, and their duty was to 
prevent the Governor and his party from enter- 
ing into British territory. 

Crossing into British Territory. 23 

We camped that night at Scratching River, 
and were kindly and nicely treated in the house 
of a native settler, and after breakfast we 
started to face the barricade at La Riviere 
Salle, which we reached about four p.m. We 
were halted, our horses taken by the bridle, 
and quickly led up to St. Norbert Church, 
where the army was bivouacked. 

The ladies were taken into the Convent, and 
were kindly treated by the Gray Sisters, given 
good meals and nice rooms for the night. Rev. 
Father Richot received the men of our party 
cordially, gave us a splendid supper and ex- 
cellent bed, and also a breakfast, which we all 
heartily enjoyed with that kind of an appetite 
which can be only acquired by a few days ' travel 
over the prairie. 

The time had arrived for us to be brought be- 
fore the President of the impromptu Govern- 
ment, who was to decide whether we were to be 
deported, or permitted to pass on to Fort 
Garry. His name was John Bruce, and he was 
not by any means a formidable person in ap- 
pearance. His secretary, Louis Riel, was a 
young man with a full head of hair and in- 
clined to be wavy, deep- set eyes, an unpleasant 
mouth, alert, a nervous temperament, vicillat- 
ing and exceedingly vain. 

24 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

We were asked a few questions, and after a 
short conference with Father Bichot, the secre- 
tary gave us a pass through the guards at Fort 
Garry, and we were allowed to proceed. 

We started on the last stage of our journey, 
and reached Fort Garry November 3rd, 1869, 
about 5.30 p.m. The guards accepted our 
passes, and the gentleman (Mr. William Gomez 
Fonseca) to whom we were indebted for safely 
landing us at our destination, took us to his 
home, and made us comfortable, for which we 
were devoutly thankful. 



The people of the Settlement were very much 
excited, and all were uncertain as to what the 
outcome of it all was to be. I called upon Dr. 
Schultz, whose house was the rendezvous of all 
the Canadians; and with his usual placid dis- 
position, unless he spoke upon the surroundings, 
you would look upon him as a disinterested 

Some days after I came to Winnipeg, a pub- 
lic meeting was called to discuss the situation. 
It was convened in a large building used as a 
fire hall. The French natives were well repre- 
sented; some American traders and some local 
business men ; some settlers from the adjoining 
parishes. The hall was packed to the doors. 

Mr. A. Gr. B. Bannatyne was called to the 
chair. The Chairman said he felt certain that 
everyone present, who had the welfare of the 
Settlement at heart, was aware that present con- 
ditions could not long continue; the tension 
was becoming unbearable, and he hoped that 
the meeting would discuss the business in a 
dispassionate manner, and say nothing to irri- 
tate or give offence, and to allow every person 
to speak freely his convictions without interrup- 

26 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

tion. Dr. Schultz was clearly championing the 
side of the Canadians that were then in the 
country. The English speaking people, old 
settlers, appeared neutral ; if they had any lean- 
ing they did not show it. The few American 
traders were with the natives, and were inclined 
to be turbulent. The French natives were bit- 
terly opposed to everything and anything Dr. 
Schultz said, but he spoke with deliberation, 
clearly set forth that he was of the opinion that 
the Hudson Bay Company were not using their 
influence to pacify the disaffected people, but 
were tacitly aiding and abetting the natives. 

The Doctor's remarks were bitterly resented 
by an English speaking half-breed, Mr. James 
Boss, who was an eloquent speaker, and re- 
butted the charges in a very masterly manner. 
He spoke perfect English, and was in every way 
the lion of the meeting. Dr. Schultz in reply 
said that many of the Hudson Bay Company's 
servants, and the Chairman of this meeting, 
could no longer throw dust in the eyes of the 
Canadians who were loyal, and the settlers (the 
natives) would do well to be advised in time 
they were facing a great danger that would be 
disastrous and possibly ruin many; but the 
results were already seen by all loyal Cana- 

The People of Winnipeg Excited. 27 

The officials of the Hudson Bay Company, so 
far as I could observe, were absolutely loyal, 
and I am of the opinion they were the real pro- 
tectors of the Canadians during their imprison- 

Mr. J. H. McTavish was the man who per- 
haps had more influence over the French half- 
breeds than any man in the Settlement. He was 
loyal and a friend of the Canadians, and acted 
in their interests. He was an officer of the 
Hudson Bay Company, and if they were not in 
accord with the Canadian Government he would 
have said nothing. Mr. Donald A. Smith (now 
Lord Strathcona), had every confidence in Mr. 
McTavish. The late Mr. Arthur Hamilton was 
of the same opinion. 

I took rooms, and my wife and I began house- 
keeping in rather unfavorable surroundings. 



I observed as much as possible, a neutral 
standpoint, being careful to express no opinions, 
although many leading questions were put to 
me, upon which I could but answer evasively, as 
I had not been long enough in the country to 
form an opinion on the matters in dispute. 

I became acquainted at St. Cloud with a Mr. 
Burdick, who was in the service of the Hudson 
Bay Company, and he introduced me to most of 
the leading men in Winnipeg, and they spoke 
freely to me, which gave me a very good in- 
sight how the different factions were lining up, 
with a fair idea as to why Governor McDougall 
would not be allowed to enter the country, and 
also that the natives were very well informed in 
regard to Governor McDougall 's powers and 
movements, and why they were running very 
little risk in keeping them out of the country, 
also upon what they based their assumption, as 
I shall be able to show you later on. 

By this time the weather was becoming very 
cold, and the rivers "had frozen up, but there 
had been very little snow up to this point. 

The Ottawa Government, during the earlier 

I Was a Neutral Observer. 29 

part of the season, had sent Mr. Snow, a Domin- 
ion Land Surveyor, to the Bed River Settle- 
ment, to begin surveying the country, before 
the transfer had been made to Canada, although 
the terms of the treaty between the Hudson Bay 
Company and the Dominion had been agreed 
upon according to Act 19. I may here remark 
the beginning of the surveying was the spark 
which started the Rebellion. The original sur- 
veys were not made from base lines, but the 
lines were drawn from the junction of the Red 
and Assiniboine Rivers, running back four 
miles, and varying and deviating lines drawn, 
not the same as the survey of the Province of 
Ontario, consequently the new lines of survey 
bisected the lots in many places, and in some 
instances passed through their buildings, or 
left their buildings on their neighbor's farm. 
They were very much alarmed, feeling that 
their property, which they had occupied so long, 
was to be rendered valueless, or to be deterio- 
rated in value ; and perhaps that fear had been 
taken hold of by some unscrupulous persons to 
exaggerate the supposed grievance for their 
own purposes. The results were that the half- 
breeds warned Mr. Snow to desist. Mr. Snow 
had a large camp and many men, and it would 
have been a great loss to him to do so. The 

30 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

laborers of the party began making demands 
which he could not well accede to, and some of 
them threatened to throw him into the river. 
The more troublesome men were sent to Winni- 
peg to be paid off. They were summoned before 
a Magistrate, charged with using violent and 
threatening language, and were fined. Thomas 
Scott, who was of the Snow Survey, was one of 
the party that was fined, and perhaps that was 
the beginning of his ill-luck and tragic death. 
Those who knew him, described him as a cheer- 
ful, kindly man, trusted and very much liked by 
his acquaintances. After this he accepted a sit- 
uation in the village, where he remained until he 
was enrolled with other Canadians in the house 
of Dr. Schultz. 

It was then announced that Colonel J. S. 
Dennis was on his way to Winnipeg, and he had 
full powers from the Government to deal with 
all public matters connected with the Snow 
party of surveyors, as Governor McDougall had 
not been allowed to remain in the territory. He 
was escorted by the detachment of armed na- 
tives, of which I have already spoken. 

After this Governor McDougall crossed into 
Canada, raised the Canadian flag, and issued his 
proclamation, which was distributed in Winni- 
peg, and through the Settlement; however, the 

I Was a Neutral Observer. 31 

half-breeds being aware that Governor McDon- 
gall had not his commission were not very much 



There had been a slight fall of snow, and a 
letter was received from Colonel J. S. Dennis, 
with instructions to guard the Government 
stores. For that purpose the Canadians were to 
organize and arm themselves, and under no cir- 
cumstances to fire a shot unless attacked. 

The Canadians formed a Company at once, 
with Dr. Lynch of the Snow Survey, as Captain, 
and assembled at Dr. Schultz's house, and the 
Canadians were at this time within easy call, 
and most of them came in during the evening. 

Colonel Dennis passed on to the Stone Fort, 
and instructed his party as to their duties so 
far as the stores were concerned, and then made 
his way out of the country and back to Ottawa. 

There was a building in the rear of Dr. 
Schultz's house used for storing Government 
supplies, to be used by Mr. Snow and his men 
in the survey camps ; and when the half-breeds 
began congregating at Fort Garry, then it was 
that Dr. Schultz, together with Mr. Snow and 
some of his party, deemed it advisable to call 
the Canadians together for the purpose of 
guarding and protecting the Government stores. 
It was a great mistake. The value of the pro- 


The Schultz Blunder. 33 

visions therein stored was inconsiderable, and 
their destruction or removal by the Metis was 
of small moment. Why establish a guard? The 
half-breeds then in arms had the opportunity 
for which they were waiting. Men supposed to 
be armed, headed by Dr. Schultz, congregated 
in his house, intending no doubt to drive the 
natives from Fort Garry; that was the half- 
breeds' conclusion. "While they had the num- 
bers they evidently thought it best to take the 
initiative, and they did, and the result is now 

It does not require stretching one's imagina- 
tion to see that if the Canadians had remained 
in their individual lodging houses or homes, 
away from Dr. Schultz 's residence, and attend- 
ed as usual to their daily duties as they had 
been doing, the cause for an attack upon them 
would have been removed. The rebellious half- 
breeds could not well attack individual peace- 
ful citizens ; and the cause of the uprising would 
have been barren. Should they have marched 
upon the Schultz house, and finding but himself 
and family, it is unlikely they would have made 
them prisoners. The wily O'Donohue would 
have vetoed that. They would scarcely go 
about from house to house, making individual 
arrests of men, having nothing more formid- 

34 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

able on their persons than a pipe and tobacco 
pouch; that would have been silly. But when 
they surrounded the Schultz home they found 
sixty people and some small arms; they made 
them prisoners. The rest is history. 

The segregating of the Canadians was the 
Schultz blunder. The killing of Scott was the 
outrageous blunder made by the half-breeds. 
The reader may judge for himself who started 
the Bed Eiver Rebellion. Was Dr. Schultz a 

The natives were increasing in numbers, and 
about the first of December were inclined to be 
aggressive, and began making small " sorties" 
pretty close to where the Canadians were con- 
gregated, and this state of affairs continued for 
two or three days, when they openly avowed 
their purpose of taking the Canadians prison- 
ers. At this time the house was practically 
guarded, the citizens outside were much 
alarmed for the safety of the few Canadians, 
and a deputation waited upon Riel (who had 
been declared President), with a view to their 
safety. Riel would not listen to anything like 
reason, and said he would fire on the building 
and raze it to the ground, with all in it, unless 
they surrendered unconditionally, which the 
Canadians would not do. Finally the efforts of 

The Schultz Blunder. 35 

Mr. A. G. B. Bannatyne with others, got Eiel 
to commit himself in writing, that if they sur- 
rendered, their lives and property would be 

After some consideration, terms were then 
agreed upon, and the Canadians, numbering 
about sixty, were taken to Fort Garry (then in 
possession of the Eiel party), as prisoners, men 
and women. 

Dr. Schultz, Mrs. Schultz and Mrs. Mair were 
allowed to accept an invitation to lodge in the 
house of Mr. J. H. McTavish, in the Hud- 
son Bay post; and Dr. O'Donnell and his 
wife were allowed to accept rooms with Dr. 
Wm. Cowan's family, the chief factor in 
charge of Fort Garry. Two days after Dr. 
O'Donnell was taken from Dr. Cowan's house 
and lodged with the other prisoners, but 
Dr. Schultz was allowed to remain with his 
wife with Mr. McTavish 's family until two 
days prior to his escape, when he was placed 
in the building where the other prisoners 
were, but in a room by himself. The morning of 
the second day he had escaped, supposedly by 
letting himself down from the window by two 
straps of shaginappie attached to two gimlets 
bored into the casing. The gimlets were not 
sufficiently strong to bear his weight, and he 

36 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

fell some distance to the ground ; so it was said. 

Dr. Schultz was comfortably housed and 
boarded during his stay in Fort Garry, in fact 
the guest of Mr. and Mrs. J. H. McTavish, and 
therefore suffered less than three days in prison 
proper, and then had a room to himself and his 
meals sent to him from Mr. McTavish 's house. 
The other prisoners were placed in overcrowded 
rooms, had to sleep on the floor, and had black 
tea without milk or sugar, and during the first 
few weeks were fed on coarse meat, pemican 
and bannock. After that time the citizens were 
permitted to send regular meals to them during 
the remainder of their term as Eiel 's prisoners. 

At this time the Doctor was on his way out of 
the country in a dog cariole (the most comfort- 
able winter conveyance in the Northwest) to 
Duluth and on to Toronto, Montreal and 



The Riel party kept strict guard over the 
prisoners you may be sure; and the natives 
from every part of the Settlement were drum- 
med up to discuss the situation, and to decide 
what was the best course to pursue. A deputa- 
tion had been sent to Ottawa with a Bill of 
Rights, which was presented to the Federal 
Government by the Reverend Father Richot 
and A. Scott, an American. 

For some time the prisoners were unable to 
know anything that was taking place, but some 
of the prisoners could speak French, and were 
able to keep fairly well posted on outside 

Mr. Arthur Hamilton, a surveyor of the Snow 
party, spoke French fluently, and memorized 
everything the guards said that was of import- 
ance. Some of the guards were always at the 
Riel Council meeting, and would relate what 
had taken place at the meeting to the night 
guards, when the prisoners were supposed to 
be asleep; by which, with Mr. Hamilton's 
knowledge, we were able to forecast what was 
likely to take place, correctly, and did, as a 
rule ; but the knowledge which we were gaining 

38 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

was not reassuring or calculated to elevate our 

Mr. Hamilton had formed an opinion that 
Eiel was a dangerous crank (half lunatic), that 
O'Donohue had great influence over him, and 
that influence was bad; also that M. Lepine 
was a man honest in his folly, and was doing 
all in his power to keep Eiel within bounds. 

Every Sunday morning, and sometimes dur- 
ing the week, a priest from the St. Boniface 
Cathedral came and said mass, and preached 
to the natives, charging them as to their duty 
in the present crisis. It was not always the 
same priest, but all spoke along pacific lines, 
some less so than others, but Mr. Hamilton was 
of the opinion, that it was due to an improper 
conception of the gravity of the situation. 
Others of the prisoners were in some instances 
incensed at the wording of the sermons, and 
felt certain the priests were in sympathy with 
the half-breeds, and were not using their influ- 
ence in endeavoring to allay the turbulence in 
the minds of the half-breeds. It must be 
remembered that the natives were being in- 
structed by their own spiritual advisers, and 
would naturally be in sympathy with them. 
There was one priest, a Frenchman, and while 
I am not aware of his personal sympathy with 

The Deputation to Ottawa. 39 

the uprising of the natives during the imprison- 
ment, after we were released I have thought 
his views rather radical. 



About this time delegates from each of the 
parishes were selected, both English and 
French, and were summoned by the Provisional 
Government, and they met in Fort Garry. At 
such a time, and meeting in a hostile camp, 
very little could be expected; nothing that did 
not bear the permissive stamp of Eiel. 

