Skip to main content

Full text of "Manual of Classical Literature: From the German of J.J. Eschenburg ... With ..."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 

»ll^™ \ 

kF ?io(t>i 









tottl) aiibUiona. 





















Entered according to act of Congreafi, in the year 1843, by Edward C. Biddle, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of PennsylTania. 

Printed by T. K. ft P. O. Ck>llins. 



It will be natural to ask, why this hook is offered to the puhlic. 
The translator knows not how to introduce the reasons, in a better 
way, than by first allowing the author himself to explain the design 
and character of the original work. For this purpose, the reader 
is requested to peruse the following extracts. from the /*rc/acc« o/* 


From the Preface to the Fifth Edition, — Twenty-eevcn yean ago, I was indaced 
to eommence a reTiuion and enlargement of that portion of Hbdbbick'b Introduction 
to the Historical Sciences which treats of Classical Literature, Mythology, and Ro- 
man Antiquities. In doing this I expected to aid an esteemed friend, who had been 
requested by the booksellers to prepare an improved edition of the whole work. But 
what determined me to the attempt, was a conviction that it was undertaking a work 
of very useful tendency, and a hope that by it a want, long felt in elementary instruc- 
tion, might be supplied. Other duties hindered the seafK>nable accomplishment of 
this purpose, and I was led to enlarge the original plan, so as to include the Grecian 
Antiquities, and what is embraced under the head of Archeology of Literature and 
Art. Thus it formed a complete Manwdy furnishing the most essential aids in read- 
ing the classical authors, and with sufficient fullness for all elementary purposes 
My work so designed has, thereforo, now scarcely a trace in it of the treatise of 

My aim, in this work, was to furnish both Learners and Teachers with a book 
which might at the same time serve as a general introduction to the reading of classi- 
cal authors, and likewise afford further and constant help in understanding and ex- 
plaining them. It surely is un necessary to prove that a knowledge of Greek and 
Roman Mythology and Antiquities, and some acquaintance with the Archieology 
of Literature and Art, and also with the general History and Criticism of the An 
dent Authors, are not only useful, but absolutely indispensable, in the pursuit of 
classieal study. And it appears to me, that it must greatly facilitate the acquisition 
of this knowledge to have the whole range of it brought into one collected system, 
as it is in this work, and all digested with one common end in view, and reduced as 
fer as possible to one uniform method, with a careful selection of what is most essen- 
tial, and omission of what is comparatively unimportant, and a constant reference 
to its appropriate use. The Teacher will find presented to him throughout the work 
occasions and hints for further illustrations and additions ; while the Learner has in 
the book itself what u of indispensable importance, and in such a form that he may 
easily re-peruse and review it. 

The Archaeohgy of Literature and Art had never, previously to the attempt in 
tfaifl work, been exhibited in a form adapted for general instruction. Yet some such 
acquaintance with the subject as this work may furnish is of the highest importance 
to the scholar. It may be expected that the glance which he will here obtain of the 
rich monuments of antiquity, will lead Iiim to seek the pleasure of a more complete 
and fall knowledge, especially of Grecian art And certainly the classical teacher 
needs to be in some degree fiuniliar with the objects presented in this field of study, 
in order to do justice to his pupils. — The View of the Classieal Authors was neces- 
sarily confined within brief limits. I preferred to arrange them in Departments, in- 
ttead of following purely chronological order, because I could thereby more conve- 


niently introduce the brief remarks I wished to ofier respecting the form which each 
department of writing assumed among the Greeks and Romans. In giving the edi- 
tions of the classics, and the works helping to illustrate them, I confined myself 
chiefly to such as are most suitable for scholars, and best calculated in my view for 
their advancement. In describing the authors, only a short and condensed summary 
could be given, not including a complete enumeration of their works, hut merely 
naming the most important — The sketch of Greek and Roman Mythology is that 
which I first drew up for use in my own lectures, and which has been separately 
printed. Here I have endeavored to separate the circumstances most important 
for the scholar's notice from those of minor consequence ; introducing the historical 
or traditional part of the fables, without saying much of the theories and speculations 
employed in solving them ; yet presenting hints at explanations worthy of the scho- 
lar's notice. The references to the Metamorphoses of Ovid are added, because \ 
deem it highly useful to connect a reading of these with the study of Mythology.-— 
A new system of Greek and Roman Antiquities might seem, at first view, leas 
needed than the other parts of this work, since there are other systems and compends 
easily accessilile, especially of Roman Antiquities. But it was necessary to the com- 
pleteness of the Manual to include these branches. Nor was this all. I hoped 
here, as in the rest of my work, to furnish something especially valuable on account 
of its embracing all that is most essential to the subject, with the exclusion of ex- 
traneous and unimportant matter. 

Since the last edition of this Manual, there have appeared some performances of a 
similar kind, in which I thankfully find evidence of the utility of my own work, and 
am ready to acknowledge their excellence in some particulars. These works might 
render a new impression of mine superfluous ; but the very frequent call for the 
Manual, the urgent request of the booksellers, and the apprehension of a second 
counterfeit emission of the work, have persuaded me to prepare this fiflh edition. In 
the emendations and improvements, I have been guided by the same considerations 
which controlled me in the preceding editions. In the additions in the part treating 
of the classic authors, I have received very friendly assistance from Professor Schei- 
VLRR, of this place. 

From the Prefau to the Sixth Edition. — In a former preface, the occasion, de- 
sign, and plan of this Manual have been stated. In each successive edition I hsTe 
endeavored to make useful improvements; but have throughout adhered to the 
original design, and confined myself, of course, to substantially the same limits. Al- 
though much progress has been made in classical studies in Germany during the last 
thirty years, and there are now several books of great merit which may serve as 
guides and introductions to such studies, yet the demand for another impression of 
this Manual has compelled me again to take it in hand, and to perform the renewed 
labor of revision. In this labor I must again gratefully mention the assistance kindly 
rendered me by Proftaso? Scheftleh. 

The sixth edition was the last published during the life of the author. But the 
work has been printed once or twice since his death. The following is taken from 
the Remarks prefixed to the seventh edition (Berlin, Nov. 1, 1824).— The con- 
tinued acknowledgment of the great excellence of this Manual of Classical Litera- 
ture, which is proved by the constant demand for the book, renders it unnecessary to 
say much by way of preface to a new edition. After the death »>f Eschenburg, the 
society of booksellers employed a well qualified editor, who has revised the work, and 
superintended it with great care and fidelity. An examination will show that, in 
doing this, advantage has been taken of the important results of modern classical 
researches. It is, therefore, confidently believed that this work will still be found one 
of the most useful of the kind ; perhaps the very best manual, both for the Gymnaaia 
and other Seminaries, and also for private use. 

In view of this account of the character, design, and reputation of 
the original work, it is easy to see the reasons why it should be pre- 
sented to the scholars of our country. Many instructors have felt 
the want of a Comprehensive Text-book in the department of Clas- 
ncal Literature and Antiquities. After much inquires the trans- 


lator has been able to find no work, which, on the whole, seemed so 
well adapted for the object as Eschenburg^s Manual. 

It will be seen, by a mere glance, that the general design and 
plan of the work, in its present form, is to exhibit in a condensed 
but comprehensive summary, what is most essential on all promi- 
nent topics belonging to the department of Classical Literature and 
Ajitiquities, and at the same time give references to various sources 
of information, to which the scholar may go when he wishes to pur- 
sue any of the subjects by further investigations. I cannot doubt 
that a Manual on this plan, thoroughly executed, would prove one 
of the greatest aids to the classical student which it is possible to put 
into his hands ; and I cherish the hope that, in the entire want of a 
book of this sort, not only in our country, but also in the English 
language hitherto, the present attempt to introduce one from abroad 
will meet with a candid reception ; especially as it is one whose 
value has been so fully attested in the land most of all celebrated 
for classical attainments. 

Here it may be proper to mention, that some years since this work was translated 
into the French. The translator, after some preliminary remarks, says, " from such 
eoQsiderations, I sapposed I should render the public a service, by mailing known in 
France a series of elementary works univeraaUy esteemed and circukUed in Ger^ 
numy. I begin with the Manual of Classical Literature, hy Escbehbvro. This 
author is Councillor in the Court of the Duke of Brunswick, and Professor in the 
public seminary called the Carolinum, As estimable for his moral character as for 
the variety of his attainments, known as editor of the posthumous writings of Le»- 
ang, and dear to all the celebrated men of the country ; living also in the vicinity 
of one of the richest libraries ; he united, along with these advantages, all the light 
and experience derived from a long series of years devoted to instruction, and that 
good judgment, admirable but rare, which knows how to avoid the superfluous with- 
out omitting the necessary and the useful. I shall not attempt an encomium on the 
book, of which I here offer a translation ; it is sufficient to refer to the public suffrage 
and decision, by which this Manual has been adopted as the basis of public and pri- 
vate inatroction in a major part of the universities and colleges in Germany." — Sub- 
sequently U> the time of this translation, in a report made to the French Institute 
icspecting the literary labors of the Germans, by Charles Villers, the distinguished 
antbor of the Essay on the Reformation of Luther, the Manual of Eschenburg was 
noticed as a valuable gift to the world. 

I fiwi at liberty also to state, as evincing the value of this work in the estimation 
of competent judges, that the present translation was commenced with the warm ap 
probation and encouragement of Prof Stxtaiit, of Andover, and Prof RoBiirsoir, 
now of Boston. In fact, under the advice of these eminent scholars, Mr. Isaac Stu 
art. Professor of Languages in the University of S. Carolina, had made prepara- 
tions for translating the same work, and wholly without my knowledge, but had been 
compelled to renounce the design just before I consulted their views of the utility and 
expediency of my attempt It is likewise worthy of notice here, that, from a con- 
viction of the great value of €le Manual, and of its fitness to be useful in our country, 
it bad actually been translated, before I entered upon the work, by Mr. Crusi, whose 
translation of the part pertaining to Roman Authors is introduced into the present 

No more needs to be said respecting the desifn and merits of the 

origina] work, and its claims to be introduced to the knowledge of 

• blteSnladllini{ m ito oote oo pi^ a. 


American scholars. But something more may be desired respecting 
the author himself. This desire I am able to gratify, through the 
friendship of Prof . Robinson, whose repeated advice and assistance 
in the present work I here gratefully acknowledge, and who has fur- 
nished the following brief notice of Eschenburg. 

<* The name of Eachenburg stands high in Germany, as one of their best writera 
on taste and the theory of the fine arts, including fine writing. The article [below] 
is condensed in the Encyclopaedia Americana ; but I have preferred to translate the 
original [from the CanveraatiotU'Lexicon] as being more full. 

** John Joachim Eschenburg, Professor in the Carolinum at Brunswick, was bom 
1743 at Hamburg, and died at Brunswick, 1820. This distinguished scholar and 
writer received his earliest education in the Johanneum at Hamburg ; afterwards in 
Leipzig, where Emesti, Gellert^ Moms, and Clodius were bis instructors; then under 
Heyne and Michulis in Gottingen. He then came, through the agency of Jerusalem, 
as a private tutor, to Brunswick ; where he afterwards received the Professorship in 
the Carolinum, vacated by the death of the poet Zacharia. This post he held during 
his life. To him Germany is indebted for a nearer acquaintance with many good 
English writers in the department of Esthetics ; e. g. Brown, Webb, Burney, and 
Kurd, whom he translated and in part accompanied with notes and additions. He 
published, moreover, at diifierent times, in journals and magazines, accounts of the 
most remarkable appearances in English Literature, by means of which a love and 
taste for the literary treasures of that island and people were greatly promoted among 
the Germans. His greatest desert, however, lies in his translation of Bhakspeare. 
(Zurich, 1775-87, 14 vols.; 1799-1806, 12 vols.) Although not the first in this 
great undertaking, since Wieland had already begun a similar, yet be has long had 
the merit of being the most complete ; even though so many excellent translations 
of the great tragic writer have been since begun. Indeed his version of the collected 
works of this poet is to this moment sought afler, although not possessing the charm 
of meter nor the literal fidelity which others exhibit In making his translation, 
moreover, by means of his literary and social connections, he enjoyed many advan- 
tages which another would with difficulty possess in an equal degree ; and his own 
private library contained, so long ago as 1807, more than 400 volumes in reference 
to Shakspeare, exclusive of engravings, &c Another g^at benefit conferred on the 
public by Eschenburg, was the publication of his Lectures in the Carolinum, his 
Theorie und Literalur der achOnen Wissenschafien, his Lehrbuch der WiaaenachafU' 
kundCf and his Handbuch der Claasiachen Literatur; of the last work a seventh 
edition was published in 1825. In social intercourse, Eschenburg was exceedingly 
amiable, and, notwithstanding his occasional satirical remarks, generally beloved. 
Three years before his death he celebrated his oflficial jubilee, or 50th anniversary. 
He was also Senior of the Cyriacuft-foundation, and a knight of the Guelphic order. 
—In the sixth Supplementary Volume of Jordkh's Lexicon deutscher Diehter und 
Prosautten, there is a minute catalogue of his works, both original and translated, 
and also of his editions of other authors of former or recent times." 

It remains for the translator to speak briefly of the principles and 

method by which he has attempted to execute his task, in preparing 

the work in its present form ; and the following remarks contain all 

that it seems important for him to say on this point. For the rest, 

those who use the book must judge. 

As to the translation itself, my aim has been throughout to express the author's 
meaning with strict fidelity ; but in doing this I have endeavored to avoid the long 
periods and involved arrangement of words and clauses, for which the German Ian* 
guage is of known celebrity ; I have almost uniformly employed shorter sentences, 
and have sometimes departed very much from the phraseology of the original. The 
alterations are not many; in some instances I have omitted a clause or sentence, 
and in a few a whole section or paiagraph, without any notice to the reader; in a 


few eases, also, I haTe altered the arrangement of the sections. Otherwise, wherever 
I haTB not presented the author entire and nnaltered, a distinct intimation of some 
change by the translator is given to the reader, by one of the marks which will be 
explained below. — The additions are very considerable ; and, whatever may be their 
pertinency or their value, they certainly have cost some labor. In making them, I 
have endeavored to keep constantly in mind the grand design of the work, and to 
lender it more complete in the respects which, as has been before remarked, consti- 
tate its peculiarity, distinguishing it from every other work on these subjects in our 
Janguage. The additions may generally be distinguished from the original, either 
by the size of the type or by particular marks, as will be described under the Explor- 
nations on page x. It will be seen that large additions have been made in the portion 
relating to the Greek Literature and Authors f it was my intention to make similar 
additions to the View of the Roman Authors^ but the design yvas renounced for the 
reasons stated in the Advertisement on page 290.* I regretted, on receiving Mr. , 
Crusts Translation, to find that it did not include the notices of editions and illu^ 
trative works mentioned by Eschenburg ; and should the present effort meet with 
approbtttion, it is my purpose to prepare for separate publication something more 
complete on the Roman Literature. I flatter myself that the condensed view of the 
aacrcd writings and the writings of the early Christians, as found in the Greek lan- 
guage, will be considered a useful addition. — The whole of the part treating of Clas 
steal Geography and Chronology is also added by the translator, as explained on 
page 572 rf" only it ought to be further remarked, that a few paragraphs pertaining 
to the remains of Athens and Rome, placed under Antiquities by Eschenburg, and 
omitted in the translation, are introduced, with alteratbns, in this part under the 
Topography of those cities. 

The work is now ofiered as an humble contribution to the service 
of the public, and commended to the candid examination of the 
scholar ; in the hope that, under the blessing of Him in whom is the 
fountain of all wisdom and knowledge, it may prove an auxiliary 
of some value in the cause of liberal and good education. 

Amherst College, April 12, 1836. 

* TUb refen to puge S90 of tiM inl oditlon. Tlw idnrfiiBiiMnt then ^?ea wat, la wtibiHaam, that the pment tnialalor, whan 
b wotfe «« hr adnaeed in iba priotiog, flDtand inlo an amaKraMot wirh Rar. C T. Orvai^ to oooMqaaac* of a aodco tbao 
neamt rnn lb* blt«r, that ho iiad alrewly traariated Um wbela of EadwDbarf, with the praviooalj anooaDcad daaign oT pnblid*- 
kif ft. Bf thkanufsaMDt it waa ea«i«ad that Mr. Cmaft tnnalation riioald be oaad to ttao put of the work which trcala of tha 
knaa Aiikhan ; wftb rbe oadentaodiag ihat, if a aaw editioa tlioald be deounded, the preieat tnadater niKht omit or Ktala iV 
aeaavdioB to Ua ova cboieeu Mr. C.V tramlation Is bow oolirely dropped ; lea the Prtfoat to the Third EditUm^ oa pega zl. 

t Tie cspbaaika (here rafiBrred to aa oa page 673 of the tint editioa) waa alaiply aa adtaowledgBieBt that the EfOeim if 
Ctarieal aeograpk^ eoatained la Part Pint of thii Mannal, ia chiefly drawn from aa EagUih traetiae, bearli« the aasM title, a* 
W C. Ibfbr; with ^ouiderable ehaafe h the diviaiaBB and arraaceBwitf, aad with moie (Ul daacriptfaaa at aadant Boaaj 



The following statement will enable the reader to know in general what is from 
the author and what from the translator. A star annexed to the number of a section 
always indicates that the section is added by the translator. The Italic letter t always 
denotes that the section or paragraph to whose number it may be annexed is altered 
so as to differ more or less from the original. All the matter in the largest of the 
four sizes of type is translated directly from Eschenburg, excepting such sections as 
may have one or the other of those marks. All the matter in the smaller tyjpe is added 
by the translator, with the following exceptions: (1) sections or paragraphs having 
the Italic letter u annexed to their number, which are all translated from Gschen- 
burg; (2) the Jirst paragraphs of the several sections on the individual Roman 
authors, which are also translated from Eschenburg, unless their number is accom- 
panied by a star or the letter t, as above described ; and (3) part of the mere re- 
ferences to books and authors, a majority perhaps of which are taken from him. As 
to these references, it did not seem of much consequence to discriminate carefully 
between those given by the author and those introduced by the translator; if any one 
should find some of them irrelevant or unimportant, he may safely charge such upon 
the translator rather than Eschenburg; if any inquire why the numerous references 
to Grerman works are retained, a sufficient reason is furnished by the fact, that it is 
becoming more and more common to import such works into this country, and more 
and more important for our scholars to be acquainted with the German language ; 
and if any deem it superfluous to have given so many references, let such consider, 
that the same books are not accessible to all students, and an increased number of re- 
ferences must increase the probability of presenting some to books within the reach 
of eveiy reader; and it should be home in mind, also, that some references are given 
chiefly as bibliographical statistics, which is the case especially with respect to some 
of the editions of Greek and Roman classics : moreover, some of the references, it was 
supposed, might be of special service in studies pursued aAer the completion of the 
academic and collegiate course; since the work is designed to be useful to the student 
not only during that course, but also in his subsequent life.* 

In using this book, the student will find that he is frequently referred from one 
place to another ; and the division into Pahts, sections, and sub-sections, all sepft- 
rately numbered, makes the reference very easy; thus, e. g. the abbreviations cf, P. II], 
§ 182. 4. direct the reader to the paragraph numbered 4, under section 182, in Part 
III. Instead of the word see, or the abbreviation v. (for the Latin vide), the abbre- 
viation ef, (for the Latin confer) is commonly used. In order to facilitate the turn- 
ing to any passage, the number of the Part is continued as a sort of running title 
on the top of the even or right-hand page ; in following the reference above given, 
e. g. the reader will first turn to Part III., denoted by P. Ill/ seen at the top of the 
right-hand page-; then, under that Part, will look for § 182 ; then, under that sec- 
tion, look for the paragraph numbered 4. Whenever the section to which a reference 
is made belongs to the same Part with the section in which the reference is made, 
the abbreviation for the Part is omitted ; thus, e. g. the abbreviation ef, ^ 3, occurs 
on p. 40 in § 136 of Part I., and it directs the student to § 3 of the same Part I. In 
some instances, a subsection is itself divided ; thus, cf P. V, § 297. f. (c), directs to 
the paragraph marked (c), under the subsection 4. in § 297, of P. V. The references 
made to the Plates need no explanation, except the remark that the abbreviation Sup, 
always indicates one of the Supplemental Plates, contained in a separate volume, 
which the purchaser of the Manual may obtain if he chooses. 

A copious Index was essential to accomplish the design of this book ; and in order 
to secure greater copiousness, and at the same time give the student the advantage 
of a very obvious and useful classification, four distinct Indexes are furnished at the 
close of the work: an Index of Greek Words,- an Index of Latin Words,- a Ga>- 
graphieal Index; and a General Index; besides which the Contents (in a systema- 
tic view prefixed to the body of the work) are exhibited so fully, that the inquirer 
may easily ascertain in what section any topic is noticed. When one seeks informa- 
tion on a particular point fi^m this volume, he is requested not to conclude that it 
contains nothing on the subject, until he has carefiilly examined the Indexes, the 
Statement of Contents, and the Description of Plates. 

• ••WlMDnwitli|MTdiMadbyaitadwt,hedMMildrtfiiin{lafOM(tf<teteofaqfJUt^^ Thnm(bUtetemsy 

■MfeaitsnoitVMraleoBiiaaiaBorhiiUmfylailfaalreemUank" (FrMi a BodM flTiht w«»k b ik« iVbrtt ^teir. Jbaino.) 




When the second edition of this Manual was issued, it was ex- 
pected that a more full view of Roman Literature than the work 
then contained would be prepared for separate publication by the 
author. Circumstances, which it is unnecessary here to specify, 
delayed the execution of the plan until the last summer, when the 
publisher of the Manual requested an immediate preparation of a 
third edition. The design of a separate publication was then re- 
nounced, from a conviction that the convenience and advantage of 
the student would be better served by incorporating the whole into 
one work. The present edition, accordingly, contains a new trans- 
lation of that part of Eschenburg which relates to the Roman Au- 
thors, with large additions. 

Besides this essential improvement, a considerable quantity of new 
matter is also introduced in other portions. The value of the work 
is, moreover, augmented by the insertion of numerous illustrations. 
These are carefully combined in Plates to avoid the loss of room 
occasioned by scattering single cuts separately over the pages ; and 
the whole printing is executed in a very compact style ; so that, 
notwithstanding all the additions and the accession of several hun- 
dred cuts, the sensible bulk of the volume is scarcely increased. 

The author would here make a general acknowledgment to those 
friends who have favored him with remarks and notes. With spe- 
cial gratitude he mentions the very valuable assistance received 
from Prof, Sbars, of the Newton Theological Seminary, who freely 
furnished critical remarks, corrections, and additions, for the whole 
of the part on the Archxology of Literature and Art^ and also the 
History of Greek Literature $ to his generous attentions much of the 
improvement in these portions of the work is entirely due. 

The work of Eschenburg still enjoys high estimation in Germany, 
as is evinced by the fact that a new edition has very recently been 
published at Berlin. It is believed that the American Translation 
is not rendered less truly valuable by the large amount of various 
matter which it now contains in addition to the original. 

Ajohent College, September, 1889. 



StKCE the publication of the third edition, the American Translation 
of Eschenbnrg's Manual of Classical Literature has been introduced 
into some of our most distinguished colleges and literary institutions ; 
this circumstance, while it has ajQTorded encouragement under the 
toil of revising the sheets for a new edition, has added much to the 
author's regret that paramount engagements and duties would not 
allow him to accomplish more towards perfecting the work. Some 
important improvements, however, have been made; respecting 
which it IB unnecessary here to speak. Among the valuable recent 
publications, from which help has been derived, the Dictionary of 
Antiquities^ by W, Smithy ought to be specified. In the order of 
the Five Parts, of which the Manual consists, there is a considerable 
change ; for this a sufficient reason will be seen at once in the obvious 
propriety of the present arrangement. 

The additional illustrations by cuts, and especially by the engrav- 
ings on copper, and the several tabular constructions, now first 
inserted, will be found to enhance greatly the value of the work. 
References are given also to engravings contained in a volume of 
Supplemental Plates, which, it is believed, the purchaser will never 
regret having taken with the Manual. 

The author must not omit to acknowledge his increased obligations 
to friends who have kindly furnished corrections and hints respecting 
improvements ; especially to Prof. B. Sears and Prof. B. B. Ed- 
wards: from whose eminent scholarship and earnest labors in 
classical and sacred literature, the public, already enjoying much, 
may expect to realize still more and richer fruit. Perhaps the author 
will be pardoned for taking this occasion also to make a respectful 
request for suggestions from any who may think the book worthy 
of their least contribution to its utility. 

The work is now again offered for the service of scholars, and 
committed to the blessing of Him to whom belong the treasures of 
science and the fullness of the earth ; may it hold some humble 
place among the means of advancing classical learning, and of pro 
moting thereby the knowledge of God and of Jesus Christ, " whom 
to know is eternal lifeJ*^ 

Amherst College, July, 1843. 




KprroME or olassical oioobapht. 
Inirodueiwn, p. 3, 4. 

%^ 1-5. =s ^ 1-3 Portion of earth known 
to ancieDta. ^ 4, 5 Ancient divisiona. 
I. Of Europe, p. 4-43. 

H 6-148. «s^ 6. 7 Extent and bounda- 
liea. ^ 8 General Bubdiviaions. $ 9-15 
Nmikem amnlries of Europe ; Scandina- 
via, Cimbrica, Sarmatia, Germania, &c. 
i 16-26 Middle countries of Europe : Gal- 
lia, Rbstia, Noricum, Pannonia, Illyri- 
com, Mcesia, Dacia. ^ 27-129 StnUkem 
emintries of Europe. ^ 29-31 Hiapania. 
♦ 32-50 Italia. * 51-71 Topograpkif of 
Rome. % 5\, 52 Gates and roads. % 53 
Bridges and hills. % 54 Districts. Re- 
ferences to writers on the topography of 
the city. ^55Campi. ^56 Streets. ^57 
Fora. ^ 58-60 Temples and groves. 
^61-63 Curiae, basilics, circuses ; theatres, 
&c. $ 64 Baihs. % 65-67 Schools, por- 
ticos, oolumns, trophies, ^c. % 68 Aque- 
ducts. Sewers. \ 69 Monuments to the 
dead. ^ 70 Dwellings. ^ 71 Villas. Sub- 
urbs. ^ 72-75 Thracia. ^ 76 Four na- 
tural divisions of Gnecia. ^ 77-81 Mace- 
donia. ^ 82-65 Thessalia. $ 86-88 Epirus. 
% 89-103 Hellas. % 104-116 Topography 
^Athens. ^ 104, 105 Its situation. ^ 106 
The Acropolis. ^ 107 Parthenon and 
other buildings of the citadel. ^ 108-110 
The lower city and its temples. ^111 
Porches. Odea, Ceramicus. ^ 112, 113 
Forums. Aqueducts. Stadium. ^ 114 
Aieopagas. Pnyt ^ 115 Theatres. Cho- 
lagic monuments. ^116 Harbors. Re- 
ferencea to writers on the topography of 
Athens. ^ 117-125 Peloponnesus. ^ 126- 
129 Topography of Sparta, % 126 Form 
and situation. ^ 127 Forum. % 128 Co- 
lumns and statues. % 129 Hippodrome. 
Harbor. References to writers. ^130-148 
European hlands. ^ 130-136 Britannia 
and adjoining islands. ^137 Balearicfe. 
Conica and Sardinia. ^ 138-140 Sicilia. 
♦ 141, 142 loman islands. ^ 143-148 
iEgean islands. 

II. Of Asu, p. 43-53. 

W 149-172. = ^ 149, 150 Extent and 
general division of Asia. ^ 151-155 Coun- 
tries of the Eantem dimsion. Scythia, 
S'mse. India, Persia, Media, Parthia. 
% 156-171 Countries of the Western dm- 
nmu % 156 Sannatia, Colchis, Albania, 

Iberia. ^ 157 Armenia. ^ 158-165 Asia 
Minor. ^ 166 Syria. Phoenicia. ^ 167-169 
PalsBstina. i 168 b. Topography of Jeru- 
salem. ^ 170 Mesopotamia, Babylonia 
and Assvria. ^ 171 Arabia. ^ 172 Asia- 
tic islands. . 

in. Of Africa, p. 53-57. 
^^ 173-183. Bs ^ 173 Extent and divisions 
of Africa. ^ 174-176 Egypt. $ 177 An- 
cient ruins and remains of E^ypt. Works 
on the subject. ^ 178 Ethiopia. $ 179 
Libya. ^ 180 Africa Propria. ^ 181 Nu- 
midia. ^ 182 Mauritania. ^ 183 Africa 
Interior. Atlantis. 


Treltminary Remarks^ p. 59. 
^ 184. Importance of the subject. De- 
sign of present sketch. Two paru. 

I. Of measuring time and adjusting its 
divisions^ p. 59-63. 

^^ 185-196. »^ 185 The three natural 
divisions of time ; day, month, and year. 
^ 186, 187 Ancient customs as to be- 
ginning and dividing the day. ^ 188 De- 
vices for marking and making known the 
parts of the day. Dial, Clepsydra. ^ 189, 
190 The month. The Grecian system. 
^ 191 a, 191 b. Roman method of reckoning 
the months, and the days of the month. 
The week. Names of the days. ^ 192 
The year. The Grecian ; Roman ; Ju- 
lian. The Gregorian Calendar. Old and 
new style. ^ 193 Cycles. ^ 194 The 
lunar cycle. ^ 195 The solar. $ 196 The 
cycle of indiction. Julian Period. 

II. Of facing the dates of historieal 
events and arranging them in order, 
p. 63-79. 

^^ 197-215. = ^ 197 Topics noticed in 
this part. ^ 198-201 Methods ofasceHain- 
ing dates. 1. Successive generations ; and 
successive reigns of kin^. 2. Celestial 
appearances. 3. Coins, mscriptions, ^c. 
4. Historical testimony. ^ 202, 203 Epocht 
and eras. Era of Olympiads ; of Rome ; 
the Christian; the Manometan; of the 
French Republic. ^ 204-207 Sysfems and 
fables, $ 204 Claims of the Egyptians and 
Babylonians. ^ 205 The Hebrew and 
the Septuseint chronology. Newton's. 
Usher's, f 206, 207 Various plana for 



charts. The best. $ 206H215 Acttud dates 
€f moti jpreminent events. % 208 Common 
complaint of students. Remedy. ^ 209 
Brief outline of General Chronology. % 210 
Systems of artificial memory. ^211 Chro- 
nology of ancient states ; eight principal 

states of Asia ; references to works on their 
history; Assyrian; Jewish; Trojan; hj 
dian ; Persian ; Syrian ; Parthian. ^ 212 
Of the two principal in Africa ; Egyptian ; 
'^ ' • " $ 213 Of Greece. % 214 

215 O 




Introdudion, p. 83-90. 
$$ 1-12. B» ^ 1 Circumstances calculated 
to giye« fabulous character to early tradi* 
tions. ^ 2 Mythology in the Greek, and 
in the modern sense of the term. $ 3 Dif- 
ferent points of view in contemplating my- 
thological fables. $ 4 Changes and addi- 
tions m mythological stories. ^ 5 Different 
sources of mythological fabrications. ^ 6 
Advantages of an acquaintance with my- 
tholoffyr. ^ 7 Eastern origin of the Gre- 
cian deities. ^ 8 The Roman gods bor- 
rowed from the Greeks. ^ 9 The Greek 
and Roman system of classifying their gods. 
^ 10 The four cUisset under which they 
are arranged in this work. $ 11 The no- 
lions of deity entertained by the Greeks 
and Romans. Abode of the gods. ^12 
References to works treating on the subject. 

I. Mythological History of the Superior 
gods, p. 91-113. 

^^ 13-67. = ^ 13 Gods mcluded in this 
class. ^ 14-17 Saturn. ^ 18 Janus. 
% 19-21 Cybele or Rhea. ^ 22-25 Jupiter. 
^26-28 Juno. $ 29-31 Neptune. ^32-34 
Pluto. ^ 35-37 Apollo, i 38-40 Diana. 
^ 41-43 Minerva. ^ 44-46 Mars. ^47-50 
Venus. Cupid. $ 51-54 Vulcan. ^55-56 
Mercury. $ 57-60 Bacchus. Silenus. 
* 61-64 Ceres. ^ 65-67 Vesta. 

II. Mythological History of the Inferior 
gods, p. 113-124. 

$$ 68-96. =s$ 68 Gods included in this 
class. ^69,70Ccb1us. ^ 71, 72 Sol or He- 
lius. ^ 73 Luna. $ 74, 75 Aurora. ^ 76 Nox. 
^ 77 Iris. ^ 78 iEolus. ^ 79, 80 Pan. 
^ 81, 82 Latona. ^ 83 Themis. Astnea. 
Kemesis. $ 84 ^sculapius. ^ 85 Plutus. 
$ 86 Fortune. ^ 87 Fame. $ 88 Deities 

peculiar to the Greeks. ^ 89-95 Deities 
peculiar to the Romans. ^ 90 Tiber. 
Roma. $ 91. Terminus. Priapus. Ver- 
tumnus. Flora. Feronia. Pales. ^ 92 
Gods presiding over various conditions or 
pursuits of men. Bellona, Juturna, &,c 
^ 93 Victoria. ^ 94 Deified Roman em- 

g»rors. ^ 95 Virtues and Vices. ^ % 
gyptian deities worshiped among the 

III. Mythical beings, whose history is 
intimately connected with that of the gods, 
p. 124-132. 

^$ 97-1 17. = 5 97 Titans. ^ 98 Giants. 
Pygmiea ^ 99 Tritons. ^ 100 Sirens. 
^ 101 Nymphs. ^ 102, 103 Muses. ^ 104 
Graces. ^ 105 Hours. ^ 106 Fates. ^ 107 
Furies. H08 a. Harpies. ^ 108 b. Venii 
or Winds. ^ 109 Demons. ^110 Manes. 
^111 Lares. ^ 112 Penates. $ 113 Sleep, 
Dreams, and Death. ^114 Satyrs and 
Fauns. ^ 1 15 Grorgons. ^116 Amazons. 
$117 Minotaur, Chimera, and various 
other monsters. 

IV. Mythical History of Heroes, p. 

$$ 1 18-133. »$ 118 Three periods of 
Grecian story. $119 General cause of the 
deification of heroes. $ 120 Two classes 
of venerated heroes. $ 121 Inachus, Ox- 
gyges, Cecrops, and several others, ho- 
nored specially among their own people. 
$ 122 Perseus. Atlas. $ 123, 124 Her- 
cules. $ 125, 126 Theseus. $ 127. 128 
Jason and the Argonauts. $ 129 Castor 
and Pollux. $ 130 Heroes of the Theban 
war. $ 131 Pelops and his descendants* 
$ 132 Heroes of the Trojan war. $ 133 
Deified Romaii emperors. 



Introduetwn, p. 140-145. 
W 1-14. = ^ 1 Origin of the name 
GriBcia. ^ 2 Countries included under it. 
^ 3 Most important Grecian cities. ^ 4 Po 
litical changes. ^ 5 First inhabitants. ^ 9 
Their early intercourse. ( 7 Early fonns 

of government. $ 8 The Spartan system. 
^ 9 Athens. ^ 10 Causes of Grecian im- 
l>rovement. ^11 Utility of studvof An- 
tiquities, and of Grecian m particiuar. ^ 12 
Original sources of knowledge on the sub- 
ject. $13 References to authors. ^ 14 
Defects in the common treatises on Greek 
antiquities. Early and later ages distiDCt. 


L Of a« Emrlier end Uat euUivaUd 
Age$, p. 145-160. 

$ 15 The period included. Subject di- 
vided into four branches. 

I. RsuGjous Affairs. 
^% 16-32. = ^ 16 First traces of the reli- 
gion of the Greeks. ^ 17 Form and mode 
of religions instruction. ^ 18 Influence of 
the poets. ^ 19 Number and character of 
the gods. ^ 20 Temples and sacred places. 
% 21 Images and statues. ^ 22 Priests 
and Priestesses. ^ 23 Rites; ablutions. 
.^24 Prayers. $25 Sacrifices; the ma- 
terials; the origin. $ 26 Altars. $ 27 
Sacrifices; the ceremonies. $28 Gifts and 
ofierings. $ 29 Worship rendered to he- 
roes. $ 30 Funeral solemnities. $ 31 
Burning of corpse; monuments. $ 32 
Oracles and divmation. 

n. CiTiL Affairs. 
$ 33-41. = $ 33 Early rudeness. $ 34 
Power of the kings. $ 35 Their retinue 
and ooundliors. $ 36 Couru of justice. 
$ 37 Laws and punishment. $ 38 The 
Creun laws. $ 39 Successive forms of 
fiovemroent at Athens. $ 40 At Sparta. 
% 41 Commerce and Navigation. 

III. MiLriART Affairs. 

H 42-51. »$ 42 Early Greeks warlike. 
% 43 Their armies, how composed. $ 44 
Weapons; Defensive. $ 45 Offensive. 
$ 46 The materials of which made. $ 47 
War-galleys. $ 48 Camps. $ 49 Order 
of Battle. $ 50 Division of Spoils. Bar- 
barous strippins of the slain. Combat of 
duels. $ 51 Treaties. 

IV. Domestic Affairs. 

W 52-63 ==s $ 52 Common food. Daily 
meals. $ 53 Social repasts. $ 54 Dress. 
% 55 Practice of bathing. Cultivation of 
the Hair. $ 56 Houses. $ 57 Hospitality. 
$58 Employments; agriculture; hunting. 
$ 59 Employments of women. $ 60 Amuse- 
ments. $ 61 Marriage. $ 62 Education 
of chiMren. $ 63 Slaves. 

n. Of the Later and more JUmrithing 
Aget, p. 160-223. 

I. Relioious Affairs. 
$$ 64-90. = $ 64 Number of gods in- 
creased. $ 65 a. Temples more splendid. 
i 65 b. Altars. $ 66 Sacred groves. Asyla. 
i 67 Classes of priests. Purification. $ 68 
Sacrifices and attendant ceremonies. $ 69 
Oaths. Leagues. $ 70 Oracles. Im- 
posture at Argos. $ 71 Oracles of Jupi- 
ter; at Dodona; in Crete ; African desert. 
$ 72, 73 Of Apollo at Delphi $ 74 Of 
Trophonitts; of ^scolapius, and oihers. 
$ 75 Arts and methods of divinstion. $ 76, 
77 Festivals ; notice of the principal ; of 
Adonis, of Bacchus, of Ceres, of Minerva. 
$ 78 Games. $ 79 The race. $ 80 Leap- 
mg. $ 81 Wrestling. $ 82 The discus. 
% 83 Boiing. i 84 Four sacred games. 

Olympic. $ 85 Pythian. $ 86 Nemean. 
$ 87 Isthmian. $ 68 System of athletics. 
$ 89 Theatres, and dramatic representa- 
tions. Masks. Chorus. $ 90 Theoric 
money at Athens. 

II. Civil Affairs. 

$$ 91-134. = $91 Athens snd Sparta 
distinguished by peculiarities. $ 92 Draco 
and Solon at Athens. $ 93 The tribes and 
classes at Athens. $ 94 Pisistraius, and 
his sons. $ 95 The thirty tyrants. Form 
of government after them until death of 
Alexander. $ 96 Buildings of Athens. 
$ 97 The free citizens of Athens. $ 98 
The foreign residents. $ 99 The slaves. 
$ 100 Magistrates. $ 101 The Archons. 
$ 102 The Eleven ; Orators; Ambassa- 
dors; Notaries, &c. $ 103 Athenian re- 
venues. $ 104 Oflficers of the revenue and 
treasury. Expenditures. $ 105 Amphic- 
tyonic council. $ 106 Assemblies of the 
people. $107 Athenian senate. $108 Areo- 
pagus. $ 109 Athenian courts of justice. 
The Ephets. $ 110 The Helisa. $111 
The Forty. The DieBletiB. $ 112 Dif- 
ferent kinds of actions. $ 1 1 3 Punishments. 
$ 1 14 The Ostracism. $ 1 15 Modes of m- 
Aiding death. $ 116 Public rewards and 
honors. $ 1 17 Attic laws. $ 1 18 Natural 
situation of Sparta. $ 119 Spartan tribes. 
$120 Treatment of children at Sparta. 
$ 121 Spartan slaves. $ 122 The kings of 
Sparta. $ 123 The Senate. Ephori. $ 124 
Nomophulakes and other magistrates. 
$ 125 Assemblies of the people. $ 126 Pub- 
lic repasts. $ 127 Judicial affairs. $ 128 
Punishments. $ 129 Laws of Sparta. 
$ 130 Cretan constitution. $ 131 Cretan 
laws; public meals; slaves. $ 132 Con- 
stitution of Thebes. $ 133 Constitutions 
of Corinth and Syracuse. $ 134 Of Argos, 
of .£tolia, and Achaia. 

III. Military Affairs. 

$ 135-160. =a $ 135 The warlike character 
ret ained ; especially by t he Spartans. $ 136 
Persons liable to military duty. Their 
support. $ 137 Classes of troops. The 
infantry. $138 Cavalry. Use of Elephants. 
$ 139 Armor. $ 140 Various officers. 
$ 141 The divisions of the army. $ 142 
Forms of Battle-array. Manoeuvres. $143 
Declaration of war. Treaties. $ 144 
Camps. $ 145 Standards and ensi^s. 
Signals for battle. $ 146 Art of besieging. 
$ 147 Militaryengines. $ 148 Defence of 
cities. $ 149 Treatment of captured places. 
$ 150 Division of spoils. $ 151 Military 
rewards and punishments. $ 152 Means 
of conveying intelligence. $ 153 Crossing 
of rivers. $ 154, 155 Ships; Names of 
their principal parts ; Vessels of war. $ 156 
Rowers, sailors and marines ; Manner of 
placing the seats of rowers. $ 157 Instru- 
ments employed in naval battle. $ 158 
Naval officers. $ 159 Manner of naval 
battle. $ 160 Naval victories and monu- 
ments. NavAl punishments. 



IV. Afpaiks or Pmtatb Litb. 
$$ 161-187. = $ 161 Food. Use of wines. 
§ 162 The different meals. Manner of 
spending the day at Athens. ^163 Enter- 
tainments or feasts. ^ 164 Customs at 
table. ^165 Substances eaten at the prin- 
cipal meal. $ 166 Officers and attendants 
at an entertainment ^ 167 Drinking ves- 
sels. Customs in drinking. Amusements 
accompanying a feast. ^ 168 Customs of 
hospitality. Officers called ProzenL Inns. 
^ 169 Dress, for the body, bead, and feet. 
Use of silk. Adorning oi the person. $170 
Batbine and anointing. ^ ITl Houses. 
^ 172 Commerce and Agriculture. ^ 173, 
174 Grecian money and coins. Ratio of 
Gold and silver, i 175 Greek system of 
notation. ^ 176 Grecian weights. $ 177 
Measures. $ 178 Social amusements. 
^ 179, 180 Music and musical instruments. 
i 181 Condition of females. $ 182 Laws 
and customs respecting marriage. $$ 183 
-186 Funeral rites. Anniversaries held in 
honor of the dead, with orations and games. 
$ 187 Sepulchral monuments. 


IntroductioHt p. 225-229. 
^^ 188-198. »$ 188 Oriffin of Rome. 
^ 189 Principal events^ whitm affected the 
appearance of the dty. Comparative 
splendor of ancient ami modern Rome. 
^ 190 Population of Rome. ^ 191 Extent 
of the Roman empire. ^ 192 Proportion 
of soldiers and other citizens. $ 193 The 
time of the regal government. ^ 194 Most 
brilliant era otRoman history. ^195 Con- 
dition under the emperors. $196 Utility 
of studying Roman antiquities. Original 
sources of mformation on the subject. $ 1 97 
References to modem works and authors. 
$ 198 Division of the subject. 

I. Religious Affairs, p. 229-248. 

^^ 199-239. *= ^ 199 Use of the term re- 
gpo. ^ 200 Orifin of the religion of the 
Iu>mans. $ 201 Its connection with poli- 
tics. $ 202 Design of Romulus and Numa. 
Gods of the Romans. ^ 203 Temples. 
$ 204 Statues and offerings. Groves. $205 
Altars. ^ 206 Vessels employed in sacri- 
fices. ^207 Several orders of priests. ^208 
Pontifices. % 209 Augurs. Various me- 
thods of augury. $ 210 Haruspices. $211 
Epulones. $ 212 Feciales. $ 213 Rex 
sacrorum. $ 214 Flamines. $ 215 Salii. 
^216 Luperci. $ 217 Galli and others. 
$ 218 Vestal virgins. $ 219 Fratres Arva- 
les, Curiones, and others. $ 220 Customs 
in offering prayers. $ 221 Sacrifices and 
attendant rites. $ 222 Vows. $ 223 De- 
dication of sacred buildings. $ 224 Expia- 
tions. The lustrum. $225 Oaths. $226 
Oracles. $ 227 Lots. $ 228 Divisions of 
time. $ 229, 230 Festivals. $ 231 Public 
games. $ 232, 2:1^ Ludi Circensos. Nau- 
macbia. $ 234 Ludi Seculares. $ 235 
Ludi Gladiatorii. $ 236 Ludi Florales. 
$ 237 Ludi MegaienseSi Cereiles» and^ 

others. $ 238 Theatres, Moka, &,• 
$ 239 Amphitheatres. 

II. Civil Affaihs, p. 246-270. 
$$ 240-274. ea $ 240 Regnal government. 
$ 24 1 Consuls. $ 242 Imperial government. 
$243Pr8Btor8. $244£diles. $245Tri. 
bunes. $ 246 Qusestors. $ 247 Censors. 
$ 248, 249 Extraordinary magistrates; 
Dictator; Decemviri; Mihtary Tribunes ; 
Pnefecu. Interrex, &c. $ 250 Procon- 
suls, and other provincial magistrates. $ 251 
Tribes. $252 Six classes of citizens. Cen- 
turies. $ 253 Patricians and plebeians. 
$ 254 The populace. Patrons and clients. 
$ 255 Roman nobility. Right of images. 
Curule office. $ 256 The Equites or 
Knights. $ 257 The Senate. $ 258, 259 
The Cpmitia. $ 260 Right of citizenship. 
Government of conquered cities and na- 
tions. $ 261 Judicial proceedings. Public 
actions and trials. $ 262 Private actions. 
$ 263 Penal offences. $ 264 Punishments. 
$ 265 System of laws. Body of Roman 
civil law. $ 266 Regulations respecting 
min. $267 Revenue. Saltworks. Mines. 
$ 268 Various Pursuits. Commerce. Me- 
chanic arts. $ 269 Agriculture. Carriages. 
$ 270 Money. Coins. ^ 271 System of 
reckoning and notation. $ 272 Modes of 
acquiring property. $ 273 Auctions. Con- 
fiscations. $ 274 Measures of extent, &c. 
Modes of determining the Roman /oof. 

III. Affairs of Wab, p. 270-285. 

$$ 275-309. «= $ 275 Anthoriiies on the 
subject. $ 276 Military establishment of 
the kings. $ 277 Persons liable to duty. 
Time of service. $ 278 Consular army. 
Exempts. $ 279 System of levy. $ 280 
Classes of troops. $ 281 Subdivision into 
maniples, dec. $ 282 Standards. Music. 
$ 283 Weapons. $ 284 Wages. Rewards. 
$ 285 Punishments. $ 286 Order of battle. 
$ 287 Modes of attack. $ 288 Light troops. 
$ 289, 290 Cavalry. $ 291 Cohorts. $293 
Auxiliaries. $ 293 Attendants upon the 
army. $294 Order of march. $295 Forms 
of array. $ 296, 297 The Camp. $ 298 
Watches. Exercises of soldiers. $ 299- 
Sieges. Engines. Mounds and towers. 
Battering ram and other engines. $ 300 
Modes of defence in a siege. $ 301 The 
fleets. $ 302 Method of naval battle. $303 
Construction and parts of Roman ships. 
$ 304 Different kinds of vessels. $ 305 
Rewards of generals. $ 306 Laws on the 
subject. $ 307 The triumph. $ 308 The 
ovation. $ 309 Military system under the 

IV. Affaxbs of Privatb Life, p. 285-304. 
$$ 310-343. cs$ 310 The free-ham and 
tbe/ree-maJe discriminated. $ 31 1 System 
of applying proper names. $ 312 Regula- 
tions respecting marriage. $ 313, 314 
Marriage contracts. $ 315 Nnptial cere- 
monies. $ 316 Divorces. $317 The right 
and power of the father over his children. 
$ 318 Emancipation of sons. $ 31 9 Adop* 



tkm. % 320 LegitiinatioD. ^ 321 Educa- 
tion of youth. ^322 Slaves. ^ 323 Slave 
trade. ^ 324 Emancipation of slaves. 
% 325 Dwellings. Parts and ornaments of 
a Roman house. ^ 326 Country seats or 
villas. ^ 327 Manner of life. Morals. 
% 328 Daily routine of employment. Bath- 
'mg. $ 329 Food and meals. Furniture 
for eating. ^ 330 Different courses at 
supper. Roman hospitality. ^ 331 a. 
Drinking and games at banquets. Dice. 
^ 331 6. Winea. ^ 332 Dress. The toga. 

$ 333 The tunic. Badges. ^ 334 The 
stola and other garments of women. 
$ 335 Various outer garments. Use of silk. 
i 336 Coverings for the head and feet. 
$ 337, 338 Dress of the hair. Personal 
ornaments. ^ 339 Funeral customs. Ex- 
posure of the corpse. ^ 340 Funeral pro- 
cessions. Eulogy. $341 Burning. Place 
of burial. Tombs. Phials of tears. ^ 342 
Mourning for the deceased. Games and 
sacrifices. ^ 343 Consecration, or deifica- 
tion of deceased emperors. 



Introduction, p. 307-321. 

W 1-32. = ^ 1 The original capacity 
and knowledge of men. f 2 Develope- 
ment of the same. ^ 3 Aided by language. 
% 4 Origin of arts and sciences. ^ 5 First 
character of the same. ^ 6 Attainments 
made before the Deluge. ^ 7 Etfects of 
the dispersion of the human family, by the 
confusion of tongues at Babel. ^ 8 Earliest 
employments; food. $9 Ef!ect of climate 
ana other causes ; influence of agriculture 
on arts. ^ 10 Rise of architecture and 
use of metals. Tools of stone. ^ 11 Imi- 
tative arts. ^ 12 Origin of Language. 
^ 13 Origin of Writing. ^ 14 Previous 
methods of communicating thought. ^ 15 
Picture-writing; by Mexicans; N. Am. 
Indians. ^16 Hieroglyphics. ^ 17 Ab- 
breviated pictures. ^ 18 Syllable -writing. 
Chinese; Cherokee; Persian, &c. ^19 
Alphabetic writing. ^ 20 Materials and 
nnplements. ^ 21 Contents of earliest 
writings ; writings of Mosea and Job the 
Tiost ancient; claims of the oriental re- 
cords. ^ 22 llie earliest sciences. ^ 23 
Origin of Medicine. ^ 24 Of Arithmetic. 
^ 25 Of Astronomy. ^ 26 Of Geometry, 
i 27 Of Geography. ^ 28 Egypt and Asia 
the cradle of the sciences. ^29 High cul- 
ture of the Greeks and Romans. Import- 
ance of classical studies. ^ 30 Object of 
the present treatise. $ 31 Utility of the 
same. ^ 32 References to works illustrat- 
ing the subjects included. 

aschjBoloot or oreek literature. 

1. Of the origin and Jirsl steps of Grc 
dan culture, p. 323-328. 

W 33-44- = ^ 33 First population of 
Greece. The Pelasgi. % 34 Early state 
of society. Colonies from the east. ^35 
Origin of Greek language. Various theo- 
ries on the subject. % 36 Language of 
Noah ; nature of the Confusion of tongues. 
Languages of western Asia. Semitic and 
Sanscrit families. ^ 37 Japheth and de- 
scendants. ^ 38 The probable foundation 
of the Greek. ^ 39 Causes of the great 
perfection of the Greek. % 40 First im- 
piUae to Grecian civilization. ^ 41 In- 

fluence of eastern nations on the religion 
of the early Greeks. ^ 42 On their arts. 
% 43 Influence of the Greek bards. % 44 
Of the Greek games. 

II. Of the Alphabet, Method of Writing, 
and Books, p. 328-334. 

^^ 45-60. = ^ 45 Letters introduced by 
Cadmus. Resemblance of Grecian and 
Phoenician alphabets. ^ 46 Number of 
letters in the alphabet of Cadmus. ^ 47 
Changes in form of Greek letters. M8 
Direction of letters and lines in writing. 
$ 49 Uncial and Cursive characters. Ab- 
breviations. ^ 50 Breathings. ^ 51 Ac- 
cents. ^ 52 Punctuation. ^ 53 Materials 
used in Greece for writing. ^ 54 Instru- 
ments. ^ 55 Material used for ink. ^ 56, 
57 Form of books. ^ 58 Copyists. ^ 59 
Infrequent use of writing in early times. 
Whether Homer committed his poems to 
writing. ^ 60 Instruction given orally. 

