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^^hi^u v:tl^r,:w ?^;^^;,:, ,^ _ . •-•'"" \-m 


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nth SMMtOtn IllHWrttaw. Scoood Edition, Reriicd. 
Pike tot. 6d. 


OfmtoMj tf Ou Prtst. 

7%t Gt^rmfMcat Journal -"Both contact, fiill of deuili, and 
jM, Mnsge cnoi^ extrondy readable... Will probkUy become a 
■Uudurd EncUah cbuic on the subject" 

QfUrUrfy lUvUv. — "In Pro£ Kcuie'a wonderitilty condensed and 
«t dw tame ttme fucinating handbook of Etlinology the relatioiuhip 
«( Aen andcnt pe<qilM to ooraelve* >■ lucidly discuued." 

CtmiralNatt /. AmikropologU.—"TMl jede Seite enthalt Bemerii- 
ongea, die nwciien dognutiscb, immer wichtig, oft wettroU und 
originell lind." 

Ox^rd M^^attnt,—" K moat tuefiil introduction to a wide and 
coo^let satqocL Valuable referencet to original authorities abound." 

Rnmt Bi^Uogn^ Bttg*.—"* Ce traits d'ethnologie est le meilleur 
que nous ponMiona jusqu*^ present* 

PiMitlur't Cimtlar.—" lit Keane deserves the gratitude of all 
eaineit students for the thcmraghly admirable manner in which he 
has summarised ethnological data." 

CAntM r » f olcgu. — " L'ouviage de M. Keane est un excdlcnt expose 
de I'Aat ^ictnel de ranthropologie dans son sens le plus lai^...Une 
mine de renseignements prteieux exposes d'une faQon claire et avec 
dea donnjes tHbliographiquea exactes." 

Azotic QftarUrly Rtviev. — " A valuable and important contribu- 
tion to the study of Ethnology, deep enough for the scholar and yet 
simple enough for the student." 

Tin AuttrtUastoH,—* K synthesis of all the latest conclusions 
arrived at with respect to the natural history of the human bmily." 

Amerk<m Jeumal ef Sociology. — "We heartily commend Mr 
Keane's book to those who wish to know wbat Ethnology is, what its 
problems are, and by what methods it works." 

Louden Quarterly Rtview. — "The whole volume is packed with 
the results of modern science, put in a form so clear and instructive 
that the work will be a boon to every student." 
















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atmik lf,>ntur,:j>.ia'i' ij.jfTiiciiiij; i 


•taipli: 1*1. AXGYLB STREET. 

KrtlQlf: r. A. BXOCKHAUS. 

W".^ ■ 


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idMliiiiiUiriiMr cxMf tkft 



il^ .ipcfc mowfnwiini were 
and 4idoGKtioas. 

ipiliilgfi^pl^ diai^^ and 
fans of tlie pftrait stodes. 

ilil ^{Mist. leDoverjr, so that the 
0sm ^h^pi remtiin to soine 
||(^Qff of tfa(» worid aod of 

i|tf <tfl0 iDcntt smoos g|tp$ have 



k-*.v ^.- 



been often most unexpectedly made good by the combined efforts 
of philologists, physical anthropologists, and especially archaeolo- 
gists, who have come to the welcome aid of the palethnologist, 
hitherto groping almost helplessly in this dark field of human 
origins. Thus the questions dealing with the early seats, migra- 
tions, and later inter-relations of the Caucasic peoples on both 
sides of the Mediterranean — Hamitic Berbers and Egyptians, 
Iberians, Picts, Ligurians and Pelasgians — may now be profitably 
studied, thanks to the craniological measurements of Prof. Sergi 
and Dr CoUignon, the linguistic inquiries of the late G. von der 
Gabelenz, and the antiquarian researches of Schliemann, de Morgan, 
Prof. Flinders Petrie, and especially Mr A. J. Evans, in various 
parts of this most interesting of all ethnical domains. 

Availing myself of the results of their labours, I have here 
endeavoured to show that the Berber and Basque races and 
languages were originally one, that the Ligurians were not round- 
headed Kelts but long-headed Afro-Europeans, and that the 
Pelasgians belonged to the same pre- Hellenic stock, to which 
must now be credited the iEgean cultures of pre-Mykenaean and 
Mykenaean times. Should these conclusions be confirmed by 
further investigation, modem research may claim to have recon- 
structed the ethnical history of the wide-spread Mediterranean 
peoples, who still form the substratum, and in some places even 
the bulk, of the North African, Italian, Spanish, South French, 
and British populations. 

By analogous processes the dense clouds of ignorance have 
been somewhat dissipated in which have hitherto been wrapped 
the origins, early migrations, and present relations of the Bantu 
Negroes, of the proto-Malayan and Malagasy members of the 
Oceanic Mongol family, of the Koreans and Japanese, of the Jats 
and Rajputs, of the Uigurs, Samoyads, and other less known 
Finno-Turki groups, and, passing to the New World, of the 
Dakotan Redskins, of the Aztecs, Mayas, Quechua-Aymaras, 
Caribs and Arawaks. 

Another no less important object has been the elucidation of 
those general principles — scarcely more than formulated in the 
Ethnology — which are concerned with the psychic unity, the social 
institutions and religious ideas of primitive and later peoples. 


From this point of view the present may be regarded as a con- 
tinuous illustration of the first volume, and students of such 
sociological subjects as the family, clan and tribe, totemic, matri- 
archal and shamanistic usages, current views on primordial 
promiscuity and group marriages, early philosophies, theogonies, 
theories of the universe, assumed revelations involving sublime 
concepts of a Supreme Being in savage peoples of low cranial 
capacity, will here find some fresh materials not perhaps unworthy 
of their consideration. 

Special attention is given to the subject of coincidences in 
mythologies, folklore tales, and popular superstitions, such as the 
prevalent belief in the were-wolf (tiger, leopard, jaguar), and other 
strange but common modes of thought which may now be followed 
round the globe from Europe through Malaysia to Africa and the 
New World. The references to these matters, which will be easily 
found by consulting the index, may help the student in deciding 
between the antagonistic views of Prof. Max Miiller, who still 
holds that all such coincidences " have a reason if only we can 
find it*," and of those anthropologists who think that, where 
contact and outward influences are excluded by time and space, 
such parallelisms are proofs rather of the common psychic nature 
of man, everywhere acted upon by like causes during the early 
struggle for existence. Certainly the fresh data here brought 
together seem to lend strong support to the view that all these 
manifestations of the dawning reasoning faculty have their root in 
primitive economic conditions. They are associated in the first 
instance with the question, not of spirit or ancestor worship, which 
comes later, but of the food supply, as shown by M. A. Bernard 
for the taboo of the New Caledonians (pp. 142-3), and by Mr 
W. E. Roth for the Australian class- marriage system (pp. 153-4). 
It follows that, like the physical characters of man, such mental 
phenomena, and especially those reflected in early social and religious 
observances, can no longer be profitably studied apart from the 
standpoint of evolution'. 

* Fortnightly Review^ Oct. 1898. 

* See also Mr C. L. Henning*s suggestive paper On the Origin of Reiigion^ 
in Thi Amer, Anthropologist for Dec. 1898, which reached me too late to be 
consulted during the progress of the work. 

■HMpipi^P f, I rfli- y rr'^■•■'■'^^;^r,ylr•■~''•'','V'•'''»J'v■^lmr!'^^gmm^^^^^ 

IbiktaMH'Av tMt.:volBnn, deal in s ■mnuuT'Mi^ 

«Mhy arigiiif and. wintioiit of the pknloceDe precanot^ with 
<W Sua* ind lllii Aget (where it wat inpottent to ■oeeBtMle 
4ht «Ht teMJM of tbe Ne^idiic period^ nd with the evcMton 
«f wiMiif iy<— ■, with whic^ ii udiered is ifae itrictly Intomd 
'B pa tk IkM' fiiDow Uie ^mpua whkh m ctevoted MfiNinR ta 
the primiiy groiqiB and chief lub-twisdiet of the human faauif, 
BMAafdteiMi»aaGliOMisiiitPodsoedwidiageoetal CttitftaMt, 
■Hi irikidl m» WaOf a w n mai aed the more nlient featinea a»> 
naeied with the p rim eval home, past and present dia uibu t i ai^ 
pl^aical and meotd c h aw cten , and chief sub-groupi of the-aevend 
tDBin dinaiDaa. W^ the view of au^ing diia vdnme a tmai- 
wefthjr book of lefeience on die mnltiftiious subjects dealt wi^ 
1 hsve cm^ w h wi t aimed at accuracy in the statement of httB, 1 
iriddi are aa br aa possible dtawn from the beat anilaMe eoafcaa; 
and anppcffted hj careful reference to rect^nised audiorities. fist 
in die handling of sodi a body of Bcattered materials, oron both 
of omisaon «td commission can scaTcely have been avoided 
and I an but hope that they will be found neidier muneroaa 

A. H. K. 


79, BaOADRUKST Gardkns, N.W. 
MancM, 1899. 



Plate VI. 

lo. Plate VII. 

1 . " Sitting Bull " (Dakotan Type) 

2. "Scorched Lightning*' (Dakotan Type) 

3. Yankton Chief (Dakotan Type) 

4. Elizabeth Wynan (Dakotan Type) 

1. Cree of Hudson Bay (N. Algonquian Type) 

2. Spokan Warrior (Salishan Type) 

3. Guatuso (Costa Rican Type) 





II. Plate vn I. i. Carib (Guiana Type) 




3. Tehuelche (Patagonian Type) 




17. Plate IX. 

1 . Bohemian (West Slav Type) "j 

1. Egyptian Dancing DerN^-ish (Hamito-Semitic I 

3. Egyptian Bedouin (Arab Type) 

13. Plate X. 



Turco, Algeria (Hamitic Type) 

»» »» 

Berber Woman, Biskra (Mediterranean Type) 




14. Plate XL 

I. Persian of Shiraz (Iranian Type) 

7, Baluchi (Lowland Tajik Type) 

3. Kling Woman (Dravidian Type) 

4. Igorrote, Luzon I, (Indonesian Type) 

15. Plate XH. i. Toda Man, S. India (Caucasic Type) 



3. Ainu, Sakhalin I. (Caucasic Type) 

4. Ainu, Vezo I. (Caucasic Type) 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^BK^P^^ '^^3v 


^^^^^^^^Hkw»«^^ i(a» ^ ^^^" 

^^^^^^^^^HBh47 o^ i'" mttw) in 4al '91. '^ J 

^^^^^^^^^^Hp*ae 4^ t ) ^ yw{ r «r J o» i>^»^M 

^^^^^^^^^^^BjMibpi)^ ^•'{ijf 

^^^^^^^^^^|HK^Hn^pMli ,a IS I J 1 ^V 

^^^^^^^^^^^K£mVs,4^ ut) 

^^^^^^^B^nm* M I ■> 

^^^^^^^^^HHpllfWdV. IK U r i: U 

^^^^^^^^^M^tMWllMi 3 

^^^^^^^^HillM>tfM f 

^^^^^^^^^^^^■KJM)f|||b»U jt 



^^^^^^^^^^^^B^S|<">*'>^ ' 

^^^^^^^^■HplMiiv«f t>w t>»>>7 <H<B(!)A <1<>^ 

^^^^^^^^■^BlM'lfbtoir of the humati ftttfl^, 

^^^^^^^^^^■■ptefc tiAa. Asboth PteMoMM 

^^^^^^^^H^>«Mbrneto»e- **"' 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^■■gib lAow thciT direct bearing on the 

^^^^^^^^^^^^HM^^tcaei from that lemote epoch to 

^^^^^^^^^■■^Ofrlle mut have had, in homely 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^BK mat «4uch the peopling the 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^Ejjg^^QUgntion, not by indepeadent 

^^^^^^^^^^^^|EJli§MMa in so many ind^>endeDt 

^^^^^^^^^^KsMVi. V MdVII 



It follows further, and this point is all-important, that, since 
the world was peopled by pleistocene man, it was peopled by 
a generalised proto-human form, prior to all later racial differences. 
The existing groups, that is, the four primary divisions — Ethiopic^ 
Mongolic, American and Caiuasic^ — have each had their pleistocene 
ancestor, from whom each has sprung independently and diver- 
gently by continuous adaptation to their several environments. 
The Primary ^^ ^^^7 Still Constitute mere varieties, and not 
Groups evolved distinct specics, the reason is because all come of 

each in its ^ ^ » 

special uke pleistocene ancestry, while the divergences have 

Habiut. \ittn confined to relatively narrow limits, that is, not 

wide enough to be regarded zoologically as specific differences*. 
No doubt Dr R. Munro is right in suggesting that "during the 
larger portion of the quaternary (pleistocene) period, if not, 
indeed, from its very commencement, man had already acquired 
his human characters."'* But by "human characters" are here 
to be understood, not those by which one race may be dis- 

* Eth. Ch. VII. On the strength of this statement I have been claimed as 
a polygenist both by Sergi and by Ehrenreich, the latter remarking that **mit 
dieser jedenfalls naturgemassen Auffassung bekennt sich Keane, so eifrig er den 
Monogenismus verficht, doch im Grunde zum Polygenismus " (Anthropologische 
Studien fiber die Urbewohmr BrasilienSy Brunswick, 1897, p. 19). As well 
charge a writer with polygenist views who should say that most of the Whites 
bom in ** Greater Britain " are sprung from different groups of emigrants from 
the British Isles. The founders of the British colonies, though different 
individually, were of one stock, and so the pleistocene founders of the first 
human groups were also different individually, but of one stock, from which 
all mankind has sprung. As polygenist theories are ^gain somewhat rife on 
the Continent, it may here be pointed out that excessive polygenism tends to 
discredit the very evolutionary teachings which its advocates profess to uphold. 
Starting from several absolutely independent centres, it arrives at the same 
results that are reached by the evolutionist starting from one absolute centre. 
Hence it is not needed in any scheme of human origins, while a little reflection 
will show that, without doing any great violence to their principles, these 
plural isis may readily accommodate their extreme views to the assumption that 
the primary varietal groups have been developed in different geographical 
areas (zoological zones) from so many undifferentiated groups of the generalised 
pleistocene stock. Had they sprung from si>ecifically different pliocene 
anthropoids, as held by Sergi and others, the differences would now be not 
merely specific, but generic, which nobody maintains. 

^ Address^ Anthrop. Section^ Brit. Ass. 1893. 



tinguished from another, but those more general qualities of 
body and mind, by which man himself was already distinguished 
from all the other anthropoid groups. 

Till recently this statement must have been regarded as mere 
speculation. But it acquires a large degree of probability, if not 
absolute certainty, by the remains of Pithecanthropus erectus^ found 
in 1892 by Dr Eugene Dubois in the pliocene beds of East Java*, 
that is, the very region which more than one eminent naturalist 
had pointed to as the probable original home of mankind. 

Since their discovery these remains have been subjected to the 
strictest scientific scrutiny, with the result that their „ 

^ But all sprung 

human character has been placed beyond reason- from the pho- 
able doubt They have, indeed, been described 
by some anatomists as rather pre-human than actually human*; 
but nobody now denies that they at least represent a form inter- 
mediate between man and the higher apes, or rather between man 
and the generalised Simian prototype, which is practically the 
same thing. They do not bridge over the impassable gap between 
Man and Gorilla or Chimpanzee ; but they form, none the less, a 
true link, which brings Man much nearer than before to the 
common stem from which all have diverged*. 

No one has studied the question more carefully than M. L. 
Manouvrier, who concludes that Homo javanensis walked erect, was 
about the medium height, and a true precursor, possibly a direct 
ancestor, of man. Virchow's usual suggestion that 
the skull was "pathological," such as might be mIh.*' ^*"* 
picked up anywhere, is severely handled; it is 

' Etk, p. 144. 

* O. C. Marsh, Amer. J, of Sc, June, 1896. 

' They also supply some of the essential elements of a human prototype, so 
that Virchow's assertion that ** Noch ist kein einheitlicher Urtypus fUr die 
Menschen festgestcUt " (Rassenbildung &c., 1896, p. 5) no longer holds good. 
So also is turned aside the shaft of the polygenists, whose theory *' dispenses 
with a cradle of mankind which causes the monogenists so much brain - 
cudgelling. We no longer need to find a single centre for man, and then start 
him on hypothetical wanderings over the globe" (Ehrenreich, op» cit. p. i\). 
The single centre, and the hypothetical wanderings, it may now be retorted, 
no longer present any serious difficulties, while the objections to the polygenist 
view remain unanswered and unanswerable (Eth, p. 156 sq.). 

1 — 2 

• ' V- 7? " • -* ' . 

KTV . 


pointed out that the cranial capacity decreases mth &e ail^ailgp 
of all the skulls hitherto brought to light, and that this skidl bts A 
capacity of from 900 to 1000 ex., that is, " stands at the lerd of 
the smallest which have been occasionally found amongst the 
reputedly lowest savage peoples."^ An accompanyii^ dingmm 
shows its position intermediate between Chimpanzee and the 
Man of Spy*, and Manouvrier adds that it may perhaps be 
more directly connected with the Australian race. " The diffeiv 
entiation of the human races having probably been but slightly 


(Manouvrier, Bu/. Sac. d*Anthrop. 1896, p. 438.) 

developed in the pliocene epoch, I may be permitted to suggsjit 
that the race of Trinil [Java] was the common ancestor of many 

* Bui, Soc. d^Anthrop, 1896, p* 4i9> 
' Eth, p. 146. 




I Bpnng fnrai a common 
bited the tuw •niaibtA Iiido- 



(li tit Ftmcrtt of variolu lanag: 
IH^L 1S96, XXXI. p. I iq. 
f . * Elk. p. 4*3— +• 

■ J/atur*! StiOKi, April, 1897. 


wide donuun, comimiitig at least the Sottda Iriaadi *ui 
Indo-China, regions at that time still connected by cewtiaaoBi 
land acroH the shallow waters, nowhere over fifty ftthoms deepi 
which now flow between the Malay Peniniula, Braneo^ Samatrt 
and Java. Lastly, he was about the average hei^it, say, 5 bal 
6 inches, and had a cranial capacity of perhaps 1000 cc, th«t 
is, double that of the highest apes (Gorilla, Orang, boA 450 to 
500), not greatly inferior to that often occurring amoi^it the 
lowest present races (Australians, Negritoes, Bushmen, iioo to 
1300), and just midway between Gorilla and the highest iH«tent 
races (Europeans 1 500), as shown in the subjoined d 



In an iDEtnictive paper " On the Intermediary Links between 
Man and the Lower Animals," read before the Edinburgh Royal 

■Ibife of ■dawKwirioB beMam' 

; tiie Jm 

r dS bumo; but if thk 

t m anjr degree en aaoiatl 

y^ jit i fc d IP wg an Min ft m s 

I time after die ettaiuicnt 

,monl anA inteltectuai 

litay foMil lenuitt of m^ 

b nathcd diffcnnt Btoget in the 

t.liKfc mdi inveidgMioni were 

If the 

I wCn coRccdji defined u die 

B| and. Qiutenurj [PletMocene} 

ft hov &r back we had b 

D and antbn^Xttda had 
fi<to4^r, he concluded, were also 
k|ii«JMli had been thrown into die 

ayiev dwajpi advocated by me that 
l^lhfcf^obe after he had acquired the 
r irityncal and in meotal respects 
I las nearest akin. But no doubt 
itttary organs, and consequently 
^ eonibined with his other advan- 
; Buffident sufHcmacy over all 
' the one universal species. 
a with diat of the habitable 
d the whole of this domain in the 


jdiocene age itself may well be doubted, and in ^Su^i 
of sufficient evidence must in any case be left for tast 
an open question. Reasons have elsewhere been giveii-^iit 

rejecting Sergi's Xsx^aaxy - H<nninida^ assitiiied^tid 
MM^vtioos. ^ already specialised in pliocene timea» afid ^km 

more probable view seems still to be that tihe oeoa* 
pation of the globe was not effected, or at least not a>m|rieled9 
Imifx^ die early pleistocene epoch. In other words, the eaiA wai 
mainly peopled by the generalised pleistocene precursorsy wbo 
moved about, like the other migrating faunas, unconsdooafy^ 
everywhere following the lines of least resistance, advancing or 
receding, and acting generally on blind impulse rather than of 
any set purpose. 

That such must have been the nature of the first migraloqr 
movements will appear evident when we consider that they were 
carried on by rude hordes, all very much alike, and differing not 
greatly from other zoological groups, and further that diese mipft* 
tions took place prior to the development of all cultural appliances 
beyond the ability to wield a broken branch or a sapling, cnr else 
chip or flake primitive stone implements ^ 

Herein lies the explanation of the curious phenomenon, wliii:iL 
is such a stumbling-block to premature systematists, that all the 
works of early man, and man himself, everywhere present the 

most startling resemblances, affording absolutely DO- 
chantcterof elements for classification, for instance, during tlie 
his^orks ***** times corresponding with the Chellian or first period 

of the Old Stone Age. Years ago Virchow declared 
that there was no distinguishing between the forms of palseoUlliie 
implements found in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, and 
those who have examined the collections in Argentina, the United 
States, and Europe will readily assent to that statement. 

After referring to the identity of certain objects from tiie 
Hastings kitchen-middens and a barrow near Sevenoaks, Ifr 
W. J. L. Abbot proceeds : " The first thing that would strike one 

1 Eth, p. 37. ' 5- 

" Thus Lucretius:— V. 

**Arma antiqua manus, ungues, dentesque fuerunt, 
Et lapides, et item silvarum fragmina rami.'* 



V ' 



fc'JtsinaK'bBisKuii dncovcn 
gi»:ia«nrinri in form tnd 
ill(t*:iliMyjaiglitli«ve been nunu- 
• of the Nikt many 
||.^|ite«M*«eli iiiq>)|9naita of Ac 
^JM^cin SiHnaliluid, in in 
jfrit te tittei ri ibwfc the ■<i^ MrSetim- 
F afite^lemeids fonoed of lUnt 

I of Aft Somne Had tl)e 
'And <m the verjr 
^f4Htti»«d>oes M)7 theory that tnui 
£ Ance to Eon^*. 

k Hem cast in almost die 
f dw oldett known in Central 
m faitfaerto discovered in the latter 

I tbe fame uniform Img-headed 

1 not evoywhere, well into 

N^ntsi^t one might suppose that 

K^die pleistocene precursors were 

elj loi% Did Stone Age, to 

ta period of some 300,000 years 

B always and everywhere going on, 
BlviB' the leas favoured „ 

t wu so great that in 

I surpassed or even equalled, 
ints of the Solutrian period 
lid many such objects ascribed by 


. Heedng, Toronto, 1897. S« also Dr 




Fmcklteilueologists to the first would be as8%iied i» Bii|piBd lo 
the second Stone Age. 1 ^i 

Widi this advancement in culture, that of the phjndeiil; 
nmst have gone on hand in hand. Hence it seems a 
assumption to suppose that even before the close of paliBcd|dnc 

times all the great divisions of mankind faadaiMidf 
DM^m"^^^ been specialised in their several geqgcaphical 

•pfecUdiMd in In any case we may safely conclude that Ae 
¥£r^° primary varieties had been everywheK faUj GOMlii 

tuted in that intermediate period between die OH 
and New Stone Ages, which archaeologists have found k ao 
difficult accurately to determine, and in which some have eveli 
imagined a complete break or " hiatus ", separating the two periods 
by an undefined interval of time. 

No such internal is conceivable everywhere, else we ahoril 
have to suppose, not only that the natural history of the huoaa 
species began again with the dawn of neolithic times, but also tNt 
this fresh start from nothing was made not by one generalised but 
by many highly specialised forms, not (on the creative assumptkni) 
by one pair planted in one region, but by several pairs or groups 
dotted in convenient localities over the face of the globe. Even 
for Europe no break of continuity is now admitted by the best 
observers, and Sir W. Turner, amongst others, assumes thai 
^' when Neolithic man reached Western Europe he in all likelihood 
found his Palaeolithic predecessor settled there, and a greatar m 
less d^ee of fusion took place between them." ^ 

Assuming therefore that the evolution of the human specm 

Dunti n f ^*^ practically completed in all its fulness some 

the New Stone time before the beginning of the New Stone Aget 

we may perhaps form some approximately accuiate 
notion of the date to which, not the pliocene and pleistocene 
forerunners, but their specialised late palaeolithic descendant 
may be referred. I have already ventured to suggest a period of 
about 100,000 years for the duration of the Post-Pleistocene 
epoch, which largely coincides with the New Stone Age*. 
Those who may have felt inclined to look on this as a somewhat 

^ Nature^ Jan. 13, 1898, p. 159. * Eth, p. 55. 

irtOiiBtfaei^Mng pagfll 

>, Hu i gM d-lQ tbe si^canaee 

IT falH «p AuAgritr ttun Sir 

^dnl.tfcara it widonbted tndcocc 

t dBiaq[tbe fttmuioo of 

cxpbizH that the Cane 

^^xm.die pfetent aes-level, 

f(«ft;al» «r the na, wbkh to pOBt-< 

^attci^ltt acro«: the land from 

I aoatit of the FcKth from 

I of Britain 

r;tai^'aBoAar land coonection, a 

h i^nsa of the New Stone Age 

I <dH Bpheand looJbot tetrace 

t ttxjwdis diat have rince 



t fOTnich 

E beds, appearance of 

iv4if Britain with tbe Continent 

l^'U^teFalkiTk district Neolithic 

e a( the blutb which ovet- 

i<oast In the Cane of 

I laaad at the very base of the 

ribe buried fontt-bed of the Tay 

igm» dao (rf long duration even in 
liiiMdent by Carl Wibling, who cal- 
.«lMWigci on the south-east coast of 
||.«aoe its first occupation by tbe men 
l| Ja»e nqoired a period of " at least 

fy Ltndoa, Ifaiirt, Ju. 6 and 13, 189S. 
KjipmA, KBriiknxw, 189$, p. 3. 





St^nore startling are the results of t!ie y wa ic t i feife a t»iiillij« 
carried od by Herr J. Nuesch at the now famotts aMiM 01 

tweizersbiid, near Schaffhausen in SwitEerland^ H^viatioi 
apparently in the continuous occupation of man dmisf teitt 
Stone Ages, and here have been collected as many as i49006cijedi 
belonging to the first, and over 6ooo referred to the second^peiiod 
Although the early settlement was only post-glacial, a poinl^dbCMf 
which there is no room for doubt, Dr L. Laloy* has efi^ttiftei 
"the absolute duration of both epochs together at from 24,000 ti 
29,000 years." We may, therefore, ask, if a comparative^ reoeii 
post-glacial station in Switzerland is about 29,000 years dd, ho« 
old may a pre- or inter-glacial station be in Ga|il or Britain? 
From all this we see how fully justified is Mr J. W. Pow^i 

remark that the natural history of early man be 
Historyof ^ comes more and more a geological, and not tneielj 
•*•« ■S«o>os- an ethnological problem •. We also begin tonnda 

Stand how it is that, after an existence of some tm_ 
SQpre millenniums, the first specialised human varieties have di 
verged greatly from the original types, which have thus becoitti 
almost ''ideal quantities," the subjects rather of palseontologica 
than of strictly anthropological studies. 

And here another consideration of great moment present 

itself During these long ages some of the groups-^ 
Varieties the most African negroes south of the equator, mos 
^eirsevena Occanic ncgrocs (Melanesians and Papuans), a] 
Environ- Australian and American aborigines — have n 

mained in their original habitats ever since wba 
may be called the first settlement of the earth by man. Oilier 
again, the more restless or enterprising peoples, such as tb 
Mongols, Manchus, Turks, Ugro-Finns, Arabs, and most EiiiiiQ 
peans, have no doubt moved about somewhat freely; but thet 
later migrations, whether hostile or peaceable, have for A 
most part been confined to. regions presenting the same or Uk 

' Das Schweiz^sbildi eitte Niederlassung aus palaolithischer und ntoHtiscki 
Zeity in Notweaux Mimoires Soc. HelvHique des Sciences Naiur^leSy Vol. XXXH 
Zurich, 1896. 

* V Anthropologies 1897, p. 350. 

3 Forum, Feb. 1898. 


mnaatw teve ftOed to Nsvn ' 

[ ml right, or Aiqtpaantt^ tQT 

wfiwr JMiinllttimi to the tborigtaul 

Ante* la EgyptitB' Sttdko, 

•od WMt Sodin^HiiDTip 

■ad 7^0^ m Hiingarjr uid the 

Ounanb), Portuguese and 

m tropicil m tub-tropical 

balMireeds ■lose «re o^Ue 

Men to be, bke all other wo* 

IT Hnial etnuoDments. They 

■ and inhented choracttn have 

i bmoabons are usually followed bjr 

I the euugratioD of women and 

9 of the moit robust health, to the 

r fli the fint degree, but it should 

% H matement to it."* Aeclimatiza- 

\ hot ID all extreme cases, it can be 

t of bfe, and by tiow processes, 

h IK perhaps Natural Selection. By 

: dte world to have been first 

I be remembered that the first migra- 

■rlBHrglaaal, if not in pre-glacial ages, 

■ everywhere much milder than 

Eerent sones of temperature were 

t from one region to another more 

Id a word the pleistocene 

f ID adapting themselves to their 

a peoples have when they emigrate, 

jiaad women broughl back by XJent Ttarj 
J were nnable to endoie our temperate 
I, ind ibe lumvon irere to enfeebled that 
to wve their livcL Even for the 
7 lo tte eoMt ii a jonmej to the grave. 
$, Ifew York, iSgtf, p. 14. 




for instance, from Southern Earopie to Braai juUt^ 
from the British Isles to Rhodesia and Nyaasalamdk; •/.'!$r «!^i J^ 
What is true of man must be no less tnie. of 

which it follows that racial and colfemil 

^cSroMcn- ^^**^^^» while a correspondence must alMi 
pMeai witii between these and the zones of temperMmv'^eBiDqpIr 
tntmi zoom!^' SO fJBur as the latter may be modified byalfitiide^. 

marine influences, or other local conditions. A 
^ance at past and existing relations the world over will Aow 
that such harmonies have at all times prevailed. No doubt the 
overflow of the leading European peoples durii^ the last 400 
years has brought about divers dislocations, blurringSi and in 
places even total effacements of the old landmarks. 

But, putting aside these disturbances, it will be found that in 
the eastern hemisphere the inter-tropical r^ons, hot, moist and 
more fisivourable to vegetable than to animal vitality, have always 
be(^ the home of savage, cultureless populations. Within the 
same sphere are also comprised most of the extra-tropical southern 
lands, all tapering towards the antarctic waters, and consequently 
too contracted to constitute areas of higher specialisation. 

Similarly the sub-tropical Asiatic peninsulas, the bleak Tibetan 
tableland, the Pamir, and arid Mongolian steppes are found mainly 
in possession of somewhat stationary communities, which present 
every stage between sheer savagery and civilisation. 

In the same way the higher races and cultures are confined to 
the more favoured north temperate zone, so that between the 
parallels of 24'' and 50"* (but owing to local conditions fidling in 
the far East to 40*" and under, and in the extreme West rising to 
55"*), are situated nearly all the great centres, past and present, of 
human activities — the Egyptian, Babylonian, Mykensean (i£^[ean), 
Hellenic, Etruscan, Roman, and modem European. Almost ^ 
only exceptions are the Minaean and Sabaean (Himyaritic) of 
Yemen (Arabia Felix) and Abyssinia, where the low latitude is 
neutralised by altitude and a copious rainfall. 

Thanks also to altitude, to marine influences, and the con- 
traction of the equatorial lands, the relations are almost completely 
reversed in the New World. Here all the higher developments 
took place, not in the temperate but in the tropical zone, within 



uumoHs. 15 



B^^^^^^HSlnt the iKHmltwsl bwids follow tbe 
^^^^^^^^^HHH|M>4tt condKioiia at thar icmml en- 



H^^^^^^^^H^r ' 

n^^^^^^^^^B^ t 


., • 

^^^^^^^^^B^t i 


^^^^^^^^HHh" >" 




( 16 ) 





Progress of Archaeological Studies — Sequence of the Metal Ages — ^The C<»pef 
Age — The Bronze Age — ^The Iron Age — Hallstatt Culture — Man ana W 
Works in the Metal Ages — The Prehistoric Age in the Wert — ^Aad in 
China — Historic Times — Evolution of Writing Systems — ^Hieroglyphs and 
Cuneiforms — The Alphabet — The Persian and other Cuneiform Script**^ 
The Mas-d*Azil Markings — Alphabetiform Signs on Neolithic Moiuiiiiaiti 
— Character and Consequences of the later historic Migrations — T%i^ 
Race merges in the People — ^The distinguishing Characters of Peopto-" ' 
Elements of Classification. 

If, as above seen, the study of human origins is laig^df 

a geological problem,, the investigation of the later devdc^ 

^ , ments, during the Metal Ages and prehistorie 

Progress of , » » 

Archaeological times, belongs mamly to the field qf Archseologjr. 

Hence it is that for the light which has in receipt 
years been thrown upon the obscure interval between the Stoi^ 
Ages and the strictly historic epoch, that is to say, the perk4 
when in his continuous upward development man gr^dual^ 
exchanged stone for the more serviceable metals, we are indebtedt 
chiefly to the patient labours of such men as Worsaae, Steenstnqp^^" 
Forchhammer, Schliemann, Sayce, Layard, Lepsius, Marietl(e^ • 
Maspero, Montelius, Brugsch, Petrie, Peters, Haynes, Sir J*; 
Evans, A. J. Evans and others, all archaeologists firsts M^: 
anthropologists only in the second instance. /^ 

From the researches of these investigators it is now clear tbii 
copper, bronze, and iron were indeed successively introduced ift 

the order named, so that the current expre88ioii% 
thfMi'tSfl^c. "Copper," "Bronze," and "Iron" Ages ranab 

still justified. But it also appears that oveil|j|^ 




^^r* -r 


,.ry f , r. 




L ^ - —y'**---»- ^. . M» ' 





'^■HflHB^ kDOWiI ^BJr' VlgBe VlKlillOB 

^'ii^ It lilt ii« hM eet^ 
ic iM^ Brtmie timesf Aaf tMs 

tMAllitM fthiMdd pie^tffi Oft 
BMtds^ unlike sf 01^^ came to 

£/iimiHiaM ibciitct tti be iiidis-. 

'tt* k litee die '' Metlkl Age^ " 
itetf'of tittle^ H^eef 11 wiur 
# pittUsloric gtaves mso^ 
1^, Md Hiett with bronsd / 
'^ the Btfglish in Austirali^ 
ttnd the like, are mm 
^^.Kfte gm^infit of the aboiigit^s. 
I^or ttl thttt of Bronze^ 
^dumioil, except 
iMbieh frfaced aJ^'*??^' 
itk tei^eiiigfttiont. 
ilMi*|Mid to the subject by Dr 

^Iglliliif fcp^ta, 

^lefn oigiiitiu nsus." 

a^ copper in pre- Aryan times and 

aibfi ardifleOlogists have introduced 

rscbpper, idj., and \(9of, stone), of 

I eiviitik denominata neolitica o eneo- 

B^ia dall' Hso deRa pietra finamente 

[^ fiUimaaione con sepoltnre in grotte 

it in forme e modi motto pii^ avanzati 

'.itk j^wopay i quali avetano sepoltnre 

%l§04lia/m, TwnA, 1898, pp. 199, aoo). 

•T r ■ 


J« IL Gladstone, who finds diat cofipefH 

Egyptians in the Sinaitic Peninsula, that^:Pi 

qf the Wadi Maghara, from the 4th to the iSib 

from 5000 to 3000 B.C. During that epoch toob 

pore copper in Egypt and Syria, and by the Amorilei igjPi^||iiMV 

often on the model of their stone prototypes?. ...,../; 

Probably from the same source was ^ibtaiocd .the <ai{9^ 
which had already come into general use in Bab^loatt.fQiiK^jfto^ 
years ago. After a careful analysis of the m^tal; oiijects IM 
Tell-Loh'y M. Berthelot concludes that the employ inent:^ioq||Mi 
in Chaldaea, about 4000 years before the new era, for the p|H|ll|^ 
facture of arms and utensils, and for other purposes, ia plioed 
beyond doubt*. . j i:^ 

Amongst the not over-numerous authentic documents i^Miiilljfl 
a Copper Age in Western Europe must now be included 4i<ft jpill 
or cache of pure copper ingots found at Tourc'h, west oC the Afpi 
Valley, Finisterre, described by M. de Villiers du Terrpg%.i|j|, 
comprising 23 pieces, with a total weight of nearly 50 Ibs.^ 1%pe^ 
objects, which belong to ''the transitional period when 0(^i|HMr 
was used at first concurrently with . polished stone^ andftl|«eii 
disappeared as bronze came into more general i;mV' TtjilBf 
probably from Hungary, at that time apparently the chief aoQibe 
of this metal for most parts of Europe. Of oVer aoo cofipir 
objects described by Dr Mathseus Much* nearly all wierai lif .^ 
Hungarian or South Q^voMXSi provenarue^ five only being a^^edilit^ 
to Britain and eight to France. 

The study of this subject has been greatly advanced \xf Herir ^ 
J. Hampel, who holds on solid grounds that in some r^gkiei^^..^ 
especially Hungary, copper played a dominant part for mwj^/J 
centuries, and is undoubtedly the characteristic metal of a dislttiii^i^ 

^ Paper on " The Transition from Pure Copper to Bronie, &c.,** le^il-ji^-tj 
the Meeting of the Brit. Assoc. Liverpool, 1896. * , ,^* '^ 


' M. de Sarzec's finds, Eth,^ p. 301. \ 

' VAge du Cuivre en Chaldie^ in La Nature^ April 3, 1897. 

^ V Anthropologies 1896, p. 526 sq. This antiquary aptly remaiks tibit 
** Texpression llge de cuivre a une signification bien praise comme s'appHqnaiii 
i la partie de la p^riode de la pierre polie oil les metaux font leur appaiitUMi.*' 

• V Anthropologies 1896, p. 526 sq. 

^ In Die Kupferzeit in Europa^ 1882. 

■ *j 

jtimeim Ait:fm wasfbiuHlf 

tipc^l^iiQiKi^ nd piriag mn^ 

loisili %i^ire9^ Iq &c| we 

nt Co|q^ Age w«t 

tfne Qrei^ Juakes of Nordi 

ptofdes of JKataagfi aiwt 

£®|^p«t kiiol4uiJdlo]r(like bipeate, 

in iiiVK quABtmes and 

lllb^autiftce ill loany parts of > the 

^i|;^^0liI4 have been found and 

jQrS^reml dtfCoEent centres, 

so soon stqpei^seded in so many 

i( tibe pa«Bage was slow and 
H^iin, which 
ttapes biF an aUoy a^*!*"""* 
anived at by 
with no little skill by those 

||f09t Ae ores of different metals 

i^ itnelted together empirically, 

ocy results were obtained. 

.#C metab, of which percentages 

ipeeiikiens, such as those of the 

yielded tin, lead, silver, iron, 

cobalt, and zinc in varying 

iaOiZiiUchr.f. Eth.^ 1896, No. a. 

vorgnehichilichir Bronun, in 

iiithority agrees with Hempel's view that 

that in Transylvania (Hungary) 

welche zugleich die Bronze- 

2 — 2 




■ I M'iYasJiallliijydMaagg 

Soflie brontes from the pyramid of Vtcdmk 
J. H. Glftdstone^ yieMed the high pettenUgt 
iriiich ure must infer, not only that ttfonse, bttt bi 
quality, was already known to the Egyptians of flttr 1^ I^Mi^ 
Yet M. J. de Morgan, who does not qoeatiop iter^ Iiilfeii il |i6 
and thinks that copper was also known to the Bgy9tiaftS^<iii0if 
jooo ac, holds that nowhere in Africa was theie dtlM^a 
Copper or a Bronze Age.' In America the tttttritiM HHI 
stone to copper only, but the passage was in Afriet tMtpMut 
from stone to iron*. 

On the other hand it is shown by M. Maipcf0 ti^ itf-lHe 
Metal, as indeed also the Stone Ages, were suctessirdy |Mib4: 
through in Babylonia, where metal implements, first <rf ti6ipplSt^ 
then of bronze, lastly of iron, abounded in immense yarfa^lf MtiT 
remote times'. Metal tools of fine temper were here eeitaili^' 
needed for carving the extremely hard di(Mrite statuai foosiNtfl 
1 88 1 by M. de Sarzec at Sirgalla (Legash), which eaonOt lieliiliK 
less than 6000 years old. ' Ih^ 

In Europe the transition from copper to bronse is 
Itave taken place everywhere much about the same tittie. 
shall see that the date, about 2000 b.c., usually assigned ffl^ 
change, will have to be set back fully 1000 years, at least fbf IoMe^ 
localities. Indeed the narrow views hitherto current rej 
chronology of the Metal Ages have already received a rude 
from the fruitful researches especially of Mr A. J. EvMt is i|P 
Eastern Mediterranean. Warning notes are already heard hat lit 
directions, and Chr. Blinkenberg amongst others remi^ht' 
Mykenaean culture had attained its bloom in the 15A mid 
ing centuries, pre-Mykensean graves and their contents tilHil'IJ^ 
dated back to the very beginning of the second, and evoi tl^riM^ 
latter part of the third millennium B.C.* ' •^-^ 

^ Proc. Soc. Bib, ArchaoL 189a, pp. 223-6. v'^Vi' 

3 Recherches sur Us Origines de VEgypU^ &c., 1896. M. de Moqpniiiiei' 
overlooks the development of a copper industry above refeited to in vwfiii^ 
parts of Central Africa, apparently at a very early date. 

" The Dawn of Civilization^ IxA ^^. i8gS, passim, 

^ Pramykeniske Oldsager; Bidrag til stttdiet af GrakenloNds eUdisU XmUmr^ 
Copenhagen, 1896. 

fJtol JQ n* tQ iron long Won 

thcw pcoplei^ and in fcct 

prcciou) mvial.'' 

pp-^oabc kpcnro at « tot carif 

,«nMM(t«T«o w Utie w HtMOv'i 

«f ^ «NwtituEMt one fl( dM 


dw thii* could iwe been 

«4liibt l!M»l«lge <tf the fB^tai, 

i-jMK fiMiMilMly HinwMd to )i»ve 

,9Ms 'W M moat.ioue 150 y«an 

<8S4 I.C.), tbu ■(, laeatly 

liwtary Ibi the Gre^ worid. 

,)iet (me, but two Iron Age^ ^ 

E. It pie- 

ift ud VeoetU) i it had kk 

l4ttV&AMr beyond „^^« 

tbpue eutwanU »a l« mim 

ud SUyonic 

latiu, Boiou, Herzflgoviiu, 

Weg ci a ie i the pre-Phceniclut or 

Itconitnicted from the signi 

tbe bronzes u)d earthenware of 

of Umbria'. These characters 

■nth those (^ the pre-Neolithic 

^, Sd. Piotte*, and on the other 

,p. 168. 

1896. p. 385 «1- 




*M5-. '■ 

with Mr A. J. Evans' pre-Phoenician CretiH 
and other grounds Sergi joins the new schbcff' 
their demand for an extension of the Metal Aga^ 
*' this script appears in its forms and variants t^ 1l^' 
and in my oinnion it seems as if it onght to 
established chronology of the First Iron Age to be 
Italy and elsewhere V 

From flallstatt Prof. W. Ridgeway* believes on 
that the use of iron spread to Switzerland, Italy, 
Greece, Eastern Germany, and in fact to the whole of fiilioii^*] 
everywhere largely replacing the bronze tools and weipons'^ 
we know from Tadtus were then in common use. 

The Hallstatt period, which is supposed to have 
bloom about 800 B.C., was continued in Switzerland and 
other places quite into Roman times. But during 
centuries of its existence it was replaced in Gaul by a 
Age, which from its chief centre is usually referred to tfi^l 
La Tine period. It was to some extent of local origin^ 
great measure independently developed, though not unini tt c mbcg^ 
by southern, especially Massilian (Greek) forms. Eventoal^tti^ 
La l%ne culture superseded the Hallstatt in all the lands 
speech, and the somewhat abrupt transition from one to the 
is perceptible in Switzerland, where La Tbne forms were 
duced by later immigrants, also no doubt of Keltic speech. 

Notwithstanding their quite recent date, as compared with 
early rise of the Eastern civilisations, all these metal periods 
be regarded as strictly prehistoric for Central and Western ^Bm^f^tf 
they are antecedent to all trustworthy historical records, whidi &S" 
the West with one or two exceptions, such as the foundation of the 
Greek colony of Massilia (Marseilles, 539 b.c.), go no further hidt 
than Roman times. 

That the peoples of those days were physically well devdoped, 
and in a great part of Europe and Asia already of 
Aryan speech, there can be no reasonable doubt A 
skull of the early Hallstatt period, from a grave near 

Man and hia 
Worka in the 
Metal A|^a. 

' Arii e Italici, p. 119. 

* The Starting Point of the Iron Age in Europe^ Paper read at the Britidi 

Assoc. Liverpool, 1896. 

'- «3 

43^ ftoC ykdbfom to hmf- 

'Mtm ttUW t$9i C.C, alfoi^ 

iMfc md MM, and 111 

Of' ttw' KgidMMauiirad, long- 

%M ft deetSed ftOeoont of wMdi 

'lIMMrtMri iBtemt M in Duia? mtjm 

ifcti'MWrnrinr <1 mf nl irnrr of ^ kindi 

of A« utt of desigo and 

'■ tfe v da pment from the first tenla- 

tttittatptouiiig effects. Hummuid 

oceadonftlly afiord aenriotu 

of the thnea. On a day 

FMei^ b figured a rq^lar hunt- 

nMMnitcd cm horaebaclc^ or elM .on 

ttrbN^, pumnng the qiiatty (noblf- 

Ae pendKxne after tlte chaie'. 

but on diat accoont all the 

with analogous represent»- 

l^faMr in prehistonc art audi figiues 

-Had pnreljr ornamental, ai in 

fiwD the Ancon Necro- 

bt- pimMYe peoplea, although to 

gedl be trical and freely-invented 

tfuut degraded animal and 

'KthlM wfajr ao many of the drawings 
Jaferiw to those of the cave-dwellers 
i^i' Tbtf aie often mere convention- 
'pMotypes, comparable, for instance, 
iriiich are known to be degraded 

in ytriama. Btrlim. Ga. /. 
tmf $tUttitthtH GrSigtfiutfit 
£tk^ pp. SB and i49-5e- 




p^ MAN : JPA6T Afxn PIMI^WC. 

, •(■ 

Of Ae ffiHsllcd ^ Prehistoric Age 

«„P«. de6mtioo caD b^ given. It cmtm*iKm 4 t! ^ 
^^d«Ac«iii waj that vague period prior to # p;^^ 
^ ^"^ dim memories of wbich—popater p|^|f9^|p|^ 

demi-gods *, eponymous heroes*, traditions of re^lefpafaiit^^^piba^^ 
on Cur into historic times, and supplied ready IQ hairt #<^;<^jipjpi« 
maierials afterwards w<Hrked up by the eariy piDets» foii^^^ ^pp 
rdigioBSi and later legislators. MirVr 

That letters themselves, although not brought into g^iie|#mi 
bad already been invented, is evident from the mans fiMB| diii^ 
memory of their introduction beyond the vaguest tndit^mi^Mi 
died out before the dawn of history. The works of man^ l^nSc^^R 
themselves necessarily continuous, stretched badL to sii(li.||i 
inconceivably remote past, that even the great landmaika la .^ 
evolution of human progress had long been forgotten by ]||An 

And so it was everywhere, in the New World as in the 

amongst Eastern as amongst Westeni PCfl^fff 
In the Chinese records the *'Age of tbf fjj^ 
-Sppperors '' — five, though nine are named — ^answers son9OTfa|i| |( 
our prehistoric epoch. It had its eponymous hero. Fa Hi, IQQpmii 
founder of the empire, who invented nets and snares for M^ 
and hunting, and taught his people how to rear dom^tic |i9]U|||jki 
To him also, is ascribed the institution of marriage, and in hb lipii 
Tsong Chi is supposed to have invented the Chinese ^^^Ty^yiffl 
symbols, not of sounds, but of objects and ideas. 

Then came other benevolent rulers, who taught the pepjgll 
agriculture, established markets for the sale of fisurm j^no^Viei^ 

' Homer's iuu$4iaif 7^ot ia^hpOnf^ 11. XI I. 33, if the pssnge is gomiiM^ ^n 
' Soch as the Greek Andreas, the ** First Man,'* invented m mimnmiixfll 
recent times, as shown by the intrusive d in dySpcf for the earlier j|p||l|| 
**men." Andreas was of course a Greek, sprung in fiict from ^ jbj|) 
Peneus and the first inhabitant of the Orchomenian plain (Pausanuis, 12.34,^ 
' For instance, the flooding of the Thessalian plain, afterwards dnlniifJUq 
the Peneos and repeopled by the inhabitants of the sttrroanding msHgiJig^lili 
(rocks, stones), whence the m3rth of Deucalion and Pyrrha, who «^ |o|i| iiy w 
oracle to repeople the world by throwing behind them the "bones of lliaa 
grandmother," that is, the '* stones " of mother Earth. 




beavcDly bodies." 

.JA ««v«i^ Kte wild faaU md 
«pd vc«« the skuu of 

' Jwilt themaelv«a baMte t ion* 

Ag^ Tbiu tt evoywliere 

^fagsiy, which lies behind ftU 

,^0t^ x>f tb« poet* fades #Hh 

^ " iato the regioD of Uie 

^.itiMy hiiitwic times, the most 
fftPft^HVS the general 

fruitful of ,£2°^' 
preserving wu 
.^noifledce tenijed to become 
[Pfitfvllle to SKf when or when the 
Ak; upptnat^ m^llifvious sounds 
,W|Re wtbsustivel/ analysed and 
or so of arbitrary signs. But 
^^HJons writing^systems in use in 
^.ipfpivestod the process by which the 
ihput from rude pictorial repre- 
counts " of the North Ameri- 
; rock carvings ^^^^ 
,|ru %fiet^ra/A, the nfwritiin 

for a given 

'ifr hiunan being. Then this figure, 

itionglised, served to indicate not 

1)41 sound man, as in die word 

:|lbus. At this stage it becomes 

when further reduced beyond 

may stand for the sylUble ma 

reference either to the idea 

has now become the symbol 

26 ' MAN : PAST A^m 

of a monosyllable, which is normally mad^'l^^ 

consonant and a vowel, as in the Devani^fii^- 

systems. /i p^ -feNfef- 

Lastly, by dropping the second or Ycmti ^liiiiiir^i^lmii 
symbol, further modified or not, becomes a le^ i^tg^mk^^ 
sound m, that is, one of the few ultimate demendi of ilifilSMi 
speech. A more or less complete set of sudi <ibias(^ii6i4 ^ 
worn down in form and meaning, will then be avubMe Kit^iBifi 
eating more or less completely all the phonetic cteflo^nts itflBi^ 
given language. It will be a true alphaba^ the wondeilttl n^^ 
of which may be inferred firom the fact that only ti^i or 
three, such alphabetic systems are known with absdKite 
to have ever been independently evolved by human ingemii^ 
From the above exposition we see how inevitably th6 Phceiikii) 
parent of nearly all late alphabets expressed at first the ^^!ttici 
nantal sounds only, so that ^he vowels or vowel maiiui af« ]li%l 
cases later developments, as in Hebrew, Syriac, Atabi<^ CHiSi 
the Italic group, and the Runes. 

In primitive systems, such as the Egyptian, Akkadian, OiMM 
Maya-Quich^ and Mexican, one or more of the various tMH 
itional steps may he developed and used simultaneoi 
a constant tendency to advance on the lines above iiidieai 

Hiero I hs ff^^^^^l substitution of the later for the emu 
and Cunei. Stages. A comparison of the Akkadian cundfeii 

and Egyptian hieroglyphic systems brings oill 

curious results. Thus at an extremely remote epoch, sajr Coo 
years ago ', the Akkadians had already got rid of the pfdliia 
and to a great extent of the ideographic, but had barely readib 
the alphabetic phase. Consequently their cuneiform groopf 

^ Such instances as George Guest's Cherokee system, and the erode Attemi 
of a Vei (West Sudanese) Negro, if genuine, are not here in question, asticii 
had the English alphabet to work upon. A like remark applies to the cfl 
Irish and Welsh Ogham, which are more curious than instractm^ it 
characters, mostly mere groups of straight strokes, being obvious sabstitMli 
for the corresponding letters of the Roman alphabet, hence compeimhle to til 
cryptographic systems of Wheatstone and others. 

' ** We discovered written records no less than 6000 years old» and proff 
that writing and civilisation were then by no means in their infimcy.** 0. 1 
Peters, Expedition to Babylonia, &c., Vol. I. Philadelphia, 1897.) 


^ ii!tt{iBfy<d:iirdi full q>lbiU«a, 
~ t words. Ideogniibl lud 
th«B tt> mere lythfalet, 
cbtuoiuuiti Buy be dii- 
~ of only one < 

k'ttliid^ dwJeS' the tyttem right 

■tfto^'ptCtnTes to letters, but reuined k11 

I^We ^kfabf ttndliig to fin amy, the final 

^ oTSIinderogtyplisTepresented in various 

^iftiia 'iaatk. In numy casea they " had 

ti^'i^A^bi^ ttuudy a mate OHuoiwit; 

"" J'lHi BmI m from te and /», and 

Sa^^^'&o^ the bumati leg J and to the 

• stopped half way, and 

£ votni sounds a, i and u only'." 

I, netaphor and anal<^ of course 

■ of language itself Thus 

tJHM immal and Ua courage, and so on. 

riiat the form of a modem 

S'H^/v^mat; <r=> = rv = mouth, 

qjjWbere the sounds and not the 

lie alone attended to*. 
I farmed a tme alphabet, in which, 
dements was repre- 
it characters derived 
luving the same initial syllable 
it rithttitt, which could be got 
of ettmJDiUion, that is, by dis- 
I but one (at the same sound, 
ion was completed hj the scribes, 
Itboectic signs were rejected except 
he S3 phonetic elements, the Fhoe- 
han it was completed. Such may 

• IM. ' rtu. p. 133. 




. MAM : PAST AND PR»WB»»#'^'-^-''t;j|^|te 

bi^ taken $s the real ongin of this sjrstcm. wl|(9(b«| Jh^ii^^ 
question were Akkadians, EgyptianSt M'mmuif jm ^ffWjPfWJ^i 
that is, whether the Phoenician alphabet had a^ cmfffl^m!^ f^ biepo- 
^ypliic, a South Arabian, a Cretan (iGgean^ IigiHN9P or IDbqEW 
origin, for all these and perhaps other peoples hinre |msiu flipdto^ 
with the invention. On this point there will be toore tP W 
when we come to discuss Himyaritic, pre-MykeDseiio» and Italic 

But whatever be the souicje of the Phosniciail, that of tibe 
Persian system current under the 

M ■ -I ♦ 1 1 -» I » ; « ( —. 

and ether is clear enough. It is a true alphabet of 37 cha- 

g^jjjjjjl™* racters, derived by some selective process diipplfy 

from the Babylonian cuneiforms, without any 1^* 
tempt at a modification of their shapes. Hence although simple 
compared with its prototype, it is clumsy enough compared wiA 
the Phcenician script, several of the letters requiring groups of is 
many as four or even five "wedges'' for their expression. None 
of the other cuneiform systems also derived from the Akkadian 
(the Assyrian, Elamite, Vannic, Medic) appear to have readied 
the pure alphabetic state, all being still encumbered with numeioiis 
complex syllabic characters. The subjoined table, for which I have 
to thank Mr T. G. Pinches, will help to show the genesis of Ae 
cuneiform combinations from the earliest known pictographs. 
These pictographs themselves are already reduced to the 
outlines of the original pictorial representations. But no 
forms, showing the gradual transition from the primitive picture 
writing; to the degraded pictographs here given, have yet come to 

Here it may be asked, what is to be thought of the already^ 
^^^ mentioned pebble-markings from the Mas-d'Aidl 

Mms-d'Axii Cave of the Madelenian (late Old Stone) Age ? If 
"*** they are truly phonetic, then we must suppose that 

Palaeolithic man not only invented an alphabetic writing systeios, 
but did this right off by intuition, as it were, without any previous 
knowledge of letters. At least no one will suggest that die 
Dordogne cave-dwellers were already in possession of piptognapkic 
or other crude systems, from which the Mas-d'Azil "sar^** 
might have been slowly evolved. Yet M. Pietta, who groups 

"=■ 4 

tmamti - ■ '■■ 

Ml 4 >iv T 



t . - ■ - - • - -r - Trt 

30 UAH : PAST A»n 

these pebblesy painted with p^oxide of TOa^ 
gories of numeralsy symbols, pictogrEph% wbA 
racterSy states, in reference to these last, tbat *^jij^; 
Phoenician characters were equally Azilian 
He even suggests that there may be an appfoadi MKAT 
in one group, where, however, the mark indicating a Hop 
a script running Semitic-fashion from rig^l to left^ 
letters themselves seem to face the other way. 

A possible connection has been suggested by Seigi be^iKtliii 

the Mas-d'Azil signs and the markings ttet. lil^ 

fontH^'on ^^° discovered on the m^lithic moiuwieistt^ 

Neouthic North Africa, Brittany, and the British Isles. Those 

Monuments. ,, ,. " , - ., Vit^ 

are all so rudimentary that resemblances aiil>^ii> 
evitable, and of themselves afford little ground for 
connections. Primitive man is but a child, and all cfaildren 
and scrawl much in the same way. Nevertheless M. Lai 
has taken the trouble to compare five such scrawls fixmi ^ 
inscriptions '* now in the Bardo Museum, Tunis, with 
or identical signs on Brittany and Irish dolmens. There is Ihn^ 
familiar circle plain and dotted O 0, the cross in its sii 
form +, the pothook and segmented square p fit All of 
recur in the Phoenician, Keltiberian, Etruscan, Libyan or 
systems. Latourneau, however, who does not call them letti^ 
but only '' signes alphabetiformes," merely suggests that^ tf s^ 
phonetic marks when first carved on the neolithic moniltt^M^ 
they may have become so in later times. Against this it need 
only be urged that in later times all these peoples were suppliedl 
with complete alphabetic systems from the East as soon aa ticy 
required them. By that time all the peoples of the culture-zone 
were well-advanced into the historic period, and had long foigot||ft 
the rude carvings of their neolithic forefathers. 

* Bui. Soc, (TAnthrop, 1896, p. 319. 




Htj(wrtlie,fiiB!t«.of.. .. g^^j^j^' ' 

Ij^At £th«r< (BQyeni«|itt, 

fev!->r>- ■,■■ ■■■ ■ ■ 
Pf^fpfKnfV t^ $"* peoi^iiig of dtf 

' 'l^MjI^qminUs tad mdjMstmeats 

iWkb ftw exccptioBS, the 

IftcrCV: pWiefolt Tei«, for icasons 

!^ p(«i4 .qhtracter, while .«at«in 

' I and 4«ttilMw> ronained little 

^jtitt.«Htfi racmt dmea. But for 

ph,l|Mbiqrl)CK the lesuItB were none 

ntioDS could not fail uld- 

« of exrly types, while the 

(.tended to produce a general 

Thus the great varietal 

^ictltuiges from age to age, con- 

t ftoups, to maintain a distinct 

Wl]| obseived that the only mean- 

f l»v« is that of a ^..^„.. 

^ mw hai become di*t(m ta tiw 

• a exceeding the "^^^" 

ft^mtie'i elemenu*. We are also 

" ID the actual state of science the 

\f to which nothing definite may be 

l^ene hand, the original races can 

■^k|tMi A«oc. Ipiwicli, 1895. 



32 MAN: VAf^r AND PJOSHUni^ 

Mf be said to bekmg to paUeontolOB^^ UfailrHtf ^ 

gticMip8» now called racesi are nothing tat p&^ptmf\ 

peojrie^ brethren bjr civilization more than bf 

thus conceived ends by identifying itsdf widi nal wwiiliy ' V gMiiMili^ 

it has been asked why, on the principle of coa^figCte^( 

various raoeSi if isolated long enough in a gtvte 

eventually lead to a new racial type, without ]mifmigmii^mimlF 

its manifold origin** - • -^^ >>* * ■ 

Such new racial types would be normal for the h^Btntklti 
groups, just as the old types were normal for ^e etfttr :|l l i l pi 
and a general application might be given to TopiKud!^ ttBMii 
dictum that kspeupUs seuls sent des realMs\ that ii^ peOpMiioM 
— groups occupying definite geographical areas — ^ha^aft oti$0M|ii 
existence. Thus, the notion of race, as a zo(^c^gica! 
the sense of a pure breed or strain, falls still more into life 
ground, and, as Virchow aptly remarks, ''this term, whidf aMl|(i 
implied something vague, has in recent times becoitte ttMiii 
highest degree uncertain*.** ; uot 

Hence Dr Ehrenreich treats the present populatioiis <lf itfi 

earth rather as zoological groups which hMe tetfl 

ffnishing cha- developed in their several geographical iOfln^Ms 

p^ittf ^^ are to be distinguished not so BMcb bji^ttlir 

bony structure as by their external chatactici^|||i|: ^ 
as hair, colour, and expression, and by their habitats and KinyiijdjB;^ 
Relying on these essential factors, he proposes a g^ei^ idNN|^a 
of the primary divisions, which largely agrees with that alti(iil|j&^ 
advanced in Ethnology^ Part II. • -^: — 

Too much weight is no doubt given to languagei* wbldk lll>^ 
called the ''main point," while peoples are said to be tdSeStBi ; 
" only so far as they are characterised by their speech ; > e>0 | ^l ^ 
stand and fall with their speech\" But with Uie |{c»MMtv^. 
principle little fault can be found, and the cogent i^tfiinih^ 
on the intimate connection of peoples with their physictti tjiP^^ 

* Anter, J, of Sociology^ Jan. 1898, pp. 467-8. 
' A. Vierkandt, Globus y 72« p. 134. 
" Elements tT AnthropologU GhUraU^ p. 107. 

* Rassenbiidung u, ErblichktU; Bastian- Festschrifts 1896, p. I. 
' Anthropologische Studien^ &c., p. 14. 



p^' ' 



B'i-^i -J- 





r'udnr.of Uwir pMMtd 

d bgr Dr Daboii' ditcovei]r,aiid 
^)ttMgr«w]r be accepted u a tixady 
mgant and contndictoiy viem' 
Af.4tttlt^t on the niiffeme and even 
il&ctar. We dun lave to 
I and die lonnd-beads. It 
||il|Wrtnce need not be attached 
'b .M kvolM etbnologiGal atudies 
i nwcoed 1>7the estaUisbinetit of 
L- ^ niddle (rf' the nineteenth 

g with the difficult queetion of 
1 be aonghtin 
fcttMglectanyof c£:S^^ 

1 of htunan 
v Hence in the teoad groupings, 
' fc ue baaed on the treatment of 
[ pan of the Etkndogy, 
Ipll^liSkble date— physical and mental 

f be Jadged fixnn the altltnde of Praf. 
mnud* H. da Laponce, founder of the 
[ iknll modifiolioni ue 
n bdlef in the penislence of 
" L«pati£e u onfortiin&tely 
K [the theory th«t the Ijguiiuit were 
I adraDced by him on the development 
e 1 hold withont more ado 
CmIm Stammu, I^pag, 1897, 




duuBCterSt usages, religion^ speech, cakinil 
geogmpbiod range. . ; v.'* %l.r*LJV^air< 

Such, broadly speaking, are the demenls «C ^lisliMinM 
wherever two or more groups are found Bgntmgim aB^fflirJft 
in the more essential, of such elements, they maf be ftgttded » 
branches of one stock. So far, and no furtbcs; iB:4i^ ittiet^ 
zoological or genetic classification possible in the presenl state IP 
the multifarious inhabitants of the globe. 

' r^.-.l-'il 

- . . ( » . . . fc 

» ' •• 


— -. W^-»A 

—TV JlAui—AMeia Agaaatia- 
-• — ■ So«W lUtalioin— 7«» 

li and Mental Qnaliliet— 
— Etfankal ana Political 
Um uid Heathendom— 
[u Tntn and CootnMi— The 
atitt Bowm Reeordi — Eait 
n Sudan— 7X( Maiai—Elhiaetl 
nPraUcm— NnbUnO 
I of tha NOHCOogo i 

; ifiam-A'tiuu — Two Phnical 

— Hl|^ AppKcialioD of Pictorial 

it ^tlU Sahara. 
I ffimt iess Aiyssinia, ^tu' 
t, Mauritania Timi 
i iff the southtm Uniied 
^J^it ofBratif and Peru. 



Httlr. n^uwys Natk, raiher irfMUl 
not woolfyt afftring from other AmwMl 
flat in transverse section ; eoUmXi mrj^ 
chocolate and blackish^ never fuUe bbidkf 
dolichoc^haious (Jongy index No, 73) ; |Mli| 
(^projecting, index No. 60) ; cll6ek-ll0lii» fiMlMl^ 
moderately retreating, rarely prominent $ aai>t ili Jtl l| 
at base, flat, small {plaiyrrhine, M. 56) ; 6t«ib %( 
round, prominent, black with yellowish cormeti; iMiil 
above the average, $ ft- 10 in,; lipa» tumid m9d emM 
aimB, disproportionately long; letfs, sksUbr ««tt Jp 
calves ; feet, broad, flat, with low instep and ku^ 

heel. - ■ ;.; ^riii 

Chanel Temperament, sensuous, indolent, impr9vUtliltlt¥- 
ten. fiil, passionate and cruel, though often e^feetiOmkH 
fiUthfitl; little sense of dignity, and slight s0^onicim^ 
hence easy acceptance of yoke of slavery ; nmsieaL - . -H 

Speech, almost everywhere in the ag^tbuUkl^^ 
generally with suffixes. . v*^ 

Religion, anthropomorphic; spirits enimisit^ 
human attributes, mostly evil and more poweaM^Jl^ 
man; ancestry-worship, fetishism, and witclia^f?^^ 
prevalent; human sacrifices to the dead tf ypMii 
feature. :f;^^; 

Culture, low; cannibalism formerly r^perkei0^ 
versal, still general in some regions^ no science' olt] 
arts and industries confined mainly to agricultu 
wood-carving, weaving, and metallurgy; no 
progress anywhere except under the influenot 
Main West Sudanese: Wolof ; Mandinganf 

Divisions. ^. , ^ ., . Ju 

Timni ; Kru ; Sierra Leonese ; Ltbenan; 73r 
Yoruba; Ibo ; Efik; Borgu ; Mossi. ^^^ 

Central Sudanese: Sonrhay; /SSnttSf 
Kanembu; Kanuri ; Baghirmi ; Yedina. • 

East Sudanese: Maba; F&r; Ni^f 
Dinka; Bari ; Abaka ; Bongo ; fanghey ; Mi 
Zandeh; Momfu ; Bask; Barea. 


fc » >ll |M l ll 

^faidMtfsK MiU gongoa. Yetw 
D gnHV^ «nd nidi b the 

me or two p^at^uid 
ttMmm «f ibe bitfim divHieB, it mar 
g the oBOMc cf chesategai 

t tenri Aftbe NSgei' at tnwtnkni; 
t, iUfoai iMck it vaiuneutr&m 
rial the. Whm and NueNtlea. 
I H^gro grdopt (9wrf Hid 

K tel OMHuuisd stiU east to ^ 
Bm to tnanr ages A* liiie 
fcftoil Kbutum along dw^Wlute 
1^ then contuuoudj south-east- 
^to Lake Albort Nyania, np the 
hVJmn, and thence with a considn- 
I eastwards to the Indian 

fane bekngs to the Hamito- 
idmaion, aU Bouth 

vftheEthiopic d^L^"*" 


to the White Nile, and all 

'fiaUa* Somali and Masai lands — 

from the othei main 

-pliraad' and mental qualities, 





largely firedoininates everywhere and in mi 
The route by which he probably reached tb 
where he may be regarded as practicaQy 
indicated in Ethnah^^ Chs. x. and xi, tuw iino*^] 

That the occupation took place in pleiatoesiMBF^I 

even earlier, is made daily more aiidfeiil^lllMij^ilii 
Oriffiu. researches of travellers in hitherto Uii f jgitid ^ 

At the meeting of the Royal Society^ 
Sir John Evans stated that the numerous palaBolifhs tokaa^^MfH^ 
Seton-Karr on his second visit to Somaliland, wfaidi 
formed part of the Negro domain, were in teaa al 
identical with some from the Somme and other pboetf^ 
there need be no hesitation in claiming them 
despite the absence of a fossil fauna. The finds, he pQifatl«d^i|g|i 
help to bridge over the interval between pabeoKdiie 
Britain and in India, and add another link lo diediaotof^ 
by which the original cradle of man may eventually be iSltat^l^t^ 
tending to prove the unity of race between the 
of Asia, Africa, and Europe in palaeolithic times. Mr 
tells us that he obtained several thousands of such obj 
heads, scrapers, knives, flakes, cores — in sites whkh 
appearance of having been regular workshops, 
flints were either damaged or unfinished, while some wewi 
amid a mass of flakes and chips, " as though the pe0|ii 
dropped their work, and, carrying with them ^ their 
weapons and belongings, had fled, never to return*." ^ ' i A-.'#*«t 

Similar evidence has been collected from Upper 
Angola, and the extreme south, showing nol^ 
early arrival but also the general diqpetsal- 
Negro over his present domain during 
Yet since that remote epoch the spedaliMt 
type, as depicted on the Egyptian monuments some 
years ago, has everywhere been maintained with atrikii^j 
formity. ** Within this wide domain of the black Negro 
a remarkably general similarity of type.... If you took a 
from the Gold Coast of West Africa and passed him off amomgilj 

^ Some Implements in Somaiiiand, Paper read at Meeting Of Bift, AiMfe 
Ipswich, 1895. 

of the Negro 

Stone Age. 

nBMfa' CitMpt die 
H^^VM^WeiywIictt Tcrjr loueh ilfte, 
C-Ihe miied or 
• duttrtiuig cImmou mh 
)ltyaillt»nMc (Anibt); iritilefa 
Mr) io all the centnl an) 
W- IM lilt 'cmMMi HKbcwrd ftoin tae 
T« dw vuj^ pitipor- 
J^IWilMpvbe tmced the often 
)6*lli Hkfe one hand Itetween soch 
i, Hatuaa, NobiaA^ 
W^idffieirlMtwwB iH these and 
j flebhnaiiaa, Ovahottos and 

t-^ tdcSa^ Ui^ttistic, and cnltiir^ 
VdtMtMat loesent constituted, the 
r-two ttderaUy vfell-defined 
•'^ttlUAM to Hnham- 
KiOteteed a mndi 
e tMt only the 
^tAtntSi such as cotton and 
wglled towns, substantial 
mded powerful states, such 
t; of fflianah and Bomu, with 
: years, although these 
tf itoeptkm half-breeds, often with 

c blood in their veins. 
ft'MOjnrhere to be found in Bantu- 
edie "Moon" founded great 

il4/Ht», 189J.P. 393- 






M^Uf: FASrT AK^ 

cMes aad AMuishiiig Buuru centuries htSiamllim 
Pixrtttgiiese in.Ae ea^em seas. To 
kinsmen of the Moors, must also be credited tibo 
m^nts and other ruins explored by llieockim fim>|:>li>fiM 
districts south <^ the Zambesi. But in all tbt Slqpii: 
from: foreign influences no true culture has .ever IbfSek 
and here cannibalism, witchcraft, and sanguinaiyr" 
either still rife^ or have been but recently suppiesaeil kf 
acdon of European administrations. : r v!*>i»hfil ^ 

Nufnberless authorities have described the Nitl9«^. 4||i^ 
progressive, or, if left to himself incapable of |ivofp|MyH^^ 
present physical environment Sir H. H. Johnstoa, 
him well, goes much further, and speaks of him as a &i^ 
who, **in his wild state, exhibits a stunted mind a&di|irj|lP 
content with his surroundings, which induces mental 8ti|pMM|||h 
cessation of all upward progress, and even retrpgeessiaii^ ^MIMv 
the brute. In some respects I think the tendenx^ of j^r|||||| 
ftr several centuries past has been an actuid retrognw^^ 0|||p|}|:^|j|| 
fre come to read the unwritten history of Africa by 
languages, manners, customs, traditions, we seem ^ ape % 
ward rather than a forward movement going on forspfae 
years past — a return towards the savage and even tbe.,^|pn|t%*v|t 
can believe it possible that, had Africa been more is(ri>|le^^pp||t 
contact with the rest of the world, and cut off from die .^T^PfWit;^ 
tion of the Arab and the European, the purely Negroi^ riceS|,^Jtf|| 
to themselves, so far from advancing towards a higgler :Qrp%;oC' 
humanity, might have actually reverted by degrees to a: 'Mil' 
no longer human'". I do not say that this is so, but I giv)sj^||| 
the matured opinion of an administrator, who has had a.^ 
experience of the natives of Africa than almost any man ttv|||§^ 

There is one point in which the Bantus somewhat 
ably compare favourably with the Sudanese, in all othqr 
the spread of culture has tended to bring about linguistic |iiii^|s 

we see in the Hellenic world, where all d|e^ .4^ 
idioms were gradually absorbed in the :*fcoii|ipQn 
dialect" of the Byzantine empire, again ju^ ;]^ 
Roman empire, where Latin became the iflifafieMi 
* Btiiish Central Afiicat f^ 47a. . : ' - : i 


and Bantu 
Lrinfuiatic . 


i^Hft^m^ iam^ ewtKfwimfimeltft 

rmUuMt aajr |uMMra..«xice{ili0ii^ 

ris to thit. Gonfcs 

dkbnct fimna of qwedi 

^fieace to lUow time for its 

Ite nital npfoneftt muA be 

■poc^, Hid ft' corresponding 

pttMolBted for Ae profound 


II lingftluHphological 

ITbInu^ Dtnkan, aad Hang- 

of tnuAtOQ ia.aiso presented 

of the Hunito-Samitib 

DtsB or Southern and Tcda 

Guinea, the Of^inally 

on lines analogous to those 

Leac^and Otomi in other conti- 

ThUB the Tslii, Eire, and 

a BOW extinct stock language, 

iegian between Cape Palmas and 

■o iiurdened with monosyllabjc 

I Vei and in Yoniba, where 
ap of the three elementi lian, to 
me wIm klUt a penon l^ p 





The** Drum 

hodM»phoiiei (Ifte-KKiiidi&g tiioiKnylhiMi%? 
dtflievrat meaaingi several dkringnwhkyi 
exadlsr as in the Ind<>Chiiiese grbtip^ M-. 
root dOr according as it is toned may sMBatt lo 
kidt, be sad, joini change, grow big, slaepj 
great are the ravages of phonetic decajr^ tint ji;e«f 
been developed to express quite simple ideas, iMl»v3!iM,||[|M^ 
Coast) addanmu^ room {addon house, mu inteM^i 
a guide {akwan road, cheri to show, fa petaoi^i 
finger {ensah hand, tsia small, abbak chfld « haftffiililjiaii iHM) j 
but imddle^fingerr=«<handVUttleK:hief" (<iiiatoiMa»|:iiiMi|»y|p 
chief takes the place of abbah child). . ^h^sifii 

Common both to Sudanese and Bsntus, e8peoaU]r^alffin^jf|f 
western borderlands (Upper GuilBMBaf. 
&C.) is the ''drum-language," whidi aAffida^i 
illustration of the Negro's mustcaLfiieiAj^ 
or three drums are usually used together, o*^ 
different note, and they are played dther iri^ A#:4ii|fii^ 
with two sticks. The lookers-on generally beat tfaaelff/etal^j 
the hands. To a European, whose ear and miail jm:ttMM|i||| 
for this special faculty, the rhythm of a drum txffipmti^.»ii0§i 
beyond a repetition of the same note at diSbsxnX m/m!9t^^ 
time ; but to a native it expresses much more. To him liiiftiiJM 
can and does speak, the sounds produced from it faraBiD|^i^9)|| 
and the whole measure or rhythm a sentence. Jto diia w« i i i»>i jtj ii 
company drums are being played at an ehsddu Qiiiliiim]! f|i|fH[i| 
made to express and convey to the bystanders ii 
meanings. In one measure they abuse the meiri of 
company, stigmatising them as fools and cowank^ 
rhythm changes, and the gallant deeds of their 0wa 
are extolled. All this, and much more, is conveyed bf: 
ing of drums, and the native ear and mind, trained t0 
interpret each beat, is never at fault. The language of 
well understood as that which they use in their daily KCe.' 
chief has his own call or motto, sounded by a paiticidi 
of his drums. Those of Amankwa Tia, the Asbainti. 
who fought against us in the war of 1 873-41 >r|jtiied 
Firihuh^ hasten. Similar mottoes are also expressted 


MOiitfim ooane (be St a e g il . 

Z^MgkStthen, form the etluu* 

jthftSoducae Negraet. The 

:^i>|Qlo6, who wtth the kindred 

tonUfj )»et*«en the Setifr- 

Hft^Mr the term "Wolef ncaoa 

,pta4 mtfa the EuoUy of qieetb. 

Red "^ FtiUw, both 

if 4m» Senegarobuiu, at Qooe 

.the mott gamiloiu tribes m the 

ebcHtri" and they are 

:ttw mack." They are also 

Mrt-ffifinrrpn rifrinll]- inajr 

.|3|i Wiirld,^ men six feet six indies 

Ixing &r frcMD laie in the 

throughout Senc^ambia, 

;i«mi of speech, 

ive strac- 

by the 

fartHgw wi the opposite bank of 

'.|heKHalled."article," always 

Wies of.niodifications^ last in 

9f the noun, for which there 

{a, M, >, d, i, g), and thea 

fifp tWj, pp- 317-8- Oaif one 

the Dnalu of the Cunenuu 

'Ae Aim langucE ; be cUni* to 

'mi If also abl« to ditua liiiudf. 



44 MAH :: FAST ^K0 immsim 

4CG(«rdiiigi 4S the object is present nea^.^mi^ 
for which there are again four pdsftible vovel 
or jtvoitjr^foiir altogether, a tr^noidoiit redoodwqr 4fi^ 
variants as ciompaied with the single EagUAfriM^itflW^'^ijM 
this Protean particle b^ns with d^ d or w ii& api'|li|jiM| 
(ather, d^gene, woman, or fost horse, and then hecommri^00i 
ba', diy du^ &:c; wi^ wu tic Xo express the pvesenoe littNl 
varying dblances of these objects: bdye-bi^ father«tiie hae l-Hl^ 
hu - fiEither-the-there ; bdye^ = father-the-yondor ; Hfeffijm^l^m 
the-away in die distance. _ . ; ^.. rl i»v^ 

All this is curious enough; but the impoitast pos^'ili^ 
it probably givies us the clue to the enigmatic alliterative ^fMlilM 
the Bantu languages as explained in Eihmhgy^ p. 973^ die J^edtt 
of course being reversed. Thus as in Zulu mt- koae r e qute i i^ ^ji 
kulu, so in Wolof ^^e requires. Ai, digtnedi^ and 80oiii» i>$ttii 
are other indications that the now perfected Banni gtmr^iiilfc^ 
analogous but less developed processes still pievidaai itoif 
Sudanese tongues. ^ ^^^* a 

Equally undeveloped is the Wolof process of maMbg iailiw! 

ware, as observed by M. F. Rq^nault aniOfl|^i|| 

VMS^Lty. natives brought to Paris for the Exhibitioli dP^Hl 

He noticed how one of the women ^tmiMl^i 
somewhat deep bowl resting on the ground in suc^ si im^ta^ 
be easily spun round by the hand, thus illustrating the traUuMI 
between hand-made and turned pottery. Kneading a haii^^ji 
clay, and thrusting it into the bowl, after sprinkling die lill 
with some black dust to prevent sticking, she made a te^fiwii^ 
the mass, enlarging and pressing it against the bowl wMi^ 
back of the fingers bent in, the hand being all the time fa^piii 
a vertical position. At the same time the bowl was spttn ioill 
with the left palm, this movement combined with the plMli 
exerted by the right hand causing the sides oi the vessi^ 40^ 
and take shape. When high enough it was finished; dH i 
thickening the clay to make a rim. This was held in die ^ 
hand and made fast to the mouth of the vessel by th^ ™^ 
caused by again turning the bowl with the left hand. This V^ 
itional process appears to have been observed nowhere daeVr 

^ Bui. Sffc, ctAnthrop.^ Paris, 1895, p. 734 sq. ' ' ' 


.'♦ 1 -M 

■ fioMn" wof theThmtn 
.rMmxjiaki ntn stdl iB«nsh,ilw 
It aQ^CntlM linnl, nmt pcqmlar 
r flulk^mwl u dalljr icptemduA 
F* Ac totenuc lystem which still 
pt -TiTi o w pt the Bcchumtns, the Mib- 

iiO'-^Sbt tnGntSs ideu ataodsted 

I iuRK beeo left tobifain^ 

mimtti luoh a laity.caa- 

1 the moie jnatnialiatic 

b-Ithtf ; kutermay Btm be appealed 

i>>«faidt hcibimielf niigiit 

' Bub the harmony between 

^ftai:fecuGdf yet been readied even 

pi of Sndan tiiere it tcareely a 
t-'jnoBis th wi* tbt 
b«iidlmianiificationt, (JS^^ 
fW and Cidtanuid 

j^^jOte region between 

~ r Niger) ba«in, as fiitr south u 
I it is <rften difficult to 
I c4 this great Aiinily, whose 
t^itttt transitibnal shades of physical 
B the -true pagan Negro and the 

riMfy to a limited extent, as the 
I 'ilMBtU stock-language have often 
nite indqiendent tongues quite 
[ tribes. The typical Mandin- 
|||"^|aHnh "nninki' group — may be dis* 
; popnlations by their more 
r nose, fuller beard, and 




1 1- 11 i njiii iiwrfiii|j|i 

ligliter cdoiir. They are also distiQgisnbttAclqi^^ 
habits and generally higher ciiltiire» bmig 
stdOed tillers of the soil, weavers, and woiteaiat i 
They thus hold much the same social ^ottl 
the Hkttsas do in the central region beyowi ttihi^v 
the French authorities think that ^thejr are 
a position of ever increasing importance in te 
of the future V ^ :-i'T«lwiiji 

Thus history brings about its revenges, for tii^>JlbiHiijli|ll|i 
proper of the Kong plateau may fairly c]aim» d8^[liKe^^ttiii2|p^ 
servitude to the Fulah conqueroft and their present iam^MMUlp 
iance of French rule, to be a historical people widi m mt: 
lecord of over 1000 years, as founders of the two gieift 
Melle and Guin^, and of the more recent states of: 
Bambara, Kaarta, Kong, and others about the «!ater-ptttii)||^ 
tween the headstreams of the Niger, and the riveis 
to the Gulf of Guinea. Here is the district of 
the original home of the Mandinf^kk^ Le, '^ People of 
as they are generally called, although Mandk ippnim tn l|i|ji|||i 
form used by themselves*. Here also was the 
Mali or Melle, from which the Upper Niger group 
of McUVnki^ in contradistinction to the SanfnU of die' 

^ Dr £. T. Hamy, Les Races Nigra in V AnthropohgUt i^« p> 'Wk^kt 

' "Chaque fois que j*ai demand^ avec intention k vxl yUa^^ ^TSltk 
Peuly Mossi, Dafina?* il me r^pondait invariablement, *j€ ndlt''tSt0k 
C'est pourquoi, dans le cours de ma relation, j'ai toujonis 
par le nom de MantU^ qui est son vrai nom." (Capt Bingert .Dm 
Golfe de GuinJe, 1893, Vol. 11. p. 373.) At p. 375 this «i4iafii7 #i|K^ 
following subdivisions of the Mand^ family, named from their lisspect^JiM 
(idol, fetish, totem) : — ' \o:5 

I. Bamba^ the crocodile: Bammana^ not Bantbara^ which iadnslMpG 
in6del, and is applied only to the non-Moslem Mand^ groiqit. '^.tlvtll 

3. Mali^ the hippopotamus: MMnki^ including the Kigoros iMif^^ 
Tagwas. ., ^.^^ 

3. SanMy the elephant : Samd'nki, ^ :,l^ 

4. .Sifj, the snake : .Sa-m^Mi?. . . " 

Of each there are several sub-groups, while the surroundtng ^tiu^iffiSit 
them all collectively Wakori^ Wangara^ Sakhtrn^ and es{iedalf|r ' JplSfll 
Attention to this point will save the reader much confttskm In 
Barth, Cailli^, and other early books of travel. 



.MMi.JM Ut^.- - ^_; - 

M>m VGnaea." ffttt 

luM&Miruhed: ■w'NW. 

<htetmBl^ ■~'*^' 

l^Bbtf ytan after that time die 

kftYC kkeady reftcbcd WMt 

ia QHtoa, fint c^utal 

dU the fonadstioii of 

dw<'<iciMTe of tbe Mfn'lingmt 

the great king M«ni»- 

jte'.AMt poveiM Suduwie itate 

For a tiiitt it induded 

iiad a ffmt put of the weitent 

iri& iu capitiU GogOy «tul 

r>|tbft.l«igiMge of the chronicler, 

F«B,ttaid^" ^tered isto friend^ 

'liooGOOi and nude « funotu 

of which still linger m tbe 

IB EhiDagh whose Und< the 

j||.jny. He headed 60,000 men 

he passed he was pre- 

a gold stick weighing 500 

« mcuey value of about 

£aiiQ and Uecca were dazzled 

bttt during the journey a great 

-by a painful malady called in 

'ttill lives in die Oasis of Tuat, 

fi^JImbvkttt by the Tuart^ <i433). 
ditrf state in West Nigritia, and 


48 : MAN4 Pi^ST AHB 

curied on 41 flomiridng tiade^ eq>eddljr tor 

this gold was still siqpiyosed to c6me froor. 

Gmn6f whidi word consequently still remmis 

predous metal in die popular b€^e£ Ahmt&mfim 

captured by the Sonrhay king, Omar AsMa^- aflei w W Ariiipiij^^ 

fell to pieces, and its memory now survives oni^ 19, 

term Maii'nkii, 

Fduf&. From the semi-civilised Muhammadaa 

dingans to the utterly savage t fidililMk 
\S^^^^^ Felups the transition is abrupt^ baft 
cm^p^^i ^" ^^'^^ regions the heterogeneous ettai^^gAnlJ 
' ' crowded into upland valleys, as VBi ibeiiQ^wtiiMt 
have been called the "sweepings of the plainakf! :Bai k 
West Sudan there are no great ranges towering above Ae^tvif 
lands, and even the "Kong Mountains" of schocd geogiw^pMii 
have now been wiped out by Capt Binger'^ Hence dn liiiii 
aborigines of the inland plateau, retreating befoie liievaiBMif 
advance xA IsUm, found no place of refuge till they imdbeA/lic 
indented fjord-like Atlantic seaboard, where many sdU MttrHiei 
ground. This is the explanation of the striking tMOBKOm^stlm 
witnessed between the interior and so many par£s of lhb4Kii 
Coast; on the one hand powerful political <»g«nifatib»ii*iiMi 
numerous, more or less homogeneous, and semi^viUsed mgrtj^ 
populations, on the other an infinite tangle of elbi^MI'iiliij 
linguistic groups, all alike weltering in the sheeresi 's&vagqfi^ 
in grades of barbarism even worse than the wild states* ^ ^; ..>i 
Even the Felups^ whose territory now stretches ftota^^^l 
Peiu T Gambia to the Cacheo, but formerly fea(Adl>i|ii 

and Mental Geba and the Bissagos Islands, do not UMi^ 
Character.. ^.^^^^ ^^^^ Originally the name of an obM^I 

coast-tribe, the term Felup or Fulup has been extended by M 
Portuguese traders to all the surrounding peoples— ^MimiHJ 
Jolas^ fig^hes^ Vacas^ Joats, Karons, BanyiUns^ Banjars^ iMfei^ 
Bayots and some others who amid much local diversity, preaeittiMI 
a sufficiently general outward resemblance to be rq[aided^|ii l^ 

^ "La chatne des Montagnes de Kong n*a jamais exists qae 
rimagination de quelques voyageurs mal rens^ign^s " (op, cit. I. p. 985)* 

l«n tbefaMMT tarftce, ttoat 

#ipi|tidBtt «ad mottlf io m MMe 'of- 
AU'gaiiudced, wmed «id» 
'teWvWefa, though ■tnmglj bid^ 

:iwdB'«iid pmpCTty.being truu- 
■EHmeiwtioii of R suporinma^ 
ikf, the raiiv wiod or dModer- 
wror of the medicioe-mBn, irtio 
so that whenever it can; 
[^■nMdt the iritcb-doctm ii ttiitd 

L^oiams. Somewhat stmifau^ 

ft»:et> bo aid from Siena Leone to, 

or modified by the Liberian 

*mnifin plantations, and bf the 

and'lEvlies bjr the BritiBh cruisen 

when their descendants now 

ler Busopeon infiaences. Tliese 

ixoait and Liberia, who. are so 

and are themselves perhaps 

" erf ^e bush, have to be 

#>IH ttne aborigines who have never 

d ^nvinminent. 

inal groups on the coastlands 
flanked north and south by two 
Mill bither south the Gailinas, Vtyi 
LttkM, Limbos, Xonos, and Xujtas, 
'Aid other Mandingans and Fulahs 

wrn'Mm^, in BtU. Stt. dt G/egr, 

■ c 

t ■ 




III I iii\jii»iw*giii>fc»>. 

hwyiiHt ifpf If ^y tried to drive Ae 


imoAesciL Tlmfmtt ^mbtu^ ptagkt^ wohmtdllhti^ 
ud ■me Jii dH i rti tww ^'mf'T tbui BMist of tKft i^pkot M^Mifr 
lifcc Ae Wotofc tiny bcikiye in Ae virnic boA of rfcilMi^ 
Modcoi iBwilct% but kove bilkeiio lent n.deof ev.toi 
of bodi tiicse religions. Neveithdess tlie 
lave carefnDy studied tlie Tinmi langn«ge» 
litCM t me ridi in Iq^ends^ proverbs^ and foikk■e^ . : r^'Ji. 

The Timni district is a diief centre of die lo^riliwl 

finUEenii^*, a sort of secret society 

widely difteed throagboat tbe 

possessing its own ^fmbob^ tattoo 
woidsi and language. It presents cnrioos points of eoMMI^iMitl 
the biotherhoods of the Micronesian isfaoideis^ but mpftsmm^^ 
even more potent for good and evil, a veritable rel%iQMiinl 
political state within the state. ^ When their mandates aio iMfid 
all wars and civO strife must cease^ a general tiooe is niiUblMNldt 
and bloodshed stopped, offending communities bei^g pBniAifl 
by bands of armed men in masks. Stnmgeis cannot cnier thii 
country unless escorted by a member of the guitd, iriio is itnpji'. 
nised by passwords, symbolic gestures, and the like. Thmmimit 
rites are celebrated at night in the depths of the forest^ aH iiitmfcH 
being put to death or sold as slaves*.* - : .-: iii;*r 

In studying the social conditions prevalent amongst thcf ShMa 

Leonese proper, it should be remembered titmtkAt$ 

are sprung, not only from representatives <»f ahbiH 

The Sierm 

> A full account of this literature will be found in the Rev. C P. 
valuable work, A CoUtcti^ of Ttmmt TrtuHtims, FaUetmmd /h i mmhkl^ t iAm 
i86f . Here is given tbe curious explanation of the tribal naiae, ttpmtm^$fl^ 
an old man, and »/, himself, because, as they say, the Tcnin^ people wiU e^ 
for ever. 

* There is also a sisterhood — the ^nda — and the two sodetiet WQik sotekl 
hannonj that any person expelled from the one is also exdodad 

' Reclus, Keane's English ed., xii. p. 303. 

K-^MW '9f thlB 'Hf : fittniot', 


Mi^ nMreeiw <tf - jAnwMi^ 

■r^Mqdbn of di» Sienm Leone 

9 n0 'tfj|lit(^iitfi knd begimniy -<0f 

' ••Ulaat ten bi reeot yean been 

»««^T!nm aod odwr Iribo of 

i ftttM' LcoiMM are cenaeqiieitdjF 

h^IMOFAc^ bm nther a peo|rie m 

If kHMiiiC of a new environment 

l"liilllilillitif eoDieqiience of such a 

mts m Ac Ion <rf alt the 

1- tif ^q^ ■■ die- common 

li^tlte language of a people 

■of cultnie^ and could not 

*ti*r Ae tUp'eOM membra of tribes 

the reniltant fona of 

t m ludicrous that the Sierra 

Bt bad to be wididrawn from 

t all the old tribal rriatient 
was made to 
calk^ community j^^SmL. 
iMlF^^lMeli each and aU 
»;«i» dMRfixe BUTivising that the 
KCOB^lriete success, and- that the 
VleaM aome^ng to be desired. 
|Mh«' leKoed captiTes received free 
r'dn tiUMKus of the fidd induced 
i take to huckstering uid 
! their descendants almost 


tlte Nepo-EngUih Langnage hf the 
and Fcr. Kbk SocLoodoD, 1819. 
Ttt Artiiam of SisrA LeoBe, Aug. 4, 
love to hear the pit-pat of the rain 
: are tbe mbjecti of retUettiWM and 
,tlMiss»/>tgtimt a leunt 

4— a 


miMiopoliK Ae pet^tnSc wd 
Km and Ae odwr coJoniil mi 
liiincM md dwhowCTty, dtqr 
degree of iDdmiul ■■ «^ as 

— enjoy a good nqntaiioii in all the .oowt towm):>>Ali m 

piedOecdon f(» the -ministij." Yet t)dov the wtstHOkrlk^ti 
paganism still alumben, and vodoo practioes, as in Ae Vat iMit 
and wme of the Soidhcm Statea, arc adH heard oC - ^ttn. 

MoraUty also is admittedly at a low ebb, and it is cariaMil 
note that this has in pait been attribated to the ftcedomeiM* 
under the British administration. "They have ftmed fnom-1k 
sphere of native law to that of British law, whidi is farao^.'* 
this young community like an article of ready-made clplhiiij^iitJ 
it a wonder that the clothes do not fit ? Is it a wonder tliaC!%jii|| 
and chiefs around Sierra Leone, instead erf wishing their pM^ktl 
come and see bow well we do things, dread for diem to - & ■)■■ jl 
this colony on account of the danger to their morala? iJft-pMrii 
into this colony, they pass into a liberty which tO'dwtod 
license'." :. 

An experiment of a somewhat diffierent order, but with: BM 

the same negative results, has beCn triad far ll 

Li^iaoa. well-meaning founders of the RepuUie of Lib«i 

Here also the bulk of the "dviliaed i 
are descended of emancipated plantation slaves, a first c 
ment of whom was brought over by a philanthn^uc i 
society in 1820-32. The idea was to start them we& m-M 
under the fostering care of their white guardians, and tbenilMli 
them to work out their own redemption in their own w^, :Jt 
control was accordingly withdrawn in 1848, and since then it 
settlement has constituted an absolutely independent Negro Ifid 
in the enjoyment of complete self-government Progreaa of 
certain material kind has undoubtedly been made. The origin 
s" had increased from 8000 in 1850 to about ao^ofl 


> Right Rev. E. G. Ingbam (BUhop of Sierra Leone), Siirrm Lmm 4)1 
It Huttdrtd Yiars, London, 18941 p. 194. , 

t^t. -BeOkSESB. 

JS3 /,- 

, modiffied on: Akt of 
ii 4mAm ibdf tthnv etxM^ to 
' ,«iiiler uuoDgBt' dw •tutonading 
1 within Ac limiti Of 

wu-fn -■■ ■■■,:■ 

kMt MM nte d pcrccptil^ bycopbict 
I'MiD tiwmielTei itsnd it amcfa 
jlvianllf^u Aar B^Mtruttfld foce- 
t-tui been paid on a dAt':(tf 
p'lhiB bsdget generallf ihowB a 
V«Dd DO lailways or otiier. nieful 
A^it^cetedi Instead o£ attending to 
fp:^^-J&lBf aie called^'hKve conidtiited 
■,4iKti •foakwred" or faalf-breeda, and 
IV; like the "Blancos" ' and "Nooa" 
tqiotd noU of theii time in a 
rj-M^ ire ^ course intenaielj' patriotic, 
L !(> wmng direction, being chiefly 
i:te#ardt the English and other 
^ asd in their nipreme contempt 
''. as Avf call the Bumxinding 

a are bodi phTsically and DHMally 
Eiifeitiaens themselTcs. 

^'AS' coast ftom b^w 

■^ are aasuiedly one of the most 

»' of Africa. Origituilly from the 

him dieir new luMnes a most nn- 

I are rc^^nlariy engaged as crews 

[ along those innlubrious coast- 

al^ be doe to a steady immigratioD front 
Ij m XibetUiu proper vcntd die ont, or 
Its population*. 

t Bora probably an extemioD of 
la-kn, lo the. whole group. 





In this service, in wluch they aie 
88 ^'Batae^Bcer/' << Mariied-Polatoii»*^i1^! 
"^ Pipe-of-Tobacoo,'' and the like, dwie '«rirt iilf^ 
depended upon. But it is to be fimed tftai^^ 
with them is a strict matter of business, hit 
a reputation for other virtues to Miich thef hiwe 
Despite the many years that they have been in 
with the missionaries and traders, they are ^liH at 
brutal savages as ever. After eadi voyage they idnm^M^ti 
native village to spend all then: gains and piUcm^i i&:^d|«dD| 
oigies, and relapse generally into sheer baibarisn tSUltii M 
steamer rounds the neighbouring headland. ^ft'TJa >&0i^ 
comfortable reflection/' writes Bishop Ingham, whoaetttdttoi 
win not be suspected of bias, '*as we look al ttiis mo^iMt « 
decks, that, if the ship chance to strike on a snnken ieodk m 
become unmanageable, they would rise to* a nian, and aebe t 
they could lay hands on, cut the very rings off our fiofeiSiif fli 
could get them in no other way, and generally loot the aN 
Little has been done to Christianise these inteiestiag, iMi 
working, cheerful, but ignorant and greedy pec^e, whohMei 
long hung on the skirts of civilisationV : i.' 

The case is mentioned of a gang about to land at tfiear Oi 
village, one member of which is ailing. So they tdl the capHttB- 
*' We no want that man ; he go die." As however Aqr i^rimil 
efifects and cannot have them without the man himstiii Ili^MSi 
to take him ashore. But no sooner is the ship at a safe diiiail 
than they take their moribund kinsman by the head aad^AH 
and fling him overboard*. And so is dissipated te miiagia^i 
has hitherto hung round the reputation of the Kmboy ferJi 
the virtues under heaven. : .:iu 

But the very worst "sweepings of the Sudanese piateaii ^-i^ 
The Upper ^® ^^^^ gathered along the Upper Guinea &m 
occupied by the already mentioned n/kif ^w^ ai 
Yaruba groups. They constitute three braw^es 


one linguistic, and probably also of one ethnical family, of whic 

^ Sierra Leone after a Hundred Yearj, p. 480. 

» Op.cit.p. «8l. r 



-. :^i^.'H^ 


TUBM or Y<ttVBf 

' Spuch 

Skv* Cmtl £aa 



£gt» ' - 
' HBhin 
Beoin (Bini). 

i kra here bracketed vrlth the Tshi 

itr gicftt ftuthonty on the Guinea 

I'KngBBges to be distantly connected. 

of Eurt in the native traditions, 

■AriiaDti, Fanti, Dahomi, Yoruba, 

Ae coait distncti at no very remote 

of the Ashanti and Fanti, now 

diey formed one people who were 

durug a long war with some 

m diitingnuhcd officet 
iMOn IbU (Omewhrnt free and mwcknow- 
^'MlWriill bran^t toctther in hia dudcal 





iidaiid power, pcAqpt die cooqatmg' 


Ghana or IfaU empire. Tbej wmc 
eatiogof die xAm,odiers of dieySnv phn^ and ofdie» 

widi die verb di, ''to cat^** werepaifc Ae 
P^S^ names Skam^ AjhU^ now A i »w<^ J^Mrtfc 

s^flj^inki plant, said to have been eaten bf 
Fanti, is still called /m when cooked. 

Other tradidons refer to a time when aU were of one 
and lived in a &r coutitiy beyond Salagha, qpen, flat, wiA 
bushy and plenty of catde and sheep^ a tderabl^ afcmatr 
don of the inland Sudanese plateaux. Bnl then camea 
people, said to be the Fulahs, Muhammadana^ who 
the blacks and drove them to take refiige in die forests, 
they thrived and multiplied, and after many vidssitiides dMf 
came down, down, until at last they reached die coast, with 
waves rolling in, the white foam hissing and frothing pn 
beach, and thought it was all boiling water until some 
toudied it and found it was not hot, and so to diis day ttqr osB 
the sea Eh-huru dm o nni shew^ <' Boiling water not hot," bat frr 
inland the sea is still ^ Boiling water'." 

To Col. Ellis we are indebted especially for the tme expbna* 
don of the much used and abused term fUiskt as implied to Ae 
native beliefs. It was of course already known to be nol all 

African but a Portuguese word*, meaning a dian% 
amulet, or even witchcraft But Ellis shows 
came to be wrongly applied to all forms of 
and nature worship, and how the confusion was 
De Brosses' theory of a primordial fetishism, and by his 
that it was impossible to conceive a lower form of rd^gioii 4A 
fetishism, which might therefore be assumed to be the * * 
of all religion*. 

its true 

* The Tshi'Speaking Peoples, p. 33a sq. 
" Feiiifo, whence also feiiiceira^ a witch, fntUena^ sorcery, ftc, afl 

feiiifo^ artificial, handmade, from Lat./aao tJkd factitius* 

* Du CuUe des Dieux Fkkhis, 1760. It is generaUy 8l^lIlOl•d dMailiHl^ 
word was invented, or at least fiist introduced, by De Brosses; but EUis 
that this also is a mistake, as it bad already been used bf Bomaa ia 
Dacripiian of Guifua, London, 1705.. 


V <A4=, 

!|>^(L 'MJSULKtaX. 

'yMtt^FcmM obseratkn OD 

fbWtr in hwl^ and ia vor- 

IKk«i (Aqect be iHcked up 

'^ammnjr.amated, *ad lie add* that 

a^eaaMU*i0iit jffognin has been 

tte'4ldM' farm of nd^ion becmnei 

iM^Uteeonfttshm of the tangible 

iKm>li|ill*1 iilili 'liii inHnaterid; to tbe 

Ak/htfaOaOij tost tight of^mtil the 

:'li> Ae god, u &n^ attributed 

«l#et itaelC" 

Bi^ leem paiadoaical to 

■4i tt^gkm ideas. We are assured 

la not qiediUljr or at aU chaiacter- 

Coaat aativea, who aie in ftct 

[FJ^aMl beKeve in i&nsible Intangible 

in a langiUe inanimate object, 

Hm Mca of the indwelling god is 

Ol^cd ever woishipped- for its own 

o£ such matenal objects and 

'fitF siotc *' amongst the N^ioes 

Mien diriitiantsed for more than 

"tbote of West Africa. Hence the 

te tbe West Indies, which fonnerly 

wUch inhabited certain, objects, 

■to tangible and inanimate objects, 

to possess the power to injure. 

the Roman Catholic 

is a corruption of a former 

The lower classes there 

'iHA-die tangible, and believe that 

'«^ hear and feel. Thus we find 

beat and ill-treat their images 

complied with.. ..These appear 

^ XII. p. 194 ixtifattim. 



^ Another phaie of rdigbos bcficf p. ^^^^ 

woivUf^ whkdi has lieiie faifil ^ 
wSSS^ UDknown dsewheir^ M.At 
^MCtta. mainuuaed in the wtm^mmti 


grave that they enjoyed in 
supplied with slaves, wives, and attendanfei^ iW<li.W»fiillJi>|i> 
rank. Hence the institution of the so-calM v^jmrt«pi%1^^||^^ 
venary feasts of the dead, accompani e d by i1n«[ ii(9J||i^^ 
victims, regulated at first by the stains aind ilNipB^^ 
whim and caprice of chie& and kings* In iS^- m t iiU^i0 ^ 
more powerful states, Ashanti, Dahomey, B^nm^^ Mm^^ 
nessed at these sanguinary rites rivalled in hqiicfflhipi^lilJfi; 
honour of the Astec gods. Details may bcve be ^ipg||ieigM # 
on a repulsive subject, ample accounts of whi^ aie fc^lPlk 
from many sources to the general reader. In i^; iwNMlli^ 
atrocities teach no lesson, except that most feljpons hiVl! Hijl^ 
through blood to better things, unless arrested ill 
the intervention of higher powers, as happify in Up|«l:£^ 
where the human shambles of Kumassi, AtxmielvBeiijil 
other places have now been swept away. ; . ^^wr^ 

On the capture of Benin by the English in x899,.j|.«|i|^|iisi^ 

unexpected prize fell into the lisiiitii iif njljpjiHlliiiliJi 
^tBtnin jj^j^ ^^ ^^j ^ l^^jgg assortment ,.4>f ^sfpwtf 

ivories, woodwork, and espedalfy A 9agm4'0fi^riii9lf 
300 bronze and brass plates or panels with figmtps arnHAWi $9fi 
Europeans, armed and in armour in full relirf, all cast fey^j^ii jipif • 
ptrdm process \ some barbaric, others, and eyecially % . jp^^^jj 
the round of a young negress, showing high artistic sk9L,.ys^^|g|||| 
remarkable objects are now mostly in the British MttaeoB||iP|liPe 
they have been studied by Messrs C. H. Read and (X If* Oillii* 
who are evidently right in assigning the better daas to I|ii|f^|ii3h 
teenth century, and to the aid, if not the hand, of some Boilqgpei^ 
artificers in the service of the King of Benin. Thqr add tlmt 
"casting of an infierior kind continues down to the fweaeat tlaw* 

^ That is, from a wax moukl destrojred in the casdnsT* Allerihe opiHttda 
details were often^ fiUed in by chasing or executed In nf/wwrfwMU 

* «• Works of Art from Benin City,** Jmr. Amik^p. huU^ 
p. 36s sq. . 



1. ^nOANESE. 


tod adt Jttrhis bodyguard 

j0UmMm»tt^iM$ of maS^'*' It 

^Aittgg^'iim^. has kiog been practised 

Mfiut tlit >etl,:first dig^tiy nasiM 
oantmy^ _, 
•, Cajfrt. ^^"^*"- 

fi^ the Mffisif Bat^ mad qdim 

inoeettflilly resisted the Moslem 

tibe Qiost part little removed 

Ae ^Fatthftd" wear the doak of 

leirid of didr colliife ixi^y be 

4if Diulaaai who pestered Capt. 

MkHMa» agafaitt ailmeiita, war, and m^ 

lAIlt^' to know iiaa the names, of 

»Mk lhese»'^ he wmdd say, ^*and my 

It^liMiAocber dght> ym must tell me; 

m I^ teat'." 

^Wfusioo B considerable, and 

of the Mossi Kii^, Baikary, he 

Haosa, Sonriiay, and Fulah, 

tfM linidiiiptn was the only native 

<iTllihftiilii||ii, 1 ■jMliil of the chief Mossi 

qpiailers occupied respectively by 

y Zang-wer'os (Hausas), Chil- 

tieatben Mossis, die whole popu- 

However, perfect harmony pre- 

^llririg otremely tolerant despite the 

tf Mankind^ The Nigritians, p. iSi: See 

pi.)^8T ''Let csvtlien portent encore la 

•^Jte chavank tcmt recoavertt de la mtee 

of BilgMida alto there it refeceooe to the 

" (Ch. IV.). 

I. p. 377. 

69 ICANr PAST Asm 

Tnursas and Biaknas of die Sencgd^tttf^: 

Huuqr Abytsiiiuuis of the region bnweiin Atljil^ 

Sea. Barth, to whom we still owe tte lMt>' 

torical people, describes them as of a dnUi 

the most unfiriendly and churlish of all die pwfl^ «W^^ 

in N^proland. 

This writer's suggestion that they maf imm 

relations with the Egyi^ians* has 
ofS^!^ ^ exaggerated form by M. Ffik Briboi^ iMMI 

views have received correnqr in EogNoid lliM|| 
uncritical notices of his Timiaudou la MyOtrimti i^MM, ^^||! 

But there is no ^^mystery** in the aaHo^' ^ 
TteS^T" Sonrhay are a Sudanese peoi^ whose eaoduiiMi 

Egypt is a myth, and whose Kissor iKOgmfjk^^^M 
called, has not the remotest connection with aiiy fDtili «f ^fiij 
known to have been at any time current in the Nile vaDef^ 4W{I 
dumping down of a whole people on the Niger bead, ali fc i^l«B N i^ 
ing some thousands of miles of sandy wastes or densis^^iildl 
plains, has naturally excited the ridicule of smoiissliideilifip^^iiR 
as Herr Brix Forster, whose caustic exposure of themyw«mi^ 
seen in Globus^ 71, p. 193 sq.* ^' **/^ 

The Sonrhay empire, like that of the rival Mandiilgail%'dlili 

a respectable antiquity, its reputed UxmAfli'WMi 
j^o^!' Ib^Wm 

fifteenth in succession firom the foimdcry Wii H 

, :'-.,«! 

^ As SO much has been made of Barth's anthoritj in this eo nn wi liai i, it Hi 
be well to quote his exact words : ** It would seem as if they (the Seothqil'lil 
received, in more ancient times, several institutions from the EgjppCiiB^ wil 
whom, I have no doubt, they maintained an intercooise bj mant itf ^ 
energetic inhabitants of Aujila from a relatively ancient period* (tV.j^^M 
Barth, therefore, does not bring the people themselves, or their ]aagn^gi^W|l 
Egypt, but only some of their institutions, and that indiiectly iSba09^§^k 
Aujila Oasis in Cyrenaica, and it may be added that this hil<ii<,WHi,fii|i| 
Aujila appears to date only from about 1150 A.D. (iv. p. ffi^* 'I 

* Hacquard et Dupuis, Manuel de la langue SoHgay^ pttrik A HiMiiMM 
J Say, dans la boucle du Niger ^ 1^97? passim, ' * 

> Of M. Dubois' theory this writer remarks that it '*tiiigt ettfcmiir^dl 
Stempel phantasiereicher Willkiir oder entbehrt des Rnhmes mscr Wi 
neue Thatsachen bereichem zu konnen,** p. 195. 

'fiSDIMimSB. ^ 

;«baitt xjs6 Ibe cpmt^ wiH' 

ifaMioghon^ Aft 14^ 

:inkMid^«il4oct to ttw M)^ 

vf! tte Be* Somu ^assty, 

taioeflbont 1)35 — 6. Bat the 

fcc^k due* only from nbaat 

tim Soaaii 4faM$tf, knowD in 

tenon wnctonti" threw off the 

'Ae wfa^ face of this put ot 

a£ MeUe^" Under hit wc- 

.die grestett Mveragn thu. 

ipira iUNjiuTed itft 

(the bean of Haaubud to the 

ooiintiy to the Tnat Oa^ 

tmaSLfoaaMly apoken of by Leo 

ttfanod BAbi «s goveraing the 

lpd'<cqaity, aftiuing well-being and 

the becdera of hii exten- 

•neb of Ibe institutions of 

-«bMidetBd might be usefnl to his 

with e great show of 

r49)—-tS99) the Sonrhay power 

Jut omdiTQwn by Mulay Hamed, 

Ahmed BAbd, the native 

rain of his people*, and since then 

thU ht fab date the "lingnaggio 

I of Wahta and Jlnai (VI. ch. i). 

hf Lm at Mcond bud, mtM he 

hare been ipoken bjr 

iMtNnadrbrthe people Keaentllr, 

tbs patt ^oriet of tbe Sonrlur 

wboae Dame holdi a worlliy place 

El Tomi, aad other Haroitic 



Ae SoDihiy umOm has been brohni iiHii hi(mmm%r0tlimmw^ 
to HaiMMis, tiiere to FoMi% dKwiwe ttt t^^ 
Frendi oocoiwdoii of Timbaktn (1894X ^ ^^ lMiA<0MiR; /r I : - 
JBamuu. In e¥erytfaing that co miiimg* the 
natioii, the Hansas maj i^^it^ 
TteH.«H»- amon^ aU the peoples of NiegioiaBd;N4^^^ 

eariy in the nineteenth centarr the hiifioiiaJlvfttiMii 
States, oocopjing the whole iq;ion b e lWB ei t< <te 
Nigorand Bonm, weieovemm and wdaoedhf^btbMtAaiWiAM 
bands under Odimin Dan Fodje. Bat the Hanas hi ii iMi^ 
sense than the Greeks, ^have captnred their fiide coo^pieiMiV^ 
for they have even bigdj assimikted them physically to thie&roiRr 
type, and while the Fnlah political asoendaiKy isidieadytoltefiil([^^ 
the Hausa nationality is again under British auspices ■iw uliig its^ 
natural social, industrial and commetdal ptedominanee through-' 
out Central and even parts of Western Sudan. *. . .: c<r^h 

It could not well be otherwise, seeing that the Hsasas 
compact body of some twenty million peacefiil and ii 
Sudanese, living partly in numerous Bumsteads amid tfackwd l <il i ril 
cotton, indigo, pulse, and com fields, partly in large wailed«ttW 
and great trading centres such as Kano*, ELatsena, Yacob«,'wliai» 
intelligent and law-abiding inhabitants are redcooed by anttytais 
^^^j^ of thousands. Their melodious tongue, .-aofwhiflii 

Speech and the Rev. C H. Robinsou has given us aJhitM^ 

Mental Quali- , , . , - . ^ »f^— -♦ 

ties. meagre account', has long been the great xseops 

^ Graecia capta femm victorem ctpit, et aites 

Intulit agresti Latio. Hor. £/ist, ii. 1, is6t7» . . .' < 

The epithet agrestis is pecoliariy applicable to the rode FaU thjaphajlj. 
who were almost barbarians compared with the settled, indiKliioiB^ aiki eVli> 
cultured Hausa populations, and whose oppressive rule has at last biirii injijit 
by the intenrention of England in the Niger- Benue lands. ^tt^* 

* ** One of their towns, Kano, has probably the largest OMfket-placi^jiii^ilK 
world, with a daily attendance of from 35,000 to 30^000 people. This iMt I 
town possesses, what in central Africa is still more suipiisuig^ loaie Mtty 
or forty schools, in which the children are taught to read and write-? IBa** 
C. H. Robinson, S/ecimems of Hausa Literature^ Univemty PkCii^ jQnil* 
bridge, 1896, p. x). : T ** \ 

> This authority seems uncertain whether to class Hiuna with dir^liitk 
or the Hamitic fiunily, or in an independent group by itsd( and it iQiil l|# 




f^^HlmfOv. ir srauRESE. 

li^ dmd to md b^ood 
<gmtcc prepoMuknuMe 

nee Cor peudul pur- 

inste people. U^r 

^tttefimn at all timet riiowa fi^iting 

Bt^Ssh officcn, and a weB- 

M tfaev military piowcss amongat 

«ad -lieuL Vandeleur'. With the 

Beed ■ Mu w diy fear no rivals to her 

pcfidatioiu of the fertile plamt 

triacb « oa the iriiole pohaps 

north of the equator. 

whic^ go bade to no very 
Hanta Sutet 
seven HauBu") ortJUST 
heroes £iram, 

and Zigw^, all said to be 

tribe setded to the north of 

■eat, die race and its language 

■Ztnjara, KMi, Nupt (JVyff!), 

whidi in contempt are called 

;)Blkamlr ptuding. The qoetdon cannot 

will ibow thai itt affinitia ue 

timhic, at lean ditectljr, but that Haiua 

gtt»tlj modified by Tibu in- 

ib«r of Naditigal'i Teda-Data 

en the labiect by the ttadiet 

with the cntiom and cmbamuaiiig 

two Bantu dialect* welded together by 

It nay be inddentally mentioned that 

MlatlhJiing a Hama Aianriation " (br 

IhiHaaM language and people" (iSqi)- 

■ifmd iHg^, by Lt Seyvaoar Vandeleur, 

r.a>Ulak 1S98. "In camp," writes Lt Van- 

wUle pillaging and ill-treatment of the 

qualities, it is enough to lay that, 

I of 1897). they withitood for two 

fanner ilavea of the Fulaha, they 








the **BmmL bokoy" (''The Seven Ufmsdtii^^ 
tively the Hausa domaiii in the widest seflacU' .j 

Authentic histCMry is quite recaiit, and 
founder of Katsena, dates only from aboot die i^jAi:.^^ 
Ibrahim Maji, who was the first Moslem luler, is 
latter part of the 15 th century, and since tfien tiie 
have been associated with the Fulah waiSi endiQg m .i^--|i>|jW 
tion of all the Hausa States in the present unstabte Fi^ e|g^ 
of Sokoto, now a British protectorate. The Haosas 
selves never a conquering power, and their present 
social supremacy seem almost entirely due to the natupilrlMili' 
gence, industrial habits, and commercial enterprise of timwwik' 
able people. 

Kanembu; Kanuri^ ; Baghirmi^ Mosgu. Round aboi^, ^ 

shores of Lake Chad are grouped thiee::il)#sr 

PouticaTReia. historical Muhammadan nations, the Kitmypthi 

Chad Ba^in. (" People of Kanem ") on the north, the lSjm4^ 

Bomu on the west, and the Baghirmi on tlMUppi;!^ 
side. The last named is, or has lately been, subject to lteSa)ippi 
of Waday farther east, and the whole region has been expoaady 
the ravages of fierce Arab predatory tribes (Salamat and o||ic^ 
from the north, and (since the Madhi's revolt) of AiabGhNiAiitfi 
armed bands from the east. In other respects these states have 
hitherto maintained their political independence, althoi^^ oov 
gravitating towards the rival European powers (England, mnitt^ 
Germany), whose hinterlands have already conveiged round fJB^ 
Chad basin. 

In this region the ethnical relations are consideraUy 
complex than in the Hausa States. Here IsUUn has had 
obstacles to contend with than on the more open western plateiBSl^ 
and many of the pagan aborigines have been able to hold ^eff 
ground either in the archipelagos of Lake Chad ( Ytdmas^ 4Ql9?% 
or in the swampy tracts and uplands of the Logon-SlMui bttin 
{Mosgu, Mandara, Makari &c.). 

^ By a popular etymology these are Ka-Ndri^ " People of Light." B«l^ 
as they are somewhat lukewarm Muhammadans, the zealous Falahs mj H 
should be Ka-Nari^ " People of Fire," i,e. foredoomed to Gehenna 1 


il%fclfcih»miM»d>M, whow ^rtem b 

oMd, where Gontd ,^_"!^ 
y of UtTCti diOH who 
■'^raphet being ^A» fteta entitled to 
1 districtt were, and stfll aie, 
, happjr bunting-gnninds to be 
K'SotBtteriy wasted; to be visited by 
1 to keep op the supply in the 
lyttetn, contnriled by the local 
^teft-iong prevailed abont 

vmd Iwatheodoin, «a ttM^^L. 
I, and one or two 
I. had iductantly to accompany the 
njtliiiini from Bomu and Baghirmi to 
i Moigu people widi their numerous 
\fi JMuiriy LagM, Gamergu, Ker&itu) 
't, /fgittm. So, Xerrikerri, Baiir) on 
b > C OBgo.Cliad water-parting. As usnal 
1 4k'a great waste of life, 
»^ thdr homes or even ,^-"""*- 
ti'bendcs diose carried 

r of sUves had been caught this 
%Ae emut^; a great many more were 
t) said to have taken one thousand, 
iless duui five hundred. To our 
fe%7a< foll'^irown men were merdleialy 
r part of them being allowed 
I been severed fix>m the body'." 
ib^nt in the market 
ftrjttlations is that in the wooded 
) reverted to ar- 
g die raids in the g^^j^ 

id into tem- 
I vertical stem of these forest 
ik-oatr while the higher horizontal 

ft p. 194. 


68 MAN: PAST AND nttMrlffif '^'f^tHA | 

bnnches, less exposed to the fiie of &e taamf^w^^fitimMl^lt 
buiU huts and store-houses, when die hmkgg xi 4m fCitflfeiM 
take refuge with all theu effects, induding, ■■ KaAl%ri MHl 
ui\ their domestic animals, such as goats, dog% Md pt^l^ 
DoiJng the «ege of the aerial fortress, which m oftv 
defended, long light laddeis of withies ai e let down at : 
no attack need be feared, and the supply of «i 
is thus renewed from oKAei or hiding-places Toond ^bdOL^^iB 
187a Nachtigal accompanied a predatory ezcurskm to A* pigni 
districts south of Baghirmi, when an attack waa mtdftm oM'Hf 
these tree-fortresses. Such citadds can be atramcd wi^iH'* 
heavy loss, and as the Gaberi (Baghtnni) wairion kcd ti». Mab 
capable of felling the great bombax-tree, they went 
satisfied with picking off a poor wretch now and then, 
barously mutilating the bodies as they fell from the 

Some of these aborigines disfigure their faces t^ tfaS' 

^^^^ lip-ornament, which is also fiishjonible b 

Tjrpu •nd land, and even amongst the South Anaaaa 

cudos. The type often differs gready, aoA vfeflc 
some of the wide-spread Hosgu tribes are of a ditty lilic|k':)H^ 
with disagreeable expression, wide open nostrilsi tUdt lifi^l^j^ 
cheek-bones, coarse bushy hair, and disproportionate knaefc- 
knced 1^, other members of the same family astotriafafld &stii 
" by the beauty and symmetry of their forms, and by tbe n^alMi^ 
of their features, which in some had nothing of ^rbu im Cittlditte 
Negro type. But I was still more astonished at their oom 
which was very different in different individuals, being in 
a gk>ssy black, and in others of a light copper, or rather 
colour, the intermediate shades being almost erttirdy wsntJo^i'S 
observed in one house a really beautiful female vriio, witfa kc^jiOi^ 
about eight or nine years of age, formed a most charsiiny i^nm 
well worthy of the hand of an accomplished artist The feiff^ 
form did not yield in any respect to the beautiful symmetif «f Ail 
most celebrated Grecian statues. His hair, indeed, was wijJioiy 
and curied, but not woolly. He, as well as his mother «ad Hn 

■ Saiara and Sudan, tl. p. tiiS. 



rfi Air ... , 

MtbrnamOf and tlie exphnadoa of 

hfUhm o^lofalkm in ibt whole 

and Bttatos about the £vide 

0lm^Cm^ banBflb The oDontiy has 

^ Itwa or thiee French pumeen, 

m anthro{K)logicai matters. 

Itiss ddtured peoples m the Chad 

mt the £imafthi\ who ^^ cultured 

mrfiuiott in this region, PwpiM of 

«... ... Ccntful Sud^n. 

speedi to the Hamitic 

€V al least taking a transitional 

JSmtffYy die ruling people in Bomu, 

af^earanoe'; and die southern 

JiefMidt originally supposed to have 

>j|id White Nile districts'. Their 

been devdoped exclusively under 

'never penetrated much bdow the 

extremely rude, and for the 

tfie meagre and not altogether 

msofiB date from the time of Sef, 

pMl&Lhit ^ as in 7¥-te, Fui-de, answering 

H^Smaki/i, Slc* Here may possibly 

Ifci Sodanese, Teda-Daza, and Bantu linguistic 

'igtliiltiiati il particles would present no 

0tL p. 914). 

soatratti^ physical and mental, between 

S>*Here we took leave of Hansa with its 

and industrious population. It is 

I kt we e n the character of the ba-Haushe 

i^itfte^ and cheerful, the latter melancholic, 

is visible in their physiognomies — 

pipiant and regular features, and more 

.i^dl his bvoad face, his wide nostrils and 

ie impression, especially the women, 

iteMf the ngjUest in all Negroland" (11. 

70 AIAM : PAST AilD nmSHfT' '^ 

rqputed founder of the monarchy about 80^ 

in descent from Sef, is doubtftdlf 
Bortm*'"' 850 A.D. Ham^, founder of « 

RecDfds. flourished towards the end of ikm^:ti^4limif 

(1086^1097), and Dunama, one of his mccmfmBt MsJti/^'^ 
have extended his sway over a great part of llle JMMHis&'ll- 
eluding the whole of Fezzan (1221 — 59 J. Under X3MttrT^ii94 
—1398) a divorce took place between ELanem aad JkK«%^ 
henceforth the latter country has remained the chief itaMlif 
political power in the Chad basin. 

A long series of civil wars was closed by All (x47»''^i|0|)i 
who founded the present capital, Bimi, and whose gmuliteiy 
Muhammad, brought the empire of Bomu to the hig^iestpibcltjQC 
its greatness (1526 — 45). Under Ahmed (1793 — <&<o]^ bijpa 
the wars with the Fulahs, who, after bringing tihe empiie ^li^tfMf 
verge of ruin, were at last overthrown by the aid of the 
people, and since 181 9 Bomu has been ruled by tiie 
Kanemfyfn dynasty, while Kanem itself has been wasted Iq^ilfie 
lawless Tuaregs and made ''the wild hunting-ground of coqUaBal 
adventurous ghazzias from every quarter." In Baxdi% dme 
Barawa, at the eastern end of the Anglo-Frendi bordaMSne^ 
running from the Niger to Lake Chad, had to pay bUrinmail to 
the Tuareg freebooters. 

Eastern Sudanese. 

As some confusion prevails regarding the expression ^'Eastern 
Sudan," I may here explain that it bears n Ytqr 
Negro in BMt- different meaning, according as it is used it a 
em Sudan. political or an ethnical sense. PoUticaHy fe is 
practically synonymous with Egyptian Sudan, that is the lAple 
region from Darfur to the Red Sea which was ruled or misnded 
by the Khedivial Government before the revolt of the'lAdidi 
(1883 — 4), and has been restored to Egypt by the British 
pation of Khartum in 1898. Ethnically Eastern Sudan 
all the lands east of the Chad Basin, where the Negro or Kqgrcnd 
populations are predominant, that is to say, Waday, Darftur, and 
Kordofan in the West, the Nile Valley from the frontier ot Egypt 

• '. — i- 

%/ £ S^Bi^ESE. 



M^ranni bo^ slppes of tfie Nile*^ 

MbmAe»d[ the Wbite ICle fttid Ar 

iHNNi Cofigo), lastly the Sobat VaO^ widt 

die ll^tite NU^ and even south of 

mitAh legioo the ftmon d the aborigines 
'iiSbtt Moslem intruders, 
has been &r less 
Western Sudan. Thus in Waday 
^iMdflleiv^ibence die country is often called 
jwe imdier N^gro than ^^^^ 

>€Mio:of Caucasic blood lUtettons in 

>4im 2Bg*d»a, Gurdan, ^'*^- 

quite aloof from the blacks, as do 

)wt^ A^ Arabs ace collectively called in 

iAtid some other Bedouin tribes have 

g0o jFeaiSy and it was through their 

iiai^qaired the political supremacy they 

rjiiUBBtfleath century, when they reduced or 

Ibe^^ folrmer ruling race, said to be Nubians 

r iJK was Abd-el-Kerim, founder of the 

^wiiopvexhe country its {M'esent name 

Waddu Hb successor Khardb I. 

It to Wara, where Vogel was mur- 

r| ^^present capital, dates only from the 

visited by no other Europeans except 

\^t fronds in 1873, and Massari and 

ly through under escort in 1879. 

of the ethnical c<mditions, most of our 

^4wved from the reports of £1 Tunsi 

t^slhs T^mfun (TWiKwrr) of Darfur, regarding 
denbt still prevails. Strange to say, they 
the claim is allowed by their neighbours, 
Lcjean thinks they are Tibbus from the 
some as hs west as Kanem, concluded 
diat they were really Arabs settled for 
)i0§.dt. II. p. S56). 




(« The Tunisian ") who visited the covm»f 

the i8th century. But of these lepoits I^iii|# 


The Nubian 

As in Waday, the intruding and nn^w 
have been either imperfectly ornot it 10 
in Darfiir and Kordo£an, wh&% the 
Semites still boast of their pure Aiib dftwcwt^j HWd 
form powerful confederacies of pastoral tribesy wh0 iri^it^ Hnk 
NMan allies constitute the great disturbing dement ibiMgliint 
Egyptian Sudan. The Nubians themselves i»eicnl OM «l the 
hardest problems in the whole range of ethnological iMiin. 
Having elsewhere discussed the question somewhiyt fiill^VS^pB 
here confine myself to a statement of the general 
which I have arrived at, and which have not 
questioned. We have first of all to get rid of the ^' NubftJF^Ui'' 
family, which was introduced by Fr. Miiller and aocepfeed tif 
some English writers, but has absolutely no existence. The two 
languages, although both of the agglutinative Sudanese typie^ in 
radically distinct in all their structural, lexical, and piwMiclic 

^ Yet some, such as the dominant Baggdias, are almost ss daii flr>te 
blackest Negroes, but with quite regular weU-shaped features. ''TlMe B^;« 
giras looked like the fiends they really are— of most sinister fi.prrtBHH< wMi 
murder and every crime speaking from their savage eyes. The Baggitt-^:Vere 
ever known as a cruel, bloodthirsty people. Courage is thdr one ^bod 
quality" {Times Correspondent^ July 18, 1896). Of the rival JiUiilmijfMm^ 
yahalin) the same observer remarks that they are ** a proud and religioai'|leO|itt| 
claiming descent from Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet. They have Ibt HlOQg 
time been the principal slave-hunters in the Sudan (the fiunoos Zabdrwpi il 
this tribe), and were formerly among the most zealous Mahdisto" (aft.)* ,iUl 
these Nilotic, Atbara, and Kordofan Bedouins (Baggara, Jaalin, KabAhMi, 
Shukrieh, Robabit, Homrin, Hassanieh, Dobeina, Yemanieh) speak Aftl&ic^ 
but mostly as Chaucer's nun spoke French, and the pronuncnitioiiy cqiedril^ 
of the Baggira and Kababish tribes, differs greatly from that di the true AisilS. 
Many of the characteristic Semitic sounds have been replaced by otheiB powiMj 
inherited from a now extinct language, which could scarcely be any 
the Hamitic still current amongst the Bejas beyond the Nile, 
for instance, should be Baqqira, ue» ** cowherds," while many of the jaaiHii 
sub-tribes have the Beja patronymic ending ab\ Geb^lab, K*li^^i Siidab» 
Timerab, &c. 

' Ethology of Egyptian Sudan, 1884, p. 12 sq. See also JM. p. «70b 

L SimjWESE. 


«W flqpu% dtttittct The Fvhltt 

•lock, slthoagh nMsy have 

■mAuHlmed to theif blade Sudaaeae 

bek»% origmailjto tbe 

haaie lo^ been aanmilated to the 

jntenBni^ingB id that part of the 

ikaa the r^tivdjr siodem name <rf 

dw question we have carefuUj to 

NntHana and the full-blood 

-llMir nune to the Nuba ICountauu, 

tfttxace, iriiete most of the aboi^inea 

AnMiif) itill bekn^ to thit ctmnectioti. 

itidf • Nuba word meaning " Land of 

itTt land, countiy), thejr spread in 

Mtd Wada^ — ^where they are now 

and l)mj»rs — and in historic 

ts <3n Egyptian frontier. Here they 

of Matokki (JCami) between 

rAxab, the Mahai (Marui) between 

M the second Cataract, and the Dmgo- 

between Wadi-Halfa and Jebel 

now Huhammadans, but formerly 

the so-called „^^ 

bat call themselves Mcins and 

people of Berber, 

Attend so &r up the Nile as that 

Strabo's "Noubai, who dwdl 

•alhorities been identilied with the 

the iiMcripdoti on • gUewaj 

mboat 1700 B.C. In a later inacriptioD 

.Ci) ocean the form Btrohtrata, aame of a 

Hence Bragacb {Rat^tritht am jSgyftm 

' the modeTD Baruira ai a tmc ethnical 

WM the Gieek and Roman Barianu, but 

Mc^em amqaeit. See alio the editorial 

mtnr EagliA ed. of Leo A&kaiuw, Vol. i. 


on the Idk bank of the Nile in Libys [A&ien^ «| 

and ue also to be identified with the Neiiim, % 

time were settled, some in the Ka^j onm, oAowfa t 

valley about Heroe, to guard the frontien of the e 

the incursions of the restless Blemmnes. - Bnt i 

they appear to have entered into peaceful t 

Hamites, the present Bejas, even making c 

(hem against the Romans ; but the confederate ma iiHihiiini^ 

Maximinus in 451, though perhaps not before aamaagt litd tidkea 

place between the black Nubas and the Caucanc Bi^aii. 91iM 

these Bejas withdrew to their old homes, which Aey M 

between the Nile and the Red Sea above ^pt, irttile the N 

embracing Christianity, as is said, in 545, estaUished the po4erfaI 

kingdom of Dongola which lasted over 800 yean, and mi bidly 

overthrown by the Arabs in the 14th century, nnoe wfaidh tinw 

the Nile Nubians have been Muhammadans. 

But they sdll retain their old Nuba speech, vrtiich, u ilHMm 
by Lepsius', dilTers but slightly from that now (. 
the Kordofan Nubas. This is one of those cases where li 
renders indispensable service to ethnology*. Taken in conMctiBa 

' *£( i/HVrtpSr Si fittm roO HdXov TXoB^ KanunStir Jr rf A^^ 0tlm 
(Broi &.C. (Book xvir. p. 1117, Oxford td. 1807}. S*rce, theRfcn, h qaile 
wrong \a itating that Slrabo knew only of ** EthiopUn*." and not 1 
"as dwelling nocthwud atone th« banks of the Nile *i 
{Acadimy, April 14, 1894). 

* Nubitcht Crammatik, 1S81. jhujin. In this claiac 
rerening 10 the "daik bronie colour" of tbe present Nilotic H 
than that of the Abysiinians," adds :— " Der altc Negertjpo* bric^ dIcU M 
wieder ziemlicb deutlich durch ; namenllich ist das Wollbaar ■itmlifli bla 
(p. 74). On these grounds Pilchard had already grouped the NnbEant not * 
the Arabs or Hamilcs, bat wlih the Sudanese Blacks. All the n 
is Scigi's contention that they are di ilirfe eamitira, " of Hamitii 

■ Even Prof. Se^, despite his almost eicluMve Mth in asaU daactan 
as racial tests, admits (his : " La Iracda e la peisistenia del it-y— yy** atln- 
veno secoli e malgrado il dominio di altra gente e II motunanto di ullf Ini . 
spesso t simile alia peisistenia dei caratleri fisici umani ; ed allor* la Itii(aa ( 
un argomento di molto valore antropolc^co" [AJrica, Antrtfitbgia AOm SHf ft 
Camitiia, Turin, 1897, p. 97). But in this case be decline* to deal wUh Ob 
linguistic factor {" Non sono io che posso risolvere i problemi Ungmttid '^, and 
ia iherefore able still to hold that the Nile Nubians are Hamite* (" I NnU d^ 



Ae KBtnaB pcoUtm ; ibr it it 
iimoAiimi Nik-Nnbiini could have 
-dw Qieedi of tbe Mvage Kordofiui 
been their own raother-toague ; in 
n tbenudvei oiigiiuUly Kordo&n 
it ahould be remerobetcd, for 
Ae flouriaking Cbrisdui Kmrwre of 
-VAd^k* and its tbiiteeD viceroyalties, 
«ieaot faniuted, u ii commonljr sup- 
Sileo, "King of the Noubads and of aU 
mag onon^ freqnendy to invade Egypt 
d Greek and Koptic fellow-Christians. 
I anay of Nuhas uid Bejas, said to 
• -Btcn with 1500 elephants, penetrated as 
t (fibe Arab £aJituua) where nich a sur- 
(iisd other docntnento was discovered in 
irVttb inch gloriouB records, and traditions 
n times (Siico and Queen Candace, 
hdo not botrow their language ^m 
I on tbt distant frontiers of their 
R.S^oe may be right in conjecturing that 
k'iieroftic inscriptionB was not the present 
ifetaiVne akin to Berber. These inscriptions 
kiltf^Ae Nubians from Koidofan by perhaps 
d to the pre-Nnba Hamites of the 
ik lightly, idenrifies with the Berbers. 
ies known to ns have a strikingly 
One of them is Dudun, a name 
e to that of Didi, one of the 
All this harmonises completely 
t Nubians are late intruders in the 
; they displaced the original 
y not more than 3500 years ago. 

• in." 

U Mirpe otmiiics" (*j. p. 107). 
ie aqnstloiu ; ther cannot be aolnd if k 



_ . _ _ ■ ' _ 

Before the incursions of the Nubo-Arab traders and raiders, 

who began to form settlements (zeribas^ fenced 

Peoples ofthe Stations) in the Upper Nile regions above Khartum 

Wate«hed8 about the middle of the nineteenth century, most 

of the Nile-Congo divide (White Nile tributaries 
and Welle-Makua basin) belonged in the strictest sense to 
the Negro domain. Sudanese tribes, and even great nations 
reckoned by millions, had been for ages in almost undisturbed 
possession, not only of the main stream from the equatorial lakes 
to and beyond the Sobat junction, but also of the Sobat valley 
itself, and of the numerous south-western head-waters of the 
White Nile converging about Lake No above the Sobat junction. 
Nearly all the Nilotic peoples — the Shilluks and Dinkas about 
the Sobat confluence, the Bari and Nutrs of the Bahr-el-Jebel, 
the Bongos {Dors\ Rols^ GoloSj Mittus^ Madis^ Makarakas, 
Abakas, Mundus^ and many others about the western affluents, as 
well as the Funjoi Senaar — had been brought under the Khedivial 
rule before the revolt of the Mahdi. 

The same fate had already overtaken or was threatening the 
formerly powerful Mombuttu (Mangbatiu) and Zandeh (JViam- 
Niam) nations of the Welle lands, as well as the Kr^ and others 
about the low watersheds of the Nile-Congo and Chad basins. 
Since then the Welle groups have been subjected to the jurisdic- 
tion of the Congo Free State, while the political 
Political destinies of the Nilotic tribes must henceforth be 

controlled by the British masters of the Nile lands 
from the Great Lakes to the Mediterranean. 

Although grouped as Negroes proper, very few of the Nilotic 
peoples present the almost ideal type of the blacks, such as those 
of Upper Guinea and the Atlantic coast of West Sudan. The 
complexion is in general less black, the nose less broad at the 
base, the lips less everted (Shilluks and one or two others 
excepted), the hair rather less frizzly, the dolichocephaly and 
prognathism less marked. 

Apart from the more delicate shades of transition, due to 
diverse interminglings with Hamites and Semites, 
caiT^^^'* two distinct types may be plainly distinguished- 
one black, often very tall and long-headed (Shilluks^ 


DinkaSy Bari^ Nuers^ Afittus\ the other reddish or ruddy brown, 
more thick-set, and short-headed {Bongos^ Goios^ Makarakas^ with 
the kindred Zandehs of the Welle region). The complexion of 
the latter, as has been suggested by Schweinfurth \ may possibly, 
though not probably, be due to the properties of the red, ferru- 
ginous soil prevalent in their districts. But no explanation has 
been offered of their brachycephaly, which is all the more difficult 
to account for, inasmuch as it is characteristic neither of the abori- 
ginal Negro nor of the intruding Hamitic and Semitic elements. 
Have we here an indication of the transition suspected by many 
between the true long-headed Negro and the round-headed Negrito, 
who is also brownish, and formerly ranged as far north as the Nile 
head-streams, as would appear from the early Egyptian records 
(Chap. IV.)? Schweinfurth found that the Bongos were " hardly re- 
moved from the lowest grade of brachycephaly*,*' and the same is 
largely true of the Zandehs and their Makaraka cousins, as noticed 
by Junker : ** The skull also in many of these peoples approaches 
the round form, whereas the typical Negro is assumed to be long- 
headed'." But so great is the diversity of appearance throughout 
the whole of this region, including even "a striking Semitic type," 
that this observer was driven to the conclusion that " woolly hair, 
common to all, forms in fact the only sure characteristic of the 

More uniformity appears to prevail amongst the languages 
of the Nile-Welle lands, and from the rather 
scanty materials collected by Junker, Dr Fr. Miiller oroup."*'**^ 
was able to construct an ''Equatorial Linguistic 
Family," including the Mangbattu, Zandeh, Barmbo, Madi, 
Bangba, Krej, Golo and others, on both sides of the water-parting. 
Prof. Leo Reinisch, however, was not convinced, and in a letter 
addressed to the author declared that '*in the absence of sen- 
tences it is impossible to determine the grammatical structure of 
Mangbattu and the other languages. At the same time we may 
detect certain relations, not to the Nilotic, but the Bantu tongues. 

' Heart of Africa, passinu ' Op. cit, I. p. 163. 

• Travels in Africa^ Keane's English ed., Vol ill. p. 147. 

* Ibid, p. 346. 

It DUijr therefore be inferred thst Maagbalto « 
t tolerably close reluionship to the Boatn, ■ 
lemot'ely akin to it, judging from their tendeaqrttp 
tions'." Future research will show how &r t 
justified. T ■•-;. - 

Although Islim has made considenble piopeM, «ipMM% 

amongst Che Funj of Senaar, the S 
Q^'^. "^^ °^" Nilotic tribes, the bulk of tfac p 

stilt piaccically nature-worahippen. ^ 
tinues to flourish amongst the equatorial peoples, and an pottt M t 
events aie almost everywhere attended by aangoinafyrita. Vbia 
preparing for battle the "medicine-man" Says an aSmtt ubA 
places the bleeding victim on the war-path, to be tram^ad bf 
the wBrnors marching to victory. 

