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Full text of "A manual of blowpipe-analysis, and determinative mineralogy [electronic resource]"

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- 4 UNIVERSITY gf CALIFORNIA 

\ COLLEGE of MINING 



DEPARTMENTAL 
LIBRARY 



BEQUEST OF 
SAMUELBENEDICrCHRlSTY 



PROFESSOR OF 

MINING AND METALLURGY 

1885-1914 




A MANUAL 





BLOWPIPE-ANALYSIS, 



AND 



DETERMINATIVE MINERALOGY. 



WILLIAM ELDERHORST, M.D., 

PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY IN THE RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE. 



SECOND EDITION, 
REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED. 



PHILADELPHIA : 
PUBLISHED BY T. ELLWOOD ZELL, 

NO. 439 MARKET STREET. 

1861. 













VN. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, 

BY WILLIAM ELDERHORST, 
In the Clerk's -Office of the District Court for the Northern District of New York. 



PREFACE. 



* 

THE present edition of this ''Manual," is,,like the preceding, designed 

to serve as a text-book in the instruction in Blowpipe- Analysis and De- 
terminative Mineralogy in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 

In the first three chapters, but few alterations and additions have been 
made, fearful of injuring the practical usefulness of the book by an accu- 
mulation of too much material. The fourth chapter, containing the 
characteristics of the most important ores, hasj^een considerably enlarged 
by increasing the number of species, and by^ adding an appendix con- 
taining the description and blowpipe reactions of the various kinds of 
fossil fuel ; additions which, I trust,- will be especially acceptable to the 
Mining-Engineer and Geologist. In the selection 'of the newly added 
species I have paid particular regard to those occurring in the American 
Continent ; for this reason, many less important ores have found a place 
in the list to the exclusion of others, which, though more valuable, have 
not hitherto been found in America. 

The fifth chapter, containing a systematic method for the discrimina- 
tion of inorganic compounds, is a translation, but slightly altered, of the 
" Division dichotomique pour reconnoitre les minfraux," as given in 
Laurent's "Analyze au Chalumeau" It is of no great value to the 
experienced analyst, but very useful for beginners, and it is on their 
account that I have given it a place in the Manual. 

The sixth chapter is not contained in the first edition. It is hardly 
necessary to allege any reason for its introduction into this edition. 
The admirable method of Professor von Kobell for the discrimination 



IV 



of minerals is, almost beyond dispute, the most practical and most relia- 
ble that has ever been published. The sixth chapter is nothing but an 
extract from Prof. v. Kobell's treatise on this subject. It contains all 
the well-known mineral species, and leads to their determination with 
almost unerring certainty. 

The appended tables, taken from Plattner's work on the Blowpipe, 
have remained unchanged. 

For the material of this compilation, the author is principally in- 
debted to the following works : 

C. F. Plattner: The Use of the Blowpipe in the Examination of Mi- 
nerals, Ores, &c. Translated by J. S. Musprath, 3d ed., London. 

J. J. Berzelius : The Use of the Blowpipe in Chemistry and Mine- 
ralogy. Translated by J. D. Whitney, Boston. 

F^ von Kobell: Tafeln zur Bestimmung der Mineralien. 5th ed. 
Munchen. 1853. 

J. D. Dana: A System of Mineralogy. 4th ed., New York, 1854. 

John Mitchell: Manual of Practical Assaying. 2d ed., Lond., 1854. 

The author, finally, begs to tender his thanks to his friend, Professor 
Chandler, of Union College, for the valuable suggestions he has received 
at his hands, and which he has acted upon to the best of his ability, 
being fully convinced that by adding the improvements recommended by 
his friend, the practical utility of this little Manual will be greatly in- 
creased. 

WILLIAM ELDERHORST. 

TROY, N. Y., March, 1860. 






INTRODUCTION. 



IN preparing this little Manual, it has been my principal care to adapt 
it to the use of the beginner. The use of the blowpipe, though elabo- 
rately studied and extensively written on by some of the first chemists 
and mineralogists of the preceding and the present century, has not yet 
been duly appreciated. This neglect is, perhaps, owing to the rapid ad- 
vancement of chemical analysis in the humid way, which furnishes, on 
the whole, more reliable results, and allows of an easy quantitative deter- 
mination of the various constituents of a body. But it was overlooked 
that this mode of analysis absorbs much more time, and requires the 
use of an extensive set of apparatus, whereas an examination before the 
blowpipe is sooner performed ; requiring scarcely as many hours as an 
examination in the humid way requires days, and that, with the aid 
only of a few reagents and instruments of small size. It is for this 
reason that a knowledge of blowpipe-operations is less valuable for the 
Chemist by profession than for the Mining-Engineer, the Mineralogist, 
and the Geologist. A small portable box will hold all the necessary 
reagents and instruments, so that he may carry them with him on his 
expeditions and travels, and examine on the spot the minerals which he 
meets with on his explorations j an advantage which ought, truly, not to 
be overlooked. 

For teachers who have not hitherto devoted much time to instruction 
in this department, a short exposition of the course which I have fol- 
lowed for a number of years may, perhaps, be desirable. For elemen- 
tary instruction, the students are only famished with the principal re- 



vi 



agents, viz , carbonate of soda, salt of phosphorus, borax, and solution 
of cobalt ; of apparatus they want a fluid-lamp, blowpipe with platinum 
point, platinum-pointed forceps, platinum wire, charcoal, and closed and 
open glass-tubes. After having explained to them the action of the 
two cones of the flame, and instructed them in making beads, and con- 
ducting the processes of oxidation and reduction, I make them perform 
the most important operations, and study the behavior of the most com- 
monly occurring substances, with and without fluxes. I give the sub- 
stances in somewhat the following order : 

Sesquioxide of iron, all the reactions given in Table II, 10. 

Peroxide of manganese, Table II. 13. 

Sesquioxide of chromium, Table II, 6. 

Oxide of cobalt, and nickel, Table II, 7, 16. 

Protoxide of copper, Table II, 8, and 37. 

Oxide of zinc, Table II, 27, and metallic zinc \\ 25, 45. 

Oxide of tin, Table II, 22, and metallic tin I 26. 

Oxide of lead, Table II, 12, and metallic lead $ 23. 

Oxide of bismuth, Table II, 3, and metallic bismuth $ 17, 22. 

Antimonous acid, Table II, 1, and metallic antimony $$ 16, 21. 

Arsenous acid, Table II, 2, $$ 9, 15. 

Oxide of mercury, Table II, 14. 

Alumina, Table I, 5, and \ 44. 

Magnesia, Table I, 4, and \ 44. 

Silica, g 39. 

A sulphide, \\ 10, 14, 107. 

A borate, g 60. 

A chloride, g| 65, 66. 

Having performed all these operations, the student will ba qualified to 
enter upon the analysis of substances of not too compound a character. 
If he meets on his way with bodies, the behavior of which before the 
blowpipe he has not previously studied, he will not have any difficulty in 
determining their character if he follows the directions given in the 
second chapter. The modus operandi will be best understood by a few 
examples. 



Vll 



1. The substance under examination is sulphide of antimony : 
Examination in a matrass : At a very high temperature, a black subli- 
mate is obtained, becoming reddish-brown when cold. In reading over 
the list in g 10 we find this character belonging to sulphide of antimony. 

Examination in an open glass-tube : gives sulphurous acid, detected 
by the odor and action on blue litmus-paper, and white fumes which 
partly condense in the tube. On examining the sublimate with a mag- 
nifying glass, it is found to be amorphous, hence must be antimonous 
acid (g 16). 

Examination on charcoal alone : is completely volatilized with emis- 
sion of sulphurous acid, and deposits a white volatile coating, possessing 
the properties of the coating of antimony ( 21). 

These few operations are quite sufficient to establish the nature of the 
substance under trial, since the absence of the more fixed metals is 
proved by the volatility of the substance on charcoal and in the open 
tube, and the absence of metals giving coatings by the purity of the 
antimony-coating. The presence of arsenic would have been betrayed 
by an alliaceous odor when heated on charcoal. The only substance 
which would have escaped detection by these operations is sulphide of 
mercury. In order to ascertain its presence or absence, we perform the 
operation given under " Mercury' 1 '' in Chapter III. 

The result giving an answer in the negative, the body was "sulphide 
of antimony." 

2. The substance under examination is chromate of lead. 

Examination in a matrass : "I fuses and changes color, but gives 
Examination in an open tube : / nothing volatile. 

Examination on charcoal alone : fuses, gives small metallic globules, 
and deposits a coating which is lemon-yellow while hot, and sulphur- 
yellow when cold, indicative of lead ($ 23). It is always desirable to 
collect the metal to a large globule, and to study its physical properties. 
This end is best attained by mixing the substance with carbonate of 
soda and a little borax, and exposing the mixture to the reduction-flame 
on charcoal. In this particular case, a metallic button is obtained which 



Vlll 



is soft, may be flattened by the hammer and cut by the knife, properties 
belonging to metallic lead. 

Examination with borax and salt of phosphorus : Before proceeding 
with this examination it is necessary to test the substance for the pre- 
sence of sulphur after the method given $ 107 (unless the presence of 
this element was detected by the examination in the open glass-tube or 
on charcoal alone) ; no sulphur being present, borax and salt of phos- 
phorus beads are made on charcoal, and small portions of the substance 
added. With both fluxes nearly the same reactions are obtained ; in 
oxydation-flame dark red while hot, and fine yellowish-green when cold ; 
in reduction-flame green, hot and cold. In order to find out what body 
produces such reactions, we use Table III, which leads us to sesquioxide 
of chromium. To corroborate the result, the substance may be fused 
with carbonate of soda and nitre, as described, $ 68. 

The physical properties of the body under trial lead to the final con- 
clusion that it must be chromate of lead. 

3. The substance is an alloy of silver, copper, and lead. 
Examination in a matrass : 



no change. 
Examination in an open tube 

Examination on charcoal alone : fuses and deposits a copious coating, 
which is lemon-yellow while hot and sulphur-yellow when cold, indicative 
of lead ($ 23) ; the coating cannot contain any oxide of bismuth, be- 
cause the color would be darker in this case, but might contain oxide of 
zinc or oxide of antimony. To test it for the presence of the former, 
the coating is played upon with the oxydation-flame : it is completely 
volatile, hence no zinc present (might also be tested with solution of 
cobalt g 45) ; to test the coating for the presence of oxide of antimony, 
it is scraped off from the charcoal and dissolved in a bead of salt of 
phosphorus, v. 87, or the alloy is treated with boracic acid as described 
under the head of " Antimony" in Chapter III. If the blast is con- 
tinued for a long time, a faint dark red coating is formed near the assay- 
piece, indicative of silver $ 27, and a dark metallic globule remains. 

Examination with borax and salt of phosphorus: the globule remain- 
ing on the charcoal after volatilization of the lead, is treated with borax 



on charcoal in oxidation-flame; the borax becomes colored. Owing to 
the reducing effect of the charcoal, the influence of the oxidation-flame 
cannot be well observed on charcoal, hence the borax is removed from 
the metallic globule, fastened into the hook of a platina wire, and here 
exposed to the action of the oxidation-flame : the bead is green while 
hot, and blue when cold. On consulting Table III we find that this re- 
action is produced by oxide of copper, and by a mixture of oxide of 
cobalt and sesquioxide of iron : to decide between the two, we now 
expose the bead to the action of the reduction-flame; it becomes red and 
opaque, thus proving the presence of oxide of copper. 

By the examination on charcoal, per se, we were led to suspect the 
presence of silver ; in order to establish this beyond a doubt, we refer to 
Chapter III, "Silver;" here we find a method ($ 105) by which the pre- 
sence of silver may be ascertained in compounds of all descriptions. 
In our case, having to deal only with lead, copper, and silver, the treat- 
ment with vitrified boracic acid and metallic lead is, of course, super- 
fluous. We place our alloy at once on the cupel and direct the oxidation- 
flame upon it; if, after cessation of the rotatory motion, the globule 
should not possess the bright lustre of silver, some pure metallic lead 
has to be added, in order to remove the last traces of copper. We finally 
obtain a bright globule exhibiting all the characteristic properties of 
silver. 

Thus we have established the presence of lead, copper, and silver. 

4. The substance under examination is copper nickel, containing 
arsenic, sulphur, nickel, cobalt, and iron. 

Examination in a matrass: gives a slight sublimate, consisting of 
octahedral crystals, pointing to the presence of arsenic ( 11). 

Examination in a glass tube open at both ends : gives a copious crys- 
talline sublimate of arsenous acid, and a faint odor of sulphurous acid ; 
to establish the presence of sulphur beyond doubt, we refer to Chapter 
III, "Sulphur,-" where we find the method ( 107) for discovering sul- 
phur when in combination with other substances. In performing the test 
there described, we obtain the sulphur-reaction. 

Examination on charcoal alone : gives abundant arsenical fumes, 



leaving a metallic globule which, even with continued blowing, does not 
give rise to the formation of a coating on the charcoal (absence of vola- 
tile metals). 

Having removed all volatile substances, we now proceed to examine 
the remaining globule. On applying a magnet, we find it powerfully 
attracted, showing the presence of either iron, nickel, or cobalt, perhaps 
all of them, either alone or combined with other non-volatile metals. 
We add some borax to the globule and expose it to the action of the 
oxidation-flame, then remove the borax from the globule, fasten it into 
the hook of a platina wire, and here observe the color : green while hot, 
blue when cold as in the preceding case (example 3), but on exposing 
the bead to the action of the reduction-flame (which is best done by 
placing it on charcoal and touching it with tin) it does not become brown 
and opaque, showing therefore the presence of a small quantity of iron 
with cobalt. We now add a fresh portion of borax to the metallic glo- 
bule, in order to see whether it consists entirely of cobalt (that it cannot 
contain any considerable amount of iron, is proved by the appearance of 
the cobalt reaction in the first trial, iron being much more readily dis- 
solved by borax than cobalt) : the bead is violet while hot, and assumes 
a brownish color on cooling ; by referring to Table III, we see that this 
effect is produced by nickel containing cobalt. Referring to Chapter III, 
" Nickel," we find the method to detect the presence of this metal when 
in combination with iron and cobalt, and also the presence of copper, if 
the assay should contain a small quantity of it. 

By the above examples the use of the methods given in the third 
chapter will be sufficiently illustrated. If the substance under examina- 
tion is of a simple composition, its nature is readily ascertained by fol- 
lowing the general method laid down in the second chapter ; but if the 
reactions obtained clearly point to the complex nature of the body, we 
refer to the respective sections of Chapter III ; if, for example, we sus- 
pect the presence of cobalt in a mineral consisting of arsenides, we test 
the substance according to 69 ; if a small quantity of copper is to be 
discovered in a mineral, we proceed as directed in $ 71, &c. 

The student who is willing to devote more time to the subject than is 



XI 

usually allotted to it in our colleges, will do well to go carefully through 
all the reactions given in the second chapter, and thus familiarize himself 
with the colors and other properties of the various coatings, sublimates, 
&c., and also to perform the principal tests by which substances are 
discovered when in combination with others, which are at length exposed 
in the third chapter. In order to obtain characteristic reactions, it is 
important to experiment upon a suitable substance. For the benefit of 
the beginner, who would naturally be embarrassed in the choice of a 
body suitable for the experiment, I add a list of substances which, with 
few exceptions, are readily obtained, and which are sufficient to illustrate 
all the important reactions. After having mentioned a reaction, or de- 
scribed a process (in Chapter II and III), I have added a number in [ ] 
brackets. The number points to the substance of the list, below given, 
best adapted to illustrate the reaction. As each experiment requires only 
a very small quantity of the substance, they are most conveniently kept 
in small glass-tubes of about an inch and a half in length and one-eighth 
of an inch in diameter. For the first fourteen substances no glass-tubes 
are required, since they are the regular blowpipe reagents. A small box 
containing seventy-five of the little tubes will hold the whole collection. 



Xll 



COLLECTION OF SUBSTANCES, 

Well adapted to illustrate the important reactions of bodies before 
tlie blowpipe. 



1. Carbonate of soda. 

2. Borax. 

3. Salt of phosphorus. 

4. Bisulphate of potassa. 

5. Boracic acid. 

6. Fluor spar. 

7. Nitrate of cobalt. 

8. Oxalate of nickel. 

9. Oxide of copper. 

10. Chloride of silver. 

11. Lead. 

12. Iron. 

13. Tin. 

14. Bone-ash. 

15. Chloride of potassium. 

16. Bromide of potassium. 

17. Iodide of potassium. 

18. Chloride of sodium. 

19. Chloride of ammonium. 

20. Chlorate of potassa. 

21. Alumina. 

22. Sulphate of copper. 

23. Nitrate of lead. 

24. Oxide of antimony. 

25. Arsenous acid. 

26. Oxide of bismuth. 

27. Oxide of cadmium. 



28. Sesquioxide of chromium. 

29. Oxide of cobalt. 

30. Protoxide of mercury. 

31. Molybdic acid. 

32. Oxide of silver. 

33. Binoxide of tin. 

34. Tungstic acid. 

35. Sesquioxide of uranium. 

36. Oxide of zinc. 

37. Chloride of copper. 

38. Arsenite of copper. 

39. Subchloride of mercury. 

40. Protochloride of mercury. 

41. Antimony. 

42. Arsenic. 

43. Bismuth. 

44. Cadmium. 

45. Silver. 

46. Zinc. 

47. Alloy of mercury and tin. 

48. Alloy of lead and antimony. 

49. Alloy of lead and bismuth. 

50. Alloy of lead and zinc. 

51. Alloy of lead, copper and silver. 

52. Alloy of tin and copper. 

53. Alloy of zinc and cadmium. 

54. Rock crystal. 



Xlll 



55. 


Gypsum. 


74. 


56. 


Calc-spar. 


75. 


57. 


Strontianite. 


76. 


58. 


Whitherite. 


77. 


59. 


Magnesite. 


78. 


GO. 


Mica. 


79. 


61. 


Felspar. 


80. 


62. 


Albite. 


81. 


63. 


Petalite. 


82. 


64. 


Hematite. 


83. 


65. 


Rutile. 


84. 


66. 


Pyrolusite. 


85. 


67. 


Lepidolite. 


86. 


68. 


Apatite. 


87. 


69. 


Franklinite. 


88. 


70. 


Pitchblende. 




71. 


Chromic iron. 


89. 


72. 


Cerusite. 




73. 


Malachite. 





Gray antimony. 

Iron pyrites. 

Copper pyrites. 

Mispickel. 

Smaltine. 

Cobaltine. 

Realgar. 

Cinnabar. 

Copper nickel. 

Molybdenite. 

Berthierite. 

Bournonite. 

Tetrahedrite. 

Onofrite, or Clausthalite. 

Sulphides of arsenic and anti- 
mony (artificial) . 

Sulphides of arsenic, antimony, 
lead, and copper (artificial). 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



TAGE 

Preface, ....... iii 

Introduction, . . .'.* . . v 

List of substances serving to illustrate the reactions, . xii 



FIRST CHAPTER. 

AUXILIARY APPARATUS AND REAGENTS, . , , % 13 16 

SECOND CHAPTER. 

GENERAL ROUTINE OF BLOWPIPE ANALYSIS, . . ... . 17 31 

Examination in a closed glass tube, . . 18 

Examination in a glass tube open at both ends, . 21 

Examination on charcoal, per se, .. ..^ 22 

Examination in the platinum-pointed pincers, . . 24 

Examination with borax and salt of phosphorus, , , 27 

Examination with carbonate of soda, . . .28 

Examination with solution of cobalt, . . 30 



XVI 



THIRD CHAPTER. 

PAGE 

SPECIAL REACTIONS FOR THE DETECTION OF CERTAIN SUB- 
STANCES WHEN IN COMBINATION WITH OTHERS, . 32 54 

Ammonia, . . ' * ' . ' " ", ' . 33 

Antimony, . . . . . .33 

Arsenic, fc'l . . . j[ 34 

Bismuth, ..... ,. 36 

Boracic acid, ..... 30 

Bromine, * , . . . 37 

Cadmium, ...... 37 

Chlorine, . ' .^ < * ' . . .37 

Chromium, . . . . . . 38 

Cobalt, . .' .' .' ' .* . 38 

Copper, .' '-^'" : '***,*** ^f*^ S^* 1 *' ! ? i ' 39 

Fluorine, . . . . : ,41 

Gold, . . t _ . * . f . . 42 

Iodine, . . - ** ^ *. ' **** . . 43 

Iron, ...... 43 

Lead, . .- . t ^i'^ ^** JT 4 H ^- f'- ,^' 44 

Lithia, ...... 45 

Manganese, . . ' r * 46 

Mercury, . . -**/-' - ; --- .-* . 46 

Nickel, ....... i . 46 

Nitric acid, . * ' : . . . . 47 

Phosphoric acid, . . . . .47 

Potassa, /'* . . 48 

Selenium, / . . .48 

Silica, 49 

Silver, 49 

Sulphur, . . . . . . 51 

Tellurium, ...... 52 



XV11 



PAGE 



Tin, . 

Titanium, 
Uranium, 
Zinc, 



52 
53 
53 
54 



FOURTH CHAPTER. 

CHARACTERISTICS OP THE MOST IMPORTANT ORES j THEIR BE- 
HAVIOR BEFORE THE BLOWPIPE, AND TO SOLVENTS, 55 91 

Ores of antimony, . . . . 56 

arsenic, ...... 58 

bismuth, .. " .- ." . . 59 
chromium, . , . . .60 

cobalt, . . . . .. . 61 

copper, . . . . . .63 

gold, platinum, and iridium, ... 68 
iron, . , . . . . .69 

lead, . $& . . ' . . 73 

manganese, . . . . : . . 79 

mercury, . . . . . 80 

nickel, . . . / , 81 

silver, . . . , . . 83 

tin, . . . .... 87 

zinc, . .- . . . . 88 

APPENDIX Fossil fuel, ..... 90 

FIFTH CHAPTER. 

SYSTEMATIC METHOD FOR THE DISCRIMINATION OF INOR- 
GANIC COMPOUNDS, ..... 92 105 

SIXTH CHAPTER. 

ON THE DISCRIMINATION OF MINERALS BY MEANS OF THE 

BLOWPIPE, AIDED BY HUMID ANALYSIS, . . 106 141 



XV111 



TABLES. 

PACK 

TABLE I. BEUAVTOR OF THE ALKALINE EARTHS AND THE 

EARTHS PROPER BEFORE THB BLOWPIPE, . . 144 147 

TABLE II. BEHAVIOR OF THE METALLIC OXIDES BEFORE 

THE BLOWPIPE, ..... 148 161 

TABLE III. THE METALLIC OXIDES ARRANGED WITH RE- 
FERENCE TO THE COLORS WHICH THEY IMPART TO THE 

FLUXES, ...... 162167 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



OF1 for Oxydation-flarae ; RF1 for Reduction-flame ; SPh for Salt of 
Phosphorus ; Bx for Borax ; Sd for Carbonate of Soda; SoCo or SCo for 
Solution of Nitrate of Cobalt; Ch for Charcoal; Ct for Coating; Blp for 
Blowpipe ; H for Hardness ; G for Specific Gravity. 



FIRST CHAPTER, 



AUXILIARY APPARATUS AND REAGENTS. 

1 1. THE common blowpipe of gas-fitters, jewellers, &c., is not very 
well adapted for analytical researches, as the narrow outlet becomes fre- 
quently obstructed by the moisture which is exhaled from the lungs and 
condenses in the tube. To avoid this inconvenience, the long cylindrical 
tube of the blow-pipe should be furnished at the extremity with a globu- 
lar or cylindrical chamber for the reception of the condensed water. In 
this chamber the jet is inserted at a right angle to the tube. Silver is, 
in many respects, the best material for the construction of a blow-pipe, 
but has the disadvantage of becoming very hot when used for a long 
while, so that it becomes almost impossible to hold it with the naked 
fingers ; next to silver stands German silver and brass. For jets, plati- 
num is preferable to all other metals. A mouth-piece of box-wood or 
ivory is convenient, though not necessary. 

\ 2. Any kind of flame may be used for the blowpipe, provided it be 
not too small. Some of the older chemists used common candles in pre- 
ference, and it must be confessed that, in the majority of cases, the heat 
produced by the flame of a good sperm candle is quite sufficient. Berze- 
lius recommended an oil lamp with a flat wick, which is now in general 
use as " Berzelius's Blowpipe Lamp." I find that a common fluid lamp, 
with a rather large burner, answers every purpose ; it gives a very good 
heat, and, besides being much cleaner than an oil lamp, admits of a very 

2 



14 



quick and accurate adjustment of the size of the flame, by means of a 
little brass cylinder, which is movable, and slides up and down the 
burner. The heating of substances in glass tubes and matrasses is best 
performed over a common spirit lamp. 

$ 3. As supports, charcoal, platinum, and glass are principally used. 
Wood charcoal is in most cases the best support. It must be well burnt, 
and not scintillate or smoke ; it must leave but little ash ; charcoal of 
light wood, as alder, &c., has been found the best. 

Platinum is used whenever the reducing action of the charcoal acts 
injuriously. It is advantageously employed on all occasions where no 
reduction to the metallic state takes place, since the color of the flux is 
much better seen on the platinum than on charcoal. It is mostly used 
in the shape of wire, the end of which is bent so as to form a hook, which 
serves as support to the flux. As foil, its use is very limited. A little 
platinum spoon, of from about 12 to 15 m. m. in diameter, is very con- 
venient for fusing substances with bisulphate of potassa or nitre. 

Glass tubes, open at both ends, are used for calcination, and for test- 
ing the presence of substances which are volatile at a high temperature. 
The tubes should be from 5 to 8 inches long. Of glass tubes, sealed at 
one end, or little matrasses, an assortment should always be kept on 
hand, since they are of very frequent use. 

I 4. Of other apparatus, the most necessary are : 

A mortar of agate or chalcedony, from 1J to 2 inches in width, with 
pestle of the same material. 

A forceps of brass or German silver, with platinum points. 

A forceps of steel. 

A little hammer and anvil, both of steel and well polished. 

A three-cornered file for cutting glass tubes, trying the hardness of 
minerals, &c. 

A little magnet. 

A pocket magnifying glass. 

A set of watch glasses, which are very convenient for the reception of 
the assay-piece, the metallic globules, &c. 

g 5. Of reagents, Carbonate of Soda, Borax, and Salt of Phosphorus, 



15 



are the most important ones ; but there are others, which, though not so 
extensively used, still are indispensable for the detection of certain sub- 
stances ; those only shall here be mentioned ; others, the use of which is 
very limited, are omitted in this list. 

Carbonate of Soda : The monocarbonate or the bicarbonate may be 
indifferently employed ; it must be perfectly free from sulphuric acid, for 
the presence of which it may be tested as shown $ 107. The neutral 
oxalate of potassa and the commercial [fused] cyanide of potassium 
deserve in many cases the preference, their reducing powers being supe- 
rior to that of carbonate of soda. 

Borax : The commercial article is purified by crystallization, the 
crystals dried and reduced to a coarse powder. 

Salt of Phosphorus : [double phosphate of soda and ammonia] 100 
parts of crystallized common phosphate of soda and 16 parts of sal am- 
moniac are dissolved in 32 parts of water ; the solution is aided by heat, 
the liquid filtered while hot, and the crystals, which form on cooling, 
dried between blotting paper. When pure it gives a glass which, on 
cooling, remains transparent; if this is not the case it must be purified 
by recrystallization. It is kept as a coarse powder. 

Bisulphate of Potassa : It is employed in the fused [anhydrous] state 
as a coarse powder ; it must be kept in a bottle provided with a ground 
glass stopper. 

Vitrified Boracic Acid : Is employed in the state of a coarse powder. 

Fluor-spar : Must be deprived of water by ignition ; must be perfectly 
free from boracic acid, which may be tested as described \ 61. It is 
convenient, to keep in a separate bottle a mixture of 1 part of finely 
powdered fluor-spar with 4 parts of bisulphate of potassa. 

Nitrate of Cobalt, in solution : It must be pure, free from alkali, and 
[for many purposes] free from nickel ; it is kept in a bottle with a ground 
glass stopper, which, very conveniently, is so much elongated as to dip 
into the liquid. Instead of the nitrate, the oxalate of cobalt may be 
used, which, being in the shape of powder, is advantageously substituted 
for the former in travelling. 

Nitrate or Oxalate of Nickel : It must be perfectly free from cobalt ; it 



16 



is tested with borax, with which it ought to produce a pure brown 
glass. 

Oxide of Copper : It is best prepared by heating the nitrate to ignition. 

Chloride of Silver : It is prepared by precipitating a solution of nitrate 
of silver with hydrochloric acid, washing the precipitate, and making it 
into a thick paste with water, which is kept in a small glass-stoppered 
bottle. This reagent should not be used with platina wire, since the 
silver fuses with the platina to an alloy j thin iron wire is in this case 
substituted for the platina. For each experiment a fresh hook should 
be made. 

Pure Metallic Lead : It is easily obtained pure by decomposing a solu- 
tion of the acetate by metallic zinc; the precipitate is repeatedly washed 
with water and then dried between blotting paper. 

Metallic Iron : In the shape of thin wire [harpsichord wire]. 

Metallic Tin : Usually in the shape of foil, which is cut into stripes 
and rolled up tightly. 

Bone-ash : In the state of very fine powder. 

Test Paper : Blue and red Litmus Paper, and Brazil Wood Paper. 

$ 6. If the analytical research is strictly confined to blowpipe opera- 
tions, the above enumerated reagents are sufficient; but if, as is some- 
times advantageously done, some simple operations of the humid method 
of chemical analysis are called to aid, the list must be somewhat ex- 
tended. The most important of these reagents, all of which must be 
kept in bottles with ground glass stoppers, are: Sulphuric Acid, Hydro- 
chloric Acid, Nitric Acid, Oxalic Acid, Hydrate of Potassa, Ammonia, 
Carbonate of Ammonia, Chloride of Ammonium, Molybdate of Ammo- 
nia, Ferrocyanide of Potassium, Ferridcyanide of Potassium, Bichloride 
of Platinum, Acetate of Lead, Sulphuretted Hydrogen Water, Sulphy- 
drate of Ammonia, Alcohol, Distilled Water. 

The principal auxiliary apparatus are : Test-tubes and Test-tube Rack, 
small Porcelain Dishes, small Beaker Glasses, some Glass Funnels and 
Filtering Stand, Filtering Paper, Platinum Crucible, some Glass Rods 
and round Glass Plates, for covering beaker glasses, a common Spirit 
Lamp, and a Spirit Lamp with Argand Burner. 



SECOND CHAPTER. 



GENERAL ROUTINE OF BLOWPIPE ANALYSIS. 

$ 7. ON examining a substance before the blowpipe, with a view to 
determine its nature or to ascertain the presence or absence of certain 
matter, it is advisable to follow a systematic way, composed of a series 
of operations, and to attentively observe the changes which the body 
undergoes under the influence of the various agents which are brought 
to act upon it. The various operations which the assay is submitted to 
are so many questions, to which the phenomena which we observe con- 
stitute so many answers ; and from their appearance or non-appearance, 
we are able to draw definite conclusions as to the nature of the substance 
under examination. 

The following order, and the rules to be observed in the execution of 
the various operations are, essentially, the same as first pointed out and 
laid down by Berzelius. 

1. Examination in a glass tube, sealed at one end, or a matrass. 

2. Examination in a glass tube open at both ends. 

3. Examination on charcoal per se. 

4. Examination in the platinum-pointed pincers, or on platinum wire 
per se. 

5. Examination with borax, and salt of phosphorus. 

6. Examination with carbonate of soda. 

7. Examination with solution of cobalt. 

2* 



18 



Regarding the size of the assay, a piece the size of a mustard seed will 
generally be found sufficient; larger pieces, without showing the reaction 
more distinctly, requiring so much more labor. In some cases, however, 
it is advantageous to employ a greater quantity, ex. gr. in reductions, or 
in heating in a glass tube ; for the larger the metallic globule, and the 
greater the amount of the sublimate produced, the more readily can its 
nature be ascertained. 



Examination in a closed Glass Tube, or a Matrass. 

\ 8. The assay-piece is introduced into a glass tube, sealed at one end, 
or into a small matrass, and heat applied by means of a common spirit 
lamp. The heat must at first be very low, but may be gradually raised 
to redness, if necessary. By this treatment we learn : 

$ 9. 1. Whether the substance is entirely or partly volatile or not. 

Among the phenomena to be observed, the following are deserving of 
particular attention : 

The substance gives out water, which partly escapes and partly con- 
denses in the colder portion of the tube. This points to the presence of 
a salt containing water of crystallization [No. 22], or to the presence of 
a hydrate, or to such salts which contain water mechanically inclosed 
between the laminas of the crystals [No. 18] ; in this case the body usu- 
ally decrepitates. The drops of condensed water are to be examined 
with test-paper: an alkaline reaction denotes the presence of ammonia, 
an acid reaction the presence of some volatile acid, as sulphuric, nitric, 
hydrochloric, hydrofluoric acid, &c. 

10. The substance gives out a gas or vapor. Those of most usual 
occurrence are : 

a. Oxygen, easily recognized by rekindling into flame a match which 
has been extinguished so as to leave only a spark at the extremity; 
points to the presence of a peroxide, nitrate, chlorate, bromate or iodate 
[No. 20]. 

b. Sulphurous acid, easily recognized by its peculiar odor and action 



19 



on blue litmus paper; indicates the presence of a sulphate or sul- 
phite [No. 22]. 

c. Sulphuretted hydrogen, recognized by its peculiar odor ; indicates 
the presence of sulphides containing water. 

d. Nitrous acid or peroxide of nitrogen, recognized by its deep orange 
red color and acid reaction; indicates the presence of a nitrite or 
nitrate [No. 23]. 

e. Carbonic acid, recognized by causing a turbidity in a drop of lime- 
water suspended from a watch-crystal and exposed to the escaping gas ; 
points to the presence of a carbonate. 

f. Cyanogen, recognized by its peculiar odor and by burning with a 
crimson flame ; indicates the presence of a cyanogen-compound. 

g. Ammonia, recognized by its odor and alkaline reaction ; indicates 
the presence of an ammoniacal salt or of an organic nitrogenous sub- 
stance ; in the latter case, the mass usually blackens, and evolves at the 
same time either cyanogen or empyreumatic oils of offensive odor [No. 3]. 

$11. The substance yields a sublimate. The sublimate is either 
white or possessed of a peculiar color. White sublimates are formed by 

a. Many salts of ammonia ; on removing the sublimate from the tube, 
placing it on a watch-crystal, adding a drop of hydrate of potassa, and 
applying heat, ammonia is evolved [No. 19]. 

6. The chlorides of mercury j the subchloride sublimes without pre- 
vious fusion ; the protochloride fuses first, then sublimes ; the sublimate 
is yellow while hot, but becomes white on cooling [Nos. 39 and 40]. 

c. Oxide of antimony; it fuses first to a yellow liquid, then sublimes; 
the sublimate consists of lustrous needle-shaped crystals [No. 24], 

d. Arsenous acid ; the sublimate consists of octahedral crystals [No. 
25]. 

e. Tellurous acid ; shows a reaction similar to that of oxide of anti- 
mony, but requires a much higher temperature ; the sublimate is amor- 
phous. 

Sublimates possessed of metallic lustre, so-called metallic mirrors, are 
formed by : 

a. Metallic arsenic and arsenides containing more than one equivalent 



20 



of arsenic to two of metal, also, some sulpli-arsenides [No. 77] ; cutting 
the tube below the sublimate, and exposing the mirror to gentle heat in 
the flame of a spirit-lamp, the peculiar odor of arsenic is perceived. 

5. Mercury, amalgams, and some salts of mercury ; the sublimate con- 
sists of minute globules of metallic mercury, which, by friction with a 
piece of copper wire, readily unite to larger globules [No. 47]. 

c. Some alloys of cadmium. 

d. Tellurium ; only at a very high temperature ; the sublimate con- 
sists of small globules, which solidify on cooling. 

Sublimates possessed of distinct color are formed by: 

a. Sulphur and sulphides containing a large amount of sulphur; the 
sublimate is from deep-yellow to brownish-red while hot, but pure sul- 
phur-yellow when cold [No. 75]. 

b. The sulphides of antimony, alone or in combination with other sul- 
phides ; the sublimate forms only at a very high temperature, and is de- 
posited at a short distance from the assay-piece ; it is black while hot, 
reddish-brown when cold [No. 74]. 

c. The sulphides of arsenic and some compounds of metallic sulphides 
with arsenides ; the sublimate is dark brownish-red while hot, but from 
reddish-yellow to red when cold [No. 80]. 

d. Cinnabar ; the sublimate is black, without lustre, and yields a red 
powder on being scratched with a knife [No. 81 J. 

e. Selenium and some selenides ; the sublimate appears only at a high 
temperature, is of a reddish or black color, and yields a dark-red powder; 
at the open end of the tube the peculiar odor of selenium (resembling- 
rotten horse-radish) is perceived [No. 87]. 

\ 12. 2. Whether the substance undergoes any change, or remains 
unaltered. 

Many substances, under this treatment, suffer physical changes with- 
out being affected in their chemical constitution. A great many miner- 
als, when heated, decrepitate ; others phosphoresce, as fluor-spar and 
apatite. The most important of these physical changes, is that of color: 
from white to yellow, and white again on cooling, points to oxide of 
zinc [No. 36] ; from white to yellowish-brown, dirty pale-yellow on cool- 



ing, points to oxide of tin [No. 33]; from white to brownish-red, yellow 
when cold, and fusible at a red heat, points to oxide of lead [No. 72] ; 
from white to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale-yellow when cold, and 
fusible at a bright red heat, points to teroxide of bismuth ; from red to 
black, and red again on cooling, points to sesquioxide of iron [No. 64]. 



Examination in a Glass Tube open at both ends. 

$ 13. The assay-piece is introduced into the tube to a depth of about 
half an inch, the end to which it lies nearest slightly inclined, and heat 
applied. The air contained in the tube becomes heated; it rises, 
escapes from the upper end, and fresh air enters from below. In this 
manner a calcination is effected, and many substances which remained 
unchanged when heated in a matrass, yield sublimates or gaseous pro- 
ducts when subjected to this treatment, owing to the formation of vola- 
tile oxides. 

By this means we can easily detect the presence of the following sub- 
stances : 

$14. Sulphur; sulphurous acid is formed, which is characterized by 
its peculiar odor and action on moistened litmus paper [No. 75] . 

$ 15. Arsenic; if present in sufficient quantity it yields a white and 
very volatile sublimate of arsenous acid, consisting of minute octahedral 
crystals; by application of gentle heat it may be driven from one place 
to another [No. 77]. 

$ 16. Antimony; white fumes of antimonous acid are given out which 
partly escape, and partly condense in the upper part of the tube. The 
sublimate is a white powder, and may, if consisting of pure antimo- 
nous acid, be volatilized by heat. In most cases, however, the oxidation 
proceeds farther, and the antimonate of the oxide of antimony, a non- 
volatile white powder, is formed [No. 41]. 

17. Metallic Bismuth ; it is converted into oxide, which condenses at 
a short distance from the assay, and which, by heat, may be fused to 
brownish globules [No. 43]. 



Mercury and amalgams ; yield sublimates of metallic mercury [No. 
47]. 

$ 18. Tellurium and tellurides; tellurous acid is produced, which con- 
denses in the upper part of the tube to a white non-volatile powder ; on 
application of heat it fuses to colorless globules. 

Selenium and selenides ; evolve a gaseous oxide of a peculiar odor, 
resembling that of rotten horse-radish [No. 87]. 



Examination on Charcoal per se. 

$ 19. In examinations of this kind, particular attention must be paid 
to the odor of the escaping gases, and to the color and other properties 
of the rings, or coatings, which form on the charcoal around the assay- 
piece. The interior [reduction flame, R Fl] and exterior [oxidation 
flame, Fl] cones of the flame acting in an opposite sense, the phe- 
nomena produced will be very different ; hence, two assays should always 
be made, exposing the substance first to the action of the Fl and then 
to the action of the R Fl. The following bodies undergo, when submit- 
ted to this treatment, characteristic changes. 

$ 20. Arsenic : It is volatilized without previous fusion, the Ch is 
covered with a white Ct, which is far distant from the assay-piece, and 
which is produced by both the Fl and R Fl ; the Ct is very volatile, 
and is easily driven away by the Blp flame, emitting the peculiar allia- 
ceous odor characteristic of arsenic [No. 42]. 