III. Of the most flourishing period of 
Greek Literature, p. 334-340. 

^^ 61-77. = $ 61 Circumstances favor- 
able to progress in letters. Different cha- 
racters of oifferent Hellenic tribes. Actual 
studies and attainments. ^ 62 Design of 
the author under the present head of the 
subject. ^ 63, 64 The Grecian system of 
education ; Gymnasia ; Music. ^ 65, 66 
The Musical and Dramatical contests. 
^ 67 Rehearsals public and private. ^ 68 
Professed Readers. $ 69 The Symposia 
or literary feasts. % 70 No learned pro- 
fessions among the Greeks. % 71 Gram- 
mar as a part of education. ^ 72 Philo- 
sophy ; Esoteric and Exoteric. ^ 73 Me- 
thods of teaching; Socratic ^ 74 The 
ereat public schools ; Academy, Lyceum, 
Porch, Cynosarges, Garden. $.75 Regu- 
lations and discipline of the Gymnasia and 
schools. % 76 Greek libraries, % Tl Trar 
vels of learned men. 

IV. Of the decline of Greek Literature, 
p. 340-343. 

^^ 78-85. =$ 78 Causes of its decline. 
^ 79 Greek language siill extensively used, 
i 80 Greek letters cultivated at some 
places; Rhodes, Pergamus, Alexan- 



dria, i&c. ^ 81 Greek letters patronized 
by some of the Emperors. $ 82 Schools 
of Athens suppressed. ^ 83 Opposition 
between Christianity and pagan literature ; 
influence of Christianity. ^ 84 Loss of 
Classical manuscripts, in various ways. 
^ 85 Political condition of the Greeks after 
the Christian era. 

V. Of the Remains and Monuments of 
Grecian Literature, p. 339-357. 

^^ 86-108. =^ 86 Division of these into 
three classes. — I. Inscriptions. ^87 
References to works on Greek inscriptions. 
^ 88 General design and character of in- 
ecriptions. ^ 89 Qualifications requisite 
for interpreting inscriptions. \ 90 Notice 
of some of the most important inscriptions 
of a date prior to Alexander. ^ 91 Of those 
of a date between Alexander and the 
Christian Era. ^ 92 Of a period subsc- 
quent to the Christian Era. — 11. Coins. 
^ 93 Utility of an acquaintance with coins. 
^ 94 Uncoined metal first used. ^ 95 Ear- 
liest Greek coins. Chronological classifi- 
cation of Greek coins. ^ 96 The coins in 
most common use among the Greeks. 
Number of ancient coins preserved. ^ 97, 
98 Forms of letters on Greek coins. ^ 99 
References to works on Numismatics. — 
III. Manuscripts. MOO Utility of 
them. ^ 101 Their antiquity. How made 
and preserved. Palimpsesii. ^ 102, 103, 
104 Marks by which the age of a MS. is 
known ; or criteria of Palffiography. ^ 105, 
106 Importance and advantages of collating 
manuscripts. ^ 107 Notice of some of the 
oldest and most curious manuscripts ex- 
tant ; Greek Scriptures ; Herculanean 
Rolls; Egyptian Papyri ; Hebrew Penta- 
teuch. ^ 108 Libraries containing Greek 


I. Of the sources of Soman culture, 
p. 359-362. 

^^ 109-114. = ^ 109 Origin of the Ro- 
mans. Two different theories respecting 
the inhabitants of Italy. Early tribes. 
Uncertainly of the early history of Rome. 
^110 Origin of Latin written characters. 
^111 Intercourse of the Romans with the 
Greeks. ^ 112, 113 State of culture be- 
fore the Punic wars. ^114 Origin and 
progress of the Latin Language. Monu- 
ments of its early character. 

II. Of the Alphabet, Writing, and Books, 
p. 362-365. 

^^ 115-118. = ^ 115 Number of original 
letters. ^116 The early and later ortho- 
graphy. ^ 117 Forms of letters. Abbre- 
viations ; NotoB Tironiana, ^118 Form 
of books. Materials and instruments for 
writing. Iiist of names and terms used in 
relation to writing, &c. 

III. Of the most flourishing period of 
Roman Literature, p. 365-368. 

^^ 119-127.=^ 119 Influence of the 
Greek colonies in Magna Grsecia. ^ 120 
Introduction of the Greek philosophy. 
^ 121 Most brilliant age in Roman letters. 
Causes. ^ 122 Branches cultivated. ^ 123 
Change in the system of education. ^ 124 
Instructions of the Grammarians and Rhe- 
toricians. ^ 125 Public schools. Athe- 
neum. Literary exercises specially prac- 
ticed by the youth in the course of educa- 
tion, Slc. ^ 126 Libraries at Rome. ^ 127 
Custom of finishing study abroad. Places 
visited for the purpose. 

IV. Of the decline of Roman Literature, 
p. 368-370. 

^ 128 Causes of the decline. Com- 
mencement of it. Exertions and influence 
of some of the Emperors. Eflfect of inter- 
course with provincials ; of the removal of 
the seat of government to Constantinople. 
Schools of learning in the empire ; Byzan- 
tium, Berytus, MassiUa, Augustodunum. 

V. Remains and Monuments of Roman 
Literature, p. 370-377. 

U 129-143. = ^ 129, 130 Roman In- 
script ions; References to works on 
the subject, i 131 Abbreviations and ini- 
tial letters on Roman coins. ^ 132 Pecu- 
liar advantages of study of Roman inscrip- 
tions. $ 133 Notice of some of the most 
important inscriptions that are preserved. 
^ 134 Roman Coins; when first struck. 
Connection between poetry and medals. 
^ 135 Division into Consular and Imperial, 
i 136 Legend on coins. Peculiar forms of 
writing on early coins. ^ 137 False coins. 
^ 138 References to works on Roman coins. 
^ 139 The most valuable collections of an- 
cient coins. Symbols on coins and medals. 
^ 140 Roman Manuscripts; few exist- 
ing of a very early date. ^141 Successive 
changes in the manner of writing. $ 142 
Zealous search for manuscripts on the 
revival of letters. Petrarch, Poggio, and 
others interested in it. Depositories of La- 
tin manuscripts. ^ 143 Some of the most 
ancient Latin manuscripts known. 

Preliminary Remarks, p. 379-381. 

%% 144-153. = % 144 Meanings of the 
word Art, ^ 145 Divisions of the arts into 
the Mechanical and the Fine. % 146 The 
plastic arts. % 147 Objects represented by 
them. Allegorical images. ^ 148, 149 
Requisites in the artist, connoisseur, and 
amateur, severally. ^ 150 Uiilitv of some 
knowledge of the history of art. % 151 Aii- 
tiques and the study of them. % 152 Ori- 
ginal design of the monuments of ancient 
art. Science of ^Esthetics; references on 
the same. ^ 153 Object of the present 
treatise. Four branches of art particularly 



I. Srulplurer p. 381-398. 
^^ 154-191. = $ 154 Comprehensive 
m*,aning of the term. ^ 155, 156 Origin 
of Sculpture. C haracier of the first speci- 
mens. Image of Cybele. ^ 157 The ma- 
terials used. $158 First soft ; clay, &c. 
\ 159 Various kinds of wood. $ 160 Ivory, 
i 161 Marble and sione of different kinds. 
i 162 Bronze. ^ 163 Classes of Statues; 
costume; attitudes. ^ 164 Busts. The 
kind of figure called Hermes. ^ 165, 166 
Bas-reliefs. ^ 167 Mosaic. $ 168 In- 
scriptions on statues. ^ 169, 170 Egyptian 
Bculpture. ^ 171 Sculpture among the 
Asiatics. ^ 172, 173 Character and remains 
of Etruscan Sculpture. ^ 174 Rise of 
sculpture in Greece; circumstances favor- 
able to its advancement. Daedalus. ^ 175 
The four periods of Grecian sculpture. 
% 176 Its character in the first period. ^ 177 
Different schools. ^ 178 Frequent demand 
for statues in Greece. ^ 179 Grecian 
sculpture in the second period. Works of 
Phidias. ^ ISO In the third period. Sco- 
pus. Praxiteles. Lyeippus, ^ 181 In the 
fooiih period. ^ 182-1 84 Sculpture among 
the Romans. ^ 185 The most celelirated 
remains of ancient sculpture. ^ 186 Of 
Statues. ^ 187 Of Busts. ^ 188 Of Bas- 
relief. ^ 189 Of Mosaic. ^ 190 The most 
famous collections of such remains. ^ 191 
References to works on this subject. 

11. Lythoglyphy or Gem- Engraving, 
p. 398-409. 

%% 192-21 3. =$ 192 Explanation of the 
term. % 193 Gems early known. ^ 194 
Respecting the nature and classification of 
gems. % 195 Notice of some of the prin- 
cipal gems employed in this art. Murra. 
Alabaster. Pearls. % 196 Manner of 
forming the figures on Gems; intaglios; 
enmeos. ^ 197, 198 Various objects repre- 
sented. ^ 199 Origin and earliest instances 
of the art. ^ 200, 201 Gem -engraving of 
the Egyptians. ScaralxBt ; Abraxas. ^ 202 
This art among other nations, especially 
the Etrurians. ^ 203, 204 Among the 
Greeks. ^ 205 Among the Romans. $206 
Uses made of sculptured gems. $ 207 
Mechanical operations in engraving. $ 208 
Fictitious gems. $ 209 Advantages of 
some knowledge of ancient gems. $ 210 
Thia study £Kalitated by the use of paste 

imitations. The impressions of Lippert ; 
of Wedgewood ; of Tassie. $211 Some 
of the most remarkable ancient gemd. 
$ 212 The most celebrated collections. 
$213 References to works illustrating the 

III. Painting, p. 409-416. 

$$ 214-226. = $ 214 Explanation of this 
art. $ 215 Date of its origin. $ 216 Its 
early existence in Chaldaea and Egypt. 
$ 217 Earliest pictures among the Greeks. 
$ 218 The colors employed by Greek 
painters. $ 219 Methods of painting. In- 
struments for painting. Fresco painting. 
$ 220 Encaustic painting. Painting on 
Glass. Mosaic. $ 221 Merit of ancient 
painting. Perspective. $ 222 Schools in 
painting among the Greeks. Celebrated 
masters. Four periods. — Comparative 
number of paintings and statues. Portraits. 
$ 223 Etruscan paintings. $ 224, 225 
Painting at Rome. $ 226 Monuments of 
ancient painting. References to works on 
the subject. 

IV. Architecture, p. 416-431. 

$$ 227-244.=$ 227 Both a mechanic 
and a fine art. Its origin. $ 228 Leading 
principles, or causes affecting its character. 
$ 229 Materials in early times. Tools and 
instruments. Influence of materials on 
the style. $ 230 The grand branches 
of Architecture, Civil, lililitary. Naval. 
$ 231 Escyptian Architecture. Tultecan, 
in America. Cyclopean. $ 232 Archi- 
tecture as exhibited in Homer. $ 233 Most 
flourishing period of this art in Greece. 
$234 Description of ancient temples. $ 235 
Of Theatres and Odea. $ 236 Of Gym- 
nasia. The Stadium. $ 237 Of Porticos. 
$ 238 Of pillars and columns; and the 
several orders of Architecture. $ 239 Or- 
naments of ancient Architecture. Cartfa- 
tides, Atlanfides, &c. $ 240 Most cele- 
brated Greek architects. $ 241 Tuscan 
and Roman Architecture. Antefixa. 
$ 241a. Merits of the Romans in Archi- 
tecture. $ 241 b. Description of ancient 
Baths. $ 242 Remains of ancient Achi- 
tecture. $ 243 Works illustrating the sub- 
ject. $ 244 Notice of a style of Archi- 
tecture, more modem ; the Romanesque. 
$ 245 Other styles ; the Saracenic, Chi- 
nese, Gothic. 



Introduction, p. 435-447. 
$^ 1-10. = $ 1 Circumstances favorable 
to literature amoni^ the Greeks. $ 2 Ex- 
cellence of Greek classics ; importance 
of acquaintance with them. $ 3 Beauty 
and perfection of the Greek language. $ 4 
Its ialecln, $ 5 Pronunciation of Greek. 

$ 6 Principles and methods in studying. 
Analytical and Synthetical methods. In- 
terlinear translations. Grannmatical and 
logical analysis. Other exercises. Use of 
Reading- books. $ 6 6. Svstem in the Lon- 
don University. $ 6 c. Hints of a method 
of logical Analysis. $ 7 List of various 
helps in the study of Greek. $ 8 Plan to 
be pursued in the present view of Greek 


literature. ^ 9 Six periods in Grecian po- 
litical history, very conveniently applied 
to the history of literature. ^ 10 The se- 
veral depnrtments or classes of writers to 
be noticed. 

I. Poets, p. 448-482. 
W 11-81. = $ 11 Subjects of earliest 
Greek poetry. ^ 12 Poetry first cultivated 
in the northern provinces of Greece. § 13 
Poetry origitialiy connected with music 
ainong the Greeks. References on the 
origin and progress of Greek poetry. ^ 14 
Kinds or varieties of Grecian poetry. ^ 15 
:Sacred, ^ 16 The Sibyls. ^ 17-20 Epic. 
•J 21 The Cyclic poets. The Homerid®. 
Iliac Table. $ 22-26 Lyric poetry. ^ 27 
The Scolion. $ 28, 29 EUpiac. ^ 30 
Bucolic or Pastoral ^ 31, 32 Didactic. 
^ 33 Erotic. $ 34 The Epigram. ^ 35 
Anthologies. ^ 36 Dramatic poetry. 
^ 37-40 Tragedy. § 41-43 Comedy. ^ 44 
Satyre. ^ 45 Different forms of Sa- 
tyre. ^ 46 Farces and Mimes. ^ il Pomp 
and expense of representation. Instructing 
of the actors. $ 47 1. References to works 
treating of the Greek poets generally. ^ 48 
Orpheus. ^ 49 Musobus. ^ 50 Homer. 
^ 51 Hesiod. ^ 52 Archilochus. $ 53 
Tyrtaeus. ^ 54 Sappho. $ 55 Solon. 
^ 56 Theognis. ^ 57 Phocylides. $ 58 
Pythagoras. $59Anacreon. $60 Pindar. 
$ 61 ^.schylus. $ 62 Sophocles. $ 63 
Euripides. $ 64 Empcdocles. $ 65 Aris- 
tophanes. $ 66 Menander. $ 67 Lyco- 
Dhron. $ 68 Theocritus. $ €9 Bion ; 
Moschus. $ 70 Callimachus. $ 71 Ara- 
tns. $ 72 Cleanthes. $ 73 Apollonius 
Rhodius. $ 74 Nicander. $ 75 Oppian. 
^ 76 Nonnus. $ 77 Coluthus. $ 78 Quin- 
tus SmyrntBus or Calaber. % 79 Trypliio- 
dorua. $ 80 Theodorua Prodromus. $ 81 

II. Orators, p. 482-489. 
$$ 82-107. = $ 82 Oraiorv as an art not 
known in the heroic ages. $ 83 Eloquence 
much practiced after time of Solon. $ 84 
History of Grecian eloquence short. $ 85 
Chiefly confined to Athens. $ 86 Three 
aspects in three different eras. $ 87, 88 
Era of Themistocles. $ 89-91 Era of 
Pericles. $ 92-94 Era of Demosthenes. 
% 95-97 Subsequent decline. School of 
Rhodes. $ 98 Three branches of ancient 
oratory. $ 99 References to works illus- 
trating the Greek orators collectively. 
$ 100 Antiphon. $ 101 Andocides. $ 102 
Lysias. $ 103 Isocrates. $ 104 Isaeus. 
% 105 Lycurgus. $ 106 Demosthenes. 
$ 107 .ffischines. Hyperides. Dinarchus. 

III. Sophists and Rhetoricians, p. 490-496. 

$$ 108-128. = $ 108 Description of the 
Sophists. $ 109 Their performances. 
y 110 Names of some of the more eminent 
m different periods. $ 111 Distinction be- 
tween Sophists and Rhetoricians. $ 112 
Rhetoricians in different periods. $ 113 
General references. $ 114 Gorgiaa. $ 115 ! 

Aristotle. $ 116 Demetrius Phalerens 
$ 117 Dionysius Halicarnasscus. $ 118 
Dion Chrysostomus. $ 119 Herodes At 
licus. $ 120 iElius Aristides. $ 121 Lu- 
cian. $ 122 Hermogenes. $ 123 Athe- 
naeus. $ 124 Longinus. $ 125 Themisiius. 
$ 126 Himerius. $ 127 Julian the Apostate. 
$ 128 Libanius. 

IV. Grammarians, p. 496-500. 

$$ 129-147. =$ 129 Time when writers 
of this class first flourished ; place. $ 130 
Their various performances. $ 131 Some 
of the roost distinguished before the time 
of Constantine. $ 132 Grammarians at 
Constantinople. $ 133 General references. 
% 134 Hephmsiion, $ 135 Apollonius Dys- 
colus. $ 136 iElius Herodianus. $ 137 
Julius Pollux. $ 138 jElius. Moeris. 
% 139 Harpocration. % 140 Hesychius. 
% 141 Ammonius. $ 142 Photius. % 143 
Suidas. $ 144 The Eiymologium Mngnum. 
$ 145 EustBihius. $ 146 Gregorits Pardus, 
or Corinthius. $ 147 Thomas Magister. 

V. Writers of Epistles and Romances, 
p. 500-504. 

141-165.=$ 148 Extant letters as- 
cribed to ancients, in part spurious. % 149 
Romances unknown in best periods of 
Greek literature ; reason. $ 150 Erotic 
and Milesian tales. Imaginary voyages. 
$ 151 Some of the authors of Romances. 
$ 152 References on the writers of this di- 
vision. $ 153 Anacharsis. $ 154 Phalaria. 
$ 155 Themistocles. $ 156 Socrates. 
$ 157 Chion. $ 158 AristSBnctus. $ 159 
Alciphron. $ 160 Heiiodorus. $ 161 
Achilles Tatius. $ 162 Longus. $ 163 
Xenophon of EphesuB. $ 164 Chariton. 
$ 165 Euraathius. 

VI. Philosophers, p. 504-517. 
$$ 166-201 . = $ 166 The poets of Greece 
her first philosophers. $ 167 The next, 
her priests and legislators. Subjects of 
speculation in the early religious philoso- 
phy. Political philosophy. Seven Sages. 
$ 168 Origin of schools in philosophy. The 
earliest of celebrity. $ 169 The Ionic. 
$ 170 The Italic. $ 171 The Socraiic. 
$ 172 Sects derived from the Socratic. 
Three Minor. Cyrenaic. Megaric. Eliac. 
$ 173 Four Major, Cynic. $ 174 Stoic. 
$ 175 Academic. $ 176 Peripatetic. 
$ 177 Sects derived from the Italic. Elca- 
tic. Heraclitean. $ 178 Epicurean. $ 179 
Skentic. $ 180 Periods of Greek literature 
jn which the several sects arose. Grecian 
philosophy after the Roman supremacy. 
$ 181 The New Platonists. Eclectics. 
$ 182 Christian philosophy. Peripatetic 
philosophy after time of Constantine. Its 
propagation in western Europe. $ 183 
References to sources of information on 
the Greek philosophy. $ 184 jEsop. $185 
Ocellus Lucanus. $ 186 Xenophon the 
Athenean. $ 187 -^schines, the philoso- 
pher. $ 188 Cebes. $ 189 Plato, $ 190 
Timaeufl of Locri. $ 191 Aristotle. $ 192 



Theophnstus. $193 Epictetus. ^ 194 
Arrian. 9 195 Plutarch. ^ 196 Marcus 
Antooiniu. $197 Sextos Empiricus. $198 
PlotiDus. $ 199 Porphyry. ^ 200 Jamb- 
tichus. $200b. ProcluB. Olympiodorus. 
$ 201 Stobaeus. 

VTI. Maihewiatidafu and Geograpkert, 
p. 517-523. 

$$ 202-^1. = $ 202 Mathematics re- 
doced to scientific form by Greeks, but de- 
rived from other nations. $ 203 The foun- 
dation for philosophy. Views of Plato. 
$ 204, 205 State of Greek mathematics in 
different periods. $ 206, 207 Degree of 
knowledge among the Greeks respecting 
Geography. $ 208 Treatises on Tactics. 
$ 206 £. General references. $ 2p9 Euclid. 
$ 210 Archimedes. $ 21 1 Apollonius Per- 
neos. $212 Pappus. $213 Diophantus. 
$ 214 Hanno. $ 215 Eratosthenes. $ 216 
Strabo. $ 217 Dionysius Periegetes. $218 
Claudius Ptolemy. $ 219 Pausanias. 
$ 220 V. Stephanus of Byzantium. $220 
Cosmas Indico-pleustes. $ 221 Onesan- 
der. Polyaenus. 

VIII. Mythographert, p. 523-525. 
$$ 221 tf-231. a=3 $ 221 tt. Principal sour- 
ces whence the traditionary fiibles of the 
Greeks may be learned. $ 222 Palepha- 
tuB. Euhemerus. $ 223 Heraclitus. $224 
ApoUodoros. $225Conon. $226 Par- 
thenius. $227 Phumutus or Comutus. 
$ 228 Hephfestion. $ 229 Antoninus Li- 
beralis. i 230 Sallustius, the Platonist. 

IX. HittorianM, p. 525-536. 
$$ 231-260. =a$ 231 Earliest history in 
a poetical form . Earliest writ ers of history 
in prose. $ 232 The compositions styled 
logographies. $ 233 The distinguished 
historians in the brilliant period of Greek 
literature. $ 234 Writers on Attic history. 
$ 235, 236 Chief historians between Alex- 
ander and the Roman supremacy. $ 237, 
238 Principal writers during the next pe- 
riod nmil time of Constantino. $ 239 a. 
Historical authors after time of Constan- 
troe. The Byzantine Historians. $ 239 b. 
Grecian biography. $ 240 General refer- 
ences. $241 Herodotus. $242 Thucy- 
dides. $ 243 Xenophon. $ 244 Ctesias. 
$ 245 Polybius. $ 246 Diodorus Siculus. 
$ 247 Dionysius Halicamasseus. $ 248 
FknoB Josephus. $ 249 Plutarch. $ 250 
Arrian. $ 251 Appian. $ 252 Dion Cas- 
sias. $ 253 ^lian. $ 254 Herodian. 
$ 255 a. Dioeenes Laertius. $ 255 b. Phi- 
tostratos. $255c. Eunapius. $ 256 Zo- 
simns. $ 257 Procopius. $ 258 Agathias. 
$259 Zonaras. $ 260 Dares Phrygius. 
Dictys Cretenais. 

X. Wrilera an Medicine and Natural 
HisUty, p. 536-541. 

$$ 261-^77. = $ 261 Greeks less emi- 
nent in these sciences. .Ssculapius and 
his descendants. Hippocrates the first 
amhor. $ 262 The Dogmatic school. 

$ 263 Dissections. Empiric school. Me- 
dicine first practised at Rome by Greek 
slaves. $ 264 The Methodic school. The 
Eclectic school. Character and influence 
o( Galen. $ 265 State of medicine after 
time of Constantine. $ 265 b. Branches or 
divisions of the science. $ 266 Physics in- 
cluded under studies of the philosophers. 
$ 267 Aristotle founder of Zoology : Theo- 
phrastns, of Mineralogy and Botany. Ca- 
binets of the Ptolemies at Alexandria. 
Chief writers before the time of Constan- 
tine. $ 268 State of natural science under 
the emperors of Constantinople. $ 269 
Collections of Greek writers on medicine 
and physics. $ 270 Hippocrates. $ 271 
Dioscorides. $ 272 Aretaeus. $ 273 Ga- 
len. $ 274 Aristotle. $ 275 Theo- 
pbrastus. $ 276 Antigonus of Carystus. 
$ 277 .£lian. Apollonius. Dyscolus. 

Notice of the Hebrew. Grecun and 

Chbjstian wrilingSj p. 541-547. 

$$ 278-293. « $ 278 The Septuagint. 
$ 279 The A pocrypha. $ 280 Works from 
Christian authors. $ 281, 282 Books of 
the New Testament. Their moral author- 
ity. Their literary influence. $ 283 
Works of the Apostolical Fathers. $ 284 
Spurious or Apocryphal writings. $ 285 
Opinions of early Christians respecting 
human learning. Christian seminaries. 
P hilosophy adopted by the Fathers. $ 286 
Biblical writings. Versions of Bible ; 
Origen's Hexapla. Harmonies. Com- 
mentaries. $ 287 Controversial writings. 
Irensus, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athena- 
goras. $ 288 Historical writings. Euse- 
bius. $ 289 Doctrinal. Origen. Atha- 
nasius. $ 290 Homiletical. Character of 
the ancient homily. Few remains of early 
sacred oratory. $ 291 Homilies of Orif^n. 
$ 292 Distinguished Christian orators just 
after the time of Constantine. Basil, Gre- 
gory, and Chrysostom. $ 293 References 
to works giving information respecting the 


Introduction, p. 549-554. 

$$294-302. = $294 Rank of the Ro- 
mans in literature. $ 295 Utility of stu- 
dying their language. $ 296 The four 
ages commonlv assigned to it. Works on 
its origin and nistory. $ 297 Pronuncia- 
tion ofLatin. $ 298 Methods and exer- 
cises in studying. $ 299 Various works 
useful as helps. $ 300 Plan followed in 
this treatise. $ 301 Five periods of the 
history of Roman literature. $ 302 C lasses 
of autnors. 

I. Poetw, p. 554-586. 

$$303-389. = $303 Earliest poetry uf 
the Romans. $ 304 H]rmns of the Fratres 
Arvales and Salic Priests. ^ Fescennine 
verses. $ 305 Tuscan Histriones. Atel- 
lane Fables. $ 306 Early national ballada. 



^ 307, 308 Introduction of regular dramatic 
forms. ^ 309-312 Tragedy. ^ 313-317 
Comedy. ^ 318 Atellane Fable*. ^ 319 
Mimex. ^319b. Paniomime. ^320Ori. 
gin of modern dramatic exhibitions. Plays 
at fairs. Holy farces. Mysteries and Mo- 
ralities. ^ 321-325 Epic Poetry. ^ 326- 
329 Lyric. ^ 330, 331 Bucolic. $332, 
333 Elegiac. ^ 334-336 Didactic. ^ 337 
The Table. ^ 338-341 The Epieram. 
^ 342 Anthologies. ^ 343-347 Satire, 
i 348 General references. Collections of 
Roman Poets. ^ 349 Livius Andronicus. 
^ 350 Naevius. ^ 351 Ennius. ^ 352 
Plautus. ^ 353 Pacuvius. ^ 354 Accius 
or Atiius. ^ 355 Terence. ^ 356 Luci- 
liua. ^ 357 Lucretius. ^ 358 Catullus. 
^ 359 Cornelius Gallus. ^ 360 Tibullus. 
^ 361 Propenius. $ 362 Virgil. ^ 363 
Horace. ^ 364 Ovid. ^ 365 Cornelius 
Sevcrus. i 366 Pedo Albinovanus. ^ 367 
Grntius Faliscus. ^ 368 Publius Syrus. 
^ 369 Marcus Manilius. ^ 370 Cesar 
Germanicus. $371 jEmiliusMaccr. $372 
Phaedrus. $373 Persius. $374 L. An- 
ncBus Seneca. $ 375 Lucan. $ 376 Va- 
lerius Flaccus. $ 377 Silius Italicus. $ 378 
Statius. $ 379 Martial. $ 380 Juvenal. 
$ 381 Flavins Avianus. Fcstus Avienus. 
$ 382 Dionysius Cato. $ 383 Nemepian. 
$384Calpurniu8. $ 385 Ausonius. Proba 
Falconia. $ 386 Claudian. $ 387 Pru- 
dcntius. $ 388 Sedulius. $ 389 Rutilius 

n. Orators, p. 586-592. 
$$ 390-406. t= $ 390 Eloquence in the 
earliest ages. $ 391 Influence of Greek 
teachers. $ 392 Civil honors acquired by 
oratory. $ 393 Eloquence of the Gracchi. 
$ 394 Increase of speakers. Eminence 
of Crassus and Antony the Orator. $ 395 
Study of the art of speaking. Schools. 
$ 396 Two eminent orators. Sulpiiius and 
Cotta. $ 397 The two great rivals, Hor- 
tensius and Cicero. $ 398 The kinds of 
oratory. $ 399 Decline of Roman elo- 
auence. $ 400, 401 Principal orators in 
tne later ages. $ 402 Panegyrical oratory 
of the Romans. $ 403 General references. 
$ 404 Cicero. $ 405 PHny the younger 
(Caius Caecilius Secundus). $ 406 The 
Panegyrists; Claudius Mamertinus, Eu- 
menius. Nazarius, Pacatus, Symmachus. 

III. Rhetoricians, p. 592-595. 

$$ 407-415. =$407 Distinction between 
Rhetoricians and Grammarians. $ 408 
First rhetoricians at Rome. Opposition to 
the Grecian teachers. $ 409 Schools of 
Roman frcedmen. $410, 411 Principal 
authors in this department. $ 412 General 
references. $ 413 Cicero. $ 414 Marcus 
Annaeus Seneca. Rutilius Lupus. $ 415 

IV. Grammarians, p. 595-600. 

$$ 416-434. s=$ 416 Studies and influ- 
ence of the Grammarian. $ 417 The an- 
'Hent grammarian and modem philologist. 

$ 418 Principal grammarians down to the 
death of Augustus. $ 419 Chief gram- 
marians of the next period. $420 High 
rank enjoyed by grammarians in later 
limes. $ 421 Names of the more eminent. 
$ 422 General references. $ 423 Varro. 
$ 424 Asconius Pedianus. $ 425 Aulua 
Gellius. $ 426 Censorinus. $ 427 No- 
nius Marcellus. $ 428 Pomponius Festus. 
$ 429 -iElius Donatus. $ 430 Macrobius. 
$ 431 Charisius. $ 432 Diomedes. $ 433 
Priscianus. $ 434 Isidore. 

V. Epistolixers and Somancers, p. 600- 

^$ 435-445. = $ 435 Number and value 
of Roman epistles extant. 1'he earliest 
specimens. $ 436-438 The principal au- 
thors. $ 439 Romance scarcely found in 
Roman literature. $ 440 Cicero. $ 441 
Pliny the younger (C. CsBcihus Secun- 
dus). $ 442 Lucius Annsus Seneca. 
$ 4 13 Fronto. $ 444 Symmachus. $ 445 
Sidooius ApoUinaria. 

VI. Philosophers, p. 604-614. 
$$ 446-474. = $ 446 Origin of Roman 
philosophy. $ 447 Numa a philosopher. 
$448 Philosophers introduced by Paulua 
iCmilius and Scipio Africanus. $ 449 Date 
of the rise of philosophy at Rome. $ 450 
Difierence between Greeks and Romans 
in respect to philosophical studies. $ 451 
Comparative number of Roman philoso- 
phers. $ 452 Patronage of Lucullus. 
$453 Philosophy in the time of the em- 
perors. Introduction of oriental views. 
$ 454 Example of Marcus Aurelius. In- 
fluence of Christianity. $ 455 Sects of 
philosophy at Rome. $ 456 Academic 
$ 4.57 Stoic. $ 458 Peripatetic. $ 459 
Cynic. $ 460 Epicurean. $ 461 Skeptic. 
$ 462 Pythagorean. $ 463 New Pytha- 
gorean. $ 464 New Platonists. $ 465 
Eclectics. $ 466 Philosophy of Christian 
Fathers. $ 467 General references. $ 468 
Cicero. $ 469 Lucius Anncens Seneca. 
$ 470 Pliny the elder (Caius Secundus). 
$ 471 Apuleius. $ 472 Petronius Arbiter. 
$ 473 Capella. $ 474 Boci hiua. 

VII. Mathematicians, Geographers, and 
CEconomists, p. 614-622. 

$$ 475-501. = $ 475, 476 Merit of the 
Romans in mathematical science. $ 477- 
479 Principal writers in this department. 
$ 460 Knowledge of geography among the 
Romans. Survey of the Empire. $481, 
482 Principal writers and works. $ 483 
Class of writers termed (Economists. 
Greek and Roman agriculture. $ 484, 485 
Roman writers on husbandry. $ 486 The 
Culinary art. $ 487 Surveying of land. 
$ 488 I'reatises on the art of^the agrimen- 
sores or land-surveyors. $ 489 General 
references. $ 490 Vitruvius. $491 Fron- 
tinus. $ 492 Vegetius. $ 493 Julius Fir- 
micus. $ 494 Pomponius Mela. $ 495 
Solinus. $ 496 Vibms Sequester. $ 497 
I The Roman Itineraries. $ 498 Marcus 



Porcios Cato. ^ 499 Vanro. 500 a. Colu- 
mella. ^ 500 b. Pal ladius. Manialis Gar- 
gilius. ^601 Cceliua Apicius. 

VIII. Mythographers, p. 622-624. 
W 502-509 =« ^ 502 The tales of Roman 
mythology similar to those of the Grecian. 
^ 503 The writers few. Collections. ^ 504 
Hyginus. ^ 505 Fulgentius. Albricus. 
% 5& Lactaniius Placid us. 

IX. Historians and Biographers, p. 624- 

H 507-542 = ^ 507 Metrical annals. 
$508 The Pontifical Commentaries and 
other early records. $ 509 Legal docu- 
ments. Family memoirs. Funeral eulo- 
gies. ^ 510 Loss of early historical re- 
cords. Dispute respecting the authenti- 
city of the common history of Rome. 
$511-513 The Annalists. $514, 515 Prin- 
cipal writers in the third period of Roman 
Literature. $ 516 Official documents in 
this period. $ 517-522 Historical writers 
after the time of Augustas. $523-526 
Roman biography. Several classes of bio- 

faphicai works. $ 527 General references. 
528 Julius Cesar. $ 529 Sallust. $ 530 
Cornelius Nepos. $ 531 Titus Livius. 
$532Velleiu8 Paterculus. $533 Vale- 
rius Maxim as. $ 534 Tacitus. $ 535 
Quint us Curtius. $ 536 Florus. $ 537 
Suetonius. $ 538 Justin. $ 539 Sextus 
Aorelius Victor. $ 5*10 Eutropius. $ 541 
Ammianus Marcellinos. $ 542 Authors 
of the Augustan History. 

X. Writers on Medicine and Natural 
Science, p. 638-642. 

$$ 543-557 =» $ 543 Science of Medicine 
in low estimation at Rome. $ 544 Early 
notions respecting the nature of diseases. 
$ 545 Greek slaves the first physicians. 
$546 Regard paid to the Greek physicians. 
$ 547 a. Cato*8 book of medicine. $ 547 b. 
Roman medical authors, from the time of 
Aucastus to that of the Antonines. $ 548 
M^cai writers in later times. $ 549 
Rank of physicians under the emperors. 
$ 550 Opportunities for advancing natural 
science enjoyed b^ (he Romans. $ 551 
Principal authors m physics. $ 552 Ge- 
neral references. $ 553 Aulus Cornelius 
Celsos. $ 554 Scribonius Largos. $ 555 

Serenus Sammonicus. $ 556 Theodorus 
PriscianuB. $ 557 Marcellus Empiricus. 

XI. Writers on Law and Jurisprudence, 
p. 643-647. 

$$ 558-771. = $ 558 Number of works 
in this department lost. Reason for it. 
$ 559 Various classes of works. $, 560 
Dei?ign of the notice here to be taken. 
$561 Earliest collections. The Jus Pa- 
pirianum ; Twelve Tables ; Jus Flavia- 
nam ; Jus jElianum. $ 562 Writers in 
the second period of Roman literature ; 
Manilius, Mucins Scaevola. $ 563 Emi- 
nent writers of the next period ; Sulpicius 
Rufus; Cicero; Alfenus Varus; Cascel- 
lius; iElius Tubero, &c. $ 564, 565 
Chief civilians and authors in the period 
between Augustus and the Antonines; 
Masurius Sabinus. and Sempronius Pro- 
culus ; Cocceius Nerva, Juventius Celsus; 
Neraiius Priscus ; Salvius Julianus ; 
Gaius, &c. $ 566 Rank of (he legal pro- 
fession in the time between the Antonines 
and Constantino. Encouragement under 
the system of Constantine. Law- School 
of Berytus. $ 567 Papinian; Ulpian; 
Julius Paulus. $ 568 Coaex Hermo^enia- 
nus. Codex Theodosianus. Code of 
Theodoric. Breviary of Alaric. $ 569 
Arrangements of Theodosius for reducinjg; 
to order the Roman law. Labors of Tn- 
bouian. Constituent parts of the Body cf 
Boman Law. $ 570 Influence of the 
system of Justinian. Revival and sway 
of Roman Jurisprudence. $ 571 General 

Christian Writings in the Latin Lan^ 
guage, p. 647. 

$ 572 Names of some of the authors. 
References on the subject. 

Af?exdtx to the History of Greek and 
Roman Literature, p. 649-h652. 

$$ 573-575. = $ 573 Editions of the 
Classics in regular sots. $ 574 Collections 
of Translations. $ 575 History of classi- 
cal studies. $ 576, 577 Biography of the 
most eminent classical scholars. $ 578 
Progress of classical learning in the United 


I. Pbomtispiccs. View of Delphi and the 
BHfku 0j Parmassvt^ as given by Bocagt in 
Bartkeitmn*9 Anacbarsi*. See the Tolume of 
Plates, p. 71, as cited P. V. $ 153. S.— cf. P. I. 

1 Rbvkhsb of Titlb. (Facing Page v.) 
Reprtsentalion of tJu Oracle of JipoUo. Gf. P. 
III. MTU, 73. 

3. M4P OF AifciBiTT WoBLD. (Page 2.) 7>e 
World according' to Ptolemy, aa given in .Wvr- 
r^jr Bncyclopiedia of Geography. Cf P. I. ^ 3. 

4. P1.ATEI. (Page 14.) Plans of Atheno and 
Rome. See P. I. $(51-71, 104-116. 

5. Plate II. (Page 16.) The Tiber, and the 
City of Rowe^ tymboliud. Cf. P. II. $ 90; P. IV. 

6. PlatbIII. (Page 18.) The Pantheon. Cf. 
P. I. » 59. 

7. FlatbIV. (Page 23.) Plain and Aero^- 
lie of Pkiiipjri. Cf. P. I. } 80. 

6. Flats IV a. (Page 30.) Ruins at At hens 
of ibe Temple of Nepliine and that of Minerva 
Pandroaoa. Cf P. I. $ 107 ; P. III. ( 96. 

9. Flats IV ^ (Page 35.) Ruins at Corinth. 
Cf. P. I. ( 120. 

10. Plate I Ve. (Page 37.) VUlaeeofMis- 
tra : near the ancient Sparta. Cf. P. 1. ( 126- 

II. Platb V. (Page 39.) Cabirian TtrnvU 
si -ness^Unka. Cf P. I. $ 80; P. II. ( 129. 1 

12. Platk VI. (Page 42.) Colossal Statne 
of tko Snn. Cf. P. I. $ 147 ; P. II. } 72; P. IV. 
9 160. I. 

13. Platb Via. (Page 45.) Valley cf the 
am-itut Thebarma. Cf. F.l.^l54b. 

14. Platb VI *. (Page 49.) Viev> of Broosa^ 
the aneimt Brusa. Cf. P. I. $ 160. 

15. Plate VII. (Page 50.) Temple of Janus 
at Rome^ and that of the Sun at Heliopolis. Cf. 
P. I. i 160 60 ; P. IV. ( 234. 3. 

la Plate VIII. (Page 55.) The Egyptian 
Sphinx, tc. Cf. P. I. 9 177 ; P. II. J 117, } 96. 

17. Platb Villa. (Page 58.) A Portion of the 
Pntiwgerian Table. Cf. P. V. $ 497. It is pre- 
tented here as given in H. Murray's Encyclo- 
pedia of Geography (Phil. 1838, 3 vol8. 4), from 
which ta taken the following explanation of the 
^urea and lettera on the Plate; with nn change 
except that of adding in parentheses the cooi- 
moD Latin form of some of the names. 
Nobth Pabt. 
Oika. CUia. 

I. fiMeia. 92. BonoDia. 

SHl Clinio (CIvtiiini). 
S4. Vobiai (Vulsioij). 
as. Aqou-PUari*. 
ad, lUrenna. 
9t. ArimiottOi. 
n. Onoisc*. 
aSL Cenluai CcUjb. 
40l Aqaa»-Tnri. 
41. AaooM (Aaeona). 

45. Ca«tro-Novo(CMtniiDlfO' 

43l Aaaaa-Apollhivik 

46l PoUenlii. 

46. Rate. 

47. Ca«tdloFiniiauu(Cjatram 

4& AdiieB.FMnuB. 


fia HMtM (Oi«ia). 

61. CbATlacfM (Cvtlnco). 

S2. Uiica CoIodU. 

Sa. Aquk. 

S. Aqaiara (Aqaineara). 
4. Bn«u»o (BrcsoUo). 
& Men. 
ft. RifKfci— (Higopdo). 

& Canmaito (Cmoatoni). 


IL Tanaiica. 


14. Silio OiWnB). 

B. Ruolio (Fkfetffan). 

M. FaaM>Taial». 

17. AqailciA. 


It. AlrtM (Alliam). 

tl. Tndarc(lRSeatiun). 

a. A4|W hpdoBitt. 

•«. FleraitiaTMeoraB. 
M B^vita. 
fr. Vtnuk. 

54. Ipponte Dnritow 
56 Ad Medm. 


. A«nU»(An«lia»)b 

60. Sicca-Vcria. 

SO. AdXqfaoCmmtk. 


a. Daanbiua. 

b. Drioon. 

c. Sakom. 

d. Ar»ia. 

e. Frigido. 
(. Lioruaa. 
c. Afoia. 
L CleuHa. 
L Un.aiia. 
j. Fa«iut. 
k. Paala. 

I. Aoioia 
■n. lanx. 



1. Ad Prrtorom (PneloriiUD 

in Fmnob'ta). 

2. 8«r«i*ium. 

3. Ad Pre'nrum (Pnetorium 

in Datiialia}. 

4. Mana .Major, 
ft. Indeitra. 
& Tillnburso. 
7. tU<urio. 
8L S*elM. 
fl. halom. 

la Epelin (Epelium). 

II. Maroba. 

12. Sirmium. 

13. N:trDi!a. 

14. Taurnno (TuraaaB). 

15. Ad Matric«m. 

16. SiiM^iduDa (SiB|(iduii«m). 

17. Epitauro (EpidaoniB). 
IH. - ' 

19. Lii 

20. Vimiaalio. 
ill. Dyrraiio (DTrrachimi). 

22. Aubnia (Apdloaia). 

23. On Col. 

24. SabraU. 

25. Rcfio(Rh^iamerBcgiain). 

26. Caoloa. 

27. Laceoium. 

28. Caatra Mioamk 

29. Vibctn Vjtieotia. 

30. Temia (Tcoipai). 

31. TarrDlo (Tarralun). 
92. Brinditi (Bruaduaium). 

33. Giaiie. 

34. Nenilof (Nemloai). 

35. Salprno CSaisnuiu). 

36. Nuerria. 

37. Oplna'if. 

SB. Beneveoto (BeiieT«Btiiin). 

39. Veoona. 

4(1. Neapr>li (Neapolia). 

41. Capoa. 

42. Cninaa (C«Me). 

44. Acna. 

45. PrBiaalnm LaueriaaQn. 

46. Sipoato (SIpoolooi). 

a. (}inbnh 
ow Pallia. 
p. Annaiiita. 
q. Marta. 
r. Tibernk 
a. RubieoB. 
t. Nelnnuu. 
It. Mai ana. 
T. Mi*o. 
w. Floaia. 

X. THBtt. 

jr. Nflroiauoi. 
I. Aaio. 



64. Fcbraterio. 
66. Ittonuin. 

56. Corfiiiio (Corfiaiam) 

57. Mamibio (Marnifaiuif , 
6". Tret Tabenue. 

59. Canolif (Caneolt?). 

60. Osiia Atetni. 

61. KDDa. 

62 Ca«lro.NoTo(Caatranlf» 
Tom, oa tbe Hadriaticf). 
63. PnpDcate. 
61. Roma. 

65. Hoaiia (Odia). 

66. Chanacioc (CailhifD). 

67. Maxuia. 

68. AdAqiia!«. 
W. Minia Clipeia. 

70. Gaira. 

71. AdHorrta. 

72. Leptf!miDai(LcptalfiKif). 
73b Tliiibro Col. 

74. Ad Aquas. 

75. Tapamra (Ta|rfanDa). 

76. T.icape. 

77. Drei.ania (Drrpaanm). 
n. Lilvbeo (Lilybenia). 

79. Agriftnlo (Acri«aataa)k 

80. Siracuaifl (SyracwM) 
» fftnaMoaa. 

fB. McMaaa. 
a. Oaaubiuk 
h. Drinnin. 
e. Sarnn. 
d. Mar|nai. 

f. fl*pHai(A|«a). 

I. Silanioi. 
j. Cotor. 
k. AveMiom. 
L AufiHenoa. 
m. Larinani. 
B. Cloconi. 

4& TeaooSccdieiiio(TBUi«m 

4a SiDuoa. 

601 Minmrnia (Mintunm). 
51. Fsadii (Fundi). w. Niraaaa. 

50. T«rraeiiift. s. AuMre. 

53. Faaatinook j. Geria. 

18. Platb TX. (Page 02.) Symholie Rspre- 
sentations of the Seasons. Cf. P. I. ) 191 a; P. 
IV. $188-2; P. II. H 05. 

19. Platb IX a. (Page 80.) View of Athens, 
from the foot of Mt. Ancbesmui ; reduced from 
Hobhouse'e Albania. Cf. P. I. } 105. 

20. Plate X. (Page 82.) Mythological lUus 
trations.— Fig. I. Saturn; cf. P. II. $ 14-17.- 
Fig. 2. Cybele; cf. P. II. $ 1^21.— Fig. 3. Pluto; 
cf. P. II. 9 3^34.— Fig. 4. Vulcan ; cf. P. II. 
$ 51-54.— Fig. 5. Neptune : cf. P. II. ) 2»-31.~ 
Fig. 0. Venu0, with attendanti ; cf. P. II. $ 47> 
49.— Fig. 7. Diana ; cf. P. II. $ 38-40.— Fig. 8. 
Bacchus; cf. P. II. } 57-60. 

21. Platb XI. (Page 92.) Mythological R. 
lustrations.— F\g. I. Juno; cf. P. II. $ 26-28.— 
Fig. 2. Mercury; cf. P. II. $ 55, 56.-Fig. 3. Ju- 
pIter ; cf. P. II. ) 2»-25.-Fig. 4. Apollo ; cf. P, 




!1. ^ 85-37.— Fiff. 5. Ceres ; cf. P. II. ^ 81-64 — 
Fig fl MinervH; cf. P. II. $ 41-43.-Fle. 7. Mnrs: 
cf. P. II. $ 44-46— Fij{. 8. Janus ; cf. P. II. b 18. 
—Fig. 9. Cupid ; cf. P. II. ( 50.— Fig. 10. Vebia ; 
cf. P. II. ) 65-67. 

23. Plate XII. (Page 97.) The Hindoo 
TViad. Cf. P. II. $ 25. 4. 

23. Plate XHI. (Page 103.) The Avaiart 
^f Vishnu. Cf. P. 11. ^ 25. 4 ; $ 37. 2. 

24. Plate XII! a. (Page HI.) Festival of 
Juffgemaut. Cf. P. II. ^ 59. 4. 

25. Plate XIV. (Page 121.) Mythological 
Illustrations.— Fig. 1. Sol, as reprcseiiled on a 
coin of the Rhodians ; cf. P. II. ^ 71-72.— Fig. 2. 
Nox, as n'presenied on a gem; cf. P. II. $ 76. 
—Fig. 3. JLuTia ; cf. P. II. ^ 73 —Fig. 4. ll«-bc ; 
P. II. $ 27.— Fig. 5. Flora J cf. P. II. $ 90. 4«.— 
Pig. 6. .fijiculapiui : cf. P. II. $ 84.— Fig. 7. 
Pun ; cf. P. II. $ 79.— Fig. 8. Spes, or Hope ; 
cf. P. II. $ 95.— Fig. 9. Foriuna; cf. P. II. 
^ 86.-Flg. 10. Victoria ; cf. P. II. $ 93— Fig. 11. 
Concordia; cf. P. II, $ 95.— Fig. 12. Pax, or 
Peace ; cf. P. II. } 95. 

28. Plate XV. (Page 124.) Hfpretentations 
from the hiac Table. Cf. P. II. $ 96. 

27. Plate XV o. (Page 138.) TabU of Greek 
and Rom^n Deities classified Cf. P. II. d 9, 10. 

28. Plate XVI. (Page 140.) Crotens, Oar- 
Unds, ^c— Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Roman crowns or 
wreaths, bestowed as military rewards. Fig. 

6. Imperial crown. Cf. P. III. $284. 1.— Figs. 

7, 8, 9, 10. Crowns or garlands received by vic- 
lors in the games ; cf. P. III. $ 84-87, $ 233.— 
Fig. A. Plan of a Gymnasium or Paisstra aftar 
Vltruvius, as given in Barthelemy^s Anachar- 
tfis : cf. P. IV. $ 236.— Fig. B. Victorious cha- 
rioteer; cf. P. III. $ 233.- Fig C. A golden 
crown found in Ireland ; cf. P. III. $ 34. 

29. Plate XVII. (Page 155.) Milifarv Wea- 
pons, Sj^c. For particulars, see P. III. ($ 45, 137, 

30. Plats XVIII. (Page 161.) Tombs and 
8epulehr<U Remains. —Fig*. 1, 2, 3. Tomb of Cy- 
rus, Absalom's pillar, and Pyramid of Cestius ; 
cf. P. III. $ 187. 5.— Fig. 4. Gates of a tomb; cf. 
P. III. a 167. 5.— Figs, a and dd. Lachrymatory 
and nngiientary vases ; cf. P. III. ( 341. 7. — 
Fig. B. Egyptian Psychostasy, or weighing of 
the soul; cf. P. II. $ 34 b. 4.— Fig. e. Funeral 
couch; cf. P. III. $ 340. 1.— Fig. hh. Coffin and 
urns, &c. ; cf. P. 111. $ 341. 6. 

31. Plate XIX. (Page 166.) Oracle of Tro- 
phonius. Cf. P. III. $ 74. 

32. Plate XX. (Page 168.) Rspresenta- 
tionjt of Priests and Priestesses presenting Liba- 
tions and Sacrifices. Cf. P. III. $ 24, ^ 221. 

33. Plate XXI. (Page 179.) Temples.— 
Fig. 1. Parthenon; cf. P. 111. $ 96, P. IV. 
i 234. 3, P. I. } 107.— Fig. 2. Temple of the 
Winds; cf. P. III. $ 96, P. 1. } 110.— Fig. 3. 
Temple of Theaeus ; cf. P. III. $ 06, P. 1. $ 109. 
— Figs, a, fr, c, d, 0./.^t A, Ground-plaps of the 
different kinds of temples ; cf. P. IV. ) 234. 2. 

34. Plate XXII. (Page 195.) Vanous Jirti- 
eles of .drmor.—Figa. a, ft, c, &.c. Helmets; cf. 
P. 111. ^ 45.— Figs, r, s. Mall and breastplate; 
ef. P. III. $ 45, 139.— Fig. «. Greaves; cf. P. 
III. i 44, 45.— Figs. 1, 2, 7. Grecian warriors; 
cf. P. III. ^ 45.— Fig. 3. Persian warrior; cf. 
P. III. $ 45.— Fig. 4. Trophy; cf. P. III. $ 150.- 
Fig. 5. Warrior in mail, with an armor-bearer; 
cf. P. III. $ 283.— Fig. 6. Egvptian archer; cf. 
P III. ^ 45, $ 288. 1.— Fig. 8. Soldier in com- 
plete mail; cf. P. III. J 283. 

35. Platb XXIII. (Page 201.) M'aval JUus- 
trations.—Fig. 1. Pinnace or light boat for rapid 
moving; cf. P. III. J 304.--Fig. 2. Vessel froni a 
painting at PomP«"; cC.^vL"-.^2!f "I ** !' 
Liburnian galtey; cf. P. III. J »M-K^' i' 
Merchant vessel; cf. P. III. J 155 -Fig. 6. 
^ar-calley: cf. P. III. J 155.— Fig. A. Hexi- 
fcine C explained by Hoi well ; cf. P. III. $ 155 
156 —Fig. B. Views of the relative position of 
ttie rowcra, according to the explanations of 

some ; cf. P. III. $ 156.— Figs, a, (, e. Different 
forms of prows : cf. P. Ill $ 155 3, 4. 

36. Plate XXIV. (Page 205.) Pertaining 
to Household .Affairs. —tig. 1. Plan of a Grecian 
house; cf. P. III. H71. I.— Fig. 2. A Grecian 
key ; cf. P. III. $ 171. 2.— Fig. 3. Young man 
wearing ttie peiasus; cf. P. III. 169. 3.— FiE. 4. 
A bride sitting with a mirror hHd before her; 
cf. P. 111. $ 169. 6. $ 171. 2.-Fig9. 5 and ID. 
Grecian sofas; cf. P. 111. $ 171. 2.— Fig. 6. Pe- 
culiar head-ornament, worn in oricnial coun- 
tries; cf. P. III. $ 34.-Fii;. 7. Crpcian ladv, 
from Boyd's Potter; cf. P. III. J lt.9. 5 ; H"!. 2. 
-Figs. 8, 9. Chairs; cf. P. III. $ 171. 2. $ 52.— 
Figs, a, 6, c, Ate. Various forms nf coverings fur 
the feel; cf. P. III. J 169. 2; ( r6. 