Cannibalism also, in some of its most repulsive fonna, fnmii 

amongst the Zandehs, who barter in human ftt^W« 
"° ""' universal staple of trade, and amongst thcltei^ 
battu, who cure for future use the bodies of the slain in batds and 
" drive their prisoners before them, as butchers drive theeik to Ae 
shambles, and these are only reserved to fall victims on^laHr 
day to their horrible and sickly greediness'." 

In fact here we enter the true "cannibal zone^" iriut^ ■■ 

I have elsewhere shown, was in former ages difioMl 
z™.^*"°'""' all o''" Central and South Africa, oi, it wotM be 

more correct to say, over the whole cootiocnt*^ 
but has in recent times been mainly confined to "the rQgian 
stretching west and cast from the Gulf of Guinea to the westeni 
head-streams of the White Nile, and from below the equHlor 
northwards in the direction of Adamdwa, Dar-Banda and Dm^ 

> Tnwth in Afriea, ibid. p. 179. Thus the Bantu Ba, Wa, Am*. Aa>, 
correspond to the A of Ihe Welle lands, as in AZamUh, A-Jtarmia, A-ttiiM, 
A-Bangba, i.e. Zandeh people, Borniba people, &c. Cf. alto Kanem**, TB^ 
Ful^, &c., where the personal particle [bu, be) is postfixed. It would alBM 
seem as if we had here a tiansition between the northern SndaaMC aad At 
southern Bantu groups in the very re|>ion where such transtiou mi^ be 
looked for. 

» Schweinfunh, op. cit. 11. p. 93. 

* Prof. Flinden Pelrie has come upon undoubted trace* of CHBdbaliHBfa 
the Negadah district, Egypt. 

g WMXOfr I. SUDiANESE. 79 

>n»VMttttited^iBto thii kaatkttown 
<f-i»em Iwwd the ptactice ftilly ettab- 
: or « privilege me r ve d ftu 

dtpeofdet, etpedally the Man^Mttus 
I, and culttrate 
I aa iiDQ and 
k weaving, pottery and 
t>atKona The fonn and oniamental 
display real artistic taite, wfaik the 
I ia. Oftea ooperior to that of the 
Hete again the obaervation has 
raioat addicted to cannibalism also 
t>.BIid pineal energy. Nor are they 
1 nature, and above all 
"die Zandeh anthropophagists are distin- 
: nA devotion for their women and 

:> pc^des show a higher degree of 
I and Hamitea. 
nker, "revealed A^JJ^thm 
. eettam nc^iro peoples, J^^***"*^ 
Ae Mangbattus and the 
Usjfllo, ditpUty quite a surprising under- 
OT pictures of plastic objects, 
.(Cdbibited by the Arabs and Aiabised 

B a caiefoUj piepaied mtumgrtjA on 

06, Di Radolf S. Sleipmeti bringt to(rctlier 

' ' to Aow "dui cine hohe Wahncheiiilichkcit 

(IndieeiiDni anthropophagy) al* atindige 

edrigen Wilden aiuiuidunen" (pp. jg, 60). 

iU-atancd BMt^o-Gru(»i eKpediCioD of 

rife eren in Gallkland, and aroongit the 

Like the Fan*, thete prefer the meal 

all the dead are eaten. Hence in their 

and one of hii native guides eipUined Ihat 

X die nellm terra," i.e. tlicie 

h Initead of in the groond (FAWrw 



HainitM of Notth-east A<nca. Thiu dw '\Ulf0K$0H 
placed photographs in their proper poibie^ -Mlil^ 
identiiy the negro portraits as belonging to tii» MM 
other tribes, of which he had a personal kiioi*ki%t^: ' 
called a remailLable fact, because it bespoke in' dM Imrtt'Mbes* 
natural faculty for observation, a power to 'iim|iiiiiii ^AM fcr 
many Arabs or Egyptians of high rank was a bopdoi pmile^ 
An Egyptian pasha in Khartum could never make oat how * 
bunutn face in profile showed only one eye and one eari and he 
took the portrait of a fashionable Parisian lady in exUcmefy low 
dress for that of the bearded sun-bnmt American nafal oScer 
who had shown him the photograph'." From tU> one is alniost 
tempted to infer that, amongst Moslem peoples, all senac of 
plastic, figurative, or pictorial art has been deadened by ^e 
Koranic precept foibidding the representation of the homan form 
in any way. 

The Welle peoples show themselves true Negroes ta Ae 
possession of another and more precious qwdity, 
H^^!*' *^^ sense of humour, although diis is prob«ibly a 
quality which comes late in the lifeofa race. Aajr- 
how it is a distinct Negro characteristic, which Junker was abie 
to turn to good account during the building (tf hii &moas 
Laerima station in Ndoruma's country. "In all this I conld 
again notice how like children the Negroes are in muiy respects. 
Once at work they seemed animated by a sort of childlike sense 
of honour. They delighted in praise, though even a frown <r- a 
word of reproach could also excite their hilarity. Thus a kmd 
burst of laughter would, for instance, follow the contrast between 
a piece of good and bad workmanship. Like children, they would 
point the finger of scorn at each other'." 

One rooming Ndoruma, hearing that they bad again toadk 
work, had the great war-drum beaten, whereupon they rushed to 
arms and mustered in great force from all quartets. But oa 
finding that 'there was no enemy to march against, and that tbey 
had only been summoned to resume operations at the station, 
they enjoyed the joke hi^ely, and after a general eaplosion of 

' r 

■-■■: ;.'=vb:>rfb( Hair. 



The Sudanese- Bantu Divide— Frontier Tribei— T^b JMjRf 

Soya Nation— K "Red Peopie "—The North-Em Dow to u ilmmimiii 
Semitic Elements of the Bantu Anialnm—MalaTEkneBtiinlbaiMIMr 
only— Hamitic Element evoywhere-T^i/ ^ftUHMOf— The B^tffiii^ 
a Negro-Haniitic Cross— The iafBifrroio— Their Tnditkn*— libkOBBI 
Legend— r^ IVaganda, Past and Present— PoUtiokl utd Sodll.UlU^ 
lions— Totemic Sysiem— Bantu Peoples betivecn Lake ^^etari• tail ■• 
Coast— r^t^ tVagiiyama—VTimilive AncestiyWonhip — MlhiIJi till 
tVaiwahili—Thc Zang Empire— rif Zulu-Xuat—Tiaatt uA 'MM' 
Domain — Palriaichal Insiilulions — Genealogiea — Ftijiial TM— 
Social Denization — "Common Law" — ^^Amm Mid Mmtmf 
— The mythical Monomotapa Empire — The ZimtMbwe KaJM— ^pir 
BtcAuanas—T/it Barotie Empire— T^tf Maialela Epiiade— tetd (if 
Christianity amongst the Southern Bantus— King KhHM— n« 0lill> 
Hirera—CailU and Hill Danuiran—Tht Ktngo Pw(U—(M. JjpM 
Empire — The Kongo Language- The Kongo Abongji>t«' INutlMM 
Chrisiian Uoclrincs— 7»( A'aiiWaj and "Jiifi Jktw"— 71# 7 
Bhang-smolteis- 7»( Bahh "Men of Iron"— The Wm« " 
Banlus- Sa*o/fli— r*i Cannibal A»u— M^iationi, Tjnpe, O 
Camtrun Bantus — Bantu -Sudanese Borderland- Eariy BwMn 
— Eastern Ancestry and Western Nature- wonhi(^pcn — 
The NtgriiB Domain, Fast and Present— Negritoei U the Ooiliib «£ 
the Pharaohs— Nejriloes and P^my Folklore— 7X« Z>mm( aad. Al* 
reputed Dwarfs— r<t< WandiHvbbo Hunters— 7<i< Wodai* Miainr'-lTi* 
ifftM^Bnna'u/tfcAi-Rto/i-FormeT and Present Range— 7»< Wtumdtwtt 
Hottentot Geographical Names in Bantuland — Hotteototi diuppewty^ 
Bushman Folklore Literature- Bushman- Hottentot Language aM CKkS 
— Bushman Mental Character- Bushman Race-Names. ' 


Diatribu- Primeval Home, fiantu : betrnten th$ EgtmttritI 
p^ and Lakes and Indian Ocean ; Negrito : aU the itUm'Ir^flai 
Time" forest zones; Bush man- Hot ten lot : from Lakt Tamgm^ak* 
to the Cape. 

tmmio r iL 


^ ■* 'o/iv/fVK'^?^ 



l-\r': ^%'- 



aj.Vo-rtK ^ 


MMl/ikipMaub ; JOUMari; 

Bft&ta: att shades of 
maMiUaek; Nc^to and Bm^.- 
WkaSL BkdUxli generaliydoiuka^ 
^iimsi Amiftrmfy bracky; Busiu- 
Bilitii: madtraieiy j^rognaihaus 
Mk^g^ Mif Bu8h.-Hot : higkfy 
Bantu : moderately m^ not 
and 9ush»-Hot. : very pro- 
pmm^a triangular faa with 
I pariaUt^ ranging from 
^4^1046); Negrito tfffi/ 
', dtpr^sed at roatj always 
t'^gmMUy iarge^ bkuky and 
Mr type; Negrito and 
andUadk. Statore. 
im^io 6ft,; Negrito: always 
4j^/ Bushman : short, with 
m* to $ft, 2 in.; Hot.: 

mainly like the Negroid ^^^^ 
t^fan^ the true Negro, equally ten. 
N^rito: bright, 
and treacherous, 
; but rather gentle and 
respects very like the 
'/ " l&ot. : rather dull and 
) much less so than the 

uniform as the physical 
only, of the agglutinating 
lisMierdtion and postfixes; 



thaws vague Svd a n tst , b)d na 
it oripnaUy a Negro langiit^; Napil»i.\ 
Bush.-Hot.: aggAi/itiafivg mi/A /cttjbea mfy, mM jgfttm- 
matiati gender and otker fiowanfate jiwhwdf «ffli <W# 
language radically dittinetjrom atttthtrt. . ' H 

Belitfion. Bantu: ancesb>r-v>ertM^ m^n^ m- At 
east, spirit-worskip mainly in the west, inttrmiUf^n^ £i 
the untre, with witchcnrft and gross s mp trt t f^ms 
where; N^rito: unknown; Bush.-HoLt 
and natuTMOorship, but the religums 

Cnltore. Bantu: much lower than Ikt NegreM 
Sudanese, but higher than the true .A^grv, eafadty far 
progress more evident than actual aehieviment; Hqrito 
and Bush. : Inoest grade (hunting) ; Hob : imiipimri 
Di^kiM BantUB: Bonjo; Baya; Waganda; IVat^aiv; Waft- 

homo; fVagiryama; Waswahili ; Zulu-Xosa; MtUuma; 
Beehuana; Ova-Herero; Esht-Kongo ; Bathiiaitgi ; Bo- 
Mo; Manyuema ; Bakalai ; Fan; Mpongwt; JJwmla; 

Ne^toee: Akka ; Woehua ; Dume(t); Watub- 
robbo{t)i Doko{t); Obongo; Batwa. 

Bnshmen: Family Groups; nohtown tribal tmmtt. 

Hottentots: Wasandawi (t); Namaqua; GHp^; 
Gonaqua ; Koragua ; Hill Damaras. 

In ethnology the only intelligible definition of a Banta it a 
full-blood or a half-blood Negro of Bantu speech '; and, as apedal 
anthropology takes no account of language, it follows that firom 
the physical standpoint no very hard and fast line can be dnwn 
between the northern Sudanese and southern Baiktu groups, 
considered as two ethnical units. But these units are made 
up of endless details, and it is in the study of these cMub 
that such physical differences as do exist are discovered anj 

» Bik. eh. XI. 

in tbc iatenos,iiii9, 

In tbe extreme tmiiiMi 
■faOwD that it coincides »«"»'>«*. 
tfKtbe Ria del Rey, while farther east At 
Myx andcr M. Dybowshi found thu it taa 
is* N.) akng the elevated jdateau 
iMttec^faitiog between the Congo and thft 
(KHnt the line takes a south-easterly 
of the Zondek and Mangbatta 
vaficy between Lakes Albert Edward 
Ae equator. Thence it pursues a soine- 
ncHdi bj the east side of Lake Albert 
AeSomenet Nile, then up that rirer to 
of Uaoga and the Victoria Nyai^a 
;it tnms neariy east to the sources <^ 
to its mouth in the Indian Ocean. ' 
toavcrses debatable territory, as ia 
an Sudanese and Negrito over- 
Lake Victoria, where the frontiers 
[asai nomads and their Wandorobbo 
ily, everything south of the line here 
aonfa of it Sudanese N^o in the 
nd Hamitic in the eastern aectiofi 
Ae Indian Ocean. 

is not quite distinct, as in 
of the Galla and 
north have encroached jm^^ 
.komo Bantua on the '^^:, 
(» the central plateau 

from the territory of the Bonjoi) 

liibes, to that of the Sudanese Band- 

Zandeh people. In this region, 

water-parting, the contrasts 

Budaaese and against the Bantus^' 

are Negroids, the latter full- 

found the Bonjos to be a 

.J«"-'8(I4. . . 




r » w awj 

distinctly N^o tribe with pronounced ] 

together a nidct savage people, ti a t fii if 

are fattened for the meat market, and i 

will fetch about twelve shillings. On the other teMA^WiMlft 

despite their Niam-Niam connection, aie act amSbat^ih^'m 

peiu:eful, agricultural people, frieiuUy to aavdlcn, ud.^«f.';A 

COppeiy-brown complexion, with regular features; beace :|MiAv(k 

akin to the light- coloured people met by BaiA in the JM^ 


Possibly the Bonjos may be a degraded txascb of tbe Ayac 

or Nderttt a large nation, with many aubtfy ufa B K 
Nlu^f*'^ widely diffused throughout the Sai^ha btm, iriMS; 

they occupy the whole space betweea the K*d(ft 
and the Mambere affluents of the main stream (3* to 7* jo^K. J. 
14* to 17' E.). They are described by M. F. J. Cknd' u of alt 
stature, muscular, well-proportioned, with flat noM^ slightty titaiid 
lips, and of black colour, but with a dash of cof^ier-fcd i» Afe 
upper classes. Although cannibals, like the Bonjos, tfaef we 
in other respects an intelligent, friendly pc<^te, wlio, imda- ifae 
influence of the Muharomadan Fulahs, have developed a 'COM- 
plete political administration, with a Royal Court, a Cbi 
Speaker, Interpreter, and other officials, bearii^ ■ontxroiu J 
taken chiefly from the Hausa language. Their own Bantu tot 
is widespread and spoken with slight dialectic differences aa ft 
the Nana aflluents. 

M. Clozcl, who regards them as mentally and mually « 

to most of the Middle and Lower Congo tribo^ 
p^,',^.^* tells us that the Bayas, that is, the " Red Peo|A^'' 

came at an unknown period from the east, "yield- 
ing to that great movement of migration by which the > 
populations are continually impelled westwards." The 1 
section were still on the move some twelve years ago, bot ifae 
general migration has since been arrested by the Fulah* tif 
Adamawa. Human flesh is now interdicted to the women ; tbi^ 
have domesticated the sheep, goat, and dog, and believe is a 

> TeuT du Mandt, 1896, t. p. t iq 
grafki^itt a Lingmitiqtui, Paris, 1B96. 

and Ltt Bayat; NM** i 

.«»li«o: U. 



j^i^fft pM«im ue numiiested in the. 

^ll^tia preside over the vSlage 

^■rbo^ conunumty and eadt sepante 

.f^r fcliguuu and political qrttems 

irfajch recalls thoae prevalent 

. jfcopfes of the equatorial lake region, 

,canse— loi^ contict or assodation 

. w^ intdligence- 

))U jdww relatioiu, as well as the general 

, yppalatioas, we have to 

'bed Black Zone, 

.'"^f^aiwud eastwards, has 

,lti|^en almost everywhere arrested north 

Nile. Probably since the close of 

jtikQlc of the ttfpofi between the main 

i^tfit^ from the equator north to the 

. an integral part of the Hamitic 

.|b. prehistoric times by Semites and 

and in historic times chieOy by 

jpBies Mubia, Senaw, and Somaliland. 

f9lith of the equator there are no 

nf any kind, whereas farther west the 

-were everywhere barred access to the 

-fieopled plateaux of the Sudanese 

oq this side necessarily resulted in 

Negro populations of Central 

,«f the physical and mental chaiac- 

.bjr the Kanuri, Hausas, Sonrtiays 

of, that region, and are at present 

U>e conquering Fulah Hamites 

^iponpa over a great part of Sudan 

eleoKOt, by which the southern 
diversely modified . 

c peoples of the ^^ '^'^' 
ion the Semites 
as almost wu guantHi ^ligeabUt 


88 MAN: PAST ildl«to 

■itiV— ii^4Mwipii«a 

partljr because of their relatively later anilfal tttpJ^Ar^^^ 
because, as they arrived, they becaite iatfatj^ 
indigenous Hamitic inhabitants of Bgypl» AlbptSAiimA 
land. No doubt other Semites (Mitoeaiis^ Safai^uiSi ati4 ^^^ 
rites generally) almost certainly reached te east coait bdoNflli 
equator in early historic times. But they appear io have firifarii 
chiefly as traders and miners, and never to have penemied te 
inland except in the aiuriferous r^ons south of the Zambesi, 
where their still extant monuments in the Zimbabwe and oAer 
districts show that they held the country by mifitaiy tenure and 
mixed but slightly with the Negro aborigines. 

Still later in Muhammadan times, other Semites also from 
Arabia did arrive and form permanent settlements along the 
eastern seaboard as far south as Sofala, and diese intermiiq^ed 
more freely with the converted coast peoples ( fVaswaJUS^ from 
jaA^/= "coast"), but not with the Kafirs^ or "Unbdievefs^** ftitlier 
south and in the interior. In our own days these SwahiU hatf- 
breeds, with a limited number of full-blood Arabs\ have peiie- 
trated beyond the Great Lakes to the Upper and liCiddle Congo 
basin, but rather as slave-hunters and destroyers dian as peac^d 
settlers, and contracting few alliances, except perhaps amongst tlie 
Wayao and Magwangara tribes of Mozambique, and the cannibal 
Manyuemas farther inland. 

To this extent Semitism may be recognised as a factor in tiie 

constituent elements of the Bantu populations^ 
Elements in Malays have also been mentioned, and some ethauh 
Mad«cmec«r legists have even brought the Fulahs of Wetttm 

Sudan all the way from Malaysia. Cenaiidy if thqf 
reached and formed settlements in Madagascar, diere is no intriil* 
sic reason why they should not have done the same on the main- 
land. But I have failed to find any evidence of the isxk^ and if 
they ever at any time established themselves on the east cocitf 
they have long disappeared, without leaving any clear trace of 
their presence either in the physical appearance, speech, usages o# 
industries of the aborigines, such as are eve ry wh e re conspiciioiiB 
in Madagascar. 

^ Even Tipu Tib, their diief leader and *< Prince of Skvm."* was a hidf- 
Ottte with distinctly Negroid features. 


HBORO: n. 


Ittliai' <8ii>tgi'a atnBtea» knd eq>eciaUy the 
«itlaiieaiis fiKtor in HAmitic 

M. Cloid as setdog mt •^^^^rwnt.. 
and 101 cMer dtreftm, which ages 
aleng the eastern seaboard to the 
lAeie are now settled the Zulu-Xosa 
Bfaadtcs than Negroes, 
ii^wtt^ineli divergent movements could have 
where we still find the same ten* 
During Us exploration of the east 
8p^e had ahready observed that the 
ai about ^e Great Lakes (ELaragw^ 
Itt bdonged to the same 
Ibir^ttWie MoT Wahuma, that i8» TiMWaHu. 
fiebple of fine appearance^ 
i0^Qlliim ftuxk^ and had come originally from 
Sdiiivar found that the Negroes of the 
bf^ Galla aristocracy', and we now 
ccymmunities bearing different names 
die mixed Bantu nations of the lacus- 
1K5 Lake Tanganyika and Unyamwesi- 
lifahha, and Waruanda are or were all 
M. Lionel D^le " was veiy much 
cKffsrence that is to be found between 
^Mi^bours*." Then this observer adds : 
ity and are only to be found amongst 
mt such an expression for Africans. The 
^tdit their original type through intermix- 

IMcle put his finger on the key 
^t0m these indications and many others 

alt eSn Negerland bezeichnet, welches 
wird'* (Peiermann's Mitt. 1883, v, p. 

fg 4114. For details of the Wahuma type see 


that might easily be adduced, it may be concluded with some 

confidence that the great mass of the Bantu popu- 
mainly a Ne' lations are essentially Negroes, leavened in diverse 
Crow *™*^^ proportions for the most part by Wahuma, that 

is, Galla or Hamitic elements percolating for thou- 
sands of generations* from the north-eastern section of the 
Hamitic domain into the heart of Bantuland. 

No doubt all now speak various forms of the same organic 
Bantu mother-tongue. But this linguistic uniformity is strictly 
analogous to that now prevailing amongst the multifarious peoples 
of Aryan speech in Eurasia, and is due to analogous causes — the 
diffusion in extremely remote times of a mixed Hamito-Ethiopic 
people of Bantu speech in Africa south of the equator. It might 
perhaps be objected that the present Wahuma pastors are ol 
Hamitic speech, because we know from Stanley that the late king 
M'tesa of Buganda was proud of his Galla ancestors, whose Ian 
guage he still spoke as his mother-tongue. But he ^Iso spoke 
Luganda, and every echo of Galla speech has already died oui 
amongst most of the Wahuma communities in the equatoria 
regions. So it was with what I may call the " Proto-Wahumas,' 
the first conquering Galla tribes, Schuver's and D^cle's '* arista 
cracy," who were gradually blended with the aborigines in a ne^ 
and superior nationality of Baniu speech, because *• there are 
many mixed races,... but there are no mixed languages ^" 

These views are confirmed by the traditions and folklore stil 
current amongst the " Lacustrians," as the great nations may b< 
called, who are now grouped round about the shores of Lake 

* I have elsewhere shown that the recent date assigned by Sir H. H. John 
ston {British Central Africa^ p. 480) to the Bantu migrations, as imagined 
by him, is not warranted by his facts, while it is quite untenable on othci 
grounds. (Academy^ Aug. 21, 1897, p. 145.) Cf. also Karl Ritter (Frend 
ed; I. p. 127): **De m€me que Ics Goths et les Vandales se r^pandirenl sui 
une grande partie de I'Europe, les Galla s*etendirent successivement sur cci 
conlr^es de I'Afrique 4 mesure qu'ils trouvaient des lieux propres k s*etablir 
comme les Goths et les Vandales, ils se sont naturalises en peu de temps sui 
le sol qu'ils avaient envahi, et ont pris la langue, les coutumes, et les moeun 
des peuples vaincus." 

* Ethftology^ p. 199. 


Victoria and Albert Nyanza. At present, or rather before the 
recent extension of the British administration to 
East Central Africa, these peoples were constituted trUns.^*^"* 
in a number of separate kingdoms, the most p>ower- 
fiil of which were Buganda (Uganda), Bunyoro (Unyoro), and 
Karagwe. But they remember a time when all these now scat- 
tered fragments formed parts of a mighty monarchy, the vast 
Kitwara Empire, which comprised the whole of the lake-studded 
plateau between the Ruwenzori range and Kavirondoland. 

The story is differently told in the different States, each nation 
being eager to twist it to its own glorification ; but 
all are agreed that the founder of the empire was Traditiona— 
Kintu, "The Blameless," at once priest, patriarch The Kintu 
and ruler of the land, who came from the north 
hundreds of years ago, with one wife, one cow, one goat, one 
sheep, one chicken, one banana-root, and one sweet potato. At 
^t all was waste, an uninhabited wilderness, but it was soon 
miraculously peopled, stocked, and planted with what he had 
brought with him, the potato being apportioned to Bunyoro, the 
banana to Buganda, and these form the staple food of those lands 
to this day. 

Then the people waxed wicked, and Kintu, weary of their 
evil ways and daily bloodshed, took the original wife, cow, and 
other things, and went away in the night and was seen no more. 
But nobody believed him dead, and a long line of his mythical 
successors appear to have spent the time they could spare from 
strife and wars and evil deeds in looking for the lost K.intu. 
Kimera, one of these, was a mighty giant of such strength and 
height that he left his footprints on the rocks where he trod, as 
naay still be seen on a cliff not far from Ulagalla, the old capital 
of Buganda. There was also a magician, Kibaga, who could fly 
aloft and kill the Banyoro people (this is the Buaganda version) by 
hurling stones down upon them, and for his services received in 
njarriage a beautiful Banyoro captive, who, another Delilah, found 
out his secret, and betrayed him to her people. 

At last came king Ma'anda, who pretended to be a great 
hunter, but it was only to roam the woodlands in search of 
Kintu, and thus have tidings of him. One day a peasant, obeying 

'■■■J' *, 


92 man: past and PRBSSMI& 

the directions of a thrice-dreamt dreaiii» caimet^Wii JJiffe^ fai» ifa# 
forest, where was an aged man on a dirone betmat iiMiioiiS^ 
armed warriors, seated on mats, his long beard wi»tltii&Al^9elk m4 
all his men fair as white people and clothed in wjiite robea Tben 
Kintu, for it was he, bid the peasant hasten to simuxioii Ma'wida 
thither, but only with his mother and the messen^ger. At the Coivt 
Ma'anda recognised the stranger whom he had that veiy Hii^t 
seen in a dream, and so believed his words and at once set out 
with his mother and the peasant. But the ELatikirOy <Hr Piime- 
Minister, through whom the message had been delivcied lo the 
king, fearing treachery, also started on their track, keqpi]% them 
just in view till the trysting-place was reached. But Kintu, who 
knew everything, saw him all the time, and when he came fcarwaid 
on finding himself discovered the enraged Ma'anda pierced lus 
faithful minister to the heart and he fell dead with a shridE* 
Thereupon Kintu and his seated warriors instantly vanished, and 
the king with the others wept and cried upon Kintn till the deqp 
woods echoed Kintu, Kintu-u, Kintu-u-u. But the Mood-hating 
Kintu was gone, and to this day has never again been seen or 
heard of by any man in Buganda. The references to the nofA 
and to Kintu and his ghostly warriors "fair as white people ** 
need no comment \ It is noteworthy that in some of the Nyassa- 
land dialects Kintu (Chintti) alternates with Muiungu as die name 
of the Supreme Being, the great ancestor of the tribe*. 

Then follows more traditional or legendary matter, indnding 

The wa- ^" account of the wars with the fierce Wakedi^ who 

g«nda,past wore iron armour, until authentic history is readliBd 

an preaen . ^.^^ ^^^ atrocious Suna IL (1836 — 60), father of 

the scarcely less atrocious M'tesa. After his death in 1884 
Buganda and the neighbouring states passed rapidly throti^ a 
series of astonishing political, religious, and social vicissitudes^ 

^ The legend is given with much detail by H. M. Stanley in Hkntm^iki 
Dark Continent^ Vol. I. p. 344 sq. Another and less mythical ikCCPiuit jpf tfce 
migrations of " the people with a white skin from the far north-^^** isquoCfid 
from Emin Pasha by the Rev. R. P. Ashe in 7\w> Kings of Ugandti^ p. 336. 
Here the immigrant Wahuraa are expressly stated to have *' iidopted the 
language of the aborigines " (p. 337), 

* Sir H. H. Johnston, op. cit, p. 514. » •. - 

t Q. 


||^Jln» 3nHMMUH^ wd ttie cciav«mcn of 
Ute, odMn to one form w uiothflr 
I, it Bu^ hm beea difficult to lee 
tikt&tixy Of the oonteodiiig factions; bat 
tirtS: imiOtoaj fay the secular am, real 
i,.amA At Wi^jaada etpedally bare du- 
)' capacity as weU as caganess to acquire 
i: aad of teligiaus priad^es, both in the 
hRonan Catholic communities. Prindng- 
119 natm hands, are needed to meet the 
il for a TOnacular litcmture, in a region 
f from the disappearance ot 

I' vf the Hamitic and Negro elements 
*m*f perhaps be attributed ^^^^ 
ti^ pcinittve and higher institu- um sacu 
At the bead of the '»«'«»«»«'•• 
g M cnpeior, although the title was also 
r and the queen-sister. This autocrat 
r Cotutctl," (tf which ex oj^do members 
1 Katihiro, Prime Minister or Chan- 

I fiambsja, royal princes and princesses, 
illChief Baker, and others of high rank, such 

II nd Commander-in-Chief, who attended 
, gold-embroidered cloth robes. The 

^ly OTganiaed with " Earls," great feudal 
t&^ttt five provinces, and three distinct social 
^MF: landed gentry, the Batepi, peasants or 
s or helots without any rights. 
ipuade of higher political and sodal 
D an still to some extent in 

i into <*)»■*«, or clans, ^^^ 
r totem, which may not 
Irtfietr ex<^mous (extra-tribal) marriage 
t as amongst the Australian savages. 
^ "Grasshoppers," the Endiga, "Sheep," 
** while the king's clan is the royal tribe 
^that is, the Wahuma, as the term i 




shades of their immediate ancestors or cji4fBl^i 

K^fnas [souls ?] of the whole nation w^ 

occasions." • w^^ vX} nmii^^^pff^ 

Although the European ghost (nt ''\tmtmmf^?Mj m^iUt^^ 
the spirits of near ancestors may appear in diw'nv 1^ IJII^ 
their wishes to the living. They ask for saiaifioeg ^ ^MfefiiWWIi 
to appease their hunger, and such sacrifices are dSusgOiMmit^Mik 
a little flour and water poured into a coconut shdl let j||lQ^4fe| 
ground, the fowls and other victims being so killed tfaatdi^ J|r||i|4 
shall trickle into the grave. At the offering the dead m^ ftltol 
on by name to come and partake, and bring thdr iHepMJainiJI 
them, who are also mentioned by name. But whereas Cbrisliws 
pray to be remembered of heaven and the saints, the Wagigniifii 
pray rather that the new-bom babe be forgotten of MalungOi and 
so live. "Well ! " they will say on the news of a hirtiii -Biay 
Mulungu forget him that he may become strong and welL** TUi 
is an instructive trait, a reminiscence of the time when Miifaaip^ 
now almost harmless or indifferent to mundane thingSi wait ^ 
embodiment of all evil, hence to be feared and appeased in 
accordance with the old dictum 7/>«^rySrn/ ^aSftv. 

At present no distinction is drawn between good and bad 
spirits, but all are looked upon as, of course, often, thouj^ fMH 
always, more powerful than the living, but still human beuogp 
subject to the same feelings, passions, and fancies as they.^aiei 
Some are even poor weaklings on whom offerings are .wspted. 
" The Shade of So-and-so's father is of no use at all : it has finidiCld 
up his property, and yet he is no better, ** was a native's conmrat 
on the result of a series of sacrifices a man had vainly madr 1(1 
his father's shade to regain his health. They may also be 
and tricked, and when pombe (beer) is a-brewing, some is 
out on the graves of the dead, with the prayer that thejp 
drink, and when drunk fall asleep, and so not disturb the Ui^iiig 
with their brawls and bickerings, just like the wrangling fairies in 
A Midsummer Nighfs Dream, 

Far removed from such crass anthropomoiphism, but not 
morally much improved, are the kindred Waswa- 
hili, who by long contact and interminglings 
have become largely Arabised in dress, religion. 


JHfGttO I' lis 


if i y mi ' jif^Ad tmOf dwcribed by Mi Titflot 

'iscc (tf «biv»4iolderg and sUve- 

'S^ »i6og a diouaoiid miles ctf omIu 

^^-'R OQuit thai hu witneised incessant 

of. monarchical dynasties m 

iSlfiliW ttieir nfldst for ages past a con> 

'iAooA, confistiDg not o!riy of serviles 

''Hr ittunigraats from Persia, AJabia,- and 

'JBat'''.)Uvre' come to live, and often to di^ n 

R hybrid progeny. Of one 

rhe Arabs — the religion has become 

tte land, 6ver8preading, if not entirdy 

'^Wttt ancestoivwonhii^ and profoundly 


ia'a sense a historical people, for they 

elemMts of the re- 

^'WB^', which in Edrisi's s^^ 

aloQg the snboard 

beyoad the Zambesi. When the 

Into the Indian Ocean it was a great 

a vast confederacy of sutes, with 

lu, Brava, Mombasa, Melindi, 

widespread commercial relations 

waters to India and China, and up 

How these great centres of trade and 

Itftv the other ruthlessly destroyed by 

4 firro * foga ("with sword and fire," 

Bariiosa, who was himself a Portu- 

of the havoc and the honors that 

\ the trail of his barbarous fellow- 

'ttMgmbtr (" Zang-land ") and the idjacBnt 

<>4bmptlon). Zemg U "Uuk," and barn 

I, that we have In Mala-har on the 

C£ alto iarrttm tea iahran, " by laod and 

■b d^rica, isi>, tnuulated bf the Hon. 


98 HAN: PAST AND PSEsmr. ; . -gcaM^ 

Beyond So&la we enter the domain of tibf- 4« M l;gtf^t !fc^, 
Am4irXata, and others whom! hnn ' 
^ z-ta- ,^gj ZidihXosas\ snd who an in I 

the most remarkable ethnical group in att Bante- 
land. Indeed they are by common consent regarded aa Wantua 
in a preeminent sense, and this conventional tena AmI> itadf 
is taken from their typical Bantu language*. There is dqar 
evidence that they arc comparatively recent arrivals, i 
from the north, in their present territory, which was still o 
by Bushman and Hottentot tribes probably mthin the Isat 
thousand years or so. Before the Kafir wan 
PTMcnt with the English (1811 — 77) this territory extended 

°™^"' much farther round the coast than at present, aad 

fat many years the Great ICei River has formed the frontier 
between the white settlements and the Xosas. 

But what they have lost in this direction the Zulu-Xosas, or at 
least the Zulus, have recovered a hundredfold by their '■^"""m 
northwards during the r9th century. After the establishment of 
the Zulu military power under Dingiswayo and his suoceanr 
Chaka (1793 — 1828), half the continent was overrun bytHganiaed 
Zulu hordes, who ranged nearly as &r north as I^ke Vktoria, 
and in many places founded more or less unstable kingdoms or 
chieftaincies on the model of the terrible despotism set t^ in 
Zululand. Such were, beyond the Limpopo, the states of Gaaa- 
land and MatabiUland, the latter estabUshed about 183S I9 

' Id prererence lo the more papular roim Zmlu-Kafir, where X^Cr b 
merely the Arabic "Infidel" applied iDdisciiminalelj to aaj people n 
IiUin ; hence the Si<Ut Paih Kafirs (" Black-clad InfideU'^ of A 
the Ku/ra oaiis in the Sahara, where Kufra, plural of Ktfir, aiat 
pi{^ Tibus of (ha( district and the Kaiirs genenll]' of the Eut i 
seaboard. But according lo English usage Zulu is applied to tl 
part of ihe lerrilory, mainly Zululand proper and Natal, whOe X 
Kafiiaiia is cestricled lo the southern section between Natal and Okt filial 
Kei River. The bulk of (hesc southern " Kafirs " belong to the Xon « 
tion ; hence this term takes the place of As/tr, in the compoaiid e 
Zulu-Xaia. Ama is explained in Efk. p. 171, and the^f of A 
an unpronounceable combination of a guKurol and a lateral click, dut w 
other clicks (a dental and a pgJatal) having infected the speech of tbeK 
during their long prehistoric ware with the Hottentots. 

* Eth. p. 171. 

i wfao petiihed in a ht^xlcat 
I in 1S94. Gnngunluuui, last oi the 
jtAwlind, mu liinilutx diaposKsaed by 

tbt Zulu bands — Muttn, Maviti, 
derelopcd luge political 
liine mder the aUquitous Mirambo in 
me, opecially the Angoni', were long 
disaict, and othera about the Lower 
known to the Portuguese as " Landins." 
tea^ broken b; die English early io 
has now entirely subnded, and 
dittnibuig elements having been extin- 
bj the absoiptioQ of Zululand itself 

institutions been more highly 
the Zulu-XosBs, all of 
[^be AmsrFingus and some t^^^, 
dum direct descent from 

mythical foandei of the tribe. Thus 
Chaka was seventh in descent from a 
wbont they take the name of A^antu 
[lie of Zulu's Land," although the (rue 
; been the now extinct Ama-Ntombela. 
(reMigc of Chaka's tribe was established, 
SBCcesaively reduced, daimed also to 

^ m that dtete Angoni (AbangoDi) ^Jiing fion 

"' ~ li ftbont i8«5, and otabliihcd tbemielvei 

y bat Utec mignted to the upUndi wat of 

ftm petty stkta. Olbert went cut of the 

s am known m Magwingwani. But ill 

It^the •WTonndlne populuioni. IntecmuTyiDg 

gbttoj preaerre their »p«Mh, diess, and uugea 

\ atodified form, although the laoguage of 

flian. Then this class becomes the aiisio- 

■'henoefbrtfa comprbe* a gnat part of the 

• at Znla origin, "perpetuated aJtnoit 

I, GMgrafih. Jtur. May 1S98, 




be trae Zsloi, aad M then 

dte tenn Zoh Im now io 

nd^ than Uood rdadondnp. Hew we hw an Ajitl hmm, 

by iriiich the edmical nine of snci bums m " Aiywfc* " Ke|t»? 

" Briton," ** Sbv," ftc may be ganged in odm' nffom. 

So abo most of the aontbeni MCbon dna as Ibdr fa— to 
and ancestor a cettain Xua, ipnuig fioa Zidd^ wko u^ bw« 
floatisbed about 1500, and whom die Aak-ToBbn and- Awip 
Hpondos also rc^rd as their p ioge nit oi. Thm the iriiole MCtiqD 
i> connected, but not in the direct Gne, widi the Xemt, irtio (ncs 
thdr lineage from Galeka and Khakhabe, sons of Plda^ wba..ii 
said to have died about 1780, and was himself tealh is (ttnct ^ 
descent from Xosa. We thus get a genealogical table as vndoi 
which gives his proper place in the Family Tree to neaily Cvoy 
historical " Kafir " chief in Cape Colony, where ignocaoce of thesfe 
relations caused much bloodshed during the eariy Kafir warft: — 


Xo« (1530?) 

p«k> iijun) 

Hpondnmiii (HpoDcM 



Gika (ob. 1818) 









But all, both northern Zulus and southern Xosas, are < 

ally one people in speech, physique, usages and 
1^''"^ social instiiutions The hair is uniformly of a 

somewhat frizzly texture, the a>lour of a li^t or 
clear brown amongst the Ania-Tembus, but elsewhere very daifc, 
the Swazis being almost " blue-black " ; the head decidedly long 
(73-54°) and high (1958°); nose variable, both Negroid and 
perfectly regular j height above the mean (j ft 9 to iiul); 
^ure shapely and muscular, though Fritsch's measurements show 

tfimaatai vboro; il 


t fifeM ifae almost idnl stsndi^ of bea^^ 
v.'have credited then. 

I stand much higher than the tru« 
B their political organi- 
irj4lH ^lerdcqment erf Dingia- ol^Siitio-, 
I' Akier European inSuencea, 

I Booarchy controlled by a powofiil 

jr^SafitM waa grouped in tribes connected by the 

Ik^the hereditary m^hm, or feudal diief. 

li power of lift and death, within hia own 

t.lai nwDtdatet, however, the nobles could 

i it tna in fact their decisions that estab- 

dtto traditional code of common 

m JM la well ada])ted to a people i^w/f""*" 

, It h(Ms everyone accused 

• kr can prove himself innocent ; it makes 

|i icqMosible for the conduct of all ha 

:tivc^ for all resident in it, and the 

Fot the adminutration of the law 

» grades, from any of which an appeal 

9 Supreme Council, presided over by the 

ria.iMM QOkf tbt niler but also the father 

1 the southern coast raises and the 
t and Bushman aborigines 
P almost everywhere ai»- and iiaka- 
A'^^vrMnitude by other Bantu '*^"' 

ikas and Mashonas, the Bechuanas 
Of these the first arrivals (from the 
leen the Mashonas and Makalakas, 
^"eaten up" by the Maubili when the 
^-Jke timely interveniion of the EogURh in 

iS tiltera of the soil, skilled in metal- 
being probably the 
dves, whose great chief „^^"i";^ 
e, Mines," as I interpret 
K'iit^ A Afritti, p. i94. 



die word', mlcd om die Huiks and •■i«Mdii|^MMfenat 
districts iriien die Portuguese fint reached SoAkcariirlite t*A 
centmy. Appaicndj fbr political reaaoiiB* llui ManoiBUpt mm 
later tiansfcHmed bj diem from a mcnardi to a iMawhy, tb* 
vast empiTe of Hooooioti^ialaiid, whidi was nqipoaed to compiiae 
prettf well eretythiiig south of the Zambcai, bol; haiBig jw 
existence, has for tbe last two handled jrean doded the dS^cm 
search of bistnical geognphers. 

But ages before Portuguese or Hooomotapas were heafd ct, 
the Makalakas with the kindred Banyai, I 
well have been at work in the mines of this a 

the service of the builders of the Zimbabwe miiH 
b^m^^. explored and described by the late Theodore Bent** 
and by him righdy, I think, attributed to sobm 
ancient cultured people of South Arabia. He mentioos tfae 
Sabeeans, but there is no reason to exclude the still more andeiit 
Minicans, both being closely allied monbeis of the Semidc 
Himyarite family. It is to be noticed that similar rains occur 
also in the Benningwa Hills and various other parts of Hatfr 
bUiland, all apparently connected with long-abandoned gM' 

Even Barros* was aware that all these remains were prior 

' From Mteana, lard, mtuter, nA Utpa, to dig, both commoD BwBla words. 

* The point was that Portugal had nude treaties vith this mTthies] Stat^ 
in virtue oT which she claimed in the " scramble Tor Airica " all the hiMeriMkb 
behind her possessions on the east and west coasts (Moiambiqae aitd Angola), 
in bet all South Africa between the Orange and Zambes [l*en. Pntthcr 
details on the " Monomolapa Question " will be found ia injr mottognph m 
"The Portuguese in South Africa" in Murray's Semh AJrita, Jrtm Amk 
Dominatian to British RuU, 1S91, pp. 1 1 sq. Five yean later Mr G. UcC^ 
Theal also discovered, no doubl independentl]', the mjltiieal cbaiactet of 
Mono molapal and in his book on The Purtugutsc in Smth AJriea, 1896. 

■ Proe. R. Gtogr. Set. May 1891, and Tht Ruintd CiHa tf MaiMmtOmd, 
Sir H. H. Johnston, however, who in my opinion assigns the Bantu migntioaS 
to a far loo recent date, thinks thai "those earlier aetllen from Soolkcm 
Arabia, who mined for gold some 1000 jteais ago and lets in Sontli Afnca, 
were only acquainted with native inhabitants of a Bushman- Hotlenlot tjp^ to 
judge by the drawings, engravings, and models ihey have lefk, btewled to 
depict natives engaged in the chase " {Briliii CeHtral Afiiea, pL 54). 

* Alia, First Decade, i. i. Lisbon, 1777. 



Antbc, Mid those who object 
be prepared with a reuonable ' 
;^tf eoune, the Axomites <rf' Abyssinia, 
It dte head of the Arabian Golf; bat 
Mdnt it would onljr be 
^^- aB7 caw the Chrirtian tu^i^ 
bttdime the emblems on 

I7 pagan, and point to Semitic rites, 

to the western world hj the Phcenicians, 

ify Bpmng from a Hinmm ancestry. 

nteiae tctritory extends from the Onu^ 

faldndes Basntoland with a great part of 

meet a people at the totemic stage 

heroes of the 

ftf baboons, fishes, ele- ^■~*"- 

fimn which the various 

Tlie origin of the collective national 

since the Bechuanas were 

eariy in the nineteenth century'. But 

it is a slightly modified f(»in of Sa- 

^'Mf'CktKm," i^ of the Cape baboon, this 

W'flifr Barotse, who are recognised by all 

or mother-tribe of the family. 
tt'«Mtnected ooe of the most remarkable 

of the South 
f^tht nineteenth century. Bm^tf"^ 
of the tribe migrated to 
die Victoria Falls, where they founded 
(Marotse) Empire," which despite a 
ai a British protectorate (1898). The 
oitgration northwards 
• bruchoftheki- ,.J';^. 
the renowned chief 

about 183s and overthrew the 
natives to a state of servitude. 

iSii. Tliii writer tlmdj speaks of the 

CMC, sad he wu the fint to dirine the rut 

sllemrd* oiled. 



104 UAH: PAST AND WtSmtf^ I^EPflA 

But after the death of Sebituace's lu 
Sekeletu, the Barotse, taking advantage of ifaf^,* 
dynastic nvalries, Buddenly revolted, and after * 
JtUkololos almoBt to the last inaD, reconstUmed die cra^po IPHI 
stroDger footing than ever. It now comprises as am aF,«Q9W 
350,000 square miles between the Chobe aad the Katik«D 
affluents, with a population vaguely estimated at over i,oao^ei8»a, 
including the savage Baahukulutnbwe tribes of the Kafbkwe liapQ 
reduced in 1891. 

Yet, short as was the Makololo rule (1835 — 70), it mslofg 
oiough to impose their language on the vanquished Barotie. 
Hence the curious phenomenon now witnessed about the Uiddte 
Zambesi, where the Makololo have disappeared, while tbarSesMo 
speech remains the common medium of intercourse throughcmt ibft 
Barotse empire. How often have analogous shifUngs and diakx*- 
tions taken place in the course of ages in other parts of die waiMt 
And in the light of such lessons how cautious etbi>ogra|thMts 
should be in arguing from speech to race, and drawii^ coDcki- 
sions from these or similar surface relations ! 

Referring to these stirring events, Mr Mackenzie wiitwi 
"Thus perished the Makololo from among the number of Soatll 
African tribes. No one can put his finger on the map of Afinea 
and say, 'Here dwell the Makololo"." This will pusxle maay 
ytho since the middle of the nineteenth century have repeatedly 
heard of, and even been in unpleasantly close contact irid^ 
Makololo so called, not indeed in Barotseland, but lower ^MOi 
the Zambesi about its Shire affluent 

The explanation of the seeming contradiction is givea by 
another incident, which is also not without ethnical sigiuficaiice> 
From Livingstone's ^vrna/f we learn that in 1859 he was acoMB- 
panied to the east coast by a small party of Hakolokn and otbv^ 
sent liy bis friend Sekeletu in quest of a cure for leprosy, ftofB 
which the emperor was suffering. These Makololos, hearing Of 
the Barotse revolt, wisely slopped on their return journey aC te 
Shire confluence, and through the prestige of their name have bcfC 
succeeded in founding several so-called " Makololo States," wbicdt 

* Ttn Ytars NvTth ef tkt Oranp Rivir. . ', -. 



r^hnPi't^ *w« given coaiddanible tioable 

i^afeiiii Cwtnl Afiica, But how true 

if ilhe poNtic^ be separated fhmi the 

Jrom the fact that of the (»igii>«l 

only two were &ill-blood 

believe, Barotse, Batc^ oc 

.Ae eavage Basfaukulumbwe. 

iltTB <Wi in thcii speech above the Victoria 

.the Victoria FaUs, and D,«h^|i,„ 

.,fW;-lMWw that since about w^ BsUdc. 

.ii»a» Jipen completely wiped 

[^Hjapifmi valley. But even amongst cultured 

■.*ynty little way, 10,000 yeais at mo«( 

and ahiftingB may, ^ereCcnv, have el^ 

d B rin g i^ebutoric ages, all knowledge of 

)rat a readier ear to the teachings of 

,4)wa the XxtVk, Basuto, and Bechuana 

i:W:tbe bean of Kafirland — BIythswood, 

fjMrd, othan— ^ve for some time been self- 

skme. would deny that 

It the surrounding ^'KTl^. 

Itribeft. Soga, a member 

has produced a 

ifivgnss, described by 

i^ "a marvel of accuracy and lucidity of 

iXiDage schools are eagerly anended, and 

«nder intelligent cultivation. 

,|telestant teachers have also achieved 

iiUch may now be regarded as an 

Here the old tribal system has 

m, and the Batau, fiaputi and 

been merged in industrious pas- 

litic* professing a somewhat strict 

and entirely forgetful of the former 

wijth witchcraft and ancestry-worehqi. 







In Bfrhnaiwland one great pcraooattf 
iKMizon. Kfaama, king of liie 
next to the Barotse die most 
Bechtianas, has for several decades been a 
people, a Christian legislator in the better 
and an enlightened reftmner even from the 



When these triumphs, analogoiB to those witnessed wmomgut 
the Lacustrians and in other parts of Bantnland, aie cioittriitod 
with the dull weight oi resistance everywhere oppoied bytte fidi* 
blood Negro populations to any progress bejrond dieir pteiie&t 
low level of culture, we are the better able to recognise the 
marked inteUectual superiority of the negroid Banta over die 
pure black element. 

West of Bechuanaland the continuity of the Bantu dotnaiii ii 
arrested in the south by the Hottentots, who itSBL 
hold their ground in Namaqualand, and fitftter 
north by the few wandering Bushman gronptt of the 
Kalahari desert Even in Damaraland, which is mainly Bsatt 
territory, there are interininglings of long standing that have gmn 
rise to much ethnical confusion. The OvorHerero^ who axe hfipe 
dominant, and the kindred Ova-Mpo of Ovampoland bordering 

on the Portuguese possessions, are undovftlted 
Huf^aiMras. Bantus of somewhat fine physique, though intdkc^ 

tually not specially distinguished. Owing to the 
character of the country, a somewhat arid, level steppe between 
the hills and the coast, they are often collectivdy called 
*' Cattle Damaras," or << Damaras of the Plains,** in contradistiiie- 
tion to the " Hill Damaras " of the coast ranges. To this popular 
nomenclature is due the prevalent confusion r^^arding these 
aborigines. The term '' Damara '* is of Hottentot or^n, and is 
not recognised by the local tribes, who all call themselvea CN»- 
Herero, that is, ^' Merry People." But there is a marked ^SSkat^ 
ence between the lowlanders and the highlanders, the latter* fhat 
is, the ''Hill Damaras,'' having a strong strain of Hottentot biobd, 
and being now of Hottentot speech. 

The whole region is a land of transition between the two 
races, where the struggle for supremacy has scarcely yet been 

HUM moRO: n. 


of the'Gennui &dmimstnton*. 

hf feftedng the tenn " DunamUnd," 

OemwD " HereroUnd," for the whole 

Bftf , and by substitutiDg for Hill 

OmZtro/K, or "HUlmen," u they are 

itoBM of the plains, who should of course be 

i-ldttolute exclusion of the expresricHi "Cattle 

show a singular dislike for salt ; the 

watcely be racial, as it is ^lared in also 

mtf be doe to the heavy vapours, perhaps 

pMtkles^ which hang so frequently over 

hue can be drawn between Portuguese 

itignona portion of the Congo Free State 

ll^tki MMD stnani. In the coastlands between 

tftuary a few groups, such as the 

lad tbe £Mmdiu, have developed some 

'Wider European influences, just as have the 

of dte Upper Congo through assodadon with 

Bat with- the exception of the 71*- 

ooe or two others, much the same 

are evnywhere presented by the 

within the great bend of the 

theu* name to this river present some 

ft is commonly supposed 

was a Creadon of 

a, afterwards re- 

rt^'Was already the capital 

it.wBs first visited by the expedition of 

M' its rdations with PortugiU. At first 

Ind great success, thousands were at 

it seemed as if all the Congo 

l)ie fold. There were great rejoicings 

("Emperor") himself, on whom 

'tbe famooa Hottentot chief Witbooi gmined 
kfitk^ tbeir chief Epiis, and canying off 


408 ItAlf z FAST AMD PW««r. (a|«B 

ymt knsbed boooora wd Portn g B Oc tMn «iil:bfilMrfe|e'lni 
pittent degenente detcenduit, the FortngnaM Stetti^naMlttV 
''I>om Pedro V., Catiiolic Kii^ of Konao md toBtpMiawioifc'' 
B«t Christianity never (track vorj deep iMits, aod, enept^fal'the 
vicinity of the Imperial and vassal Couita, beadiraiA pnebccK 
of the woret description were continned domi to the nkkSecf 
tbe nin^eenih centiny. About 1870 besh eftirta-.weie aiade 
both by Protestant and Catholic rainionaries M i&«Ou«cit the 
people, who had IJtrie to mniod them of tbdr foimcr &ith eiccpt 
the ruins of the cathedral aS San Salvador, andfisa, bumoi^ 
and otiier idigious emUenu handed down as ^enlDonM and 
r^arded as potent fetishes by their owners A like fatt, k ~mmf 
be incidentally mentimed, has overtaken the efixts of the Portu- 
guese missionaries to evangelise the natives of the east coaat, 
where little now survives of their teachings but matches of aa- 
intelligible songs to the Blessed Virgin, such as that still tjianlad 
by the Lower Zambesi boatmen and recorded by Hn Pringlet— 

Sina maiDk, lin* muuai, 

Sina mum Huis, una mainai... 

It is probable that at some remote period the niling face 
reached the west coast from the north-eas^ and 
e Xonfo inoposed their Bantu speech on the rude abonginei^ 
by whom it is still spoken over a wide tract of 
country on both sides of the Lower Congo. It is an eztremdjt 
pure and somewhat archaic member of the Baota family, and the 
Rev. W. Holman Bentley, our best authority on tbe subject, la 
enthusiastic in praise of its " richness, Rexibility, e aac tBe w , 
subtlety of idea, and nicety of expression," a language superior to 
the people themselves, " ilUterate folk with an dab«ate and 
regular grammatical system of speech of such subtlety and exact- 
ness of idea that its daily use is in itself an educattbo'." Kidtb 
Kongo has the distinction of being the first Bantu tongue erer 
reduced to written form, the oldest known work in the Unguage 
being a treatise on Cliristian Doctrine pubUshed in Lisbon in 
' TMBards tht Mounlaim of the Mean, 1884, p. tsa 
* Dktienary and Grammar 1^ tht Kimga Langut^i i8S7(p.axin. 




''^Hm wfteA of tke •'Modcsngbii" ^ 
'^^MTteidirgOMe but <li^t pboDetk or otlitf- 

ofthe-pRMtMushi- AS^3f 

%%kon it U stil spokcR with 

thew beKeve themselver 

M tf diey had- stiH remJnucences of the 

iW^pttkMMd aocestrr. 

Mambas, whose sobas were fanaKtij 

' ~ of the En^itre, still dwells t 

lltVitible to ereiybody, and althoi^h mortal 

esdi dissolution springs again into life 

up by the priests. AU 

•Abe tmdeigo a nmilar tran^ 

into a death-like trance by 

iaadiciile-map, and then re- 

iKJtt The power of causing the cataleptic 

to exist, and these strange rites, unknown 

-Do be coDuected with the resurrection of 

iidi^-md of ererybody on the last day as 

'" Portuguete evangelists. A volume might 

distordons of Christian doctrines 

uMbte to grasp their true inwardness. 

distinguish between the Prttos, that 

ilftg^s, or uDTeclaimed 

. .. Th« 

mean the same thing, as KabiniMi and 

People," which is applied j^^ 

to the Eshi-Kongos and 

of the Portuguese enclave north 

' "new Kabindas, so named from the 

ito tiw Loat^ coast, are an extremely 

SBterpriaing people, daring seafarers, 

'MWMti ad mo proprio Idioma gli abiuati del 
■59ii P- lis). Thii form is remark- 
ead of plural {^Btki\ \ jet it is Uill 
KoMgaa" oa tbe MHith dde of the 

•a intiiuiTe r. 



and active tnden. But they compUin of tfafc hn»iMM0V «f 

another dark people, the /uJefit /"ntot, oc " Bhrti Jnrn* ,^M 

call themselves JKt- Vamiu, and whose luolud n 

other peculiarities has earned for them their ] 

The Kabindas say that these "Semitic Negroes" were t 

created for the punishment of other unscnipnhNis deatffs by tfacir 

niinous competition in trade. 

A great part of the vast region within the bend flf the Cong» 
is occupied by the Saiuba people, whose numeroaa bniKdies — 
SasaKge and Basonge about the sources of the Sankuni, 1 
{TiuJUbmge) about the Lulua-Kassai confluence, and many o 
— extend all the way from the Kwango basin to Haayv 
Most of these are Bantus of the average type, &iily ii 
industrious and specially noted for their skill in iron and o 
work. Iron ores are widely diffused and the copper cornea frm 
the &mous mines of the Katanga district, of which King Uaidi and 
his Wanyamwezi followers were dispossessed by the Congo Free 
SUte in 1893. 

Special attention is claimed by the Tush&cmgi nation, foe our 
knowledge of whom we arc indebted chiefly to C^C 
T^i>n«< C. S. Latrobe Bateman'. These are the people 
Bhani- whom Wissmann had already referred to as "ft 

nation of thinkers with the interrogative 'why* 
constantly on their lips." Bateman also describes them m 
"thoroughly honest, brave to foolhardiness, and (althfitl tocwfa 
other. They are prejudiced in favour of foreign custuns and 
spontaneously copy the usages of civilisation. They are the 
only African tribe among whom 1 have observed- anything 
like a becoming conjugal afiection and r^ard. To mij 
nothing of such recommendations as their emandpatioa froa 
fetishism, their ancient abandonment of cannibalism, and Aen 
national unity under the sway of a really princely pdace 
(Kalemba), I beUeve them to be the most open to the best 
influences of civilisation of any African tribe whataoever*." 

' Th* Firil Attau 0/ Iki Kauai, 1889, p. 10 aq. See alio mj ca — » i 
niation to the Acadtmy, April 6, iSSg, ud AfrU* (StKofbrd'i Coaq«Bdim), 
1895, Vol. II. p. 117 sq. 

* Op. til. p. 10. 



.JJOkia, AffiucDt of the KAwai i« the . 
fit "FneDdahip," the UwKtie of a n- 
eamcd oat indepoKleatfy of kU 
Ipct b^<H« tbe aiiival of any whitet on 
by the wcret tvotheriiood of the 
ffUtmp," estiblished about 1S70, when 
into tiro parties over tbe 
,^ CBoatry open to foreign i.^*" 
nded with the "Pro- Mnmtv." 

were worsted with 

the banien of seclutioa were swept 

boing at (»tce established with the outer 

(bhang) smoking was unfortunately 

;All Swafaili traders from Zanabar. The 

fimne aawciated with mystic rites, and was 

,4aaiontion of morals throughout Tushi- 

fbllows the great BaMo nation, whose 
0ir^ tbe whole of tbe region ^^ ^^^^ 
At left bank <^ the Congo, " Man ar 
is BtiU more widely dif- '"°" 

10,000,000 within the horseshoe 

of ItDO " in tbe sense of Cromwell's " Inm- 

i(t .Iron," as the name has been diversely 

1), may not be all that they have been 

pen of Mrs H. Grattan Guinness'; but 

to be regarded as physically, if not 

Bantu races. But for the strain of 

A4 tumid under lip, frizzly hair, and wide 

ior avenge Hamites with high forehead, 

bright eye, and intelligent expressioo. 

about a hundred years ago from 

where they have cleared the hind 

les, brought extensive tracts under 

towns in the American chessboard 

so wide apart that it ukes hours to 

Africa, 1690, p. 466 «q. 



bsvene them, tliey ut sailed ia sway 
the division-of-lAboar principle, " turn 
builders, weAven, cabinet-nuken, wrmoann,'muinim^tKif)lliat09 
being Kb«Bdy dlfTerentiated amongst them' " Jtfyiu^ 

From th« east or north-east a great itrewB Ot ^igftltMt tH0 

also for many yean been Mtiing right MMMi4tfc 
Rquatori^ Cannibal zone to the wett coaM bat«Mb dHf 
""*"' Ogowai and Camenlns estuary Soma of HhW 

cannibal bands, collectively known at /inw, Pa A mm i , Mpmngmti^j 
Oshyebas and by other names, have already swarmed iat» dM 
Gabiin and Lower Ogowai districts, where they hare oosAd • 
considerable dislocation of the coast tribes. Tbey are at proKM 
the dominant, or at least the most powerful and dreaded, people {tf 
West Equatorial Africa, where nothing but the intervention of lli> 
French administration has prevented them from swee|»ig'-Aa 
Mpettgwes, Mbengas, Okandat, Ashangot, Itheges, Batiktt, ilfi) ilMJ 
other maritime populations into the Atlantic Even the 1gftK/t 

Bakalai nation, who are also immigrants, tnrt liroa 

the south-east, and who arrived some time bcArc 
the Fans, have been hard pressed and driven forward by thow 
fierce anthropophagists. They are still numerous, certainly oref 
100,000, but confined mainly to the left bank lA the Ogovs^- 
where their copper and iron workers have given up the faopdCn 
struggle to compete with the imported European wmres, and havit 
consequently turned to trade. The Bakalat are iraw the tStoA 
brokers and middlemen throughout the equatwial murtsTidi. 
and their pure Bantu language is encroaching on the Mpoi%mt 
in the Ogowai basin. 

When first heard of by Bowdich in 1819, the Paamways^ as 

he calls the Fans, were an inland people prescBtMg 
bJVaD""'' s"*^'^ marked Hamitic or Caucasic features diatto 

allied them with the West Sudanese Futaha. Sjace 
then there have been Inevitable interminglings, by whkh the type 
has no doubt been modified, though still presenting distiBCt' dok- 
' Op.dt.^. +71. 

■ These Mpangmt savages are constantly conTiued with Uie Mfmgmit of 
the Gabiin, a settled Bantu people who have been long in daw contact, vd 
on fiieDdly tomi, with the white traders and missionaiic* in thii diitdct. 



>.B|Rtai, Witwood Rclide, OMw 

ittimtiattllbAa idtogcdier from tbe 

A beud, and TCf)r 

Dot in a •etnidlcalar piotuber* 

F-ittdto: Hondly ilao, diejr differ 

pimamkaiiif intsUigent, tnth&l, tad , 

^(•ddMB '■■^■ig or iodtilgjiig in the 

li "Cntirdy diflerent (iom those 

[?/ - Yet «utiy ethiK^ists have aug- 

aod MangUtttu of the Welle 

Of their cominon (oninen for 

itbe Fias certainly yield to none, and 

Iribei the pnictice is now restricted 

>itiAouGfaed by European inflnieaices 

and dearest," and even these may 

e&ea not coming withm the [ffo- 

1 In the cannibal zone to serve 
t oot helped by it to a solution of 
'"'Were ooc to venture on a conjecture, 
r aaypterious hordes are not FaUbs, 
Mil "bebtted Hamites," lost like the 
s of QCfTodom. If the language is 
y Lens, it will perhaps prove to be 
c Tibu or Masai group. 
E, iriiich still lies within Bantu terricoiy, 
rdw numerous local 

rand Ifmri; and the 

i, Dwala, " Gnat Batanga " and 

IC Xstm, «riio poliBpi knew them bat, nyi i 
Jryewadwen, Haatbrbe nel Ikhter muKhnul 
rMil Butwodu •atbllcnd Uarlc, sehr grotte 

1B78, p. 73). 
i;!i|.p. 18. 

■ /*. p. 74. 

• OJMai Ripert, 1886. 


/Am — cbiefly firom the east and 

Dmlu of the CunenlQ estoaiy, i ^ i i edl f - 

almoBt European features, and welMevdope* ^diMl^i^ii^Ilt 
which would alone suffice to Mpantle thenilfio*! ' 
Not are these traits due to contact wHh 
coast, because the Dwalas keep quite doo^: 
their "blue blood," that till lately all half-bnedswen ' 
being tegarded as monsters who leflected i 
Socially the Camenln natives stand at 
_^ level of culture as the 

•vdura* Negroes of the Calabar and Niger. 

the transition in customs and 
as in physical appearance, is scarcely percepdbtt: 
peoples dwelling north and south of the Rio dd Sixfi 
dividing line between the N^x> and Bantu hmfc. .TlW. 
of the Meme river, almost last of the Bantus, difier litds ett^pM* 
speech from the Negro £/lks of Old CaUbar, iriule witchcnrfNMit 
other gross superstitions were till lately as rife a mo Bgt H i aJ lii t 
win and Bakundu tribes of the western Camenln as axifwb&mim 
negroland. It is not long since one of the BakwiiiifaaatlgriKf 
of having eaten a chicken at a missionary's taUe, «H hiawtlf 
eaten by his fellow clansmen. The law of blood for blood ina 
pitilessly enforced, and charges of witchcraft were so inqfUait 
that whole villages were depopulated, or abandODOd tf dieii 
terror-stricken inhabitants. The island of Ambas in tite mlit of 
like name remained thus for a time absolutely deserted, ."iBOt of 
the inhabitants having poisoned each other off with ^kie (Ever- 
lasting ordeals, and the few survivors ending by dreading &» vecy 
air they breathed'." 

Having thus completed our survey of the Buta pQpnhrtom 

from the central dividing line about the ConflD- 
Mf"^«onl^ Chad water-parting round by the ea^ aoud^ and 
■ Clue to west coastlands, and so back to the Sudaiieae:HMC, 

tion. ' we may pause to ask, what routes woe followed by 

the Bantus themselves during the long aget reqaiied 
to spread themselves over an area estimated at nearly ax nulHoo 
square miles? 1 have established, apparently on solid gronndf, 
■ Rectus, Englith ed. xli. p. 376. 


IttttW) neit) asd, <m the eRsttf de 

Itoteidi, withboe in inqxihnit Wt 

btdt Miaiiy to Lake Victocta. 

as .teftiiig on the Atlantic side 

to Boctfa, froln HeieAiland to the 

alter way, »e ituU have neaitjr all the 

gweM diipertion of the Bantu 

vk!* 'by At curioiu distribution 6t 
of' the "Siqueme Beisg," to which 
befen ma^. As first pointed out 
|tj|flf)MiiaiArMihiA( with Its 

'along ~tfae eastern sea- J^^t 
and both in w-^S""!?' 

tun liVarahlp. 

intpe here and tbeie pm. 
jtdicate prdii3t<»ic inter- 
;fiteic«al mig^tory movements. From 

idea may be had of the general 

Eihi-KoDKo: Niunln 
Kabinda: Niunbi Fongo 
Lnnda; Zimbi 

Lotago: Zambi, Njrambi 
Bnnda: Oniambi 
Bangah: Numbi 
BRkela: Nihambi 
Rnngn : Anyunbi 
Aohini; Aniembie 
Hpongwe: Njambi 
Bcnga: Anymmbi 
Dw«l«: Njrambi 
Yana: Njraiubi 
HeKTo: NdTunbi 



Of Mimkuhimkttlit the primibre ide 
bett iHomred bnn, the Zola UnMKmtwiK, iWrt il JM <I1| llllill i 
of die root imkMim, great, cdd, hence a dnfailhw ^ ttt^MBt 
departed, a direct oiotcome of the iiiiiiiij wili|i ■! la htoM 
ajDongst Negro and Bantu peoplea'. Thns UriiilMtiiliiftaii—ii 
the direct progenitor of the Znln-Xosas : tWwfcwhtfc iikdmwiht. 
Bat the (undamental meaning of IfaamM » wdEMnrm. Hwibm* 
doei not occur in Kishi-Kongo, and Hr Bender ri^% iOtaEla 
K<rfbe's lar-fetched ex{danation from the Hoero, addin|[ thaC'^Ae 
knowledge of God is most vague, Beared^ move t 
There is do worship paid to God*." 

More probable seems Hr W. H. Tooke^ i 
Nzambi is "a Nature spirit hke Zeus or India," and tttt^ «bile 
the eastern fiantus are ancestor-worshippers, "die weste rn ad- 
herents of Nzambi are more or less Naturewoirii^petv. In tfns 
respect they appear to approach the Negroes of tbc Gold, Snc, 
and Oil Coasts'." No doubt the cult of die dead ptevaas dw 
in this region, but here it is combined with natnralta^ Ibms of 
belief, as on the Gold Coast, where Bobonriai, chief god of ifl the 
southern tribes, is the "Blower of Clouds," the " RanHMdnr," 
and on the Slave Coast, where the Dahoman Mmam amA Ae 
YoTuba Olerun are the Sky or Rain, and the "Owner of tiw SI? " 
{the deified Firmament), respectively*. 

It would therefore seem probable that the MmtkalankDlu 
peoples from the north-east gradually spread by the iodicUed 
routes over the whole of Bantuland, evcrywhtfe t 
speech, general culture, and ancestor-worship on the p 

■ So alw in Minahusa, Celebes, Emfiung. ■' GnutdfaAer," n tfae gmma 
name of Ibe gods. "The fundamental ideas of primitiva uaa at* the WHt 
all Ihe world over. Just as Ihe little black baby of the Ncpo, the brawn 
baby of the Malay, the yellow baby of the Chioaman are in &ce asd fana, ta 
|>eilurei and habits, as well as in the htsl articulate aoondi Ihef uottrr, 107 
much alike, so the mind of man, whether he be ArjraD 01 Mal^, Moagritas 
or Negrito, has in the course of its evolution passed throng Magei wUch aic 
practically identical." (Sjrdney J. Kickson, A Natmralia im MrtA CMa, 
1889. p. J40.) 

' Of. at. p. 96. 

■ Tie Gedeftht EthUfians, in Ifaturt, May 16, 1891. 

' E. B, Ellis, Tiki, p. 13 ; Evic, p. 31 ; Y»r»^, p, 36. 



r'JldaiMift cowtlaods and in puts of 
ijfniBilive N«tnre«<»«htp, embodied in 
IJMidi' in gfouod, both meetiBg on cqnal 
ti.libam TxUe— amongst the BAjruui,- 
K'Brcboaiua (MmbmgtilM gcnerany, but 
d no donbt in other inland regiont, 
J flf one on the cut, 
\t aide of the continent 
4gnenl atreanu of migntion, while the 
c is bat anoAer illuitnuioD of 
I of Bantu q>eech amongat these 
I br an incalculable period of 

»'-ri'^ Nkjiiitoes. 

i^pt. tjbia period, a substratum of non-Bantu 

^Mpttcptpt elements has also ^ ^^^ 

I ifme ethnical domain. DwuiiiiMat 

IjjniBitive peoples, both to "*''"•"*■ 

y to the true Negro, have already been 

I of the African Negritoes Is the 

1 they appear to be at present 

r limits, between about six degrees 

^ vi the equator, unless the Bushmen be 

f probably ranged much farther north, 

I accompanying their "big brothers" 

erland), and in historic times finding 

y to ^yp^ where they were certainly 

ojtm ago. This is evident from the 

^ in the "Book of the Dead" as far 

. I^ the dwarfs in medieval tines, 

t at the courts of the 

itions to fetch these 

"Island of the Double," 

• of Shade Land beyond Punt, where 

I there is authentic record was 

^ Kpparently the White Nile, to King 

*mh. Ctwp. XI. 

. «UwHigh t 



AaM <33oo B.C) by his of&ctx, Bamtet ^8i 

Hao-Kbn^ another officer, was Scot t^ V^ J 

a pygmj' alive and in good healdi," 

wtrnj to the south'. That the Duiga c 

know from a later inscription at Kartiak. mA lihiii^-lhviifeaad 

meant dwaif is dear from the txcomfKojimg^Mammtlgmr^af 

a short person of stunted growth. -.. , -y^'j. •^. 

It is curious to note in this connection 
ttatue of the dwaif Nem-hotep, found in bis toaib.M- 
and figured by Ernest Grosse, has a thick elmigated hnd: 
ing artificial deformation, unshapely mouth, dull expiMiJM 
full chest, and small deformed feet, on whkh he mch 
balanced It will be remembered that Schweiafurth's AkloM i 
Mangbattuland were also represented as top-heavy, ahfaoa^ the 
best observers. Junker and others, describe those td the WtSc ud 
Congo forests as shapely and by no means ill-propoitioBeiL ' 

Prof. Kollmann also, who has examined the renuuui of Ae 
NanitoM Neolithic pygmies from the Schweiieninld Sttdoe, 
■nd fygmy Switzerland, " is quite certain that Ae dwtafSke 
""' proportions of the Utter have nothing in conniaa 

with diseased conditions. This, from many pcnnts of nev, is 
a highly interesting discovery. It is possible, as Dr Nfi etd i 
suggests, that the widely-spread l^end as to the former eiuteace 
of little men, dwarfs and gnomes, who were supposed to haont 
caves and retired places in the mountains, may be a remiBisaaice 
of these Neolithic pygmies*." 

This is what may be called the picturesque aspect vS tlie 
Negrito question, which it seems almost a pity to spd3 bf too 
severe a oiticism. But "ethnologic truth" oU^es tu to ttf 
that the identification of the African Negrito with KollgnnnS 
European dwarfs still lacks scientific proof. Even araniology bib 
us here, and although the Negritoes are in great majority mmd- 
headed, Di R. Vemeau has shown that there may be e 

' Schiiparelli, Vna Tomba Egitiana, Rome, 1893. 

» Prof. James Geikie, Sculliih Gtegr. Mag. Sept. 1897. 

* Thus he finds {VAnihrtjMiliigit, 1S96, p. 153) a piewBaUj Hegrtao 
skull from the Babinga district. Middle Sangha river, to be ditfiactlf long- 
headed (73-1) with, fO[ this race, the enormous eivnial capadtj of abont 




d" die phyaical type hu 
fioiBtl. Thasdte.0nH^ 

by 1> Donaldfon „i?D^r* 
the /M0 Negritod g|;;^ 
Ten seen by AatiXDe 
to avenge five feel, or more than 
be tnie Negrito. D'Abbedie in bet 
were not pj^imie* et sll', while 
OS d«t "doko" ii only a tenn of 
poor reUdoni.'' 
woe a black ikin, roiuid featttrea, 
eyes, rather thic^ lips, high chedt 
very wdi formed bodies " (p. 373). 
sometimes timid and 
liable and merry, and then 

very a 

tff • kxA of intense apger." Pygmies, 

whole of the country north ot Lakes 

^knig befijre any erf* the tribes now to be 

bat they have been gradually killed 

lost dieir characteristics by inter-marriage 

so that only this one little remnant, 

the existeooe of a pygmy race. 

IpaDy by hunting and they still kill a 

Uietr poisoned arrows " (p. 174 — 5). 

qiply also to the Wandotvbio, another 

as br north as the 

tdier south all over 

little doubt, to the 

ate tiie henchmen of the Masai nomads, 

'Wg game in return for divers services, 

the same amicable relations as the 

with their tall neighbours in central 

'W.' Astor Chanler were also "armed with 

by Sir W, Flomr (ij7» c.c), and hU 
hitherto known being iioo (Vircfaow). 
&c, 1897. 





bo4n and urotn, and eac^ curied ■ 

called bomUi. . Hut apear ia six iKt 

and mrrowed where gnsped by the.bM&j 

a hole, into whidi it fitted an aimr <*ei 

one's thumb, and with a head two 

of killing dephanta ii to creep 

drive a ipear into its loin. A quick 

from the atrow, and they make off as fiui Jridj 

In all cases the artxnn are poisoned ; and dK 

duced into the animal's body, the 

From Bome of the peculiarities of dur.<^ 
Negritoes met by Junker 
^cw<>ch» ^^ understand why these l(ttl*-fM>|l|j 

favourites with the old ~ 
were "distinguished by ahaip powers of 
talent for mimicry, end a good memory. A 
was afforded by an Achua whom I bad 
years previously in Rumbek, and now . 
His comic ways and quick nimble 
fellow the clown of our society. He imitated «tl)i 
fideli^ the peculiarities of persons whom he hwi. 
instance, the gestures and facial expressions of Jvwif , 
Shelahis and of Haj Halil at their devotions, al < 
and movements of Emin Pasha, ' with the fouc 
His imitation of Hawash Effendi in a. towering i 
abusing everybody, was a great success ; and 
to the life, rehearsing after four years, dowa to.- 
details, and with surprising accuracy, my ac 
ance when measuring his body at Rumbek*." 

A somewhat similar account is given by Dr 
the Batwa pygmies visited by him and Hert WiaAMMI^iil^ 
Kassai region. Here are whole villages in tiie fittNl<ilMii 
inhabited by little people with an average height of AvA'^ttt/t 
3 inches. They are nomads, occupied exclusively with bunting wtd 
the preparation of palm-wine, and are regarded by their Baki^Hi 
neighbours as benevolent little people, whose spedi 
■ Thrttugk yuiiglt and Dtarl, 1896, p. 3sS— 9. 
* Travib, III. p. 86. 

ttibei with gMM am), pslm-wioe in 

ianed deviatwiis, occQning duefly 

.CKondcnUe uniformity both of phyucal 

,in Sofaad. (o prevail amongit the typical 

n kdbU huntiiig corotQimities lUl over 

rand Ogowai woodlands. Then groups 

at tbe fragments .of a faomogeneoui 

>m atitbcDtic historical record gomg back 

and still persiBt in a great part 


tbe Megrito domain was fonnerly conter- 
loshmcn, of whom traces 
;'p. H. Johnston* as for north ,^^^Z- 
''Taiuiuiyika, and who, it is tow. Fonner 
belong to the same pnmitive Rute. 
inental and physical now 

of the family may easily be explained 

i^jnimeats — hot, moist and densely wooded in 

■tqipes in the south. 

BOW been produced of the presence of a 

l^tentot-Bushman group 

.._-&okue district, between 

victoria. The Wasandawi 

ieir Oskar Neumann are not Bantus, and 

(j instinct from that of the neighbouring 

^■59 iq. As stated in Etk. p. 148. Dr Wolf 
.fMplw with Ac Buihmen lODth of the Zunlicii, 
~ If DOW be MMpled. 

known race of dud inhabiting what is 

iiUa to the Boshman- Hottentot type of N^^ro. 

thitMgh the centre, cimilw to those which are 

for weighting tbeit digging-aticki, have 

.flC XdHu Tanganyika. I have heatd that other 

have bees found neam to Lake Nyata, 



Baatus, but fiill of clicks like that of the -Tt|n|na^. Xwo 
SaDdawi skulls examined by Vircfaov* ritowed JhtfatBt B otfM M 
characters, with a cranial capacity of 1250 aad 1465 cc; pro- 
jecting upper jaw and orthodolidbo head*, lie' feogM^ucal 
prefix JTwa, common in the district (Kwa-Koktte, Kmt^toro, 
Kwa-Hindi), is pure Hottentot, meaning "pet^de," l&e the 
postfix fua (Xiaa) of Korar^iM, Nama-fiM &c. m the present 
Hottentot domain. The transposition of prefixea and poatfxes 
is a common linguistic phenomenon, as seen in the Sofloofo- 
Alckadian of Babylonia, in the Neo-Sanskritk tongues of India, 
and the Latin, Oscan, and other members of Utt Old Itafic 

Farther south a widely-diffused Hottentot-Bushman geo- 
graphical terminology attests the fcvmer range of 
lE^^iTii this primitive race all over South Aftica, as &r 
NwnM In north as the Zambesi. Lichtenstein had alieady 

discovered such traces in the Zulu country*, and 
Vater points out that "for some districts the fact has been 
fully established; mountains and rivers now occupied by the 
Koossa [Ama-Xosa] preserve in their Hottentot names the certain 
proof that they at one time formed a permanent possession of this 

Thanks to the custom of raising heaps of stones or calms over 
the graves of renowned chiefs, the migrations of the Hottentots 
may be followed in various directions to the very heart of South 
Zambesia. Here the memory of their former presence is per- 
petuated in the names of such water-courses as Nos-ob, Up, 
Mol-opo, Hyg-ap, Gar-ib, in which the syllables ai, up, ap, id and 
others are variants of the Hottentot word ii, ifi, water, river, as 
in Gar-ib, the "Great River," now better known as the Onu^fe 

' Verkamll. Berliner Geselhch.f. Anikraf. 1895. p. 59. 

= Of anolhei skull undoubtedly Hottentot, from a Of* on the Truwnal 
and Orange Free State frontier, Dr Mies remarlu thftt "(ODe Fom 1st 
orthodolichocephal wie bei den Wassandaui," although difieiing in acme Qthet 
characters (Cenlralbl. f. Anihrof. 1896, p. 50). 

* From which he adds that the Hottentots "schon lanse ▼<" der Poitu- 
giesischen Umschiffung Afrika's von Kaflei'StiiinmeD wiedei n 
vrurden" {Reiim, 1. p. 400). 

* Adelung und Vater, Berlin, 1811, ill. p. igo. 

may ht traced right aooM the 
iriicn neuly all the coait stieami — ■even 
ki^uge has long been extinct-^ave 

tdtaAawn u« still heard of as far north 

illwfcilariuc beymid Lake Ngami oearly to the 

the Hottentots are now confined 

IJEittk Namaqualand. Elsewhere there 

of this race, the 

&c being all Hotten- ^£5^:;;^^. 

half-castes of Dntch 

dte tribal otgsnisation ceued to exist 

b0t Hottentot chief was replaced by a 

. 1.8^ the Kmaquas keep themselves some- 

(b* Ukxt Orange and Vaal Rivers, and 

East, while the Gonaquas, that is, 

\y merged in the Bantu populations 

There are at present scarcely 180,000 

^JBJra't and of these the great majority are 

!y low state of culture, or, one might 

of culture, the Bushmen are dis- 

le qualities, a certain sense of pictorial 

rich imagination displayed 

much of which, col- 

at C^ie Town. The 

fiiture use, perhaps long after the 

comprise no less than 84 thick 

pages, besides an unfinished 

t,ooo entries. There are two great 

I, legends and poetry, with tales about 

•tui, the Mantis and other animals, 

dwelt in the land before the Bushmen, 

sprayers; (1) Histories, adventures of 


124 HAN: PAST.AM&JmilgW^l ' ■^~ Ml^ 

i. ' ... ) '... W ' <l * 

men and animals, cnslomt, 8^«nUtilM%'uaMM|li|hl^vJnd 
■o on. i iX 'ii*pi '6<mi,r 

In the tales and myUu the son, noBO, SMl .MwwifcLlBUlf 
either with their own prtqicr ^dkl^aC^lMfliBllM 
Htalnlratot ordinary elides in some way ^ 
■ Thus Bleek tells as that dko b 

•ad CUcka. 

in labials, the ichneumon in paatiBSt Me JauM 
substitutes linguo-palatals for labials, while die wooa, iMiii: 4nd 
ant-eatei use "a most unpronounceable cUdt" of . ttatc Mm. 
How many there may be altogether, not one of wliidi, iXB be 
properly uttered by Europeans, nobody seema tfr kao*. Bat 
grammarians have enumerated nine, indicated each by a gnphic 
sign as under : — 

Cerebral I Palatal \ 

Dental | Lateral (Faucal) |t 

Guttural ] Labial Q 

Spiro-dental i Linguo-palatal Q 

Undefined x 
From Bushman — a language in a state of flux, fragmentny S> 
the small tribal or ratherfamily groups that speakit — these stiinge 
inarticulate sounds passed to the number of four into the remotely 
related Hottentot, and thence to the number of three into the 
wholly unconnected Zulu-Xosa. But they are heard nowhere dee 
to my knowled^ except amongst the newly-discovered Waaan- 
dawi people of South Masailand, At the same time we know 
next to nothing of the Negrito tongues, and it would be strange if 
clicks did not form an element in their phonetic system alsO) M 
least on the assumption of a common origin of all these dwarfish 

M. G. Bertin, to whom we are indebted for an excdient 

monograph on the Bushman', rightly remariu that 

mfn^"'" ^^ '^ "°'' ** ^^^*' mentally, so debased as he has 

chancten. been described by the early travellers and by the 

neighbouring Bantus and Boers, by whom he has 

always been despised and harried. "His greatest hive is for 

freedom, he acknowledges no master, and possesses no slaves. 

' Thi BtuhnitH and their LaHguag/, in your. R. Aiiatk Sx. xnil. P«rt 1. 



which made him prefier the 

to that of a peacefal agrictilturist or 

He rutlj builds a hut, but prefiers 

caves he finds in the rocks. In other 

%kiDd of nest in the bush — hence his name d 

bit nails subterranean cav^, from which 

.' His garments consist 

His we^tons are still the spear, arrow and 

totm. The spear is a mere branch 

tied a piece of bone or flint ; the arrow is 

way. The arrow and spear-beads 

fQ lender mortal the slight wounds th^ 

'fl0 iodts, which would impede bis movements, 

^ hdp of dogs as wild as himself. The 

«K inqtlemeot, a rounded stone pei^ 

'which is insened a piece of wood ; with 

ns back to the first age of man, 

roots growing wild in the desert To 

die primitive system of rubbing two 

ic survival" 

it is obvious that these scattered groups, 

oisation of 
ao ooUective designation. k^SI^!^,. 
'ifSK^itain meaning, bat qto- 
' " the Hottentot XAoi, " Men," is the 
thoDgh often appUed to the whole 
is the plural of Sa, a term 
:^ Sd4va, cuirent amongst the Bechuanas, 
while the Zulu Abatwu would seem to 
tlj^ame with Wolfs and Stanley's Bahoa of 
Cither socalled tribal names (there are 
of the word) are either nicknames 
'MJghbouis, or else terms taken from 




Primitive Culture — 

ji Spirit World —Social Iiutitutioni— ^tunubaTum « 
.emiksotiiy — Tkt New Catttbmiatu — Phjiical Chu 
Age^Eailv Munitions — The Food Question — Tniumigntiaa 

Freemisotiry— TX/Ata; Cajlnfonwnj— PhyiiaJ Ch met en T l^ Stojw 

~ ily Munitions — The Food Question — Tiuumigntiaa aad ««- 

IVttlim /fa/vona— Etbnic&l dements— Table of the tdMlfa 

i Bi<d<;0cal DMOm-' 
Aui/roUans and Taiiman'ans^-A Region of long ItoUUoB uhl T^^|^n^^fJ 
Uniformitjr— Karty peopling of Austr>ii> — Unitj of AnSnilMn Iraxfli 
Numeral System — A Typical Hunting Race — GeWnre-Specch — MaHal 
Capacity— Religious Ideas— Mythical Heroes — Treatment of the W«Ma 
~^1b5s Marriages — CoTamunal Marriage Syitem — AattHlian .HbWW 
and Mimicry — The Tasmanians — Undeveloped Speech— The Tlte Hjn 
— Rude Implements — Diet— DwelUngs — TempenuneDt — Tl* A A ft 
Negritaes — Tne Andamanese — Stone Age — Reugiont Belkifa' 
gony — Speech — Tlie Negritoes of the Malay Peninnla: 
Sakais — Myths — Physical Appearance — Usages — Speech — SbMC AfjB In 
the Malay Peninsula— The Nwritoes of the Phllippinear— 7X« Attv-^ 
Head-hunlers — Untameible Aborigine* — The Family naiy il fc li w Cm 


>■ Primeval Home. Papuasian : JUaiaysiaj Jtfyta 
Guinea, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia; Aiutnliah 
and TasmaDian -. the whole of Australia and Tasmamitt 
respectively; Negrito: India (?), Andatnant, JIfaUy 
Peninsula, Java, the Philippines, parts of New Gfhtta, 
Timor (f). 



yl^^HiVWani. £att Afaiajraa, JVm 
til tmstUM partf af 
nuniwi: txiitKtj Ne- 
Fmauida, PiuUffims. 
Umek. JriMtfy, mt^ike ("Mi^ c5SS^ 
Austialian : pH^-Nadt, Mn- 
tkamg k ^An tuarly strmgM, mot 
t^^tun md du^, bimrd t^n wry fitU; 
\tkMfy airUd, kut tMorter and kst 
if N^ito : siurt and tufy. Hie 
M7 da^ tAada ef duco^t bmm, 
9try tcntitmt tfiaraeter, li^tUr 

c4o{68°— 7a')««rf 

btit vpy variaMt if areas ef 

AJlMtnluB aad Tumanum : deUdio 

■^^fmiMrtu^ type) ; Negrito : iradiy 

Mtdiratefy tr met at off progna- 

aad Negrito: generally 

■tt tie iigiest degree. Ohttflk- 

■■i^jrHlfPfeMt or even retreating, but 

Nobs. F&puasian : large, 

iv 4nu Papuans; Australian, 

triangular, very short, flat, 

nostrils (platyrrhine) 

l^as. All : moderately large, 

deep brown, with dirty yellow- 

with strong overhanging 

may dose-set and often bloodshot, 

Aiutnliui, and Tasmaoian : 

KtriaUe, with rather wide range 

n. or 6/1.; N^rito: under- 

Negrito {\ft. 6 in. to sft.). 

very exeitaile, voluble 

intelHgent and imaginative, but u 


even mtre enui ^mtt tke 
TosnuuiiaD : distimctfyksuKlllMti 
far less enul, a^ott n0o» ^HT' 
' quidi^ittid or ammng wHMt aMlfin^ 
kisid and gemtU. ; icvsmfn'I . «((^^_H 

SpaaojL Pkpuasiftn, Kvtmiimf-miik'^li»l000^. 
ag^Mtmating with postfixts, mMmf tkai' imgmifHil0Hf- 
Papuasia, afparaUfy one omfy M JE(a#'^JI|^taiH^JMl» ' 
nesiait), amd in AmttraOa; Nagrita-: -><i«m9M^4IMM3> 
exe^ in Andamans, wken ttggi^iiimtiHt^ Ittl^^ie^ifm 
prtfixes and by postfixes haa Mfldn4-*-' p 1in i mi»l t0: 
velopment. -•■■ .^^^i^,- 

Relitfon. Everywhere exapt in £ 
worship, animism) almost absent, «r «f «■■< 
stage of evoiutiott ; saerifieia/ rUes tati ft iialk>lfn4IP.iMf 
witchavft, etilv-ely absent. yi-jhjji 

Cnltnre. Papuasian: sJightfy d 
somewhat advanced {JV. Guinea, N. Cfl M n w i t) ;f % 
able artistic taste and fanty shown in tie m 
houses, eanoes, outriggers, &v, 
hunting stage, without arts or indmttriet if M^ Mmd^-tt^ 
Australian boomerang a possible exc^HM, ■ -.r.v.j.-.- 

Papnaslan: i. Westeni Papuuiuia(Aw(A;^IHM|i 
' nearly all the tic'HGMmta. natives; Avnmdtt»t/-4Kl0^ 
groups thence westwards to Flores; ToiRi f " 
Louisiade Islands, a. Eastern Pa 
the natives of Melanesia from Bismarek x 
New Caledonia, with most of "Fiji. 

Auatralians : hundreds of tribal groups, i 
characters sufficiently marked to eonstitutt 4 
divisions anywhere. 

Negritoes: i, Andamanese ///ofuEerr. 
Sakais and other scattered groups in the J/iUay I 
3- Aetas, surviving in most of the Fkilippmt Itiamit. 



iobicM* ethnksl relations 

of the Etbtoptc 
by the inter- 
Ocean, sre fiindunentaUy one 

sul>KCtio[is in A^ca ccmre- 

,ttfac PipMin and Australian sub-iections 

ibnsig diatingnished by great linguistic 

linguistic uniformity, and 

of physical variety within certain 

are due mainty to Semitic 

•Negro stock ; in Oceania mainly to 

(Indonesian) grafb on the same 

in Africa has its counterpart in 
in Oceania (Andamanese, Sakais, 

^flfuiftic confiuion is mainly confined 

and New Guinea), and in both 

large number of languages differing 

~ stmctote and vocabuUries, but all 

order ot speech, and also more 

listic uniformity is similarly con- 
ical areas (Bantuland in Africa j 
-OccMiia); but while the unifoimity 
and Melanesia, it is limited in 
ire and phonetic systems with 
and lexical diversity'. 
AoitraKa the two respective linguistic 

had given inach •llealion to the latqect, 

ne stock, which wa* itielf 

•m Tot^AUmtal Cafodty, ia Trotua^ftm 


130 HAN : PAST AHD ncnOD^ Hm '^^Etta. 

^Stents show but Imint it.aaj reaanUaiiOM to MVMlHlr'taom 
tongues, whereu the Mdaitenan groap v but c pe t inai^ Ih a n^ 
(he most archaic, of the vast Malayo-Pol yeiita -3lwBy,^3Mtoed 
over the Indira and Pacific Oceani, - 

S: Owing to their linguistic, geografdiical, and-to aoiM Mloit 
their phyncal and sodid difierence^k it dBltfiblai to 
f]^!^,^^^ treat the Papuans and M d a ne M na as trntfatiBCl 
MeUnciiaii though closely related sub^nnp^ and to veatiiei 
^^pnuiMi the use of the terms Papuan and Mslakksum 
accordingly, while both may be caavcaiendy coa- 
prised under the general or collective teim Papdasiak, 

9. Here, therefore, by J'apuata will be undersMod tlie ttw 
aborigines of New Guinea with its eastern Louisiade dependency', 
and in the west many of the Malaysian islands as fiv as Hori 
inclusive, where the black element and non-Halay ^eedi pR- 
dominate ; by Meiatusians, the natives of Melanena as o 
understood, that is, the "Bismarck" Archipelago (Nei 
New Ireland and Duke of York); the Solomon Islands; Siata 
Cruz ; the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Loyalty, and ^i, idKK 
the black element and Malayo-Folynesian speech prevail dmost 
exdu»vely. Papuasia will thus comprise the insular vorid bem 
Flores to New Caledonia, forming geologically a nortiton and 
north-eastern extension of the Australian Continent. 

Such appear to be the present limits of die Pspaaai«q 
domain, which formerly included Micronecis' Aq 
d^'^DoASn'" i^^^ Marianne, Pelew, and Caroline gnM^ii^ mi 
p»M mnd possibly extended over the whole of Ptdyneafc n 

far as Easter Island. The results of the PmflfM 
boring (1897) "indicate almost without doubt that Po iy ne i ii 
is an area of comparatively recent subsidence*," so that the 
insular remnants of that droivned continent may tttll have beta 

' Thai isi Ihe indigenoiu Papuans, who appear to fbnn tbe great b«lk cri 
the New Guinea populations, in contradistinction to the fmmicraiit Mrlinr 
uans (Motu and others), who are numerous espedolly alor^ the sonth-eul 
coast of the mainluDd and in (he neighbourii^ Louidade and D'EatrecMteuu 
Archipelagoes. {ElA. p. 187 sq.) But even here the Papauu fann Ac 
substratum, and despite present overlappings are no doubt the ll 

' K. Lydekker, Knmnledgt, Jan. 1, i8<f8. 



I|'4mm been leached t^ the early Pipiuuan 

I loompantivety recent occupation of the 
t duk racca must now be abandoned, A 
s Dr K T. Hamy, conveys the imprenam 
I {Btpwiriam] axe a very old ethnic group, 
' 1 on the spot by crosnngs with populations 
« (Hakys, Bugia, Sec). Everywhere the priority 
■nifiett ; tbar origins arc lost in the deptha 
It', and this vast antiquity is attested also 
soften unintelligible outside a narrow 
^ lyAremiated usages of the insular groups, 
s that before their diapemon from the 
t, the Papuasians had 
f^edtara high enough to at least c^^T^ 
I, these terms {waMa, ntma) 
Bge in endless dialectic form from the 
h the Eastern Archipelago to the Loyalty 
tt«nitanity of Melaneua. They do not occur 
»^Of aon-Malay speech in New Guinea, and 
%\n» Papuans, stand in some respects almost 
rtte fodal ladder. Miklukho-Maclay found 
C coast near Astrolabe Bay at the 
!, with no knowledge of the metals, all their 
jifmic, wood, or bones. They could not even 
D eztbguished in a hut had to be brought 
, and if in all the huts then^from the 
Th^ir grandfathers remembered a time 
t, aod ale their food quite raw. The dead 
c could be kept up for two or three weeks 
I was placed near it in a sitting posture, 
IJ; leaves and guarded by the wife*. 

M lei profondeutt d'un iiuondable paise " 

1897, p. 157 sq.) See alto W. VoU, 

p, ia Artlm/. Antkr^. Nov. 1S94, where it 

n fbnnerl; occupied «]] the Pacific Ocean, 


Almost cveiywhen tbe tribal orgintntiDa »|iif|.(ijTiilij jipill'. 
their sodal instinitioiu [HinidlWVidt'iMiMliMH M 

expression can be used *t afl, cwid nt » wt fa q wad 
belief. Even the totemtc systems are <in d i nk » j p w^ M V« wc 
from the attitude of the Masin^uwnu peopk rf:A|g?Wfcini) 
coast towaids their "god," the m#iSr (croixxlil^ iriw any be killed 
but not eaten. 

They have a myth about one Usai, who race bevd caifng 
and talking in his own language, and found It wm k croctNfik 
phiying with his two Ultle ones. He therefore condBded it mtm 
be a god, «4io ought to be secured for the tribe. Nest di^ afl 
the people went and asked him to be their god, bet aMwqgfc fb^ 
promised to keep him in food, he decUned the boaoai. So Safja, 
as he was called, was seized with Ulbe, one of bit too^ Ud 
brought to the village, where, in the absence of their puCMii 
some of the children disappeared every now utd tbeat. Vhen 
their loss was traced to Nugu, it was agreed to nfpty iota ttith 
pigs on his giving his word to leave the chihben lidns. 1^ 
effigies of Nugu and Ulbe are still preserved, and at the hantiHg 
feasts are set up in the circle of dancers, refreshed wiib Kbstisn 
and greased with pig's fat. " The memory of Nugu is abo jper 
petuated in the figure of a man which is kept in tbe diieTi beoac^ 
and is the great totem of the tribe*." 

Like all true Negroes the New Guinea people paaa icafljFftatn 

comedy to tragedy, displaying in their temperHnml 
^Tcmp«n- ^ strange blend of boisterous ammal. Spirits and 

fiendish cruelty. When a neighbooriog.cosit viBsfe 
has to be raided for blood vengeance, the wairiofS in Thr rswiwi 
get up a tremendous din, shouting and singu^ to EaboahiB^ 
"the man in the moon," banging the sides of the csnoe^ lMatlD( 
the drums, and blowing the conch-shelL If the attack b aHcoCMfid 
the killing and plundering is " accompanied by the most infernal 
yelling and shouting," which is renewed oa reaching die canoes 

> No priesicnft or statecraft, no lotemislic e\»m evxptinTorrmSat^f^, 
□o hereditaiy chiefs except in the Tnibriuid Group (Ra^ and ""^^w) 

> B. A. Healy, Ofina/ Report, Brilish New GwDca, tSgf, Appwrfia T 


. (kudog, dnim-beatmg, condi- 

oaptmi' pafana are pierced, « string 

r end the bandi tied together at the 

I 'vojwge tbej aie jeered at wtd Unnted 

Ji^^'-ioMnnt and when the ftotilU anives they 

' and fidted out by those on the 

ii tftaa into the ten vulnerable fleshy 

» bdng baned by cattom. In the village 

V • tope secnied to a tree is passed louod 

»«A«m ait with head tnet, and their hands 

t female relative of the man to be 

1 with a sharp-pointed stick. "Ii 

9 idht adcs, " thai you have seen my son 

Ii it with this Hg^t eye you 

k cooked and eaten? Well, this is the 

[the stick into his right eye. All the 

m follow, each in her turn inflicting some 

I, ifier which he is wrapped in dry coco- 

■e six feet from the ground, and slowly 

" When the rope by which the body is 

^ibody fidls to the ground the wildest and 

The natives rush with knives in 

g;« fnece ofi'the body, which may be still 

il ooise and yells of Kjoicing*." 

h scenes are still rife in many parts 

l-j^lbeyond the teach of the 

■dmmistrations. Even 

cannibalism in its most repulsive 

before the British occupation, and 

jtdls US that at a penodical feast, which 

he found the guests strutting about 

tngling from their neck and arms." 

Jwaqnet "was spared for a future time, 


iKlfcatteomings are redeemed by scarcely 
itittftrt, 1895, Appendix S, p. 44 »q- 
' ~ <, i8Bj. 


134 man: past and nmssm'^lhi' &;b^- 

^VH/ . r 

any good qiulitiea, at least amongst tbe S.S. «aiM||if!H||^llll^VBd 
Hr H. H. Romillywas inclined, after diligent uqaiig^A.'ttlvdaife 
thai " tbey possess no virtues whatever*." It shOBH^a wHa i B. be 
stated that intelligent, peaceful, and friendtf trSiet Mi»4MK'ba(b 
by the British and German expeditions to die tnteodr M'tSgfr— S. 
Dr Lauteibach speaks of an upland district in tfae r~ 
Range thickly inhabited by a settled people ' 
communicative," who lived in veiy long pile 1 
midst of coconut palm groves'; and Sir W. Macgregor met qa the 
Mount Scratchley dopes an isolated community of tme 1 
with frizzled hair and of dark bronze colour, lAo * 
themselves amiable and peaceful, and the state <d. thcit ■nns 
indicated that they had not been engaged in any waitike voder- 
taking for years *." Certainly the worst accounts hitfaetta reoetred 
have been of coast tribes, such as the piratical Tamngam and 
Wandamens of Geelvink Bay, and especially the ft 
cannibals of the south coast. Even Mr Romilly speaks fi 
of some of th«r physical qualities, keen sight whidi i 
footsteps over rocky ground or through dense scrub, when t« tbe 
European eye no trace whatever has been left, and m alnoat 
equally acute sense of hearing. 

In some parts of New Guinea the local conditions and trifanl 
usage have ^ven rise to a consideralite nriety ol 
Afb^^ritand house architecture, comprising aquatic stUtoos. tike 
Communal those of prehistoric Switzerland, huge coouonnal 
structures of too primitive a type to be com- 
pared with the casas grandes of the Pueblo Inttiah^ and 
arboreal dwellings perched in the forks of trees a handled feet 
high, provisioned to stand a siege, like those td the CcBUJ 
Sudanese aborigines. Mr J. P. Thompson describea s<»ne ttfAe 
south-east coast villages as "raised upon long piles in the sea 
from loo to 300 yards from the beach, encompassed by wato: of 
varying depths. Some of these houses are surrounded bf feoce% 
and a(x:essible by primitive steps, while others are niqmtected 

' Frem my Verandah in New Guinea, (889, {>. 51. 
' GcBgr. Jeur. Jan. 1897, p. 94. 
* lb. April, 1S97, p. 449. 



B atBUucttrnd fwais with tbdr potetqae 

H loag pUe*'." 

ifilP^IUvcr and theGulfofPapnathiiobwrver 

flt viMny pooesMt one honse over 500 feet 

I by gnit pHBBget nmning right through 

"so that the interior iecti<m 

k mMe with Ha nnmerous stalls. TheK sub- 

I An^iiaceSf which are used for cooking the 

l^tn le usually kept burning day and night to 

■ flbd other obnoxious insects'." Although 

nd Mveral side-doors, these buildings, which 

k tbe satftce of the ground, are always dark 

A Ifae «rt)onftl structures are at least bright and 

ft dwallii^ are constructed in the highest 

ibove the ground, and ap|Hx>acfaed by almost 

K CSMStrueted id long spliced saplings lashed 

i^aoH^Mi at evay 15 inches. These houses, 

I ptatfotms, are stocked with food and 

l^Md (kmtantly occuined by their owners, 

tbf the raids of their slayers that they 

ff than they can possibly help fcv the 

y food'." 

c is prefixed an introduction on "New 

t >^^ Mr Andrew Lang, who 

t that "the super- 

I hardly be said to 

ffwlgioii," adding that " we know from other 

I Mdanesia have the general elements of 

fit*." This is a good illnstration of the 

C die use of the term Papuan to the 

1 iSBd neighbouring islands, and main- 

D tbem and the true Melanesians of 

Ik pi g& For llie ftdttH fttrt of thcM aquatic 

Ij^nntilH' dweUingi occur in Geelvink Bajr on 
■ t, p. 179)- 




MaUyo-Polyneiiui ipeedi. HmI Ht I^lg 99^0 
poin^ he would have seen that tba N«w G 
Papuans, may well be without any intolligiblc tttm -fC'ff 
while the Uelanesian Papuans, as he calls then, bm» rfcljiBlnlij 
of rdigkm " like other people." Their tt$l».yo-P9tfmm»iii yowk 
alone shows that they must for ages have botn incloMTCataflt 
with the Indonesians, from whom th^ have tegfdioi immiImc 
more than " the elements of religion." 

Convincing proof of this is supplied by sscb wo^: w.Mr 
C. M. Woodford's A JVatMraUst aumg tkt Mm^ 

s^iit World. Jsiands and tteir JVatives (ifUj), aiKta 

Rev. Mr Codrington's 7X« MlriuuHmt <i89i)u 
The last named shows that, although for U^ of an tdcqwte 
native term the MeUnesian Mission has had eva y g h eie to me 
the Englbh word God, all the Melanesians have a religioai wjtum 
developed enough to distinguish between spiri/i; Le. "loiwr- 
natural beings that never were in a human body," aad g k mt , 
i.e. " men's spirits that have left the body'." Then ti mofcover 
the universal belief in mana, a supernatural power or ioflaeaes, 
which, though impersonal, is always connected with some pnnoM, 
spirits or ghosts, who direct or control it. As &r as I eam<mmfim- 
stand Mr Codrington's explanation, this Mana ia a kind of 
spiritual force or virtue, somewhat analogous to the AngmtiiUBD 
graa, transmitted from the higher powers to man eidier U ne A f ^ 
or through some material object — a stone of peculiar dnpe, ft 
tuft of leaves or the like — the possession of whkh Hovn (nek 
and success in this life, just as the material water of IwHJiiii 
opens the way to happiness in the next. In any caae mdi « 
metaphysical conception reveals an immense advmoe on tte 
gross anthropomorphism of the New Guinea Pi^Niam. 

A similar subtle line of thought is manifinted in dw kku 
associated with sacrifice, prayer, invocation, dreams, prophecy, 
omens, death and burial rites. Lolomboetogitogi, i^Mde <tf tiie 
dead, shows curious analt^ies with the Hades of die aocsenta. 
In Lepers' Island it is reached, like Avemus, by descent through 
a volcanic vent near a lake, where ghosts assemble, and iriiere the 



by l^igitevu, the gbosU^ ruler of the 

tfa« iakt, irhkher no min u knovn to 

riie through uiirther deft, * proof 

tkft etiet of the shadei who htre climbed 

iCiUed slood to him for s sign that he is 

'tnet and housei where dwell the dead, 

>lMtrthe fl^pKS of the moon, and arc seen 

tne-fera tnutks right in the path of 

iM'flft fiutbo* into the gloomy woodlands. 

an evil- minded, and prey on the living 

Lo|oinboetogjtogi, where all Uve a h^>py if 

irom sorrow and earthly woes. 

capaUe (rf assimilating if not 
i.rad ottD sublime fancies, 
owl pcri>^» than some of ,„^J^J,^ 
in many respects not 
itha average New Guinea native. The 
maUe to free them from the charge of 
and other atrocious practices, 
tmf atill be made for these isUnders, 
laids of white kidnappers in quest of 
rAe Eenivian and (formerly) the Queens- 

prerailed till lately in Fiji 
:<Cut that, for some thence ^^^ 

a whole tribe in Viti and Haad- 
^-^ cooked alive in ovens '""**''■■ 
k^;^idi tecnrteot taro feast A great part 
the oral common law to bide their 
when the survivors were rescued 
ti Ae Archipelago in 1874. Now the 
Protestant or Roman Catholic, 
who had in his time devoured 
heaven subjects, became a devout 
supposed to be peculiar to the 
contraty a very wide range, from the 
Malaysia to the utmost limits of 




— ' " ■■■ ' ■ ■^ 

Fftpuasia. It ii rife in the Soiomon groopv mtot'llM - „^ . 

ui thU "the cbiefa of New Geoigu or RnllllM IMJliiWilfirtll 

to Ywbel, Florida, attd Gosdalcuur, «nd tbaty 

over t hundred miles in length. Within t 

no native out be said to enjoy the secnrify of h 

for a single day. In the villages of Rubiaaa nay'towOB iM^M 

of sknlls testifying to the success of preriooi espeAlaait ^Gk(i^ 

Cheyne, when visiting Simbo or Eddystone Island in tSi|i4,1t»aid 

that the natives had just returned 'from a sooceasM tifmiUuM, 

bringing with them ninety-three heads of kmb, < 


As in Borneo, the practice is not nee 
cannibalism, and heads are often sought cither fcr dw IWMWUf 
of the prize, or in proof of prowess, or for some ceBeUMBial 
purpose. Thus a new canoe has in some {daces to be h «pUa irt 
in blood before it can be endowed with tlM efficacioiia giacse'«f 
mana. Human sacrifices have also to be provided far> aodlMl 
only heads but living captives are often carried off and k^it la 
reserve for some great occasion, sudi as the death of a diieC tins 
foundation of a house, or the launching of a war canoe. ' '■• 

That indifference to physical pain iriien inflicted «B adxai, 
so characteristic of all Papuasians, is seen in a nediod of •driving 
which is not, however, peculiar to the Solcnoon groi^i. ^TIm 
bees of both men and women," writes Hr Woodford, '^nt kp- 
quently ornamented all over with dcatiices eittter caudaa ov 
chevron-shaped. The operation is a painful and ooatly omt, u 
the professional Uttooer has to be highly paid for his tioAl^ 
and not every child's friends can afford the fee demanded. Tht 
instrument used is the claw of the fiying-fox. The 
patient is not allowed to sleep for two or three a 
the operation is performed, and then, whoi be ts ready to itof 
from weariness, the lattooer b^ns his work, and conplates itM 
one sitting.... A child was brought for my ii 
had just be«) finished off. It was in a painful ■ 
irritation, and the fece swelled (o an enonnOBs stie. A hole wu 
aciaped lor it at the edge of the sea, where it could lie on id 

* (y. fir. p. !«. 



rie ntime dip lu fierered fiwe into the 

it Jwd quite recovered'." 
EeWoodfoid discovered a wide-sprexd system 

ipii4Nnv tenii he calk *' castes," 
|;f,b0« kiad of freenusoiny with „^^l^^, 
K'tbatiRlid aome of the adjacent 

I, or JCua, as they ue variously called 
ilj^ffrtinnil way, have each its proper name, such 
i ' and most powerful, in Guadalcanal ; 
1^ XaiOM and elsewhere. Tribes of different 
I of the same lodge, and it is owing to 

1 by them that the assodatea are able to 
e to village even iriien war is raging between 
f lefen somewhere to the Su/we, a nmilar 

1 Arou^iout the New Hebrides aitd the 
i of social club, which gives a certain prestige 
Mnban, and' has a jimm/ ("lodge") in every 
f to die associates. It is intefesting to note 
Iple of British New Guinea, originally from 
ft laigc communal house in the village Aiiti, 
pwe, d and i being interchangeable, 
IS|t sod Rotuma ttUa, and Sesake mata Id stUa. 
e club eirists as an institution in Motu- 
Kv4>4{bt have been transfen-ed to the separate 

k needed io a region where the main 
is to take each other's heads. They 
t-'llinqri prowling about for prey, but rarely 
^ figd that they have their victim in their power 
. Theirs is the same motive that animated 
n I once saw in Fiji take a live rat, de- 
\t feet with his knife, and then allow it to 
The same motive that animates school- 
jLtttfinqutes the Englishman's inquiry, 'What 
| g | ^tt B destructive instinct that, after centuries 
'a vk our nature*." 
j^Ih 91. ' Btk. p. 187. 


*% J«»»- 


Tlw "Kmnakis," as the utint of Kor AM*#lcW4»tlN 

Loyilty group are wroa^ ' i 
y^^ ^^ j^ mien, have been carefiiUy m 

anthropologists. Ferba|» the bcM JMVMK wf than 
is that of M. Augustin Bernard*, baaed on d>e obMiaMiCMB of 
de Rochas, Bourgard, VieiUard, Bertillon, UcMUck^ lad Keane. 
Apart fnnn several sporadic PolynesiaQ gioupa w At Xofvltw**, 

all are tjriNcal Melanesians, loivlwadeil vUi miy 
c^^^. broad face. at least in dw ondcfle, nmom bci«- 

shaped skull (Ceph. Index 70)*, UigH, ■■■■imliiwii 
jaw, often with two supplementary molan*, coloBr adaik cfaocalate, 
often with a highly characteristic purple tinge; but de Bodumf 
sutement that for a few days after birth in&nts aie of » lig^ 
reddish yellow hue lacks confinnation ; hair less wodlj bat nttdi 
longer than the N^o; beard also longish and fiisaly, tbe pq>pe^ 
com tufts with simulated bald spaces being an effect die le Ae 
assiduous use of the comb'; very prominent superafiaiy aidws 
and thick eyebrows, whence their somewhat furtive took^ tnrwn 

' Kaiiaia is a Polynesian word meaning " mtto," and tboold t h erefate b^ 
restricted to the brown Indonesian group, but it ii indiicriDiauelf sppUed bf 
Frencli writers to all South Sea Islanders, whether bbdc «( bnwa. T%k 
nisuM or the term has fouod its way Into some En^bfa books Of tn*el.«*Hi 
in the corrupt French form "CBDaque." 

" VAnhiptl ,<t la NttaielU CaUdimU, Pari*, 1 Hgj. 

) Lifu, Mate, Uvea, and Isle of Pines. These Poljmesuu ^ipew to have 
all come originally from Tonga, first to Uvea Island (WalUt), and dlOKe b 
tbe tSth centuT7 to Uvea in the Loyalties, cradle of all tbe New C 
Polynesian settlements. 

' This tow index is characteristic of most Fapoauans, and la 
extreme of dolichocephaly in the extinct Kai-Colos of Fiji (fij*^ and 
some coast Papuans of New (Guinea measured by Miklokbo-Haday. 
observer found the character so variable in New Guinea that he WH m 
use it as a racial test. In the New Hebrides, Louisiade*, 11 
also he found many of tbe natives to be round-headed, with ill 
So and 85 ; and even in the Solomon Islands Dr (inppjr r 
indices ranging from 73 to Si with a mean of Si in TreaMrj bisad {Natmy, 
April t6, 18H3). Thus this feature is no more conitanl amo^pt the OcMnic 
than it is amongst the African Negroes. (See also M. Macky't pi^ier In Aw. 
Lina. Soc. New Sauih Wain, 1881, p. 171 Bq.) 

' Etk. p. 184. 

" JM. pp. 170-415- 



IMcBOUBa with three marked varieties, 
d J M trictt bong considered the most nidi- 
^.vbole M e la ne sian group'. 

of the few t^ces in the Pacific where 
'ilWen found <tf an eariy Stone 

It of PaUaoUthic rimes in a^^"^ 

Seipeatine hatchets have 

brooi^t to light in pleistocene beds*, 

>ihr ^e coralGne limestone associated with 

BdMT fossil or sub-fossil shells, and at 

<Kseovered some hearths under 5 feet of 

of 30 feet four day cooking-vessels Uke 

^Burial matter, however, accumulates rapidly 

salhcs, if not the direct descendants of the 
must still have arrived 
probably following the t^^^ 
jSl miction from Makysia. 

offers no obstacle, nor are the trades 
to [xcvent such migratory move- 
The land connections were also, as 
at |»esent, while the taro and yam — 
origin, but now widely diffused over 
seem to indicate the route followed 

industries, in some respects the rudest, 
Qtoit advanced in Melanesia, it may be 
the New Caledonians, like the 
and some other insular groups, 
almost completely secluded from the rest 
ta tbe poverty of the soil 
I always have been severe, q^tau^^ 
guarded privileges of the 
Oi questions of diet, while the paradise 
they had abundance of food and 
stomach, like that of the Bushmen, 

» P. J70. 
■ P-«M- 


^v « 






feeiM to have acquiied an excqumnl poMlN 
contnctioo, enaMmg them at one tnie to 
quantities of food, at anodier to go fintim 
withoot fedii^ any ill effects from sooh 
between want and sarfeit. They were alto 
cannitMdisro and the institution of taboos if 
with religion, had certainly lost that character in New^ 
where they are mainly connected with the eternal ibod 

In the absence of game and cattle the natives oonli^ 
neither hunters nor pastors, and were driven to 
agriculture to supplement the scanty resources of the 
and founa. Hence it is as fishers and husbandmen 
became one of the most advanced peoples in the Oceanit 
The skill displayed in the irrigation of their taro fields 
only by the natives of Fiji. ^ 

Like the Levites amongst the Jews, the office of iakai0 

or wizard) was hereditary, and the chief lealilPC> 
Trans- their religion was the cult of the dead. In 

mi^ratioii ftod ^ 

PMsimiuB. gods, all evil, were, as in Bantuland, me 

the departed, and especially of the diie^~ lifa^ 
acquired increased power of working harm by migptnig 
sharks, the winds, or thunder-storms. Thus the tqwrits of 
forefiathers that oppressed them in life bestride the ndiiriwoid il| 
deathi and continue to harry the living by disturbing die 
nature. All this developed a gloomy, sullen t emp ct a awtt^ a 
pessimistic mood and the ferocity of despair, as displayed espeddlf 
at the tribal gatherings {fUm-fiim)^ and in the orgies after tibe laN^ 

feast, which often ended in massacres and hideoas 

Returning to the Papuan lands proper, in the 

west of New Guinea we «[iter one of tibe 
tangled edinical regions in the worid. Here 
doiit>i« a lew islands siidi as the An 
inhabited by falM>lood Papuans, men who faniisbed 
llie wmMs on which he built up Itts tnie PapvMi Qpc^ 
hen sanoe been Tainly assailed by so many faAcr 
in oihafjy C tffMn» Eoiu^ Timor, and so on to 
ttkwfiiil and lingnxsiic elemenis aie 





hopeless confusion. Discarding the term '*Alfuro'' as of no 
ethnical valued we find the whole area west to about 
120° E. longitude^ occupied in varying proportions Element*! 
by pure and mixed representatives of three distinct 
stocks: Negro (Papuans), Mongol (Malayans), and Caucasic 
(Indonesians). From the data supplied by Crawfurd, Wallace, 
Forbes, Ten Kate and other trustworthy observers, I have con- 
structed the subjoined table, in which the east Malaysian islands 
are disposed according to the constituent elements of their in- 
habitants' : — 

Am Group — True Papuans dominant ; Indonesians (Korongo- 
ei) in the interior. 

Kei Group — Malayans; Indonesians; Papuan strain every- 

Timor ; Wetta ; Timor Laut — Mixed Papuans, Malayans and 
Indonesians ; no pure type anywhere. 

Senvatti Group — Malayans with slight trace of black blood 
(Papuan or Negrito). 

^oti and Sumba — Malayans. 

^u — Indonesians. 

Plores ; Solar; Adonera; LombUn ; Pantar ; Allor — Papuans 
pure or mixed dominant ; Malayans in the coast towns. 

Burn — Malayans on coast; reputed Papuans, but more pro- 
•^Wy Indonesians in interior. 

Ceram — Malayans on coast; mixed Malayo- Papuans inland. 

Amboina ; Banda — Malayans ; Dutch-Malay half-breeds ( * * Per- 

Coram — Malayans with slight Papuan strain. 

Matabello ; Tior ; Nuso Telo ; Tionfoloka — Papuans with 
Malayan admixture. 

iV/'W—Malayo- Papuans on coast ; Papuans inland. 

Tidor; Temate ; Sulla; Makian — Malayans. 

Batjan — Malayans ; Indonesians. 

» Eth. p. 318. 

» But excluding Celebes, where no trace of Papuan elements has been 

' For details see Dr F. H. H. Guillemard, Australasia, Vol. 11. and 
Reclus, Vol. XIV. 


Giloio—VLixeA Papous ; lodoncawH «& iImmWu^ jcgf^ri^ 

ffuVTH,- SalwaUi; Satanta— hUamymm -Btt tHwifiiBajp'r 

Papuans inland. ^i^ ^t 't^t 

From this apparenll}' chaotic pirtun, wlueb Is «HtefliUfti 

such as Timor, presents every gndation fram ibe fiiBWBMI 

Papuan to the typical Malay, Crawfiird conclnded that the eiacate 

section of Malaysia constituted a regiai oTtittidSdM 
T^S^hi between the yellowish brown lank hurtd uft iSb 
DiMunieiiti dark-brown or black mop-headed (tockl. %m% 
■nd Cnaalnsi. ^ s e 

sense this is true, but not m the aeose inteaoed ^f 
Crawfurd, who by "transition" meani the actual pMHge bjr mow 
process of development from type lo lypc mdqicndait^ of 
interminglings. But such extreme transitions have MMrbeie laken 
place sponuneously, so to say, and in any case could nerer hoc 
been brought about in a small zoological area pceBcoting eraty- 
where the same climatic conditions. Biolopcal types mayb^ted 
have been, modified in different environments, arctic, teaqxnte^ cr 
tropical zones, but not in the same zone, and if two audi — rjMtff 
types as the Mongol and the Negro are now found joxtttpCWedJlllMg ' 
Malaysian tropical zone, the fact must be explained 
and displacements, while the intermediate fomia are to be dt^ 
tributed to secular intermingling of the extremes. Why shovddti' 
man, passing from one side to another of an island lo ot ao nOM 
long, be transformed from a sleek-haired brown to a frizxIy-huMd 
black, or from a mercurial laughter-loving Papuan to « Malayan 
"slow in movement and thoroughly phlegmatic in diipoaitlon, 
rarely seen to laugh or become animated in conversation, wkhas- 
pression generally of vague wonder or weary ladneis "^ ? 

Wallace's classical description of these western Fapiuuaa, who . 

are here in the very cradleland of the race^ ew 

Papuanand never lose its charm, and its accuracy has beeofidlf- 

CoDtniti. conlirmed by all later observns. "The typiod 

Papuan race," he writes, "is in many ieq)ecti die 
very opposite of the Malay. The colour of the body is e de^ 
sooty-brown or black, sometimes approaching, but nCvet quite 
equalling, the jet-black of some negro races. The hair is vsy 

■ Dr S. J. Hickson, A Naturalist ia Noflh CtUia, iSBih p- toj- 



Ittaly, pcmag in littk tufts or 

niT'lhfrt asd compact, bataftonrds 

DBug the compAct; ftisi^ 

i'« pride jmd ^kii7.MThe moni chvu- 

tsiak to iqMnte him udirtinetly 

Ui IoAd .snd feftturea. He is iinpukive 

itm. Hit ein(Hi(»u and 

is ihouta and laughter, in yellf and 

ha* a greater iedtng for ait than 

im canoe, hi* bouae, and.almoit evciy 

CRrvin^ a habit whidi ia rarely 

the kCalajr i«ce. In the affection* and 

lbs other hand, the Papuans aeem very 

.«( their children they are often 

Aa HaUys are almost invaiiably kind 

between the Malayan and 

Wd don b, Wdloo, „^^^ 

, Jni ^ dttinon between the bioIokic^ 

floiuand&unu, "''**^' 

Ibc ^timi* of Siunbawa and Celebes. 

wdoded from tfac'Papuasian ieahi»t 

■llaUyan aoological and botanical 


*!tisinanians are, or were, abwdutely 

Ive insular domains, where tbey 

rematned practically secluded 

the whole course 

li^ifaioe tfte first peopling jaag iwUtion 

Similar conditions 
'^y elsewhere only in 

^ inhabitants of these isolated 

a certain degree of uniformity in 

The modifications are 

p. XL. 

here everywhere nich u may be accoante4 Iwi . . , .,_^^_ . 
that the present ftbOTigines represent a bkad af «M^|^illMi»l 
three* diflbrent elements in eztiemely lanolr 
interminglings and fresh groupings of tbeai 
through inevitable local shifdngs and dii 
any serious addition of Airther foreign elem«nl» -sAfer lltti ti* J 
settlements. " ■■■.■■•■ ■'■■ 

To the observer arriving on the nordi ooMt of Ajptndik'iW 
New Guinea this homogeneous character of the i^ociglH>>'b j 
very striking. From a region of considenUe etluicaL WalMM 
presentii^ all shades of transition from the fnll-Uood' F^HM'** ' 
the variable Melanesian, he enters a continent in irtikh « flM4 \ 
family likeness is at once detected between all Ae- 
groups of its primidve inhabitants. This ftmUy 
over so marked that, amid all the local difioenoe^ tfat . 
everywhere instantly recognised as members ci a sing 
division, and we at once realise the vast period'of time 
the development of their highly specialised type. Tb^aolMftli 
referred by Mr A. W. Howitt to a time 


must have reached their present botaea Iff 
now submei^ed land- connection, or at all events a 
channels navigable by frail canoes or catamarans 
period of time, he contends, is "one of the elemdita- of VI9^ 
solution of the problem," and during that period the nativea bm) 
been completely isolated within a continental area of if irlnp.j 
ment. 'I'hey arrived, he thinks, by a land-bridge either coonectiaK 
with the Indo-Asiatic coniinent, or by a land extenSHM of Att 
Austral continent towards the north-west, or over some ah^k)^. 
channels between Australia and those lands*. ', 

' Dr O. Finsch. who studied specimeiu from regiMU •• wide apttt u SoiRh 
Queensland, the Gulf of Carpentaria aod West Austialia, iiutiifiedwkliw^- 
" Auf Giund dieser Untersuchungen uberieugte icb taieh, daa die AoMnGv 
eine eigene Rosse bilden, welche den MelancMcm oder Papuat entfcnitcr 
steben als letiteie reinen AfrikHnischen Nq^em " {Seiie m d^ lUim. 1884, 
p. 66). 

* Paper read at ihe Meeting of the Australian Ast. fbf Ae Adv. of SckaM 
Sydney, Jan. 189S. I need scarcely point out how completdT these vims 
harmonise with those advanced in ElA. Chap. XI. 



ghmi 10 this assumptkto by the absoiotely 

iittHbtiii chancter of Australian unity of 

from a common agglnti- AmtnUao 

distinct from any odier, are ^^ 

#»a iigeiicc8 of tlie American tongues from a 

brnkf ivfaile the phonetic system! may be 

identicaL A few traces of sibilants have 

iM^pmcficidly these sounds are unknown to all 

Hers we have complete accord between 

liMilpiiiiGal diarafbtersy both alike arguing for a 

K All attlempts to affiliate this group to 

ffeAMdieni IndiaT or to any other, have signaUy 

Ae '^proofr " of affinity with ** words used 

pBtfbnnad by Mr St Bennett, Mr Taplin and 

Mhfhri a doctor, is equated with the Greek 

Ae-comparbon, to prove anything, should be 

)l^ a handy and ipyw^ work, terms not found in 

So svoA, to strikes Hindi maA^ which 

meiiis moHtA, and maA nothing at all ; and 

Aat €obbera^ head, is collated with English 

which should be Portuguese, only in that 

?MI Biean Aiod^ but snake. And the whole 

^ the native dialects being ransacked for 

^en compared, not with a particular Aryan 

ilbliiem, andent and modem, ancT even with 

" (gibber^ ff^^raltar), which are 

Hence, if the comparisons could be 

liifefence would be that the Australians 

liHgaages to be an amalgam of Aryans and 

T^^iM* from all parts of Europe, Asia, and 

the comparisons made by Mr Curr 

* must also be pronounced worth- 

is attributed by Prof. Macalister to the 
modified tongue, which make their 
(JP^ir^ Brit. Ass. Edinburgh, 1891). 
€f VuUria^ 1878, Vol. II. p. 5 sq. 

10 — 2 

HAM : PAST AND WJU l Bi l il l^:! 

It is more profitable to note, a u '-iDA(aMalt^iii)^|||||||gi 
of the Australian inteUect^ Ott fa^WMJTriJ jWl 

s,^Cr^ dialects are there uif wonlr.fif tfti' iJ«Mill«i 
higher than «r^ atid Am, or bfe»IBriAM> WW, 
b^ond which /»r=9 + 9, ,/^onuuiy, lota^ hMpa^- jtadaMi oi. 
Even i^, ft common word for twc, is naed ^ wito; 
tkree, and in others for many, as if the 
altogether beyond the grasp of the nadve mind*. 'Hi:tmf'' 
" no Australian Black in his wild state can, I 
count as high as seven. If you lay sevoi fin <m LtdUtrtei 
Black to reckon, and then abstract two^ he would not 
If one wen removed, he would miss it, because im muUtf4t 
counting by ones and twos amounts to the same ■• if he MCtiMafl 
by odds and evens*." In fact the Australian stand* 
the binary stage, and has nowhere yet reachied tiie fot'«(:<ttr 
three natural systems — guinary with a 5 base, 
and vigesimal with ao. 

Nor can it be said that they had no need of a 

developed arithmetic system, for it would MwN^ 

hSm™*' anient to reckon at least the number of U 
children and wives, and (as hunters) of tbe txiMl 
of successful "bags." Professor Richard Simtm* rightly M^ 
them as the typical huuiers, in this respect unapproacbed hf 
Canadian trapper, the South African Bushman, or ai^ 
people savage or civilized. Hence in the wild state tti« 
is the most independent of mortab, but at the sub 
prevented from making any progress in culture bqroad a 
very low level. The difficulty of capturing game with his 
methods compels him to give his whole tiine to tlw qt 
of food, and spend his days in roaming restlessly over 

' Thus karba=i in the Heitwrt Vale dialect \_ bat tadkali beyood « «• 

* Kere we are reminded by Dr L. L. Conant ihat'a few 

absolutely destitute of pure numerical tenns. Thnt the Bidiviai ,_ .. 

no true word for ««<■, and ttanta, lo used, really means " alone " (7'Ar Nmmtf*' 
Cotuept: It! Origin and Divdefmtnt, i»gS\. 

■ E. M. Curr, TMi AuifraiioH Ratt, Melboune, (886, VoL t. p. %■%. 

* ReiuerMmiU, &c. in Auitralitn, &c., Leipiig, 1894^ ftuiim. 


lui tiling-grounds, and devising all sorts of artificial methods and 
precnudons for preventing these preserves from becoming over- 
peopled. .\s in New Caledonia, the food question was at the 

£ gefture-laagtuge is ourent amongit tiifi 
b teoirn, ud Mr A. H. Howitt 
b»« ftw of the Mgtis of which a^^' 
s amongst the tribes of 
I'OvMt subject Mr Smyth himself writes: "It 
l^liitTC nretsl rigns, known only to themselves 
i tin whites who have had intercourse witli 
itt'peiiod^ which convey infonnatioii readily 
i^^tujU* statement is now fully confirmed l^ 
liWhot daring his long residence amcHigst the 


S' discorded and become proficient in a 

ranging over a wide area. 

M the West African drum-language, 

btea mastered by Herr R. Betz in the 

KoA has determined the value of no less 

'idifdi are in use amongst a large number 

Queensland district, and serve 

ijhMM, and, thanks to the keen vision 

tether advantage of being intelligible at 

'iTbese signs, which he describes and 

Haigh t in our deaf and dumb schools, 

%()iMfr range of thought, di^erent plants, 

IB, events, conditions, feelings, and 

thus differs from articulate speech 

appeals to the sense of vision, the 

tad should be a complete reply to 

that thought snd spoken language 

m ^ Vitl^ia, 1878, it. p. 308. 

^i wtth.appmdcd ilhuiTBtioni. 


ajtt fpSUP. 

Gremt efforts have been mule by bdievoni 

eqiudity of all nuuikiod to fwenac 
c^i^. tiitioiu, religious ideu, and gcntinL ctftat^A^^^m 

fgrourable a light as pouible. Sna^ AqA 
shovs plainly enough that children in the achoob of yietambt wn 
capable of assimilating a certain amount of tnanhin^ — djHiad 
is especially made to their artistic sense and power of 
even in the wild state, as shown by the |»ct(»ial 
in their caves and rock shelters. Favourite "motives" cCi.tUi 
primitive " School of Art," which compares badly with tbeae HC l)w 
Bushmen and Palseolithic ' cave-men, are the human hand;; wad 
the snake, and this is the account given of the "tMhaiqw"- by 
Mr Ernest Giles: "The drawing [of the hand] is dooe IqrfiUNc.tiie 
mouth with charcoal powder if the device is to be Mack, i£'i«d 
with red ochre powder, damping the wall where the tOMik ta tD:be 
left, and placing the palm of the hand against it, witii the fii^eB 
stretched out; the charcoal or ochre powder is tbes UfMRi 
against the back of the hand ; when it is withdrawn, it ICMtW 
the space occupied by the hand and fingers clean, wbflftilthft 
suiTounding portions of the wall are all black or red) as Uw Mae 
may be. One device represents a snake going into a hole; Ae 
hole is actually in the rock, while the snake is paitited oatfae 
wall, and the spectator is to suppose that its head is juat jnride 
the hole. I'he body of the reptile is curled round and niaod,llw 
hole, though its breadth is out of all proportion to its lengtii^ 
being 7 or 8 inches thick and only a to 3 feet long. It ia painted 
with charcoal ashes which had been mixed up with some aninul'l 
or reptile's fat'." The process resembles that of our Sknd-o^raiiag - 
on glass-ware. 

Their sense of right and wrong Mr Giles describes as )iaMj, 

and he is uncertain whether they have any know- 
idMi*. ""* ledge of a Supreme Being, allowing, however, that 

" nothing of the nature of worship, pnyer, or 
sacrifice has been observed*." Elsewhere he argues that they 

> Auslralia J'tvice Traventd, iSBg, Vol. 1. p. 78. For other procoMO tee 
Mr R. H. Milhcws' Paper on The ftoti PaitMngt tmJ Carvmp oftkt Ant' 
tralioH Ahmypnt!, in Jatir. ArUhrsp, Imt. 1S96, p. 145. 



lal^iect of God or tn ifter4ifi^ mad thu 

'With such nodtmi "bave been impowd 

tbtjr Iwd Iwnt Ksnethmg of Christunitjr 

l«dK», the Blacki had no beUeb or practices 

onif poisiUe view seems evident from the 

i with Pundgyl. who u known 

humf iribeS) and has been selected by the 

Dative "tbeogoniet" as the nearest approach 

nUgioDS texts*. The Pundgyl (BunjU) of the 

iVnm River, has a wife, fioiboi, whcwe &ce he 

•s'Bia^ical and a brother Pal-ly-yan, by whose 

He is provided with a large knife, 

be went all over it, cutting and slashing 

aOffta, mountains and valleys. Then, after 

diere is a curious adaptation of Bunjil to 

•mhea people grow wicked he waxes angiy, 

which shake the big trees on the 

be again goes about with his big knife, 

tiiat way, and men, women, and children are 

pieoea. But tfae pieces are alive, and wriggle 

gteat stMins come, and they are blown 

They are wafted into the clouds, and by 

■Ad thither all over the earth, and thus is 

'Bol-the good men and women are carried 

Mm^ which still shine in the heavens. 

at an incipient state of attcestor-worship, 
god or eponymous 
Ltribe oa the Lower Murray hIJSS.'"' 
o^^iMlly coming down the 
■pding bade two messengers to report his 

Tsislwilli. one of our Mfest guide* in all that 

SMgMof tlteiisU*e*'. "At «11 eventiit ii certaio 

be fotmd in Aiutralia. Nor have tbe 

1 to pray" {Among Canniiaii, 18S9, 

Smyth, It. p. tjo). 



urirat to the ap«ounti7 people. The7 taoM ew H 

wheie they meet hostile tribes, and i 

Nnmnderi thiow* flat stones into I^ke j 

become bream, and be goes up to the Cooroi^ iihMi" li» tlufi 

a chief «rho hu kidnapped his childroi. Wbea Ha-mmAta 

Encounter Bay his wives forsake him, but he caSs ipablllie Mft to 

ovcfflow,' and they are all swallowed up in dife'wavcfc.iia'^dw 

end he goes up to Wyirrewarri, 'ut. Clondland, a h tr a hfe «mr 


Although the practice of cannibalism has ben queKiowi, 
Lumholtz shows that the ab<»{gines are omnivaeaiu. in tbe 
strictest sense tA the word, devouring everything at all digistSile^' 
ftom vermin and insects to man. He mentiona 1 
and their larvse, fieas, paUculi, grasshoppers, cbikboi (by t 
mothers), caprives, and people genenUly. "The j 
are cannibals. A fallen foe, be it man, womaa, or chBd, it 
eaten as the choicest delicacy ; tbey know no gieater hnmiy 
than the flesh of a blackman'." Religious rites and cemnaoU 
customs do not apply here, the natives knowing nothing v£ waA 

A common test of a people's culture is the treatment <rf their 

women, and in this respect the AustraUant Mjtm, «t 

of thTw^mta. ^^^ ^- ^i">i> shows', be ranked bdowthe Bush^di 

and on a level with the Fuegians. When wc icad 

the accounts of the barbarous treatment to which the AnstraBan 

luira is habitually subjected, all our preconceived notions of the 

"noble savage" are quickly dispelled, and we begin to iratder 

how mankind ever succeeded in struggling upward to a higfaer 

state. Brough Smyth gives us a truly pathetic account of ibe 

marriage customs in vogue among the Victorian tribei i ■* A nan 

having a daughter of 13 or 14 years of age amnges with Mue 

elderiy person for the disposal of \iet; and, when all are agreed, the 

is broi^ht out and told that her husband wants her. Peifa^M the 

has never seen him but to loathe him. The ftAer canjes a spear 

and a waddy, or a tomahawk, and, anticipating resistance, is tiitu 

prepared for it. The poor girl, sobbing and sighing, and muttering 

' (^. oV. p. Id. 

» DieNiitur, 1896, No. flo. 



■ fntjr from those who wiU ^ow none 

I ot ha father, be strikca her with hii 

I'icreuu, the blows are repested; and if 

■t'lUH^, * ntnAx on the heul from the waddjr 

The mother saeuni and Kolds and 

U h» H am it an {fightin^tick) ; the dogi bark 

f'kUeirapts the father, who, in the per- 

lkttM9^4iittict and mindful of the necessity of not 

kaoAoritr, but of showing to all that he has the 

Vlb- 'fieiiing the bride by her long hair he drags 

1 tat her by her new owner. Further 

ta Iter to bnital treatment If she Utempti 

D does not hesitate to strike her savagdy 

llC(U» Mddy, and the bridal screams and yells 

are: at least exonerated by Mr Curr from 

tt former prmniscuity, in- 
^ s o ries on the complicated liKTriagM. 
with die mRrriagc-tystems of 
«lhMr~lower races. Here it is necessary to 
between aSwj-marriages and the so-called 
marriages ; the fonner having for their 
it. i oeinnKHily sapposed, the preventioo of 

■ioas but the proper disposal of the stock 

>titt«r inplyii^ on the contrary absolute 

> U^ w«B otdtUilKiI, ud An the 6nt Ume, bj 
u UI.) who, thuiki to his thorongh kaoiricdKC 
i ablt to pcDOnue the lecret, uid to ihow that 
naot ncMHtrily barred b]* the cUn wjttem, while 
uni unconnected bj any ties of blood. 
PI^^Kals intricate pioceu ii bued on the food wpptT, 
* ~'0iMtM»l MlecdoD, with m view to make tbe moat 
IkqKMal of tbe tribe. At in New Caledonia 
M diieb, M in Anstiaiia hniband and wife &ie 
i both fron tbeir cbildren, and the eUitet that 
If Mriet marriage lawi, which have in jnincipie 
I riawiniiiiiilj The weak point of the current 
ttia the permanent good of tlie commnnityi 



promiscuity withia certain wide limits in the pM^ imd sanctumiiig U 
the same within narrower limits in the present About die dats- 1 1 
marriages there is no difficulty. Their genend odsteiiee is |t 
established beyond all question both amongst exogamoos and 
endogamous tribes in Australia, North America, and odier regions. 
Indeed their special importance is due to the feet that strikingly 
analogous systems still prevail in so many other remote landsi 
*' a circumstance which should go far to uphold the doctrine of 
the unity of the human race V 

But in the present connection their interest lies in the fiict 
that they exclude the idea of community of women, so that, were 
class-marriages universal in Australia, Mr Curr would be right in 
asserting that *' the husband is the absolute owner of his wife 
(or wives)^" and there would be no room for any form of legalised 
promiscuity. This is seen from the very conditions of the class- 
system, the chief points of which are : — i. All male and female 
members of a class belong each to a special class determined 
by parentage; 2. Marriage within the several classes is baimd 
to their several members, so that no one of, .say, Class A, can 
marry anyone of that clas$ ; 3. Marriage is restricted to certain 
prescribed classes, so that no one of Class A can many into amy 
other class, but only into Class B or other prescribed daas. 
4. Except in one doubtful case (the Kumai) the children belong 
to a class, which is not that of either parent, but results neveitlie- 
less from parentage. This leads to complications, develofdug 
into a system '' which seems too intricate to have been the in* 
vention of tribes so low down in the scale of mental capadty*" 
and leads eventually to disintegration. 

