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Full text of "Mannerist prints : international style in the sixteenth century"

MANNERIST 



International Style 

in the Sixteenth Century 



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MANNERIST 
PRINTS 



International Style 

in the Sixteenth Century 



Mannerism was an international style in the 
sixteenth century, with roots in Italian art. Ital- 
ian artists traveled throughout Europe, and Italy 
attracted many foreign artists who then pro- 
duced in their homelands their interpretations 
of Italian styles past and present. Mannerist 
printmaking originated in Rome shortly after 
the death of Raphael in 1520 and became an 
international movement, spreading in the 1540s 
to the French royal court at Fontainebleau and 
to Flanders and during the last quarter of the six- 
teenth century to Holland. 

This catalogue represents 148 Italian, 
French, and Netherlandish prints selected from 
the Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection in the Los 
Angeles County Museum of Ait. The text was 
written by Bruce Davis, curator of prints and 
drawings at the museum, and includes an intro- 
ductory essay on mannerist printmaking, its 
sources in Italian painting, and its spread across 
Europe; an entry on each of the prints; and biog- 
raphies of the engravers represented. 



Jacket front: Jacket back: 

Giulio Sanuto Jacques Bellange 

Tantalus (cat. no. 40) Melchioi (cat. no. 67) 



272 illustrations, including 21 in full color 



MANNERIST PRINTS: International Style in the Sixteenth Century 



MANNERIST 
PRINTS 



International Style 

in the Sixteenth Century 



Bruce Davis 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 



Exhibition Itinerary 

Los Angeles County Museum of Ait 
28 July-9 October 1988 

The Toledo Museum of Ait 

26 November 1988-29 January 1989 

[obn and Mable Ringling 
Museum of Art. Sarasota 
23 February-30 April r989 

Aithui M. Huntington Ait Gallery, 
University of Texas at Austin 
I June-6 August 1989 

The Baltimore Museum of Ait 
12 September-5 November 1989 



Mannerist Prints: International Style in the Sixteenth 
Century was organized by the Los Angeles Coimty 
Museum of Art. The Los Angeles presentation of the 
exhibition was made possible by the generosity of 
the Chase Manhattan Foundation, a corporate associate 
member of the museum. 

Published by 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 
5905 Wilshire Boulevard 
Los Angeles, California 90036 

Copyright © 1988 by Museimi Associates, 
Los Angeles Cotmty Museum of Art. 
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this 
book may be reproduced without the written 
permission of the publisher 

Edited by Edward Weisberger 
Designed by Jeffrey Cohen 
Photography by Steven Oliver 

Type set in Trump Medieval by Continental 
Typographies, Inc., Chatsworth, California. 
Printed by Typecraft, Inc., Pasadena, California. 

Library of Congress 
Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Da%'is, Bruce, 1951- 

Marmerist prints: international style in the 
sixteenth centur>'/Bruce Da%is p. cm. 

Catalog of an exhibition held at the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, 28 July-9 Oct. 1988, and 
subsequently held at other museums. 

Bibliography: p. 

Includes index. 

ISBNO-87587-I47-X 

I. Prints — 1 6th century — Exhibitions. 2. 
Mannerism 

(Art) — Exhibitions. I. Los Angeles Coimty Museum 
of Art. n. Title. NE444.5M35D38 1988 
769.94'o74'oi949 — dcig 88-12674 

CEP 



Photo Credits 

All figures are reproduced courtesy of the works' 
owners. In addition the following credits are specified 
for the indicated figures: 

Antonia Reeve Photography, Edinburgh, fig. iroa; 
Archivi Ahnari, Florence, figs. 45a, 122a, and 139a; 
Caisse nationale des monuments historiques 

et des sites, Paris, fig. 104a; 
Courtauld Institute of Art, London, figs. 51a, 54a, 

and 131b; 
Frick Art Reference Library, New York, fig. 48a,- 
Gabinetto fotografico, Sopritendenza Beni artistici 

e storici di Firenze, Florence, fig. 22b; 
Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione, 

Rome, fig. sa; 
Lichtbilderwerkstatte "Alpenland," Vienna, figs. 40a, 

65a, 89a, and loia; 
Monument! musei e gallerie pontificie, Vatican, 

fig. 113; 

Hans Petersen, Hornbaek, fig. Ii3ai 

Service photographique de la Reunion des musees 
nationaux, Paris, figs. 37a, 38a, 46a, 6ia, 62a, 63a, 
70a, 77a, 8ia, 92a, 94a, looa, and 138a. 



CONTENTS 



7 Foreword 
9 Acknowledgments 
ID Introduction 

Catalogue of the Exhibition 

ITALIAN PRINTS 23 

FRENCH PRINTS 161 

NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 227 

325 Artists' Biographies 
332 Selected Bibliography 
335 Index of Inventors 



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FOREWORD 



Mannerism was an international style in the six- 
teenth century, with roots in Italian art. Italian art- 
ists traveled throughout Europe, and Italy attracted 
many foreign artists who then produced in their 
homelands their interpretations of Italian styles past 
and present. Mannerist printmaking originated in 
Rome shortly after the death of Raphael in 1520 and 
became an international movement, spreading in the 
1 5 40s to the French royal court at Fontainebleau and 
to Flanders and during the last quarter of the six- 
teenth century to Holland. Prints played a signifi- 
cant role in the developments and dissemination of 
the mannerist style in all the arts. Their bizarre 
expressiveness, artificiality, and sometimes outra- 
geous provocativeness appealed to a culturally 
refined and sophisticated audience. Appreciation of 
mannerist prints reached its nadir in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries but resumed in the present 
century, when mannerism's self-conscious exaggera- 
tions struck a responsive chord in modern viewers. 

Mannerist Prints: International Style in the 
Sixteenth Century presents a selection of Italian, 
French, and Netherlandish prints chosen entirely 
from more than six hundred mannerist engravings, 
etchings, and woodcuts collected by Mary Stansbury 
Ruiz. Her collection was the finest and most exten- 
sive of its kind in private hands in the United States. 
The presence in Los Angeles of such a comprehen- 
sive private collection was a surprise to many schol- 
ars, who did not expect to discover many old master 
prints in this very contemporary city. It was with tre- 
mendous sadness that Mary's friends realized during 
the past year that she would not live to view the 
exhibition, but she was tremendously enthused and 
excited about it and the catalogue that accompanies 
the show. The fact that the exhibition was drawn 
from her collection meant very little to her. It was 
her love of mannerism that she wanted to prosely- 
tize, and the exhibition is a memorial to her sense of 



connoisseurship and taste. Her name will live on 
through her magnificent bequest of this collection to 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. 

We would like to thank Bruce Davis, the 
museum's curator of prints and drawings, for the 
organization of the exhibition. His scholarly cata- 
logue is one of the most extensive on the subject of 
mannerist prints. We are also pleased to circulate the 
exhibition to the Toledo Museum of Art; John and 
Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota; Arthur 
M. Huntington Art Gallery, University of Texas at 
Austin; and Baltimore Museum of Art. Their en- 
thusiasm for the opportunity to present this broad 
selection of mannerist prints is greatly appreciated. 

Earl A. Powell iii 

Director 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 



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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Mannerist Prints: International Style in the Six- 
teenth Century comprises many of the best works in 
the collection of Mary Stansbury Ruiz. After her ini- 
tial impulse to amass a general collection of master- 
pieces and then a brief infatuation with the English 
etching movement, Mary was captivated in the early 
1970s by the hothouse artificiality and eccentricity 
of mannerism. She was able to acquire many man- 
nerist works when they were not yet fashionable and 
so highly prized. The strength of her holdings in Ital- 
ian, French, and Netherlandish prints is quite un- 
usual given the rarity of many of these works, partic- 
ularly among some of the Italians, the school of 
Fontainebleau, and the Flemish. Some of the prints 
are, in fact, unique. It was a joy to witness the con- 
tinual growth of the collection, including the recent 
acquisitions of rarities by Jacques Bellange, Juste de 
Juste, and Parmigianino. 

The many hours spent with Mary discussing 
general topics of mannerism as well as specific 
works were a tremendous pleasure. Her knowledge, 
connoisseurship, generosity, hospitality, and energy 
fueled this project since its inception. Without her 
kindly enthusiasm, there would be no collection, 
exhibition, or publication. The past year was excep- 
tionally difficult for all involved because Mary was 
stricken with cancer. Despite the increasing hard- 
ship she underwent, she continued to acquire prints 
and contribute to every aspect of the exhibition and 
catalogue. Her death in October 1987 was mourned 
by her many friends and colleagues, who recognized 
Mary as one of the kindest people and most knowl- 
edgeable collectors. 

This project also would not have been pos- 
sible without the unflagging support, encourage- 
ment, and perceptive suggestions of Victor Carlson, 
senior curator of prints and drawings at the Los An- 
geles County Museum of Art. He shouldered many 
departmental tasks and responsibilities that would 



otherwise be shared more equitably in order to pro- 
vide the necessary time and opportunity for con- 
centration. The skill, diligence, accuracy, and good 
humor of departmental secretary Sharon Asplund 
are qualities appreciated by every author. Her quick 
mastery of the material and its complexities greatly 
facilitated their organization. Above all I thank the 
museum's director. Earl A. Powell in, for his sustain- 
ing encouragement. The support of other museum 
personnel is also gratefully acknowledged: paper 
conservator Victoria Blyth-Hill, graphic designer 
Jeffrey Cohen, museum library assistant Anne 
Diederick, photographer Steven Oliver, head of exhi- 
bition programs John Passi, managing editor Mitch 
Tuchman, and editor Edward Weisberger. 

The advice, assistance, and information pro- 
vided by many colleagues and friends are gratefully 
appreciated: Nancy Bialler, Jonathan Bober, Suzanne 
Boorsch, Georgie Clark, Karl Clark, Ebria Feinblatt, 
Jay Fisher, Antony Griffiths, Richard Harprath, Mary 
Jordan, R. E. Lewis, Andrea Norris, Konrad 
Oberhuber, Sue Welsh Reed, Timothy Riggs, Marilyn 
Symmes, David Tunick, and Henri Zerner. 

Bruce Davis 

Curator, Prints and Drawings 

Los Angeles County Museum of Art 



INTRODUCTION 



The style known as mannerism is considered to have 
lasted for about a century, from the death of Raphael 
in 1520 to the end of Jacques Bellange's career in 
1620. The concept of mannerism derives from 
Giorgio Vasari's frequent use in his Lives of the Art- 
ists of the word maniera as a reference to not only an 
artist's individual manner, or style, but also as a term 
for a general aesthetic. In deference to Vasari some 
authors use the term maniera instead of mannerism. 
They have also defined different temporal phases, 
with Early Maniera encompassing the period in Italy 
roughly from the death of Raphael to the mid- 15 30s, 
High Maniera at midcentury in Italy, France, and the 
Netherlands, and Late Maniera during the last quar- 
ter of the century throughout Europe. Mannerism, 
which John Shearman referred to as "the stylish 
style,"' is characterized by compositional, figural, 
emotional, and narrative elements that veer, in vary- 
ing degrees of extremity, away from the median of 
harmony and equilibrium exemplified by the art of 
the High Renaissance. Space in mannerist composi- 
tions may be so tightly compressed as to seem 
nonexistent or so loosely structured as to permit 
disturbing spatial irregularities and transitions. 
Mannerist artists frequently violated classical can- 
ons of figural proportions in order to emphasize tor- 
sos and limbs rather than accepted ratios of parts to 
the whole. Figures were often nude, regardless of the 
appropriateness to the story but certainly indicative 
of the artists' mastery of anatomy. This skill was also 
made evident in the outlandish postures assumed by 
many of the figures, who were bent and twisted 
beyond natural composure. In some works, like 
Hendrik Goltzius's engraving The Dragon Devour- 
ing the Companions of Cadmus,- these distortions 
emphasize the violence and drama of the narrative. 
In other cases such distortions simply seem like 
capriciousness, but wit and cleverness are important 
aspects of the mannerist aesthetic, evident not only 



in the artists' figural and compositional styles but 
also in their frequent choices of esoteric and arcane 
subjects. The positive qualities associated with the 
words maniera (manner/style) and manieroso 
(mannerist/stylish) in sixteenth-century Italy, how- 
ever, became regarded as negative attributes in subse- 
quent centuries. The words mannerist and stylish 
became mannered and stylized in their most pejora- 
tive connotations. Twentieth-century criticism has 
removed much of this stigma but has not reached a 
consensus on explaining the definition or the origins 
of mannerism.3 

For the purposes of this volume mannerism 
is accepted as a consistent style of a specific histori- 
cal period. This style evolved from its Roman- 
Tuscan origins in Italy into what can be called inter- 
national mannerism, the first pan-European style 
since the international Gothic of 1400. The most 
important component in manifestations of interna- 
tional mannerism was familiarity and sympathy 
with Italian art. Despite, or in some cases because of, 
social and political upheavals in Europe during the 
sixteenth century, artists moved frequently from 
place to place, and Italy, especially Rome, was 
viewed widely as the source of the most modern 
style. Italian artists were dominant figures in French 
culture, and many Netherlandish artists spent long 
periods of study in Italy. In Germany, however, the 
tradition represented by Albrecht Diirer, Lucas 
Cranach, and Hans Baldung Grien was too strong, 
and German art of the sixteenth century is the only 
major European tradition that resists the mannerist 
label. When German artists visited Italy, their trips 
usually included Venice rather than the more man- 
nerist centers of Florence and Rome. Only at the end 
of the century can mannerism be detected in Prague, 
Munich, and Augsburg, because the leading artists 
there — Bartholomeus Spranger, Hans van Aachen, 
Adriaen de Vries, and Joseph Heintz — had spent 



10 



considerable amounts of time in Central Italy. Inter- 
national marmerism thus can be viewed as a graceful 
flowering tree, with its roots in Italy and with 
branches growing from them to most of Northern 
Europe. 



Mannerist prints are frequently reproductive of 
designs invented by artists other than the print- 
makers, and mannerist printmaking can be said to 
have originated in Raphael's workshop in Rome dur- 
ing the second decade of the sixteenth century. Ra- 
phael was probably the first great artist who was not 
himself a printmaker but was closely involved in the 
production of prints after his designs. He provided 
drawings to the printer Baviera and the engravers 
Marcantonio Raimondi, Marco Dente, and Agostino 
Veneziano. The prints made from these drawings 
were highly significant for the subsequent tradition 
of reproductive printmaking because of their great 
popularity and considerable influence. Throughout 
Europe similar relationships between inventor and 
executor occurred several times during the sixteenth 
century, such as those between Parmigianino and 
Antonio da Trento, Francesco Primaticcio and Leon 
Davent, Titian and Cornelis Cort, and Spranger and 
Goltzius. Reproductive prints were later disparaged 
as works of primarily documentary rather than artis- 
tic interest. Raphael, however, was certainly not 
interested in engravings as mere facsimiles of his 
famous paintings, although he undoubtedly recog- 
nized their value as a means of widely propagating 
his inventions. The drawings he supplied to 
Marcantonio and others were not simply copies of 
his oils and frescoes but frequently intermediary 
studies, which document the development of his 
compositions. Some subjects, including The Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents, The Judgment of Paris, and // 
Morbetto, were designed specifically for the en- 



graver, who more often than not was a creative 
interpreter rather than an unimaginative producer of 
reproductions. 

For The Massacre of the Innocents Raphael 
supplied Marcantonio with a design exemplary of 
the High Renaissance principles of clarity of action 
and narrative, harmony and balance of movement, 
and idealized yet naturalistic forms. In contrast to 
these characteristics many later sixteenth-century 
prints appear extravagant, willfully distorted, and 
emotionally remote. Even while Raphael and 
Marcantonio were creating examples of what can be 
termed High Renaissance printmaking, they also 
produced engravings that had repercussions for man- 
nerist art throughout the sixteenth century. By iso- 
lating the single figure in The Standard Bearer (cat. 
no. 35) from the rest of the composition, they 
focused the viewer's attention on the beauty of the 
figure's silhouette, anatomy, and trappings and the 
difficulty of its pose. The use of an isolated bella 
figura became a hallmark of mannerism, and its in- 
fluence can be discerned in such disparate examples 
as luste de Juste's etchings (cat. nos. 82-84), Michiel 
Coxcie's etching The Brazen Serpent (cat. no. 108), 
and Goltzius's series of engravings The Four 
Disgracers (cat. no. 115 and fig. 115a). 

Although Florence was a significant center 
for printmaking in the fifteenth century, by the sec- 
ond decade of the sixteenth century the highly suc- 
cessful collaboration between Raphael and 
Marcantonio resulted in the shift of focus to Rome. 
The decade following the death of Raphael in 1520 
was critical for the development of mannerism. A 
younger generation of artists in Rome began to pro- 
vide the local school of printmakers with designs in 
a markedly new style. Foremost among them were 
Giulio Romano, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino, 
and Perino del Vaga. 



INTRODUCTION 



Early Maniera has been characterized either 
as an anticlassical reaction to High Renaissance 
perfection or as a logical evolution of stylistic inno- 
vations in the art of Raphael and Michelangelo, who 
even in such exemplars of Renaissance classicism as 
the Vatican Stanze and the ceiling of the Sistine 
Chapel created images that seemed to veer away 
from the harmony and balance of the High Renais- 
sance. Both theories have some merit. Rosso's early 
art certainly is quirky and eccentric enough to war- 
rant its description as a deliberate and conscious at- 
tempt to countermand the High Renaissance. 
Dente's engraving The Skeletons after Rosso (cat. no. 
22) is an excellent example of the latter's bizarre 
imagination prior to his arrival in Rome. There his 
style underwent a transformation to a wittier and 
more sophisticated manner, undoubtedly through 
his exposure to the muscular energy of Mi- 
chelangelo's art, a change exemplified in Frenzy en- 
graved by Gian Giacomo Caraglio (cat. no. 17). Rosso 
also responded to Raphael's increasingly graceful 
late style. Rosso's Raphaelesque composition Saturn 
and Philyra engraved by Caraglio"* anticipates, more 
so than his Florentine works, the expressive grace 
and elegance of his creations of the 1530s at the 
court of Francis i at Fontainebleau. 

"Expressive grace and elegance" is an apt 
description of Early Maniera prints. Their emotional 
pitch tends to be more high-keyed than prints of ten 
or fifteen years earlier. Through the manipulation 
and sometimes distortion of compositional space, 
movement, and gesture, these works of the 1520s 
communicate a greater sense of dramatic urgency. 
These traits are apparent in Marcantonio's Lo 
Stregozzo probably after Giulio Romano and The 
Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence after Baccio 
Bandinelli (cat. nos. 37-38), in which the agitated, 
straining figures create an atmosphere of charged 
emotions. At the same time, the artists presented 



the narratives with a degree of emotional detach- 
ment, as though the scenes are "about" action rather 
than dramatic in themselves. This somewhat 
conceptual attitude is also reflected in the technical 
execution of the prints, with its tendency toward 
regularity and systemization in delineating the 
forms. 

Apart from its disastrous political and social 
consequences the Sack of Rome in 1527 had a decid- 
edly practical effect on the Roman school of 
printmaking because the artists were subsequently 
scattered throughout Italy. Indeed the local school of 
engraving did not revive until the early 1540s. As a 
result the schools of Bologna and Mantua rose to 
prominence. Parmigianino's presence in Bologna 
from 1527 to 1 53 1 significantly influenced develop- 
ments in the media of etching and chiaroscuro wood- 
cut, affecting Bolognese printmakers such as Mas- 
ter F.R, Antonio da Trento, and Nicolo Vicentino. 
Parmigianino's influence on the medium of etching, 
however, would be registered most strongly in Ven- 
ice and Fontainebleau. In 1524 Giulio Romano set- 
tled in Mantua, and beginning in the 1530s a 
Mantuan school of engravers centered around 
Giovanni Battista Scultori, his children Adamo and 
Diana, and Giorgio Ghisi. Giulio's inventions and 
decorations for the Gonzaga court were the principal 
determinants of the Mantuan graphic style, with its 
highly worked and brilliant surfaces, which caused a 
visual effect similar to the work of a goldsmith. The 
bas-relieflike character of Giulio's designs, with the 
compositional elements stacked vertically and 
pushed to the front of the picture plane, is echoed by 
the engravers' emphasis on the meticulous articula- 
tion of the forms. 

The middle years of the sixteenth century 
witnessed High Maniera, the triumph in art of pure 
stylishness and artificiality. The engravings of 
Giulio Bonasone and the etchings of Giovanni 



12, 



Battista Franco and Andrea Schiavone exemplify this 
trend. These prints also illustrate the new dom- 
inance at midcentury of Michelangelesque 
physicality in the treatment of the figures, although 
this energetic quality is often tempered with 
Raphaelesque or Parmigianesque gracefulness, espe- 
cially in Schiavone's works. Parmigianino's influ- 
ence is also present in the more fluid and painterly 
technique employed by some of these printmakers. 
Bonasone's engravings are closest to those of the ear- 
lier Roman school but lack the precision of drafts- 
manship found in Marcantonio's midcentury follow- 
ers such as Nicolas Beatrizet and Enea Vico. The 
looseness and experimental execution of Schiavone's 
prints are certainly the furthest removed from the 
Roman tradition,- and Franco's combination of etch- 
ing and engraving presents a marriage of the monu- 
mental Roman and painterly North Italian styles. 
The technical approach of Bonasone, Franco, and 
Schiavone also differs from the meticulously and 
densely engraved plates of the contemporary 
Mantuan school. In High Maniera prints the tech- 
nical playfulness, as it were, is often combined with 
an increasingly capricious treatment of the human 
form. Emotional tension is communicated, not 
through the agitated actions and clearly readable psy- 
chological states of the protagonists as in Early 
Maniera prints, but through the creation of taut 
visual rhythms in the compositions. The proportions 
and movements of the figures are exaggeratedly 
graceful and elegant, resulting in works of tremen- 
dous visual sophistication but emotional remote- 
ness. Ironically the period of High Maniera was also 
when the Counter-Reformation's Council of Trent 
was meeting to formulate the Catholic Church's 
guidelines for the efficacy of religious imagery. Man- 
nerist prints and the painters who inspired them 
were harshly criticized by the convening cardinals 
for their sensuous appeal to a limited audience of 



intellectuals and humanists. High Maniera artists 
were accused of neglecting the more general public 
of the Catholic faithful. 

In late sixteenth-century Italian painting two 
trends are discernible. Late Maniera is exemplified 
by the painters involved in the decoration of the 
Studiolo in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence and the 
brothers Taddeo and Federico Zuccaro and their fol- 
lowers in Rome. Counter-Maniera, represented most 
strongly by Florentine painters such as Santi di Tito 
and II Cigoli, was an effort to simplify and clarify 
some of the formal and narrative extravagances of 
mannerism. Neither trend, however, attracted many 
late sixteenth-century Italian printmakers. The prin- 
cipal interpreter of Late Maniera art was, in fact, the 
Fleming Cornelis Cort, who engraved many designs 
by the Zuccari. Cort's principal successes, however, 
were his prints after Titian. These engravings after 
the Venetian master exemplify two significant char- 
acteristics of printmaking in Italy at the end of the 
sixteenth century. First, Cort's technical virtuosity 
in rendering light, color, and texture influenced Ital- 
ian engravers such as Cherubino Alberti and 
Agostini Carracci, as well as Netherlandish artists 
such as Goltzius and his followers. The directness of 
the sensuous appeal of their prints evolved into a key 
aspect of baroque art. Second, Cort's collaboration 
with Titian is paralleled by other printmakers' inter- 
ests in late sixteenth-century Venetian painting. For 
example, after a period of reproducing designs by 
Late Maniera Bolognese artists, in the late 1580s 
Carracci increasingly found inspiration for his 
engravings in paintings by Jacopo Tintoretto and 
Paolo Veronese. Likewise, Giuseppe Scolari has been 
aptly termed "the Veronese of Venetian print- 
making, "^ and his woodcuts, like the engravings of 
Cort and Carracci, are replete with exuberant and 
energetic dynamism generally lacking in most non- 
Venetian art of the late sixteenth century. 



13 



INTRODUCTION 



In addition to the protobaroque qualities of 
prints by Cort, Scolari, and Carracci, certain art from 
the first third of the sixteenth century provided 
another potent source for both late mannerist print- 
makers and the artists of the incipient baroque 
period. The sensuous naturalism of Correggio 
informed the style of Federico Barocci, whose small 
oeuvre of etchings is unfortunately not represented 
here, but whose manner is reflected in engravings by 
Cort and Goltzius (cat. nos. 107 and 121). This re- 
vival of interest in the High Renaissance and Early 
Maniera can also be seen in Andrea Andreani's re- 
publication of many earlier chiaroscuro woodcuts, as 
well as in Alberti's several engravings after Mi- 
chelangelo (cat. no. i) and Polidoro da Caravaggio. 
Consequently baroque art was anticipated in many 
traits of late mannerist printmaking: sensuous 
appeal through the emphasis of light, color, and tex- 
ture; renewed interest in the masters of the High Re- 
naissance; and the dramatically energetic composi- 
tions of Venetian art of the late sixteenth century. 
The differences between late mannerist and baroque 
art are subtle, but sixteenth-century prints evince a 
degree of artificiality and self-conscious stylishness 
foreign to such baroque artists as Peter Paul Rubens 
and Pietro da Cortona. The naturalism of baroque art 
contrasts with the qualities of preciosity and ec- 
centricity found in many mannerist works. 



Mannerist printmaking in France was necessarily an 
imported art, effected via Francis I's invitation to his 
palace at Fontainebleau of Italian artists such as 
Primaticcio, Rosso, and Luca Penni. The history of 
etching and to a lesser extent engraving is a very 
short one at Fontainebleau, beginning about 1540 
and flourishing less than a decade. The school of 
Fontainebleau is the prime example of mannerism as 
a courtly style, and its peculiar employment of 



printmaking typifies the creation of art for a small 
and aesthetically refined audience. The motivation 
for printmaking at Fontainebleau could hardly have 
been more different from that in Italy. Italian engrav- 
ers were part of a system, including artists, printers, 
publishers, printsellers, and collectors, which con- 
stituted the print market. Etchers and engravers at 
Fontainebleau were considerably less public, produc- 
ing their works for a handful of cognoscenti who 
could appreciate and understand such qualities as 
uneven biting, varied inking and printing, and the 
use of different colored inks. Consequently Fon- 
tainebleau prints are relatively rare. Like the Italians, 
however, the French viewed printmaking as a collab- 
orative effort between painter and etcher. As with 
Raphael's direction of the Marcantonio workshop in 
Rome, the Fontainebleau school of printmaking was 
largely the creation of a painter, Primaticcio. 
Primaticcio had been at the French royal court since 
1532, but Fontainebleau printmaking did not 
develop until his return from a stay in Italy in 
1539-41- When he was recalled to court after 
Rosso's death there in 1540, Primaticcio was made 
sole artistic director, and as part of his duties he initi- 
ated a program of etching and engraving.'^ In view of 
Rosso's close collaboration with the engraver 
Caraglio in Rome, it is curious that this school of 
printmaking had not occurred earlier. 

What had happened in Italy to instigate 
Primaticcio's interest in printmaking? When he was 
in Mantua prior to his departure for France, the local 
school of engraving around Giovanni Battista 
Scultori had not yet been established. But when he 
traveled to Rome almost a decade later, printmaking 
had returned to the place of prominence it had en- 
joyed before the Sack. His observation of the inter- 
action between painters and printmakers might have 
spurred him to introduce such collaboration in 
France. But etching, not engraving, was the principal 



14 



means of graphic expression at Fontainebleau; and 
etching, as it was practiced in France, was not impor- 
tant to Roman printmakers. A possible explanation 
is that Primaticcio also traveled north to Bologna 
and Venice, where he could have seen etchings by 
Parmigianino, Schiavone, and their followers. Cer- 
tainly the freely drawn and open style of the French 
school of etchers, with their often lightly or even 
poorly bitten plates, suggests familiarity with the 
experimental North Italian printmakers. 

With the exception of Domenico del 
Barbiere, engravers are not generally considered the 
equals of etchers in the school of Fontainebleau. Al- 
though they reproduced designs by painters con- 
nected to the royal court, Pierre Milan and Rene 
Boyvin are closely associated with the more profes- 
sional milieu of printmaking in Paris. Information 
on other engravers, such as Francois Gentil, is simply 
too sketchy to localize their spheres of activity. 
Granted the differences in graphic media, the 
engravers were less interested in painterly and freely 
expressive draftsmanship than the etchers. The 
engravers' handling of the burin, with considerable 
attention to the sculptural and three-dimensional 
bulk of the forms, is more regular than the etchers' 
handling of the graver. In the engravings the effects 
of light are hard and cold, and the figures often have a 
frozen and stonelike quality. Apart from the dif- 
ferences in media the visual appearance of the 
engravings compared with the etchings can also be 
attributed to the circumstances of their production. 
As attested by documents on Milan, these works 
were commercial creations produced in large edi- 
tions intended for a large audience, rather than 
graphic experiments, like the etchings, made for a 
select few. In addition many so-called Fontainebleau 
engravings were created in Paris and elsewhere sev- 
eral years after the heyday of printmaking at the pal- 
ace in the 1540s. This is especially true for Boyvin 



and probably for others as well. 

Despite this variety, school of Fontainebleau 
prints are remarkably coherent visually. The school's 
brief lifespan partly explains this consistency, as 
does the relatively small number of participating art- 
ists, many of whom had common artistic experi- 
ences and backgrounds. This High Maniera aesthetic 
in France can be described as an especially graceful 
and stylish combination of Roman (Raphaelesque) 
and Bolognese (Parmigianesque) characteristics, of 
which Primaticcio was the most notable exponent. 
The artists other than Primaticcio reproduced in 
Fontainebleau prints represent different aspects of 
this composite French style. The Raphaelesque 
component is represented best by his pupil Giulio 
Romano, whose drawings were probably transported 
to Fontainebleau by Primaticcio, who had been his 
assistant in Mantua. Giulio's style was particularly 
influential on early Fontainebleau prints. The fore- 
most proponent of Raphaelesque style working at 
Fontainebleau was Penni, whose brother Giovanni 
Francesco had painted alongside Raphael and Giulio. 
Penni, however, displayed a Parmigianesque quality 
of grace and litheness that was more characteristic of 
the French school and foreign to Giulio's manner. 

Rosso, the other great source for Fontaine- 
bleau compositions, had died by the time the school 
of printmaking was flourishing. The contents of his 
workshop were probably inherited by Primaticcio, 
who supplied the Fontainebleau printmakers, espe- 
cially the engravers, with Rosso's drawings. Rosso's 
eccentric and anticlassical Florentine manner had 
been tempered by Roman and Bolognese influences 
before his arrival at Fontainebleau. There his contact 
with Primaticcio strengthened the Parmigianesque 
characteristics in his art, especially apparent in his 
manipulation and elongation of the figures, with 
their small heads and tapering limbs. The element of 
expressive and emotional ferocity in Rosso's art con- 



15 



INTRODUCTION 



trasts with the elegant suavity of Primaticcio's. The 
two artists, along with Penni in a much less original 
fashion, illustrate well the Roman-Bolognese char- 
acter of the school of Fontainebleau. 

If Primaticcio's renewed acquaintance with 
Italian art in his homeland might have prompted the 
introduction of printmaking to Fontainebleau, what 
caused its rapid eclipse? Lacking documentation, 
any explanation for the disappearance of graphic pro- 
duction at the palace must be speculative. Possible 
explanations are that printmaking was only a fad 
promoted by Primaticcio, which died out when the 
painter lost interest, or that it simply burned itself 
out after six years of intensive and concentrated pro- 
duction. It might not have been only coincidental 
that this activity seems to have come to an abrupt 
halt shortly after 1547, the year Francis i died. The 
king might have played such a significant role in the 
French etching movement that his death also signi- 
fied the end of these experiments in printmaking. 
The reign of his successor, Henri 11, was marked by 
the cessation of Italian dominance of French culture, 
with the death or departure from the court of many 
Italian artists, including Antonio Fantuzzi, Penni, 
and Sebastiano Serlio. Henri ii's interests appear to 
have been directed toward architecture, and com- 
bined with the waning of Italian influence, the brief 
efflorescence of printmaking at Fontainebleau came 
to an end. 

The school of Fontainebleau dominated 
French printmaking in the sixteenth century, and its 
influence can be detected, especially in the distinc- 
tively professional ambience of Parisian print- 
making, during the second half of the century. The 
visual character of late French mannerism differs 
from the High Maniera style of Fontainebleau in two 
ways. First, Primaticcio's compositions, as well as 
those of his Bolognese compatriot and assistant 
Nicolo dell'Abate, are encountered infrequently. 



More common are designs by Rosso, Penni, and 
Leonard Thiry. Second, the oeuvres of Parisian print- 
makers, such as Boyvin, Etienne Delaune, Jacques 
Androuet Ducerceau, and Etienne Duperac, illus- 
trate a shift of interest from narrative compositions 
to decorative and architectirral subjects. When nar- 
rative themes do appear in prints, such as Delaune's 
series The History of Apollo and Diana (cat. nos. 
73-78), the designs, in which the diminutive and 
somewhat precious figures are subordinated to their 
sometimes elaborately ornamental settings, can be 
described as Late Maniera in France rather than the 
more vigorous High Maniera of the first school of 
Fontainebleau. Exemplars of French Late Maniera 
painters include Antoine Caron and Jean Cousin the 
Younger, whose delicate and finely wrought figural 
style is reflected in prints by Delaune and others. 

A markedly different sort of courtly art, cen- 
tering around the painter and etcher Bellange, devel- 
oped toward the end of the century at Nancy in the 
duchy of Lorraine. Bellange's designs are not nearly 
as Italianate as Fontainebleau prints from a half cen- 
tury earlier but are a highly spiritualized and per- 
sonal expression comparable with those of his Span- 
ish contemporary El Greco. Italian influence, never- 
theless, is present in Bellange's art, such as his 
etching The Virgin with a Spindle, with its debts to 
Barocci's technique in general and specifically to the 
composition of the Italian's etching The Annuncia- 
tion.^ Bellange's extraordinarily extravagant figur- 
al style has been compared with that of his 
Netherlandish contemporaries Spranger and 
Goltzius, who borrowed motifs from Italian Late 
Maniera artists. His style might also have had roots 
in native French art. The unnatural proportions and 
contrapposto of the figures in his series of etchings of 
Christ and the Apostles'* recall the characteristic 
Gothic sway of thirteenth-century French sculpture, 
and the voluminous drapery enveloping Bellange's 



16 



figures is reminiscent of Claus Sinter's Burgundian 
sculptures of the fifteenth century. 



The mannerist style represented by Netherlandish 
(Dutch and Flemish) prints differs markedly from 
that seen in Italian and French prints of the sixteenth 
century. In the world of Netherlandish printmaking 
Hieronymus Cock occupied a position of seminal 
importance analagous to that held by Marcantonio 
in Italy. Cock's publishing house in Antwerp, Au 
Quatre Vents, determined the style and, in fact, the 
substance of most Netherlandish prints in the sec- 
ond half of the sixteenth century. He set an example 
for later Northern engravers and publishers, such as 
the families Galle, Wierix, and Sadeler Cock is an 
essential figure for the increasingly significant posi- 
tion assumed by landscape, allegorical, and genre 
subjects, not only through his prints after Pieter 
Brueghel the Elder but also via his work with such 
artists as Maarten van Heemskerck, Hans Bol, Mat- 
thias Cock, Master of the Small Landscapes, and 
Master of the Saint George's Fair. Although best 
known for the publication of engravings after the 
designs of Brueghel, Cock played an equally signifi- 
cant role through his collaboration with so-called 
Romanist artists, such as Heemskerck, Frans Floris, 
and Lambert Lombard. Cock also invited Ghisi to 
Antwerp and published the latter's engravings after 
Raphael, Michelangelo, and Angolo Bronzino. Early 
on Cock had sponsored Cort, whose later career in 
Italy, especially in Venice, influenced engraving 
styles throughout Europe, from Goltzius's to 
Carracci's. 

Although as reproductive as many Italian and 
French prints of the sixteenth century. Northern 
engravings and etchings generally were not based, 
with the principal exception of Cort's, directly on 
designs by Italian artists but on peculiarly Italianate 



compositions by Dutch and Flemish artists. Most of 
these inventors, such as Heemskerck, Floris, Coxcie, 
and Spranger, spent significant amounts of time in 
Italy, where they absorbed the most recent develop- 
ments in Italian art. The Flemish style avoided the 
Raphaelesque-Parmigianesque manner prevalent at 
Fontainebleau and favored the exaggerated mus- 
cularity and plasticity of Michelangelo's followers, 
such as Vasari and Bronzino in Florence, Daniele da 
Volterra in Rome, and Pellegrino Tibaldi in Bologna. 
Coxcie's etching The Brazen Serpent and Floris's 
etching Victory (cat. no. 109) are prime examples of 
the contorted and artificial movement of the nude 
figure in many midcentury Netherlandish composi- 
tions. The manipulative treatment of the forms in 
these High Maniera etchings is guided by an abstract 
conception of the figure as decorative ornament, an 
approach quite similar to that adopted by Vasari in 
his painting Allegory of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, an archetype of High Maniera in Italy.^ 

The openness of the Flemish style of etching 
at midcentury ultimately has its source in prints by 
Parmigianino, Schiavone, and Battista Franco. The 
Roman gravity and monumentality of Franco's etch- 
ings undoubtedly appealed to artistic taste in Ant- 
werp, where the related style of Floris and 
Heemskerck reigned supreme. A more immediate 
source for these Flemish etchings, however, was the 
school of Fontainebleau, which shares many tech- 
nical and stylistic traits with midcentury Flemish 
prints, such as the similarity of Juste's treatment of 
the nude to Heemskerck's. Relations between the 
French royal court and Flanders were close, and sev- 
eral Flemish artists were employed in the decoration 
of Fontainebleau. Although after the death of Francis 
I nothing is known of the later careers of etchers like 
Davent, Jean Mignon, and Master 1$ V, it is conceiv- 
able that they soon found a compatible atmosphere 
in Antwerp, where Cock had established his print 



17 



INTRODUCTION 



workshop at the end of the 1540s. There is no evi- 
dence of contact between Cock and the printmakers 
from Fontainebleau, but visual affinities between 
Netherlandish and French etchings suggest at least 
acquaintance of the two traditions, even if the 
experimental character of French etchings differs 
from the more professional nature of Flemish 
productions. 

Mannerism in Holland of about 15 80- 16 10 
marks yet another distinctive amalgamation of in- 
fluences from Italy. Like mannerism in Antwerp 
from two generations earlier, with which the Dutch 
printmakers were connected through Goltzius's 
teacher and Cock's collaborator Dirck Volkertsz. 
Coornhert, mannerist prints in Haarlem, Utrecht, 
and Amsterdam on the whole were Italianate rather 
than directly based on Italian designs. Spranger, 
court painter to Rudolph 11 in Prague, was the key 
figure for the dissemination of the Italian style to 
Holland. His drawings were brought to Holland by 
his friend Karel van Mander, who shared them with 
Goltzius and his followers. Through his travels in 
Italy Spranger absorbed the Late Maniera style of 
Taddeo Zuccaro, Raffaelino da Reggio, Jacopo 
Zucchi, and Jacopo Bertoia, among others. Spranger 
tempered the Flemish mannerists' somewhat heavy, 
even lumpish, Michelangelism with a Late Maniera 
quality of grace, sweetness, and elegance derived 
from Parmigianino and his North Italian followers. 
Goltzius, van Mander, and Cornelis Cornelisz. van 
Haarlem readily adopted Sprangerism as the prev- 
alent style espoused in their academy established in 
Haarlem in the late 1580s. As part of their teaching 
program they promoted the study of the live model, a 
feature not present in earlier Flemish mannerism. 
Unlike the contemporary Carracci academy in Bolo- 
gna, where study of the model was a linchpin in the 
Carracci's reform of mannerist extravagance, the art- 
ists in Haarlem interwove naturalism with influence 



from antique sculpture, especially Hellenistic exam- 
ples such as the Farnese Hercules and the Laocoon. 
The Dutch artists, particularly Goltzius and 
Cornelis, often interpreted anatomy in an almost 
grotesque fashion of exaggerated musculature, the 
most famous example being Goltzius's engraving 
The Large Hercules. '° 

Dutch engravings by Goltzius and his school 
appear in a technical sense quite different from ear- 
lier Flemish prints. These Dutch prints emphasize 
the evocation of volume and texture through dense 
networks of swelling and tapering lines. In compari- 
son Flemish etchings and engravings of the High 
Maniera appear rather schematic, two-dimensional, 
and abstract. The Dutch manner of engraving was 
strongly influenced by Cort's Venetian engravings 
after Titian, with their success in capturing in black- 
and-white the painter's marvelous effects of light, 
color, and atmosphere. Although executed in 
another medium, the etchings of Barocci also were 
undoubtedly of interest to the Dutch, as they were 
for Bellange in Nancy. The emphasis on dramatic 
effects of light in these Dutch engravings anticipated 
technical achievements in seventeenth-century 
Netherlandish prints, including such disparate pro- 
ductions as the engravings commissioned by Rubens 
and etchings and drypoints by Rembrandt and his 
followers.'^ 

At the end of the century the movement 
commonly known as international mannerism — 
also called Goltziusstil and Sprangerstil in deference 
to its principal exponents — was a mixture of several 
artistic components emanating from Italy through 
Prague to Holland, with distinctive local variations 
but also with enough common features to character- 
ize the style as truly international. Given the Italian 
origins of late Dutch mannerism, it is ironic that 
printmakers began to reject the more outrageous 
aspects of Sprangerism, when they actually traveled 



18 



to Italy. Goltzius is the most notable artist who 
rejected international mannerism, as his exposure in 
Rome to the monuments of the High Renaissance 
and antiquity influenced his adoption of a more re- 
strained and classicizing manner. Jan Muller's devel- 
opment paralleled that of late sixteenth-century Ital- 
ian printmakers, such as Alberti and Scolari, and 
moved toward a more dynamic and protobaroque 
style, as in his engravings The Adoration of the Magi 
and The Feast of Belshazzar [cat. nos. 138-39). Inter- 
national mannerism had evolved at the end of the 
century into an international protobaroque style, as 
developments in this direction in Holland paralleled 
those in Italy. 



Notes 

1 . John Shearman, Mannerism 
(Harmondsworth: Penguin 
Books, 1967), 19. 

2. Bartsch, 3:79, no. 262. 

3. For excellent surveys of the 
critical history of mannerism in 
all the arts, see Shearman's 
opening essay, "The Historical 
Reality," in Mannerism, 15-48, 
and James V. MiroUo's 
introductory chapter, 
"Mannerism as Term, Concept, 
and Controversy," in his 
Mannerism and Renaissance 
Poetry: Concept, Mode. Inner 
Design (New Haven and London: 
Yale University Press, 1984), 
1-65. 

4. Bartsch, 15:76, no. 23. 

5. Landau, 350. 

6. Primaticcio might have made 
one etching himself. See Zerner, 
School, no, FP i. 



7. Reed and Worthen, 29, no. 8. 
The authors also compare 
Bellange's technique with those 
of Parmigianino and Ventura 
Salimbeni, Bellange's Sienese 
contemporary and a devoted 
follower of Barocci. 

8. Ibid., 70, nos. 45, 47-61. 

9. Paola Barocchi, Vasari Pittore 
(Florence: G. Barbera Editore, 
1964), pi. XI. Vasari painted the 
prime version in 1540 for 

the church of Santi Apostoli in 
Florence and repeated the 
popular composition several 
times in small and large formats. 

10. Bartsch, 3:44, no. 142. 

1 1 . For a discussion of this 
development, see Ackley's 
"Printmaking in the Age of 
Rembrandt: The Quest for 
Printed Tone," in Ackley, 
xix-xxvi. 



19 



INTRODUCTION 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE EXHIBITION 



NOTE TO THE READER 

This catalogue presents 148 prints selected 
from the Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection in 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. En- 
tries are divided into three sections: Italian 
prints, French prints, and Netherlandish 
prints. Within each section entries are 
arranged alphabetically by artist. When there 
is more than one work by an artist, entries are 
arranged chronologically according to known 
or suggested dates. When the chronology is 
unknown, entries are listed by subject 
according to Bartsch's iconographic system; 
for example, biblical and religious subjects 
are followed by mythological themes. The 
print's title is followed by the name of the 
designer of the composition; when no name 
is given, the printmaker is presumed to be the 
designer. Under Inscriptions ellipses indicate 
the omission of words, and brackets indicate 
the author's translation or interpretation. 
Catalogues raisonnes of the artist's prints are 
noted under References, Significant books, 
articles, and exhibition catalogues discussing 
the print are noted under Literature. Lower 
case roman numerals signify the state of the 
present impression; i/ii, for example, means 
the print is from the first of two states. In the 
cases of publications referred to in abbre- 
viated form, full citations can be found in the 
bibliography. 



21 




L 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Chenibino Alberti 
Andrea Andieani 
Amico Aspertini 
Battista del Moro 
Nicolas Beatrizet 
Nicolo Boldiini 
Giulio Bonasone 
Domenico Campagnola 
Gian Giacomo Caraglio 
Ugo da Carpi 



Nicolo della Casa 

Marco Dente 

Giovanni Battista Franco 

Giorgio Ghisi 

Palma Giovane 

Farmigianino 

Marcantonio Raimondi 



Giulio Sanuto 
Andrea Schiavone 
Giuseppe Scolari 
Adamo Scultori 
Diana Scultori 
Giovanni Battista Scultori 
Antonio da TYento 
Nicolo Vicentino 
Enea Vico 



23 



Andrea Andreani 

The Sacrifice of Isaac (cat. no. 2) 




25 ITALIAN PRINTS 



Ugo da Carpi 

Diogenes (cat. no. 19) 




26 



Parmigianino 

Saint Peter and Saint John Healing the Cripple 
at the Gate of the Temple (cat. no. 33) 




27 ITALIAN PRINTS 



Antonio da Trento 

Augustus and the Tibuitine Sibyl (cat. no. 49) 




28 



Antonio da IVento 

Narcissus and Echo (cat. no. 50) 




29 ITALIAN PRINTS 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Chhst Healing the Lepers icat. no. 51) 




30 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Augustus and the Tiburtine Sibyl (cat. no. 52) 




31 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Psvche Honored as a Goddess (cat. no. 53) 




32. 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Saturn (cat. no. 54) 




33 ITALIAN PRINTS 



Attributed to Nicolo Vicentino 

The Piesentation in the Temple (cat. no. 55) 




34 



Attributed to Nicolo Viceniino 

Chanty (cat. no. 56) 




35 ITALIAN PRINTS 



Attributed to Nicolo Vicentino 

Tempeiance (cat. no. 57) 




36 



Attributed to Nicolo Vicentino 

Prudence (cat. no. 58) 




37 ITALIAN PRINTS 



Chenibino Alherti 

The Good Thief 

After Michelangelo 

Engraving and etching 

13^16 X 6'/i6 in. (34.4 X 15.4 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: Cherubinus Albertus 

f. i58o./Cum privilegio sumi 

Pontif. 

Lower right, on cross: 

M.Ang.B.Pinx in Vaticano 

References 

Bartsch, 17:75, no. 69; Le Blanc, 
1:10, no. 75 

Literature 

Heinecken, 1:88; Rotili, 114, 
no. 147 




38 



Fig. la 

Cherubino Alherti 

A Blessed Soul Lifted to Heaven 

Engraving 

i6"/i(.x S'Vk, in. (42.3 X 22-7 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 




The Good Thief is one of five engravings by 
Alberti after figures in Micfielangelo's fresco 
The Last ludgment, 1536-41, in tfie Sistine 
Chapel: Bartsch 71 is dated 1575, the present 
work and Bartsch 70 are dated 1580, and 
Bartsch 67 and 68 (fig. la) are dated 1591. 
Bartsch and later commentators grouped 
together the five engravings as though they 
constituted a set, but internal evidence 
argues against such a grouping. First, the 
prints were executed over a period of sixteen 
years. Second, Bartsch 67 and 68 are framed 
in elaborate decorative cartouches, whereas 
The Good Thief and Bartsch 70 and 71 dis- 
play the figures in isolation against plain stri- 
ated backgrounds. Third, the engravings are 
not uniform in size, ranging from 32.8 x 16.6 
cm for Bartsch 70 to 42.3 x 22.7 cm for 
Bartsch 67 and 68 (only these two prints can 
be considered a set). Finally, the signature and 
inscriptions vary in form and script among 
the five works. 

Bartsch recorded only a single state for 
The Good Thief. There are impressions, how- 
ever, such as the one in the British Museum,' 
without the publication line "Cum privilegio 
sumi Pontif." Consequently the present 
impression, with this line, is from the second 
state. The figure of the Good Thief was also 
engraved, in reverse, by Giulio Bonasone.- 
Heinecken and Massari mistakenly identi- 
fied the subject as Saint Andrew. 

The narrative of the Good Thief appears 
in Luke 23.39-43. When Christ was cru- 
cified, he was executed between two thieves. 
The one on his left ridiculed him and ques- 
tioned his divinity; but the thief on his right 
recognized and defended Christ, who, in 
acknowledgment of the thief's faith, said to 
him, "Today you will be with me in 
Paradise." 



Notes 

1 . Sebastian Buffa, ed.. The 
Illustrated Bartsch, vol. 34 (New 
York: Abaris Books, 1982), 189. 

2. Bartsch, 15:132, no. 79; 
Massari, Bonasone, 1:72, no. 81. 



39 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Andrea Andreani 

The Sacrifice of Isaac 

After Domenico Beccafumi 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black, ocher, 

light grayish green, and dark grayish green 

on eight (of ten) sheets 

30V8 X 61% in. (76.5 X 155.9 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 2^ 




References 

Bartsch, 12:22, under no. 4; 
Le Blanc, 1:42, no. 3 



Literature 

Heinecken, 1:240; Hilliard 
Goldfarb, "Chiaroscuro Woodcut 
Technique and Andrea 
Andreani," Bulletin of the 
Cleveland Museum of Art 67 
I1981): 325, fig. lo; Mariette, 
1:2 1; Weigel, 24, no. 264 



40 




The Sacrifice of Isaac. 1 5 86, is one of a pair of 
monumental, multipaneled chiaroscuro 
woodcuts by Andreani based on Beccafumi's 
designs for intarsia on the pavement of the 
Duomo in Siena. The other woodcut Moses 
Breaking the Tablets of the Law is dated 
1590.' According to the inscription on that 
print, the late sixteenth-century Sienese 
painter Francesco Vanni provided Andreani 
with drawings of Beccafumi's compositions, 
with which the woodcutter prepared his 
blocks. As noted by Goldfarb, Andreani faith- 
fully reproduced the intarsia in the line 
block. 

The tone blocks were used to provide 
additional volume to the forms and to indi- 
cate recession into depth. The darker tone 
block appears primarily in the foreground, 
creating a greater sense of atmospheric reces- 
sion than in the pavement itself, in which the 
darker woods are used for a more ornamental 
and decorative effect. 

In order to test his devotion to God, the 
Hebrew patriarch Abraham was ordered to 
sacrifice his only son Isaac as a burnt offering. 
Abraham was about to slaughter Isaac on the 
altar when an angel descended, stayed his 
hand, and instructed him to substitute a ram. 
This story, told in Genesis 22.1-12, is consid- 
ered a prefiguration of God's sacrifice of his 
only son Jesus. 



Notes 

I. Bartsch, 12:22, under no. 4. 
Andreani 's £ve, 1586 (ibid., 21, 
no. 1 1, also derives from 
Beccafumi's pavement. 



41 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Attributed to Amico Aspertini 

The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise 

Etching and engraving printed in bluish black ink 
9716 X I2'yi6 in. (24 X 32.5 cm) 




References 

Bartsch, 15:8, no. 3; Meyer et al., 
2:338, no. I; Nagler, 
Kiinstlei-Lexikon, 1:169; Nagler, 
Monogrammisten, 1:423, no. 
97 1; Passavant, 6:74, no. 3 



Literature 

Heinecken, i:39r, no. 5, 3:i3r, 
no. 4; Massari, Bonasone. 1:87, 
no. 109; Oberhuber, 
Renaissance, r7i, no. 290 



42 



Fig. 3a 

Amico Aspertini 

TXvo Nude Male Figures before 

Renaissance Portals 

Black chalk, pen and brown ink, 

brown wash 

8% X 6'/2 m. (22.5 X 16.5 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 




Oberhuber suggested that The Expulsion of 
Adam and Eve from Paradise may represent 
an allegory of the fall and redemption of man- 
kind. In the background Adam and Eve are 
driven from the Garden of Eden. They are 
shown again in the foreground, with Eve 
holding her spindle (with which she made 
clothing after the pair discovered their naked- 
ness) and Adam with his hoe (with which he 
now had to cultivate the soil in order to pro- 
vide food). The seated male nude in the center 
probably represents Cain gazing into an 
object that may be a convex mirror, symbolic, 
as Oberhuber suggested, of self-knowledge; 
in the background is the serpent entwined 
around the Tree of Knowledge. Cain is seated 
next to the altar of his brother Abel, with its 
flaming sacrifice, representative of Christ's 
sacrifice of himself (the Lamb of God) for the 
redemption of mankind. 

Although cataloguing this work among 
the followers of Marcantonio Raimondi, 
Bartsch recorded the different opinions about 
the print's design and execution, particularly 
Giulio Cesare Malvasia's suggestion in the 
seventeenth century that Aspertini might 
have been responsible not only for the com- 
position but also for the engraving. The at- 
tribution of the design to Aspertini has merit, 
in light of its physiognomies, characteristic 
of the artist's style, with their compact 
bodies and relatively large heads. The half- 
falling, half-rising figure of Cain is compar- 
able with a very similar nude in one of 
Aspertini's sketchbooks in the British 
Museum (fig. 3a).' As for the identity of the 
printmaker, the old attribution to Aspertini is 
worth considering. The manner of engraving 
has the painterly and atmospheric character 
of Emilian, rather than Roman, prints akin to 
the works of Giulio Bonasone, to whom this 
print has also been attributed. With no other 
engravings known by Aspertini, the identi- 
fication must remain conjectural. 



Notes 

I . Phyllis Bray Bober, Drawings 
after the Antique by Amico 
Aspertini: Sketchbooks in the 
British Museum (London: The 
Warburg Institute, 1957I, 81-82, 
folio 17 (no. 33I, fig. 117. 



43 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Battista del Moro 

The Finding of Moses 

After Parmigianino or Andrea Schiavone 

Etching 

10% X SVi in. (27.3 X 21 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:177, no. i; Le Blanc, 
1:47, no. I; Meyer et al., 2:36, 
no. 2 

Literature 

Copertini, 2:57; Heinecken, 
3:132, no. 8; Oberhuber, 
Paimigianino. 73, under no. 199; 
Pittaluga, 294; Richardson, 79, 
under no. 2 




44 




Fig. 4a 

Andrea Schiavone 

The Finding of Moses 

Etching 

8'/4 X 5"/i6 in. (21 X 14.4 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Although unsigned, The Finding of Moses 
was attributed to del Moro by Bartsch, with 
whom most later writers agreed. Copertini 
and Quintavalle attributed it, together with 
Gian Giacomo Caraglio's engraving The 
Martyrdom of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, to 
Jacopo Bertoia;' these suggestions, however, 
have been refuted by Diane DeGrazia.- The 
present print is related, in reverse, to a very 
similar etching by Andrea Schiavone (fig. 4a), 
as well as to one by Georges Reverdy.^ The 
etching by del Moro differs in some respects 
from Schiavone's version. Del Moro's is 
larger, allowing for a more expansive land- 
scape, with a view to distant mountains, and 
consequently the group of figures is not as 
compressed as that in Schiavone's. 

A critical consensus has not been 
reached on the attribution of the design for 
the composition. Bartsch and Oberhuber as- 
serted that del Moro and Schiavone worked 
from a common source believed to be a draw- 
ing by Parmigianino. Copertini and Richard- 
son attributed the design to Schiavone. The 
matter is difficult to resolve because 
Schiavone was sometimes so imitative of 
Parmigianino that it is speculative to discern 
at what point a design is more like Schiavone 



than Parmigianino. Most writers have noted 
the composition's derivation, although recast 
in the sinuous and graceful manner of North 
Italian art, from Raphael's fresco in the Vati- 
can Loggia.^ Differences may be noted partic- 
ularly in the attitudes and gestures of the 
handmaidens, especially the tender action of 
the woman lifting the basket from the water. 
This gesture can be compared with that of 
the woman lifting the Christ Child in 
Caraglio's 1526 engraving after Parmigianino's 
The Adoration of the Shepherds.^ If 
Schiavone is accepted as the designer, he 
might have followed a copy by Parmigianino 
after Raphael's fresco and adapted it with 
other Parmigianesque models, such as The 
Adoration of the Shepherds, in which the 
excited crowd of rushing figures is compara- 
ble with the group of handmaidens in The 
Finding of Moses. 

The narrative comes from Exodus 
2.3-6. While the Hebrews were in Egypt, 
Pharaoh ordered the death of all newborn 
Jewish males. Moses' mother saved her child 
by putting him in a reed basket and placing it 
in the river. He was soon discovered and res- 
cued by Pharaoh's daughter who was bathing 
at the river. 



Notes 

1. Augusta Ghidigha 
Quintavalle, II Beitoja (Milan: 
"Silvana" Editoriale d'Arte, 
1963I, 42. For Caraglio's 
engraving, see Bartsch, 15:71, 
no. 8. 

2. Conversation with the author, 
February 1987. 

3. Bartsch, 16:41, no. 2; and ibid., 
15:466, no. I. The work by del 
Moro was mistakenly catalogued 
as the version by Reverdy in 
Christie's catalogue Old Master 
Prints from Chatsworth, 5 
December 1985, lot loi. 

4. For Parmigianino's copies after 
Raphael, see Popham, 2:pls. 

205 - 10. For Schiavone's 
etchings after Raphael, see 
Richardson, 79, under no. 2. 

5. Bartsch, 15:68, no. 4. 



45 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Nicolas Beatrizet 

Aaron 

After Parmigianino 

Engraving 

14V8 X 5'/i6 in. (35.8 X 12.9 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: F.P.INVENT/ 
.ANT.SAL./EXCVDEBAT 

References 

unrecorded 

Literatuie 

Copertini, i:pl. yob, 2:72, no. 32; 
Freedberg, 197 n. 173 




46 



Fig. 5 a 

Parmigianino and assistants 

Aaron 

Fresco 

Santa Maria della Steccata, 

Parma 




Unrecorded in the standard catalogues of 
prints, Aaron was attributed by Copertini to 
an unknown artist hypothetically identified 
as Antonio Salaino, on the basis of the 
author's misreading of the inscription 
".ANT. SAL.," which instead refers to the pub- 
lisher of the print, Antonio Salamanca, as the 
rest of the inscription, "excvdebat" (pub- 
lished), makes clear. The manner of engrav- 
ing suggests the work of Nicolas Beatrizet be- 
cause of such stylistic characteristics as the 
delineation of the musculature as knotty 
lumps of flesh, the emphatically reinforced 
contours, and the use of reflected light in the 
shadows. The network of engraved lines 
modeling the figure is not nearly as fine as 
Beatrizet's Man Walking (cat. no. 7) but more 
like Tityus (cat. no. 6) and other prints by him 
published in the early 1 540s by Salamanca. 

The engraving reproduces, in reverse, 
the figure of Aaron (fig. 5a) in one of 
Parmigianino's last paintings, the ceiling 
frescoes of 1535-39 in the church of Santa 
Maria della Steccata, Parma.' Because the 
print is so close in composition to the fresco, 
Beatrizet probably copied the painting itself 
rather than a preparatory study by Par- 
migianino, such as the sheet in the Staat- 
liche Graphische Sammlung, Munich.^ 

Together with his brother Moses, 
Aaron led the Hebrews out of captivity in 
Egypt. He is shown here with his attribute, a 
staff entwined with a snake. When Aaron 
was trying to convince Pharaoh to let the He- 
brews go, he performed a miracle of throwing 
down his rod, which turned into a snake (Exo- 
dus 7.9-12). 



Notes 

1. Freedberg, 189-93, pl- 102. 
Most of these frescoes, including 
Aaron, were probably executed 
by an assistant. 

2. Harprath, 94, no. 65, pl. 67. 



47 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Nicolas Beatrizet 

Tityus 

After Michelangelo 

Engraving 

ii'/i6 X I4y8 in. (28.1 X 37.2 cm) 




■^ INVENT \ 



J T ITIV S - G I G A S '\VLTVKE ^D I V E KS fS Q,- PE N i S • L/\C F. 11 AT \ 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: mich. a. B. /invent 
Lower right: anT salamanc/ 

EXCVDEBAT 

Below: 

TITIVS.GIGAS.WLTVRE. 

DIVERSISQ.PENIS.LACERATVS 



References 

Bartsch, 15:259, no. 39; Le Blanc, 
i;2i8, no. 31; Robert-Dumesnil, 
9:153, no. 33 i/iii 

Literature 

Borea, 254, no. 644; Linzeler, 83; 
Pittaluga, 185; Rotili, 66, no. 36 



48 





Fig. 6a 

Michelangelo (Italy, 1475-1564I 

Tityus 

Black chalk 

7'/: X 13 in. (19 X 33 cm) 

Windsor Castle, Royal Library 

©Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 

II. 1987 

Fig. 6b 

Nicolas Beatrizet 

The Death of Meleager 

Engraving 

i2'/4X i6»/8 in. (31. 1 X 42.2 cm| 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Museum Purchase 



Tityus is unsigned but traditionally attrib- 
uted to Beatrizet. Although Borea catalogued 
the engraving as anonymous, the handling of 
the figures appears stylistically consistent 
with other prints signed by or generally 
attributed to Beatrizet. Robert-Dumesnil 
described three states, the first with 
Salamanca's name as publisher, followed by 
editions with the names of the publishers van 
Aelst and de Rossi. Robert-Dumesnil also 
described, as did Bartsch, an anonymous 
copy, in reverse, published by Lafreri and 
another reversed copy engraved by Enea Vico, 
dated 1 546. The latter is not listed by Bartsch 
among Vico's works, and Robert-Dumesnil 
might have confused Tityus with either 
Vico's Leda and the Swan or Children's Bac- 
chanal, both after Michelangelo and dated 
1546.' 

