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Man Rises to 

Critical Epochs 
in the Prehistory of A 



A.B., Sc:D. 9 Princeton; LL.D., Trinity, Princeton, Columbia; 
Hon. Sc.D., Cambridge; Hon. D.Sc., Tale, Oxford, New Tork; 
Hon. Pb.D., Cbristiania (f)sl#); For. Memb. Royal Society 
Researcb Professor of Zoology, Columbia University 

Senior Geologist, U* S. GeoL Survey 
President, American Museum of Natural History 








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Iv* VJTO Sstpatrt w$oj8oA,(HS Hapvavov 

Where 'neath the snow-beaten ridges of Parnassus were stablished the 
courts of Phoebus. Euripides} 

IN' the spirit of the rise to Parnassus we may direct our in- 
quiry in these lectures especially toward evidence for the 
spiritual^ intellectual and moral, rather than toward the 
physical \ characters of the prehistoric races. 

Hitherto our attention has been directed mainly to the ana- 
tomical characters of fossil man because these characters were 
the first to come to the surface. Indeed, human and compara- 
tive anatomy, throughout its long history, dating back to the 
Greeks, has never enjoyed a series of triumphs greater than the 
philosophic interpretation of fossilized remains which are too 
of ten fragmentary and incomplete. The anatomy of prehis- 
toric man by these very triumphs has won afar larger share of 
attention than his higher characteristics. We shall in time be 
in a position to tell with great precision the whole story of the 
physical ascent of man the story of his food, of his bodily 
habits and customs, of his modes of locomotion whether walk- 
ing or climbing, of his ever increasing capacity for the use of 
tools, for the chasing of game and for physical and intellectual 
contests with bis fellow-man. In studying all these anatomical 
attributes for example, the form, weight, and psychic areas 
on the surface of the human brain the point we shall chiefly 

i Professor Edward D. Perry of Columbia University, to whom the author owes this cita- 
tion, writes October 29, 1926: 'The last two words do not actually occur in this position, but 
they are used just above in the choral ode and are to be understood as the subject of the verb 
Karev&ffOi). Note that in texts of the time of Euripides the name of the mountain was written 
with only one <r" 


stress is not these anatomical characters per se, but their bear- 
ing on our knowledge of the development of the mind and 
spirit of man. 

In other words, the higher philosophical interpretations of 
crude anatomical and archaeological facts lead up to the 
higher central theme of these lectures, namely, how man rose 
to Parnassus. 

In my previous lectures and writings since the year 1891 on 
the absorbing subject of prehistoric man, especially in "Men 
of the Old Stone Age" I have from the first endeavored to re- 
deem his reputation of being very close to the brutes and of 
possessing many qualities of character and of mind which we 
do not like to associate with any of our ancestors, however 
remote. I do not share the contempt with which many unin- 
formed people regard the higher members of creation which, 
though they were not actually ancestral, bear many resem- 
blances to ourselves. Prolonged and sympathetic observation 
reveals many noble traits of character in all the higher mem- 
bers of the mammalian kingdom, near to or remote from our- 
selves. Among all the social mammals and birds, especially, 
we observe comradeship, mutual helpfulness, maternal and 
paternal devotion to the young, the sharing of danger, and 
willingness to sacrifice life for offspring or for a comrade. 
Such moral traits, if observed in ourselves, would rank high 
among the most desirable elements of human character. 

Similar noble traits are also widely manifested among 
primitive human societies and especially among those who 
have had the least contact with western civilizations. These 
traits include the safeguarding of the family, protection and 
careful upbringing of the young, protection of the chastity of 
women, inculcation of absolute integrity both in word and 
deed, communal and tribal cooperation for the general welfare, 


reverence for higher supernatural powers, love of decoration, of 
beauty and of art. Practically none of the primitive races ex- 
hibits all these fine traits; some of the primitive races exhibit 
none of them. In recent anthropology we may refer to several 
sympathetic observers of primitive peoples, such as Herbert 
Ward in Africa, William ?. Hornaday, William Beebe in the 
Far East, and especially Robert Lowie, who has treated primi- 
tive society, morals, and religion in a masterly manner. 

All human races, fossil or living, demand our sympathetic 
understanding, and we should endeavor to extend this appre- 
ciative understanding alike to the existing and to the pre- 
historic races of man. We need not deny to our Stone Age an- 
cestors moral traits 'which we observe among primitive peoples 
today. By prolonged and intensive research we have discovered 
that the lower Stone Age men are the equals in brain power of 
some of the primitive existing peoples, and that some of the 
higher Stone Age men are actually superior to some of the 
higher existing races. 

Thus we are venturing into the new and fascinating but 
little trodden field of the gradual rise of the higher powers of 
man. It is true that we cannot progress very far, but it will be 
admitted that our psychic theme transcends in interest even the 
greatest triumphs of human and comparative anatomy. 




February 28-March 4, 1927. 

Since this volume went to press there has appeared J, Reid Moir's 
volume,. "The Antiquity of Man in East Anglia/' in which especially 
the information regarding the Dawn Man of East Anglia is amplified 
and the discovery fully described by this original and most able 
observer. But J. Reid Moil and Sir E. Ray Lankester both differ 
widely from the present author in respect to the geologic antiquity 
of the Dawn Man of East Anglia and with respect to comparison of 
the flint culture of East Anglia and the Cromer Forest Bed with pre- 
Chellean and Chellean cultures of the River Somine in France (com- 
pare Fig. a). Naturally, these correlations of flint and of geologic hori- 
zons are subject to further research, but the present author feds 
confident that the geologic table on page 24 (Fig. i), is substantially 



Prologue vii 

List of Illustrations xiii 

I: The Greeks Foresee the Gradual Rise of Man 3 

The Olympic deities not helpful The Greeks 
chiefly interested in the origin of man The rise 
of anatomy and of physiology Prometheus 
voices the spirit of discovery 

II: tte Dawn Man of East Anglia Traveler > 

Hunter, Flint Worker 23 

The Dawn Stone Age: Newly discovered evidence 
of the great antiquity of man The Bramford 
flint workers of the Upper Pliocene The Foxhall 
Dawn Man found near Ipswich His flint quarry 
and fireplace The Dawn Man of Piltdown, Sus- 
sex The flint implements of Foxhall and Pilt- 
down similar. 

The OldStone Age: The giant flints of Cromermark 
the beginning of the Old Stone Age and possible 
ancestry of the Neanderthaloid races of Heidel- 
berg, Krapina, Ehringsdorf and Neanderthal 
The Trinil Dawn Man of Java 

III : Man of the Cave Period Sculptor y Engraver, 

Painter 87 

The Neanderthals the first cave dwellers Influ- 
ence of cave life on imagination The birth of 
sculpture in southern France Discoveries in the 
Caverne Tuc d'Audoubert Discovery of the 
etchings in the Caverne des Trois Fr&res The 
human and equine sculptures of Laussel and Cap 


IV : Our Ancestors Arrive in Scandinavia 121 

The rudiments of architecture, of mining, of navi- 
gation The Mesolithic or transitional period 
The glaciers give prehistoric chronology North- 
ward migration or the Campignian flint workers 
Successive reindeer, moose and stag periods of 
Denmark and Sweden The shell mound period 
of Denmark Divisions of the Bronze and Neo- 
lithic ages in Denmark and Sweden Beginnings 
of Mediterranean trade 

V: The Sun-Worshippers of Brittany in the New 

Stone and Bronze Ages 1 57 

Survivals of Bronze Age tradition Bretons of 
the Alpine and Mediterranean races The en- 
vironment of the "Menhirs' and Tumuli' The 
eastern origin of sun-worship The circular sun- 
temples of Carnac and Stonehenge Ruins of the 
great tumuli or burial-mounds The interpreta- 
tion of Carnac 

VI : tfhe First Steps to Parnassus in Central Asia 1 87 
The west European theory of human origin The 
north Asiatic theory The central Asiatic theory 
Why Mongolia may be the home of primitive man 
The undiscovered Dawn Man of central Asia 
Andrews strengthens the central Asiatic theory 
of human origin The racial problem before 
the time of Darwin The three primary hu- 
man stocks or super-races The three primary 
races of Europe Causes of the divergence of 
races, species and stocks The influence of pos- 
ture on the human skeleton The amphibious 
life of the primitive Hawaiians How to produce 
an arboreal type of man How a secondary race 
of squatting men might be produced The future 
rise of man 

Epilogue 225 

Bibliography 229 

Index 235 


n ,. . PAGE 


The Rise of Character in the Human Face 

7 igure One 
Geologic and Anthropologic Time Scale 24 

? igure Two 

Geographic Centers of Flint Workers in France 

and England 2 g 

? igure Three 

Recently Discovered Flint-Working Area of the 

Dawn Stone Age ^ 

'igure Four 
Sir E. Ray Lankester ^ 

'igure Five 
J. Reid Moir o 

igure Six 
Side View of Large Rostro-Carinate 33 

igure Seven 
A RostrorCarinate from the Sub-Red Crag 3 4 

Igure Eight 

Interpretations by J. Reid Moir 
of Pliocene Flint Industry Stages or 

'gure Nine 
Primitive Spearhead *6 



Figure Ten 

In the Bramfbrd Quarry near Ipswich 37 

Figure Eleven 

In the Heart of the Foxhall Quarry near Ipswich 3 8 

Figure Twelve 

Alleged Human Jaw Recorded by Collyer 41 

Figure Thirteen 

Great Foxhall Quarry near Ipswich 45 

Figure Fourteen 

Pleistocene Cliffs of Cromer, Norfolk 46 

Figure Fifteen 

Five Flint Implements from the 1 6-foot Level of the 
Foxhall Quarry and One from the Sub-Red Crag of 
Bramford . 50 

Figure Sixteen 

Diagrammatic Section of the Face of the Foxhall Quarry 52 

Figure Seventeen 

Relics of the Piltdown Race 57 

Figure Eighteen 

Scene of the World-Famous Discovery 

of the Piltdown Dawn Man of Sussex 58 

Figure Nineteen . 

Section of the Piltdown Gravels 60 

Figure Twenty 

High Pliocene Level of the Piltdown Gravel 63 

Figure Twenty-One 

Sketches by the Author of the Scene of the Fifteen Years' 
Search by A. Smith Woodward for Fragments of the Skull 
and Teeth and for Evidence of the Flint and Bone Indus- 
try of Eoanthropus Dawsoni 64 


Figure Twenty-Two 

Flints Found by Charles Dawson in the Piltdown Gravel 65 

Figure Twenty-Three 

Worked Bone and Flint Tools Found 

near the Piltdown Skull 73 

Figure Twenty^Four 

Giant Coup de Poing or Hand Axe 

of Cromer, Norfolk ' 74 

Figure Twenty-Five 

Flint Implements from Kent's Cavern, Devonshire 74 

Figure Twenty-Six 

Geologic Strata of Cliffs of Cromer 78 

Figure Twenty-Seven 

Brain of the Trinil Dawn Man 80 

Figure Twenty-Eight 

Brain of the Living Australian 8 1 

Figure Twenty-Nine 
. The Neanderthal Empire of the Old Stone Age 88 

Figure Thirty 

Neanderthal Flint Workers in Front 

of the Shelter of Le Moustier 91 

Figure Thirty-One 

Migration of the Reindeer along the River Somme 

in die Spring Season 91 

Figure Thirty-Two 

Cro-Magnon Artists in the Cavern 

ofFont-de-Gaume ' 92 

Figure Thirty-Three 

Migration of the Woolly Mammoth along the 

River Somme in the Spring Season . 92 


Figure Thirty-Four 

Old Stone Age Art and Sculpture Region 

of Southern France 96 

Figure Thirty-Five 

Stream Issuing from the Limestone Mountain, 

Tuc d'Audoubert ' 99 

Figure Thirty-Six 

Entrance of the Rivulet Volp into the Mountain, 

Tuc d'Audoubert 99 

Figure Thirty-Seven 

The Stalactite Chamber of the Galerie Sup6rieure 100 

Figure Thirty-Eight 

The Clay Bisons of the Galerie Sup6rieure 100 

Figure Thirty-Nine 

Foot Impression of the Sculptor of the Bisons 104 

Figure Forty 

Interior of the Limestone Mountain of 

Tuc d'Audoubert near Saint Girons 105 

Figure Forty-One 

Wall Etchings in Les Trois Frfcres 107 

Figure Forty-Two 

The Sorcerer of Les Trois Fr&res 108 

Figure Forty-Three 

The Sorcerers of Lourdes and of Les Trois Fr&res 108 

Figure Forty-Four 

The Rock Shelter of Laussel 1 1 5 

Figure Forty-Five 

Stone Sculptures of Laussel n 6 

C *vi 3 


Figure Forty-Six 

The Famous Celtic Horse of Cap Blanc 1 1 6 

Figure Forty-Seven 

Flint Industrial Areas of Western Eurasia during 

the Closing Period of the Old Stone Age 122 

Figure Forty-Eight 

Gerard De Geer and Oscar Montelius 1 27 

Figure Forty-Nine 

Beginning of the Neolithic or New Stone Age 

in Northern Europe 1 28 

Figure Fifty ' 

Survival of the Stone Age in North America 1 28 

Figure Fifty-One 

Advance and Retreat of Glaciation IV 1 29 

Figure Fifty-Two 

Reindeer, Moose and Stag of Campignian Age 130 

Figure Fifty-Three 

Wide Geographic Distribution of the 

Campignian Flint Industry 132 

Figure Fifty-Four 

Tranchet or Flint Axe from Campigny, France 133 

Figure Fifty -Five 

Tranchet or Flint Axe from Svaerdborg, Denmark 136 

Figure Fifty-Six 

The Tranchet and Pic of the Campignian Stage 141 

Figure Fifty-Seven 

Flint and Bone Implements of Sweden 142 

Figure Fifty-Eight 

Tranchet or Flint Axe from Sweden 143 



Miner's Pick from Northern Egypt and 
Mode of Its Attachment 1 46 

Figure Sixty 

Prototype of the Viking Ship 149 

Figure Sixty-One 

The Fur-Covered Cabane . 151 

Figure Sixty-Two 

Bronze Bowl and Bronze Collarette 1 52, 

Figure Sixty-Three 

Map Showing the Motor Routes and Distances from 

Vannes through Auray to Carnac and Locmariaquer 159 

Figure Sixty-Four 

The Region from Carnac to Locmariaquer 160 

Figure Sixty-Five 

Entrance Gate and Courtyard of the 

Archaeological Museum of Vannes 1 6 1 

Figure Sixty-Six 

Dolmen de Crucuno, near Carnac ' 161 

Figure Sixty-Seven 

The Three Racial Types of Modern Brittany 1 62 

Figure Sixty-Eight 

The Island of Gavr'Inis in the Golfe du Morbihan 

near Locmariaquer 1 67 

Figure Sixty-Nine 

The Grand Menhir of Locmariaquer 1 67 

Figure Seventy 

The Superb Galerie of Gavr'Inis 1 68 

Figure Seventy-One 

Engraved Stones within the Dolmens 171 



Figure Seventy-Two 

The Wheat Design on the Triangular Stone 

of the Table des Marchands 172 

Figure Seventy-Three 

Incised Symbol of the Hache or Battle-Axe 

of the Bronze Age 172 

Figure Seventy-Four 

Key to the Three Best-Preserved Alignments of Carnac 175 

Figure Seventy-Five 

Alignements du Menec, Carnac 179 

Figure Seventy -Six 

Ceremonial and Ornamental Objects 

from the Dolmens near Carnac 179 

Figure Seventy-Seven 

Giant Cromlech, Stonehenge 1 80 

Figure Seventy-Eight 

Theoretic Dispersal and Distribution 

of the Principal Races of Man 1 93 

Figure Seventy-Nine 

Theory of Central Asiatic Origin and Dispersal of Mankind 202 

Figure Eighty 

The Most Famous Running Type 

Paavo Nurmi of Finland 21 1 

Figure Eighty-One 

The World-Famous Swimming Type 

Duke Kahonomoku of Hawaii 211 

Figure Eighty-Two 

The Superior Climbing Type 

Pygmies of the Belgian Congo 212 

"Effects of the Squatting Habit 21 2 



divine aether, and ye swift-winged breezes, and ye fountains 
of rivers, and countless dimpling of the waves of the deep, and 
thou earth, mother of all and to the all-seeing orb of the Sun I 
appeal; look upon me, what treatment I, a god, am enduring at 
the hand of the gods! . . . For having bestowed boons upon mor- 
tals, I am enthralled unhappy in these hardships. And I am he 
that searched out the source of fire, by stealth borne off en- 
closed in a fennel-rod, which has shewn itself a teacher of every 
art to mortals, and a great resource. 

Aescbylus: Prometheus Bound. 


The Olympic deities not helpful fbe Greeks chiefly interested in the origin of 
man fte rise of Anatomy and of Physiology - Prometheus 
voices the spirit of discovery 

O glory of the Greeks! who first didst chase 
The mind's dread darkness with celestial day, 
The worth illustrating of human life 
Thee, glad, I follow with firm foot resolved 
To tread the path imprinted by thy steps; 
Not urged by competition, but, alone, 
Studious thy toils to copy; for, in powers, 
How can the swallow with the swan contend? 
Or the young kid, all tremulous of limb, 
Strive with the strength, the fleetness of the horse; 
Thou, sire of science! with paternal truths 
Thy sons enrichest: from thy peerless page, 
Illustrious chief! as from the flowery field 
Th* industrious bee culls honey, we alike 
Cull many a golden precept golden each 
And each most worthy everlasting life. 

For as the doctrines of thy godlike mind 
Prove into birth how nature first uprose, 
All terrors vanish; the blue walls of heaven 
Fly instant and the boundless void throughout 
Teems with created things. 

Lucretius: De Rerum Natura, Book III. 

\ LTHOUGH the Greeks conceived of Pallas Athene, 
JLJLthe goddess of wisdom, as springing full-armed from 
the head of Zeus, there is in their writings no trace of any 
similar notion regarding the instantaneous creation of man 
as complete and fully equipped in body and mind. More- 
over, they appear to be the first of all civilized peoples to 


suggest a naturalistic origin of man and a series of very 
gradual steps upward in his industrial, social and intellec- 
tual life. 

These are the slow steps in the ascent of Mount Parnas- 
sus, which during the long period of Greek thought finally 
became in their imagination the ideal abode of the Muses 
of arts and letters and the courts of Phoebus Apollo, as set 
forth in the language of Euripides. 

*Tbe Olympic Deities Not Helpful 

The gods of Olympus not only took no helpful part in 
the origin of man, in the way of physical or intellectual 
creation, but, according to the Greek poet Aeschylus 
(525-456 B.C.), frustrated all man's efforts to rise from his 
primitive helpless, ignorant, unscientific condition into a 
resourceful, observant, learned, scientific and civilized 
condition. Thus with gods who took no part in the origin 
of man and who rarely intervened in human affairs except 
to aid a hero, to punish an offender with a thunderbolt or 
a storm, or to become enamoured of a beautiful earthly 
maiden, the Greek natural philosophers and observers were 
driven to their wits' end to account for a natural origin of 
man, for man was ever their chief concern. Doubtless the 
subject was very much discussed and debated, but only a 
few fragments of current hypotheses and speculations have 
come down to us. All we know of the pioneers of the earli- 
est period of Thales (640-546 B.C.), of Anaximander (61 1- 
547 B.C.), and of others of the Ionian school has been 
handed down by later commentators. 

Surrounded by the sea, constantly observing the wealth 
of life exposed by rising and falling tides, the Greeks natu- 


rally assumed at first that all life arose from the blue waters 
of the ocean. Were not the sea cows or Sirenians of the not 
far distant shores of Africa the mermaids of more recent 
fables? Were not the tales of sailors regarding the half-fish, 
half-human beings partly responsible for these 'mermaid', 
'merman' speculations? Attributed to Anaximander is the 
notion that amphibious or semi-aquatic men first appeared 
in the form of fishes in the water and emerged from this 
mother element only after they had improved so far as to 
be able to develop further and support themselves upon 
land. In support of this statement Anaximander pointed to 
the long period of helplessness after birth as one of the 
proofs that man had advanced far beyond his original or 
primitive condition! It appeared possible that the original 
aquatic men had persisted through their trying metamor- 
phoses long enough to produce true land men. Anaximan- 
der's volume, "Concerning Nature," irtpl <v<rtys, written 
2,500 years before our time, "was a variant of the old tra- 
ditional cosmogonies. It told of how in the beginning the 
earth w;as without form and void. It sought to trace all 
things back to the Infinite, To-cwrei/>ov, to That which 
knows no bounds of space or time but is before all worlds, 
and to whose bosom again all things, all worlds, return/' 1 
Although gifted with more inventive genius than love of 
observation, Anaximander was no more remote from fact 
in his fantastic speculations as to the origin of man than 
were several west European writers of the early part of the 
eighteenth century when they described the earth as first 
existing in a fluid state, which was followed by a period of 
gradual desiccation during which man appeared in advance 
of all other living creatures. 

iD'Arcy Thompson: Natural Science. P. 137 of "The Legacy of Greece." 


Anaximander's explanation of the metamorphosis of 
'aquatic men' into 'land men' is the first dim adumbration 
of a belief in slow anatomical transformation rather than 
in the immediate attainment of anatomical perfection, as 
well as a suggestion of the deep significance of infantile 
characters as pointing back to ancestral history a notion 
which has expanded into the so-called 'biogenetic law/ 
This principle of the recapitulation of the adaptations of 
our more or less remote ancestors, fully expanded by Louis 
Agassiz, Ernst Haeckel and others, teaches that many of 
the stages of body and mind and many of the characters 
of the body before birth give an abbreviated history of 
man's remotest and more immediate ancestry. 

All of this intellectual curiosity and conjecture has a 
very deep philosophical bearing. It lies at the very sources 
of Greek thought and it partly explains the more serious 
anticipations of modern biology and anatomy, and even of 
anthropology, which arose among the Greeks as early as 
the sixth century B.C. It classifies the Greeks as men of 
western and northern mind and temper rather than of 
eastern or oriental mind and temper, the Greek spirit as 
restive, eager for new truth, progressive; the oriental spirit 
as docile, stationary or retrogressive. The Greeks sought 
natural explanations of all origins, from the primordial 
atoms of Democritus to the final stages in the rise of man. 
The Orientals, on the other hand, were content with super- 
natural and mythical explanations of human origin. Ex- 
cept for the great intellectual and scientific uprising among 
the Arabs of the ninth to the twelfth century, to which we 
owe the preservation of the writings of Aristotle, the spirit 
of scientific inquiry little troubled the eastern mind. Even 
today "Great is Allah!" is the beginning and end of natu- 



ral philosophy among the Orientals of the Mediterranean 
borders, and there is. scarcely a rudiment of the idea of grad- 
ual upward development, of the slow "rise to Parnassus." 
The contrast between the products of western and of 
eastern reasoning and imagination is brilliantly illustrated 
by a comparison of two great epics of the fifth century B.C,, 
the western "Prometheus Bound" and the eastern "Book 
of Job." 1 In the former, Aeschylus, from the rising civiliza- 
tion of Athens, describes man as a son of Mother Earth: 

. . . and thou, earth, mother of all! 

while Job, coming from the falling civilization of Ur in 
Chaldea, pictures man as the very handiwork of the Deity 
and constantly enjoying supernatural favor. The animals 
which Job weaves into his great epic belong to Mesopo- 
tamia and to Egypt as well as to the great desert lying be- 
tween the Tigris and Euphrates and the fertile land of 
Palestine. His natural philosophy is that of pure monothe- 
ism; his lofty conception of the spiritual and moral powers 
of man is that of John Milton; there is no semblance of 
intellectual curiosity; the earth and all its inhabitants, in- 
cluding man, are under incessant supernatural watchful- 
ness and control: 

But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; 
And the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee: 
Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee; 
And the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee. 
Who knoweth not in all these, 
That the hand of the Lord hath wrought this? 
In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, 
And the breath of all mankind. 

But there is a spirit in man, 

And the breath of the Almighty giveth them understanding. 

The spirit of God hath made me, 

And the breath of the Almighty giveth me life. 

Compare Osborn: Evolution and Religion in Education, pp. 98-102. 

r 7 i 


Greeks Chiefly Interested in the Origin of Man 

Even within the fifth century Greek thought was becom- 
ing biological, with the problems of anatomy and the adap- 
tations in structure and function of the human body as 
centers of speculation and research. The Greek word Bios 
itself, from which the word 'biology' 1 is derived, refers es- 
pecially to the life of man and was not applied by the 
Greeks to other living things. As expressed by Singer, 2 
"Greek science exhibits throughout its history a peculiar 
characteristic differentiating it from the modern scientific 
standpoint. Most of the work of the Greek scientist was 
done in .relation to man. Nature interested him mainly in 
relation to himself. The Greek scientific and philosophic 
world was an anthropocentric world, and this comes out in 
the overwhelming mass of medical as distinct from biologi- 
cal writings that have come down to us. Such, too, is the 
sentiment expressed by the poets in their descriptions of 
the animal creation: 

Many wonders there be, but naught more wondrous than man: 

The iight-witted birds of the air, the beasts of the weald and the wood 

He traps with his woven snare, and the brood of the briny flood. 

Master of cunning he: the savage bull, and the hart 

Who roams the mountain free, are tamed by his infinite art. 

And the shaggy rough-maned steed is broken to bear the bit. 

Sophocles: Antigone, verses 342$. 
translation qfF. Storr. 

i"The word Biology was introduced by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776-1837) in 
his Biologic oder die Pbilosopbie der lelenden Natur, 6 vols., Gottingen, i8oa-i8aa, and was 
adopted by J.-B. de Lamarck (1744-1829) in his Hydrogtologie, Paris, 1802. It is probable 
that the first English use of the word in its modern sense is by Sir William Lawrence (1783- 
1867) in his work On the Physiology, Zoology, and Natural History of Man, London, 1819; 
there are earlier English uses of the word, however, contrasted with biography" (Singer: 

Charles Singer: Biology. Pp. 167, 168; 163, 164 of 'The Legacy of Greece." 



". . . Where does the science of biology begin? Again we 
cannot say, but we can watch its evolution and its progress. 
Among the Greeks the accurate observation of living 
forms, which is at least one of the essentials of biological 
science, goes back very far. . . . The Greek people had 
many roots, racial, cultural, and spiritual, and from them 
all they inherited various powers and qualities and derived 
various ideas and traditions. . . . For the earliest bio- 
logical achievements of Greek peoples we have to rely 
largely on information gleaned from artistic remains. It is 
true that we have a few fragments of the works of both 
Ionian and Italo-Sicilian philosophers, and in them we read 
of theoretical speculation as to the nature of life and of the 
soul, and we can thus form sojne idea of the first attempts 
of such workers as Alcmaeon of Croton (c. 500 B.C.) to lay 
bare the structure of animals by dissection/' 

There arose numerous mechanical explanations of bodily 
structures, comparisons between the anatomy of man and 
of related animals, theories of human heredity similar to 
that termed 'pangenesis' by Charles Darwin, namely, the 
assemblage in the germ in each generation of the hereditary 
forces and influences of the parental body. Related to this 
rudiment of Darwin's pangenetic theory was a widespread 
notion that adaptive characters acquired in the body of 
one generation are transmitted to the germ and thus may 
reappear in the body of the next generation. From the ear- 
liest times, in the comparison of lower animals with man, 
there arose discussions of the survival of the stronger over 
the weaker the rudiment of the Darwinian theory of the 
survival of the fittest. 

*Tbe Rise of Anatomy and of Physiology 1 

Inasmuch as the Egyptians were well advanced in anat- 
omy and medicine long before the dawn of Greek civiliza- 
tion, it is not surprising that as early as the seventh cen- 
tury B.C. we have records of the practice of anatomy in 
Greece. Certainly at a very early date was begun the dis- 
section of the human body and the attribution of physical 
and psychical functions to various organs of the body. 
Thus Empedocles of Agrigentum (495-435 B.C.) regarded 
the blood as the seat of the "innate heat." Agrigentum (the 
modern Girgenti) was the center of the Sicilian school of 
medicine which gives us the first hint of human dissection 
and of the comparison of the hearts of animals with that of 
man. The distinction of writing the first work on human 
anatomy belongs to Diocles, who lived in the fourth cen- 
tury B.C. This is on the testimony of the first great anat- 
omist in the modern sense, Galen (ijo-c. 200), although we 
know the treatises of Hippocrates, whose greatest activity 
was about 400 B.C., and those of his son-in-law Polybus 
"On the Nature of Man" and "On the Nature of Bones." 
The treatise on anatomy by Herophilus is extensively 
quoted by Galen. 

Anatomy and physiology in the modern sense had not 
advanced very far in the third century B.C., although this 
was the period of the greatest sculptural attainment of 
Greece. While the scientific inquiry into anatomy may not 
have been of great service to the sculptor in the long period 
which we are considering, it was repeatedly referred to by 
the natural philosophers of Greece in their attempts to 
explain the natural origin of many of the most striking 

^Compare Thompson: Natural Science, and Singer: Biology, Medicine, in 'The Legacy 
of Greece." ^ ' 

i: 103 


adaptations observable in man ; for example, the marvelous 
adaptive structure of the backbone with its many verte- 
bral segments, the perfect adaptation of the four different 
kinds of teeth which serve four distinct purposes, the perfect 
adaptation of the human hand to the manifold purposes of 
industry and .art, finally, the intimate relation of the ac- 
tivity of the hand to the activity of the mind. 

Attributed to Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) is the notion 
that the uses of the human hand in the various arts have 
through inheritance played an important part in human 
intellectual progress : 

Now Anaxagoras says that it is due to his possessing hands that Man 
is of all things the most intelligent. But it may be argued that he comes 
into possession of hands because of his outstanding intelligence. For 
hands are a tool, and Nature always allots each tool, just as any sen- 
sible man would do, to whosoever is able to make use of it. It is ob- 
viously better and simpler to find a man who can play the flute and 
then supply him with the instrument, rather than to look for a man 
who happens to possess a flute and then teach him to play upon it. 

Aristotle: De Partttus Animalium y p. 68ja 7. 

Expressed in modern terms, manual training is one of the 
modes of mental training. In this sense the use of the hand 
becomes one of the causes of the development of the brain. 
In my own observation, in the enormously long period of 
the Stone Age the working of flint tools was the chief stim- 
ulus to the working of the mind. So there is a strong pre- 
historic argument for this thought of Anaxagoras. 

The Greeks were prone to seek in the practices and arts 
of life itself the explanation of the origin of all these adap- 
tations. In other words, they were inclined to the La- 
marckian hypothesis that actual experience contact and 
struggle with natural forces by various organs of the body 
was the cause of naturally arising adaptations. These 
explanations imply very close observation and intimate 


Rise of Anatomy and of Physiology 1 

Inasmuch as the Egyptians were well advanced in anat- 
omy and medicine long before the dawn of Greek civiliza- 
tion, it is not surprising that as early as the seventh cen- 
tury B.C. we have records of the practice of anatomy in 
Greece. Certainly at a very early date was begun the dis- 
section of the human body and the attribution of physical 
and psychical functions to various organs of the body. 
Thus Empedocles of Agrigentum (495-435 B.C.) regarded 
the blood as the seat of the "innate heat." Agrigentum (the 
modern Girgenti) was the center of the Sicilian school of 
medicine which gives us the first hint of human dissection 
and of the comparison of the hearts of animals with that of 
man. The distinction of writing the first work on human 
anatomy belongs to Diodes, who lived in the fourth cen- 
tury B.C. This is on the testimony of the first great anat- 
omist in the modern sense, Galen (130-^. 200), although we 
know the treatises of Hippocrates, whose greatest activity 
was about 400 B.C., and those of his son-in-law Polybus 
"On the Nature of Man" and "On the Nature of Bones." 
The treatise on anatomy by Herophilus is extensively 
quoted by Galen. 

Anatomy and physiology in the modern sense had not 
advanced very far in the third century B.C., although this 
was the period of the greatest sculptural attainment of 
Greece. While the scientific inquiry into anatomy may not 
have been of great service to the sculptor in the long period 
which we are considering, it was repeatedly referred to by 
the natural philosophers of Greece in their attempts to 
explain the natural origin of many of the most striking 

1 Compare Thompson: Natural Science, and Singer: Biology, Medicine, in 'The Legacy 
of Greece." 

C 10 3 


adaptations observable in man; for example, the marvelous 
adaptive structure of the backbone with its many verte- 
bral segments, the perfect adaptation of the four different 
kinds of teeth which serve four distinct purposes, the perfect 
adaptation of the human hand to the manifold purposes of 
industry and .art, finally, the intimate relation of the ac- 
tivity of the hand to the activity of the mind. 

Attributed to Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) is the notion 
that the uses of the human hand in the various arts have 
through inheritance played an important part in human 
intellectual progress : 

Now Anaxagoras says that it is due to his possessing hands that Man 
is of all things the most intelligent. But it may be argued that he comes 
into possession of hands because of his outstanding intelligence. For 
hands are a tool, and Nature always allots each tool, just as any sen- 
sible man would do, to whosoever is able to make use of it. It is ob- 
viously better and simpler to find a man who can .play the flute and 
then supply him with the instrument, rather than to look for a man 
who happens to possess a flute and then teach him to play upon it. 

Aristotle: De Partibus AnimaUum^ p. 68ja 7. 

Expressed in modern terms, manual training is one of the 
modes of mental training. In this sense the use of the hand 
becomes one of the causes of the development of the brain. 
In my own observation, in the enormously long period of 
the Stone Age the working of flint tools was the chief stim- 
ulus to the working of the mind. So there is a strong pre- 
historic argument for this thought of Anaxagoras. 

The Greeks were prone to seek in the practices and arts 
of life itself the explanation of the origin of all these adap- 
tations. In other words, they were inclined to the La- 
marckian hypothesis that actual experience contact and 
struggle with natural forces by various organs of the body 
was the cause of naturally arising adaptations. These 
explanations imply very close observation and intimate 

C I* 3 


knowledge of anatomy and, especially, repeated observa- 
tion of the daily exercise of organs and, therefore, of the 
structure of the organs themselves. This hypothesis of the 
origin of adaptations through the accumulation by hered- 
ity of the beneficial effects of individual effort and exercise 
has come down through the ages and constitutes a consid- 
erable part of biological philosophy even to our own day, 
that is, of the Lamarck-Spencer idea of the inheritance of 
physical and intellectual adaptations. Yet modern biology 
compels us to reject the early Greek idea that adaptive 
improvement in the working of either the hand or the mind 
was handed down from father to son by heredity. No gen- 
eration benefits by the manual or mental skill acquired by 
its ancestors or through the effects of their life-work; each 
generation benefits only by the inborn or innate cleverness, 
resourcefulness or adaptability inherited from its forebears. 

The formative power of mind over matter traversed the 
whole philosophy of Anaxagoras and more or less adum- 
brates the 'emergent* philosophy of Lloyd Morgan of to- 
day. Living creatures were produced from the terrestrial 
slime when animated by mind, but the 'mind' of Anaxa- 
goras is not mind in our sense of the word. We may credit 
him with seeking to give a naturalistic explanation, but 
not in any modern sense was he a naturalist. 

A conservative and sound view is that of the German 
historian of philosophy, Zeller, who rightly remarks that 
explanations of adaptations in anatomy cannot be ad- 
vanced until the very conception of adaptation itself had 
been formulated as the most difficult problem not only in 
the body of man but in all forms of life. Thus Zeller takes 
the true scientific view of the teaching of Empedocles, in 
opposition to Lange, who attributes to Democritus aDar- 

n 123 


winian interpretation of Empedocles' teaching: "The at- 
tainment of adaptations through the infinitely repeated play 
of production and annihilation, in which finally that alone 
survives which bears the guarantee of persistence through its 
relatively fortuitous constitution. 9 ' 1 Zeller thinks that this 
could not have been advanced by Empedocles as an ex- 
planation of Design in Nature,- because the idea of Design 
had not yet been formulated in the Greek mind. In fact, we 
should not insert the new wine of modern thought into the 
old bottles of Greek philosophy. 

Another famous Lamarckian passage in Empedocles 
which successively attracted the attention of Democritus, 
of Plato, of Aristotle, of Herbert Spencer and of our own 
natural philosopher William Keith Brooks is referred to by 
Brooks 2 as follows: 

"Herbert Spencer tells us that the segmentation of the 
backbone is the inherited effect of fractures, caused by 
bending, but Aristotle has shown ( Tarts of Animals/ Li. ) 
that Empedocles and the ancient writers err in teaching 
that the bendings to which the backbone has been sub- 
jected are the cause of its joints, since the thing to be ac- 
counted for is not the presence of joints, but the fitness of 
the joints for the needs of their possessor/' 

To those Greek and modern zoologists who regard hu- 
man nature as the inherited effect of past nurture Brooks 2 

"Belief that something is added to our nature by experi- 
ence, and training, and education, rests on deliberate or 
unconscious acceptance of some such definition of nature 
as that which Alciphron gives; and, as the modern zoolo- 

i Compare Osborn: From the Greeks to Darwin, p. 40. 
'William Keith Brooks: The Foundations of Zoology, pp. 49, 62. 

C 13 H 


gist . . . seems to lose sight of Euphranor's analysis of 
this definition, I beg leave to refresh his memory by a short 
quotation from the old dialogue. 

"Eupbranor. You seem very much taken with the beauty of nature. 
Be pleased to tell me, Alciphron, what those things are which you 
esteem natural, or by what mark I may know them, 

"Alcipbron. For a thing to be natural, for instance, to the mind of 
man, it must appear originally therein: it must be universal in all men: 
it must be invariably the same in all nations and ages. These limitations 
of original, universal, and invariable exclude all those notions of the 
human mind which are the effect of custom and education." 

These passages are intensely interesting because they 
show that the Lamarckian doctrine now known as the in- 
heritance of acquired characters was discussed with great 
ability even in the time of Plato (427-347 B.C.). 

According to the above citations, the chief influence of 
the advance of the science of human anatomy on Greek 
thought between 600 and 300 B.C. was to narrow the prob- 
lem of the origin of man as a whole as conceived by Anaxi- 
mander and by Anaxagoras and his followers, to the more 
intimate anatomical problem of the origin of certain of the 
more conspicuous adaptations in man, especially those in 
the skeleton and in the teeth. The idea of sudden or for- 
tuitous development, which we now call 'mutation/ still 
contested with the idea of* the gradual and purposive devel- 
opment of useful organs. This is clearly shown in the dis- 
cussion by Aristotle of the adaptive origin of the front 
teeth of man that is, the cutting or incisor teeth and the 
piercirig eye teeth. Against the fortuitous or chance hy- 
pothesis of Empedocles and Democritus, Aristotle ad- 
vanced his own philosophy of natural causation, which we 
may seek to understand by a number of concrete examples 
from his own writings. Unfortunately for our purpose in 

C H3 


these lectures, his observations were far more extended in 
lower animals and in comparative anatomy than in man. 

As cited by the present author 1 from Taylor's translation 
of Aristotle's "Physics," Aristotle rejects the idea that adap- 
tive structures can be produced by survivals of accidental 
fitness and substitutes the idea of purposive progress: 

cc What, then, hinders but that the parts in Nature may 
also thus arise. For instance, that the teeth should arise 
from necessity, the front teeth sharp and adapted to divide 
the food, the grinders broad and adapted to breaking the 
food into pieces. 

"Yet, it may be said that they were not made for this 
purpose, but that this purposive arrangement came about 
by chance; and the same reasoning is applied to other parts 
of the body in which existence for some purpose is apparent. 
And */ is argued that where all things happened as if they were 
made for some purpose, being aptly united by chance, these 
were preserved, but such as were not aptly made, these were 
lost and still perish, according to what Empedocles says 
concerning the bull species with human heads. This, there- 
fore, and similar reasoning, may lead some to doubt on this 

Prometheus Voices the Spirit of Discovery 

That these fragments of biological discussion are only a 
part of the whole philosophical discussion of the period is 
proven in the writings of the great dramatist Aeschylus. As 
in our own age Balzac and Tennyson gathered inspiration 
from the current palaeontological and biological discoveries 
of Cuvier and of Darwin, so Aeschylus, the earliest of the 
great Greek dramatists, reveals the anthropology and bi- 

iQsborn: From the Greeks to Darwin, p. 55. 

n 153 


ology of his day. Born in Athens 525 B.C. in the deme of 
Eleusis, Aeschylus produced his "Prometheus Bound" dur- 
ing the period between the year 479 B.C. and his death in 
the year 456 B.C. 

In this splendid drama the rise of man to Parnassus 
the principle of the gradual moral, social, intellectual and 
spiritual development of man is as prophetically set forth 
as it could be in the light of modern discovery. As an intro- 
duction to each of the six chapters of this volume we have 
chosen passages from the scholarly translation of John 
Stuart Blackie. 1 For the purposes of inspiration we may 
also express the thought of Aeschylus in the more poetic 
rendering of Elizabeth Barrett Browning: 2 

. . . List rather to the deeds 

I did for mortals; how, being fools before, 

REASON: I made them wise and true in aim of soul. 

And let me tell you not as taunting men, 
But teaching you the intention of my gifts, 
How, first beholding, they beheld in vain, 
And hearing, heard not, but, like shapes in dreams, 
Mixed all things wildly down the tedious time, 

ARCHITECTURE: Nor knew to build a house against the sun 

With wickered sides, nor any woodcraft knew, 

CAVE LIFE: But lived, like silly ants, beneath the ground 

In hollow caves unsunned, There, came to them 
No steadfast sign of winter, nor of spring 
Flower-perfumed, nor of summer foil of fruit, 
But blindly and lawlessly they did all things, 

ASTRONOMY: Until I taught them how the stars do rise 
And set in mystery, and devised for them 

MATHEMATICS : Number, the inducer of philosophies, 

LITERATURE : The synthesis of Letters, and, beside, 

MEMORY: The artificer of all things, Memory, 

That sweet Muse-mother. I was first to yoke 

i John Stuart Blackie: The Lyrical Dramas of Aeschylus. 
Elizabeth Barrett Browning: Poetical Works. 

C 163 


DOMESTICATION The servile beasts in couples, carrying 
OF ANIMALS: An heirdom of man's burdens on their backs. 
I joined to chariots, steeds, that love the bit 
They champ at the chief pomp of golden ease. 

NAVIGATION: And none but I originated ships, 

The seaman's chariots, wandering on the brine 
With linen wings. ... ... 

. . . Hearken the rest, 

And marvel further, what more arts and means 

I did invent, this, greatest: if a man 

MEDICINE: Fell sick, there was no cure, nor esculent 

Nor chrism nor liquid, but for lack of drugs 
Men pined and wasted, till I showed them all 
Those mixtures of emollient remedies 
Whereby they might be.rescued from disease. 

AUGURY: I fixed the various rules of man tic art, 

Discerned the vision from the common dream, 

Instructed them in vocal auguries 

Hard to interpret, and defined as plain 

The wayside omens, flights of crook-clawed birds, 

Showed which are, by their nature, fortunate, 

And which not so, and what the food of each, 

And what the hates, affections, social needs, 

Of all to one another, taught what sign 

Of visceral lightness, coloured to a shade, 

May charm the genial gods, and what fair spots 

Commend the lung and liver. Burning so 

The limbs encased in fat, and the long chine, 

I led my mortals on to an art abstruse, 

USE OF FIRE And cleared their eyes to the image in the fire, 
AND METALS: Erst filmed in dark. Enough said now of this. 
For the other helps of man hid underground, 
The iron and the brass, silver and gold, 
Can any dare affirm he found them out 
Before me? none, I know! unless he choose 
To lie in his vaunt. In one word learn the whole, 
That all arts came to mortals from Prometheus. 

In summation, let us restate in the scientific and eco- 
nomic language of our day the thought of Aeschylus re- 
garding the gradual rise of man, in the order determined by 
our present knowledge of the prehistory of man: 

C *7 n 


The successive phases of human ascent were opened with 
the gift of language and of a mind conscious of itself and of 
its powers. This linguistic and reflective stage was followed 
by powers of observation and of the communication of 
thought through speech. The first bodily boon of mortals 
was the discovery of fire, their first life was that of random 
wandering without any fixed dwelling. Man dwelt in the 
dark sunless caves of earth, knowing nothing of the art of 
building in either wood or brick. The seasons passed with- 
out record or power of anticipation until the stars were 
read and revealed the procession of the seasons and years. 
At the same time arose the use of numbers in calculation 
and the use of letters whereby man records his shifting 
thoughts, aided by memory, thus completing his intellec- 
tual equipment. For man's higher bodily welfare, following 
the art of building and the choice of sunward exposure for 
his homes, came agriculture, aided by the yoking of the ox 
and the ass and by the harnessing of the horse. Thus on 
land the labors of man were eased, while on the sea was 
launched the sail-propelled vessel Thus was the ephemeral 
life of man soothed, but to cure disease there remained the 
discovery of herbs and healing foods, of soothing drugs to 
check the march of corruption. The final step was to probe 
the earth, and through its iron, copper, silver, and gold to 
help man's weakness and crown his arts. Meanwhile the 
art of divination arose, avoiding those omens fraught with 
evil and seeking those of blissful augury. 

Thus Aeschylus marshals the rise of the intellectual arts 
of language, observation, comparison and reason, inven- 
tion, memory, literature, mathematics and astronomy, as 
well as the practical discoveries of fire, the building of the 
home, the domestication of animals, agriculture, the build- 

C 183 


ing of boats and navigation, medicine, mining, and the use 
of metals. In the rise to Parnassus we observe that prac- 
tically all these human accomplishments belong to pre- 
history and were in the full tide of human progress 
before the dawn of recorded history. 

This indeed is our chief object to show how the mind 
and spirit of man developed through the conquest of one 
great obstacle after another, in which intelligence rather 
than brute force always played the guiding part. We shall 
see how nearly Aeschylus anticipated the principles of 
modern archaeology, the modern science of prehistory, and 
our knowledge of the historic rudiments of modern civili- 



PROMETHEUS. . . . Of human kind, 

My great offence in aiding them, in teaching 
The babe to speak, and rousing torpid mind 
To take the grasp of itself of this I'll talk; 
Meaning to mortal men no blame, but only 
The true recital of mine own deserts. 
. . * 

CHORUS. And didst thou chance to advance even beyond this ? 

PROMETHEUS. Yes! I prevented mortals from foreseeing their doom. 

CHO. By finding what remedy for this malady ? 

PRO. I caused blind hopes to dwell within them. 

CHO. In this thou gavest a mighty benefit to mortals. 

PRO. Over and above these boons, however, I imparted fire to them. 

CHO. And do the creatures of a day now possess bright fire? 

PRO. Yes from which they will moreover learn thoroughly many arts. 

Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound. 


The Dawn Stone Age: Newly discovered evidence of the great antiquity of man 

Tbe Bramford flint workers of the Upper Pliocene Tbe Foxball Dawn 

Man found near Ipswich His flint quarry and fireplace The Dawn Man 

ofPiltdown, Sussex Tbe flint implements of Foxball and Piltdown similar. 