A Commissioner was sent from the Federal 
Government at Ottawa, to Winnipeg, in the per- 
son of Mr. Donald A. Smith (now Lord Strath- 
cona), who met with the leading men, both Eng- 
lish and French, of the Settlement, and Kiel 
and those associated with him, and it was 
through his influence and that of Reverend 
George Young, and the late Archbishop McRae 
and Mr. A. G. B. Bannatyne, that the life of 
Major Boulton (then under sentence of death 
by Riel) was spared. This cruel upstart, how- 
ever, with the coward's characteristics, brave 
only when powerful, was but checked in his 
murderous design, and soon after fixed upon 
poor Thomas Scott for his victim. Scott was 
tried by a so-called Court-Martial, in a language 
that he did not understand, convicted and sent- 


The Arrival of the Commissioner. 41 

enced to death, and was executed on March 
4th, 1870, and when some of his associates 
begged for Scott's life, Kiel's reply was: "He 
was a dangerous man. He first quarrelled 
with his employer, Snow, was convicted and 
fined for threatening language, and afterwards 
escaping from prison was recaptured with the 
Canadians who had assembled at the Kil- 
donan Church with the avowed object of recap- 
turing Fort Garry from the Provisional Govern- 
ment. I cannot spare his life." 'Such was the 
reply of the President of the Provisional 
Government, Riel. 

Mr. Donald A. Smith (Strathcona) returned 
to Ottawa, and made his report on the condition 
of affairs in the Red River Settlement. The 
report was clear and explicit, defining every- 
thing to be considered by the Federal Govern- 
ment. They saw the force of it, with the result 
that the General Wolseley Expedition was sent 
as soon as it was possible. 

The Expedition reached Winnipeg after much 
fatigue and hardship, arriving at Fort Garry 
early in September, 1870, when Riel's army had 
settled down to their farms, and become good 
citizens, and his Executive fought in the way to 
be expected, to wit, they ran away, but Riel 
lived to fight another day, with the result that 

42 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

he was captured and hanged as a rebel. If he 
had been tried at that time, and dealt with as 
he eventually was, it would have saved many 
valuable lives, and saved the Dominion of Can- 
ada over eight millions of dollars, but the man 
who signed the warrant for his arrest was dis- 
missed from the Commission of the Peace. 

Honorable Adams George Archibald was 
made Governor of Manitoba, and arrived in 
Winnipeg a few days after the Wolseley Expe- 
dition ; and the preliminary steps were taken to 
establish the Government of the new Province. 
The Governor appointed Mr. Alfred Boyd, of 
Redwood Place, Provincial Secretary; Mr. 
Max A. Gerard, Provincial Treasurer ; in order 
to legally transact the business of the country 
until after the elections, which were to take 
place after a proper census had been taken and 
Electoral Divisions had been arranged for the 
Provincial election, and four Electoral Districts 
by the Dominion Government. 

It will be remembered at this time that Bishop 
Tache had not yet returned from Rome, where 
he had been for several months on official busi- 
ness, having left the Settlement before the cause 
of the uprising had appeared upon the surface. 
I feel sure, from what I afterwards learned of 
his powerful influence over the natives, that he 


The Arrival of the Commissioner. 43 

would have been able to sufficiently control them, 
and settle diplomatically the questions in dis- 
pute before any violence was resorted to. That 
he was deeply grieved at what had taken place, 
I am sure, but Eiel felt his power over his fol- 
lowers to be greater than that of the Bishop's, 
and so it proved; Biel having the Hudson Bay 
Company's fort, and in possession of the stores 
where he could deal out rum, brandy and wine, 
dry goods and all sorts of provisions to them 
ad libitum, was the weapon used by the cun- 
ning Kiel to defy the good prelate, well knowing 
that an appeal to their stomach had a much 
greater force than an appeal to their already 
elastic conscience, and would last so long as the 
supplies held out. 

From that on, up to the approach of the 
Wolseley Expedition, it was "high life below 
stairs ' ' with this silly bombast. From the time 
the prisoners were released Eiel never left the 
Fort without a mounted guard escort, and his 
efforts to appear a military potentate were, to 
say the least, not only amusing, but grotesque. 
Occasionally he wore a purple silk vest, and at 
other times a black vest with buttons covered 
with purple silk. They were left off, however, 
after Bishop Tache's return. I understand the 
natives objected to his wearing purple. 



The prisoners having been released, and some 
having returned to Ontario and other Eastern 
Provinces, the old business men of Winnipeg, 
and men of influence throughout the parishes, 
began talking freely to those of us who had 
settled down to make Winnipeg our home. From 
them we learned, referring to the incident of 
not allowing the Honorable William McDougall, 
the Lieutenant- Governor, to come in, that it was 
due to the information given to well known 
sympathizers of the French half-breeds, by the 
Honorable Joseph Howe, who had preceded Mr. 
McDougall to the Bed River Settlement, and had 
said at a private dinner party given in his 
honor, that the Government had not given the 
Honorable Mr. McDougall his commission, but 
had promised to send it to him on his arrival 
at Fort Garry. Many of the guests at that dinner 
were in touch with the leaders of the natives, 
and they, of course, grasped that news from a 
Cabinet Minister with avidity. The result was, 
that as soon as Mr. Howe had got out of the 
country, the statement was communicated to 
the Riel party, and they then knew their ground. 
This was hinted plainly to us at our noonday 

Howe and McDougall's Commission. 45 

lunch on the prairie, near Georgetown, Minne- 
sota, by Mr. James L. Turner and Mr. San- 
ford, both gentlemen supporters of the Domin- 
ion Government, and who afterwards were both 
elevated to the Dominion Senate. 

With this knowledge, and from such a source, 
you can readily understand that they had no 
fear of results detrimental to their cause in 
refusing McDougall entrance into the country, 
knowing that he had not his commission and 
was not vested with proper authority to issue a 
Royal Proclamation. 

The Eastern mail matter all came through by 
way of St. Paul, and from Pembina had to pass 
through the half-breed settlements, and in 
most cases were carried to the Winnipeg office 
by half-breeds, and under the censorship of the 
Kiel combination. They knew all the move- 
ments of the persons directing the Dominion 
affairs in the Bed Eiver Settlement, and that 
news came from a Minister of the Crown. 

The Honorable Mr. McDougall was not 
allowed to enter Rupert's Land. He did not 
have his commission when he made the attempt. 

When the Riel party were dispersed, and the 
country tranquil, Honorable William Mc- 
Dougall was not reappointed Governor, and 
now you can ask yourself the question: Was 

46 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

he fairly treated by the Government of that 

When Mr. McDougall was appointed, the 
Government was to be a Governor and Council. 
Captain Cameron, son-in-law of Sir Charles 
Tupper; Mr. Proveneher, a Montreal news- 
paper man of some ability ; Mr. Eichards, from 
Ontario ; Major Wallace, and one or two others, 
were to be of the Council; the others to be 
named from persons living at the time in the 
country; but after the uprising it was deemed 
advisable by the Federal Government to create 
the Province of Manitoba, under the provisions 
made and provided in the British North 
America Act. 

The first Governor was appointed in the per- 
son of Honorable Adams George Archibald, a 
man of ability, of genial manner and great tact. 
He reached Fort Garry September 30th, 1870, 
and set about the work of organizing the new 
Province, with caution and most excellent 
judgment, after first having met and obtained 
the views of some of the leading men of the 
several parishes, who were in a position to give 
him information that would assist him in carry- 
ing out the mission in which he was engaged. 

During the latter portion of the summer or 
beginning of autumn, Mr. Joseph Royal and 

Howe and McDoug all's Commission. 47 

Mr. Joseph Dubuc reached St. Boniface, and a 
short time after Mr. H. J. Clark reached Win- 
nipeg. They most likely had some hopes or 
promises that under the new regulations there 
would be a place made for them, which after- 
wards proved to be the case. They were each 
provided with French constituencies, and elect- 
ed at the first general election. 



Lieutenant-Governor Archibald associated 
with him in conducting the Government Mr. 
Alfred Boyd and Mr. Max A. Gerard, the former 
as Provincial Secretary, the latter as Pro- 
vincial Treasurer, until the elections could be 
held, and representative government fully 

The first elections were held December 20th, 
1870, and on the 10th of January, 1871, follow- 
ing, the first regular Cabinet was formed as 
follows : 

Honorable Alfred Boyd, Minister of Public 
Works and Agriculture; Honorable Max A. 
Gerard, Provincial Treasurer; Honorable H. J. 
Clark, Attorney- General ; Honorable Thomas 
Howard, Provincial Secretary; Honorable 
James McKay, President of the Council. 

The first session of the Legislature took place 
on Wednesday, March 15th, 1871, when Honor- 
able Joseph Royal was elected the first Speaker. 
About forty-three Bills were passed, and many 
of them were important Acts. The Education 
Act is amongst the number, being an Act to 
establish a system of education in this Prov- 
ince, and to establish Public Schools, the dual 

Arrival of Lt.-Governor Archibald. 49 

system having been inaugurated, Catholic and 

Among the more important Acts passed of 
the forty- three enumerated were : 

1 'The Interpretation Act," 

"The Supreme Court Act," 

"The Registration of Deeds Acts," 

"Police Act," 

"The License Act," 

"The Medical Act," 

"Bishop of St. Boniface Act," 

"Bishop of Rupert's Land Act." 

"St. John's College Act," 

"St. Boniface College Act," 
and others of less importance. 

The Legislative Council was summoned with 
the other branch of the Legislature to meet on 
the 15th March, 1871. The members of the 
Council were sworn in the previous day in the 
office of the Provincial Secretary : 

Honorable J. McKay, Honorable Dr. J. H. 
O'Donnell, Honorable C. Inkster, Honorable S. 
Hamlin, Honorable S. Dauphenais, Honorable 
F. Ogletree, Honorable D. Gunn. 

The Honorable James McKay was named 
Speaker of the Council, and Thomas Spence 
appointed Clerk. 

50 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

Dr. J. C. Schultz ran for Winnipeg, and was 
opposed by Donald A. Smith (now Strathcona). 

At first we had dual representation. Mr. 
Smith was elected by a large majority, consid- 
ering the small number of votes in each Elec- 
toral Division ; the natives nearly all voting for 
Mr. Smith. 

Most of the Canadians then in the country 
regretted Dr. Schultz 's defeat. Mr. Smith 
showed himself a man of great ability, free from 
prejudice and just in his deductions. 

The Federal Government appointed Judge 
Francis Johnson, a Commissioner, to report at 
Fort Garry, and inquire into the Eebellion 
Losses Claims. So far as concerned Mr. John- 
son's ability he was admirably fitted for the 
work, being an excellent French scholar and 
especially learned in the law. He appeared to 
go carefully into all the cases that came before 
him, and made an excellent report to the Gov- 
ernment; but many were much disappointed at 
the awards. The Canadians were of the opinion 
that Dr. Schultz 's compensation was much in 
excess of his losses, while some received but a 
small percentage of their actual losses. Those 
who were in a position to know, were of the 
opinion that most of .the Doctor's goods were 
disposed of before he and the others were made 

Arrival of Lt.-Governor Archibald. 51 

prisoners, and that his losses were from being 
thrown out of business, but were really in a 
measure made up by increased prices and quick 
sales for the large consignment of goods that 
came down the Bed Eiver immediatly after the 
arrival of the Wolseley Expedition; but Dr. 
Schultz, with that placid individuality, had a 
pleasant word for everyone, and seldom spoke 
of his gains or losses, but keeping his eye on 
whatever point he was endeavoring to make, 
kept his own counsel, and generally succeeded. 
Judge Johnson was a man of great ability, 
but insufferably vain, and if that vanity were 
appealed to in the proper manner I am afraid 
his conscience would have forsaken him, even 
if a deserving man was being sacrificed. 



Attorney- General Clark made himself un- 
popular early. He no sooner assumed office 
than he felt he was the law, instead of legal 
director, and so expressed himself; but the 
working out of his early conceived idea one day 
received a severe jolt. 

A soldier from the Barracks was one day in 
the "Old Emerling" Hotel, and engaged in a 
friendly game of cards with a French half- 
breed, and suggested that they play for money 
just to make it interesting. The soldier, after 
winning the little money the native had, was 
spending it at the bar. The man left the hotel, 
and meeting the Attorney-General, told of his 
loss, and the "Law" had to take its course. 
Honorable H. J. Clark called the nearest police- 
man, and ordered him to take the soldier out of 
the hotel to the station and lock him up. An- 
other soldier nearby saw the arrest, and at 
once ran off to the Barracks and reported. In 
a very short time a number of soldiers marched 
to the jail where the prisoner was, and de- 
manded his release, which was refused. They 
at once seized a long piece of timber and using 
it as a battering ram, smashed the door and took 

Attorney-General Clark Unpopular. 53 

the prisoner back to the Fort, and on the way 
saying: "We'll hang the Attorney- General on 
the Barracks gate some day." The Attorney- 
General looked upon the whole affair as a warn- 
ing which he should take, and he did. 

The Attorney- General assumed the leader- 
ship of the House, but as a matter of fact there 
was no Premier. The members of the Cabinet 
were individually responsible to the Lieutenant- 
Governor, and all Bills brought before the 
House were carefully gone over by the Gover- 
nor and a few trusted members of the Assembly 
and two members of the Legislative Council, 
and suggestions made. 

Of the personnel of the Legislative Council I 
have very little to say. Honorable James Mc- 
Kay, the first Speaker, was a half-breed; cau- 
tious, of excellent judgment in some instances; 
but had implicit faith in the advice of the clergy 
and not likely to oppose the views of the Arch- 
bishop. I must say in fairness he considered 
those opposed to him, and was at all times will- 
ing to discuss public questions with his oppon- 
ent, with a degree of justice, and at times won- 
derful adroitness. He was a quasi-king among 
the half-breeds, and had great power over al- 
most all the Indian tribes, speaking several 

54 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

Indian tongues with fluency. He was a man of 
means, treated the Indians generously, and was 
the peacemaker in many of their disputes, and 
his word was law unto them. 

The two French members of the Council, 
Honorable Solomon Hamlin and Honorable 
Francis Dauphenais, were honest, kindhearted 
men, unable to read or write, and voted on 
almost all questions in accordance with the 
wishes of their advisers. 

Honorable Francis Ogletree was a Canadian ; 
very well read, fair in debate, and had a good 
knowledge of civic legislation, having been a 
County Councillor in Ontario for many years. 
He was absolutely free from prejudice, and not 
easily swayed from his opinion by any argu- 

Honorable Donald Gunn was very old, but 
his intellect was in no way impaired. He was 
born in the Orkneys; very well read, and in 
narrating past events or happenings in the Set- 
tlement, or indeed the whole of Rupert 's Land- 
he was a veritable encyclopedia. He had, 
through his own energy and application, ac- 
quired a very good knowledge of astronomy, 
was very well up in meteorology, and respected 
by all classes of the people. 


Attorney-General Clark Unpopular. 55 

Honorable Colin Inkster was a son of the 
late John Inkster, of Seven Oaks, Kildonan. He 
was a hardy old Norseman from the North of 
Scotland, for many years in the Hudson Bay 
service; and the greatest treat you could give 
a distinguished visitor to the Settlement, was 
to give him an evening with happy, hearty, 
warm-hearted, intelligent John Inkster, of 
Seven Oaks. Honorable Colin, the present 
sheriff, in firmness is like his father. He had 
opinions on all subjects up for discussion and 
irrespective of opposition, always stood by 
those opinions, as I have good reason to know, 
having frequently been opposed to him in de- 
bate ; but he was a fair and honorable opponent, 
and I am pleased to say I number him now 
among my best friends. He is a gentleman of 
the old school ideals, and would honor any 
position in which he might be placed. 