Beatrizet's engraving is based, in re- 
verse, on one of Michelangelo's presentation 
drawings at Windsor Castle, executed about 
1532 for his friend Tommaso de' Cavalieri 
(fig. 6a).- The musculature of Tityus is exag- 
gerated into a series of knotted lumps of 



flesh, a characteristic never found in 
Michelangelo's original works but occasion- 
ally in Beatrizet's, such as The Death of 
Meleager after Francesco Salviati (fig. 6b|.^ 
Following a practice common to many 
engravers, Beatrizet placed the figures in an 
imaginary setting of his own invention. In- 
stead of Tartarus, the legendary hell of the 
underworld, the background shows the ruins 
of the Forum of Nerva in Rome. As noted by 
Rotili, this view is similar to that seen in 
plate 6 of Etienne Duperac's series Vestigi 
dell'Antichita di Roma, 1575. Borea observed, 
however, that Duperac's engraving could not 
have been Beatrizet's source because Tityus 
was published in its first edition by Sala- 
manca, who died in 1562. Both Duperac and 
Beatrizet might have worked from an un- 
known drawing of the site. 

Tityus was one of the great mythologi- 
cal sinners, condemned to eternal torture in 
Tartarus for the attempted rape of Leto, the 
mother of Apollo and Artemis. For this crime 
Tityus was chained to the ground while vul- 
tures devoured his ever-renewing liver, be- 
lieved to be the source of the passions. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 15:294, no. 26; and 
ibid., 305, no. 48. 

2. Popham and Wilde, 252, no. 
429, pi. 21. 

3. Bartsch, 15:260, no. 41. 



49 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Nicolas Beatrizet 

Man Walking 

After Michelangelo 

Engraving 

14% X y'Vie in. (37.5 x 20.2 cm), top and left margins trimmed 



References 

unrecorded 



Literature 

Borea, 283, no. 783; Massari, 
Bonasone, 1:71, no. 80; Rotili, 
62, no. 27 



-f^. 



I^R 






% 


^" 



50 



This striking image, sometimes identified as 
Saint Paul, was not recorded by Bartsch. Man 
Walking reproduces one of Michelangelo's 
figures in his fresco The Crucifixion of Saint 
Peter in the Cappella Paolina in the Vatican. 
Rotili, followed by Massari, identified the en- 
graver as Giulio Bonasone. In the early 1960s, 
however, the print appeared on the London 
art market with an attribution to Beatrizet,' a 
suggestion with which Borea and others have 
generally agreed. The image's source in a 
work by Michelangelo undoubtedly inspired 
the attribution to Beatrizet, who engraved 
many of the master's designs. It is the style of 
the print, however, that is the clinching fac- 
tor for the attribution. The fine network of 
lines shading the anatomy and drapery is 
consistent with Beatrizet's manner and con- 
trasts with Bonasone's considerably looser 
modeling. The mesh of crosshatching in this 
engraving, interspersed with patches of 
closely spaced, long strokes of parallel lines, 
is found in other engravings by Beatrizet, 
such as The Death of Meleager after 
Francesco Salviati, 1543 (fig. 6b),- and Aaron 
(cat. no. 5). The greater delicacy of modeling 
in Man Walking, however, suggests a date of a 
few years later. 

It has been noted by Geoffrey Keynes 
that this engraving served as the model for 
William Blake's engraving Joseph of Ari- 
mathea among the Rocks of Albion, 1773.^ 



Notes 

1. Engravings and Etchings 
(Fifteenth to Eighteenth 
Centuries), catalogue 11 1 
(London: Craddock & Barnard, 
n.d.), 3, no. 9, pi. I. 

2. Bartsch, 15:260, no. 41. 

3. David Bindman, The Complete 
Graphic Works of WiUiam Blake 
(New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
1978), 467, no. I, pi. I. 



SI 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Q Attributed to Nicolas Beatrizet 

The Clemency of Scipio 

After Francesco Salviati 

Engraving 

ii'Viex ijVib in. (30.3 X43.3 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower right, on rock: 1542 
Lower center: Avrvm.qvod . . . / 

ANT SAL 

References 

Bartsch, 15:30, no. 3; Le Blanc, 
3:283, no. 39; Passavant, 6:82, 
no. 56 



Literature 

Borea, 271, no. 722; Ferraia and 
Gaeta Bertela, no. 630; Voss, 
61-62, fig. 4 



52. 




Fig. 8a 

Nicolas Beatrizet 

loseph Telling His Dreams 

Engraving 

9':'i6 X i4"/i6 in. (23.6 x 37.3 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Bartsch catalogued The Clemency of Scipio 
among engravings by anonymous followers 
of Marcantonio, stating that it is in the man- 
ner of Agostino Veneziano after the design of 
an unknown Florentine artist. Voss identified 
the invention as Salviati's, rightly comparing 
it with Salviati's slightly later frescoes in the 
Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, of the history of 
Camillus. The identification of the engraver 
is more problematic. In discussing Salviati's 
designs for engravings, Voss noted that Vasari 
mentioned several of Salviati's drawings, 
without specifying their subjects, as having 
been engraved by Girolamo Fagiuoli, who is 
otherwise completely unknown. Voss went 
on to suggest that three engravings, pre- 
viously attributed by Le Blanc to the equally 
mysterious Philippe Soye, could be attributed 
to Fagiuoli.' In this opinion Voss was fol- 
lowed by Borea.- It is hazardous, however, to 
invent an oeuvre for an artist known only 
through a passing reference in Vasari. 



Other engravings after Salviati, includ- 
ing The Clemency of Scipio. were attributed 
by Voss to the circle of Beatrizet. Visual evi- 
dence suggests an attribution to Beatrizet 
himself. Certain idiosyncracies in this 
engraving — the schematic treatment of the 
hair, the pinched facial expressions, espe- 
cially that of the woman holding the keys, 
and the delineation of the musculature 
through a series of short parallel strokes — are 
characteristics found in other engravings by 
Beatrizet, such as Joseph TeUing His Dreams 
after Raphael, 1541 (fig. 8a). ^ 

The story of the clemency of the Ro- 
man general Scipio (Publicus Scipio 
Africanus the Younger) comes from the his- 
tory of the Third Punic War against Carthage. 
After the conquest and destruction of Car- 
thage, Scipio was offered the hand in mar- 
riage of a beautiful maiden as part of the 
booty for the victors. Instead he returned the 
woman to her rightful fiance. 



Notes 

1 . Adam and Eve after the Fall 
(Le Blanc, 3:569, no. 3; Voss, fig. 
1 1; Adam and Eve Mourning the 
Death of Abel (Le Blanc, 3:569, 
no. 4; Voss, fig. 2); and Apollo 
and Marsyas (Le Blanc, 3:570, no. 
13; Voss, fig. 3). 

2. Borea, 271, nos. 716-18. 

3. Bartsch, 15:244, no. 9. 



53 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



Nicolo Boldrini 

Milo of Croton 

After Giovanni Antonio da Pordenone 

Woodcut 

iiysx 16^16 in. (30.2 X 41.8 cm) 




References 

Passavant, 6:237, no. 70 i/ii 

Literature 

Catelli Isola, 81, no. 32; Furlan, 
239, no. 5.4; Landau, 345, no. 
P5I; Mariette, 5:324; Mauroner, 
73, under n. 22; Nagler, Kunstlei- 
Lexikon, 22:264; Rosand and 
Muraro, 250, no. 75 



54 




Fig. 9a 

Giovanni Antonio da Pordenone 

(Italy, c. 1484-1539) 

Milo of Crown 

Oil on canvas 

80' : X 93% in. (204.5 X 238.1 cm) 

The David and Alfred 

Smart Gallery, 

The University of Chicago 

The Cochrane-Woods Collection 



The attribution of the invention and execu- 
tion of Milo of Cioton is problematic. 
Mariette, followed by Passavant and the 
Tietzes/ claimed Titian as the designer. It is 
now recognized, however, that the print re- 
produces a painting executed about 1534-36 
by Pordenone in the Palazzo Rorario in 
Pordenone. It is imclear whether this paint- 
ing was a fresco or a canvas. If the latter, it 
may be the work now at the University of 
Chicago (fig. 9a).- The composition was re- 
peated by Pordenone in a fresco on the facade 
of the Palazzo Mantica in Pordenone. 

Passavant attributed the execution of 
the woodcut to Boldrini, but Catelli Isola and 
Rosand and Muraro noted its close affinities 
with the late woodcuts of Ugo da Carpi. 
Rosand and Muraro dated the print about 
1540, contradicting their suggested attribu- 
tion to Ugo who died in 1532. Landau cor- 
rectly reasserted Passavant's attribution to 
Boldrini. The highly sculptural treatment of 
the figures and the emphasis on their out- 
lines silhouetted against the background are 
features consistent with Boldrini's woodcuts 
A Leaping HoTseman and Marcus Curtius.^ 
Like Milo of Cioton the latter print is overly 
sparse without the addition of the tone block 
to articulate the passages of blank paper. 
Mariette accurately noted the incomplete- 
ness of the composition, hinting that it might 



have been intended as a chiaroscuro woodcut. 
This opinion was confirmed by Rosand and 
Muraro, who illustrated an impression (in the 
British Museum] printed with a tone block. 

The attribution to Boldrini of the land- 
scape is more debatable than the attribution 
to him of the figural cutting. As Rosand and 
Muraro noted, its atmospheric delicacy con- 
trasts sharply with the more linear and sche- 
matic forms found in most of Boldrini's other 
landscapes. Landau observed the difference in 
the landscape seen in the woodcut from that 
seen in the engraving after Pordenone's com- 
position, as well as from that in the Chicago 
painting, and suggested that Boldrini might 
have taken the figures from Pordenone and 
placed them in a landscape of his own or an- 
other's invention. The refined play of light in 
Milo of Cioton is comparable with that seen 
in Boldrini's earlier woodcut Saint feiome in 
the Wilderness after Titian, circa 1525-30.* 
Although lacking the overpowering richness 
of detail and atmosphere of that woodcut, the 
landscape in Milo of Cioton could be partly 
attributable to Titian's influence, thus jus- 
tifying the early suggestions of Titian's au- 
thorship of the design. 

Milo of Croton was an ancient Greek 
athlete who had gone into a forest to split 
wood. His hand became caught in a tree 
trunk, and while entrapped, he was devoured 
by wild animals. 



Notes 

1. Hans Tietze and Erica Tietze- 
Conrat, "Titian's Woodcuts," 
Print Collector's Quarterly 25 
(1938): 471, 475- 

2. Giuseppe Fiocco, Giovanni 
Antonio Pordenone (Pordenone: 
Cosarini Editori, 1969I, 1:147; 
Furlan, t36, no. 2.39. The author 
thanks Richard A. Born, curator, 
David and Alfred Smart Gallery, 
for considerable documentation 
on this painting. 

3. Rosand and Muraro, 246-49, 
nos. 73-74- 

4. Ibid., 146, no. 22. 



55 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



10 



Giulio Bonasone 

The Triumph of Cupid 



Engraving 

iiVs X I5y4in. (28.2 X 40 cm) 




Inscripdons 

Lower light: 1545/ 

IV.BONAHSO.IVENTOR/ 

TOM.BARL.EXC. 

References 

Bartsch, 15:141, no. 106; 
Le Blanc, 1:444, no. 140 



Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no 63; 
Heinecken, 3:143, no. 123; 
Mariette, 1:147—48; Massari, 
Bonasone, 1:55, no. 47; Schab, 
62, no. 51 



56 



Fig. loa 

Giulio Bonasone 

The Triumph of Cupid 

Red chalk 

lo'/s X is'/4 in. (26.3 X 38.6 cm) 

The Visitors of the Ashmolean 

Museum, Oxford 




■^^#: 






The Triumph of Cupid is Bonasone's own 
invention, based on his preparatory study, in 
reverse, in the Ashmolean (fig. loa).' Al- 
though incised for transfer, the drawing dif- 
fers from the engraving in some details. The 
sketch is somewhat smaller in size, lacking 
the figures of Leda and the swan seen at the 
extreme right of the engraving.- When 
Bonasone engraved the composition, he also 
added a pair of lovers in the center, absent in 
the Ashmolean sheet. 

Whereas the technique of Bonasone's 
preparatory drawing reveals, according to 
DeGrazia, the artist's debt to the Emilian 
tradition of Parmigianino and Primaticcio, 
the composition itself, with its classicizing 
figures placed in an extensive landscape, is 
more in the tradition of Raphael and Giulio 
Romano, as represented by, for example, 
Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving The Judg- 
ment of Paris after Raphael.^ The friezelike 
disposition of the nude figures, ultimately 
derived from antique sarcophagi, also is seen 
in Bonasone's engraving The PubUc Bath 
after a now-lost Raphael composition." 

Massari described a single state for this 
engraving. Mariette, who misread the date as 
1548, claimed there are proofs before 
Barlacchi's address. 

The subject is unclear. In the sky Cupid 
drives a chariot pulled by unicorns (symbols 
of chastity), while Apollo, as god of the sun, 
disappears in the background, thus bringing 
on the night. The landscape is divided into 
two wooded areas in which appear groups of 
male and female nudes. One may surmise 
that this separation signifies the contrast be- 
tween divine and carnal love, but there is no 
clue as to which group represents which con- 
cept. Apart from Leda and the swan, the 
identities of other figures have not been 
established. 



Notes 

1. DeGrazia, 266, no. 88. 

2. Because of the difference in 
dimensions and the absence of 
these figures in the drawing, it 
has been assumed that the sketch 
has been cut down. It is more 
hkely, however, that Leda and the 
swan were an addition when 
Bonasone engraved the plate, 
because there is no trace of their 
ever having appeared in the 
Ashmolean drawing. 

3. Bartsch, 14:197, no. 245. 

4. Ibid., 15:157, no. 177. Massari 
{Bonasone. 1:55, under no. 45) 
has noted that the figure of the 
standing nude woman at the left 
in The Triumph of Cupid appears 
at the left in The Pubhc Bath. 



57 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



II 



Giulio Bonasone 

The Trojans Pull the Wooden Horse into the City 

After Francesco Primaticcio 
Engraving from two plates 
15% X 25V8 in. (40 X 63.8 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: BOL/INVENTORE/ 
1545/IV. BONASONAS. F. 

References 

Bartsch, 15:134, no. 85; Le Blanc, 
1:447, no. 342 



Literature 

Dimier, 498, no. 82; Ferrara and 
Gaeta Bertela, no. 46; 
Heinecken, 3:138, no. 78; 
Massari, Bonasone. 1:53, no. 43 
i/iii; Schab, 60, no. 49 



58 




Fig. iia 

Francesco Primaticcio 

(Italy, 1504-1570! 

The Trojans Pull the Wooden 

Horse into the City 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

squared in black chalk, 

heightened with white 

1 5^16 X 21 '/4 in. (38.5 X 54 cml 

Windsor Castle, Royal Library 

©Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 

II. 1987 



The Trojans Pull the Wooden Hoise into the 
City is based on a faded and damaged drawing 
by Primaticcio at Windsor Castle (fig. 11 a|. 
Popham and Wilde dated this design to 
Primaticcio's Mantuan period (before he left 
for Fontainebleau in 1532), even though his 
pre-Fontainebleau career is almost com- 
pletely unknown except for his role as Giulio 
Romano's assistant in the Sala degli Stucchi 
in the Palazzo del Te.' Primaticcio traveled to 
Rome in 1539 as Francis I's agent in order to 
acquire antiquities for the French royal 
collection, and in contrast to Popham and 
Wilde's thesis, it is more likely that Bonasone 
then either met Primaticcio in Italy or 
acquired his design shortly thereafter 
through another source. 

On the basis of its iconography and 
composition Bonasone's engraving, dat- 
ed 1545, may reflect an initial idea for 
Primaticcio's first fresco in the Galerie 



d'Ulisse at Fontainebleau. He might have 
considered the subject an appropriate intro- 
duction to the series of scenes from the life of 
Ulysses, painted about 1541-47 in the 
Galerie d'Ulisse.- He eventually initiated the 
series with The Sack of 7>oy,^ which like The 
Trojans Pull the Wooden Horse into the City 
is aligned horizontally. In both compositions 
the ostensible subject, the entry of the horse 
or the burning of the city, is relegated to the 
background. Secondary figures occupy the 
foreground, with the spectator's eye directed 
diagonally through the composition by a line 
of additional figures auxiliary to the principal 
action taking place in the distance. This 
decentralization of the pictorial narrative un- 
doubtedly derived from the example of Ra- 
phael's fresco The Fire in the Borgo in the 
Stanza dell'Incendio in the Vatican. 

For the story of the Trojan War, see 
discussion of Jean Mignon's series Scenes 
from the Trojan War (cat. nos. 92-95). 



Notes 

1. Popham and Wilde, 303, no. 
755. The drawing is not 
catalogued by Dimier. 

2. Primaticcio's decorations in 
the Galerie d'Ulisse are listed in 
Dimier, 289-95. See also Sylvie 
Beguin, Jean Guillaume, and 
Alain Roy, La galerie d'Ulisse a 
Fontainebleau (Paris: Presses 
Universitaires de France, 1985). 

3. The painting has been 
destroyed but is known through 
Theodore van Thulden's etched 
copy of 1633, reproduced in 
Maria Walcher Casotti, 11 
Vignola (Trieste; Istituto di 
Stona dell'Aite Antica e 
Moderna, 1960I, 2:£ig. 62. 



59 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



12 



Giulio Bonasone 

Flora and Her Nymphs 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

iS'/iex leVsin. (33.1 X42.9 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: IV.BONASO.F 

References 

Bartsch, 15:142, no. iii ii/iii; 
Le Blanc, 1:444, no. 142 



Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 67; 
Heinecken, 3:140, no. 96; 
Massari, Bonasone, 1:61, no. 66 
ii/iii; Schab, 40, no. 31 



60 



Fig. 12a 

Giulio Romano 

(Italy, 1499-1546I 

Flora and Her Nymphs 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

over traces of black chalk, 

squared in black chalk 

lo'Visx 16' i<,in. 127.8x40.8 cm) 

Teylers Museum, Haarlem 




Flora and Her Nymphs is based, in reverse, on 
a composition designed by Giulio Romano 
and painted by Rinaldo Mantovano in 
1527-28 in the Sala dei Venti in the Palaz- 
zo del Te, Mantua.' Like Marcantonio 
Raimondi in his procedure of working with 
Raphael, Bonasone probably had access to 
Giulio's modello (fig. 12a).- In both the 
engraving and drawing the narrative occurs in 
a grape arbor; in the painting the scene is set 
among clumps of trees. Bonasone exercised 
his creativity in several details of the com- 
position that differ from Giulio's drawing. 
These differences include the altered position 
of the legs and drapery of Flora (seated at the 
left); the addition of a workman, shovkm driv- 
ing the pair of oxen in the background; the 
facial types reflecting Bonasone's rather than 
Giulio's manner; and the indication of land- 
scape in the lower corner, left blank in the 
drawing. The most radical change is in the at- 
titude of the sleeping woman at the lower left 
in the engraving (at the lower right in the 
drawing). Rather than reclining in a position 
of restful modesty (her appearance in Giulio's 
works), in the print she has assumed the pose 
of the celebrated ancient sculpture of Ariadne 
(also sometimes known as Cleopatra) in the 
Vatican.^ From the time of its acquisition by 
Pope Julius II in 15 12, the sculpture fre- 
quently was the source for artists' renditions 
of sleeping nymphs. ■* 

Giulio's decoration of the Sala dei Venti 
is an elaborate allegorical representation of 
the astrological calendar, based on a late 
antique text by Firmicus Maternus.^ Flora 
and Her Nymphs is associated with the 
zodiacal sign of Virgo and the constellation 
the Wreath. 

For another engraving after one of 
Giulio's designs for the Sala dei Venti, see 
Diana Scultori's The Snakeholder [cat. no. 45). 



Notes 

1. Hartt, 1:115-23, 2:fig. 202. 

2. Ibid., 1:296, no. 151, 2:£ig. 212. 

3. Francis Haskell and Nicholas 
Penny, Taste and the Antique 
(New Haven and London: Yale 
University Press, 1981), 184-87, 
fig. 96. 

4. Ibid., 186. 

5. Ernst Gombnch, "The Sala dei 
Venti in the Palazzo del Te," 
Journal of the Vfaibuig and 
Couitauld Institutes 13 I1950I: 
189-201. 



61 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



13 



Giulio Bonasone 

The Birth of John the Baptist 



After Jacopino del Conte 

Engraving 

iiVix i7"/i6in. (29.2 X44.9 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower right, on pedestal: 
Iacobvs/florentinvs/inventor/ 
nativitas/beati Ioannis/ 

BAPTIST AE/iVLIO.B.F. 

Lower right: anT.lafreri./ 

SEQVANI.FORMIS. 



Literature 

Borea, 276, no. 749 ii/iii; Ferrara 
and Gaeta Bertela, no. 39; 
Heinecken, 3:133, no. 3; 
Marietta, 1:149; Massari, 
Bonasone, 1:66, no. 71 ii/iv; 
Rotili, 62, no. 28 



References 

Bartsch, 15:131, no. 76 ii/iii; 
Le Blanc, 1:442, no. 71 ii/ii 



62 



The inscriptions "Iacobvs/florentinvs/ 
inventor" were interpreted in the earher lit- 
erature as signifying Jacopo Pontormo as the 
designer of The Biith of John the Baptist. 
Borea has pointed out, however, that as early 
as 1572, in the inventory of the Roman pub- 
lisher Antonio Lafreri, the inventor was rec- 
ognized as a Florentine painter of a later gen- 
eration, Jacopino del Conte. ' 

Bonasone's engraving appears to docu- 
ment an important episode in the history of 
High Maniera painting in Rome; the com- 
petition during the 1540s between several 
artists for the commission of the fresco in the 
Oratorio di San Giovanni Decollato repre- 
senting the birth of John the Baptist.^ The 
oratory's decoration began in 1536-37 with 
Jacopino's Annunciation to Zacharias and 
continued in the following year with 
Francesco Salviati's Visitation and Jacopino's 
Preaching of the Baptist. Jacopino's Baptism 
of Christ was executed in 15 41. At that point, 
according to Davidson's interpretation, the 
fierce rivalry between Salviati and Jacopino 
interrupted the decoration, with Jacopino 
leaving Rome in 1541 and Salviati in 1543. 
Before his departure Jacopino attempted to 
acquire the commission for The Birth of John 



the Baptist, and his proposal is documented 
by Bonasone's engraving, dated by Massari 
about 1546. Salviati eventually received the 
commission and painted the fresco in 15 51. 

Bonasone's engraving also documents 
the influence of Perino del Vaga on Jacopino's 
style, an influence already evident in the 
fresco Preaching of the Baptist.^ For example, 
the figure of Zacharias is similar in attitude 
and type to the elderly priest in Bonasone's 
engraving Alexander the Great and the Priest 
of ferusalem after Perino (cat. no. 15). 

The engraving's first state, described by 
Bartsch as rare, is before the address of 
Lafreri. This impression is from the second 
state, while in the third Lafreri is replaced by 
De Nobilis, and in the fourth by Losi. 

The story of the birth of John the Bap- 
tist is found in Luke 1.5-64. John was the son 
of Zacharias and Elizabeth, the cousin of 
Mary, mother of Jesus. Elizabeth was barren, 
but was told by the Archangel Gabriel that 
she would bear a son. At the same time, 
Zacharias was rendered mute until the time 
of his son's birth. During the moment of 
birth, Zacharias was asked what his newborn 
son's name would be, and he wrote "John" on 
a tablet. 



Notes 

1. Jacopino's authorship appears 
to have been proposed in modern 
hterature first by Hermann 
Voss {Die Malerei dei Spdtrenais- 
sance in Rom und Florenz 
|BerUn: G. Grote'sche 
Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1920], 

1 : 144). For the reference in 
Lafreri 's inventory, see Francesco 
Ehrle, Roma prima di Sisto V: La 
pianta di Rome Du Perac-Lafieri 
del 1577 (Rome: Danesi Editore, 
1908), 57- 

2. The history of this 
competition is summarized in 
Bernice Davidson, '"The Birth of 
[ohn the Baptist' and Some Other 
Drawings by Daniele da 
Volterra," Master Drawings 21 
(1983): 152-59. For a general 
survey of the oratory's 
decoration, see Rolf E. Keller, 
Das Oratorium von San 
Giovanni Decollato in Rom: 
Eine Studie seiner Freshen 
(Rome: Institut Suisse de Rome, 
1976). 

3. For discussion of a drawing by 
Perino in the Albertina related to 
this fresco, see Keller, Das 
Oratorium, 68 n. 6, fig. 13. 



63 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



14 



Giulio Bonasone 

Cupid in the Elysian Fields 



Etching and engraving 

9^16 X i4'/8in. (23.4 X 35.9 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower left, on rock: Volo ne 

campi Elisi .../... a trionfar di 

noi. 

Lower left, on ledge: lulio 

Bonasone jn Ventore/1563 

References 

Bartsch, 15:139, no. loi i/ii; 
Le Blanc, 1:444, no. 141 i/ii 



Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 60; 
Heinecken, 3:147, no. 3; Massari, 
Bonasone, i:iii, no. 185 ii/iv; 
Petrucci, 5 1, pi. 47; Schab, 64, 
no. 52 



64 



The present impression of Cupid in the Ely- 
sian Fields corresponds to Bartsch's first 
state and Massari's second state, before the 
plate was retouched by the Roman pubHsher 
de Rossi. 

The verses in Itahan explain the sub- 
ject. One day Cupid flew to the Elysian Fields 
(the underworld equivalent of Paradise in 
ancient mythology), where he was captured 
by the souls of dead lovers who had once felt 
the sting of his arrows. In revenge they bound 
him to a tree and whipped him with floral 
bouquets. His mother, Venus, descended 
from the clouds to punish him for instigating 
her illicit affair with Mars. The theme of 
"bound Cupid" derives from ancient 
accounts and depictions of Eros and Anteros, 
evolving in the Renaissance from the original 
meaning of mutual or reciprocal love into 
representations of the struggle between sa- 
cred and profane love.' This appears to be the 
intended meaning of Bonasone's print, in 
which the binding and punishment of Cupid 
signifies a celebration of the concept of 
chastity. 



Notes 

I. For a discussion of the subject, 
see Erwin Panofsky, "Der 
gefesselte Eros, " Oud Holland 5 o 
|i933h 193-200. 



65 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



15 



Attributed to Giulio Bonasone 

Alexander the Great and the Priest of Jerusalem 



After Perino del Vaga 

Engraving 

10x7% in. (25.4 X 19.7 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 15:22, no. i^ Hind, 
5:299, no. 27 i/ii 

Literature 

Levenson, Oberhuber, and 
Sheehan, 512, no. 186 




66 




Fig. 15a 

Giulio Bonasone 

Saint Paul Preaching 

Engraving 

9^16 X 5'yi6 in. (23.7 X is-i cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



The title of this engraving has varied, includ- 
ing Saint Ambrose Refusing Emperor 
Theodosius Entry to the Church and David 
Blessed by Nathan before Battle, but the 
present one is now generally accepted be- 
cause, as noted by Oberhuber, of the 
engraving's compositional similarity to an 
image of this subject on a medal struck for 
Pope Paul HI in 1545.' The narrative also ap- 
pears, although in a considerably more popu- 
lated composition, in a fresco of 1 546 painted 
by Marco Pino in the Sala Paolina in the 
Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome.^ The engraving 
thus seems to be contemporary with these 
works of the mid- 1540s. Pino was one of sev- 
eral painters, including Livio Agresti, Pros- 
pero Fontana, Cristofano Gherardi, Luzio 
Romano, Siciolante da Sermoneta, and 
Pellegrino Tibaldi, involved in the decoration 
of the Castel Sant'Angelo. The guiding artis- 
tic force behind the project was Perino del 
Vaga, the leading painter in Rome in the 
1 5 40s, and it is Perino to whom the design of 
this engraving can be attributed.^ The figural 
type of the priest is especially close to 
Perino's design of 1547 for Giulio Bonasone's 
engraving Saint Paul Preaching (fig. 15 a).'' In 
both works, as well as in others by Perino, the 
bearded old man stands somewhat stiffly in 
profile, moving and gesturing slightly 
forward. 

Oberhuber grouped several anonymous 
Italian engravings around Master IRs, to 
whom he attributed Alexander the Great and 
the Priest of Jerusalem.^ Most of these prints 
are somewhat loose in technique, akin to the 
style of Giovanni Battista Palumba (Master 



I.B. with the Bird), and apparently executed 
during the first years of the sixteenth century. 
As noted by Oberhuber, the present engraving 
certainly would be Master IRs's last work, 
seemingly a world away from the style of 
Palumba, Francesco Francia, and the early 
prints of Marcantonio Raimondi. If we 
accept, however, Oberhuber's other attribu- 
tions to Master IRs as a coherent body of 
work, it is difficult to accept the proposition 
that the artist produced a group of prints 
around 1510, followed by a gap of almost 
forty years, and then engraved the present 
print. 

The manner of modeling the figures 
and drapery, in which the artist applies the 
shading in a very loose pattern of hatching 
and crosshatching, recalls the style of 
Bonasone. This shading appears to float over 
the forms without lending them much 
weight or substance, comparable with 
Bonasone's engravings of the 1540s, such as 
Saint Paul Preaching and Circe and the 
Companions of Ulysses.'' 

The source of the narrative is 
Josephus's Antiquitates fudicae.^ According 
to the story, when Alexander the Great 
approached Jerusalem, he was met by the 
high priest. Alexander was so struck by the 
awesome presence of the priest, the con- 
queror of the world dismounted and 
approached the holy man on his knees. As 
was often the case during the sixteenth cen- 
tury and later, the Temple of Jerusalem is rep- 
resented in the background by a variant of 
Bramante's tempietto in the church of San 
Pietro in Montorio, Rome." 



Notes 

1 . The medal is reproduced in 
Richard Harprath, Papst Paul in 
als Alexander der Grosse. Das 
Freskenprogramm der Sala 
Paolina in der Engelsburg (Berhn 
and New York: Walter de 
Gruyter, 1978), pi. 41. 

2. Filippa M. Aliberti Gaudioso 
and Eraldo Gaudioso, Gli 
affreschi di Paolo ill a Castel 
Sant'Angelo. Progetto ed 
esecuzione 1S43-1548 (Rome: 
De Luca Editore, 1981), i:pl. 99. 
John Gere | Taddeo Zuccaro. His 
Development Studied in His 
Drawings (Chicago: University 
of Chicago Press, 1969J, 97 n. i), 
noted a relationship between the 
engraving and Taddeo Zuccaro's 
fresco of the subject in the 
Palazzo Caetani, Rome. But as 
observed by Oberhuber, the 
engraving appears to predate the 
painting by several years. 

3. The attributions by Heinecken 
to Andrea del Sarto (quoted by 
Bartsch) and by Popham to 
Michiel Coxcie (quoted by Hind) 
can be dismissed. In his review of 
Hind's book [Burlington 
Magazine 91 (1949]: 236) Philip 
Pouncey's suggestion of 
Francesco Salviati as the designer 
was closer to the mark. 

4. Bartsch, 15:130, no. 72. 
Perino's original drawing for the 
print is in the Uffizi. See Massari, 
Bonasone. 1:82, fig. 43. 

5 . Levenson, Oberhuber, and 
Sheehan, 508. 

6. Bartsch, 15:135, no. 83. 

7. The text is reprinted in 
Harprath, Papst Paul in, 89-90. 

8. For discussion of the use of 
this temple form, see Levenson, 
Oberhuber, and Sheehan, 

512 n. 4. 



67 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



T ^ Domenico Campagnola 

Battle of Nude Men 

Engraving 

8% X 9'/i6 in. (22.2 X 23 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: DOMENICVS/ 
CAPAGNOLA/.1517. 

References 

Bartsch, 13:384, no. 10 
(misprinted no. 19); Galichon, 
540, no. II; Hind, 5:211, no. 4; Le 
Blanc, 1:574, no. 13; Passavant, 
5:169, no. 10 

Literature 

D'Amico, 24, no. 27; Heinecken, 
3:547; Landau, 325, no. 21; 
Levenson, Oberhuber, and 
Sheehan, 428, no. 156; 
Oberhuber, Renaissance. 71, no. 
68; Oberhuber, Rome and 
Venice, 74, no. 48 




68 



Fig. 1 6a 

Domenico Campagnola 

Fighting Horsemen 

Pen and brown ink 

8yi6 X ii'/ife in. (21.1 X 31.6 cm) 

The Art Institute of Chicago 

Leonora Hall Gurley Memorial 

Collection 



; J^7 . - ~v^^ -IS, ^ -^ 





% 






.«Sv.. 













.^: 



During the second decade of the sixteenth 
century, artists throughout Italy became 
interested in depictions of battles. This inter- 
est was undoubtedly spurred by renewed 
curiosity in representations of such scenes on 
Roman sarcophagi and by more recent depic- 
tions like Leonardo's Battle of Anghiah and 
Michelangelo's Battle of Cascina. In 1 5 1 3 Ti- 
tian was commissioned to paint The Battle of 
Cadore for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in 
the Palazzo Ducale, Venice,' and about 
1 5 14- 1 5 he executed his monumental wood- 
cut Pharaoh's Army Crossing the Red Sea? 
Around 15 15 Raphael designed a battle scene 
engraved by Marco Dente-' and at the end of 
the decade was planning his fresco The Bat- 
tle of the Milvian Bridge for the Sala di 
Costantino in the Vatican (painted after his 
death by his pupils). During this period of se- 
rious interest in such subjects/ Campagnola 
engraved Battle of Nude Men, as well as drew 
a sketch, Fighting Horsemen (fig. i6a).' 

Oberhuber deftly characterized the 
distinctiveness of Campagnola's artistic 
approach to Battle of Nude Men, in which the 
violent tumult of the fighting figures, accen- 
tuated by the effects of flickering light and 
compressed space, is more mannerist than 
that used in the contemporary battle scenes 
cited above. Campagnola's technique of 
engraving, with long and sinuous parallel 
strokes of the burin — so different from the 
manner of his adoptive father, Giulio 
Campagnola — lends to this depiction a re- 
markable sense of fluidity, unity, and 
animation. 



Notes 

1. The painting was not executed 
until 1538, and although 
destroyed in a fire of 1 577, it is 
known through several copies. 
On the basis of Titian's 
preparatory drawings it appears 
he planned the painting long 
before its execution. 

2. Rosand and Muraro, 70, no. 4. 

3. Bartsch, 14:316, no. 420. A 
preparatory study by Raphael for 
the print is at Chatsworth. See 
Joannides, 230, no. 383. 

4. Oberhuber (Levenson, 
Oberhuber, and Sheehan, 428) 
cited other contemporary 
examples of battle scenes, 
including Girolamo Genga's 
drawing Nude Fighting 
Horsemen in the Albertina (ibid., 
fig. 20- 8 1 and Master of i s 1 5 's 
engraving Battle in a Wood 
(Hind, 5:285, no. 17). Oberhuber 
argued for Genga's invention of 
Campagnola's engraving. This 
view was refuted by Caroline 
Karpinski ("Some Woodcuts after 
Early Designs of Titian," 
Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte 
39I1976I: 269). 

5 . Wendy Stedman Sheard, 
Antiquity m the Renaissance 
(Northampton: Smith College 
Museum of Art, 1978), no. 46. 



69 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



17 



Gian Giacomo Caraglio 

Frenzy 



After Rosso Fiorentino 

Engraving 

9'yi6X yVie in. (25.3 x 18.6 cm| 



References 

Bartsch, 15:92, no. 58; Le Blanc, 
1:589, no. 61 

Literature 

Borea, 248, no. 610; Carroll, 
Drawings, vol. i, bk. i, 111-14, 
bk. 2, 79-80; Carroll, Rosso, 72, 
no. 8; Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, 
no. 167; Heinecken, 2:100; 
Kusenberg, 27, 163 




70 




Fig. 17a 

Michelangelo (Italy, 1475-1564I 

A "Damned Soul" 

Black chalk 

loyift X 8% in. (26.2 X 21.3 cm) 

Windsor Castle, Royal Library 

©Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 

II. 1987 



Heinecken, believing Frenzy to be by 
Agostino Veneziano after a design by Baccio 
Bandinelli, was corrected by Bartsch, who 
pointed out that the print's present attribu- 
tion was noted by Vasari.' Subsequent 
authors have considered the engraving 
CaragHo's first Roman print, dating it about 
1524-25, the time he came to the city from 
his birthplace of Parma or Verona. The design 
has been characterized as Rosso's reaction to 
and interpretation of such celebrated Roman 
monuments as the Laocoon and Michel- 
angelo's ignudi in the Sistine Chapel. This 
observation does not take into account that 
the rather emaciated appearance of Rosso's 
figure contrasts with the heroic and idealized 
figures seen in the famous antique sculpture 
or in Michelangelo's frescoes. Nevertheless, 
the composition may reflect aspects of 
Michelangelo's art, such as his slightly ear- 
lier ecorches (drawings of flayed human fig- 
ures).^ The extreme emotional state of the 
figure is also comparable with Michel- 
angelo's drawing of a shouting man (fig. 17a), 
sometimes thought to represent a damned 
soul, dating from about the same time as 
Caraglio's engraving.^ Rosso's preparatory 
study for the engraving is presumed lost. 



Although traditionally described as a 
representation of frenzy, or fury, because of 
the figure's agitated state, the subject of this 
engraving may also be a complex allegory of 
death. The seated male nude can be inter- 
preted as Rosso's highly personal interpreta- 
tion, almost a parody, of the celebrated 
antique sculpture of the Apollo Belvedere, be- 
cause the placement of the figure's arms and 
the turn of its head are very similar to that in 
the statue. Apollo is frequently depicted with 
the monster Python, often represented as a 
dragon like the one shown here, whom the 
god slew at his sanctuary at Delphi. 

The swan is another attribute of 
Apollo, the god of music, because of the 
bird's association with singing. The swan is 
also associated with death because its last 
song, its "swan song," is said to be its sweet- 
est and most melancholy. The serpent en- 
twined in the skull held in the nude's left 
hand is also evidently a symbol of death, as 
are the numerous serpents in the background 
and the cadaverlike appearance of the nude.-* 
The engraving's unusual combination of al- 
legorical symbols may signify the print as 
some sort of memorial marking the death of a 
person associated with music. 



Notes 

1. Vasari, 5:424. 

2. A group of these drawings, 
whose attribution to 
Michelangelo is now accepted, is 
at Windsor Castle. See Popham 
and Wilde, 261-62, nos. 439-43. 
For a discussion of Rosso's 
anatomical studies, see Licia 
Ragghianti Collobi, II Libra de' 
Disegni del Vasari (Florence: 
Vallechi, 1974), 1:117-18. The 
only surviving echoes of Rosso's 
interest in anatomy are a group of 
drawings, now considered closer 
to the manner of Alessandro 
Allori, in the National Gallery of 
Scotland and the Royal College 
of Physicians, Edinburgh. A 
sheet in the National Gallery of 
Scotland (Ragghianti Collobi, fig. 
369) IS similar to the nude male 
figure in Caraglio's engraving. 

3. There are two versions of 
Michelangelo's drawing, each of 
which has its supporters as the 
original. One is at Windsor 
Castle (Popham and Wilde, 264, 
no 453), and one is in the Uffizi 
(Annamaria Petrioli Tofani, 
Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe 
degli Uffizi: Inventario :. 
Disegni Esposti (Florence: Leo S. 
Olschki, 1986], 267, no. 601 E|. 

4. For a discussion of the 
meaning of each figure, see 
Tervarent, 138-41 [cygne], 
149-51 [dragon], 340-46 
[serpent]. 



71 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



T Q Gian Giacomo Caraglio 

The Annunciation 



After Titian 

Engraving 

i/'Viex 1 3 'A in. (45.3 X 34.3 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lowei left: lACOhVS/ 
CARALIVS/FE 
Lower right: TYTIANI 
FIGVRARVM/AD CAESAREM 
EXEMPLA 

References 

Bartsch, 15:67, no. 3; Le Blanc, 
1:587, no. 3 

Literature 

Catelli Isola, 33, no. ii; Ferrara 
and Gaeta Bertela, no. 126; 
Marietta, 5:305; Mauroner, 56, 
no. I; Sopher, 29, no. 31; Wethey, 
1:71, pi. 59 




7a 



The Annunciation was engraved by Caraglio 
several years after Frenzy (cat. no. 17). The 
print reproduces a now-lost work by Titian, 
painted in 1536 and acquired by Emperor 
Charles v as a gift to Empress Isabella in 
1537; Charles's motto "Plus ultra" appears 
on banderoles at the top of the engraving. 
Catelli Isola noted another copy of the com- 
position by Martino Rota, published by 
Donate Roscicotti.' Rota's version appears 
rather summary and schematic compared 
with the chromatic variety of Caraglio's 
engraving. The play of light in The 
Annunciation is richer than in Caraglio's ear- 
lier graphic works after Rosso Fiorentino and 
Parmigianino. This may be Caraglio's last en- 
graving, for he left Italy in 1539 to work for 
Sigismund i of Poland as a medalist and 
architect. 

The subject is recounted in Luke 
1.26-38. The Archangel Gabriel appeared to 
Mary in Nazareth and informed her that she 
would give birth to a son to be called Jesus. 
Although Mary was a virgin, she conceived 
with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, repre- 
sented here in the form of a dove. 



Notes 

I. Catelli Isola, 52, no. 72. 



73 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



19 



Ugo da Carpi 

Diogenes 



After Parmigianino 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black, ocher, and dark brown 

1878 X i3"/i6 in. (47.9 x 35 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 26 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: FRANCISCVS/ 
PARMEN./PER.VGO CARP 

References 

Bartsch, 12:100, no. lO; Johnson, 
77, no. 15 ii/ii; Le Blanc, 1:596, 
no. 24; Servolini, Ugo, no. 12 

Literature 

Fenara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 
481; Fossi, IS, no. 12; Hasselt, 
35, no. 86; Heinecken, 3:603; 
Oberhuber, Pannigianmo, 40, 
no. 91 ; Oberhuber, Renaissance, 
119, no. 197; Petmcci, 42, pi. 36; 
Pittaluga, 237, fig. 172; Popham, 
12-13, fig- 17; Rotili, 58, no. 21; 
Schab, 54, no. 44; Weigel, 477, 
no. 5686 




74 




Fig. 19a 

Gian Giacomo Caraglio 

Diogenes 

Engraving 

iiVis X S'/s in. I28.7 X 21.8 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Diogenes is one of the best and most famous 
prints of the sixteenth century. Described 
confusingly by Vasari, who cited it once as by 
an unnamed woodcutter and again as by 
Parmigianino himself (despite the presence 
of Ugo's signature),' it is now recognized as 
Ugo's masterpiece. Also once considered an 
example of close collaboration between 
painter and printmaker, it is now believed to 
have been based, not on Parmigianino's now- 
lost modellor but on Gian Giacomo 
Caraglio 's engraving of the composition (fig. 
r9a).^The evidence for this hypothesis is in- 
conclusive because without Parmigianino's 
finished study it is impossible to judge which 
of the two prints is more faithful to the origi- 
nal. Ugo's version differs from Caraglio's in a 
few details, especially in the background. 
Nevertheless, Popham and others have pos- 
ited the engraving as Ugo's source because 
Antonio da Trento apparently was 
Parmigianino's only close collaborator in 
chiaroscuro. The composition is believed to 
have been created before the Sack of Rome in 
1527, while the painter was still in the city. 
Because Caraglio engraved three other com- 
positions from Parmigianino's Roman 
period, it is conceded that his Diogenes also 
dates before 1527. Consequently it predates 
Ugo's woodcut, which is cited by Vasari as 
having been executed in Bologna, where Ugo 
fled after the Sack. 

One of Parmigianino's most vigorous 
and dynamic figures, Diogenes is a prime 



example of the artist's absorption of influ- 
ences from his Roman milieu. The young 
painter was evidently interested especially 
in the new mannerist style promulgated by 
his slightly older contemporary Rosso 
Fiorentino. This influence is most notewor- 
thy in Parmigianino's The Marriage of the 
Virgin, engraved by Caraglio,^ which is a vari- 
ation on Rosso's early painting of the subject 
in the church of San Lorenzo, Florence. ^ The 
figure of Diogenes is more self-contained in 
movement than the figure in Rosso's Frenzy 
engraved by Caraglio (cat. no. 17), but its 
dynamic character, even the motif of the 
drapery billowing behind the man's head, is 
comparable with two of Rosso's designs of 
mythological figures engraved by Caraglio: 
Jupiter from the series Gods in Niches and 
Hercules Defeating the River God Achelous 
from the series The Labors of Hercules.* 

Diogenes, known as "the Cynic," was a 
fourth century b.c. Greek philosopher re- 
nowned for his avoidance of physical plea- 
sure. As part of this regimen he lived in a sim- 
ple wooden tub. Ugo depicted this tub in the 
background, while strewn around Diogenes's 
feet are a number of philosophical tomes. 
The most curious aspect of the image is the 
plucked rooster, a reference to the philos- 
opher's ridicule of Plato's definition of man 
as a featherless biped. This meaning was 
made clear when Giulio Bonasone copied the 
woodcut in 1555, with the addition of the in- 
scription "Hie est homo platonis."' 



Notes 

1. Vasari, 5:126; and ibid., 422. 

2. The only preparatory studies 
by Parmigianino are sketches for 
details of the figure in the Uffizi 
(Popham, 1:74, no. 107] and 
Chatsworth (ibid., 208, 211, nos. 
714, 729). His cartoon of 
Diogenes was undoubtedly 
executed in the same refined and 
painterly fashion as his studies 
for Caraglio's engravings The 
Adoration of the Shepherds in 
the Graphische Sammlung, 
Weimar (ibid., 192, no. 631), and 
The Martyrdom of Saint Peter 
and Saint Paul in the British 
Museum (ibid., 92, no. 190). 

3. Bartsch, 15:94, no. 61. 

4. Ibid., 66, no. i. 

5. Kusenberg, pi. 13. 
Parmigianino could have seen 
Rosso's painting in 1524 on his 
way to Rome. 

6. Bartsch, 15:78, no. 26; and 
ibid., 86, no. 48. This comparison 
was noted by (ohnson, 84 n. 9. 

7. Bartsch, 15:164, no. 277; Edgar 
Wind, "Homo Platonis," journal 
of the Warburg Institute i 
(1937-38I: 261. 



75 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



20 



Nicolo della Casa 

Portrait of Baccio Bandinelli 



After Baccio Bandinelli 

Engraving 

16V4 X 12 in. (41.2 X 30.5 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: 1548 

Lower right: A.S. Excudebat 

References 

Le Blanc, 3:414, no. i 

Literature 

Bartsch, 15:179; Borea, 264, no. 
690; Heinecken, 2:90, no.i 




76 



Fig. 2oa 

Nicolo della Casa 

Portrait of Baccio Bandinelli 

Engraving 

ii'/i6X SVs in. (29.3 X 22 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 

Fig. 20b 

Hercules 

Italy, sixteenth century 

Engraving 

14^16 X 9'/i6 in. I36 X 23 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 




...... -.r..\Crio i> \XDINEL. 




This engraving is the rarer and lesser-known 
of two portraits of Bandinelh by della Casa.' 
Dated 1548, Portrait of Baccio Bandinelli 
depicts the Florentine sculptor with a youn- 
ger appearance than in the other portrait of 
him in his studio (fig. 20a). In both prints 
Bandinelli is presented as a well-dressed gen- 
tleman rather than as an artisan, an illustra- 
tion of the sixteenth century's elevation of 
the artist to the rank of an aristocratic and 
intellectual courtier. In dress and demeanor 
there is little to distinguish these portray- 
als from Agnolo Bronzino's or Jacopo 
Pontormo's contemporary portraits of 
Florentine nobility. As Borea has noted, della 
Casa's portraits are part of a number of self- 
promoting images of Bandinelli, which also 
include nocturnal views by Agostino 
Veneziano and Enea Vico of the sculptor's 
academy- 
All of these depictions show the artist 
amid statuettes and small sculptural frag- 
ments. Such statuettes, standard studio props 
in the workshops of sculptors, were used as 
models for students to copy as part of their 
training to master the depiction of the hu- 
man figure. The sculpture of a female figure 
seen at the upper left in della Casa's engrav- 
ing, possibly representing a variation on the 
antique Cnidian Venus, was copied by 
Bandinelli in a recently published drawing.-' 
The present engraving's male nude seen from 
the rear appears to be a reduced version of its 
counterpart in Bandinelli's sculptural group 
Adam and Eve in the Museo Nazionale, Flor- 
ence. ■'Borea observed that most of the prints 
after Bandinelli were based on designs cre- 
ated expressly for the engraver, rather than 
after his sculptures, with the exception of the 
anonymous engraving Hercules, dated 1548 
and inscribed with Bandinelli's name as the 
inventor (fig. lobl.-'^ 



Notes 

1. The other portrait is listed in 
Passavant, 6:124, no. 4. 

2. Bartsch, 14:314, no. 418^ and 
ibid., 15:305, no. 49. 

3. Old Master Drawings 
(London: Yvonne Tan Bunzl, 
1987), no. 5. 

4. Adolfo Venturi, Storia dell'arte 
italiana. Vol. 10, Parte 2: La 
scultura del Cinquecento 
(Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, 1936), fig. 
184. 

5 . For a brief survey of prints after 
Bandinelli, see Borea, 242-45, 
nos. 591-97, 264—65, nos. 
687-92. 



77 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



21 



Marco Dente 

Entellus and Dares 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

12^16 X 10% in. (31 X 27.3 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: ENTELLI/ 
ET.DARET/CESTWM/ 
CERT/SR Imonogram of Dente] 

References 

Bartsch, 14:159, no. 195; Le 
Blanc, 2:111, no. 27; Passavant, 
6:69, no. 22 

Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 
199; Massari et al., 236, no. ix, 
lb; Oberhuber, Renaissance, 
108, no. 154; Petrucci, pi. 25 




78 







S^^ 


^^-'^^''''Sp^ 




.^^^ ' ■ 


"^i ^p^^^ 


^^^ ^^^* 


^1 


Jr ^ Jmi 


m\ ^ k 




iv| jK^^^^SS^^^ 


m ^^ \ <^ 


^k ^', • 


' w^^^S^^^ 


1 / / ^ 


pjr 


''M ^^^m 


|///i 


^ja|B^''^'. 


^L^ JJK^^'^W'' 


Hll ^ ' 


j^j>^ 






ififlK 



Fig. 2ia 

Tiie Boxers 

Rome, second century 

Marble 

46% X 83'/! in. (119 X 212 cm) 

Museo Gregorio Profano, 

Vatican City 



The invention of Entellus and Danes, praised 
by Bartsch as one of Dente's finest 
engravings, has been ascribed to both Ra- 
phael and Giuho Romano. The composition, 
however, has been shown to be derived from 
an antique rehef in the Vatican of two boxers 
(fig. 2 1 a).' The inventor, whether Raphael, 
GiuHo, or perhaps Dente himself, was con- 
sequently only an interpreter of the antique 
prototype. The engraving is fairly faithful to 
its model in the depiction of the figural types 
and in the arrangement of the drapery. Some 
differences may be noted: the figures are 
shown full length rather than cropped at their 
thighs, they are placed in an antique setting 
against a backdrop of the ruins of the Col- 
osseum, the younger man's tunic is more ac- 
tivated by his movements, and the arms of 
the figures overlap. 



According to Massari, Entellus and 
Dares is a late work of about 1520-15, con- 
temporary with Dente's engraving Laocoon.- 
hi both works Dente placed the sculptures in 
settings of his own invention. The principal 
difference in approach is that, whereas the 
Laocoon retains its integrity as a sculptural 
group placed on a pedestal, Entellus and 
Dares no longer resembles a relief. Dente's 
engraving or its antique model was adapted 
by Giulio for two of the gladiators in his 
fresco The Parting of the Hooves of Taurus, 
1527, in the Sala dei Venti in the Palazzo del 
Te, Mantua.^ 

As told by Virgil (Aeneid, 5.424-65), 
the combat between Entellus of Sicily and 
Dares of Troy took place at the funerary 
games held in Sicily in honor of Anchises, the 
father of Aeneas. 



Notes 

1. Antje Krug, "Ein romisches 
Relief und Raffael," Stiidel- 
[ahibuch, n.s., 5 (1975): 31-36. 

2. Bartsch, 14:268, no. 353. 

3. Hartt, 2:fig. 197. 



79 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



22 



Marco Dente 

The Skeletons 



After Rosso Fiorentino 

Engraving 

11% X ly'/s in. (28.9 X 43.5 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Upper left: R 

References 

Bartsch, 14:321, no. 425; Le 
Blanc, 2:112, no. 31; Nagler, 
Kunstlei-Lexikon. 10:71, no. 
Ill; Passavant, 6:71, no. 54 



Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 
226; Borea, 247, no. 609 i/ii; 
Carroll, Rosso. 54, under no. 2; 
Kusenberg, 163; Schab, 32, no. 22 



80 





Fig. 22a 

Agostino Veneziano 

(Italy, active 1514-1536! 

The Skeletons 

Engraving 

12^16 X 19% in. (31 X 50.4 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 

Fig. 22b 

Rosso Fiorentino 

(Italy, 1494-1540I 

The Skeletons 

Red chalk, traces of heightening 

in white 

I2y8 X 19% in. (32 X 50.2 cm) 

Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe 

degli Uffizi, Florence 



The same composition was engraved by 
Agostino Veneziano and dated 15 18 (fig. 
22a|.' Because of misleading passages in 
Vasari,- these engravings were once believed 
to be based on a design by Baccio Bandinelli, 
but they are now recognized to reproduce, in 
reverse, a now heavily damaged drawing by 
Rosso Fiorentino in the Uffizi (fig. 22b). ^ Car- 
roll accepts 15 17 as the date for Rosso's 
study, while pointing out that the original in- 
scription with the date has been completely 
effaced. The most apparent differences be- 
tween the two engravings is Dente's inclu- 
sion of a desolate and rocky landscape 
whereas Agostino's figures are set against a 
plain black background. Borea considered 
Dente's version more faithful to Rosso's 
drawing because the sketch contains sche- 
matic indications of the landscape. The rocky 
terrain in Dente's print, however, is more 
elaborate than Rosso's and is probably the 
engraver's own invention. Also, the number 
and physiognomies of the figures in 
Agostino's engraving are closer to Rosso's, 
whereas Dente added some figures and 
altered some of the expressions. ■* 

It has been assumed, probably correctly, 
that Agostino's version precedes Dente's, but 
it may be erroneous to accept 1 5 1 8 as the date 
of the earlier engraving. The inscribed date 
may refer not to the date of the print's execu- 



tion but to the date of Rosso's design. Other- 
wise, Agostino's The Skeletons would be 
anomalous as the only print from Rosso's 
Florentine period. It is more reasonable to 
conclude that both Agostino's and Dente's 
The Skeletons were created between 1524 
and 1527, when Rosso was in Rome, about 
the same time as Caraglio's engravings after 
Rosso's designs, such as Frenzy (cat. no. 17). 

The present impression is from the first 
state. In the second state the address of Anto- 
nio Salamanca appears. To this group should 
be added a third state with the address of 
Carlo Losi and the date 1773. As is usual of a 
plate republished by Losi, the impressions are 
mere ghosts of Dente's original engraving. 

Carroll is probably accurate in identify- 
ing the subject of this engraving as a me- 
mento mori, a meditation on the transitory 
nature of life. The winged skeleton holding a 
book symbolizes Death reviewing events 
from the life of the deceased, the reclining 
skeleton. The identification of the surround- 
ing emaciated figures is less certain and may 
be intended only to accentuate the morbid 
character of the scene. The old woman at the 
left, with sagging breasts and disheveled hair, 
resembles some personifications of envy as 
well as witchcraft; Marcantonio Raimondi's 
La Stregozzo (cat. no. 37) is another example 
of this type. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 14:320, no. 424. 

2. Vasari, 5:416, 6:140. 

3. Carroll, Drawings, vol. i, bk. 
2, 195-201, no. D-6, vol. 2:{ig. 
I.S- 

4. A drawing in the Uffizi, there 
catalogued as school of 
Bandinelli, may be Dente's 
preparatory study for his 
engraving because the study 
corresponds almost exactly, in 
reverse, to the print. See Borea, 
247-48, no. 609b. 



81 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



23 



Giovanni Battista Franco 

Melchizedek Offering Bread and Wine to Abraham 



Etching and engraving 

10% X i6%in. (27.3 X41.6 cm) 




References 

Bartsch, 16:120, no. s i/ii; 
Le Blanc, 2:250, no. 2 

Literature 

D'Amico, 46, no. 175; Schab, 66, 
no. 54 



82 



Franco's career as a printmaker has not been 
systematically analyzed, although sugges- 
tions for his chronological development ap- 
pear in Dillon's catalogue.' Accepting 
Dillon's chronology for Franco's prints, Mel- 
chizedek Offering Bread and Wine to Abra- 
ham is probably the earliest of the etchings 
by Franco in this volume (cat. nos. 23-25) 
and may date from Franco's stay of 1545-50 
in Urbino and The Marches. In this print 
Franco's handling of light is less evocative 
and atmospheric than in The Adoration of 
the Shepherds (cat. no. 24) of a few years later. 
The figures resemble discrete individual 
forms in line with Franco's Roman experi- 
ences. The Raphaelesque tenor of the com- 
position, noted by some authors, is attrib- 
utable more specifically to Franco's 
absorption in North Italy of influences from 
Giulio Romano and Giulio Bonasone. This 
period of the late 1540s when Franco was 
near Mantua was probably when he etched 
his prints after Giulio Romano's designs, 
including Diana and Her Nymphs (Bartsch 
46), The Feast in Honor of Cupid and Psyche 
(Bartsch 47), The Clemency of Scipio (Bartsch 
54), and The Golden Age (Bartsch 73). 

The present impression of Melchizedek 
Offering Bread and Wine to Abraham is from 
the first state, before the appearance of 
Franco's signature at the lower right. 

When Lot, the brother of the Hebrew 
patriarch Abraham, was living in the city of 
Sodom, he was captured by the Elamites 
when they defeated the kings of Sodom and 
Gomorrah in battle. Abraham freed his 
brother by defeating Lot's captors with an 
army of 318 men. Abraham was met after his 
victory by Melchizedek, the king and priest 
of Salem, with an offering of bread and wine 
(Genesis 14.12-20). 



Notes 

I. Dillon, 314-18, nos. 142-57. 
The present etching is not 
discussed by Dillon. 



83 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



24 



Giovanni Battista Franco 

The Adoration of the Shepherds 



Etching and engraving 

14% X 2o'/4 in. (36.5 X 51.4 cm) 







Inscriptions 

Lower Tight: B.F.V.F. 

References 

Bartsch, 16:121, no. 8 i/ii; 
Le Blanc, 2:250, no. 3 i/iii; 
Passavant, 6:178, no. 8 ii/iv 



Literature 

Borea, 267, no. 704J D'Amico, 47, 
no. 178; Pittaluga, 286, fig. 224 
biS; Rearick, 108 n. 9; Rotili, 84, 
no. 81 



Fig. 24a 

Attnbuted to Girolamo da Carpi 
(Italy, 1501-1556) 
The Adoration of the Shepherds 
Pen and reddish brown ink, 
brown wash, over red chalk 
7% X lO'Vie in. (18.7 X 25.9 cm) 
Windsor Castle, Royal Library 
©Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 
II. 1987 




Another version of this composition bears an 
inscription citing Michelangelo as the in- 
ventor. Accepted by Rotili, who found this 
engraving in the Gabinetto Nazionale delle 
Stampe in Rome,' Michelangelo's authorship 
of the design was rightly questioned by 
Borea.- The Adoration of the Shepherds cer- 
tainly seems to be Franco's own invention, 
datable, as Rearick suggested, about 
1545-5 5/ when the artist was residing in 
North Italy. During this period the figures in 
Franco's works began to assume a more 
prominent physical presence. This monu- 
mentality of form wed to a developing inter- 
est in color is also seen in Franco's signed and 
dated painting Christ Falling under the 
Cross, 1552, in the Uffizi.^The union of Ro- 
man sculptural qualities and North Italian 
tonalities of light and color is found in the 
works of other Venetian and North Italian 
painters, such as Giuseppe Salviati and 
Girolamo da Carpi. A drawing attributed to 
Carpi at Windsor Castle, The Adoration of 
the Shepherds (fig. 24a), is comparable in sev- 
eral respects with Franco's composition.-* In 
both works the figures are arranged within a 
relatively shallow space across the fore- 
ground and set against a backdrop of architec- 
ture and landscape. Even the poses of some of 
the figures are similar. 

Passavant noted four states of this etch- 
ing, of which the present impression is from 
the second. The first is before all letters, the 
third bears the address "Franco forma," and 
the fourth has the dedication to Giosefo 
Sabbatini. In addition the plate was re- 
touched in the fourth state. 

According to Luke 2.8-16, after (esus 
was born in Bethlehem, an angel appeared to 
a nearby group of shepherds and told them of 
the child's birth. The shepherds then went to 
Bethlehem, where they found Jesus, Mary, 
and Joseph in a manger. 