But although general, the system is not universal,. so taaX 

theoretically room might be made for the groiq> or 

ManSSc*"** communal system, first described by the Rev. Lorimer 

System Fison^ then accepted by the late Lewis H. Mm)g|a|l^ 

and despite Mr Curr's crushing exposure, still taken 

of which, as pointed out in Ethnology, p. 9, primitive man can have no tiioqg|it» 
though fully alive to the necessity of providing for his daily bread. 
^ Curr, op, cit. I. p. iii. ^ lb. p. 109. ' Ih, p. ii8, 

^ In Kamilaroi and KumaU 1880. Mr A. W. Howitt, joint author of 
this work, does not commit himself to the theory ; hot Piof* MotigMi, wlio 




taf mM edinologistt. Hr Fison Assumes 
H.I10 Individual munage, but that the class 
"groups," in which the males of one had 
\gt Ae other or of some other, but that later 
gave way — in some measure in 
'Mt in Acoiy — to individual maiiiage, the man 
■laoft oc less exclusive right to certain wonten, - 
t»Ma in the relation of wives. In fact " nurriage is 
," die relation being not of one individual 
iMmMi^lpt'afiOiK.gnMlp to another, while the ancient assumed 
iillN^praaant assumed lax usage. Without entering 
:Jb4l|B «AGe here to state generally that, after a 
it» whole subject on the spot, Mr Cuir 
i^rtioiH away, disproves the "facts" on which 
aad-sbows convincingly that the promiscuity here 
did not does exist in any part of Australia. 
14a bope that visionaiy group or communal systems, 
of an equally visionary state of pro- 
iht/AMUwfarth banished from works dealing with 
itkiitioBB oi mankind ? 
totality of the natives is their high sense 
powers comparable to A«ti.u.Q 
What is comic to Humonr and 
M at ODC^ and makes them " '^' 
t.Tbey aie very humorous, have a decided 
.Mid are skiliiil mimics. I once saw a 
an cffder (iom his master, whereupon 

l|(|l<Mi^'bU]r accept* it tritb atl it* lopctl c( 

■C thit memoir fullr showt, groups of malct 

<Tf Wi not by any ceremony of m formal 

II an pwtle*, but by an organic Ian, mpected by 

V Inge sieM. and followed in actual practice by 

A woman Is found one day living with one 

h and on the next day with another nun of lAt 

• rtfattwii and perhapi several women with several 

* (p. lo). Of course Prof. Morgan's great aatboiity, 

t diwrcdited Sytttmt ef Ceniamgiiinity and 

'f^ Pam t fy , made the fbrtuie of this abmlniely baseless 



he immedutely went to his compaiuotu and imil«tBit ttPMBHtert 
nuumer of apeaking and acting, to the gnat ■iimiiiimii lif At 
whole camp. In their dances they imitate in a atriUiig ntanoar 
the hopping of the kangaroo and the solemn raovementBof tin 
emu, and never fail to make the ipectaton laugh'." Bat ttwf 
will never "Uugh the sense of misery tu away" for it it-wtmafB 
with tiiem, and sarely killing them as it has alieMlf ktted dwir 
Taamanian kinsmen. 

These " eolithic Tasmanians ' " stood even at a lower levd of 

culture than the Australians At die occ u ptiga 
oJ^Jj!*' ^^^ scattered bands, with no hereditsiy ctAA or 

social organization, numbered altogether >eeo wals 
at most, speaking several distinct dialects, whether of one or 
more stock languages is uncertain. In the absence of Bbilaatt 
and some other features they resembled the Australian, bat 
were of mder or less developed structure, and so imperfect that 
according to Joseph Milligan, our best authority on the Reject, 
"they observed no settled order or arrangement of words in tbe 

construction of their sentences, but conveyed m a 
Speech^'''''*'' supptementajy fashion by tone, manner, ■ 

those moditications of meaning which we t 
by mood, tense, number, &c.*." Abstract terms were me, and 
for every variety of gum-tree or wattle-tree there was a name, bet 
no word for " tree " in general, or for qualities, such ai hen), aoft, 
warm, cold, long, short, round. Sec Anything hard was "tUte a 
stone," round, "like the moon," and so on, "usnally suiting As 
action to the word, and confirming by some sign tbe i 
be understood." 

Though they carried fire-sticks about, it is donbtfiil i 

they possessed the art of making fire by I 
u^.^''* or otherwise. But they remembered a time when 

there was no fire at alt, until two bladftltows 
standing on a hill-top threw it about like stars ; at irftidi tbe 
people were frightened and ran away, but came bock and made 

' I.umholu, afi. at. p. igi. 

' Ethiu>i«gy, p. 194. 

* Paper in Brough Smyth's work, I 


I irididi " no man was fire lost in our land. 
tJiiB b the clouds; in the clear night jou 
. TliMe are they who txDOgfat fite to our 

I colonial waia of eztennination, a few 
: tjpe I9>pear to have been 
nainland. But before that n^^^^uma. 
i acitbCT the boometw^ nor the 
p-:tbe ihiek) of the Australiam, nothing in faa 
^BOt unlike the Irish shillelagh, and two kinds 
t, eae a mere sapling some 1 5 feet long, pointed 
A'^ft^ 'the other about 10 feet long and lighter. 
le or bone attachments, these rude weapons 
1 40 those of the Old Stone Age, to which were 
M fiivBt or other spear-heads now found in such 
I uid pleistoceoe beds of the northern 

roe included " snakes, lizards, grubs and 
EciBpOBauni, wombat, kangaroo, 
)hiMBll». seeds and fruits, but not 

t aonaaUy. Like the Bushmen, they were 
[ eDonaous quantities of food when they 
•MM is mentioned of a woman who was seen 
n4«reggs of the sooty petrel (larger than a duck's), 
: of Ivead, at the station on Flinders 
AiiMi.bariK canoes made &st with thongs or 
kJJhe.dtose of Totes Straits, _,,„ 
a or huts, beyond branches 
: supported by stakes, and disposed 
Di tfw convex side to windward. On die 
IfJbt sefr^hore they took refuge in caves, 
A hollows. Usually the men went naked, 
i loiie covering of skins, and personal oma- 
l|-tooonaetics of red ochre, plumbago, and 
I occanonally a necklace of shells strung 


158 HAN: PAST AND PKSmrr.' 'nv (CH^. 

During the hopeless straggle wid) the e»r^— daij'lliV aalni 

devd(q>ed a iegite cf ftracitr «|Wl-to 4ktt<4f 

bJi?''*"' ^^ exterminaton. But when &« aMMINeNd%f 

Cook, FAxiii and other naTigaton, Atef i 

to be a mikl, inofiennve people, disposed to be H^oAf- 1 

least not hostile, diffident rather than distnurtfiiL iLttdi «rw> 

reference is made to atrocious tribal practices, itnitikriaiHailvd 

other horrors, which make detailed accounts of the i 

peoples such unpleasant reading. The reason is cdmoos « 

The Tasmanians had not yet passed from the rade priraitffe sWe 

of the family life to the social condition of the clan and tribe, 

when complications arise, and the "commonweal" haa to be 

safeguarded by all manner of drastic measures. In the geBaal 

evolution of human progress the intennediate stages will often be 

found more unpleasant than either extreme. 

The Oceanic Negritoes. 
In AMca the N^rilo substratum, partly sheltered by ti 
tropical woodlands, may still be traced in scattered fragnwi 
Mangbattuland to the Cape. In Oceania the Nepito svfai 
formerly diffused throughout the Malayan lands, soivivet aiAj u 
four widely separated enelaixs — the Andaman Islands, tlie Malay 
Peninsula, the Philippines, and parts of New Guinea. - 

The " Mincopies," as the Andamanese used to be called, no- 
body seems to know why, were visited in 1893 bjr 
mln**^'''' ^ Louis Lapique, who examined a large kiu^cn- 
midden near Port Blair, but some distance feun 
the present coast, hence of great a%c'. Nevertheless he fidlcd to 
find any worked stone implements, although flint occun is the 
island. Indeed, chipped or flaked flints, now replaced fay bnAea 
glass, were formerly used for shaving and tattooing. Bu^ as the 
present natives use only fishbones, shells, and wood, Dr Liquqae 
somewhat hastily concluded that these islanders, like some other 
primitive groups, have never passed through a Stmie 
'°°* '' Age at all. The shell-mounds have certainty jiehled 
arrow-heads and polished adzes "indistinguishable from any of the 

■ A la Rahtrchr dii Negritos, Sic. in Teur du Mamfi, New Seriei, Uvi. 
35 — 3S. The midden was [50 ft. round, and over 11 ft. high. 

p0Kfiianc mcROES : vegutoes. 


F.edt» of die lo-callad Neolilhic period'." 
I to think that the wchipelago was ever 
preteat inhabitants. 
t that their anceston arrived in Uie Stone 
I ceased to make stone implements, as less 
f^MB-'papote* and mote difficult to make than the 
1 daita, aiTowa, and nets with which they 
jMAMl fiA "more readily than the moit skilful 
iK#ltt-4wiak and Ihie*." Similarly they would seem to 
R^die aitof making fire, having once obtained it firom 
ia the neighbouring Barren Iiland*. 

I regarding this primitive N^rito race, 
vdweKretest (d>Bervationa of passing navigators, but 

eAnographic works, have been dispelled by 

that they do not make holes in the sand to 

tldMt% that there are no so-called "oven-lrees*'where 

IW cannibalitm, nor any bow-traps, boomerangs, 

titfowing-Bticki), or blow-pipes, nseless witb- 

(itfC -iriach they make no use whatsoever. But they do 

'^boKta, one a very rude outrigger of primitive 

Mm two 01 duree kinds of dwellings, one also 

iVe— mere leafy shelters like those of the 

erected only on temporary camping- 

Aey resemble the Papuans and other dark 

ta&ative, petuUnt, inquisitive, and restless ; 

with a coniUnt repetition of the same idea ; 

take too practical a form, is heartily appre- 

or injuries are promptly resented*." A 

Is the attitude of the men towards their 

ifMieBaarily doomed to much drudgery, are 

(Ml a footing of perfect equality. Despite 

Ak. 18S1, p. 171. 

«atliicl crater of Narnndam, i.e. tfanUt-oKdam 
Am AnJamam group ma; have uken ilt name 


the nuvepresentatioiu of KHne explorcni 
liet divorce being unknown, and "ooajtigil 
nile and not the exception'." 

No fonns of worship have been 

vague belief in Piiyga, wo immntid^i 
B,]^^^™* who lives in a large stone boa 

everything, even the thou^ts of i 
but not in the dark, and has made alt things ODsepfeltajlMlWlV. 
evil spirits, for whose misdeeds he is not accoa na bt fc Bl^nifill^. 
the victims, sometimes afiords them relief and iikmift^iM)f0'- 
thunderstorm his anger at certain crimes aad lOSiMMbHilM' 
nothing can lessen their dread of the evil one, to vkMt 
arions nearly alt deaths, sickness, and other 
attributed. There is a curious notion about 
being distastdiil to Pilluga, is often secretly done wfa«i|<|)MIMiir 
is a-hUnting or a-fishing, to order to stir his wrad) uA MDHMPWI 
the sport. Hence in the criminal code, after .blaQbno4ir;4||li^ 
assault, murder, and adultery, fotlows wax-bumii^ ^:gRB||i|it 
crime of all, equivalent to our sacritege 1 ..' "; j.'ir- 

Original also is the native cosmogony, iriiich teat^w i^Hlti0it 

earth*, flat as a plate, rests on the tap of .«^ji|f 

tall tree, and is doomed one day to be iqpHt )9j# 
great earthquake. Then the living and the dead wi& tfpfgp 
places, and the latter, to hasten the consummatioo, evfifijinjfr 
and then combine to shake the tree and so displace O* T;jr>i)T 
ladder by which it is connected with heaven, bat 
done only in the rainy season, as at other timet 
earth might crumble and crush them all. ■; ,t?>:.,^- 

Mr Man has carefully studied and reduced to 
SDMch Andamanese language, of which there ue 

nine distinct varieties, correaponduig {to ~ 

' M»n, lb. p. 537. -; - 

' That is, the AndaDun Islands, which thej luppoaed 
whole woKd. Hence the few sCmngen that occanoDallj ai 
deccMcd forefather!, who dwelt on a Deighboniing ialet • 
DOW and then to revitit ibe ircma, or wotld. Heaca alM) AtiMriiPM'qf 
India who now come leguUrly are still called -**n|riT. J.«l.Tih|WI|i^ 

i;: 3%«i tb« poHamve pronoani lum 
I to the diM of 
tibt'ho&y, dcgiMs of kioihip, Ac) 
For inttuwe, mj it dl*, tBt, 

I to die 

i^M liow dwt dw aumber of d 

IMiijfc ir iMnd AcK it • wealdi of poit- 

libniuof qwechiM that 

r the pciaciplM of the ordinaqr 

[ thek fwefixet tbey fbllov the 

R Ssuth AMcsD bmgiHM. Hilhnto, 

■ in full [day have n«m been 

iM-In Anduninese hoth are 

ilf'Wft'a^ fitMpI lb«]r hftve bo aSnltlH br 
■ «IA aiijr othM known Bronp" (Lknt 


pOMened ut about dte matt ia 
a^yatdtokigical paid* whidi I 

Ib dM U^ FeniBniU the inrHgwlMlii 

die Negt^ whok known 
" Sakai, Dina, Liar, ScDoi) 

a nafHe ethnioal group presorting Mtne 
the Andtaianete. B«t, mrroinded frMntiBie tUtti 
Malaj people!, tome Nmi-dviliaedt 
thenuelve^ bat all alike slowly 
these aborigines have developed deftnaivtf iimGtii 
the more &voiu«d insular Negritoes, while Ib^. 
ment has been arrested at perhaps a somew h rti 
culture. In fiut, docmwd to exdnctitm befiiie idMIri . _^, 
they never have had a chance in the nee, as Mr il«l|MlOmi 
sings in 7^ Song of tlu Last Semangt t — 
"The path* arc rough, the mil* i 

The Jtu^ People trewl ; •>/ 

The ysmi ue icuce tuA bud to find 

With which our folk m fed. 
We (uScT ja a lillle space 

Until we pau awar, 
The relict of an ancient race ' ' 

That ne'er has had in d«;." 
These particular Semangs, who have hitlMiW 
^^j^ maintaining their independence, hn«s' 

of a mysterious nation of great 
one day. to come and smite the faithless SaJcai 

gone over to the enemy's camp, and now Jditt^ ^„ 

tracking and hunting down their own kinsfeft^' "nuif^tHtt/tt- 
wanriors — who dwell in the depths of the dark wooffliiriMrtyijilll 
the Gunong Korbu heights, and are stronger, taUert hf)Hillll i|lft^ 
paler colour than any men— have even been '-titta, uAlMlr^iMlli 
and blow-pipes also, larger and truer and better can^'lApBtBy 

I Lieul. R. C. Temple, quoted by Mr Man, WwMn[U^tenrttt,^iS3. 

■»Bl nWn |l*il iitf l 
frtaodrir UHfimatA kyuaaMMm 
ri 'lifMkio Ml^ Utah te ihi lw» 

\ nd bn pHba^ han MDfe 

■ vdl^M <*lil(at.' ■n|S?EffiSi.- 
I A*' vfirent «ik1 . tf • ' . . ' ' r . 

k'4a «akmr; diw hajr ii dipR 

tin littk omp ctnb'; their doms 

i^nd thtir fMtnns w« tkae of the 

I'ltvdSir built and wdl tot xqMtii 

lijMttCF tbw dwuft. They timby 

:- <Jw*Uu>g*> cMUfut^ ia little 

t BKHBent; game is most plenttAit'.'' 

If: OMWot be (uilled-Hue exwtly 

ii dKire lean>to's 
f. ptapptA oo rou^ 

: to nose, and their food it 

!r soots, fish from the lUeiia, and 

^^■Ml'Other fanie, this tens banng mn 

I nrely obtainaUe, is a great IUIU17, 

l^kfibal. Some Chioese rock-salt, once 

#^lir Clifford, was eagerly clutched 

.-^ '*11tiB coarse Muff would take the 

: hnnun beings who attempted 

t. that nature gives the Semaog 

illjr large quantities at one timc^ 

iting it in small daily ioitalments 

|«9T. p- 179 "q- 


^'S^T^'i!!^''. -T^ ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ '"^ '^^WplH| 


MAHi r*gt*mti 

M* lit* an) ftr btnma V" Aidi 
tbe laige part playftd by nh te-H 
-w MM9 dvilistd peaplM. "TlMl 
pa^eiBHid l^tioBi to- the gmfaL i 
^■diiiFaponit tbeinucw of the Lanwa 
MMadder- was kept irid) Yteat c 
«■■ >cit«emed ominoiu. The [ 
and •odal.i^inbol UAoabdew doe (oil 
necenity to mtM nationi at an ca^^ 
thatit<waaaIuxDiy veiyhardfiar p 
parts <tt the worid*." ' 

All the laciiltieB are shaipened i 
and of meaas to elude the tntmy now d 
retreats in the upland forests. When hard pi 
inpoasibl^ th^ wiU climb trees and i 
branch to branch where these are to 
a boand, and along such ftail aerial b 
witii their cooking-pots and oth» effecUr 1 
at the breast, and the little ones dinging to dH^lii 
For like the Andamanese they love their n 
and in this way rescue them from the I 
But unless the BritiEh raj soon interveact 4 
They may slip from the Malays, but not fronjli 
kinsmen, who often lead the hunt, and squat ai 
triee-tops, calling one to anoth» and si 
outs when the leaves rusde and the t 
so that nothing can be done, and another i 
away into bondage. 

From their physical resemblance, ' 

scent, and geographical p 

expect to find some affinity in &t|| 

Andaman and Malay N^toes. But Mr Cmfofd^rf 

Eoropean who has made a special study of th* 4 

' Ofi.c 

■ P- 174- 

> Marie Goldimith Weal, Tie Sjmiali 
Monthly, December. 1897, p. 141. The writer lefen 
A more lignificstive though leu known pMMge ocean 
facitit mtnias salinfmni affetiiu, it limtilaerit Dtamm, 

<f &Ut, la A^ay-^Hm, 
Hor. Od.A16.t4. 


iqs now 

f'^iailBliuu.M (^fisd*.- But tbe praew 

.-<ir'«M «adi ttwli, awi tfawebgood 

4H9> ttcfC dw woifc flf tbtir MiCMton 

liJfetfaaMiMi Auiag ths Stow Agct. Hence 

nutty tbeoinndt of jam, 

too widdr to be bow tneed 

^ tbe Philippnet we entet' a Te|^ of 
camplkMioin *, unid ^^ «•(«■. 
Htak dmi&h ^<Ai peoples 

u tbe tndigenout ttkmen^ moA 
'Hfft^- tiw repognhrd owtien of tbe Mil 
Af the Maltyan intruders. Tbis curious ' 

aotkcd, has been brought dot by Mr 

Awfeett obserfcn of Ute social relatiool in 

Agnphic dooiption of tfaete abMigines^ 

iHttmiii." with **cnrlr matted hair like 

iriddf diffused in small bands "over 

'Idhfirti." he writes -, " For a long time they 

«f laxoa I^nd, where they exerdied 

'KM "Eagalogi and other immigrant!, until 

la ^(wr. iVroAf SnmcA X. AiiM. Stc. 1891, 

ih Tit Caw Dwftltrt ^ Ptrak, in 7<w. 

ThU obMrvei tUiiki "tbe Mrlictt atve 

jtigriUMi'* (p> 47), uid the grekt >ee of the 

of tbe cmTctil Icait 11 (eet of* 

amuUted atxl labaeqiicntly 

* two ot ihtce Iftfen of tolid 

of thete Ufen hairing been 

I Paper on (he HangaUi 
and H6iq;kang, 1B90. 

: of Min- 




td6 UMK*. rjor Am MNiMiilM^^^^H 


tismr ■rrirad in wdi ooBibdn, ttatl 
the hvbiaiida. 

The tnet impowd tpaa the prWtiw*] 
dw N^ritoes were leiried m bud, tm^ , 
icAued, tbqr swooped down in « pane, aa4 1 
of the deftulter. Sine* the rninl of tiM %Ml|h^l'NlMt 'f 
die white man hu made them take diltiiiMl| IWllrtMWih|iK» 
where tbejr an>ear to be very gndoaUy decMaiHgMiTt ititgiT 

At fim i^ht it may leem unacoooBtaUe AM KdtM^piwM 
esEtrrrody low ratdlect ■bonld be aUe to aa«rt tM^^mMH^r 
in Ms way over the intiuding Malajana, aMdmeJ-fntgpfliiWl* 
their snperiora in physical and mental qnaHlieft SiMldHlllMK 
consideied that the inTasiont toot place is' 
ages before the appeanwce on the scene of the'i 
Huhammadan Malays of histoty. Whether of ' 
of what is called " Malay " stock, the intruden i 
peoples, who in the prehistoric period, prior t»'4iK afMif fit 
civilising Hindu or Moslem influences in Hd»raa^lMl|)MMM||gr 
advanced in general culture much beyond die liii1ig<w rt ll T l | illl 
and N^rito populations' of that region. Even m fttgilifttk 
Gaddaoes, Itaves, Igorrotes aad odMB* WtSMMh 
hm'^ >» mere savage^ at the head-hoati^E HtHLjllltte- 

as wild as, and perhaps eren moib 
than any of the Aetas. Indeed we are t(dd tbit to'' 
districts the Negrito and Igorrote tribes keep a 
and Creditor account of heads. Wherever the 
prevails, all alike live in a chronic state of tribal virtiie: 
periodical head-hunting expeditions are organised by tbe yoMS 
men, to present the bride's father with as many g^tfOftim 
as possible in proof of their prowess, the victims bebigiMi^jr 
taken by surprise and stricken down with barhuotu 
such as a long spear with tridented tips, 
carrying at the point two rows of teeth made of I 
To avoid these attacks some, like the Central : 
live in cabins on high posts or trees 60 to 70 feet fivKb^'the 
ground, and defend themselves by showering ttooei 'pa' flie 


i0i4^ibm,'tom tiimirt jr#rif ttmwm 

fey tb» Jtaoind. dUci|M»al «* 

tei-Ptraeml ■ ;;. -Ir, ij. 

''bar. kMp' ilartii . 
taCvkudBi.or erect oCddaMMic 
wild beuti. lo .loflgn, 
-AttArcB St Ae alationi ban Ukd, 
:AMf AamfaMBitctpniied. TbecHtiiB 
tecK^ to-Hadiidi cdncttc^ Mid 
leAe fM^ytow iwmcdiltriy 

grettly accoidiDg ■> they IK tnwe 

I oC the mroimditig! popnlations. 

mty erat to aome extent give 

in the fenst gUdet, hmH 

o£ rioe or jutise, vuying Ab 

mUfe'tMOMkniKl 'httatijig.excanioiw, when 

rntatta wai tlw bow and anow, tbor 

iao itifdogtd a barter trade with their 

roots and medicbal plants, said 

-for tobacco, textiles, and scnps 


amoogat the pure nomads is uhu^ 
been suj^KMed, and is 
j^enonal proper^. To 
life, but not hereditary, ^J~" 
asd'he also punishes 

traditional usage. The Aetas are 
not ^ipear to be quite destitute of 
iljr asserted, judging at least from 
as imoi^t the Ptiebto Indians, and 

Tha Family 

at ibout the lowot gnde of hon 

matter u iavatigued, the noce cunent tiwailMrrJ^ 

commniul maniage baaed upon the aahDinftiai^i|t4 

hianan herd " and piunordial proamadty a ~ ~ 

groand'. . - -^ '.--i»tf.5f(feJNr^'-' 

Ib the ■umptDoas nriume on TV/tUgydm^ i 
one of the Dresden Etboographic ] 

editm-, Dr A. B. Meyer, describes the N^>to .^li tWM JjP'"''— * 
woolly, dlqMsed in close spirals varying ftooa a ^ 
10 black, and diffiiKd evenly over the scalp, not in m 
with intervening bald spaces. > - Vu ^ lifiil 

Id this publication Prof. Kern brings togedM^ pti|||^at|C^ 
mens of N^to speech, all of pure Ualayo-NQMlfeHMii* 
and nearly allied to the Tagalog and Visayaa oTA^lMM^W 
Central Philippmes. But the specimens are all ftanidi«li|IMIl4lK 
Malayan influences, so that they leave nntovdied <fM^i|a||i|)f||t. 
of an original Aeta language corresponcUiig to that « ' ' 
manese. The present N^rito population is bore e 
more than 20,000, distributed in small groups ow-ti 
LuEon, Alabat, Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Mindanaot-TriM, OHw 
and Palawan, mostly full-blood, but forming half-breed "— TTTiiiilill. 
in N^os and other places. 

> Elknttegy, pp. 13, 14. ^ 

-- ft, ■ . 

MmCV'lltr'itltJ :.v 

■■•iiT.-i.X ■..-■. .^^■kCV, 

— CMriu lOMiHa— The BanMM 
, Xliauti ud CUm 

SfiMBM. Mown OriaiBft— Aboiuiaa of 
-tie Orishki and ABinhiec — Cenwitc 
The ai—eee ^Tiwe Ottfn* utd EmIjt 

linn— 71w Aa n e w M Qmrine— Phyekel 

liniiiue and Letto~9odeI inttlratiam— 

jjBlil Ori^M-TW Bafa^oNktt Tluocjr— 

ud Sockl SjPtleB— Lettcn end Ewhr 

end HeUl A«e»— CUneee Cndle end 

<r a* AbodgiBM— Swrinbt Hok-lo, 

Tenkin. Bncl3liiini — Ftane-ilini ud An- 

Ortaiudtjr— The Hendarin Cht*. 

AM/ S. MiwuUajmn tl^et;r 
^ Krm; CMitia ; Jvrmosa ; t 

, Jamk, round in traiuverte* 
, wmittaehe eommcn. Colour,** 

tnvm, ska^Hg cf to olive 

.J HWi J tt amJ to /emon or whitish 

hftttJfy (So*— 84"), M 

iHttraify. XOMy vny tmatl, Mf < 
mttrilt {muorrMit 5a*), M *. 
amMgst tke t^tr dusn, JPlWk ^^ 
■t^a^ut (fiiOtr angU itStpM^ AbmArfX* 

Statan, iMAv4mM(||f^ 

ha im N: Ckimm.ifim UUl (sft wifc'ir^ 
ra^Ur tkm, samtHmtt sk^aif fi>ttm 
•ndfMi of nermai pn^oHtmt, imlm^'p 
fittof Ciwuse womtn artiiSatify 4E|Av«m1~i 


inUiaiive, but grtal aUnr^mcif _ _... 

mteiligaU; gaurally tkrtfiy ami /iftilOftiit, j|^yl<4 
»ui;:*/;r«/ M Sam and Burma , manl Oamimt^immfk 
tHght sense of right ami wrong '^^"f \ '' 

Sp«Mh. Mainfy uoiattng and aiMHHklM»<«hr t^ 
phonetic decay ; loss <^ fbrmattve iUmeatt ttmfB^j^im^^ 
tone; seme (south Chinese, Annamat) A«*^ ttm^tut 
others {in Himalayas and Mrtk Burma) IV^Jfi^ 
tsHoting and eonseqnently toneless l t-f* 

RalUlOtt. Ancestry and sftrst-werO^f^ MUNA^^ 
various hinds of Buddhism, reitgwus laitsmmt^^H^ iit 
Annam, strong in Tibet , thtnfy dtgiistd m OMtlt , ^ 

Onltnre. Banges from shttr sav a g uy (A 
aborigines) to a low fihase of civtbaattan, i 
arts (ceramics, metallurgy, weavtngi, a 
devdoped; painting, sculpture, and art, 
in the barbaric sfage ; letUri wide-spread, M imi A 
and science sl^fy developed; stagnatim Iktjr gUmniJ- , 
, Bod'pa. Tibetan; Tangut ; Hffrtak; Sfj^f^AlH; 

Ladakhi; Gurhha; Bhottya; Miri; MisMmi; ^tittr.--' 

BonasBe. Naga; Kukt-Lushai; GUn; gutfcwj 
Manipuri; Karen; Talaing; Arakamttt; Mimmm 
proper. ", ' ■ ■ 

Tai-EUlUl. Ahom; KhamU; Pfgfoisi latl .SiMMb 

Olao-Shi. Annamtse; Cochm-CMinite^ .. 'S*'-' 

Ohlnew. Chinese proper.- ffaUtar BtMl^^J^m^ 


bnnmb-tke liangol»-TMv 
ikifrtimt WiaiwuKlie Kiuit4iin 
Ktt^ and towudiOa wtdlMraM 
[iadO'KMh BMWwnrdi » Ama; 
At «Me of Odna prapvr 
• grwt part of TUwt wiA little 
4Md'the 'Himalftyin npiuidi iadai- ' 
igdn lepuated from 
of Kim— the Mabqr Pmbmila 

Malay never ically ex- 

Hie Km iMlisiut*.'' 

•dMaced ia JMmh^, Chap, xii^ 

iptioB that die lacustnoe Tibetan 

CHiiptiieMs, all standing in fdefite- 

MoDpd diviiioo m ompi 
fowd aU the natural *=~'**'^- 

It of ■ new variety of tte 
nortfawafda— ample ipsce such 
to require ; a di&Rtnt 
of the eqnatwial rt^on, though, 
wanner than that of the bleak 
Tibetan plateau; extensive plains, 
intersected by ridges of 

Hsltp and theii compantively 



mtitntt Mght, and ifivmtfaAljf U 
tMHlM t)aa'AitKvialad'^4lw« 

> Under dMn ciicnaiWii 
tpecrttfioB, bnt to fa* dinet^ inflMpd' 
of intelligent exploms uid oi traniM 
itwonU MOB notonlypndwblebati 
Indo-M&Ujwn iboold become aodttedi 
end nMre bvonnble Central Aaiatk i 

Luer, widi die gndoal upheend o(.-i 
akkiule of kmbc 14,000 feet ibore M»-i 
rated, end the |»eient MwoewluU nide asA i 
of Tibet are to be regarded at the OBteo«iet«f«l 
their doidy cbingiog suiroundingi tine* Ae 1 
country by the tndo-Hihiyui 

precursor Tibet was accgraibie : 
lo'nM^ °r ^m IndoOhina, and aldKM^i 

ments have yet been reported frplj 
is certain that Tibet has passed throti^ Ae StaM4 
Metal Ages, In Bogle's time "lliiiiiilni slums" 
for tonsuring the lamas, and even now steae ' 
found amongst the shepherds of the uplawk. lUtbl 
acquainted both with copper and iron. In iBdra-JMt'l 
China palieoliths of rude type occur at vsrions | 
Narbada gravels, Mirzapur', the Irawadi VaUc^fi 
territory — as if to indicate the routes followed hf wttlf* 
migrations from Indo-Malaysia northwards ^&i 

Thus, where man is silent the stones speak, majbi 
these links of past and present that amongst A»4 
ancient Greece, their origin being entirely 
often mounted as jewellery and worn as chanu agMHilNMMte 

Usually the Mongols proper, that is, die Meppe MMlmP^ 
have more than once overrun half the eastern 
taken as the typical and or^nal stem of Ifamo j 

The Primi- "^ ^^' *^* Ujfelvy's views cso be 
tiv« Moosoi honour will now have to be tnuufeinRS' 
^^' Tibetans, who in any case still occopj^J 

I " " J '^ "^ •|| "" " ■ ■-'^- T ilinii ftT'^Jiwiii 

jfHlhnrf. InsL, 1887, pp. 57 sq.; and Bik. p. 414. .-. .(■i,»;<'i'' ■ 

^ liipiiHnb— >fcftbr-w 

yiiihiiiiiii tjCTibat, At lawhM miMWB 

KM tw A«^ wluie dw 

<H ' JwMw ^ncwW' wiai 'C^n. 

MW IftMUw or Bia^idt at afl, bnt 

Stoi^ akheugh bow of Tibetan 

'•-J'n»y «• of the mean beigbt or 

4aap dq>«Moii at ^S^^lJiS: 

iwftkmim, Iwtg, atnight i^ 

onl diin, mwU check-boiMa, null 

jilH lilaifc and idnmdMt rin^ett; (AvanSQ 

■Hi nlkjr, roboal hakr bodj, 00811 

lMiid'<iadn 79). In tuch durttttti 

^e Moi^l, and the contnst ii moat 

Ladrithi, tme Hong^ aa tbown 

' 'JiHHniliaiT uchaa, apore and acarceljr 

'iffm, luge {uominent cheek-bonea, lank 

i^d oeariy hairleiB body- 

•(K aU of nbJMO hatti Sikkim and ■ 
CalcMta, iSgi, /Mite). In the EaM, 
I^WHh MJHiaBailM b«*e bad batter opponuniiiei 
tha Stba ("Wertera StrM«en") u tbe 


Bikb aad UOMm, u^in went J 
DMdi ([iiMi»KiHh "AryuirVa) 

I at m ttaaat* p eri aj:?) 
{TUMtus), lofl 

of dl tfaew pcoftes dw BiAi* wertri 
omliMd, M drawn by the r 
the ootntrr, «nd iMnbaudhy ibm | 
vmniihed ncc: Some of thew camogi n 
and OB foot, the resemMance beiBgoAaB-vlPV* 
them and the posoiiB figin«d oo the eoiutff n 
in their physical appearance, attitodetr « 
The fialtis are still &mout honetnen^ aad« 
have originated the game of p<do, whidi hi 
the surrounding peoples as &r as Chitral waA 1 

From all these considenitians it is iafened <te4l 
the direct descendants of the Sacse, who i 
90 B.C, not from the west (the Kabul Vaikj) w fl 
but iiom the north over the Kaiakoium Paa 
to Baltistan'. Ilius lives again a name reaoMM J fe* 
and another of those links is established b rt wwi ihKfMliiAM 
the present, whicb it is the province of the hiatotiokl ttkMt^St 
to rescue Irom oblivion. 1 tt-Ajlimt 

In Tibet proper the ethnical relations bare bewaMNhMHH 

the loose way tribal and even i 
^Tii«t«.. jefcjj^ed to by Prjevalsky and a 

explcH^rs. It sbould ibeieibre bt ■ 
three somewhat distinct branches of the race have to'b 
distinguished: i. The Bod-pa', "Bod-men," 1 

> Op. lit. p. J17. Here we are reminded thftt, thosgh ihc SmR M{*flR 
" Scythians " by Herodotus and other ancient writen, nndCT tUl **p0 4tt/lSt- 
sion were comprited a multitude of heten^eneoot peo^ct, SBMfK irtHMMn 
types cormponding to both varietiei of I&mt Atiatiaa, u wril asMlit^iKtB 
of H. Etrcfaut and even of /f. MedUtmuutuii. " AajowdlMi VimtSi T^^ 
■ace, adouci parrai les m^Unges, reparatt et coMtitoe le lyp* *1 immMki/frnM 
complexe et si diflihmt de ses voisins que noui appeknu le typ* Wll*(|^|S||, 

• Mr W. W. RockhUI, our best livinfi aulhoritT, aoeqUi ■iiiis rf» ii|ils^ 
explanation* ofthe widely dilTiued term Jwf(tM, hMy whMh B|>pNi«a*lMtf 
the second element in the word Tibtt {SledBod, prononncMd g>w Jta^wVpfM 


.f>( BaddhunV flat 4ht^ eristOAl 

icultncd SoAfNi) «te 

admixtiue both) oC Cluoeie 

tbo. Diwfi*, /who- ta. Aw . 

Im <•■*■ ^'*^ l^tU contKt wiUi 

pspohidoiM. llwjr Ate dMcribe^ 

ofatemtion u tbcmt 5 Ctct 


ten hi^ tiUB the Mongol, 

llifl-iiQo^ bitt abo {Kominent mkI even 

Wi broad nostiUi^ krge-lobed e«n 

Ami Oe Mongol, bnod mooUi, long 

bairicM body, browl ahouUen, 

M hukd, skia couve atwl gctttf 

'*frequently nearly white, but 

to Itrnt-Btd, 

KHttu M tki JUIuultgy if nStt, 

ition of Tibet in 

^ffim*») in llw ^mb IiUkbri'i vroAi, about 

Laeoaparie. would coanecl it with the Tatar 

^S^ tUi OMne might CMtlf have bera ex- 

> tb« Dd^^wuring Tai^u, 

Tibet and call all Tibetan* 

— wd— and miilradia^ ■• the people 

■M pun Hheteju" (RocIOuU, p. £70). 

TaagotH (t balanced bj the Tibetan 


liinei oUod Km-TingBtuM, "Bhck Tn 
ofdMtE tarti* tmt wc leua from Pouan, «ln 
Oml tb^ ue Mtduunii»du» of Tuifci rtoch.gBJli 
idnady know* that from a icmote penod tlw I^hU 
(doM contaa with Caucwant. The SaUn pitck 
the banki of the Khitai and other Yang 

That the lutJoaal name Bod pa muM be ef 
quity is evident from the Sanricnt 
"» ^o*^- ttfo, derived from it. and lo^ wMiJlUMrt 
HioduB coUectively to aU toutben TUetaaa, b«:!t4lilMi|4i|E 
those <rf the Himalayan sieves, sm ' ~ - - - 

Sikldm and the lAo^ dominant in Bbatan, 
that is, "Ijuid'i End" — the extremity of Tibet. 
Tibetan race stretches fiu* beyond the political 
Koko-nor region (Tanguts), and the Chinese promm i 
where they are grouped with all the other ^Aa 
wards the south-eakt are the kindred Tamamf^, 
Padams {Abar)*, Dt^as, and others about the 
all of whom may be regarded as true Bhotiyas m the vUttMK^ 

Through these the primitive Tibetan race eKteoda Mq^lMlMi 
where however it has become gieady wmMtmt^l0lt 

Espuuioa of *«*»" civilised under different < 
tiw Tibatan tutal influences. Thus we see how, a Alt ctMIl 
of ^!es, the Bh6t-pa have widened thdr dajMih 

' Nela an tin Ethn^gj ofmtl, 1895, p. 675- '*"■•* 

* Itvcttia, XXI- 3' * ElAtukgji p sas> ^Vi hn 

* Aiffr, i.e. " independenl," ii the nunc applied hj tto AMBMWW^As 

Tiiii niiiiilijiiiliill nil liii iill il lull rk\t Ml ffl—s. satH<l>i 

Sle of the Tibetuu. TlieK ue all affiliated by Dttgodiaa W IhelMfpMF 
Bhatan {B-i. Sir. Cttgr., Oclober, 1877, p. 431), and ue (0 kaA*||Mli* 
from the Arr (i.e. "dependent") tribeiofthepkln^alliMn'etlHaWiAAal 
Bhotijraii (Dalton, Elknvkgi rfBtmgal, pp. 11 «q.). • 



vl)jr«iMfptioB ^tadiUri Hinte 

Swh an the OtfnhMUig 
HitilMdtl^ Ai <l0Biaut AmUw 
It ili#*» btudw^ all ArfUised^ABd 

►■■l%i«liuiii took plaoc w maoM pn< 
••Tibetan gtenps beeonung ttiore 
ijlinoadBd Cutker and fadwr from the 
Hi0bmiMi China, Fatdwr Indw, and 
k'teiir'I uodmiaiKl tbe petq^it)( of a 
B bjr an oiigiiial nocletis of 
i Ama a pkiitocene piecunor on 

I bm* been fonned of the 
1 «f tbe Bod^M, soma, tuch a* 
C' CW fawiwable, whib 

e direction. ThuB 

K'kbeir tbem well, de- 
>'«( dw sonA aa " a slave lowaida the 
Crknaviih or treacberoua according 
k"Ae look-out to defraud, and lying 
^^ittd mudi more to the same effect*. 

i) Xhit, ■■ tlie wild tribei of tbe Lao coontcy 

t. Eden Vnninut tMnlu In Nepal tbe (cnn 

ebe meuu " fiOkn." Thli Bnthorit; telli 

I, it ti not tbe KhM wbo enliit in 

J iIh tSafut and Gnnwg^ who are ol pnier 

yiHWatod (" The Tribca, Ckns, ud Caxei 

1^ uuu. I, No. 4). 

>, Fp SSe tq. 
a dtt pay* cnltiv^ da md, qui *• tegmle 

: Ifr'SMkUU, who ii bn Mvn^^ 

ctenm* li aat 'M bhcfc u Bamati 

hn« fMfaUBcl ib Intanxotw «kh I 

ifac y«ui tevb me to bdieve thM tin TOMHllli 

a^K^Muae, and UiMibi£iig'." H« oeactedl%i| 

nol wmy Suteriog cadte eitimata i 

uboiMl ksend dxt "the euUeM inhahkamtui^ 

fton « king of monkara and a femik JiobgeblMi^Ml'iii 

of the nee pohapi bom tluMC trf iti iiat p 

mcR)kqrs[he was an incarnate god] tbqph«M« 

kiniUinilcdneM, intelligence and ^qdicatto^ 4mMllm/tklUtfffik 

and to reliipoui debate ; from die hofagoUM ikmf 4lt,l|NMi|b 

fondness for trade and money-making, great badilf «IWigliiltlD[% 

fiilness, fondness for gouip, and camivwous mmme^J^HH* tttifi- 

While they are cheerful under a d 
allow that thej are vindictive, superstitious, and a 

sence of the lamas, who are at btait MMft4 
tlS^io than revered In fact the whole 1 
*»^^?" is one vast organised system of 1 

ahove the old pagan beliefs o 
peoples there is merely a veneer of Bu 
follows another and most pernicious veneer of U 
craft), under the yoke of which the nanml < 
people has been almost completely arrested fw » 
The burden is borne with surprising endurance, i 
intolerable but for the relief found in secret and o 
open revolt gainst the more oppressive ordiiu 
siastical rule. Thus, despite the prrscnptioos regaidwn iupjil 
v^etaiian diet expressed in the formula "eat a 
brother," not only laymen but mcst of the 1 
supplement their frugal diet of milk, butter, hnrlrj lanil. aUMtfUf , 
with game, yak, and mutton — this last pronounced b/ l^irp^diif 

comme bien pliu dvilisj que les puteun ou betgen dv dwA** {ft JWb( 
p. >!3)- 

1 M}la fn tht EtkneUigy, &c. p. 67;. It maj here b« napibNi flipt lfc> 
unfriendlineu of which travellers often complam ippeus naWf 'latfl|ld>t|r 
the Buddluiit theocnqr, who rule the land and are }mIm» flf all *ffMHllVli&' 

» Ibid. p. 678. 




riii i i i Kil ii(i w( ii t itMi%- 

S bfttfl Itbettns to Aa:Mt<jfm 

t im of Tsrid ■tock, rad «n Ac 

B «fco pnfcH Buddhtei*, d 


n pbitts «w) 

)><iAmI Mongols, an true llbclwts v 

, of iriiom there in here two 

KgPiO, 90, tike At Hor-p«, of 

^fei' deicribed by Pijenlskj, closely 

H tnbeii with their 
Bpiftetr Bboolder^ tlieir 

r bead, darit comideikn and 

IpiHtf pradatoir waiSu^ all these groups 
I dnts, bows, and matchlock guns; 
« only aaimat spared is the stag, 
ir of AeM rtide nomads for liquid 
Or, Ntin Singh, ofien saw them 
rHA np the bkiod flowing from a 
I, the very chUdren and even 
t, butter, and blood, kneaded 

a (Ynla'i JAf» Ato, i. p. ttt). 
I, HcwotA {GMgr. JTMim. , 1887, p. sja). 
., 1887, p. iiA. 


ported is Ae ftitm of britto a*d I 
meal) and butter, and tfam bec(»iing«4 
-The iauaa hwe « nonopolr of tUa'b 
suid ths conpMidoa of the ladtiB 
dM' objection to icmoving the banian «f: 
Tibet it one <tf the fev regiaiu vbert 

intitBatdy aasodated with A* 
wSSSS^. "^ perriat atanoat in their fdMfti 

huabanda are atualtf but not aii 
•nd dw btide ia always otouned hj pw^Mt. 
amnged, the oldeat huaband 
other* bdiQ considered as " uncles." An 
tnsdtntion is to give woman a dominant poaitiMte! 
the "queens" of certain tribes, tefened to with to HMHdTj 
ment by the earijr Chinese chronicleii. SttfttMlsof i 
govenunent " have been noticed by 
MosBOs, and other indigenous communitiei tbOI# ia# 
Chinese frontiers. But it does not fiidlow 
a matriarchal state always and necessarilf pr cc adt d; ; 
and a patriarchal state. On the contrary, it 
polyandry never could have been nnivenal, beaig tbft< 
special conditions arising in particular regiona, 
for existence is severe, and the necessity of im] 
the increase of popularion more urgent than 
to me it seems as great a mistake to assnmi 
is to assume promiscuity as the universal anteoedeat vf^lflMAWr 
bmily reladons. In Tibet itself polygamy easts atdtfaflAto'lilh 
polyandry amongst the wealthy classes, while iiiianipni)[ fc'di 
rule amongst the poor pastoral nomads of the noitbcni 

> " Whatever iimj hare been the origin of polyaArf, 
tbit poverty, » desire to keep down population, 
in bmilie^ lupply niflicient reaion to justify iti ' 
explain iti existence among the lowei casta of Mdabsr, 
of the Panjab, among the Todas, and probably in niNt O 
thii cuMora prevaili " (Rockhill, p. jiG). 




■ m 

^^M^MHTMIiMi.'"- 'j>v>^> 



1- not M wmA of nwe m qf 

p the tmntmlKnttion of the tool, 

l^lMnad, cMl irto tba ritei, or enu 

»affMf. ^tiHpetOMT^dwIut 

in, U OM of tltc BiMt 

■ BM genenUjr boned ia ft toted 

^'iad (in LadaUt) dMcahei, aund 

» •> dw pmnitire flbai 

K iSt'Bnddlmt and tbe later lamiittic 
I wtm proTiiicet of 

« pemtfld under die 

• by nde with the natioi^ creed, ftom 

7 of iti present litet. From the 

If^wambf itapricMt, it i« known u the 

llMHiadfatbetunt to the orthodox " Yd- 

ri'tuMiiti, and as cow cooitituted, its 

> (GMiHibsX *ho flouriihed about 

•)Mir cfa, and it venerated as the equal 

1^ who were poweriiil enough to 

via the loth century, wnship sS chief 

I the red and black demons, the make 

y tigCTfod, father of all the secondary 

I pantheon." It is curious to 

t of the Bonbo sect is tbe ubiquitous 

I of the cross reversed, p^ instead 

ii appears to have escaped the dilj- 

H Wilson*, wu caused by the practice 

• to the Bonbo pnctiee in bit almo*t ex- 

^'WsfUofton, 189& The reverMd fonn. 



of turning the prayer-wheel from right to left as the red lamas do, 
instead of from left to right as is the orthodox way. The common 
Buddhist formula of six syllables — om-ma-ni'Pad-me'hum — is also 
replaced by one of seven syllables— ^ma-M-mon'/re'Sa-Za-dzun^ 
Buddhism itself, introduced by Hindu missionaries, is more 

recent than is commonly supposed. Few conver- 
and^Lamallim. ^ions were made before the 5th century of our era, 

and the first temple dates only from the year 698. 
Reference is often made to the points of contact or "coincidences" 
which have been observed between this system and that of the 
Oriental and Latin Christian Churches. There is no question 
of a common dogma, and the numerous resemblances are con- 
cerned only with ritualistic details, such as the cross, the mitre, 
dalmatica, and other distinctive vestments, choir singing, exor- 
« ..^. cisms, the thurible, benedictions with outstretched 


and Christian hand, celibacy, the rosary, fasts, processions, litanies, 
"* **"• spiritual retreats, holy water, scapulars or other 

charms, prayer addressed to the saints, relics, pilgrimages, music 
and bells at the service, monasticism ; this last being developed 
to a far greater extent in Tibet than at any time in any Christian 
land, Egypt not excepted. The lamas, representing the regular 
clergy of the Roman Church, hold a monopoly of all " science," 
letters, and arts. The block printing-presses are all kept in 
the huge monasteries which cover the land, and from them are 
consequently issued only orthodox works and treatises on magic* 
Religion itself is little better than a system of magic, and the 
sole aim of all worship, reduced to a mere mechanical system 
of routine, is to baffle the machinations of the demons who at 
every turn beset the path of the wayfarer through this " vale 01 

For this purpose the prayer-wheels — an ingenious contn- 

vance by which innumerable supplications, not less 
Jh^\.^^^^^ efficacious because vicarious, may be offered up 

night and day to the powers of darkness— -are 

however, mentioned by Max Miiller and £umouf, is figured at p. 767 *"" 

^ Sarat-Chandra-Das, ydurn. As. Sac, Bengal, 188 1-2. 


■» * ■*« 

I f * 'ii "i^i 

^m iforfiM Ugb iii4 if 10 ao 

:0>Vi$m0oA €M9s flowed «inijr^ in 
11 Bol ditpte dl thfie evoiwtaag 
iqpntet diroo^i^iii die moii ^Im^ 

•bo its letters fimn ladk bjr 

Itt die 7thoentiii7. 

IM uBdeigoiie greet Jg^SSSL 

of the Indo^ 

frooEi mi^tttioettoii towards 

hfy apart firom a few feeble 

llatioBary, >o that words are stfll 

iioo years aga The result 

betweea the spoken and written 

Biiglish not excepted Thus 

^fjim'' identified by Sir A. Cunningham 

Its written form ZAhu^ Uioo^ 

$f% This bears out de Lacouperie's view 

^^ttmed as originally spelt, although 

wmy as three consonants. Thus 4;^ 

dm m the Lhasa dialect, but still 

iOe of Kham. The phonetic dis- 

1^ that» barring reform, the time must 

0ffreq>ondence at all between sound 

^hklfiVf of lingnittic evcdudon, has I think 
in a series of pspers in the Oriiniai 

kS4 n*»: fjut 

ie the ladoOioMtii 

dobtisKble & H. HodgHwtath 

wiA acrenl, eipecMUjr in N^mI', whidt Mvjrf 

^^^ tive cluncter. Fmhtt «a*4 

of disdnct agglutiiuitiwi of the MoiiBi>l»>TMi wyi 
ny ctf tfae Kuki-Luahu ^e, < 
iduHtes and a total abtcoce of tone. Tht0>M«MK4 
>g i i»i fl »y, king!, and ftmo-stmg-sa^ of Idngi^ riw«vfi 
tion, while mdt yvA&t do less dun twen^r-dirN il 
which should necesiiute a series of diiaial««av ^NHmNSI 
Chinese <a Siamese. Their absmce, boiNver, i» mMy wjpMJpj 
by the penistence of the a^uttnatiTe principle 9ibklhamtli0 
them unnecessary. i -. ' -'tati 

A somewhat similar feature is presented by the it 

the chief bmguage of the Nsiga ] 
N^;£?s^. Mr R. B. McCabe writes diat it is •*! 

primitive stage of the ag^olinatiBg ^M^^'^lil 
"peculiarly rich in intonation,'' althoogh "for ant Ha|KH|ll 
clearly marks these tonal distinctions twenty fail to dq MlW*^ 
follows that it is mainly spoken without bmes, a 
to be "distinctly mono^llabic*" it really idNniads in p 
such as mermama, orphan, kehutsaporiiM, nowlKie^ MMMHI 

> Etknabgy, p. 315- "^ 

■ Col. G. B. Mainwaring, ^ Grammar ofthi Rang {Ufeh£^ tMigJllk^A 
CslcutW, 1876, pp. 118, 9. . - . ,««** 

* OtUlint Grammar^ the Jmgdmi-NagaLaiiguafi,CtiBaMt,t!Uf,pfit^t'% 
It may be mentioned lh>t Khaiii also, which may be repidtd as a MOCl 
language with no clear affinities, structural or lexical, (o auj of tite aaqM^^la 
Assamese tongues, is an bolatinjc farm of speech with prefixed fi 
ments and aspirates, but no tones. " The percentage itf w 
Khassi and the rest of these mountain dialects is exticiMly MMd^'^^M 
" equally gieat is the dissimilarity in many other points of p 
says Mr H. Roberts, author of a good Grammar of tkt XJUmi Li 
Paul Series, 1893. On the astonishing number of duttnet ling*mia'%''il|i 
whole of this region see Gertrude M. Godden's paper " On the Ni0S lAtf attM 
Frontier Tribes ofNorth-Easl India," in ymm. Anthrep.,Jmt. tSsTi p^ l4t<'4 

flf lbi> l»n|iaige b mdatt, 

gJMB hf Mr Soppttt', for m 

iriikb mty be called 

Mid w on. Thw wUb tiic 

«|aw, ii foimed the ictanhtiv« . 


fMfl«^ OOUMdw^ 


a otnioos tbecny ^ ^ Cnttiai< 
of tfae evdi vm ^ _^ 
VMt Ma, uhabitcd bjr l^^T* 

dw Creator, putiiig 

MMlt.piece of dajr, ■ajrisf, "Of this 

Htd people it" The wonn teplied, 

ft InbitftUe luul of a Knall |nece 

IdOok here, I can nvallow it I " 

out d fail body grew and grew 

» wnr ace. Tbeo man ipraag out of 

|Dd% ot whon there are three at the 

lambfR, the create, without whow 

M 1^ the otfaen; Golarai, god of 

ptersU in the trib«l DomendUiure 

Tba official nMstlan gcrtn to the temu 

I nuiy be Kgratled, bnt Memt dow put 

>|4e AenMBlvee, while Ziwfat U onljr the 

kmA himttiifl pradiritiei, heooe thej call 

imSkti, "Head-Cntien," frrni iu heed, 

<eiphiietioDi mcgeKed bjr Ur C. A. So^Mtt 

(WOw Grwmmfir ^ tht KangkMet-LutlLai 

be accepted. 


woriuag for dM good utd «tU «f 
godi ; meaiu erf' pfOfMlatioD, »arifioa. TUi 
said to cany much wd^t to an ■rgomcat 
MJgjn of many of ibtae tribea, U» the icaaai 1 
■upentitio&s are iboK that would natnnlfy 
peofde Ining in the ramc way, more or km 
of coantry, andtnbjecttothei _ „ 

and calamities.... A tribe settling in a new CMMbjr ailflMiP 
change its belief especially when that bdSef wM.A>«iiriiitin| 
more or less nnfonned <me. Thus te uw thn to b (MIMI^ 
province where stotms were unusually sefcic^ ft fiapl4ttia4|i 
natutally adopt a *god of stonns"." TbcK new% cwA|M|| 
those advanced in ElAndogj, p. aib sq., may be tta/ammiHl^, 
those ethnologisu who still contend itx- die cammtm^KilflfA 
widely separated branches of muikind, die Aaenon»'teMip| 
and the Mongol or Japanese, on the ground of iMiiAMMi^ 
their religious beliefe. All this will never prow «q<Ni||^ 
the common ps]rchic uniqr of all members of Ac haiM»flMfl||l<i 
Through these Naga and Kuki aborigines we pot ttMwUMi 
break of continuity from the BhdtigMt 9«|4||||M 
eS^"^- of the HimaUyan slopes to thoae ef-Tlillii^S 
tianatniDdo- Here atso, as indeed in nearly aU Md«il^pi 

lands, peoples at various grades of < ~ 
found dwelling for ages side by side — rude and i 
on the uplands or in the more dense wooded I 
communides with a large measure of political.) 
nations and peoples in the strict sense of thoae I 

lowlands, and especially along the rich aDuvial r.. — ^ ^ ^ 

this well watered t^on. The common tbe«ry ^.^^'^1%^ 

' Op. at, p. 13. .■.,. .1 r 


IfcM Ae cirifiMd pe o plM, and w 

M^liiniii. Bf w , . , . . ' 

Mtet OK ibMfbed ^^m^^ 

i\ Cmibi^am, asd die tlawM 

MMrijr^U of theM I hold m be 

A» onljf diScrence being thst, 

rinNHMBt, tbsjr one^ed at an 


wottlf Hiadn, but ako Chinew 

■re cithei of Hongolic or 

toned IndoCUDCse laaguagei, 

whoH linguistic relattons are 

are aot hat in queation. The 

doubt fiill ef Sanskrit or Frtlpit 

and of Chinese in the East, and 

a Cbioese ideographic qrBtem, 

dmrod through the squate Pali 

It is alto true that the vast 

mtd Camboja all betray Hindu 

being covoed with Br^manical 

But precisely analogous 

Java, Sumatra, and other Malaysian 

partly in China itsel£ Are we then 

Hindu invasions and settlements 

populous on the globe ? 

a few Hinduized Diavidians, 
of the Coromandel 
emigrated to Indo- r^!L^. 
survives amongst 



]iMt M th» If oai 1 

Biumen. Otben of dM) ■ 

here and there in HataytK, Mpseail^ « 

•bve du7 an ulkd "Klmp'." ia TcUngik 1 

- Bat beyond theM putul moveBCBt% i 

mfltwiice on the general ethmcal rdabooi^ I h 

(kmm hare even Aaed the teem "Arytn^ I 

Ar]raiit to Cambo}a) invaMoni txctft thoae «f a 

the invations of the zealous Hindu i 

and Buddl^ which, however, amply i 

the above indicated pointa of contact between dM I 

Indo-ChineK, and the Malayan popnlattons. 

That die civilised lowlanders and rude t 

raUy of die same abongmal atodn ja jMNI 
M^^dri. *''* Manipur diitnct with its feftdc allMlifc 

and enarcling Naga and Lnriiai ITiHi w tH 
add south. The Hinduued Manipun of the plwH^XlM^I 
polidcally dominant Mathts, as they call tlwiaad*Mp4|l 
sidered by Dr George Wan to be ''a mued im* badpH 
Kukies and the Nagas*." This observer apdy i««adnri!l 
this region the superiority of the rich bottom-lsads'tW^ji 
lalyffiousiy formed by terracing the hill slopes, as is MiMR 
" must have been the reward ever kept in view by ttbKiA 
into importance and power. The conquest of eab MM 
another roost probably led to the valleys paating ti 
into new hands. Many of the hill tribes have ti 
once held the great valley of Manipur. Modem Umq 
supports this also, for in perhaps no other part ef'IwHl 
greater or more cruel struggles taken place than MMH 
tribes of Manipur." > -w^u 

Memories even still survive - of the head-MMilg^pa 
associated with those lawless times, as in the legead-v M 

. - -a 

' It ii a curioui phonetic phenomenon th&t the cowbwwtioas Jlj|^ 
indutinguishable in utteruice, «o that it is imnuUerial wbaAeTid^i 
written Kling or Tling, though the lallei fonn wmU be pwfersthi MS 
its origin ftiMn Ttiinga. *'' 

■ TitAbariginalTriitie/MaHifiir,inymnt.AiMrtf^hllk^^iilt, 


iI^'Mm «t*i diiaf beAeo^ Uaa 

ir^cq^tioak «B the uDdentaading 
■ffat IkNd ibe^ U heir. Tliedder 
k-^'lMiid be had aiimiy aacnred 
Alt the fouattr itiU 
e had to be mad* by lAieh 
• the big, Ae other m the Utde chief 

I Slao^ptni we alio devoted to the 

L C Tea^ tdk lu they pUy mnch 

•>,Utb end Lidekhii at the oppoBte 

< A aotber vemerkeUe link mdi the 

I lAodi hat tnvell^ 

ir^Mlhw through Aighuit- t^Hl^ 

» the aatoe meaning 

H cod pioducet the nme diiinte- 

In AngamiUnd each 

r- mate Khda, and "it ii no ununial 

A A af oae village at w«r with Khet B 

e^With Khel B trf its own village. The 

JiTated by gteat walla, the people 

« few yarda of each other, yet having 

I Khel has ita own headman, but 

k dbief ; each Khel may be described 

e am>ean to be no trace even (tf a 

f i^idi some measure of cohesion is 


B transition is unbroken to the iaige 

n valley, named from 

. . _ .. TlwChtoi. 

■ to the ruoe Kaihyens 

Itatt^ilw.^., P..361. 


*^ y-^r^-ci 



nomoDCNis JSimm tribdl^ wbo mat0 
behraeo BmniA and Siam aft liie 

For the fiist detailibd aoooant ttf Ike 
Mesas S. Caiey and H. N. ToclL^ 11I1& 
tfaecMy that these tribesi as wdl aa^ tlie 
Ihfed in what we now know as 
same stock; their form of goveitmieiil^ 
manners and custtmis, b^efii and liadkiaoipiitft 
origin." The term Chin, said to be a Itefa ww aa ii g : 
Chinese /riv, ** men," is unknown to Aese 
themselves Yo in the n<»th and Zai in the iovillf 
Burma they are SAu. * ' ^^iH rt6^ 

In truth there is no recx^ised coUeetive WiMi 
coniuMd (StndJtu) often so applied is pnip^ 
TriteiNomen- once formidaUe Chittagong and llffilitft' 
datura. tribes, KloHgkiangs and Hakas^ nAm 

Tashcnsy S^rs^ and others are now reduced and' 
from Falam. Each little group has its own ttftii 
often one or two others, descriptive, abusive and 
them by their neighbours. Thus the Nwmgab{NiMt 
across) are only that section of the SoktA n<|W 
farther or right bank of the Manipur, while the Solstdl 
(Soky to go down, ti^ men) are so ca]led becauae'Al)^ 
from Chin Nwe (9 miles from Tiddim), cradle of 
down to Molbem, their earliest settlement, whidi ia ll#< 
of the Burmese. So with Siyin, the Burmese fenii 
{she^ alkali, yan, side, ti, men), the group who ssHiJBii 
alkali springs east of Chin Nwe, who are the 
''sturdy" people) of the Lushai and southern Hl^SsmM^ 
few specimens suffice as a slight object-lesson ui dws: 
tribal nomenclature which prevails, not onlyamoogit 
but everywhere in the Tibeto-Indo-Chinese doinaiHi 
north-western Himalayas to Cape St James at the 

^ "The Karens of Burma are related to the Angml l^filglli] 
Manipur, and to the allied tribes of Khyens [Chins] and 
(Capt. Temple, loc, cit,^ p. 368). 

' 77ie Chin HiUsy &c., Vol. I., Rangoon, 185^.* 

'mm-mm^'^kaK'l^>m^.p\ii1lm - ii, 


>ta^ oftbe Rawvan 

ViNkjr^owBAi^ but ««te taaai bf 

BnitdiBg K Htt of Jacob't 

but giowiBg tin^ 

ted to* iMy, wHU iui£ of then 

^|Wl^ ^ other half bdow cot it deva 

seita the ma So the Whetudu, 

t»l« LMhaii kA bd^d io a diatrici 

till a different tale. Tb^ My 

•t SeiN, whidi &ty Abk ma tbeir 

legeod of diek imder* 

wad aereral other Chin tribes. 

and [dijnique the China pre- 

iqnatitiw, Mc^ as "slow j,^,^ ^^ 

far barth and know- phyiiuiQniik 

•f.rercnge, the taste ""' 

wmCuc, the cnne of drink, the vhtue 

&e vice of amice, the filthy 

nu^ impatience under control, the 

and of onitinued efibit, anogance 

~ panic in defieat*." 

race, t^er and stouter than the 

Sfact to or 1 1 inches being cnnmon 

There are some 

tnJb a magnificent development 

■)at in some districts, and in others 

lot, much afflicted with goitre, 

cmlinB who crawl about on all fours 


wbom tbey SMrifioc^ ihcf da iwt worriiip Ui%4l 
lam fyi»ufg<ax»<KmeKf,aeeftA»t«tw 
•od mnfcKtiuiM iriudi be ii capMbte efn 
world lAo oOend him. Bewks Konn, thne « 
of dw bouae, &mily, dan, fiddij ud cibcfs i 
ticnlu pUcei in die air, the ttieamt, Ae ji 
None can bettow blessingB, but all c 

Tbe departed go to MUkikwa, "Dewl UkdAP' 
is dirided into Pwakikaa, the pleamnt abode, in 
wretched abode of the umavetigei. Good of IM 
aiiect the Aitore of man, who most go 
natmal or acddeotal death, and to Sathikwa if 
bide till avenged by blood. Thtu the vendetta 
religtouf aanctioD, itrengthened by tbe bdicf 
becomes the slave of the stayer in the next woil 
slayer himself be dain, then the first slain Is 
second slain, who in turn is the slave of die maa 

"Whether a man has been honest or diAooat Jk* 
of no consequence in the next existoice; but, tf to' 
many people in this world, he has many slaves 10 
his future existence; if he has killed many wJM < 
he will start well-supplied with food, for all that he 
are hit in the future existence. In the next 
drinking will certainly be practised, but 
raiding will be indulged in is unkno¥m*." 

Cholera and small-pox are Spirits, and wi 
among the Chins who visited Rangoon in 1895 they 
daks (knives) drawn to scare oflf the nai, and spent :tk[ 
under bushes, so that the spirit should not 6Bd theK. 

t. p. 196. 

Mii iii i iiiii nLm iigiwi i 

^ J WPI I 1*1 l llM il - - - 

I to «■.«»« 

, «ih1 dw 

pt|ytteBwnDi»B, an tt» Cmtlim oCtto 

#wwiiiglHiliwlig qtiadt, qwkco in 

I vdiis in a kac-dnwD t in a 

FiffiidtiM ndier with Dm MU^ 

I than mUk dw cutauad Bar- 

I^ ^ Miap i id finaar, itratdiing fron tba 

a VooniB, aad pmenting two kkim- 

tu fi) tba tiM CSuog* 

iqf«« dvtjrbutf colour, isMahdj^ 

[. t ta paopon ii o n ata l y ibort lagi; (a) a 

r^CnOaaic Ciatairaa, kng onl fiio^ 

Om KakhfCD bdle met with at 

9 <9M and &v akm, mi^ alnuMt bave 

t,lka- Cwraaic ckment, wMch we first 
»fioiii the Hnaalayaa, but which >• 

"jfw tw Slogpboi ct let KitdiiM 
B MM nt At« M le Mcond Unnu) " 
■i^ Thu H bow the etbnicil coaAuion in 
L Ski/fJi* u aM TJttti, I.e. Shin Ar Suuaete, 

I, 1876, p. 1 31. 

ftwnd nectmuj » briag AtU 
l^tkMtaik They fonn a. luge .«caaa^ | 
die whde popoktidii of Bonoft, aad i 
SuuneM borderiandt. Their sabdivuiou wb ii 
nuy be reduced to three autn bnodteiV'! 
Antif, thew lut indndin^ the somearhM Jillinm;! 
nMMi, or "Ked Kweiu." Althoti^ Mr Dl IL S 
language "moBOiyUabiq" it is evident^ i 
nonnal nib-Himalayaa type. . ■:• '>>><!&;('' ^ 

The Kaifttu are a ibcHt, stutdjr noe> mth-fl 

also brownish hair, black, «nd OT W h 

light or yellowish brown oii»|>tnB— t.^ 
also a Caucasic strain may be suspected. ' i^ijr.t 

De^ite the favourable pictures ot die i 
pcopaganda has been ungulaily successfiil a 

nes, the Karens are not an rmi^liiftnl 
Jl^""' friendly people, but rather Otf, i 

surly, but trustworthy and loyml to^ 
guides who have once gained their confideooe. id ;i| 
are treacherous rather than brave, and i 
Utile children. Their belief in a divine Creator w 
them resembles that of the Kuki people, and to the a 
ccvrespond the ia of the Karens, who are even 
every mounuin, stream, rapid, crest, peak or t 
object having its proper indwelling la. Thttf -Mi 4 

FionHihins specially banefiil spirits, who 1 
Chiimu Mil- by family offerings. "Onthewbi^ti 

a personal god, their traditiiHi at tqM 
possession of a 'law,' and their expectation of a^ 
made them susceptible to Christianity to a defpte tlHi^il^iWliMi 
unique. Of this splendid opportunity the Anerkiq 1|jdii|to{ Ii 

> Ttu LayiU KartHs ef Bmr. 

IWlWi iiji iTtlifiiij. i.i,iWliniiiiipi» iKi -I 

( OUwi, hu BO . 

^«MOfI>EMM0O'lr. ""^'^ ' 

V«u OHM^ a^pctqr HMe ioaded. 

IFniIWi Soy«t HoMH, Mid *'bM. oo w»« 

W'tifam aiijralher fiumui town*." 

mel die Tavojr distnct, TcDUKiim, 

tt'*ilrf ~~^ -p— ui^ ( Baraaese diakct 

' fllaaant*; Tta^eitu, like Yana, 

ft,4|aA<wi «*«B of wider ^>(dication; the 

VMtOit Kfaenta, ud Kbyengs an *U 

V«ii ipcsk rude BurmeM dialects. 

I ia J^yiaigtiM, '^River Peoide,". 

I ccmpridiig tix more ctvillted 

toitod lower/coone of the rivers, who are 

ir^jAT^pif ) bf tbe BcngaM, and whose nal 

• of Rathamg (Ankan). Thejr are 

^'Mock as tbe cnltored Biumes^ whose 

»..a» die oadie of the race, and in 

•ate called JfTraumdM*, "Great 

Both brandies call themselves 

t form of Sarma, Murma, but now 

m}^ probably from a root mro, myo, 

^'Bvntiuf with Brahma, the Brahmani- 

jk-^PB^dhist rdigion in this region. In any 

Jm». «9, 1887, p. 7J. 
'«, p.6t. 




10 luitV'rmt.-imuttfgimt 

the n«w en, *beo the taod "wm nid to kc* 

•iq>entitioui ntfnet, ibe five am 

aa enormoiu beer, » flying dn^poiv • f 

md a huge cre^iag pumpkin, wUdi t 

The Banew type hu been not in uw e u^ ^l 
aoediate between the Chineee i 
refined, or at least scoter dian eidwg,<a 
Iwowtt or olive cmnplexion, often ahomng ntf d 
black and lank hair, no beard, small but i 
eitreniities, pliant figure, and a mean i 
Most Euiopeans speak well of t) 

bright genial temperament and i 

towards strangen more than oatwaigliit)fr,^ 

indolence which hurts nobody but 

arrogance tx vanity inspired by the still r 

nation that once ruled over a great part of Tnrtn Phi— ' i ■] 

the DKWt remarkable feature of Burmese looftf it- ^(i^l§!t/t 

democratic independence and equality of all ciami idMK^Mi 

under an exceptionally severe Asiatic autooaqr. " TN||I. 11) 

perfectly republican in the freedom with which att nakR>||j|)||j 

together and talk with one another, withom uty^a * * ** " ' 

tion in legard to difiermce of rank or wealA.*" 

attributes this trait, I think rightly, to dw gi 

B^'du^. Buddhism, the true spirit of whidi hat p 

better preserved in Burma than in any « 

The priesthood has not become the privileged aadaf|iM<lJ|t 

dass that has usurped all spiritual and temponl Cdf^^Mdlt^ 

Tibet, for in Burma everybody is or has been a f 

period of his life. All enter the monasteries — < 

national schools — not only for general instruction, b 

members of the sacerdotal order. They sabnit ts. A^tgiliini 

take " minor orders," so to say, and wear the ydlow rab|, i/fMti 

' G. W. Bird, ffatidtnifgi iV> Bumta, 1S97, p. lag. 

* J, G. Scott, Burma, He, 1SS6, p. iij. 


r •feMM* the preca^ of tke MmMt 
tlff^bagr do Air tbe alms InUMid on (bom Iff 

'infi cvM at tbc tDoM "TCiMntod 

«^te»IUt tte KMaUed Moloai tmrnm 

C'KbvdB were found od iaaggirf to be 

**giM and dver" inagea of baae 

rtfMtof the worid do tlic PwUMar 

nt* of independent *"""• 

e ifKdt that tbejr an adwoiriedged 

it^MtTi and imelltgent thu tboae of all 

'VTbeir capadtj for tmstnai and petty 

f bf Htm Gallic nsten; and Hr H. & 

iibk vwtry town and village "yon will see 

' • ieorof the verandah with diminutive, oi 

I flmt of then, covered with v^etaUes, 

k'4l^' other articlea. However numeroot 

^''everything it known to them ; and such 

^enag it quite unknown amongst 

' mated hy their parents from their 

f'lMMn Htey bloHom into young women, 

ty; yet immwality is &r less 

M am led to believe, than in any 

* AmoK g H Ui4 Skam, tU., 1885, p. 333. 






aiHOnglf fPC 1Mm¥C% tOilM. cSQCtf IBiJlTiWv 

docililHBt^ of BoudlimB^^ftiM predhlGitf H' 
of 'ttMcivSisfttioii a moit imomteg 
^qfouSkf of ibe cmditkni of Ae 
fill dicio oomitries wommi are toeii 
tbflf pneiide at the ^vm^^iI^, and ImsM'^i^ 
poiieaaiaii of the basaarSi Thar sodal 
inovery regpetitf than in the regicM whieni 
predonuiiatiiig deed They may be said to 
and not dieir sbtves." 

Burma is one of those r^oos where 

the rank of a fine art Indecdlfeii^i 

and general jnctcMial ^fedt prodiiol&' 
artists on the living body are rivalled only bf 
New Zealand, and some other Polynesan 
who states that '' the Burmese, the Shans, aad 
tribes are the only peoples in the south of Aria 
to tattoo their body," tells us that the elaborate 
performed only on the male sex, the whole peieon llNNk; 
knees, and amongst some Shan tribes firom nedc ifi^ 
covered with heraldic figures of animals^ wi% 
traceries, so that at a little distance the effect is |Im# 
dark-blue breeches'. The pigments are lamp«faiiciio0' 
and the pattern is usually first traced with a fine blAr 
then worked in by a series of punctures made 1^ a; 
brass style '• >y^j)# 

East of Burma we enter the country of the 
most numerous and widespread peoples of Asta» 

selves Tai(Thai) "Noble'* or ♦'l 
s^Vl^ies. slavery in various forms has from te^ 

been a social institution amongst aft 
groups. Here again tribal and national terminologjr^ 

^ Cf. the Shans of Yunnan, who are nearly aU ** taton^ ^^4iilj 
jusqu'au genou, de dessins bleus si serr^ qu'ils pandiiMit' 
culotte" (Pr. Henri, op. cit, p. 83). :;».*? 1,1 X^*^^ 




^ fiMUM ; and -the Z4nw^MU«jraii, 

r4ir iMt ttttbfx Tn0 BiMicw gfMpi 

Mf'iiriiUe'UK tnottgesenl OifiseM 

I Btttn'd'OiMuil^'Wns tt cucAtI to 

utte fcr tto', ecntf^tdjr uH 

k Toiddng i» AMDri, and Ae 

i a Asmn ittdf bdoi^ orfghi- 

ll iao# moMl)' ftaimilued to tiw 

I'lUdTfenenl eahaTe. Asnua in Atct 

^ "UgUandcn" (.SIm, moantdii), £Ui« 
K fectt '»idch GOBH to tn throogh tbe 

» tbal iDMiT of tbe Ngioa Imm 

||tfv^;9u»W> Md In OM plaM spa* M tu 

■ ^id^dl; of the Mme nee h the Budmm. 

■"^ Inuidnd* of both coontcia, ind of doacl; 

:; *" ftttf Njilaa mtt ilw hut in » t^cmt lo 

^ kboat the bonkrlmnda, where blmU may 
1 tad meoul duuacten difler conudenblf. 
la Jt^Mb, wbkb Mr H. S.Halktt 
4 naaa Mtth of Zimme, and^wwhere to the 
tf M w) Sitft^nt, 1890, pp. tsB 

■ LaoHew " (Pitocc Koii, p. 41). 
■t ttiB pcfilrt, uhI ocoipr k fisw vlllacct 
I J«M 19, 1884, p. 109). Daltoo dw 
tl (Tai} tribe ia the Sadljw dkufet, AtMni 




^yf %^''. 

tdEii ^ itfiniir fiom ^diit ««iiMMii«: 

itt i»a8 4A. f<i|iiiM'4k|^ 

TIttte AJiomt dHDie 6oai the Khiwitf 

find ft ririlii^irt sod lettered Buddlupt 
ttUl enjojfing pdidcal ftntonomy in tbe 
Ikpard MUmmiiue. Tbey oUl themi^vin 
Qirions to note that both AAw and jffm^i 
names amongit the neighbouring Abor fiiftplir^ 
traveller was told that the Padao, who dimmed 
like the Laotians*, were indigenousi and he 
also Laotian — straight eyes rather wide a|MU% 
forehead arched, superciliary arches piomineMk 
chin, olive colour, slightly bronzed and daifcer 
country; the men ill-favoured, the young 
features, and some with very beautiful eyes. 

Passing into China we are still in the miditef 
ShanCnuite. ^hosc range appears formerly to htema 

to the right bank of the Yang4se4tky^^ 

cradle has been traced by dt 
Kiu-lung mountains north of Sechuen and sotttii 
China proper*." This authority holds that thqr 
element in the Chinese race itself, which, as it spread/ 
beyond the Yang-tse-kiang, amalgamated with die fifaiiii 
and thus became profoundly modified both in typt' 
the present Chinese language comprising over tl 

^ Much unexpected light has been thrown upon the tmifi 
Ahoms by Mr E. Gait, who has discovered and dcicribtd la Mr^ 
See. Bengal, 1894, a large number of ptUkis^ or MSS. (st la.4#i 
district alone), in the now almost extinct Ahom language, Sona of 
a continuous history of the Ahom rajas from 56S to 1791 AkPtf..i|||^| 
others appear to be treatises on religious mysticism or iliilnnitf rw^ 1iiii||[l^ 
book on the calculation of future evenU by examiniqg the ln oCi,|p||jt>ltl|t| 

• Op. ai. p. 109. A ••> 'i*f»l<r 

* A. R. Colquhoun, Among the Skans, Introductioii, p, IV•»r^.Vl ^V/^^Y 


_ .. iyjAw Mii ^ ii i dr ii .n . 1 1 1 jj jLH 11 )1 >j. i. M i ■ ■ 

ii<1 diiim mid' prtmHi fti^ 

Jl^rii^ipiir but vb^ ; ] ^ 

i«mIL 0r0isp9 over, nil tiit uf^padi 

in dft? iQi^ or ^ move^ iMaotdy 

Mipdi. T1k» cokMor, says Mr Backf 

of. IIm^ fiiamrim'' and ^fin ftckl 

)»M| fa0|te^)Qolung tbaa the VUk^ 

iMd ^ .mof partictilarljr harbg 

irilft Mibtih not fo wide as those of 

yiMftbOMwe onqriia^ is the testimony of 

11$ eiqiediliQai who tells us diat the 

%mfM«t^ boMl than ^e Chinese ; the daik 

Jbe^iMe is stiaigh^ the whole expression 

lliil^llide iliStision, interminglings 
and lack of 


0mm MQttire a certain toISd'^Mh. 
mityrfiom Aeir gene* 

Buddhist religiony and common 

a; chaos of radically distinct idioms 

lltttwwidtng indigenous populations, thqr 

a lemarkable dq^ree of linguisdc 

1f9$kfm more or less divergait dialects 

Eielttding a large percoitage of 

into Ae literary language by their 

^ < , * TTnmfiis mmd EUpkamit^ p. 390. 

flhMlHUHit niliert lidi der 'if*Mir»M«<«i>en Rice " 


BRdt M« duft 

TCpramtt five diffcKnt wordi, wbiGO''WfV 
d^Uabtei, or even pciftyttMm in tb* 
The Mme proceti of disintegimtfan 1 
out die whole of the IndtvOntcM 
leading tongues— Chioea^ AbbubcM, tWfllWitJ 
long to the same isolating fimn of speedy lAkki'J 
Stkmoligy, Chap, iz., it not a primitive 
devdopmoit, the outcome of profound 

The remarkable unifonnity of die TU-SiWB 

■buand order of speech mgf be in put 

t^^Mo- serrative effects of the litemr 

Writtnc over 3000 jeara ago most of die 9UH 

''■'""^ brought under Hindu infliiemie» lif 

and later by the Buddhist missionaries, iriio 

speedi to written form, while introducing a-liq^ 

Sanskrit terms inseparable from the new rddgiom' 

writing systems, all based on the square PaU -IscM' 

vanagari syllabic characters, were adapted "W 

requirements of the various dialects, with 4ie~l 

Tai-Shan linguistic family is encumbered with '■B)«iK<lflii|lp|t 

scripts. "The Western Shans use one v^ iaHCtfl»lH|lq!H|Wt 

the Siamese have a character of their own, iriikh "" --^""'-^-^ 

Pali ; the Shans called Lu have another 

and to the north of Siam the Lao Shans have 

These Shan alphabets of Hindu origin tw 
de Lacouperie to be connected with the wril 
have been credited to the Mossos, Lolos, and 
peoples about the Chinese and Indo-Chineae 
Lan-Chu in the Lolo country Prince Henri 
were very numerous, and he was shown 

' Low'i Siamea Grammar, p. 14. 

■ Col. R. G. Woodthorpe, 71U SHau amd MiU TiOm.lf'tkt 
J»um. Anthnp., Iml. 1897, p. 16. ' . j*n*4l 


moMimM. Ml 

mWimmmit 'Wman* Met mi'^im- 

JTiWiii^ipiiiili ■', but TtpioAMM'tiie>'tt 

mhobm. Their Mure to inteip'rt 

i Benri, who dedan* Hn^ 

I no wriUiiu - sfNSui- Tnc 

huopl^^iwAs fun af hlcngljipluoi: 

Nttibni («ftUm> ArilowtBg: hori- 

1 are i«ciib«d one w men 

mA of tnimda, men, homes, con- 

Ae Af or Hghmtng, md ao on." 

qmiBded two of the bot^ wbidi 

I the creation of die world, 

)'c€ all tite evila dHvatenii^ 

hf beiog pioM, that is, by making 

e ideal ai« always exiawed bjr 

Di^ciaas declared diat there was no 

futij Mippllcd hjT.At LAMOperie, who gives 
bins. OB Mtln, red M one dde, Hat on tlw 
■ writtM in blMlc, " i^ypwentlr with the 
RakialMd by Mr E. Colbotne Bkber boa 
~ I i88it uid dBacribed bj da Lacoiqiaie 
"Tlw writing nint Id UnM bom ti^ to 
BWCUMte''(p. i), utd tUt anthorl^ r^aids 
b MIIAa^ the nriaat memben <J ■ widetj 
k (RaniM Mai, Ii^o-Pali, Vattehitta) to 
J Bngb, UakaMU, Tagal), to Indo-CUna 
I Japan, and abo inelnding the Slao-chnai 
" (p. j). It would be pramatnre 
b artablMwd; bat the Indian ori^ and 
W the Hslajan brand) are now pliood beyond 


tfMT'r^Bist nank 

liriiihif I thir Uefoidyflitt fadbs 

>oiit t)C Aie fiffH steps in the faislQCjr ef 
of the Oiiiieae daracteri vem tin^ 
iuieed of being hemmed in, had 
their sacred books might also perhaps Ihev«^] 
jcbaraeters*." - >/?- 

Altbough &OW "hamned in,'^ the UommmMli 
somewhat cidtoied pecfrfei 

ragions nordi-east of Tibet^ a«i/€l 
CUnese fiontiers about 600 b^ Thejr att 
Qiinese records of 796 a.d. when tfa^ wcpe 
of Nanchaa After various vidsM^deB <bef 
Chinese suzerainty in the X4th century, and INM 
' in the i8th. De Lacouperie* thinks tii^ mm 
same origin as the Lolos, the two langui^ges 
common, and the names of both being Qmieiei wl|lt 
and the Mossos call themselves respectively Mmn^ 
Nashi (Nashri). 

Everywhere amongst these border tribes am iiilt^ 
Aboricincs aborigines, who present more or less fqpdfei 
of South chiM which are described by various tfivaBBIil 
*" °°*"* casic** or "European." Thus the 
the Khanungs of the English maps, and are akin 10^ 
Lu-tsk family {Melam^ Anu, Diasu &c.), reminded 
of some Europeans of his acquaintance", and be 
light colour, straight nose and eyes, and genendly fipit^ 
Yayo (Yao), as the Chinese call them, but wlMe fill 

The same Caucasic element reappears in a 
amongst the indigenous populations of Tonkllii|(^>||ft 
Dr A. Billet has devoted an instructive moaogniCl^ 

* Op, cii, p. 193. - 

' Beginnings of Writing in Central and Eastern Arim^ fmbm^^^ r-k t>t44i;f :* 
> " Qudques-uns de ces Kiou-ts^s me rappelleat ds* SttI 
connais** (Op, cit, p. 152). * '•# r^'#f"*s.- 

^ Deux Ans dans le Haut- Tonkin^ etc, Paris, 1896* * i^ y ?^ ' ;^ 

^ » -< 

".'■ » 1 .>- 



.>i ■iiiailiM^Biiaiaiiif- 





D^V Vi^ 

."•* ; 


fMi^t 0ftMf loir dMsriE^ 

«O0e net deiMPessed al 

Thejr are a patiMl^ JadusttioiMr Md 

itt|eGl to duMfle: and Aimaawse in* 

Mwivel^ciik Yaijr peetdiar Mv^s^ 

and aipmaflf dien |da^ #Mi 

am cmaciiea 97 two pufcn^ 

a^ Siiaii <Mdec^ and to Ak toaajr 

Omi 71mm and tfit Nonp. Tha IalN»r 

{MMfda; MMr kigaly aasimUated to 

lii f^^ tjrpe ttQl pef^tsy especktljr 

tti^iil^ w oAm te eaie^ Dr Billet teUs tis 

HMWH '^withr tight and tometimes even 

to kam that the Mans came tra- 


ivaatetn land iriiere their uma-'tm 
lii^a fived in contact with o^fimmnd 
ihomanda of years ago." 


k Aoukl be erplained that in Chiiiete it 
ikKih, wMog ka^ikumtSf and weave warned by 
^IPPrjpnpHbie^is npCs comme dee nona pro|Mcca de 
.|l^9 1^ 410)* In 1877 Capt. W. Gill visited a ksge 
j^wal diviiionB» leaching from West Yunnan to the 
tf lOft of lederacy recogniiing a king, with Chinese 
' li In^Ettage leeemblSi^ Sanskrit (?). These were 
fe^aypaMntly die same at those visited in 1896 
aa semi-independent, ruled by their own 
l^ipila Cauoisian, both men and women being very 
: ftkadly and hospitable, and living in large stone 

tS^ 1899. 

iM.efaevtaz teient bkmds, qnelqneibb mtoe 


lUH: Kwr iao'fl 

hMd, <n«lbca,fliB^ diQckrbaae^« 
lUa not 3idl<nridi bat ntbcr * 
Aamd — in noting ncaUitig the ttaks 4 
Let IK DOir tain taM.IL TeiaMiA t 
iTM l eri ili brought togcthvbi 
"being not only a mcdiad d 
in the nmtunl Kiencei, timtbUt-. 


"The Mins-TicD. the Hin><^K, the I 
tae, w Mieu) preKnt a pretty couplet* ii 
and the Pan-yio of South Ewang-u; they we tl 
ancient nee, which with T. de LacoBp«ie BHftill 
Cbineae. This early race, which bore the ni 
occupied Central China befwe the anival of the<€ 
ing to M. d'Hervey de Saint-DenyB, the o 
Kwei-chfa where these Miao-tse ttill a 
the Pan-hu. In any case it leems certain that Atf;9 
Man race came from Central Asia, and that, fi 
l<^cal standpoint, they differ altogether from A»'^ 
represented by the ChiDese and the Annamese. The |l 
ally presents striking affinities with the Aryan tfptfi^i 

Thus is again confirmed by the latest inn 
the conclusions of some of the leading membcn oCll 
school of anthiopolc^, the view first advanced ^M 
that peoples of the Caucasic (here called "Aiyan'')<4 
already spread to the utmost confines of i 
remote prehistoric times, and bad in this region • 
the first waves of Mongolic miration radiating frdUl H 
land on the Tibetan plateau*. 

Reference was above made to the singulaz hwl 

TiMflimiiMH cohesion at all times betrayed bf 1 

Bhuii. peoples. The only noteworthy i 

' V Antkrtpel^U, 1896, p. 6o» sq. 

* Oh tkt JitlmUnt sftlit Imb-Cliituu and Inttr-Otmmk 
guapi. Paper rewl at the MeetiiiK of the BiiL 
primed ID the Jntrn. AMhivf. Inst. February, 

HBft Apk'MMltlfcMI'Ah 

-^tiiMrCwa.KiU w ii ai i iM « fnh 
Ao» nam TVflaced I9 Ewnqieaa 
tfmi^ibe.iwttinl l>i9^ ^ tibn flunU 
byilw Southon Stwoautbe 
4ipe«r » lum bflen. Iwe pii»< 
, (Cwgaboiuu), wboM Mnat ii 
;to (be 3M«r- 543 ■.& uid whot 
, woe. eiq>dkcl >boiU;443 ajdl 
} not diiecdy from Indiai, tbut 
r Hmdu coltare, uid &t SiomeM 
nfin to the miiaculwu birtb of 
) threw off the 6ataga jo^ 
I Thai, "Frpemen," invented the 
Jtiand ' itw KboiB (Canbojan) to 
gdie Hcred wiitiDgt. 

d to the year 638 A.D., 

•in the native recwdi. The ancient 

wen founded (575), and other >etde> 

ray* io the direction of the aouth, 

I atflwUly advanced toward* the ka- 

n, oc mingling with Khmera, Lawaa, 

Boue now extinct, lome still sui^ 

and plateaux endiding the Menani 

IV-jpiBUiv of national life in later times, 

I, when the empire had received itt 

the whole of Camboja, Pegu, 

I Peninsula, and extending its conquer- 

I Java'. Then followed 

bsMnadooad, uul the SUmcM eoaqncran 



the disastrous wars with Burma, which twice captured and finally 
destroyed Ayuthia (1767), now a picturesque elephant-park visited 
by tourists from the present capital, Bangkok, founded in 1772 
a little lower down the Menam. 

But the elements of decay existed from the first in the institu- 
tion of slavery or serfdom, which was not restricted 
s<KUiiSy«tem. ^^ ^ particular class, as in other lands, but, before 

the modem reforms, extended in principle to all the 
kings' subjects in mockery declared "Freemen" by the founders of 
the monarchy. This, however, may be regarded as perhaps little 
more than a legal fiction, for at all times class distinctions were 
really recognised, comprising the members of the royal family — 
a somewhat numerous group — the nobles named by the king, the 
kks or vassals, and the people, these latter being again subdivided 
into three sections, those liable to taxation, those subject to forced 
labour, and the slaves proper. But so little developed was the 
sentiment of personal dignity and freedom, that anybody from 
the highest noble to the humblest citizen might at any moment 
lapse into the lowest category. Like most Mongoloid peoples, 
the Siamese are incurable gamblers, and formerly it was an every- 
day occurrence for a freeman to stake all his goods and chattels, 
wives, children, and self, on the hazard of the die. 

Yet the women, like their Burmese sisters, have always held 

a somewhat honourable social position, being free 

vsfoman.^ to walk abroad, go shopping, visit their friends, see 

the sights, and take part in the frequent public 

feastings without restriction. Those, however, who brought no 

dower and had to be purchased, might again be sold at any 

time, and many thus constantly fell from the dignity of matrons 

to the position of the merest drudges without rights or privileges 

of any kind. These strange relations were endurable, thanks to 

the genial nature of the national temperament, by which the hard 

lot of the thralls was softened, and a little light allowed to 

had brought back from its renowned capital, Angkor Wat, over 90,000 captives. 
These were largely employed in the wars of the period, which were thus attri- 
buted to Camboja instead of to Siam by foreign peoples ignorant of the changed 
relations in Indo-China. 


penetrate into the darkest comers^ of the social S3rstem. The 
open slave -markets, which in the vassal Lao states fostered 
systematic raiding-expeditions amongst the unreduced aborigines, 
were abolished in 1873, and since 1890 all bom in slavery are free 
on reaching their 21st year. 

Siamese Buddhism is a slightly modified form of that prevail- 
ing in Ceylon, although strictly practised but by few. 
There are two classes or " sects," the reformers who 
attach more importance to the observance of the canon law than 
to meditation, and the old believers, some devoted to a contem- 
plative life, others to the study of the sunless wilderness of 
Buddhist writings. But, beneath it all, spirit or devil-worship is 
still rife, and in many districts pure animism is practically the 
only religion. Even temples and shrines have been raised to the 
countless gods of land and water, woods, mountains, villages and 
households. To these gods are credited all sorts of calamities, 
and to prevent them from getting into the bodies of the dead the 
latter are brought out, not through door or window, but through 
a breach in the wall, which is afterwards carefully built up. Simi- 
lar ideas prevail amongst many other peoples, both at higher and 
lower levels of culture, for nothing is more ineradicable than such 
popular beliefs associated with the relations presumed to exist 
between the present and the after life. 

Incredible sums are yearly lavished in offerings to the spirits, 
which give rise to an endless round of feasts and revels, and also 
in support of the numerous Buddhist temples, convents, and their 
inmates. The treasures accumulated in the "royal cloisters" 
&nd other shrines represent a great part of the national savings — 

^ How very dark some of these comers can be may be seen from the sad 

picture of maladministration, vice, and corruption still prevalent so late as 1890, 

S^ven by Mr Hall^tt in A Thousand Miles on an EUpkant^ ch. xxxv. ; and 

«▼« siiU later by Mr H. Warington Smjrth in Five Years in Stam^ from 1891 

^ 1896 (1898). This observer credits the Siamese with an undeveloped sense 

of right and wrong, so that they are good only by accident. ** To do a thing 

^use it is right Is beyond them ; to abstain from a thing because it is against 

^r good name, or involves serious consequences, is possibly within the power 

I ^ a few ; the question of right and wrong does not enter the calculation." 

But he thinks they may possess a high degree of intelligence, and mentions the 

^*^ of a peasant, who from an atlas had taught himself geography and politics. 

K. 14 


310 HAN : PAST ASD. PUSXITT. {fl(>f 

inveatmeDtf fw the. other worid, unong wlitek mm-i 

nnmeroiu gold itatuea ^iltenng with lubics, nppUnfyaMtj 

priceless gems. But in these nutters the taste of tkeii 

the priests were formerly called, is somewh^U caBabSttM 

pictures of reviews and battle-scenes from the E 

piq>ers, and sometimes even statues of Napoleon aet wf.MfJlJf 

side of Buddha. j'liv' 

So numerous, absurd, and exacting are the nkii<irf.)M 
Monuticiun ""^'^'^^ communities that, but fw the aid <tf 4hf 
•Dd Piim- temple servants and novices, en 
''*°'' possble. A list of such puerilities 

pages in Mr Colquhoun's work Ammgst the Siams {si9-s$^a«ri 
from these we learn that the monks must not dig the grnoMt^ 
that they can neither plant nor bow; must not b(^ ik^ilptil 
would kill the genn ; eat com for the same reason ; diadlffMl 
lest a branch get broken ; kindle a flame, as it destioja tfwJMd 
put out a flame, as that also would extinguish life ; foqgt ^MKfyM 
sparks would fly out and perish ; swing their anns in wiftiiS:: 
wink in speaking ; buy or sell ; stretch the legs iriien .«it|iiB{ij 
breed poultry, [»gs, or other animals; mount an rlfphtif m 
palanquin; wear red, black, green, or white garments I'BHMnnAi 
the dead, &c, &c In a word all might be summed 19. h^^ 
general injunction neither to do anything, nor not to doanyHwi 
and then despair of attaining Nirvana ; for it would be ii 
to conceive of any more pessimistic system in theory*, 
it is otherwise, and in point of bet the utmost religious iadUtai 
prevails amongst all classes. 

Within the Mongolic division it would be difficult to ii 
any more striking contrast than that presented by the ) 
kindly, and on the whole not ill-favouFed Siamese aad 
hard-featured, hard-hearted, and grasping Annamese ■ 

> Probably a corruption of latafai, lh« name of Dw palm-tree wUch fMk 
the fan-lcftf consianlljr utcd by tbe monks. 

* " In conveisalion with the monks Dr M^Gilvaiy was toU tbU il 
nuMl likely be countleu ages bdbre tbey would attaia the n ~ 
■tate of Nirvana, and that one tiuugresaioo at any lime ml|^ it 
the lowett hell to tw^n again their melancholy (ulgrimi^" (HaB«t, ^X 
MUts en tm E/tf^ant, p. 337). 


ten it little or nodung in Uood, 
Ab bc^it, genial — if somewhat . 

lifeofBugkoktothe iSi^ 
mmai StpKwphae of Ha>noi or 
Bt be apt to modify bis views on that pmnt 
rJmt a good word to say for the Tonkiogese, the 
•r aaj other branch <tf the Annameae &inily, 
'4f Ae leut prejudiced are lo outspoken that we 
• dieie is good ground for their severe strictures 
aacoitth ipateriidists. Buddhists of course they 
Ml of the mcffal ieiae they have littlet unless it 
dasses) a pale reflection of the pale 
jtodft The whole- r^ion in &ct is a sort of 
to- which it owes its arts and industties, its 
culture, and even a large part of 
■Gi»»4iU {KiathsM), the name of 
«kkl to mean "Bifurcated," or '*'*«*"■ 
mtaknact to the wide space between the great 
IPMIMr (Mans in the legendary Chinese records so 
iRj^^^BfC since which period the two countries 
t- maintained almost uninterrupted relations, 
|r M'ibMtiki down to the present day. At first the 
1 to die northern parts of Lu-kkng, the 
s rest of the coast lands being held by the 
KfTMampa) people, whose affinities are with the 
But in ai8 b.c, Lu-kiang having been re- 
1 with China proper, a large number of 
1 in the country, and gradually meiged 
t « nnj^e nadooaUty, whose twofold descent 
e Annameae physical and mental characters. 
\ .however, did not come into use till the 
t wu facially applied to the frontier river 

f. M* itttioppi et ieuni da ftutre* doict* du pied. 
sve encore ■ujourd'hui chei lei indigfaiet 
K bdlemeDt que let Giu>-chi lODt let ucftres 
mfitmfwiu m tBjS, p. til). See alio a note on 
it b>Mn«. jintltrff. Imt. 1B79, p. 460. 
~ dfemofmwMMM, "SontheniFetoe." 



between Caiina and Tonking, and afiennwdi itaWMlbit^ 
whole of Tonking and Cochin-China. Tofduagiteil^'^^ 
the "Eastern CourtS" was originally the nameoi^f 49i?te«i^ibi 
Ha-noi when it was a royal residence^ b%A wat iMr tttOiM^ 
the whole of the northern kingdom, whose true luuii^ ii'lMiiik 
To this corresponded the southern Rwe-Chen-€au^|^ ^W h^^lm 
of Chen-Ching/' which was so named in the 9th eeolia)FfMii te 
capital Chen-Ching, and of which our CodiiiiChina 4^ppwii#4e 
a corrupt form. 

But, amid all this troublesome political n0DMMtatlM^''tlie 
dominant Annamese nation has faithfully pres e rved lit iMIIlt^' 
geneous character, spreading, like the Siamese Sbtam, iHidBf 
southwards, and gradually absorbing the whole of lll^ OMWipi 
domain to the southern extremity of the peniimda, as W«H mt a 
large part of the ancient kingdom of Camboja about At MeUMmg 
delta. They thus form at present the almost exdosm eAttied 
element throughout all the lowland and cultivated paftt of TM- 
king, upper and lower Cochin-China and south CaflibojJii» iiMll 
total population in 1898 of about twenty millions. 

The Annamese are described in a semi-official te^ort* is 

Physical d ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^Y ^ ^^^ broad forehead, hig^ check 
Mental bones, Small crushed nose, rather thidc %!% UMk 

*^^ "* hair, scant beard, mean height, copperf ooiniiittte, 
deceitful {rush) expression, and rude or insolent bearing* -me 
head is round (index 83 to 84) and the features are in geMnt flat 
and coarse, while to an ungainly exterior corresponds a biiilllljkfi* 
sympathetic temperament The Abb^ Gagdin, who lived yoaii in 
their midst, frankly declares that they are at once ariogittl'^aid 
dishonest, and dead to all the finer feelings of hinnan idifeBre^ 
so that after years of absence the nearest akin will meet willMMit 
any outward sign of pleasure or affection. Others go farther and 
Mr }. G. Scott summed it all up by declaring that ^ the fewer 
Annamese there are, the less taint there is on the human race.'' 
No doubt Lord Curzon gives a more fevourable jnctore^ but this 
traveller spent only a short time in the country, and ev<en he 

> Cf. Nan-king, Pe-king " Southern " and " Nortbem? Cdai|i (Gbqptali). 
• La Gauite G^ograpfnqui, March n, 1885. 



ttr^tiic^ and deceitful, duposcd to ihisTe 

fitfkwKC^ Koendadouat and incunble gambles'." 

y tj lw w one ndeemiBg qnality, an intense love of 

' conttBating with the almost abject 

The feeling extends to all classes, 

IkJa-hald ia abbofrence, and, as in Burma, a demo- 

6,c<tlMdtt7 pnmeates the social system*. Hence, 

e Am abrays been an absolute monarchy, each 

IMIMMMMMMCSeitiliitei a veriuUe little oligarchic common- 

1|||p^rijBlM»s nne ta a great surprise to the present French 

J.*.* ,.,. - - f, who frankly declare that they cannot 

t dia sodBl or political pontion of the people 

D for natire laws and usages. The Anna- 

B to leam from western social institutions. 

everywhere with remarkable uni- 

t BOttb^ Indo-Chinese isolating 

t, three high and three low, J^^SS^, 

'z characters based on the 

I* frifi» BIUMrou8 modifications and additions. But, 

d for the purpose, the attempt made by 

I to substitute the so-called ^vAr- 

: system, has been defeated by the con- 

e (KOple. Primary instruction has long been 

i ^inost everybody can read and write as 

■ Bicm^yidis as are needed for the ordinary 

Every village has its free school, 

Mof itadies it encoifragedby the public exami- 

I in China, all candidates for government 

I subjected. Under such a scheme surprising 

I, were the course of studies not based 

J fonniilas of Chinese classical Uterature. 

t ire foe the most part puerile, and true 

y moral precepts of Confucius. One 

1 classes is a scoffing, sceptical spirit, 

tite ^*lit^. Pinnt d'csdavage, 
ae peat-il uj^rer tax cmplou, le 



free from all religious prejudice^ and taaimmptx^kf MM i ^^ 
creeds or dogmas, combined with a lofty movil 4M«iliatMdiiS^ 
however in harmony with daily conduct ^ >'^' ^ ^ ^ 

Even more than in China, the £unily is the* tnit •iNWe^o^ 

the social system, the head of tlui 
s^t^iT^ ^i^g not only the high-priest cf A»\ 

cult, but also a kind of patriarch enjpjfim almost 
absolute control over his children. In this vetpee^ tiili tdia^ 
tions are somewhat one-sided, the fiither hiving nn n ii ro gHM ri l 
obligations towards his offspring, while these aie eiqiecled ta 
show him perfect obedience in life and veneraticm: after deadi. 
Besides this worship of ancestry and the ConAiGiaii ediieal 
philosophy, a national form of Buddhism is prevdeat Some 
even profess all three of these so-called "religions^^ beneath wliich 
thGre still survive many of the primitive superstiliQMr:eewdiled 
with a not yet extinct belief in spirits and the supemataral power 
of magicians. While the Buddhist temples are n^kicted Mdilie 
few bonzes' despised, offerings are still made to the'gettiijof'iigri* 
culture, of the waters, the tiger, the dolphin, peaoe» 
and so forth, whose rude statues in the form of cfaagooa Of other 
fabulous monsters are even set up in the pagodas. * ^iace the 
early part of the 17th century Roman Catholic missiottarieahave 
laboured with considerable success in this unpRmiisiilg fsdd, 
where the congregations were estimated in 1898 ataboiit'900^000. 
From Annam the ethnical transition is easy toXIhiaii^. end its 

teeming multitudes, r^arding whose orjgiM^/ncial 

and cultural, two opposite views at pmeMtihold 

^ From dofuo, a Portuguese corruption of the Japanese i!(i$fUf9 ^ 6tffami 
person, applied first to the Buddhist priests of Japan, and 'thai extended to 
those of China and neighbouring lands. 

* This name, probably the Chinese /m, men, people, Atluif C^atimk in 

Sanskrit writings in its present form: ^•l, China, whence the Hiadf i^^^, 

• _ . • s^-« - ^ 

Chin, and the Arabo- Persian CHf^^ Sin, which gives the. *^tiiini! Sitmi* 

The most common national name is Chilng-kiie, "middle kingdooi*' ( r rttninahly 
the centre of the universe), whence Chikng-kdie-Jin, the Chnioe 
have referred China to the Chin {Tsin) dynasty (9098.0.), 
Kataia (Russian Kitai) is the Khata (North China) of 
from the Manchu JCt-tan, founders of the Liio dynasty, whidi' 



' rbt-olled the old, bntby do raeani die 

the Chinese popaUtkm u the d>nct 

Ifcii ■boriginn who during the 'Stone Ages entered 

■pnbMj from die "nbetan ptatesu, there 

culture indeiwndentlx of foreign m- 

qneeid gndoilly southwards to the whole of 

cxtHpotinK absorlnng, or driving to the .eticirclinit 

B|dMids the ruder aborigines of the Yang- 


to this view the new school, championed 
de Lacouperie\ holds that 
of Caiina are late intruders uJ^lSS^. 
isi, and that tbey arrived, not 
as a cultured people with a considerable 
science, and the arts, all erf' which they 
indirect^ from the civilised Akkado- 
of Babykmia. 

iblances, but what are called 

out between the two cultures, and 

sufficient to establish a common 

bcii% the fountain-head, whence the 

not cLearlf defined to the Hoang-ho 

yu, originally go, is equated with Akkad 

and se on. Then the astronomic 

are compared, Berosus and the conei- 

Ae pdehistoric Akkad epoch into lo periods 

or '433,000 years, while the corre- 

myth also comprises 10 kings {or 

period of 432,000 years. The 

to the emperor Yao (1000 b.c.) 

the Akkadian, both having the same 

Fteleiny^ Ti ma tU rigfallr T^trded b^ 

the tdbMhntioti of / (or / being lunmal in 

Machtd Uw ^rat tfarongh the Matbem 

:C!MiBai&w,,^w«ri3ooB.a it moa.d., 
Ak Oa CMiatitni ^ Wat Asia 
iltmrt, IjowdoB, 1B94. 


2l6 MAN: PAST AND FiUS»llT. ^B^OF^ 


five pfatnets with names of like meanings and ft^milf 
and 30 days, with the same cyde of koitemkMh^tfti^^t^^ 
several of the now obsolete names <tf the Chinesi^ JMttttefMMMir 
to those of the Babylonians. Even the nkxae ^iliit iOiMt' 
Chinese emperor who built ah observatofy, Nai^KwiMBi^li^ Hwi 
what resembles that of the Elamite king^ Kiider!*iia^lwDg^whdr 
conquered Chaldaea about 2280 b.c ^. 

All this can hardly be explained away as a flMte 
coincidences; nevertheless neither Sinologues mM" 
quite convinced, and it is obvious that many of the 
may be due to trade or intercourse both by the old 01 
routes, and by the seaborne traffic from Eridu at the bead of 
the Persian Gulf, which was a flourishing emponmn 4000 or 5000 
jrearsago. '.: 

But, despite some verbal analogies, an aknost i] 
difficulty is presented by the Akkadian and Chinese 'i 
which no philological ingenuity can bring into siich jreiatk» as Js 
required by the hypothesis. Mr T. G. Pinches haisjteiili-^iat 
at a very early period, say some 5000 years ago» Akk'a/dbai $iitmif 
consisted, "for the greater part, of words of one syllable^ Mid was 
''greatly affected by phonetic decay, the result, being ihat^ta 
enormous number of homophones were developed ool tf foots 
originally quite distinct'." This Akkadian scholar aenda jh it 
number of instances, such as tu for iura^ to enter;, ill' isi? JHt» 
to live; du for dumuy son; du for dugu^ good, as m Mmktt ^ 
Gurudugu, *'the good city," adding that '*the list corift^ he ex* 
tended indefinitely*." But de Lacouperie's Bak tnbQi^*liiai<:^ 
the first immigrants from south-west Asia, are not lilppoosdr^o 
have reached North China till about 2500 or 3000 B1.C9 at 'wllidi 
time the Chinese language was still in the untoned 
state, with but few monosyllabic homophones, and 
quite distinct from the Akkadian, as known to us from the 
Assyrian syllabaries, bilingual lists, and earlier tablets Irom N^pur 
or I^Agash. 

Hence the linguistic argument seems to fiul com p letely, ipMie 

^ *' Obsefvations upon the Languages of the Early InhabitsiMs of M «tQpo- 
tamia/' in yaum, R, As, Sac, xvi. Part «. * , ' : * 

• MS. note,. May 7, 1896. 

.N MONGOLS. 217 

te C^u&oe viitii^-aystena, ttremioasly 

|: Bdl, hu not been accepted by those 

ooiDpeleot to jndge. Muy of the 

*^lilM forms" collsted bjr Mr Ball are lO 

obviont, that tbey leem to prove 

with such isfantile utterances 

1 half the languages of the wwld, 

or affimty between any of them. 

■on ongin of the two KiiptB esUUithed, 

as to the common origb of the two 

influeDces, which need hot be 

cannot be clearly traced back to 
a dag e may still, in a sense, 

fa) the woild, inasmuch as Cohan and 

Ultle change from its rise ■**'^ ■'••""■ 

•tga down to present times. All other early 

Egyptian, Assyrian, Persian, Hel- 

or live only in their monuments, tradidons, 

Bitt the Chinese, despite repeated political 

b still as deeply rooted in the past as ever, 

I'Jtli mMitmnty irom the dim echoes of remote 

to the last Taiping rebellion, or the last 

These things touch the surface only of 

-£hincse humanity, wbich is held together, not 

of national sendment (all sendment is alien 

It), nor by any community of speech, 

fiMi»ial dialects differ prcrfoundly from each 

power of inertia, which has hitherto 

**iAaage etthcr by pressure from without, ot 

Aon within. 

uands of yean ago, the Chinese still are, 

bmtwoAing people, occupied mainly with 

few arts beyond weaving porce- 

bot with a widely diffused 

and a wridng .system which J^ITSl^. 

^CBtmbrous ideographic stage, 

■ymbola as there are distinct concepts 


to be txpnaieA. Yet tbe lystem hai one a 

thow who speak mutuallj unrntelUgtble - : 

together, uting the pencil initead <rf the laagm. ■> 

reason the attempts made centuries ago bjr t 

substitute « phonetic script had to be abanddoed. 

that imperial edicts and other documents so « 

understood by tbe populations speaking dialects d 

literary standard, whereas the hieroglyphs, like our d 

could be read by all educated penons of whatever ■ 

speech. - fajt-iv-' 

Originally the Chinese s)-stem, whether Aerd6ped<am lhl(4pat 
or derived from Akkadian or any other for&ga so«ioek Mfertf 
course pictographic or ideographic, and it is comatetlifMfftati 
to have remained at that stage ever since, the only n 
being of a graphic nature. Tbe pictographs were c 
and reduced to their present form, but still remained rsdieqpi 
supplemented by a limited number of [dionetic i 
But de Lacoupene has shown that this view is k i 
that the evolution from the pictograph to the { 
had been practically completed in China many c 
the new era. The Ku-wen style current before th6 9diaaBtaqr>A 
"was really the phonetic expression of speech'." Birt lorttb 
reason suted it had to be discontinued, and a Teaam-mmkiMk 
the earlier ideographic style. The change was cActedii^nift 
830 B.C. by She Chou, minister of the Emperor Stien Waa^ivte 
introduced the Ta-chuen style, in which "he tried totfttk. Wtbe 
eye and no longer to the ear," that is, he reverted ladtoMditf 
ideographic process, which has since prevailed It was aj 
about 337 B.C {Siao Chuen style), and after some M 
cations the present caligraphic form {Kiai Situ) was 
by Wang Hi in 350 a.d. Thus one consequence of ti 
sion of China " was a reversion to barbarism, i 
of the national graphic system, by which Chioeae 1 
literature have been hampered for nearly 3000 yi 

Written records, though at first mainly <tf a 
date from about 3000 b-c' Reference is hmJb m -iBltL !aM%' 

■ Hillary t^ tht Arckmt Ckinttt Writing ami Ti^t, lW>(^j|i ' "'' 

* The linl actual date given U that of Tai Had (Fk B%^4)Mi*'0>*4W'iHi 



MK'thfr-nide bmI savage times, wbicb in China u 
)r pfectded die historic period. Hiiee different 
I* •«» ^scrimtiuted, and tnulttion relates how 
I' wooden, Thin>ming stone, and Shi-]ra ipetal 
"Later, wbes their oi^n and use were forgotten, 
ito^Wh.'l«%'lte dww from Ynnnan, were looked on as bolts 
h by the god of thunder, while the airow-heads, 
b'«» te siM of divine migin, were endowed in the 
J mA qiccial virtues and even r^arded as emblems 
' Tbvs may periiaps be explained the curious fiict 
^■|i|Kia«||i>tteea, before the nth century B.C., tribute in flhit 
J to the imperial government by some of the 
s of die western uplands. 
-.,_„-,.. .* VM of the Stone and Metal Ages are no doubt still 
m^lftilgtmiatia, not only amongst the rude hill 
lil^tfMv^Mhem and western borderlands, bnt ^ ■"^- 
t"dw setded and cultured lowlanders 
k'lftmal vallqrs. The "Hundred Families," as the 
» called themselves, came traditionally from the 
I b^ond the Hoang-bo. According to the 

'fibekoi peHod, mi U tlaWd to have reigned 115 jem. 

ki wovld ai^eMr to be that of Ym, Rut of the CbincM ng«s 

I -—iH— t*T (S3S7I.C.). The date 1154 b.c lor Coofbdiu's 

abo ettabliilwd. Bat of coone all thii n ipodcm 

) now deteinuned Babylonian and Egyptian record*. 

icference ii made to irOn to earlf ai the time of the 

'(taoe a.c), when it is mentioned a« an aiticle of tribute in the 

'VMDrth, Who lUtea thii Ha, addi that during the nine 

already a Aonrithing indnttry in the Uiatg 

Kkhry tf Chhmt Culhtrt, Munich Anthropcdogical 

At the diKHMJon which followed the readii^ of thi* 

aigned that iron wai unknown in Weiteni Aiia and 

■lAaii^ (he point wai contoted by Prof. Hommel, 

boa in the eartiett Egyptian teitt. Montdina, howerer, 

nlng " ore " or " metal " were afterwardi 

WM eertainlr the eate with the Gk xa^^t, at fint 

lanlt and nied (till later for vU^pn, "iron"; 

IJwkamilli. and even goldunith. So alao with 

■kin to MHWm, with limple idea of brigfalneas), 

pat \fm c jf ritim, tuf ttu H ), and then for trmut 


Yn-kong tbdr oiigiiuJ home laj ia the MoAt^MMlMNifMRMlE 

EaatcTD Turicestan, whence Oney fint k ' 

north ci the Nut-Shan nuig^ and then, ii 

before the new en, to the fatUe vmlleys of Ifac I 

Hoa-ho tributary. Thence they a 

great liver valleys, partly expelling V"^ <> 

AbMratiaa aborigines, hot lo late as the ^ o 
oftbc still mainly confined to the nn 

Aboridi... p^.j^^ ^^^ j^ j^^ Yang^ieiii^.. 

several indigenous groups, sudi as the HocS, wboM 
vives in that of the Hoel river, and &t Lid td tbs-S 
Peninsula, long held their ground, but all were ul 
or assimilated throughout the acMihem lands atftrm 
left bank of the Yang-Ise-kiang. 

Beyond this river many were also merged in th« doB^HBt 
peo[de continually advancing «0<l tf>w« ri * l ■ hi* 
Others, collectively or vaguely kitown M Site% 
H^i Mans, Miao-tse, Pa-i, Tho, V-jcn\ Lida^ «tB.,aae 

driven to the south-western higfalancb w M ch." th^ 
still occupy. Even some of the populations in the a ett iBd <thliiii% 
such as the Hok-hs' and Hakkas' of Kwang-tung^ aiKl Ute jhi/tti* 
of the Canton district, are scarcely yet thoroughly ■ 
They differ greatly in temperament, usages, appearance^ m 
Irom the typical Chinese of the Central and Noitben f 
whom in fact they look upon as "foreigners," and witfi wbtMtlMgr 

■ This term Y-Jm ( K-Jtm) meuiing much the nme « 4A>^ Mtm^tm, 

savage, rude, untaiDe«ble,b>«acqiiiied a son (rf diplomuie dJMiMotiaa.' tetta 
treaty of Tien-Uin (iSjS) it was siipalated that it ibonkl no loBgwy m hMNv 
fore, be Applied in official documents to the Engliih or lo a^ Mlijacl^ of Aa 

* See Rev. J. Edkins, Ckina's Plact m Pitbitgr. !>■ "T- Ito Hok-ta 
wen wiginally from Fo-kieo, whence their a]tcRiati*e nana^ AJi>' Tbs U 
appears to be the same word as in the rtduplicaicd £«JI», iwiilin Maailliiin, 
like the Greek and Ijitin Sar-tar, stammereis, rade, uacolmn^ 

* Th.K ffaJtto), i.t. "uiangeis," speak a well-marked djalact canvl <K tte 
U(dands between Kwing-tung, Kiai^-n, and Fo-kkn (Dfcc Ball, B^V Ltumt 
M lit iVUto DiaJal. 1884). 

* Nomerooi in the western parti or Kwang-tong and in tta rialiiB iMslihil 
(Djew BaU, CoMtmieie Af»ic £aiy, Hongkong, i8A^). 


>liifcilli<flrthirti'iliii m^ "Pidgia Sa^ah'," xbeOnguMjraMai of 

IT'S gencnl homogeneous duncter ii imparted to 
b bf d^ common political, BOcUl, and religioui 
I bf dut principle of conrergence in virtue ctf 
C-ethaiad gtoupa, thrown together in the same ana 
t vditt a nn^ administration, tend to merge in a uni* 
1 type. This general uniformity is conspicuous 
fiiK-^ka idigioas ideas which, except in the sceptical 
^ evnywhere underlie the three recognised national 
** StXe Churches," as they might almost be called : 
; /ua-ltiao, Taoism, and fi-h'm. Buddhism 
The fint, confined mainly to the educated upper 
dfiilM^^ilBM'ao nudi a religion as a philosophic system, a frigid 
MHWI'fliiiB tMcd on the moral and matter«f-£u:t 
IJiiAfetg|M:OonAkiui'. Confucius was essentially 
snlllHS'MIld political reformer, iriio Uught by ex- 
tKt^ltl^lltU^'ffioetpt; the main inducement to virtue being, not 
~ I in the after'Jife, but well or ill-being in the 
k *yttmn is summed up in the expression " worldly 
MU^MDlMified in such popular sayings as : A friend is 
r-ia a year, bat unmade in a moment; When safe 
e forget not war ; Filial fother, filial son, 
ifild son ; In washing up, plates and dishes may 
t do what you would not have kiwwn ; Thatch 
) the rain, dig the well before you thirst ; The 
tk his rain; Money goes to the gamUing den 
i'lateecution (never returns); Honey hides many 
» hmd, stop the mouth (stop work and starve) ; 
I May, to keep it open hard ; Win your lawsuit 

s to be a corruption of Uw wotd 

tncti [emu u /oMw fiJgiH=M coo- 

oncot, Ac. It la no qdomi*! occbt- 

|%iddy tepuated ChincM proTiDcci oeetiT^ in EngUnd 

," or moK (bUt Kimg-Jit-t$t, "the emment 
' |f*W die Latliiiied IbTm Onv/itakr. 


Althon^ be inidtated no idigumi tiUcm^rC 
thdess enjoiDcd the obsemnce <tf the liitmifit 
worahii\ and after detth became hiintdf tbe i 
B|Mead cult, which still pemsts. "lo every citjr i 
built at the public expense, containing eidiec a Wt^mtifttSSHt^ 
philosopher, or a tablet inscribed with his titU& . 
autumn worship is paid him in these temples Iqr tbe d 
personages of the city. In the schools abo, oa lfat'4 
fifteenth of each month, bis title being written on red p 
afiixed to a tablet, worship is performed in a spcdU 
homing incense and candles, and by prostrations'." ' ''-' 

Taoism, a sort of pantheistic mysticism, called bf tefoaHtet 
TMiun Lao-tse (600 b.c), the Too, or "way otMh^aitt^im 

embodied in the formula "matter and Afe.ifWble 
world are merely manifestations of a soblitnc^ denial, laobMi- 
prehensible principle." It taught, in anticipatiob of Salg»4biii^ 
that by controlling bis pasnons man may escape or oit ih(M«B 
endless series of transmigrations, and thus arrive by Ae TMo-at 
everlasting bliss — sleep? unconscious rest or abtoiptian n Ae 
eternal essence? Nirvana? It is impossible to tdl from dM-lofty 
but absolutely unintelligible language in which the VBomefttmA- 
ings are wrapped. ' ' 

But it matters little, because his disciples have kuig famatll 
the principles they never understood, and Taoism baa fchMoK 
everywhere been transformed to a system of magic aHOcaaiad 
with the never-dying primeval supci^titions. Original^ tiiere was 
no hierarchy of priests, the only specially religious claM beJAg Ae 
Ascetics, who passed their lives absorbed in the contemplatiaB of 
the eternal verities. But out of this class, drawn together by their 
common interests, was developed a kind of monasticisini witt ao 
organised brotherhood of astrologers, magicians, "IminniKii. 
somnambuUsts, "mediums," "thought-readers," chariataw and 

■ Kwcng Ki CJUk, iBSi, p. 875. Confiidui wu bom in ggo md dhd fa 
477B.c.,ukl la hint ue at pietent dedicated unuuiju nfetmwplw, fat'rtfah 
we obaerved real sacrificial riles. For these ucriGcet the State ycailj wr|Jt*^ 
t6,6o(> sheep, pigs, rabbits and other aoimali, beside* )7,<mo piecac of sBk, 
ina«t of which thing*, however, become tlie "perqniiitcs" of th^al 
the sanctuaries. 





iiigiMii|Piit«i''^«^ under a threadbare garb of 

<idMV althoi^ of foreign origin, has completely 
:W the ^national spirit, and is noir a 
of: Hindu metaphysics with the 

beGrf in spirits and a deified ancestry. In 
tHilif k iliW l lH ne practised diverse forms of worship between 
til «lii^ dividing line can be drawn, and, as in Annam, the 
aay be at once followers of Confucius, Lao-tse, and 
4»rUicit sudi is the position of the Emperor, who 
tq/kh to all three of these State religions, and scnipu- 
lopilf^lnlMji. pait in their various observances. There is even 
Upltf Uliih lit Ae Chinese view th)it ''all three make but one 
flhe&st appealing to man's moral nature, the second to 
self-preservadon, the third to the higher sphere of 
laHHflhltaiBQ c^wttwmnlation ■ 

^ \% j|il|ito ItiiMli one might say above it all, the old animism still 
jgi|plrfiiBiiiifeslsd in a multitude of superstitious p^^.^^ 

purport is to appease the evil and and ance«t»y 
mm of the good spirits, the Feng-shui ^' 


^air and water'' genii, who have to be reckoned 

we^tiest as well as the most trivial occurrences of 

fclEliete with the ghosts of their ancestors, by whom the 

iMHinted, are the bane of the Chinaman's existence. 

4gBC P ds on maintaining a perfect balance between 

tiiat is, the two principles represented by the 

and the ''Azure Dragon," who guard the ap- 

dwelling, and whose opposing influences have 

by the well-paid professors of the magic 

erf the late emperor Tung Chih (1875) a great 

by the State astrologers, who found that the 

ered if he were buried, according to rule, 

cemetery 100 miles west of Pekin, as his fstther 

imperial cemetery situated the same distance 

For some subtle reason the balance would 

between Tiger and Dragon, and it took nine 

lilip point, during which, as reported by the 

the whole empire was stirred, councils of 

1 ■ • •»-■.» 1^ 

■Cm %K' 

State agitued, and ;£5o,ooo gipcn d w i I 
remaios of a worthless and vidous young mail 

Owing to the necessary disttvb«nce of- I 
places, much trouble has been anticipated in tbe a 
railways, for which concessions have now been gi 
syndicates. But an EngUshmao long letident ta ll 
declared that there will be no resistance on A«^ 
people. " The dead can be removed with dite 
Shui ; a few dollars will make that all right,' 
accordance with the thrifty character (^ the C 
rides all other considerations, as expressed in the f 
"With money you may move the gods; wiAoot # j|M^<;|hMt 
move men." But the gods may even be moved wafttfaClWMMpb 
or at least with spurious paper money, for it is a fiiiA^Wi^Ei)^' 
their votaries that, like mortals, they may be niiliiiwil hfrnih 
devices. When rallied for burning flash notes at a p 
since no spirit-bank would cash them, a < 
"Why me bum good note? Joss no can sawy." 
spirit the god of war is hoodwinked by wooden be 
the ramparts of Pekin and painted to look like heavy* 

In fact appearance, outward show, observance of tl 
commandment," in a word "face," as it is called, is c 
China. "To understand, however imperfectly, iriut ii ■ 
'fiure,' we must take account of the fact that as a n 
have a strong dramatic instinct Upon very i 
any Chinese regards himself in the light of an actor fat a d 
A Chinese thinks in theatrical terms. If his troablei aft ■ 
he speaks of himself as having 'got off the stage' i 
if they are not adjusted he finds no way to 'retire bom tba itaigt! 
The question is never of facts, but always of fonn. Onoe rig^tfy 
apprehended, 'face' will be found to be in itself a key tftiAe 
combination-lock of many of the most important rh>n<*(trirtet.of 
the Chinese'." 

> Arthur H. Smith, CJUmut Ciurmcttnttuiy New YoA, i%tt. Tk^, apod, 
or at leut the useful, qualities of the Quneie arett 
to be a love of induitty, peace, and woal order, ■ 
beatance noder witmgi artd erils bejood core, a hMffpf tt 
and " a digcttioa like that of an ouricb.* 

Iilsm, next to Buddhism, hu tiwde nwMt 
bf the Mrij Arab and Peniui 
yraaehed thnxi^KKit the 
l^lbe lath centoij, it hu Kcured 

10 KJtD-Hi, Shen-n, and Yunnan, and it of 
(Chinete) Turkeatan. Despite the 
that foUowed the repeated insurrection* 
mftwil<j|llli<y7t Ac meX-ffoO. fimiAaju, or Zhmgmit, as 
MlNhM'iMAB* *K variously called, were still estimated, In 
49,000,000 in die whole empire. 

t^ CfaristiaRity, which, as attested by the 

of Si-ngan-Ai, penettated into the western 

te fiann of Nestorianism about the 7th century. 

■^Kboua Cadiolic missions with headquarters at P^n 

B of the i6di century, and despite internal dis- 

i'teda fiir measure of success, the congregations 

'^tSfQ: altogether over c»ie million. This contrasts 

~ I the 30,000 to 50,000 Protestants of all d«iomi- 

i Orilectively by the Zcadffn Missionary Sociely, the 

n, and ibtAmericanAfaModitt Episapai Society. 

it propaganda is almost an admitted failure. 

1 dissennons arose out of the practices 

^jMii>)MCcatrf-worship, offerrags of flowers, Gruita and 

l^'Af Jcanits regarded merely as proofs of filial 

denoaitced by die Dominicans as acts of 

y years of idle controversy, the questt<m was 

t tk Jesuits by Clement XI. in the bmous 

^8715), and since then, neoi^ytcs having to 

cult of their forehthen, conversions have 

M the lower classes, too humble to boast of 

M too poor to commemorate the dead by ever- 


aic no hereditary nobles, indeed no nobles 

HI m^sx numerous descendants of Confucius 

and enjoy certain social privil^es, in this 

^ Skorfis (descendants of the Prophet) in 

_ :Jf any titles have to be awarded for great 

OD the hero, but on his forefathers, and thus 



at a stroke of the vermilion pencil are ennobled countless past 
generations, while the last of the line remains unhonoured until 
he goes over to the majority. Between the Emperor, "patriarch 

of his people,'' and the people themselves, however, 
rin cum?"*** there stands an aristocracy of talent, or at least d 

Chinese scholarship, the governing Mandarin^ class, 
which is open to the highest and the lowest alike. All nominations 
to office are conferred exclusively on the successful competiton 
at the public examinations, so that, like the French conscript 
with the hypothetical Marshal's biton in his knapsack, ever] 
Chinese citizen carries the buttoned cap of official rank in hit 
capacious sleeve. Of these there are nine grades, indicated re 
spectively in descending order by the ruby, red coral, sapphire 
opaque blue, crystal, white shell, gold (two), and silver button, o 
rather little globe, on the cap of office, with which correspond th< 
nine birds — manchu crane, golden pheasant, peacock, wild goose 
silver pheasant, egret, mandarin duck, quail, and jay — embroiderer 
on the breast and back of the State robe. 

Theoretically the system is admirable, and at all events i 
better than appointments by Court favour. But in practic* 
it is vitiated, first by the narrow, antiquated course of studies ii 
the dry Chinese classics, calculated to produce pedants rathe 
than statesmen, and secondly by the monopoly of preferenc 
which it confers on a lettered caste to the exclusion of men c 
action, vigour, and enterprise. Moreover, appointments bein, 
made for life, barring crime or blunder, the Mandarins, as Ion: 
as they approve themselves zealous supporters of the reigninj 
dynasty, enjoy a free hand in amassing wealth by plunder, an^ 
the wealth thus acquired is used to purchase further promotioi 
and advancement, rather than to improve the welfare of th 

They have the reputation of being a courteous people, a 
punctilious as the Malays themselves; and they are so among^ 
each other. But their attitude towards strangers is the embodimer 

^ A happy Portuguese coinage from the Malay man/H, a state mintst^ 
which is the Sanskrit manirin, a counsellor, from man/ra, a sacred te^ 
a counsel, from Aryan root maHf to think, know, whence also the Englm^ 




of aggressive self-righteousness, a complacent feeling of superiority 

which nothing can disturb. Even the upper classes, with all 

their eflforts to be at least polite, often betray the feeling in 

a subdued arrogance which is not always to be distinguished 

from vulgar insolence. "After the courteous, kindly Japanese, 

the Chinese seem indifferent, rough, and disagreeable, except the 

well-to-do merchants in the shops, who are bland, complacent, 

and courteous. Their rude stare, and the way they hustle you 

in the streets and shout their *pidjun' English at you is not 


* Miss Bird (Mrs Bishop), The Golden Chersonese^ 1883, p. 37. 

IS— » 


CHAPTER VIL . , , .- 


Kmge of the Oceanic Mongols— The term " M>lar "—The Tlirtliiliil Mihil 
— Malaj Cradle — Higntions and present Rtagt — The Ifali^aM-'TBe 
Jaranese— Balinese and Sassaks— Hindn Legotdi In Bdi— TW Mijlnil 
Seafarars and Rovera— Malaj'iia and PeLwa: a ffimitfrri ItaM— 
Halafui Folktoie— MaUraiu in Boroeo—Tte Djwk flliiiiniiw till 
hunting — Cannibolism^Human SacriBco — htiaatma KIOMMllillinM 
— Earl; Man and his Worlu in Sumatra — The Menlnri MHriav— 
Javanese and Hinda InBuenccs — The HaUytian Alphabe t* T h» BitlHt 
Cultured Cannibals — Hindu and FrimitiTe Snrrinlt — The AAImw— 

Eariv Records — Islam and Hindu ReminiaccDcca— Elhnietl UMIoh 
in Madagascar — Oceanic Immigrants — ^Malagaijr SpMch — Ihl iHcpo 
Elemenl^Hova Type— Menial Qualities of the Halaon— tewA «f 

1 Type— Menial Qualities of the I>il«In,iij Hiiaiil «f 

litr— Malady Folklore— The Philippine Naliira ITiftiili of « 

Christian Theociatic GovenimenI on the National Chancier — Sodil 


Gioups : the ladioa, the Infieles, and the Moio« — Hala^aai «.._ 
sians in Formosa — The Chinese Settlers— Racial and LtBMfatk J 


Primeval Home. Indo-CAtna and Mm/tsy j 

Present Rantfe. Malaysia, Phil^fima, . 
Nicobar Is., Madagascar. 

Hair, same as Scttihem MoHgols, seami «r flw ttaril. 
Colour, yellowish or olivt brown, ytUam tM J 
very faint or absent, light leathery km e o mm e H a 

Bknll, braehy or sub-draeAy (78' to isl- 
ilightly projecting. Oheek-boDM. pmmneia, ha lot S0 

.W.^Q' - 




AmtrmMmgA Wmb, rather maO, aftm strmgki wUk 
wiiiik'mkiMi ^^mmrr^km^ Byea> blacky medium sixe^ 
ImimetMmeX^lify eUtjue^mih the Mongol fold. Bta- 
iSBm^mmiermedf from $ ft. to i ft. 4 or $ in. Lipi. 
SMUk^Sil^ proimdit^, and heft a littU apart in 

emdy^it^ rather stnaU^ slender and ddl- 

TmntmnmSL Normally qukty reserved and taci- £[££. 
imm^ tea meder^ excitement subject to fits of blind fury ; ^^^ 
JUffy bMU fU d^ pdite and eeremamous^ but uncertain^ un- 
iflnnMAflfil^ 4M oven treacherous; darings adventurous 
^UtrmUkireamsieed; not distmctly cruel^ thou^ indifferent 
i^^^fmfmUMlg in others. 

\icWiinom branches of a single stock language 
0r Malayo-Folynesiaii, at different 

^ftim ffritnitsoe Malayans somewhat utide- 

dread 4ff ghosts and other spiritSf but rites 

mdnfy absent^ although human sacrifices to 

in Borneo; the cultured Malayans 

ifirwhman and Buddhist)^ now mostly 

JPkU^ffines and Madagascar Christian; 

\ ieUif m witchcraft, charms, and spdls 

ike. primitive Malayans very low — head- 

mutilation common in Borneo; 

; no agriculture, artSt or industries; 

Christian Malayans semi-civilised; the 

V dyemg, pottery, metal^work, also 

and boat-building'-^oell developed; 

fhedriMng in Java under Hindu 

Wfide^spread even amongst some of the 

tUtrature and science rudimentary; 

Jiiadagascar and perhaps elsewhere. 

IRi^^ Lampongs, ^e;angs, ^gj^^^^ 

Palembangs in Sumatra; Sun- 

and Madurese in Java; Dyahs 

/ Sassahs (Lomboh); Bugis and 



Mtmgkdssaras in Cdda; TagaUt, M m jmv <B » fc 
lieiams and Fumganiuaus at FU^ fnu^ J liii i f f lW iri/ 

Formosa; NioOar lOanien; Hovat, BmUfhtY/gfti wit 
SaMalavas in Madagascar. , Au'.). ■hl:: 

Halayi Proper {Historical Malays)t i 
{Sumatra); Malay Penautila; Pinamg, i 
Bangka; Borneo Coasttands; TUor, g>W»Wlf ,- i4*Mm/ 
Parts a/ the SnUa Archiptlago. _-:■.:;> I' 


In the Oceanic domain, which for ethnical ) 

at the neck of the Malay Pe 

peoples range from Madagascar eastvstdt to For- 
Honcoii. masB. and Mikronesia, but are kraaA !»■« 

masses chiefly on the mainland, in the Sunda lali 
Java, Bali, Lombok, Borneo, Celebes) and in die 1 
Even here they have mingled in many places wifit o 
tions, fbnning fresh ethnical groups, in which the lloi 
is not always conspicuous. Such fusions have takea f 
the Negrito aborigines in the Malay Peninsula and the F 
with Papuans in Mikronesia, Flores, and otha i 
Lombok; with Caucasic Indonesians in Sumatra, £ 
Halmahera (Jiloto), parts of the Philippines', and perii«|H alio 
Timor and Ceram; and with African negroes (Bahtos) -19' Vadsr 
gascar. To unravel some of these racial entan^etBCVti ivo^B of 
the most difficult tasks in anthropology, and in AeakHBCe of 
detailed information cannot yet be everywhere fttten|MA'mlli 
any prospect of success. ■ ' - 

The problem has been greatly, though perhaps inniti^ 

complicated by the indiscriminate exUa^aci-of dw 
"M^uy™ *^"" "Malay" to all these and evwi to odicr 

mixed Oceanic populations farther MS^ «i^' 4iir 
instance, in the expression " Malayo-Polynesian," applied ^ 
many writers not only in a linguistic, but also in an edutcal 

> H«ce Dr E. T. Hamy finds connecting links between the Une Ualigp and 
the Indonesians in ihe Bicoh of Albiy and the BiMyu of Piaajr (£w Jte» 
MaEtiqitti a Americaints, in V Anthrvpelagie, 1896, p. 13S). Used te AA 
extended sense. Hamy's Malaiqut correspond* gcoenlljr to a 
defined presently. 

aattHfUfl ttottvl i)m iimikr peoples from Hadagaacar to Eattn 
-SttlMgKNLtaM HiMii to New ZeaUod. It u aow of cotin^ 
l4|^iiJ|NV^Bpe to remedy thia misuse of temu by proposiiig 
V^ji^ilMfMMRktnra. But much of the consequent ccmfiiaion 
«|i|pM«i4id by mtricting Afalajro-J^tfynaiaM^ alt(«ether to 
__. w._ I, sod eaitfoUy distinguishmg between /fuSMeffiifl, 

f Gum^ dement in Oceania, MtUayan or Prt^h 
e name of all the Oceanic Mongols, and Malay, 
a of the Malayan fiunily, as fully explained io 

WWM pouE to remember is that the tiue Hahtys — ^who 

W Onmg-ila^yu, speak the standard 

F»Men) Malay Unguage, and are all cJhJ!^' 

e a histwicid people who appear 

1 tai rdatively recent times, ages after the insular 

M occnpied by the Mongol peoples to whom their 

1 extended, but who never call themselves Malays. 

1, who have acquired such an astonishing pre^ 

the Eastern Archipelago, were originally an obscure 

Bf tb poirer in the Menangkabau district, Sumatra, 

^«lb centnry, and whose migrations date only from 

\ ii6c A.D. At this time, according to the native 

I the first foreign settlement, Singapore, a 

! meaning the "Lion City," from which it 

it tfiese first settlers were not Muhammadans, 

td, but Brahmans or Buddhists, both these 

\ having been propagated throughout Sumatra 

da Islands centuries before this time. It is 

t the eariy settlers on the main- 
. . ' , Mimitlom 

r have been pagans, or to have udpnwnt 

Ropt form of Hindu idolatry, ""**- 

1 to Islam by the renowned Sultan Mahmud 

■PrifDetiMi it NQ impostible exprasion, becmuie it 

who belM^ to the Mongol, uid Che PolfneuMlti 

dirinon. But u both nndoubtedly spc«k laii' 

tfock the expretuon is juillGed id philology, 

Inttr-Octanu might be preferable tetins. 

Anmalt, i8il, p. 4 




Sbfth about the middle of the 13th 
probable enougb diat the eari 
noder Hindn ioflnenccs, and may hive 
hifltorical date ii6a Mmang^abatii' 
Mussulman State that acquiied politicid 
and this diattkt thus became the ducC 
diffusion of the cultured Malays, Unai 
leligioti, throughout the Peninsula and Ae- 
they are now found in compact masses diiti 
{Menangkabau, Palembang, the Lampoagt); 
groups between Sumatia and Borneo; in li 
as far north as the Kra Isthmus, hen 
Siamese as "Sam-Sams," partly Buddhists, |iU1l|'- 
round the coast of Borneo and about the 
in lldor, Temate, and the adjacent coast of Jikto; 
Sula, and Sulu groups; in Batavia, Singt^xm^aMlj' 
large seaports of the Archipelago, In all dMte: 
Sumatra the Orang-Maliyu are thus seoi to IM! 
recent arrivals', and in fact intruders on dw 
populations, with whom they collectively 
branch of the Mongol division. Their 
bronght about much in the same way as !•: 
Mr Wallace tells us that the ruling people 
Malay race somewhat allied to the Macassar 
in the country at a very early epoch, droTe 
who were no doubt the same as those of 
of Gilolo, and established a monarchy, llwy :: 
many of their wives from the natives, whidt 
the extraordinary language they speak — in sottl 
allied to that of the natives of Gilolo, while ^ 
points to a Malayan [Malay] origin. To most tjC 
Malay language is quite unintelligible'." 

^ In some pUces quite recent, ts in Rembui, lUsf PMlaMi||(j...plNM 
inhabitants aie nutioly immi|[ianta (rom Sumatim in th« tTHlMilMMt;'^' ta 
the neighbouring groop of petty Negri S«mbilan States, lAinllW Mlf tdW 
nun«s, nich as Anak Achtk, and SH LtmaJi AftmutgMamt bMnqTAsir !■*■ 
arrival rrom the Sumatran districts of Adiin and Men 

• TAe Malay ArckipelagB, p. 310. 

^'f. Javambsi Girl. 

Bums, CtLEBBS I. 


*: .. 