Honorable Colin Inkster opposed Dr. Schultz 
for the Commons the first Dominion elections, 
but was defeated. Dr. Schultz carried the seat 
by a small majority. 

Honorable J. H. O'Donnell opposed the abo- 
lition of the Legislative Council, which was 
brought about in the main by the late Honorable 
Joseph Eoyal and one or two others. I am of 
the opinion that it was a mistake at the time, 


Manitoba as I Saw It. 

when so many conflicting interests had yet to 
be adjusted. The French half-breeds are the 
ones that have suffered most severely. 




Mr. Thomas Spence was appointed Clerk of 
the Legislative Council, a position he filled with 
considerable ability. He was a very well edu- 
cated Scotchman from Edinburgh, and came 
to Canada when a young man, living in Mon- 
treal for a few years. 

Some years previous to the purchase of 
Rupert's Land from the Hudson Bay Company 
by the Dominion Government, he came to the 
Red River Settlement (Fort Garry), and made 
his home in the Cathedral Town of St. Boniface. 
He was an excellent clerk, in fact, could do any- 
thing acceptably in an office; was a good en- 
grosser, a fairly good draughtsman, and 
sketched in landscape. Mr. Spence had quite a 
few of the characteristics of Wilkins Micawber ; 
he was always living in great expectations, and 
when they were not materializing he became de- 
pressed, and would tell dramatically how shame- 
fully his services had been overlooked by the 
Federal Government. It was never very appar- 
ent as to what those services consisted of, but 
it was an excellent text for considerable elo- 
quence on his part, mingled with an occasional 
tear; but a friendly suggestion of a "yard of 

58 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

clay" and a little of the cup "that cheers," and 
he felt sure that his great services would be 
duly considered by the Government. His Grace, 
the late Archbishop Tache, thought much of 
him, as having in many ways great ability, and 
always befriended him when it was necessary. 

Mr. Victor Beaupre was Usher of the Black 
Rod at that time. 

The first Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, 
was composed of twenty-four members only. It 
is doubtful if any Legislative Assembly in any 
Province of Canada at that time had as many 
men of ability, and that have figured so con- 
spicuously in Canadian public affairs, and so 
many that hold positions of trust and promin- 
ence to-day, as did that first Assembly of that 
Western Province. 

The first members of the Legislative Assem- 
bly were : 

Mr. Donald A. Smith (Strathcona), Dr. 
Curtis J. Bird, Mr. John H. McTavish, Alfred 
Boyd (of Redwood), Joseph Royal, Joseph 
Dubuc, Max A. Gerard, Kenneth McKenzie, 
John Sutherland (of Kildonan), Thomas Bunn, 
John Norquay, Thomas Howard, all men that 
have figured prominently in Canadian public 
affairs, and some having attained the highest 

Personnel of the First Legislature. 59 

positions in the gift of the Government, which 
they occupy to-day. 

Edmund Bourke, of St. James; H. J. Clark, 
Joseph Lemay, Pierre Delorme ; Dr. Cowan, of 
Portage la Prairie ; P. Breland, Louis Schmidt, 
Frederick Bird, John Taylor (Headingly), E. 
H. G. G. Hay, A. McKay, George Klyne, all 
men more or less prominent in their respective 

Following are a few remarks on these first 
members of the Legislative Assembly: 

Donald A. Smith (Lord Strathcona) ; every 
line of Canadian history from 1870 must be 
closely allied to his name, and a synonym for 
the progress and greatness of Manitoba and the 
Northwest of Canada. 

Dr. Curtis J. Bird, born in the Settlement, of 
English parents, learned in his profession, hav- 
ing recently received his training in Guy's 
Hospital, London, England; a man of culture 
and refinement, and a clever diagnostician, was 
of a retiring disposition, but his general read- 
ing had been broad, and his judgment always 
for the best; was for a time Speaker of the 

John Norquay, I need only mention his name 
to awaken the most kindly, generous impulse 
in the minds of all who ever knew him. Great, 

60 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

big, hearty, broad-minded, eloquent, noble John 
Nor quay. When speaking upon any subject 
touching upon the old and native population, 
his eloquence equalled the best efforts of D ' Arcy 
McGee. Had he been less generous, he would 
have remained longer in power. 

Thomas Bunn was a son of the late Dr. 
Bunn, a distinguished member of the medical 
profession here, a man of great erudition. His 
son inherited the quickness of perception and 
judicial mind of his father, and was a good 
speaker, ornate and convincing, and never spoke 
in the House unless thoroughly conversant with 
the subject before the chair. 

John H. McTavish, an officer of the Hudson 
Bay Company, a thorough business man, and 
from his intimate knowledge of the people of 
the Settlement and their requirements, rendered 
very valuable services in framing the new laws 
and adapting them to the requirements of the 
legal changes the.t were necessary under the 
new regulations. 

Alfred Boyd, a wealthy Englishman, of Red- 
wood, St. John's Parish. He was the first Pro- 
vincial Secretary; a man of good education, a 
gentleman of refinement, and readily adapted 
himself to the duties of his office. He was an 


Personnel of the First Legislature. 61 

excellent office man, and did good work in com- 
mittee; a clever cartoonist, and drew many 
laughable sketches of members of the House 
that were grotesquely funny. 

Edmund Bourke, born in this country, of the 
Parish of St. James. He is one of several 
brothers, all looked upon as men of sterling in- 
tegrity. He had opinions on all subjects before 
the House, and always voted in accordance with 
those opinions. 

Joseph Royal, the first Speaker of the Assem- 
bly, a gentleman of courtly bearing, had some 
ability as a newspaper writer, and was a fair 
speaker. He occupied several positions in the 
Government, at one time Attorney-General. He 
ultimately became Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Northwest Territories, which practically closed 
his public career. 

Joseph Dubuc, a man of quiet, unassuming 
manner, and his whole course has been one of 
progression. At different times he occupied 
positions in the Provincial Cabinet, until he was 
elevated to the Bench. As a lawyer he was 
looked upon as fair and honest, and never subtle 
or endeavoring to get an unfair advantage, and 
as a Judge his judgments were looked upon as 
among the best, and many think as a judge of 

62 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

fact he stands pre-eminent. At present he is 
Chief Justice of Manitoba. 

Max A. Gerard, a French gentleman of the 
old school, a man of good reasoning powers and 
a great favorite with all who knew him. He 
was the first Provincial Treasurer, and later on 
became Premier of the Province. He was not 
given the fullest support of those of his own 
nationality, and feeling that, he retired. On 
resigning he said: "Since it is the wish of those 
whose support I had every reason to expect, I 
obey their wishes. I am the first French Prem- 
ier of the Province, and it is my opinion I will 
be the last." Certainly up to this time his 
words have been prophetic. 

Thomas Howard, a son of a distinguished 
member of the medical profession in Montreal. 
He came up with the Wolseley Expedition, and 
became Provincial Treasurer. He assumed the 
Chesterfield manner, a good diner out, and was 
harmless and amusing. 

Mr. D. A. Boss has been for many years an 
active participant in all that pertains to the 
City and Provincial development. 

He was for several years a prominent mem- 
ber of the City Council, and very many of the 
permanent improvements bear his impress. 

Almost from the first he has been on the 

Personnel of the First Legislature. 63 

Board of the City's Public Schools, and has 
worked hard for compulsory education and the 
best class of school building, and in no instance 
has he neglected to raise his voice for the ad- 
vancement of our Public School System. 

He is at present the representative in the 
Provincial Parliament of the Electoral Consti- 
tuency of Springfield, and has shown himself 
to be an active and painstaking member. He is 
a brother of the late A. W. Ross, who represent- 
ed an Electoral District in Manitoba for sev- 
eral years in the Canadian House of Commons, 
and was a prominent figure in Winnipeg in 

Dr. Cowan, Portage la Prairie, a man of good 
business ability, and an excellent committee 
man ; a very useful and efficient member. 

Kenneth McKenzie, of Westbourne, an excel-* 
lent Scotch farmer, imported the first herd of 
thoroughbred Shorthorn cattle to the country; 
in short, was a model farmer. He was always 
listened to in the House and his opinion was 
valued. His word was never questioned, and 
it was a loss to the Province when he retired 
from politics. 

Mr. Molyneux Singean was appointed the 
first Clerk of the Legislative Assembly. He 
represented as correspondent some Eastern 

64 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

newspaper and was with the Wolseley Expedi- 
tion. As a young man he had been a Lieutenant 
in the British Army, a gentleman of pleasing 
manner, good ability, and considered a clever 
writer. He was up to the time of his death 
always in Government employ ; his last position 
being Usher of the Black Rod, Ottawa. 



One of the most important measures passed 
in the first session of the Manitoba Legislature 
was ''The School Act," being an Act to estab- 
lish a system of education in the Province, and 
establishing Public Schools; the dual system 
having been inaugurated Catholic and Protes- 
tant, not separate schools as they have gener- 
ally been called. 

Previous to the passing of the Public School 
Act, all schools were denominational, being 
managed and financed by their respective 
churches, namely: Catholic, Anglican, Presby- 
terian, Methodist; and gave good satisfaction 
in so far as results were obtained. 

When the Bill came up for discussion in the 
House the speeches were very mild indeed, and 
the measure passed both Houses of the Legisla- 
ture and became law. Public Schools were duly 
established, and for a time worked well. Later 
Church organizations and Eastern newspapers 
began discussing the Manitoba School affairs, 
and not being conversant with the subject wrote 
in error, and in a manner calculated to cause 
turbulence in the minds of the people. The 
politicians saw their opportunity, picked up the 

66 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

"cue" and the game was on, and played with 
much skill on both sides for political purposes, 
until settled by the Government of Canada. 

The great mistake in framing the first * ' Pub- 
lic School Act" was in not having a uniform 
curriculum, a standard up to which all teachers, 
Catholic and Protestant, had to come, and a 
uniform system of school inspection. Nothing 
could then have arisen to cause discussion. 

It was a relief to the majority of the people 
of Canada when the Federal Government took 
up the question and settled it for all time, inso- 
far as the Province of Manitoba is concerned. 
The School system as it now stands, is per- 
haps quite equal to any Public Schools in opera- 
tion on the continent. Our system is neither 
secular nor denominational. I am of the opin- 
ion if they are to have a name they should be 
called Protestant. However, they are not ultra, 
and there is very little friction, if any, on that 
score. The inspection of schools in the country 
appears very generally satisfactory at present, 
with the exception of Winnipeg and Brandon, 
in which cases the Archbishop, not being in 
accord with the system, the Catholic School 
Board erected separate school buildings, so that 
the Catholic ratepayers are doubly burdened 
in paying rates both for their own and the 

School Legislation. 67 

Public Schools. Where there are grounds for 
complaints they will ultimately evolve them- 
selves into harmony, and the deep-toned mur- 
mur of discontent here and there will become 
like a ripple on the surface of water, becoming 
less and less until it disappears altogether. 

In the City of Winnipeg the Public Schools 
are up to a high standard. The buildings are 
roomy, well heated and sanitary, ventilation 
good, and the rooms kept thoroughly clean; an 
efficient teaching staff; large average attend- 
ance and the discipline of the best. 

Mr. Daniel Mclntyre, the Superintendent, is 
a thorough educationalist, and supervises the 
school working with excellent tact and judg- 
ment. The teachers are selected with great care 
and placed in departments best suited to their 
individual ability. 

In consequence of the rapid growth of the 
city it is not easy to provide school space with- 
out overcrowding, but by the superior skill dis- 
played, Mr. Mclntyre seems to surmount the 
difficulty. So great is the increase of pupils 
yearly that it is found necessary to build one or 
two large school buildings every year in order 
to have sufficient accommodation even then, 
at times, it becomes necessary to rent a build- 
ing or two to meet the demand. 

68 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

Notwithstanding the heavy demands made 
annually upon the ratepayers for school build- 
ings very few objections have been raised for 
the outlay, free schools being looked upon as 
such a boon. 



The arrival of the Wolseley Expedition, of 
course, put matters on a quasi basis of law and 
order, but it was naturally to be expected that 
a bitter feeling would still exist between the 
Loyalists and the half-breeds who took part in 
the uprising. Chagrin at their defeat pervaded 
the minds of the natives, and the overbearing 
attitude assumed by the Canadians was the 
cause of an occasional rencontre, that ended 
disastrously on one particular occasion, and 
caused much ill-feeling to again spring up In 
the minds of the French natives and a bitter 
hatred of all Canadians. 

A French half-breed, a Mr. Goulet, who was 
looked upon as a leading rebel, came into a 
saloon not far from Fort Garry, where a few 
Canadians and retired soldiers were drinking. 
He was recognized and a quarrel ensued. 
Goulet was driven from the hotel. In his fright 
he ran away, pursued by a few men whose 
hatred overcame their judgment. After run- 
ning rapidly until he reached the brink of the 
Bed Eiver, and feeling, no doubt, that his 
pursuers intended him grievous bodily harm, 
Goulet plunged into the stream, and in his at- 

70 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

tempt to swim across to save himself, got but 
a short distance when he sank from exhaustion 
and was drowned. 

It was a most regrettable thing, but might 
have occurred under other circumstances which 
would have been thought but the outcome of a 
drunken brawl. The men who drove Goulet to 
his grave were of no credit to either party, and 
were a class having no standing in the com- 
munity, and should have been severely pun- 
ished, but they were not legally dealt with, 
which stands to the discredit of those who were 
parties to the outrage. 

At this time we had no newspaper worthy of 
the name here, and no Government can succeed 
without a Government organ. 

Mr. Robert Cunningham, a very clever 
writer, who was at one time attached to the 
Toronto Globe, about this time came to Fort 
Garry. He was a Scotchman from Aberdeen, 
thoroughly educated in newspaper work, a good 
Parliamentary reporter, and his advent was 
hailed with delight, and he was at once secured 
to write up the policy of the Government; and 
aided Governor Archibald materially in carry- 
ing out his ideas of administration along lines 
of pacifying the various discordant elements, 
unifying opposing factions, which had much to 

Arrival of the Wolseley Expedition. 71 

do with starting the newly created Province of 
Manitoba out upon its career, taking up its 
responsibilities as the poorest and smallest part 
of the Dominion. That Mr. Cunningham suc- 
ceeded well as the first editor of marked ability 
is now a matter of history. 

Mr. Robert Cunningham afterwards repre- 
sented in the House of Commons the Electoral 
Division of Marquette (Manitoba), and his 
voice was always heard in the interest of Mani- 
toba and the Northwest. Mr. Donald A. Smith 
(Strathcona) always spoke of him in terms of 
praise, and thought him a man of more than 
average ability. 

After the opening of the first session of the 
first Parliament of Manitoba, the next event to 
be mentioned was the State Dinner at Govern- 
ment House. The reader must not imagine it 
one of those perfunctory dinners of State where 
everyone looks bored, wearing that fixed smile 
which suggests the idea of "Why did I accept 
the invitation? How glad I shall be when it is 
over, that I may make my escape!" It was 
nothing of the sort; it was superlatively inter- 
esting. The favored of the Court, who were in 
juxtaposition to His Honor, wore the most 
recent evening dress. All Canadians, of course, 
dressed appropriately, but the other members 

72 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

wore their ordinary holiday attire, common to 
the country, which was in many instances, very 
picturesque. At that table was seen the broad- 
cloth capot of the Hudson Bay Company, with 
polished brass buttons, Hudson Bay sash and 
moccasins; some in Scotch tweed suits; others 
in frock coats, and the most surprising thing 
was the ease of manner displayed by alL The 
table manners were all the most fastidious 
could desire, and the conversation edifying, and 
a gentleman of the press of Montreal, who sat 
beside me, remarked "If all dressed the part, 
they would appear well at a Vice-Eegal State 
Dinner anywhere. " 



Winnipeg was the central point around which 
focussed all the people coming into the country. 
It was the postal distributing office, and the 
traveling headquarters of the Hudson Bay 
Company, as well as for all " free traders" of 
every description, and the people who came 
from Eastern Provinces and who were accus- 
tomed to municipal advantages, began to clamor 
for an Act to incorporate the City of Winnipeg. 
The most of the property was owned by a few 
old settlers and old traders, who foresaw they 
would be taxed to pay for all municipal im- 
provements, and they naturally objected. A 
Bill of Incorporation was framed by an Ontario 
barrister, Mr. Francis Evans Cornish, the first 
Mayor of Winnipeg, and in due course was 
introduced in the Assembly, and after a good 
deal of useless discussion was thrown out on a 
technicality. This aroused the population to an 
intense degree of excitement little dreamed of. 