$ 21. Antimony: It enters readily into fusion and covers the Ch with 
white oxide ; the ring is not so far distant from the assay-piece as in the 
case of arsenic ; it may be driven away by the Blp flame, but is not so 
volatile as that of arsenic, and does not emit an alliaceous odor. Metal- 
lic antimony, when fused on Ch and heated to redness, remains a 
considerable time in a state of ignition without the aid of the Blp, dis- 
engaging, at the same time, a thick white smoke, which is partly depo- 
sited on the Ch around the metallic globule in white crystals of a pearly 
lustre [No. 41]. 



23 



$ 22. Bismuth : It fuses readily in both flames and covers the Ch with 
oxide, which is dark orange-yellow while hot and lemon-yellow when 
cold. The yellow Ct is usually surrounded by a white ring, consisting 
of carbonate of bismuth. The Ct is somewhat nearer the assay than 
that of antimony; it may be driven away by both flames; but the oxide 
of antimony, when played upon with the R Fl, imparts to the flame a 
greenish-blue tinge, which the oxide of bismuth does not [No. 43]. 

$ 23. Lead : It fuses easily and coats the Ch in both flames with oxide, 
which is dark lemon-yellow while hot and sulphur-yellow when cold; in 
thin layers it is bluish-white and consists of carbonate. The Ct is found 
at the same distance from the assay as that of bismuth ; it may be driven 
away by both flames ; when played upon with the R Fl it imparts to the 
flame an azure-blue color [No. 11]. 

| 24. Cadmium : It fuses readily ; exposed to the Fl it burns with 
a dark-yellow flame, emitting brown fumes of oxide which cover the Ch 
around the assay. This Ct is very characteristic ; it is, when cold, of a 
reddish-brown color, in thin layers orange-yellow ; it is easily volatilized 
by both flames, without imparting a color to them [No. 44]. 

25. Zinc: It fuses readily; exposed to the Fl it burns with an in- 
tensely luminous greenish-white flame, emitting at the same time a thick 
white smoke which, partly condensing on the Ch, covers it with oxide, 
yellow while hot and white when cold. The Ct when played upon with 
the Fl becomes luminous, but does not disappear [No. 46]. 

$ 26. Tin : It fuses readily ; exposed to the Fl it is converted into 
oxide, which may be blown away and thus be made to appear as a Ct; 
it is always found closely surrounding the assay-piece, is slightly yellow 
and luminous while hot, white when cold, and non- volatile in both 
flames. Exposed to the R Fl the molten metal retains its bright metal- 
lic aspect [No. 13]. 

27. Silver: When exposed for a long time to the action of the R Fl 
it yields a slight dark-red Ct of oxide [No. 45]. 

28. Selenium : It fuses very readily in both flames with disengage- 
ment of brown fumes ; at a short distance from the "assay a steel-gray Ct 
of a feeble metallic lustre is deposited ; played upon with the R Fl it dis- 



24 



appears with emission of a strong odor of rotten horse-radish, at the same 
time imparting to the flame a fine blue color [No. 87]. 

29. Tellurium : It fuses very readily and coats the Ch in both 
flames with tellurous acid ; the Ct is not very far distant from the assay ; 
it is of a white color with a red or dark-yellow edge 5 played upon with 
the R Fl it disappears, imparting to the flame a green tinge. 

$ 30. Besides the above named metals there are some other substances 
which, when treated before the Blp upon Ch cover it with coatings, 
which may be driven away when played upon with the Fl, and which 
show in many cases a great resemblance to the Ct produced by anti- 
mony. Among the bodies possessing this property the following are the 
most frequently occurring ones : 

The sulphurides of potassium, sodium, and lithium. 

The chlorides of ammonium, potassium, sodium, and lithium. 

The chlorides of mercury, antimony, zinc, cadmium, lead, bismuth, 
tin, and copper. 

The bromides and iodides of potassium and sodium. 



Examination in the Platinum-pointed Pincers. 

$ 31. This experiment serves a double purpose. It acquaints us with 
the degree of fusibility of the assay, and shows the presence or absence 
of such substances which possess the property of imparting to the flame 
a peculiar color. Many metals, the sulphurides, and some other com- 
pounds act upon metallic platinum at a high temperature ; the fusi- 
bility, fec., of such substances ought to be tested on Ch. Others, again, 
fuse so easily that they cannot be held a sufficiently long time between 
the pincers to observe the color which they impart to the flame; they 
are most conveniently attached to the hook of the platinum wire, which 
is best done by heating the wire to redness and then touching the powder 
of the assay with it ; a sufficient quantity generally remains adhering to 
the wire. 

Some minerals decrepitate violently as soon as they are touched with 



the flame ; in such cases, Berzelius advises to powder the substance very 
finely in an agate-mortar with addition of a little water, to place one or 
two drops of the mixture on a piece of Ch, and to gently heat it by 
means of the Blp flame until the mass lies loosely upon the Ch ; it may 
then be taken up and held by the pincers. The same process is ad- 
vantageously employed with substances which fuse only at a very high 
temperature. In all other cases the substance is roughly powdered and 
a thin piece which shows prominent edges selected for the experiment. 

The assay is exposed to the action of the inner cone of the flame, 
when the outer cone may exhibit the following changes of color : 

I 32. 1. Yellow. 

Soda and its salts cause an enlargement of the outer flame, and im- 
part, at the same time, an intense reddish-yellow color [No. 18]. The 
presence of other substances which also possess the property of coloring 
the flame, but not in so high a degree, does not prevent the reaction. 
Silicates containing soda, exhibit the same phenomenon to a smaller or 
greater extent, according to their degree of fusibility and the amount of 
soda which they contain [No. 62]. With many salts of soda, which do 
not exhibit the reaction very distinctly, it can be produced by mixing 
the salt with some chloride of silver to a paste (v. g 5), fastening it to 
the hook of a thin iron-wire, and then exposing it to the action of the 
inner name. * 

g 33. 2. Violet. 

Potassa and many of its salts impart to the outer flame a distinct 
violet color [No. 15]. The presence of a small quantity of a salt of soda 
or lithia prevents the reaction. An addition of chloride of silver favors 
the reaction with the carbonate, nitrate, and some other salts of potassa. 

I 34. 3. Red. 

Lithia and its salts impart to the outer flame a fine carmine-red color 
[No. 63] ; the chloride of lithium shows the reaction better than any 
other salt. The presence of a salt of potassa does not prevent the reac- 
tion ; the presence of even a small quantity of a salt of soda changes the 
color to yellowish-red. An addition of chloride of silver favors the 
reaction with many salts of lithia. 



26 



Chloride of strontium and some other salts of strontia, ex. gr. the 
carbonate and the sulphate, color the outer flame, immediately or after a 
while, carmine-red [No. 57]. The presence of baryta prevents the reac- 
tion. The carbonate and sulphate of strontia show the reaction remark- 
ably well when mixed with chloride of silver and heated on iron-wire 
(v. 5). 

Chloride of calcium, calcareous spar, many compact limestones, and 
fluor-spar, color the outer flame, immediately or after a while, red ; the 
color is not so intense as that produced by strontia. Gypsum and anhy- 
drite impart at first a pale yellow, afterwards a red color of little in- 
tensity [No. 56]. An addition of chloride of silver usually increases the 
intensity of the color. 

| 35. 4. Green. 

Chloride of barium, carbonate and sulphate of baryta, color the outer 
flame yellowish-green. The presence of lime does not prevent the reac- 
tion [No. 58]. An addition of chloride of silver makes the color much 
more intense. 

Oxide of copper and some of its salts, ex. gr. the carbonate, sulphate, 
and nitrate, impart to the outer flame a fine emerald-green color. 
Iodide of copper and some silicates containing copper, ex. gr. dioptase 
and chrysocolla, act in the same manner [No. 73]. An addition of 
chloride of silver produces increased intensity of color. 

Phosphoric acid, phosphates, and minerals containing phosphoric acid, 
impart to the outer flame a bluish-green color [No. 3]. 

Boracic acid colors the outer flame yellowish green (greenfinch color) 
[No. 5] ; if a small quantity of soda is present the color is mixed with 
yellow. 

Molybdic acid, oxide of molybdenum, and the native sulphide of 
molybdenum, color the outer flame yellowish-green, like baryta [No. 83]. 

Tellurous acid enters into fusion, emits white fumes, and colors the 
outer flame green. 

\ 36. 5. Blue. 

Arsenic and some arsenides, ex. gr. smaltine and copper-nickel [No. 
82] when heated on Ch impart a light-blue color to the outer flame. 



27 



Some arsenates, ex. gr. scorodite and cobalt bloom, exhibit the same 
phenomenon in the pincers. 

Antimony, fused on Ch in R Fl is surrounded by a very feeble bluish 
light. [No. 41]. 

Metallic lead, fused on Ch in R Fl is surrounded by an azure-blue light. 
Many salts of lead, heated in the pincers or on platinum wire, impart an 
intense azure-blue color to the outer flame [No. 11]. 

Chloride of copper colors the outer flame intensely azure-blue; after a 
while the color becomes green, owing to the formation of oxide of copper 
[No. 37]. 

Bromide of copper colors the outer flame greenish-blue; after a while 
the color changes to green. 

Selenium, fused on Ch in R Fl vaporizes with an azure-blue light. 



Examination with Borax and Salt of Phosphorus. 

$ 37. The examination of the assay with borax and salt of phosphorus 
is eminently adapted to detect the presence of metallic oxides, a great 
number of them possessing the property of being at a high temperature 
dissolved by these fluxes with a peculiar color. Unoxidized metals and 
metallic sulphides, arsenides, &c., differ in this respect very materially 
from the pure oxides ; hence it is necessary, before performing the ex- 
periment, to convert all such substances into oxides. This is effected 
by calcination, on Ch or in an open glass tube. The finely powdered 
assay is placed on Ch and alternately treated with the Fl and R Fl, 
and this process is repeated until the substance no longer emits, while in 
the incandescent state, the odor of sulphur or arsenic. The heat must 
never be raised so high as to cause fusion, and between every two suc- 
ceeding calcinations the assay should be taken from the Ch and freshly 
powdered. 

The experiment is generally made on platinum wire, where the color of 
the bead is more readily observed; Ch is used only in such cases where 
the substance under examination contains metallic oxides which are 



easily reduced. It is not sufficient to observe the color of the bead after 
cooling | but all changes of color which take place during the action of 
the flame, and through all the various stages of cooling, should be care- 
fully noticed. 

Some substances possess the property of forming a limpid glass with 
borax, which preserves its transparency on cooling, but which, if slightly 
heated in the Fl becomes opaque, when the flame strikes it in an une- 
qual or intermittent manner. This operation has received the name of 
" flaming," and any substance thus acted upon is said to become "opaque 
by flaming." 

The third and fourth columns of Tables I and II exhibit the behavior 
of the most important oxides to borax and salt of phosphorus. 

In Table III the oxides are arranged with reference to the color which 
they impart to the beads in Fl and R Fl. 



Examination ivitJi Carbonate of Soda. 

$ 38. In subjecting a body to the treatment with Sd we have to direct 
our attention to two points. 

Some substances unite with Sd to fusible compounds, others form in- 
fusible compounds, and others again are not acted upon at all ; in the 
last case the Sd is absorbed by the Ch and the assay is left unchanged. 
With Sd unite to fusible compounds with effervescence : 

$ 39. Silicic acid ; it fuses to a transparent glassy bead which, after 
cooling, remains transparent if the Sd has not been added in excess 
[No. 54]. 

Titanic acid ; it fuses to a transparent glassy bead which, when cold, 
is opaque and of crystalline structure [No. 65]. 

Tungstic and molybdic acids ; the mass, after the union has been 
effected, is absorbed by the Ch [No. 31 and No. 34]. 

The salts of baryta and strontia form with Sd fusible compounds which 
are absorbed by the Ch [No. 57 and No. 58]. 

g 40. The second point to be observed is the elimination of metallic 



matter. Of the metallic oxides, when treated with Sd on Ch in R Fl, 
are reduced : the oxides of the noble metals and the oxides of arsenic, 
antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, cobalt, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, 
tin, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, and tellurium. Of these, arsenic and 
mercury vaporize so rapidly that frequently not even a coating is left on 
the Ch. Antimony, bismuth, cadmium, lead, zinc, and tellurium are 
partly volatilized and form distinct coatings on the Ch. The non-volatile 
reduced metals are found mixed up with the Sd. To separate them 
from the adhering Sd and Ch powder, we may proceed in the following 
manner : 

The fused mass of Sd and metal, and the portion of the Ch immedi- 
ately below and around the assay, is placed in the little agate mortar, 
rubbed to powder, the powder mixed with a little water, and stirred up. 
The heavy metallic particles settle to the bottom, part of the Sd dis- 
solves, and the Ch powder remains suspended in the water. The liquid 
is carefully poured off, and the residue treated repeatedly in the same 
manner until all foreign matter is removed. The metal remains behind 
as a dark heavy powder or, when the metal is ductile and easily fusible, 
in the shape of small flattened scales of metallic lustre. If the substance 
under examination contained several metallic oxides, the metallic mass 
obtained is usually an alloy, in which the several metals may be recog- 
nized by processes to be described hereafter. It is only in some excep- 
tional cases that separate metallic globules are obtained, ex. gr. in 
substances containing iron and copper. 

For a more detailed account of the behavior of the various metallic 
oxides under this treatment, see the second column of Tables I and II. 

| 41. The examination with Sd is usually performed on Ch in the 
R Fl, and, as a general rule, the flux is added successively in small por- 
tions. This is particularly necessary when the assay is to be tested for 
its fusibility with Sd, since a great many minerals, &c., behave very 
differently with different quantities of the flux. 

42. Instead of carbonate of soda, the neutral oxalate of potassa or 
cyanide of potassium may be advantageously used for all experiments of 
reduction, since these reagents exercise a more powerful reducing action 



30 



than common Sd. They are, for this reason, frequently employed when 
the presence of such metallic oxides is suspected, whose conversion into 
metals require high temperatures and the aid of a very efficient deoxi- 
dizing agent. 

Examination with Solution of Cobalt. 

% 43. A few substances, when moistened with a solution of nitrate of 
cobalt and exposed to the action of the Fl, assume a peculiar color. 
The use of this test is, however, very limited, since the reaction can only 
clearly be seen in such bodies which, after having been acted upon by 
the Fl, present a white appearance, or nearly so. 

$ 44. Substances which are sufficiently porous to imbue a liquid, are 
merely moistened with a drop of S Co, placed into the platinum-pointed 
pincers, and treated with the Fl. Other substances must be powdered, 
the powder placed on Ch, wetted with a drop of S Co, and treated as 
above. The color can only be distinguished after cooling. A bluish 
color, of more or less purity, indicates the presence of alumina [No. 21] ; 
and a pale-reddish color [flesh-color] that of magnesia [No. 59.] It 
must, however, be borne in mind, that the alkaline and some other 
silicates, when heated with S Co to a temperature above their fusing 
point, also assume a blue color, owing to the formation of silicate of co- 
balt. In testing for alumina, therefore, the heat must not be raised so 
high as to cause fusion of the assay. In testing for magnesia this pre- 
caution is not necessary ; on the contrary, the color will appear the 
brighter and the more distinct, the higher the temperature to which the 
assay was exposed. 

$45. Among the oxides of the heavy metals, those of zinc and tin 
assume characteristic colors with S Co. The reaction is best seen when 
the assay, alone or mixed with Sd, is exposed to the R Fl on Ch. The 
ring of oxide which is deposited around the assay is then moistened with 
S Co and treated with the Fl. Oxide of zinc takes a fine yellowish- 
green, and oxide of tin a bluish-green color [No. 36 & No. 33]. 

g 46. Besides the compounds above mentioned there are some others 



31 



which, when exposed to the action of S Co and Fl, experience a change 
of color. These bodies are either of very rare occurrence, or the change 
produced in them is not sufficiently distinct. It will, therefore, be suffi- 
cient merely to mention the names of the compounds and the color which 
S Co imparts to them: 

Baryta [brownish-red], tantalic acid [flesh-color], zirconia and phos- 
phate of magnesia [violet], titanic acid, niobic acid, and antimonic acid 
[green], strontia, lime, glucina, and pelopic acid [gray]. 






THIRD CHAPTER. 



SPECIAL REACTIONS FOR THE DETECTION OF CERTAIN 
SUBSTANCES WHEN IN COMBINATION WITH OTHERS. 

\ 47. THE preceding chapter and accompanying tables show the 
changes which many of the simple chemical compounds undergo when 
heated, or when treated with the usual blowpipe reagents. The reac- 
tions are sufficiently characteristic to distinguish the various compounds 
from each other, so that, when any of the above named substances in a 
pure state is under examination, there is no difficulty to determine its 
nature. This, however, is not of frequent occurrence, and in the majority 
of cases the body to be tested will be of a more complex nature. The 
results of the experiments will vary accordingly. For instance, an ore of 
cobalt, containing iron, will not impart to the bead of Bx or S Ph in the 
Fl a blue color, but a green one, resulting from the mixture of the 
blue of cobalt and the yellow of iron; lead, when accompanied by anti- 
mony, deposits a dark-yellow coating on Ch resembling that of bismuth, 
&c. In such cases we may often, by attentively observing all the phe- 
nomena which present themselves, and by carefully comparing the results 
obtained by the various experiments, detect many, if not all, of the com- 
ponents of the substance under examination. Sometimes we attain this 
end quicker by varying the order, or by introducing auxiliary agents into 
the series of experiments ; and in other cases, again, it is only to be ar- 
rived at by subjecting the assay to treatments different from those men- 
tioned in the preceding pages. 

This chapter contains the principal reactions for the detection of sub- 



33 



stances which require the application of peculiar agents, and the methods 
for ascertaining the presence of certain bodies when in combination with 
others. The alphabetical arrangement will be found of practical use. 

Ammonia. 

48. Small quantities of ammonia are best detected by mixing the 
powdered assay [No. 19] with some carbonate of soda or caustic potassa, 
introducing the mixture into a glass tube, sealed at one end, and applying 
heat. The escaping gas is characterized by its odor, and by its action on 
reddened litmus paper. From the appearance of this reaction we are, 
however, not authorized to infer the pre-existence of ammonia in the 
assay, since from organic matter containing nitrogen, when subjected to 
this treatment, ammonia is evolved as a product of decomposition. 

Antimony. 

The reactions of antimony and its compounds, see g 11, 16, | 21, 36, 
and Table II, 1. 

$ 49. In presence of lead or bismuth, antimony can not be detected by 
its Ct on Ch. In this case the metallic compound [No. 4-8, or No. 85] is 
treated with vitrified boracic acid on Ch, the flame being so directed that 
the glass is always kept covered with the blue cone, the metallic globule 
being on the side ; by this means the metals become oxidized, the oxides 
of lead and bismuth are absorbed by the boracic acid, and the antimo- 
nous acid will form a ring on the Ch, provided the temperature was not 
raised too high. 

$ 50. When combined with metals from which it is not easily sepa- 
rated, ex. gr. copper, the evaporation of the antimony takes place so 
slowly that no distinct Ct is produced. In this case the assay [No. 86] 
is treated with S Ph on Ch in the Fl, until the antimony, or at least 
part of it, has become oxidized and entered into the flux. The glass is 
now removed from the metallic globule and treated on another place of 
the Ch with metallic tin in the R Fl ; the presence of antimony will cause 
the glass to turn gray or black on cooling [Table II, 1]. Bismuth be- 
having under these circumstances in the same manner, the presence of 
this metal makes the reaction not decisive for antimony. The humid 
way has then to be resorted to. 



34 



$51. When the oxides of antimony are accompanied by such metallic 
oxides which, when reduced on Ch, fuse with the metallic antimony to 
an alloy, as is ex. gr. the case with the oxides of tin and copper, the latter 
cannot be recognized by a simple reduction. The oxides have to be treated 
with a mixture of Sd and Bx on Ch in the R Fl. The little metallic 
globules are separated from the flux, and fused with from three to five 
times their own volume of pure lead and some vitrified boracic acid in 
the R Fl, care being taken to play with the flame only on the glass. Anti- 
monous acid is volatilized, depositing the characteristic ring, while the 
oxides of the other metals are absorbed by the boracic acid. 

$ 52. The sulphides of antimony, when heated in the open glass tube, 
show the reaction mentioned $ 16. When accompanied by sulphide of 
lead [No. 89], only a small part of the antimony is converted into anti- 
monous acid, which sublimes ; the remainder is changed into a white 
powder consisting of a mixture of antimonate of oxide of antimony, sul- 
phate of lead, and antimonate of lead. When a compound containing 
sulphide of lead or bismuth, besides sulphide of antimony, is heated on 
Ch in the R Fl, a Ct is deposited consisting of antimonous acid mixed 
with sulphate of lead or bismuth and, nearer to the assay, a yellow one 
of the oxides of lead or bismuth ; how in such a case the presence of 
antimony may be ascertained v. $ 87. 

g 53. To detect a small amount of sulphide of antimony in sulphide of 
arsenic, Plattner strongly recommends the following method, by which 
he obtained very decisive and satisfactory results : The assay [No. 88] 
is introduced into a glass tube, sealed at one end, and gently heated ; the 
sulphide of arsenic is volatilized and the greater part of the sulphide of 
antimony remains as a black powder in the lower end of the tube ; this 
end is cut off, the black substance taken out and transferred to a tube 
open at both ends. By applying heat the characteristic antimony-reac- 
tion will appear. 

Arsenic. 

The reactions of arsenic and its compounds, see $ 11, $ 15, $ 20, $ 34, 
and Table II, 2. 

54. All metallic arsenides yield when heated in the open glass tube, 



35 



a sublimate of arsenous acid (v. $ 15), and most of them evolve a garlic 
odor (v. $ 20) when heated on Ch in R Fl [No, 77]. Some metals, ex. 
gr. nickel and cobalt, have a great affinity for arsenic, so that, when only 
a small quantity of the latter is present, the characteristic odor is not 
observable 5 in such cases it is sometimes produced when the metallic 
compound is fused on Ch with some pure lead in the Fl. 

$ 55. The sulphides of arsenic, heated in the open glass tube, evolve 
sulphurous acid and yield a sublimate of arsenous acid. To show in a 
very decisive manner the presence of arsenic in any of its combinations 
with sulphur, the powdered assay [No. 80] is mixed with six parts of a 
mixture of equal parts of cyanide of potassium and carbonate of soda, 
the mass introduced into a tube sealed at one end, and heat applied, at 
first very gently but gradually raised to redness. A ring of metallic 
arsenic will be deposited in the colder part of the tube. 

$ 56. When sulph-arsenides are heated on Ch, the whole of the arsenic, 
especially when only small quantities are present, may pass off in combi- 
nation with sulphur; but when such compounds [No. 88] are mixed 
with from three to four parts of cyanide of potassium and exposed to the 
R Fl, sulphide of potassium is formed and the arsenic escapes with its 
peculiar odor. 

57. To detect a very small quantity of arsenous acid, the following 
way may be pursued: a glass tube provided with a small bulb at one end 
is close above it narrowly drawn out; the assay [No. 38] is introduced 
into the bulb, and a charcoal splinter placed into the tube ; the narrow 
aperture through which the tube communicates with the bulb prevents 
the Ch from coming in contact with the substance. The tube is then 
heated to redness at the place where the charcoal splinter lies, and as soon 
as this is incandescent, heat is also applied to the bulb. The arseuous acid 
is volatilized and its vapors, while passing over the red hot charcoal, 
become reduced and deposit a black metallic ring of arsenic in the colder 
part of the tube. By cutting the tube below the ring and heating this 
part by the flame of a spirit-lamp, the arsenic is volatilized, thereby 
emitting its characteristic odor. 

$ 58. To show the presence of arsenic in arsenites and arsenates, it 



will in most cases be sufficient to mix the substance [No. 38] with car- 
bonate of soda and heat it on Ch in R Fl. Sometimes it is necessary to 
treat the assay with a mixture of carbonate of soda and cyanide of potas- 
sium in the manner mentioned, $ 55 ; and in other cases again, where 
but small quantities of arsenous or arsenic acid are combined with 
metallic oxides which are readily reduced, recourse must be had to the 
humid way. 

Bismuth. 

The reactions of bismuth and its compounds, see \ 12, 17, 22, and 
Table II, 3. 

$ 59. Bismuth when alloyed with other metals, or when as sulphide in 
combination with other sulphides, is in many cases, and most especially 
so when accompanied by lead or antimony, not to be detected by the 
ring which it deposits on Ch. In such a case the assay [No. 49] is 
treated on Ch until a copious yellow Ct is formed. The Ct is carefully 
scraped off from the Ch and dissolved in S Ph on platinum wire with the 
Fl. The colorless bead is removed from the wire, placed on Ch, a 
little metallic tin added, and the whole exposed to the R Fl. If bismuth 
was present, the glass assumes, on cooling, a dark-gray or black color. 
The oxides of antimony showing the same behavior, the assay, if not 
quite free from antimony, has to be treated on Ch in the Fl until the 
whole of it has been volatilized, and the remaining mass treated on 
another piece of Ch as above mentioned. 

Boracic Acid. 

$ 60. With many borates, which do not impart to the outer flame the 
peculiar yellowish-green color [v. $ 35], this reaction may be produced 
by reducing the substance [No. 2] to powder, adding a drop of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, fastening the mixture into the hook of the platinum 
wire, and playing on it with the blue cone of the flame. 

61. Another way, and by which even a very small quantity of boracic 
acid in salts and minerals may be detected, is : to reduce the substance 
to a very fine powder, to mix it with from 3 to 4 parts of a mixture of 4 J 
parts of bisulphate of potassa and 1 part of fluorspar, and to knead the 
whole with a little water into a thick paste. This mass is then fastened 



37 



to a platinum wire, and exposed to the blue cone of the flame. While 
the mass enters into fusion fluoboric acid is formed which, on escaping, 
colors the flame intensely yellowish-green. The reaction appearing some- 
times only for a few seconds, the flame should be very attentively watched 
during the whole time of the experiment. 
Bromine. 

% 02. Bromides treated with S Ph and oxide of copper on platinum 
wire, or treated with sulphate of copper on silver foil, show the same re- 
action as chlorides (v. 66), with this difference, that the blue color of 
the outer flame is rather greenish, especially on the edges [No. 16]. 

$ 63. To discriminate bromides from chlorides more distinctly, the 
bromide is fused with bisulphate of potassa, both in the anhydrous state, 
in a small matrass with long neck. Sulphurous acid is evolved, and the 
matrass is filled with yellow vapors of bromine, characterized by their 
peculiar odor. The color of the gas is only clearly seen at daylight. 

Cadmium. 

The reactions of cadmium and its compounds, see $11, 24, and 
Table II, 4. 

$ 64. To detect a very small quantity of cadmium, one per cent, or less, 
in zinc or its ores, the pulverized assay is mixed with Sdand exposed for 
a short time to the RF1 on Ch. A distinct Ct of oxide of cadmium is 
deposited. The zinc being less volatile, evaporates only with continued 
blowing [No. 53]. 

Chlorine. 

$ 65. Some oxide of copper is dissolved by means of the Fl in a bead 
of S Ph on platinum wire, until it has assumed a deep green color. Some 
grains of the pulverized assay [No. 18] are then made to adhere to the 
bead, and both heated with the blue cone of the flame. If chlorine is 
present the flame now assumes an intense azure-blue color, owing to the 
formation of chloride of copper (v. \ 36). This test is very delicate, and 
will show the presence of a very minute quantity of chlorine. 

$ 66. Another method is to place on silver-foil some protosulphate of 
iron, or some sulphate of copper, to moisten it with a drop of water, and 
then to add the assay [No. 18]. After a while the silver will be found 

4 



blackened. Substances which are insoluble in water have previously to 
be fused with a little Sd on platinum wire, to form a soluble chloride 
[No. 10]. 

Chlorides, when moistened with sulphuric acid and exposed to the Blp 
flame, impart to it a faint green coloration which, however, is generally 
confined to the inner cone, and is quantitatively of much less intensity 
than that produced with borates. A small amount of boracic acid, when 
occurring together with a chloride, can, therefore, not be detected by the 
method mentioned $ 60. 

Chromium. 

$ 67. Oxide of chromium gives very characteristic reactions with the 
fluxes on platinum wire (v. Table II, 6), but when accompanied by a 
large quantity of iron, copper, or other substances which also intensely 
color the Bx and S Ph beads, the chromium color frequently becomes 
very indistinct. 

68. In such a case, and when the chromium is not in combination 
with silicic acid, its presence may be detected in the following manner : 
The assay-piece [No. 71] is reduced to a fine powder and mixed with 
about four times its own volume of a mixture of equal parts of Sd and 
nitre. The mass is fastened into the hook of a thick platinum wire, or 
placed into a small platinum spoon, and treated with a powerful Kl. 
An alkaline chromate is formed which is dissolved in water, the solution 
supersaturated with acetic acid, and a crystal of acetate of lead added. 
If chromium was present, a yellow precipitate of chromate of lead will 
appear. The precipitate may be collected on a filter and tested in the Bx 
and S Ph beads, when the characteristic chromium-reactions will be pro- 
duced. 
Cobalt. 

The reactions of cobalt, see Table II, 7. 

g 69. To detect cobalt when in combination with other metals, v. \ 83. 

To show its presence in arsenides, the assay [No. 78] is placed on Ch 
and heated until no longer fumes of arsenous acid are emitted. (Lead 
and bismuth, if present, form the characteristic coatings). Bx is now 
added and the heat continued until the glass appears colored. If the 



39 



color is not pure blue, the presence of iron is indicated. The glass is in 
this case removed from the globule, and the latter treated repeatedly with 
fresh quantities of Bx until the pure cobalt-color is obtained. Nickel 
and copper, if present, do not enter into the flux before the whole of the 
cobalt is oxidized. If we wish to ascertain the presence of these metals, 
the glass which is colored by cobalt is removed from the globule, and the 
latter treated with fresh portions of Bx in the Fl until the color of the 
bead becomes brown, indicative of nickel. The glass is again removed 
and the globule treated with S Ph in the Fl ; when copper is present 
the bead assumes a green color, which remains unaltered on cooling. 
Treated with tin on Ch the glass turns opaque and red. 

$70. To detect cobalt in sulphides, the assay [No. 79] is heated on 
Ch in the R Fl until all volatile substances are driven off, the remaining 
mass reduced to powder, well calcined, and the calcined mass treated 
with Bx on Ch in the Fl. If cobalt is the only coloring metal present, 
the bead will exhibit a pure blue color ; a small addition of iron will 
make the glass appear green while hot, but blue when cold. Copper and 
nickel, when present to some extent, will prevent the cobalt-color to be 
distinctly seen. The bead is in this case exposed to the R Fl until it 
appears transparent and flows quietly ; the oxides of copper and nickel 
are by this means reduced, and the pure color of cobalt, or that of cobalt 
mixed with iron, becomes apparent. 
Copper. 

The reactions of copper and its compounds, see $$ 35, 36, and Table 
11,8. 

71. The red color which copper imparts to the Bx orSPh bead, 
when heated on Ch in the R Fl in contact with tin (v. Table II, 8), is 
very characteristic and will in most cases clearly show the presence of 
this metal. But if only a small quantity of copper is associated with 
other metals, the reaction is not easily obtained ; in this case we may 
proceed as follows : 

The assay [No. 89, or No. 86, or No. 85] is placed on Ch and played 
upon with the Fl until antimony and other volatile metals are driven 
off. Some vitrified boracic acid is fused on Ch to a glassy globule, the 



40 



assay placed close to it, and the whole covered with a large R Fl. When 
the metallic globule begins to assume a bright metallic surface, the flame 
is gradually converted into a sharply-pointed blue cone, which is made 
to act only on the glass, leaving the metallic globule untouched, and so 
situated that it touches the glass on one side, and on the other side is in 
close contact with the Ch. During this process lead, iron, cobalt, part 
of the nickel, and such of the more volatile metals, that were not entirely 
removed by the previous calcination, as bismuth, antimony, zinc, &c., 
become oxidized, and their oxides partly volatilized and partly absorbed 
by the boracic acid. The remaining metallic globule is then removed 
from the flux and treated on Ch with S Ph in the Fl, when the copper 
is oxidized and dissolved. The limpid bead is then refused in the RF1 
with addition of tin. A trace of copper may thus be made to produce 
distinctly the characteristic reaction. 

$ 72. To show the presence of copper in compounds which contain 
much nickel, cobalt, iron, and arsenic, the assay [No. 82] is first treated 
with Bx on Ch in the R Fl, when the greater part of iron and cobalt are 
dissolved. The remaining globule is then mixed with some pure lead, 
and treated as shown $ 71. Arsenic is for the most part driven off, and 
the rest of the iron and cobalt, with some nickel, absorbed by the boracic 
acid. The globule is removed from the glass and treated with S Ph in 
the Fl ; dark-green while hot, and somewhat lighter green when cold 
(produced by the mixture of the yellow of nickel and the blue of copper), 
indicates the presence of copper. 

To detect copper when in combination with tin v. $ 110. 

73. To detect copper in sulphides, the pulverized assay [No. 7G] is 
calcined, and the calcined mass treated as above, or, when the amount 
of copper is not very small, simply treated with Bx or S Ph on Ch in the 
Fl, and subsequently with addition of tin in the R Fl. The presence 
of copper is then shown by the red color and the opaqueness of the glass 
on cooling. This reaction is only prevented or, at least, made indistinct 
by antimony or bismuth, which cause the glass to turn gray or black. 
In this case the assay is, after calcination, mixed with Sd, Bx, and some 
pure lead, and the mixture fused on Ch in the R Fl. The metallic glo- 



41 



bule is then heated on Ch to drive off the antimony, and afterwards 
treated with boracic acid as above. 

74. When a mineral which contains copper is heated in the blue 
cone, the outer cone of the flame frequently assumes a green or, if the 
metal is in combination with chlorine, an azure-blue color. This reac- 
tion, if not produced by heating the substance alone, may sometimes be 
elicited by adding a drop of concentrated hydrochloric acid to the pul- 
verized assay [No. 73], evaporating to dryness, mixing the dry powder 
with a little water to a stiff paste, fastening this into the hook of a pla- 
tinum wire, and then exposing it to the blue cone of the flame. 

Fluorine. 

$ 75. To detect fluorine in such minerals where it occurs only as an 
accessory element in combination with weak bases, and which at the 
same time contain water, a small piece of the substance [No. 60] is 
placed into a glass tube sealed at one end, a wet Brazil-wood paper in- 
troduced into the open end, and heat applied. Fluoride of silicon and 
hydrofluoric are evolved ; the former is decomposed by the watery vapor 
and deposits a ring of silica not far distant from the assay, and the lat- 
ter turns the red color of the test-paper into straw-yellow. Mica, 
containing not more than f per cent, of fluorine shows the reaction very 
distinctly. 

$ 76. To show the presence of fluorine in minerals where it is united 
with strong bases, the finely powdered assay [No. 6] is mixed with about 
four parts of bisulphate of potassa and introduced into a glass tube, 
sealed at one end. Heat is applied until sulphuric acid begins to escape. 
The sides of the tubes become covered with silicic acid, resulting from the 
decomposition of the gaseous fluoride of silicon. The tube is cut off 
close above the fused mass, cleaned with water, and carefully dried with 
blotting paper. The dulled appearance of the glass indicates the pre- 
sence of fluorine. 

2J7. Another process, and by which the presence of fluorine in all 
kind of compounds may be shown, is to mix the pulverized assay with 
some S Ph which has previously been fused on Ch and then reduced to 
powder ; to place the mixture on platinum foil, which is connected with 



an open glass tube in such a manner as to constitute a kind of tubular 
continuation to the former, and to heat with the blowpipe flame until the 
mass enters into fusion. If the flame is so directed that the products of 
decomposition are made to pass through the glass tube and a moistened 
Brazil-wood paper is introduced into the other end, the presence of hy- 
drofluoric acid is indicated by the change of color which the latter expe- 
riences ; in some cases the glass will also be dulled, or a deposit of silicic 
acid be formed. This test is very delicate. 

Gold. 

\ 78. When gold is in combination with metals which are volatile at 
a high temperature, ex. gr. tellurium, mercury, antimony, it is only ne- 
cessary to heat the alloy on Ch with the Fl, when the gold remains 
behind in a pure state and may be recognized by its physical properties. 
Lead is removed by the process of cupellation, as explained in $ 102. 

| 79. When associated with copper, the presence of which is easily 
detected by S Ph on Ch, the alloy, for example gold-coin, is dissolved in 
pure melted lead and the new compound subjected to the process of 
cupellation on bone-ash. Copper is by this means entirely removed. To 
test the remaining globule for silver, it is treated with S Ph on Ch in the 
Fl ; the silver is gradually oxidized and dissolved by the glass, which 
when cold assumes an opal-like appearance. To determine approxi- 
mately the relative proportions of the two metals, the metallic globule is 
taken from the cupel, placed in a small porcelain dish, containing some 
nitric acid, and heat applied. If the alloy contains 25 per cent, of gold 
or less, it turns black, the silver is gradually dissolved and the gold re- 
mains behind as a brown or black spongy or pulverulent mass. If the 
alloy contains more than 25 per cent, of gold, the globule turns also 
black, but the silver is not dissolved. If both metals are present in 
about equal proportions, the globule remains unaltered. If the amount 
of gold is considerable it is indicated by the color of the alloy. 

\ 80. When associated with metals, which per se are infusible before 
the blowpipe, as ex. gr. platinum, iridium, palladium, the metallic glob- 
ule obtained by cupellation shows much less fusibility than pure gold. 
The exact nature of the foreign metals cannot be ascertained before the 
Blp ; the humid way must be resorted to. 



Iodine. 

% 81. Iodides, tested with a SPh bead which is saturated with oxide 
of copper as shown $ 65, impart to the outer flame a fine green color 
[No. 17]. 

Fused with bisulphate of potassa in a glass tube, closed at one end, 
violet vapors are evolved, iodine sublimes, and sulphurous acid escapes. 

$ 82. Another method, which is said to surpass in delicacy even the 
reaction with starch, is to mix the substance with a mixture of carbonate 
of lime and quicklime, to dry the mass thoroughly, to add some proto- 
chloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate), to rub the whole well together, 
and to place it in a glass tube closed at one end. The tube is then nar- 
rowly drawn out a little above the assay, and the mass heated to redness. 
Protiodide of mercury is formed, which sublimes in yellow or red needles 
into the narrow tube. This reaction is founded on the property of lime 
to decompose the protochloride of mercury, but not the protiodide. 
Iron. 

The reactions of the oxides of iron, see Table II, 10. 

g 83. The colors which iron imparts to the various fluxes are suffi- 
ciently characteristic to ascertain its presence in such metallic compounds 
which contain no easily fusible substances, by simply treating the assay 
with Bx on Ch in the Fl. When lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, or zinc 
are present, the R Fl is employed, and directed in such a manner that it 
principally touches the glass. Thus, the oxidation and consequent satu- 
ration of the bead with the oxides of these metals, is to a great extent 
prevented. In either case the glass, while still soft, is removed from the 
globule and exposed on another place of the Ch to the R Fl. Those 
metals whose oxides are easily reduced, are now precipitated, and the 
characteristic bottle-green color of iron is clearly observable, unless cobalt 
be present. In this case the glass is again softened with the R Fl, sepa- 
rated from the precipitated metals, fastened into the hook of a platinum 
wire and treated with the Fl until the whole of the iron may be sup- 
posed to be converted into sesquioxide. The glass, while hot, will appear 
green, and blue when cold, if only a trace of iron is present. But when 
the amount of iron is more considerable, it will be dark-green while hot 



and bright-green when cold, the latter color resulting from the mixture 
of the blue of cobalt and the yellow of iron. The metals remaining be- 
hind on Ch after the treatment with Bx, and which frequently are only 
copper and nickel (lead, antimony, and bismuth being volatilized), may 
be treated as shown $71. 

To detect iron in arsenides and sulphides, the assay is well calcined, 
and the calcined mass treated as above [No. 86 and No. 79]. 

\ 84. The oxides of iron when associated with a large quantity of man- 
ganese [No. 84 and No. 69], color the Bx bead on platinum wire in the 
Fl, red. To show the presence of iron the bead is removed from the 
wire, placed on Ch, and treated with tin in the R Fl. The vitriol-green 
color of iron will appear in its purity. When associated with the oxides 
of manganese and cobalt, a minute quantity of iron cannot very well be 
detected by means of the blowpipe alone. When accompanied by the 
oxides of copper and nickel [No. 78 or No. 85], the assay is dissolved 
in Bx on Ch in the Fl and the glass treated as shown 83. 