Notes 

1. Rotili, 70, no. 44. 

2. Borea, 267, no. 703. 

3. Luciano Berti et al., Gli Uffizi. 
Catalogo generale (Florence: 
Centre Di, 1979I, 272, no. P635. 
Almost certainly dating from 
this period is Franco's etching 
Christ Falling under the Cross 
(Bartsch 11). 

4. Popham and Wilde, 207, no. 
202, pi. 102. The drawing has 
also been attnbuted to Baldassare 
Peruzzi. See Edmund Schilling 
and Anthony Blunt, The German 
Drawings in the Collection of 
Her Majesty the Queen at 
Windsor Castle and Supplements 
to the Catalogues of Italian 

and French Drawings (London 
and New York; Phaidon, 1971I, 
105, no. 340. 



85 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



25 



Giovanni Battista Franco 

Two Angels Carrying Torches 



Etching and engraving 

j^Vie X 7'yi6 in. (20.2 X 20.2 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:141, no. 66 

Literature 

Dillon, 319, under nos. 158-60; 
Rearick, 126 n. 86; Schab, 68, 
no. 56 




86 



Two Angels Carrying Torches is from a series 
of etchings reproducing, in reverse, several of 
Franco's last paintings, the frescoes of angels 
and virtues on the vault of the Grimani 
Chapel in the church of San Francesco della 
Vigna, Venice.' The other prints are A Youth 
between Virtue and Vice (Bartsch 56); For- 
titude and Justice (Bartsch 57), Pity (Bartsch 
58), Three Angels in the Sky (Bartsch 61), 
Faith (Bartsch 68), An Angel Seated on a Lion 
(Bartsch 70], and An Angel in Flight.^ Two 
additional etchings by Franco may be con- 
nected with his decorations in the Grimi 
Chapel. The Resurrection (Bartsch 13) is very 
similar to the central section of his lunette 
fresco over the altar.^ The horizontal format 
of the etching The Raising of Lazarus 
(Bartsch 16) is the same as that of the fresco 
planned for the right wall of the chapel. 
Franco died before he could execute that 
fresco, but the etching may reflect his 
preliminary ideas for the subject, which was 
eventually painted in 1562 by Federico 
Zuccaro." 



Although accepted by Bartsch, Franco's 
authorship of the etchings related to the 
Grimani Chapel has been doubted by some 
later scholars. Believing that Franco would 
have been too involved with the Grimani 
commission, Rearick attributed the prints to 
an anonymous member of Franco's work- 
shop. Dillon suggested they may be the work 
of a professional printmaker, such as 
Giacomo Franco, rather than a peintre- 
graveur He also noted, however, that the 
etchings are stylistically consistent with 
other prints generally accepted as Franco's. 
This is indeed the case. Bartsch 56-58 are 
signed "Battista Franco fecit," and there is no 
reason to question the validity of these in- 
scriptions. These prints are characteristic of 
Franco's late Venetian style, with its com- 
bination of monumental, sculptural figures 
dominating the composition and the effect of 
fluid and painterly light achieved through a 
dense network of freely drawn hatching and 
crosshatching. These qualities can be found 
in Two Angels Carrying Torches, and al- 
though unsigned, it was originally part of a 
larger plate with Franco's signed etching 
Pity.'' 



Notes 

1 . For the painting Two Angels 
Carrying Torches, see Rearick, 
fig. loe. 

2. Dillon, 319, no. 160; Rearick, 
fig. I of; An Angel in Flight is 
unrecorded by Bartsch. 

3. The Resurrection is part of a 
group of nine etchings 
illustrating the life of Christ. 
With the exception of The 
Resurrection, Bartsch doubted 
the attribution of this group to 
Franco. 

4. Rearick, fig. 13. Rearick 
observed (128 n. 89) that Franco 
might have made some 
preparatory drawings before his 
death for The Raising of Lazarus, 
citing a sketch in the Louvre and 
the etching. 

5 . An impression of the 
undivided plate is in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
See Henri Zerner, ed., The 
Illustrated Bartsch 32, formerly 
Volume 16 (Part i) (New York: 
Abaris Books, 1979), 232. 



87 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



2^^ Giorgio Ghisi 

The Death of Prochs 

After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

15% X laVs in. (40 x 57.5 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower center: IVLIVS 
ROMANVS INVENTOR/ 
G MAP Imonogram of Ghisi] 

References 

Bartscfi, 15:409, no. 61 i/iii; 
Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 44, 
no. 5 i/X; Le Blanc, 2:296, 
no. 44 i/iii 



Literature 

Massaii, Incisori. 122, no. 178 i/v 










Fig. 26a 

Giulio Romano 

(Italy, 1499- 1 546) 

The Death of Prociis 

Pen and brown wash, heightened 

with white 

I2'yi6 X 22'/i6 in. (32.5 X 56 cm) 

Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, 

Frankfurt am Main 



The Death of Procris, one of Ghisi's earliest 
engravings, was based, in reverse, on a draw- 
ing by Giulio (fig. 26a).' Giulio was the lead- 
ing artistic force in Mantua from his arrival 
in 1524 until his death in 1546, and Ghisi's 
first prints derive from his designs. Boorsch, 
Lewis, and Lewis accepted Hartt's hypothesis 
that Giulio's The Death of Procris was part of 
a series of paintings from about 1530 
intended to decorate the Gonzaga hunting 
lodge at Marmirolo. The other scenes, with 
themes appropriate to the subject of hunting, 
are The Hunt of the Calydonian Boar, Hylas 
and the Nymphs, and The Death of Adonis. 
Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis noted that the four 
compositions were copied in etchings of the 
early 1 5 40s attributed by them to Master 1 9 V 
(see The Death of Procris [cat. no. 89]).^ They 



also recorded considerably more states of the 
engraving than originally noted by Bartsch. 
The present impression is from the first state 
before the plate was completed and the addi- 
tion of a succession of publishers' addresses. 
The story of Cephalus and Procris is 
told by Ovid {Metamorphoses 7.795-866]. 
After her husband, Cephalus, was tempted by 
the goddess Aurora, Procris joined the god- 
dess Diana and her band of huntresses and 
received Diana's magic hound and javelin. 
Once reconciled with Cephalus, Procris lent 
him the hound and javelin for hunting, but 
still jealous of a possible rendezvous with Au- 
rora, she followed him and hid in the bushes. 
Overhearing him calling "Aura" (the wind) to 
cool him, Procris rustled in the undergrowth. 
Mistaking the noise for that of an animal, 
Cephalus threw the javelin and killed her. 



Notes 

1. Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 45, 
fig. 26. 

2. Ibid., 46, figs. 27-30. 



89 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



^7 



Giorgio Ghisi 

The Fall of Troy and the Escape of Aeneas 



After Giovanni Battista Scultori 

Engraving 

iS'/iex I9yi6in. (38.2 X49.4 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower center: 
.l.B.MANTVANVS.IN. 
iowerng/it.GIORGIVS 
MANTVANVS/F. 



References 

Bartsch, 15:397, no. 29; Boorsch, 
Lewis, and Lewis, 5 1, no. 8 i/v; 
Le Blanc, 2:296, no. 62 

Literature 

Massari, Incisori, 123, no. 179 
i/iii; Pittaluga, 190 



90 





Fig. 27a 

Giorgio Ghisi 

Sinon Deceiving the Trojans 

Engraving 

i4'/i6X i8"/i6 in. (36.6x47.8 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 

Fig. 27b 

Giovanni Battista Scultori 

Naval Battle between Greeks 

and Trojans 

Engraving 

15% X 22'yi6 in. (40.4 X 58.3 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 



The Fall of Troy and the Escape of Aeneas is 
one of a group of three Mantuan engravings 
from about the same period, all based on 
designs by Giovanni Battista Scultori. The 
other prints are Ghisi's Sinon Deceiving the 
Trojans (fig. 27a)' and Scultori's Naval Battle 
between Greeks and Trojans (fig. 27b).- As 
noted by Boorsch, Lewis, and Lev^fis, the three 
prints cannot be considered a set because of 
differences in dimensions and dates. They as- 
sign Ghisi's prints to the mid-i 5405, whereas 
Scultori's print is dated 1538. Scultori's 
inventions for the three engravings are 
indebted to the art of Giulio Romano. The 
brightly and evenly lit figures and frozen 
planar movement in Ghisi's Sinon Deceiving 
the Trojans is comparable with Giulio's 
designs for Ghisi's The Death of Procris (cat. 
no. 26| and Antonio Fantuzzi's The Cle- 
mency of Scipio (cat. no. 79). In comparison 
the present engraving and Scultori's Naval 
Battle between Greeks and Trojans are more 
emphatic in their contrast of light and dark 



and employ a common compositional device 
of steep recession into the background. In 
these respects Scultori's designs for the two 
engravings resemble Giulio's dramatic chiar- 
oscuro and perspective in his paintings in the 
Sala di Psiche, Palazzo del Te, Mantua. In The 
Fall of Troy and the Escape of Aeneas the 
eerie effect of the moonlit figures and the city 
engulfed in flames and billowing smoke is 
more effective in dramatizing the narrative 
than Luca Penni's design for Jean Mignon's 
The Sack of Troy (cat. no. 95), a contemporary 
but relatively dry rendition of the subject. 
Scultori's vertiginous composition adds to 
this nightmarish quality. 

The first state is before the successive 
appearance of the names of the publishers 
Lafreri and Orlandi. 

During the destruction of Troy by the 
Greeks, the Trojan prince Aeneas, with the 
help of his mother Venus, escaped with his 
father Anchises and son Ascanius. Aeneas's 
subsequent adventures formed the basis of 
Virgil's Aeneid. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 15:397, no. 28. 

2. Ibid., 383, no. 20. Bartsch's 
attribution of the design to 
Giulio Romano was challenged 
by Albricci ("Le incisioni," 

47-48). 



91 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



2^fi Giorgio Ghisi 

The Judgment of Pahs 

After Giovanni Battista Bertani 

Engraving 

i5'/2 X 2o"/i6 in. (39.4 X 52.5 cm), lower margin trimmed 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: Baptista bertano 

MANTVA. .../... AD SEXENIVM 

References 

Bartsch, 15:408, no. 60 iii/iii; 
Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis 78, 
no. 16 iu/iii; Le Blanc, 2:295, 
no. 35 ii/ii 



92 



The most famous sixteenth-century depic- 
tion of the judgment of Paris is Marcantonio 
Raimondi's engraving of about 15 17-20 after 
Raphael's design,' one of the purest expres- 
sions of the exalted ease, grace, and perfec- 
tion of High Renaissance classicism. Ghisi's 
masterpiece, based on Bertani's design,- is an 
example of classicism of a rather different 
order. With its emphasis on profile views and 
planar movement the composition recalls 
Giulio Romano's somewhat frigid but expres- 
sive interpretation of Raphael's style.-' 
Hieronymous Cock's commission of this 
print in Antwerp is understandable because 
the hard clarity of the design, with its stiff 
and frozen gestures, is aligned with artistic 
taste in Flanders at midcentury, as exempli- 
fied by the art of Maarten van Heemskerck, 
Frans Floris, and Marten de Vos. 

The figures of Apollo as sun god, Diana 
as moon goddess, the signs of the zodiac, and 
the legend printed on a separate plate 
(trimmed from the present impression) make 
clear the meaning of the narrative as a 
vanitas theme: the fading of beauty and love 
with the passage of time." 

For the narrative of the judgment of 
Paris, see the story of the Trojan War in 
discussion of Jean Mignon's series Scenes 
from the Trojan War (cat. nos. 92-95). 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 14:197, no. 245. 

2. A drawing identified by 
Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, |8i, 
fig. 42) in the Musei Civici del 
Castello Visconteo, Pavia, miglit 
have served as Ghisi's model. 

3. For a comparison of the figure 
of Paris with that of Apollo in 
Giulio's fresco The Feast for 
Cupid and Psyche in the Palazzo 
del Te, Mantua, see ibid., 80-81, 
fig- 43- 

4. For this inscription, see 
ibid., 79. 



93 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



29 



Giorgio Ghisi 

The "Calumny" of Apelles 



After Luca Penni 

Engraving 

ii^Vix iiVs in. (36.8 X 32.1 cm) 



Inscriptions 

On throne: GEOR/GIVS/GHISI/ 

MANT/.F./1S60 

Lower left: CVM PRIVILE/ 

CIO REGIS 

Lower center: Attrahit . . . / 

. . . DOLOS 

Lower right: LVCA/PENIS/.IN. 

References 

Bartsch, 15:411, no. 64; Boorsch, 
Lewis, and Lewis, iii, no. 27 
iii/vi; Le Blanc, 2:296, no. 59 

Liteiatute 

Albricci, "Luca Penni," 124, 
no. 48; Zerner, "Gravures," 286, 
no. 351 




94 



The painter Apelles was one of the most 
famous artists in antiquity. Only literary 
accounts of his career survive, and Lucian's 
description of Apelles's painting Calumny 
became the source for a subject popular in the 
Renaissance.' According to ancient legend, 
Apelles was slandered by an envious col- 
league but was ultimately vindicated. This 
allegorical theme was favored by artists be- 
cause of its celebration of the worth of their 
profession. In Penni's composition a man 
with large ears representing ignorance (an im- 
age also seen in Hendrik Goltzius's engraving 
The judgment of Midas (cat. no. iio]) sits en- 
throned, in the company of symbols of cal- 
umny, envy, treachery, and deceit, while in 
the background the figure of repentance 
appeals to the airborne symbol of truth. 

No painting or drawing by Penni of this 
composition has been identified, although it 
has been compared with two other scenes of 
judgment by Penni: a painting attributed to 
him by Sylvie Beguin, The judgment of Otto 
in the Louvre, and an engraving by Goltzius, 
The judgment of Solomon, after a design 
attributed to Penni by Boorsch, Lewis, and 
Lewis. ^ 

The present impression is from the first 
published state. The two earlier states, both 
printed from the unfinished plate, are known 
in only four impressions. 



Notes 

1. For the history of this theme, 
see David Cast, The Calumny of 
Apelles: A Study in the 
Humanistic Tradition (New 
Haven: Yale University Press, 
1981I. 

2. Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 
112-13, figs. 49-50. 



95 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



30 



Giorgio Ghisi 

Hercules Resting from His Labors 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

lo'/iex i5'/i6 in. (26.8 X 39.5 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower center: GEORG.GHISI 
MANT:F/i567 

References 

Bartsch, 15:405,110. 56; Le Blanc, 
2:296, no. 42; Boorsch, Lewis, 
and Lewis, 144, no. 41 ii/ii 



Literature 

Oberhuber, Renaissance, 18 
no. 3 10; Schab, 38, no. 29 



96 



Fig. }oa 

Giulio Romano 

(Italy, 1499-1546I 

Hercules Resting from 

His Labors 

Pen and brown ink 

6V1X Iiyi6 in. (16.6 X 28.5 cm] 

Musee des Beaux-Arts et de la 

Dentelle, Alen(jon 




Hercules Resting from His Labors is based, in 
reverse, on a stucco relief designed by Giulio 
in the Sala degli Stucchi in the Palazzo del 
Te, Mantua.' The stucco relief, without a set- 
ting indicated, is placed in a shallow lunette 
at one end of the Sala degli Stucchi. Giulio's 
preparatory drawing, from which Ghisi 
might have worked, is in Alenqon (fig. 30a).- 
The engraver considerably altered his model 
by placing the subject in a vast panoramic 
landscape, in which a building appears to be 
burning. This puzzling addition was also 
included by Ghisi in the background of Cu- 
pid and Psyche (cat. no. 31).^ Ghisi's land- 
scape recalls Northern compositional for- 
mulas in its limitless sweep. Because of the 
presence in Alen^on of Giulio's drawing, and 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, of the 
unique unfinished proof of the engraving, 
Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis convincingly pro- 
posed Ghisi's residence in France in 1567, 
when he engraved this plate. 



Notes 

1. Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 
fig. 60. 

2. Ibid., 145, fig. 61, 

3. Ibid., 145, 167. 



97 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



31 



Giorgio Ghisi 

Cupid and Psyche 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

14% X 9V4 in. (36.5 X 23.5 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower Tight: IVLIVS RO./IN./ 
.G.MAf. Imonogram of Ghisi] 
1 574/Nicolo van aelst for. Romae 

References 

Bartscfi, 1 5 :403, no. 45 ; Le Blanc, 
2:296, no. 39; Boorscti, Lewis, 
and Lewis, 167, no. 50 iii/iv 

Literature 

Massari, Incisori, 157, no. 230; 
Passavant, 6:139, under no. 4$ 




Cupid and Psyche reproduces a section of 
Giulio's very large fresco of about 1 528 in the 
Sala di Psiche in the Palazzo del Te, Mantua.' 
The engraving differs from the painting in a 
few details, such as the print's orientation of 
the bed parallel to the picture plane and 
changes in the landscape beyond the group of 
satyrs. One curious addition to the back- 
ground is the smoke rising from a burning 
building, a possibly significant but mysteri- 
ous iconographic detail also seen in Ghisi's 
landscape in Hercules Resting fiow. His La- 
bors (cat. no. 30).- 

The fable of Cupid and Psyche is told in 
Apuleius's The Golden Ass. The mortal Psy- 
che had aroused the jealousy of Venus, Cu- 
pid's mother, who ordered Cupid to cause 
Psyche to fall in love only with despicable 
men. But Cupid inadvertently fell in love 
with Psyche himself and visited her at night, 
when he would be unseen and unrecognized. 
Psyche's sisters convinced her that her lover 
was a monster, and when she lit a lamp to see 
him, he vanished. Psyche was captured by Ve- 
nus, who ordered her to undertake a series of 
arduous tasks. The final one was to fetch 
from the Underworld a vase magically con- 
taining some of the beauty of Proserpina, 
queen of the Underworld. Psyche opened it 
out of curiosity and was overcome by its 
deadly vapors. Cupid restored her to life and 
convinced Jupiter to make Psyche immortal. 
Afterwards they were married. Ghisi's 
engraving illustrates a scene after their wed- 
ding because their child, Voluptas, can be 
seen nestling between the couple. 



Notes 

1. Hartt, ixolor frontispiece. 

2. Observed by Boorsch, Lewis, 
and Lewis, 145, 167. 



99 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



3^ 



Palma Giovane 

Saint Jerome, Pope Damasus, and Two Putti 



Etching 

8'Ax 5% in. (21 x 14.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower leh: Franco forma 
Lower right: P 

References 

Bartsch, 16:291, no. 16 

Literature 

D'Amico, 55, no. 244; Schab, 78, 
no. 63; Sopher, 59, no. 80 




100 



Saint Jerome. Pope Damasus, and TXvo Putti 
is plate sixteen from Palma's set of twenty- 
six etchings The Principles of Drawing, pub- 
lished in 1611 by Giacomo Franco and again 
in 1636 by Marco Sadeler. The full title of the 
set is Regole per imparar a disegnar i carpi 
humani divise in doi libri dilineati dal 
Famoso Pittor Giacomo Palma. Libro primo. 
(A second volume contained etchings by 
Franco and Luca Ciamberlano after Palma's 
drawings.) For this group of etchings Palma 
did not select drawings from his entire career. 
It appears that Palma's sketches and con- 
sequently the related etchings were created 
during roughly the first decade of the seven- 
teenth century because of the style of their 
draftsmanship and because some of the prints 
can be related to Palma's paintings from that 
period. For example, Stefania Mason Rinaldi 
connected several of the etchings with spe- 
cific paintings; Christ and the Woman Taken 
in Adultery (Bartsch 20) with the painting 
dated 1599 in the Palazzo Rosso, Genoa,' Ju- 
dith with the Head of Holof ernes (Bartsch 25) 
with the painting of about 16 10 in the 
Louvre,- and Samson and Dehlah (Bartsch 
26) with the painting of about 1610-15 in a 
private collection, Florence.^ In addition. 



John the Baptist in the Wilderness (Bartsch 
19) may be connected with Palma's painting 
of 1602 in the church of San Giovanni 
Battista, Bagno.-* 

It is more difficult, however, to find a 
painting comparable with Saint Jerome. Pope 
Damasus, and Two Putti. Palma depicted 
Saint Jerome several times but never in com- 
bination with this pope and putti. Although 
aspects of Jacopo Tintoretto's mannerism of 
the late sixteenth century are present in this 
etching, the figure of Saint Jerome is consid- 
erably more restrained in its posture than 
either Tintoretto's dynamic forms or Palma's 
more willfully distorted figure of the saint en- 
graved by Hendrik Goltzius about a decade 
earlier, in 1596 (cat. no. 122). 

Saint Jerome and Pope Damasus are 
linked closely in the early history of the 
Catholic Church. Damasus held the Holy Of- 
fice from 366 to 384, during which time he 
established Latin as the official liturgical lan- 
guage and commissioned Saint Jerome to re- 
vise the current Latin version of the Scrip- 
tures, thus producing the Latin Vulgate Bible. 
For this and other deeds, Jerome became one 
of the four Doctors of the Church, together 
with Saints Ambrose, Augustine, and Greg- 
ory the Great. 



Notes 

1. Mason Rinaldi, 85, no. loi, 

2. Ibid., 100, no. 206, fig. 491. 

3. Ibid., 85, no. 96, fig. 531. 

4. Ibid., 74, no. 12, fig. 337. 



lOI 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



33 



Parmigianino 

Saint Peter and Saint John Healing the Cripple 
at the Gate of the Temple 



After Raphael 

Etching and chiaroscuro woodcut printed in ocher and brown 

10% X is'Viein. (27.8 X 40.5 cm) 

lUustiated in color on page 2j 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: ly.R. 

References 

Bartsch, 12:78, no. 27, and 16:9, 
no. 7 ii/ii; Le Blanc, 2:630, 
no. 8 ii/ii 



Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 
240; Fossi, 29, no. 78; Massari et 
al., 131, no. IV, lb; Oberhuber, 
Parmigianino, 23, no. 46; Schab, 
50, no. 40 




Fig. J 3a 

Parmigianino 

Saint Peter and Saint John 

Healing the Cripple 

at the Gate of the Temple 

Etching 

lo'/s X I5'yi6 in. (25.7 X 40.5 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



The first state of Saint Peter and Saint John 
Healing the Cripple at the Gate of the Tem- 
ple is executed in pure etcfiing (fig. 33a). Fossi 
considered the chiaroscuro version to be an 
anonymous copy of Parmigianino 's etching, 
although this view is unsupportable because 
the printed Hnes in the tvkfo works correspond 
exactly.' The present impression from the 
second state was printed with two tone 
blocks, and the etched plate received addi- 
tional work, especially in the shading of Saint 
Peter's drapery and in his shadow cast on the 
ground. 

The question has been raised about 
Parmigianino's artistic intentions for this 
print, namely whether he intended it as a 
chiaroscuro or whether the tone blocks, as 
well as the reetching, were later additions 
presumably to mask wear in the copper plate. 
The mixture of intaglio and relief media 
might have been inspired by contemporary 
experimentation in these techniques by 
Domenico Beccafumi.- This combination of 
etching and woodcut was unusual at this 
time because it is generally associated with 
later Netherlandish artists such as Crispijn 
van den Broek and Frederick Bloemaert. 



Oberhuber considered the composition as 
complete in its etched state and argued that 
the color was not planned initially by Par- 
migianino. In comparison with Parmigia- 
nino's other prints, however, the first state 
appears rather sparse and perfunctory in the 
modeling of the forms, especially the two col- 
umns in the foreground and the figure of 
Saint Peter. The additional shading and color 
enhance the visual richness and spatial depth 
of the design. They do not appear to have 
been added simply for decorative purposes. 

The print is based, in reverse, on Rapha- 
el's now-lost modello for one of the Vatican 
tapestries commissioned in 1 5 1 5 by Pope Leo 
X; the cartoons are in the royal collection, on 
loan to the Victoria and Albert Museum.' 
Another now-lost preparatory drawing by Ra- 
phael is recorded in an etching of the subject 
by Giovanni Battista Franco.'' 

The composition illustrates one of the 
miracles of the Apostles shortly after the Res- 
urrection. Saint Peter and Saint John had 
gone to the Beautiful Gate of the temple in 
Jerusalem, where they met a crippled man 
who always begged there. Saint Peter healed 
him (Acts 3.1-7). 



Notes 

1. Oberhuber has pubhshed 
varying opinions on the print. In 
Parmigianino and Raphaels 
Zeichnungen he accepted it as 
Parmigianino's work. In an 
article on Parmigianino's 
etchings, however, he expressed 
doubts about its authenticity 
("Parmigianino als Radierer," 
Alte und moderne Kunst 8, no. 
68I1963J: 34". 29I. 

2. See Oberhuber, Renaissance. 
132-34, nos. 204 and 206. 

3. For a lucid discussion of the 
place of the present work as a 
record of Raphael's progression 
of ideas in the compositional 
development of the cartoon, see 
John Shearman, Raphael's 
Cartoons in the Collection of 
Her Majesty the Queen and the 
Tapestries for the Sistine 
Chapel (London: Phaidon Press, 
19721,98. 

4. Bartsch, 16:124, no. 15. 



103 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



34 



Parmigianino 

The Entombment 



Etching printed in brown ink 

iiVie X 9% in. (31.3 X 23.8 cm), lower margin trimmed 



References 

Bartsch, i6;8, no. 5; Le Blanc, 
2:630, no. 6 i/ii; Nagler, 
Kiinstler- Lexikon, 9:548, no. 5 

Literature 

Copertini, 2:25, 15I; Ferrara and 
Gaeta Bertela, no. 242; 
Oberhuber, PaTmigianino. 20, 
no. 43; Oberhuber, Renaissance, 
144, no. 232; Petrucci, 103, pi. 30 







104 



feii*i 




Fig. 34a 

Parmigianino 

The Entombment 

Etching 

io'Vi6 X SVa in. (27.7 X 20.9 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



-»a»«^SfeS^.>< ■'*^^^ *j! 



The Entombment is one of a pair of composi- 
tionally similar but reversed and stylistical- 
ly distinct etchings of this subject by 
Parmigianino. Bartsch accepted the present 
work as Parmigianino's but considered the 
other version a copy by Guido Reni (fig. 34a).' 
Copertini, hov/ever, accepted the latter as by 
Parmigianino and attributed the present ver- 
sion to Jacopo Bertoia. In a viev^f now gen- 
erally recognized, Oberhuber ascribed both 
prints to Parmigianino and regarded this 
etching as Parmigianino's copy of his own 
earlier work. The two prints are strikingly 
different in their overall visual impression. 
The present work is more evenly and deeply 
etched, with an emphasis on the sculptural 
and three-dimensional character of the 
forms. In the earlier version Parmigianino 
was more interested in the evanescent qual- 
ity of light, which appears to be dissolving 
the figures, and the effect is quite other- 
worldly. It is understandable why Bartsch 
considered it a print from a much later period 
because its rococo lightness is reminiscent of 
an eighteenth-century artist like Donato 
Creti. As Oberhuber observed, however, the 



conception and execution are consistent with 
Parmigianino's oeuvre. 

Because his corpus of prints is confined 
to a relatively brief period of four years be- 
tween 1527 and about 1531, it is probably 
hazardous to try to arrange Parmigianino's 
etchings in a rigid chronological sequence. 
Nevertheless, it is logical to view the present 
work as a later development from the sketch- 
like impression of the other version. In the 
more iconographically coherent present ver- 
sion Nicodemus holds the crown of thorns 
over Christ's head. In the other etching the 
crown lies on the ground, while Nicodemus's 
arm disappears behind the back of one of the 
women. Because the present work is in re- 
verse of the other version, so that Nicodemus 
is holding the crown in his left hand, it is rea- 
sonable to assume this etching is the copy. 

The story of the Entombment is told in 
all four Gospels (Matthew 27.57-60, Mark 
15.42-47, Luke 23.50-56, John 19.38-42). 
After Christ's death by crucifixion Joseph of 
Arimathea petitioned Pontius Pilate for the 
body, which was then placed in a new tomb 
by Joseph, Nicodemus, Christ's mother, and 
some of his disciples and friends. 



Notes 

I. Bartsch, 18:300, no. 46. 



105 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



35 



Marcantonio Raimondi 

The Standard Bearer 



After Raphael 

Engraving 

loxy'/sin. (25.4 x 18. i cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 14:357, no. 48 1; 
Delaborde, 224, no. 197; Le 
Blanc, 3:281, no. 29I; Nagler, 
Kiinstlei-Lexikon, 13:504, no. 
368; Passavant, 6:40, no. 257 

Literature 

Heinecken, 1:366, no. 56^ Mason 
and Natale, 76, no. 93; Massari 
et al., 269, under no. 4; Petrucci, 
94 n. 15; Schab, 10, no. i; 
Shoemaker, 22, 24, fig. 3 





Fig. 353 

Marcantonio Raimondi 

Man Climbing 

the Bank of a River 

Engraving 

7"/i6 X 5^16 in. (19.6 X 13.2 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Bartsch catalogued two nearly identical ver- 
sions of The Standard Bearer. Bartsch 481 
(the present engraving) as by Marcantonio 
and Bartsch 482 as by Agostino Veneziano. 
He described Agostino's print as a copy of 
Marcantonio 's, with the only notable dif- 
ference being the presence of four rather than 
three pebbles near the figure's right foot. 
Since Bartsch's publication, there has been 
little agreement about the date of the print or 
the identity of its engraver and inventor. 
Recent literature has overlooked the convinc- 
ing suggestion made by Oskar Fischel more 
than sixty years ago that The Standard 
Bearer may be related to Raphael's carefully 
planned but never-executed design The Res- 
urrection, circa 15 11.' The figure in The 
Standard Bearer was extracted from that 
composition, in which he appeared as one of 
the Roman soldiers struggling to control his 
banner against the force of the miraculous 
event. 

If the relationship between the engrav- 
ing and Raphael's project is accepted, other 
nagging questions about the print can be 
answered. First, The Standard Bearer must 
have been engraved contemporaneously with 
Raphael's design because the figure was 
adapted soon afterward as the model for Saint 
Christopher in Titian's monumental wood- 
cut The Thumph of Christ, circa 1 5 10- 11.- 



Second, Titian's use of the engraving at this 
early date precludes the suggestion made by 
Passavant, and followed by several others, 
that the design can be attributed to Giulio 
Romano rather than Raphael; Giulio would 
have been only about twelve years old at the 
time. Third, Bartsch was correct in claiming 
that the present engraving is the original, and 
Agostino's version is the copy because 
Agostino did not enter Marcantonio's work- 
shop until 15 16. 

Furthermore, The Standard Bearer's at- 
tribution to Marcantonio is convincing on 
stylistic evidence. As several authors have 
noted, the figure's pose was influenced by 
Michelangelo's cartoon The Battle of 
Cascina. About 1508 Marcantonio copied 
one of the figures in the painting (Bartsch 
488) (fig. 35a),-' and in 1510 he engraved a 
group of three men entitled The Climbers 
(Bartsch 487), also copied from Michel- 
angelo's composition. Marcantonio's method 
of defining the anatomy of The Standard 
Bearer and The Climbers is similar, and the 
two engravings were probably executed about 
the same time. In both works the ropy mus- 
culature is delineated by a series of short, 
feathery strokes of the burin. This method is 
used successfully to soften the contours of 
the figures and contrasts with the more 
sharply defined single soldier in the engrav- 
ing of about 1508. 



Notes 

1. Oskar Fischel, "Raphael's 
Auferstehung Christi," Jahibuch 
del preussischen 
Kunstsammlungen 46 11925): 
191-200. 

2. Rosand and Muraro, 37-54, 
nos. 1—2. The date of about 

1 5 1 6- 1 7 for the woodcut, 
suggested by Mason, Natale, and 
Massari, is not convincing. 

3. For the proposed date, see 
Shoemaker, 90, 92, under no. 19. 



107 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



36 



Marcantonio Raimondi 

Quos Ego 



After Raphael 

Engraving 

17 X i3'/4 in. (43.2 X 33.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Upper left, on tablet: 
AEOLVS IMMITTIT/VENTOS 
IVNONE/PRECANTE 
Lower left, on tablet: 
TROIANOSQ VAGOS/LIBYCAS 
EXPELLIT/IN ORAS 
Lower center, on tablet: 
CVI VENVS/ASCANn 
SVB/IMAGINE/ 
MITTIT/AMOREM 
Upper right, on tablet: 
SOLATVR VENEREM/DICTIS 
PATER IPSE/DOLENTEM 
Lower right, on tablet: 
AENEAM RECIPIT PVL-/CHRA 
CARTHAGINE/DIDO 
Lower right: Ant. Sal. exc. 

References 

Bartsch, 14:264, no. 352 ii/ii; 
Delaborde, 146, no. 102 ii/ii; Le 
Blanc, 3:279, no. 222 ii/ii; Nagler, 
Kiinstler-Lexikon, 13:493, no. 
294; Passavant, 6:26, no. 138 

Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 
420; Heinecken, 1:347, no. 3; 
Marietta, 4:327-28; Mason and 
Natale, 68, no. 84; Massari et al., 
244, no. IV, ic; Nees, 18-29; 
Oberhuber, Renaissance, 99, no. 
149; Oberhuber, Rome and 
Venice, 31, no. 17; Petrucci, pi. 
14; Pittaluga, 154, fig. 89; Rodari, 
73, no. 2; Schab, 15, no. 7; 
Shoemaker, 120, no. 32 




108 



The design of Quos Ego has been attributed 
to both Raphael and Baldassare Peruzzi. Ra- 
phael's authorship is supported, however, by 
the presence at Chatsworth of sketches by 
him for three of the all'antica side panels.' 
Raphael's invention is apparent in the cre- 
ative genius of the artistic conception of the 
narrative as a Renaissance pictorial re- 
creation of an ancient relief. Nees pointed out 
Raphael's compositional debt to a type of 
antique sculptural relief known as tabula 
iliaca, in which a central narrative panel is 
surrounded by several subsidiary scenes. 
Shoemaker stressed further the visual variety 
of the different degrees of illusionism, rang- 
ing from the effect of shallow relief in the 
panel at the upper left, to the central scene 
with Neptune, which is viewed as though 
through a window. This central composition 
is the most compelling argument for Rapha- 
el's authorship of Quos Ego. The self- 
contained and perfectly balanced dynamism 



of the figure of Neptune clearly seems to be 
the product of the same artist who conceived 
and painted the fresco of Galatea in the VUla 
Farnesina, Rome. The flanking panels in the 
engraving are comparable in style with 
another all'antica Raphael composition en- 
graved by Marcantonio contemporaneously 
with Quos Ego: Alexander the Great Placing 
the Books of Homer in the Cabinet of Da- 
rius,^ based on the fresco in the Stanza della 
Segnatura in the Vatican. 

The present impression is from the sec- 
ond state, with the addition of the address of 
Antonio Salamanca at the lower right. The 
composition was popular with maiolica 
painters and other decorative artists, and it 
was reproduced in a variety of media. ^ 

The subject of Quos Ego comes from 
Virgil [Aeneid, 1. 125 -43). The central scene 
shows Neptune calming the sea for Aeneas 
and the Trojans, after the wind god Aeolus 
had caused a storm at the behest of Juno, bit- 
ter enemy of the Trojans. 



Notes 

1. For a discussion of these 
sheets, see John Gere and 
Nicholas Turner, Drawings by 
Raphael, exh. cat. (London: The 
British Museum, 1983), 150—52, 
nos. 124-25. 

2. Bartsch, 14:168, no. 207. 

3. For an inventory of several 
examples, see A.V. B. Norman, 
Wallace Collection: Catalogue of 
Ceramics i. Pottery, Maiolica, 
Faience, Stoneware (London: 
Wallace Collection, 1976), 90; 
and Verdier, 122. 



109 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



37 



Marcantonio Raimondi 

Lo Stiegozzo 



After Giulio Romano ( ? ) 

Engraving 

iiVs X 25'/t in. (30.2 X 64.2 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left, on tablet: AV 

References 

Bartsch, 14:321, no. 426 i/ii; 
Delaborde, 204, no. 175 i/ii; Le 
Blanc, 3:77, no. 159 i/ii; Nagler, 
Kiinstlei-Lexikon, 13:499, no. 
341; Passavant, 6:37, no. 236 i/ii 

Literature 

D'Amico, 32, no. 64; Heinecken, 
1:314, no. 6; Mariette, 4:325; 
Massari et al., 262, no. 11, i; 
Oberhuber, Renaissance, 102, 
no. 145; Petrucci, 29-30, pi. 17; 
Pittaluga, 163-64, 199 n. 15, fig. 
99; RotUi, 54, no. 14; Schab, 
II, no. 3 




IIO 




Ill ITALIAN PRINTS 



Lo Stregozzo (the witch's procession) is one 
of the most magnificent yet most puzzhng 
prints of the sixteenth century. Controversy 
surrounding its authorship was voiced by 
Bartsch, who noted the differing opinions on 
the identity of the engraver. His description 
of two states has fueled these opposing views. 
Bartsch's first state is signed in the form of a 
blank tablet, an insignia used by both 
Marcantonio and Agostino Veneziano. The 
configuration of the tablet seen here lower 
left, with its triangular attachment, is not 
found on Marcantonio's prints but occasion- 
ally on Agostino's, such as his copies after 
Marcantonio's Man Caiiying the Base of a 
Column (Bartsch 477) and The Standard 
Bearer (Bartsch 482) and his own design Vase 
with TWo Handles (Bartsch 545 1. In Bartsch's 
second state Agostino's initials appear on the 
horn played by the youth riding the goat. 
These second state impressions tend to be 
rather worn and pale. Bartsch's description of 
the states of Lo Stregozzo needs to be revised 
because it does not take into account impres- 
sions such as the present one with the initials 
"AV" somewhat carelessly inscribed on the 
tablet. Passavant also noted impressions 
where the blank tablet has evidence of bur- 
nishing, as though the initials had been 
removed. The engraving consequently ap- 
pears to have undergone four states: the first 
with the blank tablet, the second with 
Agostino's initials on the tablet, the third 
with the initials removed, and the fourth 
with Agostino's initials inscribed on the horn 
and additional burin work in the shadows. 

The presence or absence of Agostino's 
initials has prompted a variety of opinions on 
the identity of the engraver. Bartsch, who was 
convinced of Agostino's authorship, de- 
scribed four theories, each of which has 
had its adherents: Agostino was the author; 



the plate was engraved by Marcantonio but 
retouched by Agostino, who added his ini- 
tials; the plate was a collaborative effort be- 
gun by Marcantonio and completed by 
Agostino; or the addition of Agostino's ini- 
tials was a later error of attribution. The 
collaborative process in Marcantonio's work- 
shop is difficult to unravel, although two 
other examples of collaboration may be cited: 
Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (Bartsch 
13I and The Emperor Freeing the Slave An- 
drocles (Bartsch 196].' In the former a less- 
skilled hand, possibly Agostino's, appears to 
have completed the plate begun by Marc- 
antonio. The Emperor bears the double signa- 
ture of the empty tablet and Agostino's ini- 
tials, and as with Lo Stregozzo, Passavant 
recorded an impression signed only with the 
empty tablet. Oberhuber's explanation for 
the double signature on Agostino's The Em- 
peror was that the engraver was closely imi- 
tating Marcantonio's style of engraving. 
Nevertheless, Oberhuber considered Lo 
Stregozzo to be completely in Marcantonio's 
manner. 

The dilemma can only be resolved by 
stylistic analysis, and Oberhuber seems to be 
correct in attributing the print to Marc- 
antonio. The sheer variety of marks of the 
burin — long, short, widely spaced, closely 
spaced, curving, straight, parallel, cross- 
hatched — provides a visually rich and 
painterly tonality not encountered in 
Agostino's engravings. Marcantonio's late 
works, executed between Raphael's death in 
1520 and the Sack of Rome in 1527, have 
been characterized as rather dry, even 
mechanical, in the regularity of their tech- 
nique. Yet, in some late prints, such as The 
Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence (cat. no. 38], 
Marcantonio displayed considerable tonal 
variety, power, and drama. Lo Stregozzo prob- 




Fig. J7a 

Raphael (Italy, 148 3- 15 20) 

Male Nude with Sword 

Black chalk, heightened with 

white 

I4yi<, X 8 in. (36.7 X 20.4 cm) 

Cabinet dcs Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 



ably dates from the same period. Still, how 
does one explain the presence of Agostino's 
initials? If Lo Stiegozzo were an example of 
collaboration between Marcantonio and his 
pupil, it is very different from the clearly 
discernible stylistic disparity seen in the 
engraving Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. 
Agostino's role in Lo Stregozzo would have 
been limited to engraving minor details, such 
as elements of the landscape, because the fig- 
ures are completely characteristic of 
Marcantonio's work. 

The attribution of the composition's 
invention has been as vexing as the search for 
the engraver's identity. The following list of 
suggested designers indicates the range of 
opinions: Raphael (Mariette, Bartsch, 
Passavant, Pittaluga), Michelangelo 
(Lomazzo, Le Blanc, Massari), Giulio 
Romano (Delaborde|, Girolamo Genga 
(Oberhuber), and Marcantonio (D'Amico).^ 
The attribution of the design to Marcantonio 
is most likely incorrect because he seems to 
have been exclusively a reproductive en- 
graver. Michelangelo's name has been men- 
tioned because of the similarities between 
the nudes in the engraving and the figures in 
Michelangelo's cartoon The Battle of 
Cascina.^The pose of the striding nude at the 
extreme left of Lo Stregozzo is particularly 
close to a study in the Teylers Museum for a 
figure in the painting.'* There is, however, no 
record of Michelangelo having created a com- 
position such as Lo Stregozzo. The attribu- 
tion of the design to Raphael seems closer to 
the mark, and he is known to have adapted 
Michelangelo's Cascina figures for his own 
compositions (for example, Marcantonio's 
The Standard Bearer [cat. no. 35]). Also simi- 
lar to the engraving's nude in the left fore- 
ground is a drawing by Raphael in the Louvre 
(fig. 37a| for a figure in a fresco in the Sala di 



Costantino in the Vatican, The Battle for the 
Milvian Bridge.'' The design and execution of 
that fresco, however, like the others in the 
Sala di Costantino, are due primarily to 
Giulio, and it is Giulio's art of this period 
with which Lo Stregozzo has most in com- 
mon. The excited and straining muscular fig- 
ures in the engraving have counterparts in 
some soldiers in Giulio's fresco The Vision of 
Constantine in the Sala di Costantino.* This 
sense of heightened emotionalism and phys- 
ical energy is one of the distinguishing char- 
acteristics between Giulio's art and the more 
balanced classicism of Raphael's style. 

Other visual borrowings in the com- 
position have been suggested. Most notable is 
the resemblance between the old witch rid- 
ing the carcass and Albrecht Diirer's engrav- 
ing The Witch, ^ an image in turn borrowed 
from Mantegna's figure of Envy in the left 
half of his engraving The Battle of the Sea 
Gods." The legs of the running man (right 
rear] have been compared with those of a fig- 
ure in the Master of the Die's engraving The 
Sacrifice to Priapus after Raphael or Giulio.'' 
The employment of that pose only supports 
further the argument of attributing the 
design to Giulio. 

The third puzzling aspect of Lo 
Stiegozzo is its subject. It is not simply a 
scene of witchcraft but intermixed are icono- 
graphic features from antiquity, particularly 
those associated with bacchanals, such as the 
wildly gesticulating figures, the youth riding 
a goat, and the marshy setting like those sa- 
cred to Artemis and Dionysus. Swamps are 
also believed to be important for witches' 
sabbaths.'" The combination of motifs re- 
lated to sorcery and mythology suggested to 
Tietze-Conrat the goddess Hecate, a figure 
from the Underworld frequently associated 
with sorcery and the souls of dead infants." 



Notes 

1. Shoemaker, 168, no. 54; and 
ibid., 197, no. 68. 

2. The farfetched recent 
suggestion of Giorgio Ghisi as 
the designer and engraver has 
received no support. See Master 
Prints and Drawings (London: 
Artemis Fine Arts, 1984), no. 7. 

3. The most complete visual 
record of Michelangelo's lost 
cartoon is a grisaille copy at 
Holkham Hall, reproduced in 
Mason and Natale, 76. 

4. Tekeningen van Michelangelo 
(Haarlem: Teylers Museum, 
1964), no. 5. 

5. Oberhuber, Raphaels 
Zeichnungen, 204, no. 489, pi. 
88. Raphael's figure was also 
apparently influenced by the 
antique sculpture known as the 
Borghese Warrior. 

6. Hartt, 2:pl. 57. 

7. Bartsch, 10:82, no. 67. 

8. Hind, 5:15, no. 5. 

9. Bartsch, 1 5 : 303, no. 27. 

10. Maxime Preaud, Les 
Sorcieres, exh. cat. (Paris: 
Bibliotheque Nationale, 1973), 
49, no. 70. 

11. Edith Tietze-Conrat, "Der 
'Stregozzo' (Ein 
Deutungsversuch)," Die 
Graphischen KUnste. n.s., i 
(1936): 57-59. 



113 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



38 



Marcantonio Raimondi 

The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence 



After Baccio Bandinelli 

Engraving 

i7Vix22y8in. (43.8 X 58.1 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: MAP |monogram of 
Marcantoniol 
Lower left, on tablet: 
BACCrVS/BRANDIN/INVEN 



References 

Bartsch, 14:89, no. 104 ii/ii; 
Delaborde, no. 85 ii/ii; Le Blanc, 
3:275, no. 50 ii/ii; Nagler, 
Kiinstler-Lexikon. 13:468, no. 
132; Passavant, 6:17, no. 46 



Literature 

Borea, 244, no. 596; Ferraia and 
Gaeta Bertela, no. 354; 
Heinecken, 1:304, no. 9; 
Mariette, 4:239-41,- Oberhuber, 
Renaissance, loi, no. 142; 
Petrucci, 28-29, pl- 16; 
Pittaluga, 156; Rotili, 52, no. lO; 
Scfiab, 32, no. 21 ; Shoemaker, 
14-15, fig. A 



114 




Fig. 38a 

Baccio Bandinelli 

(Italy, 1493-1560) 

The Martrydom of Saint 

Lawrence 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 



The Maityrdom of Saint Lawrence, Marc- 
antonio's major work after the death of Ra- 
phael, ranks with The Massacre of the In- 
nocents (Bartsch 18) and The Judgment of 
Paris (Bartsch 245 1 as one of his most cele- 
brated engravings as well as being one of his 
rarest. Vasari recounted that Bandinelli was 
commissioned by Pope Clement vii about 
1525 to paint the subject for the choir chapel 
in the church of San Lorenzo, Florence.' The 
fresco was never executed, and Marcantonio's 
engraving is the principal surviving evidence. 
Compositional studies in the Louvre (fig. 38a) 
and in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, 
Munich, have been connected with this com- 
mission,-^ the much-damaged drawing in Mu- 
nich is identical to the print in almost every 
detail and is considered a copy by most 
authors. Vasari also recounted the conflict be- 
tween Bandinelli and Marcantonio over the 
execution of the engraving. In order to have 
his composition reproduced, the sculptor 
arranged for the engraver's release from jail, 
where he had been incarcerated for his part in 
the scandalous and pornographic series of 
engravings I Modi, designed by Giulio 
Romano. But Bandinelli was dissatisfied with 
Marcantonio's The Maityrdom of Saint Law- 
rence, believing that the engraver had ruined 
his image. The pope adjudicated the dispute 
and ruled in favor of Marcantonio, stating 
that the printmaker had actually improved 
and corrected the design. Shoemaker and Da- 
vidson praised this work as a refutation of 
criticism of Marcantonio's late engravings as 
being overly dry and mechanical in their 
technique.^ In fact the modeling is rich and 
varied. 

The martyrdom takes place in the 
courtyard of a monumental architectural set- 
ting. The arrangement of the figures in two 
semicircular tiers recalls Raphael's fresco 
Disputa in the Stanza della Segnatura in the 
Vatican. Bandinelli's energetic treatment of 
the nudes, however, is reminiscent of 



Michelangelo's cartoon The Battle of 
Cascina. Despite the classicizing, architec- 
tonic underpinning of The Martyrdom of 
Saint Lawrence, the design is anticlassical 
because most of the spectators are figurative 
ornaments seemingly unaware of the princi- 
pal event of martyrdom. The torturers move 
with balletic grace as they place Lawrence on 
the fiery grill. Even the dying saint resembles 
an antique river god more than a suffering 
man. The overall emotional effect is rather 
cool. In this respect the scene contrasts with 
Bandinelli's compositionally similar but agi- 
tated and violent design The Massacre of the 
Innocents, engraved a couple of years earlier 
by Marco Dente.'' 

Bandinelli's treatment of the figures as 
discrete sculptural entities in his design for 
The Maityrdom of Saint Lawrence had re- 
percussions especially in the Netherlands in 
the art of Maarten van Heemskerck, Frans 
Floris, and Martin de Vos. Marcantonio's very 
popular engraving was copied several times in 
the sixteenth century by, among others, Mi- 
chele Lucchese, Giulio Sanuto, and Diana 
Scultori.' The print is further notable as a fre- 
quently cited source for the composition of 
Rembrandt's drypoint Christ Presented to 
the People, whose subject is also located 
before a monumental arched building. 

Saint Lawrence was a young Spanish 
archdeacon under Pope Sixtus 11 in the third 
century. The Church's treasures were con- 
fided to Lawrence, who distributed them 
among the poor in Rome after the pope was 
killed. The Roman prefect imprisoned the 
young man in order to acquire the Church's 
assets. On the third day of his imprisonment 
Lawrence was called before the prefect, who 
demanded the assets be given to him. In 
response Lawrence gathered the sick and 
poor and claimed that they were the 
Church's treasures. In a rage the prefect or- 
dered Lawrence to be killed by placing him 
on an iron grid and roasting him alive. 



Notes 

1. Vasari, 5:418-19, 6:147. 

2. For the Louvre sketch, see 
Maria Grazia Ciardi Dupre, "Per 
la cronologia dei disegni di 
Baccio Bandinelli fino al 1 540," 
Commentari 17 (1966): 155, fig. 
12. For the Munich drawing, see 
Harprath, 16, no. 5, pi. 33. 

3. Bernice F. Davidson, 
"Marcantonio's Martyrdom of S. 
Lorenzo," Bulletin of Rhode 
Island School of Design 47, no. 3 
(1961): 1-6. 

4. Bartsch, 14:24, no. 21. Ciardi 
Dupre ("Per la cronologia," 
153-54) dated this design about 
1518-19. 

5. For a list of copies, see Massari, 
Incisori, 112, underno. 166. 



115 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



39 



School of Marcantonio Raimondi 

Joseph Telling His Dreams 



After Raphael 

Engraving 

9% X i4V'4 in. (24.8 X 36.2 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower center: RAPH.VR.IN 

References 

Bartsch, 15:10, no. 5; Passavant, 
6:75, no. 5 

Literature 

Massari et al., 74, no. i, 14 i/ii 



116 



According to Bartsch, Joseph Telling His 
Dreams was based on a drawing for Raphael's 
fresco in tfie Vatican Loggia. The painting 
was executed by Giovanni Francesco Penni, 
whose lost modello is known through a copy 
in the Albertina.' The composition also was 
engraved, in reverse, by Nicolas Beatrizet (fig. 
8a). ^ His version is very close to the fresco 
and the modello in its arrangement of the fig- 
ures. The present engraving may reflect a 
now-lost earlier sketch for the composition 
because of differences in the positions of the 
heads in the group of men at the left and in 
the placement of the legs of the three broth- 
ers at the right. Both prints show landscapes 
differing from that in the fresco and are 
presumably the engravers' own inventions. 
The printmakers probably worked from 
preparatory drawings without the setting, 
such as the sketch in the Albertina in which 
only the figures are shown. 



The present work is more stylized and 
less naturalistic than the fresco or Beatrizet's 
print: the palm tree is like a decorative stage 
prop, the drapery has the appearance of 
carved marble, and the delineation of mus- 
culature shows a greater interest in pattern 
than in the depiction of pliant flesh. Bartsch 
considered this engraving to be in the manner 
of Philippe Soye. In contrast Massari consid- 
ered it closer to the style of Giulio Bonasone 
and also noted the presence of a second state 
retouched by the publisher Francesco 
Villamena. 

The story of Joseph telling his dreams is 
recounted in Genesis 37.5-10. Joseph, a son 
of Jacob, was his father's favorite and hated 
by his eleven brothers. He was despised even 
more when he told them his dreams, which 
they interpreted as Joseph setting himself 
above them. These dreams, in which Joseph 
was worshipped by the heavens and by the 
wheat in the fields, are represented in the 
engraving by the roundels in the sky. Joseph's 
brothers eventually captured him and sold 
him into slavery. 



Notes 

1. For the fresco, see Nicole 
Dacos, Le logge di Raffaello 
(Rome; Istituto Poligrafico dello 
Stato, 1977), 178, pi. 28a. For the 
drawing, see Oberhuber, 
Raphaels Zeichnungen, 168, no. 
460b, fig. 173. 

2. Bartsch, 15:244, no. 9. 



117 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



40 



Giulio Sanuto 

Tantalus 



After Titian 
Engraving 

17% X r3'Vi6 in. (45.1 x 35 cm] 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: Qvaerit aqvas . . . / 

. . . LINGVA DEDIT 

References 

Nagler, Kiinstler-Lexikon, 
16:510, no. lO; Passavant, 6:10, 
no. 16 

Literature 

Mauroner, 58, no. i; Oberhuber, 
Renaissance, 197, no. 336; 
Schab, 24, no. 15; Wethey, 
3:156-60, no. 19/C, Print 3, 
pi. 104 




118 



Fig. 40a 

Cornells Cort 

Tityus 

Engraving 

i5'/sx 12% in. (38.S X 31.4 cm) 

Graphische Sammlung 

Albertina, Vienna 




Tantalus reproduces Titian's now-lost paint- 
ing of 1548-53 commissioned by Mary of 
Hungary, sister of Emperor Charles v and re- 
gent of the Netherlands. The canvas was part 
of a series of four paintings depicting mytho- 
logical sinners; the others represented 
Tityus, Sisyphus (both works now in the 
Prado), and Ixion (lost with no known copy, 
print, or drawing).' Sanuto's Tantalus was 
probably executed about the same time as 
Cort's Tityus of 1566 (fig. 40a). Sanuto's man- 
ner of engraving provides a telling contrast to 
Cort's style. Although Sanuto might have 
been influenced by Cort in the use of curved 
and swelling lines of the burin, the Venetian's 
technique owes a greater debt to Battista 
Franco's evocation of painterly and fluid 
light. The clarity of Cort's engraving tech- 
nique creates forms more tactile and sculp- 
tural than Franco's and Sanuto's. 

Nagler described Tantalus as very rare, 
and Passavant wrote that he had not seen the 
print but knew it only from Nagler's 
description. 

The story of Tantalus is told by Ovid 
{Metamorphoses 4.45 1-61). Tantalus was 
cursed because he killed his son Pelops and 
served him to the gods at table. For this gross 
insult Tantalus was condemned in Hades to 
suffer eternal hunger and thirst. His lips 
could not catch water and the fruit tree con- 
tinually eluded his grasp. 



Notes 

I. Schab mistakenly described 
Ixion as known through an 
engraved copy by Cornelis Cort. 
That print, however, reproduces 
Tityus. See Bierens de Haan, 174, 
no. 192, there identified as 
Prometheus. 



119 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



41 



Andrea Schiavone 

Christ Healing the Lepers 



After Parmigianino 

Etching and drypoint from two plates 

11^16 X 15% in. (28.4 X 40 cm) 



^is^^ ^ 




References 

Bartsch, 16:49, no. 16; Le Blajic, 
3:447, no. 16; Richardson, S3, 
no. 16 



literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 
260; Oberhuber, Parmigianino, 
74, no. 203 



120 



Fig- 4" 

Andrea Schiavone 

Christ Healing the Lepers 

Drypoint 

7 vs X 1 1 in. |20 X 28 cm) 

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

Harvey D. Parker Collection 

Fig. 4 lb 

Parmigianmo 

Christ Healing the Lepers 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white 

lo'Vif, X i6'/2 in. (27.1 X 42 cm) 

The Duke of Devonshire and the 

Chatsworth Settlement Trustees, 

Chatsworth 





Schiavone's etching Christ Healing the 
Lepers is one of several versions of 
Parmigianino's composition: a chiaroscuro 
w^oodcut by Nicolo Vicentino (cat. no. 5 1 ); an 
etching, in reverse, by Leon Davent;' another, 
smaller version, in reverse, by Schiavone, 
known in impressions in the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston (fig. 41a), and Pinacoteca 
Nazionale, Bologna;- and, an etching by 
Schiavone shov^fing only the right-hand group 
of Christ and the Disciples, (cat. no. 42). 
According to Richardson, the present copy 
was based on Vicentino's chiaroscuro wood- 
cut, rather than on Parmigianino's original 
drawing now at Chatsworth (fig. 41b),'' be- 
cause the etching's patterns of light and 
shade are closer to those in the woodcut. In 
fact the etching's system of shading appears 
closer to that in the drawing. The patterns on 
the drapery of Christ are particularly similar. 
Christ's torso is partly in shadow in both the 
etching and drawing, whereas in the woodcut 
the dark tone block casts his entire torso in 
darkness. The etching in Boston and Bologna 
is markedly different from the present work 
and Parmigianino's drawing, with the addi- 
tion of more figures, a more expansive land- 
scape setting, the emphatic elongation of the 
forms, and the relieflike arrangement of the 
two groups. 

The story of Christ healing the lepers is 
told in Luke 17.11-14. When fesus and his 
disciples were traveling between Galilee and 
Samaria, they were approached by a group of 
ten lepers, and Christ healed them. 



Notes 

1. Zerner, School, no. LD 63. 

2. Richardson (99, no. 95) 
believed the Boston impression 
to be unique, but see Ferrara and 
Gaeta Bertela, no. 261, for an 
impression in Bologna. 

3. Popham, 1:204, no. 690, 
2:pl. 133. 



121 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



42 



Andrea Schiavone 

Christ and His Disciples 



Etching and drypoint 

II X 7% in. (27.9 X 19.7 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: MAF 

References 

Bryan, 3:317, no. 94; Richardson, 
98, no. 94 




Christ and His Disciples is quite rare and 
possibly unique. Richardson knew it only 
from Bryan's description. This etching repro- 
duces the right half of Parmigianino's design 
Christ Healing the Lepers (see cat. no. 41 ). As 
noted by Bryan, it differs from Schiavone's 
depiction of the full composition in the 
expressions of the figures and the omission of 
Christ's sandals. In addition the landscape is 
altered. Christ and His Disciples is more 
technically advanced than Schiavone's 
Christ Healing the Lepers, circa 1545, in its 
system of crosshatching for modeling the fig- 
ures and drapery and was probably executed a 
few years later. This print is not the only 
example of Schiavone repeating a composi- 
tion. He also etched three variants of 
Parmigianino's The Entombment.^ 



Notes 

I. Richardson, 84, nos. 17-19. 



12.3 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



43 



Giuseppe Scolari 

Saint George 



After Giovanni Antonio da Pordenone 
Woodcut and wood-engraving 
20V8 X 14% in. (52.7 X 36.2 cm) 



References 

Le Blanc, 3:486, no. 6; Nagler, 
Kiinstler-Lexikon, 11:160, no. 6; 
Passavant, 6:234, no. 56 

Literature 

Dreyer, 59, no. 42 i/iii; Landau, 
352, no. P61 i/iii; Oberhuber, 
Renaissance, 125, no. 188; 
Petrucci, 68, pi. 66; Rosand and 
Muraro, 301, no. 96 




124 



Fig. 43a 

Nicolo Vicentino 

Marcus Curtius 

Chiaroscuro woodcut 

i6'/i6X 10" 16 in. (40.8x27.1 cml 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



nil 


1 


j^^^^fc jr^ 


f^-^fO 










m^, ^ 




i 1 


V * ' I'm." Jlri 




L, 




r 


£aFJF^ 


^- 




B 



Although an engraved copy by Theodore 
Galle of this woodcut identifies the inventor 
of the composition as Titian, ?>amt George is 
now recognized as reproducing a figure in 
Pordenone's now-lost fresco of about 
1530-35 on the facade of the Palazzo d'Anna, 
Venice. Pordenone's design of a man on 
horseback is also known in the form of chiar- 
oscuro woodcuts by Nicolo Vicentino (fig. 
43a) and Nicolo Boldrini.' In Vicentino's and 
Boldrini's prints the subject is Marcus 
Curtius. The fact that the chiaroscuro wood- 
cuts accurately reflect Pordenone's original 
subject and composition is proven by his 
drawing in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
for the entire facade.- In that sheet the horse 
and rider are depicted in an urban architec- 
tural setting like that in which Curtius is 
shown in the chiaroscuros. For the present 
work Scolari transformed the Roman hero 
into a Christian saint and added the highly 
dramatic and expressive landscape setting 
with the dragon. 

Landau clarified the description of the 
woodcut's three states. The impression here 
is from the rare first state. In the second state 
much of the shading on the horse's chest was 
cut away. In the third state, as the woodblock 
became worn, a plug was set into the lower 
margin, and breaks appeared along the upper 
border Landau also identified rare impres- 
sions of the print in the Rijksmuseum and 
Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, in which 
Scolari varied the inking of the block to cre- 
ate a sense of atmospheric perspective. The 
uniform inking of the present impression 
heightens the woodcut's highly decorative 
character resulting from the dense overall 
patterning of the shading. 

Another work reproducing one of 
Pordenone's now-lost Palazzo d'Anna 
frescoes is Vicentino's chiaroscuro woodcut 
Saturn (cat. no. 54). 