An indignation meeting was called the follow- 
ing day in the open air. Violent speeches were 
delivered, which aroused the more turbulent 
members of the community, who were terribly 

74 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

wrought up. Extravagant language was used 
and threats were made, and a resolution put and 
carried to the effect that the whole population 
were to meet at three o'clock in the afternoon, 
and march in a body to the Bar of the House 
(then in session), and demand the reintroduc- 
tion of the Bill of Incorporation of the City of 
Winnipeg. Dr. Bird, the Speaker at that time, 
was called by an emissary of those in favor of 
the Bill, ostensibly to see the Reverend John 
Black's wife, at night. He had driven but a 
short distance when he was taken from his trap 
and maltreated most shamefully, to the disgrace 
of all Canadians who took part in the affair. 

At the time appointed nearly the whole popu- 
lation assembled, some out of curiosity, but 
most of them were inclined to be violent, and 
declared unless their demands were acceded to, 
they would tear down the Parliament House 
about the heads of its members. They marched 
in good order, filling both yard and street in 
front of the Assembly and the Legislative 

They sent a messenger to the Bar of the 
Legislative Council that the Speaker address 
them. The speaker, Honorable James McKay, 
deputed Honorable Dr. O'Donnell to speak to 
them. The Doctor advised them to go to their 

Western Headquarters of H. B. Co. 75 

homes peaceably, and if they prepared a new 
Act of Incorporation sufficiently different from 
the one that was rejected, to constitute a new 
Bill, handing it to the Clerk of the Council, it 
would be introduced and would be carefully 
considered by that body. 

Mr. F. Evans Cornish, barrister, the spokes- 
man of the party, agreed to this suggestion, and 
called for three cheers for Honorable Dr. 
O'Donnell and the Legislative Council, and 
three groans for the Legislative Assembly, 
which were given with vim, and the crowd dis- 
persed quietly. 

The Bill of Incorporation in its new form was 
presented to the Clerk of the Legislative Coun- 
cil, introduced and passed without amendments. 
The following day it was sent to the Lower 
House for consideration, and within a few min- 
utes the people gathered in large numbers, 
filed into the Assembly Chamber, stood at the 
Bar, and demanded the passing of the Act. A 
short consultation took place between Attorney- 
General Clark and the Speaker, and the Ser- 
geant-at-Arms informed the deputation that the 
Government had decided to consider the Bill at 
its next sitting, which they did, and it passed 
with a few unimportant amendments. 

76 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

Such was the feeling of the people at that 
time that it would have been very unwise for 
the Government to have refused their demand. 



An Act to establish a University was intro- 
duced February, 1877, and passed both Houses 
of the Legislature with little or no opposition. 
The first officials of the University were : Chan- 
cellor, Archbishop Machray; Vice-Chancellor, 
Honorable Joseph Eoyal ; Registrar, Mr. E. W. 
Jarvis; Bursar, Mr. Duncan McArthur. 

Students having studied in either of the Sec- 
tarian Colleges could write for a degree, after 
giving the necessary proofs that they had pur- 
sued the studies prescribed in the curriculum 
to the satisfaction of the Board of Studies. 

The University Act, was, of course, to be con- 
sidered absolutely non-sectarian. The first 
Chancellor was the late Archbishop Machray, the 
best man possible for the position. At the time 
of his death Chief Justice Dubuc was Vice- 
Chancellor, and in direct line for the Chancellor- 
ship, and should have received it. They ap- 
pointed Archbishop Matheson Chancellor, an 
excellent man for the position in all respects. 
Chief Justice Dubuc is a Frenchman and a 
Roman Catholic. Is that the reason he was not 

78 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

made Chancellor? It gives one that impression. 
If that is so, the University is practically 

"It has been said that the introduction of the 
University Act was mainly due to the Lieuten- 
ant- Governor, at the time Honorable Alexander 
Morris. He was a man of high ideals, anxious 
to signalize his term of office by some great 
achievement, and found in the creation of the 
University an object worthy of his ideals." 
Governor Alexander Morris did signalize his 
term of office by an action worthy of his ideals, 
but it was not the University Act. 

More than two years had elapsed before a 
Justice of the Peace could be got to take a depo- 
sition and sign a warrant for the arrest of Eiel, 
Lapine and others. When at last a Magistrate 
did issue the warrant, Lieutenant- Governor 
Alexander Morris sanctioned the cancellation 
of the Commission of the Peace held by that 
Magistrate for signing the warrant. The intel- 
ligent reader will judge for himself and accord 
him the amount of glory to be attached to that 
act of His Honor. It must be said in extenua- 
tion that he was not a very strong man, and his 
frequent indisposition rendered his judgment 
at times very difficult to account for. 

Governor A. G. Archibald, on the contrary, 


The University. 79 

was a man of great tact. At that early day, 
distant from city markets, it was difficult to 
obtain luxuries for elaborate entertaining. Not- 
withstanding, he gave a dinner nearly every 
Thursday evening, bringing together people of 
the most discordant political views, and every- 
things passed off so pleasantly that those social 
gatherings were looked forward to with a great 
deal of pleasure, and it did much to allay public 
ill-feeling. Governor Archibald was a most 
charming conversationalist, and all who assem- 
bled at his board left with "he is a jolly good 
fellow" smile on his countenance. He was un- 
doubtedly the right man for the place at the 
time, and in that respect it was better that 
Mr. McDougall failed to reach the position. He 
lacked the discrimination and tact that was 
absolutely required at the time, and I have since 
wondered why the Federal Government made 
the selection, especially as he was an opponent. 
After the arrival of the Wolseley Expedition 
Winnipeg was policed by soldiers detailed from 
the Barracks. After the troops were withdrawn 
and up to the time that Winnipeg was incorpo- 
rated, the police were appointed by the Pro- 
vincial Government, and of a class that suited 
Attorney- General Clark's purpose, irrespective 
of the wishes of the people. 

80 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

The Chief of the Police was a henchman of 
the Attorney-General, and was ordered to go to 
a camp of Indians, who were on the river bank, 
and order them to stop the beating of their 
' ' tumtums ' ' and move out in the early morning. 
The Indians looked upon this man as an in- 
truder, and refused to obey. No treaty having 
been made at that time, the Chief of Police lost 
his temper, and fired his revolver into a tent 
where there were women and children, and 
wounded an Indian woman. The Aboriginals 
became excited, and, happily, in the excitement 
the policeman made his escape. 

It so happened that the Indian Commissioner 
from Ottawa was in Winnipeg at the time, and 
had the Chief of Police arrested. He was 
brought before the Grand Jury. Attorney-Gen- 
eral Clark did not have any evidence to submit 
and no bill was found. 



Lieutenant-Governor Joseph Cauchon suc- 
ceeded Mr. Morris, and entered upon his duties 
under very painful circumstances ; his wife was 
very seriously ill on reaching Winnipeg, and 
grew rapidly worse, and had hardly got settled 
in Government House when she died. Madame 
Cauchon was a very charming woman, very 
beautiful and highly accomplished. Her death 
was very much regretted by all classes of the 
community. She was buried at the St. Boniface 
Cathedral. The funeral was very imposing and 
largely attended by all classes of the people, 
irrespective of creed or nationality. 

Government House was presided over by the 
sister of the deceased, Miss Nolan, for a year or 
more, when His Honor married Miss Le Moyne, 
a French lady from Ottawa. She presided at 
Government House with dignity and tact, and 
became a general favorite. She entertained 
with judgment and grace, which is natural to 
the cultured French lady. Her dinners, balls, 
soirees, musicales, children's parties and after- 
noon teas were appreciated, and did much to 
allay the friction that had arisen as a result of 
the late uprising. 

Governor Cauchon was democratic, and a 

82 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

finished entertainer. He had been Mayor of 
Quebec City for several terms, and nearly all his 
life in politics. Almost constantly either enter- 
taining or being entertained, he had become a 
perfect host; he had a fund of humor and an 
immense faculty as a storyteller, telling stories 
that produced side-splitting laughter. His long 
political career gave him an insight into public 
affairs which made it easy for him to be an 
ideal Lieutenant- Governor. His health ulti- 
mately failed, and he was succeeded by Honor- 
able James Cox Aikins. 

Lieutenant- Governor Aikins, previous to his 
appointment, had been many years in public 
life, for several years a member of Sir John A. 
Macdonald's Government. His mind was judi- 
cial, and he was throughout his term of office, in 
every sense of the term, a Constitutional Gover- 
nor. The social side of Government House was 
very quiet, he entertaining very little. His con- 
scientious views practically caused him to elim- 
inate dancing, etc., and, as a result, his social 
functions were not numerous, but enjoyable to 
elderly and church-going people. 

His term of office having expired, he retired 
with the respect of all classes of people, who 
believed he had filled the office with dignity and 


Lieut. -Governor Cauchon. 83 

Honorable Dr. J. C. Schultz succeeded Gover- 
nor Aikins. 

Honorable Dr. Schultz had served in the 
House of Commons for several years, when his 
health began to fail, and Sir John A. Macdonald 
elevated him to the Senate of Canada, a position 
held by him until he received the appointment 
of Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba, a position 
held by him for nearly seven years, up to the 
time of his death. 

When he assumed office he was in poor health 
and remained an invalid until he was removed 
by death. His official term was characterized 
by nothing in particular. He was at all times 
placid, discreet, plausible and non-committal. 
The social side of life at Government House was 
very neutral, due most likely to the Governor's 
health. He had been a long sufferer, and his 
death was not unexpected. 

Governor Schultz was succeeded by Mr. Pat- 
terson, at one time a Cabinet Minister. He was 
a barrister from Windsor, and had represented 
a constituency in the Western part of Ontario. 
He was a society man and entertained lavishly, 
but Government House was less popular than 
it would have been had Mrs. Patterson been 
with him to preside at social functions. 

Governor Patterson was the first Lieutenant- 

84 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

Governor of Manitoba to accept invitations at 
social gatherings in private houses, which he 
did generally, and thereby became very popular 
with the younger and more democratic side of 
society. The old school families thought it 
infra dig, while holding the Queen's Commis- 
sion, and did not approve of it. The precedent 
which he originated has been followed by his 
successor and bids fair to continue. He was not 
at any time thought a man of great ability, but 
did what was expected of him in accordance 
with the Constitution, and was seldom spoken 
of after his term of office expired. 



Lieutenant-Governor Sir Daniel McMillan 
came West with the Wolseley Expedition in 
1870 as Captain of a Company; a young man, 
unassuming, dignified, affable, and with a man- 
ner that impressed one. He was an agreeable 
conversationalist, but not verbose. He settled 
in "Winnipeg, and has resided in that city unin- 
terruptedly since. He has always taken a lively 
interest in all matters pertaining to the pro- 
gress of the City and Province. He was en- 
gaged in business for several years, and was 
considered an excellent business man, and his 
opinion was always sought and valued on all 
public questions. 

In politics he was always a Liberal, and rep- 
resented Winnipeg Centre for several terms in 
the Provincial Legislature. Honorable Thomas 
Greenway took him into his Cabinet as Pro- 
vincial Treasurer, a position he held for several 
years ; and he was looked upon as a very efficient 
Cabinet Minister, and a strength to the Gov- 
ernment. He succeeded Governor Patterson, 
and has performed his duties at Government 
House very satisfactorily to the Federal Gov- 
ernment, and was reappointed a second term, at 

86 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

the close of five years, which was thought a mis- 
take. Most of the "old Grit party" do not be- 
lieve in a second term, and think it should be 
discontinued. Although the Provincial Govern- 
ment is Conservative, Sir Daniel in his official 
capacity has always been considered absolutely 
neutral, and the social side of Government 
House has been all that could be desired by the 
most fastidious society critic. 

Captain Cameron (now Major-General), was 
one of Lieutenant- Governor McDougall's party, 
and was to have been one of the Executive. He 
had been an officer in the British Army and had 
served in India, and although a man of medium 
size, he had the bearing, every inch, of a soldier. 
He was exceedingly practical, and demonstrated 
the fact whenever an occasion arose. Crossing 
the prairie, at times a train became fast in one 
of the many sloughs, but he always knew the 
most ready way to extricate them. Captain 
Cameron was a reserved man, but had excellent 
ideas, and was conversant with almost any sub- 
ject, giving one the impression that he was 
widely read, and had read understandingly, and 
he possessed an agreeable, placid manner; was 
an excellent listener and a quick observer, tak- 
ing in the most salient points of a conversation, 
which at times amused him when others did not 

Sir Daniel McMillan. 87 

see the humor. It was thought by those who 
knew him well, that it was unfortunate that he 
was unable to reach Fort Garry, believing that 
his advice would have been of great value at 
that stage of the country's history. 



The Honorable Robert Atkinson Davis, at one 
time Premier of Manitoba, was unfamiliar with 
Parliamentary usage, but developed rapidly, so 
much so, that he soon became fairly well posted 
in political adroitness; but he always had the 
countenance of an innocent abroad. On arriv- 
ing at Winnipeg, and having some means, he 
looked about for an investment that would yield 
the greatest returns, and soon decided that the 
hotel business would be the most profitable. 
He purchased the Emerling Hotel, which then 
stood on the site of the present Mclntyre Build- 
ing; and proceeded to do business, and from 
appearances amassed money very rapidly. 

He was a man of few words, but was all things 
to everybody, disagreeing with none, and as a 
result he became known to the whole population, 
and thought to be a most agreeable man, and if 
on an occasion it was learned that he was agree- 
ing with two men of widely different views, 
and was taxed with it, he invariably had a 
plausible excuse and smoothed away the little 
ripple by asking them to have a glass of port 
wine that had been sent to him from Montreal 
by an old Scotchman, claiming the wine had 

The "Hotel" Premier of Manitoba. 89 

been in his friend's cellar for over thirty years, 
and the two politicians on the way home agreed 
that Mr. Davis was the prince of good fellows. 

In consequence of a small divergence from 
the lines laid down by the leaders of the differ- 
ent political parties, it so happened that Mr. 
Davis received the nomination, and was elected 
to a seat in the Legislature, and in course of 
time became Premier of the Province of Mani- 

At the opening of the first session after Mr. 
Davis became Premier, the hall was filled with 
the elite of Manitoba, anxious to observe the 
ease of manner always possessed by the Honor- 
able B. A. Davis. He, as a rule, dressed a little 
different from the average man, in short, in a 
style of his own. On this occasion he wore a 
dress coat, closely fitting, tightly buttoned, and 
in the centre of his immaculate shirt front wore 
a gold nugget, in which was set a diamond that 
was brilliant and of great dimensions. I over- 
heard some ladies remark that he was an origi- 
nal dresser. I believed them; even in his ex- 
alted position he followed his own ideas rather 
than fashion. He was not an eloquent speaker, 
but speaking slowly took up a good deal of the 
time of the House. When speaking on a Gov- 
ernment measure, he always began his speech 

90 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

by saying: "Mr. Speaker, the Government of 
which I am the head" and when speaking of 
Her Majesty, the Queen, always spoke of her as, 
"Our Sovering Lady the Queen," and in ad- 
dressing an opponent would in reply say: "I 
certingly don't agree with the Honorable gen- 
tleman opposite." 