$ 85. The presence of chromium prevents any conclusive deduction as 
to the presence of iron from the color of the beads. In such a case the 
substance [No. 71] may be mixed with three parts of nitre and one of 
Sd, and the mixture fused in small portions into the hook of a thick 
platinum wire. The alkaline chromate is dissolved in water and the resi- 
due treated with the fluxes. The presence of the oxides of iron when 
associated with the oxides of uranium cannot be ascertained by means 
of the blowpipe alone. 

Lead. 

The reactions of lead and its compounds, see \\ 12, 23, 36, and Table 
II, 12. 

$ 86. An alloy of lead and zinc [No. 50] deposits a Ct of oxide of lead 
mixed with oxide of zinc ; the presence of lead is shown by the color 
of the Ct and by the azure-blue tinge which it imparts to the RF1 (v. 
2 23). 

An alloy of lead and bismuth [No. 49] deposits a Ct somewhat darker 
than that of pure lead, in which the presence of bismuth may be detected 
as shown $ 59, and the presence of lead by the azure-blue color of the 
RF1. 



45 



$ 87. To detect lead in sulphides, the substance is placed on Ch and 
treated with the R Fl ; the lead is detected by its Ct. An admixture of 
antimony cannot by this means be ascertained, since the ring of sulphate 
of lead, surrounding that of the oxide, bears a striking resemblance to 
the Ct formed by antimonous acid. In this case the pulverized assay 
[No. 85] is mixed with a sufficient quantity of Sd, and treated for a 
short time with the E, Fl. If no antimony is present a pure yellow Ct 
with bluish-white edges is formed ; but in presence of antimony this Ct 
is surrounded by another, white one, of antimonous acid. The oxide of 
lead Ct appears, moreover, darker than usual, resembling that of bis- 
muth, owing probably to the formation of antimonate of lead. If this 
Ct is scraped off from the Ch and treated with S Ph as mentioned \ 59, 
in the case of bismuth, the bead, on cooling, assumes a black color, 
whereby, in absence of bismuth, the presence of antimony is proved. A 
very small quantity of antimony can by this method not be found out 
with certainty, since, by keeping up the blast for some time, the sulphide 
of sodium begins to vaporize and to coat the Ch with a ring of sul- 
phate of soda (v. $ 30). 

88. When sulphide of lead is associated with a considerable quan- 
tity of sulphide of copper [No. 89], the metallic globule, obtained by 
the process of reduction, does not betray, by its physical properties, the 
presence of lead. But if the alloy is removed from the flux and played 
upon with a powerful Fl, the greater part of the lead will be volatilized 
and deposit a Ct. 

Lithia. 

$ 89. To detect lithia in silicates which contain only little of it, pro- 
ceed as follows: The substance [No. G7] is reduced to a fine powder 
and mixed Avith about 2 parts of a mixture of 1 part of fluorspar with 1 
parts of bisulphate of potassa ; a few drops of water are added and the 
whole kneaded into a paste. The mass is fused with the blue cone of 
the flame into the hook of a platinum wire. If lithia is present the outer 
flame will appear red. The color is not very intense, and verging into 
violet. The presence of potassa does not prevent the reaction, but makes 
the flame appear still more violet ; soda makes the reaction uncertain. 



46 
Manganese. 

The reactions of manganese, see Table II, 13. 

$ 90. The presence of manganese in any compound substance is readily 
detected by mixing the pulverized assay [No. 6G or No. 84] with about 
2 or 3 parts of Sd ; and fusing it by means of the Fl on platinum foil. 
Manganate of soda is formed, which, while hot, is green and transparent 
and, on cooling, turns bluish-green and opaque. The reaction is very 
distinct when as much as one-tenth per cent, of manganese is present. 
But even the slightest trace may be detected when, instead of Sd, a mix- 
ture of 1 part of nitre with 2 parts of Sd is used. Chromium does not 
prevent the reaction, merely changing the color to yellowish-green. It 
is only in presence of silica and cobalt that this test is not available, 
since at a high temperature the silica unites with the soda to silicate of 
soda, which, in dissolving the oxide of cobalt, produces a blue glass, and 
thus interferes with the manganese color. 
Mercury. 

The reactions of mercury and its compounds, see $$ 11, 17, and Table 
II, 14. 

$ 91. Mercury is detected in amalgams [No. 47] by the sublimate of 
metallic mercury which they yield, when heated in a glass tube closed at 
one end. 

When in combination with sulphur [No. 81], chlorine [No. 39], iodine 
or ox-acids, the substance is previously mixed with some anhydrous Sd 
or some neutral oxalate of potassa. The acids, &c., are retained by the 
soda, and mercury sublimes. 

If the quantity of mercury is so small, that the nature of the sublimate 
cannot with certainty be ascertained, the experiment has to be repeated, 
a piece of iron wire around which a gold-leaf has been wrapped being at 
the same time introduced into the tube and held close above the assay. 
The gold-leaf will turn white if ever so little mercury be present. 

Nickel. 

The reactions of nickel, see Table II, 16. 

92. To detect nickel in metallic compounds which are fusible before 
the Blp, the assay is treated with Bx on Ch in the R Fl ; iron, cobalt, 



47 



&c., enter into the flux and may be detected as shown $ 69, while the 
metals whose oxides are easily reduced remain behind. This operation 
is repeated until the glass appears no longer colored. The remaining 
globule is treated with S Ph in the Fl. We now obtain either the 
pure color of nickel, or that of nickel mixed with copper (v. $ 72) ; 
in this case it is treated on Ch with tin, whereby the presence of copper 
may be ascertained. Bismuth or antimony prevents the reaction for 
copper, the bead turning black, instead of red. Such compounds must, 
previous to their treatment with fluxes, be heated on Ch in R Fl until all 
volatile substances are driven off [No. 82]. 

In arsenides and sulphides nickel is detected by the methods given for 
cobalt under the same circumstances (v. $ 70). 

Nitric acid. 

| 93. The perfectly dry substance [No. 23] is heated in a matrass 
with some bisulphate of potassa ; orange-yellow vapors of nitrous acid 
are emitted, even if but a small quantity of a nitrate is present. 

Phosphoric acid. 

% 94. A very minute quantity of phosphoric acid may be detected by 
pulverizing the substance [No. 14], adding a drop of concentrated sul- 
phuric acid, fastening the paste into the hook of a platinum wire, and 
playing upon it with the blue cone of the flame ; the outer flame will 
assume a bluish-green color (v. $ 35). 

Certain azotized compounds, as nitric acid, nitrate of ammonia, 
chloride of ammonium, &c., when fastened into the hook of a platinum 
wire and touched with the cone of the blue flame, impart to the outer 
flame a bluish-green color, resembling that caused by phosphoric acid. 

g 95. In a substance, containing not less than about 5 per cent. of phos- 
phoric acid, the presence of the latter may be shown by dissolving the 
assay [No. 68] on Ch in boracic acid and forcing into the glass, when a 
good fusion is effected, a piece of fine steel wire ; a good R Fl is then 
given. The iron is oxidized at the expense of the phosphoric acid, 
causing the formation of a borate of the oxide of iron and phosphide of 
iron, which fuses at a sufficiently high temperature. The bead is then 
taken from the Ch, enveloped in a piece of paper, and struck lightly with 



48 



a hammer, by wliicli means the phosphide of iron is separated from the 
surrounding flux. It exists as a metallic-looking button, attractable by 
the magnet, frangible on the anvil, the fracture having the color of iron. 
If the substance under assay contained no phosphoric acid, the iron wire 
will keep its form and metallic lustre, excepting at the ends, where it will 
be oxidated and burnt. The substance to be assayed ought not to con- 
tain sulphuric acid, arsenic acid, or any metallic oxides reducible by 
iron. 

Phosphate of lead exhibits the peculiarity of crystallizing on cooling 
after having been fused on Ch ; the crystals have frequently large facets 
of a pearly lustre. 

Potassa. 

$ 97. The violet color of the flame is sufficiently characteristic for potassa 
(v. \ 33). But being altogether prevented or, at least, made very indis- 
tinct by the addition of a few per cent, of soda or lithia, it can only in a 
very few cases be made use of. For the detection of potassa in silicates 
it is almost entirely unavailable, because these compounds almost always 
contain some soda. 

$ 98. If the base of a compound consists essentially of potassa, the fol- 
lowing method may be advantageously employed for its detection : Some 
Bx, to which a little boracic acid has been added, is melted into the hook 
of a platinum wire and so much protoxide of nickel added that the glass 
on cooling shows a distinct brownish color. A small piece of the sub- 
stance under examination [No. 15] is made to adhere to the glass and 
the whole fused together with the Fl. If the assay-piece contained no 
potassa, the color of the glass, after perfect cooling, will have remained 
unchanged ; but if potassa was present in sufficient quantity, the glass 
will appear bluish. 

Selenium. 

$ 99. The reactions of selenium are very characteristic. In non-volatile 
compounds, which do not give the red sublimate mentioned $ 11, the 
selenium is detected by heating a small piece of the substance [No. 87] 
on Ch in Fl, when the peculiar odor is evolved ; if much selenium is 
present, a Ct is deposited, v. 28. Selenites and selenates are treated on 



49 



Ch with Sd in R Fl, when a reduction takes place and the selenium va- 
porizes with the characteristic odor. 

Silica. 

I 100. Pure silica [No. 54], when treated with Bx on platinum wire, 
dissolves slowly to a transparent glass which fuses with difficulty. Treated 
with S Ph in the same manner only a small quantity is dissolved, the rest 
floating in the liquid bead as a semi-transparent mass. The behavior to 
Sd see g 39. With a little So Co it assumes a pale bluish color which, 
on addition of a large quantity of the reagent, turns dark-gray or black; 
very thin splinters may be fused by a great heat to a reddish-blue glass. 

$ 101. Silicates [No. 61], when treated with SPh on platinum wire, 
are decomposed ; the bases unite with the free phosphoric acid to a trans- 
parent glass in which the silica may be seen floating as a gelatinous 
cloudy mass. The bead ought to be carefully observed while hot, since 
many silicates form a glass which on cooling opalizes or becomes opaque, 
when, of course, the phenomenon can no longer be seen. The experi- 
ment is best performed with a small splinter of the substance under ex- 
amination, and only when this does not appear to be affected by the flux, 
the finely pulverized substance should be used. If but a very small 
quantity of silica is present, the glass will appear perfectly transparent. 
Its presence in this case cannot be detected by means of the Blp. 

\ 102. Silicates containing at least so much silica that the quantity of 
oxygen in the acid is twice that of the oxygen in the base, dissolve, when 
treated with Sd on Ch, with effervescence to a transparent glass which 
remains so when cold. When less silica is present decomposition also 
takes place, but the glass turns opaque on cooling, the amount of silicate 
of soda which is formed not being sufficient to dissolve the eliminated 
bases. 

Silver. 

The reactions of silver, see 27, and Table II, 20. 

$ 103. When in combination with metals which are volatile at a high 
temperature, ex. gr. bismuth, lead, zinc, antimony, the substance is heated 
alone on Ch, when, after evaporation of the foreign metals, a button of 
pure silver remains behind and a feeble reddish Ct is deposited on the Ch. 



50 



If associated with much lead or bismuth, these metals are best removed 
by cupellation, a process which is executed in the following manner : 
Finely pulverized bone-ash is mixed with a minute quantity of soda and 
made with a little water into a stiff paste ; a hole is now bored into the 
Ch ; filled with the paste, and its surface smoothed and made slightly 
concave by pressing on it with the pestle of the little agate mortar. The 
mass is then dried by the flame of a common spirit-lamp. On this little 
cupel the assay [No. 51] is placed and so long heated with the Fl until 
the whole of the lead or bismuth is oxidized and absorbed by the cupel. 
The silver or, if gold is present, the alloy of silver and gold remains as a 
bright metallic button on the cupel. 

$ 104. When combined with metals which are not volatile, but which 
are easier oxidized than silver, the presence of this metal may in some 
cases be detected by simply treating the alloy with Bx or SPh on Ch. 
Copper, nickel, cobalt, &c., become oxidized and their oxides dissolved 
by the flux, while silver remains behind with a bright metallic surface. 
But when these metals are present to a considerable extent, another 
course has to be pursued, a course which may always be taken when a 
substance is to be assayed for silver, or silver and gold. 

$ 105. The assay-piece [No. 86] is reduced to a fine powder, mixed 
with vitrified Bx and metallic lead (the quantities of which altogether 
depend upon the nature of the substance, and for which, therefore, no 
general rule can be given), and the mass placed in a cylindrical hole of 
the Ch. A powerful R Fl is given until the metals have united to a but- 
ton, and the slag appears free from metallic globules. The flame is now 
converted into a Fl and directed principally upon the button. Sulphur, 
arsenic, antimony, and other very volatile substances, are volatilized ; 
iron, tin, cobalt, and a little copper and nickel become oxidized and are 
absorbed by the flux ; silver and gold and the greater part of copper and 
nickel remain with the lead (and bismuth, if present). When all vola- 
tile sabstances are driven off, the lead begins to become oxidized, and 
the button assumes a rotary motion ; at this period the blast is discon- 
tinued, the assay is allowed to cool, and when perfectly cold the lead 
button is separated from the glass by some slight strokes with a hammer. 



51 



It is now placed on a cupel of bone-ash and treated with the Fl until 
it again assumes a rotatory motion. If much copper or nickel is present, 
the globule becomes covered with a thick infusible crust, which prevents 
the aimed-at oxidation ; in this case another small piece of pure lead has 
to be added. The blast is kept up until the whole of the lead and other 
foreign metals, viz., copper and nickel, are oxidized ; this is indicated by 
the cessation of the rotatory movement, if only little silver is present, or 
by the appearance of all the tints of the rainbow over the whole surface 
of the button, if the ore was very rich in silver ; after a few moments it 
takes the look of pure silver. The oxides of lead, copper, &c., are ab- 
sorbed by the bone-ash, and pure silver, or an alloy of silver with other 
noble metals, remains behind ; the button may be tested for gold, &c., 
after the method given in $ 79. 
Sulphur. 

\ 106. The presence of sulphur in sulphides may in many cases be 
detected by heating in a glass tube (v. $ 11, 14), or on Ch with the 
OF1. 

\ 107. A very delicate test for the presence of sulphur, in whatever 
combination it may be contained in the substance, and which possesses 
moreover the advantage over all other methods of being very easily per- 
formed, is to mix the pulverized assay [No. 4] with some pure Sd or, 
better still, with a mixture of 2 parts of Sd and 1 of Bx, and to treat it 
on Ch with the RF1. The fused mass is removed from the Ch, pow- 
dered, the powder placed on a silver foil or a bright silver coin, and a 
drop of water added. If the substance under examination contained any 
sulphur, a black spot will be formed on the silver foil, owing to the forma- 
tion of sulphide of silver from the decomposition of the sulphide of so- 
dium, which, in its turn, resulted from the decomposition of the sulphide 
or sulphate, or other sulphur-compound of the assay-piece, under the in- 
fluence of Sd, Ch, and a high temperature. Selenium shows the same 
reaction ; it is readily recognized by the peculiar odor which it emits 
when heated on Ch alone. 

$ 108. To decide whether the reaction obtained in the experiment was 
owing to the presence of a sulphide or to that of a sulphate, the finely- 



52 



pulverized substance [No. 76] is fused in a small platinum spoon with 
some hydrate of potassa. The spoon with the contents is then placed 
into a vessel containing some water, and a piece of silver foil inserted 
into the liquid. If the silver remains perfectly bright, a sulphate was 
present, if it turns black, a sulphide. The absence of substances which 
might exercise a reducing influence is required. 
Tellurium. 

\ 109. The presence of tellurium in mineral substances is detected by 
the tests given $11,18,29. In presence of lead or bismuth the 
reactions in the open tubes and on Ch are not quite pure. In this case 
we may subject the assay to the following treatment: The substance is 
mixed with some Sd and charcoal-powder, the mixture introduced into a 
glass tube closed at one end, and heated to fusion ; after cooling, a few 
drops of hot water are poured into the tube ; if tellurium was present, 
telluride of sodium has been formed, which dissolves in hot water with a 
purplish-red color. This test is applicable to show the presence of tellu- 
rium in a great many compounds, even in such where it occurs in the 
oxidized state. 
Tin. 

The reactions of tin and its compounds, see $ 12, 26, 45, and 
Table II, 22. 

110. The presence of tin is indicated by its Ct when the substance 
[No. 13] alone or mixed with Sd, is exposed to the E Fl on Ch. 

When the substance under examination is an alloy, a little Bx is con- 
veniently added, which absorbs the oxide of tin in the measure as it is 
formed, and allows the presence of those metals which are more volatile, 
ex. gr. antimony, lead, bismuth, to be recognized by their coatings. 
Arsenic is detected by its odor, and iron by the color which the Bx bead 
assumes when refused on platinum wire in the Fl. 

To detect copper in tin or its alloy, the assay [No. 52] is fused with 
a flux consisting of 100 parts of Sd, 50 of vitrified Bx, and 30 of silica. 
The flame is so directed that the metallic globule assumes a rotatory 
motion. When in this state the glass is kept covered, as much as possi- 
ble, with the Fl, care being taken that the globule is at one side in 



53 



contact with the glass, and at the other with the Ch. The tin becomes 
oxidized and the oxide, in the measure as it is formed, absorbed by the 
flux ; the remaining button is copper, pure or with a small quantity of 
tiu, and may be readily tested with the usual fluxes. 

Titanium. 

$111. Titanic acid, when forming the principal constituent of any 
mineral substance, is easily detected by its behavior with the fluxes, v. 
Table II, 23 ; but when in combination with bases these reactions are 
not always clearly perceptible, being frequently suppressed by the pre- 
dominating reaction of the base. In such cases we may subject the 
assay to the following treatment, by which even very small quantities of 
titanic acid will become apparent : the substance [No. 65] is reduced to 
a very fine powder, mixed with from 6 to 8 parts of bisulphate of potassa, 
and fused in a platinum spoon at a low red-heat ; the fused mass is dis- 
solved in a porcelain vessel in the smallest possible quantity of water, 
aided by heat. There remains an insoluble residue which is allowed to 
settle ; the clear liquid is poured off into a larger vessel, mixed with a 
few drops of nitric acid and at least six volumes of water, and heated to 
ebullition. If the substance under examination contained any titanium, 
a white precipitate of titanic acid forms on boiling. The precipitate is 
collected on a filter, washed with water, acidulated with nitric acid, and 
tested with S Ph. 
Uranium. 

$ 112. The presence of this metal is easily recognized, in substances 
which contain no other coloring constituents, by the reactions given Table 
II, 25 ; the most characteristic test is that with S Ph. In presence of 
much iron this reaction becomes indistinct ; we may then operate in the 
following manner : the finely-pulverized substance [No. 70] is fused with 
bisulphate of potassa, the fused mass dissolved in water, mixed with car- 
bonate of ammonia in excess, the liquid separated from the precipitate 
by filtration, and the filtrate heated to ebullition. If any uranium was 
present, a yellow precipitate is thrown down, which gives with the fluxes 
the pure reactions of uranium. 



Zinc. 

The reactions for zinc and its compounds, see $ 12, 25, 45, and 
Table II, 27. 

113. A small amount of zinc, when associated with considerable 
quantities of lead, or bismuth, or antimony, or tin, cannot with certainty 
be ascertained by means of the Blp. 

If the substance under examination contains the zinc as oxide [No. 
36], or but a small quantity of sulphide, it is mixed with Sd and treated 
on Ch in R Fl. Substances consisting essentially of sulphide of zinc 
may be thus treated without the addition of Sd, and such as contain, 
beside oxide of zinc, other metallic oxides, are conveniently mixed with 
some Sd to which about one-half of its weight of Bx has been added. A 
ring of oxide of zinc is deposited on the Ch. When lead is present 
[No. 51] the Ct is frequently not pure, being mixed up with the Ct of 
lead. In this case it is moistened with some So Co and heated again with 
the Fl. The oxide of lead is reduced by the red hot Ch and vola- 
tilized, while the oxide of zinc remains behind with a green color 
(v. g 45). 



FOURTH CHAPTER, 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ORES; 

THEIR BEHAVIOR BEFORE THE BLOWPIPE, 

AND TO SOLVENTS. 

$ 114. OF the physical properties of the minerals which are treated of 
in this chapter, only those are enumerated which serve best to discrimi- 
nate the different ores from each other. For a more detailed description 
I must refer to Dana's and other works on mineralogy. Among the 
distinguishing characters of minerals, their hardness and specific gravity 
stand foremost. The latter cannot be ascertained without a good balance, 
and will, for this reason, be of much less use to the practical man than 
the determination of hardness, an operation which may be performed in 
a few moments. A set of minerals, representing the scale of hardness, 
being not always at hand, it will be useful to give a series of substitutes 
for them, as arranged by Mr. Chapman : 

1. Yields easily to the nail. 

2. Yields with difficulty to the nail, or merely receives an impression 
from it. Does not scratch a copper coin. 

3. Scratches a copper coin; but is also scratched by it, being of about 
the same degree of hardness. 

4. Not scratched by a copper coin ; does not scratch glass. 

5. Scratches glass, though rather with difficulty, leaving its powder on 
it. Yields readily to the knife. 



56 



6. Scratches glass easily. Yields with difficulty to the knife. 

Y. Does not yield to the knife. Yields to the edge of a file, though 
with difficulty. 

8. 9. 10. Harder than flint. 

The scale of hardness, as introduced by Mohs, and enlarged by 
Breithaupt, is as follows : 

1. Talc; common laminated light-green variety. 

2. Gypsum ; a crystalline variety. 
2.5. Foliated Mica. 

3. Calcareous Spar ; transparent variety. 

4. Fluor Spar ; crystalline variety. 

5. Apatite ; transparent variety. 
5.5. Scapolite ; crystalline variety. 

6. Orthoclase ; white cleavable variety. 

7. Quartz ; transparent. 

8. Topaz; transparent. 

9. Sapphire ; cleavable varieties. 

10. Diamond. 

To test the hardness of a mineral we may proceed in two different 
manners : firstly, by attempting to scratch it with the minerals enume- 
rated in the scale, successively, or, secondly, by abrasion with a file. If 
the file abrades the mineral under trial with the same ease as No. 4, and 
produces an equal depth of abrasion with the same force, its hardness is 
said to be 4. If with more facility than 4, but less than 5. the hardness 
may be 4 or 4. Several successive trials should be made to obtain 
certain results; and, when practicable, both methods should be em- 
ployed. 

ORES OF ANTIMONY. 

Gray Antimony [Stibnite]. 

115. Sb S 3 . H=2. G=4.5. Of lead-gray color and metallic lustre. 
Usually of columnar structure, consisting of a vast number of needle- 
shaped crystals, sometimes side by side, sometimes divergent. Very 
brittle. 



57 



It fuses readily in the flame of a candle. In a matrass, sometimes 
yields a slight sublimate of sulphur ; on increasing the heat by application 
of the Blp flame, a sublimate is produced which after cooling is brownish- 
red, and which consists of a mixture of tersulphide of antimony with 
antimonous acid. In an open glass tube, emits sulphurous acid and 
antimonial fumes. On Ch it is volatilized, covering the Ch with oxide 
of antimony, which, when touched with the R Fl, disappears with a pale 
greenish- blue tinge. 

When pure, wholly soluble in heated hydrochloric acid with evolution 
of sulphuretted hydrogen ; usually a residue of chloride of lead is left. 
Partly decomposed by caustic potassa; the solution, when mixed with an 
acid, affords a yellowish-red precipitate. 

Berthierite. 

g 116. Composition variable, sometimes Fe S + Sb S 3 . H=2 3. 
G=4 4.3. Metallic lustre, less splendent than gray antimony j color 
dark steel-gray. 

Heated in a matrass, fuses and yields a slight sublimate of sulphur ; 
on application of a strong heat, a black sublimate of sulphide of anti- 
mony is formed, which, on cooling, becomes brownish-red. In an open 
glass tube it behaves like the preceding ore. In Ch, fuses easily and 
coats the charcoal with oxide of antimony ; there remains, finally, a black 
slag, which is attracted by the magnet and gives with fluxes the iron 
reaction. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Red Antimony [Kermesite]. 

1 117. 2 SbS 3 + SbO 3 . H=l 1.5. G=4.5 4.6. Usually in tufts of 
capillary crystals of cherry-red color. 

In a matrass, fuses readily and yields a slight yellowish-red sublimate ; 
with strong heat, boils and gives a black sublimate which, when cold, is 
brownish-red. In an open tube and on Ch, behaves like gray antimony. 

It dissolves in hydrochloric acid with evolution of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen. The powdered mineral, when treated with caustic potassa, assumes 
an ochre-yellow color and dissolves completely. 



58 

ORES OP ARSENIC. 

Native Arsenic. 

| 118. As, with traces of Sb, Ag, Fe, Co and Ni. H=3.5. G=5.9. 
Of metallic lustre and tin-white color, tarnishing on exposure to air to 
dark-gray. 

Heated in a matrass, sublimes ; on Ch, behaves like pure arsenic. In 
both cases, sometimes, a residue is left, which, when treated with lluxes, 
exhibits the reactions of iron, cobalt and nickel. (See f 83.) 

Realgar. 

1 119. As S. H=1.5 2. G=3.4 3.6. Usually of bright-red, some- 
times of orange-yellow color, and resinous lustre. Sectile. 

In a matrass, fuses, boils, and finally sublimes ; the sublimate, iit'ter 
cooling, is red and transparent. In an open glass tube, when carefully 
heated, yields a sublimate of ajrsenous acid, sulphurous acid escaping. 
On Ch, {uses readily and burns with a yellowish-white flame, emitting 
grayish-white fumes which possess the peculiar alliaceous odor. Sub- 
jected to the treatment described $ 55, a sublimate of metallic arsenic is 
obtained. 

Not easily affected by acids ; but aqua regia dissolves it with continued 
digestion, part of the sulphur being precipitated. A heated solution of 
caustic potassa decomposes it, leaving a brownish-black powder (As 6 S) 
undissolved. 
Orpiment. 

1 120. AsS 3 . H=1.5 2. G=3.4. A foliaceous mineral of lemon- 
yellow color, and resinous or pearly lustre. Sectile. 

Before the Blp, behaves like the preceding, with this difference, that 
the sublimate, after cooling, is dark yellow and transparent. 
Soluble in aqua regia, caustic potassa, and ammonia. 
White Arsenic [Arsenolite]. 

1 121. AsO 8 . H=1.5. G=3.6. Occurs usually in minute capillary 
crystals of a white color, and vitreous or silky lustre. 

Before the Blp it behaves like pure arsenous acid. (v. $ 9, 15, Table 
II, 2). 



Slightly soluble in hot water ; more so in water acidulated with hydro- 
chloric acid. 

ORES OF BISMUTH. 

Native Bismuth. 

% 122. Bi; H=2 2.5. G=9.7. Color silver-white, tinged with red. 
Lustre metallic. Brittle when cold ; but, when hot, may be laminated. 
Occurs foliated, granular, and arborescent ; occasionally crystallized. 

Before the Blp it behaves like pure bismuth (v. \\ 17, 22). 

Readily dissolved by nitric acid ; the solution is precipitated by water. 
Telluric Bismuth [Tetradymite]. 

g 123. Bi and Te in variable proportions. H=1.5 2. G=7.2 8.4. 
Of pale steel-gray color, and high metallic lustre. Occurs usually in 
tabular crystals, or foliated masses; the larainas are elastic. It soils 
paper. 

In an open glass tube it fuses readily, emitting a white smoke which 
partly condenses, coating the tube near the assay-piece with a white pow- 
der, intermixed with red spots ; on directing the flame on this Ct, it fuses 
to colorless drops (TeO 2 ), while the red sublimate (Se) disappears. On 
Ch, fuses instantly to a metallic globule which, when touched with the 
inner flame, imparts a bluish-green color to the outer one, sometimes 
gives out selenium vapors, and deposits, close to the assay-piece, a dark 
orange Ct, surrounded at a greater distance by a white Ct. 

Soluble in nitric acid. 

Bismutite. 

124. 3(BiO*.C0 2 +HO)-hBi0 3 .HO. H=4 4.5. G=6.9. Usually 
of a white or light greenish color, and vitreous lustre; in acicular crys- 
tallizations. 

In a matrass, decrepitates, yields a little water, and turns gray. Ou 
Ch, fuses very readily and is reduced, with effervescence, to a metallic 
globule, covering the Ch with a Ct of oxide of bismuth. If the blast is 
kept up for some time the whole of the bismuth is volatilized and there 
remains a scoriaccous mass which, in the R Fl, may be fused to a gobule, 



60 



and which with fluxes gives the indications of copper and iron. With Sd 
it usually gives the sulphur reaction ($ 107). 

Dissolves in hydrochloric acid with effervescence; the solution has a 
yellow color. 
Bismuthine. 

$ 125. Bi S 3 . 11=2 2-5. G=6.4 6.55. In acicular crystals or mas- 
sive ; of metallic lustre, and lead-gray color, with a yellowish or iridescent 
tarnish. 

In a matrass, fuses and yields a slight sublimate of sulphur. Care- 
fully heated in an open tube, it fuses and yields sulphurous acid and a 
coat of sulphate of bismuth; the latter may be fused, by application of 
the Blp flame, to brown drops which, when cold, appear yellow and 
opaque. On Ch, fuses and boils, throwing out small drops in a state of 
incandescence, and deposits a Ct of oxide of bismuth. 

Soluble in nitric acid with deposition of sulphur. The solution gives 
a white precipitate with water. 

Bismuth Ochre. 

% 126. BiO 3 , containing minute quantities of Fe 2 3 , CuO, and AsO. 5 
G=4.36. Occurs usually pulverulent or earthy. 

Before the Blp it behaves like pure oxide of bismuth. Soluble in ni- 
tric acid. 

ORES OF CHROMIUM. 

Chromic Iron. 

127. (FeO, CrO, MgO) + (Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 ). H=5.5. G=4.3 46. Oc- 
curs usually massive ; of iron-black or brownish-black color, with a 
shining and somewhat metallic lustre. Some varieties are magnetic. 

Heated in a matrass, remains unchanged. Infusible in the forceps. 
After having been exposed to the R Fl it follows the magnet. In Bx 
and SPh slowly, but completely, soluble to a transparent glass, which is 
beautiful green after cooling. Mixed with Sd and nitre and heated on 
platinum-foil, the mass fuses and becomes yellow. With Sd on Ch in 
II Fl it affords metallic iron. 



61 



Concentrated acids affect it but little, even when finely pulverized ; 
they dissolve only a little iron. Fused with caustic potassa, chromate of 
potassa is formed. 

ORES OF COBALT. 

Smaltine. 

$ 128. (Co, Fe, Ni) As. H=3.5 6. 0=6.47.2. Of tin- white or steel- 
gray color, and metallic lustre. 

In a matrass, usually yields, when heated to redness, a sublimate of 
metallic arsenic. In an open glass-tube, affords a copious sublimate of 
crystallized arsenous acid, and sometimes emits sulphurous acid. On Ch 
it fuses readily, with emission of copious arsenical fumes, to a grayish- 
black magnetic globule which, with the fluxes, gives the indications of 
iron, cobalt, and nickel. 

With nitric acid it gives a pink solution, arsenous acid being deposited. 
Oolaltine. 

129. CoS 2 -fCoAs. H=5.5. G=6 6.3. Of silver-white and some- 
times reddish color, and metallic lustre. 

Unchanged in the matrass. In an open glass tube, yields a sublimate 
of arsenous acid and vapors of sulphurous acid. On Ch, emits copious 
arsenical and sulphur fumes and fuses to a dull black metallic globule, 
which is attracted by the magnet, and which, when treated with fluxes, 
gives the indications of cobalt and iron, and sometimes also those of 
nickel. 

Dissolves in heated nitric acid, arsenous acid being deposited. 
Cobalt Pyrites [Linnaeite]. 

1 130. CoS+Co 2 S 3 . H=5.5. G=4.8 5. Of a more or less bright 
steel-gray color, and metallic lustre. Crystallizes in the regular octahe- 
dron. 

In an open glass tube, sulphurous acid is abundantly evolved and some- 
times a slight sublimate of arsenous acid formed. On Ch, small pieces 
of the mineral readily fuse to a globule which, when cold, is covered with 
a black rough crust, and which is attracted by the magnet. The pulver- 

6 



62 



ized mineral, after having been well calcined, dissolves in Bx in OF1 to 
a blue transparent glass. In a highly saturated bead of this kind, when 
treated on Ch with RF1, particles of metallic nickel may be seen floating 
about. 

Soluble in nitric acid, excepting the sulphur. 
Cobalt Bloom [Erythrine]. 

131. 3CoO. As0 5 +8HO. H=1.5 2.5. G 2.9. Usually of crim- 
son or peach-red color ; when crystallized, of pearly lustre ; frequently dull 
and earthy, forming incrustations. 

Heated in a matrass, loses water, and the color changes to blue or 
green. A small crystal, exposed to the inner flame, fuses and colors the 
outer flame pale-blue. On Ch in RF1, emits arsenical fumes and melts 
to a dark-gray globule of arsenide of cobalt which, with fluxes, gives the 
pure cobalt-reactions. 

Acids dissolve it readily to a rose-colored liquid ; the solution in con- 
centrated hydrochloric acid appears blue, while hot. The pulverized 
mineral is partly decomposed by caustic potassa ; the powder assumes a 
bluish-gray color and the solution is sapphire-blue. 

Lavendulan. 

\ 132. AsO 5 , CoO, NiO, CuO, and HO. H=2.5 3. G=3. Amor- 
phous, with a greasy lustre ; color lavender-blue. 

Heated in a matrass, gives out water. In the forceps, fuses easily and 
colors the outer flame pale-blue ; the fused mass becomes crystalline on 
cooling. On Ch in RF1 it fuses with emission of arsenical fumes. With 
fluxes, gives the reactions of Co, Ni, and Cu (see \ 92). 

Earthy Cobalt. 

\ 133. It is a variety of Wad (see 184), containing sometimes a con- 
siderable quantity of oxide of cobalt, in combination with silicic or arsenic 
acid. 

With Bx in OF1, gives a dark-violet glass, which in the RF1 becomes 
blue. The SPli bead when treated on Ch with metallic tin frequently 
exhibits the copper-reaction, With Sd on platinum-foil it shows the pres- 
ence of manganese, 



Soluble in hydrochloric acid with evolution of chlorine ; the solution is 
usually blue, and on addition of water becomes red. 

ORES OF COPPER. 

Native Copper. 

1 134. Pure Copper. H=2.5 3. G=8.9. Of metallic lustre, and 
copper-red color. Occurs usually massive or arborescent. 

It fuses on Ch to a globule which, if the heat is sufficiently high, as- 
sumes a bright bluish-green surface ; on cooling it becomes covered with 
a crust of black oxide. With the fluxes it gives the usual indications of 
copper. 

It dissolves readily in nitric acid. 
Copper Pyrites [Chalcopyrite]. 

1 135. Cu 2 S + Fe'S 3 . H=3.o 4. 0=4.14.3. Of a brass-yellow color 
and metallic lustre ; on exposure to moist air it becomes iridescent on its 
surface. It occurs crystallized, but usually massive. It is easily scratched 
with a knife, giving a greenish-black powder. 

Heated in a matrass, decrepitates and yields sometimes a faint subli- 
mate of sulphur, assuming at the same time a darker color or becoming 
irridescent. Heated in an open glass tube, sulphurous acid is given out 
abundantly. On Ch, when heated, it blackens, but becomes red on cool- 
ing ; with continued heat it fuses to a black globule, which is attracted 
by the magnet j this globule is brittle and reddish-gray in the fracture. 
The pulverized mineral, after roasting, gives with fluxes the indications 
of iron and copper. With Sd on Ch it is reduced j the metals are ob- 
tained in separate masses. Moistened with hydrochloric acid it colors 
the flame blue, even previous to fusion. 

It dissolves in nitric acid and, more readily, in aqua regia, leaving a 
residue of sulphur. 

Purple Copper [Erubescite]. 

136. 3 Cu 2 S + Fe 2 S 3 .H=3. 0=4.45. When crystalline, it usually 
affects the cubical form, and is of a pale yellowish color; when massive, 
its color is copper-red to reddish-brown 5 it speedily tarnishes, assuming 



various hues, mostly purple, blue, and reddish. When scratched with a 
knife it gives a grayish powder. 

Before the Blp it shows pretty much the same behavior as copper 
pyrites. 

Concentrated hydrochloric acid dissolves it, leaving the greater part of 
the sulphur behind. 
Copper Crlance. 

1 137. Cu 2 S. H=2.5 3. 0=5.5-5.8. Of a blackish lead-gray color, 
often with a bluish or greenish tint on its surface. Occurs usually in 
compact masses, very often shining. 

Heated in a matrass, nothing volatile is given out. In an open tube, 
sulphurous acid is evolved. On Ch, readily fuses to a globule, which 
boils, and emits glowing drops, sulphurous acid escaping abundantly ; 
the outer flame is at the same time colored blue. With Sd on Ch it 
yields a globule of metallic copper. 

In heated nitric acid it dissolves, leaving a residue of sulphur. 

Gray Copper [Tetrahedrite]. 

138. 4(Cu 2 S. FeS. ZuS) (SbS 3 . AsS 3 ) frequently containing silver 
and mercury. H=3 4.5. G=4.5 5. Color between steel-gray and 
iron-black. 

Heated in a matrass, fuses and finally yields a dark-red sublimate of 
tersulphide of antimony with antimonous acid. In an open glass tube, 
fuses and gives thick fumes of antimony (and arsenous acid), and sul- 
phurous acid ; mercury, when present, condenses in the upper part of 
the tube, forming a metallic mirror. On Ch it fuses readily to a globule, 
emitting thick white fumes and sulphur vapor; coatings of antimonous 
acid and of oxide of zinc are deposited j the latter is nearer to the assay- 
piece and may be tested with SoCo [v. $ 45]. To detect arsenic, v. $ 56. 
To detect mercury, add to the finely pulverized assay^hree times its 
weight of dry Sd and treat the mixture as directed 91. The pulverized 
mineral, after having been well roasted, gives with the fluxes the indica- 
tions of iron and copper j with Sd, affords metallic copper and a little 
iron. To detect silver, treat the mineral with pure lead and Bx as 
directed 2 105. 



65 



When pulverized it is decomposed by nitric acid, the solution has a 
brownish-green color; antimonous acid (and arsenous acid) and sulphur 
remain undissolved. Caustic potassa effects partial decomposition ; the 
sulphide of antimony (and arsenic) enters into solution, and is, on addi- 
tion of an acid, re-precipitated. 
Tennantite. 

139. 4(Cu% FeS), AsS 3 . H=3.5 4. G=4.37 4.5. Always crys- 
tallized j metallic lustre ; color blackish lead-gray to iron-black. 

In a matrass, gives a sublimate of tersulphide of arsenic. In an open 
tube, sulphurous acid and a sublimate of arsenous acid. On Ch, fuses 
easily with emission of sulphur and arsenic vapors to a dark-gray globule, 
which is attracted by the magnet. The pulverized mineral gives, after 
calcination, with fluxes, the reaction of iron and copper. 

Arsenical Copper [Domeykite.] 

$ 140. Cu 6 As. H=3 3.5. Keniform, massive, or disseminated ; lustre 
metallic ; color tin-white ; black and soft when impure. 

Heated in a matrass, yields a little water and a sublimate of arsenous 
acid ; the assay-piece assumes a silver-white color. In an open tube, 
affords a crystalline sublimate of arsenous acid. On Ch, fuses easily 
with emission of a strong alliaceous odor to a yellowish metallic mass, 
which gives the copper reactions. 

Readily soluble in nitric acid; decomposed by hydrochloric acid, me- 
tallic arsenic remaining undissolved. 

Atacamite. 

141. CuCl-f 3CuO + 3HO. H=3 3.5. G=4 4.3. Occurs crys- 
talline, or massive lamellar; color various shades of bright green, 
sometimes blackish-green. 

Heated in a matrass, gives out water and a gray sublimate, which, on 
cooling, becomes grayish-white ; the water shows acid reaction. On Ch, 
fuses readily, colors the outer flame azure-blue, and is finally reduced to 
a globule of metallic copper ; two coatings are deposited on the Ch, the 
one grayish-white and the other brownish, which, on being played upon 
with the RF1, change their place with an azure-blue tinge. 

Easily soluble in acids. 



66 

Red Copper. 

1 142. Cu 2 0. H=3.5 4. G=5.8 6. Usually of a very intense, deep 
red color, occasionally crimson-red ; exceedingly friable. 

Heated in the pincers, fuses and colors the outer flame emerald-green ; 
moistened with hydrochloric acid and treated in the same manner, the 
color is azure-blue. On Ch it blackens, then fuses quietly, and finally 
yields a globule of metallic copper which, on cooling, becomes covered 
with a coating of black oxide. 