Notes 

1. Landau, 336, nos. P36 and P37. 

2. Cohen, 84-85, fig. 78. 



125 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



44 



Adamo Scultori 

The Flagellation 

After Michelangelo and Sebastiano del Piombo 

Engraving 

17% X 13=716 in. (44.1 X 33.8 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: AS Imonogram of 
Scultori] 

References 

Suzanne Boorsch and John Spike, 
eds., The Illustrated Bartsch, vol. 
3 1 (New York: Abaris Books, 
19861,154-55. 




126 




Fig. 44a 

After Adamo Scultori 

The Flagellation 

Engraving 

17 X 13' 4 in. I43.2 X 33.7 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Boorsch observed that the print catalogued by 
Bartsch (presumably the impression in the 
Albertinal as Scultori's reproduction of 
Sebastiano's The Flagellation is in fact a copy 
of the present engraving (fig. 44a).' The 
present work, then in the collection of Robert 
Dance, w^as accepted by Boorsch as Scultori's 
original engraving, of which no other impres- 
sions are known. Although similar in size 
and in the same direction, the print here dif- 
fers in several respects from the copy. In the 
copy the flooring has a mottled and 
checkered design; the veining in the marble 
columns is more pronounced, with veining 
added to the rear pilasters and to the back 
wall; the cast shadows form a different pat- 
tern, with additional shading on the right 
thigh of Christ; the hair of the figures is 
rendered more schematically and with less 
sense of texture; and the delineation of the 
musculature, particularly on the torso of 
Christ and on the back of the man at the 
right, is emphasized so strongly that the mus- 
cles are much less naturalistic and form an 
abstract pattern. 



The Flagellation is related to the design 
provided to Sebastiano by Michelangelo for 
the fresco of 1516-24 in the Borgherini 
Chapel in the church of San Pietro in 
Montorio, Rome.- Michelangelo and 
Sebastiano collaborated on several occasions, 
although there has been considerable dis- 
agreement over the extent of Michelangelo's 
involvement in the design of The Flagella- 
tion. Vasari reported that Michelangelo pro- 
vided only a small drawing,-' presumably the 
one now in the British Museum,-* which 
Sebastiano then elaborated. Scultori also en- 
graved another, less technically sophisticated 
version of the subject,^ which may represent 
an intermediate idea by Michelangelo or 
Sebastiano or may, as Bartsch supposed, re- 
produce the invention of another, anonymous 
artist. 

The story of the flagellation of Christ 
appears as a passing reference in all four Gos- 
pel accounts (Matthew 27.26, Mark 15.15, 
Luke 22.63, John 19. i). After the people opted 
to free the thief Barabbas rather than Christ, 
Pontius Pilate's soldiers took Christ aside 
and flogged him. 



Notes 

1. What Boorsch considered the 
copy (Bartsch, 15:417, no. 2), of 
which she reproduced an 
impression in the Albertina, 
appears in two states. The 
impression in the Museo e 
Gallerie Nazionah di 
Capodimonte, Naples, illustrated 
by Massan [Incisori. 30, under 
no. 13, fig. io| and Rotili (81, no. 
76), has the addition of the 
addresses of Gratiani and de 
Nobilibus and the date 1582. 
Consequently, Scultori's 
engraving precedes that date. 

2. For a discussion of 
Sebastiano's painting, see 
Michael Hirst, Sebastiano del 
Piombo (Oxford: Clarendon 
Press, 1981), 49-65, pi. 75. 

3. Vasari, 5:569. 

4. Johannes Wilde, Michelangelo 
and His Studio (London: British 
Museum, 1953), ij-ig, no. 15, 
pi. 31. 

5. Bartsch, 15:417, no. i. 



127 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



45 



Diana Scultori 

The Snakeholder 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

&% X 1 1 '=716 in. (22.6 X 30.4 cm| 




References 

AJbricci, "Diana," 19, no. 7; 
Bartsch, 15:451, no. 44 i/ii; Le 
Blanc, 2:293, no. 46 i/ii 

Literatiue 

Massari, Incisori. 84, no. 140 i/iv; 
Sopher, 36, no. 48 



128 



Fig.4Sa 

Giulio Romano (Italy, 

1499- 1 546) and studio 

The Snakeholdei 

Fresco 

Sala dei Venti, Palazzo del Te, 

Mantua 




The Snakeholdei, dated about 1550 by 
Massari, is a rectangular version of one of six- 
teen circular frescoes (fig. 45a) designed by 
Giulio for the Sala dei Venti in the Palazzo del 
Te, Mantua.' Because of several differences in 
the two works, particularly Scultori's omis- 
sion of the religious banner behind the 
snakeholder, she might have worked, as 
noted by Massari, from Giulio's drawing in 
the Louvre.- This is hypothetical, however, 
because the drawing has been silhouetted, 
thus removing all details of the background. 
Bartsch's title for this print, The Charlatan, 
suggests a simple genre subject. This inter- 
pretation is understandable when the image 
is seen outside the context of Giulio's decora- 
tions in the Sala dei Venti. The iconographic 
program of the fresco, however, illustrates the 
effects on human events of the zodiac and the 
constellations. The Snakeholder is con- 
nected with the sign of Capricorn and the 
constellation Ophiuchus, known as the 
Snakeholder. 

This impression is from the first state 
before the subsequent addition and removal 
of the names of the publishers Pacificus and 
de Rossi. 



Notes 

1. Hartt, 2:fig. 208. 

2. Ibid., 1:296, no. 153. 



129 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



46 



Diana Scultori 

The Birth of Apollo and Diana 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

loVifiX 151/4 in. (26.2 X 38.7 cm| 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: DIANA 

References 

Albricci, "Diana," 18, no. >; 
Bartsch, 15:449, no. 39 i/ii; Le 
Blanc, 2:292, no. 34 i/ii 



Literature 

Massari, Incisoh. 91, no. 147 i/V; 
Rodari, 89, no. 63; Schab, 36, 
no. 26 



130 



Fig. 46a 

Giulio Romano 

(Italy, 1499-1546I 

The Birth of Apollo and Diana 

Pen and brown wash 

ii'yi6 X ly'/i in. I30.4 X 44.6 cm) 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 




The Birth of Apollo and Diana is based, in re- 
verse, on a study by Giulio Romano in the 
Louvre (fig. 46a) for his painting in the royal 
collection at Hampton Court.' Although the 
print shows more of the composition than 
the sketch, Scultori probably worked from it, 
rather than the canvas, because of similari- 
ties in details of the landscape. The painting 
was part of a cycle of twelve scenes, illustrat- 
ing the infancy and youth of Jupiter and his 
family, the intended site for which remains a 
mystery.- Several of the paintings were en- 
graved by Giulio Bonasone,^ including one, 
Jupiter Suckled by the Goat Amalthea, simi- 
lar in dimensions and composition to 
Scultori's print.'' Her print probably was ex- 
ecuted a few years later but might have been 
engraved as a pendant. 



Notes 

1. For the drawing, see Hartt, 
1:305, no. 305. For the painting, 
see ibid., iifig. 459. 

2. Ibid., 1:211-12. 

3. Bartsch, 15:137, nos. 94-96, 
142, no. 107. 

4. Bonasone's engravmg has been 
attributed sometimes to Diana's 
father, Giovanni Battista 
Scultori. See Massari, Bonasone, 
1:91, no. 115. 



131 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



47 



Diana Scultori 

Regina Angelorum 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

14% X lo'-Vie in. (36.5 X 27.5 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: DIANA 

Below left: Roma Antonij Lafreri 

formis 

References 

Albricci, "Diana," 20, no. 23; 
Bartsch, 15:446, no. 31 i/ii; Le 
Blanc, 2:292, no. 32 i/ii 

Liteiatuie 

Massari, Incison, 99, no. 15 ij 
Massari et al., 211, no. xlv, la; 
Passavant, 6:142, no. 31 i/ii; 
Schab, 37, no. 27 





Fig. 47a 

Marcantonio Raimondi 

The Virgin and Child 

Seated on Clouds 

Engraving 

7'/i6X 5% in. (17.9 X 14.7 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Bartsch attributed the design of Regina 
Angelorum to Raphael, based on the initials 
"RVI" that appear on later impressions of the 
print. Passavant was probably correct in 
claiming that this inscription was a mistake 
and in attributing the design instead to 
Giulio. It is certainly true, however, that this 
composition is redolent with Raphaelesque 
motifs. Massari noted the derivation of the 
group of the Madonna and Christ Child from 
an engraving after Raphael by Marcantonio 
Raimondi (fig. 47a).' Additional borrowings 
are present: the figures of the Archangel Ra- 
phael and Tobias are an adaptation of the 
same group in Raphael's painting The Ma- 
donna with the Fish, I5r3-i4, in the Prado,- 
and the pose of the Archangel Michael with 
the dragon represents a less dynamically 
graceful variant of Raphael's painting Saint 
Michael, 15 18, in the Louvre.^ The resulting 
type of additive composition is characteristic 
of the Raphael school, justifying Passavant's 
attribution of the design to Giulio. 



Like many sixteenth-century Roman 
engravings Scultori's plate passed through 
the hands of several publishers. Massari's 
description of the five states, however, needs 
to be reordered because she omitted from her 
list the state represented by the present 
impression. The order suggested here is: the 
first state before all letters, the second with 
the names of the artist and the publisher 
Lafreri at the lower left (this impression], the 
third with the initials "RVI" added at the 
lower right, the fourth with the removal of 
Lafreri's address, the fifth with the title 
"regina angelorvm" added below the image, 
and the sixth with the addition of de Rossi's 
address at the bottom. 

The engraving represents the theme of 
Mary, Queen of Angels.-' The Virgin and 
Christ Child are depicted in glory on clouds 
above the three principal archangels, from 
left, Gabriel, Michael, and Raphael. Each 
angel is shoviTi in his traditional role: Gabriel 
gesturing as the angel of the Annunciation, 
Michael conquering the demon Lucifer, and 
Raphael as the guardian angel with the young 
Tobias. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 14:53, no. 47. Scuhori 
copied this Raphaelesque motif 
even more explicitly in her 
Madonna and Child Seated on 
Ciouds (ibid., 15:438, no. 15). 

2. The painting, then in the 
church of San Domenico in 
Naples, was engraved by Marco 
Dente (ibid., 14:61, no. 54). 

3. A similarly sedate adaptation 
by a member of Raphael's 
workshop can be seen in a 
drawing by Giovanni Francesco 
Penni in the National Gallery, 
Oslo. See Oberhuber, Raphaels 
Zeichnungen, 46, fig. 48. 

4. For a discussion of the 
engraving's subject, see Sylvie 
Beguin, "La Vierge, reine des 
anges par Le Frimatice," Revue 
du Louvre 19 (1969]: 143-56. 



133 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



48 



Giovanni Battista Scultori 

David and Goliath 



After Giulio Romano 

Engraving 

i3''/i6X 17% in. (35.4 X 45.1 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower center: IBMANTVANVS/ 
SCVLPTOR.M.D.XXXX 

References 

Albricci, "Le incisioni," 27, 
no. 6 ii/ii^ Bartsch, 15:379, no. 6; 
Le Blanc, 1:293, no. i; Nagler, 
Kiinstlei-Lexikon, 5:411 



Literature 

Massari, Incisoii. 23, no. 7 u/ii; 
Oberhuber, Renaissance, 179, 
no. 301; Pittaluga, 189 



134 




Fig. 48a 

Giulio Romano (Italy, 

1499-1546) and studio 

David and Goliath 

Fresco 

Loggia, Palazzo del Te, Mantua 



One of Scultori's most impressive engrav- 
ings, David and Goliath is exceeded in size 
only by his Naval Battle between Greeks and 
Trojans (fig. 27b). Scultori's oeuvre of twenty- 
one engravings appears to be divided between 
reproductions of designs provided by Giulio 
and fiis own inventions strongly influenced 
by Giulio's style. Bartsch attributed the com- 
position of David and Goliath to Giulio, and 
it is closely related to Giulio's design of the 
subject (fig. 48a), probably painted by Rinaldo 
Mantovano, in the loggia of the Palazzo del 
Te, Mantua.' Despite the differences in com- 



position between painting and print, the ani- 
mated and emotionally charged relieflike 
design of Scultori's engraving is convincing 
as Giulio's invention. 

The only difference between the first 
and second states of David and Goliath 
occurs in the inscription at the lower center, 
which is partly abraded and reengraved in the 
second state, as in the present impression. 

The story of the battle between the 
young Israelite David and the Philistine giant 
Goliath is told in i Samuel 17.4-5 1. As the 
champion of the Philistine army Goliath was 
challenged to a duel with David who was 
armed only with a slingshot. After killing the 
giant with a shot to the forehead, David be- 
headed Goliath, and the Philistine army was 
routed. 



Notes 

I. Hartt, 1:150-51, 2:fig. 329. 



135 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



49 



Antonio da Trento 

Augustus and the Tibuitine Sibyl 



After Parmigianino 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black and ocher 

13% X loVi in. (34.9 X 26.7 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 28 



References 

Bartsch, 12:90, no. 7; Le Blanc, 
2 : 2 1 8, no. 7; Meyer et al., 2:154, 
no. 22; Zava Boccazzi, 58, no. 4 

Literature 

D'Amico, 37, no. 104; Fossi, 18, 
no. 24; Hasselt, 43, no. 133; 
Oberhuber, Paimigianino. 46, 
no. Ill; Oberhuber, 
Renaissance. 130, no. 198; 
Pittaluga, 241; Popham, 1:13, fig. 
24; Rodari, 81, no. 32; Schab, 56, 
no. 45; Servolini, Zilogiafia, 59; 
Weigel, 475, no. 5653 




136 



Augustus and the Tiburtine Sibyl has been 
praised by Bartsch and others as one of da 
Trento's most beautiful chiaroscuros. 
Parmigianino's finished study for the print is 
lost, but several preparatory drawings have 
been identified: an early sketch in the Louvre 
of the tvkfo protagonists, v^fhose gestures are 
reversed;' studies in the Biblioteca Reale, Tu- 
rin,- and formerly in the Skippe collection^ of 
the same two figures, but closer than the 
ones in the Louvre sketch to their positions 
in the woodcut; and a lost drawing, known 
through an engraving by Francesco 
Rosaspina,-* in which the architectural set- 
ting and secondary figures are indicated. The 
popular composition was also copied in a 
chiaroscuro woodcut by Nicolo Vicentino 
(cat. no. 52), an engraving by Giulio 
Bonasone,^ and another chiaroscuro attrib- 
uted to Ugo da Carpi.* 

Da Trento's composition differs from 
Vicentino's only by the addition of foliage 
around the columns at the right and in the 
foreground. The two woodcuts differ primar- 
ily in the artists' technical means. Da Trento 
used the line block to a much greater extent 
as a way of defining the formS; the single tone 
block delineates some of the architectural 
details but adds little to the volume of the 
forms. Vicentino's version is executed in 
what has been characterized as the Italian 
manner of chiaroscuro, with its reliance 
solely on the tone blocks to define the forms. 

Sibyls were heathen prophetesses who 
foretold to the gentiles the coming of Christ. 
The Roman Senate had decreed divine honors 
for Emperor Augustus, who consulted the 
Tiburtine Sibyl on whether to accept them. 
She advised Augustus that her powers were 
waning because a child was coming who 
would rule over all. At that point the skies 
opened to reveal to the emperor a vision of 
the Madonna and Christ Child. 



Notes 

1. Popham, 1:142, no. 398. 

2. Ibid., 184, no. 595 recto. 

3. Ibid., 229, no. 802. 

4. Ibid., 253, no. O.R. 68. 

5. Oberhuber, Paimigianino, 31, 
no. 65. 

6. Ibid., 47, under no. 1 1 1 . 



137 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



50 



Antonio da Trento 

Narcissus and Echo 



After Parmigianino 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black and brown 

ii'/s X 7V16 in. (28.3 X 18 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page zg 



References 

Bartsch, 12:148, no. 13; Le Blanc, 
2:218, no. lO; Meyer etal., 2:155, 
no. 36; Zava Boccazzi, 58, no. 7 

Literature 

D'Amico, 38, no. iii; Fossi, 19, 
no. 33; Hasselt, 43, no. 135; 
Oberhuber, Parmigianino, 48, 
no. 116; Popham, 1:13, fig. 23; 
Weigel, 484, no. 5767 




138 



Although no painting or modello by 
Parmigianino is known as the source for 
Narcissus and Echo, Vasari's attribution is 
undoubtedly accurate.' The compositional 
device of the figure emerging from the low- 
er corner appears in other works by 
Parmigianino, such as his etching The 
Adoration of the Shepherds^ and his design 
for Nicolo Vicentino's chiaroscuro The Pre- 
sentation in the Temple (cat. no. 55). The 
only drawing by Parmigianino related to the 
print is a study in the Rijksmuseum of trees 
and foliage used for the background.^ 

Bartsch followed Vasari's description of 
this woodcut as simply representing a nude 
man seen from the back. In 1957, however, 
the present title was suggested."* The sad tale 
of the nymph Echo's ill-fated love for the 
handsome youth Narcissus is told by Ovid 
{Metamorphoses 3.342-510). Narcissus was 
so beautiful he was desired by all, but he 
spurned these advances, including Echo's, 
who in her grief was reduced to only a voice. 
In despair one of Narcissus's admirers cried 
to the gods that the youth should experience 



the same frustration and rejection. Narcissus 
consequently fell in love with his own reflec- 
tion in a forest pool, and unable to possess his 
beloved, he wasted away and was trans- 
formed into a yellow flower. Da Trento's 
woodcut shows Narcissus from the back in 
rapt self-absorption, while a seemingly dis- 
embodied Echo observes him at lower left. 

Recently another subject was sug- 
gested: the sleep of Endymion.^ He was also a 
handsome youth in Greek mythology, 
beloved by the moon goddess Selene. She vis- 
ited and lay beside him every night as he 
slept. Eventually Zeus granted Endymion's 
wish of perpetual slumber. This narrative ap- 
pears suitable for the woodcut's composition, 
because in the story of Narcissus and Echo 
the lovesick nymph had already been trans- 
formed into her namesake when Narcissus 
became enamored with his reflection. It 
might be argued, however, that Parmi- 
gianino's placement of the female figure in 
the lower margin is a clever and inventive 
way of suggesting that the woman is not 
really materially present. 



Notes 

1. Vasari, 5:423. 

2. Bartsch, 16:7, no. 3. 

3. Popham, 1:43, no. 2. 

4. Werner Schade, Italienische 
Farbenholzschnitte des 16. bis 
18. lahihunderts: Cbiaroscun, 
exh. cat., Staatliche 
Kuntsammlungen zu Weimar 
(Weimar: J. Keipert, 1957), no. 31. 

5 . Caroline Roland-Levy's 
proposed subject is cited in 
Drawings and Prints (New York: 
C. &. J. Goodfriend, 1985) no. 34. 



139 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



SI 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Christ Healing the Lepers 



After Parmigianino 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black, light brown, and dark brown 

11% X 1 6% in. (29.8 X41.6 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 30 




Inscriptions 

Lower right: AA [monogram of 
Andrea Andreani] in mantova 
1608 

References 

Bartsch, 12:39, no. 15 ii/ii; 
Le Blanc, 4:116, no. 3 ii/ii 



Literature 

Fossi, 16, no. 16; Hasselt, 45, no. 
144; Oberhuber, Parmigianino, 
43, no. loi; Oberhuber, 
Renaissance, r3r, no. 20I; 
Pittaluga, 245, fig. 180; Popham, 
T:r3, fig. 27; Weigel, 464, 
no. 5510 



140 



For the numerous versions of this compo- 
sition, see the discussion of Andrea 
Schiavone's etching (cat. no. 41). Vicentino's 
woodcut is based on a drawing by Par- 
migianino at Chatsworth (fig. 41b).' Ac- 
cording to Vasari, collaboration between 
Parmigianino and his principal chiaroscurist, 
Antonio da Trento, suddenly ceased when 
one day, while Parmigianino was still in bed, 
da Trento ran off with a cache of Par- 
migianino's drawings, etchings, and copper 
plates.^ Popham opined that the Chatsworth 
sheet was one of the stolen drawings. Vicen- 
tino later had access to it to make his wood- 
cut. Unlike many copyists of the period, 
Vicentino reproduced faithfully not only the 
figures but also the background rather than 
supplying one of his own invention as did 
Schiavone. 



Notes 

1. Popham, 1:204, no. 690, 
2:pl. 133. 

2. Vasan, 5:226, 422. 



141 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



52 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Augustus and the Tiburtine Sibyl 



After Parmigianino 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black and three shades of green 

i^Vix loVie in. (34.3 X 26.2 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 3 1 



References 

Bartsch, 12:90, no. 8; Le Blanc, 
4:116, no. 5 

Literature 

Hasselt, 45, no. 145; Meyer et al., 
2:154, under no. 22^ Oberhuber, 
Paimigianino, 45, no. 104; 
Pittaluga, 245; Popham, 1:13; 
Servolini, Zilogiafia, 71 ; Weigel, 
475, no. 5654 




142 



Fig. sia 

Nicolo Vicentino 

Augustus and the Tiburtme 

Sibyl 

Chiaroscuro woodcut 

i3'/2 X 10^16 in. (34.3 X 26.2 cm) 

The Metropohtan Museum of 

Alt, New York 

Harris Bnsbane Dick Fund, 1939 

Fig. 52b 

Nicolo Vicentmo 

Cloeha Crossing the Tiber 

Chiaroscuro woodcut 

1 1 X i6'/2 in. (27.9 X 41.9 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Purchased with funds provided 

by Mrs. Arnold Palmer 





For other versions of this composition, see 
the discussion of Antonio da Trento's chiar- 
oscuro woodcut (cat. no. 49). 

The present work appears to be an 
unrecorded second state of Vicentino's wood- 
cut, rather than a copy of the composition by 
Master ND of Bologna, an attribution sug- 
gested by CaroHne Karpinski.' The impres- 
sion in the Metropohtan Museum of Art (fig. 
52a), for example, is printed from three tone 
blocks, whereas the present impression, like 
the one illustrated by Reichel,-' has an addi- 
tional line block printed in black. The two 
darker tone blocks are the same in both 
states, but the lightest tone block apparently 
was recut in the second. Changes in the block 
include the additional white highlights along 
the upper margin, the detailing of the archi- 
tecture at the upper right, the crosshatching 
on the low platform in the middleground, and 
the patches of light throughout the 
composition. 

Because the two darker tone blocks ap- 
pear to be essentially the same in both states, 
it is reasonable to describe this impression as 
a second state rather than another version. It 
is not the only example of Vicentino substan- 
tially reworking the blocks in one of his 
woodcuts. His chiaroscuro Cloelia Crossing 
the Tiber was described by Bartsch as having 
two states,^ the second being one of Andrea 
Andreani's republications with the lightest 
tone block recut. Another state before 
Andreani's address can be seen, however, in 
an impression in the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art (fig. 52b|, in which a third, 
intermediary tone block was added. This 
additional printing element was omitted by 
Andreani, who might have believed it 
muddied the composition by canceling out 
many of the highlights of the lightest block 
and by obscuring some of the details of the 
darkest one. 



Notes 

1 . Quoted in Old Master and 
Modern Prints (New York: 
Lucien Goldschmidt, 1981), no. 
108. The discussion of the print 
in that catalogue is confused 
because the work is printed from 
four, not three, blocks, and 

the Bartsch number cited is 
incorrect. The present 
impression is the one catalogued 
by Goldschmidt. 

2. Anton Reichel, Die Clair- 
Obscur-Schmtte des xvi. und 
XVII. [ahrhunderts (Zurich, 
Leipzig, and Vierma: Amalthea- 
Verlag, 1926), 33, fig. 11. 

3. Bartsch, 12:96, no. 5. 



143 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



53 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Psyche Honored as a Goddess 



After Francesco Salviati 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black, dark brownish green, 

and Ught brownish green 

9% X 9V2 in. (23.8 X 24.1 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page ^2 



References 

Bartsch, 12:125, no. 26 i/ii; 
Le Blanc, 2:218, no. 8 i/ii; 
Passavant, 6:222, no. 26; Zava 
Boccazzi, 59, no. 4 i/ii 

Literature 

Borea, 265, no. 696; D'Amico, 37, 
no. 107; Hasselt, 44, no. 141; 
Marietta, 5:163; Pittaluga, 247, 
fig. 182; Weigel, 473, no. 5630 




144 



Mariette correctly identified the source of 
Vicentino's composition as Francesco 
Salviati's now-lost ceiling decoration of 1539 
in the Palazzo Griraani near Santa Maria For- 
mosa, Venice. Bartsch's subsequent sugges- 
tion of Giuseppe Salviati as the inventor still 
appears, however, in literature.' Mariette, 
Passavant, and Weigel suggested Vicentino as 
the printmaker; Bartsch, followed by most 
later writers, attributed the woodcut's execu- 
tion to Antonio da Trento. Again, Mariette 
was correct, and Borea's note of caution 
regarding this attribution is unfounded. The 
very painterly and unsculptural character of 
the tone blocks used in Psyche Honored as a 
Goddess contrasts with da Trento's greater 
dependence on the line block for defining 
forms. The delineation of the architectural 
setting in this woodcut is very similar to that 
in Vicentino's Christ Heahng the Lepers (cat. 
no. 51]. 

Although planned as a decoration for a 
ceiling, Francesco Salviati's composition has 
none of the stunningly and dramatically 
foreshortened illusionism of Giulio 
Romano's version of the subject of 1528 in 
the Sala di Psiche in the Palazzo del Te, Man- 
tua.^ Salviati's arrangement of the figures 
across the foreground, with Psyche and her 
attendants on one side and the adoring citi- 
zens on the other, is similar to the Raphael- 
esque design of the subject by Michiel Coxcie 
engraved by the Master of the Die.' 

For the story of Cupid and Psyche, see 
Giorgio Ghisi's engraving of that subject (cat. 
no. 31). As depicted in Vicentino's woodcut, 
the mortal princess Psyche inspired adora- 
tion by her citizens thus causing the jealousy 
of the goddess Venus, which proved nearly fa- 
tal to Psyche. 



Notes 

1 . Exceptions are Max Kolloff in 
Meyer et al., 1:726, and Iris H. 
Cheney, "Francesco Salviati's 
North Italian Journey," Art 
Bulletin 45 (19631:341. 

2. Hartt, 2:fig. 230. 

3. Bartsch, 15:213, no. 40. 
Bartsch attributed the design to 
Raphael himself but was 
corrected by Passavant (6:160). 



145 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



54 



Nicolo Vicentino 

Saturn 



After Giovanni Antonio da Pordenone 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black, dark grayish green, 

and light grayish green 

12% X ijVs in. (32.4 X 43.5 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 33 




Inscriptions 

Lower right: AA [monogram of 
Andrea Andream) in mantova 
1604 

References 

Bartsch, 12:125, no. 27 ii/ii; 
Le Blanc, 1:596, no. 16 li/ii; 
Servolini, Ugo, no. 34 



Literature 

Fossi, 15, no. 13; Landau, 335, no. 
P35; Oberhuber, Paimigiamno, 
39, no. 89; Rodari, 82, no. 36^ 
Schab, 58, no. 47; Weigel, 471, 
no. 5604 



146 



Fig. S4a 

Giovanni Antonio da Pordenone 

(Italy, c. 1484-1539) 

Saturn 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white 

io'yi6 X 16V1 in. (27.5 X 42 cm| 

Formerly the Duke of 

Devonshire and the Chatsworth 

Settlement Trustees, Chatsworth 




Until Landau's convincing arguments to the 
contrary the identities of the cutter and in- 
ventor of Saturn were thought to be Ugo da 
Carpi and Parmigianino, respectively. The 
woodcut is now recognized as being based on 
Pordenone's now-lost fresco on the facade of 
the Palazzo d'Anna, Venice. (Giuseppe 
Scolari's Saint George [cat. no. 43] is another 
print based on the d'Anna decoration.) 
Vicentino probably had access to Pordenone's 
finished modello, formerly at Chatsworth 
(fig. 54a), because the sheets are nearly identi- 
cal in size and composition.' Not only is this 
print's technique comparable with other 
works by Vicentino, such as Christ Healing 
the Lepers (cat. no. 51), but Landau consid- 
ered Andreani's publication of the block to be 
evidence of Vicentino's, rather than Ugo's, 
authorship. According to Landau, Andreani 
must have acquired the contents of 
Vicentino's studio because almost all of his 
republished woodcuts are by Vicentino, 
whereas none are by Ugo. 

Bartsch identified the subject of this 
woodcut as Saturn, the allegorical embodi- 
ment of time. Saturn, or Chronos in Greek 
mythology, is often represented with his 
attributes of wings (in reference to the pas- 
sage of time) and scales (because of his associ- 
ation with the zodiacal sign of Libra). It has 
also been suggested that the composition 
illustrates the proverb Amor vincit Tempus 
(love conquers time).^ 



Notes 

1 . For the drawing, see Cohen, 
64, fig. 82. The drawing was sold 
at Christie's, London, 3 luly 
1984, lot 36. The only difference 
in size is the vertical extension of 
the woodcut. 

2. T H. Limsingh Scheurleer, 
"Parmigianino and BouUe," 
Burlington Magazine 68 (1936): 
287-88. 



147 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



55 



Attributed to Nicolo Vicentino 

The Presentation in the Temple 



After Parmigianino 

Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black and three shades of ohve green 

16V8X ii'¥i6Ui. (41 X 30.4 cm) 

Illustiated in color on page 34 



Inscriptions 

Lower nght: DEL S.VIATI AA 
Imonogram of Andrea Andreani] 
in mantova 1608 

References 

Bartsch, 12:31, no. 6 ii/ii; 
Servolini, Ugo. no. 27 

Literatiue 

Fossi, 29, no. 79; Heinecken, 
3:604; Mariette, 5:161—62; 
Oberhuber, Parmigianino, 42, 
no. 97; Richardson, 82, under 
no. 10 




148 




Fig. ssa 

Parmigianino 

The Adoration of the Shepherds 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white 

4'4'i6 X 3'/» in. (12.2 X 7.9 cm| 

Staatsgalerie Stuttgart 



Andrea Andreani, who published the wood- 
cut The Presentation in the Temple in the 
second state, attributed its design to Salviati, 
without signifying whether he meant 
Francesco or Giuseppe. Consequently each 
artist has received credit for the invention of 
the composition. Bartsch, however, believed 
that Andreani might have been mistaken and 
that the invention was perhaps Par- 
migianino's, an opinion with which Ober- 
huber concurred. No drawing or painting 
by Parmigianino of this composition has sur- 
vived. Popham observed that the closest 
visual evidence of Parmigianino's authorship 
is a study in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart (fig. 
55a) for his etching The Adoration of the 
Shepherds.^ Two figures appear in identical 
atttitudes and position in the lower left cor- 
ner in both The Adoration of the Shepherds 
and The Presentation in the Temple. Al- 
though in the etching the two figures are 
female, in the drawing and woodcut the two 
figures are male. 

According to Richardson, Schiavone's 
etching The Presentation in the Temple, circa 
1543-46, is a copy of the present woodcut, 
whose design he considered a paraphrase of 
elements in Francesco Salviati's fresco The 
Visitation in the oratory of San Giovanni 
DecoUato, Rome.^ Given Schiavone's attach- 



ment to the art of Parmigianino as well as the 
Parmigianesque elements of the composition 
and nothing recalling Salviati, it is more 
likely that Vicentino's and Schiavone's prints 
are based on a now-lost drawing by 
Parmigianino.^ There are, however, consider- 
able differences between the compositions of 
the two prints: Schiavone's lacks the two 
male figures at the lower left; the Virgin, 
Christ Child, and the priest are placed off 
center; Joseph is replaced by a young acolyte; 
the setting and furnishings are different. 

The execution of the woodcut The Pre- 
sentation in the Temple has been attributed 
traditionally to Ugo da Carpi, an attribution 
most scholars do not now accept. In 
Oberhuber's incisive analysis the handling of 
the line block combined with the painterly 
application of the tone block suggested 
Vicentino's authorship of the woodcut. 

The narrative of the Presentation of the 
Christ Child in the temple in Jerusalem is re- 
counted in Luke 2.22-32. According to He- 
brew law, a first-born child must be presented 
to the Lord, accompanied by the sacrifice of 
two turtledoves. Mary and Joseph, Christ's 
parents, took him to Jerusalem and presented 
him to the aged priest Simeon, who had been 
promised that he would live until he saw the 
Messiah. 



Notes 

1. For the drawing, see Popham, 
1:183, no. 593, 2:pl.i53. For the 
etching, see Bartsch, 16:7, no. 3. 

2. Bartsch, 16:44, no. 10. Some of 
the figures were used again in 
Schiavone's etching The 
Circumcision (ibid., 46, no. I2|. 

3. An unconvincing attempt has 
been made recently to attribute 
the woodcut's design to the circle 
of the midsixteenth-century 
Veronese painter Battista Zelotti. 
See Howard Courts, "A Print and 
Two Drawings from the Circle of 
Zelotti," Print Quarterly 4 
(19871:47-50. 



149 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



56-58 



Attributed to Nicolo Vicentino 

The Christian Virtues 



After Parmigianino 

Three from a series of six chiaroscuro woodcuts 



56 Charity 



Printed in black, hght brown, and dark bro-i\Ti 
5%x 3''/i6in. (14.6 X 10 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 3 s 



References 

Bartsch, 12:128, no. 3; Zava 
Boccazzi, 60, no. 16 

Literature 

Copertini, 2:36, 45 n. 9; Fossi, 17, 
under no. 21 ; Hasselt, 47, no. 
154; Oberhuber, Paimigiaiimo. 
46, no. 107; Weigel, 465, no. 
5S27C 




150 



57 Temperance 

Printed in black, light brown, and dark brown 
S^Ax 3^/8 in. (14.6 X 9.9 cm) 

Illustrated m color on page 36 



References 

Bartsch, 12:129, no. 5 i/ii; Zava 
Boccazzi, 60, no. 18 

Literature 

Copertini, 2:36, 45 n. 9; Fossi, 17, 
no. 23; Hasselt, 47, no. 156; 
Oberhuber, Paimigianino, 46, 
no. I09i Weigel, 465, no. S527e 




ill M i l. I tnmm m wmniiir 



151 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



58 Prudence 



Printed in black, gray, and ocher 
S^Vie X 4 in. I14.5 X 10. 1 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 37 



References 

Bartsch, 12:129, nO- 6j Zava 
Boccazzi, 60, no. 19 

Literature 

Copertini, 2:36, 45 n. 9; Feiiara 
and Gaeta Bertela, no. 484; Fossi, 
17, no. 22; Hasselt, 46, no. 152; 
Oberhuber, Parmigianino. 46, 
no. I ID; Pittaluga, 239, fig. 174; 
Weigel, 465, no. 5 527f 




152 



Charity, Temperance, and Prudence are from 
a set of six chiaroscuro woodcuts depicting 
the Christian virtues. The other prints repre- 
sent faith, hope, and fortitude. Although 
their designs have been attributed tradition- 
ally to Parmigianino, no related drawings by 
him have been identified. Parmigianino's 
known studies of such subjects as temper- 
ance, hope, and fortitude are quite different 
from the woodcuts in this series. Perhaps the 
closest candidate for the representation of 
prudence holding the mirror is a sheet at 
Chatsworth depicting a woman seated in pro- 
file holding a sphere.' The series of prints has 
been attributed to Antonio da Trento. Fossi 
made the persuasive suggestion, with which 
Oberhuber agreed, that the chiaroscuros are 
related more to the manner of Vicentino. 
This attribution is convincing because the 
painterly style of the prints and the use of 
multiple tone blocks resemble works by 
Vicentino such as Psyche Honored as a God- 
dess and Saturn (cat. nos. 53-54). Like many 
of Vicentino's woodcuts The Christian Vir- 
tues were republished by Andrea Andreani. 
Andreani's monogram, however, appears only 
on impressions of Temperance. The states of 
the other five woodcuts are consequently im- 
possible to determine. 

The three symbols of Christian virtue 
included here are represented with their 
traditional attributes; Charity surrounded by 
a group of infants. Temperance pouring water 
from her vase into a cistern, and Prudence 
gazing into a mirror. 



Notes 

I. Popham, 1:207, no. 706, 
2:pl.i84. A group of related 
drawings in the 
Nationalmuseum, Stockliolm, 
shows a woman seated 
frontally holding a sphere and 
staff. See ibid., 179-80, 
nos. 572-78, 2:pl.i84. 



153 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



59 



Enea Vico 

Lucretia 



After Parmigianino 

Engraving 

ii'A X 8Vs in. (29.2 X 20.7 cm), lower margin trimmed 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: E.V./FRAN. PAR./ 

INVENTOR 

Below: Mentre che .../... no fu 

difetto. 

References 

Bartsch, 15:289, no. 17 

Literature 

Copertini, 2:57^ Freedberg, 238; 
Oberhuber, Parmigianino, 34, 
no. 70; Schab, 52, no. 41 




.CtltK' 

jranao 



C6C m'ap'fwo, tTffl/FoTrtto; f K para to jhirki tc^bnonm a D>o ,- 

nao fito ai cdoQ ^ngwfi/ 'Rjo ,- 2mL Gi fai^c li Alum'^as inmc no^'fu 



(wfrto.X -1 



154 



Fig. 593 

Parmigianino 

Lucretia 

Watercolors in brown, black, 

green, yellow, orange, salmon, 

and red, heightened with white, 

over black chalk 

11% X 8'/4 in. I29.8 X 20.9 cm) 

National Gallery of Art, 

Washington, D.C. 

Gift of Mrs. Alice Kaplan 




According to Vasari, Parmigianino's last 
painting was a depiction of Lucretia.' Several 
renditions of the subject by Parmigianino 
have been proposed as clues to the lost paint- 
ing's composition,- including a highly fin- 
ished multicolored drawing in the National 
Gallery of Art on which Vico's engraving is 
based (fig. 59a). The attribution of this sketch 
has vacillated between Parmigianino and 
Girolamo Mazzola-Bedoli.^ DeGrazia, how- 
ever, has made a forceful argument for accept- 
ing it as the subject of Vasari's description. 
The morphology of the languid and sensuous 
figure of Lucretia indicates a work from late 
in the artist's career, because of its obvious 
similarity to Parmigianino's painting Ma- 
donna dal CoUo Lungo, commissioned in 
1534 and left unfinished at his death in 1 540.-' 

Vico might have intended Lucretia as a 
pendant to his engraving Mais and Venus 
(cat. no. 60). The vertical orientation and 
dimensions of the engravings are similar. 
Each print has for a legend a poem of four 
lines, printed in identical cursive script and 
framed in the same fashion. The subjects, 
however, are not complementary, as one 
(Lucretia) celebrates the Roman political vir- 
tues, while the other (Mars and Venus) al- 
ludes to the power of love and peace over 
strife and war. 

Lucretia was a Roman matron of great 
virtue from the sixth century B.C. who 
became a significant symbol of republican- 
ism. She was raped by Sextus Tarquinius, one 
of the sons of Tarquinius Superbus, king of 
Rome. After receiving a vow of vengeance 
from her father and husband, Lucretia killed 
herself. Her family then drove the ruling 
Tarquins from Rome, and the Roman Repub- 
lic was established in 509 B.C. 



Notes 

t. Vasari, 5:233. 

2. See Freedberg, 238-39. 

3. For a summary of opinions on 
the sheet's attribution, see 
DeGrazia, 178, no. 55. 

4. Freedberg, 186-87, fig- 80. 



155 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



6o 



Enea Vico 

Mars and Venus 



After Giovanni Battista Scultori 

Engraving 

1 1 'Vie X S'/s in. (30.3 X 20.7 cm) 



Insciiptions 

Upper left: M..V. 

Below: Qui tra Venere . . . / 

. . . Cesare in Tesaglia 

References 

Bartsch, 15:292, no. 21 i/iij 
Le Blanc, 4:117, no. 21 i/ii 

Literature 

Albricci, "Le incisioni," 37, 
under no. 13; Passavant, 6:122, 
under no. 21; Schab, 78, no. 64 




Tow triT "l^^&c^cACart'cfa'Datta^fnij 







If •fHf flUI 



( tjHfr m yo(^»' 



■3- 



156 







'^# 






:'i -y 




Fig. 6oa 

Giovanni Battista Scultori 

Mars and Venus 

Pen and brown ink 

Ii''/i6 X 8"/i6 in. (30 X 22 cm) 

Staatliche Graphische 

Sammlung, Munich 

Fig. 60b 

Giorgio Ghisi 

Venus and Vulcan 

Seated on a Bed 

Engraving 

ii'/t X 8^16 in. (28.7 X 20.8 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 



In his description of Vico's Mars and Venus, 
Bartsch did not note that it is a copy of an 
engraving dated 1539 by Giovanni Battista 
Scultori, ahhough this fact is found in his 
description of Scultori's print.' This omis- 
sion of cross-referencing has led to some 
confusion about the composition's design. 
Bartsch stated that the engraving was be- 
lieved to be after Parmigianino, but his au- 
thorship is now generally discounted. On the 
basis of John Gere's attribution of a related 
drawing in Munich (fig. 60a), Harprath sug- 
gested Ippolito Andreasi as the inventor.^ 
This opinion was followed by Schab. 
Harprath compared the drawing only with 
Vico's engraving, apparently unaware of the 
earlier version by Scultori, which was ex- 
ecuted nine years before Andreasi 's birth in 
about 1548. Harprath has since realized this 
discrepancy and subsequently attributed the 
sheet in Munich to Scultori himself.^ Some 
aspects of the composition corroborate this 
attribution. Bartsch noted a degree of hard- 
ness in the drawing of the figures, a quality 
also found in Giorgio Ghisi's engraving The 
Fall of Troy and the Escape of Aeneas after 
Scultori (cat. no. 27). The dense overall pat- 
terning of the surface of Mais and Venus, 
with its rich and somewhat overwrought 
accumulation of detail, is comparable with 
Scultori's design of Ghisi's print. 



Mars and Venus recalls the work of 
other artists, and this only confirms the 
eclectic nature of Scultori's artistic personal- 
ity. One significant source of inspiration was 
Perino del Vaga, who probably provided the 
design for Ghisi's compositionally similar 
engraving Venus and Vulcan Seated on a Bed 
(fig. 60b).'' The figural proportions of Mars 
and Venus, with their small heads and tiny, 
graceful feet, are encountered frequently in 
Perino's oeuvre, such as his design for Ghisi's 
engraving. 5 The connection with Perino 
seems more apt than one with Giulio 
Romano, with whose works Mais and Venus 
has also been compared.^ The drawing in Mu- 
nich, however, is clearly not by Perino or 
Giulio. As Harprath observed, this sketch dif- 
fers in several details from Vico's and 
Scultori's engravings, so that its being a copy 
of the print can be ruled out. It may also be 
observed that Pierre Crozat owned a drawing 
attributed to Giovanni Francesco Penni by 
Mariette, who noted that it was engraved by 
Scultori.' But because this sketch has not 
been located, it is not possible to ascertain its 
relation to either this Mais and Venus or to 
another depiction, smaller and slightly dif- 
ferent in composition, by Scultori.* 

Mais and Venus might have been 
intended as a pendant to Vico's Lucietia (for 
discussion, see cat. no. 59). 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 15:381, no. 13. 

2. Harprath, 13, no. 13. 

3. Letter to the author, 29 August 
1986. 

4. Bartsch, 15:399, no. 35. 
Massari [Incisoh, 130, no. 190) 
noted the possible relationship 
between Scultori's and Ghisi's 
prints. 

5 . The elegantly clad figure of 
Mars is also reminiscent of a 
drawing of a soldier by Perino in 
the Uffizi. See Bernice P. 
Davidson, Disegni di Perino del 
Vaga e la sua cerchia (Florence: 
Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe 
degli Uffizi, 1966), 60, no. 60, fig. 

6. For example, the print has been 
compared by Albricci with 
Giulio's painting Two Lovers on a 
Bed in the Hermitage. 

7. Pierre-Jean Mariette, 
Description sommaire des 
dessins . . . du cabinet de feu M. 
Crozat (1741; reprint ed., 
Geneva: Minkoff, 1973), 16, no. 
154- 

8. Bartsch, 15:379, no. 7. 



157 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



/C J Enea Vico 

The Forge of Vulcan 

After Francesco Primaticcio 

Engraving 

12^16 X i6% in. (31 X 41.6 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower right: Aeneas vie. 

PARMEN. 

References 

Bartsch, 15:297, no. 31; Le Blanc, 
4:118, no. 31 



Literature 

Ferrara and Gaeta Bertela, no. 
504; Herbet, 120, under no. 6; 
Mariette, 6:63; Schab, 61, no. 50 



158 



Fig. 6ia 

Francesco Primaticcio 

(Italy, 1 504- 1 570) 

The Forge of Vulcan 

Red chalk and wash, contours 

redrawn with pen and black ink 

12'/) X 16% in. (31.2 X 41.6 cm| 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 







: V -J 



&: 



Vasari rightly described Vico's The Forge of 
Vulcan as a very beauriful print but errone- 
ously attributed its design to Rosso 
Fiorentino.' Bartsch correctly recognized 
Primaticcio as the inventor, whose now-lost 
painting of 1541-45 hung over the mantle in 
the Cabinet du Roi at Fontainebleau.^ Two 
other engraved versions of the composition 
are known: one by Francois Gentil, another 
by an anonymous engraver of the school of 
Fontainebleau.^ The three prints are near- 
ly identical in size and composition to 
Primaticcio's preparatory drawing in the 
Louvre (fig. 61a).'' The only notable difference 
in Vico's version is the view at the right to a 
verdant landscape. In Primaticcio's drawing 
and the school of Fontainebleau engravings 
there is a view of a rocky and precipitous 
mountain. Vico probably made his copy from 
one of the French prints rather than from the 
drawing itself. His engraving is in the same 
direction as the sketch but in reverse of the 
other prints. 

In a variant of this composition etched 
by Leon Davent, a group of muscular male 
nudes is similarly arranged in a circle against 
an architectural backdrop with an arched 
niche. ^ Zerner attributed the invention of 
that print to Luca Penni, but given the 
similarities in composition and Davent's 
penchant for the works of Primaticcio, it may 
be more plausible to consider it a free variant 
of Primaticcio's lost painting. 



Notes 

1. Vasari, 5:427. 

2. Dimier, 263. 

3 . Herbet, 1 1 9, no. 6; and Bartsch, 
16:403, no. 71. 

4. Roseline Bacou and Sylvia 
Beguin in L'Ecole de 
Fontainebleau (Paris: Grand 
Palais, r972), r4r, no. 150. 

A drawing of this subject in the 
Statens Museum for Kunst, 
Copenhagen, has been attributed 
to Primaticcio, but is now 
recognized as a work by Maarten 
van Heemskerck. See Veldman, 
28, fig. ro. 

5. Zerner, School, no. LD 67. 



159 



ITALIAN PRINTS 



FRENCH PRINTS 



Domenico del Barbiere 
Jacques Bellange 
Rene Boyvin 
Leon Davent 
Edenne Delaune 
Antonio Fantuzzi 



Frangois Gentil 
Juste de Juste 
Master 19 V 
Jean Mignon 
Piene Milan 
Pierre Woeiriot 
Domenico Zenoni 



i6i 



^2, Domenico del Barbiere 

Amphiaraus 



After Rosso Fiorentino 

Engraving 

ii'Vie X 9'/i6 in. (32.9 X 23 cm| 



Inscriptions 

Upper left: AMPPilARAO 
Lower left: DOMENICO/ 
DELBARBIER 

References 

Bartsch, 16:358, no. 4; Herbet, 
97, no. 4; Lc Blanc, i : 147, 
no. 7; Meyer et al., 2:728, no. 7; 
Zerner, School, no. DB 6 

Literature 

Borea, 278, no. 766; Heinecken, 
2:163; Kusenberg, 159; 
Oberhuber, Renaissance, 151, 
no. 245; Rotili, 91, no. 96; 
Zerner, "Gravures," 276, no. 355 




162 




Fig. 62a 

Rosso Fiorentino 

(Italy, 1494-1540) 

The Education of Achilles 

Fresco 

Galene Francois i, Chateau de 

Fontainebleau 



Heinecken attributed the invention of 
Amphiaraus to Primaticcio. Bartsch cited 
Rosso Fiorentino as the designer, an attribu- 
tion followed by most subsequent authors. 
Zerner stated that the composition may be 
Barbiere's own invention because of few 
similarities to Rosso's art and even fewer to 
Primaticcio's. However, parallels to the 
dynamic and energetic figure of Amphiaraus 
are found in Rosso's frescoes in the Galerie 
Francois i at Fontainebleau, such as the male 
nude figures flanking The Education of 
Hercules (fig. 62a.]. The balanced torsion of 
the nude seated in the background of the 
engraving is comparable with a similar figure 
in the foreground of Rosso's The Conquest of 
Ignorance (cat. no. ioo|. Bartsch's traditional 
attribution, consequently, is acceptable. 



The magician Amphiaraus was one of 
the Seven against Thebes, the group that bat- 
tled against Eteocles in order to restore the 
rightful lands to the sons of Oedipus. As 
prophesized by Amphiaraus, the mission was 
doomed to fail. Amphiaraus survived the at- 
tack, but during his escape he, his chariot, 
and its driver were swallowed by the earth. 



163 



FRENCH PRINTS 



63 



Domenico del Barbiere 

The Banquet of Alexander the Great 



After Francesco Primaticcio 

Engraving 

9% X 14% in. (24.8 X 37.2 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: DOMENICO/ 

FIORENTINO 

Loweiiight: A.FONTANA.BELO 

BOL 

References 

Bartsch, 16:359, no. 6; Herbet, 
98, no. 6 ii/ii; Le Blanc, i : 147, no. 
12; Meyer et al., 2:728, no. 9; 
Zerner, School, no. DB 7 



Literature 

Davis, 42; Dimier, 494, no. 56; 
Mariette, 4:214; Oberhuber, 
Renaissance, 151, no. 246; 
Petrucci, pi. 44; Schab, 80, no. 
6s ; Zerner, "Gravures," 279, 
no. 336 



164 



Fig. 63a 

Francesco Primaticcio 

(Italy, 1504-1570) 

The Banquet of Alexander 

the Great 

Pen and brown ink 

io'/«x 10% in. (25.7 X 27.4 cm) 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Pans 








■kz^M 



1 i^t:i. 



•. c^ 



■^:: o#^ 



The Banquet of Alexander the Great repro- 
duces faithfully, in reverse, Primaticcio's 
now-lost painting of 1541-45 in the 
Chambre de Madame d'Etampes, also called 
the Chambre d'Alexandre, at Fontainebleau. 
Primaticcio's preparatory drawing for the 
composition is in the Louvre (fig. 63a).' 
McAllister Johnson has compared the archi- 
tectural details of Primaticcio's invention 
with Giulio Romano's tapestry design The 
Banquet of Scipio.- In all other respects 
Primaticcio's design owes very little to 
Giulio. The spare geometry of Primaticcio's 
setting, with the figures placed in a U-shaped 
arrangement of elegantly mannered poses, 
contrasts conspicuously with the meticu- 
lously detailed surfaces of Giulio's composi- 
tion. The elaborately overwrought articula- 
tion of Giulio's design is typical of Mantuan 
taste, and such a characterization hardly 
applies to Barbiere's engraving. Instead the 
engraving probably is a reflection of 
Primaticcio's absorption, during his Italian 
journey of 1539-40, of the Roman styles of 
Raphael and Parmigianino, exemplified by 
the calmly balanced compositions of Rapha- 
el's frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura in 
the Vatican. Herbet described a first state 
before the inscription. Zerner, however, was 
unable to locate an impression of it. 

Primaticcio's composition illustrates 
the scene of Alexander the Great's celebra- 
tion in Persepolis of his victory over the Per- 
sian army. 



Notes 

1. Dimier, 434, no. 57. 

2. W. McAllister (ohnson, 
"Primaticcio Revisited: Aspects 
of Draftsmanship in the School 
of Fontainebleau," Art Quarterly 
29 (1966]: 255. Giulio's 
preliminary study for the 
tapestry is in the Musee Conde, 
Chantilly (Hartt, 2:fig. 482), and 
the composition was also etched 
in I S43 by Antonio Fantuzzi 
(Zerner, School, no. AF 57). 



165 



FRENCH PRINTS 



64 



Domenico del Barbiere 

Ecorches and Skeletons 



After Rosso Fiorentino 

Engraving 

gVi6 X i3'/4 in. (23.7 x 33.7 cm), left margin trimmed 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: DOMENICO./ 
FIORENTINO. 

References 

Bartsch, 16:359, no. 8; Herbet, 
98, no. 8; Le Blanc, 1:147, no. 9; 
Meyer et al., 2:728, no. ii; 
Zerner, School, no. DB 10 



Liteiatuie 

Borea, 280, no. 768; Davis, 43; 
Kusenberg, 106, 159^ Zerner, 
"Gravures," 279, no. 339 



166 



Vasari mentioned a publication on anatomy 
planned by Rosso.' If ever executed, the book 
is lost. Ecorches and Skeletons, suggested by 
Kusenberg as a reflection of this project, is 
not the only instance of the appearance of 
such figures in Rosso's art. Other examples 
include Gian Giacomo Caraglio's Frenzy (cat. 
no. 17) and Marco Dente's The Skeletons (cat. 
no. 22). Like those compositions Barbiere's 
engraving may contain a message with the 
moralizing overtones of a memento moii. 
Zerner suggested that the crown of laurel 
worn by one of the flayed figures and the still 
life of trophies and overturned vases allude to 
the vanity of human achievements. The 
compositional division into two parts and the 
juxtaposition of figures facing front and back 
may have moral as well as pedagogical im- 
plications. It has also been suggested that 
Rosso's alternation of flayed and skeletal fig- 
ures may reflect the illustrations with a simi- 
lar format in a 1543 edition of Andreas 
Veselius's De humani corporis fabrica, libri 
septem? 



Notes 

I . Vasari, 5:171. 

1. Veldman, 118— 19, fig. 69. 



167 



FRENCH PRINTS 



65 



School of Domenico del Barbiere 

Ten Nude Men in a Landscape 



After Luca Penni 

Engraving 

iiVsx 17% in. (30.2 X44.1 cm) 




References 

Herbet, 99, no. 13; Meyer et al., 
2:728, no. 12 

Literature 

Zerner, School. Barbiere intro. 



168 




Fig. 65a 

Jean Mignon 

Combat of Nude Men 

Etching 

ii"/i6 X 17% in. (29.7 X 44.8 cm) 

Graphische Sammlung 

Albertina, Vienna 



The subject of this curious composition has 
always been considered to be simply ten nude 
men in a landscape. The title suggests a 
purely academic exercise of showing the 
nude figure in motion. Ten Nude Men in a 
Landscape, however, appears to depict a spe- 
cific and possibly identifiable narrative. Some 
act of violence is evidently occurring; the 
man holding a dagger is being restrained, 
after presumably attacking the two injured 
men (right of center). The nudity of the fig- 
ures has two possible explanations. First, the 
engraving might have been based on a 
preliminary drawing, rather than on a fin- 
ished composition, because Renaissance art- 
ists often sketched from nude models placed 
in a tableau vivant of the intended design. 
Second, the nudity might have been chosen 
to provide an atmosphere appropriate for a 
scene from antiquity. The most notable pro- 
totype for Barbiere's engraving is Antonio 
Pollaiuolo's engraving The Battle of the 
Nudes, the subject of which has also 



remained conjectural.' Suggestions for the 
narrative of Pollaiuolo's print have ranged 
from a subjectless exercise of showing the 
nude figure in action to a scene from Roman 
history, a depiction of the legend of the 
Golden Fleece, or a gladiatorial combat per- 
haps connected with events in Florentine 
political history. Barbiere's engraving has yet 
to attract such speculation on its subject. 

According to Herbet, this engraving is 
listed at the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, as 
being based on Rosso's design. It is suggested 
here that Barbiere's source might have been a 
composition by Luca Penni. Other represen- 
tations from the school of Fontainebleau of 
nudes in battle include Jean Mignon's etch- 
ing Combat of Nude Men after Penni (fig. 
65a) and a related drawing by Penni in the 
Louvre.^ The relieflike character of these 
compositions, seen as well in Barbiere's 
engraving, indicates that the initial visual 
source of these representations was an 
antique sarcophagus. 



Notes 

1. For a summary of different 
opmions, see Laurie S. Fusco's 
discussion m Levenson, 
Oberhuber, and Sheehan, 66-71, 
no. 13 

2. Zerner, School, no. JM 33; and 
Golson, fig. 3. 



169 



FRENCH PRINTS 



{\(\ Jacques Bellange 

The Martyrdom of Saint Lucy 

Etching and engraving 

iSVie X is'/g in. (46.5 X 35.2 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Loweileft: Bellange 

References 

Le Blanc, 1:260, no. 20; Robert- 
Dumesnil, 5:89, no. 15, 11:10, 
no. 1 5 ; Reed and Worthen, 5 3, no. 
29; Walch, 174, no. 16 

Literature 

Hemecken, 2:424; Oberhuber, 
Zwischen, 253, no. 377 




170 



Probably Bellange's first large multifigured 
etching, The Martyrdom of Saint Lucy is also 
one of his most electric compositions, with 
three dozen actors swirling around the figure 
of the martyred saint. Bellange's manipula- 
tion of the biting and inking of the copper 
plate was probably inspired by Federico 
Barocci's small graphic oeuvre, such as his 
great etchings The Annunciation and II 
Perdono. ' Bellange's use of stippling for mod- 
eling forms also probably derived from 
Barocci. Because she is delineated with 
lightly etched lines. Saint Lucy is a radiant 
ethereal presence in the pagan crowd, a 
personification of her name, meaning light; 
her attribute of the lamp is held by the statue 
of Diana at the left. Stippling softens the out- 
lines of the figures, and some of the partici- 
pants, such as the woman standing at low- 
er left, seem to radiate with an inner glow. 



Other Italianate features in Bellange's 
composition have been identified. The place- 
ment of the figures in a monumental archi- 
tectural setting has been compared with 
Veronese's painting The Martyrdom of Saint 
fustina, 1575, possibly known to Bellange 
through Agostino Carracci's engraved copy of 
1 5 82.^ The arrangement of the figures within 
Bellange's engraving, however, is not particu- 
larly Venetian, and Walch has compared it 
with Taddeo Zuccaro's Ecce Homo, engraved 
in 1590 by Anton Eisenhoit,^ in which the 
viewer's eye is led into the composition by a 
line of spectators cut off by the lower edge of 
the picture. This device is also seen in Nicolo 
Vicentino's chiaroscuro woodcut The Pre- 
sentation in the Temple after Parmigianino 
(cat. no. 55). 

Lucy of Syracuse was identified as a 
Christian when she gave away her wealth as a 
gesture of gratitude for her mother's cure, an 
act of benevolence that irritated Lucy's 
fiance. When she refused to worship pagan 
idols, such as the statue of Diana, Lucy was 
stabbed in the throat. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 17:2, no. i; and ibid., 
4, no. 4. 

2. Oberhuber, Zwischen, 253. 

3. Walch, 174. 



171 



FRENCH PRINTS 



67 



Jacques Bellange 

Melchior 



Etching 

ii'/ix 6"/i6in. (29.2 X 17 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: leBlond excud 
Lower right: Bellan 

References 

Le Blanc, 1:259, no. 2-4; Reed 
and Worthen, 59, no. 35 ii/ii; 
Robert-Dumesnil, 5:93, no. 35, 
ii:ii, no. 35 ii/ii; Walch, 196, 
no. 18 ii/ii 

Literature 

' Heinecken, 2:423 




172 



Fig. 67a 

lacques Bcllange 

Balthasar 

Etching 

ii'/4 X 6'/< in. (18.7 X 16.6 cm| 

The Metropohtan Museum of 

Art, New York 

The Elisha Wittelsey Collection, 

The Elisha Wittelsey Fund, 1981 

Fig. 67b 

[acques Bellange 

Caspar 

Etching 

ii'/sx 6'/2 in. (28.3 X 16.6 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 





Bellange 's etching is an unusual depiction of 
Melchior, one of the three wise men from the 
East who appeared in Bethlehem after the 
birth of Jesus, in that he is shown alone. The 
trio is traditionally shown together in depic- 
tions of the Adoration of the Magi. Melchior 
is from a group of three etchings by Bellange 
of the wise men, the other two identified as 
Balthasar and Caspar (figs. 67a and 67b). The 
biblical narrative of the subject does not 
specify the three men as distinct individuals, 
but they assumed names and places of origin 
during the Middle Ages. When Matthaeus 
Merien copied Bellange 's figures about 16 15, 
he provided identifying captions that were 
challenged by Walch and others on the basis 
of pairing Bellange's images with the tradi- 
tional descriptions of Balthasar as the 
Moorish king, Caspar as the old king, and 
Melchior as the young king.' Apart from this 
ostensible iconography, Bellange's etchings 
are in the genre of costume studies of exotic 
types, such as depictions of Turks and ori- 
entals (for example, Christoffel van Sichem 
I's Young Man with a Turban [cat. no. 148)). 
This characterization is especially true of 
Melchior, in which the face cannot be seen. 
The viewer is invited to concentrate instead 
on the expressive silhouette, the elaborate 
headwear, the textures of the materials, and 
the piquant contrast of the figure's volumi- 
nous cloak and his tiny feet. 

The first state of Melchior does not 
have Le Blond's address as the publisher. 



Notes 

I. For Merien's copies, where 
Melchior is called Balthasar, see 
Reed and Worthen, 59-60, nos. 
36-37. The present work, in fact, 
was not copied by Merien but 
replaced by another of Bellange's 
images of a wise man seen from 
the back, extracted from his large 
etching The Adoration of the 
Magi. 



