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tIAKI.. M.S., 1892 










First Published in 1906 








































INDEX 323 



Manor House, Boothby Pagnell, Lincolnshire .... 14 

A \\Vst Country Manor House ....... 26 

From S. Baring-Gould's Old Country Lift 

Plan of an Ancient West Country Manor House 2- 

From S. Baring-Gould's OM Country Lift 

Courtyard, Little Hempston ........ 28 

From S. Baring-Gould's Old Country Life 

Plan of House at Little Hempston, South Devon .... 29 

From S. Baring-Gould's Old Country Life 

Dormitory, Layer Marnay. EttCX . . . . . . . 30 

Interior of Solar, Charney . . . . . . . 31 

Interior of Chapel, Charney ........ 32 

Ground-plan of House, Charney, Berkshire 33 

Interior of Hall, Sutton Courtney, Berks 35 

Solar, Sutton Courtney, Berks ........ 36 

House with External Staircase ........ 37 

House ............ 38 

The Linces at Clothall, Herts 39 

From Seebohm's English Village Community 

Porch of a Hall 40 

House with External Staircase protected by a Porch . . 41 
The Plan of a Manor, showing a Vir^atrr's Holding in the 

Common Fields . . . . . . . . . . 4- 

Barnack Manor House, Northamptonshire 44 

Exterior of Chapel and Solar, Charney 46 

Table and Seat 48 

Plan of Burton Agnes, 1809 ........ 49 

Fireplace, Scat, and Table 51 

Early English Ploughing 66 

From Hall's Court Life un,t,-r the rinntagemtts 

Interior of the Hall, Great Malvem. : shirr ... 67 




Women milking Kwes ......... 71 

From Bateson's .l/<Y//</vW England 

Bakehouse ............ 72 

Long Settle and Table ......... 74 

Shepherds and Flock 77 

From Hall's Court I.i/c under the Plantagcnets 

October: Ploughing-, Sowing, and Threshing . .... 79 

From a SI:epherd's Calendar, British Museum (fourteenth century) 
November: Preparing Winter Stores ...... 80 

From a Shepherd's Calendar, British Museum (fourteenth century) 
March : Lopping- Trees ......... Sj 

From a Shepherd's Calendar, British Museum (fourteenth century) 
June : Sheep-shearing ......... 83 

From a Shepherd" 's Calendar, British Museum (fourteenth century) 
Timber House ........... 84 

Water Mill 85 

Wind Mill 86 

July: Mowing 88 

From a Shepherd's Calendar, British Museum (fourteenth century) 
August : Reaping .......... 89 

From a Shepherd's Calendar, British Museum (fourteenth century) 

September : Gathering Fruit and Pressing Grapes . . . .91 

From a Shepherd's Calendar, British Museum (fourteenth century) 
Part of a House, showing the situation of Solar or Lord's chamber 92 
Porch of a Hall 96 

Swineherds and Swine ......... 98 

From Hall's Court Life under tlie Plantagenets 

Interior of Hall of a superior Manor House, showing the Dais, the 

Plate Cupboard, the Minstrel Gallery, etc. .... 99 

Court Roll of Letcombe Regis, Berks (52 Hen. III.) . . .143 

From an original in the Public Record Office 
Court Roll of Donington, Berks (9 Hen. VII.) .... 155 

From an original in the Public Record Office 
Court Roll of Gnossall, Staffs (7 Hen. VII.) 183 

From an original in the Public Record Office 
Court Roll of Gnossall, Staffs (21 Eliz.) 185 

From an original in the Public Record Office 
Account Roll of the Reeve of Barkham, Berks (4 Edwd. I.) . . 205 

From an original in the Public Record Office 


The. Villain at Work Frontispiece 

>f I i rant and Manumission of a Villain. 
temp. Edward III Face page 17 

Siitton Courtney Manor, with Plan ... ,, 37 

Reeve directing the labours of Reapers . ,,68 

From Bateson's Medierval England 

Map of Ramsbury Manor, Wilts .... ,, 109 

From an original in the Public Record Office 

< ourt Roll of Warwick College, temp. Henry VIII. 125 

Court Room at Knaresborough, Yorks ... ,, 131 

From a photograph by A. P. Watson, Knaresborough 


AT a time when we have but recently embarked on 
a new system of local government, which is 
yet, so to speak, on its trial, it may be of 
more than historical interest to recall the fact that 
the institutions of parish councils and the like are 
but the successors of an older system co-eval with the 
existence of England as a state, and to endeavour to 
realize, by the aid of existing records, the conditions 
under which generations of our forefathers passed their 
lives forming those habits of self-reliance and resource- 
fulness which have imprinted an imperial character on 
the race. 

It has been well said by an authority 1 on the subject 
that "nearly all that is being urged as appertaining 
to the privileges of a newly created system of local 
government local option, land allotment, county 
boards, and other important subjects has always 
belonged to the local institutions, and has never been 
taken away from them by any legal or constitutional 
enactment," and that "most of the powers now pro- 
posed to be conferred as a blessing at the hands of 
this or that political party already exist, but have 

1 Gommc, Literature of Local Institutions. 


been lying dormant and unused as portions of a social 
system which has become obsolete." 

The familiar and rather high-sounding title of lord 
of the manor conveys but little practical meaning to 
the many, though it confers on the bearer a certain 
social status. The holder of such a position, having 
long since lost most of the great feudal privileges 
formerly attached to it, is apt to be considered in the 
popular imagination as a mere nominal survival. 

The lord of the manor, however, even at the present 
day, is a real factor in local life. Parish and district 
councils, in questions constantly arising touching 
village greens, recreation grounds, commons and 
rights of way, find that they have to reckon with him 
in the exercise of their newly acquired powers, and 
have to adjust their claims in accordance Avith the old 
manorial rights enjoyed by him and his predecessors 
for centuries. 

A manor has been defined as "a certain circuit of 
ground granted by the King to some baron or man of 
worth as an inheritance for him and his heirs, with the 
exercise of such jurisdiction within the said compass 
as the King saw fit to grant, and subject to the per- 
formance of such services and yearly rents as were by 
the grant required." 1 These magnates, the tenants in 
chief of the Crown, soon began to carve out smaller 
estates to be held of them by similar rents and services, 
the grantees becoming in turn lords of manors. The 
mesne or middle lords, following the example of 

1 Scargill-Bird, Guide to the Public Records. 


those above them, granted out lesser estates, until the 
superior lords began to realize that they were losing their 
profits in respect of wardships, marriages, escheats, 
etc. This process of subinfeudation was checked by a 
provision in the Great Charter of 9 Henry III. "that 
no man should either grant or sell land without re- 
serving sufficient to answer the demands of his lord." 
It was followed by the statute Quia Emptores, 18 
Edward I., enacting "that in all sales and enfeoff- 
ments of land the feoffee shall hold the same, not of 
the immediate feoffor, but of the chief lord of the 
fee," subsequently to which no new manors were 

In the following pages I have attempted to portray, 
for the general reader, the main features of the English 
manor, that institution which, under varying forms 
and circumstances, has existed among us from a period 
"whereunto the memory of man runneth not to the 
contrary" till the present day, an institution which, 
though somewhat impaired in vitality, is still a factor 
in our social organization. It is hoped that the selec- 
tion of manorial documents, chiefly from original 
sources, may serve to illustrate the text. The Court 
Rolls of Letcombe Regis, Brightwaltham, and Adding- 
ton are among the earliest which have been preserved 
to us. The extracts from Berkshire Court Rolls have 
already appeared in the Berks Arch. Journal, vol. iii. 
(1893); being translations from originals among the 
Duchy of Lancaster Series. The Court Rolls of Gnossall, 
Staffs, and those of Taynton, Oxon, were placed at my 


disposal by their respective owners. The Extent and 
Compoti of the Bicester Manors are translations from 
Kennet's Parochial Antiquities. The extracts from the 
Glastonbury Custumals, from a volume published by 
the Somerset Record Society ; and the Extent of 
Warkworth, Northumberland, an early example of 
this class of document, from the original at the Public 
Record Office. 

It is believed that the lists of Court Rolls in various 
depositories will be useful to the local historian and 
genealogist, as also to members of the legal profession. 
A brief table of the elliptical phrases constantly recurring 
in Court Rolls may be of assistance to those commenc- 
ing the study of these documents. It will be obvious 
to all readers who are conversant with manorial studies 
that I have drawn freely from contemporary sources, as 
well as those of an earlier date, my endeavour having 
been to present in a compendious form the result of 
more laborious researches in this field of literature. For 
those who wish to go more deeply into the subject, I 
have collected these authorities into a short bibliography 
in Appendix II. I am bound especially to acknowledge 
my indebtedness to the scholarly essays of Professor 
Vinogradoff who has done such excellent work in 
recent years to elucidate the many difficult points of 
English manorial history. My thanks are due to His 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Ecclesi- 
astical Commissioners for permission to print the lists 
of Court Rolls in their respective custodies, as also 
to the General Editor, the officers of the Public Record 


Office, and many friends for the hints and assistance 
given in this compilation. 

I would here also acknowledge the courtesy I have 
invariably received at the hands of lords and their 
stewards, in being allowed to inspect and take tran- 
scripts of rolls ; unfortunately this is not the experience 
of many engaged in antiquarian research. Some, no 
doubt well-intentioned, but too zealous custodians, are 
often inclined to regard inquiries concerning their rolls 
as an intrusion. It is to be hoped that, if the proposal 
of establishing County Record Offices should some 
day be carried into effect, many lords may be induced 
to deposit therein these valuable records, where they 
would be secure from the ravages of fire, damp and 
vermin, and, with permission of their owners, available 
for the student of mediaeval life and manners. 

If these pages should arouse a wider interest in that 
old-time institution of the English manor, or lead to a 
more reverent care for the documents which enshrine 
its history, I shall have the satisfaction of feeling that 
my labour has not been altogether in vain. 

N. J. H. 

\.K A so. iety of Seneschals, or Manorial Stewards, of England 
and \VaU-s is in process of formation, one of the objects of which is ' t> 
aid and < ncourage the preservation and study of manorial Court Rolls." 
Particulars may be obtained from Charles Greenwood, Ks ( ).. Stt ward of 
tli- Manor of Old Paris Garden, i Mitre Court Buildings, Temple, E.C. 




WHEN that institution which we know under its 
Norman name of the manor first emerges upon 
the stage of history, it is recognized that two 
elements enter into its constitution, the seignorial and 
the communal ; a lord, and a group of dependents work- 
ing and having rights in common. The question then 
arises whether the manor owes its origin to the subjec- 
tion of a free community to an overlord ; or whether a 
servile population always existed working fora superior 
who was absolute owner of the soil. In other words, 
did private property in land exist from the beginning? 
Or is our present system merely the outcome of cen- 
turies of appropriation by individuals with more or less 
doubtful titles? 

The origin of the manor, a subject of engrossing 
interest to the student of social and economic science, 
is still involved in considerable obscurity. The re- 
searches of English and Continental scholars of recent 


years, although throwing much light on the subject, 
have, as yet, led to no definite conclusion, and the 
matter is still considered sub judicc. The mark theory, 
held by the older school, on which Mr. Kemble has 
insisted in his Saxons in England, may be here briefly 
stated. In very early times, before those Continental 
tribes, afterwards known as the English, had crossed 
over into Britain, all land was held in common by 
various communities, each consisting of a few families 
who occupied a tract they had cleared from the waste, 
and separated from other like settlements by a boundary 
or mark, a name that in time came to be applied to the 
actual settlement. In the village each markman had 
his homestead, with a share in the common land con- 
sisting of the waste or rough pasture, the enclosed 
meadows for hay or the rearing of stock, and the arable 
land divided into lots. Each man's right, however, 
was that of usufruct only, the absolute ownership being 
vested in the community for the common benefit of all. 
It was held that from this mark a group of households 
arranged on a democratic basis which formed the unit 
of social organization among the first Saxon settlers 
was developed the manor, an autocratic system in which 
a group of tenants acknowledged the authority of a lord, 
who, through some political or social cause, had gained 
an ascendancy over his neighbours, or had promised 
them protection in return for their subjection to his 

On the other hand, Mr. Seebohm, in his masterly 
essay, maintains that the English village community 
was derived from the Roman villa, and was manorial 


or servile throughout the Anglo-Saxon period ; whilst 
Professor Maitland contends that there was little com- 
munalism in the early English village, which was 
inhabited by freemen who owned land in severalty. 

The weight of evidence, however, appears to be with 
those who maintain that the seignorial element was 
super-imposed upon original free communities ; but 
when and how this subjection was effected still baffles 
the inquiries of authorities. One of the most able and 
patient investigators of the manorial system has re- 
corded his deliberate opinion that 

"the communal organization of the [English] peasantry 
is more ancient and more deeply laid than the manorial 
order. Even the feudal period shows everywhere traces of 
a peasant class living and working in economically self- 
dependent communities under the loose authority of a lord 
whose claims may proceed from political causes and affect 
the semblance of ownership, but do not give rise to the 
manorial connection between estate and village." 1 

The truth is that every successive wave of invasion 
contributed its quota to the building up of that institu- 
tion which received its coping-stone at the hands of the 
Normans by its more strict feudalization the English 
manor. Even in Celtic society, which rested mainly 
on a tribal basis, we may detect some elements which 
went towards the formation of the manor ; landowner- 
ship began to be recognized as a social force ; serfs 
lived by the side of free tenants, but arranged in separate 
communities ; both these classes were subjected to food 
tribute, and bound to provide maintenance for their 

Villuintigi- in England, p. 409. 


chiefs; aristocratic rank and degrees existed among the 
folk, but the idea of kinship, and of affinity of blood, 
kept alive the spirit of co-operation. 

Although the Roman occupation of Britain had its 
influence in modifying the process of social evolution, 
the civilization it brought was of too exotic a nature to 
take deep root on British soil. It has been well com- 
pared to 

" the influence of a stream which makes its way in several 
channels through the country, fertilising the plains around it 
and materially influencing the immediate surroundings, but 
not succeeding in entirely altering its general aspect." 1 

The individualistic character of southern agriculture 
was unfitted for the northern provinces of the Empire. 
Where there were extensive tracts of waste, where 
pastoral pursuits yielded more profitable results than 
agriculture, where persistent and skilled labour was 
not a necessity, there naturally arose a system of 
extensive cultivation which we know as the open-field 
system. It was this system, with its primitive rotation 
of crops, its intermixture of strips of neighbouring 
claims, its modes of depasturing cattle and regulations 
for the use of the waste, etc., which led to a com- 
munalistic organization in hamlets and villages. The 
Roman lordships and villas undoubtedly played their 
part, as providing natural and powerful centres in the 
process of settlement and organization ; but, taking 
them as a whole, the rural arrangements of the Roman 
period in Britain were determined to a great extent by 
Celtic antecedents. 

1 Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor, p. 83. 


But it is at the period of the migration to Britain 
of the various Continental tribes of Teutonic origin, 
that a more thorough change is perceptible in the 
conditions of life, and a greater development is ap- 
parent in the economic history of these islands. We 
may note the grouping of the folk in households, to 
each of which a hide of land was appropriated ; these 
again were gathered into districts each comprising a 
hundred households hence called the hundred over 
which rose the more comprehensive unit of the shire. 

The formation of the tun^ however, or concentration 
of the rural population in villages, may be said to be 
the distinctive feature of the Anglo-Saxon period. 

"The new settlers were bent on keeping together for 
purposes of agriculture and defence ; the troublous times 
which began with their invasion, and went on until the com- 
plete organization of feudal monarchy, were not propitious to 
separate homesteads and farms. The sway of the military 
class over the agricultural was made easier by the gathering 
of masters, foremen, and tillers in the same centre." 1 

The prevalent form of settlement was therefore that of 
the tun or ham, a village of considerable size and not 
a hamlet or separate homestead, although these still 
continued to exist by the side of the larger settlements ; 
but even these latter were grouped together into villages 
for administrative and judicial purposes. Another 
variety of the tun was the urban district the town for 
which there was no distinctive term till much later 
times, proving that no fundamental difference then 
existed between the organization of the village and 

1 Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor, p. 147. 


town. "A vill is the tun as accepted by the French 
conquerors, not as founded or re-settled by English 

As the tribal arrangement gradually broke up, and 
the central power was not sufficiently strong to afford 
adequate protection to individuals, a system of patron- 
age arose which influenced to a great extent the 
evolution of the manor. The lord (hlaford) became an 
important factor in social organization, and a territorial 
aristocracy was the natural outcome of the situation. 

" Public justice was at best cumbersome and onerous, it 
was a source of profits and exactions. Fines had to be 
imposed and levied, local means provided for the easy 
discharge of petty causes, and great men were considered 
the best local agents for enforcing obedience and taking up 
the settlement of local disputes. Small people were freed on 
their side from costly peregrinations and processes, while 
great people obtained new sources of income and influence." 1 

It is easy to see how a dependent population would 
grow up around these centres of political power 
and a system of rents and services would develope, 
and thus the Anglo-Saxon estate became gradually 
manorialized. It is worthy of remark that there are 
traces of an intermediate stage in manorial history, 
when the services of tenants were not due to a resident 
lord, but to one living at a distance, and partook more 
of the nature of tribute. There was a special class of 
riding bailiffs, radmen or rod-knights, who collected the 
dues of tenants. The services of the community were 
frequently under the supervision of the free tenants, 

1 Vinogradoff, Growth of the Manor, p. 214. 


and the weekly and nightly " farms," that is, the 
finding of provisions for the lord's household, point 
to self-dependent communities working their own 
estates, and having only a tribute-paying relationship 
to a lord. This gave way to the more personal tie, as 
the manor settled down to its later form of a home 
farm, with a resident landlord upon it. 

Mr. Seebohm has shown that the Saxon estate, long 
before the Norman Survey, was divided into the lord's 
demesne and land in villainage, though the Nor- 
man phraseology was not then used. The lord of 
the manor was a thane or hlaford. The demesne land 
was the thane's inland. All classes of villains were 
called geneats. The land in villainage was the geneat 
land or gesettes land or sometimes gafol land ; this 
land in villainage was composed of hides and yard- 
lands, and the tenants on it divided into two classes, 
the geburs or holders of yard-lands, and the cottiers 
with smaller holdings. Beneath these were the thcows 
or slaves, answering to the servi of Domesday. In the 
/\Vr///W/V/rv, or Saxon Laws of Landright, a document 
of about the tenth century, the services due from various 
persons on an estate are described. The first part of 
this treatise deals with the services of the thane, and 
informs us that he owed military and other services for 
his estate to the king, always including the three great 
needs, the trinudu ncccssitux : (i) to accompany the 
king in his military expeditions ; (2) to aid in the 
building of castles ; (3) to maintain the bridges. In a 
charter of A. D. 950, where a manor is described as 
containing thirty hides, nine are of the inland and 


twenty-one of gesettes land, the latter containing so 
many yard-lands. Gesettes land simply meant land 
set or let out to tenants. The second part of the 
treatise gives us the duties of the tenants, first those of 
the gebur, or villain proper. 

"The geburs services are various, in some places heavy, 
in others moderate. On some land he must work at week- 
work two days, at such work as he is required through the 
year every week and at harvest three days for week-work, 
and from Candlemas to Easter three. . . . And from the time 
that they first plough to Martinmas he shall each week 
plough one acre and prepare himself the seed in the lord's 
barn. Also 3 acres bene work and 2 to grass yrth and each 
gebur gives 6 loaves to the swineherd when he drives his 
herd to mast ... he shall have given to him for his outfit 2 
oxen and i cow and 6 sheep and seven acres sown on his 
yard land. And he must have given to him tools for his work 
and utensils for his house. Then when he dies, his lord takes 
back what he leaves. ... On some lands the gebur shall pay 
honey gafol, on some meat gafol, on some ale gafol. Let him 
who is over the district take care that he knows what the old 
land customs are and what are the customs of the people." 

Then the cottier's services are referred to : 

44 He shall do what on the land is fixed ; on some he 
shall, each Monday in the year, work for his lord and three 
days a week in harvest ... he ought to have five acres in his 
holding ; he pays hearth penny on Holy Thursday and 
Kirkshot at Martinmas." 

From the above extracts we see how complete is the 
resemblance of the Saxon estate, though called a tun or 
ham, to the post-Domesday manor in the Norman sense 
of the term an estate, with a village community in 
villainage upon it, under a lord's jurisdiction. 


The survival of Saxon names for classes of tenants 
and their services, on the later manorial estate, is 
noticeable. The geneats of the Saxon estate became 
the neatmen or ncti of later times. The neti at 
Hidenham and Coddington, in Bucks, held yard-lands 
and half yard-lands (thirteenth century). The service 
of grass-erth mentioned in the Rectitndincs was in 
return for the privilege of feeding cattle in the lord's 
open pasture. In 1279 a yard-lander at Newington, 
Oxon, was bound to plough an acre of winter tillage 
called gerserthe, for which service he had common in 
the lord's pasture from Lammas to Mid-Lent. The 
term " gersyrth " was used at Piddington, in Oxford- 
shire, as late as 1363 according to a rental of that date ; 
the teams of the customary tenants came to plough the 
lord's land within four days of St. Michael, which 
service was called grasshearth and was done in order 
that the lord might raise no hedge, nor make a several 
pasture in the fallow field to exclude the cattle of the 
tenantry ; in fact, the exact phrases employed in the 
Rcctitudines of the tenth century, to describe the 
services of tenants, occur in rentals of some four 
centuries later. 

At the coming of the Normans to England, they 
found Anglo-Saxon society in a somewhat chaotic 
state. Although the trend of social institutions was 
towards feudalism, and the Saxon "tun" resembled 
closely its Continental counterpart the manor there 
was yet the framework of an older civilization of tribal 
origin. The township was the unit of taxation and 
police. Each village was represented by its hundredors 


in the hundred, and above the hundred was the shirr. 
These units of an older system were not disturbed by 
tin- Conqueror, and as the hundred and shire had their 
courts, the manor was duly equipped with its baronial 
court, which was intended to supersede the old village 
folkmoot, although the latter in many instances sur- 
vived. Thus the Conqueror did not revolutionize 
English institutions, but reorganized them on a more 
strictly feudal basis. The tillers of the soil would feel 
little difference in their burdens. Their new lords 
would, in most instances, require from them the same 
services as they had rendered to their predecessors, 
although of course some new relations between lord 
and tenant might be entered into in certain localities. 

But perhaps the strongest argument for the evolution 
of the manor from an original free community, is the 
survival of organization and custom to be met with 
throughout the course of manorial history, of which 
a notable instance is that of our commons, still existing 
in spite of the numerous enclosures. Other survivals 
existed in many parts of the country till a comparatively 
recent period. Mr. Gomme 1 has brought together 
a mass of matter bearing on the subject, one of 
the most striking instances adduced being that of the 
manor of Aston and Cote, in Oxfordshire. There 
are proofs of its being an Anglo-Saxon settlement ; 
and, from its isolated position, through want of com- 
munication by road with the neighbouring villages, 
it seems to have been specially adapted for the 
preservation of an ancient organization. The record 

1 Village Communities. 


of a case submitted by the lord of the manor to 
counsel, in 1657, for a legal opinion, shows us the lord 
seeking to obtain rights over his tenants, of which in 
most manors there was no question. He states that 

" there hath been a custom time out of mind that a 
certain number of persons called the sixteens or the greater 
part of them have used to make orders, set penalties, choose 
officers and lot the meadows and do all such things as are 
usually performed in the Court Baron of other manors." 

The sixteens were bound to provide four two-year-old 
bulls to run on the common pasture a clue to the 
origin of the lord's bull. The sixteens held land in 
their corporate capacity for the benefit of the community, 
consisting of several leyes in the common field, two 
years mowed and the other fed. They claimed the 
appointment of the village officers, the hayward, the 
constable, and the smith, and allotted lands to them 
for their services. The whole district was divided 
into three parts common-field, common-meadow, and 
common -pasture ; each proprietor of a yard -land 
possessed about thirty acres divided among the three 
above-named sections of the territory 

** twenty acres of arable land in the common fields from which 
he obtained wheat, beans, and other similar crops, four or five 
acres in the common meadow which he made into hay for feed- 
ing his cattle in the winter, and lastly, he had the right of 
feeding either eight cows or four horses at discretion on one 
part of the common pasture and sixteen sheep in that part." 

Here is a community of the seventeenth century bound 
up with a manorial estate, yet not entirely absorbed 
into it, but retaining most of the rights, and perform- 
ing the duties of a self-dependent village settlement. 



THE lord of the manor, though always a person 
of importance, yet occupied a varying position 
in the social scale. From the great magnate, 
who counted his manors by the score, and had a rent- 
roll equal to that of a modern nobleman, we pass 
through several gradations to the county gentleman, 
with his modest income of from 5 to 20 a year, that 
is, from 100 to 400 of our money. The lord's rela- 
tion to his tenantry was that of a constitutional ruler 
to his subjects; the manor was a petty state, and custom 
secured to the villain a sense of right, that gave dignity 
to the system, which is often so conspicuously absent 



from the modern relations of capital and labour. Then 
as now, however, much depended on the character of 
the individual lord. Although the custom of the manor 
might preserve the peasantry from any gross inter- 
ference with their liberty, yet contemporary writers tell 
us of masters of evil reputation who had earned the title 
of " flayers of rustics," men who considered that "the 
churl like the willow sprouted the better for being 
cropped." On the other hand, there were men of the 
opposite type who were noted for the mildness of their 
sway, as St. Hugh of Lincoln, who forbore to take 
the best chattel as "heriot" from a distressed widow, 
and refused "relief" from a poor knight on taking up 
his inheritance actions which brought upon him the 
warning from his steward that he ran the risk of losing 
the lands by relinquishing the legal evidences of their 

The position of the lord even after the process of 
Norman feudalization had tended to his exaltation and 
to the depression of his dependents was not one of 
undefined power. Although possessed of important 
rights and privileges, he at the same time had definite 
duties to discharge towards his tenantry. His demesne 
land was made up in large part of strips in the open 
fields, and these would be subjected to the same 
course of tillage as those of his neighbours. Even 
in his own court he, or rather his steward, sat 
more as a recorder than as judge. The tenantry of the 
manor, forming the jury, were virtually his assessors, 
and we find numerous instances of a lord being 
amenable to censure and even amercement in the 


Manor Court. In cases of dereliction of duty, such 
as the repair of fences, obstructions of highways, en- 
closures of commons, provision of sheepfolds, and other 
matters which might be to the damage and prejudice 
of his neighbours, we find the Court often dealing with 
the lord in a manner which suggests some tradition of 
independence of his authority, and that even at a late 
period of manorial history. For instance, in 1577, at 
Fulbeck, in Lincolnshire, Mr. Thomas Dysney is pre- 
sented in his own court "for trespassing in the several 
field with his sheep," and is fined id. In 1603, at 
Little Carlton, in the same county, the jurors present 
that Mr. Cooke, the lord of the manor, "shall appoint 
us a place to set our common fold on with sufficient 
wood for to make it betwixt this and Martinmas next 
on pain of 5 " ; and, further, that he make his fence 
sufficient between William Kendall and himself (i.e. 
his strip in the common field) on pain of 4^. 

The rights of a lord over his tenants, as presented in 
manorial records, may be said to fall under three heads: 
those connected with customs and services, derived 
from personal subjection ; certain burdens which lay on 
the land ; and others which owed their origin to the 
political sway conferred by feudal lordship. 

To the first of these we may refer the power of the 
lord to sell his villain. Although it is possible that 
such a legal right existed, and that some lords with 
exaggerated views of their privileges might occasion- 
ally take advantage of it, such transactions were ex- 
tremely uncommon. The deeds of sale which we meet 
with even in the fourteenth century a large majority 



U * 


i ^ 15 t_ 




-: ^ 

^ 1 


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' 01 

? A 


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i tin 



of which, it should be noted, were made to religious 
houses were probably those of enfranchisement, which 
preserved the formulas of obsolete legal phraseology. 
It is impossible, for instance, to believe that, after 
the Peasants' Revolt in the time of Richard II., a 
lord could demise his bondman "with all his issue 
begotten and to be begotten his chattels and goods," 
without mention of land ; yet several deeds so worded 
exist among the collection of ancient deeds at the 
Public Record Office and elsewhere. 

The exaction of merchet has been generally con- 
sidered as one of the badges of servitude. It was a 
fine claimed by the lord from his villain on the marriage 
of a daughter, which implied personal subjection, 
although sometimes exacted from a free tenant if in 
occupation of a customary holding. The fine was 
virtually to purchase approval of the marriage, as, in 
marrying a stranger, or even a freeman within the 
manor, the lord lost the services of her progeny ; it was 
usually paid by her father or guardian, seldom by the 
prospective husband, and involved no more degradation 
than the modern fee for a marriage licence. The lord 
being the patron and protector of all within the manor, 
there was nothing offensive in the arrogation of a right 
of approval to the marriage of his tenant's daughter. 
He would naturally claim some control over her dowry, 
in order that the estate might be secured from impeach- 
ment, in the same way that there was a stipulation as 
to the sale of colts and bull-calves on the farm or 
holding, on the assumption that it had been originally 
stocked by some former landlord. 


The amount of merchet exacted seems to have differed 
considerably even in the same locality. In some manors, 
as at Headington, no fine was required from tenants 
marrying- within the manor. Mr. Rogers 1 has collected 
several entries of these fines in Oxfordshire, showing 
how they varied in different manors. At Stillington 
(1272) a tenant pays but is. for merchet, while another 
taking a widow to wife pays 20^., and the daughter of 
the said widow on her marriage is mulcted in the sum 
of 6.r. Sd. At Gawlingay (1261) Sir Robert son of Walter 
pays los. for his daughter's marriage, but a maid 
dincillti} at Cuxham (1291) pays only 6d. It would seem 
as if much were left to the discretion of the steward or 
bailiff in the exaction of these fines ; possibly a sliding 
scale was often adopted to meet the social or financial 
position of the applicant, cases occurring of its being 
altogether remitted "on account of poverty." It is, 
moreover, probable that some confusion has occurred 
in the extension of this term to payments which have a 
distinctly different origin, as the maritagium claimed 
from the heiress of a military fee, the fine for marriage 
levied by the township or hundred, or the commutation 
of the jus primce noctis, an infamous claim made by 
certain lords on a tenant's marriage of which traces 
exist in Scotland, Ireland, and on the Continent. 

There were other fines imposed by the lord which 
emphasized the personal tie of subjection. Chwnge 
was a poll tax claimed from those who had neither 
house nor land in the manor, or had left the manor 
either to seek work or follow a craft. In the latter case 

1 History of English Agriculture. 


the object seems to have been to keep some hold on the 
villain who had escaped the immediate sway of his lord. 
A fine was also exacted from a villain going to the 
University or taking Holy Orders, for this would 
emancipate him and the lord lost his services. This 
fine also appears to have been very variable. At 
Wolrichston (1235) Thomas atte Hull is fined 6s. 8d. 
that he may be promoted to all the Orders ; William 
Martin pays 5^. for leave to send his eldest son to the 
University ; William Potter pays 13^. qd. for the same 
licence ; while Stephen Sprot enjoys the same privilege 
for 3.9. $d. 

Of those burdens more intimately connected with 
land tenure, the first and most general was the hen'ot, 
due on the death of a villain tenant. This was a tribute 
of the personal goods and chattels of the holder of the 
land ; it is supposed to have had its origin in the 
Saxon "heregeat," the horse, arms, or habiliments of 
war, as the word signifies, which at the death of a 
follower were put into other hands for defence of the 
country. In course of time, as a state of warfare gave 
way before more peaceful pursuits, on the assumption 
before mentioned that the lord had provided the outfit 
for agricultural work, some token of the lord's right 
was returned at the death of a tenant, which generally 
was the best live beast, horse or ox, of which he died 
possessed. Sometimes, in default of cattle, the best 
inanimate chattel was claimed, as a jewel, a piece of 
plate, or even a garment. In some manors the burden 
was very onerous, as on lands of the see of Lichfield, 
\vh.-re the best head of horned cattle, all horses, the 


cart, the cauldron, all woollen cloth, all the swine, and 
all the swarms of bees were claimed. The villains of 
St. Albans Abbey, besides the best beast, had to 
surrender all the household furniture. On the other 
hand, there are instances, as in some manors of Battle 
Abbey, of the claim being altogether remitted to those 
who had no oxen. Later the heriot was usually com 
muted for a money payment ; but the ancient right 
has been occasionally claimed in modern times, as in 
the well-known case of the racehorse Smolensko, valued 
at some 2000 to 3000, which was unsuccessfully 
claimed as a heriot by the lord of the manor of Wickes 
Park, Essex, on the death, in 1827, of Sir T. C. Bun- 
bury, of Mildenhall, Suffolk, who was a copyhold tenant 
of that manor. 

Lord Cranworth, in his speech on the Enfranchise- 
ment of Copyholds Bill (Times, May 26th, 1852), after 
referring to the case of Smolensko, proceeds to quote 
other instances of the claim being harshly enforced in 
modern times. 

"The Pitt diamond was at one time pledged to a pawn- 
broker who had a small copyhold tenement in Westmoreland 
liable to heriot, and, upon his death, the owner of the manor 
either did seize, or intimated to the parties that he had a right 
to seize, and he [Lord Cranworth] believed that he had 
seized the diamond." 

He also mentions the case of Sir Robert Peel, who 
was a copyhold tenant of a certain manor where a 
customary heriot was due ; at this time he was owner 
of the famous picture by Rubens, " Le Chapeau de 
Paille," now in the National Gallery, and being 


apprehensive that it might be seized, became the pur- 
chaser of the manor of which he was then a tenant. 

A relief 'was usually due on a tenant taking the estate 
of his ancestor, according to the custom of the manor, 
being generally a year's rent ; a fine was also imposed 
on the alienation of land. There were other privileges 
which pertained more particularly to feudal lordship, 
such as the right the lord had of talliaging his tenants, 
of amercing them in the Manor Court, of compelling 
tliL-in to grind their corn at the manorial mill, and of 
regulating the sale of bread and beer. 

The lord had a right to demand from all his tenants 
a render, rent, or service of some kind or other, and to 
exact from each the oath of fealty. This bond of obli- 
gation between the lord and his tenants is constantly 
red to in the Court Rolls ; the customary tenant, 
on surrender of his tenement and regrant of the same, 
44 does fealty and is admitted tenant." In addition to 
the oath of fealty the free tenant was called upon to do 
homage to his lord : humbly kneeling and holding 
up his hands together between those of his lord, he 
professed that "he did become his man, from that day 
forth, of life and limb, and earthly honour" ; and then 
In- received a kiss from his lord, a ceremony which still 
t'unns part of the English coronation service. 

The highest privilege, however, pertaining t 
manorial lordship was that of holding a domestic 
court called the Court Baron, in which alienations 
and disputes as to property were arranged, by-laws 
made, and breaches of such presented by the jury, 
and duly visited with a fine. But in most manors, 


from an early period, the Crown had delegated its 
powers to the lord for holding a court of criminal 
jurisdiction in which infringements of the common or 
statute law, not grave enough to be brought before 
the superior courts, were dealt with. In later times this 
court came to be called a Court Leet ; but more often 
the View of Frankpledge, from its original intent being 
to view the freemen within its jurisdiction, who, from 
the age of twelve, were all mutually pledged for the 
good behaviour of each other. In some manors there 
was also a Customary Court, to which the customary 
tenants, or, as they came to be called later, the copy- 
holders, owed suit, and in which matters affecting their 
interests were duly disposed of; but in practice these 
several jurisdictions were amalgamated, and breaches of 
the king's peace and matters concerning the internal 
economy of the manor were dealt with at the same 

There were other privileges incident to certain 
manors, such as those bordering on the sea-coast or 
on river estuaries, where the lord, either by prescription 
or grant from the Crown, claimed wreckage of the sea, 
royal fish, shellfish, shells, and sometimes a separate 
fishery. There were also several manors in which 
the lord claimed a testamentary jurisdiction for his 
manor court over his tenants, a right which, in most 
cases, can be traced to some former connection with an 
ecclesiastical corporation ; thus the Knights Hospital- 
lers claimed the probate of all their tenants' wills, 
possibly by a papal grant, a right which after the Dis- 
solution was still exercised by the lords into whose 


hands such manors had come, as, for instance, at 
Bingley, Yorkshire. 

%> At the Court held 26th August, 42nd Elizabeth (1600), the 
Jury found that the Probate of all Testaments and the grant- 
ing of all administrations of all and every person and persons 
dying under the Cross, or upon any lands belonging to the 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, doth of right belong to 
her Majesty. And that her Majesty's Steward of the same 
possessions for the time being, hath used ' tyme out of mynd 
of man ' to prove the wills and grant the administrations 
after the death, as well of all her Majesty's free tenants, as 
of all others dying under the Cross." 1 

At the neighbouring manor of Temple Newsom, 
which was parcel of the possessions of the same Order, 
the lady of the manor claimed this right up to the 
passing of the Act in 1857, which abolished these local 
and peculiar jurisdictions ; these courts were called 
the Courts of St. John of Jerusalem. At Gnossal, 
Staffordshire, a similar right was enjoyed by the lord, 
in this instance from the manor having been a pre- 
bendal manor of the see of Lichfield with peculiar juris- 
diction. It is not so easy to trace the origin of this right 
in what are called Rectory manors as that of Breedon, 
in Worcestershire. Bishop Sandys, in his answers to 
the queries of the Privy Council, 5th Elizabeth, says: 

"The parson of Breedon pretendith, keepeth, and excuseth 
that his church and parish with the chapels of Norton, 
Milton, and Cuddesdon are exempt from the jurisdiction of 
the ordinary, that he hath probate of wills and committing 
of administratioi 

1 Speight, Chronicles and Stories of Old Bingley, p. i -M. 
9 Nash, History of Worcestershire. Sec Appendix II., List of Manor 
Courts having testamentary jurisdiction, with the places where wills arc 


The following picture of an ideal lord of a manor 
is drawn by a writer of the thirteenth century. 

"The Lord ought to love God and justice, and be faithful 
and true in his sayings and doings, and he ought to hate 
sin and injustice, and evil doing. The Lord ought not to 
take counsel with men full of young blood, and ready 
courage, who know little or nothing of business, nor of any 
juggler, flatterer or idle talker, nor of such as bear witness 
by present, but he ought to take counsel with worthy and 
faithful men, ripe in years, who have seen much and know 
much, and who are known to be of good fame, and who 
never were caught or convicted for treachery or any wrong- 
doing; nor for love, nor for hate, nor for fear, nor for menace, 
nor for gain, nor for loss, will turn aside from truth, and 
knowingly counsel their lord to do him harm. 

" He ought to command and ordain that the accounts be 
heard every year, not in one place but on all the manors, for 
so can one quickly know everything, and understand the 
profit and loss. And he ought to command and ordain that 
no bailiff have his food in the manors except at a fixed price 
in money, so that he take nothing from the manors but hay, 
firewood and straw ; and that no friend, stranger nor anyone 
from the lord's hostel or elsewhere be received at the manors 
at the lord's expense, nor shall anything be given or delivered 
to them without warrant or writ, unless the bailiff or provost 
wish to acquit it from their own purses for the great expense 
one is unnecessarily put to. 

" He ought to enquire by his own men and others on his 
manors as many as there are, about his steward and his 
doings and the approvements he has made since his coming ; 
in the same way he ought to enquire about his profits and 
losses from the bailiff and reeve and how much he will have 
to seek from both. He ought to ask for his auditors and 
rolls of account, then he ought to see who has done well 
and who not and who has made improvement and who not, 


and who has made profit and who not, but loss, and those 
he has then found good and faithful and profitable let him 
keep on this account. And if anyone be found who has done 
harm and is by no means profitable, let him answer for his 
doing and take farewell. And if the lord observe these said 
forms then will each lord live a good man, and honestly, 
and be as he will rich and powerful without sin, and will do 
injustice to no one. 

*' He ought to command the auditors on the manors to 
hear the plaints and wrongs of everybody who complains 
of the steward, or reeve, or hayward, or any other who is 
of the manor, and that full justice be done to franks and 
villeins, customary tenants and other plaintiffs such as by 
inquest can be had." 


IT must always be borne in mind that the term 
manor is not synonymous with that of parish or 
township. Although we frequently find the manor 
and township were conterminous, it often happened 
that the township included one or more manors, or 
again, that the manorial jurisdiction extended over 
several townships. The size of the manor also differed 
materially ; but each estate was very carefully and 
definitely bounded, the description being of such a 
nature that it could be readily perambulated. 

In every manor stood the lord's hall, the centre 
of the life of the community. From the Saxon period 
till well into the sixteenth century, and in some places 
much later, the ordinary manor house remained a 



building of very simple pretensions. Examples of 
these houses still remain dotted over the country, long 
since turned into farm premises, or devoted to other 
uses. Mr. Baring Gould 1 describes one such still 

existing at Little Hempston, near Totnes. It is a 
perfect specimen of a manor house of the time of 
Richard II., practically unaltered since that period, 
and therefore of great interest. 

" It consists of a quadrangle with buildings on all four sides ; 
hut the central court is only about 20 feet by 12 feet, into 



which all the windows look from sun-less rooms. The only 
exception is the hall window, which has a southern outlook. 
The hall was heated by a brazier in the centre, and the smoke 
went out at a louvre in the roof. There was one gloomy 
parlour with a fire-place in it opening out of the hall. The 
rest of the quadrangle was taken up with kitchen, porter's 
lodge, cellar, and stable. Upstairs one long dormitory." 

A common plan of the manor house was that of a 
parallelogram consisting of two rooms, "the hall and 
the bower" of Chaucer; occasionally there was an 
entrance or houseplace into which the central door 
opened, used as a living-room. This porch or entry, 
called in old English a trance (transitus], usually 
separated the hall from the buttery or storeroom for 


provisions, wine, and ale, above which was "the bower," 
or as it was called in the North, the woman's chamber. 
The etymology of the word is interesting. Bur in old 

Norse meant buttery ; and the buttery and kitchen 
being on the woman's side of the house, it is probable 
that in early times the word was used for all that 
portion of the dwelling, till in its later form of" bower" 


it became the special designation of the chamber re- 
served f r the female portion of the household. 

Tin- DtHticstttiy of St. /\ui/\\ a survey made in 1222 


of the manors belonging to the See, contains de- 
scriptions of many such houses with the dimensions 
of the rooms, from which we can almost reconstruct 
the plans. The manor house at Kensworth, Hertford- 



shire, consisted of three chambers : the entrance or 
porch (domus), " wherein men sometimes used to dine," 
12 feet by 17 feet, and 17 fret high to the ridge-tnv ; 
to the right was the hall (halla), the dimensions of 


which were 35 feet in length, 30 feet in breadth, and 
22 feet in height ; and to the left the bower (thalamus), 
22 feet in length, 16 feet in breadth, and 18 feet to the 
ridge-tree. A feature in every manor house of more 


than ordinary pretensions was the chapel or oratory. 
This was frequently over the hall, as at Padley, Derby- 
shire ; and sometimes over the buttery, as at Charney 
Basset, near Wantage. 

Occasionally, as at Little Wenham, the chapel or 
oratory consists of a sacrarium only separated from 
the hall by a screen, with a door and a window on each 
side of it, which were kept closed when not in use. 
The hall when used in this way often came to be called 
in later times the chapel, as at Sutton Courtney, Berks. 
When the chapel was a separate erection, a curious 
arrangement frequently prevailed, the western part or 
nave being divided by a floor into two stories, both 
open at the east end. The lower was used by the 
domestics, and the upper one by the lord and his 
family. Sometimes, in large houses, the upper story 
was reserved for ladies ; in this case it was connected 
by a passage with the bower. In the Liberate Rolls 
of Henry III., it is ordered that a chapel be made in 
the King's house at Kennington "in such a manner 
that in the upper part there may be made a chapel for 
the use of our Queen, so that she may enter that chapel 
from her chamber, and in the lower part let there be a 
chapel for the use of our household." A fire-place is 
often found in these chapels, showing that they were 
used for secular as well as religious purposes ; frequent 
notices occur in the chronicles of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries of secular business being trans- 
acted in the domestic chapel, the sovereign often using 
it, when not attending to public business in the hall 
pr giving audience in his privy chamber. In the 



Bishops' Registers appear many licences granted for 
these private chapels or oratories, which were occasion- 


ally renewed from year to year, with permission to have 
Mass said therein under certain conditions, one of which 
was] that the lord and his family should repair to the 

sorni VIK\V 

gO fit. 

D Lorn ude Window 


parish church on the greater festivals, and make the 
customary offerings. 

The foregoing may be taken as typical examples of a 
manor house ; the capital messuage of the surveys of 
mediaeval manorial estates. If we enter the building 
we find the same simplicity prevails in the internal 
arrangements. The Manor Courts were held in the hall, 
which also often served as the common sitting and 
dining room for the lord, his family, and domestics, 
where there was no trance or houseplace. The fur- 
niture was scanty. From inventories we find that the 
tables were simple boards laid on trestles, so that they 
could be readily removed when not in use. Some forms 
and stools, or perhaps a long bench stuffed with straw, 
a few chairs of wood, with chests for linen and other 
household stuff, formed the ordinary suite. Around the 
walls were hung the implements of husbandry, as 
scythes, reaping hooks, corn measures, and empty sacks, 
interspersed with some weapons and trophies of the 
chase. In some of the larger mansion houses we find 
the " solar" or apartment where special guests were 
entertained the parlour of the later 
farmhouse, generally built towards 
tin- south, as its name implied, and 
furnished as the private chamber of 
the lord. A winding stair of stone, 
in many instances exterior to the 
building, led to the dormitory, which 
was usually divided by rude parti- HQUSE WITH EXTBRNAL 
tions. A lean-to kitchen and oven STAIRCASE 

completed the main structure. In the From ' Ms '" "" '""*' 


rear, grouped around a courtyard, were the granaries, 
sheds for cattle, the dairy, dovecotes, and other necessary 
edifices. Adjoining were some enclosures, closes as they 
were called, of the richer meadow land, which, with the 
strips of arable intermixed with those of his tenants, 
formed the home farm, or the lord's demesne. At no 
great distance was situated the village, made up of the 
homesteads of the tenantry, the houses of the better class 

From a MS. in the British Museum (Add. 10,296) 

approaching in plan and construction that of the lord, 
each standing in its own toft or plot of ground, gener- 
ally with a croft or meadow land adjacent. The 
plan and arrangement of these homesteads bring into 
relief the relation of the lord to the village community ; 
namely, that, although exercising his jurisdiction over 
the same, he formed an essential unit of the composite 


Adjacent to the homesteads were a few small en- 
closures for rearing of stock, and beyond them stretched 
the open arable fields, which formed so marked a feature 
in the economy of the mediaeval manor. For it must 
be remembered that, until the latter half of the 
eighteenth century, the greater part of the arable land 
throughout the country lay in open, 
unenclosed fields. There were few farms 
in the modern acceptation of the term ; 
the farmers lived together in the villages, 
having their holdings in scattered strips 
in the said open fields. The high prices 
due to long wars eventually forced on 
the country the need of a more economic 
system of husbandry, and resulted in 
the many Inclosure Acts which were 
passed from the time of Queen Anne 

The common arable fields of a manor or township 
usually consisted of a suite of three, generally sub- 
divided into smaller fields called shots or furlongs. 
These again were cut up into narrow strips, containing 
either an acre or half-acre, and separated from each 
other by a foot or so of unploughed land called a balk. 
These arable fields were subjected to a uniform system 
of tillage in triennial succession of fallow, wheat or rye, 
and spring crops as barley, oats, beans and peas. 

On the outskirts of the arable land, where the soil was 
adapted for pasturage, or in the low-lying districts near 
a river, some few pastures called "hams" or "ings" 
were laid out for milch kine or other stock requiring 


From a MS. in the British 


superior pasturage in summer ; while beyond, lay the 
lord's waste, left in its natural wild state as a common 
pasture for the ordinary stock, where the tenants enjoyed 
certain rights of taking timber and turf for repair of 
their houses and fences, and for fuel. 

The late Canon Taylor was of opinion that traces 
of the above old English system of husbandry might 
still be seen in many districts of 
England. Most of the grass lands 
adjoining the townships lie in 
parallel ridges, tolerably uniform 
in size, about 220 yards in length 
and from 1 1 to 22 yards in 
breadth, forming, as before men- 


tioned, acre or half-acre strips. STAIRCASE PROTECTED BY 
These ridges are locally called 

J From a MS. in the Bodleian Library 

lands or rigs, and are the marks 

impressed on the soil, formerly arable land, by the 
ploughs of generations of rustics from a period long 
anterior to the Norman Conquest, testifying to the 
conservatism of English village life. 1 The explanation 
of these divisions is the open-field system of tillage. 
The length of the ridge, a "furrow long," represents 
the longest furrow that a team of oxen could plough 
without stopping to rest. In driving the oxen the 
ploughman would use an ox-goad, a long rod shod with 

1 But although the traces of ancient husbandry may thus be found by 

th.- / antiquary in rrrtain parts ot'the country, it is as well to bear 
in mind that mm li grass ' ;u>( ' was ">-i<l (> arabli- to m-rt the demand for 
i!, \vhrn at a very high price, during tin- l-'n n< h \\ars of about a 
century ago, and put back into pasture when the price fell. This is tin- 
undoubted explanation of much "ridge and furrow" that is now past UK . 

The (?%zn of a ^DD^CO fhewing^ 

holding' in (he ($mrnaris ifeSj/^ 


iron, with the sharp point of which the oxen were 
pricked to hasten their pace. The most convenient 
length of the goad, to enable the ploughman to reach 
his oxen while holding the plough-stilts, is i6J feet, the 
conventional length of the rod, pole, or perch. It is 
easy to imagine how the ox-goad came to be used as 
a land measure, the ploughman laying his goad on 
the ground at right angles to his first furrow to measure 
the breadth of the land he had to till ; four of these 
lands or roods making up his acre, day's work or 
journey^ as sometimes still called in the southern 
counties (old Fr. journel). 

Another striking feature appears in the terraces or 
steps on the sides of hills which have been subjected to 
the ancient system of tillage. In ploughing such a hill- 
side the strips would run horizontally along it, and the 
custom was to turn the sod of the furrow downhill. As 
each strip was separated from the next by the unploughed 
balk, no sod could pass from one to the other, and 
so in process of time the strips became long, level 
terraces, with banks between, overgrown with grass 
and brambles, known by the name of lynches or linces. 
Examples of such terraces may be often seen on the 
steep sides of the Sussex Downs and the Chiltern Hills. 
We may also mention some smaller divisions of the 
open fields, the gores or gored acres tapering strips 
in the corners of fields which would not adapt them- 
selves to the usual shape of the acre or half-acre ; and 
lastly, little odds and ends of unused land which came 
to be known as No Man's land or Jack's land, and, as 
such, are often mentioned in the boundaries of manors. 

(Now taken down) 


WHEN we come to consider the different classes 
of tenants on the Anglo-Norman manor, the 
more difficult we find it to draw hard-and-fast 
lines between them. The object of the Norman Survey 
was strictly fiscal to ascertain the revenue of the 
country, not the condition of its inhabitants. It is clear 
that the commissioners, looking upon the ploughs as 



the important units of taxation, and taxing by carucates 
and hides, described many who were personally free 
under the generic term of villains. As holders of land 
in villainage, they consequently contributed their quota 
to the plough team, and did plough service on the 
demesne. The remarkable scarcity of tenants re- 
turned as free in the Saxon districts may be probably 
accounted for in this way ; freemen holding in villain- 
age and villains born getting mixed up under the 
same names. 1 The Saxon "ceorl," the name of a free 
peasant, entirely disappears before that of villain, which 
was applied to the main stock of the manorial popula- 
tion, and refers more to tenure than to status. Its 
vernacular equivalent, "neat," continued in use for 
some centuries after the Conquest. In the Rochester 
Custumal ; at Hedenham and Culverton 

"the lord can put at work whoever he will of his Neats 
on St. Martin's day. And be it known that the Neats who 
are the same as Neiatmen are somewhat more free than 
Cotmen and all own virgates at least." 

The great body of the peasantry fell under the class 
of customary tenants. This, besides a large free ele- 
ment, included the full villain with his farm of thirty 
acres, the semi-villain with his holding of fifteen, the 
cottar with some five acres, and thus, through several 
gradations, down to the man with his "farthing dole" 

1 This system of mixed triune led to frequent litigation in later 
manorial history, the question often arising \\hether the acceptance of 
a servile condition reduced a man to the status of a serf, the lords 
claiming the sons of sue h truants as their bondmen. Littleton says, 
"Though it bo the folly of sue h freemen to take on such form, to hold 
by such bondage, yet this makcth not the man a villain." 

4 6 


or parcel of land containing a quarter of an acre. 
These constituted the English peasantry of the period, 

" occupying the places their forefathers had formed for them- 
selves, places gradually shaped by circumstances rather than 
by system. Poverty had depressed one to the verge of 
slavery, while success had raised another to an almost inde- 
pendent position." l 

It is true that a few special classes are prominently 
mentioned in the Domesday writs. Firstly, the com- 


missioners were directed to inquire in each vill the 
number of villains, cottars, and slaves. The latter 
class formed a very small percentage of the popula- 
tion, and disappears entirely in less than a century 
after the Great Survey. The exact status of this class 
is difficult to determine ; there is reason to think that 
some were menials in the lord's household, but there 

1 Pateson, Mediaeval England, p. 102. 


is evidence that others occupied cottages and tilled 
small plots of land, as the class of cottars immediately 
above them, into which ultimately they became merged. 
The holdings of the cottars were small, a cottage with 
a curtilage or courtyard and a few acres in the arable 
fields, usually five ; on account of the insignificance 
of their holdings, their services, although obligatory, 
were of a much lighter character than those of the 
villains proper. As few of these were the owners of 
even one ox, they were generally exempted from plough 
service ; except at certain seasons, such as harvest, they 
were not called upon for more than one day's labour 
a week. In some parts they had the appellation of 
Monday's men, and they were also employed in sowing, 
weeding, sheep-shearing, and on other occasions of 
pressure. Many of them were bound to supply the 
lord's household with so many eggs, or so much 
poultry or honey, in lieu of other services. Having 
more time at their disposal, they were able to work 
on the larger holdings of their neighbours, and appear 
to have filled, to a considerable extent, the role of the 
modern agricultural labourer. The term bordar, which 
is used in Domesday, seems to have merged into that 
of cottar, as the word bord gave way to cottage in 
common speech, and in later manorial records these 
tenants appear as cottagers. 

But by far the largest class of the population, at the 
time of the compilation of Domesday, was that of 
the villains proper ; these occupied, nearly everywhere, 
the greater part of the lands of the manor, and the lord 
depended mainly upon their labour and services for 

4 8 


carrying out the agricultural work on his estate. The 
average holding of a villain in addition to his home- 
stead, the messuage with toft and croft in the village, 
was a virgate or yard-land, about thirty acres, consisting 
of a bundle of the acre or half-acre strips distributed 
through the three arable fields, generally ten or twenty 
in each field. The distinctive feature of these holdings 

From a MS. in the Bodleian Library 

was that the strips were not collected together into 
one plot, but lay interspersed in the several fields ; 
one in this furlong or shot, another in that ; and this 
intermixed system of ownership continued down to 
the time of enclosures of the open fields, although 
some progress had been made by exchanges and 
purchases towards amalgamation. This was the system 
which it was the object of the several Inclosure Acts 







(f. A| ; 



to remove. We find it stated in their preambles 

"the open and common fields lie dispersed in small pieces 
intermixed with each other, and inconveniently situated ; 
that divers persons own parts of them, and are entitled to 
rights of common on them, so that in their present state 
they are incapable of improvement, and that it is desired 
that they may be divided and inclosed ; a specific share 
being set out and allowed to each owner." 

For this purpose Inclosure Commissioners were 
appointed, and, under their award, the balks were 
ploughed up, the fields divided into blocks for the 
several owners, hedges planted, and the whole face 
of the country changed. 

It is easy to see the inconvenience and want of 
economy attendant on this system of scattered owner- 
ship from a modern agricultural point of view ; the 
waste of time in getting from one part of a holding to 
another ; the disputes about headlands and rights of 
way, with the frequent encroachments that would occur 
on the part of unscrupulous neighbours. As, however, 
it can be conclusively proved that this system prevailed 
for centuries, far back into Saxon times, some reason 
must be found to account for it. And first as to the 
proof of its early existence. In the Saxon charters 
it is observable that, if the grant be of certain lands 
within a manor or township, the boundaries given are 
those of the whole manor or township within which 
the holding is situated, showing the same could not 
have been a block of which the boundaries could have 
been given, but a bundle of strips scattered over the 


township ; in some instances this reason is clearly 
stated, as in a charter of King Ethelred the boundaries 
of an estate cannot be distinctly defined *' because the 
acres are intermixed." 

Mr. Seebohm advances the theory 1 that this inter- 
mixture was due to the system of co-aration ; that these 
holdings of virgates and half-virgates were originally 

From a MS. in the Bodleian Library 

the shares in the results of the ploughing the number 
of strips allotted to each tenant being in regard to the 
number of draught cattle contributed to the common 
plough. The team consisted as a rule of eight oxen, 
though in heavy land as many as twelve would be used. 
As so many cattle could not be kept on the small hold- 
ings of the tenants, the owners yoked their draught cattle 
together in a common team, each contributing one, 

1 The English Village Community, p. 112. 


two, or more oxen as the case might be, and receiving 
his strips of land in a certain proportion and rotation. 

In confirmation of this theory, that the scattered strips 
in the open fields had an intimate connection with the 
common team of oxen and their owners, Mr. Seebohm 
refers to a code of Welsh law, compiled in the tenth 
century, where the method of ploughing is graphically 
described and which shows us the system of co-aration 
at work. Here we find the open fields divided into 
strips called " erws " or acres, and separated from each 
other by unploughed balks of turf two furrows wide. 
Those who join in the co-ploughing have each to 
bring their share, either of oxen or plough-irons, 
which are in the charge of the ploughman till the 
end of the ploughing, and the produce of this partner- 
ship is to be divided as follows : the first acre ploughed 
was to go to the ploughman, the second to the irons, 
the third to the outside sod ox, the fourth to the outside 
sward ox, the fifth to the driver, the sixth, seventh, 
eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh to the other six oxen 
in order of worth ; and lastly the twelfth was the 
plough acre for ploughbote for maintenance of the 
wood of the plough. 

But however the system of co-ploughing may have 
had its influence in the distribution of the strips in the 
common fields, it seems more probable that this inter- 
mixture was originally due to the wish to equalize the 
shares of the tenantry. 

"The tilth will present all kinds of accidental features 
according to the elevation of the ground, the direction of the 
watercourses and ways, the quality of the soil, the situation 


of dwellings, the disposition of wood and pasture ground, 
etc. The whole must needs be dismembered into component 
parts, into smaller areas or furlongs, each stretching over 
land of one and the same condition and separated from land 
of different quality and situation. Over the irregular squares 
of this rough chessboard a more or less entangled network 
of rights and interests must be extended." l 

The conclusion to be drawn is that the open-field 
system of husbandry, with its plots of scattered strips, 
was the result of necessity, and that it was communal in 
its very essence. The difficulty of preventing trespass 
on an open plot is obvious, but the plot must be open 
if one's neighbours have common rights over the same; 
the loss of time and difficulty of supervision involved in 
the tilling of some thirty scattered strips are apparent, 
but such arrangement is well adapted for assigning 
equal rights among the villagers. A dependence on 
one's neighbours for the result of one's own work is, 
to say the least, irksome, but the tangled web of rights 
becomes simple if considered as part of a scheme of 
agriculture in which each has his work allotted by the 

" Rights of common usage, common apportionment of 
shares in the arable, communal arrangement of ways and 
means of cultivation, these are the chief features of open- 
field husbandry and all point to one source the village com- 
munity." 2 

To return to the holders of these plots, the virgaters 
or yardlings, as the villain tenants were sometimes 
called, it is usual to differentiate the villain of the 

\ inogradoff, Villainage in England \ p. ^35. ' 2 Ihid., p. 400. 


Anglo-Norman period from the villain of a later date. 
During the earlier period the service rendered for his 
yard-land, his rental in fact, may be divided into week- 
work and boonwork ; the former being an obligation 
to plough and do other agricultural work on the lord's 
demesne two to three days a week, while the latter term 
applied to the work done, ostensibly at the lord's request, 
on certain days in times of pressure, such as harvest, the 
number of days in a year, however, being fixed by the 
custom of the manor. The variations in the quotas of 
work due from the tenants in different manors depended 
on various considerations, such as the size of the lord's 
demesne, the number of villains, or the amount of 
stock on the estate. The lord owned a few ploughs 
and teams, but fewer in proportion to the size of his 
estate than those of his villains, on whose aid he de- 
pended for carrying out the main agricultural work of 
the manor. Having discharged his duty to his lord, 
the villain was at liberty to work on his own holding 
to provide for the wants of his family, and with the 
surplus produce to pay that part of his rent which the 
lord claimed in money or kind. There was a constant 
tendency to improvement in the economic condition of 
the villain, however much his social status might be 
depressed by the strict feudalism of the Norman lawyers. 
The commutation of services for money payments 
was continually on the increase, and by the time of the 
Black Death (A.D. 1349) many villains by this means had 
attained their freedom. This event is an important land- 
mark in the economic history of the tillers of the soil. 
Among the poorest Of the community the ravages of the 


plague were most severely felt, and the immediate effect 
was a scarcity of labour and a consequent corresponding 
rise in wages. The lords, fearing for the proper cultiva- 
tion of their estates, offered a high remuneration for 
agricultural work, which resulted in a rise of from 50 
to 60 per cent, in the rate of wages. In spite of legisla- 
tion directed to control this increase, the penalties 
often involving the imprisonment of those demanding 
more than the old rate, the wage-earning class was able 
to hold its own against the landlords, which led to a 
considerable change in the relations of the two classes. 
The cost of working an estate was doubled or even 
trebled by the altered state of affairs. With the in- 
creased price of labour there was a corresponding rise 
in the price of implements of husbandry, and the 
tenants were unable to work their farms at a profit 
sufficient to meet the money rentals for which they had 
commuted their old services. This led to a universal 
lowering of rents, and in the end the lords were con- 
tent to give up the cultivation even of their demesne 
lands to their tenants ; this paved the way for the rise 
of the tenant farmer or yeoman class, which, from this 
time, greatly increased in numbers. The stock and 
land-lease system, which hitherto had prevailed chiefly 
on monastic manors, came now into more general use, 
the lord supplying a certain amount of stock with the 
land leased, for which the tenant had to account at the 
expiration of his term, thus giving him the use of a 
larger agricultural capital than he could otherwise 
command. The rise in wages affected the whole peasant 
class, for even those who had not yet attained their 


full freedom were enabled by their larger wage-earning 
capacity to further commute their services, and free 
themselves from the more irksome restrictions on their 
personal liberty. But the process was gradual ; the 
landowners on many estates made great efforts to 
reduce wages to their former level, and even to attempt 
to revert to the old services which had long since been 
commuted, a retrograde movement which was steadily 
resisted by the villain class, with whom both the free 
tenants and labourers fell in line. This subsequently 
resulted in the crisis known as the Peasants' Revolt, 
after which few labour dues were exacted and we may 
consider villainage as practically extinct, although as an 
old institution the shell of it survived for many genera- 
tions. The name of villain gradually disappears from 
manorial records ; the tenant is said to hold by custom 
or by copy of court roll, and hence called a copyholder. 
To better realize the condition and status of the 
villain of the mediaeval manor, it will be as well to 
briefly sum up the disabilities and advantages of his 
class. He was disqualified from bringing an action 
against his lord in the King's Courts, for they would 
not interfere between a lord and his villain ; but a 
villain could not be slain or maimed by his lord ; nor 
could the lord seize his wainage. The fine of merchet 
to be paid on marriage of his daughter in most manors 
was not large, and in some cases altogether remitted. 
He could not leave the manor, but this restriction was 
frequently evaded by successful flight to a neighbour- 
ing town ; or for the small annual payment of chevage 
he could live outside the manor, unmolested by his 


lord. He could not go to the University, or take Holy 
Orders, without licence ; but this would be readily 
granted in the case of a promising youth. His goods 
and chattels were considered the property of his lord ; 
but the right of seizure was seldom exercised. On the 
other hand, the advantages enjoyed by the villain were 
many : he had a house and small farm on a good and 
secure tenure ; in the thirteenth century by a settled 
money rent, which, however, would be increased by 
alienation ; the form of his holding, temp. Edward III., 
is often "to him and his heirs"; he could claim bond 
land as his inheritance, and settle it upon his wife and 
children ; a widower held his deceased wife's lands by 
44 the courtesy of England." He could purchase free 
land. In the fifteenth century, if not earlier, he could 
dispose of his land and chattels by will. Justice was 
brought to his door by the existence of the Manor 
Courts, where he could recover debts and damages 
for trespasses and enforce agreements ; here he could 
bring an action for land in the nature of an assize mort 
^ancestor or of novel disseisin ; here land was alienated 
by surrender and admittance ; here matters of import- 
ance to the community were regulated and decided ; 

here offenders against the king's peace were punished. 