37. Plate XXV. (Pace 211.) Costume.— 
Figs, a, b, c, d, Modern Egyptian and oriental 
dregses; «,/, Greek Uacchanies, ^, an Egyp- 
tian spinner; A, t, Grecian femnip fluiers ; jk, 
Grecian Indy in the more anrieiti coKtuute; m, 
peculiar head-dress; a, o, Egyptian princfFS 
and priestess in transparent gunnents ; y, tc, 
veils and head-dresses. Bee P. III. } 169. 5 — 
Fig. 1. A box worn on the neck; cf. P. 111. 
$ 337.— Fig. 2. A lady's purse, from Eryptian 
monuments ; figs. 3, 4, toilet-table and mirror ; 
cf. P. III. $ 338. 

38. Plate XXV «. (Page 215.) Tablfs of 
Grecian Monnts, ice. Cf. P. III. ^$ 1^3-177. 

39. Plate XXVI. (Page 219.) Musical In- 
struments. For particulars see P. 111. $ 160. 

40. Plate XXVI o. (Page 224.) Tabular 
vieu) of Civil Institutions of Athens. Cf. P. III. 
J$ 97-1 16. 

41. Plate XXVII. (page 231.) Altars end 
Sacrificial Apparatus.-Figa. a, b, e, &c. Varinus 
articles as given in Monifaucon; fig. A. including 
1, 2, &c., articles drawn from sculpture at Pom- 
peii; fig. B, representation of a sacriflce, frooi 
the same source ; cf. P. III. $ 206.— Fig. C. Sa- 
crifice to Bacchus; cf. P. III. $ 205. 1 ; ^ 67.— 
Fig. D. Sacred utensils ft-om Egvptian re- 
mains ; cf. P. III. $ 206. 2.-Figs. E, H, Aiiara ; 
cf. P. 111.^205. 1. 

42. Plate XXVIII. (Page 236.) PHests and 
Priestesses. Cf. P. III. $ Sl9; P. II. ^ 67 u; 
P. V.J 16. 

43. Plate XXIX. (Page 240.) Tht Suove- 
tavrilia, from an ancient bas-relief. Cf. P. III. 
$ 224. 2. 

44. Plate XXX. (Page 245.) Gladiatorial 
Contests.— Fig. 1, two andabata or horsenneii ; 
fig 2, a horseman and footman (cf. P. 111. 
J 283); figs. 3, 4, two gladiators on foot ; fig. 5, 
wounded bull; fig. 6, two secntores and two 
retiarii: see P. 111. $ 235. 2, 3.— Fig. 7. Plan of an 
amphitheatre at Pompeii ; cf. P. 111. $ 239. — 
Fig. n. A Dacian horseman in scale-armor ; cf. 
P. III. $ 2b3. 

45. Plate XXXI. (Page 255.) Psrtainin/t 
to topics notued under the head of Roman Ciril 
Affairs.— FlgB. 1 and 3. Roman fasceSy and 
Egyptian scepters; cf. P. III. $ 240. 1.— Figs 3 
and 9. Roman official chairs; cf. P. HI. h 255 
2.— Figs. 4, 5, 6, Chariots ; cf. P. 111. \ 369. 3 — 
Figs. 7 and 8. Steelyard and weight : cf. P III 
$270. l.-Fig. 10. Sedan; cf. P. 111. $ 255 «-- 
Fig. A, a kind of stocks; fig. B, tlie Maiuertine 
prison at Rome ; cf. P. III. $ 264. I. 

46^ Pt,ATE XXXII. (Page 265.) Pertaining 
to Household and Agricultural Affairs.— Pig. f 
plan of a Roman house ; figs, a and b, a kev 
and bolt from Pompeii; cf. P. 111. J 825 6 - 

£J."so" p"!fiTm'l; ■'""•• p"'»"'«-'»»ft 



toldiers with shield and sword, baggage, ice. ' 
ef. P. ni, ( 583.— Pig. 3. A Medo-Persian, from I 
acolptureiat Persepnliii; bearing a sort of ham- , 
nier, or baitle-ax, probably a token of some j 
military rank, perhaps however of some civil 
oifice; the two hands of another are seen bear- I 
\n% the same token ; fig. 4, anotiier from the 
Kiilplur^s at Persepolis, with a sword and 
ntbersccouternienis. Cf. P. IV. $ 171— Figs. A, 
B, C, Jic. A v.irieiy of stand irds and flags; 
ef. r. 111. J fc'2. 1— Fig. E. Part of the tri- 
umphal prnce-ision represented ou the Arch of 
TTtuf J ef. P. IV. $ 188. 2. 

«. Plate XXXIV. (Page 270.) rTar-en- 
^>M, R»matt Camp, <$'^.— Fig. I, testudo; fi^. 2, 
tine*; 3, moi'nble tower; 4, 5, 10, baiiering- 
rtm; 6,icorfio; 7, balinta; B, pluteuM; 9. fatx 
nunlis; see P. III. ^ 299.— Figs, a, b. Archer 
and slinger ; cf. P. III. ^ 2S8. 1.— Fig. P, plan 
of a coniular camp; R, sectional view of the 
•fFirand/M<a,' see P. III. $ 297 C. 

50. PL4Tt! XXXV. (Page 301.) Pertaining 
ioFutta and tht use of irins.— Fig. I. Plan and 
view of a trieliniuM fuund at Pompeii; cf 
P. III. ) 329. 2.— Fig. 2, carriage and vessel for 
transporting wine ; fig. 3, a patera^ used in 
libattons; cf. P. III. $ 331 b.— Fig. 4. Two per- 
roiM interchanging the pledge of hospitality ; 
cf. P. HI. $ 330. 3.— Fig. 5, a Bacchanal revel- 
ing alone, taken from remains at Pompeii ; fig. 
fi, a wine press, from Egyptian monuments ; 
flg. 7, two glass cups elegantly cut or cast; figs, 
a, b, c d, e, f, &c., various cupa and vessels ; 
cf. P. III. 9 331 b. 

51. Platr XXXVI. (Page 302.) Monwntn- 
tdl Strvcture, dedicated (• the Dii Manes ; Re- 
frtsentaiiinu of Dtath, Sre. Cf. P. II. ki 7G, 83, 

52. Platk XXXVII. (Page 306.) Aneisni 
S«ok», and ImpUmsnts used in Writtng and in 
tktArU.—V\g. 1. A painting on the wall of a 
chamber, found at Herculaneum; it shows a 
ba( of money, tied, Iving on a table between 
two heaps of coins, with an inkstand and reed, 
a parchment or papyrus manuscript with its 
title appended, a style, and tablets.— Fig. 2. 
Tablets connected by a ring, pugiUares ; cf. 
P. IV. ( 57. 2; ^ 118. 3.— Figs. 3 and 4. Styles ; 
ef. P. IV. ^ 54.— Pig. 9. A reed.— Fig. 5. A roll 
ihoving the manner of writing.— Fig. 6. Two 
Ublets, and the empsa^ or bookcase ; c:'. P. IV. 
\ 118. 3.— Figs. 7 and 8. Tools employed in ar- 
cfahectnre,&c. ; cf. P. IV. $ 229. 2. 

53. Plats XXXVIII. (Page 322.) Ancient 
Writisg^ JUaHuseriptSy and Inscriptiojts.—F'tg. a. 
Fine specimen or the ancient MS. roll ; cf. 
P. IV. I 118. 2.- Figs, d, «,/, are from remains 

foand at Pompeii; cf. P. IV. $ 118. 2. Figs. 

i. ii. iii. specimens of writing in Greek MSS. ; 

cf. P. IV. $ 104. 2. Fig. D. Inscription copied 

from a Babylonian orick lately deposited in the 
Boston Athtaeum ; the brick is about II inches 
square and 3 inches thick; It is here (merely 
for the sake of convenience in forming the 
Plate) exhibited so that the lines are perpen- 
dicular, but their actual direction is horizon- 
tal; they are to be read from left to right, the 
bottom of the figure being the left, and the top 
tlie right. Cf. P. IV. } 18. 4.— Fig. Q. Several 
specimens of writing in the arrow-head charac- 
ter: No. 1, part of an inscription found on a 
pillar near Murghab or Mourgaub, supposed 
by Morier to be the site of the ancient Fasar- 

tada; it is the name of Cyrus, Kusruesh, in 
lehrew Koruh, in Greek Kuros: No. 2, part 
of an inscription on a monument at Persepolis ; 
the name of Darius, Darheuscii, in Ilebrew 
Darisrish, in Greek Dartioi: No. 3, part of an- 
other inscription, containing a title often as- 
•nmed by Persian monarchs, KuscniEiiiOH 
Khsghkuiohtch, i. e. King of Kings (cf. £zra, 
vil. IS); No. 4, the name of Xerxes, In the al- 
phabet of tbe Zend language, Khscrhersche: 
no. 7, the same name in the alphabet consi- 

dered thai of the Pehlvi language : No. 8, the 
same, in a character supposed to be more mo- 
dern : No. 5, Hieroflyphie inscription noticed 
by Chfmpollion, on an Egyptian alabaster 
vuse, as being the name of Acrxes, and read 
by him Khschkarsciia; No. 6, the same name 
in the Persepolitan character, as found on that 

vase. See P. IV. $ 18. 4. Fig. II. Specimen 

of phonetic hieroglyphical writing; two car- 
touches of hieroglyphics, from one of the co- 
lonnades adorning the first court of the palace 
of Karnac, a part of Egyptian Thebes; the 
name of an Egyptian king, supposed to be the 
one called in the Bible Shishak (1 JTin^c, 
xiv. 5); tbe left cartouch expresses. It is sup- 
posed, the surname, interpreted as signifying 
** approved of the sun;** the other on the right 
(in which the corresponding Roman letters 
are, in the cut, attached to the hieroglyphics by 
wav of explanation, la read Amhmai Shsh.'ik, 
and interpreted ^^Dsar toAmwon^ Sheshonk**; 
this name is thought by some to be the same aa 
the Sesonchis (£/j<Toyx»0 "f Maneiho. Cf P. IV. 

n^- 1; $ ^•'l. 7. 8. Fig. B. Anrlent British 

writing on movable sticks; cf. P. IV. $ 53. 

Fig. C. The papyrus, growing on the banks of 
the Nile; cf. P. IV. $ 118. 1. Fig. E. Com- 
parative view of several corresponding letters 
in eight different alphabets (cf. P. lY. k 45. 2); 
forming as nearly as the alphabets will allow, 
the words of the Hebreto inscription^ IIoLiNBas 
TO THE LosD, which was engraved on tbe 
golden plate attached to the miter of Aaron 
(Ezud. xxviil. 36, 37);— the line a is in Hebrew 
old coin letters; A, in the Hebrew common let- 
ters, as in the modern printed Hebrew Bible: 

c, in the Egyptian hieratic or priest's letters ; 

d, in the Samaritan ; «, in the Egyptian phone- 
tic hieroglyphics; /, in the Coptic; the next 
line gives the corresponding Roman letters, aa 
formed in modern printing, being the same as 
ours; gt the common Greek, as nearly as the 
alphabet seems to allow; the last line, A, is tlia 
Septutigint version of the inscription. This cut 
may serve also to Illustrate the ancient custom 
of engraving an inscription in different lan- 
guages on the same monument ; as, e. g. the 
Rosetta stone (cf. P. IV. ( 91. 7); the Egypto- 
Persian Vase noticed above in explaining fig. 
G; and the memorable threefold inscription 
placed by Pilate over the head of the Saviour 
on the cross {Luke, xxiii. 38; John, xix. 19). 

54. Plate XXXIX. (Page 335.) Muses as 
representtd in the statues of Christina. Cf. 
P. II. $ 103. 

55. Plate XL. (Page 350.) Grecian Coins — 
For particulars, see P. IV. ) 93. 2; $ 95. 1: 
P. III. $ 173. 3. 

56. Plate XLI. (Page 354.) Spedmsn of 
Ornaments in ancient MSS. : a painting of the 
Goddess of JfighL Cf. P. iV. } 104. 3; P. II. 
$ 76. 

57. Plate XLII. (Page 358.) Roman Coins. 
—For the details, see P. IV. ) 134. 1; $ 139. 2. 
P. III. $ 270. 

58. Plate XLIIl. (Page 375.) Renresenta- 
tions of Jfeptune, ^c., on Coins. Cf. P. IV. 

K 2. 


59. Plate XLIV. (Page 376.) Spreimsns of 
Ancient Sculpture.— Fig. I. Dying Gladiator; 
cf. P. IV. i 186. 9.-Fin. 2. Head of Anlinous; 
cf P. IV. ^ lh6. 10.— Fig. 3. Apollo Belvidere; 
cf. P. IV. $ 186. 4.— Fig. 4. Gladiator Borghese ; 
cf. P. IV. $ 156. 8.— Fig. 5. Laocoon; cf. P. IV. 
$ 186. 1.— Fig. 6. Hercules Farnese; cf. P. IV. 
$ 186. 6. 

60. Plate XLV. (Page 384.) Specimen ef 
Sculpture in Bus-relief. Cf. P. 11. $ 91. 2. 

61. Plate XLVI. (Page 395.) The Tri- 
umphal Sacrifice of Aurelius ; a marble ana- 
glyph. Cf. P. IV. $ 188. 3. 

62. Plate XLVI I. (Page 399.) JevseU and 
Sculptured Gems. Figs. 1 and 2. Specimens of 
the Abraxas; cf. P. IV. ( 200. 2; ) 193; P. U. 



9 96. 0.— Fig. 3. A Roman leal; cf. P. IV. 
^ 906.— Fig. 4, and figi. /, A, t, o, and r. Jewels 
for the ear and breast; cf P. III. ( S3B. 2.— 
Fi|E. 5. Cupid, as on an ancient gem ; cf P. IV. 
( 196.— Fig. 6. Dsdalus, as on an ancient gem ; 
cf P. IV. $ 196.— Figs. 7 and 8. Gems bearing a 
Htrmes and Hermenulet ; cf P. IV. ( 164. 3.— 
Figs, a, ft, e, d, «,/. Finger-rings, wiib gems in- 
serted; cf P.lV.$S06. 

63. PLATB XLVIII. (Page 406.) Sfecimen of 
Engraving on Oema: Bacchus, Satyrs, ice. Bee 
p.iv. r^ii.5; P. II. ^60. 

64. Plate XLIX. (Page 411.) IIluMlrations 
pertaininf to the Theatre.— Fig. I. Plan of the 
Greeic theatre; cf P. IV. ) M5.— Fig. «. Plan 
of the Roman theatre; cf P. III. ^ 236.— Fig. A. 
Edifice called Choragic Monument of Thrasyl- 
lus; cf P. IV. ) 66. 3; P. I. ) I15.-Flg. C. 
Cboragtc Monument of Lyslcrates, called also 
Lantern of Demoetheneo.^Fig. B B. A repre- 
sentation in MooaiCf found at Pompeii; cf 
P. IV. $ 189. 1. 

65. Plate L. (Page 417.) ArthUutural IUu»- 

(ra<joiw.— Figs, a, ft, e, dy «. Columns, Egyptian, 
&c. ; cf P. IV. $ 238. 3.-Figs. /, g. A, <, j, jk, I. 
Grecian and Roman columns, exhibiting the 
different order; ttc, ; cf P. IV. ^ 238. 1 —Figs. m. 
and n. Arches upon pillars ; cf P. I V. ) S44.— 
Figs. j>, f, «, u. Grecian capitals ; cf. P. IV. 
^ 238. 1.— Figs, a, r, t, v. Pillars; r and v. 
Gothic ; ,0, Saracenic ; e, Chinese ; cf P. IV. 

66. Plate LI. (Page 422.) The TempU of 
Diana at Ephesua. Cf P. IV. \ 234. 3. 

67. Plate LII. (Page 425.) Comparative 
View of telebrated Edifices and other Stmcturu. 
See bottom of the Plate. Cf P. IV. $ 234. 3. 

68. Plate LII a. (Page 432.) The Ruins of 
tht Parthenon; from Hobhonse. Cf P. I. H07 : 
P. III. ) 96. 

69. Plate LIII. (Page 434.) Oreeian BusU, 
with names annexed ; taken from the Historie 
Oallsry, cited T. IV. $ 187. 

70. Plate LIV. (Page 548.) Roman BusU, 
with names annexed ; taken from the Historie 
OalUrf and Landan, ai cited P. IV. ( 187. 





i L The earlier Greeks must haye been very ignorant of the neighboring coun- 
tries, for the scenes of some of the wildest fictions of the Odyssey were within a few 
boon sail of Greece. The account of the Arffonautic expedition furnishes a still 
stronger proof of this, for these adventurers are described as having departed by the 
Hellespont and Euzine sea, and as having returned through the straits of Hercules ; 
whence it manifestly appears, that at that time the Greeks believed that thexe was a 
connection between the Palus Meeotis (sea of Azof) and the Ocean. In those early 
affes the earth was supposed to be a great plain, and the ocean an immense stream, 
which flowed around it and thus returned back into itself (di^^/^ooO- 

la later timea, however, the commercial enterprise oft the Athenian! eorrected theae errora. 
Their shlpa aailed through the seas to the eastof Burope and broiisht home such accurate infor- 
mation, that we find the description of these seas and the neithbonng coasts nearly as perfect in 
ancient as In modern writers.— The expedition of Clearchns into Asia, related in the Jinabatif 
ofXenophon (cf. P.V. ^943),and stitl more that of Alexander, gave the Greeks opportunities of 
becoming acquainied with the distant regions of the east.— The west of Burope was visited and 
devcribed by the Phoenicians, who had penetrated even to the British Islands. « 

$ 2. All the astronomical and gfco^raphical knowledge of the ancients was embodied, 
in the second century after Chnst, m two principal works by Claudius Ptolemy ; one 
styled TAtyaXii Svrrafis, and the other Tcwypa^ic^ 'T<^fiyicis. From the latter we de- 
riTe our chief information respecting the limits of the ancient world, and the attain- 
ments of the Greeks and Romans m geography. (Cf. P. V. ^^ 206, 207, 216, 216, 

% 3. The northern parts of Europe and Asia were known by name ; an imperfect 
sketch of India limits their eastward progress ; the dry and parched deserts of Africa 
preTcnted their advance to the south; and the Atlantic ocean limited the known 
world on the west. It must not be supposed that all the countries within these limits 
wen perfectly known; we find, that even within these narrow boundaries, there 
were several nations, of whom the ancient geographers knew nothing but the name. 

Let OS attempt to trace a line, which would form a boundary including the whole of the earth 
that was known In the time of Piolemy. We will begin at Fgrro^ one of the Ijuulm Fortunattt 
(Canary blanda), which, because it was the most westerly land known, was taken by Ptolemy 
for his fixed meridian. Our line extending hence northerly would include the British Isles and 
the Shetland Isles; the latter are probably designated by the TTmle of the ancients, according 
to d*Anville, although some have supposed it Mras applied to Iceland. Prom the Shetland Isles 
the line would pass through Sweden and Norway probably : perhaps around the North Cape, as 
h has been thought that this must be the Rubeat Promontorium of Ptolemy. The line would, in 
ehher ease, be continued to the White Sea at the mouth of the river Dwina, which seems to be 
deMnb<>d by Ptolemy under the name Caram.hiui$. Thence it would extend to the Ural Moun- 
tains, which were partially known by the name of Hfperkorei; near which the poets located a 
people of the same name (Fir^. Georg. 1. 940), said to live in all possible felicity. From these 
moantains the line would pass along through Scythia to the northern part of the Belnr Tag 
nuHiaUins, the ancient Imaus. Crossing these, it enters the region of Jfuhfar (in Chinese Tar- 
tniy), caHed by Ptolemy Casio R*rio; a region of which, however, he evidently knew little. 
Oar line would be continued thence to the place called by the ancients Stra; which is most pro- 
bably the modern Kan or Am-feAeoK, near the north-west corner of China and the termination 
of the Immense wall separating China and Tnrtary. From Sera or JTaii, it must be carried over 
a region, probably wholly unknown to the ancients, to a place called Thynm in the country of 
the 8in«f this place was on the Cotiaria^ a river uniting with the Senus, which is supposed to 
be the modern Gamboge. On the eoast, which we now approach with our line, the most easterly 
point (that is particularly mentioned) is thought tn be Point Condor^ the southern extremity 
of Cambodia ; this was called the PromontoriuM Satyrorvm. and some small Isles adjacent /h- 
»nlm Satfrorum, because monkeys were fnnnd here, whnse appearance resembled the fnbled 
Satyrs. The generaHgnorance respfcting this region is obvious from the fact, that It was Ima- 
gined, that beyond the Prowutntorf of SoJtfrt tt<e coast turned first lo the south, and then com- 
plelely in the west, and thus proceedt^d until it Joined Africa. From the point or cape Just 
named, the boundary we are traclnff wnuld run around the Aurta Cktraonexu$^ or peninsula of 
Malaya or Malacca, take in the coast of Sumatra, anciently called Jt^affii fnmla, and pass to 
Tkfnkmma or Saika, the nuHlero Ceylon. Thence sweeping around the Maldives, called by Pte 


lemy fnsula ante nfrobanam^ and crossing the equator, It would strike Africa at Cape Delgrado, 
supposed to correspond to ibe Pnuum Promontoriumt beinf about 10 degrees 8. latitude. The 
boundary would exclude Madagascar, as the ancient Menuikiat designates, not Madagascar as 
has been conjectured, but most probably tbe modern Zanzibar. It may be impossible to trace 
the line across Africa ; of the interior of which the ancients knew more than one would suppose, 

iudging from the Ignorance of the moderns on the subject. The line would pass south of the 
lountains of the Moon, Luna Monten^ which are mentioned by Ptolemy; and also, in part, of 
the river Niger, which, as d^^nvUU remarks, was known even in the time of Herodotus. On 
the Atlantic coast the line would come out a little south of Sierra Leone at Cape St. Ann's, about 
10 degrees N. latitude : this point answering to the ancient Jfoti Comu, Southern Horn, off 
against which lay the Islands called Jnmlm Htsptridum, From this cape our line passes up tbe 
shore of the Atlantic to the huulm Fortunata. 

From this it Is obvious, that tbe portion of tbe earth known to the ancients was small In pro- 
portion to the whole. It has been said, with probable accuracy, that it was scarcely one-third 
of the land^ now known, which has been estimated as 42 or 44 millions of square miles : and of 
tbe 155 millions of square miles of teotsr, covering tbe rest of the globe, they knew almost no- 

Od tba kBowlcdfa of tha ladcsli nqMetioc Ow euth, Otm. Joum. ?. lOS. U. 13S. — For the prioeipal hdpi in ihidriBC Cba- 
■ieal Geocnpfay, oomoU Om nlamom giftti in P. V. $ 7. 7 (fr) ; m abo F. V. K 006-108. 9TI n.~OD fba hUoiy of Gwgnpbr, 
tL P. IV. § tt. 

^ 4. The division of the earth into the large portiona, Europe, Asia, and Africa, is 
of very ancient date ; but although the names have been preserved, the boundaries 
in several particulars differed. Egypt was formerly reckoned among the Asiatic 
kingdoms : at present it is esteemed part of Africa: Sarmatia was esteemed part of 
Europe : a great part of it now forms one of the divisions of Asia. 

^ 5. The division of the earth into zones has remained unaltered ; but the ancients 
believed that the Temperate alone were habitable, supposing that the extreme heat 
of the Torrid and the extreme cold of the Frigid zones were destructive of animal life. 

Another division. Introduced by Hipparchus, was that of climates. A climate Is a space in- 
cluded between two parallels of latitude, so that the longest days of the Inhabitants at one 
eitremity exceeds that of the inhabitants of the other by half an hour. Of these, eight were 
known. The parallels pass successively through Meroe on the Nile, Bienne, Alexandria in 
Egypt, Carthage, Alexandria in the Troas, tbe middle of the Euxine Sea, Mount Caucasus, and 
the British Islands. 

NOTE— lo alodrilig Out Epltona, It b indMpeMtblc to meoan ttal loaM AOm ■taooM h» mtd. That of Butkr b very toibbla 
Cor tba poipaK. Tb« alitor of Om Masul bai it in coBtempUliOB to prepti* u AtlM tdapted to the EpitooM of Geqfraphf fasra 
prwBtwL— The •tndeat oeod sot eonmit to memory io tbe »iul ynj. Let bbn fint leem tbe (eoenl divitiaiie end namn of tbe 
eonntriet or pnTiaoee bidnded ia tbe lee«m, end next arefVillf reed over tbe irbola lanoD, traeing nay things ■• hr u poaiMe, 
on Ail mopt. For leeitation, let tbe THcber qsertiOB him on tbe mepi of tbe Atlae, or oo lu|e nape Id mere oatline^ prepared for 
ttw purpoH^ wbidiwill be Dtf better. 


^ 6. EunoFB, though the smallest, is, and has been for many ages, the most import- 
ant division of the earth. It has attained this rank from the superiority in arts and 
sciences, as well as in government and religion, that its inhabitants nave long possessed 
over degraded Asia and barbarous Alrica. — It derives its name from Europa, the 
daughter of Agenor, a Phsnician king, who being carried away, according to the 
mythological tales (P. II. ^ 23), by Jupiter under the disguise of a bull, gave her 
name to this quarter of the globe. 

^ 7. The boundaries of ancient Europe were nearly the same as those of modern 
Europe ; but we learn from Sallust that some geographers reckoned Africa a part of 
Europe. The northern ocean, called by the ancients the Icy or Saturnian, bounds it 
on the north ; the north-eastern part of Europe joins Asia, but no boundary line is 
traced by ancient writers; the remainder of its eastern boundaries are the Palus 
MsBotis, Cimmerian Bosphorus, Euxine sea, Thracian Bosphorus, Propontis, Helles- 
pont, and .^gean sea ; the Mediterranean sea is the southern and the Atlantic ocean 
the western boundary. 

^ 8. The countries of the mainland of Europe may be arranged, for convenience, 
in the present geographical sketch, in thret^ divisions; the nortkem, middle, and 
southern. The ISLANDS inay be considered m a separate division. —^ The north of 
Europe can scarcely be said to have been known to the ancients until the unwearied 
ambition of the Romans stimulated them to seek for new conquests in lands previously 
tmnotlced. From these coimtries, in after times, came the barbarian hordes who 
eiverran Riirope, and punished severely the excrssps of Roman ambition. — The' 
southern division contains the countries, which, in ancient times, were the most dis- 
tincuiahed in Europe for their civilization and refinftment. 

The Northern countries, with their ancient and modem names, were the follow- 
ing* Scandinavia, JVartray and Stoeden; Chersonesus Cimbbica, Jutland, or Dch- 


, Sarmatia, Bus9ia; Geemania, Germany.— The Middle countries were 
the following: Gallia, France and Switzerland; Vindeucia, Suabia ; Rh£TIA, 
country of the Grigons : Noricum, Austria; Pannonia, Hungary; Illyricum, 
Croatia and Dalmatia ; M^ssiAf Bosnia, Servia, and Bulgaria; Dacia, Transylvania 
and IFoZocAaa. -— In the Southern division we include Hisfaxia, Spain and Fortw 
gal ; Italia, Italy ; Thhacia., Macedonia, and Gr^cia, all lately comprehended 
under tke Turldth Empire. 


^ 9. ScAKDiNATTA, or ScandiR, by the Celts called Lochlin, was falsely supposed 
to be a large island. The inhabitants were remarkable for their number and ferocity ; 
they subsisted chiefly by piracy and plunder. From this country came the Goths, 
the Hemli, the Vandab, and at a later period, the Normans, who subjugated the 
south of Europe. 

^ 10. The Chersonesus Cijibrica, a large peninsula at the entrance of the Baltic, 
was the natiTe country of the Cimbri and the Teutones, who after devastating Gaul 
invaded the northern' part of Italy, and made the Romans tremble for the safety of 
their capital. They defeated the consuls Manlius and Servihus with dreadful slaugh- 
ter, but were eventually destroyed by Marius. 

^11. Sarhatia included the greater part of Russia and Poland, and is frequently 
confounded wiih Scythia. This immense territory was possessed by several inde- 
3)endent tribes^ who led a wandering life like the savages of North America. The 
names of the principal tribes were the Sauromatie, near the mouth of the Tanais, 
and the Geloui and Agathyrsi, between the Tanais and the Borysthenes. The latter 
were called Hamaxobii from their Uving in wagons. Virgil gives them the epithet 
piait because they, Uke the savages of America, painted tneir bodies to give them- 
selves a formidable appearance.—- From these districts came the Huns, the Alans and 
Rozolanians, who aided the barbarians formerly mentioned ($ 8} in overthrowing the 
Roman empire. 

The pemnsula, now known by the name of the Crimea, or Crim Tartary, was 
anciently called the Chersonesus . Taurica. Its inhabitants, called Tauri, were 
remarkable for their cruelty to strangers, whom they sacrificed on the altar of Diana. 
From their cruelty the Euzine sea received its name ; it was called Euxine (favorable 
to strangers) by antiphrasis, or euphemism. — The principal towns of the Tauric 
Chersonese were Fantieapoium (Kerche), where Mithndates the Great died ; Saphra 
(Procop), and Theodosia (Kaffa). — At the south of this peninsula, was a large pro- 
montory, called from its shape Criu-Metopouy or the Ram s Forehead. 

% 12. Ancient Germany, Germania, is, in many respects, the most singular and 
interesting of the northern nations. In the remains of its early language, and the 
accounts of its civil government, that have been handed down to us, the origin of the 
English language and constitution may be distinctly traced. The inhabitants called 
themselves Wer-men^ which in their language signifies fFor-men, and from this 
boasting designation the Romans named them, with a slight change, Gcr-men.— 
The boundaries of ancient Germany were not accurately asccrtainea, but the name is 
generally applied to the territories lying between the Rhine and the Vistula, the 
Baltic Sea and the Danube. 

% 13. These countries were, like Sarmatia, possessed by several tribes, of whom 
the principal were the Hermiones and Suevij who possessed the middle of Germany. 

The tribes on the banks of the Rhine were most known to the Romans. The 

chief of these were the^ jprtsn, through whose country a canal was cut by Drusus, 
which being increased in the course of time formed the present Zuyder ; the 
CkeruMci, who under the command of Arminius destroyed the legions of Quintilius 
Varus; the Sieambri^ who were driven across the Rhine by the Catti, in the time of 
Angastns ; the Catti, the most warlike of the German nanons, and most irreconcila- 
ble to Rome ; the Marcomannu who were driven afterwards into Bohemia by the 
AUemanni, from which latter people Germany is, by the French, called Allcmagne. 

Near the Elbe were the Aneli and Saxones, progenitors of the English, and the 

Longobardi, who founded the kingdom of Lombardy, in the north of Italy. The 
nations on the Danube were the Hermundurii, steadfast allies of the Romans ; the Mar- 
comanni, who retired hither after their expulsion from the Rhine; the Narisci 
and Quadi, who waged a dreadful war with the Romans during the reign of Marcus 

^ 14. The Germans had no regular towns, and indeed a continuity of houses was 
forbidden by their laws. The only places of note were, consequently, forts built by 

tfawe Romans, to repress the incursions of the natives A great part of Germany 

was occupied by the Hercynian forest, which extended, as was said, nine days' jour- 
ney from south to north, and more than sixty from west to east. A portion of the 
Syfva Hercynia is now called the Black Forest, which still has its fabled terrors. 

4 15. The largest river in the northern division of Europe was the iSia, now Wolgn. 
It was called Aid or Elel by the Byzantine writers (P. V. ^ 239a) and others in thu 



middle ases. It had' 70 moaths discharging, and with more water formerly than now, 
mto the Mare Catpium. It wbs in part the eastern boundary of Europe, aeparating 
Sarmatia Irom Scyihia.— '1 he river next in ^ize was ihe Boryatktnes^ calh^d in the 
middle ages Danapris^ whence its modern name Dnieper. Just at iis entrance into 
the Ponius EuxintUt it was joined by the Hypanit, called in the middle ages Bogus, and 
now the Bog. l^he long narrow beach at the mouih of the Borysihenea was called 
Dromu* AchiUei. — Between the Bor^sihenes and the Rha was the Tanoif, Uie 
present Don, which separated Sarmatia Europea from Sarmatia Asiaiica, and flowed 
mto the Palus Maods or modern sea of Azof ; near its mouth was a city of extensive 
commerce, called Tanai» Emporium. The strait connecting the Palus Meoiis with 
the Euxine was called Botpkonu Cimwteriug. — Another nver discharging into the 
Pontus Euxinue, was the Tynu^ the modem Dniester : it flowed between S«rmatia 
and Dacia, and formed in part the southern boimdary of what is included in our 
northern division of Europe. — ^Two rivers, from sources near those of the Tyros, 
flowed in a northerly course to the Baltic, the ancient Sinus Codanus ; they were the 
ViMtuhif still so called, and the Viader or Oder. The principal streams dischargiiiff 
into the Oceanus Germanicutt were the AUnt^ Elbe, and the iZAetiiM, Rhine, which 
formed the western boundary of the diviaioa of Eurooe now under notice, dividing 
Germania and Gallia. 


% 16. We will begin with Gallia, which is at the western extremity of the divisioik 
The Romans called this extensive country Gallia Trmualvina, to distinguish it from 
the province of Gallia Cisalpina in the north of Italy. Tne Greeks gave it the name 
of Golatia, and subseauentfy western Galatia, to distinguish it from Galatia in Asia 
Minor, where the Gauls had planted a colony. 

Ancient Gaul comprehended, in addition to France, the terrhories of Flanders, Hol- 
land, Switzerland, and port of the south-west of Germany. Its boundaries were the 
Atlantic ocean, the British sea, the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, and the 
Pyrenees.— The country, in the time of Julius Caesar, was possessed by three great 
nations, divided into a number of subordinate tribes. Of these the Celia were the 
most numerous and powerful ; their territory reached from the Sequana, Seine, to the 
Garumnat Garonne ; the Belga lay between the Sequana and lower Rhine, where 
they united with the German tribes ; the AquUani poeseased the country between 
the Garumna and the Pyrenees. 

^17. Atigustus Caesar divided Gaul into four provinces; Gallia iViirboiiefMis, Aqui 
tania, Gallia CeUica^ and Belgica. 

Gallia Narbonensis, called also the Roman province, extended along the sea 
coast from the Pyrenees to the Alps ; including the territory of the modem provinces, 
Languedoc, Provence, Dauphine, and Savoy. It contained several nations, the prin- 
cipal of which were the AlUhroge$^ Salyes, and Volcae. The principal cities were 
ifaHM MartiuMr the capital, (Narbonne) ; Mattilim (Marseilles), founded by an Ionian 
colony, from Phocaea, in Asia Minor ; Forum Julii (Frejus) ; Aqua Sextia (Aix) ; and 
Nernautus (Nismes), whose importance is manifest in the grandeur of its still existing 

AoMog ite hiterMHiif auiNnMBli It NlniMi ura, fbe Sgnara ITomm, and ChaAwfUi; Hm ktterbaiac n ■mphithibt^ t ehf, 
of Hm Oori« ordor, vrith wnlU conpoMd of CBormon mom of ■Hum mlrad with mwdarfal ikin, MO InI Id eh«nmfer«nv capaM* 
of hoMia^ it baid, 16,000 or nfiOOftmwB; Ihe Ihrawr, a teapl^ 76 fcol lna<, St broad, a^ 41 Ugfa ; adernad with M baaMllf al 
CwwIhiaB cotaniMu (Cf. Aynaraad Mmardy eilad P. [V. f MS. S^MUm, Vofi^adn lat Diparteaia^ d« Midi.) 

A q u i t a n i a extended from the Pyrenees to the Liger (Loire). The principal 
nations were the Tarbelli, south of the Garumna, and the Sontones, Pictones, and 
Lemovioes, north of that river. The chief towns were Mediolatuan (Suntes); 
Partus Santoftum (Rochelle) ; and UxeUodunum. 

Gallia Celtica, or Lugdunensis, lay between the Liger and Sequana. — The 
country along the coast was called Armonca^ the inhabitants of which were very fierce 
end warlike.— The principal nations were the Segusioni, ^dui, Mandubii, Pansii, and 
Rhedonea. The principal cities were Lugdunum (Lyons), founded by Munatius 
Plancus after the death of Julius Caesar; Bihraete, called afterwards Aupustodumim 
(Autun) ; Ahssia (Alise), the last city of Gaul that resisted the. arms of Caesar; and 
Partus Brivates (Brest), near the Promonlorium Gobmum (Cape St. Malo). 

JEirlMteParUlorVK (l'lnfa)irashantbrthaPluUikaaaawaaap7Uaad,baforathalina«rChrM,lnM WMofMlBpgriaa^ 
ntil A. a 840, wfen tba Bai|wrer Jaliaa weal lato wint* qnartm thoc, and araolad a pakua for himaU: 

The remainder of Gaul was included in the province Belgica. This contained 
a great number of powerful states ; the HelvHii occupying that part of modern Swit- 
zerland included between Locus Lemanus (the lake of Geneva) and Loots Bri^anli' 
r^us (the lake of Constance) ; the Seifuani. possessing the present province of Franche 
Tomte ; and the Bafaviy who inhabited Holland.-— Iliat part of Belgic Gaul adjoining 
the Rhhie below Helvetia was called Germania, from the number of German tribes 


who had settled there, and was divided into Superior or Upper, the part nearer the 
Bources of the Rhine, and Inferior or Lower, the part nearer ita mouth. The principal 
of these tribes were rhe Treveri, Ubii, Menapii, and Nervii. In ihe country of the 
Treveri waa the extensive forest Arduenna (Ardennes), traces of which still remain. 

♦ 18. The principal mountains of Gaul were Cebenna (the Cevennes), in Langue- 
doc; Voge9us (the Vauge), in Lorraine; and Alpt* (the Alps). — The Alps were 
subdivided into Aipea Maritinutt joining the Etruac^an sea ; CotluB^ over which Han- 
nibal is supposed to have passed ; Graces, so called from the passage of Hercules ; 
Pennina, so called from the appearance of their tops (from pennay a wing) ; RhcBtiea, 
joining Rhstia; Noriev, bordering Noricum; Pannonicm ; and Juliae, the eastern 
extremity, terminating in the Sinus Flanatiau (Bay of Carncro), in Liburnia. 

The chief rivers of Gaul were Hhenut (the Rhine); this river, near its mouth, at 
present divides itself into three streams, the Waal, the Leek, and the New Issel ; the 
last was formed by a great ditch cut by the army of Drusus ; the ancient mouth of 
the Rhine, which passed by Leyden, has been choked up by some concussion of 
natore not mentioned in history ; Ehodanua (the Rhone), joined by the Arar (Soone) ; 
Gannmna (Garonne), which umted Mrith the Duraniun (Dordogne) ; Liger (the Loire), 
joined by the Elaver (Allier) ; and Seonana (the Seine). 

The principal islands on the coast of Gaul were UxantoB (Ushant) ; Vliarus (Oleron) ; 
• Cawrfa (Jersey) ; Samia (Guernsey) ; and Riduna (Alderney) ; on the south coast 
were the SloBthadn or Liguttides (nsula (isles of Hieras). 

1 19. Th« foT^rnniKnt of ancfent Gaul, previous to the Roman InTaslon, was artotocratieal, 
and vo ^reat wan ibeir haired of royalty, that those who were even tuapeeted of aiming at sove- 
rciffn power, were Inaiantly pui to death. The prieeta and noblei, wbom they called Druids 
aad knights, poeseMed the whole authority of the state ; the peasantry were esteemed as slaves ; 
in most of the states an annual magistrate was elected with powers similar to those of tlic Ro- 
■mn consul, but It was ordamed that both the magistrate and the electors should be of noble birth.-- 
la person, the Qfinls are said to have been generally falr-complexloned, with long and ruddy 
hair, whence their country is sometimes can«'d Gallia C*imK«, or Hairv Gaul. In disposition 
tbey are described as irascible, and of ungovernable fury when provoked ; their first onset waa 
very impetuous, but if vicorously resisted they did not sustain the fight with equal steadineis. 

^ 90. The history of Gallia before the invasion of the Romans is involved in oliscuriiy ; we 
only know that it most have been very populous fi'om the numerous hordes who at different times 
am^rated from Gaul in search of new settlements. They seised on the north of Italy, which 
was from them called Cisalpine Oau I; they colonized part of Germany; tbey invaded Greece i 
and one tribe penetrated even to Asia, where, mingling with the Greeks, tliey 8e4z«d on a pro- 
Vinee, from th«*nce called Galatin or Gallo>Grccia.— Another body of Gauls, under th« command 
of Brennns, seised and burned Rome itself: and though they were subsequently routed by Camil- 
las, tlw Roanana ever looked on the Gaula as their most formidable opponents, and designated a 
Gallic war by the word TVaiailitf, implying that it was as dangerous as a civil war. 

^ II. The alliance between the people of HassilisR (MaraeiUea) and the Romans furnished the 
latter people with a pretext for Intermeddling in the affbirs of Gaul, which they eagerly embraced. 
Tbe first nation whom tbey attacked was the Salyea, who had refused them a passage into Spain; 
the Salyea were subdued bv Cains Bextius, who planted a colony called after his name. Aqua 
Beztise; aliout four veara after, the greater part of Gallia Narbonensis was subdued by Quintua 
Martitts R«!X, who founded the colony Narbo Martius, and made it the capital of the Roman 
province — After the suhingation of OalliM Narbonensis, the Gauls remained unmoiesied until 
the time nf Cvsar, who after innumerable difflcnlties conquered the entire country, and aanezad 
k to the Roman dominions. 

TtevRb ptnoa^f op p re— d bj the BMima govmnft, tlie Oatil* snder fli* awp e row nada npM mJy ntem h drIHaitiaa } Ibsf 
at* pMticalariy soiicad Iv tiMir u nc i ie <|» q — dm and law. A curum ctretimataoeo of iIm Moda la wlitcli thaM atodioi wara 
psnaed ia ne w Jai l bf mauf hktuHum ; aa aoBBa] ceall la aloqoaaca took placa at LugdaaaB, aad llw vaoqaiahed «rara eiaa> 
pillall»Uo(aB(tiMirowaeainpaaftion,aBdwritaaawontfaiMiBpnMaof tlWYkloniarataabawfa^lwd aad |>lai«ad iota dM 
Atw. awTaim>^HhtBiwa»naelaii. Fur. llca. S vota. Il 

^ 72, The country called V i n d e 1 i c i a was situated hetween the sources of the 
Bhenmf (Rhine), and the Danubiuif or Jtter (Danube). Its chief town was Augusta 
Vindelieorum (Augsburg, celebrated for the confession of the protestant faith, pre- 
sented by Melancthon to the Diet assembled there at the comroencement ol the 
Reformation).— 'Between Vindelicia and the Alps was Rhjbtia, containing rather 
more than the present territory of the Grisona. Its chief towns were Curia (Coire), 
and Tridentum (Trent), where the last general council was assembled. — ^VindeUcia 
and Rhsetia were originally colonized by the Tuscans, and for a long time bravely 
maintained their independence. They were eventtAlly subdued during the reign ot 
Augustus CfBsar, by Drusus the brother of Tiberius. 

^ 23. Noricum lay to the east of Vindelicia, irom which it is separated by the rrve 
JEntu (Inn). Ita savage inhabitants made frequent incursions upon the Roman terri 
tories, and were, after a aevere strtiggle, reduced by Tiberius Caesar. The iron of 
Noricum was very celebrated, and swords made in that country were highly valued. 
—East of Noricum was Panxonia, also subdued by Tiberius. It wab divided into 
Sujferior, the chief town of which was Vvuleihona (Vienna) ; and Inferior, whose 
capital was Sirmiutn^ a town of great importance in the later ages of the empire.— 
Norieimi is now called Austria, and Pimnonia. Hungary. 

^ 24. Tbe boundaries of Illtbicum have not heen precisely ascertained ; it occu- 


pied the north-eastem shores of the Adriatic^ and was subdivided into the three 
provinces of Japfdii^ Libumia, and Dalmatia. h included the modern piovinces, 
Croatia, Bosnia, and Sclavonia. — '1 he chief lowns were Salona, near Spftlatro, where 
the emperor Dioclesian retired afier Jiis resignation oi the imperial power ; Epidaurut 
or Dioclea (Ragusi Vecchio), and Raguta. 

The Illyriana wnre inflimous for their pirary and th€ rnielty with which they treated their 
captive* ; th<>y pnMened great nkill in •hip-building, and the light jfralleysofthe Liburniiinf con- 
trlbnied not a little to Aug Ufnus'f victory ai Aciitim.— The Koroans drclarpd war H|rain«t the 
Illyriana, in conccqiienceof the murder of their anibHttiRdort, wiio hwd been basely mnMacred by 
1'euia, queen nfthnt country. The Illyrians were obligi'd to beg a peace on the moat humiliatinf 
conditions, but having again attempted to recover their forin«*r ptiwer, they wern finally nubducd 
by the prctor Anictua, who glew their kingGentius, and made the country a Roman provinca. 

^ 25. MossiA lay between Mount Httmut (the Balkan) and the Danube, which after its 
junction with the Savut was usually called Ister. It was divided into Superior^ the 
present province of Servia, and Inferior, now cal'ed Bulgaria. Part of Mce.sia Supe- 
rior was possessed by the Scordisei, a Thraciun tribe ; next to wluch was a district 
called Dardania; that part of Mcesia Inferior near the mouth of the Danube was 
called Ponlus, which is frequently confounded with Pontus, a division of Asia Minor. 
— The principal cities in Mvenia Superior were Singidunum (Belgrade), at the conflu- 
ence of the Save and Danube ; Niconolis, built by Trajan to commemorate his victory 
over the Dacians; and Naisfutt (Nissa), the birthplace of Constantine the Great. — * 
In Mfcfia Inferior Yfere Marcianopolig, the capital ; Tomij the place of Ovid's banish- 
ment ; Odessus, south of Tomi, and JE^itsuty near which was the bridge built by 
Darius in his expedition against the Scythians. 

^ 86. Dacia lay between the Danube and the Carpates, or AJpet Basfanfir^ (Carpa- 
thian or Krapack mountains); including the territory of the modern provinces. Tran- 
sylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachm. The celebrated Hercynian Forest, Sylva Htrcynia 
(cf. ^14) , stretched over the north and west part of it. Dacia was inhabited by two 
Scythian tribes, the Daei and Gettr., who for a \<vng lime resisted every effort to deprive 
them of their freedom ; they were at length subdued by Trajan. 

After hafiig cooqvCTtd Ihc eoa; try, Tnjaa JoiiMd it to Maaia by a viMnlAceBt bridge Atcr (be Damih*. tnen oT wbid) alin 
cxmL Hh Ncemor, Adriu, infloneed eitbsr hf Jcalooqr of hit pndec«nor'a Rlory, or Micvin^ i( niot* rxy edicnl to ceoinct Una 
to MMcod Ihc boiradt of tbc anpire, broke down th* brtdcci aod IcA Dm« to id ht«.^Thi« cooDtry wat of eoDaidenble tmporl&oea 
to tbe Roaaoa on acooant of iia fold and rilTor ninaa. la 1807, ao lataraalinc bobobm^ of Booaa wnUog waa foaad in mo of 
tboaailMB. (Cf. P. IV. 1 1 18. a.) 

A peopitt baa been fbond aiaoai ibe WallaebiaaB, that aovr ipMk a laaxvaf* f«ry tiaiilar to tbe Latia, and are tharelbre rappoaed 
lo be deaeeoded fron Ibe Ronaa eoioaiala.— Mr. Brewer my be buad ao many woida eotaaaoo to tbe Lai ia aad Ibe Waihcbiaa, 
tbat by aMaaa of (be Lalia be eovM eooYone on coinmoB mbjeda with a Wallachlaa Dterebaai al CoaalaaUaopla.— J. A'atAcr, Beai* 
danee at CoartaaliaopU ia IS7, te. New Haven, 188a IC-Cfl WiOMt Joimay Ikw C^netaaHaople. 


% 27. In treating of this division we will also commence with tbe most western 
coimtry, which was Hispania. This name included the modern kingdoms of Spain 
and Portugal. l*he country was also called Iberia, Hesperia. and ('o distinguish it 
from Italy, sometimes termed Hesperia, from its western situation,) Hesperia Ultima. 
The Romans at first divided it into Higpania Citerior, or Spain at the eastern t^ide of 
the Ibenis, and Hispania Ulterior, at the western side; but by Augustus CaDsar, the 
country was divided mto three provinces; Tarraconcfit, Bcsfiha, and Lusitania. Like 
the provinces of Gaul, these were inhabited by several distinct tribes. 

$ 28. Tarraconensis exceeded the othettwo provinces together, both in size and 
importance. It extended from the Py/enees to the mouth of the Durius, on the Atlantic, 
ana to the Orottpeda Mon» separating it from Bstica, on the Mediterranean ; and re- 
ceived its name from its capital, Tarraco (Tarragona), in the district of the Cosetani. 

The other principal towns were Saguntum, on the Mediterranean, whoso siege by 
Hannibal caused tne second Punic war; some remains of this city still exist, attd are 
called Murviedro, a corruption of Muri veleres (old wnllf) ; Carthago Nova (Carthagena), 
built by Asdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, also on the Mediterranean : in the interior, 
north-east of the capital, Ilerda (Lerida) , the capital of the Ilergetes, where Caesar 
defeated Pomney*» lieutenants, ^franius and Peireius ; Numantia, near the sources of 
the Durius, whose inhabitants made a desperate resistance to the Roman invadens. and, 
when unable to hold out longer, burned themselves and the city sooner than yield to 
the conquerors; BilhUigf the birthplace of Martial, among the Cehiberi; Catarra 
Augusta (Saragossa) , capital of the Edetani; Toletum (Toledo); Complutum (.Alcala)., 
vndiKibora (Talavera) , in the same district ; Calagurris, in the territory of the Vasrones, 
whose inhabitants sufiered dreadfully from famine in the Sertorian war, being reduced 
to such straits, that the inhabitants (as Juvenal says) actutilly devoured each other. 
Near the modem town of Segovia, retaining the name and site of Srgnvia among tbe 
Arevaci, are the remains of a splendid aqueduct, built by Trajan. Calle (Oporto) , at 
the mouth of the Durius, was also called Port us Gallorum, from some Gauls who 
settled there, and hence the name of the present kingdom of Portugal. The north 


of Tairaronensis waa pomeaeed by the CaiUahri^ a 6erce tribe, who for a lon^ time 
resisted the utmost efTurta of the Romans ; tlieir territory is the modern provmce of 

^ 29. The soathern part of Spain, between the Anas and Mediterranean, was called 
Belie a, from the river Bietis. Its chief towns were Cordufni (Cordova), at tirst 
called Colonia Patricia, the birthplace ot the two Senecas, and the poet Lucan ; in 
this town are the remains of a splendid mosque, built by the Moorish king, Aimanzor ; 
it is more than 500 feet long, and 400 wide ; tlie roof is richly ornamented, and supported 
by 800 columns of alabaster, jasper, and black marble: Hixpalis (Seville); Ilalica, the 
native city of Trajan, Adrian, and the poet 8ilius Italicus ; Custulo, called also Paraasaiu, 
betianse it was founded by a Phocian colony; all on the liaeiis.— The south-weaierii 
extremity of Bcetica was possessed by a Phoenician colony, called the Basiuli Pceni, to 
dL<iinguish them from the Libyan roeni, or Carlhaginians ; their cauiial was Gadcs 
(Cadiz) , on an island at the mouth of the Bceiis: near it were the little island TarttS' 
SU8, now part of the continent, and Jutumis Promontorium (Cape Trafalgar). — At 
the entrance of the straits of Hercules or Gades, stood Carteiaj on mount Calpe, which 
ia DOW called Gibraltar, a corruption of Gebel I'arik, i. e. the mountain of 'i'arik, the 
first Moorish invader of Spain. Mount Calpe and mount Abyla (on the opposite coast 
of Africa) were named the pillars of Hercules^ and supposed to have been the bouiida- 
Ties of thai heroes western conquests. North of this was Munda^ where Caesar fought 
his last battle with Labienus, and the sons of Pompey. 

Lusitania, which occupied the greatest part of tiie present kingdom of Portugal, 
contained but few places of note ; the most remarkable were Augusta EmeriUi (Menda) 
and Olisippo (Lisbon), said to have been founded by Ulvsses. 

^ 30. '1 ne principal Spanish rivers were, Ibenis (fcbro) ; Tagua (Tajo) ; Durius 
(Douro); Bcetis (Guadalquiver) ; A?ias (Guadiana). — The promontory at the north- 
western extremity of the peninsula was named Artahmm or Celticum (Finisterre); that 
at the south-western. Sacrum, because the chariot of the sun was supposed to rest there ; 
it is now called Cape St. Vincent. 