173 



FRENCH PRINTS 



^C ReneBoyvin 

Susanna and the Elders 

After Luca Penni 

Engraving 

iiVax 8'yi6 in. (29.5 X 22.7 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: B 

References 

Le Blanc, 1:506, no. 2 i/ii; 
Levron, no. 2 i/ii; Nagler, 
KuTistlei-Lexikon. 12:223; 
Robert-Dumesnil, 8:19, 
no. 3 i/ii 

Literature 

Albncci, "Luca Penni," 86, no. 3; 
Heinecken, 3:107; Kusenberg, 
169; Linzeler, 166; Mariette, 
5:17-18; Schab, 81, no. 66 




174 




Fig. 68a 

Jean Mignon 

The Death of Cleopatra 

Etching 

i6% X i2'/i6 in. (42.5 X 30.6 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Mariette, Le Blanc, and Robert-Dumesnil 
claimed Rosso Fiorentino as the inventor of 
Susanna and the Elders. Kusenberg disputed 
Rosso's authorship and noted the inscription 
in the second state with Giulio Romano's 
name as the designer. Most authors have sub- 
sequently championed either Rosso or 
Giulio. An exception was Nagler who sug- 
gested Penni as the inventor. His attribution 
was based on a passage in which Vasari, with- 
out naming the printmaker, mentioned that a 
design by Penni depicting Susanna and the 
elders was engraved.' Boyvin's engraving is 
the only print fitting Vasari's description. 
With the exaggerated lustful intensity of the 
old men's expressions, the traditional at- 
tribution to Rosso is understandable. Al- 
though Boyvin's engravings were frequently 
based on Rosso's designs, the somewhat 
bland countenance of Susanna and the three- 
dimensional solidity of her figure are typical 
of Penni. The expression and figural type of 
Susanna are comparable with Jean Mignon's 



etching The Death of Cleopatra (fig. 68a), 
generally considered to be based on Penni 's 
design. - 

The composition also appears on a 
painted enamel plaque of about 1570-80 by 
Pierre Courteys in the Walters Art Gallery, 
Baltimore,' as well as a plate by Pierre 
Reymond in the Louvre. 

The story of Susanna, told m the Apoc- 
ryphal book of Daniel and Susanna 1.1-23, 
has been popular with artists since the Re- 
naissance because of the opportunity to 
depict a voluptuous female nude. Susanna 
was a Hebrew woman in Babylon. The elders 
of the Hebrew community met at her hus- 
band's house. After one of these meetings, 
two elders hid in the garden in order to ogle 
Susanna at her bath. They told her she must 
submit to them, and if she refused, they 
would tell others that she had had a clandes- 
tine meeting with her lover. Susanna was 
eventually exonerated and the elders 
punished. 



Notes 

1. Vasari, 5:434. 

2. Zerner, School, no. JM 31. 

3. Verdier, 280, no. 153. 



175 



FRENCH PRINTS 



69 



Leon Davent 

Young Woman in Antique Dress with Two Children 



After Parmigianino 

Engraving 

6% X 4% in. (i6.8 x 12. i cm) 



Inscriptions 

Upper left: MK/LD 
Lower center: 1540 

References 

Bartsch, 16:328, no. 58: Herbet, 
36, no. 87; Le Blanc, 4:30, no. 53; 
Zerner, School, no. LD 3 

Literature 

Adhemar, 294; Copertini, 2:60; 
Heinecken, 4:536; Massari, 
Bonasone, 1:40-41, under no. 13 




176 




Fig. 69a 

Giulio Bonasone 

A Seated Woman and 

Two Children 

Engraving 

5% X 4'/4 in. (14.6 X 10.8 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



The inscription on Young Woman in Antique 
Dress with Two Children has led to consider- 
able disagreement over the identity of the 
design's inventor. The letters have been inter- 
preted as "IVR," "MAR," and "MR." Despite 
recent suggestions of Giulio Romano as the 
inventor if the inscription is read as "IVR" 
(Ivlio, or Giulio, Romano), Heinecken's and 
Bartsch's attribution of the design to 
Parmigianino is unquestionably correct. The 
composition and figural types are so typical 
of Parmigianino 's manner it is difficult to 
imagine how the attribution v/as ever ques- 
tioned. Davent's engraving probably does not 
derive from Parmigianino's original drawing, 
known through an old copy in the British 
Museum,' but through the intermediary 
source of an engraving of the composition 
(fig. 69a), once considered school of 
Marcantonio Raimondi and now attributed 
to Giulio Bonasone.- It is to this engraving 
that the inscription may refer, rather than to 
Giulio Romano. It is suggested here that the 
inscription may be interpreted as signifying 
Marcantonio Raimondi or Marco da Ravenna 



(as Marco Dente was also known) if it is read 
as "MAR" or "MR." 

Popham identified Parmigianino's 
design as representing the Virgin with the in- 
fants Christ and Saint John the Baptist, 
whereas Bartsch titled both Bonasone's and 
Davent's engravings more prosaically as a 
seated young woman with two children. The 
prints differ from the British Museum draw- 
ing, and presumably from Parmigianino's 
original sketch as well, in several details. In 
the engravings the woman's arm is out- 
stretched in a pointing gesture rather than 
resting on a ledge, her drapery covers her 
head, and her right hand is cupped rather than 
resting on the seat. In the drawing the two 
children are more entwined than they are in 
the prints. Davent's engraving differs in other 
ways from its models: the composition is 
extended vertically, the two children are 
seated on pillows placed on a draped table 
rather than on a plain ledge, the curtain 
behind them is more elaborately detailed and 
knotted, and the rear wall is pierced by a win- 
dow through which can be seen a distant 
landscape with pyramids. 



Notes 

1. Popham, 1:234, no. 3. 

2. Catalogued by Bartsch (15:47, 
no. 3) as school of Marcantonio 
in the manner of Marco Dente. 
The attribution to Bonasone is 
accepted by Pittaluga (177], 
Oberhuber [Parmigianino, 32, 
no. 66), and Massari. 



177 



FRENCH PRINTS 



70 



Leon Davent 

The Abduction of Eur op a 



After Francesco Primaticcio 

Etching 

gViex 8% in. (23.7 X21.3 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: Bologna LD 

References 

Bartsch, 16:317, no. 29; Herbet, 
28, no. 18; Le Blanc, 4:29, no. 24; 
Zerner, School, no. LD 43 

Literature 

Adhemar, 288; Dimier, 489, no. 
15; Heinecken, 4:533; Mariette, 
4:219; Schab, 89, no. 74; Zerner, 
"Gravures," 301, no. 378 




178 



Fig. 70a 

Francesco Primaticcio 
(Italy, 1504-1570) 
The Abduction of EuTopa 
Pen and brown ink, 
heightened with white 
9 '/16 X 8 '/4 in. ( 2 3 X 2 1 cm) 
Cabinet des Dessins, 
Musee du Louvre, Paris 
































Primaticcio's now-lost painting The Abduc- 
tion of Europa was not part of the decoration 
at Fontainebleau but was probably painted 
there about 1541-44. A study, in reverse, in 
the Louvre for the attendant at the center is 
on the same sheet as a drawing for a painting 
of 1541-44 in the vestibule of the Porte 
Doree at Fontainebleau.' Primaticcio's study 
for the whole composition, formerly in 
Mariette's collection, is also in the Louvre 
(fig. 70a). 2 

The composition is rather puzzling. Eu- 
ropa is depicted mounting the bull in the 
foreground. Behind them are the hind- 
quarters of another animal. The presence of 
this second animal is inexplicable, both 
compositionally and iconographically. Eu- 
ropa was a Phoenician princess who was 
abducted by Zeus in the form of a bull. She 
was carried across the ocean to Crete where, 
impregnated by Zeus, she gave birth to Mi- 
nos, the legendary king of Crete. At no place 
in this story, as told by Ovid [Metamorphoses 
^■835-77), is there a second animal. 



Notes 

1. Dimier, 441, no. 100. 

2. Ibid., 445, no. 120. 



179 



FRENCH PRINTS 



71 



Leon Davent 

Camillus Arriving at the Moment the Romans 
Atone for Their Pillage 



After Luca Penni 
Etching 

ii'/sx 15% in. (28.3 X 39 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: L.D 

References 

Bartsch, 16:314, no. 13; Herbet, 
30, no. 42; Le Blanc, 4:29, no. 13; 
Zerner, School, no. LD 75 

Literature 

Adhemai, 289 



180 



Davent's etchings are associated most closely 
with Francesco Primaticcio. Bartsch, how- 
ever, attributed the invention of Camillus 
Aniving at the Moment the Romans Atone 
for Theii Pillage to a follower of Primaticcio, 
and Dimier did not include it among the 
prints after Primaticcio's paintings and 
designs. Zerner suggested Penni as the in- 
ventor, an attribution worth serious consider- 
ation. The proportions of the figures are un- 
worthy of Primaticcio's customary suavity 
and grace. Their spindly elongation is espe- 
cially apparent in the form of the soldier 
standing at the center holding a sword. The 
anatomy seems rubbery and boneless, similar 
to Peimi's figures in Jean Mignon's etching 
The Judgment of Paris (cat. no. 92). The pro- 
saic character of the present composition's 
interpretation of classicism and grace is com- 
pletely typical of Penni. As a somewhat 
debased example of High Maniera, Davent's 
etching also lacks the material opulence of 
one of the landmarks of High Maniera, the 
compositionally similar and contemporary 
fresco The Victory of Camillus over the 
Gauls by Francesco Salviati in the Sala 
dell'Udienza in the Palazzo Vecchio, 
Florence.' 

Marcus Furius Camillus was honored 
by the Romans with the accolade "the second 
founder of Rome." He was created dictator, 
one of five times he held the post, when the 
city was besieged by the invading Gauls in 
the early fourth century B.C. He rebuilt the 
city and defeated many of Rome's Latin 
neighbors as well as repulsing a second Gallic 
attack in 367 B.C. Perhaps the most familiar 
subject from his life involves the schoolchil- 
dren of Falereii, the best-known treatment 
being Nicolas Poussin's painting Camillus 
and the Schoolmaster of Falereii, 1637, in the 
Louvre. 



Notes 

I. Hermann Voss, Die Malerei 
dei Spdtienaissance in Rom und 
Florenz (Berlin: G. Grote'sche 
Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1920), 
r:fig. 81. 



181 



FRENCH PRINTS 



72 



Leon Davent 

Fishing Scene 

After Francesco Primaticcio 

Etching 

ii'/i6 X 13716 in. (29.4 X 34.1 cm), signature and date (1547] trimmed 




References 

Bartsch, 16:331, no. 65; Herbet, 
33, no. 64; Le Blanc, 4:30, no. 60; 
Zerner, School, no. LD 79 



Literature 

Davis, 49; Golson, 30; 
Heinecken, 4:535; Zerner, 
"Gravures," 307, no. 388 



Fig. 72a 

Leon Davent 

Adonis and His Companions 

Pursuing the Calydonian Boar 

Etching 

ii'/j X is'/i in. I31.2 X 39.5 cm) 

The Trustees of the Bntish 

Museum, London 

Fig. 72b 

Leon Davent 

Diana and Her Nymphs 

Hunting a Stag 

Etching 

125/8 X 15V16 in. (32 X 39 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 





Fishing Scene is from a series of three etch- 
ings by Davent with similar oval formats, 
dimensions, and dates. The other two are 
Adonis and His Companions Pursuing the 
Calydonian Boai and Diana and Her 
Nymphs Hunting a Stag (figs. 72a and 72b).' 
It is reasonable to expect that the present 
work also has a mythological subject, but it 
has not been identified. 

The attribution of the composition's 
inventor has vacillated between Primaticcio 
and Luca Penni. Zerner's and Beguin's ar- 
guments in favor of Primaticcio are convinc- 
ing. They cite the spatial arrangement of the 
figures and the method of linking them. 
These characteristics, as well as the 
physiognomies, are comparable with prints 
after Primaticcio, such as Domenico del 
Barbiere's The Banquet of Alexander the 
Great (cat. no. 63), Frangois Gentil's 
Wounded Paris Carried off the Field of Battle 
(cat. no. 81), and Master I$V's Rebecca and 
EUezer at the Well (cat. no. 85). 

Herbet and Golson attributed this 
design, as well as that of its two companion 
etchings, to Penni, strongly influenced by 
Giulio Romano, particularly Giulio's designs 
for medallion frescoes in the Sala dei Venti in 
the Palazzo del Te, Mantua, such as Asses 
under Ray from Neptune and The Arrow.- 
Primaticcio, however, also studied with 
Giulio, and the arguments favoring the 
former's invention of the etched composi- 
tions are more convincing. 



Notes 

1. Zerner, School, nos. LD 77-78. 

2. Hartt, 2:figs. 200 and 203. 



183 



FRENCH PRINTS 



73-/8 



Etienne Delaune 

The History of Apollo and Diana 



After Luca Penni (?) 
Series of six etchings 



73 Latona Transforms the Lycians into Frogs 



3y4X4'/4Ui. (8.3 X 10.8 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: S F; CVM PRI REGIS 
Below: Latonam Lycivs . . . / 

. . . INCOLA POENAS 

References 

Le Blanc, 2:504, no. 86; Robert- 
Dumesnil, 9:47, no. 133 i/ii 

Literature 

Albricci, "Luca Penni," 107, 
no. 37; Linzeler, 242, no. 134 




l^ioNAM Lycivs. ovm j t ."^ cm i s a.rcex ^^^^„^,r-^K^ 

a V V FIT E MFRITAS S T .'V GN I L V IT INCOU.K P tEM.1.S 



74 Apollo Slays Python 



3^16X4 in. (8.1 X 10.2 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: S. F. CVM PRI REGIS 
Below: Fatidici Python . . . / 
. . . Apolliws arcv. 

References 

Le Blanc, 2:504, no. 87; Robert- 
Dumesnil, 9:47, no. 134 i/ii 

Literature 

Albricci, "Luca Penni," 108, 
no. 38; Linzeler, 242, no. 135 







1" A r 



IDICI PVTHON OBSESSOR, FO^'TIS ET ANTI 

iniT- A PVEai COTJFOSSVS A^OLUNli \RC 



184 



75 Diana Invites Orion to the Hunt 



3yi6 X 4V.i in. (8.4 X 10.8 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: STEPHANVS. F. 

CVM PRI REGIS 

Below: In silvas comitem . . . / 

. . . ATTVLLIT ILLI. 

References 

Le Blanc, 2:504, no. 88; Robert- 
DumesniJ, 9:48, no. 133 i/ii 

Literature 

Albricci, "Luca Penni," 109, 
no. 39; Linzeler, 242, no. 136 




76 The Escape of Biitomaitis 



3V4 X 4'/4 in. (8.3 X 10.8 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: CVM PR/REGIS/S F 
Below: Latonam Tityvs . . . / 

. . . CORDA SAGITTA. 

References 

Le Blanc, 2:504, no. 89; Robert- 
Dumesnil, 9:48, no. 136 i/ii 

Literature 

Albricci, "Luca Penni," no, 
no. 40; Linzeler, 243, no. 137 




1^ .'. T 



p CE >.' -^ s c n p -r .\ 



X E >4 1 A H L 
PGP C O P D A 



r T \ 



185 



FRENCH PRINTS 



77 Apollo Slays Orion 



3'/4X 4=716 in. (8.3 x 11 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: S.E; CVM PRI REGIS 
Below: Improbvs orion . . . / 

. . . ACVMINE TELL 

References 

Le Blanc, 2:504, no. 90; Robert- 
Dumesnil, 9:48, no. 137 i/ii 

Literature 

AJbricci, "Luca Penni," in, 
no. 41; Linzeler, 243, no. 138 




t M P R O B V S O R I O W C .\ 5 T A .^\ \- I O L .\ B F- D 1 K Is' .*v vi 

AVSVS. APOLLINEI CA.DIT ICTVS ,»^CVM1NLTE.L1 



78 Diana Mourns the Death of Orion 



3V4X 4yi6 in. (8.3 XII cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: CVM/PRI/REGIS/S.F. 
Below: Venandi socivm . . . / 

. . . LVCTIBVS AVDIT. 

References 

Le Blanc, 2:504, no. 91; Robert- 
Dumesnil, 9:48, no. 138 i/ii 

Literature 

Albricci, "Luca Penni," 112, 
no. 42; Linzeler, 243, no. 139 




Vix lOVIS IN MEDIIS SOLATIA L V C T I B V 5 A \' D n 



l86 




Fig. 77a 

Attributed to Luca Penni 

(Italy, 1500/1504-1556) 

Apollo Slays Orion 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white (oxidized) 

15V4 X 2178 in. (40 X 55.5 cm) 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 



Discussion of Delaune's series of etcfiings is 
entwined with a related group of tapestries 
illustrating the history of Diana commis- 
sioned about 1549— 52 by Henri 11 to decorate 
the chateau of his mistress Diane de Poitiers 
at Anet.' The literature for the two sets has 
advanced on parallel courses, particularly 
regarding the attribution of their invention. 
The design of the etchings generally has been 
given to Penni, whereas different writers have 
attributed the design for the tapestries to 
Philibert de I'Orme, Jean Cousin the Elder, or 
Peimi. Further complicating the issue is the 
presence in different French collections of 
drawings related to the etchings: in the 
Musee des Beaux- Arts, Rennes, for Diana In- 
vites Orion to the Hunt,^ and in the Louvre 
for Apollo Slays Orion (fig. 77a) and Diana 
Mourns the Death of Orion. Whereas Golson 
accepted Dimier's earlier attribution to Penni 
of these studies, it also is possible that the 
drawings are simply copies of Delaune's 
prints, especially in light of their correspon- 
dence in almost every detail and their similar 
orientation. 3 Goldsmith Phillips's attribu- 
tion to Cousin for the designs of the Anet tap- 
estries warrants further study for the attribu- 



tion of Delaune's prints.* Despite Golson's 
conviction of Penni's authorship of the com- 
positions, the images seem to argue other- 
wise because the diminutive stature of the 
figures in relation to their setting is not typi- 
cal of Penni's work, although employed fre- 
quently by Cousin. Goldsmith Phillips com- 
pared these images with the set of tapestries, 
documented as Cousin's inventions, illus- 
trating the life of Saint Mammes. The 
comparison is striking because of the similar- 
ities in proportions, figural types, and man- 
ner of spatial organization. 

The history of Diana and Apollo begins 
with the story of their mother, Latona, who 
took revenge on the Lycian peasants when 
they refused to allow her access to water, 
after her difficult childbirth. In some 
accounts of the myth of Apollo, Diana, and 
the giant hunter Orion, Diana was in love 
with Orion. In others he tried to ravish her, 
and she killed him. Here Apollo kills Orion 
for attacking his sister. She mourns his death 
and pleads with her father, Zeus, to transform 
him into a constellation; Sirius, the hunter's 
faithful hound lying dead beside him, became 
the Dog Star. 



Notes 

1. For the tapestries, see Jean 
Coural and Marie-Helene 
Babelon in L'Ecole de 
Fontainebleau (Paris: Grand 
Palais, 1972), 347-51, nos. 
455-61. 

2. Golson, 31-32, figs. 9-11. 
Also at Rennes is a large drawing 
attributed to Penni, The Hunt of 
Diana, which is not related to 
Delaune's prints. See Francois 
Bergot, Dessins de la collection 
du Marquis de Robien conserves 
au Musee de Rennes (Paris: 
Musee du Louvre, 1972), 28, no. 
14, pi. 4. 

3. The attribution to Penni is 
questioned by Edith A. Standen 
("The Tapestries of Diane de 
Poitiers," in Actes du colloque 
international sur I'art de 
Fontainebleau |Paris; Centre 
National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, 1975], 94) and 
Boorsch (Boorsch, Lewis, and 
Lewis, 93 n. 3). 

4. John Goldsmith Phillips, 
"Diane de Poitiers and Jean 
Cousin," Metropolitan Museum 
of Art Bulletin, n.s., 2 (1943): 
112-16. 



187 



FRENCH PRINTS 



79 



Antonio Fantuzzi 

The Clemency of Scipio 



After Giulio Romano 

Etching 

isVi X 19% in. (39.3 X 49.2 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower right, on fence: IHS 
Imonogram of Master of the 
Name of fesus] 



References 

Bartsch, 15:513, no. 3; Herbet, 
81, no. 58 iii/iii; Zava Boccazzi, 
60, no. I; Zerner, School, 
no. AF I iii/iii 



Literature 

Zerner, "Gravures," 261, no. 306 



Bartsch attributed The Clemency of Scipio to 
the Master of the Name of Jesus. Herbet cor- 
rected this mistake by describing three states 
of the etching. In the first state the plate is 
unfmished. The second is completed with 
the addition of Fantuzzi's initials and the 
date. The inscription is removed in the third 
state, replaced by the monogram of the Mas- 
ter of the Name of Jesus; Bartsch apparently 
knew only an impression of this final state. 
The date on impressions of the second state 
has also been variously read. Herbet inter- 
preted it as 1545, Zava Boccazzi as 1543, and 
Zerner as 1542. Based on Zerner's recon- 
struction of Fantuzzi's oevre, his interpreta- 
tion of the date is probably correct. No draw- 
ing or painting by Giulio for this etching is 
known, but Zerner suggested it reproduces 
an abandoned composition from Giulio's 
series of tapestry designs of about 1532 repre- 
senting the triumph of Scipio.' Although 
Fantuzzi's etching is considerably larger than 
Giulio's surviving modelli for the tapestries, 
it shares with the drawings the horizontal 
format, the scale of the figures in relation to 
the setting, and the massing of a large num- 
ber of figures into a tightly compressed group 
close to the front of the picture plane, in a 
manner resembling an ancient marble relief. 
For the story of the clemency of Scipio, 
see the engraving of this subject attributed to 
Nicolas Beatrizet (cat. no. 8|. 



Notes 

I. For Giulio's designs, see Hartt, 
1:227-31, 2:figs. 474-83. 



189 



FRENCH PRINTS 



Qr\ Antonio Fantuzzi 

The Incineration of a Cadaver 

After Rosso Fiorentino 
Etching 

io'yi6X i6Va in. (27.2 X 41.3 cm) 



— ~^~ — *s^ 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: .AF. 

References 

Bartsch, 16:348, no. 26; Herbet, 
77, no. 4I; Zava Boccazzi, 62, 
no. 20; Zerner, School, no. AF 21 



Literature 

Borea, 261, no. 666; Carroll, 
Rosso, 242, no. 75; Davis, 53; 
Kusenberg, 164; Schab, 85, no. 69 



190 



According to Herbet, Mariette provided the 
attribution of Rosso's invention of this mys- 
terious composition. This traditional attribu- 
tion is more acceptable than Bartsch's 
suggestion of the school of Primaticcio. Al- 
though no comparable subject in drawings or 
paintings by Rosso is known, there are 
similarities to Rosso's paintings in the 
Galerie Francois i at Fontainebleau. The emo- 
tional tenor of The Incineiation of a Cadaver, 
with its figures gesticulating wildly in their 
grief and anguish, is comparable with Rosso's 
painting The Conquest of Ignorance (see the 
engraving by Domenico Zenoni [cat. no. 
loo]).' The corpulent man at the left of the 
flaming pyre resembles the blindfolded 
personification of ignorance in Rosso's 
painted composition, a resemblance that has 
not served to clarify the subject of Fantuzzi's 
etching. 

Herbet recorded an impression of the 
print in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, 
with the inscription "Sardanapale brule dans 



son palais." According to Greek legend, 
Sardanapalus was the last great Assyrian 
king, sometimes equated with the real sev- 
enth-century B.C. Assyrian king Assur-bani- 
pal. Frightened during a siege of his capital, 
Sardanapalus burned himself and his wives in 
his palace. The legend is best known through 
Eugene Delacroix's painting The Death of 
Sardanapalus in the Louvre. This narrative 
does not coincide, however, with Fantuzzi's 
composition in which only a single figure is 
consumed by flames. The women are 
depicted as fervently lamenting this event but 
do not appear to be in danger of being burned. 
Carroll has recently suggested the more plau- 
sible identification of the subject as a scene 
from the Trojan War, the funeral of Hector. 
According to Carroll's interpretation, 
Fantuzzi's etching illustrates Rosso's initial 
ideas for one of the paintings in the Galerie 
Francois i at Fontainebleau. The composition 
was replaced, however, by The Death of 
Adonis.^ 



Notes 

1. For Rosso's fresco, see 
Kusenberg, pi. 46. 

2. Carroll, Rosso, 242-44, no. 75. 



191 



FRENCH PRINTS 



fi X Francois Gentil 

Wounded Pahs Carried off the Field of Battle 

After Francesco Primaticcio 

Engraving 

10 X i5'/i6 in. (25.4 X 38.2 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower center: A.FONTA 

BLEO.BOL. 

Lower right: FGR (monogram of 

Gentil] 

References 

Bartsch, 15:415, no. i; 
Herbet, 116, no. i; Nagler, 
Kiinstler-Lexikon, 15:412, 
no. 9 



Literature 

Davis, 54; Dimier, 496, no. 70; 
Mariette, 4:210—11, 5:146; 
Passavant, 4:108; Rotili, 90, no. 
94; Schab, 97, no. 82 



192 




Fig. 8ia 

Francesco Pnmaticcio 

(Italy, 1 5 04- 1 5 70) 

Wounded Paris Carried off 

the Field of Battle 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white, traces of 

black chalk 

9% X 14-% in. (24.4 X 37.5 cm) 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 



The engraver of Wounded Paris Carried off 
the Field of Battle has been identified by a 
variety of names: Master FG or Master GR 
(depending on the reading of the signature), 
Guido Ruggieri, Rugiero Rugieri, Frangois 
Gentil, and Giorgio Reverdino.' Herbet pro- 
vided the most thorough discussion of ques- 
tions about the engraver's identity, beginning 
Vkfith a convincing refutation of Marietta's at- 
tribution to Guido Ruggieri. Bartsch accepted 
Mariette's attribution while also noting that 
the artist Ruggieri was listed by Vasari only as 
a painter. The same circumstance is true for 
Rugiero Rugieri, recorded at Fontainebleau in 
numerous documents from 1557 onward as 
an assistant of Primaticcio. Herbet showed 
that, although an artist named Ruggieri was 
mentioned by Vasari as one of Primaticcio's 
assistants, the name Guido was Mariette's 
own fabrication. Herbet concluded his 
discussion by suggesting the name of Fran- 
cois Gentil as the engraver. 

Unlike the other attributions, Gentil is 
recorded as a printmaker and was closely 
associated with the engraver Domenico del 
Barbiere. The phrase inscribed on several 
engravings attributed to GentU, "A Fontana 
Bleo Bol," indicating Primaticcio's invention 
of the composition at Fontainebleau, is also 
found on Barbiere's engraving The Banquet of 
Alexander the Great after Primaticcio (cat. 



no. 63). The style of engraving in the present 
work, as well as in others attributed to 
Gentil,- supports Herbet's hypothesis of an 
artist associated with Barbiere. Herbet read 
the inscription as "GIRF," suggesting this 
as a reference to a publisher, meaning 
"Giovanni lacomo Rossi Formis." Rossi was 
a member of a family of Roman print publish- 
ers in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. The Rossi inventory of engraved plates 
became the nucleus of the Calcografia 
Nazionale, Rome, but plates attributed to 
Gentil are not found there. ^ If the inscription 
is read as "FGR," the "R" may refer to the 
city of Riceys, Gentil's birthplace. Although 
there are no prints signed with GentU's full 
name, Herbet's attribution to him of 
engravings signed in this manner is the most 
plausible one. 

This engraving reproduces a now-lost 
painting of 1541-45 by Primaticcio in the 
vestibule of the Porte Doree at Fontainebleau. 
Primaticcio's drawing for the composition is 
in the Louvre (fig. 81a).'' It is squared for 
transfer and nearly identical to the engraving 
in details and size. The subject is usually 
interpreted as the wounded Trojan prince 
Paris carried before the walls of Troy. As 
noted by Dimier,^ this subject complements 
others in this room representing martial 
themes, such as Hercules Fighting the Argo- 
nauts'" and Zeus Destroying the Titans. 



Notes 

1. The name of Reverdino was 
suggested by Schab but seems 
untenable in comparison with 
prints accepted as Reverdino's. 

2. To be added to Herbet's list is 
the engraving Rorriulus and 
Remus Building the Walls of 
Rome, catalogued by Bartsch 
(16:392, no. 40I as anonymous 
school of Fontainebleau but 
seemingly by the same hand as 
the engraving here. Herbet 
mentioned the print (p. 1 12) in 
disproving the authorship of 
Rugiero Rugieri but did not 
include it in his catalogue of 
Gentil's prints. 

3. Carlo Alberto Petrucci, 
Catalogo generale delle stampe 
tratte dai rami incisi posseduti 
dalla Calcografia Nazionale 
(Rome: La Libreria dello Stato, 
1953)- 

4. Dimier, 433, no. 55. 

5. Ibid., 77. 

6. Etched by Leon Davent. See 
Zerner, School, no. LD 46. 



193 



FRENCH PRINTS 






Studies of Male Nudes 

Three etchings 



82 Pyramid of Six Men 



10V16 X 8 in. (25.5 X 20.3 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: IVSTE (signature of 
Juste (Vand S indistinct|] 

References 

Herbet, 172, no. i; Zerner, 
School, no. I 2 

Literature 

Adhemai, 155, no. 5 




194 





Fig. 82-843 

Antonio Fantuzzi 

Hercules and Cucus 

Etching 

lo'-s X 5 in. (27 X 12.8 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 

Fig. 82-846 

Baccio Bandinelh 

(Italy, 1493-1560I 

Tlvo Seated Male Nudes 

Pen and brown ink 

10V16X t3'/i6 in. (26.5 X 33.2 cm) 

Windsor Castle, Royal Library 

©Her Majesty Queen EUzabeth 

II. 1987 



The sculptor kjiown as Juste de Juste, who 
came from a family of Florentine sculptors 
and served as Rosso's assistant at Fontaine- 
bleau, left a small but highly distinctive, even 
eccentric, corpus of etchings. Pyramid of Six 
Men is one of a group of five works featuring 
human pyramids composed of acrobatic male 
nudes. The remainder of his oeuvre, includ- 
ing Front of Figure and Back of Figure, Lean- 
ing Toward Right on a Large Stick, consists of 
twelve etchings of single male nudes dis- 
played in a variety of poses like models in an 
atelier. The five multifigured compositions 
are signed. The twelve single prints are 
unsigned but unquestionably are products of 
the same artistic conception and hand. 

Deciphering the signature on Pyramid 
of Six Men is difficult. The letters have been 
unscrambled to read either "ivste" or "viset." 
Jean Viset is documented as a professional 
printmaker in 1536, and the identification of 
the present etchings with Viset is accepted by 
Herbet, Adhemar, and Oberhuber.' Zerner, 
who interprets the signature as Juste's, 
convincingly argues that the highly personal 
and eccentric imagery of these etchings sug- 
gests the hand of a sculptor experimenting 
with the medium of etching.^ 



The purpose of Juste's curious but 
consistent body of works is unknown. Their 
rarity suggests they were intended as private 
studio exercises of the artist's skill in render- 
ing the human figure in action, much like an 
academy (a drawn study of a nude male 
model). Juste's extraordinarily free and casual 
manner of etching is remarkable even for the 
school of Fontainebleau with its exponents of 
an open style of modeling like Antonio 
Fantuzzi and Jean Mignon. Perhaps the clos- 
est parallel for Juste's handling of the human 
figure is the monster in Fantuzzi's etching 
Hercules and Cacus after Rosso Fiorentino 
(fig. 82-84a).^ Juste's particular interest in 
the nude might have been influenced by 
Rosso's anatomical studies, as seen in Marco 
Dente's engraving The Skeletons (cat. no. 22), 
Gian Giacomo Caraglio's Frenzy (cat. no. 17), 
and Domenico del Barbiere's Ecorches and 
Skeletons (cat. no. 64). The draftsmanship of 
Juste's etchings, however, is closer to that of 
Baccio Bandinelli, who also was greatly inter- 
ested in anatomy, such as in his sketch 7\vo 
Seated Male Nudes at Windsor Castle (fig. 
82-84b).'' 



Notes 

1. Oberhuber, Zwischen. 184. 

2. Zerner, School. 33—34. 

3. Ibid., no. AF 67. 

4. Popham and Wilde, 188, 
no. 73, pl. 39- 



195 



FRENCH PRINTS 



83 Front of Figure 

7% X 3716 in. (20 x 8.7 cm) 



References 

Zerner, School no. J 6 

Literature 

Adhemar, 156, no. 13 




196 



84 Back of Figure, Leaning Toward Right on a Large Stick 



6% X 3'/2 in. (17.5 X 8.9 cm) 



References 

Zerner, School, no. J 1 5 

Literature 

Adhemar, 156, no. 8; Schab, 89, 
no. 73 




197 FRENCH PRINTS 



85 



Master I$V 

Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well 



After Francesco Primaticcio 

Etching 

i3'/i6 X iiVs in. (34.5 X 32.1 cm), upper margin trimmed 



References 

Bartsch, 16:407, no. 81; Herbet, 
79, no- 49 

Liteiatuie 

Davis, 53; Schab, 91, no. 76; 
Zerner, "Gravures," 294, no. 361 




Fig. 85a 

Leon Davent 

Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well 

Etching 

iiVs X lo-Vs in. (29.5 X 27 cm| 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 




This composition by Primaticcio was etched 
by both Master 19 V and Leon Davent (fig. 
85a).' Catalogued by Bartsch as anonymous 
and by Herbet as by Antonio Fantuzzi, the 
present work was given its current attribu- 
tion by Zerner. The inscription on Davent's 
etching indicates that the design was ex- 
ecuted at Fontainebleau, but that work is 
now lost. As noted by Zerner, a drawing by 
Primaticcio in the Louvre is related in subject 
but not in composition.^ 

Comparison of Master I?V's and 
Davent's versions is instructive for the dif- 
ferences in approach by the two etchers. The 
figures are virtually identical, with the excep- 
tion of the child at the lower right; in 
Davent's print the figure is a young woman in 
profile. The principal difference is the rela- 
tionship of the figures to the setting. Davent 
focused on the figures, set against a plain stri- 
ated background with a ruined arbor. Master 
1 9 V expanded the composition on all sides, 
with the resulting diminution in scale of the 
figures, and added vegetation and a stream in 
the foreground and a garden with trees and 
mountains in the background. His manner of 
etching is also more minutely detailed than 
Davent's. As described by Zerner, the tech- 
nique recalls Jean Duvet's. 

The narrative is told in Genesis 
24.1-20. Abraham sent his servant Eliezer to 
find a wife for his son Isaac. Eliezer arrived in 
a town in Mesopotamia and decided the first 
woman to offer water for him and his camels 
would be the chosen one. Rebecca did and 
became Isaac's wife. 



Notes 

1. Zerner, School, no. LD 23. 

2. For the drawing, see Dimier, 
424, no. 3. 



199 



FRENCH PRINTS 



g^ Master 19 V 

The Holy Family 

After Antonio Fantuzzi and Rosso Fiorentino 

Etching 

i2'/i6X loysin. (31.9 X27.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: IVR 

References 

Bartsch, 16:388, no. 32; Herbet, 
203, no. 18 

Literature 

Borea, 262, no. 67 1; Carroll, 
Rosso. 310, no. 100; Kusenberg, 
164, 166, 168; Zerner, 
"Gravures," 273, under no. 325; 
Zerner, School, under no. AF 74 




200 




Fig. 86a 

Rosso Fiorentino (Italy, 

1494-1540) 

Allegory of Salvation with the 

Virgin, the Christ Child, Saint 

Elizabeth, the Young Saint lohn, 

and IXvo Angels 

Oil on panel 

63'/2 X 47 in. (161. 3 X 119. 4 cm| 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Herbert T. 

Kalmus 



The Holy Family is a copy, in reverse, of an 
etching by Antonio Fantuzzi of 1544-45;' ^ 
third version by an anonymous artist is a 
reduced copy, in reverse, of Master I9V's 
etching.- In his version Master 19 V added 
drapery to the midsection of the angel carry- 
ing a vase and placed a vase at the lower left. 
Bartsch noted that the inscription "IVR" 
(interpreted as Ivlio, or Giulio, Romano| led 
some to attribute the design to Giulio 
Romano. The invention, however, is gen- 
erally given to Rosso. The etching has been 
compared with Rosso's painting Allegory of 
Salvation with the Virgin, the Christ Child, 
Saint Elizabeth, the Young Saint John, and 
Two Angels, circa 1521, in the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art (fig. 86a), ^ because of 
similarities in subject and the figural type of 
the emaciated crone seen at the right in the 
etching. These similarities led some writers, 
notably Beguin, Carroll, and Freedberg, to 
consider the Los Angeles painting a work 
from late in Rosso's French period." Most 
writers dated the panel to Rosso's early 
Florentine career, about 15 18-21, because its 
highly personal and eccentric depiction of the 
subject recalls his Madonna and Child with 
Four Saints, 15 18, in the Uffizi and The 
Deposition, 1521, in the Pinacoteca, Volterra. 
If the Los Angeles painting is not as late 
as some have suggested, the same may be 
true for Rosso's design for Master 1 9 V's etch- 
ing. Although Fantuzzi's and Master I$V's 
etchings were executed at Fontainebleau, 



they do not necessarily reproduce a design 
from Rosso's tenure at the royal palace. Some 
elements of the composition suggest an ori- 
gin from Rosso's later Italian career of 
1525-30. The figure of the angel carrying a 
vase has been compared frequently with a 
similar type in Parmigianino's Madonna dal 
CoUo Lungo, circa 1535. But such an ele- 
gantly proportioned and twisting nude male 
figure can be seen earlier in Rosso's Bacchus, 
1 526, engraved by Gian Giacomo Caraglio in 
his series Gods in Niches.^ Rosso's Jupiter 
from the same series is similar in its physiog- 
nomy and dynamic movement to the bearded 
male figure at the center of Master I? V's 
etching.'^ Finally, the^ woman seated in the 
left foreground of the print could be the sister 
of the woman standing at the left of Rosso's 
painting The Resurrection, 1528-30, in the 
Duomo, Citta di Castello,' so similar are 
they in type and expression. 

Panofsky discussed in detail the subject 
of this print. Rather than representing simply 
a scene from the infancy of Christ, according 
to Panofsky, Rosso reinterpreted the char- 
acters "to express Christianity's eternal hope 
for the ultimate conversion of all mankind." 
Consequently, in his view, the woman seated 
at the left is not the Virgin Mary but repre- 
sentative of Judaism, the young woman 
kneeling at the right is not Saint Catherine 
but a symbol of the gentiles, the bearded man 
is not Saint Joseph but a prophet foreseeing 
the Passion of Christ, and the old woman is 
not Saint Anne but a sibyl." 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 16:336, no. i; Zerner, 
School, no. AF 74. 

2. Herbet, 215, no. 22. 

3. Scott Schaefer, Peter Fusco, 
and Paula-Teresa Wiens, 
European Painting and Sculpture 
in the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art: An Illustrated 
Summary Catalogue (Los 
Angeles: Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art, 1987I, 87. 

4. Sylvie Begum in L'Ecole de 
Fontainebleau (Paris: Grand 
Palais, 1972), 178, no. 20I; 
Eugene A. Carroll, "A Drawing 
by Rosso Fiorentino of Judith and 
Holofernes," Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art Bulletin 
24 (1978): 46 n. 2; Sydney J. 
Freedberg, Painting in Italy 
1500-1600 (Harmondsworth: 
Penguin Books Ltd., 1971), 

485 n. 37. 

5. Bartsch, 15:79, no. 40. 

6. Ibid., 78, no. 26, 

7. Kusenberg, pi. 27. 

8. Panofsky, 167-68 n. 28. 



201 



FRENCH PRINTS 



87 



Master 19 V 

Landscape with Saint John the Evangehst 
and Saint Anthony the Hermit 



After Giuiio Romano 

Etching 

14V8 X 12% in. (35.9 X 32.7 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:390, no. 34; Herbet, 
216, no. 32 




202 



when Landscape with Saint John the Evan- 
gelist and Saint Anthony the Hermit 
appeared recently in the famous Chatsworth 
sale, it was listed simply as an engraving from 
the school of Fontainebleau.' The catalogue 
failed to recognize its inclusion by Herbet in 
his list of etchings by Master I$V. On the 
basis of style Herbet's attribution is convinc- 
ing. The handling of the landscape, particu- 
larly the distinctive appearance of the clouds, 
the dotted manner of the shading, and the 
compulsively detailed composition, are all 
characteristics found in the other works by 
Master 19 V catalogued here (cat. nos. 85-86 
and 88-89). 

Bartsch and Herbet considered this 
etching as having been based on a design by 
Giulio Romano. Although Giulio's original 
composition is lost,- his authorship is un- 
deniable, probably dating from the 1530s. 
The bearded and patriarchal figure of Saint 
Anthony the Hermit is comparable with the 
figure of Chronos in Giulio's study, formerly 



in the Schlossmuseum, Weimar, for a section 
of the fresco Olympus, 1531-32, in the Sala 
dei Giganti in the Palazzo del Te, Mantua.^ 
Giulio's compositions are usually dominated 
by the figures, with little interest in the land- 
scape. There are, however, examples in which 
Giulio placed his protagonists before a pan- 
oramic vista, such as a drawing of the early 
1 540s, A Symbolic Representation of the 
Arms of Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga, formerly 
at Chatsworth.^ In light of the similar types 
of landscapes painted in France by Nicolo 
dell'Abate, the taste in France for an image 
such as Master 19 V's is understandable. 

Saint John the Evangelist was the most 
beloved of Christ's disciples and the author of 
several books of the New Testament. Saint 
Anthony the Hermit, a hermetic figure in 
Egypt during the third and fourth centuries, 
is considered the father of Christian 
monasticism. His attributes are a bell and a 
pig. He is frequently depicted tempted by dev- 
ils in the wilderness. 



Notes 

1. Old Master Prints from 
Chatsworth (London: Christie's, 
5 December 1985), lot 105. 

2. This design is not hsted by 
Hartt among Giulio's lost works. 

3. Hartt, 1:299, nO- ^1°/ 
2:fig. 349. 

4. Ibid., 1:251, no. 362, 2:fig. 518. 



203 



FRENCH PRINTS 



88 



Master 19 V 

The Destruction of Catania 



After Rosso Fiorentino 
Etching and engraving 
iiVs X i7'/4 in. (32.1 X 43.8 cm) 




References 

Bartsch, 16:413, no. 93; Herbet, 
75, no. 33; Zava Boccazzi, 69, 
no. 13 

Literature 

Borea, 261, no. 662; Carroll, 
Rosso. 259 n. I; Kusenberg, 165; 
Mariette, 5:22; Zerner, School, 
Fantuzzi intro. 



204 





Fig. 88a 

Master 19 V 

The Death of Adonis 

Etching 

i4yi6X2i'yi6in. (36.4 X 55.7 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 

Fig. 88b 

Rene Boyvm 

The Destruction of Catania 

Engraving 

11% X 17 in. (28.9 X 43.2 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 



The identities of this print's subject and en- 
graver remain unresolved. It reproduces, in 
reverse, a painting by Rosso in the Galerie 
Francois i at Fontainebleau.' The subject has 
been titled traditionally The Destruction of 
Catania, representing the story of the twins 
Amphinomus and Aenapias, exemplars of the 
virtue of filial piety, who rescued their par- 
ents when the Sicilian town of Catania was 
destroyed during the eruption of Mount Etna. 
If, as Panofsky observed,- filial piety were the 
general theme to be illustrated, the subject 
probably would have been Aeneas and 
Anchises, the best-known example of the 
subject. Panofsky, however, viewed the nar- 
rative as a reference to Francis I's gratitude to 
two of his sons, who were held hostage for 
three years in Spain as ransom for the release 
of the king, captured during the Battle of 
Pavia in 1525. The resemblance of The 
Destruction of Catania to the story of Aeneas 
saving his father Anchises from the ruins of 
Troy is exemplified by the adaptation of 
Rosso's composition for Pierre Courteys's 
The Escape of Aeneas and Anchises, one of a 
set of seven enameled plaques by Courteys of 
scenes from the Trojan War.^ 

The Destruction of Catania was cata- 
logued by Bartsch among the anonymous 
prints of the school of Fontainebleau. Herbet 
and Kusenberg attributed it to Antonio 
Fantuzzi, a suggestion found unconvincing 
by Zerner. Mariette believed the artist was 
the same as the one responsible for an etching 
The Death of Adonis. He might have meant 
Fantuzzi's etching after Rosso's painting of 



that subject in the Galerie Franqois i,** al- 
though the two prints are clearly not by the 
same hand. Instead, Mariette probably 
intended to compare The Destruction of 
Catania with another print of the death of 
Adonis (fig. 88a), catalogued by Bartsch as an 
anonymous etching after Giulio Romano.^ 
More recently Boorsch grouped that Death of 
Adonis with three other etchings after 
Giulio, including The Death of Procris (cat. 
no. 89), and attributed them to Master I9V.^ 
Mariette was astute in relating the style of 
The Destruction of Catania to a print now 
associated with Master I9V. Its soft and at- 
mospheric chiaroscuro, achieved by means of 
closely spaced hatching and stippling, is 
consistent with the manner of modeling 
forms seen in other prints by Master I$V, 
such as Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well (cat. 
no. 85), once attributed to Fantuzzi, and The 
Holy Family (cat. no. 86), a copy after an etch- 
ing by Fantuzzi. 

The composition was also engraved by 
Rene Boyvin (fig. 88b).' Master 19 V's etching 
differs from Rosso's painting and Boyvin's 
engraving in its vertical extension, with a 
resulting increase in prominence given to the 
landscape. This alteration in the relationship 
between figures and setting is also seen in 
Master I9V's Rebecca and Eliezer at the 
Well. In other respects, noted recently by Car- 
roll, Master I9V's print is more faithful than 
Boyvin's to the original painting." In Boyvin's 
version the woman rushing in at the right is 
partly nude, the appearance of the baggage at 
the center has changed, and the important 
element of fire destroying the city is missing. 



Notes 

1. Kusenberg, pi. 36. 

2. Panofsky, 136-37. 

3. Clare Vincent in Liechten- 
stein, 220, no. 141. The other six 
plaques were based on lean 
Mignon's series of etchings 
Scenes from the Trojan War (for 
four of these compositions, see 
cat. nos. 92-95). 

4. Zerner, School, no. AF 27. 

5. Bartsch, 16:506, no. 77. 

6. Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 46. 

7. Robert-Dumesnil, 8:25, no. 17. 

8. Carroll, Rosso, 256-59, no. 80. 



205 



FRENCH PRINTS 



89 



Master 19 V 

The Death of Prochs 



After Giorgio Ghisi and Giulio Romano 
Etching 

141/8x221/8 in. (35.9 X56.2 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:406, no. 78; Herbet, 
220, no. 5 5 

Literature 

Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 46, 




206 




Fig. 89a 

Master 19 V 

The Hunt of the Calydonian 

Boar 

Etching 

i3yi6X 22'/4 in. (33.9 X 56.5 cm) 

Graphische Sammlung 

Albertina, Vienna 




Bartsch and Herbet accurately described The 
Death of Procris as being based, in reverse, on 
a design by Giulio Romano, and noted 
another version of the composition of about 
1540 by Ghisi (cat. no. 26|; Giulio's finished 
drawing is in the Stadelsches Kunstinstitut 
(fig. 26a).' Those authors, however, could not 
identify the etcher. Boorsch was the first to 
connect the present print with three other 
etchings, The Hunt of the Calydonian Boar 
(fig. 89a), Hylas and the Nymphs, and The 
Death of Adonis (fig. 88a),- and to attribute 
the group to Master I9V. The Hunt of the 
Calydonian Boar is signed by Master 1 9 Vand 
dated 1543, and Boorsch is convincing in 
suggesting that the four prints, similar in 
style and size, were issued as a set. Master 
I9V's and Ghisi's prints are nearly identical 
to Giulio's modello in the placement of the 
figures but differ in the handling of the land- 
scape. As is usual for Master 1 9 V, this version 
is more intricately detailed than Ghisi's, with 
an increased sense of overall patterning on 
the surface. It is consequently less sculptural 
and more decorative than Ghisi's engraving. 
For the story of Cephalus and Procris, 
see Giorgio Ghisi's The Death of Piocns (cat. 
no. 26). 



Notes 

1. Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 45. 

2. Bartsch, 16; 372, no. 4; ibid., 
405, no. 76; and ibid., 406, no. 77. 



207 



FRENCH PRINTS 



90 



Jean Mignon 

Pieta 



After Luca Penni 

Etching and engraving 

i2'yi6X iiyi6in. (32.6 X 28.7 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:387, no. 29; Herbet, 
184, no. 8; Zerner, School, 
no. JM 30 

Literature 

Adhemar, 15, no. 8; Albricci, 
"Luca Penni," 138, no. 60 




208 



Fig. 90a 

Workshop of Jean Mignon 

The Entombment 

Etching 

i2'-'/i6X ii'/s in. (32.6 X 28.2 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

IVluseum, London 




Bartsch listed Pieta among the anonymous 
prints of the school of Fontainebleau, while 
remarking on its stylistic similarity to 
Mignon's works. Herbet and Zerner consid- 
ered an attribution to Mignon persuasive. 
The print's ornamental frame, with its com- 
bination of strapwork, fruits, and vegetables, 
is a type characteristic of the school of Fon- 
tainebleau and is found on other prints by or 
attributed to Mignon after Penni, including, 
among the religious compositions. The 
Deposition (cat. no. 97) and The Entombment 
(fig. 90a),' and among the profane subjects. 
The Death of Adonis (cat. no. 96) and The 
Death of Cleopatra (fig. 68a). Pieta might 
have been executed as a pendant to The 
Deposition and The Entombment. The for- 
mats of the three prints are similar, the sub- 
jects are related, and the dimensions are com- 
parable, differing by at most four millimeters. 
The question remains whether Mignon was 
the etcher of each composition. Bartsch men- 
tioned Mignon's name only in connection 
with Pieta. Herbet attributed it and The 
Deposition to Mignon but placed The 
Entombment among the anonymous etch- 
ings.' Zerner accepted Pieta but claimed The 
Deposition was too crude for Mignon; he did 
not discuss The Entombment. It seems plau- 
sible, however, that The Deposition and The 
Entombment are by the same artist. Because 
of the similarities to Mignon's Pieta. it is very 
likely they were produced in Mignon's work- 
shop and under his supervision as compan- 
ions to his own etching. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 16:385, no. 24. 

2. Herbet, 21s, no. 27. 



209 



FRENCH PRINTS 



91 



Jean Mignon 

Mars, Venus, and Cupid 



After Luca Penni 

Etching 

ii%x 1 1 1/2 in. (28.9 X29.2 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:396, no. 52; Herbet, 
185, no. 17 ii/ii; Zerner, School, 
no. JM 38 li/ii 

Literature 

Adhemar, 16, no. 17; Albricci, 
"Luca Penni," 152, no. 75 




Herbet correctly dismissed Bartsch's attribu- 
tion of Mars, Venus, and Cupid, as well as 
several other prints after Penni, to Florent 
Despeches, and gave them instead to 
Mignon.' Herbet's attributions are now gen- 
erally accepted. Most authors have also ac- 
cepted Penni's invention of this design, al- 
though Bartsch and Zerner were somewhat 
equivocal in their opinions.^ As noted by 
Zerner, however, Mignon was "above all, the 
etcher of Penni, "^ and because that is an apt 
characterization, this composition is accept- 
able as Penni's. Its rather frigid nobility is 
typical of Penni. Of all the school of Fon- 
tainebleau he was closest to the Central Ital- 
ian tradition of mannerist classicism, partic- 
ularly well represented by his brother-in-law 
Perino del Vaga. The cold eroticism of Mars, 
Venus, and Cupid is especially comparable 
with Giorgio Ghisi's engraving Venus and 
Vulcan Seated on a Bed (fig. 6ob), whose 
design is close to both Penni and Perino.'' 

According to Zerner, Mignon's etching 
career was rather short, lasting only from 
1543 to about 1 5 47.5 Mars, Venus, and Cupid 
falls about midway in his oeuvre, executed 
about 1545. The plate was trimmed slightly 
in the second state. 

As described by Ovid {Metamorphoses, 
4. 171-89), Mars, the Roman god of war, had 
an illicit love affair with Venus, the goddess 
of love, while she was married to Vulcan, the 
god of fire; Cupid is her son by Mars. 



Notes 

1. Herbet, 181-83. 

2. Suzanne Boorsch (letter to the 
author, 2 February 1987) also has 
doubts about the attribution to 
Penni. 

3. Zerner, School, 29. 

4. For a discussion of this design, 
see Boorsch, Lewis, and Lewis, 
85, no. 18. 

5. Zerner, School, 26-29. 



211 



FRENCH PRINTS 



92-95 



Jean Mignon 

Scenes from the Trojan War 



After Luca Penni 

Four from a series of six etchings 



92 The Ju dgm en t of Pans 



12^16 X 17 in. (31 X43.2 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:404, no. 72; Herbet, 
186, no. 21; Zerner, School, 
no. JM 40 

Literature 

Adhemar, 16, no. 21; Albricci, 
"Luca Penni," 140, no. 65; 
Oberhuber, Zmschen, 182, no. 
266; Schab, 95, no. 80; Zerner, 
"Gravures," 319, no. 413 




93 The Abduction of Helen 



iiVsx le'Viein. (32.1 X42.7 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:393, no. 42; Herbet, 
185, no. 12; Zerner, School. 
no. JM 41 

Literatiue 

Adhemar, 15, no. i2; Albricci, 
"Luca Penni," 142, no. 66; Schab, 
92, no. 77 




212 



94 The Trojans Pull the Wooden Horse into the City 

12% X ly'/s in. (32.4 X 43.5 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:394, no. 45; Herbet, 
185, no. 14; Zerner, School. 
no. IM 44 

Literature 

Adhemar, 16, no. 14; Albricci, 
"Luca Penni," 146, no. 69; Davis, 
56; Zemer, "Gravures," 320, 
no. 414 




95 The Sack of Troy 



12^16 X 17V8 in. (31.9 X 43.5 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:393, no. 44; Herbet, 
r85, no. 13; Zemer, School, 
no. JM 45 

Literature 

Adhemar, 15, no. 13; Albricci, 
"Luca Penni," 148, no. 70; 
Davis, 54 




213 FRENCH PRINTS 




j/iy 




Fig. 92a 

Luca Penni 

(Italy, 1500/1504-1556I 

The Judgment of Paris 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 

Fig. 94a 

Luca Penni 

(Italy, 1500/1504-1556) 

The Jioians Pull the Wooden 

Horse into the City 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white 

Cabinet des Dessins, 

Musee du Louvre, Paris 



The other two prints from Mignon's series of 
about 1545 on the Trojan War are Battle 
before Troy and Treacherous Sinon Brought 
into the Trojan Camp A AW the etchings are 
based on designs by Penni. The six etchings 
also served as the visual sources for a series of 
enameled plaques by Pierre Courteys in the 
collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. - 
Herbet noted that Mignon's etchings were 
also used by Pierre Reymond for an enameled 
casket formerly in the collection of Charles 
Mannheim, Paris. 

Bartsch noted two etchings of Penni 's 
composition The ludgment of Paris. He con- 
sidered the present work an anonymous copy 
of a smaller version, in reverse, by Mignon.^ 
Bartsch was followed in this error by 
Adhemar. Herbet corrected Bartsch by 
transposing these attributions, but mistak- 
enly recorded for this etching the dimensions 
of the smaller print. Zerner finally correctly 
catalogued Mignon's print. Penm's design for 
the etching is in the Louvre (fig. gia).-" The 
composition was also used for a tazza by 
Courteys m the Walters Art Gallery, Bal- 
timore, in addition to the enamels by 
Courteys and Reymond.^ Vincent compared 
the composition The Abduction of Helen, for 
which Penni's original drawing is lost, with 
Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving of the 
subject,^ catalogued by Bartsch as Raphael's 
design but more accurately attributable to 
Giulio Romano.' Vincent also noted that 
Courteys used the composition for a circular 



plaque in the Louvre. Permi's drawing for the 
etching The Trojans Pull the Wooden Horse 
into the City is in the Louvre (fig. 943).^ 
Herbet claimed that Penni's drawing for the 
etching The Sack of Troy was in the Louvre, 
and this statement was repeated by Adhemar 
and Davis. Zerner, Albricci, and Vincent, 
however, do not mention the sketch, so 
Herbet was apparently mistaken. 

The story of the ten-year war between 
the Greeks and the Trojans is recounted in 
Homer's The Iliad, although the tale was 
embellished and expanded over the centuries. 
It begins with the wedding feast of the par- 
ents of Achilles, Peleus and Thetis, during 
which the goddess of discord, Eris — who was 
not invited to the banquet — cast among the 
guests an apple inscribed "for the most beau- 
tiful." Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each 
claimed the apple, and the Trojan prince Pans 
was asked to adjudicate the dispute. Aphro- 
dite successfully bribed Paris by promising 
him the beautiful Spartan princess Helen as 
his wife. Paris seduced and abducted Helen, 
and her husband Meneleus and brother-in- 
law Agamemnon led the Greek army against 
the Trojans. The war was a stalemate for ten 
years until the Greeks tricked the Trojans 
into believing they were giving up and depart- 
ing. An enormous wooden horse was left at 
the gate of Troy as a parting gift to the Tro- 
jans. Part of the Greek army was hidden 
inside the horse, and when night fell, the sol- 
diers escaped, opened the gates to the rest of 
the waiting Greek army, and sacked the city. 



Notes 

1. Zerner, School, nos. JM 42-43. 

2. Clare Vincent in Liechten- 
stein. 213-20, nos. 135-41. The 
seventh plaque was based on 
Master I SV's The Destruction of 
Catania after Rosso Fiorentino 
(cat. no. 88). 

3. Bartsch, 16:400, no. 64. 

4. Albricci, "Luca Penni," fig. 31. 

5. Verdier, 267, no. 148. 

6. Vincent in Liechtenstein, 215, 
no. 136. 

7. Bartsch, 14:170, no. 209. 

8. Albricci, "Luca Penni," fig. 36. 



214 



FRENCH PRINTS 



96 



Jean Mignon 

The Death of Adonis 



After Luca Peiini 

Etching 

ii'/i6X9yi6in. (28.1 X24cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:398, no. 58; Herbet, 
185, no. 19; Zerner, School, no. 
JM 5 3 i/ii 

Literature 

Adhemai, 16, no. 19; Albricci, 
"LucaPenni," 152, no. 77; Davis, 
56; Schab, 94, no. 79i Zerner, 
"Gravures," 320, no. 416 




216 



Fig. 96a 

Luca Penni 

(Italy, 1500/1504-1556) 

The Death of Adonis 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white, traces of 

black chalk, incised for transfer 

10% X 9 in. (27.3 X 22.9 cm) 

Teylers Museum, Haarlem 










As noted by Zerner, Penni's preparatory 
drawing in the Teylers Museum (fig. 96a) pro- 
vided Mignon with the model for the figures 
and the decorative frame but not for the land- 
scape. The landscape was the etcher's own 
invention, as printmakers were often wont to 
do (for example, Master I9V's The Death of 
Piocris [cat. no. 89]). The type of ornament 
used for the frame is also found in Mignon's 
Pieta (cat. no. 90) and The Deposition (cat. 
no. 97), supporting the attribution to Penni of 
the design of all three etchings. The same 
subject was etched by Leon Davent.' Because 
of similarities in the pose of the dead Adonis 
in Davent's and Mignon's prints, the tradi- 
tional attribution to Penni of the design for 
Davent's etching is probably correct. 

The story of Venus and Adonis comes 
from Ovid {Metamorphoses, 10.708-28). Ve- 
nus was in love with the handsome Greek 
youth and warned him of the dangers of hunt- 
ing. Ignoring this advice, Adonis stalked a 
wild boar, and when his arrow only wounded 
it, the enraged animal killed him. Venus is 
shown mourning her dead lover. 



Notes 

I. Zerner, School no. LD 70. 



217 



FRENCH PRINTS 



97 



School of Jean Mignon 

The Deposition 



After Luca Penni 

Etching 

isViex 11% in. (33.8 X28.9 cm) 



References 

Bartsch, 16:386, no. 25; Herbet, 
184, no. 7 

Literature 

Adhemar, 14, no. 7; Albricci, 
"Luca Penni," 138, no. 6i; Davis, 
54; Schab, 92, no. 78; Zerner, 
School, Mignon intro. 




218 



For the attributions of the design and execu- 
tion of The Deposition, see discussion of 
Mignon's Pieta after Penni (cat. no. 90). 

The story of the removal of Christ's 
body from the cross is told in John 19.38-40. 
As a narrative involving some action, the 
Deposition contrasts with the similar imag- 
ery of the Pieta, which involves only Mary's 
lamentation over the body of her dead son, as 
in Mignon's etching of the subject (cat. no. 
90). The design of the present work is tradi- 
tionally and reasonably attributed to Penni. 
The physiognomies and costumes are like 
those found in other compositions by Penni, 
such as Mignon's Pieta, and the presentation 
of the body of Christ, parallel to the picture 
plane and with arms askew, recalls Mignon's 
The Death of Adonis after Penni (cat. no. 96). 
The pure frontality of the figure in The 
Deposition is also similar to Francesco 
Salviati's design The Death of Meleager 
(fig. 6b). 

Two other versions of this composition 
are recorded by Bartsch: a roundel of about 
the same dimensions with an ornamental 
frame and a copy, in reverse, without the 
frame but with an extensive and detailed 
landscape.' The latter is the most accom- 
plished of the three prints. 