Dissolves readily in nitric acid. With hydrochloric acid it gives a 
brownish solution, which on addition of water is decomposed, a white pre- 
cipitate of subchloride of copper being formed. It is also soluble in 
ammonia : the solution is colorless when the access of air is prevented ; 
on exposure to air it turns blue. 

Malachite. 

143. 2CuO.C0 2 +HO. H=3.5 5. G=3.7 4. Occurs usually 
in the shape of mammillated concretions ; the interior is very compact, 
and lustre shining, in the fracture sometimes earthy, sometimes silky ; 
of a bright green color. 

Heated in a matrass, gives out water and turns black. On Ch, fuses 
to a globule, and affords metallic copper when the heat is sufficiently 
high ; heated in the forceps, the outer flame is colored green. With 
fluxes and Sd it behaves like oxide of copper (v. Table II, 8). 

It dissolves in acids with effervescence ; also soluble in ammonia. 

Azurite [Blue Malachite]. 

144. 2(CuO.C0 2 ) + CuO. HO. H=3.5. 4. G=3.5 3.8. Occurs 
usually crystallized, or in globular masses of columnar structure. It 
is easily distinguished by its fine blue color ; either earthy or vitreous in 
lustre. 

Before the Blp, and to solvents, it behaves like malachite. 
Copper Vitriol [Cyanosite]. 

1 145. CuO. S0 3 +5HO. H=2.5. G=2.21. Lustre vitreous ; color 
various shades of blue ; taste metallic and nauseous. 

Heated in a matrass, swells up, gives out water, and becomes white. 
On Ch, colors the outer flame green, fuses, and affords a button of metal- 



67 

lie copper, crusted with a coat of sulphide. After calcination, gives with 
fluxes the reactions of copper, sometimes also those of iron. 

Soluble in water; a polished plate of iron introduced into the solution 
becomes coated with copper. 

PhospliocJialcite. 

146. 3CuO.P0 5 + 3(CuO.HO), sometimes 2(3CuO.P0 5 ) + HO+ 
4(CuO.HO). H=4.5 5. G=4 4.4. Occurs both crystallized and 
massive. Of adamantine lustre, and dark emerald-green or blackish- 
green color. 

In a matrass, gives out water and blackens. A piece, previously 
heated in a matrass, fuses in the forceps to a black globule, which be- 
comes crystalline on cooling. With Bx and SPh, behaves like oxide of 
copper. Strongly heated on Ch with a sufficient quantity of Sd, nearly 
all the copper is obtained as a metallic globule. Mixed with an equal 
volume of metallic lead and fused on Ch, a globule of metallic copper is 
obtained, surrounded by a fused mass of phosphate of lead, which on 
cooling crystallizes. 

Soluble in nitric acid, and in caustic ammonia. 
Olivenite. 

$ 147. 3CuO. (As0 5 .P0 5 )-f-CuO.HO. H=3. G=4.1 4.4. Crys- 
tallized, or in globular and reniform masses, of indistinctly fibrous struc- 
ture. Color usually olive-green. 

In a matrass, yields a little water. In the forceps, fuses to a globule 
and colors the outer flame bluish-green ; the fused mass crystallizes on 
cooling. On Ch, fuses with detonation and emission of arsenical vapors 
to a metallic globule j the globule is white and somewhat brittle, and 
covered with a brown scoria. Fused with metallic lead, it is decomposed 
in the same manner as the preceding ore. 

Dissolves in nitric acid, also in ammonia. 

Tyrolite. 

H8. [(3CuO.As0 5 + 8HO) + 2(CuO.HO)]+CaO.C0 2 . H=l 2. 
G=3. Usually reniform, massive ; structure radiate foliaceous. Color 
pale-green. Very sectile. 

Heated in a matrass, decrepitates, yields much water, and blackens. 



68 



On Oh, fuses with emission of arsenical vapors to a gray scoriaceous 
mass, in which minute globules of metallic copper occasionally appear. 
When the mineral is fused on Ch, with addition of Sd and Bx, until the 
oxide of copper is completely reduced and the slag dissolved in hydro- 
chloric acid, a solution is obtained in which the presence of lime may be 
shown by the proper reagents. 

Dissolves in nitric acid with effervescence, also in ammonia. 

Chrysocolla. 

\ 149. 3CuO. 2Si0 3 +6HO. H=2 3. G=2. Occurs usually as an 
incrustation. It very much resembles malachite ; its color is bluish- 
green, and it is remarkable for its great compactness ; its surface is very 
smooth, giving it the appearance of an enamel or a well-fused slag. 

In a matrass, yields water and blackens. In the forceps infusible, 
coloring the outer flame intensely green. On Ch in OF1 blackens, in 
EF1 turns red. SPh and Bx dissolve it with the usual indications of 
copper; the SPh bead shows a cloud of undissolved silica. With Sd on 
Ch, affords globules of metallic copper. 

It is decomposed by acids, silica remaining undissolved. 

ORES OF GOLD, PLATINUM, AND IRIDIUM. 

Native Cf-old. 

150. Combination of Au and Ag in variable proportions, sometimes 
with traces of Fe and Cu. H=2.5 3. 0=15.619.5. Easily distin- 
guished by its malleability, its cutting like lead, its high specific gravity, 
and its resistance to acids. Color and streak various shades of gold-yel- 
low. It usually occurs in variously contorted and branched filaments, 
in scales, in plates, or in small irregular masses. 

On Ch, fuses to a globule which, after cooling, has a bright metallic 
surface. With SPh in OF1, a bead is formed which opalizes on cool- 
ing, or becomes opaque and yellow, according to the amount of silver 
which it contains. 

Eesists the action of heated concentrated nitric acid; soluble only in 
aqua regia. 



69 



Grraphie Tellurium [Sylvanite.] 

\ 151. AgTe+2AuTe 3 . H=1.5 2. G=5.7. Of metallic lustre and 
steel-gray color. Very sextile. 

In an open glass-tube, yields a white sublimate which, when played 
upon with the flame, fuses to transparent drops. On Ch, fuses to a dark- 
gray globule, depositing at the same time a white Ct which, when touched 
with the RF1, disappears, tinging the flame bluish-green (see \% 29, 
35). It finally affords a light-yellow malleable globule of metallic lustre. 

Soluble in aqua regia, leaving a residue of chloride of silver. The 
solution gives a white precipitate with water. 

Native Platinum. 

$ 152. Pt, usually combined with a little Fe, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and some- 
times Cu and Pb. 

H=4 4.5. G=16 19. Usually occurs in grains of silver- whitish 
or gray color, malleable and ductile. 

Infusible before the Blp and not acted upon by fluxes. Soluble only 
in heated aqua regia. The solution gives a yellow granular precipitate 
with chloride of potassium. 

Osmium- Iridium [Iridosmine]. 

I 153. The light variety IrOs 3 and IrOs 4 . H=6 7. 0=19.321.1. 
Occurs usually in irregular flattened grains, of metallic lustre and tin- 
white color ; but little malleable. 

Infusible before the Blp ; when fused with nitre in a matrass, the cha- 
racteristic osmium odor is produced. The fused mass is soluble in 
water ; the solution gives, on addition of nitric acid, a green precipitate. 
The dark varieties lose before the Blp the metallic lustre and, when 
held in the alcohol flame, impart to it a yellowish-red color and great 
luminating power. 

Not visibly affected by any acid. 

ORES OF IKON. 
Meteoric Iron. 

% 154. Fe with variable quantities of Ni (from 1 to 20 per cent.) and 
traces of Co, Mg, Mn, Sn, Cu, Cr, Si, C, Cl, S, and P. 11=4.5. 0=7.3 



70 



7.8, rarely as low as G. Lustre metallic ; color iron-gray ; ductile ; strongly 
attracted by the magnet. 

Infusible. On Ch with Bx or SPh gives only the reactions of iron. 
To detect the presence of the other heavy metals, the assay-piece must 
be dissolved in aqua regia, the liquid mixed with ammonia in excess, fil- 
tered, and the ammoniacal filtrates precipitated with sulphydrate of am- 
monia. The precipitate consists of the sulphides of nickel, cobalt, man- 
ganese, and copper, which may be collected on a filter and treated with 
Bx on Ch as described 70. 

Brown Hematite [Limonite]. 

I 155. 2Fe 2 3 . 3HO. H=5 5.5. G=H.6 4. Of a dull brownish- 
yellow color, earthy or semi-metallic in appearance, and often in mam- 
millary or stalactitic forms. 

In a matrass, yields water, and red sesquioxide remains ; in platinum 
forceps, fusible on the edges ; gives with Bx and SPh an iron reaction ; 
the clayey varieties treated with SPh give a cloud of undissolved silica ; 
treated with Sd and nitre on platinum foil, the manganese reaction is 
almost always obtained. 

Specular Iron [Hematite]. 

g 15G. Fe 2 3 . H=5.5 6.5. G=4.5 5.3. Of a dark steel-gray or 
iron-black color and usually of metallic lustre ; its powder is red. 

Infusible alone ; becomes magnetic after roasting, and gives the usual 
indications of iron with the fluxes ; its powder dissolves readily in heated 
hydrochloric acid. Contains sometimes chromium and titanium, which 
may be detected by the processes given in \\ 68 and 111. 

Magnetic Iron Ore [Magnetite]. 

\ 157. FeO.Fe 2 3 . H=5.5 6.5. G=4.9 5.2. Its color is iron- 
black, with a shining metallic or glimmering lustre ; its powder is black; 
it is strongly attracted by the magnet. 

It fuses with difficulty, and gives the usual reactions of iron with the 
fluxes ; the pulverized mineral dissolves completely in hydrochloric acid. 
Iron Pyrites. 

% 158. FeS 2 . H=6 6.5. G=4.8 5. Occurs commonly in cubes. 



71 



Usually of a brass-yellow color and metallic lustre. By its superior hard- 
ness, not yielding to the knife, and emitting sparks when struck with 
steel, it may be distinguished from copper pyrites. 

Heated in a glass tube closed at one end, usually emits some sulphur- 
etted hydrogen, and yields a sublimate of sulphur; the residue is attracted 
by the magnet. Heated on Ch with the OF1, the sulphur burns off with 
a blue flame, and leaves red oxide behind, which, when treated with the 
fluxes, gives pure iron reactions. But slightly affected by hydrochloric 
acid ; nitric acid dissolves it, leaving a residue of sulphur. 
White Iron Pyrites [Marcasite]. 

\ 159. FeS 2 . H=6 6.5. G=4.6 4.8. Crystals are prismatic. Color 
usually light bronze-yellow, sometimes inclined to green or gray ; occurs 
frequently in radiated masses or crest-like aggregations. Very liable to 
decomposition. 

Before the Blp it behaves like the preceding. 

Magnetic Pyrites [Pyrrhotine]. 

| 160. 5FeS + Fe 2 S 3 . H=3.5 4.5. G=4.4 4.7. Very much re- 
sembles common iron pyrites, from which it is distinguished by its infe- 
rior hardness, and by being slightly attracted by the magnet. 

Heated in a matrass, remains unchanged ; in the open glass tube, 
emits sulphurous acid but yields no sublimate. On Ch in RF1, fuses to 
a globule, which is covered with an uneven black coating, which follows 
the magnet, and which, on a surface of fracture, exhibits a yellowish 
crystalline structure and metallic lustre. In OF1 it is converted into red 
oxide. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid, excepting the sulphur, with evolution of 
sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Arsenical Pyrites [Mispickel]. 

161. FeS 2 +FeAs. H=5.5 6. G=5 6.4. Of metallic lustre and 
a silver-white color. Streak dark grayish-black. Brittle. 

Heated in a matrass, yields first a red sublimate of sulphide of arsenic, 
and afterwards a black crystalline one of metallic arsenic 5 in an open 
glass tube, yields arsenous acid and sulphurous acid. On Ch, emits co- 
pious arsenical fumes, and a Ct of arsenous acid is deposited ; then fuses 



72 

to a globule which shows the properties of fused magnetic pyrites. Fre- 
quently contains cobalt, the presence of which may be detected by the 
method described in g 69. 

Soluble in nitric acid and aqua regia, leaving a residue of sulphur and 
arsenous acid ; the latter dissolves with continued digestion. 

Titaniferous Iron [Ilmenite]. 

162. Ti 2 3 and Fe 2 3 in various proportions. H=5 6. G=5.5 5. 
Of iron-black color, usually in tabular crystals, bears a great resemblance 
to specular iron, but gives no red powder. 

Alone in the OF1 infusible ; in RF1 it may be rounded at the edges. 
With Bx and SPh in OF1, gives the reactions of pure oxide of iron ; 
but the SPh bead when treated with the RF1 assumes a brownish-red 
color, the intensity of which depends upon the amount of titanic acid 
present ; this glass, when treated with tin on Ch, turns violet (v. Table 
II, 23). To show conclusively the presence of Ti, follow the method 
given in $ 111. 

Dissolved by hydrochloric acid and aqua regia with separation of titanic 
acid ; some varieties dissolve with great difficulty, even when reduced to 
a very fine powder. 

Spathic Iron [Chalybite]. 

163. FeO. CO 2 . H=3.5 4.5. G=3.7 3.9. Color from grayish-yel- 
low to reddish-brown ; crystallizes in rhombohedrons, which are often 
curved, and are very distinctly cleavable ; often massive. 

Heated in a matrass, frequently decrepitates, carbonic acid and car- 
bonic oxide are given out, and a black oxide of iron remains, which is 
attracted by the magnet. Alone, infusible. With Bx and SPh it gives 
the pure iron reactions, and with Sd sometimes those of manganese. It 
dissolves in strong acids with effervescence, but with difficulty, and only 
when pulverized. 

G-reen Vitriol [Copperas], 

164. FeO.S0 3 +7HO.E=2. G=1.83. Occurs usually massive and 
pulverulent, of various shades of green, becoming yellowish on exposure 
to air; taste astringent and metallic. 



In a matrass, gives out sulphurous acid and water, which shows acid 
reaction. Strongly heated, only sesquioxide of iron remains. 

Soluble in water. 
Vivianite. 

I 165. 6(3FeO,P0 5 +8HO) + (3Fe 2 3 ,2P0 5 +8HO). H=1.5 2. 
G=2.66. Occurs crystallized, or in reniform and globular masses, some- 
times as incrustation. Color blue to green, usually dirty blue. 

In a matrass, swells and gives pure water. In the forceps, fuses to 
a steel-gray metallic globule, coloring the outer flame bluish-green. 
With fluxes gives the reactions of iron. 

Easily soluble in hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. With a solution 
of caustic potassa, it blackens. 
tScorodite. 

$ 166. Fe 2 3 ,As0 3 +4HO. H=3.5 4. G=3.1 3.3. Crystallized. 
Color pale leek-green or liver-brown. 

In a matrass, yields pure water. In the forceps, fuses to a gray sco- 
riaceous slag of metallic lustre, coloring the outer flame pale-blue. On 
Ch, emits arsenical vapors and fuses to a gray magnetic slag, of me- 
tallic lustre, which gives with fluxes the reactions of iron. 

Not affected by nitric acid ; forms a brown solution with hydrochloric 
acid ; partially dissolved by ammonia, leaving a brown residue. 

ORES OF LEAD. 

Plumbic Ochre. 

$ 167. PbO, containing frequently PbO.CO 2 , CaO, Fe 2 3 , and SiO 3 . 
G=8. Massive. Lustre dull; color between sulphur and orpiment- 
yellow. 

Before the Blp, behaves like oxide of lead. 

Minium. 

$ 168. PbO,Pb 2 3 . G=4.6. Pulverulent. Color vivid red, mixed with 
yellow. 

Before the Blp, behaves like oxide of lead. 

7 



74 



With hydrochloric acid, evolves chlorine and is converted into chloride 
oflead. With nitric acid, becomes brown. 
Galena. 

1G9. PbS. H=2.5 2.75. G=7.25 7.7. Color, lead-gray ; of 
metallic lustre. Crystals usually affect the cubical form, and possess 
very perfect cubic cleavage. 

Heated in a matrass, sometimes decrepitates and frequently yields a 
slight white sublimate. Heated in an open glass tube, emits sulphurous 
acid, and, on the heat being raised, gives a white sublimate of sulphate 
of lead. Heated on Ch, affords a globule of pure lead, the Ch be- 
coming at the same time covered with sulphate oflead and oxide oflead. 
The globule of metallic lead yields generally a little silver on cupella- 
tion. The presence of antimony is ascertained as shown 49. Zinc, 
113. Iron, |83. 

It dissolves with some difficulty in boiling hydrochloric acid, with evo- 
lution of sulphuretted hydrogen. Very dilute nitric acid has no effect 
on it, but by a stronger acid it is readily dissolved with evolution of 
nitrous acid vapors. By fuming nitric acid and aqua regia it is very 
violently acted upon, being converted into sulphate, or a mixture of the 
sulphate with the chloride. 
Bournonite. 

170. 3Cu 2 S,SbS 3 +2(3PbS,SbS 3 ). H=2.5 3. G=5.7 5.9. Occurs 
crystallized, and massive, granular, compact; lustre metallic; color 
and streak steel-gray. 

In a matrass, decrepitates and yields with strong heat a dark-red subli- 
mate. In an open tube, sulphurous acid is evolved and abundant anti- 
monial fumes, which condense partly on the upper and partly on the 
lower side of the tube; the former consist of antimonous acid, which is 
volatile; the latter is not volatile, and consists of a mixture of antimo- 
nate of oxide of antimony with antimonate of lead. On Ch, fuses 
readily to a black globule and deposits a Ct of antimonous acid ; with 
strong heat a Ct of oxide of lead is obtained ; the remaining globule, 
when treated with Bx in OF1, gives the reactions of copper, and the 
globule assumes the appearance of metallic copper. 



75 

Dissolves readily in nitric acid to a blue liquid, leaving a residue of 

antimonous acid and sulphur. Aqua regia leaves a residue of sulphur, 

chloride of lead, and antimonite of lead ; the solution gives a precipitate 

with water. Ammonia dissolves a portion of the sulphide of antimony. 

The following ores behave before the Blp in a very similar manner. 

G-eocronite. PbS, (SbS 3 , AsS 3 ) + 4PbS. 

Dufrenoysite. PbS, AsS 3 + PbS. 

Boulangerite. PbS, SbS 3 + 2PbS. 

Heteromorphite. PbS, SbS 3 + PbS. 

Jamesonite. 2 (PbS, SbS 3 ) + PbS. 

Plaglonite. 3 (PbS, SbS 3 ) + PbS. 

ZinJcenite. PbS, SbS 3 . 

Those minerals in which a part of the SbS 3 is substituted by AsS 3 , 
give on Ch arsenical vapors, and in an open tube a crystalline subli- 
mate. 

Cerasine [Corneous Lead]. 

171. PbCl + PbO.CO 2 . H=2.75 3. G=6 6.3. Forms crystals 
of adamantine lustre, of white, gray, or yellow color. 

In a matrass, decrepitates slightly and becomes a little darker yellow. 
On Ch, fuses readily, emits acid vapors, becomes reduced to metallic 
lead, and gives a white Ct of chloride of lead and a yellow Ct of oxide. 

Dissolves in nitric acid with effervescence. 
White Lead Ore [Cerusite]. 

172. PbO. CO 2 . H=3 3.5. G=6.4. Occurs granularly massive, 
or in prismatic needles, or compressed plates. Color mostly white, yel- 
low, or gray. 

When heated in a matrass, decrepitates and turns yellow ; carbonic 
acid is given out. Heated on Ch alone, is reduced to metallic lead. 
Treated with fluxes, dissolves with effervescence and gives the reactions 
of pure oxide of lead (v. Table II, 12) ; dissolves readily and with effer- 
vescence in dilute nitric acid ; with hydrochloric acid, leaves a residue of 
chloride of lead ; dissolves in a solution of caustic potassa. 



76 



Leadliillite. 

\ 173. PbO. S0 3 4-3(PbO.C0 2 ). H=2.5. 0=6.26.5. Occurs in 
transparent crystals of pearly or resinous lustre. Color white, passing 
into yellow, green, or gray. 

On Ch, intumesces slightly, becomes yellow, but white again on cool- 
ing ; with greater heat easily reduced to metallic lead. 

Dissolves in nitric acid with effervescence, leaving a residue of sul- 
phate of lead. 

Lead Vitriol [Anglesite]. 

174. PbO. SO 3 . H=2.75 3. G=6.2. It often occurs in small octa- 
hedral crystals with many facets, but more frequently in laminar masses ; 
of high lustre. 

Heated in a matrass, decrepitates and usually yields a little water. 
Treated on Ch in OF1, fuses to a clear bead, which on cooling turns 
milk-white ; with Sd on Ch, affords a globule of metallic lead ; the Sd is 
absorbed by the Ch and shows, when placed on silver-foil, a strong sul- 
phur reaction. With the fluxes, gives the reactions of oxide of lead. 
Traces of iron or manganese may be detected by Bx or Sd as shown 
$ 83 and 90. 

It dissolves in acids only with great difficulty ; by hydrochloric acid it 
is partly decomposed ; the pulverized mineral is soluble in a solution of 
caustic potassa. 

Phosphate of Lead [Pyromorphite]. 

175. Essentially PbCl + 3(3PbO.[P0 5 .As0 5 J). H = 3.5 4 G = 
6.5 7. It occurs often in globular masses with a columnar struc- 
ture, also fibrous and granular. Color green, yellow, and brown. 

Heated in a matrass, sometimes decrepitates and yields, with con- 
tinued heat, a faint white and volatile sublimate of chloride of lead. 
Heated in the platinum-pointed pincers, fuses readily and colors the outer 
flame blue ; if the amount of phosphoric acid is not too small the edges 
of the flame will appear green. With SPh and oxide of copper, gives 
the reaction for chlorine, 65. On Ch in the OF1, fuses to a globule, 
which on cooling assumes a polyhedral form and a dark color; in 
the RF1, yields a Ct of oxide of lead, and the globule, on cooling, 



assumes dodecahedral facets of pearly lustre. With boracic acid and iron 
wire, gives the reaction for phosphoric acid ( 95). With Sd on Ch, 
affords metallic lead. Some varieties contain arsenic acid, which is 
readily detected by the odor when treated with Sd on Ch ( 54). 

Soluble iu nitric acid, and solution of caustic potassa. 

Plumbo-Resinite. 

\ 176. 3PbO. P0 5 +6(A1 2 3 ,3HO). H=4 4.5. 0=6.36.4. In 
reniform or globular masses, with a columnar structure; also compact 
massive. Of resinous lustre; color usually yellowish-brown j resembling 
gum-arabic in appearance. 

In a matrass, decrepitates and gives out water. In the forceps, intu- 
mesces and colors the outer flame azure-blue. On Ch, intumesces, 
becomes white and opaque, and fuses but imperfectly, depositing a faint 
white Ct of chloride of lead. In small quantities, soluble in Bx and 
SPh to clear beads. With Sd on Ch, minute globules of metallic lead 
are obtained. Treated with SoCo, assumes a fine blue color. 

Soluble in nitric acid. 

Red Lead Ore [Crocoisite]. 

$177. PbO. CrO 3 . H==2.5 3. G=5.9 6.1. Occurs usually in bright 
hyacinth-red crystals of adamantine lustre. 

In a matrass, decrepitates ; the crystals are broken up into minute 
pieces and assume a darker color. On Ch, fuses and becomes reduced 
with detonation ; a Ct of oxide of lead is formed, and grayish-green ses- 
quioxide of, chromium remains with the metallic globule. With Sd on 
Ch, affords a globule of metallic lead. With Sd on platinum foil, fuses 
to a dark-yellow mass, which becomes green in RF1. With Bx or SPh 
in OF1, dissolved ; the bead appears yellow while hot, but becomes green 
on cooling. Fused in a platinum spoon with from 3 to 4 parts of bisul- 
phate of potassa, gives a dark-violet mass, which is greenish-white when 
cold. 

Dissolves in heated hydrochloric acid to a green liquid, leaving a resi- 
due of chloride of lead. Dissolves with difficulty in nitric acid to a yel- 
lowish-red liquid. A solution of caustic potassa colors it brown, and 
finally dissolves it to a yellow liquid. 



78 



Vauquelinite. 

1 178. 3CuO,2Cr0 3 +2(3PbO,2Cr0 3 ). H=2.5 3. G=5.5 5.7. Oc- 
curs usually in minute crystals, or in. reniform or granular masses. 
Color dark-green to brown, sometimes nearly black. 

On Ch, fuses with effervescence toagray submetallic globule ; where the 
mass is in contact with the coal small globules of lead make their ap- 
pearance ; in RF1 a Ct of oxide of lead is formed. With Bx or SPh in 
Fl, clear green beads are obtained, which remain green on cooling, but 
which on application of the RF1 become red and opaque ; this reaction 
appears most distinctly on Ch with Sn. With Sd on platinum wire in 
OF1, dissolves to a transparent green bead, which on cooling becomes yel- 
low and opaque ; on treating the bead with a few drops of water, a yellow 
solution is obtained, in which the presence of chromic acid may be proved 
as described $ 68. With Sd on Ch, is completely decomposed ; on treat- 
ing the reduced metals with boracic acid on Ch (v. \ 71 ) a globule of me- 
tallic copper is obtained. 

Partly soluble in nitric acid to a dark green liquid ; the residue is 
yellow. 

Wulfenite [Yellow Lead Ore]. 

g 179. PbO, MoO 3 , sometimes with a little CrO 3 . H=2.75 3. G=6.3 
6.9. Crystallized or granularly massive, firmly coherent. Color usu- 
ally wax-yellow, passing into orange-yellow. 

In a matrass, decrepitates and becomes darker while hot. On Ch, 
fuses and is partly absorbed by the coal, while metallic lead* and a Ct of 
oxide of lead are deposited. With Bx or SPh on platinum wire gives 
the reactions of molybdic acid (v. Table II, 15). With Sd on Ch, affords 
a globule of metallic lead. Fused with bisulphate of potassa in a pla- 
tinum spoon, a yellowish mass is obtained, which becomes white on cool- 
ing; treated with distilled water and a piece of metallic zinc placed into 
the solution, the liquid assumes a blue color. 

Dissolves in concentrate hydrochloric acid to a green liquid, leaving a 
residue of chloride of lead. The pulverized mineral is decomposed on 
being digested with nitric acid ; a yellowish- white residue is left, which 
becomes blue when exposed to air in thin layers. 



79 



ORES OF MANGANESE. 

Pyrolusite [Gray Ore of Manganese]. 

180. MnO 2 . H=2 2.5. G=4.8. Of black or dark-gray color and 
little lustre ; powder black ; sometimes of columnar structure. 

In a matrass, usually yields a little water ; when heated to redness, 
oxygen is evolved. Alone infusible, but turning reddish-brown when the 
temperature is sufficiently high. Soluble in Bx and SPh with the usual 
manganese-reactions; gives frequently the indications of iron. 

Soluble in hydrochloric acid with disengagement of chlorine. 

Hausmannite [Black Manganese]. 

\ 181. MnO, Mn 2 3 . H=5 5.5. 0=4.7. Crystallized, or granular, 
particles strongly coherent. Color brownish-black 5 streak chestnut- 
brown. 

Before the Blp, and to hydrochloric acid behaves like the preceding 
ore. 

Braunite. 

1 182. Mn 2 O 3 . H=6 6.5. G=4.7 4.8. Occurs crystallized or mas- 
sive. Color and streak dark brownish-black. 

In a matrass, does not give any water ; behaves otherwise like pyrolu- 
site. Dissolves in hydrochloric acid with disengagement of chlorine, 
leaving sometimes a residue of silica. 

Psilomelane. 

183. Composition very various, essentially Mn 2 3 with BaO or KO, 
and HO. H=5 6. 0=3.74.3. Massive. Color iron-black; streak 
brownish-black, shining. 

Before the Blp and to solvents it behaves like pyrolusite. 
Wad [Bog Manganese]. 

1 184. Essentially MnO 2 , MnO, and HO ; contains often Fe 2 3 ,- 
A1 2 3 , BaO, SiO 3 , &c. H=0.5 6. 0=34.2. Amorphous, earthy or 
compact, of a dull black color. 

In a matrass, yields water abundantly, and otherwise behaves like 
pyrolusite. Some varieties, known under the name of "Cupreous Man- 



80 



ganese," when treated with Sd and Bx on Ch, afford a globule of metallic 
copper. 

Diallogite. 

185. MnO,C0 2 when pure, sometimes (MnO, FeO, CuO, MgO), 
C0 a . H=3.5 4.5. G=3.4 3.6. Occurs crystallized, or in globular 
masses of columnar structure ; also massive. Color shades of rose-red, 
brownish ; streak white. 

In a matrass, some varieties give a little water and decrepitate vio- 
lently. Infusible. Some varieties, when heated in RF1, become mag- 
netic. Dissolves in fluxes with effervescence and gives usually the reac- 
tion of manganese and iron. 

The pulverized mineral is little affected by hydrochloric acid in the 
cold ; on heating dissolves with effervescence. 

Franklinite. 

186. ZnO,Mn 2 3 +4 Fe 2 3 . H=5.5 6.5. G=5. Occurs crystal- 
lized, and massive. Lustre metallic ; color iron-black ; streak dark red- 
dish-brown 5 acts slightly on the magnet. 

Infusible. Dissolves in Bx and SPh with manganese-reaction ; the 
Bx bead, when treated on Ch in RF1 becomes bottle-green. With Sd 
on platinum foil, gives manganese-reaction. With Sd on Ch, gives a 
faint Ct of oxide of zinc, which becomes more distinct on addition of Bx. 

Dissolves completely in heated hydrochloric acid to a greenish-yellow 
liquid, chlorine being evolved. 



ORES OF MERCURY. 

Native Mercury. 

$ 187. Hg, sometimes containing a little Ag. G=13.5. Metallic 
globules of a tin-white color. 

Heated in a matrass, is converted into vapor, which condenses in the 
neck of the matrass to small metallic globules. 

Dissolves readily in nitric acid. 



81 



Amalgam. 

I 188. AgHg 2 and AgHg 3 . H=3 3.5. 0=10.514. Occurs 
crystallized and massive. Color and streak silver-white; opaque. 

In a matrass, boils, gives a sublimate of metallic mercury, and leaves 
a spongy residue of silver, which on Ch fuses readily to a globule. 

Dissolves readily in nitric acid. 

Calomel [Horn Quicksilver]. 

\ 189. Hg 2 Cl. H=l 2. G=6.48. Occurs usually in distinct crys- 
tals or crystalline coats, of adamantine lustre and yellowish-gray color. 

In a matrass, yields a white sublimate of subchloride of mercury. 
Mixed with Sd and heated in a matrass, affords globules of metallic mer- 
cury. On Ch, completely volatilized, giving a white Ct. Shows the 
chlorine-reaction when treated as described 65. 

Treated with boiling hydrochloric acid, is partly dissolved and becomes 
gray. Not affected by nitric acid, dissolved by aqua regia. With a 
solution of caustic potassa, becomes black. 

Cinnabar. 

% 190. HgS. H=2 2.5. 0=8.9. Color various shades of red, from 
cochineal-red to dark brownish-red. Powder always bright-red. It 
occurs in very small flattened crystals, or granularly massive. 

Heated in a matrass, is volatilized and condenses to a black sublimate, 
which by friction assumes a red color. Mixed with Sd, yields on heating 
globules of metallic mercury. In an open glass tube, is partially decom- 
posed into metallic mercury and sulphurous acid. On Ch it is, when 
pure, wholly volatilized. 

Nitric acid and hydrochloric acid have no visible effect on it. Aqua 
regia dissolves it, part of the sulphur being precipitated. Insoluble in 
caustic potassa. 

ORES OF NICKEL. 
Copper Nickel. 

191. Ni 2 As or Ni 2 (As. Sb). H=5 5.5. G=7.3 7.6. Usually 
massive ; of copper-red color, with a gray tarnish, and metallic lustre ; 
very brittle. 



82 



In a matrass, affords a very slight sublimate of arsenous acid. In an 
open glass tube, yields a copious sublimate of arsenous acid, and usually 
a little sulphurous acid; the assay-piece assumes at the same time a yel- 
lowish-green color and crumbles to powder. On Ch, emits arsenical 
fumes and fuses to a white and brittle globule which, when treated with 
Bx in RF1, imparts usually to the flux the colors of iron and cobalt. 
Sometimes a faint Ct of oxide of lead is deposited on the Ch. 

Dissolves almost completely in concentrated nitric acid; the solution 
has a green color; on cooling arsenous acid separates. Readily dis- 
solved by aqua regia. 

Nickel G-lance [Gersdorffite], 

192. (Ni,Fe)-f(S 2 ,As). H=5.5. G=5.6 6.9. Of silver-white 
or steel-gray color, and metallic lustre. 

In a matrass, decrepitates violently and yields a yellowish-brown subli- 
mate of sulphide of arsenic. In an open glass tube, emits arsenous acid 
and sulphurous acid. On Ch, fuses with emission of sulphur and arsenical 
fumes to a globule which, when treated with Bx in RF1, gives the reac- 
tions of iron and cobalt. After having removed these two metals, the 
remaining globule exhibits with the fluxes the reactions of pure oxide of 
nickel. 

Partly dissolved by nitric acid, sulphur and arsenous acid being pre- 
cipitated. 

Nickeliferous Gray Antimony [Ullmannite]. 

193. NiS 2 +Ni(Sb,As). H=5 5.5. G=6.2 6.5. It closely 
resembles the preceding ore in its physical properties. 

In a matrass, yields a slight white sublimate. In an open glass tube, 
emits copious antimonial fumes and sulphurous acid. On Ch in RF1, 
fuses to a globule, and coats the Ch with antimonous acid ; sometimes the 
odor of arsenic is observable. The melting globule, when treated with 
Bx, frequently exhibits the reactions of iron and cobalt besides those of 
nickel. 

It is violently acted upon by concentrated nitric acid, sulphur, anti- 
monous and arsenous acids being precipitated. Aqua regia dissolves it, 
excepting the sulphur, to a green liquid. 



83 



Capillary Pyrites [Millerite]. 

$ 194. NiS. H=3 3.5. G=5.2 5.6. Occurs usually in delicate 
capillary crystals of brass-yellow color and metallic lustre. 

In an open glass tube, evolves sulphurous acid. On Ch, fuses with 
emission of sparks to a metallic globule which is attracted by the mag- 
net. The calcined mineral gives with fluxes the indications of oxide of 
nickel, and sometimes also those of oxide of cobalt. 

By heated concentrated nitric acid it is but little affected, but its color 
is changed to gray. By aqua regia it is wholly dissolved. 

Emerald Nickel. 

\ 195. (NiO.C0 2 +4HO)+2(NiO.HO). H=3 3.2. G=2.5 2.7. 
Usually forms incrustations of emerald-green color, and vitreous lustre. 

In a matrass, loses already at 212 a considerable amount of water, 
and blackens. In Bx and SPh, dissolves with effervescence, exhibiting 
the characteristic nickel-reactions. 

Dissolves easily in heated dilute hydrochloric acid with effervescence. 

Annabergite [Nickel Green]. 

g 196. 3NiO.As0 5 +8HO. Soft. In capillary crystals, also massive 
and disseminated. Color fine apple-green. 

In a matrass, yields water and darkens in color. In the forceps, fuses 
and colors the outer flame light-blue. On Ch in RF1, fuses with emis- 
sion of arsenical vapor to a blackish-gray globule ; when treated with Bx 
the globule gives the reactions of nickel, sometimes also those of iron 
and cobalt. 

Soluble in acids. 

ORES OP SILVER. 

Native Silver. 

$ 197. Pure silver, associated with gold, copper, arsenic, iron, and other 
metals. H=2.5 3. G=10 11. Color silver-white j lustre metallic ; 
ductile and malleable. Occurs usually in twisted filaments, or arbores- 
cent ; sometimes in plates or massive. 



84 



On Ch, fuses easily to a globule, which assumes a bright surface, and 
shows after cooling a silver-white color. Foreign metals are detected by 
the methods given \\ 103-105. 

It dissolves in nitric acid. 
Antimonial Silver [Discrasite]. 

1 198. Ag 6 Sb and Ag 4 Sb. H=3.5 4. G=9.4 9.8. Occurs crys- 
tallized or massive, granular. Lustre metallic ; color and streak silver- 
white. 

On Ch, fuses readily to a gray non-ductile globule and coats the Ch 
with oxide of antimony ; with continued heat the globule assumes the 
appearance of pure silver, and the Ct becomes reddish. 

Dissolves in nitric acid, leaving a residue of oxide of antimony. 

Horn Silver [Kerargyrite]. 

199. Ag Cl. H=l 1.5. G=5.5. Remarkable for its pearl-gray 
or greenish color, its semi-transparency, resinous lustre, and more espe- 
cially for its softness, which is so great as to allow it to be marked by 
the nail. It turns brown on exposure to air. When rubbed with a 
moistened plate of zinc or iron the latter becomes covered with a coating 
of silver. 

It fuses in a candle-flame. On Ch, is easily reduced, especially when 
mixed with Sd. Mixed with oxide of copper and heated on Ch in RF1, 
chloride of copper is formed, which colors the flame azure-blue (v. 65). 

Insoluble in water and nitric acid. Slowly soluble in caustic ammonia. 
Partially decomposed by a boiling solution of caustic potassa. 

Embolite [Chloro-bromide of Silver]. 

200. 2AgBr+3AgCl. H=l 1.5. G=5.3 5.4. Crystallized or 
massive. Lustre resinous ; color various shades of green. 

On Ch, fuses readily, evolves pungent vapors of bromine, and affords 
a globule of metallic silver. With Sd on Ch, reduced ; on dissolving in 
water the alkaline mass which has passed into the coal, evaporating the 
solution to dryness, and treating the residue with bisulphate of potassa 
as described $ 63, bromine-vapors are given out. Fused with oxide of 
copper on Ch in RF1, colors the outer flame greenish, then blue (v. 65). 



85 



Bromyrite [Bromic Silver]. 

I 201. AgBr. H=l 2. G=5.8 6. Occurs usually in small con- 
cretions. Lustre splendent ; color yellowish-green or green. Sectile. 

Its action before the Blp not known ; behaves probably like the pre- 
ceding. 

Only slightly affected by acids. Dissolves in heated concentrated 
ammonia. 

lodyrite [lodic Silver]. 

g 202. Agl. Soft. G=5.5. Occurs crystallized or in thin plates with 
a lamellar structure. Color citron-yellow to yellowish-green. 

On Ch, fuses readily, colors the flame purple-red, and affords a globule 
of silver. 

Silver Glance. 

| 203. AgS. H=2 2.5. G=7. Color blackish lead-gray: lustre 
metallic. It is easily distinguished from other minerals of the same 
color by being cut by a knife like lead. 

On Ch in OF1, intumesces, gives out sulphurous acid, and finally yields 
a globule of metallic silver. 

Soluble in dilute nitric acid, leaving a residue of sulphur. 

Ruby Silver [Pyrargyrite. Dark-red Silver Ore]. 

g204. 3AgS, SbS 3 . 11=22.5. G=5.Y 5,9. Color dark red to 
black, giving a cochineal-red powder. Crystallizes in hexagonal prisms. 

In a matrass, fuses very readily and yields with continued heat a subli- 
mate of tersulphide of antimony. In an open glass tube gives antimonial 
fumes and sulphurous acid. On Ch, fuses readily and deposits a Ct of 
antimonous acid, being converted into sulphide of silver; if for a long 
time exposed to the OF1 or, when mixed with Sd, to the RF1, affords a 
globule of metallic silver. 

Part of the SbS 3 is sometimes substituted by AsS 3 ; it then gives out 
arsenical fumes when mixed with Sd and heated in the R Fl on Ch. 

The pulverized mineral, when heated with nitric acid, turns black and 
is ultimately dissolved, leaving a residue of sulphur and antimonous acid. 

8 



86 



Caustic potassa also blackens it and effects partial solution, from which 
acids precipitates tersulphide of antimony. 
Proustite [Light-red Silver Ore]. 

1 205. 3AgS, AsS 3 . H=2 2.5. G=5.4 5.5. Very much resembles 
the dark-red silver ore, but is of\a somewhat lighter color. 

Before the Blp and to solvents, behaves like the preceding, excepting 
it gives off arsenical fumes instead of antimonous acid. The solution 
in caustic potassa deposits a yellow precipitate when neutralized with 
acids. 

Brittle Silver Ore [Stephanite]. 

2 206. 6 AgS, SbS 3 . 11=22.5. G=6.2. Of metallic lustre and iron- 
black color | it is very brittle and fragile, and its powder black. 