) 31. SpAJn was first made known m the ancients by the cnnqueutt of Hercules. In latrr times 
lh«» Cirthaginianii became masters of the greater part of the country ; they were in ihfir turn 
exielled by the Romani, who kept po^.^eHaion of the peninmila for several ct>ntnrios.— Diir- 
ins the civil wars of Rome, Spain was frequently devastated by the conlendini; parties. Ilure 
S«noriu4, after the death of Marias, assembled the fuptives of the popular pnriy, nnd for a long 
lim<* resisted the arms of Svlla : here, Afranius and Petreius, the lieutenants of Pompey, made 
a gallant stand against Julius Caesar ; and here, after the death of Pompey, his sons made a 
fV-iiitless effort to vindicate their own rights, and avenge their father's misfortunes.— Upon'the 
overthrow of thfl Roman empire, Spain was conquered by the Vandals, who gave to one of the 
provinces the name Vandalusia, now corrupted into Andalusia. 


^ 32. Italy, Italia, has justly been denominated the garden of Europe both by 
ancient and modern writers, from the beautv of its climate and the fertihty of its soil. 
I'he Italian boundaries, like those of Spain, have remained unaltered ; on the north are 
the Alps, on the east the Adriatic, or upper sea, on the South the Sicilian strait, and 
on the west the Tuscan, or lower sea. By the poets the country was called Saturnia, 
Aiisonia, and (Enotria ; by the Greeks it was named Hesperia, because it lay to the 
west of their country. 

Italy baa always been subdivided Into a number of petty states, more or less independent of 
each other. We shall treat it as comprehended in two parts, denominated the northern and 
»9utkem ; and as the chief city and capital of the country is of such celebrity, shall enter into a 
more particular description of Rome ; adopting the following arrangement; I. The Geography 
of the northern portion of Italy ; 3. The Geography of the southern portion; 3. The Topography 
of the city of Rome. 

4 33. (I) Geography of the NoHhem portion of Itma A. The principal ancient divi 
sons of this part, were Gallia Cisalpina, Etniria, Uinbria, Picenum, and Latium. 

Gallia Cisalpina, called also Togata, from the inhabitants adopting, after the 
Social war, the toga, or distinctive dress of the Romans, kiy between the Alps and the 
river Rubicon. It waa divided by the river Eridanus, or Padus, into Trnnspadana, at 
the north side of the river, and Cispadana at the south ; these were subdivided inio 
several smaller districts. 

North of the Padus, or Po, was the territory of the Taurini, whose chief town, 
Auirrtsla Taurinorum, is now called Turin ; next to these were the Insubres, wh(jse 
principnl towns were Mediolanum (Milan) ; and Ticinum (Pavia), on the river Ticiniis, 
where Hannibal first defeated the Romans, after his passage over the Alps; the Ccno. 
inauni. possessing the towns of Brixia (Brescia); Cremona; and Mantua, the birth- 
place ot Virgfil; and the Euganei, whose chief towns were Tridentum (Trent); and 
Vfrona, the binbplace of Catullus. — Next to these were the Vetieii and Carni ; ilu-ir 
cliief towns viere Pa'amum (Padua), the birthplace of Livy, built by the Trojan Anio 
nor, after the destruction of Troy; and AquiUiOf retaining its fonucr name but not 


fonner ooiwequence ; it is celebrated for its desperate resistance to Attila king of the 
Huns. Next to these was the province Hisiria, or Istria; chief town, Tergette 

South of the Po where the territories of the Ligures ; chief towns, Genua. (Genoa) , 
on the Sinus Ligustums (Gulf of Genoa) ; Forms HerculU Monad (Monaco), and 
Nicaa (Nice); the territory of the Boii, containing Btmonia (Bologna); JStutina 
(Modena), where Brutus was besieged by Antony ; Parma^ and Placentia; and the 
country of the Lingones, whose chief town was Ravenna, where the emperors of the west 
held their court, when Rome was possessed by the barbarians. 

% 34. Cisalpine Gaul contained the beautiful lakes Verbanitt (Mageiore) ; Benacus 
(Di Gardi), and Lariiu, the celebrated lake of Como, deriving its modern name from 
the village Comum, near Pliny's villa. 

The nvers of this province were the Eridanus or Padus (Po), called by Virgil the 
king of rivers, which rises in the Cottian Alps, and receiving several tributary streams, 
especially the Ticinus (Tesino) and Mincitfs (Mincio), falls into the Adriatic; the 
Alhegis (Adiffe), rising in the Rhstian Alps ; and the Rubicon (Rugone), deriving its 
source from tne Apennines, and falling into the Adriatic. 

) 35. Tbe InbabiUnta of Ctealpine Gaul were, of all the Italian states, the most hoitile to the 
power of Rome; they Joined Hannibal with alacrity when he invaded Italy, and in the Social 
war they were the moat inveterate of the allied tiaiet in their hoar 11 ity.— When the empire of 
the weat fell before the northern tribea, this province was raized by the LonirobardI, from whom 
the greater part of it is now called Lombardy. In the middle ages it was divided into a number 
of independent republics, which preserved some sparlcs of liberty, when freedom was banished 
from the rest of Europe. 

% 36. E tr uria extended alongthe coast of the lower or Tuscan sea, from the small 
river Macra, to the mouth of the Tiber. 

The most remarkable towns and places in Etruria were : the town and port o{ Luna, 
at the mouth of the river Macra ; .rt«s (Pisa); Florentia (Florence) : Porius Herculis 
Lebumi (Leghorn); Pistoria, near which Catiline was defeated; Perusia, near the 
hike Thrasymene, where Hannibal obtained his third victory over the Romans; Clusium^ 
the city of^Porsenna; VoUinii (Bolsena), where Sejanus, the in&mous minister of 
Tiberius, was bom ; Falerii (Palari), near mount Soracte, the capital of the Fatisci, 
memorable for the generous conduct of Camillus while besieging it; Veii, the ancient 
rival of Rome, captured by Camillus after a sieee of ten years ; C<zre, or Agvlla (Cer 
Veteri), whose inhabitants hospitably received the Vestal virgins, when they ned from 
the Gauls, in reward for which they were made Roman citissens, but not allowed the 
privilege of voting, whence, any Roman citizen who lost the privilege of voting was 
said to be enrolled among the Carites; Centum CeZte(Civita Vecchia), at the mouth of 
the Tiber, the port of modem Rome. 

^ 37. The principal rivers of Etraria were the Amus (Amo) , risine in the Apennines 
and falling into the sea near Pisa ; and the Tiber , which issuing from the Umbrian 
Apennines, and joined by the Nar (Nera) and Anio (Teverone) , running in a south- 
westerly direction, falls into the sea below Rome. 

The Etrurians were called by the Greeks, 7)frrk«ni ; they are said to have come originally 
fhim Lydia in Asia Minor, and to have preserved traces of their eastern origin, to a very late 
period. From them the Romans borrowed their ensiens of regal dignity, and many of theii 
superstitious observances, for this peo|ile were reniarkaUy addicted to auguries and soothsaying. 
They attained distinguished excellence in art (cf. P. I v. $ 100, 110>; inleresling monuments of 
which still exist (cf. P. FV. ( 173). 

^ 38. Umbria was situated east of Etruria, and south of Cisalpine Gaul, from which 
it was separated by the Rubicon. The principal river of Umbria was the Metaurus 
(Metro) , where Asdrubal was cut off by the consuls Livius and Nero while advancing 
to the support of his brother Hannibal. Its chief towns ; ./In'mzntim (Rimini) , the first 
town taken by CoBsar, at the commencement of the civil war; Pesaurum (Pesaro); 
Senna GalUca (Senieaelia), built by the Galli Senones ; Camerinum; SpoUlium (Spo- 
letto), where Hannibal was repulsed after his victory at I'hrasymene. 

The mcawry of thh rtpain it tflU p re wf fad la an iaaeriptioa orar one of tha gatca, tbanee called Porta di Fuga. ** Han alaa ■ 
a bcaatihl aqaedoet carried wenm a vallej, three huodred feet bi(h.» fT. FMt, p. 84S, •• cited P. IV. f 19a & 

$39. P i ce num lay to the east of Umbria, on the coast of the Adriatic. Its principal 
towns were, Asculum vAscoH), the capital of the province, which must not be confound- 
ed with Asculum in Apulia, near which Pyrrhus was defeated ; Corfiniutn (San Ferino), 
the chief town of the Peligni ; Sulmo, the birthplace of Ovid ; and Ancona, retaining its 
ancient name, founded by a Grecian colony. 

Clow to the haitor of Aaeooa h a beautind triumphal arch erected ia honor of lYijan ; the plllan ire oT Parian marUe, and lUII 
retain their pure whttenca and ezqaiaile polish, aa if freth fixm tha workmen^ handi. The celebnted chapel of Loratte it near 

South of Picenum and Umbria, were the territories of the Marsi and Sabini. The for 
mer were a rude and warlike people ; their capital was Marnibium, on the Locus Fueinus. 
This lake Julius Caesar vainly attempted to drain. It was afterwards partially effected 
by Claudius Ctesar, who employed thirty thousand men for eleven years, in cutting a 
passage for the waters through the mountains, from the lake to the river Liris ; when 


ereiy thing was prepared for letting ofi* the waters, he exhibited seTeral splendid naTal 
games, showsp &c.; bat the work did not answer his expectations, and the canal, being 
neglected, was soon choked up, and the lake recovered ita ancient dimensions. — The 
Sz^ine towns were Cures, whence the name Quiriies is by some derived (cf. ^ 53) ; 
Reeite, near which Vespasian was bom ; Amitertiumt the birthplace of Sallusi ; Crus- 
tuwterium^ and FidcTUB. Mona Sacer, whither (he plebeians ol Rome retired in then: 
contest with the patricians, was in the territory of the Sabines. In these couniries were 
the first enemies of the Romans, but about the time of Camilkis the several small states 
in this part of Italy were subjugated. 

^40. Latium, the most important division of Italy, lay on the coast of the Tuscan 
sea, between the river Tiber and Liris ; it was called Latium, from lateo, to lie hid, 
because Saturn is said to have concealed himself there, when dethroned by Jupiter. 

The chief town was Romb (see ^ 51 ss). Above ^ome on the 'liber, stood Tibur 
(Tivoti), built b^ an Ai^ve colony, a favorite summer residence of the Roman 
nobility, near which was Horace's favorite country seat (F. III. ^ 326) : south of Rome, 
Tuseulum (Frescati), remarkable both in ancient and modem times, for the salubrity 
of the air and beauty of the surrounding scenery ; it is said to have been built by Tele- 
Konus. the son of Ulysses; near it was Cicero's celebrated Tusculan villa: east of 
Tuscolum, Praneste (Palesirina), a place of great strength both by nature and art, 
where the younger Marius perished in a subftrranean passage, while attempting to 
escape, when the town was besieged by Sylla; south of^ Tusculum, Longa AVba^ the 
parent of Rome, and near it the small towns Algidum, Poedum, and Gabii, betrayed to 
the Romans by the well-known artifice of the younger Tarquin. — On the coast, at the 
momb of the Tiber, stood 0$tia, the port of ancient Rome, baih by Ancus Martins; 
south of this were Laurentum, Lavinium (built by ^neas and called after his wife La- 
Tinia), and Ardea, the capital of the Rutuli, where Camillus resided during his exile. 
Soath of these were the territories of the Volsci, early opponents of the Romans ; their 
chief cities were Antium, where there was a celebratea temple of Fortune ; Sucssa 
Pometia, the capital of the Volsci, totally destroyed by the Romans ; and Corioliy from 
the capture of which Caius Marcius was named Coriolanus. 

South of the Volsci, were the town and promontory of Circeii, the fisibled residence 
of Circe ; Anxur (Terradna), on the Appian Way ; the town and promontory Caieta, 
deriving its name from the nurse of ^neas, who was there interred ; FormuB, near 
which Cicero was assassinated bv command of Antony ; and, at the mouth of the 
Liris, Mintuma, near which are the Pontine or Pomptine Marshes, in which the elder 
Marius endeavored to conceal himself when pursued by his enemies. The Pontine 
Martke9 extended through a great part of Latium, and several ineffectual efforts have 
been made to drain them. The exhalations from the stagnant water have always made 
the surrounding countiy yery unhealthy. — On the confines of Campania were Arpmum, 
the birthplace of Manus and Cicero, the rude soldier and the polished statesman ; 
A^inum^ the birthplace of Juvenal ; and Sinuetsa, celebrated for its mineral waters, 
oiupnally called Sinope. 

7 41. The principal rivers of Latium were the Anio (Teverone); the AUiuy on the 
banks of which the Gauls defeated the Romans with dreadful slaughter ; and the 
Cremera, where the family of the Pabii, to the number of three hundred, were de- 
stroyed by an ambuscade, while carrying on war at their own expense against the 
Veientes ; these three rivers fall into the Tiber ; the Liria (Garigliano), which divided 
Latinm from Campania, frJIs into the Tuscan sea. — The prind]^ kkes were named 
Lacos ABmlu9 (Solfatara), remarkable for its sulphurous exhalations, and the adjoin- 
ing grove and oracle of Faunns ; Lacus Regillusi near which Posthumius defeated 
the Latins, by the assistance of Castor and Pollux as the Romans believed ; and La- 
coa AlbanMM, near which was Mount Aibanus where the solemn sacrifices called 
Feris Latinae were celebrated. 

The capital of Latiom, In the rei|^ of King Latinos, was Laarentam ; In the reign of JBneas, 
Lavinium ; in the reifn of Ascanius, Longa Alba ; bat all these were eclipsed by the superior 
graadenr of Boose. The several independent states were sabdaed by the Romans in the earlier 
ages of the republic. 

♦ 42. (2) Geogrofjfm of the Southern portion of Italia. The southern part of Italy 
WBS named Magna Gr<Bcia, from the number ot Greek colonies that at different periods 
sealed there. It was divided mto Campania,. Samnmm, Apulia, Calabria, Lucaiiia, 
and Brattiom. 

Campania, the richest and most fertile of the divisions of Italy, extended along 
the shores of the Tuscan sea, frt>m the river liris to the river Silarus, which diTided 
it fitim Lncama. 

The chief dty was Capua, so named from its founder Capys, celebrated for its nches 
and luxury, by which the veteran soldiers of Hannibal were enervated and corrupted. 
North of it were Teanum, celebrated for the mineral waters in its vicinity, and VenO" 
/ms», fiunous for olives. — South of Capua was CostZmam, where a garrison of Pre- 
nestines, after having made a most galUnt reststanoe, and protracted the siege till 
they had endured the utmost extremity of frmune, were at last compelled to surrender ; 


next to this was Litemum, at the mouth of the little river Clanius, where Scipio Afiri- 
canus for a long time lived in voluntary exile. — Farther south was Cuintc, touuded by 
a colony from Chalcis in Eubcea, the residence of the celebrated Cumean fcihyi, and 
near it the town and promontory il7/>fn«in, so named from Misenus, the trumpeter of 
iEneas, who was buried thore. — iJelow ihe cape were BaicB^ laraous for its mineral 
waters ; Puleoli (Puzzoli) , near which were the Phlugnei-campi, where Jupiter is said 
to have vanquished the giants ; Cimtnerium, whose early inhabitants are said, by Ho- 
mer, to have lived in cslvhs. After these we come to ParLheiutpe or Neapolis (Naples). 
This beautiful ciiy was founded b^ a colony from Cums, and for a long time retaiined 
the traces of a Grecian original ; it was called Farlhenope from one oi the ^Sirens said 
to have been buried there. Close to the town is the mountain Fansilypus (Pausilippo), 
through which a subterranean passage has been cut, half a miie^in length and twenry- 
two feet wide*; neither the time of making nor the maker is known ; a tomb, said lo 
be (hat of Virgil, is shown on the hill Pausilippo ; here also are ruins called the vilia 
of LucuUus. — At the southern extremity of the Siniitt Puteolanus (bay of Naples), 
were Stahue, remarkable for its mmerad waters, and Surrentumt celebrated for its 
wines; near the latter was the Promontorium Surrenfinum or Athenoium {Cnoo deWa 
Minerva) ; east of Naples was Nolo, where Hannibal was first defeated, and where 
Augustus died. In the south of Campania was Salemum (Sale^'no), the capital of the 
Piccntini. — Between Naples and Moaut Vesuvius were Hereulafyum ana Pompeii, 
destroyed by a tremendous eruption of thi|t volcano, A. D. 79. 

Th« remaim of then town ware ■eeidentallf AueomnA in the b«gtBaiii« of tht I»al eealury, and the mmermu and vmluabla 
mnaiM of aniiquity (its a a greater tight into the deoeatle habtb of the HomaM than eoald pref ioQtIy be obtained. **AboTC thiri j 
•treeta of Pmniieii are now (ISliO) reitond to iifht The walla which fomed iu wuaaA aBchMraa have been tecogniKd ; a mat^ 
niftcent ain4>hilhMtre, atheaire, a fcium, ttie tanptc of Iila, that of Veooa, and a number of other buildinga, have brco deared." 
Ilouaa, ahopa, ce1la>a, with all their variooa romitiuv, arc ft>und Jnat aa they wva when buried oader the volonic oiaa.— 4iee Iha 
n and Foinpeil cited P. IV. ( 843. L-Cf. P. IU. } Sa. 

^ 43. The principal Campanian rivers were the Vultumva (Vultumo) ; Sthethus 
(Sebeto), now an inconsiderable stream, its springs being dried up by the eruptions of 
Mount Vesuvius ; and the Samva (Samo). — The principal lakes were the Lvcrinus, 
which b^ a violent earthquake, A. D. 1538, was changed into a muddy marsh, with 
a volcamc mountain, Monte Nuovo de Cinere, in the centre ; and the Avemus, near 
which is a cave represented by Virgil as the entrance of the infernal regions. It was 
said that no birds <M)uld pass over this lake on account of the poisonous exhalations ; 
whence its name, from a (not) and Spvti (a bird). 

Upon the Invafion of the northern nations, Campania becnme the alternate prey of difTcrent 
barharouf tribei ; at length it wne leized by the Saracens in the tenth century. Theae were ex> 
pelled by the Normani, under Taacred, who founded the kingdom of the Two flicltiei. 

$ 44. East of Latium and Campania was S a m n i u m, including the country of the 
Hirpini. — The chief towns were SamniSf the capital ; Beneventum (Benevento), at 
first called Maleventum, from the severity of the winds, but when the Romans sent 
a colony here they changed the name, from motives of superstition ; near this town 
Fyrrhus, king of Epirus, who had come to the aBsistance of the Samnites, was totally 
defeated by the Roman army, commanded by Curius Dentatus ; Caudium^ near which 
are the CaudintB Furcula (Forchia d' Arpaia), a narrow and dangerous defile, in which 
the Roman army, beine blocked up by the Samnite general, Pontius, were obliged to 
surrender on disgraceful conditions; and Alfenia, remarkable for its manufactory 
of earthenware. — Amoiig the Hirpini, were Eguotutieum, whose onpoeiical name is 
celebrated by Horace ; Trixicum and Herdonia (Ordonia), on the borders of ApuHa. — 
Near Herdonia was the celebrated valley of Amsanctus, surrounded by hills, and re- 
markable for its sulphurous exhalations and mineral springs ; on a neighboring hill 
stood the temple of Mephitis, the goddess who presided over noxious vapors, whence 
the valley is now called Moffeta. 

^ 45. The principal rivers of Samnium were the Sabattut (Sabato), and Color (Ga- 
lore), both tributary to the VulturnuB. 

The Samnitei were descended from the same parent stock as the Bablnes, and for many years 
eontrnded with the Romans for the empire of Italy ; at length, after a war of more than seventy 
vears, during which the Romans were frequently reduced to great extremities, the fortune of 
ilome prevailed, and the Samnites were almost totally extirpated, B. C. S7S. 

$46. Apulia, called also Daunia and Japygia, but now la Puglia, occupied the 
greater part of the east of Italy, extending from the river Frento to the Bay of Ta> 

Its chief towns : Tean»m, named Apulum to distinguish it fit>m a town of the same 
name in Campania; Arpi, said to have been built by Diomede, after his return fh)ra 
the Trojan war ; north of Arpi is Mount Garganus (Saint Angelo) , in the spur of the 
boot to which Italy is commonly compared ; east of Arpi were Uria^ which gave the 
ancient name to the Sinut Urius, and Siptmtum (Manfreaonia, which gave to the Sinus 
UriuB its modem name. Gulf of Manfi-edonia) ; on the borders of Samnium stood 
Lveeriiy celebrated for its wool; Salapia (Salpe); and Asculuniy called Apulum, to 
distinguish it from a town of the same name in Picenum.— Near the river Aufidua 


sfood the village of Cann^, where Hannibal almost annihilated the power of Rome ; 
t^ugh the fields of Canne runs the small stream Vergellus, which is said to have 
been so choked with the carcasses of the Romans, that the dead bodies served as a 
bridTO to Hannibal and his soldiers; Canusium, a Greek colony, where the remains of 
the Roman army were received after their defeat. — Venusia (Venoea), near Mount 
Vultur, the birthplace of Horace ; Bartum (Bari), where excellent fish were caught in 
great abundance ; and Egnatiot on the Matinian shore, famous for bad water and good 

The principtil Apulian rivers were Cerbdlus (Cerbaro), and Aufidut (O&nto), remark- 
able for the rapidity of its waters ; both falling into the Adriatic. 

^47. Calabria, called also Messapia, lay to the south of Apulia, forming what is 

called the heel of the boot. ^Its chief towns on the eastern or Adriatic side, were 

Brundusium (Brindisi), once remarkable for he excellent harbor, which was destroyed 
m the fifteenth century; from ibis* the Italians who wished to pass into Greece gene- 
rally sailed ; Hydrunium (Otranto), where Italy makes the nearest approach to Greece : 
Costrum Minerva (Castro), near which is the celebrated Japygian cape, now called 
Cm Santa Maria de Luca. On the west aide of Calabria were Tarenium Crarento), 
buut by the Spartan Phalanthus, which gives name to the Tarentine bay ; Rvdia, the 
birthplace of the poet Ennius ; and Callipolis (Callipoh), built on an island and joined 
to the continent by a splendid causeway. * 

The principal river of Calabria was the GaUsus (Galeso), which falls into the bay of 

^48. Lucaniala^ south of Campania, extending from the Tuscan sea to the bay of 
Tarentum ; in the middle ages the northern part was named Basilicata, from the empe- 
ror Baml ; and the southern part was called Calabria-citra bv the Greek emperors, to 
penpetoate the memory of ancient Calabria, which they had lost. 

The principal towns on the Mare Tyrrhenum (Tuscan sea), were, ZaiM, on the 
nver of the same name fldwing into the Sinus Lau» (Gulf of Policastro) ; Byixentwn^ 
called by ihe Greeks Pyxus, on the Lausine bay ; Velia or Elea^ the birthplace of Zeno, 
the inventor of logic, founded by a division of the Asiatic colony, that built Marseilles 
(c£. % 17) : in the vicinity of Elea, near Mount AUmmtu (Posti^lione, or Albumo), 
Psstum^ called by the Greeks Poeidonia, celebrated in ancient tune for its roses, in 
modem for its beautiful ruins. 

Oa Iht iw»af il w r^ii i . cC EutUut, m dM P. IV.f 180. L-IFinelaiiiuMN, HkMra, ftc, vol. OL tt dtod P. IV. } 91. 4.-2>»> 
EitfwMi, Lh Bntan de FMam, died P. IV. } S4S. 1. 

In the interior of Lncania, were Atinunif on the Tenagrus ; Atemunit on the Silams ; 
Grumgntuw^, on the Aciris ; and Lagaria, said to have been founded by Epeus, the 
framer of the Trojan horee."^On the shore of the Sinus Tarentinus (Tarentine bay), 
were Metaponlum, the residence of Pythagoras during the latter part of his life, and 
the head-quarters of Hannibal for several winters ; Heradea^ where the congress of 
the Italo- Grecian states used to assemble ; Svbarist on a small peninsula, infiimous for 
its luxury ; and Thurium, at a little distance, whither the Sybarites retired when their own 
city was destroyed by the people of Crotona. The plains where these once flourishing 
cities stood are now desolate : the rivera constantly overflow their banks, and leave 
behind thexn muddy pools and unwholesome swamps, while the few architectural re- 
mains contribute to the melancholy of the scene, by recalhng to memory the days of 
Ibrmer greatness. 

The principal riven of Lucania were the Tanagrus (Negri), which, after sinking 
in the earth, breaks forth near the beautiful valley of Alburnus, and uniting with 
the SHarus fiills into the Sinus Pitstanus (Gulf of Salerno) ; Melpus (Melfa), which 
empties itself into the Laus Sinus (Gulf of Policastro, so called irom the number of 
ruins on its shores) ; the Bradanusj dividing Lucania from Calabria, and falling into 
the Tarentine bay ; the Aciris (Agri), and the Sybaris (Coscile), small streams on the 
Tarentine coast. 

% 49. The south-west of Italy, below the Sybaris, was named Bruttia-tellus or 
B rut tin m, but is now called Cahibria-ultra.— The principal cities of the Bruttvi, on 
the Tuscan sea, were Pandosia^ where Alexander, kin^ of Epirus, who waged war in 
Italy while his relative and namesake was subduing Asia, died ; Consentia (Cosenza), 
the capital of the Bruttii ; Terina^ on the Sinus TerintBus (Gulf of St. Euphemia) ; 
and Vibo, or HippOy called by the Romans Valentia (Monte Leone). — On the Sicilian 
htimt, were the town and promontory ScylhBum (Scylla), whose dangerous rocks gave 
rise to the fable of the sea-monster ScyUa (cf. P. II. ^117); opposite to the celebrated 
whirlpool Charybdis on the coast of Sicily : Ehegium (Reggio), so named by the Greeks, 
because they behoved that, at some very remote period, Sicily was joined to Italy, and 
broken olT here by some violent natural concussion ; it was founded by a colony firom 
Chalcis, in the island of Euboea, and the surrounding country was celebrated for its 
iertihtv ; not far from Rhegium were the village and cape Leucopetrot so named from 
the whiteness of its rocks, now Capo dell* Amai. 

On the Tarentine bay were PetUiay the city of Philoctetes * Crotona^ founded by 
Achasans on their return from the Tr^an war, where Pythagoras established his 


t MWMilB. 

(AccordiDg to that givoD in Barthelemy'a Anachanit.) 


Af niftjik. 


CAa publiflhed by the Society for the Diflusion of Deeful Knowledge.) 



cdebraled school of philosophy ; the people were so famous for their skill in athletic 
ezerdsew, iliat it was commonly said *'the last of the Crotoniates is the first of the 
Greeks"; south of this was the FromorUorium Lacinium, where a very celebrated 
temple of Juno stood, whence she is frequently called the Lacinian goddess ; from the 
remains of this temple, the promontory is now called Capo della Calonne ; Scylacaum 
(Squillace), founded by an Athenian colony on a bay to which it gives name ; Caulon 
(Costel Vetere), an Achaean colony, almost destroyed in the wars with Pyrrhus ; soutli 
of it, Neryx (Gerace), near the PronunUorium Zephyrium (Burzano), the capital of the 
Locrtans, who at a very early period settled in this part of Italy.— The cape at the 
southern extremity of Italy was named Fromontorium Herculis, now Spartivento. 

The principal rivers of the Bruttii were the Crathes (Crati), and Necstkes <Neti), which 
receivea its name from the Achaean women having burned their husbands' ships to 
prevent thdr proceeding further in search of a settlement. 

$ SO. A great proportion of tbe Greeks who colonized the south of Italy, were generals, who, 
on their reiarn from tbe Trojan wars, found ihat they had been forgotten by their subjects, 
and that their thrones were occupied by others. The intestine wars that almost continually 
devastated Greece, increased the number of exiles, who at differ<fnt tiroes, and under various 
leaders, sought to obtain, in a foreign country, that tranquillity and liberty that had been denied 
them at home.—Tbese different sutes were internally regulated by their own laws ; but an 
annual congress similar to the Arophlctyonic council of Greece, assembled at Ueraclca, and 
united the several communities in one great confederacy. 

Sybaria seems to have been, at first, the leading state, but after a bloody war. It was destroyed 
by the Jealousy of the people of Crotona ; the Sybarites did not yield to despair ; five times they 
rebuilt their city, but at length it was leveled to the ground, and its wretched inhabitants, forced 
to relinquish their native place, built a new town at Thurium.— The Crotoniates did not long 
preserve their supremacy, for the vices of the Sybarites were introduced into their city, and 
they consequently fell an easy prey to the Locrians.— To secure their superiority, the Locrians 
entered into an alliance with the kings of Syracuse, who by this means obtained considerable 
influence In tbe south of Italy, until the attempt of the elder DIonyaius to secure to himself a part 
of tbe country by building a wall from the Terincan gulf to the Ionian sea, and still more the in- 
gratitude of the younger DIonystus, gave them a distaste for the connection.— After breaking 
o^ their alliance with tbe Sicilians, the Locrians united themselves to the Romans; during the 
war with Pyrrhus, they adhered to the fortunes of Rome with the most unshaken fidelity ; 
but afterwards becoming Justly alarmed at the restless ambition lif their allies, they readily Joined 
Hannibal.— It is remarkable, that in all the other Italo-Greclan states the people embraced the 
Carthaginian side, while tbe nobles sided with the Romans, but among the Locrians tbe division 
of parties was directly the contrary. 

The Tarentlnes ruled the shores of the Tarentlne bay, but being enervated by riches and 
luxury, they were obliged to put themselves under the protection of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to 
secure iheir city from the Romans. After the disgraceful tprmination of Pyrrhus's Italian 
campaign, that monarch returned home, leaving a garrison in Tarentum, under the command 
of Milo, who betrayed the city to the Romans. 

After tbe termination of the second Punic war, these states, though acknowledging the su- 
periority of Rome, retained their own laws and private Jurisdiction, even to the latest periods 
of the Roman empire. 

^51. (3) The Topagravhy of Rome. This city was originally, it is stated, nearly in 
the form of a square, and its whole perimeter was scarcely one nu'le. In the time of 
Pliny the walls were said to have been nearly 20 miles m circuit. The wall built by 
Betisarius to resist the Goths, still remaining, is about 14 miles in circumference. — ^The 
Gaies {Porta) of Rome were originally four ; in the time of the elder Pliny, there were 
thirty-seven ; in the reign of Justinian only fourteen. The following were the most 
noted; Porta Carmentaiis^ CoUina, Ttburtina, CalinunUanaf Zatina, Capena, Fla- 
maiiat Ottiensis. 

Fte a pte or iMicBl Bobs, n* ow nato I, tram which Ito raite Biy tan fh» podlfcn of inoy of the inpcK^ 


^ 52. Thirty-one great Soadt centered in Rome. Some of the principal were Via 
Sacra, Appia, JEmUia, Valeria, FUumnia, These public roads ''issumg from tbe 
Forum traversed Italy, pervaded the provinces, and were terminated only by the fron- 
tiers of the empire." Augustus erected a gilt pillar in the middle of the forum, called 
Mittucrium aureum(,Tae. Hist. i. 27), from which distances on the various roads were 
reckoned. '* This curious monument was discovered in 1823." ButWM Geogr. Class, 
p. 39.) 

** They nsDalty were raised some height above the ground which they traversed, and proceeded 
fai as straight a line as possible, running over hill and valley with a sovereign contempt for all 
the principles of engineering. They consisted of three distinct layers of materials ; the lowest, 
stones, muted with cement, tUUumtn ; the middle, gravel or small stones, ruder^ to prepare a 
level and anylelding surface to receive the upper and most important structure, which consisted 
of large masses accurately fitted together. These roads, especially In the neighborhood of 
dtles, had, on both sides, raised foot-ways, margine$, protected by curb-stones, which defined 
tbe extent of the central part, •zftr, for carriages. The latter was barrelled, that no water 
might lie upon it."~**The public roads were accurately divided by mile-stones. They united 
tbe subjftcis of tbe most disunt provinces by an easy intereoarse ; but their primary object had 
been to ikeilitate the march of the legions. The advantage of receiving the earliest intelligence, 
and of conveying their orders with celerity, induced the emperors to establish, throughout their 
ext«a«ive dominions, the regular institution of posts. Houses were every where erected only 
at tbe distance of five or six miles; each of them was eonstanily provided with forty horses, 
and by the help of these relays, It was easy to travel a handled mUes in a day along the Roman 


roadi. The um of the pofltt was allowed to thote who claimed it by an imperial mandate ; bat 
though originally intended for ibe public service, it was aometlmee ipdulg ed to the butinesa oi 
conveniency of private citiseni."— Dr. Robinson noticed three Roman mile-stones on Ikis route 
(in 1838} from Tyre lo Beirut in Syria; one of them, ** a large column with a Latin inscription 
containing the names of 8eptimius Severus and Pertlnax." Traces still exist of a Roman 
road leading firom Damascus to Petra, and thence even to Ailah. The most ancient and cele- 
brated of all the Roman Vie was the Appian way, called tUgina Vharwrn, the Queen of Roads. 
It was constructed by the censor, Appius Claudius, in the year of the city 441, and extended 
from Rome to Capua. Afterwards it was continued to Brundusium, 360 miles. At Sinuessa it 
threw off a branch called the Domitian way, which ran along the coast to Baic, Neapolis, Her- 
culaneuro, and Pompeii. 

JV. Arficr, H'Mt <Sm gnwb eiwaiin d« BobmIim. Flu>. IT9S. S vAtai t.-'iTuffwaiC, oa Ow ortmt of taciaat RmM ud tbe gnad 
ruds iMdiBf fraiB it, is tte Mtm. Jkiad. Aucr. nd. zn. p. IMl~& AtMrnon, BM. Bm. voL iiL p. 41S^ 432 ; vol. iL p. 56, v 


% 53. There were eight principal hridjgea over the Tiber, which flowed throagh the 
city from the north ; Pons Milviut ; J^iust still standing ; Fahriciut ; CesUttt ; Pa- 
latinus or SeruUoriut, some arches of it still remaining ; SuUkiua or ^milius ; Jani- 
cularis, still existing ; TriumphaliM or Vatieanut. 

Rome was called Septicollis, from having been built on seven mountains or bills. 
These were Mons PalatimUg CapUolinuMf EBquUinus, CcUiua, Aventinut, Quirinalia, 

The foundation or commencement of the city was made, according to the common aceoants, 
on the Mow PaUtinM» or PaUuium. Here Romulua had his residence. Here the emperors 
usually abode, and hence the term Palatinm, palace, applied to designate a royal or princely 
dwelling. The hill first added was probably the QnirinaUtt on which it has been supposed was 
a Sabine aettlement called Qnirium: tbii addition being made when the union was formed be- 
tween the Remans and Sabinea, before the death of Romulus, and the Romans took the name 
of fivirUet, The double Janus on the earliest coins is by some supposed to refer to this union. 
Next was added the hill dtUus, on which a Tuscan settlement is supposed to have been planted. 
The «(Afr four hills were successively added, at least before the close of the reign of Servius 
Tulllus, sixth iKing of Rome. Two hills on the north of the Tiber were also connected with the 
city. The Jankulum was fortified l>y Ancus Martins, fourth king of Rome, as a sort of out-post, 
and Joined to the city by a bridge. The other, the Vaticanus, so called oerhaps from the predic- 
tions uttered there by soothsayers, vatss, was added at a later period ; it was rather disliked by 
the ancients, but is now the principal piece in Rome, being the seat of the Pope's palace, St. 
Peter's church, and the celebrated Vatican, library. A tsntk bill, ColUs kortulonm, called also 
iHneiust was taken Into the city by Aurelian. 

Oa the tidfl of tlMCafMWiiu bill lowanlatht Tiber waaOMTtoyttanJlMi. MamMmjt,(\nhi»PhMo».ofTruod.tAMf.rr • 
4 180), *« of all Hat tnaMadoM praeipics, psiaMd in neh Ifvrifie colan tj Ssota, imimnm aUituduiit mapttha, only thirty too 
of HttninaiitDowoverkxiklbeoaanUdatod dartof ucient tnnpln and lb* Menaalatwl fllttaof nodara bovda.*^— Tbe i^ wa 
vitiM In If by two Anafkaa lantlamen, eminent acbolan, one of wbcnn wrilea, H«n«r very caotkna aatimalei ire botb jodfei 
Ibe orisiMl baigfat to bara taan aboat 80 fM, of wblcb Sboat twenty nny be fined op, Waving abool 60 br Ila preiMtf a](it^^ 

$ 54. Rome was originaUy divided into four districts. From the time of Augustus 
there were fourteen. The last division is followed by roost topographers, and words 
the most convenient order for mentioning the objects worthy ot notice in the citv. The 
names of the districts were tt follows; 1. Porta Capena; 2. CtBlimotUium ; 3. fats and 
Serafig or Moneta ; 4. Templum Pacts or Via Sacra ; 5. Esquilina cum turri f< coll* 
Viminali; 6. AUa Semita ; 7. Via Lata ; 8. Forum Romanian ; 9. Circua Flaminius ; 
10. Palatium; 11. Circus Maximus ; 12. Piscina PvJbHica; 13. AvenJtinus; 14. Trans 
Tiberim. To describe only the most remarkable objects in each region or district would 
trespass on our designed limits, and we must be content with merely naming some of, 

▲ tabnlar atataoMHl of tba o^aea todnded la (be fbotlaM r^gtoBi b giTCB te XtoHUlft lotkioUiei^ eh. U. a^ 

Sea Q. C. Mbt^ anAriieha Beeebmbonc der Stadt Bom. Altona, ITBI. 4. witb afravingk Tbe baaie, mainly, m ttM 

•mncamant of Saxtoi Bafba and PnbUoi Victor witb tbe addiHoni of Naidtal and otbm. {OIL OrmoU Tbamonn, vola. S ami 4.V 
Nardini^ Italian original waa pnblUMd aaair by JL Nibb^, Boma, 1820, 4 vola. & wllb pialaL-DeeeriiioQe dl RoaBS Aatiea fcrma 
DOTaaento eon la Antoritn di Bart, MarUani, Onof. Amntnio^ ft& irilb plalae. Rom. lflB7. 8 vola. 4.~C. Ao, N nova dmcriBona 
di Rflcna astica e modem. Bo^ ISBOl S vela. & witb plaleh— C. Anfon, blaaaawnlaand Corioiitica of Roma. OA 1821. Trand- 
Into German by SidUv, Welm. I8BS. a^FonufC, Oeeerisione topografiadeUa utiabita di Roma. ed. by rboanM, 1808, witb JHalCi 
Motm. Rom. 1884. 8 votaw 4.-AvfCii^ Tepognpby and Aatiqailiaa oT Roma. Load. I8SI. S vola. 8.-neortmf, Verti«ia 41 Roma 
^PiaXmr, Bumm, Qtrkard, and AMaB, BeMbreibnag der Stadt Ron. Tabii«. and Sluttg. 1888-^. a vola. witb a BOdmil^ (or 
Itambn- of platm)— #*. Ainm, Itar Italievm. Halle, 1886. 4 vob. a— -^ tbe feaDainiag moanmeola of aadeBt Bome^ cC P. IV. 
(4 186, 188, 191, aJ6, 843. JIpiim in fbc MnatamUk CWKury. N. Tk. 18B7. S vola. 18. 

$ 55. There were large open places in the city, designed for assemblies of the peo- 
ple, and for martial exercises, and also for games, termed Campi, Of the nineteen 
which are mentioned, the Campus Martins was the largest and most famous. It was 
near the Tiber ; thence called sometimes Tiberinus, but usually Martitu^ as conse- 
crated to Mars.^ It was orieinally the property of Tarqnin the Proud, and confiscated 
after his expulsion. In the later ages it was surrounded by several magnificent struc- 
tures ; and porticos were erecteoT imder which the citizens could exercise in rainy 
weather. It was also adorned with statues and arches. Comitia were held here ; 
and there were Septa or Ovilia (P. III. ^ 259), constructed for the purpose. 

^ 56. The main streets of the citv were termed viis. On each side were connected 
blocks o^ houses and buildings ; these being separated by intervening streets and by 


lanes or alleys, would form separate divisions, or a sort of squares ; the portions occu- 
pied by bniloinffs and thus separated were called Vici; of these there were, it is said, 
424. They had particular names; e. g. VicvsalbuStjugarius, lanarius, T&ertintu, 
JuHonUt MinervcBf &c. 

^ 57. The name of Fora was given to places where the people assembled for the 
transaction of business. Although at first business of every sort was probably trans- 
acted in the same place, vet with the increase of wealth, it became convenient to 
make a separation ; and the Fora v/ere divided into two sorts, Civilia and Venalia. 
The Roman Fora were not like the ayophi of the Greeks, nearly square, but oblong ; 
the breadth not more than two- thirds of the length ; the difference between the length 
and breadth of the chief Forum discovered at JPompeii is greater. 

Until the time of Julius Caesar there was but one Forum of the first mentioned 
class; that generally called Forum S^nnanuntf or Forum simply, by way of eminence. 
This g;ave name to the 8th region (^ 54), and was between the CapitoUne and Palatine 
hills ; it was 800 feet wide, built by Romulus, and adorned on all sides, by Tarquinius 
Priscus, with porticos, shops, and other buildings. On the public buildings around 
the Forum great sums were expended in the architecture and ornaments, so that it 
presented a very splendid and miposing spectacle : here were the BasiliaBf CuritB, 
and Tahularia ; temples, prisons, and pubhc granaries : here too were placed nume- 
rous statues (cf P. IV. % 182. 2), with other monimients. In the centre of the Forum 
was the place caljed the Curtian Lake, where Curlius is said to have plunged into a 
mysterious gulph or chasm, and to have thus caused it to be closed up. On one side 
were the elevated seats (or suggettux, a sort of pulpits), from which magistrates and 
orators addressed the people ; usually called the Soatra, becatise adorned with the 
beaks of ships, taken in a sea-fight from the inhabitants of Antium. Near by was the 
part of the Forum called the Comitiom, where some of the legislative assemblies were 
held, particularly the Comitia Curiata. In or near the Comitium was the Puieal 
Attn ; 9l puieal was a little space surrounded by a wall in the form of a square, and 
roofed over : such a structure was usually erected on a spot which had been struck 
with lightning. Not far from the Puteal Attii was the rrsetor's Tribunal^ for hold- 
ing courts, ^liere was in the Forum, near the Fabian arch, ' another structure 
marking a place struck with lightning, the Puteal LiboniSf near which usurers and 
bankers were accustomed to meet {lior. Sat. ii. vi. 35). The miUianvm in the Forum 
has already been mentioned (^ 52). 

BetMea this anetent Foram, there were four others built by different eraperon, and designed 
fikr civil pniposea ; the Forum Jviiva, built by Julius Cesar, with spoils taken in the Gallic war; 
the Arum J9u£usH^ by Augustus, adorned with the statues of the Icings of Latinm on one side and 
the kings of Rome on tlie other ; the Forum ^ervta, begun by Domitian and finished by Nerva, 
having statues of ali the emperors; and the Forum TVajant, by Trajan, the most splendid of all. 

The Fora Venalia were fourteen in number ; among them the Forctm Boarium, ox 
and cow market, adorned with a brazen bull; Puean'ttia, fish market; OlUorium^ 
▼eeetable market ; Suarium^ swine market, &c. 

% 58. In speaking of the temples of Rome, the first place belones to the Capitolium, 
The Capitol was one of the oldest, largest, and most grand edifices in the city. It 
was first founded by Tarquinius Priscus, and afterwards fix)m time to time enlarged 
and embellished. Its gates were brass, and it was adorned with costly gilding % 
hence the epithets aurea and fulsen»y applied to it. It was on the Capitoline hill, m 
the highest part of the city, ana was sometimes called arx. The ascent from the 
forum to it was by 100 steps. It was in the form of a square, extending about 200 
feet on each side. Its front was decorated with three rows of pillars, the other sides 
with two.— Three temples were included in this structure ; that of Jupiter Capitolinua 
in the centre, one sacred to Minerva on the right, and one to Juno on the left. The 
Capitol also comprehended some minor temples or chapels, and the Casa Romuli, or 
cottage of Romulus, covered with straw. Near the ascent to the Capitol was also 
the astflum, or place of refuge. 

This celebrated nmcture was destroyed, or nearly so, by fire, three times; first, in the Mariaa 
war, B. C. 83. hot rebuilt by Sylla ; secondly, in the Vitellian war, A. B. 70, and rebuilt by Ves- 
pasian; thirdly, about the time of Vespasian's death, after which it was rebuilt by Domitian 
with greater magnificence than ever. A few vestiges only now remain ; respecting which there 
kas been much dtseussion. 

a« Antt^ Diet of Aaaqaitia, ait CspMtum, and werin Ibm diML 

% 59. The temple next in rank was the Pantheon, built by Marcus Agrippa, son-in- 
law of Augustus, and consecrated to Jupiter Ultor, or, as its name imports, to all th§ 
god$ ivarrtotf Bcuv). It is circular in form, and said to be 150 feet high, and of about 
the same breadth vtrithin the walls, which are 18 feet thick. The walls on the inside 
are either solid marble or incrusted. ^ The front on the outside vras covered with 
brazen plates gilt, and the top with silver plates ; but now it is covered with lead. 
The gate was of brass, of extraordinarjr size and work. It has no windows, but only 
an opening in the top, of about 25 feet in diameter, to admit the light. The roof is 
curiously vauhed, void spaces being left here and there for the greater strengths 
3 b3 


** The vestibule is supported by sixteen Corinthian columns, fourteen feet in circum- 
ference, and thirty-nine feet in neight, each shaft being an entire block of red oriental 
gramte, having bases and capitals of white marble. The Pantheon is one of the 
most perfect of the ancient edifices remaining at Rome. It is now called the Rotunda^ 
having been consecraied by Pope Boniface 4th, A. D. G07, to the Virgin Mary and 
aU the SaifUs, 

Dr. jfdaim in his account of the Pantheon, sayf, "they used to ascend to it by IS stpps, bnt 
now they fo down as many." Oo this point the gentleman mentioned in ( 53, writes, **th« 
statement that it was oriffioally entered by $even steps is doubtless correct. At present one 
aseend$ tvo steps to enter ft. The statement of twelvt atef§ of descent can only have been true 
four centuries ago, before the place anterior to the Pantheon was cleaused. This look place 
under Pope Eugene IV., who was elected in 1431."— For a view of the Pantheon, see Plate III. 

^ 60. There were many other temples in ancient Rome (cf. P. III. ^ 203), which 
cannot here be described. The temple of Saturn was famous particularly as serving 
for the public treatury; perhaps thus used because one of the strongest places in the 
city ; although some ascribed U to the tradition, that in the golden age, under Saturn, 
fraud was unknown. In this temple were also kept the public registers and records, 
among them the Libri Elephanlini, or ivory tablets containing lists of the tribes. 

The temple of Janua was built, or finished at least, by Numa; a square edifice, 
with two gates of brass, one on each aide ; which were to be kept open in time ox 
war, and shut in time of peace. 

Bo continuallv was the city engaged In wars, that the r"tes of Janns were seldom shut ; flrst, 
in the reign of Nunia; secondly, at the close of the first Punic war, B. C. 341 ; three times in the 
reign of Augustus; the last time near the epoch or Christ's birth ; and three times afterwards, 
once under Nero, once under Vespasian, and lastly, under Constantius, about A. D. 350. The 
gates were opened with formal ceremony (^ior. JEu. vil. 707).— For a view of the temple of Ja- 
nus, see Plate VII. 

SnnCa Grote, 8ar b dAton da tMDpl* d* JuiH, in ttw Mmn. dead. hmr. fol. lUx. p.S8i. 

The temple of Apollo on the Palatine hill was celebrated on account of its library, 
(P. IV. ^ 126). — The temple of Vefla yet exists in a small circular church, on the side 
of the Palatine hill towards the Tiber.— Besides these, we may name the temple of 
Concord ; of the goddess of Feace {Pad atema) ; of Castor and PoUux; of Valor , 
built by Marcellus. 

The Romans were accustomed, Hke othor ancient nations, to consecrate groves 
and woods to the gods. As many as 230 sacred groves {ludi are enumerated, chiefly 
within the city of Rome. 

^61. The CuruB were public edifices, or parts of public edifices, and appropriated, 
some of them for assemblies of the senate and civil councils, others for meetings of 
the priests and religious orders for the regulation of relin;ious rites. To the former 
class the Senacvla seem to have belonged. The following were among the Curiae ; 
viz. Curia RomanOt Vetu», HottUia^ vaUentis^ Pompeii, &>c. 

Tha tonn Curia, u dedfVitiiKC an adiOee or apariiiMiit, wmm to Ium Imb ericiimilf applied to flta kalh or plaen wfwr* ttm 
eiUaoMor tha iwpwti** Cwim (cL P. IIL ( 219 •. f 231) aaMmbted for nli(toai aad oltav purpona; Mcb oTtba tbifty had ila earn- 
moD haU or plaea of Baating. 

The BasilirtB were buildings of great splendor, devoted to meetings of the senate, 
and to judicial purposes. Here counsellors received their clients, and here bankers 
also had rooms for transacting their business. I'here* were fourteen (according to 
some, twenty or twenty-one) of these buildings; among them. Basilica vefut, Con^ 
staniiniana, Siciniana, Julia, dtc. — ^Both the Basiiics and the Curias were chiefly 
around the Forum. 

It ahoald be leinarfcad that the larm BtuWta wm applied to mnof ot tha aneiaat CbrwHan eha re hea, bccwm ther w much 
rawmblcd (ha JfoiOkn Joat deicribad. The aartlaat churehw bearioc thh name wen eractad aiidar CoaalaatiM. He gava hia owa 
piUaee on the Coelian hlU to eonrtniet on ila aitt a ebureh, whida ia recog u had aa Oia moat aodeot Chrbtiaa Baailica. Next was 
that of 8t roier an tha Valieaa hill, arertad A. D. S24, oo the tile and with tha mina of tha tomplaa of Apolle and Man { Itatood 
aboot twelve caotariea, and ma Uwn polled down bj Pope Joliaa 2d, aad on ita aito baa ariam tha modem cfauRb of ttw oudo mmb. 
.-Ou the otnKtnn of Urn early CbriatiaB ehorahea, an L. CotemoM, Ajitiquitiei of the Chrntiaa Chorch. And. 1841. 6. cbap^ iv. 

^ 62. The Circi were structures appropriated to public spectacles, to races, and to 
fighting with wild beasts. They were generally oblong, having one end at right 
angles with the sides, and the other curved, ana so forming nearly the shape of an 
ox-bow. A wall e.xtended quite round, with ranges of seats for the spectators. There 
were eight of these buildings, besides the Circus Maximus, described in another place» 
situateain the vicinity of the Forum. For an account of these, see P. III. $ 232. 

The Stadia were structures of a similar form, designed for contests in racing, but 
less in size and cost (cf. P. IV. ^ 23(i.)^Hippodromi were of the same character, and 
seem to have been sometimes built for private use. 

^ 63. Ancient Rome had also a number of large edifices constructed for the purpose 
of dramatic exhibitions, and for gladiatorial shows. Those for the former use were 
termed theatra (cf. P. III. ^ 238). The first, permanent, was that erected by Pom- 
pey, of hewn stone, capable of accomodating 40,000 persons ; near this, in tne vid- 
niiy of the river, were two others, that of Marcellus and that of Balbus ; hence the 



phrase applied to them, trh theatra.^'The etnictures designed for the gladiatorial shows 
were termed Amphitkeatra (P. HI. ^ 239), of which the most remarkable was the 
Coliseumy atiil remaining, a most stupendous ruin. — The Odea were buildings circular 
in form, and ornamented with numerous seats, pillars, and statues, wh^re trials of 
musical skill were held, and poetical and other literary composiiions were exhibited, 
after the manner of the Greeks (P. IV. ^ 65). Those established by Domitian* and 
Trajan were the most celebrated. , 

^ 64. The buildings constructed for the purpose of bathing {balnea) were very 
numerous ; such as were of a more public character were called Ikemue. In the time 
of the republic, the baths were usually cold. Mscetias is said to have been the first 
to erect warm and hot ones for public use. I'hey were then called tAemtiS, and 
placed under the direction of the eediles, Agrippa, while he was aedile, increased the 
number of thermas to 170, and in the course of two centuries there were no less than 
800 in imperial Home. The ikemuB Diocletiani were especially distinguished for their 
extent and magnificence (cf. P. IV. $ 241. h). Those of Nero, Titus, Domitian, and 
especially Caracalla, were also of celebrated splendor. 

^ 65. The name of Ludi or schools was given to those structures in which the 
various athletic exercises were taught and practiced ; those most frequently mentioned 
are the Ludiut Magnutt SatutinuSf Daciaut and jEmiliu». There were also several 
structures tor exhioiting naval engagements, called iVaumocAuB ; ob Naumachia Au- 
g«j»/i, Domitiani. (Cf. P. III. ^ 233.) 

Finally, there were large edifices sacred to the nymphs, and called Nymphaa; one 
particularly noted, which contained artificial fountains and water-falls, and was adorned 
with numerous statues of these imaginary beings. Cf. P. II. ^ 101. 