Notes 

I. Bartsch, 16:386, nos. 26-27; 
Herbet, 215, nos. 25-26. 



219 



FRENCH PRINTS 



98 



Pierre Milan 

Dance of the Dryads 



After Rosso Fiorentino 

Engraving 

iiVs X isVi in. (28.3 X 40 cm) 




Cum jmidle0oKem' 



Krxu- Ftorni- Imjta- 



Inscriptions 

Below: Cum privilegio 
Regis.; Quercum erisichtonian 
dryades cinxere choreis; 
Rous.Floren.Inven. 

References 

Le Blanc, 1:507, no. 39 i/ii; 
Robert-Dumesnil, 8:47, no. 74 
i/ii; Zerner, School, no. PM i 



Litetatuie 

Borea, 258, no. 653; Carroll, 
Rosso, 282, no. 89; Davis, 56; 
Kusenberg, 16 1; Levron, 54; 
Linzeler, 178; Metman, 206; 
Oberhuber, Renaissance. 178, 
no. 299; Zerner, "Gravxires," 
323, no. 419 



220 




Fig. 98a 

After Pierre Milan 

Dance of the Dryads 

Engraving 

io'-Vi6 X 1 5 '6 in. (27.8 X 39.4 cm| 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 



Dance of the Dryads reproduces, in reverse, 
the figures in Rosso's painting in the car- 
touche below his fresco The Sacrifice in the 
Galerie Frangois i at Fontainebleau.' Whereas 
the painting resembles an antique cameo in 
the placement of the figures in a barely indi- 
cated setting, the engraving includes a more 
detailed landscape, particularly the addition 
of the tree at the center. 

Borea recorded tv^fo other versions of 
the composition, one published by Hendrik 
Hondius (considered erroneously by Robert- 
Dumesnil to be the second state of Milan's 
print), and an anonymous print published in 
1606 in The Hague. New York print dealer 
Alan Stone noted the appearance on the mar- 
ket of a very deceptive copy of Milan's 
engraving (fig. 98a).- The two prints are 
nearly identical in size and agree in almost 
every detail. The principal differences appear 
in the slightly different lettering m the legend 
and in the delineation of the shading. 

Panofsky provided the most extensive 
explanation of the changes between Rosso's 
fresco and Milan's print and their meaning.^ 
As indicated by the engraving's legend. 



depicted is the dance of the dryads around the 
sacred oak of Ceres, which is adorned with 
garlands of flowers as testimonies to 
answered prayers.'' Erysichthon was pun- 
ished in mythology for his sacrilege against 
this oak. A similar tree appears in Rosso's 
fresco The Sacrifice and, according to 
Panofsky, represents the dynastic tree of 
France. Dance of the Dryads thus serves as a 
warning to those who would attack this royal 
lineage. 

This engraving has been attributed to 
both Rene Boyvin and Milan. Although ear- 
lier writers considered it a work by Boyvin, 
Metman discovered references to Milan's 
engraving in documents concerning a minor 
French official, Claude Bernard. The en- 
graved plate for Dance of the Dryads had 
been given to Bernard in 1 545 as collateral for 
a loan to Milan. The documents also shed 
light on the role of printmaking at the court 
of Fontainebleau and on the print market in 
Paris. Whereas most etchings from the school 
of Fontainebleau are rare, 1,050 impressions 
of Milan's engraving were recorded in an 
inventory of Bernard's possessions at the 
time of his death in 1557. 



Notes 

1. Kusenberg, pi. 33. 

2. Old Master and Modern 
Prints: Catalogue Number 7 
(New York: Hill-Stone, Inc., 
1982), no. 22. An impression of 
Stone's deceptive copy was sold, 
as by Milan, at Sotheby's, New 
York, 7 May 1976, lot 539. 

3. Panofsky, 125-26. 

4. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 
7.746-49- 



221 



FRENCH PRINTS 



99 



Pierre Woeiriot 

Phalahs Condemns Peiillus to the Bronze Bull 



After Baldassare Peruzzi 

Etching 

8'yi6 X 6% in. (22.4 X 17.2 cm) 



Insciiprions 

Lowei center: 



.P.WOEIRIOT./.F. 



References 

Le Blanc, 4:244, no. 88 i/iij 
Robert-Dumesnil, 7:93, no. 205 
i/ii, 11:344, under no. 206 

Literature 

Adhemar, 166, no. 21 i/ii 




Phalaiis Condemns Peiillus to the Bronze 
Bull is from a set of three prints by Woeiriot; 
the other two are The Wife of Asdiubal and 
Phocas Brought to Heraclius.' Frommel 
dated the group about 1555-60 and suggested 
Peruzzi's original designs were created about 
1520-23.- Frommel noted the influence of 
Raphael's fresco The Coronation of Char- 
lemagne, in the Sala dell'Incendio in the Vati- 
can, on the diagonal orientation of Peruzzi's 
design. This compositional device is also 
seen in Peruzzi's drawing The Discovery of 
the True Cross in the British Museum, like- 
wise dating from the early 1 520s.' 

As Caroline Karpinski has astutely 
pointed out, Woeiriot probably engraved the 
present print in Rome because of the pres- 
ence of the plate in the Calcografia Na- 
zionale, Rome.'' Woeiriot's plate was re- 
worked at a later date, with altered expres- 
sions on the faces of several figures and the 
removal of most of the shading on the figure 
of the soldier to the left of Phalaris. 

Phalaris was a tyrant in the city of 
Agrigento in the sixth century b.c. Infamous 
for his cruelty, he commissioned the 
Athenian sculptor Perillus to create a bronze 
bull in which Phalaris placed his enemies for 
torture. The bull, mentioned briefly by Pin- 
dar, was then heated, and the prisoners' cries 
resembled those of the animal. Perillus 
reportedly was the first victim. 



Notes 

1. Robert-Dumesnil, 7:94, nos. 
206-7. 

2. Christoph Luitpold Frommel, 
"Baldassare Peruzzi als Maler 
und Zeichner," Beiheft zum 
Romischen Jahibuch fiii 
Kunstgeschichte 11 (1967-68I, 

1 10, no. 72, pi. S4b. 

3. Ibid., 109, no. 71, pi. 54a. 

4. Caroline Karpmski, Italian 
Printmaking. Fifteenth and 
Sixteenth Centuries: An 
Annotated Bibhography (Boston: 
G. K. Hall, 1987), 87. 



223 



FRENCH PRINTS 



100 



Domenico Zenoni 

The Conquest of Ignorance 



After Rosso Fiorentino 

Engraving 

1 1 '-Vie X 15% in. (30 X 40 cm) 




i^mirjn: 1! .g;nlr^ 



Ik n^yt Jkc' neJer I jltmv fv^ntr^ 



fiiit ciili-Jr ^r^uhi i' jl^znll Ili Di C,tlui' c.-m^ fzhcri r^ nfUnd. 










Inscriptions 

Lower right: Dominicus Zenoi 

Venetus./excidebat. 

Below: Qualunque ardisce . . . / 

. . . fra mille squadre. 

References 

Herbet, 74, under no. 28; 

Le Blanc, 4:262, no. 17; Robert- 

Dumesnil, 8:25, under no. 16 



Litetatiue 

Borea, 261, no. 66O; Carroll, 
Rosso. 91 n. 2; Kusenberg, 161, 
167; Linzeler, 169; Mariette, 5:23 



224 



Fig. looa 

Rosso Fiorentino 

(Italy, 1494-1540) 

The Conquest of Ignorance 

Fresco 

Galerie Frangois i, Chateau de 

Fontainebleau 







The Conquest of Ignorance is based on 
Rosso's fresco in the Galerie Francois i at 
Fontainebleau (fig. looa).' Two earlier prints 
are known of the composition, both in re- 
verse of the painting, by Antonio Fantuzzi 
and Rene Boyvin.- Because Zenoni's engrav- 
ing is closer in style and detail to Boyvin's 
version, Robert-Dumesnil suggested, prob- 
ably correctly, that Zenoni based his print on 
Boyvin's rather than on the fresco itself. 

Panofsky explained the meaning of 
Rosso's painting. Francis i is portrayed in the 
background entering the Temple of Jove 
whose portal is flanked by vessels inscribed 
"Bona" (good) and "Mala" (evil). In the fore- 
ground is a group of blindfolded figures, the 
Vices, surrounding their overweight begetter. 
Ignorance.' 



Notes 

1. Kusenberg, 69-70, pi. 46. 

2. For Fantuzzi's print, see 
Zerner, School, no. AF 24. For 
Boyvin's print, see Robert- 
Dumesnil, 8:24, no. 16; and 
Kusenberg, pi. 47. 

3. Panofsky, 119-20. 



225 



FRENCH PRINTS 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



Cornelis Bos 

Dirck Volkertz. Coornhert 

Cornells Cort 

Michiel Coxcie 

Frans Floris 

Jacques de Gheyn ii 

Hendrik Goltzius 



Lucas Kilian 
Cornelis Massys 
Master G.A.I.F. 
Jacob Matham 
Jan Muller 
Aegidius Sadeler 
Jan Saenredam 
Christoffel van Sichem i 



V- 



227 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Hercules and Cacus (cat. no. 1 16) 




228 



Hendrik Goltzius 

The Magician (cat. no. 117) 




229 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Helios (cat. no. ii8) 




230 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Amphitnte (cat. no. 119) 




231 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Landscape with a Waterfall (cat. no. 123) 

Hendrik Goltzius 

Landscape with Seated Couple (cat. no. 124) 





232 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Landscape with Peasant Dwelling (cat. no. 125) 

Hendiik Goltzius 

Cliff on the Seashore (cat. no. 126) 





233 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



lOI 



Cornelis Bos 

Lazarus in Heaven and the Rich Man in Hell 



After Maarten van Heemskerck 
Engraving from two plates 
I9'/2X 135/8 in. (49.5 X34.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: CB 1547 

References 

HoUstein, 3:123, nos. 39—40, 
8:237, nos. 3-4; Le Blanc, 1:467, 
no. lO; Scheie, 27, 119, no. 27; 
Wurzbach, 1:145, no. 19 




234 



Fig. loia 

Attributed to Cornells Cort 

Lazarus in Heaven 

and the Rich Man in Hell 

Engraving 

y'Vis X gVi in. (20.1 x 24.1 cm| 

Graphlsche Sammlung 

Albertlna, Vienna 




According to Scheie, Lazarus in Heaven and 
the Rich Man in Hell, dated 1547, was prob- 
ably created when Bos and Heemskerck were 
together in Haarlem, just prior to the engrav- 
er's departure for three years in Italy. Other 
engravings of this subject by Heemskerck 
have been noted. In 155 1 Dirck Volkertsz. 
Coornhert, believed to be Bos's pupil, en- 
graved a set of four plates illustrating the par- 
able of the rich man and Lazarus.' A second 
series of four engravings, perhaps dating from 
the late 1550s, has been attributed to 
Cornelis Cort. In his catalogue of Cort's 
prints Bierens de Haan expressed some doubt 
about this attribution and suggested stylistic 
affinities to the engravings of Philip Galle.^ 
Riggs questioned as well the attribution of 
the designs to Heemskerck.-' Even accounting 
for a difference of ten years, the Lazarus in 
Heaven and the Rich Man in Hell in the set 
attributed to Cort (fig. loia) differs consider- 
ably from Bos's engraving. The later image is 
characterized by clarity and simplicity in the 
disposition of the figures of the rich man and 
the torturing demon.'* Bos's larger engraving 
has more figures, is more complex in space 
and movement, and is more dramatic. 

In Christ's parable of Lazarus and the 
rich man (Luke 16. 19-31), the beggar Lazarus 
went to heaven, where he was comforted at 
the bosom of Abraham, while the rich man 
was tortured in the fires of hell, a reversal of 
their lots in life. From his vantage in the 
lower depths, the rich man lamented for his 
surviving wealthy brothers who would suffer 
the same fate. 



Notes 

1. HoUsteln, 4:229, nos. 97-100. 

2. Bierens de Haan, 87, nos. 
71-74. For Illustrations, see 
Walter L. Strauss and Tomoko 
Shlmura, The Illustrated 
Bartsch, Vol. 52. Netherlandish 
Artists: Cornelis Cort (New 
York: Abaris Books, 1986), 
85-88. 

3. Riggs, 374, no. 249. 

4. A possible candidate for the 
designer of this suite of 
engravings attributed to Cort is 
Frans Florls. The composition of 
The Rich Man in Hell is 
comparable with Florls's 
Hercules Killing Cerberus 
engraved by Cort. See Strauss and 
Shlmura, 198. 



235 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



102 



Cornells Bos 

The Holy Trinity 



After Frans Floris 

Engraving 

i4''/i6 X lo'Vis in. (36.7 X 27.8 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: frans florus in/fentur 
Lower right: Cornells Bus/feslt 

References 

HoUsteln, 3:123, no. 35, 6:254, 
no. 7; Scheie, 38, 121, no. 32 

Literature 

Van de Velde, 1:403, no. 38, 
2:pl. 191 




236 



Scheie suggested The Holy Trinity probably 
dates from the end of Bos's career, after his 
return from Italy in 1550. This hypothesis is 
based on the supposed similarity between the 
inscriptions on the present work and two 
other engravings by Bos after Floris: The 
Gathering of Manna, undated, and The 
Entombment of Christ, dated 1554.' These 
inscriptions are, however, not similar at all, 
with the form and spelling of the signatures 
different in each case. The Gathering of 
Manna is monogrammed and inscribed 
"Franciscus Florins inuent." The Entomb- 
ment of Christ is signed "Cornells Bus fecit" 
and inscribed "Franciscus floris inuentor." 
The Holy Trinity is signed "Cornells Bus 
fesit" and inscribed "frans florus in/fentur." 
The unusual spelling of Bos's name in these 
signatures, "Bus," appears on three other 
prints, all dating from the 1550s; Moses 
Showing the Tablets of the Law after Ra- 
phael, 1 5 5 1, The Worship of the Golden Calf 
after Raphael, 155 1, and The Assiduous Wife 
after Maarten van Heemskerck, 1555.^ 
Scheie's argument for dating The Holy Trin- 
ity to the 1 5 50s should have focused on the 
fact that the distinctive spelling of Bos's 
name appears only on prints from this period. 
No painting of this subject by Floris is 
known. 



Notes 

1. Scheie, 114, no. 15; and ibid., 
120, no. 31. 

2. Ibid., 115, no. 16; ibid., no. 17; 
and ibid., 117, no. 24. 



237 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



103 



Dirck Volkertz. Coornhert 

The Massacre of the Innocents 



After Maarten van Heemskerck 
Engraving from two plates 
10% X 23 in. (27.3 X 58.4 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Upper light: Martin Hemskerk 
inventor/DVCuerenhert fecit 
1551 

References 

Hollstein, 4:229, no. 90, 8:239, 
no. 9 1 



238 



In 1546 Heemskerck was commissioned by 
the clothweavers guild in Haarlem to paint an 
altarpiece for the guild's chapel in the church 
of Saint Bavo.' This triptych probably 
included The Massacre of the Innocents as 
the central panel, flanked by The Adoration 
of the Shepherds and The Adoration of the 
Magi. The middle canvas was destroyed in a 
fire and replaced in 1591 by Cornelis 
Cornelisz. van Haarlem's version of the sub- 
ject, one of the most representative examples 
of mannerism in Haarlem, to which were 
attached Heemskerck's surviving wings. ^ 
Coornhert's engraving is very likely a record 
of Heemskerck's lost painting. 

Coornhert was the engraver most 
closely associated with Heemskerck; 
Hollstein records 188 examples of collabora- 
tion between the two artists.^ They probably 
met via introduction by Cornelis Bos, 
Coornhert's teacher and an earlier collabo- 
rator of Heemskerck (see Lazarus in Heaven 
and the Rich Man in Hell [cat. no. lor]). After 
Bos's departure for Italy in 1547 Coornhert 
became Heemskerck's principal engraver. 
The Massacre of the Innocents dates from the 
early period of their association. There is 
some question, however, as to whether 
Coornhert's first print after Heemskerck 
might have preceded 1547.'' Coornhert's last 
signed and dated engraving after Heemskerck 
was created in 1559.^ 

The brutal and tragic story of the Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents is told in Matthew 
2.t6. When Herod heard from the three wise 
men that Jesus had been born in Bethlehem, 
he ordered his soldiers to kill all male chil- 
dren under the age of two in the town. 



Notes 

1. Rainald Grosshans, Maaiten 
van Heemskerck: Die Gemdlde 
(Berlin; Horst Boettcher Verlag, 
1980I, 171, no. 55. 

2. Ibid., pi. 81. 

3. Hollstein, 8:237-42. 

4. Hollstein (ibid., 241, no. 184) 
claimed their collaboration 
began in 1546 with 
Heemskerck's design of a lottery 
poster for the city of Haarlem. 
Veldman (55 n. 3) stated that this 
commission actually dated from 
1547- 

5. It is one of the prints in the 
series Parable of the King Who 
Made Supper (Hollstein, 8:239, 
no. 100). An unsigned set of eight 
engravings dated 1564, The 
Vicissitude of Human Things, is 
attributed to Coornhert (ibid., 
240, nos. 128-35I. Riggs (346, no. 
146), however, thinks they are 
closer to Cornelis Cort or Philip 
Galle. 



239 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



104 



Cornelis Cort 

Ruggiero Liberating Angelica 



After Titian 
Engraving 



12V16 X 17^16 in. (30.7 X 44.6 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lowerleft: Cum Privilegio; 1565 
Lower right: Titianus 

References 

Bierens de Haan, 205, no. 222 
i/iii; Hollstein, 5:59, no. 222 i/iii; 
Le Blanc, 2:53, no. 149; 
Wurzbach, 1:342, no. 61 



Literature 

Catelli Isola, 42, no. 34; 
Heinecken, 4:352; Marietta, 
5:325-26; Mauroner, 58, no. 2; 
Oberhuber, Renaissance, 201, 
no. 343; Schab, 25, no. 16; 
Wethey, 3:165, pi. 224 



240 



H ■-■—-■■-<. -J ^V- 







1^1 •^, 



Fig. 104a 

Titian (Italy, c. 1489— 1576) 
Ruggiero Liberating Angelica 
Pen and brown ink 
io'/i6X is'Viein. (25.6 X40.5 cm| 
Musee Bonnat, Bayonne 



Because of the presence in Ruggiero Liberat- 
ing Angelica of the voluptuous woman with a 
dragon, the subject has sometimes been 
interpreted as the mythological story of Per- 
seus rescuing Andromeda. Mariette, how- 
ever, was probably correct in interpreting the 
theme as Ruggiero and Angelica. Cort's 
engraving reproduces, in reverse, a drawing 
by Titian formerly in Mariette's collection 
and now in Bayoime (fig. 104a). Copies of this 
sheet are in Chatsworth (previously consid- 
ered Titian's original), the Louvre, and the 
British Museum.' Cort's engraving, one of his 
first after the Venetian master, is faithful in 
its dimensions and details to Titian's 
modello. The drawing in Bayonne, as well as 



the one in Chatsworth, appears to have been 
trimmed along the upper edge. The only nota- 
ble changes made by Cort are the addition of 
a smoking ewer behind the head of Angelica, 
and some minor alterations to the ruins in 
the right background. Titian's design has 
been dated generally about 1540-50, but 
Oberhuber has assigned it to the period closer 
to the date of Cort's engraving, suggesting, in 
fact, that it was made especially for Cort to 
reproduce. 

The subject is taken from Lodovico 
Ariosto's epic Renaissance poem Orlando 
Furioso, in which the beautiful princess 
Angelica is captured by an evil people, ex- 
posed to a ravenous sea monster (not so 
threatening in Titian's version), and rescued 
by the brave paladin Ruggiero riding a 
hippogriff, a legendary animal that is half- 
horse, half-griffin. 



Notes 

I . For a discussion of Titian's 
drawing, see Konrad Oberhuber, 
Disegni di Tiziano e della sua 
cerchia, exh. cat., Fondazione 
Giorgio Cini, Venice (Vicenza: 
Neri Pozza Editore, 1976), 101-3, 
no. 45. 



241 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



105 



Cornells Cort 

The Adoration of the Shepherds 



After Poiidoro da Caravaggio 

Engraving 

17 X 22=/i6 in. (43.2 X 56.7 cm) 




Xsfir onar id unoof. fli*a 



trbn^ fn trarhrv paitfwi via^rrl. tmfina^. rrjoliM 



Inscriptions 

Lowei right: 1569 
Below: Polidorus/invent; Hocte 
oritur . . . ; Romae ex T>'pis 
Ant./D. Salamanca. 



References 

Bierens de Haan, 52, no. 30 ii/iv; 
HoUstein, 5:42, no. 3oiia/iV; Le 
Blanc, 2:51, no. 35; Wurzbach, 
1:342, no. 36 i/ii 

Literature 

Heinecken, 4:344 



242 



Fig. 105a 

Polidoro da Caravaggio 

I Italy, c. 1499/1500— c. 1543) 

The Adoration of the Shepherds 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash, 

heightened with white, traces of 

black chalk 

i/'/s X 22716 in. (43.5 X S7 cm) 

Real Academia de Bellas Artes de 

San Fernando, Madrid 




Polidoro's The Adoration of the Shepherds of 
the early 1520s was one of his most famous 
and influential compositions. Cort's engrav- 
ing of 1569 is only one of several printed, 
drawn, and painted copies of Polidoro's origi- 
nal design, a drawing in Madrid (fig. 105a).' 
The painted versions include canvases in pri- 
vate collections in the United States (attrib- 
uted to Girolamo da Carpi) and Rome and at 
Burghley House (derived from Cort's engrav- 
ing).- Drawn copies are in the Louvre and the 
Albertina.^ Bierens de Haan recorded seven 
other engraved versions of the composition, 
and DeGrazia attributed an eighth version to 
Cherubino Alberti.-" 

Because of the number of copies, 
Ravalli presumed the onetime existence of a 
painting or fresco of this composition by 
Polidoro. It is more likely that the Madrid 
sheet was simply the final and most original 
of Polidoro's graphic variations on the theme 
of the Adoration. Of his four drawings of the 
subject noted by Marabottini,^ the Madrid 
study is certainly the most dynamic and spa- 
tially complex, with the figures radiating 
from the Christ Child like the points of a star 
Unlike many printmakers who freely inter- 
preted their models, especially altering 
details of the landscape, in his engraving Cort 
was remarkably faithful in reproducing 
Polidoro's drawing. 

For the story of the Adoration of the 
Shepherds, see Giovanni Battista Franco's 
version of this subject (cat. no. 24). 



Notes 

1 . Lanf ranco Ravalli, Polidoro 
Caldara da Caravaggio 
(Bergamo: Edizioni "Monumenta 
Bergomensia," 1978), 117, no. 45. 

2. Ibid. 

3. Ibid., 240—41, nos. 331-32. 

4. Diane DeGrazia Bohlin, Prints 
and Related Drawings by the 
Carracci Family: A Catalogue 
Raisonne (Bloomington and 
London: Indiana University 
Press, 1979), 505, fig. 4. 

5 . Three other drawings are 
discussed in Alessandro 
Marabottini, Polidoro da 
Caravaggio (Rome: Edizioni 
dell'Elefante, 1969), 1:84-86, 
2:pls. 64—65. 



243 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



TO(l Cornelis Cort 

The Forge of the Cyclopes 

After Titian 

Engraving 

i6y8X 15% in. (41.6 X 39 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: Ex Arche/typo 
Pallatii/Brixiensis/i572; M/F 
Lower center: Cum Privilegio/ 
Cornelio cort. fe 

References 

Bierens de Haan, 158, no. 156 
ii/iv; Hollstein, 5:55, no. 156 
ii/iVj Le Blanc, 2:53, no. 148; 
Wurzbach, 1:342, no. 62 

Literature 

Catelli Isola, 44, no. 39,- 
Heinecken, 4:351; Mariette, 
5:322-23; Mauroner, 61, no. 14; 
Wethey, 3:225, fig. 66 




244 



Cort's engraving The Forge of the Cyclopes is 
the only surviving evidence of a set of three 
canvases painted by Titian in 1564-68 for 
the Palazzo Comunale, Brescia; the paintings 
were destroyed in a fire in 1575. Comparison 
with earlier Italian examples of the subject, 
such as Enea Vico's engraving The Forge of 
Vulcan after Primaticcio (cat. no. 61), accen- 
tuates the highly dramatic and protobaroque 
character of Titian's composition, particu- 
larly its sotto in su viewpoint and its dynamic 
arrangement of the figures in space. 

In spite of the presence on this plate of 
Cort's signature, his authorship has been 
doubted. Bierens de Haan discussed the mer- 
its of these arguments and rejected them in 
favor of the traditional attribution to Cort. 
The puzzling inscription "MF" had been 
interpreted as signifying the authorship of 
another artist, specifically the Swiss engraver 
Melchior Meier. Bierens de Haan proposed 
another hypothesis: the mysterious mono- 
gram may refer to one of Titian's pupils or 
assistants, such as Marco Vecelli, who pro- 
vided Cort with a drawn copy of Titian's 
painting. Another possibility is that the 
monogram refers to the publisher of the 
engraving, if the initials are interpreted as sig- 
nifying "M formis." 

As described by Virgil [Aeneid, 
8.424-53), the Cyclopes, the one-eyed sons 
of Uranus and Gaea, worked in the forge of 
Vulcan, where they made Zeus's thunder- 
bolts and arms for Aeneas. Titian adapted the 
mythological subject for civic purposes by 
showing the Cyclopes forging arms for the 
city of Brescia. 



245 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



107 



Cornells Cort 

The Rest on the Return from Egypt 



After Federico Barocci 

Engraving 

l6Ve X 11^16 in. (41 x 28.5 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: Federicus Barotyus 
Vrbinas/inventor/Corneli cort £e. 
Below: Virgo quid . . . /Romae 
An. lub 157s 

Below, on cartouche: AMPL.mo 
Cardinali . . . /Laurentius 
Vaccarius D.D. 

References 

Bierens de Haan, 61, no. 43 iii/iii; 
Heinecken, 4:344; HoUstein, 
5:44, no. 43 iii/iii; Le Blanc, 2:51, 
no. 41; Mariette, 1:71; Wurzbach, 
1:342, no. I 




_ ' Utirjr Av. Jul 



246 



The Rest on the Return from Egypt is based 
on Barocci's Madonna della Scodella. Cort's 
engraving reproduces the second of Barocci's 
three autograph versions, painted between 
1570 and 1573 and now in the church of 
Santo Stefano, Piobbico.' The differences be- 
tween the three paintings are relatively 
minor, and Cort's reproduction is faithful to 
Barocci's original, differing principally in 
details in the setting. Cort's engraving or 
Barocci's original was one of the inspirations 
for Hendrik Goltzius's The Holy Family with 
Saint John the Baptist, 1593 (cat. no. i2i|. 

The subject of the Holy Family's return 
from Egypt is encountered considerably less 
frequently than their flight to Egypt. The 
principal differentiating characteristic in rep- 
resentations of the two narratives is the older 
appearance of the Christ Child in the present 
subject. As told in Matthew 2.19-20, after 
the Holy Family had settled in Egypt, an 
angel told them of Herod's death and that it 
was safe for them to return to their 
homeland. 



Notes 

I. Olsen, 154-55, no. 22/ii. The 
first version of 1570, now lost, 
was engraved in 1 6 1 2 by Raff aele 
Schiaminossi (Bartsch, 17:218, 
no. 2g|. The third version of 1573 
is in the Vatican Pinacoteca. 



247 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



T08 Michiel Coxcie 

The Brazen Serpent 

Etching and engraving 

11V2 X i6'Vi6 in. (29.2 X 42.4 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower nght: MIGHEL.FLA/ 
MINGO.IN/ .VENTVR. 

References 

Hollstein, 5:62, no. i; Wurzbach, 
1:351, no. I, 2:779 



Literature 

Heinecken, 4:385; Oberhuber, 
Zwischen, 89, no. loi 



248 



Oberhuber accurately described The Brazen 
Serpent as "an accumulation of motifs rather 
than a unified whole." Although inscribed as 
Coxcie's own invention, the composition's 
artfully posed figures owe a considerable debt 
to works of Italian artists of the High 
Maniera, such as Agnolo Bronzino, Francesco 
Salviati, and Perino del Vaga. The placement 
of the figures in the foreground and the vista 
at the left into the distant landscape recall, in 
reverse, Salviati's composition The Birth of 
Adonis, engraved in 1544.' The twisting nude 
standing at the center of The Brazen Serpent 
is a figural type seen in many Central Italian 
compositions of the midsixteenth century. 
The writhing nude reclining at the lower 
right is another familiar figure, such as the 
figure in Nicolas Beatrizet's Tityus after Mi- 
chelangelo (cat. no. 6). 

According to Vasari, this print was ex- 
ecuted during the 1540s, that is, after Coxcie 
returned to Flanders from his lengthy stay in 
Italy.^ Despite this reference the execution 
was attributed by Wurzbach to Jan Cornelisz. 
Vermeyen, probably because Coxcie is identi- 
fied on the print only as the inventor,- but the 
attribution to Vermeyen generally has been 
rejected. A related drawing by Coxcie is at 
Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania.^ 

The story of the brazen serpent is told 
in Numbers 21.6-9. After the Hebrews es- 
caped from Egypt, they complained to Moses 
about their hardships. As punishment God 
sent a pack of serpents to destroy them. 
When the Hebrews repented, God instructed 
Moses to make a serpent out of brass and 
raise it on a pole. If they had been bitten, 
those who looked at the brass serpent would 
live. This story is considered a portent of the 
Crucifixion. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 15:42, no. 12. 

2. Vasari, 5:435-36. 

3. Noted in Karel G. Boon, 
Catalogue of the Dutch and 
Flemish Drawings in the 
Rijksmuseuni: Netherlandish 
Drawings of the Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth Centuries (The 
Hague: Government 
Publishing Office, 1978), 1:196, 
under no. 523, n. 2 



249 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



109 



Frans Flotis 

Victory 



Etching 

12% X ly'/s in. (31.5 X43.5 cm) 




i^^jAter t/f/ pro/m/sa pif JaCiy^ 'Vi'aona fati'i ^Mimrrr tu iouas Tunas brrcu 

'0 rt&mm/n &tra/5 yU^triadisn^ o irr mitxima yroifS- Tu umn'rr maifUij tu rtefterr rot 



4, marici, Qu/me poA-s. ren'mf 0i sir {am msirrr par-ni • 
isa pMipjfe' JJrtf/ApT/s Gprurum u&Cfs & moCe btferbc ■ I 



Inscriptions 

Upper center: Victoria 

Lower left, on tablet: fracs floris 

fecit/Cock excudebat 

Lower left: 1552 

Below: Haec tibi .../... mole 

Superba. 



References 

Hollstein. 6:253, no. 4; Le Blanc, 
2:241, no. 3; Nagler, 
Monogrammisten, 5:47; 
Wurzbach, 1:543, "O- 3 

Literature 

Oberhuber, Zwischen, 90, no. 
102; Riggs, 328, no. 68; Van de 
Velde, 1:416, no. 77, 2:pl. 230 



250 



Victory is based on Floris's monumental 
painting of 1 549, created to decorate the Arch 
of the Genoese for the festivities celebrating 
the triumphal entry to Antwerp of Emperor 
Charles v and his son. The allegorical female 
figure standing at the center alludes to the 
victory of the imperial navy over the Turkish 
fleet; the muscular enchained nudes repre- 
sent the defeated infidels. The dense, planar 
arrangement of the emphatically plastic fig- 
ures resembles an antique sculptural relief, as 
does the figure reclining like an antique river 
god in the upper right corner.' Floris's paint- 
ing was executed after his stay in Italy from 
1 541 to 1547. During that period he made 
numerous copies after Italian works of art, 
and Victory manifests his careful study of 
antiquity, Michelangelo, and particularly the 
paintings of Giulio Romano. 



Notes 

I. For a study of Floris's interest 
in the antique, see Carl van de 
Velde, "A Roman Sketchbook of 
Frans Floris," Master Drawings 7 
(1969I: 255-86. 



251 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



T TO Jacques de Gheyn ii 

The Wedding Feast of Peleus and Thetis 

After Crispijn van den Broeck 

Engraving 

13 X iSVs in. (33 X 48 cm) 




Lhtm ioHuiiigtum pltiinic iiumcrvsa Tiecrunt 
yurha Kfict, ijatJUaij mcfatr ef yimbrvfia 



,\,itc fupcmniir, tanauain 'T^aitui _ anniQ iurpaits, 
^ jMuiifia, trrorii d'ucta sit»ui iirbula . 



'^iet paao ( Soi:j tandem^ tanacm pcrufrii^ur Onto 
'Aiin< suh jccum Trtjtia tiksa rranml. 

■J 1 f " « f R 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: CVBroeck. Invent.Ao 

1589/IDGheyn. Sculptor/J.Razet 

exc: 

Below: Dum convivatum . . . / 

H.I.R. 



References 

Hollstein, 7:174, no. 336; Le 
Blanc, 2:288, no. 47; Nagler, 
Monogrammisten. 5:403; 
Passavant, 3:124, no. 205; 
Wurzbach, 1:584, no. 205 



Literature 

Broeder, 95, no. io2; Heinecken, 
3:363 



252 



Fig. iioa 

Crispijn van den Broek 
(Flanders, c. 1524-1588/89) 
The Marriage Feast of Peleus 
and Thetis 

Pen and brown ink, gray wash 
6''/i6 X 8Vs in. I16.4 x 22.6 cm) 
National Gallery of Scotland, 
Edinburgh 




The Wedding Feast of Peleus and Thetis is 
based on a late design by van den Broeck. A 
related preparatory drawing, in reverse, 
signed and dated 1 5 86, is in the National Gal- 
lery of Scotland (fig. iioa).' This sketch, 
however, could not have been de Gheyn's 
modello because of numerous differences in 
details as well as being considerably smaller 
than the engraving. Furthermore, the com- 
position of the drawing is aligned parallel to 
the picture plane, whereas the engraving 
shows a more dramatic recession into space. 

This engraving is one of de Gheyn's 
relatively few mythological subjects, and one 
he engraved again in 1597.^ Although de 
Gheyn's style developed in a naturalistic 
direction, the later version is curiously more 
mannerist in composition, with the figures 
arranged in a fashion reminiscent of 
Goltzius's engraving The Wedding of Cupid 
and Psyche after Bartholomeus Spranger, 
1587 (fig. 132a). 

Hollstein recorded a single state for this 
engraving. Christopher Mendez identified 
three states: a first state with the address of J. 
Pitten, a second (like the present impression) 
with the address of J. Razet, and a third with 
the addition of the address of J. Allardt.^ 

This engraving is sometimes referred to 
simply as The Banquet of the Gods, but the 
present title is more specific. For a descrip- 
tion of this feast, see Jean Mignon's Scenes 
from the Trojan Wars (cat. nos. 92-95 1. 



Notes 

1. Keith Andrews, Catalogue of 
Netherlandish Drawings in the 
National Gallery of Scotland 
(Edinburgh: National Galleries of 
Scotland, 1985), 1:14, no. D 694, 
2:fig, 97. Andrews also mentions 
another version in Darmstadt. 

2. Hollstein, 7:174, no. 337. 

3. New Acquisitions (London: 
Christopher Mendez Old Master 
Prints, 1987), no. 21. 



253 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



T T T Jacques de Gheyn ii 

The Conversion of Saint Paul 



After Karel van Mander 

Engraving 

I3y8 X2i%in. (34.6 X 55.3 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: KVMandere Inven, 
IDGeyn excude, 

Below: Dum ferus . . . /H.Grotius 
AEtat XII 

References 

HoUstein, 7:184, no. 395, i/ii 







tccvam mult^ emn mditf iftntfm 



luilur >baului, (auaxa annectxt 



ra annecttt cautna' 



^raaot mXonuxt ^omui Omnipctenhi C'tif'nf'i, 



'Ef ja(cr ^ruffif- muih> am h 



254 




Fig. ma 

Karel van Mander 
(Flanders, 1 548-1606) 
The Conversion of Saint Paul 
Pen and brown ink, gray wash 
ii'yi6 X i9"/i5 in. (30 X 50 cm| 
Lutz Riester, London 




^.9L..A«# 



Although undated, styhstic evidence sug- 
gests that The Conversion of Saint Paul was 
executed about 1595-96, when the accom- 
panying verses were signed by the poet Hugo 
Grotius (1583- 1645) at the age of twelve. A 
similar signature by Grotius appears on de 
Gheyn's engraving Vanitas, assigned to about 
1595-96 by Ackley' The present work bears 
de Gheyn's signature as the publisher, not as 
the engraver. As Ackley pointed out, of the 
more than four hundred prints attributed by 
Hollstein to de Gheyn, most list him only as 
the inventor or the publisher. This group 
includes some of the best-known engravings 
attributed to de Gheyn, including The 
Witches' Sabbath and The Crossbowman.^ 
Significantly The Conversion of Saint Paul 
was not listed among de Gheyn's oeuvre by 
Le Blanc, Passavant, or Wurzbach. 

The engraving is identical, in reverse, to 
van Mander's modello recently on the art 
market (fig. ma).' The only discernible dif- 
ference is that the drawing has been trimmed 
slightly, particularly along the top and left 
margins. 

The story of the conversion of Saint 
Paul is told in Acts 9.1-6. Saul of Tarsus per- 
secuted the early Christians in Jerusalem. He 
and a group of persecutors were traveling to 
Damascus in order to continue their harass- 
ment of Christians. Christ appeared in the 
sky and blinded Saul, who was thrown from 
his horse and is depicted here seated on a rock 
at the left. Christ converted him and 
rechristened him Paul. 



Notes 

1. Hollstein, 7:125, no. 104; 
Ackley, 21, no. 11. 

2. Hollstein, 7:120, no. 96; and 
ibid., 128, no. 108. For a 
discussion of these prints, see 
Ackley, 43, no. 23. Mariette 
(quoted in Hollstein, 28:99) 
attributed these prints to Andries 
Stock. J. P. Filedt Kok, curator of 
prints, the Rijksmuseum, 
suggested in conversation with 
the author, November 1987, that 
the engraver of The Conversion 
of Saint Paul is de Gheyn's pupil 
Zacharias Dolendo. 

3. Sold at Karl & Faber, Munich, 
27 November 1986, lot 86. 



2.55 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



T T 2/ Jacques de Gheyn ii 

The Prodigal Son 



After Karel van Mander 

Engraving from two plates 

iS'Vie X 2S^Vi6 in. (40.2 X 65.9 cm) 

Gift of Mary Stansbury Ruiz in honor of Ebria Feinblatt 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: Illustrissimo . . . / 
Anno S. CO D XC VI (1596]; 
KVMandere inven, lacobus de 
geyn Sculptor. 
Lower light: ICVisscher excudit. 

References 

Hollstein, 7:185, no. 410 ii/iii; 
Le Blanc, 2:288, no. j; Nagler, 
MonogTaministen, 5:403; 
Passavant, 3:123, no. 190; 
Wurzbach, 1:583, no. 190 

Literature 

Breeder, 97, no. 106; Korazlja, 72, 
no. 42; Oberhuber, Zwischen, 
223, no. 335 




256 



■5i^"--^* * ^ •t^:^r-^-°£s^ii' - 




Fig. 112a 

Gregorio Pagani 

(Italy, 1558-1605) 

A Country Dance 

Pen and brown wash, heightened 

with white, traces of black chalk 

lo'/ie X 16^16 in. (26.5 x 41.5 cm) 

The Governing Body, 

Christ Church, Oxford 




Like Hendrik Goltzius's The Judgment of Mi- 
das (cat. no. i2o|, de Gheyn's The Prodigal 
Son is crowded with auxiliary and secondary 
spectators, with the protagonists (the prodi- 
gal son and his dancing partner) almost lost 
in the center of the crowd. This method of 
composition was favored by many Dutch 
mannerist artists at the end of the sixteenth 
century, following van Mander's strictures 
for organizing historical narratives.' For this 
engraving van Mander composed a scene of 
extraordinary worldliness and luxury befit- 
ting its moralizing subject. In Christ's par- 
able, told in Luke 15.13, the prodigal son 
squandered his father's inheritance through 
riotous living. Van Mander depicted the same 
scene four years earlier in his design of the 
subject in a set of four engravings by Jacob 
Matham.- The differences between the two 
engravings are dramatic. Although both are 
essentially genre scenes of aristocratic frivol- 
ity, de Gheyn's setting resembles a village 
kermis, while Matham's looks like a noble 
banquet. De Gheyn's composition appears 
less like earlier Flemish village scenes, such 
as those painted by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 
as it does a drawing, A Country Dance (fig. 
ii2a|, from the early 1580s by van Mander's 
Italian contemporary Gregorio Pagani,' 
whose design seems to anticipate van 
Mander's recommendations for composition. 
The semicircular arrangement of the figures 
in A Country Dance is found in other 
Florentine works of this period, particularly 
those by Jan Stradanus and Antonio 
Tempesta. Van Mander was in Italy in the 
early 1570s and could have imported this 
style to the Netherlands. 



Notes 

1 . For a summary of van 
Mander's theories, see Strauss, 
Goltzius, 2:504. 

2. Baitsch, 3:174, no. 173. 

3. James Byam Shaw, Drawings 
by Old Masters at Christ 
Church. Oxford (Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1976), 1:92, 
no. 250. 



257 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



II3-I4 



Hendrik Goltzius 

The Roman Heroes 



Two from a series of ten engravings 



113 Marcus Curtius 

i4'/2 X 9V\6 in. (36.9 X 23.7 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: 4; HG. fecit. 
Below: Curtius in vastum . . . / 
. . . F. Estius. 

References 

Bartscti, 3:34, no. 99; Dutuit, 
4:421, no. 99 ii/ii; Hirscfimann, 
Verzeichnis, 68, no. 165 ii/ii; 
Hollstein, 8:36, no. 165 ii/ii; 
Strauss, Goltzius. 1:392, no. 234 
ii/ii; Wurzbacii, 1:599, no. 99 

Literature 

Breeder, 49, no. 34 




Ciirtiiis in vajfumj?/? Mluris hinhim 



f'"ioic etjpattas fatrjir caHc/hs antcrr 

liurn uati , ctj)iitnsJ)'Hnmiiirat Immiis ■ 



258 



114 Fam e and His toiy 



i4'-yi6 X 91/4 in. (37.7 X 23.5 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left, on pedestal: Omnia 
morte .../... Posteritate viget./ 
AKHPATOS H AAKH 
Lower center: HGoltzius 
fecit./Ao. 1586 
Below: Vita hominum . . . / 
. . . F. Estius. com./posuit. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:34, no. 95; Dutuit, 
1:420, no. 95 ii/ii; Hirschmann, 
70, no. 170 ii/ii; HoUstein, 8:36, 
no. 170 ii/ii; Strauss, Goltzius, 
1:402, no. 239 ii/ii; Wurzbach, 
1:599, no. 95 

Literature 

Mielke, 60, no. 86; Oberhuber, 
Zwischen, 206, no. 301 




"^'lin hcminum bmiis cif.l'iiUtr inifur aqiiahhs CKit. 
Gimaif il/iii! cm Icuis vinbra Jiinit. . 
nima iTNin Tirtus, ctfirhn Jhrtn I'nmim 
-. , Mnjh chao (rtmii\Jiil' tiiiftn/lf Jrmit: 
kJrtrucIa tu,Curliqi,aCc'clcs. ci alter Hcmh , 
I CEJptis anms,_fimus, ^ aura, nihil, 
luif/n Pe/fmftts,ttjitch pfflrra fhiiia 
^ \ijh-at m In cm, ct iwctc latnr 1 rtrt. 



J' 



^,u 




7 t^ihif , I 'irlufcmtg tuam, nimmif fmrurn 

Ft decus, i^Cafir, TaitMiafq tiicrs, 
limn Pci/knfas. it piirjiefi- Tama volatu ■ 

rirtnris minis, irgucra ,ft qftra irlrnit: 
tpenum mm tirf qumtn virbite «er aimoi 
^llam am carirmfmht, ti vfig natt: 
''Etjhrps Trmugmum (jermancis iiarta niprtrs 
, Jnuiriv prifcoi ^wtr (ueturaiui. rfgff • 



259 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 




Fig. 113a 

Hendrik Goltzius 

Maicus Curtius 

Pen and brown ink 

1378 X 9V4 in. I35.2 X23.5 cm| 

Den Kongelige 

Kobberstiksamling, Statens 

Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen 






Marcus Curtius of 1 586 is the fourth plate in 
Goltzius's series The Roman Heroes, made 
up of eight engravings and two title pages. 
The other figures represented are Publius 
Horatius, Horatius Codes, Muscius 
Scaevola, Titus Manlius Torquatus, Marcus 
Valerius Corvus, Titus Manlius, and 
Calphurnius. In 362 B.C. Marcus Curtius, 
considered the bravest of the Roman heroes, 
appeased the gods by leaping to his death in 
full armor near the Roman Forum. This event 
is shown in the background of Goltzius's 
composition. 

Goltzius's dramatic figure of Curtius 
on horseback is comparable with Italian 
equestrian subjects such as Giuseppe 
Scolari's woodcut Saint George (cat. no. 43) 
based on a now-lost fresco of Curtius by 
Giovanni Antonio da Pordenone. In spite of 
the differences in media the two prints have 
much in common. Scolari's method of cut- 
ting the block displays his keen interest in 
richly pictorial effects similar to those 
employed by Cornelis Cort in his engravings 
after Titian, and Goltzius was the consum- 
mate heir of Cort's technical achievements in 
engraving. Scolari and Goltzius used a dense 
network of linear patterning to emphasize 
the sculptural mass of the forms and the dra- 
matic and dynamic character of the setting. 
The exaggerated muscularity of Goltzius's 
horse and rider is typical of his works from 
the late 1580s. 

A drawing related to Maicus Curtius is 
in Copenhagen (fig. 113a).' It is identical in 
nearly every respect to the second state of the 
print, except for the absence of the turbulent 
sky and Goltzius's signature. Reznicek sug- 
gested that this sheet was made as a record of 
the engraving, perhaps as a gift for a patron, 
rather than in preparation for it. Reznicek 
also noted that this drawing marked a new 



development in Goltzius's draftsmanship in 
which he employed the conventions of 
engraving, with swelling and tapering lines, 
to delineate the forms. This manner became 
widespread in the work of mannerist artists 
at the end of the century, from Goltzius's 
Dutch followers Jacob Matham and Ian 
Muller to the Italian Agostino Carracci. 

Fame and History is the tailpiece, or 
perhaps an alternative frontispiece, to 
Goltzius's series. The figure of Fame, who ap- 
pears to be walking on air in a complex pose 
of graceful contrapposto, is comparable with 
similar types in Bartholomeus Spranger's 
works of the early 1580s, such as his fresco 
Mercury and Minerva in Hradcany Castle, 
Prague, or drawing Jupiter and Juno in the 
Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Brunswick. - 
The twisting, kneeling figure of History also 
recalls a Spranger type, such as the female 
nude in his slightly later painting Susanna 
and the Elders, circa 1585-90, in the Schloss- 
museum, Schleissheim.^Both Goltzius's and 
Spranger's figures might have been inspired 
by Vincenzo Danti's sculpture Honor Van- 
quishing Deceit, circa 1561, in the Museo 
Nazionale, Florence." 

Fame and History functions as an 
elaborate allegory on the transitory nature of 
fame. While the winged female above trum- 
pets the glory of the Roman heroes, below 
kneels a woman reading a book inscribed 
"historia." She is surrounded by a variety of 
elements often found in vanitas still lifes: the 
skull (death), the winged hourglass (the pass- 
ing of time), the architectural ruins and 
broken pottery (the former glory of Rome), 
and the phoenix rising from the flames (re- 
birth). The message is that although the mor- 
tal lives of the Roman heroes have been extin- 
guished, the virtue of their deeds resounds 
eternally. 



Notes 

1. Reznicek, Goltzius. 1:295, 
no. 142. 

2. Kaufmann, 299, no. 20-4O; 
and Albrecht Niederstein, "Das 
graphische Werk des 
Bartholomaus Spranger," 
RepoTtorium fiir 
Kunstwissenschaft 52 (1931): 

7, fig- I- 

3. Diez, pi. 21. 

4. John David Summers, The 
Sculpture of Vincenzo Danti: 
A Study in the Influence of 
Michelangelo and the Ideals of 
the Maniera (New York and 
London: Garland Pubhshing, 
Inc., 1979I, fig- 28. 



260 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



"5 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Icarus 



After Cornells Cornelisz. van Haarlem 

Engraving 

13x131/8 in. (33x33-3 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: C.C. inve./HG. 
sculp.; 2 

Around tondo: DVM SIBI . . . 
DONATAQVIS.; SCIRE, DEI . . . 
TENVISSE SVIS. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:79, no. 259; Dutuit, 
4:449, no. 259; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis, 134, no. 307; 
HoUstein, 8:103, no. 307; 
Strauss, Goltzius, 2:446, no. 258; 
Wurzbach, 1:601, no. 259 

Literature 

Hirschmann, Meister, 52; 
Korazija, 61, no. 18; Rodari, 106, 
no. 1 10; Rotili, 108, no. 133 




'c^^fP 



261 




Fig. iisa 

Hendrik Goltzius 

Tantalus 

Engraving 

i3'/i6 X n'/ifi in. (33.2 X 33.5 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 



Icarus is from a series of Goltzius's 
engravings from 1588 commonly known as 
The Four Disgracers. The other plates repre- 
sent Tantalus (the only dated plate) (fig. 115a), 
Phaeton, and Ixion. This group differs from 
The Four Condemned described by Ovid 
[Metamorphoses, 4.451 -61); instead of Ica- 
rus and Phaeton, Ovid's group included 
Tityus and Sisyphus. Goltzius might have 
elected to represent Icarus and Phaeton, 
whose offenses against the gods do not seem 
as heinous as Tantalus's or Ixion's, because 
their airborne feats contrast with the murky 
images of the Underworld in the other two 
engravings. Icarus was the son of Daedelus 
who served King Minos of Crete by designing 
his famous labyrinth. Daedelus and Icarus 
tried to escape their servitude by construct- 
ing wings made of feathers and wax and 
flying to freedom. Icarus, however, flew too 
close to the sun, melting the wax, and tum- 
bled to his death. 

Lowenthal characterized The Four 
Disgracers as illustrations of Karel van 
Mander's artistic theory of varietas, the con- 
scious attempt to display variety in a work of 
art.' The compositions are designed as 
contrasting pairs of images. Icarus and Pha- 



eton appear before brightly lit landscapes; 
Tantalus and Ixion are represented before 
dark and smoke-filled backgrounds. The 
bodies of Icarus and Ixion project dramati- 
cally into the viewer's space; the faces of Tan- 
talus and Phaeton are hidden as they fall 
backwards away from the viewer. 

The vigorous and virtuosic foreshorten- 
ing of Cornelis's design for Icarus is also seen 
in his finished drawing Tityus, signed and 
dated 1588, in the Albertina.^ That composi- 
tion was probably inspired by Cornelis Cort's 
1566 engraving of the subject by Titian.^ Al- 
though the overdeveloped muscularity of 
Cornelis's design can be characterized as 
Michelangelesque, it probably owes a greater 
debt to Michelangelo's followers, such as the 
Bolognese Pellegrino Tibaldi, whose mus- 
cular and strongly foreshortened ignudi in 
the Palazzo Poggi, Bologna, might have been 
known to Cornells.*' In terms of iconogra- 
phy and figural style Goltzius's engravings 
have also been compared by Lowenthal 
and Oberhuber with Dirck Volkertsz. 
Coornhert's etching An Allegory of Human 
Ambition after Maarten van Heemskerck, 
1549.5 



Notes 

1. Anne Lowenthal, "The 
Disgracers; Four Sinners in One 
Act," Essays in Noithern 
European Art Presented to 
Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann 
on His Sixtieth Birthday 
(Doornsplik: Davaco Publishers, 
1983), 148-53- 

2. Thiel, 127, pi. 2. 

3. Bierens de Haan, 174, no. 192. 
Titian's painting of Tityus, now 
in the Prado (Wethey, 3:156, no. 
19A, pi. 99), was part of a series of 
canvases representing The Four 
Condemned. Goltzius also 
copied Titian's composition in a 
painting in the Frans 
Halsmuseum, Haarlem. For 
another example from Titian's 
series, see Giulio Sanuto's 
engraving Tantalus (cat. no. 40). 

4. Giuliano Briganti, // 
Manierismo e Pellegrino Tibaldi 
(Rome: Cosmopolita, 1945), fig. 
119. The possible connection 
between Cornelis and Tibaldi 
was made in Frederick Antal, 
Classicism and Romanticism 
(London: Routledge &. Kegan 
Paul, 1966), 79 n. I. 

5. Lowenthal, "The Disgracers," 
151, fig. 5; Oberhuber, Zwischen, 
94, under no. 107. 



263 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



T T /C Hendrik Goltzius 

Hercules and Cacus 



Chiaroscuro woodcut printed in black, pale ocher, and light blue 
i6'/i6 X i2''/8 in. (40.8 X 32.7 cm), lower margin trimmed 

Illustrated in color on page 228 



Inscriptions 

Center left, on rock: Ao. 88; 
HGoItzius Inve 

References 

Bartsch, 3:72, no. 231; Dutuit, 
4:445, no. 231; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis, 162, no. 373 iii/iii; 
Hollstein, 8:122, no. 373 iii or 
iv/iv; Strauss, Goltzius, 
2:687-88, 696, no. 403 ii or iii/iv; 
Wurzbach, 1:600, no. 231 

Literature 

Broeder, 75, no. 68; Hirschmann, 
Meistei, 127-28; Korazija, 63, 
no. 24; Mielke, 26, no. 6; 
Oberhuber, Zwisclien, 214, no. 
317; Rodari, 106, no. 114; Rotili, 
109, no. 137; Strauss, 
Ciiiaroscuro, 287, no. 134 




264 



Hercules and Cacus is Goltzius's largest, 
only dated, and possibly earliest chiaroscuro 
woodcut. Unlike his slightly later set of de- 
ities (see cat. nos. 1 17-19) the present wood- 
cut bears Goltzius's signature only as the in- 
ventor, not as the cutter of the block. The 
form of this inscription consequently has 
raised doubts about his role in the print's cre- 
ation.' The inference is that Goltzius 
employed a professional woodcutter to ex- 
ecute his design. Strauss argued that the form 
of the inscription on Hercules and Cacus and 
its location in the tone block, rather than the 
line block, suggest two theories: first, that 
Goltzius did not personally execute the print 
and second, that the tone blocks might have 
been added at a later date. The issue probably 
can be resolved only through stylistic 
analysis. 

Perhaps the closest comparable work is 
The Magician (cat. no. 117). Both woodcuts, 
as well as the chiaroscuro deities, are ex- 
ecuted in the Italian tradition of Antonio da 
Trento's extensive use of the line block to 
carry the design (for example, Narcissus and 



Echo [cat. no. 50]). The musculature of the 
figures of Hercules and the magician is 
defined exclusively by the line block. In 
slightly later chiaroscuros, such as 
Amphitrite (cat. no. 119), Goltzius used both 
blocks to model the forms. Because of the 
similarities between Hercu7es and Cacus and 
The Magician, the doubts about Goltzius's 
authorship of this print may be removed. 

In the third state of this woodcut, the 
name of publisher Willem Janssen appears 
below the lower borderline. Because the 
present impression has been trimmed, it is 
not possible to determine its state. Nancy 
Bialler observed, however, that this impres- 
sion's combination of colors is rare.- For this 
reason it may be supposed that this print is 
from the earlier state. 

Cacus was the fire-breathing son of Vul- 
can, who lived in a cave on the Aventine Hill 
in Rome. After completing his tenth labor 
(stealing the cattle of Geryon), Hercules 
headed back for Greece. While in Italy, some 
of his cattle were stolen by Cacus. Hercules 
discovered Cacus's cave and killed him. 



Notes 

1. Similar doubts were raised by 
Bartsch regarding a set of three 
engravings of goddesses, bearing 
only Goltzius's monogram, 
which he attributed to Jan 
Saenredam (3:241, nos. 62-64); 
they are now accepted, however, 
as Goltzius's own. 

2. Conversation with Mary 
Stansbury Ruiz, late 1986. 



265 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



II7-I9 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Gods and Goddesses 



Three from a series of seven chiaroscuro woodcuts 



117 The Magician 

Printed in black, ocher, and green 
i3'/i6X io'/4in. (34.5 X26 cm) 

lUustTated in color on page 229 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: HG f. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:73, no. 238; Dutuit, 
4:446, no. 238; Hiischmann, 
Veizeichnis, 163, no. 374; 
Hollstein, 8:123, no. 374; 
Strauss, Goltzius, 740, no. 4x81 
Wurzbach, 1:600, no. 238 

Literature 

Broeder, 75, no. 69; Hirschmann, 
Meistei, 13 1; Mielke, 57, no. 81; 
Oberhuber, Zwischen, 215, no. 
318; Strauss, Chiaroscuro, 286, 
no. 135 




266 



ii8 



Helios 



Printed in black, brown, and tan 
13% X loVi in. (35.2 X 26.7 cm| 

IllustTated in color on page 230 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: HG. fe. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:73, no. 234; Dutuit, 
4:445, no. 234; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis, 162, no. 37 1; 
Hollstein, 8:121, no. 371; Le 
Blanc, 2:306, no. 89; Strauss, 
Goltzius, 2:743, no. 419; 
Wurzbach, 1:600, no. 234 

Literature 

Broeder, 72, no. 66; Hiischmann, 
Meister. 128, 133; Strauss, 
Chiaroscuro, 296, no. 140 




267 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



119 Amphithte 



Printed in black, brown, and ocher 
13%% ioy4in. (34.9 X26 cm) 

Illustrated in color on page 231 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: HG. fe. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:73, no. 235^ Dutuit, 
4:445, no. 235; Hirschmann, 
Verzeicbnis, 161, no. 368 ii/ii; 
Hollstein, 8:121, no. 368 ii/ii; 
Le Blanc, 2:306, no. 89; Strauss, 
Goltzius, 2:750, no. 422 ii/ii; 
Wurzbach, 1:600, no. 235 

Literature 

Hirschmann, Meister, 128, 133; 
Strauss, Chiaroscuro. 290, no. 
137 ii/ii 




268 




Fig. 1 1 8a 

Hendrik Goltzius 

ApoUo 

Engraving 

i3"/i6X lo'/a in. (34.7 X 26 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



Shortly after Goltzius's Hercules and Cacus, 
1588 (cat. no. 116) came his most significant 
chiaroscuro woodcuts: a series of six oval rep- 
resentations of gods and goddesses, plus an 
introductory plate entitled The Magician. 
Strauss dated the prints about 1594 (after 
Goltzius's return from Italy), but most 
authors more correctly assign them to the 
late 1 5 80s. The gods and goddesses form 
three pairs of male mythological figures and 
their female consorts: Helios, god of the sun, 
and Nox (Bartsch 237), goddess of night; 
Pluto (Bartsch 233), ruler of the Underworld, 
and Persephone (Bartsch 236), his wife,- and 
Neptune (Bartsch 232), god of the sea, and 
Amphitrite, his wife. The six prints form a 
cosmological representation of the world. 

If the three pairs of gods and goddesses 
symbolize the elements of air, earth, and 
water. The Magician represents the synthesis 
of time, nature, and creation. This woodcut is 
also known as The Cave of Eternity. Strauss 
provided a summary of the composition's 
classical source in Claudian. The old man is 
Demogorgon, the creator of all things, who 
writes the laws that determine the move- 
ments of the universe. He is surrounded by 
references to time, such as the snake swal- 
lowing its tail (an Egyptian symbol of eter- 
nity) and the clocks on the rear wall of the 
cave. The many-breasted woman at the right 
is Mother Nature, who holds an instrument 
emitting the products of her creation. 

The figure of Helios provides the most 
compelling parallels to Goltzius's works of 
the 1 5 Bos. The size, format, and depiction of 
the setting are close to his engraving Apollo, 
1588 (fig. II 8a), and the striding Helios is 
similar to the Apollo in Jan Mullet's engrav- 
ing The Creation of the Sun and the Moon 
after Goltzius, 1589.' Helios and the other 
male gods in this series are especially repre- 
sentative of the confluence in Haarlem of the 
artistic ideas of Bartholomeus Spranger, 



Cornells Cornelisz. van Haarlem, Karel van 
Mander, and Goltzius. The latter three artists 
set up an academy in Haarlem that flourished 
about 1588-90. One of its aesthetic tenets 
was the importance of making studies from 
the live model, and the male figures in the 
present woodcuts resemble several of 
Cornelis's male nudes.- Although more natu- 
ralistic in the treatment of the musculature 
than the gods in this series, the goddesses 
possess the elongated proportions and icy ele- 
gance of Spranger's female figures.^ 

The Magician is probably the earliest 
woodcut in this series because it is nearest to 
Hercules and Cacus in its reliance on the line 
block to carry the design. Helios and 
Amphitrite exhibit Goltzius's later use of the 
tone blocks to define the forms. This method 
is especially evident in Amphitrite in which 
the plasticity of the female nude is defined 
through hatching in the tone block as much 
as through the cutting of the line block. Mod- 
eling the figure with the tone blocks creates a 
softer, less exaggeratedly sculptural effect 
than his approach to the male nudes. 

The representation of Helios is icono- 
graphically straightforward. As god of the 
sun, he is depicted standing on a rainbow 
against a fiery backdrop. The identification of 
Amphitrite has been more problematic. 
Bartsch thought the woodcut represented the 
sea nymph Galatea, a subject favored by 
Wurzbach and Strauss, who compared 
Goltzius's composition with Raphael's fresco 
The Triumph of Galatea. Ackley simply ti- 
tled the print A Sea Goddess but considered 
plausible the suggestion of Amphitrite as the 
subject.'' The other proposed identifications, 
Galatea and Venus Marina, have no particu- 
larly personal connection with Neptune, 
aside from their association with the sea. Be- 
cause the other paired deities in the series 
share intimate relationships, it is most likely 
that this female figure is Neptune's wife. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 3:43, no. 141; and 
ibid., 179, no. 39. 