In a matrass, decrepitates, then fuses and ultimately yields a faint 
sublimate of tersulphide of antimony. On Ch, fuses very readily and 
coats the Ch with antimonous acid. If the blast with the Fl is kept 
up for a sufficient time, the Ct assumes a red color and a globule of me- 
tallic silver is obtained. Contains frequently copper and iron, which may 
be detected by the process described 71. If arsenic is present it gives 
in the open tube a crystalline sublimate of arsenous acid. 

In dilute heated nitric acid it dissolves, excepting the sulphur and 
antimonous acid ; the solution becomes milky on addition of water. 
Partially dissolved by a boiling solution of caustic potassa. 

Polybasite. 

I 207. 9 (Cu 2 S, AgS) (SbS 3 , AsS 3 ). H=2 3. G=6.2. Occurs usually 
in short tabular prisms, or massive. Lustre metallic; color and streak 
iron-black. 

In a matrass, fuses very readily, but gives nothing volatile. In an 
open tube, gives sulphurous acid and antimonial fumes ; the sublimate 
contains sometimes crystals of arsenous acid. On Ch, gives a Ct of 
oxide of antimony ; with continued heat, gives a bright metallic globule, 
which, on cooling, becomes black on its surface ; sometimes a faint Ct 
of oxide of zinc is deposited ; the metallic globule affords with fluxes the 
reaction of silver and copper. 

With acids behaves like honrnonite. 



87 



Stromeyerite [Argentiferous Sulphide of Copper], 

\ 208. Cu 2 S. + AgS. H=2.5 3. G=6.2 G.3. Occurs usually in 
small compact masses. Lustre metallic ; color dark steel-gray. 

In a matrass, fuses easily and gives sometimes a little sulphur. In an 
open tube, fuses to a globule and gives sulphurous acid. On Ch, fuses 
to a gray metallic globule which is a little malleable; with fluxes the 
globule gives the reactions of copper, sometimes also those of iron ; on 
a cupel with lead affords a globule of silver. 

Dissolves in nitric acid, leaving a residue of sulphur. 

ORES OF Tix. 
Tin Ore [Cassiterite]. 

209. SnO 2 . H=6 7. 0=6.37.1. It occurs crystallized in square 
prisms terminated by more or less complicated pyramids ; re-entrant 
angles are so frequent that they are to a certain extent characteristic ; 
also massive, and in small mammillated masses of fibrous texture, hence 
called "wood tin." Color very various, but usually brown or black. The 
crystals commonly possess a very brilliant lustre. 

Infusible in the forceps ; the behavior before the Blp is that of pure 
oxide of tin (v. Table II, 22), excepting of its sometimes imparting to 
the Bx bead a slight yellowish tinge, owing to the presence of iron, and 
exhibiting the reaction for manganese when fused with soda and nitre on 
platinum-foil. 

Insoluble in acids. Fused with caustic potassa, yields a mass which 
is mostly soluble in water. 
Tin Pyrites. 

210. 2Cu 2 S } SnS 2 +2(FeS,ZnS), SnS 2 . H=4. 0=4.34.5. Of 
steel-gray or iron-black color, and metallic lustre. Occurs usually 
massive, granular, and disseminated. 

In an open glass tube, yields sulphurous acid and oxide of tin, which 
collects close to the assay-piece and which cannot be volatilized by heat. 
On Ch in RF1, fuses to a black scoriaceous globule; in OF1, gives out 
sulphurous acid and becomes covered with oxide of tin. When well 



88 



calcined by the alternate application of OF1 and RF1, gives with Bx the 
indications of Fe and Cu. With Sd and Bx, yields a globule of impure 
copper. 

Decomposed by nitric acid ; a blue solution is obtained, and a mixture 
of sulphur and oxide of tin remains undissolved. 



ORES OF ZINC. 

Red Zinc Ore [Zincite]. 

211. ZnO, containing some Mn 2 3 . H=4 4.5. G=5.4 5.5. Of 
a deep-red color and high lustre ; of distinctly foliated structure. 

Infusible alone. Dissolved by Bx in OF1 with manganese reaction. 
With Sd on Ch, deposits a copious Ct of oxide of zinc. 

Soluble in nitric acid without effervescence j in hydrochloric acid with 
evolution of chlorine. 

Blende. 

212. ZnS. H=3.5 4. 0=3.94.2. Of very variable color, from 
yellow to black ; of resinous lustre and lamellar aspect, distinctly cleava- 
ble. It occurs often crystallized in rhomboidal dodecahedrons. The 
powder is always light colored, white or grayish, and dull. 

In a matrass, sometimes decrepitates violently, but gives nothing vola- 
tile ; its color also remains unchanged, excepting the green varieties, 
which become yellow. Strongly heated in an open glass tube, sulphur- 
ous acid is evolved, and the color of the calcined assay is white, yellow- 
ish, or brownish, according to the amount of FeS which it contains. 
Alone, infusible or only rounded at the thinnest edges. On Ch in RF1 
a feeble dark Ct of oxide of cadmium is usually obtained, which is soon 
followed by a pure zinc-Ct. With Sd on Ch, is easily reduced, and the 
characteristic zinc-flame may frequently be observed. Iron is readily 
detected by calcining the mineral in the OF1 and treating the residue 
with Bx. 

The pulverized mineral dissolves in nitric acid, leaving a residue of 
sulphur. 



89 



tSmithsonite [Calamine]. 

213. ZnO.CO 2 . H=5. G=4 4.5. It is found crystallized in 
forms derived from the rhomboid. Of vitreous lustre, and white, grayish, 
or brownish color; semi-transparent or opaque. Often stalactitic or 
mammillary. 

Heated in a matrass, loses carbonic acid and, if pure, appears after 
cooling enamel-white. The ZnO is often to a large extent substituted 
by FeO, MnO, CdO, PbO, MgO, CaO ; it then, after cooling, frequently 
assumes a dark color and gives with fluxes the indications of iron and 
manganese. Mixed with Sd and exposed to the R Fl, it is decomposed 
and oxide of zinc deposited on the Ch. If the temperature was raised 
sufficiently high, a zinc-flame is sometimes observable. The Ct is at first 
dark yellow, or reddish when cadmium is present. 

It readily dissolves in acids with effervescence ; also in caustic 
potassa. 

Calamine. 

214. 3ZnO + SiO 3 + 2HO or 2(3ZnO.Si0 3 )+3HO. H=4.3 5. 
G=3.1 3.9. It closely resembles in its physical characters the pre- 
ceding ore. It is electric by heat ; the smallest fragment heated attracts 
light substances. 

Infusible in the forceps. In a matrass, yields water and turns milk-white. 
Bx dissolves it to a transparent glass, which cannot be made opaque by 
flaming. It dissolves in SPh to a transparent glass, which becomes 
opaque on cooling, and in which, when highly saturated, clouds of silica 
are observable, while hot. With Sd on Ch, swells and affords with diffi- 
culty a Ct of oxide of zinc. With SoCo, assumes a green color, which, 
when the heat is raised, passes into a fine light-blue on the fused edges. 

It is readily decomposed by acids, with separation of gelatinous silicic 
acid. Partly dissolved by caustic potassa. 



8* 



90 

APPENDIX. 

FOSSIL FUEL. 

Anthracite. 

\ 215. C, with a small percentage of SiO 3 , A1 2 3 , and Fe 2 3 . H=2 
2.5. G=1.3 1.8. Lustre bright, often sub-metallic ; color iron-black, 
frequently iridescent. Fracture conchoidal. 

In a matrass, gives usually a little water, but no empyreumatic oil. 
Heated on platinum foil in OF1, is slowly consumed without flame, leav- 
ing a small quantity of ash, which consists of SiO 3 , A1 2 8 , and more or 
less Fe 2 3 . Does not color a boiling solution of caustic potassa. 

Bituminous Goal [Common Coal]. 

| 216. C, H, in variable proportions; the bituminous matter con- 
tains from 76 to 90 per cent, of carbon ; the earthy impurities consist 
principally of SiO 3 , A1 2 8 , and CaO ; contains frequently a small amount 
of N and FeS 2 . Softer than anthracite, G=1.2 1.5. Less highly lus- 
trous than the preceding, and of a more purely black or brownish-black 
color. 

In a matrass, some varieties soften and cake (caking coal), while 
others are entirely infusible ; all varieties are decomposed, evolve com- 
bustible gases and empyreumatic oils, and leave a residue of more or less 
metallic lustre (coke), which behaves like anthracite. On platinum foil, 
burns with a luminous flame and emission of smoke, leaving an earthy 
residue. 

Boiled with a solution of caustic potassa, or with ether, imparts to these 
solvents no, or only a pale-yellow, color. 

Brown Coal. 

217. Composition the same as that of bituminous coal, but the 
organic constituents contain only from 60 to 75 per cent, of carbon. In 
physical proportion bears sometimes a close resemblance to the pre- 
ceding; some varieties show distinctly the texture of wood (lignite). 

In a matrass, infusible, but some varieties soften ; evolves combusti- 



91 



ble gases, empyreumatic oils, water of acid reaction, and a peculiar disa- 
greeable odor, leaving a residue which consists of carbon and a consi- 
derable amount of ash. On platinum foil, burns with a smoky flame 
and emission of a peculiar odor. 

Boiled with a solution of caustic po.tassa, colors the liquid brown. 

Asphaltum. 

218. C, H, 0, in variable proportions, with about 75 per cent, of 
carbon. G=l 1.2. Of black or brownish-black color, and bituminous 
odor. 

Fuses at about 100 C, and burns with a bright flame and emission of 
a thick smoke, leaving little ash, which consists essentially of SiO 3 , 
A1 2 3 , and Fe 2 3 . In a matrass, gives empyreumatic oil, some ammo- 
niacal water, combustible gases, and leaves a carbonaceous residue. 

Treated with boiling ether, colors the solvent wine-red to bjownish-red 
(distinction from bituminous coal); treated with a boiling solution of 
caustic potassa, does not color the liquid, or imparts at the most a pale- 
yellow color (distinction from brown-coal). 



FIFTH CHAPTER. 



SYSTEMATIC METHOD FOR THE DISCRIMINATION OF 
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 

THE careful observer, having become well acquainted with the reac- 
tions which are exhibited by the metallic oxides and other simple com- 
pounds, when subjected to the various treatments detailed in the second 
chapter, will find no difficulty in ascertaining the nature of any mineral 
substance presented to him for analysis. 

If the reactions are not quite distinct, owing to an intermixture with 
other substances, he may call to his aid the processes laid down in the 
third chapter, which will enable him, in most cases, to detect also the 
nature of the impurities. But in order to attain satisfactory results in 
this way, a certain familiarity with all the principal tests is a necessary 
condition ; this once acquired, any further directions are quite superfluous. 

Those, however, who have not devoted much time to blowpipe opera- 
tions, will sometimes experience some difficulties in drawing the correct 
conclusions from the observed phenomena, a difficulty which is to a great 
extent obviated by pursuing the course given below. This methodical 
course has the advantage of giving the operator the answer to every phe- 
nomenon which he observes, and thus leading him, though sometimes by 
a very tortuous path, to the right solution. An example will show this 
more clearly, and teach at the same time the use of the table. 

Suppose a substance be given for analysis. The operator commences 
with No. 1. The substance is heated in RF1 on Ch : a garlic odor is 
disengaged ; proceed to No. 2. Treated with Sd on Ch does not give a 
mass which exhibits the reaction of sulphur ; proceed to No. 3. The 



substance shows no metallic aspect; proceed to No. 131, thence to No. 
135. It is not wholly volatilized, nor does it exhibit the reaction of sul- 
phur; proceed to No. 137. Here we find that the substance must either 
be an arsenite or an arsenate (which of the two, cannot be decided by 
the Blp alone), and to find the metal, we proceed to No. 102. It affords, 
after calcination, with Sd on Ch a fusible metallic button ; proceed to 
No. 103. The button is oxidable (because on being heated in OF1, 
becomes covered with a black coating of oxide); proceed to No. 105. 
The button is red and malleable ; the metal is copper. The substance, 
therefore, was arsenite, or arsenate, of copper. 

The chief constituents of the body having thus been ascertained, the 
analyst should never omit to test the correctness of the result by the pro- 
cesses laid down in the third chapter. In the example given above, he 
should verify the result by the test given in 57 for arsenous acid, and 
by those given in $$ 71 and 74 for copper. If we wish to examine the 
assay also for the presence or absence of some accessory constituents, we 
must always have recourse to the methods detailed in Chapter III. For 
example, having found the body under trial to consist essentially of sul- 
phur and lead, and it appears desirable to know, whether or not it con- 
tains any silver, we must subject it to the treatment described $ 103. 

On Ch (RF1) with or without Sd disengages a garlic odor, . 2 

Not, 4 

{With Sd (RF1) on Ch yields a scoriaceous mass which exhib- 
its the sulphur-reaction ($ 107), . . SulpJiarsenide. 131 
Not, 3 

T Metallic aspect, ....... Arsenide. 131 

Not, Arsenite and Arsenate. 131 

On Ch (OF1) disengages sulphurous acid, and exhibits the 

sulphur-reaction (g 107), . . Sulphur Compound, 125 

Not, 5 

On Ch disengages the odor of rotten horse-radish, . 

Selenium Compound. 136 

Not, 6 



H 



C The substance, after having been well dried, fuses on red-hot 

< Ch, 7 

(.Not, .... 11 

( Treated as indicated 65 imparts to the flame an azure-blue 

\ or green color, g 

** Not > Nitrate. 102 

{The color is azure-blue, ....... 9 

The color is green, 10 

C Treated as indicated $ 63 disengages deep yellow vapors, 

Bromate. 102 

Chlorate. 102 

( Treated as indicated $ 63 disengages deep yellow vapors, 

10 S Bromate. 102 

I Violet vapors, lodate. 102 

C Treated as indicated $ 65 imparts to the flame an azure-blue 

11s or green color, . .12 

vNot, 17 

f Heated in a matrass with bisulphate of potassa and a little 
peroxide of manganese disengages violet vapors, 

12 { Iodide and lodate. 102 

I Deep yellow vapors, . . . Bromide and Bromate. 102 

I^Not, 13 

( Treated as indicated \ 77 exhibits the fluorine-reaction, 

13 < Fluoride. 102 

vNot, ;, . . . .14 

( Treated as indicated 65 imparts to the flame an azure-blue 

14 < color, 15 

t A green color, 16 

C Heated with Sd on Ch gives a mass which, when mixed with 
bisulphate of potassa and black oxide of manganese 

15 1 and heated in a closed tube, evolves a deep yellow gas, 

Bromide. 102 

Chloride and Chlorate. 1 02 



95 

{Heated with Sd on Ch gives a mass which, when mixed with 
bisulphate of potassa and peroxide of manganese and 
heated in a closed tube, evolves violet vapors, . Iodide. 102 
Deep yellow vapors, Bromide. 102 

Effervesces with hydrochloric acid, . . Carbonate. 102 



fEHer 
' 1 Not, 



18 
( When finely powdered and heated with hydrochloric acid, 

18 "\ effervesces, ...... Carbonate. 102 

(.Not, 19 

( When finely powdered and heated with concentrated hydro- 

19-\ chloric acid, gelatinizes, 30 

I Not, 20 

( Fused with Sd on Ch yields neither a metallic globule nor 

20< aCt, . 21 

I Yields a metallic globule or a Ct, 22 

( Treated as indicated 61 colors the flame yellowish-green, 

21 < , . . . ; Borate. 102 

I Not, ...',.".' 23 

TThe scoriaceous mass is heated in a platinum spoon with a 
drop of concentrated sulphuric acid, then alcohol poured 

22 \ on it, and lighted. The flame appears yellowish-green, 

| Borate. 102 

I^Not, . . . $&$'$. 23 

( Treated as indicated $77 exhibits the fluorine-reaction, 

23s Fluoride. 102 

I Not, 24 

{Heated with Sd on Ch yields a button of fused metal, . . 25 
Not, 27 

f Heated on Ch alone behaves as indicated 96 ; yields with 

25 < Sd on Ch a soft globule, . . . Phosphate of Lead. 

I Not, 26 

f The scoriaceous mass treated with boracic acid, as indicated 

26 4 \ 95, exhibits the reaction of phosphoric acid, Phosphate. 102 

(Not, 28 



96 



C Treated as indicated $ 95 exhibits the reaction of phosphoric 

27s acid, . . MMSOI^ &;, . . Phosphate. 102 

I Not, ,.-. j w t t, : - .... 28 

f With Sd on Ch yields a metallic button or a copious Ct, . 31 

8 \Not, 29 

{Pulverized and fused with 5 or 6 times its weight of Sd in a 
platinum spoon, yields a mass which, when heated with 
hydrochloric acid, gives a gelatinous precipitate, . . 30 
Not, .. .* ^ . : . . . .* .. &. 31 
( The gelatinous precipitate placed, while still moist, on a blade 
30^ of iron or zinc, becomes blue, . . . Tungstate. 139 

I Not, 140 

f Metallic aspect, 32 

01 J 

(Not, . . .. *. >. . -. -. -. . . 57 
C Yields on Ch a malleable and fusible metallic button, which is 

32 < notoxidable, 33 

I Not, . . . . . V ............. 36 

f Yellow button, ..'..""... . ...... .34 

33 < 

1 \ White button, 35 

( With Bx on platinum wire gives a bluish glass, 

34 < . . . . . . . . Gold with Copper. 

I Not, Gold. 

C With Bx on platinum wire gives a bluish glass, 
35 1 Silver with Copper. 

I Not, . . Silver. 

f With Bx on platinum wire gives a glass which is blue in both 
36 < flames, Cobalt. 

iNot, 37 

{Gives with Bx the reactions of oxide of copper, ... 38 
Not, 42 

Red and malleable metallic button, . . . Copper. 



{Deposits on Ch a Ct, yellow while hot, white when cold, . . 41 
Not. A yellowish, brittle alloy, . . Copper and Tin. 



97 

f Malleable, yellow or reddish alloy, . . Copper and Zinc. 

41 % 

(^ White, malleable alloy, . . . Copper, Zinc, Nickel. 

42 {Very fusible metallic button, 43 

( Deposits on Ch a Ct, 44 

43 < No Ct deposited on Ch j exhibits the reactions of tin, 

I *, .; . . .Tin. 

White Ct, very volatile, . . 45 



f Whit 
\ Not, 



44 

46 

( Yields on Ch a brittle globule, which exhibits the antimony- 

45 \ reactions, ....... Antimony. 

(.Not, ........ Tellurium. 

( Metallic aspect, or powder assuming metallic lustre under the 

46 "\ polishing steel, ......... 47 

I Not, . . ..'."/.' 50 

( Infusible and inoxidable, .... Platinum. 
\ Oxidable, 48 

With Bx in OF1 an amethyst-colored glass, . Manganese. 



f With 
I Not, 



49 

After having been oxidized, exhibits with fluxes the iron- 
reactions, .... .... Iron. 

49 { 

After having been oxidized, exhibits with fluxes the nickel- 
reactions, . . . ... . . Nickel. 

Yields with Sd on Ch in RF1 a tin globule, . Oxide of Tin. 



( YieL 
\Not, 



51 
( With Bx on platinum wire a green glass in both flames ; 

< Chromic Iron. 

I Not, 52 

Yields with Sd on platinum foil in OF1 a bluish-green mass, . 53 






f Yiel 
\Not, 
C Gives with Bx or SPh on platinum wire an amethyst-colored 

53 \ bead, Oxide of Manganese. 

LNot. Brown powder, . Tung state of Iron and Manganese. 



9 



98 

{With S Ph on platinum wire in RF1 gives a glass which, on 
cooling, becomes brownish-red and, when touched with tin, 
violet-red, ...... Titaniferous Iron. 
Not ; exhibits the iron-reactions, 55 

{Heated in a closed glass tube, yields water; powder yellow, 
Hydrate of Sesquioxide of Iron. 
Yields no water, 56 

f Magnetic ; powder black, .... Magnetic Iron. 
56 \ 

(Not; powder red, ..... Peroxide of Iron. 

f Affords with Sd on Ch in RF1 a fusible metallic button, . 58 
7 I Not, 66 

button is malleable and inoxidable, 59 

58 



/The 
\ Oxi. 



Oxidable button, ......... 60 

Yellow button, . . . . . . Oxide of Gold. 

9 White button, ..... Oxide of Silver. 

{Button with Ct, ......... 61 
' 
-Malleable button without Ct, . ...... 75 

The Ct is white and very volatile, . . Oxide of Antimony. 

62 



( 
H 



( The Ct is yellow, and the button soft, ..... 63 

62 "\ 

( The button is brittle, ........ 65 

A very small quantity affords with Bx or SPh in OF1 a 

63 ~\ green glass, ..... Ckromate of Lead. 

Not, ........... 64 

The substance is yellow or reddish, . Protoxide of Lead. 

64 < The substance is red, ...... Minium. 

The substance is brown, . . . Deutoxide of Lead. 
f Affords with Bx or SPh in OF1 a green bead, 

65 < . ... . Chromate of Bismutli. 

t Not, ....... Oxide of Bismuth. 

Treated on Ch in OF1 deposits a Ct, or vaporizes completely, 67 



' Not 70 

The Ct is white, and very volatile, . . Oxide of Antimony. 



f The 
\ Not, 



67 68 



99 

The Ct is brown, ..... Oxide of Cadmium. 



{The 
Not, 



69 

The substance is red or yellow and affords, when heated in a 
closed glass tube, metallic mercury, ..... 



69- 



Oxide of Mercury. 



The substance is white, becomes yellow on heating, and on cool- 
ing white again, . ..... . Oxide of Zinc. 

C Affords with Bx a bead which is blue in both flames, 

70 < Oxide of Cobalt. 

I Not, 71 

The Bx bead is green in both flames, 72 

Not, % V->'w .A > .'!& .>t^.*t 77 

Soluble in water, ........ .73 



72 

Insoluble in water, 74 



; The substance is orange red, . . Bichromate of Potassa. 
73 



\ The substance is yellow, . Chromate of Potassa or Soda. 
The substance is of semi-metallic aspect or grayish-black, . 

Chromic Iron. 

The substance is a green powder, ..... 

. . . Sesquioxide of Chromium. 

The button is white, Oxide of Tin. 

The button is red, 76 

T The substance is red or brown, . . Suboxide of Copper. 
( 6 < 

{ The substance is black, . . . Protoxide of Copper. 

fThe bead is green in OF1, and becomes reddish-brown in 
77 < RF1, - . .76 

I Not, . .78 

The bead is amethyst-colored in OF1, 79 

Not, . . ..--...<<.. . .80 

f Gives off water when heated in a glass tube, .... 
7 9 "\ '"* . . . Hydrated Oxide of Manga nese. 

\ Not, ...... Oxide of Manganese. 

Heated alone on Ch in OF1 becomes magnetic, . . .55 
Not, > v. ; si 



100 



C Exhibits with SPh on platinum wire the uranium reactions, 
\ . . . Oxide of Uranium. 



82 
J Soluble in water, exhibiting alkaline reaction, . . .83 

I Not, 91 

g3 J Very soluble, 84 

[ But little soluble, .... * * 88 

f Heated on platinum wire, fuses readily and vaporizes, . . 85 
\ Not, 87 

C Heated on platinum foil, stains it dark yellow, . Litliia. 
80 "\ 

( Not, 86 

r Heated on platinum wire, colors the flame pale violet, . 
J . . . . . . . Hydrate of Potassa. 

j Reddish-yellow; the outer flame becomes enlarged, 

L . . ..... . . Hydrate of Soda. 

C Moistened with a drop of hydrochloric acid, and heated on pla- 

87 -s tinum wire, colors the flame pale-green, . . Baryta. 

V. Purple, Strontia. 

( Moistened with a drop of hydrochloric acid, and heated on pla- 

88 \ tinum wire, colors the flame purple, . . . Strontia. 

I Not, 89 

{Heated with SoCo assumes a flesh-color, . . Magnesia. 
Not, . . 00 

Heated alone, becomes very luminous, . . . Lime. 



{Heat< 
Not; 



colors the flame pale-green, .... Baryta. 
C Heated with SoCo, assumes a fine blue color, . Alumina. 

92 



{Heated with SoCo, assumes a flesh-color, . Magnesia. 
Not, 93 

Heated with SoCo, assumes a green color, . Oxide of Zinc. 

Not, 94 

f Affords with SPh in OF1 a colorless glass, which in RF1 
94 "\ becomes blue, ..... .... 95 

(.Not, 97 



101 



( Heated in a closed glass tube, evolves ammonia and becomes 
95 -\ blue or green, .... Tungstate of Ammonia. 

(.Not, :<!* r 'i .... 96 

Tiingstic Acid, 
of Potassa or Soda. 

( Exhibits with SPh the reactions of . . Nolybdic Acid. 

JNot, . KVM^ .. ^itekr-rfw-faw .... 98 

( Exhibits with SPh the reactions of pure . Titanic Acid. 

\ Not, 99 

( Affords with SPh in RF1 a reddish-yellow glass ; the inten- 
99 < sity of the color increases on cooling, . . . .100 

(Not, 101 



f On Ch alone, infusible, . . . 

96 \ 

( Fusible, .... Tungstate oj 



( The glass, when heated on Ch with tin, becomes violet, . 
\ .... Titanic Acid, containing Iron, 

r With Sd on Ch in RF1, affords a metallic powder attract- 
| able by the magnet, . . . Oxide of Nickel. 
I Not: affords with SPh in OF1 a glass which, while hot, 
V is red, and colorless when cold, . Oxide of Cerium. 



NITRATES, CHLORATES, BROMATES, IODATES, CARBONATES, 
PHOSPHATES, BORATES, CHLORIDES, BROMIDES, IODIDES, 
OXIDES, HYDRATES. 

Affords with Sd on Ch in RF1 a fusible metallic button, . 103 

Not, 109 

The button is malleable and inoxidable, . . . .104 
The button is oxidable, 105 

( The button is yellow, .... Salt of Gold. 

\ The button is white, , . . . . . . Salt of Silver. 

{The button is red and malleable, . Salt of Copper. 
Not, 106 

C The button is white and malleable and forms no Ct, 

106 < VWUi* Salt of Tin. 

I Not, >v^ . . 107 



102 



f Forms a white and very volatile Ct, Salt of Antimony. 

\ The Ct is orange-yellow, ....... 108 

f The button is malleable, ..... -. Salt of Lead. 
108 -\ 

\ The button is brittle, . . . Salt of Bismuth. 

( Treated with Sd on Ch in RF1, deposits a Ct, . . .110 
\ Not, ...... . . . .112 

f The Ct is white and very volatile, . Salt of Antimony. 
\ Not, **$- ......... Ill 

( The Ct is reddish-brown, . - - . Salt of Cadmium. 
Ill < The Ct is yellow while hot, and white when cold, 

I ........ Salt of Zinc. 

{On Ch alone, affords a gray and infusible powder which, 
under the polishing steel, assumes metallic lustre, 
....... Salt of Platinum. 
Not, . . . *MMj.' ..... 113 

( Heated with Sd in a closed glass tube affords a sublimate 
113^ of mercury, ..... Salt of Mercury. 

I Not, .......... 114 

f Heated with Sd in a closed glass tube disengages ammo- 
114< nia, ...... Salt of Ammonia. 

I Not, .......... 115 

( Gives with Bx or SPh beads which are blue in both flames, 
115 < ....... Salt of Cobalt. 

I Not, .......... 

The beads are green in both flames, Salt of Chromium. 



6 117 



( The bead exhibits the reactions produced by oxide of cop- 
117< per, . . . . . . Salt of Copper. 

I Not, .......... 118 

f Affords with Sd on Ch a metallic powder, which assumes 
118 -\ lustre by friction, and is attracted by the magnet, . . 119 
I Not, .......... 120 

j Gives with Bx in RF1 a bottle-green glass, Salt of Iron. 
\ Gives with Bx in RF1 a grayish glass, Salt of Nickel. 



103 



C Gives with Bx in OF1 an amethyst-colored bead, 

120< Salt of Manganese. 

I Not, 121 

r Infusible mass, which assumes, with SoCo, previous to 

fusion, a fine blue color, . . Salt of Alumina. 

| A flesh-color, . ,, ... ,, . Salt of Magnesia. 

I Not, ..r : .*>iy. ; 122 

( The watery solution gives a precipitate on addition of some 

122 < Sd, 123 

I Not, . 124 

Heated on platinum wire, colors the flame pale-green, 

Salt of Baryta. 

123 < 

Colors the flame purple, . . . Salt of Strontia. 

Not; but becomes very luminous, . . Salt of Lime. 
( Heated on platinum wire, colors the flame violet, 

124< r-a*r* -* Salt of Potassa. 

v Colors the flame reddish-yellow, . . Salt of Soda. 



j Metallic aspect ; sulphides, . . . . . .126 

125 



SULPHUR COMPOUNDS. 

\ Not, 127 

( The substance is calcined, and the metal detected by pro- 

126 < 8 

I ceeding as indicated above, beginning with No. . . 102 

( Sulphates, hyposulphates, sulphites, hyposulphites, sul- 

127 "S phides prepared artificially by precipitation, and a few 

v native sulphides , 128 

{Heated with hydrochloric acid disengages : 

Sulphuretted hydrogen, . . . , . Sulphide. 130 

Sulphurous acid, 129 

Nothing, .... Sulphate or Hyposulphate. 130 
( Hydrochloric acid produces a white precipitate of sulphur, 

129< H*4 Hyposulphite. 130 

v. Not, t^j? Sulphite. 130 



104 

130 ( The metal is detected beginning with No. ... 102 

ARSENIC COMPOUNDS. 

( Metallic aspect, . .132 

1 I Not, 135 

( Readily and completely volatilized on Ch, .. . .133 

132 "\ 

\ Not, . . .134 

f Gives a white and very volatile Ct, Arsenide of Antimony. 

133 -s 

( Not, ........ Arsenic. 

( The substance, which is an arsenide or sulpharsenide, is 
134*\ thoroughly calcined, and then the metal detected as in- 

v. dicated above, beginning with No 102 

( Wholly volatilized on Ch, and exhibiting the reactions of 
135 < sulphur, 136 

v Not wholly volatilized, or exhibiting no sulphur-reaction, 137 

{The substance is yellow. .... Orpiment. 

The substance is red, ..... jRealgar. 
The substance is very volatile, . . Arsenous Acid. 

Not : arsenite or arsenate. The substance is well calcined 
137 "S 

with alternating OF1 and RF1, and the metal found 

beginning with No. . . . . . . 102 

SELENIUM COMPOUNDS. 

( Metallic aspect, Selenide. 

138 -\ Not: selenite or selenate; the substance is well calcined, 

v and the metal detected, beginning with No. . . .102 



TUNGSTATES. 

( With Sd on platinum wire in OF1 affords a greenish-blue 

139 <L mass, Wolfram. 

I Not, 140 



105 



( Heated with Sd in a closed glass tube, evolves ammonia, . 

140^ * Tungstate of Ammonia. 

I Not, 141 

Soluble, .... Tungstate of Potassa or Soda. 



Insoluble, . . Tungstate of Lime, Baryta, &c. 



SILICATES. 

C The analogy in chemical composition and properties, and 

the number of native silicates, make it impossible to dis- 

142 { criminate them by a few simple tests.* The base or 

bases may, however, in many cases be detected by 

^ proceeding as indicated above, beginning with No. . 102 

# For the discrimination of the native silicates, v. Chapter VI. 



SIXTH CHAPTER. 



ON THE DISCRIMINATION OF MINERALS BY MEANS OF 
THE BLOWPIPE, AIDED BY HUMID ANALYSIS. 

BY the methods given in the preceding chapters, we can readily detect 
the constituents of most inorganic compounds, whether prepared arti- 
ficially or occurring in nature; especially if heavy metals form the prin- 
cipal constituents. But these methods do not enable us to discriminate 
the different native silicates, and other mineral bodies, which consist 
essentially of such substances that do not show any very characteristic 
reactions before the blowpipe, as ex. gr. the alkaline earths. In some 
cases we may succeed in ascertaining the principal ingredients of the 
substance under examination, but fail in establishing the mineral spe- 
cies. To attain this end more securely, we must pursue a course, com- 
posed of an examination of the physical properties of the body and of 
blowpipe operations, aided by humid analysis. The course adopted in 
this " Manual" is that given by Franz Von Kobell, as laid down in his 
" Tafeln zur Bestimmung der Mineralien" The following is only an 
extract, slightly modified, from this treatise: 

The minerals, according to Von Kobell's system, are arranged in two 
large groups, the first embracing those possessing metallic lustre, the 
second those devoid of metallic lustre. To avoid mistakes, originating 
in the fact that some minerals occur sometimes with, and sometimes 
without, metallic lustre, these minerals will be found enumerated in both 
groups. 



107 



The same precaution has been taken in regard to those species in which 
the degree of fusibility, whether below or above 5, might appear doubt, 
ful. The degree of fusibility is to be judged of from the following scale: 

1. Gray Antimony. Fusible in coarse splinters in the flame of a 
candle. 

2. Natrolite. Fusible in fine splinters in the flame of a candle. 

3. Almandine or Iron-Garnet. Easily fusible before the blowpipe. 

4. Actinolite (a variety of hornblende). Fusible before the Blp in 
coarse splinters. 

5. Orthoclase. Fusible before the Blp in fine splinters. 

6. Broncite. Fusible on the edges in very fine splinters. 

The fusibility, when equal to that of actinolite, is designated by 4; 
when between that of natrolite and almandine, by 2, 5, and so on. 

The two large groups are divided into classes according to the fusi- 
bility; these again in divisions, &c., by which means we obtain the fol- 
lowing general classification : 

GROUP 1. MINERALS POSSESSING A METALLIC LUSTRE. 

CLASS I. Native malleable metals, and mercury. 
CLASS II. Fusibility 1 5, or readily volatile. 

Division 1. Give a strong arsenical odor on Ch. 

Division 2. Give on Ch, or in an open tube, the horse-radish odor of 
selenium. 

Division 3. Give in an open tube a white or grayish sublimate, which 
is fusible into colorless drops, indicative of tellurium. 

Division 4. Give antimonial fumes on Ch. 

Division 5. Give with Sd on Ch a sulphur-reaction, but do not give 
indications as above. 

Division 6. Do not exhibit the properties of the preceding divisions. 
CLASS III. Infusible, or fusibility above 5, and not volatile. 

Division 1. Give with Bx, in small quantities, the manganese-reaction. 

Division 2. Treated on Ch in R Fl, become magnetic. 

Division 3. Resembling those of division 2. 



108 



GROUP II. MINERALS NOT POSSESSING METALLIC LUSTRE. 

CLASS I. Easily volatile, or combustible. 

CLASS II. Fusibility 1 5, not, or only partially volatile. 

Part I. Give with Sd on Ch a metallic globule or magnetic metallic 

mass. 

Division 1. Give with Sd a globule of silver. 
Division 2. Give with Sd a globule of lead. 

Division 3. When moistened with hydrochloric acid, color the flame 
blue, and give with nitric acid a solution which, on 
addition of an excess of ammonia, assumes an azure-blue 
color. 

Section 1. Give on Ch a strong arsenical odor. 
Section 2. Give no arsenical odor. 
Division 4. Impart to the Bx bead a blue color. 
Division 5. When fused on Ch in RF1, give a black or gray metallic 

magnetic mass. 

Section 1. Give on fusion a strong arsenical odor. 
Section 2. Soluble in hydrochloric acid without leaving a perceptible 

residue, and without gelatinizing. 
Section 3. With hydrochloric acid, form a jelly, or are decomposed 

with separation of silica. 
Section 4. But little affected by acids. 
Division 6. Not belonging to either of the preceding divisions. 

Part II. With Sd on Ch, give no metallic globule, or magnetic me- 
tallic mass. 

Division 1. After fusion and continued heating on Ch or in the forceps, 
have an alkaline reaction, and change to blue the color 
of a moistened red litmus-paper. 
Section 1. Easily and completely soluble in water. 
Section 2. Insoluble in water, or soluble with difficulty. 
Division 2. Soluble in hydrochloric acid without leaving a perceptible 
residue, some also soluble in water ; not gelatinizing. 



109 



Division 3. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, forming a perfect jelly. 
Section 1. Giving water in a matrass. 
Section 2. Giving traces, or no water in a matrass. 
Division 4. Soluble in hydrochloric acid with separation of silica, 

without forming a perfect jelly. 
Section 1. Giving water in a matrass. 
Section 2. Giving traces, or no water in a matrass. 
Division 5. Little affected by hydrochloric acid 5 imparting to the Bx 

bead the color of manganese. 

Division 6. Not belonging to either of the preceding divisions. 
CLASS III. Infusible, or fusibility above 5. 

Division 1. After ignition moistened with So Co and again ignited, as- 
sume a bright-blue color. 
Section 1. Giving much water in a matrass. 
Section 2. Giving little or no water in a matrass. 
Division 2. Moistened with So Co and ignited, assume a green color. 
Division 3. After ignition have an alkaline reaction, and turn into 

blue the color of a moistened red litmus-paper. 

Division 4. Completely soluble, or nearly so, in hydrochloric or nitric 
acid, without gelatinizing or leaving a perceptible residue 
of silica. 
Division 5. With hydrochloric acid, form a jelly or are decomposed 

with separation of silica. 
Section 1. Giving water in a matrass. 
Section 2. Giving traces, or no water in a matrass. 
Division 6. Not belonging to either of the preceding divisions. 
Section 1. Hardness below 7. 
Section 2. Hardness=7, or above. 



GROUP I. MINERALS POSSESSING A METALLIC LUSTRE. 

CLASS I. NATIVE MALLEABLE METALS, AND MERCURY. 
Native silver, see $ 197. 
10 



110 



Native Gold and Electrum (alloy of silver and gold) ; 

see 150. 

Native Copper, see 134. 
Native Lead, characterized by coating on charcoal (see 

23) and softness; H=1.5. 
Native Platinum, see 152. 
Native Palladium, distinguished from the preceding by 

being soluble in nitric acid. 
Native Iron, see $ 154. 
Native Mercury, see 187. 

CLASS II. FUSIBILITY 1 TO 5, OR READILY VOLATILE. 
Division 1. Give a strong arsenical odor on charcoal. 
Native Arsenic, see $ 118. 
Dufrenoysite, see 170 ; Tennantite, see 139; Polyba- 

site, see 207 ; Domeykite, see 140. 
Smaltine, see 128 ; Cobaltine, see 129. 
Copper Nickel, see 171; Gersdorffite, see g!92; 

Chloanthite=NiAs, resembles the preceding two; 

distinguished from copper nickel by its tin-white color, 

and from gersdorffite by not giving the reactions for 

sulphur. 

Arsenical Pyrites, see 161. 
Division 2. Give on charcoal, or in an open tube, the horse-radish odor 

of selenium. 
Selenide of mercury=HgSe 2 , Onofrite=Hg (S.Se) 

and selenide of mercury and lead (Selenquecksilber- 

blei)=3PbSe+HgSe, yield metallic mercury on 

being heated with Sd in a closed glass tube ( 91) ; 

the latter yields a globule of metallic lead on being 

heated on charcoal with Sd. 
Clausthalite=Pb Se. Color lead-gray; volatile without 

previous fusion, depositing first a slight gray, then a 

white, and finally a greenish-yellow coating ; with Sd 

yields with difficulty globules of lead. 



Ill 



Naumannite=Ag Se. Color iron-black ; melts readily 
and yields with Bx a globule of pure silver. 

Berzelianite=Cu s Se and EucairiteCu 2 Se+Ag Se. Color 
of the former silver- white, of the latter lead-gray. 
Distinguished from the other minerals of this division 
by giving copper-reactions. 

Division 3. Give in an open tube a white or grayish sublimate, which, 
is fusible into colorless drops, indicative of tellurium^ 
see $11. 

The assay-piece used for this experiment ought not to 
be very small. It must also be borne in mind that 
the minerals of this division frequently evolve an odor 
of selenium, owing to a small percentage of selenium 
which they contain as adventitious constituent. 

The minerals of this division may be subdivided accord- 
ing to their color. 

a. Ores of tellurium of tin-white or silver-white color. 
Native Tellurium, fuses readily and is volatile without 

leaving a residue. 
Hessite=Ag Te, and Altaite=Pb Te ; both soluble in 

nitric acid; the former yields with Sd on Ch a globule 

of metallic silver. 
Some varieties of sylvanite, see $ 151. 

b. Ores of tellurium of lead-gray or steel-gray color. 
Tetradymite, see 1 123. 

Sylvanite, see $ 151. 