"And the judgments delivered were not those of the lord 

or his steward, but of the court, composed of villains as well 
: icemen. Altogether, however unprotected the villain 
mi^ht be under the common law against his lord, he was by 
no means dependent upon his mere caprice ; but was ruled 
in accordance with the custom of the manor, defined by the 
tenants themselves." l 

1 Massingberd, Court Kolls of Ingoldsmcll*. 


Even as early as Edward I. the law was on the side 
of freedom, and bondage was no part of the common 
law, but rather existed by sufferance and local usage. 
A fugitive villain, or land-loper as he was called, could 
with difficulty be recovered in a summary manner. 
The sheriff could not detain him by his writ of neifty 1 
if he chose to deny his bondage : his case would 
then stand over for the Assizes or it might be argued 
out in the Court of Common Pleas. In the meantime, 
if he could obtain an asylum in some privileged town 
for a year and a day, no further process could be taken 
against him. On the other hand, there were many 
ways in which he might obtain his freedom by want 
of caution on the part of his lord. He was enfranchised 
if his lord vested the ownership of land in him, if he 
received homage from him or gave him a bond. 
Allowing his villain to be on a jury, to enter religion, 
or to remain a year and a day in ancient demesne were 
all constructive manumissions of the villain tenants. 

The disappearance of villainage in England was a 
gradual process. It has been estimated by a rough 
calculation that in 1300 the serfs in England numbered 
two-thirds of the population ; by the middle of the 
sixteenth century the bulk of the population was practi- 
cally free, and the condition of serfdom was looked 
upon as anomalous; in fact, it may be said never to 
have had a tangible existence in England. Occasion- 
ally in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries "some 
special pecuniary necessities of an impecunious lord 
led him or his steward to hunt up old claims much as 

1 The writ of de nativo habendo was sued out by a lord for the recovery 
of a villain who had fled from the manor. 


the King was doing in a higher sphere"; but Harrison, 
writing in 1580, declares: 

"As for slaves and bondmen we have none, such is the 
privilege of our country by the especial grace of God and 
bounty of our princes, that if any come hither from other 
realms, so soon as they set foot on land they become so free 
of condition as their masters, whereby all acts of servile 
bondage is utterly removed from them." 

The definite ways by which villainage was decreased 
have already been noticed, such as the voluntary manu- 
missions by lords, emancipation by successful flight, 
and the practical grant of freedom through the action 
of the King's Courts; but these individual cases would 
not account for the rapid decline of serfdom during 
the two centuries following the Black Death. The 
fact is that the raison d'etre of serfdom the need of a 
constant supply of labourers had passed away ; the 
legal rights to the services of his tenants remained 
with the lord, but he had ceased to value them. 

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries if a tenant 
died without relations, or his land, by other means, 
came into the lord's hands, it was regranted to another 
tenant to hold by the old services according to the 
custom of the manor ; in the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries it was similarly granted for a small money 
rent. No act of general emancipation appears on our 
statute-book, no definite abolition was necessary as in 
France in the eighteenth century and as in Russia 
within our own time. True that in the charters of 
pardon to the rebels after the Peasants' Revolt some 
general clauses of emancipation were inserted, the after- 


withdrawal of which was ratified by Parliament. By 
the sixteenth century villainage, as at least a condition 
of servitude, had become an anachronism ; the late 
manumissions of Elizabeth's reign, although preserving 
the old legal formula expressive of bondage, " meant 
only the relief of the bondmen from an opprobrious 
appellation, or, at most, making more secure the tenure 
of their lands" it was as the clearing away of the 
debris of a fallen structure. In fine, bondage did not 
need to be abolished, it gradually faded away together 
with the system of which it was an integral part, and 
became a memory only to the men of the seventeenth 

The name, however, and some of the incidents of 
bondage lingered on in remote parts of the country, as 
in the case of the " bondagers," which existed within 
living memory on the large holdings of the Northum- 
berland estates, described in the View of Northumber- 
land (E. Mackenzie, 1825). The farms were of con- 
siderable extent, and the farmhouses were separated from 
each other at a distance of from two to three miles. 
In these the farmers resided surrounded by their de- 
pendents, nearly all the cottages of one or mostly two 
rooms being occupied by the bondagers. On each 
farm were a steward, a hind, having care of the 
implements of husbandry, horses, cattle, etc., and 
lastly the bondagers, who dwelt at the onstead or 
neighbouring village. They had their cottages at 
an under rent, and were entitled to the produce of a 
certain quantity of potatoes. For these advantages 
they were bound to find a person when required to 


assist in cutting the corn, haymaking, hoeing and 
pulling turnips, spreading manure, and serving the 
threshing machine at lower daily wages than were 
usual in the country. The bondage service was mostly 
performed by the female part of the family or by 
children. The hind, and sometimes the steward, was 
obliged to find a person for bondage work on the same 

In addition to the foregoing classes of tenants, 
the Domesday commissioners were instructed to 
return the number of freemen and sokemen in each 
vill. It has before been pointed out how many freemen, 
through holding lands to which rustic services were 
attached, would be classed as villains, and it is to be 
remembered that 

"among the aspects from which the Domesday inquest 
surveyed society, one of the most important is the attempt 
to consider all social relations from the point of view of 
tenure, to reduce them to varieties of conditional land 
holding." 1 

It is difficult, from the nomenclature of Domesday, to 
determine the exact status of the classes returned 
as freemen and sokemen in the Survey. Roughly 
speaking, the distinguishing features of their tenure 
were that their rents were fixed, whether in money or 
services ; they were free to alienate their lands and to 
quit the manor if so inclined. It is thought also that 
the service which gave the sokeman his character was 
his liability to suit at the lord's court, being subject to 
the "soke" or jurisdiction exercised by a lord. 

1 YiinijT;i<lin', (irn-^th of ///,- .\f,inr, j>. 


There is little doubt but that some of these were 
descendants of families who had held their land from 
time immemorial, being allodial or heirland ; but the 
increase in the number of this class, which is apparent 
during the next few centuries, demands explanation. 
It is conjectured that they were recruited from three 
sources: (i) The lord would have his friends, as those 
who had done him some service or had rilled important 
posts in his household, to whom, in reward, he would 
allot some portion of his demesne to be held of him 
either by military service, a small annual money rent, 
or some definite but honourable service, as the pre- 
senting of a rose, a pound of pepper, or a sparrow- 
hawk ; and in some cases by giving .definite agricul- 
tural assistance at certain seasons. (2) Those who, 
originally belonging to the villain class, but had been 
manumitted by formal deed or had commuted their 
services for a money payment, thereby entering into a 
definite agreement with their lord, or by any other act 
of constructive manumission recognized by the common 
law had entitled themselves to be accounted freemen. 
(3) As the population increased, or strangers came to 
settle on the manor, portions of the uncleared land 
would be continually taken into cultivation, and 
granted to these settlers or squatters ; not fitting into 
the original plan of possession and service of the 
manor, such settlers would hold land with exceptional 
advantages such as exemption from service, etc. 

As the manor settled down under the gradual process 
of feudalization, the free tenantry became an integral 
and important part of the manorial system. It became 


a legal maxim that, without at least two free men as 
suitors, the Court Baron could not be held, and the 
manor lapsed ; the freeholders of the manor were called 
the homagersand sat with the lord, or his representative 
the steward in the Manorial Court, virtually as judges. 

The tenure, by which the freeholder held his land, 
came in time to be distinguished by legal writers as 
tenure in free socage, and to denote an estate held by 
any certain and determinate service, as by fealty and a 
money rent, or by homage and fealty without rent. 

It is probable that these tenures were the relics of 
Saxon liberty, retained by such persons as had neither 
forfeited them to the Conqueror, nor had been forced to 
exchange them for the more honourable but burthen- 
some tenure of knight service. And this theory receives 
confirmation if we consider the peculiar customs which 
are attached to certain tenures held to be in socage, 
such as Gavelkind and Borough English, the preserva- 
tion whereof inviolate from a time anterior to the 
Conquest is a fact universally acknowledged. Gavel- 
kind, which mostly prevails in Kent and the south- 
eastern parts of England, where, as is well known, the 
ancient free customs were defended with the greatest 
vigour and success, had, among others, these dis- 
tinguishing properties: (i) The tenant was of age 
sufficient to alienate his estate by deed at fifteen. 
(2) The estate did not escheat in case of attainder and 
execution for felony; 1 but only in case of failure of 
heirs. (3) In most places the tenant had the power of 
devising lands by will before the statute for that 

1 ' The father to the bough, the son to the plough. 


purpose was made. (4) The lands descended not to 
the eldest, youngest, or any one son only, but each 
son as heir took an equal share ; whereas by the custom 
of Borough English (so named in contradistinction to 
the Norman customs) which prevails in certain ancient 
boroughs, the youngest son and not the eldest succeeds 
to the tenement on the death of his father. The tenure 
to which this latter custom is attached is called burgage, 
and is indeed a species of town socage and appears to 
have been another instance of free tenure which with- 
stood the shock of Norman encroachment. Even so 
late as 1713, the town of Nottingham was divided into 
the English borough and the French in the one real 
property descending to the youngest son in " Burgh- 
Engloyes" ; in the other to the eldest by the ordinary 
law which they termed " Burgh-Francoyes." This 
custom of Borough English prevails even at the 
present day in some southern counties, especially in 
Sussex, and is extended even to collateral branches 
under the name of " junior right," so that not only the 
youngest son in direct descent, but the youngest nephew 
can claim inheritance under it ; in the rape of Lewes 
the custom is almost universal. There are many varia- 
tions of the custom in different manors : in those of 
Dorking and Milton, in Surrey, where the tenant has 
no sons, the youngest brother is admitted to the ex- 
clusion of his elder brothers ; in other manors this 
junior right is extended to females, as in those of 
Fulham, Wimbledon, Barnes, and Richmond. 

The mixed tenures, touched on above, existed as we 
have seen in pre-Domesday times, and can be traced 


right through to the later stages of manorial history, 
when we constantly find tenants holding by deed and 
paying a yearly money rent, bound at the same time to 
find labour at certain seasons. As for example at 
Ibstone, Oxon (thirteenth century), Henry Perys held 
half a virgate in fee by deed ; he paid a rent of 5^. 6d. 
per ann. and three capons at the feast of St. Thomas 
Apostle, and had to find a man to reap for three days in 
autumn at his own costs, with other services. In the 
same manor Alice, widow of Nicholas Canon, holding 
several parcels of land at a yearly rent, had to find two 
men in autumn for a week, and for the lord's boon days 
two men, the lord providing their food ; also, she had to 
find labour for the washing and shearing of the lord's 
sheep, and for ploughing and harrowing at the winter 
and Lent sowings, with other services. Manorial records 
teem with similar instances. For a satisfactory ex- 
planation of this seeming anomaly, it is necessary to 
consider some facts in the early history of rent and 
customary tenure. In pre-Domesday times the general 
name for the oblation or money payment now con- 
stituting the entire render, but then only a subordinate 
part was gafol, gavol, or land gable ; land at farm was 
gafolland ; freehold was ungavoled, land not subject to 
rent. The gable, about id. per acre, was only a part of 
the price paid for the use of the land, the rest being 
worked out by the tenants ; when the work was light 
or not constant, the tenants were bound in an increased 
oblation which was distinguished as "mail," and the 
tenants paying such were denominated, as in the 
Boldon Book, "mailmen" or "molmen." In the 



Domesday of St. Paul's "worklond," when the rent 
is paid chiefly in labour, is opposed to " mollond," when 
the rent is paid chiefly in money. In the centuries 
following the Conquest, we find a change going on in 
those tenements where the above customs prevailed, 
and lands held subject to either labour or silver at the 
lord's discretion, until we arrive at the period, about the 
thirteenth century, when both the rent and the labour 
became a fixed charge on the holding. 





THE following description of some of the principal 
officers who superintended the work of the 
manor is mainly drawn from the work of Sir 
Walter de Henley. 

The steward's duty is to hold the Manor Courts and 
View of Frankpledge, and there to inquire if there 
be any withdrawals of customs, services, and rrnts, 



or of suits to the lord's courts, markets, and mills, 
and as to alienations of lands. He is also to check 
the amount of seed required by the reeve for each 
manor, for under the steward there may be several 

On his appointment he must make himself acquainted 
with the condition of the manorial ploughs and plough 
teams. He must see that the land is properly arranged, 
whether on the three-field or two-field system, and the 
ploughing regulated accordingly. 

Besides the manorial ploughs and plough teams, he 
must know how many tenant or villain ploughs there 
are, and how often they are bound to aid the lord in 
each manor. He is also to inquire as to the stock in 
each manor, whereof an inventory indented is to be 
drawn up between him and the reeve, and as to any 
deficiency of beasts, which he is at once to make good 
with the lord's consent. 

The best husbandman is to be elected by the villains 
as Reeve, and he is to be responsible for the cultivation 
of the arable land. He must see that the ploughs are 
yoked early in the morning both the demesne and 
villain ploughs and that the land is properly ploughed 
and sown. He is a villain tenant and acts on behalf 
of the villains, but is overlooked by the lord's bailiff. 

The Bailiff's duties are stated to be: To rise early and 
have the ploughs yoked, then to walk in the fields to 
see that all is right. He is to inspect the ploughs, 
whether those of the demesne or the villain or auxiliary 
ploughs, seeing that they be not unyoked before their 
day's work ends, failing which he will be called to 



account. At sowing time, he and the Reaper must go 
with the ploughs through the whole day's work, until 
they have completed their proper quantity of plough- 
ing for the day, which is to be measured, and if the 
Ploughman have made any errors or defaults and can 
make no excuses the Reaper is to see that such faults 
do not go uncorrected and unpunished. 

The Hayward is to be an active and sharp man ; he 
must rise early and look after and go round and keep 
the woods, corn and meadows, and other things belong- 
ing to his office, and he is to superintend the sowing. 
He is to look after the customary tenants that they 
come and do the work they are bound to do ; in hay- 
time he is to overlook the mowers, and in August 
assemble the reapers and the labourers, and see that 
the corn is properly gathered, and watch early and late 
that nothing be stolen or eaten by beasts or spoilt. 
In earlier times he attended to the fences and hedges, 
and was answerable for stray cattle, which it was his 
duty to impound. This office was often combined 
with that of Beadle, the verger of the Manorial Court. 
He was accustomed to superintend the work in the 
hay and harvest fields, carrying his rod or verge. He 
was allowed provender for his horse when serving 
writs and summonses. 

The Ploughman is to be a man of intelligence, and 
should know how to repair broken ploughs and 
harrows, and to till the land well ; he should know how 
to yoke and drive the oxen without beating or hurting 
them, and he should forage them well ; he must ditch 
the land so that it may be drained ; and he must not 


carry fire into byres for light or warmth, nor have any 
light there except in a lantern. 

The Waggoner must know his trade and keep his 
horses and curry them, and he must not overload, 
overwork, or overdrive them ; and must know how to 
mend his harness and the gear of his waggon ; and lie 
shall sleep every night with his horses, as the oxherd 
with his oxen. 

The Cowherd must be skilful, knowing his business 
and keeping his cows well, and foster the calves from 
the time of weaning. And he must see that he has 
fine bulls of good breed, pastured with the cows to 
mate when they will ; and no cow to be milked or 
allowed to suckle her calf after Michaelmas, for the 
cows will thus become weak, and mate later the next 
year. And every year from each vaccary the old 
cows, and the barren, and the young that do not 
promise well, have to be sorted out and sold. 

The Swineherd should only be kept in those manors 
where swine can be kept in the forest, woods, waste, 
or marshes without sustenance from the grange. It 
may be cited that at Sturminster Newton the swineherd 
claimed the head, feet, and all but the lard and bacon 
of the second best pig killed for the lord, and had 
allowance of a young pig called a "marking hog." 

The vShepherd must enclose his fold with hurdles 
and keep it in good repair ; he should sleep in the 
fold, he and his dog, and he should pasture his sheep 
well, and keep them in forage and watch them well, so 
that they be not killed by dogs, stolen, or lost ; nor 
let them pasture in moors or bogs to get sickness or 


disease ; he should not leave his sheep to go to fairs, 
markets, wrestling matches, wakes, or the tavern, with- 
out putting a good keeper in his place that no harm 
may arise. 

The Shepherd might be a hired servant, but more 
often he was a tenant who gave his services as rent for 
his holding, with certain allowances. Thus at Winter- 
borne he was allowed a lamb and a fleece, and had 
the lord's fold on his land for twelve days at Christmas 

From the " Louttrel Psalter" 

for the sake of the manure ; he had occasional use 
of the lord's plough ; fifteen sheep in the lord's fold 
and their milk if mother sheep, and as much as a 
woman milker ; his wife was dey or mistress of the 
dairy, and he had to find a milkmaid: his dog had daily 
a cup of newly-drawn whey from Hocktide to the ist 
August. Walter of Henley recommends the lord to 
watch if the sheep are scared at the approach of the 
shepherd, as, if so, he is no good shepherd. 

The Dairymaid should be of good repute, and keep 
herself clean and know her business well; how t<> 


make cheese and salt cheese, and to save and keep the 
vessels of the dairy that it need not be necessary to 
renew them every year. And she should help in the 
winnowing of the corn when she can be present, and 
take care of the geese and hens, and answer for the 

Besides the reeve, who as mentioned above was 
chosen by the tenants themselves, there were several 


From ;i MS. in the Bodleian Library 

other officers elected by them at the Manor Courts to 
serve for longer or shorter periods, generally for a year. 
The most important of these was the Tithing Man, 
Headborough, or Constable, chosen at the Court Leet, 
whose duty it was to summon juries, arrest vagabonds 
and night-walkers, distrain on the goods of defaulters, 
and generally to preserve in his district the king's 


The Ale-tasters were appointed at the same court, to 
see that the brewers within their districts brewed whole- 
some beer of requisite strength and purity ; that they 
did not sell at excessive price, nor use false measures, 
and generally to see that the Assize of Beer was not 
broken in their locality. The Assize of Bread and Beer 
was a franchise conferred on lords of manors from 
a very early period, the frauds in these trades being 
severely punished ; by a statute of Henry III., a baker 
breaking the Assize was liable to be condemned to the 
pillory, and knavish brewers to the tumbril or dung- 
cart in later times these punishments were commuted 
for a fine in the Manor Court. 

The Carpenter and Smith were usually tenants who 
gave their services in quittance of rent. The carpenter 
at South Brent had to make a plough and harrow out of 
his own timber, and assisted the tenants in making the 
carts. The smith, besides assisting the carpenter in the 
making of ploughs, was usually bound to shoe certain 
of the lord's horses, a palfrey and an " aver " or draught 
horse; if one died, the skin became his to make bellows; 
he had to sharpen the scythes of the mowers in hay 
time, and for this service at Chalgrove he had an acre 
of meadow. At Winterborne he had to repair and bind 
with iron the vessels for making cheese, and for this he 
received yearly a lamb and a fleece, and a cheese made 
before St. John's Day; also a dish of butter wherewith 
to grease his bellows. 

There were also appointed Surveyors of hedges, and 
of ditches and watercourses ; the former to see that the 
temporary hedges, erected at certain seasons about the 

From a MS. in the Bodleian Library 


holdings of the tenants, were duly made and kept in 
repair, and the latter to inspect the watercourses in 
the manor, to see that they were kept open and well 

Mr. Gomme has pointed out {Index to Municipal 
Offices} that the appellations of many municipal officers 
in our towns carry us back to their remote origin as 
agricultural or manorial communities. The Keeper of 
the Green-Yard is still an officer of the Corporation of 
London, and the Greenyard in Whitecross Street 
represents the pound of the ancient township. The 
Pound Keeper is an officer met with in many of our 
present boroughs. Sir Henry Maine {Early History of 
Institutions] observes that " there is no more ancient 
institution in the country than the village pound : it is 
far older than the King's Bench and probably older 
than the Kingdom." There is a Keeper of the Pinfold 
at Alnwick, and a Pindar is found in nine other 
boroughs. The Pindar of Wakefield is the hero of 
a popular local legend, commencing 

" In Wakefield there lives a jolly Pindar, 
In Wakefield all on a green." 

In many instances the duties attaching to one office 
have been merged in those of another, and the signifi- 
cance of the older office and appellation has been lost. 
The Pindar of Cambridge regulates the commons in 
addition to his ordinary duties ; the Pindar of Don- 
caster accompanies the Mayor and Corporation to church 
on state occasions of their visit; and the Pindar of Scar- 
borough unites the office with that of Verger of the 


The office of Hayward is still extant in fifteen 
boroughs. At Aberavon there are four, whose duties 
are clearly defined : two are to distrain all cattle tres- 
passing on the common land of the borough, and the 
remaining two are to turn the cattle of certain burgesses 
into the after-grass of the enclosed lands on the iyth 
September, and to turn them out into the unenclosed 
land on the 25th March. 

As further instances of these offices of manorial 
origin, we may mention the Herd of Alnwick, the Nolt- 
herds of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the Swineherd of Shrews- 
bury, and the Neatherds of Doncaster. There are also 
those which remind us of the meadows and wastes of 
the early township : the Pasture Masters of Beverley 
and York, the Moor Grieves of Alnwick, and the 
Woodwards of Havering and Nottingham are repre- 
sentatives of the class. It is needless to enumerate the 
Ale-tasters, Bread-weighers, Constables, and Beadles, 
who to this day hold more or less sinecure offices in 
our ancient towns. 

As time went on, manorial administration became 
a matter of increasing difficulty. There were fewer 
candidates for the posts of responsibility, such as those 
of Reeve, Hayward, or Beadle ; we find notices in the 
Court Rolls that such a one has refused to serve the 
office to which he has been elected or appointed ; the 
duties of collecting fines and the like became irksome 
to the tenants, and they willingly paid an advanced 
rent to be quit of these unpopular duties. Then there 
was the further difficulty of finding a man capable of 
" making a reeve's reckoning," so that the lords often 


found it more expedient to farm or lease the whole 
manor ; these lessees, who subsequently became known 
as gentlemen-farmers, often turned out oppressive and 
unfaithful. Brakelond, in his Chronicle, has the follow- 
ing anecdote of the Abbot of Bury: 

"As Abbot Sampson soon after his accession was travel- 
ling between London and Bury St. Edmunds he met an old 
woman, and having heard from her that the manor which he 
was passing through belonged to the Abbot of Bury, he next 
asked a question or two about the farmer, and was told that 
the farmer was a demon alive, an enemy to God and a 
scourge to the men of the country, but that just then he was 
treating them reasonably out of dread of the new Abbot of 
Bury, whom he believed to be wary and wise. The Abbot 
smiled when he had heard this story, and did not take the 
manor into his own hand immediately." 



MICHAELMAS, or the period after harvest, was 
the natural commencement of the farming year, 
when new leases were entered on, and the then 
universal system of husbandry compelled the sowing 
of the winter field. 

" At Michaelmas lightly new farmer comes in, 
New husbandrie forceth him now to begin." 

The first work was the ploughing of the wheat field, 
while the other two fields lay in stubble ; at its 
completion, the sowing of the winter wheat and rye 
was taken in hand. The timber which had been 
brought in by the carts of the tenantry was now 
chopped up and stowed in ricks. The cattle, at the 
completion of the ploughing, were brought in from 
their pasture and stalled in their sheds for the winter, 
to be watched over by the ploughman, whose duty it 
was to fill the ox-bins with hay and water, and throw 
out the manure. The duties of the swineherd at this 
season were to bring in from the swinepens in the 
woods all the weaker animals, and sows that had 
littered, and properly house them in the pig-stye of 
the manor. The winter's preparation of food entailed 




the slaughtering of beasts and swine, and the curing 
of the carcasses. Threshing was also a winter employ- 
ment ; not only the grain, but the peas and beans were 
threshed ; the grain was bruised with flails similar to 




those even now in use, and winnowed by hand; women 
being frequently employed, as appears in the bailiffs' 
accounts. Wheat and rye were the ordinary food-stuffs 



of the people, malted barley being, of course, used for 

On the break up of winter, the main work of the year 
began, usually in February, with the spring ploughing 
of the second field, in preparation for the spring sowing 
of peas, beans, and vetches, or oats and barley. 

This ploughing was the week's work of the customary 
tenants, and lasted from Candlemas to Easter, the 
stubble, since the previous August, having been the 
feeding ground of hens, sheep and other stock. 
The ploughman began his work at daybreak, when 
he took the oxen from the cowherd, and yoked and 
joined them to the plough. Except in heavy ground, 
eight oxen seem to have been the normal team ; the 
plough was of rude construction, made on the estate 
by the carpenter and the smith, the costliest parts being 
the share and the iron tips protecting the wooden 
frame. The oxen, as depicted in ancient illustrations, 
were small and short-horned, which is perhaps accounted 
for by poor food, want of care in housing, and absence 
of all knowledge of cross breeding. There were a driver 
and a leader of the team to each plough. The plough- 
ing was probably shallow ; the high price of iron, and 
rude construction of the plough, would preclude any 
very effectual overturning of the soil. 

Those tenants not engaged in ploughing found 
their spring duties awaiting them in the enclosures 
of the lord's demesne. The manor usually possessed 
a garden and an orchard ; in the former were grown 
leeks, onions, mustard and peas, and the produce of 
the latter is mentioned in bailiffs' accounts, apples 



being largely grown for cider ; the permanent hedges 
would have to be repaired, and the garden plants and 
herbs set out. The sowing of seed followed immediately 
after, if it did not accompany, the spring ploughing ; 



and then commenced, about May or June, the pre- 
paration of the third field in fallow. The land was 
ditched with a view to draining, and dressed with 
manure from the cattle-pens, marl and lime being some- 

8 4 


times used on stiff soils. In the summer months weed- 
ing was undertaken ; and after Midsummer, the annual 
washing and sheep-shearing engaged the labours of 
certain of the tenants, women being often employed 
for this work. 

From a Douce MS. 

Building operations were also carried out at this 
season ; each tenant was bound to keep his dwelling 
in proper repair at the risk of being presented and 
fined at the manorial court ; for this purpose the 
tenants were allowed their " estovers" in the lord's 


woods, entailing the felling of timber and carriage of 
the same, a certain portion being handed to the wheel- 
wright or carpenter for the construction of ploughs and 
tools. It was also a time for the setting up of folds 
and pens and for the making of weirs. Last of all the 
summer duties was the repairing of the mill, which 

From the MS. of the " Romance of Alexander" in the Bodleian Library 

formed a necessary feature of every estate, and was 
generally farmed out by the lord, the miller taking his 
toll of the tenants, upon whom it was compulsory to 
bring their grain there to be ground. 

An interesting subject, 1 which can only be briefly 
touched upon here, is the origin, progress, and extinc- 
tion of the milling soke the right or privilege of land- 
owners of building and working corn or other mills, 

1 The History of Corn Milting (Benin tt ;uul Elton) exhaustively treats 
of this subject. 



the tenants being bound to give all their grinding 
custom to such mills. This jurisdiction arose by purely 
manorial local custom and not by statute. No injustice 
was involved by the compulsion of tenants, in early 
times, to grind at mills built especially for their con- 
venience. But the necessity for these manorial mills 
gradually disappeared, and they were retained by the 
lords solely as lucrative sources of profit. 

In some instances mills were granted to monas- 
teries, on the condition that the neighbouring poor 
should be fed by the religious. The lords of manors 
were accustomed to requisition the services of their 
tenants, both for the necessary repair of their mills, 
and for the labour required to take the lord's corn to 
be ground, or carrying it for sale to the market. This 
manorial privilege of the milling soke was in many 
instances allowed to lapse by the owners, and in other 
the rights were purchased by the community. 

These mills were of two 
kinds, water and wind 
mills, the latter being the 
more common. Occasion- 
ally, as in the Bicester 
Priory Accounts, mention 
is made of a horse mill. 
The structure was usually 
of timber, and the most 
costly portions were the 
millstones, which were 
WIND MILL " often of foreign origin, the 

From the MS. of the "Romance of Alexander" pHCC of which WOUld be 

in the Bodleian Library 


enhanced by expenses attending the purchase and 
carriage of the same from London or other nearer 
and more available port. It is probable that in 
early times the mill was intended only for the corn 
grown on the demesne lands, and that hand mills were 
used by the tenants ; but, as in the case of the Abbot 
of Peterborough and his tenantry in the thirteenth 
century, the use of these hand mills was discouraged 
and gradually suppressed in the interest of the lord, 
who counted the farm of the mill as one of his most 
profitable returns. 

The summer tasks being ended, the important work 
of gathering in the various crops, lasting during 
August, September, and October, commenced ; reap- 
ing and mowing now became the order of the day. 
The hay was mowed by the service of the customary 
tenants, generally assisted by hired labour, often 
obtained from a distance ; it was gathered into ricks 
and, as now, cut into trusses. Barley, oats, peas, and 
beans were also mowed, and these crops having been 
cleared, the work of the harvest commenced at the 
end of July by the reaping of rye and wheat, which 
were cut rather high in the stalk with sickles, leaving 
the stubble to be mown after the crop was gathered. 
Provisions and beer in certain quantities were allowed 
to the harvesters according to the custom of the manor, 
and a feast or harvest-home was the usual termination 
of the operations, which occupied a period of a month 
or six weeks, according to the season. 

One important duty of the tenants, which is con- 
stantly referred to as part of the regular routine work 



of the manor in spring, summer, and autumn, was 
that of hedging, and the reason is obvious. The open 
fields of arable land, when the seed had been sown, 
until the time that the crop was harvested, required 




protection ; the growing grass in the meadows must 
also be kept from the depredations of cattle, and each 
tenant was therefore bound to see that his holding 
was properly fenced, so that his neighbours should 



not suffer by his neglect. The hedges were indeed 
but of a temporary character, but for all that entailed 
a fair amount of labour. An old writer on husbandry 
(John Fitzherbert) gives the following advice, 'which 
illustrates the nature of the fencing : 

" Thou must get the stakes of the heart of oak for those 
be best ; crabtree, blackthorn and alder be good ; reed 
withy is best in marshe ground, ash, maple, hazel and white 
thorn will serve for a time. And set thy stakes within two 
foot and a half together except thou have very good * edder- 
inge ' and longe to bind with. And if it be double-eddered 
it is much the best and great strength to the hedge and 
much longer it will last. And lay thy small trouse or 
thornes, that thou hedgest withal over thy quickset that 
sheep do not eat the spring nor budds of thy settes, &c." 

During the early part of the fall, these hedges 
were partly or entirely removed, and the cattle were 
allowed to wander over the stubble, as they were 
again in the following spring before the sowing of the 
crops, after which the hedges were set up or repaired, 
as the case might be. It was the duty of the hedge- 
ward or hayward to superintend these operations, 
which were almost continuous throughout the year, 
and it is interesting to note that for these services he 
received an allotment of strips in the arable land, so 
situated that they lay on the outskirts, and adjoining 
the pastures where the oxen were feeding, so that, on 
any neglect of his duties, the damage would fall on his 
own holding first. 

Having reviewed the routine of work on a mediaeval 
estate, which, we have reason to believe, continued with 


but slight modifications from the Saxon period till the 
sixteenth century, we may now glance at the recreations 
which relieved the monotony of manorial life. And 
first, we may mention the relaxation from work which 



the Church enjoined at her great festivals. As early 
as the days of King Alfred, the following were ap- 
pointed for observance : Twelve days at Yule ; the day 
on which Christ overcame the devil (February 15) ; 
the commemoration day of St. Gregory (March 12); 
the seven days before Easter and the seven days after ; 
one day at St. Peter's and St. Paul's tide (June 29) ; in 


From a fourteenth-century MS. in the British Museum 

harvest, a full week before St. Mary's Mass (Septem- 
ber 8) ; one day at All Hallows, and the four Wednes- 
days in the four Ember Weeks. A study of manorial 
records of a later period shows that there were certain 
feasts given by the lord, which appear to have been 
regarded as the right of his tenants, and in the number 
and character of which great uniformity prevailed ; one 
of these occurring at the end of the ploughing and the 


other at the time of the harvest gathering, which latter 
would correspond with the week before St. Mary's 
Mass of the laws of Alfred. The benfeorm (the " bean- 
feast " of modern days) was a dinner or corrody given at 
the end of the precations or special works required of 
the tenants at harvest times. This custom was preva- 
lent on the estates of the Bishop of Durham early in 
the twelfth century. 

In the accounts of the manor of Bocking, in Essex 
(thirteenth century), is an estimate of the cost of the 
autumnal precations or boon days. The expense of the 
food provided for the reapers is weighed against the 
value of their work, and there is a balance in the lord's 
favour of $$d. The tenants owe for two bedrips or 
reapings in autumn, 146 men, whose works are worth 
at 2(1. a man 27^. 8d. 9 and they were to have towards 
the doing of said work 5 seams and 3 bushels of 
wheat and rye, worth 17^. nd. ; at the first bedrip, 
a carcass of beef worth 5^. ; at the second bedrip, 200 
herrings, worth is. ; in addition there were provided 
21 J cheeses worth 2^. g\d. y 2 bushels of peas 5^., with 
salt and garlic id. This was a dry bedrip ; it would 
be a wet or ale bedrip if the lord allowed good liquor. 

At Chalgrove, Oxon (Hundred Rolls), a yard-lander 
reaped at the two precations in autumn with all his 
household except his wife and shepherd. Two repasts 
were provided: at " nones," a wheaten loaf, pottage, 
meat, and salt ; at supper, bread and cheese and beer, 
and enough of it, with a candle while the reapers were 
inclined to sit. The last day of the bedrip was the 
.<rand day. At Piddington the tenants on that day 


came accompanied by their wives, furnished with 
napkins, dishes, platters, cups, and other necessary 
articles (Kennet's Parochial Antiquities). 

In 1222 each reaper at Wickham, in Essex, had a 
loaf and a half to himself, and they had in common 
a cheese and a good ram ; a sheep was often the reward 
of reaping, mutton being in season on St. John's Day. 

The festival of the patron saint of the church would 
be annually observed as a holiday ; and the wake or 
fair, sometimes by prescription, but more often as a 
franchise by grant of the Crown, was held at or near 
this celebration. We must not omit to mention the 
hospitalities of Christmas. At Pennard, one of the 
manors of Glastonbury Abbey, a tenant could have 
at his "gest" or " revel" at Christmas, ten loaves, ten 
pieces of meat, five of pork and five of beef, and ten 
men as his guests drinking in the lord's hall. In some 
manors there were reciprocal courtesies at this season 
between the lord and his tenants. At Huntercombe, 
Oxon, it was the custom for the tenant to present his 
lord with a loaf, half a gallon of ale, and a cock and 
hen ; and then he, with his wife and another, dined with 
the lord. The Domesday of St. Paul's and the Boldon 
Book contain entries of the custom of having waits or 
watchmen at this season ; one tenant is bound to watch 
one night in the lord's hall, for which he has a whole 
loaf, a cooked dish, and a gallon of ale. 

Other festive occasions, such as Hocktide, Michaelmas, 
or Martinmas, usually set apart for the holding of 
a law day or court leet, were followed by a feast called 
a leet-ale or scot-ale, where all persons present paid 


a fee or scot to furnish the feast, or for the benefit of 
some officer. In a Glastonbury Rental of the thirteenth 
century we find the scot-ale at the Deverells, Wiltshire, 
sometimes lasted for three days : on the last day the 
bachelors could drink freely without payment, as long 
as they could stand ; if they sat down, they must pay. 

The relaxation of the tenant occasionally took the 
form of poaching on the lord's demesne. The gentle 
art of " tickling " perch in the lord's pond occurs as one 
of the offences committed by a tenant in the precedents 
of manorial courts (see p. 133), and entries such as the 
following are frequently to be met with on the Rolls : 
At Whitwell manor, in Norfolk, 1339, " William de 
Middleton entered unlawfully and without licence the 
lord's manor, and with dogs and bow slew and put to 
flight the lord's pheasants, and fished the lord's water 
likewise, for which he is in mercy." Some of the 
offenders belong 'to a class in which we should not 
expect to find such delinquents, and the sporting cleric 
appears as much in evidence in the thirteenth as in 
later centuries. In the Durham Halmote Rolls (1378) 
Robt. Chauncellor, Sir John Carles, and William 
Powys, chaplains, are presented as common hunters, 
and as having taken hares in the field of Acley. There 
are similar presentments against Sir John Grey and 
others in Pittington. At Hesylden (1374) William de 
Marion, the vicar there, with others, presumably his 
parishioners, has hunted in the warren of the lord prior 
and taken hares many times. Tenants were strictly 
forbidden to keep greyhounds for coursing purposes. 

But the cases of poaching are scarcely so numerous 

9 6 


as might be expected in the general run of Manor Court 
Rolls. Occasionally whole files, extending over many 
reigns, from Edward III. onwards, may be looked 
over, as is the case with the Staffordshire Rolls of 
Yoxall and Alrewas, and only a few isolated instances 
occur at long intervals. Possibly such a state of things 
may often denote a general sym- 
pathy with offences of such a 
nature ; and another explanation 
is that so large a part of England, 
naturally in the very districts where 
game abounded, was under forest 
law, and in such cases all game 
trespass, bearing of bows, setting 
of snares, or keeping unwarranted 
dogs came under the cognizance of 
the forest ministers and were with- 
drawn from manor court jurisdic- 
tion. For instance, at the Duffield 
court leet (Duffield being an exten- 
sive Derbyshire parish, the greater 
part of which was within the Forest 
of Duffield), held in 1337, two of- 
fenders were charged with coney 
catching, but it was objected that 
the place where the offence was 
committed was within the forest, and consequently the 
proper course to be taken was their attachment at the 
Swain-mote Court. The same thing happened in the 
case of a trespass with bow and arrows in the Derby- 
shire parish of Tideswell in the time of Henry VII. ; 

From a MS. in the British Museum 


the matter could not proceed in the manor court, for 
it was declared in defence that the particular site of the 
trespass was within the forest of the High Peak, though 
only just on the verge. 

The following case from the Forest Proceedings of the 
Duchy of Lancaster is of interest. In 1273 Edward I. 
\V,LS staying at the Castle of the Peak, in Derbyshire, on 
a hunting expedition in the adjoining forest. Thomas 
Fit/Nicholas and Ralph FitzGodfrey, of Monyash, 
borrowing the royal hounds, chased the deer and 
carried back some of the venison to their own houses. 
Whereupon William le Wynn, lord of Monyash, whose 
tenants they were, summoned them to his own court 
and amerced them respectively in fines of 4^. and 6s. 8d. 
At the next forest Eyre, at Derby, William le Wynn 
was presented by the foresters for unlawful adjudica- 
tion at a manorial court in a case of venison trespass. 
The justices fined him 2or. and he had to give pledges 
to abide by the assize of the forest. Broadly speaking, 
breaches of the lord's fishery rights seem to have been 
more frequently brought before the manor courts than 
those against his game. 

Enforcement of the statutes against playing with 
"le cards and le tables" are frequently met with on 
the Court Rolls, and the game "ad pilam" 1 was also 
strictly forbidden to the tenantry, either on account 
of some element of chance entering into it which 
aroused the gambling instinct, or more probably 
because interfering with the practice of archery, which 
was enjoined by Edward III. on Sundays and festivals 
in lieu of the ordinary rural pastimes. 

1 This i> generally considrrnl t<> have Un-n a i;ainr at football, 

9 8 


Many other days owed their observance to pagan 
origins, such as Mayday and Midsummer, the festivities 
of which had been consecrated by the Church, in ac- 
cordance with the advice of St. Gregory. In the time 
of Henry III. the ploughmen and other officers at East 
Monkton, between Warminster and Shaftesbury, were 
allowed a ram for a feast on Midsummer Eve, when 
it was a practice to carry fire round the lord's corn. 
This form of the Beltane festival was observed in the 
North of England well into the eighteenth century, and a 
similar custom prevailed in Gloucestershire and Here- 
fordshire, fires being lighted at the ends of the fields 
just sown with wheat, on the eve of Twelfth Day. 

We have seen that the duties of the tenant were care- 
fully defined, and the custom of the manor would 
ensure that encroachments on the part of the lord 
could be successfully resisted. With few wants, with 
the solace of wife and home, rude pleasures and 
occasional feasts, the position of the tenant of the old 
English manor may well compare with that of his 
modern counterpart. 




From a MS. in the Bodleian Library 



CERTAIN villain tenants on ancient royal manors, 
or, more strictly speaking, "the tenants of ancient 
demesne of the Crown," form a distinct and 
privileged class of great historical interest. The chief 
characteristics of their condition were their personal 
freedom, and the comparative fixity of their tenure. 
Although holding in villainage, they could not be 
deprived of their lands, provided their rents and services 
were duly rendered ; no one had a right to increase 
or change their services ; they were protected by 
peculiar writs, which enforced the custom of the manor. 
Ancient demesne has been defined as 

"composed of the manors which belonged to the Crown 
at the time of the Conquest. This includes manors which 
had been given away subsequently, and excludes such as 
had lapsed to the king after the Conquest by escheat or 
forfeiture. Possessions granted away by Saxon kings before 
the Conquest are equally excluded. In order to understand 
what these manors were the courts reverted to the Domesday 
description of Terra Regis. As a rule these lands were 
entered as Crown lands TRE and TRW ; that is were con- 
sidered to have been in the hand of King Edward in 1066, 


and in the hand of King William in 1086. But strictly and 
legally they were Crown lands at the moment when King 
William's claim inured, or, to use the contemporary phrase, 
* on the day when King Edward was alive and dead V l 

The peasants in these manors were subject to services 
similar to those of ordinary villains of other manors ; 
they had to perform their quota of agricultural work 
on the demesne, and servile customs, such as merchet, 
etc., were enforced in many places. But the privileges 
attaching to their condition were many, and of a 
peculiar kind, consisting to a great extent of exemp- 
tion from public fiscal burdens. The king's manor 
was treated as an estate independent, so to speak, of 
the hundred and shire, the tenants being free from 
suit in the Hundred and County Court. 

They could not be impleaded out of their own lord's 
court, were not liable to serve on juries and inquests 
outside the manor to which they belonged, were free 
of toll in all markets and fairs, and, as the king's 
servants, could not be attached in the ordinary course 
by the sheriff's writ. Although they could be talliaged 
by the king in his capacity of lord of the manor, they 
were not taxed with the country. As they did not 
benefit by the government of the county, they were 
not called upon for contribution to its maintenance, 
as for the repair of bridges, roads, and the like, which 
they used in the exercise of royal privilege and for the 
kind's benefit. When these manors passed into the 
hands of a subject, a somewhat anomalous state of 
affairs ensued. The new lord could only talliage his 

F. I'Mui'mifff in England, p. 89. 


tenants by virtue of the king's writ, which served as 
a check to arbitrary acts of powerful magnates ; yet at 
the same time the profits went to the lord and not to 
the king. The king's right in the manor was not 
entirely abrogated by its alienation. As an instance, 
Henry II. granted the ancient demesne manor of 
Stoneleigh to the Cistercian Abbey there, in exchange 
for other lands. Although the charter implies a full 
grant, all kinds of perquisites were drawn by the king 
from the same throughout his reign, and he had his 
own bailiffs there, to whom his writs were directed. 
In fact, it seems to have been considered that the 
Crown ought not to alienate its demesne lands, and 
that there was always the possibility of their resump- 
tion by the royal grantor or his successors, which was 
by no means unusual. 

The most distinctive feature, however, of the con- 
dition of the tenants of ancient demesne was the special 
legal procedure which obtained in questions affecting 
their holdings. Resort was had to special writs, such 
being directed not to the ordinary officers of the law, 
but to the bailiffs of the manor. The writ, which is 
most often met with in manorial records of ancient 
demesne, is the "little writ of right close" (i.e. closed, 
to distinguish it from the writ of right patent or open, 
directed to the sheriff). By this writ a villain was 
enabled not only to implead his fellow in the manorial 
court, but to oppose himself as plaintiff against his 
lord, and there are instances of the latter being sum- 
moned to appear, distrained, and subjected to judgment. 
When a demesne manor was actually in the hands of 


the Crown, although the tenants would not implead 
their lord, the king on occasion appeared as plaintiff 
against his tenant in his own court. In certain cases 
appeal was allowed to a higher tribunal, and revision 
of judgment ensued. Although there is some con- 
fusion in law-books and in the decisions of the justices, 
it seems clear that all the tenants of a manor in ancient 
demesne were not entitled to take advantage of its 
peculiar privileges. The freeholders who held their 
land by charter had their protection at common law. 
There were pure villains as in other manors ; but the 
privileged class was that of villain socmen or men of 
free blood holding in villainage, a class represented, 
as we have seen, in other manors, but only enjoying 
these special privileges on those which had been Crown 
lands "on the day that King Edward was alive and 
dead." And this leads us to a consideration of the 
origin of this interesting tenure. There seems little 
doubt that its substance, "the legal protection of the 
peasantry," had its origin in Saxon times, although 
its peculiarities of legal procedure were developed after 
the Conquest. The king was considered as "the one 
great safeguard of Saxon tradition and the one defender 
against Norman encroachment"; appeals to him were 
constantly made that the laws and customs of St. 
Edward the Confessor should be observed, and these 
could be substantiated, as far as tenure and services 
were concerned, by the Domesday record. It is evident 
that there would be a larger proportion of tenants on 
Crown lands, who had lapsed from free owners into 
territorial dependence, than in other manors. The 


king would personally benefit by the protection of his 
tenantry against the exactions of his officers. The 
tenure in ancient demesne 

"amounted after all only to a recognition of definite customs 
in general, to a special judicial organization of the manor 
which made it less dependent upon the steward, and to the 
facilities afforded for complaint and revision of judgments. 
As to this last, it must be noted that the king's men were 
naturally enough in a better position than the rest of the 
English peasantry ; the curse of villainage was that manorial 
courts were independent of superior organization as far as 
the lower tenants were concerned. But courts in royal 
manors were the king's courts after all, and, as such, they 
could hardly be severed from the higher tribunals held in the 
king's name." ] 

If the student of manorial records compares any 
considerable number of manors that were in monastic 
or church hands with those that were under lay control, 
it will be found, broadly speaking, that the lot of the 
tenants generally,and more especially that of the villains, 
was decidedly superior when under the control of the 
former. True it is that tenants of ecclesiastical manors 
had their difficulties with tjhie lord from time to time, 
and were perhaps all the more ready now and again 
to show dissatisfaction in a more marked way than they 
would have dared to do against the more severe secular 
lords ; but the easy terms on which the assarts or 
clearings made by the monks and their lay brothers 
were conferred on their tenants, the commuting of 
labour customs for quite small sums of money, the 

1 Vinogradoff, Villainage in England, p. 125. 


generally light character of the labour for the lord, 
the better harvest fare provided, and more particularly 
the far greater opportunity for manumission or freedom 
that pertained to ecclesiastical estates are noticeable in 
so many instances, that there can be no doubt it was 
as a rule far better for each class of tenants to be on a 
church rather than on a secular estate. 

In the valuable chartulary of the Abbey of 
Burton-on-Trent, preserved at Beaudesert, there are 
full accounts of the tenantry on several Staffordshire 
and Derbyshire manors drawn up about the year noo, 
as well as some like entries of the year 1114. It would 
be very difficult to find such easy tenures on any 
secular manors of approximate date. In a variety of 
cases, a house was held for which a single day's work per 
week in harvest-time for the lord was the only charge. 
The proportion of ad opus tenants on these estates was 
unusually small ; thus, at Mickleover, out of a total 
of seventy-eight tenants, only twenty-two had to make 
any return in labour, and in each of these cases the 
villain held two bovates of land in return for two days' 
labour a week at certain periods of the year, such as 
the occasional carrying of a load to the lord's garden, 
ploughing once in the winter and twice in the spring, 
harvesting, etc. Their position, too, is shown by the 
fact that they were cow-keepers, for time was allowed 
them, when working for the lord, to drive home and 
milk their cows, and generally to attend to their stock. 
In two other Mickleover cases, ad opus tenants of two 
bovates of land had recently (uoo) commuted with the 
abbot for their services, for a money rent of 2s. a year, 


a sum which gives a good idea of the comparatively 
small amount of exacted labour. 

In the adjoining township there were twenty-two 
villains, including Godric the Reeve, the majority of 
whom held two bovates of land ; but in only four cases 
did they make recompense to the lord by labour. On 
the same manor there were, in 1114, five men in charge 
of the plough oxen (bovarii) ; each of them held one 
bovate of land, or two acres of marsh, in return for 
making or providing the irons of three ploughs ; the 
amount of demesne land being sufficient for that 

It was easy, on most monastic manors, for the 
native or villain to obtain leave to live elsewhere on 
payment of a small acknowledgment, which was a 
privilege more rarely granted by a secular lord. Thus 
on the manor of Inkpen, in Berkshire, in the time of 
Richard I., the Abbot of Titchfield, as lord, licensed 
three of his natives to dwell outside the manor 
in return for 6d. a year apiece at Michaelmas ; in 
another case the annual acknowledgment for a like 
permission took the shape of a plough-shoe (or iron 
tip for a wooden share), then worth about 2d., and in 
a third case the more costly service of a pair of 
cart-wheels, probably worth about is. The same abbot, 
according to the customary of the Hampshire manor 
where the abbey stood, had an extraordinary scale of 
dietary for those tenants who worked at the lord's 
harvesting. Those who worked one day a week for 
the whole day received at 3 o'clock a supply of food 
(unutn pastum\ consisting of bread with beer or cider, 


broth (potagwm)) and two sorts of flesh or fish, as well 
as drink once after dinner. For supper the fortunate 
labourer also received a wheaten loaf weighing 40 oz., 
and two herrings or four pilchards or one mackerel. 
As such a meal seems to have been considered as 
worth 4^., this food allowance was certainly remarkably 
liberal. If three days' labour was the service to be 
rendered, the last of the three was recompensed in the 
same lavish manner, while on the two first days the 
repast was a loaf of barley bread, water to drink, and 
two kinds of fish, while the change in the supper 
consisted merely of the substitution of a 40 oz. barley 
loaf for one of wheat. When the customary tenants 
had to wash sheep or do a day's work on the meadows 
at the lord's will, they received nothing except that 
they had wheat bread and beer when they had finished ; 
but the shearers had cheese in addition to the bread 
and beer. Those who dressed the meadows had no 
food allowance ; but the tenants when haymaking 
received bread and beer, with flesh or fish. 

We have looked in vain through many customaries 
of secular manors to find a parallel to the above dietary. 
The only approach to it is in other manors in monastic 
hands. As a broad rule there was no food or drink 
given to the lord's villains for labour on the demesne 
save at corn harvest, and then usually on a somewhat 
meagre scale. 

One other point of the generous treatment of the 
tenants on the lands of the Titchfield Abbey may here 
be noticed. Those who have studied the customs of 
riparian manors such as those bordering on the Thames, 


Trent, Severn, Ouse (Yorks), and elsewhere, know 
that not only the free ferrying of the lord's household 
and his goods by the tenants was usually expected, 
but also the water transit of himself or his property to 
quays or places at a considerable distance. But the 
riparian tenants of Titchfield who were boat owners, 
although they had to take the abbot, canons, or 
members of the lord's household and their horses free 
across the estuary of the Hamble when necessary, if 
they had to convey them up the water to Southampton 
were always to be recompensed by a repast or 4^. in 
money, whichever they preferred. 

Other striking examples of the liberality of monastic 
lords in the matter of food supplied to service tenants 
are to be found in the customary of Battle Abbey, 
as printed by the Camden Society, edited by 
Mr. S. R. Scargill-Bird. It is there clearly shown that 
the provisions supplied were worth more than the 
labour rendered. 

A most interesting volume of extracts from the 
Halmote or Court Rolls of the prior and convent of 
Durham, printed by the Surtees Society some few 
years ago, supplies a vivid picture of the life 
of the various classes of tenants in the thirty-five 
vills under the control of the monastery, and supplies 
further illustration of the comparative independence 
of the villain tenants and the leniency of the rule of 
their conventual lord. He appears always to have 
dealt with his tenants, either in person or through his 
officers, with great consideration, and, in the imposition 
of fines, invariably tempered justice with mercy. 


WE hear on all sides of the decay of our rural 
population and the congestion of that of our 
towns. The question therefore of waste grounds 
and open spaces becomes daily of more vital import- 
ance to the community, and the last few decades have 
witnessed many a successful struggle for the main- 
tenance of public rights against threatened encroach- 

Rights of common have formed the subject of con- 
tention in all ages of manorial history. Their origin 
is involved in the same obscurity as that of the manor 
itself. While the strict legal theory is that the lord is 
absolute owner of the soil of the manor, and that 
therefore all the rights enjoyed by the tenants depend 
originally on his grant, permission, or sufferance; yet, 
from an historical point of view, there seems little 
doubt but that traces exist of customary rights of 
common antecedent to such grant, having their origin 
among members of a free community. 

In using the term common, it must be remembered 
that it means not only the common pasture, heath, and 
moor, but also common arable land held among a 



number of tenants who only had portions assigned 
to them for the period between seed-time and harvest, 
after which it was common to all. 

It is difficult for us to imagine England as an open 
country without hedgerows, save immediately around 
some of the homesteads ; yet this system of open-field 
culture was not extinct in many parishes till the middle 
of the last century. In 1852 there were still common 
fields at Ilsley, Berks, the vicar's glebe there consisting 
of 50 acres scattered about in the open fields of the 
township. Castor, Northamptonshire, was another ex- 
ample of late common fields. 

The principal common right, and one that was, and 
still is, a fruitful source of litigation in manorial dis- 
putes, is that of common of pasture. This right ex- 
tended over that portion of the common arable land 
as it lay in fallow in due rotation and the land under 
tillage that year after the crops had been cleared ; over 
land enclosed that it might be kept in common for 
rearing stock, and over the wastes and woods of the 
manor ; but these rights were not equally enjoyed by 
all the tenants. Legal writers from about the four- 
teenth century began to use the terms appendant and 
appurtenant to distinguish the two chief kinds of 
common right of pasture. 

Common appendant is the right belonging to owners 
or occupiers of arable land to put commonable beasts 
(that is, draught cattle for the plough and such as 
manure the land) upon the lord's waste and upon the 
lands of fellow-tenants within the manor. This right 
appears only natural for the necessity of agriculture, 


as tenants could not plough or manure the lands with- 
out beasts, and such beasts could not be sustained 
without pasture on the waste and on the grounds of 
their owners and of other tenants at certain seasons. 

Common appurtenant, on the other hand, has no 
direct connection with tenure, but may be annexed 
to land in other lordships ; it extends to beasts not 
generally commonable, as donkeys, hogs, goats, geese, 
and the like, and is claimed by immemorial usage or 
prescription, and for land not anciently arable, such 
as land reclaimed from the waste. 

Another kind of common may be here mentioned, viz. 
that by reason of vicinage or neighbourhood, where two 
manors are contiguous, the beasts of the one may stray 
into the other's fields without molestation from either. 

It has been conjectured that the distinction in name 
of the two kinds of common right arose in the follow- 
ing manner : Before the statute Quia Emp tores there 
were freeholders who held their lands "with appur- 
tenances," which included a right of common for 
the cattle engaged in husbandry, and also villains, 
who had customary rights dealt with in the manorial 
court ; but after that statute, a class of freeholders 
arose who were, so to speak, independent of the 
manor, holding of a superior lord. When the former 
class, therefore, with their special rights became well 
recognized, it was necessary to define such rights by 
the special name "appendant," whereas all other rights 
were included under "common appurtenant." 

But whatever may be the origin of these several 
rights of common, it is probable that the lord was 


treated in practice as owner of the soil from very soon 
after the Conquest. At Eccles, in Norfolk, in 1275, 
we find the lord asserting his rights over common 
land against strangers, and claiming "resting gild" 
if the beasts of a stranger rested one night on the 
commons in " shacktime," that is, when the fields were 
open. " Thistle-take" was claimed by lords in Lanca- 
shire and Yorkshire, as an acknowledgment of the 
hasty crop taken by droves of beasts passing over a 
common, and similar payments, generally a halfpenny 
a beast, were exacted in other parts of the country. 

But although the law recognizes the lord as sole 
owner of the soil, yet it has always regarded the 
interest of the lord and commoner in the common to 
be mutual. They may both bring actions for damage 
done, either against strangers or each other, " the lord 
for the public injury and each commoner for his private 
damage " (Blackstone). 

The records of manorial courts teem with entries 
which prove the jealousy with which these rights were 
safeguarded, encroachments on the common being 
promptly presented by the homage jury, and the 
offender ordered by the court to lay open the enclosure 
under pain of amercement. 

In illustration we may take the following few ex- 
tracts from the Court Rolls of Wimbledon. In a court 
held at Putney, i Edward IV., William Benger and 
another were presented 

" for obstructing the way at Newlonde called the Procession 
way and enclosing the common of the lord and his tenants 
there containing 40 acres to the great injury of the lord and 
his tenants." They were fined 6s. 8d. each. 


And again in 10 Edward IV. 

"William Segar enclosed lands at Putney in the common 
field there and kept them in severally which should be 
common, therefore he is amerced. John Twigge has 
enclosed one close called the Pightell and lands in Baston 
and Longcroft accustomed to be common at certain times, 
to the common injury, therefore he is amerced. Twigge is 
ai^ain presented in the following year for having stopped up 
the common well in Putney called St. Mary's well, and en- 
closing with live thorns and great ditches three acres in the 
Xethershot where the tenants from time immemorial had 
and ought to have common, and at the same court John 
Combe is presented for having enclosed half an acre lying 
in the Middleshot of Baston in Putney, and building a house 
there where was a common footway for all men to go from 
Putney to Kingston and other places." 

But it was not only enclosures of the common that 
were closely watched and resisted ; a tenant was not 
allowed to overburthen the common with more beasts 
than he could support in winter ; he was strictly for- 
bidden to allow his pigs to go unrung, debarred from 
overturning the pasture of the common ; and he must 
not cut thorns or furze on the common excessively, or 
fell timber without the licence of the lord. 

The enclosure of common and waste land by the 
lord began at a very early period. Whether the Statute 
of Merton merely affirmed or changed the common 
law, cannot be determined in face of the conflicting 
evidence. This statute enabled, or defined the right of, 
the lord to approve (an ancient expression for improve) 
his waste by enclosing it for tillage or woodground, 
provided he left sufficient pasture for his tenants who 


were entitled thereto. From this period, however, dis- 
putes concerning enclosures and common rights became 
constant sources of litigation. In these cases the verdict 
of the jury often runs that the defendant "is the chief 
lord of the vill and can approve in his waste by the 
provision of Merton," and the plaintiff " hath sufficient 
pasture for his lands." 

Other causes of dispute arose through difficulties 
incident to the common rights, such as if the tenant 
had put his cattle on the land before the corn had been 
carried ; at other times the tenants claimed the right 
of putting their neighbours' cattle on the common for 
profit, because their own cattle were insufficient to 
manure the land. 

There were other rights of common, such as common 
of piscary, or the liberty of fishing in the lord's pre- 
served water ; common of turbary, or of digging and 
taking turf on the lord's soil ; and common of estovers, 
(from cstoffer, to furnish) the liberty of taking neces- 
sary wood for repair of houses, hedges, carts, ploughs, 
and other implements of husbandry, these several 
rights being known in Saxon times and afterwards 
as housebote, hedgebote (or haybote), cartbote, and 
ploughbote, as well as firebote for fuel. 

'We have before alluded to the Inclosure Acts of the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which changed the 
face of the country and the old system of agriculture. 
But the remoter causes which led to enclosures had their 
origin some centuries earlier. In the Black Death of 
the fourteenth century it was estimated that nearly 
half the population perished. From this resulted a 


great scarcity of labour and consequent rise in wages. 
The lords, finding it increasingly difficult to carry on 
the agricultural work of their estates by the old 
methods, began to let portions at farm to small cultiva- 
tors by leases for three lives, and by the middle of the 
fifteenth century the bulk of the demesne lands, both 
of lay and ecclesiastical owners, were held under this 
system of tenure. The Wars of the Roses which 
followed broke the power of the magnates, and allowed 
free scope to the spirit of commerce which was abroad. 
The merchants of the towns turned their attention to 
farming, and especially to the rearing of sheep for the 
growth and export of wool. Neither the common waste 
nor the small and scattered holdings were adaptable 
for this purpose, and as a consequence there followed a 
gradual consolidation of holdings, conversion of arable 
land to pasture, and, wherever possible, by right or 
might, the enclosure of commons. 

The attention of Parliament began to be directed to 
these enclosures early in the reign of Henry VII. 
Bacon, writing of that period, says: "Inclosures began 
to be more frequent, whereby arable land which could 
not be manured without people and families was turned 
into pasture which was easily rid by a few herds- 
men," or, as expressed in a contemporary petition to 
Parliament, 4< sheep and cattle drove out Christian 

Several Acts were passed to check the growing evil ; 
in their preambles reference is made to " fields that 
have been ditched and made pasture for cattle," the 
" many farms taken into one man's hand," and "the 


laying to pasture, lands which customably have been 
used to tilth." John Fitzherbert, in 1523, writes: 

" It was of old time that all the lands, enclosures and 
pastures lay open and unenclosed. And then was their tene- 
ment much better chepe than they be now ; for the most 
part the lords have enclosed a great part of their waste 
ground and straitened their tenants of their common therein ; 
also they have enclosed their demesne lands and meadows 
and kept them in severalty so that the tenants have no 
common with them therein. They have also given license 
to divers of their tenants to enclose part of their arable land 
and to take in new intakes or closes out of the commons 
paying to their lords more rent therefor, so that the common 
pastures waxen less and the rents of the tenants waxen 

But the statutes against Inclosures were evaded in 
every possible way ; a single furrow was driven across 
a field, to prove that it was under tillage, and cattle, 
owners would hold their fields in the names of their 
sons or servants. 