2. For example, Goltzius's Pluto 
IS comparable with Cornelis's 
drawing Mercuiy in the 
Kunstsammlung der Umversitat, 
Gottingen, and to the figure of 
Ulysses in Jan Muller's engraving 
Ulysses and Irus after Cornells, 
1589 (Thiel, pi. 5; and Bartsch, 
3:276, no. 30). Goltzius's 
Neptune is comparable with 
Cornelis's design for Aiion 
engraved by Muller (Bartsch, 
3:277, no. 32). 

3. Bartsch, 3:288, no. 73. 
Amphitrite's languid pose is like 
Spranger's Nymphs Presenting 
Flowers and Fruit to Venus 
engraved by Muller 

4. Ackley, 8, no. 4. 



269 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



-r^Q Hendrik Goltzius 

The Judgment of Midas 

Engraving 

i6y8X26'/i6in. (42.2 X75.1 cm) 




CpsSi^^jSS.'^. 



• S^tpifmMmj s ari. I^iu 



^g^^ifa-ii^ ^^?4f ' fStr-JMi. - )w _i ,.«;-. Jot^ „r^jr^ <«4-*-- ";^^^ t-Ai^ •■"t'**^- o-s-*- •<». •-^ <— 



Inscriptions 

Lower left'. Anno 1590. 
Lower rigiit; SPECTABILI . . . / 
HGoltzius invent, et sculpt. D.d. 
Below: Thymbreis fidibus . . . / 
Franco Estius. 



References 

Bartsch, 3:43, no. 14O; Dutuit, 
4:427, no. i4oi/u; Hirschmann, 
Veizeichnis. 52, no. 132 i/iii; 
Hollstein, 8:28, no. 132 i/iii; 
Strauss, Goltzius. 2:504, no. 285 
i/iii; Wurzbach, 1:600, no. 140 



liteiatuie 

Breeder, 44, no. 26; Hirschmann, 
Meister. 59; Korazija, 64, no. 26; 
Mielke, 25, no. 4; Oberhuber, 
Zwischen, 210, no. 307; Rodaii, 
104, no. 103 



270 




Fig. i2oa 

Hendrik Goltzius 

The Judgment of Midas 

Pen and brown ink, rose-brown, 

brown, and gray washes, green 

and white bodycolor 

15% X 26% in. (40 X 68.1 cm) 

The Pierpont Morgan Library, 

New York 



The Judgment of Midas has always been con- 
sidered the culmination of the most manner- 
ist phase of Goltzius's career. Dated 1590, the 
engraving was his last major print before his 
departure for Italy in November of that year. 
His post-Italian oeuvre is generally more 
classical and less willfully exaggerated in the 
treatment of anatomy than the engravings of 
the 1580s. The present engraving indicates 
that Goltzius was moving stylistically in that 
direction prior to his visit to Italy. His render- 
ing of the male figures (Apollo, King Tmolus, 
Pan) is already more naturalistic than, for 
example, his engraving The Large Heicules 
from the previous year. ' To some degree The 
fudgment of Midas follows, however, Karel 
van Mander's mannerist principles of com- 
position, with the ostensible subject placed 
in the middleground and secondary figures 
and spectators dominating the foreground. In 
this regard Goltzius's print shares methods of 
composition common with van Mander's 
design of this subject, engraved in 1589 by 
Claes Jansz. Clock.- Also, like Jacques de 
Gheyn ii's The Prodigal Son (cat. no. 1 12| and 
unlike van Mander's composition, Goltzius's 
engraving features several figures in contem- 
porary dress, making the classical subject 



more accessible for audiences of the time. 

Goltzius's full-scale, brightly colored 
modello, in reverse, is in the Pierpont Morgan 
Library (fig. i2oa|.^ A smaller preliminary 
sketch drawn rapidly in pen and brown ink is 
in an English private collection.-' In about 
1592 Spranger painted a copy, now in the 
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, of the 
left half of the composition. = 

The humorous story of the musical 
contest between the gods Apollo and Pan is 
told by Ovid [Metamorphoses 11. 147-80). 
This competition, with Apollo here depicted 
playing a violin and Pan standing at the 
extreme right holding his pipes, was judged 
by the mountain god Tmolus, seated on a 
bank at the right. Everyone, except King Mi- 
das of Phrygia, standing to Pan's left, judged 
Apollo the winner. In retaliation Apollo, say- 
ing no one with human ears could prefer 
Pan's music to his, transformed Midas's ears 
to those of an ass. Present in Goltzius's com- 
position, but not in Ovid's account, are the 
figures of Minerva and the nine Muses. It has 
been plausibly suggested that Goltzius 
originally might have intended the design as 
part of his illustrations to Ovid's Metamor- 
phoses engraved in 1589-90 by members of 
his workshop.*^ 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 3:44, no. 142. 

2. HoUstein, 4:172, no. 4,- 
reproduced in Hand et al., 219, 
fig. 2. 

3. Reznicek, Goltzius, 1:273, no. 
107, 2:pl. r27. 

4. Shoaf and Turner, 270-71, 
fig. isi. 

5. Kaufmann, 303, no. 20-52. 

6. Hand et al., 159-60. 



271 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



J ^ T Hendrik Goltzius 

The Holy Family with Saint John the Baptist 

Engraving 

iS'^isx isVs in. (47.8 X 35.3 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: HG/i 593/6 

Below: Praecvrsor Domini . . . / 

. . . CRESCENTIBVS ANNIS. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:16, no. 20,- Dutuit, 
4:409, no. 20 iii/iv; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis, 11, no. 14 iii/v; 
HoUstein, 8:5, no. I4iii/v; Le 
Blanc, 2:306, no. 18; Strauss, 
Goltzius, 2:574, no. 317 iii/v; 
Wurzbach, 1:599, no. 20 

Literature 

Broader, 30, no. 6; Hirschmann, 
Meister, 75-76; Marietta, 2:316; 
Oberhuber, Zwischen, 213, 
no. 312 




Fa^tcvRj-oR. Domini LACTANTii- AB vbere -aatris 
Blanditvb. pvero pver. et collvdit .aamce. 



QVEM R.t^OaMOVIT iTALIENi- VTERO \BDITAJ, H\v ET . 
INDICE .^^ON5TR.^VIT DIUITO CRE^ i. ENTIB\ J .\N,...- 



272 




Fig. I2ia 

Federico Barocci (Italy, 

1535-1612) 

Madonna del Gatto 

Oil on canvas 

44'/'n X 35'yi6 in. (113 X 91 cm] 

National Gallery, London 



The Holy Family with Saint John the Baptist 
is from a series of six engravings illustrating 
scenes from the life of the Virgin, known as 
the Meisterstiche (master prints) because of 
Goltzius's virtuosity in imitating the manner 
of a different famous artist in each engrav- 
ing.' The verses on The Annunciation, 1594, 
compare Goltzius with the mythological 
characters Vertumnus and Pomona, who had 
the ability to transform themselves into 
whatever other forms they desired. The dedi- 
cation of the group to Duke Wilhelm v of Ba- 
varia appears on The Annunciation. For this 
dedication Goltzius received from the duke a 
gold chain and portrait medallion. 

The other prints in the series are The 
Visitation, 1593, in the style of Par- 
migianino,- The Adoration of the Shepherds, 
1594, in the style of Jacopo Bassano, The 
Adoration of the Magi, 1594, in the style of 
Lucas van Leyden, and The Circumcision, 
1594, in the style of Albrecht Diirer. Mariette 
and Bartsch considered Raphael to be 
Goltzius's source for The Annunciation, 
1594. Hirschmann suggested instead 



Federico Zuccaro without, however, citing a 
comparable work by the painter Another 
possible inspiration, probably seen by 
Goltzius during his visit to Rome, is 
Francesco Salviati's painting of the subject in 
the church of San Francesco a Ripa.-' 

Of the six prints, only The Adoration of 
the Magi and The Circumcision attempt to 
duplicate the graphic techniques of their 
models, van Leyden and Diirer. The other 
four engravings reflect only the compositions 
and/or figural types of their sources. Perhaps 
as a result of their greater ambition. The 
Adoration of the Magi and The Circumcision 
axe generally considered the finest pieces in 
the set. In fact, Bartsch considered them 
"veritables chefs-d'oeuvre de I'art." 

The present work derives from the style 
of Federico Barocci. Its composition resem- 
bles Barocci's paintings Madonna del Gatto, 
circa 1573-74 (fig. 121a), in the National 
Gallery, London,-* and Madonna della 
Scodella (see Cornelis Cort's 1575 engraving 
after this painting. The Rest on the Return 
from Egypt [cat. no. 107]). 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 3:15-16, nos. 15—20. 

2. Goltzius's composition seems 
only partially m the manner 

of Parmigianino. Most like the 
Parmese master is Goltzius's 
spatial construction, with 
the dramatic and narratively 
mcohesive shifts m scale 
between foreground, middle- 
ground, and background. This 
quality, combined with the 
elegant contrapposto of the figure 
(loseph or Zachanas) in the 
middleground, is reminiscent of 
Parmigianino's Madonna dal 
Collo Lungo in the Palazzo Pitti, 
Florence. As noted by Strauss, 
however, the weighty giavitas of 
the figtires of Mary and Elizabeth 
is more reminiscent of Goltzius's 
Raphaelesque set of engravings 
The Nine Muses, 1592 (ibid., 
3:45-56, nos. 146-54). The head 
of Mary especially recalls, in 
reverse, Thalia from this series. 

3. Rolf E. Keller, Das Oiatoiium 
von San Giovanni DecoUato in 
Rom: Fine Studie seiner Fiesken 
(Rome: Institut Suisse de Rome, 
1976), pi. 38. 

4. Olsen, 157, no. 26, pi. 33. 
Goltzius might have seen the 
painting in Italy or known it 
through Cort's engraved copy 
(Bierens de Haan, 64, no. 44). 



273 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



122 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Saint Jerome 



After Palma Giovane 

Engraving 

16V2 X II in. (41.9 X 27.9 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Upper light: Alexandre Victorio 

. . . /Jacobus Palma Invent. 

HGoltzius sculp 

Lower right: Cum privil. 

Sa. CM. /Anno. 1596. 

Below: Vir pictatis . . . ; 

C. Schoneus 

References 

Bartsch, 3:81, no. 266; Dutuit, 
4:450, no. 266 i/ii; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis, 135, no. 311 i/iii; 
HoUstein, 8:105, no. 311 i/iii; 
Strauss, Goltzius, 2:616, no. 335 
i/iii; Wurzbach, 1:601, no. 266 

Literature 

Broeder, 66, no. 55; Hirschmann, 

Meister. 85 







r/ri itr, 






274 



Fig. 112a 

Alessandro Vittoria 

(Italy, 1525-1608I 

Saint lerome 

Marble 

Santa Maria dei Fran, Venice 




Goltzius met the Venetian painter Palma 
Giovane during the Dutch artist's visit to 
Venice in 1591. It was probably at that time 
that Goltzius drew Palma's portrait, which is 
in the Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin.' The Ve- 
netian master depicted on many occasions 
the subject of Saint Jerome (see discussion of 
Palma's etching Saint Jeiome, Pope 
Damasus, and Two Putti [cat. no. 32]). The 
specific source of Goltzius's engraving has 
not been identified, although a connection 
has been suggested with a painting by Palma 
of Saint Jerome in the Pushkin Museum, 
Moscow, which was sent in 1594 to Duke 
Francesco Maria of Urbino.^ As Mason 
Rinaldi observed, however, the differences in 
pose between that in the engraving and the 
painting and the discrepancy in date 
(Goltzius was in Venice in 1591; the engrav- 
ing was executed in 1596) preclude this sug- 
gested relationship between the two works.^ 
The figure of Saint Jerome, with its languid 
and Tintorettesque contrapposto and its an- 
gular positioning of the limbs, has more in 
common with Palma's painting of Saint 
Jerome of about 1590-95 in the Brass collec- 
tion, Venice.'' 

The engraving's dedication to the late 
sixteenth-century Venetian sculptor 
Alessandro Vittoria provides an additional 
link with Venetian art. The figure's elongated 
proportions and long, intricately textured 
beard resemble Vittoria's sculpture of the 
same subject of about 1565 in the church of 
Santa Maria dei Frari, Venice (fig. i22a|.^Just 
as Goltzius's engraving Marcus Curtius (cat. 
no. 113) may owe a debt to Giuseppe Scolari, 
the present work is similar in physiognomy 
and vertical composition to Scolari's wood- 
cut Saint Jerome, itself influenced by 
Vittoria's sculpture.* 



Notes 

1. Reznicek, Goltzius, 1:365, 
no. 281. 

2. Most recently suggested by 
Nicola Ivanoff and Pietro 
Zampetti, "Giacomo Negretti 
detto Palma il Giovane" in 

I pittori bergameschi. 11 
Cinquecento m |Bergamo: 
Poligrafiche Bolis, 1979), 546, 
no. 128. 

3. Mason Rinaldi, 96, under 
no. 174. 

4. Ibid., 135, no. 502. 

5. Francesco Cessi, Alessandro 
Vittoria scultore (isis- 1608) 
ITrento; CoUana Artisti Trentini, 
1961I, vol. 4, pt. I, 33, pi. 22. 

6. Rosand and Muraro, 302, 
no. 97. 



2.75 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



123-26 



Hendrik Goltzius 

Woodcut Landscapes 

Series of four woodcuts on blue paper 
Illustrated in color on pages 232-33 



123 Landscape with a Waterfall 



i^'Ae'x. 5% in. (11.2 X 14.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

lower left: HG 

References 

Bartsch, 3:75, no. 242; Dutuit, 
4:446, no. 242; Hirschmann, 
Veizeichnis, 164, no. 378 i/ii; 
HoUstein, 8:127, no. 378 i/ii; 
Strauss, Goltzius, 2:720, no. 410 
i/ii; Wurzbach, 1:601, no. 242 

Literature 

Broeder, 77, no. 72; Hirschmann, 
Meistei, 136-37; Strauss, 
Chiaroscuio, 274, no. 129 i/ii 




124 Landscape with Seated Couple 



4yi6 X 5% in. (11. 3 X 14.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: HG 

References 

Bartsch, 3:75, no. 243; Dutuit, 
4:446, no. 243; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis, 164, no. 379 i/ii; 
HoUstein, 8:127, no. 379 i/ii; 
Strauss, Goltzius, 2:718, no. 409 
i/ii; Wurzbach, 1:601, no. 243 

Literature 

Broeder, 78, no. 73; Hirschmann, 
Meister, 136-37; Oberhuber, 
Zwischen. 216, no. 32 1; Strauss, 
Chiaroscuro. 276, no. 130 i/ii 




276 



125 



Landscape with Peasant Dwelling 



4V1 X 5=78 in. ( 1 1.4 X 14.4 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: HG 

References 

Baitsch, 3:75, no. 244; Dutuit, 
4:446, no. 144; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis. 164, no. 380 i/ii; 
HoUstein, 8:127, no. 380 i/ii; 
Strauss, Goltzius, 2:722, no. 411, 
ib/ii; Wurzbach, 1:601, no. 244 

Literature 

Broeder, 78, no. 74; Hirschmann, 
Meister. 136-37; Strauss, 
Chiaioscuio, ijz, no. 128 i/iii 




126 Cliff on the Seashore 



4yi6X 5% in. (11.3 X 14.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: HG 

References 

Bartsch, 3:75, no. 245; Dutuit, 
4:447, no. 245; Hirschmann, 
Verzeichnis. 164, no. 381 i/ii; 
Hollstein, 8:127, no. 381 i/ii; 
Strauss, Goltzius. 2:714, no. 4r2 
ii/ih; Wurzbach, 1:601, no. 245 

Literature 

Broeder, 79, no. 75; Hirschmann, 
Meister, 136-37; Strauss, 
Chiaroscuro. 278, no. 131 ii/iii 




277 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



Goltzius's series of four woodcut landscapes 
is generally dated about 1595 -1600, among 
the last examples of his activity as a 
printmaker. He was not particularly inter- 
ested in the subject of landscape prior to his 
return from Italy in 1591. His experience of 
crossing the Alps and especially his exposure 
to the Italian landscape tradition probably 
inspired him in this new direction. These 
four woodcuts were printed either as 
chiaroscuros with the addition of two tone 
blocks or, as here, from only the line block on 
blue paper; impressions on blue paper were 
frequently heightened with white gouache. 
These methods of printing were used for sev- 
eral other woodcuts by Goltzius and have 
raised the issue of when the tone blocks were 
added. Strauss believed the color impressions 
dated considerably later, while Ackley lo- 
cated impressions on blue paper showing 
amounts of wear in the line block similar to 
that found in chiaroscuro versions.' Al- 
though not associated solely with Venice, the 
use of blue paper traditionally has been con- 
sidered a distinctive feature of Venetian 
draftsmanship.- Because of controversy over 
the chronology of Goltzius's woodcuts, it 
may be hazardous to consider his use of blue 
paper a result of his visit to Venice. Signifi- 



cantly, however, none of his major pre-Italian 
woodcuts — Hercules and Cacus (cat. no. 
116) and the seven oval chiaroscuros (see cat. 
nos. II 7 - 1 9 ) — was printed on blue paper. 

Several authors have remarked on the 
compositional similarities between 
Goltzius's Landscape with Wateifall and 
Landscape with Seated Couple and woodcuts 
by Titian, Domenico Campagnola, and other 
Venetian artists. Goltzius's method of print- 
ing proofs with and without the tone blocks, 
although practiced at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century by German artists such as 
Lucas Cranach, Hans Burgkmair, and Hans 
Baldung Grien, is also encountered in Ven- 
etian woodcuts of the period; Nicolo 
Boldrini's Milo of Croton (cat. no. 9) is an 
example of a block printed in both manners. 

The question remains as to whether 
Goltzius personally cut the blocks. Strauss 
believed the name of Jacob Matham could be 
read in each block, a questionable theory de- 
nied by Ackley.^ Even though some woodcuts 
traditionally attributed to Goltzius have been 
removed from his oeuvre,"* these four land- 
scapes are consistent in their fluid and 
painterly manner of hatching with other 
woodcuts bearing similar monograms, such 
as Young Man with a Cane and Portrait of 
Gillis van Breen.^ 



Notes 

1. Ackley, ly-i^, nos. 14-15. 

2. For a discussion of the origins 
and uses of blue paper, see foseph 
Meder, The Mastery of Drawing 
(1919I, translated and revised by 
Winslow Ames (New York: 
Abans Books, 1978), 1:141-42. 

3. Ackley, 28. 

4. Ackley (50-51, nos. 27-28) 
suggested Esias van de Velde as 
the author of Arcadian 
Landscape (Bartsch 241) and 
Monk Fed by Ravens (not in 
Bartsch). 

5. Strauss, Chiaroscuro, 250-55, 
nos. 121-22. 



278 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



127 



Lucas Kilian 

Hercules and Antaeus 



After Bartholomeus Spranger 

Engraving 

iSVs X 12% in. (46 X 32.4 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Below left: S.C.M. pictor. 

B./Spranger pinxit 

Below center: Successus 

hominum . . . / 

...CI3IDCX. |i6io| 

Below right: L.K. ex. cum/S.C.M. 

privilegio 

References 

Hollstein, 17:142, no. 527; 
Le Blanc, 2:451, no. 60 

Literature 

Korazija, 72, no. 43; Rodari, iii, 
no. 130; Rotili, 121, no. 164 




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i^Juciitui octant nam tninC twn pctncif.' fmiii:, - /Jiiiaitz aofniicr, Ooeni, f'chtitmnqiic vai^c. 

S C yC-Kch^ A <:L.KVi'KXAT?ilRCMK.ICH.ASSI STMSlNSniOSESATCRl .\\0'\'ll\DEL.A>!T[g\:i {.LlGAXTtX. AD- j^ ,,• „ am-. 

V ^ ' tmJrt. iunrr rt Msmf rr^i im: D.D^i A.v.r ei^ijcy: ■ ' • " 



280 




Fig. 127a 

Bartholomeus Spranger 

(Flanders, 1546-1611) 

Mars and Venus 

Pen and gray-brown ink, 

gray-brown wash, heightened 

with white 

10 X 8 in. I25.4 X 20.3 cm) 

Smith College Museum of Art, 

Northampton, Massachusetts 



According to the inscription, Kilian's Hercu- 
les and Antaeus is based on a now-lost paint- 
ing by Spranger. Although the print is dated 
1 6 ID, Spranger's composition was probably 
created several years earlier The intertwining 
figures of Hercules and Antaeus are compara- 
ble with those in Spranger's series of paint- 
ings of the 1 5 80s and 1590s, mostly in the 
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, repre- 
senting pairs of mythological lovers. The 
twisting figure of Hercules seen from the 
back in KiUan's engraving is especially close 
to Spranger's drawing Mars and Venus, 1597 
(fig. 127a).' Spranger's mustachioed and 
overly muscular figures are also familiar from 
Hendrik Goltzius's series of engravings The 
Roman Heroes, 1586 (see cat. nos. 11 3- 14). 
Although based on his own designs, 
Goltzius's series was strongly influenced by 
Spranger 

The tightly knit, three-dimensional 
group of Hercules and Antaeus might also 
have been influenced by the sculpture of 



Adriaen de Vries. Because the struggling 
Antaeus is partly obscured by the massive 
Hercules, they resemble a group intended to 
be viewed in the round. This complex spatial 
arrangement is similar to Jan Muller's 
engraving The Abduction of a Sabine Woman 
after de Vries (cat. no. 134). Kilian's method 
of delineation with an extremely dense net- 
work of engraved lines is very reminiscent of 
Muller's style during the first decade of the 
seventeenth century, as seen in Cupid 
Discovers Psyche in His Bed and The Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds (cat. nos. 140-41), both 
after Spranger 

Antaeus was the monstrous son of the 
earth goddess Gaea and the sea god Neptune. 
After killing the Nemean lion (seen in the 
background), Hercules met Antaeus who was 
invincible as long as he was in contact with 
his mother (Gaea is the reclining figure grow- 
ing out of the earth). By lifting Antaeus off 
the ground, Hercules was able to crush his 
enemy. 



Notes 

I . The drawing is known in two 
almost identical versions in the 
Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, 
Frankfurt am Main, and Smith 
College. See Thomas DaCosta 
Kaufmarm, Drawings fiom the 
Holy Roman Empire J540-16S0, 
exh. cat. (Princeton: Art 
Museum, Princeton University, 
1982), 140-42, no. 49. 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



T^Q Cornelis Massys 

Allegory with Skill, Diligence, and Indolence 

After Siciolante da Sermoneta 

Engraving 

r4yi6 X 19 in. (37 x 48.2 cm) 




-S^. 



ISyzW-BONA-LAVBACTS -SIC • DICTA; SOXERTlA.-SiCL15 • DESIDIAJW-SPEKNO • S ED PLACET- VS CB^E - LAB O S ->«3Vi^ 



Inscriptions 

Below: SVM.BONA VSQVE. 

LABOS 



Literature 

Scheie, 209, no. 251, pi. 63 



References 

Hollstein, 11:197, no- 84; Nagler, 
Monogiammisten, 2:169, no. 16; 
Passavant, 3:101, no. loi; 
Wurzbach, 2:111, no. loi 



Passavant thought a more appropriate title 
for Allegory with Skill, Diligence, and In- 
dolence would be The Choice of Hercules, 
claiming that the subject shows Hercules 
deciding between the arduous path of virtue 
and the easy path of vice. Although generally 
similar in meaning Massys's composition 
clearly does not depict Hercules,- the nude 
male has none of the usual attributes of the 
ancient hero. The standing woman repre- 
sents skill rewarding the industrious male at 
the right and punishing the indolent figure re- 
clining at the left. Hendrik Goltzius's engrav- 
ing Arf and Practice, 1582, conveys a similar 
message: diligence will be rewarded.' 

Massys's engraving is based on a paint- 
ing by Siciolante formerly in Pierre Crozat's 
collection but now lost. A painted copy is in 
the collection of Baron Descamps, Brussels.^ 
Because Massys's print is in reverse of the 
painting in Brussels, it may be assumed it is 
also in reverse of Siciolante's original canvas. 
In the engraving the figure representing dili- 
gence is seated to the left of the symbol of 
skill, when properly he should be seated to 
her right. Massys made a few other changes 
in the composition: the figural types are less 
Raphaelesque, the gestures of the standing 
woman are different, and a landscape with 
rolling hills has replaced the original 
seascape. 



Notes 

1 . Bartsch, 3:37, no. 1 1 1 . The 
comparison was made by 
Tervarent, 219. 

2. Tervarent, 219, fig. 43. Crozat's 
painting was engraved by Jean 
Haussard in the eighteenth 
century. See Roger Portalis and 
Henri Beraldi, Les Graveuis du 
dix-huitieme siecle (Paris: 
Damascene Morgand et Charles 
Fatout, 1881), 2:381. 



283 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



129 



Master G.A.I.F. 

Christ Healing the Sick 



Etching and engraving 

iiVs X 14V8 in. (32.1 X 35.9 cm| 




Inscriptions 

Lower right: G.A.I.F 



References 

Nagler, Monogrammisten, 2:965, 
no. 2705 



Literature 

Schab, 96, no. 81 



284 



Master G.A.I.F. is a completely mysterious 
artist, known only through his initials on this 
print. Christ Healing the Sick has been 
placed traditionally among the school of Fon- 
tainebleau in the second half of the sixteenth 
century. Its style of etching and composition 
suggests, however, Flemish prints of this 
period, and it should be catalogued more ac- 
curately as a Netherlandish print. The some- 
what stiff and classicizing figures are com- 
pletely unlike the suave and elegant types 
seen in the designs of the Fontainebleau art- 
ists. The setting, with its panoramic land- 
scape dotted with classical ruins, recalls 
similar views in works by Flemish Romanist 
artists like Maarten van Heemskerck. 

Timothy Riggs agrees with this sugges- 
tion of the print's Flemish origin.' He com- 
pared its distinctive figural style — the large, 
round heads with tightly curled hair — with 
some prints by Jan and/or Lucas van 
Duetecum: The Story of Judith, a series of 
four etchings with engraving, and Susanna 



and the Elders, an etching with engraving. - 
These prints are thought to be based on 
designs by Frans Floris or his school. Al- 
though Riggs does not believe Christ Healing 
the Sick is attributable to the Duetecums, he 
does pinpoint it to their and Floris's milieu. 

The initials "G.A.I.F" inscribed on the 
plate can be interpreted several ways. The 
traditional reading has been that the letters 
represent the artist's complete name. A sec- 
ond possibility is that the "¥" stands ioi fecit, 
making the artist's initials G.A.I. Further- 
more, the "I" might signify invenit, making 
the artist's monogram G.A. Finally there is 
the possibility that, if the print were Flemish 
in origin, the "A" could refer to Antwerp, so 
that the inscription could be translated "art- 
ist 'G' from Antwerp designed and made" 
this etching. 

The Gospels contain several stories of 
Christ healing the sick. This composition 
does not provide enough visual clues to iden- 
tify the particular event. 



Notes 

1. Letter to the author, 2 February 
1987. 

2. Riggs, 369, nos. 226-27. 



285 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



130-31 



Jacob Matham 

Mythological and Allegorical Subjects 



After Hendrik Goltzius 

Two from a series of eight engravings 



130 The Four Elements 



il'^iex 8¥i6 in. (30x20.8 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: i 

Lower right: HGoltzius inve./ 
ICVisscher excud. Ao. 1588 
Below: Sub celo Pater. . . / 
. . . Nectar alit.; i 

References 

Bartsch 3:200, no. 278; Dutuit, 
4:493, no. 105 ii/ii; Hollstein, 
11:228, no. 237 ii/ui 

Literature 

Rodan, 109, no. 125 




^ub cch'Tntrr t r I ^ L Hit -'IT 1 I wit 



f^inc hcnwtrSj pmaics J hirur aii',-r. cr hn-ftl,Jfntrxf 
Hrn: iili^rtalc emitc cfi. cctau ^ \7;Tar allt. 



286 



131 Venus, Bacchus, and Ceres 



1 1 '-Vie X 8^16 in. (30 x 20.8 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: 3. 
Lower center: HG. Invent. 
Below: Alma Ceres .../... atq 
Ceres.; 3 

References 

Bartsch, 3:200, no. 280; Dutuit, 
4:493, no. 107; HoUstein, 11:228, 
no. 239 iii/iii 




Almil OrriJ'nliif nlmn.Jimul finm- nlmus Hiacl'ui, 
/ ^hmj'tu- cm.-tn J^unif nuifhiin^ Jit-' 



Hisflnr ml icnslat, ml iLifiliir, .-im/.i j-rffim , 
Si ffnilii BM.ffiii. /I I'tmi-.,!!./. I..-'.- 



287 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 





Fig. 13" 

Hendrik Goltzius 
Venus, Bacchus, and Ceres 
Pen and black ink, gray 
bodycolor, incised for transfer 
ii7i6X 8V8 in. (29 X 20.6 cm) 
The Visitors of the Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford 

Fig. 131b 

Jacopo Zucchi 

(Italy, c. 1541-C. 1589) 

Bacchus with Attendants 

Fresco 

Palazzo Ruspoli, Rome 



The Four Elements and Venus, Bacchus, and 
Ceres are the first and third plates of a series 
of eight engravings by Matham after 
Goltzius. The unifying theme of the series is 
unclear, except that each print depicts a group 
of mythological or allegorical figures, such as 
the three fates, the five senses, and the seven 
cardinal virtues. Reznicek identified prepara- 
tory studies by Goltzius for The Seven Car- 
dinal Virtues. The Three Graces, and The 
Alliance of Mercury and Minerva. ' Shoaf and 
Turner added to this group a drawing for Ve- 
nus, Bacchus, and Ceres (fig. 1313],^ at one 
time considered a copy. Finally, a rapid 
compositional sketch by Goltzius in the Uni- 
versity of Leiden, formerly associated with 
The Third Day of Creation engraved by Jan 
Muller in 1589, has been published as a 
preliminary sketch for Matham's The Four 
Elements.^ The confusion is understandable 
because Goltzius's designs for Matham's and 
MuUer's prints, engraved only a year apart, 
are similar in the elongated elegance and 
exaggeratedly dynamic torsion of the figures. 
Matham's engravings stress the planarity of 
the compositions through the vertical 
arrangement of the figures, with relatively 
little recession into depth from the foremost 
to the rearmost figures. This two-dimen- 
sional and relieflike quality is characteristic 
of many late mannerist Italian paintings. The 
composition of Venus, Bacchus, and Ceres, 
for example, is comparable with Jacopo 
Zucchi's fresco Bacchus with Attendants in 
the Palazzo Ruspoli, Rome (fig. 131b). 

The Four Elements is the only dated 
print in the series. It is also the only plate 
with the name of the publisher: Goltzius 
himself in the first state; Visscher, as here, in 
the second; and Valck in the third. Hollstein 
also noted that the numbers appear twice in 
the third state. The present impression, how- 



ever, has the double numbers (at the lower 
left of the image, and at the lower right in the 
legend) but with Visscher's address. 

The Four Elements depicts personifica- 
tions, from top to bottom, of fire, air, water, 
and earth. Each is shown with attributes and 
an elaborate symbolic headdress. Similar to 
the treatment of the sun god in Goltzius's 
engraving Apollo (fig. 11 8a), the hair of the 
symbol of fire is arranged in flamelike 
tresses. He also holds flints and is seated on a 
salamander, an attribute of fire. The hair of 
the figure representing air has been trans- 
formed into cloud formations, and she holds 
a chameleon, which according to legend, was 
believed to subsist on air. The symbol of 
water reclines like an ancient river god, lean- 
ing on an overturned urn, resting her foot on a 
sea creature, and wearing an outrageous 
crown made of shells and a miniature boat. 
The representation of earth is seated on the 
ground, holds fruits and vegetables, and 
wears an even more outrageous headdress of 
vegetation and a mountain topped by a walled 
tower. 

Venus, Bacchus, and Ceres is an illus- 
tration of a theme popular in the Netherlands 
during the sixteenth century; Sine Cerere et 
Baccho friget Venus (without feasting and 
wine, love grows cold); for another represen- 
tation of this subject, see Jan Saenredam's 
engraving (cat. no. 143). Venus, the goddess of 
love, is seated holding a stalk of grain, while 
her son, Cupid, offers her a bunch of grapes. 
Bacchus, the god most closely associated 
with wine, is resting on a wine cask, wearing 
a crown of grape leaves, and holding aloft a 
wineglass. Instead of his customary youthful 
and sensuous appearance, Bacchus resembles 
his portly and older tutor SUenus. Ceres, the 
goddess of fertility and abundance, is seated 
on the ground with an elaborate coiffure 
resembling the cornucopia she is embracing. 



Notes 

1. Reznicek, Goltzius, 1:263, no. 
81; ibid., 289, no. 133; and ibid., 
290, no. 134. 

2. Shoaf and I\irner, 267-70, 
fig. 148. 

3. Hand et al., 156, no. 55. 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



132 



Jacob Matham 

The Table of Cebes 



After Hendrik Goltzius 
Engraving from three plates 
25y4X49 in. (65.4 x 124.5 cm) 




Inscriptions 

Lower left: Hocce artis . . . /Anno. 

1592. 

Below: Dircaei commenta . . . / 

Franco Estius 



References 

Bartsch, 3:166, no. 139; Dutnit, 
4:484, no. 43; HoUstein, 11:229, 
no. 253 i/ii; Le Blanc, 2:623, no. 
36; Nagler, Kiinstlei-Lexikon. 
9:444, no. 139,- Wuizbach, 2:123, 
no. 139 



Liteiatuie 

Mariette, 3:284 



290 




Fig. 132a 

Hendrik Goltzius 

The Wedding of Cupid and 

Psyche 

Engraving 

i6'/a X 33"/i6 in. I41 x 85.5 cm) 

The Trustees of the British 

Museum, London 



This multifigured, rare engraving printed 
from three separate plates, one of the largest 
prints produced in the Netherlands, is cer- 
tainly Matham's most ambitious work. It is 
slightly larger than Matham's engraving 
Cleopatra Returning to Marc Antony, also 
printed from three plates.' Its scale and com- 
position invite comparison w^ith Goltzius's 
monumental masterpiece The Wedding of 
Cupid and Psyche after Bartholomeus 
Spranger, 1587 (fig. 132a).- The gap of five 
years between the two engravings strikingly 
illustrates changes in Goltzius's style during 
that period. Despite the presence of a degree 
of mannerist artifice in the proportions and 
movements of some of the figures, such as 
Fortune standing on a globe at the lower cen- 
ter,-' The Table of Cebes is essentially an al- 
legory told in the language of a contemporary 
Dutch genre piece. In this respect it is similar 
to Jacques de Gheyn ii's engraving The Prodi- 
gal Son, 1596 (cat. no. 112). Goltzius's com- 
position, with its expansive viewpoint, dra- 
matic chiaroscuro, and imaginative and 
varied groupings of figures, is different from 
earlier Netherlandish representations of the 



theme, such as Philip Galle's 1561 engraving 
after Frans Floris, whose design appears, in 
comparison with Goltzius's, more diagram- 
matic and illustrational.'* Shortly after its 
publication Matham's engraving was copied 
in a very large canvas by Joseph Heintz now 
in the Kunstmuseum, Bern.= 

The Table of Cebes is a reconstruction 
of an allegorical painting described in the dia- 
logue "Pinax" by Cebes, a pupil of Socrates.** 
In general terms it depicts the journey of life, 
with mankind divided into concentric rings 
corresponding to the spiritually true and false 
paths leading ultimately to the palace of 
contentment. At the gated entrance in the 
lower right, the figure of an old man explains 
the future courses of the people's lives. For- 
tune is distributing her gifts to the assembled 
masses. As the people travel the circuitous 
paths, they are frequently interrupted by 
symbols, each with an identifying label, of 
immoderation, wastefulness, flattery, re- 
venge, improper upbringing, and so on. By 
making the morally correct choices in life, 
mankind eventually arrives at the glittering 
and brightly illuminated palace at the top of 
the composition. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 3:189, no. 226. 

2. Ibid., 85, no. 277. 

3 . This figure is very similar to 
the one in Jan Muller's engraving 
Fortune Distributing Her Gifts 
after Cornehs Cornehsz. van 
Haarlem, 1590 (ibid., 277, no. 33). 

4. Van de Velde, 1:430, no. 134, 
2:pl. 287. 

5. Kaufmann, 227, no. 7-2. 

6. For a summary of the imagery, 
see Anton Pigler, Barockthemen 
(Budapest: Ungarischen 
Akademie der Wissenschaiten, 
19561,2:459. 



291 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



133 



Jacob Matham 

Apollo 

After Cornells Cornelisz. van Haarlem 

Engraving 

13% X sys in. (34 X 22.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: CC Harlemensis 
Invent; IMatham sculp. 
Below: Astrorum Princeps . . . / 
. . . alles regierick 

References 

Bartsch, 3:156, no. 95; Hollstein, 
11:227, no. 182 i/ii; Nagler, 
Kiinstlei-Lexikon, 9:442, no. 95; 
Wurzbach, 2:123, no. 95 

Literature 

Heinecken, 4:316 




'lirifuii ' Pnin'iyf. Corll dnus. t'Hiis 
-filacer nd intiimt ' Jrnijjora . '.P^^ gcT- 



nSS£7 



Tfls'^priits etrbncv. ticti hcmcl dacr. fccrfclwcJi vnTchimd 
^^C Ttrcrrk Jii'iltr , M.jlciUiti Jitfr .:'tcs rnjtmii 



292 



Fig. 1333 

Jacob Matham 

Diana 

Engraving 

I3yi6 X 8% in. I33.8 X 21.2 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 




Apollo reproduces a typically dynamic, heav- 
ily muscled, and dramatically foreshortened 
invention of Cornells. Like Goltzius's 
engraving Icarus (cat. no. 115) Matham's 
print documents the kind of nude studies 
Cornells and other members of the Haarlem 
Academy v^ere making about 1 5 90. Apollo's 
pose is comparable with a drawing in Vienna 
of a nude male, formerly attributed to 
Cornells but now given to Abraham 
Bloemaert.' The print's dynamic character 
also recalls, as does Icarus, developments in 
late mannerist Italian painting, such as the 
strongly foreshortened flying angel in 
Pellegrino Tibaldi's fresco The Conception of 
John the Baptist, circa 1555, in the church of 
San Giacomo, Bologna,- as well as Cherubino 
and Giovanni Alberti's quadratura frescoes 
in Rome. 

This representation of the sun god is 
the pendant to Matham's engraving of Apol- 
lo's sister Diana, goddess of the moon (fig. 
i33a|.^ Like Cornelis's series The Four 
Disgracers, to which Goltzius's Icarus 
belongs, Apollo and Diana present a number 
of pairs of contrasts: male-female, sun-moon, 
light-dark, front-back, advancing-receding. 
The highly energetic Apollo appears to burst 
through the picture plane in a protobaroque 
manner that contrasts with the suave, sinu- 
ous, and mannerist conception of Goltzius's 
engraving of the subject from a few years ear- 
lier (fig. 1 1 8a). 



Notes 

1. Thiel, 152, fig. 4. 

2. Giuliano Briganti, II 
manieiismo e Pellegrino Tibaldi 
(Rome; Cosmopolita, 1945), 

fig- 137- 

3. Bartsch, 3:156, no. 96. 



293 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



134 



Jan Muller 

The Abduction of a Sabine Woman 



After Adriaen de Vries 

Engraving 

i6'Vi6X 11% in. (43 X 28.9 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: 1 

Below left: Adrianus de vries 

Hagien. /inventor. 

Below center: Sic pubes . . . / 

. . . posse dan. 

Below right: Joan Muller 

sculpsit./Dancker Danckertz 

Exc. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:291, no. 78 ii/ii; 
HoUstein, 14:108, no. 66 iv/vi; 
Le Blanc, 3:67, no. 62 ii/ii; 
Wurzbach, 2:205, no- 78 

Literature 

Korazija, 77, no. 53 




tJ„j,u., i- T„„ ;i,„ 



jw pith^s^H^ana fiait jam.- 'Msa nintllam— 
^Dum riinit^oprahat imoa~jthi rii>\se dan. 



fl- 






294 





Fig. 134a 

Jan Muller 

The Abduction of a Sabine 

Woman 

Engraving 

ibVAX ii'/4 in. (42. s X 28.6 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 

Fig. 134b 

Jan Muller 

The Abduction of a Sabine 

Woman 

Engraving 

i6'/4 X 1 1% in. (42.5 X 28.9 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 



The Abduction of a Sabine Woman is from a 
set of tfiree prints by Muller (figs. 134a and 
134b) showing different views of the same 
subject, a now-lost wax maquette by de 
Vries.' It is not known precisely when Muller 
and de Vries collaborated. Muller was in Italy 
for a period between 1594 and 1602, and de 
Vries was traveling throughout Europe dur- 
ing that time. Larsson suggested 1594, when 
de Vries was in The Hague, as the most likely 
time of their meeting.^ Muller engraved sev- 
eral designs by de Vries, only one of which. 
Mercury and Psyche, bears a date, 1593.^ Be- 
cause the sculptor was still in Italy and 
Muller was in the Netherlands, the date prob- 
ably refers to the period of the sculpture's cre- 
ation rather than to the date of the engrav- 
ing.'' Nevertheless, it is suggested here that 
most of Muller's prints after de Vries date 
from the mid- 15 90s when they might have 
been in contact in the Netherlands, Italy, or 
Prague. Muller's predominant emphasis on 
the three-dimensional qualities of the figures 
in the present engraving reflects the sculp- 



tural nature of his model and is also consis- 
tent with his dated engravings after Cornells 
Cornelisz. van Haarlem from the beginning 
of his career, such as The Combat of Ulysses 
and Irus, 1589, and Fortune Distributing Her 
Gifts, 1590.5 

Like his Abduction of a Sabine Woman 
engravings Muller's three Mercury and Psy- 
che engravings, also after de Vries, show a 
sculpture from three points of view. The two 
sets of prints may be related to the paragone, 
the debate between painters and sculptors 
over the superiority of their respective crafts. 
Painters considered their creations more life- 
like because of their use of color; sculptors 
countered by arguing for their ability to ren- 
der volume. Muller's sets are tours de force of 
the engraver's success in suggesting light, 
color, texture, and three-dimensionality. 

Muller's engraving illustrates a scene 
from early Roman history. Romulus recog- 
nized Rome's lack of suitable women for 
wives and invited the neighboring Sabines to 
a festival, during which the Sabine women 
were forcefully abducted. 



Notes 

1. Lars Olaf Larsson, Adrian de 
Vries (Vienna and Munich: 
Verlag Anton Schroll, 1967), 125, 
no. 56. 

2. Ibid., 17-18. 

3. Bartsch, 3:292, nos. 82-84. 

4. For the sculpture, see Larsson, 
Adrian de Vries, 122, no. 31, 
figs. 10- II. 

5. Bartsch, 3:276-77, nos. 30 
and 33. 



295 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



135 



Jan Muller 

The Three Fates 



After Cornells Cornelisz. van Haarlem 

Engraving 

12 X io'/i6in. (30.5 X25.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: C. Cornelij 
Harlemen inve./Haiman 
Mullerus excud:/Ainsterodamj 
Below: Ties tria .../... morsq 
venit. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:277, no. 31; Hollstein, 
14:109, no. 69 iii/iii; Le Blanc, 
3:67, no. 55; Nagler, Kiinstlei- 
Lexikon, 11:90, no. 31; 
Wurzbach, 2:205, no. 13 



Literatuie 

Heinecken, 4:316 




7rs Jrui Uni/lctT dejii^nanr Um^o/a 'Parcx : 
•uamnily '-L'icai mi>in r-venit. 



ncirIntn/> 



"$ 



296 



The monumental physical presence of the Notes 

three female nudes in The Three Fates is a 
striking and distinctive example of the degree 
of Michelangelo's influence on Cornelis's fig- 
ural style. The nudes project the massive and 
androgynous muscularity of Michelangelo's 
female figures in the Sistine Chapel, Rome, 
or the Medici tombs, Florence. This 
physicality contrasts with the lithe elegance, 
elongated proportions, and Sprangeresque 
suavity of Matham's depiction of the same 
subject based on a design by Goltzius.' 

The Fates were mythological spirits 
who determined at the time of birth the 
course of an individual's destiny. They are 
usually depicted as spinning "the thread of 
life," with Clotho holding the spindle, Lach- 
esis apportioning the thread, and Atropos 
cutting it and bringing life to an end. 



I. Bartsch, 3:200, no. 184. 



297 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



136 



Jan Muller 

The Baptism of Christ 

Engraving 

iiVi X 8V1 in. (31.8 X 21.6 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: [Muller fecit. 
Below: Chnste, sator . . . / 
Harman Muller excud: 

References 

Bartsch, 3:266, no. 3 ii/ii; 
HoUstein, 14:106, no. 16 ii/ii; 
Le Blanc, 3:66, no. 17 ii/ii; 
Wurzbach, 2:204, no. 3 




Cin^f^-fatormunM.Bwfcs gmeifa-Toruum^ O qu^ dimm tnyjhrm fancta uuukt, 

. (;, ,.uar ,n,f.ur.s p.,.s aJ.r. lams : Quopt .mpurus puru^^J.. La.^ 



298 



Fig. 136a 

Jan Muller 

The Baptism of Christ 
Brush and brown wash, 
heightened with white 
1 1 ' '/16 X 8''/'i6 in. (29.6 X 20.! 
Staathche Graphischc 
Sammlung, Munich 




The Baptism of Christ is a significant touch- 
stone for discussing the stylistic develop- 
ment of Mullet's manner of engraving. 
Muller's very painterly preparatory drawing 
(fig. 136a), in reverse, is dated 1590 and nearly 
identical in size to the engraving.' The fig- 
ures in the drawing are bathed in flickering 
and dramatic chiaroscuro, transforming the 
scene into a highly mystical and otherworldly 
event. This quality is also evident in Muller's 
engravings from the end of the decade, such 
as The Adoration of the Magi and The Feast 
of Belshazzar (cat. nos. 138—39). The Bap- 
tism of Christ, however, is less dramatic than 
the later prints in its contrasts of light and 
shade. Muller's feathery manner of engrav- 
ing caresses the forms in a soft, enveloping 
light. This sense of fluidity is its most 
Sprangeresque quality, akin to his engraving 
A Satyr Removing a Thorn from a Faun's 
Foot after Bartholomeus Spranger.- The soft 
muscularity of the anatomies in the present 
engraving suggests the pliability of porcelain 
or terracotta rather than the marblelike 
sculptural quality of Muller's figures based 
on the designs of Adriaen de Vries for The Ab- 
duction of a Sabine Woman and Cornelis 
Cornelisz. van Haarlem for The Three Fates 
(cat. nos. 134-35). 

The subject comes from Matthew 
3.13— 17. While John the Baptist was preach- 
ing in the desert and baptizing people in the 
Jordan River, Jesus asked to be baptized. 
When the rite was completed, the heavens 
opened, the Holy Spirit descended in the 
form of a dove, and the voice of God the Fa- 
ther acknowledged Jesus as his son. 



Notes 

1. Wolfgang Wegner, Kataloge dez 
Staathchen Giaphischen 
Sammlung Miinchen: Die 
niederlandiscben 
Handzeichnungen des i^.-iS. 
fahihundeits (Berhn: Gebr. 
Mann Verlag, 1973), i:ii2, no. 
800, 2:pl.8i. 

2. Bartsch, 3:287, no. 71. 



299 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



137 



Jan Muller 

Chilon 



Engraving 

i8'yi6X I4V'8 in. (47.8 X 35.9 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Upper border: TNnei 

2EAYTON Ano.1596. Nosce 

teipsum. 

Lower border: Chilon 

Philosophus Spartanus./Joan. 

Muller. fecit. 

Below: Harman Muller.; 

excudebat. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:269, no. 13 i/ii; 
HoUstein, 14:111, no. 80 ii/iii; 
Le Blanc, 3:68, no. 73 ii/iii; 
Wurzbach, 2:204, no. 13 

Literature 

Mielke, 41, no. 39; Oberhuber, 
Zwischen, 228, no. 341 




300 




Fig. 137a 

Jan MuUer 

Harpocrates 

Engraving 

iSVi X i4'-'/i6 in. (47.6 X 37.6 cm| 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 



Although executed three years apart, 
Mullet's engravings Chilon, 1596, and 
Harpocrates, 1593 (Bartsch 12) (fig. 137a), 
were created as pendants; they are identical 
in size and oval format and are balanced in 
the directions of the compositions. Bartsch 
singled out these prints, especially Chilon, 
for their boldness and freedom of handling of 
the burin and claimed that they elevated 
Muller to the ranks of the most distinguished 
engravers. Bartsch was perceptive in this 
assessment because this engraving is as fine 
as Goltzius's best work. Muller's treatment 
of the hair is especially notable for its 
painterly freedom. Several authors have re- 
marked on the similarity between his engrav- 
ing technique and Goltzius's Federkunst- 
stiicke (pen-and-ink drawings executed in the 
manner of engravings|. Perhaps the best- 
known example of Goltzius's drawings in 
this fashion is Head of Mercury, 1587, in the 
Ashmolean.' Muller's delineation of Chilon's 



right hand, meticulously detailed in all its 
knobby splendor, is similar to another well- 
known Federkunststuck, Goltzius's 1588 
study of his own hand in the Teylers 
Museum, Haarlem.^ Reznicek first published 
a drawing in the Herzog Anton Ulrich- 
Museum, Brunswick, identical to Chilon in 
almost every detail, as Muller's preparatory 
study but later considered it a copy.^ 
Christoffel van Sichem I's Young Man with a 
Turban (cat. no. 148) is another example of a 
print executed in this manner. 

The engraved inscription identifies this 
figure as Chilon, one of the legendary Seven 
Sages of Greece, best known for his exhorta- 
tion, "Know thyself." As an illustration of 
this homily, Chilon is depicted holding a mir- 
ror. Hollstein recorded three states of this 
engraving, to which Oberhuber added a dif- 
ferent first state: an impression in the 
Albertina before the inscription, as in 
Hollstein's first state but with the mirror 
unfinished. 



Notes 

1. Reznicek, Goltzius, 1:280, no. 
119, 2:pl. 75. 

2. Ibid., 1:305, no. 165, 2:pl. 86. 

3. Reznicek, "Muller als 
Tekenaar," 91, 113, no. 13, fig. 
13; idem, "Muller Addenda," 
116-17. 



301 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



138 



Jan Muller 

The Adoration of the Magi 



Engraving 

1378 X 17^16 in. (35.3 x 43.7 cm) 




Ejt.'Oai) hittnun.i -l-cuilii- iunii- ricjux 
In^tTTiuo \lutns ion/niiirriMu .iJl-s-T_ 



.jititm pnrn/rnfm Jmtni yitjnui titiwnr, 
.^M mtlium t&to certMs OrL- futt . 






Aljf 



fuj^ f>a. 



Inscriptions 

Upper left: Joan Muller 
inventor/et sculpsit 
Below: En, Deus humana . . . / 
. . . Harman Muller excude./ 
1598. 



References 

Bartsch, 3:165, no. 2; HoUstein, 
14:105, no. 14 ii/ii; Le Blanc, 
3:66, no. II ii/iii; Nagler, 
Kiinstlei- Lexikon, 11:88, no. i; 
Wurzbach, 2:204, no. 2 



Literature 

Mielke, 52, no. 65; Oberhuber, 
Zwischen, 228, no. 340 



302 




■f ..^ 


^, 


} !■■ 


^ 


^' 


■ .i 


Vl 


',$ 


... d' 


■-' 



Fig. 138a 

Jan MuUer 

The Adoration of the Magi 
Puqjle chalk and wash, 
heightened with white 
5 X 5'/4 in. [11.7 X 14.7 cm) 
Cabinet des Dessins, 
Musee du Louvre, Paris 



While not pendants in scale, iconography, or 
time of creation, Muller's The Adoiation of 
the Magi, dated 1598, and The Feast of 
Belshazzar (cat. no. 139) are often paired be- 
cause they are his two great nocturnal 
engravings. Muller is believed to have been in 
Italy between 1594 and 1602, but he might 
have been back in the Netherlands, where the 
present engraving was published, by 1598. It 
seems that his conception of the nocturnes 
with their strong emphasis on dramatic and 
flickering illumination would have been in- 
conceivable without the artist's first-hand 
experience of Jacopo Tintoretto's paintings in 
Venice. 

The Adoration of the Magi has a decen- 
tralized Karel van Mander-like design with 
the principal figures of the Holy Family 
placed in the background. The proportions of 
the figures, with their elongated bodies and 
tiny heads, and the doll-like appearances of 
the Madonna, Christ Child, and kneeling 
king recall Bartholomeus Spranger's painting 
The Adoiation of the Magi, circa 1595, in the 



National Gallery, London.' Both composi- 
tions in turn are reminiscent of Pieter Brue- 
ghel the Elder's painting of the subject of 
1563, also in the National Gallery. ^ Ackley 
stressed the place of Muller's engravings in 
the Netherlandish tradition of interest in 
nocturnal effects, beginning in the fifteenth 
century with the paintings of Geertgen tot 
Sint Jans and continuing in the seventeenth 
with prints by artists such as Hendrik Goudt 
and Rembrandt.3 

A small, colorful, and very painterly 
study for The Adoration of the Magi is in the 
Louvre (fig. 138a).'' Also similar in composi- 
tion to the central group of the Holy Family is 
a sheet of about 1597 in the Uffizi, The Holy 
Family with Musical Angels.^ 

The story of the Adoration of the Magi 
is told in Matthew 2.1-11. The three wise 
men arrived in Bethlehem from the east by 
following a star that led them to the place 
where Jesus was born. Prostrating themselves 
before the Holy Family, they offered gifts of 
gold, frankincense, and myrrh. 



Notes 

1. Cecil Gould, ed., The National 
Gallery: Illustrated General 
Catalogue (London: National 
Gallery, 1973I, 696, no. 6392. 

2. Ibid., 81, no. 3556. 

3. Ackley, 16, no. 8. 

4. Reznicek, "Muller Addenda, " 
123-24, 131, no. 15, pi. 6. 

5. Reznicek, "Muller als 
Tekenaar," 115, no. 22, fig, 10. 



303 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



139 



Jan Muller 

The Feast of Belshazzar 



Engraving 

i4-yi6X 1 5 'Vie in. (36 X 40.5 cm) 







U'f/ irftraif. JnTtni tiumtim tram 



\iitiiT p,i, LU\uit jiU-tit rattmc . Iiwerha , 
'~Numtn^ iVfitt'nwto. tmifiui aiti Uoia crvpai 



(jjui limiii ri'tran' fjipao pnt/umttif, mo 
^ iw cxemptij.ftmtlts nc- nana Icauatut'. 



Inscriptions 

helow: Joannes Mullen/fecit. ^ 
Cernite Chaldaei .../... ne 
paena sequatur.; Harman 
MuUer/excudebat. 



References 

Baitsch, 3:265, no. i; Hollstein, 
14:105, no. II ii/iii; Le Blanc, 
3:66, no. 10 ii/iii; Nagler, 
KiinstleT-Lexikon. 11:88, no. i; 
Wurzbach, 2:204, no. i 



Literatiue 

Korazija, 74, no. 48; Mielke, 51, 
no. 64; Oberhuber, Zwiscben, 
227, no. 339 



304 




Fig. 139a 

(acopo Tintoretto 

(Italy, 1519-1594) 

The Last Supper 

Oil on canvas 

144 X 224 in. (365.8 X 569 cm) 

San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice 



The undated Feast of Belshazzai was prob- 
ably engraved a couple of years later than 
Muller's The Adoration of the Magi, 1598 
(cat. no. 138). Although large, multifigured 
compositions were not unknown among 
Netherlandish prints of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, Muller's pair of nocturnal engravings is 
especially notable for his presentation of the 
narratives as spectacles, with their emphasis 
on grandeur, opulence, and sweeping theatri- 
cality in the storytelling. His compositional 
approach links Muller with contemporary 
Venetian masters like Jacopo Tintoretto and 
Paolo Veronese. His handling of light in 
imifying the diverse elements of the composi- 
tions is indebted to Tintoretto and differs 
considerably from a Netherlandish version of 
a spectacle, such as Jacques de Gheyn ii's The 
Prodigal Son (cat. no. 112). 

The diagonal orientation of The Feast 
of Belshazzai is particularly comparable with 
Tintoretto's contemporary painting The Last 
Supper, 1592-94 (fig. 140a), in the church of 
San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, which Muller 
could have seen while he was in Italy. 
Reznicek also compared Muller's diagonal 



composition and candlelit illumination with 
Hendrik Goltzius's early engraving The Ban- 
quet at the House of Taiquinius, circa 1578.' 
Muller's full-scale drawing for The Feast of 
Belshazzai is in the Rijksmuseum.^ 

The nocturnal prints are less cal- 
ligraphic and linear than Muller's earlier en- 
gravings after Cornelis Cornelisz. van 
Haarlem and Adriaen de Vries, as his han- 
dling of the burin in the night prints created 
broad tonal effects of light and texture. 
Muller's technique became systematized 
during the seventeenth century especially 
among the reproductive engravers of the 
school of Peter Paul Rubens. 

According to Daniel 5.1 -31, Belshaz- 
zar, king of Babylon, hosted a feast during 
which the guests drank from vessels taken 
from the temple in Jerusalem. The banquet 
was interrupted by the miraculous appear- 
ance on the wall of the words "Mene, Mene, 
Tekel, Upharsin." None of Belshazzar's ma- 
gicians and wise men could interpret the 
phrase, so he summoned the Hebrew prophet 
Daniel, who successfully translated the 
words as a warning from God that the end of 
the Babylonian kingdom was near. 



Notes 

1. Reznicek, "Muller als 
Tekenaar," loi; Bartsch, 3:35, 
no. 104. 

2. Reznicek, "Muller als 
Tekenaar," in, no. i, fig. 19. 



305 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



140 



Jan MuUer 

Cupid Discovers Psyche in His Bed 



After Bartholomeus Spranger 

Engraving 

15 xio'A in. (38.1 X 51.4 cm) 













'mjHi JatUt a^dH. yj ilt trtTt. ^TVe^ ^MOm^^n&rjS^ (jful' 



■t^S, fmfjau 



'^ /iv jvT^env lyu tturaffnur. 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: B. Sprangers in 

argilla . . . /Joan: Mullerus in acre 

incidebat. 

Below: Qui venit . . . ; Harman 

Muller. 



References 

Bartsch, 3:286, no. 70; Hollstein, 
14:107, no. 51 i/ii; Le Blanc, 3:67, 
no. 50; Nagler, Kiinstler- Lexikon. 
11:91, no. 70; Wurzbach, 2:205, 
no. 70 



Literatuie 

Koraziia, 75, no. 49; Mielke, 34, 
no. 21; Rodari, 109, no. 123 



306 




Fig. 140a 

Abraham Bloemaert 

(Holland, 1564-1651I 

The Wedding of Psyche 

Oil on canvas 

4o'/8 X 57'/i6 in. (102 x 145 cm| 

Bayerische 

Staatsgemaldesammlungen, 

Munich 



Cupid Discovers Psyche in His Bed is a docu- 
ment of Spranger's activity as a sculptor at 
the court of Emperor Rudolf 11.' The engrav- 
ing is based on Spranger's now-lost v/ax relief 
of this subject. A terminus ante quern for 
Spranger's sculpture is provided by Abraham 
Bloemaert's painting The Wedding Feast of 
Cupid and Psyche, circa 1593-94, in the 
Bayerische Staatsgemaldesammlungen, on 
deposit at the Alte Pinakothek, Munich (fig. 
140a).- The figure of Cupid in Spranger's 
composition is copied in the lower right of 
Bloemaert's painting. 

The dating of Mullet's engraving is 
speculative because the chronology of his 
prints has not been established. It is sug- 
gested here, however, that it dates about 
1 600- 1 605. In works from about 1600, such 
as The Adoration of the Magi, The Feast of 
Belshazzar (cat. nos. 138-39I, and The Rais- 
ing of Lazarus after Abraham Bloemaert,-' 
Muller introduced increasingly rich pictorial 
elements and dramatic chiaroscuro — 
achieved through an extraordinarily dense 
and elaborate network of crosshatching — 



into his manner of engraving. These charac- 
teristics are present in Cupid Discovers Psy- 
che in His Bed as well as in The Adoration of 
the Shepherds, 1606 (cat. no. 141). It is appro- 
priate to locate the present work in this 
period. 

For the fable of Cupid and Psyche, see 
Giorgio Ghisi's Cupid and Psyche (cat. no. 
31). Psyche's deathlike slumber is alluded to 
by the putto at the left extinguishing a torch 
with a vase of water. 



Notes 

1. For Spranger's activity as a 
sculptor, see E. K. J. Reznicek, 
"Bartholomeus Spranger als 
Bildhauer," in Antje Kosengarten 
and Peter Tigler, eds.. Festschrift 
Ulnch Middeldorf (Berlin: 
Walter de Gruyter, 1968], 
i:370-7S. The only surviving 
sculpture attnbuted to Spranger 
is the wax relief Dead Christ 
mth Angels formerly m the 
collection of Count Antoine 
Seilern. See ibid., fig. i. 