When he became Premier the appointment 
was sharply criticized by some of the leading 
politicians. One of the local papers said: "His 
only equipment for the position was a slate 
pencil and a saloon ; and a person having busi- 
ness to transact with the Provincial Treasurer's 
Department, if he were not in, they would be 
sure to find him at the Davis House." 

When his term of office expired, he gave up 
politics, sold what property he had, and left the 
country, settling in Chicago. His administra- 
tion was what might have been expected, in no 
particular creditable to himself or his colleagues 
and retarded the progress of the country. He 
was not aiming for glory; he was in office for 
what there was in it for himself, making the 
most of his position, having no reputation to 



Honorable Thomas Greenway was distinctly 
a prominent figure in Manitoba politics. He 
was leader of the Liberal party in the Legisla- 
tive Assembly of Manitoba for more than 
twenty years. He was Premier of the Province 
for twelve years, and all measures of import- 
ance passed during that period bear the impress 
of his far-seeing judgment. In every sense, he 
was one of Manitoba's greatest men on all sub- 
jects pertaining to the interests of the Province. 
His speeches were well thought out, and deliv- 
ered in that logical, forcible manner peculiarly 
his own, leaving a lasting impression upon the 
minds of his listeners. 

I shall never forget his arraignment of the 
Honorable Premier Norquay, on the settlement 
of the boundary between Ontario and Manitoba. 
It was a masterly effort, completely shattering 
the findings in Mr. Norquay 's eloquent appeal, 
which was probably his greatest effort. It was 
an effort of giants. It is doubtful if two such 
legislators will again come to the surface in 
Manitoba for a very long time. 

Honorable Mr. Greenway was of the people, 
with the people of Manitoba and the West in 

92 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

all things pertaining to their welfare and pro- 
gression. He ought to be, and no doubt will be, 
ranked well up on the column among Canada's 
greatest statesmen. 

Honorable William Hespeler landed in Win- 
nipeg in the month of June, 1873, in charge of 
the German-Bussian Mennonite Delegation. In 
the following year he was appointed Commis- 
sioner of Immigration and Agriculture by the 
Dominion Government for Manitoba and the 
Northwest Territories ; from which position he 
resigned in 1883, having been appointed Ger- 
man Consul for Manitoba and the Northwest 
Territories, by the German Government, which 
position he held until 1908. For his services 
during twenty-five years he received two deco- 
rations from the Emperor of Germany. 

During the time of Mr. Hespeler 's Consular 
services he was elected to the Manitoba Legis- 
lature in the year 1899, for the Electoral Divis- 
ion of Bosenfeldt, and was then elected Speaker. 
He has also been a member of the Board of the 
Winnipeg General Hospital for the last thirty- 
three years, and President of the Board since 

Honorable Hugh John Macdonald in 1897 
undertook the leadership of the Conservative 
party in Manitoba, and opposed Mr. Green- 


Premier Greenway. 93 

way's Government in a general Provincial Elec- 
tion, in which he had such success that he and 
his supporters were put in a position to take 
possession of the Treasury Benches. He advo- 
cated Government control or ownership of rail- 
ways, which was the policy which carried him 
into power, notwithstanding the legal firm of 
which he was a member were solicitors for Can- 
ada's largest railway corporation. Mr. Mac- 
donald resigned the Premiership of Manitoba 
and accepted a nomination in the constituency 
of Brandon. Mr. Macdonald was opposed by 
the Honorable Clifford Sifton, who carried the 
constituency by a very large majority, and since 
that time Mr. Macdonald has adhered closely 
to his legal practice, not again entering the 
political arena. 



Honorable R. P. Eoblin, the present Premier, 
succeeded the late Dr. Harrison, who was Prem- 
ier for but a short time after the defeat of the 
Norquay Government. 

Mr. Eoblin is a Canadian by birth, of Ger- 
man descent. He is a fluent speaker, and has 
all the pertinacity of his race. He has for a 
number of years been closely identified with the 
grain trade, and is looked upon as a far-seeing 
dealer, and one of the leading grain men of the 
Northwest. He has a large farm near Carman, 
claims to work for the best interests of the 
farming community; has a cheerful, happy dis- 
position, but one must not bank on his good 
nature. He can be sufficiently aggressive, a 
good fighter, and rather a formidable opponent, 
as those on the left of the speaker can testify. 
As a citizen, it may be said, that he is progres- 
sive, frugal and active ; whatever he undertakes 
he does with all his might, and never says, 
"Hold, enough." 


The Winnipeg Grain Exchange is an associa- 
tion conducting the grain business of the Cana- 

Premier Roblin. 95 

dian West, and having its headquarters in a 
magnificent building especially erected for that 
purpose at a cost of $650,000. Fully ninety-five 
per cent, of the whole grain raised in Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan and Alberta, which seeks a mar- 
ket in Eastern Canada and Europe, is handled 
by the members of this Exchange, which in 
addition to the facilities for an exchange mar- 
ket, conducts a regular trading room where 
grain for future delivery is bought and sold, 
and the facilities for transacting business are 
most complete. Quotations made in the leading 
markets of the world are regularly and almost 
instantaneously received by special wires, and 
the quotations and records of sales and pur- 
chases made on the Exchange's floor are imme- 
diately wired to the leading markets in Eastern 
Canada and the United States. 

In connection with the Grain Exchange trad- 
ing there is a grain clearing house where all 
trades made upon the floor of the Exchange are 
cleared regularly each day. The daily clear- 
ances have reached instances as high as six 
million bushels. 

It would be utterly impossible to move or 
finance the Western grain crops without such 
an institution, and the Exchange meets the 
necessities of the situation, and comprises in its 

96 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

membership three hundred country elevator 
owners, terminal elevator owners, exporters, 
commission men, millers, track buyers, brokers 
and transportation officials. 

Mr. C. N. Bell has been Secretary of the 
Board of Trade since 1887, and Secretary of 
the Grain and Produce Exchange since its or- 

Since the grain inspection system came into 
force in Manitoba, he has been Secretary of 
the "Western Grain Standards Board, the Grain 
Survey Board and the Board of Grain Exam- 
iners. He was Secretary of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Shipment and Transportation, which 
important body is studying and reporting upon 
the whole national system of transportation of 
the products of the country to the markets of 
the world. 

He has been delegate to many Boards of 
Trade and other business conventions in Can- 
ada, and also to the Congress of the Chambers 
of Commerce of the Empire. 

Mr. C.' N. Bell is widely read and has at all 
times perfect control of himself, never becomes 
the least impatient in business, however great 
the cause ; always ready and willing to give in- 
formation in business hours, and an authority 
on everything connected with the grain trade 


Premier Roblin. 97 

of the Northwest, and the statutes which govern 
it. He is one of Canada's most useful men, and 
anything he undertakes is certain to be well 



Mr. George D. McVicar came to Manitoba 
before the first Eiel Rebellion, and accompanied 
Dr. Schultz across the country to Duluth, both 
making their way out of the country, after Dr. 
Schultz got out of his confinement in Fort 

Mr. McVicar, on his return to the Red River 
Settlement, gave me a full detailed account of 
their journey from the Settlement to Duluth, 
and on to Ontario. He was among the first to 
import agricultural implements into the coun- 
try, and I believe the first to import sewing 
machines. He was a man of sterling merit, 
absolutely reliable in every respect. His widow 
and family at present reside in Winnipeg. 

Mr". Fred J. C. Cox was born in Huddersfield, 
Yorkshire, England, and educated in Hamburg, 
Germany ; married Miss Lillie Erb, daughter of 
L. H. Erb, of Winnipeg. 

Mr. Cox has always taken keen interest in 
the development of Manitoba and the progress 
of the City of Winnipeg. He has resided here 
since 1881. 

He has been Secretary of the Northwest Com- 
mercial Travelers' Association of Canada, the 

F. J. C. COX. 

Two Prominent Western Men. 99 

past nine years. He has been a member of the 
City Council six years, Chairman of the Legisla- 
tive Committee for five years, Chairman of the 
Health Committee and Chairman of Police Com- 

He is a clear headed business man, a quick 
thinker, a thorough accountant and watches with 
shrewdness all the city's business, and is an 
active, assiduous worker in the public interest. 

Mr. Cox is a man of quick perception, has 
clear-cut, well-defined opinions on all matters 
affecting the public, and once he is well satisfied 
as to the correctness of his theories, adheres to 
those opinions and argues them with great 



Mr. A. McT. Campbell is the Manitoba Man- 
ager of the Manitoba Branch of the Canada 
Life Assurance Company. The business in 
force in Manitoba, the oldest of the Western 
branches, exceeds those of any of the others, as 
does also the value of new business being 
written. He is the "Dean of the Western Man- 
agers, and it is largely due to his energy, ability 
and personal popularity, that Manitoba ranks 
so high." Mr. Campbell, who is well known 
from Winnipeg to the Coast, has been Manager 
for Manitoba since 1895. 

Mr. McTavish Campbell's father was for 
many years a chief factor of the Honorable 
Hudson Bay Company, and during his long resi- 
dence in the City of Winnipeg he has become 
thoroughly familiar with the business of Mani- 
toba and the whole Northwest, especially the 
financial interests and the best methods of in- 
vestment. He is a close reasoner, discreet, emi- 
nently cautious, and his opinion is valued highly 
in financial circles. 

In social life he is a refined gentleman of the 
old school, pleasant and agreeable, and his 
presence at any social gathering always insures 
the success of the affair. 




Honorable Edmund Burke Wood was ap- 
pointed Chief Justice of Manitoba on the llth 
of March, 1874. 

After his elevation to the Judicial Bench of 
Manitoba he effected some important changes 
in the legal procedure of the Manitoba Courts, 
and delivered many well prepared judgments 
which attracted much attention at that time. 

The first case tried by Judge Wood after 
taking his seat on the Bench, is the best known 
of all cases that ever came before him, "the 
cause celebre," of the Queen vs. Ambrose Le- 
pine, for the murder of Thomas Scott, whose 
tragical death was a prominent event in con- 
nection with the Bed River Rebellion of 1869 
and 1870. 

The prisoner's counsel repudiated the juris- 
diction of the Court over the offence charged in 
the indictment; the Crown demurred to the 
prisoner 's plea, after which the case was argued 
before the two puisne judges, who allowed the 
matter to stand over from term to term without 
pronouncing judgment. Upon Honorable E. B. 
Wood's accession to the Bench, the case was at 
once brought before him. The trial, which in- 

102 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

volved grave questions, both of law and fact, 
lasted about two weeks. At the close of the 
argument he pronounced judgment for the 
Crown on the demurrer without leaving his 

He (the Judge) decided that both the Court 
in Manitoba and the Court in the old Provinces 
of Canada, and since Confederation in Ontario 
and Quebec, have concurrent jurisdiction on 
such offences as that charged, and over the par- 
ticular case in question. 

Eminent jurists in the Eastern Provinces un- 
hesitatingly gave it as their opinion that Chief 
Justice Wood's law was unsound, but his de- 
cision was upheld by the law officers of the 
Crown in England, and his written judgment 
was pronounced a remarkable specimen of 
forensic learning and acumen. 

Honorable Edmund Burke Wood, to take him 
all in all, was one of Canada's greatest men. 
He was a veritable encyclopedia of Canadian 
history, and outside of that he was a man of 
very great experience and widely read. He was 
an excellent classic, eminently mathematical in 
his deductions, in short, a very close reasoner, 
an excellent judge of men, and one of Canada's 
greatest public speakers. 

In private life he was one of the most genial 


Hon. Edmund Burke Wood. 103 

of men, very witty, most entertaining. At the 
time he was appointed Chief Justice of Mani- 
toba just such a man was required for the place 
and his record will live in the history of the 



An amusing incident occurred early in 1870 
when Colonel Eankin, from Windsor, Ontario, 
came to Fort Garry, to interview Kiel, and give 
him some advice that would be of great use to 
him. He first called upon an officer of the Hud- 
son Bay Company, and informed him of his 
mission. The Hudson Bay man did not think it 
wise for him to " beard the lion in his den," 
and he did not think he would have cause to con- 
gratulate himself on the result of his interview. 

The Colonel walked up to Eiel's quarters, 
with all the assurance of a man accustomed to 
command, and gave his card to the guard at the 
door. After some minutes he was ushered to 
the great man's presence. 

Mr. Biel said: "Be seated, Mr. Eankin." 

"Colonel Eankin, Monsieur." 

"You are not Colonel here. You have no 
rank in my presence. What is your business in 
as few words as possible? Are you accredited 
with instructions from the Ontario Government 
or from any organization that would warrant 
me in giving you an official audience?" 

Col. Rankin's Reception by Riel. 105 

* * No, but I am in close touch with the Federal 
Government, and any report that I would make 
to the Government would have great weight, 
and they would give it careful consideration/' 

"You think the Government of Canada would 
look upon any report that you would make as 
quasi official?" 


"You may say officially that you had an in- 
terview with Kiel, the leader of the Metis, and 
he said you had but twenty-four hours to get 
out of the country, and further, if after that 
you were taken north of the forty-ninth parallel 
of latitude, you would be arrested and tried by 
Court-Martial, and dealt with according to the 
findings of the Court. You say you are a mili- 
tary man ; it will not be necessary to explain to 
you what that means. Batice, show this gentle- 
man out." 

The Colonel made haste to consult the Hud- 
son Bay Company officer whom 'he had first 
interviewed, who said laughingly, "A horse, a 
horse, my Colonel's commission for a horse!" 

The Colonel said : ' ' My dear sir, it is serious. 
Don't jest, please. What shall I do? Can you 
help me out?" 

"We will see the Postmaster. The mail 

106 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

leaves for Pembina in two hours. He will most 
likely arrange a passage for you that far." 

The Postmaster sent the old man on his way 
presumably happy, but he had the countenance 
of the man "who never smiled again." 

The Colonel was supplied with hospital com- 
forts to enable him to guard the mail as far as 




Lumbering as an industry commenced about 
the year 1872. Previous to that time the modest 
requirements of the settlers were supplied by 
means of the whipsaw or the most primitive 
kind of saw mill. The first introduction of 
what may be regarded as a modern saw mill 
was erected in 1872 by Macaulay & Sprague, on 
the banks of the Bed River between Notre Dame 
and Lombard streets ; a small portable mill was 
built the same year by Dick & Banning in the 
same vicinity. At this time only a few million 
feet of lumber was manufactured here, the logs 
coming from the Roseau and Red Lake Rivers. 
The bulk of the lumber which was required in 
what was considered the extraordinary develop- 
ment of Winnipeg came down the Red River by 
flatboat or raft from Moorehead, to which point 
it had been shipped from Anoka, Minneapolis, 
Duluth and other American lumbering districts. 
Subsequently mills were built by D. B. Sprague, 
who had retired from the Macaulay & Sprague 
Company, Hugh Sutherland & Bros., Jarvis & 
Burridge and Clarke & Sutherland. The only 
one of these plants remaining is the mill built 

108 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

in 1882 by Mr. Sprague, and which has been 
running continuously ever since. It may be 
said of this mill that when built it was up to 
date in every particular ; to this may be added 
the further distinction of having installed in it 
the first horizontal bandmill for sawing slabs 
ever introduced into the West, if not into Can- 

Mr. D. E. Sprague is in the truest sense of the 
word a Canadian, quiet and unassuming in man- 
ner, courteous always, but a countenance indi- 
cating decision of character and unlimited firm- 
ness. He has always been in the front rank of 
anything pertaining to Manitoba interests and 
Winnipeg progression. Having amassed a 
large fortune by strictly adhering to a business 
that he thoroughly understands, and having 
kept his business within the limits of his capital 
and his whole capital within his interests, he 
is now among the largest taxpayers in the City 
of Winnipeg. He is head of the Sprague Lum- 
ber Company, which is one of the most exten- 
sive west of Ontario, employing a great many 
laborers, skilled and otherwise, who must be 
the sole means of support of many hundreds 
of people. 