The dissolution of the religious houses which followed, 
intensified the evils of the new system and resulted in 
further spoliation of the common lands ; the grantees 
everywhere endeavouring to disregard the customary 
rights enjoyed by the tenants they found on the land. 
In the " Supplication of the Poor Commons," 1546, they 
say that the new lords u make us poor commons so in 
doubt of their threattings that we dare do no other but 
bring into their courts our copies taken of the Convents 
of the late dissolved monasteries they make us believe 
that all our former writings are void and of none 
effect," the grant from the king overriding all former 


rights. Attention is drawn to the inflation of rents 
through the competition for land. 4< Such of us as 
have no possessions left us by our predecessors can 
get now no farme tenement or cottage at these men's 
hands without we pay them more than we are able to 

There are bitter complaints of the parks enclosed for 
the keeping of deer by which the commoners lost their 
rights. At Fersfield the Duke of Norfolk 1 enclosed in 
his park of Kenninghall 44 acres over which the tenants 
claimed common rights. Not getting redress from His 
Grace's bailiff, they commenced a suit against the 
Duke, and also forcibly entered on their commons. 
On the attainder of the Duke, other lands were 
assigned to them in compensation, and later, these 
were confirmed to them by the Earl of Arundel. 

Leland tells how " the Duke of Buckingham- made 
a fair park hard by the castle of Thornbury, Gloucester- 
shire, and took very much fair ground in, very fruitful 
of corn, now fair lands for coursing. The inhabitants 
cursed the Duke for those lands so enclosed." 

Among the many Acts which passed into law in the 
sixteenth century, two may be singled out for notice 
as seeming to anticipate the legislation of a later period. 
In 1545 an Act was passed for the partition of Hounslow 
Heath, of which the preamble sets forth that the king 
was seized of the waste ground called Hounslow Heath 
consisting of some 4,000 acres and lying in several 
parishes ; that its barrenness was a source of dearth 

1 Thomas Howard, the fourth Duke. 

3 Edward Stafford, who had licence to impark 1,000 acres at Thorn- 
bury a Hen. VIII. 


among the people dwelling on its confines, and although 
the king might approve a great part, it was thought 
desirable that commissioners should set out a portion 
to every inhabitant with liberty to each to approve his 
allotment without hindrance. In 1592 it was enacted 
that under penalties 

** no person shall inclose or take in any of the waste grounds 
within 3 miles of the gates of the City of London, nor sever 
nor divide by any hedges, ditches, pales or other wise any of 
the said fields to the hindrance of the training or mustering 
of soldiers, or of 'walking for recreation, comfort and health of 
her Majesty's people. " 

The crisis of 1549 was brought about by the action 
of the Lord Protector Somerset, who caused a proclama- 
tion to be issued for the redress of enclosures, and a 
commission was appointed to carry out its recom- 
mendations : one of the commissioners defines the 
enclosures he was to remedy : 

' ' When any man hath taken away any other men's commons 
or if any commons of highways have been enclosed or im- 
parked contrary to right and without due recompense, or if 
any one hath pulled down houses of husbandry and con- 
verted the lands from tillage to pasture." 

But enclosures continued in spite of the laws against 
illegal appropriations. A writer in 1550 thus inveighs 
against the greed of the great farmers : 

"You enclosed from the poor their due commons, yea, 
when there was a law ratified to the contrary, your desire 
ceased not to find means either to compel your tenants to 
consent to your desire in enclosings, or else you made them 
afraid. And what obedience showed you to the King's 


proclamation and commission directed for the laying open 
of your enclosures, you left not off to enclose still. If the 
sturdy fall to stealing you are the cause thereof." 

Aubrey, in his notes on Wiltshire, writing about a 
century later, draws a vivid picture of the change in 
the appearance of the county. 

"The country was then (1550) a lovely campania as that 
about Sherston and Cotswold. Very few enclosures unless 
near houses. My grandfather Lyfe did remember when all 
between Cromhalls and Castle Combe was so, when Eston 
Yatton and Combe did intercommon together. In my re- 
membrance much hath been enclosed and every year more 
and more is taken in. Anciently the leghs (now corruptly 
called sleights, i.e. pastures) were noble large grounds, as 
yet the demesne lands of Castle Combe are. . . . There 
were no rates for the poor even in my grandfathers days : 
but for Kingston St. Michael (no small parish) the Church 
Ale at Whitsuntide did their business. Since the Reforma- 
tion and Inclosures aforesaid these parts have swarmed with 
poor people." 

It is needless to pursue the history of enclosures to 
modern times : many instances are fresh in the memory 
of the present generation of successful resistance to 
encroachments which, if carried out, would have had 
a disastrous effect on the well-being of the people, 
especially in the neighbourhood of our overcrowded 
centres of population. We may congratulate ourselves 
on having among us many owners of the soil who, 
waiving their legal rights, have subordinated their own 
personal aggrandizement to the common good. 


THE grant of a market and fair appears from very 
early times to have accompanied or followed that 
of a manor, and was a privilege which the lords 
eagerly sought for at the hands of the Crown. The 
word "fair" derives its name from feria, a festival or 
saint's day, and we find, as a fact, that some of the 
fairs were held on or about the day of the patron saint 
of the church of the respective manors or townships, and 
that, in the remaining cases, the fairs were invariably 
associated with some other special saint's day. The 
well-known letter of St. Gregory to Melitus, A.D. 601, 
counsels " some solemnity to be kept by the English in 
place of the pagan festivals observed by their ancestors, 
and that they should be encouraged to build them- 
selves booths from the boughs of trees about those 
churches which have been turned to that use from 
temples." We have ample evidence from manorial 
records that these solemnities were utilized for purposes 
of commerce. In the Boldon Book, 1183, the tenants 
making booths at the fairs of St. Cuthbert were excused 
other works. 

In connection with the above instructions, it is curious 



to note that these gatherings, in most places by ancient 
custom, were not only held on the vigil or wake, the 
day and morrow of the patron saint, but that, till the 
time of Edward I., they were frequently held in the 
churchyard. Some confusion existed as to the legality 
of these gatherings, if not of royal grant. In the 
reign of King John, the Abbot of Abingdon was sum- 
moned to show by what right he held a fair at Walling- 
ford. The abbot pleads that it is no fair, but a certain 
gathering called a wake which had been held from the 
time of the Conquest, and whereof the abbot was seized 
from time immemorial, without claim of toll or any 
other custom, yet, nevertheless, there was always buy- 
ing and selling there, the absence of toll being relied 
on as proving that the assembly was not a fair. 

There are few references to fairs either in collections 
of laws or other authorities in the period preceding the 
Conquest. No doubt such gatherings took place, as 
they are mentioned in Domesday; but probably they 
were of little monetary value, although exercising an 
influence on the course and development of trade. 
After this period the fair came to be considered as 
a valuable franchise, yielding a revenue to the grantee 
in tolls of piccage (breaking the pavement), stallage, 
and the like. 

The importance of fairs must have been increased by 
the protection afforded to those attending them, and 
it is probable that the law of " market overt" grew out 
of the practices of merchants at these larger gatherings, 
which laid the foundation of the market system. 
Andrew Home, in the Mirror of Justice (1328), states 


that " tolls were established in markets in order to 
testify the making of contracts," and there is no 
doubt that in old times all market bargains were made 
before an official, either the reeve or some person 
appointed by him, in many cases, before two or three 

An incident of every considerable fair was the Court 
of Pie-powder, "a court of summary jurisdiction as to 
contracts for goods bought or sold, for battery or dis- 
turbance, or for words to the slander of wares in the 
market there." It is said to derive its name from the 
dusty shoes (pieds poudres) of the litigants. 

As the fair or market was an important monopoly, 
when any new grant was solicited it was necessary to 
inquire by a jury whether it would be to the damage 
or prejudice of the king or the lords of manors own- 
ing existing fairs or markets in the neighbourhood. 
Bracton states that a market would be a nuisance if set 
up within six miles and two-thirds of a mile from the 
site of an existing market, giving as a reason for this 
limit that an ordinary day's walk may be taken as 
twenty miles, and dividing the distance into three 
portions, the morning will be used for going to market, 
the middle of the day for business, and the third part 
for the return journey. 

Most fairs and markets are still held on the same 
days as appointed in the original grants, which are 
found enrolled on the Patent Rolls from the reign of 
King John to modern times. 

It would be an easy matter to write at considerable 
length on the general subject of old fairs and markets, 


and to adduce a good deal of imprinted pertinent 
matter from original records ; but such a course would 
involve a long economic digression, foreign in most 
respects to manorial affairs. The intention of this 
brief section is merely to point out the general con- 
nection of fairs and markets with manorial rights. 





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THE great wealth of material available for the 
illustration of English manorial history is only 
to be equalled by the neglect with which these 
valuable records have been treated by their lawful 
custodians until within comparatively recent years. 
From about the thirteenth century manorial documents 
naturally fall into three groups. Account Rolls or, as 
they are called, Compoti of the bailiff, reeve, or other 
officers of the manor made up from year to year, and 
containing minute details of the income accruing to 
the lord from rents and farms, sales of works and 
services, of hay and grain, with perquisites of courts ; 
and also the outgoing expenses, such as those of 
ploughing, reaping, and sowing, with repairs of build- 
ings and implements of husbandry. They moreover 
often contain inventories of farm stock and other miscel- 
laneous memoranda. Extents or surveys of the manorial 
estates at different periods, giving boundaries, field 
names and those of tenants, with their rents, services, 
and holdings, invaluable to the local topographer ; akin 
to which were the Custumals, where the customs pre- 
vailing in the manor are from time to time definitely 



prescribed, and which treat in general terms of the 
rights and duties of classes of tenants rather than 
individuals. The third and most important class were 
the Rolls of the manorial court, which often exist in 
an almost complete series from the end of the thirteenth 
century until comparatively modern times. To these 
latter attaches the greatest interest, as presenting us 
with the most vivid pictures of the daily lives of our 
forefathers, and, it may almost be said, revealing in 
some cases their very thoughts and feelings. 

The lords of manors, from an early period, following 
the example of the King's Courts, were wont to keep a 
record of the proceedings in their domestic court, being 
duly enrolled by the steward on the Manor Rolls. 
On these were recorded the alienations of land, sur- 
renders, and admittances ; copies of which were handed 
to the tenant and became his title deeds he was said 
to hold " by copy of Court Roll," and eventually was 
denominated a copyholder ; but by far the greater 
portion of the earlier Court Rolls is taken up by matters 
of a contentious character. 

Here actions for recovery of land by tenants unjustly 
dispossessed were commenced ; disputes as to services 
and rights of common were settled ; debts could be 
recovered, and trespasses punished ; the scold was 
presented for annoying her neighbours ; the miller for 
taking excessive toll of the tenants when they came 
to grind their corn at the lord's mill ; the brewer or 
baker for selling an inferior article, or by false measure 

1 The earliest Court Roll which Professor Maitland has found is of 
the year 1246, now in possession of King's College, Cambridge. 


or weight ; here a tenant would apply for the lord's 
licence to allow his son to become a clerk in Holy 
Orders, or for leave to give his daughter in marriage ; 
a labourer for permission to distrain on his employer's 
goods and chattels for wages unjustly withheld ; here 
poachers were fined, disorderly houses duly reported, 
and orders made for the expulsion from the manor of 
undesirable characters ; in short, these local tribunals 
were the police courts of the neighbourhood ; in their 
rolls will be found the mediaeval law as to offences 
answering to our modern misdemeanours, and such as 
are punishable upon summary conviction ; in them is 
displayed the whole system of local constabulary, of 
frankpledge, and the duties of the headborough, in 
fact the legal and social life of the village community 
are graphically mirrored on these ancient documents. 

One of the objects of these pages is to awaken a more 
general interest in the contents of these records among 
both their owners and custodians, and also among local 
antiquaries who are able to obtain access to such docu- 
ments. Being of a semi-private nature, they have not, 
to any extent, found their way into our great national 
depositories, except in the case of the Public Record 
Office, as noted later on j 1 and many, no doubt, are 
the instances where complete series of rolls lie hidden 
away in the muniment chambers and even lumber 
rooms of old mansions, or have strayed into the offices 
of solicitors far from their original place of deposit. 

The value of these documents to the workers in 
middle-class genealogy is very great. Beginning long 

Appendix I. 


before the establishment of parish registers, they form 
a mine of information concerning the descent of the 
yeoman class which has been well called the backbone 
of the country ; the surrenders and admittances to the 
yard-lands of the manor often show descent from father 
to son for several generations. The late Bishop Stubbs 
has well remarked : 

"A middle-class man, or even agricultural labourer, has 
as much right to pride in an unstained hereditary good name 
as a peer of the realm ; as much interest in learning the 
discipline by which as men-at-arms, archers in the musters, 
churchwardens and waywardens, graves and bedells of the 
manor, his fathers were kept in useful and indispensable 
employment, and maintained an honourable position and a 
good name in the class to which they belonged. It is really 
a curious thing that in days when the doctrine of heredity 
is taking its place as a scientific axiom, men should flatter 
themselves that they are self-made, and not care to explore 
what their ancestors did for them. Mere antiquity of descent 
is of course less significant than antiquity of famous descent ; 
but there is, as a matter of fact, very little real antiquity of 
famous descent in this or any other European country. And 
the mere antiquity of descent in the male line means the 
continuity of dwelling and working, hereditary occupation 
and local connections which, to those who possess it, ought 
never to be a matter of indifference." 


FOR illustration of the procedure in Courts Seignor- 
ial, we are not entirely dependent on the rolls 
themselves, but have another source of informa- 
tion in the MS. treatises which began to be written as 
early as the thirteenth century, in which precedents 
are given for the conduct of business in the local courts. 
From such sources we are able to gather many details 
of the procedure which we should scarcely learn from 
a perusal of the actual rolls. 

By way of introduction to the extracts from original 
Court Rolls which follow, a selection from these pre- 
cedents is here given (somewhat epitomized, avoiding 
repetition and legal verbiage) as printed by the Selden 
Society (The Court Barori), by kind permission of the 

On the appointed day, we may picture to ourselves 
the tithing men, each accompanied by his tithing, 
repairing to the lord's hall, or perhaps, as weather 
permitted, to some convenient place of assembly in the 
open air, such as the manor oak; 1 the steward taking 

1 In the Almoner's Accounts of Norw'n-h Cathedral, 1530-1, is .in 
entry under the manor of Newton: "In expenses about our tenants n 
the Court-day under the <>ak with fee of tin- steward .v-. 


his place as president, accompanied by his clerk to 
make the enrolments, which, from the elliptical style 
of the entries, we may almost conclude were the actual 
notes of the proceedings, rapidly turned into Latin as the 
presentments were made. There, too, would be the jury 
composed of freemen and the better class of customary 
tenants, to whom the steward delivers his charge. The 
deaths of tenants are presented, estates surrendered and 
regranted by copy of roll. If the View of Frankpledge 
followed, offenders are brought in by the bailiff or 
bedell, and, on being adjudged guilty, are declared in 
the mercy of the lord, and the fines are assessed, not 
by the lord's representative, but by the offerers, the 
elected officers of the court. 

The MS. from which these precedents are taken is 
apparently of thirteenth-century date ; it is written in 
old French, and is entitled Le Court de Baron. A short 
preface explains the object of the treatise : 

" Here may one find all sufficiently and all fully the 
whole course of a Court Baron, and the attachments, and 
the distresses, and the plaints, and the proceedings, and the 
essoins, and the proffers, and the accusations and defences, 
and the delays and days of love, 1 and the office of the steward 
how he shall speak when he holdeth the Courts." 

Of taking fish in the Lord's Pond. 

Walter of the Moor, thou art attached to answer in this 
court wherefore by night, and against the lord's peace, thou 
didst enter the Lord's preserve and carried away all manner 
of fish at thy will, how wilt thou acquit thyself or make 

1 A love day is a day given to the parties that they may come to 
terms in the interval. 


amends? for know that were anyone to prosecute you, you 
stand in peril of life and limb ; therefore be advised. 

Sir, my wife had lain abed a whole month and never eaten 
or drank anything- she could relish, and for the craving to 
taste a perch she sent me to the bank of the pond to take 
one perch only, and that no other fish was taken or carried 
away, I am ready to do whatever thou dost award. 

The Steward : Since thou gavest the other day half a 
mark to have an inquest, dost thou think that we have 
forgotten this and wouldst thou now have other law? 
Therefore this court awards that thou be in the Lord's 
mercy with pledges &c. And again thou art confessing 
in this court to having taken and carried away a perch in 
other manner than thou shouldst have done, for thou couldst 
have come by it in more honest manner. Therefore for this 
also thou art in mercy. 

The defendant then craves leave to imparl and speaks thus : 
Sir for God's sake do not take it ill of me if I tell the 
truth, how the other evening I went along the bank of the 
pond, and saw the fish playing in the water so lovely and 
bright, and for the great craving I had for a perch I laid 
down on the bank of the pond and with my hands only and 
quite simply took and carried away this perch, and I will tell 
thee the cause of my covetous desire, my companion, that is 
my wife, had lain in bed a whole month, as my neighbours 
who are here well know [he here repeats as above, and is 
adjudged by the steward in the lord's mercy]. 

Of breaking the Assize of Beer. 

Sir Steward, the bailiff Robert complaineth of William 
Tailor that, against the ordinance of the lord and his free 
assize, he hath broken the assize of beer in every brewing 
since Michaelmas till now, for the ordinance is that no 
i;r or breweress upon pain of forfeiture of halt a mark 
shall brew beer whereof the gallon shall be sold at more 


than a \d. between Michaelmas and All Saints, unless it 
be so good and approved, according to the discretion of 
the ale-tasters, that it may be conveniently sold at \d. 
without complaint, and the said William wrongfully, and in 
despite of the lord, and without the assay of the ale-taster 
hath sold beer that was flat ever since Michaelmas at \d. 
a gallon, to the great prejudice of the lord so that he hath 
incurred the forfeiture of \ mark and damage to the amount 
of 6s. &c. And William, defendeth the suit and avers that 
he has not broken the assize as the bailiff saith. 

Fair friend William, the court awardeth that thou be at 
law six-handed 1 to acquit thyself of the charge. 

Of selling fish against the franchise of the VilL 

Sir Steward, the bailiff Robert complaineth of Thomas 
Fisher that, against the franchise of the lord and the 
ordinances of the vill, all this year, every day, hath sold fish 
in full market to his neighbours and to strangers and to 
all alike fish and herring stinking, rotten and corrupt 
whereby many a man and woman hath received ill damage 
and great sickness of body, for that he held the fish a long 
time in order to get a higher price, whereby the lord and 
his honest folk have damage 40^. 

Thomas defendeth the suit, and is adjudged to be at law 

Of battery and assault. 

Sir Steward, Henry of Combe complaineth of Stephen 
Carpenter that, as he was going his way at such an hour 
on such a day in last year, there came this Stephen and 
encountered him in such a place and assailed him with 
villain words which were undeserved, in that he called him 
thief and lawless man, and whatever other names seemed 
good to him except his right name, and said that he was 

1 i.e. with five compurgators (himself making- the sixth), who should 
testify on oath as to his innocence. 


spying from house to house the secrets of the honest folk 
of the vill in order that he might come another night with 
his fellows to break into their houses and carry off their 
goods. Whereupon Henry answered him civilly and said 
that he was talking at random, which so enraged the said 
Stephen that he snatched his staff of holly out of his hand, 
and gave it him about his head and shoulders and loins and 
elsewhere all over his body and then went off. 

Stephen is awarded to acquit himself at the next Court. 

Of trespass against the bailiff. 

Sir Steward, the bailiff Robert complaineth of John Tailor 
that he came on such a day to the house of said John by thy 
commandment to make a distress, for that he John had 
neglected two general summonses to come to the lord's court ; 
then came this John who assailed him with villain words. 
"Thou of thine own will concealest and murderest the 
attachments whence gain and profit might accrue to the 
lord, and thou dost prosecute us as thou canst," and he 
entered his chamber and took a bow of yew in his hands 
that was unstrung, and pursued the bailiff to beat him, and 
the bailiff seeing his rage escaped and fled into the Court 
and kept himself close. And said John defendeth the suit, 
and denieth that he said villainous words or pursued the 
bailiff. The Court awards that he do wage his law. 

Of toll subtracted from the lord's mill. 

Sir Steward, the bailiff Robert complaineth of William 
Long that he came on such a day to the lord's mill in W. to 
grind his corn, to wit, a quarter of wheat and a quarter of 
rye. The miller came and debonairly received his corn, and 
well and skilfully ground the same and put the corn in sacks, 
when this William bethought himself of an evil trick and 
felonious device, for he privily collected the sacks and put 
them on horses' backs and made off without giving multure 


and toll as he ought to have done according to the custom, 
to the great prejudice of the lord and damage of half a mark. 
He is adjudged to be at law six-handed at the next Court. 

Of chasing or taking beasts in the lord's park. 

Sir Steward, The parker, John by name, complaineth of 
Geoffrey of the Moor That, whereas he went on such a day 
in the lord's park at E. to seek a foal which the lord had 
asked for by letter, came this Geoffrey and John his hunts- 
man who led in his hand two greyhounds, with bows and 
arrows, and they went up hill and down dale, spying what 
they would have : and the parker John who is here, perceived 
that they made ready their bows and arrows, and held their 
hounds in readiness for a run, and he returned to the vill of 
E. and met two men of the vill A & B and took them with 
him back to the park to testify what they should see and 
hear ; and as soon as they entered the park they saw the 
said Geoffrey and John chasing and pursuing with their 
hounds a buck which the said Geoffrey with an arrow barbed 
long and broad shot right through the flanks, so that the 
wound might be seen on one side and the other, and they 
pursued the buck with their hounds and took and skinned 
it, and covered it with branches of underwood, and thence 
they went away privily out of the park, and, when they were 
outside, the parker began to reason with them, and said, 
Fair friend Geoffrey, seemingly thou hast committed a right 
great folly in this, and peradventure thou hast done it more 
than once, and he answered neither this nor that ; and the 
parker returned and took the buck and looked for the arrow 
and found it, and he presented the buck to his lord, and told 
him of all that had been done to his prejudice, in that he 
(Geoffrey) had entered the franchise of the lord which he had 
from the King by charter, whereby it is forbidden, on pain of 
the forfeiture to the King of ^10, that any do enter and chase 
beasts in the warren unless by leave of the lord. 


Of breaking the Assize of Bread. 

Sir Steward, the bailiff, Robert by name, who is here, com- 
plaineth of William Mercer that, wrong-fully and against the 
ordinance and the general constitution of the realm, and 
against the statutes of the lord and his franchise, he hath 
broken the assize of bread in all manner of grain since the 
feast of St. Michael, to wit, for that whereas, the quarter of 
good wheat sold for %s. 6d. at the utmost in all markets in 
this country, so that the farthing loaf of wastel 1 bread should 
weigh 42^.- and the loaf of coket 3 bread of the same grain and 
the same bolting should weigh $s. more than the wastel and 
the loaf of simnel 4 bread 2s. less than the wastel and the loaf 
of whole wheat should weigh one cocket and a half, and still 
there would arise for the seller on every quarter of wheat, as 
is proved by the bakers of our lord the King, ^d. pure gain, 
besides the bran and two loaves for the baking and three 
halfpence for three lads and a farthing for another lad and 
Id. for salt and \d. for yeast and \d. for candle and ^d. for 
wood and \d. for wages of the bolters. [See Assize of Bread, 
Statutes of the Realm, 1199.] Nevertheless he hath broken 
the assize whereby the lord and his good folk have damage 
to the amount of looy. and shame to the amount of 40$. If 
confess he will, well and good ; if he denieth, wrongfully he 
denieth, for we have suit good and sufficient. 

And William Mercer, who is here, defendeth against the 
said bailiff and all that he surmiseth against him, and answers 
that no quarter of good wheat ever sold for less than 45. 6d. 
and that he hath loyally and rightfully performed the 
of bread, according to the established rate, he putteth 
himself on the jury of the vill ; and yet that for all this he 
could get by way of pure gain but i \d. on each quarter beside 
the bran and one loaf for the baking and id. for two lads. 

1 l-'iiu- white- I.; 

<J According to the commonest version of the Assize the weight should 
be 424. N. B. Shillings and pence weights as well as sums of money, e.g. 
the pennyweight still known. a Of second quality. 4 An inferior sort. 


Of fruit carried off from the garden of the lord. 

Sir Steward, the bailiff, Robert by name, who is here, 
complaineth of William of the Street that, against the peace 
of the lord, he sent Thomas his son on such a day at such an 
hour over the walls newly built, and commanded him to carry 
off every manner of fruit at his will ; and when the bailiff 
heard the fruit being knocked down, he marvelled who this 
could be, and at once entered the lord's garden and found 
the boy right high on a costard tree 1 which he had cultivated 
for the lord's use, because of its goodness ; he made him 
come down and attached him without doing him any villainy, 
and debonairly asked him by whose commandment and 
whose sending he entered the lord's garden over walls &c. 
and the boy answered that William his father bade him 
enter the garden and urged him on to the trees with the 
best fruit ; so the bailiff suffered the boy to carry off all that 
he had taken and the lord has damage to the amount of 
6s. and shame of half a mark. 

And William defends and denies that his son entered 
the garden or carried off fruit at his bidding. William, 
saith the steward, at least thou canst not deny that he is 
thy mainpast 2 nor that he was attached in the lord's garden ; 
how wilt thou acquit thyself that thou didst not make or bid 
him do this ? Sir, for the deed of my son and the trespass 
I am ready to do thy will, and I ask thy favour. My pledges 
are &c. The Court awards that he be at his law six- 
handed at the next Court. That will I Sir. 

Of horse stealing. 

Bailiff. Sir. Let the prisoners come before us. That 
will I Sir. Lo they are here. 

For what cause was this man taken? Sir for a mare 
which he took in the field of C in other manner than he 
ought. What is thy name? Sir my name is William. 
1 An apple tree. ' 2 A member of thy household. 


William, now answer me by what device thou earnest 
by this mare : for at least thou canst not deny that she was 
found with thee and that thou didst avow her for thine own. 
Sir, I disavow this mare and never saw her until now. Then 
thou canst right boldly put thyself upon the good folk of 
this vill that thou didst not steal her. Nay Sir, for these 
men have their hearts big against me and hate me much 
because of this ill report which is surmised against me. 
Thinkest thou William that there would be any who would 
commend his body and soul to the devils for thee or for love 
or hatred of thee ? Nay verily they are good folk and lawful 
and thou canst oust from among them all those thou sus- 
pectest of desiring thy condemnation, but do thou what is 
right and have God before thine eyes and give not thyself 
wholly to the enticement of devils, but confess the truth and 
thou shalt find us the more merciful. 

Sir in God's name have pity on me and I will confess 
the truth, my great poverty and neediness and the entice- 
ment of the devil made me take this mare larcenously, and 
often have they made me do other things that I ought not 
to have done. God pardon thee saith the Steward at least 
thou hast confessed in this Court that larcenously thou 
tookest this mare, now name some of thy fellows for it cannot 
be but that thou hadst fellowship in thy evil deeds. 

Of a truth Sir never had I a companion in my evil deeds 
save only the fiend. Take him away and let him have a 

Of a burglary. 

H of C pursueth Adam and complains that, against the 
peace of God and the lord, on such a day he came by night 
just at the time of first sleep, and fraudulently opened the 
doors of my house, and feloniously and larcenously took and 
carried away the things which he hath here, and he tightly 
bound me and my wife with cords, to wit, by our hands and 
'hat we had no power to cry or help ourselves, and when 


he had done this robbery, he straightway fled to a fellowship 
which he had near at hand in the house of John of C, where 
he was right gladly received and harboured on account of 
my goods which he carried off. I and my wife lay there 
bound till daybreak, when my neighbours called me to the 
plough and they saw us through the broken door, and they 
entered and unbound us and we straightway raised hue and 
cry and pursued him to the house of John of C where we 
found him hidden with the pelf that is here before thee. 
And Adam answers, Sir I tell thee rightfully that this 
drapery was put on my back by fraud and by evil greed 
against me, to put me to an evil death, and I never entered 
his house by night nor carried off these clothes. And I put 
myself on the jury of the vill for good and for ill. 
Therefore let an inquest be made. 

The fore-going examples fairly illustrate the procedure 
in the criminal or leet jurisdiction of the manorial Court, 
but it must not be forgotten that much of the business 
transacted there was of a purely civil nature, consisting, 
for the most part, of surrenders and admittances ; and 
in this connection the symbolical ceremony of the de- 
livery of a rod by the steward to the new holder, fre- 
quently called a tenant par la verge, should here be 
noticed a ceremony still observed in the transfer of 
copyholds. This act has been taken to signify and 
emphasize the ownership of the lord, but it may have 
had its origin in a far older practice ; in Prankish law 
the transmission of property was effected by a similar 
act performed by the salman or middleman prescribed 
by custom in order to give the transaction its solemn 
and binding character. 


THERE is little doubt but that the lords of manors, 
especially of those in monastic hands, began at 
an early period to keep a record of the proceed- 
ings in their courts. Although no rolls have as yet 
come to light earlier than the reign of Henry III., it is 
possible that such exist. 

The following extracts are chosen from among the 
earliest series to be found at the Public Record Office 
and British Museum. 


The manor of Letcombe Regis (anciently called, as 
in the following rolls, Dunledecumbe) was in the hands 
of the Crown from before the Conquest, and remained 
so till after the death of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 
King of the Romans, brother of Henry III. 

Court held on S l Clement's day the 52 nd year of King 
Henry [III.]. 1 

Richard in Bathe essoined by Robert his son of common 

1 Court Roll, 154, 35. 

2 Sometimes called de malo veniendi, the excuse allowed for sickness 
or infirmity. 



J. de Frense essoined by Ralph le Wind against the 
bailiffs. 1 

Elias King complains that Edmund son of Cecily deforces 2 
him of a messuage with 5 acres of land and appurtenances 
in Dunledecumbe, and this unjustly because William King 
was possessed and seized of the aforesaid messuage and 
5 acres of land with appurtenances, and took the fruits thereof 
to the value of half a mark in the time of King Henry that 
now is, son of King John, and from the aforesaid W. King 
the aforesaid messuage with aforesaid 5 acres came to 
Reginald King his brother, and from aforesaid Reginald to 
Elias King, and said Elias made no mention of the wife of 
Reginald King whom he had, nor of the children whom he 

And Edmund son of Cecily defends the force and injury 
against Elias King and his suit, and says that he is not bound 
to answer the writ of said Elias, nor his accusation, because 
he has made no mention of the wife or children of Reginald 
King, 3 and he puts himself upon the judgment of the court 
and the court puts the matter in respite till the next court to 
deliver judgment. 

Robert Upher in mercy because he has received 4 J. de 
Lifford contrary to the assize, pledge Richard Heyward 
[fine] 6 d . 

William of the Water because he has received William de 
Winterburne contrary to the assize, [fine] 2 hens. 

The bailiff has accused Adam the miller that he has dug 
white earth [chalk] in the way between Ledecumbe and 
Chelrey to the hurt of his neighbours of Ledecumbe, and he 
says that he has not, and puts himself upon inquisition and 
let an inquisition be taken ; in respite till next court. 

1 i.e. in a suit against the bailiffs. 

2 Keeps him out of possession. 

3 Elias King- had not mentioned in his plea of claim that he was the 
son of Reginald. 

4 Sheltered him against justice. 

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Peter of the Water is summoned at the next court because 
he has placed a certain [boundary] stone. 1 J. le Frenshe is 
summoned at the next court because he has beaten a woman 
in his fold. 

Be it remembered that Geoffrey de Cherletun and Ralph le 
Wind are put in respite till next court. 

Lucy Fot is summoned for that she has brewed and broken 
the assize. 

Matilda le Riede for that she has brewed and broken the 
assize. They have satisfied. 2 

Court of Ledecumbe on the morrow of S* Lucy Virgin the 
52 nd year of the reign of King Henry [III.]. 

Edmund of the Hall essoins against Elias le Kyng of a 
plea of land by Richard le Auward. 

Richard de Bolte of common essoin by William Bacun. 

Nicholas Gubbe of common essoin by William de Middetun. 

Reginald de Bathe against the bailiffs by Richard de 

Ralph Spropt of common essoin by Walter le Newe. 

Thomas the clerk against David and others by Henry son 
of Ralph. 

John le Penge of common essoin by Richard the merchant. 

John the miller of common essoin by Robert de Worthe. 

Geoffrey de Cherltone [owes] two capons yearly at Hockday, 
pledges Ralph de Wind and John le France. 

David the miller in mercy for earth [chalk] dug, pledges 
Laurence de Spersholt, William Bance. 

And let it be inquired by Thomas the clerk whether the 
bridge be such as it ought to be, as it was presented by David 
that it was not, and the said Thomas because he was not 
present by his tithing, except by himself only in respite till 
next court. 

1 i.e. in a wrong- place. 2 Paid the fine. 


It is put in respite concerning" a chest found, maliciously 
carried away from the house of T. Hereward. 

John de Abbendone in mercy for assize broken, pledge 
\Yilliam Huce. Henry Cheper was elected for keeping the 
wood and pasture. 

Walter le Newe was elected headborough. . . . 


[John de Gopeshalle.] 
William de Lagarstone. 
John le Byng. 

Court of Denledecumbe in the vigil of the Epiphany the 
52 nd year of King Henry [III.]. 

[Essoins Richard le Erl and others.] David of the Mill 
for concealment [of a chest], in mercy i2 (1 ; pledges Thomas 
Hereward, Henry Meremulle. 

Reginald de Bathe in mercy i2 <l because he has beaten a 
woman in his fold, pledge his father. 

The Jurors say upon their oath that the chest was carried 
to the house of Henry de la Fora and was kept there for 
fifteen days, and the name of the carrier Andrew Lefey who 
is summoned at the next court. 

Peter of the water for a boundary stone maliciously placed ; 
pledge William of the Water ; excused by William Asselun. 

Henry a fforde [of the water] for concealment of a certain 

chest; pledges Henry de Mermulle, David the miller, i mark, 

quit. And Reginald de Chaulawe, Laurence . . . John 

Kyng in mercy for retaining the jewels of the lord's esquire 

when he married his wife. 

Court held Thursday after the feast of S l Botolph 55 Hen. 3. 

Nicholas l Kyng complains of Edmund son of Cecily that 
he unjustly deforces him of a messuage and five acres of 

1 Nicholas becomes tin- plaintiff in place of his brother Klias, thr latter 
having probably died since the commencement of the suit. 


land with appurtenances in the township of Dunledecumbe 
and that unjustly, because William Kyng by name was thereof 
possessed and seized in his demesne as of fee and by right, 
according to the use and custom of the manor of Dunlede- 

And Edmund son of Cecily defends the force and injury 
and the right of him Nicholas, and for this reason, that 
Reginald father of him Nicholas brought a writ of the lord 
King against the said Edmund of the same tenement, accord- 
ing to the use and custom of the manor ; and afterwards 
he surrendered to the lord of the aforesaid manor his whole 
right which he had or might have in the aforesaid tene- 
ment in full court ; and afterwards the lord sold the said 
land to the said Edmund as his, and this he is prepared 
to prove and they are put on an inquisition Nicholas and 

Twelve trusty men are sworn to wit Thomas the clerk, 
Laurence de Spersholt, Ralph Westebroc, Henry Stuel, John 
the clerk, Thomas Heward, Reginald Folqum, William Bans, 
Richard the Reaper, Reginald Attesyerd, Ralph Wind and 
Adam Attesyerd. They say by their oath that Reginald 
father of aforesaid Nicholas surrendered all his right which 
he had or might have in the said land to the said lord of the 
aforesaid manor in full court, and this he could well do ac- 
cording to the use and custom of the manor. 


The manor of Brightwaltham, or, as it was anciently 
called, Brightwalton, was a manor belonging to Battle 
Abbey. The following extracts are from a fine series 
of Rolls in the Public Record Office. 

Court and Laghday at Brightwaltham on S* Dunstan's 

day 8 Edw. I. 1 

1 Court Rolls, 153, 67. 


The headborough of Hertle gives 6' 1 ! of his own accord 
and presents that Roger Cook and Osbern Skarne do not 
come, whom the maincaptors- to have at the next law day 
and all else is well. The headborough of Covenholt gives i2 d 
of his own accord, and presents that Grey of Hesseburn 
William de Messecumbe Henry Gocelin do not come, the 
mainprisers to have them at next court and all else is well ; 
and he presents that John le Woghelworte has brewed and 
sold contrary to the assize, in the same way he presents con- 
cerning Philip Chaufin and Hugh de Woghelwert, in mercy. 
And John le Woghelswerghte has paid 3'' to have warrant to 
be in the liberty of the lord 3 and William Godhine has paid 
3 d for the same. 

The tithing of Hernett. William le Hoil of Couenholt 2 6 d 4 
for a mare which was the aforesaid William's and which was 
sold to Edith his widow. 

The headborough of Brightwaltham gives 2" of his own 
accord and presents that William the Swineherd does not 
come, whom Roger Wiseywude mainprised and he hath him 
not, therefore in mercy, fine 6' 1 , and he presents that Stephen 
le Parmenter of Eldesle does not come, and therefore he shall 
give one capon for pledge of warrant to take same ; in the 
same way of Stephen le Tailur, and they present that Ralph 
Fad has removed a certain boundary between the land which 
is called Howeregge and Witecroft. And upon this he is 
quit. . . . And they present that Thomas Ranger complains 
against Richard Younge because he has encroached on a 
certain moor between them, and it is commanded that inquisi- 
tion be made by neighbours. And they present that Thos. 
Ranger complains of Richard Young that he has threatened 
him. And they present that a certain moor which is between 
William Burgeis and Thomas Ranger is encroached upon and 

1 Call.-d ( i-rt money, given for tin- rxp.-nsrx <>t krrpini; the law day. 
1 His Mrd 3 To live within the manor. 

4 Commutation for a heriot due. 


let this be inquired into, and said Thomas is quit upon this. 
And they have received Robert Corttais into the tithing and he 
has done fealty to the lord, in the same way [they present] con- 
cerning 1 John Partemois, in the same way concerning 1 Roger 
son of Henry de Borton ; and he shall give to the lord 
silver every year at Hockeday, and that he may be in the 
liberty of the lord abbot he shall give one capon, also they 
have received Richard Jordan and John Edward into the 
tithing. And it is presented that Ralph the smith has made 
a destruction in the hedges between the lord abbot and the 
lord R. son of Peter in Akdon ; therefore in mercy. 


Ralph the Tailor 6 d Ralph the Smith 6 d 

Agnes Boltere 6 (t Walter agodeshelf 6 d 

John attestreteboner 6 (1 Adam Burgois 6 <l 
John the Shepherd 6 (1 

All these are cancelled because the offences were before 
the feast of S* Michael Ed. I. 

Court of Brightwaltham held on the day of the Annuncia- 
tion of Blessed Mary the first year of Edward II. 1 

Adam son of Ralph Felix for default at the Lawday ; in 
mercy by pledge of Ralph Felix. 

John Messager for the same; in mercy by pledge of Ralph 

Avyce le Wynd because she does not prosecute against 
John le Nywe, in mercy by pledge of William Fulke, John atte 
Cruche 2 in mercy for a trespass made on William Fulkes by 
taking and carrying away a harrow of said William and 
detaining it for 3 days whereby the land of the said William 
lies unharrowed to his damage &c. which said trespass he 
could not deny but acknowledged same, by pledge of John 


1 Court Roll, 153, 68. 2 At the Cross. 


William Fulkes complains of John atte Cross of this, that 
whereas the said John had sometime granted to aforesaid 
William i acr. of land for term of 10 years, of which term 
8 years had gone and 2 years are to come, the said William 
had driven his plough to the said land to till it and to make 
his hay. The said John comes with force and arms and drives 
away the plough of aforesaid William from the said land, and 
impeaches him against the covenant between them made, 
and ejects him from his farm to his damage &c. And afore- 
said John comes and says that he did not deliver or grant 
the said acre to the said William of his freewill, but because 
it was neglected and poor land the said William retained the 
said land in his hands by might, because he was the lord's 
bailiff. And the said John did not dare to contradict him 
nor eject him from the said land until the time of sow- 
ing last past, and then he ejected him as was lawful to 
him, and has done him no injury therein. And they speak 
contrary and put themselves on an inquisition of 12 jurors. 
And the jurors say that the said John of his mere and free 
will granted to the said W. the said acre of land for a term 
of ten years in return for the costs and expenses expended 
on the said land, and the said John by agreement with him 
and Warren Wynd delivers [the land] by Sir J. de Watlington; 
it is considered that the said W. shall have the land for 
2 years. 

Oustred the Reeve complains in a plea of trespass against 
Adam of the Green defendant, and they agree by licence [of 
the lord]. And the said Adam puts himself in mercy by 
pledge of John. . . . 

John Daunsere in mercy for damage done in the lord's 
wood by breaking and cutting down the lord's thorns on the 
heath, by pledge. Sum 42''. 

All the customaries of Brightwaltham have pledged them- 
selves to the lord for recognition of the new Abbot elect, 20" 
for his favour. 


The tenants of Covenholt have pledged themselves for the 
same half a mark ; Geoffrey the villain who held a tenement 
of the lord in villainage called a cotsetle is dead, and the said 
tenement remains in the hands of Alice his wife for term of 
her life, and she finds a pledge to do the service and customs 
due and for the keep up of the tenement as is becoming, and 
late due and accustomed. And the lord hath of heriot one 


This manor was held by petty serjeantry or the service 
of serving a particular dish of pottage at the king's 
coronation. At the time of the following extract the 
manor was in the hands of Isabel, widow of Hugh 
Bardolph, to whom it was granted in the thirty-third 
year of Edward I., and who died seized of the same 
in the sixteenth year of Edward II. The following is 
among the Additional Rolls at the British Museum : 

Court held at Adingthon the Thursday next before the 
feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin the vij th year 
of the reign of King Edward II. 


William de Leyham excuseth himself of common essoin 
by Robert Cubbel. William Wolward excuseth himself of 
common essoin by Elyas de Mer. 

Thomas Cubbel in mercy because he hath not [William 
Prully] 1 William Dudekyn whom he mainprised. And it is 
commanded to distrain the aforesaid William to answer at 
the next court. 

Thomas Cubbel plaintiff opposes himself against Gervase 
le Leche in a plea of trespass. And it is commanded to dis- 
train the aforesaid Gervase whereupon he answers that 
nothing can be found upon him and the said plea still stands, 

1 Erased. 


let him be distrained at the next court to answer the said 
Thomas in the plea aforesaid. And it is commanded to at- 
tach John son of Chichelotes to answer concerning a trespass 
made on the heath. 

Livery of a Tenement. 

It is testified that Thomas le Fox who is a tenant of the 
lady has been taken into the hands of the lady, and, for con- 
cealment to the said lady, is claimed. And he comes and 
prays that he may hold the aforesaid tenement for term of 
his life in the same form as his father held the same, and it 
was granted him. And he gives to the lady ij 8 . And he 
finds as pledges besides Thomas Cubbel, William Chauntrell 
William ffox and Ralph Lokes that he do not sell it, neither 
shall he go away from the said parcel without the licence of 
the lady. And afterwards it appeared that the said Thomas 
had bought a free tenement, to wit, i messuage and 2 acres 
of land in Croydon. And it is commanded that it be taken 
into the hands of the lady. And it was granted him that he 
may hold the aforesaid tenement in form aforesaid. And he 
gives to the lady i2 (1 . And he shall not leave the aforesaid 
tenement, as is aforesaid, under pain 100". And for this he 
finds pledges as aforesaid. Also it is testified that the land 
of Simon le ffox of which he had livery in Wicham is taken 
into the hands of the lady because the said Symon is a native 1 
of the same lady, and he prays that he may hold the said land 
as long as he lives. And it was granted him. And he gives 
to the lady 6' 1 and a rent of i d yearly at the feast of S* Michael. 
And he shall not leave the said tenement without licence of 
the lady. And for this he finds pledges, to wit, William Fox 
and Thomas Fox. 

At this court it was commanded to [distrain] attach 
" Lorian " de Farleye to answer the lady of a trespass made 
in the Wesle with i horse &c. whereupon he was attached 

I'.. .1 n ->M tin- m.inor. 


b\ gage 1 and he was not prosecuted. And the reaper in 
mercy because he hath not the gage here present. 

Thomas Cubbel is summoned because he has concealed 2 
2^ d of bedripsilver 3 forthcoming of a certain tenement which 
is called le popeland and has detained the said 2j d for 7 years 
past and still detains it. And he comes and says that some- 
time the said 2| d was in arrears with the rent of the said 
[tenement]. And he has paid the same in name of rent 
every year among the rent which he owes for the said tene- 
ment. And he detains nothing of bedripsilver and owes 
nothing. And on this he asks for an inquisition by free men 
therefore it is commanded all the free tenants to come that 
they be at the next court &c. And aforesaid Thomas hath 
thereupon a day. 

Walter de Westleye and Peter atte Hokkes are distrained 
for default and it is witnessed by the reaper that they were 
not summoned, therefore the matter is put in respite. 

John Shad in mercy for a trespass made in Howelotesfeld 
with his draught cattle, pledge John atte Welle, fine 3 d . 

Thomas Fox for a trespass made in the wood, also Hugh 
Gibbe in mercy for the same 3''. 

Rose Neuman for a trespass made with her sheep in the 
grass, pledge Thomas ffox 3 d . 

John Wolward in mercy for his oxen in the wood, pledge 
W. Fox 3 d . 

Richard Sanneye for his sheep, in ... pledge Roger 
Sanneye 3 d . 

John Shad because he has taken away furze in Howelcotes- 
feld, pledge Allan Russel 6 d . 

Dionis atte hamme for his draught cattle in Howelcotesfeld, 
pledge John atte hamme. 

Sabina Tampun in mercy because she has taken furze in 
Howelotesfeld, by gage of i plough pardoned because she 

is poor. 

1 Pledge. - Kept back, 

:J Payment in commutation of bedrips or boon-work. 


Thomas Cubbel in mercy because he hath not William 
Prelly for whom he was pledge. And it is commanded to 
distrain the aforesaid William to show how he came into 
the lord's fee 6' 1 . 

Roger Sannaye in mercy for his sheep in the pasture, pledge 
Walter in ye Lane 6''. 

Thomas Cubbel and John Seynclere have agreed by licence 
of the lord, and the aforesaid John has put himself in mercy, 
pledge Walter the clerk and William Chaunter 6 d . 

Thomas Cubbel opposes himself against Robert Russel in 
a plea of trespass which said Robert is not here, therefore let 
him be attached to answer the aforesaid Thomas at the next 
court. And the aforesaid Thomas may have a day. And 
upon this comes John de Bures and asks the court for a sow 
of aforesaid Robert of which he is not yet attached, and he 
hath a day till next court that he may better certify and show 
for himself why he ought to have the same. And John de 
Bures was distrained for a horse for relief, and he does not 
justify himself . . . pledge a water mill. 

Thomas Cobbel opposes himself against Robert Cros who 
is not as yet attached. And it is commanded to attach the 
aforesaid Robert to answer the aforesaid Thomas in a plea of 
trespass, and aforesaid Thomas thereupon hath a day. The 
vill present that Walter son of John de Bocksole and John 
de Bocksole make default therefore in mercy. The whole 
vill are charged to acknowledge that they are wrongdoers, 
because they have maliciously tied together the feet of the 
lady's swine. And they ask thereof a day at the next court, 
and they have it. 

Sum 7* 9 <l and i' 1 of increased rent which is included in the 
total sum. 


THE Court Rolls of the following Berkshire manors 
are among the fine collection of Rolls of the 
Duchy of Lancaster which were presented to the 
nation by her late Majesty, and are now at the Public 
Record Office. These manors were at this time, and 
for some time after, parcels of the Duchy ; that of 
Estgarston had been inherited by John of Gaunt, in 
right of his wife Blanche, and was held by the service 
of finding a knight, clad in plate armour, to serve in 
the king's army for forty days at the lord's cost, when- 
ever he should be in the territory of Kidwelly, in 
Wales, of which manor this was a member. The other 
manors fell into the Duchy by attainder or escheat. It 
may be mentioned that surveys of them exist among 
the Duchy Records, temp. Elizabeth. The following 
are good examples of fifteenth-century procedure. 


View of Frankpledge held there, the last day of July in 
the 19 th year of Henry the Sixth. 

The tything man comes there, and presents 7* of cert 



money 1 this day, and 4 quarters of fine -wheat price per 
bushel ii d v 8 4 d sold. And they present that Robert Dodde 
2 d , John, servant of John Golloffer i d , Thomas, servant of 
the said John i d , William Hykkes i d , John Huet, William 
Symmys i d , John Symkyns 2 d , William Croftacre i d , William 
Symkyns i d , Richard Chapman i d , Walter Banester i d , John 
Ele i d , John Wayfer i d , William Levyng 2 d . . . . have 
brewed and broken the assize, Therefore they are in mercy 
[fined as above after their names]. 

And they present that Bray the miller has taken excessive 
toll, therefore he is in mercy. 

And they present a swarm of bees, value 9 d forthcoming of 
estrays 2 about the feast of St. John Baptist last past, not 
claimed, but remaining to the lords. Therefore they are 
forfeited. And to the same [Court] comes Alice Strange 
and Thomas Bocher, and give to the lord for licence to brew 
from the feast of St. Michael last past to St. Michael next 
coming, as appears in the margin and over their names, io d . 

The tything man of Kyngston comes into full court with 
his tything And gives of cert-money this day 2o d , and a 
quarter of fine wheat, sold to John Newman for i6 d . And 
that William Lord has brewed and broken the assize. 
Therefore he is in mercy. And that all other things are 

The tything man of Dencheworth comes into full court 
with his whole tything. And gives of cert-money this day 4 d . 
And they present that John Smyth Hesy i d and John Spycer 
i d have brewed and broken the assize Therefore they are in 

Verdict. 12 Jurors to wit Thomas Symkyns and his fellows 
come and present upon their oath that all the tything men 

1 v. p. 147, note. 

2 Extrahura = any stray found within a lordship, to be cried in the two 
nearest market towns on two market days ; if not claimed within a year 
and a day it became the property of the lord. 


abovesaid have presented well and faithfully in all things. 
And all other things are well. 

. { John Wybbyn ) 
Affeerers' | John Croftacre } Sworn m due form. 

( Of Cert-money of this view 9* 
Sum -! Of perquisites of the Court 4" 9 d 
I Of Wardcorn 5 qrs. 


View of frankpledge held there on Friday next after the 
feast of Holy Trinity in the ig th year of Hen. vj. 

The tything man comes there with his whole tything and 
gives to the lord of cert-money this day 3* 6 d . And 
[they present] that John Pynno takes excessive toll. There- 
fore he is in mercy. And they present that Richard Umfrey 
i' 1 , John Whitehede 2 d , Gilbert Selke i d , John Skynner i d , 
John Strode i' 1 have brewed and broken the assize. There- 
fore they are in mercy And they present 2 sheep forthcoming 
in the name of estrays, of which one is black, value 7 d , the 
other white, value 7 d , and remaining in the custody of John 
Longe, farmer of the manor there, and they have been pro- 
claimed over a year, therefore they belong to the lord. 

(John Clerk ) 

Affeerers \ , , \ Sworn in due form. 

^ John Kynston J 

Sum of this View with cert-money 5* 8 d . 


View of frankpledge held there the Wednesday next before 
the feast of S l John Baptist in the 19 th year of the reign of 
King Hen. VI. of England after the Conquest. 

The tything man comes there and presents of cert-money 

1 Afferatores = the officers appointed to assess upon oath the amount 
of fines to be imposed on offenders. 


this day 6 d and a qr. of drag * called Wardcorn. And pre- 
sents that Edward Longbord, Prior of Poughley makes 
default of his freehold.- Therefore he is in mercy. And 
presents a ewe sheep white, val. i2 d forthcoming of estrays 
about the feast of S l Michael last past, and remaining in the 
custody of Thomas Champp. And it was ordered the tything 
man to proclaim it. And they present that Henry Clynche i d , 
Will Alwyn i d , Thomas Champpe i d , have brewed and broken 
the assize Therefore they are in mercy. 

The tything man of East Ilsley comes into full court with 
his tything. And they present that Henry atte Mere and 
Will Ledulph are in sworn assize 3 of the lord King &c. And 
present that Constance Fraye has brewed and broken the 
assize. Therefore she is in mercy 3 d . And that . . . Smart is 
in mercy because he has not presented against William Spicer. 

The tything man of West Ilsley comes into full court with 
his tything And gives of cert-money this day 2 s And they 
present that John Bynde and John Schoryet make default, 
the Prior of Sandelford and Elizabeth Romsey make default, 
Therefore they are in mercy. 

f John Potynger ) 

Affeerers 1 -,,7.,,. j . r Sworn in due form. 

I William Ledulph j 

Sum of the perquisites of this court with cert-money 4" 6 d . 


Court held there the 5 th day of February in the fifteenth 
year of the reign of King Edward the Fourth after the con- 
quest of England. 

The Homage come there and present that Walter Bernard 

1 Dragium =a. coarse kind of corn, here paid in lieu of Ward-penny 
for custody of a Castle, probably that of Donnington. 

- The Prior has not attended the court. 

3 Sworn on the Assize jury, by which if villain tenants they would be 


who held of the Lady l [of the manor] by the enfeoffment 
of John Botiller late of Spene, a free rent of 12'* and one 
messuage in socage, hath closed his last day. And upon 
this comes Edmund Bernard his son and next heir of full age 
and more. And he does fealty and gives of relief i2 d . And 
he is admitted tenant. 

Also they present that John Hore, contrary to the or- 
dinances and customs of this manor, keeps three mares to 
the grave damage of the tenants and his neighbours ; there- 
fore he is in mercy. 

Also they present that the said John Hore has taken 
without licence an ox imparked outside the cornfield of 
Vincent Busshnells into the pinfold 2 of the Lady. 

To this court comes William Crokkewell and claims to 
hold of the Lady one croft called Claycroft, and another 
called Jakescroft, and two acres of land lying in the southern 
part of Jakescroft, and half an acre of meadow in another 
part called Hedshulf, to hold to him for the term of his life, 
of which the date is the 24 th day of April, in the fourth year 
of the reign of King Henry vj. paying therefor per ann. 5" 
and suit of Court &c. and he shows the said copy in full 
court &c. 

The said William Crokkewell shows another copy of a 
messuage, and 6 acres and a half of land with their appur- 
tenances called Quenehows, to hold to him for the term of 
his life, of which the date is the 2o th day of June the tenth 
year of the reign of King Edward the iv th , paying per ann. 
3' and services therefrom due &c. 

The said William Crokkewell shows another copy of one 
meadow called Ukkefordysmede, to hold to him for the term 
of his life, of which the date is the 2O th day of June the tenth 
year of the reign of King Edward the iv th , paying therefor 
per ann. 9' 8 d and services therefrom due &c. 

1 Kli/ab<-th \Voodvillr, queen of Edward IV., these m;m<>is Ix-ini; 
part -.I hrrd.-\\ I 'infold = the manor potiw I. 


The said William Crokkewell holds at will without copy 
18 acres of land in the fields of Benham, called Byland 
formerly Pydmans, and 2 acres of land called Smokacre, 
and 5 acres of meadow in the common pasture called Ben- 
hammede, paying- therefor per ann. 8 8 , and he used to pay 
per ann. 15" Therefore it was commanded the bailiff to seize 
the same towards the feast of St. Michael next, and provide 
for the tenancy &c. 

Sum of this Court i6 d 

Affeerers i 

Robert Webbe 


View with Court held there on the feast of S l Luke the 
Evangelist in the twentieth year of the reign of King- 
Edward the iv th . 

Westend. The tything- man comes there with his tything. 
And, being sworn, they present that they give of cert money 
for this day 1 2 s And that Thomas Godard is a common 
butcher, and sells meat at excessive price. 2 d . And that 
John Baker is a common miller, and takes excessive toll. 
2 d . And that John Nassh i d . has brewed, sold and broken 
the assize, Therefore he is in mercy. 

And also they present a ewe sheep, white, value 8 d . forth- 
coming- of estrays at the feast of the Annunciation of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary last past ; whereof the first proclama- 
tion is made. 

Estend. The tything- man comes there with his tything 
And being- sworn they present that they give of cert money 
for this day 2 s . And that Philip Smythe 2 d . has brewed, 
sold, and broken the assize. And that his wife is a common 
baker and has made bread short of the assize [weight] And 
that John Gregory is a common butcher, and sells meat at 
excessive price. Therefore they are in mercy. And the 
1 Ad hunc diem, i.e. in consideration for this law day being held. 


tything present that Thomas Godard made an assault upon 
John Gregory and Thomas Gregory with a stone of no 
value 1 against the peace of the Lord King. Therefore he 
is in mercy. And they also present that the said John and 
Thomas Gregory made an assault upon the said Thomas 
Godard with a stone of no value, against the peace of the 
lord King s Therefore they are in mercy. 

12 freemen Jurors. 

Thomas Kebulwyk Robert Pycher 

John Pownd Will m Lovelok 

John Hewes John Crompe 

William Hewes Henry Knoll 

John Bacon Will" 1 Paslewe 

Henry Knoll John Preston 

Who, being sworn, say upon their oath that all things 
above specified are well and faithfully presented. And that 
all other things are well. 

And at this court they elect to the office of tything man 
of West End, William Heth, and he is sworn. And John 
Hyll is removed. 

The Homage there come. And being sworn present that 
William Mayowe of Hungerfford, who held of the lady 
certain meadows in Hungerfford, hath closed his last day. 
And what [heriot] falls to the lady by his decease they know 
not. Therefore it is commanded them to make inquiry 
against the next court, and certify of the truth thereof &c. 

And also they present that William Carpynter, who held 
of the lady a messuage and virgate of land with their 
appurtenances, comes and surrenders [them] into the hand 
of the lady for the use and behoof of Sir Henry Wilby, 
Vicar there ; whereupon there falls to the lady of heriot i5 d . 2 

1 Tin- instrument with whirl) ;ui assault was ( ommitted, or its value, 
was liable to forfeiture to the lord. 

3 An example of a heriot < lainx -<1 at surrender or alienation. 


And upon this comes the said Henry and takes of the lady 
the said messuage with a virgate of land and their appurten- 
ances, to have and to hold to him for the term of his life, 
according to the custom of the manor, by rent and services 
aforetime due and accustomed. And he gives to the lady 
of fine to have entry 3" 4 d . And he does fealty and is 
admitted tenant. 

And also to the same [court] comes John Nassh and takes 
of the lady a cottage with garden adjacent and appurten- 
ances, of late in the tenure of Agnes Morgan. To have 
and to hold the aforesaid cottage with garden adjacent, with 
its appurtenances, to him, Alice his wife and his [children] 
for the term of their lives, according to the Custom of the 
manor, by rent and services therefrom aforetime due and 
accustomed. And he gives to the lady of fine to have the 
said estate. . . . And he does fealty and is admitted tenant 

f William Wever ) c 
Affeerers \ ,,, 14 . TT , , r Sworn. 
I Walter Hasylden J 

Sum of this View with Court n 8 3 d . 


Court held there the iyth day of April in the twenty first 
year of the reign of King Edward the IV th . 

Essoins none. 

Estend. The tything there present that Thos. Noke i d , 
Philip Smythe i d , and William Wanborough i d have brewed 
and broken the assize. Therefore they are in mercy, as 
appears after their names. 

Westend. The tything there present that William Garnet 
has brewed and broken the assize 2 d . 

To this Court come John Fawler and Richard Fawler and 
take of the lady the Queen 2 meadows in Hungerford, 
appertaining to this manor, to wit, one meadow called 


Millemede, and another called Wodemershe, in the hands 
of the Queen by the death of William Mayowe and the 
forfeiture of ... Webbe, who divided the said meadows 
without licence, and made a subtenancy thereof, asserting 
that he conjointly in copy with the said William Mayowe 
held the said 2 meadows with the aforesaid William, who 
at the last court was commanded at this court to show his 
title, why the Queen the aforesaid meadows should not 
grant to others. And whereas the said . . . Webbe, although 
summoned at this Court, does not appear, the Steward in 
full court granted to the said John Fawler and Richard 
Fawler, the said 2 meadows in the name of the lady the 
Queen, to have to them for the term of their lives, according 
to the custom of the manor, by rent and services therefrom 
aforetime due and accustomed. And they do fealty and are 
admitted tenants. 

( William Cheyeroftex ) , 
Affeerers \ __ ,/ I Sworn. 

( Henry Knollys j 

Sum of this Court i 8 6j d . 

View with court held there the 5 th day of May in the 2i st 
year of the reign of King Edward the IV th . 

West End. The tything man comes there with his tything. 
And being sworn they present that they give of cert money 
for this day 2" And Thomas Godard is a common butcher, 
and takes excessive gain 2 d And that John Baker is a 
miller, and takes excessive toll 2 d And that Thomas Clerk 
makes default i d . 

Est End. The tything man comes there with his tything 
and being sworn they present that they give of cert money 
for this day 2" And that John Gregory is a common butcher, 
and takes excessive gain 2 d And that John Smythe is a 
baker and has broken the assi/e r 1 . 

To this court comes William Wodsford and has proved 1 

1 i.e. claimed. 

Affeerers -I John Bakon V Sworn. 


one black sheep in the custody of William Blondy : where- 
upon he is accused of forfing n d . l 

The homage there say that the cottage called Badleys, 
which used to pay per ann. 2i d now pays only i2 d And it 
is let to John Nasshe until &c. 

( Robt. Pycher \ 
A John Bakon V 
[ Will m Blondy J 
Sum of this view with court 5 8 2 d . 

Court held there on the Friday next after the feast of the 
Assumption of Blessed Mary in the 2i 8t year of Edwd. IV th . 

Essoins none. 

The homage there come and present default of all the 
tenants of the said vill in repairs [of their tenements], whom 
it is commanded to make repairs against [the next court] 
under penalty of forfeiture. 

Estend. The tything there present that William Wan- 
borough has brewed and broken the assize. 

Sum of this Court 3 d } d . 

To the same Court comes William Dudley and takes of the 
lady the Queen one stall in Hungerford, late in the tenancy 
of William Mayowe deceased. To have to him for the term 
of his life, according to the custom of the manor, by rent 
and service therefrom formerly due, and he does fealty and is 
admitted tenant. 


Court held there the i8 th day of April the ninth year of 
the reign of King Henry the Seventh. 

Essoins none. 

The homage there come and are sworn. And they present 
that all things are well. 

A penalty is imposed upon all the tenants there that they 
shall well and competently make all repairs of their tene- 
ments, under penalty for each one of them not doing so 20*. 
1 Forfing = pre-emption or forestalling-. 



The suitors there come and are sworn, and present that 
Thomas Hatt hath overburdened the common pasture there 
with his sheep, therefore he is in mercy. 1 And so it is com- 
manded him for the future not to do so under penalty of 10". 