Tbe Old Stone Age: Tbe giant flints of Cromer mark the beginning of tbe Old 

Stone Age and possible ancestry of tbe Neandertbaloid races of Heidelberg, 

Krapina, Ebringsdorf and Neandertbal 

Tbe TrinilDawn Man of Java 

HARDLY had the twentieth century opened before 
there began to be found indubitable proofs of the ex- 
istence of man previous to the Age of Man, not in the long- 
debated flints known as 'eoliths' or 'dawn-stones/ but in 
flints of undoubted human workmanship. This astounding 
discovery occurred on the east coast of Britain, far re- 
moved from central Asia, which I believe to be the original 
homeland of man. Through this discovery two points of the 
utmost importance are established: First, that man almost 
from the beginning was a great traveler, hunter and ex- 
plorer; second, that even in the inconceivably remote past 
man was a relatively superior being, walking erect, and 
with very capable tool-making hands guided and directed 
by a very superior order of brain. 

According to these and other discoveries, we now know 
that man is unbelievably ancient in origin. Just as beyond 
our universe there are other universes immeasurably dis- 
tant which yet send their light to the earth, and just as the 
whole life-period of the earth is credibly reckoned by 
physicists at i,oco,oco,ooo years, so now man and his an- 










cestors are being traced 
back over 1,000,000 
years to the Dawn Stone 
Age, in the earlier geo- 
logic period of the Age 
of Mammals. 

In this lecture is given 
some of the new and 
startling testimony as to 
man's antiquity. For a 
hundred and ten years 
we had been laboriously 
forging links in the chain 
of human prehistory, 
from the beginning of 
prehistoric time to the 
very beginning of the 
Age of Man, but since 
the year 1909 the goal 
lines of anthropological 
research have shifted 
back into the Age of 
Mammals, from the Ice 
Age into the more genial 
Tertiary period, and the 
scene of research has 

TIME SCALE. Left column: Flint indus- 
tries of the Dawn and Old Stone Ages, 
in ascending order. Center column: 
Theoretic time scale based chiefly on 
the fossil mammals and succession of 
glaciations I to IV. Observe the long 
Plateau period and the relatively brief 
Cave and Recent periods. Right Col- 
umn: Theoretic succession of flint- 
making races, in ascending order. 










1,000,000 years 

i, 000,000 years 











35,000,000 . 











Recent geologic time table, in which the whole geologic life-period of the earth is esti- 
mated at a thousand million years and subdivided as above. After W. A. Parks, F.R.S.C.; 
published in 1926 by the Royal Society of Canada. 

Fossil remains of man are now known in the entire Quaternary Age of Man era and in 
the upper part of the Tertiary Pliocene period. 

*The Miocene, Oligocene and Eocene beds are entirely wanting in the region of East 
Angha; the Pliocene beds lie immediately on top of the Cretaceous. 


shifted from France on the River Somme to England on the 
River Ouse and on thatpart of the coast known as East Anglia. 


The coast of East Anglia is replete with historic interest, 
for here the Britons of old under Queen Boadicea made 
their last stand against the Roman legions. But this and 
other recorded history Seems very recent indeed if we con- 

t V3 


trast it with the prehistoric records of past ages embedded 
in the cliffs of Cromer and the adjacent deposits. This Plio- 
cene region first aroused my interest by its fossil fauna 
when, in the year 1920, 1 attempted to define its very im- 
portant fossil animal levels and those of the various 'Crag* 
deposits of the warm Pliocene waters bathing the coast of 
eastern England during the Age of Mammals. 

Fiff. 2. GEOGRAPHIC CENTERS IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND, where dwelt the flint workers of the 
Old Stone Age along the River Somme, and of the Dawn Stone Age along the Thames and 
coast of East Anglia. Sunken channel and coast lines as they are today. 

To get a clear idea of truly ancient geography we must 
realize that in Pliocene times a north continental shore-line 
extended westward and united Europe with England where 
the English Channel now is. Along this ancient coast man 
found his way into England in Pliocene times and there left 
traces of his camps in his recently discovered handiwork 
the Cromer, Foxhall and sub-Red Crag flint implements. 

The genial Pliocene climate of East Anglia was suc- 
ceeded by a boreal sub-arctic climate as the long elevated 


Piltdown region of Sussex northward from Ipswich to Norwich and Cromer, the present 
area of East Anglia. On the very ground where Cardinal Woisey played as a boy around 
Ipswich, the youth of the Foxhall and sub-Red Crag of Bramford worked around the fire- 
places, learning to fashion their flint implements, at least 700,000 years ago. To the south 
of London were thi youth of the Piltdown race. To the north were the flint makers of 
Cromer, possibly of the same giant race and geologic age as the men of Heidelberg to the 
east of the River Rhine. 

chalky coast sank below the level of the North Sea. In all 
the northern hemisphere the Tertiary Age of Mammals 
closes in glacial time with a great cold wave on land and 
sea and with an arctic invasion of animals and plants 
which introduce the Quaternary Age of Man. As described 
by Sir Archibald Geikie in I882, 1 in the closing Pliocene 
period of Britain, after long ages of exposure of East 
Anglia as a land surface during which a continuous and 

Archibald Geikie: Textbook of Geology, pp. 870-873. 



ultimately stupendous subaerial denudation of Cretaceous 
Chalk Beds was in progress, the land underwent a gentle 
but local subsidence. We have no evidence of the extent 
of this depression; all that can be affirmed is that the 
southeastern counties of England began to subside, and 
on their submerged surface some sandbanks and shelly de- 
posits were laid down, very much as similar accumulations 
now take place on the bottom of the North Sea. These for- 
mations are subdivided, according to their proportion of 
fossil and living species of shells, into the following groups: 


PLEISTOCENE Cromer Forest Bed Group . 10 to 70 ft. 
TRANSITION Chillesford beds [Molluscs of 
TO GLA- Arctic Seas] 
CIAL AGE Chillesford Clay [=Wey- 

bourn Crag] ........ i " 8 " 

Chillesford Sand with shells . 5 " 8 " 


PLIOCENE Norwich Crag ........ 5 * 10 " 19 n 

Red Crag ........... 25 " 23 32 

White Crag .......... 40 " 60 " 14 65 


CRETACEOUS Chalk Beds, containing /// Species Species 

pebbles and nodules. 

Of these crag deposits, the oldest is the Pliocene 'White 
Crag/ a coralline or bryozoan formation exposed in many 
places in the county of Suffolk; it indicates a sea and land 
temperature about like that of Nassau and the Bahama 
Islands of today and it consists of shelly sands and marls 
containing 316 species of shells, of which 84 per cent, are 
still living. 

Tiff. 4* SIR E. RAT LANKESTER, veteran zoologist surviving from the great 
Victorian age of British science, who has encouraged the work of Moir and 
lent his authority to the theory of human origin of the Upper Pliocene 
flints of East Anglia, especially the rostro-carinates of the sub-Red Crag. 

Fiff. J. J. REID Mont, archaeologist of Ipswich, who since 1909 has suc- 
cessively discovered the sub-Red Crag flints in the Bramford quarry, the 
Foxhall flint-making floor of Ipswich and the Cromer quarries of Norfolk, 
and has demonstrated the existence of intelligent flint workers and fire 
makers at the close of the Age of Mammals, Pliocene time. 


Next above comes the 'Red Crag/ also a thin and local 
formation, consisting of a dark-red or brown ferruginous 
shelly sand; of its molluscs, 92 per cent, are believed to be 
still living species, and out of 25 species of corals, 14 are 
stilTnatives of British seas. It is at the very base of the Red 
Crag that the earliest stone flints of human manufacture 
have been found. 

The 'Norwich Crag* follows, with its fluvio-marine and 
mammaliferous fauna; among its molluscs, 93 per cent, of 
which represent forms still existing, we note certain, 
northern species which we may regard as indicative of the 
coming Arctic invasion. 

Beneath the Pliocene deposits above mentioned, extend- 
ing from the white cliffs of Dover, lies the Chalk of the 
Cretaceous Age, wherein were embedded flint pebbles and 
nodules which, to primitive man, with his crude stone im- 
plements, were a great attraction. The Stone Age man 
traveled far and wide in search of flints, just as our more 
recent ancestors sought deposits of copper and tin. 

Overlying the Pliocene crags are the Chillesford Sands 
and Clay and the contemporary "Weybourn Crag' (ex- 
posed near Ipswich), which open the Age of Man; here we 
observe signs of a marked refrigeration of the waters along 
that part of the coast, for two-thirds of the molluscs repre- 
sented belong to forms which still exist in Arctic waters, 
thus identifying this period with the oncoming First Gla- 
cial Stage of western Europe. 

The still more recent Cromer Forest Bed deposits of the 
early Age of Man denote a sensible amelioration of climate, 
synchronous with the First Interglacial stage of western 
Europe and perhaps with the period of the Heidelberg 
man of the Rhine region. 




Glacial (I-IV) Age 

East Anglia 

Sussex and Kent 

Sands of the 
Trinil River 




NORFOLK, known 



by flints only; 

of the 

in the 'Forest 

Age of Man 

Bed group* 

Close of the 



Age of 

IPSWICH, known 



only by flints 

and fireplaces; 

in the Red Crag 

Pliocene Age 


[Pliocene Age 
still disputed] 


known by 


and other flints 


The 'Bramford* or Sub-Red Crag Flint Workers 

The discovery of the Pliocene sub-Red Crag flint beds of 
the Bramford Dawn Man is due to a merchant of Ipswich, 
J. Reid Moir, who was attracted casually by a flint which 
he picked up on a local exploring trip in 1909 in company 
with a geologist. The flint appeared to Moir to be humanly 
fashioned, and he immediately began to devote his spare 
time to further search for such objects, which he conceived 
to be remains of early man. The flint implements which he 
found lay beneath or at the very base of the Red Crag, 
which implied a geologic age so great as to make the idea of 
human agency impossible in the judgment of the scientific 
world. For a long time Moir received no encouragement, 
except from the veteran Sir Ray Lankester and from my 
own acceptance of his discovery at Foxhall in the London 

US* 3 


Times \ but with the courage of his convictions he worked 
on, in the face of ridicule, collecting the unique flint imple- 
ments, which Lankester named 'rostro-carinate' 1 (beak- 
keeled), to describe their curious form, and, later, the Plio- 
cene flint implements of the type known as 'Foxhall.' 

On a visit to the British Museum a few years ago I in- 
quired about the rostro-carinates and was told, "Oh, we 
don't admit those." But now the recently published "Guide 
to the Stone Age Antiquities of the British Museum/' by 
Keeper Reginald Smith, gives excellent figures and a full 
description of the very rostro-carinates that formerly were 

Fig. 6. SIDE VIEW OF LARGE ROSTKO-CARINATB discovered in the sub-Red Crag of the Bramford 
quarry. After Lankester, 1921, Pi. 10. Cort. An area of cortex or original bark of the nodule. 
2, 3, 4. Scars whence ribbon-like flakes have been struck ; scars 3 and 4 are noticeable for the 
conchoidal transverse rippling of the flint. 5. The scar of a broader flake, parallel to 2, 3, 4, 
which is truncated by the well-marked conchoidal scar, 6, of another shaping-flake. 

"not admitted." I myself hesitated in 1921 to admit them, 
although I did admit the human origin of the Foxhall 
flints and wrote at length to the London Times concerning 
them. Following this, Abb6 Henri Breuil and Dr. Louis 
Capitan, two of the foremost archaeologists of France, vis- 
ited the Foxhall site, and, after a searching investigation, 
pronounced the flints to be genuine artifacts. During the 
past year they have also somewhat reluctantly admitted 

1 From rostrum, beak, and taring keel 

r 33 i 


the rostro-carinates to be indubitable artifacts of human 

The rostro-carinates are found at the base of the Red 
Crag and on the very top of the far more ancient Creta- 
ceous or Chalk bed, the deposit being characterized by 
abundant fauna of southern elephants and rhinoceroses and 
by very rare flints. Their use is only conjectural; I have 
suggested that they might well, have been used in removing 
the hide from an animal, the flat surface pushing in be- 
tween the flesh and the skin, and the sharp 'keel' cutting 
the skin. 

fig. 7. A ROSTRO-CAKINATB FROM THE sTn-RsD CRAG, Ao-wing the ventral plane made by A 
single blow, the keel or carina, the dorsal plane, and, the smooth round surface to be 
grasped by the hand. 1-3 natural size. After Reginald A. Smith, 1926. 

The rostro-carinate implements are known by Lankes- 
ter and Moir to represent artifacts of a still earlier stage 
than those either of Foxhall or of Cromer. Of the men that 
produced these flints Moir writes: 1 "The pre-Crag people 
. . . had an abundance of flint of very fine quality, in the 
form of nodules, with which to work, but the more or less 

ij. Reid Moor: PrevPalaeolithic Man, 1900, pp. 1-67, 1-XXIX. 


rounded surfaces, of nodules did not afford a satisfactory 
striking-platform, and so they had to learn to provide 
themselves, by flaking, with a flat surface upon which 
blows could be struck with precision. . . . The ventral 
surface of the rostro-carinate formed by the removal of a 
large flake from the original flint nodule, represents the 
natural flat surface of tabular flint, and in both cases blows 
were delivered on each side of this flat surface. . . . In the 
rostro-carinate the keel or gable seems to have been the 
desired object." 

primitive stage, with seven small flakes struck off the left lateral surface. Right'. How the 
beak-keeled rostro-carinate was fashioned by the sub-Red Crag flint workers. 1-3 natural 
size. After Moir, 1920, Pis. V, IV. 

Lankester defines the ideal rostro-carinate as an imple- 
ment with broad posterior region, narrowed anteriorly to a 
quasi-vertical cutting edge. This anterior narrow edge is 
strongly curved and gives the implement the form of the 
beak of an accipitrine bird. The form of this region of the 
implement may also be compared to that of the prow of a 
boat with the keel turned upward. If the implement is held 
with the prow or beak to the front, there are observed an 
upper or dorsal plane, a lower or ventral plane, a right 
lateral and left lateral surface, a posterior surface or stern, 
and an anterior surface. 

According to Moir the' rostro-carinate of the sub-Red 


Crag has evolved from two antecedent stages, followed by 
four succeeding stages in the last of which the rostro- 
carinate pattern almost disappears. In his valuable trea- 
tise, "Pre-Palaeolithic Man/' Moir describes his theory of 
the early evolution of the flint industry. Moir herein main- 
tains that the Piltdown man the Eoantbropus of Smith 
Woodward was of Upper Pliocene age and was possibly 
the maker of the types of flints found at Foxhall. 

Fig. 9. PRIMITIVE SPEARHEAD or flint weapon worked on both faces, found in the sub-Red Crag 
quarry of firamford (see Fig. 10), an implement geologically older than any fiom Foxhai 
(see Fig. 15). 1-3 natural size. After Reginald A. Smith. 

The discoveries by J. Reid Moir of evidences of the exist- 
ence of Pliocene man in East Anglia accordingly opened a 
new epoch in archaeology, in which the southeastern corner 
of Great Britain is destined to play a very important part. 
In their bearing on the rise of man these discoveries are no 
less revolutionary, because they bring indubitable evidence 
of the existence of man in southeast Britain, man of suffi- 
cient intelligence to fashion flints and to build a fire, before 
the close of Pliocene time and before the advent of the 
First Glaciation, which opens the Pleistocene or Quater- 
nary history of man. That is, we have at last found in the 








"i-ffi ER 

Fig. 10. IN IBB BRAMFORD QUAFPT NFAR IPSWICH. J. Reid Moir pointing to the rub-Red Crag flint- 
tool layer of Pliocene age, by far the most ancient evidence of man thus far discovered; here 
were found the rostro-carinates and other implements shown in Pigs. 6, 7, 8, 9. The author stands 
on the level of the Fozhall flint-tool layer* under the Red Crag summit. 

Pig. 11. IN THE HEART OF THE FOXHALL QUARRY HEAR IPSWICH. J. Reid Moir pointing to the 1 6-foot 
flint-tool and fireplace level. The site represents a flint-making camp of the Foxhall Dawn Man, 
The small-flint industry (see Fig. 15) found here was very different from that at the base of the 
Red Crag. Some of the flints give evidence of exposure to fire. 


Foxhall flints proofs of the existence of real Tertiary man, 
of geologic age exceeding a million years. 



Postglacial Vime 

| jrd Interglacial Time 

2nd Interglacial Time 

ist Interglacial ttme 



Aurignacian-Magdalenian Industry, 


Mousterian Industry, NEANDERTHAL 

Acbeulean Industry, (i) warm and (2) 

Chilean Industry, warm mammal 
fauna of northern France and 
England. The Chellean Industry 
(Boucher de Perthes, 1846), is now 
regarded as beginning (prc-Cbellean 
phase) in 2nd Interglacial ttme 

Pre-Cbellean Industry discovered in 
France in this very long period of 
geologic time. The HEIDELBERG 
man (Germany) and scattered 
primitive industrial flake flints are 
referred to this period 

Flint Industry of the CROMER RACE, 
Norfolk, England 


(3) The Piltdown DAWN MAN of Sussex 
and associated//^/ implements 

(a) Flint Industry of the Foxhall 

DAWN MAN, IpSWlch, Suffolk, 


(i) Sub-Red Crag Industry, Bramford 
quarry, Ipswich, Suffolk, Eng- 
land . 

TABLE ill 

This discovery of man in Pliocene time delights the pres- 
ent author for a personal reason, namely, because it tends 
to render somewhat more probable his prophecy made in 
April, 1921, before the National Academy of Sciences at 


Washington that one of the great surprises In store for us 
in science is the future discovery of Pliocene man with a 
large brain. At present, however, we know nothing of the 
brain weight and little of the intelligence of the Dawn 
Man who fashioned the flints of the sub-Red Crag and of 
Foxhall, unless the Piltdown flint workers are of Foxhall age. 

Discovery of the "Fossil Human Jaw from Suffolk 

In 1920 Moir directed attention 1 to a paper, long for- 
gotten and almost lost sight of, which appeared in the An- 
thropological Review of 1867, entitled, "The Fossil Human 
Jaw from Suffolk," by R. H. Collyer, M.D., 2 in which 
occurs the following statement: "At the instigation of Vice- 
Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, C.B., I was induced to ex- 
hibit to the Ethnological Society of London in April 1863, 
a fossil or coprolite human jaw, which was found by the 
workers employed in excavating coprolites near Ipswich, 
Suffolk. The jaw was purchased from the finder by Mr. 
John Taylor, druggist, of Ipswich, for the sum of zr. 6d., 
who called my attention to it at the time, 1855. . . . The 
specific gravity [of the jaw bone] is much greater than that 
of a recent bone of the like size, it being infiltrated through- 
out its entirety with oxide of iron, and the surface presents 
peculiar metallic lustre. ... I have now every reason to 
believe that this 'coprolite jaw' is the oldest relic of the 
human animal in existence, as its condition corresponds in 
every respect with the coprolites in whose contact it was 

i J. Reid Moir: Further Discoveries of Humanly-Fashioned Flints in and beneath the 
Red Crag of Suffolk. Reprint Prcbist. Soc. East Anglo, for 1920-1921, pp. 1-42, Pis. I-III, 
V, Figs. I-45A. 

'Robert EL Collyer: The Fossil Human Jaw from Suffolk. Anthrepokpcal Rniew, VoL V, 
No. XVII, April, 1867, PP- 221-229. 


Fig. 12. ALLEGED HUMAN JAW recorded and figured by Collyer in 1867 * having been found 
by workmen in the 10-foot level of the Foxhall quarry (see Fig. 13). 2-3 natural size. 

The history of this jaw, as narrated by Moir from Dr. 
Collyer's original paper, reads like a romance. Collyer was 
an American physician resident for many years in London. 
Aman of exceptional intelligence, he became convinced that 
the jaw was a true fossil and that its geologic antiquity 
could be established beyond question. Like the Piltdown 
skull of 1911, the Foxhall jaw of 1855 had been found 
by workmen. In their search for fertilizing material, the 
jaw was recovered in a roadside dump and was presented 
to Collyer in 1857. The best record of the alleged find is in 
a letter dated November 13, i866/'to Dr. R. H. Collyer 
from Mr. John Taylor, the original purchaser of the speci- 
men from the workman in 1855: "From what"! could learn 
at the time, from the agricultural labourer of whom I 
bought it, it came from the coprolite pit on the farm of Mr. 
Laws at Foxhall, about four miles from Ipswich, and was 
thrown out at Mr. Packard's manure factory with the 
coprolite from a cart or tumbril, and from thence was 
brought to me to secure a glass of beer. . . . There is no 
doubt the bone was obtained at some depth ... as I 


know the pit had been open for a considerable time when 
it was found/' Collyer visited the locality where the ma- 
terial was procured and noted that the quarry was sixteen 
feet below the surface. 

During the succeeding decade Dr. Collyer took the very 
steps we would take today by submitting the jaw for exam- 
ination to the leading experts of England and France. In 
1 857 he showed it to Quekett, curator of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, and on Quekett's suggestion, to Richard 
Owen, the leading comparative anatomist of Great Britain, 
who kept it two years without expressing any opinion. In 
1859 Collyer submitted it to the geologist Prestwich, the 
first British authority to support Boucher de Perthes' dis- 
covery of Chellean man in France. Four years elapsed, dur- 
ing which appeared Sir Charles LyelTs work on "The An- 
tiquity of Man" (1863), which led Collyer to take the jaw 
to Huxley, at the time foremost advocate of evolution and 
subsequent author of "Man's Place in Nature"; Huxley 
rightly pronounced the jaw of modern type. Later, at a 
meeting of the Ethnological Society (April, 1863), at 
which were present the great geologists Charles Lyell and 
Roderick Murchison, the palaeontologist George Busk 
stated that Collyer's specimen was "the jaw of some old 
woman, perhaps from some Roman burial ground." Hux- 
ley, who was present at this meeting, called on Collyer the 
following morning and pronounced the jaw to be a "most 
extraordinary specimen"; finally, however, Huxley wrote 
(May, 1863) to Collyer that the jaw bone showed "some 
peculiar characters," which, however, did not appear to 
him to be in themselves adequate to lead him to ascribe the 
bone "to an extinct or aberrant race of mankind, and the 
condition of the bone is not such as I should expect a crag 


fossil to be." Undiscouraged by Huxley's adverse opinion, 
Collyer submitted .the jaw to the palaeontologists Hugh 
Falconer and Busk, who took it to Paris for submittal to 
Quatrefages and other French anatomists. Busk modified 
his original opinion and wrote (July, 1863) that he re- 
garded the jaw as of "very great antiquity." 

In brief, Collyer submitted his 'coprolite jaw' to every 
great geologist and comparative anatomist of the time, but 
the results were mainly negative, probably because the 
shape of the jaw was not primitive but modern^ with a promi- 
nent chin process, and the degree of mineralization was not 
such as positively to prove it a fossil. He had a chemical 
analysis made which showed that the jaw was largely min- 
eralized or fossilized, but retained eight per cent, of animal 
matter. As to the degree of fossilization, Busk agreed with 
Huxley that the jaw was of modern form, ". . . of course, 
without any relation as regards age with the fossil bones of 
the coprolite beds; it [the jaw] is of very great antiquity." 
On this question Moir reports that, on chemical analysis, 
it is found that some of the Red Crag bones contain as 
little as six and one-half per cent, of organic matter as 
compared with the eight per cent, reported in the Foxhall 

With our present knowledge and experience, it is diffi- 
cult to understand why these great geologists and com- 
parative anatomists did not immediately visit the spot 
from which the jaw was recorded, establish or disprove its 
geologic age, and endeavor to ascertain whether there was 
any reasonable doubt as to its actually having been found 
at the spot indicated. But Collyer was left alone with his 
discovery. He disappeared from scientific meetings and at 
the present writing we have no further record of either the 


enterprising doctor or the alleged Foxhall jaw. From in- 
quiries instituted by Moir, it appears that Collyer was a 
graduate of the Berkshire School of Medicine, formerly at 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts, and a personal friend of the 
American craniologist, Dr. Morton, of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, with whom he corre- 
sponded about the jaw. It is hoped that, following up these 
clues, it may be possible to trace the history of Dr. Collyer 
after 1867, and, furthermore, that there may be a possi- 
bility of our recovering the lost Foxhall jaw. 

It would be hazardous for the present author even to 
express an opinion as to whether this jaw is of Pliocene age 
and contemporaneous with the great southern mammoth 
and other South Temperate fossil mammals. The imperfect 
figure reproduced from Collyer shows it to be different 
from the two most ancient jaws we know, namely, those of 
the chinless Piltdown and Heidelberg men, for it appar- 
ently bad aprorninent chin. It is possible that the minerali- 
zation of the jaw was due to deep intrusive burial. To s'ettle 
these questions the/rfie; must be traced and found. Even if 
the jaw proves to belong to a modern race of man rather 
than to the Foxhall race, Dr. Collyer's paper has suddenly 
become a classic because it has led to the long awaited dis- 
covery of Tertiary man, which may now be described. 

Discovery of the Dawri Man Flint Quarry and 
Fireplace of Foxball near Ipswich 

It remained for Moir, half a century later, to unearth 
Collyer's paper of 1867, to vindicate his entire procedure, 
and above all to rediscover the actual sixteen-foot level at 
Foxhall in which Dr. Collyer believed the jaw was located. 
"I found to my surprise," writes Moir, ". . . the occur- 

Fig. 13. GREAT FOXHAIL QUARRY NEAR IPSWICH. Upper: spot where Collyer recorded the find of a 
human jaw in 1855; the canvas at right covers spot where J. Reid Moir discovered the fireplace 
and the Fozhall flints in 1920. 

Lower: Western face of the Fozhall pit, in which the industrial flint layers "E" and "6" were 
discovered ; on the i6-foot level indicated by the left arrow were found the Foxhall flints (Fig. ij) 
and evidence of the use of fire. 

Fig. 14. PLEISTOCENE CLIFFS OF CROMER, NORFOLK. All along this beach at low tide are exposed the 
Forest Bed deposits of Lower Pleistocene age, which yield quantities of fossil mammals. Upper: 
The flint-working 'floor 1 where the giant flints are found extends just beyond the pier; since the 
'floor* is below the level of the Cromer Forest Bed it is seen best at very low tide. (See Fig. 26.) 


rence of a nodule-bed lying in the [Red] Crag itself . . . 
and that this nodule-bed rested at a depth of sixteen feet 
below the surface/' The exact correspondence, so far as 
depth from the surface is concerned, between the nodule- 
bed mentioned by Collyer and that described in a Survey 
Memoir, 1 enabled Moir to trace the quarry to Mr. Laws' 
farm, mentioned by Collyer as in the parish of Foxhall. 
Moir continues: "I decided to investigate the nodule-bed. 
. . . My investigations have resulted in the discovery of a 
definite occupation level at this horizon, containing cores, 
flakes, flint implements, and a number of stones exhibiting 
crackling and other evidences of having been subjected to the 
action of fire" [Italics my own.] 

It thus appears that Collyer's notes on the sixteen-foot 
level of the quarry, by attracting the intelligent archaeolo- 
gist of Ipswich, led to what we have described as the 
opening of a new epoch in prehistory. To support this 
strong statement, let us compare the geologic age (See 
Tables i, n, in, and Fig. 2) of the Foxhall flints with that 
of the flints discovered in 1846 by Boucher de Perthes at 
Chelles, France, at a geographic point approximately 230 
miles southeast of Foxhall^ England, the two localities in 
Stone Age time being united by a broad and fertile land 
connection. The most ancient of the Chellean flints are of 
much more recent time than those of Foxhall, because the 
greatest antiquity assigned to them by geologists is that of 
mid-Pleistocene time, whereas the Foxhall flints occur in 
the Upper Pliocene before the beginning of Pleistocene time. 
Thus the long interval of Lower Pleistocene time separates 
the Foxhall from the Chellean, during which the upper and 

iThe Geology of the Country around Ipswich, Harleigh, and Felixstowe. Mem. GeoL 
Sun. United Kingdom (explanation quarter-sheets), 1885. 



middle river terraces of France and England were formed 
and important changes in the mammalian life occurred. 

The makers of the Foxhall flints had their 'floor' or 
'atelier' very near the shore of the North Sea in Pliocene 
time. The 'floor* is not in the base of the Red Crag but in 
the middle of Red Crag sand deposits partly of river and 
partly of marine origin, which mark a very long period of 
time and a very gradual change of climate in this part of 
England from warmer to cooler conditions. In the lowest 
levels of the Red Crag is found the warm Pliocene fauna of 
the three-toed Hipparion horse, the tapir, the short-jawed 
mastodon, the hippopotamus, and the roe deer, while in 
the upper levels occur the remains of a newer temperate 
fauna of true horses (Equus stenonis) and of the southern 
mammoth (Ekpbas meridionalis). Moir writes, August 
1 1, 1921, apropos of a visit to the locality by Professor J. E. 
Marr, the geologist of Oxford University: "There is no 
question as to the Pliocene age of the Foxhall levels so 
long as you continue to regard the Red Crag as Pliocene. 
But the 'floors' at Foxhall occur in the Crag, not at the 
base as in the case of the ordinary detritus bed." From the 
ground level at the Foxhall Quarry occur the following 
beds (Fig. 13, lower) : 

RECENT A. Surface soil, 6 inches to i foot in depth. 

QUATERNARY B. Stratified 'middle' glacial gravel 10-12 

feet in thickness. 
TERTIARY C. Fossiliferous iron-stone bed, 6-9 inches 

in thickness. 

Pliocene D, RED CRAG sand, horizontally stratified, 

Red Crag 2-3 feet in thickness. 


Black band with many casts of shells 
andy?/#/ implements, flint flakes, also 
'coprolites' and fossilized [Red Crag] 
bones, 2-3 inches in thickness. [See han- 
dle of shovel shown in the illustration.] 

F. Nodule-bed or gravel pit, horizontally 
stratified, containing coprolites, but al- 
most devoid of flints, and 2-3 feet in 
thickness. [This is the bed quarried for 
fertilizing purposes, in which it is alleged 
that the 'Foxballjaw* was found.] 

G. LOWER BLACK BAND, not quite so well 
defined as "E," containing dark-col- 
ored, worked flints. [See bottom of 
measuring rod shown in the illustration.] 

It is the level "E" which Moir describes as "a definite 
occupation level . . . containing cores, flakes, flint imple- 
ments, and a number of stones exhibiting crackling and other 
evidences of having been subjected to the action of fire." It is 
these flints, discovered by Moir and identified as of human 
origin by Abb6 Breuil, the famous French archaeologist, 
which firmly establish the existence of Pliocene man in 

That this was a flint-working 'floor 7 is indicated by the 
presence of the flint cores and flakes with the flint imple- 
ments themselves. The d6bris of this flint-working floor 
appears to point to a time during the laying down of the 
Red Crag deposits, when for a short period, geologically 
speaking, a land surface in the form of a shore line existed 
at this site. The majority of the humanly flaked flints from 


both the upper and the lower levels, namely, "E" and "F," 
appear to belong to the same industrial stage. It may be, 
also, that after a more or less prolonged occupation of level 
"F," the incursion of the waters of the North Sea in late 
Red Crag time caused the ancient flint workers to abandon 
their working site. Later, however, they returned to the 
same spot and worked on the upper surface of the nodule 
bed, two or three feet in thickness. Finally, the upper floor 

SUB-RED CRAO OF BRADFORD. After Moir, 1920-1931. ia. i2A: Primitive, arrowhead lype, 
been used in the chase. 13, ISA: Primitive W coup de 

- . 

on btb sides, which may have been use in te case. 13, IS: rimiive c 
poiw or hand axe, flaked on both sides. 17. 1?A, i?B: Primitive r&cloir or scraper, extremely 
lgt, which may have been used in preparing skins. 19, 19A: Primitive fiotnte or spearhead. 
2"* lA Primitive perqoir or'borer. 45, 4JA: Primitive (?) coup de pomg or hand stone from 
the sub-Red Crag. 



was in its turn sunk below sea level and covered by a 
further deposition of marine sand and shells. 

These Foxhallian flints are unlike those of the Chellean 
of France they are chiefly fashioned from flakes and not 
from the 'cores/ Moir supposes that the almost pure 
white color is due to prolonged surface exposure of the 
'floor/ because the flints lack the dark mahogany-brown 
coloration characteristic of the detritus layers of the 
sub-Red Crag; only a few flaked flints of this dark color 
have, been found. The known typical implements (Fig. 15) 
of the sixteen-foot level are not unlike those of much less 
antiquity than the Red Crag. Moir describes the flint tools 
and weapons as less coarse than the mahogany-brown 
specimens in the lower level. They include hafted speci- 
mens, side scrapers resembling the racloirs of early Mous- 
terian time, a number of arrowhead-like pointes, also borers 
and scrapers of the ordinary type. A number of flints cal- 
cined by fire are also found. Only one specimen of a rostro- 
carinate implement, of indifferent manufacture, was found 
during the excavations at Foxhall. 

Eoantbropus, The Dawn Man of Piltdown, Sussex 

Having now considered the Bramford man, maker of the 
rostro-carinate flints, and the Foxhall man, maker of five 
kinds of small flints and the discoverer of fire, let us ex- 
amine the better known Dawn Man of Piltdown, who 
probably belonged also to the Pliocene period and may have 
been contemporaneous with the Foxhall flint maker. 

Eoantbropus, the 'dawn man' of Piltdown, discovered in 
1911 on the 'weald' of Sussex, has had a battle royal for 
recognition by the scientific world. Since the first frag- 
ments of his skull were reported by the geologist, Charles 


Dawson, and first made known to the scientific world in 
1913! by Dawson and by Arthur Smith Woodward, Keeper 
of Fossils in the British Museum, the contest of opinion has 
been long and heated and at times acrimonious. Over a few 
fragments of skull bone, three lower teeth and a portion of 

/6-foot l 

white -flint layer 

Lower frrown -flint laye 

is attributed 

Two floors 
tupper and fowe 
75x&aZl Industry 

Foxhall flints (Fig. 15) were discovered ; this is seen to be in the middle of the Red Crag at 
the 1 6-foot level to which Collyer attributed the Foxhall jaw discovery in 1855 ( Fl 8- ) 

the jaw, the wise anatomists of Great Britain, of western 
Europe, and of the North American continent have ex- 
pressed opinions of every variety. 
The author's peace-loving friend, Smith Woodward, 

i Charles Dawson and A. S. Woodward: On the Discovery of a Palaeolithic Human Skull 
and Mandible in a Flint-bearing Gravel overlying the Wealden (Hastings Beds) at Piltdown, 
Fletching (Sussex). With an Appendix by Prof. G. Elliot Smith. Quart. Journ. GeoJ. Soc., 
London, VoL LXDC, 1913, pp. 117-151, Pis. ij-ai. Ibid. y VoL T,XX, 1914, pp. 


started the fracas by giving these fragments the name 
EoantbropuSy signifying 'dawn man/ and thereby com- 
mitted himself to the idea that here was a new genus of 
man quite distinct from the existing genus Homo and the 
antipode of the species Homo sapiens, the name assigned 
by Linnaeus to all the living races of man. To the other 
extreme,Marcellin Boule, the French palaeontologist, reso- 
lutely adhered, namely, that the fragments do not repre- 
sent a Dawn Man at all, that they belong to the same 
genus Homo as ourselves, that the species may be known 
as Homo dawsoni, that the Piltdown Dawn Man is of rela- 
tively recent geologic age, namely, of the Third Interglacial 
period and of the Acheulean culture phase. Moreover, 
Boule joined a chorus of American and German opinion 
that the jaw does not belong with the skull, but is that of a 
chimpanzee, and that the skull itself in brain capacity is 
that of a relatively recent type. This opinion was reaffirmed 
by Boule in his great work of 1921, "LesHommes Fossiles," 1 
in which all the discoveries of fossil human remains were 
reviewed from beginning to end in the most searching man- 
ner, and in which the chronologic succession of the human 
fossil types is clearly set forth. 

Thus the Piltdown Dawn Man has shared a struggle for 
scientific recognition similar to that of the Neanderthal 
man of Germany, which was discovered by some workmen 
in 1856 and described by Schaaffhausen in 1858 especially 
through the skull-cap, thigh bones, and other skeletal frag- 
ments and received with almost universal scepticism. 
The Neanderthal man was regarded by Virchow, the high 
German authority, as a feeble-minded modern and was 

1 Marcellin Boule: Les Hommes Fossiles. Elements de Pal&mtologie Humaine, pp. i-xi, 
1-491, figs. i-*39. 


treated very lightly even by Darwin in his great work, 
"The Descent of Man/' published in 1871, although the 
geologist Lyell (i 863) had recognized the Neanderthal man 
as an intermediate form between man and the apes. 

Even the progressive Huxley (1863, 1864) did not recog- 
nize the Neanderthal man as the missing link, his opinion 1 
being that "there is no ground for separating its possessor 
specifically, still less generically, from Homo sapiens. At 
present, we have no sufficient warranty for declaring it to 
be either the type of a distinct race, or a member of any 
existing one; nor do the anatomical characters of the skull 
justify any conclusion as to the age to which it belongs." 

When we recall the fact that the 'Gibraltar skull' of a 
Neanderthal woman had been known since 1848, we may 
say that the Neanderthal race was under a cloud of sus- 
picion for nearly forty years, that is, until 1887, when the 
discovery was made of two Neanderthal skeletons and 
skulls in a grotto near Spy, not far from Dinant, Belgium. 
It was these Spy relics, which seem to agree exactly with 
the Neanderthal skull top and with subsequent discoveries 
in other localities, that firmly established the Neanderthal 
race as one of the most important, and now by far the best 
known, of all fossil men. 

There has been on the part of anthropologists no con- 
spiracy or hasty acceptance of any of these fossil men. The 
Neanderthal Stone Age man discovered in 1848, the Trinil 
'ape-man' of Java discovered in 1891, the Piltdown Dawn 
Man discovered in 1911, have had in turn a hard struggle 
for scientific recognition, lasting thirty-nine years in the 
case of the Neanderthal man, more than thirty years in the 

iT. ELHuxley: Further Remarks upon the Human Remains from the Neanderthal 
Chap. XXXVI, p. 588, of 'The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley/' 

C 54 1 


case of the Trinil 'ape-man' (fide Dubois), and no less than 
ten years in the case of the Dawn Man of Piltdown. 

A triumph of Persistent Research 

The history of anthropology does not include any story 
of persistent exploration, discovery, and research more 
worthy of recognition and praise than that connected with 
the Dawn Man of Sussex* Arthur Smith Woodward, who 
took a very bold step in originally proposing the Piltdown 
man as belonging to the new genus Eoantbropus, has not 
stopped to reply to any of his critics; he has left this to 
some of his colleagues, who have replied with considerable 
warmth, while hehimself has been unremittingly engaged in 
endeavoring to secure material to confirm his original des- 
cription and estimate of the characters of the Dawn Man. 

The locality which the author will now describe from 
his own visit of July 26, 1921, presents exceptional diffi- 
culties, chiefly because the Piltdown gravels are of almost 
exactly the same color as the fossils which they contain; 
the fossils are thus extremely inconspicuous. From pro- 
longed experience in fossil hunting during the past fifty 
years in various parts of the world, the author can truth- 
fully say that he knows of no locality where fossil remains 
are so indistinguishable from the stony matrix in which 
they are found. Under these conditions the discovery of the 
original fragments of the Piltdown skull was all the more 
creditable; the subsequent finding of the jaw fragment by 
Charles Dawson marked the turning point in the whole 
history of the discovery; the finding of the canine or eye 
tooth by Teilhard de Chardin indicated an almost hawk- 
like vision; finally, the unearthing of the two minute black- 
colored nasal bones of the Dawn Man was almost a miracle. 


Alongside the roadway leading to the Manor House, 
where the original find was made, the workings, 150 feet in 
length and 10 feet in width, have been carried on at inter- 
vals for ten years. Every pound of Piltdown gravel has 
been gone over minutely, or sifted, under Smith Wood- 
ward's immediate supervision. Openings were made on the 
other side of the hedge, revealing the same Piltdown gravel 
and the same superposed layers as shown in our section 
(Fig. 19) without the discovery of another fragment of bone. 
Only during the season of 1921 was there a cut made be- 
neath the adjacent roadway within a short radius of the 
very spot where the bones of the skull and j aw lay. The re- 
wards of this exhaustive and exhausting work, which 
throughout required infinite patience and persistence, have 
been few and far between, 'but sparse as the new evidence 
is, it has all been in the direction of gradual confirmation 
and strengthening of the original Dawson-Smith Wood- 
ward discovery a discovery of transcendent importance 
to the prehistory of man. 

Scepticism as to the association of the chimpanzee-like 
jaw of the Dawn Man of Piltdown with the skull was very 
widespread. In the original description Smith Woodward 
himself proclaimed the resemblance of the jaw to that of a 
chimpanzee. The present author was one of the American 
school of sceptics who finally reached the opinion that this 
was an instance of the accidental association of two wholly 
unrelated fossils. It would have been difficult to dislodge 
this sceptical opinion, so widely entertained in Europe and 
America, but for the overwhelming confirmation afforded 
to Smith Woodward by the discovery, announced in 

i A. S. Woodward: Fourth Note on the Piltdown Gravel with Evidence of a Second Skull 
of Eoantbropus detmsoni. With an Appendix by Prof. G. Elliot Smith. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., 
VoL T.XXTTI, 1917, pp. 1-10, PL I, Figs, i, a. 

fig. 17. RELICS OF THE PILTDOWN RACE. Upper : Piltdown skull (left) with brain restored to show the 
extreme thickness of the bony brain case and a well formed brain ; (right) profile restoration of the 
Piltdown head. 1-5 natural size. After McGregor, 1914. 

Middle: Side and top views of (A) original jaw, with sloping chin and well worn grinding teeth 
resembling those of the chimpanzee; of (B) first lower grinder of another Piltdown individual. 
About 3-4 natural size. 

Lower: Primitive worked 'Eolithic' flint found in the same layer with fragments of the Piltdown 
skull. After Dawson. 


Piltdown Common within a few yards of the pit where the skull of Eoan'hropus dawsom was 
found. D : Arthur Smith Woodward (right) and the present author (left) standing on th Piltdown 
gravel where the skull was unearthed. Lower: Arthur Smith Woodward with Charles Dawson (left) 
screening and washing Piltdown gravel in search of more fragments of the skull and teeth. At 
the right a workman stands on the exact spot of the original discovery. After J. Leon Williams. 1912. 


of the remains of a second Piltdown Dawn Man, not in the 
original quarry but at another exposure of the Piltdown 
gravels about two miles distant. This second and confirma- 
tory discovery was made by the original finder, Dawson. 

If there is a Providence hanging over the affairs of pre- 
historic men, it certainly manifested itself in this case, be- 
cause the three minute fragments of this second Piltdown 
Dawn Man found by Dawson are exactly those which we 
would have selected to confirm the comparison with the 
original type, namely: (i) a first lower molar tooth, (2) a 
bit of bone of the forehead near the right eyebrow, (3) the 
middle part of an occipital bone of the skull. Both the 
grinding tooth and the eyebrow region are absolutely dis- 
tinctive. Placed side by side with the corresponding fossils 
of the first Piltdown man they agree precisely; there is not 
a shadow of difference. As shown in the accompanying 
photograph (Fig. 17, middle) published by permission of 
Dr. Smith Woodward, the two grinding teeth differ only in 
respect to age. The first Piltdown man was more advanced 
in years and the teeth were more worn; the second Pilt- 
down man was younger and the teeth were unworn; but 
they present precisely the same characters. Smith Wood- 
ward very quietly published this confirmatory evidence 
without, however, alluding in any way to his critics or 
yielding to the natural temptation of writing, "I told you 
so," a phrase which would certainly have appeared from a 
less patient and dignified pen. 

Seeing is believing, and in the year 1921, a decade after 
the discovery, the author eagerly looked forward to a re- 
turn to the British Museum after so many years of absence 
and to the opportunity of examining these precious fossil 
documents, an opportunity which was most cordially ex- 


tended to him by Dr. Smith Woodward, On Sunday morn- 
ing, July 24, after attending a most memorable service in 
Westminster Abbey, the author repaired to the British 
Museum to see the fossil remains of the now thoroughly 
vindicated Dawn Man of Great Britain. The^few precious 
fragments of one of the original Britons, which had been 
preserved in a steel fireproof safe from the bombs thrown 
by German aviators and which will probably be thus 
guarded from thieves for all future time, were taken out 

Fig. 19. SLCTION OP THE PILTDOWN GRAVELS, with layers above and below. 

i Recent humus and surface soil, with scattered natural flints, 12-20 inches. 

2* Pale, yellow sandy loam with gravel and Neolithic flints and pottery, 2 feet 6 inches. 

3* Piltdown gravel, probably of Pliocene age, containing remains of the Eoantkropus skull 
(A), jaw (B), and teeth from the lower level, also worked flints and rolled water-worn fossils, 

4. Pale yellow clay and sand with scattered potato-shaped flints unworked. The bone tool 
implement (Fig. 23) was found at the bottom of this layer, 10 inches. 

5. Undisturbed strata of Lower Cretaceous (Wealden age), over the surface of which 
flowed the stream bearing the clays and Piltdown gravels. 



and placed on the table by Smith Woodward, so that full 
and free opportunity was given for the closest comparison 
and study. 

At the end of two hours of close observation in which 
worked flints and a large implement of cut Mastodon thigh 
bone were also examined, the author was reminded of an 
opening prayer of college days, attributed to his professor 
of logic in Princeton University: "Paradoxical as it may 
appear, O Lord, it is nevertheless true, etc." So the author 
felt. Paradoxical as it had appeared to the sceptical com- 
parative anatomists, the chinless Piltdown jaw, shaped 
exactly like that of a chimpanzee and with its relatively 
long, narrow teeth, does belong with the Piltdown skull, 
with its relatively high, well-formed forehead and relatively 
capacious brain case! 

Burial-ground of the Piltdown Dawn Man 

The Piltdown Dawn Man belongs to an age long prior to 
the reverent ceremonial burial of the dead which we find in 
late Stone Age time among the Neanderthals. At death the 
Piltdown skeleton was caught in the currents of the an- 
cient River Ouse and drifted downstream, probably dis- 
membered by preying crocodiles and fishes, the skeleton 
and jaw then becoming buried in the pebbly deposit now 
known as the Piltdown gravels. Let us therefore look over 
the ground of the original Piltdown discovery, as the 
author was privileged to do in company with Dr. Smith 
Woodward and Dr. H. M. Ami, Canadian geologist, to' 
whom he is indebted for certain of the accompanying 

Like the East Anglia coast region where the flints of the 
sub-Red Crag and Foxhall Dawn Men were discovered, 



beginning in 1909, this Piltdown region is full of historic 
interest. At the time of the invasion of Caesar's army it 
was densely forested. This Anderida forest, otherwise 
known as the forest of 'Andredesweald,' formerly covering 
the entire Piltdown Commons (or Weald), is thus de- 
scribed by Elton: 1 "The great marshes were still unban ked 
and open to the flowing of the tide . . . and several hun- 
dreds of square miles were covered by the dense forest of 
Anderida. This forest must at one time have covered most 
of southeastern Britain/' 

Many thousand years earlier, flowing through a warm 
temperate forest, the ancestral River Ouse transported the 
Piltdown gravels, which, although of very moderate thick- 
ness (20 inches to 2 feet) at the widest part, spread out like 
a fan or river delta beneath the Common over a consider- 
able area; they are instantly recognized by the dark brown, 
compact sands and pebbles, which are sought by road- 
makers for their excellent road-building qualities. In 
approaching the famous site one passes over a rolling open 
plain covered with patches of heather, now serving as a 
golf course. On the horizon are the elevated North Down 
and South Down overlying bluffs of flint-bearing chalk, 
which, in turn, are superposed on beds of Wealden age, as 
shown in the accompanying sketch (Fig. di) made by the 
author. At Piltdown meandered the ancient River Ouse, 
and the gravels were subsequently covered with two layers, 
as shown in the sketch (Fig. 19). It is necessary, however, 
to take a bird's-eye view of the ground from above in order 
accurately to locate the very spot where the skull was 
found and to appreciate the immense amount of work that 

i Charles Elton: Origins of English History, p. 106. 