^ 66. The Porticos or Piazzas (jwrticMa) were very numerous. These were covered 
colonnades, adorned with statues, and designed as places for meeting and walking for 

Eleasure. They were sometimes separate structures ; sometimes connected with other 
irge buildings, such as basilicae, theatres, and the like. The most splendid was that 
of Apollo's temple, on Mount Palatine ; and the largest, the one called MUliaria or 
Milliarensis (i. e. of the 1000 columns). Courts were sometimes held in porticos ; 
and goods also of some kinds were exposed for sale in them. Cf. P. I V. $ 237. 

The city was adorned with Triumphal arches {arcus triumphales), to the number of 
36, having statues and various ornaments in bas-relief (P. IV. ^ 188). Some of them 
were very magnificent ; as e. g. those of Nero, Titus, Trajan, Septimius Severus, 
and Constantine. These were of the finest marble, and of*^ a square figure, with a 
lai^e arched gate in the middle, and a small one at the sides. 

?C7. There were single pillars or columns, columius, aUo erected to commemorate 
particular victories, e. g. those of Dtiillius, Trajnn, and Antoninus. Ruins of the 
first, as has been supposed, were discovered in 15fi0 (cf. P. IV. ^ 133. 1). The last 
two are still standing, and are reckoned among the most precious remains of anti 
quiiy (cf. P. IV. $ 188. 2).— With great labor, obelisks were removed from Egypt, 
of which those still existing, having been conveyed there by Augustus, Caligula, and 
Constantius the second, are the most remarkable. 

Innumerable also were the statues, which were found not only in the temples,' but 
al5o in many public places, in and upon large edifices. More than eighty of a colossal 
size are mcntiAied. 

There were likewise erected at Rome a few trophies, trmaa. These were trunks 
of marble, sometimes of wood, on which were hung the spoib taken from the enemy, 
especially the weapons of war. There are two trunks of^ marble decorated like tro- 
plues still remaining at Rome, and supposed to have been erected by Marius for his 
victories over Jugurtha, and over the Cimbri. 

% 68. Among the memorable things of Rome, the Aqueducts, gquaductuB, should 
be mentioned. Their design was to furnish the city with a constant supply of water, 
and great expense was laid out in constructing and adorning them. There were H of 
the lar^rsort, besides others of less importance; the -Aqua Appia, Marcia, Vtrgf*, 
Claudia, Seplimia, and Ahietina, are the most known. The smaller reservoirs (Jacus) 
were commonly ornamented with statues and carver's work. 

Some of the aqueducts bron^ht water more than 60 mile*, throagh rocks and monntains, 
and over valleys, •upported on archej, •ometlmes above 100 feet high. The care of theie origi- 
nally belonfted to the Kdiles ; under the emperors, particular officers were appointed for it, called 
curaUrts aquarum. 

JL Ainfft'.ne Iquedncfibai TCterk Home IUhd. 1690. 4.-%r. Rmd^tU French TranrfatioB of Froatinn on tlw Aqoedoeto e( 
•oM. CL P. V. 1 4a\^F. B. Unotr, The Cioiob Aquedoct ; wifh an Aeeoont oT ifanlUur Warin Aaelort ud Modem. If. T. IB4S. 

The Cleettm were aleo works of threat coet and of very durable stmeture. They were a tort of 
•ewert or drains, some of them very large, passing under the whole city, and discharging its 
various Impurllies into the IMber. Many private houses stood directly upon the cloac». These 
were under the charge of officers styled curators* doaearwai. The principal was the Cloauk 
Maxima, buili by Tarqnintns Priscus, cleansed and repaired by M. Agrippa | it was 10 feet broad 
and 30 feet big b, formed of blocks of bewn stone. The Pantheon ($ 50) was over it. 

8m »ii0ff nict.or AfdiilKtaT^cHttl P. IV. ^ C38. S^mdiuht't HbL QfRome, Ei^ TftvL FhiL ISSSw ?ol. L p. 29BL 

^ 69. Splendid tombs and monuments to the dead were sometimes erected (cf. P. III. 


J 341). We may name here particularly the Matuoleum of Auffuatua, of a pyramiilical 
form, 385 fieei high, with two obelisks standing near it; the Moles Hadriani; and th6 
Tonib or Pyramid of Cestius (cf. P. IV. ^ 226, P. III. ^ 187. 4). 

^ 70. Th^ number of private buildings amounted, in the reign of Theodosiua, to 
48,382, including the domus and the intulm ; the former of whicn classes comprised, 
according to Gibbon, the ** great houses," and the latter the ** plebeian habitations" (cf. 
P. III. ^ 325). Among, these buildings were some of great splendor, partly of marble, 
and adorned with statues and colonnades. 

I. ThamoreedebnM ww« thepAkeMof JuHoiCntr.&UiBiim, Jaiil«yerw,CieBro,aiid Aqpiitm, tbe Rdden booKoriVara, 
th* imlMc of Lidniw Cimmm, Iqaiiln, Cctala, iBiDfliin SeianH, Tnjftn, Hadriu, fee— ^« Tto Im^trtal pahec (TUoKum) ww 
llMiiMatdiKlinfaMwd. It wu IwiU by Aogittw apen IIm PkUtiiw hUl, aad gaw bmm l» Ih* teath rafioB of tbe city. Tb» fraat 
wuoDtbeVbSMim.aadbdbriiti'eraptaalcdMlHk Wittio ttw iwlaca lay lb* tenpi* of Vote, «■<! alae Itetof Apollo, whkk 
▲ofiNtuiciidetTendtonakatUchwrieinploiBRoino. Tbo Kweeodlag empflron ntaBdod ud boutiiM ibii polic*. Norelwal 
ft. but nboilt it of vuh exteat Ifaot It not only enbnood ill the Palatiso bill, but aJto tha plaio brtweca tbat awl the Coliaa and 
EaqQiliae, and eren a part of thew biUs, In ib limits. He omameated it m ricbly with preeioitt itoiMft, gold, Mlver, HatuM, paiot- 
iBga, and ti«Hiifa of every deecriptloB, that it raeciTed tbe eame of donna aurta. The following amperon itripped it of ita ona. 
menfe ; Veipaiian and Tltw earned MMue paili of It to fa« palled down, nomitiaa afterwards deilroyed (he main bnlHiog. In the 
reifn of CooioodDa, a fraal part of it was bnmt ; bat it was rastored by him and bii luceeesoii. Id the time of Tboodorie it oeeded 
■till farther vepaira ; bat this hagc cdJflee aubsaqoeatly became a rntn, and oo its site now stand tbolteaeaa palaca and ipivdma, aad 
tbe Villa Spada.* 

Si Belbn the conflagratioa of llin city onder N«o^ the atreaiB were narrow and in«snlar, and fha ivtvaio booses wore iaeaB^ 
Bodioua, and aoma even daogenoa from their imporfeet arehitaetora and the baight of three lofty sloriaa In the time of NetOi 
Boio than two4fairds of the city was burnt Of the ibarteon dhtrieis, only Ibor reaainsd entire. The city wa* reboilt with moro 
Rgalarity, with streets broader and less crooked (ct 21k. Ann. sv. 43} ; the areas lor hooaae were mesMund oat, and tlta height 
restricted to setenty feet. 

^ 71. The suburbs of ancient Rome w(*re so extennive that itn neighborhood was ■Imost one 
immense villaire; but at prefpnt, the vicinity of Rome called Campa^gita di Roma, Is a complete 
desert. Modern Rome is built chiefly on the ancient CainpuB Martius. The accumulation of ruins 
has raised very sensibly the soil of the city, as is evident from what has been said respecting the 
entrance of the Pantheon ($90), and the height of the Tarpeian rock ($53). 

For notices of Modem Borne, see Pintiuti, Veduta di Roma, 9 toIs. foL (Of. F. IV. ( 243. t y—Rotn* in Ms mtutKnih Catttrf. 
^W. FiO, as cited P. IV. { 188. t.—Bnej/dop. Jinmioana, uoJer Hod. Sonu, and under TVsosto m /(oly ; and Ow toorb thus 


^ 72. We proceed now to what remains to be described in the south of Europe (cf. 
$ 27) ; and we mi^ht include the whole under the term Grcscia, taken in a ver/ com- 
prehensive sense, m which it has sometimes been used. For it has been made to cover 
not only the Peloponnesus and Greece Proper, but also Epirus, Thessalia, Macedonia, 
and even Thracia. The victories of Philip having procured him a vote in the Amphic- 
tyonic council, his Thessalian and Macedonian dominions were consequently ranked 
amono; the Greciaii states. The valor and policy of the Epirote kings procured the 
same honor for Epirus not lon^ after; and finally, Thrace was raised to the same dig- 
nity» when it became the habitation of -the Roman emperors. But Greecia is rarely 
used in so large a sense : and we shall first consider ancient Thrace separately, and 
include the other countries under Gracia. 

Thracia was bounded on the north by the chain of mount Haemus, which separated 
it fi'om Mcesia; on the east by the Euzine sea, Thracian Bosphorus, and Hellespont, 
which divided it from Asia ; on the south by the .^ean sea ; and on the west by the 
river Strymon, dividing it from Macedon. In consequence of the conquests of Philip, 
the river Nessus became the mutual boundary of Tnrace and Macedon, the interme- 
diate district being annexed to the latter coimtry.— The peninsula contained between 
the Bay of Melas and the Hellespont was called ThracuB Cher9one$u$ ; celebrated in 
the wars between Philip and the Athenians. 

^ 73. The capital of Thrace, and at one time of the civilized world, was Bytantivm, 
or Constantinopolis, built on the north-eastern extremity of the Chersonese, called from 
its beauty Chrysoccras, or the golden horn. By whom this city was founded is a mat- 
ter of dispute ; but it was greatly enlai^fed ana beautified by Constantine the Great, 
who, in tne fouirh century of the Chnstian era, transferred the seat of government 
hither from Rome. On the division of the Roman empire, this city became the capital 
of the Greek or eastern part ; it retained this distinction for many years, until from 
the vices of the inhabitants, and the imbecility of their rulers, it was captured by the 
Turks on the 29th of May, A. D. 1453. 

On the tapopap h y of Bynflmn and tbe chaa|es made by Coasbmtine, see Duemgt, Hiator. Bysatina. Fv. 1(M0. fbl— O. Co> 
flNNm, De Aatlqatetthns Conslanttnop. Fhr. I8S5.— y|m. Amdurt, Imper. Orient, sen AntiqaitatesComftaatinofpoliianaBu Par. 171 1. 
fl vols. fcl.->Tbese works are included in the Cerput ofSfmntim BUlorv, noticed P V. ( 888 a — Cf. OAton, eh. zrii.-Janua 
IWfcmraif. CoHlaatinDpIe, aadent aad aaddam.— Load. 17BT. 4. Noith Amnr. Xm. 18Bi tol. or 7th of New Seriea, p. 4S& 

The Other principal towns were, Salmydcssug (Midiieh), celebrated for shipwrecks ; 
T^vftta, a town and promontory, whence came the Thyni, who colonized Bithynia in 
Aaui Minor; ApoUonia, called alterwards iStiMpoZia (SizeboU), and Metembr^a, built by 


aeolony ofMegBrenffians; all on the Eiixine sea. — Selwnibria (Selibria), and Pertnthu$, 
or HeraeUa (Erekli), on the Propontitf. — Callipolis (Gallipoli), at the junction of the 
Propontis and Hellespont ; the smatl towns Madytos and Cissa, near where the bttlo 
nrer JEgoB Foiamos joins the Hellespont, the scene of the battle in wrkich Lysander de- 
stroyed the nayai power of the Athenians; and Seatos (Zennnie), where Aerxes built 
hb bridge of boats across the Hellespont. — Sestos and Abydos on the Asiatic side are 
also celebrated for the loves of Hero and Leander. 

Ttepoiribaityaf flwiBDligf MroM ibe HdlMpont wu for a long Una doabtad, brt tt wm porfomcd bjr fta* tete Lord BynM.— 
09 Iha dooiila ben allofad to, M Ik la JVbuu, ud JToAudtf, H cited P. V. 4 49. 4. 

On the bay of Melas, so named from the river Melatj that empties itself into it, were 
Cttrdioj destroyed by Lysimachus, to procure inhabitants for a new town ; Lyaimachia, 
that he had built a fittie ferther south ; and Ewti, which was burned by its governor, 
Boges. — ^In the interior were TrajanopolU, built by Trajan ; and Adrianopolu, its suc- 
cessful rival, built by Adrian, ana now the second city of the Turkish empire. — At the 
east mouth of the Hebrus, stood JEnos^ said to have been founded by .£neas, near the 
teiritory of the Cicones; on the west side, Doriscust where Xerxes reviewed his im- 
mense armament after passing the Hellespont, and it is said that his army were so nu- 

erofls as completely to drain the neighboring river Lessus. At th§ mouth of the Nes- 
BUS was Ahdera, the birthplace of the philosopher Democritus, near which were the 
stables of Dioraede, who is said to have fed his horses on human fiesh. 

1 74. The principal rivers of Thrace were the Hebrus (M aritza), celebrated for the 
clearness and rapidity of its waters; Nessus (Nissar), and Strytnon (Jamboli.)— The 
piiocipal mountams were Mount H<Bmu»y extending from the Euxine sea in a western 
direcuon between Mcesia and Thrace ; Bhodope, extending from the Euxine sea to the 
fioorces of the Nessua ; and Fangaust extending thence to the north of Macedon. It 
was on the Pang<Eua that the wonders ascribed to the lyre of Orpheus were said to have 
been performed (P. V. \ 46). Two precipices of this mountain, now called Castagnas, 
ap(»tMich to the sea nearly opposite to the island Thasus, and form very narrow passages, 
which were defended by walls. — The principal seas and bays adjoining this extensive 
maritime coufltry were, jPonttu Euxitnu^ Bosphorus Thraciua^ Propontis, Hellesponttu, 
Melanis Sinus (Gulf of Saros), and StryTnonicus Sinus (Gulf of Contessa). 

9 75. Thrace was anciently posBeased by several Independent tribes ; one of these, the DoUnei^ 
being hard preseed by the MsyntkU their neighbors, sent to Delphi* to consult the oracle about 
the event or the war. The ambassadors were directed to choose as leader the person who should 
first invite tbem lo his bouse. While passing through Athens they were hospiubly entertained 
1^ MUtlades, the son of Cypselns; they ironaediately requested him to accompany tbem to the 
ClKrsoBesas, and Miltiades, having consulted the oracle at Delphi, accepted the invitation.— On 
bis arrival he was immediately created king, and the Absynthians were soon after defeated. He 
fortified the Chersonesus by building the long walls across the Isthmus, and after a prosperous 
rviga bequeathed the crown to his nephew Stesagoras.— Stesagoras dying after a short reign, 
hto brother Miltiades was sent from Athens by the Pisistratide as his successor. He had not 
reigned long, when Darius, king of Persia, sent a fleet of PhcBniclans against the Chersonese, 
and Miltiades, unable to make any effective resistance, retired to Athens.— The Chersonese, aAer 
the defeat of the Persians, was principally possessed by the Athenians, who colonised all the 
coast. The interior of Thrace remained subject to the native princes, until the whole eoantry 
was anited to Maeedon by Philip and Alexander. 


76. What remains to be described in Europe we shall include, as already remarked 
($72), imder GsjBCiA,uBdng this name in what is commonly considered its most 
comprehensive sense (cf. P. III. ( 2). The extensive region thus included in Graecia 
presents four general divisions, which are obviotisly suggested by the natural face of 
the country. The Ist is that part which lies north of the chain of mountains called 
Cambunii^ which are connected by the Stymphiei Monies with the Aero Ceraunii . the 
2d is the part between the Cambunii on the north, and another Ime of highlands and 
mountains on the south, which may be traced from the Sinus MalUicus on the east, to 
the Sinus Ambracins on the west ; in its eastern extremity it forms the pass of Ther- 
mopyhs, and the cham is in this portion of it called CEta ; as it stretches back in a 
northerly and then westerly direction, it is called Pindus; this sends down a spur from 
the sources of the river Achelous to the Sinus Ambradus, where it forms another pass 
corresponding to that of Thermopyle on the east : the 3d is the part between the 
mountains just traced and the gulfs on each side of the isthmus of Corinth, Sinus Co- 
rinikiaeus and Sinus Saronicus : and the 4th is the peninsula connected to the main 
by that isthmus. The first is Macedonia ; the second^ Epirus and Thessaiia ; the 
third, Hellas; the fourth, Peloponnesus. 

% 77. (1) Macedonia, considered as including the first of the natural divisions above 
described, was bounded W. iydie Mare Hadriaticum; N. by lUyricum and Mce- 
»ia; E. by Thracia, from which it was separated by Mt. Rhodope and the river Nes- 
tus flowing from Rhodope ; S. by the MeiBMm Mare, the Cambunii Monies and the 
other mountams forming the chain aireaoy meniic'ed, which terminates in the Aero 
Ceraunii on the western extremity. 


In noticing the physical features of Macedonia, it will be observed that Mt. Hmm 
and M t. Rkodope^ meeting on its N. E. corner, stretch along on its north in a ain^ie 
chain; this was called Orbelua Menu ; a spur from Orbelus will be noticed ninnuig 
down south through Macedonia, and forming a connection with the Stymohai, or Mons 
Stymjpha, already named, between the CanZunii and Aero CerauniL The waters east 
of this spur flow to the iBgean ; those west of it, to the Hadriatic. 

^ 78. The principal river of the west was the Drilo (Drino), which runs through 
Lake Lyehnidust and empties into a bay of the Hadriatic, north of the point called 
Nymphaum Fromonlorium. — One of the most important places in this western por« 
tion was ApoUonia, on the hadriatic coast, celebrated in the Roman age of Greek 
literature (P. V. ^ 9) for its cultivation, and said to be the place where Aug[ustua ac- 
quired his knowledge of Greek, and finished his education. Another place is worthy 
of notice, Emdamnu$^ further north, called Dyrrachium by the Romans, the place 
where travelers from Italy to Greece ^cneraUy landed. This portion, west ot the 
spur, was taken from lUyncum by Philip {RoUin^ B. 14. ^ 1). 

% 79. The country east of the spur is principaU]r champaign. We notice three most 
considerable rivers; the Haliacnum (Platemone), in the southern part, flowing east to 
the SinuB Themunttus (Gulf of Thessalonica, or Salonichi) ; the Axiut (Vardan), rising 
in the heights between Macedonia and Mcesia, and running S. to the head of the same 
gulf, receiving on its way many tributarfes, and uniting with the Eri^on on the west 
Before its discharge ; the Strynum, rising in Mt. Rhodope, and flowing to the Sinug 
StiynumicMM (Gulf of Contessa}.— Between the two gulfs or bays just named, was the 
pemnsula sometimes called ChaUidice^ and presenting pecuuar features, having a 
cluster of mountains on its neck, and being split into three smaller peninsulas by two 
bays, the Toronaiau (G. of Cassandra), and the Singeticus (G. of Monte Sancto). The 
western of these smaller peninsulas was FaUene or Phlegra, the fabled scene of the 
battle between Jupiter and the Giants (Ov. x. 151); the eastern was marked by Mt. 
AthM, extending several leagues upon and projecting into the sea, and was celebrated 
for a canal said to be cut across its neck by Aerxes to avoid the passage around Mt. 
Athos, that passage having proved so fatal to the fleet of Darius. * 

^ 80. This pornon of Macedonia had numerous subdivisions, many of which are 
not important, even if thev could be accurately traced. Paonia was m the nonhem 
part. The part between the Strymon and Nestus was called EcUmis. The southern 
part on the west of the Sinus Thermaicus was Pieria, Emathia was north of Pieria, 
and of the same gulf. 

Emathia was the most important province. In this was situated Edesta, the ori- 
ginal capital of the country, on the Erigon ; also PeZZa, on the Lydias, subsequently 
made the capital by Amyntas, the father of Philip. Further east, on the Sinus Ther- 
maicus, was ThemuB, afterwards called Theggalonieai the place of Cicero's banishment, 
and the capital of the country as a Roman province. 

At TlMMlonkB tiMra itai nmin ao aneiait ftnwiure which ta mppoMd by mm to tav* bMB t CkUriaii tampto (eC P. 0. 
( 1». I) ; 1 Tie* or it u fivan in oar PbiB V. 

On the peninsula which has been described (^ 79) were Potidaaj or Cassandria, on the 
neck of Pallene, celebrated for its splendor under kingCassander; OlynUiuSt memorable 
for its siege by Philip, who after much labor captured it by treachery ; CkaJeisy which 
gave name to the region; Stagira (Stagros), on the eastern coast, the birthplace of Aris- 
totle.— In Pieria, one of the most memorable places was Pydna (Kitra), where Olym- 
pias was murdered by Cassander, and where the Roman general Paulus iBmilius made 
a prisoner of Perseus the last king of Macedonia, B.C. 168. North of this, on the 
coast, was MeUwnet at the seige of which Philip lost his riffht eye.— In Edonis were 
two important towns ; AmpkvpoliBt originally on an islana in the river Strymon, an 
Athenian colony; PhUipptt further east, near Mons Pangsus, a branch from Rho- 

The latter was built by Philip, fbr the same purpose for whkh the Athenians built AniDhipolle ; 
to secure the valuable gold and silver mines found In this region. It is celebrated for the battle 
Ift which Brutus and Cassias were defeated by Auftistus and Antony, B. C. 4S; and nieniorable 
as the place where Paul and Silas, having been *Mhrust Into the inner pflson, with their feet 
fast In the stocks, {.AeU xvl. SS) at midnight sang praises unto God." 

The lita of Philtppi is aliH muted by rain (AfiM. BenU, Sept. 1838, p. S34).-Uke moet ei th« Qredaa dti«, it «m at A* Cast 
of a hill or mcMiBt OB which WMiti Acropolis. AviewertbeAcropoliiaLDdortheplunbalmr iipwInoitrPUlenr. AtmTd«r 
on honebMk it idvajKtBf od the roitd fraoi Netpolia to Pbilippi ; he is Joet pMsing • modem Tnrkieh harrlag-(reaDd oa fab ri(M 
hand under a near hill ; (he AeropoUe, vith ito mini, appear* on the cmtnaBce beyood el the rlfbt | at ttie haaeoT thiiembHoeek «« 
the lower city, oa the aoalh and soodk^weat j futher to the aouth la an open plaia; the moaalain oa the left ii theaoulben extnaillp 

) 81. Tlie kingdom of Macedonia was said to be founded by Caranns, a descendant of Her- 
cules, B. C. 814 ; but it did not acquire consequence until the reign of Philip, who ascended tba 
throne B. C. 360. It has been sUted, that 150 different nations or Ulbes were finally iBctoAad 
Within its limits. 

^ 82. (2) Epibus and Tressalia, embraced hi the second natural division pdnted 
out (^ 76), are next to be noticed. 
Thsssalia is described by Herodotus as a very eztensive plam, embosomed in 



mountains. The Cambunii and Olympus were on the north ; Pdian and Ot$a on the 
east ; Pindut on the west ; and (Eta on the south : so that only the small portion of 
coast between the Sinun Pelangkun and the Sinus Maliaeus is without the guard of 
mountains ; and eten this has a guard a little in the interior, by Ml, Othrys, which 
strikes across from Pindus to Peiion. 

The extensive plains of Thei>BaIy were peculiarly fiiTonible to the breeding of horses ; and tha 
Thessalians were the first who introduced the use of cavalry, horses having been, at first, only 
used for draught. Hence, perhaps, arose the fable of the Centaurs, a people of Thessaiy, who 
were supposed to have been half man and half horse. The Thessalian cavalry maintained 
their superiority to a very lale period, and lo them Philip was indebted for many of bis victories. 

% 83. The northern part of Thessaly was called Pelasgiotis, from the Pelasgi, an 
Asiatic wandering tribe, who are supposed to have been the first inhabitants of Greece 
(P. IV. % 33). The principal cities in P e lasgiotis were Larissa, the capital of the 
province ; Gompki, destroyed by Caesar ; Gonnus and Gyrtona^ near the entrance of 
the vale of Tcmpe^ so celebrated for its natural beauties ; Scolussa, near which are 
some hills, called, from thnir shape, Cynos CephfUe^ where Philip was defeated by 
Quintus B'laminltis ; and Pharsalus, near which, in a plain called Pharsalia, Pompey 

was overthrown bv Cesar. 7'he eastern part of Thessaly was named Magnesia; 

the most remarkaolo places were Sepias ^ a small village on a promontory of the same 
name, where the fleet of Xerxes received an omen of their final overthrow, being 
shattered in a storm ; Demeirias (Vloo), buill by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and which, 
from the commercial advantages of its situation, almost depopulated the neighboring 
towns ; MeHbaea^ the city of rhiloctetes ; loleos^ the residence of Jason and Medea ; 
Pagasm, where the ship Argo was built, from which the Sinus Pelasgieus is some- 
times called Pagascsus: Aphela (Fetio), whence the Argonautic expedition sailed ; 
Phercst the residence of the tyrant Alexander ; and ThelxBf near the river Amphrysus, 
where Apollo fed the herds of kins Admetus.— In the southern parts of 'i'hessaly 
were Malia, which gives name to the Maliac bay ; Larissaj called Cremasle from its 
sloping situation, the capital of the kingdom of Achilles; AloSj at the foot of mount 
Othrys, near which the combat between the Centaurs and Lapithae took place ; Phy- 
lace on the sea coast, the residence of Protesilaus ; Doriofit where the musical con- 
test between Thamyris and the Muses took place ; Hypata^ famous for the magical 
arts of its women (Hor, Ep. 5) ; Lamia, where Antipater was Iruitlessly besieged by 
the Athenians: and Trachis (Zeiton), celebrated for its desperate resistance when be- 
seiffed by the Romans. 

f 84. The mountains have been mentioned above (^ 82). The most remarkable 
river was the Peneus, which flows through the vale of Tempe into the .£gean sea. Thia 
river is said to have overflowed Thessaly, until Hercules opened a passage for the waters 
between mounts Olympus and Ossa. The principal inlets 'of the ^gean sea, on the 
Thessalian coast, were Sinus Pelasgieus or Pagasaus (Gulf of Volo), and Si9ius Ma- 
liaeus (Gulf of Zeiton). 

$ 85. The inundation of Thessaly, during the re)gn of Deucalion, is one of the first events 
recorded in profane history; all the inhabitants, except Deucalion, and his wife Pyrrba,are said 
to have been destroyed. Perplexed to discover by what means the human race might be re- 
stored they consulted the oracle of Themis, and were ordered to throw stones behind them ; 
those thrown by Deucalion became men and those by Pyrrha women. In this f^ble the history 
of some partial Inundation seems to be confounded with the tradition of the universal deluge. 

The next remarkable occurrence was the Argonautic expedition under Jason, aided by the 
bravest heroes of Greece, in the ship Argo (P. II. If 137).— Achiiif^ was the most remarkable 
Thessalian prince after Jason ; he was the son of Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis ; an oracle 
bad foretold that he would perish if he accompanied the Greeks to Troy ; to prevent thi«, his 
mother concealed him at the court of Lycom^des, king of Scyros, by one of whose daughters he 
begat Pyrrhus, or Neoptolemus, afterwards king of Epirus. Achilles was at last discovered by 
Ulysses and brought to Troy, where he was slain by Paris, one of the sons of Priam. 

During the supremacy of Athens and Sparta, Thessaly seems to have been of little importance. 
The greater part of It was annexed to Macedon by Philip and his successors. It was cruelly 
devastated in the wars between the Romans and the Macedonian aad Syrian kings ; it also suf- 
fered very severely in the civil wars between Cesar and Pompey. 

$ 86. Under Epirus a greater extent than we have assigned to it is often included. 
We have suggested as its natural boundaries on the north toe mountains Cambunii an4 
Aero Ceraunii, and on the south, the Sinus Ambracitis ; but the region called Oresti* 
between the Aero Ceraunii and the river 'Adus is commonly termed a province of Epi- 
rus ; and Acarnania, within the proper limits of Hellas, is also often considered as 
■•not her province. In all descriptions, it is separated from Thessaly by Mt. Pindus: 
while the Mare Ionium bounds it on the west. Within the compass here given, it included 
the provinces Chaonia, Thesprotia, and Molossis. 

^87. Chaonia was the portion under the Aero Ceraunii on the south, said to be 
named from Chaon, the brother of Helenus son of Priam. These mountains were so 
called from their summits (2«pa) being often struck with lightning («repavvtf$); they were 
remarkable for attracting storms, and were dreaded by marmers ; the rocks at the west- 
em extremity of their southern branch, Aero-Ceraunia, were called infamous (m/ameir). 
—The principaWowns were Oricum in the extreme north, on the coast between the 


bnndies of the moontainB just mentioned ; tnd Andke$mus also on the coaet and in the 
extreme south of the province. 

Thesprotia extended on the coaet from Chaoma to the Sinus Ambraeius (Gulf 
of Ana). Its principal places weretBuOtrottim on the river Xanthus, near which ^neas 
is said to have landed on his flight from Troy to Italy ; and Epkyra^j on the river Acoe- 
ron, flowing to the harbor called GlyeysLimen (/Xvc«( Ai^^v). The river Acheron is 
joined at its month by the Cocytus. — These two streams were ranked in the ancient 
mytbology among thejlumina inferorum, or infernal rivers; three others had the same 
rank ; i& Styxy in Arcadia ; the ZetAe, in Bosotia probably ; and the Pklegelkon, the 
location of wiuch, as an actual rivep> is unknown, although it is represented sometimes 
as uniting with the Acheron. 

tgptyraw MliM q t i aiityirilrfClelymi IhtwiMcf ihwdh »w«>M lobd<linTiMbk.--£riy*«^Ti«wb toOreeca and 
Aikttb. Load. ISM. C foh. 4. 

Mo !e 8 8 i 8 was east of Thesprotia, and north of the Sinus Ambraeius. The Mo- 
loesian dogs were highly esteemed by the ancients. Among the principal towns were 
Amiraeia, the residence of the Epirote kings, on the river AraethuM or Arethon ; and 
Pttstarot where the kin^ of Epirus took the coronation oath. 

Dodona, f&mou9 for its oracle and temple of Jupiter (cf. P. III. ^ 71), at the foot of 
Mount Tomarus^ is placed by some in Molossis ; by others in Thesprotia; it was in the 
HeUapiaf not far from the river Thyamis, which rises in Mt. Stymfike and flows through 
Thesprotia to the Mare Ionium. 

He Fmch tfmvdcr Ibaqacvillc foond in Hallopb, In On modara dMriet of Jininn, new dm vQIkge Oudlki, wMtcriy ftom 
fbc hk« o( Jaaina, Maw ratal of Cyclopean dtander, whkli be Jodfed to ba Ibe raint of Dodooa ; ineioding raniina of the ttmpla 
oflbeDwlowwJupiicrand tbcacf«deaclaMnortbaSeUi.--Cf.AM<4taasa^Voym|adaIa f)ar. IBM. 6 voh. a «oL L 

^^ above cited, VOL i. pw 611. 

\ 88. We meet but casunl mention of the Epirotes In history until the Macedonian Empire 
wiR divided after Alexander*! death. It was then that this people, who had hitherto been 
inoiced on as barbarians, and held in subjection by the Macedonians, began to take a lead in the 
tSiIrs of Greece.— The folly of Pyrrhus, who hoped by his victories in the west, to rival the 
coaqoesta of Alexander in tlie east, weakened their forces and diminished their authority.^— 
Oq the invasion of the Romans, the Epirotes adhered to the cause of Grecian liberty with a 
desperate fidelity, worthy of better success. When the conquest of their country had been 
achieved by Paulus fmillus, enraged at their resistance, he ordered seventy of their cities to 
be destroyed, and 150,000 of the inhabitants to be sold as slaves ; an iustaace of atrocious re- 
vcBfe scarcely to be parallelled in history. 

Wha Iba enpiia of CaiwtuUaopte Ml befara the vktoriooi anM of tbe Mabonetana, tha ramnanli of tba CbrMan fbroM 
itfliBliiiHothefHiiBiaaf ttw nooataiaa af Soli and Iba town of Fmre in Ibia tarritofyd— Tba Soliolea, aflar perfonnias feala of 
nlv mkf to beparalMlad in tba bri(fatar diya of Otadan Aaadoat, ware doped bjr AH Fnefan and treacbaioaly nnnaciad ; and 
f^pVahar aany vidwtedai, Ml nndar fba power of Tnifcar.— For an aeooont of hrp, ct Land. Quart. Jtek xxiiL p. 111. 

$ 89. (3) Our third division of Greece includes the portion between Mt. (Eta and 
the large gulls. Sinus Corinthiacus and Sinus Saronicos. It is what is properly termed 
Hellas, and is also called G&^cia Propria. 

This division is washed on every side but the north bv the sea. On the east are first 
the waters of the Sinus Maliaeusy then of the Sinus Ojmntius and those between the 
mainland and Eubcsa, which are called in the narrowest place Eurimts, Leaving these 
and drawing near the southern point of the country, you enter the myrtoum Marcj and 
bavins passed that point, Sunium Promontorium^ with the splendid temple of Minerva 
in fight, you proceed up the Sinus Saronicus (Gulf of Egina) ; at the end of which you 
must take a land carriage, but of 5 miles only, over the isthmus of CoritUh (Hexa-Mili), 
when vou reach the Sinus Corinthiacus (Gulf of Lepanto).— This opens into Hellas 
icverai bays, one at its eastern extremity called Halcyonium Mare^ ana another central 
and opening to the north called Sinus Crisseeus (Bay of Salona). — Continuing the sur- 
vey of the coast of Hellas, you pass out of the Sinus Corinthiacus through the strait 
called Dardanelles ojf Lepanto between Bhium on the Peloponnesus, where is the tomb 
of Hesiod, and Antirrhium on the opposite side. Issuing from this strait you enter and 
continue in the Mare Ionium^ till having gone through tne artificial channel separating 
l^neas firom the mainland, you turn round the Prtmontorium Aetium and enter tbe 
Sinus Awhraeiuit which ends the tour, and the eastern extremity of which is not more 
than 70 miles distant, across the mountains, firom the Sinus Maliaeus, where the ima- 
ginary tour began. 

^90. If an observer could take an elevated station in the air, and thence look down 
open Hellas, his eve would rest upon an almost countless number of hills and moun- 
tains, with rich vales, and small pure streams. At first its summits might seem to rise 
np over the country in disorder and confusion, but soon he would trace some obvious 
fines of connection. He woidd perceive one line of summits stretching horn Mt. (Eta 
at ThermapyliB down parallel to the eastern coast and to the ishmd Eubcea as fiir as 
to the strait JSuripMj.— He would observe another of more lofty and attractive summits 
proceeding fiom Pindus (in about the centre between the Sinus Maliaeus and Sinus 
Ambraeius) running quite southerly a short distance, and then sending off on its right a 
tine of minor summits down to the western extremity of the Sinus Corinthiacus ^ but 
itself bendmg to the south-east, and at length verging along the shore of that gulf to 


Its cafrtcrn eitrcmily, and there connecting wiih the Geranii Monies and Mona Onciu» 
on the isthmus, and with Mons Citharon, which proceeds directly east to the sea south 
of the straits of Euripua.— The part of this Une joining Pindut includes probably the 
mountains in which the ancient Dryopes dwell. The first part of the brunch which 
it sends off to the west, is the Coras chain, and the lerniinanon of this branch at the 
gtflf is in thesiimmiis called Taphiassus and Chalets.— In the main line bending to the 
south-east occur firpt Famassus, which although of barren soil was celebrated for its 
green valleys and shady groves suited for meditation; then i/t/ictm, with its fountain 
Hippocrene, which started into existence (according to fable) irorn the stamping of Fe- 
gasua (cf. P. II. ^ 117./). — ^Aflerthis, as you turn eastward, appears Citha:r&H, which 
has a summit in the eastern part, called rames.— -In the territory south of these, were 
several summits, particularly PcnftZicwa, famous for its marble, north-east from Athens ; 
Hymettus, celebrated for its honey, east and south-east of Athens ; Laurius, coniaining 
the silver mines, in the southern extreme of Attica. — Aracyuthus was a phain iu 

^ 91. Hellas contained eight small, but independent provinces or districts. These 
were, beginning on the west, Acarnaniat Mtolia, Doris^ Locris, Fhocia, Bveolia, Me- 
gariSf Attica. 

The two western districts Acarnania and JEfolia were very inferior to the rest in 
iime, although nature presented herself in a grander and sublimer aspect than in some 
other districts. 

^92. Acarnania was marked for its woods and forests, and its inhabitants were 
noted for their attachment to sensual pleasures. We have alluded (^ 76) to the natural 
boundaries between this district and Epirus, viz., the Sinus Ambracius and the spur of 
mountains running from Pindus down to that bay. This Une of highlands is now 
called MakrinoroSj which name is also given to the narrow pass under their abrupt and 
steep termination near the bay, a pass similar to that of Thermopylaj. The boundary 
between Acarnania and the next district of Hellas, ^Etolia, is the river Achelousj rising 
among the valleys of Mt. Piiidus and flowing to the Mare Ionium. 

Of the places in Acarnania, we mention Argos Amphilochius, on the river Inachus 
empt]nng at the eastern extremity of the Sinus Ambracius; Awictortunif on a peninsula 
forming the north-western corner of the district ; Aetiunit a little further to the east, on 
the Promontory of the same name. At this place Augustus gained his great naval 
victory over Antony and Cleopatra, and to commemorate it, built a town called Nieo- 
polist and institutedf games celebrated every third year, called .^Icfta. — Leueas was on 
the northern point ofthe island Leucadia, which was a peninsula before the Pelopon- 
nesian war, but after that separated bv an artificial channel. On the south part was a 
temple of Apollo on the Promontory T^eucate, from which the despnirine^ Sappho is said 
to have thrown herself (cf. P. V. ^ 54). — Stratus, ouce its metropolis, was on the 
Achelous which is now called Aspro-potamo. 

$93. i^ t o 1 i a was east of Acarnania, separated by the river Achelous ; it is now 
called Vlakia, from a tribe of barbarians to whom the Greek emperors gave this pro- 
vince. Its other chief river was the Evenus (Fideri), falling into the Corinthian bay , 
this and the Achelous are the largest rivere of Hellas. 

The following are the chief places ; Calydon on the Evenus, under Mt. Ckolcis , 
associated with the story of the Caledonian hotir (destroyed by the son of the king of 
jGtolia), whose tusks were said to have been pref-orved in Greece until Augustus carried 
them to Rome as curiosities; Thermus, the ancient capital, in the interior, or between 
the Evenus and Lake Trichotiis. — Naupaetus^ on the Sinus Corinthiacus, under Mt. 
Taphiassus, was not included in the proper hmits of ^tolia, but was given to this pro- 
vince by Philip of Macedon ; it was said to have its name from yai^ and vljyvvni, be- 
cause the Heraciidffi built here their first ship to invade Peloponnesus. 

$94. D oris, a very small district, lay under Mt. Pindus, between (Eta on the east 
and the mountains of the Dryopcs on the west, having Parnassus on the south-west and 
being separated from Phocis by elevated hills on the south-east ; thus wholly sur- 
rounded by mountains. It was called Doris from Dorus, son of Deucalion, ancient 
monarch of Thessaly. It was a rocky, mountainous region. Its towns were situated 
on the river Pindus, a branch of the Cephissue, which also rises in the hillfl of Doris. 
From its four towns Pindus, Erineitm, Boium, and Cytinium, it was called Tetrapolis; 
and sometimes Hexapolis, the two places Lilaum andf Carphia being added. 

$ 95. Locris consisted of two parts separated from each other.— The larger part 
was on the Sinus Corinthiacus, having ^IStolia on the west, and Phocis on the east 
(partly separated from it by the Sinus Crissa:ns). The inhabitants of this part were 
callea Western Locri, or Loeri Hesperii and Loeri Ozolts. Of the origin of the latter 
name, different accounts are given ; the people are said to have disliked the name 
exceedingly.— -One of their principal places was Amphissa, in the interior, whero 
was a temple to Minerva. — Naupactu* ($ 93) originally belonged to them. 

% 96. The other and smaller part of Locris was on the opposite coa««t of Hellas, on 
the waters separating it from Euboea. It was north-east of rhocis and BcBOtia, divided 
from them by a chain of mountains, and extending from Mount (Eta on the north to 


the Plaianxua, a small river flowing to the chanoel of Euboeaf and separating Locris 

from BoBotia, on the south. This part was inhabited by two tribes. — The Opuutii 

were in the southern region, so called from their principal city Opusi which gave 
name also to the bay adjacent, Sinus OpurUiuSj containing a small island, Atalanta, 
The port of Opus, called Cynos^ was north of it, on the bay. — The other tribe or 
people were the Bpienemidii, so named from Mount Cnemis. On this there was a 
email town of the same name : other places of note were Naryx^ the city of Ajax, 
son of Oileus ; Thronium ; and Anthela, where the Amphictyonic council assembled 
annually in a temple of Ceres or Thesmophora {the lawgiver) as she was here called, 
in allusion to the council. 

Close to Anthela were the ever-memorable straits of ThermopyUBf deriving their 
name from some hot springs and fortified j^tes that were there. This celebrated 
pass, usually reckoned the Icey of Greece, is about sixty paces wide, and is situated 
between the ridge of Mount (£ta and the Malian gulf, at the iunction of the three 
conntries, Locris, Phocis, and Thessaly. Here Leonidas, witn a handful of men, 
bravely resisted the countless myriads of Persia, and died rather than violate the 
Spartan law, which forbade flight to the citizens. In the same place Antiochus, king 
of Syria, was defeated by the consul Acilius. 

Dviat ttieilncilaoriheBiodflraGfMkreTotatkni(ctP.IV. §8S.2),twDttgii«l (riumpbi were oMainad bf the Oreeki over 
Ibeir Tdrkah oppfOMn a Uh nme implriBK spot— A plan of the paa, illiatntiiic the oonteet between LeonidM aod tbe Pttniuo, 
B liTM ia AvlAcfamy^ ABuhuBU, ettad P. V. § 16S. S. 

^97. Phocis extended between the two parts of Locris, from the Corinthian 
gulf to the borders of Thessaly. 

The capital was Elatea, on the river Cephissus, the capture of which by Philip first 
awakened the attention of the Greeks to the dangerous ambition of the Macedonian 
monarch. West of Elatea was Delphi^ on mount rarnassus, celebrated for the oracle 
of Apollo (P. III. % 72), and for the annual meetings of the Amphictyonic council 
(P. III. ^ 105) held in the temple. It is now a mean village called Ccutri. PamaS' 
MM9 (Haliocoro) had two summits, one sacred to Apollo, and one to Bacchus ; the 
town stood at the foot of the mountain, and the temple was built on a neighboring 
eminences, close to the fountain Castalia. Near the town, the Pythian games were 
celebrated, in memory of Apollo's victory over the serpent Python. — Cirrha^ on the 
small river Plistusr falling into the Corintnian gulf, was esteemed the port of Delphi ; 
near this was Crisfa^ from which an inlet of the Corinthian gulf, and sometimes the 
whole gulf, was called Crissaeus ; and Anticyra, celebrated tor the production of hel- 
lebore. — The principal river of Phocis was the CephisauSf which is sometimes con- 
founded with a river of the same name in Attica. 

> A view of ndpU and the baixfats of Hnmm b preaenled in tbe Frontispieoe of tbb Huual, as given bj Boeagt, in Burfte* 
bmy'B Ancbaniik— A plna of Ddphi, wilb ezphaation, b fboal in ZXnei't Pbdar, voL li. p. 628, aa cited P. V. § «). 4. 

) 98. At the lime of the Persian Invasion, the Phocians strenuously exerted themselves for the 
common liberties of Greece ; in revenfre, Xerxes despatched a large army to lay waste the 
country and plunder the temple of Delphi. The greater part of tbe men were destroyed by 
earthquakes and lightning; the inhabitants, encouraged by these appearances or a divine assist- 
ance, rose e» otoms, and completely destroyed the remainder. About 380 B. C, a large body 

of Oaala, under the command of Drennus, invaded their country, and were defeated under cir- 
camstaoces similar to tbe defeat of Xerxes. 

^d9. BoBotia occupied the north-east of Grsecia Propria, on the shores of the 
EuripuSf a narrow strait between the island of Eubcsa and the continent. 

The capital was Thebes, built by Cadmus, the Phcenician, who first introduced let- 
ters into Greece (cf. P. IV. ^ 45). The city stood on the river Ismenus^ and was 
emamcnted with seven gates, whence it is called Heptapylos. It was the birthplace 
of the demi-gods Hercules and Bacchus, of the poet Pindar, and of those illustrious 
warriois and statesmen, Pelopidas and Epaminondas. The citaidel was, from its founder, 
called Cadmea.— South, of this was Platcsa^ where the Persian army were totally 
destroyed by the united valor of the Athenians, Spartans, and Plateaus : it was after- 
wards destroyed by* the Spartans in the Peloponnesian war. We mention also Leuc- 
tra, near lake Copais, where the Spartans were defeated by Epaminondas ; Coronea, 
near mount Helicon ; CJuBroftea, where Philip, having defeated the Athenians and 
Thebans, became absolute master of Greece ; Lebadea, remarkable for the temple 
of Trophonius ; and Orckomenus, near which was the Acidalian fountain, sacred to 
Venns. — Near the Corinthian gulf was ThespitSy sacred to the Muses, having a port 
named Creosa ; and Ascray the birthplace of the poet Hesiod. — On the Euripus were 
Anlisj the rendezvous of the Grecian fleet in the Trojan expedition, and the scene of 
Iphigenia's sacrifice ; Tanagra, where the celebrated poetess Corinna was born ; and 
Velium, a village which derived its name from the temple of Apollo, built in imitation 
of that at Delos, and was the place where Socrates, in the Peloponnesian war, saved 
the life of his pupil Alcibiades. 

^ 100. The chief mountains of Bceotia were Helicon^ with the fountains Aganippe 
and Hippocrene, sacred to the Muses ; Pimpla^ on the borders of Phocis, dedicated 


to th0 aame divinitiet ; JHree, near Thebes ; and Citharo*, on the borders of Mega* 
ris, sacred to Bacchus. 

The people of BoboiUi w^re aeually deflcritwd as nnturally stupid, but with apperently little 
juiilee ; for It gave birth to many men of superior talents, and the barbarous custom of ez- 
posing chiidreo, common in the rest of Greece, was here toully prohibited. They have beea 
accused of nourishing a deadly hatred for irifline causes. "^ In the heroic nret, Thebes seems to 
have been one of the most powerful of the Grecian states, but its history is so involved, thsi the 
discovery of the truth is very difficult. It certainly declined In after times ; probably the misfor- 
tunes and civil discords of the posterity of Cadmus liad weakened the power and destroyed the 
spirit of the people. 

$ 101. Megaris was a small territory, said not to be more than ei^ht miles square, 
south of mount Citheeron, near the isthmus of Corinth. Its chief city was Megara, 
situated midway between Corinth and Athens, built on two cliffs not far from the 
Sinui Saronicus; its port was NtMoa^ token and destroyed by Pericles. The only 
other place of note was Crcmmyon^ near the Scironian rocks : these were said to be 
very dAngerouSi and to have derived their name from SciroUf a notorious pirate and 

^102. The remaining province of Hellas was Attica, east of Mcgoris, and south 
of Cithaeron. The district so named was of a triangular shape, not 30 miles wide at 
its base on the north, and tapering until it terminates in the point called Suniumt pro- 
jecting into the Myrtoum Mare^ east of the Sinus Saronicus (gulf of Engia). It was 
also called Acte <d«rjt) from its maritime situation. The capital was Athens^ a more 
tuU description of which we shall give below. 

^ 103. About ten miles north of Athens is Marathon, where the first Persian in- 
vaders, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes, were completely routed by 
the Athenians, commanded by Miltiades. Norm of this was the village Ehamnust 
where a statue, formed of the marble that the Persians had brought to raise a trophy 
of their anticipated victory, was erected to the eoddess Nemesis : a httle to the eaat 
was Phyle, a strong fort, which was occupied by Thrasybulus, in his expedition 
against the thirty tyrants. On the Euripus was Delphinum, and Oropus^ where there 
was a celebrated temple of Amphiaraus. Nearer to Athens, on the north side, was 
AeharruB^ where the Lacedemonians encamped when they invaded Attica ; and De- 
celia, which they fortified by the advice of Alcibiades.^-East of Athens was Brauron^ 
where the statue of Diana, brought from Taurus by Orestes, was preserved until 
taken away by Xerxes ; and Suntunif a town and promontory at the south-eastern 
extremity of Attica, celebrated for a splendid temple of Minerva (from the niins of 
which h IS now called Cane Colonna), and is in modern times remarkable as the scene 
of the shipwreck beautifully described by Falconer. — West of Athens was Eleusis, 
where the Eleusinian niysteries in honor of Ceres were celebrated. There are two 
remarkable temples at Eleusis ; that of Ceres and that of Triptolemus. 

^ 104. Tomgraphy of Athens. The city of Athens was founded by Cecrops, an 
Egyptian, who led thither a colony from the banks of the Nile. At first it was called 
Cecropia, from the name of its founder ; and afterwards 'A5j}vot, Athens, in honor 
of the goddess Minerva (whom the Greeks called 'a3^i'v), because she was the pro- 
tectress of the city. In its most flourishing state, it was one of the largest and most 
beautiful cities ot Greece, and is said by Aristides to have been a day's journey in 
goinff around it ; according to other and more exact computations, it was about one 
hunf-ed and seventy-eight stadia, or rather more than twenty-two Roman miles ; and 
Dion Chrysostpm reckons it to have been two hundred stadia, about twenty -five Ro- 
man miles in ciieumference. — Col. Leake considers the ancient city to have been much 
larger than the modern, and estimates the circumference as not less than 19 miles at 
least, reckoning the sinuosities of the coasts and walls. — The number of gates is not 
known ; thirteen are named by Robinson ; the largest was called ^(kv\ov, and was near 
the Ceramicus ; the 'Upi was that leading to Eleusis. 

ForaplaBor AtlMBi,MioarPlat«l.,b]rwhieli tbarMdwaiaylMni lbs ■itualioB of the priacipii ptiti aal toildiapi— Tha 
4«criptiM hm ^v«d, b dnws ehicfljr ttxm Bebinmm'a Arelunkf a OnBOu 

^ 105. Athens lies in a valley, extending from mount Pentdiets on the east to the 
iStnu« Saronicus on the west, l>ietween mount Fames on the north, and Hymettus on 
the south. In the plain of this beautifiil valley tlfiis surrounded by natural ramparts, we 
behold the very singular geological feature of six insular mountain rocks standing in rra^u- 
lar succession, and gradually diminishing as you descend fix>m PenteUcuswestwanlto 
the sea. The one nearest the sea is called the hiU of Mus€bus. On the next is the Aero' 
polis of Athens. The one next to this on the east is Mt. Anchestnus, on the summit 
of which was a temple and statue in honor of Jupiter i from this eminence an observer 
could survey the wnole of Athens and its environs.-— Two streams fiimished their 
waters to the city. One was the llissus, which flowed to the east and south of the 
city, and which is supposed, from the appearance of its channel and fix>m the allusions 
of the poets, to have been anciently much larger than it has been seen in modem 
times. The other, CejAissus, was still smaller and ran on the other side.-^— Athens 
may be described in two parts ; the Cecropia, built by Ceciops on the summit of the 


hill teimed Acropolis (dxptfavXi^). and called the upper city, fi ha it6\ts ; and the part 
built afterward, 4 kStv vAi; , or the lower city. 

HmMU or Aerapolii,M dbtncnUiad frn On Itmtr part, ta dlttiocfly mm h Ibe nMo<!f JOcmglMa In imr FUta Ho, m 
life §0i wbkh k takca boai /. C aabkmaet Jonrwy thraoffa Albuia and oUwr provlBcea of Tnrliey, *e. Loml. iSia 
I wh. 4^TteOneiu Mtliodonhw eoBDMti^ni AenpoUt with their towM, b alio illuBtnlsl bjr our FUlc IT. ct § M 

^ ,106. The citadel, or upper city, was sixty stadia in circumference, and was fenced 
with wooden pales, or, as aome say, was surrounded with olive-trees. It was fortified 
on the south side by a strong wall, which was built by Cimon, the son of Miltiadee, 
fitom the spoils taken in the rersian war, and which was called Ki/cwviov rtixoi. The 
DOTth wall was built many ages before by Agrolas, or according to some, by Euryalus 
and Hyperbius, two brothers, who first taught the Athenians the art of building houses. 
This wall was denominated OcXao-yixdv or IIcAapxtxdv, from the Pelas^, the name of 
its fi>ander8. I'his wall was beautified with nine gates, from which it is sometimes 
called 'EyycarvXov; but though there were several lesser ^tes, there was one grand en- 
trance into the citadel, the n/>o«i)Aafa, to which the Athenians ascended by steps covered 
with white marble, and which was built by Pencles at great expense. Over this en- 
trance is one of those enormous slabs of marble called '* marble beams" by Wheeler, 
and to which Pausanias particularly alluded when, in describing the Propylsa, he 
says that, even in bis time, nothing surpassing the beauty of the workmanship or the 
magnitude of the stones used in the building had ever been seen. 

The inside of the citadel was ornamented with innumerable edifices, statues, and 
monuments, on which the ancient stories were fully described. I'he noble statues of 
Pencles, Phormio, Iphicrates, Timotheus, and qther Athenian generals, were here 
intermingled with those of the gods. 