Also they present that William Barcoll, freeholder, hath 
closed his last day, who held of the lord certain lands by 
knight service. And they say that Alice and Sibell are 
daughters and next heirs of the said William. And that 
Alice is five years of age and not more. And that the afore- 
said Sibell is three years of age and over. And upon this 
comes William Webbe 2 and gives to the lord of fine for the 
minority of the aforesaid heirs 3" 4 d . 

Also they present that the said William Barcoll held of 
the lord, according to the custom of the manor there, 3 
messuages with their appurtenances, after whose death there 
falls to the lord by way of heriot, a horse of a roan colour 
value io 8 . And upon this comes the aforesaid William 
Webbe, and takes of the lord the aforesaid 3 messuages with 
all their appurtenances. To have and to hold to him, and 
Thomas, and John, sons of the said William for the term 
of their lives, or of the one of them longest living, according 
to the custom of the manor there, by rent and other services 
therefrom aforetime due and of right accustomed. And 
moreover it was granted to the aforesaid William, Thomas, 
and John, that each of them shall have a sufficient deputy 
duelling in the said 3 messuages with their appurtenances, 
during the term aforesaid. And he gives to the lord of fine 
for entry, and for possession of his estate, 6* 8 d And further, 
the tenants shall give to the lord by way of heriot 10". And 

1 i.e. has placed more sheep there than lie is entitled to do by hi> 

a William Webbe seeks the wardship or custody of the children till 
they come of age. 


he does fealty to the lord, and so is admitted tenant 

To the same court comes John Brown, and takes of the 
lord a cottage with the appurtenances in Blackemer, late 
in the tenure of John Bradeley. To have and to hold to 
him, for the term of his life, according to the custom of the 
manor there, by rent and other services therefrom due &c. 
And he shall give by way of heriot when it falls due i2 d 
And he does fealty to the lord. And so is admitted tenant 

Affoo f Thomas Wheler ) c 
Affeerers j Sworn. 

( Robert Wheler j 

In expenses of the Steward 13" io d . 
Sum of this Court 2o 8 4 d . 


Court held there the 19 th day of April in the ninth year of 
the reign of King Henry the Seventh. 

Essoins none. 

The homage there come and are sworn. And present that 
the prior of Poughley, who owes suit for this law-day makes 
default. And that William Colyn and William Jeffrey have 
not yet made repairs of their tenements as they have often 
had in precept. Therefore they are in mercy. And so it is 
commanded them to make repair of their tenements afore- 
said against the next [court] under penalty of forfeiture of 
the same. 

To the same Court comes William Spycer, and does fealty 
to the lord and other services for the land and tenements late 
Thomas Ylley's. And so is admitted tenant thereof. 


The suitors there come and are sworn And present that 
Roger Hamond, Nicholas Stretley, Will. Addenam, John 


Helyer, Richard Meren, and Henry Baron have not yet made 
a gate, called Langham Yate, as they had in precept at the 
last court. Therefore they are in mercy. And so it is com- 
manded them to make the same against the next court, 
under penalty to each of them in default 12''. 

Also they present that William Payn hath overburdened 
the common pasture there, called Cawleys, with his sheep, 
therefore he is in mercy 3" 4 d And so it is commanded 
him that for the future he shall not do so under penalty of 40". 

John Hatt 

Sum of this Court 5* 6 d . 


THE Manor of Taynton was a small estate near 
Burford, Oxon, which belonged from an early 
period to Tewkesbury Abbey. The Court Rolls 
here printed cover the period when it passed from 
monastic control into the hands of the Crown. At 
the court held in the thirty-first year of Henry VIII., 
the tenants produce the copies of Court Rolls of 
their several holdings, and acknowledge themselves as 
tenants of the farmer, Ralph Norwood. The originals 
were kindly lent to the author by Mr. Percy Manning, 
of Oxford, being part of a series in his possession. 


Court of the Lord Abbott of Tewkesbury, lord of the 
Manor there, held 6 fch July i. Henry vij. by Philip Warton 
servant of the said lord and deputy of Richard Croft chief 
steward of the said Manor. 

Essoins Thomas Hutchyns of common essoin by Robert 

The Homage come and present that the lord of Fulbroke 

makes default as in the preceding Court. And that Thomas 

Edward gives to the lord of fine for release of his suit 1 6 d . 

1 To be excused from attendance at court. 

1 68 


And that John Howse and Thomas Lambard who owe suit 
make default this day, Therefore they are in mercy. 

And they present that William Shawe hath not yet 
repaired the sheepfold of his tenement as he had in precept 
at the preceding Court. 

And that the kitchen of the tenement of Thomas Hucchyns 
is defective as to the roof. And the ox-shed of the tenement 
of Thomas Michell is similarly defective, for which re- 
parations a day is named for them before the feast of 
S l . James Apostle next ensuing, under pain imposed on 
each of them IO B . And that Sir Robert Hawker, Rector 
there, permits certain buildings of the tenement which he 
holds to [remain in an unfinished condition] to wit, a grange 
of three rooms lately built, and he hath a day, as well to 
complete the said grange, as to repair all other buildings 
of his tenement before the said feast, under penalty of 40". 
And the grange of the tenement of John Wyther is not 
worth repair, therefore at this Court he hath a day to rebuild 
the said grange before the feast of the Nativity of Our Lord 
next ensuing, under pain aforesaid. And Richard Smyth, 
servant of the Rector there, permits a chamber and the 
grange of his tenement to be defective, and he hath a day 
to sufficiently repair the said chamber and grange, before 
the feast aforesaid, under pain of 10% by pledge 1 of the 
aforesaid Rector, the said Richard's master, without any 
grace to be had thereof. 

And it is presented that John Glover, who had in precept 
at the last Court held on Friday the morrow of S l Thomas 
the Martyr the 3 rd year of Richard III. late King, to 
sufficiently repair the tenement called Sareshowse, under 
pain of forfeiture of the same, hath done nothing as yet 
thereon ; therefore it is considered the said tenement with 
appurtenances should remain at this court forfeited to 
the Lord. 

1 The Rector was surety. 


It is also presented by the homage that William Shawe, 
who held of the Lord 3 messuages and 3 virgates of land 
with appurtenance called Shawes, hath surrendered the same 
into the hands of the lord to the use of Thomas Lepear, 
whereupon there falls to the lord of heriot for the said 
3 messuages, 2 mares and i hogster, value in all 3" io d . 
And upon this comes the aforesaid Thomas Lepear and takes 
of the lord all the tenements aforesaid : to hold to him for 
term of his life, according to the custom of the manor, by rent 
and services therefrom formerly due. And he takes upon 
himself the reparation of all the buildings of the tenements 
aforesaid. And gives to the lord of fine 2o d which is 
assigned to him for timber on account of the repair of the 
buildings of the said tenement by him to be done. And so 
he is admitted tenant, and does fealty to the lord. 

And it is also presented that Laurence Coke who held of 
the lord i messuage and half a virgate of land called Howses, 
hath surrendered the same before Richard Croft chief steward 
of the lord, to the use of John Wyther, whereof there falls to 
the lord of heriot a cow value 6 s , and so sold to the said 
Laurence. And upon this comes the aforesaid John Wither 
and takes of the lord the aforesaid messuage with the appur- 
tenances To hold to him for term of his life according to the 
custom of the manor by rent and services therefrom formerly 
due. And takes upon himself the reparation of all the 
buildings of the messuage aforesaid And gives to the lord of 
fine 3 s 4 d to have entry into the said messuage. And so is 
admitted tenant and does fealty to the Lord. 

And John Banty a tenant, according to the custom of the 
Manor, hath not made his continuous suit 1 at the lord's mill 
as he is bound by custom of his lordship, therefore he is in 
mercy i2 d . 

And William Payne the lord's woodward presents that 
William Hogges of Fulbroke in the County of Oxon, within 

1 He has not taken his corn to be ground at the lord's mill. 


the wood of the lord [by his] forest of Whichewood, hath 
entered and cut down by his servants certain trees and sapling's, 
and hath carried them away before the woodward without 
his licence. Therefore it is presented against him by writ. 

( John Halowe 
Affeerers j Robert Shawe 

Sum of this Court 15'. 


Court of the Lord E Abbot of Tewkesbury, lord of the manor 
there held Thursday next before the feast of S fc Thomas the 
Martyr 2 Henry vij. 

[Presentments for reparations of tenements as in last 

It is presented that Edmund Chadwell who holds of the 
lord a messuage and a virgate of land and other parcels of 
forland ! hath died since the last Court, wherefore there falls 
to the lord of heriot a mare value 4% and so sold to William 
Hobbes And the said tenement remains in the hands of the 
lord. And upon this comes Richard Charley and takes of the 
lord the said tenement, to hold to him for term of life, accord- 
ing to the custom of the manor, by the rent and services 
therefrom aforetime due, and gives to the lord of fine 4" and 
does fealty. 

And Robert Wyse comes who, since the feast of the 
Nativity of our Lord last past, hath surrendered against the 
of S* Michael next ensuing to the use of Edward 
Michell i messuage and i virgate of land late John Shaw's, 
whereupon there falls to the lord of heriot a cow value 6 8 8 d . 
And since the surrender the said Edward is dead, and so the 
said tenement, by desire of all the tenants, is occupied by 
Alice his relict for rent and services due, by surety of all the 
tenants, until the feast of S l Michael which shall be in the 
year of our Lord 1488. 

1 Forland = land at the extremity of an estate. 


And Edward Michell, who held of the lord a messuage and 
... of land, hath died since the last Court whereupon there 
falls a heriot i cow value 6 8 , and so sold to Alice relict of said 
Edward. And the tenement remains in the lord's hands. And 
William Cowper comes and takes the same and gives 3 8 fine 
and does fealty. 

Sum of this Court 25. 2 d . 


Court of Ralph Norwood esquire held there 7 th May the 
3i 8fc year of the reign of the most illustrious and most dread 
prince Henry viij. by the grace of God King of England &c. 

Names of the Tenants. 

William Byrcholl Ralph Taylor 

Robert Frebury John Agasson 

Lawrence Pemmerton Thomas Frebury 

Robert Baker Robert Solveck 

William Bedill Clement Mychell 

Thomas Mychell Thomas Hill 

Robert Stokes John Hutchyns 

All the abovesaid Tenants in this full Court have attorneyed, 
and acknowledged themselves to be the tenants of Ralph 
Norwood esquire, to wit each of them by the payment of i d . 
And each of them does fealty to the lord. 

To this Court comes Robert Shellvock and produces a 
copy bearing date 4 th Dec. 3O th year of Henry viij. concerning 
a messuage and half virgate of land with their appurtenances 
&c. To hold to the aforesaid Robert and Robert his son for 
term of life. And for heriot when it shall fall 5. 

To this Court comes Robert Stokes and shows a copy 
bearing date 9 th Dec. 27 Hen. viij. of one messuage and 
a virgate of land called Rechynners. And another messuage 
and virgate of land called Carters, and of a toft and half 
virgate of land called Panyers, and of a curtilage (court) with 


house built on it, 5 acres of land and meadow, and a virgate 
called Shawes To hold to him and Alice his wife for term of 
their lives. And a heriot when it shall fall 43" 4 d . 

To this Court comes William Ansley and produces a copy 
before the steward bearing date 4 th Nov. 30 Hen. viij. of 
3 messuages and 2 virgates of land with appurtenances 
called Shawes. To have to him for term of life. And a 
heriot when it shall fall 15'. 

To this Court comes Robert Gun and produces a copy 
bearing date 4 th Nov. 30 Hen. viij. of the reversion of a 
messuage and virgate of land with appurtenances called 
Prattes, now in the tenure of Robert Frebury. To hold to 
him and Agnes his wife and Alice and Margaret their 
daughters for term of lives &c. And a heriot when it shall 
fall &c. 

To this Court comes Richard Gun and produces a copy 
openly in Court before the steward bearing date 4 th Nov. 
30 Hen. viij. of the reversion of 3 messuages and 2\ virgates 
of land with appurtenances called Banketts and Prattes, now 
in the tenure of Clement Mychell, To hold to him for term of 
life &c. And a heriot when it shall fall &c. 

To this Court comes William Cowper and produces a 
copy, bearing date 5 th Dec. 12 Hen. vij., of a messuage 
and \ virgate of land with appurtenances called Brewers, 
and also of a close and 4 acres of land called Hoordes. To 
hold to him for term of life And a heriot &c. 

To this Court comes Ralph Taylor and produces a copy, bear- 
ing date 4 Nov. 30 Hen. viij. of the reversion of a messuage 
and 4 acres of land and of half a virgate of land now in the 
tenure of William Cowper. To hold to him and William his 
son for their lives &c. And a heriot &c. 

And the same Ralph comes and produces a copy bearing 
the same date of the reversion of 2 messuages and 2 virgates 
of land now in the tenure of William Bedall, and of the 
reversion of one messuage and half a virgate of land now in 


the tenure of Thomas Mychell. To hold to him and William 
and Robert his sons for term of lives. And he shall give in 
name of heriot when it falls 20". 

And the said Ralph comes and produces a copy bearing 
the .same date of the reversion of 2 messuages and half 
virgate of land with appurtenances now in the tenure of 
Thomas. . . . To hold to him and Richard his son for term 
of lives and a heriot &c. 

And the said Ralph comes and produces a copy of same 
date of 2 messuages with appurtenances called Shares. To 
hold to him and William his son for term of lives and a 
heriot &c. 

And the said Ralph comes and produces a copy of same 
date of the reversion of 3 messuages and z\ virgates with 
appurtenance now in the tenure of William Lopez jun r . To 
hold to him and William his son for term of lives and a 
heriot &c. 

And the said Ralph comes and produces a copy of date 
9 th July 22 Hen. viij. of 3 messuages and 3 virgates with 
appurtenances under a yearly rent of 30*. To hold to him 
and Elizabeth his wife and William their son for term of 
lives. And a heriot when it falls io 8 . 

[Laurence Pemmerton, John Hychyns, W m Bedyll, John 
Agas, Thomas Michell, William Burchall, Robert Baker, 
Thos. Hill, Clement Mychell, Thomas Frebury come and 
produce copies of Court Rolls of their several holdings.] 

And they present that the tenements of William Ansley, 
John Hychens, William Bedyll, Robert Baker, John Agas, 
Thomas Frebury, Robert Stokes, Clement Mychell are 
ruinous for want of timber. And it is commanded them to 
repair the same before the feast of All Saints under pain each 
of them 3 H 4 d And it is commanded all the tenants there 
that each of them have his tenement well and sufficiently 
made with a roof of thatch before the feast of All Saints 
aforesaid under pain each of them i2 (1 . 


And that no keeper shall pen his sheep in the wheat fields 
after the feast of S fc Andrew Apostle under pain, each 
delinquent 6* 8 l1 . And that no one shall cut down any 
thorns called Borow-bushes on the Townes and the Quarreys 
hereafter, under pain for every such bush 3" 4 d . 

And they present that Robert Huchyns, miller there, hath 
encroached upon the lord's land and enclosed the common 
there to the value of A an acre by estimation, and has made 
a garden by his mill : it is commanded that it be done away 
with before the feast of the Nativity of S l John Baptist 
under pain 3" 4 d And that [the tenants] have their paths 
about the village stopped up before the feast of Pentecost 
under pain for each path 2o d . 

And that no one permits his pigs to roam until the 
harvest is over, under pain for each pig 2 d for three offences 
And that every one has his pigs rung before the feast of 
S l Martin, under pain for each pig 2 d to be paid to the lord. 
[Surveyors of cattle elected.] 

And it is commanded that every one shall sow his lands 
lying within the bounds, to wit in the " hechen " field under 
pain each one 6' 8 d . 


Court of Ralph Norwood Esquire held 23"* April 
32 Hen. viij. 


George Lord Cobham Thomas Lamberd 

John Edwards Robert Payn 

Free suitors. 
John Ward appears Robert Stokes appears 

The homage being sworn and charged upon the articles 
of the Court present upon their oath that George Lord 
Cobham, John Edwards, and Robert Payne are free suitors 
and owe suit at this Court and have made default. There- 
fore each of them in mercy. 


And that Thomas Lambard who held of the Lord freely 
one messuage and one virgate of land by a yearly rent 
of 6 8 8 d hath closed his last day Whereupon there falls 
to the Lord of relief 6 8 8 d . And that Robert Lambard is 
his son and heir and 46 years old and more ; but by what 
services the aforesaid messuage is held the homage know 
not. And it is commanded to distrain him to do fealty. 

And William Cowper, who held of the lord a messuage 
and half a virgate of land with appurtenances called Brewers, 
and a close and 4 acres called les Hoords, hath closed his 
last day : whereupon there falls to the lord a cow of a dun 
colour value io 8 . 

And all the tenants there shall have their tenements well 
and sufficiently repaired within the feast of All Saints, under 
pain of each one making default 2O 8 . 

Thomas Mychell, Robert Pemmerton, Robert Stokes, 
William Byrchall are elected to take account of, and super- 
vise all the cattle and sheep within this lordship for this year. 
And every tenant who hath more than he can keep [in 
winter] the same shall be removed before the feast of the 
Invention of Holy Cross, under pain of each default 2o d . 

It is ordained that no tenant there shall take agistment l 
within said lordship henceforth, except a horse for the 
plough, or a cow for the pail, for the sustenance of his 
house, under pain of each default 3" 4 d . 

A _ f Robert Frebury 

Afferers < _, 

I Clement Mychel 



Court of the manor of the lord King held there 13 th Dec. 
32 Hen. viij. 

Essoins none. 

The homage there to wit Robert Frebury, William Burchall, 
Robert Baker, William Bedell, Thomas Mychell, Ralph 
1 Agistamentum = pasturage. 


Tayllor, Robert Stokes, John Agas, Thomas Frebury, Robert 
Shelffbcke, William Ansley, Clement Michell, Thomas Hill, 
and John Hychene, being sworn and charged by the Steward 
present, upon their oath that the lands and tenements late 
George Lord Cobham's remain in the hands of the lord King 
by reason of an exchange for other lands. 

And that Robert Lambard, John Edwards, Robert Payne, 
John Ward, and Robert Stokes are free tenants and owe 
suit of Court and have appeared. 

And that Laurence Pemerton, who held of the lord King 
according to the custom of the manor, three messuages 
whereof one is called Homes Barne another Stayarhows 
and a third late in the tenure of William Welles, and before 
him of Richard Michell, and three virgates of land by a rent 
for the whole per ann. is dead since the last court ; where- 
upon there falls to the lord of heriot for the two messuages 
one young ox and a cow valued both at i8 d delivered to 
Ralph Norwood esq. the King's farmer there, and for the 
third messuage no heriot as yet And let there be an 
inquiry thereof before the next court, because the homage 
present the said messuage is not heriotable. And the first 
proclamation is made And no one comes. 

To this court comes Robert Lamberd, son and heir of 
Thomas Lamberd, deceased, and does fealty to the lord for a 
messuage and virgate of land with appurtenance late of 
Thomas his father, and gives for relief 6" 8 d . 

And Robert Tayllor, since the last court, has cut down an 
elm, to wit a timber tree worth 6' 1 , without licence of any 
of the lord King's officers ; but the said Robert used the 
same tree for repair of his tenement ; therefore let him 
have a talk thereupon with the King's officer before next 

And the aforesaid Laurence Pemerton, in his life time, 
substituted Walter Milleward as his subtenant in the said 
messuage called the Stayarhows, contrary to the custom of 


the manor, without licence; therefore let him have a talk 
thereon with the King's officer before the next court. 

And that William Bedell, Robert Baker, John Agas, 
Thomas Frebury, Robert Stokes, and Clement Michell have 
forfeited to the lord King each of them 4o d because they 
have not repaired the defects of their tenements before the 
feast of All Saints last past as they had in precept at tin- 
last Court. But they are bound till the next court, because 
no one was assigned to deliver them timber for the said 

And Robert Huchyns, the miller there, has not restored his 
encroachment of the land by the mill, as he had in precept 
at the last Court, under pain of forfeiture to the lord King 
4O (l but said pain in respite till next Court, upon view thereof 
to be had. 

It is ordained that no keeper shall place his penning sheep 
on the wheat field after the feast of S fc Martin in future, under 
pain for each offence of forfeiture to the King 6 s 8 d . 

Sum of Court 24 s 8' 1 . 


Court of Ralph Norwodd farmer, of the lord King of 
his manor of Teynton, held there 19"' of September 33 rd 
Hen. viij. 

Essoins none. 

The Homage there William Byrchall, Robert Baker, 
William Bedall, Thomas Michell, Ralph Taylor, Robert 
Frebury, Robert Stokes, John Agas, Thomas Frebury, 
Robert Shelfack, William Ansley, Clement Michell, Thomas 
Hill and John Hyehyde being sworn and charged of and 
upon the articles of the court, present upon their oath that 
the tenants of the land of George Lord Cobham, now in 
the hands of the lord King, Robert Payne, John Ward, 
Robert Stokes, Robert Lambert, John Edwards, free tenants 
enfeoffed of the Church there for certain land held of this 


manor, are free tenants and owe suit of court at this 
law day. 

A pain upon all the tenants there for renewal of all their 
tenures from now till the feast of Easter next coming, under 
pain of 2 B to each of them falling- in default 6" 8 d . 

It is ordained by the court, that the miller of the customary 
mill shall in future well grind the grain of the tenants, and 
that he shall not take excessive toll under pain of 10". 
And further, that all the tenants shall grind their grain 
\\/.. corn, barley and silige l at the customary mill and not 
elsewhere, if they can be served there, and that they shall not 
use hand mills for the future under pain each of them 6 8 8 d . 

Also it is presented that John Huchyns is a common 
trespasser with all his people in the corn and grain of the 
tenants there, to their grave hurt. Therefore he is in 
mercy 20''. 

It is presented that the homage survey an encroachment 
made by John Hychens who has encroached one ferendell 2 of 
land, parcel of the tenure of Elizabeth Pemerton, widow, at 
her lands there And also to survey one acre of land now in 
dispute between the said Hychens and William Anysley 
customary tenants, to which of them by right the said land 
belongs. And also to survey a tree which the said Hychens, 
as is supposed, has cut down on the land belonging to the 
farm there, at the feast of All Saints next coming, and there- 
upon to certify at the next court under pain 6" 8 d And 
similarly, that the homage make a view of an encroachment 
at Littlemonelight, supposed to be made by Thomas Frebury, 
and thereof to certify at the next court. 

It is ordained that if any of the tenants there shall permit 
his young colts to be depastured in the fields that are sown, 
not tied up, or having a keeper, and should damage be done 
there, he shall forfeit to the lord 3* 4 d . 

To this Court comes John Frebury father of John Frebury 

= winter wheat. *< 


deceased, and one Richard Dys and they show a certain copy 
of Court Roll, the tenor of which follows in these words 

At the Manor Court held there 4 th Nov. the 3O th year of 
Henry the 8 th and enrolled at said Court, there came John 
Frebury and took a reversion of a messuage and half a virgate 
of land with appurtenances called Brewes. And reversion 
of a close and four acres of land with appurtenances called 
Herdes, now in the tenure of William Cowper : to have and 
to hold the aforesaid messuage and other the premises with 
their appurtenances to the aforesaid John Frebury, William 
his [son], and Alice his daughter for term of their lives and 
the survivors successively, according to the custom of the 
manor, by rent and all other services therefrom before due 
and of right accustomed, when, after the death, surrender or 
forfeiture of the said William Cowper it falls into the hand 
of the King, and a heriot when it happens. And he gives 
to the lord of fine to have said estate io s and fealty is 
respited &c. And aforesaid John is dead, and neither afore- 
said William nor Alice at the making of said copy were 
natives l of the manor Therefore the copy is invalid And 
this is affirmed by the homage. And upon this proclamation 
is made if any one &c. And no one comes to claim the 
same Therefore &c. 

To this Court comes Thomas Selye and takes of the Lord 
a messuage and half a virgate of land with appurtenances 
called Brewers and a close and four acres of land with 
appurtenances called Heyrdes late in the tenure of William 
Cowper To hold to him for term of life, according to the 
custom of the manor, by a rent per ann. of 6 s and all other 
customs, heriots and fines &c. And he gives for fine of 
entry 40** and does fealty and is admitted tenant thereof. 

( William Byrcher ) , . 
Affeerers <.', f being 

( Robert Baker 

1 They were not customary tenants. 



THE following Court Rolls of Gnossall, Stafford- 
shire, embrace a period from Henry VI. to Eliza- 
beth. The church of Gnossall was bestowed by 
King Stephen on the see of Lichfield ; it afterwards 
became a royal chapel with a dean and four preben- 
daries, Chitternhall, Beverley Hall, Mordhall, and 
Sukarhall. The Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield was 
Dean temp. Henry VIII. These rolls were kindly 
placed at the disposal of the writer by their present 
owner, the General Editor. 


Court of Thomas Whetegreve, knight, prebendary of the 
prebend of Chytonhale, and James Langton, prebendary 
of the prebend of Morehall, held there the Wednesday next 
after the feast of S l John Baptist 26 th Henry VI. 

Essoins none. 

The homage present that John Congreve, John Lye, Thomas 
Smyth, John Mason [owe suit and have not come ; each in 
mercy] i2 d . 

John Robyns, cousin and heir of John Robyns of Burton 
by Stafford comes into the Court of the prebend of Morehall 
and gives ... to have an Inquisition to inquire what lands and 
tenements William Milleward of Chatewall Magna died 



seized of in Chatwall aforesaid, and who is his next heir. 
And upon this an Inquisition was taken. 

Court of James Lang-ton, Prebendary of the Prebend of 
Morehale, held there the Wednesday next before the feast 
of S l Margaret, the year above written. 

John Taillor of Newport complains against William 
Ryggeby of a plea of debt of 2i d . And he prays for a 
summons against next court. 

Ralph Watton son and heir of Thomas Watton of Wheton 
Aston comes into Court and surrenders into the hands of 
the lord a messuage and half a virgate of land with 
appurtenances in Chatwall, to the use and behoof of Thomas 
Dawe, which said Thomas comes into Court and takes 
seisin thereof of the lord. To hold to him, his heirs and 
assigns according to the custom of the manor And he gives 
to the lord of fine . . . And does fealty. 

Court of Master James Langton prebendary of Morehale, 
held the Wednesday next before the feast of S fc Peter ad 
vincula the year above-written. 

The homage present that Richard Weston, who held of 
the lord five messuages according to the custom of the 
manor, is dead after whose death there falls to the lord a 
heriot . . . And the land remains until . . . 

Court of Thomas Whetegreve Prebendary of the Prebend 
of Chylternehall held there the Wednesday next before the 
feast of S fc Michael 2y th Hen. vj. 

Richard Cokstan comes into Court by Thomas Russell 
his attorney and surrenders into the hands of the Lord a 
cottage with appurtenances in Gnosall to the use of Thomas 
Weston ; which said Thomas comes into Court and takes 
seisin thereof of the lord, to hold to him, his heirs and 
assigns according to the custom of the manor. And he 
gives of fine 4O d . And does fealty. 

The homage present that Richard Weston who held two 
tofts with their appurtenances is dead, after whose death 
there falls to the lord a heriot . . . 

ffiiyiM & 

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Court of John Breeche, Prebendary of the Prebend of 
Sucarshall, held there Tuesday on the Vigil of Holy Cross 
30 Hen. vj. 

The homage present that John Taillor of Coton owes suit 
and does not come. And that one messuage with appurten- 
ances which Elizabeth Banaster held for term of her life by 
the service of 2 s 6 d , remains in the hand of the lord by 
default ; therefore it is commanded the bailiff that he account 
to the lord for the issues of the same until &c. And that a 
toft with appurtenances in Gnosall, in the tenure of Richard 
Banaster by the service of io (l , remains in the hand of the 
lord for default of heirs. Therefore it is commanded the 
bailiff that he account to the lord of the issues of the same 
until &c. 

Katherine Peyall, daughter and heir of John Elyns, comes 
into Court and takes seisin from the lord of Sewkarsworthhall 
of one toft within the fee of Holys. To hold to her, her 
heirs and assigns according to the custom &c. And gives 
of relief 2 s and does fealty. 

Roger Meston, son and heir of Reginald Meston, comes 
into Court and takes seisin of a messuage and half a virgate 
of land in Chatwall. To hold to him &c. And gives of 
relief i2 (1 . 

Court of John Breyche held there Monday after the feast 
of S l . . . 31 Hen. vj. 

Alice Weston comes into Court and takes seisin of one 
messuage and two cottages in Holys which Richard Weston, 
late her husband, left her by will. To hold for term of 
life according to the custom of the manor, so that after 
her decease the aforesaid messuage and cottages should 
remain to the right heirs of said Richard for ever, to be 
held of the lord according to the custom of the Manor, and 
she gives of fine 5". 

if J W%M fill 

5 _/*-~ -i ^-ii j TJ ^(c\. * 3 5 <8 a-^ 

it j^n j^ ^4-*iti ii* L 

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JTS s?^ HS tal-e^l 


Court of John Bryche held there Wednesday next before 
the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary 32 Hen. vj. 

The homage present that Richard Taillor, who held of 
the lord of the prebend aforesaid a messuage in Coton is 
dead, after whose death there falls to the lord a heriot. 
And that John Taillor is his son and next heir, but whether 
he had seisin thereof in court they know not. 


Great Court held there io th April in the names of all the 
prebendaries the 7 th year of Henry vij. 

The Jurors. 

John Banaster Thomas a Miston 

Hugh Miston John Podmore 

John a More Richard Adyns 

Thomas Caldewall Richard Congreve 

Thomas Jones Richard Sutton 

Who, being sworn and charged, say upon their oath that 
William Mitton 2 (l , Richard Knightly 2 (1 , Humphrey 
Wolriche 2 d , Robert Whitgreve 2 <l , Thomas Knightley, 
clerk, 2 <l , Thomas Alie, heir of Humphrey Turner 2' 1 , 
William Reynold 2 d , Robert Nixon 2 (l , Edward Robyns 2 d , 
William Hoggesson 2 d , Humphrey Taillor 2 (l , John Emond 
2 d , John Elyns 2 d , William Parant 2 d , John Edwards 2 d , 
Thomas Corbett 2 d , Humphrey Barbour 2 d , John Garbett 
2 d , William Lowe 2 d , are suitors of Court and make 
default. Fines 2" 8 d . 

The same Jurors present that Thomas Cotes has not 
made enclosure of his ruptures l at Littelfield, as in precept 
of the Court it was commanded him, therefore he is in the 
mercy of the lord 4 d And they present Thomas Brown, 
Thomas Caldewall, and Thomas Bratt for a similar offence in 

1 Rupture = a piece of arable land. 


the same field 4 d each, Agnes Fowden for a similar offence 4 d , 
. . . Albrighton for a like offence 4 d and Thomas Cotes for a 
like trespass in Willeyfield, each in mercy 4 (i 2 8 4 d . 

And Agnes More, John More, John Elyns, Elias a Miston, 
Richard Sutton, Stephen Archer, Thomas Broun, Richard 
Barnard, Thomas Cotes, Thomas Smyth, Agnes Bailly, John 
Adlvngton, Thomas Barrett, Thomas Sutton for a like 
offence in the field Estal, against the ordinance thereof made. 
Therefore each in the mercy of the lord 4 d 4" 8 d . 

Also they present John Tasker, Thomas Cotes, Thomas 
Bratte and Margaret Weston for a similar offence, and they 
to enclose the meadow demised to the tenants for a rupture 
&c. each of them to forfeit 4 d as by ordinance of preceding 
court i6 d . 

Further they had in precept by the court to deliver their 
verdict at this law day for a certain heriot of and for the 
messuage of Nowells thyng with the appurtenances, the same 
heriot falling to Margaret Weston, 1 one of the prebendaries 
of the aforesaid prebends, as of right of the said prebend, as 
she alleges, and she asks for the matter to be respited, upon 
which a day is given till the next great Court. 

Thomas Broun is presented that he sufficiently fence the 
ditch, which is an annoyance to his neighbours, between 
the Wall meadow and John Banaster's croft, before the feast 
of Pentecost next coming, under pain i2 d Agnes More is 
presented that she sufficiently make her enclosure, and also 
cleanse her ditch round the said enclosure, before the feast 
aforesaid, under pain 12''. 

And in like manner William Lowe, Thomas Crofts and 
Agnes More are presented that they sufficiently fence their 
enclosures in Sekworth croft, before the feast of Holy Cross 
in May next coming, under pain each of them 6 d . 

1 This rara avis, a lady prebendary, may perhaps be accounted for 

by the Dean and Chapter of LichfiYhl having fanned mit the prebend 

for a lease of lives, the same falling to Margaret Weston as heiress. 

Chapters were occasionally called to account at Episcopal Visitations 

h transactions. 


And the jurors say and present that three foul pools arc 
lying at le Holide not flushed, to the hurt of the neigh- 
bours by the Butchersfieldside, by default of Thomas Cotes, 
whom it is commanded by the Court to amend the same 
before the feast of the Ascension of Our Lord, under pain of 
each not cleansed 4''. 

Also it is presented that Robert a London hath 5 more 
cows tethered in the common fields of the tenants than he 
ought to have by the ordinance of this Court, as appears in 
the preceding Court ; therefore he shall forfeit the penalty 
thereupon imposed. And they present that Gilbert White 
and Roger Sterke overburden the common of the tenants to 
their grave hurt, therefore they are severally in the mercy of 
the lord. 

Elena Congulton complains against John Tasker. Robert 
Bratte complains against Robert Brasmyll of a plea of debt 
upon demand g s 9 d , therefore in mercy. Agnes More com- 
plains against Thomas Sutton, it is put into the taxation of 
John More and Thos. Miston. 1 Thos. Banaster complains 
against Richard a Dene of a plea of debt on demand. Robert 
Colclough complains against Thos. Cotes of a plea of debt. 

( John Podmore 
Afferers < J n . . 

\ Richard Suttoi 


Little Court held there on Tuesday next after the feast of 
the Ascension of our Lord 13 Hen. vij. 

To this Court comes Thomas Meston and surrenders into 
the hands of the lord a messuage called Meston thyng with 
two half virgates of land, one called Strelfyld and the other 
called Balmefyld, to the use of Elyas Meston, to be held to 
him his heirs and assigns, according to the custom of the 

[And Elias Meston comes and takes the said messuage 
and is admitted.] 

1 These tenants are appointed arbitrators. 


Great Court held there on the feast of S* Lucy Virgin 
14 Hen. vij. . . . 

Humfrey Pursall has died since tin* last court who held of 
the lord 4 messuages, and there falls to the lord a cow of a 
spotted colour, by name of heriot. And said Humphrey had 
a cottage lying in the prebend of Morshall, of the infeoff- 
ment of Sir William Blakeman, and died seized of the same, 
whereupon there falls to the lord a red cloak. 

A pain is placed upon the tenants of the prebends to make 
their enclosures about the Wynterfield before the feast of 
S l Luke, each of the tenants 4 d and each of the foreigners 1 8 d , 
also to make gates, tenants 6 d , foreigners i2 d . 

A pain is placed upon the tenants of the prebends to 
make their enclosures about the common meadow before the 
feast of the Purification of Blessed Mary, each of the tenants 
4' 1 foreigners 8' 1 . 

A pain is placed upon the tenants to make their enclosures 
about the Lentfield before the feast of S l Chad Bishop, each 
tenant 4*', and foreigner 8 d . And in the same way the 

A pain is placed upon all the foreign tenants that they 
do not depasture their cattle upon the tenants dwelling 
within the demesne, under pain 4o d each offence. A pain 
is placed upon all the foreigners that they do not cut down 
any croppings in the woods, without licence of the lords or 
their officers, under pain i2 d each offence. 

A pain is placed upon William Hugson and Anne More to 
make their enclosures by Sukars Croft by the feast of the 
Purification of Blessed Mary, under pain each one I2' 1 . 

( John More 
Afferers{;L. ., 

I Thomas Aley 

1 Foreign tenants = those outside the demesn. . 



Little Court held there io th Jan. 14 Henry vij. 

Richard Sutton complains against Richard Adyns in a 
plea of debt. 

A pain is placed upon Agnes More that she make her 
enclosure by Robert Smith's, before the feast of the Purifica- 
tion of Blessed Mary, under pain 40''. . . . 

To this Court comes Richard Elens, otherwise called 
Richard Sadeler of Tetenall, by Thomas Forster chaplain his 
attorney, and surrenders into the hands of the lord a cottage 
with garden lying in Gnossall in the prebend of Morehall, to 
the use of Michael Salmon his heirs and assigns, according 
to the custom of the manor. 

And Michael Salmon comes and takes the said cottage, 
and gives of fine to the lord 40'* and hath seisin thereof and 
does fealty and is admitted tenant. 


Court Baron of George Blount Knt. farmer of the most 
reverend father in Christ Thomas, by divine permission, 
Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, of his late prebends of 
Morehall Chitternhall Beverley hall and Sucarshall, held at 
Gnossall i6 th Nov. 16 Eliz. before William Finney, steward 

The homage present that Richard Forster owes suit at 
this Court, and makes default. Therefore in mercy. 

Also that Thomas Crosse, who held of the lord a cottage 
with a garden adjacent with appurtenances in Gnossall, 
within the late prebend of Morehall, by copy of court roll 
according to the custom of the manor, by a rent of 4" per 
annum, died thereof seised since the last court, by whose 
death there falls to the lord a heriot, one ox 3 U io 8 . And 


that Thomas Crosse is son and heir of aforesaid Thomas 
and of full age. 

And that John Osburne and Agnes his wife were seised 
of a messuage and one virgate of land at Cotonend, within 
the late prebend of Sucars hall, to wit, the aforesaid John in 
his demesne as of fee, and aforesaid Agnes in her demesne 
as of freehold. And aforesaid John has died since the 
last court, and aforesaid Agnes survived him, and kept 
herself within, 1 and was, and still is, seised thereof for term 
of her life by right accruing. 

And that Richard and Thomas Podmore have ploughed up 
a certain parcel of land called a meer balk in the field called 
the Highfield, to the hurt of their neighbours, therefore in 
mercy, each 12''. 

And said Richard and Thomas with John Poler have 
ploughed up another balk in the same field near Clays 
headland : in mercy each i2 a . 

And said Richard Podmore has appropriated to himself 
four furrows in the said Highfield. Therefore in mercy i2 tl . 

And Thomas Podmore has lopped and felled an oak of 
John Poler in Highfield near Manymarlpits to the grave 
damage of him John. Therefore in mercy. 

To this Court comes Thomas Crosse, son and heir of 
Thomas Crosse, in his own person and takes of the lord the 
aforesaid cottage and garden in Gnossall. To have and 
to hold to the said Thomas Crosse, according to the custom 
of the manor, by rent and services therefrom due and of 
right accustomed, and he gives of relief 4'' and does fealty 
and is admitted tenant. 

Court held at Gnossall 2 n<l Oct. 20 Elizabeth. The 
presentment of Thomas Podmore, in the name of the right 
worshipfull Thomas Knightley esquire, of the evil demeanour 
of John Pooler, exhibited at the Great Leet held as above. 

1 i.e. remained unmarried. 


Imprimis, the said Pooler ever since the last Leet Law day 
hath and yet doth keep open heyment 1 between him and the 
said Podmore. The said Pooler hath sowed oats upon his 
own ground, so that the said Podmore could never have 
his cattle going at liberty, for fear of having the same 
mischieved by the said Pooler. Wherefore the said Podmore 
hath been driven to keep or tie up his said cattle all this last 
summer, to the great hindrance and annoyance of the said 
Podmore. The said Pooler in like manner hath and doth 
keep open heyment between the Highfield and his own yard 
or backside. And also between his said backside and the 
ground of the said Podmore, so that not only the cattle 
of the said Pooler, but also all other men's cattle which come 
out of the common field into the ground of the said Pooler 
do, through the heyment of the said Pooler, come into the 
ground of the said Podmore to his great loss and hindrance. 
So that the said Podmore in the name of his master, the said 
Thomas Knightley esquire, prays that by order of the Court 
he may have sufficient pains laid upon the said Pooler to 
keep up his heyment from time to time, and at all times 
accordingly to keep the said Podmore harmless. 

Also the said Pooler hath in like manner kept open 
heyment between the said Highfield and a cornfield be- 
longing to Besscote, so that the said Podmore could not 
have his cattle going in the " eddish " field but was driven to 
keep his cattle in, lest he had them impounded at Besscote. 

Also the said Podmore complaineth that the said Pooler 
hath kept his swine and geese in the cornfields this last 
harvest time, by means whereof the said Podmore hath 
sustained great loss of corn. And namely in one place to 
the value of 19 sheaves of dredge, which keeping is contrary 
to the order of the Court. 

1 A boundary, a fence. 



View of Frankpledge with Court Baron of George Blount 
knt. farmer of Thomas, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield 
held there the 8 th Oct. the 2i 8t year of Eliz. before William 
Finney, steward. 

Richard Barnett and Henry James, surveyors of hedges 
there, present that Richard Mosse hath a piece of arable 
land unenclosed l at Wylley Style. Also that Richard Caton 
hath the same between his croft and Crosse field, to the 
grave damage of their neighbours, therefore they are in the 
mercy of the lord. 

And they elect to the office of surveyors of hedges there 
for the following year John Hytcchins and Thomas Davies. 


Thomas Swanne, headborough there, being sworn, pre- 
sents that all is well. And there is elected to the office of 
headborough for the following year Humphrey Parkes who 
is sworn. 


William Yesthorpe, headborough there, being sworn, 
presents that all is well, and there is elected to the office 
of headborough for the following year John Jobber who is 


Richard Coton, Thomas Barnard, William Lockytt, 
Robert Jordyn headboroughs there, being sworn, present 
that Laurence Bratt hath made an affray upon Richard 
Coton with an axe worth 12'' called a hatchet, against the 
peace of our lady the Queen. Therefore he is in the lord's 
mercy and the axe shall be forfeited. And George Payne 
hath made an affray on Robert Jordyn with a bow, value 2 d 

1 i.f. during the time that the tenants were bound to enclose, between 
seed-time and harvest. 


against the peace &c. and Robert Jordyn hath insulted 
Humphrey Grettebache with opprobrious words against the 
peace &c. therefore they are in the mercy of the lord. 

Richard Bratt and John Ferniall, surveyors of water 
courses there, being sworn, present that all is well. And 
there is elected to the said offices there for the year following, 
Henry James and Thomas Forster. 

Richard Coton and Thomas Payne, aletasters there, being 
sworn, present that Richard Hodgson, Elizabeth Payne widow, 
Thomas Forster, William Lockett and Richard Bratt are 
common brewers and have broken the assize. Therefore 
they are in the mercy of the lord. Also that Richard 
Hodgson, Thomas Forster and Richard Bratt are common 
bakers of human bread 1 and have broken the assize, there- 
fore in the mercy of the lord. 

The Homage, being sworn and charged concerning divers 
articles touching this court come and affirm that all and 
singular the officers aforesaid have above presented are true, 
and that they have well and faithfully presented and have 
made no concealment. And they further present that Francis 
Hytchyns, Robert Jordyn, Laurence Shustock and John 
Wylkenson owe suit at this court this day, and do not come 
but make default. Therefore they are in mercy of the lord. 

Also that Laurence Bratt, Richard Caton, John Fernyhall 
and John Wylkynson jun. have played together at a certain 
unlawful game called " le tables" in Richard Hodgeson's 
house at Gnossall, within the precinct and jurisdiction of this 
court, and that game then and there have used, contrary 
to the form of the statute in this case late published and 
provided, and that Richard Hodgson, Thomas Forster and 
Richard Bratt permitted divers unlawful games, called le 
cards and le tables, to be played by divers unknown men 
in their several houses there, against the form of the statute 
38 Hen. viij. Also Richard Bratt hath a pig unrung contrary 

1 As opposed to horse bread, a kind of coarse oaten bread for horses. 


to the form of the pain 4 d . Also George Hill for a porker 
unrung- 4''. Also William Walker brews beer and breaks 
the assize and John Hall does the same. And Elizabeth 
Payne is a baker of human bread and breaks the assize. 
And they are in mercy. 

And John Poler has forfeited the pain imposed on him 
at the last court for not causing his water course at 
Lampyttes flat in the field called Little field at Coton End 
to be scoured and cleansed. Therefore he incurs the pain 
3* 4 d , and John Poler has depastured his beasts and con- 
sumed the grass and corn in the field called Highfield at 
Coton End, to the grave damage of his neighbours, and he 
also assaulted and made an affray on Richard Astley within 
the age of ten years with a bill worth 8' 1 , and then and there 
beat and maltreated the said Richard against the peace of 
the Lady the Queen. Therefore he is in mercy and the 
aforesaid bill is forfeited ; and said John Poler hath not 
repaired his hedge between Highfield and a parcel of land 
called le Pyngle to the grave damage &c. 

And a pain is imposed upon all the tenants and inhabitants 
of Great Chatwall that each of them, before the feast of the 
Purification B.V.M. next ensuing, shall well and sufficiently 
make and repair their hedge round the meadow called the 
Towne meadow in G fc Chatwall under pain of forfeiture to 
the lord for each holding 12''. 

And John Clerke, servant of Richard Barnett, hath driven 
the cattle of Rich. Barnett into the field called Highfield, to 
the hurt of his neighbours, therefore he is in the mercy of 
the lord 6' 1 . 

There is elected to the office of constable of Gnossal for 
the ensuing year Thomas Podmore who is sworn. 

Thomas Davis fined 4'' for retiring from the court after 
being summoned without leave, in contempt of the Court. 

. j Robert Jones ) 

Afferers -J ....... > being sworn. 

I William Moers ( 


Court Baron held at Gnossall i st May 25 Eliz. 

To this court comes Leonard More son and heir of John 
More in his own person. And in full court surrendered into 
the hand of the lord a messuage called More end with houses, 
buildings and ponds to the said messuage belonging. And 
a pasture called Colletts Hey, a pasture called Over Furlong 
otherwise Wheatfield, a pasture called Duffe house furlong 
alias Nether field, a pasture called Mill Orchard, a meadow 
called le Helde, a meadow called More ende, a meadow with 
a parcel of land called Old Orchard, a small meadow lying 
at the top of the Wall meadow near the house where John 
Fernyall now dwells, a cottage with a croft adjacent near 
Sawyers Gappe, a silion of arable land in a field called 
Lowfield near Holney gate, and 6 silions of arable land 
lying together in a field called Crossefield by Sawyers Gappe, 
within the said late prebend of Chetternhall and one cottage 
with croft adjacent now in the occupation of Henry James, 
within the said late prebend of Morehall, to the use and 
behoof of aforesaid Leonard More and Margery his wife for 
term of the lives of said Leonard and Margery and to either 
of them being the survivor, for this intention, that the said 
Margery, after the death of said Leonard, with the issues 
and profits of the premises shall educate Philip More, 
Margaret More and Anne More children of the aforesaid 
Leonard and shall prefer them in marriage and also pay the 
debts of him Leonard. And after the decease of them 
Leonard and Margery, to the use of John More, son and 
heir apparent of him Leonard, and his heirs and assigns for 
ever. And upon this come aforesaid Leonard, Margery and 
John and take the premises of the lord and give for fine to 
the lord for the premises in Chilternhall 3* 4' 1 , and for the 
cottage &c. in Morehall 3% and they do fealty and are ad- 
mitted tenants. 



View of frankpledge with Court Baron of Robert Harecourt 
gent, Francis Chewnall and Nicholas Peyne of the manor 
aforesaid held there 28 th April 27 th Eliz. 

The tithing men of Gnossall present that George Barret 
hath made an affray on William Ashley with his fists against 
the Queen's peace : therefore in mercy 2o d . William Osburne 
of Plardswicke and Thomas Barneffild of Knightley have 
made an affray on each other &c. Therefore in mercy 
separately 2o (l . And William Lockett hath made an affray 
upon Thomasine Hall with a stick of no value. Therefore 
in mercy 2O' 1 . Also they present that Thomas Barnard, 
Richard Caton, John Peyne the smyth, John Hall, John 
Fernyhall, John Jones, William Darges, John Wilkenson 
junr. have played at a certain unlawful game called le tables 
and cards in Gnossall contrary to the statute amerced each 
2'. And Thomasine Hall, spinster and Elizabeth Lockett, 
wife of William Lockett, are common scolds (objurgatores) 
with their neighbours, to their annoyance. Therefore aforesaid 
Thomasine and William are in mercy. Also they present 
that Francis Hytchins hath used to walk nightly in the town 
of Gnossall and to rail and scold with the headboroughs of 
the same town sundry times, saying that he would break 
their heads, with divers other threatening words, as well 
against the said headboroughs, as against divers others of 
the Queen's subjects inhabiting the said town of Gnossall, 
and that he the said Francis is a common drunkard, a 
disturber of the Queen's Majesty's peace, and a disquieter 
of his neighbours to the evil and perilous example of others 
contrary to the peace of our sovereign lady the Queen. 
Wherefore the said Francis is amerced 3" 4''. 

Also they present that Humphrey More hath received and 
kept in his house in Gnossall, and yet doth, one Margery Tagge 
who is known to be a common hoore and is of evil name, 


fame and conversation amongst neighbours to the evil 
and perilous example of others. Wherefore he is to be 
amerced 20''. 

Also that Thomas Ellyns, not having lands and tenements 
to the yearly value of 40% keeps a greyhound in Cotton End 
within the precinct and jurisdiction of this view of frank- 
pledge, contrary to the form of the statute. 

And that the inhabitants of Gnossall have not repaired 
their common bounds called le Butts in Gnossall, by which the 
said bounds have remained in bad repair for three months 
last past, contrary to the form of the statute &c. Therefore 
amerced 6 s 8' 1 . 

And they present that Roger Jones, not having lands and 
tenements to the yearly value of 20 marks, hath not used a 
cap on Sunday last past according to the form of the statute 
on this behalf lately made and provided. 1 

And a pain is laid on all the inhabitants and residents, 
being householders in Gnossall, that each of them by himself 
or by another be prepared to cleanse the common stream in 
Gnossall when necessary under pain 2o (1 . 

Also they present that Leonard Ecclesall holds in severally 
a parcel of the lord's waste in Gnossall lately enclosed by him 
without licence. Therefore he is in mercy of the lord 4''. 
Also that John Stevynson hath ploughed up a path leading to 
the Hollies towards Gnossall Church, and hath stopped up the 
way to the hurt of his neighbours. Therefore in mercy i2 (l . 
And that he hath not repaired and set up a stile between 
Hollies Lane, Church Field and Bochers Field to his neigh- 
bours damage. And a pain was placed upon the said 
John Stevynson that he, before the feast of the Ascension 
of our Lord next ensuing, should cause a sufficient stile 

1 By an Act passed 13 Eliz., to encourage the wool trade, it was 
enacted that every person over six years of age, not having- lands to the 
value of 20 marks a year, should wear on Sundays and holidays a cap of 
wool, knit and dressed in England, under pain of 3 s 4''. 


to be made in the accustomed place there. And to keep it 
in repair under pain of 3" 4''. 

And further that John Poler has thrown down a stile 
lately set up on a path there, between the land of said 
John called the Cleys and the land late in the tenure of 
Thomas Podmore in Coton End, to the damage of his 
neighbours. Therefore he is in mercy and the said John 
Poler has diverted a stream out of its right course in a field 
called Highe Field in Cotton end, to the prejudice and grave 
damage of the lord and his tenants. . . . And that the east 
side of William Walker's house in Great Chatwall stands 
upon the lord's land. Therefore the lord shall provide a 
remedy for the same. 

And that Antony Fletcher, senior, has erected his hedge 
between Holl meadow and Hollow Brook in G i Chatwall, 
whereby he has encroached on a parcel of land lying between 
the aforesaid meadow and aforesaid brook to the damage of 
the lord and his tenants. And a pain was placed upon the 
said Antony that he, before the feast of S fc Michael next 
ensuing, shall erect his hedge aforesaid in the right 
place 6 8 8' 1 . 

View of Frankpledge with Court Baron held at Gnossall 
20 th Oct. 28 Eliz. 

The homage present that Robert Jeffrey late of Gnossall, 
weaver, on the 5 th Aug. 28 Eliz. by force and arms at 
Gnossall aforesaid, feloniously stole, took and carried away 
12 loads of hay to the value of I2' 1 of the goods and chattels 
of one Laurence Bratt. And that whereas John Cocks 
had taken certain animals and then and there imparked 
them at Gnossall, a certain Katherine Lynehill, servant of 
Robert Cowper, by force and arms broke into the aforesaid 
park and took and led away the aforesaid animals against 
the peace &c. Therefore in mercy. 


View of Frankpledge with court held at Gnossall i8 th Oct. 
34 Eliz. 

The homage present Richard Barnard who holds in seve- 
ralty a croft of land containing one acre in Gnossall which 
ought to lie open in a certain field called Little Field accord- 
ing to ancient custom. Therefore in mercy. Also the said 
Richard has deposited hemp in the stream called Gnossall 
Brook. And has washed the said hemp there to the hurt of 
his neighbours against the statute. And John Hanley has 
done the same in a brook called Dorley. And John Poler 
has driven his beasts into the fields where he hath no common. 
Therefore in mercy. And Richard Thruston of Cowley and 
Hugh Thruston of the same have done the same. 

And Thomas Warter has deposited his dung in the high 
street of Gnossal by which he has obstructed the said street 
to the hurt of the Queen's lieges passing through the same. 


View of Frankpledge with Court Baron of Robert Harecourt 
gent, Francis Chownall and Nicholas Payne of the manors or 
late prebends of Gnossall to wit of Morehall, Chilternehall, 
Beyverley hall and Sucarhall held at Gnossall aforesaid the 
7 th May 35 Eliz. 


Humphrey Whytgreve esq, Thomas Skrymsher esq, Roger 
Fowke esq, Thomas Podmore, John Wood, Richard Hill, 
Thomas West, Ralph Palmer, John James, Thomas Crosse, 
John Whitlege, Nicholas More, and John Lowe owe suit at 
this court this day and do not come but have made their 

Humphrey Coleshall, John Hatton and John Beardesley 
surveyors of water courses there are sworn and present that 
John Poler of Cowley hath a water course unsecured in a 
meadow called Allyne More in Gnossall. Therefore he has 


forfeited the pain to wit 3" 4 d . And similarly Laurence Brett 
in a meadow called Wall meadow 3* 4*'. And Francis Chewnall 
in a meadow called le Acres. And similarly Nicholas Payne, 
John Payne and Richard Barnard jun. and they each forfeit 
the same pain to wit 3* 4''. And John Coton hath a water 
course unsecured in a field called le Lytle meadow to the 
grave damage &c. Therefore in the mercy of the lord. 

John Hatton and Francis Payne, cooper, surveyors of 
pigs there being sworn, present that William Hall hath and 
keeps three pigs unrung in Gnossall which subvert the land 
of their neighbours to the great damage of their neighbours. 
Therefore in mercy of the lord 2o' 1 . And John Poler of 
Cowley the same, xij' 1 . 

And William Jace for selling meat at excessive price. 
Therefore in mercy of the lord 4''. 

And Richard Barnard for a piece of land unfenced between 
certain fields called le Richard and Campyon field to the 
grave damage &c. Therefore in mercy 4*'. 

John Astley, tithing man there, being sworn presents that 
John Poler of Cowley hath driven his beasts on and upon 
the lord's waste called Coton Wood in Gnossall where he 
hath not common, to the prejudice of the lord and his tenants. 
And Agnes wife of John Addams is a common spoiler of 
her neighbours' hedges. Therefore the aforesaid John is in 
the lord's mercy. 

The homage present that Richard Barnard jun. holds in 
severally a parcel of land of the lord's waste in Gnossall, 
containing by estimation one acre, by him late enclosed 
without the lord's leave. [Several other tenants presented 
for enclosures without licence.] 

Also they present Thomas Crosse, who dwells in a cottage 
in Gnossall within the precinct and jurisdiction, for voluntarily 
permitting one George Payne to live with him in the said 
cottage for the space of three months. 

Also they present that Richard Foster esq. who holds of 


the lord a cottage with the appurtenances, by copy of Court 
Roll in Gnossall, hath permitted the said cottage to be ruinous 
and in decay, in default of reparation, against the custom of 
the manor. 

A pain laid upon all such persons that shall brew any ale 
or beer to sell in Gnossall, that every of them shall not sell 
and utter by retail any of the best ale or beer that he or 
she shall so brew to sell, above 4 d the gallon of ale measure, 
that is to say, a quart of ale or beer for i (1 of ale measure, 
and so after the rate, upon pain to forfeit for every quart 6 (l . 

And that none of them shall deny or refuse to sell any of 
their best ale or beer, that he or she shall so brew to sell, to 
any person requiring the same after the measure aforesaid, 
upon pain to forfeit for every such refusal i2 d . 

Affeerers|J hn Coton [sworn. 
l Roger Jones > 


THE great Rolls of the Pipe are the returns of 
the sheriffs, made up every Michaelmas, of the 
revenues of the Crown and sent into the Ex- 
chequer. In a similar manner we find from very early 
times the bailiffs, reeves and other officers of the great 
monastic houses returning their annual audit at the 
same term. This example was in time followed by all 
lords of manors, so that each estate had a series of 
annual accounts modelled after those of the Crown. 
These may be said to exhibit the manor at rest, and 
throw a flood of light on the industrial conditions 
under which our ancestors lived. We shall proceed to 
give selections from these accounts chosen from differ- 
ent periods from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. 
As may be expected, they differ considerably in form 
from a modern rent roll. In the first place, they are 
written in Latin, interspersed here and there with 
English words where the accountant's stock of Latin 
failed him. The figures are not arranged in columns, 
but the account is written in a narrative form, the 
figures sometimes in the middle, sometimes at the end 
of a sentence, so that the addition of the various items 
was of a somewhat complicated character. They are 



arranged in paragraphs under their various headings, 
such as sale of stock, expenses of the reaping, etc., the 
totals of the several items being given at the end of each 
paragraph. The following are examples of manorial ac- 
counts of a royal and a monastic estate respectively : 


The following Compotus of the issues and expenses 
of the Manor of Barkham for the 4th year of Edw. I. 
is among the early series of Ministers' Accounts at the 
Public Record Office. It was a manor of ancient 
demesne, returned in Domesday as in the hands of 
the king. 

Compotus of William Bullock, Reeve of Barkham from the 
feast of S fc Gregory Pope, the fourth year of King Edward 
son of King Henry to the Purification of Blessed Mary next 

Rents of Assize. 

The same answers for $ 2. 9 yield of the whole rents 
of assize per annum. Sum ^4. 2. 9. 

Works sold. 

The same answers for 39 s 8 d yield of the rents and customs 
sold [i.e. commuted for money payments] And for 2 s i (1 
yield 'of 10 cocks and 10 hens of Chirset 1 sold And for 3 d 
yield of 38^ eggs sold. Sum 42 s . 

1 Chirset (popular version of Church-scot). Originally a " scot " or 
contribution due to the Church, it became a fixed manorial due, payable 
to the lord, and not appearing- to reach any further hand. It was 
fastened in fixed amount on certain tenures, payable at Martinmas 
(nth November), generally in corn for seed or in eggs or hens from 
poorer tenants (see Murray's Eng. Diet., s.v., for quotations from Bede 
and other Saxon authorities). All authorities concur in saying that it 
was a tribute to the clergy, payable for conscience* sake by each house- 
holder. No clue to its becoming a fixed manorial due is found. 









v f *^ 





Issues of the Manor. 

The same answers for 2" 5 d yield of the pannage l of the 
hogs of the lord's tenants And for 5" yield of beechmast 
sold And for 25" r 1 for pasture sold And 4" for meadow 
sold and 9 d for furze sold And 2 <l for rushes sold ; and 2o d 
for forage sold. Sum 40" 1 1' 1 . 

Sale of Grain. 

The same answers for n 8 4 <l yield of 2 qrs. of rye, price 
per qr. 5" 8 d And of 15 s 8 d J for 4 qrs. i J bushels of rye sold 
price per qr. 4" 8 d And of 7 8 for 3^ qrs. of oats sold price 
pr. qr. 2 s And of 25 s 2 (l for 13 qrs. i bush, of oats price 
per qr. 23 d . Sum 58 s io d i. 


The same answers for 2o 8 yield of the talliage of the whole 
manor. Sum 20". 

Fines and Perquisites. 

The same answers for 9* of . . . le Grant for entry on 
a purpresture 2 which contains 6 acres. And for 7 s for a heriot 
of William Symond and for 8 s paid by his son William for 
entry on his father's lands And for 2 s 4 yield of pleas and 
perquisites. Sum 26 s 4 d . 

Sum of the whole receipts ^13 io s io d j. 


And he answers in acquittance of a Reeve for one year 
io 8 2j d And in Hedage 3 paid 8 d . io s io| d . 

Expenses for necessaries. 

The same answers for i qr. 6 bush, of oats bought for 
sowing 2i d price per qr. i2 d . For ploughing and harrowing 
3^ acres for oats lyj 11 . For the said oats and for 4 acres of 

1 Pannage = fees payable to the lord from tenants running their suinc 
in the manor woods. 

2 Purpresture = an encroachment. 

3 Hedage = toll paid at a wharf. 


corn and 3^ acres of oats, reaping" and binding, 22j d , price per 
acre 3 d . For carriage of corn and oats 2 d . For 4 qrs. 5 J bush, 
of corn and 4 qrs. i bush, of oats, threshing and winnowing, 
i2 d . For ij qrs. of corn bought 5' price pr. qr. 4o d . For 
i2j qrs. of oats bought i6 8 i d | price per qr. 15^''. 

Sum 27" io d . 

Sum of the the total expenses 38" 8J d And so he owes 
clear i i 12* i J d which he pays upon his account and is quit. 



Compotus of Sir Richard Parentyn, Prior and Brother 
Richard Albon, Canon and Bursar there, of all the goods 
received and delivered by them from the morrow of S fc Michael 
the Archangel the third year of the reign of King Henry the 
Sixth after the Conquest to the morrow of the same feast 
in the fourth year of the said King's reign. 


Imprimis, the same answer for a red rose received on the 
day of S l John Baptist from Henry Bowell of Curtlington 
above written, for certain lands and tenements which the 
aforesaid Henry holds there by Indenture thereof made. 


And of a grain of gillyflower, received at Easter for certain 
lands and tenements formerly Roger de Stodley's, and now 
certain of them are appropriated to John Purcell lord of the 
same place to hold to him and his heirs for ever. 

From which nothing this year. 


Also they answer for ,78. 12. 5$ remaining of arrears of 
the preceding year, as appears at the foot of the account 
of the same year. Sum ^78. 12. 5$. 


Rents with farms. 