C 62 3 


has been done since 1911 in searching for additional 

For ten years, without any subvention or state aid, 
Smith Woodward quietly continued his work. He wrote 
October 24, 1921 : "I did a little more digging last month, 
but without result/ 7 

It will be recalled that the working of this Piltdown 
gravel pit had been going on for many years previous. The 
successive order of discovery is approximately as. follows: 
1911 (reported) Unusually thick human parietal bone 


.. -#r EAST 


Geologic Section of Hi* Oust /fiver Valkg at fflfdown England 

\rdnance Datum, 

w&rstjnk Channel, 40Pt below O.D. 

Fig. 20. HIGH FLZOCBKB LEVEL OP THE PILTDOWN GRAVEL. Upper: Geologic section of the 
Ouse River valley at Piltdown, England. The Piltdown gravels (x) were deposited at (i) 
the former level of the River Ouse, considered of the same geologic age as die high 90-100 
foot terrace of the Medway (below). These gravels (z) are regarded by English geologists as 
of First Intcrglacial age but by the present author as of Upper Pliocene preglacial age 
(see Fig. i). 

Lower: Section of the Medway River bank, Frindsbury, showing the high loo-foot terrace, 
which is regarded by some geologists as of the same geologic age as die Piltdown gravels. 
Observe that the River Medway, like the present River Ouse, has cut its channel down from 
the high, middle and low terraces to the 15-foot level which belongs to the period of the 
fourth glaciation and which contains both in England and France deposits belonging to the 
very close of the Old Stone Age. 


7>iltdown -find 

The WeaZden. 

Site of 


dump /soft. >K 

(ft nasal fanes./ 9/3 

INDUSTRY OF EOANTHROPUS DAWSONI. A. general relations of the. "Downs" to the Piltdown 
find. B, the Piltdown gravel workings from 1912 to 1921. C t relative location of some of the 
principal finds; skull and jaw parts found near together, (i) Skull fragments in the work- 
man's dump. (2) jaw, (3) canine, and (4) nasal bones, picked out of the undisturbed gravel 
near by, ($)-Oo) flints and fossil bones scattered. 

was found by Dawson. 1911 (autumn) Dawson picked 
up another and larger piece of bone belonging to the fore- 
head region of the same skull and including a portion of the 
ridge extending over .the left eyebrow. 191 1-1912 At vari- 
ous times there were found by Dawson and Smith Wood- 
ward rolled or abraded flints, known as 'eoliths/ also rolled 
or abraded remains of the hippopotamus, the rhinoceros, 
and of a mastodont proboscidean, claimed to be of greater age 
than the Piltdown gravels, possibly of Pliocene Red Crag 
age. At various times also there were unearthed (i) a Pa- 
laeolithic bammer-stone (see Fig. 21, No. 8) found in the un- 
disturbed gravel, (2) freshly worked flints, discovered .by 

Dawson in the Piltdown gravel dump (Fig. 22), and (3) the 
flint found by Ray Lankester. These flints are extremely 
important, because they are of the same geologic age as 
Piltdown man and can be .compared with those of Foxhall 
and of the pre-Chellean of the Somme. 1912 Dawson and 
Smith Woodward began systematic search. All material 
was looked over and carefully sifted; it appeared that the 
whole or greater part of the human skull mentioned above 
had been scattered by the workmen, who had thrown away 
the pieces unnoticed. One Sunday evening the blow of a 
pick caused the right half of a jaw to fly out of the undis- 
turbed bottom of the gravel bed- The fore part of the jaw 

Fig. 22. FLINTS FOUND BY CHARLES DAWSON IN THE PILTDOWN GRAVEL. Three freshly chipped triangu- 
lar and oval flint tools fashioned out of flint nodules split in two and flaked on one side only with 
very coarse marginal retouch similar to the flints of the Foxhall quarry. 1-4-1-2 natural size. 
After Dawson. 

r fie i 


had apparently been cut off by a long-previous blow of a 
workman's pick. A yard from the jaw an important piece 
of the occipital bone of the skull was found. 1913 A single 
right lower canine tooth, ape-like, was unearthed by 
Teilhard de Chardin, the French anthropologist. A pair of 
minute nasal bones were found, also the turbinal bones of 
the nasal region. 1914 A bone implement, partly shaped 
at one end out of a mastodon thigh bone, was discovered in 
the clay layer beneath the gravel. 1915 Discovery by 
Charles Dawson of fragments of second Piltdown man, 
two miles distant from original pit. 1915-21 Annual 
visits and continued exploration, excavations^ and sifting 
of materials, not rewarded by any further discovery, by 
Smith Woodward. 

Reconstruction of the Piltdown Skull and Brain 

It is now generally agreed that the author and his col- 
league McGregor of Columbia University were mistaken in 
placing in the upper jaw the canine tooth discovered by 
Teilhard de Chardin in 1913; that the canine tooth belongs 
with the right lower jaw and in so far is confirmatory of the 
union of the jaw with the skull. Consequently the photo- 
graph (Fig. 23) of the right side of the skull, with the canine 
in place, represents the latest opinion 1 as to the reconstruc- 
tion of the skull. This reconstruction involves especially 
the size and weight of the brain through the determination 
of the median line of the top of the skull or the location of 
the so-called sagittal suture. 

The brain size of the Piltdown Dawn Man is one of the 

* A recent comparison of the single canine tooth has convinced Gregory, Hellman, and 
the author that it most nearly resembles the right lower canine of a female gorilla of 
relatively small size. It is very unlike a human canine in form and proportion. The doctors 
still disagree, for McGregor, another expert, feels strongly (December 15, 1921) that the 
identification of the Piltdown canine is a very uncertain matter. 


points about which has raged the greatest controversy. It 
is interesting now to recall that in 1913 Smith Woodward 
first estimated the brain size as 1070 cubic centimeters. 
Arthur Keith, the distinguished comparative anatomist, 
maintained that when the skull was properly reconstructed 
the brain capacity would be found to equal 1500 cubic cen- 
timeters. Elliot Smith and Smith Woodward later main- 
tained that the brain measured nearly 1300 cubic centi- 
meters, equaling the size of the smaller human brains of 
today and surpassing that of the Australians, which rarely 
exceeds 1310 cubic centimeters in the male and 1 154 cubic 
centimeters in the female. In 1914 J. H. McGregor recon- 
structed the skull with a cranial capacity of 1240 cubic 

(Fossil races in italics) 





Neanderthal Cavemen of Western Europe: 
La Chapelle aux Saints 


La Quina y France 


Gibraltar, Spain 


Cro-Magnon Caveman of Mentone 



Average Modern European 



Average Modern Swiss 




Upper Palaeolithic broadbead race of Of net 
Living broadhead race of Czechoslovakia 




Native Australian race 



Native Indian Veddahs 




Piltdown Dawn Man of Sussex, England. 


Papuans of New Guinea 



ZrinilDawn Man of Java (Pithecanthropus erectus) 


By the cubic brain intelligence test the Neanderthal (1530 ccm.) and the Cro-Magnon 
(1550 ccm.) fossil races rank above the average modern Swiss (1467 ccm.), Czechoslovakia!! 
(1415 ccm.), Native Australian (1310 ccm.) and Papuan (1236 ccm.), although the fossil 
man failed to reach the living man in maximum brain size. 

The Trinil (940 ccm.) and Piltdown (1040 ccm.) races, at the very close of the Age of 
Mammals, are of brain capacity nearly equal to Indian Veddahs (1250 ccm.). 

(H. L. Shapiro, 1927) 



centimeters, a figure quite near that arrived at by Elliot 
Smith and Smith Woodward. 

Although we still await a memoir on the characters of 
the Piltdown brain by G. Elliot Smith, the greatest British 
authority on the primitive brain of man, it is not probable 
that the final estimates of the brain weight will be ma- 
terially altered, nor may we expect in the near future any 
great additions to our knowledge of either the skull or the 
teeth of the Dawn Man. Inasmuch as a century of explora- 
tion in what may be called the pre-burial period of man has 
yielded the remains of only five individual specimens 
nearly or remotely related to man, the probability of find- 
ing additional fossils is rather remote. This greatly intensi- 
fies the interest of the important discovery of the Foxhall 
man and renders the more pressing the location of the lost 
jaw which is attributed to the Foxhallian stage of industry. 

Is the Piltdown Flint Industry Related to 
That of Foxball? 

Piltdown Common, on the River Ouse, is about 230 
miles northwest of the famous Chellean flint quarry sta- 
tions of the ancient Somme and Marne rivers of France and 
not many miles south of the flint quarry of Gray's Thur- 
rock on the Thames. To the north of Piltdown, in ancient 
East Anglia, were the stations of the Foxhallian and Cro- 
merian industries, described above, and the site of the dis- 
covery of the alleged Foxhall jaw. It is, therefore, alto- 
gether natural from the geologic standpoint to compare the 
three or four true flints which have been found with the 
Piltdown man with those of the earliest Chellean station 
on the Somme and of the Champ de Mars near Abbeville 


described by d'Ault du Mesnil, and with those of Foxhall, 
to the north, recently described by J. Reid Moir. 1 

The first archaeologist to make the suggestion that the 
flint implements and weapons of Piltdown, Sussex, are 
similar to those of Foxhall, Suffolk, was J. Reid Moir in his 
extremely interesting memoir, "Pre-Palaeolithic Man," 
published in 1920,2 wherein he remarks: "If the author, as 
a practical flaker of flint, had been shown Dr. Smith Wood- 
ward's reconstruction of the Piltdown skull and jaw, and 
had been asked what sort of flint implements in his opinion 
such a very primitive semi-human creature would be capa- 
ble of producing, his answer would have been 'the very 
primitive edge-trimmed flints generally known as eoliths/ 
. . . The ill-defined cones of percussion, and rough, heavily- 
truncated flake-scars of the Piltdown specimens stamp 
them indelibly as the work of pre-palaeolithic man. . . . 
The only implements found in the 'human' stratum and 
in intimate association with the Piltdown individual were 
the primitive edge-trimmed flints generally described as 
eoliths. . . . This particular type of implement repre- 
sents, as has been shown in a former chapter, the earliest 
efforts of man to deliberately shape flints to his needs." 

Reid Moir further pointed out that there would not ap- 
pear to be any valid geological reason why the lower stratum 
of the gravel at Piltdown should not be a Pliocene deposit 
overlain by gravelly strata of more recent date, inasmuch 
as the Piltdown bones were found at about 120 feet above 
the present sea level and approximately 80 feet above the 
present level of the River Ouse, Sussex (Fig. 20). 

* J. Reid Moir: Further Discoveries of Humanly-Fashioned Flints In and Beneath the 
Red Crag of Suffolk. Pre&ist. Soc. EastAngHa y 1920-1921, pp. 1-42. 
J. Reid Moir: Pre-Palaeolithic Man, pp. 1-67, Pis. I-XXIX. 



To test this significant statement as to similarity of 
workmanship in the Piltdown and Foxhall flints > let us place, 
side by side the published figures of the four flints actually 
found in the Piltdown gravels which hitherto have been 
broadly described as of pre-Chellean (that is, earliest 
Chellean) type, and four flints selected from those recently 
figured by Moir in his Foxhall collection, and see how they 
compare in the state of workmanship which they repre- 
sent. In the author's opinion, which is not that of a profes- 
sional archaeologist, the resemblance is very close indeed. 
It will be observed, even by the amateur, that both the 
Piltdown and the Foxhall flint implements are (i) fash- 
ioned from large flakes struck off from the side of the flint 
nodule, (2) that the outer or convex side of the flake is 
roughly worked with a varying number of blows, and (3) 
that there are a few solid core implements. 

The fivefold purpose of the industry in the Piltdown and 
Foxhall mind seems to have been (as shown in a foregoing 
paragraph): First, to fashion pointed flake implements 
which could be fastened to wood and used in the chase 
for example, rough spearheads (Fig. 15, Nos. 12, 19); 
second, somewhat larger pointed core implements, which 
could be used in the chase or in combat crude anticipa- 
tions of the coup de poing (Fig. 15, Nos. 13, 45); third, 
flaked implements dressed on one side, with cutting edges, 
which could be used in shaping bone or wood; fourth, oval 
convex implements suggesting the rostro-carinate as well 
as grattoirs, flat on one side, which could be used in the 
dressing of hides for clothing (Fig. 15, No. 17); fifth, a 
borer (Fig. 15, No. 21) for use in making holes in wood or 
bone. Hammer-stones used in the flint-flaking industry 
have been found at Piltdown only. All five of these types 


have been found at Foxhall, but only three in Piltdown, 
namely, the rough spearhead, the hide-dresser, and the 
hammer-stone. The coup de poing or 'hand stone' of pre- 
Chellean and Chellean times, fashioned from the flint 
nodule core itself, is foreshadowed in the Foxhall cores 
(Fig. 15). Thus Moir's contention that the Foxhall Plio- 
cene industry is prophetic of the Pleistocene industry of 
much more recent Chellean times appears to be well sus- 
tained. It follows that the identification of the Piltdown 
flints with the Foxhall flints, if it can be made by placing 
the implements side by side, may enable us to settle one of 
the remaining points of doubt about the Dawn Man, that 
is, his geologic antiquity. 

Reid Moir's praise of the workmanship of the Dawn 
Man flint workers of Foxhall is qualified, but how shall we 
explain this workmanship of a high order in Upper Pliocene 
time so long before the primitive Chellean flint industry of 
the River Somme at the height of the Old Stone Age, in 
what is known as Lower Palaeolithic time? It appears to 
the author that we can explain it only by reforming our 
ideas of the antiquity of man and by preparing our minds 
for the future discovery of still more ancient man in Ter- 
tiary time and for evidence of a very early separation of 
human races and industries. Great discoveries in the rise of 
man have been made which revolutionize all our earlier 
ideas of human antiquity and intelligence, and we must 
keep our minds open for still more remarkable discoveries. 

Anatomists now agree that Eoantbropus is of a very an- 
cient type, altogether such as we should expect to find at 
the very beginning of the Quaternary Age of Man or even 
in the Pliocene Age of Mammals. The present author 
came to the following conclusion in 1914: "It seems rea- 


sonable, therefore, to interpret thePiltdown skull as exhibit- 
ing a closer resemblance to the skulls of our human ancestors 
in mid-Tertiary times than any fossil skull hitherto found." 1 

The author not only recants his former doubts as to the 
association of the jaw with the skull, but expresses his ad- 
miration of the great achievement of his life-long friend, 
Arthur Smith Woodward, in making the original discovery 
and in finally establishing beyond question the authen- 
ticity of the Dawn Man of Piltdown. The confirmation of 
the reality of the Piltdown man as a veritable 'dawn man' 
must be followed by renewed and determined effort to fix 
more precisely his geologic antiquity y about which there has 
also been a great difference of opinion and on which the 
discovery of Foxhall man, described, above, may have 
some bearing. 

We have to be reminded over and over again that Na- 
ture is full of paradoxes and that the order of the universe 
is not the human order; we should always expect the un- 
expected and be prepared to discover new paradoxes. 


We pass now from the Pliocene Dawn Stone Age into 
the Pleistocene Old Stone Age. After the rostro-carinate 
flint workers of Bramford, after the flint workers of Fox- 
hall and of Piltdown, came the prolonged cold of the First 
Glaciation, which ushered in the true Age of Man. Whether 
the same races of Dawn Men persisted or not, we enter a 
new industrial flint making phase, as displayed near Cro- 
mer on the upper coast of East Anglia in J. Reid Moir's 
discovery of giant flints (Fig. 24). 

^Osborn: Men of the Old Stone Age, p. 25. 
2 Compare J. The Dawn Stone Age, p. 25. 

tool cut from the thigh bone of a mastodon or mammoth, possibly used for hide dressing. 1-12 
natural size. After Smith Woodward. 

Upper right: Most recent restoration of the Piltdown skull by Smith Woodward, in which the 
nasal bones appear in place and the canine is inserted in the right half of the lower jaw. 
1-5 natural size. Lower right: Rolled flints, or 'eoliths'; perfoir or borer above, rdcloir or scraper 

. 24. GIANT COUP DE P01NO OR HAND AXE OF CROMBR, NORFOLK. 1* actual Size. After J, Reid Moll, 1021 

Compare with relatively small Chellean coup de poing (Pig. 25), which is drawn to same scale. 

n ? HT IMWEME NW PROM KENT'S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE, left (2): Coup de poina or hand axe of 
): Spearhcad of " 

The Giant Flints of Cramer, Norfolk 

Much openness of mind is rendered necessary by Moir's 
discovery of the giant flints of Cromer y products of an in- 
dustry of very different character from those of Foxhall, of 
more recent geologic age and possibly the work of a differ- 
ent race. The Cliffs of Cromer (Figs. 14, 26) are situated 
on the sinking coast of Great Britain. At one end of the 
Cliffs, along the fashionable bathing beach which is exposed 
only at low tide,Reid Moir discovered huge flints which had 
been washed out of the fossil deposits of that section. These 
flints occur in one of the most famous mammal deposits in 
the world, long known to palaeontologists as the Torest 
Bed of Cromer/ Because of their resemblance to flints of 
Chellean type, their discoverer regards them as pre- 
Chellean or early Chellean, but the author is inclined to 
assign them a much earlier date, because they are in the 
same level as the Forest Bed, the deposits of which, with 
their fauna, belong to the very beginning of the Age of 
Man. As yet no archaeologist has found any traces of 
Chellean industry in formations belonging to the First 
Interglacial .stage of Europe, while all the geologic and 
palaeontologic evidence seems to indicate that to this very 
stage belong the giant flints of Cromer. 

Thus it appears that in this discovery by Reid Moir of 
the giant flints of Cromer we enter a new era in the pre- 
history of man, for two reasons: First, geologically the first 
invasion of Swiss and Scandinavian glaciers has passed by 
and we have entered the long warm First Interglacial 
period, to which is attributed the fossil remains of the 
Heidelberg race of Neanderthaloids discovered by Schoe- 
tensack along the ancient Elsenz south of the mouth of the 


Neckar. Consequently, it appears probable that the "sands 
of Mauer' and the famous 'forest-bed of Cromer' were 
nearly contemporaneous, and it appears possible that it 
was the giant men of the Heidelberg race who fashioned 
the giant flints of Cromer which we find at low tide at the 
fashionable bathing place of Cromer, Norfolk, fifty miles 

The rich mammalian life of the Forest Bed of Cromer is 
more recent than that of the Red Crag of Suffolk; the 
short-jawed mastodons (M. arvernensis) and other South 
Temperate forms are extinct; the two great elephants of 
Lower Pleistocene time the 'southern' and the 'straight- 
tusked' have arrived in East Anglia; the Etruscan rhinoc- 
eros lingers. All these fossil animals also occur in France as 
companions of Stone Age man. It was perhaps to hunt 
these monsters that the Cromer flint workers developed a 
giant flint industry, of which 'floors' are discovered at 
Cromer and at Sheringham five miles to the northeast. 

These flints were first mentioned 1 by Sir Ray Lankester, 
the veteran zoologist of Darwin's time, who has given the 
strongest backing to Reid Moir's excavations and re- 
searches, culminating in his advocacy of the human origin 
of the Forest Bed giant flint implements, of which he 
writes : 2 "The second is the most remarkable among a great 
number of very large worked flints, recently discovered by 
Mr. Reid Moir below the forest-bed at Cromer in such a 
position as to indicate a workshop or flint workers' 'floor' 
of an age anterior to that of our river-terrace gravels. 
. . . The largest of the worked flints from this newly-dis- 

iE. Ray Lankester: On the Discovery of a Novel Type of Flint Implement Below the 
Base of the Red Crag of Suffolk. P&7. 2nw., B, April, 1910. Vol. ooa, p. 33*1 

*. Ray Lankester: A Remarkable Flint Implement from Selsey Bill, Proe. Roy. Soc., 
B, VoL 92, 1921, pp. 162-168, Pis. VIII-XL 


covered 'floor' weighs 7 Ib. 6 oz., is 10 inches in length, 
inches broad and at the 'butt' end is 4 inches thick. It has a 
rostrate form, a relatively flattened ventral surface and is 
richly worked all over by large coarse flaking of indubitable 
human origin. It presents a marked resemblance both in 
general form and in the character of the flaking of its sur- 
face to the Selsey rostrate as well as in its great size and 
weight. The point to which I wish to draw attention in 
regard to these three unusually large and heavy flint imple- 
ments, is that they belong to a very early period, ante- 
cedent to that of the familiar tongue-shaped and ovate im- 
plements of Chellean and Acheulean age. . . . The early 
age of these big implements is consistent with the hypothe- 
sis that they were made and used by an early race of men 
of heavier build than that which succeeded them and pro- 
duced the abundant ovates and tongue-shaped implements 
of our terrace gravels. Whether made by an exceptionally 
big race or by men of the modern size, the use of heavy big 
flint implements, such as the two which I have here cited, 
presents a problem. If used merely as hammers or as club- 
heads they would be unwieldly and would not require any 
special shaping such as would give precision to a smaller 
implement. The only suggestion I can offer as to their use 
besides that of 'pounding' or breaking into the cavities of 
the bones of large animals in order to extract marrow, 
brain, etc., is that they were employed either affixed to a 
handle or held by the two hands for the purpose of break- 
ing a hole in the ice on the surface of a lake or marsh pool. 
Fish come to such openings in the ice and are then readily 
speared or captured." 

While visiting at Cromer in the summer of 1920 and 
again in the summer of 1926, the author examined these 


flints, which have been collected in very large numbers and 
unfortunately are being somewhat scattered among ama- 
teur collectors. This supposed sub-Forest Bed 'floor' should 
be guarded by the English as a national monument, because 
if the human origin of these flints is incontestably proved, 
the 'floor' will at once become one of the most famous spots 
in the early history of Great Britain. Only the most expert 
archaeologist and student of flint mechanics and lines of 
fracture is competent to express an opinion. 

Fiff. 26. GEOLOGIC STRATA OF CLIFFS OF CROMER, showing site of discovery of the giant flints 
(see Fig. 14). Surface soil at top; contorted drift of the second and third glaciations, 
which alone reached the coast of England; Cromer Forest Bed series of First InterglaciaU 
full of fossil mammals remains; Weybourn Crag containing cold molluscan fauna of die 
First Glacial period. Compare with Figs, i, 2, 14. 

The Cromerian 'giant flints' listed in the time scale chart 
(Fig. i, p. 24) were possibly fashioned by pioneer mem- 
bers of the great low-browed Neanderthal race which 
dominated Europe for many hundred thousand years. 
These people are so much more primitive than any existing 
race of the genus Homo that by some anthropologists they 
are given the distinctive generic r&mtPalaeantbropus y sig- 
nifying 'man of a very ancient type.' Racial similarity is 


indicated by the general similarity between the flint imple- 
ments of war and the chase, which are successively known 
as Cromerian, pre-Chellean, Chellean, Acheulean and 
Mousterian. Excepting the single massive fossil jaw found 
at Heidelberg and believed to be contemporaneous with 
the flints of Cromer, no trace of these Neanderthals is 
found until we reach the far more recent deposits of Ehrings- 
dorf and of Krapina. At this point the long open-weather 
and open-settlement period, when man wandered on the 
plains and plateaus and river drifts and fashioned his flints 
on the higher middle river terraces, finally terminated, and 
the intensely cold weather of the final glaciation inaugu- 
rated the cave period (Fig. i, p. 24). 

Soon after the beginning of the cave period the custom 
of reverent burial of the dead began, and we gain our first 
knowledge of the complete characters of the Neanderthal 
race from upwards of fifty more or less well preserved in- 
dividuals. At the time, this race was contending with the 
very severe weather conditions of the Fourth Glaciation; it 
was driven into shelters and caverns and it is possible that 
cave life engendered the beginnings of mystical life and 
belief in a future existence or of a 'happy hunting ground' 
in a future world. 

Pithecanthropus Erectus, a Surviving Dawn Man 

Thirty-six years ago, long before the discovery of the 
Bramford, Foxhall and Piltdown races of man in East 
Anglia, world-wide interest was aroused by the discovery 
in Java of an exceedingly primitive human type. After 
heated scientific discussion and the most careful researches, 
we have finally determined that this primitive type lived 
during the Quaternary or Age of Man period; that it prob- 


ably represents a condition of arrested mental develop- 
ment, but that it truly belongs to the family of man and 
not to the ape family in other words, that it is a Dawn 
Man rather than an ape-man. This subject has been so 
fully treated in an earlier work, "Men of the Old Stone 
Age/' that we may here dwell only on the newly discovered 
characters of the brain and the bearing of brain form and 
capacity on the relationship to our own race. However, 
a brief rsum6 of the history of the discovery may be 

In the year 1891 Dr. Eugn Dubois, a Dutch army 
surgeon, found near Trinil, Java, two molar teeth, the 
top of a skull and a left thigh bone, which in the year 1894 
he described under the name Pithecanthropus erectus, sig- 
nifying 'erect Stone Age man/ He attributed to this fossil 



Fiff. 27. BRAIN OF THE TRINIL DAWK MAN, Pithecanthropus ercctus (940 ccm.). Probable areas 
of higher and lower psychic powers, of voluntary movements and of speech are plotted 
from the researches of Frederick Tilney and the intracranial model by J. H. McGregor from 
the cast presented by Dr. Eugen Dubois. Same scale as Fig. 28. 



creature the same upright posture as man, indicated in the 
specific term erectus, combined with the low-browed skull 
with projecting eyebrow ridges of the anthropoid apes, 
such as the chimpanzee. This great discovery by Dubois 
aroused widespread interest, and heated discussion ensued 
in which the foremost anatomists of the world took part. 
Only recently has it been possible to intensively study the 
brain cast yielded by a mold taken on the inside of the bony 
skull-cap. In general, the result of this study of the brain 
and of the thigh bone confirms the original opinion of Du- 
bois that Pithecanthropus erectus possessed the straight 
femur of a bipedal walking type and not of a tree-climbing 
type thus corroborating the specific appellation erectus ; 
that the brain is far larger than that of any kind of anthro- 


Fiff. 28. BRAIN OP THE LIVING AUSTRALIAN (1310 ccm.), showing areas of intelligence (dotted), 
of skilled and voluntary movements (vertical lines), of sensation (horizontal lines), of 
speech (close horizontal lines). After psborn. Compare with Fig. 17, Eoantkropvs, and 
Fig. 27, Pithecanthropus. Same scale as Fig. 27. 


poid ape, and that the skull possesses distinct resemblances 
to that of the Neanderthal race of men; in brief, that 
Pithecanthropus is related, even if indirectly, to one of the 
great lines which gave rise to the true human species. 

The degree of brain-power intelligence of the Trinil man 
is therefore of the utmost concern: Is his brain-power of 
the same kind, perhaps a little better, than that of an ape, 
a chimpanzee or a gorilla, or is it far superior to that of an 
ape and similar to that of a lowly order of man ? 

We have recently found the answer. Since Dr. Eugn 
Dubois released to the research of the world the precious 
fragments discovered by him in the year 1891, Dr. Fred- 
erick Tilney has been studying the psychology of the Trinil 
man through the evidence revealed in a cast of the brain 
made under the direction of Professor J. Howard Mc- 
Gregor, which demonstrates beyond a doubt that the 
scientific name Pithecanthropus applied by Dubois is a mis- 
nomer, that the so-called Pithecanthropus was not an "ape- 
man/ as the Greek word implies, but a true 'pro-man' or 
'dawn man/ 

The crucial point in this demonstration is the applica- 
tion of modern intelligence tests to the Trinil man of Java 
through the expert observations of my Columbia colleagues, 
Professor J. Howard McGregor, anatomist, and Professor 
Frederick Tilney, psychiatrist. [See Table iv, p. 67.] The 
Trinil man of Java proves in his brain to be a Dawn Man 
and not an ape-man. He certainly had long, strong legs and 
probably short arms. He walked erect, he thought as man, 
he probably spoke as man, although his vocabulary was 


Geologic Age of the Trinil Dawn Man 

In his original description of the Trinil race, in the year 
1894, Dr. Dubois believed that this race might belong 
to the close of the Age of Mammals, namely, to the closing 
stage of Pliocene time, the geologic period to which we 
assign the sub-Red Crag man, the Foxhall man and per- 
haps the Piltdown Dawn Man. But very recent investiga- 
tion by Professor Dietrich of Berlin and by the present 
author on the fossil animal remains of the Kendeng beds of 
the Trinil River, where the skull and thighbone of Pithe- 
canthropus erectus were found, proves that the Trinil 'ape- 
man' is of more recent geologic age; it appears to actually 
belong in the middle of the Stone Age, corresponding to the 
age of the typical Chellean flint industry of the River 
Somme in France, where the remains of the flint workers 
are found associated with those of the hippopotamus and 
the straight-tusked elephant. If Pithecanthropus is truly of 
mid-Stone Age, as now appears, it must be regarded as a 
surviving primitive type of Dawn Man sequestered in the 
forests of Java amid primitive elephants known as stego- 
donts. This survival of a primitive type of man shut off 
from competition with more vigorous types is by no means 
a unique occurrence, because we still find many very primi- 
tive types of humanity living in remote and isolated parts 
of the earth, such as the Tasmanian natives. 

Among the contemporaries of the Trinil Dawn Man 
were the man-apes or anthropoids of southern Asia the 
orangs and gibbons with long arms and short legs, who 
lived chiefly in trees, who uttered the guttural sounds of 
apes, who thought with ape-minds, and who, despite worthy 
family virtues as husbands and wives, were infinitely 


inferior to their Trinil man companions. In these anthro- 
poid apes was the potency of the super-apes living today 
the orang, chimpanzee, gorilla and gibbon but in the 
Trinil man was the potency of modern civilization. 

Conclusions as to Our Dawn Man Ancestors 

Let us befriend the Dawn Man of the long pre-Stone 
Age and remove from his reputation the bar sinister of ape 
descent. The myth of our ape-ancestry lingers on the stage, 
in the movies, in certain anti-naturalistic literature, in 
caricatures of our pedigree, even in certain scientific par- 
lance, but the ape-ancestry hypothesis is becoming out of 
date and its place is being taken by the recent demonstra- 
tion that we are descended from Dawn Men, not from 

Accordingly, our closing purposes in this lecture are four- 
fold: First, to banish the myth and bogie of ape-man ances- 
try; second, to show that the Dawn Man of Tertiary time 
had surprisingly great brain-power; third, to point out that 
we must expand even recent scientific opinions regarding 
the geologic antiquity of man and project our Dawn Man 
ancestors back to geologic periods perhaps ten .times older 
than any of our previous estimates up to the close of the 
nineteenth century; fourth, to demonstrate that the. goal 
of twentieth century discovery is the habit of life and the 
kind of environment which produced the superior intelli- 
gence of the Dawn Man and raised him, even at that very 
remote period, above the rest of creation. 



For, soothly, having eyes to see they saw not, 

And hearing heard not; but like dreamy phantoms, 

A random life they led from year to year, 

All blindly floundering on. 

. , . No craft they knew 

With woven brick or jointed beam to pile 

The sunward porch; but in the dark earth burrowed 

And housed, like tiny ants in sunless caves. 

descbylus: Prometheus Bound. 


The Neanderthals tbe first cave dwellers Influence of cave life on imagination 

. Tbe birtb of sculpture in southern France Discoveries in the Caverne Tuc 

d'Audoubert Discovery of the etchings in the Caverne des Trots Frbes 

Tbe human and equine sculptures ofLaussel and Cap Blanc 

cave period is long subsequent to the East Anglian 
JL Dawn Man period hundreds of thousands of years 
as measured by four successive glaciations in Europe. The 
Neanderthaloid races Heidelberg, Krapina, Ehringsdorf 
and Neanderthal occupied Europe for an incalculable 
period of time, namely, from the beginning of the Age of 
Man to the climax of the fourth and final glaciation, the 
art age of the cave period. 

Of these great, powerful, low-browed Neanderthal races, 
the first comers were the Heidelberg men, to whom the 
term Homo heidelbergensis has been applied. Since these 
men appeared in the first warm interglacial period, they 
were not improbably contemporaneous with the East An- 
glian flint workers of Cromer who fashioned the gigantic 
flints found on the northern seashores of East Anglia. 
Thus far no trace of any human race has been found in 
western Europe except these low-browed Neanderthaloids. 
Since human skulls of similar low-browed form have been 
found in Africa (Rhodesia) and Palestine (Galilee), and 
since flints resembling those of Neanderthal *Mousterian' 
make penetrated even into the Ordos region of north 
China, it appears not improbable that the Neanderthal 



race dominated large parts of Asia and Africa as well as 
all of western Europe; in Europe they formed a dense 
population and are thoroughly known in their physical 
and intellectual structure and in the gradual develop- 
ment of their flint implements, from the giant flints of 
Cromer to the relatively small and degenerate flints found 
in the caverns of La Quina, southern France, with what is 
believed to be one of the last representatives of the great 
Neanderthal race. 

The survival of a single racial type of mankind for a 

. period now estimated at not less than 900,000 years should 

not surprise us when we contemplate the survival of an 

IHttiHIIire \ 

4 . _HDId Storjc Aqe of Man 
|" ; "and'm'ore ancien^M- 
/ / Daw/i Stone Aqe- ^ 

Fig. 29. THE NEANDERTHAL EMPIRE OF THE OLD STONE AGE. In solid Black: distribution area of 
the Dawn Men of Bramiord, Poxhall, Piltdown and Trinil, of Pliocene and Pleistocene 
geologic periods. Oblique lines: known or actual distribution of the Neanderthaloid races of 
Heidelberg, Ehnngsdorf, Krapina, Neanderthal, Galilee, Ordos, and Rhodesia. Horizontal 
lines: theoretic migration areas of the Neanderthaloid races. Vertical lines: part of the 
theoretic area of origin of the higher Cro-Magnon and other races which migrated eastward 
and dispossessed the Neanderthaloid low-browed races. 


equally primitive Stone Age race the native Tasmanians 
up to recent time. 

As shown in the geologic time scale (Fig. i), the Nean- 
derthaloids entered western Europe long before the Cave 
Period; they occupied the plains, plateaus and river drifts 
of Austria and Germany, Spain and France, and England, 
The remains of their stone industries and flint-making 
camps are found in the great river drift deposit near 
Heidelberg, in the ancient river drifts of Cromer on the 
East Anglia coast, and on the higher and middle river ter- 
races of France and England. This nomadic life on the 
plains, plateaus and terraces lasted perhaps for 600,000 
years, if we can trust the glacial records. Then at the onset 
of the third great glaciation from Scandinavia began the 
Cave Period (indicated in black in Fig. i). From this time 
onward to the period of their downfall, the Neanderthal- 
oids were cave dwellers, at least for the colder seasons of 
the year, while during the warm summer seasons they 
doubtless wandered forth into their old hunting grounds 
along the shores of the rivers and worked their flints along 
the river terraces of northern France and eastern England. 

The Neanderthals the First Cave Dwellers 

The Neanderthals present a unique instance of arrested 
and perhaps partly retrogressive human development. 
Game was very plentiful, the rivers of France and England 
abounded in hippopotami which afforded an easy source of 
food supply, and in the forests and plains roamed many 
types of elephants and rhinoceroses. These easy conditions 
of life continued until near the close of the reign of the 
Neanderthal race, with intervals of arid climate and of 
colder and moister climates during the second and third 



glaciations from Scandinavia. The conditions of life did not 
become very severe until the approach of the intensely cold 
weather of the fourth or final glaciation, when the Nean- 
derthals were driven from their easy-going existence on the 
plains, plateaus and river terraces to the rocky shelters and 
cavern entrances which protected them from the oncoming 
blasts of the great Scandinavian glacier. 

Even these difficult conditions of life did not appear to 
stimulate new inventions in their flint implements, al- 
though it may have aroused their imagination, because at 
this time they began to reverently bury their dead, usually 
in front of the rocky shelters or within the entrances of the 
caverns. // is to this practice of burial that we owe our first 
complete knowledge of the physical structure of ancient man. 
From these fossil remains we now know the bony anatomy 
of the Neanderthal race even better than we know the 
bony anatomy of certain recently extinct or existing races 
like the Tasmanians. From the anatomy, and especially 
from our complete knowledge of the brain size, weight and 
form, we can picture the complete Neanderthal man and 
contrast him. with the highly superior race of man called 
the 'Cro-Magnon* and with related races which still sur- 
vive in Europe. 

Influence of Cave Life on Imagination 

The open-air nomadic life of the plains, river valleys and 
terraces which preceded the Cave Period developed the 
physical, moral and inventive faculties of man but was not 
favorable to the development of the imagination or the 
spiritual side of Stone Age life. We cannot avoid the con- 
clusion that the cave dwelling period of which we find 
traces in the entire northern hemisphere was of incalcu- 

which gives the name Mousterian to the declining flint industry of the Neanderthaloids. The 
scene represents the workers aroused by the approach of a herd of wild rhinoceroses about 
to cross the Ve"zere River. After the painting by Charles R. Knight under direction of the 
author; permission of the American Museum of Natural History. 

large mural by Charles R. Knight painted under the direction of die author for the Hall 
of the Age of Man of the American Museum of Natural History. By permission of the 
American Museum. 

Tiff. 32. CRO-MAGNON ARTISTS IN THE CAVERN OP FONT-DB-GATIMB depicting the procession of a 
herd of mammoths. The scene is reproduced after careful studies by Henri Breuil and the 
present author. Detail from the mural by Charles R. Knight under the direction of the 
author for the Hall of the Age of Man, American Museum of Natural History. By permis- 
sion of the American Museum. 

Detail from large mural painted by Charles R. Knight under the direction of the author for 
the Hall of the Age of Man of the American Museum of Natural History. The mammoth 
was a favorite subject of the Cro-Magnon draftsmen, painters and sculptors, and the 
mural was treated in form and color with great fidelity to the famous Old Stone Age school. 
By permission of the American Museum. 



A superb flake industry, with beautiful racloirs 
and bifaces 



lable influence in fostering the spiritual, artistic and imagi- 
native side of Stone Age life. The intensified struggle for 
existence also increased the sense of dependence on super- 
Font Robert AURIGNACIEN SUP&UEUR of the shelter of Laussel 

Here we find the five large sculptured figures 
la bonne jemme and le chasseur among them 
as well as narrow flint spear-heads worked on 
both sides with a shallow notch at the base of 
either edge for attachment to a shaft 
Cro-Magnon Grotto 
Containing the type bur- 
ial of some individuals of 


Gorge d'Enfer 

Aurignac Grotto 


L'Abri Audi AURIGNACIEN INFERIEUR (First of the Cro-Mag- 

Lissoirs and pointes de non Races) 
Cbatelperron Typical Aurignacian flint industry 

La Quina MOUSTRIEN SUPRIEUR (Last of the great Ne- 

Latest period of the NE- anderthal Race) 
ANDERTHAL RACE Close of the Mousterian flint industry 

Chez-PouiTe* near Brive MOUSTRIEN MOYEN 

Typical Mousterian flint industry (a period of 
long duration) 


The industry includes a Numerous bifaces and remains of reindeer ^ 

few coups depoing . > 


Bifaces predominant. No trace of reindeer 

TABLE v. Declining period of the Neanderthal race in the stone shelters of La Micoque, 
Combe Capelle, Chez Pourr6, and La Quina. Rising period of the Aurignacian and Cro- 
Magnon races in the shelters and grottoes of Audi, Aurignac, Enfer and Cro-Magnon. 

natural powers and the spirit of mysticism and magic. We 
can only conjecture that the first cave dwellers, the Nean- 
derthals, came under this mystical influence when they in- 
troduced the reverent burial of their dead, but among the 



second cave dwellers, the Cro-Magnons and related races, 
we observe the birth of both spiritual and artistic powers. 
It must be made very clear that these new incoming races 
had in the distant East advanced very far in the develop- 
ment of these higher faculties and that they arrived in 
western Europe not, it is true, with a developed art but 
with the mental faculty necessary to artistic development. 
The birth of these faculties occurred in the East, not im- 
probably on the confines of Asia and Europe, but the birth 
of art itself, the first manifestation of the artistic spirit, 
took place in the West. As shown in the remarkable works 
of Abb6 Breuil, western Stone Age art is a very gradual de- 
velopment, extending over a very long period of time. 

In the present lecture let us consider only the birth of 
sculpture and engraving as revealed chiefly in discoveries 
of the last decade. Since it is among the Cro-Magnons and 
related races that we find the first evidence of the artistic 
ability that expresses itself in sculpture, engraving and 
painting, it is interesting to have the latest word regarding 
the Cro-Magnon race. According to recent Swedish writers, 1 
investigators have attempted to trace distant descendants 
of the Cro-Magnons in many countries and to associate the 
origin of the Nordic race with the Cro-Magnons. "At first 
sight, it does not seem very probable that the typically 
Nordic race with its long, narrow face should have devel- 
oped from the Cro-Magnon type with its short, broad one. 
. . . Broca was the first to describe some palaeolithic finds 
of the Cro-Magnon type which were made in 1868, in the 
village of Cro-Magnon in southern France. The name it- 
self, 'Cro-Magnon race/ on the other hand, originated 
with Quatrefages and Hamy (1874). The principal charac- 

* Lundborg andLinders, Editors; The Racial Characters of the Swedish Nation, pp. 147-149. 


ters of this 'race/ according to these three scientists, are 
the following: The man's stature is great (about 180 cm.). 
The skull is very long and broad, dolichocephalic (the cra- 
nial index according to later calculations in most cases 
below 75). The face is broad and short. The build very 
powerful. Only slight prognathism. The forehead steep, the 
root of the nose deeply sunken. Disharmony of the face, 
due to a great bizygomatic diameter, a narrow nose, and 
broad and very low orbits. . . . Hooton maintains that 
. . . there existed during the Stone Age in Europe two 
races of such nature as would .make possible the develop- 
ment of mixed forms of Cro-Magnon type. These two 
races, were, in his opinion, the dolichocephalic race from 
Galley Hill, Briinn, Briix, and Engis, and the Mongoloid 
or proto-Mongoloid brachycephals, which were repre- 
sented among others by the Azilian men from Ofnet and 
the Neolithics from Crenelle. ... 

"Both a critical study of the abundant literature on this 
subject, and our own observations, have strengthened us 
in the opinion that in all probability no homogeneous "Cro- 
Magnon race' has existed, but that the rather varied types 
which have been called so, can not for the present be con- 
sidered anything but crosses arising from the mixture of 
different races in accordance with the Mendelian laws." 

The Birtb of Sculpture in Southern France 

Apres 1'examen souvent trop aride des vestiges purement indus- 
triels de nos anc&tres les plus anciens, Fapparidon des premieres oeuvres 
d'art est Tarchfologie ce qu'est zl la vie de Fhomme le premier sourire 
de 1'enfance. 

De nos provinces du sud-ouest qui nous apparaissent comme le 
foyer et le centre de dispersion de cette civilisation, Tart magdalenien 
<se propage au nord et a* Fest. A mesure qu'il s*61oigne des rives de la 



V6zSre ou des cavernes pyrn6ennes, il perd peu d pen sa fcondjt, 
tout en conservant les traits essentials de ses caracteres et de son origi- 
Joseph Dfcbelette: Manuel Arcl>tohgie> 1908. 

In so far as Europe is concerned, it would seem that the 
art of sculpture had its birth in the imagination of men of 
the mixed or pure Cro-Magnon race who, about twenty- 
five thousand years ago, occupied a large part of western 
Europe, their art attaining its most intensive development 
in two regions, namely, the region now known as Pyr6nes- 
Languedoc and the valley of the V6zre in Dordogne. This 
talented mixed race still survives in greatly diminished 

tour through Carcassonne, Perpignan, Mont Louis, Font-Romeu, the Republic of Andorra, 
Ax-les-Thermes, Foix and Saint Girons. The estate of the Comte de Begouen is ten 
kilometers north of Saint Girons. 

The former region, shown on the map (Fig. 34) as 
Pyr6nes Languedoc, with the historic centers of Albi in 
the north, Montpellier and Perpignan along the Gulf of 
Lyons, the walled city of Carcassonne in the center, the 
frontier post of Mont Louis and the diminutive republic 



of Andorra in the south, and, on the west, the mystical 
grotto of Lourdes, die fashionable baths of Luchon and the 
glacial cirque of Gavarni, is a veritable encyclopedia of the 
history as well as of the prehistory of France. The latter 
region, about one hundred fifty miles to the north, embrac- 



Mas d'Azil Human figurine, horse head (with flesh removed) in 

reindeer horn, head of horse in act of neighing, 
swan, mammoth, head of flayed equine 

Brassempouy Female figure, woman's head with headdress 

Lourdes (Les Espelugues) Horse in ivory 

Tuc d'Audoubert Male and female bison modeled in clay 


Laugerie Basse Human figurine, bovines, reindeer, mammoth head, 

bison head, and various animals 

Teyjat Horse head carved in lignite 

Les Eyzies Human statuette 

Laussel Four large human figures in bas relief 

Raymonden (Chancelade) Horse head in reindeer horn 

Cap Blanc Six horses cut in limestone on the cliff wall 

Comarque Horse head (bas relief) 

Gorge d'Enfer Salmon (bas relief) on the roof of the cave 


Bruniquel Reindeer 

La Trilobite Beetle 


Trou Magrite Human figurine 


Grimaldi Female figurine in soapstone 


Kesslerloch Various sculptures 


Brunn Human figurine in ivory 

TABLE vi. The chief grottoes and shelters of France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland and 
Moravia, containing sculptures of the reindeer, horse, bison and mammoth and of the male 
and female human figure* 



ing the valley of the V6zre in Dordogne and the adjacent 
districts, includes the art-covered rock shelters of Laussel 
and Cap Blanc, with their sculptures of monumental size. 

Prehistoric painting, which attained a notable develop- 
ment both in the Pyr6nes Languedoc and in the valley of 
the Vezre, also reached a high level in the grotto of Alta- 
mira and other caverns of the Cantabrian region in north- 
ern Spain, but nowhere else are the treasures of prehistoric 
sculpture so abundant as in the two regions of France, 
where a number of the foremost masterpieces of this Pa- 
laeolithic art has been discovered. 