Mr. Sprague 's son, Mr. Harold C. H. 
Sprague, who is Assistant Manager of the 


Mr. D. E. Sprague. 109 

Sprague Lumber Company, is as fine, hand- 
some, and muscular a specimen of manhood as 
one could wish to see. He is assiduously apply- 
ing himself to his duties with an earnest desire 
to master the details of the business, and will, I 
have no doubt, ultimately make a worthy suc- 
cessor to his father. 

Upon the completion of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway and other railway lines, the lumber 
industry developed from the manufacture of a 
few million feet of lumber per annum by mills 
located in Winnipeg, to the manufacture of 
hundreds of millions annually by mills located 
from Port Arthur to Vancouver, and distribut- 
ed over the intervening territory from the in- 
ternational boundary in British Columbia to 
Edmonton in Alberta, and constituting, as it 
does now, one of the most important industries 
in Western Canada. 



Dr. William Cowan was the Chief Factor in 
charge of Fort Garry in 1869 and 1870, retir- 
ing from the service of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany after the creation of the Province of Mani- 
toba. Dr. Cowan was a graduate in medicine 
of the University of Glasgow, Scotland; a gen- 
tleman of refined tastes, and learned in his 
profession. He was an excellent conversation- 
alist, and possessed with a fund of quiet wit ; 
saw the ridiculous quickly, and was an excellent 
story teller; could call up the personality of 
persons with whom he had associated in a very 
amusing manner. 

During the time the Metis had control of 
Fort Garry the Doctor behaved in a very dis- 
creet manner, courteous to all, but never dis- 
cussed or expressed an opinion pro or con on 
questions over which the opposing parties were 
contending. Dr. William Cowan was one of 
nature's noblemen. 

A. R. McKENZlE. 



In eighteen sixty-nine, during the time that 
Fort Garry was in the possession of the Metis, 
Mr. A. B. McKenzie was the storekeeper of the 
Fort. He said that Riel's men would go down 
into the Hudson Bay Company's cellar, with 
pitchers and small pails, and would not take 
the time to draw the Hudson Bay rum by way 
of the taps, but would break the heads off the 
barrels and dip their vessels in the rum and 
walk away. He said the Governor of the Com- 
pany and officers were in great fear that in 
their excitement from drinking the strong 
spirits that they might in their frenzy do some- 
thing dreadful or perhaps kill some of the pris- 
oners. It was indeed an anxious time for the 
Company's officers. 

Mr. McKenzie 's statement, to anyone know- 
ing him, goes a long way towards proving the 
Hudson Bay Company innocent of the charge 
of aiding and sympathizing with the uprising. 

Mr. McKenzie is now a successful farmer in a 
place called Oakville, seventeen miles south of 
Portage la Prairie. Mrs. McKenzie is a daugh- 
ter of the late Chief Factor Flett, formerly of 
Lower Fort Garry. 



Honorable Alexander Murray was born in 
Manitoba and educated at St. John's College. 

Mr. Murray has lived here all his life, and 
has advanced ideas with regard to the best 
methods of developing the country. He was 
Speaker of the Assembly for one Parliament 
during the Norquay regime, and his rulings 
were strictly according to "May" and were 
never questioned. His perfect knowledge of 
everything connected with the country has been 
of great value, and his advice is always sought 
by intending purchasers throughout Manitoba 
and the West. 

He has been for some years connected with 
the Land Department of the Provincial Govern- 
ment, and is a very useful and efficient officer. 



Honorable David Mar Walker, Senior 
County Court Judge of Manitoba, born in or 
near Simcoe, Ontario, was admitted to the Bar, 
Osgoode Hall, Toronto. 

He came to Fort Garry as an officer with the 
Sir Garnet Wolseley Expedition, 1870. After 
leaving the service he began the practice of 
law in Winnipeg, and after a time was elected 
to represent St. James in the Legislative 

An amusing incident connected with his elec- 
tion is worth repeating. His opponent was a 
citizen of the Electoral District, and the con- 
test was carried on with considerable earnest- 
ness. At the last meeting before the day of 
polling, a man reputed to be an excellent 
speaker, was called upon by the Chairman to 
speak in behalf of the opposing candidate. He 
had memorized one of Lord Beaconsfield's 
speeches, and delivered it very deliberately with 
variations, to the great amusement of the au- 
dience. In replying, Mr. Walker said, that 
although Lord Beaconsfield was not present, 
they had just heard one of his best Parliament- 
ary speeches delivered by the last speaker, and 

114 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

it was very well spoken, but he would have been 
better pleased if his opponent had selected one 
a little less lengthy. 

Mr. Walker was elected, became a member of 
the Government, was for a time Attorney- Gen- 
eral, and later on was elevated to the Bench. 
His whole course since entering Manitoba has 
been one of credit to himself and friends, who 
are legion throughout the Dominion. 



Mr. A. W. Austin (now of Toronto) came to 
Winnipeg early, and established the first street 
railway or horse cars, as they were called, em- 
ploying a great number of men and three or 
four hundred horses. This was maintained by 
Mr. Austin for several years, until the time 
approached when Winnipeg should have elec- 
tric street cars, when Mr. Austin sold out his 
interests, and soon after the electric street rail- 
way became an established fact. 

Mr. Austin sold out a great deal of his Win- 
nipeg property and returned to Toronto, where 
his vast business interests demanded his pres- 
ence. Mr. Austin's departure was a public loss 
to our city; a public spirited gentleman, a 
kindly disposition and very charitable. 

He pays Winnipeg a visit occasionally, and 
always has a good word for the city of his early 



Mr. Win. Whyte, Second Vice-President of 
the Canadian Pacific Railroad, has probably 
from his position and inclination, done more 
to people and develop Manitoba and the West 
than any other man in the country. Having 
lived in the West, and knowing all the details 
of its development up to this date, he must have, 
with his advice to the company, assisted in 
having branch lines in parts of the rural dis- 
tricts where railway facilities could assist the 
greatest number, until at the present time there 
is hardly a place settled in Manitoba where a 
farmer could not drive with a load of grain in 
one day to a station or village. 

Aside from his official duties he is a public 
spirited citizen of Winnipeg, always ready to 
assist any progressive enterprise. 



Honorable Chief Justice Howell of the Mani- 
toba Court of Appeals, came to "Winnipeg at an 
early date, and formed a law partnership with 
Mr. Heber Archibald, the law firm of Archi- 
bald & Howell. Mr. Howell was always a stu- 
dent, and a persevering worker, and soon be- 
came a barrister of note in the profession, and 
for the last fifteen or twenty years he has been 
considered the leader of the Bar, and it sug- 
gested itself to the Government that his ability 
was needed on the Bench, and he was elevated 
to the position of Chief Justice of the Court of 
Appeals of Manitoba. 

It was a position justly merited, a position 
he will fill with distinction. I have heard law- 
yers say his elevation to the Bench was a great 
loss to the Bar of the city. 



After Riel's departure from the country, and 
the case of Ambrose Lepine having been dis- 
posed of, the country increased in population 
but slowly. Transportation was of the most 
primitive description, immigration was limited 
to those who had secured positions in the coun- 
try that awaited their arrival, and those of an 
adventurous turn of mind, who had sufficient 
means to overcome any obstacle that might 
arise. This condition continued until the years 
1880, 1881 and 1882, when people of all classes 
rushed into the country to participate in the 
great "boom," which proved so disastrous to 
hundreds who came to "get rich quick," and 
lost all their money. Many a man in good cir- 
cumstances previously was ruined, and but very 
few that came out of that lamentable craze 
made any money, or were free from loss. The 
country's growth and financial standing was 
very much retarded and immigration practi- 
cally stopped. 

Following so closely after the Western Riel 
Rebellion of 1885 gave another check to the 
country's healthy progress, but that Rebellion 
advertised the country; that uprising brought 

Riel's Departure from the Country 119 

many officers and men of education with the 
regiments that were stationed throughout the 
West, who saw the fertility of the soil, the vast- 
ness of the country, with a fairly good idea of 
its illimitable possibilities, and they returned 
to their Eastern homes only to be dissatisfied, 
and to set about maturing plans to enable them 
to return to this, the greatest of all countries on 
the globe, and many of them came back during 
the next year. 

Up to this time the transportation was not of 
the best, and the Government policy of immi- 
gration appeared not of a kind that invited the 
best class of immigrants. They came in slowly, 
it could not be called a rush. 

The land regulations were complained of by 
settlers, but evidence was apparent that banks 
and other monied corporations had faith in the 
country and were putting up permanent office 
buildings ; railroads were projected in every di- 
rection throughout the country, that gave us to 
understand that wealthy, thinking men were 
beginning to look upon the country as a country 
worth developing, and a most desirable place 
for safe investments. 

Immigration increased somewhat, and busi- 
ness houses in the East began establishing 
branches in Winnipeg and in some outside dis- 

120 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

tricts ; commercial travelers began pushing their 
way into remote settlements, and good settlers 
began selecting locations upon which they 
might found homes for their families. This 
was the condition that prevailed for a length 
of time, when the General Elections came on, 
and resulted in a change of Government, the 
Conservatives retiring and the Liberal party 
assuming power with Wilfrid Laurier (now Sir 
Wilfrid) as Premier. 

When the Honorable Clifford Sifton entered 
the Cabinet, taking the Interior Portfolio, a 
banquet was tendered him by his friends in 
Winnipeg. It was held in the old Manitoba 
Hotel, and was largely attended by the most 
prominent men in the city, of both parties. 

On that occasion Mr. Sifton said it was under- 
stood on his entry into the Government that he 
was to have a free hand in the management of 
immigration, as the system required complete 
change of method, or reorganizing. 

This statement or pledge was well received 
by all classes of people in the West, irrespective 
of party, and all waited in expectation to ob- 
serve the realization of their hopes. 

Within the year it was apparent that the 
Minister of the Interior was perfecting a vigor- 
ous immigration policy. The surplus popula- 

Riel's Departure from the Country 121 

tion from all parts of the world were turning 
their attention to Western Canada, instead of 
pouring into the United States, as they had 
been doing. It was but a year or two, when 
instead of people selling their homesteads or 
leaving them, in Manitoba, and taking up lands 
in Dakota and Minnesota, practical farmers, 
well-to-do in their own country, were selling 
out and coming to Western Canada from the 
United States, bringing with them capital, 
stock and agricultural implements and making 
new homes for themselves and families. 

In conversation with one of these Americans 
I asked him why he left his own country where 
he had been living in easy circumstances, to set- 
tle in the West of Canada. His reply was that 
he had sold his land in the States for sufficient 
money to buy three times as many acres, and 
much better land in Canada, than the farm he 
had left, which enabled him to place his sons 
on farms around, where their small children 
could have the advantage of excellent schools 
quite convenient. 

There was another consideration: "We have 
as good laws in the United States as you have 
in Canada, but they are not administered in 
the same way. I observe all laws on your Sta- 
tute Books are strictly put into force, as occa- 

122 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

sion requires, while in our country many laws 
are a dead letter. I have, therefore, come to 
the conclusion that our lives and property are 
better conserved here than in the United 

Mr. Sifton was about eight years in Sir Wil- 
frid Laurier's Cabinet, and during that time 
immigration steadily increased until at the 
present the population from the Eastern boun- 
dary of Manitoba to the Rocky Mountains has 
nearly doubled and business is in a very healthy 
state. The advantages to be gained by the set- 
tler in Manitoba and the West have been so well 
advertised that immigration will continue to 
pour into the country and of a better class from 

Some of the best families of the United King- 
dom are represented in Manitoba and the West- 
ern Provinces ; sons having purchased tracts of 
land for ranching and agricultural pursuits; 
many of the daughters of old and distinguished 
families have married young English, Scotch 
and Irish men from their own country, and 
grace the Western home in a manner that bodes 
well for the future population of Greater 

It is not an uncommon thing to find graduates 
from the great Universities: Oxford, Cam- 

Kiel's Departure from the Country 123 

bridge, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Trinity Uni- 
versity, Dublin, engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, making it a success, and their wives and 
daughters love the freedom and exhilaration of 
the prairie. 

Many of the Old Country ladies throughout 
the West are highly cultured, and from their 
isolation they have more time to read, and read 
more understandingly than the society women 
of the city. The former are well up in the litera- 
ture of the day, and able to discuss all ques- 
tions of public interest intelligently and fluent- 
ly. Many are well up in botany, with a fair 
knowledge of the surface geology of the country 
around them. The society women of the cities 
and towns read light literature and society pa- 
pers and popular magazines using the same 
phrases, which causes them in time to become 
narrow minded and less interesting than those 
of broader reading and sufficient knowledge to 
profit by their observation. 

Throughout the country districts of Manitoba 
their modest houses or cottages are tastefully 
decorated with pretty bric-a-brac brought from 
their old homes in the older Provinces, or from 
the Old Country; pretty flowering vines and 
well assorted flowers deck their lawns. Their 
sons and daughters are reared in the open air; 

124 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

the boys, fine, athletic youths, able to take a 
hand at anything from lassoing a wild steer to 
bringing down a fleeing prairie wolf at four 
hundred yards; the daughters healthy, active 
and as easy in the saddle as in the drawing 
room, racing across the plain with an abandon 
charming as it is surprising. 

Such is the condition in Manitoba, where 
proper selection of location has been made by 
the right kind of settlers. With the Canadian 
Pacific Eailroad branching out in all directions, 
also the Great Northern, the Canadian Northern 
and the Grand Trunk Pacific Eailroads, the 
country is lined in all directions; so much so 
that the days of hardships for the new settler 
have practically passed. 

Surely this is the country to invite the young, 
healthy and /intelligent people to settle and 
make homes for their families. 

The Icelandic immigrant is by far the best, 
and rapidly becomes Canadianized. Every Ice- 
lander who is healthy in mind and body must 
be able to read and write at the age of twelve 
years. He is honest, quick to learn and ener- 
getic, and has good application. When he lands 
in the Canadian West he seeks employment, 
and as soon as he has earned sufficient money 
he dresses himself well, and as near like the 

Riel's Departure from the Country 125 

young people of his own age as possible, in 
order to appear as near like the young Cana- 
dians as he can. As to the young Icelander 
girls, after two years in the country it is very 
difficult to be certain whether they are Icelandic 
or young English girls. 

The Icelanders prosper; they identify them- 
selves with municipal and other public interests 
and they are Canadians in reality. We now 
have among them lawyers, doctors, teachers, 
contractors, merchants, business men of all 
kinds, clerks, telegraph operators, mechanics, 
railroad men, steamboat captains and, to be 
short, the Icelander is to be found in all walks 
of life. 

When they first came to Manitoba they were 
placed in a little colony, Gimli, but they grad- 
ually left, and all the young took up the general 
industrial pursuit of the country. The young 
were sent to school, and altogether the results 
are very gratifying. 

The Icelandic women, too, are found every- 
where; teachers, dressmakers, milliners, sten- 
ographers, and in every industry suitable for 

The young Icelanders are taking Canadian 
wives, and Canadians are marrying Icelandic 
women, who in appearance are fair and very 

126 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

like the young English girl. It will be but a 
very few years, two generations or less, when 
all that race will be Canadians. 

That is the great consideration in selecting 
immigrants to fill up our vast fertile prairies. 
It is the plain duty of the Federal Government 
to cease segegrating or placing grants so that 
any set of people should live in small colonies. 