And of ^"4. 4. 4 received of the rent of 14 tenements in 
Burcester, Buryend and Kingend as appears by the rental 
this year, and of 36" received of the farm of a horse-mill 
within the Priory this year, and no more because of the default 
of the miller, who, when he had occupied the same for half a 
year or more, departed and paid nothing. And of 26 s 8 d re- 
ceived of a water-mill there. And of 73 s 4 d received of the 
rents of tenants in Wrechewyke as appears by the rental 
this year. And of 56" 6 d received of lands meadows and pas- 
tures lying in the fields of Wrechewyk aforesaid, devised to 
divers men of Blakethorne and others, as appears by tally 
against William Spinan, collector of rents of that place, this 
year. And of 66 s 8 d received of John Ive, for the farm of a 
new close by Gravenhull per annum. And of 35 s 6 d received 
of the dairy of the Breche as appears by the Roll of 
Account of John Day and Margery his wife this year. And 
of 37 11 8 8 received for rent in Dadyngton, Clyfton and Hamp- 
ton, with farm of the manor and mills of Clifton aforesaid 
with issues of courts, portmotes and tolls of the markets as 
appears by account of John Wolfe, collector of rents there 
this year. And of 3i u i3 8 4 d received of Stratton Audley 
grange, as appears by account of Nicholas Aleyn, bailiff 
there. And of 6 s 8 d received of a certain tenement which the 
said Nicholas holds there. And of 4o 8 received of the farm 
of Caversfield. And of i3 H 6 s 8 d received of the farm of 
Grymmesbury, and of 4'* 13" 4 d received of the farm of 
Westcote this year, and no more because of decay of rent. 
And of 26* 8 d received from Blakenhull arable and pas- 
ture in the parish of Wodesdon, and of 54 s 4 (1 received 
for rent in Arncote, with hidage there this year, and of 
33 8 4 d received from John Chamber and John Yve for 
the site of the manor house with demesne lands and meadows 
there per annum, and of 2 s received for rent at Fringford, 
and for i3 u 6 s 8 d received from John Donesmore for farm of 


Demount, and for 4 U 4 8 2' 1 received for rent in Curtlington by 
tally against William Newman, rent collector there, and for 
i6 u received from the farm of Ardington church, and for 
4" 13" 4 d for farm of Letcombe, and no more on account of 
decay of rent, and for 5 U 6 8 8 d received from the farm of our 
portion in Compton Basset church, and no more because of 
the decay of rent there, and for 18* received for rent in 
Wendlebury, and for 4* 4 d rent in Takely, and . . . rent in 
Mudlington. Total 165" 19" 6 d . 

Issues of the Manor. 

And for 8' 1 received for a fowl sold by John Deye at Buck- 
ingham on the feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul this year. 
And 2 1 8 8 d received for 10 qrs. of peas sold to John Nutte- 
beme, and for 37" 7 (! received for 18 qrs. 2 bush, of peas sold 
to divers men by parcels this year, and for 26* 8 tl received for 
the straw of the peas sold to John Trote, and for 2" 4 d for old 
hay at Crockwell sold to Robert Grene, and for 12" received 
for 5 ox-hides, and 4* forthcoming of the stock of the ox- 
shed, and i 8 for a certain heifer killed at the larder and sold 
by the cook as appears by his daybook, and of 2" 7 <l for 2 calf- 
skins of the stock at the Breche and killed for the guest- 
house, as appears by the day book of sales this year. 

Issues of the Sheepfold. 

And for 4 8 received for 21 lambs sold to John Deye of 
Wrechwyke, and 9" for 36 sheepskins killed for the guest- 
house between the end of Michaelmas and Lent and sold by 
Brother William Chesterton, cook this year. And 3" i' 1 re- 
ceived for 15 sheep-pelts of stock killed for the guesthouse 
between sheep shearing and Michaelmas and sold by the 
same ; and for io l 18" 6 d received for 23 tods of pure wool 
sold to a certain merchant at Oxford at 9 8 6 d a tod, and 12* 
received for refuse wool sold to Nicholas Aleyn, and 2" for 
broken wool to wit "lokys" collected at sheep shearing 
<l to John Devi-. 


Foreign receipts. 

20 d received for underwood sold by Thomas Seler at Bern- 
wode, and 2* yi' 1 received in part payment of the tithe of 
lambs in Burcester, Wrechwyke and Bygenhall, and of ioo 8 
received of the Vicar of Burcester as a donation towards the 
work of the dormitory newly made this year, and 2o d given 
by John Tanner towards the same work this year. 

Demise of Lands. 

And of 5 s received for half a virgate of land with half an 
acre of meadow in Longdolemead, and for half an acre of 
meadow in Aylmersmead, demised to Richard Cooke by copy 
for term of his life. 

Sale of Grass. 

8 3 received for all the tithe of hay and headlands lying at 
Northmead demised to Thos. Keep this year, and 5" from 
Mulneham with 3 acres of land, formerly arable, in Medacres 
this side of Langeford, and 9 d for the grass of three head- 
lands and half an acre lying in a certain furlong called 
Burygate which John Sellar formerly held. And from Short- 
dolemead, nothing in money this year because in the hand of 
the lord And from the meadow of the Prioress of Merkyate 
nothing in money because it is left for the lord's stock this 
year, and 6 s 8 fl from 2 hams of meadow in Wendlebury Field 
sold to Philip Webb this year. And le Slade against Graven- 
hill, nothing in money because left this year for the lord's 

Perquisites of the Court. 

And 6 8 8 d received of John Smyth, a native of the Prior, for 
a certain fine to have entry on a messuage with a virgate of 
land formerly Henry King's, late demised to Henry Draper 
by indenture, and 3'' issues of a Court held at Burcester on 
the feast of S fc Nicholas, Bishop, this year. 


Tithes and Procurations. 

In tithe of the lord King 1 nothing- this year, and in payment 
for procurations of Convocation of the Clergy held at London 
before Christmas this year 9 <l , and in payment of procurations 
of the lord Pope 7* 2 d , and in payment to the Archdeacon of 
Oxford for procuration of the parish Church of Burcester 
7*7 d J a d m payment to the same for the Synod at Easter 2% 
and in payment to the same for the Synod at Michaelmas this 
year 12''. 

Debts paid. 

And in payment to John Buntyng, citizen and apothecary 
at Oxford, for sundries bought of the same 8 8 i d . And in 
payment for eels and other fish lately bought at Dadyngton 
by John Wulfe 2* 4 d . 

Payments and Allowances. 

The same ask for allowance to the Lord Lestrange for 
a furlong lying beyond the Priory Mill gate 8 8 4'* per annum 
. . . and for allowance to the farmer of Clifden for repair 
of houses and enclosures of the aforesaid farm this year 
66" 8 d c. And for allowance to William Newman our rent 
collector of Curtlington for his work this year 4*, and for 
allowance to the same for fines that he could not levy this 
year 6 (l . . . And in allowance to the same for digging of 
stone at the Prior's quarry there with repair of tools 58* 8 d . 

Expenses of ploughs and carts. 

And for 2 pair of wheels bought at Bemount as appears 
by bill this year 18", and in charges of carriage from thence 
with expenses of Richard Dymby meeting the same 23'', and 
for a pair of wheels called " schozears " bought there 7* 2 d . 
And for 6 iron "strakys" 5", and for ... of carts, "gropys" 
and other iron articles bought at Oxford from John Mylton 
ironmonger 12''. . . paid for 'fryttyng' 1 5 wherU 7 .md for 
1 Fitting or fastening the fell< 


an axle of a cart i d and for 5 rods of waddewole 1 bought for 
horse collars 2* i' 1 and for 3 collars with 3 halters bought at 
Sterisbrugge 2 5" io d i and for a whip bought there 2 tl &c. 

Necessary provisions. 

And for one great candle bought at the feast of S fc Kalixtus, 
Pope this year 2 d , and for parchment bought at S* Frideswide's 
fair 6 d , and for paper bought at the same time there 4'', and 
for a box chair bought at London on the feast of S. Thomas 
Apostle 9 8 , and in payments to the sub-prior for copperas and 
galls bought for making ink at the same time 2 d , and for 2 Ibs. 
candles bought for the Prior's lantern at Christmas this year 
i2 (1 , and for 8 Ibs. of wax bought at Oxford the same year to 
make 2 torches against Christmas for the Prior's hall 3", and 
for mending an oven of the bakehouse ij d , and buttercloth 
bought for the bakehouse &c. io d , and for 2 horse girths with 
other things bought at the same time for the Prior's stable 
6' 1 , and for soap bought for washing the Prior's hall i' 1 , 
and for 19 ells of linen bought for making cloths for the 
refectory 5% and for cloth bought for the bakehouse 3 6 (1 , 
and for 8 snodes of packthread bought for making a net for 
snaring rabbits 6 (1 . . . and for i Ib. of birdlime 3 d , and for a 
" heresyde " bought for the bakehouse io d , and for two hand 
baskets 7 d , and for 4 mats 13''. 

Provision for the Guesthouse. 

For white bread bought at sundry times for the Prior and 
guests 3 s io d , and for beer, to wit, 132^ gallons bought of 
John Spinan, Alice Bedale and other brewers 4 8 io d , and for 
32 gallons of red wine bought of Richard Brasyer of Bur- 
cester at 8 d a gallon 2i s 4 d , and for 3 gallons 3 quarts of 
sweet wine bought of the same at i6 d a gallon 5% and for 
canvas bought at London by Richard Dymby before the feast 
of S fc Osith Virgin for making sheets 3 &c. 

1 Waddewole = wadding. 2 Stourbriclg-e fair. 


Expenses of buildings. 

To William Hykkedon, working 1 for 4 days making an 
entrance from the parlour to the Prior's hall i6 d . And for 
keys bought of John Bette for the same door i2 d , and for 
hinges 8 d . And to John Coventry with two servants tiling 
the room called Clykchamber towards the court for 4 days 
3* 4 d , and for 2 ironworkers working for 10 days covering 
with iron the slabs of elm for making the doors and windows 
6* 8 d . And for wainscote bought at Steresbrugge 2 8 3 d . 

Expenses of the Dormitory. 

To William Skerne and his fellows hired to dig stones for 
walls at the quarry beyond Crokkewell 23" 4'', and to divers 
men hired to break stones in the Priory for making mortar 
I4 d &c. and to John Chepyn for making and cutting 18 
corbelstones to place on the aforesaid wall 5" 4''. And to 
John Coventry of Banbury, tiler, for roofing the aforesaid 
house 4 M i d , and for iron standards weighing 28 lb " with two 
ventilators, to wit, vanes of tin bought of the smith at Cherl- 
ton to place upon either end of the aforesaid dormitory 5" 2 d , 
and to divers men hired to take down and carry away the old 
timber material and stones io (1 . 

Expenses of the Kitchen. 

For 20 fowls bought by the cook at the feast of S* 1 Kalixtus 
2O d , and for a quarter of beef bought in Burcester market on 
the feast of S l Thomas Apostle for salting i6 d , and for i cade 
of red herrings bought of Harmand Banbury 8 d . And for 
pork bought for the clerks of the lord Archbishop sitting at 
an inquiry at Burcester the Wednesday next before the feast 
of the Conversion of S l Paul 19'', and for i frayle of figs 3" 4'', 
and for 12 Ibs. of sparrows' eggs 13'*, and for 3 couple of 
green fish with a lyng 3 congers and a couple of hake 9" 7 d , 
and for a great chopper called a fleshaxe 15'', c. and for a 
salt stone bought for the dovecote 2j d . 


Expenses of the Sheepfold. 

For wages of John Colyns, shepherd at Coockwell and the 
reeve there and at Wrechwyke this year 20% and for 2 rods 
of russet cloth bought and given to the same 2" 2 tl . And for 
12 hurdles for sheepfolds bought of Nicholas Aleyn i8 d , and 
for making thirty hurdles at Midlington Park ig' 1 . 

Purchases of grain. 

For 4 quarters of corn bought at Stratton from Nicholas 
Aleyn for making malt i6 8 . 

Purchase of Stock. 

For a bay horse bought of William Salt of Burcester at 
Christmas for the Prior's stable 26 s 8 d , and for two foals 
bought of John Arysbrook at Easter g 8 , and for 324 lbs of 
Spanish iron bought at Steresbrugge fair with carriage of 
the same i8 8 5 d . 

Weeding, mowing and carting of hay. 

For payments to divers men and women the I st July hired 
for weeding as appears by tally against the hayward this 
year i4 8 io d &c. 

Autumn Expenses. 

For 30 pair of autumn gloves bought for divers servants 
and other labourers this year 4 s &c. And for hiring Thomas 
Hamond to prepare for cartage 29 selions of barley 10 of 
which stretch to Laversfield Brook, and 19 lie in the middle 
furlong to the white cross at Buckenhull 8 d . And as a gift 
to William Skynner, the bakehouse boy, of the courtesy of 
the mowers for 10 days i2 d &c. 

Threshing and winnowing. 

To John Leseby for threshing 45 quarters of corn as appears 
by tally this year, taking tor each quarter 3| d 9" 4j d and for 
winnowers hired to winnow all kinds of grain threshed within 
the Priory this year io s &c. 


The Convent chamber. 

In payments to the Prior and Convent for their habits at 
the terms of the Annunciation of Blessed Mary and S fc 
Michael the Archangel this year io u 13* 4'* And in payments 
to Brothers Robert Lawton and William Meriton for their 
expenses at High am Ferrers at the feast of S l Michael 7". 

Purchase of livery cloth. 

For blue cloth bought for the esquires and grooms of the 
Prior from John Bandye of G l Tew, clothier, at Christmas 
7" 15* 2''. 

Fees with wages of servants. 

For fee of John Langston, steward, holding the court per 
annum 26" 8 d . For fee of William Saleman, the Prior's 
attorney in London, per annum 6 H 8' 1 &c. And for wages of 
John Baldwyn, the Prior's groom of the chamber, this year 
13* 4 d . And for wages of William Puffe, baker, per annum 15" 
And for wages of William Skynner, his assistant, 10", and for 
wages of his wife drying the malt this year lo 8 . And for 
wages of William Guide, barber this year 6 8 and for wages of 
Catherine Colyns making towels for the kitchen this year 2O d , 
and for wages of the laundress per annum 6 8 &c. 

Wages of farm servants. 

For wages of Robert Jamys, bailiff of the upper grange, 
per annum 13' 4 d , and for wages of Robert Clerk, hay ward 
this year . . . And for wages of William Lethnarde, holder 
of the plough this year 15% and for wages of William Evlyche, 
driver of the plough this year 14" 8 d &c. 

Wages of labourers. 

For John Leseby, making fences at the sheepfolds of 
Wrechwyk and Crockwell 13'' &c. and to John Soler, cutting 
21 cartloads of underwood at Bern wood 3" 2 d &c. and to a 
certain stranger hired to drive the plough and harrow for 12 
days I2' 1 &c. 


Foreign expenses. 

For expenses of John Gyles at Oxford with 2 chairs to be 
mended there, and for expenses of Brother William Chester- 
ton at Letcombe on the feast of S l Leonard, Abbot for rent in 
arrears this year i2 d . And in suits of Thomas Takkele on 
account of the return of 2 writs at Oxford 4'*. And to 
Richard Dymby, riding to London the second week of Advent 
for making his son a canon with 2 horses for 3 days 2 s . And 
in payment to the said Thomas Takkele for taking a certain 
boy, late servant of John Grene to Oxford Castle in Christmas 
week, because he agreed to serve the Prior and did not fulfil 
his engagement 2o (1 , and in payment to the gaoler there for re- 
ceiving the said servant into the castle as he had no warrant 
3 8 4 d . And for hurdles bought for Clifton bridge 7 d , and for 
timber bought at Curtlington with the carriage of the same 
for a pillory at Dadyngton to be newly made 2 8 &c. And in 
payment to John Spinan for making 4 quarters of malt at 
Easter i6 d . And for expenses of Richard Boteler at Trent- 
ham on the feast of S fc John before the Latin gate with 
letters of visitation of the Canons regular to be signed 4 d 
&c. And for expenses of the Prior at the general chapter 
held at Leicester 48 s 2 d . And in payment for beds of the ser- 
vants of the Archdeacons of Oxford and Buckingham lodging 
the night in the house of John Fletcher 2 d . And in all kinds 
of expenses of Brother Richard Albon at Steresbrugg fair 
with 3 horses going and coming to purchase divers victuals 
for 5 days 12 s 6 d . 

Expenses incurred in a suit against the Parishioners of 
Stratton for burials. 

For a gift to Master John Garton, proctor for the Prior 
against the same 3 s 4 d . And in expenses of John Baldwyn at 
London, speaking with Master William Hooper to have 
counsel in the said matter at the feast of S fc Osith Virgin 
this year 2O d , and in expenses of the Prior there for 7 days to 


prosecute the same matter 40" 8 d . And in expenses of John 
Saleman carrying hares, capons and other victuals to the 
Prior there i2 <! . And in gifts to the Rector of Wycheford's 
servant bringing good news of the said matter on S l 
Theodore's day 20''. And in gifts to Thomas Bekyngham on 
S Katherine's day, attorney for the Prior before the Bishop 
of Worcester in the said matter. . . . And in expenses of the 
Rector of Wycheford at London for 4 days with 2 horses 
before the said Bishop treating of the said matter 7" 8 d . 
And to Richard Boteler riding to London on the feast of 
S l Mary Magdalen to inquire concerning the coming of the 
said Bishop to Burcester for the same matter 2o d , and in gifts 
to four servants of Thomas Bekyngham being before the 
said Bishop to hear judgment given by the said Bishop on 
the morrow of S l Anne, mother of Mary, concerning 2 bodies 
in Stratton chapel which were to be exhumed and brought to 
Burcester, and concerning other injuries done against the 
Prior and his convent by the tenants there to be corrected 
6" 8 d , and for sundry victuals &c 27" 5 d , and in presents to the 
aforesaid Bishop when pronouncing the aforesaid judgment 
6 h 13" 4 d , and in presents to the clerks and gentlemen at that 
time 46' 8 d . 

Gifts of the Prior. 

In gifts to a Carmelite brother preaching at Burcester on 
the feast of S* Luke Evangelist 3" 4 d , and in gifts to the 
Prior's servants cleaning the fishpond at the mill, at the same 
feast 6 d , and in gifts to a player on the cithern at the same 
feast 8 <l , and in gifts to a boy sent to London to be a canon at 
the feast of All Saints 6 d , and in gifts to a man of Chesterton 
at the same feast for bringing back a deer which had 
escaped from the Priory, and in gifts to a minstrel of Lord 
Lestrange at the same feast i2 d , and in gifts to a groom of the 
forest bringing venison to the Priory on the morrow of the 
said feast i2 d , and in gifts to divers players at football on 
the feast of S l (Catherine virgin and martyr 4 d , and for 8 


woodcocks bought and given to the Lady Lestrange on the 
octave of the Epiphany, and in gifts to the shepherd of Crock- 
well on S fc Valentine's day 2 d . And in gifts to the Nuncio of 
the lord Bishop of Lincoln on the day of SS. Perpetua and 
Felicia 2O d , and for a pair of gloves bought and given to 
Master Thomas Beckyngham 20'', and for 12 pairs of gloves 
bought and given to divers men of the Bishop of Worcester 
5 8 , and in gifts for distribution to the poor on Maunday 
Thursday this year 3* 6 d , and in gifts to two shepherds 2 d . 
And in gifts to Lord Talbot's minstrel on the feast of S fc 
Ethelburg virgin i2 d , and in gifts to John Donesmore and 
other tenants and parishioners of ... for mending the bell 
there 6 s 8 d , and in gifts to the grooms of the forest carrying 
venison to the Prior on the feast of the dedication of the 
church this year 5% and for two pairs of best buskins given 
to the same 20 d , and in gifts to divers poor people at different 
times - 8 4 d . Total 53 s 7 d . 

Sum total of all the expenses aforesaid 2i8 u 9* 2f d And 
so remaining 55 U i 8 o| d . 

An account delivered to the Prior and Canons of 
Bicester by Henry the Deye and Joan his wife of the 
profits and expenses of the dairy in their Manor of 
Wrechwyke (8-9 Hen. IV.). 

Sale of Cows. 

First they account for 7 s received for a cow sold to John 
Grene butcher of Bicester this year 7 s . 

Sale of Calves. 

For 2o d received for the calf of the said cow sold to the 
said John Grene. And for I2 d received for a weak calf of 
a heifer sold to said John. And for IO H 8 d received for 5 this 
year's calves sold to the butcher of Langton. 

r TT-J Sum 1 7 s 4 d . 

Sale of Hides. 

Nothing this year. 



For 3 8 4 d received for the pasturage of divers animals 
within the aforesaid close and without. Sum 3" 4 d . 

Sale of Cheese. 

For 17" 6 d received for cheese and butter as appears by 
invoice remaining 1 against Brother Richard Albon, Canon, 
this year. 

Sale of fuel. 

For 2 8 2' 1 received for thorns and brambles remaining 
after making and mending the hedges of the close, sold to 
the men of Langton this year. And for 3 d received for one 
cartload of fuel sold to John Grene. Sum 2" 5 d . 

Sum total of receipts abovesaid ^4. 13. 7$. 


Of which there is allowed to the aforesaid Henry and Joan 
for their yearly wage paid at four terms of the year 13" 4 d . 
And allowed for 5^ bushels of salt bought this year 3" 4^ d . 
And by an exchange made for a cow remaining in stock for 
a young ox of John atte Mill 12'' . . . For a cow and its 
calf bought of John Okie butcher of Stratton 7" 6 d . For 
2 bushels of corn io <l . For the carriage of straw by William 
Holt junior from Stratton Rectory n (1 . For the making and 
mending of hedges to divers men of Langton 4" 2 d . For 
victuals of the same 2". For the carriage of white straw 
from Stratton Rectory n d . And for William Throcchere, 
thatching for 5 days io d . And for repair of the Cowhouse i i d . 

Sum 38" 2$. 

Costs of a new plough and instruments of husbandry 
For 2 oxen bought of John Clerk of Langton 26* 8 d . And 
for another ox bought of John Ive of Bicester n 6 d nothing 
here, because it appears in the account of the bursar of the 
Priory. And for two cows bought at Banbury with their young 
15" 2 d . For a plough lately bought of Hugh Spinan io d . For 
the making of another plough by John Benhull 4j d . For 


a ploughshare and coulter and a ploughshoe bought 23 d . 
And for another ploughshare this year nothing, because 
it is forthcoming from the plough work of the ploughman 
who ploughed Symon Adam's land. And they are allowed 
for payments to divers men for drawing and driving the 
plough with their victuals and expenses this year I7 S 9J. And 
for 1 1 bushels of corn for sowing, 5" ioj d . And a quarter of 
peas for sowing 2 s 8 d , received from Stratton Rectory, as 
appears by the roll of account of Nicholas Alleyn bailiff there 
this year. And for a quarter of barley this year nothing 
because received from Stratton Rectory as appears by the 
same account. And they are allowed for 18 bushels of grass 
seed bought for sowing 4* 6 d . And for hay bought for the 
cows and oxen 6 s . And for three new hurdles bought for 
folding sheep i8 d . And for a seedcod 3 d . And for a cart- 
saddle, collar and a pair of reins i4 d . And for another collar 
of white leather 4 d . And for making the drawgear by 
Walter the carpenter of Langeton 3 d . And for two other 
collars 2 d . And for two hempen halters with a whipcord 3''. 
And for iron bought with three horseshoes 7 d . And for wages 
of William Throcchere mowing the Breche meadow i6 d . 
And for a dungcart bought of Simon Adam with its appurte- 
nances i4 d . And for a cart made by Richard Schereman 9 d . 
And for a pair of wheels made by John Helmenden 3* 2 (i , 
and for Richard Plumber forking the haycart for 12 days 
3 s &c. &c. Sum total 109* 2j d . 


Mr. Thorold Rogers has transcribed the following 
details from the bailiff's Account of Cuxham, Oxon, 
for the year 1330-1 as to expenses incurred on a journey 
to and from London for purchase of millstones : 

Five stones from foreign parts bought in London at 
3 U 3 s 4 d each : the luck or bargain penny (Argentum dei) i (l , 


5 gallons of wine for drinks 2 8 i d , loading in a ship at 
London 5 s ; wharfage 7i d , murage io d , carriage London 
to Henley 11" 2 d ; murage at Mayden-church io' ! ; journey 
of bailiff, servant and horse to and from London 3* oj d , 
the journey taking three days. Expenses on another occa- 
sion for four days in seeing to the carriage of the stones 4*. 
Expenses of three men for three days at Henley boring 
the stones, and the expenses of two carters carrying two 
stones to Cuxham 3" 9 d , iron bought 2| d , steel bought for 
biles to bore the stones 9 d : smith for making the biles and 
sharpening them again and again 2 8 . Two hoops bought for 
carrying two stones to Oxford 6 J . 

The comments on the above account give such a 
graphic picture of mediaeval life and manners that we 
cannot forbear quoting the passage in extenso : 

The bailiff seems not only to have paid the luck penny, 
but to have provided the beverage during the consumption 
of which the bargain was negotiated and completed. The 
purchase and the further business of treating for the carriage 
involved two separate journeys ; and the transit is marked 
by the claim of a toll from the City of London and the town 
of Maidenhead. At Henley, labourers are hired to bore the 
stones ; as usual, iron and steel are bought and served out 
to the smith, and with the latter article biles (that is plainly 
boring tools) are framed on the spot, the smith being retained 
to continually sharpen the tools. The manor wagon takes 
home three of the stones and two are forwarded to Oxford 
for use at the Holywell or King's Mill. Robert Oldman the 
Cuxham bailiff was like his father, who had held the office 
for many years, a serf of the manor. He must have journeyed 
on that road to London which passes through Worth, Wy- 
combe, and Uxbridge. The lower route through Dorchester, 
Nettlebed, and Henley had not been made, or if made was not 
frequented, if we may argue from a map of England now 


preserved in the Bodleian Library and certainly drawn at about 
the middle of the fourteenth century, which gives roads and 
distances. This upper route, lying for a considerable portion 
of its course on high land, the north slope of which is the 
Vale of Aylesbury, is one of the most picturesque highways 
in the southern part of England. At dawn in the midsummer 
of 1331 (for the charges incurred are written at the foot of 
the roll) bailiff, servant, and horse start on their expedition 
and achieve the distance, more than forty miles, in the course 
of the day through the beechwoods of Buckinghamshire and 
the rich pastures of Middlesex. Arrived in London, they 
take up their lodgings at one of the numerous hotels in the 
city and, according to the fashion of the time, cater for the 
need of themselves and their horse. Early next day Oldman 
sets about the serious business on which he had come, and 
finds the merchant at the wharf which lay below the southern 
City wall. Having chosen the stones which suit the two 
mills, his own and that at Oxford, he adjourns to his inn, or 
to some tavern near, in order to discuss the terms of his 
bargain. We may be certain that the chaffering was long 
and serious and that, in Oldman's opinion at least, the time 
and money were not idly spent, when he aids his bargaining 
by the liberal order of 5 galls, of Gascony. It is not every 
day that the merchant finds a customer whose demands are 
so large or who has set his heart on the best articles 
which can be found in his "selda" or warehouse. These deep 
potations are at last ended by the merchant abating some- 
thing of his morning price, the bargain is struck, the luck 
penny is delivered, and there are witnesses to the transaction. 
After so unaccustomed a debauch the bailiff returns next 
morning by the same route to his farm and his duties. But 
he must journey again to London in order to negotiate the 
terms at which his goods shall be carried and to pay for the 
millstones. On this occasion more time is consumed ; 
possibly for such a vessel as would be able to carry these 


heavy articles, possibly in another keen bargaining about the 
amount to be paid for the service. No doubt other pota- 
tions were deemed necessary for the completion of these 
arrangements ; but in dealing with sailors and wharfingers 
less costly beverages sufficed and no special note was made 
of the consumption. This contract, however, is settled at last, 
and the stones are laid on board, payment being made for 
wharfage. Now comes the toll for the city wall, and, free at 
last, the vessel works its way with the tide up the great 
river, whose waters were as yet undefiled, through the rich 
salmon fisheries of Westchene, between the winding banks 
of the royal forest, and beneath the hill not yet crowned 
with the great palace which the young King would hereafter 
delight to build. Then on to Maidenhead, where a further 
murage was to be paid, due probably as the former was to 
the City of London, whose jurisdiction over the Thames 
extended at least thus far. 

And then they traversed the fairest part of the river 
scenery, the horseshoe, namely, which lies between the 
wooded hills of Maidenhead, Wycombe, and Marlow, till 
the boat rested at Henley, then the highest point to which 
the navigation of the Thames was ordinarily possible. The 
bailiff is present to receive his goods, and soon gets ready 
the service, which he finds it will be more convenient to 
employ on the spot by purchasing iron and steel, by hiring a 
smith to fashion his steel into picks or awls, and by engaging 
the services of three men for three days in the labour of 
boring the stones, a labour of no trifling character, as the 
smith is perpetually occupied in sharpening his tools. 


NONNESPLACE was a small manorial estate in 
Bicester which belonged to the Benedictine 
Priory of Markyate (Market Street), in Cadding- 
ton parish, county of Bedford. The following extent 
was taken in the eighteenth year of Edward II. Two 
extracts from custumals of manors belonging to Glas- 
tonbury (thirteenth century), Bureton and Longbridge, 
and an early extent temp. Henry III. of the manor of 
Warkworth, Northumberland, follow. 


Free tenants of inheritance. 

John le Veche and Agnes his wife hold a messuage and 
curtilage l which is between the land sometime Emma Bart- 
lett's and John Baker's land. They hold also an acre of land 
whereof half an acre lies under Buchomway between Hugh 
Elyot's land and William Hamond's land, and the other half 
acre lies in the land called Grasscroftfurlong and extends 
towards Chesterton between Walter Langley's land and 
William Hamond's land, and they pay for the same one half- 

1 Courtyard. 


penny at Easter which said messuage curtilage and land the 
said John and Agnes have of the demise of Nicholas le Rede 
and Annora his wife by their deed, paying for the same to the 
chief lord J d as aforesaid. And they hold by form of the 
statute as in the Court held at Bicester the Tuesday next after 
the feast of S l Dyonysius the g th year of King Edward son of 
King Edward, is fully contained on which day the said John 
did fealty. The said John holds a messuage and half a 
virgate of land by homage and fealty which Hugh atte Ford 
the chaplain formerly held and which the said Hugh had of 
the gift of Margery atte Ford his mother which land she held 
of the lord in chief paying per annum 2" 6' 1 at four terms of 
the year, to wit, at the feasts of S fc Michael, the Nativity of 
our Lord, the Annunciation of blessed Mary and the Nativity 
of S l John Baptist by equal portions . . . 

John, son of Thomas Abbot, holds by a certain deed in- 
dented made to Thomas Abbot and the heirs of his body 
bfegotten, by Agnes sometime Prioress, a messuage with 
curtilage where he dwells which is situated between the 
messuage which Robert le Webbe sometime held and the 
capital messuage which Henry Smith sometime held and 
pays per annum i2 d and does suit of court. . . . 

William son of John Squier holds a messuage with curti- 
lage to him and his heirs of his body lawfully begotten, by a 
certain deed indented made in the name of Agnes, Prioress of 
Markyate and her convent which messuage with curtilage 
was formerly Hugh Cook's of Bicester, and pays for the same 
per annum at the terms aforesaid 2 8 and does suit of court. 

Demesne lands demised for term of life. 

Simon Germeyn and Matilda his wife hold by deed 
indented for term of their lives, 16 acres of land of which 
i acre lies in Southfield upon Grasscroftfurlong, and 2 acres 
upon Littlemorefurlong, and i acre in the Furlong towards 
Bigenhull, and 2\ acres upon Hodesfurlong, and \ an acre 


which is called Broadhalfacre in Tachmillway and i acre 
upon Merefurlong nearer Bicester, and 3 acres in Northfield 
upon Brookfurlong, and 2 acres upon Waterfurlong, and 
i acre in Lallesden, and 2 acres in le Breche, and pay for 
the same per ann. at the terms aforesaid lo 8 . . . . 

Rents and services of customary tenants. 

Robert son of Nicholas Germeyn holds a messuage and 
half a virgate of land in bondage at the will of the lady, and 
owes one ploughing in winter and one hoeing, and owes one 
wedbedrip at the will of the lady, and he shall have one 
meal, and owes one mowing for half a day, and a whole 
virgate of the same tenure, he shall have free mowing in the 
evenings, as much as a mower can lift with his scythe and 
carry home by himself, and the mower s*hall have his break- 
fast of the lady Prioress and the same Robert and all the 
other customary tenants of the lady shall have a free 
mowing in the meadow called Gilberdesham without dinner, 
and they owe to turn and lift the hay and make it into cocks 
and each one ought to carry four cartloads of hay to the 
court of the Prioress, and he shall have his breakfast from 
the lady Prioress and for a virgate of land of the same 
holding he shall do three boon days in autumn, to wit, a 
precary without dinner with three men, and one boon day 
without dinner with one man, and if he be a binder at the 
said precaries he shall have a sheaf of seed of the last hay 
bound, and he owes also a boon day at the will of the lady 
with his whole family except his wife, with dinner from the 
lady and when a binder has his dinner he shall not have a 
sheep and he ought to carry four carts of hay in autumn to 
the manor house of the lady, and he shall have his breakfast 
and he ought to be talliaged at the feast of S fc Michael at the 
will of the lady Prioress, and he ought not to sell a male 
horse or ox of his own, nor put his son to learning, nor marry 
his daughter without the licence and will of the Prioress ; 


and if the Prioress be present the said Robert shall find and 
carry the victuals and drink of the Prioress for the time 
she shall make a stay in the country at her will, and shall 
pay also per annum at the four accustomed terms 2* 6 d and 
suit of court. 

William Hamond holds a messuage and half a virgate of 
land by the same service and pays per annum 2* 6 d . 

William Cavel holds a messuage and half a virgate of land 
in form aforesaid and pays per annum 2 8 6' 1 . [Other tenants 
enumerated holding by the same services and rent.] 

Alice who was the wife of Richard le Grey cottager and 
native of the lady holds a messuage, two acres of land and 
half an acre of meadow and does one hoeing and one 
wedbedrip, and one tossing of the hay and finds one man 
to make the haycocks, as the aforesaid Robert son of 
Nicholas, and shall work three boon days in autumn without 
food and pays per ann. i2 (l . 

Nicholas Attewell holds a messuage with a croft and two 
acres of land and half an acre of meadow by the same 
services as the aforesaid Alice, and pays per annum i8 d and 
owes suit of court. 


The following are translations of portions of the 
Custumals of Glastonbury circa 1250, published by the 
Somerset Record Society : 


These are the rents and customs owing yearly to the lord 
Abbot of Glastonbury from the vill of Bureton. 1 

Robert Tac holds i virgate of land and pays of gavol [i.e. 
money rent] yearly 4' at four annual terms, to wit, at each 
term 12*', and for a gift to the larderer at the feast of 

1 Burton, a manor within ih< parish ul Marnhull. 


S l Martin 2 s , and a cock and hen for cherset on S 1 Martin's 
day. And he owes to be at the lord's bedrip for 2 days, to 
wife, at the winter bedrip with as many oxen as he has and 
with his plough and horse or mare if he have one, and the 
lord shall find him in food, to wit, one day in bread, meat, 
pottage and beer in sufficient and good quality and the next 
day in bread, cheese, pottage and beer. And he owes also 
to be at the lord's bedrip in Lent with his plough and horse 
if he have one, and with as many oxen as he has for one day. 
And he ought to have from the lord for each plough i d and 
for each harrow i farthing. And he owes to be at the lord's 
bedrip in summer, to wit, to work at the fallow one day with 
his plough if he have one, and with as many oxen as he has, 
and the lord shall find him in bread and cheese. And he 
owes to come one day with one man to weed the lord's corn, 
and shall find him in bread and cheese once in the day, and 
after that day he shall come every day after Pentecost with 
one man until the lord's corn shall be weeded except feast 
days and Saturdays, until the lord's field shall be reaped. 
And he shall weed daily till terce, and shall have nothing. 
And he owes to come with one reaping hook to reap the 
seven meadows of the lord of which three meadows are at 
Burton and four meadows at Niweton. And he and his 
fellows shall have half a measure of corn and a ram or i2 d 
at the will of the lord and i cheese of the best cheeses that 
are made at the lord's hall, so that it do not exceed the price 
of 5 d . And he owes to toss the said meadows with his 
fellows, and they have nothing. And if he rides to Niweton 
on his beast to mow the said meadows, he shall give 
his beast while he is mowing there of the grass which he 
mows for his fodder, and he owes to find one man and the 
third part of a wain to carry the lord's hay and corn as long 
as necessary both at Niweton and at Burton and each wain 
should have from the lord's wood one trunk which is called 
wenbote. And these trunks they ought to have when they 


begin to mow, and when they carry the hay they shall have 
nothing. Also he owes to work every day from the feast of 
S l Peter ad Vincula to the feast of S l Michael, excepting 
feast days and Saturdays And when he reaps he owes to 
reap i acre and he shall have nothing. And he owes to reap 
a bedrip at Burton twice, to wit 2 acres of corn one day, and 
another day 2 acres of oats. And when he collects brush- 
wood (coopertionem) he owes to collect ten heaps, and in each 
heap, ten armfuls, to wit, in the first week after autumn 
and in the second week nine heaps and in the third week 
eight heaps, since at each solemn feast the need of it de- 
creases until at feast of S l Michael, they collect but one heap. 
And when he threshes he owes to thresh a sixth part of one 
measure and to winnow the same and to have nothing. And 
when he collects fencewood, he owes to collect two bundles 
of thorns and carry them to the court but not to make the 
fence, or one bundle of thorns and one bundle of rods, and to 
make the fence. And he owes to thresh i measure of corn 
at Mow-thrash (mughythress) and to have the straw. And 
he shall have such measure which he may sell at Sherburn or 
S l Edward's [Shaftesbury] less 2 (l , or he can drink a scot-ale of 
the lord for d . Also if the lord's court shall be injured by wind 
or tempest he shall help with the other neighbours to put 
the lord's buildings in good repair. And every year he owes 
with his neighbours to separate the ox-shed [i.e. to weed 
out the weakly stock] of the lord if there is need. And he 
owes for the whole year to carry the lord's corn with his 
beast, as well from Niweton as Burton to Glastonbury or 
(ls ( where at the lord's will. And he should have when he 
carries to Glastonbury, to wit, for each horse i loaf, and if he 
carries the lord's corn to market to be sold, for each horse he 
should have a quarter. Also for every cart when they carry 
the corn in autumn he shall have daily 3 sheaves and the man 
who is in the grange to stack the lord's corn from the carts 3 
sheaves a day, to wit, from the last cart. Also he owes with 


his other neighbours to cut down a trunk once a year and to 
help place it on the cart, or prepare it for firewood against 
the lord's coming. And he ought, he and another holder of 
a yardland, to have a log at Christmas from the lord's wood 
which is called woodtale (wdetale), and the lord to find him 
in food on Christmas Day, to wit, in bread, cheese, pottage and 
two dishes of meat. And he shall take with him a plate, mug 
and napkin if he wishes to eat off a cloth, and he shall 
bring a faggot of brushwood to cook his food, unless he 
would have it raw. And if he have a young ox calved, he 
can sell it before he shall have yoked it, but after he has 
yoked it, he cannot without licence of the lord's bailiffs. 
And if he have a male foal foaled, he can sell him without 
licence whilst he is being suckled, but after he is weaned not 
at all. And if he have porkers he can sell them at will before 
the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin [8 th Sept.], but after that 
day not at all, unless he gives pannage to the lord, nor can he 
marry his daughter to any except upon tihe lord's land without 
licence, but upon the lord's land well. Also he owes to harrow 
the lord's land in winter daily, until he can use the lord's 
ploughs and in Lent similarly to harrow the oats. And the 
lord ought to have a draught beast to carry the seed and to 
harrow his land after it has been harrowed until plough 
time. Also he ought to have housebote and haybote from 
the lord's wood. Also he owes to help with his neighbours 
every year to well enclose the Holpulemede. Also he owes 
one feast day in autumn to gather nuts in the lord's wood 
for the use of the lord, and he owes to enclose the lord's 
park at Pilton, and he owes to carry, if necessary, great 
timber to the lord's hall with his neighbours, if the lord 
wishes to build there. And the said Robert, and every tenant 
that keeps pigs, shall have a sow free of pannage. 

Whoever is the lord's ploughman owes to plough every 
day of the year when the weather permits. And if he cannot 
plough he shall do any other work the bailiffs choose to assign 


him. And owes through the whole winter, when the oxen are 
in stall, every day to bring the hay from the haymow and 
carry it into the ox-shed, and every day to assist in cleaning 
the ox-shed. And he ought to have timber out of the lord's 
wood to make the ploughs, and yokes and other necessaries 
pertaining thereto, all of which he shall make at his own 
cost. And he ought to have in each field one acre which is 
called Sulaker. And one ploughman has three parcels of arable 
land in one field, and the second ploughman three parcels in the 
other field, and the third of them has none. And each of them 
(\.r\- year hath a parcel of meadow. And all the plough- 
men and drivers ought to have every year in summer two 
bushels of corn and in autumn two sulions of corn to be 
divided among the ploughmen and drivers, and they ought 
to have every Saturday the lord's plough, to wit, one Satur- 
day a ploughman, and the other a driver, and they ought to 
be quit of gavol. 1 Also the drivers should through the whole 
year take good care of the lord's oxen, as well in winter 
as in summer. And a driver ought to have every year four 
parcels of arable land. And should the lord's oxen in their 
company be deteriorated or die through their default or 
negligence, they are bound to make satisfaction thereof to 
the lord. 

And the hayward of Burton is quit yearly of gavol for his 
service 2o d , and he may have in the lord's enclosed ground, 
as long as the animals are at grass, one ox or one cow. And 
he ought to have in the autumn one cartload of the lord's 
corn. And he ought to have two parcels of meadow and the 
road which is between Suthhull and Walton, to wit, the 
grass of that road, and one parcel of arable land under 
Walton by Wetermede ; and should the lord's corn or 
meadow be deteriorated, he shall make it good by view of 
the lord's lawful men. 

1 They pay no n m. 



Ralph, son of Maud, holds i virgate of land from the 
time of Thomas the Prior, and he renders of gafol per annum 
5 s and i6 d of gift for the larder. 1 And he owes a ploughing 
which is called Garshurth at the feast of S l John, 5 acres. 
And he should come with his plough on S* John's Eve to 
the lord's land. And at the feast of S l Martin he owes to 
plough 4 acres for corn, and to bring the seed for those 4 
acres from the lord's hall. And the hayward owes to sow the 
same, and the said Ralph to harrow the same. And he owes 
to plough with his plough one acre for oats, when it shall be 
commanded him, and to bring the seed from the lord's hall as 
is aforesaid for the 4 acres and to harrow the said acres. And 
for this ploughing he shall have his animals and his horses 
free of herbage and pannage on the lord's hills. And when 
his animals cannot go upon the hills, then he shall have the 
right to put his sheep upon the hills in winter after the lord's 
sheep. And if, within the feast of S* Michael and that of the 
Purification of Blessed Mary, he kill or sell any yearling pig 
he owes pannage, i d , and if it shall be half a year old, ^ d . 
And he renders always on S 1 Martin's Day for kirkset three 
measures as appointed in the lord's hall, one year of corn, 
and the next of fine wheat if married, and if not, half kirkset. 
And he owes for autumn service, between S* Peter's Chains 
and the feast of S* Michael, every day except Saturday, 
whatever service the bailiff points out to him, to wit, if 
he should reap he should reap half an acre and from the 
same to have one sheaf by strap [per consiam, i.e. by a 
thong of a certain length wherewith the reaper bound a cer- 
tain quantity of corn] as appointed of old, except the first 
day of reaping. And when the sheaves of half an acre are 
gathered up, he can glean a handful which is called "lash- 
anwul," and when he carries the lord's corn he ought to 
1 Where the tenants had their meat salted. 


carry for the whole day, and to have 2 sheaves which are 
called wensewes. And if he be an outsider in the service of 
the lord, he ought to have his sheaf by strap, and if any of his 
household reap or carry they should have in the same manner, 
whatever work it may be. And if he reap the stubble, he 
should reap one cartload and bring it to the lord's hall and 
have one sheaf of the same stubble, and if he is reaping with- 
out a cart he should reap ten bundles (muncellos), each bundle 
of 10 sheaves, and every feast day he should have that service 
diminished by one bundle, until he come to five bundles and 
then he shall stand at five bundles for that service. And if 
any sheaf appear less than is right, it ought to be put in the 
mud, and the hay ward should take hold of his hair above his 
ear, and the sheaf should be drawn through his arm, which if 
it can be done without the soiling of his clothes or hair it 
should be considered less than is right, but otherwise it shall 
be adjudged sufficient. And if he owes to carry rods or fenc- 
ing, he should carry once only in a day, and if he goes to the 
copse with his own cart he shall have a companion of a simi- 
lar holding, and that shall be accounted for them the service 
of one day. And he owes to plough at the lord's boon days 
one acre if he have his plough by himself, and if two or 
three join with him in the plough they ought not to plough 
more than the one acre. 

And they shall have their necessaries as the others do each 
day. And he owes to wash and shear the lord's sheep to- 
gether with the others and to have a cheese with the others 
made in the lord's hall the same day. And he owes to reap 
the lord's meadow and carry the lord's hay until it shall be all 
carried. And he ought with the others to have one cuillanl 
[chilver-she lamb] 4 cheeses worth 8 d and 2 loaves as by 
custom. And he ought to carry for the lord Abbot, if so 
commanded, to Dichesthete or to Cranmere or to Wilton and 
here, within a circuit of 15 leagues and at any time by 
precept of the chamberlain, they shall carry to Glastonbury, 


but not of right. And then the chamberlain shall find 
necessaries sufficient for them and their horses. 

And they ought to bring the monks cloth from S fc Giles 
fair to Longbridge, or from Longbridge to Glastonbury at 
the charge of the chamberlain, and each ought to have his 
sheaf as those of the household. And if he owes to do work 
which is called "andwike" in the lord's hall, he shall come 
in the morning and do as the bailiff commands him till terce, 
whether digging, fencing or any other work. And if he 
owes to spread marl he shall bring 5 parcels per day and 
shall be quit, and the lord shall draw the marl on to 
the marlpit. And if he bring manure as far as Blankland in 
Rogediche he shall go fifteen times in a day, and if he bring 
it over the water he shall go fifteen times in two days, and if 
at any time he be sick, he shall be quit of all service for 
15 days. And he owes to weed 2 days after dinner and the 
third day to do the same at request, and when he threshes 
he should thresh 2 bushels by measure of wheat and of oats 
4 bushels and to have a pailful. And he cannot marry his 
daughter without the lord's licence. And he ought by right 
to have one of his sons in free aid l at Hocktide. Nor can 
he sell his ox or horse without the lord's licence, and the 
lord near. And if he die he ought to leave the lord his horse 
if he have one with the bridle, and, if he have not a horse, 
the best chattel he hath. Nor is he bound to carry the lord's 
wool or cheese beyond 15 leagues. The time of hanwork 
is between the feast of S fc Peter's Chains and the feast of 
S fc Michael, and beyond that, he shall not do any work except 
carriage when his turn comes. [List of tenants who owe 
similar services.] 

Geoffrey Salferioc holds a cottage and renders 2 s per ann. 
and 5 (l for a gift (to the larder). And at the will of the lord 
he holds a plough or keeps the pigs or sheep and is quit of 
all gavol per annum. And if he does not this service he 
must work for one term of the year and be quit of 6 d gavol. 

1 i.e. to help him. 


And if he keep the sheep he shall have the milk of those 
which have no lambs living, of twenty nine and not more, 
and he shall carry the residue to the lord's hall. And he 
ought to have two lambs of the best and one skin and one 
acre which is called Wexsingaker, and to sow the same with 
>wn seed if he will. And he ought to have foldage 
for 15 days when he watches the lord's fold, and 30 sheep 
free of pannage in the lord's fold. And if he have more 
he must pay pannage for every sheep (in excess) J d , and 
he should have from Hocktide to S* Peters chains, all the 
milk from the sheep on Sunday in common with the dairy 
maid and assistant. And every day his portion, and his 
dog another portion. And on every day of reaping, except 
one day, a sheaf by strap and a small parcel of land for the 
feed of the dog. And if he is ploughman he ought always 
to have throughout the year on every third Saturday the 
lord's plough, and between the feast of S fc Peter and feast 
of S l Michael it shall be at the lord's will whether he have 
the plough every third Saturday, or every day of harvest a 
sheaf by strap. And there are small portions of lands which 
belong to the ploughs called Sulstiche and Goddingchestiche 
whereof he, if he is ploughman, ought to have a parcel as the 
others. And whether the said Geoffrey be ploughman or 
harrower he ought, together with the rest of the said tenement, 
to watch with the hay ward on S fc John's Eve at the extremity 
of the lord's culture, and participate with the others of a 
lamb, and he shall have a branch from the lord's wood for 
fire that night. And if he makes hurdles for the fold he 
shall make 5 hurdles a day for 2 days, and if he make smaller 
hurdles he shall make 3 hurdles a day. And if he spread marl 
he must spread one row, and if dung two rows, and he may 
have a cow and a heifer free of pannage, but as to swine, he 
shall do as the others. And if he is a simple cottar he can 
have 10 sheep in the fold free of pannage. And all the 
cottars similarly. And he renders 4 hens for kirkset. [List 
of tenants with similar services.] 



Extent of the whole manor of Werkworth. 

Names of the jurors : Thomas at the Cross, Robert, clerk, 
Henry de Bocelesdune, Henry the fisher (piscator), Robert 
son of Aiming, William son of Alice, Robert Scot. 

And they say that there are there in demesne 3 carucates of 
land containing 315 acres, and that the price of each acre is 
5 tl . Sum total 6 9* 7''. 

And there are there 15 acres of meadow, the price of each 
acre i8 d , with certain places at the head of the corn. Sum 
of the money 22 s 6 d . 

Also of the farm of the township of Werkworth with the 
farm of the new town yearly 78* 7^. And they ought to find 
from each house of the borough and new town i man to reap 
(metentem) for 2 days in autumn at the food of the lord or 
of the lady 5'* for 2 days. Sum of money of the aforesaid 
services 5. 

Item the toll of the borough and of ale are worth per ann. 
io s . Also of the oven 2 2o 8 . 

The mill is worth yearly 40 marks, whereof the Prior of 
Tynemouth takes 3 marks yearly by charter. 

The fishing is worth sometimes more, sometimes less, but 
this year it was worth 6 with a certain small boat which is 
called Cobel. 

There are there 3 salt pits which yield yearly 8 quarters of 
salt, the price of each quarter is i6 d , and the sum of money 
is io s 8 (1 . 

Also the said salt pits yield yearly for one piece of ground 
containing about half an acre 15''. 

There is one small plot where there are 2 vivaries, 3 the 
herbage and curtilage are worth yearly 2*. 

1 Inq. p.m., C, Hen. III., File 9(1). 

2 The tenants were bound to bake their bread at the lord's oven. 

3 Fishponds. 


There is one castle for the custody of which lord Roger 
gave each year 20 marks and 3 robes. 

There is there a small round wood which is called Sunder- 
land which is half a league in circumference, the herbage 
whereof belongs to the lord. 

Sum of the aforesaid town ^44. 12. nj. in value besides 
40" which the Prior of Tynemouth took. 


There are there 2 1 bondmen each of whom holds 30 acres of 
land and each pays per ann. of farm 3" 6 d . And shall give 
yearly 4 quarters of barley malt or 9" at the will of the 
lord and gives yearly of stallage 2 d . And gives for the 
custody of the animals of the lord 3 d yearly, and gives at 
Christmas one hen or i d . And shall work each week for 3 
days unless a feast happens, or shall pay for the service 
aforesaid yearly 5" at the will of the lord. And mows in 
autumn for 5 days with 2 men, to wit, for 3 days at the food 
of the lord, and 2 days at his own food, the price of this ser- 
vice 6 d . And moreover he shall carry to the Castle one 
cartload of wood from the wood of Alintone or shall pay i d . 

Sum of the aforesaid rents and services in money 
ig. ii. ij. 

Also the aforesaid bondmen give yearly for i meadow 
which is called Rumedu 5". 

Also Robert Aning holds 3 acres of land and pays yearly i 
quarter of barley malt of the old measure, or 2'. 

Also Roger Wambe holds 20 acres of land of the demesne 
by charter during his life for taking care of the park. 

And the same [Roger Wambe] holds 4 acres of land for 
2* 6 d yearly for all services. 

And there are there 10 farmers who hold 168 acres of land 
and pay yearly in money 75" i r 1 . And do yearly 40 works by 
one man a day, to wit, each of them does the works at the food 


of the lord, and the aforesaid works are worth yearly 25 d 
besides the food. There are there 2 cottagers who hold 5 
acres of land and pay yearly 2 8 g (1 of farm and do works 
which are worth 5' 1 . 

Also William the blacksmith holds 9 acres of land for 
making the ironwork of the ploughs of Werkworth and for 
shoeing horses. 

Also there is there i park which is about 4 leagues in cir- 
cumference, in which there are this day according to estima- 
tion about 7 score beasts, to wit, young bucks and does, but 
there are no large deer to be found there. And there are 
there 7 or 8 ** bisce " and i stag of 2 or 3 years. Moreover 
there are there 2 small woods the herbage whereof is common 
pasture of the township of Alintone And they are allowed 
to take house-bote and hay-bote out of them by liberty of 

Sum of the aforesaid bondmen in money ^4 io g 8 (l . 

Sum of all the aforesaid township of Alintone in money 


In the township of Birling there are 10 bondmen each of 
whom holds 30 acres of land and pays yearly of farm 3* 6 d 
and 4 quarters of barley malt or 9% and this at the will of the 
lord, and does other services which are computed at 6 s i d . 
Sum of the aforesaid farm and malt and other services in 
money ^9 5 s io d . 

Also Henry le Messer holds one small parcel of land for 
i6| d yearly. 

There are there 6 cottagers each of whom gives yearly of 
farm 8 d arid does other services which are worth 2 d . 

Also William Gustard holds i cottage for 4 B yearly. Sum 
6* 8J. 

Sum of the aforesaid township of Birling in money 



William son of Walter holds the moiety of the township of 
Buttelesdune and pays yearly i6 8 and gives for keeping one 
horse and i dog 13" 4 d yearly ; and for stallage 2* and he 
ploughs for i day with 2 ploughs and does 3 boon days in 
autumn each day with 5 men at the food of the lord, which 
services are worth yearly nj' 1 . 

William son of Lambert holds the other moiety of the 
aforesaid township and gives of farm yearly 30". And gives 
for keeping i dog and i horse 6" 8 d . And does other services 
which are worth yearly ni' 1 . And gives for stallage 2". 

Sum of the aforesaid township of Buttelesdune in money 
71- ii' 1 . 


The 4 th part of the town is of the fee of Werk worth, and 
William of Togesdene holds it by charter and pays yearly 
20* for all. The pleas of Werkworth according to estimation 
are worth yearly 40*. Sum 6o 8 . 

Sum of the sums of the whole manor of Werkworth 
^84. 19. 2j. Out of which there are owing to the sacrist 
of the Church of Durham by charter of the Lord Robert son 
of Roger, 20* yearly to keep 4 wax lights about the body of 
the Blessed Cuthbert. And the Lord Roger used to give 
yearly for the custody of the castle and manor ^13. 6. 8. 
per ann., and 3 robes, and hay and oats for 2 horses. 
So there remains clear in the purse (bursa) of the lord 
^79. 6. 7J. Moreover the pannage is scarcely worth 3* 
yearly as is aforesaid. 

The Bishop of Carlisle holds the Church of Werkworth to 
his own use which is commonly worth ^ico per ann. 




THERE is at the Public Record Office a large 
collection of Court Rolls from every county in 
England and Wales, including those belonging 
to the Duchy of Lancaster. These have been well 
calendared, and published in Lists and Indexes No. 6, 
under the direction of the Deputy-Keeper. The two 
following lists- of those in custody of the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners and those from the Land Revenue 
Office are separate collections, having only manuscript 
calendars at present. To these are added lists of Rolls 
at the British Museum, Lambeth Palace, and the 
Bodleian Library. 


Deposited at the Public Record Office, and only open to the public 
by permission to be obtained from the Commissioners. 


Canterbury Palace Hen. IV-Jas. I 

(Aldington, Wingham, Teynham, West- 
gate, Calehill, Seven Hundreds, Herne, 
Maidstone, Charing, Burham.) 



Westgate . Ric. II-Jas. II 

(With Harbledown, Cockering, Stoursete, 
Harwich, Rushborne, Tunford, Hacking- 
ton, Staplegate.) 

Wingham Hen. VII-Eliz. 

(Chilton Overland, Deane, Eythorn, 
Womenswold, Godnestone, Rollinge, 
Twitham, Wenderton.) 

Reculver Hen. VII-Anne 

(With Chelmyngton, Shittendon, Haw, 
Hoath, Broxgate, Belting, Strode, Thorn- 
den, Stourmouth West, Stourmouth 

Gillingham (with Middleborough, East- ^ Ed. VI, etc. 
borough, Westborough, Walde). 

Teynham (with Walda, Okynfold, I wade, 
Bumpett, Bedmangore, Lewyson). 

Boughton (with Waterham, Graveney, 
Seaton, Nash, Staple, Millsheet, Hurfeld, 
Wastell, Menham). 

Petham . . . . . . . Ed. VI, etc. 

(With Bere, Stoneted, Stepington, Cote- 
rey, Brodewey, Hanveld, Grandacre, 
Temple Waltham.) 

Northbourne ^ Ed. VI, etc. 

(With Sutton, Fynglesam, Sholdon, 
Assheley, Martin, Tickenhurst.) 

Chislet (with Westbere and Blean, West- 
beches, Hatche, Ernesborow, Craft, Ore). 

Downbarton Hen. VII-Mary 

(With All Saints, Sarre.) 


Deal Prebend 


Waddon (Surrey) 

Croydon (Surrey) 

Lambeth (Surrey) 



Hawkinge, alias Fligges Court, alias 


River, alias Craybole 


Adesham (Aderham) 

(Gower (Gore), Mongeham, Langdon, 
Hawkinge (Halklynge), Staple, Godmer- 
sham, Shepway, Maidstone, Seven Hun- 
dreds, Silveston, alias Silston, Heronden, 
Harnden. ) 

Appledore (Apulder) .... 

(Hathfield, Reading, Herynden, Ovyn- 
ham, Myrtylham, Benequik, Warehorn.) 


Booking (Bockinghall) (Essex) . 

Borley (Essex) 

Boughton (Boyton) (Essex) 




Gt. Chart ..... 
(Shilvington, Buxford, Worting, Rodlo, 
Schrympynden, Reading, Swynford.) 


Various dates 


Ric. II-Geo. II 

Chas. II 
Ric. II-Hen. V 
Ed. II 

Ed. I-Geo. II 
Ed. 1 1 I-Geo. II 
Ed. I-Hen. VI 


Felborough Ed.III&Hen.VI 

(Shalmsford, Rodyntone.) 

Chartham Ed. III-Geo. II 

Cliffe West (Westcleve) .... Hen.IV-iEd.V 
(Osterland, Southwood, Cowlyng, 

Copton Hen. VI 

Deopham (Norfolk) Ed. II-Anne 


Doccumbe (Devon) Ed. II-Chas. I 

Eastray Hen.VI-Geo. II 

(Worth, Crouthorn (Craythorne), Felder- 
land, Barnsoll, Gedding 1 .) 

Eleigh Monks (Illeye Monachomm) (Suffolk) Ed. I-Will. Ill 
Elverton Jas. I 

Fairfeld Hen.IV-Geo. II 

(Alvesbridge, Misleham, Floatham.) 

FarleighEast Ed. Ill-Hen. VI 

(Lyllesdene, Chelyndenne, Badmondenne, 

Felborough (Rodyngton, Shalmeford (Sham- ,, 

leford), Thorne (Dome), Henshell (Hen- 
sell, Hellsell)). 

Field 16 Ed. IV 

Godmersham Ed. III-Geo. II 

(Persted, Challock (Chollack).) 

Hadleigh (Suffolk) Ed. I, II, & III 


Halton (Havilton) (Bucks) .... Ed. I-Ric. II 
Harty (Herteye) . . . . . Ric.II-Hen.VIII 

Jlendolveston (Norfolk) .... 6 Ric. II 


Hollingbourne Ed. I-Geo. II 

(Eyhorne, Bredhurst, Challock, Holbroke. ) 

Horsley East (Esthorsle) (Surrey) . . Hen.IV-Hen.VI 

Icham (Ycham) Hen. 1 1 I-Geo. 1 1 

(Cotman, a /ins Cottenham, Seaton, Lee 

(La, Le) Well.) 
LaUyng( Essex) Ed. Ill & Ric. II 

(Daneweres, Hoo. ) 
Leeds (Ledys) 19 Ed. IV 

(Bromfield, Berghstede, Lomeherst.) 

Leysdown Ed. III-Eliz. 

Loose . . . Hen.VI-Ric.III 

(Wald, Upland, Wautsese, Folshurte, 


Lyktappe (Kent) 17, 18 Hen. VI 

Meopham Ric. I I-Geo. II 

Mersham Ed. I- Will. Ill 

(Querynden, Egerynden, Harlakynden.) 

Merstham (Mestam) (Surrey) . . . Ed. I-Hen.VIII 
(Cherlwood, Cheam (Chayham).) 

Milton (Middelton) (Essex) . . . Hen.III&Ric.II 

Milton Hundred (Kent) . . . . 3 Ed. Ill 
(Key Street (Kaistrete), Bailiwick, Sit- 
tingbourne, Rodmersham, Bynne, Bap- 
child, Milstead, Tong, Sheppey Scap 
Bailivich, Warden, Ryche, Elmley, Holte, 
Essendone, Sedone.) 

Mongeham Ed.IV-Hen.VIII 

Monketon Hen. 1 1 I-Geo. 1 1 

(Brooksend, Birchington.) 

Newington (Newton, Newenton) (Oxford) . Hen.III-Hen.VI 

(Brookhampton, Britwell, Berrick.) 


Newnham (Kent) 15, 16 Hen. VII 

Norton (Kent) .... 4 Ed. 1-40/1 Ed. Ill 

Orpington Hen. VI, etc. 

(Down, Northborough, Linkhill, Hayes 

Euckinge (Rokyngge) .... Ric. II-Ed. IV 

Sandwich (Wick Wycus) . . . . Ed. I, etc. 
Satinola Exon (Devon) . . . Hen.VI-Hen.VIII 

Seasalter (Kent) Hen.VI&Geo.II 

(Upper Borough, Nether Borough.) 

Slindon (Sussex) Ric.II&Hen.IV 

Slisted (Essex) .Ed. Ill-Ed. IV 

Street (Kent) ^ Ed. III- 

(East Fleet, Minster, Yldhelgate, Were- Hen. VIII 

horn, Foulsalt.) 

Campanile of Christ Church (Birnesole, 

Teynham (Tenham) Ric. II, etc. 

(Donewell, Bonepotte, Wald, Bedman- 
gore, Lenedyston, Iwade, Okynfold.) 

Thedacre (Headacre) (Sussex) . . . Hen. VHI-Ch. I 

Vauxhall (Surrey) 34 Ch. II-Geo. I 

(Mitcham, Streatham, Stockwell.) 

Walworth (Surrey) Ch. I-Geo. I 

(Newington, Blackman St., Kent St.) 

Westerham (Rectory) Ric.II&Hen.VI 

Westwell (Kent) Ed. Ill-Ed. IV 

Worstead (Norfolk) 35-8 Hen. VI 

Wotton (Sussex) Ed. III-Jas. I 

Wye (Kent) 2 Hen. VII 



Amberley (Aumberle) (Sussex) . . 4 7Ed.III-Hen.VII 
(Waltham, Ashfold, Houghton.) 