The above list 1 (Table vi) of some of the best known of 
these treasures will serve to show their geographic distribu- 
tion and the grounds for the preceding statement. 

Discoveries in the Caverne Tuc d'Audoubert 

The present lecture is the outcome of the author's de- 
lightful visit to the Pyrenees and Dordogne regions in 
1912 and to the Pyrnes Languedoc and the collections of 
Laussel in 1921. In 1912 the author had the good fortune 
to visit the Comte de Bgouen at his home near Saint 
Girons twenty-two days after the discovery of the galerie 
inftrieure of the cavern known as Tuc d'Audoubert. The 
accompanying photograph (Fig. 35) shows the entrance of 
this cavern which is on the estate of the Comte de B6- 
gouen exactly as it appeared at the time of the discovery 
of the galerie infSrieure. The central figure holding a cane 
and standing by the edge of the rivulet which issues from 
the cavern is the Comte de Bgouen; by his side is his 
eldest son, who has in his left hand one of the acetylene 

i Compiled chiefly from the "Manuel d'Archtologie" of the lamented D6chelette, and 
amplified from Burkitt's "Prehistory" and de Morgan's "L'Humanit& Prlhistorique." 

r 083 

Fiff. 3$. STREAM ISSUING FROM THE LIMESTONE MOUNTAIN, Tuc D'AUDOUBEW (Tig. 40, 4), leading to the 
Salle des Bisons. Comte de Bgouen and his three sons in the foreground. 


Fig. 37. THE STALACTITE CHAMBER OF THE GALERIB SUPERIEURE, named Salle Cartailhac (Fig. 40, rf-C) in 
honor of the late Professor Emile Cartailhac. Photograph by permission of Comte de Blgouen. 

Tig. 3$, THE OAT BISONS OF TBS GAIBHB SupfaiBtrcB (Fig. 40, 6-B). Photograph by permission of 
M. Jean Brunhes. 


lamps used to light the difficult journey through the cav- 
ern; in the background are the two younger sons in a small 
boat of their own manufacture in which they followed the 
stream for a distance of two hundred feet when they made 
the original discovery of mural etchings in the galerie in- 

In August, 1921, nine years after the original discovery 
of 1912, the author returned to find the Comte de B6gouen 
more full of energy and enthusiasm than ever and ready to 
act as guide to the galerie superieure, in which was found 
the now world-famous 'Salle des Bisons/ In the interval 
his three sons had safely emerged from the hazards of the 
war with decorations for gallantry. 

In the early summer of 1914, before the beginning of the 
fatal World War, these three lads had observed a very 
small opening in one of the side walls of ^, galerie inftrieure 
through which they were barely able to squeeze their 
slender bodies. Undaunted by difficulties, they pushed on- 
ward along what is now known as the galerie suptrieure 
into the superb chamber of stalactites, subsequently desig- 
nated the 'Salle Cartailhac' (Fig. 37) in honor of Professor 
Emile Cartailhac, the veteran archaeologist of Toulouse, 
whose death after a long and honorable career as the dean 
of French archaeology was announced in the year 1921. 
From the Salle Cartailhac openings lead in several direc- 
tions in fact, on the occasion of the author's recent visit 
his party nearly lost its way in this part of the cavern on 
the return trip. The labyrinthine nature of the cavern and 
the extreme narrowness of the passages failed to deter les 
troisfrtres. They courageously pushed their way onward 
and upward, wriggling like serpents through narrow spaces, 
until after a final, most difficult passage, the narrowest of 



all, they entered a chamber 50 feet long and 30 feet across, 
with a ceiling about 12 feet high. On the floor at the end of 
this chamber they found traces of a small circle built of 
stones, and could hardly believe their eyes when their lan- 
terns flashed upon a pair of bison modeled in clay, consist- 
ing of a cow in front and a bull following, both leaning with 
the left side against a large mass of clay (Fig. 38). 

Thus through the courage and enterprise of these three 
lads was made one of the most astounding discoveries in 
the whole history of French archaeology, namely, that the 
sculptors of Palaeolithic times were familiar with the use of 
modeling clay and employed this as a medium of expression 
and perhaps even for preliminary study of works subse- 
quently to be executed in the more enduring medium of stone y 
exactly as our sculptors do today. The sculptors who cour- 
ageously penetrated thega/erie superifare some twenty-five 
thousand years ago were also extremely skilful in the use 
of this clay, and the photographs taken by the Comte de 
Begouen and M. Jean Branhes by the aid of acetylene 
light convey little idea of the extraordinary accuracy of the 
great lines of musculature indicated in the fore quarters, 
neck, and head. 

The Count's three sons did not tarry to make such de- 
tailed observations as these, but hastened back to an- 
nounce their discovery of the Salle des Bisons to their 
father; and to our mind the courage which the sons dis- 
played was less remarkable than that of their father, who 
immediately returned to make the same most difficult 
ascent into &&galerie supfrieyre. How the Count ever suc- 
ceeded in forcing his stalwart figure through the narrow 
passages impossible to any but the most accomplished 
'cavernist' we cannot imagine. At the time of our second 

II 102 3 


visit to the cavern in 1921 iron ladders, steps, and other 
aids to the ascent had been prepared, and inconvenient 
masses of limestone had been chiseled down; but notwith- 
standing such provisions the ascent was the most difficult 
and arduous of its kind that we have ever undertaken. At 
one point it was necessary literally to crawl upon one's face 
ventre'ti terre and when halfway through we were forced 
to turn on one side because the two pillars of limestone are 
too close to allow the shoulders and hips to pass. Our ad- 
miration of the Comte de Bgouen increased every mo- 
ment. When finally we emerged into the Salle des Bisons, 
we were physically completely out of breath but spiritually 
we were prepared for the greatest impression of our life, 
namely, the sight of an atelier preserved exactly as it was left 
by the prehistoric sculptors twenty-five thousand or more years 
ago, with the bison models still soft to the touch and the 
mass of clay as yet only slightly contracted by desiccation, 
exhibiting two vertical cracks in the figures which are 
clearly shown in the photograph by M. Jean Brunhes 

(Fig. 38). 

The mass of clay against which these bison lean is also 
clearly shown. The tail of the right-hand (female) bison 
has dropped to the ground. On the other side of the mass of 
day is a third, uncompleted figure of a bison, and a model 
of a fourth partly finished. Near by are several rolls of 
fresh clay, indicating that this material was carefully 
worked before being applied to the model. 

It is impossible to convey any idea of the impression 
made upon our mind by the Salle des Bisons and especially 
by the two central figures which give it its name. As the 
light from the lantern is slowly passed round these sculp- 
tures, one realizes that they are triumphs of impression- 

103 3 


ism. The effect is one of suggestion conveyed by strong, 
sure strokes of the modeling tool. There is absolute truth of 
proportion, and to this all matters of detail and retouch are 

Not far distant from the bison models is a small, de- 
pressed chamber where one can observe fresh prints of 
hands and feet the footprints being of very delicate type, 
deeply impressed into the fresh clay, and subsequently 
covered with a very thin coating of limestone. This recess 

Fiff. 39. FOOT IMP1B88IOK- OF T&E SCULPTOR OF IBB BISONS. Heel-cast from the Salle de Danse 
adjoining the Salle des Bisons in the cavern of Tuc d'Audoubert. a-3 actual size. Presented 
to the American Museum of Natural History by the Comte de B^gouen. 


is called the 'Salle de Danse/ although there is no evidence 
of any such ceremonial having taken place here. The deli- 
cate heel prints (Fig. 39) are limited in number and may 
well have been made while the sculptors were gathering 
clay for the bison models. In fact, there is no evidence that 
this chamber was devoted to any purpose other than the 
execution of these bison sculptures and it may never have 
been visited again. 

Compare Figures 35, 36, 37, 38. 

Such is the ever recurring mystery of Palaeolithic pur- 
pose and art. The subject of the two bison, male and fe- 
male, relates to the reproductive instinct and not directly 
to the chase, as in the case of the bison drawn in the not 
far distant cavern of Niaux with arrows indicated on their 

As we return from the Salle des Bisons and descend along 
the galerie suptrieure there are evidences of occupation, 
not only by the cave bear but by cave man, who has left 



little heaps of scattered implements and bones showing 
that several parts of the cave had been inhabited by the 
Stone Age men for short periods during the winter season 
perhaps when the constant internal temperature of 
I2J^C. (54>F.) rendered the interior far more habitable 
than the country without, subject as that was to the severe 
climate of the Pyrenees in the Ice Age. 

Discovery of the Etchings in the Caverne des frois 

At the top of the same little limestone mountain con- 
taining the cavern of Tuc d'Audoubert is an opening long 
known to the shepherds .of the region as the Toint 
Souffleur/ from which the relatively warm air currents of 
the cavern issue in winter and melt the snow, while rela- 
tively cool breezes issue in summer (Fig. 40). 

On July 2,0, 1914, the Bgouen brothers suddenly de- 
cided to descend this rock chimney and see where it led, 
another very hazardous proceeding. They were let down 
by a long rope and upon reaching the bottom found them- 
selves in an entirely new cavern, which has since received 
the name of 'Les Trois Frres' in honor of its discoverers. 

Upon receiving their report, for a second time the Comte 
de Bgouen hurried to the spot, ran all the risks, and veri- 
fied this fresh discovery by his three sons. Even the pre- 
liminary survey made by these youths revealed that, 
though not far distant from the cavern of the Tuc d'Au- 
doubert, it represented an entirely different art period and 
a cavern technique of another order; that its walls were 
fairly covered with designs; and that the relatively few 
flint-incised outlines were executed in an entirely different 

n 1063 

41. WALL ETCHINGS IN LBS Txois FB&XBS. The light effects are produced by the removal oi 
era coating of the limestone. The reindeer of the period (upper) and the Celtic hone (lower] 
utifully represented, particularly the latter with its bushy tail, erect mane, small head and 

delicate limbs. Photographs by permission of Comte de Blgouen. 

Fig 42 THE SORCERER OF LES Tuois FRim. Painting and engraving on the roof of the magic chamber, 
or Salle du Sorcier (Fig. 40, S), Photograph by permission of Comte de Begouen. 

Ftp. 43. THE SOBCERERS OF LOURDES AND OF LES TROIS FRERES. Left : This engraving was found on a piece 
of schist rock in the Grotte de Lourdes and is preserved in the Musle de Saint Germain. About 1-2 actual 
size. Right : Interpretation by Abbe Henri Breoil of the painting and engraving in the Salle du Sorcier 
(Fig. 42). 1-15 actual size. 


Every available surface of the cavern of Les Trois 
Frres, whether ceiling or sides, has a design upon it, and 
it has required two seasons of very hard work on the part 
of the eminent historian of prehistoric art in France, the 
Abbe Henri Breuil, to reproduce these etchings. We had 
the pleasure of meeting the Abbe Breuil at the Chateau des 
Espas, the residence of the Comte de Begouen, and learned 
from him that there was still several months' work to be 
done. The walls which the prehistoric artists faced were 
uniformly covered with a brown coating quite unlike that 
of the limestone of other caves; under this coating lies the 
yellow-white limestone surface. By scratching off the coat- 
ing the etchers produced a strong white contour line, unlike 
the black painted manganese contour line which outlines 
the animals pictured in the Niaux cavern; quite different 
also from the deep, flint-incised outlines seen in the adja- 
cent cavern of Tuc d'Audoubert. 

This etching is well shown in the reindeer and the small 
Celtic horse reproduced herewith (Fig. 41). The photo- 
graphs do not reproduce with sufficient clearness the effect 
of these etchings, therefore the whites and blacks have 
been slightly intensified to convey to the eye the effect ac- 
tually given when such etchings are surveyed with a pow- 
erful acetylene light. 

So perfectly portrayed are the exact proportions and 
characteristics of these two animals, the reindeer and the 
Celtic horse, that, even if they be critically examined by a 
zoologist, there is no mistaking either the genus or the 
species to which they belong. The distinguishing points in 
the Celtic horse are the small head and the high, arched 
neck and white mane of the stallion. In the reindeer the 
broad contour lines beneath the head and the body, which 



are part of the scheme of protective coloration or conceal- 
ment, are indicated by removing the brown surface of the 
cavern wall from a considerable area, leaving only a patch 
of brown here and there to indicate the limbs and shading. 
In the case of the Celtic horse the white coloring extends 
beneath the jaw and the belly line. Thus not only the con- 
tour but also the coloring of these two animals is very 
clearly and characteristically indicated. The entire sil- 
houette of the upper part of the body is absolutely accu- 
rate and true to life. 

This unique style and greater freedom in drawing and 
etching distinguish all the work found in the Caverne des 
Trois Frres, on the walls of which are outlines and etch- 
ings of all the characteristic mammalian life of the period, 
namely, the horse (of different species) and the reindeer (a 
single species) both favorite subjects the mammoth 
(less frequently portrayed), the bear, the lion, the panther, 
the stag, and most numerous because most coveted for 
food the bison. All these animals and others more re- 
cently discovered are portrayed with the same fidelity by 
these Palaeolithic artists; here we have a complete por- 
trayal of the mammalian life of the Pyrenees in this early 
period of Magdalenian art, probably antecedent to that 
phase of mural painting which distinguishes the final 
period of Magdalenian art. 

Although improved and widened at narrow points the 
cavern is still very difficult of access "trds pfaible" in the 
words of the Count. One must crawl, stoop, turn' on one's 
back or side in order to pass certain points, yet it has been 
visited frequently by the Count and by the late dean of 
French archaeologists, Emile Cartailhac. 



Discovery of "The Sorcerer" in Les Trots Freres 

Again the ttan of the 'cavernist' carried us through all 
difficulties into the final chamber, on the ceiling of which 
we perceived in faint relief the painted figure of the Sor- 
cerer. We were at last in the SaUe du Sorcier, where, sur- 
rounded by numerous etchings, this strange medicine man 
presides. To the painstaking and minute observation of 
Abb Breuil we are indebted for the elucidation of all the 
details presented in the accompanying drawing (Fig. 42). 

The interest of this figure of the Sorcier is enhanced by 
the fact that it is not a unique representation. Though far 
more perfect and of larger size, it strikingly resembles the 
engraving of a sorcerer found many years ago in the now 
miraculous grotto of Lourdes in the eastern Pyrenees (Fig. 
43). Each figure is terminated with a fox's tail and is sur- 
mounted with the horns of a stag, and from each face hangs 
the long, pointed beard. The Trois Fr&res figure is tech- 
nically superior to the Lourdes in showing the mask and 
ears of a fox and the apparent insertion of the arms of the 
sorcerer in the pelage of the forearm of a bear or some other 
carnivore that is, the hands are masked like the face, 
while the feet, the trunk, and the thighs are either covered 
with fur or, more probably, painted in stripes. The remain- 
der of the body of the sorcerer is etched on the brown- 
coated rock very much in the same manner as the animals 
are etched in other parts of this wonderful cavern. The fig- 
ure is represented partly stooping, in a gesture which the 
Count well describes as "Je geste defaire le beau" an atti- 
tude which is also observed in some of the drawn figures in 



the grotto of Combarelles. Following his description of 
this strange figure, the Comte de Bgouen writes: 

Ce melange de caracteristiques nous fait ^carter galement 1'idee 
d'une mascarade rituelle sp6ciale. Catlin, qui il faut toujours revenir, 
nous d6crit des danses de Tours ou du bison dans lesquelles le ou les 
participants revStent les tetes de 1'animal qu'il convient d'honorer et 
de rendre favorable ou au contraire de d6truire. Si done 1'imagination 
s'est donn6 libre carriere dans la confection en quelque sorte synthe- 
tique de 1'accoutrement, c'est qu'il s'agit de repr&enter soit un esprit 
suprieur ayant par consequent les attributs des d?ff6rents animaux 
qu'il domine, soit Thomme capable par son pouvoir magique d'en tre 
6galement maftre. Nous avons des quantites d'exemples de Tun et de 
1'autre cas chez tous les peuples primitifs, des Esquimaux aux Austra- 
liens en passant par les indigenes de 1'Afrique ou de I'Am&ique, les 
Sounis en particulier. 

Dans le premier cas, il s'agirait de la representation d'une sorte de 
divinit^ dans le second, de celle d'un sorcier. C'est vers la seconde 
hypoth^se que nous penchons. Nous croyons que Tartiste quaternaire 
a voulu repr&enter un magicien. Dans quel but, nous Tignorons. Rien 
ne nous permet de deviner la mentalit6 qui 6tait la sienne ni la pr6occu- 
pation a laquelle il a ob&. 

II semble que cet artiste, c'6tait le sorcier lui-m&ne, qui aurait trac6 
avec minutie et fid61it6 son propre portrait revtu de ses attributs 
rituels. II Fa plac^ dans le recoin le plus recul de la caverne inferieure, 
mais sur une paroi dominant ces centaines de figurations d'animaux 
que lui ou ses confreres ont, pendant de longues suites de generations, 
tracte pour des envofttements. Car tout dans cette caverne nous parle 
de ma^ie. 

None of these wall drawings or paintings is removable. 
The figure of the sorcerer itself is not very conspicuous and 
to make out all its characteristics has required the most 
microscopic study on the part of the Abb6 Breuil. It was 
necessary for the author to visit this cavern personally in 
company with one of the archaeologic experts of France to 
appreciate the full meaning of this art and to discover the 
inconspicuous but most significant pictures. 

There is little doubt that this entire mural art is con- 


nected with the spirit of the chase, with the exception of 
the sorcerer, which may have a magic significance similar 
to that of our 'medicine men/ 

The Human and Equine Sculptures of Laussel 
and Cap Blanc 

In the more northern art center around the valley of the 
V6zre is the grotto of Laussel (Fig. 44), where Dr. Gas ton 
de Lalanne worked for many years and was rewarded by 
the discovery of the most remarkable series of prehistoric 
sculptures of the human figure which have been found in 

The figure which Dr. Lalanne in his capacity of student 
of prehistoric remains calls "la bonne femme de Laussel" 
(Fig. 45) was found at the point indicated by a white cross 
on the projecting point of rock beneath the shadow of this 
grotto, which Lalanne regards as possibly an ancient 
sanctuary. La bonne femme has the robust proportions of 
all the feminine statues of the period and, like the others, 
is the work of a race which held that maternity is the chief 
end of womanhood. There is no effort at the expression of 
either beauty or proportion in the feminine figure, and the 
rough brown sandstone does not admit of anything in the 
nature of delicate sculpture of the face and head a part 
of the human body far too difficult for the sculptors in this 
remote Aurignacian period of the development of their art. 
A second figure of a woman is inferior in design to la bonne 
femme. A third feminine figure is more or less symbolic of 
the act of parturition. 

None of the feminine figures betrays any attempt on the 
part of the artist at the expression of the beauty of the hu- 
man form and we might infer that the Cro-Magnon artists 


of this time so keen to portray the beauty of the animal 
form were indifferent to beauty in mankind, were it not 
for the companion statue of le chasseur (Fig. 45) , which Dr. 
Lalanne found within a few feet of la bonne femme. We had 
the privilege of examining all these statues in a powerful 
light in Lalanne's studio in Bordeaux, and were deeply 
impressed, not only by the real beauty of the masculine 
figure of the hunter, but by the evidence it gave of surpris- 
ingly close observation of anatomical detail. The pose is ex- 
tremely fine and the figure may be conceived as in the act 
of either throwing a spear or drawing a bow. The broad 
shoulders and slender, girdled waist remind us strongly of 
figures of Apache Indian runners and hunters, and also of 
the slender-waisted cup-bearers from the palace of Cnos- 
sus, Crete. The body faces slightly toward the front, and 
one may perceive the line where the thorax joins the ab- 
domen that is, the lower line of the ribs above the slen- 
der abdominal line of the typical hunter. More remarkable, 
at the top of the shoulder one can perceive the swelling of 
the deltoid muscle and the point where it subsides into the 
brachialis muscle as in the modern athlete. The head is 
turned to the left, indicating that the face was turned in 
the direction of the spear or of the arrow, but there are no 
indications of the features in fact, it would have been 
impossible in this coarse sandstone and with the tools then 
available to model the human features. 

Close of the High Sculpture Period 

Dr. Lalanne has a superb collection of Aurignacian 
flints, including hammer stones and chisel-like implements 
with which the sculptor may have worked. His atelier is 
crowded with a series of implements which give us all 

c IH: 

Fig. 44. THE ROCK SHELTER OF LAUSSEI* supposed to be an ancient sanctuary, which contained four 
Palaeolithic bas-reliefs in stone, including those known as le chasseur and la bonne femme 4e 
laussel. The latter was on the stone indicated by a white cross. Reproduced by pemusion of the 
late Dr. Gaston de Lalanne of Bordeaux. ' 

fio. 45. STONE SCUIPTOBBS OP LAVSSEL, of late Aurignacian age. About 1-6 actual size, left: La bonne 
femme, bas-relief of a womaa with a drinking horn. Riffht: Le chasseur, bas-relief of a spear-thrower or 
archer, sculptured on the face of a boulder within the rock shelter (Fig. 44). 

Tiff. 46. THE FAMOUS CELTIC HORSE OF CAP BIAXC. Sculpture in high relief of a life-sized hone of early 
Magdalenian age, now one of the national monuments of France. After Lalanne in Anthropology 1911. 


phases of the grand Aurignacian flint industry. Near the 
bonne femme de Laussel was found an assemblage of the 
finest types of flints possibly an accidental association, 
though Dr. Lalanne considers that the sculptors probably 
employed a variety of implements in roughing out and 
preparing the ambitious statuary of his priceless collection. 
Of the same upper Aurignacian age is a number of very 
large implements hammer stones, planing stones, and pics 
which were well adapted to this massive work and to 
such undertakings as the subsequent Magdalenian horse 
sculpture of Cap Blanc (Fig. 46). To the prehistoric archae- 
ologist the age of these statues is the matter of command- 
ing interest; it is determined by the excavations of Dr. 
Lalanne as Aurignacien suffaieur beyond the possibility of 

We may point to the industrial parallels which Lalanne 
finds between the grotto of Laussel and other famous and 
typical sites as indicated above (Table v). We are not 
inclined to accept his theory that the Laussel sculp- 
tures represent the negro-like Grimaldi race of Mentone 
which, our readers will recall, is the only Palaeolithic race 
with the negroid type of face thus far discovered, and 
which is represented by two skeletons found in the Grottes 
de Grimaldi on the Mediterranean near Mentone. 1 Our 
principal ground for dissenting from the theory that the 
Grimaldi race was portrayed in the Laussel sculptures is 
that repeatedly expressed in "Men of the Old Stone Age," 
namely, that all this art, both mural and sculptural, ap- 
pears to be the product of a single racial mind and racial 
spirit. New types of implements may have come in by in- 
vasion, but in the orderly development of a single art an 

1 Compare Osborn: Men of the Old Stone Age, pp. 262-169. 

C 1173 


art marked by the combined love of beauty and truth we 
have the most positive proofs of the craftsmanship of a 
single race. That race was probably of the pure or mixed 
Cro-Magnon type. 

Unfortunately little evidence is afforded by burials. 
Thus far no evidence of the practice of human burial has 
been found in any of these excavations at Laussel. It is 
true that in the search for burial places Dr. Lalanne came 
upon the famous series of sculptured horses at Cap Blanc, 
which are regarded as belonging to the art of early Magda- 
lenian times and therefore as somewhat more recent than 
the human sculptures of Laussel. 


... I first slaved to the yoke 

Both ox and ass. I the rein-loving steeds 

(Of wealth's gay-flaunting pomp the chiefest pride) 

Joined to the car; and bade them ease the toils 

Of laboring men vicarious. 

I the first 

Upon the lint-winged car of mariner 
Was launched, sea-wandering. 

Such wise arts I found 
To soothe the ills of Man's ephemeral life; 
But for myself, plunged in this depth of woe, 
No prop I find* 

* . ..* 

Chiefest of all, the cure of dire disease 
Men owe to me. Nor healing food, nor drink, 
Nor unguent knew they, but did slowly wither 
And waste away for lack of pharmacy, 
Till taught by me to mix the soothing drug, 
And check corruption's march. . . . 
. . . Yet more: I probed the Earth, 
To yield its* hidden wealth to help man's weakness 
Iron, copper, silver, gold. 

Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound. 


The rudiments of architecture, of mining, of navigation The Mesolitbic or 

transitional period The glaciers give prehistoric chronology Northward 

migration of the Campignian flint workers Successive reindeer, moose and stag 

periods of Denmark and Sweden The shell mound period of Denmark 

Divisions of the Bronze and Neolithic ages in Denmark and Sweden 

Beginnings of Mediterranean trade 

THE fourth scene of human prehistory shifts from the 
Dawn Man of East Anglia, from the long empire of 
the low-browed Neanderthaloids, from the art-filled caves 
and shelters of the Pyrenees, to the stern northern shores 
of France and Belgium, where the flint workers and boat 
builders of Campigny battled with the forests, streams 
and creeks. 

The flint workers of Campigny inaugurated in western 
Europe a new period of prehistoric civilization with two 
new implements, namely, the stone axe (trancbef) and the 
stone pick-axe (pic), which were" probably brought from 
the East. With these implements they were able to make 
openings in the forests for their dwellings, to build rude 
boats in which to explore the northern rivers and creeks, 
and to mine for finer grades of flint. Thus man rose to the 
rudiments of architecture in constructing his dwelling 
places, to the rudiments of mining the earth, and to the 

iPerhaps few people realize how many of the surnames of native-born Americans are, 
either directly or ultimately, of Scandinavian origin. An instance of this is afforded by both 
family names of the present author. Osborn is a variant of the Old Norse name'Asbiorn' = 
divine bear (O.N. as, divine + biorn, a bear), Anglicized into Osbeorn, Osbern, Osborn 
a godlike warrior (O.E. os, a god + be(o)rn, a warrior). Two Osberns are recorded as 
killed in battle in A.D. 1054 and the name is of common occurrence in the Domesday Book. 
Sturges ( = Sturge's son), the surname on the distaff side, is somewhat obscure in deriva- 
tion but seems to be related to the O.E. 'sterced' = stern, stout, strong, and perhaps to 
O.E. 'stearc' ? rigid, stern, strong. 


rudiments of navigation in building his boats. Around the 
dwellings grew up the rudiments of village and communal 
life; the boats made possible the rudiments of trade and of 
commerce, while extending the art of fishing which added 
marine fish and molluscs to the northern diet. 

The great flint industry known as the Campignian, 
named after its type station of Campigny, northern France, 
was especially adapted to the needs of a hardy northern 
race living in a forested country along river banks or sea- 
shores, where there could be no recourse to limestone cav- 
erns or grottoes for shelter. These closing Stone Age people 
built their cabanes (huts) partly below ground, probably 
stretching the hides of animals over arched poles. Such a 
style of building not unlike that still in vogue among the 
nomadic peoples of Mongolia and northern Siberia, in 

STONE AGE. Vertical lines: sculpture and painting period of the Aungnacian and Magdaleman 
workers. Horizontal lines: northward spread of the Azilian and Tardenpuian micro-flint 
workers. Oblique lines : eastward and westward distribution of the Campigman foresters and 
miners with trancket and pic. 


which the fire is placed in the center of the dwelling and 
the smoke emerges through an opening in the roof called 
for a constant supply of seasoned firewood, while the 
streams and the inlets of the adjacent seashores rendered 
urgent the need of canoes. 

The Mesolitbic or Transitional Period 

The Campignian flint industry in northern France which 
supplied western Europe with the flint axe and flint pick- 
axe is dated about 8,000 B.C. This period is also known as 
the Mesolithic; it is a transition between the Palaeolithic 
and the Neolithic. The prehistoric civilization of western 
Europe is now accelerated by the successive arrivals of new 
races of man bringing new arts and industries from western 
Asia, where prehistoric civilization was far more rapid, 
owing to the increasing aridity of the country and the ab- 
sence of forests. These arrivals from the East and from 
north Africa bring the micro-flint industries known as 
Azilian andTardenoisian (13,000 B.C.), the Neolithic art of 
agriculture, later the copper and bronze industries and, 
finally (600 B.C.), iron (Table vi i). 

The present lecture covers the eight millenniums of time 
from the close of the Reindeer Period of the Old Stone Age 
in France (11,000 B.C.), known as the Palaeolithic art age, 
to the Age of Bronze in Scandinavia, about 2000 B.C. For 
three reasons this period of eight thousand years is of special 
interest: First, it witnessed the arrival of our own northern 
ancestors in northwestern Europe. Second, as the Meso- 
lithic or transition stage, it fills in the interval of prehis- 
tory, until recently unknown and mysterious* that lies be- 
tween the Magdalenian industry of the Cro-Magnon race 

C 123 3 



Approximate chronology of the Pa- 
laeolithic, Neoli thic, Copper, and B ronze 
cultures of western Asia and Europe. 
These dates are largely conjectural and 
may be greatly modified by future dis- 


Archaeologic chronology of southern 
Scandinavia as given to the author by 
Oscar Montelius in the summer of 1921, 
slightly modified by the more recent de- 
terminations of De Geer and Antevs 
that the ice retreated from central 
Scania not earlier than 1 1,500 B.C. 

AGE OF IRON in central Europe 

AGE OF BRONZE in central 

Europe, France, Spain 
HORSE domesticated in the 




COPPER used in central Europe 

and France 

Greece, and Sicily 

AGE OF BRONZE in Egypt \ 
and Chaldea ( 

COPPER used in Troy, Greece, ( 
Sicily, Hungary, and Spain ) 

S STONE CISTS. Inferior pottery 
First appearance of BRONZE in 



COPPER used at Anau, Turkestan 4000 

\ pottery. First appearance of 

Earliest Scandinavian SKULL of 
NORDIC type 

DOLMENS round or rectangu- 

Dawn of the NEOLITHIC. No 
Megalithic tombs. Stone axes 
and picks developed 

COPPER used in Egypt and Chal- 



\ GNIAN cultures. STAG PERIOD 

IN SCANDINAVIA with large 

flint implements and axes of 

reindeer horn 

CAMPIGNIAN culture in France 
NEOLITHIC culture at Anau, 

(MAGLEMOSE (Mullerup) cul- 
8000 ] ture of Denmark DOMES- 






m southern France J 

f Final retreat of the Scandinavian 
'5 \ Glacier from southern Scania 




ern France 

Crete settled 

micro-flint industry from Spain 
and north Africa 

MAGDALENIAN (Palaeolithic) 

art culture in France 
NEOLITHIC culture at Susa, 


Beginning of NEOLITHIC in 1 18,000 

southwestern Asia / 


TABLE vn. Chronology of west Asiatic, Egyptian, Cretan, European and Scandinavian cultures 

of artists that is, the close of the Old Stone Age in Europe 
and the dawn of the New Stone Age, characterized by 
the practice of polishing stone implements, the pursuit of 
agriculture, and the domestication of animals. Third, it has 
recently (1910) become possible to assign to these indus- 
tries dates of even greater precision than the dates as- 
signed to the dawn of civilization in central Asia, Mesopo- 
tamia and Egypt. Within the period of eight thousand 
years our ancestors arrived in northwestern Europe and 
Scandinavia and passed through a long hunting stage of 
evolution with only flint implements; through all the Neo- 
lithic phases; through a superb development of the art of 
both flint and bronze; and into the culminating period of 
the Age of Iron. 

c 1253 

The Glaciers Give Prehistoric Chronology 

Geology furnishes the chronometer in the seasonal melt- 
ing of the Scandinavian Glacier with its annual deposits of 
the fine ice-born clay by which the years are recorded as 
distinctly as in the annual ring growths of trees. The dis- 
covery that the thick clay layers near Stockholm corre- 
spond with warm seasons of rapid melting, and that the 
thin clay layers correspond with cool seasons of slow melt- 
ing, suggested to the ingenious mind of Baron Gerard De 
Geer that here was the long-sought time clock of glacial 
recession. By the year 1910 he had confidently announced a 
"Geochronology of the Last 12,000 Years." Then began a 
decade of persistent research along the ancient ice-borders 
of Scandinavia and, more recently, of northeastern Amer- 
ica, which has not only confirmed his original theory, but 
of late 1 apparently promises a means of fixing precisely the 
date of postglacial time in the whole northern hemisphere. 
The date when our Nordic ancestors arrived in Scandi- 
navia is thereby set by Baron De Geer and by Oscar Mon- 
telius, the distinguished archaeologist of Scandinavia, as 
8,000 B.C. for a conservative minimum and 1 1,000 B.C. for 
a maximum. 

Montelius was also enabled to affix the glacial millen- 
niums of De Geer to his previous subdivisions of the early 
cultures of Sweden and Denmark and to propose a series 
of dates far more precise than those given for any other 
prehistoric region of the world (Table vn) . 

This definite and reliable chronology afforded by the 
glaciers is doubly welcome because the old divisions of the 

iGerard De Geer: Correlation of Late Glacial Annual Clay Varves in North America 
with the Swedish Time Scale. Gtohgiska Fdreningens t Stockholm Fdrbandlingar, Bd. 43, 
H. i-a. January-February, 1911. 


OrcAR MONTELIUS, the leading archaeolog'st 
of Sweden, who established the entire suc- 
cession cf the Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron 
Age cultures in Sweden, and shortly before 
his deathconnected the archaeology wi'h 
the glacial chronology of De Geer. 
Through the death of Montelius on Novem- 
ber 4,' 1921, the study of the prehistory of 
Eurooe has suffered an irreparable loss. 
Widely known as the leading archaeologist 
of Scan dan avia, he was for more than fifty 
years a constant contributor to the scientific 
journals of his own and other Enropean 
countries. He was an accomplished linguist 
and author of numerous books ; he was for 
many years director of the National Mu- 
seum of Sweden, an office which he subse- 
quently resigned in order to complete a 
series of monographs on the unique collec- 
tions assembled there. 


GERARD DE GEER, the leading geologist of 
Sweden, who established (1910-1921) the 
glacial chronology of Scandinavia through 
the discovery of the clay laminae left by 
retreating glaciers. 

Fiff. 48. 

returning with a stag, which has replaced the reindeer. The dog and pottery indicate the 
Neolithic Age ; the spearheads and axes are still of chipped flint. From mural by Charles R. 
Knight under direction of the author. Permission of American Museum of Natural History. 

Fiff. 50. SURVIVAL OF THE STOKE AGE IN NORTH AMERICA. Indian flint workers fashioning arrow 
heads. The Campignian trancket and pic never penetrated North America. Permission of TJ. S. 
National Museum. 


prehistory of Europe into the 'Old Stone Age/ 'New Stone 
Age/ 'Age of Copper/ 'Age of Bronze/ and 'Age of Iron/ 
no longer suffice. They are not only too broad, but they are 
too indefinite, since it is now well known that these cultures 
overlapped, so that the Old Stone Age of one region cor- 
responds with the New Stone Age of another, and with 
even the Bronze Age of a third. Scandinavian culture lags 
from one to three thousand years behind corresponding 
Asiatic culture. 

Not only this overlapping of cultures and industries, but 
the gradual transitions between these periods the inter- 
mediate stages recently discovered render a new prehis- 
toric chronology necessary. This is especially true of the 
time when our Nordic ancestors arrived in Europe, when 
the stag had replaced the reindeer all over France and Bel- 

fiff. 51. ADVANCE AND RETREAT OF GLACXATZOK IV. The fourth great glacier from Scandinavia 
swept southeastward over the site of the present cities of Berlin and Leningrad during the 
final struggle of the Neanderthal race in western Europe in its period of Mousterian flint 
industry. As Glaciation IV retreated northward, leaving Germany, Denmark and ancient 
Scania free of ice, this region was invaded by the Campignian flint-workers and boat- 
builders, who were followed by Neolithic agriculturists. 

n 129 3 


Fiff. 52. REINDEER, MOOSE AND STAG OF CAMPIGNIAN AGE. The reindeer migrated southward to 
the Pyrenees during maximum Glaciation IV and then slowly retreated northward to Scan- 
dinavia about ii,oco B.C. The moose (Scandinavian elk) wandered southward to northern 
Spain during maximum Glaciation IV and retreated northward to Denmark, where its bones 
and horns were used to make weapons and tools in the Maglemose industry of about 7000 B.C. 
The stag, depicted by the Magdalenian artists of northern Spain, moved northward, appearing 
in early Campignian and Shell Mound deposits of Denmark and Sweden about 5,000 B.C. 

C 130 3 


gium, and even the moose, or Scandinavian elk, had re- 
treated northward into Denmark, while the reindeer was 
following the snow fields and retreating ice northward 
from Denmark into southern Scandinavia. 

Northward Migration of the Flint Industries as the Reindeer, 
Moose and Stag Moved Northward 

When we realize that the economic and family life of this 
period, the food and clothing and many implements, de- 
pended upon the reindeer, the moose and the stag, we se- 
cure the key to the origin of a variety of human habits and 
inventions which moved northward twelve hundred miles 
from Spain to southern Scandinavia. During the period of 
high Magdalenian art of the Cro-Magnon race the reindeer 
had penetrated Spain south of the Pyrenees and was abun- 
dant in the cave region immediately north of the Pyrenees. 
Its hide furnished clothing; its flesh and marrow bones 
served as food; from its horns and leg-bones were fashioned 
the tools and weapons of the time. 

The slow northward retreat of the reindeer began after 
the time of the maximum cold of the Fourth Glaciation 
and continued for from eight to ten thousand years, during 
the whole period of the development of the Upper Palaeo- 
lithic cultures, namely, the Aurignacian, Solutrean and 
Magdalenian, and into the period of the minute flint indus- 
try known as the Azilian-Tardenoisian. With this north- 
ward retreat of the reindeer went the hunting tribes in 
pursuit, carrying with them all the inventions, all the de- 
vices which tended to make their life more comfortable or 
to facilitate the capture offish or game. 

It is in the extreme north, close to the retreating ice 
sheet of the Fourth Glaciation that, through the genius of 


*~ - c *'" 

Baron De Geer, we are enabled to assign exact dates, not 
only to the successive northward migrations of the deer, 
moose and stag, but to the corresponding waves of human 
invention and human migration and to the interchange of 
weapons of the chase and tools of successive industries. 
Some of these inventions, like the flint hide-dressers and 
scrapers, date away back to the Stone Age time when the 
Piltdown man and the Foxhall man inhabited western 
Europe. Man seldom casts away an old invention unless it 
becomes entirely useless. Other inventions of the art age, 
like the bone sharpeners and scrapers, finely retouched flint 
tools, also flint borers used in perforating bone, date back 
to Aurignacian times when, the manufacture of bone im- 
plements began to flourish. Still other inventions, like the 
minute geometric flints known as Tardenoisian, date only 

n 132 1 


from the Stag Period, which was post-Magdalenian. It is 
wonderful to find these tiny flints as pointed out to the 
writer by Dr. Hamal-Nandrin of Liege in Campignian 
fishing stations of the very late Reindeer Period of the 
north, and again at a time when the moose and reindeer 
had deserted the station of the Grotte de Martin-Rive, and 
the stag had replaced the reindeer. 

Spread of the Campignian Flint Industry 
Whether the log canoe of the Campignian flint worker 
was an independent western invention, or whether the idea 
of canoe building came from the East, we cannot be sure; 
but it may safely be asserted that the flint tranche* (pro- 
totype of the axe), the flint pic (prototype of the pick), 
possibly the skin-covered cabane y and quite probably the 
log canoe, entered northwestern Europe as new and striking 
features of this culture period, and that as early as 7000 
B.C. the final Stone Age inhabitants of Denmark possessed 
implements capable of felling a tree and of fashioning a log 

F>. 54. Tranche* or flint axe from Campigny, France. Actual size. After Capitan. 

n 1333 


As regards the effectiveness of stone implements in fell- 
ing forests and shaping logs, the Danish archaeologist, Friis 
Johansen, made a convincing test by inserting a flint axe- 
head in a haft and cutting down a tree with it. It is most 
probable that the tranche! (Fig. 54) was the prototype of 
the wood chopper and boat builder; the^V (Fig. 56) also, 
inserted in a haft, was useful in shaping the outside and the 
inside of the primitive log canoe or dugout (Fig. 60), and 
may have developed into the adze of the more modern 
boat builder. Like the axe, the trancbet has a square head, 
and its successor, the square-headed bacbe found only in 
the forested regions of Scandinavia and northern Germany 
is the crude bacbe of the Neolithic Dolmen Period. 

A typical seaside dwelling of closing Campignian times 
in Sweden was that of Limhamn, not far from Malmo and 
opposite Copenhagen, where we find ourselves in the pres- 
ence of a fully developed flint industry of the perfected 
Campignian. Here in abundance are trancbets and pics 
fashioned closely after those found in the typical Campi- 
gnian station, about six hundred thirty miles to the south- 
west (Figs. 57, 58). Among these flint workers many of the 
older implements of the upper Stone Age of France are 
still in use, as, for instance, knives for cutting flesh, arrow 
points for the chase, scrapers for hide-dressing, borers for 
the perforation of eyelet holes and the piercing of skin and 
bone. The arrows and harpoons of bone so abundant in the 
industry of the Maglemose and Svaerdborg camps in Den- 
mark, which were invented in the Magdalenian of France, 
are exceedingly rare or have completely disappeared. It is 
interesting to note that these men still barbed their har- 
poons with the small Tardenoisian microliths that had 



spread from Tardenois, France, all over western Europe. 
Beside their fireplaces abundant shards of undecorated 
pottery are found. 

The one human achievement which did not follow the 
reindeer north was that of the Aurignacian and Magdale- 
nian artists and sculptors of the Cro-Magnon race; this 
art was left behind because it was not useful or essential to 
the daily life or food sup fly of people who were too much occu- 
pied with the struggle for existence to develop the aesthetic y or 
spiritual, side of their nature. Like the American pioneers 
these primitive French, Belgian and Scandinavian people 
had no leisure for art: they were too busy with fishing, 
hunting, tent making, and boat building. Nevertheless the 
art spirit was in them, although latent, and we find it re- 
asserting itself about 2000 B.C., as evidenced by most beau- 
tiful designs in bronze implements and ornaments made 
about that time in Scania, the southern extremity of the 
present Sweden. 

The Reindeer Period of Sweden and Denmark 

The Reindeer Period of Sweden and Denmark ([12,000?] 
10,000-8000 B.C.) was, as shown in the above table (pp. 
124-5), l n g subsequent to the Reindeer Period of southern 
France. The southern border of the great Scandinavian 
Glacier had retreated northward, so that the ice front was 
not far from the present site of Stockholm, which at that 
time was depressed more than six hundred feet below the 
present sea level. A small mollusk, Toldia arctica, partial to 
icy currents, was flourishing along the eastern shores of 
Scania, and ice-loving seabirds were migrating eastward 
and westward over Scania and Finland. At this period the 
Scandinavian peninsula was largely submerged by the sea. 

n 1353 


Following their favorite game northward, the hardy 
hunters of the reindeer invaded this country about 7000 
B.C., in the subsequent Ancylus time, when the peninsula 
was elevated and the Baltic Sea was enclosed by land. 
Their giant flint implements of archaic type remind us of 
the great stone hand axes of the Old Stone Age, although 
they are retouched about the borders with the deftness of 
Solutrean workmanship, the highest technique of the flint 
industry. Such implements are very rare and are chiefly of 
amygdaloid (almond-like) form a form which harks back 
to the Chellean times of the Neanderthal flint workers on 
the River Somme of France. According to Montelius these 

implements are of the 
same age as, or per- 
haps a little more re- 
cent than, the clubs of 
reindeer horn from 
Denmark, which are 
among the most pre- 
cious exhibits of the 
Copenhagen Museum. 
Two of these have a 
hollowed groove in 
which a flint flake was 
inserted. A single ar- 
row head of flint was 
also found near one of 

The branch of the 
human race to which 

Fiff- 55. Tranche* or flint axe from Svaerdborg, f-Vi^co iM-imifim* 

Denmark. Actual size. After Johanacn. UieSe pmniuVC 

n 1363 


deer hunters of Sweden belonged has not yet been sat- 
isfactorily demonstrated, but in the opinion of Montelius 
it is quite probable that they were true Scandinavians of 
Nordic type a type of which Montelius himself was such 
a fine example. To quote Montelius freely, the ice began to 
melt and to retire from the southern coast of Scania more 
than thirteen thousand years ago (11,500 B.C.), whereupon 
plants and animals migrated there. After them came man, 
probably of more than one racial type. Among the more 
elegant flint implements found in Scania are two closely 
resembling the double-pointed laurel-leaf type (Fig. 57, 
lower) characteristic of the Solutrean of France. Such 
forms occur only near the southern and western coasts of 
Norway and Sweden, which were the first to become ice- 
free. In Denmark also a flint spearhead has been found 
which resembles the Solutrean form. 

Montelius was of the opinion that these flints demon- 
strate the presence of man in Scandinavia during Solu- 
trean times, and he concluded that the reindeer hunters of 
Scania belonged to the Cro-Magnon race an opinion 
which the present author is not inclined to accept, since it 
seems far more probable that the first reindeer hunters in 
Scandinavia were fair-haired ancestors of the existing 
Scandinavian races. It is probable that the first races mi- 
grating into Sweden were long-headed, because the earliest 
human skeletons and skulls well enough preserved to be 
studied are in the main long-headed or dolichocephalic, 
the oldest dating back to 3000 B.C. in the chronology of 
Montelius. In the oldest Scandinavian graves there is no 
evidence of the occurrence of the broad-cheeked Cro- 
Magnon type of the late Palaeolithic art age. 

C 1373 


In modern Sweden the survey of 1926 recognizes the 
existence of five greater races: (i) the Nordic, (2) the East 
Baltic, (3) the Mediterranean, (4) the Alpine, (5) the D/- 
naric. Of these we need mention only the Nordic, the Al- 
pine and the Mediterranean, quoting from the findings of 
this survey: 1 

The characteristics of the Nordic race are a light, translucent, rosy 
skin; a fair, sometimes reddish, soft, often wavy or curly hair; a rich 
beard-growth; clear blue or blue-grey eyes; a tall stature, with propor- 
tionately long legs and a firm, elastic gait with stretched legs; a strong 
frame; a long and rather narrow face with a narrow, usually high, 
straight, or somewhat bent nose, often with a little hump at the transi- 
tion from the nasal bone to the cartilage; a narrow, high nasal root; 
very slightly or not at all prominent cheek-bones; non-salient jaws 
with the rows of teeth standing nearly vertically, each against the 
other; somewhat thin lips; a strongly projecting chin; a narrow, some- 
what sloping forehead; weak, but quite perceptible eyebrow ridges; 
rather deepset eyes; a long and rather narrow brain-case with a nearly 
horizontal crown line and strongly elongated occiput. 