^^pepobOioni, u disdngniihed from the Malayi 
tvo TCiy (Ustinct claaaes — tbe _^ 
. of the Soil," Tude aborigiDcs, uaiarf^ 
riMPVkwpadrilf ia Uw interim of the Malky r!^!^' 
Cdebet, Jilolo, Timor, Ceram, cnittircd. 
FAraMsa, and Madagascar; and the cultured 
JWMill Hiodua but now mostly Muhammadans, who 
Ub-Ioiv bata ootudtuted in large communitiea and nation- 
■llilt ailk Uatoncal records, and fioutishing aru and industrio. 
TTwHntl mlirt md languages of the Malayo-Polynesian family, 
better pcesa^ed and of richer gramnuuical struo 
dM aa^tficd modern speech of the Orang-Maliyo. 
tiA'Mfir.lte. AduDcae, Rejangs, and Passumahs erf Sumatra; 
and some Minahasana of Celebes ; the 
of the Philippinea ; the Sassaks and Balinese 
itflMMtwd ftdi (moat of these still Hindus); the Madurese 
Md JuniBMe isoper of Java ; and the Hovas of Madagascar. 
V'ttaualqr,«f these "Malays'," is like calling the Italians 
'':9ia)^a^'iat>A9 Geimana "EngUsh," because of their respec- 
jB many respects amongst all the Malayan peoples 
tutu in the west, Javanese 
MflWli^kslktt^cfBtrie, Madurtu in the east— who j^^^. 
nation while the Sumatran 
lavages, peihaps head-hunters and cannibals 
Although now almost exclusively 
.^ _ Aay had already adopted some form of Hinduism 

JMpi|^jril>^«Mo years ago, and under the guidance of their 

of Javanete miiutrclf viuled LondoD, and one of them, 

y few broken Malay lentences, resenled in his sleepy 

~ he WW an Orai^ MaUyu, explaining that he was 

•ad (when fnrther qnettiooed] Orai»g Sole, a oalive 

|afa. Il WM iDlecesting to notice the very marked 

sktiree, vividly recalling the remark of Mr A. R. 

'ofdbtinguiiliing between a Javanese and a Chinaman 

The reiemblance may to a small extent be due 

blood" (Dr B. Hagen, Jiiur. Anikrop. Sat. 

oMr tndi a wide area that it must mainly be 

Igin of tb* Chinew and Javanese peoptea. 


234 MAN: PAST AND PRE8S1IT. {CtlfiP. 

IiuUan tcachera had rapidly derdoped « wmf<w0iM3eii'ilt»e 
of culture. " Under a completely organiR^ ^UrMfk'JdBmrtiv 
government, the arts of peace and war wen ha Wj^ ite caniiife 
able perfection, and the natives of Java became bimoaHiuat^utt 

the East as accomplished musidani and wocketB m gdU, 
copper, none of which metals were found in the • 
They possessed a r^ular calendar with oitnmo^ifad 
metrical literature, in which, however, hiMory waa 
blended with romance. Bronze and stone insciiptiaot in 'tte 
Kavi, or old Javanese language, still survive from tte ixtii or 
lath century, and to the same dates may be l eftne d tte «Ht 
ruins of Brambanam and the stupendous temple of Bcin>4iiidar id 
the centre of the island. There are few statues of Hinda dniaitiea 
in this temple, but many are found in its immediate vkinit)', and 
from the various archieologica] objects collected in tite.dittrict 
it is evident that both the Buddhist and Brahmanical fot^ of 
Hinduism were introduced at an early date. 

But all came to an end by the overthrow of tiie diief . Hinda 
power in 1478, after which event Islam rapidly qnead over die 
whole of Java and Madura. Brahmanism, howevex, StUl ItoUs iU 
ground in Bali and Lombok, the last strongholds of HiBdniMn in 
the Eastern Archipel^o'." 

On the obscure religious and social relations in tbcM Lester 

Sundancse Islands much light hat been tibroini 1^ 
s^iii'."'"* Capt W. Cool, an English transbuicA of whoM 

work mtA the Dutch in the East wu ittued bf 
Mr E. J. Taylor in 1897. Here it is shown how 
formerly dominant throughout a great part of Malaysia, 
yielded in some places to a revival of the never extinct primitive 
nature-worship, in others to the spread of Islam, idiicii in Bali 
alone failed to gain a footing. In this island a cnrioot 
of Buddhist and Brahtnanical forms with the primordial 
dom not only persisted, but was strong enough to acqiare the 

political ascendancy over the MussDlman SMsries 
t.^1^^^ of the neighbouring island of Lombok. Thai wbUe 
cui^""* *"' Islam reigns exclusively in Java — Ebrmeiiy Ac dmf 

domain of Hinduism in the Archipdaso— BaU, 
' A. H. Keane, EailtrH Geography, and ed. 189s, p. |«1, 


n^ * .-imm OCEANIC MONGOLS. 235 

IHMNlMMiNwaD' SombRwi,. iH««ent the strange ipecticle <a 
etay form of beliefi from the groneat 

pdnted ont', it is the same with the 
social conditions, which show an ahnost 
from the ssrageiy of Sumbawa to the leUtive 
ittu resched by the natives of Lombok and 
BidL Here, howerer, owiog to the imfavounible 
* letrogrtde morement is perceptible in the 
lMlm'%Hi|dci^ grasftigroim highways, and neglected home- 
kii^QWiit h cfciywhere evident enough that "just as 
frtQ^ toadied the outer surface of their religion, 
: into their social institutions, which, like 
m from the time when Polynesian heathendom 

J flhtitnttion of the vitality of the early beUe^ is 
pm0tA'tlf^ load tnuUtioiu, which relate how „^^^ 
0t0tilltt>fV^ iniudled themselves in the Lesser t-fBO, in 
W|ppMaW'^UB^d» sAer their expulsion from Java 
I^HfliirilliltlMiliniliiii in the ijtb century. Being greatly 
.. _ ' Ae ^ttrodnction of the Koran, and also anxious to 

^irith the " foreign devils," the Hindu deities moved 
4he iBteDtion of setting up their throne in Bali, 
its own gods, the wicked Rakshaaas, 
dte intnwon, but in the struf^le that ensued 
all. but the still reigning Mraya Dewana. Then 
had to be erected on heights, as in Java; but at 
no mountains in Bali, which was a veiy flat 
"dificalty was overcome by bodily transfening 
HI eastern extremity of Java to the neighbouring 
'Ageng, h^best of the four, was set down in 
the Olympus of Bali, while the other three 
waat, south, and north, and assigned to the 
ig to their respective ranks. Thus were 
Ibc local theogony and the present physical 

r 1. 1897, p. 469. 



Despite their generally quiet, taciturn demeanour, all these 

Sundanese peoples are just as liable as the Orang- 

^Runninif Maldyu himself, to those sudden outbursts of 

demoniacal frenzy and homicidal mania called by 
them tnmg'dmoky and by us ''running amok.'' Indeed Mr Wallace 
tells us that such wild outbreaks occur more frequently (about 
one or two every month) amongst the civilised Mangkassaras and 
Bugis of south Celebes than elsewhere in the archipelago. '* It 
is the national and therefore the honourable mode of committing 
suicide among the natives of Celebes, and is the fashionable way 
of escaping from their difficulties. A Roman fell upon his sword, 
a Japanese rips up his stomach, and an Englishman blows out 
his brains with a pistol. The Bugis mode has many advantages 
to one suicidically inclined. A man thinks himself wronged by 
society — he is in debt and cannot pay — he is taken for a slave or 
has gambled away his wife or child into slavery — he sees no way 
of recovering what he has lost, and becomes desperate. He will 
not put up with such cruel wrongs, but will be revenged on man- 
kind and die like a hero. He grasps his kris-handle, and the 
next moment draws out the weapon and stabs a man to the heart 
He runs on, with bloody kris in his hand, stabbing at everyone 
he meets. ' Amok 1 Amok ! ' then resounds through the streets. 
Spears, krisses, knives and guns are brought out against him. 
He rushes madly forward, kills all he can — men, women, and 
children — and dies overwhelmed by numbers amid all the excite- 
ment of a battle'." 

Possibly connected with this blind impulse may be the strange 
nervous affection called Idtah^ which is also pre^ 

The L^tah 

Malady. valent amongst the Malayans, although only now 

first clearly described by the distinguished Malay 
scholar, Mr Frank Athelstane Swettenhaml No attempt has yet 
been made thoroughly to diagnose this uncanny disorder, which 
would seem so much more characteristic of the high-strung or 
shattered nervous system of ultra-refined European society, than 
of that artless unsophisticated child of nature, the Orang-Maliyu. 
Its effects on the mental state are such as to disturb all normal 

* The Malay Archipela^^ p. 175. 

* In Malay Sketches^ 1895. 


ICrSwettenham menttoDs two Utah-ttnidt UaHMy*, 
" nibjects " at s i^ftoce of theofophic 
. . -. ikaf marpiit device served to attract their altentknt, 

^jylitfl'tilrtlj hMlAig rttem hud in the &ce they feU helplessly 
ia^t(lnmSit-pf-'0» operator, instantly lost all self-control, and 
lip#|iiliMlf'tlllotq^ any performance either verbally imposed 
' by a sign. 
ibijr pcAaps be recognised a manifestation of that 
attain, which has so often been imputed to tlie 
■|i|^ WilpifaBunt Yet, as if to confound the speculattons 
^g^il/lta(f 'wAodl of German psychological antbropologisU, 
Hl^giHilF'OlMane people displays in many respects a corionaly 
Ifpftd^lVUt with die nerveless Englishman, as, for instance, 
ii;<lft4niB of gafflUin^ boxing, cock-fighting, field sports', and 
iittttM-' 'K» moct ftarlcsi explorers of the high seas, foi^ 
'4i||fenM»«ad conaiis, at all times enterprising traders, are 
ritf^NM>'to^:be firand than the Menangkabau Ma- 
l^j^iM IMt' uea Unamen, the renowned Bugis 8«idh»ra and 
■ ad wu hiieis " erf south Celebes. Their '^"'^ 

praus are met in every seaport from Sumatra 

and they have established permanent trading 

^VMB wtdements in Borneo, the Philippines, Hmor, 

IM'ti New Goinea. On one occasion Wallace sailed 

ll'VOiqiBny with fifteen large Makassar piaos, eadi 

WmOi iboat ;£tooo, and as many of the Bugis 

rade abiw^nes of the eastern isles, they thus 

,1he Sumatran Malays in extending the area <rf 

tkronghout Papuasia. 

combined piracy with legitimate trade, and 
ipresaion of the North Bomean corsairs by 
the inland waters continued to be infested 
iffM rovers of Celebes, and by the Balagnini 
most dreaded of all the orang-loiU, 
die "Sea Gypstes," of the English. These 
' {Otang-Siiatt "Men of the Straits") of the 

e Hi Hugh OifiOTd, Jn Ctitrt and Xamfmtg, 


In those days, and even in < 

relations in the E^ten . 
sembled those prevailing is tl>e .i WrM'B # 'i>ft ft » 
dawn of Greek history, while tUf««liNMMh^ ' 
populations were stiU in a state «f . JnHMlMlAiS 
from island to island in quest of booty or barter ;bv^ii«|ili|f|itr* 
nently settling down in favourable sites', -W^At -Aasi^^iMWC 
historian's philosophic disquisition on these rrla^Qian IWl J 
Hellenic relatioDs may be compared Mr Wallac^ti« 
the Batjan coastlands when visited by him in Ae l|M<fl 
" Opposite us, and all along this coast <^ Batcbuos sInlidNB 0t 
row of fine islands completely uninhabited. Whoanw-'XjiMMft 
the reason why no one goes to live i 
was, 'For fear of the Magindano pintesV Enrj ] 
scoui^^ of the Archipelago wander in one diiectkut m maaitkmi 
making their rendezvous on some uninhabited idandyMril aHK|i|ig 
devastation to all the small settlements around ; robbn^tfiitBiy- 
ing, killing, or taking captive all they meet with. Tksfr leiig) 
well-manned praus escape from the pursuit (tf any «iliag-«aHet 
by pulling away right in the wind's eye, and Ae wann( iwrilin 
of a steamer generally enables them to hide in some ihdtaw 1M^, 
or narrow river, or forest-covered inlet, till the danger ia pnM||*.* 
Thus, like geographical surroundings, with con«q>0&£ng 'Mfeill 
conditions, produce Uke results in all times amoi^st a^ p 

> Cuje ffjicie At ruiar t patar, "whose buuDMi it h la'nb ^afrfljll^ 
<Barros). Many oT the BaJBUi lived entirely afloat, p»iii« iMr lll«|>tfclMa 
from the cradle to the{rrave, and praying AlUb that th^nlglUdit at.MI^. 

* Thucydides, Pil. War, i. 1-16. ' / „. 
■ These are the noted Illanum, who occupy the touth dtle (if tfK%q^ 

Philippine iaUnd of Mindanao, but man? of whom, lite A* ttli||W«f 
Celebes and the Sulu iGlsnden, have formed tettlenwnls en dK^1BaMl{Hllt 
coaat of Borneo. "Long ago their warfare against the SpaaiaidB difMMWtid 
into general piracy. Their usual practice wai not to taka i.^nligi. ;^ni$ 
to murder all on board any boat they took. Thoae with a* ^liUt MHJNIi 
Bomeo] have all letlled down to a more orderly way of Ufe" fl|F. B> ttftt, 
ymr. Anthraf. 1ml. 1886, p. Jji). 

* Th* Malay Archifelage, p. 341. r ' ^ . 


ajj^^tfelJNtWW) tnitli recdvea further illtistnition from the 
' gB aj Wl l ^ l.^MUPngrt the M«layw8 Kguding ^^^^^ 
Mppil^^^nugic «rts, chums and spells, and Foiuvn-Tb* 
Itlllijlini 'III WW m the power of certain male- *"-«««■ 
ii^|iHf|,bpvMt ^tfoogi to tiaosfomi themselves into wild beasts 
mJ^jJImi^i^lfpB . tbcir fellow-creatuies. Such superstitioas girdle 
|fc|ij||lj||i, Iriiiid tbdr local colouring &om the fauna of the 
^lllPlnt^iciB^ #0 ^>at the woe-wolf of mediev^ Europe finds 
iffj/fUf^gipttt in dK human jaguar of South America, the human 
"" '~ * Ipvd.of Afirica*, and the human tiger of the Malay 
. .Mr 9- Qiffoid, who relates an occurrence Icnown to 
{,^jB: ipoBaaction with « " were-tiger " story of the Perak 
b rW^ 'C™*''''* that "the white man and the brown, the 
l,&t bUck, independently, and without receiving the 
er, have all found the same etplanation for 
, all apparently recognising the truth of the 
t, that we are like unto the fdman fish that preys 
1. kind'." The story in question turns upon a young 
I. husband comes home late three nights following, 
1 tnoe, being watched, is discovered by her to the 
a tiger stretched on the ladder, which, as in all 
^ Icada from the ground to the threshold of the door. 
1 at the tiger from the distance of only a foot or 
|t J^ too paralysed with fear to move or cry out, and 
(Lilgmdoal tnusformation took place in the creature 
IS one sees a ripple of wind pass over the 
, the tiger's features palpitated and were 
e bonified girl saw the face of her husband come 
f the beast, much as the face of a diver comes 
e of a pool In another moment Patfmah saw - 
li who waa ascending the ladder of his house, 
d hith«to bound her. was snipped" 

"ibe belief in 'were'aniiitils, thai ii tonjln humaa 

1 IbemKlves inio lion* oi leopard* or tome such 

aniven>l. Moreover there we indiridusl* who 

ttmti at -TT"'"'"g the form of ui uumal uid IdlUng 

H^.^Mve" (Sii H. H. J<diiutoD, Britiii Ctniral Afiita, 

p. 63. See sUo Elk. p. «i6. 


34f> HAN: PAST AND i 

These utne HalftTt of Penk, H.-Hj] 
still ipedM&y noted for aanf struge c 
"ntteriy opposed to Hubu: 
strongly of devil-wordiip. Tliis i 
natural is possibly s relic (£ the pre-Islua "WUti^^ 
In Borneo, which has been defined m " 9«i^«ali4l| 

of savagery," worse practices tmi w a^ iilli 
ji^».to "deviWonihip." The periphoirvf AeMi 

many centuries been occnpieid hf flWlBl 
Sumatra, especially along the nonh-weatCfa MitelM 
Sarawak, Pontianak); by Javanese OO the MOtfa-i^lMi 
masin), who here introduced Hinduism at an arij^dil 
now mostly assimilated to the Orang-Bfal^m ; by oBtk 
on the east side (Kutai): by the already mentioiied B^ 
and Illanuns in the north-east; and by Chinese i> Imgt 
almost everywhere*. Later came the Dutdi in 4e'iMM 
the north the English, who despite their qntte teoa 
(Sarawak, 1842; British Noitb Borneo and Bmaei 
have already effected a great improvement in the rait 
of the natives under their Jurisdiction. 

But within this variegated fringe of cultnre and ansM 

the great mass of the aborigines is sliU CM 
AM^!^ in the wild state. Whether gronpBd. i 

(Dayaks)', the most general name, £ 
British North Borneo, Kayans faither south, or odwr «(■ 

1 Jaar. Afithrep. Inst. 1886, p. 117. The (Ujih pVa tbe ksiil 
of the chAractei of bis countrymen as " pride of race aiid bMh, m 
obicTTHnce of punctilio, and a bigoted adherence to ancieat cntM 

' Too much inflaence, however, most not be cratilid tt t 
element, and M. L. Roussetet point* out that the Noith Boncaa 
itutance, " ae sonl nuilement mdang^ aux Cbinon, eoBiae-atl^ 
cesdemiera Wafi" (Nvai. Diet. SupplfmenI, 1897. Art. D t g a K^ . 

' Dayak, unheard of before abtmt 1780, i> a tern of aakMM 
meaning, thoogfa bj- sam« Tefened to a Sarawak woid Jigm h, a ' 
meaning " Man." The faaX k is often dropped in Halqr wo^H I 
ptonoonced Perak ; Sulu and Sola for Suluk, StUi, ftc Bat **■ 
Heiknoft dieses Wortes bis jetit unklarer all dl^a^iB <na'*l 
'Alfuren'" (A. B. Mejrer, Utitr dit Muntn PafOm, Dtfmk m 
\^enti*, iSSi, p. iS). 

tMi^0C£iUfflC MONGOLS. 




ladMjr trnknown to the tribes thetsselves, 
A# i&mtist rang of the social ladder, {Hactiaing 
rH«| ittfuHttUatioii, disleiidiiig die 
^UNm io tile shoulders S phickiiig cumm. 
fKHg or perforating the teeth, 
'dJBld <Mi trees or pUtforms, or smoking diem 
iMHytejl'and diea disinterring the bones to be pre- 
Itafbits of the living. Head-hunting has alwajrs 
litt^tidii, introduced with the first Malayan 
#itf 'tlit liiiiDland, and most houses of the forest and 
adinned with the ghasdy trophies furnished by 
Of Ifait immemorial custom. Cannibalism, also, and 
to the ancestral shades are far more common 
•ii|iposed. Mr Bock describes and figures a 
Mlb iitfORned him that the palms, the knees, and 
^elMaiUkred the best eating." He also visited a 
tf ihi comparatively setUed Tring district, ''an 
of aU that is most repulsive and horrible in the 
ifto ^ lifld fresh upon his head the blood of no less 
^#iiSii&S| men, women, and children, whom he and his 
l-slaiightered, and whose hands and brains he had 

tjo « 




m the custom of human sacrifice is called, 
nmged over most of the island, 
%e practised even amongst the 
^'^tbe British occupation of the 
,i« IFhe ostensible reason seems to have been to 
^^M^dlsad relatives, and to this end a slave was 
IHid bound round with cloths, and then ''after 
4aadng and singing, one after another they 
a litdeway — an inch or so— into his body, 
to his deceased firiend as he did so'.'' 

'J0t can were pierced sometimes in no less than three 
Him huge oentnd slit, the principti holes being enor- 
W wel^ty tin rings hanging in them " (Carl Bock, 



Amthnp^ IntU 1886, p. 334. Elsewhere the victim 



Most of the «borigiiwg dHpeue vidi j 
univenal tarong, wbicfa amcngBt aomt^ tte^ 
beais a curious rcsemblaDce to the Scold ^kjlfc 1i 

1 the way it is vom. All, even die i 
tribes, live in pile dwellings often of pictur«a({^ d 
underneath serving as pigityei. Hie Mln^!«c^< 
occupied by the young men at night, i 
size, several hundred feet long or round, kr fa«lll-y|lNnb4>^ 
affected. Even the bmaiong, or ordinaiy dwdfrif<f ^Mg^iOpP* 
will often accommodate twenty or more f 
having its separate apartments, the dowa c 
of covered corridor." 

Mr Fryer finds that it IS difficult to lajr i 

and Dyalc proper begins, adding tha( W* 
Bumcnt Id trate from the east coast ioluid tbe 6 
°°"**" the Buludupi, many of whom have "B 

casian features, or at all events departing laigdy from 4 
Mongolian type'." This points at the presence of «a X 
element, which is supported by other evidenoe^ mdi Mi^ithe 
account given us by Mr Creagh of the so-called "DviWHT-of 
Banguey Island, visited by him in 189a, and described«t d 
widely in speech, religion, and customs from all < 
tribes. Like others met by Mr Bock i 
landers have a priestess, who is able to keep the am 
in Banguey in order, "for ^c is acquainted with tl 
knows the future as well as the past." 
her successors, but all must be widows, and wear bIwA lotaibMd 
wooden knives, these last being used for makit^ the iaoWiM^^B 
the calves of bride and bridegroom, when a drop <tf Uood^wi-to 
be transferred from one to the other at the wedding 0tammf\ 
Amongst the tribes of the neighbouring mainland At MtioD of 
the after-life is that the dead have to clamba up die nneditlopet 
of Kina Balu, highest peak in Borneo (neariy r4,ooe fee^ ■» Ugh 

is despatched more expeditiously, all labKribos to At 
long spear simultaneouai;, and tbnistinf; il tbrouj^ hion 1 

' Pryer, p. J31. 

* Britist Nertk Bemto Hetaid, Dec. 1891. 




\^1SfjkA taid to be whhin a trifle of reaching heaven." 
have little difficulty in getting to the top, from 
^uriMped into heaven, while the wicked are doomed, 
i^flsit Sitj^its, to be for ever hopelessly struggling and 
rocky ndes of the mountain'. 
eC-oonne are those who have collected most human 
lor provision in the next; but in other parts 
the mountains are not so high, even the elect 
Buui^ adventures during thdr long peregrinations 
dale, across rivers, through fire and water, in 
Nlil^lAfMt^^n^ a woman with ears krge enough to shelter 
Ittliiitipeiii^Jlle fit^ **at last they are safely landed in the 

:4Df dieir tribe'." Scmie of these fancies are so full of 
m^ M the same time so widely diffused, that they 
^^Jftt HBgavded as reminiscences of the early Javanese 
irhbie presence in Borneo is attested by the Hindu 
f^^aeen in some of the southern districts. 

also occur some remains of Hindu temples '» as 

aiytterious monuments in the Passumah lands inland 

lelics of a former culture, which goes back to 

They take the form of huge ^^ ^ 

aie roughly shaped to the likeness and his Works 

with strange features very different ^ Sumatra. 

or Hindu types. The present Sarawi natives of 

^^ilio would be quite incapable of executing such 

of their origin, and attribute them to certain 

who formerly wandered over the land, turning 

into stone. Further research may possibly 

tiXMiBection between these relics of a forgotten past 

•imthcm districts for centuries subject to Javanese 

Bstttlsad, where they were first discovered by H. von 

and figured and described in J!}er Malayische Arckipei, 

§7 iq. *' Nach ihrer Form und ihren Bildwerken zu 

Otbiade Tempel, worin der Buddha-Kultus gefdert 

MS all the more interesting since Hindu ruins are 

f^kert there is nothing comparable to the stupendous 


16 — 2 

and the noiDeioiis prehiBtoric 

other places in the Pacific Ocean. Ot^ 

still surviving in HalaTtia^ 

points of contact witfa te & 

do the natives of the 
the south-west coast of Suniatn. "On -« 
the inhabitants the attentive observer at oac 
Menuwi natives have but little in 
tribes of the neighbouring islands, i 
appearance, speech, customs, and nsag 
entirely apart They bear such a decided 
tribe that one feels far more inclined to 
inhabitants of the South Sea Islands'." 

The survival of an Indonesian group on the 
Malaysia is all the more remarkable since th« 
little farther north, are of Mongol stock, tike 
inhabitants of the Sumatran mainland. Here tte 

of the central districts {Menan^taten, ! 
•nd Hindu Siak) merge southwards in the miaed 
n wiiGH. ^^^ peoples of the Rgang, 
districts. Although Muhammadans probably since 
century, all these peoples had been early bioa^ vaA 
influences by missionaries and even settlers from JlM) 
influences are still apparent in many of the 
traditions, languages, and letters of the South Si 
communities. Thus the Lampongs, despite thdr 

employ, not the Arabic characten^ llfci ifcn Milifl 
,f'5^^°^" proper, but a script derived from the p 
Ai^fhBt" "^^ writing-system. This system i 

introduced from India probably over 
' Von Rosenberg, of. Hi. vol. i. p. 189. Amoogtt d 
retembUnce nuy be mentioned the outri^en, fcr wUdb HtNUMt'lBK the 
same word (abal^ u the Samoan (im'o = toAi} ; the (iUMnI riuaf HlM»f:!fte 
facial expression ; aod the language, in which the nomcral ^MtaSMtlilMinh 
cf. Meni. liimmgafula with Sam. limagafiilu, the Malay M^-Mw^wM 
(tiftf), where the Sam. infix ga (absent in Malajr) b ^nmaaamt-fmlfiimtt^ 
M in Ment. Here it a case of cumulative eTidrace, wfafah -abairil MMtHA 
not merely conlacl and resemblance bat Ine affiMty, tha iHlHqM-IOMr^ 
vening area preseDting no obstacle. . ■ ,. , . 



%idf ftiniis of the Devanigari, sach as those 
inscriptions of the famous Buddhist king 
B.c.)^ From Java, whidi is now shown 
t#rbe the true centre <tf dispersion', the parent 
Hindu influences diffused in pre- MLuhammadan 
Mahjrtia, firom Sumatra to the Philippines. 
-te^lkiBlgr^iptead Indo-Javanese culture, in few places 
Mflrii bdow the sur&ce, received a rude shock from 
inuption, its natural development being almost 
immtHtdf or dse either effaced or displaced by IsUm. 
ilillMilW^aiqr longer be detected of graphic signs in Borneo, 

have reverted to the savage state even in 

iiistiicts where Buddhism or Brahmanism had 

^fiopagated long before the arrival of the Muham- 

'Biit elsewhere the Javanese stock alphabet has 

vitality, persisting under diverse forms down 

db^y not only amongst the semi-civilised Mussul- 

'Sieh as the Sumatran Rejangs", Korinchi, and 

Bagis and Mangkassaras of Celebes, and the (now 

flRilgdi aad Bisayans of the Philippines, but even 

lemewli al rude and pagan Palawan natives, the wild 

cf ' Mindoro, and the cannibal Battas^ of North 

Ipilw^ CMr dm Ur^mng der SchHft der Malamchm Vmer, 
WifAppmdix to Stanfbid's Australasia^ First Series, 1879, 

rvi v"i 


ift 90H MisidorOt Aermfsgtgiten von A, B. Meyer u, 

ii|pgBiill besibdtef von W. Foy, Dresden, 1895; see also my 

Imti. 1896, p. 977 sq. 

ctttsioly belongs to the same Indo-Javanese system 

alphabets, has been regarded by Sayce and Renan 

^^ iHiile Dr Neubaiter bas oompaied it witb that ciurrent 

B.C* The suggestion that it may have been intro- 

ttvm% of Alexander's admiral, Nearchos (Archetol, 

not have been made by anyone aware of its close 

of Soath, and the Batta of North Sumatra (see 

fo^ p. 1 16). 

\ henoe the current form Baitaks is a solecism, 
BeMtts or Battak. Lassen derives the word from 

These BtMaM, however, despite AHJH 

haBattu- **"*"** *** called 

tm« reKTve. Thejr are ikilliil 

culturists, laisii^ fine oropt OfHlill^; 

dwell together in luge, settled comm' 
government, hereditary chic&, popalar 



civil and penal code. There is even an vAodlM^fMiHMiil^ 

which utilises for letter-boxes the htrfkiw txwM6mi00gmiitlt 

cross-roads, and is largely patronised t^ t 

women, all of whom read and write, and cuty « 

correspondence in their degraded Devsirfgni i 

written on palm-leaves in vertical lines n 

light to left. The Battas also excel in several iadoi 

pottery, weaving, jewellery, iron work, and I 

picturesque dwellings, which resemble Swiss (diilel%'4lUi|y-MMni 

stories above the ground-floor res«TOdfbr tiw Wei ttuA" I wBf 

these arts they are no doubt largely indebted lo 'lliifetflhllfa 

teachers, from whom also they have inherited Mair<a^''lfcdk 

religious ideas, such as the triune deity— Creator, PJM Mji M^ aMri 

Destroyer — besides other inferior divinities eelhciJl ^ tJMfcd 

diebata, a modified form of the Indian deoat^. H >»'ii<--iv 


* AgaiD conlirmed bjr Dr Volz uid H. von Antovielk, V^I^MlIlM' 
Battaland earlj in iSgS, and peneliBted to th« terrilorr of A* "OiW|W 
Pakpaks" {Gt^r. Jtnr. June 189S. p. 671); - - -- 
time," as here sUted. The Ptkpoks h&d ilrrad; bean v 
Von Rosenbeig, who found cannibalism so pievalen 
nimmt du essen von Meoscbenfldacb einEUgetlehen " (^ at. i. ^-^fgii \ 

* It it interesting lo note that t^ the aid of th« L 
Sanutta, the Rev. John Mathew leads the woid L 
the head-dress of a gigantic figure seen bjr Sir Geoige Qiey.OB'tfct Sflllftlf a 
cave on the Glenelg River, North-west AuitnUia {Tit Qmt AMti|ir ff 
Austratia, &c. in Jaur. Aathrap. Inst. 1894, p. 44 iq.). 
Coleman's MylMegy oflht Hindut the staten: 
believe in the existence of one supreme being, whom tbaj H 
AH. Since completing the work of creation they sappOM hiu tsbcMn 
perfectly quiescent, having wholly comroined the i^umun—' toU 
sons, who do not govern in person, but by vakcd* or \toiim? ^ I 
possibly another confirmation of the view that eattjr Hakyan a _ 
expeditions, some even to Australia, took place in pn-MahaMMdHfttai 
long before the rise and diffusion of the Orang MaUya fa) tl 




Mvonmst to thete survivals of a for^n coltnie 
«iMlMli«i>ipMbidil)r never struck very deep roots, stand die 
f- fran BtiU moK andent times. CcKupictiotu 
»"'«R tbe eannibal practices, which if not no* 
e peculiarly revolting forms. Thus captives 
NHWMatei^ trader certain drcumttances, condemned to be 

ijaad Aeaame bte is or was reserved for 
1 fbr work by age or infirmities. 
iPWk'M^Mie eane, we are told by the early European observers 
Uill^^ilMil^^iatts of the Arabs, the " grandfathen" voluntarily 
8 t^ their arms from an overhanging branch, 
1 neigbboais danced round and round, shoutiiig, 
siMittt ripe it falls." And when it did fiOl, that is, as 
ifkluild hold on no longer, the company fell upon it with 
; it to pieces, and devouring the remains 
hi Xne-jnice, for such feasts were generally held when 
i cUeSjr RMod about Lake Toba, the Battas occupy 
I, stretchii^ south to about the 
ktaT'lCMM Ophir, and bordering northwards Add^ 
|t||BilM>jr«f Ae Achin people. These valiant 

R^tefe hitherto so stoutly maintained their political 
It the Dutch, were also at one time Hinduised, 
y of their traditions, their Malayan language 
I with Sanskrit terms, and even tbeir pbysicml 
g a considerable admixture of Hindu as well 
Wtb the Arab tnuiers and 
t Kman, and the Acbinesc people r^^^i, 
I ««ui«<dous followers of the Prophet 

r the isth century. The Muhammadan State, 

^•oqmred a dominant position in the Archipelago 

t century, when it ruled over about half <A 

f tfibttte fiftm many vassal princes, maintained 

I by land and sea, and entered into political 

IS with Egypt, Japan, and several European 

rhat distinct ethnical groups, the Oramg- 
A«^ ^Sir T. S. S^gbt, hf hi* widow, iBje. 


a trait which bu been utributed to a tai 

blood (Klings and Tamuls) ^m sombera IndJl. 

of cnielty and treachery brought sgaimt Aen ilp liw^jKiKtlMMr 

be received with some reserve, audi tetav -m^jptmia^ mtd 

"rebel" being interchangeable sccoiding to thc«l|WBl<pWllH.ftnin 

wluch thejr are considered. In any case no 009 4Myi»^||mR-tbe 

virtues of valour and love of freedom, with wlBpb(Me>iim$ipi|lad 

induitrious habits and a remarkable ^ititiidv *riT ITT^, J^tnnf 

ciafts as metal work, jewellery, weaving, and ^|>jb«9idi|igi ^3ptie 

Achinese do not appear to be very strict MnhwiM<aBK6.Blfr- 

laiua ud ^"""^ '^ ""'* practised, their woaaen amint Jo^o 
Hindu n- abroad unveiled, nor are they cmtdeaHWd: tD Ac 

miDiKcncca. geclusion of the harem, and a rlrniiig Mnml 
from Buddhist times is the Kandiri, a solemn ieuti-iil w^iA, dK 
poor are permitted to share. Another remmiic«M« of EDadn 
philosophy may perhaps have been an outburtt of i«fi(ioin.fip»on', 
which took the form of a pantheistic creed, and »M MI-Mwlawty 
preached, that it had lo be stamped out with fii* UMlWiVBd bf 
the dominant Moslem monotheists. .■?■.'• -..■ 1 

Since the French occupation of Hadaguoar, ttw^JMWilSHIT 
problem has naturally been revived. BatitxMBr'be 
Rdationain regretted that SO much time and talwt ,fca9'ihNf& 

•dacucu. spent on a somewhat thrasbed-out 4tiia(iiM| h$ • 
number of writers, who did not first uke the tiotdte to bm4 ^> 
the literature of the subject. Had they done sot tb^ mMfi|Mtfe 
seen that most of the factors in the proUcm vp |nTlj.1m|pii 
quantities, and that it is at this date somewhat a 
to suggest, for instance, that the Malayan ■ 
gascar are quite recent', or that the migrationi wm.^ 

' Anlkn^tlegie det Aljths, in Rev. iltd. BaUvk, XXX. 6, iSyg. 

■ A. Oppel, Gl^nt:, 70, p. 384. This writer, who itai bi j Mil 

the dementuj conditions of the question, thiitk* tbtt "tei-Utpl 

Uelaneaia, that the Horu wm all 


'^^fj^fhUik^aikt in DO 

lopect bom the 

qn; Ulioirii^ close 

^^%k Jannese and 

tttjiMcal of Ma- 

)|itt|li||||vtftMl^<4al tiMn olirc colour is due to the enviroament' 
gWPlWfittaiMtf w wri bl i iK e between the Malayan and Malagaay 
'fat 6m to the influence (tf Arab {ac) trad«s, and 
kiBiD Ubyana maj be the reinote ancetfon. of 
t3i|>e in more than one reipect reaembles that 
pn'. The extent to which Malagasy ethnology 
Ma may be judged from the contradictory views 
-«»;die origin, type, and affinities (tf the dtnninant 
Hf wdlfhamm Hovas, as, for example : — 
The Hovas appear to tepre- 
sent a now extinct red lace, 
who were originally Melanesians 
or Oceanic Negritoes; are quite 
distinct from the Malays; their 
common speech proves nothing, 
as it is common also to the 
•b Mm Dm dtu Jahr looo n. Chr. ToIIig uuruchead 

SmL See. J'Amiknf. 1896, p. 498 iq. Here it u 

.Hovat "Mot iMOi de cctte lace primitive [Ics N^ici 

lOBlM 1m witns populatioDi dc MwlAgAscar/' *ftH >lifT 

Inmei ont 6A le fanner conune le fonneni loutei Ics 

'est Ji dire *o<i* riafluence de la vuimUliti qui 

TiTaiit(''(p. 511). But ibe proloIypM of tbeieHovu 

\hikj^\ eonaequentl; tbejr did not need to be (gMtt 

frcBi ■ blmclc precnmr, ao evolation vrfaich, ■» I 

At all events it ihould not be atuinwd without 

in Bti. Sec. ^Antkrep. 1896, p. gii iq. This cue 

ippeded to for tome very rash statements, as, for 

be l we cn Malay and Halagaiy are " auni 

being the antiqaated SiiUty af AtadagoKar 

Ji Fieemaa't Affmdix, 1838. M. Lelounwan, who has 

A in other Gelds, rnight curelj have reflected that the 

taaeAj nndentood in the thirties, and that since then 

frcsD bdng sligfali have been proved to be identitia by 

'Wdiardaon, Coaifat, and in Tact all pbilolopstt who 

to lb* ■object. 



possible to taj. The V 

piimidve pe(q)lcs, eidur 4 

in the interior, bdong ntbflt trt--^ 
Uelagujr folklore than to that (tf ethBolngi»at« 
reports mention is frequently made of the i 
or foimerly living in the Bua country, and of tUC 
aie by some supposed to have been Gallia f 
diey had no knowledge d iron — whose gnrvea ncnipo 
certain monolithic monuments irtiich take AefaOkioSi^ 
disposed in circles, and are beUeved by the pnaeat UafaiMMl af 
the land to be still haunted by evil spirits, diat is, tibe gboatt«|f dM 
long extinct Vazimbas. . ,^ _ ^-^ 

Much of the confusion prevalent reganUng thSr^ 

ethnical relations is due to the fiulmetod 


pi»toc<«.ic (^t„^„ (i,g historic Malays of "-TTTgfrltlp^'^finf 
the Malayan aborigines of the Eastern AtckmteEk 
That some of the historic Malaya (Ac Onttg- 
MaUyu) have found their way to the island from tme to time 
need not be denied. But it may now be asserted wiA aome 
confidence that they could never have been very n 
they may almost be r^arded in the present c 
gucHliti nigligeaile, and that the Malayan settlement of Mada- 
gascar took place in remote prehistoric times, not oiflflBilg 
Maiuuy before the diffusion of the Sumatraa Malaya Wrar 
tipMciinot the Archipelago, but also long beftse tibe i 
Htiayo- ance of Hindu missionaries or colooMtAia \ 

PoiyoMiau. ^^g region. This is no matter of ■ 
but a direct and necessary inference flrom facts now e 
such as the total absence of Sanskrit and largdy of late Andnc 
terms in Malagasy, and the general structure of diat lai^fua^ 
which is not a Malay direct, but very much older dun Malif 
— in fact an independent and somewhat archaic mtoAnecfi the 
Malayo-Polynesian (Oceanic) linguistic family. Then & a'Coah 
siderable percentage of Sanskrit words in Malay, JaMtKac^ and 
Bugis, in fact in all the cultivated, and in many even oiF dw 
uncultivated languages of Malaysia, introduced with 1 
probably some two or three centuries before Ae aev- ( 

pJaf diem qnite ordttwry terms in dailjr lu^ 
frtflMfc been left behind by the Halayin tettkiB in 
ttiW'ttigTitinu tiken }riace within the last aooo 
>u Bat tK»e, abiolutel)' none, are foond in Makguy, 
|-«RM Aereftm have cioaed tlie Indian Ocean in 
It i^ Rmote pidiiatoric timea. 
■■^niaBMi Wefence followi from a critical study of the Arabic 
JBjKi— MlPMriiyiiy, whidi have misled so many ^^ 

h «*en given rise to the tbeoiy that BiMMati 
r tongue is a cormption of die '"•*'^*- 
I' ntravagan^ bnt no less mistaken view, still 
m qBtrtera, assumes that the Arabic words were 
k either direcdy through the Muhammadan Arabs, 
1 the Muhammadan Malays, from which it 
r>'tbtt the immigrants from Malaysia were after all 
UMakya arriving since looo &c. (Oppel), or even 
pant «ver too yean ago'." But Mr J. T. Last, who, 
s Madagascar with the island of MaaUhias 
I in the third centmy a.d.*, suf^ests the 
fldhat . Madagascar may have been reached by Arabs 
era." This "possibility" is converted 
» i:«ertainty by the analysis of the Arabo- Malagasy 
y DaUe, who clearly shows that such terms " are 
y^TtiT few," and also " very ancient," in fact that, as 
V by Pro£ Fleischer erf Leipzig, many, perhaps 
toiof tbem, "may be traced back to Himyaridc 
KAtt i% not mnrdy to pre-Muhammadan, but to 
d brthe Rev. L. Di 

AnlMr^. Imt. 1896, p. 71. 

wmld lewcelj ipfdj 10 any other idtnd off the Esit 

of the rivers, cracodilei, lind-tortoues. canoes, 

weii* fin cucfaing liih, ippl; exttctlj to Hida- 

imft bat to none of the other iilandi " (T'tfwr. Antkrop. 

Tlm^ to take the &»!j% of the week, we have: — Malagas; 

't old Arab. (Himyar.) al-A/Uuht, al-iftnJni ; modem 

(Smday, Monday), where the Mai. {brmi are obrioiuly 

from the ancient AraUc. From all thb it 

Ihst the earfy Semitic faAnencet in Madagatcar may 



pre-Christian times, just like the Sanskritic elements in the 
Oceanic tongues. 

The evidence that Malagasy is itself one of these Oceanic 

tongues, and not an offshoot of the comparatively 
oftheUn- recent standard Malay is overwhelming, and need 

*^*'** not here detain us*. The diffusion of this Malayo- 

Polynesian language over the whole island-— even amongst dis- 
tinctly Negroid Bantu populations, such as the Betsileos and 
Tanalas — to the absolute exclusion of all other forms of speech, 
is an almost unique linguistic phenomenon more easily proved 
than explained. There are, of course, provincialisms and even 
what may be called local dialects, such as that of the Antan- 
karana people at the northern extremity of the island who, 
although commonly included in the large division of the western 
Sakalavas, really form a separate ethnical group, speaking a some- 
what marked variety of Malagasy. But even this differs much 
less from the normal form than might be supposed by comparing, 
for instance, such a term as maso-mahamay^ sun, with the Hova 
mas<handrOy where maso in both means '* eye," mahamay in both 
= "burning," and andro in both = "day." Thus the only difference 
is that one calls the sun " burning eye," while the Hovas call it 
the "day's eye," as do so many peoples in Malaysia*. 

So also the fish-eating Anorohoro people, a branch of the 
Sihanakas in the Alaotra valley, are said to have " quite a different 

dialect from them^" But the statement need not 
Q<!tham'ite8. ^^ taken too seriously, because these rustic fisherfolk, 

who may be called the Gothamites of Madagascar, 
are supposed, by their scornful neighbours, to do everything 

be due to the same Sabsean or Minsean peoples of South Arabia, to whom the 
Zimbabwe monuments in the auriferous region south of the Zambesi have been 
accredited by the late Theodore Bent. 

^ Those who may still doubt should consult M. Aristide Marre, Lcs 
AffiniUs (U la Langue Malgacht^ Leyden, 1884; Mr Last's above quoted Paptr 
in the^^Mr. Anthrop. Inst, and Dr R. H. Codrington's Afeiopusian Languages^ 
Oxford, 1885. See also Eth, pp. 331-i. 

^ Malay, mata-ari'f Bajau, mata-lon\ Menado mata-roH\ Salayer, matthollo^ 
all meaning literally ** day's eye" {mata, w^^= Malagasy x»aj0 = eye; dri^ 
alio &c. = day, with normal interchange of r and /). 

* Rev. J. Sibree, Antananarivo Annual^ 1877, ?• ^*' 


" contrariwise.'' Of them it is told that once when cooking eggs 
they boiled them for hours to make them soft, and then finding 
they got harder and harder threw them away as unfit for food. 
Others having only one slave, who could not paddle the canoe 
properly, cut him in two, putting one half at the prow the other at 
the stern, and were surprised at the result. It was not to be 
expected that such simpletons should speak Malagasy properly, 
which nevertheless is spoken with surprising uniformity by all the 
Malayan and Negro or Negroid peoples alike. 

Of these two races, who have occupied the island from time 
immemorial, the Malayans probably arrived first, 
and, the way once found, were afterwards joined Eiement**^° 
at different times by other seafaring bands from the 
Eastern Archipelago. The Bantus of the opposite coastlands, not 
being navigators, could scarcely have themselves crossed the 
swift-flowing and choppy Mozambique Channel, which is nowhere 
less than 240 miles wide, and is moreover swept by the great 
current setting steadily from Madagascar south-westwards to the 
Cape. Thus the stream that helped the Oceanic Mongols would 
arrest the African Negroes, who were probably brought over in 
small bands at intervals by the slavers, at all times active in these 

Arriving in this way not as free settlers, but as domestic slaves, 
the Negroid Bantus would necessarily become assimilated in 
si>eech and usages to their Malayan masters, as they have else- 
where been assimilated to their Hamitic, Egyptian, Arab, Persian, 
and Turkish masters. Thus may perhaps best be explained the 
absolute predominance of the Malagasy language, to the exclusion 
of all rivals, and the relations now prevailing in Madagascar may 
be taken as a striking illustration of the fundamental principle 
that different races may merge in a new type, but their languages 
will not mix, and in the struggle all perish but one \ 

In Madagascar, however, the fusion of the two races is far less 
complete than is commonly supposed. Various 
shades of transition between the two extremes are Fusion of the 
no doubt presented by the Sakalavas of the west, Ne^ro^Races. 
and the Betsimisarakas, SitanakaSy and others of 

1 Eth. Ch. IX. 

354 'lAJr : past ahd 

tbe east couL Bnt, atmnge to nijr, od tkeiCi 

two Mem 10 stand almost comfdetdjr ^H^a 

politically dominant Hovas still pnaeat all i 

teristics of tbe Oceanic Mongol, whSe thor m 

the BtUQtot, as well as the T^maias and Asmi^aMj 

" African pure and simple, allied to the Miilb«MMflMAlMif 

that continent'." >.>^ .'ari/i^lMUtf^ 

Spedally remarkable is the account giTra bjr* 
the Rev. G. A. Shaw, of the Betstleos, wboae ' 
not less than six feet for the men, and a few i 
women. They are large-boned and muscubu; aadd 
several degrees darker than that of the Horn, a 
close to a black. The forehead is low and hntA, Ac^a 
and the Ups thicker than those of their conquenc^fi 
hair is invariably ciisp and woolly. No pure I 
met with having the smooth bng hair of tbe Ho«A-_ 
in other points, there is a veiy clear departure fiom.Ae ll 
type, and a dose approximation to the Negro lacia of ^tfWia^^ 
cent continent*." ■ , ■ n,? 

Now compare these brawny African giants wUh te n^ tatdcr- 
sized Malayan Hovas. As descdbed bf Pr):A> 
Vouchereau*, their type closely reaemUea thltf of 
the Javanese — short stature, yellowish or light leathor tam^/Hfi^att, 
long, black, smooth and rather coarse hair, round \\mA 0^"ij)i 
flat and straight forehead, flat face, prominent dtecik bo BCiyiiawM 
straight nose, tolerably wide nostrils, small black < 
oblique eyes, rather thick Ups, slim lithesome figuM^ I 
tremities, dull restiess expression, cranial a^MOty >s«$:>!$heB 
superior to twth Negro and Sakalava*. . ;- 

' Rev. W. D. Cowan, Tht Bam Land, AnUnuuiim^ tSSli p. 6j[ j " 
* ThtBitsUtB, Comitry and PiepU; Antanaiutrive AmnuMl, ttTtt^n^ 
■ Nolt sur rAttlinffflegu de Madagaiatr Ac, in FA nt k i » J h<( (a. "iatf , 
p. I49sq. ■ I- 

' The contraat between the two elements is dn«m m a few boU Mukia by 
Mrs Z. Colvite, who found that in the east coast distiicti the natlvM (Blbri- 
■nisaralus chiefly) were black "with short, cnrljr hair and vtff^ tjfm of 
feature, and showed ever; ugn of being of African origin, ne HmM, im 
tb« coatiai?, had complexions little darker than thoe «f the peaMMtty <t 
Southern Europe, straight black hair, ratha (harp foatnics, iUb figan^ and 



KrijUitrt of this high cnnial cipacity, the meuun- 

t-iittiagfaj akaOa in the Cambridge Univeinty 

• NDdied t^ MrW. L. H. Duckworth', coire- 

Aj«Wi tftete descriptioiis. Thus the cephalic iadtx 

:a (N^[roid) and diat of the BeUtleo 

WJTIt: If a rtiwl y 71 and 7a'4> while that of the Hova ii 

t: laro, thnefoie, ire long-headed, the third round- 

kt'WlMdKmld expect But the cubic capacity of the Hova 

id) is only 1315 as compared 

1 1480 of two others, presumably naacMfrom 

Mr Duckworth discusses the 

X dw black dement in Madagascar is of African or 

iipK^lAdsBSMU-Papnan) origin, about which much diversity 

>>tdl fwcvails, and on the evidence of the few cranial 

; be decidea in favour of the African. How 

of the Oceanic view proposed to bring Melar 

:tb0'7acific Ocean to Madagascar, at least after the 

iMT the Indo-African Continent, was never made quite 

low cubic capacity of Mr Duckworth's Hova, the 
d diete, and indeed of the Malagasy 
At bom despicable. Before the QoaUtiMaftiw 
the London Church Missionary "■>•«">'■ 
in disseminating Christian principles and 
al culture among considerable numbers both in 
and amroundiiig districts. The 
been kept going by native com- 
ibxl iwiii 1I quite an extensive literature 

and English. Agricultural and industrial 

improved, some engineering works attempted, 

had learnt to build but not to complete 

style, because, although they could master 

they could not, Christians though they were, 


th^ Aiiatic tTpe" {Jieund tk* Black JUaii't GanUn, 

nigtt the HovM * ilrom of black blood U 

itther thick lipi, and in the lower cUusei wivy hair 


2^ HAM : PAST AHD i 

get the better of the old Htpentttion^ < 
owner of a hotae always dies widm •'mtaM 
Longevity is dierefore ensured t^ aM< 
curious result that the whtde dty looki.i 
In the house where Mrs Colvile ttayedi ' 
and glazed, the other nailed up with roa^l 
■tair-banister had no topsail ; outside mUy a. f 
had been tiled ; and so on throughout'." 

A good deal of fancy is disiriayed Ir tbe'i 
prising histories, or at least legends, &bka, hb 

great mass of folklore, much Of 1 
riiu^^ been rescued from oblivion by the *! 

lore Society." Some of the 
usual analogies to others in widely separated linrtlj slnniiililjIlHi 
seem to be perennial, and to crop up whercva tt»JtniMtiM|t 
little disturbed by investigators. One of those m-^itlsiSfik 
extensive collection, entitled the "History of AadMBMlMliHINx 
niamasoboniamanoro," might be described as m.^ftrntatrnfitt^- 
"Beauty and the Beast." Besides this prince with diek«B.iMMp 
called Bonia "for short," there is a princess "C 
both being of miraculous birth, but the bttet -%,i 
deformed, until found and wedded by Bonia. 
transfigured that the " Beast" is captivated and oatriwMJiBHP- 
her oft Thereupon follows an extraordinary serittilf AiiillMMIc 
resulting of course in the rescue of Golden Bcadt^.^ li|BdBillj% 
when everything ends happily, hot only for the t 
all other people whose wives had also been abdnctetL: 
now restored to their husbands by the hero, who i 
slays the monster in a fierce fight, just as in our nartfcyJilitWf 
knights and dragons. , : iMAj-j 

In the Philippines, where the ethnical confuaoi iarlflijbqlh^ 

greater than in any other part o( MlllffltM^iilw 
pJc^nSI S^e^' l^uU' of t>>e inhabitants appott. t»,AMM» 

doubtedly of proto- Malayan stod^ Eaeeptikthe 

southern island of Mindanao, which is still nuunlj HattMitllaiflta 

or heathen, most of the settled populations hive M^M^f^titf 

' op. di.p. 153. . ., jLi,;. i.i; 

'£ri.p.333. . .,„^ ■ 

If mtU^Hm tnotf'flf tb« Ci;diQ|ic 

or dw iBMk tsd dedteing lliiMiiilriii 

A R a ae ji eiin friur, wlio hid spott li^ 

,.#ft p^, npvrd tjiat ^tiw n«tm n «■ 

^ j l^yi nl ll i i rj i in ni , ;^* ntis^Hing of whow fine oif 

,gllii|it^,l9ftife of wboM aettoni have never 

acfffr.'nll be^diacoTcnd A nadrc wUl 

for yean, ukI ttieB luddenfy tbMont^ 

cn^iK as eonaiving with a brigud 

and pllnge tt^e hwM*." 

9MI em tcU irtiat « Tagal. and cqxciaUj » 

«|l)r,m9fip<int. His dwacter is a mcccanon of 

of cadi yeu brinp one to ibnD fi«sh 

esa^ daflaitJon of such a kaleidoaco^ 

' ■riisillii. it is peiiiq^ not ntpning that no 
dvrdoped betireen the natives and die 
Its dkU eveiTwhere in die Aidupelago 
tteir Uttle ones to look on their white 

BMBitocU (nkn lUvr of tbc Strict Ob- 

pmda ef mondity Mt dtbar dde, Dorliitanj 



much mon udutic tjrpe tluu) tbe ■*'~*"^ 
popalatkm of about- 5,300,000 dinri bmid n 
u under': — ' 


Mmdi. ' " 

/Nearly all between Ulndoif^ 
t live and Mindanao iadoiH 

{Luzon; Mindoio, P<^Bo;V " 
Lubang; Marindoqae / "' 
Ilocanos. Parts of Luzon . . ' 

Bicols. Luzon, Bunas, Ma8bate{?y ' 

Pangasinanes. Parts of Luzon . 
Pampangos. Parts of LuzOn . . . 
Cagayanes. Luzon ; Babuyanes : Batanak .' 
Zatnbales. Parts of Luzon . 

Total " Christiattos dvilisados" in the PhOipf^nei 
By " Infida" are understood all the 
Th*inati«. '>«''''*' Christians nor 

pagans generally in the wild 
described as "savage," "degraded," "waiiik%% 
"wild but timid," "peaceful," "poor," "docile 
"treacherous," — terms which indicate more or 

' Amttraltuia, 1894, 11. p. 49. 
* These snd farther detailimTe from F. BIb ummIiIU ^ . 
di FU^nai, in Bal. Sec. Cttgr. Uwlrid, 18S9, p. Sfj tq. 



'fa'dW MricttM MMttHtf dW'-tlEriiJ 

■<$•<* ^iBt^vpta 46^000 (fgumiu, 

'^-fton Mo,cte« to tje^bttdu 

I^UV t O M pritB d ttfe tttlhimiMiliW 

' ' -lAetiae'lWiq™'' -'■■ ■ '■■■■'"* 

Iteoyof tiMM NreitHl tod^ 

tt«bl' wRi^ wild, aie Mmk^ bM 

Vet; Vkc At Sauxma 

.slUKMriedie of letten, the 81^ paopte DiiBg'' 

«»'ite iff ft« Omg HaMjm, while the I^lnvui 

'iflMteal'aC fte Dewilgui p ro t ot y pe derived 

JtWiill ii ■liiiii expbdned. No cesata bu 

~ ' MtiHpittiM HabBDHMduUt iriio ste lou^ilj 

to 500,000, itiduding 

8dii-t>MI^ till )>tdr fierce sea-ntver^ ftt 

itftel hol^ iqrs Hi Fotcman, "thejr ^qwared 

ieI%M'HaafUliii«il* They keep tlteir 

and when aiked how manj god* there tre, 

Albh plut the Ath«n««utn Trioi^. 

JUigOlk Add erud^Fi^ to their "penal code," 

Ae Baprnda ■cnipnlousl]' kept two 

Friday, and the Chintiao Sunday. 

■too rapidly on primitiTe belieA aie apt 

IIMy peed time to become assimilated. 

bt Foimosa are i^>resented both 
•ad Isdonetian (proto-Caocasic) ele- 


■MMt IMS' 'BBV 'tN' MmMtd'MjW 

. HnkkM iBd H«fc-lw I 

cultivated westcgra li 
logical atuk^oiot amy be regarded M •) 4 
Qhinese maioUDd. The rat of dift i 
h^hiami^ and predpitoiu eatten sloin%«^y) 
on at a oMtfa-eatteni outpott of 1 
duuvely held by Indoneaan ukI. .JibdagM 
Malayna (ea|>ecially the Philippinea), vitk-l 
intmden both from PoIyneaiA and frctta tte.i 
ate daaaed by the Chinese sMtlos aftec i 
three social diviaiona: — 

1. The Ptpc/iw<uu of the pkiat, i 
" Barbarians." are sedientary africultuiisis and qnltM 
(heir Chinese neighbours themselves with « 
merging in a single ethnical group. The P 
by M. Ibis as a fine race, very tall, aod " 
mysterious rites are left to the women. Thaw I 
dances, and other usages forcibly recall thoKof ArU 
and Polynesians. They may therefore, peritapi^ J 
early immigrants from the South Sea Islaodti ( 
respect from the true aborigines. 

2. The SeAAwans, "Tame Savages*," 
agriculturists) subject to the Chinese (since 1895 wA 
administration, but physically distina from ^ tli* 4 
mosans — light complexion, large mouth, tluok ^pit'4 
long and prominent teeth, weak constitution. K, J 


drud de Rialte, Rev. ^Anthr*f. Jan. (sd Afcil iM 
baled lai^ljr on the d>u tuppli«d by M. Paal Ibit aqd 4 
Qie iiland. Nothing better hai (ince appcatcd em 
daabk connibntioiu to the Ckitia Xtvitw (mc below). 


Ut. " ilpe bartNuUiu " (AwAow «n4ra, I 

■0*m"m ^^wimmii'mm^ 

mmt&,--m>^ mfrntMOoaj mjtvmt^k 

'-Mh* ^B, atMt 

aa p iadeM <ti)origlBett'<rf irtKMa ttaf*'«n w 
.■^J^tHbm but ngiedteg «1iM) the 43(ilBCMd 
Mddbutt infeniMtion. Ko( iw tMt' JniiUM 
if^M^ Uf Kiiidc Tin*!'', ttSt ti^ tftf die 
-H' ObM HMBlUMMSe to ^ Md^of 'tU 
'^iA-iifcai ttf diMe «f the ?hllip|rite%' mi'^ 

with - J^IMOeN woiaen, dtejr cw littdljr 

tJttm; ' 11n Tendetl* Is Nffl t% eariaqpt 

Udwdt is their tnditioiul hMMd it 

Itet M eae CKD either be tettteed M 

« hnMAtt until be he« earned off a Cekatlll 

•Msytmuditrtd there is ftfruDe orbrtdceton 

<•!■ ntodued, tad Kme of their wurion can 

'WMMfflf MCh tiii^hiea. Itisar^ef-to 

« thejr haw nrorn friend- 

«r Ow kad bdng tbeir "brcithim and 

tffltamalsmuce it taken t^digg^ a h<d« 

hi it, throiriag caith at eadi other, 

Mamif with the ewth, all of whidi tucana that 

flw gnwad keeps sound, so do we keep 00 

to note that this Japanese ethnologist's reouriu 

'MJ^itblincea of the aborigines are 

,Aeee of Eur(q>ean observers. 

■fitKf- recalled Ae Igorrotea of 

<f bOagBil aad otha MS5. from FonnoM In T. de 

MS&, Umgnagu, and Ram, Hettlbtd, 1S87. 

thodgh the aathOT MMU UDkbte to 

to Oe Anm or mtlajUa of the iiol«d 





■usr >iMf -vMMMM^^^^^^^^BI 

JiVn (Tq»M)i MlMn to M^^riw^ 
bMd-fanBten); and odten to die I ' 
««» Doir of Cbtnete tpttdti). He 4 
dK iDMt dreaded of ■}! dfc KMAensi 
dw diMge (tf onnibalhm bnDgbt i 
bom is quite jnsdfied- 

Wbctber die hittoricai HabiTi fron 1 
u tboTc loggeated. are teaUf wipHwWBii I 
doubted, siiiee no sarvinb eidwt of HfalA»1q 
rites i^)pesx to Iutc beeo detected a 
<tf coone pottible dtat thejr may bavt wachtjjjl 
remote tiote, and uoce idapsed into s 
Orang-4aat were never ray far remov<ed> 
of ^maf, it will be safer to regard all die <^-fl 
Indonenan, partly of proto- Malayan orign. 
• ■,i This view is also in conformi^ witl) A 

numerous Fonnosan dialect^ i 
aJSS^ either with the Gyarung and oduorM 

Indonesian tongues, or ebe ' 
Polynesian organic speech generally, bat net'q 
particular member of that family, least of •! 1 
paratively recent standard Malay. Thus Dv i 
points out that only about a sixth part of the Foi 
taken generally corresponds with modern Mal^'t 
of all the rest must be sought in the vanotM 1 

> La Rata Malaiput etc., in V Anlkrof«lap*, iSg^ 
* Ttu AhBTigiHet of Fermasa, in China Ranrw, xrr 
No. J. {A XamUe TinmgA S»HAem Formata) The 
tbi* inteUigent obmrer lo Fonnosan ethnology 
tion than rhey have hitherto i«ceived. 

' SfnuJten dtr Urtitmeluur Firmeta't to Z*titckr f 
V> p> 437 iq. Thia anthropolopal found to hit £ntrt 
MBan and Maori skalU in the London College of Si 
•naloKtcs with thote collected b; himself in Fi 
Temarkable hannony between speech and phjraical 

.tbc JISMwMff ^otw 
Bat tbe db- 
IW nAcr ■opal than racial, and wayanjr.MV 
A ICaa: ABt> aU -tb* Uaadao bakmg 
.^Mao% Ac ialaaden sffreatntBig 

( pi^bab^in tka aaMtf of-c 

witb nattm of dM «HNMte ACM 
^alie m.Knou tbtci i*bfa au^ Of^dto 
;fl^ptt4MliaAetrnidit'.:' . 

^MagH wbieh point to M' lodorGUtfMt 
lanyda^ir^UiVi ; the dtewiog oC bate^ 
te« vixd widi aoflw eaitby nbatuise 
•D diick u «veD to prevent die 
«f the cartobe bj wooden cjriinden; 
\yt$,taSki.MBd^tBwaA,aa amongst (onw 
which has an octmordinanljr rich 
sai^ aa a5 c<Huonantal and 35 voml 
attd lUMiwd, hke the Malajro-Fcrijaenan, 
t6 meiDble the Oceaiuo mon Uian the 
FJaobAaWon. Mean bdght g ftj in. (Sbon 
wide and flat ; eyta »tber obliqneljr 
ftatures flat, tfaongh len so than in 
■{"Cwnpte M Oti mostly a jiellowiah Or leddkh- 
n); hair a. dark rostf lxow% laidy 
not seldom wary and even rin^ettjt 
iqtAa straight 

**> Ih 

i^mr paUi^ til |U« word. Hid tpttlt of tbeii 
Mm Belted eqwll^ to land, coanby, *ill«ge, 

tayMtr. ^Mkn^ Arf. 1889, p. 354 Ml- 



: womok Om||'« 

■ocial eqtwlitjr, u in BnnMi and 1 
■pinti -oittad iW W i^ ^^ lih* thwiM 
ficknen and deaA mhw •cned t 
Like dM Bwmeae, ikcvdwjr ptausf^ 
or igunst die cbeA ot a cot p w fe 

One of Ac fev induitikt ia the i 
kind of rot^ pwnted pottery, iriticbli 
the ialet of Chowtm, 5 miles nocdi of 3 
thii restrktkm k Ntpleined bjre ; 
which in remote agei the Greet UnkmMipKA 
of sndden death, an eeithqoeke, or 4 
making of earthenware wat to be caoM'life'if 
and all the voA of pnpanag the daf^l 
pott, was to devolve on the 1 
one of diese women, when oa a visit in a 
heedleu of the divine injuncdon, to t 
on the spot. Thus was confinncd the t 
has since been nude to in&inge the "QiowTaii 

All things considered, it may be intend fl 
was originally occupied by primitive pe(q>lei '<if:iJ| 
now represented by the Shorn Pen <rf Gteat Nibobp^iJ 
wards re-settled on the coaatlands by I 
intruders, who intermingled, and- either i 
or else drove to the interior the first o cca ptnlni 
resembles Formosa in its intermediate ] 
continental and pclasgian Mongol popnlatioiM;'-: 
of anak^ is the absence of Negritoes from botfa'^<4 
areas, where anthropologists had confidenl^ia 
presence of a dark element like that at te i 
Philippine Aetas. 

1 E. H. Man, your. Anihrap. Inii. 189*. t^pl^^ 


Hv'^flwi.^tB.ST.V* --i^oiaO; -■■,■■■ 

itBJB&n— luljr Onttct wMttSwcMie Peofdo-^ 


fXir, Mr^ttrk Shwutphtn fnm ""bm* 
r>VM «l» Arok OttoM te thi 
\ drah-em^ioK Basin; Parts ef 
•f Path pf SaH Jlttstia, Balkan 

t&m tame as Sent* Mongol, ^ m ^ 
tai groins hvwn, ehtsimit, and^ 
\lso wavy and ringktty; itard 
i tht WhHm Ti^la aadtdme 




mntl Kanamti im J^am At* 

vahaiit (t i tt i m flty amit ^ 
gimifs ami eoet ivme Siitt 
Svm, OliMk-txmMi, Noa»^M^i 
MX M SftiJk ifemgeis; iut imc* sftmm' 
tya stmigAt, gnyisA, «r m 
Xarttmi, tmd tome adfr i 

SUtnie, luua^ dmt <M<!i'| 
Maiufua amiKfittaiu taU(%ft. 8.«Pli 
Upfl. Anni, !>«<«, and FMfe « 
Mbi^ols; ^utJa^mMtu Ugt d 

Tflzapenmant, of aU trm 
Mongohids, dull, rtarutd, nmrmlM, 

M M SMU groups {^IMMS, JofiMHlJi ^ 

mearfy ail brave, wariHe, torn Juru, ■* 
^redtits, thou^ not nermtUt/ emit; , 
period the fancier has alwu^ t 
marked change from a rude and ftrodtm H 
more humane dispesiiion; ethical torn A 
Mongol, with more developed sense ^ ngl^m 

Bpeeoh twp> unififrm; 
language (Finno-Taitar or Uzal^J 
highly typical agglutinating form wi^ 
numerous postfixes attached loosely to emu 
by which their vowels are modifiod m 4 
subtle laws of vocalic harmony; the c 
fanUly (Finnish, Magyar, Ihrhish, i 
Korean and Japanese) diverge grttOly j| 

Religion, originally spirit-worsk^ A 
(Sbaraan), perhaps everywhere, and stUf « 
lent amongst Siberian and till other » 


iJh4pinb 'itf ,Mbig/un oMibHf 

j » m^ , ihmlm^ GM, 43na, 

,4SirpUf.- Uakti J^mmM; Kmrm- 
1/ A t iaUii am ; OimmtUL 

(htjmi; BiOgar; Magyar. 

MoBfOlt* an bete b) be nndtnUod all Umae 
DnwicM-of mankiiid iriii^t are uiually 
iH>lucal ttxpiewien Vr^ 
the ethnictl derignation MongBh- 
J&W^TWnb". Thor „^,,^^ 
jmMiiMd from that of the ftaMerthM 
^Af3m- "•) by the Gieat WaU ""^^^ 

bacmd which it spreada out wntwards 

J^fBM^ and a considaable pait of North 

ffvapB in CcDtial and South Rusna, 

tbc Middle Danube basin. In the 

iatSHLp. 303. 


Pftctfic wMK fapaft MiA'fMi «f4 

Lftpland. But ito tondMni lfaBilt'« 
-matdjr hf » Um dmini ton'^ttc^ii 
■kng the w xtfwni eacupnaits otM 
the wMtibero 4MrM of dw Cm 
fine, howner, nust bt dniini fai twtii'AV 
Turkettan, snich of the NorA Variam* 
and nearir the whole of Aaw Hiaot-, i 
Kurdestu, uid Sjiim. ■'••■ 

Nor ii it to be tuppoied that cvcn iM 

North Mongol territotjr it« 
c^^wia la East Europe etpecUf, ' 
p^!J|^ most ptit comparative -. 

Mongols are found aotf ii 
groups in the Lower and Middle Vo^ bM&k^i 
the North Caucasian steppe, and in mon t 
Rumdia, Bulgaria, and Hungary, 
however, the process of absorption or aasImHMltfMlj 
European physical type is so &r completed ^t 
Nogai and other Rusuan " Tartars," as they a 
and Baltic Finns, the Magyars, Bu%ais^ i 
would scarcely be recognised as members of t 
family but for their common Finoo-Turki speedi^ I 
evidence by which their original connection w 
established beyond all question. 

In Central Asia also (North Irania, thtf i 
Tarim basins) the Mongols have been in doMK'tfi 
Caucasic peoples probably since the New Stone i 
intermediate types have been developed, by lAi 
unbroken transition has been brought about fa 
and the white races. 

It is often assumed that these Central Asktk ti 

have been occupied by Nedldlield 
H^jft^'sr^ru the great inland seas, which fomM^^ 
Md uoDcoUa. vrhole r^on,and drained throoglid "^^' 
the Arctic Ocean, till a new outlet was foond to ti 


knu^-lD IftteiMASy* Av<f«iM|M 

It •oqiMt and ■!»«)■•• 

thstC'HWk oinM'CwV'iBcbcilwto'fl 

' rklctnBM'iR8itaaliitbiailM 

lh«;j«Me of tbeXoidi Uongol-tfoiMi^ 

^Mwd-throufpb tke Stone and Uetid 

ttf the globe. Durisfl hu 

ii» the eeriy nmetiea, Hot 

prebiitoric itatioiu, kiagetie 

miuuf megrfithic moDnneiitt of 

which coBBtf mI^ 

•re-b7"tb«- |»neai inhalRtHite 

"Cbadteh Gnvea," uid, u ia NMtfa 

" ii Hatbed to « noir vamifaed bd- 

tnhabited tbe IumL To dwm, m to 

Amflficl^ all ancient momunenti are 

them at prebntofk Fiim*, othon 

hkr die Rette dnei nOUietii HaUn vm 

Cmffom of RuBui AK^uetAofpaf, Kfft, 

8. K. KwoMMV: Fiatd ti 

iSgSiXvi. p. iS(, On the Mnngth otf thU 
[iiiMlimlj IliM the okdleof tbeEvrapcan 
HM/Ar AAaipM, in MUt, 4. Amiknf. 

of Stephen Soonnter, who calli then " 



I ewcijiwhue vri&at n ui t 
miBimmts now bdi^ dany bRMi|kt'4it'l 
tfoi^alk, Korea, and Ji^iHi. Tiya « 
Ae diattctert of two ikuUa finmd iB^i 
one of ths five preh u toric •catkm oa'tiMF^Ml 
affluent of the Selenga ma, tMar U«l 
Tbejr differ markedly from Ae nonaal ] 
type, recalling latiier the long-shaped a 
kn^ans, with cephalic indexes 73 -a 
H; J. D. Tftlko-Hiyni»#ica\ Thvs, m tbk t 
Moiqiol domain, the chancteristtcaUy r 
an>ear to have been preceded, as in 
headed type, presumably diat of eaify' Met 

Id East Siberia, and especially n dw 1 
Herr Leder found eztcnsiTe tracts strewn widL'li 
of which have already been explored, and tl 
in the Irkutsk museum. Amongst these «e'.| 
stone implements, and objects made of bone « 
besides carefuUy worked copper ware, belxqrittg'il 
and some anistic taste in the designs. In 1 
farther east, with the kurgacs are associated tfae-li 
Bait, "Stone Women," monoliths rougb-hewn J 
human figures. Many of these monoUtlis Im|^,^ 

HI— riy thc wuc lonpugc M Ihc Fiiuii 1 "pa FimM^ MUtwl 
Bcomu (pnecon netb in geVeodc" (Otm. i. Ch. 1. 14), T 
mde Domoils could Ktucely have been the woiewhal 
"popolo milko al quale li attribuiacaoo totte le i> 
quelle puti della Siberia e net MttentrioDe dcUa RoMiad' 31 
Sirimi, Oitiaethi 1 Samcudi dtIF M. FIordcc, iBSt»P'44^ T! 

■ Tb. Vollwv, tn L'AMthnfolagit, 1S96, p. Si. .- ' 1 V 1'*ftarTWH 


«C«k1i, farfefforsinlHBMW 

► pMi wfl l ll f h^em tho wyiMfc 3Bt 

> of fc 

I teiMl ptHM would iViMK to 

«y GoptWiPuioda. 'nktkmmwaaiA 

uMRMutd yam, bcawKbaoiiM, 

origiB. » now rai^KMod to have 

about 3eo» &&, poMiUjr much 

reqaind to eaqfdain the qpniul 
Padio teaboaid, aad 
iJafMBL In Korea Mr W. fmSiZu' 
LSeul. J^^ 
and which u rewaitable 
«se of Ute capstone^ a 
14} by over 13 feet He lefen to four 
I part of the peninsulai and 
in fana betwean a dst and a 
Sfnobable that they were never covered 
?j*.«tMid-M monumenta above ground, in thia 
. Japaneie, "*hich without exception are 
I aone of their features these preaent 
I Brittany stmcturea, having either 
s approached by a gallery of greater 

Jmt, iBu, p. 91* iq. 


™ I I J ' "JllJill 


of ooMklenUe Jimw MWt." 

of » leawlB pit-riwM i 

bm, bat bm by thus ntntaeMl le » 
of tin HoUow^" «bo ocoqikdllwli 
liir«d in hata boih ot«r thMc pitt. 

to have bda^ed to the iBMlt^ 
by die AiiM, beoGc wpfm 
K<»o-pek-guiu. They ace .aMMiaillt ' 
Bome piiinitive pe<q>les of the Karilr i3 

Kamchatka, wbo, UkC dw BsUnO Of AtlUl 

extended formerly much faither lOMfa Am<| 

In a khcbcn'Oiiddm, 330 by soo I 
the {»ovince of Ibaiaki, the Japanew 1 
M. Shinomara' have found t 
Stone Age of Japan. Amongit them ^ 
woiked bones, asbea, pottery, and a whole 1 
of human bcingk The finden suggeat dnt4l 
have belonged to a homogeneoui nee <i{ Ae 4 
however, were not the ancestora of the / 
regarded as the first inhabitants of Ji^paB* 
records vague reference is made to other aba 

" Long-L^;s," and the " ^ht Wild "Hibt^" i 
enemies of the first Japanese setden in Kiu-iJhfajMll 
by Jimmu Tenno^ the semi-mythical 1 
dynasty ; the EMsu, who are probably to be u 
Ainu; and the SeJti-Manti, "Stone Men," 
sontbem island of Kiu-shiu. The last-it 
however, little Airther is known, seem to 1 
to be associated with the above described i 
in Japan. 



iltbe piesent Uongol peoplet, twiag quite 
u in no w»y be coanectcd with ^^ ' 

: relica daily IxtMig^t to. ^FlalaMMkl 

1 (SouA RuHik, the Balku ■^■"'w. 

t}r)j' The ateie remark i^Ues even to Fmland 

i-M o&c time i^poied to be .the cndle at the 

M-ii xnr shown to have been first occiqned i>f 

■iVnm an exhaustive study (tf the bronze- 

iK^ "—*'"■*■ ' concludes that the popolation of 

I^Binod wa« Teutonic, and in this he agrees both wiA 

The latter holds on. linguistic 

ttllit beg^uiii^ of the new era the Finns still dwelt 

IfbCFinlaBd, wbencx they moved west in later times. 

\i lo. -fiabyloiua, where, as already shown, the 

|i->QlHie and Uetal Ages date back 

■4 \bc qneation of their origin U b, a^tolS. 
i'wp with that of the Finno-Tuiki 

Although no general <^iensui 

i OB dits obscure snt^ect, it has been some- 

f Dr K. A. Hermann*, «4m) cDdeavours to show 

f the eaily cuneiform texts has Btrc»ig affinities 

:, and more paiticularly with the Cgro-Finnish 

There are the same phonesis and vowel 

• of npuDf, numerals, pronouns, and voIm { 

r of identical words, all of which cannot be 

e the conclusion that the views of Lenormant 

UMl-Altaifti " an " well grounded." 

i, Hdnnglbn, 1897. 

b Sffttth, Ptper ra^ M the Rwiuii Arducologlal 

K may ba meDtknied that the Hongol cannectioii U 

lA, Lenofinsnt, Rafflinian, utd G. Smith, tad denied 

U Danner, while Pinches, Sayce, Almqaiit and many 

Di Hommd, who givn up the European 

fe^iibs {Ai^tturgn- Zeittaig, Aug. 18, iSgj) nov stggiMi 

' a hoUt aa intermediate podtion iKtween tlie Arpu and 

. 'neaipuMntsof Pio£ Haapt andDrDonner 

td hi Du AkJudiiclu SfracMr, reprint of a paper 

jh-^tyiilCOiytii, 1S83. In the Appendix Dr Donnet 

« tht Ugro-Altaic Iheoiy. 


2y^ HAN ; PAST AHX): 

But even to, there b no deftr mditv 
early Babylonian Mongola and ^ ] 
Western Alia. Some 6000 yean ago tfa« J 

already been in dose contact w^ the i 
Mesopotamia', and merged with dtem «nd 1 
single nationality, the Semitic element at «~ 
strengthened both by Israelites and Jew^ « 
and pOTt-MuhamnHulan Arabs. Hence the ^ 
Mongol substratum has long been efiaoed d 
Euphrates basin. - i.ii 

Most authorities agree in locating the AUMda'O ^ 

Akwn •'*«*"^ *^ *** Sumerians on At iomiti^^tjtm 
iCS^ of Chaldiea. But while R. wa-Olit^ml^itm 

,°'*'^- Hommcl, brings both of these T ■ ' ' 

calls them, from "thor original home in the ■ 

are inclined to the view that they came, not fraB^^dM^^iit||||p|l 

by sea from the south, most probably from I 

Certainly the earliest known settlements — Lap^M 
Uru, Unilc — lay about or near the head of Or. I 
where Babylonian culture would therefore 1 
taken root, spreading thence northwards to i 
Assyria. The Semitic Assyrians themselves, I 
to have come from the northern highlands, area 
good grounds to have reached Mesopotamia ftom .G 
Of the two Babylonian dialects also, the S 

1 "The Sumerians had alreadjr mingled cIokIj wU tksS 
linl hear of them. Their language gave way to the Stnitic Vlll,^ 
gradually to become a language of cecemony and itttutL ' J^tlt-3i 
becaine assimilated to the religion, and their godi id« 
the Semites. The process of fusion commenced al i 
nolhiog has really come down to us from the time whM tkatWli 
strangers to each other" (Maspero, Dawn t/ Civili*atttM, p>'Ml)a'.. , 
the Amorites (Anunteans, Syriam) Mr Pinchet hat ihown 4sM ftit^, 
the Semitic bmily had already founded leUlemeatt in Ili1ijlim(s,^l hW^lj^J^ 
back as the time of Khammurabi. .. w...' ' 

> yvrgitchuhu dtr Inda-EurepiUr, English ed. (JbwlMMiMV^^ 
1897, p. 79. 

' SaTce, Auyrian Gram., Schrader, DU Urtihtiv & 
D. M. Gti. xxviL p. 397. 




ame aichaic dian the sortbom Akkid^ irhich 
^f4bKig^ dements ; and the Akkada themaelyes 
jtieif firs^ pettlemeots Jay about the shores of the 
iriiich fommly extended much iaurther inland than 


k ♦■ 

ftvems ft Semitic source of ftibylonian culture, the 

viiUi^^inig^t well hiave been supplied by the proto- 

W^Oonamh Ambia, a region already r^jarded-by some as 

of Ike first civilisation in the world\ On this 

'die'lioooiir of luiving laid the founda- * , ^ 


'd human progress would have to be theStmHM 

fiMB the Mongol to the Semite, and •»*^^'^5~»- 

Cof^' now comes forward with a theory dethroning 

7 and Semite in favour <^ the Aryan. He aigucis 

the oldest known Akkadian king* (4500 &C. 

Anmm: a £ne symmetrical figure, large, straight eyes, 

or slightly curved nose, thin lips, and — ^most 

lenig head- Still it might be asked, was he a proto- 

r^vlhrtg}' apart firom physical differences, he. spoke a 

that " firom Southern Arabia " may have come the 

Bdonged Xhammurabi (the Amraphd of Genesis), and 

WtSbflon for the first time the capital of a united Babylonia " 

i" 1896, p. 94). Khammurabi (Humnmrabi) flourished about 

HSiilifaned lineal descent from Ur-bau and Dungi, who had 

^npited kingdoms of Summer and Akkad (Lowlands and 

ChfiiiuiiMim, in Tk^ Amirican Naturalist for August, 1896. 
with tMs view L. Wilser is inclined to agree {GMus^ 

iMinMilf ** kNnd " of Kengi, the name bjr which Babylonia was 

timesi^-its religious centre being the great temple 

to Mnl-lil, whoin the Semites later transformed into 

succeeded Erech, the "city** in a preeminent 

tdler (/tffivf), Lugal-taggisi, son of Ukus, subdued the 

his sway over all the land from the Persiaii 

Srscb yielded in ita turn to Up (the Ur of 

J^lgal-kignbnidudu became the capital of Chaldsea, 

tpf the glories of Nippur under Saigon I., founder of 

coqNre, and about 1000 years later (9800 B.C.?) the 

«iiisr fll^Bsn (Ur-Gar) and his son Dungi, who reduced 



non-Semitic language, and other not very convincing reasons 
are advanced to make him out an ''Aryan" of the North 
European type. That men of this type may have penetrated 
into Mesopotamia at an early date is possible ; but if so, a shorter 
route than North Europe would have been the Eurasian steppe, 
and they would have come, not as settlers, but as conquerors 
who, as in so many other places (France, Lorobardy, the Deccan), 
became assimilated in speech and culture to their Akkado- 
Sumerian subjects. But there are no records of such a conquest, 
and Enshagsagana was far more probably a proto-Semite than a 
North European "Aryan." 

There is, however, nothing improbable in the early date 
assigned to this ruler. "We found," writes Dr J. P. Peters, 
"that Nippur was a great and flourishing city, and its temple, 
the temple of Bel, the religious centre of the dominant people 
of the world at a period as much prior to the time of Abraham as 
the time of Abraham is prior to our day. We discovered written 
records no less than 6000 years old, and proved that writing and 
civilisation were then by no means in their infancy. Further 
than that, our explorations have shown that Nippur possessed a 
history extending backward of the earliest written documents 
found by us, at least 2000 years'." 

These discoveries long antedate the time of Sargon I. and his 
son Naram-Sin, whose chronology was the earliest hitherto deter- 
mined (about 3800 B.C.). Despite the legendary matter asso- 
ciated with his memory, Sargon, the Semite, was beyond question 
a historical person. At Agade were found not only his statue, 
but also his cylinder, with an inscription beginning : '' Shamikin 
the mighty king am I," and recording how his mother, a royal 
princess, concealed his birth by placing him in a rush basket 
closed with bitumen and sending him adrift on the stream, from 
which he was rescued by Akki the water-carrier, who brought him 
up as his own child. The incident, about which there is nothing 
miraculous, presents a curious parallel, if it be not the source of^ 
similar tales related of Moses, Cyrus, and other ancient leaders of 
men. Sargon also tells us that he ruled from his capital, Agade, 

^ Nippur^ The Narrativt of the University 0/ Pinnsylvania*s Expedititm to 
Babylonia in the years 1888-96, Philadelphia, 1896-8. 


tl|}p6r imdr Ix>wer MeMlpctemiay govmodiihe 

AXkada are conftantly called, rode In; inaiiy^ 

wi» fOBilfd lands, and made expeditions thrice to 

'^^Hicr expeditioof are confirmed by inscriptioBs from 

llkif iC|liiNkr of his son, Nafani:Sin, found by Cesiurfa 

Ai Hhejr also jpenetrated to Sinai their sway would 

iig!tdaAtd over the wh<de of Syria and North Arabia, 

md periaqps other islands. They erected great struc- 

^iliidi was at that time so ancient tlutt'Naram* 

<Mtii<iU^*iki& piatform stood oxt a mass 30 feet thick of the 

JKiliilM of eadier buildings. It was from the results 

ilriiif'atfiilftisliuiia eqpedally of Dr Peters and Mr Haynes in 

4iiat Br Hilprecbt wrote: ''I do not hesitate to .date 

6f the tempk of Bel and the first settiei^ents in 

between 6000 and 7000 b.&, and possibly 

'■V^'^eomt thus, within measurable distance of the 

pllftriisigned to the duration of the Historic Period in 

^afli die Nile Valley*. 

^i gtandson, Ashurbanipal, who belongs to the late 
wliin die centre of power bad been 

nia to Nmeveh, has left recorded o^^^ 
iilbletis how he overran Elam and 
^^i^Ata], Susa (645 3-c.). He states that from this 
hkck the eSgy of the goddess Nana, which had 
%#iy ftotti her temple at Erech by an Elamite king 
^bad been conquered 163s years before, i>. ss8o 
Elam ruled 300 years, and it was a king of 
l^dur-Lagamar, who has been identified by Mr 
''^ibe '^Chedorlaomer, king of Elam** routed by 
>klv. 14 — ijf. Thus is explained the presence 
ttee so far west as S3nria, their own seat being 
mountains in the Upper Tigris basin, 
were probably of the same stock as theti' Akkad 
robust people with coarse black hair, peaceful, 


r, Apifl soi 1898, p. 46$. 

/Smr TkmMmd Ymts Ag»^ in KfwwUdgt, May i, 


iCAir: PAST ia» 


mditttnoiMi and skafiil htirfMuidnieii^ 

of irrigating processes. Even die tena 

the same meaning as ''Akkad" (sa 

to ''Sonier '' (Lowland)'. Yet tbe typeimilA^ 

wh<rie ratber Semitic^ judging at leart fiooi 

and thick beard of the 
jj^SlSui?^ brought by Adiurbanipal o^ of ^ 

in Layard's Mtmuments tf Nm ^ imk^ x 
65. This, however, may be explained by the tel 
were subdued at an early date by intruding Seiii|feai^( 
afterwards shook off the yoke and became 
conquer Mesopotamia and extend 
the Jordan more than sooo years before die neiVMii^^* 
properly Anshad» the capital was the re no mi ne d 
(Shushan), whence Susiana, the modem KhnrislanW -r.n>»ff1 Wy?!^ 

Even after the capture di Susa by Ashurbii^M# 
rose to great power under Cyrus the Great, wbe^ 
Persian adventurer, as stated by Herodotus, b«t Iht; 
Elamite ruler, as inscribed on his cylinder and taUet 
British Museum : — '' Cyrus, the great king, the kiiig> 
the king of Sumir and Akkad, the king of the IbttT 
of Kambyses, the great king, the king of Elam, 
Cyrus the great king,** who by the favour of Ififinilifiiiiii 
overcome the black-headed people (i>. the Akkadi^iilddttl^llil 
entered Babylon in peace. On an earlier qrliilder UlifcilHNhili 
last king of Babylon, tells us how this same Cyiiig.; J S aM B ft jl>^ii^ 
Medes — ^here called AfandaSy '* Barbarians " — and capMM didr 
king Astyages and his capital Ekbatana. But althoiicb l^raf* 
hitherto supposed to be a Persian and a Zoroaatm 
here appears as an Elamite and a polytheist, ^it is 
that although descended from Elamite kings* these w«|!t>(]||j^|^p|^ 

^ It should be noted that neither Akkad nor Samer mum Hi lliS'lfHm 
texts, where Akkad is called JCish from the name of its caiiilil». 
Kiengi (Kengi), said to mean the " land of reeds and canals,'^ 
been identified with the Kush of Gen. x., one of the best alMmj^vWiilis ia 
Palethnology. For this identification, however, there is 
that Kush is mentioned in the closest connection with *'BdM(, 
Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar " (Mesopotamia) f^ j%^ 


B ncc, wbo, after the dcttructkm of the (^ 
I: bjr Ashurbuiipal, had otabliahed . » new 
^fmt^itSmiiitfiit^M. Cjmu almiTt txacet his descoit bcaa 
JHilMMW^ltto chief of dte leading Peruan clan itf PasaigadaiV 
HklM afehoich wrang in apcaking erf Cyrus as an adventuier, 
■milMNfflihitlr calla him a Penian, and at this late date £2am 
iMMlMr^mdli Iwrc been already Aryanised in speech*, while still 
MliilCiitl'«M Akfcadian religion. The Bab^ooian pantheon 
kwiWt tSl the tine et Darius Hystaspes, who introduced 
• wUh its supreme gods, AhurarUaida, creator of aU 
I, author of all evil 
n deities, thus superseded by the eternal prindples 
fUhJht^UDd'datlUKSS, had themselves "begun by 
- - a material «rf the element which was rSSS^T^ 

C(" and of which they successively be- 
IHpdllMr i^nt and the lulei. They continued at first to rende 
I, but in course of time were separated from it, each 
Ri(» Aster a rival's domain, dwell in, and even rule the 
1^ ^ till at last most of them came to be identified with 
Bel, the lord of the earth, and Ea, ruler of the 
I^^MMd into the heavens, which did not originally belong 
Here &ey took their place beside Ana-Anu, who, at 
^^n^nal heaven itself, the starry vault encompassing the 
I suocesnvely the ^>irit of heaven (Zi-Ana) and 
niler of the universe. This transformation of 
)- spirit into a personal god-king was, according to 

Or^puM. p.74. 

X DDce, the pretent Lur tuid Btkhtiui inhalat* 

Igtiktng, not the tumclvd Nep-Peraitn, but dulects of the 

. jnadi of the Iruiui bmily, u if thejr had been Aiyuiied 

ill* explM al which w» Ekbatantu We have here, pertiapi, 

jid|iB «f th« HedM thenuelTei, who were cotainly the ftbove- 

o( Hrtwpidm, Ibetr capital being alto the nme Ekbatana. 

7> ■B9S> P- 189) identified the Kinuneiiui* 

n^WMili. wbaae king Takdamm^ (Tutdu&mf] wu the 

(iu ^ 16), who led a horde of Kinuneriuu into Lydia and 

We, know bom Eiar-haddon'i inacriptiooi that by the 

!i« caUed Handa, their prince TeupM (Teispe) 

M "ol the people of the Uanda." An oracle given to 





I>noniiMit, dne BpedaOy to the i 
ChaldaMns nor the ^lyptiina ever entnM tf 
abtolutely supreme being. The i 
the early Assyriologists thought thcj bad -d 
Riwlincon), was u mudi a being of dieo' < 
supreme god inwgined by Egyptologistfl f»4 
ponton in the ^[yptian paadieon (#.)*• 
Chaldsean system passed into a conditloD hantlf^W 
fre&t the fetishism of the African negro. ''Ti*-* 
indpired whatever seemed good to tum, aod "f 
into objects where we should least have oxpcdaJ^W^fciWfcfe^ft 
animated stones, particularly such as fall froa )i 
as, for example, the tree of Eridhu, which u 
objects, when it was once ascertained that they^ 
the divine spirit, were placed upon the altar and « 
as much veneration as were the -statues t 
however, never became objects of habitual wonhipM'fe 
As in all primitive beliefs, morality -is foauA i 
d from religion. Thus in Aralu, die < 

Ewr-h&ddon b^ni: "The Kimineriui Id the n 

landof Ellip," >.<. Ae Und where EkbaUim wm afterwaf^* londa^'^ 

now thown to have atresdy been occupied bj the I 

hordes. Ii follows that KimTnenuis, Mandas. Medci 

Kurd and Bakhtkii represeotativei, were all one people .lAo 1 

certaiot^ of Attbii speecli, if not actually of proto- Alkali itock. ,,'.'. ' ) ^ ■. 

' La Sf^ii ihct hi Chaldiem, p. 144 sq.; quoted b; Mt^ero, Dmm if 
Civ. p. 644. 

* Ai the ides of a primitive unjvenkt rCTelation, from wliA^4hilt4r « 
lupteme beins cannot be separated, seems to be at Icut MBOMI i»|pMAi* 
br.Mr A. Lang in Tht Mating of Riligivn (1898), it maf ba afdi-ptUlRf 
out ihat such a sublime notion is immeuuTabi; bejond tbe ]/ M M t ^ **^ 
man, whose cranial capacity did not gieatly exceed tint cf tU JiwiMe 
preciusoi (see diagram p. 6). The munotheisiic concepdoit oduISlunriiaMr 
been the starting point, and was in ^t arrired at tn <iaite kW tllMiri^ii 
continuous process nf elimination. Inha MythtltgitJttSlamnlitifl^l^Klb 
(Rai. Mtm. di tEcelt dAnlkrep. 1897, p. nj »q.), M. A. IjAvM'liMn 
that even Bog, supposed to be the Deus of the proto-^an, H 
represented by Ctmcbog and Bdheg, are all later d 

' Doom of Civiliiatien, p. 641. 


jfedM4Mp*% dw soddm Beltia-AIht, wbo, boweVer, it Uttk 
MaiibM«|MiB'fliiod or bid lives led by the deputed Almost 
tal|lfMriy>4[^aBdl'0ii their attitiide toinids the gods, ^^w■^^^Ti^^g 

Iff iriMf •!«. punished for having neglected the service 
i^AvtfMpil^r«ad mrardad in proportion to the aocrificei and 
ifc tt ^ shrine^ of the gods. 

s dirougb the clan and tribe into, the 
^ ■ deaily aMD in the Chaldnan social system, 

uits of each dty were still J^'^^"' 

t, all of whose nieinbers claimed 
i from a common ancestcM' who bad flourished at a 
e period. The members of each ctan were b; 
■lteiMMl«Ula> die same social posidon, stMne having gone down 
iMhWiMi^ Mben having raised themselves^ and amongst them 
MiMhift«HM]r 'diSetent callings — from agricultural labonren to 
I to artisans. No natural tie existed 

g-dn oulority of these members except the remembrance 
I origin, perhaps also a common religion, and 
•MMM-MH^MI' «f foocession or claims upon what belonged to 
•MtUMie'iadiriduaUjr'.'' The god or goddess, it is suggested, 
* cacb man, and of whom each was the son, was 
B god or goddess of the clan (its totem). So also in 
^BM Ae iperubers <k the community wtn all supposed to come 
MWiiMrtillliliilli (fdif), and to belong to the same (amilj (fditu), 
)tf %ivf4^ ) were the guardians of the family, several 
U^mH&Kt being under a npditihd, or hegd chief*. 
I local institutions, it is startling to find a fully 
dlord system, though not quite so bad as 
f floduted in England, already flourishing ages 
"The cost of repairs fell usually on the lessee, 
d to build on the land he had leased, in which 
I ftiee of all chafes for a period of about ten 
1, as a rule, all he had built, then reverted 

great progress bad been made, and it 
^CimiiiaH»», p. 733. 



is the belief of von Ihring' 

Bibylmia waafinl 
cStS^ Mtronomy, tgriculture, mi 

other utB, to the Nile valleys 
Egypt to the Western World, and tbiCH^^ Ii 
India. Id this generaliaation there is probabfym 
of truth, although it wiU be seen &itjier on thati 
of Egyptian culture is still far from being proved. vii,t9(7ai, 

One element the two peoples cotainly had: 
highly developed agiiailtural system, which 
of their greatness, and was maintained in a 
stupendous system of irrigation works. Such woifa 
out on a prodigious scale by the ancient BabyloDiaM^HKOMlllM 
thousand years ago. The plains of the Lower I 
Tigris, since rendered desolate under Turkish i 
sected by the remains of an intricate netwoA d t 
covering all the space between the two i 
with the ruins of many great cities, whose inhabitaiUi^ « 
scores of thousands, were supported by the produoe of 4^<ih 
cultivated r^on, which is now an arid waste vuicjd <*^ hj 
crumbling mounds, stagnant waters, and the CMnpiiifryBwdtfflf 
a few Arab tent-dwellers. . ^iiJi>>. ' 


Those who attach weight to distinctive ladal qmJitiw .jjtW 

always found a difficulty in attributing . tUi . ! ,) ■»; ■■ 

g^^U^i. derful civilisation to the same Mongolk) j 

who in their own homes have tcaxtdj i 

advanced beyond the hunting, fishing, or pastoral lUtea. .^t Jjt 

has always to be remembered that man, like all otbet f<jl9jii q4 

forms, necessarily reflects the character of his enTJurinp^tHi 

The Akkads, if Mongols, naturally became husbuidnctt^jl* ,dw 

alluvial MesopoUmian lands, while the kindred peqple nrh^ gbtt 

their name to the whole ethnical division and pica 

characters in an exaggerated form, still remain teptad b 

the dry Central Asiatic steppe, which yields littk but ) 

and is suitable for tillage only in a few more Avonred i 

' yergtichi^hli &c., Book ii. paitim, 
' Ga<hUlai BcAyhnUm u. At^ritm. 


iMemgplM, ctu off froin the arable lands of South 

1 and Altai ranges, and to some extent 

t-Ac. ddi flnnal valleyi of the Middle Kingdom 

B Gnu Wall, have for ages led a pastoral life 

I tncts and oases of the Gobi wilderness and 

fcHttkin Ae great bend of the Hoang-ho, During 

1 tttse natnni and artificial ramparts have been 

1 bjr fierce Mcmgol hordes, pourii^ Uke 

I over the whole of China and manjr parts 

f their predatory or conquering expedi- 

A4MM c^>en northern plains westwards nearly to 

• Atlantic. But such devastating torrents, which 

i and caused dislocations xniongit half the 

■ of the globe, had little effect on the tribal 

^_ d behind. These contintted and continue to 

AH^H^dbfe loripnal camping-grounds, as changeless and unifonn 
" ' d appeaiuice, mental characters, and social usages 

> bedouins and all other inhabitants of monotonous 

a that the typical Mongols of the plains, 
g, were originally a 
I^MK^ can scarcely be taken seriously, r^^'''^ 
a &Gt, throughout bistwic times, 
pet^les are and have been distinguished l^ 
It at bnchycephaiy, with cephalic index generally 
i and it may be remembered that the highest 
r any tudrfwrned skull was that of Huxley's 
But, as already noticed, those recovered from 
c kuigans, are found to be dolichocephalous 
c and early neolithic man in Europe. 
1 with the numerous prehistoric remains 
1 all parts of Central Asia and Siberia, this 
I help to bring de Ujfalvy's view into harmony 
I con^ons. Everything will be explained l^ 
I At pFoto-Mongolic tribes, spreading from the 
1 ova the plains now bearing their name, found 
f occiqiied by the long-headed Caucasic peoples 
D tbc7 either exterminated or drove north 



to the Altai upUn^ md east to ft 
strong Cancasic strain still pmirta. " 
would thus be, not the pioto-HongA -i 
headed, but the long-headed net^tUc^ 
hy them (rom McH^lla. 

That this region has been theii i 
Bttai=i«Hi nugration* from the sootl 
Here laud and people Mi 
one to the other ; here e 
feature recalls some popular memory 
associated vith the name of some nattooalnl 
stream is still woishipped or held in aweas^ 
the abode of the ancestral shades. Hoi 
proper fonn two main divisions, SJtarra in 
in the west, while a third group, the s 
have long been settled in the Siberian [ 
Trans-Baikalia. Under the Chinese semi4i 
an except the Buryats, who are Russian subj 
since the 17th century in 41 Aimalu ( 
principalities with hereditary khans) and 936 A 
that is, smaller groups whose chiefs are d 
of their respective Aimaks, who are themsd 
to the imperial government Sulijoined it • t 
ministrative divisions, which present a cuiioWr b 
bination of the tribal and political 1 
arrangement in Pondoland and some other 1 
Colony, where the hereditary tribal chief a 
a responsible British magistrate. 


Inner Mongolia with Ordos 
Ala -Shan 
Koko-nor and Tsaidam 

m > m il 


. 1 

B' ia AinuAj and Kpshungii the Mongob 
».Jb« a tBiror to the suirouDtUng peoples. The iti: 
i "htttteen' thett' tented warrion and the peaceful 
S^MMK^iltalMkiak, iriudt be^gli Jong before the dawn of bistoiyi 
■liiliiWliiHtiliiHii a doK with the overthrow of the Zangariau 
f s8A ccntniyi when theii political cohesion was 
Ik irikile nacion reduced to a sUfe of abject belp: 
li which they cannot now hope to recover. The 
e tnte conld be replaced only by the finner grip 
•C^dMrtnoAcm autoent, whose shadow ftlready lies athwart the 

^jUaat^te-onlj eacape from the crushing monotony of a 
I Sit, no longer relieved by intervals of warlilte 
f eacpeditions, lies in a survival of the old Sbamanist 
^or aAutba development of the d^radiog Tibetan - 
i«U.j.b,thejr»a.M«.,au ^^^^^^ 
a cf^ the Buddha only leas revered than 
dW<BaU:]^*Bai lumadf'. Besides this High Priest' at Uiga, 
Aai»)lM oVtr-K Imadred smaller incarnations — Client, as ibty 
MplwIM aiwl lllfiiii saindy beings possess unlimited means of 
Ikiriani^tbear votaries. The smallest &vour, the touch at their 
ytalriMilipin'* ejaculation <u blessing, isre^rded asa priceless 
llMfOtfegM^WMi miist be paid for with costly offerings. Ev^ 
ttk^4iftd^ J6:aot «Mi^ these exactions. However disposed o^ 
iffli0nikp)l^)K oonitted, like the khans and lamas, or exposed 
tf^t^jmHt-iMB t^ prey, as is the fate of the common foUc, 
|jlM|ippt^4^(icihl alto command a high price, have to be said for 
jlMpilllMtfefldi're their souls from the torments of the Buddhist 

r fact, which, however, may perhaps admit 

^ (hat nearly all the true Mongol peoples have 

: the spread of Sakya Muni's teachings 

'filtt Valait " Oc««n," u Juelf a Mongol woid, though 

*" ' Tlie expUn&tion is tlut in the ijth century ■ 

■I imbed by the then dominant Mongols to the 

et-JMht Lama, tbe " Ocun Frieit," U. Ibe Pricsftof 

tki(a«edci»oMofhb*acoe«Kmiii the i6ih centuiy. 



throughout Onttil AsU, while titm-TaiMfh 
followers of the ^oi^wt. Thus is ■ 

spectacle of two Mongolic groups, dwr'; 
branch and the Kalmuks of die V/ttt KaiOfoi^i 
side by side on the Lower Volga plaiDS, idtvfi 
the banner ot the Crescent, the latter deMlitil 
all the incarnations of Buddha, 
occur amongst the European peoples, the 1 
Protestants, those of neo-Latin speech i 
and the Easterns Orthodox. From all this,.] 
more can be inferred than that the religions are p«ll^>4Mlilll 
of geography, partly determined by radal 
political conditions; while the religious sentimei 
is above all local or ethnical considerations. ' /iui.^naif -14 

Under the first term of the expression MmgaU-nMlf ki t^i 
are comprised, besides the Mongob pTt^)er^ 1 
branches of the division which tie to the east ^i 
of Mongolia, and are in most respects mors dtmd^ Miiiniltit 
the Mongol than with the Turki section. Sttdi arstfc* J 
with the Idndred Manehus, Golds, Orochcnt, Laitmti, e 
of the Amur bssin, the Upper Lena 1 
affluents of the Yenisei, and the shores of the Be*' pt- G 
the Gifyakt about the Amur estuary and in the. i 
of Sakhalin; the KamchadaUs in South KamdMtfa^ ife <im 
extreme north-east the Koryaks, Chukekis, and K<tngiM'ff;Jfcllly 
the Kortans,/af attest, and Liu-Kiu (IM-Chu) Ititmtm. ■ !3E»J|tM 
Mongol section thus belong nearly all the peoptetlj 
the Yenisei and the Pacific (including most of die a 
pelagos), and between the Great Wall and die Arcti^^lllpMI} 
The only two exceptions are the Yakuts of the nudrHcwd Uwer 
Lena and neighbouring arctic rivers, who are of TutkaJsandQI^I^pd 
the Ainus of Yeio, South Sakhalin, and some of the KudteUwid^ 
who belong to the Caucastc division. 

A striking illustration of the general sutement dttt'ttevttrfain 
cultural states are a question not t£ tabSi^Mf'W 
environment', is afforded by the nt]^ui.9D^iu 
conditions of the wide-spread Tuvw ^tnH^«-jv)tP 
' EthHaltgy, p. 11 j. ■ ■■■■.'■->: ii^I'. ii- 




rlbp' Aicttc coM^ hnntetB in the Eatt Siberuii 
1 -far the nuMt part sedentary tillen of the wit 
B te die ridi aUnml vaDejn of the Amui and ita 
The RiuMan^ from whom we get the tenn 
S dieae various pursuits, and speak of Bene, 
, D^, Sttfft, and Fonst Tuoguses, besides the 
I atock-bneders of the Amur. Their original 
I- to have been the Sban-Atin up- 
I tbe7 dwelt with the kindred Niu-Cki t^*^"" 
n) tffi the 13th »ntUT7, when the disturb- 
MiWilM^t abont hy the wars and conquests of Jenghiz Khan 
OMM^-ittMa to their present seat in East Siberia. The type, 
dMHl^'^iwentially MongoUc in the somewhat fiat features, very 
"pioiiiBaHt dwek-bones, slant eyes, long lank hair, yellowish brown 
I to show admixture with a higher 
% Ae ih^Miy frame, the nimble, active figure, and quick, 
I, and especially in the variable skull. While 
1 (indkes 80* to 84*), the bead ia sometimes flat 
Vlik* d»t of the true Mongol, sometimeB high and short; 
K-Dr Hamy telb us, is ^>ecially characteristic of the 

'KmM the CUnoe T^nglku, " Eutern Bwbujtuu," or from the 

Miwit fir imU tfnia i§ Tingtai vtcari dixtrtmt 

ijgn, Aw'f^'i"- itii*)- Bat there it no collective utimud name, 

Sttsj. oil themielTci Don-Id, Beta, Bait, etc., temu all meuung 

In the Cbinete leconiU thef are referred to onder the 

as 163 A.D.I when the; dwelt in the fbreil r^on between 

and Y»la riven on the one hand end the Funik Ocean on 

tiftnte in kind — lable fan, l>owi, and stone arrow-headi, 

Mmwheada were tlM the tribote pud to the emperon of 

If66-Li54 B,c,} by the Su-skttt, who dwelt north of the 

■otbet we hare here official proof of a Stone Age of long 

Later, the Chinese chronicla mention the U-H or 

of the Snngari Talley and nlmnnding uplands, who 

the kingdom of J'u-iai, oTcrthrown in 919 b; the 

below its Nmi conflneDcei who were themielvei 

jtne Chinese antboritie* the direct anceiton of 

de la t(te i le d jvdopper en haateni, jnste en seni 
vertical dn MongoL La tfte dn Ture est done k 

.ptoeoarte^ {t'Amthrtftbgk, vi. 3, p. 8). 



All observen speak in < 

ment ind monl t 
psrtiiculaily of dioae- giwqw^ 
about the Tungudta I 
which take their name from theae daiug .Jn«ttq^i«l||iki|li|MM 

"Full of animatioi) and ii^uial impulB(^,alpi^ 

the deepest miseiy, holding themselves and- 

of gentle manners and- poetic speech, <rfiligillgLj»ilfc 


unaffectedly proud, scorning fidsdioodt and h 
and death, the Tungnses are unquestionaUjr an ft 
A few have been brought within the pafatOfetf 

Church, and in the extreme si 

as Buddhists. But the great t 
nation are stiU Shamanists. Indeed the vaj M 
Tungus origin, though current also amoogM 1 
Yakuts. It is often taken to be the equivklo^qCgiJMri^NbiM 
point of fact it represents a stage in the deirrloffwiyW,«fejHli|it 
religion which has scarcely yet readied the < 
" Although in many cases the shamans act a 
part in popular and family festivab, prayen, «ad-a 
chief importance is based on the performance of d 
distinguish them sharply from ordinary priests*." 
are threefold, those of the medicinc-maD (the iaec^ M 
supernatural means); of the soothsayer (die ] 
communion with the invisible world) ; and of the pailil^^ 
in his capacity as exorcist, and in his general poim'tB vpi 
control, or even coerce the good and eril i 
their votaries. But as all spirits are, or t 
lied with the souls of the departed, it follows that ii 
analysis Shamanism resolves itself into a form of ai 

The system, of which there are many phases t^^ibjtii^^flf 

different cultural states of its adherents, still '•- -—' " ■ ' ■ ' ■'a*' 

the Siberian aborigines, and generally amongst all 

Ural-Altaic populations, so that here again the 

reflect the social condition of the peoples. Tbok -CM^^MiMMilli 

' Reclus,vi.; Eng. ed. p. 360. . .' ■..'"i'' 

> V. M. Miktuilovikii, Skanamim in SOiria mU Mm^fmmtJIm^ 
TnnsUtcd by 0\\ya Wsrdrop, ymir. AMkr^ /tut, li9ttV-4t'''- -u^ -■ ■ 

llli|Wpl»<lff*^ i»(*n. 44 u wnplr nnw (raiMr «r )«» 
■KjiMllMk-ah* 9*ibmme» of th« dtUwc inpoMd oq^Omk. 

Ajjwkwiiy btta«tti tbe iMnbcn of itw cn^. 

iMi die good aacL dte bftd ■pJritiJnqMOlini^j 

MMulwg Itad, often ranbiBg in Iwic* 

Tbe Bui7>tt mU her the t«!9 fiKtiow 

lOlhn at p«at diataaeei* the ■traggW OMkUlr 

of one flf tbe combatants. The bbtclUi wbo 

[jfUM^ Mi«BW ooly dueau^.dealb, or iSi-imk^ aqd 

bf Mtlng up then sooli^ txt of eoiine tbe 

•In Ae noit dneded. Huji are qstdtted ' 

uA CMcn «inculot» powen, aod tbere cso be 

-ifttnttiy to Aetrieputatioe by pcrfmnuig 

4i^nS tii(^ in order b> inpOK on tbe 

or outbid their rtnli far the p«bUc 

JcAmcu of Chanoelour'a e]q>edUioa to 

Iwto. he aw a Suaoytd Bhanian itab himNlf 

the nroid red bot and thrust it titfough 

feint protruded at the beck, and J<ADaoD: 

lidl hii finger; They then bound the wiaord 

and vent through khbo peiCarmances 

'i^ tbe Devcapoit Brotben and Other nraden 

qveation whether the sbamaas are 
hai peth^M been given by Cartrto, 



who, speaking of the same Samoyad magicians, remarks that if 
they were merely cheats, we should have to suppose that they did 
not share the religious beliefs of their fellow-tribesmen, but were 
a sort of rationalists far in advance of the times. Hence it would 
seem much more probable that they deceived both themselves 
and others*, while no doubt many bolster up a waning reputation 
by playing the mountebank where there is no danger of detection. 
*' Shamanism amongst the Siberian peoples,'' concludes our 
Russian authority, *' is at the present time in a moribund condi- 
tion ; it must die out with those beliefs among which alone such 
phenomena can arise and flourish. Buddhism on the one hand, 
and Muhammadanism on the other, not to mention Christianity, 
are rapidly destroying the old ideas of the tribes among whom 
the shamans performed. Especially has the more ancient Black 
Faith suffered from the Yellow Faith preached by the lamas. But 
the shamans, with their dark mysterious rites, have made a good 
struggle for life, and are still frequently found among the native 
Christians and Muhammadans. The mullahs and lamas have 
even been obliged to become shamans to a great extent, and 
many Siberian tribes, who are nominally Christians, believe in the 
shamans, and have recourse to them." 

Of all members of the Tungusic family the Manchus alone 

can be called a historical people. If they were 
Manchus. fcally descended from the Khiians of the Sungari 

Aralley, then their authentic records will date from 
the loth century a.d., when these renowned warriors, after over- 
throwing the Pu-hai (925), founded the Liao dynasty and reduced 
a great part of north China and surrounding lands. The Khitans, 
from whom China was known to Marco Polo as Khitai (Cathay), 
as it still is to the Russians, were conquered in 11 25 by the Niu- 
chi ( Yu-chiy Nu-chin) of the Shan-alin uplands, reputed cradle of 
oriKins and ^^ Manchu racc. These Niu-chi, direct ancestors 
Early of the Manchu, founded (11 15) the State known as 

that of the " Golden Tartars," from Kin, " gold," 
the title adopted by their chief Aguta, " because iron (in reference 
to the LiaOy 'Iron' dynasty) may rust, but gold remains ever 

^ Quoted by Mikhailovskii, p. 144. 

fm»maa»um noHoouk 


V^ffFliiaMwudt&djmu^, fot it nwin h^tjam 

Sinfftim wm of >bii, 

1 the pdindet a f«eUe imtMiiH) at tbc 

Kiflf whlsh atill oitt. lliiMM^ ft atiU. BKc* 

i^flfAlha fiunily, gmtlr axteadod ^ MinctM 

10)^ ud it wai bit ion TftKbnag who ink 

il'djgBi^ onder the title of Tai-THi^ , A^ 

i^iiOa^^uutf having bees ove tth n w re. by ,».«fc<l 

t'.itiio JBvited by the uapemliita to aid in 

■jMrad Fduv ID bium^ ftnd, finding that the 

i'hftd committed saicide, placed Tai-dinng's 

)) thu fonndiDg the still teigntng ^■*"^b 

ittntidiMit iha niddk of.tbe't4t^ MBtairitlttt 
^oav wd*f Airiw><aiow^-iAff,^Mthe!i||| 

Ae contribatton of the Mancha people to 

art*, letten, icience, in a word, to 

of aaankind, have been mH, They found the 

mita- agetof a sluggiih growth, in a state of 

they have left it. On the other 

of the imperial adminiitration has brought 

-ini^ their effitcemen^ and almoet their veiy 

<^»nitB MBtionality. Manchuria, like MtHigoUa, 

of half military, half civil divirions, the 

Bight Banners," and the constant demand 

to support the dynasty and supply tnist- 

all the strongholds of the empire, has drawn 

the people, in fact sapped its vitality at the ; 

the rich arable tracts thus depleted were 

'fa^ apicuhiiral settlers from the south, with 

'ilknchu race has nearly disappeared. From 

the whole r^jion beyond the Great Wall 

i^nnr has practically become an integral 

from the political standpoint since 1898 an 



iMMipnl put of ttM BwtrfiH wfiWtJ 
19A tsntay At Hgbt Bium 
quarter of* oaUlioa, ■advbcMt'dMt'i 
IhM "Oie Mtndm nttkmalitjri* 
prfesmit we shall look is mn fiM a 
tlaoD^KRit Manchoria wludi ii sol - 
Chinese. The local oriour hai bacn 
except a few nomad groaps nobodjr tpkAmt 

Kmilat testksony is ailbrdad bf 
R«T. Henry Lansddl, amongM often,' 
durii^ the two centuries th^ hare reigned Smi 
to have been woiktog out tb^ own 
language! thor veiy country has 
maintain that the Manchu proper am 

But the type, so hi from being extnoit 

have recdved a coni 


amongst the popubtions of 
taller stature and greatly superior jAtynai 
inhabitants of Tien-tsin and surrounding 
of the southern provinces (Fokien, Kwaiig-bnig)^ 
chief repiesentatives of the Chinese laoc 
explained by continual crossings with the 
people, at least since the isth century, if not cartuBfi.,]!" 
Closely related to the Manchus (of the 
Tiw Daufi Howorth, the distinction being 
the Dauri, who give 
Daur plateau, and formerly occupied boft aidii<^4tt|k 

' StKotmin iFun vtfagi dans la Tartaru, l8j3, Ii 

* Threap Sibtria, 1881, Vol. Ii. p. 171. 

* European visiton often notice with' surprite Ae fiiH 
nttivM, miuy of whom avenge nearl]' six iect ia k^iM, 
exliBordinaiy disparity between the two lexM, peri 
other connCry. The much smaller statue uid faaUMr 
women is no doubt due to (he detestable cu«tom of ct^ipttl^ltefcl 
bood, tbereby depriving them of luitural exerdae dnrii^ tit* diAi< i 
It may be noted that an anti-foot-bindaging morenMBt ti BRr J( 
throughout China, Ibe abject being to abolidi the c 
the la» tittt ("golden lilies") un&shionable, and the if « 
feet," — i.t. the natural — popular in thdr ttead. _, "tAJ «\ 


MbmiL The bom it ndwr fMOMml, 

I tMMBj, «nd Ot hair 

<f "Ane-cbMactcimBtBcbaswe ihoaldflsqMGt 

«f ■uxedKoogirio'CMKuic deaomtt, th* Umr 

A|fMbfi(«i dM loo^iiMded tac* friio h«d tliCB^ 

Maochnrii, Kara, uid-dN: adJMOat 

lOduG tinei. Thui bmjt be t^tteined th* «iU 

fettsrei, bnnro heirt li{^ OfM, aad CfOB 

M often obeerved amongst the preeuu nUiabit* 

and pert! of North dina. 

ew^t of Chinew ]xmaif tenm, ia ican ta 

iriuch, like M<Migolic, ia a 

the aggjntbatiiig Uml-Altaic 

diCEereBces, lexical, phonetic, 

aO the members of thii widespread coder 

in onBmoo a nnmber of Amdamental featarei; 

MMmptiNi that all spring from an wi^pnal stock 

haa long been extinct, and the germs of iriiidi 

iped m the Tibetan platean. The 

tfw system are : — (i) a *' root ' or notioDal 

dosed sellable, nominal or verbal, with a vowd 

eak (hard or soft) according to die meaih 

incapaUe trf' change; (a) a nnmbei of 

terms somewhat loosely pos^xed to the 

with it by the prindple of (3) vowd 

Dt vocal concordance, in virtue of iriiich the 

muM harmonise with the undiangeable 

Is strong all the following vowels of the 

what its lengdi, must be strong ; if weak 

II. p. 17*. 

Wluito^ M tfatf tht mtMbAm t 
MdiJeGt and obieet are all iaooqiamtad I 
itadC wfaidi my dm ran at tiiBi 
we bare the espmnoB "uicorpoiMiaf,' • 
HShitinatiiig qntetn, wliidi Kmedncs gsaW^i 
' ih9 notioni of camality, powibtli^, | 
eolidition, and so on, boidea the ^fincT-y 
one intenninable cong^omenue,- wfaidi k tbcB'S 
veri), and nin through all ibe teeoaiufi 
penon, tenie, and mood. The rerah ia air • 
theoretically posaible verbal fenns, irincfa,-! 
natuialljr limited to the ordinary requiremew* «f 1^ 
too numeroui to allow of a complete TeriMl'q 
conitructed of any fiilly developed member tfM 
group, such, for initance, ai Yakut, Tungua, IMM^^ 
Finniih, or Magyar. 

Id this ayttem the vowels are classed as taoti^itl % 
weak or soft (the same umiauied: d, 6, fiX **^ ' 
t, i), these last being so called becanse they c 
with the two other classes. Thus, if the ti 
is a (strong), that of the postfixes may be either m ^ 
(neutral); if a (weak), that of the postfixes may be «' 
or e or / as before. The postfixes themaelvea aO'l 
originally notional terms worn down in fonn and n 
express mere abstract relation, as in the Magyar t 
iM/t = companion. Tacked on to the mc^/a^^trnt, tl 
the ablative case, first unharmonised: fit^oU^ tbga t 
/i-w»/ = tree-with, with a tree. In the early 1 
tsth century inharmonic compounds, such as ktlU^it^ IfHV 
haidi-nak - at death, are numerous, from which it hM huankftKBItA 
that the principle of vowel harmony is not an c ' ' ~ 
the Ural-Altaic languages, but a later development dnt^n 
phonetic decay, and still scarcely known in sune a 

group, such as Votyak and Highland CheremisaiaB ^(l^ti^'^ 

But M. Lucien Adam holds that these idioms have laaL^lAjHM^i^ 





KtM^nbtt and) altet— tioiw bemg dwudvw-Alt 

i^of a«ir cnnKMUOMt "CiAanOr tta 

c mctM iuntriM ft twoMd eqpflriraoB,«f . 

C(4nriav tiw aboMlMit jamiBcr pn«id«Jbc 

|.wb« littl* out be daoe. Their c b a w ttCKt 

m-maltiag ooiBbiafttioa of iBtentihtetit indaleiKs and 

"fcwqr^wnrirahlf tbM tfik da ti aqikniofwm n 

ftlM^pigw qmkes origbudly when dut pett dif- 

ter The fcct tint the dirtJxaioii pbkwaap 

itad to ell the nffizM of « root ^orei AU 

e «4uch it expr eut t ii ttioaght with Hum ; 

rHiU the ndiotl idee ii Ktuoed in die am* 

B «* edded to it'." 

tDce of the method* followed 

I hot htqieletB attempt to eipUin 

a^ ap e ccb bjr the itill moie subtle tenqMraamt 

S'ia coaiwction with the altenutiiig netoie of 

fc.fntuM in question cuinot be due to such 

1 end cUnete, because it is penirtent tloou^ 

s the hard and soft elements occur pmultfr- 

t- si^i pFOmiscuously, in convenation noder all 

1 is i^ven by Scbleicber, who points oat 
1 the necessaiy result <d 

i t^HUu 4mu l*t Langim Uml#-AttMpm, 1B74, p. 

'*,ffAt Stntdtirt tf (M^nagi, 18S5, Vol. i. p. 31(7. 
Ij ridkd opon if that tflindcd b; the Vikntie, ■ pure 
" in in dw T^ira of ertremert beu ud coM (Middle 
^■■d In wUch Ibc prindirfe ti pngretsive "-"^■hrr 



agglutination, which by this means binds together the idea and 
its relations in their outward expression, just as they are already 
inseparately associated in the mind of the speaker. Hence it is 
that such assonance is not confined to the Ural-Altaic group, 
analogous processes occurring at certain stages of their growth in 
all forms of speech, as in Wolof, Zulu-Xosa, Keltic (expressed by 
the formula of Irish grammarians : " broad to broad, slender to 
slender "), and even in Latin, as in such vocalic concordance as : 
annuSf perennis ; ars, iners ; lego, diligo. In these examples the 
root vowel is influenced by that of the prefix, while in the 
Mongolo-Turki family the root vowel, coming first, is unchange- 
able, but, as explained, influences the vowels of the postfixes, the 
phonetic principle being the same in both systems. 

Both Mongol and Manchu are cultivated languages, employ- 
Mon oiand ^"^ modified forms of the Uiguric (Turki) script, 
Manchu which is based on the Syriac introduced by the 

^ * Christian (Nestorian) missionaries in the 7th cen- 

tury. It was first adopted by the Mongols about 1280, and 
perfected by the scribe Tsorji Osir under Jenezek Khan (1307- 
131 1 ). The letters, connected together by continuous strokes, 
and slightly modified, as in Syriac, according to their position at 
the beginning, middle, or end of the word, are disposed in ver- 
tical columns froni left to right, an arrangement due no doubt to 
Chinese influence. This is the more probable since the Manchus, 
before the introduction of the Mongol system in the i6th century, 
employed the Chinese characters ever since the time of the Kin 

None of the other Tungusic or north-east Siberian peoples 

possess any writing system except the Yukaghirs of 
Yukaghira. ^^ Yasachnaya affluent of the Kolyma river, who 

were visited in 1892 by the Russian traveller, 
S. Shargorodsky. From his report^, it appears that this symbolic 
writing is carved with a sharp knife out of soft fresh birch-bark, 
these simple materials sufllicing to describe the tracks followed on 
hunting and fishing expeditions, as well as the sentiments of the 
young women in their correspondence with their sweethearts. 

^ Explained and illustrated by General Krahmer in Globus^ 1896, p. 308 sq. 


Specimens are given of these curious documents, some of which 
are touching and even pathetic. ** Thou goest hence, and I bide 
alone, for thy sake still to weep and moan," writes one discon- 
solate maiden to her parting lover. Another with a touch of 
jealousy: ''Thou goest forth thy Russian flame to seek, who 
stands 'twixt thee and me, thy heart from me apart to keep. In 
a new home joy wilt thou find, while I must ever grieve, as thee 
I bear in mind, though another yet there be who loveth me." 
Or again : *' Each youth his mate doth find ; my fate alone it is 
of him to dream, who to another wedded is, and I must fain 
contented be, if only he forget not me." And with a note of 
wail : " Thou hast gone hence, and of late it seems this place for 
me is desolate ; and I too forth must fare, that so the memories 
old I may 'forget, and from the pangs thus dee of those bright 
days, which here I once enjoyed with thee." 

Details of domestic life may even be given, and one accom- 
plished maiden is able to make a record in her note-book of the 
combs, shawls, needles, thimble, cake of soap, lollipops, skeins of 
wool, and other sundries, which she has received from a Yakut 
packman, in exchange for some clothes she has made him. 
Without illustrations no description of the process would be 
intelligible. Indeed it would seem these primitive documents 
are not always understood by the young folks themselves. They 
gather at times in groups to watch the process of composition by 
some expert damsel, the village " notary," and much merriment, 
we are told, is caused by the blunders of those who fail to read 
the text aright. 

It is not stated whether the system is current amongst the 
other Yukaghir tribes, who dwell on the banks of the Indigirka, 
Yana, Kerkodona, and neighbouring districts. They thus skirt 
the Frozen Ocean from near the Lena delta to and beyond the 
Kolyma, and are conterminous landwards with the Yakuts on the 
south-west and the Chukchi on the north-east. With the Chukchi, 
the Koryaks, the Kamchadales, and the Gilyaks they form a 
separate branch of the Mongolic division sometimes grouped 
together as " Hyperboreans," but distinguished from other Ural- 
Altaic peoples perhaps strictly on linguistic grounds. Although 
now reduced to scarcely 1500, the Yukaghirs were formerly a 

At budn of th« Kotjm* at «M, 

giett teixNub have beea made bg>< 
excenm ue of coane Uknine 
mddfed in ev«n by the woomb 
it it Mid, never intoxica 
fumif to sbwe the drink, eves chSdmnji^b; 
wiA a iKBtioo'." Thdr lingiiiy, i^ttk< 
n radically distinct frtun all odMn*, i* 
rapidly than the people tbemKlvct, if it bfi 
tincL In the eightiei it was tpokea only 
persons, its place being taken almost 
dialect <tf the Yakuts. 

There appears to be a cuiious inl 

between the Chukchi and their 
^''^^. the term JTofyaJt bebig the 

"Reindeer," while the Kotyaka 
themselves Ciauchau, whence some derive thci 
Hooper, however, tdls us that the proper tofm. 
TluJti, "Brothers," or "Confederates*," and. jn; 
point is of little consequence, as Dittmtr is.; 
regarding both groups as closely related, and 
from one stock*. Jointly they occupy the 
of the continent between the Kolyma and Betiqg 
with the northern parts of Kamchatka; the Cbukdki 
north, the Koryaks to the south, mainly round al 
eastern inlets of the Sea of Okhotsk. ReaKms hn^i 
advanced for supposing that the Chukchi 
who came originally from the Amur boain. . Xl^- 
homes they appear to have waged long waif wtf^; 
(Ang-kali) aborigines, gradually merging with dm,. 

' Ijuiidell, I. p. 199. 

■ Uiier die Sprache dtr yukagii 
!I95 »q- 

■ Tm Mimtht amimg tki Tenfi oftht Ttttki. 
* tMfr dii Koriaitti u. ihnm naht 

Sc. St Petenburg, xil. p. 99. 

it» «11 ^«M p«^w 4ie^itiyel«fKl,iB.4«^ 
:MM9 coaMct ti»«o» wilbUw , ^^^.^ 
ib^cAen Otvyhnn been - ^^m^ ,,,. 
iHBftodwEtkimoduket ''I"* ,- 
ftkrlheiA. Bat this"d»lact"»OBl):fttmltng 
"l^dginEAimo" current oU round the com^ 
C Chokcfati lanoit, Koryik, En^ub, and even 
^ WU^cd togftther in vuying propoitions. Tlie 
, of whkb NordemUdld collected looa 
ii^jdiatinct fton Eikimo, and piobabfy tkin to 
^(0if:8mt^lk mBpkm aptly renuukt that " thia no^ 
1 mue between the Old and Nor Worid, 
i itaaap (rf the Mongoli at Ana and tike 
a of Anmica." He wis much itnu^ bf the 
k of tbe Chukchi we^MMu and household uteniilt 
1 Eskimo, while Signe Rink shows that 
la bare been difiiued amongst the populations 
t Barkig Strut*. Such common elements, how- 
e for radal affinit]r, which seems excluded by the 
t shape of the Chukchi skull, as compared with 

But the type varies 
h CBongst the so-called " Fishing t^SniSw 

r pi»masent stations aloug 
i the " Rdndeer Chukchi," who roam the inland 
r campinfffroundB with the seasons. There 
» dueft, and little deference is paid to the 
fri^ owner of the latest reindeer herds, oa 
B faate contared the title of Jtrtma, regardiiw 
1^ of die Chukchi nation, and holding hhn r^ 
It conduct of his rude subjects. Although 
I Aey coatiBue to sacrifice animals to the 

il,^ Mm*, p. 39t, who Mji the Chabchi are "u cloiely 
iMMdi M «n Spsaludi to PonugucK." 
,VoL«|,i8ro,p. 138. 
Ehf>, M BMma FbUfiak, Amtr. AntMrtfititgitt, 



lUHr VAgtMKB4 

tfl w M tt Bc riven ibd nonrtnHji'i 

ritM. Thejr beUeve in n iA«r Sfc^ tmi 

vMcBt death. Hence the n 

lAaA dw bopdeMly infirm and the »gti^ 

cotnei, to be detpatdied by tbeir ltiMMh,Ai'i 

tribal cuitcnn of imiAnl, vdiid) rtill I 

die Chukchi, ai amongtt the Ssmaltan Bi 

vailed even amongat our Arjrao ftaefiribai. 

"The doomed one," writes Mr Har^ M" 
Hvdjr interest in the proceedings, and often m^tH0IS^ 
tion for his own death. The executioa is . 
feast, where seal and walrus meat are 
whisky consumed till all are intoxicated, 
of singing and the muffled roll of walrus-hide < 
the fatal moment At a given signal a riB| ll^ 
relations and friends, the entire settlement 
background The executioner (usually the vie 
then steps forward, and placing his right foot 
the condemned, slowly strangles htm to deiAh 
thong. A kamitok took place during the lai 

This traveller also fully confirms prevtons 
indescribable moral and bodily filth in which 
aborigines are content to welter through 
who care for such nauseous details must be 
just quoted 

Most recent observers have come to look up 
and Koryaks as essentially ooe 
xlSdb^S* people, the chief difference being th 
if possible even more d^raded riw 
neighbours*. Like them they are classed as 
folk or nomad reindeer-owners, the latter, who 
Tumugulu, "Wanderers," roaming chiefly 
Bay and the Anadyr river. Through them the ChobcU 

I their !!«■«.* d 

■ Through Ihe Gold FulJi of Alaska to BtringSlrmU, ilfS. . ' t f -<*. 

■ Thu, however, applies only to Ihe fiiMoK Korfib, fm U^^■MM■ 
■peBki highly of the domeatic virtuo, hoipitilitr, and otk« yil""-^pHM|fc Of 
the DOmid groupi [Tmt Lift in Siberia, iSji). ■ ■ . ^-^iUlKt . 



B.feiMrr iriMM tbar an nOtr tH/iif CMlcak: 

r ArZldBiM analMAdy RoMified hufwrhiwl 

itlwM' liyttfgkm; but ib^ itiD tecnt^ iMawfatt 

^ to pnqjitiiue the malentatt bdi^ iriifttfirav: 

B Wif oftitdi buntbg and ftAbg «ipcditiaaK, Y<t 

■pcndt OD didr caaine uaocwtw, wbo Mtt 

■h biMd, imncd to bntiger and hardi^Wt 


t tiolh from all ilieas Hyperboreans and from 

^^ the Orodions, Goldi^ Maaegn and 

p IMaple^ are the Gifyakt, ktnavAf ^*' '**'"'^ 

r DOW confined to the Amur ddta uid tiM 

jtterta of S^haKB. Some obienren have conMcted dwia 

ipffUpi' mkI tb* Kcman ab<»igines, while Dr A. AnuchiD 

I i y p aa a Mongtrioid with sparse beard, high cheek- 

lt4Mi tec, and a Caucadc with tnuhy beard and more 

. Tbe latter traits have been attributed tO' 

t but, as conjccttved by H. von Siebold, are 

H 80 a Aindamental conaectioD with their Ainu 

^Ati (M^aks take a low position— Mr Lansddl 
pSotntt of any people he had met ia Sibetia*. 
t of Ac RaasiiD missionaries, and the indoccneats 
(iUd) tbey remain obdumte Sbamanists, and even 
"if one &lls into the water the odiers will not 
a tbe plea that they would thus be opposing 
f wbo wilk that he should perish... .The soul of 
I to pass at death into his &vourite dog, 
f fied with choice food; and when the spirit 
t bf the shamann out of the dog, tbe animal 
B naster'a grave. Tbe soul is then represented 
I, limited and guided by its own sun and 

r. itU. £r. XX. Siip{demeiit. Moacow, l87^ 

t AcaliditEeit in Spiache, G«*ichtsUlduiig und S 
■ " [CM«r4!bj<M0, Berlin, iSSi, p. it). 

Huf: nuxi«»4 

moon, tnd comiiwiBg to lead I 
MB* mianer of life lad p«Mit»M« 

A qwcnHQr of dw Gi^ak^ M ««&4a4l 
■■ tht fidi-ikiii CMtome, madefimn At Msifiai 
And ftom itaa all tbew aboiigiBei u* 1 
}V*ii«!f^ "Fish-flkiiKkd Peopte." 
dezterfty, and by. beatii^ with a malltt r 
render it supple. Clothes duu made awii 
tiavdling-bag, and even the sail (rf a boat, ■ 
Like the Ainu, the Gilyaks may be e 
At leait this animal is supposed to be « 
althou^ they entnare him in winter, ke^ ll 
and when well fattened tear him to pieces, d 
remains with much feasting and jubilatioa. 
Since the opening up of Korea, som« 

thrown uponi the origins and ( 
g^„^ its present inhabitants. In his i 

Yellow Races* Dr Hamy bad ii 
Mongol division, but not without reserve^ i 
«ome might be taken for Tibetans, othen bxft I 
cross; hence the contradictory reports and t 
travellers." Since then the study of sane i 
Paris has enabled him to clear up some of liie« 
obviously due to intemiinglings of di&rent fli 
remote (neolithic) times. On the data sopf 
Hamy classes the Koreans in three groups: — 1. 1 
northern provinces (Ping-ngan-tao and Hien-k 

like their Mongol [Tungus] t 
su^Sf of 'lie Southern provinces <K 

Thsiusan-lo-tao), descendants (tf tl 
hans and Pien-hans, showing Japanese affinities; 
inner provinces (Hoang-hae-tao and Ching-ti 
A transitional form between the northerns and a 
their physical type and geographical position*. 

t Tkrffugh SiUria, ii. p. 135. 

» tbid. p. J J I, 

■ L'Anthivpelagie, VI. No. 3. 

* Bui. du Muifum (tHiit. Nat. 1896, No. 4. AH thill 


On the whole he considers that, as at present constituted, 
leir affinities are less with the Continental than with the Oceanic 
[ongols, meaning by this expression Lesson's **Pelasgo-Mongols," 
lat is, both the Malayan and the Polynesian groups of the 
•ceanic peoples. As the true Polynesians, />. the Indonesians, 
elong physically to the Caucasic division, Hamy's view accords 
iry well with the now established fact that Caucasic features — 
ght eyes, large nose, hair often brown, full beard, fair and even 
hite skin, tall stature — are conspicuous, especially amongst the 
pper classes and many of the southern Koreans ^ The round 
•rm of Dr Hamy's skulls no longer presents any difficulty, 
nee multitudes of other Caucasic peoples — the Slavs, the South 
ermans, the Swiss and Tyrol ese for instance — are also charac- 
rised by distinctly round heads ; and if it be said that this is 
le to mixture in the West, the same cause applies with equal 
rce in the East, where the Koreans are now shown to be a mixed 
ce, the Mongol element dominating in the north, as might be 
;pected, and the Caucasic in the south. 
These conclusions seem to be confirmed by what is known 
the early movements, migrations, and dis- Korean 
acements of the populations in North-east Asia origins and 
»out the dawn of history. In these vicissitudes 
e Koreans, as they are now called', appear to have first taken 

sub-brachy, varying from 81 to 83*8 and 84*8. The author remarks 
nerally that '*photographes et cranes different, du tout au tout, des choses 
nilaires venues jusqu'^ present de Mongolie et de Chine, et font plut6t 
inset au Japon, k Formose, et d'une mani^re plus g^n^rale k ce vasle 
isemble de peuples maritimes que Lesson d^signait jadis sous le nom de 
Vlongols-p^lasgiens "* p. 3. 

^ On this juxtaposition of the yellow and blond types in Korea V. de Saint- 
[artin's language is highly significative: *'Cette duality de type, un type 
'ut k fait caucasique k cM du type mongol, est un fait commun k toute la 
-inture d*lles qui couvre les c6tes orientales de TAsie, depuis les Kouriles 
squ'k Formose, et meme jusqu'^ la zone orientale de I'lndo-Chine " (Ar/. 
^it, p. 800). 

' From Koraii in Japanese Kome (Chinese Kaoli), name of a petty state, 
*^ch enjoyed political predominance in the peninsula for about 500 years 
^th to 14th century A.D.). An older designation still in official use is 
^'sien, that is, the Chinese Chao-sien, " Bright Dawn " (Klaproth, Asia 
(y^lotta, p. 334 sq.). 


part in the 12th century B.C., when the peninsula was already 
occupied, as it still is, by Mongols, the Sim-pi^ in the north, and 
in the south by several branches of the Hans (San-San), of whom 
it is recorded that they spoke a language unintelligible to the 
Sien-pi, and resembled the Japanese in appearance, manners, and 
customs. From this it may be inferred that the Hans were the 
true aborigines, probably direct descendants of the Caucasic 
peoples of the New Stone Age, while the Sien-pi were Mongolic 
(Tungusic) intruders from the present Manchuria. For some 
time these Sien-pi played a leading part in the political convul- 
sions prior and subsequent to the erection of the Great Wall by 
Shih Hwang Ti, founder of the Tsin dynasty (221-209 B.C.)*. 
Soon after the completion of this barrier, the Biung-nu^ no longer 
able to scour the fertile plains of the Middle Kingdom, turned 
their arms against the neighbouring Yui-chi, whom they drove 
westwards to the Zungarian valleys. Here they were soon dis- 
placed by the Usuns (Wu-sun), a fair, blue-eyed people of 
unknown origin, who have been called "Aryans," and even 
"Teutons," and whom Ch. de Ujfalvy identifies with the tall 
long-headed western blonds (de Lapouge's Homo Europ<tus\ 
mixed with brown round-headed hordes of white complexion*. 

^ This stupendous work, on which about 1 ,000,000 hands are said to have 
been engaged for five years, possesses great ethnical as well as political import- 
ance. Running for over 1500 miles across hills, valleys, and rivers along the 
northern frontier of China proper, it long arrested the southern movements of 
the restless Mongolo-Turki hordes, and thus gave a westerly direction to their 
incursions many centuries before the great invasions of Jenghiz-Khan and his 
successors. It is strange to reflect that the ethnological relations were thus 
profoundly disturbed throughout the eastern hemisphere by the work of a 
ruthless despot who reigned only twelve years, and in that time waged war 
against all the best traditions of the empire, destroying the books of Confucius 
and the other sages, and burying alive 460 men of letters for their efforts to 
rescue those writings from total extinction. 

' Les Aryens au Nord et au Sud dt t Hindou-Kotuh, 1896, p. 35. This 
writer does not think that the Usuns should be identified with the tall race of 
horse-like face, large nose, and deep-set eyes mentioned in the early Chinese 
records, because no reference is made to '*blue eyes,*' which would not have 
been omitted had they existed. But, if I remember, *' green eyes** are spoken 
of, and we know that none of the early writers use colour terms with strict 



LiiT:.'.- •, ^ - 

* i ' -i ii*i i 

- --«:^^j 


^iiWMit • -i fffffi iiitiit iitt>;iioir iitaeii» .mil^iiiiM^: 
im^lSb» ma^ fim ^ifaitie doouaifinli dfiHiiK 

)»)iridk a&: Ae €Dmdi«ed ciiamclei% eAjad tiyiftid 
llNb oMitteiioiisfy nefened to iii' thoie docuieiiti. 
^MMiiliOftr Itt - Stit' CMtiBtl AuiL iiiw*JwBffig ' MaiiciMQift 
["fli^ktf 'tfqWiicd ? Oidf on two •flMmplioiis-*-^y«Ah 
non tno J?8r wcsf^ daivm oyVM pioio-iiiitofic 

Qiiiil^Widl;€^isiarU (fleolithic)r mifmtioii% 
]|^ W«ri^ bn^tened by no terious obtttdei btcMM 
>:$l^0f^-'metml- of die piolo-Moiigdie bribes inm tte 
The true lolotioo.of tibe emUeas olbnkri 
in Ao estoeme Eas^ as in tbe Oceanic voildf wffl 
ill liie oioiiHiemoiiitiated presence of a Cancasic 

to tbe Mongol in those regions. 