Manhood (Manewood) Hundred (Sussex) . Hen. VI & Ed. IV 
(Selsey, Brackelesham, Wittering" East 
(Withring), Wittering West, Thurlode, 
Birdham, Sidlesham, Almondengton, 


Bishop Auckland (borough) . . .15 Ch. II 

Bishop Auckland 2 Anne 

(Rogerley, Stanhope, Poinchester, Whit- 
worth, Auckland St. Helen, Auckland 
St. Andrew, Middridge Grange, Shildon, 
Evenwood, Tofthill, Lutterington, Bolton 
Gerthes, Auckland West, Rackwood Hill, 
Chilton Great, Chilton Little, Rushyford, 
Coundon, Ferry Hill, Church Merring- 
ton, Woodcroft, Dryburneside, Eastgate, 
Boltsburne, Millhouses, Greenhead, Brad- 
wood, Newlandside, Horsleyburne, Ferry- 
field House, Thimbleby Hill, Sheelesh, 
Shittly, Bourne, Warmwell, Bradly, Wy- 
serley, Tottpolts Esh, Chalterley Linden, 
Fawleizes, Scothdale, Freerside, Red- 
worth, Froserly, Windlestone, Hunwick, 
Escomb, Merrington West, Oakes, Raw 
Ricknell, Grange, Hett, Thickley New- 
biggin, Byersgreen, Old Park Softley, 
Bisshopley Bellaside, Wolsingham, Grim- 
well Hill, Lynsack, Newton Cap, Corn- 
forth, Evenwood, Barony, Eldon, Wood- 
ham, Cowplow, Bondgate in Auckland, 
Westerton, Middleton, Bedburn South, 
Auckland borough, Newgate, Sunderland, 
Bridge, Helmugton.) 


Bray Philbirde (Berks) .... Hen. IV & V 


Chester (Durham) temp. Ch. II 

(Darlington, Sedgefield, Houghton le 

Chester le Spring 2 Anne 

(Nettles worth, Stella, Gibside, Ravens- 
worth Castle, Howells, Bradley, Red- 
brough, Gateshead, Fieldhouse, Salt- 
worthside, Whimhouse, Medomsley, Ham- 
sterley, Byerside, Byermoor, Mosshouse, 
Pelton, Foxholes, Washington, Lyer- 
deane, Aleshill, Maiden-Riding, Hunston- 
worth, Hedley, Beamish, Faufield, Causey 
North, Crookbank, Causey South, Lints- 
green, Losthouse, Joyhurst, Bryanslone, 
Fryerside, Upper Sheele Raw, Steelclose, 
Causey Middle, Kiphill, Broad Myers, 
Plawsworth, Hole Myers, Witton, Gilbert, 
Falforth, Arrowclose, Onsterley, Fearne- 
acres, Burnhope, Ryton Wood, Consett, 
Consett Park, Iveston, Saltley, Hall Hill, 
Seeley, Edmondsley, Tribley, Whitehall, 
Twizell, Hagg, Fawside, Kibblesworth, 
Woodside, Nunshouse, Birkley, Harra- 
ton, Picktree, Rickledon, Pelaw, Urpeth, 
Hedworth, Newton Garthes, Monkton, 
Boldon North, Whitburne, Suddick, 
Hilton, Chester, Whittell, Felling, Us- 
worth, Little Ouston, Pocherley, Heb- 
borne, Jarrow, Monkweirmouth, Westoe, 
Shields South, Whickham, Whickham 
low hand, Hollingside, Swallwell, Kim- 
lesworth, Harbour House, Colbery, Mon- 
topp, Blackburne, Stebbalee, Kyst, Kyst 
Lawes, Barnton, Collerieghill, Manor 


House, Burnhall, Barrow, Flatt, Fleets, 
Lanchester, Crawcrook, Bladon, Eb- 
chester, Pedams, Oak, Darwent, Chow- 
don, Hamsteels, Buttsfield, Broomesteele, 
Knitsley, Welridge, Roughside, Rowley, 
Benfieldside, Penton, Muggleswick.) 

Chester le Street (Durham) . . .6 Anne 

Cracke (Durham) temp. Ed. IV 

Darlington Ward temp. Eliz. 

Chester Ward. 

Darlington Ward temp. Ch. II (?) 

(Blackwell, Houghton Middridge, Bond- 
gate in Auckland, Escomb, Redworth, 
Wolsingham, Newton Cap.) 

Chester Ward 8 Anne 

(Bedlington, Easington Ward, Stockton 

Ward with Norton, Bishop Middleham, 

Hartburn, Stockton, Darlington Ward.) 

Durham Eliz.-Ch. I 

Hart (Hert) temp. Ed. IV 

(Throston Low (Netherthurston),Throston 

High (Overthurston), Nelson (Neilston).) 

Houghton le Spring Ch. II-Anne 

(Burdon, Tunstall, Ryhope (Rivehepp), 

Herrington, Bishop Weirmouth, New- 
bottle, Coatham, Mundeville, Sadberge, 

Haughton, Whetsoe, Beamont Hill, 

Easington Ch. II (?) 

(With Sherburn, Thorpe, Shadforth, 

Sliotton, Cassop.) 
Stockton Ch. II(?) 

(With Carlton, Hartburn, Norton, Sedg- 

field, Cornforth, Bishop's Middleham.) 

2 5 2 


Escombe (with Middridge, Red worth, Heigh- 
ington, Byersgreen). 


Wolsingham (with Stanhope, Bishopley, 
Lynesack, Bedburn South and North). 

Lanchester (with Roughside (Rowside) and 
Rowley, Benfieldside, Billingside, Burn- 
hope and Hamsteels, Butsfield, Broom- 
shields, Satley and Coldpikehill, Broome 
and Flash, Fairside and Wearlands). 

Bedlington (Northumberland) 
(With Camboys, Stickburn 
Stickburn West.) 

East, and 

tHowden (York) 

(Ellerker, Walkington, Walton, Brant- 
ingham, Belby, Kilpin, Eastrington, Salt- 
marsh, Skelton, Riccall, Cliff, Barnby, 
Knedlington, Asselby (Askilby), etc.) 

North Allerton (with Sessay with Hutton, 
Norton Conyers, Holme with Holgrave, 
Kilvington North, Harlsey, Wirksale 
Sigston, alias Kirkby Sigston, Rouneton 
West, Winton, Kapwick, Hutton Con- 
yers, Osmotherly, Borrowby, Thorton le 
Street, Otterington North, Knayton with 
Braywith, Deighton, Sowerby, Dinsdale 
(Dedensale), alias Over Dinsdale, Girsby, 
Hornby Thorpe, Perrow with Little 
Smeaton, Birkby (Britby), Hutton Bon- 
ville (Hutton on Wiske), Lazenby, etc.) 

And a number of Miscellaneous Rolls, 
including Forest Courts, Eliz.-Ch. I 


Ch. II 

Ed. Ill-Ch. I 

Ed. Ill-Ch. I 



Bluntisham Stocking (Hunts) . . . Jas. I 

Stapleford (Cambs) 

Mary & Eliz. 

Swaffham Prior. 

Newton (Hawkeston). 

Melbourne (Meldrith). 

Wrathing West. 

Cottenham, Pelhams in. 

Witcham (Wycham) Ric.II&Hen.VII 


Allensmore (Hereford) . . . Ed.III-Ph.&Mary 
Breinton and Withington (Hereford) . . Ed. Ill-Anne 

Woolhope (Wolvyhope) . . . .Ed. II-Eliz. 
(With Buckenhill, Putley Donnington, 

Wickham Bishops (Essex) .... Ed.III-Hen.VII 


Dunham, Little (Norfolk) . . . . Ch. I 

Gunthorpe (Norfolk) Eliz.-Geo. I 

Walsham, North temp. Eliz. 


Collingham South (Southbye) (Notts) . . Eliz. 
Collingham North (Northbye) (Not t . Eliz. 

Boston, Great (Leicester) . . . .Ch.I-Will.&Mary 

2 54 



Edingley St. Giles Fee (Notts) . . . Hen. Vl-Ch. I 
Southwell (Notts) . . Ed. Ill-Ch. I 


Bicknoller (Somerset) . . . Ed.IV-Will.&Mary 
Biddisham (Somerset) .... Ed. IV-Ch. II 

Cheddar temp. Ed. IV 

(Stoke, Draycot, Locking, Rowberrow, 
Mascales ti thing, Malerbes tithing, Nether 
tithing, Over tithing.) 


Chew Ed. IV, etc. 

(Sutton Militis, Norton Hawkfield, Norton 
Malreward, Timsbury, Knole, Stowey, 
Glutton, Northwick, Littleton, Dundry, 
Stoke Militis, Stoke Abbots, North 
Chew, Bishops Sutton, Stone.) 

Congresbury and Yatton (Somerset) . . Ed. IV, etc. 
(Wick, Claverham, Cleve, Kenn.) 

Pucklechurch (Gloucester) . . . Ed.IV-Ric.II-Ch.II 
(Siston, Ashton, Westerleigh, Wick.) 

Wells (Somerset) Ed. IV, etc. 

(Pryddy Easton, Burcot, Horrington 
(Hornyngdon), Coxley.) 



Curry East Ed. Ill-Ch. I 


Curry North Ed. Ill-Ch. I 

(Langport, Long, Stathe, Thurlbear, 
Thorne- Falcon, Lillesdon, Curryload, 
Westhatch, Wrantage, Knapp.) 

Fennes (Somerset) .... 
Canons Grange (Somerset) . 

Iver (Bucks) 

Newport (Somerset) 


Newton Chantry 

Newton Plecy 

Wanstead Prebend 

Wellington and Buckland . 

(Combe St. Nicholas, Chard, Winsham.) 

Wells Almshouses 


. Hen. VI & VII 
. Ed. Ill, etc. 
Various dates 

. Ed.IV-Hen.VII 

. Hen. VII 

. Jas. I-Ch. II 

. Jas. I-Will. Ill 

Eliz.-Jas. I 
Ed. I-Will. Ill 

Adderbury (Oxon) Hen.VII&VIII 

Witney (Oxon) Hen. VII, etc. 

(With Harley, Crawley, and Cambridge.) 

Brightwell (Berks) (with Harwell). 

Button Bishops (Southampton) . . . Hen. VII, etc. 
(With Bramdean, West Tisted, Heath- 
leye (Hedlyngh, Holdleighe), Bighton 
(Bikton), Ropley.) 

AlresfordOld ^ Hen. Vll-Ch. I 

(With Medstead and Wield.) 

Cheriton with Beanworth. 


Ban well (Somerset) Ph.&Mary-Eliz. 

(With Worle, Harptree, Loxton and 
Uphill, Sandford, Weston, Hutton, Ax- 
bridge, Blagden, Churchhill, Wulfaris- 
hill, Winscombe.) 

Bentley (Southampton) .... Hen. V-Jas. I 

Binstead (Isle of Wight) .... Hen. IV, etc. 

Bishopstoke Eliz., etc. 

Bittern Ed. Ill, etc. 

(With Stoneham, Weston, Fawley.) 

Waltham Woolpits (Southampton) . . Ed. Ill, etc. 
(Bursledon, Curdridge, Mineingfield, Dur- 
ley, Wintershill, Upham, Woodcot, Ash- 
ton Droxford, Midlington, Hill, Swan- 
more, Shidfield Hoo.) 

Buddlesgate and Barton (Southampton) . 5 Will. & Mary 
(With Sparsholt, Fulflood, Littleton, 
Week, Sparkford, Compton, Morested, 
Chilcomb, Ovington, Winnall, Hursley, 
Michelmarsh, Nutshalling, Crawley and 
Hunton, Stoke Chanty, Bransburg, 

Crondall (Southampton) . .Ed. III-Jas. I 

(With Crookham, Dippenhall, Hawley 
(Halle), Aldershot (Alreshute), Swan- 
thorp, Long Sutton, Yateley.) 

Bishopstone (Wilts) x Ed. IV- 

(With Fallston (Falleraston), Flamston Hen. VIII 


EastKnoyle (with Hindon, Foushill, Milton). 
Downton, Borough. 
Downton (with Witherington (Whyteton), 

Church (Cruche), Wick, East Downton, 

Charlton, Nunton). 


Ric. II-Eliz. 

Hundred Poundsford temp. Hen. VIII 

(Bishops Hull, Staplegrove, Stapleford, 
Nailsborne, Elstut and Everley.) 

East Meon (Meon) (Southampton) 

(Aldersnap, Week, Rothercombe South, 
Longhurst, Oxenbourne, Ambersham, 
Ashford, Riplington, Forscombe, Borden, 
Oxshot, Froxfield, Meon, Church, Lang- 
rish, Ramsdean, Combe.) 

Hambleden (Chidden, Glidden, Denmead, 

Farnham Castle. 

Farnham Blackheath 

(Crondall,Crookham, Aldershot, Hawley, \ 
Long Sutton, Cove, Bradley, Itchell, ! 
Farnborough, Bentley.) J 

(Compton, Church Runvale, Tongham, 
Dogflod, Bele, Frensham, Tilford, Churt, 
Runwick, Badshot, Wricklesham, El- 

Barton Stacey (Fawley Hundred) 

Godshill ( Budlesgate Hundred)(Southampton) 
(Carisbrook (Isle of Wight).) 

Hartley Westpall. 


(Wootton, Baughurst, Hannington.) 

Havant ....... 

(Hayling, Leigh, Brockampton.) 

Fareham Borough. 

Fareham, etc 

(Catisfield, Dean, Poukesole, Crokkern- 
shull, Bedenham, Cams, North Fareham, 
Browns wick.) 

Hen. VII-Eliz. 

Various dates 

Will. & Mary 
Ed. Ill, etc. 

Ed. I II-Eliz. 


Overton Borough. ^j 

Overton } Hen. VIII- Eliz. 

(Ash, Laverstok, Dean Bradley, Pol- 
hampton, Quidhampton, Tadley (South- 

Highclere Hen.VIII-EHz. 

(Ashmansworth, Burghclere, Woodhay, 

Taunton Castle (Somerset) . . Hen.VII-Ph.&Mary 


Twyford (Owlesbury, Stoke). 

Harden Hen. VIII 

(Wastheath, Westpit, East Heath.) 


Wargrave (Berks) Hen. VIII 

(Suthlake, Wydney, Waltham, Westend, 
Hall, Stanrige, Upton, Newnham, Cul- 
ham, Crouchend, Woodrew, Berewe, 
Lake, Wordley, Kipshod.) 

West Wycombe (Bucks) .... Hen. VIII 
(Booker, Vynyng Major, Broke, Tow- 
ridge, Vynyng Minor, Brokend, Hare- 
ryngdown, Downley.) 

Ivinghoe (Bucks) Hen. VIII 

(Horton, Whitway, Aston Bishop, Sed- 
brook, Aston Castraffe, Nettleden, Hen- 
combe, Ward'shurst.) 

Whitchurch. (Southampton) . . . Will. & Mary 
(Cherlcott, Freefolk Priors, Cold Hendley.) 

Wroughton (Wilts) Will. & Mary 

Witney Hen. VII, etc. 

(Crawley, Curbridge, Hailey.) 



Bassetts Bury (Bucks) . . . . Ch. I.-i Geo. I 

Leighton Buzzard, alias Grovebury ( Bedford) Jas. I-Ch. I 

Monkland( Hereford) . . . . Ch. II* 


Alvechurch (Worcester) .... Eliz.-Anne 
Blockley with Whistone .... Eliz. 

Bredon (Worcester) Ric. II 

Norton Kinsham, Hardwick, Wenland . Hen. VII 

Cleeve, Bishops (Gloucester) . Hen.IV-Hen.VIII 

Bibury . Hen. VII 

(Aid worth, Atlington Eycote.) 

Withington Will. Ill 

(Colsborne, Little Aston, Foxcott, Olds- 
well, Gt. Aston, Nolgrove, West With- 

Hallow and Grimley (Worcester) . . Comm.-Anne 

Hampton (Warwick) .... Hen. VI -Ed. IV 

Hampton Bishops (Warwick) . . . Hen. VI -Ed. IV 

Wynburn Tree (Tredington, Darlingscote, 
Newbold, Longdon, Tidmington, Arms- 
cot and Crombe, Tadlynton, alias Talton, 
Daylesford, Draycot, Middle Ditchford, 
Over Ditchford, Blockley, Dorn, Paxford, 
Aston, Evenload, Blackwell and Ships- 

Hanbury (Worcester) .... Ed. Ill-Ed. VI 

Hartlebury Hen. VI-Anne 

(Stour, Titton, Charlton, Torton, Lin- 
comb, Gatebrugg, Vaseley.) 



Henbury (Gloucester) 

(Stoke Bishop, Itchington, Stoke Gifford, 
Shirehampton, Compton, Charlton, West- 
bury, Laurence- Weston, Stowick, Aust, 
Yate, Redvick.) 

Vernysych (Worcester) .... 
(Kenwick, Broadwas, Knightwick, Hal- 
low, Owleston, Otherton, Upper Wick, 
Wick Sapy, Witley, Holt, Wichenford.) 

Radfordbridge (Worcester) 

(Rouse Leuch, Bradley and Stock, Little 
Inkberrow, Throckmorton, Piddle, Moore, 
Bishampton, Fladbury.) 


(Ripple, Boughton.) 

Rex et Regina (Washbourne, Hardwick, 
Norton, Bredon, Westmancote, Kinsham). 
Kempsey (Worcester) .... 
Ripple (Worcester) . . . 
Welland (Worcester) .... 


(Burbourne, North wick, Bevere,Hawford, 
Tapenhall Claines, Astwood.) 


(Wichenford, Pitmaston, Holburg-Lang- 
herne, Upper Wick, Lower Wick.) 

Swyneshede (Worcester) .... 
(Huddyngton, Crowle, Spetchley, Aston, 
Churchill, Northwick, Whittington, Od- 
dingley, Hindlip, Warndon, Hewene and 
Norton Kempsey.) 


Hen. VI 

Hen. VI 

Hen. VI 

Jas. I-Ch. II 
Eliz.-Ch. II 
Ric. II-Anne 

Ric. II-Anne 

Hen. VI 


Ottley (Yorks) 

Ch. II-Will. Ill 



Now deposited at the Public Record Office. 


Brandon (Suffolk) . . 5 Hen.IV-i5Hen.VI 

Bridgwater Castle (Somerset) . 9 Hen. IV 

Erleham (Norfolk) . . . 5 Ed. VI 

Rockingham (Northants) . . 12-13 Ed. Ill 

Cheltenham (Gloucester) . . 3-4 Ed. VI 

Ledbury (Hereford) . . . 26-39 Eliz. 

Kingsland (Hereford) . . . i Eliz. 

Clun (Salop) .... 33/4 Eliz. 

Marden (Hereford) . ? Jas. I 

22/3 Ch. II 

Landbridgeworth (Herts) . . 40 Eliz. 

Upwood and Gt. Raveley (Hunts) 22 Ed. Ill 

Abbots Langley (Herts) . . 40 Eliz. 

Hemelhempstead (Herts) . . 40 Eliz. 
Redbourn (Herts) . . .40 Eliz. 

Rickman worth (Herts) . . 40 Eliz. 
East Mersed 


Ramsey (Essex) 

Estreats . 40 Eliz. 



Stapleford Abbots 

Gt. Horlsey (Essex) .35 Eliz. 

Gt. Leighes (Essex) . . 28Ed.III- 3 2Hen.VI 

Gt. Leighes .... Hen. VH-Ch. I 

Hon. of Penrith (Cumberland) . Ch. II 

Penrith 21-2 Hen. VII 



Appledurcombe (Isle of Wight) 

Bodmin (Cornwall) 

Temsetter Purslow and Clone (Salop) 

Harrolds (Bedford) .... 

Melford (Suffolk) .... 

Castle Barnard (Durham) 

Kelsemell (Herts) .... 

Tring (Herts) ..... 

Cawston (Norfolk) .... 

Christchurch (? Hants) . 

Wigmore (Hereford) 

Castle Sowerby (Cumberland) 

Steventon (Berks) .... 

Yaxley (? Hants, Norfolk, Suffolk) . 

Spalding (Lines) .... 

Epworth and Crowle (Lines) . 



Woodhall in Helgey 


Southerton (Lines) . 

Bristol (Gloucester) 

Holmer (Bucks) 

Ed. I-Ed. Ill 
16-18 Eliz. 
22 Eliz. 
43 Eli/. 

32 Hen. VIII 
7 Eliz. 

Jas. I 

Ch. I-Ch. II 

39-40 Eliz. 

iSJas. I 

2-3 Ph. & Mary 

18 Ch. II 

33 Hen. VIII 
35-6 Hen. VIII 
15-20 Jas. I 

Norfolk . 32-5 Hen. VIII 

Glastonbury and Brent, in- I Somerset 

eluding Hundred Courts 
Cattsayslm (?) (Somerset) 
Whitgift (Yorks) . 
Barking cum Needham (Suffolk) 
Grasmere (Westmorland) 
Fordham Bigan (?) (Cambs) 
Colnehurst (Hunts) . . 
Bury (? Hunts) 
Syberton (Northants) 
Ashton (Northants) 
Chevening (Kent) . 
Carnanton (Cornwall) 
Barking (Essex) 

7-48 Ed. Ill 

12/3 ^ nz - 

i Eliz.-6 Jas. I 


6-7 Eliz. 


4 Jas. I 
. 22 Ch. II 
2/3 Ph. &Mary-30 Eliz. 
. 31 Hen. VIII 
. 4-6 Hen. V 
. 7 Ed. VI 
. 35Eliz.-i2Ch.II 
. 1679-97 
. 1788-98 
. 39-40 Eliz. 


Eye (Suffolk) 12-13 Jas. I 

Godley (half hundred) (Surrey) . 19-21 Ch. I 
Weston als Barking* (? Lines) . . 20 Ch. I 
Downbarton (? Lines) . . . 5-15 Jas. I 
Fulborne Zouches (Cambs) . . i Ed. VI 
Chertsey (Surrey) 1-36 Hen. VIII, 3-4 Ed. VI, Ch. II 
Egham and Chertsey . . . 18-23 Ch. I 
Honor of Clare (Suffolk) . . 1772-4 
Bourne (Lines) .... 1598-1625 
East Hendred (Berks) . . 31 Hen.VIII-4oEliz. 
Heskett and Hutton (? Cumberland) 1654-67 
Pevensey (Sussex) .... 1676-1704 
King's Norton (Worcester) . . 1675-1777 
Northfleet (Kent) .... 1680-90 
Penshurst (Kent) .... 1679-95 
Plympton Grange (Devon) . . 39-40 Eli/. 
Penhele (Flint) . . . .23 Eliz. 
Moorend and Potterspury (Northants) 1676-1705 
Shelford (Cambs) . . . 6Hen.VI-Ph.&Mary 
Wingham (Kent) .... Jas. I 
Stradbrooke (Suffolk) . . . Ch. I 
Snayleswell (Cambs) . . .1-21 Ed. IV 
Fordham Prior (Cambs) . . . 19-20 Hen. VII 

Wilbraham Parva (Cambs) . . | 3*~* Hen. VIII 

Honor of Wallingford (Berks) . 27 Hen. VIII 
York St. Marys .... 1706 
Aylington (? Hants) . . .2 Eliz.~5 Jas. I 

Snettisham (Norfolk) . . . 41 Eliz. -6 Jas. I 
Petham (Kent) .... 5-15 Jas. I 
Stoke and Bradvvinch (?) Devon . 14-15 Eliz. 
Wyrmegege (Norfolk) ... 8 Hen. VI 
Liskeard (Cornwall) . . . Ph. & Mary 
Barnet (? Herts) . . . . Ed. VI 
Moulton (? Northants) . . . ? Eliz. 
Clewer . . Ed. VI-Mary-Jas. I, Ch. I 

Hanbridge (Cheshire) . . . 1734-47 


Upledon (Gloucester) . . . 29-33 Eliz. 

Brockford Hull in Thwaite (Suffolk) 32 Hen. VIII 

Clerkenwell (Middlesex) . . . Klix. 

Ampthill (Bedford) . . . Ch. II 

Brandon (Suffolk) .... Jas. I 

Honor of Eye (Suffolk) . . . Ch. II 

Boyton (?) Hen. VIII 

Emmerdale (Cumberh^d) . . Ch. II 

Pattrington (York) . . . . Ch. II & Jas. II 

Beverley (York) .... 1650-3 

Hutton in Inglewood (Cumberland) 1660 

Barnsley cum Dodsworth . . Ch. II 

Stredbrooke (Suffolk) . . . Ch. I 

Boxsted Hall (Suffolk) . . . Eliz. 

Grafton (Rental} (Northants) . . 1680 
Gt. Oakley, Little Oakley, I 

Beaumont, Moye, Law- > Essex i Ed. VI 

ford, etc. 

Holt, Wrexham, etc. (Denbigh) . Eliz. 

Green's Norton Hund. (Northants) . Eliz. 

South Benfleet, Harpenden, etc. . Hen. VIII 

Geddinges and Langtons (Suffolk) . Ric. II 

Eye (Suffolk) Jas. I 

Spaldwick (Hunts) .... 22-41 Eliz. 

Marden (Hereford) . . . . Ch. II 

Dunstable Ch. II 

Holm Cultram (Cumberland) . . Ch. II 

Wells City (Somerset) . . . Eliz. 

Croyland (Lines) .... Eliz. 

Barron (? Lines) . . . . Ch. I 

Moulton (Northants) . . . Ch. I 

Enerdale (Cumberland) . . . Ch. II 

Plympton, Buckfastleigh (Devon) . Jas. I 

Dover Castle (Kent) . . . Hen. VI 

Barony of Kendal .... i7th&i8thcent. 

Barony of Grafton .... lyth&iSthcent. 

Walpole (Norfolk) . . . . i Ed. Vl-Jas. I 



Gaywood (Norfolk) 

Fordington (?) 

Ledbury .... 

Cookham and Bray 

Westham (Essex) 

Somersham (?) 

Olford, Somerden, etc. (Kent) 

Stradbrooke (Suffolk) . 

Glemsford (Suffolk) . 

Grantham (Lines) 

Holme Cultram (Cumberland) 

Reigate (Surrey) . 

Eye (Suffolk) . 

Harthowel (?).... 

Collyweston (Northants) 

Kings Langley (Herts) 

Clerkenwell (Middlesex) 

Twysell (Northants) . 

Barton Barrow and Goxhill (Lines) 

Burwell Ramseys (Cambs) . 

Egham (Surrey) . 

Eltham (Kent) . 

Hampton Court (Middlesex) 

Hitchin (Herts) . 

Portland (Dorset) 

Richmond (Surrey) 

Tower and Muchland (Lanes) 
West Walton, Tilney, I N , ... 

Walsoken, Emneth / * 
Whaplode and Moulton 
Windsor . 
Wymondham . 
Books of Extracts from Court 

Rolls of Beverley . 
Bawderippe . 

. Ed. VI 
. Eliz. 

40 Eliz.-Jas. I 

I7th-i8th cent. 
. Ric. III-I739 
Ed. Ill, Ed. VI-Eliz. 
. 1 8th cent. 
. Hen.VIII-i6 3 5 
. 3-41 Ed. Ill 
. 1674-95 

Eliz. -i 704 


Eliz. & various 
. Ric. II 
. Eliz. 
. Jas. I 
. Hen. IV-Ch. 
. Hen. VIII 








1 1661-1806 




The following Court Rolls are in the Manuscript 
Department of the British Museum ; those acquired 
before 1882 have been incorporated in the Catalogue 
of Charters and Rolls printed by the Trustees in 
1901. In the following list they are arranged under 
their respective counties, and those acquired since 
1882, classed among the Additional Rolls, have been 
in each case subjoined. 


Arlesey (Arlechey) .... 
Cotton End (Cotes in Cardington) 


Holwell (Great Holwell Manor) . 
Knotting ...... 

Willington ..... 

Additional Rolls 
Astwick . . ... 
Cranfield \ 

Shitlington . . . . 

Barton in le Clay J 

Hampstead Marshall .... 


Shilton ...... 

Sparsholt ...... 


Woolley in White Waltham . . j 


I 454~5 



I 373~9 8 > HS 

Various dates from 
I3th-i5th cent. 



1402 (Uplecombe) 

(Extract) 1508 
(Extract?) 1508 

(Extract) 1632-59 






Little Faringdon 

Iver . 

Taplow . 

Upton .. 


Fawley .. 

1 8th cent. 

(Extracts) 1438 
. . . 1346,1360,1410,1469,1470 

1766-7,1 769-70, 1773 
. 1599 
.. . 1599 

(Extracts) 1515,1595 

Additional Roll 

. . 1362-1455 


Bassingbourne Rectory . . . 1457-8, etc. 
Harston, Botellers Manor . . . 1423, 1424, 1426-30 

Additional Rolls 

Girton, Burwell Over 

Haslington .... 

Various dates, i3th- 
i5th cent. 


Additional Rolls 

1570, 1612, 1649 
(Extract) 1528 

Boskenvyt ...... I5th & i6th cent. 

Talgarruck ..... '53 1 - 2 

Boswellick, St. Allen .... 1476-7 

Cathayes, Grogarth Cornelly Probus, ) fc 

Tresillan, Trelowtha, St. Erme . ) 

Truro, Clement St. Ne wham, Boswellick 1 546-7 

Restronguet, My lor .... 1469-70 


Is y coed in Holt 
Wrexham . 

(Extract) 1460 
(Extracts) 1520,1530 



Alderwasley (in Wirksworth) . . i6th & lyth cent. 
Brassington (in Bradbourn) . . (Extract) 1640 
Chesterfield (Cestrefeld, Chastrefeld, ) /r , . 

Chestrefeld) . . . . .} ( Ex tract) i 55 5 

Dronfield ...... (Extract) 1439 

Harston Matlock .... (Extract) 1538 

Holmesfield in Dronfield (Extracts) various dates, 1417-1599 
Hulland in Ashbourne . . . (Extract) 1522 
Matlock ...... (Extracts) 1473 

Scropton ..... (Extracts) 1508, 1509, 1617 

Taddington J 45 2 > *45 8 > M 00 

Tansley ...... 1444 

Wessington in Crich .... (Extract) Hen. VIII 

Wirksworth ..... (Extracts) 1428 

Matlock (Extracts) 1473, 1486, 1543 


Ashecombe 1610-13 

Clist Gerard ..... 1398-1411 
Combe Wakewell (Thorneland) . 1586-7, 1591-2, 1609-14 
Farway . . . (Extracts) various dates, 1501-1647 
Holditch in Thorncombe . . . 1378 
Leigh North ..... 1536 

Lew Trenchard 1589-90, 1609, 1614 

Lydford (Extract) 1564 

Meeth . 1568-9, 1584-5, 1590-1, 1591-2, 1609-14 

Merton (Potheridge) .... 1609-14 

Monycote 1408, 1410 

Norden (Black Auton) . . . (Extract) 1567 

Potheridge 1609, 1614 

Rushford .... 1568-9, 1589, 1590-1, 1609-14 

Seaton 1537 

Sherford . . . (Extracts) various dates, 1472-1594 
Sherford Court Rolls . . . Various dates, 1496-76^ 
Whitwell in Colyton . . . Various dates, 1533-75 



Additional Rolls 




Chardstock (Cherdestoke) . 

Langton Wallis 

Merton ...... 

Moorbath . 

I3th-i5th cent. 

1 439-47 
(Extracts) 1519, 1528 



Stoke Wallis . 
Wimborne Minster 

Extracts (Barnsley) 
Winterton Kingston . 

I '359-6o, 1383. '393. '395. 
' I '399. '4oo, 1405, 1412, 1459 


'346, i35 '35 1 


. (Extracts) 1509, 1514 
. 1502-3 


Ashen (Claret Hall Manor) 
Borley (Borley Hull Manor) 
Little Canfield-Childer 
Colchester (Shawe's Manor) 
Dovercourt . 

Dunmow Great (Marks Manor) . 

Finchingfield (Corners Hall Manor) . 
Harwich ...... 

Haydon (Bury Manor) 
Ockendon South . 

Ramsey (E. Newhall Ray and Michael- 



Tilbury juxta Clare . 
Waltham Forest . 
Waltham Holy Cross, W. Abbey 
Weald South 

(Extracts) 1581-2 

(Extract) 1510 



1400-12, 1590, 1703 

'377-99. 1559. '586. 
1614, 1659 



(Extracts) 1617, 1627 

> 1616, 1714 

(Extract) 1630 
(Extract) 1729 
(Extracts) 1480, 1527 



Additional Rolls 

Hatfield Broad Oak, Hatfield Regis 
Chigwell and Writtle 
High Easter 
Rickling Hall 

> I3th-i7th cent. 

Sible Hedingham, Bloys in 

Sible Hedingham, Grassals in 

Stapleford Tawney 

Tewes and Little Sampford 


South Weald 


Acton Turville i374~97 

Ashton under Hill .... 1543 

Barrington ..... 1505-6 

Bitton (Oldlands in) . . . . 1344-98, 1602-3 

Bitton ...... 1 4th cent., 1603-4 

Bitton (W. Hanham in) . . 1555-76 

Bitton (Hanham Abbots) . . . 1673, 1679 

Dyeham (Extract) 1545 

Hazleton (Extract) 1587 

Henbury (Wick) .... (Extract) 1536 

Oxenton Various dates, i6th cent. 

Extracts . . Various dates, i6th and i7th cent. 

Pauntley (Extract) 1472 

Additional Rolls 

Leckhampton 1691 

Preston on Stour . . Various dates, I5th-i8th cent. 

Saintsbury i8th cent. 



Ashay (Isle of Wight) . . . 1534-6 

Bramchot lyth cent. 

Faccombe ...... 1361-1653 

Farnborough (Extracts) 1612,1631 

Froyle Various dates, 1281-1657 

Hartley Westpall . . . (Extract) 1725 

Mapledurham West .... 1625 

Newport 1496 

Sombourn King's Hundred 1498-9,1501-2,1512-13,1514-15 
Swainstone (Isle of Wight) . . 1485-97 

Hilliscote (county?) .... 1490-1 

Additional Rolls 

Alton .... Various dates, I4th-i5th cent- 
Alton Eastbrook and Alton Westbrook 1 5th -i 7th cent. 
Bentworth and Barkham . . . 1563-1600 
Carisbrook . . . I5th-i7th cent. 

Freshwater 1558 

Godshill (Isle of Wight) . . . 1353-1652 

Holybourne (Hundred Rolls) . . 1432-3 

Lockerly 1493 

Mapledurham . . . Various dates, I3th-i7th cent. 

Neatham 1613-14 

Oakhanger (parish of Selborne) . 1672 

Petersfield 1543, 1602-9 

Sheet by Petersfield . . . . 1537 8 

Thurstons (in Binsted) . . . 1706 

Weston (in Buriton) .... 1537-9 

Wroxall (Isle of Wight) . . . 1627-34 


Caple King's (Extract) 1547 

Hereford (Extracts) 1603, 1885-6 

Preston upon Wye .... (Extract) 1653 


Additional Rolls 

Bishop's Frome .... 1405-1506 

Bosbury, Colwall Coddington, Eastror 

Bishop's Palace, Shellarck (parish 

of Holmer), Hampton Bishop, Stret- ]> 1616 

ton Sugwas, Eaton Bishop, Tapsley 

Barton ...... 

Hereford Palace Hallmote Rolls, in- ) , ^ 

eluding Ledbury,Bromgard, and Ross j 
Wigmore '45 1 - 2 

Berkhampstead, Maudelins M. . . 1505 

Buntingford 1392 

Hemel Hempstead .... (Extract) 1586 

Hormead, Great and Little . . Ed. IV, 1511 

Meesdow ...... 1508-9 

Nevvland Squillers . . . (Extracts) 1582, 1612, 1650 
Pirton . . . ... . 1370, 1372 

Sawbridgeworth . (Extracts) 1493, 1538, 1539, 1559 

Standon (Reunesley) .... (Extract) 1417 

Ware (Extract) 1756 

Watford (Wiggenhall) . . . 1647, 1664 

Westmill J 495 I 59) I 5 11 

Woodhall (Extract) 1563 

Additional Rolls 
Abbots Langley .... 1611-12 

Ardeley 1630-1, 1635-8 

Ayst St. Lawrence .... i6th & i7th cent. 
Bishops Stortford . . . (Extracts) i7th & i8th cent. 
Hatneld Bishops, Chewell, Symond's ) (Extracts) th cent 

'Hyde in j v 

King's Walden . . (Extracts) various dates, 1291-1687 

Park (Extracts) i6th cent. 

Standon (Extract) 1499-1511 

Therfield i4th & isth cent. 

Thorley Hall 1607-8 

Weston . . . (Extracts) various dates, 1397-1685 




Hemingford Abbot 
Holme in Glatton 
Normancross Hundred 
Orton Longville 
Ripton Abbots . 

'575. 1602 

(Extracts) 1520 




Additional Rolls 

Gaines \ 


Perry in Great I 



Sawtry I 

Southoe I 

Upton I 

Sawtry f 


Stukeley ...... 

Walton and Higley .... 

Ramsey Abbey Manors (Broughton, 
Kings Ripton, Little Stukeley, War- 
boys, Gidding, Upwood, Elton, Wis- 
tow, Abbots Ripton, Holy well, Slepe, 
Bythorn, Little Raveley, Ramery, 
Heytemundsgrove, Houghton, Wy- 
ton, Glatton Old Hurst, Woodhurst, 
The Grange of St. Ives, Bridge 
Street, Needingworth, etc.) . 


i5th cent. 



1 3th to i yth cent. 



Beakesbourne i4th & i5th cent. 

Brasted(Brasted Burgh, Brasted Upland) 1478-82 

Chalk (W. Manor) .... 1418, 1489-90 

Cranbrooke (Glassenbury) . . . 1485-1502 

Dunge Marsh (Dengemersh) . . 1484-5 

Elham (Blodbeine) .... 1471-3 

Hadlow(Hadlowand Lomwood Manors) 1478, 1482 

Hadlow (Hadlow Place Manor) . 1518, 1662, 1772 

Hever 1515-16 

Hoath Shelving-ford .... 1405 

Milton next Gravesend . . (Extract) (Tarrocks) 1391 

Shamwell Hundred .... 1404 

Strood ...... 1507 

Tonbridge 1478-82 

Additional Rolls 
Stretchland in Birchholt 

Halk in Birchholt 


Brabourne Combe in Brabourne 

Heyton in Stanford 

Sore alias Hores in Wrotham . . i6th & i7th cent. 


Derby West (Extract) 1529 

Woolton Much (Extracts) 1545, 1546 


Belton 1479-80 

Hallaton 1406-8, 1466, 1486 

Ilston on the Hill, Creake Abby Manor 1336 

Rothley (Extracts) 1495 

Sheepshed 1385-1626, 1478-9 

Additional Rolls 
Barwell I4th-i7th cent. 





Donington in Holland (Ouston Abby) 
Dunston ...... 




Stallingborough .... 

Additional Rolls 


Holbeach ...... 


Whaplode ..... 

1 5th cent. 





1319-20, 1333-4 



Mimms South 
Newington Stoke 
Northolt . 
St. Pancras 



. (Extracts) 1635, 1648 
( (Extracts) (Greenford cum Hanwell 
| Manor) 1678, 1679, *7 2 3 *73 8 
. 1475 

. (Extracts) 1490 
(Extracts) various dates, 1451-1700 
(Extract) (Cantelowe's) 1650 

Additional Rolls 


1279, 1317 


Marsham East .... 


Bessingham .... 
Boughton (Bukton) 
Bradeston .... 

Brandistone (Guton Hall in) 
Murston (Brockdish Hall in) 


i.)th & 151)1 cent. 
Hen. II Tor Kd. I 


i:\tracts) 1 7th cent. 
1315-1429, etc. 

2 7 6 


(Extract) 1703 
(Extract) 1696 
399, 1485, 1490, 1500 

NORFOLK continued 

Cawston (Meys Manor) . . . 1343-5 
Cawston (Manor) .... 1426, 1431 
Dalling Field . 1377, 1396, 1451 

Diss . . (Extracts) (Heywood Hall Manor) 1552-1730 
Ditching-ham ..... (Extracts) 1443, 1639 
Frenze ..... 
Fulmodeston .... 
Haveringland . . . 13 

Extracts (Haveringland, Ulveston \ 

and Mountjoy Manors) . . ] 1512,1667,1614,10 

Extracts (Inglyshes Manors) . 1576, 1578 
Hindringham and Astley and Nowers ) 

Manors . . . " . . . f I3I ' ' 72: 
Hockham Little .... (Extract) 1597 

Horningtoft 1271, 1273, 1339, 1377, 1689, 1752 

Kirby Bedon cum Whittingham . (Extract) 1629 

Loddon .... (Extract) (Hubbys Manor) 1522 

Extract (Inglose Manor) . . 1638 
Morston in Holt Hundred . . . (Extracts) 1596, 1631 

Newton West 
Poringland Great 
Repps North 
Rollesby . 

Tattersett . 
Thursford . 
Walsham North 

(Grishagh) . 


Gt. Cressingham 

Walpole . 

. 1285, 1326, 1362 
. (Extract) 1659 
. 1581 
. 1599-1601 
( Extract) (Ingoldsthorpe Hall) 1662 

(Extract) (Outsoken) 
. (Extract) 1547 

M97> I 547- 68 
1416, 1422 

. Ed. I-II 

(Extract) 1629 

. (Extract) 1634 


Additional Rolls 


1 5th & i6th cent. 

1511-46, etc. 



Ashton (in Cleley Hundred) . . 1396-1405 

Dingley 1482 

Warden Chipping West . . . (Extract) 1535 
Weldon, Great with Little . . . (Extracts) 1491, 151 1 

Additional Rolls 
Crick ....... i6th & i7th cent. 

Culworth I 
Sulgrave J 

Sutton Bonnington .... 1395 

(Extract) 1488 


Bloxham (Beuchamps M. in) 
Brookend ...... 


Ensham ...... 


Newlands Manor . 

Norton Brize 


(Extracts) 1 5th cent. 


1386-9, 1417-20 


Woodstock Old . 
Wootton Hordley 


Bampton Deanery 

. 1434 

. (Extract) 1674 

. (Extract) 1674 

Additional Rolls 

. 1624, 1629 
. I 1 7th cent. 



Cefn Llys (Keventleece) 



Preston with Uppingham 




Almsworthy ..... 1461 

Budgeworth ..... 1602-4 

Bagborough West .... 1458 

Chedzoy (Chedesey) . 1329-84, 1406-14, 1652-9, 1665 80 
Clevedon . . . . . .1321 

Congresbury (Iwood) .... 1364-1461 

Exford (Almsworthy Manor) . . 1461 
Farringdon in Stoke Courcy . . 1375-7 (Ferndon) 
Frome Selwood . . . (Extract) (Great Keyford) 1585 

Harptree East 1386 

Knowle in Long Sutton . . . (Extract) 1479-80 
Pitney ...... 1423, (Extracts) 1520 

Porlock (Extract) 1691 

Priston . . . (Extract, roll of court baron) 1614 
Weare ... . . 1603-4 

Winsford J 54 2 -3 

Yatton 1364-1461 

Additional Rolls 

Aller 1632 

Corston 1600 


West Bagborough 


Cows Huish 


Woolstone ^ 

Stony Stratton ' 



St. Michael Church 


Bishop's Lydiard > 

Pitney ... . 1596-1609 


Shenston 1594 

Additional Rolls 

Handsworth 1499-1500 

Murchington ..... i7th cent. 


Buxhall, Cockerell's Manor . . 1475,1601,1603,1623 
Clare (Honour of) . . . 1410, 1427 

Extracts . . 1501, 1587, (Additional) 1581, 1582 
Cornard Great (Abbas Hall Manor) Various dates, 1559-1602 

Extracts 1674-5, ! 698, 1711 

Cotton 1331 

Drinkstone (Timperley's Manor) . (Extract) 1563 

Eleigh Brent 1464 1501 

Exning (Cottons Manor) . . . 1440 

Framsden . . (Extracts) 1394, 1529, 1535, 1571, 1616 

Gisleham 1429-30 

Hasketon (Thorpe Manor) . . 1457-9 

Extract 1646 

Helmingham . 1395, 1407, 1457, 1481, 1482, 1485, 1490 
Bury Hall . . . 1400, 1406, 1410, 1412, 1481, 1490 

Extract 1481 

Henstead '4 2 9 (Extract) 1538 

Hitcham (Extract) 1652 

Horham (Extract) 1505 

Hundon (Extracts) 1277, 1283, 1573, 1582, (Honyden) 1652 
Kelsale .... . (Extract) 1742 
Lavenham (Extracts) 1497,1608 

Court Roll 1635,1650,1660,1667 

Melford Long, (Kentwell) . . . 1313 

Extract (Milford Rectory Manor) 1670 
Mendlesham . . (Extracts) 1530-1, 1539, 15 jS, 
Milding (Wells Hall) . . . 1464, i5 O1 

Extracts 1.1*5, 1598 



SUFFOLK continued 

. (Extracts) 1483, 1553 

. 1316,1393,1596,1667 


i5 88 1 59 2 , '599 

. (Extracts) 1545,1553 

. 1528 

1391-1448, 1602, 1686-7 

. 1405-48 

. 1487-1507 


Otley .... 
Pakenham (Malkins Hall) . 


Peasenhall .... 
Ringshall .... 
Rushmere (Wykes Ufford) 
Snape .... 

(Campsey Ash Priory) . 

(Tastards and Scotts) . 

Extract (Becklinge, Pantletts and I 
Rysinges) . . . I 

Soham Monk ..... 1391, 1394 
Stoke by Clare . { (Extracts) (Chilton) 1278, 

I 1279, 1282-9, I58l-l638 

(Clare) . . . 1582,1595,1610,1652 

Stowlangloft .... Various dates, 1444-1624 

Extract ..... 1566- 

Thorndon (Extract) 1706 

Walpole ...... (Extracts) 1502 

Walton . . (Extracts) 1439, 1560, 1580, 1598, 1648 
Westleton . . . (Extracts) various dates, 1413-1602 
Wetheringsett ..... (Extract) 1600 

Witnesham (Extract) 1631 

Wyke Ufford 1428-9, 1528 

Additional Rolls 

Abbas Hall 



Ash Bocking 

Beckling (in Snape) 


Broome, Broom Hall 

Broome, Ling Hall 



1 7th cent. 

i6th & 1 7th cent. 


1 4th cent. 
(Extract) 1609 
(Extract) 1646 
1608, 1686 (Extract) 
1656 (Extract) 
1613 (Extract) 



SUFFOLK contin ued 
Dunwich ...... 

Fressingfield ..... 

Glemsford ...... 

Glevering in Hasketon 

North Hales 

Hasketon ...... 

Lawshall ...... 



Scotnetts with the Hough in Debenham 
Stradbroke .... 

1 4th & 1 5th cent. 

i6th cent. 

1 6th cent. 


1 5th cent. 



1584, 1614 





Addington .... 

Bandon (see Beddington) . 
Beddington .... 

Bensham (see Croydon) 
Chelsham (Chelesham, Watvyless) 
Claygate (Thames Ditton) 
Godalming Hundred . 

Kingston on Thames 

Extract from Hundred Court 
Leatherhead (Pachevesham Manor) 
Mitcham (Ravensbury) 
Mordon .... 
Norbury .... 

(Extract) 1644 
1325, 1418 
i 296- i 300 

1 539-93 


( (Extracts) 1 548, 1549 
( (Canonbury Manor) 



Various dates, 1488-1642 
. 1485, 1502, 1507-9 
. (Extract) 1436 



Barnhall (or Bexhill) 



Filsham (Hastings) 

(Extracts) 1633, 1640, 1650 

Additional Roll 


1 6th cent. 
(Extract) 1 5th -i 7th cent. 

'383 ' 

'444- '533 



1386-1553, (Extract) 1515 

(Extract) 1699 
. 1473-1503 
(Extracts) 1640 

SUSSEX continued 

Harting . . 1549, 1563 

Horsham (Shortsfield) 
Offington in Broadwater 
Robertsbridge . 
Steyning (Charlton) .... 


Woodmancote ..... 

Additional Rolls 

Bishopstone with Littlington . . 1373-1670 

Selsey \ 1562-75 


Hastings, Rape of, with Shoys well,] TT A A A\ 


ting, etc. J 

Herst and Wirlenton .... 1317-64 

Hurstmonceaux \ 

Gotham .... 1484-5 


Laughton ...... 1336-1688 

Little Broadwater .... 1392-1406 

Mayfield, Bibleham in ... 1388-1657 

Burwash 1401-1656 

Crowhurst ..... 1432-71 

Michelham Parkgate . . . 1670 

Nutbourne in West Chiltington . . 1422 

Rype . . 1481-1505, 1653-7 

Shiplake (Hundred Rolls) . . . 1359-1 577 

Shiplake (Court Rolls) . . . 1380-1486 

Warbleton, Bucksteep in . . . 1301-1413 

Warding 1275-1421, etc. 

Witting in Hollington . . . 1365 

Woodhorn I Hundred and Court Rolls 1490-1526 
Arlington ) 


Atherston ...... 1399 

Kings wood (Extract) 1645 

Monkspath ..... 1629-41 

Shustoke ...... 1447 

Solihull .... Various dates, 1408-1658 

Tanworth Various dates, 1562-1696 

Additional Rolls 

Alveston 1707 

Whitchurch with Wimpstone, Grimes-) Various dates, i6th- 
cot and B rough ton . . . . / i8th cent. 


Berwick St. John .... 1558-9, 1567 

Box 1390-1419 

Burcombe i6th cent. 

Castlecombe (Combe, Castelcombe, etc.) 1344-1633 

Chalk (Hundred) .... 1283 4 

Chalk (Bower) 1 558-9, 1567 

Chalk (Broad) 1558-9,1567 

Chilhampton '559* '5^7, 1584 

Chilmark . . 1558-9, 1567, 1584 

Dinton (Donington) .... 1558-9, 1567, 1584 

Ditchampton . . 1559, 1567, 1584 

Eastcot near Urchfont (Lord Hertford) 1546-8 

Klstub Hundred 1 4th & 1 5th cent. 

Enford . . . i4th and i5th cent. (Extracts) 1603 

Fonthill Giffard (Fountel, Fontel) . 1381-2 

Hilcot near Newington . . . 1558-9, 1566-7 

Inglesham ...... 1346, 1410, 1470 

King-ton St. Michael, Nettleton Manor 1536, 1541 

Kinwardstone Hundred . . . 1559 
Nettleton . . . (Extracts) various dates, 1528-85 
Court RolK 1561-94, 1578, 1583, 1591, 1592, 1652, 1685 

Newington North (Hilcot) . . 1558-9, 1566-7 


WILTSHIRE continued 

Newton South (Chilhampton) . . 1559, 1567, 1584 
Patney . 1558-9, 1566 

Ramsbury ...... 1559, 1566-7 

Ridge in Chilmark .... 1558-9, 1567 

Stockton . . 1332-1636, 1385-91, 1558-9, 1566, 

Urchfont 1546-8, 1588-9 

Wedhampton 1500, 1517, 1546-8 

Wilton (Extract) 1533 

Winterbourne Basset . . . 1559 

Wishford Great 1391, 1392, 1454, 1457 

Wootton Basset (Fasterne) . . 1559, 1567, 1584 


Bromsgrove J 473-5 

Lickey in Bromsgrove . . . 1473-5 

Netherton 1644 

Norton King's ..... 1473-5 

Additional Roll 
Alderminster ..... 1630 


Aldborough in Stanvvick St. John . 1441 

Beverley ...... 1637 

Bowes ...... 1441 

Catterick . . . . . .1441 

Cudworth ...... 1653 

Firbeck ...... 1596-1600 

Forcett 1441 

Howden . . . . . . (Extract) 1721 

Laughton en le Morthen . . . 1600-1 

Leven .... . 1416, 1417 

Sheffield 1564-5, (Extracts) 1650 

Tickhill ...... 1596-1601 

Wakefield 1624 

Welwick ...... 1416,1427,1461,1462 



The following Court Rolls are among the muniments 
at Lambeth Palace, which include a large collection of 
Ministers' Accounts and miscellaneous documents of 
great interest. The following list has been transcribed, 
with the permission of His Grace the Archbishop, from 
a MS. Calendar in the library, compiled a few years 
since by Messrs. Stuart Moore and R. E. G. Kirk, in 
which the references to the originals will be found. 



Court Roll the Prior's Court (title mutilated) 3 Ed. Ill 
Court Roll the Prior's Court (Adesham, 

Gomersham, Shipway, Maidstone) . 33-9 Ed. Ill 

Five similar rolls ..... 35-47 Ed. Ill 
Similar rolls (Godmersham, Eastry, Leven 

Hundred, Maydstane, Shipwey) Various dates to 12 Ch. I 

Court of the Belfry 2-32 Hen. VIII 

Adesham [Kent] (Halkelyng, Langdon, 

Mungham, Staple Gore) . . -17 Hen. VI 
Aldington [Kent] Palstre (Berwyk, Somer- 

feld, Stonested, Wylopp) ; Birchholte 

(Cotborgh, Herst, Southwod, Stanted, 

Stokkeborgh Lustynton) ; St. Martin 

(Wymersh, Doddyng, Southre, Ive- 

chyrche, Heantry, Northborgh) ; Lang- 
port (Westbrook, Orwaldstone, Lyde, 

Worthe, Orgaryswyk, Estflete); Aldyng- 

ton (Xorthsture Superior and Inferior, 

Northre, Wylopp, Neuchyrche, Southre, 

the Weald, Lyde) . .' . Hen. VI-Hen.VI 1 1 


Aldwick [Sussex] Crymsham, Nytymbre, 
Suthmondham, Shrippenge, Pageham, 
Boganore, Northbcrstede, Suthberstede; 
also Cherleton and other townships in 
some rolls . . Various dates, Hen. Vl-Ph. & Mary 

Antyngham [Norfolk] . . 2-3 Hen. V, 27 Hen. VIII 

Ashewell [Herts] 4 Ed. Ill 

Axbridge [Somerset] Hallmote at Blakeford 2 Ric. II 

Banwell [Somerset] Hallmotes at Banwell 
and Compton, Wynterstoh, Blakedon 
Harptre, Hutton, Weston, Worle, Lox- 
ton, Wynescombe, Churchehull, Axe- 
bridge [Sand]ford [Uppe]hull Various dates, Ed. 1 1 1-7 Eliz. 

Bempston [Somerset] Hundred of Bemps- 
ston (Wedmoore, Churchlond, Blakeford, 
Moore, Alstone, Alverton, Biddesham 
Weare), Court at Burneham . . .20 Hen. VIII 

Bexley [Kent] Bexley and Northfleet, Hun- 
dred of Toltyngtrowe (Gravesend, Mil- 
ton, Goore, Thorne, Ifeld, Luddesdon) ; 
Views at Clyve or Cleeve Fotyscrey, Half- 
cley Ear d and West Preston . . . 11-12 Hen. VII 

Bouebeche [Kent] Views (Stanford Frenden) 2 Hen. V 

Boughton [Kent] (Bocton Melstret, Staple, 
Gravene, Herefeld, Menham, Warstile, 
Setene, Nesshe, Waterhamme) 

Various dates, Hen. VI-Eliz. 

Bourne and Kynghamford [Kent] (Byerton, 
Outhelmyston, Shelvyng Bourne, Breche, 
Berham) 27 Hen. VI 

Brevden [Worcester] Bishop of Worcester's 

Court (Norton, Herdwyk, Wenlond) . 8 Hen. IV 

Culdecote [Kent] Prioress of St. Sepulchres, 
Parish of St. Martin without Canterbury, 
etc. 43 Ed. Ill 


Culehelle Hundred [Kent] (Sandpette, Pluck- 
ele, Grenehelde, Staneford, Estlenham, 
Cherrvnge, Sandbracche, Sedenore, 
Welle, Heyteslade, Chart, Edesle, Filthe, 
Holnherst, Acton, Hulyngherst Nasshe), 
and court at Cherringe Various dates, Hen. I V-Hen. VI 1 1 

Cherde [Somerset] (Kynemerescherde, Ford- 
yngton, Old Cherde, South Cherde), and 
other places . . Various dates, 36 Ed. III-3 Ed. IV 

Codsheath Hundred [Kent] (Sevenoke, Chevi- 

nyng, Cepham), and other places Hen. V-Hen. VIII 

Fntyscley and Halfley. 

Congresbury [Somerset] Hundred of Congre 
and Yatton (Clyre, Claverham, Keu, 
\Vyke) ; Hundred at Chyw (Tymbres- 
bergh, Glutton, Stawege, Norton, Hau- 
teryl, Norton-Marleward, Sutton Militis, 
Sutton Episcopi, Knoll, Dondray, North- 
wyke, Luttelton, Stoke Abbatis, Ston, 
Northchyw) ; Hundred of Hampton and 
Claverdon (Charlecomb, Aumarle, Eston) 6 Ed. I, 2 Ric. II 

Crayford [Kent] Views at Crayford, Fotys- 
crey, Swanlegh, Preston, and Clyve (North- 
fleet and Rectory) . . 19 Hen. VI 

Evercrich [Somerset] .... 2 Ric. 1 1-2 Hen. V 

Falley Hundred [Hants] (Alresford, Marter- 
worthy, Henton, Beworth, Westmeon, 
Kxton, Cheriton, Twyford, Eston More- 
'le, Avyngton, Culmeston-Stokenett, 
Culmeston-Gymmyng, Wynhale or Why- 
nall, Ovyngton, Chilcomb, Brixden, 
Havont) . 1476, 1485, 1512-13 

Fannanby [York] Court of Dean and 

Chapter of Windsor .... 1590 


Oillingham [Kent] (the Weald, Bumpett, 
Okenfold, Lewyton, Bedmangore, Bough- 
ton, Graveney, Meneham, Wastyle, Staple 
Milstrete, Waterham, Narsh, Seeton, 
Harfyld, Calehill, Sandhatch, Highslade, 
Nassh, Well, Holyngherst, Stanford, 
Holnerst) . . . Various dates, Hen. IV-Ed. VI 

Halvele [Kent] 34 Hen. VI 

Harrow [Middlesex] (Sudbury, Walda, 
Pynnsure, Wembeley, Roxheth, Alper- 
ton, Kenton and Preston) . 23 Hen. VII, i Hen. VIII 

Hoveton [Norfolk] Hoveton St. Peters, 
Hoveton St. John's, Belhagh, Grishagh, 
Tungate, Tunsted, Wroxham, Ascham, 
etc. ... . . 4-5 Hen. V 

Houghton [Norfolk] 29-30 Hen. VIII 

Huish [Somerset] Hundred Courts of Huish, 
Kyngesbury, Cherde, Wylyngton, Wyve- 
lescombe, and Lydegard . . i7Hen.VI&3Ed.IV 

Ikcom [Iccomb, Gloucester ?]. 

Anherdam, Almondesbury . . .3-4 Hen. VII 

Kingsbury . . < . . . Ed. Ill & Hen. VI 

Lavant [Sussex] (East Lavant, West 

Lavant, and other places) Various dates, Hen. VII & VIII 

Lydeard [Somerset] Hundreds and Hall- 
motes .... Various dates, Ed. Ill-Ed. VI 

Lyminge [Kent] > Hen. VI Ed. IV 

Maidstone [Kent] (Ditlyngge, Stone West- 
ere, Wyke, Farleghe, Lyntone, Boxele, 
etc.) . . . Various dates, Ric. II-Hen. VIII 

Mailing or South Mailing [Sussex] . . Ric. II-Hen. IV 
1 Matted together. 


Monkton [Kent] (Byrchyngton, Wode, 

Denne, etc.) . . . Various dates, Ric. II- Hen. V 

Newland [Kent] 28-31 Ed. Ill 

Northfleet [Kent] with other places . 

Various dates, Ed. I-Hen. VII 
Otford [Kent] (Schorham, Sondreshe, Cep- 
ham, Chyvinyng, Sevenoke, etc.) . 

Various dates, Ric. I I-Hen. VII 

The Pallant [Sussex] . Various dates, Hen. VI-Hen. VIII 
Ringmere [Sussex] Hundred of (Southram, 

Glynde, Wotton Stanmere, etc.) . . 8 Hen. IV 
Slindon [Sussex] Hen.VII&VIII 

Somerden [Kent] Hundred of (Frenden, 

Cowden, Penshurste, Staunford, View at 

Shurbourne, etc.) 3-4 Ph. & Mary 

Southwark [Surrey] ... 19 Hen. VI 1-3 Hen. VIII 
Stonham [Sussex] (Southram Northlyng- 

ton, Ashton, Wellyngham, Middelham, 

Rammescombe) . . . . .6 Ric. II 

Street [Kent) 2-32 Hen. VIII 

Tangmere . . . .16 Hen. VI-2Q Hen. \ III 

Tenham [Kent] (the Weald Levediston or 

Levyston, Okynfold, etc.) . . . Hen. VI & VII 

Terring [Sussex] (Marlepost, Aldewyke, 

Slyndon, Kyrdeford) Various dates, Hen. VI-Hen. VIII 

Also a Court Roll of Terring bound up 
with Cartae Miscellanea, Vol. XIII, Pt. i, 
No. 5. 

Thurgarton [Norfolk] .... 1-9 Hen. V 

Tring( Herts] .... . 2 -3 Hen. V 

Uckfield [Sussex] (Mallyng, etc.) 

Various dates, Ric. II-Hen. VIII 

Walsham [Norfolk] 18 Hen. VI 



Wedmore Burgus [Somerset] . . .20 Hen. VIII 
Wellington [Somerset] (Boclaunde, Hamme, 

Paytone, Forde, Wodesforde, Gerbarde- 

stone, Purye, " Ecclesia ") . . Ed. I & Ill-Hen. V 

Wells [Somerset] Hundred of (Lockinge, 

Robergh, Malerbe, Stokegiffard, Dray- 
cote, Overthething, Nethertething, Mar- 

chalthething, Wells Forum, Whitchurch, 

Eston, Evercrez, etc., Halmote of Welles 

Manor . . . Various dates, Hen. V-Hen. VIII 
Westcliffe [Kent] Coulyng, Oystyrland, 

Hethe, Southwode .... 13-14 Hen. VI 

Wingham [Kent] .... Ric. II & Hen. VII 

Winsham [Somerset] 34 Hen. VIII 

Wivelescombe [Somerset] Hundred and 

Halmote Courts . . Various dates, Ric. II-Ed. VI 
Wrotham [Kent] (Royheye, Stanstede, Egh- 

tham, Hale, Nepaers, Wynefelde) . 23 Ric. II, i Hen. IV 

The following Courts are arranged in groups : 

Eastry (Worthe, Crawthorne, Felderland). ^ 

Addysham (Moninge, Hawkynge, Staple, 

Langdon, Gore). 

Ickham (Lee, Cottman, Well, Seton). 
Monketon (Birchington, Woodchirche). 
Seasalter (Upperborough, Netherborough). 

Charte Magna (Buxford, Chelyngton) 

i Ed. VI 

Charte Magna (Buxford, Chelmyngton, \ 

Appledore (Appledore Town, Appledore f 

Hathe) ) 28-9 Eliz. 



Fayrfelde (Mais, Flottham, Mistleham). 
Mersham, Godmersham (Challocke, Shamels- 

forde, Rottenden, Hynxell, Doorne, 



Monkton (Birchyngton, Woodchurche). 