The Alpine race (Broca's race critique) is coarsely and clumsily built. 
It has its name from being especially spread in the mountain regions 
of Central Europe, above all in Switzerland, North Italy, Central 
France all the way to Brittany's farthest point, South and Central 
Germany, part of Austria, Czecho-Slovakia and part of Poland, Russia 
and many places further south. In the more northern parts of Europe 
it is more scarce and more diluted. Its spreading area seems to reach all 
the way to Inner Asia; it has been found as the preponderant element 
among the Galcha people in the mountain valleys of Pamir and Hin- 
dukush. This race has a lighter brownish complexion than the Mediter- 
ranean, with thicker, more leathery skin, which with age becomes 
abundantly wrinkled. Dark brown, rough hair; brown, rather shallow 
and flat-lying eyes with a comparatively short and narrow slit; a broad, 
thick-set body; short limbs; a short, broad face with rather prominent 
cheek-bones and a small uptilted nose; and a broad and rather round 
brain-case are its chief characteristics. 

iR Lundborg and F. J. Linders, Editors: The Racial Characters of the Swedish Nation, 
pp. 37-41. 



The Mediterranean race, as its name implies, is spread about the 
Mediterranean Sea, as well south as north of it, but likewise partly 
along the shore of the Atlantic; in a more diluted state even further 
north, and probably, in a smaller proportion, more or less everywhere. 
In the East its extent is impossible to define. It seems likely that it 
plays a great part in the racial mixture of India, Malayasia, and Poly- 
nesia. Its complexion is more or less brownish, in the more northerly 
parts of its spreading area fading off to a warm ivory tinge (as in Ire- 
land), which hardly in all cases can be attributed to a Nordic admix- 
ture. The mould of traits is very much the same as that of the Nordic 
race, but the forehead is smoother and flatter (brow ridges nearly im- 
perceptible) and somewhat steeper. The brain-case is long and narrow, 
with a strongly developed occiput. The face as well as the brain-case is 
characterized by a certain soft rounding-off, which gives the Mediter- 
ranean a certain finer, more graceful, more delicate character than the 
harder-moulded Nordic. 

The same authority on the Nordics continues: 

TheSwedes are a very old people, having inhabited their country since 
times long before the dawn of history. The oldest human find known 
in Sverige is that of a skull from Stangenas on the west coast, which is 
said to be part of a man who lived about eight or nine thousand years 
ago. It bears a strong resemblance to the Nordic type. We do not, how- 
ever, know anything about the colours of skin, hair, and eyes of this 

Then we must go down to the Lower Neolithic Period, before we find 
any human remains in this country. But even these are rather few, 
representing only 77 persons, most of them from Vastergotland: 39 of 
these skulls (51%) are long, 31 (40%) are medium, and 7 (9%) short. 
A great many of them do not differ from what at the present time is 
called the Nordic type. The short skulls, on the other hand, show very 
strong brow-ridges, broad zygomatic arches, prominent jaws, the 
lower jaws being coarse and broad, and a top which is very narrow in 
the center. This is called the Barrcby type, after Borreby in the Danish 
isle Sjaelland, where a family or clan of this type seems to have had its 
burial place during several generations. . . . The finds from the 
Bronze and the Iron Age do not present any new types, but agree with 
those from the Stone Age* 

n 1393 

The Moose Period in Sweden and Denmark 

The reindeer closely followed the ice sheet northward 
and was succeeded by the moose, which became so abun- 
dant in Denmark that it dominated the industrial as well 
as the hunting life. This was the geologic period (8000- 
5000 B.C.) known to geologists as the Ancylus time, when 
Scandinavia rose to join Denmark and Finland, shutting 
out the North Sea and the Arctic Ocean and converting 
the Baltic Sea into a great fresh-water lake. For archaeolo- 
gists this Ancylus time is characterized by the industry of 
the Peat Bog (Maglemose) near Mullerup a name de- 
rived from the peat bed in Denmark where a dwelling was 
discovered and excavated by Sarauw in 1903. Sarauw 
thought that the people lived on rafts or floats an error, 
since it is now known that the^ dwelt on very low islands 
or lake borders, a fact brought'out in Johansen's descrip- 
tion of the neighboring peat station of Svaerdborg. 1 

The fact that we have now left the Reindeer Period and 
the Old Stone Age of Europe and are witnessing the dawn 
of the transitional or Mesolithic, leading to the New Stone 
Age, is clearly established by the absence of any trace of 
pottery and by the first appearance here of the trancbet and 
the^/V. Crude as they are, the trancbet and the^/V repre- 
sent two inventions new to this part of Europe which afe 
destined to be of transcendent importance to the human 
race, and which relate Maglemose and Svaerdborg (Fig. 
53) to the industry of Campigny, France, about five hun- 
dred sixty miles to the southwest. 

The low coasts of Denmark were ill supplied with native 
flint, and it is by no means impossible that the few tran- 

iKarl Friis Johansen: En boplads fra den aldste stenilder i Svaerdborg Mose. Aarbar&r 
y 1919. 

n 1403 

Fiff. 56. THE TRANCHET AND Pic OP THE CAMPIGNIAN STA^E. .4, A-i, A-2: b<-th faces and side view of tranche* 
from Campigny. B : pic from Campigny ; prototype of the modern pick-axe. C, C-i : face and side view 
of tranchet from Sweden ; prototype of the modern axe. All 1-2 actual size. Reproduced from specimens 
in the American Museum of Natural History. 

fig. 57. FLIKT AND BONE IMPLEMENTS OF SWEDEN. Upper left: polished 
Neolithic axe, successor of th Campignian tranchet, inserted in the 
leg bone of a stag; one of the treasures of the Stockholm Museum. 
3-10 actual size. Middle-. Harpoon of bone inset with double- row of 
flint barbs; Stockholm Museum. 1-2 actual size. Right: flint poniard 
of superb retouch, imitating a bronze poniard with stitched leather 
handle; 'one of the 
masterpieces of the r~" 
Stockholm Museum. 
j-2 actual size. 
Lower: Laurel-leaf 
spearhead of Solu- 
trean (Late Palaeo- 
lithic) form, found 
in Neolithic tombs. 
1-3 actual size. 
After Montelius. 


cbets and pics which 
are found in Denmark 
may have come by 
trade from some of the 
rich flint quarries of 
Belgium or France in 
which the Campi- 
gnian industry had 
formerly flourished. 

TheMaglemose and 
Svaerdborg workers 
were favored by the 
abundance of moose, 
stag, roe, and wild 
cattle (Alcesmacblis, 
Cervuselapbus, Cervus 
capreo/usy Bos taurus), 
which richly compen- 
sated them for the 

fig. 58. Trancket or flint axe from Sweden. Actual L J J 

size. After Monteims. manufactured bone 

tools of every kind, especially for their clothing industry 
hide dressers, polishers, scrapers and for the more 
serious work of the chase they inserted their cutting 
and piercing flints in bone hafts and handles. A brief 
survey of the splendid collection from Svaerdborg in 
the Copenhagen Museum reveals sixteen kinds of bone 
implements and flint holders, fashioned chiefly from the 
hard horns of the stag and of the roe, including two kinds 
of harpoons with a single row of barbs, two kinds of bone 
lances, and many kinds of hafts. To fashion these bone 
tools there survived from the earlier Old Stone Age thir- 

n 143 n 


teen varieties of flint tools scrapers, points, borers, and 
hammer-stones as well as innumerable delicately pointed 
and dressed flint flakes, which were doubtless set in single 
or double rows in bone or wooden harpoons, as shown in 
the illustration (Fig. 57) reproduced from Montelius. 

With these numerous survivals of flint implements of 
the Old Stone Age there appear in Denmark a few exam- 
ples of the two new forms trancbets and pics and these 
are by no means well made. We may be sure that these dis- 
tinctively Campignian implements were not greatly needed 
by the people of the Svaerdborg and Maglemose region, for 
they had only just begun to fell the trees, hew the logs, and 
dig out the log canoes after the manner of the forest-loving, 
boat-building people of Scania. In Sweden there are a few 
peat-bog stations of a similar culture with harpoons cut 
out of the ribs of the moose instead of the stag, and with 
microlithic flints, probably from dwellings on small islands 
in the lakes. In Denmark the game associated with this 
culture included, besides the large ruminants, the wild 
boar, the brown bear, the beaver, and the wild cat. At all 
these peat stations only one domestic animal is found the 
dog, Canisfamiliaris, harbinger of the art of domesticating 

The Succeeding Shell Mound Period of Denmark 

The moose has now well nigh disappeared from Den- 
mark and southern Sweden, and with it the pine forests so 
abundant in Maglemose times; a bird associated with the 
pine forest, the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), is no longer 
included in the fauna. This is the Age of the Stag (5000- 
3500 B.C.) and the moose is very rare except possibly in the 
winter season. Climatic conditions are much changed be- 

t 144 "1 


cause we are now in what geologists call the Littorina 
Period of renewed continental depression. Since the peri- 
winkle (Littorina), after which this period is named, is a 
salt-water mollusc, it is clear that the ocean again entered 
freely through the straits between Denmark and Scania. 
The Baltic Sea is entirely cleared of ice, for the great Scan- 
dinavian Glacier has retreated within the shore line and is 
now in the postglacial stage. From the abundant shell 
mounds of Denmark, placed near the shores of the Litto- 
rina Sea, come four species of shells the oyster (Ostrea 
edulis), cockle (Cardium edule) y mussel (Mytilis edulis), 
and dog-whelk (Nassa reticulata) besides the edible 
periwinkle (Littorina littorea). The only shell mound dis- 
covered in Sweden is of Neolithic age and no shell mound 
dwellings contemporary with those of Denmark have been 
found in Sweden, obviously because the inhabitants pre- 
ferred the game in which the country abounded to the shell- 
fish diet of the Danish tribes to the south. The culture of 
this shell mound stage is similar to the full Campignian of 
Belgium and France. The trancbet and the pic of this time 
may be compared with the very primitive forms found at 
Maglemose and Svaerdborg, which in Montelius' chronol- 
ogy are considered from one thousand to two thousand 
years more ancient. 

Each successive industrial period is now marked by the 
increasing perfection of these two dominant implements, 
the trancbet and the pic. If the trancbet was used for wood- 
cutting, the pic was used not only for wood-shaping but 
also for digging a service which led to the use of die pic in 
mining, the type of tool so applied being made first of flint 
and later of metal. It seems reasonable to attribute the 
dawn of boat building and of mining to this latest stage of 


the great hunting age of man, when food consisted solely of 
the flesh of game, fish, or mollusks, and the agricultural 
fruits of the earth were still unknown in Scania and Den- 
mark, although several thousands of years previous they 
were developed in Asia. The art of cooking had been im- 
proved by the introduction of pottery from the East, and 
the chase and recovery of game facilitated by the domesti- 
cation of the dog. Thus closes the transitional or Mesolithic 

Divisions of the Neolithic Age in Denmark and Sweden 

As we have already seen, the development of prehistoric 
civilization proceeded very gradually. When our ancestors 
arrived in Scandinavia, they brought with them an Old 
Stone Age culture. Then they adopted the pic and the 

trancbet types which in 
an earlier age were ac- 
tively manufactured in 
Belgium and northern 
France for Scania was 
not far from Maglemose 
in Denmark, where a 
number of these tools 
were found. With the ar- 
rival of these modified 
flint tools in the north 
came also the introduc- 
tion of the domesticated 
dog. Similarly, the age 

of d* SheU Mound and 
of the foil Campignian 


cultures is gradually marked by the introduction of pottery 
and of improved types of trancbet and pic. Finally there 
came the introduction of the Neolithic art of sharpening 
the cutting edges of stone implements by rubbing them up 
and down on a smooth stone. 

Thus the dawn of Neolithic influence in Sweden is indi- 
cated by the polishing of implements of the same kind as 
those which for thousands of years previous had been fash- 
ioned by flaking and chipping. By means of the contact es- 
tablished through trade and by word of mouth with the 
dark-haired, broad-headed peoples living to the south, 
stage, by stage the Neolithic civilization for such it was 
came north into Sweden. Among domesticated animals ap- 
pear goats, sheep, cattle, and swine, and finally the horse, 
which was destined to play a great part in Swedish mythol- 
ogy. Among grains the introduction of the hardy wheat and 
rye is followed by that of barley and millet. Finally, a wave 
of religious influence spreads to the north: sun-worship, 
the idea of immortality, and the pompous ceremonial 
burials and monuments in honor of the dead. 

The main divisions of the progressive Neolithic Period in 
Sweden, as given to the author by Oscar Montelius in an 
ever memorable conference on August 5, 1921, and ampli- 
fied by Dr. Schnittger, assistant antiquarian in the Na- 
tional Museum of Sweden, are, in ascending order, as 

IV. NEOLITHIC 2200-1700 B.C. 

This is the acme of both the chipped and the polished flint industry. 
The flint workers learn to imitate both the forms and shapes obtained 
by the copper and bronze workers to the south and east. 

Superb flint daggers are manufactured with a delicate retouch that 
far surpasses in beauty that obtained in any other part of Europe. The 
impulse of an artistic spirit is evident in a number of ceremonial 

C 1473 


weapons. Among these very finely finished designs in stone are those 
resembling bronze types flint daggers in which even the stitching of 
the leather handles of the bronze weapons is skilfully simulated in flint. 
All these weapons are doubtless ceremonial. 

The battle axes of the period have rather degenerated, and are devel- 
oped in imitation of the copper types characteristic of Period III. The 
industrial flint axes retain the same shape as those of Period III a 
modified trancbet form, thick at the top. 

At the same time the elaboration of burial customs begins to be 
evident. Rectangular stone cists appear sometimes with a small en- 
trance passage at the gable end. There are also Megalithic burial 
chambers with an entrance passage, which is always at right angles to 
the long side of the chamber. 

The pottery indicates a marked decadence in design and manu- 

III. NEOLITHIC 2600-22CO (2100?) B.C. 

The stone axes are now smaller in size, thick at the top and expanded 
at the bottom as if developed out of the trancbet. 

Excellent pottery is found, resembling that of similar age in Ger- 
many and with similar patterns. 

II. NEOLITHIC 3000-2600 B.C. 

The Scandinavian flint adzes are now very large, finely polished on 
both sides, and rectangular in section a type of adze found only in 
Scandinavia and northern Germany. To this period belongs the adze 
set in moose horn, one of the treasures of the Stockholm Museum. 

The sun-worship cult had by this time reached Scandinavia, and the 
characteristic burial dolmens of round or rectangular form, but with- 
out entrance passage, begin to appear. 

L NEOLITHIC (4000?) 3500-3000 B.C. 

Prevalence of polished and unpolished flint adzes, directly developed 
from thtpic, convex or concave in section, pointed at the tip and thus 
not derived from the trancbet type. 

The new religion of sun-worship had not yet reached Sweden, for 
there are no Megalithic graves or monuments. 

Divisions of the Bronze Age in Denmark and 

During this time trade routes had been established from 
the southeast Mediterranean region to the northwest. In 
the Mediterranean islands and the Aegean Sea the most 

C H8 3 


coveted commodity was amber from the Baltic coasts; in 
the West and Northwest the most coveted objects were 
copper and, later, bronze from the East* Many of the actual 
trade routes have been traced by Montelius until they have 
become well known to European archaeologists. 

To the author, the most striking impression made by the 
superb collection of prehistoric bronzes in the Stockholm 
Museum, which he enjoyed observing under the guidance 
of Montelius, was the surpassing workmanship and the 
beauty of execution of the fundamental designs which came 

Fiff. 60. PROTOTYPE OF TEE VIKING SHIP, hewn with the Campignian tranche*. Two designs 
from Switzerland. After Keller. Upper: Top and side views and cross section of log canoe 
from Robenhausen. Lower: Primitive 'dugout* from MSringen. 

with the bronze from the distant craftsmen of the eastern 
Mediterranean to the craftsmen of Scandinavia from a 
pure Mediterranean to a pure Nordic race. The most re- 
fined methods of bronze casting attained a high degree of 
perfection among these Nordic workers, in whom die art 
spirit, which had slumbered so long, was now fully awak- 
ened. For example, the method of casting known in France 
as & cire ferdut) in which the ornamentation was put on 

H9 3 


after the casting, was brought to Scandinavia and was 
highly developed in the ninth century B.C., about one hun- 
dred years before the foundation of Rome. The date of 900 
B.C. is established byMontelius through finding these Scan- 
dinavian bronzes buried in dated tombs of Italy. 

Another achievement of the Swedish craftsmen was the 
making of collarettes of bronze (Fig. 62) deeply incised in 
Mediterranean designs by means of bronze tools. Thus 
Sweden began at an early period to export her works of 
bronze art, and the facilities of trade advanced so rapidly 
that Montelius believes that a pottery design could have 
been carried in one year from the Mediterranean to Scan- 
dinavia, one of the favorite routes being by the Brenner 
Pass, the River Inn, and the valley of the Danube a 
route now followed by modern railways. Probably such 
routes were used for the interchange of objects of industry 
long before they were used for the transport of objects of 
art. New religious ideas and ceremonials probably followed 
the trade routes. Thus, because of the occurrence of Scan- 
dinavian burial monuments in Britain, Montelius believed 
that he had also proved the existence of a route established 
during the Stone Age, perhaps about 3000 B.C., from Scan- 
dinavia across the North Sea to the mouth of the Humber. 

PERIOD VI. 700-550 B.C. 

Transition to the Age of Iron, which may be called either the last 
period of the Bronze Age or the first period of the Iron Age. 

PERIOD v. 900-700 B.C. 

Very thin bronze vessels cast b cire perdue, richly decorated, some de- 
signs showing the influence of the Mediterranean region. Reversed 
spirals. Burials with cremation; bones burnt. 


Pip. 61. THE FUR-COVERED OBANB. Upper: tent of a reindeer koiyak of northern Siberia, supported by 
poles within and covered with reindeer hide. Lower: drawings on the walls of the cavern of Font-de- 
Gaume, France, of Magdalenian age; prototype of the tent above. After Brenil. 

AND BSONZB COLLARETTE, two of the most beautiful objects in the .Stockholm 

.rfth the i incised spiral designs which Montelms beHeved to be denved fwm 

MTcenaeWmotif^After Montelhu. 



Round, hanging, bronze vessels. Graves, all with cremation. 

PERIOD m. 1300-1 loo B.C. 

Small, round boxes of bronze with star-shaped design. Gold spirals. 
Necklaces and shawl pins. Graves mostly with incinerated remains. 

PERIOD n. 1500-1300 B.C. 

High art period of the Scandinavian bronze culture, elegant spiral 
designs, the workmanship superior to Italian workmanship contem- 
porary with it. Beautiful bronze swords and axes, imitations of bronze 
axes in stone. The incineration or cremation of bodies in Sweden com- 
menced during this period. 

PERIOD i. 1 800-1 500 B.C. 

Mostly simple types, but already displaying remarkable skill in 
casting, many of them imitating the Stone Age weapons. Evolution of 
the copper into the bronze axe with increasing economy in the use of 
this precious alloy of copper and tin. Active trade with England and 
exchange of axes. Ornamental bronze and gold objects, which are rela- 
tively small and rare. Graves with unburnt bodies. 

During these six periods bronze was used most sparingly 
because it had to be imported from other regions, some 
from the British Isles but the greater part from central 
Europe. Copper mines were not opened in Sweden until 
some thousands of years after the end of the Bronze Age, 
and no tin has been found in Sweden. Perhaps the very 
rarity of the alloy led to the reverence with which it was 
regarded and the beauty of design which was developed. 
Scandinavians were acquainted with only one other im- 
ported metal, namely, gold. 

Montelius also informs us that during the first part of the 
Bronze Age bodies were buried unburnt in stone cists or in 
:offins of hollowed-out oak. From the second to the sixth 
period the bodies were burnt and the incinerated bones 
were preserved in small cists of stone or wood, or in simple 
urns of burnt clay. 


Conclusions as to our Scandinavian Ancestors 

In closing, let us glance oncemore at the table (pp. 1 24-5) 
in which we have summarized the conclusions of Montelius 
in regard to the prehistory of Scandinavia from the time 
when our ancestors arrived in that region to the Age of 
Bronze, side by side with the geologic chronology of his 
friend and colleague, De Geer. In this table it becomes ap- 
parent that what the far-distant northwest was to our 
American pioneers, what ultima fflule was to ancient his- 
toric times, such was Scandinavia to the peoples of the 
Mediterranean borders. In the course of thousands of years 
implements, symbols, and inventions useful, religious, or 
artistic slowly found their way westward and northward, 
from western Asia to Sweden, a distance which, thanks to 
the telephone, is today spanned in a few seconds. For ex- 
ample, copper is said to have been used at Anau, Turkes- 
tan, about 4000 B.C., and first appears in Scandinavia 1500 
years later namely, 2500 B.C. The Age of Bronze, which 
was in full sway in Egypt and Chaldea by 3000 B.C., makes 
its first appearance in Sweden eight hundred years later. 
The rude rock carvings of Sweden tell us much about the 
life of men in the Bronze Age of their agriculture, for we 
see men plowing with oxen; of the chase or war, for we see 
men on horseback or driving; of navigation, for we see ships 
without masts or sails but manned with large crews; of re- 
ligion, for we see the sacred wheel, the symbol of the 

But for the worship of the sun-god, let us in our next 
lecture travel southward into Brittany. 




No signs they knew to mark the wintry year: 

The flower-strewn Spring, and the fruit-laden Summer, 

Uncalendared, unregistered, returned 

Till I the difficult art of the stars revealed, 

Their risings and their settings. 

. . . I fixed the art 

Of divination with its various phase 

Of dim revealings, making dreams speak truth, 

Stray voices, and encounters by the way 

Significant; the flight of taloned birds 

On right and left I marked these fraught with ban, 

With blissful augury those. 

. . . Numbers, too, 

I taught them (a most choice device) and how 

By marshalled signs to fix their shifting thoughts, 

That Memory, mother of Muses, might achieve 

Her wondrous works. 

Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound. 




Survivals of Bronze Age tradition Bretons of the Alpine and Mediterranean 

races the environment of the 'Menhirs' and 'fumulf The eastern origin 

of sun-worship The circular sun-temples of Carnac and Stonehenge Ruins 

of the great tumuli or burial-mounds The interpretation of Carnac 

climax of the bronze art in Scandinavia (2000 B.C.) 
JL was nearly contemporaneous with the high period of 
sun-worship in France. Especially in the rocky and im- 
poverished soil of Brittany, was it not natural after the 
long, hard, cold and foggy winter to welcome the benevo- 
lent rays of the sun in the spring and to adopt the mystical 
sun-worship of the far East? 

Stone architecture began to flourish, and giant masses of 
granite were reared into circular temples open to the sky; 
across the tops of these stone monoliths were placed hori- 
zontal monoliths. Thus was born the idea of the vertical 
column or pillar and of the horizontal lintel or architrave 
which appear in rudimentary form in the ancient Mnoan 
temple of Crete* This simple unit of primitive stone con- 
struction reappears in the linear close-set monoliths and 
lintels of the dolmens or tunneled burial vaults. Then fol- 
lowed the decoration of the interior of these dolmens with 
symbols of the sun, of the harvest or of the stone axe. 

With the dead are reverently placed valuable objects of 
personal adornment and of bronze, more peaceful in sym- 
bolism than the implements of the chase which were buried 


with the young Neanderthal hunters of 100,000 B.C. Mean- 
while, since bronze is extremely scarce, for the ordinary 
purposes of the prehistoric life of Brittany, particularly for 
household purposes and for architecture, the New Stone 
Age implements persist. But the stone axe of Campignian 
age has now been glorified into the symbol of a thunder- 
bolt; in many of the chimneys of Brittany homes these 
ancient celts still hang, to ward off the bolts of lightning. 

With this introduction let us imagine that we are visiting 
Brittany and bringing to life northern France in its first 
great agricultural period of the New Stone and Bronze ages 
(4000-700 B.C. in northwest Europe but of much earlier 
date in central Asia). 

Survivals of Bronze Age Tradition 

On the evening of September 9, 1921, we leave Paris, 
still the most modern city in the world, and on the follow- 
ing morning before daybreak we begin our narrative in 
Vannes, a city known before Caesar's time as Gwened, the 
capital of the Venetes, later the center of that ancient Ro- 
man province of Lugdunensis Tertia which was known in 
Caesar's time* as Armorica, and which is now in the heart 
of Brittany. 

As regards architecture, we are back in mediaeval Europe, 
but a short automobile ride down to Carnac on the coast 
brings us into an age far more remote, among the ruins of 
monuments which were in their prime four thousand years 
ago. The language of the Brittany people is almost as an- 
cient;it is a littleisland of survivals of the Celtic speech. Yet 
their psychology is older than either their language or the 
megalithic ruins; it is the racial psychology of this people 

T 1*8 H 


before they were Christianized, while they were still sun- 
worshippers. But this mystical and reverent spirit renders 
them all the more devout Catholics. 

In the little village of Carnac we realize that we are no 
more on the mainland; we are insulated, we are among a 
people very conservative of old customs, loyal to Church 
and State but very independent, devoted to their locality, 
very superstitious, tenacious of old customs in dress and 
language as well as of old ideas. "/& sontmystiques\ Us sont 
reveurs" was the comment of M. Zacharie le Rouzic, the 
conservateurof the delightful little Muse J. Miln of Carnac. 

Although Christianized fifteen centuries ago, the Bretons 
still retain some of the ornaments of the New Stone Age as 
amulets to ward pff the evil eye. Notwithstanding the fact 

CARNAC AND LOCMARIAQUER. Some of the most remarkable monuments are found In the partly 
sunken islands of the Golfe du Morbihan. The region from Carnac to Locmariaquer is shown 
more in detail in Fig. 64. 


that they are very devout Catholics for we see them en- 
tering and leaving the little church in the village square of 
Carnac from daybreak onward, thus evidencing their belief 
that a visit to the house of worship is the proper introduc- 
tion to the harvest fete they rely not only upon the 
Virgin Mary but also upon certain ceremonials that are 
survivals from a religion far more ancient than Christian- 
ity itself. Some of these prehistoric rites are supposed to 
insure a happy marriage, others to render certain that a 
marriage will be blessed with children, still others to safe- 
guard men and animals from certain complaints and 
plagues or to produce fertility in cattle. In the chimneys of 
some of the houses you may still observe fine old stone celts 
known now as 'thunder stones' (Fig. 73) hung up to 
repel the lightning. An account of some of these survivals 
of Brittany in the Bronze Age is to be found in M. le 
Rouzic's very delightful little volume entitled "Carnac 
Legendes, Traditions, Coutumes et Contes du Pays/' 

Fig. 64. THE REGION FROM CARNAC TO LOCMARIAQUER, showing in symbols the sites of monu- 
ments, alignments and menhirs. After Edouard Basset. 

C 1603 

Chateau Gaillard, in which is housed a superb collection from the dolmen burial places of Brittany 
Here meets the venerable Socilte Polyraathique du Morbihan, founded m 1826; this society was s-.udyinj 
the Neolithic of Brittany while the famous Boucher de Perthes was working in the Palaeolithic Chelleai 
flint implements of the Somme valley. 

Fiff- W. DOLMB* DB Cwrcroro, NEAR CARNA& The great rtonw of the Irarlal counter were arranged b a 
circle of uprights with a huge slab on top, and the whole was originally covered by a great tumulus or 
mound of earth. 








Fiff. 67. THE THREE RACIAL TYPES OF MODERN BRITTANY. Three young married couples in characteristic 
native costumes as they appear at Breton fates. The author was fortunate enough to witness the harvest 
festival at Camac on Sunday, September n, 1921. 


Bretons of the Alpine and Mediterranean Races 

On the physical environment and geographic origin of 
these Bretons, Ripley may be quoted : * 

"Brittany or Armorica, the third area of isolation, is 
perhaps somewhat less unattractive economically than 
Auvergne. It is certainly less rugged. Extending in as far as 
the cities of Angers and Alengon, it is saved from the ex- 
treme infertility of its primitive rock formation by the 
moisture of its climate. Neither volcanic, as are many parts 
of Auvergne, nor elevated seldom rising above fourteen 
hundred feet it corresponds to our own New England. 
For the fanner, it is more suited to the cultivation of Puri- 
tan religious propensities than to products of a more ma- 
terial kind. It is the least capable of defence of the three 
areas of isolation; but it redeems its reputation by its 
peninsular position. It is off the main line. It is its remote- 
ness from the pathways of invasion by land which has been 
its ethnic salvation. 

"The Alpine broad-headed type ... is always and 
everywhere aggregated in the areas of isolation. Its relative 
purity, moreover, varies in proportion to the degree of such 
isolation enjoyed, or endured if you please. In Savoy and 
Auvergne it is quite unmixed; in Brittany only a few ves- 
tiges of it remain, as we shall soon see. 

"The whole basin of the Seine was overflowed, and the 
incoming human tide swept clear out to the point of Brit- 
tany, where it has so completely held its own even to this 
day in relative purity. Topinard perhaps slightly over- 
states the case when he ascribes the cast of eyes among cer- 
tain Breton types to an Asiatic descent. 

iW. Z. Ripley : The Races of Europe, A Sociological Study. 

n 163 n 


"The anthropological fate of Brittany, this last of our 
three main areas of isolation, depends largely upon its 
peninsular form. Its frontage of seacoast and its many har- 
bors have rendered it peculiarly liable to invasion from the 
sea; while at the same time it has been protected on the 
east by its remoteness from the economic and political cen- 
ters and highways of France. This coincidence and not a 
greater purity of blood has preserved its Celtic speech. . , . 
The contrast has arisen between the seacoast and the interi- 
or. This differentiation is heightened by the relative infer- 
tility of the interior uplands, compared with the 'ceinture 
dorfa* along parts of the coast. The people of the inland 
villages contain a goodly proportion of the Alpine stock; 
although, as our maps show, it is more attenuated than in 
either Savoy or Auvergne. To the eye this Alpine lineage in 
the pure Breton appears in a roundness of the face, a concave 
nose in profile, and -broad nostrils. Along the coast inter- 
mixture has narrowed the heads, lightened the complexion, 
and, perhaps more than all, increased the stature/' 

The most ancient ethnic element in the population of 
Brittany is the broad-headed, gray-eyed northern Alpines, 
short of stature, quite Irish in appearance, but without the 
excitable Irish temperament. There is a considerable Medi- 
terranean element, narrow-faced, dark-haired, dark-eyed, 
with aquiline features people who came perhaps by sea 
from the shores of the Mediterranean. Here and there, con- 
stituting less than one-tenth of the population, is^also the 
Normandy or Nordic racial type, blue-eyed, fair-haired, 
with brown or sandy beard. 

Race mixture came not from the interior but by the sea. 
The dark-eyed Mediterranean sailors and the fair-haired 
Saxon navigators skirted the whole coast the largest 


Saxon colony was, in fact, around the Golfe du Morbihan; 
this is inferred from certain indications in the Breton peas- 
antry of a blond cross in early prehistoric times* But the 
prevailing complexion is medium, the stature is short, and 
the face is either of the broad Alpine type or of the narrow 
Mediterranean type, or else of a blend between the Alpine 
and the Nordic (blond type of Normandy). Certainly the 
prevailing color of the hair is dark; this is either Alpine or 
Mediterranean blonds are very exceptional. The prevail- 
ing form of the face is broad; this is indicative of the Alpine. 
There are, however, many oval faces, which represent a 
blend between the broad-faced Alpine and the narrow- 
faced Mediterranean. The prevailing complexion is of the 
lighter Alpine type rather than of the olive Mediterranean 

Conducive to racial isolation and psychical insulation 
is the fact that this part of the coast has no deep harbors 
and does not admit of modern commerce. Some far-distant 
day, perhaps, we shall have deeper harbors here, for the 
seacoast is now sinking and some of the most interesting of 
the old monuments are to be seen only at low tide or even 
beneath the surface of the sea. Another outstanding fea- 
ture of the Brittany environment is the infertility and 
scantiness of the soil. Stones are found everywhere all of 
enduring granite. After the long, overcast winters, spring is 
trebly welcome. As the sun begins to rise earlier and ear- 
lier, the days become wanner and longer, and seedlings 
sprout from the soil; finally the summer solstice is reached 
and the peasants rejoice, as their ancestors did four thou- 
sand years ago, in the earliest sunrise and the latest sunset 
of the year. 

C 1653 


The Environment of the 'Menhirs' and 'Tumuli 9 
Only by seeing this natural environment, studying this 
people and their racial blending, and realizing that many 
of the Brittany customs have probably been handed down 
from the time when they were first introduced, about 4000 
B.C., can we grasp the significance of the megalithic monu- 
ments which have made Carnac the most famous center in 
all France of the period of sun-worship which extended 
from the climax of Neolithic or New Stone Age culture to 
the beginning of the Bronze Age. Unfortunately, few ar- 
chaeologists have interested themselves in the matter of 
race mixture, but Dchelette observes: "On doit admettre 
chez les peuples qui ont 61ev6 les monuments mgalithiques 
une certaine communaut6 de culture, mais nullement une 
communaut de race." This is certainly true if applied to 
the building of the megalithic monuments in general, but 
it is not true of the erection of the monuments of Brittany, 
which were the work primarily of people of Alpine origin, 
among whom the arts of the engineer and the miner arose. 
The finest of these monuments surround the Golfe du 
Morbihan. They attest the greatest faith in sun-worship as 
well as the most stupendous labor and engineering skill in 
piling up the monuments to the dead. They bear weighty 
testimony to the spiritual life of these people, showing that 
their faith in the future life of their honored chieftains 
prompted them to carry to completion these really titanic 
mechanical undertakings involving the transportation and 
erection of great monolithic menhirs. To some extent these 
menhirssuggest the obelisks of Egypt, while the tumuli sug- 
gest the pyramids, and the dolmens consisting of two erect 
stones and one horizontal stone at the top suggest the 
fundamental architectural units of the Egyptian temples. 


tumulus, within which is the most famous gallery in France, with the ornamented stones shown in Fig. 70. 

Fiff. 69. THE GRAND MENHIR OF LOCMARIAQTJER, the largest menhir known. Before it fell and broke it wai 
more than sixty-seven feet high. In the foreground are the tablets indicating that this is a national 
monument Photograph by courtesy of 7. Fbrbin. 

Tiff. 70. TBB SUPERB GALEME DE GAVR'INIS. The gallery entrance, still buried within the tumulus of 
Gavr'Inis, is die finest in Europe, both in respect to its perfect preservation from vandalism and to the 
sinuous, multilinear decorations which are graved on the inner faces of all the great stones lining 
the gallery. The interpretation of these designs is fully discussed in "Les Petroglyphes de Gavr'Inis," 
VAntitropoloffie, June, 1921, by Dr. E. StocHs, who regards them as derived from the intricate lineation 
of the finger-tips and palms of the human hand. By le Rorizic and the present author they are regarded 
as a complex development of the wheat field pattern seen in Fig. 72. 


We asked M. Louis Marsille, the genial conservateur of 
the Museum of Vannes, and M. le Rouzic to give us their 
views of the chronology of the period and the succession of 
cultures. Notes made of their statements form the basis of 
the following table, in which we observe the gradual devel- 
opment of the dolmens into the period of their grandeur 
and of their subsequent decadence, followed by the post- 
. dolmen period which passes into the second stage of the 
Age of Bronze and that in turn into the Age of Iron. 


Circular burial tombs 

Incineration and interment of the dead 

Tombs buried beneath tumuli 

Vases of graceful design 
Lance points in bronze 

Poniard of bronze (rare) and of copper 
(more frequent) ; superb flint arrow 

Decadence of dolmens their walls of Fine stone axes; a little pottery; bronze 

large stones or of dry masonry. No en- 
trance passage. Burials to protect the 
dead. Cists quite frequent. Skeletons 
are placed in crouching position (ac- 
croupt) . Beginnings of incineration 

Large dolmens with long passage en- 
trance, built of very large stones. Cists 
with human remains of long-headed 
(dolichocephalic) type 

Arrow points of flint 

Ceremonial baches, finely polished; 
hammers; necklaces of jadeite; gold 


Dolmenssmall, built of smalt stones Pottery; implements of coarse work- 

with no covered passage entrance. manship which had been used pre- 

Cists. Human remains of broad-headed viously and then buried with the 

(brachycephalic) type dead 


C 1693 


It would appear that during the Age of Polished Stone 
(Neolithic) and the Age of Bronze the civilization of this 
region was not more isolated than it is at present. With 
the introduction of agriculture came sun-worship from the 
East perhaps from as far east as the Iranian plateau. 
With it doubtless came the tools used in preparing the soil, 
the seeds needed for sowing the crops, and the implements 
required in harvesting the grain. For thousands of years 
the ancestors of these people had observed the response of 
the seeds to the sun and of the moistened soil to the genial 
action of the sun's rays. The agricultural bent of their 
mind is beautifully illustrated in their decorative motifs, 
the key to which appears to be afforded in the graved 
stones that line the tumulus ofL'Ile de Gavr'-Inis, certainly 
the most interesting island in the Golfe du Morbihan (Fig. 
68), described as "k plus beau monument mfgalitbique" in 
the entire world. 

The long gallery of Gavr'Inis (Fig. 70) is still deeply 
buried in the heart of the tumulus and perfectly preserved. 
It is constructed on the unit principle of architecture 
found in the simplest dolmens, namely, two vertical stones 
with a broad horizontal stone on top, archetypes, as we 
have said, of the column and of the architrave of the 
Egyptian temple. The decoration of the sides, laboriously 
cut with the hardened bronze tools of the period, consists 
of long, equidistant engraved lines either arched, undulat- 
ing, or coiled in spirals. The spiral coil has suggested to a 
recent writer that these are titanic finger prints a sort of 
Neolithic Bertillon system perhaps the finger prints of 
the sun-god; but such an interpretation must be considered 
fantastic in the extreme. The equidistant lines between 
these grooves correspond to the symmetrically spaced 

C 170 3 

Fiff. 71, ENGRAVED STONES WITHIN THB DOLMENS. Vfiper left: vertical stones of the side walls of the 
yalerie of Gavr'Inis, Vpper right: within the tumuhs of Mane-er-H'roe'k, this engraving attempts animal 
symbolism (above) and a crude representation of a ceremonial axe (below). Lower: triangular stone be- 
neath the Table des Marchands, on which is engraved the wheat design shown in Fig. 72. 

Fiff. 72. THE WHEAT DESIGN, with the repre- 
sentation of the sun in the center, on the trian- 
gular stone 'of the Table des Marchands (Fig. 
71, lower). At right, Cupper) key to this design 
as interpreted by Zacharie le Rouzie and 
Charles Keller; (lower) two clusters of seven 
wheat stalks each, from the fields of Brittany. 

Fiff- 73. (lower left) INCISED SYMBOL OP THE 
hache is seen to be the direct model of the 
tranchct (Fig. 54) of the previous Cam- 
pignian period. 


stalks of rye or of wheat. The interpretation of these de- 
signs appears to be supplied by a design carved on one of 
the stones supporting the great Table des Marchands 
(Figs. 71, 72). It shows four rows of single stalks of wheat 
with a representation of the sun in the center bowing 
their heads like the sheaves of wheat in the story of Joseph. 
In the opinion of M. le Rouzic and M. Louis Siret this 
great boulder of granite was cut during the late Stone Age. 
M. Siret is quoted by M. le Rouzic as follows: 

Le polissage n'est pas le dernier perfectionnement du travail de la 
pierre. Les plus anciens outils polls ne sont pas en silex, mais en roches 
telles que la diorite et la fibrolithe qui n'taient pas employees avant 
Implication du polissage. La taille du silex s'est au contraire faite par 
clatement pendant la majeure partie de I'&ge de la pierre polie. Le 
proc6d6 du polissage est exclusivement employe" un genre d'instru- 
ments r6pondant d des besoins d'un ordre nouveau, formant un attirail 
nouveau, independant de celui en silex, autant par les formes que par 
le proc6de\ En un mot, la pierre polie est un t&noin de Fav&nement de 
^agriculture; les instruments qui Taccompagnent sont cr6s pour la 
construction de maisons, de dp6ts, d'appareils divers pour Pagricul- 
tore et les industries nouvelles, et impliquent un usage tr&s fr6quent du 
bois. La hache polie n'est pas un symbole de la guerre, c'est celui de la 
civilization nouvelle, que r6sume Tagriculture. 1 

This design of the grain field is apparently unique, al- 
though a design in the tumulus of Gavr'Inis may possibly 
be a conventionalized variant. We can imagine the labor 
involved in cutting these patterns even with the hardest 
implements of polished stone, and also the strong religious 
and artistic impulses which inspired this labor. These peo- 
ple not only had a vision but they had tremendous will 
power,, as manifested in the execution of these difficult de- 
signs, not to mention a knowledge of the mechanical ap- 
pliances necessary to transport the titanic megaliths. 
Doubtless the work was directed by priests and the la T 

*L. Siret: Orientaux et Ocddentaux en Espagne. 

C 173 3 


borers were commanded by chieftains, but great numbers 
of people must have responded with a will that felt the urge 
of an indomitable spiritual and ethical purpose. 

The Eastern Origin of Sun-Worship 
Only by viewing these giant stones and this infertile 
country can we appreciate how the energy which drew 
crops from the reluctant soil was turned with correspond- 
ing fervor to the purposes of religion and of architecture, 
resulting in crude but grandly conceived monuments of 
worship and of burial. Mute witnesses to the powerful 
appeal made by this religion of the sun extend across the 
great continent of Eurasia, for the monuments are found 
from Korea westward to the remote parts of Brittany. 

From the Alpine race, central or west Asiatic, which was 
the chief disseminator of the art of agriculture and of the 
religion of sun-worship, these ideas were spread to the 
Mediterranean race in the south and to the Nordic races 
in the north. It is believed by many archaeologists that the 
megalithic funereal monuments were introduced by the 
Mediterranean race; if so, they were first erected not 
by the Alpines but by the long-headed Mediterraneans. 
This combination of the cult of the megaliths and of sun- 
worship in the interests of agriculture was very wide- 
spread, and may have been the contribution of more than 
one race. The megaliths in the south of France date from 
the beginning of the Bronze Age, namely, about 2000 B.C. 
as attested by the occurrence of bronze weapons and tools 
in the interments. In the north of Europe bronze was very 
rare and very costly; it came from a long distance both to 
Brittany and to Scandinavia. The stone-cutters of the 
period were forced to use tools of the hardest kind of stone. 



At the climax of the megalithic period of Brittany, char- 
acterized by great tumuli with the dolmens within* and by 
long entrance galleries like those of Gavr'Inis, these people 
reached the height of their sun-worship civilization, which 
was contemporaneous with the highest development of 
their inner spiritual forces, the source of which is so mys- 

The Circular Sun-Temples of Carnac and Stonehenge 

Near Carnac are two great ceremonial centers consisting 
of circles of stone known to the Bretons as cromlechs y from 
which extend outwards long lines of stones called by the 
Bretons alignements. These are the famous Alignements de 
Carnac (Fig. 74). It is in the cromlech that we find a close 
parallel to the most famous circle of all Stonehenge (Fig. 
77) on the Salisbury Plain, England, the astronomic sig- 
nificance of which has been studied by Sir Norman Lock- 
yer, who calculated that on midsummer day June 21, 1680 
B.C., the sun must have risen exactly over the spot now 

Fiff. 14. KEY 10 THE THREE BEST-PRESERVED ALIGNMENTS OF CARNAC, after drawings in James 
Ferguson's "Rode Stone Monuments" (1872. Each alignment has its cromlech (C), or sacred 
circle, from which the lines extend a great distance. Menec has ten (eleven) rudely parallel 
rows of menhirs (Fig. 75); Kermario has ten, and Kerlescan has thirteen. M. le Rouric 
points out that solstitial stones are sometimes placed between two lines and within the 


occupied by a modern benchmark on Sidbury Hill, eight 
miles northeast of Stonehenge and in a direct line with the 
center of the circle. Lockyer calculated that this was the 
date of the erection of Stonehenge monument, with a mar- 
gin of error of two hundred years, namely, from 1680-1880 
B.C. The latter date is the more probable, for from col- 
lateral evidence in Brittany the year 2000 B.C. marks the 
close of the Neolithic the period of splendid polished 
baches of jadeite, a period when bronze was in full use along 
the Mediterranean trade routes with which Brittany was 
only in distant connection. 

As with Stonehenge, each cromlech of Carnac has its 
solsticial line, and this is especially apparent because at 
some distance from the circle stands the more or less per- 
manent solsticial stone between the alignments and not a 
part of them. The direction of the seven or eight lines of 
great parallel stones is eastward or southeastward from the 
cromlech. This is also the direction of the gallery which 
extends from the central burial chamber within the tumu- 
lus. Thus the body of the chieftain, buried with all the 
ceremonial axes or celts, reposed in a chamber connecting 
with a gallery which faced the rising sun. 

Ruins of the Great Tumuli or Burial Mounds 

Unless you visit this country, it is difficult to realize that 
each dolmen is the vestigial stone skeleton of a tumulus of 
earth. It would appear that originally the dolmens were 
built laboriously of stone, and then laboriously covered 
with earth; that the entrance galleries were regarded with 
reverence; that the traditions of the great chieftains and 
families in whose honor they were erected lasted for a long 
period; and that finally these traditions passed away. 

C 1763 


There were two causes of destruction. First, the earth of 
the tumulus was removed and returned to the farms by the 
thrifty agriculturists, for we can imagine how the country, 
poor in soil, became impoverished by the building of the 
great earth tumuli. Thus every dolmen that was once earth- 
covered is now entirely bare. 

The second cause of destruction was the rifling of the 
tombs when it was discovered that articles of bronze and 
of the more precious gold were sometimes to be found in 
them. This kind of destruction, which was similar to that 
which ruined so many of the finest monuments of Egypt, 
also extended over a long period of time. Hundreds of valu- 
able implements were scattered over the country to serve 
as ' thunder stones' in warding off the evils of lightning, and 
it was only with the foundation of the Soci6t6 Polymathique 
du Morbihan that these relics of the archaeologic history 
of France began to be collected and preserved. 

More fortunate were the dolmens of a later period, when 
the custom of covering them with small stones was insti- 
tuted* The tumuli of such dolmens have been preserved 
there was naturally no advantage in returning these stones 
jto the ground in a country which is as full of scattered 
stones and boulders as any part of New England. 

An instance of the first cause of destruction are the three 
dolmens with alUes couvertes of Man6 Kerioned, in which ' 
the covering soil has been completely removed dolmens 
representing the best period of the Neolithic before the 
Bronze Age. Here two of the alUes couvertes point toward 
the south; the third points toward the north perhaps the 
grave of a sceptic in the matter of sun-worship. In Celtic 
the names of these burial sites signify respectively moun- 
tain of the fairies, mountain of the gnomes, mountain of 

C 177 3 


the black elves, who were believed by the ancient Bretons 
to have built the tombs. 

Another group of dolmens from which all the earth has 
been removed is that of Rondesec, beautifully situated on 
a mound overlooking the Bay of Quiberon; here each alUe 
convene points directly southeast, doubtless the very direc- 
tion devout sun-worshippers would choose. The family 
here buried was prosperous, too, for the excavation of 1848 
led to the discovery of two gold armlets a discovery 
which prompted the spoliation of many other dolmens in 
search of treasure. 