Nagy agite=Pb, Au, Te, S. Color blackish lead-gray. Dis- 
tinguished from the preceding by its solution in nitric 
acid giving a copious precipitate with sulphuric acid. 
Division 4. Give copious antimonial fumes on charcoal (see 16). 

The fumes possess sometimes the odor of sulphurous 
acid or arsenic. 

Native Antimony, distinguished by its tin-white color; 
Stibnite, see $ 115 ; Zinkenite, see g 170; Jamesonite, 
see i 170 ; Bournonite, see g 170. 



112 



The powdered stibnite, on being heated with hydrate 
of potassa, assumes a yellow color, while the latter 
three minerals, which are steel-gray, do not change 
color. Bournonite, on being treated with nitric 
acid, imparts to the solution a sky-blue color, and 
gives copper-reactions on being treated as described 
in \ 71. Zinkenite and jamesonite are converted into 
white powders by treatment with nitric acid without 
imparting a color to the acid ; they are distinguished 
by their hardness, that of zinkenite being=3.5, that 
of jamesonite=2.5. 

Closely resembling the above in their chemical behavior 
are the following rare minerals : Plumosite, see g 170; 
Boulangerite, see $ 120 ; Geokronite, see $ 170; Pla- 
gionite, see $ 170; Kilbrikenite ; Steinmannite. 

Discrasite, see 198 ; Stephanite, see 206 : Polytelite=S, 
Sb, Zn, Fe, Ag, Cu ; some varieties of Tetrahedrite, 
see 138 ; Miargyrite=AgS, SbS 3 . Discrasite does 
not give a sulphur -reaction, all the others do. Polytelite 
gives a copper-reaction on being treated as described 
in 73. Miargyrite, streak dark cherry-red ; stepha- 
nite, streak black. Miargyrite and stephanite, hard- 
ness=2.5 ; Polytelite, hardness=3.5. All the mine- 
rals of this subdivision give a globule of silver on 
being treated as described 104 or 105. 

Wolfsbergite (antimonial copper) =Cu 2 S, SbS 3 ; does not 
give a globule of silver, but yields a globule of me- 
tallic copper on being treated with Sd on charcoal. 

Ullmannite, see \ 193; Berthierite, see |11G; Breit- 
hauptite=Ni Sb. All yield a magnetic globule with 
continued heat. Breithauptite is distinguished from 
the other two by not giving a sulphur-reaction. 

Division 3. Give with Sd on CU a sulphur-reaction, but do not give 
the general reactions of the preceding divisions. 



113 



Silver Glance, see 203. 

Galena, see 169. 

Cinnabar, see \ 90. 

Manganblende=MnS. Color iron-black, streak green. 
The pulverized mineral evolves sulphuretted hydrogen 
with hydrochloric acid. 

Hauerite=MnS 2 . Color brownish-black, streak brown- 
ish-red. Yields sulphur on being heated in a matrass. 

Copper Glance, see \ 137; Stromeyerite, see g 208; Tin 
Pyrites, see 210 ; Copper Pyrites, see 135 ; Purple 
Copper, see g 136 ; Cuban=Cu 2 S, Fe 2 S 3 ; Wittichite= 
3Cu 2 S, BiS 3 ; Aikinite (acicular bismuth)=3Cu 2 S, 
BiS 3 +2(3PbS,BiS 3 ;) Grunauite=BiS 3 +10Ni 2 S 3 ; Cu- 
proplumbite=Cu 2 S, 2PbS. All these minerals are 
partially soluble in nitric acid, the solution possessing 
a sky-blue or green color; on addition of water to the 
concentrated solution a white precipitate is produced, 
if the mineral under examination was wittichite, gru- 
nauite, or aikinite. [To distinguish these three, add 
to the acid solution sulphuric acid : a precipitate indi- 
cates aikinite ; wittichite gives the copper-reaction on 
being treated as described in $ 73, grunauite not.] 
Copper pyrites and cuban are distinguished from the 
others by their brass-yellow color ; purple copper is 
also characterized by its color. To distinguish the 
remaining four minerals, make a solution in nitric 
acid ; add sulphuric acid : a precipitate indicates 
cuproplumbite ; if no precipitate is produced, add 
hydrochloric acid : a precipitate indicates stromeyer- 
ite ; to distinguish between copper-glance and tin 
pyrites, see \ 137 and g210. 

Millerite, see 194; Linnaeite, see 1 130; Iron Pyrites, 
see 158 ; Marcasite, see 159 ; Sternbergite=S, Ag, 
10* 



114 



Fe. The members of this subdivision fuse to globules 
which are attracted by the magnet. They are readily 
distinguished by the characteristics given in Chapter 
III. Sternbergite, by the treatment described in $ 104, 
yields a globule of silver. Marcasite and iron pyrites 
can only be distinguished by their crystalline form. 

Bismuthine, see g 125. 
Division 6. Do not exhibit the properties of the preceding divisions. 

Amalgam, see $ 188. 

Native Bismuth, see 122. 

Hematite, see 156. 

Magnetite, see \ 157. 

Wolfram=MnO,FeO,W0 3 . Color dark grayish or brown- 
ish-black. Fusibility=3. The pulverized mineral on 
being boiled with aqua regia assumes gradually a 
yellowish color. 

Samarskite=Nb0 3 , FeO, U 2 3 , YO. Color velvet-black. 
Fusibility=4. By fusing the pulverized mineral with 
hydrate of potassa, boiling the fused mass with hydro- 
chloric acid, filtering, and concentrating the solution 
by boiling with addition of tin foil : the liquid as- 
sumes a fine blue color which does not pass into red 
on addition of water (as is the -case with compounds 
containing titanium), but becomes paler and gradu- 
ally disappears. 

Rhodonite, dark varieties=3MnO.Si0 3 , 3HO. Yields 
water on being heated in a matrass. Soluble in hy- 
drochloric acid with separation of silica. 

Some varieties of psilomelane, see 183. 

Lievrite and Allanite, some varieties, see p. 121. 

Plattnerite=Pb0 2 . Color iron-black ; easily reduced to 
metallic lead. 

Red Copper, some varieties, see 142. 



115 



CLASS III. INFUSIBLE, OR FUSIBILITY ABOVE 5. 

Division 1. Give with borax, in small quantities, the manganese reac- 
tions. 

The members of this division are distinguished from 
each other principally by their physical properties. 

Braunite, see 182 ; Hausmannite, see 181 ; Psilome- 
lane, see 183 ; Pyrolusite, see 180 ; Franklinite, 
some varieties, see $ 186 ; Mauganite=Mn 2 3 , HO. 
Color steel-gray to iron-black ; streak dark reddish- 
brown ; hardness 3 4 ; yields water in a matrass. 
Division 2. Heated on charcoal in reduction-flame, become magnetic. 

Hematite, see 156. 

Franklinite, see $ 186; Magnetite, see 157. 

Titaniferous iron, see $ 162 ; Some varieties of Rutil and 
Arkansite (see below) ; some varieties of Limonite 
(| 155), and Blende ( 212). 
Division 3. Minerals resembling those of Division 2. 

Chromic Iron, see 127. 

Molybdenite MoS 2 ; Graphite=C. Both very soft, hard- 
ness=1.5. Molybdenite, when heated in the forceps, 
colors the flame greenish ; and gives a sulphur-reac- 
tion when treated as described in $ 107. 

Arkansite=Ti0 2 ; Perofskite=CaO.Ti0 2 . Both give 
the reaction for titanium as described 111. Distin- 
guished by crystalline form. 

Iridosmine, see $ 153. 

Tantalite and Columbite=MnO, FeO, TaO 3 , NbO 3 , WO 3 , 
SnO 2 ; Yttro-tantalite = 3(CaO.YO.FeO), (TaO 3 , 
WO 3 ). The color of these minerals is iron-black; 
yttro-tantalite loses its color before the Blp and be- 
comes yellowish or white, that of the others remains 
unchanged. Acids affect them but little. Tantalite 
and columbite give the same reaction as samarskite 
when treated with hydrate of potassa, &c. (See p. 114.) 



116 



Pitchblende. Color usually velvet-black, lustre greasy ; 
partially soluble in nitric acid to a yellow liquid ; the 
solution gives a sulphur-yellow precipitate with am- 



monia. 



GROUP II. MINERALS NOT POSSESSING METALLIC LUSTRE. 

CLASS I. EASILY VOLATILE OR COMBUSTIBLE. 

Native Sulphur. Completely volatile, burns with a blue 

flame and emission of sulphurous acid. 
Eealgar, see g 119 ; Orpiment, see 120. 
Arsenolite, see $ 121. 

Red Antimony, see 2 117; Valentinite=Sb0 3 . Color 
white ; does not change color with hydrate of potassa ; 
does not evolve sulphuretted hydrogen with hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Sal-ammoniac=NH 4 Cl ; Mascagnine=NH 3 ; S0 3 +2 HO. 
Color white ; both evolve ammonia with hydrate of 
potassa ; the former is volatile without previous fusion, 
the latter intumesces. 
Cinnabar, see 190 j Calomel, see g 189. 
CLASS II. FUSIBILITY 1 5 ; NOT, OR ONLY PARTIALLY, VOLATILE. 

Part I. Give with carbonate of soda on charcoal a metallic globule 

or a magnetic metallic mass. 
Division 1. Give with carbonate of soda a globule of silver. 

Proustite, see 205 j Ruby Silver, see \ 204 ; Xantho- 
cone 3AgS, AsS 5 -l-2(3Ags, AsS 3 ), behaves like prou- 
stite, from which is distinguished by its yellow streak. 
Horn Silver, see \ 199 ; lodyrite, see 202. 
Selbite=AgO, CO 2 , dissolves in nitric acid with effer- 
vescence. 
Division 2. Give with carbonate of soda a globule of lead. 



117 



The minerals of this division are all soluble in nitric 
acid ; the solution gives a copious precipitate with sul- 
phuric acid. 

Mimetine = PbCl + 3(3PbO, AsO 6 ) ; Hedyphane = 
PbCl+3(3[PbO.CaO], [As0 5 .P0 5 ]). The former 
completely, the latter partially reduced to metallic lead 
with evolution of arsenical fumes. 

Pyromorphite, see g 175. 

Minium, see 168 ; Crocoisite, see g 177 j Melano- 
chroite = 3PbO, 2Cr0 3 . Ara3oxene = VO 3 , AsO 5 , 
PbO, ZnO. Crocoisite and melanochroite give the 
chromium-reaction (| 67). The latter three, on being 
boiled with hydrochloric acid, give an emerald-green 
solution ; on adding alcohol to the liquid, concentrat- 
ing by heat, pouring off from the residue, and then 
adding water : the liquid assumes a sky-blue color if 
the mineral was araoxene. 

Linarite==PbO.S0 8 +CuO.HO is characterized by its 
deep azure-blue color. 

Cerusite, see g 172; Cerasine, see g 171 ; Leadhillite, 
see 173; Lanarkite=PbO.C0 2 +PbO.S0 3 . All 
soluble in nitric acid with effervescence; leadhillite 
and lanarkite leave an insoluble residue of sulphate of 
lead. The solution of cerasine gives with nitrate of 
silver a precipitate of chloride of silver. 

Mendipite=PbCl + 2PbO ; Matlockite=PbCl -f PbO. 
Dissolve in nitric acid without effervescence ; the solu- 
tion gives a precipitate with nitrate of silver. 

Anglesite, see \ 174. 

Wulfenite, see 129. 

Scheeletine=PbO, "WO 3 . Color yellow, yellowish-brown, 
lustre resinous. Soluble in abundant quantity of hy- 
drochloric acid, leaving a yellowish-green residue 
(WO 3 ). With sulphuric acid the pulverized mineral 
assumes a bright lemon-yellow color. 



118 



Vauquelinite, see 178 ; Vanadinite=2 PbO, VO 3 with 
PbCl + 2PbO. Color of the former blackish-green, 
olive-green 5 of the latter brown, yellowish. Both im- 
part to the borax-bead an emerald-green color. Both 
are soluble in nitric acid ; the solution of vanadinite 
is yellow and gives a precipitate with nitrate of silver. 
That of vauquelinite not. 

Division 3. When moistened with hydrochloric acid, color the flame 
blue ; and give with nitric acid a solution whicJi, on 
addition of an excess of ammonia, assumes an azure- 
blue color. 
Section 1. Give on charcoal a strong arsenical odor. 

Olivenite, see 147. 

Tyrolite, see 148 ; Chalcophyllite = 8CuO. As0 5 + 
23HO. Color green. Both decrepitate violently and 
yield much water ; chalcophyllite dissolves in ammo- 
nia without leaving a residue. 

Liroconite=As0 5 , PO 5 , CuO, A10 3 , HO. Color sky-blue. 
Does not decrepitate ; loses 22 per cent, of water on 
ignition. 

Euchroite = 4CuO.As0 5 +7HO ; Erinite=5CuO.As0 5 
-J-2HO. Color of both emerald-green. The former 
loses by ignition 18 J per cent, of water, the latter 
only 5 per cent. 
Section 2. Do not give an arsenical odor on charcoal. 

Atakamite, see 141. 

Cyanosite, see 145 ; Brochantite=3 CuO. S0 3 +3 HO ; 
Covelline=CuS. These three minerals give a sul- 
phur-reaction (107); cyanosite is soluble in water, 
the other two not. Color of covelline dark indigo- 
blue, of brochantite emerald-green. 

Red Copper, see \ 142 ; Melaconite=CuO ; Tenorite= 
CuO. The color of the latter two is dark steel-gray 
to black. All three dissolve readily in acids without 
effervescence (except impure varieties of melaconite). 



119 



Malachite, see $ 143 ; Azurite, see 144 ; Mysorin= 
CuO. CO 2 . Color blackish-brown ; does not yield 
water in a matrass. All three dissolve readily in 
acids with effervescence. 

Phosphocalcite, see 146 ; Libethenite=4CuO. P0 5 + 
HO; Ehlite=5CuO.P0 5 +3HO; Tagilite=4 CuO. 
P0 5 +3HO. Are all readily soluble in nitric acid 
without effervescence; the (slightly acid) solution 
gives a precipitate with acetate of lead. Phosphocal- 
cite loses 14 per cent, of water on ignition, the others 
less (from 7 10). Libethenite is dark olive-green ; 
ehlite and tagilite emerald-green. 

Chalcolite=3CuO,P0 5 +2(U 2 3 , P0 5 )+24 HO. Color 
emerald-green. Dissolves in nitric acid to a yellow- 
ish-green liquid ; on addition of ammonia in excess, 
a bluish-green precipitate is formed, the supernatant 
liquid being blue. 
Division 4. Impart to tlie borax bead a blue color. 

Erythrine, see g 131 ; Annabergite, see 196. 

Division 5. When fused on charcoal in reduction-flame, give a black 
metallic magnetic mass. 

To observe well the magnetic character of the fused 
mineral, it is advisable to expose a pretty large assay- 
piece to the action of the reduction-flame. 
Section 1. Evolve a strong arsenical odor on being fused. 

Scorodite, see 166 5 Pitticite=Fe 2 3 , As0 5 +H0 j Beu- 
dantite=3 FeO. As0 5 +3 Fe 2 3 , 2 As0 5 +18 HO. The 
pulverized minerals assume with hydrate of potassa a 
reddish-brown color. Scorodite and beudantite occur 
crystallized ; pitticite massive, reniform. 

Arseniosiderite = 5CaO,As0 8 +3(2FeO,As0 6 )+llHO. 
Color yellowish-brown ; fibrous ; lustre silky. 

Pyromeline=NiO, SO 3 , HO, AsO 6 . Partly soluble in 



120 



water ; the solution assumes a blue color on addition 
of ammonia. 

Section 2. Soluble in hydrochloric acid without leaving a percep- 
tible residue, and without gelatinizing. 

Green Vitriol, see \ 164; Botryogen=3FeO,2S0 3 -{- 
3(Fe 2 3 ,2S0 3 ) + 36HO. Are soluble in water; 
botryogen leaves an ochreous residue. A similar 
behavior show Copiapite=2Fe z 3 , 5S0 3 +18HO (color 
yellow), and Coquimbite=Fe 2 3 , 3S0 3 +9HO, color 
white. 

Spathic Iron, see g 163. 

Hureaulite = 3(5 MnO, 2P0 5 ) + 5FeO, 2P0 5 + 30HO ; 
Triplite=4MnO.P0 5 + 4FeO.P0 5 . Fuse readily; 
moistened with sulphuric acid give the phosphoric 
acid reaction ($ 35) ; with borax strong manganese- 
reaction ; hureaulite yields much water, triplite none 
or very little. 

Triphiline = 3 LiO, P0 5 +6(3[FeO, MnO], PO 5 ) shows 
a similar behavior; the manganese-reaction is less 
decided. On dissolving the mineral in hydrochloric 
acid, evaporating the solution to dryness, adding alco- 
hol, heating the alcohol to ebullition and burning the 
vapor, the flame assumes a purple color. 

Vivianite, see 165; Anglarite=4 FeO.P0 5 +4 HO ; 
Dufrenite=2 Fe 2 3 . P0 5 +2i HO ; Cacoxene=2 FeO. 
POM-12HO. Fuse readily and behave with sulphuric 
acid like the preceding ; give no manganese-reaction. 
Yield much water in a matrass: cacoxene 33 per 
cent; vivianite 28 percent.; anglarite 16 per cent.; 
dufrenite 8^ per cent. Color of anglarite bluish-gray ; 
of dufrenite leek-green of cacoxene ochre-yellow. 

Hematite, see 156. 

Section 3. With hydrochloric acid form a jelly, or are readily de- 
composed with separation of silica. 



Cronstedtite = S(FeO.MnO.MgO), SiO 3 + Fe 2 3 ,3HO. 
Color black ; streak dark leek-green ; yields water ; 
gelatinizes with hydrochloric acid. 

Lievrite=:3(3[FeO,CaO],Si0 3 ) + 2(Al 2 3 ,Fe 2 3 ),Si0 3 j 
Allanite=3(CeO,CaO),Si0 3 +2([Fe 2 3 ,AP0 3 ],Si0 3 ). 
Yield no water, or only a trace ; gelatinize with hydro- 
chloric acid; allanite fuses with intumescence to a 
voluminous brownish or blackish glass j lievrite intu- 
mesces but slightly, decrepitates and fuses to an iron- 
black bead. Hardness of allanite=G, of lievrite=5 6. 

Pyrosmalite = Fe 2 Cl 3 + Fe 2 3 , 6 HO -f 4 ( [3 FeO, 2 SiO 3 ] 
-f [3 MnO, 2 SiO 3 ] ). Does not gelatinize j fusibility= 
2 ; gives the chlorine-reaction ($65). 

Allochroite[Hme-iron-garnet]==3CaO,Si0 3 +Fe 2 3 ,Si0 3 . 
Gelatinizes imperfectly; fuses readily; distinguished 
from the preceding by absence of cleavage. 

Hisingerite=(3FeO,Fe 2 3 ),Si0 8 +xHO ; Xylotile [a va- 
riety of serpentine]. Fuse with difficulty; do not 
gelatinize. The former is black, amorphous; the 
latter brown, fibrous, woody. Both yield water in a 
matrass. 

Some impure varieties of Limonite, see 1 155. 
Section 4. But little affected by acids. 

Crocidolite = 3(NaO,MgO), 4Si0 3 -f 3 (3 FeO, 2Si0 3 ) + 
xHO ; Arfvedsonite=NaO, Si0 3 +3FeO, 2Si0 3 . Fusi- 
bility=1.7 2. Color of crocidolite lavender-blue or 
leek-green, fibrous, yields water in a matrass; arf- 
vedsonite is black and yields no water. 

[See also Hornblende and Tourmaline, below, some 
varieties of which become slightly magnetic after 
fusion.] 

Green Earth [a variety of pyroxene]. Fusibility=3; 
color celandine-green ; hardness=l ; earthy. 

Acmite=NaO.Si0 3 +Fe 2 3 , 2Si0 3 ; Hedenbergite [a 
11 



black pyroxene]=3Ca0.2Si0 3 +3Fe0.2Si0 3 . Fusi- 
bility of the forraer=2, of the latter=2.6 ; form a black 
lustrous slag. Both are cleavable. 

Almandine [iron-garnet] =3FeO.Si0 3 +Al 2 3 .Si0 3 . Fu- 
sibility=3 ; hardness=7 7.5. Color red, reddish- 
brown. Not cleavable. 

Rhodonite, some varieties ; see below. 

Lepidolite, some varieties ; see below. 
Division 6. Not belonging to either of tlie preceding divisions. 

Molybdine=Mo0 3 . Color sulphur-yellow ; earthy. Gives 
with the fluxes the reactions of molybdic acid. Dis- 
solves readily in hydrochloric acid ; the solution is 
colorless, but turns blue on being stirred with an iron 
spatula. 

Eulytine=2 BiO 3 , 3 Si0 3 with some phosphate and fluor- 
ide of iron. Gelatinizes with hydrochloric acid. On 
charcoal yields a globule of metallic bismuth. 

Bismutite, see 124. 

Part II. With carbonate of soda on charcoal, give no metallic glo- 
bule or magnetic metallic mass. 

Division 1. After fusion and continued heating on charcoal or in the 
forceps, have an alkaline reaction, and change to blue 
the color of a moistened red litmus-paper. 
Section 1. Readily and completely soluble in water. 

Nitre=KO.N0 5 ; Nitratine=NaO.N0 5 . Deflagrate 
vividly on burning coals. Fused on platina wire, the 
former colors the flames bluish with a red tint ; the 
latter bright-yellow. 

Natron=NaO.C0 2 +10HO ; Trona=2Na0.3C0 2 +4HO. 
The watery solution has an alkaline reaction, and 
effervesces on addition of hydrochloric acid. 

Glauber Salt=NaO. S0 3 +10HO ; Thenardite=NaO. 
SO 3 ; Glaserite=KO.S0 3 j Epsomite=MgO.S0 3 + 
7HO; Potash Alum=KO.S0 3 +Al 2 2 . 3S0 3 +24HO. 



123 



The watery solutions of these minerals give a co- 
pious precipitate with chloride of barium ; the solu- 
tion of potash alum and epsomite are precipitated by 
carbonate of potassa [distinguished by reaction with 
solution of cobalt, \ 44] j the concentrated solution of 
glaserite gives a precipitate with bichloride of platina ; 
glauber salt yields much water, thenardite none. 

Common Salt=NaCl. The watery solution gives a 
copious precipitate with nitrate of silver. Gives also 
the reactions for chlorine described $$ 65, 66. 

Borax=Na0.2BOM-10HO. Gives the reaction for 

boracic acid, g 60. 
Section 2. Insoluble in water, or soluble with difficulty. 

Gay-Lussite=CaO.C0 2 +NaO.C0 2 +6HO;Whitherite= 
BaO.CO 2 . Dissolve in dilute hydrochloric acid with 
effervescence ; the former yields water, the latter not. 

Anhydrite=CaO.S0 3 ; Gypsum=CaO.S0 3 +2HO ; Po- 
lyhalite=KO.S0 3 + MgO.S0 3 + 2(CaO.S0 3 ) + 2HO j 
Glauberite=NaO.S0 3 +CaO.S0 3 . Soluble in much 
hydrochloric acid 5 in the solution chloride of barium 
gives a precipitate. Gypsum yields much water, poly- 
halite little, the rest none ; anhydrite is distinguished 
by superior hardness=3.5 ; polyhalite is distinguished 
from glauberite by its solution giving a yellow pre- 
cipitate with bichloride of platina. 

Barytes=BaO.S0 3 ; Celestine=SrO.S0 3 . Insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid ; give a sulphur reaction when 
treated as described 107. Celestine colors the flame 
red, \ 34 ; barytes yellowish-green, \ 35. 

Fluor=CaF ; Cryolite=3NaF+Al 2 F 3 ; Pharmacolite 
=2CaO.As0 5 -f6HO. Do not effervesce with acids, 
and give no sulphur reaction. Pharmacolite evolves 
arsenical odor on charcoal ; the other two give fluorine 
reaction, 76. Fusibility of fluor=3, of cryolite=l. 



124 



Chiolite=3NaF+ 2 A1 2 F 3 , behaves like cryolite; occurs 
only massive granular; white cryolite is distinctly 
crystalline and cleavable in 3 directions. 

Division 2. Soluble in hydrochloric acid without leaving a perceptible 
residue; some also soluble in water ; not gelatinizing. 

Ammonia Alum = NH 4 O.S0 3 + A1 2 3 . 3S0 3 + 24HO ; 
Goslarite=ZnO.S0 8 +?HO. Both soluble in water ; 
give sulphur reaction, 107. Heated on charcoal and 
treated with solution of cobalt, the former assumes a 
blue, the latter a green, color, \\ 44, 45. 

Sassolin=B0 3 j3HO ; Boracite=3MgO,4B0 3 ; Hydro- 
boracite=3(CaO.MgO),4B0 3 +18HO. Give the bo- 
racic acid reaction, \ GO. Sassoline is soluble in al- 
cohol, the others not; boracite yields no water, while 
the others do. 

Manganblende and Hauerite give strong manganese 
reaction; see p. 113. 

\Yagnerite=MgF+3MgO.P0 5 ; Apatite=3(3CaO.P0 5 ) 
+Ca(Cl,F). Moistened with sulphuric acid, impart a 
pale bluish-green color to the flame. Fusibility of 
wagnerite=3 3.5 (with intumescence) ; of apatite=5 
(without intumescence) ; wagnerite is soluble in dilute 
sulphuric acid ; apatite not. 

Amblygonite=LiO, NaO, A?0 3 , PO 5 , F. Fusibility=2 ; 
hardness=6. With difficulty soluble in concentrated 
sulphuric or hydrochloric acid. 

Uranite=3CaO.P0 5 +2(3U 2 3 . P0 5 )+24HO. Fuses 
readily, yields water, and gives with fluxes the reactions 
of sesquioxide of uranium. See Table II. 

Division 3. Soluble in hydrochloric acid, forming a perfect jelly. 
Section 1. Give water in a matrass. 

Datholite=3(CaO.B0 3 ) + 3Ca0.4Si0 3 + 3HO. Yields 
but little water, and gives the boracic acid reac- 
tion, 60. 



125 



Natrolite=NaO.Si0 3 +AP0 3 .Si0 3 + 2110. Fusibility 
=2, does not intumesce ; hardness=5 5.5. 

Scolecite=CaO.Si0 3 +Al 2 3 . Si0 3 +3HO ; Laumontite 
=3Ca0.2Si0 3 +3(Al 2 3 . 2Si0 3 )+12HO. Scolecite, 
on being heated, curls up like a worm and finally 
melts to a bulky, shining slag, which in the inner 
flame becomes a vesicular slightly translucent bead ; 
hardness=5.5. Laumontite intumesces and fuses to 
a white translucent enamel ; hardness=3. 

Nearly related to scolecite and showing a similar be- 
havior, are Mesolite and Thomsonite. 

Phillipsite=(CaO,KO).Si0 3 +Al 2 3 .Si0 3 +5HO. Fusi- 
bility 3, with slight intumescence 5 occurs usually in 
twin crystals. 
Section 2. Giving only traces or no water in a matrass. 

Helvin=MnO, MnS+2(MnO.BeO.FeO), SiO 3 ; Teph- 
roite=3MnO. SiO 3 . Distinguished from the other 
minerals of this section by giving manganese-reac- 
tions. Color of helvin wax-yellow, hardness=6 6.5 ; 
of tephroite ash-gray, hardness=5.5 6. 

Hauyne and Lapis Lasuli=Si0 3 , Al 2 3 ,CaO, KO, S0 3 ,S, 
are of azure-blue color ; give sulphur-reaction, $ 107. 
Fusibility of the former=4.5, of the latter=3. 

Nosean and Skolopsite=Si0 3 , A1 2 3 , CaO, NaO, SO 3 , of 
gray or brownish color; give sulphur-reaction, 107. 
Fusibility of nosean=4.5 ; of skolopsite=3 (with in- 
tumescence like idocrase). 

Sodalite=NaCl + 3NaO. Si0 3 + 3 (A1 2 S , SiO 3 ) j Eudi- 
alyte=Si0 3 , ZrO 3 , CaO, NaO, FeO, Cl, give the chlo- 
rine-reaction, $ 65. The former fuses to a transparent 
colorless glass, the latter to a grayish-green scoria or 
opaque glass. 

Wollastonite=3CaO, SiO 8 . The hydrochloric acid solu- 
11* 



126 



tion gives no, or only a very slight, precipitate with 
ammonia. 

Eukolite=Si0 3 , NbO 3 , Zr 2 3 , CaO, NaO. By boiling 
the hydrochloric acid solution with tin, it assumes a 
fine blue color on reaching a certain degree of con- 
centration. See also Wohlerite. 

Nepheline=2(NaO. KO), Si0 3 +2 (A1 2 3 , SiO 3 ) ; Mei- 
onite=3CaO. Si0 3 + 2 (A1 2 3 ? SiO 3 ) ; Mellilite=2 (3 
|_CaO. MgO. NaO], Si0 3 )+(Al 2 8 . Fe 2 3 ), SiO 3 . The 
hydrochloric acid solution is precipitated by ammo- 
nia. Meionite fuses with intumescence, the others 
quietly. 

Division 4. Soluble in hydrochloric acid with separation of silica, with- 
out forming a perfect jelly. (It is sometimes neces- 
sary to treat the finely pulverized mineral with con- 
centrated acid.) 
Section 1. Giving water in a matrass. 

Apophyllite=KO. 2 Si0 3 +8 (CaO.SiO 3 ) +16HO ; Pec- 
tolite=3([NaO. KO].Si0 3 )+4(3CaO. 2Si0 3 )+3HO; 
Okenite=3CaO, 4Si0 3 +6HO. The silica separates 
in the shape of gelatinous lumps. The hydrochloric 
acid solution gives no, or only a slight, precipitate 
with ammonia. Pectolite yields but little water, the 
others much. Fusibility of apophyllitc=1.5, forming a 
white vesicular glass ; of okenite=2.5 3, forming a 
porcelain-like mass. 

Analcime = 3 Na0.2Si0 3 . + 3(A1 2 3 ,2 SiO 3 ) + 6 HO. 
Gelatinizes like the preceding; in the acid solution 
ammonia produces a copious precipitate. 

Pyrosclerite=(AW. Cr'O 3 ), Si0 3 +2(3[MgO.Fe]),Si0 3 
+1 i HO j Chonikrite=2 A1 2 3 , Si0 3 +3(3[MgO. CaO. 
FeO], SiO 3 ) +6HO, are distinguished from the other 
minerals of this section by their inferior hardness= 
2.5 3. The former gives with fluxes the reactions of 
oxide of chromium, \\ 67 and 68. 



127 



Brewsterite = (SrO.BaO), SiO 3 + A1 2 3 , 3Si0 3 + 5HO 5 
characterized by its hydrochloric acid solution giving 
a precipitate with sulphuric acid. 

Stilbite=CaO.Si0 3 +Al 2 3 .3Si0 3 +5HO ; Chabazite= 
3(CaO.NaO),2Si0 3 +3(Al 2 3 . 2Si0 3 ) + 18HO ; Preh- 
nite=2CaO.Si0 3 +Al 2 3 .Si0 3 +HO. Fuse with in- 
tumescence to enamel-like masses. Prehnite yields 
but little water, losing by ignition only 4.3 per cent. ; 
the others lose from 15 to 20 per cent. 

Meerschaum, see below; Deweylite=2MgO.Si0 3 +3 
HO. Distinguished by being much less fusible than 
the preceding (fusibility=5) ; the former absorbs 
water with great avidity, the latter not. 
Section 2. Giving only traces or no water in a matrass. 

Tachylyte=3(FeO. CaO. NaO), 2Si0 3 +Al 2 3 ,Si0 3 . Fu- 
ses readily to a black shining glass. Hardness=6.5 j 
color black. 

Scapolite=3(CaO. NaO), Si0 3 +3(Al 2 3 . SiO 3 ). Color 
light. Hardness=5 5.5. Fuses with intumescence to 
a white, vesicular glass. 

Wohlerite=SiO, 3 NbO 3 , Zr 2 3 , CaO, NaO. Fusibility= 
3, forming a yellowish enamel. The hydrochloric 
acid solution gives the same reaction as eukolite. 

Labradorite=(CaO. NaO), Si0 3 +Al 2 3 . SiO 3 ; Anorth- 
ite=3CaO, Si0 3 +3 (A1 2 3 , SiO 3 ). Fusibility=3 4, 
without intumescence, forming a colorless glass; hard- 
ness of the former=6, of the latter=6 7. Cleavage 
perfect. 

Lime Garnet (some varieties) =3CaO, Si0 3 +Al 2 3 , SiO 3 . 
Fusibility=3 ; not cleavable. 

Sphene, some varieties, see below. Gives titanium-reac- 
tions, 111. 

Division 5. Little affected by hydrochloric acid ; give with jinxes the 
manganese-reactions. 



128 



Carpholite=Si0 3 , APO 3 , FeO, MnO, Fe 2 3 , HO. Oc- 
curs only in radiated and stellated tufts. Color straw- 
yellow ; silky. Yields water. 

Manganese Garnet=3MnO. Si0 3 +Al 2 3 .Si0 8 . Color 
brownish-red 5 fuses without intumescence ; not cleav- 
able. 

Epidote (some varieties) = 3CaO, Si0 3 +2([Al0 3 . 
Mn 2 3 . Fe 2 3 ], SiO 3 ) Fusibility=2 2.5, intumesces. 
Cleavable. Color cherry-red to reddish-black. 
Rhodonite=3MnO,2 SiO 3 . Fusibility=3, without intu- 
mescence. Color rose-red ; cleavable. 
Division 6. Not belonging to eitJier of the preceding divisions. 

Scheelite=CaO,W0 3 . Fusibility=5. Soluble in hy- 
drochloric acid, leaving a residue of tungstic acid, 
which is soluble in ammonia, and which gives with 
S Ph the characteristic reaction of tungstic acid ; see 
Table II. 

Lepidolite=KO, LiO, F, A1 2 3 , SiO 3 ; Euphyllite=Si0 3 , 
A1 2 3 , CaO, HO ; Margarite=SiO, 3 A1 2 3 , CaO, HO. 
Fusibility of lepidolite=2 ; gives the lithia-reaction, 
89. Fusibility of euphyllite=4.5, of margarite=4. 
Color of euphyllite white to colorless ; of margarite 
grayish, reddish-white, yellowish. All three possess 
perfect cleavage. 

Petalite = 3(LiO.NaO),2Si0 3 + 4( Al 2 3 3 3Si0 3 ) ; Spo- 

dumene=3 (LiO.NaO), 2Si0 3 + 4 ( Al a 3 , 2 SiO 3 ), do 

not possess as perfect a cleavage as the preceding, 

and greater hardness ; hardness of petalite=6 G.5, 

of spodumene=6.5 7. Both give the lithia-reaction, 

89. Spodumene fuses with intumescence to a glassy 

globule ; petalite fuses to a white enamel. 

Diallage=3(CaO.MgO),2Si0 3 . Fusibility=3.5 j cha- 

^ racterized by its pearly metallic-lustre ; cleaves easily 

in one direction. 



129 



Harmotome=BaO,Si0 3 -f-Al 2 3 , 2Si0 3 +5HO. Distin- 
guished from the other minerals of this division by 
yielding water in a matrass. Occurs usually in twin 
crystals. 

Axinite=Si0 3 , A1 2 8 , CaO, FeO, MnO, BO 3 ; Tourma- 
line=Si0 3 ? A1 2 3 , FeO, KO, NaO, LiO, BO 3 . Give 
the reaction of boracic acid, 61. Axinite fuses read- 
ily with intumescence to a dark-green glass. Different 
varieties of tourmaline show different fusibility. Hard- 
ness of axinite=6.5 7, of tourmaline=7 7.5. 

Diopside (white augite)=3CaO, 2Si0 3 + 3MgO,2Si0 8 ; 
Augite=3CaO, 2Si0 3 +3(MgO. FeO), 2Si0 3 . Hard- 
ness=6 ; diopside fuses to a whitish, augite to a black 
glass. Color of augite black or dark-green ; of diop- 
side pale green or gray, or colorless. 

Tremolite = CaO.SiO 3 + 3Mg0.2Si0 3 ; Hornblende = 
CaO.Si0 3 + 3(MgO.FeO), 2Si0 3 . Hardness = 5.5 j 
fusibility =3 4, tremolite fuses to a white or light- 
colored glass, hornblende to a black or gray glass ; 
the former is colorless or white, or of light green, 
yellow, or gray color ; hornblende is green or 
black. 

Sphene = 2(CaO, Si0 3 ) + CaO, 3Ti0 2 . Fusibility =3. 
Hardness=5 5.5. Gives the titanium-reaction, $111. 
Imperfectly soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

Orthoclase = KO.SiO 3 + Al 2 3 ,3Si0 3 j Albite = NaO, 
Si0 3 +Al 2 3 , 3Si0 3 . Hardness=6. Fuse without 
intumescence; fusibility of orthoclase=5, of albite 
4 ; the latter colors the flame yellow. Not soluble in 
acids. With solution of cobalt become blue on the 
edges, $ 44. 

Zoisite=3CaO.Si0 3 -f 2(A1 2 3 , SiO 3 ) ; Epidote = CaO, 
Si0 3 -f 2([Al 2 3 .Fe 2 8 ],Si0 3 ). Hardness=6.5. Fu- 
sibility=3 3.5 ; fuse with intumescence, zoisite to a 



130 



white or yellowish slag, epidote to a black or dark 
brown slag. Color of zoisite gray, yellowish-gray, 
grayish-white; of epidote green. 

Lime Garnet = 3CaO, SiO 3 -f A1 2 3 , SiO 3 ; Idocrase= 
3CaO, Si0 3 + (Fe 2 3 . A1 2 3 ), SiO 8 ; Pyrope = (MgO. 
FeO. CaO), Si0 3 +(Al 2 Q3. Cr 2 3 ), SiO 3 . Hardness= 
6.5 7.5. Fusibility of lime garnet and idocrase=3, 
of pyrope=4.5. Idocrase possesses cleavage, the 
others not. Pyrope gives with the fluxes the chro- 
mium-reactions. 

(See also, emerald, euclase, iolite, biotite, and musco- 
vite.) 

Obsidian, Pitchstone, Pearlstone, and Pumice=Si0 3 , 
A1 2 3 , NaO, KO, HO, are amorphous. Fusibility 
3.5 4, fuse with intumescence to porcelain-like 
masses, or white vesicular glasses. Lustre of obsidian 
glassy, of pitchstone greasy, of pearlstone pearly; 
pumice is characterized by its porosity. 
CLASS III. INFUSIBLE, OR FUSIBILITY ABOVE 5. 

Division 1. After ignition moistened with solution of cobalt and again 
ignited, assume a bright-blue color. 

With the hard, anhydrous minerals of this division, the 
color is best seen by reducing the substance to a fine 
powder and moistening this with the solution of cobalt. 
The color appears only after cooling. 
Section 1. Giving much water in a matrass. 

Alunite=S0 3 , APO 3 , KO, HO ; Websterite=Al 2 3 ,Si0 3 
+9HO. Give a sulphur-reaction, 107. Webster- 
ite is readily soluble in hydrochloric acid; alunite not 
visibly affected. 

(See also, ammonia alum, and potash alum.) 

Plumbo-Resinite, see 176. 

Calamine, see $ 214. 

Wavellite = 4A1 2 3 , 3P0 5 + 18HO ; Gibbsite = A1 2 3 , 



131 



P0 5 +8HO ; Peganite=2Al 2 3 , P0 5 +6HO; Fischer- 
ite=2A! 2 3 , P0 5 +2HO. Soluble to a great extent 
in hydrate of potassa. Give the reactions of phos- 
phoric acid, $$ 94 and 95. The former two occur 
usually in globular concretions of radiated structure, 
the latter two minutely crystalline. Peganite loses 
on ignition 24 per cent, of water, wavellite 27, fischer- 
ite 29, gibbsite, 35. 

Diaspore = A1 2 3 , HO ; Clintonite = SiO 3 , A1 2 3 , CaO, 
MgO, HO. Diaspore is but slightly soluble in hydrate 
of potassa ; clintonite insoluble ; the former loses on 
ignition 11 per cent of water, the latter 4. Hard- 
ness of diaspore=6.5 7 j of clintonite=4 5. 

Allophane = 3 A1 2 3 , 2 Si0 3 +15 HO ; Halloysite = 3 
A1 2 3 , 4Si0 3 +12HO ; Ochran=Al 2 3 , Si0 3 + 6HO ; 
Collyrite=3Al 2 3 , Si0 3 +15HO. Decomposed by hy- 
drochloric acid with separation of gelatinous silica. 
Hardness of allophane=3, of the others=l 2. Hal- 
loysite loses on ignition 16 per cent of water, ochran 
21, collyrite 33. 