Eastry (Woorde, Crathorne, Felderland, 
Barnsoll, Geddyng). 

Adsham (Addesham, Staple and Shattering, 
Silston Gore and Harndon, Hacklenge, 
South Langden and North Langden, 

Ikeham. See Cottenham, Seaton. 
Seasalter (Upperborough, Netherborough). 

Holyngborne(HolyngborneEyhorne, Boston- 
mownchelsey, Bredherste). 

Copton (View only). 

Chart ham. 





Similar Roll with Loose (Wanses, Fols- 
herst and Patendon) .... 

28-9 Eliz. 
35-6 Eliz. 


Wingham, the Archbishop's Manor (North 
and South, South Eythorn, South Dean, 
South Rollyng, South Wymelyngesweld, 
South Godeniston, North Chilton, South 
Twitham, North Wentherton, North 
Overland, South Wingham) . 

;> 4 Hen. VIII 


Courts with Hundreds at 
Wyngham and Bisshopeston (Rokkyngrove, 
Shotynton, Chelmynton, Westermouth, 
Easturmouth, Reculver, Beltynge, Book- 
ysgate, Hothe, Haiugh, Thorneden, 
Hampton, Strode, Padelysden, Helber- 
owgh, Vax, Gate). 

Westgate (Russhebourne, Harwiche, Staple- 
gate Hamlet, Harbaldown, Stoursete, 
Tonford, Cokerynte or Cokerynge). 

Downebarton (Lollyngdowne, Sarre, All 
Saints, St. Nicholas). 

Deal Prebend '3-4 Hen. VIII 

Wingham (as above). 

Reculver (as above). 

Westgate (as above). 

Downbarton (as above). 

Deal Prebend (as above) . . . . J 27-8 Hen. VIII 

Wyngham (Chylton, Overlond, Wander- 
ton, Dean South, Twytham, Eythorne, 
Rollynge, Goodneston, Wimlingweld, 
"North," "South"). 

Bromffeld (Chillington, Shottington, Ester- 
mothe, Reculver, etc.), as above. 

Westgate (as above). 

Petham (Bere, Stronstret (Stonsted), Step- 

ington, Cotreye or Conterey, Brodweye, 

Hanveld, Grandacre, Bisshopsden). 

St. Nicholas, otherwise Dounbarton (St. 

Nicholas, All Saints, Sarr). 
Deal Prebend. 

Chystlet (Westbere, Westbeche, Hathe or 

Hatche, Croste, Ernesborow) , , 37-8 Hen. VIII 



Norborne (Fingleshem, Sutton, Solden or ) 

Sholdon, Assheleye, Marton, Tykenherst) J 37-8 Hen. VIII 

Petham [ (as above) . . . .1-2 Ed. VI 

Westgate and Cheslett. 
Deal Prebend. 
Pysyng . . . J 3-4 Eliz. 

Estreats of Courts as in preceding, with 
Bexborne and Syberswell . . . 8-9 Eliz. 

Westgate, borough of Westgate, Harbe- 
down, Tunford, Harwich, Cockeringe, 
Hackyngton, Staplegat, etc., with 
Sheperdeswolde, Pysynge, Ryvers other- 
wise Crabale (Graybold), Stotmer (Sotmer), 
Harkyng otherwise Flygs Court, Boughton 
(boroughs of Nasshe, Milkstret, Mond- 
ham or Menham, Harvell, Wastell, 
Waterham, Graviney, Staple Seton) . 20-1 Kli/. 

Similar Roll 22-3 Eliz. 

Similar Roll ...... 24-5 Kli/. 

Similar Roll, with Litleborne and Bekkes- 

borne (damaged) J/-8 Eliz. 


44 Eliz. 


Deal Prebend 

Deal Prebend, Littleborne, etc. (in bad con- 
dition) . . . . . . .5 Jas. I 

Similar Roll I 3~ I 4 J as - I 

Similar Roll (Shourtand Hundred of Down- 

hamford under Littleborne) . . 15-16 Ch. I, 1639-40 


Hundreds and Halmotes at 
Lydyard Episcopi. 
Cherde Burgus. 
Welles Manor (Hornyngdon, Eston, Fridge, 

Bourcote, Cockesleigh). 

} Ed. Ill 






Pokelchurch (Westerleigh). 



Lydyard Episcopi (Assherberd, Asshepriour, 
Baggeburgh, Hull, Decenna Ecclesiae, 
Cantock, Combe, Libera Decenna). 

Wyvelscombe (Fyfhede). 

Wyvelscombe (Crauford, Langele, West- 
whitefeld, Fif hede, Ockhampton, Westrun, 
Dene, Estwhitefeld, Monynton). 

Welynton (Boclonde, Hamme, Payton, 
Forde, Wodeforde, Gerbardestone, Purye, 
Decenna Ecclesiae, Werdeforde). 

Cherde (Kynemerscherde, Old Cherd, Ford- 
ington, Tateworth, South Cherde). 

Wynesham (Wynesham, Pertynton). 

Kyngesbury (Westhambrok, Esthambrok, 
Lake Stenebrigge). 

Welles Forum (Evercrich, Chestreblade, 
Cranemer, Whitechurch, Eston, Hor- 
nyngdon, Doultecote, Wormesterr, 
Dynre, Cockesleigh, Milten, Burcote, 
Yerdeleigh, Woky, Westbury, Pridie 


Cheddre (Lockynge, Ronbergh, Malherbes- 
tethyng, Overtethyng, Nethertethyng, 
Marchalestethyng, Stoke-Giffard, Dray- 

Wynterstok (Blakeden, Harpetre, Hutton 
Weston, Worle, Loxton). 

Ed. Ill 



Jatton (Clyre. Wyke, Ken, Claverham). 

Chyw (Timberesburgh, Glutton, Staweye, 
Sutton Militis, Norton Hatevill, Sutton 
Episcopi, Knolle, Stone, North Chyw, 
Luttelton, North Wyk, Dundray, Norton 
Marleward, Stoke Militis, Stoke Abbatis). 

Hampton and Claverton (Hampton Claver- 
ton, Cherlecombe Eston, Aumerle) . 

Similar Roll 

Similar Roll, with Halmote at Compbon and 
"Curia legal turni " at Bath (Stalles, 
Walcote-Stret, Bradstret, Soutarestret, 
Westgatestret, Westwholestret) (muti- 

Similar Roll (mutilated) .... 

Similar Roll ...... 

Similar Rolls .... 

Similar Roll ...... 

Similar Rolls 

Welyngton ^ 



Welles Forum j 

Welles Manor (Burcotte, Eston, Prydy, 

Hornyngdon, Copesleigh). 

16-17 Ed. Ill 
27 Ed. Ill 

. 35 Ed. Ill 
. 13 Ed. Ill 
. 47 Ed. Ill 
6, 7, 8, 14, 18 Ric. II 
. 9 Hen. V 
. 2, 10, 18 Hen. VI 

. 5-6 Hen. VIII 

,31 Hen. VIII 














Wivelscombe (Fitzhedde). 


Welles Manor (Burcote, etc.) 

Banvill Manor (Worle, Churchhill, Wul- 

fareshill, Banwell). 
Westburie and Huishe 

31 Hen. VIII 

37-8 Eliz. 


Higham Gobian (Stretely and Sherpenho) 29-30 Hen. VI 

Stewkley Little 



sdon . 
Swaffam Priory 



II Ed. Ill 
9 Ric. II 

32 Ed. Ill 

12, 17, 18 Hen. VII 
18 Hen. VII 
12-16 Hen. VIII 


Bargeheys. ESSEX 

Ging-Joyberd- Laundry, alias Blunt's 

Manor ...... 4-5 Jas. I 

Lexden, Hundred of . . . . 23-37 Eliz. 

Little Leigh (Lighes, Priory of) . 14 Ed. I-I2 Ed. II 

Neylond (mutilated) .... Hen. VIII 

Neylond .... (Extracts) 44 Hen. Ill-g Ed. II 

Tiptree Ed. Ill 

Stow . . . . . . 31 Ed. Ill 


Swathlyng and Hertele (portion) . 10 Ric. II 

Whitchurch,Evyngar, and Husseborne 1391, 1496, 1497 


Savecomp ..... (Extract) 28 Hen. VI 
Temple Chelsyn . . Various dates, 2 Ed. VI-2O Jas. I 

Hundred Roll (portion) . . . Ed. I 


Thorney . . . Various dates, 5 Ed. III-i6 Ed. IV 
Thorney Leesons .... 1-7 Hen. VII 

Hackney 14 Ch. II 


Cantley 15 Ch. II 

Cawston .... (Extracts) 27 Eliz., 8 Ch. I 

Freethorpe . . 28 Eliz. and extracts of various dates 

Henham (Extract) 42 Eliz. 

Tryngton (fragment) . . . .26 Hen. VI 

Beckham 37 Ed. Ill 

Burnham Overey,Crabbe Hall and Lathes 1629-3 1 


NORFOLK continued 
Erpingham North, Hundred of (Cromer, 
Suffield, Gresham, Thurgarton, Al- 
borowe Bassingham) . . . 1634-5 
Erpingham South, Hundred of (Ing- 
worth and Colby, Booton, Scottowe 
with Swanton Abbott, Lammas and 
Little Hobbys, Tuttington and Ban- 
ningham, Hevingham and Stratton, 
Skeyton, Erpingham, Albye and 
Tweyte, Oulton, Saxthorpe, Ermyng- 
land and Corpustye) . . . 1633-5 

Thornage 21-2 Ed. Ill 

Walsham South and Rothyng . 8 Hen. VHI-Ph. & Mary 
Scotowe 18-22 Ric. II 


Everdon 17 Ed. Ill 

Dodford ( Ed III 

Lanaport (? Lamport) ) 


Ewelme, Honor of .... 31-2 Eliz. 
Blackbourton, Benney, Lew, Weld, 

Russhey and Claufield (mutilated) . 31-2 Ed. Ill 
Cowley, Sandford and Bruggesete 

(mutilated) 31-2 Ed. Ill 

Hampton Gay and Weston (mutilated) 31 Ed. Ill 
Hooknorton (fragment) . . . temp. Ed. Ill 
Mixbury and Newenton . . . 14-15, 31 Ed. Ill 
Watton, Worton and Twentyacres . 31-2 Ed. Ill 
Tew, Sifcford, Ipwell Sedwell, Sandford, 

Middle Barton and Dunstew . . 31 Ed. Ill 
Little Tew and Hooknorton . . 32 Ed. Ill 
Watereton, Cuderlowe, Kidlington 

and Hanborough . . . .31-2 Ed. Ill 
Weston (mutilated) .... temp. Ed. II 
Alrington, Bibury, Burton, Hanborough, 

Weston, Little Tew, Sibford, Gower, 

Hokenorton and Turkeden . . 5 Hen. VII 


OXFORDSHIRE continued 

Barton 7 Ed. Ill 

Claydon (Steeple), Maids Norton and 

Stow (mutilated) .... 6 Hen. VII 

Covvley and Walton .... 2-28 Ed. Ill 

Cowley, Sandford, Oxford (Castle mill) 

and Walton 6 Hen. VII 

Forest Hill, Oseney and Cowley . 17 Hen. VII 

Forest Hill (mutilated) . . 4-5 Ed. Ill, 30 Hen. VI 

Hampton-Gay, Hampton at the bridge, 
Blechington, Weston, Arncot and 
Chesterton 33 Ed. Ill 

Ledwell (mutilated) .... 33-4 Ed. Ill 

Mixbury and Newenton . . . 33-4 Ed. Ill 

Mixbury and adjoining places . . 17 Hen. VII 

Sibford, Gower, Turkden, etc. . . 19 Ed. IV 

Teu (Little), Great Barton, Barton 
Odo, Sandford, Rowsham, Dunstew, 
Sibford, Hooknorton and Adderbury 14-15 Ed. Ill 

Tew (Little), Sybford with Apwell, 
Hooknorton, Turkden, Alrington, 
Bibury, Weston, Ardley and Chester- 
ton, Watereton and Ledwell . -15 Hen. VII 

Ampton, Foresthill, Pery, Thomele, 

Ledhale, Dracot . . . . 34 Ed. Ill 

Walton, Worton, Twenty Acre, Cowley- 

Sandford and Bruggesete . . 14 Ed. Ill 

Watereton, Ledwell cum Little Tew, 
Sibford cum Ipwell, Hokenorton 
and Turkeden .... 9 Hen. VII 

Watlington . . . . 13 Ed. Ill 

Weston 5 Hen. VI 

Weston, Arncot, Ardly, Chesterton 

and Hampton Gay . . . 14 & 15 Ed. Ill 

Weston, Waterton, Sandford with 
Ledwell, Little Tew, Sibthorpe, 
Gower and Hooknorton . . temp. Hen. VII 


Aller and Allermore .... 31-3 Eliz. 

Alien and Othe 18-19 En " z - 

Hanwell and Compton . . -23 Hen. VI 
Winterstoke, Hundred of . . . temp. Ed. Ill 


Mutford (Extract) 1628 

Peyton Hall (Extract) 13 Ric. II 

Barton, Little i Ed. IV-i 4 Hen. VII 

Greeting St. Olave . . . . 25 Ed. Ill 

Fledehall with Waltham in Stoneham i Ed. 6-13 Eliz. 

Kessingland 6-23 Ric. II 

Mildenhall ...... 1706 

Newton 13, 16, 18 Ric. II 

Waldingfield, Great . . . temp. Ed. Ill & Ric. II 

Wickham 4 Ed. Ill 

Wratting 15 Ed. I 


Stoneham (Southeram, Norlington, 

Wellingham, Middeham Ashton) . 30-9 Hen. VI 

Rowington 38 Eliz. 

Pirton Foliot ... 28, 36 Hen. VIII, 27, 34 Eliz. 

Hungerton 20 Ed. I 




1718 Alvechurch, Court of the Rector. . Worcester 
1594 Askham Bryan Manor Court. No wills 

proved after 1799 .... York 
1773 Baddesley Clinton Manor Court . . Birmingham 
1682 Balsall Temple Manor Court . . Birmingham 
1632 Barnoldswick. Last will proved 1804 Wakefield 
1671 Barston Manor Court .... Birmingham 
1562-1768 Beeford Manor Court. Wills and 

inventories the only entries on these 

Court Rolls York 

1717 Bredon, Court of the Rector . . Worcester 
1678 Burton on Trent Manor Court (with 

Stretton, Horninglow, Shobnall, 

Wetmore, Branson and Windshill) Lichfield 
1746 Cold Kirby Manor Court . . . Unknown 
1610 Crossley, Bingley and Pudsey, called 

the Court of St. John of Jerusalem . Wakefield 

1753 Dale Abbey Derby 

1658 Ellesmere ...... Shrewsbury 


Hampton and Town and Liberty of 


1581 Evington Leicester 




1641 Gnossall, Pecutuar and Manor Court Lichfield 

1739 Gringley on the Hill with Misterton, 

West Stockwith and Walkeringham. 

Index from 1739-1855, and is called 

Bawtry Manor Court, or Gringley on 

the Hill Nottingham 

1615 Halton. List 1615-1792, vol. xxiii. 
Lancaster Record Society. No wills 
after 1815. 

1607 Hunsingore 

Somerset House 

Nether Kellet (Return of Eccles. Courts 
for 1830. T. B. Cole, Lord of Manor) 

1752 Kirkstead with Mearbooth, Tattershall, 
Tattershall Thorpe, Kirkby on Balne 
and Woodhall. No wills after 1799 

1640 Knaresborough 1 .... 

1726 Knowle ...... 

Lineal (? included in Ellesmere) . 

1776 Longdon upon Terne .... 

1640 Mansfield (with Mansfield, Woodhouse, 
Sutton on Ashfield, Hucknall under 
Huthwaite, part of Warsop, Budley 
in the parish of Edwinstowe, Kilton 
and Scofton in parish of Worksop, 
and other places in neighbourhood) 

1654 Marsden in parish of Almondbury and 

1770 Merivale parish and manor 

1682 Newton with Beningboro. No wills 
after 1813 

1759 Pack wood 

1690 Ravenstonedale ..... 

1627 Rothley with chapelries and Somerby, 
South Croxton, Mountsorrel, Barsby 
Bill, and Saxelby . 

1579 Shipton with Overtoil .... 

1732 Sibford with Sibford Gower, Sibford 
Ferris and Birdrup, part of parish of 


Somerset House 
. Shrewsbury 








Somerset House 

1 Wills enrolled on the Court Rolls at Knare.sborough from a Hen. VIII. 


1767 Silsden Wakefield 

1651 Skerton. No wills after 1691 . . Unknown 

Slyne with Hest Unknown 

1612 Temple Newsam .... Wakefield 

1580 Temple Sowerby .... Carlisle 

1684 Tyrley (in Drayton in Hales) . . Shrewsbury 

Westerdale Unknown 


THE following are translations of the deeds of which 
facsimiles are given in the plate facing page 17. 


Let all present and to come know that I, Sir John de 
Loutham Knight, have manumitted Thomas Agasson Under- 
thehull of Bildisthorpe my native, with all his goods and 
chattels acquired now and to be acquired in future, and 
have freed him from every burden of serfdom. From which 
serfdom the aforesaid Thomas, with all his goods as is 
aforesaid, I have freed and have made him a freeman. So 
that the aforesaid Thomas, with all his goods and chattels 
aforesaid, shall be free, and shall enjoy full right and liberty 
for ever by these presents. In witness whereof to these 
present letters I have set my seal. These being witnesses : 
Sir John de Loutham, Knt, my son, Thomas de Mutton, 
John Bate de Thawtwaitt, senior, Nicholas de Bauquell, 
and others. 

Given at Walton by Chasterfield, the 2i 8fc day of May, the 
44 th year of the reign of King Edward the 3 rd after the 


1 Ancient Deeds, A 4625, 



Know all of you who this letter shall see or hear, that I, 
Elys de Verdoun, have given and granted and by this 
present letter confirm to Rouland Daneys and to his heirs 
and assigns, John atte Grene and Robert atte Grene my 
mils of Fornewerk, with all their issue and goods and 
chattels. To have and to hold to the said Rouland and 
to his heirs and assigns, as is aforesaid, the aforesaid John 
and William [sic] and their issue and goods and chattels and 
whatsoever to them belongs. And the aforesaid Elys to the 
aforesaid Rouland, in the form aforesaid, against all men 
will warrant and defend for ever. In witness whereof to 
this present letter I have put my seal. Given at Fornewerk, 
the day of S 1 Martin the 25 th year of the reign of our lord 
the King Edward the 3 rd after the conquest. These being 
witnesses : Sir Edmund de Apelby, Sir Averey de Solfuene, 
Robert de Sallone, William Daunswers, John Fraunceys, 
Hugh de Mouskam, and others. 


The plan of the Manor of Burton Agnes (p. 49) was 
used by the late Canon Taylor to illustrate a very 
interesting paper on " Domesday Survivals," contri- 
buted to the Contemporary Review for December, 1886. 
Although we may not be able to follow the learned 
Canon in all his conclusions, his remarks display such 
a wonderful amount of practical observation that they 
are well worth the attention of the student of mediaeval 

After observing that " there are several townships in 
the East Riding in which the ancient glebe can be 

1 Ancient Deeds, A 8005. 


actually shown to have consisted, not only of an exact 
tenth of the whole Domesday arable, but of every 
tenth strip in the open fields," he proceeds : 

" The map of the township of Burton Agnes indicates that 
the old glebe consisted of eighteen strips in the three fields, 
say twelve in the two fields which were in tillage at the 
same time. According to Domesday Book there were twelve 
carucates of arable, and therefore the parson had one strip 
out of each carucate ; his tenth acre as the plough traversed 
it, according to the laws of Ethelred. But the glebe strips 
are somewhat narrower than the others, because the others 
are eighths each representing one oxgang, the work of one 
ox in the eight -ox plough, while the parson had not an 
eighth but a tenth in each ploughland. The actual measure 
of the arable is 9993. or. i8p. , of which one-tenth would 
be 99 a. 3 r. 20 p., whereas the eighteen strips of glebe only 
amount to 98 a. 2 r. 20 p., falling short of the theoretical 
tenth by one and a quarter acres. This is accounted for by 
encroachments which are visible on the map. Some of the 
parson's neighbours do not seem to have ploughed quite 
fairly, thus gradually shaving off a part of some of the 
parson's strips." 

The Canon then points out other features of interest 
in the plan, such as the messuages of the villains, 
with their tofts and crofts. 

"South of the main road was the moor, formerly open 
pasture for the cattle of the community, but long since, 
apportioned in ' deals ' or shares among the holders of ox- 
gangs in the arable field, one oxgate of moor, the pasture 
for one ox, going with each oxgang of arable, which repre- 
sented the labour of the ox. North of the road is the 
* terra ' or common arable, divided into three fields, East 
Field, Middle Field, and West Field, which were tilled in 


rotation ; one field being ploughed in winter, another in Lent, 
while the third was left in fallow. The strips of tillage are 
divided by turf balks. They do not, as in many parishes, 
consist of acre strips, but are half oxgangs of about seven 
and a half acres, two strips, one in each of the two fields, 
tilled in any one year, constituting an oxgang. Some of the 
strips have been consolidated, probably by exchange. The 
glebe strips are distinguished by cross-hatching, and the ox- 
gangs, over which there was right of dower, are stippled. 
The hall of the lord stands where it stood before the Con- 
quest ; but he seems to have enclosed his demesne land out 
of the common fields, whose ancient limits, however, are 
indicated by surviving rights of way. The map represents 
Burton Agnes as it was before the enclosure, which took 
place about thirty years ago" (i.e. circa 1850). 

The following extracts will serve as a supplement to 
the passages in the text treating of the old English 
system of husbandry. 

** Even when the land has been long enclosed and divided 
into separate holdings, it is instructive to ride across the 
country and observe how indelibly impressed on the soil by 
the ancient plough are the marks of those very divisions 
of the land which were recorded in the Domesday Survey. 
Frequently the exact boundaries of the Domesday carucates 
and bovates can be traced. The ancient arable, consisting 
as a rule of the best land, because land was plentiful, has 
commonly long since gone back to valuable pasture ; inferior 
soils, which were formerly unreclaimed, being now taken 
into tillage. Hence the land still lies visibly in ' run-rig,' 
the great rigs, lands or selions, usually a furlong in length 
and either a perch or two perches* in breadth, remaining 
as they were left by the Domesday co-operative plough, 
often higher by two feet or more in the ridge than in 


the furrow, while here and there at regular intervals may 
be discerned the traces of the flat unploughed balks, two 
furrows broad, left in turf to separate and give access to 
the strips held by the several tenants of the manor. Even 
where the old arable still remains in tillage, it is not im- 
possible as harvest time approaches to detect by the varying 
colours of the ripening corn the lines of the selions of the 
Domesday plough, now levelled by cross -ploughing, but 
still traceable owing to the fact of the corn growing more 
luxuriantly, and ripening more slowly in the deeper and 
richer soil which has filled the depressions between the 
ancient selions. . . . And as we gaze on these actual acres, 
roods, and furlongs, we notice that they are seldom straight 
such as are delved by the modern two-horse plough, but, as 
is shown by the hedges which scrupulously follow the lines 
of the turf balks which separated the oxgangs of different 
owners, they lie in great sweeping curves shaped usually 
like a capital T or capital S reversed, the long narrow fields 
of the present farms thus perpetuating the graceful curves 
of the acres curves which can only be due to the twist of 
the great eight-ox plough, as the leading oxen were pulled 
round in preparation for the turn as they approached the end 
of the furlong by the villain at the near side of the leading 


The following are translations of the extracts from 
a bundle of Court Rolls of Warwick College, pre- 
served at the Public Record Office, which are given 
in facsimile plate. The ancestry of William Shake- 
spere cannot be traced with certainty beyond his 
grandfather, Richard, whose name appears in these 
Rolls as a suitor for Snitterfield, a small village a 


few miles from Stratford-on-Avon, where we find him 
holding property from the Dean and Chapter of 
Warwick College temp. Henry VIII. In one of these 
extracts it will be observed that his name is entered as 
Richard Shakstaff, the question arising whether this 
was a variant used by the family at this period. 


View l of frankpledge with court of the Dean and Chapter 
of the College of blessed Mary of Warwick held there the 
Thursday next after Hokday the 2o tb year of the reign of 
Henry the 8 th . 


Thomas Smyth Henry Bailer 

There is placed in the tithing 

Twelve Jurors 
to wit Thomas Torre John Whyrett 

Thomas Eborall Richard Plomer E 
Henry Rogers * William Banbury ; 
Lewis Smart John Gryffyth 

Edmund Godfrey 

[Richard] 2 Thomas Wylkyns Henry Ratham 
Edward Malyn '* Ralph Twycrosse * 
John Meydes 


Richard Marell does not come, therefore in mercy. 


John Palmer tithing man there sworn presents that Richard 
Shakkespere owes suit of Court and makes default. Also it 
is ordained that the tenants there make their hedges within 
the feast of the Ascension of our Lord next ensuing under 
pain for each delinquent xij' 1 . 

1 Court Roll:*, 207, 88. * Erased. 


[Court held the Thursday after the feast of S l Michael 
25 Hen. viij.j 


John Palmer tithing man there sworn presents upon his 
oath that William Meyhoo, Richard Shakstaff and Robert 
Ardern owe suit of Court and have made default. Therefore 
they are in mercy. Also they present that Robert Ardern 
hath his hedges ruinous lying" between his land and the land 
of John Palmer. Therefore it is commanded him to make 
and amend them within the feast of S* Luke the evangelist 
next ensuing under pain xx (1 . 


Esson = Essones : excuses for not appearing. 

br ^ ff assis = brasiaverunt * fregerunt assisam : they 

have brewed and broken the assize. 
10 in mia dni = ideo in misericordia domini : therefore 

in the mercy of the lord. 

4) pko deb = pro placito debiti : for a plea of debt. 
p ptto tns = pro placito transgressionis : for a plea of 


no ven = non venit : he has not come, 
p plm = per plegium : by pledge or surety, 
h diem = habeat diem : he may have a day. 
pi : e bafto = preceptum est ballivo : it is commanded the 

bailiff; or sen = senescallo, the steward, 
ps e = presentatum est : it is presented. 
Inq ad inq = Inquisitio ad inquirendum : inquisition to 

pet iudia = petit judicium : he asks for judgment. 


Mi de exur = proveniens de extrahuris : forthcoming 

of extrays. 

px j>t fm = proxime post festum : next after the feast. 
j> bat ia- pro bateria : for battery, 
leii hut = leuavit huteum : he raised the hue. 

^attachiatus est : he was attached, 
ad da 111 suu = ad dampnum suum : to his damage, 
po. lo. suo = ponit loco suo : he puts in his place. 
j) lir cone = pro licentia concordandi : for licence to 


fe tiii = fecit finem : he has made a fine, 
fee def= fecit defaltam : he has made default. 
vb * vulii = verberavit > vulneravit : he has beaten and 

(j or quer = querens : complainant; or q = queritur, he 

Vs = versus : against. 
jui : =jurati = being sworn. 
Aff=afferatores : the officers assessing fines, 
ad t pd = ad terminos predictos: at the terms aforesaid, 
poif in decenii = positus in decenna : placed in the 



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Albye, 299 

Aldershot, 256-7 

Aldersnap, 257 

Alderminster, 284 

Alderwasley, 268 

Aldington, 243, 285 

Aldworth, 259 
i Aldwick, 286, 289 
I Ale brewing, 202 

Ale tasters, 73 

Aleshill, 250 

Aleyn, Nich., 208-9, 2I 4 22( 

Alford, 275 

Alie, Thos., 186 

Alinton, 237 

Allerton, Manor of, 313 

Allerton, North, 252 

Aller, 278, 301 

Allermore, 301 

All Saints, 244, 292 

Allcnsmore, 253 
j Allynemore, 200 

Almondbury, 288, 303 

Alinomlrnt;ion, 249 

Almsworthy, 278 

Alperton, 288 

Aln-stonl. 255. 287 

Alivshute, 256 

A 1 rington, 299-300 

Alstonc, 286 

Alton, 271 

Alton Kast brook, 271 
,, Westbrook, 271 

Alvcchurch, 259, 302 

Alvesbridgc, 246 

Alvcrton, 286 




Ahvston, 283 

Amberley, 249 

Ambresham, 257 

Ampthill, 264 

Ainpton, 280, 300 

Ancient Demesne, 100-4, 322 

Andivike, 234 

Andrews, C. McLean, 312 

Aiming-, Robert, 236-7 

Ansley, Will., 173-4, J 77 J 79 

Antyngham, 286 

Apelby, Sir Edw. , 305 

Appleby, Accounts of Reeve of, 312 

Appledore, 245, 290 

Appledurcombe, 262 

Approvement of Common, 114 

Archer, Stephen, 187 

Ardley, 272, 300 

Ardern, Robt. , 310 

Ardington, 2oq 

Arlesey, 266 

Arlington, 282 

Armscot, 259 

Arncot, 208, 300 

Arnest, 300 

Arrowclose, 250 

Aryngton, 287 

Arysbrook, John, 214 

Ascham, 288 

Askham Bryan, 302 

Ash, 258 

Ash Bocking, 280 

Ashay, 271 

Ashen, 269 

Ashbourne, 268 

Asshecombe, 268 

Ashfold, 249 

Ashford, 257 

Ashmanworth, 258 

Ashton, 254, 262, 277, 289, 301 

Ashton under Hill, 270 

Ashley, Will., 197 

Assheley, 244, 293 

Asshepriour, 295 

Asselun, William, 145 

Asselby, 252 

Assherberd, 295 

Asshewell, 286 

Assize of Bread and Beer, 73 

Astley, John, 201 ; Rich., 195 

Astley, 276 

Aston, 260 

,, Castraffe, 258 

Aston, Great, 259 ; Little, 259 ; 

Bishop, 258 

Aston and Cote, Manor of, 12 
As t wick, 266 
Astwood, 260 
Atte mill, John, 219 
Atte Mere, Henry, 158 
Atte well, John, 152 
Attewell, Nich., 227 
Attestreteboner, John, 148 
Attesg-erd, Reginald, Adam, 146 
Atherston, 283 
Atkinson, T. D., 312 
Atling-ton, 259 

i Aubrey on Enclosures in Wilts, 119 
Aukland, St. Andrew, St. Helen, 

West, 249 
Aumarle, 287 
Aust, 260 

Axbridge, 254, 256, 286 
Aylesbury, Manor of, 319 

C. R., 319 
Ay ling-ton, 263 
Aylmersmede, 210 
Aylbrugge, 295 
Ayst St. Laurence, 272 


Babcary, 278 

Bacon, 161, 164, 167 

Baddesley Clinton, 302 

Badmondenne, 246 

Badshot, 257 

Bagborough, 295 ; West, 278 

Baig-ent, F. J., 312 

Baildon, W. Paley, 312, 318 

Bailiff, the, 68 

Bailly, Agnes, 187 

Baker, John, 160, 163, 224 

Robert, 172, 174, 176, 178, 180 
Baldslow, 282 
Baldwyn, John, 215, 216 
Ballsall Temple, 302 
Bampton, 277 
Banaster, Eliz., 184; Thos., 188 

Walter, 156; John, 186, 187 

Rich., 184 
Banbury, Harmand, 213; Will. 

Bandye, John of G l Tew, 215 
Bance, Will., 144, 146 



Bandon, 281 
Banghurst, 257 
B.'inty, John, 170 
Banuvll, 256, 286, 294, 296 
Ham-ill Manor, 297 
Banningham, 299 
Bapchiici, 247 
Harbour, Humph., 186 
Barcoll, Will., Alice, Sibil, 165 

K-VS, 298 

Baring-, F. , 312 
Barkham, 271 

,, The Reeve's Account of, 


Harking, 262, 263, 270 
Barksore, -'45 
Barnby, 252 
Barnefield, Thos., of Knight ley, 

~ I97 
Barnes. <>.j 

Barnsley, 264, 269 

Barnard, Rich., 187, 200, 201 ; 

Thos., 193, 197; Walter, 158; 

Kdmund, 159 
Barnet, 263 

Barnett, Rich., 193, 195 
Barnhall, 281 
Barnsoll, 291 
Barnoldswick, 302 
Barnton, 250 

Barrett, Thos., 187; Geo., 197 

liarshy Bill, 303 
Barsham, East, 275 
Harwell, 274 
Bartlet, Emma, 224 

S. .,312 
Barrington, 270 
Barrow, 251 
Barton, 256, 300; Gt., 300; Little, 

301 ; Middle, 299 ; Odo, 300 ; 

Stacey, 257 ; in le Clay, 266 
Barston, 302 

Baxingxtoke, Manor of, 312 
Basxrtts Bury, 259 
Bassingbourne Rectory, 267 
Baxxingharn, 299 
Baslow Conn Rolls, 317 
Bate de Thaw 1 wait t, 304 
Bateson, Mary, 312 
Hath, 296 

Bathe, Rich, dc, 141 ; Reg., 145 
Battery and assault, 134 

Battle Abbey, Hides of, 321 

,, Custumals, 312 

Bauquell, N'ich., 304 
Bawderippe, 265 
Beadle, the, 69 
Beakesbourne, 245, j~4 
Beardesley, John, 200 
Bemount, 209, 211 ; Hill, 251 
Beamish, 250 
Beaumont, 264 

G. F.,312 
Beamvorlh, 255 
Beckham, 298 
Beckling, 280 
Bedale, Alice, 212 
Bedall, Will., 172-4, 176, 178 
Bedlington, 251, 252 
Bedmangore, 244, 248, 288 
licdrips, 93 
Hcdripsil-ccr, 152 
Beddington, 281 

Bedburn, South, 249 ; North, 252 
Beeford, 302 

Bekingham, Thos., 217-18. 
Bela, 257 
Belby, 252 
Belfry, Court of the, Canterbury, 


Belhagh, j8S 
Beltane festival, 98 
Belting, 244, 292 
Belton, 274 
Bempston, 286 
Bentley, 256-7 
Benney, 299 
Benningboro, 303 
Brnsham, 281 
Benham, 160 
Benfieldside, 251-2 
Benger, Will./iu 
Benfcornt , the, 93 
Benequik, ^45 
Bentworth, 271 
Benhull, John, 219 
Benwick, 267 
Bern wood, 215 
Berkhampstead, 272 
Bere, 244, 292 
H. i ham, 286 
Berewe, 258 
Berton, 247 



Berwick, 285 
Berrick, ^47 
Bette, John, 213 
Betheley, 275 
Bevere, 260 
Beverley, 264-5, -**4 
Beuchamps Manor, 277 
Be worth, 287 
Bexhill, 281 
Bexborne, 293 
Bexley, 286 

Bibliography of Manorial Litera- 
ture, 312 
Bibury, 299, 300 
Bicester, Account Roll of, 207 
Bicknoller, 254 
Bickley, W. .,312 
Biddlesham, 254 
Biddesham Weare, 286 
Bighton, 255 
Bikton, 255 
Bildesthorpe, 304 
Billing-side, 252 
Biles, 221 
Bingley, 23, 302 
Binstead, 256, 271 
Birchington, 247, 290-1 
Birchholt, 274, 285 
Birdham, 249 
Birkby, 252 
Birkley, 250 
Birling, 208 

Birmingham, Survey of, 312 
Birneside, 248 
Birdrup, 303 
Bisham Manor, 316 
Bishampton, 260 
Bishop's Auckland, 249 
Bishop's Hull, 257 

,, Frome, 272 

,, Lydiard, 278 

,, Middleham, 251 

,, Palace, 272 
Bishops Stortford, 272 

,, Sutton, 254 

,, Wearmouth, 251 
Bishopsden, 292 
Bishopshurst, 281 
Bishopsley, 252 
Bishopstone, 256, 282, 292 
Bishopstoke, 256 
Bittern, 256 
Bitton, 270 

Black Alton, 268 

Blackbourton, 299 

Blackburne, 250 

Blackenhall, 208 

Black Death, the, 54 

Hlakc'inan, Sir Will., 189 

Blackman Street, 248 

Black well, 251, 259 

Blakedon, 286 

Blakeden, 285 

Blakethorn, 208 

Blackford, 254, 286, 294 

Bladon, 251 

Blagden, 256 

Blechington, 300 

Bledlow, 267 

Blockley, 259 

Bloomsbury and St. Giles, 313 

Blondy, William, 164 

Blount, Geo. , 190, 193 

Blunts Manor, 298 

Bluntisham, 253 

Bloxham, 277 

Bloys, 270 

Bocher, Thos., 156 

Kocking, 93, 245 

Boclonde, 290, 294-5 

Bocton, 286 

Bocclesdune, Henry de, 236 

Bocksole, John, Walter, 153 

Bodmin, 262 

Bodleian Library, Court Rolls at, 


Boganore, 286 
Boldon North, 250 
Boldon Book, the, 312 
Boltsburne, 249 
Boltere, Agnes, 148 
Bolton Gerthes, 249 
Boncombe, 269 
Bondage, last days of, 3 1 7 
Bondagers, 60 

Bondgate in Auckland, 249, 251 
Bonepotte, 248 
Booker, 258 
Bookenvyt, 367 
Bookysgate, 292 
Bordars, 47 
Borden, 257 
Borley, 245, 269 
Borough English, 64, 313 
Borrowby, 252 
Bosbury, 272 



Boston, 299 

Bostonmowiu lu-Krv, 291 
Allen, 267 

Boteler, John, 159; Rich., 216-17 
Butrllrrs Manor, 267 
Bouebeche, 286 
Bou K ht<m, J44, 245, 260, 275, 286, 

288, 293 
Boulg< . 

Boulter, \V. ( '., 313 
Bourcote, 294 
Bourne, 249, 263, 286 

BI 284 

Bower, the, 28 

Bowell, Henry of Curtlinglon, 207 
Box, 283 
Boxele, 288 
Ho x ford, 246 
Boxstc-d Hall, _>G 4 
Boyton, 245, 264 
Brabournc, -'74 
Brackelesham, 249 
Brad wood, 249 
Bradley, 249, 250, 259, 260 
Bradenham, 257 
Bradeston, 275 
Bradeley, John, 166 
Bradbourne, 268 
Bradwinch, 263 
Bra Norton, 251 
Brainton, 253 
Bramdean, 255 
Hi amber, 281 
Bramchot, 271 

I-.ii, _> i, --04 
Brandistonc, j;s 
Branson, 302 
Brancaster, 262 
Bransburif, 256 
Brantinv^ham, 252 

\11, Robt., 188 
Braxsin^ton, 268 

irj^h, Upland, 274 
r, K'n!)., 212 
Bratt, Laur., 193-4, '99 2O1 5 

Rich., 194; Robt., 188; Thos , 

1 86 
Bray, 265 


with, 252 

Breaking ass iff of bread, 137 

, llunmn, 194 
Brecknock, 266 
Breche, 226, 286 

John, 184 
Bredhont, -'47, 291 

liirilon, 23, 259-60, 302 

Brrnt, 262 ; South, 73 

BrL-ntwood, 270 

Brevden, 286 

Bridge Street, 273 

Bridge water Castle, 261 

Bristol, 262 

Britby, 252 

Brit well, 247, 255 

Bright waltham Court Roll.s, 140 

Brixo!en, 287 

Broadhalfacres, 226 

Broad Myers, 250 

Broadwas, 260 

Broad water, Little, 282 

Broadweye, 244, 292 

Brockhampton, 253, 257 

Brooke, 245, 291 

Brookend, 247, 258, 277 

Brockdish Hall, 275 

Brookhampton, 247 

Brock ford Hull, 264 

Brook furlong, 226 

Broome, 252, 280 

Broomshiclds, 252 

Broomsteel, 251 

Bromesgrove, 284 

Brompard, 272 

Bromti Id, .'47, 292 

Brown, John, 166 ; Thos., 186-7 

Brownswick, 257 

Brou^hton, 273, 283 

Broxgate, 244 

MniK^esetc, 299, 300 

Bm$mW9od t collecting, 229 

Hryanstonc, 250 

Buckcnhill, 214, 253 

Buckingham, 209 

,, Duke of, 117 

Buckle, A., 313 

:.istlri^h, 264 
Bucheland, 297 
Buktoti, 275 

A.-Kh, 278 
/in ildings, Expfn 
Buddlcsgate, 256 
Buinpitt, 244, 288 



Bunbury, Sir T. C., 20 
Bungay, 280 
Buntey, 303 

Bunting-ford, _;_' 

Buntyng 1 , John, 21 1 

Burbourne, 260 

Burcombe, 283 

Burcot, 254, 295-6 

Burdon, -\si 

Bures, John de, 153 

Iturgtigc tenure, 64 

Burgois, Adam, 148 ; William, 147 

Burg-helere, 258 

Burglary, 139 

Burham, 243 

Buriton, 227, 271 

Burn hall, 251 

Burnham Overey, 298 

Burnhope, 250, 252 

Bursleden, 256 fc 

Burston, 275 

Burton Agnes, Plan of, 305 

Burton, 299 

,, Custumal, 227 

,, on Trent, 302 ; Chartulary 
of, 105 

Burwash, 282 
Burwell Over, 267 

,, Ramseys, 265 
Bury, 262 

Bury, Manor of, 269 
Bury Hall, 279 
Bury end, 208 
Burygate, 210 
Burchall, Will., 176 
Busshnells, Vincent. 159 
Butlefield, 251-2 
Buttlesden, 238-9 
Buxford, 245, 290 
Buxhall, 279 
Byermoor, 250 
Byerside, 250 
Byersgreen, 249 
Byersgrove, 252 
Byerton, 286 
Byg-enhall, 210 
Bynd, John, 158 
Byng, John le, 145 
Bynne, 247 
Byrchall, 172, 174 
Byrcher, 180 
Byrchington, 289 
Bythorn, 273 

Caddington, 224 

Caistor, 315 

Calcott, 291 

Caldecote, 245 

Caldewall, Thos., 186 

Calehill, 243, 288 

Calf, selling a, 230 

Camboys, 252 

Cambridge, 255 

Cambridgeshire manor, Hist, of a, 

Campanile of Christ Church, Court 

Rolls of, 248 
Campsey Ash, 280 
Cams, 257 

Canfield-Childer, 269 
Canons Grange, 255 
Canon, Nich., Alice, 65 
Canterbury Archbishopric Court 

Rolls, 2 4 3 
Canterbury Chapter Court Rolls, 

245, 248 
Cant ley, 298 
Cantock, 295 

Cap, wearing on Sunday, 198 
Cards and tables, 97 
Carisbrook, 257, 271 
Carlton, 251 ; Little, 16 
Carles, Sir John, 95 
Carnanton, 262 
Carpenter, the, 73 
Carpynter, Will., 161 
Carriage, service of, 233 
Cartington, Manor of, 314 
Cartbote, \ 14 
Castle Barnard, 262 

,, Combe, 283, 321 

,, Sowerby, 262 
Cassop, 251 
Castor, 1 10 
Cathayes, 267 
Catterick, 284 
Cattsayston, 262 
Catesfield, 257 
Caton, Richard, 193, 197 
Causey, 250 
Cavel, Will., 227 
Caversfield, 208 
Cawston, 262, 276, 298 
Cefu Llys, 277 
Ceorl, 45 
Cepham, 289 



Cert-money, 147 
Chadwell, Edm., 171 
Challock, 247, 291 
Chalk, 274, 283 

^i-<> vc, 93 

Chamber, John, 208 
Champp, Thos., 158 
Cha.ullrr, H. W., 313 

/. //u\ 34 

Chapman, Rich., 156 
Charlhurv, 277 
Charley, Rich., 171 
Charlecomb, 287 
Charlton, 256, 260 
Chnrnock, R. S., 313 
Charteris, 267 
Chartham, 246, 291 
Chart, 287 ; Ma^na, 290 
Chard, 255, 297 
Chardstock, 269 
Charing, 243 

Chasing in the lord's part, 136 
Chatwall, Gt., 181, 193, 195 
Chaufin, Philip, 147 
Chaulawe, Reginald de, 145 
Chauncellor, Robt., 95 
Chauntrdl, William, 151 
Chrarn, 247 

Checkendon, Manor of, 319 
Cheddar, 254, 294, 295, 296 
Chedzoy, 278 
Cheese > sale of, 219 
Chelmington, 244, 290, 292 
Chrlsworth, 280 
Chelsham, 281 
Cheltenham, 261 
Chelyndenne, 246 
Cheper, Hen., 145 
Chepyn, John, 213 
Cherde, 287-8, 294-5 
Cheriton, 255, 287 
Cherlcott, 258 
Cheriton, 286 

Geoffrey de, 144 
Chcrtsey, 263 
Cherlwood, 247 

/, 204, 227, 232, 235 
Cherring, 286 
Chester, 250; Ward, 251; 

Spring. 250 ; le Street, 251 
< Miestrehlade, 295 
Chesterfield, 264, 304 
( Miestei tn, 300 

Chesterton, William, 209, 216 
Chevening, 262, 287 
CJtevage, 18 
Chew, 254, 296-7 
Chewrll. | 

Chewnall, Fras. , 197 
Cheyeroftex, Will., 163 
Chichester Chapter Court Rolls, 

Chidden, 257 

Chigwell, 270 

Chilton, 244, 249, 291-2 

Chilcombe, 256^-7 

Chilhampton, 283 

Chilmark, 283 

Chiltington, 282, 292 

Chislet, 244, 292-3 

Chowdon, 251 

Chownall, Fras., 200 

Christmas feast, 230 

Christchurch, 262 

Christchurch Canterbury Court 

Rolls, 285 
Churche, 256 
Church Merringlon, 249 

,, Run vale, 257 
Churchhill, 256, 260, 286, 297 
Churchlond, 286 
Chyvining 1 , 289 
Chyw, 295-6 
Cirencester, 315 
Claret Hall Manor, 269 
Clare, Honor of, 263, 279 
Clark, G. T., 313 
Clark -Max well, Rev. W. G., 


Claufield, 299 
Claverham, 287 
Claverstone, 295 
Claydon Steeple, 300 
Claygate, 281 
Cleeve, 254 ; Bishops, 259 ; Fotis- 

cray, 286 
Cleevedon, 278 
Clerk, John, of Langton, 219 
Clerk, John, 157, 195 ; Robt., 215 ; 

Thos., 163 
Clerkenwcll, 264-5 
Clewer, 263 
Cliff, 246, 252 
Clifton, Manor of, 317 
Clinch, Geo., 313 
< Mist, Gerard, 268 



Clitheroe Court Rolls, 314 

Clone, 262 

Clun, 261 

Glutton, 254, 287, 296 

Clyfton, 208 

Clynche, Hen., i s> s 

Clyre, 287 

Co-aration, 51 

Coatham, 251 

Cobham, Lord Geo., 175, 177 

Cocks, John, 199 

Cockfield, Manor of, 313 

Cockerells, Manor of, 279 

Cockering, 244, 292, 293 

Cockersand, Rental of, 313 

Cockesleigh, 294-5 

Cockergate, 292 

Codding-ton n, 272 

Coke, Sir Edwd., 313 

Coke, Laur., 170 

Cokstan, Richard, 182 

Colby, 299 

Colbery, 250 

Coldborgh, 285 

Colchester, 269 

Cold Hendley, 258 

,, Kirby, 302 
Coldpikehill, 252 
Colclough, Robt., 1 88 
Colsborne, 259 
Coleshall, Humph., 200 
Coleman, Prebendary, 313 
Colemere, 302 
Colleringhill, 250 
Colletts Hey, 196 
Colleyweston, 265 
Collingham, N. and S., 253 
Colnehurst, 262 
Colwall, 272 

Colyns, John, 214; Kath., 215 
Colyn, Will., 166 
Colyton, 268 
Combe, 245, 257, 293, 295 

,, St. Nicholas, 255 

,, Wakewell, 268 

,, John, 113 
Comforth, 249 

Complete Copyholder, The, 313 
Common, Rights of , 109-12, 322 
,, Appendant, no 
,, Appurtenant, 111 
Commons, Select Committee on, 
and Waste Lands, 314 

Commons, Supplication oi the 1'oor, 


Enclosure of, 113- iS 
(/ompton, 157, 256-7, 260, 296, .;oi 
Compton Hassrt, 209 
Conder, Kihvd., jun., 31^ 

<.'oiiv;Tesl>urv, _54, j;,S, jSy, 
296, 297 

Congreve, John, 181 

Rich., 1 86 

Cong-ulton, Klciia, 188 

Consett, 250 

Consuctiuiincs Kanciai, 320 

Constitutional Histor\ - , ^Ji 

Cooke, Geo. W., 313 ; Hugh, 22$ ; 
Rich., 210; Roger, 147 

Cooke, Mr., 16 

Cookham, 265 

Cooper, Rev. Canon J. H., 313 

Copesleigh, 296 

Copford, 261 

Copton, 246, 291 

Copy of Court Roll, invalid, 180 

Copyhold Cases, 321 
,, Tenure, 321 
,, Treatise on, 322 

Copyholds Bill for enfranchise- 
ment, 20 

Copyholder, 128 

Copyholders, Security of, 317 

Cornard, Gt. , 279 

Corbett, Thos., 186 

Corbett, W. J., 313 

Cornelly Probus, 267 

Cornforth, 251 

Corner, Geo. R., 313 

Corners Hall Manor, 269 

Corpustye, 299 

Corston, 278 

Corttais, Robt., 148 

Cotes, Thos., 186, 187-8 

Coterey, 244, 292 

Cothelstone, 278 

Cotman, 247, 290 

Cottars, 47 

Cotton, 279 

Coton, John, 201-2 
,, Rich., 193 
,, End, 193, 199, 266 

Cotton's Manor, 279 

Cottenham, 247 

Coulyng, 290 

Coundon, 249, 252 


Country Life in mediaeval times, 

Court Life under the Plantagenete, 

Court Baron, the, 21, 318 

,, Manner of keeping 1 a, 319 
Court Keeper, Complete, 316 
Court Keeper's Guide, 321 
Court Rolls, 128 

preservation of, 315 
at Record Office, 243-65 
British Museum, 266-84 
Lambeth Palace, 285-301 
Bodleian Library, 297 
of Ecclesiastical Commrs., 243- 


Land Revenue, 261-5 
Early, 141-53 
Canterbury Chapter, ^45 
Chichester Chapter, 249 
Durham Bishopric, 249 
Ely Chapter, 253 

Hereford Deanery, 253 
2 53 

St. Paul's Dean and Chapter, 

Norwich Bishopric, 253 
Peterborough Chapter, 253 
Southwell Chapter, 254 
Wi-lls Chapter, 254 
Winrhrster Bishopric, .254 
Windsor Chapter, 259 
Worcester Bishopric, 259 
Letcombe Regis, 141-6 
Bright \\altham, 146-50 
Addington, 150-3 
Brrks .Manors, 154-67 
Taynton, 168-80 

-sail, i8l-2O2 

( 'hristchurch, Canterbury, 285 
Warwick College, 308 
Basin^stuke, 312 
Crondal, 312 
Yorkshire Manors, 313 
Gt. Cressingham, 313 
Little Chester, 314 
Manchester, 313 
Honor of Clitheroe, 314 

<u of Suffolk, 315 
Morpeth, 316 
Baslow, 317 
Holmesficld, 317 
Bray, 317 

Court Rolls 
of Pargeter, 317 

Wimbledon, 317 

Pitrini^ton Manors, 318 

Ingoldsmells, 318 

Aylesbury, 319 

Scotter, 319 

Hibbaldstowe, 319 

Hulham, 320 

Little Crosby, 322 

Elliptical phrases in. 310 
Courts Leet, 22 
Courts Leet, Practice of, 321 

,, Jurisdiction of, 320 

,, Antiquity of, 320 

Courts, Method of keeping, 316 
Cove, 257 
Covenholt, 147 
Coventry, John, 213 

,, John of Banbury, 213 
Cowden, 289 
Cowherd, the, 70 
Cowley, 254, 299, 300 
Cowling, 246 
Cowper, Robt., 199 

Will., 172-3, 175, 180 
Cowplow, 249 
Cows Huish, 278 
COTVS and calves, sale of, 218 
Cox, E. W., 314 

Rev. J. Chas., 314 
Crabbe Hall, 298 
Cracke, 251 
Craft, 244 
Cranbrook, 274 
Cranfield, 266 
Cranford, 295 
Cranmere, 233, 294-5 
Cranworth, Lord, 20 
Crathorne, 290-1 
Crawcrook, 251 
Crawley, 255-6, 25^ 
Crayford, 287 
Craybole, 245 
Greeting St. Olave, 301 
< i (ike Abbey, 274 
Cirssinjrham, Gt., 276, 313 

Croft, Rich., 168, 170 
Crofts, Thos., 187 
Croftacre, 156 
Croflacre, John, 157 
Crock well, 209, 213, 215 



Crockwt-ll, Will., 159 
Crokkernshull, 257 
Crombe, 259 
Cromer, Hund. of, 298 
Crompe, John, 161 
Crondall, 256-7, 312 
Crookbank, 250 
Crookham, 256-7 
Cros, Robt., 153 
Crosse, Thos., 190, 200-1 

,, Thos. atte, 236 
Crossley, 302 
Croste, 292 
Crouchend, 258 
Crouthorn, 246 
Crowhurst, 282 
Cro\vle, 260, 262 
Croxton, 303 
Croydon, 245 
Croyland, 264 
Crymsham, 286 
Cruche, 256 

,, John atte, 148 
Cubbel, Robt., 150; Thos., 150, 

1 5 2 ~3 

Cud worth, 284 
Cuderlow, 299 
Culworth, 277 
Culham, 258 

Culmeston-Gymmyng, 287 
Culmeston Stokenett, 287 
Culdecote, 286 
Cunningham, Will., 314 
Curbridge, 258 
Curdridg"e, 256 
Curry, N. and E., 254-5 
Currey, H. E. , 314 
Curryload, 255 
Curtlington, 207, 209 
CustumalSi 127 

Custom and Tenant Right, 314 
Customary Court, 22 
Cuxham, 18, 220 
Cuthbert, body of St., 239 


Dadyng-ton, 208 
Dairymaid, the, 71 
Dale Abbey, 302 
Dalling- Field, 276 
Daneys, Rouland, 305 

and Duvworks, 320 
, \\'ill., 197 
I hirlingscote, 259 
I );irlmgU>n, -'50-1 
1 )ar\\rnt, 251 
Daughter^ licence /<> ntrr\\ j_'(), 


Daneswere, 247 

Daunsere, John, 149; Will., 305 
Davenport, Fras. G., 314 
Davis, Rev. R. G., 314 

,, Thos., 193, 195 
Dawe, Thos., 182 
Day, Margery, 208 
Daylesford, 259 
Deal, 293 

,, Prebend, 245, 292, 294 
Dean, 244, 291-2, 295 
Dene Magna and Abenhall Manors, 


Dene, Rich, a, 188 
Denne, 289 
Deighton, 252 
De Lacy, Hen., 314 
Decenna Ecclesise, 295 
Derby, Lords of the Manor of, 319 
Derby, Feudal Hist, of, 322 

,, West, 274 
Denchworth, 156 
Denham, 267 
Deopham, 246 
Deverells, the, 95 
Deye, John, 209 
Dillington, 273 
Dinsdale, 252 
Dingley, 277 
Dinton, 283 
Dippenhall, 256 
Diss, 276 
Ditchampton, 283 
Ditchesthete, 233 
Ditchingham, 276 
Ditchford, 259 
Dittinge, 288 
Dixon, D. O., 314 
Denmead, 257 
Dean Bradley, 258 
Doccumbe, 246 
Dodds, Robt., 156 
Dodford, 299 
Dogflod, 257 
Donewell, 248 
Donington, 164, 253, 275 


Domesday of St. Paul's, 30 

,, and Feudal Statistics, 


of Enclosures, 317 
and Beyond, 318 
Manor, the, 320 
Studies, 320 
Survivals, 321 
and thirteenth-century 

survey, 312 
,, and classes of tenants, 


Dover Castle, 264 
Dondray, 254, 287, 296 
Donesmore, 208, 218 
Dorchester, jji 
Dorking, 64 
Dorn, 246, 259, 291 
Doultecote, 295 
Dovercourt, 261, 269 
Down, 248 

Downhamford, Hund. of, 294 
D\vnley, 258 
Downton, 256 

I >o\vnbarton, 244, 263, 292-3 
Draper, Hen., 210 
Draycote, 254, 259, 290, 295, 300 
Drag, 157 
Drinkstone, 279 
Dr.uifield, 268 
Droxford, 256 
Driiiitfwic k,* 282 
Dryburnsidr, J4<) 

Dudley, Will., 164 
Dudekyn, \\"ill., 150 
Duddyngf, 285 
Duffield, 96 
Dunjje Marsh, 274 
I) vi 11 mow, 269 

1 list, of, 320 
I hmstahl. . 
Dunstrw, 299-300 

I )ui)st)|], 

I himvii h, 281 
Durham, 251 J 

Bishopric Court Rolls, 

Halmotr Rolls, 108, 314 

Dm Icy, 256 

I hirstoti, 278 

I )\varris. Sir Kred., 314 

Dwtllfrs on the nntnor, 44-65 

Dyeham, 270 

Dys, Rich., 180 
Dysney, Mr. Thos., 16 
Dymby, Rich., 211-12, 216 
Dynre, 295 


Eaton Bishop, 272 

Earwaker, J. P., 314 

Kasin^ton. -si 

East Newhall Ray, 269 

Easton, 253, 254 

Eastror, 272 

Hast borough, 244 

Eastgate, 249 

Ea stray, 246, 290-1 

Kast IK-ath, 258 

Kastringfton, 252 

Kastrote, near Urchfont, 283 

Ebchester, 251 

Eborall, Thos., 309 

Eccles, 1 1 _ 

Ecclesall, Leonard, 198 

Eccles. Comrs. Court Rolls, 243-60 

Edwinstowe, 303 

Edesle, 2b7 

Edingley, St. Giles Fee, 254 

Edmondsley, 250 

Edwards, John, 148, 175, 177-8, 

186; Thos., 168 
E^ham, 263, 265 
nden, 247 
Eldon, 249 
Elei^h Monks, 246 

.. Urmt, 279 
Ele, John, 156 

Hlcus, alias Sadeler, Rich., 190 
Elham, 274 
Elleker, 252 

Kllrsmrr.-', 302, 315 

Elliptical phrases in Court Rolls^ 


Klmlry, 247 

Eistuh. Hundred of, 283 

Klswnrlh, 267 

Kiton, ('. I., 314 
Klton, 273 
Kit ham, 265 
Klv-rtoii, 246 

liaplfi- Court U..||s. 
'. Hu^h. 