Here was the temple of Minerva, called NtVij 6^, Victory, constructed of white mar- 
ble, and placed on the risht of the entrance into the citadel. 

% 107. About the middle of the citadel was the stateljr temple of Minerva, called 
FartkenoHj because that goddess preserved her virginity inviolate, or because it was 
dedicated by the daughters of Erechthcus, who were particularly called irap^tvoi, vir- 

f:ins. It was also denominated 'Exard/ivci^oy, because it was one hundred feet square, 
t was burnt by the Persians, but restored by Pericles, who enlarged it fifty feet on 
each side. It was of the Doric order, and built of that beautiful wnire marble found 
in the quarries of Pentelicus, a mountain of Attica. Within this temple was the statue 
of Minerva, so celebrated for Us size, the richness of its materials, and the exquisite 
beauty of the workmanship. The figure, the work of Phidias, was twenty-six cubits 
high. This temple still remains a noble monument of antiquity, being 229 feet in 
^pgih, 101 in breadth, and 69 in height. 

AT««ariheFkfltieMiiiKiTeniaearFUteXXLfic.l.ef. On the tM»felier takm fron ft by Lard Elgin, et P. IV. 
i t«L Oa te voffcaof Fbidiaa, et P. IV. § ITS. 

Here also was the temple of Neptune, sumamed Erechtheus. This was a double 
building, and, besides other curiosities, contained the s&It spring called 'Epix^eU, which 
was feigned to have sprung out of the earth from a stroke of Neptune's trident, when 
he contended with Minerva for the possession of the country. This part of the temple 
was consecrated to Neptune. The other part belonged to Minerva, sumamed IloXcaj, 
the protectress of the aty, and Tlawipoaos, from one of the daughters of Cecrops of that 
name. Here, so late as the second century of the Christian sera, was the sacred olive- 
tree, which was said to have been produced by Minerva, and to have been as old as 
the foundation of the citadel. (lere also was the image of the goddess, which was said 
10 have fellen from heaven in the reign of Erichthonius, and which was guarded by 
dragons, cftUed iiKovpol'i^tSf and had a lamp always burning with oil, and an owl be- 
fore it. The whole structure was called 'Epix^eio¥. Both these buildings still remain. 
The smaller edifice, which is an entrance to the other, is 29 feet in length, and 21 feet 
3 inches in breadth. The larger is 63^ feet in length, and 36 feet in breadth. Thct roof 
is snp])orted by channeled Ionic pillars. See Plate IV a. 

Behind the temple of Minerva stood the public treasury, which from its situation was 
called 'Oxic96ioitos, and in which, besides other public money, a thousand talents were 
deposited for any very mat exigency of the state. 

In the citadel were luso several other edifices, as the chapel of Jupiter Slon-^p, and of 
Minerva Sc^rcipa; the temple of Affrauloe, the daughter of^ Cecrops, or rather of Mi- 
nerva, who was worshiped under that name, in the front and steep side of the rock ; 
and the temple of Venus, 'InKoX^rtta, consecrated by Phtedra, when in love with Uyp- 

^ 108. The lower city, which contained all the buildings that surrounded the citadel, 
with Munyclua, Phalemm, and Piraeus, was encompassed with walls of unequal 
strength, built at different times and by different persons. The principal parts of the 
walls were the Moxpa relxm which joined the harbor of Piraeus to the city, and which 
being about five miles in length, were sometimes called M(urp& vkIXti, long legs, and 
hntiia longa, long arms. They consisted of two sides. The wall on the north sido 
was built by Pericles at great expense, and continued forty stadia. That on tLc south 


IV a. 


ode was celled Ntfr«or rtixos* or ^^fii i^ivov rtlxn* to distinguish it from the south wall 
of the citadel, and sometimes rtXxoi <^«XnpiK6¥y because it included the port of Phalerum. 
It was built by Themistocles, of huge square stones, not cemented together with mor- 
tBT, but fastened on the outside by iron and leaden cramps. The height of it was forty 
cubits, but Themistocles wished to raise it to eighty cubits. Its length was thirty-five 
stadia. Upon both of the walls was erected a great number of turrets, which, after 
the Athenians became so numerous that the city could not contain them, were con- 
verted into dwelling-bouses. The VLovv^iov, or wall that encompassed the Munychia, 
and joined it to the Piraeus, contained sixty stadia; and the exterior wall on the other 
■ide was forty-three stadia in length; and hence it appears, as has been before ob- 
served, that the whole chrcumference of Athens was 178 stadia, or rather more than 22 
Roman miles. 

^ 109. Of the buildings of the lower city, the principal and most remarkable were 
the following. — TloiixtXo¥ was a stately edince, in which were kept the sacred utensils 
used at feaiivais, and in which were prepared all things necessary for solemn proces- 
sions. — The temple of Vulcan, or of Vulcan and Minerva, situated not far from the 
Ceramicus within the city, was a public prison. — Near to this building was the temple 
of the Htavenly Venvs ; for the Athenians had two deities of the name of Venus, of 
which one was designated Ovpavia, and the other nivSniioti the former presided over 
clmste and pure love ; the latter was the patroness of lu«t and debauchery. — ^Avaxetow 
was a temple of Castor and FoUuXt who were called £yaM(. Jn this place slaves were 
exposed to sale. 

The temple of Theseus was erected by Cimon in the middle of the city, near the 
place where t^e youths emploved themselves in WTestling and other bodily exercises. 
This temple was a sanctuary for slaves, and for all persons of low condition that f!ed 
from the persecution of men in power, in commemoration of Theseus, who, when 
alive, was the guardian and protector of the distressed. 

Speaking of the temple of Theseiii, Dr. Clarke observes, thai this beautiful Doric temple more 
reacmbiing, in ihe style of its architecture, the temples of Ptesium than of Minerva in the Aero- 
poiis. and the moat entire of any of the remaioing atructurea of ancient Greece, were it not for 
llie damafe which the aculpturea have sustained, may be considered aa atlll perfect. The entire 
edifke is of Pentelican marble ; it sunda eaaCand west, the principal front facing the east; and 
ft has a portico of six codinins th each firont, and on each side a range of eleven columns, ex- 
clusive of the colttroos on the angles. 
A VMv of fkk tenpto it ^na in Plate XXI. fls. 8. 

^ 110. 'OX»|i«ioy, or 'OXtj^wrpv, was a temple of Ionic architecture, erected in honor of 
Jvpiter the Olympian^ and was the most magnificent structure in Athens. The area, or 
peribolus, -within which it stood, was four stadia in circumference. It was con- 
structed with double rows of columns, 10 feet in front, and 21 in flank, amouniiiig in 
all to 124 ; the extent of the front being 171 feet, and the length of the flank more 
than 400. These nillars are the majestic ruin of this sumptuous and stately temple. 
The foundation of tnis edifice was laid by Pisiatratus, whose sons continued the work ; 
but it was not completely finished till the time of Adrian, 700 years after the structure 
had been commenced. 

The temple of Apollo and Pan stood on the north side at the bottom of the citadel, 
in a cave or grotto, which was called Ma«paf irf rperi, or KtKpoKiai virpai. — The temple 
of Diana, surnamed Awi^ta^os, because in it women, after the birth of their first child, 
dedicated their girdles to that goddess. 

niv^cop was a temple consecrated to all the gods, who, as they were united in one 
edifice, were honorea with one common festival, which was called Qtoltvia. This was 
also a very magnificent structure, and was supported by 120 pillars of marble. On 
the outside were curiously engraved the deeds and story of all the gods ; and on one 
great gtite two horses w^ere carved by Praxiteles. 

The temple of the Eight Winds was a tower of eight squares, of marble, on every 
side of which was carved the figure of a wind, according to the quarter whence it 

Tbsaadclor lViilnitdiBC«u forablMil by koAtatimt Cyrr h Mtea, who ptaod vpoii tbt topof the lower a ■mil pyramhl of 
SMithi, wftmo ibe wniDit oT vbkb be erecM ■ bnsen inCoo, holdief Id ba ri^hl taaod b •wtieta or wend. The tritoa was m placed 

•■thetened mad wift fbe wini, sod polatod with the waad to tbewiwi wbieb tJew. A view of tUi ilnfetara b gina ia oar 


^111. troaiy ponicos. Were very numerous at Athens; but the most remarkable 
was that called Tlti9ta»aKrtoi^ and afterwards not«fX», trom its containing a variety 
of curious pictures, drawn by those great masters, Polygnotus, Mycon, and Pansenus, 
the brother of Phidias. At the gate of the noi«fA»? was the statue of Solon. — To the 
north of the AcropoUs, not far from the temple of Theseus, are the ruins of a struc- 
ture once evidently very splendid, supposed by Stuart to be the ruins of this celebrated 
Stoa or Porch. Some travelers have mistaken them for the remains of the temple of 
Jupiter Olympius already described, w^hich was in the southern part of the city, near 
the fountain Calirrhoe. 

Uovauw v.*a£ a fort near the citadel, which received its name firom the poet Musaeus, 


the scholar of Orpheus, who used to repeat his verses in this place, where he was also 
buried. — 'SLSsTov was a music theatre, built by Pericles. The inside of this building 
was 6lled with seats and ranges of pillars ; and the outside roof or covering was gra- 
dually bent downwards. The roof, which was constructed of the masts and yards of 
the vessels taken from the Persians, and in its form resembled the tent of Xerxes, 
was supported by columns of stone or marble. It was burnt by Sylla at the siege of 
Athens, but afterwards rebuilt. This Odeum was situated on the souTh-east an^le 
of the citadel. The Odeum of Herodcs Atticus has sontetimes been confounded with 
that of Pericles, but the Odeum of Herodes was situated ai the south-west angle of 
the citadel. This last was built by Herodes in memory of his wife, and was con- 
sidered as far surpassing, in magnitude and in the costliness of its materials, every 
other edifice of the kind in all Greece. The roof of this building was of cedar. 

The Ceramicus (Kspa^iciAdf) received its denomination from Ceramus, the son of 
Bacchus and Ariadne ; or more properly <*»< rifs wpa^eFiciyy rfx»"7fi from the potter's 
art, which was invented here by Conebus. This extensive spacc.was divided into 
two parts, one of which was situated within the city, and contained a great number 
of temples, theatres, porticos, 6lc. : the other was in the suburbs, was apublic bury- 
ing place, and contained the Acaaemy, and several other buildings.^-The Lyceum 
and the Cynosarges were also in the suburbs on the north-east. 

BaqMcHDg tte Acidmy aad otbor OyiiUMtlM at Athcoi, Me P. IV. §) 64, 74. 

^ 112. 'Xyof^ttU forums, were very numerous; but the most remarkable were the 
old and the new forum. The new forum was in a place called 'Eptrpla, which it is 
probable was near to the portico of Zeno. The old forum was situated in the Cera- 
micus within the city, and was called 'Apxafo dyopk. It Mras exiremel]^ spacious, and 
was decorated with buildings dedicated to the worship of the gods, or to the sen'ice 
of the state ; with others which sometimes sffordcd an asylum to the wretched, but 
which were oflen a shelter for the wicked ; and with statues decreed to kings and in- 
dividuals, who had merited well of the republic. In it were held the public assem- 
blies of the people ; but every trade had a different place assigned as a market, and 
the forum was divided into different parts, according to tiie wores exposed for sale. 
Thus KiitXoi denotes the place where slaves were solcT; 'A\0ir6rtD\ti dyopii the bakers' 
market; lx^tf»wAif dyopit the fish-monger's market; rvvrnxcCa dyophf the market for wo- 
men's apparel. The time when goods were exposed to sale was called vXff^ovaa dyopht full 
market, nrom the great number of persons assembled ; and different hours of the day 
seem to have been appointed for the sale of different commodities. To this place the 
inhabitants resorted every day. The Scythians, kept in pay by the republic to main- 
tain order, were encamped in the middle of the forum. Collectors also attended to 
receive the duties imposed on every thing that was sold, and magistrates to superin- 
tend what passed, 

BovXsvT^pia were public halls, in which each company of tradesmen met, and deli- 
berated on matters relating to their trades. At Athens trade was very much encou- 
raged ; and if any one reproached another, even the lowest citizen, with Uving by the 
profit of his traffic, he was liable to an action of slander. 

^ 113. Aqueducts were not common at Athens before the time of the Romans; al- 
though one is said to have been built by Pisistratus. The want of them was supplied 
by wells (^piara), some of which were dug by private persons, and others at the pub- 
Uc expense ; but as good water at Athens was extremely scarce, frequent quarrels 
arose among the citizens. Adrian laid the foundation of a stately aqueduct, which 
was finished by his successor Antoninus, and which was supported by Ionic pillars. 

The stadium was an oblong area, semicircular at one end. designed originally for 
the foot-race, but used for other ^ames and exercises ; and for the accommodation ot 
spectators, who resorted thither m great numbers, it was built with steps above each 
other, in order that the higher ranks might look over the heads of those placed below 
them. The most remarkable at Athens, and indeed in all Greece, was the stadium 
CSrd6iov UavadiivaiKdv)i erected near the river Ilissiis by Lyrurgus, and afterwards en- 
larged by Herodes Atticus, one of the richest of the Athenians. It was built of Pen 
telic marble, with such magnificence that Pausanias did not expect to be credited, 
even in his brief description of this work, and savs that it was a wonder to be taken 
for a mountain of white marble upon the banks o^the llissus. It was about 125 geo- 
metrical paces in length, and 26 or 27 in breadth, and was therefore called a stadium, 
a measure in ordinary use among the Greeks, being the eighth part of a Roman mile. 

^ 114. The Areopagus was a small eminence a little to the north-west of the Acro- 
polis. On this, the court or senate of the Areopagus usually held its meetings. (Cf. 
P. III. ^ 108). A space was leveled for the purpose on the summit of the rock ; and 
the steps which conducted to it, were cut out of the natural sohd stone. There was 
originally neither enclosure nor roof; but merely an altar to Minerva, and two stone 
seats for the accuser and defendant. The court was occasionally protected by 
temporary erection.— The Pnyx, IlWIf, was another eminence, opposite the Areo- 
pagus, not f&r from the citadel, celebrated as the place where the Athenians 
held their assemblies. Almost the whole of the structure, as appears from a 


reeeat removal of the earth in this place, was an excavation of the rock. The fi^itOf 
om which the orators stood to address the peoplef was carved from the stone, and yet 
remains. Before this was a semicircular area, of which the part most distant from 
the orator* s stone consists of masonry. In the perpendicular surface of the rock, 
£scing this area, are niches for votive tablets. North-east from the Acropolis, on the 
street of the tripods (cf. $ 115), Vas the UpvTavilov^ where was a public hall, and where 
the laws of Solon were deposited. Near it was the BovXcXov or senate-house. 

^ 115. Athens had theatres besides those termed Odea. One of the most celebrated 
was the theaire of Bacchus, capable of accommodating 30,000 spectators. (Cf. P. IV. 
^ 235.) This contained statues of many of the tragic and comic writers, and was the 
place where the dramatic contests were decided : it was near the Acropolis, at its 
south-east angle. Nothing of it is now seen except the circular sweep scooped in 
the rock for the seats. Above it, in the rock of the Acropolis, still appears a cavern 
or grotto, formerly termed the Cave of Bacchus, but now converted mto a sort of 
chapel. — Close by this cavern stands a building, called the Choragic monument of 
Thrasyllus ; having on its front three inscriptions recording dramatic victories obtained 
in the theatre. Over this building, and higher up the rock, are the two Columns of 
the tripods, or Choragic pillars. There were several other edifices in Athens, erected 
for the same purpose ; one, exquisitely wrought, is near the eastern end of the Acro- 
polis, commonly called the Lantern of Demosthjenes, but proved by its inscription to 
pe a choragic monument erected by Lysicratea. This edince stood in the street of the 
tripodst 80 called from the circumstance that in it were erected (on chorale monu- 
ments or pillars, or otherwise located) numerous tripods, which had been ootained as 
prizes in tne musical or theatrical contests. 

W^iiimiwi tte dnmic ud Bivried eooiegii above aUaded to^ w F. IV. $ 68.— A vbw of On MamnBoat of TbmTUoi b givta 
iBFial*XLIX.fis.C;aadortlatof Ly>ieraln,iatlMattMnktc^iiS.Ai tb»&9m^»aamUnkrnofLenuiUmmkmiitnhMM» 
Imm afiplkibj tin iBad«nGraak>,aiiderlbefraaiidlcH opposition that it wutbcrt^ illiwtrioai onlor. 

^ 116. Athens had three harbors for ships: — 1. Heipairdf, PirmuSt which belonged 
to the tribe of Hippothoontis, and was about 35 or 40 stadia distant from the city, 
before the builfng of the naKpi, rt(xn or long wallsv After that time, the Athenians, 
by the direction of Themistocles, rendered this their principal harbor. It contained 
three Spitot or docks. In this harbor were five porticoes, winch being joined together 
formed a very large one, called on that account Mcurpa aroh. The rirsus also con- 
tained two forums. Here the productions of all countries were accumulated ; and 
this was the market not of Athens only, but of all Greece. In this harbor three hun- 
dred gallies have sometimes been collected at once : and it was sufficiently capacious 
to contain four hundred. The advantages of this place were first observed by I'he- 
mistocles when he devised the plan of givine a navv to Athens. Markets and maga- 
zines were presently erected, and an arsenal capable of furnishing every thing neces- 
sary for the equipment of a great number of vessels. — 2. Movvvx^i, Munychia, which 
was a promontory not far distant from Pireeus, and extended not unUke a peninsula, 
and was well fortmed both by nature and art. It received its name from a person 
called Munvchus, who dedicated in this place a temple to Diana, surnamed VLovvvxi^- 
— ^3. ^akiipiv, Phalerunii which belon?ea to the tribe Antiochis, and was distant from 
the city 35 stadia, or as some say, only 20 stadia. This was the most ancient of the 
three Ifiarbors ; and from it Theseus is said to have sailed for Crete, and Mnestheus 
for Troy. 

War larifaer detaili ropadtav tta MenOng ob}ecti in Oifa iwiwiMd dty, wc ralbr to fhe woritt cited P. IV. ;2«S. I.; P. V 
f T (b).-.We maj add IVSiritfnctonnr VMt to QiMee.-lhirAe*, Tnvata in Qntct, fte. Load. 18Ba 8 rolt. A—Knot, Bdlaa, odo<> 
Dmdlii« dai altcn Griaekalaadeai kc. Leipb IMS. Sveb. & la thk work m»j bo C9iiad an accmut of Loid Elgia^ pro 
emtm^iA P. IV.f 110.4); aboof Iko variooi ■odarn woito iltortnttiag Iho loiaaiM of Grocian art in fenoral.— Cf. Stuarfi 
IM. of ARhiieei. mdcr Mmtian JbdiUutum e£. alK> Chattaiittriaiut$ Tiavoia. in hUnduOitm—E. D. Ciarkt^ Tknvcb la 
TiiioM flBootrics, te. Fkrt n. aaet. S.^jBanikifamy'f AaadMraiis ch. zli^ a beautiful dcacription.— ff. Jlfl Ltmkt, Topopapfay of 
Alhoa. Liwd. ini. with u Atl. faL CC TmnmOlau cf tk$ Aiyai SoeUty tflMtniun ^ (Ac Vi6ini Kingdom, vol. iiL ^ IM. 
•IRnlnoartA, Attana and Altlca.— JNaaae*a',*t^DpoKnpfaie nm Alhan (a Gorman tran^ation of Ltake). Hallo, 1189; wiiti 
Bote of MAllor and Moior.— C. a IftUIcr, Do Manimentia AtbenaninH Ac. Oott. 1837. 4. witb plaloa.— £. ArgnMim, Di« 
ilTiMUiin *oa AllMB, nad Shmi oad amtU, Ac. Wefanar, 1838. 80 plaMa..-i7M'» Plan dca A\bat.-£nteh ^ Ondmr, Eucj- 
doftdla, imdtrJttOa (vritln by Mmp-X-TlMie if a gbMO at 10010 of tho BMMt lBl«nitii« ol^oeti, in FF. CcUon, Vnit to Cob- 
rtntiHfileaBdAIbMMb N. Torfc, tflSt 12. cb. IS, 19l 

% 117. (4.) The Pblopohitbsus, the fourth division of Gnecia (^ 76), remains to be 
ponced. In looking at the physical features of this peninsula, we perceive in the 
interior a circular chain of mountains, almost surrounding an included tract of country 
which was called Arcadia. From this circle of elevated summits, various branches 
are sent off towards the sea ; and we find a line running out to each of the principal 
promomories ; to Shium Prom, at the entrance of the Sinus Corinthiacus ; to Cheloni- 
t€s Prom, on the western ade of the peninsula ; to Acritas Prom. West of the Sinus 
Messeniacus ; to Tcsnarumi to Mtdea, and to ScylUBum, the other points, which occur 
in passing round the peninsula to the east. — Between these several mountains were 
fruitful valleys, watered by numerous streams descending from the mountains in 
every direction. 


^ 118. This country was originally called Argia and Pelasgia, but after the con- 
quests of Pelops was called the i»land of Pelopt, nfXoiros vifvos ; it was also called 
Apia. Its present name, Morea, is said to be drawn from its resemblance to a mul- 
berry-leaf in shape, or from the number of mulberry trees that it produces. — It may 
be considered in six divisions : Achaia, Argolis, Ehs, Arcadia, Messenia, and Lacu- 
nia. Sicyonia and Corinthia are sometimes aidded to these ; but they may be included 
under Achaia. 

^119. Achaia, in the extent we have just pven to it, includes the whole north 
coast of Peloponnesus, and the isthmus of Connth, by which it is joined to Hellas. 
Exclusive of Sicvonia and Corinthia, it comprised twelve towns, each independent, 
and possessed of its own little territory, which were from a very early time united 
in a sort of confederacy called the Achaean league ; they were Dyme, Olenus, Fhane, 
Tritsa, Fatr<B (now PcUra»y, Rhvpe, JEgium the place where the deputies of the 
league met, Heiice, Burn, ^ge, JEgina^ and Pellene. In the resistance to the Ro- 
mans made by the Achaean league in the later ages, the cities of Sicyon and especially 
Corijith took part. 

It was from the oppotition made in Achaia, that the Romans, when Hummins reduced Greece 
to a flttbject proTince by the capture of Corinth, B. C. 146, applied the name Achaia to the whole 
coontry. Cf. (SIS. L6. 

^ 120. Sicyon was the most ancient city of Greece, said to have been founded 
B. C. 2069. — But Corimh has obtained greater notoriety : it was on the isthmus, at 
nearly an equal distance from the Saronic and Corinthian gulfs. It was once called 
Ephyra. Its citadel was on a hiil called Acro-Corinthus. It had two ports ; LeoKB- 
um, on the Sinus Corinthiaeutf and Cenchrecs^ on the Sinus Saronicui. Although 
destroyed by Mummius, it afterwards recovered its splendor, being rebuilt by Juhus 
Caesar, and became more famous than before for its luxury and licentiousness. 

The Isthmua of Corinth was an Important pasa. Several attempts have been made, at differ- 
ent periods, to Join these two seas by a canal, and from the failure of them all, ** to cut ibrouf h 
the Corinthian Isthmus" has become a proverbial expression for aiming at impossibilities. Here 
the Isthmian games, in honor of Neptune, were tnennially celebrated : and here a stand has 
frequently been made against foreign invaders, the narrowness of the isthmus easily admitting 
of regurar fortification. 

^121. Argolis occupied the north-eastern extremity of the Peloponnesus. Its 
chief town was Argosi on the river Inachiis, more celebrated in the heroic than the 
historic ages of Greece. When Perseus had accidentally slain his grandfather Acri- 
sius, he transferred the seat of government to Mvcents ; this latter city retained its 
power to the end of the Trojan war ; but after the death of Agamemnon, the Argives, 
through motives of jealousy, besieged, captured, and leveled it with the ground. — 
North of Argos was Nemea, where Hercules slew the Nemean lion, and instituted the 
Nemean games in memory of his victory ; and Tirynthus, a favorite residence of 
Hercules, whence he is frequently called the Tirynthian hero. — On the Siniu Argo- 
licut (Gulf di Napoli) were, Nauplia (Napoli di Romania), in ancient and modern 
times the principal port in these countries ; Epidaurus, remarkable for a celebrated 
temple of jEsculapius (P. II. ^ 84) ; and Trtszenct whither the aged inhabitants of 
Athens retired when their city was burned by Xerxes. 

$ 192. El is was a small province south of Achaia, on the coast of the Ionian sea. 

Its chief town was Elia, the residence of king Salmoneus, who is said to have pro- 
voked the indignation of Jupiter, by his attempts to imitate thunder and lightning ; it 
was OQ the Peneus (Belvidere or Igliaco), a principal river of the province. Pita^ de- 
stroyed at a very remote period, was on the Alpheu$ (Rouphia or Rufeas), a larger river 
flowing from Arcadia. Not far from Pisa was Olympian the place near which the Olym- 
pic games were celebrated. 

Olfmpia was the name not of a city, but of the sacred site near which the games were per- 
formed. Here was the grove Mtia, with splendid monun\ents scattered In it ; the temple of 
Olympian Jupiter, with its celebrated sutue (cf. P. II. ( 34); the Crvniwm. or Hill of Saturn ; 
also a famous hippodrome and stadium. 

SorMcbmy, eh. xxxviii. m dted P. V. \ 183. 2.— CAoiMU^O0UJ0!lr, Sor I'BippodraDU d'OljmpB, la the Mtm, JieaA. Inaor. vol. 
sfiz. p. 182.— ZTUam^ Piodar, vol. li. p. 630, where ia a plan vrith ezptaoatioM.— /'oufuevtUi, Voyag* de la Ortoe, roL r. p. 40i. 
--J. & Sta»thopt, Oijaipia, fte. m cited P. IV. S 243. 1. 

$123. Arcadia occupied the centre of the Peloponnesus; and being entirely de- 
voted to agriculture was said to be sacred to Pan. — ^Iis principal towns were Teg<Ba, the 
capital ; Orchomenus, near the lake Stymphalus, where Hercules destroyed the narpies, 
on the river Ladon, which flows through Arcadia and joins the Alpheus in the eastern 
part of the province ; Mantinea, where Epaminondas fell, near the ruins of which is 
Tripolitza, the metropolis of the Morea ; Megalopolis, near the Helissus, a tributary to 
the Alpheus, built by Epaminondas to repress the incursions of the Lacedaemonians. — 
From the ruins of Pkigalia (Paulitza), in the territory of the Parrhasiii were taken the 
bas-reliefs called the Fhigalian Marbles (cf. P. IV. $ 179, ^ 183. 4). 

The mountains of Arcadia were greatly celebrated by the poets ; the principal were 
CyUene, the birthplace of Mercury ; ErynuinthuSf where Hercules slew an enonnous 

IV A, 


boar; Manalutf sacred to the Muses: Parikeniuty where Atalanta resided; Parrks' 
tins and LyoBus, sacred to Jupiter and Pan. From the hill Nonacris flowed the cek" 
brated river Stt/jc ; its waters were said to be poisonous. 

^ 124. The south-western division of the Peloponnesus was Messenia, of which 
Me$seney a strongly fortified town, was the capital ; the citadel was called Ithome^ and 
was supposed to be impregnable ; these were in the interior, west from the Pamisus, 
which 18 the principal river of the province, and flows from the mountains b«4ween 
Messenia and Arcadia into the Sinus Messeniacui. — The other principal towns were 
PijloSf the city of Nestor, now called Navarin; Melhmie, where Philip defeated the 
Athenians ; and CEdudia or Erytopolis, conquered by Hercules. 

The Messenlanc, nfier a desp«rate reslsi&nce, were subdued by the LacedeiDonians, and the 
greater part coaipelled to leave the country. Subeequently their city lay long In ruini : but 
when Epaminondns bad destmyed the supremacy of Sparta, be recalled the descendants of the 
exiles and rebuilt Messene. After his death, the Spartans a^alo became masters of the eoaatry, 
but dM not expel the Messenians from their restored possessions. 

% 125. The south-eastern and most important division of the Peloponnesus was 
L a c o n i a. Its capital was Sjnirtat which we shall describe in the following sections. 

The other towns of note were, AmyclcBf on the Eurotas, the residence of Leda; 
Therapne, on the same river, the birthplace of Castor and Pollux ; Gytheutn, the prin- 
cipal port of Laconia ; HeloSi whose inhabitants were enslaved by the Spartans ; and 
SeUatiay where the Achseans, by the defeat of Cleomenes, Uberated the Peloponne- 
sus from the power of Lacedaemon. 

The Sinus Laeonicus (Gulf of Colochina) was bounded by the capes Malta (St, 
Angelo) and Tamarum (Matapan). Near Taenarum was a cave represented by the 
poets as the entrance into- the infernal regions ; through this Hercules is said to have 
dragged up Cerberus. 

The Peloponneslan sutes were first aubjeaed by Pelops ; bat about eighty years after the 
Trojan war, the Heraclids, or descendants of Hercules, returned to the Peloponnesus, and 
became masters of the different kingdoms. This event, which forms a remarkable epoch in 
Grecian history, took place 1L04 B. C. ^ 

$ 126. Tojfography of Sparta. Th6 city of Lacedaemon, which was anciently called 
Sparta, is said to nave been built by king Lacedaemon, who gave it the latter denomi- 
nation from his wife Sparta, though he designated the country and the inhabitants 
from his own name ; but some think that this city received the appellation of Sparta 
from the Sparti, who come with Cadmus into Laconia. It was situated at the foot 
of mount Taygetutf on the west side of the river EurotaSt which runs into the Laconic 
gulf. It was of a circular form, and forty-eight stadia or six miles in circumference, 
and was surrounded to a great extent with vineyards, olive or plane trees, gardens, 
and summer-houses. • 

Anciently the city was not surrounded with walls ; and its only defence was the 
valor of its inhabitants. Even in the reien of Agesilaus, and for the space of eight 
hundred years, this city was vnthout any Tortiiications ; but after it fell into the haaids 
of tyrants, it was surrounded with walls, which were rendered very stron?. It had, 
however, some eminences upon which soldiers might be posted in case of an attack. 
The highest of these eminences served as a citadel; its summit was a spacious plain, 
on which were erected several sacred edifices. Around this hill were ranged five 
towns, which were separated from each other by intervals of difierent extent, ond 
each of which was occupied byoneofthe tribes of Sparta. 

^ 127. The great square or forum, 'Ayopi, in which several streets termmated, was 
embellished with temples and statues. It also contained the edifices in which the 
senate, the ephori, and other bodies of magistrates assembled. Of these public edi- 
fices the most remarkable was the Portico of the Persians^ which the Laceasmonians 
erected after the battle of Plataea, at the expense of the vanquished, whose spoils 
they shared. The roof of this building was supported by colossal statues of the prin- 
cipal officers in the army of Xerxes, who had been taken or killed in that battle, and 
wno were habited in flowing robes. — The Scias was a building not far from the ibrum, 
in which assemblies of the people were commonly held. Jne Chonis was a part of 
the forum, where dances were performed ifi honor of Apollo in the Gymnopa&dian 

Upon the highest of the eminences stood a temple of Minerva^ which had the privi- 
lei^e of asylum, as had also the grove that surrounded it, and a small house apper- 
taining to it, in which king Pausanias was left to expire with hunger. The temple 
was built >vith brass (XaAxiocffoc)' Within the buildingwere engraven, in bas-relief, 
the labors of Hercules, and various groups of figures. To the rignt of this edifice was 
a statue of Jupiter, supposed to be the most ancient statue of brass in existence ; of 
the same date Mrith the re-establishment of the Olympic games. 

The most ornamented place in Sparta, however, was the PcseUe, which, instead of 
being confined to a single gallery like that at Athens, occupied a very considerable 
extent. The Romans afterwards took away the superb paintings in fresco which had 
oeen employed to decorate the walk. — Fonher advanced in the city appeared differ- 

IV e. 


ent ranges of Porticoa, intended only for the display of diflerent kinds of merchan- 

^128. Columns and statues were erected for Spartans who had been crowned at 
the Olympic games $ but never for the conquerors of the enemies of their country. 
Statues miffht be decreed to wrestlers ; but the esteem of the people was the only 
reward of the soldiers. It was not till forty years after the battle of Thermopylfle, that 
the bones of Leonidas were conveyed to Sparta and deposited in a tomb near the 
theatre ; and at the same time also the names of the three hundred Spartans who had 
fallen with him were first inscribed on a column. — The theatre was'm the vicinity of 
the forum, and was constructed of beautiful white marble. Not far from the tomb 
of Leonidas were those of Brasidas and Pausanias. Funeral orations and games were 
annually given near these monuments. 

Of the edifices and roonomentf of Sparta It may be remarked In general, that they were not 
dif tinguished for architectural beauty ; and the city had nothing imposing or splendid in its ap- 

^ 129. On the south side of the city was the 'Ir^Mpoit^f, or course for footvnd horse 
races, some vestiges of which are still visible ; and a little distance from it was the 
PlatanuttaSf or place of exercise for youth, shaded bv beautiful plane-trees, and en- 
closed by the Eurotas on one side, by a small river which fell into it on the other, and 
by a canal which opened a communication with both on the third. The Plaianistas 
was entered by two bridges, on one of which was the statue of Hercules, or aU-sub- 
duing force, and on the other that of Lycurgus, or all-regulating law. 

The place which served Sparta for a port or harbor, was Gytheium, tiOttt/^^ situated 
west from the mouth of the Eurotas, and distant from Sparta 240 stadia, according to 
Strabo, and 30 [300?] according to Pol^bius. It was early surrounded by strong 
walls, and had an excellent harbor, in which the fleets of Sparta rode in security, and 
where they found every requisite for their maintenance and security. 

The mina of Sparta are found, nnder the name Paheoekori or old town, about two mile* distant 
troTU the modern town Mi$itra^ near a spot called Magonla. "The' whole site," nays Ckateau' 
Vrivnd^ *'is nncultivated ; when I beheld this desert, not a plant adorned the ruins, not a bird, 
not an insect, not a creature enlivened them, save millions of lizards, which crawled without 
noise up and down the sides of the scorching walls. A dozen half-wild horses were feeding 
here and there upon the withered grass ; a shepherd was cultivating a few water-melons in a 
corner of the theatre ; and at Magoula, which gives ita dismal name to Lacedemon, I observed 
a small grove of cypresses." 

On the lopognplij tad rntm of Spute, wt CkiUtaubritmd'i Tnnli (p. M, ed. N. T. 18I4)^£< Roi, Monanooi d« la 0tc<»~ 
SirfP. OdI,iaa««i70f theMom.—IcaU'fTnTcbui tbtMoro. Load. ISM. 3 vols, a— CVaimr, norfwcO; te. aa dtsd P. V. 


^ 130. Ic was mentioned (^ 8), that having considered the mainland of Europe under 
three divisions, northern, middle, and soutnern, we might notice the islands together 
under a fourth. The European islands known to the ancients were in the Atlantic or 
Mediterranean ; of those in the Baltic they knew but little. We will speak first of 
those in the Atlantic. 

^ 131. Of these, B ritannia was the most important. ,It was scarcely known to 
exist before the days of Julius Caesar. Being peopled by successive migrations from 
Gaul, the Britons naturally aided the mother country when invaded, and thus pro- 
voked the vengeance of Rome. The south-western shores are said to have been 
visited by the rhcenicians at a much earlier period ; and that enterprising people have 
been described as carrying on an extensive trade for tin with Cornwall and the Scilly 
isles, which, from their abounding in that metal, were called the Cassiterides Insula 
or Tin islands. 

^ 133. The enumeration of the several tribes and villages being a matter rather of curiosity 
than utility, wo shall only notice a few of the more remarkable.— The Cantii occupied the soath 
of the island ; in their territory were RutHvim (Richborough), celebrated for its oysters by Juve. 
nal ; and Portiu Lenmnis (Lymne), where Ciesar landed, B. C. 55.— The Trin^banus possessed the 
country north of the Cantii ; their chief town was Londinum (London), the most flourishing Ro- 
man colony in Britain.— The Silurtg possessed South Wales, and appear to have been a very 
flourishing and warlike tribe. Caractacus. one of their kings, is celebrated for having bravely 
defended the liberties of his country ; and for a long time hntlled the utmost efforts of the Ro- 
mans: he was at length subdued by Ostorius Scapula, A. D. 51, and sent in chains to Rome. — 
On the eastern coast were the Tetmij whose queen Boadicea, having been cmelly abused by the 
Roman deputies, took up arms to avenge her own and her country's wrongs ; at first she ob- 
tained several victories over her oppressors, but was finally defeated by Suetonius Paullnus, 
A. D. 61.— The north of En^^and was possessed by the Briganu*^ the most powerful and ancient 
of the British nattons ; their principal towns were ISMraeum (York), and J$urhim. (supposed to 
be JSUboroufh)^ the capiul of their tribe. 

^ 133. Scotland was still less known than EngUnd; five nations on the borders, 
known b^ the general name of Meat<B, were subdued by Agricola, and became nomi- 
nally subject to the dominion of Rome. 

When Britain became a Roman province, it was divided into the five following 



1. The Botvnda of ^alonlca, \hp ancicnl ThwsaJnnfCi. It ia fliippoBtd to 
have bven a Cubiriuti Tempi?. By thi Christiaii^ ]t ftas fEiuii-erieil iiUo a 
ehrirch c( Paul arnl PcT-er Til*- Turlts lis.V(* liirnfd ii I mo a rnwque ; ftni'l 
erecM ihff wwmjte/, w luch apptvtM Himcliti^il U? it, ftofl in ilie (t:a]]f r^ i?r 
wbkti ia Bircn a Mueixin, who8« o0ice m \o aniiounce (mm ilie gallery ti^a 
hour of prayer. 

2, A fotmlaln Tor the Musaulman ablulion befbre pmycnb 



provinces: Britannia primal comprising the eastern and eonthem divimon of the 
country; Flavia Casarientitj containing the western tribes; Britannia neeunda, 
which included all Wales; Maxima Caaariensiat which contained the country 
between the former divisions and the river Tweed ; and VaUntia^ occupied by the 

9 134. To repel the Ineurtfons of tlie Pfctt and Scots, who fVequenlly laid wastii the RAmaa 
settlements, several valU were buUt across the island. The first was erected by the celebrated 
Afilcola, who completed the conquest of Britain. Hut this being found insufficient to resiratn 
the incursions of the barbarians, the emperor Adrian erected a ranipart of great strengih and 
din^ensions. — The wall of Adrian extended from •Ss/narism hunm (Solway Frith), on the western 
coa»l, to Seirtduntm (Cousin's House), a Tillage north of Po-m JSBiii (Newcastle-npon-Tyiie), on 
the ^stern coast, a distance of about 70 miles. It consisted of a denble rampart and ditch, and was 
streagihened by forts erected at short Intervals.— Twenty years after thW, the emperor Anionl* 
nus rebuilt the wall of Agricola, which was nearly parallel to that of Adrian, and bad been neg- 
lected after that was built, whence this is usually called the rampart of Antoninus. 

$ 135. But the last and greatest of ttiese strnetures was the wall erected by the emperor Seve- 
rus, A. D. 900.— It was situated a fewyards north of the wall of Adrian, and was one of the 
strongest fortifications of antiquity. The wall was twelve feet wide and eight feet high, built 
of stone and cement ; It was strengthened by eighteen stations or garrisons, thirty-one castles, 
and three hundred and twenty-four towers : the whole bodv of forces employed to garrison this 
immense range of fortification were ten thousand men, besides six hundred marlnen, appointed 
to guard the points where the ramparts communicated with the shore. 

$ 136. The islands adjoining Britain were the Orcades (Orkneys), Heltrides (Western 
Isles), Mona Taeiti (Anglesea) , Mona Cataris (Man), Vectit (Isle of Wight), and Ca$' 
siteridet (Scilly Isles).— -Ireland was known to the ancients only by name, and was 
called leme Juvema, or H i b e r n i a. 

The IrUh mj IfatI they u« dcMtadcd tnat a Seylblao Mlien, lad tint at m wrir ptriod, part of llw eoanlrf wu eolon'taBd bj •l>s 
Ptaaiciui; in pnaf of tbo httar, il Im bean ani«' tbat the •pedmcM of tba Punic bmgwfa pi«urTed bf Plaahw, m iJnioat pnra 
Iriab { awS that antiqon awerda, fcnnd in Iba bogs of Iralaad, bava on aaaljriifl been pforad to oomtat of matariala praeiNl7 liailar 
to Iboaeof tba Punic awonlidm np bf Sir W. UanUtoo in Iba flald af CanMa.-Ct P. V. ) SSS. 2. 

An island called Thule is frequently mentioned in the classical authors as the most 
distant known, but its situation has not been described, and therefore we caimot be 
certain what particular island was meant. Iceland, some of the Shetland isles, and 
Greenland, have been named by different modern writers (cf. ^ 3). 

^ 137. In speaking of the islands in the Mediterranean, we beein in the wcatnn part. 
The BdUarvMB^ deriving their name from the skill of the inhabitants in slinking and 
archery, were on the coast of Spain. Their names were BdUarxB major (Minorca) ; 
Baleans minor (Minorca), and Ebusus (Ivica). 

Between Spain and Italy are Corsica and Sardinia, separated by tlie Frehtm Fonm 
(Strait of Bonefacio). Corsica, called b^ the Greeks Cymos, was of little note in 
ancient times, but is celebrated for having given birth to Napoleon Bonaparte. It con- 
tained two Roman colonies, Mariana planted by Marius, and Aleria by Sylia. North 
of Mariana was Malinorum Oppidum (Bastia), the present capital of the island.-— 
Sardinia derived its name from Sardus, an African prince, said to be a son of Her- 
cules, who at a very early period led a colony hither \ it was called by the Greeks 
Idtnu$a, from its resemblance to the human foot. Neither serpents nor wolves were 
found in this island, and (as we are told) only one poisonous herb, which caused those 
who eat of it to expire in a fit of laughter, anid hence the expression, a Sardonic grin. 
The chief town was Calarii (now Cagliari). Both islands were long tributary to the 
Carthaginians, who were expelled by the Romans in the first Punic war. 

There were several small islands of no great importance on the coast of Italy ; the 
chief were Una (Elba), which is of some interest, as the spot of Napoleon's temporary 
banishment ; Prochyta ; and Caprta (Capri), infamous as the scene of the unnatural 
debaucheries of Tiberius. 

$138. Sicilia, the largest and most fertile of the Mediterranean islands, lies to the 
south of Italy, from which it is separated by the Fretum Siculum (Strait of Messina). — 
It was called Triquetra, or Trinacria, from its triangular shape, terminating in three 
promontories ; Ptlorus (Faro), on the north ; Paek^iu9 (Passaro), on the south ; and 
LilyhBum (Boco), on the west. 

&yracu9(B (Siracusa) was the ancient capital of Sidlv, and one of the most remarka- 
ble cities of antiquity. It was founded by a Corintnian colony led by Archias, and 
arrived at such a pitcn of greatness that the circuit of its walls exceeded twenty miles.— « 
It was divided into five parts, which were so larse as to be esteemed Mparate towns ; 
viz. Ortyma, a small island, on which the Greeks originally settled ; Acradina facing 
the sea ; Fycha, between that and the following division ; Neapolis, which stood on 
the great port ; and Epipole. — Syracuse had two portsr the lesser formed by the island 
Ortygiat and the greater at the mouth of the river Anapus, which here flows into a 
large Day, having the island at its northern, and the fort ofPlemmyrium at its southern 
extremity. The celebrated prison called Latomia was cut out of the rock by the tyrant 
Dionysius ; in this was a cavern shaped like the human ear, so contrived as to transmit 
all soimds from below to a small apartment where the tyrant used to conceal hunaelf 


in order to overhear the oonverBatioa of his victims ; it is now a very handsome sub- 
terraneous garden. 

This cftj b ramarkaMe for the defeat of the Athenian!, in their fktal Sicilian expedition, and 
Ike formidable resietauce oiade by the inhabitants when the town was beiieged by Marcellui. 
TlUa aiege wae protracted principally by the mechanical contrivances of Archunedes. 

1 139. Some of the other considerable towns in Sicilia were Mcssanaj Leotttium; 
AgrigetUum, where the tyrant Phalaris resided ; Lilj/baum, Vrepanum, ranormos (Pa- 
lermo), Himera; Naulockus^ where the oxen of the sun were supposed to be kept: 
Trieola, where Trypho and Athenis established the head quarters of a republic of 
slaves, and held out against the Roman power for several years ; Selinus, known for 
. its vigorous but unavailing resistance to the Catthaginians. 

lilHirtt Gfcck niiBB la« Imb bmid at SaliDiu,il^ig«iliia9, ae.>-OB (hcM nijiM, Me S. Heart, Ciuiial Tour, voL U. p. 78 ml 
><X. r. IV. ) in. a.—/. Ob-ewr, AickiteeU Moura. of SieUj, n eiMd P. IV. \ 84S. l.-Se« Abo the eitatioM, P. IV. § 8S4. S. 

The principal Sicilian rivers are the Simatlhus (Giaretta), celebrated for the produc- 
tion of amber ; Asinariua, where the Aibenian generals Nicias and Demosthenes were 
taken prisoners by the Syracnsans, and Helorus on the eastern coast ; on the south 
side were Camicus and CrimisuBf with some smaller streams ; and on the north, the 
liver Himera.—- Mount JEtnat so celebrated for its volcano, occupies a great part of 
Sicilv ; the poets feigned that the giants, when defeated by Jupiter, were buned under 
thii neap, and that the eruptions were caused by their eflforts to reheve themselves. 

The 0rat inhabitants of Sicily were the Cyclopes and LsstrlgonB, a Imrbarous race of people, 
aimost extirpated by the diflferent Greeic colonies, whom the commercial advantages of Sicily's 
sitnatkm taduced to settle in this island. 

i 140. Near the western angle or corner of Sicily are three small islands called 
Mgates, opposite one of which, JEffusa^ Lutatius Catulus defiaated the Carthaginians 
in a great naval engagement, and thus put an end to the first Punic war. — North of 
Sicilv were the Insula Mdia (Lipari islands), sacred to Vulcan ; the largest is Lipara, 
whiui was once a place of great consequence ; the next in size is StrongyU (Stromboli), 
where .£o!as is said to have imprisoned the winds, and where there is a celebrated 
volcano. — Sonth-east of Sicily is MdUe (Malta), remarkable in ancient times for its 
cotton manufiictories. Here St. Paul was shipwrecked in his voyage from Jerusalem 
to Rome. It was first peopled by the Phoenicians, who found this island a convenient 
station for commerce on account of its excellent harbor. — Near Malta is the small island 
of G^ti2M (Gozo). 

i 141. We notice next the Ionian Islands, on the western coast of Greece. Corctra 
(Corfu) stood opposite that division of Epirus called Thesprotia, from which it was 
separated by a narrow strait, named Corcyrean. — It is called by Homer Scheria, or 
Fidsada, and he describes (in the Odyssey) the inhabitants as luxurious and indolent.— 
The principal town was Corcyra^ near which were the celebrated wardens of Alcinous 
and Cassiope. Near the promontory of Phalacrum was a remarkable rock, said to 
have been tne ship which Ulysses received from AL nous, to convey him to his native 
ooontry, and which Neptune changed into a rock, as a punishment to the Phteaciana 
for aiding Ulysses. 

Leutadia (Santa Manra) was originally a peninsula, and the isthmus was cut through 
by the Carthaginians to &cihtate navigation. The chief town was Leucaa, in earlier 
a^ called Nericvm, and the neighboring country Nerids ; it was founded by a Co- 
imtfaian colony, and was joined to the continent by a bridge, as the strait was here very 
narrow.-— At the south-western extremity of Leucadia was a high mountain, named 
Ltueoie, and a remarkable rock, called from its color Z^euicopelra, from which unfortu- 
nate lovers precipitated themselves into the sea. On the top of this rock was a temple 
of Apollo, where the victims offered sacrifices previously to taking the fetal leap. 

The Edtinades (Curzolari) were a small cluster of islands at the mouth of the river 
Achelotts, of which the most celebrated was Dulichiumy part of the empire of Ulysses. 
—Near Dolichium was lihaea (Thaki), the birthplace of Ulysses; the capital was also 
called Ithaca, and stood at the foot of Mount Neritus. 

II 42. Cephalenia (Cephalonia) is the largest of the loman blands. — ^Its chief 
town was Same, fi'om whence the island was frequently called by that nflme ; there 
were three other towns of Uttle consequence in the island ; from which circumstance 
it is called TeirttpaiUs. In this island are some ruins of Cyclopean structure. 

South of this was Zaq^ntkug (Zante), with a capital of the same name, celebrated for 
its fertility and beautiful groves. Herodotus declares that there was such an abundance 
of bitumen found here, that even the neighboring sea assumed prismatic hues from the 
oily matter that floated on its surface. 

West of the Pebponnesus were the Strophade* (Strivoli), at first calls i Plata, the 
rsttdence of the Haipies ; and south of them, the island of Sphacteria (Sphamse), taken 
by Cieon the Athenian, in the first Peloponnesian war. — South of the Peloponnesus 
vras Cjfffteitt, or Porpkyra (Cerigo), sacred to Venus. It contained two excellent towns 
aad harbors, Cythera and Scanda, which the Lacedaemonians fortified with great care ; 
bvi the Athenians destroyed both in the first Peloponneoan war. 
C d9 


^ 143. We may include among the JEgran UlafnU all thdt remain to be noticed. 

The Thracian islands occupy the northern part ot the i?£gean, and were nam^d 
Thasus, Samoihrace, and Imbrua. — Thasut ('la&se). opposite the mouth of the Nessus, 
was in the earher agen of Grecian history named ^Ethria. It produced wine and mar- 
ble, and the inhabitants were at one lime so powerful as to dispute the mastery of the 
sea with the Athenians, but after a severe contest of two years they were compelled 
to surrender at diBCTe\ion.—Samt>(hrace (Samandrachi) derived its name from i>amo8, 
by a colony from which it was first peopled. From this place Dardanus brought the 
worship of Cybele to Troy. — Imbrus (Enibro) lies to the south of Samoihrace. 

^ 144. Tetiedos stands at the entrance of the Hellespont, oppot^ite the Troad. It 
contained but one city, and a celebrated temple of Apolio, here called Smintheus, be- 
cause he delivered the inhabitants Irom a plague of mice, called Sminthse in the Phry- 
gian language. 

South-west of this was Lemnos (Sta1imene)» dedicated to Vulcan, who, when thrown 
out of heaven bv Jupiter, is said to have fallen on this island. It contained two cities, 
HephiBsiia or Vulcatia, and Murina. — Farther west, on the Thessalian coast, was 
Halonuesus (Dromo), which is said to have been at one time defended by the valor of 
the women alone, when all the males were slain. South of these were Sciathue (Sci- 
atia) ; Scopelos (Scopela) ; and Sq/ros (Skiro), where Achilles was concealed by his 
mother Thetis, to prevent his going to the Trojan war. 

South of Tenedos, and opposite Ephesus, was Lesbos (Metelin), the birthplace of 
the philosopher Pittacus, the poets Arion and Alcieus, and the poetess Sappho; its 
chief towns were Methymna, celebrated for wine, and MityUne, from whence the island 
has derived its modern name. — South of this was Chios (Scio), celebrated for its wine. 
The slaughter of the inhabitants of this island by the Turks, in 1822, excited great 
public sympathy. 

^ 145. Tne largest island of the .^gean was Eubcea (Negropont), opposite the coast 
of Bceotia, from which it was separated by a narrow strait called the Eurimu. Into 
this strait Aristotle (P. V. ^ 115), according to the accounts of some, threw himself, in 
8 fit of frenzy, because he was unable to explain the cause of its ebbing and flowing. 
The chief towns were Chalets, joined to Aulis in Bceotia, by a bridge across the Eun- 
pus; Eretriaj an Athenian colony, founded before the Trojan war; Oreus, on the 
Euripus ; the town and promontory of Aricminiumt in the northern part of the island, 
where the Greeks gained their first naval victory over the Persians ; and Carygtut, in 
the south} between the promontories Gcrffisius and Caphareus, remarkable for the 
quarries of marble in the neighboring mountain Ocha. The history of Eubcea is not 
very important, as the greaterpart was subjected to other Greek states. 

In the Saronic gulf were ^gina (Engia), anciently ^none, strongly fortified by 
nature, and at one period the rival of Athens at sea; here were discovered the monu- 
ments called the JEgineton sculptures or marbles (cf. P. IV. ^ 190. 3). The ^gine- 
tans were the most distinguished of the Grecian allies at the battle of Salamis, and 
obtained the prize of valor. — Next to this is Salamis (Elimi), the island of Telemon, 
father of Ajax and Teurer. Near Salamis the Greek fleet, commanded by Euribia- 
des the Spartan, and Themistocles the Athenian, totally defeated the immense navy 
of Persia. — On the coast of the Peloponnesus was Calauria (Foro), where Demos- 
thenes poi.«toned himself that he might not fall into the hands of Antipater, the suc- 
cessor of Alexander the Great. 