Pholerite=Al 2 3 , Si0 3 +2HO ; Cimolite=Al 2 3 , 3SiO s 
+3HO; Kaolin = 3 Al 2 3 ,4Si0 3 + 6HO and 2A1 2 3 , 
3Si0 3 +6HO, are all very soft and earthy, and but 
little affected by acids; lose on ignition from 12 to 16 
per cent, of water. Nearly related to these minerals 
are the various varieties of common clay, some varie- 
ties of lithomarge (with 14 per cent. ofwater), and 
bole with 24 26 per cent, of water ; the clays become 
plastic with water, the latter two not. 
Section II. Giving little or no water in a matrass. 

Lazulite=P0 5 , A1 2 3 , MgO, FeO, HO. Gives the reac- 
tion of phosphoric acid, \ 74. Heated, loses its blue 
color and becomes white. Not affected by acids. 

Willemite=3ZnO, SiO 3 . With solution of cobalt ( 44) 



132 



becomes blue, and green in spots. Gelatinizes with 
hydrochloric acid. 

Myelin = 2(A1 2 3 , SiO 3 ) + HO ; Agalmatolite = SiO 3 , 
A1 2 3 , KO, HO ; Pyrophyllite = BMgO, 2 SiO 3 + 9 
(A1 2 3 , Si0 3 )-f-9HO. Are very soft, hardness 12. 
Pyrophyllite is foliated like talc ; before the Blp swells 
up and spreads out into fan-like shapes, increasing to 
about 20 times its former bulk. The others do not 
change before the Blp. Myelin is partially decom- 
posed by hydrochloric acid ; agalmatolite not affected. 

Muscovite=KO,Si0 3 +4(Al 2 3 ,Si0 3 ). Cleavage eminent 
in one direction ; folia elastic. Does not swell percepti- 
bly before the Blp, fusible in very thin laminee. Not 
affected by acids. Hardness=2.5. 

Disterrite (variety of clintonite), cleavable in one direc- 
tion. Hardness 4 5. Decomposed by concentrated 
sulphuric acid. 

Andalusite=4Al*O s , 3Si0 3 ; Kyanite=3Al 2 3 , 2Si0 3 are 
but little affected by acids. Kyanite occurs generally 
in bladed crystallizations ; hardness=6 7. Hardness 
of andalusite=7.5, but variety chiastolite varies in 
hardness from 3 to 7.5. 

Topaz=2Al 2 F 3 + 5 ( Al 2 3 Si0 3 ) ; Lithia Tourmaline = 
SiO 3 , BO 3 , Al 2 3 ,MnO,LiO,KO. Not affected by acids. 
Not completely soluble in SPh, the glass becomes 
opalescent on cooling. Topaz on being ignited remains 
transparent and does not swell ; tourmaline becomes 
white and swells. Topaz is cleavable in one direction. 
hardness=8; tourmaline is not cleavable,hardness=6.5. 

Corundum (sapphire)=A! 2 3 ; Chrysoberyl=BeO, A1 2 3 , 
Not affected by acids. When pulverized, slowly but 
completely soluble in SPh ; the glass does not opal- 
esce on cooling. Hardness of chrysoberyl=8.5, of 



133 



corundum=9 ; color of the former usually green, ot 
the latter blue, red, yellow, brown. 

(Some varieties of Spinel and Leucite assume a blue color 

with solution of cobalt.) 

Division 2. Moistened with solution of cobalt and ignited, assume a 
green color. 

It is sufficient to heat to redness. The minerals of this 
division give a coating of oxide of zinc on charcoal, 
25. 

Smithsonite, see 213. 

Zinc Bloom=(ZnO,C0 2 -f-HO)+2(ZnO,HO). Dissolves 
readily in hydrochloric acid with effervescence; the 
solution gives with ammonia a white precipitate, so- 
luble in an excess of the reagent. Yields water in a 
matrass. 

Willemite=3ZnO, SiO 8 ; Calamine, see 214. Gela- 
tinize with hydrochloric acid. Calamine yields water, 
willemite not. With solution of cobalt assume a green 
color only in spots. 

(See also Blende and Goslarite.) 

Division 3. After ignition have an alkaline reaction, and change into 
blue the color of a moistened red litmus-paper. 

Brucite=MgO, HO ; Hydromagnesite=MgO, 4HO+3 
(MgO,C0 2 ). Yield much water in a matrass, unlike 
the other minerals of this division. Brucite dissolves 
in hydrochloric acid without effervescence, hydromag- 
nesite with effervescence ; the concentrated solutions 
are not precipitated by sulphuric acid. Laricasterite 
is a mixture of brucite and hydromagnesite. Nem- 
alite is a fibrous variety of brucite, of silky lustre. 

Calcite=CaO.C0 2 ; Arragonite=CaO. CO*. Dissolve 
readily and with effervescence in dilute cold hydro- 
chloric acid; the concentrated (but not the dilute) 
12 



134 



solution gives a precipitate with sulphuric acid. Ar- 
ragonite falls to powder before the Blp, calcite not. 
Dolomite=MgO. C0 2 +CaO. CO 2 ; Magnesite=MgO.C0 2 
Do not, or but slightly, effervesce with cold dilute hy- 
drochloric acid, but dissolve readily on application of 
heat. The concentrated solution of the former gives 
a precipitate with sulphuric acid, that of the latter not. 
A similar behavior shows the Breunnerite=(MgO. FeO. 
MnO),C0 2 , which on ignition becomes black and 
slightly magnetic ; and some varieties of Chalybite, 
see $ 163, and Diallogite, see $ 185. 
Strontianite = Sr O.C O 2 ; Barytocalcite = Ba O.C O 2 + 
CaO. CO 2 . Dissolve with effervescence in dilute hy- 
drochloric acid ; the solution, even if largely diluted 
with water, gives a precipitate with sulphuric acid. 
Strontianite colors the flame red, 34 ; barytocalcite 
yellowish-green, $ 35. 
(See also Yttrocerite). 

Division 4. Completely soluble, or nearly so, in hydrochloric or nitric 
acid without gelatinizing or leaving a perceptible resi- 
due of silica. 

Chalybite, see $ 163 ; Breunnerite,see preceding division ; 
Diallogite, see $ 185 ; Emerald Nickel, see $ 195. 
Dissolve in heated hydrochloric acid with efferves- 
cence. 

Limonite, see \ 155; Golhite=Fe 2 3 ,HO. Become 
black and magnetic in reduction flame. Dissolve in 
hydrochloric acid without effervescence. Gothite oc- 
curs crystallized and cleaves distinctly in one direc- 
tion; loses 10 per cent, on ignition; limonite loses 
14 \ percent. 

(See also Hematite which in some varieties is without 

metallic lustre ; readily distinguished by red streak.) 

Blende, see \ 212; Marmatite=FeS+3ZnS ; Green- 



135 



ockite=CdS. Dissolve in hydrochloric acid with evo- 
lution of sulphuretted hydrogen. Give the sulphur- 
reaction, $ 107. Greenockite gives on charcoal a 
coating of oxide of cadmium, $ 24, the others of oxide 
of zinc, $ 25. Marmatite gives after calcination with 
the fluxes the reactions of iron. 

Wad, see % 184; Zincite, see $ 211. 

Earthy Cobalt, see g 133. Some varieties'are fusible. 

Pitchblende=UO,U s 3 ; Zippeite=U0 3 +xHO. Give 
with the fluxes the reactions of sesquioxide of uranium 
{/Table II]. Give with nitric acid a yellow solution in 
which ammonia produces a. sulphur-yellow precipitate. 
Pitchblende is black, zippeite yellow. 

Chrome Ochre=Cr a 3 . Gives with fluxes the reactions 
of sesquioxide of chromium [Table II] . Forms with 
hydrate of potassa a green solution. 

Turquois=PO, 5 A1 2 0*, HO, CuO. Color sky-blue and 
green. Gives the copper-reaction, 74. Yields much 
water in a matrass. 

Apatite=3(3CaO.PO*)-fCa(Cl,F). Gives the phos- 
phoric acid reaction, $ 94. Fusibility=5. Soluble in 
nitric acid. Gives the fluorine-reaction,^ 76 (always?) 

Monazite=PO s , CeO, LaO, ThO. Infusible. Gives the 
phosphoric acid reaction, \ 94. Soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid. Minute tabular crystals of reddish-brown 
color. 

Childrenite=PO 6 ,Al 2 8 ,FeO, MnO, HO, Gives the 
phosphoric acid reaction, $ 94. With the flaxes gives 
the reaction of iron and manganese. In hydrochloric 
acid soluble with difficulty. Yields much water. 

Polycrase=Ti0 2 , NbO 3 , Z^O 8 , Fe*0 s , Ce 2 3 , U 2 3 , &c. 
Decrepitates, but infusible. Color black. On fusing 
the pulverized mineral with hydrate of potassa, boil- 
ing the fused mass with hydrochloric acid, filtering, 



136 



and boiling the filtrate with tin-foil, the liquid assumes 
a blue color on reaching a certain degree of concen- 
tration ; the color disappears on addition of water. 

Fluocerite=CeF. Gives the reactions of fluorine, 75, 
and of sesquioxide of cerium, Table II. Yttrocerite= 
F, CaO, YO, Ce 2 3 , behaves similarly. 
Division 5. With hydrochloric acid form a jetty, or are decomposed 

with separation of silica without gelatinizing. 
Section 1. Giving water in a matrass. 

Dioptase=3CuO, 2Si0 3 +3HO ; Chrysocolla, see g 149. 
Behave alike before the Blp j the former gelatinizes 
with acids, the latter not. 

Thorite = 3ThO, Si0 8 +3HO ; Cerite = 3CeO, Si0 8 -f 
3HO. Gelatinize with hydrochloric acid. Color of 
thorite orange-yellow or black, hardness=4.5 5 ; of 
cerite, brown to red passing into gray, hardness=5.5. 

Chloropal=Fe 2 3 , 2SiO-f 3HO. Color yellowish-green, 
amorphous, of an opal-like appearance. Becomes 
magnetic by ignition j gelatinizes. Small pieces when 
thrown into a concentrated solution of hydrate of 
potassa lose the green color and become dark-brown. 
Hardness=2 3. 

Hisingerite=Fe a 5J , Si0 3 + 3HO ; Xylotile = Fe 2 3 , 
3Si0 3 +3MgO, 2Si0 3 +5HO. Become magnetic by 
ignition. Readily decomposed by hydrochloric acid. 
Hisingerite is black, imperfectly crystallized and cleav- 
able in one direction; xylotile is light or dark brown, 
of fibrous, woody structure. 

Meerschaum=MgO, Si0 3 +2HO Gelatinizes with hy- 
drochloric acid ; very light ; absorbs water with great 
avidity; gives the magnesia-reaction with solution of 
cobalt, \ 44. 

Schiller-Spar=3([MgO. FeO], SiO s ) + 2(MgO,2HO) . 
Chrysotile = 3MgO, 2Si0 3 +MgO,3HO. Possess a 



137 



metallic pearly lustre ; the former is massive, cleav- 
able ; the latter fibrous. By ignition schiller-spar be- 
comes brown, chrysotile white. Both are decomposed 
by hydrochloric acid, or more readily by sulphuric 
acid, without gelatinizing. 

Serpentine = 2 (3MgO, 2Si0 3 ) + 3 (MgO, 2HO). De* 
composed by concentrated hydrochloric acid without 
gelatinizing. Usually massive and compact ; hard- 
ness=3 4; loss by ignition 12 13 per cent. Of 
similar composition, and showing a similar behavior, 
are the following minerals, which, however, possess 
crystalline structure and cleavage : Picrophyll, hard- 
ness=2.5, loss by ignition 10 per cent. ; Picrosmine, 
hardness=2.7, loss by ignition 9 per cent. ; Marmo- 
lite, hardness=2.5 3, loss by ignition 15.7 per cent. ; 
Kaemmererite, hardness=1.5 2, loss by ignition 13 
per cent. 

(See also Chlorite and Ripidolite which are with difficulty 
decomposed by concentrated hydrochloric acid.) 

Antigorite=3 (MgO. FeO), 2Si0 8 +MgO, HO j Monra- 
dite=4(3[MgO.FeO],2Si0 3 )+3HO ; Neolite=3MgO, 
2Si0 3 -f-HO. Decomposable by concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid without gelatinizing. Loss by ignition 
4 6 per cent. Antigorite occurs in foliated masses, 
hardness=2.5 ; monradite, hardness=6 5 neolite in 
silky fibres or massive, hardness 1. 

(See also some varieties of Clintonite, hardness=4 5.) 
Section 2. Giving only traces or no water in a matrass. 

Gadolinite = SiO 3 , YO, FeO, CeO, Be 2 s j Gehlenite = 
2 (3CaO, Si0 3 )+2 ( A1 2 0. Fe 2 3 ), SiO 3 . Gelatinize 
with hydrochloric acid. Gadolinite swells before the 
Blp into cauliflower-like masses, and sometimes exhi- 
bits a vivid glow 5 thin splinters fusible on the edges ; 
color black to blackish-green; hardness=6.5 7. 
12* 



138 



Gehlenite is also fusible in very thin splinters ; color 
gray to grayish- white ; hardness=5.5 6. 

Chrysolite=3MgO, SiO 3 ; Chondrodite=2 (3MgO, SiO 8 ) 
-f MgF. Gelatinize with hydrochloric acid. Color of 
the former green, of the latter mostly white, yellow, or 
brown. Chondrodite gives the fluorine-reaction, 76. 

Boltonite (a variety of pyroxene) = SiO 3 , MgO, FeO, 
A1 2 3 . Cleavage distinct in one direction. Color 
yellow. (See also Clintonite.) 

Leucite = 3KO,2Si0 3 +3(Al0 8 ,2Si0 3 ). Decomposed 
by hydrochloric acid, the silica separating as a fine 
powder ; some varieties become blue with solution of 
cobalt ; occurs usually in trapezohedrons. Color gray- 
ish or white. 
Division 6. Not belonging to either of the preceding divisions. 

The remaining minerals which cannot be classed under 
any of the preceding divisions, may be divided ac- 
cording to their hardness in two sections. 
Section 1. Hardness below 7. 

Biotite (hexagonal mica) = ( AP 0. Fe 2 O 8 ), SiO 8 + 3 
(MgO. KO), SiO 8 ; Muscovite (oblique mica)=KO, 
Si0 3 + 4 (A1 2 3 , SiO 3 ) j Talc = 6MgO, 5Si0 3 +2HO. 
Give little or no water in a matrass ; talc loses at 
most 5 per cent. Cleavage eminent in one direction. 
Hardness of biotite=2.5 3, of muscovite=2 2.5, 
of talc=l 1.5. Biotite is decomposed by concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, the others not. The lamina? of 
biotite and muscovite are elastic, of talc not. Soap- 
stone or steatite is a massive, usually compact variety 
of talc ; very greasy to the feel, or like soap (see also 
Pyrophyllite). 

Chlorite = 2(MgO,Al 2 3 )+3(2[MgO.Fe],SiO s )+6HO; 
Ripidolite = (MgO. FeO), Si0 3 + (A1 2 3 . Fe 2 3 ), SiO 8 
+4 (MgO, HO). Loses by ignition 12 per cent, of 



139 



water. Cleavage eminent in one direction, larainse 
not elastic (chlorite often massive granular). Hard- 
ness of chlorite=2 2.5 ; of ripidolite=l 2. De- 
composed by concentrated hydrochloric acid with 
continued boiling, more readily by sulphuric acid. 
Ripidolite fuses with difficulty (=5.5) to a grayish- 
yellow enamel, chlorite becomes black and slightly 
magnetic. A similar behavior shows the Chloritoid ; 
hardness 5.5 6. 

Bronzite (hypersthene)= SMgO, 2Si0 8 + 3 (CaO. FeO), 
2Si0 5 ; Anthophyllite == FeO, SiO 3 -f SMgO, 2SiO*. 
Cleavage of bronzite very perfect in one direction ; 
anthophyllite cleaves in two directions. The former 
is of clove-brown or pinchbeck-brown color, with a 
pearly-metallic lustre ; the lustre of anthophyllite is 
much less perfect. Hardness=5 5.5. 

Wolframite=W0 8 , is soluble in hydrate of potassa; the 
solution gives with nitric acid a yellow precipitate 
which on boiling becomes lemon-yellow. Occurs in 
soft, earthy, yellow masses. 

Scheelite=CaO,W0 3 . Fusibility=5 ; hardness=4.5 5. 
The pulverized mineral, on being boiled with nitric 
acid, leaves a lemon-yellow residue of tungstic acid. 
Gives the reactions of tungstic acid [Table II]. 

Cassiterite, see $ 209. 

Anatase, Rutile, and Brookite=TiO*. Give the reactions 
of titanic acid [Table II]. On fusing the pulverized 
minerals with hydrate of potassa, dissolving the fused 
mass in hydrochloric acid and boiling the solution with 
metallic tin, it assumes a violet color, which turns to 
red on addition of water. Color of anatase, various 
shades of brown passing into indigo-blue ; of rutile 
mostly brownish-red or red, sometimes yellowish or 
black ; of brookite, hair-brown, yellowish or reddish 



140 



(variety arkansite is iron-black). Hardness of anatase 
=5.5 6 ; of rutile=6 6.5 ; of brookite=5.5 6. 

Aeschynite and Pyrochlore=Nb0 3 , TiO 2 , Zr 2 3 , Ce 2 3 , 
CaO, &c. Treated like the preceding with potassa, 
&c., the solution on reaching a certain degree of con- 
centration assumes a fine-blue color, which, on addi- 
tion of water, does not change to red, but gradually 
disappears. Aeschynite swells before the Blp and 
turns yellow ; pyrochlore does not swell and becomes 
grayish. 

Opal=Si0 3 +xHO. Before the Blp yields water and 
becomes opaque ; fuses with carbonate of soda to a 
clear bead, with effervescence. Infusible. Boiled with 
hydrate of potassa, it dissolves completely or to a 
great extent ; the solution gives a gelatinous precipi- 
tate with chloride of ammonium. Hardness=6 6.5. 

Xenotime=3YO, PO 5 . Color, various shades of brown 
or flesh-red. Hardness=4 5. Gives the phosphoric 
acid reaction, 94. Infusible. With salt of phos- 
phorous dissolves with great difficulty to a colorless 
glass. 

[See also Childrenite and Orthoclase.] 
Section 2. Hardness=7, or above. 

[See Cassiterite, Rutile, and Opal of the preceding section 
whose hardness sometimes approaches 7.] 

Quartz=Si0 3 . The various varieties of quartz, as rock- 
crystal, amethyst, hornstone, flint, chalcedony, &c., 
are infusible and unalterable before the Blp, and fuse 
with carbonate of soda to a transparent bead, with 
effervescence. Hardness=Y. 

Iolite=2 (3 [MgO.FeO],2Si0 3 )+5 (Al 2 3 ,Si0 3 ) j Stau- 
rotide=2(Al 2 3 .Fe 3 3 ),Si0 5 . Hardness=7 7.5. Do 
not fuse to a transparent glass with carbonate of soda. 
Fusibility of iolite=5 5.5; color blue, grayish. 



141 



Staurotide is infusible ; color brownish-red, brown ; 
crystals often cruciform. 

Beryl=3BeO, 2Si0 8 +Al 2 3 , 2Si0 8 ; Euclase=2(3BeO, 
Si0 3 )+2Al 2 3 , SiO 3 ; Phenacite=3BeO,Si0 3 ; Zircon 
=Zr 7 3 , SiO 3 . Hardness=7.5. Beryl and euclase 
turn milk-white with strong heat and become rounded 
on the edges ; beryl crystallizes in hexagonal prisms, 
and possesses pretty distinct basal cleavage, color 
usually pale-green or emerald-green ; euclase crystal- 
lizes in clinorhombic prisms and possesses distinct 
cleavage in two directions at right angles to each 
other; color pale mountain-green passing into blue 
and white. Phenacite and zircon do not change 
before the blowpipe, excepting that zircon becomes 
colorless ; color red, yellow, or colorless, zircon some- 
times brown or gray; phenacite is a little harder 
(=8) than zircon. 

Ouvarovite (lime-chrome-garnet) = 3Ca0 3 SiO s + Ci^O 8 , 
SiO 8 . Infusible. Hardness=7.5 8. Gives with fluxes 
the chromium reactions [Table II]. 

Spinel = MgO, Al'O 3 j Pleonaste = (MgO.FeO),Al 2 3 ; 
Gahnite=(ZnO.MgO),Si0 3 . Hardness=7.5 8. Oc- 
cur almost exclusively in octahedral crystals. Spinel 
and pleonaste, when pulverized, are soluble in salt 
of phosphorus ; color of spinel red, blue, brownish ; 
of pleonaste black. Gahnite is almost insoluble in 
salt of phosphorus and borax ; color dark-green or 
black. Kreittonite is a black spinel containing zinc 
and iron, slightly magnetic before ignition. 

Diamond=C. Characterized by its hardness, which sur- 
passes that of corundum. 



TABLES, 



144 



TABLE I. BEHAVIOR OF THE ALKALINE 

BEFORE THE 





Gn Ch alone, and in the 
forceps. 


With Carbonate of Soda 
on Ch. 


1. BARYTA. 
BaO. 


The Hydrate fuses, boils, 
intumesces and is finally 
absorbed by the Ch. The 
Carbonate fuses readily to 
a transparent glass, which, 
on cooling, becomes enam- 
el-white. In the forceps it 
colors the outer flame yel- 
lowish-green. 


Fuses with Sd to a homo- 
geneous mass, which is ab- 
sorbed by the Ch. 


2. STRONTIA. 
SrO. 


The Hydrate behaves like 
hydrate of Baryta. The 
Carbonate fuses only at the 
edges, and swells out in 
arborescent ramifications 
which emit a brilliant light, 
and, when heated with the 
KF1, impart to it a reddish 
tinge ; shows after cooling 
alkaline reaction. In the 
forceps, colors the outer 
flame purple. 


Caustic Strontia is inso- 
luble. The Carbonate, 
mixed with its own volume 
of Sd, fuses into a limpid 
glass, which becomes en- 
amel white on cooling. At 
a greater heat the mass 
enters into ebullition, and 
caustic Strontia is formed, 
which is absorbed by the 
Ch. 


3. LIME. 
CaO. 


Caustic Lime suffers no 
alteration. The Carbonate 
loses carbonic acid, be- 
comes whiter and more lu- 
minous, and shows after 
cooling alkaline reaction. 
In the forceps it colors the 
outer flame pale-red. 


Insoluble. The Sd pas- 
ses into the Ch, and leaves 
the Lime unaltered on its 
surface. 


4. MAGNESIA. 
MgO. 


Undergoes no alterations. 
The Carbonate becomes 
caustic and luminous. 


It behaves like Lime. 


5. ALUMINA. 
A1 2 Q3. 


Not changed. 


Forms an infusible com- 
pound, with slight intu- 
mescence. The excess of 
Sd is absorbed by the Ch. 



145 

EARTHS AND THE EARTHS PROPER 
BLOWPIPE. 



With Ex on Platinum Wire. 



With SPh on Platinum Wire. 



The Carbonate dissolves with ef- 
fervescence to a limpid glass which, 
when in a certain state of saturation, 
may be made opaque by flaming ; 
when still moresaturateditbecom.es 
opaque on cooling, even without 
flaming. 



As with Borax. 



Presents the same phenomena as 
Baryta. 



Presents the same phenomena 
Baryta. 



Readily dissolved to a limpid 
glass, which becomes opaque by 
flaming. The Carbonate dissolves 
with effervescence. On a large ad- 
dition of Lime the glass crystallizes 
on cooling, but does not become 
enamel-white. 



Soluble in large quantities to a 
limpid glass which, when sufficient 
Lime is present, becomes opaque by 
flaming. When saturated, the glass 
becomes enamel-white on cooling. 



It behaves like Lime, but does not 
crystallize so well. 



Readily soluble to a limpid glass, 
which becomes opaque by flaming. 
When saturated, it becomes on cool- 
ing enamel-white. 



Dissolves slowly to a limpid glass, 
which remains so on cooling, and 
which cannot be made cloudy by 
flaming. A large quantity of Alum- 
ina makes the glass cloudy ; on cool- 
ing, it then assumes a crystalline 
surface. 



Soluble to a limpid glass, which 
remains clear under all circumstan- 
ces. If too much Alumina is ad- 
ded, the undissolved portion be- 
comes translucent. 



13 



146 



TABLE I. CON- 





On Ch alone, and in the 
forceps. 


With Carbonate of Soda 
on Ch. 


6. GLUCINA. 
BeO. 


Not changed. 


Insoluble. 


7. YTTRIA. 
YO. 


Not changed. 


Insoluble. 


8. ZlRCONIA. 
Zr 2 O 3 . 


Infusible, but emitting a 
very glaring light. 


Insoluble. 



14V 



TINUED. 



With Ex on Platinum Wire. 


With SPk on Platinum Wire. 


Soluble in large quantities to a 
limpid glass, which becomes opaque 
by naming. When Glucina is pre- 
sent in excess, it becomes enamel- 
white on cooling. 


As with Borax. 


Like Glucina. 


Like Glucina. 


Like Glucina. 


Dissolves more slowly 
borax. 


than with 



148 



TABLE II. BEHAVIOR OF THE METAL- 



Metallic Oxides in 
Alphabetical Order. 


On Charcoal alone. 


With Carbonate of Soda. 


1. ANTIMONOUS. 
ACID. 

SbO 3 . 


OF1: It is displaced 
without change, and de- 
posited upon another 
part of the Ch. 
RF1 : It is reduced and 
volatilized. A Ct of an- 
timonous acid is depo- 
sited on th Ch, and a 
greenish-blue color im- 
parted to the flame. 


On Ch very readily re- 
duced in OF1 and RF1. 
The metal fumes and 
coats the Ch with anti- 
monous acid. 


2. ARSENOUS 
ACID. 
AsO 3 . 


Volatile below red heat. 


On Ch reduced, with 
emission of arsenical 
fumes, which are charac- 
terized by a strong garlic 
odor. 


3. TEROXIDE OF 
BISMUTH. 
BiO 3 . 


OF1 : On platinum foil 
it fuses readily to a dark- 
brown mass, which on 
cooling becomes pale yel- 
low. 
On Ch in OF1 and KF1 
reduced to metallic bis- 
muth, which, with long 
blowing, vaporizes, coat- 
ing the Ch with yellow 
oxide. The Ct, when 
touched with the RF1, 
disappears without color- 
ing the flame. 


Easily reduced to me- 
tallic bismuth. 


4. OXIDE or CAD- 
MIUM. 
CdO. 


OF1 : On platinum foil 
unchanged. 
RF1 : On Ch it disap- 
pears in a short time and 
deposits all over the Ch 
a dark-yellow or reddish- 
brown powder ; the color 
can only be clearly dis- 
cerned after cooling. 


OF1: Insoluble. 
RF1: On Ch readily 
reduced ; the metal va- 
porizes and deposits a 
dark yellow or reddish- 
brown Ct on the Ch. 



149 



LIO OXIDES BEFORE THE BLOWPIPE. 



With Bx on Platinum Wire. 



With SPh on Platinum Wire. 



OF1 : Dissolves in large quanti- 
ties to a limpid glass, which, while 
hot, appears yellowish, but after 
cooling colorless. 

RF1 : The glass, when treated 
only for a short time in the OF1, 
becomes on Ch grayish and cloudy 
from particles of reduced antimony. 
With tin it becomes gray or black. 



OH : Dissolves with effervescence 
to a limpid glass, which while hot 
is slightly yellowish. 

RF1: On Ch the saturated bead 
becomes at first cloudy, but after- 
wards clear again, owing to the vo- 
latilization of the reduced antimony. 
Treated with tin, the glass becomes 
after cooling gray, even if but very 
little antimonous acid is present. 
With strong blowing it becomes clear 
again. 







OF1: A small quantity is easily 
dissolved to a clear yellow glass 
which, on cooling, becomes color- 
less. On a large addition of oxide 
the glass, while hot, is yellowish- 
red, becomes yellow on cooling, and 
when cold is opalescent. 

RF1: On Ch the glass becomes 
at first gray and cloudy, the oxide 
is reduced to metal with efferves- 
cence, and the bead becomes clear 
again. An addition of tin acceler- 
ates the process. 



OF1 : Readily dissolved to a lim- 
pid yellow glass which, on cooling, 
becomes colorless. When a greater 
quantity of oxide is present, the 
glass may be made enamel-white by 
flaming, and on a still larger addi- 
tion it becomes by itself enamel- 
white on cooling. 

RF1 : On Ch, particularly when 
tin is added, the glass remains col- 
orless and limpid while hot, but be- 
comes, on cooling, dark-gray and 
opaque. 



OF1: Soluble in large quantity to 
a limpid yellowish glass, becoming 
almost colorless on cooling. When 
highly saturated it may be made 
enamel-white by flaming, and when 
still more oxide is present it be- 
comes by itself enamel-white on 
cooling. 

RF1 : Placed on Ch it enters into 
ebullition ; the oxide is reduced ; 
the reduced metal vaporizes imme- 
diately and deposits a dark yellow Ct. 



OF1: Soluble in large quantity 
to a limpid glass which, while hot, 
is yellowish, but colorless when 
cold; when saturated it becomes 
enamel-white on cooling. 

RF1 -. On Ch the oxide becomes 
slowly and imperfectly reduced. 
The reduced metal deposits a very 
feeble Ct of dark-yellow color. The 
color is only clearly seen when the 
mass is cold. An addition of tin 
facilitates the reduction. 



13* 



150 



TABLE II. CON- 



Metallic Oxides in 
Alphabetical Order. 


On Charcoal alone. 


With Carbonate of Soda. 






Insoluble. The Sd pas- 


5. SESQUIOXIDE 
OF CERIUM. 

n p 2f)3 


Not changed. 


ses into the Ch : the ses- 
quioxide is reduced to 
protoxide which remains 


V'vJ \J 




on the Ch as a light-gray 






powder. 






OF1 : On platinum wire 






soluble to a dark yellow- 






ish-brown glass, which on 






cooling becomes opaque 


6. SESQUIOXIDE 




and yellow. 


OF CHROMIUM. 


Not changed. 


RF1: The glass becomes 


Cr*O 3 




opaque and green on 


\jL \J 




cooling. On Ch it cannot 






be reduced to metal; the 






Sd passes into the Ch, and 






the oxide remains behind 






as a green powder. 


7. OXIDE OF CO- 


OF1 : Not changed. 
RF1: It is reduced to 
metal, but does not fuse : 


OF1. On platinum wire 
a very small quantity is 
dissolved to a transparent 
mass of a pale reddish 


BALT. 


the mass is attracted by 


color, which on cooling 


CoO. 


the magnet, and assumes 


becomes gray. 




metallic lustre by fric- 


RF1: On Ch reduced 




tion. 


to a gray magnetic pow- 






der. 




OF1 : Fuses to a black 


OF1 : On platinum wire 




globule, which becomes 


soluble to a limpid glass 




reduced when it is in con- 


of green color ; on cool- 


8. OXIDE OF COP- 


tact with the Ch. 
RF1 : Reduced to met- 


ing it becomes opaque 
and white. 


PER. 
p n 


al at a temperature below 


RF1 : On Ch easily re- 


\j\Ji\}. 


the melting point of cop- 


duced to metal, which, 




per. When the heat is in- 


when the temperature is 




creased a globule of me- 


sufficiently high, fuses to 




tallic copper is obtained. 


one or more globules. 



151 



TINUED. 



With Bx on Platinum Wire. 



With SPh on Platinum Wire. 



OF1 : Soluble to a limpid glass of 
dark-yellow or red color, which 
changes on cooling to yellow. When 
highly saturated with oxide the glass 
becomes on cooling enamel-white. 

RF1 : The yellow glass becomes 
colorless. A highly saturated bead 
becomes on cooling enamel-white 
and crystalline. 



OF1 : As with Bx, but on cooling 
colorless. 

RF1 : Perfectly colorless, hot and 
cold. Becomes never opaque on 
cooling, however large the amount 
of oxide. 



OF1: Dissolves but slowly, but 
colors intensively. If little of the 
oxide is present, the glass,while hot, 
is yellow, when cold yellowish- 
green ; with more oxide it is dark- 
red, while hot, becomes yellow on 
cooling, and when perfectly cold 
has a fine yellowish-green color. 

RF1 : The glass is green, hot and 
cold. The intensity of the color 
depends on the amount of oxide 
present. Tin causes no change. 



OF1: Soluble to a limpid glass 
which, while hot, appears reddish; 
when cold it has a fine greeu color. 

RF1 : As in OF1. 



OF1 : Colors very intensively. 
The glass appears pure smalt-blue, 
hot and cold. An excess of oxide 
imparts to the bead a deep bluish- 
black color. 

RF1 : As in OF1. 



OF1: As with Bx, but for the 
same quantity of oxide the color is 
not quite so deep. 

RF1 -. As in OF1. 



OF1: A small addition of oxide 
makes the glass appear green while 
hot, but blue when cold. A large 
quantity imparts to it a very deep 
green color, while hot, becoming 
greenish-blue when cold. 

BF1 : A glass containing a certain 
quantity of oxide becomes colorless, 
but on cooling becomes opaque and 
red (suboxide). On Ch the copper 
may be precipitated in the metallic 
state, the bead becoming in conse- 
quence colorless. A glass contain- 
ing protoxide, when treated on Ch 
with tin, becomes on cooling brown- 
ish red and opaque. 



OF1: As with Bx, but for the 
same amount of oxide the coloration 
is not so deep. 

RF1 : A glass containing a large 
quantity of oxide becomes dark 
green, which in the moment of 
refrigeration changes suddenly to 
brownish-red and opaque. A glass 
containing but little oxide, when 
treated on Ch with tin, appears 
colorless while hot, but becomes 
brownish-red and opaque on cool- 
ing. 



152 



TABLE II. CON- 



Metallic Oxides in 
Alphabetical Order. 



On Charcoal alone. 



With Carbonate of Soda, 



9. 



TEROXIDE 
GOLD. 
AuO 3 . 



OF 



"When heated to ignition 
it becomes reduced to 
metal in OF1 and RF1. 
The metal fuses easily to 
a globule. . 



Does not dissolve in the 
Sd, but is easily reduced, 
in both flames. The met- 
al fuses readily to a glob- 
ule. The Sd passes into 
the Ch. 



10. SESQUIOXIDE 
OF IRON. 
Fe 2 3 . 



OF1: Not changed. 
RF1 : Becomes black 
and magnetic. 



OF1: Insoluble. 

RF1: On Ch it is re- 
duced ; the mass, when 
placed in a mortar, pul- 
verized, and repeatedly 
washed with water to 
remove the adherent Ch 
particles, yields a gray 
metallic powder which 
is attracted by the mag- 
net. 



11. 



BlNOXIDE OP 

IRIDIUM. 
IrO 2 



At a red-heat becomes 
reduced ; the reduced 
metal is infusible. 



OF1 : Does not dissolve 
in the Sd, but becomes 
reduced ; the metal can- 
not be fused to a globule. 

RF1 -. As in OF1. 



Minium, when heated 
on platinum foil, black- 
ens ; on increasing the 
temperature it changes 
into yellow oxide, which 
finally fuses to a yellow 



12. 



OXIDE OF 
LEAD. 
PbO. 



On Ch in OF1 and RF1 
almost instantaneously 
reduced to metal which, 
with continued blowing, 
vaporizes, and covers the 
Ch with yellow oxide, 
surrounded by a faint 
white ring of carbonate. 
The Ct, when touched 
with the RF1 disappears, 
imparting to the flame 
an azure-blue tinge. 



OF1 : On platinum wire 
readily dissolved to a 
limpid glass which, on 
cooling, becomes yellow- 
ish and opaque. 

RF1: On Ch reduced 
to metal which, with 
continued blowing, cov- 
ers the Ch with oxide. 



153 



TINUED. 



With Bx on Platinum Wire. 



With SPh on Platinum Wire. 



As with Carbonate of Soda. 



As with Carbonate of Soda. 



OF1 : A small amount of oxide 
causes the glass to look yellow while 
hot, colorless when cold. When 
more of the oxide is present the 
glass, while hot, appears red, and 
yellow when cold. A still larger 
quantity makes the glass dark-red 
while hot, and dark-yellow when 
cold. 

RF1: The glass becomes bottle- 
green. Treated on Ch with tin it 
becomes, at first, bottle-green, but 
afterwards pure vitriol-green. 



OF1 : When at a certain point of 
saturation the glass, while hot, ap- 
pears yellowish-red, and becomes 
on cooling at first yellow, then 
greenish and, finally, colorless. On 
a very large addition of oxide it 
appears, while hot, deep-red, be- 
coming, on cooling, brownish-red, 
then of a dirty-green color, and 
finally brownish-red. 

RF1 : A glass containing but lit- 
tle of the oxide suffers no visible 
change. When more of the oxide 
is present it is red while hot, and, 
on cooling, becomes at first yellow, 
then greenish, and finally reddish. 
Treated with tin on Ch the glass, 
on cooling, becomes at first green, 
and finally colorless. 



As with Carbonate of Soda. 



As with Carbonate of Soda. 



OF1: Easily soluble to a limpid 
yellow glass which, on cooling, be- 
comes colorless. If much oxide is 
present it may be made cloudy by 
naming. A still larger addition of 
oxide causes the bead to become 
enamel-yellow on cooling. 

RF1: The glass diffuses itself 
over the Ch and becomes cloudy. 
With continued blowing the oxide 
is reduced to metal, with effer- 
vescence, and the glass becomes 
clear again. 



OF1: As with Bx. But to ob- 
tain a glass which appears yellow 
while hot, a large addition of the 
oxide is required. 

RF1 : On Ch the glass becomes 
grayish and cloudy. This pheno- 
menon is better observed when tin 
is added ; but the glass can never 
be made quite opaque. If much of 
the oxide is present the Cli becomes 
coated. 



154 



TABLE II. CON- 



Metallic Oxides in 
Alphabetical Order. 


On Charcoal alone. 


With Carbonate of Soda. 






OF1 : On platinum wire 






or foil a very small quan- 




OF1: Insoluble. When 


tity dissolves to a trans- 




the temperature is suffi- 


parent green mass, 


13. SESQUIOXIDE 
OF MANGANESE. 


ciently high, both the 
sesquioxide and the per- 
oxide are converted into 


which, on cooling, be- 
comes opaque and blu- 
ish-green. 


Mn 2 3 . 


a reddish-brown powder 


RF1 : On Ch it cannot 




(MnO-fMn 2 3 ). 


be reduced to metal ; the 




RF1 : The same effect. 


Sd passes into the Ch 






and leaves the protoxide 






behind. 






Heated in a matrass to 


14. PROTOXIDE 
OF MERCURY. 


Instantly reduced and 
volatilized. 


redness, it is reduced 
and vaporized. The va- 
pors condense in the 


HgO. 




neck of the matrass and 






form a metallic coating. 




OF1: Fuses, becomes 






brown, vaporizes, and 
deposits on the Ch a yel- 


OF1 : On platinum wire 
dissolves with efferves- 


15. MOLYBDIC 


low Ct, which nearest to 
the assay is crystalline. 
On cooling the Ct be- 
comes white, and the 


cence to a limpid glass 
which, on cooling, be- 
comes milk-white. 
RF1 : Fuses with effer- 


ACID. 


crystals colorless. 


vescence. The fused 


MoO. 


RF1: The greater part 


mass is absorbed by the 




of the assay is absorbed 


Ch, and part of the acid 




by the Ch, and may be 


is reduced to metal 




reduced to metal at a 


which may be obtained 




sufficiently high temper- 
ature; the metal is in the 


as a steel-gray powder. 




shape of a gray powder. 






OF1 : Not changed. 






RF1: On Ch reduced to 


OF1: Insoluble. 


16. OXTDE OF 

NICKEL. 


metal ; the spongy mass 
cannot be fused to a 
globule, but assumes 


RF1: Easily reduced 
to metal, in the shape 
of bright, white scales, 


NiO. 


metallic lustre by fric- 


which are attracted by 




tion : it is attracted by 


the magnet. 




the magnet. 





155 



TINUED. 



With Bx on Platinum Wire. 



With SPh on Platinum Wire. 



OF1: Colors very intensively. 
The glass, while hot, is violet, on 
cooling it assumes a reddish tinge. 
When much manganese is added, 
the glass becomes quite black and 
opaque ; but the color can be seen 
when the glass, while soft, is flat- 
tened with the forceps. 