Elizabethan Age, Society in, 316 



Elizabeth, English Manor in time 
of, 321 

Elyns, John, 184, 186 
,, Thos., 198 

Enford, 283 

England, The Making of, 315 

English Village Community, 321 
,, Industry, Growth of, 314 
,, Law, Hist, of, 320 
,, Bicknor, Manor, 318 

Ennerdale, 264 

Ensham, 277 

Entry, Fine for, 165 

Epworth, 262 

Erl, Rich, le, 145 

Erleham, 261 

Ermingham, 299 

Ernesborow, 292 

Erpingham, 299 

Escombe, 249, 251-2 

Essex manorial customs, 313 

Estermouth, 292 

Estflete, 285 

Eston, 287, 290, 294, 296 

Estenham, 286 

Estgarston, 160, 162 

Essendone, 247 

Estovers ; 84, 114 

Essoins, 141 

Es trays, 156, 160 

Eudon Burnell and St. George's 
Manors, 320 

Evenwode, 249 

Evenload, 259 

Evercrich, 274, 287, 290, 294, 

Eversdon, 297 

Everley, 257 

Everton, 266 

Everdon, 299 

Evington, 302 

Evlych, Will., 215 

Evyngar, 298 

Ewelme, Honor of, 299 

Exford, 278 

Exton, 287 

Exning, 279 

Extents and Custumals, 224-39 

Extents of Manors, 127 

Eye, 263, 264, 265 

Eycote, 259 

Eghtham, 290 

Eythorne, 244, 247, 291-2 

Faccombe, 271 
Fad, Ralph, 147 
Fairside, 252 
Fairs and markets, 120-3 
Fairfield, 246, 250 
Falforth, 250 
Falleraston, 256 
Fallston, 256 
Farmanby, 288 
Farleye, Lorian de, 151 
Farleigh, East, 246 
Fane, Fred., 314 
Farrer, W., 314 
Farleigh, 288 

Farm Servants, ivages of, 215 
Farnborough, 257, 271 
Farnham, 257 
Farway, 268 
Fawleizes, 249 
Fawside, 250 
Fawler, Rich., 162-3 
,, John, 162-3 
Fawley, 256, 267 
Fayrfield, 291 
Fareham, 257 
Faringdon, 267, 278 
Fealty, oath of, 21 
Feast days, 92 
Fees and -wages, 2 1 5 
Felborough, 215, 246 
Felderland, 290-1 
Felling, 250 
Felix, Ralph, 148 
Fencewood, collecting, 229 
Fennes, 255 
Ferneacres, 250 
Ferniall, John, 194, 196-7 
Ferryfield House, 249 
Ferryhill, 249 
Fersfield, 117 
Feudal England, 320 
Field, 246 
Fieldhouse, 259 
Field names, 314 
Fifhede, 275 
Fifield, 154 
Figg, Will. ,315 
Filthe, 287 
Filsham, 281 
Finchingfield, 269 
Finglesham, 244, 293 
Finney, Will., 190, 193 



Firbeck, 284 

fire-wood, preparing, 229 

Fi rebate, i \ 4 

Fitch, W. S., 315 

Fitzherbert, John, 90, 315 

Fit /Godfrey, Ralph, 96 

Fit/. Nicholas, Thos., 96 

hundred points of husbandry, 

Fladbnry, 260 

Plages, J 4 5 

Flamston, 256 

Flash, 252 

Flatt, 251 

Fletcher, Rev. W. G. D., 315 

Anthony, 199 
,, John, 216 
Fleets, 251 
Fleet, East, 248 
Fledehall, 301 
Fliggs Court, 245, 293 
Floatham, 246 
Foal, selling a, 230 
Folium, Reginald, 146 
Folkland, 322 
Folshurte, 247 
Fonthill Giffard, 283 
Food allowances to tenants, 106 
Football, 217 
Fora, Hen. de la, 145 
Forcet, 284 
Forest Hill, 300 
Forde, 290, 295 

Hugh atte, 225 


Fordhain l>i^an, 262 
,, Prior, 263 
Fordington. 265, 295 
Foreign tenants, 189 
Foriugland, Gt., 276 

, 97 

Hill, 300 
. 11,4 

Fornewerk, 305 
Forscombe, 257 

Forsi ., 190, 194; Rich., 


r, Rich., 201 


Rich., 201 
Fot, Lucy, 144 
Fotyscley, 287 
hill, 256 

Foulsalt, 248 

Fowke, Roger, 200 

Fox, Frances F., 315 

Fox, Thomas le, Will., Simon, 151 

Foxcott, 259 

Foxholes, 250 

Fowden, Agnes, 187 

Fowke, Roger, 200 

Framsden, 279 

Fraunceys, John, 305 

France, John If, 144 

FrankpleJge, View of, 22 

Fraye, Constance, 158 

Frebury, John, 179; Robt, 172-3, 

176; Thos., 177, 178,179; Will , 

Alice, 1 80 

Freefolk Priors, 258 
Freeholders, Early English, 320 
Freemen, 61 
Frenze, 276 
Frensham, 257 
Frense, J. de, 142 
Frenden, 289 
Freerside, 249 
Freshwater, 271 
Fressingfield, 281 
Freethorpe, 298 
Fretton, W. G., 315 
Frilsham, 157 
Fringford, 208 
Frome Selwood, 278 
Froseley, 249 
Froxfield, 257 
Froyh , 
Fruit carried from lord's garden, 


Fryerside, 250 
Fuel, Sale of, 219 
Fulbeck, 1 6 
Fulborne Zouches, 263 
Fulmodeston, 276 
Fulflood, 256 
Fulham, 64, 275 
Fulke, Will., 148 
Fullrr. !'. \ . .115 

daddy ng, 291 
Gad vhtp service, 315 
Ga/ol, 65 
Gaincs, 273 
Garbett, John, 186 



Gannett, Will., 162 

Garshurth, n, 262 

Carton, John, 216 

Gate, 292 

Gatebrugg, 259 

Gateshead, 250 

Gavelkind, 63 

,, Robinson on, 314 

,, Treatise on, 321 

Gawlingay, 18 

Gay wood, 265 

Geddyng, 248, 264 

Gedney, 275 

Geoffrey the villain, 150 
Robt., 199 

Gerbardstone, 290, 295 

Germeyn, Matilda, 225; Nich. , 

,, Robt., 226; Simon, 225 

Gibbe, Hugh, 152 

Gibbins, H. de B., 315 

Gibside, 250 

Gidding, 273 

Gillingham, 244, 288 

Gilberdesham, 226 

Giles, J. A., 315 

Ging-Joyberd-Laundry, 298 

Gissing, 276 

Gislingham, 279 

Girsby, 252 

Girton, 267 

Glastonbury, 262 

,, Custumals, 227, 235 

,, Rentals, 315 

Glatton, 273 

Glebe, Ancient, 305-6 

Glemsford, 265, 281 

Glevering, 281 

Glidden, 257 

Glynde, 289 

Gnossall, 23, 181, 303 

Gocelin, Hen., 147 

Godalming Hundred, 281 

Godard, Thos., 160-1, 163 

Godhine, 147 

Godley, 263 

Godmersham, 245-6, 291 

Godshill, 257, 271 

Godeneston, 244, 291-2 

Golloper, John, 156 

Gomersham, 285 

Gomme, G. L., 315 

Gores, 43 

Gore, 286, 290 
Gopeshall, John de, 145 
Gotham, 282 
Goulding, R. W., 315 
Gower, 245, 299-300 v 
Goxhill, 265 
Grafton, 264 
Grain, Sale of, 206 
Grass, Sale of, 210 
Grandacre, 244, 292 
Grange, 249 

,, of St. lyes, 273 
Grant of a "villain, 305 
Grantham, 265 
Grassals, 270 
Grasscroftfurlong, 224 
Grasmere, 262 
Gravesend, 286 
Gravenhull, 208 

Graveney, 244, 267, 286, 288, 293 
Green, 3*15 

Green's Norton, Hund. of, 264 
Green, John, 216, 218, 305 ; Robt., 

209, 305 
Greenhead, 249 
Grenehelde, 286 
Green well, Will., 312 
Greenwood, Chas., xv 
,, Will., 316 

Gregory, John, 160, 163; Thos., 


Gresham, 299 
Grettebach, Humph., 194 
Grey, Alice le, Rich, le, 227 

,, Sir John, 95 
Greyhounds, Keeping of, 198 
Griffith, John, 309 
Grimescot, 283 
Grimley, 259 
Grim well Hill, 249 
Gringley on the Hill, 303 
Grishagh, 276, 288 
Grogarth, 266 
Gropys, 2 1 1 
Grovebury, 259 
Growth of the Manor, 322 
Grymmesbury, 208 
Gubbe, Nich., 144 
Gun, Robt., Alice, Agnes, Marg., 

Rich., 173 
Gunthorpe, 253 
Gustard, Will., 238 
Guton Hall, 275 


Guesting 1 , 282 

, John, 216 


Hackelinge, 291 
Hackington, 244, 293 
Hackney, 298 
Hadlrigh, 246 
Hadnock, 275 
Hagg, 250 
II alley, 258 
Hale, 290 

,, \V. H., 316 
Hales, North, 281 
Halfley, 287 
Halkeling, 285 
Hall, Rev. J. Melland, 316 

,, John, Thomasine, 197 

,, Will., 201 

.. Hubert, 316 
Hallaton, 274 
Halle, 256 
Hallow, 259-60 

John, 171 

Halmotes of Durham, 318 
Halton, 246, 303 
Halugh, 292 
Halvele, 288 
Hambridge, 263 
Hampton, 208, 292, 295, 302 
Bishop, 259, 272 
at the Bridge, 300 
Court, 265 
Gay, 299-300 
Hambledon, 257 
Hamme, 290, 295 

I >ionis atte, 152 
H nond, Will., 224, 227; Roger, 

166 ; Titos., 214 
Hampstead, Manor of, 322 
,, Marshall, 266 

Hampsteels, 251-2 
I lampstcrley, 250 
Hanbury, 259 

Hands worth, 279 
Hanhaiii AM>ots, West, 270 
Hanlcy, John, 200 

Ham rid, .144, 

Hanwcll, 275, 301 

Harbour House, 250 

Harbledown, 292, 293 4 

Hardwick, 259-60 

Harfyld, 288 

Harecourt, Robt., 197, 200 

Hatrstield manor, 316 

Hareryngdown, 258 

Harlakynden, . 


Harlsey, 252 

Harkyng, 293 

Harndon, 245, 291 

Harptree, 256, 278, 286, 295 

Harpenden, 264 

Harraton, 250 

Harrow, 288 

Harrolds, 262 

Harston, 267-8 

Hart, 251 

Hartburn, 251 

Harthowel, 265 

Hartley Wi-stpall, 257, 271 

Hartingr, 282 

Hartlebury, 259 

/A/rrv.v/, 87 

Harwell, 255, 293 

Harwich, 261, 269, 292-3 

Haslington, 267 

Hasting, 282 

Hastings, Rape of, 282 

Haskrton, J7<), 281 

Hatche, 244, 292 

Hatt, John, 167; Thos., 163 

Hatfield Broad Oak, 270 

,, Bishops, 272 

,, Regis, 270 
I lat htirlil. 245 
Hatton, John', 200-1 

Manor of, 320 
I laughton, 251 
Matilcryl, 287 
\ lavant, J57, 287 
Haveringland, 276 
Haw, 244 
Hawford, 260 

llauk. shoi.-u^li, 282 
Hawkrr, Sir Robt., 169 

Ha wiry, 256-7 

Hawking - -'90 



Haydon, 269 



1 laves, 24S 

Hay ling, 257 

Haymardi the, 69, 76, 231 

Ha'zlitt, W. Carew, 316 

Hazleton, 270 

Heantry, 285 

Heatheley, 255 

Headington, 18 

Heath, 244 

Headacre, 248 

Hebborne, 250 

Hedging, 88 

Hedgebote, \ 14 

Hedling-h, 255 

Hedworth, 250 

Hedage, 206 

Hedley, 250 

Heighington, 252 

Hemelhempstead, 261, 272 

Helmingham, 279 

Helmington, 249 

Helmenden, John, 220 

Hellsell, 246 

Helde, le, 196 

Helyer, John, 167 

Helborough, 292 

Hemp, washing", 200 

Hempston, Little, 27 

Hemingford Abbot, 273 

Henbury, 260, 270 

Henham, 298 

Hencombe, 258 

Hendon, 256 

Henton, 287 

Henstead, 279 

Hendred, East, 263 

Henshell, 246 

Hendolveston, 246 

Henley-on-Thames, 221, 223, 277 

Hepworth, Manor of, 313 

Herdwyk, 286 

Herefeld, 286 

Hereford, 271 

,, Palace Halimote Rolls, 

, , Deanery Court Rolls, 253 
Hereward, T., 145 
Heriot, 19, 234 
Herne, 243 
Hernett, 147 
Hertle, 147, 298 
Herrington, 251 
Herst, 282, 285 

I Irromlrn, 2^^ 

Hrskett, 263 

Hest, 304 

Hesy, John, 156 

Hesseburn, Grey of, 147 

Hesylden, <>s 

Walter, 162 

Hett, 249 

Hethe, 246, 290 
Will., 161 

Hevingham, 299 

Hever, 274 

Heward, Thos. , 146 

Hewene, 260 

Hewes, John, Will., 161 

Heyment) 192 

Heyteslade, 287 

Heyton, 274 

Heytemundsgrove, 273 

Hibbaldstow Court Rolls, 319 

Hibbert, Samuel, 316 

Hide, Rich., 167 

Hidenham, n 

Higley, 273 

Higham Gobian, 297 

Highclere, 258 

Higham Ferrers, 215 

High Easter, 270 

Highslade, 288 

Hill, Geo., 195; John, 161 
,, Joseph, 312 ; Rich., 200 
,, Thomas, 172, 177 

Hilcot, 283 

Hillescote, 271 

Hilton, 250 

Hindlip, 260 

Hinchinbrook, 273 

Hindringham, 276 

Hitcham, 279 

Hitchin, 265 

Hitechyns, John, 193 

Hoath Shelving-ford, 274 

Hobbys, Little, 299 

Hobbes, Will., 171 

Hockham, 276 

Hodgson, Rich., 194 

J- C.,3'5 
Hodesfurlong, 225 
Hogges, Will., 170 
Hoggeson, Will., 186 
Hoil, Will, le, Edith, 147 
Hokkes, Peter atte, 152 
Holte, 247 



Hollingbourne, 247 

Holbroke, 247 

Holbeach, 275 

Holburg-Langherne, 260 

Holditch, 268 

Holdleighs, 255 

1 {<>!< Myers, 250 

Hollingside, 250 

Holme, 252 

Cultram, 264-5 

Holmes, T. S., 316 
,, Richard, 316 

Holme r, 262 

Holmesfield, 268 

,, Court Rolls, 317 

Holney Gate, 196 

Holnerst, 287-8 

Holt, 260, 264 
,. Will., 219 

Holpulemede, 230 

Holgrave, 252 

Holy Orders, Fine for taking, 19 

Holingborne, 271, 291 

Holyngherst, 288 

Holwell, 266 

Holy well, 221, 273 

Homage, 21 

Hone, N. J., 316 

Hoo, 247 

Hooknorton, 299-300 

Hooper, William, 216 

Hore, John, 159 

Hores, 274 

Horham, 279 

Horlsey, 261 

Horme'ad, Great and Little, 272 

Hornby, 252 

Hornyndon, 254, 294, 295, 296 

Horninglow, 302 

Horrington, 254 

Horse-mill, 208 

Horse, Sale of, 226 

Horsr-stralin^, 138 

Hursham, 282 

Horsley East, 247 

Horsleyburne, 249 

Horton, 258 

Hothc, 292 

Hoiinslow H.-.ith, i 17 

Hough in Debenham, 281 

Iloughtnn, 249, 273, 285 

le Spring, 250-1 
Midd ridge, 25 

Housebote, 230 

Hoveton, 288 

Howden, 252, 284 

Howells, 250 

Howse, John, 169 

Huce, Will., 145 

Hucknall under Huthwaite, 303 

Huddersfield, 303 

Huddyngton, 260 

Hudson, Rev. W. f 316 

Huish, 288, 297 

Huet, John, 156 

i, William, 189 
Hundon, 279 
Hull, Thos. atte, 19 
Hulham, 320 
Hull, 295 

.. Hill, 250 
Hulland, 268 
Hunsingore, 303 
Hungerton, 301 
Hungerford, 161-2, 164 
Hunstonworth, 250 
Huntercombe, 94 
Hulyngherst, 287 
Hunwick, 249 
Hunton, 256 
Hurfield, 244 
Hursley, 256 
Hurstmonceaux, 282 
Husbandrie, The book of, 315 
Husseburne, 298 
Hutton, 252, 263, 256, 264, 286, 295 

on Wicke, 252 

,, Bonville, 252 

Conyers, 252 
Hutchyns, Thos., 168-9; Robt., 

John, 172. 174 ; 1 

Hychens, John, 177, 179 

,, Fras., 194 
Huysh, 294, 297 
Hyde, 272 
Hyheyde, John, 178 
Hykkrs. Will.. IflB 
I h kk, <!., WilL, 213 
H\ n \\vrll, 291 

Ibstonc, 65 
Iccombe, 288 



Icham, 247, 290 

Ifrld, 286 

Ilston on the Hill, 274 

Ilslry, I 10, 158 

Imber, Manor of, 316 

In closures, I 14-19 

Inclosure Acts, 48 

Inclosures and Rig-hts of Common, 


Industry in England, Hist, of, 315 
Ingleby, 316 
Inglesham, 283 
Inglewood, 264 
Ingoldsmells 57 

Court Rolls of, 318 
Inglose manor, 276 
Ingworth, 299 
Enkberrow, Little, 260 
Inkpen, 106 
Inman, A. H., 316 
Institutions, Early Hist, of, 318 

,, Literature of local, 315 

In-y-coed, 267 
Ipwell, 299 

Isle of Wight manors, 314 
Itchell, 257 
Itching-ton, 260 
Ive, John, 208 

,, of Bicester, 219 

Iver, 255, 267 
Ivechurch, 285 
Iveston, 250 
Ivinghoe, 258 
Iwade, 244, 248 


Jace, Will., 201 
Jacob, Giles, 316 
James, John, 200; Hen., 193-4 
Jamys, Robt., 215 
Jarrow, 250 
Jeffrey, Will., 166 
Jatton, 295-6 
Jobber, John, 193 
Jones, John, 197; Robt., 195 

,, Roger, 198, 202 ; Thos. , 186 

,, Wm. Arthur, 316 
Jordan, Rich., 148; Robt., 193 
Joyhurst, 250 
Junior right, 64 
Jurisdictions, 317 
Jus pri nice noctis, 18 


Kapwick, 252 
Kebulwick, Thos., 161 

Keep, Thos., 210 

KrlscilU-11, _'(>.' 

Kclsale, 279 

Ki-lpin, 252 

Kt-nible, 316 

Kempsey, 260 

Kent St., 248 

Kenn, 254 

Kent, Tenures of, 314 
,, Domesday of, 317 

Kenton, 288 

Kendall, W T ill., 16 

Kens worth, 30 

Kenninghall, 117 

Kennett, White, 317 

Kerr, R. J., 317 

Keny, Rev. Chas. , 317 

Kershavv, S. W. , 317 

Kessingland, 301 

Keu, 287 

Keventleese, 277 

Key Street, 247 

Kibblesworth, 250 

Kidlington, 299 

Kilvington North, 252 

Kilton, 303 

Kimblesworth, 250 

King's Repton, 273 

Kinwardstone Hundred, 283 

King, Hen., 210; John, 145 
,, Nicholas, 145; Will., 140 
,, Elias, Will., Reg., 142 

Kingesbury, 288, 295, 297 

King's Langley, 265 

King's Walden, 272 

Kingswood, 283 

Kingend, 208 

Kinghamford, 286 

Kingsland, 261 

Kington St. Michael, 283 

Kingston-on-Thames, 281 

Kinsham, 260 

Kipshod, 258 

Kiphill, 250 

Kirby Bedon, 276 

Kirkby Sigston, 252 

Kirkby on Balne, 303 

Kirkstead, 303 

Kitchen, John, 317 

Knaresborough, 303 


Knapp, 255 
Knayton, 252 
Knapwell, 267 
Knedlington, 252 
Kniichtwirk, 260 
Knitsk-v, 251 

Thos., 186; Rich., 186 
Knii^hton, Manor of, 314 
Knolle, 254, 278, 287, 296 

,, HcMiry, 161, 163 
Knowle, 303 
Knotting 1 , 266 
Kynemersherde, 287, 295 
Kynston, John, 157 
Kyrdeford, 289 

Lucock Abbey, Customs of, 313 

Labourers, Wages of, 215 

Lady Prebendary, 187 

Lagarstone, Will, de, 145 

Lake, 258 

Lallesden, 226 

Lalling-, -'47 


Lambeth, Manor of, 317 

,, Palace, Courts Roll at, 

Lam bard, Thos., 169, 175; Robt, 

176, 177, i7 
Lamond, Eliz., 317 
I.ammas, 299 
Lanchester, 251-2 
Lanbridg-enorth, 261 
Langley, Kings, 265 

Abbots, 272^lcv, \\'alt.. j->4 
Langdon. .'45, 285, 290-1 
Langeford, 210 

Lanes and Cheshire Compoti, 314 
Langport, 255, 285 
F.auaport, 299 
Lane, John, 317 

<>n, John, 215 
Langton, 219, 264 

Jas., 181 
fislj, 257 

L.ikr Stenebrigge, 295 
Larking, L. B., 317 

///. 232-3 
La timer, John, ^17 

Lathes, 298 
Laughton, 282, 284 
Laurence Weston, 260 
Lavant, 288 
Lavenham, 279 
Laversfield Brook, 217 
I.awford, 264 
Lawton, Robt., 215 
Lawshall, 281 
Lawrence, P. H., 317 
Law Magazine, 317 
Lazenby, 252 
Leatherhead, 281 
Leadam, J. S., .117 
Leche, Gervase le, 150 
Leckhampton, 270 
Leckhampstead, 166 
Lichfield, Thos., Bp. of, 190 
Ledhale, 300 
Led well, 300 
Ledulph, Will., 158 
Ledbury, 264-5, 2 7 2 
Lee, 247, 290 
Leeds, ^47 
Lcfey, Andrew, 145 
Leigh, 257, 268, 297 
Lethnarde, Will., 215 
Leighton Buzzard, 259 
Leighes, Gt., 261 
Leuedyston, 248 
Leven, 284 
Lepear, Thos., 170 
I. < strange, Lord, 211, -'17 
Leseby, John, 214. -'15 
Letcombe Rt-ijis, 141 

^09, 266 

Littlemorefurlong^, 225 
Levyng, Will., 156 
Laverstock, 258 
Levyston, 289 
Leven, H., 285 
Lew, 299 

,, Trenchard, 268 
Lewyton, 288 
Lewyson, 244 
Leyham. William de, 150 
Lcxden, Huml. of, 298 

ln, 291 

Leysdownc, 247 
Lex Mancriorum, 319 
Lex Custumaria, 317 
Librra Dcccnna, 295 



Lirkry, 284 
Lillesden, 255 

Lincoln, St. Hugh of, 15 

Linkhill, 248 

Linghall, 280 

Lincombe, 259 

Lintegreen, 250 

Lim-al, 303 

Liskeard, 263 

Littleton, 254 

LittUnsrton, 282 

Little Crosby Court Rolls, 322 

Little Chester Court Rolls, 314 

Littleborne, 294 

Lockinge, 254, 290, 295 

Lockett, Eliz., 197 ; Will., 193, 194, 


Lockerly, 271 
Local Institutions, Literature of, 

3 X 5 

Locke, Rich., 317 
Loddon, 276 
Lokes, Ralph, 151 
Lollyng-downe, 292 
Lomehurst, 247 
Longstaff, W. H. D., 314 
Longdolemede, 210 
Longstaffand Booth, 318 
Longbord, Edwd., Prior of Pough- 

ley, 158 
Longhurst, 257 
Long Sutton, 256, 257 
Longdon, 259 ; upon Terne, 303 
London, Robt. a, 188 
Long, John, 157 
Longbridge Custumal, 232 
Lord of the manor, 14-25 
Lord, Will., 156 

Lord's Court, Repairing the, 229 
Lords of manor of Harwell, 315 
Levediston, 289 
Lovelok, Will., 161 
Loose, 247 
Lopez, Will., 174 
Loxton, 286 
Losthouse, 250 
Loutham, Sir John de, 304 
Lowe, William, 186, 187 

,, John, 200 
Loxton, 256, 295 
Luck penny, 220 
Luddesdon, 286 

Lustyrgton, 285 

Luttleton, 287 

Lutterington, 249 

Luttelton, 296 

Lye, John, 181 

Lyerdeane, 250 

Lydyard Episcopi, 288,294-^, 297 

Lydford, 268 

Lyde, 285 

Lyktappe, 247 

Lyttlesdene, 240 

Lymminge, 288 

Lynsack, 249, 252 

Lynehill, Kath., 199 

Lyntone, 288 


McClean, Sir John, 308 
Maddock, A. S., 318 

,, Rev. Canon, 318 

Maddison, Rev. A. R., 318 
Maidstone, 243, 245, 285, 288 
Maine, Sir Hen., 318 
Maitland, F. W., 318 
Maidenhead, 223 
Maiden-Riding, 250 
Maids Norton, 300 
Mailmen, molmen, 65 
Mallock, 268 

Malerbes tithing, 254, 295 
Mailing, 288 
Malkins Hall, 280 
Malyn, Edwd., 309 
Malherbe, 290 
Mansfield, 303 
Manumission, Deed of, 304 
Manchester Manor Court Rolls, 3 1 4 

,, ,, Charge of Stew- 

ard, 320 
Manning, C. R. , 318 

,, Percy, 168 
Mansergh and Rigmerden, Manor 

of, 33 

Manorial Law, Treatise on, 312 
,, Literature, Bibliography 

of, 312 
,, Extents, 316 

Courts, Select Pleas, 318 
,, Hall, the, 26-37 
,, Rolls, 127-30 
Manor Courts ivith testamentary 
jurisdiction, 22, 302 



Manor, Origin of, 3-13 

Flan of, 42, 49 
,, Celtic influence on, 5 
,, Roman ,. 6 

Anglo-Sax >n ,. 7 

\ i man .. ii 

Pro Norman, 9 

Officers and Servants >!, 

"7 77 
Work and Recreation on, 


< )ak, the, 131 
House, An old Hampshire, 


The old English, 312 
Maps, 42, 49, 109, 319 

Manors, Royal and Church, 100-8 

Manhood Hundred, 249 

Manydown, 257 

Mapledurham, 271 

Marl, manuring with, 83 

Marsden, 303 

Marden, 258, 261 

Marks manor, 269 

Markyatc, 224 

Marden, 264 

Mark theory, the, 4 

Martin, 244 

Will., 19 

Market Street, 224 

Marell, Rich., 309 

Marshall, Will., 318 

Marnehall, 227 

Marlow, 223 

Marchaltething, 290, 295 

Maritagiitm, 18 

Marterworthy, 287 

Marlepost, 289 

Mascales tithing, 254 

Mason, John, 181 

Mass'mgberd, W. O., 319 

Mayfair and Belgravia, 313 

Mayfield, Bibleham in, 282 

Mayowe, Will., 161, 163-4 

M. a i booth, 303 

Medomsley, 250 

M. dstead, 255 

Mrdi;eval England, 312 

Meeth, 268 

Melford, 262 

Long, 279 

Meesdow, 272 

Melstret, 286 

Mm ham, 244, 286, 288 
MendU-sham, .279 
Meopham, 291 
Meon, East, 247, 257 
Merton, 268, 269 

,, Statute of, 113 
Mi, Klyas de, 150 
Merchtl, 17 

Merdon, Customs ot manor of, 316 
Meremull, Hen., 145 
Meriton, Will., 215 

Mrhvalr. 303 

Meren, Richard, 167 
Merridge, 278 

Merrington, Wrst, 249 
Mersham, 247, 291 
Mrrrrd. Kast, 261 
Mrrstliam, 247 
Mt stager, John, 148 
M.-ston, Thos., 188 

Roger, Reg., 184 
M.'NV,-, uinli. , \\'ill. de, 147 
Methold, T. Tindol, 313 
Meydes, John, 309 
Meyhoo, Wm., 310 
Meys Manor, 276 
Michell, Clement, 177-8 

,, Edwd., Alice, 171-2 

,, Rich., 177 
Th,.s.. 169 
Mic harlstmvc, 269 
Michelmarsh, 256 
Mickleover, 105 
Michelham Parkgate, 282 
Middleham, 289, 301 
Middleton, 249 

W., 3 i 9 

Midsummer Kvc, Fires on % 235 
Middle-class genealogy, 129 
Middridge, 252 
Midlington, 256 

,, William de, 95 

Middleborough, 244 
Midilridgr (itange, 249 
.l/i//, the Lord's, 85-6 
Mills fonts, purchase of, 220 
Milcombc, 277 
Milding, 279 
Mildnmall. 20, 301 
Milkstreet, 293 

Millhmisrs. 294 
Mill Orchard, 196 


Millstead, .147 
Millsheet, 244 
Milhml J. E., 312 
Milleward, Walter, 177 
,, \\"illiam, 181 

Milton, (14, 247, 256, 274, 286, 295 
Milverton, 309 
Minimi's, South, 275 

Ifineingfield, 256 

Minster, 248 
Miston, Klyas, 187 
Hugh, 186 

Thos., Will., 186, 188 
Misleham, 240, 291 
Mitcham, 248, _>Si 
Mixbury, 299, 300 
Mi.vcd /enure, 45, (14 
M cycles, John, 309 
Meyhoo, Wm. , 310 
Molesworth, 273 

Monkton, 98, 250, 289, 290-1, 247 
Monastic manor, Tenants on, 104-8 
Mongeham, 291 
Mondham, 293 
Moninge, 290 
Mongeham, 245, 247 
Montopp, 250 
Monkland, 257, 259 
Monkepath, 283 
Monksthorpe, 275 
Monkwearmouth, 250 
Monyash, 96 
Monycote, 268 
Monyngton, 295 
More, Anne, 189 

,,' Agnes, 187, 1 88, 190 

,, John, 186, 187-8, 196 

,, Nich., 200 

,, Humph., 187 

,, Leonard, 196 

,, Philip, 196 

,, Margery, 196 
Moorbath, 269 
Moorend, 263 
Moore, 286 
Moers, Will., 195 
Mordon, 281 
Moulton, 264 
Morgan, Agnes, 162 
Morpeth Court Rolls, 316 

,, ,, Customs, 316 

Moisted, 256 
Morston, 276 

Mountjoy manor, 276 
Mosse. Rich., 193 
MI isshouse, 250 
Moulton, 263, 265 
Mountsorrel, 303 
Monskam, Hugh tic, 305 
Mowat, T. L. G., 319 
Moye, j(>4 
Muchland, 265 
Mudlington, 209 
Muggleswick, 251 
Multure, or toll at mill, 179 

Mundeville, .251 

Mung-eham, 285 

Mun hington, 279 

Mutford, 301 

Mutton, Thos. de, 304 

Mychell, Clement, 172-4 

,, Thorn., 172, 174, 176 

Will., Robt., 174 
Mylton, John, 21 1 
Mylor, 267 
Myrtylham, 245 


Nasshe, 244, 286, 287, 288 
Nassh, John, 160, 162, 164 

,, Alice, 162 
Nasse, E., 319 
Nailsborne, 257 
Neat, the, 245 
Neatham, 271 
Needing-worth, 273 
Needham, 262 
Neilston, 251 
Nelson, Will., 319 
Nelson, 251 
Nepaers, 290 
Newbold, 259 
Newbottle, 251 
Newcastle under Lyme, 322 
Newchurch, 285 
Newenton Purcell, 207 
Neweton, 228 
Newenton, 299, 300 
Newe, Walter, 144 
Newgate, 249 
Newington, North, 283 


,, Stoke, 275 

Newland, 289 
Nevvlandside, 249 



Xrwlaiuls Man- 
Xcuman, Rose, 15.' 
Xewman, John, 156 

Will., 209, 21 I 
Xewnham, Manor of, 317 

248, 258 
X.-wport. .'55. 271 

n Cap, 249, 251 

-'47. 2 53. 3' 3<>3 
,, Garthes, 250 
Plecy, 255 
Chantry, 255 

Nettleden, 258 

Xfthrrtethiiiic, 290, 295 
Nether-Thurston, j^i 
Xetherboroujfh, 290 
Nether Kellet, 303 
Xetherton, 284 
Xettlebed, 221 
XYttleton, 283 
Xrttk-sworth, 250 
XVylond, 297 
Xixon, Robt., 1 86 
Xoke, Thos., 162 
Xol^rove, 259 

X<>n-Villriiage, Certif. of, 319 
Xonnesplace, 224 
Norborne, 293 

ury, 281 

Norfolk, Duke of, 117 
Norden, 268 
Norlington, 301 
Normancross Hund., 273 
Northborgh, 285 

i holt, 275 

Xorthberstede, 286 
Xoithsture, 285 

Northbourne, 244 
Norton, 248, 260, 286, 287 

Malreward, 254, 287, 296 

Hawk field. 254 

Conyers, 252 
,, Kinsham, 259 

Hatevill, 296 

Kin^s, 263, 284 

Kempsey, 260 

, 277 

XoithbonHitfh, 248 
North Fleet, 263, 287, 289 
Xfrthbyi-, 253 
North Chew, 254 

of England Customs, 316 

Xorthumbrian temn 

Xorthfield and Wesley Manor, 320 

North wykr. -54, 281 

North Wales, Field System of, 319 

Norwood, Ralph, 177 

Xorwich Bishopric Court Rolls. 

Xoxvers, 276 

Xunshouse, 250 

X union, 256 

Nutbouroe, 282 

Nuttebeme, John, 209 

.\ittting in the lords wood, 230 

Xutshalling, 256 

Xytimbre, 286 

Nywe, John le, 148 

Oak, 251 

Oakes, 249 

Oakham, 247, 277 

Oakley, 264 

Ockhampton, 295 

Oakhanger, 271 

Oddingley, 260 

Offington in Broadwater, 282 

Okenfold, 244, 248, 288-9 

Okie, John, 219 

Oldlands, 270 

Oldman, Robt., 221 

Oldcourt, 282 

Old Orchard, 196 


Chard, 295 
Olford, 265 
Oldewell, 259 
Old Halls in Norfolk, 318 
Onsterley, 250 

Open arable fields, the, 40, 48, 306-7 
Origin of the manor, 3 
Origins of Knj^lish History, ^14 
Orgaryswick, 285 
Ore, 2*4 
Ormcsby and Ketsby, Hist, of, 


Orpington, 248 
Orsett, 261 
Orton Longville, 273 
OrwaUlstonr. 285 
Osburne, Will.. .f IManUwu k, 197 

John, A^ncj., 191 
Osgodcross Manors, 



Oseney, 300 

Osmotherly, 252 

Otterbourne, 256 

Otterington, North, 252 

Otford, 289 

Othe, 301 

Otley, 260, 280 

Otherton, 260 

Otterham Manor, 318 

Outhelingston, 286 

Oustred the Reeve, 149 

Ouston, Little, 250 

Oulton, 299 

Overtoil, 303 

Oving, 297 

Ovington, 256, 287 

Overlond, 291, 292 

Over Thurston, 251 
,, Dimsdale, 252 
,, tithing, 254, 290, 295 

Overtoil, Manor House of, 312 

Oxenbourne, 257 

Oxenton, 270 

Oxfordshire Manors, 322 

Oxford Castle mill, 300 

Ox gangs, 307 

Oxshot, 257 

Ox-shed, separating 1 the, 229 

Owlesbury, 258 

Owleston, 260 

Oysterland, 290 

Packwood, 303 
Pachevesham Manor, 281 
Padelysden, 292 
Pageham, 286 
Paintree, Manor of, 320 
Pakenham, 280 
Palstree, 285 
Palmer, Ralph, 200 
Palmer, A. N., 319 
Palladius on Husbandry, 319 
Pallant, the, 289 
Palmer, John, 309, 310 
Pantletts, 280 
Pannage, 286 
Pargeter, C. R., 317 
Parmenter, Stephen le, 147 
Park, 272 

Partemois, John, 148 
Parker, John, 319 

Parkcs, Humph., 193 

Parochial Antiquities, 317 

Paslewe, Will., 16 1 

Patney, 284 

Pattrington, 264 

Patrington Manor Court Rolls, 318 

Patyndon, 247 

Pauntley, 270 

Paxford, 259 

Payne, Robt., 175, 177-8 

ICli/., 194 

George, 193, 201 

John, 197, 201 ; Fras., 201 

Nicholas, 197, 200, 201 

Thos. , 194 

Will., 167, 170 
Paystone, 290 
Peasenhall, 280 
Peacock, Edwd., 319 
Pearson, Frank S., 320 
Pearman, M. T., 319 
Pedams, 251 
Phear, Sir J. B., 320 
Prelly, Will., 153 
Peel, Sir Robt., 20 
Pelaw, 250 
Pemmerton, Robt., 176 

Laun, 172, 174, 177 
Eliz., 179 

Penshurst, 263, 289 
Penge, John le, 144 
Penton, 251 
Penhele, 263 
Penrith, 261 

,, Honor, 261 
Pennard, 94 
Pigs unrung, 201 
Perys, Hen., 65 
Pirton, 272 
Persted, 291 
Perrow, 252 
Pery, 300 
Pertynton, 295 
Percy, Earl, 320 
Piscary, Common of ] 114 
Pessinge, 245 
Pesemere, 166 
Peterborough Chapter Court Rolls, 


Pelton, 250 

Petham, 244, 263, 292, 293 
Petersfield, 271 
Pevensey, 263 



Peyton Hall, 30 r 
Peyton, 295 
P.-yall. Kath., 184 
Picktree, 2^0 
Piddle, 260 
Piddletown, 269 
Piddington, 1 1, 93 

, Court <>f\ i _*J 
Pillory at Dodyngton, 216 
Pilkington Manor House, 314 
Pitt diamond as hcriot, 20 
Pirton Foliot, 301 
Pitmaston, 260 
Pittington, 95 
Pittsdon, 297 
Pitn.-v, 278 
Plawsworth, 250 

Ploughlands and the Plough, 321 
Plomer, Rich., 309 
Ploughbote, 1 14 
Ploughman's duties and privileges, 

69, 230-1, 2 35 
Ploughing, 8 1 

Ploughs and carts, expenses of, 211 
Plumber, Rich., 220 
Phi, kele, 286 
Plympton, ^63, 204 
Poaching, 95 
Pocherly, 250 
Podsworth, 264 
Podmore, John, 186, 188 

Rich., 190 

Thos., 190, 195, 199, 200 
Prior's Court, the, Canterbury, 285 
Poinchester, 249 
Pokelchurch, 295, 297 
Poler, John, 190, 195, 201 

, 200 

Pollock, Sir Fred., 320 
Polhampton, 258 
Portland, 265 
Porkers, selling of, 230, 232 

nt, Will., 186 
Porlock, 278 
Potheridge, 268 
Potynger, John, 158 
Potter, Will., 19 
Poughl.-v, Prior of, 166 
Pownde, John, 161 
Pound keeper, Pindar, 75 
Poukesole, 257 
Poundeford Hundred, <zs>7 
Powell, Robt., 320 

P..\vys, Will., 95 

Prycfdy, 254 

Preston, 277, 282, 286, 288 
,, upon Wye, 271 

on Stour, 270 

John, 161 
Prrstleigh, 278 
Pridie, 294, 295. 
Procedure of Courts, 1 3 1 -40 

-:<>ns, prices of, 212 
Piu klechurch, 254 
PuflV, Will., 215 
Purye, 290, 295 
Purton, 320 
Purcell, John, 207 
rurprcsture, 206 
Putley, 253 
Putney, 1 1 2 

Pycher, John, 164; Robt., 161 
Pynnsure, 288 
Pynno, John, 157 
PysyMg, 293 

(Jueryndon, -'47 
Ouidhampton, 258 


Rack wood Hill, 249 

Radford bridge, 260 

Ralph, son of Maud, 

Ramsbury, 284 

Rammescombe, 289 

Ramsey, 261 

Ramsey Abbey Manors, 273 

Kaiiisdruii, 257 

Kaiiii-ry. 273 

I\.HI^-I . Tlios.. 147 

Rathani, Hen., 309 

K.i\ -ushury, 281 

Ka\ nstonedale, 303 

Ravensworth Castle, 250 

Raveley, Gt., 361 ; Little, 273 

K.iu Ki. knell, 249 


Reaper, the, 68 

Reculvcr, 244, 292, 293-4 

Keeve, the, 68 

K. i. hl, Rev. O. J.,320 

Ki-pps. N.-tili, 276 

Rex et Retina, 260 



Rectitttdines, //. 

Rrdborough, .'50 
RrtU', Annora, J_>s 
,, \u-h. K-, _'^5 

Matilda k-, 144 
Rcdvick, 260 

Redworth, .141)1 -S'i -5- 

Rrigatr, _M>s 
Relief, 21 
AV/i/, ///.v/. oj\ 65 
Remvick, 260 
Repair of tenements, 174 
Resting gild, 1 1 2 
Restronquet, 267 
Reynold, Will., 186 
Riccall, 252 
Richmond, 64, 265 
Rickledon, 250 
Rickling Hall, 270 
Ridge, 284 
Rigreby, Will., 182 
Right Close, Writ of, 102 
Rimpton, 258 
Ringmere, Hund. of, 289 
Rinjfshall, 280 
Riplington, 257 
Ripple, 260 
Ripton^ Abbots, 273 
Ritson, Joseph, 320 
River, 245 
Robergh, 290 
Roberts, \Vill., 320 
Robertsbridge, 282 
Robyns, Edwd., 186 

,', John, 181 
Rockingham, 261 
Rod, Tenant by, 140 
Rodyntone, 246 
Rodlo, 245 
Rodmershain, 247 
Rodyngton, 246 
Rogers, J. T. E., 220, 320 

,, Henry, 309 
Rogerley, 249 
Roger, Lord, 237 
Rokkyngrove, 292 
Rolling, 244, 291-2 
Rollesby, 276 
Rollright, 277 
Romsey, Eliz., 158 
Ronbergh, 295 
Roper, W. O., 320 

Ropley, 255 

ROSS, 2*2 

RothK-v, 274, 303 

,, Customs of iii<iiiiu - , 31 

Rothercombe, 257 
Roth ing, 299 
RotU-mlc-n, 291 
Roughsidc, -'51-2 
Rouncton, 2^2 
Round, J. H., 320 
Roust-, I.cui li, 260 
Roughbrrrow, 254 
Ro\vingtt)ii, 301 
Rowley, 251-2 
Rowsham, 300 
Roxheth, 288 
Ruckinge, 248, 291 
Rumedu meadow, 237 
Run-rig, 307 
Runwick, 257 
Rupture, 1 86 
Rushborne, 244 
Russhelborne, 292 
Rush ford, 268 
Rushyford, 249 
Russhey, 299 
Russhmere, 280 
Russell, Thos., iSj 
Russell, Alan, 152; Robt. , 153 
Ryche, 247 
Ryhope, 251 
Rype, 282 
Rysinge, 280 
Ryton Wood, 250 
Ryver, 293 

Sadberge, 251 
Saintsbury, 270 
Saleman, John, 216 
Will., 215 
Salman, the, 140 
Saleby, 275 
Salferioc, Geo. , 234 
Sallone, Robert de, 305 
Salmon, Mich., 190 
Salt, Will., 214 
Saltley, 250 
Saltmarsh, 252 
Salt-pits, 236 
Saltworthside, 250 
Sampford, 270 



Sandbracche, 287 

Sandford, 256, 299-300 

Sandhatch, 288 

Sandleford, Prior of, 158 

Sandpette, 286 

Sandwich, 158, 248 

Sandys, Charles, 320 

Sanneye, John, Render, i SJ 

Sarre, 244, 292 

Sarl.-y. jjj 

Satinola Exon, 248 

St. Paul's, Dean and Chapter, 

Court Rolls, 253 
Savecomp, 298 
Savill, J. \V., 320 
Savine, A., 321 
Sawbridgeworth, 272 
Saw try, 273 
Sawyers Gappe, 196 
Saxelby, 303 
Saxon estate, the, 9 
Saxons in England, 316 
Saxthorpc, 299 
Scap Bailiwick, ^47 
Scargill-Bird, S. R., 312 
Scot-ale, 94 

Schereman, Rich., 220 
Schoryet, John, 158 
Schozears, 2 \ \ 
Schrympendon, 245 
Scotter Manor Court Rolls, 319 
Scot, Robt., 236 
Scolds, common, 197 
Scottnetts, 281 
Scottowe, 299 
Scothdale, 249 
Scriven, J., 321 
Scroggs, Sir Will., 321 
Scrope, G. Poulett, 321 
Seaton, 244, 247, 268, 288, 290 

tcr, 248, 290-1 
Sedbrook, 258 
Sedone, 247 
Sedgefield, 250 
Sedenore, 287 
Sedwell, 299 
Seebohm, Fred., 321 
Secley, 250 
Scear, Will., 113 
Sclye, Thos., 180 
Selcr, Thos., 210 
Selke, (iill, 
Selsey, 249, 282 

Sellar, John, 210 

Selling fish against the franchise, 


Serfdnni in England, 47-60, 319 

Sen each n ueie, 32 1 

Setene, 286 

Seven Hundreds, 24.1. 

St \ ini^tcm, 255 

Sevinoke, 289 

lore, John, 153 

Shakespere and Common Fields, 


Rich., 308, 309 
Will., 308 

Shakstaff, Rich., 310 

Shad, John. 

Shadforth, 251 

Shacktime, \ I 2 

Shalmeford, 246, 291 

Sham well Hundred, 274 

Shattering, 291 

Shaw, John, 171 

,, Robt., 168, 171 
,, Will., 169-70 

Sheaf by strap, 232 

Sheepshed, .-74 

Sheepfold, issues of, 209 

SJieep-shearing, 84, 233 

Sheelash, 249 
I Sheet, 171 
! Sheffield, 284 
I Shellfocke, 177 
1 Shelford, 263 

Shellarck, 272 

Shelmington, 293 

Sh.-nston, 279 

Shelvyng Bourne, 286 

Shrppard, Will., 321 

Sheppey, 247 

Shepherd, /)uties and priinleges of, 

Six perds wold, 293 
Shrrburn, 251 
Sherpenho, 297 

iii. 268 


Sh.-viock, 267 
Shidlield H.o, 
Shitlington, 266 

Sliittetiden, 244 
Shiltun, 266 
ShipUke, 282 



Shipton, 303 
Shipston, 259 
Shipway, 245, 285 
Shilvington, 245 

Shildon, 249 
Shillebert, H. B., 321 
Shields, South, 250 
ShitYord, 277 
Shirehampton, 260 
Sholdon, 244 
Shobnall, 302 
Shorham, 289 
Shortdolemede, 210 
Shoy swell, 282 
Shotton, 251 
Shotynton, 292 
Shrippeng-, 286 
Shustock, Laur. , 194 
Shustoke, 283 
Sibford, 299, 300, 303 
Sible Hedingham, 270 
Sibertswold, 245 
Sidmouth, 269 
Sidlesham, 249, 282 
Sigston, 252 
Silsden, 304 
Silveston, 245 
Silston, 245 
Sinclair, Sir John, 321 
Siston, 254 
Sitford, 299 
Skerne, Will., 213 

,, Osbern, 147 
Skerton, 304 
Skeyton, 299 
Skelton, 252 
Skrymsher, Thos., 200 
Skynner, John, 157 

,, Will., 214, 215 
Slaves, 46 
Slepe, 273 
Slindon, 248, 289 
Slisted, 248 
Slyne, 304 
Smart, Lewis, 309 
Smeaton, 252 
Smith, the, 73 
Smith, Hen., 225 

,, Robert, 190 
Smyth, John, 163, 210 

,, Philip, 160, 162 

,, Rich., 169 

,, Thos., 181, 187, 309 

SmoU'iisko, the racehorse, 20 

Snape, 280 

Snavlrswell, 263 

Snettisham, 263, 276 

Snitterfield, 308-10 

Six -n iff tenure, 63 

Soham Monk, 280 

Sokfinan, 61 

Solar, (lie,, 37 

Solden, 293 

Solihull, 283 

Solveck, Robt., 172 

Solfuene, Sir Averey, 305 

Soler, John, 215 

Sombourn King's Hundred, 271 

Somner, Will., 321 

Somerby, 303 

,, and Tetford Manors, 
Somerdon, Hundred of, 289 
Somerden, 265 
Somerham, 265 
Somerfeld, 285 
Somerle, 249 

Son, putting' 1o learn 'nig a , 226 
Sondrishe, 289 
Sore, 274 
Sotmer, 245 

Southerton, 262 
Southington, 258 
Southram, 289 
Southwark, 289 
Southwode, 246, 285, 290 
Southwell, 254 

,, Chapter Court Rolls, 254 
Southre, 285 
Southbye, 253 
Sowerby, 252 
Southese with Heighten, Customs 

of, 3 '5 

Southerham, 301 
Sparsholt, 256, 266 

,, Laur. de, 146 

Spalding, 262, 275 
Spaldwick, 264 
Sparkford, 256 
Speight, H., 23 
Spetchley, 260 
Spicer, John, 156 

,, Will., 158, 166, 225 
Spinan, John, 212, 216 
,, Hugh, 219 
Will, 208 


Spropt, Ralph, 144 

Sprot, Steph., 19 

Squier, John, 225 

St. Allen, 267 

St. Erme, 267 

St. Martin, 285 

St. Michael Church, 278 

iiolas, 292 
St. Panrras, 275 
St. Paul's, Domesday of, 316 
Stallingborough, 275, 318 
Stanhope, 249, 252 
Stanwick St. John, 284 
Staneford, 274, 286 
Stannil^v, 258 

SUnsted, 285, 288, 289, 290 

Standon, 272 

Staple, 244-5, 286, 290-1. 

Staple Gore, 281 

Millstrete, 288 
Staplrgatr, 244, 292, 293 

StapieCTOve, -'57 

Stapleford, 253, 257 

,, Tawney, 270 

,, Abbots, 261 

Seton, 293 
Statlio, 255 
Staweye, 287, 296 
Stawell, 278 

Staunton, Manor of, 318 
Staughton, 273 
Stepington, 244, 292 
Sterke, Roger, 188 
Steeleclose, 250 
Steven ton, 262 
St<-\ vnson, John, 198 
Stepney and Hackney, Customs of, 


Stebbalee, 250 
St.-lla, 250 
Strukrlt-v, -'7^, 297 

Steward^ /he, 67 
Strvninjj, 282 
Stii kbum, 252 
Stillin^ton, 18 
Stockton, 251, 284, 31 S 
Stocking, 253 
Stockwell, 248 

ilcy, Roger de, 207 
Stoke, 254, 258, 260, 263 
Stokeborgh, 285 
l, 260 

Stoke Abbots, 254, 287, 296 

Bishop, 260 

Charity, 256 

Courcy, 278 

Giffard, 260, 280, 295 

Militis, 254, 296 

Wallis. 269 

by Clare, 280 
Stokes, Robt., 172, 178 

,, Alice, 173 
Stone, 254, 287, 296 
Stoneham, 256, 289, 301 
Stoneleigh, 102 
Stonestrd, 244 
Stone Westere, 288 
Stony Stratton, 278 
Stotmer, 293 
Stour, 259 
Stoursi-ti-, 244, 292 
Stourmouth, 244 
Stourbridge (Steresbrugg), 212 
Stow, 297, 319 
Sto\v-y, 254 
Stowick, 260 
Stowlangtoft, 280 
Stradbroke, 263-5, 281 
Stratton, 216, 299 
Straton Court Rolls, 321 
Stratton Audley Grange, 208 
Strakys, 2 1 1 
Strange, Alice, 156 
Stream, cleansing the common, 198 
Street, 248, 289 
Stretely, 297 

.. ' Nich., 166 
Stretton, 302 

,, Sugwas, 272 
Stretchland, 274 
St rifts, intermixture of, 48-53 
Strode, 244, 27; 

John, 137 
St mustn't, 292 
Strumpshaw, 276 
Sturminstrr Nrxvton, 70 
Stubbs, Will., 3ji 
Stuel, 1 1. -n 
StukHry. --7.} 
Sturton, 275 
Sudbury, 288 
Suddick, 250 
Sulii.-l.l. j.^ 

Suiloik Court Rolla, 315 


Suit at lord's mill, 170 
Sulgrave, 277 
Su hi mr a n (1 Hid i \ $ J J 
SundiM-land Wood, 237 
Snn<cyors of hedges, 73 
Sussex, Customs in, 31 ^ 
Suthberstede, 286 
Suthmondliam, jS<> 
Suthlakr. _'5S 
Sutton, 244, 276, 293 

in Ashfield, 303 

Bonnington, 277 

Bishops, 255 

Episcopi, 287, 296 

Long-, 278 

Militis, 254, 287, 296 

Rich., 1 86-8, 190 

Thos., 187-8 
Swanne, Thos., 193 
Swanton Abbot, 299 
Svvanmore, 256 
Swanleigh, 287 
Swanthorpe, 256 
Swannington, 276 
Swainstone, 271 
Swathlyng-, 297 
Swaffham Prior, 253, 297 
Swallvvell, 250 
Swalecliffe, 303 
Swineherd, the, 70 
Syberton, 262 
Syberswell, 293 
Simmys, Will., 156 
Symonds, 272 
Symond, Will., 206 
Symkyns, John, Thos., Will., 156 
Swynford, 245, 290 
Swyneshede, 260 

Tables and cards, 197 

Tachmillway, 226 

Tac, Robt., 227 

Tadley, 258 

Tadlynton, 259 

Tagge, Marg., 197 

Tail, James, 321 

Taillor, Humph., Rich., 186 

,, John, 182, 186 
Takkele, Thos., 216 
Takely, 209 
Talgarrack, 267 

Talton, 259 

Talbot, Lord, 218 

Tampun, Sabina, 152 

Tamvorth, 283 

Tankmen-, 289 

TaniHT, John, 210 

Taplnw, 267 

Tapsley Barton, 272 

Tapenhall Claincs, JDO 

Trislards, 280 

Taxker, John, 187-8 

Tate worth, 295 

Tattersett, 276 

Tattershall Thorpe, 303 

Taunton Deane, Customs of, 316, 

Taunton, Manor of, 168, 317 

,, Castle, 258 
Taylor, Ralph, 148, 172-4, 177 

Robert, 176, 177 

Thos., 321 

Isaac, 321 

Kli/., 172 

M. W., 321 
Tajnton, Court Rolls of, 168-80 
Temple Chelsyn, 298 

Sowerby, 304 

Waltham, 244 

Newsome, 23, 304 
Temsetter Purslow, 262 
Tenures and Custom, 316 

,, of Land, 315 
Tenham, 289 
Terring 1 , 289 
Tew, 299-300 
Tewes, 270 

Tewkesbury, Abbot of, 168 
Teynham, 243-4, 2 4^ 
Thames Ditton, 281 
Thaxted, 269, 270 
Thickley Newbiggin, 249 
Thistle-take, 112 
Thedacre, 248 
Therfield, 272 
Thorley Hall, 272 
Thorne, 246, 286 

,, Falcon, 255 
Thornbury, 1 17 
Thorncombe, 268 
Thorneden, 244, 280, 292 
Thorneland, 268 
Thornele, 300 
Thorney, 298 



Thornage, 299 
Thorpe, 251, 252, 279 
Thorton le Street, 252 
Threshing^ 79 
Throston, 251 
Throcchere, Will., 219-20 
Throckmorton, 260 
Thruston, Rich., Hugh, 200 
Thurlbear, 255 
Thurgarton, 289, 299 
Thurlode, 249 
Thursford, 276 
Thurstons, 271 
The Weald, 285, 288 
Tickenhurst, 244, 293 
Tickhill, 284 
Tickling perch, 133 
Tichfield, 106 
Tidmington, 259 
Tideswell, 9(6 
Tilbury by Clare, 269 
Titaey, 265 
Tilford, 257 

Timberesburg, 254, 287, 296 
Timpersley's Manor, 279 
Tiptree, 297 
Tisted, 255 
Tit ton, 259 
Tithing man, the, 72 
Toft hill, 249 

Togesdenc, William of, 239 
Toll at the lord's mill, 
Tong, 247 
Tonbridge, 274 
Tonford, 292 
Tongham, 257 
Topsham, 269 
Torre, Thos., 309 
Torton, 259 
Torkington, 318 
Tottenham, 275 
Tottspolts Esh, 249 
Tourr, 265 
Tn-lowth.i, 267 

Han, 266 
Tredington, 259 
Trespass against (he bailiff, 135 
Tribley, 250 
Tring, 262, 289 
Triplow, 267 
Trot, John, 209 
Truro, 267 
Tryngton, 298 

2 A 

Turbary, Common of, 114 
Tun, the formation of the, 7 
Tunford, 244, 293 
Tungate, 288 
Tunsted, 288 
Tunstall. 251 
Turner, Humph, 186 
Turkeden, 299-300 
- r, Thos., 321 
Tuttington, 299 
I \v< ntyacres, 299-300 
Tweyte, 299 
Twinge, John, 113 
Twit ham, .'44, 291-2 
Twisdl, 250, 265 
Twycrosse, Ralph, 309 
Tuvford, 258, 287 
Tyncmouth, Prior of, 236 
Tyrlry, .104 


Uckfield, 289 
I'lveston, 276 
Umfrey, Rich., 157 
Underthehull, Thos., 304 
Uphill, 256 
I'pham, 256 
I'pwood, 261 
1'pland, .'47 


Upton, 258, _>;, .'7;, 
Upwood, 273 
Upper siu-rii- I\a\v, 250 
Upperborough, 290 
I'pprr Wirk, 260 
Upher, Robt., 142 
Urpeth, 250 

I 'suoith. 250 

Uxbridge, 221 


Vauxhall, 248 

\Y< he, John Ir, 224 
Verdoun, Klys dr, 305 
Vernysych, 260 
Village Community, tin-, ^ 
N'illainagr in BogUUMl, 321 



Villainage in K. Anglia, 314 

disappearance of, 58 
Villain, holding of a, 48 
I 'ilia ins, 47, 53 

condition of, 317 

saK- of, 1 6 
Virgatc, 48 
Vinogradoff, P., 

V\ nyng, Major, j 
I 'i varies, 



Waddesdon, 267 
Waddon, 245 
Waggoner, the, 70 
M'ainbote, 228 
Waits, 94 

Wakefield, 284, 321 
Wakey, 296 
Walde, 244, 247-8, 288 
Walden, King's, 272 
Waldingfield, Gt., 301 
Walker, Will., 195, 199 
Walkington, 252 
Walkeringham, 303 
Wallingford, Honor of, 263 
Wallingford, 121 
Walpole, 265, 276, 280 
Walsham, 289 

,, North, 253, 276 

,, South, 299 

Walsoken, 262, 265 
Waltham, 249, 258 

,, Holy Cross, 269 

,, Forest, 269 

,, in Stoneham, 301 

,, Woolpits, 256 
Walton, 252, 265, 273, 280, 300, 304 

,, Ralph, 182 

Walter of Henley's Husbandry, 317 
Walworth, 248 
Wainbe, Roger, 237 
Wanstead Prebend, 255 
Wanborough, Will., 162, 164 
Wanderton, 292 

Wandsworth Manor House, 317 
Warwick College Court Rolls, 308 
Warbleton, Bucksteep in, 282 
Warboys, 273 

Ward, John, 175, 177-8, 322 
Warden Chipping, 277 
Wardcorn, 157 

Wardrn, 247 
Warclhurst, .^s 
Ware, 272 
Warehorn, 245 
Wargrave, 258 
\Yarkworth, 224, 236, 239 
\Vannwell, 249 
Warndon, 260 
\Varstile, 286 
Warsop, 303 
Warter, Thos., 200 
Warton, 299 

,, Philip, 1 68 
Warwick lands, Junior rights in, 


Washbourne, 260 
Washington, 250, 282 
Wastell, 244, 293 
Wastheath, 258 
\Va style, 288 
Watereton, 299, 300 
Waterfurling, 226 
Waterham, 244, 286, 288, 293 
Watford, 272 
Watkins, Chas., 322 
Watlington, 300 

,, Sir John de, 149 

Watton, 299 
Watts, Aug., 322 
Wautese, 247 
Way f re, John, 156 
Weald, 269-70, 289 
Weare, 278 
Wearlands, 252 
Webbe, Robt., 160, 225 
f , Philip, 210 
,, Will., Thos., John, 165 
Wedhampton, 284 
Wedmore Burgus, 290 
Wedmoor, 286 
Week, 256-7 

Welch Hampton, Extent of, 315 
Weld, 299 

Weldon, Gt. and Little, 277 
Welland, 260 
Welle, 247, 287-8, 290 
Wells, 290 

Almshouses, 255 

City, 264 

Chapter Court Rolls, 254 

Forum, 290, 295-6 

Hall, 279 

Manor, 294, 296-7 



Welles, Will., 177 

Wellington, 255, 290, 294-7 

WeUingham, 289, 301 

Wt Iridg-e, 251 

Wei wick, 284 

Wembeley, 288 

Wt-mlerton, 244 

Wentherton, 291 

Wenland, 259, 286 

Wcndlebury, 209 

Werdeford, 295 

\Vrrrhorn, 248 

W.-stbury, ->54, 260, 294, 295, 296 

Westbeches, -'44, 292 

i>ere, 244, 292 
\\ ^borough, 244 
Westbrook, 285 

Ralf, 146 
Westcliffe, 290 

hene fisheries, 223 
leve, 246 
\\Vstcote, 208 
Westerham Rectory, ^4- s 
Westerleigh, 254 

i ton, 249 
\\ '. -tend, 258 
Westerdale, 304 
Westerleigh, 297 
\V. vermouth, 292 
\\ -t^ate, 243-4, 292-4 
\\Vstham, 265 hatch, 255 
Westleye, Walter de, 152 
W. stleton, 280 
Westmancote, 260 
West mere, 255 

Westmoreland Manorial Halls, 321 
Westmeon, 287 
\\Vstmill, 272 
Wrstpitt, 258 
W-st, Thos., 200 
Weston, Marg., 187 

Rich., Thos., 182 

Alice, 184 
Westoe, 250 

ton, 256, 263, 271-2, 286, 295, 
Westrun, 295 
Wcstwcll, 248 
Wever, Will.. 162 
\\ . stwhitefeld, 295 
Wetmore, 302 
Wexsingaker, 235 

Whaplode, 275 
Wluler, Thos., Robt, 166 
Whet.^i, \, , Thos., 181 
Wlu-tsoe, 251 
Whrton Aston, 182 
Whickham, 250 

Low Hand, 250 
W hi in house, 250 
Whistone, 259-60 
Whitburne, 2^0 
Whitohall, 250 
Whit chide, John, 157 
Whitchurch, 258, 283, 290, 295, 


White Waltham, Woolley in, 266 
White, Gilbert, 188 
Whitlege, John, 200 
Whittel, 250 
\\'hittingham, 276 
Whit^reve, Robt., 186 
Whjtgift, 262 
Whiteton, 256 
Whitway, 258 
Whitwefl, 95, 268 
Whyrett, John, 309 
Wickenford, 260 
\\ i, hford, Gt., 284 
Wick, 254, 256, 260 

,, Sapy, 260 
Wi.-kes Park, 20 
Wickham, <)j, 301 
Wickham Bishop, 253 

Wirld, 2 55 

\\ iirmore, 262, 272 
Wilbraham Pai\.i, 
Wilby, Sir HI-IK, 161 
Wilkenson, John, 197 
Willington, 266 
Williams, J., 322 
Wilson, Geo. Maryon, 
Wilton, 233, 284 
Wimbledon, 64, 281 

,, Court Rolls, 322 

Wimbornc Minster, 269 
W iinlin^ weld, 292 
Wimpstone, 283 
Winchester Bishopric Court Rolls, 

Wind. Ralph, 144, 146 
Windsor, 265 

Chapter Court Rolls, 259 

Win. Ili-stonc, 249 



Wingham, .'43- 4, -'^3. 291-3 
\Yinterbourne, 71, 73, 165 
Basset, 284 
Wintershill, 256 
Winterton Kingston, 269 
\Vintorstok, 286, 294-5, 3 O1 
Winton, 252 
\\'innall, 256 
Winscombe, 255-6 
Winsham, 290 
\Vinsford, 278 
\Vinshill, 302 
\Virksale, 252 
\V irks worth, 268 
Wirlenton, 282 
\Vishanger, 270 
Wissywood, Roger, 147 
Wistovv, 273 
Wellington, 253, 259 
Wilheringsett, 280 
Witley, 260 
Withesham, 280 
Wittering, 249 
Witney, 258, 315 
Witting in Hollington, 282 
Witherington, 256 
Wivelescombe, 290, 294-5, 297-8 
Wode, 289 
Wodeford, 290, 295 
Wodsford, Will., 163 
Wodesdon, 208 

\Voghelworte, John, Hugh, 147 
Wokey, 254, 294-5 
Wokyhole, 295 
Wolverdeley, 266 
\Volrich, Humph., 186 
Wolrichton, 19 
W T olfe, John, 208, 211 
Wolsingham, 249, 2151, 252 
Wolvvard, Will., 150 
,, John, 152 
Womenswold, 244 
Wood, John, 200 
\Voodchurch, 290-1 
Woodhurst, 273 
Woodhouse, 303 
Woodhall, 262, 272 
Woodham, 249 
Wood re w, 258 
Woodhay, 258 
Woodhorn, 282 
Woodmancote, 282 
Woodspene, 158 

Woodstock, Old, 277 
Woodside, 250 
Woodcroft, 249 
Woodcot, 256 
W r oolley, 266 
Woolstone, 278 
Woolmington, 269 
Woolhope, 253 
Woorde, 291 
Wootton, 257 

,, Hordly, 277 

,, Basset, 284 
Worth, 221, 245-6, 285, 290, 300 

,, Robt. de, 144' 
Wotton, 248, 289, 300 
Worcester Bishopric Court Rolls, 


Wordley, 258 
Wormester, 295 
Worle, 256, 286, 295-7 
Worstead, 248 
Wrantage, 255 
Wratting, 301 
Wrechwyk, 210, 215 
Wrexham, 264, 267, 319 
Wricklesham, 257 
Writ of right close , 102 
Writtle, 270 
Wrotham, 274, 290 
Wroth-silver, 315 
Wroughton, 258 
Wroxall, 271 
Wroxham, 288 
Wulfareshill, 256, 297 
Wybbin, John, 157 
Wychford, 217 
Wycombe, 221, 258 
Wydney, 258 
Wye, 248 

Wyke, 287-8, 296-7 
Wykes Ufford, 280 
Wylkins, Thos., 309 
Wylkinson, John, 194 
Wylopp, 285 
Wylley Style, 193 
Wylyngton, 288 
Wymbotesham, 262 
Wymlingesfeld, 291 
Wymondham, 265, 276 
Wymersh, 285 
Wynn, Will, le, 96 
Wynburn Tree, 259 
Wynd, Avyce le, 148 



Wynd, Warren, 149 
\V\ifrield, 290 
Wytihalr, 287 
\V\ nescombe, 286 
Wyneham, 294. 
\V\rmc^r^-. .'63 
\Vvse, Robert, 171 
Wysrrly. J49 


Wyther, John, 169-70 

, 260, 315 
Yatcley, 256 

Yatton, 254, 27-V 

Yeatman, John Pym, 3.'.' 


Y.-stiiorpt-, Will., 193 

Yelford, 277 

Yldhel^ate, 248 

Ylli-y. Tims.. 166 

N'.u-ks Manors Court Rolls, 313 

York Archbishopric Court Rolls, 

,, King's Manor at, 313 

Si. Mary, 263 
Ymmjre, Rich., 147 
Yule log, 230 





Hone, Nathaniel J. 

The manor and manorial