1832* Gavr'Inis tumulus Beautiful gallery, no implements 

1 849 Rondesec tumulus Two armlets of gold 

1853 Tumiac tumulus .Thirty-two superb ceremonial axes, three 

necklaces of callais 

1862 Mont Saint-Michel, Carnac 

tumulus .Thirty-nine ceremonial axes, two neck- 

1863 Man6-er-H'roek tumulus .An oval ring of jadeite encircling a pol- 

ished ceremonial axe of chloromelanite, 
also 101 celts or polished axes, all pur- 
posely broken 

1863-1864 Man6-Lud tumulus .The burial chamber exceptional in con- 
taining seven heads of horses in a beau- 
tifully constructed tumulus. In 1 91 1 M. 
le Rouzic found a necklace of callais and 
five small bands of gold 

1863 Kercado tumulus .Two ceremonial axes, ornamented pot- 

tery, and a few beads of calla'fs 

1 864 Le Moustoir tumulus Pottery, flint flakes from the famous quar- 

ry of Grand Pressigny, and beads of 


Gold was found also in the very large tumulus of Man6 
Lud (Mount of Cinders), excavated in 1863 ; here a number 
of the chieftain's horses had been sacrificed and the heads 
placed in a crescentic line near the crypt. The crypt itself 

l The dates of the successive exploration of these dolmens, indicated in the table above, 
were kindly given to the author by M. le Rouzic. 

n 178 n 

Fiff. is. ALIGNMENTS DTI MENEC, CARNAC. Here there arc ten (eleven) lines ; many of the stones of its 
cromlech have been removed to build farmhouses and walls. Photograph, by courtesy of V. Forbin, 
taken from the edge of the circular cromlech looking eastward. 

Music J. Miln at Carnac, including (lower) large, polished ceremonial axes, some of which are of 
chloromelamte and jadeite; rings of jadeite; (center} necklace beads and pendants of caliais, quartz and 
agate; arrowheads of unpolished flint. 






was filled with incinerated bones, indicating a period when 
cremation was customary; this incineration is referred to in 
the name of Man Lud. 

Man-er-H'roek (Mountain of the Fairies) is one of five 
virgin tumuli found undisturbed, the others being Tumiac, 
Mont Saint-Michel, Kercado, and Le Moustoir. Man6-er- 
H'rdek is a round tumulus built entirely of stone, doubt- 
less in honor of a very great chieftain. The superb collec- 
tion of ceremonial objects discovered here is the finest of 
the period which has been found in France. It includes 
nearly two hundred pieces, all of the finest Neolithic work- 
manship, in polished jadeite, chloromelanite, fibrolite, and 
callai's. 1 The necklace beads are of callais, quartz, and 
agate, with not a single object in bronze and only a few 
fragments of flint. It represents the acme of the Neolithic 
period in industry and art. While there is no bronze in the 
ceremonial burial, the form of some of the celts, or axes, 
recalls bronze both in shape and in design. The splendid 
necklace and the very large pendants of callais were prob- 
ab'y assembled from local quarries found in the Archaean 
mica schists. Most of the celts were intentionally broken 
but some of the best were left intact, including the one of 
chloromelanite encircled by a jadeite ring listed in the table 
opposite (p. 178), which is said to be the finest in France. 

The second undisturbed tumulus is Mont Saint-Michel, 
Carnac, a veritable mountain of rock, within which the 
galleries are lined with small tombs. These have been 
further investigated, from time to time, since the original 

' i Callais is a precious stone of unknown source, closely approaching turquoise in its chem- 
ical composition, but containing a somewhat smaller proportion of aluminum. It is trans* 
lucent, and apple or emerald green in color. More than 450 beads and several pendants of 
this substance have been found in the dolmens of Morbihan, while in the other departments 
of Brittany it is almost unknown. Similar beads have been found in Provence, in the Hautes- 
Pyr&iees, and in Portugal 



discovery in 1862 by M. Rene Galles, who unearthed nu- 
merous celts and a beautiful necklace, or cottier ', of calla'is 
ornaments. Of the thirty-seven baches the seven largest 
weapons were purposely broken; the others remained in- 
tact. Kercado, another of the undestroyed tumuli, has a 
circle of large stones outside the stone mound, which no 
doubt had some religious or mystic significance. The most 
recent of the untouched tumuli to be exposed was Le 
Moustoir, Carnac, which contained none of the large baches 
but has yielded giant flint flakes, evidently brought from 
the famous flint mine of Grand Pressigny, and also well- 
shaped vases with their supports. 

Tumiac, the first of the undisturbed tumuli to be ex- 
plored was opened in 1853. It is of about the same age as 
Mont Saint-Michel, as demonstrated by its closed dolmen 
chamber, but it lacks the entrance gallery and thus belongs 
to the decadent period of the tumuli. Although inferior in 
size to Mont Saint-Michel, Tumiac is 345 feet long and 
was the burial place of twelve individuals, probably mem- 
bers of one great family. The excavations here yielded 
thirty-nine fine baches, examples of the best Neolithic 

It is noteworthy that in all the tumuli bronze is very 
rare, although Kercado belongs in the Bronze Age. 

?be Interpretation of Carnac 

M. le Rouzic regards Carnac as a great cemetery of late 
Neolithic times, where the chiefs were brought for burial, 
the most frequent symbol being the hache of the chieftain, 
an example of which is shown in Figure 73. As bearing 
upon sun-worship, M. le Rouzic points out that the symbol 
of the life-giving sun is rather rare, while the symbol of the 

n 182 3 


wheat is relatively frequent. He inclines to interpret the 
sinuous lines of the stones of Gavr'Inis as conventionalized 
designs symbolic of the wheat field. He also inclines to see 
traces of remote Egyptian or Phoenician or proto-Phoeni- 
cian influence, or of still more remote Mycenaean influence 
in the dome-like burial chamber of Isle Longue, where 
the only semblance of the surviving dolmen influence is 
the long galerie couverte facing toward the sun, and the 
large circle of upright flat stones around the base. Above 
the base is a dome-like construction of small stones in- 
troducing the entirely new structural principle of the arch. 
This work, M. le Rouzic informed us, is attributable to the 
first Age of Bronze. 

M. le Rouzic, conservateur of the Mus6e J. Miln, our 
genial host during the three days' study of Carnac and 
visit to the island tumuli of the Golfe du Morbihan, 
pointed out to us the racial succession indicated first by the 
predominance of round-heads, whom we regard as mem- 
bers of the Alpine race that dominated Armorica at the 
close of Neolithic time (2000 B.C.), which corresponds to 
the Bronze Age elsewhere. Following the stately and costly 
burials of the round-heads came other interment customs 
with an invasion of long-heads, who laid out their dead in 
straightened form in the cists or stone coffins rude proto- 
types of the monolithic stone sarcophagi of Greece and 
Rome. The straightened bodies of the cist burials are in 
striking contrast to the generally flexed bodies of the dol- 
men burials. 

M. Marsille was enthusiastic over the intelligence of the 
men of the dolmen period they understood all the min- 
erals, how to procure them and how to shape them, and 
they sought out the rarest. We shared this enthusiasm of 

C 1833 


M. Marsille, and it was with regret that we ended our 
three-day Neolithic tour, wherein we received striking im- 
pressions of Brittany as it was four thousand years ago and 
gained historically a clear vista of the mysterious region of 
prehistory where one has to grope about for knowledge and 
where again the constructive imagination and genius of 
French archaeology command our admiration. 



For what is man? behold! 
Can he requite thy love child of a day 
Or help thy extreme need? Hast thou not seen 

The blind and aimless strivings, 

The barren blank endeavour, 
The pithless deeds, of the fleeting dreamlike race? 

Never, O nevermore, 

May mortal wit Jove's ordered plan deceive* 

What land is this? what race of mortals 
Owns this desert? who art thou, 
Rock-bound with these wintry fetters, 
And for what crime tortured thus? 
Worn and weary with far travel, 
Tell me where my feet have borne me! 
. . . Ah wretched me! 

Wandering, still wandering o'er wide Earth, and driven 
Where? where? O tell me where? 

Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound. 


The west European theory of human origin The north Asiatic theory The 

central Asiatic theory Why Mongolia may fa the home of primitive man 

The undiscovered Lawn Man of central Asia Andrews strengthens the central 

Asiatic theory of human origin The racial problem before the time of Darwin 

The three primary human stocks or super-races The three primary races of 

Europe Causes of the divergence of races, species and stocks The influence 

of posture on the human skeleton The amphibious life of the primitive Ha- 

waiians How to produce an arboreal type of man How a secondary 

race of squatting men might be produced The future rise of man 

Ethe four preceding lectures we have been observing 
,e men of the Dawn and Old Stone ages as they are 
found in Great Britain and in western Europe. In these 
regions their industries and arts are so ancient that some 
distinguished students of archaeology and anthropology 
have concluded that western Europe was the homeland in 
which the Stone Age Man arose from a more primitive con- 

Because of the Biblical narrative and because European 
knowledge extended barely beyond the confines of Asia 
Minor, Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia, the traditional 
or non-scientific homeland of man is western Asia. As to 
eastern thought on this great subject, we are assured that 
the Chinese believed that they sprang from their own soil, 
and as for the south Asiatics, they concerned themselves 
little about the geography of human origin. 

The most recent discoveries tend to support the older 
theories of human origin in Asia. Let us therefore review 
the history of opinion as to our homeland, opinion swaying 



as it were backward and forward between Asia and Europe. 
While urging caution against hasty inferences, the 
author prophesies that the still undiscovered Dawn Man 
described in the second lecture will be found in the high Asiatic 
plateau region and not in the forested lowlands of Asia, but 
many decades may ensue before this prophecy is either 
verified or disproved. 

The West European Theory of Human Origin 

In the year 1887, the discovery of two Neanderthaloid 
skeletons at Spy, near Dinant, Belgium, confirmed. the 
authenticity of the fossil Neanderthal race of man and 
opened the way for a succession of discoveries of fossil 
human remains which repeopled the whole of western 
Europe with various races, species, and perhaps genera of 
primitive man, thereby accumulating fossil evidence 
strongly in favor of western Europe as a center of human 

Between the years 1823 and 1925 there were discovered 
in western Europe the remains of no less than 116 individ- 
uals belonging to the Old Stone and Dawn Stone ages, 
namely: two individuals of the Piltdown race; forty indi- 
viduals of the low-browed Neanderthal races of Heidel- 
berg, Gibraltar, La Quina, La Ferrassie, Spy, Taubach, 
Ehnngsdorf, etc.; seventy-four individuals of the Cro- 
Magnon and other races of late Stone Age times. The re- 
mains of 236 individuals of the broad- and narrow-headed 
races of peoples living after the Old Stone Age but preced- 
ing the New Stone Age were also found, making a total of 
352 individuals, all of whom might be called fossil men, 
discovered in western Europe prior to the full advent of the 
New Stone Age or Neolithic time. 



On the other hand, during the same period of more than 
a century (i 823-1925), only a single discovery of prehuman 
or human remains had been made in the whole continent of 
Asia, namely, the Pithecanthropus or Trinil ape-man of 
Java; and as discovery sites of fossil man gradually studded 
the entire map of western Europe, was not the suspicion a 
natural one that man originated not in Asia but in Europe ? 
As the American anthropologist Hrdlicka observed in 1913 : 

Europe, particularly in its more western and southern portions, has 
thus far proved the richest in ancient human remains. Africa, Asia, and 
those parts of Oceanica which were formerly connected with the Asiatic 
continent have as yet been but little explored. The island of Java, how- 
ever, which is within the last-named region, has furnished an intensely 
interesting specimen bearing on man's evolution and antiquity. As to 
America, the researches have thus far yielded nothing that could pos- 
sibly be accepted as representing man of geological antiquity. For the 
present, therefore, an account of the very ancient remains of man, with 
the exception of the Java specimen, must be limited to early European 

Twenty years earlier, in 1893, the distinguished French 
archaeologist, Salomon Reinach, of the Mus6e Saint Ger- 
main, deeply impressed with the vigorous development of 
early civilizations in western Europe during Neolithic 
times and throughout the early ages of metal, abandoned 
the generally accepted theory of an Asiatic origin of these 
industries as a mirage oriental and set forth with scholarly 
acumen the claims of western and northern Europe as an 
independent center of cultural dispersal during the Neo- 
lithic Age and the succeeding ages of Copper and of Bronze. 

Consequently, with the prestige of Reinach and Hrd- 
licka the west European theory of human origin gained a 
considerable number of adherents. When we reflect, how- 
ever, and realize that whereas western Europe has been 
intensively explored foot by foot since the year 1823 and 

C 1893 


that the anthropological exploration of Asia has barely 
begun, the contrast between the abundance of fossil re- 
mains from western Europe and the paucity of fossil 
remains from Asia becomes less remarkable. 

Vbe North Asiatic theory 

With the beginning of the science of anthropology in 
France there arose from the purely scientific viewpoint 
the question of the region in which mankind originated. 
This question was brilliantly discussed by Quatrefages in 
the fifth chapter of his great treatise, "Histoire gn6rale 
des races humaines" (1889), wherein he treats the specific 
problem of the origine gfograpbique de fesphe bumaine. 
After combating the idea of 'autocthonism' the springing 
up of various ancestors of the human race in scattered 
areas of the earth's surface and after dismissing the re- 
lated speculations on 'polygenism/ or the independent ori- 
gin of human species and races, he finally comes to the 
serious consideration of what he terms 'centres d'appari- 
tion' and turns his glance toward the great northern plains 
of Asia. He refers with approval to Nordenskiold's theory 
which places the Eskimos among the most ancient north- 
erly races of mankind, and then describes as follows a 
theoretic southward migration of primitive tribes which 
was enforced by the rigors of the great northern glaciation : 

Marchant surtout vers le soleil, elles rencontrirent le massif central 
et ses d6pendances. Elles s'arr&ftrent longtemps dans ces contrees; 
elles 7 virent Paurore des temps qui ont succ6d6 a 1'epoque glaciare; 
elles s'y m&fcrent ou se juxtaposfrent a celles de leurs soeurs qui les 
avaient prcdes. Au coeur et tout autour de ce grand massif, les 
conditions d'existence 6taient lob d'&re les m&nes. Le milieu fit son 
ceuvre; et cette region devint ainsi, non pas le centre d" apparition de 
Fespfay mais le centre de formation^ ou de cardctMsation des types 
etbniquesfondamentaux de l'6poque actuelle. 


At the opening of Chapter VI Quatrefages describes the 
peopling of the globe through migration from a north Asi- 
atic center as follows: 

Uespce humaine, primitivement cantonne dans un centre d'ap- 
parition unique et peu 6tendu, situ vers le nord de PAsie, est aujourd'- 
hui partout. Elle s'est done rSpandue de proche en proche, en marchant 
en tout sens. Le feufhment du globe far migrations est la consequence 
fbrc6e des faits pr6c6demment exposes. Les polyg6nistes, les partisans 
de 1'autochtonisme ne pouvaient accepter cette conclusion. Aussi ont- 
ils me* ces migrations. 

*Tbe Central Asiatic Theory 

The theory of human origin in central Asia was ad- 
vanced as long ago as 1857 by Joseph Leidy in his studies 
on the aboriginal races of man: 1 

It is not at all improbable that man (strictly the genus Homo) may 
have first originated in central Asia. When we reflect upon the gradual 
advance in intelligence in the scale of living bangs, through successive 
geological periods, may we not infer that the apparently earlier civili- 
zation of the human race in Asia is indicative of its earliest advent in 
that portion of the world? Various races of man, in different geograph- 
ical positions, may have acquired their peculiar characteristics (their 
specific origin) at successive periods long distant from each other. 
Perhaps when the aboriginal progenitors of die civilized Mexicans and 
Peruvians roamed as savage hordes through intertropical America, the 
great Arctic Ocean yet concealed the present northern United States 
in its depths, and Asiatic civilization was then just dawning from ages 
of night. 

The theory of a north Asiatic center defended as it was 
by the allusions of Quatrefages to a supposed northern in- 
fluence on Palaeolithic art and of a dispersal along lines 
of migration southward, eastward and westward, is quite 
distinct from the theory of central Asiatic origin advo- 
cated by Dr. William D. Matthew in his very able ad- 
dress on "Climate and Evolution" before the New York 

i Joseph Lady: Prefatory Remarks in Nott and Gliddon's "Indigenous Races of the 
Earth," J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1857, p. xviii. 



Academy of Sciences, February 13, 1911, in which he sums 
up the evidence for the origin and dispersal of mankind, as 

We may with advantage begin our review of the special evidence in 
support of our theory with the migration history of man. This is the 
most recent great migration; it has profoundly affected zoogeographic 
conditions; it is the one where our data are most complete and accu- 
rate; we can perceive its causes and conditions most clearly, and we 
have a great deal of corroborative evidence in history and tradition. 

All authorities are today agreed in placing the center of dispersal of 
the human race in Asia. Its more exact location may be differently in- 
terpreted, but the consensus of modern opinion would place it probably 
in or about the great plateau of central Asia. In this region, now barren 
and sparsely inhabited, are the remains of civilizations perhaps more 
ancient than any of which we have record. Immediately around its 
borders lie the regions of the earliest recorded civilizations of 
Chaldea, Asia Minor, and Egypt to the westward, of India to the 
south, of China to the east. From this region came the successive inva- 
sions which overflowed Europe in prehistoric, classical, and mediaeval 
times, each tribe pressing on the borders of those beyond it and in its 
turn bring pressed on from behind. The whole history of India is simi- 
lar of successive invasions pouring down from the north. In the Chi- 
nese Empire, the invasions come from the west. In North America, the 
course of migration was from Alaska, spreading fan-wise to the south 
and southeast and continuing down along the flanks of the Cordilleras 
to the farthest extremity of South America. Owing to the facilities for 
southward migration afforded by the great Cordilleran ranges, the 
most remote parts of the New World are the forests of Brazil and of 
northeast South America. In the northern continent, Florida is the 
most distant from the source of migration. 

The central Asiatic theory of human dispersal advocated 
by Matthew is clearly illustrated in the accompanying fig- 
ure (Fig. 78), which agrees with the general thesis main- 
tained in "Climate and Evolution" that primitive races of 
man, as well as primitive races of mammals, are constantly 
being thrust out from the center of dispersal into the most 
remote terminal regions of the earth's surface, whereby, 
viewjnglthe earth from the North Pole, we see a fringe of 
primitive peoples-^ Australians, Bushmen, Negritos, Tierra 


delFuegians thrust in to peripheral regions as companions 
of primitive mammals like the monotremes, marsupials, 
and insectivores. 

Fiff. 78. THEORETIC DWPBPSAI AND DISTRIBUTION of the principal races of man from his central 
Asiatic homeland. After Matthew, 1915. 

Although not unmindful of the weight of fossil and cul- 
tural evidence favoring the claims of Europe, the present 
author never swerved from his Asiatic belief and stoutly 
maintained that we must nevertheless adhere to the older 
Asiatic theory as by far the more probable* Thus the prob- 
lem of the center of human origin, whether Asiatic or Euro- 
pean, became one to be settled only by exploration in Asia, 
no less extensive and no less intensive than that which led 
to the wonderful discoveries in western Europe between 
1823 and 1925. 

r 193 3 

Why Mongolia May Be the Home of Primitive Man 

Stirred by the prediction of the present author in the 
year 1890 that central Asia would prove to be the home- 
land of ail the greater forms of mammalian life, which from 
this original source migrated to other parts of the world, 
Roy Chapman Andrews aroused nation-wide interest in 
his great project to explore Mongolia for fossil man. 
Starting on its first expedition in the season of 1921, the 
Andrews party was not destined immediately to attain its 
goal of fossil or cultural human remains. During the two 
entire seasons of 1922 and 1923 the party journeyed for 
six thousand miles, skirting the western region of the Gobi 
without finding a single trace of fossil man, although en- 
couraged by the discovery of a new continental life, of a 
new theater of mammalian evolution, which stimulated 
renewed and more intensive search for evidences of human 
occupation in the geologic past. 

At the dramatic moment of the close of the season of 
1923 when the discovery of the dinosaur eggs gave the ex- 
pedition a world-wide fame, the present author joined 
Andrews' party in the east central region of the Gobi 
Desert and began to visualize the life environment of Ter- 
tiary time as ideal for the early development of the Dawn 
Men or the direct ancestors of the human race. 

This line of thought led to the author's extemporaneous 
address on October 8, 1923, before the association of the 
Wen Yu Hui or 'Friends of Literature 7 on returning from 
the Mongolian plateau to Peking. This address, entitled 
<c Why Mongolia May Be the Home of Primitive Man," 
expressed as logical the hope that fossil remains of the very 
earliest human beings may be found on the great central 

194 H 


Asiatic plateau and perhaps in Mongolia itself. It con- 
tinued with the following argument: 

Before and after cave times men lived mainly in the open, along the 
river-bottoms, or river-drifts, or on the uplands or plateaus. Such a 
mode of life is conducive to the development of the finest physical and 
moral qualities of the race, for in the open, in intertribal competition, 
in resistance to and conquest of a natural environment, and in the op- 
portunity for free migration lies the stimulus that carries man up the 
ladder of advancement. life in the open preceded by hundreds of thou- 
sands of years the period of life in the caves, and when a race which has 
developed under the stimulating influence of an open, broad and 
varied environment is temporarily forced by the exigencies of the cli- 
mate to seek shelter in the caves, its latent energy turns to new en- 
deavors, its evolution follows a new direction. Such men are benefited 
spiritually and intellectually by a life in caves, for such a life of relative 
isolation turns them to reflection and to contemplation. Thus the 
period of cold and rigorous climate in Asia and Europe was one of vast 
importance in the spiritual and mental development of the race, just as 
the period of life in the open was one conducive to its physical and 
moral development. 

Thus the three fossil races, the Trinil, the Piltdown, and the Heidel- 
berg, must themselves be distant descendants of an earlier ancestral 
race. Where did this race live and have its origin ? This brings us to the 
question involved in the tide of this address as announced, "Why Mon- 
golia May Be the Home of Primitive Man." We observe that early man 
was not a forest-living animal, for in forested lands the evolution of man 
is exceedingly slow, in fact there is retrogression, as plentifully evi- 
denced in forest-living races of today. Those South American Indians 
who live in the forests are backward in development as compared with 
those living in the open. Of the latter, those living in uplands are 
more advanced than those living in the river-drifts. 

Mongolia was probably not a densely forested country this is indi- 
cated by the animal remains found there in the earlier deposits. An 
alert race cannot develop in a forest a forested country can never be 
a center of radiation for man. Nor can the higher type of man develop 
in a lowland river-bottom country with plentiful food and luxuriant 
vegetation. It is upon the plateaus and relatively level uplands that 
life is most exacting and response to stimulus most beneficial. Mon- 
golia always has been an upland country, through the Age of Mammals 
and before. It was probably a region forested only in part, mainly 
open, with exhilarating climate and with conditions sufficiently difficult 
to require healthy exertion in obtaining food supply. . . . 

n 1953 


In the uplands of Mongolia conditions of life were apparently ideal 
for the development of early man, and since all the evidence points to . 
Asia as the place of origin of man, and to Mongolia and Tibet, the top 
of the world, as the most favorable geographic center in Asia for such 
an event, we may have hopes of finding the remote ancestors of man 
in this section of the country. However, this Mongolian idea must 
be treated only as an opinion; it is not yet a theory, but the opinion is 
sufficiently sound to warrant further extended investigation. 

The Undiscovered Dawn Man of Central Asia 

This high plateau country of central Asia was partly 
open, partly forested, partly well-watered, partly arid and 
semi-desert* Game was plentiful and plant food scarce. The 
struggle for existence was severe and evoked all the inven- 
tive and resourceful faculties of man and encouraged him 
to the fashioning and use first of wooden and then of stone 
weapons for the chase. It compelled the Dawn Men as 
we now prefer to call our ancestors of the Dawn Stone Age 
to develop strength of limb to make long journeys on 
foot, strength of lungs for running, and quick vision and 
stealth for the chase. Their life in the open, exposed to the 
rigors of a severe climate, prompted the crude beginnings 
of architecture in their man-made shelters, and the early 
use of fire for bodily warmth and for the preparation of 

The conception of the early development of man in a 
high plateau country accords with all the known principles 
of the rise of man and is well-established by observations in 
the Holocene or Recent period of the Age of Man. In sup- 
port of this view we may note: First, that the rise of man 
is arrested or retrogressive in every region where the natu- 
ral food supply is abundant and accessible without effort 
in tropical and semi-tropical regions where natural food 
fruits abound, individual and racial human effort im- 


mediately slows down; second, that all precocious intelli- 
gence and early civilization in mankind were fostered in 
open regions where the food supply is scarce and impossible 
to obtain without individual effort and resourcefulness. 

The corollary of these two principles is the third: That 
during Tertiary times all the lowlands of Asia were reku. 
tively well forested and well watered, with a relatively ac- 
cessible food supply conditions altogether favorable to 
the continued development of the great anthropoid apes, 
as well as to the retention of arboreal or semi-arboreal 
habits of life, but altogether unfavorable to the rise of man. 
In brief, while the anthropoid apes were luxuriating in the 
forested lowlands of Asia and Europe > the Dawn Men were 
rising in the invigorating atmosphere of the relatively dry 
plateaus of central Asia. 

The first evidence in support of the author's belief that 
man inhabited the high plateaus of Asia at a very early 
stage of his development was afforded by the great dis- 
covery of Pre Teilhard de Chardin and P&re Licent, who 
found deposits of Mousterian artifacts associated with the 
fossilized bones of animals at three different sites in the 
province of Ordos, northern China, in 1923; this discovery 
will probably lead to the discovery of a Neanderthaloid 
race in this region, for such a race has now been found in 
Palestine. A full account of the Ordos discovery has been 
given by Pre Teilhard de Chardin himself. 1 

Andrews Strengthens the Central Asiatic Theory 
Reinforced by a highly trained and experienced archae- 
ologist, Dr. Nels C. Nelson of the American Museum staff, 
the expedition of 1925 started out more determined than 

iTeUhard de Chardin: Fossil Man in China and Mongolia. Natural History , VoL 06, No. 3, 

C 1973 


ever to secure either negative or positive evidence bearing 
on the central Asiatic theory of the origin of human dis- 
persal. The brilliant positive results are known to the 
world through cablegrams and later reports from the leader 
of the expedition, and through Dr. Nelson's description 
of the discovery in an article entitled 'The Dune Dwellers 
of the Gobi." 1 Subsequent discoveries included flint im- 
plements of Mousterian type, closely similar to those found 
before the cavern of Le Moustier in France, of the Old 
Stone Age period, thus affording evidence of man's exist- 
ence in the much earlier Mousterian industrial period 
which, in Europe, coincides with the dominance of the 
Neanderthal race. Indications of still earlier stone indus- 
tries are also found in Mongolia which may belong to 
Acheulean times; and also possible indications of the Dawn 
Stone or Eolithic Age. The latest evidence in favor of Asia 
as the home of primitive man was supplied by Turville- 
Petre's surprising discovery (August, 1925) of a skull of 
Neanderthal type in Palestine known as the 'Galilee' 

This rapid sequence of discoveries within the brief period 
of three years (1923-25) strengthens the author's convic- 
tion that central Asia is the homeland of the human race. 

tte Racial Problem before the Fime of Darwin 

Granted for a moment that the relatively dry plateau 
region of central Asia is the most probable homeland of 
man, there remains the problem of the manner in which 
human races of different kinds arise. These lectures con- 
cern chiefly the higher faculties of man, but let us first pass 
in review the century of discussion regarding the physical 

^ds C Nelson: The Dune Dwellers of the Gobi Naturvl History, VoL 16,1*0. 3,19*6. 



structure of man, the nature of human species and the 
origin of subspecies and races of different kinds. Such origin 
is going on before us today and affords the best insight into 
what took place in the past, even back at the beginning of 
the Stone Age. The study of racial origins becomes a 
matter not only of concern to the intellectual life of the 
world but will be a matter of vital importance in all de- 
partments of human endeavor. It will even become a 
matter of political importance, a matter to be taken into 
consideration by the State. Indeed it is already being, 
considered in this way in the United States as we begin to 
realize that different races respond very differently to our 
political institutions. 

The question of the dispersal and divergence of human 
races takes us back to the period prior to the publication of 
Darwin's "Descent of Man/' when fossil man was un- 
known and when there was warm debate as to whether all 
the numerous varieties of mankind belong to a single 
species. Undoubtedly, if an unbiased zoologist were to de- 
scend upon the earth from Mars and study the races of 
man with the same impartiality as the races of fishes, birds, 
and mammals, he would divide the existing races of man 
into several genera and into a very large number of species 
and subspecies. 

In 1875, Armand de Quatrefages, professor in the Mu- 
seum of Natural History^ Paris, delivered a course of ele- 
mentary lectures on 'The Natural History of Man" 1 to 
audiences of working people in Vincennes. These delightful 
lectures represent the pre-Darwinian point of view and 
dwell with emphasis upon the unity ofbuman species and 

1 Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Breau: The Natural History of Man, A Course 
of Elementary Lectures. 

C 199 3 


upon the intellectual^ moral> and spiritual distinctness of 
man as compared with any other order of animals. We 
recall the fact that in 1875 Quatrefages was profoundly in- 
fluenced not only by the then prevailing ideas of the special 
creation of man as a distinct species but also by the classi- 
fication of the great Swede, Linnaeus (Carl von Linn6), 
father of systematic botany and zoology. 

In support of his opinion that all the greater and lesser 
divisions of the human race belong to a single species, 
namely, Homo sapiens^ Quatrefages devotes Chapter I to 
the discussion of fertility. He observes: "Fertility is the law 
of union between animals belonging to different races (mixed 
breeding)," whereas "infertility is the law when animals of 
different species unite (hybridization)." His argument as 
to fertility is now known to be invalid; we know that, both 
in nature and in experiment, many distinct species and 
even distinct genera of plants and animals occupying over- 
lapping geographic areas may interbreed freely and may 
leave a long series of hybrid descendants, some of which 
are highly useful both in plant culture and in animal cul- 
ture. One species and subspecies may interbreed with an- 
other and produce a great variety of half and quarter 
breeds. Thus inter-fertility is not a bar to specific distinction 
or even to generic distinction in the lower mammals or in man. 
In the family of Bovidae, for a parallel, several genera and 
species freely interbreed, e.g., our domestic cattle (Bos 
taurus} and the bison (Bison americanus). 

fbe Primary Human Stocks , or Super-Races 

During the eighteenth century, in the course of develop- 
ing his monumental "Systema Naturae," Linnaeus ren- 
dered an immortal service to science when he introduced 


the term Homo sapiens to express the fact that man stands 
apart from other Primates as the substantive genus Homo, 
and that the first species of man we know is entitled to the 
adjective sapiens. By profound change both in our knowl- 
edge of facts and in our theories and conceptions since the 
time of Linnaeus and even of Quatrefages, through ana- 
tomical researches among the Asiatics and Africans, we 
now subdivide Homo sapiens into three or more absolutely 
distinct stocks, which in zoology would be given the rank 
of species, if not of genera; these stocks are popularly 
known as the Caucasian, the Mongolian, and the Negroid: 

Homo sapiens europaeus North and south Eurasiatic 
stock, wavy hair (cymotrichous) with intermediate cross 
section. Broad- or long-headed. Tall to medium stature. 
( - CAUCASIAN, including the Nordic, Alpine, Mediterra- 
nean and other races.) 

Homo sapiens asiaticus Extreme East Asiatic stock: 
Straight hair (lissotrichous) with round cross . section. 
Broad-headed. Medium to tall stature (American Indian). 
( = MONGOLIAN, including the Chinese, Mongol and other 

Homo sapiens afer African stock. Closely curled hair 
(ulotrichous), flattened cross section. Narrow-headed. 
Short to tall stature. ( = NEGROID, including the Negro and 
Negrito races.) 

The spiritual, intellectual, moral, and physical charac- 
ters which separate these three great human stocks are 
very profound and ancient. In the author's opinion these 
three primary stocks diverged frcJm each other during the 
Age of Mammals, even before the beginning of the Pleisto- 
cene or Ice Age. The Negroid stock is even more ancient 
than the Caucasian and Mongolian, as may be proved by 


an examination not only of the brain, of the hair, of the 
bodily characters, such as the teeth, the genitalia, the 
sense organs, but also of the instincts and the intelligence. 
The Mongolian is somewhat less profoundly different from 
the Caucasian than is the Negro. The intelligence and 
morale of the Mongolian may fully reach the high Cauca- 
sian level, as shown in great periods of Chinese history, but 
except in the plateau region of Asia his physical develop- 
ment seldom equals that of either the Negroid or the Cau- 
casian, which give rise to the tallest races in the world. 

The hair happens to be one of the most conspicuously 
distinctive and constant features of these three species of 




1924. Leidy, Matthew, Otbwn and Gregory are among those who have favored the theory of 
an upland or plateau region as the original homeland of man. 

202 ] 


man. Skin color is less uniformly distinctive. The Mongo- 
lians are yellow to dark brown or bronzed in skin color. 
The Negroids are generally dark brown to full black. The 
Caucasians are extremely fair-skinned in the North, light- 
brown-skinned in the South, very dark-brown-skinned 
in subtropical Polynesian hybrid branches like the 

tte Three Primary Races of Europe the Nordic, the Alpine 
and the Mediterranean 

Linnaeus also defined the variety Homo sapiens euro- 
paeus as white, sanguine, and muscular, with fair, wavy 
hair and blue eyes. We may take this as a starting point 
for our review of the relation of terminology to our present 
knowledge of the races of man. 

The European variety of man which Linnaeus had in 
mind in naming Homo sapiens is not all Scandinavian, but 
includes three very distinct subtypes, races, or stocks* 
namely, the Scandinavian or Nordic, the Alpine or Ostro- 
Slavic, and the Mediterranean, each distinguished by racial 
characters so profound and ancient that if we encoun- 
tered them among birds or mammals we should certainly 
call them species rather than races. Since, however, they 
coincide with racial distinctions, we adopt for these second- 
ary races of man the three subspecific terms: 

Homo sapiens europaeus nordicus the tall, fair-haired, 
blue-eyed, narrow-headed, narrow-faced Nordic race (see 
page 138). 

Homo sapiens europaeus alpinus the medium-statured, 
dark-haired, gray- or brown-eyed, broad-headed, broad- 
faced Alpine race (see page 138). 

Homo sapiens europaeus mediterraneus the medium- 

C 203 H 


statured, black-haired, dark-eyed, narrow-headed, nar- 
row-faced Mediterranean race (see page 139). 

In the preceding lectures we have observed that each of 
these races arrived in Europe during the latter part of the 
Old Stone Age with distinctive cultural and spiritual char- 
acteristics, as witnessed in their art and in their industry. 
We know that each of these European races is distin- 
guished . by innumerable differences of character and 
predisposition, spiritual, intellectual, moral, and physical. 
For example, the Nordic and Alpine races have a hairy 
covering over the greater part of the body. The men are 
heavily bearded, in adaptation to the severe climate of 
the cold northern regions from which the Nordics sprang, 
or to the cold mountain and plateau region from which the 
Alpine-Slavs sprang. The members of the Mediterranean 
race, on the other hand, have relatively smooth and hair- 
less bodies, in adaptation to the warm southern coast re- 
gions of Eurasia from which they sprang. 

Causes of the Divergence of Races, Species and Stocks 
The color divergence in the three primary human stocks 
is only one of the most conspicuous of thousands of diver- 
gent characters which have been brought about through 
the long influences of mate selection, of indirect adaptation 
to climate, of the direct influence of climate, of the influ- 
ence of habit, and of 'organic 7 or coincident selection. 1 
At present the prolonged or secular influence of babit y of 
organic selection and of mate selection seems to be among 
the prime causes of the divergence of human races. The 

*The theory of organic or coincident selection independently proposed by the psycholo- 
gist James Mark Baldwin, the biologist C. Lloyd Morgan and the present author is prac- 
tically subsidiary to Darwin's theory of natural selection and Lamarck's theory of modi- 
fication. Examples of this principle are given herewith in explaining the possible origin of 
'arboreal/ 'aquatic,' or 'cursorial* races or types of men. 

C 204 3 


opening petition of the Lord's Prayer, "Give us this day 
our daily bread/' is a recognition of the world-wide fact 
that the primitive man must first think of the food supply 
for himself and his family. Exactly like an animal, he is 
compelled to work for his food supply, to seek it where the 
environment offers it, whether in the chase of animals or 
birds, in fishing, or in agriculture. The search for food has 
led man into various habits and habitats to which he was 
more or less fitted by intellectual, moral, and physical pre- 

These predispositions are hereditary and therefore 
subject to 'organic selection/ By heredity men may be 
predisposed to arboreal, to cursorial, to terrestrial, or to 
amphibious life. The born climbers take to the trees, the 
born swimmers take to the water, the born runners take to 
the chase. But in turn these very habits of arboreal life, of 
aquatic life, of cursorial or running life, through the process, 
of individual modification and self-adaptation, are self- 
perfecting. Those who attain the greatest skill and facility 
are naturally the most successful members of the tribe; 
they are the best climbers, the best fishermen, the best 
hunters, and they are rewarded by the first choice of wives 
and blessed with the first crop of offspring. 

Have we wandered far from our subject, the evolution 
and terminology of human races? Not at all We have, on 
the contrary, come to the very heart and philosophy of it, 
because the genesis of human races was exactly like the 
genesis of animal races prior to the era of civilization. Fol- 
lowing alike the principle of adaptive radiation, man goes 
forth to seek and labor for food. He may go to the tem- 
perate regions, to the North Pole, or to the Equator. If he 
chooses the Equator the quest for food is very easy and 


requires relatively little intelligence; the environment is 
not conducive to rapid or varied organic selection; the 
struggle for mere existence is not very keen; the social and 
tribal evolution is very slow; intellectual and spiritual de- 
velopment is at a standstill. Here we have the environ- 
mental conditions which have kept many branches of the 
Negroid race in a state of arrested brain development. 

During the Old Stone Age the food supply was primarily 
from the chase or from the quest of natural fruits; during 
the New Stone Age the food supply came primarily from 
agriculture. The Mongoloid races at a very early stage ex- 
hausted their animal food supply and were compelled to 
turn to agriculture. This explains the extraordinary indus- 
try, vitality, and working powers of this people, which are 
the result of ages of organic selection. A Chinese or Mon- 
goloid workman has far greater endurance and is capable 
of more continued effort on less food and a lower energy 
(calorie) diet than the Caucasian, who, until the game 
supply began to be exhausted in the forests and plains of 
northern Eurasia, was chiefly a hunter and fisherman. 

The prime cause of the rise of the specific and subspecific 
characters of man prior to the New Stone Age was, there- 
fore, the varied quest for food. This quest led man into 
certain new environments, the new environments com- 
pelled him to adopt new habits and modes of motion, and 
the new habits and modes of locomotion produced new 
modifications and changes of form which are accumulated 
through organic selection and inborn predisposition or 
preference. This is not the Lamarckian theory of the direct 
inheritance of acquired adaptations; it is a theory of 'pro- 
longed or secular inheritance of predispositions which happen 
to coincide with the new demands and habits of life. This 



process of organic or coincident selection operates over 
very long periods of time. 

The new environments in turn throw all the old adapta- 
tions out of balance and put new survival values on certain 
characters. The heavy beard is a distinct advantage to the 
Nordic and to the Alpine hunter. The hairy covering of the 
body is of benefit to the Alpine Slav of the cold plateau 
regions. On the contrary, the Mediterranean subspecies 
and the Negroid species develop hairless bodies, partly be- 
cause hair is unnecessary with a very dark skin, partly 
because hair and clothing harbor insect carriers of infec- 
tious diseases, from which it is easy to protect the nude and 
hairless body. The Mongoloid races, although partly mi- 
grating into the coldest regions of the earth, have never 
acquired a hairy covering and are as hairless as the Ne- 
groids; the same is true of the American Indian. 

Individual choice of habit and of habitat, with men as 
with animals, has by these means been the polestar of the 
rise of man. 

Lamarck was right in a secular or geologic gense when he 
said that organs were acquired when animals strove for 
ihem\ they are first acquired as non-heritable modifications^ 
in the course of ages they are acquired as true hereditary 
adaptations. This choice of habit or of habitat has some- 
times been optional, a matter of pleasure in choosing be- 
tween two or more alternatives, and sometimes enforced. 
Alden Sampson has shown that the white-tailed deer 
(Odocoileus macrourus) of the western United States seeks 
no less than seventy-three kinds of food during the course 
of the year. .Among the antelopes of Africa there is a great 
seasonal range of diet for certain species; others, like the 


OriK 9 are said to browse only on a single kind of plant to 
which the animal is exclusively adapted. 

Man, like the bear, is naturally omnivorous, but he may 
be forced to an exclusively frugivorous diet, as among the 
plantain eaters; to a strictly graminivorous diet, as among 
the rice eaters; or to an exclusively flesh and fat diet, as 
in the case of the most northerly Eskimo. An exclusive 
diet tends to the organic selection of a modified type of 
dentition, of a modified musculature of the jaws, and of 
modification of the digestive tract, all of which organs are 
extremely modified in the Eskimo. 

The choice, however, leads to a readjustment of all the 
internal and external reactions of man as a mechanism, to 
a change in all survival values, and to a new series of 
actions, reactions, and interactions between the develop- 
ing and race-begetting man and his lifeless and living en- 
vironment. This is the author's conception that the rise of 
man is due to four sets of causes acting coincidently; 
namely, heredity or predisposition, habit or individual 
adaptation, the rigors or clemency of the environment, and 
the animal or human life by which man is surrounded. 
This is technically expressed in two words of Greek origin, 
'tetraplastic' and 'tetrakinetic/ signifying the interaction 
of four sets of forces. 

ST2tf Influence of Posture on the Human Skeleton 

In a most valuable essay by Arthur Thomson in 1889, 
'The Influence of Posture on the Form of the Articular 
Surfaces of the Tibia and Astragalus in the Different Races 
of Man and the Higher Apes," we find clearly brought out 
the distinction between, congenital variations and those 
which may be acquired by prolonged habits of life. It is 



perfectly clear from this investigation that certain racial 
characters, such as 'platycnemism' or flattened tibia, 
which have been considered of great importance in anthro- 
pology, may prove to be merely individual modifications 
due to certain local and temporary customs. Thomson's 
conclusions are that the tibia or shin is the most variable in 
length and form of any long bone in the body. Platycne- 
mia, i.e., flattened tibia, is most frequent in tribes living by 
hunting and climbing in hilly countries, and is associated 
with the strong development of the tibialis posticus muscle. 
The great convexity of the external condyloid surface of 
the tibia in savage races appears to be developed during 
life by the frequent or habitual knee flexure in squatting; 
it is less developed where the tibia has a backward curve 
and is independent of platycnemia. Another product of the 
squatting habit is a facet formed upon the neck of the 
astragalus (heel-joint bone) by the tibia. This facet is very 
rare in European man; it is found in the gorilla and orang, 
and occasionally in the chimpanzee. We must therefore be 
on our guard to distinguish between congenital or heredi- 
tary skeletal adaptations which are fundamental, and 'ac- 
quired' skeletal adaptations which may not be hereditary. 1 

The Amphibious Life of the Primitive Hawaiian* 

The early explorers were all impressed with the am- 
phibious life of the natives of the Sandwich Islands and 
with their fearlessness and dexterity. On Vancouver's sec- 
ond journey,, in the years 1793-94, he was accompanied by 
the botanist Archibald Menzie, in whose journal, 2 Febru- 
ary 5, 1794, we find the following observations: 

i Compare pages 216-217 

2 See Hitchcock: Hawaii and Its Volcanoes, p. 65. 



After the whole party had breakfasted we left Honomazino in our 
canoes about nine in the morning and soon after passed the western 
part of the Island which is a dreary tract of the most rugged rocks of 
lava scattered here and there with some fishermen's huts. About noon 
we came to a small village named Manaka where we found our Chief 
Rookea's residence and where we landed before his house at a small 
gape between rugged precipices against which the surges dashed and 
broke with such violence and agitation and with such horrific appear- 
ance, that even the idea of attempting it chilled us with the utmost 
dread. We, however, quietly submitted ourselves to their guidance and 
were highly pleased to see the extraordinary dexterity with which they 
managed this landing. Having placed their canoe in readiness before 
the gape they watched attentively for a particular surge which they 
knew would spend itself or be overcome in the recoil of the preceding 
surges before it could reach the rocks, and with this surge they dashed 
in, landed us upon a rock from which we scrambled up the precipice 
and in an instant about 50 or 60 of the natives at the word of command 
shouldered the canoe with everything in her, and clambering up the 
rugged steep, lodged her safely in a large Canoe-House upon the brink 
of the precipice, to our utmost astonishment. 

In the afternoon our attention was at one time directed to a number 
of young women who stripped themselves quite naked upon the sum- 
mit of a pending cliff, and taking a short run vaulted one after another 
from the blink of it headlong into the sea, regardless of the foamed 
and agitated appearance of that element, and as it were setting its 
wildest commotions at defiance, for at this time the surf ran very high 
and dashed with furious force against the cliff, yet they dexterously 
disentangled themselves, and clambering up the rock again, repeated 
their leaps several times with seeming satisfaction till they were quite 
fatigued. The cliff was at least thirty feet high and so very rugged with 
packed rocks which were now and then deluged with a boisterous surf, 
that to look down the precipice was enough to intimidate any one not 
accustomed to such extraordinary feats of activity. 

More recently so trustworthy an observer as Frank 
Bullen 1 describes a feat of which he was eye-witness. Half 
a mile from the towering mass of Sunday Island, exposed 
to the full force of the gigantic swell of the South Pacific, a 
young Kanaka sailor left the boat, landed in a weltering 
whirl of rock-torn sea, climbed the steep sides of the cliff 

iFrank T. Bullen: The Cruise of the Cachalot, pp. 299, 305-307. 


Paavo Nurmi of Finland. Observe the feeble 
arms, broad chest and waist, and strong limbs. 
Photograph by Underwood and Underwood. 

Duke Kahonomoku of Hawaii. Observe the ex- 
tremely broad shoulders, strong arms, narrow and 
slender waist, strong limbs and large feet Com- 
pare the slender waist with the slender-waisted 
'cup-bearers' of the Minoans of Crete. Photo- 
graph by Underwood and Underwood. 

the Belgian Congo grasping the tree by the inturaed 
soles of the feet and the arms, without the aid of 
a girdle. After Herbert Lang. Certain monkeys and 
anthropoid apes ascend the trunks of trees in a 
similar manner, but their arboreal life is chiefly 
in the branches of trees, the swinging or brachyat- 
ing habit being most highly developed in the 
gibbon of Borneo, (This picture is a combination 
of two photographs.) 

in a native blacksmith of the Belgian Congo. Ob- 
serve the feeble limbs and narrow chest. After 
Herbert Lang. The squatting-anatomy of this 
Congolese should also be found in the expert flint 
workers of the Old Stone Age. (See pages 208, 209, 
216, 217.) 


and seized a wild goat, the object of his quest. In the strug- 
gle both lost their footing and trumbled down the cliff in a 
small avalanche of stones and dust. Although badly bat- 
tered not by his swim but by the fall the man lashed 
the goat to his naked body, ignoring its struggles, crawled 
out on the rocks and dove once more into the turmoil of 
breakers, returning to the boat in triumph with the goat, 
none the worse for the experience. 