RF1 : The glass becomes colorless. 
If the color was very dark, the 
phenomenon is best observed on Ch 
with addition of tin. 



OF1 : A considerable addition of 
manganese must be made to produce 
a colored glass ; it then appears, 
while hot, brownish-violet, and 
reddish-violet when cold, but never 
opaque. If the glass contains so 
small a quantity of manganese that 
it appears colorless, an addition of 
nitre will produce the characteristic 
coloration. 

RF1 : Becomes very soon color- 
less. 



OF1: Dissolved in large quantities 
to a limpid glass which, while hot, 
appears yellow, but colorlesss on 
cooling. A very large amount of 
acid causes the glass to appear dark 
yellow, while hot, and opaline when 
cold. 

RF1: A highly saturated bead 
becomes brown, and opaque when 
still more acid is present. 



OF1: Easily soluble to a limpid 
glass; if but little of the acid is 
present it is yellowish-green while 
hot, but when cold almost colorless. 
On Ch the glass becomes very dark, 
and on cooling assumes a beautiful 
green color. 

RF1 : The glass assumes a very 
dark, dirty-green color which, on 
cooling, becomes beautiful bright- 
green. The same on Ch ; tin deepens 
the color a little. 



OF1 : A small quantity colors the 
bead violet, while hot; when cold 
pale reddish-brown. More oxide 
makes the coloration deeper. 

RF1 : The glass becomes gray and 
cloudy, or even opaque. With con- 
tinued blowing the minute particles 
of reduced metal collect together 
and the glass becomes colorless. 
This takes more readily place on 
Ch, especially when tin is added. 
The nickel then unites with the tin 
to a globule. 



OF1: Soluble to a reddish glass 
which, on cooling, becomes yellow. 
A larger addition causes the glass 
to appear brownish-red while hot, 
and reddish-yellow when cold. 

RF1 : On platinum wire not 
changed. On Ch with tin it becomes, 
at first, gray and opaque ; with 
continued blowing the nickel be- 
comes reduced, and the glass clear 
again and colorless. 



156 



TABLE II. CON- 



Metallic Oxides in 
Alphabetical Order. 


On Charcoal alone. 


With Carbonate of Soda. 


17. BINOXIDE OP 
OSMIUM. 
OsO 2 . 


OF1: Converted into 
osmic acid which, with- 
out depositing a Ct, vol- 
atilizes with its peculiar 
pungent odor. 
RF1: Easily reduced to 
a dark-brown and in- 
fusible metallic powder. 


Easily reduced to an 
infusible metallic pow- 
der. 


18. PROTOXIDE 
or PALLADIUM. 
PdO. 


Reduced at a red-heat ; 
but the metallic particles 
are infusible. 


Insoluble. The Sd pas- 
ses into the Ch, and 
leaves the Palladium be- 
hind. 


19. BINOXIDE or 
PLATINUM. 
PtO 2 . 


Like Palladium. 


Like Palladium. 


\ 

20. PROTOXIDE 
OF SILVER. 
AgO. 


Easily reduced to me- 
tallic silver, which unites 
to one or more globules. 


Instantly reduced. The 
Sd passes into the Ch, 
and the metal unites to 
one or more globules. 


21. TELLUROUS 
ACID. 
TeO 2 . 


OF1: Fuses, and is re- 
duced with effervescence. 
The reduced metal be- 
comes instantly vapor- 
ized and covers the Ch 
with tellurous acid ; the 
Ct usually has a red or 
dark-yellow edge. 
RF1: As in OF1; the 
outer flame appears of a 
bluish-green color. 


Soluble, on platinum- 
wire, to a limpid and 
colorless glass, which, on 
cooling, becomes white. 
On Ch reduced and 
volatilized, depositing a 
Ct of tellurous acid. 


22. BINOXIDE OF 
TIN. 
SnO 2 . 


OF1 : The protoxide 
burns, like tinder, to bin- 
oxide. The binoxide be- 
comes very luminous and 
appears, while hot, yel- 
lowish, but assumes, on 
cooling, a dirty-white 
color. 
RF1 : With a powerful 
and continued flame it 
may be reduced to metal. 


OF1: On platinum wire 
it forms with Sd, with 
effervescence, an infusi- 
ble compound. 
RF1: On Ch reduced 
to metallic tin. 



157 



TINUED. 



With Bx on Platinum Wire. 



With SPh on Platinum Wire. 











OF1 and RF1 : Reduced, but not 
dissolved ; the metallic particles 
cannot be fused to a globule. 



As with Bx. 



Like Palladium. 



Like Palladium. 



OF1: In part dissolved, and in 
part reduced. On cooling, the glass 
becomes opalescent or milk-white, 
according to the amount of oxide 
present. 

RF1 : The glass at first becomes 
gray, but afterwards limpid and 
colorless. 



OF1: Imparts to the bead a 
yellowish color. When much of the 
oxide is present the glass, when 
cold, is opalescent, and appears 
yellowish at daylight, reddish at 
candle-light. 

RF1 : As with Bx. 



OF1 : Soluble to a limpid and 
colorless glass which, on Ch, be- 
comes gray from reduced metal. 

RF1 : On Ch becomes at first gray, 
afterwards colorless. The Ch be- 
comes coated with tellurous acid. 



As with Borax. 



OF1 : A very small quantity dis- 
solves slowly to a limpid and color- 
less glass, which remains so on 
cooling. 

RF1 : From a highly saturated 
glass a part of the oxide may be 
reduced on Ch. 



OF1 : As with Borax. 
RF1 : The glass, containing oxide, 
suffers no change. 



14 



158 



TABLE II. CON- 



Metallic Oxides in Al- 
phabetical Order. 


On Charcoal alone. 


With Carbonate of Soda. 






OF1: On Chit dissolves, 




OF1: Assumes, on 


with effervescence, to 


23. TITANIC 
ACID. 


heating, a yellow color, 
and becomes white again 
on cooling. Suffers no 


a dark-yellow glass, 
which, on cooling, crys- 
tallizes. When cold it 


TiO 2 . 


other change. 


is grayish-white. 




RF1 : As in OF1. 


KF1: As inOFl; can- 






not be reduced to metal. 






OF1 : On platinum wire 
it dissolves to a limpid 






and deep-yellow glass, 


24. TUNGSTIC 

A^ID. 
WO 3 . 


OF1 : Not changed ; at 
a very high temperature 
converted into oxide. 
RF1: Blackens, being 
converted into oxide, 
but does not fuse. 


which, on cooling, be- 
comes crystalline and 
opaque, and of white or 
yellowish color. 
RF1 : With very little 
Sdon Ch it is reduced to 
metal ; with more Sd it 






forms ayellow compound 






of metallic lustre, which 






passes into the Ch. 






OF1: Insoluble. With 




OF1 : Infusible ; but 


a certain amount of Sd 


25. SESQUIOXIDE 
or URANIUM. 
U 2 3 . 


assumes a dirty yellow- 
ish-green color. 
RF1 : Blackens, owing 
to the formation of prot- 


the mass becomes yel- 
lowish-brown, and with 
more passes into the Ch. 
KF1 : As in OF1 ; no 




oxide. 


reduction to metal takes 






place. 




Fusible. Where it is 




26. YANADIC 
ACID. 
VO 3 . 


in contact with the Ch it 
becomes reduced and 
passes into the Ch. The 
rest assumes the lustre 


Unites to a fusible 
mass which is absorbed 
by the Ch. 




and color of graphite. 





159 



TINUED. 



With 


Bx 


on 


Platinum 


Wire. 


With 


SPh 


on 


Platinum 


Wire. 



OF1: Easily soluble to a limpid 
glass which, -when containing a 
large quantity, appears yellow 
while hot, but becomes colorless on 
cooling. When containing a very 
large quantity it is enamel-white 
when cold. 

RF1: When containing but little 
titanic acid the glass becomes yel- 
low ; when more, dark-yellow to 
brown. A saturated glass becomes 
enamel-blue by flaming. 



OF1 . Easily dissolved to a limpid 
glass which, when containing a large 
quantity, appears yellow while hot, 
but becomes colorless on cooling. 

RF1 : Appears yellow while hot, 
but, on cooling, reddens and finally 
assumes a violet color. If iron is 
present the glass, on cooling, be- 
comes brownish-red ; with tin on 
Ch the glass becomes violet, unless 
j the amount of iron be very consid- 
erable. 



OF1 : Like titanic acid. 

OF1: A glass, containing but 
little tungstic acid, is not changed. 
When more, it becomes yellow and, 
on cooling, yellowish-brown. On 
Ch the same reaction is produced 
with a less saturated bead. Tin 
deepens the colors. 



OF1 : Easily dissolved to a limpid 
and colorless bead, which when 
highly saturated, appears yellow 
while hot. 

RF1 : With little blowing the glass 
appears, while hot, of a dirty green 
color, blue on cooling ; with strong 
blowing it becomes, on cooling, blu- 
ish-green. On Ch with tin, deep 
green. If iron is present the glass, 
on cooling, becomes brownish-red; 
with tin on Ch the glass becomes 
blue or, if the amount of iron is con- 
siderable, green. 



OF1 : Behaves like sesquioxide of 
iron. When highly saturated the 
glass may be made enamel-yellow 
by flaming. 

RF1 : Behaves like sesquioxide of 
iron. The green bead, when at a 
certain point of saturation, may be 
made black by flaming. On Ch 
with tin it becomes dark-yellow. 



OF1 -. Dissolves to a limpid yellow 
glass which, on cooling, becomes 
yellowish-green. 

RF1 : The glass assumes a dirty 
green color which, on cooling, 
changes to a fine green. With tin 
on Ch the color deepens. 



OF1 : Dissolved to a limpid glass 
which, when the quantity of vanadic 
acid is small, appears colorless, 
when larger yellow, and which, on 
cooling, becomes greenish. 

RF1 : The glass, while hot, appears 
brownish, and assumes a fine green 
color on cooling. 



OF1: Soluble to a limpid glass 
which, if sufficient vanadic acid is 
present, appears dark-yellow while 
hot, and becomes light-yellow on 
cooling. 

RF1 : As with Borax. 



160 



TABLE II. CON- 



Metallic Oxides in 
Alphabetical Order. 



On Charcoal alone. 



With Carbonate of Soda. 



27. OXIDE OF 
ZINC. 

ZnO. 



OFl: When heated be- 
comes yellow and, on 
cooling, white again. It 
fuses not, but becomes 
very luminous. 

IIF1 : Is slowly reduced ; 
the reduced metal be- 
comes rapidly re-oxidized 
and the oxide deposited 
on another place of the 
Ch. 



OFl; Insoluble. 

EF1: On Chit becomes 
reduced. The metal vap- 
orizes and coats the Ch 
with oxide. With a pow- 
erful flame the charac- 
teristic zinc-flame is 
sometimes produced. 



161 



TINUED. 



With Bx on Platinum Wire. 



With SPh on Platinum Wire. 



OF1 : Dissolves readily, and in 
large quantity, to a limpid glass 
which appears yellowish while hot ; 
on cooling it is colorless. When 
much of the oxide is present the 
glass may be made enamel-white 
by flaming ; and on a still larger 
addition it becomes enamel-white 
on cooling. 

RF1: The saturated glass be- 
comes at first gray and cloudy, and 
finally transparent again. On Ch 
the oxide becomes reduced, the 
metal vaporizes and coats the Ch 
with oxide. 



As with Borax. 



14* 



162 



TABLE III. THE METALLIC OXIDES ARRANGED 

THEY IMPART 

WITH BORAX IN OXYDATION FLAME PRODUCE : 
a. Colorless Beads. 



HOT 



f Silica, Alumina, Binoxide of Tin, 
Baryta, Strontia, Lime, Magnesia, 
Glucina, Yttria, Zirconia, Thoria, | -when highly saturated 
Oxide of Lanthanium, Oxide of Sil- ^-opaque (white) by 



AND j ver, Tantalic Acid, Niobic Acid, Tel- | flaming. 
COLD, lurous Acid. 

Titanic Acid, Tungstie Acid, Molyb- 1 

I die Acid, Oxides of Zinc, Cadmium, > when feebly saturated. 
l_ Lead, Bismuth, and Antimony. J 



5. Yellow Beads. 

Titanic Acid, Tungstic Acid, Oxides ) 
of Zinc, and Cadmium. % J 4^* fl^ng? 

Oxides of Lead, Bismuth, and ) when highly saturated; 
Antimony. / on cooling colorless. 

HOT. i Sesquioxides of Cerium, Iron, and "I when feebly saturated ; 
Uranium. / on cooling colorless. 

Sesquioxide of Chromium, when fully saturated; when cold, 
yellowish-green. 

Vanadic Acid ; when cold, pale-green. 

c. Red to Brown Beads. 

( Sesquioxide of Cerium ; on cooling yellow, enamel-like by 

I flaming. 
Sesquioxide of Iron ; on cooling yellow. 

TT J Sesquioxide of Uranium ; on cooling yellow, enamel-yellow by 
"^ flaming. 

Sesquioxide of Chromium ; on cooling yellowish-green. 
Sesquioxide of Iron, containing Manganese ; on cooling yel- 
lowish-red. 

( Oxide of Nickel (reddish-brown to brown) ; violet while hot. 
COLD. < Sesquioxide of Manganese (violet-red) ; violet while hot. 
( Oxide of Nickel, containing Cobalt ; violet while hot. 

d. Violet Beads (amethyst-colored). 

( Oxide of Nickel ; on cooling reddish-brown to brown. 
HOT. < Sesquioxide of Manganese ; on cooling violet-red. 

( Oxide of Nickel, containing Cobalt ; on cooling brownish. 



163 



WITH KEFERENCE TO THE COLORS WHICH 
TO THE FLUXES. 

WITH BORAX IN REDUCTION FLAME PRODUCE : 

a. Colorless Beads. 

Silica, Alumina, Binoxide of Tin. 

Baryta, Strontia, Lime, Magnesia, "] 

Glucina, Yttria, Zirconia, Thoria, Ox- 1 -when highly saturated 
ides of Lanthanium and Cerium, Tan- j cloudy by flaming. 



HOT 

AND 

COLD. 



talic Acid. J 

Sesquioxide of Manganese ; sometimes, on cooling, pale rose- 



colored. 



Niobic Acid ; when feebly saturated. 

Oxides of Silver, Zinc, Cadmium, "j with strong blowing ; 
Lead, Bismuth, Antimony, Nickel, Tel- L with feeble blowing 
lurous Acid. J gray. 

HOT / Oxide of Copper ; when highly saturated on cooling opaque 
1 and red. 



1). Yellow to Brown Beads. 

f Titanic Acid (yellow to brown) : when highly saturated en- 
j amel-blue by flaming. 
HOT. { Tungstic Acid (yellow to dark-yellow) ; when cold brownish. 

Molybdic Acid (brown to opaque). 
I Vanadic Acid (brownish) ; green when cold. 



c. Blue Beads. 
HOT. -{ Oxide of Cobalt ; retains its color on cooling. 



d. Green Beads. 

JJ OT f Sesquioxide of Iron (yellowish-green) ; especially when cold. 
Sesquioxide of Uranium (yellowish-green) ; when highly satu- 
AIN1 j rated black by flaming. 

|OLI) - [ Sesquioxide of Chromium (light to dark emerald-green). 
HOT. J Vanadic Acid; brownish while hot. 



164 

TABLE III. CON- 



WITH BORAX IN OXYDATION FLAME PRODUCE : 

e. Blue Beads. 

HOT. ^ Oxide of Cobalt ; retains its color on cooling. 
n j Oxide of Copper (when highly saturated greenish-blue) ; green 

L;OLD - \ while hot. 

f. Green Beads. 

C Oxide of Copper ; when cold blue or greenish-blue. 

^ on cooling the color 
changes, according to 
the proportion in 
> which the various ox- 
ides are present, to 
light-green, blue, or 
yellow. 

Sesquioxide of Chromium, yellowish-green ; yellow to red 
while hot. 

Vanadic Acid, greenish ; yellow while hot. 



Sesquioxide of Iron, containing Co- 
IIOT. \ bait or Copper. 

Oxide of Copper, containing Iron or 




165 
TINUED. 



WITH BORAX IN REDUCTION FLAME PRODUCE : 

e. Gray and Cloudy Beads. 

f Oxides of Silver, Zinc, Cadmium, ^ with feeble blowing ; 
p J Lead, Bismuth, Antimony, Nickel, Tel- > with strong blowing 
LD< 1 lurous Acid. ) colorless. 

{. Niobic Acid ; when highly saturated. 



f. Red and Opaque Beads. 
COLD. <{ Oxide of Copper, when highly saturated ; colorless while hot. 



166 

TABLE III. CON- 



WITH SALT OF PHOSPHORUS IN OXYDATION FLAME PRODUCE : 

a. Colorless Beads. 

Silicic Acid ; soluble only in minute quantity. 
Alumina, Binoxide of Tin ; soluble with difficulty. 



HOT 

AND 

COLD. 



Baryta, Strontia, Lime, Magnesia, ^ when highly saturated 
Glucina, Yttria, Zirconia, Thoria, Ox- [-become opaque by 
ide of Lanthanium, Tellurous Acid. J flaming. 

Acids of Tantalium, Niobium, TitanO . , . , , . 

lf * to l 8atu ~ 



HOT. 



Acids of Tantalium, Niobium, Titan- "| . ,. 
ium, Tungsten, Antimony ; Oxides of 1 1 , n ^ 
Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Bismuth. J ra 

b. Yellow Beads. 

Acids of Tantalium, Niobium, Titan-^j M M saturated 

mm, Tungsten, Antimony; Oxides of ^ , , 6 ^ ,. 
Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Bismuth. J colorless on coolm S- 

Oxide of Silver, yellowish ; when cold opalescent. 

Sesquioxide of Iron. ) when feebly saturated; 

" " Cerium. $ on cooling colorless. 

" " Uranium; when cold yellowish-green. 

Vanadic Acid, deep-yellow ; when cold of a lighter shade. 
CoLD. { Oxide of Nickel ; while hot reddish. 

c. Red Beads. 

f Sesquioxide of Iron. ) when highly saturated; 

j " " Cerium. $ when cold yellow. 

HOT. s Oxide of Nickel, reddish ; when cold yellow. 

[ Sesquioxide of Chromium, reddish ; when cold emerald-green. 

d. Violet Beads. 

{Sesquioxide of Manganese, brownish- violet ; on cooling pale 
reddish-violet. 
Oxide of Didymium ; when cold of a lighter shade. 

e. Blue Beads. 

HOT. -{ Oxide of Cobalt ; when cold of the same color. 
COLD. 1 Oxide of Copper ; green while hot. 

f. Green Beads. 

~\ on cooling the color 

Sesquioxide of Iron, containing Co- f changes, according to 
bait or Copper. ! the proportion inwhich 

Oxide of Copper, containing Iron or [ the various oxides are 
HOT. \ Nickel. | present, to light green, 

J blue, or yellow. 

Oxide of Copper ; when cold blue or greenish-blue. 
(^ Molybdic Acid, yellowish-green ; when cold of a lighter shade. 
Co f Sesquioxide of Uranium, yellowish-green; while hot yellow. 
' \ Sesquioxide of Chromium, emerald-green ; while hot reddish. 



167 
TINUED. 



WITH SALT or PHOSPHORUS IN REDUCTION FLAME PRODUCE : 

a. Colorless Beads. 

Silica, but slightly soluble. 

Alumina, Binoxide of Tin, soluble with difficulty. 

Baryta, Strontia, Lime, Magnesia, ~\ when highly saturated 



HOT 

AND 

COLD. 



HOT. s 



Glucina, Yttria, Zirconia, Thoria, Ox- [ become opaque by 
ide of Lanthanium. J flaming. 

Oxides of Didymium, Cerium, Manganese. 

Oxides of Silver, Zinc, Cadmium, ~j 
Lead, Bismuth. 

Tantalic Acid, Antimonous Acid, > with continued blowing. 
Tellurous Acid. 

Oxide of Nickel, on Ch. 

1}. Yellow to Red Beads. 

Sesquioxide of Iron ; on cooling greenish, then reddish. 

Titanic Acid, yellow ; on cooling violet. 

Vanadic Acid, brownish ; when cold emerald-green. 

Titanic Acid containing Iron. "> yellow; when cold 

Tungstic " " " /blood-red. 

Niobic " " " ^ brownish red ; when 

j cold deep-yellow. 

c. Violet Beads. 

Niobic Acid, when highly saturated ; while hot of a pale dirty- 

yellow while hot. 

d. Blue Beads. 

f Oxide of Cobalt; of the same color when hot. 
p ! Tungstic Acid ; while hot brownish. 

bOLD. -j Niobic Acid, when very highly saturated ; while hot of a dirty - 

[ blue color. 

e. Green Beads. 

f Sesquioxide of Uranium ; while hot less bright. 

p ! Molybdic Acid ; while hot of a dirty-green color. 

l^OLD. -j Vanadic Acid ; while hot brownish. 

[_ Sesquioxide of Chromium ; while hot reddish. 

f. Gray and Cloudy Beads. 

( Oxides of Silver, Zinc, Cadmium, ~| takes quickest place on 
COLD. ] Lead, Bismuth, Antimony, Nickel ; [-Ch ; with continued 
[ Tellurous Acid. J blowing colorless. 

g. Red and Opaque Beads. 

COLD. *! Oxide of Copper, when highly saturated, or with Tin on Ch. 



{Niobic Acid, w 
blue color. 
Titanic Acid ; 



INDEX. 



ACICUL All BISMUTH, 113 
Acid?, volatile, tests for, IS 
Acmite, 121 
Aeschynite, 140 
Agalmatolite, 132 
Aikinite, 113 
Albite, 129 
Allanite, 114, 121 
Allophane, 131 
Allochroite, 121 
Almandine, 122 
Altaite, 111 

Alumina, tests for, 30, 144 
Alunite, 130 
Amalgam, 81, 114 
Amalgams, test for, 20, 22 
Amblygonite, 124 
Ammonia, test for, 19, 33 

" salts of, test for, 19 
Ammonia-alum, 124 
Analcime, 126 
Anatase, 139 
Andalusite, 132 
Anglarite, 120 
Anglesite, 76, 117 
Anhydrite, 123 
Annabergite, 83, 119 
Anthophyllite, 139 
Anthracite, 90 
Antigorite, 137 
An timonial copper, 112 

" silver, 84 

Antimonous acid, tests for, 19, 148 



Antimony, metallic, tests for, 21, 

22, 27 

" test for, when in combi- 

nation, 33 
" ores of, 56 

" sulphides of, test for, 20 

" " " when 

in combination, 34 
Apatite, 124, 135 
Apophyllite, 126 
Apparatus, list of, 14, 16 
Ai'aeoxene, 117 
Arfvedsonite, 121 
Argentiferous sulphide of copper, 

87 

Arkansite, 115 
Arragonite, 133 
Arsenates, test for, 27 
Arsenic, metallic, testi for, 19, 20, 

22, 26 

" ores of, 58 
" sulphides of, test for, 20 
" test for, when in combina- 
tion, 34 
" test for, in arsenates and 

arsenites, 35 
Arsenical pyrites, 71, 110 

" copper, 65 
Arseniosiderite, 119 
Arsenolite, 58, 116 
Arsenous acid, tests for, 19, 35, 148 
Asphaltum, 91 
Atacamite, 65, 118 



15 



170 



Augite, 129 
Axinite, 129 
Azurite, 66, 119 

BARIUM, salts of, test for, 26 

Baryta, tests for, 144 

Barytes, 123 

Barytocalcite, 134 

Berthierite, 57, 112 

Beryl, 141 

Berzelianite, 111 

Beudantite, 119 

Biotite, 138 

Bituminous coal, 90 

Bismuth, metallic, tests for, 21, 23 
" oxide of, change by heat, 

21 

" " tests for, 148 

" test for, when in combina- 
tion, 36 

Bismuth ochre, 60 

Bismuthine, 60 

Bismutite, 59, 122 

Black manganese, 79 

Blende, 88, 115, 133, 134 

Blowpipe lamp, 13 

Blue malachite, 66 

Bog manganese. 79 

Boltonite, 138 

Bone-ash, 16 

Boracic acid, as reagent, 15 
tests for, 26, 36 

Boracite, 124 

Borax, 123 

" as reagent, 15 

Botryogen, 120 

Boulangerite, 75, 112 

Bournonite, 74, 111 

Braunite, 79, 115 

Breithauptite, 112 

Breunnerite, 134 

Brewsterite, 127 

Brittle silver ore, 86 

Brochantite, 118 

Bromine, test for, 37 

Bromic silver, 85 

Bromyrite, 85 



Bronzite, 139 
Brookite, 139 
Brown coal, 90 
Brown hematite, 
Brucite, 133 



70 



CACOXENE, 120 

Cadmium, metallic, test for, 23 

test for small quantities 

of, 37 

" alloys of, test for, 20 
" oxide of, tests for, 148 

Calamine, 89, 130, 133 

Calcination of assays, 27 

Calcite, 133 

Calcium, salts of, test for, 26 

Calomel, 81, 116 

Capillary pyrites, 83 

Carbonic acid, test for, 19 

Carpholite, 128 

Cassiterite, 87, 139 

Celestine, 123 

Cerasine, 75, 117 

Cerite, 136 

Cerium, oxide of, tests for, 150 

Cerusite, 75, 117 

Chabazite, 127 

Chalcolite, 119 

Chalcophyllite, 118 

Chalcopyrite, 63 

Chalybite, 72, 134 

Childrenite, 135, 140 

Chiolite, 124 

Chloantite, 110 

Chlorine, test for, 37 

Chlorite, 137, 138 

Chloropal, 136 

Chloro-bromide of silver, 84 

Chondrodite, 138 

Chonikrite, 126 

Chrome ochre, 135 

Chromic iron, 60, 115 

Chromium, ores of, 60 

" oxide of, tests for, 38, 

150 

Chrysoberyl, 132 

Chrysocolla, 68, 136 



171 



Chrysolite, 138 
Chrysotile, 136 
Cimolite, 131 
Cinnabar, 81, 113, 116 

" test for, 20 
Clausthalite, 110 
Clintonite, 131, 137 
Cobalt, test for, in arsenides, 38 
" in sulphides, 39 
" when in combina- 
tion with metals, 
43 

" nitrate of, as reagent, 15 

" oxide of, tests for, 150 

" ores of, 61 
Cobalt bloom, 62 
Cobalt pyrites, 61 
Cobaltine, 61, 110 
Collyrite, 131 
Columbite, 115 
Common coal, 90 
Common salt, 123 
Copiapite, 120 
Copper, test for, in sulphides, 40 

" " when in combina- 

tion with other 
metals, 39, 40 

" " when in combina- 

tion with tin, 52 

" ores of, 63 

" oxide of, tests for, 150 

" " as reagent, 16 

" salts of, tests for, 26, 27, 

41 
Copper glance, 64, 113 

" nickel, 81, 110 

" pyrites, 63, 113 

" vitriol, 66 
Copperas, 72 
Coqmmbite 3 120 
Corneous lead, 75 
Corundum, 132 
Covelline, 118 
Grocidolite, 121 
Crocoisite, 77, 117 
Cronstedtite, 121 
Cryolite, 123 



Cuban, 113 

Cupellation, process of, 50 
Cuproplumbite, 113 
Cyanogen, test for, 19 
Cyanosite, 66, 118 

DATHOLITE, 124 
Dark red silver ore, 85 
Deweylite, 127 
Diallage, 128 
Diallogite, 80, 134 
Diamond, 141 
Diaspore, 131 
Dioptase, 136 
Diopside, 129 
Discrasite, 84, 112 
Disterrite, 132 
Dolomite, 134 
Domeykite, 65, 110 
Dufrenite, 120 
Dufrenoysite, 75, 110 

EARTHY COBALT, 62, 135 

Ehlite, 119 

Electrum, 110 

Embolite, 84 

Emerald nickel, 83, 134 

Epidote, 128, 129 

Epsomite, 122 

Erinite, 118 

Erubescite, 63 

Erythrine, 62, 119 

Eucairite, 111 

Euchroite, 118 

Euclase, 141 

Eudialite, 125 

Eukolite, 126 

Eulytine, 122 

Euphyllite, 128 

Examination in a closed glass tube, 

18 
in an open glass tube, 

21 

" on charcoal, 22 

" in the forceps, 24 

" with borax and salt of 

phosphorus, 27 



172 



Examination with carbonate of soda, 

28 

" with solution of cobalt, 

30 

FISCHERITE, 131 
Flaming, process of, 28 
Fluocerite, 136 
Fluor, 123 

Fluor spar, as reagent, 15 
Fluorine, tests for, 41 
Fossil fuel, 90 
Franklinite, 80, 115 
Fusibility, scale of, 107 

GADOLINITE, 137 
Gahnite, 141 
Galena, 74, 113 
Gay-Lussite, 123 
Gehlenite, 137 
Geocronite, 75, 112 
Gersdorffite, 82, 110 
Gibbsite, 130 
Glaserite, 122 
Glauberite, 123 
Glauber salt, 122 
Glucina, tests for, 146 
Gold, test for, when in combina- 
tion, 42 

" ores of, 68 

" oxide of, tests for, 152 
Goslarite, 124, 133 
Goethite, 134 
Graphic tellurium, 69 
Graphite, 115 
Gray antimony, 56 

" copper, 64 

" ore of manganese, 79 
Green earth, 121 

" vitriol, 72, 120 
Greenockite, 134 
Grunauite, 113 
Gypsum, 123 

HALLOYSITE, 131 
Hardness, scale of, 56 
Harmotome, 129 



Hauerite, 113, 124 
Hausmannite, 79, 115 
Hauyne, 125 
Hedenbergite, 121 
Hedyphane, 117 
Kelvin, 125 

Hematite, 70, 114, 115, 120, 134 
Heteromorphite, 75 
Hessite, 111 
Hisingerite, 121, 136 
Horn quicksilver, 81 
Horn silver, 84, 116 
Hornblende, 121, 129 
Hureaulite, 120 
Hydroboracite, 124 
Hydromagnesite, 133 
Hypersthene, 139 

IDOCRASE, 130 
Ilmenite, 72 
lodic silver, 85 
Iodine, test for, 43 
lodirite, 85, 116 
lolite, 140 
Iridium, ores of, 68 

' ' oxide of, tests for, 152 
Iridosmine, 69, 115 
Iron, metallic, as reagent, 16 

test for, when in combination, 

43, 44 

" in sulphides and arse- 
nides, 44 
" oxide of, tests for, 152 

" change by heat, 21 
" ores of, 69 
Iron garnet, 122 
Iron pyrites, 70, 113 

JAMESONITE, 75, 111 

KAOLIN, 131 

Kerargyrite, 84 
Kermesite, 57 
Kilbrikenite, 112 
Kreittonite, 141 
Kyanite, 132 

LABRADORITE, 127 



173 



Lanarkite, 117 

Lapis lazuli, 125 

Laumontite, 125 

Lavendulan, 62 

Lazulite, 131 

Lead, metallic, as reagent, 16 

" tests for, 23, 27 
' ' test for, when in combination, 

44, 45 
" oxide of, change by heat, 21 

" tests for, 152 
" ores of, 73 

" phosphate of, test for, 48 
Leadhillite, 76, 117 
Lead vitriol, 76 
Lepidolite, 122, 128 
Leucite, 133, 138 
Libethenite, 119 
Lievrite, 114, 121 
Light-red silver ore. 86 
Liine, tests for, 144 
Lime-garnet, 127, 130 
Lime-chrome-garnet, 141 
Lime-iron-garnet, 121 
Limonite, 70, 113, 115, 134 
Linnajite, 61 
Linarite, 117 
Liroconite, 118 
Lithia, test for, 25 

" in silicates, 45 
Lithia-tourmaline, 132 

MAGNESIA, tests for, 30, 144 
Magnesite, 134 
Magnetic iron ore, 70 
" pyrites, 71 
Magnetite, 70, 114, 115 
Malachite, 66, 119 
Manganblende, 113, 124 
Manganese, test for, when in com- 
bination, 46 

ores of, 79 

oxide of, tests for, 154 
Manganese-garnet, 128 
Manganite, 115 
Marcasite, 71, 113 



Margarite, 128 

Marmatite, 134 

Mascagnine, 116 

Matlockite, 117 

Meerschaum, 127, 136 

Meionite, 126 

Melaconite, 118 

Melanochroite, 117 

Melinite, 126 

Mendipite, 117 

Mercury, metallic, tests for, 20, 22 
; ' chlorides of, test for, 19 
" salts of, tests for, 20, 46 
" sulphide of, tests for, 20, 

46 

" ores of, 80 
" oxide of, tests for, 154 
test for, in amalgams, 46 

Mesolite, 125 

Meteoric iron, 69 

Miargyrite, 112 

Millerite, 83, 118 

Mimetine, 117 

Minium, 73, 117 

Mispickel, 71 

Molybdenite, 115 

Molybdenum, compounds of, test 
for, 26 

Molybdic acid, tests for, 154 

Molybdine, 122 

Monazite, 135 

Monradite, 137 
Muscovite, 132, 138 
Myelin, 132 
Mysorin, 119 

NAGYAGITE, 111 
Native antimony, 111 

" arsenic, 58, 110 

" bismuth, 59, 114 

" copper, 63, 110 

" gold, 68, 110 

" iron, 110 

" lead, 110 

" mercury, 80, 110 

" palladium, 110 
platinum, 69, 110 



174 



Native silver, 83, 109 

" sulphur, 116 

" tellurium, 111 
Natrolite, 125 
Natron, 122 
Naumannite, 111 
Neolite, 137 
Nepheline, 126 
Nickel, nitrate of, as reagent, 15 

" test for, when in combina- 
tion, 46 

" ores of, 81 

" oxide of, tests for, 154 
Nickel glance, 82 
Nickel green, 83 
Nickeliferous gray antimony, 82 
Nitratine, 122 
Nitre, 122 

Nitric acid, test for, 47 
Nitrous acid, " 19 
Nosean, 125 

OBSIDIAN, 130 

Ochran, 131 

Okenite, 126 

Olivenite, 67, 118 

Onofrite, 110 

Opal, 140 

Orpiment, 58, 116 

Orthoclase, 129, 140 

Osmium, oxide of, tests for, 156 

Osmium-iridium, 69 

Ouvarovite, 141 

Oxygen, test for, 18 

PALLADIUM, oxide of, tests for, 

156 

Pearlstone, 130 
Pectolite, 126 
Peganite, 131 
Perofskite, 115 
Petalite, 128 
Pharmacolite, 123 
Phenacite, 141 
Philippsite, 125 
Pholerite, 131 
Phosphate of lead, 76 



Phosphocalcite, 67, 119 
Phosphoric acid, tests for, 26, 47 
Phosphorus, salt of, as reagent, 15 
Pitchblende, 116, 134 
Pitchstone, 130 
Pitticite, 119 
Plagionite, 75, 112 
Platinum, ores of, 68 

" oxide of, tests for, 156 
Plattnerite, 114 
Pleonaste, 141 
Plumbic ochre, 73 
Plumbo resinite, 77, 130 
Plumosite, 112 
Polybasite, 86, 110 
Polycrase, 135 
Polyhallite, 123 
Polytelite, 112 
Potash alum, 122 
Potassa, tests for, 25, 48 

" bisulphate of, as reagent, 
15 

" oxalate of, " 

29 
Potassium, cyanide of, " 

29 

Prehnite, 127 
Proustite, 86, 116 
Psilomelane, 79, 114, 115 
Pumice, 130 
Purple copper, 63, 113 
Pyrargyrite, 85 
Pyrochlore, 140 
Pyrolusite, 79, 115 
Pyromeline, 119 
Pyrope, 130 
Pyrophyllite, 132 
Pyrosclerite, 126 
Pyrosmalite, 121 
Pyrrhotine, 71 

QUARTZ, 140 

REAGENTS, list of, 14, 16 
llealgar, 58. 116 
Red antimony, 57, 116 
Red copper, 66, 114, 118 



175 



Red lead ore, 77 
lied zinc ore, 88 
Rhodonite, 114, 122, 128 
Ripidolite, 137, 138 
Ruby silver, 85, 116 
Rutil, 115, 139 

SAL AMMONIA, 116 

Salt of phosphorus, as reagent, 15 

Samarskite, 114 

Sassolin. 124 

Scale of fusibility, 107 

" hardness, 56 
Scapolite, 127 
Scheeletine, 117 
Scheelite, 128, 139 
Schillerspar, 136 
Scolecite, 125 
Scorodite, 73, 119 
Selbite, 116 

Selenide of mercury, 110 
Selenides, tests for, 20, 22 
Selenium, tests for, 20, 22, 23, 27, 

48 

Selenquecksilberblei, 110 
Serpentine, 137 
Silicates, behavior of, with salt of 

phosphorus, 49 
Silicic acid, tests for, 28, 49 
Silver, metallic, test for, 23 

" test for, when in combina- 
tion, 49, 50 

" chloride of, as reagent, 16 

" ores of, 83 

" oxide of, tests for, 156 
Silver glance, 85, 113 
Skopolite, 125 
Smaltine, 61, 110 
Smithsonite, 89, 133 
Soda, test for, 25 

" carbonate of, as reagent, 15 
Sodalite, 125 
Spathic iron, 72, 120 
Specular iron, 70 
Sphene, 127, 129 
Spinel, 113, 141 
Spodumene, 128 



Staurotide, 140 
Steinmannite, 112 
Stephanite, 86, 112 
Sternbergite, 113 
Stibnite, 56, 111 
Stilbite, 127 
Stromeyerite, 87, 113 
Strontia, tests for, 144 

" salts of, test for, 26 
Strontianite, 134 
Sulphides, tests for, 20, 51 

" distinction of, from sul- 
phates, 51 

Sulphur, tests for, 20, 21, 51 
Sulphuretted hydrogen, test for, 19 
Sulphurous acid, test for, 18 
Supports, 14 
Sylvanite, 69, 111 

TACHYLYTE, 127 
Tagilite, 119 
Talc, 138 
Tantalite, 115 
Tellurides, test for, 22 
Telluric bismuth, 59 
Tellurium, tests for, 20, 22, 24 

" " when in combi- 

nation, 52 
" ores of, 111 

Tellurous acid, tests for, 19, 26, 156 
Tennantite, 65, 110 
Tenorite, 118 
Tephroite, 125 
Test-paper, 16 
Tetradymite, 59, 111 
Tetrahedrite, 64, 112 
Thenardite, 122 
Thomsonite, 125 
Thorite. 136 
Tin, metallic, as reagent, 16 

" " tests for, 23, 52 

" ores of, 87 

" oxide of, change by heat, 21 

tests for, 30, 150 
Tin ore, 87 
Tin pyrites, 87, 113 
Titanic acid, tests for, 28, 158 



176 



Titanic acid, tests for, when in com- 
bination, 53 

Titaniferous iron, 72, 115 
Topaz, 132 
Tourmaline, 121, 129 
Tremolite, 129 
Triphiline, 120 
Triplite, 120 
Trona, 122 

Tungstic acid, tests for, 28, 158 
Turquois, 135 
Tyrolite, 69, 118 

TJLLMANNITE, 82, 112 

Uranite, 124 

Uranium, test for, in presence of 

iron, 53 
" oxide of, tests for, 158 

VALENTINITE, 116 
Vanadic acid, tests for, 158 
Vanadinite, 118 
Vauquelinite, 78, 118 
Vivianite, 73, 120 

WAD, 79, 135 

Wagnerite, 124 

Water of crystallization and hydra- 

tion, tests for, 18 
Wavellite, 130 
Websterite. 130 
White arsenic, 58 

<; iron pyrites, 71 



White lead ore, 75 
Whitherite, 123 
Willemite, 131, 133 
Wittichite, 113 
Wrchlerite, 127 
Wolfram, 114 
Wolframite, 139 
Wolfsbergite, 112 
Wollastonite, 125 
Wulfenite, 78, 117 

XANTHOCONE, 116 
Xenotime, 140 
Xylotile, 121, 136 

YELLOW LEAD ORE, 78 
Yttria, tests for, 146 
Yttro-cerite, 134 
Yttro-tantalite, 115 

ZINC, metallic, test for, 23 

" test for, when in combina- 
tion, 54 
" ores of, 88 

" oxide of, change by heat, 20 
" " tests for, 30, 160 

Zinc bloom, 133 

Zincite, 88, 135 

Zinkenite, 75, 111 

Zippeite, 135 

Zircon,,. 141 

Zirconia, 'tests for, 1-1 G 

Zoisite, 129 



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