The Galician is a hardy, industrious individ- 
ual, but they are not allowed to learn English 
at school until they have learned to read in their 
own language, and up to that time they will not 
send them to school ; and living in small colonies 
or villages, they are apt to quarrel amongst 
themselves, and at their wedding feasts there 
are, as a rule, some injured, and in some in- 
stances murdered. Then they, when left to 
themselves, living in colonies, always remain 
Galicians, retaining all their vicious habits and 
prejudices, and never become Canadians. The 
same applies to all Continental immigrants. 

What is the remedy? The Federal Govern- 
ment should cease making grants of land to 
immigrants of any nationality for settlement in 
colonies, but should allow them to take up their 
homesteads and pre-emption the same as Cana- 
dian settlers. 

The Provincial Governments should compel 

Riel's Departure from the Country 127 

every child of a school age who is not able to 
read and write the English language to attend 
school and to be taught the simple rules of 
arithmetic. .That, at all events, would be the 
first step towards Canadianizing the foreigner 
or getting him to understand the advantage it 
would be to himself to have that much education. 

Wherever a small settlement of any nation- 
ality is placed, it is certain to retain some of 
the prejudices and shortcomings and even 
superstitions common to the place from whence 
the settlers came, which will prevent them for 
several generations from adopting Canadian 
ways, and make of them a foci liable to generate 
discord and strife. That applies to all nation- 

It also applies to all organizations, whether 
for social, commercial, or for any purpose 
where whole communities are sufficiently organ- 
ized to act as a unit; where occasion requires, 
in a vast country like this, and located in differ- 
ent places, they will ultimately become an em- 
barrassment, if not a menace, to the peace of the 



Mr. Heber Archibald came here early, and 
began the practice of law, and after a time 
Mr. H. M. Howell, now Chief Justice of the 
Court of Appeal, was taken in, forming the 
legal firm of Archibald & Howell, which con- 
tinued until Mr. Howell was elevated to the 

Mr. Archibald is a B.A., Toronto University, 
widely read and conversant with all public 
questions affecting the general welfare of 
Manitoba and the West. He is considered a 
very sound lawyer, and has always been known 
to advise his clients against litigation where it 
was in their best interest. While in the active 
practise of his profession he was at his office 
adhering to his business closely, and has 
amassed a very large fortune by close applica- 
tion, business integrity and ability. Mr. Archi- 
bald has a tranquil, somewhat serious counten- 
ance ; underlying is a strong vein of humor, and 
he enjoys the society of his friends in a very 
marked degree. He is kind hearted and gives 
liberally to deserving charities, and he is among 
Winnipeg's best citizens. 

On his arrival in Winnipeg Mr. Isaac Camp- 

Messrs. Archibald and Campbell. 129 

bell entered the legal firm of Archibald, Howell 
& Hough. 

Several years elapsed when Hough and 
Campbell became the legal firm, which is one of 
the most important in the city. Mr. Campbell 
was City Solicitor until his time became fully 
occupied by his own practice, when he relin- 
quished the City Solicitorship. 

Mr. Campbell is a quiet, unassuming gentle- 
man who has read widely and understandingly 
and a lawyer of erudition. He is a Liberal in 
politics. He is a pleasing public speaker, fluent, 
logical and convincing. He is of the Old School, 
eminently sociable and agreeable, and would fill 
any position in the gift of the people or Crown 
with dignity and ability. 

Mr. E. L. Barber, an American, came here at 
an early date from one of the New England 
States, and has resided here uninterruptedly up 
to the present. He was doing business as a gen- 
eral merchant in Winnipeg for many years. The 
past ten years he has been doing a large real 
estate business. 

Mr. Barber is of a jovial disposition, an ex- 
cellent conversationalist, well posted on all 
Western questions, and has observed Winnipeg 
grow from its inception, and has enthusiastic 
and unbounded faith in Winnipeg, Manitoba 

130 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

and the West. He married Miss Logan, a de- 
scendant of Chief Factor Logan, Hudson Bay 
Company. His family all reside in the West, 
but not all in Winnipeg. 

Mr. Stuart Mulvey came to the country a 
subaltern in the Wolseley Expedition. When 
the troops were withdrawn he remained in the 
country and identified himself with its interests, 
but principally with the educational, and for 
several years before his death he was Secretary 
Treasurer of the City School Board. 

He was a good citizen, much respected and of 
undoubted ability; a logical, forcible speaker. 

Mr. William Fisher Luxton was a prominent 
man in the early history of the City of Win- 
nipeg, He was practically the founder of the 
Free Press, and his columns were always used 
in the interests of the city and Province of 
Manitoba. Mr. Luxton had strong, well defined 
opinions on all public questions, to which he 
adhered with great pertinacity, sometimes to 
his detriment. He was a man of ability, strictly 
honest, honorable, a good citizen, and but few 
deserve so well for the city and Province. 

CHAPTER xxxvrn. 


From the date of its incorporation, in the 
year 1873 down to the year 1908. 
1874 Francis Evans Cornish, Q.C. 
1875 "William Nasseau Kennedy. 
1876 William Nasseau Kennedy. 
1877 Thomas Scott. 
1878 Thomas Scott. 
1879 Alexander Logan. 
1880 Alexander Logan. 
1881 Elias George Conklin. 
1882 Alexander Logan. 
1883 Alexander McMicken. 
1884 Alexander McMicken. 
1885 Charles Edward Hamilton. 
1886 Henry Shaver Westbrook. 
1887 Lyman Melvin Jones. 
1888 Lyman Melvin Jones. 
1889 Thomas Eyan. 
1890 Alfred Pearson. 
1891 Alfred Pearson. 
1892 Alexander McDonald. 
1893 Thomas William Taylor. 
1894 Thomas W. Taylor. 
1895 Thomas Gilroy. 

132 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

1896 Richard Willis Jameson. 
1897 William F. McCreary. 
1898 Alfred J. Andrews. 
1899 Alfred J. Andrews. 
1900 Horace Wilson. 
1901 John Arbuthnot. 
1902 John Arbuthnot. 
1903 John Arbuthnot. 
1904 Thomas Sharpe. 
1905 Thomas Sharpe. 
1906 Thomas Sharpe. 
1907 James H. Ashdown. 
1908 James H. Ashdown. 
1909 W. S. Evans. 


The City of Winnipeg is the Capital of the 
Province of Manitoba, and is situate at the junc- 
tion of the Bed and Assiniboine Rivers. It is 
almost midway between the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans; forty miles south of Lake Winnipeg 
and sixty miles north of the boundary line be- 
tween Canada and the United States of Amer- 
ica. Winnipeg is the commercial and whole- 
sale centre of the Northwest ; and the very com- 
plete railway systems branching in every direc- 
tion afford great facilities for trade to the re- 

Mayors of Winnipeg. 133 

taller in the Province and Northwest. By rea- 
son of its position the city offers a most desir- 
able inducement as a location for the establish- 
ment of manufacturing industries. 

The city is noted for its wide and well paved 
thoroughfares, and beautiful boulevarded and 
residential streets. It is the educational centre 
of the Province, and the school system is con- 
sidered as complete as can be made. 

The government of the city is carried on un- 
der the powers of a charter from the Provincial 
Legislature. The Council is composed of a 
Mayor, four Controllers forming the Board of 
Control, and fourteen Aldermen. The Mayor 
and Controllers are elected annually from a 
vote of the entire city. One Alderman is elect- 
ed annually from each of the seven Wards into 
which the city is divided and holds office for a 
term of two years. The Mayor is Chief Magis- 
trate of the city. Persons eligible for election 
as Mayor and Controller must be owners of 
property rated on the assessment roll of the 
city to the value of two thousand dollars, over 
and above all encumbrances against the same, 
and for Aldermen must be rated in a like man- 
ner to the amount of five hundred dollars. The 
election is held annually on the second Tuesday 

134 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

in December, and nominations on the first Tues- 
day in December. 

The Board of Control is the executive body, 
and as such deals with all financial matters, 
regulates and supervises expenditures, reve- 
nues and investments, directs and controls de- 
partments, nominates all heads of departments, 
prepares specifications, advertises for tenders 
and awards all contracts for works, materials 
and supplies required, inspects and reports to 
the Council upon all municipal works being car- 
ried on or in progress within the city, and gen- 
erally administers the affairs of the city,; except 
as to the Public Schools and Police Department, 
the former being under control of the Public 
School Board, elected annually by the ratepay- 
ers and the latter under the Board of Police 
Commissioners, which consists of the Mayor, 
the County Court Judge, Police Magistrate and 
two Aldermen appointed by the Council. 

The public parks of the city are placed under 
the control and supervision of a Public Parks 
Board, composed of the Mayor, two members of 
the Council and six ratepayers appointed by 
the Council. For the purpose of providing for 
the expenditures required for park purposes, a 
rate of one-half of one mill on the dollar is lev- 
ied on the general assessment of the city. 

The Hudson Bay Company. 135 


In the days of the Bed River Settlement the 
Hudson Bay Company added to their functions 
as the chief trading body of the community, the 
business of banking, to the limited extent re- 
quired by the inhabitants. Money- could be 
deposited with the Company, and it is not on 
record that any interest was allowed ; the Com- 
pany issued their own notes in denominations of 
one shilling, five shillings, one pound and five 
pounds sterling, and these notes passed readily 
from hand to hand and supplied all the currency 
needs of the settlement. It is probable that no 
one ever asked the question: "How and where 
are these notes payable 1 ' ' Had such a question 
been asked the answer would have been found 
on the notes themselves. They were payable at 
York Factory, by a sixty days' sight draft on 
the Hudson Bay Company in London. The fact 
that the question never once arose adds addi- 
tional testimony, if such were wanted, to the 
unbounded confidence reposed in the Hudson 
Bay Company by all classes of the community. 
If "The Company" issued the notes they must 
be all right. 

There is no knowing whether the Hudson Bay 
Company might or might not have continued to 
be the bankers of the new Province of Manitoba 

136 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

if they had so desired. Their charter is a wide 
one and might have been made to cover much 
more than the trading rights they have con- 
tinued to exercise. They made no effort to do 
so, however, and early in the seventies the need 
of more extensive banking facilities began to 
be felt. 

Mr. Alex. McMicken, who is still a leading 
citizen of Winnipeg, was the first to open an 
office devoted wholly to banking. In a building 
formerly occupied by the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany, about what is now the corner of Portage 
avenue and Fort street, he established a busi- 
ness that for a considerable time afforded all 
the facilities that were at the time required by 
the rapidly growing population. It was in Sep- 
tember, 1871, that the convenience of issuing 
cheques^ first became known to Winnipegers, 
and so well was the business managed that in a 
very short time all the banking of the future 
city was in Mr. McMicken 's hands. 

The first chartered bank in Winnipeg was 
the Merchants Bank of Canada, which, under 
the management of the late Mr. Duncan Mac- 
Arthur, in December, 1872, opened an office 
nearly opposite the building till recently occu- 
pied as the Post Office. 

The premises were most unpretentious, con- 


The Hudson Bay Company. 137 

sisting of a very ordinary frame building, with 
rooms for the manager in the upper story, no 
vault, and very insufficient accommodation for 
the clerks. Such as they were, however, they 
sufficed for several years to supply all the wants 
of the people. 

No single fact shows more clearly the gi- 
gantic strides that the Canadian West has 
made than the development of banking business 
in Winnipeg. In 1871 one branch of a chartered 
bank in a wretched shack on Main street, to- 
gether with a private banker, supplied all the 
banking facilities required for not only the City 
of Winnipeg but for the whole of the North- 
west. To-day a line of palatial buildings on 
Main street house the institutions that, aided 
by hundreds of branches through the Province, 
keep a staff of employees many times more 
numerous than the whole population of Winni- 
peg in 1872, busy in supplying the needs of the 
community in this one branch of business. 

From nothing in 1872 Winnipeg has risen to 
the third rank in the clearings of the Dominion, 
being exceeded only by Montreal and Toronto. 

The banking house of Alloway & Champion, 
Winnipeg, was established in 1879 by Messrs. 
W. F. Alloway and H. T. Champion. 

It is the only private bank in the city. Their 

138 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

business has been conducted in a quiet, unob- 
trusive manner, keeping pace with the growth 
of the city, and they are at present well up in 
the line of Main street's permanent financial in- 
stitutions. They have a branch office, a fine 
structure, on Main Street north. 


There are now eleven public parks in Win- 
nipeg, with a total area of about 315 acres, pur- 
chased at a cost of $140,000. This includes a 
large Suburban Park of an area of 282 acres, 
which is situate on the banks of the Assiniboine 
Eiver, in the municipality of St. Charles, about 
three miles from the City Hall. This park 
property was acquired in 1903, and considerable 
improvements are now under way. 

During the year 1907 about four miles of 
driveways were completed and considerable un- 
derbrushing and clearing done. This year the 
Parks Board anticipates to instal a water works 
system and erect a pavilion, and it is expected 
that the park will be formally opened to the 
public in July next. The herd of buffalo owned 
by the city are kept in this park, as are also a 
number of other native animals. 


This cemetery is owned by the city and main- 

The Hudson Bay Company. 139 

tained under the supervision of the Public 
Parks Board. Lot owners are assured of per- 
petual maintenance of plots. 
The population of the city in 1908 was 118,000. 


Carnegie Library, William avenue, between 
Dagmar and Ellen streets. J. H. McCarthy, 
Librarian. Phone 4445. 

The Winnipeg Public Library Building is a 
handsome two- storey structure, built of native 
dressed stone at a cost of $100,000, towards 
which a donation of $75,000 was made by Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie. The building was completed 
in August, 1905, and formally opened by His 
Excellency the Governor-General and Lady 
Grey on October 11, 1905. 

The Library contains at present about twenty- 
one thousand carefully selected volumes at the 
service of any resident of the city. 

The Beading Booms, which, are open to all 
comers, are stocked with a very adequate sup- 
ply of daily and weekly newspapers and with 
all the leading magazines published in the Eng- 
lish language. Any book in the Library can be 
obtained for use in the building by anyone who 
require it. 

During last year 11,000 readers borrowed 

140 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

200,000 books for home reading, while 60,000 
volumes were issued as books of reference. The 
Juvenile Department has on the reading tables 
a complete assortment of boys' and girls' pa- 
pers in addition to several standard magazines, 
while the open book shelves contain 2,000 care- 
fully selected titles suitable for young people's 

The Library is open every day, except Domin- 
ion Day and Christmas Day, from 9:30 a.m. to 
9:30 p.m., except Sundays and holidays, when 
the hours are from 2 p.m. to 9 p.m. Juvenile 
Department from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. on school 
days and from the general opening hour until 
6 p.m. on other days. 

Branch depots have been established to bring 
the benefits of the Library within convenient 
reach of those living in the outlying wards of 
the city. Four of these depots, each of which 
is kept supplied with 1,000 books, are in opera- 
tion. They are situated as follows : 

No. 1, corner of Burrows avenue and Main 
street, Ward 6. No. 2, Nairn street, Ward 7. 
No. 3, corner of Furby street and Portage ave- 
nue, Ward 3. No. 4, at 116 Osborne street, 
Ward 1. 

The Hudson Bay Company. 141 


The City of Winnipeg is a firm believer in 
municipal ownership of all public utilities. The 
city owns and operates its water works plant, 
street lighting system, stone quarry, fire alarm 
system and asphalt plant. "Winnipeg enjoys the 
distinction of being the first city in America to 
acquire a municipal asphalt plant. 


Year 1907 Number of teachers, 248; num- 
ber of buildings, 30, also seven rented build- 
ings; value of buildings and site, $1,552,753; 
attendance, 14,802. 