How to Produce an Arboreal type of Man 

As the swimming habit will produce through individual 
preference an amphibious type, which might be perfected 
in successive generations through organic selection of the 
most apt swimmers, so an arboreal type might be produced. 
Thus the author observed in 1896^ in first defining the 
principle of organic and coincident selection: 

If the human infant were brought up in the branches of a tree as an 
arboreal type instead of as a terrestrial, bipedal type, there is little 
doubt that some of the well-known early adaptations to arboreal habit 
(such as the turning in of the soles of the feet and the grasping of the 
hands) might be retained and cultivated; thus a profoundly different 
type of man would be produced. . . . During the enormously long 
period of time in which habits induce ontogenic variations, it is 
possible for natural selection to work very slowly and gradually upon 
predispositions to useful correlated variations, and thus what are 
primarily ontogenic adaptations become slowly apparent aspbyhgenic 
adaptations or congenital characters of the race. Man, i.e., Homo sapiens, 
for instance, has been upon the earth perhaps seventy thousand years; 
natural selection has been slowly operating upon certain of these pre- 
dispositions, but has not yet eliminated those traces of the human 
arboreal habits, nor completely adapted the human frame to the up* 
right position. This is as much an expression of habit and ontogenic 
variation as it is a constitutional character. 

* Osborn: A Mode of Evolution Requiring neither Natural Selection nor the Inheritance 
of Acquired Characters, front. N. T. Acad. Sc*. 9 VoLXV, March 9 and April 13, 1896, 
pp. 141-142, 148.* (The word 'adaptation' is substituted for 'variation.'} 

3 3 


At the time the above passage was written, the author 
adopted the widespread current faith in the direct arbo- 
real ancestry of man. Robinson's well-known photograph 
of the baby clinging to a broom handle, with its feet turned 
in, had just been published, and no fossil human skeletons 
were known at the time to rebut the prevailing arboreal 
hypothesis. The author has now entirely abandoned the 
arboreal hypothesis and believes that man has descended 
from cursorial or running ancestors. Since then the com- 
plete skeleton of the Neanderthal man has been discov- 
ered, and the balanced proportions of the upper and lower 
limbs lend no support to the arboreal hypothesis. The 
Neanderthal man is descended from many hundreds of 
thousands of generations of * walkers, not of tree climbers. 

Another line of evidence against the arboreal theory has 
recently come to mind. It is that when man does take to 
the trees it is never in the manner of the chimpanzee or of 
the gorilla, but in the manner of the bear, i.e., of "shinning 
the tree," by embracing the trunk with the arms and shins 
(Fig. 82). No anthropoid ape displays this power, which is 
among the early instincts of every boy. The ape must rise 
into the tree not by the trunk route but by the branches. 
Once started, the swinging action resembles that of a man 
on a trapeze. The grasping is done with all five fingers, in- 
cluding the rudimentary thumb -placed over the branch. The 
thumb is not used either by the ape or by the trapeze ex- 
pert, because the hand must instantly hook itself over the 
branch. Consequently the thumb is not developed; all 
arboreal mammals are practically thumbless. 

As a boy of ten the author watched the Spanish lads 
near Murcia, Spain, climbing the date palms. They placed 

C 4 3 


a fibre girdle around the slender trunk and, swaying back- 
ward and forward, arose by slipping the girdle higher 
and higher, turning the soles of the feet inward on the outer 
sides of the trunk. This method of tree climbing, with all 
its variations, is purely a human achievement. As tree 
climbing is observed among the Hawaiian boys, no girdle 
is used; the slender trunk of the cocoanut palm is seized by 
the hands and, where possible, the body leans backward 
and the feet are placed sole downward against the trunk. 
In the author's opinion, which differs radically from that 
of many of his colleagues, the quadrumanous arboreal phase 
in man was extremely remote in geologic time and was never 
a very profound or exclusive mode of life. The anatomical 
evidence does not point to a prolonged period of arboreal 
existence, but rather to a prolonged period of terrestrio- 
arboreal habit, during which our very remote ancestors 
lived and fed chiefly upon the ground but sought protec- 
tion in the trees from their enemies. In brief, we do not 
believe the case has been proved for arboreal man, chiefly 
because neither the human leg and foot nor the human 
arm and hand retains proofs of prolonged arboreal adapta- 
tion; on the contrary, the human hand is of a non-arboreal 
type, as far as possible from the thumbless, trapeze-motion 
hand of the gibbon. Secondly, the human foot retains no 
traces of the grasping foot and big toe of the higher apes. 
In short, the better we understand the human anatomy 
and mechanism of both the hand and foot and the more we 
learn of the fossil ancestors of man, the less close appears 
our relationship to the great anthropoid apes, the gorilla, 
the chimpanzee, the orang, and the gibbon. 


How a Secondary Race of Squatting Men Might 
Be Produced 1 

The anatomy and physiology of a tailor as studied by 
the British anatomist, Sir Arbuthnot Lane, in the year 
i888 5 show that the lifelong habits of a tailor engaged in 
his confining and laborious trade actually produce a dis- 
tinct type of man. The type is now extinct, for the modern 
tailor works only at machines. Such a type, if it became 
heritable and thus established, might be described humor- 
ously as a new variety, Homo sapiens sartorius. In the old 
days the tailor sat with bent form, with, crossed legs, jerk- 
ing his head sharply to the side in drawing the needle and 
thread with his thumb and forefinger through the resistant 
cloth sartorial habits which, if prolonged through a life- 
time, would produce many new characters. 

The following are only a few of the modifications of 
muscles, tendons, and bones produced in individuals by 
hundreds of repetitions of similar motion which might 
conceivably result in the evolution of the hypothetic new 
variety Homo sapiens sartorius in which these modifica- 
tions would be heritable: The muscles tend to shorten and 
recede into tendons; the tendons grow relatively longer 
and the bony surfaces into which they are inserted tend to 
grow in the direction of the pull which the muscles exert 
upon them; the articulation between the breastbone 
(sternum) and the collar bone (clavicle), normally a close 
junction, is modified into a very complex movable joint 
almost of the character of a typical hinge joint, like that 
of the elbow. Owing to the prolonged squatting posture, 
which compresses the chest and prevents the free rise and 
fall of the ribs and chest breathing, the six pairs of ribs 

1 Compare Fig. 83, p. aio. 



become firmly coossified with the respective vertebrae of 
the back, indicating that they have ceased to rise and fall 
with sternal breathing and that by way of compensation 
respiration is almost exclusively by means of the dia- 
phragm, which, in the normal human being, supplements 
the rise and fall of the chest. To accommodate the side jerk 
of the head which the tailor pursuing his trade for a period 
of twenty or thirty years repeats thousands of times, the 
right side of- the skull forms a new joint with the broad 
transverse flange on the right side of the first vertebra of 
the neck (the atlas). This joint is adaptive; it relieves fric- 
tion between the side of the skull and the side of the verte- 
bra. A small synovial cavity containing the fluid surrounds 
this newly acquired sartorial joint. This provision for free- 
dom of movement on the right side of the neck is balanced 
by a rigid fixation on the left side of the neck because the 
left half of the second vertebra (the axis) is firmly united 
by bone to the left side of the third vertebra. Thus the 
second and third vertebrae tend to form a single bone. This 
fixation is also adaptive, fitting the tailor to his peculiar 
mode of living. But Nature does not stop here. Dr. 
Lane finds that the peglike process (the odontoid) of the 
axis is prolonged in its socket of the atlas and that a new 
transverse ligament is formed to keep this peg from slip- 
ping out of place and pressing on the spinal cord. (It is 
pressure of the axis upon the spinal nerve and rupture of 
the transverse ligament that produce instantaneous death 
in hanging.) In brief, the anatomy of the tailor is full of 
new anatomical adaptations y caused partly by fixation of mo- 
tion, partly by exaggeration of motion. 

These anatomical changes, effected during the lifetime 
of the individual, serve to emphasize the great contrast be- 


tween the rapidity of individual adaptation or modifica- 
tion and the slowness of race adaptation or evolution. All 
these marvelous adaptive modifications die with the in- 
dividual; none of them is inherited. The son of this tailor 
will not exhibit any of these newly acquired characters 
his ribs and vertebrae will move freely upon each other. It 
is only through the slow process of the coincident selection 
of predispositions toward the sartorial form of body that a 
new sartorial race could be produced m which these sartorial 
modifications would become inherited characters. Again, 
this sartorial race, like the amphibious or the arboreal race 
spoken of above, would emerge only after the selection of 
hundreds or perhaps thousands of generations of those in- 
dividuals in which the body is peculiarly adapted by pre- 
disposition to the sartorial habit. All the evidence we 
have, like that of the fossil horse, for example, shows that 
modifications produced by peculiar habits, if transmitted 
at all, would be imperceptible in one generation. The 
horse has not yet lost its lateral fingers and toes which 
began to be useless nearly twenty million years ago, at the 
beginning of the Oligocene period. 

2"2tf Future Rise of Man 

Our first conclusion from the world-wide studies and ob- 
servations of the post-Darwinian period is quite contrary 
to that of Quatrefages quoted at the beginning of this lec- 
ture. We have discovered that races, 'species/ and stocks 
of man arise in the same manner that races, species, and 
genera arise among other mammals. 

A burning question of the present day is whether man 
is destined to rise or to fall, and many and varied answers 
are being attempted. After a preliminary survey of the ques- 



tion let us endeavor to answer it in the language of Aeschy- 
lus, as if he were come to life with his incomparable powers 
of observation and analysis. 

The rise of primitive and of uncivilized man is subject to 
the same laws as those which prevail throughout the ani- 
mal kingdom, until human civilization steps in and inter- 
feres with the natural orders of things. Thus when man 
begins to specialize and human races begin to intermingle, 
Nature loses control. It appears that the finest races of 
man, like the finest races of lower animals, arose when 
Nature had full control, and that civilized man is upsetting 
the divine order of human origin and progress. 

Several recent writers on the subject of the future rise 
and development of man, among them Bury, Inge, and 
Conklin, take a decidedly pessimistic view. They are 
no doubt under the influence of the shock of the great 
World War, which they regard, and in a measure rightly 
so, as a calamity of the first magnitude in contrast to the 
optimism of the Victorian period. 

It is quite true that European nations have suffered 
terribly and that the effects of the struggle have been 
chiefly deteriorative to the race. France, after the Napo- 
leonic war had already cut off three inches from the stature 
of the average man, lost 1,400,000 of its best men. England 
too has deteriorated racially, and so has Germany. Of the 
original Nordic stock the men of the time of Goethe and 
Schiller only one-tenth remains; nine-tenths of the popu- 
lation of Germany are of Alpine-Slavic stock. In Amer- 
ica the original pioneer stock is dying out; the foreign 
element is in the ascendency. China, in the opinion of 
Dr. Ting, is not much better off the deterioration of 

C 219 H 


the Chinese race being due, however, not to war but to the 
absence of the great force for betterment which lies in 
sexual selection or the choice of wives. 

Racial deterioration appears to prevail throughout the 
world today; our policy seems to be that of care for the in- 
dividual, neglect for the race. This doctrine of individual- 
ism, so rampant everywhere, is the greatest deterrent to 
racial progress. We must return to the viewpoint so well 
expressed by Tennyson in apostrophyzing the record of 
Nature's mode of work seen in the wealth of fossil remains 
in the rocks: 

So careful of the type 
She seems, so careless of 
The single life. 

The future rise of man is intimately related to that of the 
special race to which he belongs; this is true not only of his 
physical nature but of his mental and spiritual nature as 
well they too depend on the mental and spiritual ascent 
of the race of which he is a unit. Every race has a different^ 
kind of soul by soul is meant the spiritual, intellectual 
and moral reaction to environment and to daily experience 
and the soul of the race is reflected in the soul of the 
individual that belongs to it. This racial soul is the product 
of thousands or hundreds of thousands of years of past 
experience and reaction it is the essence or distillation of 
the spiritual and moral life of .the race. In Europe, for ex- 
ample, the soul of each of the three great races the Alpine, 
the Mediterranean and the Nordic is individualized, it is 
the product and summation of its own racial experience in 
the long past of its development. 

Care for the race, even if the individual must suffer 
this must be the keynote of our future., -This was the 

I! 2203 


guiding principle which underlay all the discussions of the 
Second International Congress of Eugenics 1 in 1921, Not 
quantity but quality must be the aim in the development of 
each nation, to make men fit to maintain their places in the 
struggle for existence. We must be concerned above all 
with racial values; every race must seek out and develop 
and improve its own racial characteristics. Racial con- 
sciousness is not pride of race, but proper respect for the 
best qualities and characteristics which each race possesses. 
Purity of race is today found in but one nation the 
Scandinavian; but Scandinavia has been seriously bled 
by emigration so many of its best men have left the 
homeland for America that today the dependent class is 
relatively large; realizing these conditions, the Scandina- 
vian people have set on foot a movement to keep the best 
men and women at home, and such a movement has also 
been begun in the United States. Such new racial conscious- 
ness is a hopeful sign, and with it before our eyes we need 
not despair. 

When our understanding of the spiritual, intellectual, and 
moral, as well as physical, values of races becomes more wide- 
spread, the course of the rise of man to Parnassus will again 
take an upward trend and the future progress of the human 
race will be secure. 

1 The author was elected president of this Congress, which has exerted a great eugenic in- 
fluence in the United States. 



T^ROMETHEUS, gifted with divine inspiration, is moved 
jL to compassion by the sufferings of mortals and subjected 
to prolonged torture for bis audacity in conferring on mortals 
the gifts of Nature and of Art. 

This demigod is the prototype of those daring human 
pioneers, innovators, and inventors who have risked all in 
quest of new truth. Of Promethean order are Socrates, Bruno, 
Galileo, defiant of pagan and other false gods, fearless of 
ostracism, of imprisonment; of the same order, in our day, 
Mutter, Lazear, and Reed, zealous of healing truth, alike fear- 
less of death. 

Would that Aeschylus of prophetic vision could come to 
earth after his two thousand three hundred eighty 4hree years 
among the shades, to witness the marvellous discoveries in the 
prehistory and history of man inspired by the example of 
Prometheus and doubtless' latent in the mind of Aeschylus 
himself in his apostrophe: 

divine aether, and ye swift-winged breezes, and ye fountains 
of rivers, and countless dimpling of the waves of the deep, and 
thou earth, mother of all and to the all-seeing orb of the Sun 

1 appeal. 

Let us in imagination escort him through the furnaces of 
steel, the prophecies of storm and wind, the myriad foes of 
disease, the wondrous variety of domesticated animals, the 
ships above and beneath the sea and among the clouds, the 
libraries stacked with memories of the past and the literature 


of all time, the towering architecture, the millions of stars and 
distant universes of astronomy. 

In the pages of this volume let us verify bis retrospect of the 
life of the caves, of the ages of flint, of bronze, of iron. 

Then, in our pride of Promethean conquest of Nature, let us 
humbly ask: Have we,inourliterature,ourart,ourconduct,our 
intellectual and spiritual ideals, risen apace with our conquest 
of matter, time, and space? Have our youth gained in reverence 
and in faith, our women in serious purpose and love of fam- 
ily? Are some of us walking in the very footprints of those 
psychologists who have lost the soul, the mind, and finally 
consciousness itself? Have we gained the universe and lost the 
spirit? Shall we ever again be as "wise and true in aim of 
sour as were the great comrades of Aeschylus? 

Is man now rising to Parnassus? 



This volume is a sequel to "Men of the Old Stone Age" (1915-1 8). It embodies the 
present author's own researches in Anthropology and Prehistory of Man, which are 
listed herewith by tide. The stars indicate those which appear in the volume in 
original or slightly changed form. 

Man at War 125,000 Years, tte (New Tork) Sun, Vol. 84, Sect. 5, 

p. i, Dec. 31, 1916. 
Men of the Old Stone Age, Their Environment, Life and Art. 

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1918. Third Edition. 
The Fighting Ability of Different Races. Journ. Hered., Vol. 10, 

No. i, 1919, pp. 29-31. 
Scientific Work in theHawaiian Islands. Science, N.S., Vol. 51, No. 

J 3 2 9> PP- 6l 3> 6l 4> Me 1 8, 1920. 
Introduction to George Langford's "Pic the Weapon-Maker," pp. 

xi, xii. Boni and Liveright, New York, 1920. 
The Hall of the Age of Man in the American Museum. Nat. Hist., 

Vol. 20, No. 3, 1920, pp. 228-245. Reprinted as Guide Leaflet Series 

No. 52, After. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
Review of J. M. Tyler's 'The New Stone Age in Northern Europe." 

tt* (New Fork) Evening Post, Literary Review, Vol. i, No. 38, 

p. 5, May 28, 1921. 
Prehistoric Sculpture. An Account of the Discovery of Two Bisons 

Sculptured in Clay by the Cro-Magnons of 25,000 Years Ago. 

Scientific American, Vol. I25A, No. 18, pp. 86, 87, Dec., 1921. 
Search for the Record of Robert Hanham Collyer, M.D. Science, 

N.S., Vol. 55, No. 1412, p. 72, Jan. 20, 1922. 
The Lost Foxhall Jaw: Robert Hanham Collyer. Science, N.S., Vol. 

55, No. 1414, p. 128, Feb. 3, 1922. 
The Pliocene Man of Foxhall in East Anglia. Nat. Hist., Vol. 21, 

No. 6, 1921, pp. 565-576. 
*The Dawn Man of Piltdown, Sussex. Nat. Hist., Vol. 21, No. 6, 

1921, pp. 577-590. 

The Birth of Sculpture in Southern France. Nat. Hist., Vol. 22, 

No. i, 1922, pp. 27-41. 
*0ur Ancestors Arrive in Scandinavia* Nat. Hist., Vol. 22, No. 2, 

1922, pp. 1 16-134. 



*Brittany Four Thousand Years Ago. Nat. Hist., Vol. 22, No. 3, 

1922, pp. 197-212. 
Recent Discoveries on the Antiquity of Man. (With Chester A. 

Reeds.) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., Vol. 8, No. 8, 1922, pp. 246, 247. 

Reprinted Science, N.S., Vol. 56, No. 1444, 1922, p. 256. 
The Dawn Man. An Authorized Interview by Hugh Wier. (With 

William K* Gregory.) McCiure's Magazine, Vol. 55, No. i, pp. 

1^-28, March, 1923. 
Review of Roland B. Dixon's "The Racial History of Man." We 

New Fork Herald, Sect. 9, p. 3, March 25, 1923. 
*Why Mongolia may be the Home of Primitive Man. An address to 

the Wen Yu Hui. The Peking Leader, pp. 2, 4, Oct. 10, 1923. Re- 

printed Columbia Alumni News, Vol. 15, No. 16, pp. 254-256, 

Feb. i, 1924. 
From the Greeks to Darwin. New edition. Charles Scribner's Sons, 

New York, 1924. 
Introduction to Hugo Obermaier's "Fossil Man in Spain," pp. ix-x v. 

Publ. by Hispanic Society of America, New York, 1924. 
Race Progress in its Relation to Social Progress. Journ. Nat. Inst. 

Soc. Sci., Vol. 9, pp. 8-1 8, Nov. 10, 1924. 
Prehistoric Man. Review of MacCurdy's "Human .Origins** and 

Ohermaier's "Fossil Man in Spam." The Tale Review, Vol. 15, 

No. i, 1925, pp. 167-170. 
*The Evolution of Human Races. Nat. Hist., Vol. 26, No. i, 1926, pp. 

Review of Roy Chapman Andrews' "On the Trail of Ancient Man." 

fie (New TorK) Sun, Sept. 25, 1926. 
Dawn Man* Appears as our first Ancestor, fte New, Tork Times, 

Sect. 8, p. 3 Jan. 9, 1927. 
*Why Central Asia? Nat. Hist., Vol. 26, No. 3, 1926, pp. 263-269. 



ARISTOTLE: KEstoria Animalium. In the "Works of Aristotle," trans- 
lated into English under the editorship of J. A. Smith and W. D. 
Ross, Oxford, 1910; Vol. IV by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. 

LUCRETIUS: De Rerom Naturae. Poetical version by John Mason 
Good, Bohn's Classical Library, London, 1890. 

C 230 ] 


OSBORN, HENRY FAIRFIELD: Evolution and Religion in Education. 

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1926. 
THOMPSON, D'ARCY WENTWORTH: Natural Science. In "The Legacy 

of Greece," edited by R. W. Livingstone, Oxford, 1924. 
SINGER, CHARLES: Biology, Medicine. In "The Legacy of Greece," 

edited by R. W, Livingstone, Oxford, 1924. 
ZELLER, EDUARD: Ueber die griechischen Vorganger Darwins. Abb. 

Akad. Wissenscbaften Berlin, pp. 111-124. 
BROOKS, WILLIAM KEITH: The Foundations of Zoology. The Mac- 

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HORNADAY, WILLIAM T.: The Minds and Manners of Wild Animals, 

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1922. 
YERKES, ROBERT M.: Almost Human. The Century Co., New York 

and London, 1925. 
LOWIE, ROBERT: Primitive Society. Boni and Liveright, New York, 


Primitive Religion. Boni and Liveright, New York, 1924. 
MCGREGOR, J. HOWARD: Restoring Neanderthal Man. Natural His- 
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HELLMAN, MILO: The Crown Patterns of Fossil arid Recent Human 

Molar Teeth and Their Meaning. Natural History, May-June, 

1926, pp. 300-309. 
W. O. DIETRICH: Zur Altersbestiminung der Pithecanthropus 

Schichten. Sitzungster. Gesell. Naturfor. Freimde, No. i-io, Jahr 

1924, pp. 133-138. 
OBERMAIER, HUGO: Fossil Man in Spain. English translation by 

Christine D. Matthew. Yale University Press, 1924. 



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LUGUET, G. H.: L'Art et la Religion des Homines Fossiles. Masson 
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B&GOUEN, COMTE DEI Un Dessin Relev6 dans la Caverne des Trois 
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SIRET, L.: Orientaux et Occidentaux en Espagne. Joseph Pollennis, 
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TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, P.: Fossil Man in China and Mongolia. 
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MATTHEW, W. D.: Climate and Evolution. Annals N, T. Acad. Sci., 
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NELSON, NELS C: The Dune Dwellers of the Gobi. Natural History. 
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HITCHCOCK: Hawaii and Its Volcanoes. 

SULLEN, FRANK T.: The Cruise of the Cachalot. 

ANDREWS, ROY CHAPMAN: On the Trail of Ancient Man. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, New York, 1926. 



ACHEULEAN CULTURE, 53, 93; flbtS, 24, 

77, 79; in Mongolia, 198 ; industry, 39. 
Adaptations, acquired, 206, 218; an- 
tiquity of hypothesis, 12; distinction., 
209; effect, of climate, 204, of experi- 
ence, n, of human activities, n, 
216-18; human, 205-18; inherited, 
206, 218; Lamarckian hypothesis, ii, 
12, 206; Lamarck-Spencer, i2;Lange, 
12, 13; ontogenic, 213; organic, 207; 
phylogenic, 213; recapitulation prin- 
ciple, 6; study in early Greece, 14; 
Zdler, 12, 13. 

Adaptive Radiation, in man, 205. 

Adze, flint, 148. 

Aeschylus, 4, 219, 225, 226; origin of 
man, 7; "Prometheus Bound," 2, 16, 
17, 22, 86, 120, 156, 186, 225;prophet, 
195 rise of man, 17-19; scientific 
knowledge, 15, 1 6. 

Africa, 87, 88, 123, 125; Ward's studies, 

Agassiz, Louis, recapitulation of adap- 
tations, 6. 

Agate, 181, fig. 76. 

Age, Ages, see under each. 

Age of Mammals, 24, 25, 26, 67, 195, 
201; arctic invasion, 27; close, 27, 32; 
deposits, 28 ; man in, 24, 71, 83. 

Age of Man, 24, 25,72, 79, 196; ancient 
human type, 71; arctic invasion, 27; 
beginning, 31, 32; deposits, 28; Forest 
Bed age, 75; man's earlier existence, ' 
23; research, 24. 

Age of Reptiles, 25; deposits, 28. 

Agriculture, destructive of antiquities, 
177; discovery, 18; factor in human 
ascent, 18; in Mongolia, 206. 

Agrigentum, Sicilian School of Medi- 
cine, 10. 

Alcmaeon, research, in dissection, 9. 

Alignments, 160, 175, fig- 75- 

Allies cQWxrtcS) 177, 178. 

Alpine Race, 24, 138, 157, 201, 203; 
characters, 163, 204; disseminator of 
agriculture and sun-worship, 174; 
modern in Germany, 219; Neolithic, 
183; survival in Brittany, 163-5. $ ee 
Homo sapiens. 

Altamira, 98. 

America, North, 126, fig. 50; scientific 
opinion, 53, 56. 

Ami, H. M., Piltdown photographs, 61. 

Amulet, 158, 159. 

Anatomy, Egyptian knowledge, 10; evi- 
dence of fossils, vii; first 'modern' ex- 
ponent, 10; first writer, 10; human 
and comparative, ix, 10; in sculpture, 
Cro-Magnon, 113, 114, ignored by 
Greeks, 10; recapitulation of charac- 
ters, 6; study of science, Greek, 6, 10, 
14, modern, vii, slow advance, 10; 
treatises, Herophilus, Hippocrates, 
Polybus, 10; use to natural philoso- 
phers, 10-12, See Man. 

Anau, 124, 154. 

Anaxagoras, mind over matter, 12; 
origin of man, 14; theory of manual 
activity, ii. 

Anaximander, 4, 5; origin of man, 5, 6, 

Ancestors, Ancestry, 72; ape-myth, 84; 
arrival in Scandinavia, xai. See Man. 

Ancylus, geologic period, 136, 140. 

Anderida Forest, description, 62. 

Andorra, 96, 97. 

Andrews, Roy Chapman, explorations 
in Asia, 187, 194-8. 

Animals, domestication, 125, 144, 147, 
225; Book of Job, 7. See Fauna. 

Antevs, Scandinavian chronology, 124. 

Anthropoids, 83-4- See Ape-man, Apes. 

Anthropology, 187; Greek study, 6; re- 
search, 55-6. 

Antiquity of Man, 23, 


pus, 71; evidence, 23; extension, 84; 
Piltdown, 72. See Man. 

Aquatic Type, see Man. 

Ape, anthropoid, 82; divergence from 
man, 201-2; effect, of Asiatic en- 
vironment, 197, of posture (Thom- 
son), 208-9; method of climbing, 213; 
myth of human ancestry, 84;0sbprn's 
opinion, 213, 214; structural differ- 
ence from man, 215. 

Ape-man, 82-4; Java (Trinil), 54, 55, 80. 
See Pitbe-anth'opus. 

Arboreal Type, see Man. 

Archaeological Museum, Vannes, 161, 
fig. 65. 

Archaeology, 187; forecast by Aeschy- 
lus, 19. fr* Research. 

Architecture, 121, 122, 133, 134, "5* 
construction of sun-temples, 176: 
eastern influence in Europe, 183; fac- 
tor in human ascent, 1 8 ; features, arch, 
183, architrave, lintel, 157; influence 
of religion, 1 57-76 ;Minoan, 157; Neo- 
lithic, 169-74, figs. 65, 71; practical 
discovery, 18; taught by Prometheus, 
1 6. See Dolmen, Gallery, Menhir. 

Arctic Invasion, 27; forecast in Norwich 
Crag, 31. 

Arctic Ocean, 140. 

Aristotle, Design in Nature, 15; natural 
causation, 14; study of Empedocles, 
13; theory of manual activity, ii; 
volume, 15; writings preserved, 6. 

Armorica, 158, 163, 183. 

Arrow, bone, 136; Bronze Age, .169; 
flint, i69;Neolithic, 169, fig. 76; point, 


Art, ix, 122, 135, 225, 226; bas-reliefs, 
fig. 44; birth, 94; bronze, 149, 157, fig. 
62; Cro-Magnon, 94, 118; Dchelette 
on, 95; effect, of environment, of 
struggle for existence, 135, geographic 
distribution, 123; human figure, m- 
14; Magdalenian, 95, no, fig. 52; 
mural, 109-13, figs. 41-3; Neolithic, 
125, 170, i73,figs.72,73;Palaeolithic, 
97, 98-118, 122, 123, 191, figs. 41-3. 
See Megalithic Monuments, Sculp- 


Arts, 24, 187; intellectual, 18, 19. 

Artifacts, Chinese Mousterian, 197. 

Asia, 88, 93, 123, 124, 125, 138, 154; an- 
thropoids, 83; effect of climate on 
man, 196; explorations, 194-8; geo- 
graphic origin of man, 23, 187-202; 
I^idy's theory, 191; Matthew's the- 
ory, 192, i93;Osborn's theory, 195; 
Tertiary, 196. See Central Asia, Mon- 

Asia Minor, 187, 192. 

Astragalus, effect of locomotion, 208-9. 

Astronomy, 225; factor in human as- 
cent, 18; rise of science, 18; taught by 
Prometheus, 16. 

Augury, 17, 18. 

Aurignacian Industry, 24, 39, 93, 113- 
17, 122; development of culture, 131, 
132; effect of struggle for existence on 
migration, 135. 

Australians, 192; brain illustration, 81; 
brain size, 67. 

Austria, 138; Neanderthajoids, 89. 

Authors Cited, Aeschylus, 2, 22, 86, 94, 
120, 156, 186, 225; Basset, 160; 
Breuil, fig. 61; Brooks, 13, 14; Bullen; 
210, 213; Collyer, 40; Darwin, 199; 
D6chelette, 166; Gregory, 202; Johan- 
sen, 140; Lankester, 76; Le Rouzic, 
156, 1 60, 173; Linnaeus, 200, 201, 203; 
Lucretius, 3 ; Lundborg-Linders, 94-5, 
138-9; Menzie, 210; Moir, 34, 35, 48, 
69; Montelius, 147, 150, 153, fig. 62; 
Osborn, 1 5, 72 ; Quatrefages, 1 99 ; Rip- 
ley, 163, 164; Singer, 8-9; Siret, 173; 
Stockis, fig. 70; Tennyson, 220; 
Thompson, 5; Thomson, 208, 209. 

Autocthonism, 190. 

Auvergne, 163, 164. 

Axe, battle, 148; bronze, 153; ceremoni- 
al, 169, figs. 71, 73; copper, I53;hand, 
50; Neolithic, 158, 169; origin, fig. 73; 
polished flint, 169; stone, 121, 123, 
124, 133, 134, 136, 148, 153; symbolic, 

Azilian, 95, 122, 123, 125, 131. 

BALDWIN, J. Mark, coincident selection, 

C 236 


Baltic, coast, 149; race, 138; sea, 136, 
140, 145. 

Balzac, scientific knowledge, 15. 

Bas-reliefs, fig. 44. 

Basset, Edouard, 160. 

Bear, brown, 144; cave, 105. 

Beaver, 144. 

Beebe, William, anthropological study, 

Beetle, sculpture, 97. 

Begouen, Comte de, 98, 101, 102, 103, 
106,112, fig. 35. 

Belcher, Sir Edward, support of Collyer, 

Belgium, 97, 121, 129, 143, 144, i88;Spy 
remains, 54. 

Bible, narrative of man's origin, 187, 
200. See Job. 

Biogenetic Law, development, 6. 

Biology, early problems, 7; etymology, 
7; Greek thought, 6, 8; modern, 12; 
origin of science, 9; Singer, 8, 9. 

Bison, Maux, 105; sculptured, 97; Tuc 
d'Audoubert, 101-4, % 3 8 - 

Blackie, John Stuart, translation of 
Aeschylus, 16. 

Boat, 121, 122, 129, 145. 

Bone, for implements, 132, 134; Pilt- 
down industry, 64, 69. 

Borer, 50, 70; Foxhall, 51. 

Borreby, skull type, 139. 

Boucher de Perthes, 39; discovery of 
Chellean flints, 47. 

Boule, Marcellin, opinion of Piltdown 
fragments, 53. 

Brachycephaly, 138, 147; Bretoas, 163; 
Neolithic, 147, 169, 183. See Broad- 

Brain, illustrations, 81, 82; Neander- 
thal, 90; Stone Age, ix; study, vii; 
Trinil cast, $1. See Intelligence. 

Brain Capacity, 90; estimates, 67; Pilt- 
down, 53, 67; Trinil, 80, 82. 

Bramford, 23, 27, 32, 39, 72; Dawn 
Man, 32, 51, 79; quarry, fig. 10. 

Brenner Pass, 150. 

Bretons, 157, 163-5, && *>7\ Alpine ele- 
ment, 164; Asiatic descent, 163; 

broad-headedness, 163, 164; charac- 
teristics, 163-5. &* Brittany. 

Breuil, Henri, 94, 109; identification of 
flints, 49; illustrations, fig. 61 ; support 

Britain, 62, 150; Pliocene man, 49. See 
England, East Anglia, Great Britain. 

British Museum, 52, 59, 60. 

Britons, history, 25; original, 60. 

Brittany, 138, 154, 157-84; ethnology, 
163-5; geography, 164, 165; monu- 
ments, 166-84; religion, early, 166, 
modern, 159, 160; Ripley, 163-4. 

Broad-head, Alpine, 163; Breton, 163-4; 
Czechoslovakian, 67, 138; Palaeo- 
lithic, 67. See Brachycephaly. 

Broca, Cro-Magnon finds, 94; race eel- 
tique, 138. 

Bronze, 157, 177; in Europe, 174; use, 
169, 174. See Bronze Age. 

Bronze Age, 121, 123, 124, 125, 129, 139, 
X 49~53 157> 2.26; burials, 169; corre- 
lations, 183; chronology, 150, 153, 
158, 174; culture, 169, 174; flint ar- 
rows, 169; implements, 135; methods 
of working, 149, 150; ornaments, 150, 
fig. 62; survivals in Brittany, 1 60; 
tumuli, 182; utensils, 150-3, fig. 62. 

Brooks, William Keith, 13 Adaptations, 
13; nature versus nurture, 13, 14; 
study of Empedocles, 13. 

Browning, E. B., translation of Aeschy- 
lus, 1 6, 17. 

Brunhes, Jean, 103. 

Brunn, 95, 97. 

Bruno, Promethean type, 225. 

Bullen, Frank, on aquatic habits, 210-13. 

Burial, 118; antecedent period, 68; be- 
ginning of custom, 79, 90; Bronze 
Age, 150, 153, 157, 158, 169; crema- 
tion, 178, 181 ; Iron Age, 169; mounds, 
157, 176-82; Megalithic, 148; Nean- 
derthal, 93, 158; Neolithic, 147, 148, 
157, 158, 169, 176-8, 183. See Dolmen, 

Burkitt, volume, 97. 

Bury, rise of man, 219. 

C 237 


Busk, George, opinion of Foxhall jaw, ! 

Bushmen, 192. 

CABANE, 122, 133, fig. 61. 

Callais, 181, fig. 76. 

Cambrian, 25. 

Campignian, 120, 121, 140; canoes, 133; 
date, 123, 130; environment, 122; 
geographic areas, 122, 129; imple- 
ments, 122, 123, 133, 134, 144, figs- 5 6 > 
72; industry, 122, 123, 133, 134, H3- 

Canoe, log, 123, 133, 134* *44> % 6o - 

Cantabria, 98. 

Cap Blanc, sculpture, 87, 97, 98, 113, 

"7> fi g-46- . 

Capercaillie (tianu urogallus),!**. 

Capitan, Louis, support of Moir, 33. 

Carcassonne, 96. 

Carnac, 157-60, 166, 175, 176, 181, 182, 
fig. 75; possible Neolithic cemetery, 
182. See Brittany. 

Cartailhac, Emile, 101 ; stalactite cham- 
ber, 101, fig. 37- 

Cat, Wild, 144. 

Cattle, I43> X 47 , 

Caucasian Race, 201, 202, 206. 
Cave Life, 18, 226; spiritual influence, 

Om Period, 24, 89, 90, 93? beginning 
of burial custom, 79; effect on imagi- 
nation, 90, 93; man, 85-117; preced- 
ing climate, 79. 

Caves, 93, 96, 97> I0 5; * France > 
101-18. &* Grottoes. 

Celt, implement, 158, 181. 

Celtic, race, 164; speech, 158, 164, J77- 

Central Asia, theory of human origin, 
*3, 185, 187, 188, 191-8. See Asia, 

Cercus, capreofos, ebpbus, 143- 

Chaldea, 7, 124, 19*; Bronze Age, 154. 

Chalk Beds, Cretaceous, 28, 31; flint- 
bearing, 62. 

Chance, see Fortuity. 

Character, animal, human, viii; traits, 
viii, ix. 

Characters, 55; adaptive, transmission, 

9 ; human, recapitulation, 6. 

Chase, implements, 79; Stone Age, 206. 
Chateau Gaillard, fig. 65. 
Chelles, France, flint locality, 47' 
Chellean, 71 ; flints, 24, 51, 70, 75, 77, 79> 

fig. 25; industry, 39, 83; station, 68. 
Chillesford Sands and Clays, 28; con, 

tents, position, temperature, 31. 
Chimpanzee, 53, 56, 61, 81, 82. 
China, 192, 197; modern condition, 219; 
Ordos flints, 87;scientific thought, 187. 
Chloromelanite, 181, fig. 76. 
Chronology, 124, 125; Azilian, 123; 
Bronze Age, 150, 153; Boules fossil, 
53; Campignian, 123, fig. 52; geologic, 
154; Ice Age, 121, 137, see Glacial 
Age; Iron Age, 123; method of de- 
termination, 126; Moose Period, 140, 
Neolithic, 147, 148; Reindeer Period, 
123, 135; Stag Period, 144; Tarde- 
noisian, 123. &*Time Scale. 

Cists, Bronze Age, 153; Neolithic, 148, 
169, 183; stone, 124, 148, 153; wood, 

Citations, see Authors Cited. 

Civilization, 123; dawn, 125; develop- 
ment, 146; eastern influence, 183; 
migrations, 131, I49 J 53> *54> 1S7? 
Neolithic, 175; Roman, 158. 

Cliffs of Cromer, geological illustration, 
78; prehistoric records, 26. See 

Climate, 89, 90, 106; Age of Mammals, 
27; Asia, 123; early England, 48; East 
Anglia, 26, 27; effect, on dwelling, 89, 
on man, 122, 123, 195, 204, on imagi- 
nation, 90, on race (Bretons), 163-5, 
on religion, 157, 163; glacial, 131; 
Scandinavia, 136, 137; shell mound, 

Cockle (Cardium edu1e)> 145* 

Collyer, R. H., 40; biography, 41, 44; 
Foxhall jaw discovery, 40-4; vindi- 
cation by Moir, 44. 

Column, monolithic, 157. 

Comanchian, 25. 

Combarelles, grotto, 112. 

Conklin, rise of man, 219. 

Copenhagen, 134, fig. 51. 

Copper, Age, 123, 124, 129;^ in Asia, 154 

i: 338:1 


in Sweden, 153; poniard, 169. See 
Metals, Mining. 

Coprolite, excavations, 40, 41 ; in nodule 
bed and 1 6-foot level, 49; jaw, 40, 43. 

to* Foxhall Jaw. 

Core(s), 47* 49* 7 Foxhall quarry, 47. 

Coup depoing, 50, 70, 71, 93; Chellean, 
fig. 25; Cromer, fig. 24. 

Crag, deposits, 26, 28, 31; fossil jaw, 42, 
43. See Red Crag, Wey bourn Crag- 

Cremation, 153, 169, 178, 181. See 

Cretaceous, 25; Chalk beds, 28, 31, 33. 

Crete, 125, 157. 

Cro-Magnon, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 113, 
118, 123,131, 135, 137; brain size, 67; 
human fossils, 188; Mendelian law, 
95; physical characteristics, 95; race, 
*4 39> fig- 3 2 ? survival, 96. 

Cromer, 23, 27, 77, 87, 88, 89; flints, 24, 
*&> 34> 76, 79> fig- *4> * Giant Flints; 
Forest Bed, age, climate, synchronol- 
ogy, 3*. deposits, 28, 75, 76, 78; geol- 
ogy, 78; geography, 75; industry, 39, 
68, 76; man, 32; prehistoric records, 
26; race, 27, 39; workers, 87. 

Cromlechs, 175, 176, fig. 77. 

Crucuno, dolmen, fig. 66. 

Culture, Asiatic, 129; bronze, 150, 153; 
migrations, 149, I5> 1 53> *54> I57> 
170, figs. 61, 62; Minoan, 157; My- 
cenean, fig. 62; Neolithic, 169; Scan- 
dinavian, 129; symbolic transitions, 
158, 1 60. See Civilization. 

Cursorial Type, see Man. 

Cuvier, inspirer of Balzac, 15. 

Czechoslovakia Broad-head, 67, 138. 

DANUBE, 150. 

Darwin, 76, 187, 199; Empedocles, 13; 
inspirer of Tennyson, 15; opinion of 
Neanderthal man, 54; theories, 9. 

D'Ault du Mesnil, description of flints, 

Dawn Man, 24, 68, 72, 121, 187; an- 
tiquity, 71 ; Bramford, 32, 51 ; Central 
Asiatic prophecy, 188, 196-8; East 
Anglia, 21-84; flint quarry and fire- 
place, 44; limit of our knowledge, 40; 

our ancestor, 84; Piltdown, see Pilt- 
down Dawn Man; Trinil, see Trinil 
Dawn Man; vindication, 84; work- 
manship, 71. See Eoanthropus > Pithe- 

Dawn Stone Age, 23, 24, 25-72; flint 
localities, 27; in Europe, 187; man, 24. 

Dawn Stones, see Eoliths. 

Dawson, Charles, 59, 64, 65, 66, fig. 18; 
Piltdown discovery, 52, 55. 

D6chelette,J., 95, 96,98,166. 

Decoration, 153, 157; dolmen art, 170,. 
173, figs- 7> 7 J > 7*; Neolithic, 153. 

De Geer, Gerard, fig. 48; Scandinavian 
chronology, 124-6, 132, 154. 

Democritus, 6; fortuity, 14; Lange's at- 
tribution, 12; study of Empedocles, 


De Morgan, volume, 98. 

Denmark, 121, 124, 126, 129, 133, 134, 
!35> 136* X 4P fig- 5*; Bronze Age, 
148-54; Maglemose, 144-6; Moose 
Period, 140-4; Neolithic, 146-8; Shell 

. Mound Period, 144-6. 

Deposits, Crag, 26, 28, 31 ; geological di- 
vision, 28; North Sea, 28; sand and 
shell in England, 28. 

Design in Nature, 13; anatomical, 14. 

Designs, Art, 153, 170, 173, 183, figs. 70- 
2. See Art, Ornaments. 

Detritus Beds, Foxhall, 48; sub-Red 
Crag, 51. 

Devonian, 25. 

Dietrichj Professor, Trinil research, 83. 

Dinant, Belgium, Neanderthal locality, 


Dinaric Race, 138. 
Diodes, first anatomical writer, 10* 
Discoveries, 87, 182; anthropological 
goal, 84; Asia, 194-8; Bronze Age, 
178; Cro-Magnon, 94; Foxhall jaw, 
40-4; French archaeology, 87, 98-1 1 8 ; 
human fossils, in Europe, 188, in 
Palestine, 198; modern, 225; origin of 
man, 187; Neanderthal remains, 1885 
Piltdown, 55-9; prediction of large- 
brained Pliocene man, 40; rise of man, 
36, 71; Trinil, 79-82. See Megalithic 
Monuments, Moir. 

C 239 3 


Disharmony of face, 95. See Skull. j 

Dispersal, Distribution, see Migrations. 

Dissection, experiments of Alcmaepn, 
9; Greek experiments, TO; Sicilian 
School, 10. 

Divergence, racial, see Man. 

Divination, see Augury. 

Dog, 124, 144, 146; dog-whelk, 145. 

Dolmen, 124, 176, 178, figs. 65, 66, 71; 
architecture, 176-7; destruction, 176- 
81 ; excavation dates, 178: Gavr' Inis, 
170, 175, figs. 70, 71; meaning of 
Celtic names, 177-8; Neolithic, 1343 

i 4 8, 157, 169, 170, 175, fig. 71; Ol ; na - 

ments in, 177, fig. 76; preservation, 

177; Rondesec, 178. See Carnac, 

Dolichocephaly, 137, 13 8 ? Cro-Magnon, 

95; Mediterranean, 174; Neolithic, 

Domestication of Animals, 17, 125, 144, 

225; factor in human ascent, 18. 
Dordogne, 96, 98. 
Dover Cliffs, Chalk locality, 31. 
Downs, 64; Chalk Muffs, 62. 
Dubois, Eugen, 82; Trinil discovery, 


EARTH, estimated life-period, 23, 25; 
first life, 25. 

East Anglia, 21, 23, 27, 32, 61, 68, 72, 
79, 87, 89, 1 21; ancient climr.ce, 26, 
27; archaeological locality, 36; coast, 
27; historic interest, 25; research, 25. 

Egypt, 124, 125, 146, 166, 192; Bronze 
Age, 154; resemblance of temples and 
Breton menhirs, 166-70. 

Ehringsdorf, 23, 24, 79; man, 188. 

Elephant, 76, 83, ty-EIapbas mcridion- 
alis, 48. 

Elk, Period, 124; Scandinavian, 131, 
fig. 52. 

Elsenz River, 75. 

Elton, 62; description of Anderida 
Forest, 62. 

Empedocles, 15; adaptations, 13; for- 
tuity, i4;Lange, 12, 13; studies of the 
blood, 10; Zeller, 12. 

Engis, 95. 

England, 32, 39, 4*; ancient geography, 
26; anthropological research, 25; 
bronze in, 153; English Channel, 26; 
flint locality, 47; Neanderthaloids in, 
89; Red Crag climnte, 48; river ter- 
races, 48; Scandinavian culture in, 
150; Stone Age deposits, 63; subsi- 
dence of east coast, 28. See Britain, 
East Anglia, Great Britain. 
Engravers, Engraving, 87, 94, 109. See 

Art, Etching, Murals. 
Entene, Grotte, 105. 
Environment, 157; Breton, 163-5; ef - 
fect, on adaptations, 207-8, on devel- 
opment of man, 196, 206- 8, on dwell- 
ing, 122, on economic life, 131, 135, on 
religion, 174; menhirs, 166. 
Eoanlbrtipus, 51, 55, 60, 8i; antiquity, 
71 ; dawsoni, 64, fig. 18; discovery, 52; 
named, 36, 53; scientific opinion, 51- 
3; significance of name, 53. 
Eocene, 25. 
EolithicAge,24, 198. 
Eoliths, 23, 64, 69, figs. 17, 23. 
Eras, } see Ages. 
Etching, 109, no. 

Ethnological Society of London, 40, 42. 
Eugenics, 219-21. 
Eurasia, 122, 174. 
Euripides, vii, 4. 

Europe, 75, 88, 94, 122, 123, 124, 125, 
129, 132, 135, 138, 187; ancient geog- 
raphy, 26; development of art, 94; 
glacial stages, 31; human fossils, 188; 
modern brain size, 67; Neanderthals 
in, 88 ; origin of man, 1 87-90; Piltdown 
opposition, 56; western, 52. 
Excavations, Foxhall, 51; Moir's, 76; 

Piltdown, 56, 66. 