2. Pieter van Tfiiel in Albert 
Blankert, ed., Gods. Saints and 
Heroes, exh. cat. (Washington, 
D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 
1980], 88, no. 5. A date of about 
159s was suggested earlier by 
Gustav Delbanco, Dei Maler 
Abiaham Bloemaert 
In64-i6u) (Strasbourg: ]. H. 
Ed. Heitz, 1928), 74, no. 7. 

3. Bartsch, 3:274, no. 27. 



307 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



141 



Jan Muller 

The Adoration of the Shepherds 



After Bartholomeus Spranger 

Engraving 

iiViX 17 in. I56.5 X 43.2 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower center: CVM PRIVIL/S. 

CAES. M. SER 

Below: Hei mihi! .../... ecce, 

iacet. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:284, no. 6$; Hollstein, 
14:105, no. 13 i/ii; Le Blanc, 3:66, 
no. 12; Nagler, Kiinstler- Lexikon. 
11:90, no. 65; Wurzbach, 2:205, 
no. 65 




308 



Muller's increased interest in tonal effects in 
his engravings at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, apparent in The Adoration of 
the Magi, The Feast of Belshazzar, and Cupid 
Discovers Psyche in His Bed (cat. nos. 
138—40), is also manifest in the present work 
of 1606. Because the figural style of 
Spranger's design is more naturalistic in its 
proportions and movements than the exces- 
sively artificial and elegant types found in his 
works of the 1580s and 1590s, it probably 
dates from the early seventeenth century. 
Muller's technique of engraving in a manner 
resembling watered silk is a trademark of his 
later prints. This dense network of engraved 
lines is also seen in other early seventeenth- 
century Netherlandish prints in this volume, 
such as Lucas Kilian's Hercules and Antaeus 
(cat. no. 127) and Aegedius Sadeler's Wisdom 
Conquers Ignorance (cat. no. 142), both after 
Spranger. 



309 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



142 



Aegidius Sadeler 

Wisdom Conquers Ignorance 



After Bartholomeus Spranger 

Engraving 

igVsx I3'yi6m. (49.9 x 35.4 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: BiSpranger 
invent. /Eg:Sadeler scalp 
Below: Non datur .../... honore 
ruat. 

References 

HoUstein, 21:33, no- nS; Le 
Blanc, 3:397, no. 17S; Nagler, 
Kiinstler-Lexikon. 16:15, no. 
159; Wurzbach, 2:536, no. 82 

Literature 

Korazija, 78, no. 56 







310 



Fig. 142a 

Bartholomeus Spranger 

(Flanders, 1546-1611) 

Wisdom Conquers Ignorance 

Oil on canvas 

64^16 X46'/i6 in. (163 X 117 cm) 

Kunsthistorisches Museum, 

Vienna 

Fig. 142b 

Bartholomeus Spranger 
(Flanders, 1546-1611) 
Saint Martin and the Beggar 
Pen and brown mk, brown wash, 
heightened with white 
9"/i6 X 4% in. (14.6 X 12 cm) 
Rijksprentenkabmet, 
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam 





Wisdom Conquers Ignoiance is based on a 
painting by Spranger of about 1591 (fig. 
142a).' It appears, however, that this print 
was made about ten or fifteen years later. The 
dense network of engraved Unes modeling 
the figure resembles the effect of watered silk 
seen in the late engravings of Jan Muller, such 
as The Adoration of the Shepherds, 1606 (cat. 
no. 141), as well as Lucas Kilian's Hercules 
and Antaeus, i6io(cat. no. 127). The central 
figure of Wisdom is not placed parallel to the 
picture plane as in the painting but twists her 
body in the elegant movement of a character- 
istic mannerist form, the figure serpentinata. 
The new design might have been provided by 
Spranger himself because the pose of Wisdom 
is very similar to Spranger's drawing Saint 
Martin and the Beggar, circa 1604 (fig. 142b), 
in the Rijksmuseum.- In the self-contained 
torsion of their movements, the figures of 
Wisdom and Saint Martin both recall Rapha- 
el's fresco The Triumph of Galatea in the 
Villa Farnesina, Rome. 

In sixteenth- and seventeenth-century 
illustrations for theses and other books 
mythological subjects featuring heroes 
defeating monsters, such as the labors of 
Hercules, Perseus slaying Medusa, and Cad- 
mus and the dragon, were often employed as 
allegories of the triumph of the intellect. 
Such themes could also be interpreted more 
generally as the victory of virtue over vice. 
Kaufmann summarized the various inter- 
pretations of Spranger's design. The most 
convincing is Oberhuber's suggestion that 
the composition represents the sovereignty of 
Emperor Rudolf 11 in the realms of war, sym- 
bolized by the figure of Bellona, the Roman 
goddess of war, at the lower left, and the arts, 
represented by the surrounding figures of the 
Muses. Consequently, Sadeler's Wisdom 
Conquers Ignorance is not simply a philo- 
sophical treatise but also a paean to the 
political and cultural power of the Holy Ro- 
man Empire. 



Notes 

1. Kaufmann, 302, no. 20-49. 
Kaufmann mistakenly attributes 
this engraving to Jan Muller A 
drawn replica by Spranger of the 
painting was sold recently at 
Sotheby's, London, 19 February 
1987, lot 257. 

2. K. G. Boon, Catalogue of the 
Dutch and Flemish Drawings 
in the Riiksmuseum: 
Netherlandish Drawings of the 
Fifteenth and Sixteenth 
Centuries (The Hague: 
Government Publishing Office, 
1978), 1:152, no. 417. 



311 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



143 



Jan Saenredam 

Venus, Bacchus, and Ceres 



After Abraham Bloemaert 

Engraving 

10% X SVi in. (27.3 X 20.7 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Below: SINE CERERE ET 
BACCHO FRIGET VENUS./ 
Ipsa Venus . . . / 
lacobus Razet divulgavit. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:229, no. 28^ Hollstein, 
23:58, no. 75 ii/iii; Le Blanc, 
3:404, no. 53 ii/ii; Nagler, 
Kiinstler-Lexikon, 16:28 no. 28 
ii/ii; Wurzbach, 2:545, no. 28 

Literature 

Heinecken, 3:33 




.4,^ 



i^ncn'tlt J-ircj-, ini/cniiimj, ncMt . — ^ 
^cv r€pcti:t2tn.i jvcul^i rn-/r,i, aimij . (jn^iuram suhcunt pirtti,Ai)ltj. Ii'cum. i4. 

.Kh^\\ Blom fnv ^^acnraL-in. Ici.lpj.' ''lacoljus Rlzct divul<ra>-lt-. 




312 



Saenredam's Venus, Bacchus, and Ceres is Notes 

one of several illustrations of this subject by j. gartsch, 3:243, no. 69. 

Hendrik Goltzius and his school, including 

T i_ »;. 1 , on r 2. Ibid., 231, no. 33. 

Jacob Matham s 1588 engraving after 

Goltzius (cat. no. 131). Compared with some 
of the other versions, including Saenredam's 
1600 engraving after Goltzius,' Bloemaert's 
composition is more intimate in its close 
view of the participants as well as less clas- 
sically refined in the ribald intertwining of 
the three deities. Despite the mythological 
overtones of the subject, Saenredam's engrav- 
ing resembles an earthy Netherlandish genre 
piece, such as a merry company of soldiers 
and prostitutes or a group of frolicking peas- 
ants. The emphasis on the agricultural 
attributes is more pronounced here than in 
the other depictions, adding to its affinities 
with peasant genre scenes. 

Venus, Bacchus, and Ceres is probably 
an early work by Saenredam, almost certainly 
executed before 1600. The manner of engrav- 
ing is less dense and silvery than a later work 
such as his Temptation of Adam, 1604 (cat. 
no. 146I. Because of the openness of the 
hatching the present work is less dramatic in 
its description of light and shade, as well as 
less opulent in its description of the various 
textures. It might have been executed not 
long after Saenredam's 1594 series of 
engravings after Polidoro da Caravaggio.^ 



313 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



144 



Jan Saenredam 

Jupiter and Juno Seated in the Clouds 



After Hendrik Goltzius 

Engraving 

12% X SVs in. (32.7 X 22 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Loweileft: i/HG 

Below: Leta Jovis ... /P. Estius. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:139, no. 53; Dutuit, 
4:501, no. 14; Hollstein, 23:45, 
no. 57; Le Blanc, 3:405, no. 57; 
Nagler, Kimstlei-Lexikon, 16:31, 
no. 53; Wurzbach, 2:545, no. 53 

Litetatuie 

Mariette, 5:152 




Sti i/fvi 1 7 / "-/r 



jWi! re ui d iLwi III I Sn uni: 1 7 



a 



Trlii rrjfiil ,J > i Tir r lumif ^ • I iri nullum, 
CflicplfPfJna iiinutir,jfiir mirra mcnJce'f 



314 



Fig. 144a 

Jan Saenredam 

Neptune and Amphitrite 

Engraving 

iiVs X SVs in. (32.7 X 21.9 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Ait 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 

Fig. 144b 

Jan Saenredam 

Pluto and Proserpina 

Engraving 

ii'Vtf, X 8'/i6 in. (32.5 x 21.7 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Mary Stansbury Ruiz Collection 




ISS-JEliSsSiS*- -, 




fupiter and Juno is from Saenredam's set of 
three prints representing pairs of mythologi- 
cal gods and goddesses; the other works are 
Neptune and Amphitrite and Pluto and Pio- 
seipina (figs. 144a and 144b).' Like Goltzius's 
earlier series of oval chiaroscuro woodcuts 
(see cat. nos. 117-19I, Saenredam's three 
engravings symbolize the cosmos with the 
three mythological representations of the rul- 
ers of the sky, the sea, and the underworld. 
The engravings also illustrate well the sub- 
stantial changes in Goltzius's figural style in 
the course of ten years between his 
chiaroscuros and Saenredam's engravings 
after his designs. Although undated, the 
prints of gods and goddesses reflect the less 
capricious, nobler, calmer, and more clas- 
sicizing character of Goltzius's post-Italian 
works. Even though it is reminiscent of his 
earlier woodcut Amphitrite (cat. no. 119), the 
pose of Juno is closer in its idealized refine- 
ment to later Goltzius designs engraved by 
Saenredam, such as Adam and Eve, 1597, and 
Diana and CaUisto, 1599. ^The exquisite and 
sensuous figures in these designs undoubt- 
edly were inspired by Titian's nudes, espe- 
cially his canvas Diana and CaUisto, circa 
1556-59, in the National Gallery of Scot- 
land.^ For these reasons it is likely that 
Saenredam's set was engraved during the last 
years of the sixteenth century. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 3:239, nos. 54-55. 

2. Ibid., 234, no. 40; and ibid., 
238, no. 52. 

3. Wethey, 3:141, no. 10, pi. 143. 



315 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



145 



Jan Saenredam 

Andromeda 



After Hendrik Goltzius 

Engraving 

loVs X yVs in. (25.7 x 18. i cm| 



Inscriptions 

Lower left: Cum privil. Sa. 

Cae. M. 

Lower right: HG. invent. 

J. Sanreda. sculp. /A0.1601 

Below: Andromaden Perseus . . . 

. . . mone draconem.; 

C. Schoneus 

References 

Bartsch, 3:245, no. 80; Dutuit, 
4:505, no. 41; HoUstein, 23:65, 
no. 85 i/iii; Le Blanc, 3:404, no. 
41; Nagler, Kiinstler-Lexikon, 
16:33, no. 80; Wuizbach, 2:546, 
no. 80 




(fnmtnit 



'Pnfcus m.u]::.' ru^'a-utus 
' Occwfit fn'uni mr^praiiiu i'uvtr Jracowin 



aithVYj 



• idtarpi ■ 



316 



Andiomeda is an ideal example of the mar- 
riage of form and technique: Goltzius's sinu- 
ous and elegant design and Saenredam's fluid 
and calligraphic manner of engraving. One 
could hardly find a more representative illus- 
tration of the mannerist figuia serpentinata 
than the figure of Andromeda, as the direc- 
tion of the viewer's gaze follows a gently 
curving path from the figure's foot to her 
head. Her voluptuous form is echoed by the 
delineation of the landscape through un- 
dulating parallel strokes. This style of drafts- 
manship recalls his calligraphic landscape 
drawings of the 1590s, such as his IS96 Land- 
scape with Mercuiy in the Musee des Beaux- 
Arts, Besan^on,' as well as his series of land- 
scape woodcuts from this period (cat. nos. 
123-26). 

Goltzius's and Saenredam's fluid and 
curvilinear delineation harks back to Vene- 
tian models interpreted by Cornells Cort, 
such as his engraving Ruggiero Rescuing 
Angelica after Titian (cat. no. 104). 

Saenredam's engraving is the last and 
finest of three compositions of the subject 
designed by Goltzius, who engraved one ver- 
sion himself in 1583.- A large and multi- 
figured composition was engraved by Jacob 
Matham in 1597.' 

Andromeda was the daughter of 
Cepheus, king of the Ethiopians, and Cas- 
siopeia. As a result of Cassiopeia's boast 
about her daughter's beauty, a dragon was 
sent by Poseidon to ravage their kingdom. In 
order to appease the monster, Andromeda 
was offered as a sacrifice and chained to a 
rock. She was rescued, however, by the Greek 
hero Perseus, son of the mating of Zeus and 
Danae. Perseus and Andromeda then 
married. 



Notes 

1. Reznicek, Goltzius, 1:424, 
no. 393. 

2. Bartsch, 3:47, no. 156. 

3. Ibid., 169, no. 162. 



317 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



146-47 



Jan Saenredam 

The Story of Adam 



After Abraham Bloemaert 

Two from a series of six engravings 



146 The Temptation of Adam 



lo'Vie X 7% in. (27.8 x 20 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lowei right: A. Bloemaert. 
inve./J. Saeniedam sculp. /3 
Below: Ambitiosa fames . . . / 
. . . arbore fructus 

References 

Bartsch, 3:225, no. 15; Hollstein, 
23:7, no. 3 i/iii; Le Blanc, 3:403, 
no. 3; Nagler, KimstleT-Lexikon, 
16:26, no. 15; Wurzbach, 2:544, 
no. 15 



Litetatute 

Heinecken, 3:25 




^iLrnhJiii/a /oars, ■•JaUiJUf mjma cuUuic 
^lutla^crmuliuis stv/jw' injimou iifot'oni 



)r.?jini-:i rnpTtaU ^ffliii; cum hiriida ht/kpc 
.^i^uia est imaUs arcerbm'Si''arhcfi jruc:::. 



318 



147 



The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise 



lo'Vie X 7'yi6 in. (27.5 X 19.9 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Lower right: A. Bloemaert 
mven./J. Saenredam sculp./ 
4 [number largely erased] 
Below: Reddita lux . . . / 
. . . vindice silvas 

References 

Bartsch, 3:225, no. 16; Hollstein, 
23:7, no. 4 i/ii; Le Blanc, 3:403, 
no. 4; Nagler, Kunstler-Lexikon, 
16:26, no. 16; Wurzbach, 2:544, 
no. 16 

Literature 

Heinecken, 3:25 




''Jxe/jila lax: cairn; U'dcr, rr <iraii: lajrw. 
_ ^iSviti' Ciur urtnlti^ Jmaminnjir^un: 



r-rir Sumum: Submi ruir Jiaer ara faltUtt, 
Oui jlamma rnlSlas anenaat i'mmef filum 



319 NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 





Fig. 146a 

Frederick Bloemaert (Holland, 

c. 1610-1669) 

Studies of Two Male Nudes 

Engraving 

7' i X 5'-yi6 in. (19 X 15. 1 cm) 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Graphic Arts Council Curatorial 

Discretionary Fund 

Fig. 146b 

Frederick Bloemaert 

(Holland, c. 1610-1669) 

Studies of Head and Hands 

Engraving 

SVix 6% in. (21.6 X 17.5 cm| 

Los Angeles County 

Museum of Art 

Graphic .Arts Council Cujatorial 

Discretionary- Fund 



The Temptation and The Expulsion are from 
a series of six engravings, the first plate of 
which is dated 1604. The other prints are 
Adam Naming the Animals, Adam and Eve 
in the Garden of Eden, Adam Forced to La- 
bor, and Adam and Eve Mourning the Death 
of Abel.^ Bloemaert's figural vocabulary in 
this series exemplifies the remarkable evolu- 
tion over the course of fifteen years in the 
treatment of human anatomy by Dutch art- 
ists. Blomaert's appealing naturalism in this 
set differs substantially from the exaggerated 
and highly artificial musculature of the 
Sprangeresque style practiced by artists in 
Haarlem about 1590. The figures in The 
Temptation, especially the seated Adam, ap- 
pear to have been sketched directly from 
models in the artist's studio. They are 
unheroically observed. This naturalistic 
treatment of the nudes is comparable with 
plate 96 (fig. 146a) of Het Konstryk 
Tekenboek van Abraham Bloemaert (Abra- 
ham Bloemaert's drawing manual), a book re- 
producing a sketchbook by the artist, etched 
and published before 1652 by his son Fred- 
erick Bloemaert. Furthermore, the tousled 
head of Adam resembles Bloemaert's 
sketches on plate 5 (fig. 146b).- 

In 1604 Saenredam also engraved a set 
of four prints after Bloemaert with nearly the 
same dimensions as the Adam series illus- 
trating scenes from the lives of the prophets 
Ahijah and Elijah.^ The figures of the proph- 
ets are scaled smaller in relation to their 
settings, with the landscapes consequently 
playing a more dominant role in the composi- 
tions than in the Adam series. Taken 
together, the two sets can be interpreted as 
typological illustrations of the fall and re- 
demption of mankind, ranging from the 



depiction of man in his perfect state (Adam 
naming the animals) to his eventual reunion 
with God (the prophet Elijah carried to 
heaven). 

One especially notable iconographic 
aspect of The Temptation of Adam is the use 
of animal symbolism, particularly the pres- 
ence of the cat and the turkey. One of the 
best-known examples of such symbols is 
Albrecht Diirer's 1504 engraving The Fall of 
Man. in which animals are employed to rep- 
resent the medieval notion of the four 
temperaments and other aspects of human 
nature.-" The cat appears in Diirer's image, as 
well as m other representations of the sub- 
iect, as a symbol of the choleric tempera- 
ment. The presence in Saenredam's engrav- 
ing of the turkey, however, is puzzling 
because this bird was not part of the medieval 
symbolic tradition. The turkey, native to 
North America, was imported to Eiu-ope by 
the Spanish during the first half of the six- 
teenth century. Because of its origins the tur- 
key was often later used as an attribute in al- 
legorical representations of the North 
American continent. It is not clear why such 
a symbol would be employed in an image of 
the Garden of Eden. 

The narrative of the temptation and 
expulsion comes from Genesis 3.1-6, 21-24. 
Adam and Eve were forbidden to eat from the 
Tree of Knowledge, but Eve was tempted by 
Satan in the form of a serpent, ate the fruit, 
and offered it to Adam. In the shame of their 
act and the new awareness of their nudity, 
Adam and Eve hid from God who discovered, 
clothed, and expelled them from Paradise. 
The Tree of Knowledge then was protected 
from later generations by an angel with a 
flaming sword. 



Notes 

1. Bartsch, 3:225—26, nos. 
13-18. 

2. For information on the 
drawing manual, see Strauss, 
Chiaioscuio. 346. 

3. Bartsch, 3:226-27, nos. 
20-23. 

4. Erwin Panofslq', Albiecbt 
Diiier (Princeton: Princeton 
University Press, 1945), 1:84-85. 



320 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



148 



Christoffel van Sichem i 

Young Man with a Turban 



After Jacob Matham 

Woodcut 

iiViex 8yi6 in. (31.3 X 21.5 cm) 



Inscriptions 

Center left: 1613. 

Lower left: I Matham.Inv./ 

CVSichem. scalps. 

References 

Bartsch, 3:212, no. i; Hollstein, 
27:32, no. 136; Nagler, Kunstler- 
Lexikon, 18:365, no. 23; 
Wurzbach, 2:620, no. 21 

Literature 

Ackley, 86, no. 5 1 




322 




Fig. 148a 

Hendrik Goltzius 

"Qais evadet nemo" 

Pen and brown ink 

iS'/s X i3'Vi6 in. I46 X 35.5 cm| 

The Pierpont Morgan Library, 

New York 



Young Man with a Turban belongs to the 
genre often referred to as fantasy portraits: 
subjectless studies of figures, usually male, in 
exotic and frequently outlandish costumes. 
These types were particularly popular in Ven- 
ice, beginning in the fifteenth century with 
Gentile Bellini's paintings of Turkish and 
other oriental figures. Perhaps the most 
famous examples are Michelangelo's teste di- 
vine (ideal heads) of the late 1520s, such as 
the drawing of a head of a woman in the Brit- 
ish Museum.' These kinds of fantastically or- 
namental studies were also popular at Fon- 
tainebleau, as is evident from Rosso 
Fiorenttno's designs for masks and costumes 
engraved by Rene Boyvin. This taste for 
exotica continued in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries in the works of Rem- 
brandt, Jan Lievens, Giovanni Benedetto Ca- 
stiglione, and Gian Domenico Tiepolo. 

Ackley compared Young Man with a 
Jhrban with two other van Sichem woodcuts 
after Goltzius, Portrait of a Man and Young 
Man Accompanying Four Singers,^ and sug- 
gested all three might have been executed 
about the same time, particularly in light of 
their similarities in size and format. Ack- 
ley also commented on the androgynous, 



Bacchus-like appearance of Young Man with 
a Jhrban. and it is this quality that distin- 
guishes it from Goltzius's more gruffly realis- 
tic fantasy portraits, as well as from another 
work cited by Ackley, Matham's fantasy por- 
trait of 1 6 12 in the Witt collection, London.^ 
Many of Goltzius's fantasy portraits executed 
during the period from about 1595 to 1610 
are, in fact, fairly straightforward in their 
dress except for their imitation of the manner 
of Albrecht Diirer and Lucas van Leyden. Van 
Sichem's woodcut is closer in its idealized 
appearance to Goltzius's early study Mercury, 
1587, in the Ashmolean and his late sheet 
"Quis evadet nemo," 16 14, in the Pierpont 
Morgan Library (fig. 148a).-' The fantastic hel- 
met worn by the young man in van Sichem's 
woodcut resembles less the multifeathered 
soft caps in Goltzius's fantasy portraits than 
the headgear worn by Goltzius's mythologi- 
cal figures. 5 

Matham's modello for this woodcut 
was clearly a Federkunststuck. a tour-de- 
force imitation of an engraving. As noted by 
Ackley, it is rare to find such drawings repro- 
duced in the laborious medium of woodcut. 
These drawings were customarily replicated 
through the medium of engraving. 



Notes 

1 . Johannes Wilde, Michelangelo 
and his Studio (London: British 
Museum, r 95 3), 78, no. 42, pL 77. 
Both this drawing and its 
pendant, known through a copy 
also m the British Museum, were 
etched in 1613 by Antonio 
Tempesta (Bartsch, 17:180, nos. 
r37r-72). 

2. Bartsch, 3:r26-27, nos. 3—4. 

3. Reznicek, Goltzius. i:fig. 36. 

4. Ibid., 1:280, no. 119, 389, no. 
332, 2:pls. 75 and 443. 

5. See, for example, engravings of 
Athena by Saenredam (Bartsch, 
3:239, no. $6) and Matham (ibid., 
200, no. 281I. 



323 



NETHERLANDISH PRINTS 



artists' biographies 



Cherubino Alberti (cat. no. i) 

Painter and engraver, Alberti was born in 1553 in Borgo San 
Sepolcro and died in 161 5 in Rome. It was there that he 
learned the art of engraving from Cornelis Cort. Alberti was 
presumably in Rome by 1571, when he engraved Taddeo 
Zuccaro's painting The Assumption of the Virgin in the 
church of Santissima Trinita dei Monti. Because of his activ- 
ity as a printmaker, Alberti is better known than his brother 
and collaborator in painting, Giovanni Alberti, but the latter 
was more esteemed during their lifetimes. Most of Alberti's 
dated engravings are from the 1570s and 1580s. His earliest 
documented painting is his 1587 decoration of the rear facade 
of the Vatican Library, after which date he apparently devoted 
his career to painting and engraved only occasionally. 

Andrea Andieani (cat. no. 2) 

Chiaroscuro woodcutter and publisher, Andreani was born 
about 1558-59 in Mantua, where he died in 1629. His career 
began in Florence and Siena, where he reproduced designs by 
Domenico Beccafumi, Giovanni da Bologna, Jacopo Ligozzi, 
and Francesco Varmi, among others. He was in Mantua be- 
tween 1593 and 1 6 10, during which time he republished a 
group of twenty-nine earlier chiaroscuro woodblocks, per- 
haps acquired from the estate of Nicolo Vicentino and identi- 
fiable by the addition of Andreani's intertwined initials and 
the date of publication (see cat. nos. 51 and 54-55). 

Amico Aspertini (cat. no. 3) 

Born about 1474-75 in Bologna, where he died in 1552, 
Aspertini was one of the most eccentrically anticlassical 
painters of the sixteenth century, despite his visit of about 
1 500- 1 503 to Rome, where he avidly studied antique works 
of art. Only one print. The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from 
Paradise (cat. no. 3I, has been associated with Aspertini. He 
could have been introduced to the art of engraving by his 
younger compatriot Giulio Bonasone or through visits to 
Bologna by Marcantonio Raimondi and Agostino Veneziano 
after the Sack of Rome in 1527. 



Domenico del Barbiere (cat. nos. 62-65) 

Also known in France as Dominique Florentin because of his 
Tuscan origins, Barbiere was a sculptor, stuccoer, painter, 
mosaicist, ceramicist, and engraver. He was born about 1506 
in Florence and died before 1 5 66 in Troyes. He traveled in the 
entourage of his teacher. Rosso Fiorentino, to Fontainebleau, 
where he is recorded in 1 5 3 7 as a stuccoer. After Rosso's death 
in 1540, Barbiere entered the workshop of Francesco 
Primaticcio. He was the most notable engraver at Fontaine- 
bleau, as most of the printmakers there were etchers. Pierre 
Milan, the other notable engraver of the first school of Fon- 
tainebleau, was located in Paris. 

Giovanni Battista d'Angolo, called Battista del Moro 

(cat. no. 4) 

Painter, miniaturist, and etcher, del Moro was born about 
1 5 1 5 probably in Verona, where he became a pupil of his fa- 
ther-in-law, Francesco Torbido del Moro, whose name he 
adopted. About 1557 del Moro moved to Murano, where he 
died about 1573. His style of etching, similar to the manners 
of Paolo Farinati and Giovanni Battista Franco, was employed 
for his own inventions, as well as reproductive prints after 
compositions by Giulio Romano, Parmigianino, Titian, and 
others. His son Marco del Moro was also an engraver. 

Nicolas Beatrizet (cat. nos. 5-8) 

Born in 1 5 07 in Thionville, Beatrizet was active between r 5 40 
and 1565 in Rome, where he might have studied with 
Agostino Veneziano. He worked primarily for the publishers 
Antonio Lafreri and Antonio Salamanca. Particularly notable 
for reproductions of designs by Michelangelo, Beatrizet's oeu- 
vre also includes engravings after compositions by Baccio 
Bandinelli, Girolamo Muziano, Raphael, and Francesco 
Salviati as well as portraits, copies of antique works, and ana- 
tomical illustrations. 



325 



Jacques Bellange (cat. nos. 66-67) 

Documented in Nancy between 1602 and 1616, Bellange was 
a painter and decorator but is known primarily as an etcher 
and draftsman and one of the last proponents of mannerism. 
He probably learned the art of etching from Mattaeus Merian 
or Frederick Brentel, with whom he collaborated about 
16 10- 1 1 on one of the illustrations to the Pompe funebie de 
Charles in, a book devoted to the funeral of Duke Charles iii of 
Lorraine. 

Nicolo Boldrini (cat. no. 9) 

Little is known about the life of Boldrini, the most notable 
woodcutter associated with Titian. He was probably born in 
Vicenza about 1500. His only signed and dated print, Venus 
and Cupid after Titian, 1566, might have been his last. 
Recent historians have removed from Boldrini's oeuvre many 
woodcuts traditionally attributed to him. 

Giulio Bonasone (cat. nos. 10-15) 

Painter, engraver, and etcher, Bonasone was born about 1498 
in Bologna, where he was a pupil of the painter Lorenzo 
Sabbatini. He might have learned engraving from 
Marcantonio Raimondi, who was in Bologna after the Sack of 
Rome in 1527. Bonasone was active between 1531 and 1574, 
years during which he certainly spent some time in Rome. He 
reproduced designs by all of the leading Italian artists of the 
period, including Parmigianino, Giulio Romano, Penno del 
Vaga, Francesco Primaticcio, and Titian, as well as his own 
inventions. 

Cornelis Bos (cat. nos. 101-2) 

Born about 15 10 in Hertogenbosch, Bos died in 1556 in Gro- 
ningen. In 1540 he was a resident in Antwerp but fled to Haar- 
lem in 1544 because of religious persecution. In Haarlem he 
collaborated with Dirck Volkertsz. Coornhert. He was prob- 
ably in Rome between 1548 and 1550. Bos engraved composi- 
tions by Maarten van Heemskerck, Lambert Lombard, and 
Frans Floris, but most of his oeuvre consists of ornamental 
prints. His engravings in this genre frequently have been con- 
fused with those by Cornells Floris, who is now recognized as 
the true inventor of the Netherlandish grotesque. 

Rene Boyvin (cat. no. 68) 

Born about 1525 in Angers and active as an engraver and gold- 
smith, Boyvin was last recorded in 1580 in Paris but might 
have died as late as 1630 in Rome. About 1545 in Paris he was 
evidently a pupil of Pierre Milan, some of whose engraved 
plates, such as Nymph of Fontainebleau. were completed by 
Boyvin after Milan's death. Boyvin is closely identified with 
the works of Rosso Fiorentino, and much of his oeuvre is 
based on Rosso's ornamental designs for masks, costumes, 
and decorative objects. His best-known engravings, however, 
are a set of twenty-six illustrations of the history of Jason 
after compositions by Leonard Thiry. 



Domenico Campagtiola (cat. no. 16) 

Painter, draftsman, and engraver, Campagnola was born to 
German parents about 1 5 00 in Venice, where he died in 1564. 
He was adopted by the engraver Giulio Campagnola, from 
whom he undoubtedly learned printmaking and whose name 
he assumed. Judging from Campagnola's stylistic de- 
velopment, he probably spent a long period in Titian's work- 
shop, and together the two artists developed a highly influen- 
tial style of landscape. Campagnola's small printmaking 
oeuvre is dated mostly 1 5 17-18, when he was still a teenager. 

Gian Giacomo Cataglio (cat. nos. 17-18) 

Engraver, lapidary, and medalist, Caraglio was born about 
1505 in Parma or Verona and died in 1570 in Parma. By 1526 
he was in Rome, where he might have been a pupil of 
Marcantonio Raimondi. Caraglio engraved compositions by 
the younger generation of artists in Rome before the Sack in 
1527, especially Parmigianino, Rosso Fiorentino, and Perino 
del Vaga. Caraglio's series The Labors of Hercules and The 
Loves of the Gods were to have significant styUstic repercus- 
sions later in the sixteenth century in the art of Fontainebleau 
and northern Europe. He traveled north through Venice, 
where he was recorded in 1537 and where he engraved The 
Annunciation (cat. no. 18) after Titian's recently completed 
painting. By 1539 Caraglio was employed in Poland as a med- 
alist and lapidary. 

Ugo da Carpi (cat. no. 19) 

The preeminent Italian chiaroscuro woodcutter of the six- 
teenth century, Ugo was born about 1480 to a noble family in 
Carpi. His first signed woodcuts were published in 1 5 1 1 in 
Venice, where in 1 5 1 6 he petitioned the Senate for a patent on 
his falsely claimed invention of the technique of the chiar- 
oscuro woodcut. About 15 17 he traveled to Rome, where he 
worked closely with Raphael, creating in relation to the mas- 
ter the chiaroscuro equivalent of Marcantonio Raimondi's 
engravings. Marcantonio and Ugo sometimes even worked in 
their respective media from the same compositions by Ra- 
phael, such as The Massacre of the Innocents and The 
Descent from the Cross. After the Sack of Rome in 1527 he 
fled to Bologna, where he died in 1532. 

Nicolo della Casa (cat. no. 20) 

Like his contemporary Nicolas Beatrizet, with whom he 
might have studied, della Casa came from the duchy of Lor- 
raine to Rome, where he was active from about 1543 to 1548. 
His small oeuvre consists of portraits, except for the large, 
eleven-part engraved copy of Michelangelo's fresco The Last 
Judgment in the Sistine Chapel. 



326 



Dirck Volkertsz. Coornhert (cat. no. 103) 



Etienne Delaune (cat. nos. 73-78) 



Engraver, etcher, bookseller, poet, and humanist, Coornhert 
was born in 1522 in Amsterdam and died in 1590 in Gouda. 
About 154s he was in Haarlem, where the following year he 
etched Maarten van Heemskerck's design for a lottery adver- 
tisement commissioned by the city. As a result of his 
freethinking advocacy of religious tolerance, Coornhert spent 
most of his life in exile. From 1568 to 1576 he was in Cleves 
and Xanten and from 1577 to 1587 again in Haarlem. His 
collaborations with Heemskerck are particularly notable. 
Coornhert was probably Philip Galle's teacher, but his most 
significant pupU was Hendrik Goltzius. 

Cornelis Cort (cat. nos. 104-7) 

An engraver and etcher, Cort was born in 1533 in Hoorn and 
died in 1578 in Rome. About 1552-53 he began to work with 
publisher Hieronymus Cock in Antwerp, a relationship that 
lasted until 1565, when Cort departed for Italy, where he had 
been recommended to Titian by Dommique Lampson. Cort 
became the most significant engraver of the great painter's 
compositions, but his importance resides primarily in his 
technique of modeling forms by swelling and tapering lines, a 
method of considerable importance for the late sixteenth- 
century styles of Hendrik Goltzius, Agostino Carracci, and 
many others. 

Michiel Coxcie (cat. no. 108) 

Coxcie was born in 1499 in Mechelen, where he died in 1592. 
For a long period in the 1530s he was in Italy, where he met 
Giorgio Vasari, and in 1534 he became a member of the 
Accademia di San Luca in Rome. By 1539 he was back in 
Mechelen. In 1543 he was a citizen of Brussels, where he was 
named royal painter to Philip 11 of Spain. Coxcie made only 
one etching, The Brazen Serpent (cat. no. 108). As is evident 
in his thirty-two designs from the story of Cupid and Psyche 
engraved by the Master of the Die (Bartsch, 14:211, nos. 
39-70), he was especially influenced by the art of Raphael 
and Michelangelo. 

Master L.D., called Leon Davent (cat. nos. 69-72) 

The artist's name derives from an inscription, "Lion daven," 
on the large four-plate etching The Apostles Contemplating 
Christ and the Virgin after Giulio Romano. The remainder of 
Davent's signed plates are inscribed simply "L.D." Nothing is 
known of this etcher and engraver apart from the dates on his 
prints from 1540 to 1556. His earliest works are engravings, a 
craft he might have learned from Pierre Milan. Davent, who 
appears to have begun to etch about 1543, perhaps as a pupil 
of Antonio Fantuzzi, is considered the finest of the Fontaine- 
bleau etchers and was associated closely with Francesco 
Primaticcio. 



Engraver and medalist, Delaune was born about 15 18- 19 in 
either Paris, Geneva, or Orleans and died in 1583 in Paris. He 
probably learned his craft from his father, Christophe 
Delaune, an engraver at the royal mint in Paris. Delaune was 
active as a medalist until 1562. His prints are dated between 
1561 and 1 582. After the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre 
in 1572 he spent a decade away from Paris, primarily in 
Strasbourg and Augsburg. His elegant and delicate figural 
style is indebted to late sixteenth-century French painters 
such as Antoine Caron and Jean Cousin the Younger, whereas 
the diminutive scale of his prints has been compared to the 
German Little Masters. Most of Delaune's oeuvre of about 
450 engravings consists of ornamental prints, a genre in 
which he excelled. 

Marco Dente (cat. nos. 21-22) 

Little is known about Dente except that he was born in Ra- 
venna — thus explaining his frequently encountered mono- 
gram "SR," meaning "Ravennas Sculptor" — and was killed 
by German soldiers during the Sack of Rome in 1527. About 
15 15 he was in Rome in Marcantonio Raimondi's workshop, 
where he engraved many of the same designs as the master, 
such as The Massacre of the Innocents and The Judgment of 
Paris, both after Raphael. Together with Marcantonio and 
Agostino Veneziano, Dente was part of the great triumvirate 
of Roman engravers who made Raphael's works known 
throughout Europe and whose style determined the course of 
engraving in sixteenth-century Italy. 

Antonio Fantuzzi (cat. nos. 79-80) 

Of Bolognese origin Fantuzzi is recorded at Fontainebleau be- 
tween 1537 and 1550 as an assistant to Francesco 
Primaticcio. His etchings are datable to a short period be- 
tween 1542 and 1545. Although Fantuzzi reproduced com- 
positions by Primaticcio, he is associated particularly closely 
with Rosso Fiorentino's paintings in the Galerie Francois i, as 
well as other designs by Rosso. For a long time he was con- 
fused with the chiaroscurist Antonio da Trento but is now 
recognized as a separate artistic personality. 

Frans Floris (cat. no. 109) 

Floris was born about I5i8-i9in Antwerp, where he died in 
1570. He was a pupil of the painter Lambert Lombard be- 
tween 1538 and 1540 in Liege. From about 1541 to 1547 he 
traveled in Italy, where he absorbed the most recent develop- 
ments by Italian painters, especially Michelangelo and his fol- 
lowers. Floris returned to Antwerp, where he became the 
leading artist of the day in the Netherlands. Although only a 
single etching by him is known. Victory (cat. no. 109), he was 
very active in Netherlandish printmaking by providing 
drawings translated into etchings and engravings by Cornelis 
Bos, Hieronymous Cock, Cornelis Cort, Philip Galle, and 
others. 



327 



BIOGRAPHIES 



Giovanni Battista Franco (cat. nos. 23-25) 



Hendrik Goltzius (cat. nos. 113-26) 



Painter and etcher, Franco was born about 15 10 in Venice, 
where he died in 1 5 6 1 . About 1 5 30 he was in Rome, where he 
was one of the principal followers of Michelangelo. There- 
after he spent a peripatetic career: he was in Florence from 
1536 to 1540, then back in Rome, in Urbino in 1545, again in 
Rome in 1550, again in Urbino in 15 51, and in Venice from 
about 1552 until his death. His son was the Venetian engraver 
and publisher Giacomo Franco, who published several of his 
father's works. One of the finest Italian printmakers of the 
midsixteenth century. Franco deserves further study. 

Francois Gentil (cat. no. 81) 

For a discussion of the identity of this engraver, see com- 
mentary on Gentil's Wounded Pahs Carried off the Field of 
Battle (cat. no. 81). 



Jacques de Gheyn n (cat. nos. 110-12) 

Painter, architect, engraver, and etcher, de Gheyn was born in 
1565 in Antwerp and died in 1629 in The Hague. He was the 
most prominent member of three generations of artists with 
the same name and learned the art of glass painting from his 
father in Utrecht or Amsterdam. About 1585 de Gheyn 
learned engraving from Hendrik Goltzius in Haarlem and 
became one of his most brilliant followers. Many of de 
Gheyn's prints are based on compositions by Goltzius, Abra- 
ham Bloemaert, and Karel van Mander. De Gheyn's own 
designs, especially his highly esteemed drawings, are notable 
for their imaginativeness, fantasy, and naturalism. His realis- 
tic approach to landscape and genre had considerable influ- 
ence on developments in seventeenth-century Dutch art. Al- 
though more than four hundred prints were listed by 
Hollstein, de Gheyn's oeuvre requires further study because 
most are inscribed with his name only in the capacity of pub- 
lisher or inventor and were probably products of his work- 
shop. Like Goltzius, de Gheyn abandoned printmaking about 
1600 in favor of painting. 

Giorgio Ghisi (cat. nos. 26-31) 

Ghisi was born about 1520-21 in Mantua, where he died in 
1582. He most likely learned printmaking from Giovanni 
Battista Scultori, whom Ghisi eventually surpassed as the 
stellar engraver of the Mantuan school. His earliest prints 
from about 1540 were based on designs by Giulio Romano. 
About the mid- 1540s Ghisi was in Rome, where he was in 
contact with the publisher Antonio Lafreri. At the end of the 
decade Ghisi was invited to Antwerp by Hieronymus Cock, 
the leading publisher of the period in the North. Ghisi was in 
France from the mid-i550s until 1567 when he returned to 
Mantua. Although Ghisi spent many years in northern 
Europe, the compositional sources for his engravings were, 
with one exception, Italian artists such as Giulio, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Luca Penni, and Giovarmi Battista Bertani. 



Goltzius was born in 1 5 58 in Miihlbrecht and died in 1617 in 
Haarlem. He was the greatest engraver after Albrecht Diirer. 
About 1575 Goltzius learned engraving in Xanten from Dirck 
Volkertsz. Coornhert, at that time in political exile from the 
Netherlands. Shortly thereafter Coornhert, accompanied by 
his student, returned to Haarlem. Goltzius's first prints were 
published in Antwerp by Philip Galle, but in 1582 he estab- 
lished his own workshop. The following year he met painter 
and theorist Karel van Mander, who introduced him to the 
drawings of Bartholomeus Spranger, the Flemish court 
painter to Rudolf 11 in Prague. Together with painter Cornells 
Cornelisz. van Haarlem, Goltzius established the wildly 
exaggerated style characteristic of late Dutch mannerism. In 
late 1590 Goltzius traveled to Italy, and the experience of 
studying first-hand the monuments of the High Renaissance 
and antiquity, as well as the most recent developments in 
Counter-Maniera art in Italy, inspired him to abandon his 
Sprangeresque style of the 1 580s in favor of a more classiciz- 
ing manner. Like Jacques de Gheyn 11, Goltzius abandoned 
engraving about 1600 in favor of painting. Engraving in Hol- 
land at the end of the century was profoundly indebted to 
Goltzius's example. Among his most significant Dutch fol- 
lowers were his stepson Jacob Matham, de Gheyn, Jan MuUer, 
and Jan Saenredam. 

Juste de Juste (cat. nos. 82-84) 

Juste was born in 1505 in Tours, where he died in 1559. He 
was a member of a notable family of sculptors originally from 
Florence and became one of Rosso Fiorentino's assistants at 
Fontainebleau. His association with the seventeen etchings 
attributed to him is hypothetical, based on the reading of the 
signature on the five multifigured prints (see cat. no. 82). Juste 
is not otherwise known as a printmaker. 

Lucas Kilian (cat. no. 127) 

Kilian was born in 1579 in Augsburg, where he died in 1637. 
He learned engraving from his stepfather, the publisher 
Domenicus Gustos. After his apprenticeship Kilian traveled 
in Italy from 1601 to 1604 and then returned to Augsburg. His 
style of engraving was influenced by Aegidius Sadeler and 
Hendrik Goltzius, and like them he engraved designs by the 
leading artists at the Bavarian and imperial courts, such as 
Bartholomeus Spranger and Joseph Heintz. 

Cornelis Massys (cat. no. 128) 

Son of Flemish painter Quentin Massys, Cornelis was born 
about 1505-8 in Antwerp and died after 1562, perhaps in 
Rome, where he was apparently recorded among the Nether- 
landish artists residing there. His dated engravings range be- 
tween 1537 and 1562. The earlier prints are in the style and 
format of the German Little Masters, whereas some of 
Cornelis's other works, such as Allegory with Skill, Dili- 
gence, and Indolence (cat. no. 128), are not only larger in scale 
but also more Italianate in style and probably date from the 
later years of his career. 



328 



Master G.A.I.F. (cat. no. 129) 

For a discussion of this completely unknown artist, see com- 
mentary on Master G.A.I.F. 's Christ Healing the Sick (cat. no. 
129). 

Master 19 V (cat. nos. 85-89) 

Nothing is known about this etcher, sometimes identified as 
Jean Vaquet, except for his activity about 1543 at Fontaine- 
bleau. His monogram appears on only about a dozen prints, 
but several other prints have been reasonably attributed to 
him. He probably worked in Francesco Primaticcio's work- 
shop alongside Antonio Fantuzzi, with whose works Master 
I$V's sometimes have been confused. Master 19 V's manner 
of etching is notable for its density and attention to detail. 

Jacob Matham (cat. nos. 130-33) 

Matham was born in 1 5 7 1 in Haarlem, where he died in 1 6 3 1 . 
In 1579 when Hendrik Goltzius married the widow of 
Adriaen Matham, he became the stepfather to her son Jacob, 
who in 1 581 entered Goltzius's workshop and learned the art 
of engraving. From about 1593 Matham traveled in Italy for 
four years, probably visiting Venice and Rome, where he en- 
graved compositions by leading artists, past and present, 
including Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, Tintoretto, 
Francesco Salviati, Palma Giovane, Cavaliere d'Arpino, and 
Taddeo and Federico Zuccaro. In the Netherlands, Matham 
engraved designs by Abraham Bloemaert, Cornells Cornelisz. 
van Haarlem, Karel van Mander, and especially Goltzius. He 
was the most prolific but least original follower of Goltzius. 

Jean Mignon (cat. nos. 90-97) 

Mignon worked as a painter and etcher at Fontainebleau, 
beginning about 1537-40. Only two etchings are signed, but 
his oeuvre is now believed to number about sixty works. His 
career as a printmaker was of rather short duration, lasting 
only from about 1543 to 1547. Although some of his prints 
can be related to works by Francesco Primaticcio, Mignon 
was first and foremost the etcher most closely associated 
with Luca Permi. Mignon's style is considered among the 
most lively and imaginative in the school of Fontainebleau. 

Pierre Milan (cat. no. 98) 

Documented between 1542 and 1556, Milan was, together 
with Domenico del Barbiere, the principal French engraver of 
the midsixteenth century, although judging from his sur- 
name, he might have been Italian rather than French. It has 
also been suggested he may be identifiable with a certain 
Pierre de la Cuffle, an engraver mentioned by Karel van 
Mander. Milan was not active in Fontainebleau but in Paris, 
where he was probably the teacher of Rene Boyvin. Docu- 
ments published by Metman have been instrumental in 
establishing Milan's oeuvre, as well as clarifying the degree of 
collaboration between Milan and Boyvin. 



Jan Mullet (cat. nos. 134-41) 

Painter and engraver, MuUer was born in 1 571 in Amsterdam, 
where he died in 1628. He probably learned the art of engrav- 
ing from his father, the print publisher Harman Muller. It of- 
ten has been assumed that Muller was in Haarlem about 
1589-90 because of his set of engravings from 1589, The 
Days of Creation, after Hendrik Goltzius and because of sev- 
eral engravings from about the same period after designs by 
Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem. There is, however, no evi- 
dence Muller and Goltzius or Muller and Cornelis were 
collaborators in the sense of having direct contact. Some time 
between 1 594 and 1602 Muller traveled to Italy, where he was 
especially affected by the dramatic chiaroscuro of Venetian 
painters like Jacopo Tintoretto. A stopover at the imperial 
court in Prague has been suggested because some of Mullet's 
engravings are after court artists such as Bartholomeus 
Spranger, Adriaen de Vries, and Hans van Aachen. These 
prints date from the early years of the seventeenth century. 
Much of Muller's later work was devoted to portraiture. 

Jacopo Negretti, called Palma Giovane (cat. no. 32) 

Painter and etcher, Palma was born in 1 548 in Venice, where 
he died in 1628. He was known as Palma Giovane in order to 
distinguish him from his uncle, the Venetian painter Palma 
Vecchio. About 1564 Palma was invited to Urbino by Duke 
Guidobaldo della Rovere and then spent eight years in Rome. 
Upon his return to Venice he became the principal assistant 
to the aged Titian. With one exception Raima's printed oeuvre 
consists of twenty-six etchings first published in 161 1 by 
Giacomo Franco as a book known as The Principles of Draw- 
ing (see cat. no. 32). 

Francesco Mazzola, called Parmigianino (cat. nos. 33-34) 

Painter, etcher, and designer of woodcuts, Parmigianino was 
born in 1503 in Parma and died in 1540 in Casalmaggiore. As 
a young artist in 1 5 23 he went to Rome, where he stayed until 
the Sack in 1527. He fled to Bologna until about 1530-31, 
when he returned to Parma. His combination of Antonio 
Corregio's Emilian grace with Raphael's Roman disegno 
proved to be one of the most influential stylistic develop- 
ments in the sixteenth century. Parmigianino was equally 
seminal in the area of printmaking, being the first true 
painter-etcher who understood the freely expressive capabili- 
ties of etching, as distinct from the medium of engraving. 
Etchings from the school of Fontainebleau, for example, are 
inconceivable without Parmigianino's example. He was 
equally important for the history of chiaroscuro woodcuts in 
Italy through his drawings reproduced principally by Antonio 
da Trento and Nicolo Vicentino. 



329 



BIOGRAPHIES 



Marcantonio Raimondi (cat. nos. 35-39) 



Andrea Meldolla, called Andrea Schiavone (cat. nos. 41-42) 



Born about 1475-80 in Aigini, near Bologna, Marcantonio 
learned engraving from the Bolognese painter, goldsmith, and 
nielUst Francesco Francia. In 1506 he was in Venice, where he 
copied, and was accused of forging, Albrecht Diirer's series of 
woodcuts The Life of the Virgin. About 15 10 Marcantonio 
was probably in Florence. In 1 5 1 1 he was in Rome, where he 
entered into a working relationship with Raphael and the 
print publisher Baviera. This relationship lasted until Rapha- 
el's death in 1520, after which Marcantonio engraved designs 
by Raphael's principal successor, Giulio Romano, as well as 
by other artists like Baccio Bandinelli. After the Sack of Rome 
in 1 527, during which Marcantonio suffered considerable per- 
sonal hardship, he returned to Bologna, where he died some 
time before 1534. 



Painter, etcher, and woodcutter, Schiavone was born about 
15 ID— 15 in Dalmatia and died in 1563 in Venice. Although a 
devoted follower of Parmigianino's figural style, Schiavone 
probably never apprenticed with him but learned 
Parmigianino's manner through the study of his drawings 
and reproductive engravings after his works. In Schiavone's 
art the graceful elegance of Parmigianino was tempered by 
the precision of the Tuscan-Roman sense of sculptural form 
knovwi in Venice through influential visits to the city by 
Giorgio Vasari and Francesco Sahdati. Schiavone probably 
began his career as a printmaker about 1536. He ranks with 
Parmigianino as the most innovative and experimental Ital- 
ian etcher of the sixteenth century, especially in his use of 
drypoint. 



Aegidius Sadeler (cat. no. 142) 

Painter and engraver, Sadeler was born in 1570 in Antwerp 
and died m 1629 in Prague. He came from a family of 
printmakers, including his imcle and teacher Jan Sadeler, 
another uncle Raphael Sadeler, and cousins Philip, Jan 11, and 
Raphael 11. In 1590 he was in Munich, in 1593 in Rome, then 
in Venice, and finally again in Mtmich. In 1 5 97 he was named 
imperial engraver to Rudolf 11 in Prague, where he engraved 
designs by Bartholomeus Spranger and notably landscapes by 
Roelandt Savery and Pieter Stevens. Sadeler's oeuvre is large 
(Hollstein lists almost four hundred engravings). He was the 
teacher of seventeenth-century artist and biographer Joachim 
von Sandrart. 

Jan Saeniedam (cat. nos. 143-47) 

Saenredam was born in 1565 in Saerdam and died in 1607 in 
Assendelft. Initially trained as a mapmaker, he spent a short 
period in Haarlem in 1589 in Hendrik Goltzius's studio. 
Saenredam then spent two years in Amsterdam, perhaps in 
the workshop of Jacques de Gheyn 11, and returned to Haar- 
lem, again with Goltzius, before settling in Assendelft. 
Saenredam engraved designs by the familiar roster of Dutch 
mannerist artists (Abraham Bloemaert, Cornelis CorneUsz. 
van Haarlem, Karel van Mander) and especially after 
Goltzius's designs of the late 1590s. The rich and silvery 
tonality of his engravings sets Saenredam apart from the 
other members of the Goltzius school. He was the father of 
Pieter Saenredam, a painter of Dutch interiors. 

Giulio Sanuto (cat. no. 40) 

Sanuto was active in Venice between 1540 and 1580. Because 
of his copies after works by Raphael and Marcantonio 
Raimondi, it has been suggested that he also might have spent 
some time in Rome. The later prints in Sanuto's oeuvre of 
about seventeen engravings show the influence of Giovanni 
Battista Franco, who was in Venice from about 1552 to 1561. 



Giuseppe Scolari (cat. no. 43) 

All that is known today of Scolari's career is his activity as a 
woodcutter in Venice at the end of the sixteenth century. He 
apparently was active also in Vicenza and Verona. His oeuvre 
of only about nine or ten prints is now recognized as the cli- 
max of Italian Renaissance woodcuts. Through his distinctive 
handling of the woodblocks Scolari achieved an unparalleled 
sense of dramatic urgency in his prints. 

Adamo Scultori (cat. no. 44) 

The son and undoubtedly pupil of engraver Giovanni Battista 
Scultori and the brother of engraver Diana Scultori, Adamo 
was born about 1530 in Mantua, where he died in 1585. His 
oeuvre consists mostly of engravings after designs by Giulio 
Romano but also includes a series of seventy-three somewhat 
crude reproductions of figures in Michelangelo's ceiling 
fresco in the Sistine Chapel. 

Diana Scultori (cat. nos. 45-47) 

Like her brother Adamo Scultori, Diana was probably trained 
in the art of engraving by her father Giovanni Battista 
Scultori. Born in Mantua probably before Adamo, she died 
after 1 588 in Rome. She is especially notable as one of the few 
female printmakers recorded in the sixteenth century. Diana 
copied many compositions by Giulio Romano in Mantua and 
also worked in Rome, where she reproduced designs by such 
late sixteenth-century painters as Paris Nogari, Rafaellino da 
Reggio, and Federico Zuccaro. 



330 



Giovanni Batdsta Scultoii (cat. no. 48) 

Sculptor and engraver, Scultori was born in 1503 in Mantua, 
where he died in 1575. He was the founder of the Mantuan 
school of engraving, which included his children Adamo and 
Diana Scultori and most notably Giorgio Ghisi. He collabo- 
rated with Giulio Romano in the Sala degli Stucchi in the 
Palazzo del Te, Mantua. He might have learned the art of 
engraving from Agostino Veneziano, who had fled to Mantua 
after the Sack of Rome in 1527. Scultori's oeuvre is the rarest 
of the Mantuan school, consisting of only twenty-one 
engravings. 

Christoffel van Sichem i (cat. no. 148I 

Born about 1546 in Amsterdam, where he died in 1624, van 
Sichem was the founder of four generations of woodcutters 
with the same name. Between 1555 and 1 5 67 he was the pupil 
of woodcutter Jan Ewoutsz. Muller. Van Sichem's oeuvre con- 
sists primarily of portraits used as book illustrations, and 
many of his works have been confused with those of his son 
Christoffel van Sichem 11, who used the same signature as his 
father. 



Pierre Woeiriot (cat. no. 99) 

Engraver, woodcutter, sculptor, painter, and medalist, 
Woeiriot was born about 1531-32 in Neufchateau or 
Damblain and died after 1 596, perhaps in Nancy. Trained ini- 
tially in the family trade as a goldsmith, he began his career as 
a prmtmaker about 1555 after traveling to Italy and Lyon. His 
last dated work is from 1589. Woeiriot adopted the noble sur- 
name de Bouzey in 1562, after which he often signed his 
prints with the initials RW.D.B. and the cross of Lorraine. His 
oeuvre of more than four hundred prints is comprised 
predominantly of portraits as well as ornamental and 
illustrational works. 

Domenico Zenoni (cat. no. 100) 

Also known as Domenico Zenoi, this engraver and publisher 
was active in Venice between about 1560 and 1580. His 
graphic oeuvre includes religious, allegorical, and mythologi- 
cal compositions, as well as events from contemporary his- 
tory and portraits. 



Antonio da Tiento (cat. nos. 49-50) 

For a long time the chiaroscuro woodcutter Antonio da 
Trento was considered to be the same person as the school of 
Fontainebleau etcher Antonio Fantuzzi, but they are now be- 
lieved to be different artists. According to Giorgio Vasari, da 
Trento was in Bologna with Parmigianino between 1527 and 
153 1 but disappeared one day with a cache of the master's 
drawings and etchings. Some of da Trento's woodcuts might 
have, in fact, been based on these stolen works. In comparison 
with Ugo da Carpi and Nicolo Vicentino, his compositions 
tend to rely more on the linear definition of the line block. 

Giuseppe Nicola Rossigliani. called Nicolo Vicentino 

(cat. nos. 51-58) 

Very little is known about the chiaroscuro woodcutter 
Vicentino, except that he came from Vicenza and that most of 
his prints are based on designs by Parmigianino and were 
probably printed about midcentury, after Parmigianino 's 
death. 

Enea Vico (cat. nos. 59-61) 

Born in 1523 in Parma, Vico studied engraving in Rome with 
the publisher Tommaso Barlacchi, who in 1541 published a 
series of grotesques engraved by Vico. Very prolific, Vico pro- 
duced an oeuvre of more than five hundred prints, most of 
which, however, consists of such relatively minor subjects as 
studies of costumes from various nations and portrait medals. 
He later traveled to Florence, and in 1 5 6 3 was in the service of 
Duke Alfonso d'Este 11 in Ferrara, where he died in 1567. 



331 



BIOGRAPHIES 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The following bibliogiaphy gives full citations for 
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Albricci, Gioconda. "Le incisioni di Diana Scultori." U 
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Catelli Isola, Maria. Immagini da Tiziano: Stampe dal sec. 
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D'Amico, Rosa. Catalogo generale della raccolta di stampe 
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333 



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334 



INDEX OF INVENTORS 

The following index indicates catalogue numbers 
for prints executed from designs by the inventors. 



Bandinelli, Baccio, 20, 38 
Barocci, Federico, 107 
Beccafumi, Domenico, 2 
Bertani, Giovanni Battista, 28 
Bloemaert, Abraham, 143, 146-47 
Broeck, Crispijn van den, no 

Caravaggio, Polidoro da, 105 
Conte, Jacopino del, 1 3 

Fantuzzi, Antonio, 86 

Fiorentino, Rosso, 17, 22, 62, 64, 80, 86, 88, 98, 100 

Floris, Frans, 102 

Ghisi, Giorgio, 89 

Giovane, Palma, 122 

Goltzius, Hendrik, 130-32, 144-45 

Haarlem, Cornelis Cornelisz. van, 115, 133, 135 
Heemskerck, Maarten van, loi, 103 

Mander, Karel van, 1 1 1-12 
Matham, Jacob, 148 
Michelangelo, i, 6-7, 44 

Parmigianino, 4-5, 19, 41, 49-52, 55-59, 69 

Penni, Luca, 29, 65, 68, 71, 73-78, 90-97 

Peruzzi, Baldassare, 99 

Piombo, Sebastiano del, 44 

Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio da, 9, 43, 54 

Primaticcio, Francesco, 11, 61, 63, 70, 72, 81, 85 

Raphael, 33, 35-36, 39 

Romano, Giulio, 12, 21, 26, 30-31, 37, 45-48, 79, 87, 89 

Salviati, Francesco, 8, 53 
Schiavone, Andrea, 4 
Scultori, Giovanni Battista, 27, 60 
Sermoneta, Siciolante da, 128 
Spranger, Bartholomeus, 127, 140-42 

Titian, 18, 40, 104, 106 

Vaga, Perino del, 1 5 
Vries, Adriaen de, 134 



335 



County of Los Angeles 

Board of Supervisors, 1988 

Deane Dana, Chairman 
Michael D. Antonovich 
Edmund D. Edelman 
Kenneth Hahn 
Peter F. Schabarum 

Chief Administrative Officer and Director of Personnel 

Richard B. Dixon 



Los Angeles County Museum of Art Board of Trustees, 
Fiscal Year 1988-89 



Juhan Ganz, Jr., Chairman 

Daniel N. Belin, President 

Mrs. F. Daniel Frost, Chairman of the Executive Committee 

Charles E. Ducommun, Vice President 

Robert F. Maguire iii. Vice President 

Eric Lidow, Treasurer 

Mrs. Barbara Pauley Pagan, Secretary 

Earl A. Powell iii. Director 



Honorary Life Trustees 
Mrs. Anna Bing Arnold 
Mrs. Freeman Gates 
Mrs. Nasli Heeramaneck 
Joseph B. Koepfli 
Mrs. Rudolph Liebig 
Mrs. Lucille Ellis Simon 
John Walker 
Mrs. Herman Weiner 



Mrs. Howard Ahmanson 
William H. Ahmanson 
Howard P. Allen 
Robert O. Anderson 
R. Stanton Avery 
Norman Barker, Jr. 
Mrs. Lionel Bell 
Dr. George N. Boone 
Donald L. Bren 
Mrs. B. Gerald Cantor 
Edward W Carter 
Hans Cohn 
David Geffen 
Arthur Gilbert 
Stanley Grinstein 
Dr. Armand Hammer 
Felix Juda 
Mrs. Howard B. Keck 



Mrs. Dwight M. Kendall 
Mrs. Harry Lenart 
Steve Martin 
Dr. Franklin D. Murphy 
Toshio Nagamura 
Sidney R. Petersen 
Joe D. Price 
Richard E. Sherwood 
Dr. Richard A. Simms 
Nathan Smooke 
Ray Stark 

Mrs. John Van de Kamp 
Frederick R. Weisman 
Walter L. Weisman 
Mrs. Harry Wetzel 
David L. Wolper 
James R. Young 
Julius L. Zelman 



336 



Printed in the U.S.A.