JikmgHntt^ power was weakened by tbeir westorfy 

fngaiia ond Soutli-vest Sbeiia (Upper Irtish and 

di^rassiofi)* and broken into two sectkms during 

Hut two Han dynasties (soi B.a-*-*sso a«d.)^ the 

became the doomant nation nordi of the GniBt 

the last vestiges of the unstable Hiung-nn 

the Moagolo-Tttrki hoides still westwards, 

Wiest poweiful of all the Sien^pi tribes, remained 


it deiifmUe to tooch on the intenninable controveny 
rdsiioiit of the Hintig^im, rqpuding them, not «s a 
; iMt like dto Htoi, thdr Uter western repieientsthres, 
'^Mtediofi of Mongol, Ttmgus, Tnld, and periiaps even 
^fi Momjol nilituy caste. At the same thne 1 have little 
dements gfeatly predominated in the eastern 
r, Mandnuria) both amongst the Hiang-nn and 
•secessofS, aind that all the founders of the first great 
^IhUki Assena in the Altai region ((^ centnry a,d.) 
indeed tecognised byJenghiz-Khan himself. Thb 
^iSIr H. H. Howorth, who returned to the subject at the 
Leyden, iSS$ (AeUt^ Part nr, p. 177-95). 


?.><„. ^, 


masters of East Central Asia for about 400 years and then dis^ 
jppeared from history', At least after the 6th century A.r>. no 
'JBirther nieniion is made of the Sien-pi principalities eiilitr in 
Uaocboha or in Kanm> Mnnf i 
lenu a dominant denicnt m-Ai^i 
otlling- themsdTes Ghim {JOaaml^ii 
vmltey of At Amor, wheie tbcf c 
&ice thoK days Korea ha* I 
Mid a pronnce c^ tbe Middle ] 
Japanese aacendanqr, intempted coljr fa^fli 
Kond ascendancy (934 — 1368). 
tpoch in the national rectmls, iriiea 1 
^an the vassal of China, aJDd when tnuk^'U 
especially porcelain and bronse woifct I 
But by centuries of subsequent tdsmle, « | 
excellent natural qualities have been t 
of d^radation. Before the refonns i 
events of 1895-96, "the country m 
is not only that abuses without number pntilUljfll 
system of government was an abuse, a SMB ~ 
out a bottom or a shmre, an engine of i 
life out of all industry'." But An impro 
ceptible. "The air of the men has undogoMv 
change, and the women, though they i 
habits by seclusion, have lost the hang-dog air m 
them at home. "Hie alacrity of movement itai-it 
has replaced tbe conceited swing of the yanfian \i 

' On the amlhorit; at Ihe Wei-Shn docnmeDt* o 
Mr E. M. Paikei gives (in the CAina Uttiuvr ami A 1 
Tartars, Shanghu, 1895) the datei 386-596 A.D. * 
"Sien-[H Tartar dynasty of Wet." Thii it not to 
dyoaity of Wei (114-164. 01 according to Kwoi^ Ki-C|ia 4 
The term "Tartar" (Ta.Ta), it maybe explainBd, ia Ma<>A 
well BE by the Chinese historians generally, ii 
indade all the nomad populations north of the Gvcat WalbWJ 
(Uanchu), Mongol, or even TnAi stock. . Tbe (h 
were Mongols, and Jenghii-KhaD himaelf was a TUa-fl 
{ElA. p. 303). i 

' * Hn Bishop, Xbrta atij fftr ^tigiieirr, tSgA, . i,ri i^M 

k^OriMa Mib M Am in As Wnaga alo^ 

w4» i l M —fc i 'lMit ha Mtnr IpM vvduiqb ud hit 
iPl««»tlMMl toxland, fix gBomt iupMiioa. mi 

ihi* jw tin l a n torttoped d 

fi look) BK«, ftad wiuh dtt 
d;yih'dM moai pieccpis of CMfcriM»,l>c 
» ttw ia.«-M»tc of ccHB{)letc nligK>M;iodi8^ 
' |l l» Ac ^lirita of tbe foieats md 
HAm « i>>atLdna'» F««t," when lA put «| 
Itoh^A nviiiiKraGo of BttddUm. 8«il, tb* 
litb^Wl^ q|r in the world oittHdc Kona lAich 
< divdi of aajr kiod. 
I^JKnc.ncoffnK.KMae «Sii^ betwcea the Koicu 
I, boUl <rf which Appear to 
1 witbi tbo Un^Altaic bnu^. bJ^'"*~" 
»a,nne ilphtbtf of aS lettetB, 
il^BOtft load isvmdoD, u u lomctinies uaoud. 
ff feoen iotrodaGod hy the 3iiddhut monlu aboot 
b oeiUittr> utd to be based on lome cnntve fonn 
^•fK^nrattllgaTi) •jntem*, although icaicelj any re- 
It. be tiaoBd between the two alphabetai Thia 
I, txoeft b^ the lower clnwet and the women, 
[ to wiitt either in Chinese, or die in the 
1^ an adq>ta(ioa of the CiNnese lymboU to 
t of the Korean lyllables. The nidit ia 
I Co ^ Japanese XaJaiana script, in which 
ExCUwsa ideop^ihs are used phonetically to 

raM "■ TUxto-IndiMi bue" {a^tmmtiiii ^ Wr^mg 
S 1*94. P> 148); ud Mr E. H. Puker: "It U 
a 111 I III Me IB ■d«pt>Uon from Iha SMukrit," ■>. 

hBM.«i, taH,p.e5o). 



j0t ■"■"''"■■''■■■■■'MH^^^^^^^H 

-. iM>g-M;iiMiw«M«lM'«i^i|^^^^^K 

due tito pieMM atfiaiHlttiMl^Hj^^^^^K 

jt^l;^ sdoptod «ba«^H« f*«liMM^|Hi|lM^^^K, 

logiollj tlw«HM«M'k»'iM|MH^^^K 

•HttetBCBt brneoltthk CraeuiuB, ■HHrv^MMl^^^K^ 

Ainu" of Yeio, the uchipdago ms <M»>«tf|»M^^^H| 

CMiiUuim Oceuie Ho^ob ud IbAbIMIMmI^^^^K ' 

""^^ Ftom the ftct that dw J*f«MMM^^^^B 

ndicd iflhiides with Kotean, bat a«e'<^'lii|M|^HH 

it intf perfaopi be infemd that the I^«»»^iMil|||^^^H' 

Impose their Mongol speech oa tbero, and V^^fUlj^SKKm' 

fusion must have taken place long beftiR the <**iAM99Hv 

Even for the l^endaiy Jimmu Tenne, '«P«>M'-'iMMM^P ' 

empire, no greater antiquity is claimed thaa ^^'^''(^^lllllfliKKKK^ 

he is represented as being fifth in descent *wltfV8|i|jMWfr 

Sun-Goddess, and the great divinity of the SMam^^i^mtKMm < 

even were his predecesson endowed widi ^^ 'M^HMMI^^K 

< Both forms come from the CUmm m-f^. the "R^U^MIPHHk 

fern, origin), ftom which the ChincK made Br«t ^'^^^ ''"'^ImKK^Ki 

inSaence ^-fai, whence Marco Polo's Zifaitgih tad ttH '"i'^lMtHHW 

[Gu.ftcn<.y<.p<m,7«p<m.^lz.). BulinJ.p»,brMtaiNMI^HP 

. becmme i^iffion (Nip-lu». Ni/.im), the name. Dot »«nAti#|H||SHii 

Ji-pen=Jap. Nippoa^Japaa. There ii also a bnciAd'BidifilipHH^^^E 

«^.W, "MennaidUle." ' " '■'^'^i^^iB^ 

< "The reigning House of Japan descends fi«B tU aiMIMHMH» 

rasu" U-J- Rein, 7'>A>'< •»»'* '^"^^ "• ShidUn, iBSi. p. (4^ $N^H& 

impassive Chinese wilh their 18 or 30 dynwiie*, aad ttowMMjI^M^pi 

who hnve been contented to live underasii«kd7D>itl^WM»ll«^^MSr'' 

the "Sun-Goddess" on earth. . >V' rMJSf^^'' 

: A ^ 

fearSOpb. • ■'!:■:■■}: -.A.if. -lln'niK ' 
. '«I)()Mtel^'iltt^'JB .:'' ' ■■'■ ':-> 

«i, Ae SMm f^ait) Atatfiir 
l^lhwia JMd «ttto bt dcklt widL It. 

r<*dafttad 4htt tbt Ainu ftinacilf dwdt mAUm 

dib<fijBO«Mt and odtet mactos like dMiM ^ Yoo 

■ If eODfimwd bj tndkioa and'hiitacfi 

i^lhe pKHBt JqMiMM, OB antving in Hippoa, 

1 bf BbiM OT biirbarums, iriKUn they recopuw 

» af the BOten Ainut. Yenbrrcar teab«jg{iHS 

p-lqr Hep taw wdi the nordk Abbot llie few Boo 

r UoikAs, end bj the jeer teoo tiwf 

R -iMn pmcticeUjr eKterauneted fion NliqmB, end 

>i»liitnil «r bad taken icAge brthcr to the aocA of 

f wbJeptedV 

y ti^ and robust penont ataongtt 

^•ad the AuKMU adiktea, acfobats, and wTCitlen, 

lli/fcirpnaiion tfaat the J^ianeae are on the whtde a 

% is folly borne out by the now 

ttilitBiy meaaurementa of recniits, ahowiog for 

of 5 ft. 4^ in., for dkeat 33 in., and diaprO' 

laiei. Other dirtiactive characters, sU tending 

individuali^ on the peoide, taken aa a vhole 

local peculiarities, are a flat fordkend, great 

dte eydjtowa, a very small bose with raised 

no perce pt iMe nasal root* ; an active, wiiy 

din Imb yellow Aan the Chinese, and rather 

finrs, bat die covered parts very light, some 

; who thinks "tbe cotmaoo mnecrton of 

LMksMi [Lla-khMii] ruuiaM entMcd JafMB fitm the 

JCoMea CbamaA wlb the itlMtd ef TMihima u • 

in KTuha, the ■outheminoM pot UUnil of Japu. 

sUk« bgr faognpl^, hj the tMnd of legend, and by 

■*9S> P- »i6]- 
~ to AA, VoL k p. 474. 
Ar. Gugr. X. p. 419. 

MQF cfen «4ut« ; - (he •] 
Mcady KCongnl feun 


UntymKn ul ti 

of HHMt Other Mongol peoptM''. .'-^o' 
With thii it wai be {MtnCtnA'twi^ 
graphic account of tlw Xin-Klit il 
aOnitiei aie now pbced btyaad ■tt'id 
nee, piobabljr even ibortcr Aan die ] 
proportt<med, being widioat tihe long bodte^ 
latter people, and having aa a 'Rrie < 
cheats. The colour ot ^ akin vaitea «( « 
pontkm of the indtviduaL Tboae who Wcrff 1 
enl7 in a waiat-clotfa, are nearly as dufc u KM 
classes are much &irer, and are at the aUM^ll 
of the yellow tint of the Chinaman. To t 
they cannot be said to bear any resemU 
type is much closer to the Japanese, itia n 
...In Liu-Kiu the Japanese and naHves were « 

luuMK "" ^°^ ^^^ *"'' *°^ must tl 

and Lhi-Kiu of very considerable i 

ituadan. has the face Icss flattened, the ejwrd 
set, and the nose more prominent at its ori^iu-*' 
is high and the cheek-bones somewhat less i 
Ji^Minese ; the eyebrows are arched and thit^ * 
long. The expression ii gentle and pleasing, t 
sad, and is apparently a true index of their <Am 
This description is not accepted without • 
Chamberlain, who in fact holds that "the [ 
Luchuans resembles that of the Japanese a 
In explanation however of the singularly nnldi't 
"even timid disposition" of the Liu-Kiuaiu, diia p 
"the probable absence of any admixture of ibhf-^ 
race*." But everybody admits a Malay i 

< See especially Di E. Bali, J>u l^rftrHtkm £ 
a Milt, dtr DtnitcktH Ca. /. Natm: u. ymirhrndt <hM 

* Cnii* sf Ihi Mareketa, iS86, i. p. 36. 

* Gt^. JoHnt. 1895, II. p. 318. 

* IHd. p. 460. 







h'M!*m.l> f^ ■ 





Vtfi ,->rit*,i'Vi ! -; ..^-'i,' .'.: -N.r; *. ■ V' '.^ri/'^H^- 
rtjijMimm - tad iNuily in itB idio- 
pAlpl |Mim form of J^Mmese. In tbe verbiifin 

Mmii <»cli erf. whidli potmipos % fifiMiBM 

^Ult, jhmtoiiaital flutoikri^ of HMtiiy of ^^iw 

of lj|ioiigtil« he would ei|diMii willi m»^ 

0s$m(f^^ by the first emigrRnls item tSfm 

i^ graiit bnOL sfMiead etst and north ovti t^ 

''drivkig the aborigines btfoie 
nay have trended soiitbiraids to the little 
irioii^^atrcleh like stepping-stones the whole 
lO^iiiit litt^Kiol 

on mental traitSi mention is made of the 
shnpteil and most rustic form" 

in liu^SLia. Here, as in dSl *'*'**. 
a Jfttde system of nature* 
dsfrtspm^t of which was arrested lij 
hiflwences. Later it became associated 
tiie>i^jpta being at first the souls of the dead, 
1^ pnjsent no cult of the dead* in the strict 
the litt^-Kin isbmders probaUy pay move 
than aiqr other people in the workL . 
as refosmed in recent times, has become 
insttlttticm than a religious 
', that is, the Japanese 
Skm-^f ''way of the Gods," or ''spirits," is 

4mtki^ Sfc* 1897, p. .47 nq. 

# 9^ 


ir >1 





(Ha iiliriiti rf die i«%ata|r<i 
d» dines immOaa* of %bff. 1 
anUnal preoepto now am — i. 
irtum Ac oiqieior IB the diirf li 
himssdiysovsre^n; 3. OfaerdwH 
tbevdidediitjrofBun. llitm'iiaoii 
riton have decUrad &u the Mikado^ imU 
ud wrong. - '"' 

Bat apart from thii piditical cat«gMl^>i 
fimn may be called a cultured ddm^' i 
obedience to governmental and fmt^-^ 
dim notion! about a lupreme creator, i 
rewards and penaltiei in die after-lift. 
at a pantheist might, of a auUime bong ara 
nature, too vast and ethereal to be j 
prayo', identified with the ienhi, "h 
emanate, to which all return. Ye^ 1 
seems thus excluded, there are Shinto teni{ri 
worship of the heavenly bodies and powers of-* 
self-existing personalities — the so-called J 
of which there are "eight millions," that is, dia)t« 

One cannot but suspect that some of 6 

grafted on the old national biA'byll 
was introduced about 550 Jld. a 
great vogue. It was encouraged especially fa^ 4 
military usurpers of the Mikado's' ftinctionsi otri 
against the Shinto theocracy. During their i 
(1193-1868 A.D.) the land was covered withfi 
temples, some of vast size and quaint <I 
idols, huge bells, and colossal statues of BudtUia. 

But vrith the fall of the Shogun the little p 
by Buddhism came to an end, and the t 

' lUple; (Uid Dio», Amer. Cyi. ix. jjB. 

* Shi^im froin .S'iie= general and ftfii=aniij, henoe C 
Miiado from mt^Rublime, and kade = ^\K, with wUck e& % 
Porte" (Rem, ap. (it, \. p. 145). But Mikado hu li 
<)ualed, being now generally replaced by the title K«l^ " B 

«pMr htBOtt^ *e tmaHit'f 
■To aQ A 

^ l llll iW l rt. 

t «f varioot Niiii, iacliidiBg the fiuHooi 

t ihBBti njtril B riti, wfa«ra the bow and nvair 

t like Ae pbee of tbe nSe; Tbc locumaltted 

i hti bam oonfifcated, the monka driven finoi 

toy of theie butldinge conretted into 

* C o mJu i tcmi^ bells have klnady found Aair 

1,-flr bmtoea MM for old metal'." 

L'fcnBS of belief there u a third reUgioaa, or 

^ Aa M-called Jim, baaed on tbe ethical 

ll-'ICMCKtH, a utt of n6aed materiidiim, inch ai 

feaafi^low tiKK^ of the nation. Sba, shny* 

I, haa'in ncmt yean found a fomfdable 

I FfaSoioiAy,'* Kpreaentad by wdi writers 

^Itotet Spfncer, Darwin, and Huxley, moat of 

Ka Jafawi^ iwen baulated into Jiqianeae. 

grfMed peo^ whose best qinlittes n»y peAaps 

~ tf CWKJMJc Mbattatom datit^ ftom Uie Stone 

• fear too rq>idly — assimilaled to the 

J and religioa?, as well as their pditical 

b Intdlectoal pdwos, already tested in the fidds of 

if, and sdf^fforcmment, are certainly sapeiiw 

r Asiatk'paoides, and this ia perhaps the best 

K attbUi^ of the stupendous tnuafonnation diat 

k'tel wilMsacd f^om an eaaggeiated fonn of 

V to a poUtical and sociid system in hamiMiy 

1 phases of modem thought The system 

t' panattaied to the lower strata, especially 

[ -pDpvlatieiB. Bat their natural leoeptinty, 

F freedom- from "insular prejudice,* must 

vaeeeptaaoe of the new cnder by all classes of 

> Kcane'* Atia, i. p. 487. 


IW niao-TB^ F 

Jmt, aad R^^ Oi 
IwmpticM TheA 

dZadprin Fo^ttioM— TteQ^MBT 
I and OnuA-^The VakM*— Ike lOtf 

noMnt — R^rion— The Vdl« FbAi- 
n Skcrificea— TIk Bukart— Oiv>> ■■' 
U Bad pitle BHtwH^&ii 

Im a very broad waj all Ae i 

Mongol diviaion may be i 
T^^^. collective dengnadoo 

Jwntly tbey cooadtiite a m 
family, being diadngoished from the a 
fealores which they have in common, and tlMtdi 
which ia unquestionably a much laiger inf 
than is seen in any of the Mongolo-T 
nounced is this feature amongst many Finniih a 
peoples, that some anthropologists have felt ii 
direct connection between the eastern and i 
ffemc Mongoliats, and to n^jaid the Bdtie 1 







#itli ti» Tilikfidhllilii* 

< < ^' . »'' 


;. /'.^v 



«HNMKltiiMit at pieaeftt tfiftfBMiirfiiftjioiii^^ 

■4$i0Mtatilbe&n^ fwrptexiiig for the «6n€t 

tt ^obMrreii between Hm Sibeiiiii Se* 


f0§Mtlik^^ wboQi ili0ir Meftifol idiencMs 

imd <Mli^ ottier the Oameiiii TiuAsi aoA 

.^ jilKmi nmy be lepaded m tjrpi^ 

f^e 'dUfciill^ ii incieased by d^ flM^, 

t^tfam^^mMied MoBgolo<2eueftm id»i«c- 

tbe ]^ bisioric gvQiip% but jte^ 

grettpeH-.^'Oittdes,'' UsunSy Uigms 

celled I¥dto*Eiiinitb and Proto-Turki 

btecitt liee the soltttfam of the problem. 

Wl^Md^bgF 7iG^< and Finnish nations was 

ll|rleiig4iiBeded Caocasic men of the late Stone 

tiie Pvoto-Mongol intruders from 

irftofOiFttyi submerged, partly intorraingled 

i btefiiMi ei% many tiius acqimring those mixed 

falM^Men distinguished from the earliest 

iBtterwng^gs took place according 

tenrinf their oripnal seats in the Altai 

inAltfieed westwards and came more and 

tWmoip^Ui populations of Caucasic type 

>iMbhide'that the majority of the Finno- 

Ihiffiritii somewhat mixed race^ and that 

llMi'^ligiiMl Mongol element has gradually 

liiitlii directixm from east to west Such 

bf tkese heterogeneous populations, 

4^ JAmi, 1865 ed. pp. 185-6. 
\ 111 p. 190. 


1>* ■■"■: """"MMH 

IPl^ !»■>»;*«.-» 1 lllllWl 

people^ AcMgh tall and fioeJookiBft 1 
Hoi«id cMte of CMtm dna ke tad i 

dian die Hoi^crii md diere warn c 
ftboat Aon. But diere was dmr 
kM shupnen in the oBdines Aaa ii aec 
Kul^w and Vaikaad." Then be addi: "A 
I noticed ft gradual, leaiceljr penxptiUe^ 6 
a Hongolian tjpe to a shaiper and jtft ■ 
...As we get fiutber away frmn MoagoHa, i 
facta beomie gradually longer and nanower; a 
among some <rf the inhabitants at A^^ian T 
the Tartar or Mongol type of feature is a 
cmaplete the picture it need only be added 4 
in Asia Minor, the Balkan Peninsula, Hangsa}};)!! 
Mongol features are often entirely losL "The 1 
have so much Aryan and Semitic Uood in ( 
vestiges of their original physical characters hnMfe^ 
their language alone indicates their p i e v io u s dci 
Before they were broken up and diqioli 
northern hemi^heie by Mongol 
cast, the primitive Ttn'ki tribes d 
Howorth, mainly between the Ulugh-da^ t 
Orkhon river in Mongolia, that is, along the • 
spurs of the Altai-Sayan system from the headw 
to the valleys draining north to Lake Baik^ Ba 
is shifted farther east by Richthofini, who ttial 
home lay between the Amur, the Lena, and A 
at one time they had their camping-grouDda ii 

' Tit Hmrt i^ a CtHtitutU, 1B96, p. irt,-, .' 
* O. Feschel, Racts cf Man, p. jSo. ^;,ll 

TbiU Cradle. 






^Ucr ' — ^ ^ 








v' f 




ai^iofl^ ipkh a adtdHmslem jnA^tfliilitf 
i9iMh^«Ay lidl Iw"^ lote irboit 

latllie Ii«M» and liotb vieiift nuqr tb«s Iw 
f|Kfiii|r>ci^ dofteia bgr west oC the 

al^Mifetiqdiuida» takenm die widest senscy amy 
ai>4it ami probiMe aone of .qpecialiii^bii for 
^199% ^1^1^ u^ the aew ao mcnchti i ii e iatti^ 
tgiiBmlMfWti^ was ({xnmed bfB.fmgmotJBm$ 
dPttlqij^lMMitf with his «^iqiiito«a JK - .^myMir#* 
Isv^^onitituted the charadedstic TUrkib^adi 
Jir teSiCttbmd aapectydue to die {Muieto-ooeipital 
eqpediiljr among the Yakuts^ and soiaae 
«bstweeii these tTptcal Tuiks and the Mongols 
t^iUsbegSi KiighijB, BashkiiSy and Nc^iais; and 
i«iid Finns those extremely mixed groups of 
hot wrongly called ^'Tartar8|''as well as 
between Tnrli» Slav» Greek, Arab» OsmanU of 
Ktumi^qf Amelia and others, whose study shows 
of accurately determining die limits of the 

^dMkHlto recur in the study of the Northern 

Ostydu^ Voguls and other Ugrians 

individttal variations, leading almost without 

Ifeingol to the Lapp, from the Lapp to the Finn, 

Ei 'I; 


Im AfyiMi &c. 1896, p. 35. Referenoie should per- 
il^ FtekePs th^oity {Academy, Dec. 91, 1895) that 
trnrnkk tit Altfti or Altim-dagh C*Goklen Mountafait") of 
moo miles fiirtfaer soath in the "Golden Mountains'* 
Chinese province of Kansu. But the evidence relied 
aift Indeed in one or two important instances not evidence 

MH$rkai /tip. July 1897. 

( Rim I* Sltr aad T«i 

Piidiaid^ "AUoiili^ian n 
•tDdjr of dtttft dK abora feraMi « 
CBdanraond to deterauw dw rIM 
to the primuT Maofol aad CaocHie 4 
GiUMO tuu ■hmnfiy tamA 
oogb^^ iMBkiiid. M Aef ■ 
g*rty_ of MrioMli, p r eierM * i 

dtemdrct and to eack^a 
bOitr of dieir mannen is the Bttuial c 
faction of th«T bcoltiei. Redoccd tomi^al 
wants, thoT desires, their enjoymoits, i 
and the bonks of the Bor]rstheDes [Diuqie^ 4 
the Selenga [in Mongolia], will im" ~ 
unifona spectacle of similar and native i 
general unifonnity in their social luagca ai 
bined with an almost complete ignuaiKe of >^ 
laq^y oi thur physical appeaiaoce, is t 
still iHwaiUng confusion regardii^ the ( 
Asiatic populations and their first westward a 
popular estimation the countless hordes i 
the ancients under the general designatkn of I 

r^arded as rude nomads of titw 1 
g^yOij^^ be identified ¥rith the Hiun g«i i.« 

records and the historical T~ 
now best reinesented in the Far East by the 8 
farther west by the Zungarian and Volga 1 
is good reason to believe that many, | 
those early Scythians were not Moi^ols at i 
Turks, whose domain had already extended frn 
to the confines of Europe many centuries befiaB.d 

> DecHne am/ Fall, Ch. XXVI. 

* Ther dutingniihed, to be inre. betvem th* ScftUiaaAii 
ihiMe tiira Imttum. Bat thii wai mad j ■ 
and if tbe Inuiu ii to be ideotified with the Altai, aasl 
drawn between the nomad tribMoodtberndeDf tkttSMig 


varmkf tii^^ttip* JO 

o oae w i edtlie ii0nM'lrf''^iirk dates from 

iribet -bM^ midi&mi mmm^i^ 

^m§m*hmiig^ d[ yeuB bcfoee iliit IbM^ 

tiMl^^iiiii AefluiAts {Dim)4a>Mi tterMw^^Pi^ 

t9^ iiasvie 'both bjr Pompoiiiiis liebi^«iii Iqr 

».Mpt fiui»e ooneetiqii bdooged^ bqrond all idoubt, 

^iib6 too yean earyer wero : ^Jm^miil.' 

Umi; eeiAiie* of Iiiii a&d Tarfn^ «mi tMio* 

oiOMfiii and Anthony, fOid for ?*^' 

lS0('^94Z«<Hif 9 jua) ttsiuped the duone of tiie 

^iiii#i holding 4way frcun the £aphiatei to the 

Jpom^the Caipian to the Indian Ocean. Disect 

Vaffthiant^aie the fieroe Tttrkoman nomads, 

HiUJiimid ofir afl the settled pofmktiona ei|piicling 

dsppessbn. Their poner has at last been 

;Milmiaii% but Aey are still politically dominant 

have thya been fior many ages in the closest 

Cancasift Iranians^ with the result that the 

^ppe is diown by J< L. Yavorsky's observations 

^ wriaUe\ 

toteqi lignesm habitant ; juxta ThysMgetK TMratpte 

afamtiiniae ireaaiidQ'* (i. 19, p. 97 of Leipcig ed. iSSo). 

ittSMMM fgiiBlkm oit inihienteiii inooliiot Sarniatse...T!iidari, 

id tniltadin^ Mltiiotis ooBfaUtboi sfpeias &c*" (Bk. 

18S6). The varuuiU rwxa tad Tjfftm are 

the stine vfdUatiiig Boond of the root vowel (« and 

iiiirp0r SMr Shah a Tnrkomaa of the Afihir tribe, 

"ianlly bekmgi to die rival chm of Qi^ar Tnritomans 

i^dM home of their FartUan foiefitthen. 

Hwhair wai geneiaUya dark biown; the qret biown 

);§ hot ordiogpathoof (sa) and prognathoos (7); eyes 

fapdev 68*69 to 8176. meaa 75*64 ; dolicho aS, aub- 

4 inb-bfachy. Five skulls from an old graveyaid at 

PJiybiteioeaMeoiM, eeph. index langina ftom 777a to 

Mbnaed, exceeds in biachycephaly 'Me odUbie aine 


b Ibe PanhiMt* and tb« Mmti^fO* hne bes 


ni^b^ buricc One point, how e rw , i 

the Yn^dd were a di&ttnt peopi 

hod already occofned Hyicank (KbmHa) 4 

ccnttny &c^ if not eariier, and from die If 

wcfc Mated on the Yaxaitei (Sipdaiyi^ in d 

oeotoi)' lLc)i whereas the Yu^<:bi slaB i 

(Tarint basin) in (he third centiny. 

Hiong-nn and the Usunt (aoi and 165 B4I^|I 

Sogdiana (TianKHuana), reduced the Tm^M-t 

lib B.C. overthrew the ( 
, ^gj iriiich bad been feondcd after li 

ander towards the close sJt the 4 

ID the Kabul valley, sooth of the £ 
Greeks Btill held their ground for over 1 00 ji 
king of the Kushans — a branch of the Yw 
whole nation in a single Indo^ytbian states « 
quesu to Kabul and succeeded Henntea^ -ImiIhI 
dynsaty (40-30 ac.7). Kadphises' son \ 
to his empire a great part of North India, 11 
the Yu^hi dynasty reigned from the middle of d 
end of the fourth century A.D. Here theyaien 
DahM jat authorities to be still represented-9)fN4 
and ic«ipnt Rajputs, and even Prichard 1" 
Orisin*. .j' „ . ,. 

sition "does not appear altof 

although "the physical characters of the Jita a 
d'nn Slave Tcnde qti'on die dam lei ml 
L'Amtkrtfekgit, 189;, pp. 35S-S7)- 



itm m^mmoLwrnaHcmA 



mc]^ tilt %rit«tir ciied'bjr Klq>fotb aad 
"tiy lint l9i«f m of Mngdoe 


tet <rt«i0 <temet«ni prasinl liiOft^ diA(mlt|r 
tioAifiOk. UiStit Tw^i p0t^ 
UmA^ ft i* nlenMhg to mte that the kho/f4^ 
VlMMlk Itawie by woie been iilaitified widi die «iadlko 
^iiiid liiote wM the Dehtym or Dhi^ oite of the 
tK ^te'^^Iftdim Jits. But if Pvof. G. RmwUiison* it 
JWIr Uti not racial but tocal, meaning rmUdt 
icppoB^ to the nomads ; hence the Dahv ave 
tlHoagboiit Irania, just as JD^kumt* is stil 
Jiftiitgliatkm of tfie Tajik (Pertdan) peasantry iir 
and 'Mttibiatan. This is also the vieir takta bf 
iHtar identifies the Ta-Hia, not widi the Scjrthlan 
liik^ anf odier {wrticular tribe, but with the peicefid 
ttf Baktriana^ whose reduction by the Yutf^di^ 
TcMiarii was followed by the overthrow of the 
-' The solution of the puzzling Yu6-chi-Jdt pro- 
seem to be that the Dehiya and other JitSt 
ilhial people, are descended from the old Iranian 
some of whom followed the fortunes of 
huo the Kabul nJley, while others accompanied 
|^1j%#chi founds of the Indo^ythian empire into 



Ae overthrow of the Yu^U themselves by 
of the Chinese records, that is, the 

j<p M 


who points oat that " the opinion of the best Indian 
ISk iMdnsUy taming to the belief that the eomneelion 
.^lllplltiiJiaioiehitinMte than was fonneriy sappoted " ( 7X# 
0iiMrt^ffk$iim /VvcfiiMM «W OmM, Calcttttt, 1696, 

0a|i«^ {jEh. VIII. 7s8): ponibly the Dehavites 


dW, tmsfe (FMsi dbUf). 


1 1 1 ■ 


Ephthalites^ or so-called " White Huns," of the Greek and Arab 

writers, who about 425 a.d. overran Transoxiana, 
Hun».'** ^***^* and soon afterwards penetrated through the moun- 
tain passes into the Kabul and Indus valleys. Al- 
though confused by some contemporary writers (Zosimus, Am. 
Marcellinus) with Attila's Huns, M. Drouin has made it clear that 
the Y^-tha were not Huns (Mongols) at all, but, like the Yu^chi, 
a Turki people, who were driven westwards about the same time 
as the Hiung-nu by the Yuan-Yuans (see above). Of Hun they 
had little but the name, and the more accurate Procopius was 
aware that they differed entirely from " the Huns known to us, 
not being nomads, but settled for a long time in a fertile region." 
He speaks also of their white colour and regular features, and 
their sedentary life^ as in the Chinese accounts, where they are 
described as warlike conquerors of twenty kingdoms, as far as that 
of the A-si (Arsacides, Parthians), and in their customs resembling 
the Tu-Kiu (Turks), being in fact "of the same race." On the 
ruins of the Indo-Scythian (Yu^-chi) empire, the White Huns 
ruled in India and the surrounding lands from 425 to the middle 
of the sixth century. A little later came the Arabs, who in 706 
captured Samarkand, and under the Abassides were supreme in 
Central Asia till scattered to the winds by the Oghuz Turki 

From all this it may perhaps be inferred that — while the 
Baktrian peasants entered India as* settlers, and are now repre- 
sented by the agricultural Jats — the Yu^-chi and Y^-tha, both oi 
fair Turki stock, came as conquerors, and are now represented 
by the Rdjputs, "Sons of Kings," the warrior and land-owning 
race of northern India. It is significant that these Thakur, 
"feudal lords," mostly trace their genealogies from about the 
beginning of the 7th century, as if they had become Hinduired 
soon after the fall of the foreign Ye-tha dynasty, while on the 
other hand " the country legends abound with instances of the 
conflict between the Rdjput and the Brahman in prehistoric 
times'." This "prehistoric" hostility shows that the Rajputs 
entered India, not as "Aryans" of the Kshatriya or military 
caste, as is commonly assumed, but as aliens (Turks), the 

* De Bella Persico^ passim. * Crooke, op, cit. I v. p. 311. 



ttidMfc«M Aiyiiav Ah it, the aaHo— y.ana- 

itSUtrm mad tk« Jitafitm Ae flnt The 
itTadlt k«d«n flf the iurwimi the jfltbinire 
n Mk^Kti faUoiriiig iit thcBF-mtkft 
b ftwrfof^ ihat the Jill miij be a^aologiaJ^ 
It^hk K4P«ta*/^ u perhi^M too itnag^ wad cicb 
t kpi JMa t^ Itaii^t be more conect t»M)rtbelira . 
Wt trigwlUy Oae, iMit hxn become laige^ Mtimanted 
b oloM Gonttct duhog the lut 1600 yetn. 
t -dw hu^tf Riipsta an of nnsnUied " Aiyim 
'r uif loager hdd even bf the BijfUli them- 
fe wiA Jit» end othen of mnch loim ceite have, 
^ beta alwqn the notinal ooodition, and m nany 
■ittf diffesent aooal rank are tecogtuKd : "one the 
• at hglfiniitit dewen^ laairied in die ortbodcHi 
■xlbe d ei e e n^ n ta oi insular connectiom with tow- 
I lalwd to tbe White Huns were the Viigttrs, the 
I Chwwe ansali, who may claim to 

[ mdoa that founded a lektivdy "^ "**^- 
I in Central Aiia. Befne the general commotion 
e of tbe Hiung-nui they ^>pear to 
1 Torieeslan {Kasbgaria) between the Utuna 
f. Htd here they had already made connderaUe 
; Bitddhist influeocea about the fourth or fifth 
Later, the Buddhist missionaries from 
1 by Cbriaiiati (Neatoriao) evangelists from 
^ is Ae seroth century reduced tbe Uigur 
I fbnn, ftd^iting fior the purpose the Syriac 
IS ifterwards borrowed by the Hoog^ls and the 


which, as sbowu by tbe authentic inscriptton 
ItiKboduced into China in 635 a-d. — is not to 
lAat of the Oikhon inscriptions' dating from 

jkFW^tr tt. H. YidriotMff hi the Oikhoo valler, iriiich 
~ MoflAkeBukaL Tlie iiueriptiaiu, oni in Chiaete 



732 A.D., and bearing a certain resemblance to some of the 
Runic characters, as also to the Korean, at least in form, but 

never in sound. Yet although differing from the 
Inscriptions. Uiguric, Prof. Thomsen, who has successfully de- 
ciphered the Orkhon text, thinks that this script 
may also be derived, at least indirectly through some of the 
Iranian varieties, from the same Aramean (Syriac) form of the 
Semitic alphabet that gave birth to the Uiguric \ 

It is more important to note that all the non -Chinese inscn'p- 
tions are in the Turki language, while the Chinese text refers bf 
name to the father, the grandfather, and the great-grandfather of 
the reigning Khan Bilga, which takes us back nearly to the time 
when Sinjibu (Dizabul), Great Khan of the Altai Turks, was 
visited by the Byzantine envoy, Zimarchus, in 569 a.d. In the 
still extant report of this embassy' the Turks (Tovp#coi) arc 
mentioned by name, and are described as nomads who dwelt 
in tents mounted on waggons, burnt the dead, and raised monu- 
ments to their memory, statues, and cairns with as many stones 
as the foes slain by the deceased in Battle. It is also stated that 
they had a peculiar writing-system, which must have been that of 
these Orkhon inscriptions, the Uiguric having apparently been 
introduced somewhat later. 

Originally the Uigurs comprised nineteen clans, which at a 
remote period already formed two great sections : — the On-Uigur 
(**Ten Uigurs") in the south, and the Toghuz-Uigur ("Nine 

and three in Turki, cover the four sides of a monument erected by a Chinese 
emperor to the memory of Kyul-teghin, brother of the then reigning Tnrid 
Khan Bilga (Mogilan). In the same historical district, where stand the niinsof 
Karakoram — long the centre of Turki and later of Mongol power — other inscribed 
monuments have also been found, all apparently in the same Turki language 
and script, but quite distinct from the glyptic rock carvings of the Upper 
Yenisei river, Siberia. The chief workers in this field were the Finnish archaeo- 
logists J. R. Aspelin, A. Snellman and Axel O. Heikel, the results of whose 
labours are collected in the Inscriptions de CJinissH rectmllies et publiits fv 
la Sociiti Finlandaise (C Archiologie^ Helsingfors, 1889; and Inscriptions if 
t Orkhon etc., Helsingfors, 1891. 

^ *'La source d'oii est tir^ Torigine de I'alphabet turc, sinon immediat^ 
ment, du moins par interm^iaire, c'est la forme de Talphabet semitique qn 00 
appelle aram^enne'* (Inscriptions de C Orkhon dkhiffries^ Helsingfors, 1894)* 

* See Klaproth, Tableau Historique di PAsie, p. 1 16 sq. 

A ■ >• 

imiiiMTiiftEN uaso&Ui 








ni'AtlA^f iimittoa oP Empe. 
W^lmm^ftmfimBk !!%»% mentioiied aaiKniiit t&e iNttel 
^tliiik^uSbmkEmfm^'m tte sAr and 6tb centiifk% 
^ipecially widi the Tnrki Awti ^it«|iptay iom 
iMftgod'io the Uiprum sod odier Fumiih pimples 
htfriiif • 'Hie Tof^ttr seetion ako^ after thioiriiv 
Ibe Mofigol or Itegus Gcngeii 0eihjen)iiv die 
IMM' far' fti time tabnieiged in the ^ . 
M» AiHi TurlBi^ founded in 553 fay r^m 
JKfeMUMi'of Aftena (A^hi-na), who was ^'^^^T'^^^* 
tteitee the tide of Kha^Khan, ^*Gmx Khan^** apd 
mled over the united Turki and Mongol peoples 
10 the Caspian, and from the Fkosoi Omm 
of Qriaa and Tibet. Bodi the j^Tennentioitted 
idle l^fsantine envoy, and die Bilga: Khan 
iM^ belonged to diis djmasty, whidi was replaced 
fiei4o (Httd-htt), chief of the Togho^-Uigurs. This 
iier^^ Wderstand the sutement that all the Ttarki 
ng the somewhat unstable ruie of the Assena 
i^e to 774 had undergone many vicissitudes, and 
even broken into two great sections (Eastern 
Kanriumun vqiion and Western Tuiks of the Tsrim 
united in one vast political sys- 
TSeghuS'UigUfS. These are hence- uigiirBmpife. 
i|a Usloty simply as Uigurs, the On 

Hi staled, hn^ disappeared in die West The 

'^pifwer seems to have oscillated between Kara- 

In Eastern Turkestan, the extensive ruins of 

ei^Iored by Rq;el and the brothers Grum 

vast dominions were gradually dismembered, 

or JS-^JCmif precursors of the present 

Ae eastern (Orkhon) districts about 840, 

aduas of Mdwar-en-Nahar (Transoxiana), 

^lion Kings,** as the Uigur Khans of Turfan 

dht "Tens,** 11^0 at this time dwelt bejfond the 
Sea <Dlociysiii8 Periegetes). 






were called, and set up several petty Mussulman states tn Eastem 

Turkestan, Later ihey fell under the yoke of the Kara-Khitais, 

and were amongst the first to join the devastating hordes of 

Jenghiz-Khan; their name, which henceforth vanishes from his 

tory', being thus perhaps perpetuated under the form of "Ogres,' 

in ftble aiul aunciy ttlet. ■ -i^i 

At pment the heterogenco ia popdilialv 

(Kubpuia, Eastem Ttukettan) vbere'tlM 

been intennii^led, ofier a ttt&iDg coDMM tv^ 

▼alley (Zungaria), where one iDvading boidtt 

been aupeiimposed on another. Hence the 

Kashgarian type, in which the oii 

where crops out, absorbing the later Hong(rii>-' 

in Zungaiia the Kalmak, Chinese, Dungan, Ti 

groups are all still sharply distinguished and 

glance. " Amongst the Kashguiani — a tenaail' 

as ' Aiyan ' — Richthofen has determined ibt 

of the Su, Yutf-chi, and Usun hordes, as 

Chinese chtoniclca'." 

In close proximity to the Toghiu-Uigun 

{GAut, 17s), for whom eponymous heroes have 

the legendary records of the Eastem Turks, 

temis would appear to be merely shortened 
But whether true Uigurs, or a di 
T^ud" Turki people, the Ghui, as thef. ttt 
omt Mitn- called by the Arab writers, bepn 
migrations about the year 780. 

Transoxiana, where they are now represented by tiMti 
' It itil] persists, however, 4s ■ Iribal d 

and Uzb«^ &ad in 1885 Potuiia visited tbe I>fwi of tha 

south-east Mongolia, said to be the lut sarriviiiK inin».atal^ 

■utioD (M. Schott. Zur UigHrmfragt in Abhandl. it. k. AJhi"^ 

i873,p. lo.-ii). 

* Ch. de UjfBlvy, let Aiytm a$i ff«r4 itamSmdAF, 

* "The Uii of the Greeks aie the Goa [Chu) of 1 
appear on the Danube and the Voiga, in Anoenia, Syrit, aalQ 
their name seems 10 have been extended « ' - - — ■ 
[by the Arabwriters]; Giiheti, Ch. lvii. 

* Who take their name from a mythical Ui-beg. "MNAHirt 

■Ka chief, or hereditaiy ruler). ' " ' ''^'hiwislftl*- 


1 putt-^ Inua, Aik Hinoi; Sjbmi 

t'OMCMiw MeppM, Uknn^ D«eii.aad'dH 

in mM of thcM kads thc^r fenaed frnh 

I'lboth witk the Cwicask «|wri|^4i'b Ipl 

fc^XaMI Mailimil Ttrti H weU M M««ol pM^lei, naw of 

AttiU'i «xp«d)tioi», or firilewod 
ihCMfli, &o«uti». AlMW, Kipclaks, Ka»-K«liMiksX 
liter is eomfuiy wilfa Jn^fais-KhaB and bu sne- 
■nd NegM "Tattn"'). 

(Ouii), ud DKttt of the B^ku peninnlft 

Uandft twve been agvn nibiiMrKBd br tbe 

inanim peeplca (Grcftt and Little RnwMMi^ 

tel,ll<lMcnegnBi,Moldaviani,uidWaladiun>), Bat 

Am tbcy ttiil constitute perhaps the xoMJontf 

between the lodui and Conitantbople, in 

• JMHiiiig muneroaa compact communities, in irini^ 

'Tinki pIqrsiGal and mental characten are con^ 

besides ttie already menti<ued Turitomaas of 

bM all the nomad and many of the settled 

«f 'CluTa, Ftfghana, Karategin, fiokhaia, generaUjF 

tbe-name of Urtiegs and "Sortes." Snch also 

peoples of Afghan Tu^estan, and of the neigh- 

(Haaama and Aimaks who claim Mongtd descent, 

<tf -Persian speech); the Aderbaijani and many other 

in Persia ; the Nogat and Knmuk tribes 

Mid especiaUy most of the nomad and settled 

of Aua Minor. The Anatolian peasantry 

rvriM most naoMTons and compact division of the 

in any part of their vast domain 

and die Lena. 

Mir aUMi not Enm mjthical bnt Inim hMtoriad 
Volfi, "the rival of Cynt and Alcxuidcr," who 
of Jw^ii, comaqnaitlr not ■ Tnric, like moM of 
^ (•!. 1304) t •ud Mgt, tba ally and dumjOoa 
Um Heegota matcbing wider the Wnible Htjifii 



Om tf Ail p«lifca||^M:« 

fBK<Mte> (1396-40), ttMboBdcx of Itefl 
Imw alone Bnmved the dbipwieck if id Iha >i 
Tbe TicMBtodes of tbcK i 
tDD kindly u «)« bjr Gibbon, beln« toll 
and it will niffice here to state tfaat fiaa llNt^l 
Ihe dnef intereat centret in Aat <tf tbc S 
period from about tbe middle of At ixth < 
tjtfa oentmy. It was nndcT TogniMicg of ll 
tbat "tbe whole bodjr of tbe Tmkiali m 
fervoor and sincerity tbe rdigion of I 
bqiao the pennanent Tn^ oocnpatiui of i 
after the conquest ctf Armenia (io6s-6S) a 
tbe Byxantine emperor Romanus Oiofenei (i4 
military settlements, followed by nomad Tiiibii^aM tt 
were established by the great Seljiik rulen, A^ A 
Sbah (106^-93), at all the strategical pointa 
were joined later by otheis fleeing bd^ore At I 
by Jenghis-Khao's successors down to the tJMi 
But the Christians (Greeks and earlier aboitgiiMa) 
minated, and we read that, while great mtmbi 
" many thousand children were marked by Ae k 
dsion ; and many thousand captives were dsnttAtf 
or the pleasures of their mastas"(^.). Ino 
miied Turki intruders were yet more modified bfA 
minglings with the earlier inhabitants of Asia 1 
who, following the fortunes of the Othman <^naM 
Bosporus and settled in Rumelia and some odier | 
Balkan Peninsula, now prefer to call themsdve* I 

■ Gibbon, Chap. lvii. By tbe "Tnrkuh iiatii)n"Ufawta' 
tbe wtHen lectioii only. The Turks of Hiwv-cB-N^ar'« 
(cMlem Tnikcatan) bod been brought uidM tbe inW— 
fitti Arab invaders from Penii ti 

iw if Aoe «« wMw imU dWmnm 
i dw^Barapeaa OMMnli. andAif ttw di«iB(»iMr 
A> pwaMd oidbr Anannu VmrMit'* 
l>f4M» kioi tafloMotd anl modifi«d Iv dwir doa«r 
I'liUi llw Cbristian populK^ew of Ac Bdhu iuid(» 
»<tlM4«4}ttkfl.hM« been aUe. better to {wveove 
Ofl^ryftindtcmpeMHHBt. The true Tnrkj ipiritl" dee 
tf^^ « ie f il »w opecwUy ia tbe provincea of Ljrluumw 

it-irfxtpatbc Cnr tumTUig lutiTct w«r« not only 
rtatat BltwiwJly ftwed. «4wr«M to &irof>e moK of tbon 
Ke ooty labmiwd, ami heic the Tuiki 

I Turki t)ipc a 
»fiB rwd .wPOByt die nnote IMMir -mki^ 

iirflfld the JSr^B gioupa (J Ti^ pi tt 

I Mum XwyilM) «f the Weat Siberian ttcf^ and tbe 

The Tnriu connecdcMi of tfaa Y^uts, abowt 

ma m u j doubtB bad been niaed, has been set 

h-y*- JL ffioocbeTCkj', who, however, describes them 

y<lHbwd ftoflit, owing to alliances with the Tanguies 

'They ate of dwut suture, averaging scarcely 

Ml obaeiver thought their daric but not bitUiam 

riMwk in Barrow orbits, gave them nK^e of a' 

RitbiB «f a Moagol cast They are almost tbe only 

1 people in Siberia, although numberii^ not 

I sonls, contentrated chiefly along the rtfer 

B -between the Lana and the Aldan. 

I w« have an extreme instance of the capacity of 

f t» the milmi. They not merely exist, but 

yxwtaidewMe degree of «iergy and enterprise 

I OB the globe. Within the isothermal of 

; in the heart of their territory, is alone 

^Ar tVrktm te Mttnfa, in <U»gr. Ztitickrifi, L«ipdg, 1897, 

, editnl br Prat N. E. VuUoTky for the 
lid is Jfttmi, Dec. j, 1896, p. 97. 



included for the period from November to February, and in this 
temperature, at which the quicksilver freezes, the Yakut children 
may be seen gambolling naked in the snow. In midwinter 
Mr R. Kennan met some of these " men of iron," as Wrangel 
calls them, airily arrayed in nothing but a shirt and a sheepskin, 
lounging about as if in the enjoyment of the balmy zephyrs of 
some genial sub-tropical zone. 

Although nearly all are Orthodox Christians, or at least bap- 
tized as such, they are mere Shamanists at heart, still conjuring 
the powers of nature, but offering no worship to a supreme deity, 
of whom they have a vague notion, though he is too far off to 
hear, or too good to need their supplications. The world of 
good and evil spirits, however, has been enriched by accessions 
from the Russian calendar and pandemonium. Thanks to their 
commercial spirit, the Yakut language, a very pure Turki idiom, is 
even more widespread than the race, having become a general 
medium of intercourse for Tungus, Russian, Mongol and other 
traders throughout East Siberia, from Irkutsk to the Sea of 
Okhotsk, and from the Chinese frontier to the Arctic Ocean*. 
To some extent W. Radloff is right in describing the great 
^^ „. ^. Kirghiz Turki family as "of all Turks most nearly 

The Kirghiz. ° "' . ' 

allied to the Mongols in their physical characters, 
and by their family names such as Kyptshak [Kipchak], Argyn, 
Nairn an, giving evidence of Mongolian descent, or at least o( 
intermixture with Mongols*." But we have already been warned 
against the danger of attaching too much importance to these tribal 
designations, many of which seem, after acquiring renown on the 
battle-field, to have p>assed readily from one ethnic group to another. 
There are certain Hindu Kush and Afghan tribes who think 
themselves Greeks or Arabs, because of the supposed descent of 
their chiefs from Alexander the Great or the Prophet's family, and 
genealogical trees spring up like the conjurer's mango plant in 
support of such illustrious lineage. The Chagatai (Jagatai) tribes, 
of Turki stock and speech, take their name from a full-blood 
Mongol, Chagatai, second son of Jenghiz-Khan, to whom fell 
Eastern Turkestan in the partition of the empire. 

^ A. Erman, /^eise urn die Erd^^ 1835, Vol. in. p. 51. 
* Quoted by Peschel, Races of Man^ p. 383. 

inf«'>l»ORtlflntK WOKOCHAi 


V UMgo) «Mia, fehboi«h Ml one wi>:dHqr« 

i- ih wlial Maad in ■» tfiwe hwerogawo ufc gnotM;. 

BtiMtqwreuid-Hiiis«4Htfat M — g d 

mh aek-fcown, obtiqae tjm, li^ moMh, feel 

» *lMlk wllll brown taufiemm, ungiuiily ebcM ifam 

I'MMttK^ of which ant dunctcristic <Mr bodi tectioM, 

I MBhIinden, and the K«s«ks of the lonteadK 

toasts ngird tbete Kir^tiz gronps, not u a d 

e MoBgolo-Tatki nee, bnt rather « 

E'tilbM ttretehii^ from the Got« to the Loi^ 
rMB|^«ogetberby Jen|h»-Khaa and Ui saccc«on'. 
i>'iMtioiial name u JCnAi, '<Riden," awl at Aey 
MKf 'for the moit part nwanted 
r Ae« luww of the steppe, the tenn p.jjj*^**'. 
r applied to aU nomad and 
d in picdatorr warCuft It diiu at an ca^ 
I'tfW'Soodt RiiMian steppe, when it wm adopted in 
t'thrmtt bf the Russians thnnielTes. It should be 
tr'ilM eompoirad torn Kaghii-Kosak, introduced by 
t todittinginih diete nomads from their own Couacks, 
Moer. The wmd "Kirghiz" what- 
r'ii never used by the Kazaks in xbKhi^*"' 
I ttieniMdves, fast only to their near 

i, or Kara-Kiighiz*, (tf the uplands. 

I, who roam the Tian-ihan and Pamir valleys, 

mi—Om, "Right" or Bast, and Se/, "Left," or 

grwe the Dikf JCsmemyi, that is, "Wild Rock Pec^" 

i^Whencethe expression "Block Kirghie" still found 

s of tiaveL But they call themselves amply 

i descent from an original tribe of that name, 

1 ft legendary Kirghiz-beg, from whns are also 

I, Kitars and others, all now reunited with 


I grouped, in long-established and still 
: Great, MiddU, UttU, aad 



infur Horde — whose joint domain extends from Lake Balkhash 
round the north side of the Caspian down to the Lower Volga ^ 
All accepted the teachings of Islam many centuries ago, but their 
Muhammadanism^ is of a somewhat negative character, without 
mosques, moUahs, or fanaticism, and in practice not greatly to be 
distinguished from the old Siberian Shamanism. Kumiss, fer- 
mented mare's milk, their universal drink, as amongst the ancient 
Scythians, plays a large part in the life of these hospitable steppe 

One of the lasting results of Gastrin's labours has been to 
^ place beyond reasonable doubt the Altai origin of 

f he Finns. . , . , 7 i 

the Fmnish peoples . Their cradle may now be lo- 
calized with some confidence about the headwaters of the Yenisei, 
in proximity to that of their Turki kinsmen. Here is the seat of 
the Soyotes and of the closely allied Koibals^ Kamassintzi^ Matores, 
Karagasses and others, who occupy a considerable territory along 
both slopes of the Sayan range, and may be regarded as the 
primitive stock of the widely diffused Finnish race. Some of 
these groups have intermingled with the neighbouring Turki 
peoples, and even speak Turki dialects. But the original Finnish 

^ On the obscure relations of these Hordes to the Kara-Kirghiz and prehis- 
toric Usuns some light has been thrown by the investigations of N. A. Aristov. 
a summary of whose conclusions is given by Dr A. Ivanovski in Centrnlblatt 
fiir Anthropologic etc., 1896, p. 47. 

^ Although officially returned as Muhammadans of the Sunni sect, I^vchine 
tells us that it is hard to say whether they are Moslem, Pagan (Shamanists), or 
Manichean, this last because they believe God has made good angels calle<l 
Mankir and bad angels called Nankir. Two of these spirits sit invisibly on 
the shoulders of every person from his birth, the good on the right, the bad on 
the left, each noting his actions in their respective books, and balancing 
accounts at his death. It is interesting to compare the:>e ideas with those of 
the Uzbeg prince who explained to Mr Lansdell that at the resurrection, the 
earth being flat, the dead grow out of it like grass; then God divides the good 
from the bad, sending these below and those above. In heaven nobody dies, 
and every wish is gratified ; even the wicked creditor may seek out his debtor, 
and in lieu of the money owing may take over the equivalent in his good deeds 
if there be any, and thus be saved {Through Central A sia^ 1887, p. 438). 

' See especially his Reiseberichte u. Brief e aus den Jahren 1845-49, P" '♦®' 
sq.; and Versueh eina Koibalischen u. Karagassischen SprachUhre^ 1858, vol. i- 


mt'iNHtrnBiN hcwgols. 

■ BffciBdeerto dwBomiof dwcoMituat 
HVM U^lW B^r «( Ch■un^^" Others, fidlowiog 

liaWMlUiig Ac ftwt of Ac AlUi and don die IttWi to 
t'4HM>^<* te*< lorig oooi^ed bodi slope* of thatnaip, 
■tufeWd wtmm degree of caltuK, ud espedKlly diM 
•^ IMltf tmi'H M J iUait woricHi^ tte piecioin and other mMli^ 
; ij^jliite^^'^RiiHMJiWl aradet" wet* famoiu, and to wUdi 
'^ '' ~ t to «i«d« ia A» aoog* of the KakvalaK Ae 
yiifl—i «r uhicndi in nnlind itself it Menu oimea 
f W w w <A the Kimiih tutional e|^ uut hav* 
•Oa nauHfemot regioQ, which could only be tbt Altai 
li-ipOMibfy both. 
|»iilM' Ae Vvab bcoune a lecood hone and poiat of 
rie — can be followed tbeiKe down the 
1 'BMtk. to tho noien Ocean*, and down the Kuu. 
Aom duB arteiy, where pennancnt aetdCBieBts 
ll^^ ntjpt ^hmi^ aome coaqncring hordei went aouth 
I /Kmt), while more peaceful wandereri 

■ tUacoUMtioa of FinaUh wDg) B<r C. U. CtaA 
\ p. 138 aq.) ihom fram the primitiTc duncter of the 

to copper or bronic, utd the ilmott nltei mb- 
H and olb«t indicattaai, that thew kmiki miut be oTgraU 
B to be DO doubt that aome parta date bwk to M 
•t Mbre lh« Firna and the Ha^aiiaiu had become diatlBet 
■ of Ae dlTtnitkt, maay cf the cBatoaa, and enn par- 
d faila of inpantitioDa menlioiwd in the K«k*ala are 
•Bclent Hna^uJan writinga." 

laida hia bmom voTage ronnd Nonh Cape to the Cwcn 
b Arc^ aeaboard wai inhaUted, not bf Samoradt, aa at 
M^ WbOB KkC Alftcd calli £tm-mat, iu. the Ariaraaww 
A* Araaaati (/hnoMMf) of the Roadan (Oan'Mi I. ts). 
a lAole retfoo between the White Sea aod the Uiala 
iHfhltt lincathewitbdiawBlBoathirardaoftbeZiTjranianai 
■ tfaia Arctic r^ion baa been thinlj occnpied bj- 
% alowlj wettwardt fioin Siberia to the Pecbwa and 


lUM: nurr Mmt 


aneadad tlic peat riwc to Ukeal 
to dw ihani «f the IWtic nd I 
Thu v«e oaotkotBd 

Fluuh &iniljr, viMae < 
^^^^"* from the Kbatiafi beTiMd.4 
Oiwiii and from the Aictic QcoviM 

Caipiu. and the Vo^ iHll^M 
in the Danube basin. But tfarooglKMit t 
tone life the Finniab peopies, despite a c 
power of fetutance, have in many friacci' b 
abaorbed, or even entirely eliminated, by a 
SDch aa the Siberian "Tatars" in their Altai* 
Kiigfaiz and Baahkira in the West Siberian ■ 
the Russians in the Volga and Lake d 
Lithuanians in the Baltic Provinces (Kurlaodt ii 
the Rumanians, Slavs, and others in the 1 
the Ugrian Bulgars and Magyars have been ai 
laled in type (and the former also in apeedi) 4 
European populations. 

Few anthiopol<^ists now attach much impc 

not yet quite obsolete regarding > 
wwdBrnadof of the Finnish race over the iriul 
**" """'■ the British Isles. De^te the t 

Finns are essentially round-headed, they m 
the long-headed cavemen, who retreated nordi « 
as was the favourite hypothesis, and then with dtf 4 
races who were also long-headed. ElaboiUe but s 
essays were written by learned philologists to e 
origin of the Basque and the Finnic tongues, « 
in common, and half the myths, folklcwe, and h 
the western nations were traced to I 

Now we know better, and both arcl 
have made it evident that the finnish peoplca.,! 
quite recent arrivals in Europe, that the men of tbmM 
in Finland itself were not Finns but Teuton^ a 
b^inning of the new era all the Furnish tribea'd 
of the Gulf of Finland '. "'J^ 

See A. Hockmann, lOit BmtttttH KmUmA, 1 



tmaartaxK 4iongol& 

!itM'4UlWB' 'I 

||s|ai>«paek, iam ^■*w the mbwbitwrti, 
ftAnd p— id from the Hew Stoott 
J. IL'AapdiB, "ftninder-of 
UK^pM JKdwBBkigy," poiBts out that tb* Vkwo-UgriHi 
jWfHii<*ll1yiwcMpi*d » gMgnplucal povtieti betwcn tbe 
MHMnife «ad AftMoogtdic iveei, muI tbu titeiT fint Inm 
InAmit'lMbb^^* devdopment, betvacn the Yeniwi wd 
iMM^JflfdM MMiAed Uml^tai Bronze Age, the lut echoes 
plkllafete Moed wcitwaida to FinUnd wtd north ScKiidi- 
Pilpl <tll» TTppf r Venitei diftrictt iron ob)ectt had Mill the 
40\1k» "Bnmuti Agft irtten thit ancient dvilintian, aasocUled 
PlMMraeMf the "CSnidea," was intemipted by an invaaioB 
jilBtadMllI the Mm pcniBting Turid Iron Age, expelkd tbe 
■■A^NkabUntta, and thna gave liie to the great migratiou 
Site'nMMKUgriaat, and then of the Tuiki peoples (Bashlttia. 
n* aad ethem) to and aoost the Urals. It was here, 
t ttfritoqr between the Iniah and the Kama, diat 
I (Childish) Iron Age continued iu nonaal and 
The objects recoveied from the old gtaves 
Wiiu the present govonments of Tver and laroslav, 
tf>«t ^uuqriao on the Kama, centre of this culture, 
II teak idace the transition from the Bronze to the 
> jcan before llie new era, and here was 
rlion Age, whose forms are characteristic of the 
OtUgrian lands. The whole region would thus 
t been first occupied by these immigrants from 
n of the Tnrki hordes into Western Siberia 
tflron Age, at most some 500 01 600 years before 

V. ThamieD and othen, who have all, on vsiioui 

ic eoBchuloB. Even D. E. D. Enrap«o», wfaa hw 

'Mtndox viem cm the FlnnUh oadlehnd, and 00 &e 

ta the Uoegolo-Turki lai^iugei, agree* that "ven 

d« J. C.| c'ot-i-dire bien longtempi btkiiI que ca 

nnlude, diet [tbe westen Finn*] ftaient iuUfet 

Am Ian dYMga ct dc Ladt^a." (liwcaux &»• 

'm 1893, HeUiivf(>n> i89Si P- 'ii-) 



to a paiod of sot mmc tk 

wen whh the hiMoriod, HagaiNk^ ■ 

It ta eapedalljr in dui ofaaewc SBiift>4 
eauacBt Dinuh idiokr, VnC vyhete 1 
Eurapna ctknilai 

dies A. H. 1 

rSm^""' die origins of dteBahicna 
the DOW all bat extiDct I 
extina Karimden, from the tiiDc vdwo t 
■outh-eut of the Baltic lands, under die n 
ing Lithoanisn and Gothic tribes, till ^e G 
Baltic provinces. We team from JofdaBeSiM 
first authentic account ot these | 
Finnish tribes were subject to the Gothic I 
and Thomsen now shows that all the Wei 
Livonians, Votes, Vepses, Kardians, Tan 
FinlandX must in the first centories of the mar 4 
pnurtically as (me people in the closest sogibI t 
language, and following the same religioaa, (1 
institutions. Eariier than the Gothic was tha I 
contact, as shown by the &ct that its tnce 
language of the Volga Finns, in which ( 
absent From these investigations it becoMC* 1 
Finnish domain must at that lime have 
present Esthonia, Livonia, and Lake Ladop • 

The westward movement was connected « 

tions. When the Slavs south of teii 


thus driving both Letts and Fiaw 1 
Baltic provinces, which had previously been i 
Germans <Goths). Some of the Western Fiont 1 
their way about 500 a.d., scaicelj eaito, iMb''l 
region, where they came into hostile and t ' 

' fintht Ftrmi»mtfi>rtiuniiiu TidAr^, Jm 
p. 137 sq. 


mow wtui d n m* p pt Mm tmw<§t» c m ti 
^ «iudt nqrlM- .wgnJid u m gmt 

I Mbrtad 10 » AeM (ml ^ntocdi Biijif"tte 

tK«* wan 

liMMts if At Bailie najr U ei^hwMj;«« 
klk«» aAwAc wAdmmd •( tte Gslhi, ■. RnuMM. 

Am aM dme of ibe Vaiui^ 
SbvMi bol UBca^ 
It mqr be MfBiicd tfau tbe FianiA 
tke BMt impoduit ttctkni in 
} and it mtif ham 
Mdf hM DOW beca Uscod to tfaa giaritb 
But altbonghat fint ffoM^ 
thi Hmi^ dtfe Funiab pcoplM MOD lost the polkicBl 
■Bil ihav MtbKqueiit faktny laay be named ap is 
taal abeofption in the Murounding Slav popiK 
ammiMe paocew is still gotag e« amongit all the 
BakK Finni, czcqit in Finland and Laplaad) 
MU obtam'. 
b tilrilnini agree that howevei mnch tliejr nay 
scteiB and aiagetf 
IT «■■ aU. onguia% one petqde. Sane variaot 
>fawj the BKoaaai name of all the Baltic gnuiM — 
kTIbm of KnkM^ Soau^ittJ, iboae of Eatbonia, 
itf X the Ltpft, Stmtyad, the Samojredes.. In 
klAm .Notaeaten called all the Li^p* " Finnas" (aa 

tf 4JhMriO) a '*Nanemau." 

• de k Rbm1« feptmriooak c( Mntnle, tt 
I pin* Uid, idbnU* et dira^ pftr d'kntrc* 
s I do tribtu iKiUo, dont il ne reue maincouuit que 

»iM|rr^HVMr, p. iji). 
i Muii^ eaauaonlj bat wnwgty inppaaed to bwmi 
■. to b« the original of the Teutooic Fimuat, "Fea 
' 1 4, ftr. Sfr. u^di*fiHmt€h-iaffue^4H, p. 14I. 

$0 MAX ; MST umn 

A» Ntnw gTiM MJU doK apdHirt ■ 

^^^,^^^^^^ tlwt tbew Tfam" 
Ml Buriha Ingufe M the 1 
"***" Nor do tbe pcewnt ii 

na wbtd^ £ftr more in oatwud * 
hem their L4^ od^iboun than do < 
ifTi.K»w^ tbu ii, tbeir wettcn md ( 
other. The THnstiuM, irtw call t 
Pw^l^" have rather broad, heavy ftaiM 
or grey eyes, towy hair and white coni[dax 
flciid colour of the North Genaanic and J 
tempenunent is somewhat sluggish, paasm ■ 
and vindictive, buE honest and tiustwottl^. 

Very different are the tall, slim, active J 
"Cowhods," from Xari, "Cow"), widi n 
straight grey eyes, brown comi^exion, am 
that of the hero of the Kalevala, h«ngii>g in 
shoulders. Many of the Kareliatu, and most t 
iHgriani about the head of the Gulf of Fintai 
Votes and Vepsea of the great takes, hare t 
speech, religion, and usages to the suiroundil 
tions. But the more conservative ^~ 
tenaciously preserved the national sentiment fa 
tions. Despite the pressure of Sweden on t 
Russia on the east, the Finns still stand oat i 
pean nationality, and continue to cultivate * 
harmonious and highly poetical language. Sino»lhi^ 
they have been Christiant, converted to the ( 
"Saint" Eric, King of Sweden, and later to 1 
by tbe Swedes*. The national university, i 
Abo to Helsingfbrs, is a centre of much j 
work, and here K Lonnrot, father of Finnish 1 
out his various editions of the Kalevala, that oC'ri 
of some 50,000 strophes. 

A kind of transition from these settled ■ 

< "H Finnas, him >ulite, and >a Beonnu tpnef 
(OroiiiiB I. 14). 

* Sm my paper on the Finn* in Cassell'i Stortkamt^lti 


laKKorraiaN honoolsl 399 

^'M«i<'die' White Son nUeh in- ^'-WV* 
rhMm^t tba OwM S«<K«Mi 9*). ThoiB 
A'SBMfewr MMdjr 300,000, n« evea ctfiad BOBoidi' 
l4t)4Wi^iA» tdli m dut tibete u » conrimntf iaov»' 
» bMw««a K^ud uad SauuUnsTia. "Tht 
' HMBd die Gulf of BotfaniB uul «p^ 
i'lo Kktali, -wiun Atj sepftiatfl^ tome go^ 
■ to AltcD. Thcf (cxiaw the same loote 
[ to hinorittu, MMbe of the NoneveB 
I from Ffaiknd'." The w f ereoeee ai 
MmoMlf to dteoe primitive Bothnian Fiiui% irith 
i fait came in contact, and who in die 6ih 
> wore MiU in a rode itate not greatfjr 
K::ttot ' of ^ir Ugrian forefathefi. As shown hy 
, tiwy liTCd almoit exdniirely 1^ hunting 
1 aetfeelf a rudimentaiy knowledge of agricolnue, 
l^^fniMmBBitber butter DOT cheese from the milk of their 

I diO| and in s«Qe measure still ai^ the kindred 

t the allied YttraJk StNtuyadt of 

» the oo^ true nomads still sur- ^^^J^S^t 

H( A. R Cocks, who travelled ^^^ 

ndc aborigines in i88S, describes 

ange north to Lake Enara, as " for the most 

li daas," and found that the Russian Lappi of 

i, **aKgpt as to their clothing and the adt^tion 

I food supply, are living now much the 

I probably lived aooo or more years 

i pomitive Ufe, in fact, than the Reindeer I^pps 

They have not yet begun to use tobacco, and 

It tn entirely unknown among them. Unlike 

»s of the race [the Norwegian, Swedish, and 

^ -Atfr are a very cheerful, light-hearted people, 

h ed. p. j8. The Swediih BttAmia ii Mated 

*, ■nninj low-lriag coMtUndi ; hence KaimtUaittl, 

\ woold BMsn "Costtlsnden." 

33 — 3 


lUai: PASTAHB 1 


fSmiiar tniit ham bean n 
Hr F. G. JackMMi dese^Ma m 
pttaUa pcqplc, dbyghring m goM^, aad 
■ad Benunent*. He givca Aev 
nUcb is iboat the ume as thai of Ibc. 
4 in., otbcn nthcr less), while that e( th«-i 
9 ia. <T<^ard). Although the 
nnoh loaa pronounced in the Li^pa thn 
soaae leapects — low Btatore, flat tut with 
the latter reminded Mr Jackson of the 
branch of the Beormas (Permian Finns)^ 
much mixed with the Ruisiana The 
GntTca," occurring throughout the southern paM 
are now known from their contents to hav» 
Norse lace^ who appear to have occupied tim 
New Stone AgCi while the I^p domain aeaoi 
reached very much fiuther south than Trondl^Hm. 
All these focts, taken espedally in rnnnfitiw 
^__^ anival of the Finns thnnsrivee iti' 

oricini ud support to the view that the I^i^- 
not of the Suomalaiset, but of tfa* 
and reached their present homes, not from 
North Russia through the Kanin and Kola 
round the shores of the White Sea, at some 
to the occupation of Finland by its preseat 
assumption would also explain Ohthere's 
and Fermians seemed to speak nearly the s 
resemblance is still close, though I am n0t 
which branch of the Finno-Ugrian family Laii|| ■•< 
allied. . h 

Of the Mongol physical characters the LapplMfll 
TemiMn- 'ound low skull (index 83), the 
nuat- bones, somewhat Rat features, and 

The temperament, also, is still pertu^, 
1 A Boat Sbumej' it Inari, Vildug Clab, F«b. 1, 
^ TJu Griat Freum Land, JS951 p- 61. 

■ te Beaft Ji — < 4a, OnhtMtaia Jkmam b 
»4hBNliiMiMd noiriMK wsqiiind »ipMttr AMla^ 

4* bhK* «r pta* or bnh buk, Inwiftii viOi 

H^ ar sakub, wUch we cciHiBkMd on liM 

I, -tod Adr wrMsnow d|w tatetpictid fejr 

^B«iM<Me%n poMntaui haartaie d f dw «otei<]ir 

^ «nd in Bt^bad the expicaian "Lap- 

r pfttfVbMl, tlthoogh it i^on tlMt time 

I ^r iritohes, bat only wiufdt. m L«pUwd. fldcdi 

t'lMVcMMd "to be ptactised, iltboi^ woaxtt tiw 

r^if « VHIetMl afioslife ttill Imgw OB. Mimr utd 

ne oten bnried or hid VK$.y, the owoera ^rinc 

I ttw secKt, cuiter tluxn^i fnrpil ftilw w. or bck 

l^^'^i* pvpow in Ac hope of tfant making pforiwNi fat 

toWpii^n hdicA enjoy n sdll more vigoroai eriiteace. 

y-Wdiingi go well wttii him, he is a Cbriadan; bnt 

r die, or other catutiophe happen, he imme- 

1 to hti old god Mmk ot CAaJ£...He oondiKfl hi) 

< bf ta0tt and in ucret, and caiefidly Kncns 

HUgl of Chaddi'." Mr Jackson notked Kvenl 

f ^1 compromiM between the old and die neii^ todt 

I'Orow miifikaeated on the Samoyad gnrea by an 

t to convef tbe dead saMy over the inovi .of 

\, and the lii^ of stonei, within iriiich the bonun 

r pertiapa fbrmeily oflered to propitiate Chaddi; 

^'Ittee tUttga have ceased, "it is only a few yean 

1 living on Novaia Zemlia sacrificed a yoking 

b *aA pnrtioea still prevail not tmiy amongst the 
I of the Yenisei and Otn 
r«f ft* Uials— but even amongst r^^"**^ 

ndvinians, Cheremisses and other 
i).|gQl MiTiving in the Volga basin. So recently as 
* 71b Gtm/ />»•«• Land, p. 84. 



the year 1896 a number of Votyaks were tried and convicted for 
the murder of a passing mendicant, whom they had beheaded to 
appease the wrath of Kiremet, Spirit of Evil and author of the 
famine raging at that time in Central Russia. Besides Kiremet, 
the Votyaks — who appear to have migrated from the Urals to 
their present homes between the Kama and the Viatka rivers 
about 400 A.D., and are mostly heathens — also worship Inmar, 
God of Heaven, to whom they sacrifice animals as well as human 
beings whenever it can be safely done. We are assured by Baron 
de Baye that even the few who are baptized take part seaetly 
in these unhallowed rites ^ 

To the Ugrian branch, rudest and most savage of all the 
Finnish peoples, belong these now moribund Volga groups, as 
well as the fierce Bulgar and Magyar hordes, if not also their 
precursors, the Jazyges and Rhoxolani^ who in the 2nd century a.d. 
swarmed into Pannonia from the Russian steppe, and in company 
with the Germanic Quadi and Marcomanni twice (168 and 172) 
advanced to the walls of Aquileia, and were twice arrested by the 
legions of Marcus Aurelius and Verus. Of the once numerous 
Jazyges, whom Pliny calls Sarmates, there were several branches 
— Maota, MetafiastiBy Basilii ("Royal") — who were first reduced 
by the Goths spreading from the Baltic to the Euxine and Lower 
Danube, and then overwhelmed with the Dacians, Getas, Bastamse, 
and a hundred other ancient peoples in the great deluge of the 
Hunnish invasion. 

From the same South Russian steppe — the plains watered by 
B 1 «« ^^^ Lower Don and Dnieper — came the BulgarSy 
—Origins and first in association with the Huns, from whom they 
igra ons. ^^ scarcely distinguished by the early Byzantine 
writers, and then as a separate people, who, after throwing off the 
yoke of the Avars (635 a.d.), withdrew before the pressure of the 
Khazars westwards to the Lower Danube (678). But their records 
go much farther back than these dates, and while philologists and 
archaeologists are able to trace their wanderings step by step north 
to the Middle Volga and the Ural Mountains, authentic Armenian 

' Notes sur Us Votiaks payens des Gotwernements de ICazan et Viatkay Paris, 
1897. They are still numerous, especially in Viatka, where they numbered 
240,000 in 1897. 

^tti^mnHSKH MsauxuL 

Off tMcfci»thfMAiaNtaiy>>^ Vmdkr . 
b of iBalgim, diinB fton dcirteaw 

I JAMlMBiMii-u a pctt natioa ihrdby «M# W te 

Kite JtttMpNii peoplo, may hwe beaa mm 

ii'4Uv adMic^ te|dyiii^ Boc w nack a {'■'tiealK 

frail dw sA^Htuti of the .Angpf (Vdga) lietweai tbe 

. Bn at that time tUi atctiM «f the 

vevtefcbManatBly held by noieortoM komo^ 

felMwttaa^ iht Hano-lTBriui fiimi^, and paMmologte 

I Mne to thia connectioB bejroml aU qimtiaa 

l-appaaianoe, qieabhf and nwgei tbeae baada 

I, wto fcnsed pennaoetit aettleiBeati fai Btasit 

wtoaw DaBobe tomuda dw cIom of the 7tb oentnty'. 

tbaM'aqd datteioaa wtAen, who dnnk the milk ud 

kieA'«ftbair fleet and iadefodgd)le hones ; wboie 

I'Mlowed^ or rather guided, the moticnu of tibafar 

mpW wboM imoada no country was remMe or impar- 

V {mctiiBd io flight, though incl^)able of fttf*," 

w mJuI ttate, which maistained its ii 

i7eaTt(678 — :39a). 

dfllM'taaaBodationwith theS)Bn,ai>d then ainiining 

(loiBiniftii " over dieir restless Sanoatiaii allies, the 

1 <be tenor of their hated name throagbout the 

tfenled only by the skill of Belisarius 

t Iheir Turk] kitunen in the overthrow of die 

r Itsdf. ' Procopius and Jomuides have left 

i-of the ferocity, debasement, and utter sangety, 

I and <d their Slav confederates during the 

^tite feandation of the Bulgar dynasty in Moesia. 

[ (Antes, Slavini) passed, no soul was left 

elutiad woric SlmitelU AlUrlAawti; 11. p. 159 
j6fMki A GJtgrofikU Amiaim a J'SiAntgnfkit 
Iho dw itiU lodiipaHable Gibbon, Ch. xui. ftc 



ot dctttactioa, npqit nof all wid» if ill 

Aealtm aatiwe aitfpea. Of all dw I 
KnviK, Ac Bnlpn hue left the mmM 
ckwdf linUed far the am. 

To the etbaologJM die kter himgy «f(>fl 
aceptional intont. Tht^ enloRd 
aevcnth centair u tTptcal Upo-Fim 
tppeaanct uul moital cbuacten. Their 4 
celebrUed bb tziniiiphi with ai^ui 
jriddedm nofespecte to the Hunt t 
bnitalitf. Yet an almoit complete nonl If ■ 
focmatioD had been effected bjr the auddleaCill 
wbta the fiulgaia were evangeUied bf QvAii 
taefaanged their mde Ugrian speedi for « G 
saoUkd "Chtuch Slav," oi even "Old BwlgMiw^^^ 
henceforth merged in the mnoundiDg Slar | 
national name "Bulgai" alone survivea, as iha^x^ 
peaceful soutbem " Slav " people, who have n t 
acquired the political independence of whkh dM^tH 
prived by Bajazet I. in 1393. 1 

Nor did this name disappear from the Vt^ li 
great migration of Bulgar bcmles te.^ 
Little Sol. during the 3rd and 4tb ceni 
•"^' contrary, here arose another a 

em[Hrei which was known to the Byzantines of ttf m 
as " Blacic Bulgaria," and later to the Arabs and 1 
as " Great Bulgaria," in contradistinction to the " £1 
south of the Danube'. It fell to pieces during thi 

■ Rubruqnis (13th cenluij) : "We oune to the EdI, a nqtk 
river fosr tiin» wider than the Seine, ftowing Irom 'Gnat J 
lie* to the north." Farther on be add«: "It ii fttmi 

ioB. but livthw nottt*, hf abo «-^*«OiMt 
it«aiC<or tlMW«A(t Vpka : < <:< 

k( uW pnnBt ktogSDin Of Hssguy- Hifti 
t-lMd bora {Meocded b^tlw kindred (oral 
rib— cMd)i AcMi, th* doBBBKOt people in Ae 
■ iMi^ tea great put of ttte period botwendK 
idilB«rinliirtheMig]«n*. Ratti« 
n Ae depda of Siberia to tbe Vaiga and 


■dStn% .the Avan p re wnted the — whe i- m 

IheAoiiden of die cmpiraai the unweknac 

at tbe Elbe by dte Aiutnuiaa fikaiilnt 

Gepidse, tbey witfadrev to die Lover 

giiag»ii Bajan, wbo, before hisorcv- 

and death in 6»t, had croMed 

Sinninm, and redaced the whole ragieo 

Later die itill powerfal 

ibUowen, "the Avar viper and the Ssv 

ialkan lands, and in 635 neailj captured 

woe at last cmhed by Fepia. Uag erf' 


■ «te an bcTond dw Dairabe, on tbe Coaitandoiipie 
b Sktat-Mntk}. 

•MMC k> At Unl Hoantaiu, for Jtu da mm CHfin 
7. WM the hud of BoMfrl," that b, BtuUir, a lug* 
itin occap7 a ctnuidecalde toritoiy in tbe Oraitniig 
Mthcn iIopM irftbe Urak. 

liiod ate d man; of the tnTrivitqc fngitive On-U^nn 
iitft wil tw"), lAcaoe tbe report tbat tbe; wav not 
frUm- Tarid g ^aaaloi ki would appav to admit duir dnbi 
M^ B|if caM the Ulgan and Aran of iboae timca caoDot 
|Kdhthv''*hed. XmmdUk, one of their envo;i to Jtutinun, 
Padna, and y»rthiiit*t teemi 10 pcnnt lo the Warkhon 
|:««aMMl*« agca of tbe eaatero Tuiki, tbe Uignn, and Oe 


Italy, who reoccupied Sirmium in 799, and brought back such 
treasure that the value of gold *was for a time enormously 

Then came the opportunity of the Hunagars (Hungarians), 
who, after advancing from the Urals to the Volga (550 a.d.), had 
reached the Danube about 886. Here they were invited to the 
aid of the Germanic king Amulf, threatened by a formidable 
^ coalition of the western Slavs under the redoubtable 

oriirinsand Zventibolg, a nominal Christian who would enter 

^ * "^ ' the church on horseback followed by his wild re- 
tainers, and threaten the priest at the altar with the lash. In the 
upland Transylvanian valleys the Hunagars had been joined by 
eight of the derelict Khazar tribes, amongst whom were the 
Megers or Mogers^ whose name under the form of Magyar 
was eventually extended to the united Hunagar-Khazar natioD. 
Under their renowned king Arpad, son of Almuth, they first 
overthrew Zventibolg, and then with the help of the surviving 
Avars reduced the surrounding Slav populations. Thus towards 
the close of the 9th century was founded in Pannonia the present 
kingdom of Hungary, in which were absorbed all the kindred 
Mongol and Finno-Turki elements that still survived from the 
two previous Mongolo-Turki empires, established in the same 
region by the Huns under Attila (430-453), and by the Avars 
under Khagan Bayan (562-602). 

After reducing the whole of Pannonia and ravaging Cannthia 
and Friuli, the Hungars raided Bavaria and Italy (899-900), 
imposed a tribute on the feeble successor of Amulf (910), and 
pushed their plundering expeditions as far west as Alsace, Lorraine, 
and Burgundy, everywhere committing atrocities that recalled the 
memory of Attila's savage hordes. They were reported to drink 
the blood of their captives, so that in medieval legends the term 
hungar, ongar (the ogre of our fairy tales), indicated a man -earing 
monster who devoured the flesh and drank the blood of children. 
Later the same word seems to have been revived and associated 
with the Uigur Turks who, as above seen, took part in the 
Mongol invasions of Europe under Jenghiz-Khan and his suc- 

This period of lawlessness and savagery was closed by the 


Their hOBdaiow 

1 tenuiiu a topical i 
; fti^7, refiecting in its somewhat composite 
VTiHtioas Himo-Ugric and Tmki eleawBts {Ugrians 
I ftoai dM Unb, Volga Finns, Tu^ Ann and 
f lAlc^ die tabttratum of the Magyar notioa is oon- 

f flw Uagjrars continue to occupy a pontion of vital 

B in Eastern EonqM^ wedged in between the nocthem 

1 Slav peoples, and thus presenting an insnnnount* 

dw aqilntiMU of die FansUvist dreamers. The 

I Magyar nadonality, a compact body of about 

r;(>89SX boU* the boundless pUins watend by the 

~ B and the Thetsa, and thus permanently separates . 

ti Moravians, and Slovaks of Bohemia and the nordieni 

mn tfwsr kinsmen, the Yugo-Slavs ("Soudwin Slavs ") 

I die other now Slavonized Balkan lands. These 

I Bi« in their turn severed by the Rumanians of Neo- 

h ftoa thdr northern and eastern brethren, the Ruth- 

I, Great and little Russians. Had the Magyars and 

I tdoptcd any of the neighbouring Slav idioms, it is 

; like the Ugrian Bulgarians, they must have long 

fel ^ bwit b cd in the surrounding Fanslav world, with con- 

»14m central European nations wbich it would not be 

Here we have a striking ilhu^adon of the 

ge in developing and jveaerving the natknud 

a in many respects to that now witnessed on 

t the English-speaking populations on both 

S Am bcH antboritr on this point, hoMt that In it* 
mac to the Fliiiio-Upric, uid in its vocsbnlary to tbe 

S Vial-AltBic Ungniitic hnulr. He ■ttribatei the effitce- 
« psnly to tbe cflbct« of tbe envirtmmeni, p«itly to the 
ji of die Ugric, Tnrki, Slax, and permaoic people* in 

i ViJfrm^ Ar MatyartM. in Mitt. 4. K. K. Gtipvfli. 




liAH? PASS* Jam; 

wdetof Ae Atiaatk and i& tte 
el lAew die ettftokfist iBij 

tKoditiit renuuk that *^At 

I It 

f ^ "0U Volk stdit md fiUt mit dcr 
^897. p. m)- 







;. . », 




i '^li 



J I i > 

>^ .. 





■» ' 'j 


I vP| 


• 1^ '-•1 



J»' ' A 



■M-.i-j.- r 

tkAPTEa X. 


TRmi t w gfcw di fan 

-(^■caric Rdukot— Ite 

itaM* Type-Unifcim ChmeW of BAteo SpMdi— 
1 SnMpt-ShwudHii— TUmM ud Jfaitt Henldk Tut*- 
*—K>i^<daMA/iaiaKMU—A»va/»iattAAfati$t--^Tl ' 
iMWmTIw MMnd-BdM««— Ik* ^Sb HMtoM"— Tb 

_ _ __ -The Cfaw- 

.CImi"**!* Wriliiia SyiUm— Ttw MtuUttmu—raaMn Han 
" ium: OfV'** *'x' Sligtatioiu — The Bilaxi: H%n- 

- "-— '-*— Tie DaJhr- '*-'-- "--'-' 

dPIuMiT— T: 
— 'n>dr Cvltnnl RektkMW— The Pueblo CUn Sptem— 


Borne. MfOk amd Stm/A America. ,1^'S!*"" 

f'Amte Outm, L^rador, and Grteniand; Ou "noM. 

I^Akuka and th Daminiom; Jtaervatioms 

!«l|ir AmiMm <ntf t^ United States; 

Arnona, and Hew Mex^: most if 

JMI America wit A Aegia either mild and 

wmi-aviiiud halfireeds. 

imk, eoarse, e^en very long, nearly Phyikat 
tettion; face and body Aatrkss/tn: 
ttffery or yeUowish-irown, hit dark 
r, and Bgit broton in the AmatonioH 
f BkaQ, generally metatwepkaUus 

e (A(iomfmafU,"i 


<79'X hawMwUi tw^'^m% 
ar 90 (jMvr SriHtk 1 ~ 
&MM monfrtqmaMy fn mm l Jt 
tut ike tm hxnam {ky»U JaMf':^ 
veieftd; 9tMU, matiivt, tut n 
gnaHumt, 73)/ Olwek-boiia, 
atid aito high, but tfiim ^ n 
gintraUy large, straight or torn i 
(50)/ XvM. mtarfy alwayi Uad^Pt 
tmaii, rather de^stt, and i 
Btatnn, MStaify abeve tkt nwrfjtaw^j 
but variablt — wider $JSt. 6im, 0m i 
(PentoioHt, 6v.). aiso in /Sm^ «m 
Mpwardi in Patagonia (7 
{Bororcs) and Prairie ( 
Amu, LAtfa,aiu/FMt,^)wniM/(i 

Temperunent, moody, 
wardfy trnfiassioe and e^aSle efa 
pain; considerate towards each 1 
towards their women and Mldrm, I 
strative manner; heen sense rf justice, Atfllftl 
but also easily pacified. The » 
a lofty air assumed by many st 
ostentation than to a feeling of tma ^ 
capacity considerable, much higher than ^kf^ 
the whole inferior to the MongoL j i 

Speaoh, exclusively pofysynthetit^-^j{ 
elsewhere; is not a primitive co n d iti tfft,, 
specialised form of agglutination, in w/mlk 
of the sentence tend to coalesce in a singteft 
stock languages very numerous, perht^ 11 
the stock languages of all the Other ordm t Jtff'l^ 
rest of the world. 

Religioii, various grades of ^irH t 
ship, corresponding to the various 1 
crude form of shamanism prevalent asmtt^gl^^ 
North American aborigines, polytMdsm 4 
priestcraft amonpt the cultured ptepkt., ( 

|«iMt* ^ Mofam^ mm t9 kmm rmdu* 
^.t^mmtHe iMt, mevigatipif and tdetue rmdi- 

pHt i»^ dhMtk Dim im NiHh Ameriai, iut M* 

J £tJUmaiMi (lumt, Aleut, Esn- o/jgj^ 
K <S«diln, CUppewyan, Apuhe, Navajo); 
■ (Dvlawue, Abeaak^ Chippeway, 
^ Sk; ud Fox, BUckfoot); Inqumam 
IfttlMMrk, TOKuon, Seneca, Cayny^ Oaoa- 
^pimwi ^Dakota, Omaha, Crow, Iowa, Ooge, 
M4tf>A«HlwMM (Cfloancbe, Ute); SaHikm; 
^m^fenmnni Mm^Ae^im (Cteek, Choctav, ■> 

(Zn&i, TqiuA, Jemei, 

Opaian; NakuaOMt (Aztec, 
(Uaya, Quiditf, Pocoii»n)i JfuUcm; 

Migaam (Chibdia); Qvegkmtm 

ilnca, Ajnuua); ywiva«i {Cbtmu); 

AtijnH ; WanwutHi 

TatftmoMi CM- 

(Atotai, Maypuie, Wafuaiu, 

fiHyrpf); CanAoM {Bakairi, Nahi^ua, 

Anoma, Macosi, Ackawoi); 

Tupi, Omagua, Mundruca) ; GesoM 

r); CJtamuui; Mattguayaii; ladean; 

• Afouam; PutkhoM (Pampas); 

(Yahgan, Alacaluf). 

of the EutMO Hcmiqihcw did ll 

Or, what u pnctjcdly tht ■ 

or divisioiiB o£ Baukind did tbejr taM|l|.ii 

MgrnentatioB take idw»? How fitt. iCaI 

physical aad ailtural dcvdopvMnt ii 


Hy owo viewi on thcw fiindim«itit>j| 
given in some detiO', WMf hem be bric%q 
dant tnoea of piimitiTe man — both Aa i 
in KHoe place* even his oawous ramaiM d 
dte continent from AlaAa to Fuegia, ■ 
no exception to the general atatement tl 
of the globe wete occupied by man in f 
during the eariy Stone Ages. But at tihatt f 
man, as well as man binweU^ were still bat 4 
eveiywhere presenting the same g 
Consequently the American plnstocene ma».4i 
be distinguished from his fdlows in other r 
But this generalised precursor originated, i 
several zoological zones from seveiml i 
miocene ancestors, but in one zoological a 
from one pliocene ancestor, perhaps bctt i 
Piihaanlhropus ertdus, and spread by a 
globe'. It follows that the American i 
digenous in the absolute sense, but readud t 
the Eastern Hemisphere in the primitive stcM^ p 
cultural developments. 

A study <A their physical constitution, i 
wholly uniform — with indeed two marked si 

' Antriian ln£am, EtuyclapcoBa BrUannua New (l]B 
l^, Ctup. XIII. 
* Sec pp. 8-9. 

»pp. j-e- 


l.fiMB tte'OU WmU. tSfa 

b'■iik'cf>E«n9e^«luA .1 '> ; -: \^,-<- 

riiik»ilK'to<ta*n been coMMClad witt Hctth 

MAnofr Xdudft lodtsd, «aA GtMBlatll 

■Iftimw ' The^oHter lecticn, Mnidi pmbddgr 

Aid* 1M, came appsieodr teter {daring tiit 

^•iNHiButBm Ant by Ak BerUig waim, «nd are 

^tltmrim^foe pett iOktraattm, bjr the siiU 

n^lM«:UMgnc timet thon were no-totber aitiMlt 

i^'IOBM^' At lind cotmectioii hmwia^ becri Mbt 

friAe Aantk to any appreciaUe ectenl, no daitr 

I of ^ presence of nrijr huidnc^ that 

[te in the New Worid. On tte 

^i^wUdl -hare here the fbree of the it f ongBat 

j enty inaugnuits numerous enough to afiect 

I alao exduded both from Afifea and 

■ ekm ai m of cor idioriginet would therefore 
'Bonqicana of the fint Stone Age, a lonieiriMt 
»tic tff^ and proto-Anuict, a amne- 
livpiiiBiliTC'Hoi^olo-American tjrpoi both Ewo- 
p a uen ring inanj common featmea of the 
precniKHs. la h mipiiatng dtat, under inch 
riionkl difier at to the actual relationg of the 
1,'^feat' ethnkal gioupa in the Old' Worid ; lome 
vftwmoitly denying, all Uongol kindiip, 


aOen aigg"*' tb*> «t the daw attht Sohitiiaii 
of the pdndtive faA^tsnt* of Fnnce t^gMtd 
and ft»«tfn bf dte Aea fiii «ri in lud bridge into 
flrtlMBiklBio,tbe outiert "FrcaA Coloofati" 
A/aiVMliM AMfOur, 1B97). Tfabview 

tl grooiMU (£M. p. 364). 



tun: -PACT J 

conodered u mmA or atlittla*' 
putt e( die wvU, b saf cu* iAA 
than from Adatka? TUaia' 
tisc American diviiion, with itt 
and aubattntial unifotimtjr, ccrnhMadi 
maAed types, were Tealtjr cona d toteaty? 
Ehrenetdi winds up a leagOif^aami 
with (he remark that "if the Caocaaie 
mne, there is no reason for treating tbt 
woe strange were it not subject to 
main dlvinons. In fact the American 
onifonnity when compared with dM 
iriiich taken in its widest sense comprisM! 
and Hamitic stocks, whose colour rangel 
through all transitional shades to the 
skulls show every degree of dolicho- . 
differences also as occur in Africa 
Hottentots, and Bushmen are not found 
whose variability is scarcely greater than 
Mongol peoples." To me it is specially 
this careful observer of the American at 
part of the continent closes the discussion 
ance of my general conclusion that " 
origin of both groups [Mongol and 
argued that the American offshoot has 
rc^^arded as a distinct variety in the same 
is itself taken as a distinct varie^*." 

' ElA. p. Ill, quoted bjr Ehrenteich in AiU 
ladiodoiu of such divergence are aSbrded bj tbe G*e ii 
of the American aborigines descnbed hj Dt f~ 
chancCerittic of which is peiliaps the fonn of tbe hjnUik 
porting the tongue). This observer find* thai the laigtM 
soldered to the body of tbe bone in European^ n 
can*, ai in 17 old ZuDis, 9 moundbaildeit, one Vthgu^.AM 
west Argentina, another from a PatagoolaB cave n 
Patagonians from the Rio Chobut, and 01 
u a case of aneited development which he ci 
tinguishing as "American" (Smr pulgtia feiMtt it4 



The question of origins thus disposed of, that of cultural 
development is settled i priori. It must be ob- 
vious that if the American race starts on its life cuitarT**" 
history from the Stone Ages, and receives no later loJep*"^"''/ 
accessions from abroad, whatever degree of culture 
it ultimately reached, whatever stage of progress the arts, in- 
dustries, science, and letters may have acquired in Mexico, 
Yucatan, Peru, or any other centre of civilisation, they must all 
have been independent local growths, owing absolutely nothing 
to foreign influences. 

To this logical position the only possible reply might be an 
A posteriori argument based on facts at variance with the A priori 
assumption. Such facts, if forthcoming, might, for instance, be 
the presence in some part or parts of the continent of some 
language or languages clearly traceable to an eastern source; 
or some ancient buildings unmistakably designed on Egyptian, 
Babylonian, Hindu, or other foreign prototypes; or any inscrip- 
tions on such monuments either explicable by the aid of Asiadc 
or other languages, or carved in some script whose foreign origin 
could not be denied ; or any sailing craft built on the lines of the 
Greek trireme, the Venetian galley, the Chinese junk, the Malay 
prau, or even the more primitive Polynesian outrigger or Indian 
catamaran; or oil lamps of some familiar type'; or some such 
economic plants as wheat and rice, which, not being indigenous, 
might be found cultivated in suitable localities, and thus supply 
an argument at least for later intercourse. But nothing of all this 

Stvitia del Musm dt la Ptala, vii. 1896). Here may be quoted Virchow's 
weiEh'y words on (he general uniformily of the American type in conneclion 
wiih ihe seven Patagonians (Piyoche tribe) broughl to Europe in 1879: "Wir 
haben Tast nichls in der alten Welt dieser Homc^neitat an die Seite zu stelien. 
EKe Maaseabaftigkeil der fCnochenentwickelung...die bei den Grontandem 
anHuigl. und sich durch fast alle altein Volkerschichten Amerikas bis lur 
Mageihaensstrasse verfolgen lasst, irilt bier so aufTallend vor, dass der Kopf, in 
Verhaltniss lu dem Gcutmnilkorper, nabezu so gewaltig erscheint wie der 
Kopleines Lowen" (Ztiliih./. Etknol. 1879, p. 199). 

' Except amongst the Eskimo, who might have borrowed the idea Trom the 
Norsemen, "no lamps at all were known to the indigenes of America, not even 

to tbe comparatively cultured Mexicans and Peruvians" (E. B. Tylor, ymm. 

Antkrep. Itut. 1884, p. 351). 

2J— » 


without diicoTaiiig nqr cobnndvl 
qdterei IxTond mch u wmf he imetAM 
Ae eonunon ptjchic otutjr af Ae I 
not hcfc be idrancwl of thia ■ 
find its confiraiBtioD in the dttultdhM^ltv^il 

One point only need detttn i 
America of any aailing veMete ei othirvi 
iriietlier for iolasd <K muine waten, at «&« 
die eaateni peoples. The AlgtmquiaM ) 
canoes, in die cahn Peruvian watoi rafti,4 
and currents, and it is si 
Indies the roving Cariba hoisted a nidta 
<aaft when venturing fiom ii 
lent contrast be imagined than that preae 
Petrie's "New Race" aheady 5000 ymn^ta 
fictile vases with the device of "a long boat H 
ensign pole, and many oars," and the 1 
the Eskimo, who despite their vidnity to AaJii b 
show except the open skin kayak with ittt 
most the larger skin-covered umiak, 
iriiich oars and sail may be used, but in ■% 
with the &ce toward the bow, using the { 
In &ct all the American boats were 
paddle, which rephued oar, rudder, and tnw m 
ences to such contrivances occurring for A«.a 
times some years after conuct with EuropeUM' i! 
voyage, however, Columbus met some fine c 
150 persons off the coast of Cuba ; Pizarro al 
vessel at Tumbez, which was said to have a liB^'lll 
one or two other allusions are made by die e 
with sail and rudder, or with sail and oars*. .SI^J^ 
can be trusted, it may be inferred that in pre 
art of navigation had at least made a beginning « 

> Dt W. J. Hoffinan. T/i* CrajAU Art ^tkt. 
p. 847. .. >it^ 

» Fr. Ratzel, Tlu Hat9iyofMa)dmid,Y.xi%.fA. \t% ' 


iB ID M' nUKf tttptttt,. OM not Vltttr'f/K 

ftewdbheiWBdty Carter OP AiirlnpoiM 

•' Amorin coaU be mdwd ottlf Igr moR 
of ipedaUMd type^ poitwiingl, Bot motty 
lit^taDMtf ttm^crOiy wHids c^d)le of kng eouk 
i wkh uMfnl commodhiw to natun life m 
i open tndhig relations on utinL Hneover, cnt) 
\ft^ would be nKlen in tbc {ffCKiit coonection. 
ir^tBf gehml cftct tuch intercoune miut have been 
^ifar i'^iMHSmMt period of tine, that ii, the oeaak 
I nmt hsve beeome « beaten tnek in pie4<ene 
t dtjn. Who it bcdd «KH)gh to eMpdite Ids 
ion u that ? 
t eeriT^UT^ston — Phoenicians, Egyptiana, Ar^tm, 
,■ JaipascM, Peksgians, MykenaMWi— ^rfiewwr 
I maU han Cmad the country eitiiet uninhabited, or 
~ 1 'by the American ab<»iginei ; or, is there any 
F uninhabited, Uien they took poMetsion, 
t tetdemontt, and perpetuated their race and 
r'dtd' dtey burn dieir ships behind them, like Ctesai^ 
Hiti i>(Antaiily rdapse into savagery, beginning agidn 
't canoe w coracle ? But even so, the ndal 
f perriated, and one adcs, where in America aie 
I, Egyptian, « other dviliied and specialised 


W'oter hand, the countiy was already held by. the 
i'dwM learn nothing fix>m their foreign fiienda 
gwfaathaa become of it? Where before 
f tte wheat or rice', which could scarcely fadp 
y places ? Where the dog, sheep, horse, ox, 
k-^bnee introduced must have thriven then as 

• Aitadc comI, aot the "wild rice," or "Caiwdkrice" 

lown to tt»af North AnwricMi tribe*, and ta 

a by Mr GanUner P. Stickner in the Anur. Antkr«p»' 



L 358 




[CHAV 1 

^^^^ well as 

^^^^H words, 


? Where the linguistic 
Egyptian or Chinese 

affinities, the inevitable loa; 

Of md dung! Utea «n ftandi, 
■mgle genuine doctiment in gtooe, 
CTCV DMB found Anywhere bttwoea os- 
Ki^ not one tsngiUe link, bm ever coite 
cnlturetofdieOldandNew Worldi. ¥«< 
be needed for a chain long enou^ to 
Pacific r 

The d/fwrt ainunption tbereftiK 
fcsearcb, thoee ethnologists are fiilljr 
afaatdutely independent evolution of 
New Woiid. AmongK them it ia 
indude Hr J. W. Powell, who has rendered 
vices to American anthropology, of whtcb 
the first living exponent In the paper 
Powell affirms that " the aboriginal pet^let att 
allied preferentially to any one branch o( tfw 
Old World"; that "there is no evidence that a^^ 
American Indians were borrowed from the 
implements and many other things are found in, 
cene deposits of valleys and plains 
America," although "nothing has been 
the gladal epoch"; that "the industnal aits ot» 
in America, America was inhabited by tribe* M; 
beginning of industrial arts. They left the Old Wi 
had learned to make knives, spear and 
when they knew the art only in its crudest 
man has been here ever since the invention of ithe 
the stone hammer." He fiirther contends 
Indian did not derive his forms of govemmoi^' 
decorative arts, his languages, or bis m; 
the Old World, but developed them in the Newr^j 
the demotic characteristics of the American 
common to tribes of the Orient is universal, aU. 

' mtmt taut tk* AmtrieoH 



caMute te New Worid, «• 

■ tabedirided.ietiTwdaQj'iB ib«ia , 

^lAoDH caafinica liM ovti^nljr 

kJAne to dtttiagaiih cauAillj bstweoi tun* - 

. ^ w not denied that muUttndcv of atoac 

01 Ib mti^ puts of America whkh elewly 

f die pidsdiduc age in Europe. Nerenbelet» 

dtactef * conaponding pel»olhhic age ia die 

Jg.iMJad; beowue here they r ep r cMn t, oc may lepc*- 

p » iMr MI0B of culture which itill coatiaaei, and. hee 

ke. The European objects ocicar ia 

4|^um1 and even pre^Uaal dqpostta, in csrei mder 

leAMn;tnauociiti(niwilh long extinct buiua, and 

farmwUBTM , by all (rf which dwir {deistocene age 

lauitffatf aie eitabliahed. But in America, it ie 

QB'art Medy aai&ce finds, and when occurring m titm, 

I en die geolopcal age of the hedi, or on tbev 

( diMntbed at not), or eren on die good Eudi of 

(•^Meeinhia frim^ietlnAiUry*, Dr Thomas Wilsoii, 

ktinbqiii^, datmed for the objects in qaestion no mote 

^ ware; ^to be taken as serious evidence in &vooi (rf 

B ts>AaMrica," just as they have "proved him to . 

itJni&Uleiii^" and diis "under all reserve, and subject 

h A discovery would appear to have been made 

KIMr^ of cotperts irtio mideftook by independent 

~ i moch oooterted evidence baa the Delaware 

I, where Dr C. C Abbott had been at wok for 

nb takaa by otheit, Knone theu baDg FroC Gdwud 

iiainn on the totijcct at the mcetii^ of the Amtr. 

fiaudtntaed apootlieeMentUlnDltyaf Ae Ameriean race, 

ra and cnltBral devekipmniti, noting etpedallr the 

fedP tea, iSSk, and other uaeAil and eadly tcantpotttd 

% M alnady pointed oof in Etk. Ch. XIIL 

h P> 894 of the Snulheonian Report for 1891. 


MAX 1 mko^ 



i»vV* .V' 


^** ^ 

jmifti Mr M«fGciv '^"Ade 
above, '^ when all was considaftd 
Wgaificailtmmber* of arci&caal chip^ 
and hence weie of an age 
question of age^ Snl HoUick vqxiiied 
sand was found to be distinct^ stitfifMI 
dqposit'' He *' accepts the conchisimsdril 
that die soH»Ued pabeoliths ate of huMm 
die sand in which they occur is of 
troversjr which seems possible is over the 
fiom above and, in view of the ftcts now 
ptoof should in fiBumess rest with those 
Unless, therefore, intrusion is proved, of whi(A( 
no evidence, the question would appear to bi 
Pateolithic Man in North America. 

Furdier evidence in the same direction 
South America by Prof. A. Nehring; who 
samhagui (shell-mound) at Santos, on die 
which presents many characters like those of 
a$tihropus enctus*. There is the same 
the frontal behind the orbital region, a trait 
of old and late South American skulls, some 
relatively, but absolutely not broader than iliet 
orbital r^on of the frontal is somewhat iike^#ie 
with low retreating forehead and well-devdo|ie4 
orbital ridges; cephalic index 77*6, but h^|^t 
cranial capacity much greater than the Java, soJvr 
conjectured. The face also is strongly progA 
enhanced perhaps by the abnormal dental d 
molars and molars being very like those of tflei^ 
cranium. t<r» 

Dr H. Meyer's explorations in 1896 of tfai^ 
sambaquis in the same region, some quite 51^ 


■':» • fS 

^ About fifty mostly man«inade ai^gillite, chert, jasper, IUmI 
' An InvestigatioH of MatCs Antiquity at Trenton^ biy 

Prof. Arthur HoUick, Messrs H. B. Kiimmel, G. N. KnaHMi|jt; 

{Science n Nov. 5, 1897). 

' VerhandL Berliner Anthrop, Ges, 1896, p. 710. 

Ifplltm'Moai^ tfr Ufbt tedMT 


iB^ftUfMfc), jg dw Banm AyttM diMricX (Satf)«»- 
I (Rio Negio VollajX *Bd in Tkm dd 

K iMMiotaUy ncntwoed thit, from a tborou^ Modf 

, MpsdaUir <rf Lagte Suitll, the Daamk 

t,-tBUibit Vifoge, in£en diat swa a moic detdf 

> to' the otiier nmiaas— « eondMiMi atea 

9iA*>im skAll— Mid thtt the aadle of mBokirid h 

B'>Aa Old Worid, whence prniitm sum fti i gr*te d 

! period*. Hiese independent mfeiencee 

yewp j^l etely widi Ae towi hert edroceted on the orign 

B af'tte human tace, ud on the peopling of America 

rAg-.. , 

» oonfi^Bed by the iingitistic relatkuia in the New 

tn be expUioed only 
athattheearijTflettlenpoHeaMd mIb^i^ 
J fiwm of speech at a low stage ^JhS?** 
I and that iu Anther development 
^^'''ican soil firing an immense period of ctnn- 
1 in any way by extraneous inSuenoes. 
B extnuicoar influences is shown by the entirely 
j^yttmneta of the American languages, not one Of 
■B '<d patient ccnnparative study, has yet been 
It is not moely that they difller from 
1 their general phonetic, structural, and 

I, LXIX. p. 338 iq. 

ir ^dcr (Piiamtet) Jht La^ StaUa, Ac Copcn- 
D ftoni the Old ro the New Worid it, of covne, 
M of all Mew of the £imiidK from Anxricti M tbU 
' ^la tUi point Me Eth. p. 157. 



lexical features ; they differ from them in their very morphology, 
as much, for instance, as in the zoological world class differs firom 
class, order from order. They have all of them developed on the 
same polys3mthetic lines, from which if a few here and there now 
appear to depart, it is only because in the course of their further 
evolution they have, so to say, broken away from that prototyped 
Take the rudest or the most highly cultivated anjrwhere from 
Alaska to Fuegia — Eskimo, Iroquois, Algonquin, Aztec, Tarascan, 
Ipurina, Peruvian, Yahgan — and you will find each and all giving 
abundant evidence of this universal polysynthetic character, not 
one true instance of which can be found anywhere in the eastern 
hemisphere. There is incorporation with the verb, as in Basque, 
many of the Caucasus tongues, and the Ural-Altaic group ; but it 
is everywhere limited to pronominal and pturely relational elements. 
But in the American order of speech there is no such limita- 
tion, and not merely the pronouns, which are restricted in number, 
but the nouns with their attributes, which are practically number- 
less, all enter necessarily into the verbal paradigm. Thus in 
Tarascan (Mexico): hcpocuni=^t.o wash the hands; hopodim = xo 
wash the ears, from hoponi—X,o wash, which cannot be used 
alone ^ So in Ipurina (Amazonia) : ntcuftuatfaurumatinii = I draw 
the cord tight round your waist, from «/, I ; cufaca^ to draw tight ; 
/fa, cord ; tHruma^ waist ; //>i/, characteristic verbal aflSx ; I, thy, 
referring to waist'. 

^ Such disint^ration is clearly seen in the Carib still surviving in Dominica, 
of which Mr J. Numa Rat has contributed a somewhat full account to the 
your, Anthrop, Inst, for Nov. 1897, p. 193 sq. Here the broken form artau- 
takuah&tina buka appears to represent the polysynthetic aramet€tkuametUi^- 
buka (root arameta^ to hide), as in P^re Breton's Grammaire Caraibe, p. 45' 
where we have also the form Arametakualubatibubasubutuiruni = know that be 
will conceal thee (p. 48). It may at the same time be allowed that great inroads 
have been made on the principle of polysynthesis even in the continental 
(South American) Carib, as well as in the Colombian Chibcha, the Mexican 
Otomi and Pima, and no doubt in some other linguistic groups. But that the 
system must have formerly been continuous over the whole of America scon*- 
proved by the persistence of extremely polysynthetic tongues in such widely 
separated regions as Greenland (Eskimo), Mexico (Aztec), Peru (Quechuan), 
and Chili (Araucanian). 

' R. de la Grasserie and N. L^n, Langue Tarasque^ Paris, 1896. 

' Rev. J. E. R. Polak, Ipurina Grammar, &c., London, 1894. 

fc!a£.'ip«*^>M» It'.'OAM MiBttd, but OK Iht 

! M At Ml to klliaetidi dn tkmtatt at 

Ib EAimfr the leodau? is aboosm 
»«)< QOBBi wid Twfai, by wUcfa other doMsoC 
R-aadfrj^AoM wnaoceMMy, and oae word, loiactiMM 
» length, ii able to oKpmt a lAole amteBot wtib 
Dt H. Rink, ooe of the fint EAimo 
^T-taodom liiiiii, gttci tiie imtuice: "SoMkuae- 
|<lit«>aaiiik4niiBgiBgnMg04hivfogUt ■ tbey did not 

i<lMfchft<«)liad oBitt«d togire him (^) MnMbiBf, at be 

l>lfeat'te (i) ma going to d^iait on account of being 

tfMnqpdiiDgV Sutdi monstioaties "are 90 conidicatad 

II llitly irrif* thejr coold haidly ere occur; b«t adll tfiejr 

i cna be nudentood fa7 intelligeot peofde*." 

■ mmAcc and mudi knger exainide, vriiich the reader 

biddiDgdiat there are altogether about looparticlet, 

■ Mb^ «lttcfa BBj be i»led up on any giveo stam. The 

■^adtoB in « J »e » great phonetic dianges, by which the 

• ot-dw etemaBia becomeB duguised, as, for inatanca, 

bAq^Mt4-bdf>penBywortii. The attempt todeCer- 

« of words that might be formed in this wa^ on a 

b«a ipBt, a houses bad to be given up after gettnig 

•^coaqxMtnd igdlorBsualiortugBsaniamavoqshe waats 

Id a large house. 

f Aat such a linguistic tvoluticHi implies both die 

1 from other influences, whidi must have dis- 

l^jbnken up the cumbrous process, and also the 

fi'period ot time to develop and consolidate the 

ft-7Wl0, tUr ViiMialim amd CkaraOtniUti, Copealu«eD, 

i wu fint gtvn "m >n otdbujj exsmple " by Kldn- 
ii. WM a a t htdum ^nttkt, Sect. 99, and it slw qnoted bjr 
'^Tkef diMpprawd of him, becanie he did not give to 
it )w would go <^ bccanie be bad nothing" r ~ 



uMMv WM/T asm- 


qrslma tlnomhoiic the lit# WoMf* 

imperiously demradQ#1 

l£m«. iwigiiaget, maay 

all over the condiitiit^ i 

in their vocabukij, often also in theiv 

nothing in common except this 

m which they are cast The most modenM^ 

least 150 such stock languages for the 

many as in all the rest of the world. 

But even that conveys but a fiitnt idi#^ 

diversity of speech prevailing in this truly 

Powell, who has himself det^mined as xxmnfm^ 

for North America alone S points out that the ' 

idioms are far more numerous than might bm 

such a large number of mother tongues. 

quian* linguistic family he tells us there are 

of which could be understood by a people 

Athapascan from 30 to 40 ; in Siouan over so j 

a still greater number*. It is the same, or 

in Central and in South America, where the 

is so great that no complete classification of 

seems possible. Sir Clements R. Markham ha#i 

full list of the Amazonian tribes, with all 

and even after allowing for a large number d 

branches, there still remain some 625 tribalgRH^lii 

least a distinct dialect. Indeed, but for such 

large numbers of these groups would be quite 

from each other, so great is the prevailing 

appearance and usages in many districts. Thus 

us that, "despite their ethnico-linguistic diifl 

about the head-waters of the Xingu present coi 

^ Indian Linguistic Families 0/ America north rfMiXk^i 
^ Following this ethnologist's convenient precedent, I 
and here the final syllable an to indicate stock races and 
Thus Algonquin^iht particular tribe and language of thai 
sthe whole family; Jroqums^ Iroquoian; Carib^ Caribam, «|p^ 

• Forum, Feb. 1898, p. 683. 

* yntr, Anihrop, Inst, 1895, p. 136 sq. 




fPW^' ' ' 


TsamaasacAx aboriouos. 


p' art i l li l 1 l i lfi"-.iY<t :< 

ji l ir ifci pi aiirt ^ii .-dMtincI lugniMie .«iaa|M. «f BniO^ loMe 
piilJtMJirTiliniM) bdongiiig to the Cuib, mMm (AnetfiMid 
IWi— jit llii finiiMu-Tiipi, ud wine (MaMi«tai«>d Vaun) 
tmJmimklumif*^ Obrloiulr Aae cwM tMt be M dbocwd- 
iMM^iMtiMirliagiiatic diSocBCM. Ob Uie other Jtand.the 
l)ii|l'|i>t»Biimiion ii occti io aa l l y pieaented of criha difiering 
iHiMllilt in tbeiz aocul nUtiOiiii, whidi we nevenhdeM.of Ae 
mori^ fl^jahtt^u Rgvded t^ Ehnawdi u the mm* tbaag, 
W^MmitB HniBs liayuitic group. Such are the Ipuiiia^ the 
pii»>;«Bd ^ YMuoaadi of the Pnnu vmllqr, iJl gn^ied 
iMimlM) boouus tfaej' speak dialect* of the Anwakan atoc^ 
piat.i.MA»,aant time it ihould be noted that die ■octal 
iqpfttiObntvedbjraomc nodem tntvellen are often doe to the 
fliMAaaiaf «aDtacti^fathewfaitta,iriioan now CDOoadifBg 
iiMGhiHriCAaoo-plaitta,.ud aacendiiig every Amatouan tdbn- 
flC rubber and the other natural produce abounding 

iKlfMBMdaetian to hia valuable list Sir Clements Maritbam 
||ii|RNmAa evidcoce of language bvouis the theory tbatthe 
MMMkttttliiAMi. "now like the sands on the sesrshwe for 
IJIMtMipB^ qmag from two or at most three parent 
~ ■ of tiic Tnpi language edend from the. roota of 
■ M'fte Atlantic and southward! into Paraguay.'..aodit 
|. that the differences in the root* between the 
nian languages are not so great as was generally 
A-i:i3%ia no doubt is true, and will account for much. 
e it here recorded that of the Carabuyanai (Japnra 
HiJMe or were i6 branches, that the Chiquito group 
I forty tribes speaking "seven different lan- 
Aof the Juris (Upper Amaxons) there are ten divitioas ; 
Mt(Beni and Hamor^ rivers) s6 brancbea, "speaking 
g to Southey, thirteen kngumges"; of the Uaup^ 
lidiritions, and so on, we feel how much there is 
Mated for. Attempts have been made to weaken 





■R angnlBrijr pan 

Kv Uftcsistraoe upon oivl tfiditw n b 
test caw it the Ddawue (Lou I f wpilX 1 
wliid, judging from tite qwciiiM 
Guoqiuiiui Aboot 1645, hn nndtigo— fal 
daring the last 350 jtan. 

In this connccdoD die impoctuit point n 
that some of the stoci langoiges hun an I 
others aie crowded together in im 
upland TilleTS, or about river estuaiiea, or in tf 
lets woodland^ and this strangeljr irregntar -i 
in all the main divisions of the continent 
58 lii^iuistic bmilies in North America aai 
restricted to the relative! j narrow strip of o 
Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, ten are d 
of Mexico from Florida to the Rio (kand^ 1 
round the Gulf of California, while neariy aD the M 
some six million square miles — is occupied tif-^ 
diffused Eskimauan, Athapascan, Algtmquian, i 
and Shoshonean families. The same [ 
bjr Central and South America, where less than s4 
guages — Opatan, Nahuatlan, Huastecan, ( 
Arawakan, Gesan (Tapuyan), Tupi-GoaraniaiH < 
— are spread over millions ol square miles, 1 
others are restricted to extremely narrow areas 
is lai^ly determined, as in Caucasia, by the I 
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia ; 
in the United States the cUef resort of the * 
been the fJOTd-like fonnations and estuaries w 

> /miUM LutgintK FbmSit^ p^ I4I. 


-w$f^*ammimf mG^oiims. 


■ i i:,,Jw i 'ij 

tinlimptiiolnitiifi lint lAMi 9tiA^'0BMi4^ 

rrAoiiewaELfhiiiibte in kid( it •semeddiflcA 
tMith iiMM^ of the Aaccftaiiifid dsttL ttotiheksit 
tlAidt iratfdid diMoitHeif that the gttat SiomnJmatf 
aol en the PacUk bnt oa the Adiiiitic<flqp|(e 
Henee in tim intteiioe at leait die eari^ 
mai fitMBi tiie west to the Misaoitxi, bat ftoni the 
ii(|l|9i|Md|f :M jnid' yvsp the MmiaitpiM: to their later piatrie 
^Hto je alaaoidi iMtty ahmidaiice of autntioya and eaifljr 
^iwdljijeidod hf the Padfic estuaries need not boi over- 

cause. But a moie potent oBems fno- 

idien of fierce piedatoiy steppe nonMuls> so 

iUcGeQAsal Aaia^ nost of the heterogeneous gronps 

JQ jcontracted Jtteas may stiU be regarded as ^e 

#lflt {daina/^ 

^rhievitable that such dislocationsi which have occurred 

New as well as in the Old World, 

Jte to endless intermina^ings of the two J^l^S^^ 

aiosiDg that great variability ^j^J^ 

iiiairow Hmits nduch justifies Dr 

/ilfssdtng Hit diversity of the present Ameiican 

^^: First comes the distinctly round-headed type, 

ilfae moiBid4>uilden, the cliff-dweUers, and the 

who belong to one and the ssme race. 

Jn die old graves and ruins invariably brings 

of a shorty stout, round4ieaded people with 

liijgtk nose» and large cheek-bones, resembling the 

jyMuesi and othor survivors of several tribes in 

d'Tme brachycephaly increases southwards, as 

agMy, Miitecs, Zapotecs, and others of Central 

also the did Chiriquis of Costa Rica, and 

9e oompoitent k pea pr^ de U m6me manite que 

tibavet ea Amdnqoe comme en Oc^anie, des tjrpes 

^ W Mti€it MaUuquis tt AmMcamiSf in VAtUkropokigUt 


'^^.r '. 

S» V V 

■' J ► 



itty i^Monr 




Boiifku fitffl fiutber toi^ # 
vliape <fOfb%nj*t Poddici wi if ^ 
of Ydouan <84*), with eqna^ 
modemtie prognathism. Thcae 
luans of Chili a sepaiate gioupy 
nected with the Ytmcas of the BtudSia 

On the other hand the Tdiuddu% 
have been the Sumadouro district In 
lacterised by long heads of archaic tjfmn 
Santa caves of this district that Lund 
high and prognathous skulls, which best 
long-headed race in South America. Froni' 
in all directions, north to Guiana, east ta 
west to Ancon, south to the Pampas. lis 
are the Botocudos, many Guarani, the 
the long-headed Fuegians. The long*heada 
first, and to have been followed much later 
by the round-heads. 

But in North America the round-headed 
others were encroached upon by pqpuIatioM 
dolichocephalic type — Redskins and CherokiSi 
necs, Acolhuas. Even still dolichocephal]^ isi 
Iroquois, Coahuilas, Sonorans, while the in 
with on the prairies and plateaux undonl 
mixture between the long-headed invaders aod 
whom they swept aside as they advanced soa&^ 
Minnetaris are highly dolicho; the Ponkai 
brachy; the Algonquians variable, while die 
widely round a mesaticephalous mean. \\-i^. 

The Athapascans alone are homogenecMttI 
brachycephaly recurs amongst : liis^ 
their other southern kindred»wl|a 
exaggerated form by the 
artificial deformation, which dates firom remote 
typical cases both of brachy and dolicho 
the Cerro de las Palmas graves in south-we|it 
mation prevails also in Peru and Bolivia, as well fli 



t MHic^BJ 1^1 wmr nadmt oowMMc 
A jAwiifai On dib "TolMn qBMika^ tht 
f- ibt^rin M« «iiMK aad wUle m«« hold 

ruff fthab asipNt » i ffa w d MMttliwinlai wttjal m u 

kMatamthtMgbeut CcdmI Anerioi, odMMic(M4 

\->*tMHim u ," «nd tbe Tolteoi AcnNlvit »,« 

kiwtta "Botluag more tNa • wfrt of Ae 

I, dw «aeoKon of thOK liwctm lAo balk 

fiittt^ tk* prewBt dtj U Uako. A tfaud vicir, 

, tbM the Tolteca nte not Nibou bat 

WiJtppaKad both by E. P. Dioddbif' and by 

14A1' 'MM aqpwd tbM tbe Hrjms fonnerijr ranged 

1^* Ht bol Jhat all were dnrta taath by Aslec 

jfcantftaadweatiibeHuaxteci of Vera Cnu alone 

»<aad Cbofaila were Maya aettlemeDta, and thw 

^j«W adopted by the Anecs, whence rtte 4 

; Pkcifc Coast Ac same edmkal ii 
t^tad Dt Wnmt Bou* here diMin- 

iribtt'typa,theNorUien<TsitD- t£T^ 
Mitttta KwakiatI, the Harrison Lake, 
■ ^at-beads, Sfanswaps, ftc). 
, but irtiile tbe Tumahiani are of n 

B noac^ very large headi and enonnoail)' 
f tbe avenge for North America by 6 mm., 

bitSpC (M»«w« tit TMteyO. 


America"; ludy, tbm iahnd OMfm 
high and wide noae of tibe ti 

It would be dificidt to Aid ■ 
diat iriiidi b pKMDted bf ■ 
i»df«i| ttoM, for hutance, of HairiMtt-i 
beads (88-8), and Mine of the I 
of dolidiocephaly not exceeded e««a bjrtt 
Bm thia violent contrast it soineiriiat tl 
fbrais, soch aa tboae of die ThlinUti, (hell 
the western (Alaskan) Eskimo, bj wMeH'C 
between the Arctic and the more i 
abo to be noticed that the skulls brou^fa 
Greenland by A. Pansch, of the snd C 
dition, and studied by Soien Hansen, ■ 
index as high as 75, with an extreme nu^ 

Assuming diat the SkrdUmgtr of the e 

^^^^11^ anceshws of the prcaent C 
Oi iftaM and which there is not much n 

"""^^ and many think purest sectioai^ 
in touch with Europeans ever since the' i 
World by Eric the Red about 980 a.d. 
formerly ranged as far south as 3 
agam met in 1004 by Thorvald about Kjai 
has been identified with the present C 
account applies badly or not at all M t 
other Indians, but quite well to the 1 
small size, dark colour, and broad I 

1 W. L. H. Duckwoilh, y<mr. Antluvf. JmL H 
* Cintmiblallf. Anlhrnfologit, etc., 1896, pp. i 
which dopile coniiderBble variatknu pieaent ill the SI 
Eikiroo type uul espediUy the ch*nu;lerutie high f, 
StmxA one, "ui wetchem die SchUreolinien b 
dncch einen clwa i cm. breiten ■u^triebencn S 
gam toi* tti An mautluMaAmlitlun Agtu? 
GreenUnd) presented the lowest nkul index yet n 


) k .riiiiwilf. 
^MOf—llli 1111*1 aadiatlKaMtGinnluiltXMilt 

1 piqraoa Mto, thttdM bPtt 
i^Hm*M»-Ttr Mkim tennl hxmdnA ymn m A» 
iNlfyiirtMll 'te NennnSB wiAditw, uA duct eouwst 
DtlBtM \3umi\mni dmm to dw prcM^t tfane «Briy> itt A* 
p(]l^«kivte DuM noco^sd GrMnUuuL TohAbw 
i-'AraC^T^tor tttribntei the nuor Mrikmg-eobi- 
■'^^ two cukmei. mentkmmg eqwettllr ^iha 
k'tebit of ifvU putie* redtiag tadrieil tciim 
IMI Mbd^ stoae lunpt and kettle*. "It it thai tt^ 
JMfeMMhiitat a^ have learnt Itoia the ScAndinanui 
ijlHriiilh^ iiiliainwiii liiiHi into kettles uid lunps. If to, 
MwooU tprndfroiii Greenlud over riw *hole 

r hu to be pat the theory RieiKiaaily 
^iBhr<K Wnk*, that the Eskimo craiBe was in tiM 

L]nt^«bat*k« EMm» foan tba Kne dklwt, gjvM (Im 

JriMl»''lCugMii de ctwir crae" (mjwdMdri MW^cn, 

ii^iU aiUi ftM Ac GoOBCtlTC Hackendc lume k CA^te*, 

B Bqr .4aiMr or ^jw^ pL 4|Mii< tAUe ibB wMtm 

m^rmi^pr 7^>IltlMMtenn>MHb« 

W-.A^.X iSxh p. 156 iq.) 

, S. T;^, ytrnn. Anlinf. Iiul. 1SS4, p. 3^9. 

nng'Vuy tie A Norte Ibnn of XamMt. The tenn 

^W.-A.IM1 (Abuim md itt Kt t t m-i t i , BoBon. iBto; 

ik'TMto^^JbAlB.cte., In /Vtv. yfato-. ^». i87c^ 

M4nlpMm <<aU Ac Eikimo, Akatwn, mk) Choki^i 

l4« iV«Mbr» Eijtiimtiux, >w. 
84— J 


interior of the continent, whence they moved down the Yukon. I 

and perhaps other rivers, to the coast. Here (i 
tSS^im^ Ateka) thtyi — "'^^^^^^^ 

T^ tteeibMUIfae 

dnriopiag ■"cnlttsebPBrti^aad'f 
to^ m Ascbc cnvirOBincM 
dbiif Ac nnn of icMt EMwtns%- s 
boBijd ftom Bering Stnk ts T 
odtditioM Kcwd with ibe vkv AMd 
the intexior o£ Aliska; that, iput f 
Imutdt in tlw eailiest period pe(q>M'lte4 
tlK nuin itteam settled later at the tj 
along Bering Strait, hiving off ■ 
pasting round to the Maiietme rinr, I 
pdago to Labrador and Greenland, 
taken thouiands of jean, ai tbeycan kawM 
bandi, very much as to tbii dif tbej a 
dtuiag certain seasons. 

This view is supported by many i 
asages and speech, but not from thesr | 
kayak does not attain its highest perfedkA'S 
Again the labret or lip ornament, obi 
Thlinkitfl in a reduced form due to c 
to the Mackenzie. Here two smaUer Iat»«ttM 
the mouth replace the large Thlinkit and / 
remarked by Dall, " no hunter exposed to d 
waters could have worn " ; it would haw e 
strip of flesh to freezing and been an i 
otherwise." Reference is also made to tlnv 
of the Yukon, where Lieut. Ray of the Po^ 1 
brought to light " a pair of wooden gbg|^*^ 
36 feet below the sur&ce. It has also bean i 
Eskimo could only have followed this line ntM 
of their stone lamps, without whose li^ t 
impossible in those high latitudes. "SJtiol 
Eskimo is dependent upon his lamp for 1 
seems safe to bring fiwward as a craxdltiX^ 
into bis present home was subsequent to t~ 


fc-hlWiMlllliBlilwli HtiiD»l|ii 

k^mmti^Kiiit^mm^-.ol ihe, gro u p i ii m >m.i| 

> teoit flocraet is thta euk'i;, Bmba 

AaMN'MToil jalmd tribM vNw: rt^l!^"''-' 

1 the ThUakitt ukI AtklfaMiMilNint 

edbdfetft' TheNtalMgMnatsatfl^NiiriMiRk 

■«(.e«MUcnbls •UUon both landMid «Mcr. 

I^dtc haad^nun ^. dt« river and Oefadtc 

r.u* JacQMtMtt ooaHnuaiciitioo with tine 

iTiiAQe'Dtban "Iikv*: been ctnogely nixed by 

ivdM «einnrd and tbe miAwud*." Tq ttu* 

I put^ be attributtd tbe iAthciI rtMUSkty 

lilik JKifenMK diree ditdoGt tjrpee 9^1) die 

■tiMtbMof Kotsebue Sound, who lire im Jib, 

^ awl «l«i9t have a hungry hMdc ; (9) tbe 

H'gigaaiic iWoah^ of qilendid. phjwqiie, i^e 

IfUf^id^ and feed on the (ondeer. tapiiatate 

ti'i''($) ^ ■'">'*• (tarapy peojde, who pio- 

M'^ddElldaKM before contact with aoadurn 

$tMfim mid Xmigt ^ Hu Stkim* Lm>^,iii Amr. 

• «(UM Moqii M appUcaUc te thi lAcde 

■hMi "Own teen* to be no lecofniMd cUcf- 

U; COMftmiiv one nun who miliea 

B an iMHCOsiaB uid Umffic with TUtan" 

KMky^tolJK WMiivWR, ■S84. p. 115)- 

wfaiki, mlt Mid niadMr'an die il 


of Uie people of Ent GiMnfanA « 
pOWMU u« tlie -AiwHtgiriilM. ~ 
•tations on the coast dlitfkt * 
far die fint tbne by tbe DanUi i 
dM dMe omnpriMd 413 soab iiiuaiMMttlll 
a tnet of tbwit 80 tmk*. I 
MM of these wu M luge u tlte JTm^^'I 
lAack u found in everj' Alaskui viliiige.< 
umutei, being 28 feet lon^ 15 wide,-! 
divided off into eif^t "stalb," vuying ia4 
of penons in each bmily. And hecc I 
during the loi^ Arctic winters, oO(Atat»^< 
menymaking, dancing, nngin^ pesfaapa g 
but never wrangling. " No quairel < 
no dispute about the use of the narrow ij 
unkind words are considered 1 
amongst most Esldnio peoples. 

A marvellous linguistic phenomenon ji'^ 
Eskimo Unguage, which, 
characMref involved stTucCurc (see abt 
BDKtf surprising uniformity from 1 

Greenland. It is as if the i 
were still current in all its fulness, with 4 
variation, from Ceylon to Iceland. This p 
of years in such an exceedingly extenuated ^ 
to the migrations ranging everywhere over p 
r^ons, so that no disintegrating effects were 
with other tongues. The dialectic diffi»eoo 
"comparatively insignificant," are no greater tl 
and broad Scotch. On seveial grounds R 
bmguage was fuUy developed, as we now koQ 
dispersion from the culture home. Thus the ft 

> op. HI. ti. p. ti6. 
* Rink, I. p. 16. The Ungaage l(«df ii nld tooc 
tenn, M thu it i> impossible to swear in Eduma 

jM Iiiw <f. Mw vmget, im. itHgiooi 

oUbf^ Miieaid iiirtUer» msitd<«i7< w 
w an. 0fo ak, «faea tfaanEAiaio.yMiilii. 
; Mce via IB iduwt nlufoB not oidr irWi 
bW'MW witb the "Hdty AitntTti^iM, 

wpwwloaimitorfc TbUg] 

»,do:,«itiit in all tluw topoebi betmoi te 

«i^ SibvriMi uid ether aborii^iiw is tudodiWe^ 

>^ilH9miH>fttht ptoduced by nd-^M *UMa, 

B:flMewitk bukA KraAing frtaa Lkirimd 

IdonLtbe WHth-wett cowtj aevenl creation 

■Ajrdw; ftCCHsmoo belief in good and bad ipitits, 

i^Aiid tbftt bommed. of a leally Snpiane 

l!:MKl]p ati^ thamanistic itage, Oou^. with 

wj magic piacticei and jngglerr Mw ci a te d 

re (rf I like order, a cuattSy. 

i io ertaUiih tittle bejrond the pqrchic uuty 

ft accented fact that America received aome of its 

• froa Alia dttrii^ the New Stone Age, diat is, 

I'pecqde* had already reached a certain degree 

it will never prove, (or instancy that the Aleuti 

a Yakuts, the Eritimauan* Tuugtuei, the 

h^«t Utat time has been any direct OMitact 

1 gtoapi since the New Stone Age. It is a 

■n EiUno Fdk-tale, Amtr. A mt hnftl ^ a, Jhm 


America, it w fredy naed t|f ti 
rdi^oiu, diat the identity cf AtK sad l' 
vftttnu it laddj attnmfd, with all die abovaii 
Bttt the American tw^aiu, as the Aladum f 
■tand for the mott pan at a much lowfff I 
Siberian thamani. Thejr arc little more ti 
cine-men, like those who in Africa " tmdl 
odier evil-doeis. Although sometimet looked « 

■ Thtu the Eikinu) My there it ■ good ^irit i~ 
kBTslu, and a bad ipiril how (o ipoU and ixtavf thi 
Petroft, p. 137). Cf. ftlM Nibluk'* UMcmenl 
Coast Indiaiu the iway of the «>■■■". n. "depoid* h 
retpeet exdtad bjr belief in thrir influence and powei » 
<7)^ Ctail Indiaiu, p. 34S]. 

• p. 166. < p. r73. » pp. 175-7. 

' To the weMern lungaJt corrapoiidi the Greenland M 
little heard of, but fSgurei largelj in the record* of iha aM) 
Egedeond olhen. 

1» M^miiititi rt'iiii mtaihrf^MM* 

1 by thMwbg^JlMMe faM tin, 
■ ]|i'MiM«dwr (wiwAuiiind?) w^*.* 

li w HW ^ teAMM tlwy comMae wiA Aa bi i*n n o< 

■ of Ml cqxirt tt«dcr urf ^IIM baiMrV^ 

■flfc»aai»i9p«in to fM hriwrkad*, ui cmwmb 

I W- taunl^ify ■nwncd of tMn' tiiBMvnl 

t iMNKptttK (»»lii(^ or preside It McrificU litM 

Ktiate «ni ipiiiti, whcntM 

f-MNi, -to oiw of the mott nnpoitint functioni of 

tUtrnxM «A iriiidi both ^ee bett u« tba con- 
\(fMA iM'OlteB Of a Mrikiiii^ flindtar dunctt*. 
r ttMt 8MM9«dv wItBened b)r the old trnvetla Ridmd 
^«« eaM|ttfed die acene deKiibed by Ftus Bom, 
r <« •hamluik*?) wvltei Oe people 

~lf4hatf A>«M^ «!&, p. 349. 
ifOwNtaHMM. m-. p. 6je. 

if the SUkM. tribe, Nuu River, lold Fnni Bou thM "onfy 

become « ihunaa." He added 

ll><^NIiMft M be AuHM bkTe tw npenatanl hdpen at ell," 

Mm. Tltef potnted oat witeLa to hia, and 
ete." {Tmii S^ttl tfllu Mrtk- tValtrm jyUti tf 


the U0a4 • «« to 

villi Ae <* 

rffffiMfd die Afticui witcbidoGiar fiv^ 

▼CKMlty attribnted to mcciy and c&flf 
amoogrt the Bantu Negroes themseivci. -^ f 
reaaoBaUe or efficacioiis tjUicm of 
that itifffUfff were CT fftf d by ffnfff* evil 
Giaftt and eway cough, every toothache 
chill, every fever, eveiy boQ, and eveiy 
aihnents, were attributed to such cause, 
practice was a horrible system of sorcery, aA4 
human life was sacrificed on an enormoua 
were given over to priest doctors to be 
destroyed; and a universal and profound^.t 
made them suspicious, and led to the kiUmg 
obnoxious people, and engendered blood 
scale.... In fact, a natural death in a savafe 
paratively rare phenomenon ; but death by 
blood feud arising from a helief in witcbenl^ 

In the treatment of ailments the medi< 
much to their own devices; nor were the 
anywhere very clearly defined. On the whokti 
tungak) to generalise the word, may be 

* Socio/ Or^ganiMaHofi, etc., p. 489. 

* Powell, Indian Linguistic Famiiies^ p» 39. 


I V' 

•*\ ' 

i|[iiiii8iywf ifijiiitifinniiB 


I limM t^ cdaiiag MMenhitkMis fattMil on A€ linii* 

>.> d< i % i p ici ii itijd by toine oCtiUcit c^ocl» iritt 

^||hitt»^liaMktoiOf Mr^^N^ irlio littsiiilt a«p«i6iit 

^iNdiiiC^ iHiid< ^otatmli ihe fiiwMww Attf i^u^ tibo>|nftt 

^dtiiilbiflv <iritii teveial teiiliitimd coinmni 

wd>iicidii t M Msny retemUaiieei^ of the SWda 

Mrtockt iMHre been pointed out bf witetf imt 

Jim IMle^ iodi cliiet aie m ttftdng the origin end 

i'Jbe ivibee of liie wotid, a pendM is heie briefly 

vdiO' Maori of New Zsaland and the Haida. The 

it tint tribe» their ownenhip of land» and 

^'»'MQod«e?enge aie riniilar. The men tattoo irith 

to Jd0iit% them with their sub-tribe or boose* 

omamenl tiheir canoesi paddles, house-fronts^ etc, 

fame mamier.... Tlie carved wooden mortuary 

te front of the Maori houses are also suggestive ; 

fifv ssy that while all this is not in one sense aoci- 

lesemblances and similarities axe as likely to have 

Mm tendencies of the human mind under die 

Mi tt a nihtoi s, or environment, to develop akmg 

as Amigh contact of these tribes or itaoof^ a 

f^ Hete it may be added that if the ThUnldts 

^i^eile in virtue of their common door-posts, the 

most also be one in virtue of their common 

'ie thtogi equal to the same are equal to one 

at die coiu:lurion that the Turici Yakuts and 

ire also one, which nobody has yet ventured 

wxm4 wnr 

imm i 

■ *i * 

^^^/^^^^ .^i^^W W ^^Bf^^^^^^^^^^^P ^^^ ^~^^^^W(^^^^^^^^^^^^^(^^^B '"' 

ii^tht tad foBdoee is ihe ittiet 
Eoiopean w cgfrw o if and MihjfMi 

who qpadc of ii good min ixMify 
vbo was one iii|^ araideied bgr a pag i 
floaaO many itidadii^ one of Ao 
dia aadgy riTer4MidL when a tdaek 
dowo tiie assaniii. This japuur 
never hurt aiiybodjr unless he hq^pened 
and when all were killed he was seen no 
despite its Christian colouring is 
correiH in Paraguay about Yagoaret^Abai 
changes at night to a jaguar in order to 
Withdiawing to a thicket, he £dls prone vooi^ 
thus transformed. Then to become man^ 
process in reverse order. He diflfets firosaa 
very short tail (a mere stump) and huriess 
is wounded by a daring youth and vanishes^ 
lowing up the trail of blood comes to a cave 
bonesi renews the fight, and slays the ghoul'. 
More striking still is the story cunenl 
Tucuman about two brothers, who formeriy 
wood infested by a man-eating jaguar. All 
down had failed, as at every shot his hair 
causing the bullet to rebound. Now one oCHlil 
that whenever the jaguar appeared his brother. 
sat a-watching, and one day followed stealtU^ 
woods, till they reached a tree on which hwiglk^ 
salt and a jaguar skin rolled up in a bundle, 
brother, taking three grains of salt and spreadiaig 
ground, danced round and round until ho* 
Horrified at the sight, the watcher went hoi^f 

* See p. 339. , -4 

'^ J. B. Ambrosetti, La Legenda del Yagtionii'Aia^ Wt 
Cientifica Argentina^ 1896, vol. 4I1 p. 331. V^4 



*•<»» Ml mum to Ae iMfik 

t fcipp1i»a( •mi' Mid he wmHf die 
i»«»>9«Um »Ui orifaseUh: < SoMe pil|ii« 

IH*fc|i||iii»lMtf mU <mtm ia a flMh agua m.^j^wj^ 

h.«Mlibl|i-teaBdi|«ng tem the ImC and wMSMfe 

fe.j( w+t . -■.-.. 