Exploration, 55, 121. See Discoveries, 

FALCONER, Hugh, opinion of Foxhall 

jaw, 43- 
Fauna, 89; human correlation, 193; 

Maglemose, 143, 144; Moose Period, 

143, 144; Pliocene, 48; temperate, 48. 

See animals under own name. 
Fertility, in hybrids, 200. 

n 240 3 


Fire, 36, 123, 135; cave burials, 93; dis- 
coverer, 17, 51; discovery, 18; factor 
in human ascent, 18; use, at Foxhall, 
47, in flint making, 51. 

Fireplace, 135; Foxhall, 44. 

Fish, Fishes, 25, 122, 145, 146. 

Flakes, see Flints. 

Flint Age, 226. 

Flint Implements, 77, fig. 23; Asia, X 97? 
Bronze Age, 169; ceremonial, 148; 
factor in mental development, ii; 
flakes, 47, 49, 70, 182; Foxhall, 33, 47, 
50; Kent's Cavern, fig. 25; kinds, 70, 
79; in 1 6-foot level, 49; indicative of 
racial similarity, 79; map of working 
area, 27; polished, 169, 170; Red Crag, 
36; uses, 70. 

Flint Industry, Cromer, 72, 76; floors, 
4 8-5i,76-8;Foxhall,49, 5o,7o;micro- 
flint, 122, 123, 125, 134, 144; Pilt- 
down, 64, 70; quarries, 44, 68; suc- 
cession, 39. 

Flint Workers, 23, 27, 121, 122, 125, 134; 
Belgium, 143; Bramford, 72; Cam- 
pignian, 121, 123; Denmark, 140; ex- 
planation of Foxhall sites, 50; fossil 
remains, 83; Foxhall, 40, 72; France, 
143; implements, 131, 132, 136, 147, 
148, see also Flint Implements; Pilt- 
down, 40, 72; sub-Red Crag, 40. 

Flints, 23, 36, 60, 61, 88, fig. 23; attrac- 
tion to early man, 31; Aurignacian, 
114, 117; chalk-borne, 62; Chellean, 
47, 83; China, 87; comparison, 68, 69, 
70; Cromer, 32, 72-9, see Giant Flints; 
East Anglian, 87; eoliths, 23; evidence 
of man's antiquity, 23, 36; examina- 
tion, 61 ; Foxhall, 32, 47, 51 ; LaQuina, 
88; minute, 132; Moir's discovery, 
32-9, 75; Mousterian, 87; Neander- 
thaloid, 87; Ordos, 87; Palaeolithic, 
64; Piltdown, 65; polished, 147,. 148; 
Red Crag, 31, 50, 51; relative age of 
Foxhall and Chellean, 47 ; rostrate, 77, 
see Rostro-Carinates; significance of 
East Anglian discovery, 23; unpol- 
ished, 148. See Sub-Red Crag. 
Floor, flint-working, 77, 78 ; Cromer, 76; 

Foxhall, 48, 49; Sheringham, 76; sub- 
mergence, 50-1. 

Font-de-Gaume, figs. 32, 61. 

Food, 122, 145, 146; effect, on develop- 
ment of man, 196, 205-7, on religion, 
205; of primitive man, 195. See 

Forbin, illustrations, figs. 69, 75. 

Forest Bed, 32, 78; Cromer, 75, 76, 78. 

Forests, 62, 89, 122, 134, 144; effect on 
man, 195. 

Formations, see Deposits. 

Fortuity, Democritus, 14; Empedocles, 
14; Greek thought, 14. 

Fossil, Fossils, 55, 56; anatomy, viii; 
animals, 76; bone, 49; Cromerian, 26, 
75; Foxhall jaw, 40-4; Heidelberg 
jaw, 79; man, vii, 53, (Europe, Pales- 
tine) 188, (China) 197; Neanderthal, 
53; Palaeolithic, 188; Piltdown, 51-2, 
55, 56, 59, 60, 64, 66; Scandinavian 
skulls, 139; skull resemblance, 72; 
Trinil, 80, 82. 

Foxhall, 23, 24, 27, 72, 76; discovery 40, 
68; industry, 68; levels, 48-9; 'man, 
32, 39, 51, 7 2 > 79> 8 3> *3 2 ; quarry, 48, 
65, fig. 1 1. 

Foxhall Flints, 24, 26, 61, 65, 69, 71; 
age, 34, 40, 47> 7 1 ? comparison with 
Piltdown, 70; correlation, 51 ; descrip- 
tion, 51; evidence of Tertiary man, 
36; illustration, 50; locality, 47> 4 8 ; 
manufacture, 51; varieties, 51. 
Foxhall Jaw, 68; age, 44; animal con- 
temporaries, 44; chemical analysis, 
43; comparison, 44; depth of quarry, 
42; description (Collyer), 40-4; his- 
tory, 41-4; illustration, 41; locality, 
49; scientific opinion, 42-4; shape, 43. 
France, 39, 42, 51, 68, 76, 83, 87, iai, 
122, 123, 124, 125, 129, 134, 136, 138, 
145, 146, 174; anthropological re- 
search, 25 ; flint locality, 47 ; Neander- 
thaloids in, 89, 97, 98; racial deple- 
tion, 219; river terraces, 48; sculpture, 
97; Stone Age deposits, 63. 

GALEN, first 'modern' anatomist, 10. 


Galcha, ethnology, 138. 

Galilee, 87; skull, 197, 198. 

Galileo, 225. 

Gallery, 170, 175, 176, 183, figs. 68, 70; 
galerie couverte, 183. See Gavr'Inis. 

Galles, Rene*, tumuli excavation, 182. 

Gavr'Inia, 170, 173, 178, 183, figs. 68, 

Geikie, Sir Archibald, 27; East Anglian 
geology, 27, 28. 

Gems, amber, 149; agate, callais, 
chloromelanite, quartz, 181* fig. 76; 
jadite, 169. 

Geochronology, 126. 

Germany, 39, 129, 138, 148; Neander- 
thaloids, 89; scientific opinion, 53. 

Giant Flints of Cromer, character, 75; 
conjectural use, 77; geologic age, 75, 
77 ? geographic locality ,75 ; Heidelberg 
race, 76; industrial 'floors,' 76;-Lan- 
kester's description, 77 ; origin, 77, 78 ; 
possible Neanderthal handiwork, 78- 
9; resemblance, 75, 79; scientific sup- 
port, 76; significance of discovery, 75, 
78; speculation, 76. 

Gibraltar Man, brain size, 67; skull, 54. 

Girgenti, see Agrigentum. 

Glacial Period, Glaciation, 39, 89, 124, 
125, 126; deposits, 28; First, 31, 36, 
72, 78; Fourth, 79, 90, 131, 135, fig. 
51; glaciations i-rv, 24, 32; Intergla- 
cial, First, Third, 24, 31, 53, 63, 75, 78, 
87; North America, 126; pre-glacial, 
24; records, 89; Sweden, 126, 129, 145; 
Third, 89, 90. 

Glaciers, 126; invasion of Europe, 39, 
75; prehistoric chronology, 121. 

Gold, Bronze Age, 153; Neolithic orna- 
ment, 169, 177, 178. See Metals, Min- 

Grain, 147, 170. 

Grand Pressigny, 1 82. 

Gravel, 66; Foxhall pit, 49; Quaternary 
beds, 48; Piltdown, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 

Graves, Bronze Age, 153; Megalithic, 
148; passage, 124, 148. to Tomb. 

Great Britain, 52, 75, 78, 187; archaeo- 

logical site, 36. to Britain, England. 

Greece, Greeks, 124; adumbration of 
Lamarckian hypothesis, n, 12; fore- 
sight of rise of man, 1-19; study of 
human origin, 3-19; temperament, 6. 

Gregory, William K., 66, 202. 

Grimaldi,97, 117; race, 117. 

Grottoes, Altamira,98 ;Combarelles, 112; 
Enlene, 105; Font-de-Gaume,figs.32, 
61; Grimaldi, 117; Laussel, 93, 97, 
113-17, fig. 44; Le Moustier, fig. 30; 
Lourdes, 97, in, fig 43; Martin- 
Rive, 133. See Trois Frres, Tuc 

HABIT, HABITS, vii; animal, 207, 218; 
aquatic, 204, 209-13, fig. 81 ; arboreal, 
197, 204, 205, 213-15, fig. 82; curso- 
rial, 204-6, fig. 80; effect of environ- 
ment, 131; influence, on acquired va- 
riations, 208, 209, figs. 82, 83, on 
races and species, 204-8, secular, 204; 
Lamarck's theory, 206, 207; squat- 
ting, 187, 216-18; terrestrial, 205, 208, 
209. to Man. 

Hacbe, 134; Neolithic, 169, 173, 182, 
fig. 73; origin, fig. 73. 

Haeckel, Ernst, 6. 

Hamal-Nandrin, Dr., 133, 

Hammer-stones, 70, 71. 

Hamy, 94, 95. 

Hand Axe, see Coup depoing. 

Hand, Human, coordination with mind, 
II; Anaxagoras* theory, n; Aris- 
totle's theory, n; Stone Age use, n. 
to Man. 

Hand Stone, 71. 

Harpoons, bone, 134, i43> fig- 57; 
wooden, 144. 

Hawaiians, 203; amphibious life, 209- 

Heidelberg, 23, 24, 89; jaw, 79; man 
(race) 27, 39, 87, 89, 188, 195. 

Hellman, Piltdown studies, 66. 

Heredity, acquired characters, 14, 206; 
effect on adaptations, hand and mind, 
12; Greek theories; 9; predispositions 
coinciding with habits, 206. 

Herophilus, anatomical treatise, 10. 



Hides, implements for dressing, 132, 
134, 143; use for houses, 122. 

Hipparion, Red Crag, 48. 

Hippocrates, anatomical treatises, 10. 

Hippopotamus, 48, 64, 83, 89. 

Hitchcock, volume, 209. 

Holocene Period, 196. 

Homeland of Man, see Origin of Man. 

Homo, 78; dawsoni, 53; beidettergensis, 
87; natural selection, 213; sapiens, 53, 
54, 200, 201, africanus, 201, asiaticus, 
2OT, europaeus, 201-4. 

Hooton, Cro-Magnon studies, 101. 

Hornaday, William T., ix. 

Horse, Celtic, 109, no, fig. 46; domesti- 
cated, 147; effect of habit, 218; Neo- 
lithic, 178; Pliocene, 48; sculpture, 
97, 109, 1 17, fig. 41; true, 48. See Hip- 


Hrdli5ka,Ales,i8 9 . 

Human, see Industries, Man, Origin of 

Man, Races, Species, Types. 
Hunter, Hunting, 122, 125, 131, 134* 

136, 137, 146. See Chase, Fauna. 
Huxley, 42; opinion, of Collyer's dis- 

covery, 42-3, of Neanderthal man, 54. 
Hybrids, human, 95, 203. 
Hypotheses, ape-ancestry, 84; geograph- 

ic origin of man, 187-98. 

ICE AGE, 24, 106, 201. See Glacial Period. 

Imagination, 90, 93; effect, of cave life, 
87, of climate, 90. 

Implements, 87, 88, 90, 93, 106, 114; 
axe, 121, 133, 134, 169, 170,figs. 56, 73 ; 
bone, 66, 132, 134, 136, 143, fig. 23; 
bronze, 135, 170; Campignian* 144; 
celt, 158, 177, 181; ceremonial, 176; 
flint, 69, 124, 132, 147, 148, I97> fig* 
23, see Flint Implements, Flints; ge- 
ometric flints, 132; hache, see Axe; 
horn, 148; lance, 143, 169; Neolithic 
type, 147, 148; poniard, 169; stone, 
primitive, 31, polished, 125, fig. 56; 
transitional type, 144; workmanship, 
169. See Coup depoing, pic, trancbet. 

India, 139, 192. 

Indians, North American, fig. 50. 

Industries, Human, 24, 71, 187; bronze, 

123; Campignian, 123; copper, 123; 
Cro-Magnon, 93; flint, see Flint Im- 
plements, etc.; iron, 123; Magdaleni- 
an, 123-5; Neanderthal, 93* 

Inge, rise of man, 219. 

Intelligence, Human, 12, 19; effect of 
environment, 196, 206. 

Interglacial, see Glacial Periods, etc. 

Invention, 18, 132. 

Ionian Philosophy, 4, 9. 

Ipswich, 23, 27, 32, 39, 40, 44, 47- See 

Iranian Plateau, 169. 

Iron Age, 124, 125, 129, 139, *S> *** 
culture, 169; tombs, 169. See Metals, 

Isolation, Neolithic, 170; racial effect 
(Bretons), 163, 164, 165. 

Italy, 97, 138- 

JADITE, 181; haches, 176; ornaments, 
169, fig. 76. 

Java, 23, 32, 67, 79, 80, 82; ape-man, 54; 
Dawn Man, Pithecanthropus, 189, sur- 
vival, 83. 

Jaw, fossil human, see Foxhall Jaw; Pilt- 
down, 53, 56, 61,6^,66,72. 

Job, comparison with Aeschylus, 7; 
natural philosopher, 7; prototype of 
Milton, 7; special creation, 7. 

Johansen, Friis, 134* 140- 

Jurassic, 25. 

KAHONOMOKU, Duke, aquatic type, fig. 


Keith, Arthur, Piltdown brain size, 67. 
Keller, Charles, fig. 72. 

Kent, 32; Kent's Cavern (flints), fig. 25- 
Kercado, 178, 181, 182. 
Knight, Charles, murals, figs. 30, 31, 49- 
Korea, megalithic monuments, 174- 



Lalanne, Gaston, 114, "7s "8, figs. 44, 



Lamarck, 8; antiquity of doctrine, 13, 
14; direct inheritance, 206; Lamarck- 
Spencer, inheritance of adaptations, 

Lance, bone, 143; Bronze Age, 169. 

Lane, Sir Arbuthnot, anatomy of tailor, 

Language, 15; Celtic survival in Brit- 
tany, 158, 164, 177; factor in human 
ascent, 1 8; rise, 18. 

Lankester, Sir E. Ray, 65, fig. 4; Cromer 
flints, 76; definition of rostro-cari- 
nates, 35 ; support of Moir, 32. 

La Quina, 88, 93; brain size, 67; man, 
1 88. 

Laussel, 93, 97, 1 13 ; rock shelter, fig. 44; 
sculptures, 87, 113-17, 118, figs. 44-6. 

Lawrence, Sir William, 8. 

Lazear, Dr., Promethean type, 225. 

Leidy, Joseph, human origin, 191. 

Le Moustier, 178, 181, 182, 197, fig. 30. 

Le Rouzic, Zacharie, 159, 160, 169, 173, 
182, 1 83, figs. 70, 72. 

Licent, Pere, Ordos discovery, 197. 

Limhamn, 134, fig. 51. 

Linders, F. J., 94, 138, *39- 

Linnaeus, Carl, 53, 200, 201, 203. 

Literature, 18, 226; factor in human as- 
cent, 1 8. 

Littorina Period, Scandinavian, 145. 

Localities, 24, 25; archaeological, 36, 40, 
93, 96, 97> I2 4> I2 5> X 78; Bronze Age, 
124,159, 160, i78;Chalk,3i;flint,2i, 
a 3> 2 7> 39> 47> 68, 122, 123, 132; fossil, 

derthal, 93, 198; Palaeolithic, 94, 96- 
102, 113-17, 122, 124, 188, 197. Set 

Lockyer, Sir Norman, Stonehenge 
studies, 175. 

Locmariaquer, figs. 64, 69. 

Locomotion, effect on limb structure, 
208, 209; effect on human type, 
aquatic 204, 209-13, fig. 81, arboreal 
213-18, cursorial 204-6, fig. 80, ter- 
restrial 205, 208, 209; influence of 
quest for food, 206; Pithecanthropus 
erectus, 8x. 

London; 27; Vimes, Foxhall discoveries, 


Lourdes, 97; sorcerer, in, fig. 43. 

Lower Cretaceous Age, 60, 63. 

Lower Palaeolithic, flint industry, 71. 

Lower Pleistocene, 47, 76. 

Lowie, Robert, anthropological studies, 

Lucretius, 3. 

Lundborg,H., 94, 138,139. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, 42; opinion of Nean- 
derthal man, 54. 

MAODALENIAN, 95, no, 117, 122, 123, 
125, 131, 134; art, 24; industry, 39. 

Magic, 93, HI, 112. 

Maglemose, culture, 124; fauna, 143, 
fig. 52; implements, 134, 144, H5> 
industry, 134, 144? meaning, 140; 
site, 146. 

Mammal, deposits, 75; life, 48, 76. See 
Age of Mammals. 

Mammoth, no, fig. 33; southern, 48. 

Man, vii, ii; antiquity, 23, 24, 36, 71, 
72, 84; Bramford, 5 1 ; cave, 85-9; foot- 
prints, 105; fossil, 25; Foxhall, 51; 
handiwork, 26, 69, 111-13, see Archi- 
tecture, Art, Flints; in Age of Mam- 
mals, 24, 71, 83; manual skill, n, 12; 
'modern' Neanderthal, 53; physical 
characters, 196, 202-4, 207; Pliocene^ 
26, 39, 40; pre-cave, 79; scientific 
names, 53, 82; sculptured, 97, 114, 
fig. 45; skeletal characters, 214, 216- 
18; Stone Age, 76; Trinil, 23, 32, 54- 
5, 67, 80, 82-4, 189, 195; types, 163-5, 
187, 190, 209-18. See Adaptations 
Anatomy, Brain, Burial, Dawn Man, 
Habits, Implements, Origin, Race, 
Rise of Man, Species. 

Man-apes, 83. See Ape-man. 

Man6-er-H'roek, 178, 181, fig. 71. 

Marr, J. E., visit to Foxhall, 48. 

Marsille, Louis, 169, 183. 

Martin-Rive, Grotte de, 133. 

Mastodon, 64, 66, 76; arvernensts, 76; 
Pliocene, 48; remains, 61. 

Mathematics, 16, 18; factor in human 
ascent, 1 8. 



Matthew, W. D., human origin, 191-3. 

Mauer, sands, 76. 

McGregor, J. Howard, brain models, 80, 

82; Piltdown opinion, 66, 67, fig. 17. 
Medicine, discovery, 17, 19; Egyptian, 
knowledge, 10; factor in human as- 
cent, 18; Greek practice, 10; Sicilian 
School, 10. 
Mediterranean, region, 148; Sea, 139; 

trade, 121,150. 

Mediterranean Race, 24, 138, 139, H9> 
1 57 Agriculture, 174; characters, 139; 
range, 139; response to climate, 204; 
survival in Brittany, 163, 164, fig. 66. 
Megalithic, burial chambers, 148 ; monu- 
ments, 157, 158, 166-84, figs. 66, 68- 
72, 75, 77; ornaments, fig. 76. 
Memory, 1 6, 1 8. 

Mendelism, shown by Cro-Magnons, 95. 
Menec, Alignements du, fig. 75. 
Menhirs, 157; architecture, 166, 170; 

Locmariaquer, fig. 69. 
Menzic, Archibald, 209, 210. 
Mesolithic Period, 121, 123, 140-6. 
Mesopotamia, 125, 187; Book of Job, 7. 
Mesozoic, 25. 

Metals, 24; culture period, 169; discov- 
ery of use, 17, 19; factor in human 
ascent, 18; tools, 145. See Bronze, 
Copper, etc. 
Micro-flints, 122, 123, 125, 131, 132, 

134, 144. See Tardenoisian. 
Microliths, 134, 144- &" Tardenoisian. 
Migrations, 24; animal, 131, 135, I37> 
figs. 31, 33; culture, 121, i49> I 5-4, 
157, 170; industries, 131; man, 123, 
131, 132, 164, 190, 191, 192, 196, 199, 
202; plant, 137, 170. 
Milton, John, 7. 

Mind, 19, 226; Anaxagoras, 12; coordi- 
nation with, hand, 1 1 ; Lloyd Morgan, 
12; reason, 18. 

Mining, 121, 145; copper, 153; discov- 
ery, 19; factor in human ascent, 18; 
flint, 182; Neolithic, 181, 182. See 

Minoan Architecture, 157. 
Miocene, 25. 
Mississippian, 25. 

Modification, skeletal, 218. 

Moir, J. Reid, 70, 71, figs. 5, 10,11; age, 
of Foxhall, 48, of Piltdown man, 36; 
archaeological discoveries, 32-79; 
Collyer's discovery, 40-4; compari- 
son of flints, 69; Cromer, 72, 75; Fox- 
hall investigation, 47, 51 ; judgment of 
Red Crag flints, 32; Lankester's sup- 
port, 76; Piltdown geology, 69; 
rostro-carinates, 35, 36; scientific op- 
position, 32-3; i6-foot level, 49? vin " 
dication of Collyer, 44; volumes, 36, 

Molluscs, 122, 135; Chillesford, Nor- 
wich, Red Crag, 31. 

Mongolia, 122, 194, 195; Acheulean in, 
198; Eoiithic in, 198; hypothetical 
homeland of man, 187, 194-6; prob- 
able Neanderthal man, 198; race, 202, 

Mongoloid Races, 95. 

Monoliths, 157. 

Montelius, Oscar, fig. 48; Scandinavian 
chronology, 124, 126, 145* J 47> *54t 
Scandinavian prehistory, 136, 137, 

144, 149-53, figs- 57> 62 - 
Mont Saint-Michel, 178, 181, 182. 
Monument, 78. See Dolmen, Megalithic, 

Menhir, Obelisk, Temple, Tumuli. 
Moose, 131, H3> J 44, fig- 5 2 ? Peri d > 

121,124,140. m . 

Morbihan, archaeological society, 177; 

Saxon colony, 165 ; site of monuments, 

159,166,170, 1 83, fig. 68. 
Morgan, Lloyd, 98 ; coincident selection, 

204; emergence, 12. 
Morton, craniologist, 44. 
Mound, Shell, 124, 144, H5> J 4 6 > % 5 2 - 
Mousterian, 87, 93, 129; age in China, 

197; flint implements, 24, 51, 79, 87, 

198; industry, 39, 198. 
Muller, Promethean type, 225. 
Mullerup, 124, 140, fig. 51. 
Murchison, Roderick, geologist, 42. 
.Museums, archaeological at Vannes, 

fig. 65; Copenhagen, 143; J* Miln, 

159, 183; National of Sweden, 147; 

Saint Germain, 189; Stockholm, 148* 

fig. 62. 

C 245 


Mussel (Myiilis edulis), 145. 

Mutation, 'see Fortuity. 

Mycenae Culture, fig. 62; influence in 

Europe, 183. 
Mysticism, 173, 177, 178. 
Myth, ape-ancestral, 84. 
Mythology, connected with dolmens, 

177, 178; Swedish, 147- 

NATURAL CAUSATION, Aristotle, 14. 

Nature, 225; influence on Breton art, 

Navigation, 121, 122; discovery, 17, 19; 
factor in human ascent, 18; Saxon, 

Neanderthal, 23; brain size, 67; empire, 
88; Gibraltar skull, 54; man, 53, 54; 
Spy, 54. 

Neanderthal(oid) Race(s), 23, 24, 39, 
78, 87, 88, 89, 93, 121, 129, 136, fig. 
30; authentic evidence, 79; Ehrings- 
dorf, 1 88; first traces, 79; Gibraltar, 
1 88; Heidelberg, 75, 188; human fos- 
sils, i88;LaFerrassie, i88;LaQuina, 
1 88; no ape evidence, 214; possible in 
China, 197; spiritual influence of cave 
life, 79; Spy, 188; Taubach, 188; 
Trinil resemblance, 82. 

Necklace, callais, 182; gold, 169; jadite, 
169; Neolithic semi-precious stones, 

Negritos, 192. 

Negroid Race, 201, 203; physical adap- 
tations, 207. 

Nelson, Nels C, 197. 

Neolithic Age, 24, 121, 123, 124, 125, 
129, 145, 146, fig. 49; art, 24; chronol- 
ogy, 147, 148, 158, 166, 176; civiliza- 
tion in Europe, 189; correlation, 181; 
cultures, 169; dolmen, 134, 169, 175- 
82; gems, 169, 181; implements, 60, 
147, 148, 169; in Sweden, 139, 146-8; 
Lower Period, 139; ornaments, 169, 
181; pottery, 169; racial mentality, 
*73> l8 3; religion, 174, see Sun-wor- 
ship. See Acheulean, Dolmen. 

New Stone Age, 125, 129, 133, 134, 140, 
157, 1 88, fig. 49. See Neolithic. 

Niaux, 105, 109. 

Nodule, 70; bed, 50; core, 71; Foxhall, 

49; Red Crag, 47' 
Nomads, life, 89; tents, 122, 123. 
Nordic Race, 24, 94, 129, 137, 138* *39> 

149, 164, 203, fig. 49; characters, 138, 

204; in Germany, 219; Homo sapiens 

europaeus nordicus, 203; Norman 

type, 165. 

Norfolk, 32, 39, 75, 76. 
Normandy, 164, 165. 
North America, 52; migration of man, 

192; survival of Stone Age, fig. 50. 
North Down, Chalk bluffs, 62. 
North Sea, 27, 140, 150; effect on flint 

industry, 50; flint-working area, 48. 
Norwich, 27; Crag, 28, 31. 
Nurmi, Paavo, cursorial type, fig. 80. 

OBSERVATION, 18; factor in human as- 
cent, 18. 

Ofhet, Broadheads, 67, 95; brain size, 

Old Stone Age, 23, 24, 72, 123, 125, 129, 
I33> !3 6 > J 39> HO, 143, H6, 150; flint 
industry, 71, 122; food, 206; in 
Europe, 187, 204. SV* Palaeolithic. 

Ordos, 197; flints, 87, 197. 

Ordovician, 25. 

Orient, 124, 125; human origin, 6, 187; 
migration of culture, 170; spirit, 6. 
See Asia. 

Origin of Life, Anaxagoras, 12; earth 
life-period, 25; Greek speculation, 
5-9; Italian speculation, 9; Lloyd 
Morgan, 12; mechanistic explanation, 
9; oriental explanations, 6, 7. 

Origin of Man, 82; ancestral myth, 84; 
anatomical evidence, 188, 215; arbo- 
real, 213 ; eastern thought, 1 87 ; effects 
of environment, 196; geographic the- 
ories, 187-98, 202; Greek study, 3-19; 
hybrids, 95, 203; mythology, 4; natu- 
ralistic, 4; special creation, 7, 200. See 
Hrdlifcka, Leidy, Matthew, Osborn, 
Quatrefages, Reinach. 

Ornament, 150, 153, 178, fig. 6i; on 
stone, 170, 173, figs. 68, 70-2, 76. See 
Art, Amulet, etc. 

IT 246;] 


Osborn, H. F., fig. 10; origin of man 
faith, 213, 215, hypotheses, 213-18 
patronymics, 121; Piltdown scepti 
<& m > S 6 > 59 61, 72;prophecy, 40, 188 
rise of man, 24, 208; support of Moir 
32, 33; volumes, 7, 13, 15, 72, 80, 131 

^ J 95> 213. 

Ostro-Slavic Race, 203. 

Ouse River, 61, 62, 68, 69; geology, 63 
research, 25. 

Owen, Richard, 42. 

Oyster (Ostrea eduUs\ 145. 

O, 87, 94, 98, 109, in, 
122, figs. 30-3, 40. 
Palaeantbropus, 78. 

Palaeogeography, 140, 
Palaeolithic 2 

lithic, 24, 98, 123, 125; flints, 64; 
Upper, 67. 
Palaeozoic, 25. 
Palestine, 87, 187; Neanderthal race, 

r> 197 ' 

Pangenesis, Darwinian term, 9; theory 

of heredity, 9. 

Papuan, brain size, 67. 

Parks, W. A., time scale, 25. 

Parnassus, 185, 226; abode of Muses, 4; 
first steps to, 187; man's rise, vii, 4, 

Patronymics, 121. 

Peat, bogs, 140; stations, 144. ^Mag- 

Pennsylvanian Period, 25. 


Periods, geologic, 25, 121, 123, 136, 140, 
I45;p*e-burial,68. to* Ages. 

Permian, 25. 

Perry, Edward D., vii. 

Philosophy, Greek, 4-19; Ionian, Italo- 
Sicilian, 9. 

Phoenicia, influence in Europe, 183, 

Pic, Pick-axe, 121, 122, 123, 133, 134, 
140, 143, 145, 146, 148, fig. 56. 

Piltdown, 23, 24, 72, 79; chronology of 
discovery, 63-6; Common, 62; con- 
firmation of discovery, 56, 59; fauna, 
64; flint industry, 68-72; flint workers, 
40; flints, 65, 69, 70, 71 ; fossils, 60, 64, 
fig. 17, see Piltdown Skull; geology, 

69; geography, 68; gravels, 55, 56, 59, 
60, 62, 64, 65, 70; locality, 27, 55, 62, 
fig. 18; man, see below; race, 27, 195; 
research, 63-6; sketch of scene, 64. 
Piltdown Dawn Man, 32, 39, 51, 65, 83, 
132, 1 88, 195; authenticity, 72; brain 
size, 67, 68; burial, 61-6; contempo- 
rary of Foxhall man, 51; hypotheses, 
36, 83; resemblance of jaw, 56; scep- 
ticism, 56, 59-61 ; scientific name, 36, 
53; scientific opinion, 53-5; second 
discovery, 59, 66; vindication, 59, 60, 
72. See Eoantbropus. 
Piltdown Skull (and Jaw), 41, 65, 66, 
figs. 17, 23; brain size and weight, 
66-8; reconstruction, 66-8; relation, 
6i; resemblance, 72; scientific discus- 
sion, 66. 

Pithecanthropus erectus, 189; affiliation, 
79, 81-2; age, 79, 83; brain size, 67, 
81-2; discovery, 79-83; illustration, 
80; misnamed, 82; potency. 84. See 
Trinil Dawn Man. 
Plains, 24, 79, 89. 
Pkteau, 24, 79; Iranian, 169. 
Plato, inheritance of acquired charac- 
ters, 14; study of Empedocles, 13. 
Pleistocene, 24, 25, 32, 39, 71, 72; de- 
posits, 28; history of man, 36; Lower, 
47; mid-, 47. 
Pliocene, 24, 25, 32, 4 8, 60, 71, 72; cli- 
mate of East Anglia, 26; Crag depos- 
its, 31; Cromer, 26; Dawn Man, 51; 
deposits, 28; English geography, 26; 
fauna, 48; Foxhall, 44, 48; man, 36, 
39-40, 49> 83; Piltdown, 63, 64, 
69; Upper, 23, 39, 47> 63, 71. 
Point SoufHeur, 105,106. 
Pointe (flint point), 50, 51, 144, 
Polybus, anatomical treatises, 10. 
Polygenism, 190. 
Poniard, 169, fig. 57. 
Posture, influence on skeleton, 187, 208, 

Pottery, 124, 135, fig, 49; bronze, 150; 

Neolithic, 146, 147, 148, ^ 
Precambrian, 25. 

Pre-Chellean, 71; flints, 24, 65, 70, 75, 
79; industry, 39. 


Prehistory, 91, 47; Burkitt, 98; geologi- 
cal records, 26; modern discovery, 
225; man of, vii, viii. See Discoveries, 

Pre-Palaeolithic Man, 69; Moir's vol- 
ume, 34, 36. 

Prestwich, discovery of Foxhall Jaw, 42 ; 
support of De Perthes, 42. 

Pro-man, Trinil, 82. 

Prometheus, 15-17, 225; Promethean, 
conquest of Nature, 226, order of ben- 
efactors, 225; "Prometheus Bound," 
citations, 2, 16, 17, 22, 86, 120, 156, 
1 86, 225, contrasted with Job, 7. 

Pyrenees, 96, 98, in, 121, 131. 

QUARTZ, 1 8 1, fig. 76. 

Quaternary, 25, 32, 36, 39 ; Age of Man, 
27; age of Trinil man, 79; Foxhall, 48; 
possible human type, 71. 

Quatrefages, Armand de, 94, 218; his- 
tory of man, 199, 200; human migra- 
tion, 190, 191; opinion of Foxhall jaw, 

Quekett, examination of Foxhall jaw, 

Quiberon, 178,6^.63. 

RACE(S), 24, 71, 79, 80, 157, 187; Alpine, 
138, 163, 164? Breton, 163-4; brain 
estimates, 67; causes of divergences, 
187, 204-8; Celtic, 164; Cro-Magnon, 
9~5> % 3*? Cromer, 27, 32, 39, 77, 
78; Dexrhelette, 166; Dinaric, 138; 
East Baltic, 138; effect of environ- 
ment, 195-7, 206-8, of habit, 204-18; 
Ehringsdorf, 87; eugenics, 219-21; 
European, 187, 201, 203-4; existing, 
199; Galcha, 138; Grimaldi, 117; Hei- 
delberg, 27, 39, 87, 89, 1 88, 195; intel- 
lectual significance, 199; Krapina, 87; 
Mediterranean, 138, 139, 163, fig. 66; 
migrations, 131-7, 190-2, 199; named 
by Linnaeus, 53, 201, 203: Neander- 
thal (oid), see under Neanderthal; 
Nordic, see under Nordic; origin, 198- 
200, see Origin of Man; Piltdown, see 
Eoantbropus, Piltdown Dawn Man; 
political significance, 199; pre-Dar- 

winian problem, 187, 198; primary, 
200-4; psychology (Brittany), 158- 
60; Scandinavian, 125-6, 137, 203; 
succession, 39; survival, 88-9; Swed- 
ish, 137-9; Tasmanian, 89; Trinil, see 
Pithecanthropus, Trinil Dawn Man; 
varieties in prehistoric Europe, 188. 
See Homo, Man, Species. 

Rtcloir, 50, 93, fig. 23; Mousterian, 51^ 

Reason, 16, 18. 

Recent Period, 24, 25, 48. 

Red Crag, 28, 32, 50; age, 48; chemical 
analysis of fossils, 43; climatic 
changes, 48; composition, 31; con- 
tents, 31 ; fauna, 33, 64; flints, 31, 50, 
51; 'floor,' 48; Foxhall depth, 48; 
geography, 49; nodule-bed, 47; posi- 
tion, 31. See Sub-Red Crag. 

Reed, Promethean type, 225. 

References, Literary, Anaximander, 5; 
Aristotle, 15; Boule, <3; British Geo- 
logical Survey, 47; Brooks, 13; Burk- 
itt, 98; Collyer, 40; Darwin, 54, 199; 
Dawson-Woodward, 52; Dechelette, 
96, 98; De Geer, 126; de Morgan, 98; 
Elton, 62; Geikie, 27; Huxley, 42, 54; 
Johansen, 140; Lamarck, 8; Lankes- 
ter, 76; Lawrence* 8; Leidy, 191; Le 
Rouzic, 1 60; Linnaeus, 200; Lucre- 
tius, 3; Lundborg-Linders, 94, 138; 
Lyell, 42; Matthew, 191 ; Moir, 34, 36, 
40, 69; Nelson, i97;Osborn, 7, 13, 15, 
72, 80, 131, 195, 213; Quatrefages, 
190, 199; Ripley, 163, 164; Singer, 8, 
10; Smith, 33, Stockis,fig. 70; Thomp- 
son, 5, 10; Thomson, 2o8;Treviranus, 
8; Woodward, 56. 

Reinach, Salomon, 189. 

Reindeer, implements, 124, 136, fig. 52; 
Period, 121, 123, 125, 129, 133, 135, 
140, fig. 61 ; sculpture, 97, 109, fig. 41. 

Religion, development in Scandinavia, 
147; early, 4, in, 112, 154, fig. 43; ef- 
fects of climate, 163; immortality, 
147; influence, on architecture, 157, 
on art, 173; relation to trade, 150; 
sun-worship, 147, 148, 154, 157-84; 
survivals, 160. See Magic, Mysticism. 

Renaissance, Arab, 6. 



Research, 24; dissection, 9; fossil result 
68; Greek, 1-19; oriental inertia, 6, 7 
Piltdown, 55-^> 6 3-8;Trinil, 79-80, 83. 
See De Geer, Le Rouzic, Moir, Mon- 
Rhinoceros, 6 4? 89; Etruscan, 76. 
Ripley, W. Z., on Bretons, 163, 164. 
Rise of Man, Rise to Parnassus, vii, viii, 
ix > 7>^9> 218, 226; archaeological dis- 
coveries, 36; Bury, 219; comparison 
with physical advance, 226; Conklin, 
219; eugenics, 219-21; factors, 18, 19; 
forecast by Aeschylus, 16-19; fossil 
evidence, vii; Greek foresight, 1-19; 
Inge, 219; oriental study, 6; Osborn, 
chart, 24, theory, 208; result of recent 
discovery, 71. 
River, drifts, 24, 79; terraces, 24, 4 8, 63, 

79> 89. See rivers by name. 
Roe, horn implements, 143; Pliocene, 

Roman, legions in Britain, 25; province 

in Brittany, 158. 

Rostro-carinates, 24, 32, 33, 70, 72, 77; 
British Museum exhibit, 33; defined 
by Lankester, 35; description, 33, 34; 
Foxhall, 51; geologic position, 34; 
ideal form, 35; method of fashioning, 
34-5; Moir's theory and interpreta- 
tion, 35-6; relative age, 34; scientific 
opposition and acceptance, 33. See 

SAMPSON, ALDEN, animal diet, 207. 

Sarauw, archaeologist, 140. 

Savoy, 163, 164. 

Saxon, colony, 165; race, 164. 

Scandinavia, 89, 90; ancient trade, 150- 
4, 1.74; Bronze Age, 148-53; Cam- 
pigman industry, 133, 134, 135; chro- 
nology of cultures, 123-9; glaciology, 
126-31; migrations, 131, 132, 133, 
137; Moose Period, 140-4; Neolithic 
Age, 146-8, fig. 49; patronymics, 121; 
race, 125, 126, 137, 203; Reindeer 
Period, 135-7. See De Geer, Monte- 
lius, Sweden. 

Scania, 124, 125, 129, 135, 137, 144, 145, 

Schaaffhausen, description of Neander- 
thal man, 53. 

Schnittger, Dr., antiquarian, 147. 
Schoetensack, Heidelberg discovery, 75. 
Scraper, flint, 50, 51, 132, 134, i 43 , 144, 

ng. 23. 

Sculpture, 95, 122, 135; anatomy, n 4 ; 
animal, 97, 102-4, fig. 38; birth, 87, 
94;French cavern, 96-118; Greek, 10; 
human, 97, n 4; Palaeolithic, 102; 
prehistoric medium, 102, 103; sculp- 
tor, 87, ii 4 , 117, 122. 
Selection, coincident, 204, 213, 218; 
mate, 2O 4 ; natural, 213; organic, 2O 4 , 
205, 207, 208, 213. 
Selsey Rostrate, 77. 
Shapiro, H. L., brain estimates, 67. 
Shell Mound, 121, 114; period in Den- 
mark, 144-6, fig. 52. 
Sheringham, floors, 76. 
Siberia, 122, fig. 61. 
Silurian, 25. 

Silver, see Metals, Mining. 
Singer, Charles, Greek science, 8, 9; 

volume, 8, 10. 

Siret, Louis, Table des Marchands, 173. 
Sixteen-foot Level, Foxhall, 44, 47, 49 . 
Skeleton, effect of locomotion, 208, 209; 
human posture, 187, 208-9; knowl- 
edge from Neanderthal burials, 90. 
Skull, 87, 90, 97; anthropoid, 8i; Bor- 
reby, 139? disharmonic, 95; Galilee, 
8 7> !97> 198; low-browed, 87; Neo- 
lithic, 139; Nordic, 124; Piltdown, 
5 J ~3> 5 6 > 6l > 6 5> 66 > resemblances, 72; 
Rhodesian, 87;StSngenas, i39;Trinil, 
80, 82, 83. See Brachycephaly, Doli- 
chocephaly, Eoantbropus, Pithecan- 

Slav, modern German stock, 219. 
Smith, Elliot, authority on primitive 

brain, 68; Piltdown brain size, 67. 
Smith, Reginald, volume, 33. 
Socrates. 225. 
Solstice, summer, 165, 176. 
Solutrean, 131, 136, 137; art, 24; spear- 
head, fig. 25. 
Somme River, 65, 68, 83, 136; anthro- 

C 249] 


pological research, 25 ; Chellean indus- 

try, 71- 
Sophocles, 8. 
Sorcerer, cavern representation, m, 

112, 113, figs. 42, 43; Salle du Sorcier, 

figs. 40, 42. 

South Down, Chalk bluffs, 62. 
Spain, 124, 125, 131; art, 98; Neander- 

thaloids, 89. 
Spearhead, 50, 70, 71, 137, fig. 57? Sob- 

trean, fig. 25. 
Species, breeding, 200; causes of diver- 

gence, 204-8; origin, 198-200, 218; 

physical differentiation, 202, 203; 

Quatrefages, 199, 200; varieties, 201, 

203. See Race, Types. 
Speech, see Language. 
Spencer, Herbert, study of Empedocles, 

1 3' 

Spirit, Spiritual Life, Spirituality, 94, 
226; Breton, 163, 166-75 ? conquest, of 
matter, 19, of Nature, 225; effect of 
environment, 195; Greek, 6; Oriental, 
traits of character, viii, 5x, 226. See 
Rise of Man. 

Spy, Neanderthal remains, 54, 188. 

Stag Period, 121, 124, 129, 133, 143, 144 

Sttngenas, skull, 139. 
Stations, Type, see Localities. 
Stockholm, 135; Museum, 148, 149. 
Stockis, E., archaeologist, fig. 70. 
Stone Age, 5x, 84, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95> I aa > 

132, I33> J 39? art, 94? Campignian 

architecture, 122; Dawn, 188; depos- 

its, 63; divisions, 169; geography, 47; 

man, 31, 54, 7 6 8, 83; manual activ- 

ity, Ji, see Flint Industry; race, 89. 

Si* Neolithic, New Stone Age, Old 

Stone Age, Palaeolithic. 
Stonehenge, 157, 175, 176, fig- 7 6 ' 
Struggle for Existence, 93, 135^ 196. 
Sub-Red Crag, 27; flint workers, 40; 

flints, 24, 26, 32, 33, 51, 61 ; industry, 

39; man, 04, 31, 83. 
Suffolk, 39, 69. 
Sun, representation, 173, fig. 72; tem- 

ples, 157; worship, 147* *4* 


Survival, Bronze Age in Brittany, 157; 
of fittest, 9, 15; of primitive man, 79, 
83, 88 ; racial, 88, 89, 96, 163-4, fig- 66. 

Sussex, 23, 27, 32, 39, 51, 55, 69. 

Svaerdborg, 134; 140, r 43> *44> H5* % 

5 1 - 
Sweden, 121, 125, 126, 135, 140, 144, 

145, fig. 52; ancient race, 139; Bronze 
Age, 148-53; Campignian culture, 
134, fig. 56; implements, 136, 137, 
140, H3, !44> I47> fig- 57?metals, 153; 
migrations, 131-5; modern races, 
138-9; Moose Period, 140-4; Na- 
tional Museum, 147 ; Neolithic, 146-8 ; 
Reindeer Period, 135-7; Sverige, 139. 
See Scandinavia. 

Switzerland, 97, 138; brain size of mod- 
ern native, 67. 

Symbolism, animal (Neolithic), fig. 71; 
Nature, 157, 158, 182; sorcerer, in, 
112, fig. 43- 

Syria, 187. 

TABLE DBS MARCHANDS, 82, 173, fig, 77. 

Tapir, Pliocene, 48. 

Tardenois, 135. 

Tardenoisian, 122, 123, 125, 131, 132; 

microliths, 134. 
Tasmanians, 89; survival of primitive, 


Taubach, Neanderthal site, 188. 
Taylor, A.B., translation of Aristotle, 


Taylor, John, Foxhall jaw, 40-2. 
Teilhard de Chardin, P., 66; fossil man 

in Mongolia, 197; Piltdown discovery, 

Tennyson, scientific knowledge, 15; sur- 
vival of type, 220. 

Terraces, see River Terraces. 

Terrestrial Type, s*i Man. 

Tertiary, 25, 32, 39; Age of Mammals, 
27; Asia, 196; Foxhall, 48; man, 36, 
39, 44* 7 1 (prophecy), 84; mid-, 72. 

Thales, Greek philosopher, 4. 

Thompson, D'Arcy, volumes, 5, 10. 

Thomson, Arthur, effect of posture on 
skeleton, 208 -9. 

Thunderj^tones, see Celts. 


Tierra del Fuegians, 193. 

Tilney, Frederick, brain researches, 80; 
Trinil brain, 82. 

Time, see Ages, Periods. 

Time Scale, Osborn's, 24; Parks', 25. 

Ting, Dr., eugenics, 219. 

Tomb, 124; Bronze Age, 150; destruc- 
tion, 177; Megalithic, 148; Neolithic, 

Topinard, ethnologist, 163. 

Trade, iai, 122, 147; Bronze Age, 148- 
50; Neolithic, 123, 150, 176; route, 
149, 150; Stone Age, 150. 

fnmcto, 121, 122, 133, 134, 140, 143, 
144, 145, 146, 148, figs. 56, 58, 73. 

Transitional Period, see Mesolithic. 

Treviranus, Gottfried Reinhold, biol- 
ogy, 8; volume, 8. 

Triassic, 25. 

Trinil, 80; man, see below; River, 32, 83. 

Trinil Dawn Man, 23, 54-5, 189; brain, 
67, 80, 82; contemporaries, 83-4; geo- 
logic age, 83; Osborn, 195; potency, 

Trois Frires, Caverne des, 105, 106, 109, 
no, in, figs. 41-3. 

Tuc d'Audoubert, limestone mountain, 
97 figs* 35 36; archaeological discov- 
eries, 98-1 12. 


Tumuli, 157, 166; Bronze Age, 169; 
Neolithic, 170, 175-83, fig. 68; ruins, 

Turkestan, 124, 1 54. 
Turville-Petre, Galilee skull, 198. 
Types, Human,- Osborn, 164-5; K 
163-4, See Races, Skull, Species. 

UPPER PALAEOLITHIC, see Palaeolithic 
Upper Pliocene, see Pliocene. 
Utensils, bronze, 150, 153, 169; fig, 62; 
day; 153; Neolithic, 182. 

Variations, acquired, 208, 209, figs. 82, 

83; congenital, 208. 
Veddahs, Indian, brain size, 67. 

Virchow, opinion of Neanderthal man, 

WARD, HERBERT, anthropological stud- 

ies, ix. 

Wealden, 60, 63, beds, 62. 
Weybourn Crag, contents, 31 ; fauna, 78 : 

position, temperature, 31. 
Williams, J. Leon, Piltdown illustration, 

fig. 18. 
Woodward, A. Smith, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 

68, 69, figs. 1 8, 23 ; Eoantbropus, 52-3 ; 

Piltdown -research, 55-9, 63, 67, 72. 

ZELLER, adaptations, 12; Design in 
Nature, 13.