The water works system is owned and operat- 
ed by the city. The supply is from an artesian 
source and is exceptionally pure. 


There are five theatres, two seating 2,500, 
and the other three 1,000 each. 


The street railway system is operated by the 
Winnipeg Electric Street Railway Company, 
under franchise granted by the city in 1892. 


The bank clearings for the year 1907 were 



Mr. Alexander McDonald came to Winnipeg 
in the seventies, a man of shrewd business ob- 
servation and tact. He traveled through the 
Territories, and has business interests at sev- 
eral points. He settled in business here, and at 
present is one of the largest wholesale grocers 
in the city. 

Having from the first absolute faith in the 
country, Mr. McDonald took an active part in 
municipal affairs ; was elected Mayor, and from 
his knowledge of the infant city's requirements 
and his business ability, had much to do in 
putting the city's affairs on a good financial 
basis. Mr. McDonald is a man of sterling in- 
tegrity, and considered one of the city's best 
citizens, as he is one of the heaviest ratepayers. 

Colonel Thomas Scott, at the present Collec- 
tor of Customs, came to the city in 1870. He 
was Commandant of the Second Expedition. 
After retiring from the military he established 
himself in business and was elected Mayor. He 
was a useful and efficient Chief Magistrate, and 
managed the city's interests with much tact and 
ability. He represented Winnipeg a number of 

Mr. Alexander McDonald. 143 

years in the Dominion Parliament, and was a 
close friend of Sir John A. Macdonald. 

Mr. Alexander McMicken, a son of the late 
Honorable Gilbert McMicken, was Mayor of 
Winnipeg 1883 and part of 1884. During his 
term of office he visited Ontario, where his 
friends made much of him. He was banqueted 
by his admirers in many of the Eastern cities 
and towns. Mr. McMicken is at present Pro- 
vincial Chief Magistrate, and considered spe- 
cially well fitted for the position. 

His brother, Mr. Hamilton McMicken, is a 
financial agent in London, England. 

Mr. Thomas Taylor was Mayor of "Winnipeg 
two terms, and was looked upon as progressive 
and practical. He has represented Winnipeg 
Centre in the Local Legislature for several 
years, and is at present the occupant of the 

Honorable Lyman M. Jones, Dominion Sena- 
tor, now of Toronto, Ontario, when a citizen of 
Winnipeg, was twice elected Mayor. He was a 
practical business man, and considered an able 
financier. The business of the city was by him 
judiciously managed. When his term of office 
expired, the finances were in such a position 
that the city's credit was of the best, and his 
able direction had much to do with it. 

144 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

Mr. James H. Ashdown was elected Mayor of 
Winnipeg for 1907 and 1908. When he entered 
upon his duties it was thought by many that 
the credit of the city had been jeopardized by 
the city's management the last few years, and 
that Mr. Ashdown was the proper person to 
straighten the defects and place the city once 
more on a good financial basis. At the end of 
his second term, in his own words, "The slate 
has been cleared off, and the city is now once 
more financially sound, and . our borrowing 
capacity up to what it should be." 

Mr. Ashdown 's successor is Mr. Sanford 
Evans, who retired from the Board of Control 
to enter the contest for Mayor, and was elected 
by the people by a very large majority, and has 
entered upon his duties under very favorable 

Mr. Evans is a Toronto University man, 
about in the prime of life; a cultured gentle- 
man, a fluent speaker, and of very pleasing ad- 
dress. This year will afford abundant oppor- 
tunities to show the people how well he is fitted 
for the position. 

The late Alexander Logan was the only one 
of the descendants of the old settlers that ever 
filled the Mayor's chair. He was five times 
Mayor of the city, once elected by acclamation. 

Mr. Alexander McDonald. 145 

Mr. Logan was a genial, gentlemanly man, an 
excellent entertainer and strictly honorable in 
every sense of the word. 



Captain Cameron, after having been deported 
by Eiel 's men, found himself at Pembina at the 
beginning of a severe Dakota winter, with wife 
and servants, to face a journey across the 
prairie of four hundred miles to St. Paul, with 
no other conveyance but Red River ponies. The 
prospect was not pleasing. 

To Mrs. Cameron, a daughter of Sir Charles 
Tupper, unaccustomed to roughing it, it must 
have been alarming. Her father, Sir Charles, 
came at once to Pembina, to assist and direct 
her safe return to her home in the East, reach- 
ing the border line in January. 

While at Pembina he crossed over to the Hud- 
son Bay Fort and made arrangements to come 
on to the River Salle and have a talk with Rev- 
erend Father Richot, making the trip and 
spending the night with the Reverend Father, 
and safely returned to Pembina. It was at the 
time rumored that Sir Charles came to Fort 
Garry and talked over matters with Riel, but of 
that I am not certain. 

Captain Cameron and Sir Charles having 


Sir Charles Tupper. 147 

completed arrangements, returned across the 
prairie in February, 1870, braved the cold and 
fatigue, and reached St. Paul safely and well. 
Verily Mrs. Cameron was the heroine of the 
first Riel Rebellion, and deserves a stellar place 
in Manitoba history. 

During Lieut.-Governor Archibald's term of 
office here, Miss Emily McTavish, of To- 
ronto, came to visit her brothers, John, George 
and Donald McTavish, all prominent in the 
service of the Hudson Bay Company. The 
Governor was an excellent entertainer, and Miss 
McTavish being one of the * ' society buds ' ' from 
Toronto, was a noticeable personage at the din- 
ners and dances at Government House, dis- 
tinguished in appearance and faultlessly gown- 
ed in the up-to-date fashions of that day, and 
she was somewhat of a revelation to our West- 
ern ladies, who, from their isolated location, 
were at a disadvantage. 

After Miss McTavish returned to Ontario, 
and at the next public function, it was clear that 
Manitoba ladies had profited thereby, and the 
gowns worn were quite in order, and would have 
been considered charming anywhere. 

Miss McTavish remarked, in a chat I had with 
her not long since, ' ' That present conditions of 
the social order are less sincere in many ways 

148 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

than those existing in what are called 'pioneer 
days' of Winnipeg." We had our "noblesse" 
then as now, which included all the Settlement, 
for quite a few of the inmates of the log cabins 
scattered here and there, possessed a family 
genealogical tree in the old land reaching back 
farther than the time-worn date of William the 
Conqueror, so often quoted. No one was ag- 
gressive for social rights, for indeed we could 
not be, depending as we had to, on each other in 
those troubled times. There was one definite 
social rule of superiority, however, maintained 
in all severity; which was the order of prece- 
dence at official dinners and balls, which existed 
then as now, and occasionally there was some 
heart-burning among our official ladies who 
were overlooked in the placing at some of our 
official functions ; on the whole, however, we had 
jolly times. In the first place our women and 
girls were all excellent horsewomen, and 
thought nothing of a twenty-five mile ride to a 
dance which lasted all night. Among the resi- 
dent families here at that time who contrived to 
enjoy life, were the "Forty Party," consisting 
of the Lieutenant-Governor and family, the Mc- 
Tavishs, Balsilies, Herchmers, Andersons, Cow- 
ans and several others. Outside were the A. G. 
B. Bannatynes, the Inksters, Dr. and Mrs. 

Sir Charles Tupper. 149 

Schultz, Honorable James Mackay and family; 
at Deer Lodge, Donald A. and Mrs. Smith 
(Baron and Baroness Mount Koyal and Strath- 
cona) at Silver Heights. The Stone Fort 
(Lower Fort Garry) also added its quota to our 
social enjoyment. 

As I mentioned before, all the women were 
fearless riders, our horses were excellent, and 
we all rode side saddle, and did not require to 
have specially trained horses for our use, nor 
did we understand the civilized privilege of 
timidity on horseback. 

Our dances gave keen enjoyment to old and 
young alike, for grandfathers and grandmoth- 
ers were not to be outdone in staying power by 
us children; indeed when it came to the Eight 
Hand Reel and the Eed Eiver Jig (without 
which no gathering was complete) it not infre- 
quently happened that the grey-haired ones 
happily danced on whilst the younger genera- 
tion subsided exhausted on the nearest seats. 
The Red River Jig was a most unique dance, if 
dance it could be called, and no description 
could satisfactorily picture it to those who have 
never seen it performed. 

We had theatricals and operas, our local tal- 
ent being quite equal to our best amateurs of 
to-day, and many a pleasant evening was passed 

150 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

in this way. Of course the imagination had 
occasionally to lend kindly aid to the scenic 
effects intended, and costumes of the perform- 
ers were sometimes peculiar; then an added 
spice was given to our entertainments, by one 
or two warning reminders during the evening 
from the stage manager, "not to be too enthus- 
iastic in our applause, as the crowd had caused 
the floor to sag considerably, and although they 
had placed upright scantlings in the store below 
as supports, too much stamping or clapping 
might cause a catastrophe," which naturally 
tended to keep our otherwise high spirits in 
check. We never criticized nor felt that our 
ticket money was wasted, and were all glad to 
go again to the next performance. 

The dress question was a grave perplexity 
to the feminine element, for the few dressmak- 
ers resident here, had like Topsy, "just 
growed," and it was never safe in ordering a 
gown, and selecting a design for same, to pro- 
phesy exactly what would be the final result; 
for if the modiste found the selected pattern 
too difficult, she merely improvised another 
model more suitable to her capabilities, and 
which no doubt was the mode she had used for 
all the old ladies, but somewhat trying to a 
young girl. Shopping, too, had its idiosyncra- 

Sir Charles Tupper. 151 

sies. We had the " Company's Store," but the 
supplies were seldom added to, thus making the 
choice limited when one wished to appear at 
a party in something really recherche, and 
all knew to a penny the price of every roll of 
goods on the dusty shelves. We thought noth- 
ing of mounting a horse and riding down to the 
Lower Fort at St. Andrews for dress supplies 
not procurable in town, or even farther down 
Kildonan to one or other of the scattered stores 
existing there only to find on arrival that the 
shutters were up and the door locked, making 
necessary an extra quarter of a mile ride to the. 
owner's house, where a general hunt ensued to 
find the key; then on returning to the store we 
looked for lace, ribbon, etc., among a pile of 
nails, fish hooks, seeds, twine and other like 
commodities. It will be seen, therefore, that 
we had great need for originality to appear well 
dressed. One lady high in our official circles 
wore at one of our very select balls a stately 
trained robe of unbleached canton flannel, with 
the woolly side out, and she wore it with such 
grace and dignity, that I question even now if 
she would be challenged for the genuineness of 
her costly plush gown. There were a few fortu- 
nate ones, who once or twice a year replenished 
their wardrobes with importations from Edin- 


Manitoba as I Saw It. 

burgh, London, Montreal and New York, but 
all had not ' * Fortunatus ' purse," so many had 
to at least imagine themselves stylish with what 
the village could supply. 


The Northwest of Canada is so vast and the 
local characteristics so diverse that it is very 
evident that the Federal Government, in order 
to legislate in the best interests of Western peo- 
ple must be possessed of better and more com- 
plete information than they are able to obtain 
from the few Senators and members of the 
House of Commons, who are sent to Ottawa to 
represent the whole of Greater Canada. They 
cannot, and it ought not to be expected of them, 
know very much of the minutiae of this great 
country. Surveyors and engineers sent out in 
the interests of railway companies have but a 
cursory knowledge of the country, other than 
that which the companies who employ them are 
directly interested in, often not in the best in- 
terests of the people. In this country, where 
there are fifty-seven languages spoken; this 
vast region containing the largest lakes and 
rivers, the greatest and richest mineral deposits 
in the world; with an agricultural area much 
larger and incomparably more fertile than that 
in China ; the production of food stuffs that feed 
four hundred millions of people; any and all 
information should be at the hand of every 

154 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

member of the Federal Government, in con- 
cise form, when dealing with questions affecting 
Greater Canada. 

That information cannot be obtained by ap- 
pointing a Commission of men taken from Prov- 
inces east of Lake Superior, headed by a Judge, 
none of whom can have practical knowledge of 
the country or what is required of them. It will, 
in order to secure the proper information, be 
necessary to appoint men in the West who know 
the country and its requirements, who know all 
parts that have settlers, their nationality, 
whether they are suited to the location, how they 
are equipped for the work before them, schools, 
if any, the topography of the country, the flora, 
a synopsis of the surface geology, mineral de- 
posits, if any, and a brief sketch of the natural 
history; the water supply and how obtained, 
and such information as may be deemed advis- 
able in such a report. 


There are many Americans now in the coun- 
try, good settlers, and some of them well in- 
formed ; in fact, in many instances, they have a 
better knowledge of the capabilities of the West 
and North, a more intimate knowledge of the 
readjustment of the tariff to so order things 

Appendix. 155 

that their presence would be either to the ad- 
vantage of Canada or the United States. The 
great majority of those American settlers are 
good citizens, but they have great powers of 
assimilation, and are, first, last and always, 
Americans. The removal of the duty on cer- 
tain Canadian productions, and they would 
readily put certain of our products on the free 
list, which would be disastrous for the Western 
farmer; for instance, if they put wheat on the 
free list, our No. 1 Hard would be ground in the 
United States. 

A competent committee or commission to 
make the necessary inquiries, and make a com- 
plete report, concise, put in book form, for the 
use of Government Legislators, they would be in 
a position to deal with any matter that came 
before the House concerning the Northwest 
more intelligently than they are at present. 

The people of the older Provinces have pro- 
vincial or sectional ideas; the people of the 
West are for a United Dominion and the Em- 
pire ; and they want their utterances to be taken 
seriously. They do not charge the older Prov- 
inces of endeavoring to be unfair to the West, 
but at times think it possible. They have not 
made any special efforts to study the West, in 
order that Canadian interests as a whole might 

156 Manitoba as I Saw It. 

be enhanced throughout the Dominion. In other 
words, they do not know the people of the West 
as they should. Not an unprejudiced observer 
of the great West of Canada but can see the 
people have noble ideals, great respect for law, 
and keener sense of responsibility of power, 
than the older Provinces. 

The policy of the Canadian Government in 
the not remote future, will be noticeably influ- 
enced by the West, and the people of the East 
and West should know each other better than 
they do at present. The Ministers, during the 
hiatus between the Parliamentary sessions, 
would gain much useful knowledge by devoting 
some of their vacations in the Great West of 
Canada, and learn something of the heritage of 
the Dominion, of which at present their know- 
ledge is very superficial. The experiment 
would be exhilarating and most astonishing to 


As a Prelate he was liberal to a degree al- 
most unprecedented in the history of the hier- 
archy of the Church. 

Though one of the most devout of Catholics, 
and a sincere advocate from conviction of the 


Appendix. 157 

doctrine of Papal infallibility, he was willing to 
accord, so far as the rules of his church permit- 
ted him to do so, full liberty of conscience to 
those who differed from him. He believed that 
priests should confine themselves to their 
proper functions, and was opposed to clerical 
interference with the political consciences of 
their flock. "He plainly declared that a priest 
has no more right to dictate to his parishioners 
how they should vote, than he has to interfere in 
the cut of their clothing or the quality of their 

In short, Archbishop Lynch of the Eoman 
Catholic Church, never forgot the fact that he 
was also a man a man dwelling in a community 
which was largely made up of Protestants, and 
where by reason of his high position, he was 
bound to exercise a potent influence, whether for 
good or evil. 

Some years before his death, on his return 
from Borne, he took occasion to call on the 
Lord Lieutenant and other persons high in 
authority in Ireland, and decorously expressed 
his views as to the Irish Question, with special 
reference to schools. He was listened to with 
the respect due his knowledge of the subject, no 
less than the high position which he occupied; 

158 Manitoba as I Saw It. . 

and seemed to have left a most agreeable im- 
pression behind him, judging from the com- 
ments of the Irish press. 

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