I «»4ha sMhl Aam Beis* abowe that tfM faWoee 


TfaM a sroup of Bythe, iR wMd) the Mvoa 

pOBlMlMi «i«ir pN^ltii) thOQgli pdting t^ tmiga 

I lk»^%«J>i. ^ bUcMrinc dw tradt of nch n^A^ 

I tM AMMmon-dw BupaticiM af tbe tribes tbtn- 

» fa te -eaie of the TsinwhuuH,- wbo han ao little 

r piaaeni ael gMwaw that their arrival on tiw coast 

A M of TiMv^ tMcnt date. 

rUlleiirir Mb of the continent we seem to enter a 

t '«cddt and here it majr be leadiljr admitted 

»&. Lalaadhae ■kown diiect contaa betwaca-tb* 

MiaBd tbose of the Eaat Algonqnian tribes (MwauMx, 

" ""«•)•. " Ixat," the wolverme, may sot 

M-'Woedi but Ma aiisdeeda bear too great « resemUsBce 

d-w ba explaiMd away as mere coincidcDees. To 

^ fm dme and msny other identittes of tfaoua^ 

viieed but recall what has beea stated of the lotig 

■ la Greenland, (rf' Aeir soudtem eqiedi- 

i, and of the former range of the Eskimos 

If omlivptng and undoubtedly interminglii^ 

1,1895, val. 41, p.)ii. 
k Gti.f. Aatkrwf. «tc. 1895, p. 487 hi- t bIm Indianittkt 
[wiMXt(U(^«MnEla'ABeiUii.i895,p. 3i9tq.; and 

A4rMwf>VeM<Me. 1884. ■ 

Mf more tfasn lirifvoCi 
Tb* AthapMCMU, so nuned from tlM. 
dontia, but abo cdlectirdjr calM . 
. divided territory, compau in the noidi 
ID AkAA Bcariy to Pact NcboB on 
point wcit to the Rocky Moantamt 
contanunoui with the Algooquiuu, riiihg' 
dipping westwuds nearly to 50* N. 
sloi^ the west cout a few so 
the track taken during their louthem 
Mexican borderianda, where they roamed 
wide tract compriBiiig pmtiona of 
and the Rio Grande basin. 

So mariced ii the contrast between 
mostly peaceful and even timid hnnten or 
service of the Hudson Bay Company, 
fierce predatory Apache, Lipan, and 
kinship might have perhaps escaped 
common Athapascan speech. The nwtheiB*- 
southem sections have a joint popnlatioii 
the southern being by far the most 
mostly reduced and settled in various 
northerners (Ah-tenas, Kuchins, 
Knives," Dog Ribs, Hares, Slaves, NahanJBi^j 
the free life of hunters and traders under A»- 
Dominion Government. 

Despite several centuries of a lawless 

steppe tribes, the Navajos hav< 
A^hiT ■"'' ^nd apparently correct oral 

arrival in the San Juan valley 
14th century, where they were probably cliff-di 
to Mr F. W. Hodge the Apaches — who are 
of the Navajos, as commonly supposed — wet 

' 'mUthM^ " ■■-■■-■ 

rwMiDlHHKa of tfw put are dw neMvchoM 

A-<<iiMi tiMMir «f 'dw «Mem JiiniltBi iMgort- 

iMt'MMfcfcBUBMi >ll ef'WbMv haM kan In fhe 

t irtb the Enopeu aettlen for about 300 jwM, 

r- Moiae infaeDOH atJiHty 

kiimtmf. ' -OAf^maf the Algenqaiui 4enala ttat 

I dta AAapaKsn, femn^ a van bat 

n baae. isdnted by 

^MMMd'fteai LiArador to the ltodue% m tkat 

a eoMenaiiious on the noith with the 

dwmAtta Umdor leaboard with the EAuooa. 


(' ibDic line, reaching on the oae buid as 

|s-^—aii>i,--«a the ethar to aad perfaapa a liitk 

) SeoHd,- North CaroUaa*. Between theaa tw« 

t ta' apex, the tiian^ waa tnmcated, and 

iVMnkarjramtted and even encroached upon bjr 

' l-'donaia In tte west, bf a detadied sovthcn 

a the centre, and by Sipnsa and ether 

» tDtnwds the Atlantic. 

II baMn dw northern and chief section of the 

OM Mr Hodge^ Tfem m 

SiiRkllahola, Wyoaii^ and Colondo, hmfcmfaw 
of A* Algooqidu paopte. 






of dMi Si lAviwce tteii^ l» die 

gp(tat|Matof Pcaaqrlvnaift «mI 

luBid <rf Chenpeake Bty. ThcM Moiiiil^ 

ceiiieided with the geogmpliieal 

to continiial fluctiiatioiis» first duriiif ditf 

two rival natkms, and then durnig llio 

Kneodi and English for saiiffemac^, is 

qnians geneialljr sided with die fiarapfi^ 

latter. . >Af 

Although gready reduced, broken 
into reservations chiefly about die United 
borderlands, the Algonquians still gieafly 
North American £unily groups. In fiict 
the aborigines belong to this division, whiflht^ 
tion of at least 95,000 (60,000 in Canada» 
Of the particular Algonquian tribe, irtienea 
name, less than 5000 still survive, all 
of Ontario and Quebec. But of the (^1 
remain as many as 32,000 round about all 
of the Crees, the next most numerous, 
17,000, all in Manitoba and the region 
and Hudson Bay. The Cree language tt |k 
idiom, perhaps approaching nearer to the 
than any other, whence it has been inferved 
race lay north of the Laurentian basin, 
shores of Lake Winnipeg. Against this 

^ The estuaiy, the islands of the Gulf, and 
of the Algonquian area, except the Labrador ooaat 
of Newfoundland, which were still occupied by ths 
district in central Newfoundland, which was origtiiaUy 
Beothukans. These are shown by A. S. Gatschet ti^: 
unknown origin, but of non-Algonquian speech. {Tk^ 
Amer, Phiht. Sec, June 19, 1885, and May 7, iMd^ 
island bdonged to, or was constantly visited by the 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. 





tt^i* IdhM^MMl Mtithwicd to ooa^ dw nam 
f Allsr'«VtUed tbe CMrakiw fiom ttw ^w« 
^104 Mvp^M thua 10 take MAifs ia tkt 
l„t* &M MMitb. Hou of tbcte momunm, 
0<«||^«( ttdtwvpoitvd tradidmi. bd<R« to pn- 
l!#»jidvuM« flf the Algc»qui«a iribaiBlo tk« 

Pcl»wwM (Leni hefttpi), Su and 
;jr«c tttincti althongfa Jointly i 

KtW VoA wd Whei placet. Of the Maiw 
Saiot -tKpMteted the firat Bible in uay native 
[tbe Long Idand Montauks*, the Man- 
tk» nuUicoe, and other Atlantic coeit 

_^ J iW M M. THto ^tkt Eatt, WMhiiigtoD. 189^, p. 11. 

(Ite HeniMk lM)u* wm hmd in the Chll Coorti of 

OTMb wGflBkBDtt of the iTtn c^ntfuy ngncd bjtOkcif dHB 

MMftad M tdU ddMlMb tD ncub kadi and Ud^K 

~,aMCo*«< TlH HoUMki pR^nt. a fnr of wbiM 

ahDM Hnitank Foint, 0017 bdd tbe wdicw of die 

yirifni but the ratboritj of tbaii Sw^kem (Gnnd 

'htn Kiknowkdgvd by the RocImwsti, the Haiinecocfc* 

nBMd gRMpt in die imitheni tectloa, all of whom 

TMb]»mi'* matty ^ Ltmg JUmtd, New Yoifc, 

a gioap of abont leo batf-lnaad*, dcMendanti 
ibcn of the Algooqnian Coirfcdecacy founded 
and aModated with the nwiwitic adTCnbma 
FmhcMaa. TheyaiOMttMiBthcdiatrietof Indian- 
^ named ftom then) mmm m nilea aut «f 
B^W epeeth, thongh idU pcood of their dM 




umaaenoM h all the Nef^ 
riM of Fwt Deubora, wUdi' wit 
dtt tnHMdent pnlri* Indbai, ntf> ilwi 
niteKMiUe gsdiering of the 
ntc tonutnf wtdt ipw>d Algenqpntti 
diejr ceded to die United Stitei 
tiaa "prairie value,"'a r>« domla 
coutitnting the present States at II 
titM tract are now thickly strewn thrti^ : 
aetUementt of the white intruden, wfaik 
Uod are reduced to about 1500 fonli^ 
among the Indian Territory, *f""— t, and 
But even the most maudlin of 
scarcely venture to 
itmnn^m. t*"*" poi^t of view there b 

regretting the transfwniatioii 
tions, when honestly administered, as al* 
and now also for the most part in the 
to regret an inevitable change, by 
possibly be doomed to ultimate extinction'' 
higher race, but by which they are in 
every opportunity of becoming peaceful ; 
Many, such as the Chikasaws and 
the Six Nations in New York, the Ojibi 
and these Pottawatomis themselves, 
destinies with a sort of philosophic ri 
made considerable progress in the arts and 
man. Even letters have not been 
surprise was afforded to thoughtful observeri 
paper on Indian legends and superstitiona 
Fomm for July 1898, by the Pottawatomi tSA 

and of being the only Virginii tribe Hill 
hunting ground" (J- GaiUnd Polkid, 77i* 
Wuhington, iS^t). 

<8iiiifc»>l<HjiiiilLaf vkM'MT h»:«a»i>m9iiiUm1m^m 

Mbtto «idi Atj^MtMlwori^M 

iWi»»»wwni hiamUx rPolM » lo » faHrb^miMi 
ipglXiJii llii hiM if ■ iriiili ftiiiii li III I fill !■ illiwrtii 
I9>«r4b» W|B ■ left opn; tlw ndM we ti|bt^Mi*«n4 
lk|MM«l».« Dm Aim oC aaiiMik. A fireii inOt dow to 
lUi Hi »! fiiiMi oft— blJBg Ae vectalon to ligbt iMi 
t— Mfc^fi fMnMr ""^M iihiiii« tb« Mnoge pafomuKft 
|lt4llMI|k*lov, tMUiafl MMud ti beud, like wMtal mwV 
|ft«4MMc. With •.ntdi, on come* the iMdiDgpaKbnMt^ 
Himwrfriwifi Utlb Bu nttle-bn like a timboMfine. H« 
||lpil#.1fe*>«M^ nd btfiM by tdltng hk Mkllenc* bow 1m 
ita94Virfi»af the dead. « weU u of Otoee yet livuv ii»d>e 
MM^tlltt WV pnaent cu adi them quatknn ud neeow 
|MMm» lhweli> He next tingB a true Mug wiMk am 
lldM MdtMMd. Ht Aea «dier goet into the lodge 1^ 
fgnwttim 4* «li outside with the audience; thiowiiig hit 
a otiMc doduaig orei the ttqi of it ImnudiMeljr 

!• 4D shake, hke a cteUiue of life with an ague diill. 

|r ift the lodge a sound, like that of a distant Mrong 

■ tieflSi and intennin^ed with itiange 

ftrflMstieiu aie asked by anyone present Ibey are 
I in an unknown tongue; bat, luckily, anxMig the 

li always a special interpreter to explaip what the 

is as good as the stanets of our modern 
Aeir psid mcdiunu, nahatnas and other tiu- 
ft-gnfat deal better than die scalping^ lingering 
honors of Indian warfare. 

Algonquian tribes to those 
at ap unknown past, the earth- 

Donds which are strewn BvUdrnT*^' 

and scnne adjacent lands, 

e^iecially in the Ohio valley, which at all 

of die Algonquian domain t Few now believe 

'«VR a different race from the present Indians, 

firttquaries agree with Dr Cyrus Thomas, who 

as— a 


dMW II Mii atMi ttttlh* Ilii 
BtUiy dBVC DQiMi €fWCtta V 

coQtsqnMUf bjT QIC pTMCMt ■bon^MMt' 
ao IMMB for afctibiiig dton toaaf 
so knowMge. 

NadiillK't tuggertkm that A* a 
«f Indiaius bat oi more crrftsed tiiba»i4 
qvuou^ bjr whcRB dtcy wbk drinn tOHV 
fodBd with Aeir towns, couocaUioaMI^;! 
bf the fint white Kttlen*. It wiwld i 
Mi F. H. Cnihing's mvestigUioM, ditt I 
hoaies of the Seniinole Indians ' 
growing up on the spot under < 
those i»eniiling in the north. Many of do 
especially between Tampa and C^ie Sablef4i 
structure, that is, made with definite ] 
sjnnmetncally into large mounds compi 
the Indian moundi of the interior, 
dwellings in shallow water, whoe the 1 
shells, accumulates and rises above the • 
appears to stand on posts in a low n 
structure comes to be regarded as the i 
everywhere. "Through this natural series iif-i| 
there is a tendency to the development of i 
habitations and for the council-house of A* « 
sites being either sepsiate mounds or single ll 
ing to circumsUnces. Thus the study of :di|,| 
Indians and of the shell-mounds in the ■ 
a possible origin for a custom of tnound-b 
prevalent among the North American Indiaa»V^J^ 
the geness of such structures, the c 
the shores of the Gulf inland, and not from tbefi 
wards to Florida. 

' Twtlftk Annual keforf eftkt Bunatt rfEtkmtl^t 

* VAnlhrBpoUgU, 1897, p. 701 >q. 

* Six/eenlA An. Jitfert Btir. BiktuUgy, WatfaiagKaj' 

N«Md tt «U liaw far ttab pmri 

|fc.'WMiaM ipmt, ukd bigfaly dmlopsd mj&Mtr UfKum, Air 

I tbt " RoiBHM of tha Kmr Worid." Md tfiqA* 

l^mwbtn nd kmg^taadiBg intcr-tribBl AMda* xnA 

j&' Wl i Mi B ii i y onr the •mnmndiag poptdiukMtf 'Am: a 

h«b«MiaMdcteMbJwt i^Sm*''- 

mpin Mi|ht hurc been atabiubtd btnrwb ilw 

irtlMl «M MtMMippi htd the adveu of the WMtw bMn 

EttuNM leDger. In the Lsonatiu t^en, 

', Atj toutd oapoMUf twv.boMfl* afolioM; 

ir<J>>«iMM>ud At /rtf^, tiiMt n, ika amr- 

~Uabiimk», OatadMsi Oiri]|M,.OnoDdifOi^ 

«ho beoune the "Six NxtiotM" when joowd'^ 

• from North Candio* in 1713. After the 

I d^penioB of the Eriei by .the Irwiuois in 1656, 

I dmppear from Uttorj, and Mtvive now only in 

< lh» tm peat lakes Huron and Erie, w called frnn 

ll At ditef member of the &inily are the Cherafcts, 
t vith the Itequoii, fint guggasted by Baiton 
V been placed bqrond doubt by Hoiatio Hale and 
Msdi BttBRst attadea alio to this loutham farandi, 
t, tfthoug^ diey have made no name in faistaiy, 
Itaa amongit the moit intelligent ttf all the .Nocdi 
It waa a Cheroki, Segwoya, better known 
,'wbo in i8t4 petfvmed the re- ^|^ 
1 feat of analyting the soasds S^T°^ 
itpolyiyuUteUc taofae, and providing 
■ dfte boqaoit point! to theSt LcwrcDceicpimutlieeHlj 
' at tdk«i irtKOM Ih^ gndn^ly morad down to tlie WMdi- 
|a«f th« CfHl LikM " (Powdl, /inAM Z^ptudlr Aaulwi. 

ned etymolocia have beea propoud, ww the 

if the fuMMU leagDC known to tbe EngUih m lliat «f 

^W MadoBi,'' wUk thcj called thoiBidvei " Qn f tatfawi^f," 


modiflcitiMu ef Ae ktten ia^WJt 
•df ndCbcr ntd nor write, uatt, 
, huonlfnotimiitf wridfigbciiigd 
bootOi Tlie gfOabay, whSeh ta tffl b 
«d), coapri w i 85 ngni, of iriu^ a 
the,Kft being foil sjIlaUiBS nikde vp 
coraUnation with dx vowds, at, Ai^''1J 
ChercAia, who have not aM iridi « 
tlie handa of die authorides, have afi 1 
origmal homes in Virginia and the ( 
where they hold the most important of AS 
present population, indoding the Ch<Ata«i^ d 
All the rest of the once powerful Iroqwmuil^iJ 
than >o,ooo, distributed in about equal palrta b 
and Dominion Agencies. 

The just mentioned Cboktaws wete 1 
branch of the MiuHAagiam I 
members of which were tlie I 
proper, generally known aa * 
numerous inleu or coast streams in their t 
Mexico; the Seminoles of Florida; 
Apahtchi, and a few others, whose co 
nearly the whole region between 1 
between the I^wer Mississippi and die Adi 
occupied by the Seminoles, did not 1 
&mily, but to the now extinct TimtiquoMmt, « 
though not necessarily a stock, language, 
suggested Caiib affinities, and although die i 
lieved to have had their cradle, not in Noittc4 
Central Brazil, it is likely enough that 1 
prehistoric times have passed from the AntilksD 
they were later driven out by the ! 
later Heilprin, have shown that Florida h 
remote times, and it appears from Mr C. B. 1 
that the skulls from the old burial-mounds a 

■ CerUuM Stmtl-Mammdi tf Dtami Caimlry, JtrrUt, H 
Sc. Philaddphu, X 189;. 

i» tf dMgr Mit i«m*Md> of 

>;i|ii iMW— ly dtdldidceplMJic tad e&lMy tfifitaMm 
i#^4V«9 it «>■ feond bjr WyiHtB «t ^m bottoqi «r 
WK l ll lllfPMIw^ H— lui<»i UB QD tbe 8t Joteft ^ 
ilil»-<Mi«tt ih lower Uycn of dte ilMlb Ind booone 
Wi:W4''iniHtemed iato a IbBentme ia iriiicb dife 
NJMM^^WMt of the skekton an firalr imbedded. We 
<^(MmMb'V Ab dieleioD » not that of a anmyor of 
HfeiyWfte-iriio van on tbe penianila befim Ae Aon* 

Hift*--!' ■.,.-. 

MD'tTMAdHiMicaiM and AlgotMialaaa, tbe moat ^iride- 
l|^< AlMffaiaB. BKtiaa me the Sonans*, 
flktif--i* '*uiK kMnro to have been emi - JSJl^ 
DviiM tbaa te «aa lately suppowd to be. 
Ni4<taS coiAned to tbe plains west of the MiMasip^ 
ll^uiMn lui^KMed to bare reached from the Padfic 
N^rMflged KHith to tiw Gtiir of Mexico and cast to 
IpHt^'^'Md -oocttpied wide tncta in Virginia and tiw 
mrtMM lb &ct ia now sov^ their primeral heme. 
^9A||^ bqpD the settlement of Virginti, a tens at 
i|tfWNfdi iridtf meaning than now, the whote region 
KfiftHialarhisiii and the coast was occn[aed by a large 
jlplHliofenwiu groups in a state of extreme instability, 
I tiw ethnical conftinon that their descendants 
n clearing it up. 
ifc^WliatBn (Algmquian) confederates, tiiere were 
k and Mnskhogean tribes, together with the 

i^<iamtt, Feb. 7. iBg6 (Reprint, p. 4). 

M^sdopled t^ Ur Powdl fee the whole bmU]', of which 
"^'IM tbe eUef dhWon. It ii in extenion of &ma, c 
■ke* Of Enemiw), an abwive tenu 
II of ihe noTtbern memben of the fiuallr- 


Giimu iSUUf 0(*4 

Mftoric evidenoe. Than wan ^J 
the SapcHH, Tiitdo', Cttntei W« 
«4w were centred ddeSjr on the Jm 
Rictooart, tod were *t rornhmt 
Powfaetiui^ while herd p ta w ed by tl 
idwm molt of Aem appear to hevebetaif 
or driven with the Aigonquiuu bejrood t 
pWos of the Mininippi basin. The a 
a(pun been united with the kiodced I 
Sionam after a MparatiOD whidi Ur 1 
abpat 1500 yean, banng hii calculatioa .< 
character of the Sioiun tongue* spoken bjr d 
" All the itatementi and traditions o 
tribes, taken in cotinection with what we k 
traditions of the western tribes of the saaw a 
the upper r^on of the Ohio— the AUe^ 
Kanawha country — as their original hoine,f 
crossed the mountains to the waters of \ 
while the other followed along the Ohio and d 
west Linguistic evidence indicates that tlie e 
Siouan family were established upon the < 
before the western tribes of that stock had f 
That the Siouan family ranged also in ti 
of Mexico is shown by the late survival in I 
{B'/ukii), i.e. "triflii^ or worthless," as tiiqr 41 
Choktaws, though they called themsdvea ' 
original home was in the present State of Mta 
Bay, named from them, where they were A 
1699, but whence they migrated about l^6t^m^ 
to Louisiana. From the specimens of their li 

> It wu from the Uit full-btood Tntdo (Totero) dflC|| 
obtained the linguiitic mateiuU which enabled him ta ■ 
amioniKciiient thu the Tatelo must hare been a Siouaa tQSii|i^4| 
nOai^h, Sot. 18S3.} 

■ UooDcr, Tkt Sianam TViies, etc p. *g. 

l^of iHMm tiM BikiaiMt »frmnwnilp» 
I Mi^AtfMtlc IriwoMi bf the ittuftlan ef tht KtNb 
I *M» isto tiw aevtb-Matem Sum «r AMh* 
> y^tbd Wwl:k«gaw tribw «U cUm |^,^^,^ 
t ijHD the €«lf SutM fioM b«y«ad the ^ Jf ff" 

~ U As thigr adnoiced th^f ckm at iMt 
I wM tU> nawqiMum and UdMu tribe* of Flotids 
ii lai due begui the long ttuggle wtucb ended m^ 
D of the 'nnukiut ud the incotpontioii Iqr tiM 
I Ae iMtorie penod, of the Utt of the Uchi, Icnlng 
reme bom Florida Cape to the Com- 
' m 8o«tb Carolina. This wave of invaaion nuat 
^iww. h*d ita efleot od the Carolina tribei toward* the 
t^ittlMybc added, od Qm Sioma (Bilozt) ttttm at ' 

|.«f> thKrewtoma and leligioiH tdeaa, thoogh not 
r eaatwD Siouan* must have 
y from tb«T Miaaouri kinmen. 
ftfld W. ^rd that "be believ'd there waa one 
ItflVfcO'hed aevenl aubaltem deitiei under him, 
rjMilirtf'God made the world a long time ago. 
p .mm At iDoon, and stars their bu^ncn in the 
', uMi good looking after, have biUtAiHy 
After death both good and bad people arc 
I puid into a great road, in idiich departed 
t- Ibr Romc time, till at a certain distance this 
1 paths,, the one eitremely level, and the other 
Hoe the good are parted from the bad 
[, the first being hurry'd away to the right, 
I kfti The right-hand road leads to a dunning 

> Mooney, tf. tU,, p. 16. 

* nu.,,pi. II. 


wmOf, wllM«tlMr^rii||il^4 

■K kMd«l witti ddkious ftiiit()^e 
TlieldHiMid padi u verynned 
ftod bamn country, where it b dmf»' 
irtKrie jrear round coret'd with abOvi^ 
upon the trees but iddes.... Here) 
been tormented i certsin number 
Mvenl degrees of guilt, they an a^tl' 
wwtd. to try if they will mend dieir 
the next time in the n^ons of bliss*.' 
A curious illustntion of the unii 
which from their very nsture mgfit be 
time and place, is afforded by the " fire 
in an aggravated form amongst the Catai 
ancient Sabines, the Fijians, and ao many 
miserable wretches are strangely infttuattid' 
devil ; it caused no small horror in me to 
his neck all on one side, foam at the 
burning coal for near one hour, and then, i 
leap out of the fire without hurt or sign at at 
Although shorn of their Gulf 'and Al 
Siouans still occupied till lately a vast if 
domain in the heart of the continent, where 
thought themselves strong enough to 
against the United States Government 
second half of the 19th centuiy. Before 
followed by the usual distributJon amongst 
Dakota, Montana, Nebraska, and other A| 
prairie nomads roamed from the Saskah 
Arkansas, and from the Mississippi w< 
Wyoming. A distinction, however, should 
true predatory hordes banded together in ttH 

' Quoted hy Mooney, p. 48. 

* Lcdcter, ii. p. 71, 

]. Yanxtoh Chief. 
» Type.) 

Elizabeth Wvnan. 
(Dakolan Type.) 





■ ■^swAinraiCAM jkB(Muoim& 


^■'•mA coimittttiin tiw fonudaUs covMnaqr «r 
k -AlliM" (of nUidb tbe <Mtf. 


U vai T«tof»), tnd tbe other braschei of tbe %i9n 
', OimlMa, Fonkas, Ktan, OMgea, Qmpi^tt 
loma, ■■■Otoet^- IfkKiarM, vnnMUgoe, MandiM, Htnaelerie, 
Own' (MMnka^— «^ fomed independent nitioiial graiv* 
oAahoililcr lolbe Dikbtu, nd preeeming mu^ dittiiiet fimtant 
in Aeir ^eedi, tT9>cl oiguiintioti, reUgioti's belieft, tocial «ngee, 
nnd OTCa in AA pkync«l appeennce. So marked are amae of 
Aeae dM wct ew, aa amongst the Aaainaboiiu, Onuhas, Otagea^ 
nd Haftdanit that die Sioaan fiunily aay be rqM«d «• a 
wMnHWi d pecqrie who, in pie-Colurabian tuneti were alreedjr 
iiniliiigiiiiHt a pnena of dfaiotegration which, if left to themaelrea, 
mw m come of time have lesulted in tbe derdopment of eereial 
dhliaet natiOBaBtiflai 

BM CHMptional interest attaches to all the Siouan peoples, 
flMNskaito ^ Ugbt which their social systems throw 
Wftm Ae origin of the bmily, clan and tribe, the dSmu. 
Mlcaa^' Mrijr lel^lionB conceptions, and the other 
paaUit eleBMnts erf human society. Hence the importance 
of- 1hn>. tNd^ nwmoiii devoted to the Siouan Indians by 
M* W; J^ McGee and tbe Ute Rev. James Owen DcHsey in 
^ilwnflt Ammaal Jt^crt (1893-4) of tkt WoM k^m Bmnam 
i^ JU fc wt p (1897). Thus Mr McGee deuly shows that the 
mmmt aoaoeptMo of the Didcoun Wakend*, as well as that of 
> ("Hanito the Mighty" of IfiawatMa), 
me or Great Sjnrit, Creator and so on, is a delouoo, 
Urtitndn beui rather a quali^ than an entity, and in any case 
^t^ts^ m u m wl BobataAce or being, and in no sense a spirit, 
''Oveat ^Hrit." Thus among many tribes "the sun 
It Ikt wakanda or « wakanda, but simply wakanda ; 
\ Ae same tribes tbe moon is wakanda, and so an 
b the stars, the winds, the cedar; even a man, 
, might be wakanda or a wakanda. In 
■ was allied to mythic monsters of tbe earth, 
Sov too, the fetishes and the ceremonial objects 
' miotts animals, the horse among the prairie 

lii)M% tmaj Bitanl lAjKto ■qd'P 
ttDOgfa it h tMjr to luBdmi 

aakf native uforauuita, cum i 
CCToeo m intopreution. The : 

Engluh wordt yet thi* iei>deHBg k at dw « 
ai wakanda vaguely connotea alao pover, • 
animate^ immortal, etc. ' " 

A ckaor itudjr of the tribal ijnteai haa al 

widespread MUcy, that of tha c 
g^'|^„„. —universal chaos and proaaimiiyr i| 

point of all hunuD sode^E. 
zationa of the lower grade are no 1 
definite, than thoae pertaining to the higher g 
the history of demotic growth among the J 
traced backward, the organizations are UimA-t 
grow more definite, albeit more simple. V%vtE<iJ 
development revealed through research are.) 
toward their origin, they indicate an initial t 
antithetic to the postulated horde, in which the a 
was segr^ated in small discrete bodies, probab)|r H 
and that in each of these bodies there was a d 
while each group was practically independent t^ltt 
inimical to, all other groups'." 

And thus the family, the initial unit, s 
of clans, each distinguished by its totem, its t 
badge, which badge, becoming more and ntoie i 
age to age, acquires inherited privileges, 1 
of endless superstitious practices and is ultiinaidy«l 

Miss Fletcher, who has made a si 

The Totem. . ' , ' 

totemic concept as prevalent i 
Siouan tribes, may be right in regarding the toteni-aa>jl^ 
fetish grown hereditary. But it is ditficult to ftdlowfel 
speaks of the origin of this personal totem thiou^Mtf 
involving a trance or vision. "Those who had i 

' Of.. 

, pp. iSi-j. 






MW|>'iriil'lWll .CaiMd ll» Tlwiik>..w tlM PM>k lo^ 

ilM*(WMklw)tlp HM %iMiecl, the bond of vaaa bsinc a 
4MilMMMlt^ JB a GoaiiDOB vimnV Tha qntem na|r Jnm 
tttft lrf*4aflhHB«l wd medifitd b7 ririou a^ oiber iteiHM- 
imilWUlllJlit bM in OBghi fin bdtiBd aU wch dntiopMntt. 
Wblti# di -Mriidy rd^iow aotiota, and it mf at ftm a own, 
atMwAr dndt^idihteg oat iodtvidnal fron anodMr, mm !»% 
iWllMi VNMfi flotn anethcr. Thus tmongit th« Fimu of dM 
^MbWMmt an Kemnido de Atafaapo, the bdi«f bokb dM 
liV*'lliHi( <MiiiMltr dM totem of the oka, bu bwoOM tb«r 
4|ld|AMt^aad tkat •fta- deidi die itdtfc of cnty Pknw pROea 
iitVAbqiir; beace tbijr never hunt or cat thit uunal, aqd dtey 
jpil'4MA all ibc MmoDndiiig tribetwe in tfaa nme way each 
^ liMM «Wi their ipecial uumal ibre&thcr*. It is eaqr to ms 
' 4Wl"MHb Utae tend to doMer round the dan or lamtljr lotan, at 
lirt'il ilMlmiiiiTilin bai^ boer a protecting or tutelar d^ of 
jVMiM iMti. It ihODld be lemonbered that the penooal ot 
HMfll'HMM'pieoeda the toiem, iriiich growi out of it, as wen by 
jkiNMMMon MOI pievaiUag amongst the very loweM peo^ca 
fgteH^-BqiitaBa of Tones Stiaif). 

(SMtHBMIt of die Siooan social system distinguish carefully 
*4HiMHilflMi dan, the gens, and the phrstry, and 
Wi^Hllr'ilieoriea of the matriaichate and patii- ^^iS^, 
t through the female and the male 
b Astinctioo, the assumption being that in all cases 
r>pfecflded the latter. "The difierence between the 
<f and the gens of barbarism is impoitaot and 
The dan is a gronp of peoi^e re^oning kinship 
b line, while the gens is a group of people reckoning 
In barbarism patriarchies are found as 
A'irilb nomadic tribes, but in savagery the patriarchy 
Henoe the first great revolution in trihst society 
I from the dan to the gens, the consolidation of 

r nitm. Amtr, Aa. betitrit, 1897- 
"fir du MmtU, 1888; LVl. p. J48. 

3$)S uutitu 

poirtr ki tfat hudi of As Av.iMd^Ml 
fuBSfK' TbeB the phciOy i»; 4 
waaatinv toaaA m wi aa il j (ft^ 
barbMHrn (a grottp of getam)- ■ * 
many gestea in a tnbe, aod two 
coDstitiite an iatervening aait wtakh 
the Utukhogeao tbete aie four phnariifc 
.wert, north «ad toutb; irith the Ztdhi^j 
bevdea the above, one for the lenjA 
phnUnet ue organized by mytboiogic 
of KgimentatKMi finds expreaijon in th|M 
Council Chamber, in the pUza, and in t^ 
Here in the phratry we have the bc^i 
tion, which ultimately prevails in di 

Such are the now current views 
haustive studies of the tribal systems 
North American Indians. As the views a| 
competent observers, they are entitled to 
and to adequate presentation in all 
may even be accepted as perhaps 
ethnical groups in question; but they 
universal application, and we have already 
have not necessarily preceded patriarchal ii 
Consequently the distinction here insisted 
and the gens is purely local, while for 
phratry may for the most part be taken 
tribe or group of clans. Even in North 
seem to be some hesitation about clan and | 
writes that "at the time of the discovery 
tribes had apparently passed into gentile 
vestiges of clan organization were found*"; 
the other aborigines north of Mexico, the 
organized on the basis of kinship, and woe 
tribal society. All of the best known triba 

> Fiflttnth An. Rtpart, 

^ ibid. Introducdon, pasam. 

* p. 180, supra. 

* Fiftiinth An. Ripott, p. 177. 

ft MUftionN JOOKsaoms. 



_, ^ ,^ _ _ griatJTdy wOByoBlMl e—plw 

NfHt* lit ftiMh UM' kave been ^laevered. Ttait the 

I ^■obHMt;' end tlM gntie^ tjnien .fiorif der 

« *• -yeeplft ««e ^Mtiiallf out of tbe ttage «r 

!■)«■• idNMMied bt the sti«e of barfaailim\'' So 

■ff.A«IBiH.<l»P«lM>Ot. ■ .end otiter gnmpi the min k Oe 

f^HSriMH^r^^ it k too KWD to criticue further, bat 

It IhViImw mU M ^o« tfau Ac diD «■ here defined is 

»4|AMIW ^MOt' in North America, white is most oAer 

M jMMiMidHl'iwlitiittinui eicept « piinly tool phenoiseDa, 

l»«lMn^#WHi dM Sue of the gnap^uirisge ud promis- 

tf Aawwlha ethpologkt*. 

^^jrftfW |ha,%eeiih wortAlM^ "uwn," "nltoge." are nuoed 

I ihmeteriMd « conndeisUe group of ^iwywMo 

^iviio fton remote tkset have dwelt and »■«»>*»* 

KM4*dt iafixed wttkiBenta of a pecuUar 

die «MMr ("taUei" or flat rocky b^jhts), 

of New Mexico and Arizona. Thqr do not 

•thucal or lingoiitic family, but rather a number of 

speaking several stock languages, and 

(Ifoqai) • dialect of the widely-diffused Shoshonean 

A certain uniformity is, however, imparted to 

by their common usages, traditions, religioui 

and genual culture. Is this respect they stand 

levd than any of the oth« North American 

the diewy often advanced diat the Pueblos 

in a ooDtinuously progressive 

;4Mgiaoing with the northern mound-buildei* and 

Altec, Maya, and Peruvian dviliiationB of 

I steady rise of the culture-grades in the direc- 
aondi is undoubted, and tt may not be without 
te round-headed mound-builders, Pueblos, and 
Idwellers are now commonly regarded as all 
tpdc. " There is no warrant whatever for the 

llyba Jttffrt, p. 187. 

* WA p. aij. 

dw diflr dwcJKngi taut iM'f 

■fohitectun'.* B 

bttwMB the noaada md iHi I 

■ad dw Mayfr-Astec t 

for r^udiBg allafikcMii 

BmaLoeal hu shomi to be ' MM 
°"**"*°^ and Mr MinddcffDOW^ 
Pueblo eauu granda — huge ttoat't 
enough to accotnmodate tiw wlude c 
local conditioni, ' and had no ] 
question of the close relatioa of { 
environment Mr MindelelTi remailts v 
complete adaptation of Pneblo arcbiti 
which it is found has been commented 4Ki^ 
did not originate in the country where it ia i 
certainly bear traces of fbnner coaditioMi> ' ' 
common in all arts, and instances of it ate H 
lecture that no europles need be dtedJ'^ 
survivals has been found in Pueblo s 
is very instructive ; it is the presence of 1C 
groups of rectangular rooms, which occor I 
These chambers are called es/tifiu or i 
houses and temples of the people [the n 
the government and religious aflain of tbc'4 
It is owing to their religious connectim tl 
preserved to the present day, carrying witbil 
time when the people lived in round c' 
whole Pueblo country is covered with the n 
and groups of rooms, put up to meet som 
Some of these may have been built centuries Ij 
a few years or a few months old, yet the ■ 

■ Coonoi Mindclcff, TAf CUf Ruins »/ Cat^rm d 
Report, Bureau of Ethnology, Wuhington 1897, p. I 
inclined to r^«rd the old qu»termiT7 skull from CslsveiHtri 
type of the mound -builders, cliff-dwellers and Pueblos, m' 
one seule et mimt race" {VAiUhroftlegU, 1896, p. iffe^ '^ 


I. Cbbf. of Hudson Bav. 
(North Algonquwn Type.) 



3. GuATUsa 
(Co»u Rican Type.) 


[^^^ HoiMnnuokit ixnuGnnM. 


VOD ite oAer hwid^ dew <fari<iHtlMllj 
4»i4f 4ii»-alr%tfl!d«r oT Um (Mm «uuip)c knew leu or oum 

■AA^aick aotiiatlipHllwd hi* porpow in dM euJeat my. In bodi 
«IW» Am Mttb il fO nide thtt no ■ound kdcmKe of HtpieBde 
ite IM AMM ftom the ttadf of iadividu^ enmpie*, bat ib the 
0aAf df targe egpegMioiu of room ire find KKoe duefc It 
MMM Mt'befergDttcta thrttheimhof Pn^Iocoutrticticniitfae 
ifeilgle rMMD, erea in the large ntny-storied villages. This unit ta 
tihtb iiaitt u mde in modem u in tncient wnk, and botb tte 
««T43oM to the tewlt which *oald be prodnced by any Indlaa 
aSbu ffho came into the country and were left fiee to wcnk oat 
tftdf own ideu. Staitiog with thii onit the wfacde syttem of 
XMIo ardalecture is a Batumi product of the country and of Aa 
«iMd&iona t>r hie Imown to hare affected the people by whoaa it 

Jn a word it ia not necessary to inrent a new race diffarent 
fliMi At pceaent aborigines to account for the PueUo itructures 
my ■ore than it is to account for the mminds. This inference 
•elf-evident when we find that one of the Pueblo 
ifcftti or Bbfi* — are actnally a branch of the 
&mi]y, who differ in no essential req>ect front 
and all the prairie Indians. 

diCK Moqui, who occupy six pueblos in Nordt-east 

titere are three other nations, as they may be called — 

jTwiwaa and ^Mmm — each speaking a stock language 

polysyntiietic type, and occupying collectively neariy 

«ltti a total popuhition of about lo^joa Each nation, 

>&(» Zufii who hold a solitary pueblo in New Mezic(^ 

a number of tribal or dialectic divisions, and it is now 

n the researches of Cushtng, Bandelier, Hodge and 

' b the pMtper trib^ namci Afti^ (piooounccd iWMi)b 

lk Impostd on them bjr their aeJghbotm, and ought to be 

waqty the eeren paebUw of the Tiubtui diitrict, AiiKna, 

'Unte, "Mch built upon the cmt of » predplee of nuid- 

M any aMMill to be eipected from aborigiml feci" (J. G. 

Dmm tflkt Maqmt rfAri—tta, 1884, p. 1*6), 


400 UIMliWMtT MtatM 

ud Mr F. W. H«<%e' ^al 

pepuktioo of 8,666 an arengc a 
dan. The cUn jaamet, of idiicb 1 
CQfnprise iiich thing! as tlie caUbMh» « 
duo&Ult, gran, talt, the nmUtWi at, ;l 
wlucfa it may again be infemd that anc^ J 
mtfelj diatinctive badges which only l*fcf^.>ii| 
or idigioui significance. It leemi impi 
any aborigines could at any time be at « 
group themselves in a really intricate ijni 
stupid as to think themselves of giasi^ c 
These ideas obviously came aftenrards by d 
analogy and germinal growth. 

But, we aie told, these Fueblo Indians m 
a highly elaborate sytnbolism, j 
recuirent seasonal festivities i 
other religious ceremonies, so eiaborate i 
symbolism is said to throw light on the inl 
Aztec and Maya monuments'. All this may bV;^ 
fancies that such ceremonial fonns were tni 
Pueblo society, let him study the " social qMcait,% 
amongst the Mexican Seres, the Fuegians, ] 
or New Guinea Papuans ; and let him i 
aie later developments compared with the cntdfti) 
human society. 

' Amtritan Anihreftlegut, Oct. 1896, p. 345 «]■ J> 

* "The revolting ceremonuli of TuMjau IH<qii] fall I 
seria of observances tnd cereoioDiala coDDected with ds 
from the plains of the MissiMippi to the and 
America, and even unto Peru, and some of the 1 
ingsand inicriptioai of the ancient dtia<,aiwellastlMi 
amoii); our Dorth-easlem Indians can be inierpreied 
the ToMjran reicatchet" (16/A Ann. Ntpart (1894-4) 
ington, 1897, p. XGviii). 



It of^e **Tlii^ia 

'""^ ~ ~ it ift poiBiad out dtft>aM 

m-fbnUky' at diitfo^ .to--' tuSSS' ' ' 
ue aKiJbed. Tboteidic ' 
'g(id% an wonfa^pad bjr iomuh of caoik^M 
Mi^efatbonte; mnd,M&rn pnetkAk 
pnscQtM in Ins omnon^bjF ji'Jinag 
\^talllkM:Ji^Slile:tptfthf athftn aitifidal qvAol. Freofaiatt 
'Pilp^pttwrrTff' Hpiawntitirei of tibe toio pantiKon tfanogb- 
~ "" iM^inAJx^^ ia the aeipent, apecUUf the vewunou and 
>;«»BmiQmV pQtant Tttttoanake. To the primitive bAhS 
» aHodatfon, too, between dte iwift-itAn^ Aid 
dthe tigbtafaif, with iu Attendant nin and thsadar; 
■M aaaedatitia, too* between the nu»sMie4i3inng 
t A* w i b d e aa m and die lije^ving atomii and freahcta; 
~ b aative lat tleanike pli^i an important itAe in the dere- 
7 in Ae inraoatioDa fiw isin, iriiidi chancteritt 

Mine fruitful line et thought in hit 

t on TSke Featktr SymM m Andmt Hcfi Designs', 

r amonpt the Tuiajui Puebloa, although thejr have 

on Kccffds, ibett turTives an ekbomte paleogri^7t 

r ma^ in Ae potterjr found in the old niinB, which 

t "a picture writiDg (rften highly tymbt)\fc and compli- 

I certain |diaaeB of Hopi thought in remote timet. 

K back to a belief, taught by other reasoning, 

ion irf andent pottery was something higher 

t to beautify ceramic wares. The ruling motive 

low one, for ia tbeir syitem everytiiing was under the 

[ Eadwtic and religions feelings were not diflerentiated, 

1 tbe odier, and to elaborately decorate a vetsd 

g a religious symbol vras to the ancient potter 

3 it was with the Van Eycks, tbe (^ttos 

H^M^OTC iHCtorial art became divorced from religion in 

||||JL»« Countries. 

' p. xctU. 

* Amer. jtiUi r p f t b gitt, Jib 

* p- 'a- 



Wttb nguo to tkk vfK'n 
dutrict it me c( «id plMnaiyM 
cafiod^ fiequcattf ctM^xaKl. •(••! 
ledge-mariced diA bf Ae < 
"ObIjt akuig ^ few I 
pemuutent witcr czut, ud iloagf 4 
tnilable fiw building aboaod; and: 
pendent u they were on emimOm 
diff dwellings The tcDdeo^ towH^il 
by intertiUiel rektiou ; the dlffd 
from agncidtiual or umi-agncnkutd v 
taoD agaiiut enemies, end the coatrol nf -H 
aggregation in commimitiet..'.. hotal^.t 
Canyon de Chelly are known aa Astee n ~ 
ii just so far as it implies lelationalap .i 
moderately advanced culture in Hexioo f 
though it would be misleading if ngndcdn 
difference between the ancient villagers and ti 
ants and neighbours still occupying the p 

> 161A Amu. R^trt, p. ffiT,.^ 

n^i^^ ' 


m'v.»^ ■■,-■',. ..-/.,- 

ifh<A]^^ lux AUBUCAH ABORIGIMBS {tmtmtud), , 
sjrn»--^' -'.'-•■ 

_._.MCl*iliMdP*cvto: AWoaMnu and jAmMmww; JHyv 

c CMgtai and Rdatitm— Auec and UajaSoipU and Caknd«|»— 

ito -STSheUMbaa-^CUddmac and Attec BnpCna-JMNtJa tiid 

u PaaoMt Otaiff^iM^ 

_ j-MMMM— I'nuititMDf btm Mortli w 

■ Cthmt—^tuAj Han in the Baliainat— Th« L^t*- 
WwCWMMf, CiiMW, and C mm* Tht Soufa Amancan ftliiainliMi 
_ j» CtUt Sarafea— Tba Caltonl Zone in S. Ainarics— Tlw C<damU«n 
"^ OJtfiUt iWrlan Cnhnrft— EmpJK of tlie Incaa— 0wrA«« Knee and 

. rt_^j._. . "rtgini ud Cnhml Rtiat i poa T ha TW 

ultntc — Htiacu and PTninid* — Pemrian 

KtUbo-Seeial ^rnem— Tlw AmKaMUm—Tht Paii^ AnSaiM— Tlie 
'.i g »w«l» i Wy ii w and A^f&wM— PatMnniant and Btnrm t W^mi- 
UoQ^-^Liajgirtic Rdadou South of the Plate Rivet— The YaHp u u 

■The Catkitt T he Atw AMn^^Ethnlcal Re- 

[ V 4VvlClBia6 Bid Centnl America interest ii centred chiefly 

1i#-» mlp w t cthnktl groups— the NahMotlatt and 
- ^i||M^alMRir^-iriiow coltunl, hiitorical, and even .JJcSSSa 
; ^ #^lf r » l rafatioM are » intimately interwoven aj;^ 
^': :lMMPl<P^>«W acarcely be treated apan. Thtu, 

" « are concentiated re^>ectively in the 

"i (Mexican) plateau and Yucatan and Guatemala, the 

I overiap completely at both ends, so that thete 

t of the Huaxtecan family in Mexico (the 

|t;;^«tOBMi) of Vera Cnu, from whom the whole groop 

ii BHMd), and of the Hihmalam 

TUi virj dtcanrnmnot bun 
dHBcalties cooB g cted whh tbe 
and mutual cultnial inflnencM. Sua 
dia^peared bjr the remor^ of the < 
had hidwrto beeo a great duturijiaf 
and all the reat hare in mjr ofmika 
of b]r E. F^Btennann, a leading 
qoestions*. Thii emio 
of Dr Seler*, who aanunes a soatbem 
from Yucatan, and a like movement of 
Nicaragua, and even to Yucatan. On te 
h<ddi that Maya art was independendf 
between it and the Axtec ahow that an 
in which process die Maja was the giver, 
He further attributes tbe overthrow of At 
years before the discovery to the Aztecs, 
Nahuas took their god Qaetiateoatl from 
a Maya peo[de. Ph. J. Valentini also ini 
tbe original peof^, the Aitecs "mete 

Now Forsteimann lays down the piindpte 
be satisfactory, should fit in with such fiuts 
and diversity of both cultures ; (i) the 
ance of the mysterious Toltecs ; (3) the 
Huaxtecs from the other Maya tribes, and 
them; (4) the equally complete 
Pipils, and of the other southern (Nicaraguan) 
the rest of the Nahua peoples; {5) dte 
Aztec local names in Yucatan, while Uiqr 

* Some Nilitui, vrhom the Spuuudi called "Ha 
were met by Vuqoei de CaroDSdo eren as far Nofl 
PinanMb These Segiuu, u tbejr oiled IbeiMelvaa, 
■nd it ii DO looeer ponihle to say bow the; 

* //imt M^f^*nikmtgtm, \a GMtis lxx. p. 37 «). 

* Alltrtiiimfr mus GnaUmmla, p. 14. 

* AmtOytis tf tie Piotriml TixtinicriMmlmt. 

TttruMiuaiac «acniGHiai. 

■iMgtf'fcWi— >i-.'fag'.Aw«-fctt».lie OMttaoB tint te lllir fciBtil 
:l|lliMK4hMDiCeiMnil AoMrin ttom <abatt sg^ to i^- N^ ■«*• 
iiWTrtjl llih Bill « b^ M^t tiibea; «bb l«d war MMlMd Cate 
ttow Mtyi^ while atUl at ft sooieirlut loir stage of caltsMi ^MM 

li|ifec«^^«i^tlK Vwdflc ode, thus tamli^ the eMcn HoMton 
fiiliitohai^ ; Pm M^rai^ caning dnu m contact wMMb» NitaM 
■pthtlU ■nilh Bamiriiy called thtw "To(ttca"fireBthe«etllan 
||<#e flNKdMn dutrict of Toll. But when dl ibe fduidH 
IMHWr dnra^ the T^ms M gradnaOy »to dw batki^Mnd, 
i>i|M1iil giiiiiil.^ dOMin ef the ftbakwa. 
jWi'lttili tthai<Ajteci bocnnved modi from dw H^a% eipeeia^. 
< they WBpfy tnuulated. A lypiGal caae ii thtt 
bKQBWi Qaetialcoatl, where owofaMvr^A* . 
That the liqiat 
'4imlaped their wiltitig ajntem b imUuiikaUe ;> lUi 
the Qntchtfs of Gnatemafai, die ccnttd 
With the hi^r culture here derdoped 
contact after paning throof^ Mixtec and 
4l||MHMMliK]r,aot long before Ctdumbiaa timea, so that tbey 
'IHMMfat hare to cOuolidBte their eeapire and awwaaaledie 
dw conttsy tite Aztecs were thenndrcs OMiged in 
tibe Hpils and the settlementa on lake NicaiagtiB, 
tbeir national peculiarities. 
ame Ac hundreds of Astec nama m the laoda 
and Nicar^ua f Here it should be noted that 
ateoK eKdnrirely confined to die amn important 
^acea hare e wiy wh er e nai 

'Wguai-of the local tribes. But even tlw Aztec 

oecar properly only in official use, heoce also 

asd an not current to-day amongst the natives 

lUoof &om the Spanish-speaking populations. 

Bri^-fMtbtrad Snake," wh tlw npRue god of tha 

leanMiMi of TanwauaO, tba " SeqMBt-Saa," cnator 

iililMi ■imi iif lliii wyAology, mi oHkt fkUnai 

the SpMikrdi and tbeir MericMiti 
Hmw lattdi. «]r» np to sbovt xstst^ 
wUdi «■■ not conqoand bam Mm' 
MeepM ibli new, adnaced'br'flifpHS^il 

Tbe higlMr H^n cukure h*4 set A 
to Yucatan, when its fiudicf i 
•ondi by the Spudaidi; aor had itiaMai)^ 
thoia that the memotitl cofanaitt tf i 
hdore the 15th centnrj be right. < 

On thta AeoTf, wfaidt cotaiidj h 
the conditioni, the Mayaa would appaav •• h 
plane of culture than dieirAttecrivak,-«Bdt| 
may be diawn from their reapectiTe wntnf 'ilf 
aboriginei these two alone bad d twl opad-1 
called a icript in the strict srase of the tl 
them had reached the same level <d e 
cnoeifonns, the Chinese or the Egyptian h 
of the syllabic and alphabetic systems ol tl 
even of the barbaric peoples, such as moal-of4l 
had reached the stage <rf graphic symbolism, ai 
threshold of writing at the discovery. " Tbe-fl 
and limited to crude pictography. The p 
or sculptured on cliff-bees, boulders, die 1 
even on trees, as well as on skins, baric, taiA 
objects. Among certain Mexican tribes, alaa^ a 
were in use, and some of than t 
Ji^^tf. diafeteotiatcd than any within ibl 

the United Sutes. The recotdaifll 
painted and sculptured on stone and moulded imit 
inscribed in books or codices of native [ 
while the characters were measurably artHtnuj^^^i 
rather than pictogiaphic'." 

Perhaps the difference between the Aztec aadH 
is best defined by suting that the former is mofea 

1 l6li Ann. Rtftrt, p. xcv. 

Iboikm^Mli. wkd it H »^K( that no 4iaglo tca^ Jkpi- 
KM ibfip nliafaetoiily dxaphi w l.. N«vMtfa|lMi 
SlfcGyiWi^SboaaMi tbu whom ao graMer MidioriQ' cm Iw wk>m4. 
^ItaiNMtJMBtiBe t» M^ tbu nmr. qf A« vynbok pioiwind.tii^ 
fiHllhtjmiw and wtn UMd to npum uitadi ud qrlliiUi». 
ttS* deas not dwo that the Maya Kiibes lud nactndthM; i4> 
^■Miitf JMi(B> vriwn they could indioue ewA letter nwkI; % a 
|||^.,«r' qmb^ On tbe contmy, ke think* a ^rmbol ww 
4|tanA^bN««M ^ naiM OT woid it r^ewnted bad at hi diief 
;||iMfce4leaiwat « oettaia cmwonuit sQond w pliable. Ifthis 
fMNb#i liH «9mM would be uwd where 4 «a« the pteaiaWt 
f^pHMxtnaf t^'*^'!^ he indicated, no rrivenoe, bowcw, to 
^$-)0timi imgaififnAm be»g neoeuarily ntaimd. Thai dw 
earth," might be used in writing caioM, a day 
<*ri^MAii^ "hmwy," because tai is theii chief phonetic 
One leaeoB wliy attempts at dedphenaent hare iailed 
erf the peculiar character of the writing, which 
[j^^tniuiiloa itige from the purely ideographic to the pho- 
l^r^ the example here given, the Maya script would 
ihave in bet reached the rebus stage, which alio t^ajn 
the Bgypttao hieroglyphic system. Cai » 
Ett TtboB, and die tranririon from the rebus to true 
alpbabetic systNiu has already been explained*; 
,oeif were the Maya day characters phonetic ; the 

itsoK aftCTwards borrowed by the 

boen described as even more accurate "'**'''*"*"^ 

itid£ " Among the plains Indians the calendan 

d^ulltlng commonly of a record of winters (' winter 

<pfj notable events occurring either during the winter 

ison; wlule the shortet time divisions 

i>^ *ni^lts' (days), 'dead moons' (lunations), and 

flowering, at fruiting of plants, migrating of 

i''!^ Aere is no definite system of reducing days 

iftkeM^m ymria i6tk Amu. Xitptri, p. lag. 


lo lunations or lunations to years. Among the Pueblo Indiam 
calendric records are inconspicuous or absent, though there is a 
more definite calendric system which is fixed and per- 
I by 1 
UeikkB bribes Aete an eUbiHM*4 
wiUi oonpiCtc c mcum ic iccotoi* ' 
iBMMV duB Haja and Nalnu lBAi&iltt4l 
not o^jr woe 365 days nckonad M^T 
TCCogniMd*." ■■ !- 

In anothn- important mpect tt» ■ 
Quicji^ peoples over tfie"] 
g^Jg^"* incwttMaUe. When 1 

compared, it is at ooce^ 1 
the discovery the Mencan Aztecs were li 
barbaiians newly clothed in the borrowed ti 
culture, to which they had not time to p 

> <6M ^m. X^trt, p. xcvL In "Tk Ktjm' 
Thomw ibowi Qm "the ytitr nomdcd te the ~ 
18 mombi of lo dkyi etch, with 5 rapplancntsJ 
ThoM who b«Te penutentl; tpftaled to thcte Ua] 
at ccmvincii^ procA of Aiiatk inflnencet to tb 
will now have to show where thcie inflooicet 
the sjttenu we fundunenlilly diitinct, the 
cationi of local development, m leen in the 
ituit the daf chaiBCten of the Majra codicc* 
explicable only in the MajB language, which ha* vo 
The Altec month of lo dayi is alio clearly ~ 
ligni on the great Calendar Stone made by king 
fined in the wall of the Cathedral tower of Hexictt. 
basalt stone, which weighs sj tool and hai a 
in the Analii del Muite NaeiatuU tU Mtxif by SdWi 
OBcribei the latronomjc syitem here perpetnated to 
American aborigines, so proioundly does it differ InMB dw . 
and all other Old World systems. Or, hcnjrs.if Indce^i' 
source, tbea only Ironi such data as mi^t 
tribes from lands or islands now covered by the Padfiel 
lent reprodaction of (he Calendar Stone in T. M.~ 
1883, p. 1B6 ; also Zelia Nutall'i itody of the " 
Tenth Intemat. Congress of Americaniits, 
rotation of market-days and the day of enforced 
pTODtinent and permanent Icataie* of the drfl 



j«ad'G*ltenu. Powady to Ait Shoihottwa iiodt 
$liui|^.^d»'AiirtiHic:4iaKln who ovenfaiew Uw^fiMlhrilm 
- g^ the Aaahuc (Mexicn) tiUeknd tboM- tbe 
'*JK- hndi i* aw o cMt t ed wilfc tfw nuM of Tola and 
ir Jarai^:«Me it wetma aow dew ihtt dw tocsUed 
'«tw'*l*)|Mim buikhw," fooadw* of Ati culieM Cntnd 
:>iedMi%i wicM net NahoMlaiu bat HMoCteauM, wbQ 
jfMli-viipalM flondiwaffd* and fonned fi«h wtUantntt in 

BUd-'VMaitB. ' . 
If JMlT'lMc' vithdnml bartMrwii woidd afpevtohien'r^ 
f^hiMtd<::^ilr'aM3F io Aathow, when it «m kter g^.^^ 
L^illMMalad bf dke rnde ChiddnMc tittwB mnged >«iam> 
'•^i|i^imitf'PBlMcri ayiteB wbicfa wu dignified in ""^' 

r^ die name of the '*Chicbiniec Empire.'' 
r-' Aoe Clucbimecs were true Nahtus', whose 

— ^ /te M^Htl ncB" (D« NkImUm, p. 179). It ihaiiU. hmr- 

l!^fl)ftn^M ttdm gga«ml and kbiulra bum of "Dogi" {CJUM, 

'% Imp muBber of uvace tribes— Otomii, Panui, Pbta*, 

ir iwerihiJ M waaddtac ■bant Mked ot wcarlif o^ tbe.ikEii* 

HOT mek-ibdlcn. anned with bom, dlagi, and dnfav, 

H< tliwitlTn Of wkh tba fanemdinf pM|>kB, Mdag 

( tha Uood of thdi csplivM or tieatiBg (ben wid) wAeaid-of 

tamn to all the mme diiliaad 

of the aariy Tnluc 

4 dvBfaatioa. Yet It has iu djrnaatka and datM and 

■.tt^mtt, rad va arc told by tbe vctacioiK natiTc hirtotian, 

of Nyal Hneace, that Xolotl, fmuider of the em^ie, bad 

iMM and wonicn, tbat bU deddvc Tictocj oTar tbe 

■oijt that he aMOMd tbe title of "ChkfaioMcatl 

r«(ifc»CUcUnwCB, and diat after ■ neceancn of mrotta, 

I, Uaxtla, lait of the ijmMy, waa over- 

iand their alliet< 

■ ^^t^i-^i^m. 

juui tmt tbMt-HmitiMfm 

dwr wacin dwir Mrna 
IMnui eonfedenoj otlkmA 
<lhe pKtent ci^oflfcxio^dwi 

Thm the Altec Empire icdaaiiAi^4l 
i$fto kad bat a brief record, ■Mibiiglfe4' 
well u manjr other fribei at 1~ ~ 
in contact with the tnoce ctviliaed E 
before the appearance of the £ 
during these ages that the Nahnaa ' 
MaTaa," as Fdnfennann puta k^ wbhw 
proceas. Una the Maja goda, for the l 
mild type like the Mayas, t 
Astec pantheon ferocious demons wkh t 
blood, so that the leocalli, " godi^ houaaa, 
human shambles, where on solenm occaaiM 
to have numbered tens of thousands*. 

Besides the Aztecs and their allien tfae^ 
plateaux were occupied by ■ 
civilized nations, such as the J 
""*""" of Oajaca, the Tiirattvs and n 

ziiuat of Michoacan, all of whom spoke iw 
glides, and the Totonaa of Vera Crus, wl 
speech, and were probably the earliest i 

> Nrnmed from the aludowy land of Aitka away M d 
long direlE in the Mven legendary cave* of ChicoBottoOiW 
at tome uoknown period to the lacoHrine region, v' 
titlan, lett of their empire. 

* "The godi of (he Maya* appear to have been Umsi 
of the Nahnai. The immolation of a dog wa* with &•■ m 
sion thai would have been celebrated by the Nahnu wtt hi ' 
Human tacriiices did however lake pUce" (De Nad«llh^jpl 
were ai nothing compared wilh the countleu Ticdttldi 
godi. "The dedication by AhuizotI of the great l4 
14B7 is alleged to have been celebrated by the botdtayal 
" under Monieiuma II. 11,000 captivei are Mid to ha*«p> 
sion iih. p. 197) ; all no doubt grots eiaggerationi, bath 
for peihaps the mou tenrible chapter of honon tai tt 



I4>r A* Mgnf&Mtt tuliu tf iiMi, catdyitfCtlw 
'■iUim aptavad^Aiid itmrifi by 1^ Mexkuu in 

-^^erike (oratpidkoi VioUeUfr-Dae gptafci JBiiiirtiMWHiii 
be mMnments vt Ac gofdea age bf 
pMiHt^UHl' RMK iloM e((ait tfw beaMjr Of Ae iMM»nr«f 
■itiym tulUHllg'."' In gcnenl thdr tiMga and tdlgiew idm 

£tbWt1hoa»«rth« Aitcoit tltlioiigl) die Zapotec^ bMMas the 
Mlif'bMd ik Hi^ Mett who took put in ttu gonmmtM. 
fc<'fear''iFeic ntmr «Ho««d to tnicfa the greund; h« wu 
ttEMM^AeAoOMenofUtftttenduitt; and iriteii h* Appeaivd 
. Ip'^ i li ^'iia. i^kfc' dienwdm, had to &U pfoMmte befine Un. 
'^Ir^MM dared HrtalM tbor CTta in his pmMnee'." ' TlM2EiVotee 
ttiHt*'^>^ apokco by ^out aio uMitm in dw State c^ 

i^yiiffhar inA tlM pidns and iiidand* contmucd to be faihaMted 
ly^ttdtftnde of wild tribea spaaking an unknown manber (rf 
miSUk^^Uf'Mfi*' "'^ ^^ presenting • chaos of edinical and 
" idaments comparaUe to that which prevails along the 

Of these nide popaladons one of die most 
■re the Otonu of the central region, 
'die tooODsyllahic tendencies of dieir 
wbidi Najoa, a native grammarian, has on this ground 
ChitwsCt from which, however, it is Inndamcntallj 
iaeit primitive are the Sen Indians ot Sonora, irtw 
111^'tS9S t^HrHcGee, and fboad to be**pn>baU7 
than any other tribe remaining on the North 
Most (rf* their food is eaten taw, diejr 
animals save dogs, tb*^ are totaUy without . 
thtir industrial arts are flew and rude*." 

that but few traces of such savagery have yet 

in Yucatan. The investigations of Hr Henry 

re^on lend strong support to Foistermann's 

early Huaxtecan migrations and the general 

by Da Nadaillac. p. 363- * P- 3^3- 

iey^«r<, p. Mi. 
ten y YKMlam, niiUddpUm 1896. 


.i< .t 



^^■^w^^*^^^^*^*^^^^^^ ^pw ^^B^^* ^^wip^w^ V ^^^pp f^^^H^wjr-^^^ ^^^i^M^BT^^^HnviF ^^HSi^VJi^VHu 

to jriekl anjr rawjiit 

modi, or bon^ or of ^cii||F 
aiiOGiatod with these Jmimali. Beoct 
Mayiui readied Yucatan abeady in aft 
wfaidi oonteqiiently waa not developed 
tmcfaaaged till the conquest. In llie 
quantities of good potteiy, genera^ ipAvt] 
metrical form, the oldest quite aa good psj^iilj 
occur in stimtified beds, showing no 
first arrivals had no metals or domestic^ 
dog, while the firactured bones occurringflUt 
some other places, raise suspicions of 

Mr Edward H. Thompson, however, wlM^ 
some of these caves, declares that "none of 
showed any trace of being charred by fire^ 
of cannibalism." In other respects he apoai^ 
and expresses his conviction that ''no peopAej 
cave-people ever existed in Yucatan, lutid thait 
of the Loltun type were undoubtedly inhal 
same race that built the great stone structures 
I furthermore believe that the caves were onl^ii 
of refuge and not permanent habitations ^'^ 

Since the conquest the Aztecs, as weU at li|Mi 
nations of Anahuac, have yielded to EuropeaO: 
greater extent than the Maya-Quiches of Yucatiil 
In the city of Mexico the last echoes of the riii| 
have almost died out, and this place, althou|^. 
seat of Aztec culture, has long been one of the 
Spanish arts and letters in the New World*. Ba| 
on the site of the ancient Ti-hod, has abnosi 
Maya town, where the white settlers themsdvea 

^ Cave of La/tun, Yucatan^ Report of Exploratkm kf^^ 
Cambridge, Mass. 1897. 

' ** In the city of Mexico everything has a Spanish 
15). The Aztec language however is still current in 
and generally in the provinces forming part of the foOM 

:;jL-s to the natives. The very streets 
' <1 images of the hawk, 
iiies, while the houses tJ^.y"'^ 
a l>e built in the old Maya 
pve the street level, with a walled porch 
round the enclosure. 

t remarkable contrast may be that the 

! seen, was to a great extent borrowed 

es, whereas the Maya civilization is now 

e epoch of the Tolan and Choluian 

: the former yielded to the first shock, 

iuis to such an extent that Yucatan, from the 

till be called Mayapan, as in the days of 

(ofederacy, whose splendour is attested by the 

s of Palenque, Copan, Chichen-Itza, Uxraal, 

&ly described ruins of Qitiriqua, Lake Itzat, and 

puatemala, Honduras, and Salvador. Despite 

position, as expressed in the softer and almost 

T features, the Mayas held out more valiantly 

s agunst the Spaniards, and a section of the nation 

1 of territory between Yucatan and British Hon- 

' naintains its independence. The " barbarians," as 

.nts of this district are called, would appear to be 

-s civilised than their neighbours, although they have 

Ve teachings of the padres, and transformed the Catholic 

I wayside inns. Were Yucatan by any political convul- 

nhed from the central government, all its inhabitants, 

i^ilh most of those south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, 

robably in a few generations revert under modified con- 

10 the old Maya culture. Even as it is the descendant* 

Spaniards have to a great extent forgotten their motlier- 

.jC, and Maya-Quiche dialects are almost everywhere current 

jjt in the Campeachy district. Those also who call themselvei 

liolics preserve and practise many of thu old rites. After 

f-|^Te to die house is cArefblly chalked, 

^'df^patted may toaw the way back when 

{'me body of same new-bora babe. The 

1 astiologen everywhere pursue tbeic 


4>£ JUXl^^ 

the ooojonctioM af dM MPM^v 

iriikb ■ cock k ncrificcd lo dw Mftf* 

tUHU to the Trinity and Htm ft 

and ciopi. **Tbae tut 

Dunci) the Red, orGodttfttieE 

Ae White, or God of Ac North, St C 

of the West, St James; and the yelhM^G 

Harf Magdalene^" "i 

To the obMrver pasnng from the t 

division of the New Worid Bb'ji 
ftmn Nonh <it first pcrc^tible, either ill 4 
*°^|^^ ance, or in the social coocBl 

The substantial unifonnit;^', i 
pfevails from the Arctic to the Austral i 
illustrated by the comparatively slight i 
the primitive populati<H)s dwelling north and • 
of Panama. 

Most of the insular connecdiq; links, iaeb '-M 
the Cebunys of Cuba', the ne 

«5r£l^B.. *e W«t In<»i«. "d th* ««*" 

of the Bahamas, have no donbt d 
the other aborigines of the Antilles. Bat Ak% 
populations would appear to have been fii 
the Timuquanans of Florida through the Wte 

> Recliu, Vol. XIX. p. 156. 

* The rapid disappeannce of these Cnbui al 
of much cfnoment. Between the jttrs istt-jt all bUM 
although they are supposed to have originally ni 
buled in 30 tribal groups, whose names and tDiitoriea M 
preuived. Bat they practically offered no 
dores, and it wu a Cuban chief who even nndei toctan if 
declaring that he would never enter the same heaven ai 
reminded of the analogous cases of Jarl Hakon, the N«n 
Wilikind, who rejected Christianity, preferring ti 
forehthen io the neat world. 

•tiWmHlaliiai ABMIGSMM. 


" l>«aitMbdii« taMfc Tbe lUMaMn* offoteMbHt- 

jMarvtara ^of good tiu, vMt kugij ^«ii i^lMadtfr 

Ir'^kte Mthftd «*er teai In anjr otiMr no« o^'atitaK !■' 

t bjr &* ditfacttr of Mme old ikHlli from tli< 

f aMiMuted hf Ur W. K. Brooki, wbe uthMtAiiigljr 

"'fltqr lire dM Tetwdns of Ae psopto who InhkbitiHl 

■ M.HM linMi ^ llwir <liK(»cr7, aoc) that dwae people 

|fa'^"tteft-iii«t«d'type of the North Amefbittd Indkn nee 

r tb^ tt thM tinae distiibated ov«r die Bahftim Isluid^ 

llbridAegretterpait of Cuba. Ai dme iriuids an onfy < 

"rftMl 'At penfaUflbi of Florida, this race nuM at loine 

t iAMttS M lean Ae Mnith-caMem extremity of tbe 

~flid' It b AeiVfore extrenelx JBterestiog to tiote tet- 

l^AMtticas crania whicb ei^ibit the cloaeat reaandriaaoe' 

i Haatt tbe Bafaans Iilands have been bbtaitied from 

' Thil cAwerrer dwelli on the solidity and maarivoneaa 

a Anila, whidi brings them into direct relation with 

ik'fiMi of Ae HiMisiippi plains and of tbe Brazilian and 

M JEoast'lands. 

t ■diout is tite connection eataUished betwees tlie 
IMhUiuk and ' CtdomlHan peoples of the -,^u.,. 
I'iisgdaleDa banns. The Chontala of <»aeMaaa 
IM acarecly to be distinguished from ''°^' 

MtE Marta hillmen, while the Chocoi and periuqM 

I have been affiliated to the Chocos of the 

dt'^fln Joan riveis. Attempts, which however can 

if fdfaided aa successful, have even been made to estab- 

'^ ' e-lriations between the Costa Rican Gnatusoe and 

^ttie Herida uplands of Venezuela, who are Aem- 

lk«f die fortneriy wide-spread Muyscan family. - 

r Moyicans we at once alter a new ethnical 

I, in which may he studied the resemblances 

I origin of an the American aborigines, and 

e obviously to long isolation and independent 

m Um AWmm/ Atoita^ ^ Scitmat, Aneiim, iSgo. 


I imtbttmaiM 

Ae walbani pbpda bo l { 
aorAe m iv tlmr •odal Mid i 
iriiOe ttte wild nibes tonch a li 
leut d die dnlited people* nie •» i h 
if not io ktten—wbere the mCerioriqt mm 
art! of ef^aeering, arcliitecton^ a 
ntion. Thus we need not tmid mmjr^ 
n>.cMi«. ^lusu* without wrr fimg \\ 
between the Atnto talA i 
goAtA even than the Sen <tf Sonon, twntrA 
American hordes. These Catios, a dm 
of die Choco stock, were said to dwdl U 
in the branches of trees; they mostty ^ 
leportedt like the Mangbattui and c 
"fiuten their captives for the taUe." 
of the Noie valley, who gave ■ 
peninsula, were accustomed to steal the n 
cohabit with them, and carefully bring up d 
teentb year, when they were eaten with mw 
ultimately sharing the same f»xt' ; and t 
Marafion " were in the habit <tf eating their < 
and grinding their bones to drink i 
They said it was better to be inside a faeai lA 
up by the cold earth'." In &ct of the < 
Herrera tells us that " the living are the ( 
the husband has been seen to eat his i 
brother or sister, the son his father; capdMi^ 

Thus is raised the quesrion of cannibaUsm fa 
where at the discovery it was incomparably i 
than north of the equator. Compare the E 
at the two extremes, the former practio^ty e 

> TTu Travtli of P. de Citta tit Ltan (HikloTt Soc ll 
' Sir C R. Markham, List ef Triitt, &c. Jtmr. 4 

"Thii idea wu widespread, ard maajr Amaionlaii p 

fecred to be eaten by their fiiendi than by « 

' Quoted by Steinmett, Endciamtitalumta, p. i^- < '; 



lli««Bfeiaf> and JMinv duir old woODM tNMMiM OMlMt 
la the BBRh Um (Mte Ibe taaMi Avk'kM 
«>nd iht pnodee timdved only u ftoenmotilil riic^ 
t dw-BritUi Cohm^uH and dbe Asttci,.^«tetipt 
t <ft^t»M nof tiwune, when: tvco the bighett ncea nt 
eflf^<^a«nring their IbUom. But in the ■otiih cenaifaalww 
t-ti" ite- BOM repolnvv feim* wis connoa enoogh tlmcM 
KittngMid eating feeble and aged aMmban of tka 
a iaetS- general; bat the Hayoninu of ^ Upper 
■ do not wait till tbey have grown lean with Teaii 
lirifed i ae ai e'; and it was a baptiaed loembef tk At 
4ie ooaaplained oo his death-bed that he would nor 
• Bual for his Chriitiatt fticndi, but must be deiouad' 
^ Ban the lowest deptiu of the borriUe are p^ttmgt 
bhf what Ji Nieuwhof rdales of the Tapuspas, a wide- 
f which includes the Botocodos, and is the same 
E^W'irilich Von Martini has given the collective name 

rtaoMbsn ct^uent the social conditions illustrated hf 
d everywhere, except on the 
X of die weMeraCordilleias, which ,2!''"'*™' 
|K%n be&ire the diacorei7 had been the 

1 succesuve cultures, in some respects rivalling 
t- much inferiOT to those erf Central America. When 
s reached this part of the New Worid, to whidi 

, Jbrnmai y SattrJUi, 1SS9, p. 153. Thulu to tbsk 

M^efth Ewopcsnt dnce the expeditknu of Titmj sod Darwin, 

S^im given np the pncticc, hence the doabtt or deidab of 

m Xtk m tgr ^i * BrmiUitm, 1867, p- 430. 
), 7b J^aieifla t/ EMei, 1891, I. p. 330. 

■M die todte Fmcht logleicb von der Matter 

I ri* aidit bcMcr bewshit weidea kimiie, ab id den 

1; Mch der Nabclitrani nnd die Ntchgebnit (*ic) 

1 det HDlter in ilirer WttldeinwunVeit gegewoa" 

•n<MSIlliiiO dniflar !> rriated bf DobriihoSer e*en oTtbe 

ilaMaMsUjregirdedube«tUMv*)itcs(tf.p. iS). 


4ia luiFi «ai 

oMj' wen tttiKtoa bj^'BC'i 
UMom wttXk enbodieAfB 4lM k 
of GeUt'ilwr (&auA U ocoopisd bjr* 
ateott obntknoiHly fiom the pnMMii 
EcutdoT, Pen, «iMl I 

^S ^f^ nordi the do 

Cbibdiu, ilmdr 1 
M«]rKaa', who had developitd as a 
OD the Bogou tabldand, and had n 
nhat more refined aodal institutHMia tei ■ 
of Colombia, though not to many of tbi « 
own race. As in Mexico manj of iheH 
little better than aavagea to the lait, to ix'C 
Muyscana were mirounded by m 
Natagaima, Tocaiina and others, cdlectn^it 
who were real savages with scarcely any t 
ing no clothes, and according to the eariy I 
to cannibaliim. 

The Muyscas proper had a traditioD 1 
superiority to a certain Bochica, half t: 
came from the east a long time ago, t 
then became the head of their pantheon, ^ 
rites and even human sacrifices. Amongst tl 
was that of the goldsmith, in whidi they I 
peoples of the New World. The piedoiis n 
to be minted in the shape of discs, whidk t 
soUtary instance or a true metal currency a 
aborigines*. Many of the European cabinets a 
these and other gold objects — brooches, pendai 
grotesque little figures of men and anim 


' Tbe n«tioiui1 name was Muyua, "Meii,""HnBHniB 
twenty (in refeieoce lo the ten fingeis and ten t 
Ckibtha wu a numelic name having allusiaa to tl 
which U oT Trequenl recurrence in the Mujick la 
the Baliacula (British Colombia) ■9 = inian-i; loaiM 
with LaL undtviginti. 

* W. Bollaert, AiUifiariiin, Elkneloguai, md M 
Granada, etc. t96o,faiiim. 


^^^H^H^PI '' "" 

ly^ ' - - -^ 

tat'MiMnscnai Aaatamtns. 


«Bdi«tfll I 

ttOf tma. 19 OB; At 

iThew Aidi an pw% ueoiMBad km bf Am.pmakt 

mA ttiam at At titMn.iiiteui n m f mt mtt .m:^ 

airi,|»rtiM iMnoaHied coMteUatioM ud foiOM «(! attwi, 

Aitttttlj incsaniiig in iwmbac according to Ae 

gfthcimtarica. Aay myaterioai lound naaBaring 

4lita^ a> lock, a noDHtain paas, w gjooajr gOige, waa 

M » maailtatatian of aoinc divine f 

to tba ctabodied ajMrit, and m the whole laadbioaate 
tfowdad arith' local deities, ail mbsenrient to BortJca, 
-laid of the llaTBca world. Thia worid itself mw np- 
'i^l^0tm-)m dn dwolder* of Chibchicom, a national Atka, lAo 
'^fiifk'mA tlwD aaaed bimaelf bj ihifting die bwden, and tbya 
''•fUttti eaith()DakeB. lo moat laodi subject to undetgrand 
.<AllMMHta malogoua ideu prevail, and when tbek louioe ia 
HMf-iObviow, it seems anreaionaUe to seek for explanalkoa ib 
: !ltlWr«dfalitic% eentacta, fneign influences, and so forth. 
' AM^'Hi'haa often been remarked that at the advent of the iriiitea 
' <Wi J—tive ctv3isationi seemed generally stricken as if by the 
"•'im/ 6mbt so diat even if not suddenly arrested by the 
. jJMntottAtT Bust sooner or later have perished of themselves. 
j|HHMg*iriationa are sddom convincing, because we never know 
)i|M#iaoqMrttive,l(nces may be at w<»k to ward off tbe evil day. 
j|||)li4|g|:aWch may be admitted, that the symptoms of decay were 
.^ilJi^ilrtMn more in evidence than the prospects of stability. 
J||ltb<fM sntaialy the case in HuyscaUnd, where the natioaal 
' $fisit4<0Xk^hiOfn of healthy development had been stifled by an 
'^ of exclusive social castes headed, as in India, 

Mkt banefiil results, by the priestly class. Akhougfa 
like the Tibetan Dalai Lama, dwelt in some 
haraaaiibie to the public — was chosen by election, the 
'hkaoMiij inherited thnr oflices through the female 
a reminiscence of matriarchal customs. These 
iklf wore called, obtruded tbemselvea everywhere, and 
[MMhidivarse functions as those of the shaman, the 
1|in». jwdge, and executioner. 

in exactly tbe same order as in India, the 
also aa police and tax-gatherers, the tradera. 

HAK; nvTd 

MiMi iMWHidt MM onwn aomnK'!( 
cigM»«i politick tptmo. It brahi 
ft«ii widioat, and so d»beutned ii 
tbeir half diMCTitic nkn, tiat Agf » 
deftaee of a gorenusent iriiicb in i 
ealj with lynnnjr aod opprewioiL Thtf^! 
cue facilitated by the dnl war at tho ti 
northern and touthern kiiq[don» whidi ^ 
itxlependent statei constitued' the Unj 
was almost contenninous loulhwardi wilk tl 
least the Dumerous terms occunsig in iht'i 
Coconucos, and other South Colomlnan b 
influences had spread bejrood the potitical-4 
norUi, without, however, quite reaching ill 
Muyscah domain. 

But, for an unknown period prior to dM d 
the Peruvian Incas had been c 

tta^S."* ne"ly ^^^ "liole of the Andeao ll 
tory directly ruled by them e 
district about the equator for some 3500 n 
Rio Maule in Chili, with an avenge breads of 41 
the Pacific and the eastern slopes of tho i 
dominion thus comprised a considerabla ] 
republics of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chili, aa 
roughly estimated area of 1,000,000 square n 
tion of over 10,000,000. Here the ruling race* 
QuKhiu (Quichuks), whose speech, the ' 

Rau ud Incas," is stitl current in several w 
tic varieties throughout all the p 
empire. In Uma and all the seaports and li 
prevails, but in the rural districts Quechuan r 
tongue of over s, 000,000 natives, and has eves ti 
franea of the western r^ions, just as Tupi-C 
^al, "general language," of the eastern si 
The attempts to find affinities with Aryan (a 
and other linguistic families of the 1 
broken down before the application of sound p 

gR^NH4iMi>«ad Qwcbnatt u aa* rooagniMd m « aMk 
IKMtNK vtel Aamttcm qrp<^ uBcmma ct wliriih wv eter 
iMHtf thft BoUvfan AymmK Etcb thiiioaatiealioft it 
«l£to)hisaiM «lwlentii M TObal Rtber tfau Htnaiml w 
pMOfeMIs «£•, oomidenUe nttmber of tcnu bong tMmif -tm- 
^liMli bjr the cl«i* contact IB wiiA the two peoples htre dicelf 
0illfm0mUMA.IJmg&. But on tbc other hand one of the iwtfwnl 
hM|ilMM.oi the QudtUM thonwlvei tnures their cndle tq die 
WiliaMni AoM and idnda of Uke Titicaca, that 

hiiftl>>i toflp— d ' -«gioo whidi is intimately a ^___ 

jti(>lih Ihii iiwlini 111! ■ iiriiiiili nil II *""• 

||JMiiMaqF*ill>ad which givea its name to the lake k the "Tiger 
iMlii^ilbe ifaneer abode of a huge jaguai who, like the .dragon 
iltotoJNwir, wweiahis bead a great jewel which Hhinuned die 
iliMBiMbe. Later, when the ligei had diM^peared from t^ 
1#M idtti then «meq;ed from its cavenoitt recesses the son- 
||Bmi Miiliii rum first of the Incas, bearing a golden hough 
i00kim.1l»Atifmnd from the divine orb, with the iojunctioo to 
Ipl^JUld oniffl he reached a spot where the emblem of the 
pMlAftlUra: Tories would take root in the ground. Here was 
Ikiigllad Ae nnowned dty of Cuzco, first seat of the dynasty and 
[Miiillll^f tlM.TavantiBuyan (Peruvian)* monarchy. 
ll^.4tf|flM|iAttn tite supernatural elements, what wdf^t can be 

"^ } Aese traditions on the Titicaca origin of the Incas 

On the authority of Gaicilaso de la Vegs, 

'(■ ixm lineage, they are accepted by most inquircn into 

^Migios, who bil to perceive that, if true, then die 

t be o( Aymata stock, the Titicaca lands being 

fr'^MMitHi withm the domain of the Aymara race. But 

r aasumptbn is that the Quechnas are and always 

" f dominant people, and that they were the builders 

■ Tiahuanaco momunents on the 

I of Ae lake, and not far from the mJ^^^ 

fthli^WTerf heart of Aymaraland. Now 

IftiftlUitption, involving the transfer of a whole cuUure 

bf the Spwluili, H nnkncnni to tbc nativcti iriw 
The Ponr Qturtcn" (of the world). 


tlw biqaiiy into PeniTiaa < 
contedictioBi. The eradit a£ h 
obtettiitfei, aad plued tfc« vfai^ ' 
foodng, H due to the pKtient n 
M. UMe*. who nuke it etidmt tbmk 
of Tkhnuttco, includJi^ the i 
peIbl^ll the greMctt aivhUeetiinl t 
were the work ndthv (^ <'T<riteot" fl 
<tf Quechuu from Peru, nor o( any odtor p 
in iriioM tenitoiy they were lUMd. It ■ 
that this territeiT was not even indaded il 
the reign of Yupanqui, tcarcely 130 yean b 
Spaniards, that is, at a time when the 1 
had already passed into the world (rf k 
beings associated with the pre-Inca cult 
all things." Gardlaso himself teUs us that m 
Mayta-Capac, first penetrated to the lake i 
these structures struck his Quechoan fblloi 

' Dit Jitdnaulattt om TiaMtumtut im h 
1S93. Since dte apptonmce of thu id 
Tclnned to the lubject, uid in his Ptru: . 
vol. tit. denies that the Tlahuu 
of Vinwocha, while admitting with onr authors that d 
in fitct diflcr fiindamenlall]' from all othen in South A 
or ihii civilization were connected with the now def 
from lomc foreign land, as indicated by their nain^ 
he tnlerpreti " Wandeiera fiom Foreign I.tiidl.'' Tl^Jhf 
national name, and wbaterer its meaning, appcan to b 
For our purpose it is enough (hat Middendorf now n 
character of the mormments and their connection with fl 

* The still standing monolithic uprights in thb SMIt 
ing to Eogliab archieologitls, owing to their liitoMH to % 
kapana macht durch uine Aenlichkeic 1 
Aeuueren allerdingi einen tiesonders alienhUmlichen E 
Aenlichlteit belrifft nur seinen gegenwiirtigen Zustand, ■ 
fraglich, ob da* unverletite Werk die gleiche Ueb 
mit den alten megaliliichen Steinbaui 
{/tmiHenilalU, p. 46). 

•amJoaaiCMi jmxuatvta. 

kqhiAiMMB «aaet«^ proof «MHk dw thq' «cn not dte 

t^ b«N nadc ■baDdftit% erideiit that the gMtt Mnpk and 
«difieM, wlwch were never oooqdeted, dutc-fioa 
jftHW, ^thw tfaer *«re dedicated to Vincede. m^ar 
r«ft'lhe-J^van^ ud tiwt dw budding opentiau wwt 
the lasui who legnded Tielmwiaeo, leat of tint ct^ 
■tri/Hixd htteantuBbot neor Ciuco, centre of the QBeohna 
Bat iftei the complete coaqi ies t of Ayin«rihi>d the 
hMtQhf benpeen the two religiotti oantiea djuppatied, 
jedooneei bued more on poUtiai tbut religiotu 
4bd oiit,'.ftad Vbmooeha himMtf wu adopted into dte 
iMlbom. His nuoe wu even borne by ooe of Ae 
0Fa«oochvHii of Yabiur-Hnusc); in the etoteiie iBMb- 
4m Vtxanaa priestt he ww identiiicd with the "UnknoMi 
imbi ttt' b"M be«n mxihipped under the name ttf Padlui- 
m- Upper Feni and trf Vtncocha at Ciuco* ; laMljr this 
-4ei^« Dane hecuM in later times a general title of 
and at praa^t all Europeans are greeted hj the natives 
Our father Viracocha." With the Aymara 
was naturally api»opriated the above deacribed 
' MvAt md traditiona, until Titicaca, home of the Aytutu, 
^ IpnNH-Jlka ajratic cradle of the sun-descended Inca^ and thus 
~ iMiMiMii^ wnten (Fiedro de Geza de Leon, Gardlaso, etc) 
C 4|ki|MI|Na and all their wwks were merged in the dominant 
I^MIM oatio&ality'. Such would appear to be the solution of 
moat mtereuing, certainly one of the most obacure 
problems in the New World. 

^•**'rtMl|11Wliii the"Hendotniofi)ieNewWat)d,'>hadhiid(MbU,for 
teMi q>e Bntot (]De lot Iiifu mjniTii Don nmcliiM 

IpHpHpBpD^ivBKHB slfiiafu edjficto* deMas: pot^ne jro he oydo sfinmu' ■ 
F VBKMl'ft^'''** ^'*'*'''' ^ edifidot puKla del Cuco, por U foma que 
- -^' " ■-^^^■' " -• — te vee en eile TUfwUMCo" {CJuvniea, i. 

In dih coanectkHi thu, *f GarciUio hinuelf confeues 
flrtitacHa htd no meaning U kU in the Qnedmu) 



MAH^ wimr 



'Hhwc-it not ilMi phioB to* Miit^- 






ncnr generally aiijgiietf li 
this ftspect become die ^"M»tm^ 
but were here preceded, noi iotriy by 
die Ckiwtms^ perhaps by ^t A 
peoples whose' very names have periiked^^' 
to die name of die Chiraus themselveiti 
dieir overdirow by die Inca Yupaaqni 
Grand Chimu, where is now TnudllOy for 4s 
nearly to die Chilian frontier. *>!^ 

The mins of Chimu cover a vast ateit 
which is everywhere strewn with the remiiM 
aqueducts, ramparts, and especial^ kmtmp 
pyramids not unlike those of Mexieo, 
the. Chimus, of unknown origin, were ^ 
America. One of these huacas is described 
high with a base 580 feet square, and an' artfi 
ing from a distance the appearance of a 
is the so-called "Temple of the Sun," 800 bf 
high, and covering an area of 7 acres. An i 
hundreds of thousands was assigned to this 
times; but from some rough surveys madto 
appear that much of the space within the 
waste lands, which had never been built over, WtiM, 
that at no time could the number of inlisMtilll' 
exceeded 50,000. 

We need not stop to describe the pexxSait 
institutions of the Peruvians, wfai^i 


Political knowledge. Enough to say that 

System. ^^ planned in the interests of %i^ 

all-powerful Incas, who were more than obeyei^ 
with divine worship by their much bethndled 
subjects. "The despotic authority of the Dftic^' 
of government; that authority was founded 
respect yielded to the descendant of the mm^ 

1 Pern, p. I «o. I A^j^^^ 


. The iMfBbliM.imt ;«PkM 

ii<Bd:iiBwgrt tht tea JadnUtudt fte fbmud «m1i 

Bi-StBftOT Im rtpMMntathrM. dww (me, who twcUM 

r iMbIm otbcn. Fire decima badAt Uwir bMid 

h^of ji9cri«r mki fiftj <kc«mt « cliie^ who lb)|» 

L-Sao BiMi litstfy, loo d«CBiiefl obeyed a. .tupvtne 

( lA» Moeived orden direct frcnn the Inca'." Itwwftknd 

^.hidf reUgwuCi half milucty, in which cMiythiBg 

e MHoped ou^ and the individual reduced to 

^' » 'MOilwred nenber of a dan or grouj;*, to n^uch he 

/■ii Hill fm lUe, in which he could neither rise not oak, hope 

: Ibe syKen was outwardly perfect, bitt MuUeaa, and 

^^.jm'WtQitfc*^ "^ ■'■^ Cuadinamucan Muyicas, ccdlapsed at the fint 

|i!i|fe|lil-liMl<akBadfol trf' mounted ^iMoiah brigands. 

' ^^qpewl the Maule, southemmoit Umiti of all these efiete 
1 teaaierted himself in the " South 
, ilnqoois," a> those Chilian aborigines t^uaiaaa. 
i:8sUed who called themselves MabKht, 
7* bat are better known by their Quechnan designation 
*^ Rebels," whence the Spanish Aucans (Aniican, 
flph)) Theae ^Rebels," who have never hitherto been 
y:the anas of any peoide, and whose heroic deeds in 
I «iis waged by the white intniden against thetr freedom 
IK*I|IK of a noUe Spanish epic poem', still maintain a 
I autonomy, as the friends and faithful alliea 
I leimblic PrcAtaUy no people have ever csiried 
^||Jie|MlB>'^ penonal independence to greater lengths, and the 
~ ' i with us in the half-jocnUr expression, " I'm 
f tteSghbour," would seem to be taken quite seriously 
. Here tiwre never has been a central authority of 
C oafy-are aU the tribes absolutely free, but the same 
f dtaa, sept, and family group, which recognise no 
fibe painfamilias himself, who does not even 
e his diildren w control his household. Need- 
s>aie no slaves or serfs, no tribal laws or penal 


MAV: Mnr smmi 





of duty, or natioiiftl i^fai^ fai 
volantarilf in eonoert, como %i9pAti0 
Hffui (dictator) in time erf w«r, «»i 
igain to their isolated boiiief aii# 
even miffident oohetton to Awdlk 
communitiet. " '^^^ 

There waa, however, one oontroiUnf r 
of ancestry worship, or at least a pmfe w ii 
fore&thersi who after deadi went to peOflM 
from that vantage-ground continued to 
of tiieir children. And this simple 
substitute for the rewards and puni 
motive for the observance of an artificisl 
more developed religious systems. 

In the sonorous Araucanian language, 
about 40,000 full-blood natives, the term ^A^ 
occurs as the postfix of several ethnical 
are not tribal but purely territorial divirioiMk ^ 
<Ae it the collective name of the whole 
HuiUu€he^ and Pud-che are simply the ^fttSa^ 
men respectively. The Central and moet 
the Pehuen-che^ that is, people of the Pdiuen 
the most typical and most intelligent of all the 
Ehrenreich's remark that many of the A 
semble Europeans as much as or even 
Mongols, is certainly borne out by the facial 
Pehuen-ches. The resemblance is even 
characters, as reflected in their oral literatviiii^ 
specimens of the national folklore preserved^lJU 
dialect and edited with Spanish translations by 
is the story of a departed lover, who returns 
to demand his betrothed and carries her off 
though this might seem an adaptation of Biirgpn^*^: 
is of opinion that it is a genuine Araucanian tagdribN 

Of the above-mentioned groups the Puel-chetaii,^ 


1 In the AnaUs de la Univerndad dt CkiU fef 

R > : TBR MIBRieiUV ABORIOnHEa 410. 

h>^r<i»^*iiM«*B«- - Thflf an, htmtnr, Cnte MotaiahH,^^ 
ill rtiMlwiM ttHifagBd wkh tb« BdgM»o»^ ^^^j;; 

igbiH sfiAMivoda sad At PMapM, to when i^Sj^*^^ 
CMb»>po«fix:«lv. fau aim been eomded. 
iMVflMni PHd-<dM, msuiing nmplr "Euterns," ia appHed 
•oi^' ttt ^te. Aqpentine Mdu-dics, iriiOK temtorr strMdwa 
•f 1b»Ca«dUlvBt aa &r at M«idaxa in Cayo, but ako to aB 
iberigfaM* ooBBKHdy caUed fin^tatu {PmH^as Iitdimiu) hf 
aMBfiaaa and Am! bf the Fatagooiaiu. Under llw do* 
daa'<tfPiid«heB would theiefore be cotnpriaed tbe noir 
¥tt,JtmifU9lfkit (Ranquelea), who formeriy nidednp to 
nMkjvwand Ae other ^laiinh Mtdemeots oo the Rate 
ifiiatMrnfo-drnvi tbe Lower SaJado, and genoallj all Uie . 
ada-M fa aoulh aa die Rio Negra. 

[%caa aborigiaea arc now best iquresented by dw GatidiM, 
ana aMady Spaniardt on die fikther*! side and 
na an Ibe inotber'a, and reftect this double 
ip in their h^fnonudic, half<uvilised life. Theae Gaucboi^ 
4M: now alio diaappearing before the encroachments of the 
UffttL^'i^ the white immigiantt fitom almost every countty in 
ip^.tent been enveloped in an iU-deserved halo of romance, 
JrifiTlTiY *<* ^*^ roving hatHts, splendid horsemanship, love 
■ngvaad genial dispoaition combined with that innate grace 
HMitaqi ^tich belongs to all of Spanish blood. But thoae 
IJMKdMm beat deaoibed them as of sordid nature, cruel to 
MMWddad, recUess gamblers and libertines, ruthless poUtical 
iWtiat cliBMa even religious bnatics without a spark of true 
d-at heart little better than bloodthirsty savages. 
|>ttw Rio Negro follow the gigantic Patsgonians, that 
w or C/mti^hts of the Aiaucanians, 
9m»i\*» taut collective name unless it be p^^"' 
||i)|^«etd of mcertain use and origin. Host 
iMadlttait gnmps— Yacana, Pilma, Chao and others— are 
Mt*fl|li and the former division between the Northern 
MHlNi'<Tehndbet), comprising the CaiiUehti (Serranos or 
AMhn) cf the Upper Cbupat, with the Calilan between the 
Wr4H|M|» othar than Spanlifa. 


MAM I mm jomi 


f ■>- -V 

RkM Clnipiiit and NcgRH Mi Mm 
Sdituuii etc), soiilii to Fttcipi^ M 
general ifiqdacemaK of aB dMHe 
bnuich of the Tehuelchet wtt ai 
etiteni parts of FvntpHf the tnm 
Yakgofu of the central and the A 

Hitherto to the question whence 
no answer could be given beyond tte 
have been specialised in their present 
thejr seem to be obviously intmden^ ' 
perhaps venture to look for their origiiif 
Bororos of the r^on south of G<qra;iE^ 
the Rios Parana and Paraguay. These 
heard of by Martius, but whose very 
have long been known to the Portugui^e 
lately been interviewed by Ehrenreidi, iHiO 
very numerous and powerful nation (as in 
Milliet de Saint-Adolphe*), ranging ovi^ a 
Germany. Their physical characters^ as 
server, correspond closely with those of tii^ 
exceptionally tall race rivalling the PolynesiillB^- 
Redskins; by for the tallest Indians hitheno 
the tropics, some being 6 ft. 4 in. high, 
not measured; head very large and round (1 
77*4)'." With this should be compared the 
Patagonian skull from the Rio Negro, measuieft 
as described in the Quarterly Journal of Swisa 
account reads like the description of some 
historic Bororo irruption into the Patagonian 

To the perplexing use of the term Puelebi^ 
is perhaps due the difference of opmion stiK 
number of stock languages in this southern 
tinent. D*Orbigny's emphatic statement^ that 

^ **Na9io de Indios poderosa...domiiiandosobi«tt 
(Dicdonario Geographico do BraxU^ 1863, I. p. 160). 
^ Urbewohner BrasilienSf 131, 135. 
' Zurich, 1896, p. 496 sq. 
* V Homme AnUricain^ II. p. 70. 


—p JlwiJimwhilly diitincl both from the J 
iHt0rt«kM;bMBqMttkmeilondwid«Dgtli -.^ . ._. ,■ - 
■■,:J»ikl»:>wotd» lAtcb wen eoUcctod fay ir^fnfr"^ 
iljGinnM QBtWRio N^n, Mid differ but 
F froB Piugoaiaa. But the Rio Negro Ha OB tbe ctfuHOil 
bcMMi^ ^ two nco, which sufficiently Accounts for the 
ilMlpM, wltfle the words tre too few to prove anjnhiiig. 
«aU» thoB "Southern Puelcbe," but they wen in fiiot 
iehe (FRt«goniui)i the trae Fsmpein Pnelches having dis- 
Nkl tt6m that region before Hale's time'. I have now the 
eadnUe authnit^ of the Rev, T. P. Schmid, fm- many 
». mianooaiy amongst these aborigbea, foe asserting ^t 
|i^s Matement is abeduiely correct. His Puelches were 
U9«u>% beesuse be locates tbero in the re^n b^wecn 
m Negn and Colorado, that is, north of Patagonian and 
r Aiancanian tenitoiy, and Hr Schmid assores me dtat all 
n4Uw>caniani Pampean, and Patagonian — are undoubtedly 
iMBgimge^ distinct both in their vocabulary and atnictuie, 
gdmg in oommon eicept their common polysynthetic form. 
M of aoeo Patagonian and Aiaucanian words he found only 
ik^ jMite-* loo, and htMnme^ looo, numerals obviously 
i«d by tibe mde Tehuekhes from the more cnltnied 
baait In Fuqja there is at least one radically distinct 
^Um Yafa«an, studied by the Rev. Mr Brydges. Here the 
ftit-pnfaiddy a Patagonian dialect, and Alakaluf [>erhi^;>s 
^ died to Araocanian. Thus in the whole region somh 
Mto Kiver the stock languages are not known to exceed 
n; Pwnpean (Puelche); Patagonian (Tehuelche) ; 

J peoples have been the sub)ect of xaoK glaringly 
s than the Yahgans, to whom 
k^faflliy monographs have been devoted y^^.. 
Nlflte :lHt few decades. How contradictory 
ij'f^liaumn.ti of intelligent and even trained observers, 

ll^ WIN WflaMd or ttworbed putl; by the Patagoniaai, but chicBrbjt 
ta^km TmA\»%, ^fba muj Tcan mgo migrated d«wn the Rio Negro u 
iF^CIHMtr mA ami to the com at Bahia Blanca. Hence Hale'i 
MilViMbct Amdcaidant whh a PatagoDian ttialn. 


MAM i' Mif Mmm\ 

i^HM good fifth it htfood 
senre eicept tht trartk^ wiH Utt^%B>i 
thm die acoounti ^ die fionttf f)dtiiiM|(| 
known Italian observer, and Dr I^' 
Horn Expedition, both suminatiaed '1:^ -n 

Hw women are treated as slates. 
The greater the mmber of wives or 
sUves a man has the easier he finds a 
living I hence {K^ygamy b deep-tooted 
and four wives common. Owing to 
the rigid climate and bad treatment 
the mortality of children under lo 
years is excessive; the mother's kwe 
lasts till the child is weaned, after 
which it rapidly wanes, and is com- 
pletely gone when the child attains 
the age of 7 or 8 years. The Faegian's 
only lasting love is the love of self. 
As there are no family ties, the word 
'authority' is devoid of meaning. 



wiveSf but 

their fiaiinill 
treated hj^ 
deference* - 


dispositioli ^iii' 
pleasures witll' 
exercise 4m 
severely any ac|< 

These seeming contradictions may be paidjr 
general improvement in manners due to the 
the English missionaries in recent years, and 
certainly been made since the expeditions of Fi 
But it is to be feared that these influences ttre 
the vicinity of the stations, beyond which the 
presented by the early observers and later by Bofins^' 
others, still hold good. ' vur 

But even in the more favoured regions ot tfii 
Amazon basins many tribes are met which yield 
the Fuegians of the early writers in sheer savagoy 

Thus the Cashibos or CVin^^a^Atf o£ 
who are described as resembling | 
even in appearance', may be said 


^ Mission Scientifique de Cap Horn, vol. vil., par P. H* 

' ** Les Kassivos cannibales du haut Ucayali qui 
(L. Rousselet, Art. Amiriqu€, 1895). Others, however, 


gtiiaditt hiauix ftottp lo the old.«^iti|k'^JiMM 

^)4t^Mu,>TlMr fOMi thi hnm liks wfld bM«hlUnm 

8; !plfamy<iy paMi u irtudi it indBtkd, mai- MaiwICi 

1 ^m.-t^ii^m k pmang die diue in tin voMlihMMl 

I aaotter hotter hnitathig the cry of u aaixaai, be iammt 

f ndM te wneor to adce him M«er, mkI Uheihat 

■ hin if he CM and (« U allq^ed) etti hlA" 

ISiDott i»tan% "in a Mate <rf hoedlitr with aU drfu 

' ' "ghboim'.- . ■■ 

itee CaabibtM, lU "Bati," aie memben of a widequmd 
ftmniwic fuBJiy lAich in ethnological writtngBbem 
^awK of A«v 6<»n the Fanos of the Haaltafa rSorT* 
'^Jlitiii. Manfloq, who are now broken up or gicady 
il^Mce^ bat'iriioee langOHe ii current amongit dte Caria b oat 
||^ Coniboa, the Karipunas, the Pacaooaiai, the Seteboa, 4ie 
Jl^ l iua (SuiHboB) and odien about the head-wateis of the 
in Peni, Boliria, and BrazU, as fai eait aa the Maddm, 
amongst the Uoxos and so many othei riverine 
in Amagonia, a alow tranifonnatton ia in progress. Some 
b^rtised, and while still occupying theli old haunts 
np the tribal mganization, have been induced to 
Hiar lange ways and torn to peaceful pursuits. They 
to wear clothes, usually cottpn robes ctf some vivid 
Hke soil, take service with the white tiaden, or even 
in tbdr canoes up and down the tributaiia of 

bo—di ea s Amaaouian region of mcHst sunless wood- 
north and east by Atlantic coast cthniui 
1^ the open Venetuelan llanos, MBUoDiiin 
in the vast alluvial plains 
■Varaguay baun, much light has been brought to 
ethnical reUtions by the recent explorations 
'„]Di Paul E^u«nreicb and Karl von den Steinen 
Punts, Hadein and other southern affluents of 
Excluding several isolated — that is, not yet 

ikag bMidi," while "the niniaiuiT Girbal wm Mtonulied 
(Maritham, £ia^ THiti etc, p. 149). 


ill 1 1 m l 

hob% wUCB hi ooflmiBiqr wm 

iBBdiato the OMribt wevt 

Adr origiiial homm ti: 
tbe Alkg^Miiy ^ ^pf ii H h^' 
bmre been doabtftdly identified with 
ftHdivhence thejr qweed titfoagfl ttf 
Venezuela, die Guiinat, and north ei#? 
were not known to hare langed 
Bat this view is now shown to be 
tribes^ such as the Bakairi* and Ni 
idl speaking ardiaic forms of the Ottfib 
been met by the German exploiets fai ikM 
whence the inference that the cradle of 
rather in the centre of South America^ 
lifatto Grosso tablelands, from which re|^ 
wards, if not to Florida, at least to the 
named from them*. 

A connecting link is formed by the 
Tocantins between the Amazonian section aif# 
where the chief groups are the Venezoelali' 
cusi, Kalinas, and Galibi of British, Dutch, 
respectively. In general all the Caribs 
physical characters, although the south< 
(5ft. 4 in.) with less round heads (index 79*^ 
C^bs (5 ft. 2 in., and 8i''5). 

Perhaps even a greater extension hii 
^ German explorers to the AIM 

AmwAkan like the Cariban, was hitherto 
**" ^' confined to the region north 
now known to range as far south as the U 

' Ehrenreich, Urbewohner Brasiliens, p. 45 sq. 

' It should be stated that a like conclusion has 
Adam from the vocabularies brought by Crevaux 
tribes — Witotos, Corequajes, Kariginas and others-Hdl 



~u ^ 

4. Tehuelche. 
(Patagonian Type.) 


, r* 








xk}: ; 1^^ AamticAN ABOKioiias. 455 

••* & lit. (Z yw tf, ANmw, etc.), aut to the Anuoiw atauy 

( Jtw M w) , mtf noRh-wMt to dw Goi^ki penhmibL To tiut p«*t 

ftiiiBf -—wUdli von dch Steinen propoMi to catt Mh^rtmJt Aoca 

(hi limBOBiiuI pnSx «•»!, conmoa to tmwt of the tribn— 

) iMloag abb the M^funt of the Orinoco; te Atarmit md 

\ V mf tnmmm at Britah GmImd* ; tbeJAnHm of theUo No^; tiie 

HMMKOf ; Uw .Ftmmtiryt and Jpurimtts of Uio Ipori buin, and 

; die JfiuiMt of tiw Upper Situnor6 

nqnkiUf tiie Anwaks difler from the Carib* acarce^, if at 

■fi man thu dieir Amaaonian and Gniaaa aectknu difier from 

each 9&ia. Id ftct, bnt for their ndically dutinet ipeech It 

' would be impoatibte to coutitute theas two ethnical ^vinoiu, 

wUcfc are adnattedly baaed oa linguistic groimds. Bat while the 

Caribs had their cradle in Central Biuil and migrated northwards, 

} the Aimwaks would on the coatrair now ^ipear to have originated 

I fa dw north (Guiana, Antilles), and sprnd thence southwards 

- beyaitd the Amazons-Parana watenhed into the Paraguay baatn. 

' Our tMrd great Braxilian drriiion, the Gescn &mily, takes ita 

' aaaoe from the syllable gts' which, like the Anucan 

r ikif fonat ti>e final element of several tribal names r^l^!"^ 

ii Bast BnnL Of these the most characteristic 

•re the Amtnt of the Sena dos AimiKes coast-range, who are 

batter known u Botocudos, and it was to the kindred tribes of 

die {wonnce of Goyas that the arbitrary collective name of " Ges " 

■m first applied by Hartius. A better general derignation would 

pf^T* have been Ta^ya, " Strangers," " Enemies," a term by 

aUdi. tba Tapi people called all other nadres of that region who 

«ei« aot of their race or speech, or rather who were not " Tnpi," 

Oaliat*' Allies" or "Associates." Tapuya had been adopted some> 

lAat in tiiis lense by the early Portuguese writers, who however 

it somewhat loosely not only to the Aimwea, but also to 

at kindred and other tribes as Car north aa the 

t with little bvoar, wu cram, "chid'," alio ■ 

-MWaii|lhB«ffnqMaloccBn«nce,atiii JfocMHmm, of the Tocaoltiu. 

>• t *MnpBfi% nsflo d' IndicMi tronco de numeroMW tribot denamadai por 

- iHHtV^HHtmim ds Bndl, prindiNameiUe pdu do Huuhio e ilo Ceui.. 

:^4|feMAiHMH algweas tribtu d' wta uafla no toaritbno de Penuunboco... 

"■■'-■,,. a8— a 


XAH 2 Mm 



'k'X *■■ ■-. 

abw^ deaoribed bjr MiUtet ImmI 
bjr Bhmireich tad TOtt dmStithmn 
SttfBB, ft laige natioii wiA «ev«iii 
aad Xingu rivers; and Ae AfauH^ 
about die upper course of tiie 
tribeSy sudi as die Kam^ or 
adosy" and the Choglengs of Santa 
do Salt are scattered over the soutbeni 

The Tapuyas would thus appear t» 
the whole of East Brazil ftom ttie AmaacNIs 
an unknown distance inland. Hen tfiej^ 
the true aborigines, who were in remolss liflisa 
upon, and broken into isolated fragmeolSi JUjih 
Guarani stock spreading from the interior 

Both in their physical characters and 
state, or rather the almost total absence of 
called ''culture/' the Tapuyas are the 
probably the direct descendants of the 
osseous remains have been found in the 
the Santa Catharina shell-mounds. On 

Botocudos are allied both to the 

Baudot, i^^i^ ^"^ ^^ ^^^ Sambaqui race^ 
who describes the skull as 
glabella and superciliary arches, keel or nxdf 
lateral walls, simple sutures, receding brow, 
nasal root, high prognathism, massive lower 
(index ys^'so) with cranial capacity 1,480 co. 6m 
for women ^ It is also noteworthy that somenf 

Traziio mettidas em buracos que fazifto nas oreUias e no 
de madeira (Milliet de Saint-Adolphe, vol. Ii. p. 69g), *' '* 

^ **D'apr^ Gon9ales Dias les tribus br^Uieniiec 
races absolument distinctes : la race conqu^rante des 
pourchass^e, des Tapuya" (V. de Saint-Martin, vii. p. 519}. 
' //apM Estudios Cranialogicos sobre os Boioeudos^ Ri$ 
* Possibly so called from the Portuguese 60^^914^% 
wooden plug or disc formerly worn by all the tribes botb 
an ear-plug, distending the lobes like great leathern 
shoulders. But this embellishment is caUed Umbnkm^. 


TWM'uaxieAX abokioimbs. 

r .1 i tf*« iiii ti li l ii i <i •J IJK ' m ti a, Mie^»nit, "Stm of lite Ssttr-iiid 
Ai iiiii l ii Mf ^ i ' liU iMSHetu of gw* hiabig a^gMoA Bern any iMti 

^iJ|Mm«litdK'tMg»-Htr8 (rf wood or Ttgettble Arc, M> ditt tt^ 
•jil^ IrU'Whtaat to fc»ve yet remched wreo Ae itone «gfe Thef 
lii^M^lMMmi in the pronii«CDoiu ttate, u hu been assertedi 
tbongh temporaiy, «re jedouriy gtuuded wUte 
ttaf^lM^ai^'n MnoDgtt die Fuqiuu whom they lewmble in 
dHf iRHnen ve comtintly tnbject to tlie 'nHMt 
ent, beitea with dubs or hadted aboat with 
'tatrci- One of tboae in Ribdro'a puty, wbo visited 
111 1883, h«d her annt, legs, and whde body cov«red 
^Mfr4am:«id guhes inflicted during momentary fits of bnital 
l[|pf)fe]p|Mr«phemefal partner. HieirdwellingiaitimeielNWidies 
tto pound, botatd to^tber with boat, and tiuxigh seldom 
']| 'fti' in M^t aceoBunodating two or more fiuntUe*. lite 
an pan nomads, roaming naked in the woods in qsMt 
;^4lto MMa, bctiie^ honey, froga, snakes, grabs, man, and ofhiS' 
■^jl0lf'0aae wbkb fimn dieir diet, and are eaten raw at dse 
lllUEfeitili huge bamboo canes. Formerly they had no hammodu^ 
-liftilb^ wfthtnt any covering, either on the ground strewn with 
Jpi^^^>b the ashes of the fire kindled for the evening meaL 
' cttnnibaKsm, which has been doubted, there is really 
They wore the teeth of those they had eaten strung 

. ||||j(g||i^^ necklaces, and ate not only the foe shun in batd^ 
WrtifciTliiiiifHiiiliiil niliiii. iill 1 1 1 the heads, iriiich were stodt 
»6b Makes and osed as butts for the practice of aicheiy. 
figmvet of the dead fires are kept up for some time to 
AH^tf^the ImhI Blunts, from whidi custom the Botocudos might 
' *'" ^ "dnWi Kline notions of the supeinaturaL But perhaps 
t mote coRCct to say that at this low stage of their 
e not yet realised the distinction between the 
I'tfte Mpeniatiiral. We are too apt to read sudi ele- 
I into At savage mind, which is essentially anthropo- 
ttibuting all mysterious manifestations to perhaps 
t,ftill human or quasi^human agendes. All good 
baps bt coBMCted with tHt-af«e, the mttve name (rf tbt 
H flMi qidte ■ bntatdc derivUlon (i. p. t6i). 




WUms 9fUKt. 



^(f^- x^ 


iwm\ all bad thiMDi |» iImis'^ 

miMittdas of people. Dmm$ . aton j i 
dioi up to tcare away tbe deaMMa^f 
anoogit to many Indo^Chuieta peapiiik 
ia no concepdon of a supieme hmig^ m 
jwMtav, /ns^a, said to mean "God^^ 
demon, thunder, at at moat the thundifigqriii 
Owing to the choice made by the 

language as the /j^waf ^maltM 
intercourse amongst the 
of Brazil and Paraguay, H 
has been formed of the range of the 
Many of the tribes about the stations, aftet 
padres to learn this convenient Hf^gua 
of time to foiget their own mother-tongue^ 
accounted members of this &mily. But 
source of error, there can be no doubt that JK 
Tupi or Eastern, and the Guarani or Westenikc 
jointly an immense area, which may pcitepar, 
about one-fourth of the southern continent ; 
met all along the main stream as far as Peniit 
represented by the Omaguas (''Flatheadi''^.^ 
many fables were circulated. Formerly thay 
bank of the Upper Amazons for 200 leagues 
Tamburagua and Putumayo, waging incessant wat^^ 
on the south and the Tacunas on the north iMi^ 
still numerous towards the sources of the Japuia 
These Tacunas (Ticunas, Jumanas) who^ like 
and many other South American^, 
in a good and evil principle, one 
doing the work of the other, and 

Tacunas and 

1 They are the Cambdms of the Tupi, a terai also 
they are so called because "apertfio aos recemiuickkMi 1 
taboas afim de achatil-as, costume que actualmente hsa 

P- 174)- 

; Xft.1^^ 



i ISm^imfm^s f ommmai L «£ wma, an net to be cotfowMviA 
|i||*.iffNWH <^<Miimv) » «iM)rniiiiifyiiw nMiMi abontlheSaid 
FiWMiMMliHiKtePiM, he>d mmn at the Madan'. SomtattMk- 
|,=i|j(M» iMftjbMB paid to dmr MmMotu q^eedi, iriiicb tppon tn b« 
?;^- >[« HB 'Ji JMig— ff whh etraag Fcao and wnk Ajmwm* *BnW>> 
v- <ttfl>Wnb in numaal iTUeai tttvi at a, it ia rtiU ia wiraacc ff' a 
I C t ifu H it toogne, which ii nid to hxrt so nanmli 
«|^llfl,iHMM^aiippowd to be I, redly mcuuDg '<aloDtt." 
,■ < Vtt itwosld bt a viatake to infer that thew Bolivian CUqoi- 
toi, lAo occupy the ■outhersBioft h ea dm e a m i erf 
^^UMein, are a paitinilsriyMupid people. On ^SSH^ 
-ptjcqaaiy, the Nafjaifiofieii, "Men," aa they call 
/^4lilMMlniV*n >° *<>■»« rcapects lemarkably clever, and, atnoge 
',%Mlh •'Amr otbswise ricb and hann(»ioaa language {prenmiaUy 
'jlW.<Bminifit Mnuttm dialect ia meant) haa tenna to eqiffeaa aodi 
la aa the bogbt of a tree, (rf a houae^ or a tower, 
!ir HdKle Aades of difference diaiqpuded in mon culnicd 
But it ia to be conndered that,>Mr Pro£ Max MiUlM', . 
jt of thought and of apeech ia not the aame, and all {M(q)lee 
' ■Wm^ 'M> doubt many notiona for which they have no eqaivalents 
jftrtWillinrrnnarilyrlrfrrfiTnlninpiatri The Chiquitoa,M. "Little 
r^MM^'INrc fo named becauae, "when the country wu fint 
Jmi^Ii^ the Indiana fled to the foresu; and the Sptniarda came 
401 lll^ abandoned huta, where the doorways were so ezceedin^y 
.. -' ' VOMgaj, III, p. 364 (q. 

:,1iht.aRBatMaTindii2, Mpcdatljiii the tlMence ;^ uf leientific stsdy of the 

j< ZawiWrtfihWiay, if any exUt between the Aynum-TMSiM ^lonetlc 

4x1 tbeo the qne«tiaa of loan woidihu to beicltledbefbieu)7«afe 

cea be dnwn from nch Mtomed Tcumblftncet. The pcrint i* 

fa the pwitnt coDDection, beonie cuirent itatementi repudlng the 

lUaetian of the number of ttock langnaget in Sontb AnHrica are 

oe the tUMcientiGc cooqiaTiioii of liiti of wordi, which maj baTe 

■OMNI eiccpt pcrhapi a letter or two like the m in HaeedoD and 

Two langiugea (cf> Turluih and Aiabic) may have hnnilreda or 

I, and yet belong to fuDdamentally diS^rent 

il, 4ttltt Stktugr^iftu Jm GMt, xxvii. Wtb rcganl ti 
ntthofi^ tdl( Bt that " 





fluumfiMStnfB dicnr Mm ooppor 
pondioi jyid ttmr hstSy wmI fifeM 
pUiat ft row of i]idigo» aoid lOM of 
su^ed tromeiB are in fitthioii. S«ot 
these dever Utdc people najr not «ftif 
sessed lome defisctive numeial iyatem, 
Matai» ne^boms who ooont v^ ^ 
superseded by the Spanish nttmbtts. 
These Matacos (Bfataguayos) of tfie 

TMtf betweoi that river aaA 
ToTl T ^"^ the only tribes of the GiW 

by Ehrenreich, who notiees 
8h<»t arms and legs, and excessive 
To judge from the photographs taken 1^^ 
expression especially of the Tobas is strSdnf^f 
crossings can hardly be suspected amongst ft 
hitherto maintained their independence, autf 
the few white intruders in their secluded di 
thus seem to afford strong support to 
the general resemblance of so many South 
the Caucasic type (see above). 

^ Markham, List of the THdes, p. 951 
* Urbtwohner Braniiens^ p. loi. 






'Mlmi CoB^mtkaa— CondtBcnt EkmeDli of the CumA; IHtWob— 
>^f4MK •■& Piwt EUoM-CndkUnd: AM« awth «f Sadu— The 
^ . Oirtwaiiy"SiliM»"— Noitb AftiaiHoBMofth<MriiUmu>emiUcw 
* ^SMf Leng^Mdt ud Roand-beadi— Hie WgntlaM BOidnnudi fron 
« •■ ftftt ■ Til Time Siwt Ennipeaa Etknksl Gnmwt TiU, bknd Loog. 
fcwlli. Short, duk Loog-baub; Brawn Roand-hMdi 7iU C a «wy 
"""nMwAn— TIw HKmrauiiiNUin: /bnteu,- HgnritKf; Ma i g tmu— 
« X tjtP* ■*' nii|tM IIiiiImi ud Hudtk LMgwigai fiui dw —ntt J l T o n t 
.J... 7& ZtanEMM— Foniter Raiwe to Rhineland— and to Italy fam AMca— . 
T****faaw Or^lB^-^Si^M/; SaM—Sard and Cffrtiem Ori^iiw— Ethnical 
*fedil«naiie«n Dnaain— Ranc* of tlta Hadi- 

_.. EasUm Htmittt—TTU WttUrm HamHu: 

2bn0> KtA "JAtfrt'— General Hunilic Trpe— Bertier and Arab Coo- 
MH^'Tlw Tfkat—Tk* Mgyflia» #>uni/u--Oricnu— Tha Stone Agca in 
Jmt— The Egjpuam indGieDoiu in the Nile VaUer— NeolHUe and 
HGm* Cnbnie— EgTpdan Langoage and Tjfe ipednllted b Remote 
Condition of the Ancient 

I, Africa north of&tdan. 
Itfe, all tit eidra-tnfUai MaNtaile lands, P^«a* 
_ If GMmm tn^tre, /<^^<m, and the Arctic ton*; inta^ TisaM. 
>'" JlSftttt Ammta, AnMa, India, and Indontsia ; spcra- 

'fx'^nMv ^^ts — t Homo enropKeoa {Nbrtk Euro- ^'^^ 
vt), 1. K. alpintu {Central and Eas/un. 
, /nuae. Oceanic)/ 3. K. medltarTanaiudi 

tt'^lty kgkt hvwn, flaxen or red, rtUher long. 



■ -^ r 

UAM: Mffr^^hlal^ 




fwduh i^WWBf fWN^> flttliif^ 

in sidhm; heard tf M 
fifim U^ier than Amt ^ 
Ck>loiur: i. florid. %. pah 
brown. 3. wry variaiU — cmlMv 
brcwn and even Uaddsh {Eemkrm, 
Skull: I and 5 long (69* ^^^ 
and npufords) ; all arikegnaikeme 
att smail^ mver preceding laiera^ 
(some Betters and ScoUh). NoM^ 
sira^hi^ arched or hooked (46'*)| 
hea^y coneave and short. Ttfmi^ 1* 
haul-grey and black ; 3. black Ot^dofff' 
(many Canutes). 

Stature, i. laH (mean sA.^^M 
(mean $ff, 6 in.), bul also very iail{ 
tfi,), 3. under-siud (mean sft^S 
(some HamiieSy Hindus^ and 
Lips, mostly rather fuU and 
thin^ or upper lip very long (fnany 
pendulous (many Jews). Aim% 
with Negro, Legs, shapely ^ wUk 
vtloped* Feet, i. rather large; % 

Temperament, i. eamestyenergeiki 
steadfast y solid, and stolid; outwardly 
and deeply religious ; humane^ fira^ 
cruel, 2 and 3, brilliant^ quid 
impulsive; sociable and courteous^ 
worthy, and even treacherous 
often atrociously cruel (many SiavSf 
Indonesians and even South Europeam^i 
highly, ethic slightly developed. All 
musiccU, and richly endowed intellectual^ 

Speech, mostly of the inflecting 
tendency towards analytical forms; 

— X 



^^fMtmttt t ft t mUj hi^t~9U art$, mAuirmt stmti, 

:ffitJHk\\a I mogl/ m AfHea ami Imdumia, and OUl pt*' 

JMI#B /« 4MH n^NMu dvilaatiom data fivm i*e 

lf fli i0 f tt .Jiim (Mgfft, Saiak AraUa); in Mtn Jnm 

P9lfl» tt 3000, JWU7 9.C. {prt-Mykaentan, MykaenttMt 

'■ , ^j^WM, JgJSaifa, tind ItaUt tuUiatt). Indenitittnt and 

y::jggf0^am^ tan mdt, with primitivt us«ga, fm itrts, 

^■""V 'J W i' WifW " ' "* ^f^**"' ""^ eanaiiaStm fmaiitU in xatt 

' '" *'naWjiarDpa«tls: S fa nd i namani, North Germans, imb 
MmiiV, ^t SnriishlS eoUh and Jg/^Anghr "^" 
Ht^. An^Atuirttiaiiam, Snglisk and Dutch ef 
■^^I0ift^i Tkraho-HeUtnu, mne Iannis, mu/ mtt 

4^^httm, Dards md Siah-post JCi^rt, aua)t—.. 

•Ivmns: jutC^UKa <»^ If«ftii, j^M. 

>— '" —d T>traUa • piauyu\ Pa^l. ChMu, 

A^anioHS and Rumanians i Armt- 
Tajiks {East Ftnians), Gakhas, 

a,TB«<H<«T»Penili : mvst Ibtrwns, Corsieant, 
Greeks; Berbers and other 
other. Semites; some Hindus; 




It is HTfHiitlMibieJIigl 

tay* on the 
sdtiient dements of which ire m^iiir 
be best acqaiinted, is in pofaen^of liei 
the iriiole range of sntbropolagieil 
so is not ftt first sight quite ftpptxtiM^ 
may perhaps be pardy expiaiDed by IKI^ 
component parts are realty of a mote 
present more intricate problems lor 
other division. But to some extent thii 
one of those cases in which we fail to sel^ 
To put it plainly, few will venture to deny 
culties of the subject have in recent timai 
than diminished by the bold and often 
theories, and, in some instances one mig^^' 
speculations put forward in the earnest desire 
less obscurities, in which the more fun 
undoubtedly still involved. Coi^^roversiar 
thrashed out hai.been reopenedftev< 
brought into play, and the warfare connectedi' 
topics as Aryan origins, Ibero-Pelasgic relatioilil^ 
heads and long-heads, has acquired, renewed 
rival theories ^f th^ Pei$ki^'9thxtdeK^d6 ' 
other eminent champions of the new ideaii 

A return to chaos i» even thjreatened by^ 
that have been directed from more than ofte 
long-established Caucasic terminology, and the 
is to be withdrawn from such time-honoured 
"Semitic," even "Caucasic** itself, in fevourof 
"Eurafncan*,** and other upstarts, which while 



^ That is, of course, when taken as the subetitots M^ 
\-. ^< • /^^trifitc^jgeqgiaphica; sense ^ts u^> ijot.onlx 

^' ^imi^Vait seems specially obje9tu>nable, being IB 
of ^«nfh^*,.A)d fhef«f9rcrmSanfnt i fttuhOfb H^ wMt\ 
♦ • ♦ • '6«ol«g7ir4sar^r>kckfiBiteaeiise,Wninhe.i 

Continent" (Eih, p. 930). To indicate the commonr on 

k M 

^Ullfcil fili|ti^to b«^.«^iMni^ ceimnlioBal>'':M4 ■* 
■0mA&}m&MAoKiiU fadd m nUd mitil i 

^0lim>Bk^ial be uMgiitad dwii, for iartince, the fierce ol^Mlioitt 
■j^HjjjWflliiyfa^.by Ae TOy miteii wbo meeklf accqx ^'HmbHic" 
';||»lr Taiiililii " Donbtko, w we lU know, the moltitudiaow 
t^f(il0gtlAm»-cnai&hr&9'jnibQi "Cancisc" did not origiaate 
^d^,tllS:Caacuu; but, <m Oe other hand arc the objecton pre- 
^ilMNk^ wmmt tibu "SKm" cr "Hen" bad ever my ethnic 
" ""wtwk't^ wete ever even ao madi aa nqthical vpsmymom 
"HeUen," "Italiu," "ficubia" and the net of 
^'tlt IHH coandoatioDa nich u dieae^ weighing so atmngly 
r at cnnmt laaj^, that induced me start t*r giti mirii- 
Ib'tfae Si/uuhgy, and conaequently also in the pieaent woik. 
^;iMce aa tbcm, the Cancaaic Division retains its title, 
triiritk those tS iu main nibdiviaiona — Hamitic, Semitic 
:, H^coic, Teutonic, Irantc, Gakhic and so <»l 
,_ , ,_ ^ _,e cUcf exception is "Aryan," a hnguisttc expressitm fmoed 
1^fe,<fci> jJliMimiili into the domain of Ethnok^, where it has 
-aHqp)|BB-orl»eanhlg^ There was (tf course a time when a com- 
.*'StJ|j||||l|^ Argimp of communities, existed probably in the steppe 
*' iiJkMMeeB. die Carpathians and Ite Hindu-Knah, by wiiom 
I modter-toogue was evolred, and -who stiU for a time 
fcsicestain unifonnity in their physical characters, were, 
ech and type. But while their Aryan speech 

I pTopoMd the fonn " Afiv-Enropeui" {£lk. 

ll wu with tome mipriie that I found mjidtf charged with 

«%IdaIor of E»r^ri(a» In JU objectioiMUe tente, « leiue 

lich Iboldin thenroogeit avenion. Nor 

ilipeopcr rabttitate for Cancuic, becaiue it lewrei out the vatt 

~ Tm1<m>«i»n Mctioiu of tMi dividou. 

rind nalUtlich rdn conTentioncIl. Si« tind hi«loiiKh 

StfgjiB GeltnnK bdiilten, to lange wir keine iDtreflercDdea an 

" {Am^trtt ri tgitekt Stiiim etc, p. 15). 


■liliiilj M 



Hence we cuaad a 
am Aiju ItDgoittic bmi^, whU « 
over tbe ^obe. But of ui Afyao t 
qaeMfcn once the ibwrptioa of tbo* 
otfatt ncea in remote {xe^uMoriC't 
refncQcee have to be made, I tl 
Aiyin taoe the expresnon peo{riee«f'iJ 
wherever At unqualified term Acjwi i 

Thia way of looking at the qoeftiottr * 
more tbonty than ever, has die ngnal adn 
ent to any preconceived theories regardiof 6 
of that long vanished proto-Aryan race. '. 
is may be judged, from the mere ■ 
anthropologists are still almost to a maa 1 
view that the first Aryans were best rep 
headed, tawny-haired, blue-eyed Teutonic b 
who, Virchow tells us, have completely d 
the present population — the Italian schoolvJa 
exponent, Prof. Sergt, now assures us that i 
that sudi Aryans never existed, that "the t 
were not long, but round-beaded, not fair but^'d 
short, and are in fact to-day best represeiued hf,6 
Kelts, Slavs, and South Germans'. 

The fact is that the Aryan prototype ktt^ 
pleteiy as has the Aryan mother-tongue, and c 
restored only by processes analogous to those hj In 
and other philologists have endeavoured with c 
restore (he organic Aryan speech as constituted J) 
sion. At the same time one may perhaps v 
weight of evidence seems rather in favour of *li9'j| 
that the first Aiyans answered better than any 4 

^ "lo noD dnbito di denomioare aria q 
^rn, Bologna, 1897, p. 14, uid eUewhere). 

pRKji i«»ckucMH; mevLm> 

<Qf^ lapoagey iMckf of dw ^ 
to limiA tennm 

lor Stench idMxd of 

ikigy'.ml MMtanf 

>4Awq^MK fee <*At)«a" M udomood bf PnlM, Alt H, 

of die Am* divHtaic into wUcb te-'dhridwittc 

t» dww dtriwMU, which be adopu anii MBw*^ 
Dr W. Z. R^tajr rcmaria UiU " inomd of & dbg^ 
^jftt thtn is. indvbit^ile cndeocc of at katt ihrM 
BH, Mch pMiened of a hiitoiT ol ita own, mmI «m1) 
HfalbiiK KHttethng to the ewnmon product, pc^tnktioD ■• m 
it ItMhj" Tbenbaaddi:— "If Uiis ba cMsUished. itdoM 
f at one fell nroop widi tnoit erf the aunat mouthingi ftbont 
Iff tad pn-Atyuu; and etpeciaUy with wch ^priktioiu as 
or the ' lado-Germuiic ' race*." 
Ch the reaaaiM Mated, k to be, dquecated. But 
toboa pnq>crl)r ondentood — not as the equivalent of 
as here i^iparentl^ suggested, but as ihc col- 
of one of the lour main diviaiODS of mankiod— 
bt dispensed with until a more suitable general term be 
It need not ioterfere in the least with Dr Riplejr's 
WKH, or with any nmnber of such snb-varieties, for it conn 
«■( )nat as analogous general terms oova any nnmba of 
and vaiiedes in sooU^ or botany. Those irtio 
" are apt to foiget the vast field that has to 
by this sia^ collective term; a field con^itsing 
of Aryan wpeech alone, not the tribes of ttie Caucuns 
aU Uiese and many mwe — Semites, Hamite^ Eastern 
ill of whom bekHig anUuopologicaUy to the saae 

tattfmni I Albni, Magaincw, tonwii, pilk fl«Ta«centlbiw, pn>- 
. ' (Syttm* AfatMTg). 

lout, Je m'en den k Is tenninnlppe linntauie," giving 

Ast the Mnfiuion i* thus kTinded which aiiiei (nun the ue of 

*-| tA iUilgiMtr type* often fbiminc ■ iiiiiiorit7 in the nttion iuelf 

AdMv, Pun, 1896). 

flH > i»* j t^Awi^ in J^brSamuJIAiMfy, Jdm, 1897. 





Ctwi ttt l w tiit 



Ami hm% m^asM -itimmm 

art w^mimjf moAi 

to be fodlir ^dHn it 
merdjr artificial groapiiigs, 
tainly this Caucasic Dtviaioa 
hetcfogeneous element^ more aO Hum 
the Ethiopia Hence k aeems to 
to sweep into a single category, 
peoples-— Europeans, North Africans, 
others all the way to the IndtyQtmgfi^ 
complexion presents every shade of 
white to the deepest brown or even bladb^; ji^ 

But they are grouped together in a 
their essential properties are one, and 
Ehrenreich, who himself emphasises diifie 
stantial .uniformity speaks to the eye diat' 
At the first glance, except perhi^ in m..:fgm, 
which it would be futile to create i 
recognise a common racial stamp in tiie 
structure of the hair, partly abo the bodily 
which points they agree more with each otilcr 
main divisions. Even in the case of ceitttK^ 
races, such as the Bejas, Somali, and a few 
we are reminded instinctively more of Eoro; 
of negroes, thanks to their more regular 
expression. "Those who will accept nodiii||f^ 
measured, weighed, and numbered, may think 
ing to modem notions this appeal to the 
unscientific Nevertheless nobody can deny 
obvious physical differences between Cau< 
Mongols, Australians and so on. After all, 
itself dates only from the moment when we 
these differences, even before we were able 't/0^. 
expression by measurements. It was predsdjT 
that spoke powerfully and directly to the eye'.^c^ 

^ Anthrifp, Studien, p. 15, **I>eUeGemeiiisamkeit4flCj 
uns die Blutverwandtschaft" {id,), ^^ 






wm^^i^^cMmc wmmusskt 





of tbe Not and Ibe A^ilml W^NiAi Aft 
jM«M9tt^'M 1^^ tiie dintf Smopasn nfttioM 

iboie of Jndiftf hdd bx miteifr JtaM]re» nod jof 
bjr «etQ«l settksnent P^riitiadly tbe frbok woiid htm 
dStocMe with tlie exception of luUf-«pdoien statbt iodi 
iJMb^t Japan^ Steni^ ]iCiurocco» still enjoying a real or fio» 
fi. Boty from die ethnical standpoint* those T^^ona 
ikit Cancasic peoples can ^tablish themselves uid per* 
ttkcic ifoe as colonists are alone to be regarded as fimh 
to^llie original and later (historical) Caocasic donwini^ 
r^iMi^ acoessions are however of vast extent^ induc&ig dm 
4Wtt ^of SH)eria and much of Caucasia, where the S^y 
iiirf/tfan> AiyittMpeidung peoples are now founding per<r 
^IMK bomesi the whole of Australia, Tasmania, and New 
have become tbe inheritance of the Caucasio 
lOf the Britisfa Isles; large tracts in South Africa, 
by settlers chiefly from HolUmd and Great 
the New World, where most of the northern con* 
ifilllsd by frillrblood Europesms, mainly British, French 
while in the rest (Central and South America) the 
ts (diiefly from the Iberian peninsula) have 
ethnical groups by fusion with the aborigines. These 
all acquired within the last 400 
iOQi^y estimated at about 28 million 
irlnch with some 12 millions held 
MNt historic period (Africa north of Sudan, most of 
West and parts of Central and South Asia, Indo- 
lent of 40 million square miles to the present 
either actually occupied or in process of settle- 
whole of the dry land scarcely exceeds 52 millions, 
iMire than about 12 millions for the now reduced 




V- .**■•■ 

EW9.V ? 

pe -other divisions, and even of this a great part 
lll^dand, Gobi, tundras, Greenland) is barely or 
This, it may be incidentally remarked, is 


.■iL*A t- « 

>f •' 


ifAii s 9mr 





fiitapft 'llier .tan -t^ilp' 1^' 'IImMi^"^ 
eipreiBion to gjoomy fianebo&ifi' 
file CMKsfttfa: nuecHu Hm ^* y«ito«r 
tht refleotioo that the Cancstiiaa 
or ooqinxed iiearlj fom^^ifths of ito 
abscAne domiiuon of the high eee^^ ii^i 
meiged bjr eny conceivable combilialiMt^ 
atiU less by the Mongd aloiie\ 
Where have we to seek the 

vigorous and domtiuuit 
On the assumption that ni 
have been evolved ii 
logical zoneSy each from its own 
question may be thus formulatedi in 
Used pleistocene ancestor spedaiised? 
type constituted in all its essential 
can yet be given, but this much may be* 
of Sudan corresponds best with all the 
were found in quaternary times all the phj 
zoologists demand for great spedalisatioai 
able climate and abundance of food, beside 
nection at two or three points across the 
the pliocene and early pleistocene faiinaa 
the two continents. ■''^:^n 

Former speculations on the subject &Heci. 

because the writers todc, so Mji 
from under their own feet, by 
the land under a vast *' 
which had no existence, and which, moreoveii^ 
of North Africa to a Mauritanian island, a 
Europe,'' as it is in one place expressly caSedL i' 
venient inland basin was got rid of, not by 'tOtki 
the same level as the Atlantic, of which it 

The "Qua- 


' Sir W. Crooke's anticipation of a possible foi 
supply as affecting the destinies of the Caucasic peopltti; 
at Meeting Br, Assoc, Bristol, 1898) is an economic 
be discussed. 

' p. a sq.. 


leAvctasc cboplo. 

i «B AiiMtt. and danaot-jdbcl cidier ^Ua&mwmM 

#AlHiltielNdC N«r»it«ipbiMd)wvllw«ce«tiei«tm 
I midiisg in uconliiv "m the Sidun tei 
dMttt". Tbe Uteiqit to «roh«.ft 
I Moe" ia Ni^ u impoodble «m BecenvUjr htolM 
I perplexitiea being involved in the iaitMl 

I iR^ma tbe 3efau« diy land in tdeueoccM imm, imt 
t Ami M a oonsidecablj hi^icr altitude than at pi aian ^ 
kB-OMU dention is still ettimated by Chavannk at 
: above searlevd. "Quaternary depoaita cover widt 
t' wmt M me time mppoaed to be of mirine oiigis. 
•■■ Md ttMt tiie great land dunct must have been 
idet tbe Ma; bat at tfaia date it is scarcdy necoMaiy 
i^fiidi a view. The advocatea ot a Qiutemarj Sahaia 
i ehiefljr from tbe diacovery of marine ibdls at levcfal 
At midAe of tbe Sahara. But Totimouer has shown 
H in dn aid of a great ocean in order to explam tbe 
f one or two shells is a needless expenditure of enag]''." 
t altitnda of probably over wmk feet tbe Sahara must 
1 an ahnoat ideal dimitte dnriog late pliocene and 
> Cbncft iriwn Europe was exposed to more than one 
I, and to a Lu^ extent covered at long intorvals 
B of solid ice-caps. We now know that these stony 
laates were traversed in all directions by great riven, 
SM' Masisrmwa trending south to the Niger, w the 
■'flowing north to the Mediterraneait, and that Uiesc 
• aay stiU be traced for hundreds of miles by cfaains 

k Tit G*^»ty t/tluSaJkara, in SeUna Pr^rat, Jul]', 1B9J. 
t, f Hng in Berber " rniming water," hu been banded down 
I'Mhb Ae l^fan^^kar mi Kill k vi^tj rircui with k iiortherijr 
iriha, dniidng an ana of Dian7 thanMnd Hgiara milei, in 
It pw nl a tv^ perennial btooklel. It would appear 
(till Murive from thote remote timet in the lo-called Lake 
U dlttiict, where von Barj detected very diuinct tncet of 
laftr't*t6. Ut a. E. Peaic alio refen lo ■ Frencbuan "who had 
If «r the ealilaice of ctocodilet cut off in a£ei long ago from 
" (CmuIm/. Rmitw, July, 1896). 