^ 146. South-east of Eubcea was the large cluster of islands called the Oyclades, 
from their nearly forming a circle round the island of Vclos. This island, also called 
Oriygia, is celebrated by the poets as the birthplace of Apollo and Diana ; on which, 
near Mount Cynthut, stood the celebrated temple of the Delian god, to which pil- 
grimages were made from all parts of Greece. A sacred galley, called Paralus 
Jfi iropaXoj). %va8 annually sent from Athens to Dclos with a solemn sacrifice, and dur- 
ing its absence it was unlawful to punish any criminal in Athens capitally. I'I.e other 
remarkable islands in this group were Myctmuit, Gyarus, and Seriphun^ small islands 
whither the Roman emperors used to banish criminals ; AnAros and Tenos, south-east 
of Eubcea; Ceos (Zea), and Helena, on the coast of Attica; Cythus, Siphnus, and 
Melos (Milo), south of Ceos ; Paros, celebrated for its white marble, the bunhplace of 
the statuaries Phidias and Praxiteles; Naxos, sacred to Bacchus, where Ariadne was 
ungratefully deserted by Theseus ; /os, where Homer was said to have been buried ; 
Thera, and Arunphe. 

^ 147. The islands in the eastern part of the ^.gean were colled the Sporades. and 
more properly belonged to Asia, but they are enumerated here as they were possessed 
by the Greeks. The chief of these were Snmos, sacred to Juno, the birthplace of Pv- 
thagoras ; Icaria, which gave name to the Icarian pea ; Patmoa (Palmossa), where tne 
Apostle John wrote the Revelations ; Cos, the native country of Harpocrates ; Car^ 
vathts (Scarpanto), which gave name to the Carpathian serf; and Ehodus (Rhodes).-^ 
This latter island contained three cities, Lindus, Camyrus, and Rhodus. 

At tbe harbor of RhoduB stood the CoIomup, an enormnus utRtue, dedicated to the tun (P. 11 
> 79). It held in one hand a light House. This splendid statue (cf.P.IV.^ ]80. 1) was thrown 

MF^m^^o i^w i^-^M'Lm^u 


down by an eanhqnake about B. C. 325, and having long lain prontrate was broken np by tba 
Baracena when tbey becatite masters of ibe island, in the seventh century. 

^ 148. Creta {Crete or Candia), at the entrance of the ^Egean, was the most cele- 
brated island of ancient times : ii is said to have contained a hundred cities, the princi- 
pal of which were Gnosfus, near Mount Jdoj on the north side oi the island ; Gortynia^ 
on the opposite side, where stood the celebrated Labyrinth, built by Daedalus ; and 
Cydoniaj by some esteemed the capital. 

The first Inhabitants of Crete were the Idiei 1>acty1i, who lived near Mount Ida, anil exercised 
Biecbanieal arts ; nearly contemporary with these were the Cnretes. who directed iheir attention 
ID acrkulture.— Minos, a descendant of Jupiter, was the lefrislator of Crete, nnd from his laws 
the i'nstitotioDS of Lycurfus are said to have been principally borrowed. The fabulous legends 
respecting this monarch, his wife Pasipbae,and his daughter Ariadne, are mentioned in another 
place (cf. P. II. $ 117. (a),and $ 135). 

Th« Cnttta LAfcjriatli w ftaenWj reprawoted to bare been neu- OnoMat ; ba! lonie nppow it to have b«en found in (b* rontrk* 
•bl« tzamtiiaM or eavernt nenr Gortyub, coosistinc of ttntnl chambcn luid g%ller!a. It m not improbable that Mne mcb catflrs 
was Gooan garv riw tr> lb* Uory o( an artificial UbTriath.-iSee HCtWt Crcta.— CoctarcU, on tba Crstan Labf rinib, is ITaJfoVf 
IfcaaUB^ amiUi, DicL of AatiquiL art. LabyrtTithui. 


$ 149. Asia, the largest and most populous of the divisions of the globe, Is cele- 
brated as the birthplace of the human race ; the quarter where the true God was wor- 
shiped when the rest of the world was sunk in superstitious barbarism ; the scene of 
our Savior's lile and suffering*' ; and for the great monarchies, the Assyrian, Baby- 
lonian, and Persian, which possessed extensive 8%vav (cf. ^ 211) before the commence- 
ment of authentic European history. — From Asia the first principles of the arts and 
sciences were imported into Europe, and there civilisation nad attained a high degree 
of perfection, before the western countries had emerged from barbarism. 

9 150. The countries of Asia may naturally be considered iii two divisions, the 
Eastern and Western ; the boundary between them being the river Rha or Wolga, 
the M&re Caspium, and the mountains extending thence towards the Sinus Persicus. 

The Eastern divittion includes Scythia, Sinabum Reoio, India, Persia, Media, 
and Parthia, with the countries north of the mountains called Faropamistts. — The 
Western includes Sarmatia, with the countries between the Mare Caspium and Pon- 
tus Eaxinus, Armenia, Asia Minor, Syria, Arabia, and Mesopotamia, with the 
cotmiries in the valley of the Tigris. 


% 151. ScYTHiA was the name applied to all the northern and north-eastern part of 
Asia. Very htile was known respecting it. It was divided into Sq^thia intra Imaum, 
and Seythia extra Jmautn, separated by the mountains called ImauSf now Belur Tag, 
which unite with the modem Altai on the north, and Himmaleh on the south. — Sey- 
thia extra Imanm included the Regio Casta (Kashgar in Tartary), and the Regio Se- 
rica (the north-west part of China) ; in the latter was the city Sera, the thoroughfare 
of ancient commerce between eastern and western Asia. 

Tben las been mndi diaeoHloB mpoetinf the real ntoation of tba aacient Striea^-^CL OJhnaUy tsA OomHn, nir la Seriqoa 
dn AtJataa, ia lb« Man. Jbad. JttMo: vol. xaM. p. 573, and z)br. p. 713.— CiB«. Jounwif vol. vi. p. 204. viL a2^-wfMAon'« 
h uMf ti a t, aitida Sens. 

The Siif js occupied the most eastern portion of Asia known to the ancients ; sup- 
posed to be the couutrv now named Cochin China. Their capital wai ThyruBj on the 
Cctiarisf a branch of tne Senus. 

$ 152. India included the territory extending from the mountains called in their 
northern part Parueti, on the west of the river Indus ^ to the river Serus or Menan, 
which empties into Magnus Sinus (Gulf of Siam). It was divided by the ancients 
into India intra Gangem, and India extra Gangem : the boundary between them be- 
ing the GangeSf which discharged into the Sinus Gangeticus (Bay of Bengal). This 
countnr was but Httle known before the expedition of Alexander. The eouihern part 
of India intra Gangem, or Hindostan, was called Pr&montorium Comaria (cape Como- 
rin). Several places on the coast were known. North of the river Chaberis (Cavery), 
was the Regio Arcati, the modem Arcot. — In India extra Gangem was the Aurea 
Chersonesus (the peninsula of Malaya), its southern point being called Magnum Pro- 
monforium (now cape Romania). 

% 153. Persia, in its more Hmtted meanincr, was the country lying east of the river 
Tigris, between Media on the north and the Tcrsian gulf on the south. But the name 


ifl Bometimee, and ib here, employed to comprehend the whole territory south of the 
ParopamisuM chain of roountaine, from the Zagros chain and the river TigriM on the 
west, to the Parueti and Ar^i JMontet separating it from India on the east. Thus it 
includes several provinces. 

Susiana was the most western on the Tigris, containing the cities Elymais and 
Su*a; the latter, called in the Bible Shuskoftt was the winter residence of the Per- 
sian kings ; it was situated upon the river ChoMpet, which flowed from the OiwUet 
mountaii^ into the Tigris. — r ersis was directly east of Susiana, bordering upon the 
Sinus Persiau, and corresponding to Persia in its limited and proper sense. Its capi- 
tal was Persepolisi represented as a city of great splendor ; the royal palace was set 
on fire by the order of Alexander, when inflamed with wine and instigated by his 
mistress Thais. 

The ruiM of PerMpolls Mill excite admiration. It wat ■itaated on a beautlAil plain ilz miles 
wide and 100 lonf fVom N. W. to 8. E. wliicb ii now crowded with nuroerouw villairps.— Tbrougti 
thit flowed the Jtrmst*^ now Bendemfr or Bend Emir dl«charf Ing into Lake Baktegian. The 
principal ruin is the palace called by the natives Ckekul'Mimar^ ChU-Minar, ur ShcJul-JIftMrt or 
palace of fortff eolumtu. 

See a d«eri|MkM^ with plalH, to Jtok JE«> i^Hn^ Tl«Td«.-a Xiv!^ 
Loud. 1«7. 4.-V. B. JlmiHitf.TraTela rrrai bdk to EnsUad, thitM«h flmis Atia Minor, ac Id ISM. Loud. 1187. <!.-€£ 
ffavrfer, The Unm. Bula^ te. died ) til. VL 

Previoasty to the founding of Persepolis, the royal residence was at PtMrgada^ which was In 
CcBle-Persia, on the river Cfru*^ flowing southerly into a small lake; here king Cyrus is said to 
have erected a tomb for himself, in a high narrow tower. 

A BMNiaBent ttiU exieti, which hai beeo •oppoied to be Ihe toabof Cyf«: ttienprawried la oar PUtoXVIIL flf^ lr-4X 

P. m. i in. i. 

The othei; provinces were Carmania (Kerman), south-east of Persia, also border- 
uig on the Sinus Persicus ; G e d r oe i a (now Mekran), lyiogon the Erythr<Bum Marg 
and extending from Carmania to India ; Arachosia and JD r a n g i a n a, which in- 
clude the whole remaining territory on the north and east between Gedrosia on the 
south and the Paropamiaus on the north. — I'his latter territory was watered by the 
Elywtander, which, with tributaries from the mountains on the north, east, and south, 
flowed into the Aria Palu9t a lake or sea on its western limits ; the whole territory wat 
oAen included under Aria, which properly belongs to the contiguous country nc^rth of 
the Paropamisus. 

^ 154 a. Media was situated south of the Mare Catpium; its northern limit was the rivet 
Arwees flowing to that sea from Armenia ; on the south were Susiana and Persia, hi 
principal river was the Mardut or Amardu$r rising in the south-western part, where tlie 
Orontes chain of mountains is connected with the Zagros chain, and flowing by a cir- 
cuitous course into the Caspium Mare in the country of the Mardii. Media was ^^pj. 
rated from Armenia on the west by Mons Imbarus, a chain extending from Mt. AiUfal 
on the north to the Zagros on the south. The capital was Ecbatana (now Hamadan), 
in the region south of the mountains termed Orontes, 

Ecbatana was made the anmner residence of the Persian nonarchs, and afterwards of the 
Parthian Two tombs, with Inscriptions In the Hebrew character, are still shown to travelers 
as being those of Mordecai and Esther.~Av'«i or Rages, mentioned in the apocryphal book 
of Tohit, was a place of some importance, north-east from Ecbatana. 

See jMiidl, Geoc. of Bored. MdU ▼. |^ u dtod P. V. 1 841. S.--Alh*, Vet. Mid. ft r^n. MoBOineati^ 

% 154 h. The northern portion of Media, lyins on the river Araxes, was formed, after 
the death of Alexander, into an independent Kingdom, by the satrap Atropates, and 
thence called Atropatene; having as its capital Gata (now Tebris or Tabrees), 
and next perhaps in importance Atropatene or Atropaiia on a stream flowing into the 
Mardus. In the western pert of this province was the Locus Spauta or Marcianus 
(lake of Oroopfiiah), near which on its western aide was Tkebarma (Oroomiah), said 
to be the native place of Zoroaster or Zerdueht. 

Thh nflon. HW • piger Adeibyas, ud beleQgiiiK to Ponle, fattboooM iatooidy latanrti^ oa eeoM^ 
•ion ertiMidied eMoff tMNeilorieD Chrirtiu>% who itHde ta the plaim of OraooiU 

esirtaoe wio flnl Bade ioowB to the weitn worfd aboot the yeer l8Mb.-eee SmM and iXfl^M, BeBMidwi, Ac. •• died P. IV. 
ftS. I.— JCi^JBivirid,«nLuLp.n. uxk. ^ na-«f . (^wil, The Neatorieai, or the Loot Tribik N.Tofk,IML \t^-J, Ftr» 
U«i%Aeooulor»BaBldMoeiareiiia,ac Bod. IMS. & wHh oolond pletak (9ee Mili Vf *,) 

$ 155. Under Parthia we include the region lyin^ at the south-eastern comer of the 
Caspian sea; between Media on the south and the nver Oxus (Gihon), which flows to 
the north into the sea of Aral, although it was once supposed to flow into the Caspian, 
and is so deUneated on some miKpa, It was originally but a part of Hyrcania, a pro- 
vince belonging to the Persian empire. By Arsacea, after the time of Alexander, it wae 
made the seat of a new state, which under his suooessora, c^led Arsacid^B, grew into 
a considerable empire, and opposed efieciual resistance to the Romans ($211. viti.). 
Ore of its principal places was Nisaa (Nesa), on a northern branch of the nver Ochth 
( Margab), which empties into the Caspian. Hyrcania (Corcan) was a considerable place, 
on the small river Socaiida.-*But the royal residence of the AraacidiB wasICMXitompy^M, 



in the sonth- western part ; although the later Partban monarchs aomedmes resided at 
CUsipkan. oo the Tigris. 

The remainiiig couatries, between Parthia and Scythia, were Aria, Bactriana, and 
Soj^diana. — ^Aria was east of Parthia and Media, and north of the Paropamisus, al- 
though the name was often extend^, so as to include (^ 153) a huse region south of 
that chain of mountains. The principal place was Artacoana (now Herat). — B a c t r i- 
ana was east of Aria and south of the rirer Ozus ; its capital was Zariaspa or Badra 
(Balk), on a tributary of the Oxus. — S o g d i a n a includes the territory between the 
Oxus and the Jaxartet or Sir ; corresponding nearly to (he modem country Al-Sogd. 
Its chief place was ^laracanda (Samarcand), on the FolytimetuSt a branch of the Oxus. 
CyropoltB was a place founded by Cyrus on the Jazartes. Various tribes occupied this 
region; in the north-easiern part were the Saae, 


^156. Beinnning on the northern limits we notice first Sa r m at i a, called Asiatica* 
to distinguish it from the country of the same name in Europe, from which it was sepa- 
rated by the river Tanais. Its boundary on the south was the Caucasus. It was inhabited 
by roving and uncirilized tribes; particularly the ^^nt, and the Cimmerii: from the 
latter, the strait connecting the Palus Mceotis with the Euzine received its name of 
Boipkorus Cimmerieug. — JiH^uth of Sarmatia, and between the Pontus Euxinus on the 
west, and the Mare Caspium or Hvrcanium on the east, were the three countries, Col- 
chis, Iberia, and Albania. C o 1 c n i s was on the Euzine ; one of its chief places was 
JEa^ on the river Pfuuis (Faz-Reone).— A 1 b a n i a was on the Caspian, extending south 
as far as the river Cynu (or Kur). An important place was one of the two celebrated 
passes of the Caucasus, called Pyla AJbauia or CatDtasin, between a northern spur of 
the Caucasus and the Caspian, as is generally supposed ; afterwards the strong city 
of Derbend. — I b e r i a was between Colchis and Albania, a high valley, watered by 
the Cyrus and its numerous tributaries. The other celebrated pass oi the Caucasus 
led from this valley over into the declivity of the Euxine; it was the defile through 
which the nver Aragut (Arakui) flows into the Cyrus; it is now called JDarie/. — 
These passes, and others in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea, are sometimes termed 
JPyl4B CatploB ; but the pass properly so termed, is supposed to be the modem pass 
of Gurdock, about 90 miles from Teheran. 

OaUMNpuiea,cr. » 

% 157. Armenia was immediately south of Colchis and Iberia, extending to mount 
MoBtuM and the Cardurhi Monies on the south, and from Media on the east to the 
northern branch of the Euphrates, which separated it from Asia Minor. It presents 
three sreat valleys, extending nearly east and west; first, that on the north-east, 
watered bv the Araxe»t also c^led Pfuuis (now Aras), flowing to the Caspian ; second, 
the central, separated from the first by the chain of mountains in which is the summit 
called Araratt and watered by the* southern branch of the Euphrates, which rises in 
its eastern part and flows westerly, containing also the lake called Arsissa Pabis ; 
third, the south-western, smaller, separated from the central by the Niphatex Monies, 
and watered by the Tigris^ which rises in its western part and flows tnrough it in an 
easterly course. — Some of the principal places were Artaxata, on the Araxes, the an- 
cient capital : Ana (Erze Roum), near the sources of the northern branch of the Eu- 
phrates ; Amida, on the Tigris near its source ; and Tigranocerta, taken by LucuUua 
m the Mithridatic war, and plundered of vast riches. 

Tb* iiiaiBiit cAltad Annt h oommooly mppoMd to be that od which Ncnfa>a trk nrted ; (kk u aid to ImTe bew ucendod, Ibr tb» 
flnt tiote, hf Prof. Avrol, hi 183S. S« BiU. Sqnt. No. uii. p. 99a 

^ 158. Asia Minor is a term not used by classical authors, but invented in the 
middle ages. In general, the Roman writers confined the term Asia to the countries 
bordering on the Propontis and iEgean, and divided it into Asia intra Taurum and 
Asia extra Taurum, The large peninsula which is known by the name of Asia Mi- 
nor, included a great number of^ petty states, whose boundaries varied at diflerent 
Asriods. — The northern provinces of Asia Minor, "beginning at the JE^ean sea, were 
rhrygia Minor, M^rsia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Fontus. — The middle provinces 
were Xydia. Phryeia Major, Galatia, Lycjwnia and Isauria, Cappadocia, and Armenia 
Minor. — The soutEern provinces were Caria, Lycia, Pisidia, and Pamphylia. 

lMAinMB,G«ifiapbrof WMtenAda. Load. 1831. S toU. S. 

$ 159. Phrvgia Minor, or Troas, is celebrated for the Trojan plains at the en- 
trance of the Hellespont. The lapse of ages has produced such changes, that modem 
travelers are not agreed about the situation of the city of Troy, called also Ilium. 

Ilium WM built at lome diitance from the sea, above the Junction of the Seamander^ or Xan* 
thus, and Simou^ two ■mall streams, rising from mount fda, and fatlfni; into the Hellespont ; the 
citadel was caJWd Psrgumutt and was erected on a little hill hidaded within the walls. The 


plftin between tbe eity and tbe sea wai intersected by tbe riven Bcamander and Sloiob, and 
there tbe betile* mentioned In the Iliad were fought. At the eaetern extremity of the plain waa 
tbe mosnt Ida, ibe summit of which was called Oargants; tbe west was bounded by tbe Helles- 
pont, which here forms an extensive bay, between the promontory of RkteUum on tbe north, and 
3^si on tbe south. Here lay the Grecian fleet, and at a little distance on tbe shore was the 
ranpu Ajax was buried on the Rhctean and Achilles on the Sigean promontory. 
Sh P. n. i 192, a^ p. V. § fiO^&mMU, aod otiim, OD dM Toposnphy of Troy, M cited p. V. § 6a 7. 

Mysia, divided into Minor and Major ^ extended from the Hellespont to Bithynia, 
The principal towns of the former were, Ahydos (^ 73); and Lamjysacug, dedicated to 
Priaptis, celebrated for its wealth and luxury. — The principal city in Mysia Major 
was Cyzicas, situated on an island of the same name ifi the Profpontis, and joined by 
two bridges to the continent ; celebrated for the gallant resistance it made when be- 
sieged by Mithridaies ; near this is the river &raniciiSf where Alexander defeated 
the army of Darius, and where LucuUus obtained an equally important victory over 

H60. Bithynia, at first called Bebrycia, lay between the Thracian Bosphonis 
and tbe river Parthenias. Its chief towns were. Apamea, at the mouth of the river 
Skyndaeut; Nieomedia, on a gulf of the same name ; Chalcedon (Kadi Keui, or Cadi'0 
village}, called the City of the Blind, because its founders neglected the more eligible 
site Byzantium, at the opposite side of the Bosphorus; Chrysopolis (Scutari, directly 
opposite to Constantinople), where the Athenians stationed a fleet imposing tribute on 
all vessels from the Euxine ; Libyssa, where Hannibal was buried ; Calpaa and Hera' 
c2ea, on the Euxine ; Nicata (Nice), where the first general council was assembled : 
and PrutOj at the foot of Mount Olympus t where Hannibal for a short time found 
refuge with king Prusias. 

Ttma. tfiai^ti pmt impoituea ooder fba vtma of Amo, wteo 0(hin«B, iDoader of the OttoDum cmpin, made 11 bb apitel. II 
coatiHtd toktlhecfakr rcaMMW of the Sultaua vntil U10 aptara of Comtaotinople ia i4S3L It stiU Rtain, la the uoderaBraoM, 
a iBvartaamakasMBf tbe dtia of Asiatic Tttikejr. 0ec Plate, VI &) 

Paphlagonia, lay between the rivers PaHhenias and Halys. The chief townf 
were Sinope (Sinube), the birthplace of Diogenes, and capital of the kingdom 0^ 
Mithridates ; and Carambis (Karempi), near a promontory of the same name, opposite* 
the Criu-Metopon, a cape in the Tauric Chersonese. 

Pon t us, the kingdom of the celebrated Mithridates, extended from the river Halys 
to Colchis. The pnncipal towns were Amisus^ near the Halys ; Eupatoria, on the 
confluence of the Iris and Lycus, named by Pompey Megalopohs ; Amasia^ the birth- 
place of the geographer Strabo; Themiscyra, on the river Thermodon, where the 
Amazons are supposed to have resided ; Cerasus, whence LucuUus brought the first 
cberry-trees that were seen in Europe ; and Trapezus (Trebisond), on the borders of 
Colchis, greatly celebrated by the romance- writers of the middle ages. Near the river 
Halyi the Leleges and Chalybcs, famous for their skill in iron-works, resided. 

Tte Cbxyt'oa acbaiar vOI feel ■ peculiar inferetl reipecUnff Rmtn and BiQifaia, from the cimniMtaBce that bara occoned tbow 
^bpoHRteaa of the earl^ eoBTeiti to ChrWiaiutjr which are nolieed id tbe letten of Piiay tbe jouoffer, pnmor of (base pn>> 
vwnwhrtbaCBiperDrTnjaa. See P. V. ; 441. 1. 

^ 161. L y d i a, called also Mseonia, lay to the south of Phrygia Minor and Mysia, and 
*o the east of the ^gean sea. The northern part of the coast was called ^olia, and the 
soathem Ionia, from the number of Greek colonies which settled there. — ^olia was 
coloniied by the Cohans, soon after the termination of the Trojan war ; its chief 
towns were Adramytlium, founded by an Athenian colony; Fergamus (Bergamo), the 
apital of a small territory, greatly enlarged by the Romans after the defeat of Mithri- 
dates, and bequeathed to them by Attains its last king; its port was called Elea; be- 
tween Elea and Adramvttium was Lymessus ; souln-west from Pergamus, Thya- 
tira: and Cajia, a town \)uilt on a promontory of the same name, near which are the 
■£ginasan islanids, where Conon, the Athenian admiral, completely defeated the 
j'partans.— Ionia contained several remarkable cities, of which the principal were 
Snyma, on tbe river Meles, near which Homer is said to have been born ; a cave 
here used to be shown to travelers as his birthplace, and another as the spot where 
he wrote his poems (cf. P. V. ^ 50) ; north and east of Smj^rna was Mt. Sipylus, the 
rcridence of Niobe (cf. P. II. ^ 131); Clazomencs, on a peninsula of the same name, 
celebrated for Its wealth ; Erythras. near mount Mimas, the residence of one of tho 
Sjrbils ; Corycus, near which the fleet of Antiochus was defeated by the Romans ; 
3W, the birthplace of Anacreon. — South of the peninsula of ClazomentB, were Colo 
^ofi, on the rivex Hul^sus, celebrated for the ^ve of Claros, sacred to Apollo » 
Ephfttts, on the river Cayster, the most splendid of the Asiatic cities, now degene- 
rated^into a paltry viUai»e, remarkable for the splendid temple of Diana; Myeale, 
oppottte Samos, where the Persian fleet was totally destroyed by the Greeks ; P'riene, 
on the Maandet, a river noted for its winding course ; ana Miletus, the birthplace o^ 
Thales. — In the interior of Lydia was Sardis, the capital, situate at the foot of inouni 
Tmaius, on the river Partolusi a branch of the Hermus. Not far east from Sardis 
vai Tkjnbrat celebrated for the victory there gained by Cyrus over Croesus. Oa 


the HemuB was MMgne$U, where Antiochna, king of Syria, was overthrown by the 

<N» im wMch lb« aurt* Jotp httodaew I fc ii g|*i twi, toyna, I Vf i w, Thyrtiim, auik, nd WiiMri phw ; theattii^ U». 
««M,i>MiBrhinnMi4ar.-«HirilM-.HHlarraftlMSnwCb«Rtefc Lo«L lOI. 8L-«*«mMI, VUt l» ttw Sma ChuckM 
•fiM. Lallan. t.-Oft Ik* niiM«rs»niii)eL MiiiLAraM, far laS8^^•PI. 

'^ 162. East of Lydia was P hry eia Major, extending from the river Lycus on the 
south to the Samgarius on the north. Its chief towns were Festinusy near the d/ox 
of jnoont DiMdymus, sacred to Cybele, the mother of the gods, who^ image wa& 
conveyed thence to Rome at the end of the second Punic war (P. II. ^ 21) ; Gordiu/tif 
celebrated for the Gordian knot cut through by Alexander; Apamea, on the river 
Marswut where ApoUo flayed alive his musical competitor Marsyas ; Laodiccaj cele- 
brated in sacred history, on the river Lycus; and Coloiga. -Galatia, or Gallo- 

Grecia, lay north of Phryeia, of which it originally formed a part. The chief towns 
were ^iteyra (Angoiira), wnere Bajazet was defeated and made prisoner bv Tamer> 
lane ; Gangra, the reeidence of king Deiotarus, a great friend of Cicero ; ana Tiivium, 

the capital of the Trocmi. South-east of Phrygia were I s a u r i a and L y c a o n i a. 

The prindpal towns of the former were haur^t tiie capital ; Lyttra and Derhe, men- 
tioned in the Acts of the Apostles (xiv. 6). The principal town of the latter was 
Icomium, Both of these provinces were intersected bv the chsin of Mount Taurtu, 

% 163. Cappadocial&y between the Halys and the Euphrates. Its most remark- 
able towns were Comana, celebrated for a temple of Bellona, plundered by Antony; 
Tyaua, the birthplace of the impostor Apollonius (cf. P. V. ^ 255 5); and Mnxaca^ 
named by Tiberius, Ctnarea ad Argceum^ to denote its situation at the foot of Mount 
ArgcBU9t from whose summit, as ancient writers assert, the Euxino and the Mediter* 
ranean might both be seen.— 'The north-eastern part of Cappadocia was known by the 
name of lesser Armenia, and contained Cahira or Sdxute, a well fortified city captured 
by Pompey ; the strong fortress Nowu, where Mithridates kept his treasure ; and JVc- 
eopidia, budt by Pompey, to commemorate his victory over Mithridates. 

The Oreeki deicrlbed the Gappadociara as the worvt of the three had Kkppat^ or oations whose 
■amee begaa wftb thai letter ; the other two were the Creune and CUtciaDs. 

^ 164. The sooth- western province of Asia Minor was C a r i a. Its chief towns were 
JTniicamMatu, the capital, celebrated for having ffiven birth to the historians Dionysius 
Add Herodotus, and for the Mausoleuroi a splendid monument, one of the seven won- 
dfvj of the world, erected by Artemisia, queen of Caria, to the memory of her hus- 
band Mausolus; Cnidtu,'m the peninsula of Doris, sacred to Venus; Alabanda, on 
the Meander; and StrtUimieea, on the southern coast 

L y c i a lay to the east of Caria. Its chief towns were TelmeatvSf on a gulf of the 
same name, called also Sinut GiaueuB, from the river Glaucus flowing into it ; Xanthus, 
celebrated for its obstinate resistance to Brutus, the inhabitants having destroyed them- 
selves by fire to avoid surrendering ; and Patara, sacred to Apollo. — Near the gulf of 
Telmessns ran the chain of Mount Cragus, sacred to Diana ; in this chain was the 
volcano CAtsksra, fabled by the poets to nave been a monster subdued by Bellerophon 
(cf. P. II. % 117). Some hills at the FromofUorium Sacrum were usually esteemed the 
commencement of Mount 7\xur»«, and a little beyond it is a part of the same rid^e 
adjoining the sea, round which Alexander's army were compelled to march up to their 
middle in water. 

Bm AttowM, iMout flf D'MOfwlai la L7ci».-Cr. Jmm-. Sdatte, Jan. 1841. 

% 165. Next to Lyda were P i s i d i a and P a m p h y I i a, two mountainous districts, 
whose boundaries are indeterminate. The chief towns of Pisidia were AntimAia; 
Termegtus, the caoital of the Solymi, a people mentioned by Homer ; and Crtmna^ a 
Roman colony. The principal towns in ramphylia were Perga, the capital ; Atpendug 
on the river Eurymedon, near which Cimon defeated the Persian fleet ; and Coraeesiumj 
where Pompey destroyed the nest of pirates who had so long infested these seas. 

C i 1 i c i a Isy to the east of Pamphylia, and south of Isauria, and was divided into 
two portions, the western called Tracheotis or rough, and the other Campestris or 
level. — The chief towns of Tracheotis were Selinu$, where the emperor Trajan died ; 
jM/nuriumj opposite Cyprus; and Seleucia. (Seletkeb), on the river Calycadnus. — ^In 
Ciiicia Campestris were Solij a colony of the Athenians ; Tarsus* said to nave received 
its name from one of the wings of the horse Pegasus being dropped there { the birth- 
place of tho Apostle Paul ; /mm, where Alexander obtained his second tnumph over 
the Persians: and Alexandria (Scanderoon), erected by the conqueror to peipetuate 
the memory of his victory. — On the confines of Syria was the monntain AmanuSt be- 
tween which and the sea were Pyte Syria, a celebrated pass. — The river Cvdnus is 
''emarkable for the coldness of its waters, bv which Alexander was almost killed, and 
iiir the splendid festivities celebrated on its banks when Antony visited Cleopatra, 

^ 166. Stria was bounded on the north by Mount Amanus ; on the east by the 
Euphrates ; on the south by Arabia ; and on the west by the Mediterranean. It wav 



divided into five provincesi Comagenet Seleucis, Coelo-Syria, PhoBnicia, and Judea, 
or Palestine. 

The principal city of C omag ene was Samotata^ on the Euphrates, the birthplace 
of Lucion. — In Seleucis, or Syria Propria, were HierapolWf the city of the Syrian 
goddess Astarte (cf. P. II. ^ 48), on the Euphrates ; Beraot previously Chalybon (now 
Aleppo), on the Chalcis, flowing into a small lake ; Anliochia^ where Christians first 
received their name, on the river Orontes; near it Daphne^ with its delightful grove 
sacred to Apollo ; Apamea (Famieh), higher up the Orontes, which rising in the ele- 
vated regions on the eastern side of Libanus, flows by a north-west course to the 
Mediterranean ; still further up, Emesa, the city of Heliogabalus, the worst of the 
Roman emperors; and "on the opposite side of the Orontes," near the limits of this 
province, Hdiopolit (Balbec), sacred to the Sun, whose magnificent ruins still attract 

From tbe map of Sjrria neeonptnyiog RMnnfAHmtardam, Bilbee appwn Id be od the Leonta.— " ADumf tlw dtki whicb 
are eoaiiiented bj Oraek and orieotal budcs in tbe fMiivphy of Sfrie, we ■BjrdMtiBfvtib Emeai or Beaw, aad BeUopoUi or Bel- 
bee. Uoder tbe test of tbe Cmatn, Ibej were ittxtag aad popolon ; tbe torrett |Uttered fitm »Ur ; an ajD|lB ipace wee eoversd 
wilb pablie and privale buildioKB ; and tbe eftiuDi were illoatrious bj Ibeir qifartt, or at leaet bj their pride ; by Ibeir ricbct, or at 
leaat by Ibeir Inxory. In tbe dap of pagaaiam, botb Emcn and HeliopolU were addicted to tbe wonbip of Baal, or tbe ena ; bat 
tbe decline of tbeir rapentilioo and qileodor bat been marked by a aingolar fariety of fortune. Kot a veitife reaeine of (be tem|ile 
of Bmeea, whicb wae eqoallod in poetic etyle to tbe lammltB of mount Libanui; while tbe ruins of Balbee, InTidble to tbe writon 
of aotiqutty, excite tbe curiotity and wonder of tbe Eoropean traveler. Tbe Beeaure of tbe temple ie two haadred feet in leqg^b, 
and one hundi«d in breadth : tbe front ia adorned with a doable porlieo of eifbt eolumaa ; foDrteen may be oonnted on dtber elde ; 
and each colamn, forty-five feet in bdffbt, is oompoatd of three maasy blocks of marblo. Tbe proporlione and omamoBis of tbe 
Corinthian order etpreas the arebilecture of tbe areeki.'*--See tbe view given in Plate VIL— A. VTaod, Roiaa of Balbee. Load. 
1767. CdL-C. B, EUialt, Travela ia Aostria, Ruaaia, and Tuikey. Land. 1838. i vole. & 

C OB lo -Syria was bo named because it lay between the two parallel chains of 
mountains, Libanus and Anti-Libanus : and the name is sometimes applied so as to 
include the valley of the Orontes, and also the whole valley of the Leontes, which 
rises near the western sources of the Orontes, and flows by a south-western course 
to the Mediterranean. But it is limited, in our division, to the upper part of the latter 
valley, north of mount Hemum, the principal peak of ArUi-Libanuf ; including also 
another valley on the east (now called Gouieh Demesk, or Orchard of Damascus), 
watered by tne rivers Chrytorrhous (Pharphar) and Ahatui, flowing into a large lake 
below Damascus, which was the chief town of the province. — The territory east and 
north-east of these valleys as far as the Euphrates, is mentioned in connection both 
with Seleucis and with CoBlo-Syria; but more commonly under the general name of 
Syria; some places in it, on the Euphrates, should be mentioned; as Thapsacug 
^El-Der), the celebrated ford, passed by Cyrus In his expedition against Anaxerxes, 
by Darius after his defeat by Alexander at Issus, and by Alexander in pursuit of Da- 
rius ; and Orouros (Gorur), fixed by Pompey as the boundarjr of the Roman empire 
when he reduced Syria to a province ; but the chief place in this extensive region wzt 
Palmyra^ or " Tadmor in the desert," said to have been built by Solomon, the resi- 
dence of Longinus (cf. P. V. ^ 124), and of Zenobia, who so bravely defied the em* 
peror Aurelian ; it is yet marked by celebrated architectural ruins. 

On the rains of Palmyra, aaa S. Wood, aa dted P. IV. f 813. a.-Tbe Modam TravOar.^lrb^ and MmgUi, Travela la ECypt, 
Qyria, ke. Load. 1822. 8. 

P hcenici a contained the cities of TvruB (Tyre) and Sidon^ famous for their exten- 
sive commerce. The siege of Tvre oy Alexander is celebrated for the obstinate 
defence made by the besieged, and the unconquerable perseverance of the besiegers. 
Berytus (Beirut), north of Sidon, was the seat of a distmguished school for the study 
of law in the age of Jastinian. 

Beirat has been ibr several years a very (ntemiSi^ missienary station. In its vldn'rty, on mount Lsbenon, dwell the Maitmilea 
•Bd tbe Drans.— See J<nMtC$ Bceearebes.— Kiifionary JSTcraU, from tbe year 1888, passim.— JotuTs Mmnoir of i^tny /Vafe. 

^167. J u d le a, or P a 1 se 8 1 i n a, is called in Scripture the land of Canaan, of Israel, 
and of Judah. It was at first divided among the twelve tribes ; it was afterwards 
separated into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah ; and finally the Romans divided it 
into four regions ^ Galiuea, Samaria, Judaea fl|ppria, and Persea or Transfluviana, the 
countrjr beyond Jordan. -^K 

Galilee a was again subdivided into Infe^, chiefly inhabited by Jews; and Su- 
perior, which, from its proximity to Coelo-Syria, was called Galilee of the Gentiles. — 
The chief towns of Upper Galilee were CcBsarea Philippic so called to distinguish it 
from another town of the same name in this province ; its original name was Laish, 
afterwards changed to Paneas, and finally called Ceesarea Philippi, bv Herod's son 
Philip ; Gabara and Jotonatat bravely defended by the historian Josephus, when be- 
sieged by Vespasian. The principal cities in Lower Galilee were Ace^ or Ptolemais 
(Acre), memorable for its siege by Richard CoBur de Lion in the time of the Crusades; 
CatuB ; SepphoriSf afterwards called Dio Cassarca ; Nazareth and Jezreel. — A large 
lake in Galilee was called the Sea of Tiberias or Gennesareth ; at its northern ex- 
tremity was Chorazin; at the western side were Capernaum, Tiberiast and Bethsaida; 
on the opposite side was Gadara. — ^The chief mountains of Galilee were Carmd and 






=i 1 1 








Itmbyrws or Tabor, the scene of our Lord*8 transfiguration. — Between Galilee and 
Samaria stood Bethgan, the chief of the ten confederate cities called Deeapolut, which, 
dreading the power of the Jews, entered into a confederacy against the Asmonean 
princes, who then governed J wlea. 

^ 168 a. Samaria lay south of Galilee. Its chief towns were Samaria, the capital, 
destroyed by the Asmonean princes, but rebuilt by Herod, who called it Sebaste, in 
honor of Augustus; CtBsarca, first called Turris Stratonices, a celebrated seaport, the 
residence ot the Roman governors ; Joppa^ a seaport south of CiBsarea, where An- 
dromeda was delivered from a sea-monster by Perseus (P. II. % 122) ; Sichcm, in the 
interior, the ancient capital, between the mountains Ebal and Gerizim; it was in later 
times called Neajtolis; Lydda, called by the Greeks Dioapolis; and Arimathea. 

Judsea was situated south of Samaria, between the Lake Asphaltites, or Dead 
Sea, and the Mediterranean. — The capital was Hierosolyma (Jerusalem), which we 
shall notice particularly in the next section. North-west from Jerusalem was Em- 
matta or Nicopolis, where the Jews were defeated by Vespasian ; directly north was 
Bethel; north-east was Jericho; south from Jerusalem was Belfilehenif the birthplace 
of Christ ; further south, Hefiron, where Abraham was buried ; still ftirther, some- 
what to the west, Beersheha, often mentioned as the southern limit of the country of 
Israel ; south-west, Eleutheropolis, a very flourishing city in the time of Eusebius. 

) 108 b. NUrosalymoj or JeruMlein, originally belonffed to the Jebusites, from whom it was 
taken by David, who made ii his residence. The Arabians now call it El-Kud*, the Holy.— It is 
situated on a broad elevation, having higher hills all around it ; the Mount of Olioos on the east ; 
on the north a ridee extending from the Mt. of Olives and bending around to the west, at the 
distance of more than a mile : on the west, hills at a greater distance sloping gently, beyond a 
ain ; on the south, the Hill of Evil Counsel rising directly on the further side of the Valley of 

b is sonroanded by walls presenting a stately appearance, of hewn stone, with towers and 
battleaieats, of a height varying according to the Inequalities in the ^und, f^om twenty to fifty 
feet; in circumference abont two and a half geographical miles. The aii«MiU waUt formed a 
larger circuit ofabout three and a half geographical miles according to Josephus ; and Jerusalem 
is said to have been anciently fortified by thru walls ; but this statement must not be understood to 
mean that there were three walls around the whole city, one within another ; since the two 
inner walls were merely walla intersecting the city and joining the outer wall ; the hill of ZioD 
was first of all enclosed within a wall : then Moriah, with Ophel, was added, and afterwards 
Akra« and a second wall was extended from the old one so as to include these ; subsequently 
Beaeiba was annexed, and to protect this a third wall was constructed Joining the o^ers. 

Of the eight former gates, only the four larger are now open : the OaU of iht Pillar, or Da- 
mascos G\'e, on the north ; the Oatt of the Pilgrims, or Bethlehem Gate, on the west ; the OaU 
•f Daxvi, or Zion Gate, on the south; and the Oato of tkt Triboo, or St. Stephen's Gate, on ilie 
east. The principal streets now run nearly at rixht angles to each other. 

The sarfkce of the rround is diversified by five* hills : the largest is Zion, in the sonthern part, 
rising abruptly from the Valley of Hinnom ; north of this and in the western part of the city is 
Mtrm, separated from Zion by the valley of the TyropoBon ; north-east from Jikra and east of llie 
Daasaacus Gate is Beietka, in the north-western rart of the city ; south-east from this and in the 
eastern part of the city is Moriah, which, with Bezetha, rises from the Valley of Jehoshaphat ; 
sAQth of Moriah, and at the south-eastern corner of the city, is Opkel : Bezetha, Moriah, and 
Ophel may be considered as parts of one ridge which extends to the south beyond the walls. 

These hills are closely encompassed on three shies by narrow valleys ; on the east the ralUf of 
Johtmhaphat ,* on the west, the FalUy of Oihon, which is continued into the ValUf of Hinitom on 
the south : at some distance from the south-eastern corner of the city, the Valley of^Jehoshaphat 
and that of Hinnom are connected. The Brooh Kidron is hut the bed of a torrent which during 
the rains of winter flows through the Valley of Jehoehsphat to the south. The valley in which 
was the bed af the ancient TffrajMBon commences in the depression between Zion and Alcra (near 
tiM western or Hnbron or Bethlehem gate), and descending easterly bends to the south tietween 
Zion and Ophel^and meets with the other two valleys at their common point of Junction. 

The hill Zion was the part first occupied by David, and hence called ** the city of David." 
Only the northern part of it is now within the walls ; much of the rest is literally '*a ploughed 
ffeld;'* on the north-western part is the pres*'nt citsdel, the lower portions of the walls of whicia 
are probably the remains of the ancient Tower of Ifippieuo.— On the summit of A kra is the chnrcti 
of the Holy Sepulchre, on the spot designated by doubtful tradition as being the Oolgotha and 
the (Mtrarf of the Scriptures.— Bezetha is mostly covered with low buildings or hovels, with no 
obvioos traces of ancient ruins.— On Moriah, which at the first was apparently a monad uf solid 
rock, the TtmpU of Solomon was built ; the surface of the rock being leveled for the purpose ; 
and then immense walls were erected from the base of the rock on the four sides, and the 
Interval between filled in with earth or built up with vaults so as to make on the top a large 
area, which formed the Court of tk* Temple. To this the present area of the grand Musque of 
Omar, or enclosure called *■* El-Haram-esh-Bherlf,*' nearly if not wholly corresponds; being a 
plateau or terrace nearly in the form of a parallelogram, supported by and within massive walls 
ballt up from the lower ground on all sides; the lower portions of the walls are probably the 
very walls on which the ancient Temple rested ; as seems to be shown by some remains of an 
iounense arch which supported the Bridre that formerly extended from the Temple across the 
TyropoBon to a celebrated Xyttut or portico on Mount Zion.— In the northern part of the present 
area of the Mosque of Omar was the fortress called the Tovor of^ntonia, rendered memorablo 
In the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, who captured the city, A. D. 70; afwhich time the Temple 
was utterly destroyed by fire. The Mosque now on iu site was built by Omar in the seventh 

The ancient inhabitants depended for water, as do the modern, chiefly on OMtemo ; almosi 
every boose having now one or more excavated in the limestone rock on which the city stands. 
I eislcrits also stUl exist witliia the space tinder tl^ area of the Temple. Large opsa 


reMTToira or tanks, or poolt, were likewise con«trnct«d In and around the city. The Ujtptr Po9» 
and tlie Loirtr Pool still exist; the former west of the city, in the Valley of Gihnn ; the latter, 
OD the south-west, in the Valley of Ilinnnm. The Pool of Batkakeba, the Pool of Heiekiah, and 
the PoH of Betkuda^ are names given to three reservoirs within the present walls : the latter Is 
at the north-east corner of the Haram-esh-^herif; but there is no evidence that it is the pool 
mentioned in the New Testament by the same name (Bifdco^a), having live porcb<>s.— The only 
FounUtin* of living water now accessible are three; that now called the fVell of ^Tekemiak^ pro- 
bably the En-Rortl uf the Old Testament (Jo.'ih. xv. 7, 8; xviii. IG), a deep well just below the 
Jnnction of the Valley of Hinnoni with that of Jehoshaphat; the Fonntain and Fool of Sitoam, 
which is in the valley of the Tyropceon, Just above its Junction with the Valleys of Iliimoni and 
Jehoehaphat; and the Fountain ojf the yir/rin^ which is some distance from that point of Junc- 
tion, up the Valley of Jehoshaphat : the water of the latter is accessible only by descending 
sixteen steps down an excavation in the solid rock; and an artificiHl subterranean pausage 
extends from it through Mount Ophel to the Fountain of Siloam, winding so as to make the 
distance 1750 feet, by which the waters of Biloam proceed from t)ie Fountain of Mary the Vir- 
gin.— A fountain is said to exist at the depth of seventy or eighty feet below the area of the 
grand mosque, flowing by some artificial passage. 

An Jlqutdut^ supposed to be ancient, carries water across the Valley of Ilinnom, around the 
sides of^ Mount Zloo, and conveys it, as is supposed, to the ilarani-esh-8berif, or area of the 

East of Morlah, on the rocky elevation Just beyond the Brook Kfdron, are the sepulchral 
monumenU called the TVsi* »/ Jtbtalom or Jih»alom*» Pillar (cf. P. III. H 187. 5), and Tumh of 
ZocAartas.— South-east of these, on the south-western declivity of the Mount of Olives, are the 
excavated sepulchres called the Tombt of ike PrvpkeU.—Thdae called the Tombs of tke Judges, 
are further up the Valley of Jehoshaphat, rather west of north from the city.— The remarkable 
excavations commonly called the Tombt eftkeKingt^ are about north firom the city, on ih«! nearer 
side of the Valley : they are probably the celebrated sepulcher of the mother of Constantiuf , the 
Empress Helena, who, having embraced Christianity, spent the latter part of her life at Jera- 
aalem, and died there at the age of eighty, about A. D. 335. 

Tbe aboT* oaUlnci of IIm Topography of J«ru«l«Bi will be of Mrrleo to (be iladcat Id mdiag th« Seriptareit mad the ialenviy 
faalmitliif Korr of the liege end deMraelloo of the citjr by the RoaBut.~aec Jtmfhut {tS. P. V. | SiS)— Milmsn, ae eiicd \ II I. li 

For fuller deUiU u to the Topecnphy, eee F. O. Cromt, Jeranien, in Ertck uttd Oruh^t AieyefqpOtfw.— £. Aoliiieon, 

Biblical IleMarcbea,u died \ 171. In vol. iii. is a faU liat of worka on Falertine. For deUlla rapeetii« Uie Tannple, with Plaae, 

a», Me a. PridtaiUKy ComezioBa, Ac N. York, 184a 2 fols. B. with cnpaTiaci.— OaZmcT, Diet of Uie Bible, Fraginanb lU" 
i40LvoLiiLp.SM. CfaaricaL I81S. dvola. 4.— ForPUnof UieCbttfchof tbeHol7Se|Hi)du«,lu.,ieealMCUmcl, voLiii. p. 164. 

^ 169 a. The southern district of Judsa was called Idutnea, or the land of Edom ; 
the chief towns were Geni, Zoar, and Bozra at the foot of Mount Seir. But this dis- 
trict, or the principal part of it, is included, perhaps more properly, under Arabia Pe- 
traa ($ 171). — The sea-coast was called FhiliMlcM, or the land of the Philistines, from 
whom the whole country is now called Palestine ; its chief towns were Gath, Ekion, 
Azotus or Ashdod, Ascalon, and Gaza. 

^ 169 b. PersDa is separated from the other provinces by the river Jordan. The 
cUief towns were Ramoth-Gilead, in the land of the Gileadites; Gadara, on the tor- 
rent Hieromas, where the Christians were severely defeated bv the Saracens; Gaulon^ 
a fortress of remarkable strength ^ Gamala, near the Sea of Tiberias ; and Rabboth- 
Ammon, in the district Ammomtis, afterwards called Philadelphia. — The Jordan 
rises in Mount Hermon, and passing through the Sea of Tiberioif falls into the lake 
A$phaUitc9i whence there is no exit for its waters. 

This lalce la supposed to occupy the situation of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. It baa 
been said that, from its extreme sallness or other properties, it is destructive of animal and 
vegetable life, and that neither fish nor weeds are found in its waters. Dr. E. Robinson, who 
visited the region in 1838, states that the water is intensely salt and bitter : but that trees and 
bushes grow by it ; no pestiferous vapor was perceived, and many birds were singing amonff 
the trees, and some flying over the waters. Bibl. Rcpos. Apr. 1839, p. 410. 

§ 170. Mesopotamia was south of Armenia, between the rivers Tigris and £ii- 
phratest whence it derives its name. lis chief towns were Nisibis, on a oranch of the 
Tigris, the great bulwark of the Romans against the Parthiaiis ; Edessa, near Syria ; 
Seleucia, now Bagdad, on the confluence ot the Tigris with a branch of the Bunhra- 
tes; and Carrtut^ called in Scripture Charran, for a time the residence of Abranam, 
and the scene of the miserable overthrow of Crassus. On the borders of Chaldea 
were the plains of Cunaxa, where Cyrus was slain by his brother Artazerxes, and 
where the ten thousand Greeks commenced that retreat so memorable in historv. 

Babyloxia and Chaldasa were districts separate from Mesopotamia, Iving below it 
to the south-cast. Their chief town was Babylon, the most ancient and remarkable 
city of antiquity. 

Beius, its founder, commenced his building near the tower of Babel, which by profVioe writers 
is called after his name ; but to Semlramia, the widow of his descendant Ninus, the grandeur 
of Babylon is attributable. She enclosed the city with a wall of briclc cemented by bitumen, of 
almost incredible dimensions, and ornamented it with one hundred brazen gates. The circuit 
of the city was said to have been more than sixty miles ; and so great was its length, that when 
Cyrus bad captured one extremity of the city, the inhabitants of the other were ignorant of the 
event until the following morning. — ^The river Euphrates flowed through the city, and Cyni|i 
having diverted the river into another channel, led his troops through the vacant bed, and sur- 
prised the Babylonians, who, with their monarch Belshaszar, were at that moment celebrating 
a ftpat in honor of their gods, and consequently made but a feeble resisunce.— The Chaldeans 


wmre celebrated aitronomera, but they debased the science by the admixture of Jadfcial aatro- 
logy, for which perversion of intellect they were greatly celebrated. 

da fbm tapofnpby sad rnim of Baby loo lad Nionwh, tra /. X. Ktmnekr^ Geognpbical McnMHr on ftrtta.— Aomat^ Rcnirki 
« te Tbpv^pky of bbjloo. Lowl. ISId.— fiicA, Mamoir oa Babykn, te. Lo^l8l8^£iU. Ripai, No. zziL 9es ; No. zxjii. 

East of the Tigris lay Assyria, now called Kurdistan from the Carduchi, a tribe 
that inhabited the northern part of the coontry; they are mentioned by Xenophon as 
having opposed the retreat of the ten thousand ; they are supposed still to exist in the 
modem Koords, various tribes of whom occupy the mountains of this country, and 
who are generally of a savage character.— Its chief towns, Ninus or Nineveh, fre- 
auently mentionea in Scripture ; the ruins of this celebrated city lie opposite the mo- 
aem Mosul; and Arhela^ near which is the village Gaugamela, where Alexander 
overturned the Persian empire, by the defeat of Danus. 

^ 171. The only country of Asia remaining to be noticed is Arabia, which was the 
large peninsula between the Sinus Persicus (Persian Gulf), and the Sinus Arabiata 
(Red Sea). It was divided into three parts ; Deserta (desert), Petraa (stony), and 
Fdix (happy). 

Arabia Deserta \&y between Syria and Chaldsea, and extended along the Sinus 
Persicus. — Arabia Felix, celebrated for its fertility, was in the southern part border- 
ing on the Sinus Arabicus and the ocean. The most remarkable among its inhabitants 
were the Safk^ij who cultivated frankincense. Maeoraha was the name by which the 
Greeks knew Mecca, which is illustrious in the Mohammedan history ; here is the 
famous building called Kaha or Kaaba, with the fabulous hUuk ttone of Gabriel. — 
Arabia Pet rs a was a smaller portion lying south of Judea and at the head of the 
Sinns Arabicus or Red Sea, which is here divided into two bays, the eastern called 
JElaniies Sinus, and the western Heroopolites Sinus, Between these bays or arms 
were the mountains Horeb and Sinai. On the eastern was the seaport Berenice or 
Asongaber, the Ezion-Gebcr of Scripture. The most remarkable place was Petra 
(callea >Se2a by the Hebrews), embosomed in rocky mountains just south of Judea, in 
the district called Idumea. 

The mint of Petra have been discovered recently, and have excited great Interest from their 
•triidng peculiarities (being entirely excavations from the solid rock), and f^om the evidence 
they furnish of the fkilfilment of prophecy. 