39 — 3 

«f ^ooh or kkdMi, belong « 
doM of tfteictioa ofiiaanjagxn 

Nor oeold tbcre be ugr iMk «f^ 
« &voiiied ngion, vhidi «u . tte»^ 
tutond inigidoii uteries, whilfe t 
by great devation and at taaet'bf /^kmif 
nil>«ictic Europe. 

From these well-watered and i 
coatiuaed even in Roman timet to bad 
came tbat luccession of louthera a 
ifainbceros, elephant, cave-li<m — ^whkh i 
"zoological- appendix of Africa.' In.a 
came |»imitive man himself, whoae n 
Spy, La Naulette, La Deniie, Briix, Pot 
&dley Hill (Kent), ihow that the subi 
populations was of North African i 
Is scarcely room for much discussion, < 
years such abundant evidence has been 1 
pnaenci of early man all over North Afiii 
Mediterranean through Egypt to Somolila 
de Morgan's momentous conclusions is ll 
liud men in Egypt may be reckoned hf tl 
aborigines by myriads of years. These i 
with the men of the Old Stone Ag^ of « 
stations have been discovered — Dahshur , 

Of Tunisia the same story is told by M. i 
emphatically declares tbat "the immense j 
which man made use of stone implements u i 
shown as in Tunisia." Here some of t 
abundance under a thick bed of quateni 
by the waters of a stream that has c 
origin of man in Mauritania must be set b«4t4t 
which deranges all chronology and confoundv-'ir 
the mythologies'." 


1 Stchmhti sur la Origmis dt PEgyptt: VAgi * A 


' Bml. Stc. ifAmtAraf. 1896, p. 394. Thii in 

. fXa CAVCUK raoviMB.. 


I «iC tbe 1^ VtSmcAiOac period re- 

tf>jtf 'IPnoKs b^ tbe LMigerie nc^ wbow *S^S!^ 

tiw Mtddenian dqKniti tt ^™**^ 
•^^MM and at CbaDCdlade, both in Doidogoe,inN dch 
I A> tUf fron ttte otdcf Tace, and vera not a feedgo 
i^Mmft^ tjipe'. Bat even w Mauritania would remaiD the ^Stiim 
||iilWli|a(p far tba ftnt airiv^ in Europe, where tbejr wen tbm 
Dj|MWM>dB qpeetalited into mm of the normal European {Can- 
"-"**--' ^'ijppe. '. Bat no tuch ipecieliiation on the ipot wai needed* 
h Ma oaot mu ally going oa in North Africa, whence tbe Btream 
■ Ml ateadUr and uninterruptedly into Europe through: 
h Stone AgM. 

lldoctriBettf the ipeciaUtalion of the fundamental !&iropeui 

l^lltAfina, before their mignttiont northwaids, Ket at the baie 

{i'a views r^arding the Africtn origin of thoM typea. 

( agvinat the Aiiatic origin of the Hamites, at hdd t^ 

X VIrcbow, Sayce and othen, he points out' that ihit race, 

r' all re[H«aented in Asia, has an immense range in 

,: irfwK its several sub-varietie* must have been evidved 

Hntbtir dispanon over a great part of that contineiu and 

:- Then, regarding Hamites and Semites as essentially 

I that Africa is the cradle iriience this primitive 

i northwards to Europe, where it still penists, eape- 

hliA Mediterranean and its three principal peninsulas, and 

West Asia* " 

I proclaimed in unqualified language the essential ludty 

a dirisi<H]B of the Caucasic bmily, and the North- 

i of ttie European branch. The evidence, anatomical, 

1, and linguistic, in support of this conclusion is rapidly 

;, and daily making converts even amongst some of 

ts who are strongly opposed to Sergi's geneiali- 

Om MUlBiiltjr of human cnltnre in Tuniva Utrongbotit llie Old 
Ages, thu "eta popnlatioiu fbrtemeot miUiogile* d'^Umenli 
it U Krontirie Gtbriqiifnt encore de* vatei de Km poiiiti 

n&dithiqiie" (>*.)■ 
«* It Mriim JF^xmfttiti, 1B97. 

Mia SAft C«Mitiem, Tnxitt, i8g7> p. 4«t iq- 


Ma'Iv' «' ' vASTft ' 



iiifeii &i ttfi in falMii liiid i«» 
a cUttbict no^ «^ M. A^ 
nieded, BOdi «• is preseaied t^ ftioA 
**idth the whole of North AMm 
tffl lately still thickly peofMl'''. 
has tfiis North Afiican s&d MediteitaiiMil 
since quaternary times, he timmtn /^ 
LibyanSi Egyptians, Fela^gians, IberkulS^ 
A^tic theory, he elsewhere arrives at 
that the whole of North Africa, coi 
in the Quaternary epoch, formed part lif 
of the ancient white race, of which Ibci 
being the parent stem, would appear to 
Coming to details, Dr Berth^on*, ftMf 

found by M. Carton at 
pemamndifmu- Tumsia and surrouudiii^ 
SSSSi.'^ headed types, one like the 

t>oth in Khumeria, and in Ae 
palaeoltths), the other like the later 
whom De Quatrefages had already identified 
headed, fair, and even blue^eyed Berbers stffl 
of Mauritania, and formerly represented m 
Bertholon agrees with Dr Collignon that the 
builders are of the same race as those of 
two long-headed races describes (i) a short 
Gerba Island and East Tunisia^ representing 





^ '* Le nord de TAfrique enti^re, y compris le 
peupl^,** f^. of course relatively speaking {Du Dm'estttr 
S^. tTAnthrop* 1896, p. Si sq. 

' lUd, p. 654 sq. 

• Risumide r Anthropolofrie de la Tunisie, 1%^ p. 4 

* Etknohgy, p. 376. This identity is confirmed \tf 
skulls from the dolmens of Madracen near Batna, 
stantine Museum, found by MM. Letoumeau and 
affinities with the long-headed Cro-Magnon race (Gsfihi 
leptoprosope with prominent glabella, notable alveolar 
occipital bone projecting chignon-fashion at the beck ( 
1896, p. 347). 

' He shows (Expl^roHon Anihropoi^gipu dt fIU4t 

~u ^ 

PPRSW"^ ■■.■ 

t Tu c&uauuc vBonjes. 


i»i«Mi«H wift tlte MuuM of Hmdetti% with the rj^lri," 
k 'few' .been wtartled to tbe wbol* wyj !««<»</ aul Am 
lt,«iliiliiili.rf Ae Ainw Ml*. 
^yJiB^ttiiiianHia holds to tbe <dd new thtt Aeee may aO hne 
I ftom Eucqpe daring tbe Stone Age* 'Bttt- <t 
;;-|||rfi^iMi ttie nrwBo of nugntion ftir all the fitnu set the othet 
'i-$^}mmi it « sotewordqr dut Ae hone which bekn^^ to 4ie 
; '^pMe aode^cal vadd does not ^>pcar ia Aftin till qnte ncoaf 
;HI<teMk^lwiM, although it bad aheady mnged into Etnope in tte 
Ejpk|^8l«M 'fScdntriaB) epoch. Such an aiomal could acasMlf 
^|^i[Mtl»-hav• accompanied tbe men of the Stone Agei huo NocA 
f'-^lifttm3iad-Atii movements been in that dtrectton, and would 
•bean known to Aoae LitTina of the "Now Race" who 
IT tbe 6di dynasty formed pennanent aettiementi ia Upper 
Hji-^ad also to tbe Egyptians themselves at die very dawn of 
Yet U- Kteement hu condusive^ shown thrt A* 
I Mwhcn figmed on any of. the Egyptian monumoits 
I H^CBOs itn^tion at the close of the Middle Emptic'. 
mipations were from Africa, and in diis &vDutaUe en- 
i ntber Aan in Ate periodically ic^dad Europe, took 
e slow diffeientiationB by which the pleistocene man of 
1 type gradually became tbe Afro-European iriiom 

f, p- 4*4 iq-) ttMt the Natth AfricMi braws bnehjv^jttliei, t eni t f 

B !■ Mssntaaw, and very pare in Gcifaa, rcacmbU the Eorc^mn 

l^dM awn tbej hive avwdcd coDteet with Ibrdgn new. He 

.: "L* tjpe bran qni domine (Uuu la Gnode Kab^ dn 

litmnenl en majority an type &an;aia bnin. SI I'm 

^____ . Ttlementi aaopiaa, toot ne le* dlKtugaerief pu de 

:.ig^li|i|ii>tt> •> laMsti Ibajnfa." He compaici them eapedaUj to Ibe Bretan, 
^■ ^y. *.!. - .!-.. - ft Haafatbat "iljrapannileiBtTbiMibniiiideabncbrcJph*- 
f«4a«tkn qne lea bnchjcfpbalei bnini aont dM L\fpn*, 
panktent avcdr Mi originafiemenl de la n&ne race." He 

3a,*4ldl pint MqBcnt dana la dbdecta primitifi qne la matkdon dn 



t ^ '^ V rnt 

Bm itnunr bs .obfcdflil 

tjpCf oommonfy 

Kymric or Aijrauif for wluGh de 
EttrtftatSt and to which R^lqr anfiii 
becMife the whok oombbation at 
with die deicriptioiis handed down lo 
wete the Godis, OstrogoChsy Yirigodn^ 
gedier with the Daneiy NorMmeOi 
corrobonued by natural sdence." (a) 
laneah) zone of shcnrt, dark long-heads, Ijl 
in Iberia, Italy, South France, Sicily, Caakmi 
called Iberians by the English, and ideoliifii 
Ligurians, Pelasgians, and even Hitdtes, bttt 
Ripley as Mediterraneans'. (5) The 
short, medium-sized round-heads with li|^^. 
gray or hazel eye, de Lapouge's and Rifriej^ 
Kelts or Kelto-Slavs of the French, the 
of Beddoe and other English writers. uk 

The question is, Can all these have come^ 
We have seen that this region has yielded 
round-headed and two long-headed prehistofic 
Malbot now points out that, as far back as we 
two quite distinct long-headed Berber types, 
duality is proved especially by the megalithie 
Roknia between Jemmapes and Guelma, whidi 
5000 years old. The remains here found by 
belong to two different races, both doU 
with prominent zygomatic arches and very 
reads almost like the description of a brawny 
other short, with well-balanced skull and small 
it is added that the earliest (Egyptian) records 
blond populations living in North Africa some 

'^ Radcd Geography of Europe^ passim. 
' Les Ckaouias^ etc. in V AnthropoUgk^ i 



PPPIP-'-'''"';"^' •—■-'■- '■ . 




felNaRMMbffle the ftjr naribeA and daA wMfaem Sv^mb 
I||>>wrfi;>';in>n.\w8 haw Bettlidta'a numMMiidi tewa Eut 

Mto A aynMg a' i much contMted /faw ajrtww. 
» -$3m» 4i0cnBt races were iqireseDted eren anumgtt tbe 
oAwbOMMidiM of tbs Cuuvjr Ialand% as •boim 
Mf^Mii^ «r the 5a. beads proaued in i^ bjr i^miriiii , 
»>jl.Mqwr trem cates in ^ ardiipel^'. ^Qj^,^ 
iMfcdMMt qrpM are' determined : <i) Guanche, 
|far^te>tbie Cio-M^pKm. tall (5ft. Sin. to 6ft. ain.), lebuat, 
riWmXf^X >*w> Ivoad face; laige eyes, rather ahoit nose; &ir, 
MM wii^ chiBstniit hair ; dun and ejres light ; ranged thzough- 
NtelBar<islaiida, but centred chieajr in Toierife; (a) ".^mUie," 
MPtr^S^ 4<^ 5>°')r >lin>t narrow mesoceplialic head (81*), 
artVi laaii free, Uack hair, light brown Ain, dark eyeij lange^ 
, Pahna, and Hjerro; (3) Armtnoid, akin to vtm 
c oi Aaia Minor; aborter than t and x ; voy 
d hi|^ Bkull (hyperbrachy, 84*), hair, skin and eyes 
li B ^Hafc a bly of the West Aaiatic bruoette type ; range, mainly in 
gDMMihM met e reryw h eie. Many of the skulls had been tre- 
pUMit and titese are brought into direct association with die 
IrBertKr, at tbe Aurea Mta. in Algeria, who still practiae 
% Cor wounds, headaches, and other rcaaona. The Arme- 
K' ia not to be distinguished from Lapouge's abort brown 
m, which dates from the Stone Agea, and is found in 
Ulllil ^Mnaes in the Central Alpine regions, eaatem plaint of 
PpiA W>dt as we shall see, in Anatolia and Irania. 
"*~ 'a we see how unnecesaaty it ia to go to Asia f<x the 

B nuod'^ieads, who are generally introduced from tbe 

« An AToMorucJitii Instln, with Dr F. nm 
ix{ •!•(> U^tr die Uritwakntr dtr Kmaritdmt Inttln, 
I. p. 63. The infereDce* here Attym ue in nb- 
t with thoK of Mr Hear; WaUack, in hi* piper 00 TA* 
laJ^MrN. Anlkr^. /net. June, 1887, p. 1 j8 iq.j and tlio with Hr 
— .-.,__Im9( who. howcTCr, diitingniihea foor pre-Spuiiih lypci InMn a 
||i||^'I!mb«oh ikslb and other renaiiu from T^nerife in Ant-. CtrntrUgr 







attr in the Jkwae A(%^aMidail^ 

hftd tSteiAf ftHnMifflifrf 

dmii^ tiie New> Steiie Afft Thiti 

pdmmoey has b^ii ttmngeljr 

have built up their theoiittiwitlraat 

Hovmamefous were theiahaUtaiili^ 

infened from the lonj^ikt of no leift 

given for that region by Bif . Ph. 

from those stations measured by himi^^ 

as dolichOy 21's as brachyoephalie, mit^^ 

This distinguished palethnologist legwds 

result of crossings betuMii 
hMdgTOuiM— ' these he thinks the fiist 
«/r«^£S: heads, who ranged over a vast 

the Channel, the Pyrenees, attd 
60 per cent, of the graves hitherto studied 
type'. Belgium also, where a mixture othmf^ 
found amongst the men of Furfboz, mi^ be i 
lithic brachy domain. But Sergi minimises tWI 
which he identifies with the Aryan from Asia at^ 
round-headed Slavs, Teutons, and Kelts, and 
Salmon's 21*2 per centage of brachycephalicsi 
the 2 1 'I of intermediates, and thereby grea^ 
proportion of Neolithic round-heads in West 
in fact merely '^ peaceful infiltrations in Fi 
the great invasions^ Such minimisings would 
had he looked to Africa instead of to Asia fm 
headed as well as for the first long-headed popi 
No doubt these were later (during the Metal 
the '* great invasions ** from Asia, in which 
tall, fair long-heads (Aryans from the steppe), aa4 
round-heads of average size (probably firom the 
But all of these had themselves first been 
Africa, the true centre of evolution and of 
main branches of the Caucasic family. 

> DMombrement et Types des Crdnes NMiikiqHuiitm 
dt r&cok tPAnthrop. 1896. 

• "Infiltrazioni pacifiche." (Arii e ItaUciy p. 194). * 4^^ 

'■ ^ 

i. ""';'"' 


V-SW^'J .TW» 

p >(.^ WUMflH^Mt Of SOTgite TiMririadi tncM dMf iiM udMUButo 
- l i tll WiliilMl l iil i il iu i— olflw M » di ttinmM«(Ib«ri«i^ niltamti 

■ -^Wlrtw^' M*wii'M«. SiiaM •nd other latM, Pria» - g ]« g™M 
||llM$^toNofAAfiic%IamiKlidlucoid. lagrae L^iiifcM i 
rti< lt«nitt w »Brt <f thtWTwe primMgy af > *""* 

^ ifaA<bi«M^«lw>l^d^cJw-t)riM^ iriudi iiiH penwto botb in South 
/ AlMpvaad Hoidi A6tc^ tsd ia &ct a dw nee whidi Ktgiitj 
' 'fM^pidr^ciffli •< Ifnlitemuietn," ahhoQ^ in the west tbey-ataBett 
l^tiWiBlji naged into Brittoi^ end the Britiah lalei; 
v«ic#Mk^Ai Baiqacs end Iberiuu we hsre now the indepeBdcnt 
IMJnaigraf I3rILC(dli0!ion*,pert«patbefiiM lirii^ •nthoritj' on 
IHNMXk' " lite phTncaltnttschuactoiitic of the BHqnci attach 
MyB(- ■nimrionibly ('indiscatahletneat*) to the gnat Hai^lio 
PlMkvC the wlute race*, that ii to tay, to the udoit-EgypliHM 
•fmktO dw viiiou groope commonly compraed under d>e oA- 

■ Ipdir* Mine et Berben. Tbdr biachjrcephmly, Bli(^ m it ^ 
W^mrtweigta Hit a^si^ate t^ the otfier chancten irtnch they 

^;^||iMib... It k dKrefore in this diiection and not amoogat fmoM 
) that it to be sought the parent stem of this para- 
It is North African or European, auuredly not 

> ^' ^"1^ *»d the archeological evidences of identity derived 
*': l^te^ab common megalithic monuments may now be added a 
' 'c proof, which seems all but conclutiTe. On the African 
^M have the Hamitic (Berber) language still tn its full vigour ; 
itly hat litde changed for thousands of yeiis. But in 
i dw coiresponding primitive tongues have everywhere been 
y by die Aiyan (Hellenic, Italic, Keltic) except in Italy 
Of Pelasgjc, if a member of this family, nothing 
it oeept the statement of Herodotus, a dangerous guide 
r, that it was a barbaric tongue like the people them- 
Of Hestairian also there remain but a ^w fragments, 
h to ihow that it was not a member of the Italic branch 
tf AmUy, If we even allow with MtHnrosen that it was 

Stiptt, L'AtUkft f tt^, 1894, pp. i7»-8t- 



MAXt Mitr J9ll^ 



one Stock. 

Se^ in Ibcrift thfif€ fidHiuMUill^ 
licileiii Pyr€iifie% whksli beyond ^ 
speecii wldkAi ivms ciinwnt in die 
and on the asiumptton of a oeniaion'jisijl 
on both fides of the Strait of Gibniini 

traces of kindiq> widi Hit 
posthumous work on this 
philologist G. Ton der 
than mere traces, and it abti 
phonetic and verbal resemblances, but ttiMiM^ 
so that his editor Graf von der Schidenbeq^ 
is no longer any doubt as to die reladonsh^ml 
Great diveigence, due to a separation of manyt 
of course inevitable, and is seen in the 
postfixes while the form remains, and in die d 
of nominal gender which is so characteristic of 
even here the Bas. verbal k masc, n km, ansMi: 
where » = m, as in Bas. izen s Ham. isem (name)^'! 
few structural and other equations* : — 

ak (pi. ending) 

ezarri ^ 

nrten, irten 
tik, dik 
n, en 


ekarri) . 
hamar, amar 


ak • 








n, en 



«e'»( l=r 


^ Die Verwandschaft des Baskischen mii den 
nachgewiesenj Branswick, 1894. 

' ** Die Sprachen waren mit einander verwandt, das sttti^ 
(Pref. IV.) V 

' Of the doublets in the English column the ist 
Basque, the and to the Berber. 

. \'an.<AVCMac nopLxs. 







rf«r . ■ 


led-.t»<c ' 


kkwk, nltm 









aqu, urn 


a- ■ 










to God 




ceiitni7, bandtcd 






to wule, niiD 




to tdte, steal 

9enl «it«bt(f is better preserved 

in Berber than io Basque. 







■outh wind, tonlh 





white, to be pak 

Me eqoatioiis, which fonn a vocabulary of no less than 
^«ie mudi doeer than they seetn, because the difierences 
if eipbined by constant or normal phonetic laws of 
Mpdl as tiiose established by Rosk and Grimm for the 
ySr, aSd by other considerations which are too technical 
PC cmisidered'. Let one example suffice. The Has. 
|0ie titmt Is the ranaikkble TOcdie Bhifting in the tri-Iitetal rooti, 
B|r ikwhuKil in Semitic, leM m in Hamitic, sod incipient tracei of 
IpMlBCte Basque. Snch variant! ■• Han. abild, Kulb, amg, anng 
iMff«Mi with Bas. eguki, iduki, inukl, ilaiki (mn) ftc. 






mtmbm$, cttKoiy, is dtelMiif -ifidi^ 
utoe tf is merdf a fern, pi^r siui 
loss of IV. In thb as in many ottMr^l 
the archaic fioan, while in othar 
to the original Haniito*Iberian 
undoubted resemblances are fiur too 
explained away as coincidences or hXit 
many Berbers took part in die liiodeQi^ 
Arabic, the dominant speech* alcme (dkcUt^ 
and the geognnphical nomenclature^ as wo^illl: 
TariJki U ^'Tarik's^Hill'' although Taiflt 
Berber from Tripolitana; so also Gui 
« Great River." 

Besides, the invaders never penetrated tl> 
to which the Basque language had airesi^ 
confined. But that it was not originally a loo# 
rally diffused over the whole of Iberia imd 
often denied as asserted by the protagonists of 
is now convincingly proved by Father F. Fil% 
living authority on this subject In a paper on 
Roman inscriptions of Fraga' he makes it 
Roman times, that is, in the prehistoric age, a 
type was current amongst the aborigines on 
Pyrenees. When Hannibal crossed into 
his march to Italy he came upon a flourisliili|( 
name with which his Iberian allies were familiar^ 
left behind them in their own territory of 
another place of the same name, meaning im 
"Newtown,*' as it still does in modem Basqne^' 

^ See also M. G^ze, De quelquts rapports entn Its 
in Mhn, Sec* ArchhL du Midi de la Franc$t vol. S^Hi 
words are compared, with the conclusion that in an 
a close connection existed for a long period of time 
the Basques and Berbers. This memoir was unknown to 

* In BoL Real Acad, de la Historian Octolier 1S94. 

' Other identities are : — Tolosa, twice in Spain and on 
gurris on Ebro and Garonne; EUmberris, Aturris^ Iktm. 
Spain; Elimberris, Adour, Hum (Oloron) and Atutvmmt 
Cf. also AfuUn (Matres Tolosan«) and amdere^^wooMUi 


iJHm ml in Wlwi * *■<* «W* ii ewd by tiwie tttriia jwltia- 
^iMM% «M Ib Ai KMtlMnit, not in fron tlw ibmu of te 


UBS aajciOKC'. nopUH. 

^^iiHlH»»''te:t«lber kwUBC oat on the Nonh Medi mnawn 
^IM>W -AM k ta»y be qp* dtowB thai tbeir naga vmrn AtJ 
':$il0it te A» weM and «Mt fiu- befond thcM Ikaita. Cant'a 
'4jig||faritaiilMn timott ad mi t t edly Iberians, u ware btyond iaakt 
lMBHOBaMit% die fWiimo, wboae name RuyiTCt in tbe pnaml 
.ftfl$§m» M *eB ■■ >t> ^Mwrnri from which moat of them have 
ilJnajniraiTil' Thu Western branch of the Iberian family Aua 
'^IMSn^ aoith to the GaioBBe> beymid wbich were seated the 
7 J$0ttimf M* )Uao anuBoaly regarded as Iberians, and moat 
fllptilj HBOfSton vt the J'iOs who occupied Britain befon tht 
Mfml of the ^ato*. 

^^^aithar aas^ bei^iad "Newtown," the Iberians, as dkownby 
:JI)iPib matt new be grouped with the ligurians, 
-.ijl m atfaMcal posidoB has hitherto been stiangdy j^f,^ 
Sergi — and this is one of his great 
to antbropcdi^ical studies— makes it quite clear that the 
were not round-headed Kelts', but, like the Iberians, 

Shs tn nc coochufve tlwt • people apekking the nme langnaee h that 
^^^olM ta BMnt* inlMbited Sonlhrni GbuI in eari; dinei" (W. Webtter in 
'-ttfHMt^•tft. A tB»i). TU* Mtbority alio reeogDiiei k dittinct tboo^ 

pPMNMftkfMhip between tbe JberisM wath of and tbe PkttnM aectb ef 

^ J^ P. BlwU (£m I^Minw muM/ Itmr HaUiutmtMl m Nammfefmtai^, 

j£sapK Ast there wete no IlMqaei in Guconj before tbe later inigntjoii 

'" hi tbe 6lb centoiy. Bnl the «boT«-qaated plue-names ibow 

(AqsUaaia) had been leltled in lemote timca bj IberiMi pre- 


I^"! JFf)in« Pict* aad Iberiau to liave belonged to one and tbe mbm 

"hi have Tennued to call Ibero-Pictiib" (Prof. J. Rbjt, Atadtm^, 

*panAiipalBt ttronger than M. G. Herri, who ercngoetbejrotid 

(the Kelt! with tbe popolaticmi of Lipnia, and 

e the Gonlviioo canted bj the lem " Kelt " \rf ttriUng out 

in tenne anni radicalemcDt fami^cl de le renplacer 

f.'^^n.Mmt.dtt&aU^AtakrBp.Vi.x'ii^). Itihould 

tbe Cn>l£agnon race from tlie Quatenuuy through 

period, when it wu idemical with that of the 

FiCfcaniet, ead wlien the NeoUtliic biachj race of Gienelle 

'WAa Smbm period tbi* bnch; element abound!, and to h he ■ppllae 





ft wetioniof the loQfJMidflt' 
■tOGKa Fmn pKtUistonfc iiftliMMc 
odleetod 59 tkiiB8> all clMmtfpt^ 
tiiditJen being of aocoid diftt hitom 
repan bekniged to the L%Briftil 
pffeUsteric Italy was occupied by thHF 
two biancheB— ligurian and 
inl»bitants of die Po vaUej* iMyw 
were ugunan • 

These Liguiians may now be tneed 
,. ^ , Mediterranean into Ceiilitl>l 

UgwcuutM In 

»hfa<itHi and of the Neolithic finds nude 
^' district between Neustadt and 

infers that here the first settlers w^ e L%u: 
up the Rhone and Sa6ne into Rhinehwd» 
Museum in Rome he was surprised to ted 
between objects from the Riviera and bom 
(both dolicho), vases, stone implements, mM 
Such Ligurian objects, found everywhere in 
the Rhine lands chiefly along the left bank ot^ 
between Basel and Mainz, and farther nortii: jb| 
Wiesbaden, and in the Lahn valley. These 
far north are confirmed not only by geogr^pj 
and archseological data, but also by linguistie 
by Prof. W. Deecke*. 

The Ligurians may of course have reached .< 
the coast from Illiberis and Iberia ; but the 
the aboriginal element also at the '' heel of the 
throughout the whole of Italy and all the adj 

the name of ** race des Ligures, ou, ce qui revient so 
au sens que les anthropologistes [fran^ais] ont 
Broca i ce dernier terme*' (f^.)* The one reply to tbls 
written from the same standpoint is that the true 
but dolichocephalic. 

^ Arid e Italici^ p. 60. ,\ i^ 

* Corresbl. d, d, Ges.f, Anthrop, Feb. 1898, p. is. .) V/i 

* This last statement I have to take on trust, nol 
referred to, vol. x. of the yahrbuch fur GetMcAti^ 





Xn-CiMGUK nopuir 4H 



w^uaauMiU'Wtm i-niHiini *i-l J ■ lii i -■J-* 

vMSfVW MnM MmIE| m 01 VQdMflMSS'BCntvMin 

aawiikadi 8irily,SMdiBia,MidCoiriefc Bmmit 

iMiniwtilr to bring tint abocigiMl rienient itnigbt 

«^^e*q>phigMoMi of Pmtdhri*. Malta, aiwIGoao 

re than at [wnent, and itnl •Ucihu wni 

It eompaiable to dioae of both cMitiBenta)^ diao 

■diditat lontft of Iberia and Soothem GasI*. 

SWiA whidi may pnctkaQy be inchided the aoath 

«hniatbecondi»knt of SgowG. PUnmi 

1 of iatdUgnt and patient bUxmn*. 

h^m ttchndogiat ttaces the palnolidlic 

iwett ooMt of Sicily and (tf the ca 

fVoBAdrian*. "We arefoicedto ctmctadedwtnna 

•>tta^ from Afiica at a time when the isthmus connec t - 

id «idi that Continent (till stood abore Mft4^NlK^'^ 

t a^MnaBce abont the same time as the dephai*i 

I an aaodated with humaa bones cspeci^intiit 

d ^ sea coasts, the shdls of which offoed bim 

Re was ItUowed by the NecdiAic man, whose 

• boen leraaled by the rcseaichea of Signor OrsI «t 

rf'St a n tin eUo on the coast north d* Syracuse; 

t is ako dne tix discoveiy ol what he caDs the 

e-Epodi*," lepresented by the bronzes of the Girgenti 

s tUl cnltnie to the ^aiM, and divides it into 

regsfding die Neolithic men of Stentmello 

..Bst FatKHii holds that the j&ieolitbic peofdea 

l^i'tiivtfw historic name of SUoHt, and that the tme 

I MtBdfy planted oo the North Atlantk coaM of Spain 
■1 (iEMnh A CitmtUi SiOmeat, I. v. 1887). 
V JIMwittw Ami la ^tiH* OrimtaU, in L'AmkrtfOigie, 


M ami SieHiM, quoted bf PUnnd. 
• Sw p. 17. 

^" •/ 




ktewic tnneii and eta in op ^iMp 
•Itlm^ (both <aiiMPi(% lonM^ 
Odjrstey. But all the cvideaee^ 
fVpRtttil the ddciflt dttmcot which 
Stone Age^ wbSe the SkaiU were m 
in the Metal Age from Italy to the i 
pied by die Skani^ as rdirted by 
fact this migration of the SicoK may bt^ 
torical event, whidi aocoiding to 
300 yean befcNre the Hellenes came to 
this national name on the mainland, ao 
•'Kingdom of the Two SidUes" (the late 
its justification in the earliest tiaditioQa 
both races were merged in one, and the 
gradually constituted by further accessions^, 
ginian), Greek, Roman, Vandal, Arab^ 
Spanish elements. 

Very remarkable is the contrast 
prevailing in this ethnical microcosm aai 
inhabited since the Stone Ages by one of the 

groups in the world. Fkom liie 
in Dr R. Livi's Aniropotigm 
would almost seem to be d^t 
the great bulk of the natives having Ae 

i\yf ' 


Sarda and 


^ It may be mentioned that while Penka mahift 
Upper Italy {Zar PaUUfetkncl^^e MUUl^ u. SA 
Ges. 1897, p. 18), £. A. Freeman holds that they 
closely akin to the Romans, speaking "an nndevek^ed 
which did not differ more widely from Latin than 
from another'* {TAe History of Sicily etc., I. p. 48^. 
Freeman's strong point, and for this assomptSon 
Besides names, such as Motyca, Acis, Hybla which a«e 
only two Sicttl words which are also not Latin: MMtlM^^i 

• 1. 11. • VI. 1. 

« ParU /. Dati Aniropologici ed EtmUgiih Rome, i^ 






'i gnvei tl 

te^ p o i w h uw int " They <) B nM « w « wttly ,*?ai> 

11). nRit]i,i(H'.'' Tbi^ sosm to Iwye b«ea ircMnnsi 
I BMiml o^nenn to sbmr ui irtuU dw ^igan^ 
I r Mw UtCTn aam vtook taay have bma ia NeoU^ 
y>«t iJMr woe fNhMf pnoedtd b]t dit mi«ppcq:^i»|om 
^Wcnbadl tqrtegi.M one 4^^ ««d]i IC^dJtRnBWD 
IMvacDoc ia^Hduuft baa tunr bctB detcaaiaf4|bgr 
£. A- Onuu, who find that oC about, 140 abulia 
thiit]r hare a capadtr <rf only 1 130 ex. or undnr, 
bring penooa mags in height from 4 ft. a in. to 
Nifefixo agnea with Setgt in t»uigiig this dwaifiah 
n ^Mth Afiica*. 

inater asaid vanabili^*, aimilar pbenomeiM «fe 
Cotsicatu who ahow "the lame «xaggeW*d 
nanowneaa <d the foidicad. The Qe^m^ 
87 and above in the Alpa to about 75 all along' 
CoiBcidcoUjr the coIout of hair and eyea becooMa very , 
ilack. The figure u lew amply proportioned, the 
ft fight and lathei agile. It ia certain that the 
■ante time bUa to an exceedingly low level : fully 
> the amage for Teutonic Europe," although ■* the 
fliem Africa, pure Meditaranean Eun^jteana, are oT 

■Uaa penintnla Sagi hohla not only that the 
a exdurivdy of Ligurian, i.e. Mediterranean atodc, 
lock itfll peratstB in the whole of die region south 
^ aithouf^ here and there mixed with Aiyan dementa. 
r theae elements increase gradually up to the 
t are dominant in the valley of the 
r he would explain the rinng percentage <d 

* AM Ste. Xtm. »t Anlr«f. 1S96, pp. 179 and mi. 
ic totec <rfibai Conican bead* *tn<licd bf Ripley 71-3 to 

B« i8B. Hence for theee Italiu UauEUSt be f^*'iiiti the 
wUdi he mAmci to ottcDd to the A17W1 iaiiudan in the 

t bir the < 
X &ce )ud I 

t^Virer t 

^ a«d at preaent 1 

4 i 


MA]t: Mfir 


vHHSQk IDBK*vlBHEiBBi kDw *bBjW^ 

Mddi Ilalyt infeit <*tet a t}^ 
Mcdrtttimwuii does tttStf 
hi ft stite of oonipftiitn^ pwl^ m 
IB Ae Midi Ae tanondtaided AipiiK- 
dmoit evtsi'jf wDcre nKMnc op km 
odier typet---Gariiiuiic^ Shvii^ or of ( 
imittioiM of slitiiio tnd ootofiaifMwAf] 
pait» attribotod'.* 

Similir idatioiis picfiil in die 

sobttratmn, die Aiyaolijf' 
the Hamitic moe sdll paibli i 
shoies of die Medttenruieaii fioni Spehi 
and die idands (Ligmians) to Gieeoe 
widi dieae Pdaq^ums into Asia Minor, 
ranges aooorcung to aeigi westwaras to me 
waids dnoag^ central Buope to 
into Russia, ev ei j ffr h ct e fonning die tnie 

pmimaih. ** A qacrti prind ahitalori wptJUk 
BOO a popcJarinni lo cce iM fc [Aiju Unbdnaji 
primi abhanti* (p. 60). The icnit is a fitde 
the accepted name of the Italiaii)»aiidioftheAi|aal 
commonly applied to the Aiyaas of this Itafie 
ItaHm itMlf was midoQbtedly hid«ewms (IigHiM)i 
Aiyaas. It woald periiaps be better to v^gaid 
dpressioii'* applicable to all its inhabitaats 

^ Sciimee Bntgrtss^ Joly 1894. It will be 
by alL are diHeroitly intopceted by Beddoe aad 
long-headed deaaent in North Italy as the ■liin||lnii 
the later intraaon of rouid-lieaded Aryan 
while Beddoe seems to Rgaid the broad-headed illtdaj 
wards modified by iatnurvclong-headed types 
fal origin." Eidier view wonhi no donbt aooom 
bat Sergi*s study of the prdiistoric icmauH (at 
acceptance of his explanation. From the tfatiidi 

than 5 ft. 4 in. resahs for the whole of Italy. ^4 



I. Bohemian. 

(Wesi SUv Type.) 

^^■^?:'^Sarm»M Dancino Derwish. 
■■^■' ■ (QuBiUKSaiiiiic Type.) 

3. Egyptian Bbdouin. 
(Arab Type.) 








SOijl. ; THS-CAUCAiSK: PBOPI.B& 409 

doMnt, and ia caonqiwiidy icpnaented bj the dolicha diiiUs 
from the Britiih long tMiran, from the Gormfcn Reiheqpiiherj 
•Bd froK die Kaqwu of the Raniu it^^ White Ua» biil- 
Jbm gBoonliMidaat bMod on wlid uiaimikal itodies, majr be 
accepted iiAlioat neerrc fitf the MediMRiiMU lad BrittA tandl ', 
it teeaw bewt widt gnve, periupt tnmmMNBtible, diffiraltiei 
wbtia efpplied to centnl and cut Enrope, u will be Neo when 
«e come to deil with GcnnaDic aad Slav origbi. 

Mauiirtale, rrtwming to the Africwi bime of tbeee Hamitet, m 
find diem itni fbtn^g not meidy the nibttratiun, ,__ ^^^ 
bat the greet bulk aS the iobebitaota tbroogboat all hmbKmIb 
lecorded time from the Atlantic to the Red Sea, 
and from die HeditemBean to Sudan, although nnce Mubam- 
wadan dmea la^eljr inlermin^ed with the kindred Semitic stodc 
(mainly Anbt) in the north and west, and in the eaat (Abytauiia) 
«rid> tiie aeme ttoc^ aince prehiatoric timet. All aie oomi»iaed 
bf Sap' m two main diviaiona : — 

I. Kaenpui Kahites, AOawering to the Etkk^ Brvch 
ti aoaie wium, of somewhat variable type, compriaing the OU 
And JMkrw SgyfHtuu now mned with S«nitk (Aiab) etementa ; 
Ai JWJa»»f (exduded by me for icaaona itated at p. 74); dw 
^ffttt^^Atptimam, effective name of all the peoi^ea between 
Kbor BmIer end Skm (with, in some pbces, a considerable in- 
ftrfoH fli Bu^aritic or early Semitic blood from South Atahia) ; 
Ae jgafliar <GeMaa proper, Somala, and A&n or Oanikilt); the 
MmtmA iyUhma. 

llokTBtRM Hahitks, answering to the Verier (fVettem) 
d aome writers, comprising the MiditemauaH Btrim 
It taaim, aai Tripoli ; the AtlanHc Beritrs (ShbiMt and 
«dHn| fltllaiocco ; die Wat SaAaram Berbers commonly called 
JMNI') the TIttu vt the East Sahara; die RUahs, diapened 

''hMlMfeV ** V dwrscuriuic fbnn of iknU fttm NorilMa, which he 
adb ^INkt^" 8«g;i »T% thmt lu Alricmo origlii ■■ nMt i ■ mctteni in dubbio, 
MM forme nell' Africa orientale, e U enl diftuioue t 
i^ avHidone Uovato di t>k tipo iwlla uitici Troade • Tnwi, 
tidsUsUruBrenaciu" {Atii i Italici, p. tst). 
I'jJllSl'W '>!I"'J voted monnmental work, jt/Hta: AmtrtptltgU dtHa 
'■ ^ ■ ^■"S Tufa. '897. 

RDOOgit Ae Sadinne MflgNlif)M 

Of die Butan Hushat W i 
do botbmi m i 


in wtputu anMi,et4 
other peoples. Tlw7 agree mtn ii 
oater chaitcten, without cxmtdtadagttiM 
The amiil fiHins are nmUe, Ao«^ 6 
to be r^arded ta very old varietic* of ia<ll 
featnm are alto Tariabte^ coim^iiig wH'k 
straight m arched (aquilud) nose qnke d 
lips rather thick, but never eveited as id ite^ 
friuled, not wavy ; beard dan ; 
brown, Uack-brown, ruddy black, choeoluttii 
reddish or yellowish, these vattationi bdqg d 
the outward physical conditions. ": 

In this assumption Sergi is supported bfit 
the western Berbers between the Senegal' sad V 

CoUignon and Deniker' 

range from the Atlantic c 
grounds of the tnie Tuaregs* are the TtinMll 
Sen^al river, and farther north the Dwa&lh'(ijr 
Uled-Embark, and Uled-en-Nasdr. FRm>« I 
these Moors, who visited Paris in 1895, it a 
not an Arabo-Berber cross, as commonly ') 
Hamites, with a. distinct N^ro strain, a 
frizzly hair, bronze colour, short broad iK)it(4 
their general appearance showing an aatoni 
Bejas, Afars, Somals, Abyssinians, and othec-l 
This is not due to direct descent, and it is 1 
suppose " that at the two extremities of tl 

■ Lft Afaurti du SMgaJ, in V Antkrepeltgie 1896, p. q 
* ThU ii, the Samkaja-aH Lilkam, thow who wmt 
is needed to prelect them frotti tbe Mud, bnt hu ixnr 
Iwuice, ind it never wont by ibe "Moon." Cf. (be U 
now often ■ god. 

■ ¥ ■ 






XB} 1 TBi.CftUCk«C nOPLBSu 47K 

ttsMBlMimptodiwed the ■nneaflKti^ ud dafe&Mn^be tafiniM 
of acgrtai» pniponion of blu^ blood in llw Egjtptuii [mkoii] 
and > Barbae biM^e* of dw Hamito, titan have qsoDf-alaMb 
■molnpif miud ffoapt'." Fiom die 9ue Nc^o they an alio 
diida | Hw lied l^ thai gnve and digtuGed bea rin g and ii6H l o w , 
bjr tiuir in greater intdligeDce. One of the viiitafa to Puia 
taa|^ himidf enough French to expound snch abeowae tenna 
aa dtttnmtr which was the eJktmit dnit " ri^ road," hii hand 
pointiag from earth to heaven, and taittatia, vbidi was eapllinad 
bjr a walkmg-ttick '^hcaTy, black, hard," tin rest Babstuca, thai 
p*m*g™g into the subtleties of the Schoohnen with their dfttino- 
tiOM b etwe e n suMaxtia and aeadentaUa. 

Both dirlnons of the Hamite, continoes Seigi, agree rab- 
MMially in their bonjr structure, and thus fima a 
riagle andmpidagical group with miable Aull*— R2S5?TyM. 
peetagonoid, ovoid, dhpsotd, si^ienoid, etc, as ez- 
preaaed in hia new termiwdogj^ — but constant, that is, eadi varieQr 
lecnning in all the branches; face also variable {tetragonal, 
dhparad, etc), but simiUrly identical hi all the branches ; profile 
■ooftognaAous ; eyes darit, ttrwe^t, not prominent; nose straight 
or arched;' hair smooth, curly, len^ bla<^ or chestnut; beud 
fitl^ also acantj lips thin or iligbtly tumid, ne^er protruding; 
aUn of various brown shades ; stature medium or talL 

Sadi is die great anthr(^;)ological division, which was diffused 
oetihwoUiiy over a vast area in North Africa, Europe, and Au ; 
tiflbiBg however with the different pbyucsl environments in its 
aamtdBT choncten, which appear not as individual vari^iona, 
. bat aa mhcrited varieties, pernsting throng all time, in fikct 
[ like the varietieB of a well estaUiahed loological 

f is more astonishing than this strange persistence not 

IT «f die Berber type, bat of the Berber temperament and 

jrifaice tbe Stone Ages, despite the successive tnvasiona 

|tf#lHl|6 peoples during the historic period First came the 

f'^'^lltltlitM'nmiaMia, fbnoders of Carthage and Utica probably 

t ' -Nbtpt-^^^foo M.C The Greek occupadon of Cyrenaica (63S ac.) 









m fiitlomd hgr tlMi adwMit of ^llMi 

die Aiutt hlg^iIsndM 
Jlmmattfya. These ilibns^ («< PaHomlf 
all ^aiming Ronuui descenti and eviB^iltti 

/ammiy (New YeaiVt Diqr); Spriat (Biimlt^ 
words also survive such as m^ 
(evergieea oak); mi)0lr«iiiill]ariiiiii ( 

After the tonponuy Vandal oocopatioD 
invasions of the 7th and later centuxiesb 
preceded by the kindred XuaiUes^ who liad^iii ^ 
already reached Bfauritania from Arabia* HAil^ 
whom had also reached TripoUtana betee die 
infiltration of Negroes from Sudan, and die 
Italian, and Maltese settlers, we have all tba 
make up the cosmopolitan population of 

But amid them all the Berben and the 

immensely predominant fiictoir% 

B^ cL their common Hamito*Semide 
^'*^' minglings. The Arab remaina 

herdsmani dwelling in tents, without houae< or 
stock-breeder, but a bad husbandman, and ^itt 
pulsion. "The ploughshare and shame enter 
the £Eunily," says the national proverbs To 
flocks and herds he continues the destructive weik' 
and Roman, who ages ago cleared vast woodeft 
fleets and commercial navies, and thus helped i» 
North African climate. 

The Berber on the contrary loves the 
he is essentially a highlander who carefully tilkdifi 
settles in permanent homes, and often devdofn 
dustries. Arab society is feudal and dieociaii^i 
despotic Sheikh, while the Berber with his Jtmm% 
mot," and his Kanun or unwritten code, feels 
and it may well have been this democratic spiift» 
European descendants, that enabled the western 

- ^1 






•aa oAuciunc noPLU. 

--fct'ipriri, be frwed, beawue 1m blindfy <Aq« the will 
--■f MfcfcJfMrttinwJ bjr hi* pn^beti, muiboMt, lad MiUfai'. 
iMMlWiBaibti; • bccB aceptic^ looka aAinoe «t ttxoinpMl 
^V*"^ ""- moooMMMU philoK^riier, he ia Aur Icm at a Sttelat 
- JMB' til BiwiriF ne^bonr, who amooMtn with ABafa com^eat 
4iMSMHld }iw Id tbe gorenimeBt of dte irgrid. 
:>:f;^-dMb fhpicti c h f M t e T g the two imcea ebo pfcaent aoaM 
fllAiiif-coatnali, Ae Anb bavii^ die ngidir oral bnifreq> 
WA'taf ef the tne Seoatte, wbenea titt Berber head ia neae 
iMpKhii^.taBa fiadj moulded, with non prombieDt dtaA haott, 
^Imiar waA lew eqniMne noae, whidi combiaed with ■ digfat 
^hpM'of aab4ttaal pragnatbiani, impeita to the featuna coaner 
'iiMi' baa haawoniaaa outlinea. He ia at the aame time diatiiic^ 
ipAat^MHl more muacular, with leaa umfonnitjr hi the colottt of 
'4lV<i9S ABd- the bdr, aa ni^t be expected from the mmieiQaa 
'llHMMa eateriiv into the coiutitiitioD of the praauit Beibcr 

-«i4-.l»dieaeciBtaMdict betweoi the Anb and Berber nce<t the 
iiMMt WMflf apaclade is presented of two neariy equal elements 
^|pa#4aifiB, aame religion, aame gorenunent, same or aoalogoua 
WJHlifmiljiiiHs. at aboitf the same cultural develo{»nent) refiiaing 
WMVMIpnBte to may great extent, altbougji living in the doaeat 
fMiMtf fv over a thouaand jreais. In this stiug^ the Arab 
iMMtio fcr to have had the advantage. Instances of Berbetiaed 
■V, b«t are extremely rare, iriie^eaa the Bcrt>en have 
f ewaryw b e i e accepted the Koran, but wlxde tribes have 
1 m apwdi, costume and usages to the Semitic 
It BUgte therefore aeem as if the Arab moat oltimatdy 
But we are aaaured by the French obtcmn that in 
I Tttniaia appearances arc &Uacious, however the case 
«JHP4|Wd in HaiDcco and the Sahara. "The Arab," writes 
'A^ MttH* to whom I am indebted for some of these details, 
I fai Mauntania, tiansported to a soil which does not 
i lian, BO far from thriving tends to disappear, whereas 

imA Bi^pn triba, chief nuiiutiTi of the bte Sodueae 
tocf nnMlIlcd Aimbdeicent with long pedigrcct goii^ bade to 

be ianM at lam thiwttl*>o£4l>K y 
KuoBoo die prapcrtioB ii 'gntHftf^ 
nd&t put'." 

Tint bowcrter wotld m 
their Ungiaget, far we rm tlw wfci w 1^*4 
ii% steadily on tbe ■omeofart nder B 
the enmiaoaa ipKce ow irinch tb^ Mt-ll 
nntk of yean that Kme d tbe ( 
contact, these diakcti ibov wtnarfcabiyii 
the loqg eitinct proto-Hamitic tpeech'fi 
Whatever it be caUed— Kab^ ZmmtHii 
Shluh— die fieiber langnage is ttiSi. 4 
likeness between the fonns cuireM fai-J 
Sabaia, and the remote Siwah Oans oa A»''k 
much closer, for instance, than betwsea 1 
the sub-Aryan Teutonic group*. 

But when we cross the convendonal i 
contiguous Tuareg and Tibo d 

Tha TlboB. „ , . ,. 

Sahara the divergence is 16 i 
gists are still doubtful idiether the two I 
motely or at all connected. My own inpi 
stands to Berber as Berber to Semitic on dM>p 
Basque on the other — all du/teta nunAra of Vf 
tongue, extinct for many thousands of years, ■ 
less capable of reconstrucdon than the < 
tongue OD which so much unprofitable Ummi 1 
The Tibus themselves, apparendy direct "i 
ancient Garamantes, have their primeval h Bwa*^ 
range, Le. the "Rocky Mountains," 

■ Lts Chaauias etc, ia L'Anthr^tUgU, 1897, p. 1^ ' 

' p. 17. 

* The woidi collected by Sir H. H. JohnUMi at 
gre«t membluice with tbe Unguige of the Sahanw 
of that place "Klmitted that hu people could 
oDdeiHood bf thoae fierce nomadi, who ru^e 
Algeria and Tonii and the Sudan " (Gtagr. Ju 


1«I?;€40€M^ raOPLBS 



Aft i Thtfrflfrff iiifirr ^ fanuitfe ^itl^dw fiarmMHttft 

tJiMi^Ae Sm i A tdPa t H mmt ^dam^oi^Ama dhe ttbifl 

fliidniQv in* At tMOoid DOiMdfttibBi of ^^f^^f^^ ftidftn.' 

iiiteaHUU&c; witll ^die blades dalei Ittna noMM luMk 

^A iCflMudc thftt tfae Ganmaatcf seened nlherinoie! 

f /Am L&yaasV Bmtheit cair be na doiftt itel 

^^III^HiiB^Mocrft^^^^l^^ rtprett&ted by die nor&ern tectioD» m 

sJKiaiMi Md alAoiigh the type of tlie aien it tonewliat 

#wp.thitf^of their Toei^ iiei|^fao€ii% duu of the moaum 

^^JIi|||pMd^ ^' Their ftomenaie duurmiiig while 

ipithr bkxMl;<MF yottth» umivaUed amongn thdr mtmes of 

JAicelv^thefe physical beau^, pliant and gnuxUk figotea*^'* 

p JQta^eiCiiig. to fioticoi amongst these aomeithat aecloded 

aMMBids the slow growth of cultttn^ and die cttrioea 

npiges whidi hai% thw eqihmation in prindtive social 

f*Tht Tibo is always distmstfal; hence,, tne^og 

f||J(|l||ftapi<e>iiiiMjiiisii in Che deaerti he is carefiil not to dtaw near 

dae piecaotioQ. At sight of each odier both genenlly 

ly^l dien crouching and throwing the.lidiam over die 

<if the iloe in Tnarq^ fashion, they gasp the insepar- 

1 in their ligte and the shangermangDr, or faiU^'hook, in 

lAfter these preliminaries they bqgin* to inteirdiange 

inuring after each odier's health and fiunily aw* 

iaeerriag every answer widi expressions of thanksgiving 

^Eheae fbrmalides usually hit some minutes V Qb- 

neani nodiing more than a doflbig of the hat or 

amongst, more advanced peoples; but it points 

eveiy stranger was kAoiHSf who later became the 


Mode l^ople'*; cf. Aamim-^h "KAnem People," southeni- 
a|fikafiua% on north side of Lake Chad. 

^^mI mirth ifSv ftSX)^ Al»t9wtt^ (i. 8). I take i^ which has 
^^enhfe to oommoitatore, here to mean that, as you advance sooth- 
4ia lladiterranean seaboard, you find yourself on entering Gara- 
mtmdf rather amongst Ethiopians than Libyans. 
M* vpl. XI. p. 4«j^ 


™^~" Mcdca ofibe 
tftt, M i ffi wdcd, boA OB Hk 
MedttemmeM) to die Nile 
nmogh Dunr wKi Ksrasnui to- 
down dw nuin ttFaun to Upper 
GctUt and Somali hnda to the ladJWi' 
ud die cut coast the domaia of IIm: 
from die equator northwrntdi to 

It appean therefwe that Kgypt, 
of yean lyaa admittedly HamttiG peopl^^i 
dtfaer by the Western Hamitei by the 
die Eaatem Hamitet down the Nile. ■« 
diat.the HamJtea weie ipedaliaed in 1km- 
spread tfaenoe orer North Africa, ia iri^ 
50 to say, hare been reached at all, bat ~ 
cradle ot the race. The point ia inaolnbk^i 
is made to die evidence of the Stone 
chooae between tach widely separated "Mgl 
Upper Egypt, and Mauritania, all of whkk 
abundant proo& of the presence of man ftr 
estimated by some palethnolc^ists at aevcntl 
years. When the Nile flowed in a bed 406' 
than its present level it was inhabited by 
be called primitive, for tbey wne able to 
derfal stone implements discovered by 
and others, to introduce which would bafie 
of rude tribes still living in Africa, Australia,. 
If it be asked, were these men Hamites ? we 
Hamites im Wtrien, Hamites in process 
process, it must be infened, going on sii 
land, in Ui^>er Egypt, and Mauritania, in 

I iheets of mfii 
geolociit of G. Rohiri expedition in 1B76, 
tnif have wpportcd ■ lich vegetitioD in Quienuuy 

t CAVCAMc noruta. j^/ 

ll'lfcMNfMWKnc taut wuHtcndftwa ba6>4fllqnlK 

I AonCBfi tte die qncMiaB of %rptiiai orightt 

f^bfilwvMft nu«neu of flwcue,nid ^^^^---t 

~ 1 bo BO-hMitatiOD in aqri^ Oftt Hw 

p nMnMi ' won cvoirea on lEgfptun nUf ooMOcpwli^ 

net in tfa« Nile nOof. Yet tibirt il nd 

tf'qniittiu more IwUjr dtKOMod than Ais of Bg^ptiu 

ftudton^ fbr fte two teem Intepantde. Tben uc 

jriij^Mking two Kdwob: the AIncMi, whow fimdaw en ad 

t^Vbirt WtBf wt forth, ud die Asiatic which brisgi 

r with iA thdr woAi from At neif^^xmring eon- 

; WiBg that dw EgjptiAiis an now admittad to be 

i; diM dwfe ue no Hamtte* to epQik ti (let it be ftaakly 

i at iB> in ' A«ia\ and that they have for ontold age* 

I 'Viny milHona of tquare miles in Africa, die mon 

I of the Aiiatic icbool now allow dia^ ndt' tke 

^bnt their cnhure caljr came from weatern Aaa 

If to, this cultare would <rf course have its toots 

i,-«liidi n ftnt readied by the Isthmus of Sues from 

I'^^irmI tbeoc^ say, from Memphis up the Nile to 

I U^ier Egypt, and that is the assumption. But at 

» JGaWli |Im« duMld hwe beenhidiftcr Sir ILfiiuVMwtatediat 

~ H taunipation to Mconnt fa the f««™«i«" type and the 

' In tke IMM ind langnagc* of Mgfft, ww "one ol 

ar ptopomded b; aortal nan." The Egyptologiit of 

^ «Im bolda, dc^jitc Hcradadi*, tbat art bad no Uaacy in 

« panoaal Hardon to a pcAbtoik St«M A|e (wUdt h« dnki 

^VtaifM^br ia«nttii« a peopk actaed sanairticn aaar IwBa. 

"k die prdimiiiai; itagea and readied the 'apagae of 

dgaa of Ita ewdM^ no notioe in hiataiy. It teadiei 

Is to BaUBg pytainld* and other nuute(]dcees of the U^iesi art, 

'to dMaqp and faccceae Egjptiaa. Marrdlou to rdate, 

It ai aOMd and dpe Kholan " (Slfmu mmd Bemi frtm Sg^ 

ivfel year. Antkn^ Itul. Nov. 1878, p. 196). The cue ii pcr- 

■se»'ttM of the. American " Atiatic*," who in (be tame wild we; 

ue to the New World, and being eretytliiiv Itodily 

fiardier i^Man that ahhaagli 

midi older, in other waid% dMt 

Igypt, ud spKMd not ap b«t 

cbdms >ic again exdoded, ubIm MM 

part of the land cf Pant (! 

dined to teing die Reta. Bat 

•0 this win not help die 

everything from Meaopotamia*. 

In a qnesdon of oiigim gois^ baS^: 
antiquttf, almost the fint 
Dr Ebohard Fraas' has made a qwdal 
gines were not, as at present, so doadf.-l 
sands, is evident, be says, from the 
stone industry during the Nec^diic 
is now a wilderness, where scarcely ft 

1 The EeTpIiani themtdves had ■ tnditiim tl 
he found the DelU (till nnder mler. The *i 
FiTTum, and the whole vallejr, exo^ the 1 
{Herod, it. 4). Thni Ute into hiitoric d 
dehk mu of telaEiTcly recent ibmwtion, and ihatd 
Pyramid texU, later Xe/u, Rami etc.) had aliMdy A 
before the Lower Nile »«lley w 
30,000 yean (SchweinJuith) or over 70,000, u 
the beginning of the Egyptian prehittoiic period ■ 
millenninmi before the new era. "Ce que d 
alon lillonn^ de rivieres, atleite qu'il [the Delta] a* A 
pai £tre coiutituf Ji I' jpoqne qaateroaire" (M. ? 
1B96, p. 6js). 

■ Ai shown by G. Bertia, "no i^yptian traditia^ai 
or on papyri, or proerved by clawical wriien, v 
country," and he refers to Dt S> 1 
Oiientali Its that "ik rviiknct whattvtrtii'ppolttA'^ 
don of the Egyptian) rroni Asia " {Jokt. AmtAn^, A 

■ Cfrrttp. SI. d. d. Ga. f. AMIavf. Feb. iSgS, p. 



bin pMrnOedt wtti tpriagi ud laaaiif-wtui, 
«»HnUng tb* noodM flf ilw BMnMaJB 
taUMM KMeh sod Koweir. the «cU loM ptbUn. ite 
Bi6,^M Aick 0C cil6«iitar (iacrnitatiou «f «Mb«iiat* 
B'4lw aoir diy gMie* of the HtwmiiMt, uaJiBhtedly 
Iqr.qmap, lU- sho* dw ftvncr ibandance flf.MOMMm 
oacMt foolapad timea The iubs condorion icnlti 
a^'Of the eoiml bwtner-Kcfe ikiitiBg ihe ihORt «f (he 
iridi fl^^M »t intervali opponte the »wU **i^''^ iriwft 
froan the tarreou pravnted the poljrpt from bujld- 
thccdioce coactade tiuu put* of tiu prenBt «Mte« 
Hid thu aoinM te quotioe wbete dutt niagw- 
CDhme of the fatt droMtia origiiwted, and iAeno» 
iPiisiMte drew dtoM cotindcM heats far nUch the nanow 
«oidd sever have alfcidcd luB teD Mice. Thus abo tat 
Ae onaoeroiis aacieiit aetdements, the extensive qwnics- 
I, iriioBC dAris amid the aow wateileas vtff 
mteb an incsplkaUe puule. The moie moist aad ten- 
ia^ be ooonecbed with the Ice Age fiuther nottl^ 
l^Mdy -a^gtsted by L^us, who tbou^ that to the ghu:U 
{|^uaCvBtinpe coneapoadcd a genitl dimate with a sofideBt 
oow oreifaeated southern lones, and that in s«di 
^cme doold be found the condidona needed for 
of a cnltmed people. 
dimate great pngress was made, eq>eciaUy in the 
s,wfaich,asrimwnbrM.].deMoiganS Kawauo* 
lOtmtj k»g dnruion. It has yielded and Bmomi 
Qt«fvy tmaginaty kind of implements wuft^"'^ 
dtbe wMs and usages of daily tife. ">•'■•<»>•»• 
thia Age lingered on well into die Metal period, aa 
flint knife plated widi gold on irtiid) are 
flgures. The flints come not only from oidinary 
'«lse ftom very 6id gnves and dwdlings, such as the 
;(]f BtAroiah, four or five miles from Abydos. Here 

.tlm Origin A f^ft**' '^ ^ '* ^^*'^ ** ** JUSfaMTi,. 


Tboe fint tntniden M. If 
introdnecd bnnze, wUdi he wappotm-* 
Am or Soatli Chiiuu Bat tbe ngumm 
fut, comidcriDg the diMOfdnt vicn noi 
of bronze, ii for the pretent of no mftf 
Hupero, Zabonnnki, Mariette, ftt^t 
utiioritia now bold that the new c 
hittoric meul period wu luhend h, i 
of Africu^ (mgtD. Tht t 
awfMTiit*^. not with Mempbii. bat mUk i 
Thoth and Osiris; and througboat die Ol^li 
all the domestic and other animali figM 
were members of the Afriaut Cunt*. Sudi i 
greybonnd with (tiaight ears like the a 
greyhound stOl surviving among the S 
in Egypt be was sacred to Aaabis, whose p 
heads of the greyhound type. Soch were ai 
the Upper Nile wild breed, trained fiv die d 
in prodigious numbers; the oi, aas, f 
goose, all of true African species. 
Asiatic and not African an i mals, came in at I 
not arrive till the New Eminre, the latts • 
Ptolemaic period'. It is also noteworthy thatfl 
EUAmrah measured by M. Fouquet all h/Ot i 

' Dr W. Canninghkin Mfi "unknown in tlw a 
greatncu" (fVitltm CiDiUtatian, etc., Cambridge I 
Bill one might imther My in the very IjUett, fcr b 
mde to the camel in any « 

g among the Sahmall 

SiCkvcAac noPLWi. 



to RkhftKd^<*Bita^av^ 

tmt* ibtt nobodr bai yet bwa abfevfai 
pj-ynt of the wotld,' or any poopl^ :iriift^ir«fe ift 
odgnenti of cuUiire before the Egypri—tl 
^■■iWMlf.wMwtfced' tkat there b ebetdutelr b6 fomdatioK 
a emTcd from Ak& ntf tbe Iitiuiu»«C 
*t^)m-in» mmtiy e reac^a eguut thoae tncient aad 
«iAe tnoed Sgyptiaa cukuie to &tlH<^>U, end die 
■ to the StgKttt. It wu maioly bued rat the enoaeone 
l^tben au no white race except tfaow .of A^tk origio 
AJofvu). But we hevc now the Uamioc «rtute ntoe 
Mign, kxated in Vppet Egypt, bcKiie of Ouro*, lend 
t'Wbeee faundetioa ii long prior to all. hiitoiy. Thw 
1. dlwided into a number o( independent pet^ ttaua,- 
I recallibg that ot the Berber tribes, and thejp 
1 into a compact political body by Henes, Uig 
f !Bf Enwdbig Memphis, and that remoying tbe ccntn 
•.the fint time to Lower Egypt, Menes merely shifted 
d bulwark of a dvilizstion, which buy 
U^hMB t h r ea tiaie d by predatory hordes from Asia, but 
f>,«Me first bdtcD root at some immensely remote epoch 

odMie are Asiatic dements even in the early Egyptian' 

B very old, and two statuettes in dils 

1 to the 5th ot 6th dynasty, while in a tomb 

c than tbe 4th Mariette found three wooden 

i''bB»<clie& presenting the type of the Semitic race. 

I or 3Td dynasty date other statues, such as that of 

I gill with ornaments in the Babylonian style. Bat 

r proves AaX, as implied in the legendary Oatiian 

i fdatioQS with Asia in the very earliest hisuwic, 

itffi, p. 6i4 tq. 
ft AVAfriqut S^tnariMiQU, in NamnlU Jterm; 18B3. 
lonp to the mjlhic*! >gc, and before hii time tlie Retat 
ji ptople addicted 10 cannibalum, ftom which thej were 

t. Grmea, p. XXi). 



of Ibe 3rd ^omMj, wttd'% 
aod laft ncsnb of IM MfKili 4 
•KDti are qnite recent coa^aNi 
EgTptm culture, wuui go bitt to'M 
Uttorfc paioA (Bmnea, RenaH). > 
eM&bliahed mcuI and pcdHicalo 
Oppat bock to 11,500 ftxn ba- - 
pbnti were wheat, bftriey, m^HU 

most <rf which belong essentially to (be A 
' Coiresponding with titia piognw ia<i 
in the aits, as rerealed hy the bo»«riitdl 
hf Sneftu on the lOcks of tbe Wady I 
some 6000 yean old, show a state (tf a 
tfiat under the New Empire, with then 
aU the maiks of a long previous eaistei 
written form had been given to tbe Eg 
already been completely developed ai 
allied Libyan (Berber), and from &te sttll* 
Semitic family. When we consider tlic a 
the Hamitic and Semitic aectioni of tha 
a statement alone should satisfy the no 
immense antiquity of civilised man in the t 
are accumulating that this race was aln 
with features of European type. At the 1 
nearly opposite Beni Suef, Petrie found'i 
statue of Prince Nenkheftka of the sth ( 
man of pleasing expression and " European A 
also describes several royal persons from the tc 
(1500 B.C.) as distinguished by luxuriant hairil 
features "to a marked degree like those of tl 
Sergi tabulates eight primary n 
TnE"*"''" skulls with several sub-varietiea, * 
formidable (some have called it fe 
clature, and all sttlt persisting both in Egyj^'j 

' Ikihaihtk, 15CA Mtm. Egypt. Ex^. I 
» ^Talurt, April 14, 1898. p. s«. 


law ptnistenee of ihe Mce to t\mtbn 
MundBri aad mart sadeot p«oplt, irilidi bMkid 

and the «&OBiB«at- of k* oU athaiK 

suing stifaiHtj'.ofdic orijr typM, Egypt to • 
llgto of qoiti exceptioiMd intetett tO'dM «i>thn)p(>> 

Otriag to ibe mqarinble continatty of iti gn',?/^"*"" , 
War dungdcM diowte, and ctf a btotoHc nconl 

fcr mm 7000 jmn, it alibrdi a, better ilhtttntion dun 

r tood* of Ae atill obteure pri&dple of convergence in 

That planta and animato dioiild, onder the 

odkioai, have andeigone but il^t change nnce 

i-dajt u peAi^ no moce than night be ezpsdod. 

a type itself ihould bave emeigul in ita iatapiqr 

t neular intennin^ngs of peoptea—tbe pn^knatienl 

■ ^aod Hittites, Petrie'a "New Raoe," blac-eyed Libjrana, 

I Btbiopic iofiltratioos, eariy and later AMba and 

itjllMA'Awynan Semitea, Penian, Gietk, and Koman "Aiyaas," 
P^iMtfaa^ Titrfca, Orcasaian Maml&k^ Albanians, Fraoka and 
'■ udeed a wonder perb^ia bert explaiiMd on thcaastinqv 
• ia certain casea environment is an all-poteni cmdbU^ 
r foreign ingredieius are fused in the genentl amalgaai. 
I be supposed, for instance, that the Hoslen Arab. 
KJnnvnr formed anions with the native Qiristian Kopu, 

_^ I of the old Egyptians. Yet when the wooden 

^JPililAl'iBiiaa oBdal under Khepbren (4300 bx;) was bronght to 
^*'**'*^'-^ -t once named the " village Shrikh," becatMe of its 
iManee to the then living local headman'. "The 
temsdves have coow down from the (^ Empir* 
iM^ the vicisritndes of conquests, mixtures ot races, 
mi adi||on and language, so little altered that the fellah 
tto often the image of the Egyptians who built the 


emsriu that "(he profile copied from b Thebui mnminy 

a necropolis of the iStli djnuty, tad compared with the 

'MliiKmnt^maitn Luor pcMsnt, wooM alnuat pau for a fiunily portrait" 

31— » 



the old; twt ki Egrpt Ike 1 
gotegUog, tend to confenn, i« * 
prototype. It ii dear thecdbn thu d 
outcome of their enntoiment, aad Mt ll 
and not Koshite iounignuiti 'from Aak<« 
Stone Age, Nor ii it likdy that mr fi 
made which will invalidate H 

Ye^'exoept the priestly and milituje 

relied for support, dw wi 

Q^^^^, whether nominally free or d 

life of incesnnt toil, ielicv«d'Ai 
irregular visits of the taxgatherer, what t 
weeping throughout the land. " Shall I • 
how he endures misery 7 exposed to all At m 
without any garment but a belt, and i 
flowers [which is fixed] on the [completed] ta 
of his reach, his two arms are worn out with 
are placed hi^ledy-piggledy amongst idm v 
is quite finished, if he has bread he retunu h 
have been beaten unmercifiilly [during his al 
maker moans ceaselessly, and he gnaw* t 
...subjects the loaves to the fire.. .while his fa 
his son holds hiro by the legs — if he slips fa 

"The determination not to pay the t 
stick was proverbial from ancient times, 
before he had received a merciless beating wotMM 
with reproaches by his family, and jeered at • 
neighbours.. .When the tax fell due.. .foe a 
nothing to be heard but protestations, throat^i 
pain from the taxpayers, and piercing Umi< 
and children. The perfurmance over, ca 
and the good people, binding up their « 

^ Laing, Human Origins, p. 399. 

* ScUiet Papyrus, quot«d 1^ Hupenit y. g 


%iMlr.itr dlBf life tnta the next tnyitbaring'.'' Tlw teMd, 
;MiiMlnA»M to WIS omlly m the fbrm of mull ronnd oc obbm 
|iii)li''1iiiiiii liilfiiiiiiili Aiek, ud WW w couk ud grit^ dist in 
ii^lMf *«>^ "■'"^ ^ strragot teeth*. It m thiidire mnoy 
,^l|iMd^ tenMned wiA their nnchangeaUe type, connect* Ihe 
/j^llild^M^ through the long agei mth the modem feUahiD, 
'Mill» hnv- oaiy now been relieved from bopeleu oppreancn by 
WUtb teMmntkm in E;Bypt 

A' bri^Mer if rada ■odnl stite is prescDted by the kindmd 
ea, who foim a coatimioui chain of oihu 
'Gwcuic pet^lea from Ac Medllemnean to 5^^^!- 
eqnatcv, and whose ethnical unity is now Bw ) m .. 
by Sergi on anatomical grounds*. Bor^ 
•a Upper Egypt, and extending thence to the foot of the 

_ , .^^^ ska iriateau, is the Beja section, whose diief divisionB — 

i'/^llitflilb. Hadendowa, Bishaii, Beni-Amer—have from the earliest 
1^^' Wdf -oecopied the whole region between the Nile and titt Red 
^ i'1|Hfc' ' leoNit events have familiarised the Enf^h reader with 
M. jiHijiiytf their tribal names, and with some of their usages, notably 
V^jjp*^ fcu dnu s for elaborate coiffures, which has earned for onr 
--'$lti^9sim,- BOW die friendly Hadendowas, the popular designation 
yil^Mnaty-Wanies." They never need have been fees, had our 
at the time of die Mabdi's revolt, been able to under- 
thai &ey were not "Arabs," but Hamites, whom a little 
woBld have easily gained over to our side widiout any 

Kku.jB'/paaceAit times many hours are daily given up to the toilet, 
;, 4liNl)iM9iddm ** hair-dressing plays such an important part that a 
'^"^" ' el is devoted to this business. I saw some twelveshops 
It exdnsively in the egg-shaped balls ef mutton-&t, the 
ir ointment Close by were, perhaps, as many stores 
l1 powders in all colours of the rainbow. 

k'P>S>4> wbtre An. Marcellinniia quoted: "EnibetcitapBdcns, 
jiypM-lifiltuxlo trOMita pluiinuu in coipore ribieea ostatdat," xxii, ch. 

'^.■MWOIs point mjr £tlimUgy ifSgjiftum Sudatt, p. to. 


Han m «h« 1 


Tbe itjte difiBfi,Ma laltitkatM 
•tch of tlN4 
Mepo^ M dnwn oat to u to « 
dispoted in two nuun dmsoiis bf.» I 
apptr maa is imiaed to a top-tea^ i 
•mall tjcnet with I 
fint tatiuated wtdi muttoD^ iriiid c 
gifcti to U bjr the dcA hand of the wtiit'." 
Throiigli the A&n (DanAkil) of lb* « 
Ab)rniiua and tbe lea, tbe fiejaa an O 

Hamitic populatknu of dw S 
g^23offin. Portheterm "Somal,'' w 

cDune unknown to die nathrM^ I 
•oggesta an interetting and {daiuible e 
pitaUe people^ and milk their staple f 
stranger would hear on visiting their kn 
i<L "Go and bring milk." Stntngers may hann 
this circumstance, and other tribal n 
to more improbable sources. 

The natives hold that two races inhsbit th»4 
true Somals, of whom there are two greM i 
Ithdk, both claiming descent from certain n(M4;d| 
though no longer of Arab speech; (s) Hl'i^4^ 
counted by the others as true Somals, but «a^^ 
also comprise two main branches, Aysa and i 
national genealogies collected by Major Abgd:a 
many <A the mythical heroes are buried at or -I 
may thus be termed the cradle of tbe Soowl t 
point they spread in all directions, the DdnSds p 
driving tbe Gallas beyond the Webbe Sht 
raiding them as far as the Tana river. It shoiddll 

' Von Malliau, quoted by Junker, TVaMkiJI 
* GtHtalagUt ef the S»mtl, i8g6. 


A | iH; |i f lilie MNidMni lecdoos, aot^y the Rftbuwin wU> bftws 
jliMlkni«Kiw botk ndci of the Jub. 

^t^jp^Hl* aWcowBto mide bjr the nalhrei about tnte Somali 
i>(lffpi>»ni,r t«ce and rdigioD are coafuMd, utd the dbdnctiqq 
wMiMK^^Aiba and HiLwfya is merely one betveen Hoalem aad 
MHA :1bc latter are probably pf mucb purer ttQ(^ tbas tht 
«4ioae vaj genealogiet testify to intcniuagliDgi of tht 
Arab istiudera with the heathen aborigines. 

their dark colour Prot C. Keller' hat no difficulty in 

HgH^ng dw Somali as memben of the " Caucatic Race." The 

Qpmitic type crops out decidedly in several groups, and they arc 

gMNWd^ qpcakiog (rf* fine physique, well grown, with proud bearing 

«|# 4AM1 widi classic profile, though the type is very variable 

;;'VlMlC to ^^"^ ^d Negro grafts on the Hantiric tttodk. The 

^^Ifp^ MV0 woi^y, but, like that of the fiejas, ringletty and 

' ^pp aUdc tfaM the Abyssinian and Galla, soaetimes even quite 

Hie Corebead is finely rounded and prominent, eye 

huge and rather deep-set, nose straight, but also 

mouth regular, lips not too thick, bead 

bs^finW attention has been paid to all these Eastern Hamitk 
by Ph. Paulitschke*, who regards the Gallas as both intd- 
•nd morally superior to the Somals and A&rB, the chief 
iMHMft.bMng that the baneful influences exercised by the Arabe 
iim JHHfW hiisiii affect to a far greater extent the two latter dian 
-^lllldpNPW gnup. He credits these primitive peoples originally 
.'PplgMfelglich") with a monotheistic belief, or rather with "a 
disturbed by diverse superstitions." But this view, 
assumption that die aborigines in question 
a Supreme God and^a huge number of spirits 
unsupported by any solid proof. The characteristic 
religion is the predominance of animistic over 
concepts. A great part is played by bodiless 
aaimal and tree worship has its roots in BDimism, 

in den Somaliliiiideni," GMus, Utx., p. 33 iq. 
N*rd-Ott-Afrikiu: Die gaOigt XtOtur dtr Domdkil, Gall* 

aUb aooe et Af Oadn ov^V 
to-fbmt my notmi of a 8 

But it ii amoiiipt Ike-A^ 
itnngest intcnimi^ingi of {] 
ideas. On k leetfaiif maa of J 
pndiistoric tiioes iJfected bf tm^t 
Ae Himyuites from Sondi Arriria^ in* :■ 
poMd an ondevdoped fonn of C 
fVnmentius in the fourth centurf, widfi 
called aaik&ctoiy. While the 1 
have been merg^ in a compoaite Ab] 
diac(«dant religious ideas have ncrer y«t I 
aistest tinifons ayatem. Hence '* 
sort of by-word even amongst the ] 
sodftl iostitutions are marked by c 
and paradoxical " shamanistic " practicefl, » 
sublime moral precepts. Many things can 
members or the Renndl Rodd Missioa*, ' 
stand such a strange mixture of savagery audi} 
Christian community which, for instance^ i 
death as wilful murder. The caae is n 
from a tree on a friend below and killing him. 
to perish at the hands of the bereaved family, iv^ 
as the corpse. But the iamily refused to t 
member, so the culprit escaped." Dreams ■ 
as in the days of the Pharaohs, for detecting c 
sent for, and if his prayers and curses frul, a t 
and told to dream. " Whatever person he d 
as the criminal; no further proof is needed. .^Ifi 
dream of the person whom the priest has i 
criminal, he is kept under drugs until he dots « 

To outsiders society seems to be a stianfe f 
despotism, which forbids the selling of a bon 
under severe penalties, and a personal freedom t 
allows the labourer to claim his wages after a i 

> Coom G\^hen, /fMiua XtdiTt MhtiaH l» M 


dKaoip to tptad them,' retuning next daf or next 
'^MMfeaa Ae bumour takes him. Yet KHOehow things hcdd 
'a, few Semitic inmignuits from Sooth Anbit have 
[ far •vcrseeo jeaii oontrired to maintKio some kind of Omtnri 
^4Mr thv Hmitic aborigines iriio have always fonned Ac balk of 
;!!liB iMpBtation in Absrssinia. 

. J* (tow*- ' 



.! ..' 



• 'I'^M 


.'■ ', 




. • 

- * J" '^JSifr 






j^i;i' -if^jbpl 


, "T!>i 



t , 



^ ^ ^M/fk 











Thk SKMiTis—Cnuile, Origins, and M^ 
AssyrioHs; Amoriits; Canaanitis; 
Mi^tum — The PbGmidan Alphabet — . 
Ongins — Thi Amcntes: Aramiofis, 
Ansarieks; Maronita ; Drwus — The 
Dispersions — Diverse Physical 
The Hittitbs— Conflicting Thebne»— 7)1/ A 
Race and Language — Semitic Monotheism— fil 
oiANS, a wide-spread pre-Hellenic People of At 
Ages — Knowledge of Letters — ^The Cretan and 
i^ean Culture a Local Development — Its Aga 
from Troy to Scandinavia and Britain. 



The Himyaritic immigrants, who thus stift; 
foreign land, have long ceased to exist as ft 
in their own country, where they had 
founded flourishing empires, centres of one ^x 
civilizations of which there is any record, 
confirm the now generally received view that 
are fundamentally of one stock, a view based boA.^ 

linguistic data, the cradle of the 
also probably be traced to Sondi, 
particularly to that south-western 
the ancients as Arabia Felix, Mf 
Arabs. While Asia and Africa were still partly- 
north by a broad marine inlet before the 
delta, easy communication was afforded between 
farther south at the head of the Gulf of Aden, \ 
almost contiguous. By this route the primitive 

The Semites 
Origins, and 

^^fapituimm te»r ^v* ntowd dthir wartwdt tnto Mtitit, at, u 
'MbaU «ata man prabible, dwtwardi into Am, where in the 
■ wtrw. otfjgw the. ScButic tjrpe became qwdalieed. 

Ob Ail MMUBption Soitth Ambia would iteCesnnljr be ^ 
Ibat bone ctf the Semitat, who in later titoes i^wead tbnea 
Mfth and eait, and became Antltet spedalised aa q,L|,i_. 
McMUaMT on the caat coaat of Arabia and the 
wtagabvariag Bahrein Islands; aa Attyrkm* in Uesopotamia } 
M Ar^i on tbe Ne{d steppe; aa Cmmaaniiis, MoMtts and 
eAcn in and about Palestine ; as Amoriks {Afammans, ^j/riatu), 
^—ibly even Mttiks, in Syria and Aiia Hinot. 

Agnaat this broad view of Semitic origins and eariy iin(ratioDa 
Mm* ippear to be no serious objections of any kindi white the 
wootd seem to bannonise well with all the knon 
In tbe fint place b to be considered tbe very narrow 
by the Semites, both absolutely and idatirely to 
ifimr donains of the other fundamental ethnical groups. WUIc 
-fCoifola are found in posaessioo of tbe greater part of Asia, 
Hanites with the Meditenaneans are diffused over tbe 
i€ Dortb Africa, south and west Europe since the Stone 
^it/Kit the Seaoitca, exclodbg latei expansions — Himyarites to 
to the shores of the Mediterranean, 
Aiaba to Africa, Irania, and Transoxiana — have always 
to the south-west comet of Asia, compriaiog vaiy 
than the Arabian Peninsula, Mesopotamia, Syiia, and 
i) pana of Asia Minor. From this may be drawn two 
tnCetences — first that, as su^ested, the early Hamito- 
were not from east to west, but from Uie larger 
'4b tbe Btagidarly contracted Astatic area, and secondly that 
were comparatively late, not earlier at all erenu 
Meelitbic period. At that time Asia was already well 
! the proto-Semites could extend their range only 
and as such the Assyrians seem to make their 
the Akkado-Sumeriaos of Mesopotamia, 
from the north (the Kurditun uplandsX but from 
"(riiiiiair Gulf), as ia now generally believed by the beat 

• See p. J7S. 

I »iih 4h#- 1 

tima to dw Mm 
■ea&ren {ByUot, Tyre, Sdoa), Am a 
empire* (Leptis H«gn«, Caithag^.^l 
referencea to the Syrian co»t, a cflbatim M 
and aaother of hii son Dnngi from CyfM%'4 
tlie I^centciana, who had jMobaUy fti 
tbe Heditenanean. Herodotus leant- 
Melkart, the great god of Tyre, that tfaii p 
2700 B.C., while Old Tyre on the 1 
ancient Yet Tyre was still but an c 
Byblos, their oldest settlenient, Sidoor aad'S 
flourisbing seaports, refienred to in « { 
Amongst the places captured by ThntniM I 
mentioned both Betyta and Alcko(Acre). 

Altogether Phcenician origins in ther n 
seaboard cannot be carried back beyc»d a 
long th^ may have dwelt in their first h 
of the Persian Gulf can only be c 
extent of the burial grounds explored b^ 1 
Islands. Obviously these remains date back & 
and make it probable that the eastern Pbc 
chief part in the active trade carried on ^ tMl4l 
Eridhu with Sinai, possibly even with the far S 
years before the new era. 

Was the "Phcenician Alphabet" 1 

duced into Greece by these < 
Aiph^brt."" eastern wares? Before Mr Eva 
pre- Phoenician syllabary in. < 
Cadmus was accepted in its integrity, and n 
as substantially true. It is possible that tfai 
symbols, as has been suggested, may have b( 
Phcenician traders in the Archipelago, simpUfiad^ 
or Sidon, and then reintroduced into Hellas br^J 
which it has since retained. But the suggeariottill 
in order to transfer the credit of this stup 

: conjecttirad.d 

•M-At '^Axymt," it i 

■i^llkt wfOtimrf nutAt spwt, at an itidependeBt or 

vriiile the CBiteni origm of the "AIl^itbM" 

bjr dM fonns, the order, mnd wj nubet of die 

liMat AeOnekc^Mo, Icta, gamma, dOa, ete. beii« tfae Scmilie 

tfilfri^Aijj'Mll, boute ; jMw'^ camel ; daittk, door, namei tiwn- 

^ iJlJWrMiliitfiTii of the ultimate pictorial or hiero^jrphic origin of 

.iltMgnMlm*. E«rl7 iotmt or prototypea oS theae letten have bcoa 

F ]|||l|i|#MI)widi b«t partial aueceaa, amongst the Egyptian hieroglyphs, 

^'idifhitSlbjtouaD cuneiforma, and the rock-inscriptions of die 

"• UMii^ and SabcaiM in South Arabia. 

.^ A'- ^tham rock-inaaipttons, great numbers of iriuch have been 

iHevnaad \a ment Tears by Hal^, GUser and others, show that 

H.iiKi«eir femote timet South Arabia, presumable eradte of dw 

: 'AMbMc nee, "was a land of culture and litentnre, a teat of 

. HMMM kti^oms and wealthy coramerce, which cannot bil to 

kMWAieiated an influence upon thegenera^histoiy of the worid*." 

>|iwjf>limg pmntt to Sa^ (Saiiea), it. Yemen, as the Sheba of 

%lrtf|iWb. wbaeb, in the time of Solomon, had extensive ttading 

jMIMm" ^viA '^r*^ probably also with India and 

Hb->«M coast of Africa from Abyssinia to Sofala "■•«••"• 

Zunbesi. That the gold brought by the Tyrians and 
of Sbeba came through Sofala from the neighbouring 
tqr the Sabnm Semites has been all but proved by 
of fient amid the ruins of Zimbabwe and other 
ymfraf Manka and Hatabililand Sabea is shown by Assyrian 
have been a powerful sute in the 8di century B.C., 
wtm oooterminous northwards with the Ntnevite empire 
fL lUitiTiglUli rill III! and Sargon III. Like the Egypt of Menes, 
Ivaied I7 the fusion of several Himyaiite prindpalitiea 
dK to-caUed Makarib, "Blessed," or high-priest (^ Saba, 
to the land, u Ashdr did to that of the kindred 
of Nineveh. 

M^ dtiplte the gTMl kuthorily of Aug. Fick (Dit GrittUttim 

«Bd ed, 1B94), ii ■ PlMenidan name occumng in the fonn of 

p MBM (rf godUke, on a cnaeUbtni tablet quoted bj Sayce in 


,^^hM hf S. Lainx. to whom I am indebted for tame of thcM daU 




reeemlf dtMoveicd 

Vmg fin of 33 MiiUHB ^afft mkim M 

lAote at AnUB u &r aa 9rri& ««#v| 

HfercDoes to Oaa wd to Tama (thV'S 
route betwoen Sinai and DamaacOs. 

Other inacripfioDS copied bj Seatmtvii^ 
together aa Himyaritic*, proved t» b»i*^ 
and in a script which is often dispoM^ 
parent of the ajrstem introdnced in r 
where it is still cunenL These ¥ 
fonnd to oNiiprise two distinct graupti 
fuller and more archaic Semitic Eocnia, aadifll 
even this language is more pcimitrr* tittncl 
Assyrian and Hebrew records. Now tte I 
goes back with certainty to the line of M 
kings of the preceding Mintean dynas^, i 
to a past probably coeval with that of ti 
Akkadian records. When we rementb 
looked to the Persian Gulf as their cradle, t 
been settled in the Bahrein islands for 1 
migration to the Mediterranean, and that C 
Akkado^Sumerians received the genns of € 
traditionally come up from the sea, further ft 
that South Arabia was the source n 
their first knowledge of the arts and letters. In^al 
may well have been the first home of the S 
alone we find Semites, and Semites only, fromidlM^ 

' See PriU Hommel'i Siid-Ara^aki C 
* From Himyar, land of the Htmtrita, i^, tlM " Si 
one time applied to the South Arabian popalatioiWi aa4 1H 
to the neighbouring Erythrean ("Red") Sea. It ii 
Ecyptian anisti also depicted the Relu men in nd, h 
in contradittinction to the black Ethiopian* ; while tl 
Punt ("Red Land") on both sides of the Strait of B 
believed to be the ancestor* of the Ptmi, or Phoa 

rtel|nii08 aMl cfeMmcteT'OftiM rao* ■111 twni 
tl dMtopediQ dw growiag cmluHtltNr which preceded 
0WmmmEoapk<t, pntMbly m die lu«r Stone Agn «M 

I In <BeatioMd diBt the If iuean wiipt, often doeribed 

d AtB of PhcanicMi), RYcab on the oeiHnBr R wridq; 

* pHaMn thu the oldest otuit PbcmidiD Ictten. 

p^«» Mi giamd ilat S«yce aski iriietbcr the Phanmfaui ittdT 

.._/!•(*' be' derived from the Miueu <nther then from the 

■t^Wl*^— ^"""i'-ll''") " °^^^ «Mumed bst never ptored, or from 

v^||^t>nui sflMbuf, M above ti^igeeted. The Miami hmgusge 

;'. j i l lyigrilie- SKNt priantiTe member of the Semitic CunBy^ and 

" wiikom that itt ehuMtert affori a better explanation of the 

■«f (be Fhoeaidan letten thu do the hiemglTplu. llniB 

i^^'^KHft^i'^^^OK," pwMiiti in Hinean the ondioe* of an tn*! head, but 

^ **i""^ *»— MrtthPee to any of die Egyptian lymbds lued for «*. 

view be eocfiimed, Semitic origins most be set stiB 

give time fos the ilo«r evohition of the MiMem 

Mnmcd pictorial prototypes to the already higUy 

faems of the oldest known inscnptioni. 

BMewoitl^ diet the Amorites, enlcM they an to be 

with the Hittites, have always played a _ 

part amongst the Semitic peoples. 

was properly that part of Syria whidi 

f^li|i|lMiih>ar lAaC was aftcnraids Palestine, although the name was 

:^pild*d by the Babylonians to Ae whole of Canaan. At a very 

dMe die Amorites had also, though apparently only as 

readied Babylonia, where they had a colony at 

able to hold high offices in the slate (Pinches). 

had migrated from this region ("Ur of Chaldiea'') 

(Sootb Sjrria), the two .peoples were often at war, but 

also alhes, engaged in international courtesies and 

: in r Kings xx. 34, where we read that the kings 

luai ^rtia severally "made streets" for their sabjects in 

^0*<j«w, p. 94. 

Mr Evau'i suggested Cretmn theoi;, Smjce declMW U* 
"thu the PhtEnidM) mlplubet aune from AraUa" 



■ *- , V 



- ^t^m 


villi * nttioiiil nle^ 
ttffl ipfilr^ 

tten ni & -flmdified Jsni ^^ 
fcripc*. SttBoee to fiqr aonie <if 
IdImI ftate** unlaiipe famMMetbit' 
the^miliiaioe of die somNmdiqg 
In Sfiia the wbole popslatieii^Bi^ 

while the majoriftf QimmitltM 
othen) have long beoi^ 
Thqr po wcM a oopioQi 
hf the names of St Ephrem and Jbim^ 
by a valnaUe venion of Scriptme (th^^ 
some patristic writings still consulted :^liyr- 
these writings are in the Aiaoiaic, a 
fiunily, which appears to hcrid a positiott^ 
between the Assyrian of the coneifimn 
After the dispersion of the ten tribes and Ihil'i 
a slightly modified form of Syriac, often 
became the current speech of Palestiney 
and the other closely related Canaaiiitiih 
extinct as vernaculars for quite 2000 yean* 


^ Max von Thidmaiin, Jcurmy in Hu 
p. 7«. 

' M. Rnbens, Les DialecUs Neo-AroMiem de 
Ignazio Guidi in Zeitschr. d, Morgen. Ges, XXXVI. p* 

* Snch are the Kojamis about the sonroe of the 
Tlaris in the Sahunas district (10,000) and the 
(300). ^ \ fiy 

« Thb version is not to be confused with the 
teuch in a Hebrew- Aramaic dialect, written in the 
which is jealously preserved at Nablus (Sichem) bf a 
munity now dying out They are an interesting link 
and Palestine before the Captivity, living under a 
whose subjects were reduced a few years ago to i^. , ^y 


•oat tUtVCJOlC SSONMBi ^n 

»cb M Ac /kMu^ an dw ImMmb 

4|g|^|b»> ■)■» te the Huns dutrie^ ntd U» - ■^■;^ ' 
jplpMNK 'if'''Ac rt fln Biiro nage mw wI -fiom 
j|M|^lgrtl' ^Imtr em,«thet m tnvinlt of t^ old ptfluiiad 
4i|MM>.i^Ni^ «r M ICmIob lectMriM with mcM ritM md 
dBpMipioii Mxmtiiided t^ tudi mjMR^- /Hiaodntt Beat^ 
fJl^lMli dM Aanndi, v^kho he visited in dw Tamn diMriolh 
)h» Alt>Vlleb^ of luxtii Penia, ud tbinkt tbcJr ooA 
j||Mt» bifMotiMd by mutjr other scattered gronpa in Asia HfiBec. 
W^ ^in A founder, Baifaa Nasere, made the Godhead of AS 
4pi baria of A* ■rttem, and thqr also adntt a TYtnity — the Aia- 
^ MN4iP^ar Ah die Father, Hohammad tlie S<u), and Salnan el- 
-^ifll Aa H^ (aMM— whieh, with the use of wine in their wcret 
Aiii^iVMdd aeem to show that diit colt is a graft of the Shiah 
^gfttm aMt oa some early form di Chrisdonity. The Ansarieh 
4MWI Wtdticnbed aa **Tery beautiful and Impreanve, and dtere 
"^ " ~ ; pouts analogous to freematonty m comiectioa 

-«^ ^ iottiatiOB of a new member*." 
' 1 jimi die Hd«ew or Israditish inhabitants dt sontfa Syria 
|gg|iMn% Palatme, "land of Promise'') we are here coocemed 
IM|||4l*4^for as they fonn a distinct brandi of die Semitic fiunily. 
tH^lf^Hm * Jews*,' prtqterly i odicat i iig the chiidroi .^^ ^^^^ 
^njjlil^ fiKnth son of Jacob, has kmg been applied 
-^gMlJlliJl^uto the whole peopl<^ iriio since die disappearance of the 
tubes have been mainly represented by the tribe of 
and a few Levites, Lt. the lectioD 
llritJliMlll^on which to the number of some 50,000 returned to 
(kingdom of Judca) af^ the Bal^onian captivity, 
doobtlesa later joined by lome of the disposed northern 
I Jacob's alternative name were commonly called 
of Israel." But all such Israelites bad lost their 
and were consequently absorbed in the royal 
ira»<(be suppression of the various revolts 

A«t June, 1890, p. *is. 

7>M, Lu. 7mM, >.*. SoM of Jehiidtih (Jndali}. Sae 
ilK CsncU'i Sitrtimat af Gtmrai It^arwmHm, t893> &(» 
of the faUowing putknUn. 


r-the 'Eiifin«'.'M--Ja«lN) 

htillwen made in-d 

M fiir wot u Tti^oQiuM. nal abi»|| 

But aKMt of die pfwnt c 
diow of the gnu dispenion Uter ti 
inavued bjr conddenblc a 
At aaBumptioo that dtejr haw t 
Imiger tenaUe. In exile tbcf ha*«.'l>i 
than a tffoken nation, and aa mobM 
fiivoiuable conditiona to qnead Alir » 
their Christiao alavea, but alio •OMn|Mi.i|j 
Alqrsnnian Falaihai, of lower cnltwe AHk.p 
Muhaminadan times many Anbi ^ Veil 
bad conformed, and some of their Jeviifai 
Dhu Nowas, and others) are still r 
century all the Khazais — a. renowned 1 
the Crimea, and the Caspian — accepted Jw 
cmiframed to Rusuan orthodraiy. The '^ 
the Spanish Jews (gth and 6th centuriea)* 
proselytising zeal, against which, as w^ .i 
Christian mixed marriages, numerous papi 
in medieval times. 

To this process of misc^enation is ai 

of physical features observed ii 

PhyaicBi different countries, while I 

^^*' cropping out almost e 

Sayce and others to primordial inter 
(" Red People"). Dr Dalby declares thu V 
Jews — brown, white, dark ; Jews with t 
tall, short; concluding that there is, 
question of a Jewish race at all'. 

' Felix von Loschui also finds thmt "of oa 
brachy, tt b>ve Tair complexion, and doI more 
have learned to be the teat old Semitic type" 
He thinks that the majority of living Jews have 
Hittite type, because "they are the deKendafits of a 
that had only accepted Semitic writing and li 

tUS dnoM tvMted nader l^^iot^ 

^riNNN MiflcieMlf gCDcnd to be regudcd u mcU tnitf. 

^Mt'Vltf'tirfiiktfeUyittdoiRdiritb the moA viried qodkUt, M 

AMm Iqribt wboh taunn of dieir hutoty. Or^biiO^ pure 

jfbffi•di^ Acy became excdlent •gricultuiistt aftw tiie MtdeaMt 

il|€Mini. and smce tben Otvf have giveo proof of die lil^(heit 

. Hfk^Hf^ far adoice, letten, eruption of all kinds, fiauce, nnu)^ 

1l|riMij|ilanRe)r The reputation of the medieval Atabi'as t ertOreia 

;!^tlPMnfag li Ittsety doe to theiT wise tolnrnnce (tf die enti^teAed 

i';ippwtroMMiHiiuaet m their midst, and on the other band Spun - 

"I'^rtugal bave nerer recovered from the natjonal lot tustained 

of the Jews in the 14th and 15th centmies. lo 

Ae petMcudons, especiallj in RussU, hare caiued a 

fiwQ the east of Europe, and bj the aid of phikn- 

|||HM|tt~C]^iilalists flouririiing agricnltural settlements have been 

■00tlA 'iv Psleatine and Argentina. From sutisdcs taken in 

3*f|MM' places since 1880 the Jewish communities aie at present 

at about 6,500,000, of whom 5,500,000 are in Europe, 

ik AAica, 150,000 in Asia, the rest in America and 

assodated with all these Aramaic and Canaanidc 
a mysterious people who have been 
wtdi die sun/a' of Scripture, and to 

been extended by common consent. 

abo identified with the Xie/a of the Egyptian monn- 

irdi as with the XAatti of the Assyrian cuneiform texts. 

diese are, without any clear proo^ assumed to be die 

and to them are ascribed a coostderable number 

qrlinden, and gems from time to time picked up at 

between die Middle Euphrates and the Mediter- 

ived in a kind of hieroglyphic or rather pictorial 

In Gen. ixr. 9: "Zolur the Hitdte." 

OD 1> bucd OD "the cmU of Hitdte profilei lude by 

;||jki^Bgn>ti<u>nMi»imeiU. The profilei u«peciillu,iu1ikethoM of 

Wpmeoted bjr the ^rpdu utUts, hot thej ve idenlioa 

AlA oecai among the Hitlile hiengl^b*" (A. H. Sajvi, 

-ioir fiwiiy <f e|iipi>Mat.r. "IWil 
textt^ bftTc Mt.}«t bsoa 
oiwqilMBad, oBtQ it dbm, it 
sodi aa tfat RoKtu StooCt ^ddi 
Egfptian faien^nibft 
Ucaairtule dkc Hittitc 

SmWTiMM^ of all of wfaidi liewtt 
Jtaata that they "are iriAoot f 
deatitate a£ value'.* Ii the aune t* I 
piojpotei, or nther lemed hf J«i 
petent to itddt, and can fyit mj that iltH 
the Hittite Unxuage widi the Axmailfk:i 
binily, bos been bvourabl; icodTCd, i 
the Hittite area, which has atUl to be d 
(dement, which wai in remote times J 
Enrqpean intrudas speaking an aichaiai 

This view agrees well with some of Aelp 
is independeDtly supp<»ted by the i 
exi^oiations in Senjiili, as well aa by hii I 
fications of the Semitic type in w< 
minglings of Amorites and Jews with 1 
In North Syria, land of the Amorites, " 
brachy, with indices near to 90 ; and theat ■ 
we find everywhere in Western Asia ; we t 
prominent even with the modem Greeks J 
of Asia Minor, and especially the Armcniana m 

' Vuioos papers in the Zeitainft of the Gc(M 
96, and Hittittr und Armema;a schoUriy woA wUi 
nmulUneoQslf with C- R. CoDder*! TTu HUtUti m 
lul is angularly mconcIosiTe, and seem* to Ul betwa 
to compare the Hittite sfttem "on the one buiil wk 
syllabary, including the Cypriote lyllables, and the tt 
and Cuiui alphabets, which aie geacnlljr ■^imitfj |i 
on the other by comparing the sounds voA b. 
emblenu" (p. iij). reiser's "Turanians" 
equity wide of the marii. 



t ^ompkat maitomitf of tbofar t7pM,-#)r-<ilMir'iii* 
• bnchyceplMiKm tod fiv Adrtavi 
The M baebf mm |0f ayii* 

Ifinorll ^AaA frna Ae bsguaiiBg «u v 
ftMt iBf Senilic tribe* cm onfy be identified widt die Hktitt»— 
AA-iiMM'HkliteiaHBdgBeduft Sjriali tribe in tbe KUe, ivfaidi 
'MfttbiMl « Mnng «Bd fomiideUe eftmr to Ruhcb II. [JOM), 
0tmm9 iMUf ooaquered hf Anjman kingi in kMV miii •■ *• 
lli^fetheAMTiMwaBiub&Dm the9tb to the 7th centoty ba"* 
^^fhAr^Senfid^ i^ the SunmAl Bicntioaed in tlie AMjrriui Htts 
!jptW IliMili «MNB 10 aordi ^lia. were found namcnm Hifdte 
with figom of ttnlciiij^r AmwniaB typt, to that " we 
;tMtaOtfB if «e comder the inhebituti ui SuunU u dw direct 
/WMMiefdtenodernAnBentuii'". ButiheimaeiioeofSemiMa 
^JMlM MMe <dd TOftl dtf ii thown by two imcriptiou of the ptfi 
'jp4flftttatiinaax., both in chuw^en dowly reeenblfav tboee 
'■ittAHtaMM Moftbite inici^>tion, uid in m. proto-Aimmuc or proto- 
■UtMV hngnage. Here we seem to find Semites and Anneniana 
1^ WMl iMiimi. theu fusion resulting in what Von Luschin and 
livn vadd caU Hitdtea. 
~ ' 1st to these mixed Semitic popolatioos of 

Ana ttaod mt the Arabs of the Nejd 
who have to this day preserved their 
type and speed) afanost in their fiill int^rity, and vdiow 
it has been to absorb, or at least impose their language 
of the Sunitic funi^, the cosmtqKditan 
HmjaritiG inlers of Abyssinia alone excepted. We 
how theae fiery nomads, who in Uuhammadaa 
tfvenun notth Africa, sund rehited to thor remote 
, the Berber aborigines of that regioa But they 
north to Mesopotamia and Syria, and the great 
£>amaacus, and Aleppo have long been centres 
■ad culture. Here again Von Luschan punu out 
Ihs Senitca tlie Bedouins alone form a b<»nogeneous 
aa N represented on the earliest ^yptiao monuments, 
Phcenician skulb "seem identical with old and 


■tcripit DOM, VBCk ■■ IB ttUKy-M 

iriMrt we ne aoGtNhMBcd to ofl ft f 4 

Ebewlien— Ibem, Sial^, M«llkV<i 
bjmr-die Anb innden tew IdM 
tftt^ or dwir nctal mdiridailityt ' 
Portngil, Sdlf) tber hftvc jiiippMii 
tUng bdiind then bcTond iobm itfglM 

or ■tupendoui moiqiiet i»coiiMctatod« C 
ID the eutcm landi their iaAHnce ta HaLft 
piofeM blim and use the AnUc K9ipfte-« 
Turk], or Malay languages, becaose i 
regions were swept by a toniado of nHfet,] 
else visited b^ peacefiil traders and n 

The monotheism proclaimed bjr thne 4 

often spoken of as a t 
H^^nn. Semitic people*, or at least a 

them at such an early p< 
as to teem inseparable from their very b 
Before the time of Allah or of Yahvd i 
tutelar deity; the caves and rocks and I 
swaimed with "jins"; Assyrian and 
with their Baals, and Molocbs, and J 
as thickly peopled as those of the 1 
in this, as in all other natural qrstons 
theistic concept was gradually evolved b 
elimination. Nor was the process perfect) 
peoples — Canaanites, Assyrians, Amotites, I 
having always remained at the polytheistic • 
Hebrews and the Arabs, the two more ri<^^>« 

' ScUiue, Jin. u, 1894, 

* The mde Semitic dialect Mill current in dib 
fundainenliUy Phceoician (Cartliaginiui), later slllECtsd 
jnflnencea. (M. Miizi, ^ Void from Italia, 

iK.j|Mr'kii<)fr ^ Aen wm realljr tmt one ev^ntion, tliNt:«f 
%«dq)t^ cf tbe kkt «n4)odied ia AlU bcjiv Uitori- 
^||M«|WC:W Ae Jemsh and Cbiutua qntcnw. 

sMihMM dW! HittitM prove to be ft Semit»-AiiBeiiian'blaad.iB 
Pplfe jA^H fMod e direa tntnitioii betweeotba 
)iHlM«i«^' «nten {KqHikboiu. Oa dw Semidc gJu!'*^' 
|||i^MintMi«e to Ibe Ponui Gnlf ud Inuik, 
iltft^jii» M l n m mt alemsat oHuwcti them with the dxsiyaet 
iJ l Jfa w.Mmni G upped o da n i, I^rciaiu, Cariue, Leleges, peth^M 
KiadPhiygieiu. With these last we pass tbrou^ the 
Mrndi tb» EMipmitis to the kiodied Tfandans, Paone^ 
i^-lR^.«Bd other pre- or proto-Hellenic peoples, grouped 
CMiUiors eoUectivel]' as " Pdngtam." Isvented, as has 
ttpM^dtior the purpose of confoundiDg fbtute etbnoloipstii dtoae 
||iH||jWBcertatDl]ri»ewiitui extreael]r. difficult ladal iwobleia, 
ttlMllniNB of which has hitherto resisted the cosobined attacks 
tfjifiMfailtaad modere smdents. When DioiiTnus tells as blnntljr 
lHMlH9>.im«a Gfeeka', we fancjr the question is settled off-hand, 
fj^inH'mu find Herodotus describing them a few hundred yean 
MMiieiM dkiM^ rode in speech and usages, distincdy not Greeks, 
ftVililJB'Ul tee here and there <Thnee, Hd!esp<n>t) still 
'"'^''^'^ITuendy non-Hellenic dialects* Then Homer 
|l',ja^)ktimes stilt earlier, with his epithet of Sin, occuiiing 
* " ^ mad and the Odyutjr*, exalts them almost above die 
i tt» Giaifcs themselves. But periiaps in these seeming 
s «c stay have a key to the puzxle, one whidi will 
kr^^boA widt Sergi'a Mediterranean theory, and with the 
t ncent archaeological researches in tiie ^Egean lands. 
ftM^keuean culture revealed by Scbliemann and others 
, Mykenc, Argos, Tiryns, by Mr A. J. £vans in 
lotft ia Cyprus, be ascribed to a pre-Hellenic rather 
I ICftolo-Hellenic people, then the classical references will 
'" ' , while this pre-Hellenic race will be readUy 

« I. (7- ' //. 10, 419; Oa. 19, 177. 






peopled befim Ae nifat «f ^Ai^ 

iptfcciii %MM iMBV Miifu me 

cififiied than t h f i it t gW s ^^at w 
Seq^"* Pda%iaB bn&di «f die 
itodcp iriMm the prato^Hdhoot 

nperioiBy and lAoin 

gSSttSr^ * "i^f called Gm l IA ee y i ft 

few ceniufies theae 
laed, all bat a km 
bdiind in the general aodal p to gteii am 
barfaariann, speaking barbaric toogoe^ 
omtempoiaiy hiatorians. Then these fnr 
bat fofgotten past are abo nieq(ed in tfM 
can no longer be distinguished fiom crther 
writers. Hence for Dionjraos the ~F 

^ **We recognite in the Peltq;i aa 
HeUenic, it is true, bat distinguished firom tlw 
and social developnient of 
view when, reasoning back finom the sabseqnent 
the ancient Pelaagians a rode and worthless nee» 
their deities namdess. Numeroiis tiaditJonaiy 
tidtj, describe them as a b»ve, moral, and 
a distinct stock and tribe, than a race nnited hj a 
the forms of life" (W. Wachsmuth, 71U Bisitrimi 
etc, Engl. ed. 1837, >- P- 39)- Remarkable words I0 
the recent revelations of archseology in Hdlas. 

* That the two coltnres went on for a long tioMB dll 
the diflSerent social institutions and rdigious ideas 
of Hellas during the strictly historic period. ThnsdMHlt 
in Homer, who represents the Achaian (HeUeni^ slds^ 
as popularly understood, prevailed in Arcadia, AtticSi 
So with totemism, and the dark Poseidon of Uie 
eclipsed by the fair ApoUo, 2^eus, and other gods of 
vast subject, whidi has yet been scarcely toochsd; its 
much in the obscure ethnical relations of 

.nB &a}CMic . vw&nsM. 

mmf ha warn eaua^ Att tba MUMgeMM* 
hM» bMB AiMd in t mgle Hettnk) auiaBtfit^t boOt 
PfAHgic RbitiMiiB, hmI adomed vldt jfl dM gMKiM 

It is 

'|||ta% 'Ifctt Ae ftbusiuM wen oot sa obaeon tiib^ • •omU 
'oonfiaed W lonie ramott Gcnier of Hdlai^ liA a wide- 
■MioD ^fioMd over- all tbe land; Moc»dlr, ibat dda 
■* fcr ai caa now be datennmed, prcMnted nMiital and 
0tm ahiwetiti aanrariig to tboae of Sogj*! Meditenaacaiw, and 
*4hvMehas ntiflM be looked for is a race capdjle d Aeniofms 
L, 4ft(*plM^ iSgean cuhtne of pK-Hdlenic tuDes. 
"j^tante tba flm point it may toffice to my Uutt the Pdasgiaiu 
t^limf'mmpAmt^ ao mudt k> that the dtfflci% ^^ 

IjpttW'teto diicov«radiitrict where Ibeir preaence ^'^"'"'■" 
kBtam. Hiey fill the batAgnnmdtrf Hellenic JJJJjJ""*" 
i^aad ana apread beyond the Hellenic 
to anofa an extent that there aeems little room for 
* peoi^e between tbe Adriatic and the Hdleapoot 
W. Kidgeway' faaa l»oaght togedier a good many paMagaa 
Ctattir eatabUih their univoaal range, u wdl at their 
•ipedidly of tbow pUcea wbete hare been found 
' ittlkMi af Myfceuean and pre-Hykemean culture, tudt aa en- 

fif pma, pottery, implcmentt, bnildinga^ insciiptiona in 
ftifkat and ^llabic scripta. In Crete they had tlw "great 
«f Kiwoi" in HomefB time'; not only was Mykoue 
^ tal dM «4Kde of Peloponnesus took the name of Pelas^ ; 
of Tityns were Pdasgians, aitd Aeadiyhu calls Aigos 
d^ ; an old wall at Athens was attributed to them, 
;|||ll peo^ of Attica bad from alt dme been Pela^ans*. 
Boeotia was founded by a colony from Pelaa- 
'Ji Ttwialy; Lesboa also was called Pelasgia, and Homer 
■sif Pft'iTg'ft'" in die Troad. Their settlements are further 
'*. ,h' 

■Mis rSm trtrOiMtt (Sinbo, v. ii»). Thii mfgfat dmofl 
'fl^ flooded the whole cf Greece." 
t,itaisi9^ |dy 13, 189s, p. 3*; and ebenAete. 

»■»«!» I I. 







1^ . 



daaeoti iriio tnn^ 

niiBKMiea of stiS ouiier aboriguiM^^ 
iqppear as a cakmed paoid% 
industries of the pie-My&ensMl^ ilgftm^ 
based on no known data» is 
reasonaUe to look on this cttltmie as 
extent under eastern (Egj^ptian, BtibfUmiUk: 
Here it is important to note diat the 
with a knowledge of letters', and all this iMf:^ 
sufficient confirmation of our second 
writing system be rpgardedas thehi^est 
man, there need no longer be any hesitati(|0 
other arts and industries of the ^'iGgean scboel -^ 
That the Hellenes were at first, and 
advent in Greece, an illiterate people, ni||^' 
from the solitary reference in Homer to*wrbiliip| 
more so since the writer is a Pelasg^ 
reference thus shows that the Pdaq^ians 
cultured people, who corresponded with ea<Ai 
of the iEgean, apparently in a script now revealc4^ 

'^ This idea of an independent evolution of 
is steadily gaining ground, and is strenuously adi 
M. Salomon Reinach, who has made a vigorous altadt^ 
''oriental mirage,'* ue. the delusion which sees noUung hfit 
influences everywhere. Seigi of course goes further, '^ 
ranean (Iberian, Ligurian, Pelasgian) cultures not only ti ' 
independent both of Asiatics and of the rude Aryan 
as destroyers than dvily^s. This is one of the fni 
the whole of his Ariie Italicit and some earlier writingik 

* Pausanias, in. 40, 5. 

* The famous oiitMTa \vypd "flBital signs'* of /L Wl^ 
ffijfM xairdv, **evil script," written in a ''folding taUd:'*:' 
Argos, and addressed to his father-in-law, the long of 
destruction of the bearer, Bellerophon. 




tt'. iteft.wttk temd* not^OM, M^CM 
'rt<fPM»i* .yJBlMMil «r UtM^^iphie. -ViiCe iadepMdatt ^ tt» 
[9||priHg<fliid » liBMf OT q^ibici Iks ktttt. it «orid mob. 
'^PMlopBA. fiMoa.- the fvat^ while botii. overiippad Mdi othBr 
■: j fi fc ■ w ie .fai .c9BC B «»at uw. Although mdm of the itfcMp^ph* 
■ 4|MI>lM» lb* Hitdte sjnnbdi, th^ fons u a whole an indfr 
:|Mil«* itoiq^ poMblr of Cntui origia, tfam^ poi^y alio 
lHlMlfilVt»aaeiMB«ive hien^jr^ic •ytteo) wpntA over lO die 
Jlgsnlaw^ indudiag Alia Minor and Felepoiuienii. Smilarir 
^mSama .^btmcxtn, asnimed to bt d^mded Cretan pcbogmfkM, 
JtauMdoywwidi the CTpciote, hfdan, tad odicr ijilabaiie^ lO 
Alt uti mtLj hnis alio have a gyUal:^ system cunent in the laaae 
Ipi^M-iKlCTkeBBan times, or even eatlier. Was it in this icr^ 
^fr,'MilH Proetus mote his v^^Mm A»^? If so, 
iHMbU-Ac document be recovered (archeologiits 
I us to such surprises) there are 
I Aat it wonld not long remain undedphend. Dr Mi 
t-hm Steady set to work with Gennan patieOce on dM 
lll^teqr widi not nni»romiBiag resulu*, despite a somewhat 
WWiAd tmtial assomptton. Sapponng that the script is in some 
ift^lfe-^lNni of the &eek lat^nage, he takes a given qnabol to 
Hmm-thifcOMnd of the first ktterof the corresponding OoA word, 
«K#iftflinciple of A for an Ai^e in diildren'i pictorial alphabets. 
.iPNBilbe lAaraoter repreaentbg an axe would have the pbotwtic 
i0m*t'<Jkt tUs being the first letter of the Greek word 'A^, an 
ttffit Rfld ao on. Of course everything depends oa the language, 
>ldirii)rnaiaderiiig some ascertained dates such as that of Sa^on I. 
i§|)|^MIft)b WW more probablj Felasgic or pre-Hellenic So the 
'-'l^iplliiilHaili at present 
jilijlhii agrrrii Uiat the .<£gean culture was antecedent to a 
.|jpKlWi|li(e of iiOB, and belonged in bxt to the Broiue Age^ with 
:4HM|peis..1]ittied deeply in the preceding Neolithic period. Mr 
JhnMltWPV' iathat the arts and industries were developed first 
% fba Arehipeb^[o (Crete, Cyprus, eic)^ and latn cm the Greek 
1 (MjICenBf Argos, etc), and in Asia Minor (Ljrda, the 
* OMte FUfgri^ tmd PnfPkattkitm Scrift, 1896: ud elaewben. 
* As HeeUng of the Brit. Anoc Urnpool, 1896. 






^dm j9m^ 

#n4ttiH tedw 

.^BJ^cm ii to te 



^JglJ^ bronzes of Ireliadmdl 

and those of VfjipinA 
His condnsions being besedf not oolf on hill: 
dso on those of SdiUemanny Tsoonlni.'wW 
(Tiojr), Tiiyns, VLykxsm, Aigo% Crpi^ ^ 
levebitions of the Swiss lake-dwdliqgs 
north Italy, have a solid foondalion in ftel# 
accepted by aichsedogists. The old 
''Etruscan" or ''Semitic" origin of Ae 
are falling into the background, and 
periods of iGgean culture, as determined bjr die 
dty of Troy, in Amorgos, under the vokanie 
Thera, in die tombs of Mykense and d s eir hc s fc 

The first period covers the wide domain 
land and Upper Italy, the Danube basm 
and the Balkan peninsula; it is continued 
of Asia Minor, and at last ends in Cyprus. In 
in which Asia Minor appears as a part of Bniop^^ 
culture was evolved mainly along the 
from water." The assumption that navij 
Mediterranean had its rise on the unshelteml 
where we now know that the Phoenicians 
late period, can no longer be maintained. Tlie^ 
were the natural home of the earliest efforts of 
thus was here stimulated a higher d^pee of 
not only on the whole of the European domainr 
the earlier Egyptian and Asiatic fields themsehreSr ^^ 

But the influences were mutual, as showp 
imitation of the Babylonian cylinders and 
especially by the spiral motive in omameni 
appears in the Amorgos (pre-Mykenaean) 



pl^^^'"'^'"'" ' ""'^ 

" 'd 



I'M |pw a pot in Eoropeu irt, iride abwBt bam the 
I of Am UioM and tbe Dsut^iftn liads. 
, however, is thowB by Fetiie to be nltfiBate^ of 
1 origiB. being met on die tcuaba tjt Ae 4& .djriiM^. 
■I defdopment of the tpinl «nd of otlier fereiga de^n 
||i* Hifa M DMi eit cui be explained onljr on tbe annmptiOD of 
iUHMt between Egypt and tbe iEgean about looo jtaa taxHtr 
tfNlB had hitherto been mppoaed'. 


-bnfr tr" 

4tb I** 

GcfWHiT— Tsimwic Ou«in— Akm d 
—Tkt Mar-Gatk$—l 
e Lapone^ Nt 

tio^acfined— Al 

hadt—Am^ and Saxmu—Vormaeat. «f A* I 
Rdukn* in Ifd^nd »i>d Scoctond— Piwwt Car 
Feoidci— The Ei^iih L^vom— TV Amm 
Elemcntt— Mental Tiaiti— TV Sfm mim A mmd B 
tioiu in lUljr — Uguriam, Hhriom, \ ' ' 
Italiaia—Ja% and Ethics— 7jb Aim 

— TV Hdle$ut — Oriem* and Uip 
jEg/iaiu: Dtnam; Ananu— The Hdleaie I 
piage — Thk Slavs— Ormm and 1 

— Wendi, Chekki. and Ai^i^The 
Creati, Semiaiu — TAi Albaiuaiu — 
Oiieini — Alans and OtuU — Aborigmet of die C 
— Ethnic and Linguulic Relatiooa — Putiami, 

"fAoiM— LowUnd and HiU TttjiU— The Gi" " 

Jcha and Tajik Tj'pes — Sbnta Eurvfma a 
Alia— Tkk Hindus- Ethnic Rdaticna In I" 
Diaiidian, and Aqan Elementi~TV XHi- 
Kurumbat — The Civiliud Diavidian and A 
Neo-Saniltritic Langnagt* — The Hindn C 
SIAKS — Mietvnttiam—Eatttrn F ' 
— Migration!. 

Ir the views of Mr Evans be atxepted, I 
theory that Bronxe came in with the "Aiyua,'' \ 
itandpoint that the revelation of an i 
in touch with Babylonia and Egypt some four a 

r «> k «f .mdi awmeBtoBk iapgct iadattiBiafi^ dtb 

^^aMiiital Mi^uBs of dw fcirtOTKil, i^ the pnMot Ean^nm 

ivnudier Tc call tiiem AgIimuu or H^MMit 

Itali, Sknnaiauu or Slan, Teuton oc GiflmaBi, 

: Kdtf, Buqoes or ^Mbiaidt, ill wif oom, 

noghfy ^Kskiiig^ be KgvdeduorigiBall/Noitb Afitcaa-Httnite*, 

WA of dw loagJieaded aiid lonnd-tMitded typn, indiseDou frotn 

iVBbte tnnca in tiut regioiL Europe would ftppou to here been 

leiwlied t^ two routn, fint in die S^mie Ages, acroM the tCediter- 

laaean at se««nl pdnts, then round t^ Ana Minor -«nd the 

flwaraia at^pe^ mainlj^ in the earl/ Metal Age, or in the poiod 

intaroMdiate between the NeoUthk and the &onxe Age^ die 

I period of Italian arduBologista. Both routea were 

1 bf both tTpea, the r^her ihort, dark ItMig-hBada, w. tte 

r i^iJediMrranf iiin " of Ripley and Seigi, becoming qpecialiaed 

l'«|iMf-'^fce Doidieni shorei of the Meditemnean, ia Weat Eurape, 

^^iMi4lieBlttiah Idea as Pelasgiana, Liguiians, Ibviana, Picti or 

I, vriiUe the dark or brown round-heads of medinm height, 

f.-^fibm ^A^nes " of Riplej and de Laponge— -were maased in the 

"qfMi^t9jiuida(Aurergne, Savoy, Switserland, Tyrol). 

r^'i^ doabt6il whtiher the Heditenaneans spread in large 

I ito North Eux(q>e (the North German lowlands and 

■fii^ which region would seem to have been for the 

H^'^Rlt occupied in Neolithic times by the tall blond long- 

ploy*! Teutons, and the Sa/m MmepMu of Linn^ 

tijl-Hiottge — who came from the Eurasian steppe. Then 

l.fe litUe kter the "Alpines" may have been reinforced 

> '^roundheads from the Iranian and Armenian uidahds, 

e time spread over the East European |Auns. 

vie migrations would at least explain several 

a I in tiie constitution of the European pecq;>les, as for 

I' d»' abaence everywhere of a dearly defined Mongol 

It «• can be traced to quite late Mongol intruders ; 

: difiuaaon of the Alpine roundheads over the 

I, that is, over well-nigh half of Europe, so that one 

I tjrpe should be called "Alpine," when it covers 

I square miles of lowlands ; the perhaps still 

e exclusion of the same Alpines or of any round- 


i£ Hie AoOOm tad i 
Ae ponAeea wen ttrbe* 
heids a Gieece in Myhmin, it. t 
tbe coounoB ■mmipdoii hmag thttl 
tlw loD^hMded HeUaa of Aijnn i 
Uedttcmnaun be once admittad u Oali 
•pecifiad knda, all will be nnpH6ML ■■■>■ 
The geBeral tdancter of die Aiyni^ 
_ ^ been coniidered. Bat it t 

•nm " Pioto- 
Ai]>ua"sf that the Aryans as fa 

cradle, which was prefunuUf the BuiHiual 
dispemona, they must have been a mdn or ll 
with definite physical characters. TfacfC 
have been both round and long-headed, i 
short, but, let us say, tall, fiur bmgJteads, « 
seems the more probable view. How dM 
from the first, that it, on their vtrj first a 
peoples of Aryan speech present bodi Vfpn 
insUnce, in the round-headed Kelts and die'lo 

Sei^ solves the problem by ai 
speech entering Europe from Asia in tbe ] 
all round-headed, and moreover radc barbM 
nothing with them, except bronze, and their k 
imposed on the Mediterraneans, or rather g 
of the Ugurians in Italy, and of tbe Pete* 
must have been- of Hamitic type : " Tlie I 
transformed, but did not destroy those t 
Italy'." There may be more truth in this t 
surface, although die case is put in a i 
accepted by philologists. To me it appears n 
tongues everywhere, so to si 
the soil, and effaced those f 
in so doing became themselves • 
especially in their vocabulary a 
1 Ariitlfalici, p. 176. 




d^A^^MrtriBv Omu) wbd i^aKMk. iW^^qMfe 

I'M f ^MviiMiB in nuijp Twbii «mHt HflkW % 

liijbrt^ i^ch in comse of ^w afui iImmmii 


kiOiaiWf Av wioM memben of (be Aiyim^'^kl^kA 
'^^'"'uM QMCB^Md in their new bmnes, uxt ft; ti SlMSaiMl 
) thftt ncli sp eciKl i wti wi took plaoe nindi^ '3lM|A^iW' 
i^UgUMii in Itaijr, PeUigiui in Gieect, and •» cut ■ Birt 
|fIi Wtqr-diSKWBt from laying that the AiyMM, of Aottu 0(%iab 
B^RKMng Europe onljr wie language divided Into three 
I, whidi are now wdl difierentiated imdcT the namai 
tOamamc, and Slav, jnit as they had only one iua4»> 
J-lj^; aho th^ the other to-adled Aryan lingnagW, 
f^Hmme of Greece and Italy, were never oripnaUy Aiytn 
1 mai arie d' oiigine'^i but became tranrfcnned to 
^'ttnder the influence especially of the {noto-I^M 
I, the two branches which invaded those rc^on^ 
I phenomena, Seigi contends, must have taken place 
(tf^AB-teng^waded people who first occupied North Eniop& 
:«amt from Africa, are represented in die Gertnan 
■r* sod are wrongly supposed to be 

5 Aryans from Asia. But they are RStS^id 
sans irtio, Jike the others in Italy, *•"* ^""^ 
iwhere, were Aryanised in speech, 
iQy yidded to the sway and cultural infiuences ct 
A Aryans arrivit^ much later from Asia', 
n of the Mediterranean stock to n<Mth Europe and 
i Is based by Seigi on what he daims to be an absolute 
1.^ fivms of the crania from the Reihengraber with 
ian gntves in Italy. But too much seems to be 
1 characters of these dolicbo skulls, the two 
f in most other respects quite difierent, the northerners 


lAere the Umbrttn ttill fau AoMtrf (R. S. Conwa;, Tt* 
Slc-t OuBbrldKe Univenitr Pren, 1897, vol. I. p. 4«8). 
\IU^ pp. i66-ji Vittrdm MgnwfMAm Jttlkmp'Sttr^ffm, p. 7, 



g000lKUmt ^ if wi U H 

am, Md I think it «ai b* faad m4 
vawa irf Sonpe IB rdh«n^ Itfe ifeM^ t 
fiMD die Etmsiaii Mcpp^ sad bri< 
Amcnia Aroi^ Aaa Itinor, boA li 
owTCiHlitj at Hm ipeecfa id Ed^vc ■ae»|j| 
imineiue fsctor in die proUon, wfaicb .c 
aammptkn that tiie Aiyan lanpiige iMd dn 
over die Eanma steppe and the ■ 
afduxls in lemote timei, prior to the la 
NotUi, Centnl, and Sooth Europft Jei 
was an earljr fonn of Annenian (Aiyan) at | 
(tee aboreX while the very ma^ed A 
traced trom Asia right diroogh the centnl I 
to the Alp* and into north Africa where it 
weti to the Canary Islands. Thus E. i 
western Asia an Annenoid group of n 
from the true hmg-headed Iranians, and ib« » 
&r west as Adalia and Lyda by von I 
as Annenian, and as the aboriginal e 

a Luschan,* 

1 Indndei the KiiilbMhi, Hetiuli, AmuWi, i 

brachy with cephalic index S5 to 90 [Xaifrriei A 
OccidmiaU, Lyoiu, 1895). Elsewhere {Ltt Am 
d'Anlkrvp. dt Lyon, 1S96] thu obieirer, who fau q 
(1690-94) dCKiibci the true AnoenUn tjrpe, fi 
lelieCi, u hTpsi-bnchy with deep brown efet and bdii li 
and louDded at tip, and below loean hogfat, fiiim nwnl< it 
with Semites, Kurds, prolo-Geo^pans, and CappadodaSl 

■ See Fig. 94 in hii Raiat in Lytiait Vm 
Anlhrvp, Xtx. 1891. Hommel brings even tiamd J 
identifying the Scythians with the Itaaiant, some of m 
and Cappadocia, where the Hittitei are located by n 



flstec mHt prolMddy derirad the AriuictnHfeA- 
ithnAf torn at Eut and Mpitm W^i^p^i ■ . 
_, . ^ ( itdwr haad the tmll longheaded htaaOt ^Hfkl^ 

^fii|«MMI' Md the qpiol "Arytm" of nMrijr ^ ■_ ' 

JfijMBM iwthrepotogiitiX nUHt fawe followed a more o^SP^ - 
lifiirtiim mide fron the BvrasiBB steppe' to dw 
jlplliekadi, whcfe the; are by tamy wgiuAed u iBdi(oBaBi^ thftt 
fc T< hmiBj beic been spedaliaed in an environaMnt fiivoanble 
liiitltfdcHfdopment c< a ionA cooiplexioa and robuat pttjdlfiM. 
'j|Eti;k.Mg|MMii, vbicli u leaamable enov^h, id no wmjr dHdM 
[nnaiaiic origin, if undentood to meai^ not that tilK 
spouiff oat <tf the soil in their present bonm, but only 
e their advent in this r^ion in Neotitbic tiiDea, ihey have 
inVMw conditicmt acquired those physical charaotan tagr vdiich 

e been dirtingnished throughont the historic period. 
■npi fiwt the eailiest known bistoric records all point in- Aw 
', that the Baltic lands (noith Germaoy, ScandtDMia, 
t Finland and Baltic provinces) are, in the sense here 
itfcd, tbe true home of the Teutonic race, a second area at 
^fjj^fcnoliation and dispemon in later times over Europe and ludf 
f^'^fobc Thus Gostav Kossinna* shows that sooth Scandinavia 
ii^dl Deamatk, Hecklenbnrg, and Pomerania form die Germui 
inriBe ("Vikeiotat") since the Nedithic Age. Their ftrther east- 
IMMd ^»ead in the Bronze period can have staned 
«fl|f from Scandinavia, as direct trade-relations i^^SliiMiiiiii 

limn soudi Sweden and the mouth of the Oder ■^'"v^" 

■Mm be traced bat^ to tbe beginning of the Metal 
jMjUnil Somewhat later two distinct trade-routes can be deariy 
m$mi^ through Boinholm (originally Burgund) and tfaiougb 
^jpttndt while tribal names such as Warines, Goths, Burgoods 

wde to the "blnc-eTcd" 
flf HMsnni tpoken o( in (lie Tell-d-Amuii* t«blett {S&ampitrieJUt, 
Mad-lfSc. 189B, "Hethittrn. Skjtben"). 

Mtth A rAt^ itAniAraf., Jvij 1898, tliitethiiologbtmskea all the 
tilibtet Hangol linemge, entering Eniope in the NeoHlUc Age with ■ 
Old-Altaic type uid culture. 

3 and 4, Stiantaarg, 189$. ' 


■!■• hme gRMn wider bf dw ^Had « 
is tfw l« Itae period, mj alnwt fM« 
■9V iWtwl to Jntlnd, lAeacc 
Hvndi, aad Henili ftramed f 
Mw flf iouiid-ffainiin oewl sot in Mi I 
AM back Cttdier dna aboat 400 KC^a 
it some 600 jrean enUer. 

In lAy cue it ii now certain that the 
mignuioa began aome time be&re dw ■ 
•et aoitdi and wert, odwn, and tbeaep 
•oiitIi«ut towaidi their original I 
nay have been the Tkawams and tfae I 
niaig' believed to be of Gennanic itoc^ i 
Teutons left bdiind on their mardi to' then 
aiiivali from the nofth, thef do not a^; 
mfficieot data for a profitable i 

We reach firmer ground with tl 

Teutonic people dtat \ 

OiMwiiw. horizon. Already n 

as separating the Germani ; 
(Tyragetes) about the Dniester and Dnieper d 
now be followed by authentic document! C 
Euxine. Fortwangler' shows that the 1 
figures are those of the Adamklissi monm 
commemorating the victory of Crassus orei 
and Thradans in 38 ii.c The BastanuB 
Cimbri and Teutons through the Vistula \ 
Danube about 300 b.c. They had relations w 
and the successes of Mittiridates over the I 



' Paper teid at the Meeting of the Ger. Anthn^ S 



r Qiwte U fa MOdiig accord irith the tcenei on tM MiiaWi4 

P |i|MnHMpft' H«e tfKjr appear dreMed qbI^ in A'kind t/lMfMent 

i ij^iiOMfcothflQ die column of Tiajao, who «Qg[i0Bd tlwv^aK 
f iHMiriet inliu Dtciui ifan, and on the Aich of Marcoa Aniriitt%' . 
f' t|IK IWW*er <MariBg a nnic, a agn peri>^» of later. lEoflMUi ini- 
f lh;>nii And thus after 2000 yean are answered Sbibi/tdailMl 
* l^aMdara aiduboiogy. 

»■■ t Mndi later there followed along the tame bcatea tradi b t twe ta 

MlsSallic and Kack Sea a lectioD (rf" the Gotbt, whom 

Wind fint Mtdad in the Baltic landi in pioximitr q^"**^ 

Artkfr Knna*. The exodus from tbii nfpoa can 

MiUBtty hare taken place before the tnd oentmy of die new en* 

ftr th^ are atill onluiown to Stiabo, while Taatna locates tliieu 

4m dw Baltic between the Elbe and the VkaiU. Later Caano- 

4/Hm and odien biing them from Scandinavia to the VwtiUa, and 

i^lhit river to the Euxine and Lower Danube. Althoii^ oftoi 

t" flgpided as l^tendarjr, this migiatic«i is supported b^ ardim^ 

If tlifcal nidence. In 1837 a gold ring inaciibed with tbe oldest 

i' imtt VIS found at Petroaata in Wallachia, and in 1858 an iron 

£. I^Ariiend widi a Gothic name in the same script*, wliidi dates' 

fiw Urn first Iron Age, turned up near Kovel in V<dh]mia. The 

j iyilwllBad k identical with one found in 1865 at Uiincheidiciig 

^ JMndenborg, on which Wimmer remaits that "of 15 Runic 

in Gennan7 the two eartiest occur on iron pftefc 

ia no doubt that tbe runes of the Korel spearhead and 

from Gothic tribes'." These Soudiem Gotbs, 

'ittUed Hae8fr<3oths, because they settled in Moeria (Bulgaria' 

I, had all the physical and even moral characters of the 

.TeotDiH^ as seen in the Emperor Maximinus, bom in Thrace' 

k ^/K-Gcidi bjr an Alan woman — ^very tall, strong, handsome, with 

k -IL . ^ , 

BL r .* msst hit nUM*, it ibotild be noted, vere not confined like die later 
" 'Ams tB SeaafinsTia ud BriUln, bat were cairent amongn the etulj' GenDanic 
^ ' MN'"^ dfN^ ^ipueiUljr nowhere in exteiwTe me. 

''■■■*'" ■ in JlOm. S0€. X. Ant. dm Ntrd, 189J. 




pmI detdkipa 

ing tkeir ItM^i 

popnlitioni die llcn»Gotha woe « 
br tlieir tnbop UUDu («Woir^ wbowf 
oir SaiqitiiK^ p mer vcdin Ibe Ctdrx a 
nMMt picctoiis monnment of eaify 1 

Witbont iUlowiiig tbe later migratiaBi a 
btnU, Saxons, Ai^jle*, Franks, V«ndab, \ 
oonheni " bvbariani^" which are historic e 
indicate the results, lo £u as tliejr have i 

characttn of the preaent Gemnle'i 
the examination made aonn 
school childTcn* it would apj 
cenL of living Germans may be classed as h 
and 55 as mixed ; and fuither that of tbe Uo 
are centred in North, 33 in Central and 34 fc 
Tbe brunettes increase, generally speaking I 
Bavaria showing only aboat 14 pa- cent of b 
law holds good of the long-heads and the n 
To what cause is to be attributed this pi 
the Teutonic type in the direction of the I 

' "L<cte* mti*" (Sidonini ApoUiniTU). 
' The results were (abaUted \tj Virchow aitd itaij 1l) 
10 Gennui sources, in the Times of Sept. 9 

» KHaUad *'S«vm CoumvatB' el A»Vm 
I |W Iti ■hwhwiirli century Bat ai 

I Ift kne long fonned die «thiiical Avidc far CwUnt 

; Wittp^ dMjr catered the zone of the twown Alpine ro w n d -hM d i't 

| ^< tc— tbey coBumuiicated thdr ipeecli, bst t^ vhom Aef wen 

Mgrigr — ^'**^ u pfaysiad appeamnce. ■ The pncen baa fbtf 

It the tame e vqy w h ew — peranmal ttreaiaa of 

t aetbng steadily from the north, all raoceanv^ aid^ 

a w t g a d m die gnat ocean of dark round-beaded hamaoitj, iriiidi 

a baa occupied the central ajdaBda and tiaitent 

i Neolidiic Age, overflowing also in later tnaea 

'. 1M> tfw Pirllnm Femnaiila. 

>'• ^FUaabaoqttion of iriiat is assumed to be the superior in the 

MlMkir tfp^ may be due to the conditions of the' general laovei 

JKUKIl iriiinrr bands, accompanied by few women, appearing aa 

tiVKfimon in Ae midst of the Alpines and merging with them 

* it A* pent nass of Ixachy populations. Or is the traosfbrmatioD 

dtrW eqdained by de Lapouge's new doctrine, which, whaterar majr 

Htote animate fiUe, is at least entitled to a respectfol hearing, and 

H^to be dismissed, as Sergi and others dismiss it, as "frntaatic'*? 

ttMly pot, the theory is that the long and the round cranial ftaaa 

' M> Ml 86 mudi a question of race as of sodal conditions, and 

Aa^ Owfaig to die increasingly nn&vourable nature of diete coft- 

JllliaHi, diere is a general tendency for the superior long-heads to 

I Mt^cGaorbed in the inferior round-heads'. 

^; ;^.!!pll>M ia stmdt a deep pessimistic note, which under the cover 

P^'Mtaa Kfier'i CnukdoBioU chut in JfMi tf DtetiMtMtt /ma- Im tnutrme- 

* n* cate b Kated in aDoompromiting laognage bjr M. AUred FoidtUe: 
fHTasaatNki, phu Ktnjnlemmt wiinite, c'cK que depoit ia umpt piAiMo- 
Mtaa^ 1« fandfC^philci tendcnt h, fliminer Ic* dolidMciphalci pw llnntMoa 
.faagnWt da coodic* inftrienre* et I'abaorptioo ila uiMocntics dun la 
ob dl« vhmwnt m nofw" (Xtv. dti Dmx Mmtiu, HudI 15, 


iMMdi nipMe feonite mill d 

be gfaNsfttdtle Aowacft 

|i'4 m pidniwoe tixmei to Mrjifa i 

bM alM> Aown br BmIgs. I)rL.J.ri(V«l 
¥anet m bdng depc^iakted, atfd* irtwl. ji 
4>e belt Mctuo flf the mhibitBiiti llM^ 
awMt pcodncltve in emineat ncn m iB 4 
iriule die ignonnt asA nide /aott alaM-:ii 

Tbett news have met with frvotir « 
bat are bjr DO meuu luuTeniUy ■nncipWl^t 

cnt frnn the iriiole dieoiy bj FioC A^:l 
paper at the Toronto Meeting oC the I 
on "The Causes of foachycephaly," ihonriagjd 
primitive skull is telatively loDfj^ and that d 
phylogenetic (ladal) as wcU as ( 
toachycephaly, iriuch it ceruinly aMidatedv 
iwoduced by, cerebral acdvity and growtii 
development in the individual and the m 
die brain grow the more rapidly and tend fe 
the skull*. The tendency would thus hav« t 
rustic and urban life, nor would the round bam 
inferior to the long head. Some of de I 
ate also traversed by Livi*, Deniker*, Seigi* j 

> RecktrcMei AiUin^. lur U Pntame it la L 
mit ftlitique, IX. p. loot ; x. p. 131 {i895-^>- 

' IJTi's malts for lul; [AntrwfamtlTui AftHtarw) i 
from thMc of de Lapoufe and Amnion fOT France and I 
that in the bnchy dUtricts the urban populalk» U k 
while in the dolicho diitiicts the towni are mote hniA 

* Dealing with lone recent undieiof the lithnani 
"Ainti, done, contiairement anz idta de MM. dc I 
Fologne, conune d'atlleurs en Italic, lei claaea Ici p 
urbaine*, umt plus brachy que lei paysani" {VAtil 
Similar contradictions occur in connection with li^t ai 

' "E qni non poMO iralaidare di avvertire u 


to tto caau, the bot nnut be MMipM tet 
^tto TMitoBi) becoaaet aaei|ed 
iitoaw ^^Mtr, wboK BUDO. m -?^' 
.|ii|iin>inwMij I( with Broca. we oUl him JPttt, 
■'0^aifmM»ll, die eEpevioB need no k»g«r lend 
VlilifMINi^'O te 0* ^ °ov nmplr in^lies « great bub of Ne»> 
;fl|tiilt naod^aadt tmm Aftici, Istev — probsbly in the Copper or 
'^prilr-S'O''^ Aff reinforced by other roaadteada of Aijna 
lUlJtMkAaai Alia, wi& whom they united and from whom thef 
-'iMNlipiaeir Kdbc and SUronic langu^ea 
^^il ii«nimdtab)e that in the Alpine region, e^ieei^ Tynd, 
'^iHM-lto bttidijr dement comet to a focns, there 
yiJIMnuliai fcrm of round-head which hai gready 
IpMai'de Lapooge, but majr perhaps be accounted 
^iM Ob l^potbesit of two bracby typea here fosed in one. Ts 
l^jgMl)* '^ eiKeedingly round Tyrolese bead, t^dcb Ihowa 
'lihi^liM' (m the one band with the Swiu, on the other with tke 
sB|irillR;«iBd Albanian, that is, with the nonnal Alpine, a Mong^ 
'Mwr^^H been suggeited, but ii rightly rejected by Fnuu 
at inadmissible on many grounds'. De Ujfalvy*, a 
of de Lapouge, looki on the hyperbiachy. 
u descendants of the ancient BJiKtians or aDditmmna. 
witom to many regard as the parent stock 
■ 6^::9Hliontdtns with most other modem ethnology rejects the 
I from the north, and brings the Etruscans by tbe sea 

...i quail voncbbeni smineiterE mia trufomiMiaoc del cnuiki da 
a" {Arn t /la/iti,p. 155). 

m von einer mongoliKhen Knwtndenmg in 

It Rede mehr idD kSnue" {Dtr etmfdiiilu Mtiutk w. oSr Ttraltr, 

^1, Sit hcf Mane qieaktBg of piefaiitmic timci, Dot of Ihe bte (Urtcnkal) 

i^jt_ir||jj|if let norebre nt e* inrMJont des popnlatiiHii eemuuilqnei, le 

" anformBlion cnnienne, le Ruine oa Rhasden 

ft. aOh }— h ) p i M b i ith jc^ pha l t" {La Arymt, p. 7). The mtaa 

fl.«if As so^alled DUentit type of RbMian tkullt U aboat 86 (Hb aad 

IV QrMHto jEfUbcAfo, p. ag and Plate a. i). 

fipom Am Minor to BtnBM, «Bd 
lopctl &ct> in Centna mi NMtfi 
tnuUrion'." Ot conne, m 
giuge an detemined, ftom «Udi-i«* 
Etnuctn ori^pni nnut i«m«ia diiiir' 
tion. Even the help 
oSg^^ *^^ Etruscan tomlM it 

lound headi beh^ hflie CMmCJ 
tion. Seigi, who also brings the 
this bjr sappoung that, bong 
dolicho Meditemmean stock as the ItaHaaal 
and difiered onlf from the biac^f 
Hence the skulls from the tombs are of 
Aryan, and the Meditenanean, the liMer, 
native IJgurians or intruding Etmscans, 
" I can show," he says, "Etniscan ciania, 
from the Italian [Ligurian], from the oldMt 
show heads from the Etruscan grares 
those still found in Aryan lands, 

' Tie TjrrrluHiant ia Gran and Italy, in Ji 
158. In ifab splendid!]' illuairated paper the date of the 
to the nih century B.C. on the grouod that the fint 
considered as beginning about lojo 
in Italy (p. 159). But Sergi thinks they did not urive SBtt 
Bth century {<4rti«/M/ui, p. 149). 

' On the linguistic aide of the question see 
AUitaiuelu ForschungeH, Vol. 11. Leipzig, 1S94. TUi 
fainoua tnsciiplion of Lemnos as pre-Hellenic, and U 
which be holds to have been closely related to ~ 
presumably a funeral epitaph, he refers to the 7th 
essayt at interpretation are qualified as "equally nlMdilSt. 
less." Hnch use is made of the roummjr 
Agram, which contains the longest extant Etinscan tialdi 
question h priori one might suppose Emucan = Pelaigiaa, 
of the equation are unfortuiwlcly unknown qnantitin. 

' Op. til. p. 151. By German he 

"^ ■■■JMxii. . I. . ■■ ■ 

; ||i4a«K»te Inc AftuH «f ^ TMhmic ^p« •s.a^^ 
' <i#^<iBrifc|hw —■! probably of Ifae Alpine type ^""^ 
JM]piifall-fe 4iHcli hi nrj mettott timet, aaA tffmxaa&y betee 
itim>ilfptmitiB» m Eoiope. Tbii may wimtmt be inftnied fima 
n thet, M fiu buck u dtey can be traced, they are 
1 ipbt into two lingniitic aectioni, iritich, from the 
ftlMlMafe of the lettcn P and Q in the two Buter tongtica, have 
tttmttOtibf Pro£ Rhyt the P- and the Q-Kdta. Reference to 
#h HWlWiii Atyao ipeech ibowi that Q u nigmal, m. tbc shift 
" MlMM, DOtfronF toQ(bntfromQtoP, sotbat 
- tfttjQ'iapeakit^ Kelit ihovld so far be R^uded aa s£^^ 

' AfclMar braadi. Both still, Burrive in what haa 

' l«g» caBed the "Kel t ic fringe," that ia, the itrips of tenitoiy on 

<. 4li-aMMi of the Teutonic and Neo-Latin doniuni in the esnene 

^ 9mn Puilauj, Wales, parts of Ireland, the Scotch Highlands and 

L^ -^tt^Me id Han— wfa»e Keltic dialects are still spdkm. In 

b-r Wdrii sMl Qreton, also in Cwnish, extinct bdbre the close of the 

' otA MOtaiyi >, often voiced to i, takes the place of f , nwmally 

«4l«wad to f*, in Irish, Gaelic (Highland Scotch), and Manx'. 

TSkm As Insh mat, son, answers to the Welsh ma/, ap, /, as in 

Ap>JolHlw P nee, ow, head (as in Kinsale, "Old Head")»jl»i, 

t0» (ta m JPutwyn in Cornwall, Penrkyn in Wales, Btn-Limend 

ia SeolUod). With this cue is partly revealed the vast domain 

t>|MDi|y oecopied on the mainland by peoples of Keltic speech, 

M aeen in the Italian A-pen-niius (cf. Pennine chain in England), 

ttWiAsAi range in Portugal, etc. 

It ■ noteworthy that this geographical terminology belongs 
llllMdjI to the F branch, as if in the first migrations, apparendy 
Inn Asia Minor through the Balkan Peninsula to and up the 

•^ V 

iMlh ha fCgaidi h )<mitlr CMUtitnling with the round-headed Slav Mid Keltic 
' ' m rtoek of Aiyan tpeech in Europe. It ii all very confiuing, 
ke grastett difficnltr in threading thit mue of ethnological 
natfld by the new Iheoriei of Sergi and de Lapoage niper- 
m^MbAew As dd "oetlMdax Aryan viewi." 

' Vbaa, vAlcb it not a mere dialect of Iiiih, but a aittar tongue, ii credited 

^At MMM of the original Arfan fu^tkit; bat the point it doubtJul, aa the 

^ WtKtmf^ Mt a nrvivsl, but « revival liU the French qnd (H. Brtdter). 

dw Ft anmiig httr'. TW I 
r^Of dwe to ihe wJeecy ■ A»-Q! | 
JMi*Af^ wfWK tte/a 

die mme of » dklattA 
Q*! to the Duubn A'd 
Ae (n«»J:r, Cntt'i Oftr betwsn tfHj<< 
wbofofin dte great balk of tho p 
knomi from the waniwiDg bigamti of 4 
Pt, de^tc their nune, wltidi • 
Gaelic Q*. But it would appear dun <S 
Keldc root gai, "valotu-/ oocnirii^ thvUi^ 
Gaub iriio later, rereniDg the finHr'ft 
Greece back to their original homea 1b 'J 
honoured by a letter from St Paul. The a 
with the Irish G^iJU, GaoiJMil, Gatl, the i 
unknown*. Another difficulty ii raised bf t 
the national name of the Welsh or Britiah 1 
be the same as that of the Teutonic Cimiii ' 
■hiftings (tf national names are not imp* 
with the Gallo-Roouuu, who now call their « 
themselves Frattfais from their conqueron the { 
the Cimbri never conquered the British Cjt 
Com'brog*, the people of the " marches," or b 

' Qu of conrte occur* in pUce-iwinet la GalUe H 
kbwlutely proved that the Guiliih place-nuM* wtth f 
AiTsn th^ gu i% etymologickUf equivmlent t 
Acad.}ax,.9. 1891, p. 4*). 

* Birthplice of the Mum uid Orphens, quoted hj g 
ICtllervmamielui, Halle, 1884. Keltic tchoUn, 1 bdWt4i|ii 
a I0U of/ in Erin. 

* It hai been equaled with Lat. AmAu, while CUWll 
to the same root ai Lat. iWitu, and Lithnanij 
It ii curious to note in thii connection that the Kelti •{ 
wettward wanderinp to have been long in cloie ai 
anianij, ag well at with olher Slav peoplei. 

* a. AU<hirtgfi, where the Gaulish item ir»g, WsUit j| 
througb the Old-Irish mmg to an oripnal Keltic raolJl 

Wite femeM ttnwairiien tiuff fint readied finnUa 
6Ml and there dwelt (» the fiwilMR irf. thek Bb^ 
'Abu'Lawar GooL ■' ■• 

i^ no ioager miKh doubt u to Oe identic of AeM 
dW'Coatnwntal i^wiSnwt, TVeDm; wbote 
^iMitiWIiihn IB /Utou, ud it! chief town Po^kn. '^ "'*^ 
-iJl^^idMled icteeocea ifaow that in Romu dinet die PictcaMS 
41^1^^ GMdiih epeech, bat th»e ii good rcuon to believ»ftat 
"(iifllr tttigniBl boigiuge was Iberian, which, a* above Hen, wu 
'i^liltetfl)' eoanected with the B^ber (Hamitic) vA North Afika. 
i^t)tl'imf'Cttian&att be taken aa Aryaniied Meditcmneana, and 
' W'^qaMioB will dien scait, Were they Aryaniied before or after 
.i^NMtpMioB to Britain 7 If berore,then the emipants oflberian 
1|ji<Mdi'nniat have been Ajyanised in their new insulax homes at 
«i-i4*^ date. It ii rema^able that by the Iriah the Ficts 
.■WkV-flOBUnonly called CmUknt, which aniwers etymologically 
^tgjjflyfaii (Kiiy/ Piydam) a Welch name for the "Iiland of 
'.'I^Mfa*.*'. They were therefore, apparently, not distinguiafaed by 
lHjillrMi fcom the Kymry and other Britons, which could Bcarcdy 
'Iflk^: At^cHe had they, within the memory of man, ipoken an 
aaqr other non-Britiah tongue. 
^Bbw^m^, perhaps, be explained the faint (if any) traces of 
q^eecb in Britain, where the Ficts woe^ at least at first, 
connected with the Kymry than with the Scots, that 
ll^At'Oaeh from Ireland'. Their association with these Scots, 

,t-W*<^|r. GMh, marJM, Sag. mark, u in DcunorA and Mmrcammimi, the 
^^Htsk'Vf'lfe* H"**— i' i4. Uk lontbern Gcmuuu dwelling aboDt the Kelto- 
~^ * 'idsods- Tlw cmml sqn^tion ii dne to J. KaqMr Zenn, whow 
i, G m m m a Uta CiUita, 1B53. introdDced order into Keltic philology 

, ^^ e name, originalij BrMdna, ii connected bj Rhy* witli 

' ^M^tMl IM%«, "doth," K> that Bmi4m=ib.K "cloth-ded," and it to be 
£:ig||lt«rikM &aai F*ydjm, the native name both for the Picta and fai Scotland. 
;':,r'''.'t.nHt Ae Scota were GaeU might peihapi be qneMioned; bnt that they 
i-f ^^piltt •Mr frn> tlw itoith of Ireland in comparatirel; recent timei ia bejrond 
I^^Mj^lMbb In tlw Tcry old, if not quite aaChentic, Canfatia of St Patrick 
'V.yji* Mi iiiilMilKi "nna bencdicta ScoU," and Ireland iUelf wai called 
'^i^^^t^^ltK-Sulitt M^ar, to diidnguiih it from Stttta Minar, i^. North 
ir ^Wii^ to WUA the name wu extended after the ScoU had icdaccd the I^cti. 







^ 5^6 



■ *«... 


<«BMMt> -Um 'iibMMMKnii^^^^^^H 


of G*^ nM»a is Ae Pktnh 
nHBD BO mtnih DM bsSB bnkt m: 
a»e Pictiih fcinff had Otatt: Moatf 
to find in the Fktiih Ibtt thoM 
the views of Ur Acne ud oAot 
lOoitK* of the Pkts. In my 
AiTuiied either in Genl or m B)ritfjah!<1 
Kymnc Kdts, and tfus seem to te 
gei^T^ihical nofaencUtiire, wfaeicdw 
pbooetic changes, may perii^M be.chw 
Tbua of aier and the equivalent 
01 esttuury, the forma- alone oocnn in 
Ireland', but both somewhat irregulailjr 
Scotland*, showing the presence and 
dements, as might be expected. But in 
(Iberus, Ein), and no imiir, from whicht 
allowed, it may be inferred that the Picta 
at all, and were Aryanised by the Biftidi tf' 
place alter the migration from Ganl, and 
Kdtic language spoken by them was not ' 
what modified phonetically in North 

This view accords completely with 
archaeological data supplied by such 
and Thtimam and Sir John Evans, and 
ethnical relations in the British Isles, as set 
Of these relations the most striking feature 
inexplicable uniformity in the shape of the 
EtfaDic Rt- ""^^^ rather long, more oval 
udoDB ia mean cephalic index (d 

falling below 76* or rising above 
more remarkable since Britain has been sui 

' lmLt:Tt.y\{it, Namer and their Hisloriti, 189S, 

' C. Btftckie, A Dictionary 0/ Plati-Namti, t 

poinled out that invtr \% " found Bometiniei at the 

ibe tame (iream. Thus! AitrgtUU vA Jm e r gs U it, 

■ Ptptdar Scimct Mtnlkly, Dec. 1897, p. 145 aq. 

sfsfn^) .amt cwcMoc viofuu. 

.j|||pJMi» niWMHientt, ia the New Sbuw A(e; ttibn «C,E|iehic 
llpiMh, coanacolr.calkd Kelts, in the Brouc pftioai pcMibb' M 
Uptjf.M Mwo BX-t Bdgse or proto-TeittoM auoewbat luar; 
A<BMiii *nd their legiooaiies of divene origiiu aboM the new 
^P^ttMKif-.-tad fatter Frisiuu, Sanmo, Angles and othen of Teil- 
ittmc s peec h , 1^ between 300 and 500 a.d. ; S can d m amae, chiefly 
JP j M t Md NwiMCiuia, of kindred apeech, 8th to loth eentiuy ; 
JtflWMB^ OMitily Noraemen Romanised in speech, nth centuiy, 
MMk Wondic arrivals from the mainland down to the preaent tine. 
.~i ;, Btt the fim two strata, A«. the men pf the Stone Afes, were btrtfa 
jJnOfJKaded. die .first exclusively so, the secood in i^tat-hmot 
0HfA'tMiOBty, our Picta being now identified with and RMHri> 
. ibfilhiTianir who^ as shown by Sergi, were a bisadi of 
. jlwhinthrsflrirl Mrrlitrrmnnm frnm ^frirs The tdotti^ indeed 
jt ftUBd beyond reasonable doubt by the &ct that these Neolitluc 
t^ikti tolonged all to the 80<alled long-banow period, and that 
■Jitmt laog banows, egg-shaped and often several hundred feet in 
1^ have yidded the remains of a singularly uniform type, 
y dolicho (nearly all welt under 80° and even as low aa 
jf^ md at the same dme c^ rather low stature (5 ft 5 to.), thus 
jtoaUfCnAmd exactly with Sergi's Mediterraneans'. The barrows, 
v^lpmnring chiefly in the south-west (Wilts, Gloucestershire, the 
JijUliiiiUl Hills, aod farther north), are shown to be <tf the Neo- 
-,>Jkj|ic Age 1^ their contents — polished stone implements, pottery, 
Ift^hpitf broose. It is further shown by Dr Ganoo that the men 
'•f^$iim peiiod were iq>read over the whole of Britain as far as the 
' iMMaM aorUi of Sa^and and the Orkne)-s'. 
^^^.^Tbt)' we succeeded in 'the Bronze Age by men of quite a 

\j hti Ur^rm y K. VtrtrHttaigda MUuilamluditnSUmmtt, 

'IcA liabe die Formeo aut den biitiichea Hiigelti [\iaa^ tMrrowi] 

mitleUiDdischeD vcrglicheD, ntid habe die chantkterii- 

nnd PaTtogali gefunden, wie lie bei Mugem sud in den 

Ttathni. Gritchenlmd*, tn Hiiurlik nad in Oitalnlu aaugegnban 

\, Nov. IS and is. 1894 ; tee al*o Bojrd Da^du, £0*-^ M4» im 
'HbHsiHi sttcb Chap. IX. " Hiitorical Evidence of Iberic and Cdtic Sacet in 
Sinia sad Gent," Fig. 111, p. 318. 

ii|^ tril<s*^4 

Mw Adlj 

powd dMt the Nea^iie taoe Jm* 4 

KcaSdoi dement mnrivet to 
fiKt it woidd appew to bsve 4i«i4f^ 
element before it «u idnftcced lat«r by '4 
"Thu bn»d4ieaded invason w tiw orif 41 
(dement ever craned the En^nh QmttUt^ 
to Affect the pbyncal type of tbe i 
infloence wu but tnniitoty ; die « 
disnpated ; for at die opening at die Ii 
the sepulchisd lemains, the eatlier [doliift 
ably abwrbed the new-Gomen*." 

Whence came these tall round-heub ? S 
would bring them fr«n Scandinavia, i 
somewhat puzzUng biachjr element botfa i 
cout of Norway and in Deomaric But b 
have apokeo some cariy Low Gennan dialect 
clear traces in the tribal and place names tiH 
that time Britain seems to have belonged ( 
of Keltic speech*, uor could there be any fe 

' NatHTt, Nov. ij and 11, 1894. 

' T. V. Holmei de*cribe> th«m u "talkr, 
ttpponUKCi with U^e frontil rinuiei ind iDpim.acfaindl 
bones u>d hov; jnwi" {Ntta on tit EvuUmet tiari\ 
1S66), *nd he quotci RollesLon (Brituk Barramt, p. 
roDnd-burow period almosl certainly presented mn 
of phjiical peculiuiliet as (he modem Finn and D« 
that the Bronze people were men liotn what ii 
and not Teutonic affinitiei'' (p. 5). But we now I 
Finiu west of the Gulf of Finland till quite Isle tin 
Still the qnertion is beset with difficulties, and the 
nndoubledljr to resemble those of the Daniih Ne<d 
do de Lapouge'i H. Alfinut, and much more than tl 

* Even the intruding BelgEe, referred toby Ck«u'( 
originally of Teutonic speech, Kem to have Mnn bM 

iWghJJ'liMUfcbart'Kclw lMt:«rf|Mr<MtkNA.^»Itif» 
iirgi^*iiiiilil>i >i,iiii to U* tlMt the SntHk p6dyl«>«M 

ma^MghrMiiyMya been aMw^litt hvM'OM 1»'ibb< 

Mhypmige aT ilte &««»% who uuigled Sttle widtte 
mmd left ftv tnew of their praeuee- in rbnMtlM«^' 
idi' «r type of the Brid^ popolKtitxM, s- it^SS: . 
uiibniwtioii was effected in tbeie n a p eett 
nnvLor the hittoricd Teutonic tribo. The Ibero-Kdtk' 
da ma perfaapa novbeie effiuied, but tmther thinned out 
MlAMiged mn of conquest and all their attendant evOa.' 
BBibcn tmdoabtedly mignted beyond the «eai, Kjony to 
^«id to Ireland thoae Gaels who had atill Ungcnd oa br 
The retidiie were now gradnally mo^ed with the 'i» 
in a eo^moo nationality of Eng^sh apeech, evetywhei* 
a die Kdtic fringe, which then, and long after, atiU fn^' 
Domwall and Cimiberiand. The Teutonic dement wn 
tjiffixatd by tite arrival of the Scandinaviam and Nonnaii% 
^■Rch of the same physical type, after which no seriooa 
aa were made to this composite ethnical groiip, which 
MHt' aide ranged unintermptedly from the Channel to 
DftiatM. Later the ezpaniioi) waa coottnoed nort h w ardi 
Ae' GnunpianB, and weatwards through Strathdyde to 
:*bile now the spread of education and the development 
doatria are already threatening to absorb the lost strong- 
Kymric and Gaelic speech in Wales, the Highlands, and 

ika to ita isolation in the extreme west, Ireland had been 
MKbed by some of the above described Bthnic r«- 
IDDvements. It is doubtful whether Pabeo- iMtou in 
n nrer leached this region, and but few 
4h! ronnd^ieads ranged so far west during the Bronze 
iMt prehistwic sutlon explored by Mr F. J. Bigger at 
Hiify near Rouadstone, Connemara, yielded several atone 
1^ bnt neither worked flints nor metal-ware', as if the 

1 /Vw. g. Ir.Atad. III. Hay \i^. 

<|— iiciM rt il ia ce i Bfcttwl 

MoMtriCT, Stdutr^ La ] 
tddge over ttie ^p betmni thf,* 
tribei from the conliBeBt Mlewtig 41 
aonkmtda^' Tliewpnqiki nuylmev 
pallBoUtbk typo, whilo «t the i 
fluesce of the Neolidik odtnteif 
Boudieni legioa The ntooiihtiig d 

oaltUK in the reinote ilUiid o& t 
tnted in Mr W. C Boritite's sumptiuMk « 
wonder, and indeed wontd be ineipUe^leill 
itntDense duntioa of the New Stone Age HI 

The Irish dolmen-builders wen f 
headed Iberian stock as those of &itaiit*, 
by Kelts of the Gaelic branch, many cf <i 
well have arrived before the close of tlie 1 
Kymry there appear to be but slight tf ■ 
those prehistoric rimes the intruders have b 
Continental and British Teutons; the fm 
who formed settlements at such feapofts t 
Cork, and Limerick, but were eventually- 1 
vigorous Gaelic aborigines*. And now aU idl 

■ Sta-mvaUfnm lie PalatlUkk Af lo'V 

■ Ttt Deinuiu e/^rdoHtl, 3 yoii., 169J. 

* They need not, however, h«Te cowe trwn 1 
Iiiih literature to direct immigration fixim Spain. [ 
MetooQumerouilobedisreeuiled. Thni.GeeA 
Bucleniibui [to the Basques] incolenda dunr" (. 
Giraldui Cambrensis:— "De GurguDlio Biyttmam I 
Bascleniesl in Hibeniiam transmisit el eand 
I am indebted to Mr Wentworth Webster for theM K 
19, 1895). 

' Not. hoverer, always without s struggle, > 
their acceptance of Christianity the Danes refund ta « 

p«lMtbtd H tb0 Mlatk TnMOi, Att it *f-'w^ 
" ittipMch 10 tbt Vio^iak Mtd LcnriMid Scoti^ itt< 
nm late in the tsdt <aauiiir, uidani . 
^MHx^iOlMr wuNd in Ulster, Ldnttet, and aU ths luge tovw. 
[ 'MttgfinA i«d lu^Uf poetic Iiiih Ungaaga, wUdi haa « copioitt 
r- .— iJwil' litcmtse deeply intciestug to folkkirista and fl««a 
^''4|toabgiata,kaa not I belkre been uaed foc.atricdy litanijrpar- 
1 fffMaince Ac (lanaUtioaa of Homer tad ot MoM*^ Mdo^M 
[ ll^Ae hM Archbiaht^ McHale of Tnam. 

■Um:-^ Soottmd iieir ethnical cbtogea or dii[daceiBcaCi have 
> 4IHtomt a»ce the two great political aettlementa, 
: imfty te Scottiah raDquuhing of ^be Picta, and g^jjj^"'"" 
T: '^tim-' by the Si^ish (An^c) occupation (tf the 
n, 'talhlani The Ckampiani have duricv historic timet 'focnod 
e"- llM iptim ethnical divide between the two eletnentt, and brockets 
;'■ Wkidi can be taken at a leap are shown where the of^tosila banks 
'-AMvJat husdiodi of yeais been respectively hekl by fbcmerty 
'~ !, bat now friendly communities of Gaelic and broad Scotdi 
Here (he chief intruders have been Norwegians, whose 
I nay still be recognised in Caithness, the Hebrides, 
:' rJ***!* Oikncy and Shetland groups. Faint echoes of the old 
iWoMsna loogue are said still to linger amon^t the sturdy Shat- 
JMtei^ wfaoae a s si m ilation to the dominant race began onfy aAer 
MMfeibMoiiBr from Norway to the Crown of Scotland. 
: '"T -We have bow all the elements needed to unravel the finical 
tm^ of the present inhabitants of the British Isles. 
Th«astonishing prevalence everywhere irf the mode- Mttdiiaii sr 
HMd^ dolicho heads is at once expUioed by the gjjj^y* 
jibw W Be «f biachy immigrantB except in the Bnmze 
■jfMait sod these could do no more than raise the cephalic index 
Apaa^wot 70 or 71 to the present mean of about 78. With the 
i^4||i|kftibaps kss stable characters the case is not always quite 
■ -fcWif*- .- 

tMA. On ^>pMil to Rome thej received ■ biibop of their own isce and 
rifcwlnt. wbtuee tbe curion* Act that to thi« day DnbUn i* tOmott the 
hp la Chrirtendom blened with two medieval Cuhedrali, St Patrick'! 
' ~~ ' ~ * r th* Iriih ud Chriilchuicli for the Dane*. Tb«M hafh^ both 
id" at the R^Mmation, a third bai bad to be erected lor tha 
d lojnd to the old faith. 

34— » 


«bu Inrienlr ma the tend. Tlw H 
IM ptriaqw tBOic nniDeraiit than tiktf-ia 
■hmyi in sfideoce where we dnakl I 
Mpedallr the poudou are lercnei^ A»'tt 
(CamMWght uk) Muniter), the IcM MB I 
(XJlaler wd Leituter), thoogh the iiltrnvu 
detaOi oa thii and eoaie ottier pont^-i 
technical, I must rafor the reader to Ripky,rii 
Rcfiorti of the Aiithr<q>oinetric CoawnttiM ^ 
tbm mattCTi syatematically by the Bcil 

Strange to tay, the dement that a 
the least change is the lacial tempetameat; • 
Kdt, mercnrial, passionate, vehcmeBt, i 
than sincere, voluble or eloquent, I 
qoidt-witted and brilliant lather than p 
bat easily depressed, hence lacking s 
old mwa na m mum a^idiaiwuu. The £ 
4 Saxon, stolid and solid, outwardly abni| 
tnie^ haughty and even ombeariog duoq^4 
lupertoiityi yet at heart sympathetic and ahn 
ruler of men ; seemingly dull or slcnr, yet p 
of philosophy and imagination (NewKm, S 

While the Saxon preTors duty to glaty, balk ■ 
with some of those qualities whid) make fcr fl 
penonal valour as distinguished from i iiiiiagii i 
spirit of daring enterprise sad a kne of a 
sake. Jwntly they have strug^ed to the fi 
our people some is miUioo square n 

> Thb <|Ulit7 ii no BOMpolj of the Sno^ ai 
K<hi.Md«^pcdsU]riWlnhu>d Sootch G*^ 

FoataMTi sad hir Md) Mum - - - 

.^TR* OAUOAnc ntopu&i 


It-^Tifcli Hnj ilMadr amdier, indidiai oditt dHncMfclft 

dg ■tifcuihUiiB to die AwuiiMtt met, ibMt 80 iBfllion*— 

^,'tfaiwl SWn, s in the Onadian DonriBHW, and 5 in 

iiMid SboA AfrioL Tbewiridi ^onrilBoBtbrthahaM* 

ame lao miUioni, enou^ pcHu^ tk 

I of hnman dotimea to m comperilt 

bomKf aow be defined with some kppraadi to meagatif 

Keho-teatons of Tentm {Eogluh) ipeedL Thn Eoglak 

tased sot detain ut Img. Iti qutlitiea) iHiu- 

L totfie noUett Ot all litentuieB, are patent to 

W iw ari d t- indaed have aaxsed fin- it from Jacob 

liMi dM title of Wm^radu, the " WoiM ^leech." 

t be mtic^ated from the northern wigin of the ToUoaic 
|4l||Meat in Biilain, to the Low Gennan divinoa of the Tentemc 
HBi^ tt the Ai7«n bmily. Despite extfeme pfenore from 
man. French, ctrntiDaed for over 900 yean (1066 — 1300), it 
K^^fnunned faithful to thia connection in iia inner itfwxitnt 
^iJltfcUrennb not a trace of Neo-Iatio inflnencea. The phonelte 
li baa nndeigonc piofbund diangea, which can be only m- 
y and to a amall extent due to Firench action. WhatEn^iih 
isnenoh and latin ia a very large number, many thouaanda, 
( /^|(»<fi^ni4% Bone auperadded to, aome aupenediog tbeir Saum 
M, bat altogether immensely increanng its wealth of 
D, while giving it a transitional position between the 
t rittrply contrasted Germanic and Romance worida. 
r 'Anongst the Romance peoples, that is, the French, Spaniards, 
i Italiana, Rumanians, many Swias and 
\ who were entirely asaimilated in apeech HaUnif*"^ 
° j|||til>H|,i(lj ill their civil inatitutions to their Roman 

1^ tBit paramount position, a sort of international hqemony. 
BB takm by the French nation since the decadence of Spain 
Jjljiljlji llii feeble successois of Philip 11. The constituent elemente 
]lMNwGaUo-R<xnans, as they may be called, are much the same 
i i^ifcd— of Ae British peoples, but diSer in their distribution and 
Thus the Iberians (Aquitani, Pictones, and 
r' Vwcbnes), who may be identified with the Neolithic long^ 
Hi w Mt fipear ever to have ranged much brther north than 
aiiq', aad were Aiyaoised in pre- Roman times by the P-speaking 


fkiaoftfi tad the piVMat 

b^MM tbc PjWDMIl 

Tbw the ficMer pan of >dK Ind; 
b«^ to Aa McdiUmuMMi, oOMiiMed ti1 
Ktlti of the Alpine type thRM^mit «i 
tbt vmAmq pronncet, ft^^ etonriMk- 
IJmwMi bid long-hcwled Ibe4uu ud 
ftHiAinnce of the Romaniwd Kehk 
ibMrpdon of the Teutonic intndtn, 
Fleming cection of the Belgi^ complete^ 
Romani befi>re the cloee ofnthe lotb ce 
the perhtpi itill more remeftoble fact 1 
Ktlled (911) under Rolloin Nomumdy werei 
men when e few generationi later they fa H o wM ^ 
<4 the conquest of Saxon England. ThW 
groupi have proved to be the un-~ 
and Kelts (Bretons), both of whom to this 
In Isolated comen of the country. 1A^* 
whole of France since the loss of Alsace-] 
in its speech a certain homogeoeous 
language {langut tt'oil^) being cunent 
and central provinces, while it is 
southern form [langtu tfac') still surmiig~i 
of limousin and Provence. 

' Ttwl U. theUnguageiwhoiemlfinittiTeswtnAa' 
(<t/) utd 4m- («r), the former banc a 
M wa tM in the very nuncs of the raipectl*« N4 
nmvtru md yHwfcrtiwrr. Il wMCimaMsryh 
pMges in tKii way, Duit«, for instuKe, oUliaf 
Ikn(u«8c of jw" i and, tlTanse to uj, tltc mbc 
the AuMnlwn kboncines who, hoireicr, ue 
MfatiM t«nict<S| so that we have here ■»• 

n£SJaoiDB)Ci|ttiutiaBatit7* '^Tali ■ 
■^/USta^li^ w ligtiMfaiowa cc4oi%.grer or Hai mffa^'-atSt^Jtr* ■■ 
■i|^tw«zpaixed,ii) i1m lUK^'thew bciivtnut»oaBiipMl 
dM pfriunmiftt'Bdgie, tks-pnnks of riw ITuiiiiiiiij^ 
CMoviogun etnpirv, and Rt^o'i Nonendi. WttD -tfiBBC ' 
,-#iiMaHt^ Am KnithaM ptbplai of thciirt stunre, (riiTfrbRnra Ma, 
kndi; dark farotruor bUck eyes and bair. The teadeocy 
vaafmrntf has pncaedcd br more niKdly In the utbM 
e nuai dutrietaJ Hence the citiieiis of Faiiii' Ijfoaa, 
ManeilleiaDd other lai^ towns, present fever and ^M 
[coDHaatk^kan the^nativea of the old hiatimcal prevftifM^ 
m atiU diitit^uhed the loquadoiu Mkd ■ffidaetoqa 
ihe pliant and Tcnatile faaqtte, the slov and waiy 
the dreatny and fanatical- Breton, the quidc and enter- 
the bright, intelligent, ntore even-tempered 
Touiaiae, a typical FrmdiiiHui occopjing the heart of 
j||te4aB^ and hewing, ai it were, the balance between all the 

'ptnTiUm as a whole the modem Frenchman standa- somewhat 
: betweM the aouthem and northern pei^lcs, 1^ 
t than the Teuton, more energetic than the ItaliaB, leas 
^I^MMBattr independent than the feiton. The moral sentiment 
ijlrnlpe defactiTC, u seen in the love of show and gl(^, which 
"fcibiWainly stronger than the sense of duty. On the ctther hand, 
[ Mkft wMc fjte&g is highly developed, while the purely inteOectual 
• are fitr above the average, as reflected in the sdentific 
r woric of the nation, and in the cultivated Ungnage* 
h'WiAia certain limits is almost an ideally perfect instnimeot 
I- tfto^it, although still suffering from the enfeebling 
»«f dM drawing-room and academical refinemenu of Bourbon 
Vbe French excel also in conversational powen, and in 
aining to taste, etiquette, tact, and the sodal 
, where brilliancy and ufiri/ find freer scope than 
3pi|b IflMM solid qualities of the reasoning faculty. It is note- 
f dwt France has produced few leaders of thought except 








ribomdj Wtdi 

MttdBMi vtA$f§ l6ii dftnfc' 

tM HBfimwBciit <if Ai6 Bugfiili^ 

ciaiiot be dauid to the Fieoch 
eeiuitflfiifiiie to the exlnvAAUioe ilmd^i 
hotiding their smell teviiigf» aad % 
the toididy tfaejr/beve made Fiiiioe;.0PN| 
in the worldi better able then mtM otheoii 
cetaatrophes and rise buoyandiy abeee 
disasters. Thanks to these qualities^ 
military spirit and love of conquest, the 
a leading part in the world's history Moei 
become an almost necessary element iai 
humanity. Yet the future would seem i^ 
although the present alarming arrest of 
symptoms of decadence may not be due 
upper in the lower strata alluded to abo^ 
far-reaching, and France would appeal fetf* 
outstripped in the race for the future 
amongst the cultured peoples of the globe V 
In Spain and Portugal we have again 

^^. Clements, but also again in 

apuiiardiMid differently distributed, widi 

rtuffiMM. proto-Phoenicians and later 

genians), Romans, Visigoths, Vandals, and 
Arabs. Here the Keltic-speaking round4ieadk' 
prehistoric times with the long-headed Medii 
fusion known to the ancients, who labelled it ** 
as in Britain, the other intruders were mostly 
striking result that the Peninsula presents 
same uniform cranial type as the British Itleti^ 
(76 to 79) and the mean (78) of the cephalie 

^ See my Article on the Eik$Mi^y 0fFirmm€€ ia 

i>P*>oa»&i *■ Tmvtt'mmi Sa tMrthMaMM 
l>«ii»<frani 4« origtaal 70 or. 7a » dae to tkfe mom 
■dingin the Ibere/nmtnM n BlHui, 
JBbadto-SmMcdxBigiBei cnaoed b]r Teatou in ^Mft, 
j| to be Bodoed Omt iriiile the ronnd-hckdod Roomum 
•DUfl pnrt in the insular donuun, they are extmnveljr 
.IB the PeninMila, tiie icvcne beii^ the cue ifiA 
^Hi^irMlottt. An equilibrinm and «iT&ce~ unifbnnkx are tima 
-: 'A» . fc , i; j.^ md Rii^ey ia right in ttatiiig that "^ avenge 
index of 78 ocean nowhere elie lo imiJ(Binl]> diatribuMl 
t'4llli BanqM" except in Nomy, and that thii uniformity "ia 4he 
and hidex of two reUtively pure, albeit widely 
ethnic types — Uedkerranean in Spain, Teutonic in 

ftp^^oAer reqwcu the social, one might almost ny the national, 

IIM^S are both ni«e numerous and perhaps even 

I tltn-^tmriiif discriminated in the Peninsula than o^JJji^*'- 

IWRuoek Bcsidea the Basques and Poitnguese, 

JlN^laOsr with a considemble strain of negro blood*, we have 

. -illMdl 1*17' distinct populations as the haughty and punctiliona 

[, iCwuili^Mi who under an outward show of pride and honour, are 

^ttiflMs tt much meanness ; the sprightly and vainglorions An- 

^hMaas, iriio hare been called the Gascons of Spain, yet of 

I g mwM iddrcM and seductive mannen ; the noroae and im- 

l (Blitra Hn'ciaas, indolent because btalists; the gay Valendana 

^ - l^MB to much dancing and rcveli>-, but also to sudden fits of 

■> iMidanaa nge, holding life so cheap that they will hire them- 

HInb out as assassins, and cut their bread with the blood-stained 

-■ iWfe'Of tbtb last victim ; die dull and supentitious Aragonese, also 

-. a||p!('to Idoodsbed, and so obdurate that they are said to " drive 

[ ^^^dfaSMwAiKTKM, p. 159. 

'"-'''^**tte Portagnete ki« much mixed with N^roet mote pacticnlariy In the 
iMitt^lHII aloDg the coMt. The ilive tnde enned long before the N^roei 

^ <f-4dna wen exported to the planuiiotit of America. Damilo <le Goet 
MtHMrttbeaamberofblaclu Imported into Lltbon aloDc dnring the itith 
WMaayai i^aeoar per mimuin. If contemporuTeje-iritiienescmii be 
iNiiedt the nuaber of bUdu met with in the tfieeti of Liibon equalled thu 
SfWwteM. Mot a houM bat had its negro lemnti, and the wealthy owned 
■ wtf »a pa gi of them " (Redui. i. p. 471). 







lUlu dUPOK uiRHt UPOB taCfli* D9l^' 

ofthetnifL Stripped of noHlf all 
hhowh nek upon thcflMdvci^ dic^ 
buriiiew of life and darote dieir 
thdr icfomcefid ooontrj, or dte 
varioos edinical groops are held looaa^ 
In Italj the past and preteiit trhniani^aatj 

Bdtek Kc- ^ ^^^ ^^ Seigi, aMjr ht- 
to After the firtt Stcme Age. of 
mdications than nugjit be 
was thickly settled by long-headed 
Africa in Neolithic times. These were later 
of like type from Gfeeoe, and by Illyrians of 
the Balkan Peninsula. Indeed K. PcakaV 
paradoxical theories, makes the Illyrians tibt 
Italy, as shown by the striking resembianoaviojir-; 
culture of ^Emilia with that of the Venetiaii 
dwellings. The recent finds in Bosnia alao^ 
proved (?) migration of the Siculi horn Upper II 
their Illyrian origin, all point in the same 

' Zur Palaoethnologii Mittel- u. Siideuropas in iHiii 
1897, p. 18. It should here be noted that in his HUtm^.^^ 
(18^) Dr Kretschmer connecu the inscriptions of dw 
and of the Messapians in the soath with the lUyrian 
he regards as Aryan intermediate between the Greek aad 
the present Albanian being a surviring member of U. £|i 
fomily Mr W. M. Lindsay would also include the **01d 
"believed to be the oldest inscriptions on Italian tofl. 
of the name Apdatos and the word meitim&n with die 
and Matinui is almost sufficient of itself to prove 
Illjrrian. Further the whole character of their langosfiv. 
kt Italic features, corresponds with what we know and wllS^' 
about the Illyrian family of languages " (Academy^ Oct*^%|»; 
here opened up which is likely to lead to good results. ^;. 





" ■ ■ -'WJ^I 





i^tMC^jied V the HeditenaBesna, bseturwc iad nwi 
ipiteidiraHen o( the lamc type*. 
J^Mb'CUB* tW peoirin of Arytn ipcech, Kdtt fttM tbc not^ 
4iill'«ad Oan fiom Ae Bottft-oot, boib Touod-hetda, lAo niwd 
jjiilliHillllli index ia the ooi^ where the bndiy demmti « 
IliikdFPMCD, stia greMlf ptcdomiastes but diminiihct iMnHf 
■(iiiUhiiMJi*. Th^ occui^ the whole of Umbria, whkh gt tet 
MttAted acnm Ae peninsuU from the Adriatic to the MeiKteti- 
HlMlBt lint wn later encroached opon t^ the iDtroding Etntacaw 
wm the veit side. Then also some of these Utnbriana, migntiflg 
■Willi ■■! ill to Latbra bejrond the Tiber, intcnnhigled, says Serg^ 
UMi At Italic (Ugurian) aborigines, and became the fiwnden of 
state. With the spread of the Roman aims the I^tlB 
w4ttch Se^ claims to be a kind of Aryanued Liguiian, 
ItatiUttt b« regarded as a tnte member of the Aryan flaaily in the 
MHe'^drMdy eq>laiBed (p. 513), was diffused tbroogfaout the whole 
tCfthft penaunla and islands, sweeping away all traces not only of 
: m ntiglnni Lignrian and other Meditemnean tongues, but also of 
~ and its own aister languages, such as Umbrian, Oscan, 

-I'lii-M Ac Ml of the empire the land was overrun by Ostrogoths, 
and other Teutons, none of whom fotmed permanent 
except the Longobards, who gave their name to the 
^■Mt Looibardy, but were themselves rapidly assimilated in ■ 
ifetdi and getteral culture to the surrounding populations, vrtKMn 
Mft nay now call Italians in the modem sense of the term. 
' When it is remembered that the JEgean culture had spread to 
ittfy at an early date, that it was continued under 
JMIanic influences by Etruscans and Umbrians, b^^. 
Ant iGreek aits and letters were planted on Italian 
mB'-(JAvm Gratia) before the foundation of Rome, that all these 

'••'^ jlrH*AUiei,p. 158 tq. 

' "U|nri e Pelugj fnroDO i primi abilatoii d'ltalia ; c Lifruri mnbra tUno 
iWI na Jn che oonpavRm la Valie del Po e conniuero le palaHtte, e Lignri 
fcm mrtlll 1 rnitinTtrri rlrllr ralafiHr inrrrrr- Meditcrranei tntti" (/». p. rjS). 

'. * S^rtayV dMut ihowa ■ range of from 8; in Piedmont to 76 sad 77 In 
COArlt, PngHs, tad Swdink, and 79 md nnder in Conica (T»e Kmm *f 


tbe mm, 1km *»-« 
qtodw never died on^ m 
«cN Am pcn>fltiHUd to tbe f 
die fiftfld Italiu people thet AqrhHlf ^ 
than »aj odten under die s 
inilqeocei. Tbe tesnlta, mring to HmO 
not been cndicly ntu&ctocy, noc kM 
been estabEihed between dte etfakad i 
and die rel^kma seotiinait The d 
ReoMcence Age, when the greet icvml«Cyi 
ft degnded (om of religion nDtoocbedi 
broni^t about, or at least was a«ociated m ~ 
of public morals. Hence peaaimiim, i 
mental diseaie of our timo^ has sounded | 
amongst the leaders of thought in' Italjr ti 
These "Latin Peoples," as they an e 
speak bmguages of the Ladn s 
»Si»u»,. to the West To die 
Portuguese, with tbe teas 
of Belgium and Romansch of Switzeiland, 1 
be associated the Sumamait cutrent ajnoiqfil II 
of so-called " Daco-Rumanians " in Moldavia ■ 
the modem kingdom of Rumania. The ■ 
is also spoken by the TiiiUsars or Ktit»-V\ 
Pindus districts in the Balkan Peninsula, i 
Rumanians who have in later times i 
They form a compact and vigorous nuionaS^iii 
descent from the Roman military colonists a 
Liower Danube by Trajan after his < 
{107 A.D.). But great difficulties attach to t 
is rejected by many ethnologists, especially on t 
after Trajan's time, Dacia was repeatedly twep 

' The Iiue name oT these southeni or M&cedo-Ri 
b)' UuElav Weigland {Clatia, lxxi. p. J4), : 
" Ronunt." TtitUiar, ICuttf- Vlact, etc we men 
known to tbeiT Macedonian (Bulgar and Gicek) 
Morfill in AeaJimj, July I, iSpji 

_■ ^ 


I CAUCAMC raoPUEtf S4i)i^^, 

V^nm,-liw-Anni MaQntn and other mde lioa|irio- 
lltonlHt fc w i d w nany abnaM ruder Slivie peoples duri^ 

.#*W*ii^ M l tex after the whbdnmd of the Rouub legionaiici 
Miivtta Lower Danube. Bendei, it is shown by Roeder^ and 
«lbM» tfaM under AureUan (157 a.d.) IHjan's colonistt wididnw 
SiMf' woaHanx&t to and beyond the Hemus to the tenitaijr 
•r th«-^ Bean (Thradami), le. die dirtrict stiU occupied I7 
4MI Haoedo-Rnmanians. But in the 13th centniy, during the 
tMAfc^ of Ae Bysxntine empire, most of these 'fugitives vert 
^|Ak<lMven north to their former seats beytmd the Danube, 
MMWA^ have ever since held their groood, and cooatibited 
flHHMlvei a diAtnct and &r from feeble branch of d>e Neo-Latin 
a M—W P h y. The IHndus, therefore, rather than the Carpathians, 
If Mr be taken as the hut area of dispersion of these valiant and 
descendants of the Daco'Romans. This seems the 
sohition of what A. D. Xenopol calk "an historic 
," ahbotq^ he himself rejects Roesler's condusions In 
^ IWottr^f tte aid view so dear to the national vanity of the presoit 
'4|Wwiaii peofde*. The composite character of the Rumanian 
/lMlliHg»*^ndanienta]ly Neo-Latia or rather early Italian, with 
.MlMi'flijnian (Albanian) and Slav aflfinities — would almost imidy 
ttM Dacia had never been Romanised under the empire and 
HiKi^ ftKt this region ^ns far the first time occupied by ito 
omance speaking inhabitants in the 13th century*. 
who r^ards the proto-Aryans as round-headed bar- 
tt Kchic, ^v, and Teutonic speech, makes Btbnic r*- 
_ in favour of the Hellenes. These alto J;*"" <» 

h, HllJH||C*Hce not as dvilisers, but rather as destroyers 
\ - it$<(iki'M»mm\i\iiii Hykenacan culture developed here, as in Italy, 

1^ ;*#&*■* ■■ 
^^■JbKitmhrirShiditm. Ldpdg, 1871. 
iw^KWtifwiwirfw* *» JfayCT Agt,faiHm. HiiD&Ivy, quoted by A. J. Patter- 
, Sfk-JMtasbitrv 8«^. 7, iSqj) «]*o thom that 'Tm • tbooiand jtm there it do 
' MMWlj^SHMkn of ■ L4lin or Romuice tpeaUng popaladon north of the 
- - 4^n^l4tw i» bdd b7 Dr L. lUthy, alw quoted b; Pkttcnon, and the tenn 
1^' |«li|a(ll«M»whtBeeWallachi4)appUedtoiheRiuiMiu«nibr 
' MtMtedl Hlgbboan p^t* in the tame dinction. 

mnind, and to MMoe extent '■ 
tbmaiL Thus, even the Gndi Ji 
«s • Q'pKsl member of tbe AifMLh 
■peakutg sn Aiyui, bat mther • ] 
locaUjr dereloped under Aryan ii 
itndentuid tbU put of ProC Seigi'i t 
wroi^ him. But to me he leem to o 
tMancbes of the Aryan lioguiatic trqe, the II 
M if diey bftd never existed, and b 
old Heditenanean tongues in Italy andQeMort) 
dements drKwn he does not say from what:« 
it must be either Keltic^ Slavic, or 1 
littTt are no others'. 

I do not read the facts in this wsy, bat m 
the process, and r^ard the Greelt language, agjll 
locally developed, but modified by Fdavc i 
less extent than the sister toi^e has been i 
Ligurian influences. Hence it is that Latii^ U^r 
have diverged much farther than baa c 
parent Aryan stem. 

It may, on the other hand, be allowed thatM 

Hellenes were less civilised diao i 

HdiuM*. whom they imposed their Aiyaa | 

and when c:ame theyP By ', 

the Baldc lands would be the original bo 

the Germanic branch but of all the Aryans A« | 

. is located in the Oder basin between the Elbe § 

As the Doric, doubtless the last Greek irrupt 

' He a.y», for insUnce, "dasi ilie wahren Ur-Aner vm i 
voo Kcllen, SUven und SuddeuiKb«nd>TeeitElll wetdai; 
Aritm ktin ilaliickti und itiH htlirmischti VMgai,yhityVii 
LtnguiatcD angcDiiminen wir<l.,,Die beiden gra 
tueiniiche und die gricchische, sind cine ipUcre 
lieten dn mittelliiivliKben Elemcnlei hetvorgetMBcht" (< 

> MUl. Wim*r Aitihrop. Ca. 1S97, p. iB. 


^^HRI^' ' 


raa cAUOABic nopLSs. 

1149 *c. 
BSf be dited haxk tD tfact 

gr Ji. i yfc 'tf 'iT ' 

■ ;.'.faiH>Hfc** I Wlttrnw wignted fam Cenmd EunqM to Grawe, Ae 
r^jfpM'^ the iraena ethnk diqter^ wu alrew^ ctoed, 
' ^ilMuAa oigMatj period whidk next followed begin wiUt the 
i, «Dd WM cODtiiiued by the Itxli, GmiIi, Gemums, ttC 
I created by this view ue iiuunitountable. That 
iM;4fa«rid have to luppote that from thk rel^vely contracted 
Jtirfnm cndk conntlew tribes awaimed over Europe since the 
-^ftmtUtaif B.C., ipeikit^ profoundly diSi!rent Utnyuagee (Gredt, 
.Siddck Latia, etc.), all diffoentiated since that time on the shoies 
«Cflfae .Bihic lite proto-Aryans with their already specialised 
-mmfoM had readied the shores of the Meditemnean long beiue 
e^ «od acc<»ding to Haspoo', were known to the Egyptians 
of tte Jth dynasty (3990 — 3804B.C.) if not evlier. Allowing that 
i may have rather been pre-Heltenes (P e lasgia n s), we still 
know that the Adueans had traditionally arrived ahont 1150 B.C. 
Mid tb^ were already speaking the language of Homn:. As far 
trn'OSt- ba judged from their respective languages, a most valuable 
a in questions ctf or^ns, the proto-Hellenes were in closer 
net with the proto-Iranians before the diiperrion than with 
■impean Aryans. Hence they probably reached the Balkan 
■aula and Greece, not from N<»th or Central Europe, but 
I Ae Iranian uplands through Asia Minor, where Hommel 
B'Uond and blue-eyed Aryans referred to ia the Tell el- 

'Mi'.bidetd J think we may safely say that no Acbseans, or any 

iillnc^piMO- Hellenes, could have come from the Baltic Uod& 
I . - -'^|M*r tetber bade the migration is dated, the nearer will their 

- IftlKh appi n ■ iinate to the Aryan mother tongue, and conseqnendy 
. .'.|g^j^ ftuther removed from the Teuignic, which nevmhelen 

.«|MMrKag to MiillenhofT was already highly specialised about 

I. f^feiOftAC^ Hence the Greek of that period must have differed 

■:^:,^jllMttltMif fr<(»n the Germanic. And even if we go further back 

'./^w'Bltf*liffationperiod(i3thcenturyB.c as is assumed), then the 

'-(BPwit-M' *>U *^ ^ S^^^ ^^^ ^^° branches having all along 

1 DmoH ^ CmluaHmt, p. 391. 


PijJPiH'-l-i"|il '. "" 9 '1-11'"..' ^".'-'I'lPi 


Vlt hisrti «R l]Mi#« at «r aboMril 
UM, dK cKMtict wMt of dw V 

Hie dfflicahj a ■ 
XtsUcgraupi, iboa 

icguMt and aboot dw a 
.J^i*St' •UK, the Lhhtwiiiiii t 

been made, . 
locdced fiat the aichak c 
sumves in two tents (Uthiu 
and neighboaring district^ u dututodyof-kj^ 
has no particuUr bearing on the qocMNB'* 
nothing except that, owing to load c 
of Slavonic speech has persisted in the i 
almost expect to find it. I cannot see thatl 
on Airao and still less on Hellenic orpins, b 
with Slav migrations, of which presently. 

It is evident from the national traditiai 
did not arrive en bloc, but rather at intervals 41 41 
hostile bands bearing different i 
Aclueans, Danai, Argians, Doiopes, Myi 
many others, some of which were alto found ii|^ 
not in the Baltic lands — retained a strong si 
origin. The sentiment, which may be called > 
national, received ultimate expression i 
extended the collective name of Hellenes (Sc 
that is, descendants of Deucalion's son 1 
.<€olus and Dorus, and grandson Ion, were a 
progenitors of the Cohans, Dorians, an 
traditions are merely reminiscences of time* 

' For imluce, (he two phonetic sTitems diSmd Ml»k ,, 
Teutonic bad ■ well-developed sc«]e of louad-ihiftinf pac^l^4 
leaned on ihe eoatmj towards ihe Keltic P and Q m 
■ee in nich varianti as tivaixptt, rlaapti ; vAi, nAi, etc. ii 
r, ■) represent an oi;guiic f. But the shifk in Gnek wM m 
UDdeieloped, all the changes occurring even within tlw • 
go much by noimal internal evolution, as by oi 
instance, with proto-Gaels and proto-Kymij in Asia I 
peninsula (lee above). 

::^K$0i] "nv -GAUcii^c pion.n. $4$ 

'fH/mriwm ^ pnmuted, ud k nuy be tidwn for putttd tiMdK 
;ii|lM»-.WMia . h w ia c fcw <tf tbe Hdiesic stock did not qiriiqi tea* 
^^■■^nhr'&nSr that row to power in companttr^ ncent tiaaM 
iHflw- "Btemlmx district of Fhdiiotis. Whatenr tmtii nnjr Hi 
iHMid the HeUetuc Icgead, it is highly probsUe tbst, M the tmie 
vlimi' BeUeo is said to have flourislwd (abour 1500 b.cX the 
J^qt»tpe>3ua$ com mun iti es irf Thessalr, Arcadia, BcBotia, An 
ifOR^^Uied Dorians (tf Phocea, Aigos, and I^conta, and the 
Hl^ws <tf Attica, bad already been clearly qtedalised, had in 
' fKt^fyrmed q>ectal groups before entering Greece. 
- X^Mpt their dialects, after acquiring a certain polish t^^^^!^ 
r mil 4e«vu% some imperishable recOTds at the 
■, OMBy-sided Greek geniiu, were gradually merged in Ae litenujr , 
[- NsihlMiiG or Attic, which thus became the nwif fia^Xwcroc, or 
'f 4Vmt q>eech of the Greek world. 

r. , • AduiiaUe al^ for its manifold apdtudes and sur[nising vitality, 
Ibe lai^uage of Aeschylus, Thucydides, and the other great 
ftlfcrnisni outlived all the vicissitudes of the Bysantine empire, 
ibtnag which it was for a time banished &om southern &eece^ 
mid tma still survives, although in a somewhat degraded form, in 
tlWiRomuc or Neo-Helleuic tongue of modem Hellas. Romaiq 
-^r^mSM which recalls a time when the Bysantines warn 
^HNVB-M "Romans" throughout the East, differs far less from 
^^Hifilasncal standard than do any of the Romance tongues frtun 
''^Mttt Siaot the restoration of Greek independence great eflforts 
^•rttboHi made to revive the old language in all its purity, and 
^iMVW'Biodem miters now compose in a style differing little from 
ilHlKiof the classic period. 

^:g'.^f0tilb» Hdlenic race itself has almost perished on the main- 
Traces of the old Greek type have been detected by 
and others, especially amongst the women of Patras 
But within living memory Attica was still an 
.- ,_^„__ land, and Fallrocrayer has conclusively shown that the 
- -JKHklMBDesiis and adjacent districts had become thoroughly 

[ the 6th and 7th centuries'. " tor many cen- 
"writes the careful Roesler, "the Greek peninsula served 
Gr Ar BtttiMul Mtrta, Stattgort 1830. See alio G. Fiatay't 
W, and the Anthraf. Rto. 1B68, vi. p. 1 54. 






immipitiop ftod the Aithifiiliyi iliii# 

nu, Slsr, ItaMaa, T^iilai^ 

kwe in moden Greece alKad^ bMMM' 

kiiieed, at le«M in apetch. 

^>peui to have m nri v ed in die Twooafo' 

Tbe Gredc bngiuge h« 

Itai^, Sidly, Sriia,uid die greater part of' 

where it was long dominanL 

To undentand tbe appearance of 
«,_. ** ""*'* 8° b"** to the 
bable cradle of these 
Here diey are generally identified with 
already before tbe dawn ol histoty were in 
Rtmian [dalns between the Scytbimns 
protMjermaDic tribes before their nrigntioir 
But even at that time, before tbe dose of Af 
must have been intenninglings, if not 
almost certainly with the eastern Scydnam, 
the generally vague character of the 
writers both to tbe Sarmatians and the 
seem to be indistinguishable from savage 
others are represented as semi-cultured 
of the Bronze period might have been roand 
Olbia and the other early Mileiian 
■bores of the Euxine. 

Owing to these early crossings Andr^ 
aay that " there is no Slav race'," but only 
or less pure types, more or less crossed, 
same language, who later received the na 
prehistoric tribe of SattHaHtms, and 

' KomanixMi Shiditn. ' ' - 

■ Btd. See. J'Antknif. 1896, p. 351 1^ 


gir IsBgugt tai my Aol ogJi, oMrtiinUi 
t TMt region near Innia w ttwpriaMvd 
the AUtv, u of the Kdtic and GentMak pi^KilMioiis. 
or Samutte of Hciodotua*, who had ginn Am 
dM.tHHa ot Slav or Slavoniaed people^ adD dvalt Mrtb 
iDoiaua and aoutb of the ^atfiiw between the Caapiaiv t)M 
8es of Asor: "after cnaung the Taaais (Don) we a* 
IB S^tim; we begin to entn the tanda 
-$1^ I w w oina tK , who, muring from the angle of ^Sna?"' 
(Sea of Azov), occupy a space <4 
''l^v4l^ mai^ whoe are neither trees, firuit-trees, nor Mvagtn. 
jfltoam the tract Eillen to them the Budini occupy another dittikt; 
«Uch ia ovogrown with all kinds of trees'." Then Herodotat 
itMH to identify these Sarmatians with the Scythiuu, irtience all 
it doubts and confusion. Both spoke tiie same 
of which seven distinct dialects aie mentioned, yet a 
IJiWliii of personal names preserved by the Greeks have a certam 
iNMk look, so that these Scythian tongues seem to have been 
nrify Aryan, forming a transition between the Asiatic and the 
branches of the fiunily. It could scarcely be other- 
fisr the Scythians, that is, the still generaUsed Tento-Slav 
h«d about looo years (probably we should now say 3000 or 
r.t|foo^ before the invasion of Darius been driven by the Masssgetc 
At Oxus basin, where some place the home ot Aryaa 
They claimed to be the youngest of nations, saya 

s Ct SuMkiit fraraj, Gt. xXfcf (root Urn, fm). By ■ ton of gOm 

an "ilave" in Die W«tt, owing to the amU- 

f- Ifimill SI*** c^Moied and en*l«ved daring the mcdieral border waifiue. 

r, .lai <he ton it bj '"^y referred to the root ii9t», word, speech, implyiim a 

I: jPMpls-of Inldl^ble uttetance, tuid tbit U tvpported bf the form Slffvtmt 

•iealitag ia Nenor and itill borne hj a lonthero Slav gronp. 

; . » rt. 41. 

k ' •^-♦.Tfcaae Badiwi are deacribed ai a large nation with "t cm a ii a b ly blue eyes 
.-itt^'t^ hak," on lAich account Zaboiowtki thinki they ma; hare bem 
nofdiepreMfit rinni. But ihejp ma; alio very well have been belated 
li left behind b; the bod; of the nation «■ routt for their new 

a ^kmg,T3UBBibitimrfUuAfya»^ 1897,00 lUa 


tht-Cw^n, and down thfi gnUmarv 

B«A SUv ■nd Genaatiic trOiM Mt|i 
pcMtrtted ap the Danube and ifae 1 
temer uadn tbe name of l#%«A Qfmm^^ 
to have nached die Adriatic and dM^f 
one hand, and on the other dw Baltic ■ 
tho* envdoping and preasing westwaidtibcir j| 
foreiuiuienL The movement wai < 
times, when great overlappings'took pl«o 
^v tribes, some still knoini as Wends, oti 
CAtMs, ranged over central Europe to 1 
tbe Upper Kibe to Su&bia. Moat of thes 
tonised, but a few of the Poiais^ survive aa^S 
and SaxoQ Lausatz, while the Chekhs and J 
ground in Bohemifband Moravia, as the JVit4 
the Vistula valley, and the Rusniakt at jfttfMwiJn 
allied "Little Russians," in the Caipathiana, G 
It was from the Carpathian* lands that i 
Slavs ("Southern Slavs") iriio, n 
■L™*"'^"' name of Sorbs (Serbs, ServiansXo 
beyond the Danube, and overran a 
Balkan peninsula and nearly the whole of Gfcecwji 
7th centuries. They were the Khorvats* 
upland valleys of the Oder and Vistula, whom, f 
wars, Heradius invited to settle in the wasted p 
the Danube, hoping, as Nadir Shah did lata *i4^ii 
Khor-dsan, to make them a northern bulwark ct d 
the incursions of the Avars and other Mon( 
Thus was formed the first permanent settleiM^ t 
Slavs in Croatia, Istria, Dalmatia, Bosnia, and t^ | 

■ Thai is, the Elbe Slaves, fram^=b7, near, utdX 
(Ponennknt), "bylhe Se«"; Bonisiw, Poninu, FRarfi^ 
bj the PfutMt, m branch of the LithoiuiiMis GermaniMd to 4 

* Carpatk, Kkrebai, Khorvat are all the tan 
mountaiiu, hence not siHctly an ethnic tenn, although atp 
CrfMa at CrcoHant, a coosideiable tectimi of l" 


4ldi'0«i:vaAet the lire brothen Kluku, Lobo), Koteotw^ Uttl^ 
'' WtA tSmbU, with theii sisters Tiqpl tnd Bnga. ThMt wtn 
ftttiwd by the kmdred Sip (S«fo) tribei from the Elbe, irito left 
idfilir homes in Hisnia and LusUia, ud received at thew patri- 
■Hkm my tiie whole rt^on between Macedonia and Epims, Dardania, 
Upper Moesia, the Dacia of Aurelian, and Illyria, i.e. Bosoia and 
SiNia. The Lover Danube was at the same time occupied l^ 
^dic SnHmuts. "Seren Nations," also Slavs, who leached to the 
tOM of the Hemus beyond the present Varna. Nothing coold 
ateib this great Slav inundation, which soon overflowed into 
Kacedonia (Rumelia), Thessaly, and Peloponnesus, so that for a 
tidW nearly the whole of the Balkan lands, from the Daanbe to 
the Mediterranean, became a Slav domain — parts of Illyria and 
1^>inu (Albania) with the Greek districu about Cooitantinc^k 
tieat excepted. 

Hellaa, as above seen, has recovered itsdf, and the A 
direct descendants of the ancient Illyrians, still hold 
tbeir ground and keep alive the last echoes of the 
old lUyrian language, whidi was almost certainly a 
proto-Aryan form of speech probably intermediate, as above- 
mentioned, between the Italic and Hellenic branches. They even 
Ictna the old tribal system, so that there are not only two main 
.^actions, the northern GJi^ and the southern TtnAJtt, but each 
- «ectkm is divided into a number o( minor groups', such as the 
Mllliesora (Klementi, Pulati, Hott, etc) and Mirditei (Dibri, 
iFandi, Matia, etc) in the north, and the Toxidea (whence Toshk) 
and the Yapides (Lapides) in the south. The southerners are 
Biatnly Orthodox Greeks, and in other respects half-Helleniied 
^imotes, the northerners partly Moslem and partly Roman 

* That it, "Highludert" (root aJi, alp, height, hill). From AlkattUtt 
' ftrogh the Bjauilioe Arvattila come* the Turki»h ArmuU, while the nrntionU 

•am S^ttar h» preciielj the lame meaning (root tHp, utf, m in tibrtXti, 
teopriH, diff. oag). Thiu the veiy notnencUtore ifaom Ilmlo-Hcllenic and 
•na Kdtic (aA) Tclatiom. 

* There are abool twenty of theie fhis or fkar (phratries) amongit the 
'Chep. and the pnctlee of exogimous marriage still unrriTet amongit (he Mir- 
dltt* NOth of the Drin, who, allhoagh Catholici, uck their wiva imonpl the 

g ho«tUe Turkith utd Mohunmadan Ghcg popuUtiona. 

ehllAliM of Oe Xjuitt iltk 
•AiNnt«»a who, iA«r tbc dmHk (ni^ 
e^org* QtMfiote < JianMMi«i 
TvrklA oppmstoD and fonoed 
in Cikbiu ud Skalr, and MBI rH4*< 
tioiu. cr 

Ib tbeir origiiiftl homes, located bf-t 
.and the Dsieper, Ow StH^hl 

»^ ,n, from the fierce It 

bjr which the eastcni et e pp w 9 
for over 1500 years after the buildiligof AtfiC 
in tecoU histoiic times displayed a 
second only to that ot the British p 
Uttle, and White Riiuians), whose polidaU « 
continuously from the Baltic to the Facific, h 
liearly all the Mongol elements in 'l 
compact settlements in Caucasia and 1 
thrown otT numerous pioneer groups of c 
highways of trade and migration, and dcwft'V 
arteries between the Ob and the Amor e 
collectively over 100 millions, and as 1 
9 million square miles is more compact than ti 
peoples, while they are themselves apporcn^^ 
some thoughtful observers have feared lest s 
Scare" may be followed by a very real ] 
"terror" may come, but will subside, 1 
economic reasons which cannot here be d 
raised on a baseless fabric. 

Nor need we be detained by the controrcny.'il 
between Sergi and Zaboiowski 1 

oS^^ historic spread of the MediM 
Russia'. The skulls from : 
ICurgans, identified by Sergi with his Medite 
not been sufficiently determined as to date or c 
decide the question, while their dolicho shape ^"^^ 
to the Mediterraneans and to the proto-Ai 

■ Bui. Sfft. d'Autkr^. vn. 1896. 

xni^': . . Tm caucasi c raon«& SS^ 

^Smm>^ Vn^'- To tbU <ta^ -^ pme-aan H* sOttM^tir 
Zdwrowrici uid muiy othen*, skbough tbe |X«MBt 8t*v» an all 
j^jH antf ly tooad-bewled Kiplej isks, xboaat in dcqwiri vkat U 
j^ t>c ioae witb the preiait SUv eleoMiit, mkI dcddea to i^qdy 
^,.^ tens jE'mim Alfitnu to this broad^bcfded group wherever it 
ocean, whether OB mouotaioi or plains, in the west or in the 

We are beset by tlie ume difficulties as we pus with ^ 
Qutit of tbe Caucuus into the Iranian and Indian ' 

.^mnains of the pcoto-Aiyan peoples. These Ossets, 
.|rtK> we tbe only aborigines of Aryan speech in Caucasia, ai« \ij 
Jbiborowski* ideittified with the Alans, who are already raentioned 
in. ^bt tst century a.i>. and were Scythians <tf Iranian speeds 
llkada, mixed with Medes, and perhaps descendants of the .Msswi 
fgOtt- We know from history that ^e Goths and Al«is became 
i^kwdy noited, and it may be fiom the Goths tbat'the Osntt 
il)«sceadants of the Alans (some- still call themselves Akitt) 
Inroed to brew beer. Elsewhere' Zaborowski reptesenta the 
^Ossets as (^ European origin, till lately for the most part bkmds, 
thou^ now showing many Scythian traits. But they are not 
physically Iranians "despite the Iranian and Asiatic origin of 
.ttwir language," as shown by Max Kowalewsky*. On the whole, 
tiwrcfore, the OsseU may be taken as originally blond Europeso, 
(doady blended with Scythians, and later with the othn modern 
Ceucasas peoples, who are mostly brown brachys. But Erqest 
phantre' allies these groups to their brown and brachy Tatar 

' . .' ■ Htace Virehow (Meeting Gcr. Anthrop. Soc 1S97) dtcbnd thU tlw 
MtMt and dnntioa of Ihe Slav cncroachmeDU in Gennmn tanitofj conUI not 
ytt dcUmincd bf tbe old *kulU, becwue it ia impattible to M7 whclhet ■ ginn 
sk«ll b Slav or not 
. * Sqnriallr Lnbor Niederle, Tor whom the proto-Slan mre mtqaertiotMblj 
1 biondi like the TentoDi, aithoogh he admitt that nnuid iknlb 
D of old date, and ptacticallf f[ivea ap the attempt to acconat for Ibe 
nodetn Slav. Have we here a phjiiological pbenomcDan on 
t ytrf luge icalc, luch ■■ that indicated bj Prof. Macaliucr? 

* n« /tatial Gt^nfky ef Smvft, in Paptiar Stitnet Afon/hlf. Jane, 1897. 

* SmI. Sk. iAnihrvp. 1896, p. 81 iq. 

* Bid. Sk. rXntkrvf. 1894, p. 3*. 

* OmU Cttmmitr OisHMUn, 1893. 

. .. ' QsoMd It UJUt7. Lii Afytmt etc. p. 11. 



S0 KAN: M 

l^lmmi, — d daoiei flat tte< 
OflnRuk nuBicimiiU mtb Cuca^'" 
We Iwvc flienfoce to the CiMilMt'lliJ 


sbor^tnee, munly of dc I. 

aU except die Onets tpeiUlt|!l) 
of non-Aiyan itock'luigiuget. Fhiik)ki8ii|ft;|l 
time hard at woil in this Uaguittic « 
languaget" of the eaity Arabo-PerHm i 
reducing the number of independent | 
tnceable to a liogle item itill diSer Ml 
other that they are practically so many ■ 
distinct families the more important mnv- 
•onthem slopes, comprising the historkd i 
•mce the 5th century, the Mingrelian, I 
and many others; the Chtrhat (CircaaslaB), A^.a 
JCaiart/ of the Western and Central Caoctau; 
Ltsg/aan, the Andi, the Ude, the Kubaehi and / 
i.e. the Eastern Caucasus. Where did dm- 1 
come from P We know that 3500 yean ago tlMfy 
much the same as at present, because 1 
scores of languages current in the port of I 
time. If therefore the aborigines are the "B 
plains," they must have been swept up long \ 
period. Did they bring their difierent langnagjUjif 
were these specialised in their new uphmd I; 
sideration that an open environment makes 4p#^ 
secluded upland valleys for diversity, seems greal^'ltt 
latter assumption, which is further strei^tbetrt^'-l' 
established fact that, although there are few traces iq 
lithic epoch, the Caucasus was somewhat thick^,^ 
the New Stone Age. These highlanders need ODtvi 
regarded as sweepings, but rather as true abc 
descendants of the round-headed race of Alpine ( 
who had spread from North Africa in Neolithic ti 
and Western Asia. Bearing in mind the immens 
of the New Stone Age, we see at once that this 1 
time for the development of these non-Aryan a 



3tIV,] -niB CAOCASIC IiEOBLEa 553 

^t ip e«c i b ia « rq|ion so fiiTounble to SBch ipecuUMtion u die 

OoBiing mto Innia we are at once confroDted with totellf 
xBffiere&t coaditioiu. Pen- the ethooioptt thia region 
comprisa, boidei the tableUnd between the llgris h^SkM. 
and Iitdu% both alopea of the Hindtt-KuBh, and 
tiie Fatntr, with the bplanda bounded aoutb and noitilt bf the 
ti^^'eotiiKs of the Oxna and the Sfdarjra. Overlooking hrtar 
Hoagol^-Turki encroachments, a geoeni rarvey will, I think, 
riiow that from die earliest timet tbt whole of this region has 
Conned part of the Caucatic domain ; that the balk of die indi- 
genoui populationi must hare belonged to the dark, rotind'headed 
Alpine type .: that theae, still found in compact manes in many 
I^aces, were appaiendy conquered, but certainly Aryanised In 
speech, in very remote prehistoric times by long-headed Uood 
Aryans of the Irahic and Galchic branches, who arrived in large 
noiuben from the contiguous Eurasian steppe, mii^led generally 
with the brachy aborigines, but also kept aloof in several districts, 
where they still survive with more or less modified proto-Aryan 
features. Thus we are at once ttmtk by the remarkable fact that 
absofaite uniformity of speech, always apart from late Mong<ri 
nrtnutons, has prevailed during the historic period throoghont 
Xiuua, which has been in this respect as completely Aryanised as 
Biuope itself; and further, that all current Aryan tongues, with 
■pai»pi oae trifling exception', are members either of the Iranic 

* tt ihodld periutpt be »t«led thai R. von Ercken IJUt SfnuAm da Xam- 
imtitHim SMmmtt, VknnB, 1S95) diinu to lure reduced all the non- Aijaa 
IsmaM of Ibe Caacuu to odc itock with 3 nmo diriiioiu : Gaotpan ; Cber- 
hpB irilh Abkhuian; utd ljtif^o»a with Cheeheni. "Ei c^iebt ach cine 
t Unprang aller dieten Spnclien." Bat this doa not help w 
g the diTcrgencei tit lo giCkt M to leave the primordial unit)' 
» than * hj^hent, pocMble in itMlf, but no longer capable of philo- 
■1 pmoti Nobody can be convinced by the anthor'i procciiei. 
■ The YagmH of the river of like oane, an afflnent of (he Zerafthao ; yet 
MsMstkowi lexical afBnitiei with Iranic, while its itrocture seemi to connect 
tvitt IiailBer^ Kajnna and Biddulph's Bamh, a noo- Aryan (ongne corrent in 
I, VaHn, Hunia and Nagar, whose inhabitanti are regarded by Biddnlph 
dMMadant* of the Yu^-chi. The Yagnola themselvei, however, are di>' 
Sdy Alpinea, Mntewhat ihort, very hirsute and brown, with broad &ee, 
IslMadiaadaSavoyaid expression. They have the curious custom of nevei 


SI4 . ' HUT::: nsx JdiSfH 

«r ^ GriAio tmcb of Oh fiiai^p : 
tftM ntber lingnktic than ettaie t 
|Ailirio^ alwrnj* koowt wbtf ii ■ 
white the anthnqwlogin n immMb Mi^ 
conceptitm of an Irankn, irim o^biM 
or a roaod-headed A^tine. Hen < 
rcMrving the historic name of PsK 
priting all the Alpinei tindtf the. a 
kDowD naroe of Tajiks. 

Khaaikoff hu shown that thew Tl^a 
tb«w *!*"''«" •*> aacieirt Inbi. i. 

of the w«att m w^ ■• |» 4 
in the east, both of dolicho tjrpe, die. I 
But almost everywhere the sedentary andii 
are cdled Tajiks, and are spoken of aa i 
■oMik', "of Persian speech," or else J)Ht4K*gH 
all being mainly husbandmen "of Pen 
They form endless tribal, or at least wtda^ | 
somewhat aloof from their )xoto-AryaB c 
the east especially, the ethnic fusion is &r I 
various sections of the community being ftiHil 
than fused in a single nationality. When' '1 
differences is adrled the tribal system stiU ■ 
amongst the intnidii^ i 
how impossible it is yet I 
nation, but only of hetcn^eneous masse 
by the paramount tribe — at present the J 

The Tajiks are first mentitmed by Her 
are identified by Hammer and Khanikoff Witb 4 

cutting bul •Iwtys bretking their br««d, the um of the to 
the price of flour. 

' ZoMh, tongue, luiguige. 

> Dik, Jtk, yJUige. 

' H. W«lter, Frvm Indus le Tigtit, p. i6. Of COM 
only to the Tijilu oi the pUteau ( Persia, A^hutiitan). 
he knew nothing: nor indeed is the diilinctiiHi ercn J«t4| 
Etin^iesn ethnologists. 

* 111. 91. 

> Even Ptolemjr'i Wffix" ■p|)«)U' to be the « 

J. Klinc VV< 
(Dnrldian Type.) 

Igor ROTE, Luzon I. 
(Indonesian Type-) 





mom tOBoaoalr divided ioto Lowlasd, and Higfaland or Hill Ta jk% 
ot whom Ae former were tlwajrs PmivAn, whenu the HiH Tijiks 
did not originally speak Peniaa at all, but, at many Kill do, ■* 
iBdepeadent sister language called Galchic, current in the Pamit; 
Zerabhan and Sir-darya uplands, and bedding a somewhat int«r- 
mediate position between the Iranvc and Iodic branches 

This terra Galcha, although new to science, has loi^ been 
applied to the Aryans of the Pamir valleys, being 
identified with the CekitHsas popmli c€ the lay Jesuit 
Benedict Goes, iriio crossed the Pamir in r6o3, and describes 
diera as " of light hair and beard like the Belgians." Meyendoiff 
also oOis those of Zeia&han " Eastern Persians, Galdii, Gakhas." 
The word has been explained to mean "the hungry raven wbo 
has withdrawn to the mountains," probably in reference to those 
Lowland Tajiks who took refuge in the uplands from the pr»- 
dstory Turki hordes. But it is no doubt the Persian tpUehtk, 
a peasant ot clown, then a vagabond, etc., whence gakhagi. 

As shown by J. Biddulph', the tribes of Galchic speech range 
over both slopes of the Hindu-Kush, comprising the natives of 
Sarakol, Wakhan, Shignan, Munjan (with the Yidoks of the Upper 
Liid-kbo or Chitral river), Sanglich, and Ishkashim. To these he 
is inclined to add the Pakhpus and the Shakshus of the Upper 
Yarkand-darya, as well as those of the Kocha valley, with whom 
Bpnst now also be included the Zerafshan Galchas (Maghians, 
Kshtuts, Falghars, Machas and Fans), but not the Yagnobis. All 
these form also one ethnic group of Alpine type, with whom on 
iingnistic grounds Biddulph also includes two other groups, the 
Kbos of Chitral with the Siah Posh of Kafiristan, and the Shins 
^Dards), Gdrs, Chilisi and other small tribes of the Upper Indus 
•ad side valleys, all these apparently being long-heads of the Uoad 
Aryan ^rpe. Keeping this distinction in view, Biddulph's valuable 
troatiae on the Hindu-Kush populations may be followed with 

lar r, so iktl rdrunu would be the neareit pouible Greek traiucnplioii of 
7]jM> Major Raveny {Kafiritlan Kt\A elsewhere) writei TaJ%ik, which comes 
vsiy near to Dm-thik, the old sound of the Chinese Tiae^ki or Ta-ikik giren 
by Cha^ Kiso, who vinted the West in iii B.C. (Dctpi^aM). 
' T^itatfUuJ/indpfKteik.fainm. 

SS6 HAN: PAST Ain»'l! 

mkfBf. HetnceitheGtli^iifioMSf 
(BMt Pomn, MKslled "Zend AvwM'^^f 
ing doaely to S«n>krit, i^ule Klwwi^ tb*^ 
(Khgi), it iatennedi^e between Btk(ria»« 
differences prerul on these detuts, lAA 
to pbilologiits for some time lo coBte. 

SpeKking generatlr, all die GoldiM vtiSnti 
(most of Biddnlph*! first % 
Smr^^. nected with sll the odier Lowted A 

with' whom should slio prafaabl|^*i4 
Elphinstone's' southern Tsjiks dwelling « 
(Rohisiuii, Berrakis, Purmuli or Famuli, E 
others scattered over Afghanistan and wxthcnk-'Jj 
Their type is pronouncedly Alpine, so much ao d 
spoken of by French anthropolt^sts as "those b 
of Kohistan*." De Ujfalvy, who has studied I 
describes them as tall, brown or bronzed and < 
ruddy cheeks recalling the Englishman, black or c 
sometimes red and even light, smooth, wavy w c 
brown, ruddy or blond (he met two brothers near 
hair "blanc comme du lin ") ; brown, blue, or | 
oblique, long, shapely nose slightly curved, thin, i 
face, stout, vigorous frame, and round heads with a 
high as 86'5o. This descTiption, which is confimad fe 
and other recent observers, applies to the 1 
Badakhshi, and in fact all the groups, so that « 
doubt an eastern extension of the Alpine brachjr i 
Armenia and the Bakhliari uplands to the Cential il 
lands. In this description we also see obvious iraoe 
type grafted on these pre-Aryan Neolithic Tajiks h 
Aryan conquerors, just as the Kelts and other pre-Ai 
heads were Aryanised farther west. 

We can now, perhaps for the first time, gnuq> t 
as a whole, and realise the marvellous uniformity of At 4 
and linguistic relations of two great sections of n 

An AeeauHl a/ iht Kingdom of CaHhul, iSrj. 

"Ces Savorards ittardfa du Kohistui" (UjUt], Ltt . 


B tmt Mwn f taut and H. tdfitua, u thfly may bow b« called — who 
hue beeo in die cloMit ctmtact for thouiandi of ytan all along 
die bofderiands from the heart of Asia to the ahaxtt ot the 

Bat the evenlfhl drama is not jret dosed Anested poliapa 
for a -tine bjr the barrier of the Hindu-Kuih and Snlimio ranges, 
dtese wonderfol proto-Aryan conquerors burst at a^ai, ^^ 
taat, pr<d>ably through the Kabul river go^^, oa tuioDa Ib 
to the plains of India, and thereby added another 
world to the Caucasic domain. Here they were brought &oe 
to &oe with new conditions, which gave rise to fresh changes and 
adaptations resulting in the present ethnical relations in the 
peninsnk. There is good reason to think that in this region the 
leavenit^ Aryan element never was numerous, while even on their 
first arrival the Aryan invaders found the Und already somewhat 
thickly peopled by the aborigines. 

These formed at least three, and most probably four distinct 
ethnical groups — a black substratum forming a secdon of the 
primitive Indo-Malaysian populations ; tribes of Kolarian speech 
probably from the north-east, or from the Himalayan slopes ; tribes 
of Dravidian speech almost certainly from the north-west through 
the Sulim^ passes; lastly, Mongoloid peoples from the Tibetan 
plateau, all arriving apparently in the order named. Of the cha- 
mcteristic woolly hair, by which the first might best be recognised, 
few distinct (races have yet been detected ; nor are the features 
anywhere suffidendy negroid to remove all doubts as to their 
Hentx we may perhaps infer that Utile remains of 
1 except a general deepening of the colour of the 
lUn, if it is to be traced to (his source rather than to environ- 
mental influences. 

The fourth or Mongoloid element has also mainly disappeared 
fiom India proper, and is found now only on the northern and 
notth-eastem uphinds near their original Tibetan homes, beyond 

' N((n^ « N^rito Iiaiti are however shown in the nose, month, and bsir 
tt the nuuyan wonHui figured in the Madras Govt. Mateum Seriet, vol. ii. 



Ae liiDr «Dd jna^ uctt betMca 1 
dK Cbota NacpoR plMow, aod fBMMHf ^ 
aboot iS" H. lat TbekdicfdR" ~^ 

KliMH% KflnB% l^afai^ Mabto^ ] 
each qmkJDg a dHdnct ifialect of tbe « 
iriiidi aeom to ibow affinitiet « 
whh the Mon of Pegiv n hn been ■ 

In lettatet, wjn Oaltoo, the Kob ■ 
I think magrau aumj familiei Asn » *<» 
of Aiyan Mood. Hsnj hm high nam 
TOnng gills are at times met with «4io h 
features, finely-duaellcd strai^it 
mooths and chitu. Tbe eyes, however, an i 
bright, and gazelle-like as those of pme I 
I have met itrongljr marked HongoUan fi 
vary greatlj, the copper tints beii^ abo^ 1 
[though the Mirzapur Kaia are very daA\ 
hair black, straight or wavy [as all over Infi 
women are noticeable for their fine, erect c 

All this, taken in connection with the a 
to some of the Nepalese idioms, points t 
people, who arrived in remote times, intermu 
aborigines, and afterwards crossed with A 

There remain the Dravidians, to whom the ■ 
apply, with this difference, that both the Uadt i 

* Tbe term Ai*f, which occnn u bo dement in a g 
and wu Ant iotrodncedb)'C«iupbellinacollectireM&) 
origin, bnt probably conneaed with ■ root Tm-mpg 
Triia and Catia, III. p. 194). 

* BUhop Caldwell, Tkt Lanptagtt eff India, 1875. 
about 3 millioiu were retamed s* or KohttiiD tpeech. 

■ Capt. Forbes, Paper read at the Anal. Soc. Nor. iSn<' 

* Dtteriftne Etkneltgy t/ BtHgal, p. 190. 

3- Ainu, Sakkamn I. 
(Quicasic Type.) 

4, Ainu, Yezo 1. 

(Cauca^ic Type.) 


r^z"-":'::.'"^- ^ ,,..-, u-...,.. ..,,„.,<'•-■« 


WdM «e mofc e&ced, ud the Aiyan more McnMMed. Sot. 
m Aoald be expected, there are many sbcnam 
paofW iboiriiig divergences in all direcdoni, w 
anmgn the JCvrwaiAKr and TMu of the Nilfprtt, 
Um fiimcr ^im>xinuiting to the Mongol, the latter to the Arjrsn 
•taadani The Rev. W. Sikemeier, who has lived amongit dwm 
for Tcars, writes to me that "roanj' of the Kumrabaa have decided 
Mongirioid face and stature, and appear to be the abor^uiet tf 
^Mt i^on'." My correspondent add* tliat much nonsense ha* 
been written abont the Todas, who have become the trump card 
of popular ethnographists. "Being ransacked by Europeaa 
mitors they invent aU kinds of traditions, iriiich they found out 
Adr questioners liked to get, and for which they were paid." 
Still the type is remarkaUe and strikingly European, "well pro- 
pntioned and stalwart, with straight nose, regular features and 
perfect teeth," the chief characteristic being the development ot 
Uk batiy system, less however than amongst the Ainu, whom 
diey so closely resemble*. From the illustrations given in Mr 
l^arston's valuable series one might be tempted to infer that a 
group at protO-Aryans had reached- this extreme limit of their 
Asiatic domain and here for untold ages preserved their original 
type in almost unsullied purity. 

The Dravidians occupy the greater part of the Dekkan, where 
they are constituted in a few great nations — Telugua (Telingas); 
Tamils (numbers of whom have aossed into Ceylon and occupied 
the northern and central parts of that island, working in the coffiw 
districts), Kanaiese, and the Maiayalim of the west coast. These 
with tome others were brought at an early date under Aryan (Hindu) 
infloences, but have preserved their highly ^;gtutinating Dravidian 
speed), which has no known affinities elsewhere, unless perhaps 
with the language of the Brahuis, who are regarded by many as 
belated Dravidians left behind in East Baluchistan. 

Bat (or this very old, but highly cultivated Dravidian language^ 
which is still spoken by about 54 millions between o„vidtan 
the Ganges and Ceylon, it would no longer be aod Aiyu 
poniMe to distinguish these southern Hindus from ■■■*■■*■ 

> LMtr,Jvatt 18. 189J. 

■ Edgar Utontoa, Antirv f aifgy etc., Bui. 4, Htdrat, 1896, pp. i47-8< 


t»B turn: 

Mar Aai»/iig|g||^^^^^^^^^| 

tbe oom Hiaabrn. 

nMnjr of whom migfat be adicd Qpicii Jl 
■evcnl Mdi^miiM, ■iiiiMtii wtiA an lli 
tariu hdf Modem Inlf Hindo, dw of h 
die Gofumdi^ Hmfanti^ Hintf^ TtfngjiliiL I 
of OcuM, an qieakiiig Meo^mikritic ■ 
coDtthate the Indie bmadi of ttte Aijas.l 
or Urdu, x ninpiified form of Hindi ( 
Doab, or "Two wsten," the region bM«M|k'4 
Jumna above AUahabad, haa become a «M al-.Ji 
chief medinm of intercoorae thioiq;hout A* -| 
undentood bj certainly over loo millioo^ wUs a| 
tioDi of Neo-Suukiitic speech nnmbeced m i 
over aoo millions. 

Perhaps the most surfxinog feature of tfta 
tudes is the remaAable oniformity of tbeir | 
indioued espedally by the prevailing doUdio ■ 
everywhere in the peninsula. Thus in Mr I 
averages of cephalic indices for Bengal,- Ondl^ 1 
Provinces and the nmth generally, range fion yijl 
rising of course much higher (84} on the I 
is, the Mongoloid Tibetan territory. In the e 
Mr Thurston's averages are 73, 74, and 76 for i 
sidency*. It is difficult to explain this ] 
assumption that the proto-Dra vidians were of 
stock, as the Kols almost certainly were, if not ■ 
and Rajput intruders. These, one would sappoa^j^ 
sufficed to have swamped both the dolicho bla^ a 
the comparatively recent Aryan invaders, or at la 
indices everywhere above their actual low avengw. 

Are we driven to infer with de Lapouge that tl 

bead is not so much a racial as a social qne H JO B Jii^ 

should have to infer further that, while the ii 

are gaining on the superior long-heads in £aEOpf%-,^ 

' Quoted bj' Crooke, I. p. CXXIX. 

' Madras Govt. Mu(. Secies, /AUlai 



pMeMin gomg (m in the Indian peninnl*. Ace the nckl «a»; 
diliMW of the two Kgiou m^ m to mmnt tfait coBdinioii? 
9li^ not, ao long m nmiy 300 OHlUon satiTet we fadd in 
poB t kai nibjection and adminittered bjr aoo m 300 tiioaaRMl 
Ampeans bom a base 6000 or 7000 milea away. Elliacdogy it, 
Eke a two-edged sword, an extremely dangooiu weapon to be 
introduced into the discussion of sodal questions, until the wbde 
fidd is thoroughly surveyed and the twoad results deaily oo6rdi- 

Hne we derive little hdp from the considcTation erf* caste, 
wlntever view be taken of the origin of this institn- 
tknb The rather obvious iheory that it wu intro- ffSw***** 
daced by the handful of Aryan conquerors to 
pRfcnt the submergence of the race in the great ocean of bb^ 
oc duk aborigines, is now rejected by Hr Nesfidd' and othen, 
iriio hold that its origin is occupational, a question rather of sodal 
pBiKiits becoming hereditary in family groups, rather than of race 
. sanctioned by religion. They point out that the 
interpretation of the J^iulia ICsitaya, "Five 
s," as Brdhmans (priests), Kthatriyas (fighters), Vm^fm 
(traders), Sudfa (peasants and craftsmen of alt kinds) and tfisMda 
(wtnigtt ot outcasts) is recent, and conveys only the current send- 
BMlt of the age. It never had any substantial base, and even 
ia Ae compantively late Institutes of Manu "the nilea of 
tod, cooDubium and intercourse between the various castes are 
voy di&rent from what we find at present"; also that, &i from 
boDC eternal and changeless, caste has been subject to endless 
awdificatkHU throughout the whole range of Hindu myth and 
tiJMnif Not is it an institution peculiar to India, while even 
hoM die stereotyped four or five divisions neither accord widi 
«ntiag &cts, nor correspond to so many distinct ethnical groups. 

AU diis is perfectly true, and it is also true that Ua generations 
tte tecognised castes, say, social pursuits, have been in a state of 
ooBft fltix, incessantly undergoing processes of segmeotaHon, 
.■« ifaM thetf number is at present past counting. Nevertheless, 
^* Cjstem may have been, and probably was, first inspired by 

' Quoted by Crooke, I. p. xx. iq. 



Bcjond the itMunlind mud Ceybm^tti) 
Aiyan ^wcch axe known to 
rm^Sm*"^ ^^^ °' ]H«histocic timet. 

IbUowed the taAy 
nee, here called Indombsuits, iaio 
Formoaa and the Japonew Ardiipelaga, 
occupied in the New Stone Age. 
break, for they are not again met tiO we. 
the still mon remote insular groups 

Micronesia the rdattODS an 
because, as it Kerns, this gtWRptJ 
occupied by the Melanesiana from New 
arrival of the Indonesiaos, while after tbek 
followed at intervals by Malays perhaps from ^. 
Formosa, and still later by Japanese, if not. d»< 
the mainland. Hence the types are here as 
which appears, going eastwards, to shade off : 
of the Pelew and CaroUne Islanders to the 
Marshall and Gilbert groups, where we already' 
skirts of the true Indonesian domain. 

A line drawn athwart the Pacific bom Nmt. 
Fiji to Hawaii will roughly cut off ' 
the rest of the Oceanic worid, 
west is Melanesian, Papuan or mixed, triiile aU. 
Jfoffri, some of the eastern Fijians, Totems, 
Marquesam, Hawaiians and Easter Is 
purest and most interesting section of the 
Their claim to belong to this connection 
seriously questioned, since, as now firmly 
have been from the remotest times both 
brachy section of the Caucasic division. To tiM 




'MhMf iiOiff^^ S^ FOLYnniAits^ irtio «e mosdjr loBg4iMdt* 

"vMfe^WDMurka^ features often of m distinetif EuiopoHi 

tflMifirind other cbAnu:tefs of a pioiioimcMfiy Caacisie tyfm* 
^Ffeie bav is mosdy black and strajght, but also wavy, tbCN^li 
WMr tUtf or even kinky. The ooloiir also is of a lig^ bebwn 
cempai tt d to dnnaraon or caf6-att*]ait»aad sometimes agn^'oaGfaing 
4»alnioat white shade, while the tall stature avemging 5 it ii in. 
«4lt:dj([^y exc^s that of several European groups m Sweden, 
Vkmmff North Britab and Irdand 

Birt the language, it is objected, is not Aryan or Enrq>etti. 
HOi'doabt diis is so, but the Caucasic peoples of the New Stone 
.^|i sfM^ead over North Africa, Europe, and Ana, and most of 
itaft spoke non-Aryan idicxos, as we see very well from the 
HaflBtto-Semitic and the allied Basque, besides those of the 
Ostwaatts, and Yagnobi, which in its remarkable survival may 
he< caSed Ifae *^ Basque of Central Asia." Malayo-Polyneuan 
alioi of which Eastern Polynesian is a very pure member, has 
stt: foots on the Asiatic mainland, whence it was ^diiRised over 
this Ooeamc world by our Indonesians in prehistoric times. The 
prablema associated with this position are intricate^ but have 
abeady been dealt with in the seventh chapter of this volume. 

Migmting at an unknown date eastwards from Malaysia, the 
Indonesians appear to hkve first formed permanent ^iMrmtiiu^ 
tettenents in Samoa, and more particularly in the. 
idand of Stnum) originally Savaih\ which name under divers 
fofms and still more divers meanings accompanied all their subse- 
quent migrations over the Pacific waters. Thus we have in Tahiti 
JSIbtm*, the ''universe," and the old capital of Raiatea; in Raro- 
tooga AvaHUf ''the land under the wind"; in New Zealand 
Mnwmki^ " the land whence came the Maori " ; in the Marquesas 
Mmmikit ^ the lower r^ions of the dead," as in i^ fenua Havaiki^ 

* I nake this statement on the authority of Dr Hamy, who, against the 
cttRCBt optnioot finds firom fresh measurements that "dans Test, dans le noid, 
ctdsmteaiid ils pr^sentent une dolichoc^phalie fort prononc^'* (Hawaii 75-5; 
Taiti 74*1 ; Bfaori 73*1)1 rising only in the west to 80 (Les Races Makuques^ 
VJ^HAropdogU^ 1896, p. 137). 

^ <£rewywhere takes the pUce of S^ which is preserved only in the Samoan 
1; cf. Gr. herk with Lat. sepiem^ Eng. seven, 



— . —jxtJ 


■UK:' MOT M)ail4 



• latfri> 


Oman, Ihe IBB«^ At d 
t nidi nmiuidiiix ihodAb 

t MMHiiwlH^^^^^H^ 

dwnctenilic of thew Twtenwmn 
Bometinies noeiqMctedfy vehfied « 
they wen gifted with ray loag m anodi 

and even sublime cosmogooiet woidd ■ 
compuiied all tijeii wudeiBigi from thur C 
throngh MaUyua to thai preaent i 
■ one of tbeie coamagtmies ttaitm with ChM^ 1 
Night — not so much ccmcTete u ■talFMfc'fi 
purely subjective notions, these entities i 
must have been preceded by i 
tnd more tangible deities. In all the I 
of which there is great store, we find Henea, I 
the After-World, recurring under diverse i 
sonified by language, embodied in annustic «ii4 4 
philosophiei — echoes, as it were, of the Vedic k 
from isle to isle over the broad Pacific waten. 

> L'Amtkr^tltpt, 1896, [^ Ml 


Abbot, W. J. L. 

Alplwbct, cTohitiaa of, (6 

Mtkfwui, 144 — 

AnbroMttl, j ~ - ' 
Iblklor^ 3 

h 39B 

AtHMWam, 469, 48S 
Atamaat, 343 

itodt ImgiMra, mudier mad 

dutribntioD of, 364 — 7 
dlMrltMtiaa of the bndqt lai 

doUcho, 3(7— 8 

A4MB, L., «M v( 

jEfMB cnttne^ 906 — 9 

Mripi. lot 

JBrneoBQAe Age, IT, S" 

in Kedf , 465—6 

jwwwt 34*,_ 

Afra-^n^jMuv 44J, 455, 464 

AhOBM, t€0 

AfanoMi, 431 — B 

AbM, taS 

Akkadi, Akkado-Sameikiu, 173 nq. 

Akkado-CUacM relttimu, 115—16 

AkkM, 118 

Akm, 436 

A1«Hliift, 430 

849— »» 

383 iq. 

eallnml reaemblaiiaaa with the 

OW World, 379-80 

RcwTTUiaiu, 386 

AniiM, s6i 

AmnMO, Dr, oo Ac btmcb; and 

dolicho tjrpt*, 310 
Amok, S30 

Amoriics, 174, 491, 495, 500 
Anmtidiui Tories, 317 
AnceatTf-wonliip, Atbaiiti, 5B 

Wi^ijama, 93 

BuitD, 114—15 

Cdebe*. ti6 

ChiiMM, (13 

Audi, 55» 

AiiE*ii>i *ptedt, 184 

AneU^ 518, j(*7 

AtoMS, 3T« 
AjpmqtM a t, 3 
ASnttM, 300 

AnorohoTOC, igi — 3 
AnuiiehE, 497 
Anni, 194 




47»-4. *»". 5»i— 3 

AMwaw . 174, 49» 
AiWMM, 439 
*■""»'"«- , 417 iq. 
A«w»ta. 434— S , 
AiImcmI dwdttv, Afika, 67 

New GidoM, 134 

FU^piiia, 166 

Awlmeiagf, an aid to ethnolffr, 16 


W. 457. S14 

Aihat, 486 

AqidlB, J. R., on 

■> 44!-*. 5" • 

Aiqrriaitt, >74/49i< g< 

AthapaMam, 381 *q. 
Atonii, 435 
Attila. ^ 
Anitraliaiu, 14J — j6 
tpeecli, 147 

■S3— f . , 

ptctonal ait, igo 

Avar*. 34S 
Ayamati, 48 
Ajmarai, 413 iq. 
Ajnai, 480 
Attecs, 406 iq. 

B«hU«, 335. M ' 
Baihukolnnbe, nil', I 

Babin, 67 

ButaTBK, lifr-^a , 
Batatiga, 113 
BUckga, its 

1, S. L., « 

Batdu, 105 
Batonp, lOf 
Battat, 145 — 7 
Bat was, tM 
Bayai, 86 
Ba7«, Banxi ^ OkA 
Bi70i«i, 113 
BaroU, 48 
BedmaBaa, 103 ' 
Beddoe, Dt, 00 Omfi 

^^^^^^. , _,_^ , — „.^ 

nn>Ex. sfif 

tf Biitiife bmotwi, «38 

hK. JO* BriiU lypMt iw-* 

74. 4*9. 48s BrifoM, 1»S— 7 

. B«7— « *«»«■ Apt ijK M» 479, anj 

ill s<Se BnmM •llop, 19 

imm*. 485 Brookt, W. K., am Mrir BMn.ta Ac 

ttooMi, 58 Balumu, 417 

T., <m Unbtbwe, roi Baddhiim, "nbetui, 17S, iSi 

y. Rev. W., m the Kongo Boimeie, i«6 

nage, toS SuBeae, 109 

ikti 3S4 AwumMM, 114 

' •« Buquc ipttch, 469—1 fliliii III, iij 

1, 73 HoDKoI, «8s 

■• Ik 4S4. 4«5. 469 ^ Kofwm, 907 

1 and Afabi, 471—4 Jkpukcie, 307, 311 

■d, A^ am the New CaUdo- and Chrbaaa HmUmb, 181 

a, 140 Bvdioi, 547 

M, If., on die Copper Age, 18 Boganda, v. Waguida 

, G., on the *»—*■"—_ 114 Bnfla, 133 

CIO EcTptian oiigiiia, 478 Bubli*, 71 

341 Bvlamt, 40 

loa. if4 Bolguia, Great, 344 

iJMwtM, IBS Uttle, 344 

ai, 176 Bolgan, 34* *q- 

, igS tpitch, 344 

Ipti, J., on the Galehat, 555 BaqnitDont, 199 

, F. J., on the Portnaftadj Baifnnda, jtj, 535 

I, |w Bunih langoage, SS3 

Dr A., on the Tooldiif abori- BonneM, 195 tq. 

I, 104—3 Botton, R., on the Knihhei, 477 

, M* Buiran, 184 

; C^l., on the Mandu^ani, Bauunen, isi — is 

dcnnalti, iit — » 


I, Hn, on the Chineae, 117 

k lew*," 100 Cagajranet, 138 

Ah on Ae Ualaganr, 949 Catendar, Heucan, 410 

■triit, F., on the KiilippiDe CalUleheti, 419 
~ n the Kwakiuti Indiani, 

C., 00 the Shan*, 199 iq. 
nagiaa, 181 

Btmjo, 85 

Fan, III 

- New Guinea, 133 

ij« Mdaneda, 137 ' 

M, •49iq. New Caledonia, 141 

•. 4*». 434 Bon»«o, 141 

"**. 4«». 43!— 8 Sumatia, 146 

, m Batta. 147 

1^ 47a Sooth America, 418 — 19 

*i 4S5< 5»3 Cappadodans, 303 




SiWhiMl Ada, m6 

Bonn, *49 

Cottlal Alia, •6B 

BMt A«h,30s 

„ - I. an** 

CamaAi vmti*, 444*1. 

temdnblair, 444— S 

oomtitDent eMmeaU o^ 448 

nunse utd popnlatian, 449 

cndle, fso 

CtnawQt, sbonginei o( Sfi* 
UngnaKe* of, (51—3 

C»7"K». 389 

ClM«tti*, 39» 

ClttldMUMt 496 

CbabncT^ KcT. J., on dw P^na 

" ■ :\ H, 

CodibnW*. K^ *^l| 

oa tlte liU'Kin lansauc 311 

Cbulei, W. A^ on Ae Wando 

Cbaniie, E., on the Acmcnoidi, J14 
ChkTcnii A., on the Merican QJen- 

'ando- CoMOe. Z^ o 

Cbedicnici, 551 

Co— I. L U !Wal 

ChedotlaoaKr. .77 



Coodai, C.K^afe# 

Cberente^ 438 

ConfiMt, 493 '!■ 

Owroki (dipt, 16 

Ccaupcetu of SadMg 

CherokM, 38s 

Chen, witb linog iMce*. in An 

Buitaa. nS 

-m, and HottariotTll 


— oem^»mm 

Chibdut, 4*0 iq. 




ChkUiaec^ 4«i-" 


ChiUn, SS5 




CfaincM. 114 »q. 


aeript, 1IT-.8 

Sa-ata. »j4-» <? 

LPq OB Bttiyinwlii ofifbi^ 


oir. ihMtfaa of, 519—10 

•eript, 495, jo«— r 

, W^ on the JUi and luypui. 

I fwemfimMt, tbdr tthnk 


cat, endnttoo of, ti, 19 

'. Mn Ml AnttnUan dut and 

» MMItittM, 153— s 

t, F. R.. on the Florida 


■, T. UvKca 

tcnpl, Eo; 

DiaMlii t|p«t s«it B** ' 

Dokn, no 

DolHen iMdldcia, Ab»-bMp«aB,^ 

DorlMM, 54^ 
Don. 76 

Dnun umguigt, 41 

Dnam, 447 

Doboia, P., 00 Sonifai^ onnw, (1 

Dnckwottb, W. L. IL, on tSe Hala- 

gaqr, »M 

on tk( i 

otype, 37» 


tig, 3*6 


Uoraiii, $j4 
Dmudi, 140 
Dwabh, 470 
Dwalal, 113 
Dwarft, 117 aq. 
Djraki, 14a 

L^ • 

1 tbe Malagaty, 
Mklore, 156 

«, 106 
h.4lS9. 4«! 
n Irdand, 530 
■}4> SSt 
, 480 


1 "40 

Lf ca the Wahvnuu, Sg — 90 


r, J, oo Lapougea cnnio- 

d won, Eso 

hi, AbM, OB the llbetaiu, 

New Caledbaia, 141 

Malay pcDioa, 165 

Tibet, 171 

Siberia, 16S 



= !?£_,,. 
Moncolia, 9 

Babylonia, aja 

Eatt Europe, »73 

Finland, 173 

United Stuea, 359 

BtaaU, 360 

Florida, 390—1 

■■ ■ - AHHfUlHB, 41} 

North AUca, 451 

Tooia, 451 

Algeria, 454 

- aSiy, 4fls 

— — ' Sardinia, 467 

Brilain, 4W— 9. s»; 

Gennany, 469 

Riuaia, 46a 

- Egypt, 470— 7 

Aiabia, 4^0 — i 

Scandinavia, 515 

Eaitcr Iilanden, jfii 
Ebiio, 171, 309 



'^ MAM: rA«ri«M»«l|M|^^^^HI 

IWi^ Rot. J, M lh> HoMaib g4i||MyMM^^^^JE| 

37. "6 

on idMhUw, 8*— 7 

En^iil) nadon, 519 iq. 

ehkneter, 531 

language, B33 

Envinnuncnt, iimaeiiGc of, it- 

Ephthalhcm, 311 

Eponrmom baacd Hanw, 6; 

Atutnlian, if i 

Erie*, 3S9 
Eihi-Kcx^o, 107 
Eikhno, 199, 370 tq. 

FiM tei^ m^v 
Tin wfAw iSf ' 

FtdUoR, Utm 

«•>, 374 

1. 330 

EoTopcBii aboi^piKi, cnulle ot, 453 

- Knki, >S4»^ 

- Uuiipmi, tT 

- Chin, 191 


Faluhu, 49S 
Falfhsn, 555 
Funilf, the Social Unit, 154— 1(. 167 

Faiu, AfricMi, in 

Aiiatic, 5JS 

Fanti, sj 
Felups, 48 
Fennuli, jjfi 

SapoDi, an 

Fiaroa, »7 _ 

MnTK*. 491 -jj 

Forbci, O^t^ at i 
Foreman, J., 00 AaVJ 

Focmoaaiw. Mm ,» 

•peech, «6* 

Fontermann, E., «_ 

queatico, 406 iq. ■ 

Ponwui^er, Dr, «i fll 

» *, <• 'Iki backr M 

GlwlrtoDe, J. IL, on tho etriroMOf 
upper. tS 


on Biutw Age b KCfpt, m 



God, pAvmn coneno oft 


' T*7»-a.469 

= b£UL .8.^. 

MoyHMiu, ISO— 1 

Buta, itg, u6 




Karen, 194 

^ G. T. dtr, on du) BuqM 

^Kd&^i^ 186 

Maya, 4I1, 416 


Papuao. 13* 

MWU«*. 313 

Semitic, SM 

', OR the AlwD», 100 

S«w, 45 


r 0*4 

Tibetan. ,78 


Godden,, on the Nagat, 184 


GokIa«. 3.7 


Golds, «|6 

tonuu, S33 

Golfld. 179 



G611. S5S 


, Dr, on the Mrij Britoni, 

^^fy^:"J'L K^ ^ 


JapaneM dohneat, 171 

It, X S^ on the Beothnk*. 

G^SiK, R. de la, on'th. Tamean 

langnage. fit 

Gnno-BakiiUB*. 310 

■• 4>9 

Greelu, t. Hellenes 



■■> S3« 

Group mairiago*, ijj 


■, ». Tenloitt 

Guaiaim, 438 sq. 

MOM* 4>9> 439 iq- 

GDaltiHN. 417 


Gaillemaid, F. H. H.. on the liu- 


Kiu native*, 310 


Guinj empire, 47 

Guinea N^roei. Uble of, SS 

t, on Awtnlun ut, 150 
Vt. W., on the Mu-tie, mj 

Gujarati*, j6o 

Guppr, H. B., cm the Soloown 

natfve^ 138 

Gura'ans. 71 

HwkkM, it& «6a 

Halktt, H. S., OB Uh ] 

race, m^e ofi 46S~ie 

dttUoDi, 469, 4*S— •? 

Haaho-lbMiu moAwtbogBe, 464 
Hampd. J., on the Coptm A|c 18 
H»T, E. T., <n WolaTpatlMr, 44 

Hawaikni, sm 
Hiwlyu, 486 
Head-himtuig,Helaiw*U> 137 

Fhilippinet, 166 

MiDipni, 1S9 

Borneo, 141 

Fomosk, »6i 

Healy, B. A., on Fapaui mjrtlu, 131 

Hebrew*, .495 

Hellenet, 503—4. 54*— S 

Hellenic Ungiu^, 545 

Helm, O., OD Bronze illori, 19 

Henri d'Orlitau, on the T^vi, 193 

on the Pal, 199 

Hepbum, D., on Pilhec erectus, j 
Hermuui, K. A., on Akkado-Tnrki 

Henili, jif 
Hervi, G., 

tions, 461 

on Keltic oriKini, jij 

Hickson, S, J., on the bodily and 

psychic Dnity of roan, ti6 

on the Malayi, 144 

Hierofflyphi, evolution of, 161 17 
Hill Damarai, 106 

lagmtn. •» 

lEli« H. V^ on Bftb^oohn arigbu. 

Indo-diiaeM'BUrm, iS6— 7 
— btel nooMochniK, 100, 195 
lads-MahjnU, cndk of iM.ifci..i<, g 
Tii i w i ihw , i«, »3»— 1, «4», s«9, 

•61, e6v-4 

lado-Sqihiuu, 31a 
iMdana, 544 

Iporinu, 435 

Iihb lugMgc s»3. 831 

net, S*9-ri' 

dolOKii-bailden, gjo 

dwncier, 53 1 

Im Ase, II, 91, MI, 33j 


tke Kirgliii and 

Jonkcr. D* W^ (M tta NtU-Onffo 
NaKiM, TJ 

I the Nefra MBMolaRaMI 

iMHttN, 4<7— 8. 1 

Italic nedi, 513 
Imnonk), Dt A., 1 

{Mllna, 1* 
•ekMMt, F. G., on the SuiiOTBdi 
and LAppi, 34*— i 

aaaem. P., on the Hitute*. 500 

oUL ^ 

H. H., on the Negro 
t, 40 
fonner tai^ of (he Biuh- 

— ™ I 

«r, 79— to 

II Ntfrito B 

^r-r-r*' ?»• 473 

Kabarta, 351 

Kahiwda*. 107, 109 

Kachini, 190 

Kafir, meaning of the ttnt, 9S 

Kafin, T. Znhi-Xoaaa 

K^igugi, 43« 

Kakfayena, 181—90, 193 

Kalinai, 434 

IUl^l<ik^ 184 


Kamfi, 43« 

luuwmua. d£ 69 
Kurari, 66i 6g 
Kaiagaweti 331 
Kata-Kalpakt, 317 
Kan-KirghU, 331 
Kaieliant. 336, 338 
Karani, 190, 194 
Kargoi. 73 
Kanginu, 434 
Karipunat, 433 
Kaitmli, egi 
Kuhgariant, 316 
Kanonkte 4S 
Kawi, 39S 
Karau, 14a 



Kelto-L^rian rw 
Kelto-Slari, jsi 
Kelts, 463, 313—18 

of P. ai^ Q. t 

Kenni, 73 
KeretMU, 3B3, 401 

Kemkerri, 67 

Khamti, 100 
KhanuDg*, 104 
Khariat, 558 
Khai, 177 
Khun qieech, 184 

KoTjpakf, *«!, 
Kottaclu, 331 
Kiej, 76 
Knunen, 33 
KAWU, 355 
Kubacbi, mi 
Koki-Lmlui, 185. 
Kul&n*, 73 
KuBi, 195 
Knmuki, 317 
Kunjaru, 73 
Knianko*, 49 
Kuidt, tSo 
Kuii, 66 
Kuricu*, 5j8 
Kurumbu, 359 
Kuih, 178 
Knihile*, 477, 484 
Knnu, 49 
Kut^rx, 343 
Kntzo-Vlaclci, 540 

. S. R., OD ewly nun in 
Siberia, 169 
Kwmi, 338 
Kvwias, 435 
Kymiy. 319 

1 the Tibetan 

Lenz, R., on C 
Lepciuu, 184 
L^niuM, R., OD tte | 
T . « g h i Mi^ sM 
Letonineaii, Chq 01 
Lettic UMiiuge, i« 
Letts. 330 
Lh^^ 176 
Liberiani^ S* 
lib™*, 7j, 4jS ■■■ 

103 ; on tlie Hm^ 
LieariuM, 31, ^U'i» 
Limbai, 49 
Lin-tin-m, 104 
lithtuniuii, 3341 tH*} 

— — ipMdi. 311 
IM, R^ on dw StudinlHW, 466 
Unniau 396 

I^tol 49 
Latai, M3 

Lotaa CMH, 414 

Ti<iiM|»lianTi, 539 

tLoiS, L., on tb* PapMot. 133 

' ''""V 00 prinutive maa, 8[ on 

~~ e and Iron A|Bi, 17 
!., oa Anitnlian religica, 


. '*■ 


— - on th« jewi, 498 

(A tlw Hiidtca, 300 

Ott the Aiaba. {|oi 

on the Annenoidt, 514 

Malay* aioptt, •31, sjC 

KiCittiaaa at, 131 

Uik^aaa, 933 iq. 
Mal^ o-Pal]ri ietia% 3|i-^ 

HalaTBa, Eaat, tttwkal MtMnti fa 

Hall enimi 47 
Hal-Pahariai, ssB 
Maltac joi 

Man, E. H., on tba rtnrtiwaiiiaii 

on the Nieabartaiv rfj—^ 

Man, ciadle of, I 

Primuy DivmMM ' 

lued ia pn-NetditUc ti 

nrictia* oi; dta ( 


La-taj, Mf 
I^daiH, 503 
Indiana, 303 

Earl; Man 
Mana, theoi 
Manchoa, 1 
Mandant, 3, 
Mandaiat, 6 

bndtycephaljr, jio 
HeCabe, R. B., on the Anpuni Uo- 
maut. 1S4 

",, RCT. J., on the Kafin, 

Hal^ S 


Manciingani, 43 

Mandoa, 435 

Mangbattna, 76 

Uan^tauanu, 333, 845 

Mangoni, 99 

Manguuipa, 139 

MannalUns, 385 

ManipDii, 187— -S 

Maniio, concept of, gjfi 

Haoonviier, on Pitbee. a«ctM, 3 
Sir W^ on tbe I^poani, Man-tie, 903 

Manx lansnagc, (13 
;S Maori, 31^ 

f Maori, liii, v. Haida 

Mapochet. 419 

Harcomaiuu, 5*3 

Mairii, 67 

MaiU, 73 

Maronitet, 496 

Man^acBaiu, 361 

Mamage. claal, a food 
gronp, a niTth, 

Manh, O. C., 

Maial, 469 


a. =1- "' 

MaiH 19s 

Mapaia, 345—7 
MAu, 73 

HatamiW, G. B., on the Rong lao- 

MftaBw, lei 
UahanAaa, 7< 
Makari. *6 

Pitheb erectai^ 3 


, on tbe Metal Age*, ae 
. merian oiwin*, 174 
Egyptian*, 184—3 

MaMachaaelti, j 
MaaugelE, 310, JS' 
MatacM, 44a 
MataKuaToa, 440 
Matlutnncas, 411 

SSC^LwH or te raiqM, « 

HanrilMiiM tncii 4S4 — 5 

HeUri Age*, 

M«j«rA. B. 
Mianu, 386 
Uiao-lae, 106 

MiCTODElUlU, lAo, „__ 

Hiet, Dr, on the WMendawi, 
Hikhulonkii, V. M., od 

., on Uie Cliff dwellings, 

MinneUiil, 395 

Miibnii. 176 
Miuoaiit, 395 
Mitla, ruins of, 413 
Mtltus, 76 
Miitecs, 4ts 
Moabitei, 491 
HoEso-Gotlit, S17— tS 
Holuwks, 389 
Mohiguii, 38J 
Hoi, 105 
Moltoe, 435 
Molucbe*, 41 7 

Mnnro, Dr R., a 

HuiMgt, N5 
MnrdMU, jJT 'L 
Huskhogeuu, 39a 
Manca*, 417, 4*0 ~ 
Mtmommi ori^M 

S«5— 9. 54» 
H;an^ MS 
MjmudoBt, 544 -I 
Mjthi, T. Ft^mi* 

W il i i H| . 1 .G,<»ilh.WdkgB^|7 

N«Md, J^ CB tka f 

184, 1: 

406 K). 

- 405 «]. 


lUtBK-wofiii^ 116 

Hi^teMt AMcn, 117 iq. 

Nign, AMcnii donaui, 3; 

— — ixi^nfi 38 

tfpt, pentetcot, 38 

«* 79 

MOW of bamoai, Bo 

—— OoMide, 119 tq. 

(UvMoBt, ISO— 30 

. ■tanent fai HaoacHcu', sj], 

Ndmg, A., on earir ">*■■ >» B"^ 

MfsBOk Am, im New Sum Aee 

IteUOk: KiipL 30 

New CriiJoiiuiM. 14a — 43 
Hnr fiMM Ase, ilundoii of, 10. is 
Sm iOm StOM Acti 



O^kamt, 96 

C^im TBrfc*, 3«a, (itf 

"-% 34<S 

\ 3B4 

Old Stoat Ace, <hmtIoB dft 9, l« 

See ali^' SloM Ago 
Onugiiu, 438 
Om^u, 395 
Ohm, 430 
Oneidu, 389 
OnmdiM, 389 
Onou, KM 

Oni, S., OD SUOiM Oi^fa^ 46t 
Onng-MaUn, 13* — 3 

Uat. 337 

BeaiM, asj 

"nmong, 147 — 8 

Bunk, 148 

Ori^ni, Achinete, 147 

Americu, 3J» 

'-' IB« 

A. P^ on tbe N. W. Cout 

'* 'nine of like arts. 

AiutraiiaiL 146 

KiWlodao, t74 — 7' 



- ConicHi, 407 

- EpTptUa, 47J^-«' 
~ EUmite, 177 

- Enelidi, 5" 

- Edumo, 3 


EnrapcMi, 453 

Vma, 113 

Finn, 331 


Greek, J41 

Haun, 67 

Hebrew, 495 




5«3— 4 

Lignnan, 459^ 4<$3 
MaligBtf, 950 
Malay, 931 — s 
Ifaadiiif 490 
Man'tae, 905 
MaTiTJInniflifi 454 
Maya-AsteOt 406 
Mede, 378 
Mongol, North, M 
Mongol, SouUi, 171 
M0880, 304 
Mykenaean, 505—7 
Nqgro, a8 

New Cuedbnian, 141 
Nubian, 73 
Oghuc, 330 
Pela8(;ian, 459.- 503 
Phoenician, 491 
Pictish, 535 

Sechua-Aymara, 433 — 5 
jpnt, 330—3 
Rumanian, 540 
Russian, 550 
Sabeean, 493 
Sard, 466 
Scotch, 531 
Semite, 490 — i 
Shan, 300 
Siamese, 307 
Sicilian, 465 
Siouan, 391 — 3 
Slav, 546 
Sonrhay, 63 
Tasmanian, 146 
Teutonic, 515 — 16 
Tibetan, 173 

Tungus, 387 
Turki, 316—18 

Orkhon inscnptions, 333 — 4 

Orochons, 380 

Osages, 395 

Oscan language, 513, 539, 543 

Oshyebas, 113 

Osmanli Turks, 338 

Ossets, 551 

Ostrogoths, 539 

Ostyaks, 341 

Otoes, 395 

Panoi, 431 u _ 
Paathayiy m| m 
Pantkoa, |S| ^' 

Papoaiiiy tfb 
Pftpnaiiaiiii i|cl> 
*— — dooudiy": 


Parker, £. H.^ 

on the 

on TnM 

Parthiant, 319 A 
Paswmaha, 2^ 
Patagonins, 499 
Patroni, C, m-:^ 

Patterson, A* J^, ni^ 

avut, C, 

Pault, C, on tiie 

533 V* 

Paulitschke, Ph., 

Somals, 487 
Pehuencfaes, 49S 
Pelaagiaas, 459, , 
Penka, Pro£, oa), 

on Gredc 

on Italian 

People and RaiSe^ 
Pepohwans, 360 
Permians, 339 -it 
P^roche, T., on te 

Stone Ages, 9 
Persians, 379, 554 
Peters, Dr J. P., 

chronology, 3^6 , 
Philippine natifel» 
Phoemdans, 491, ^ 

alphabet, ^ 

Phratry, theory q( ^ 

Imh, s^ ai6 

>^ »r 

Qw ft i l Bo ri . 4 


Am, 4«S 

I Enyidi, «M— I, a«7 

Biktino, *99 
, E., Ml tlw Hat-d' AsU Mripl, 

m, T. G.. on the Akkad kn- 

* 411 


antAiDpni erectiu, j — 6 

Mlmlioni o^ 8 
■e Hu, 3, 5—7 
«. 54S 


,|Ciiimpta(.3i, js- 

RalwwfiMt 487 

Ranqiwlei, 4*9 

R«*eB«, Ml 

Rat, J. M., M dw CHtb lM|W«it 

R«ibcnffTiber, ^13 
Rdnacfi, S>i oaihe " 1 
.S06 . 


of, 174. 189 

xatoij o( 180 

Mimt, 447, 56*— 4 
vUiMU, 36a >q. 
WImb, ». Cod 
* 39S 

. 386 
LJ. W.. 00 t) 
«1MB culture, 3)8 
M dw American 

torfe ^e, 14 

-W. B., on the Bajui 
(.Isdiani, 399 iq. 

m, 498 

Melanetiani, 136 

MnjicBi, 4M — 1 

Papuan*, 131—135 

FolTiieuBiit, 564 

Samo]«d*, 341 

Sapcmi, 393 

Seren, 45 

Somab, 487 

Hbetans, 181— 3 

Umiu, go 

Tun^nie^ 188 

— — WagiTyama, 95, 96 

Kkik & £; OB tk« Fi I . 


KOgtw^r. W., «a Uw ftlnpiM, 


— ca fta Iran Aat, n 
Rfa)k, Dr iL, en OHBiUo, »i-4 

Fm SisiM, on Bikimo iilk- 

htn, ITS 
Mjjej, W. Z., on AectinMriMttTM, 13 

on the Eannean ncN, 447 

Rittai, K., on G«ll» -' — '-" ' 

RotwHon, Rev. C. IL, so the Hhwm. 

- en pohpandiy, 1 
Is, Pnrf., on til 

on the Sonthem Shn, 5+5— < 

RolletfoD, Dr, on the euly Britoot, 

Romaic langnage, 545 
Romance People*, 533 ¥{• 

RomUl7, fi. IL, cm the Pepnaiu, 134 

Rongt, 184 

Roth, W. E., on Aannlian cb« 

DUUTUKce, 153 
Romanieiu, 337, 54O— i 
Runic (dipt, 517 
Riunialu, 548 
Run, meaning of, 337 
Ruuiuu, Great, 317, 5J0 

little, 317, no 

- White, ss« 
■I. S48 

Sabtmu, 88, 493 

Sabellian language, 538—9 

Sac*. 173—4 

Sbc» and Foiei, 385 

Sahua, dry land in quaternary tima, 



on the Atjm.'$ 

Sen, 413 ■"■" 

Ser»iaM. 3,, 
SeteboB, 4)3 




th« VHk^Ir 

pen, 163 
net, 38^ 4i« 
•n, J. C., oa 

odi Kkfin, gS, sjs 

, RcT. J., OD the HtlaKM]', 



LeODCK, 50 
luw, S54, «sj 

IB, 611 

, K., on the AtuUmliMM, 148 
«% 19s 

itlam, 389 

Kdb, J41 
546— so 

w, O. H>, OD the Kwmu, 194 
Dr D., on the Dumc*, 110 
an, A. H., on Flmuih ariguu^ 


h >79 

I 190 

I, 460, 486—7 

cr, S., on the Cbndet, 169 

Ji. 01—4 

t, C A., OD the KoU-LMhal. 


. r iiiM»i ii -,n. 

I ■ AiDvifcil AM 
— - AadsMuK, 1)8 


- Sklly, 465 

innn, 4^1 

See aln New Stane Afe nd OU 

0. 36. 39 
-•-•• 41 
I. Akkadi 
?33 ^ ^ 

ouinmiB irlting^ f- Goo 
SrHtflcft, Tlbeten, tSi— 1 
Swettoiliui, F. A., on the UUh 

onlwlf, S36 
S¥riH, 5*1 

Sjuboliaii in earir AO. 403 
Sjrriant, 1T4 — 491 
Sjro-ChaldiEeiu^ 496 

Tabooi ft food qnertkm, 141 
Tacnnu, ^8 

Ta^id, 310 
Tai-Shiiu, igS «q. 

TabilUni, 561 

Twiki, 554-6 

Takii^i, 187 

Tamala^ 154 

Tunil*, 559 

Tuwoc, 383 

Tugnis, 17s, 179 

TanoMw, 401 

Ttmitm, 111 

Tapprinet. F., on the TyrolaM, 511 

Tipnw 4"ft 43S 

TmucU, 316 

Tuucoa, 41* 

Tathom, 190 

Tanunkna, 145, 156-8 

Tatar, Twtiv, t. lUu 

TdHgiw. i' 

-hqiorr Rn. W, B^ ea Ike W«|v 


.. C^nit, on the 
bnUden, 3B7— S 

<» the May* Scnpt, 409 

on the U*.jt Odendar, 410 

Thompwn, E. H., on the Vi 

cavei, 414 
Thomprca, J. P., 

Tlioiiuen, V., on tl 

tion», 314 
Thnduu, ji6, 541 
Thanum, Dr, on the Brituh huiowi, 

Twfaiuuiftco, mint of, 4*3 — 15 
Tibetans, 174 iq- 

tpeech, 1B3 

— — burial ciutomt, 181 

Tibui, 469, 474— S 

Ticunu, 43B 

Timui, 49 

Timotea, 417 

TimuqnuBiis, 390 

Tlppenhi, 19J 

Hpnns, i6t 

Todu, st9 

Toltecs, 369, 406, 411 

Tonnni, 361 

Toshks, 549 

Totemic STBlems, Handii^Eui, 46 

Dakotan, 396 — 7 

- Papuan, 13a 

Uganda, 93 

WSlof, 45 

theoiy of, 396 — J, 401 

Uled-Bdln, 4r» . ^ 
Uled-EmbMfc, M 1. 
Uled-en-Naafir, 4J» .'.| 
Ulfilas, 518 
Umbrian apeedl. | 
UmbrUnt, 539 
Und-Altaic, Mf . 

' '54. '86, 375 
Usnns, 304 
Utignci, 34* 

Uib * 

■• 345 
i. 3^6-7 

Valenciaiu, 337 
Vamb^ry, A., OB ^ , 
An«tolian TvA», ) 

IMDKX. jtt 

VuMt. A^ m At H^fmr 1m- 

vSSSH 111 HIS * 

Vwiltirt, E., on dw GwUm, 17} 

VMOonttt 461 ^ 

VHOad^' N. E., OR lb* Vaknia. st9 

VdKript. 96 

VqMM, (36 
Vonnn, *> 

WftMa^ C OB StMw Af* I* 
Wfakdi, H dfl, M At Oididd, 900 

on the wnb of carljr man, i 

Dtt Om Amciinii tTpe, 3SS 

OB the Gemwii Ivpe, 518 

Vl^nAt, ftiS, asS 

V«^ ^m, 341 
Votoi, u6 
V«^pki,Mt— « 
VoMhmn, Dr A^ on tlw U 

Waboni, 94 

Wal—ia, Oe Dakotan "qiirit," 395 

w 355 tM .3»7 

WaBaMtA. R., on tke Ma]a£u; awl 


Wochnw, i«o 
Widf, Dr L., OD Ac Batwi, iM 


Wnodthocpe, CoL R. G., oh ShMa 

•et^tta, ao* 
Wia*, L., oD tbe Pcfak care-nan, i$5 
Wriiug SrMcma. evotatka oC *t 

Atfee and liajm, laS 9 

CharoU, 389 

UalayaiaB, a44 

- — Moogol BBd luiK^ 196 

Homo, aos 

Philip[dite, (59 

Svriac, 3*a 

Uleiuic 314 

Ynkaghir, S}6— 7 

Wwi, 113 
Wd-hih, 304 
Wyandoti, 389 

Yipmbi, j93 
Yahgani, 4J0— » 
Vakult, a86, 349 

ip«cch, 330 

Yangere*, 86 

YaTOnk;, J. L., on Tnikoman typea. 

<m tbe Mantpnri, 18S Yoai 

V*-ih«, 311 
Yidoka, sjS 
Yomodi, 317 
Vonibai, $4 

i types, 316 
Yucbi, 391 
Yu^hJ, 304, 310 iq. 
Yugo-Slavi, 5^ 
VnKaghin, 186, 196 









': ,^ .*< 

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1912-¥. ajJK»)IIBiUC±ix4. 
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««A»(«Smfll) 204. 

ili^Clir 195.196.218. 


immm^ 8 

PfUEV. 265.266 

il#dC 47 

««li|«tit:«£ 118. 

m^^-A'^ik ^9 

ftftll* 231.232 

tfrMIX 300 

#mtt« 91.247.266. 

«i|*;M 206 

#ailHff 175 

JtGBlUI<9'llll 7.8.9 

Sttl-bir 323 

#nU 195.196.221. 

««ai» 76.115.116. 


UritlGB+lV 201.202 


27, >* 


mKQftJ^ 141.156 265 

-kim 121.226.374 






#±ll8tfe»n 203 

#J:IIH 203 

#±tt-» 304.305,306 

#±« 201,373.375,376 

^^mZfh 32,33.173 

^W9^ 138 





mmmzmfkM) 253, 


mmummtE) 295.303 

mm'l^rM 156.157,158. 

Wi«w^(ir) 276.280 

mm^^ 282 

mmrt 279 

mmMt 253.263.264. 

mmni^^mn 249 

mmnZ9h 254.264.278. 

«t|#» 307 

imxm 307 

mmmm 250.253.255. 

mmm=M 250.254 

«mi^«»n 249.254 

«iM^fl{ 249.254.255. 

WHimnMi) 253.254. 


WiM:3K:l« 120. 153. 155. 






329.330.331 .336.337.349. 

«iMJtM 312 

«i*ll¥ 253 

WiM¥ 279 

WiMl^W 249.253 

WnUm 322 

'^^ •JTi.y^ 155 

Ii4:fl« 379 

±ffln:i 206 

.bffl1»^ 208 


±Slk 208 

mmum 23 

tLWrn^ 27.116.191. 

m^0:¥k 183.216 


:A:li«it 147 
iztL^^ 126.138.139 

:A:llllil'a'itffi 23 
iz^m^ 221.222.352 

*X»-« 78 
:A:Xfl$£»n 203 





*t»Aa 156.174.187. 

**¥Aa 37.247.258 

izmmifk 178 

:^Ujft 37 

HGBiaft 305 

Hffl'fjil 229 

Htmm 223.260 

W*#-b 173 

H^*)i(iBa) 258.259. 
W*i^ (']-»!*) 258. 


H/^^^fiKdSJt) 269. 


'i-«±ff^*Wl 41.51.^ 


mmrtm 121.226.374. 

i^mwz 15 

««ir£J«(fi«) 183. 


««ft-bl« 9.15 

««?^1« 15 

/hBB^tttt 178 

Z<#lkJ(Z. 205.206.207. 


'J^ffflf 121.366.374 

'J^fffSft 259 

']-»f^« 259 

/MflHW 260.261.262. 




']-»#» 37.73 

/J^ff«}6 261 

'i-ff« 260 

/]-»«£.» 224 

±mmm 302 




iD'll 124. 2%. 300 

tlI*A^« 57 

n-HH^ 216.319 

l»il^BK($19)(Hlf^) 7. 

82,%, 117. 118. 124. 125. 


uamm 380 

^mfts/.^ 117 

mm^m 36 

^^K*:a 217 

mm-Km^mn 175 

Hllii«f^ 303 

l(l*«^ 198 

m^mZVj 178,179.180 

n|±£*:* 344 

mt^jEm 328 

limAfiR^Wn 156 

MIKIV^ 231.232 

mmmtL 1^5 

niGB/J^-lV 236.323 

mmmf-itSLB) 204 

J9GBA=r 204 

witrna^ 347 

^GB#^ 118.360 

4t)K«r'>Je 1^8 

t,Bn^» 235 

*P#*:(tt'h£a) 20.,126. 

1%. 221. 230. 233. 247. 301. 

*T»» 179 

*tt« 11^5 

^♦tJ«i: 204.205.206. 
*tt*Ha 231 

^♦t«j*^»« 7 

^♦tiEl^ 173.229 

^tttt^ 205.208.209 

mmnuLm^m) 271, 

m¥ 276.281.282 

X«l£4l 301.303 

XW^HflR 230.234. 

XWl^^W 242.243 

mth 263 

W&S*:^ 175 

*»<e¥ 198.199 

r7/<- 154,155 

r^^KU.S.) 200. 


9^%n(^««) 261 

«%:fcf^ 261 

^rn-iL' 187.195 

*>$iTJcS^ 3 

^U- 10 

MEBHIPi 141.151.156, 


mmmm us 
ym^m, 177 


m;k 281.282 


jiflfjll^ 191 

jiflflktt 117.121.123. 

4Mil^A 204.300.308 

Allflft 177.178 

^JifMlt 121 

£,iX,tLmiitn) 69.152. 



^f^mtsmnnm 453 

tftStlUR 116.117.126. 



'l^^m^km 173 

4-»m^^mn m,m, 

'HHIHff 206 

d^a¥ 242 

^^k«¥(«:Uj) 250.251. 

^^k^m 2S0 

d^ktt^ 251.252 


i^mWV 36.222 

>Hi«^ 33.173.176. 






20.21. 27.36> 





Bttimi^ir m 



iSttltt'F IfS.lfS 



iStti«'f(/Hii) )r5.)r6 



atfc/\+ ffi.ff2,ff3. 

umm(*amm) 269 







«^A)i| 119.124.125. 







{feXntlU 178.180.204 



«i^)l|-(t8) 210 

tt^*JlHf(HH») 118. 




tfe'V^ABK 239 


•*f-h^ 125 



»•-« 202.203,204. 






tttfUR 118.121.130. 

>-».> K 



V'A^^f >(o 

i — uy/'l if >) 

JK1[« 222,348.351.352 



HMmH 126.221.308. 







x-.K^Uh 10,11 




}6^irn 236 



tt'#«tt 177 



AJIIffnff 156.197 


^IfflBrdl'a' 197 



iJ^HI*-()»**) 3,4.5. 


mmmi¥ 9,15.33,173. 


MJlllte 1%. 221. 347 


¥»n 64 
«<«£»«irn 343 

«A«c«l 120 

mnwf^ 229 

AIM^rirn 26i 

mrnxmi^^m) 260 

«li:2:HI 260 

AftftH 271 

BDlPtr 32.196.202. 

BBairS(ft) 203.205. 


mamicmn 202.203 

fflP^ft(ajW) 210.219 

maWH-ii^H) 202.203. 
fflDlti^ 211 

BBalJf 202.203.205. 

Iti^^^i: 191.260.268. 
tti^lt^ 242 

nrtTff^«« 7.197 

n««A« 260 

miisuii^d: 123.124 

mii^H 123.124 

mii^lt 14.16.20 

ffl4»;xa:feirn 57 

ffl4'¥A(*¥) 32.33, 

'€^^H 141,151.156.216. 

i7^^» 22.23 

iTbifrWI 22,23,24.25, 

^Ay> 206 

ffliic4.tM(«(iii^ii) 4, 


^«l»ifli 201 
^««f^ 268 
f-«rt^ 268 

±Mfi^l« 32,33 

^tfflm 117.122.125,132. 


#A'^M(ft?r:5^^) 153. 


«)l|««(«^) 90.269, 

«)li«ft(S1i) 4.91. 

124. 204. 2%. 300.308 
«Mi«fll 46 

«ll|«il 43.46 

«lli«l[ 46 

ttHiHE^ 46.249.265 

«H|«J|| 46 


9. 13. 15. 25. 53.91.%. 125. 


ftlll^HB 266,298 

ftilllt^ 46 

«JI|K«£r^BBit 3,7,9. 

««)I|W^ 23.47.48 

Pfflft* 265 

tfA 275 

♦tUjiE- 205,207 

m^n^ 290 



^n^iim 57 

^'^^^W 176 

^#fi* 301 

4'lL*K 374 

4'Wti^fiR 124.126.312. 

t±'llit'>:fiR 227 


4'ii*-F{^fflftf-) 120. 

tftmtf 117.118.119. 

^'iiff^ 1% 

4'»«-(««R«) 230, 

4»«*l?*a( >? 3 > ) 7. 


^^fi^i^mn 249 

'I'HJEiC 204 

^%^$BK 176 

4»lijmm 175.176 

-^.•K^;r>£:ilt 12 

««/\^irn 197 
















/^•-:7X(S.H. S) 54, 

i€'#fg9 352 

Jltl^fffcHa 217 

&JftE« 374 

♦*flfHI 208 

Hit* 203.271 

♦*:fe^Si 88 



TftAeU 156 

^Yt > >-^• >( 3o ^;u) 


HCXIMrii* 14.127.308. 

Ji^mn 281.283 

±^X7C 151.156 

±:^^.ife 151 

¥linB» 9 
¥Ji4L;tJ» 175 

JM^M 196 

mmm^mn 236 

«JW¥ 175.176.231. 

OMmM 352 

isjijeii 121 

SLSXM 285 

V-fyv^T 265 

'7xX7-f-/WK(G) 209 

*»!)(« 33.172 

i^COXM 325 

mmmmim:k) 117.221. 



«Jili-»(IM) 7.28. 

««l||» 117.118 

mm^-iM 243 

•OAMl 230.234.237. 


mmmsM 156.166.229. 

•OXII 275.291.298 

SHS+A 275 

•K^V 64 

lSrJifl|r#(» 30.68.80, 

-^*>(J.C.) 215 
-<>-tA 139.140 

*ry-f— K(G. E. ) 


«)l|fljMV 117.118,120. 
«BJ£li 266 

.-K/w h y > 35 



A^fDll 178 

tt#ft 121 

ttfffflttt'^'Al* 45.64.65 

fllMmildttt) 257.271. 


UBXlt 222 

t&Httff 271 

t&^9IK(UjT) 340 

t&:^lE« 74.141.143 








iSttlEm 349 

t&:^«tt^(»lJ:) 344 

tSttJEiti 340.342 

t&PIK« 195 

t&T«4^ir 290 

t&T«l^irmJt 290.291 

Vi^mMi^m) 302 

t&¥lSP^ 302 

^^mm 195 

A.lUf^* 222.375 

A.lUlfeff 215 



^IHiS 197 

TfClfH^lV 375 

H#lltt<^»« 42 

H#7C^» 175 

H#«flr 67 

H#«1t 42.43 

H#HIKIb»« 40.67. 

H#«Mlc 42.43 

^n^kSf^mnmn 36. 


H#lft^M 33.68.173. 

H#ftBl« 68 

H#*U|l 68 

H#/\»«»n«1i 18. 

H##ft 68 

H#«.2lM 33.68.173 

mmti 64.65 

l^#4?li 64 

PIAflW 139 

PIA^ACailBK) 32.36. 



A,m\iii6 227 

tti:»;i« 223 


mm^A 13.21.53.%, 























































1fir#Alf 123.191 

*fflW^* 174 

$ffl»1ll 82.84,92.93.94. 
^GB«jRj|| 197 

mm^m 272 

















»)(- 222 

mn-^\-m 178,204.221 

jfn\mjE 69 

Wffljffdt 70.106.151. 

^mmtEmn 152 

$fflt&tt 178,247 

Wffl«# 257,267,271. 

WflKMIk 381 

^^mX'K 303 

^♦ti[« 276.289 


IHHIi 258.260,261.262 

HHWHa 23 


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