9t»Lmtard^ Jannej to Arabia PMne^ Load. 1836. S vob. & wHh 66 platM—Cf. Land. Quart. Rt9. No. anM^North Jmar, 
am. far Jka. I8S7w-3iU. Rtptiitcry, vol. is. p. 4Si^— SdrAou^ Inddanti Ot Tnrcli, te.— £. RUmton, BiUial RcmiclMi in 
Ma«iD^ Mv SfaMi, aad Ajabia FMnu, Boil. 1841. S f ols. S. 

Tbe ulmii »itMiin too inqairiw of BoblmoB wan to bare nttled tba qnctiioB u to the memitaio OB which Iba Ten Comanad. 
BHtowvn^vrabyGod loMoMi ihowing nttaCwIorily (bat It wu not tha nmrnU poialad oat by tradiikni under the nane of 
SfMi V Jrtd-Mte, faol BDolbar aaaimit a IKtto aortb-wart fhaa it, bokdikc to what la ealkd frorck-Sea tba wj iaterartliig 

Tk» edcbntcd Simmitic buaiptiam^ wblcfa faave attradad tba attastiao of tnvelcn, in an nnkoown and peenliar alphabet, faava 
terif baandedphmd br Sv, of Leipiie.-Sea AiNiiMn, vol. L p. 188, 653.~Ony^ in tba TVoruocf. oftkt JSoyoi Soe. ofLUtra- 
ivi^wLiU. LoBi-ini. 

^ 172. The Asiatic IsLAin>s were not yer^ important, except those in the Mare 
JEgseiun already named (^ 147). The principal other in the Mediterranean was C y- 
pras. sacred to Venus; the chief towns of which were Pa^os, where stood the 
celebrated temple of Venus, infamous for the debauchery and prostitution it sanc- 
tioned ^ Citiuvi, the birthplace of Zeno, the Stoic, on the west coast ; Salamis (Fama- 
gusta), built by Teucerf on the east ; Lapethusi Artinoi, and Solij in the north ; and 
Tamassus, celebrated for its copper-mines, in the interior. — The other islands were 
Proamnesus (Marmora), in the rropontis; Taprobane (Ceylon), and Jabadi (Sumatra), 
in the Indian ocean. 


^ 173. The name Africa was applied strictly and properly by ancient eeographers, 
at least until the time of Ptolemy, to a small part of that vast peninsula oT the eastern 
continent which it now designates ; and by them Egypt was reckoned among the 
Asiatic kingdoms. But we here use the term as including all that Was known to the 
ancients of that whole country. We shall consider it under the following divisions ; 
jEgyitus, or Egypt, .Ethiopia, Libya, Africa Propria, Numidia, Mauritania, 
and Africa Ikterior. v ». 

^ 174. The general boundaries of JEqyttvs were the Mediterranean on the north, 
Syria and the Sinus Arabicus on the east, Ethiopia on the south, and Lybia on the 
wcit The Umit between it and Syria was the Torrens JEaypti, or river of Egypt as 
csUed m the Bible, which flowed into the arm of the sea called Pains SiHwnis. The 



limit between Egypt and Lybia on the west waa the great declivity and narrow pass 
termed Catabathnos (KarafioByidi). Jts southern limit was the smaller cataract of the 

One of the most striking features of Egypt was its river, Ndiu. This has two prin- 
cipal sources ; the eastern rising in the mountains of the country now called Aoys- 
sinia, and the western in the Lutkb Monies, or Mountairu of the Moon. Having passed 
through the ancient Ethiopia, it flows through the whole length of E^ypt to the Medi- 
terranean ; not receiving a single tributary tor the last 1000 miles of its course, and at 
last dividing into two great arms and forming the triangular island called Delta from 
its shape. It had seven mouths; the most western was the Ostium Canopicum ; the 
others in their order proceeding towards the east, were the Balbytinum, Scbenniti- 
cum, Phatnicum, Mendesium, Taniticum, and Pelusiacum. — Its annual inundations 
were the great cause of fertility, and reservoirs and canals were formed in great num- 
bers to convey the water over the whole country ; where the land waa too high to 
allow canals to convey it, pumps were used for raising the water ; almost every vil- 
lage, it is said, had its canal, although there were in the narrow valley of Egypt many 
thousand cities and villages. 

^ ilb. There were three principal divisions of Egypt j the northern part on the Me- 
diterranean was called JEgyptuM inferior; the southern port on th« confines of Ethio- 
pia waa JEsjfptui Superior or T*hebai»; and the portion between the.«»e, Heptanomis. — 
The capittd of Lower Egypt was Alexattdria, the great mart of Indian merchandize ; 
during the middle ages, caravans continually passed from thence to Arsinoe (Suez), 
on the Red Sea, whence goods were conveyed by sea to India. In front of the har- 
bor was an island named Pharos, on which a celebrated lighthouse was built ; south 
of the city was the lake Mareotis, in the vicinity of which the best Egypti-ui wine was 
made, in Alexandria was the celebrated library, said to have been buined by the 
Saracens. (Cf. P. IV. $ 76). — In the interior of the Delta was Sais, the anc»enl capi- 
tal, remarkable for its numerous temples. Between the Delta and Sinus Arabicus 
were Heroopolis, the city of the shepherd kings ; and Onion, founded by a colony of 
Jews, who fled hither under their high-priest Onias, from the cruelties of Antiochus, 
and, by the permission of Ptolemy, built a city and temple. 

Ib Lower Ettypt. msI oTtb* Ddta, wm th« Inut 0/ Gotten, «eeardin« lo the Tiefr* of the twt Bodani Hlton.-Ct M. FUtMom, 
tm ihtBnim at rbB hmiitatt he, JhbLlUpoi.y^ 0.7**. Aito, RoewcbM, toL U 

^ 176. In the middle portion or Heptatumis, one of the chief places was Memphis, 
near the spot where Grand Cairo now stands; it was the ancient metropolis of all 
Egypt ; in its vicinity are the stupendous pyramids. Arsinoi south-west of Memphis 
WHS an important place ; near this was the famous lake Maris, said to have been exci- 
vated by order of an Egyptian king as a reservoir to contain the waters of the Nile 
conveyed into it by a great canal, now the lake Birket-el-Kuntn, and believed to have 
been wholly or chieflv the work of nature ; at the southern end of this lake was tbe 
still more celebrated Labyrinth. — Oxyrynchus wm a considerable place, said to hav« 
derived its name from a sharp-nosed nsn («Jf*f v<'yxoi) worshiped by the inhabiianis.— 
In Upper Egypt, the most important place was Thebes, which gave the name of Thehais to 
this division ; called also by the Greeks Diospolis, and Hecatompylos ;^ although de- 
stroyed by Cambyses 500 years before Christ, its ruins still excite admiration, occupying 
a space of 27 miles in circumference, including the modem Kamak, Luxor, and other 
villages; near it was the famous statue of Memnon. — Tentyi^ (Donderah), was nortk 
of Thebes, and also presents interesting ruins; especially 'the large temple of lais, 
from the ceiling of which was taken the famous Zodiac transported to France and 
made the subject of much speculation (cf. Amer. Quart. Rev. vol. iv). — Between 
Thebes and Tentyra, nearer the former and on the eastern side of the Nile, was Cop^ 
tos; from this place a road was constructed by Ptolemy Philadelphus across the desert 
10 Berenice on the Sinus Arahicui. Considerably to tne south of Thebes was Ombi 
made notorious by Juvenal (Sat. xv.) for its quarrels with Tentyra respecting the wor 
ship of the crocodile. Syene was the extreme town on the borders of Ethiopia ; the 
place of Juvenal's exile ; where also was the well sunk to mark the summer solstice, its 
bottom being then illumined by the vertical rays of the sun directly perpendicular over 
it. Not far from Syene was the island on which Ehphantine stood, of which interest- 
ing ruins still remain. Near Syene was also the Mmis Basaniies, mountains of touch- 
stone, from which the Egyptians used to make ornamental vases. — South of Syene 
were the Cataracts of the r»file ; mighty terraces of red eranite {Syenite) cross the' bed 
of the river, and throw its waters into an impetuous and foaming torrent. In this region 
were the miarries whence the vast obelisks and colossal statues and blocks of the Egyp- 
tian temples were taken. There were three places on the Sinus Arabicus, ^ft'hich 
should be mentioned ; Berenice, in the southern extremity of Egypt ; Arxinoi (now 
Suez), at the head of the Sinus Hcroopolites, the western arm of the Red Sea ; and 
Myoshomvus, called also Portus Veneris, midway between them ; they were commercial 
places, goods being transported from them to the Nile. A canal, called Fossa Trajanif 
fxumected Arsinoe with that river. 


--- '. ^ ■ • T-?T7.«r"ry:* 


p. I. AFRICA. j£THIOPIA« 59 

In the vast deserts on the western or Lybian side of Egypt were the cultivated and 
inhabited spots called Oasis Magna, and Oasis Parva^ the Great and the Little Oasis. 
The latter was in the division termed Hcptanomis, south of lake Moeris. The Great 
Oasis is in the part that was called Thebais. It was a place of banishment in the lime 
of the later Roman empire ; yet said to have been a delightful residence, and some- 
times called by the Greeks, the isle of the blessed. 

% 177. 'I'he ruins and antiquities ol Egypt have ever awakened the deepest interest 
in ibe troiveler and the schotar. Besides the various temples and other edifices, of which 
splendid remains are found in various places, the foftowing rank high among the objects 
of curiosity. 1. Obelisks and Fillars; several of these were removed to Rome ; of 
the remaining, the most noted are the Pillar of On at Heliopolis, the two obelisks , 
called Cleopatra^ s Needles at Alexandria, and Pompejfs Pillar, also at Alexandria. An * 
obelisk, nearly 70 feet in length, was brought to Paris in the year 1836, to be erected 
in thai city, by Louis Philippe. — 2. The PyramidSi ranked by the Greeks among the 
seven wonders. They are numerous at Djiza, or Gize, near Cairo and the ancient 
Memphis, and at Sacchara, 18 miles south of Gize. Those at Gize are the most cele- 
brated. One of them has been open from the earliest times of whicli we have account. 
Several others have been openedjn recent times. They all contain chambers evidently 
used for sepulchral purposes. (Cf. P. IV. ^ 231. P. 11. ^ 96. 3.)— 3. Catacombs. These 
are subterranean burying places. They are found in several places ; but the most re- 
markable are near Thebes, at a place now called Gournou, a tract of rocks at the foot 
of the mountains west of the Nile. The tombs are excavated in the rocks, and extend, 
it is said, over the space of two miles. From these, many mummies have been taken. — 
The labyrinth, which Herodotus considered more wonderful than the pyramids, included 
numerous subterranean chambers designed as reposhories for the deaa ; over these wa» 
an immense pile of splendid buildings. Some ruins of this structure near lake Mceris 
(} 176) have been discovered.— 4. Colossal images and statues. One of the most re- 
markable of the colossal images of the sphinx (cf. P. II. ^117) is near the great pyra- 
mids. A very celebrated colossus is that commonly called the statue of Alemnon (cf. 
P. IL ^ 74. P. IV. ^ 169. 2. ^231. 1).— The Egyptian monuments are covered v^th 
inscriptions in Hieroglifphit» {cf. P. IV. ^ 16). 

Uadk raardi has beea era ployed in nodem timei opon Efvptian Aatiqaitia and RennlDi. A new dcgrae of latircrt wia 
tvakcaed Id Hh whole robjeel by the celebrated eocpeditioD of Bonaperte Id 1798. In thif invuion of t^ffpt, be took with him • 
deSM^acnl of do Ine then one bnadred men who bad cnlliveled the arta and leieiica (sacaiu) lelected for the parpoea. **Thii 
hDd7,te fint of the kind which ever accenpuied an iondiag anny, waa llbeially lupplied with booka, phtloaophieal inatnimand^ 
and afl tiM BCnaa of pnMeeoling (he leTenJ departmceto of knowledfe."— The tplemJid work, publialMd under Uie eapera^ 
frtnaage^ nod ^\ai DmaiptUm «k PJS^ypfe, waa the rcnlt of their labon (cf. P. I V. ^ 169). 

Maajr ofhcr valnUe worka illosKnitng the hii?ai7 and monwnents of E^ypt hare been pabliahcd durtnff Ibe prceent ceniory, 
•oae tnm muobtn of ttie company of aeanfw above oimed. That of Dnion holda a hii^h rank ; entitled Trmodt in Upper and 
lamw Bgyff imring Urn Campaignt of BanoparU ; with Colio platea.— The following works relate to tbi» rahjact. Lt^Vi T^vete 
Jnl^TpfL— JSe.'zont'jTrBTCti.— /omar^aDeecription de rC^yple.— MsmiUon'f Agrpiiaca.— £«rrmm, Reebercfaea anr I'EgyptflL 
— AuNiri View of AacicBt and Modern Egypt, io Sarptr't Fun. Library, Na xxxVn.—J. Miot, Menoim de I'Eipeditioa ea 
EgTTtewte. Per. 1SI4.-J. O. fFOHmnn, Topopaphjr of Thebo, and general View of Egypt. Load. 1836. S.-J. O, Wiattfuan^ 
Maanen and Cwtoma of Uie Ancient Egypliana. Lond. 1637. 3 vola. 8w—We may add, the T r a r e 1 a of ClarkM, Nordm, Staw^ 
Itedta. Ct SappUimnttoEi»eydop. Britmm. article Egypt.— LoniL Quari. Bn. vol. ziii. I. zvi. 1. zvil. 181. ziz. 178. sziv. 
Pk U8l— .AII0-. Qi«p«. Am. Na vii.— Ar. Quart. Bm. Noa. zzziL and xxxW.—Am. BihL Rtptm. No. Kxiii.— See alao refeieneea 
fim P. rV. J 216. 1. § Zaa 1. ; SIS. 31 § S4S. a-A hialory of i\mfity*t JHUor is given in /. )rAaf>* Egypti^^ 

4 178. ^Ethiopia was the name given by the ancients very indefinitely to the coun« 
try lying south of E^ypt; the modern countries of Nubia and Abyssinia particularly 
were included. — Vanous uncivilized tribes are represented as dwelling here in ancient 
times ; on the coast were the Troglodyte, said to inhabit caves of the earth. It seems 
also to have' contained inhabitants equally advanced in refinement with the Egyptians. 

The most important places were Napata, Meroe, Auxume, and Adulis.' — Auxume 
(Axom) was on one of the sources of the AsiaJboras (Taca2ze), the eastern branch of 
the Nile. Its ruins still exist. " In one square, Bruce found 40 obelisks, each formed 
of a single piece of granite, with sculptures and inscriotions, but no hieroglyphics. One 
of the obeliisks was 60 feet high.'* — Here was found tne monument usually called the 
Itucrrption of Asmm (cf. P. IV. % 92. 5.). — Adulis (Arkiko) was on a bay of the Sinus 
Arabicus; liaving some celebrity firom two inscriptions there found (cf. P. IV. % 92. 
5).— ^feroe was on or near the Nile south of its junction with the Astaboras ; near the 
modem Shertdy, as is supposed. It was the capital of a large tract between these 
livers called by the same name, and was celebrated in ancient times, beine the grand 
emportuni of the caravan trade between Ethiopia and Egypt and the north of Africa. 
The remains of temples and other edifices of sandstone stUl mark its site. — Napata was 
&rther north or lower down on the Nile, and was next in rank to Meroe. 

Theae ragieaa have aho been eiplored in modem timca, and iplendid mine bafe been foond acattered aloi« the valley or \f Kile. 
The fUlowing an eooM of the aoorcea of information on the nbject. Bntaft Trarela in Abyminia, cited P. rv. § 1 ]& I.— Tnveli 
of SaS aDd Lmd Falmtia; ot Bunkbantt: fVone. Gau (P. IV. (249. S),aBd eapeeially of Cteillt(RKi.-€f. Xund. Quart. A*, 
eri. xfL UL xis. 174 —BaMnf Trarela in Ethiopia, Lond. ISSS, 8. 

% 179. Under Libya we include the whole extent from JEgyptus on the cast to tho 
Syrtis Minor (Gulf of Cabes), together with an indefinite poruon en the south. The 


term waa used by the ancient poets to signify Africa in general. In its strict and most 
limited sense, it mcluded only the region between Egypt and the Syrtis Major (Gulf 
of Sidra).— In the latter sense, ii comprifed on the coast only the two districts Mar- 
tnarica and Cyrcnaica. We include under Libya also the portion farther west called 
Heevp Syrtica, from the two Syrtes on the coast already named. 

Mar marie a was on the east nearest to Egypt. The inhabitants were said to 
possess some secret charm against the poison of serpents; some of them, named 
JPsylliy made it their profession to heal such as had been bitten, by sucking the venom 
out of the wound. In an Oasis, itow El Wah, pouih of Marnianca, stood the cele- 
brated temple of Jupiter Ammon (P. III. ^ 71), and near it \he fountain cf the nun, 
whose waters were said to be warm in the morning, cool at noon, hot in the evening, 
and scalding at midnight. Alexander, after having encountered great difficuhies, suc- 
ceeded in visiting this oracle, and was hailed by the priest as eon of Jupiier. 

"Belroni, previously to bi« leavinf Egypt, mnde a tour to El Wall (the bushes), the northern 
Oaiiff. He found, ai Hornemann had, the topa of the hills of the dRicrt encniFtcd with salt, and 
wellfof sweet water rising out of a surftice overspread with ninsiips orf>aU,oa Heroiloiiis related 
two-and-twenty centuries ^go. He found also the remains of what hati t>f>rn considered as the 
temple of Jtipiter Amnion ; but the natives were as Jpalons and ns unwilling lo it*t him see this 
'work of the infidels,' as Horneinann had found them to be. The fine rivulet^f iiweet water, 
whose source this traveler describes as being in a grove of dale treoji. and which Brown was loid 
by the people, was sometimes cold and sometimes warm, was nltto vitiited by Belzoni ; who says 
he proved the truth of what is staled by Herodotus, that this spring is warm in the mornings and 
evenings, much more so at midnight, and cold in the middle of the day. Had Mr. Belzoni pos- 
sessed a thermometer, he would have found that it was the temperature of the air which had 
changed, while that of the fountain of the sun remained the sBnie."->LoN<i. ^uart. Jiev. xxiii. 95. 

Cyrenaica, or PentanoliB (Barca), lay between Marmarica and the Syrtis Major, 
or altars of the Philaeni. It contained five cities ; Cyrenc^ founded by a Greek colony, 
the birthplace of the philosopher Carneades ; Apolumia, a celebrated seaport ; Ftole- 
maiSf at farst called Barce; Artinog, and Bennice or Ifefperis^ near which were the 
gardens of the Hesperides, famous for their golden apples, and the residence of the 
Gordons, so celebrated in fable. (Cf P. II. ^ 115. Efl. Rev. No. 95, p. 22?).— West 
of this was Regio S y r t i c a, also called, from its three cities, T r i p o I i t a n a ( Tripoli) ; 
its cities were Lfvtis^ called major, to distinguish it from a town of the same name 
near Carthage ; cEa, the present chy of Tripoli ; and Scbrata, a Roman colony; and 
TysdruSf now Elgem. A people called by Homer the Zjotophagi dwell on this coast ; 
he says that they fed on the lotos, a fruit so delicious, that whoever tasted it imme- 
diately forgot his native country. On the coast were the Syrtes, two dangerous quick- 
sands, which frequently proved fatal to hapless mariners ; here, also, was the lake 
Tritonity sacred to Mmerva. 

** There are interesting ancient remains in these regions, particularly at Ltpti» and Cyrens.— The 
situation of Gyrene is described as exceedin{;ly benutifiil.— **It is built on the edge of a range 
of hills, rising about 800 feet above a fine sweep of high table land, fhrmlnf* the summit of a 
lower chain, to which it dnscends by a series of terraces. The elevation of the lower chain may 
be estimated at 1000 feet; so that Cyrene stands about 1600 feet above the level of the sea, of 
which it commands an extensive view over the table land, which, extending east and west as 
far aa the eye can reach, stretches about five miles to ihe northward, and then descends abrnptly 
to the coast. Advantage has been taken of the natural terraces, to shape the ledges into roads 
leading along the face of the mountain, and communicating in some Instances by narrow flights 
of steps cut in the roclc. These roads, which may be supposed to liave been the favorite drives 
of the citizens of Cyrene, are very plainly indented with the marks of chariot wheels, deep fur- 
rowing the smooth, stony surface. The rock, in most instances rising perpendicularly from these 
Slleries, has been excavated into innumerable tombs, generally adorned with architectural 
:ades. The outer aides of the roads, where they descended from one range to another, were 
ornamented with sarcophagi and monumental tombs ; and the whole sloping space between the 
galleries was filled up with similar structures. These, as well as the excavated tombs, exhibit 
very superior taste and execution. In two instances, a simple sarcophagus of white marble, 
ornamented with flowers and figures in relief of exquisite workmanship, was found in a large 
excavation. In several of the excavated tombs were discovered remains of paintings, repre- 
senting historical, allegorical, and pastoral subjects, executed in the manner of those of Hercu- 
laneum and Pompeii. (Cf. P. IV. ^ 936).— In the region of Cyrenaica are several caverns con- 
taining stalactites, presenting of course various fantastic shapes. It baa been supposed that 
this fact, together with the existence of the ruins and excavations in the vicinity of Cyrene. may 
have given rise to the story of the petrified city, of which, under the name of Has Sem, marvelous 
accounts have been related to travelers in Africa.*' 

8m Jfofam IVRWbr.- J. IT. f A BMcAy, ExpsdUioa lo Noflhcn CoMt of Af risL Ldod. 1828. 4. 

* At T)fsint* are still found ruins of Roman structures ; particularly of a apaelous amphitheatre, 
'* eonshting formerly of four rows of columns In tiers one above another, and sixty-four arcades.** 
The inner area is said to be 900 feet in length and 200 In breadth ; and the whole circumference 
1570 feet ; the height is estimated to have been at least 105 feet. The upper tier of columns is 
nearly fallen ; the three lower are preserved.! 

SMlUv.C/'.l^eaWli Diary. A diawisf b gina h Tte itmny Mifnini, Jan. IS, 1838. 

^ 180. Next to Tripolitana was the province of Africa Propkia, of which the capi- 
tal was Carthago. This city was founded by a Tyrian colony, led by queen Dido, and 
h/ its extensive commerce became one of the most opulent cities ot antiquity. Its 
citadel was called Byna, because it waa said that Dido, on coming here, purchased 


as mncli ^ound as she conld encompass with a Pvpva, or hide, and then, having cut 
the hide into strips, took in the epace originally covered by the city. 

Canhage is immortalized by poets and liiBtorians on accoifnt of the three wars which it sus- 
tained afmlnat the Romans. The last of these wars resulted in the total destruction of the city 
by Scipio Africanus the younger, B. C. 146. The city is said to have been above twenty miles 
in circainfereDce ; ft being set on fire by the Romans, the conflagration lasted seventeen days. 
Anew city was bailt by the emperor Augustus at a small distance from the site of the ancient. 
The new Carthage was taken from the Romans by Genseric, A. D. 439, and for more than a cen- 
tury afterwards was the capital of the Vandal empire in Africa. It was finally destroyed by the 
Saracens towards the end of the seventh century. A single aqueduct is said to be the chief trace 
of it found In modern limes. 

The other remarkable towns in this district were Tunes or Tuneta (Tunis), where 
Regulus was defeated and taken prisoner ; Clupea^ near the Promontorium Mercurii 
(Cape Bona); Adrumetum; Tkapsusy 'where Ceesar defeated Scipio and Juba; and 
Uticaj where Cato the younger slew himself; near Utica was the river Bagradas, 
where Regius slew an enormous 6er[)ent, that had destroyed many of his soldiers. 

$ 181. NuxiDiA was at one time divided into the kingdom of the Mossyii, ruled by 
Massioissa, and that of the Massffisyli, tmder the government of Syphax ; but after 
the third Punic war, they were united into one kingdom under Massinissa. The capi- 
tal was Certa, The principal towns on the sea-coast were Tabraca, remarkable lor 
its groves ; Hippo Regius^ near the small river Ruhricatutt the episcopal seat of Saint 
AufQstine; ona Rusicade. In the interior were Vaga; Sicca; and Zarnaf where Han- 
nibal was defeated by Scipio. On the confines of the desert were Thala and Capsa. 

% 182. MAUKriANiA was separated from Numidia by the river Ampsagas. — Its 
chief towns were Ctzsarea, whence the eastern part was called Caesar iensis; and 
TiMgis (Tangiers), from which the western received the name Tingitana. This 
country extended from the river Ampsagat, separating it from Numidia. to some dis- 
tance on Uie Atlantic coast. The Romans, ajfter their conquest over these regions, 
planted in them numerous colonies, and constructed fortresses and roads, of which 
some traces yet remain. The most southern Roman settlement was that called Ex- 
fiamlio ad Mercurium, on the coast of the Atlantic. The waters west of this terri- 
tory were named OceanuB Atlanticus^ from the chain of moimtains called Atlas, 
which bounded Mauritania on the south, and terminated at two different points on 
the coast, the northern ridge being termed Allot Minor, and the southern Athu 
3tajor.-^Mon» Abyla was the elevated summit near the strait connecting the Medi- 
terranean and the Atlantic. This and Calpe on the European side formed the fabled 
pillars of Hercules {Herculis Columna). 

% 183. All the remaining countries of the land may be included under Africa In- 
taRioB, to which it is impossible to assign any definite boundaries. — The Gsetuli, and 
Garamantes, and other tribes, are represented as dwelling within it. The Nigritm 
were placed about the river Niger. The Great Desert was called Deserta Libym /»- 

terioris. On the coast west of this were the IiisuUb FortunaUD; called also Cana- 

na, from the number of large dogs, as some suppose, found upon them, and thence 
their modem name Canaries. — South of these were the Ifuulce Hesperidumj the mo- 
dem Cape Verd islands, on which some have placed the gardens of the Hesperides 
(cf. % 179). — West of this coast the ancients also placed the island Atlantis, said to 
have existed once, and to have been afterwards submerged in the ocean. It was re- 
presented as larger than Asia and Africa, and as very fertile and powerfuL 

Borne have considered the whole account of Atlantis as a mere fable ; others have conjectnred 
tkat the Canaries, Madeira Isles, and Azores, once formed parts of a vast island thus described; 
and otbecs have maintained that the land referred to must have been the continent of America. 

na klter «piaian iiiauotuiwd in aa Emaj eotitlad h Calkm: An JUttmpt to ikow thai Atmriea rmut U ktunwn lo tkt 
Aiu^tla, #c by a Imniten Bnfiithmm, FMlor at a Cbwch io BmIoo. Eockn, Mew Ei^ltiHl, MDCCLXXIII.— Some b»«« 

hailif fl ilMt llili liimi ttw ■HiiTr' 'r "- ~-" f— ; '^-^'y. ' ■*' " ' "-■n"-'- -»- "-tn. ■r Pws, ITTS. 8. 

to Ibttc-i^wft Oat^nphf'— A^* St. FhtatU, EmI wr l^otiuM AibBilde. Ptf. 1804 4.~TlM wdHit itoiy b glvao ia 
JOanHeutot Fkiok 


VIII a. 


XHYJ Hxnog 


Preliminary Bemarks. 

% 184. Chuokologt treats of the computation of time and of the dates of events. It 
is comparatively a modern science. Among the ancients there was scarcely any sys- 
tematic attention to the suhject. Yet it is a lii^hly important science. Accurate chro- 
nology is essential to all reasoning Anm historical ^cts ; the mutual dependence and 
lelsuons of events cannot be traced without it ; with the greatest propriety it has been 
called one of the e^es of history, while geography with equal propriet]^ has been said 
to be the other. Chronology is also an important aid to the memory, if properly con- 
sidered, in studying history and biography. 

In ireatlnc ibis subject, altbougb oar detiffn requires a special reference to ClaaMieal Chronolegf, 
jet from the nature of the sabject we must introduce some f binge which belong rather to the 
Bdence in general. We shall explain the Greek and Roman divisions of time and modes of com- 
puting it ; and endeavor to present all that the student will need as preparatory to a full study 
of the classical historians and of ancient history. 

Cbboxologt may be considered as consisting of tiro parts; the first, measuring 
time and adjusting its various divisions; the second fixing the dates of nistorical events 
and arranging them in order. 

I.— (y measuring Time and adjusting its divisions. 

i 185. The most obvious measures and divisions of time are those suggested to all 
men by the revolutions of the heavenly bodies. These are three ; days, months, and 
years ; the day from the revolution of the earth on her axis, or the apparent revolution 
of the son around her ; the month from the periodical changes in the moon ; the year 
from the annual motion of the earth in her orbit round the sun. — These three divisions 
are not commensurate, and this has caused the chief embarrassment in the science of 
Chronology; it has, in point of fact, been difficult so to adjust them with each other in 
a system of measuring time as to have the computed time and the actual time perfectly 
in agreement or coincidence. 

% 186. The day. This was undoubtedly the earliest division, and originally was dis- 
tinguished, it is likely, from the night ; extending from sunrise to sunset only. It was 
afterwards considered as including also the night, or time between sunset and sunrise. 
But the beginning of the day has been reckoned differently by different nations, for 
civQ purposes ; at sunrise, by the Babylonians, Persians, Syrians and inhabitants of 
India; at sunset, by the Jews, Athenians, ancient Gauls, and Chinese; at midnight, 
by the Egyptians, Romans, and modems generally. — Astronomers in their calculations 
consider the day as beginning at noon, after the manner of the Arabians according to 
Priestley.— There have auo been various modes of subdividing the day. — *' The di- 
vision of time into hours is very ancient : as is shown by Kircher (OCdip. .£gypt. t. ii. 
pan 2). The most ancient hour is that of the twelfth part of a day. Herodotus ob- 
serves that the Greeks learnt irom the Egyi^tians [Babylonians, 1. ii. c. 1091 , among 
other things, the method of dividing the day into twelve parts ; and the astronomers 
of Cathaya still retain this method. The division of the day into twenty-four hours 
was not known to the Romans before the Punic war." {Tegg.) 

^ 187. The Greeks, in the time of Homer, seem not to have used the division into 
hoars ; his poems present us with the more obvious parts of the day, morning (4b>0f 
noon (jiivop tiftap)^ and evening (ittXri). But before the time of Herodotus, they were 
accustomed to the division of the day, and of the night also probably, into 12 parts. 
They were acquainted also with the division of the day and night into four parts each, 
according to the Jewish and Roman custom. 

The JRomans subdivided the day and night each into four parts, which were called 
Tigila {vigUio') or watches. They also considered the day and the night as each di- 
vided into 12 hours; three hours of course were included in a vigil. — The day vigils 



begfnnfng of the third century after Christ. The dsjt were named after the planets or pagan 

?oaB'i Dies Solu, Sunday; J^unie, Monday; AtartiSf Tuesday; Mereurii^ Wednesday; JovU, 
'hursdny ; FenerU^ Friday ; Saturni, Saturday. It is worihy of nntica. that our names for the 
days had a similar origin, as is seen by observing their Saxon derivation ; Sunnadtpg, 6un*s day ; 
Monandtef^ Moon's day ; Ttutdagy day of I'liisco (i. e. MaT$) ; tVvdenedo'fr^ day of Wodin or 
Odin, a nortkern deity ; Tkortdag^ day of Thor, a deity answering to Jupiter ; Frigdrng^ day of 
Frigga, the Venns of ilie north ; S<turdag^ day of Sater or Seater (i. e. Saturn, cf. P. 11. ^ 16. 2.) 

% 192. The y^ar. This division was probably not formed uRtil some considerable 
advances had been made in astronomical science ; and it was Long after its iirst adop- 
tion before it attained to any thin^ like an accurate form. — I'he most ancient year oi 
which we know, was that consisting of 12 months supposed to coniain 30 days each, 
thus amouniino; to 3G0 days. It has been conjectured that this ^ave rise to the divi- 
sion of the ecliptic into 360 eoual parts or degrees, which is siiil preserved. But it 
was soon found that this fell snort of the actual year, or the time of a involution of the 
earth ; and an addition of 5 days was made, so that the year consisted of 365 days ; 
This is ascribed to the Thebans. The Grecian year, however, as established by So- 
lon and continued to the time of Meton and even after, consisted of 365 days and a 

Tba mftuier io irhidi the O wifci mds ttidr eoDpatatioD bj Iba Ivotr tnonthi to icrce witt tbe nlar yew, bH iliwdj bMa 
ezpU.ned ($ 18fi).— Cf. OiAvC, I^uofe Gracqaa, in th* Han. Jtead. Tmer. voL niv. p. 183. 

The Eoman year seems t6 have consisted of 365 days until the time of Julius 
Caesar. The method employed by the Romans of previous a^es to adjust their com- 
putation by lunar months to the solar year has also been mentioned (^ 191), and hk^- 
wise the confusion which resulted from it. This Caesar attempted to remedy (cf. P. 
V. ^ 528. 4). He instituted a year of 365 days 6 hours. To remove the error of 80 
days, which computed time had gained of actual time, he* ordered one year of 445 
days (365 plus 80), which was called the Year of confution. And to secure a proper 
allowance for the 6 hours which had been disregarded, but which would amount in 4 
years to a day, he directed that one additional day should be intercalated in the reckon- 
ing of every 4rh year; thus each 4th year would have 366 days, the others 365. — This 
is called the Julian year. In the Roman calendar the intercalated day was placed after 
the 6th (s&rrux) of tne Calends of March, and therefore called bistextus; hence the 
phrase bissextile year still in use. 

But in thU plan thare ww gtill tn error. The i»j wu Intercililed too woon ; I. a. bafar* a toAolc dsy ted bom guinti ; b e ca — 
cooipoted time, imtead of piniof 9 boun a year, gainod ooly S Awn 48 m. 57 mc, and in four yoan would gain only 23 A. IS m. 
48 MS. ; n tti« iatercalalad day was inerlad too noB by 44 minutu and 12 ««c«fub ; of ooone, conputod time, by tbia plan, loot 
44 m. 12 IK. erery foor yean, or II m. 3 Me. every year. In 131 yean Ibii makei a leai of eompuled time, of one day ; i. e. eon^ 
pUiad time would be one day bebind adual time. In A«4D. 1662 Ibit loa bad anMmotcd to ten daya, and Pope Gragmy ISlll 
attempted to remedy tbe evil by a new expedient Thh waa, to drop the Intercalary day or ibe bitmrtUe^ every lOOth year exeepl. 
Ing eaeb 400lh year. By tbe Jalian year, oonpaled time loaea 1 1 tn. 8«k. a year, which mkes about 19 honn in 100 yenn ; drop* 
ping tlie intercalary day on tbe lOOlh year makei np tbit low of 19 hoan, and giv« alio a gala of abent 6 hours ; dropfiii^ it on (ho 
next lOOlb year givea another gain of 6 boan to computed time; ao of tbe third lOOih year ; and In this way computed tiaae gua 
of actual lime, in 800 year^ 15 boon; if on the next lOOlh year, !.& the (burth, the intercalary day be inserted, computed time 
loMa for that ceolary 19 hoan ; but to meet this losa, it bed In the three preeedisf centuries gaiited 5 houn b each, and in all M 
boun, ao that the lorn is only (19—16) 4 boon at the end of 400 yeaia. By tbIa method tbe difiervnce between oompufad mad aelnal 
time cannot aroouni to a day in 9SO0 yean. In this system, called the Ongorian Calendar, tbe yean 1800, 8000, 8400 are blar* 
ealary ; and Ibe yean 1700, 1800, 1900, 8100, 8200, 8300, kc, not.— The GtegoriaB year was immediataly adopted in Spain, Fbrtif 
gal, and Italy ; and durhig the ma» year io France ; in Caihelic Germany, in 1583 ; in Protestant Germany and Denmark, in 1700 ; 
b Sweden, 1758. In Eaglaad it wm adopted In 1750, by ad of Farliamnil directing tba 3d oT September to be styled tbe 14lfa, as 
compatad time had loat II days. Tkia waa cnlled the cteage from Old toNmo Sfyla.— In 1838, Rnsiia was mid to be tbe only eottdbfy 
where Uie Julian year or the OM Style was used. It ia, however, retained in tbe Giaek and Armenian ^uretaea. {Mim. AraU, fta 
Dec 1835, p. 4S4.>-Oil Uia Oraforian Calcwiar, see Ck. Cfanius, Bomani Calandaiii a Grsgorio XIII. P. M. raslftnU Expiicatb. 

DifTerent nations have beirun the year at different seasons or months. Th^ Roroans at one time 
considered it as be^nning 1« March, but afterwards in Jannary. The Greeks placed its coni<- 
niencenient in Hecatomboeon, at tbe summer solstice. The Christian clergy used to begin it at 
the 35ih of March. The same was practiced in England and tlM American colonies until A. JO. 17S9; 
on the change from Old to New Style, when the first of Janaa>y was adopted. 

^ 193. Cycles. In adjusting the different methods of computing time, or the division 
of time into days, months, and years, great advantage is derived from tbe inven- 
tion of Cycles. These are periods of time so detiominated from the Greek k€kXos^ s 
circle, because in their compass a certain revolution is completed. Under the term 
cycle we may properly incluae the Grecian Olympiad^ a period of 4 years ; the Octae- 
tens, or period of 8 years ; and the Roman Lustrum, a period of d years ; and also th(» 
Julian year, or period of 4 years as just described. The period of 400 years, compre- 
hended in the system of Gregory already explained, may justly be termed the cycle cf 
irregory. — Besides these, it seems important to mention the Lwtar CycUt the Solar 
CytSe, the Cycle of Indicfum^ and the Julian Period. 

See F. Ndan, as cited $ 203.—^. DoMbeU, de veleribm Graconm Romaaommqaa Cydis, ka. DisieH. decam. Load. 1101. 4.— 
iVieMb-, on the Seenbr Cyda, b bis HiU. ofBamt, vol. i. p. Sue. ed. PhiL I83S. 

% 194. The Lunar Cycle is a period of 19 years. Its object is to accommodate the 
computation of time by the moon to the computation by the sun, or adjust the solar 
and lunar years. The nearest divimon of the year by months is into twelve; but twelve 



lanatkiDs (which make the lunaj year) fall short of the solar year by about 11 days. 
Of course, every change in the moon in any year will occur eleven days earlier than it 
did OQ the preceding year ; e. g. if in September of the present year full moon occurs 
on the 16th, the correspondine full moon of the next year will occur on the 5th of Sep- 
tember. — Hence every year the various changes in the moon fall back as calculated by 
the days of the year. At the expiration of 19 years they occur again nearly at the 
same time. 

Tliifl Cycle was invented by Meton, an Athenian aBtronomer, who flourltfaed aboat B. C. 430. 
Uany attempts had before been made to adjust the solar and lunar years (^ 189), and this im- 
provement was at the time received with universal approbation ; but not being perfectly accu- 
rate, it was afterwards corrected by Eudoxus, and subsequently by Calippus. The Cycle of 
Ueton was employed by the Greeks to settle the time of their festivals ; and the use of it was 
discontinued when these festivals ceased to be celebrated. '*Tbe Council of Nice, however, 
wishing to establish some method for adjusting the new and fhll moons to the course of the sun, 
with a view of determining the time of Easter, adopted It as the best adapted for the purpose ; 
and ftt>m its great utility they caused the nrtmbers of it to be written on the calendar In goUcn 
Utltrtt which bas obtained for It the name of the Golden Number.'* The name of Golden JVuni- 
kmr is still applied to the current year of the Lunar Cycle, and is always given in the Almanac. 

% 195. The Solar Cycle is a period of 28 years. Its use is to adjust the days of the 
week to the davs of the month and the year. As the year consists of 52 weeks and 
one day, it is plain that it must bemn and end on the eame day. Let the seven letters 
A, B, C, D, £, F, G, represent the seven days of the week, A being always applied 
to the first day of the year. Let January begin with Monday. Of course A will stand 
for Monday, and Sunday coming on the 7th day will be represented by G, the 7th let- 
ter. The year will end with Monday, as it began with it; and A, the next year, will 
stand for Tuesday, and Sunday will be on the 6th day of the year, and be represented 
bjr F. Thus the year will commence one day later every common vear, and Sunday 
will be represented successively by the letters taken in their retrograde order, G, F, £, 
&C., and if 52 weeks and one day were the exact year, or there were no leap year, the 
year wouldi after seven veara, again begin on Monday, the same day with the first 
year supposed. But the leap year, consisting of 52 weeks and two days, interrupts the 
regular succession every fourth year, and the return to the same day of the week is 
not effected until 4 times seven, i. e. 28 years. 

Tbis Cycle Is employed particularly to furnish a rule for finding Finnday, or to ascertain the 
Dominical I<etter. Chronolngers employ the first seven letters of the alphal>et to designate the 
seven days of the week ; and the Dominical Letter for any vear is the letter which represents 
Svnday for that year. Tables are given for the purpose of nnding it in chronological and astro- 
nomical books. 

% 196. The Cycle of Indicium is a period of 15 years. The origin and primary use 
of this has been the subject of various conjectures and discussions. It seems to have 
been established by Coostantine the Great, in the fourth century, as a period at the end 
of which a certain tribute should be paid by the different provinces of the empire. Pub- 
lic acts of the emperors were afterwards dated by the years of this cycle. 

The cycle, which has been perhaps most celebrated, is that which is termed the 
Julian Period^ and was invented by Joseph Scaliger. Its object was to furnish a com- 
mon language for chronologers, by forming a series of years, some term of which 
ahoald be fixed, and to which the various modes of reckoning years might be easily 
applied. To accomplish this, he combined the three cycles ofthe moon, sun, and in- 
diction, multiplying 19, 28 and 15 into one another, which produces 7980, after which 
all the three cycles will return in the same order, every year taking again the same 
number of each cycle as before. Taking the several cycles as settled in the Latin 
diurch, and tracing them back, he found that the year when they would begin together 
was the year 710 before the creation as now dated, and that the first year oi the Chris- 
tian Era as now computed was 4714 of the Julian Period. 

This Invention would be of great importance if we bad no acknowledged epoch, or flied 
year, from which to compute; but since we have such an epoch, it seems to be unnecessary. 
Its use is almost entirely superseded by the general adoption of the Christian era as a fixed 

n. — effacing the Dates of hiMtorical events and arranging them in order. 

% 197. To arrange events methodically in the order of their occurrence, and assign 
the proper dates, is the second part of Chronology. In the consideration of this part 
we enall notice the following topics ; {A) The methods employed to ascertain the dates 
of events, or the time when they occurred ; (J5) The epochs and eras which have been 
employed or are still in use ; (C) The systems of arrangement, and chronological tables 
ana charts ; (D) The actual dates of the most prominent events in classical Chronology. 

% 198. (^) Methods em^yed to ascertain the dates of eventi, — ^Here we observe, 


that the principal helps or sources are f<mr. First, we will notice that furnished bj 
observations on generations of men or successions of Rings. — ^It has been supposed 
that the average Ien|:th of a king's reign, or of a generation of men, may be estimated 
by comparing a sufhcient number of tacts. — When this average is taken, and we are 
told by a writer how many generations lived, or how many kings reigned, between two 
events, we can at once find the time between them ; and if the date of either event is 
known, the date of the other will follow. This is the only Chronology of the earliest 
writers, and is used in the Bible. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans used it. Gene- 
rally they reckoned a generation and a reign as of the same length; three of ibem 
equal to 100 years. Sir Isaac Newton employed this means of nscfriaining dates, and 
maintained that the average for reigns of kings is only 20 yoars ; and for generations, 
29 or 30 years, if reckoned by eldest sons, and 33. if reckoned by oihcrs. On these 
principles he attempted to rectify ancient chronology, giving to many events a date 
more recent than other authors. 

It may be desirable to give a further explanation of tbft method hy two Vluairations. (a) The 
date of the return of the Heraclidc to Peloponnesus ie disputed ; hut thii date of the Battle of 
Thermopylae is settled, B. C. 450. Now between these two events there reigned at ft|iarta a sac- 
cession of 17 kings; 17 muUtplled by 30 gives 340 years between the events, mnlcinK the return 
of the IleraclidoB B. C. (480 plus 340) 830 ; a date SbO years iaicr than as given by other cbrono- 
logera.— (6) The date of the Argonamic Expedition is disputed ; but the beginning of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War settled, B. C. 431. Now it is found, that Hippocrates, living at the beginning of 
the Peloponnesian War, was descended the I8ih from .l^sculapiiis by father's side, and 19th from 
Hercules by mother's side, and that JSsculnpius and Hercules we're both Argonauts ; that Is, 
there were 17 generations in one line and 16 in another, between the two events. Taking the 
medium 17^ and multiplying by 20 gives 567 ; making the date of the Argonautic Expedition, 
B. C. (431 plus 567) 998 ; 326 Inter than by other chronologers. 

But there are two grand objections to this method of ascertnining dates. Firsts the inaccuracy 
and uncertainty of ihe av&ragt ; it cannot be very satiitfaciorily or exactly determined. Secondly, 
the fact that ancient writers, in naming a succession of kinjrs or giving a genealogy, often omit 
several of the series. This is done in MattMew^ ch. 1., for the sake of reducing the number of 
generations between the great epochs mentioned in the 17tb verse, to exactly /eurtcm. 

$ 199. A second help is found in celestial appearances and changes. This method ia 
in general more safe and certain, as it depenas on strict astronomical principles perfectly 
settled. The appearances employed are eclipses and the precession of the equinoxes. 

(a) Eclipses. The ancients were very superstitious as to eclipses. Many are re- 
corded, and mentioned as happening at the same time with important events in history, 
aiid described so that they may be recognized by the astronomer, who can calculate 
with perfect accuracy the time of every eclipse that has happened. 

We will give illustrations. Thneydides, in relating the attempt of the Athenians on the Syra- 
cusans, says that Nicias, finding the Syracusans reinforced and himself in danger, determined 
to sail out of the harbor of Syracuse; but when everything was ready for sailing, the moon was 
eclipsed, for It was then full moon ; by this appearance the Athenian soldiers were filled with 
alarm, and besought Nicias not to proceed ; and in consequence they almost to a man perished. 
This event is generally supposed to have been about B. C. 413. — Now it is found by calculation, 
that the moon vom fbll at Syracuse the S7th day of August, B. C. 413, and that there must have 
been a total eclipse there, visible from beginning to end, and likely to produce on the soldiers 

the effect which Thucydides mentions. The date of the era of Nabonassar, B. C. 747, is also 

determined by a record of an eclipse of the moon in Ptolemy's Almagest (cf. P. V. (218). 

In « timilar wtf, FnYvwn, io hit jkrinaony, propotca to Ax tha time of lbs birlh of Clwiil. It U ev ideal frooi Matibew ii. 13. 
16, 20^21, (h&l Chiist was bora only nme nwDlha before Ihe deaib of Herod ; aad from Jiwepbtu (B. zvii. cb. 8) we leara that then 
waa aa ecliine of the moon at the lime of Hcrad'a laat tickncai } aalronomlcal ealcula'ioo fk<aw% that the ecltpae occurred l^Iarcb 19^ 
in the fnt 4710 of Ibe Julian Period ; bcoce the birth of Christ could not bare been later than about the clcee of the 4709«h at th* 
Julian Period.— The lame aothor refen to the mention made by Fhlegon (cf. P. V. \ 239) of a moat extraordiiary eclipae of Ihe iim 
u oocurring in the 4lh year of the a02d Olympiad, and would employ it at a help in deiermining Ihe dale of Chrirt^ death ; BiM« do 
nalnral eclipM could occur the year apeeiiMd, which oorraqiooda, aeeordins to Ferguioo, le the 474«lh of the Julian I^ried, he thi«ki 

the event mentioned by Phiepin waa the nipOToatural darknm that marked the SaT)or>a cmcifizioo. la Pia^Jaa*t Syileai of 

Cbioook)«y, cited P. V. § 7. 7. (c), b a liat of eclipaca that were obwrved before ibe Cbriatian era, also, in nrgtuon't Axnmuaj. 

Mere LHtiaraprasmiMct may be employed in Ihe mme way. By comparing Mark xv. 42. Luke xxiii. 54. and John ZTtti. 2S, 
it woaU aecm evident that the eraeiiixieii waa on Friday, and at the time of the FUaover ; it is known from other anurca (cf. Jtee* 
pkuM, Jlnt. B. iii. eh. 10) that the PuMver waa kept on the day of tbe Ant full moon after the vernal equioot. Ferguaoo mya tm 
found by cnlealalion that ** tlie only Faiaover full moon that fell on Friday, for serenl jear* before cr' after tbe diapvted year of th* 
crodAxioB, waa on April 3d, in the 4746Th year of the Julian Period.'^-CC Arpiion, aa cited § 203^ 

(h) Precession of the Equinoxes. The equinoxes, being the points where the equator 
crosseB the ecliptic, are not precisely the aiine from year to year ; but they move back- 
ward (i. e. to the west) 50 seconds every year, or 1 degree in 72 years. If, then, the 
place of the equinox in the ecliptic at the time of any event is stated, we may determine 
the date of the event, by noticing how far the equinox has now receded from the place 
it then held, and allowing 72 years for a degree. The only objection to this method is 
the difficulty, perhaps impossibility of deciding what point the equinoxes actually did 
occupy at the time of particular events in ancient history. 

Bir I. Newton applied this principle also to settle the time of the Argonautic Expedition. — A 
ephere, representing the heavens with the constellations, is said bv ancient writers to have been 
formed for the Argonauts, by Chiron ; on this sphere, it is also eiaid, the equinox was placed In 
tbe middle point in the sign Aries. In tbe year 1669, tbe equinox bad gone back l^om that point 

r. I. . VP0CH8 AND ERAS. 65 

36 degrees 44 miimtee : this, allowlDg 73 years for a degree, gives a period of SM5 years between 
the year 1669 and the Bxpediiion ; making it B. C. 055; nearly the same as by the calculation 

from generations by tlie same author. If it be stated how a star rises or sets in relation to the 

SOB, the piace of the equinox may be found, and dates ascertained, in the wafy Just mentioned. — 
Sir Isaac Newton and others have employed this to ascertain the time when Uesiod lived. In 
a passage in the f9^ark» and Daf4 [vs. S64], Hesiod says, that JlrcturuM rose at sunset, 60 days 
after the son entered the winter solstice, a point 90 degrees distant from the equinox.— But the 
place of the equinox cannot be settled with certainty in this way ; because it cannot be cer- 
tainly known whether the ancient writer means his own time and residence or not, whether he 
means true or apparent rising, or even what constellation or star be means exactly. Cf. Costard, 
ia the PkiUaopkuMl TraiuaetionSt vol. xlviii. p. SL 

$ 200. A third help in the fijdng of dates is found in the annst medals, monuments^ and 
vucriptions, which are preserved for the benefit of succeeding ages. I'hese often throw 
great light upon historicai events, and afford important aid in ascertaining the lirue of 
toeir occurrence. Interesting facts are sometimes first made known, and the period 
when the^ took place is oiien indicated, by the face of a medal, or the representations 
on a public monument. — Inscriptions are of still greater service. As one of the most 
valuable of these we must mention the chronicle of Paros, which fixes the date of the 
chief events in Grecian history from Cecrops down to the time of Alexander. (See 
P. IV. ^91. 4.) 

^201. The fourth source is furnished by the tettimony of historiafUj who state the 
distance between events, or between events and an epoch. I'he early historians paid 
verjr little attention to the subject of chronology ; it was not until a comparatively late 
period, that they began to think of dates and distances of time. The principal frag- 
ments of the earlier writers, Eratosthenes, Apollodorus, and Thrasyllus, are still to be 
found in the Chronicon o( Eicsebiuit, and the Stromata of Clemens Alexandrinus. The 
vntings of the Bytantine Chroniclers are also of service ; particularly the chronologi- 
cal work (•E«X<»y^Xpoi'oypo0ta$) of SynccUus. It is chiefly from this and the above- 
mentioned work of Eusebius, that the details of the eoTnmotUy received Chronology have 
been gathered. (Cf. ^ 205 ; and P. V. ^ 236, 239, 288.) 

^ 202. (B) Epochs and Eras emvloyed in Chrofiology. — It is essential to correct and 
exact chronology that there shoula be some fixed epoch, to which all events may be 
referred and be measured by their distance from it. But it is of comparatively little 
consequence what the epoch is, provided it is fixed and acknowledged, as it is perfectly 
easy to compute in a retrograde manner the time before it, as well as in a direct man- 
■er the time after it. An epoch is distinguished from an era. Ejpoch is the point of 
time which is taken as a starting-place from which to reckon, and taken usually be- 
caose signalized by some important event. Era is the space of time, that follows the 
epoch ; the series of years computed from it. — The two terms may be interchanged as 
nearly synonymous, because every era has its epoch and every epoch its era. 

9 203. The following are the most important eras, which are noticed in Chronology, 
•—(a) Era of Olympiads- The Greeks for a long time had no fixed epoch ; but after- 
wards reckoned by Olympiads, periods of 4 years. They began 776 B. C. A new 
Olympiad era, however, came into use under the Roman emperors, beginning A. D. 
131. — (6) Era of Rome. The Romans often reckoned by lustrums, often by the year 
of the consul or the emperor. The building of the city was their grand epoch. This 
vos 752 B. C. (It is placed by some 753 or 754.)— (c) Era of Nahonassar (or Belesir). 
Used by some historians ; the commencement of Nabonassar^s reign at Babylon, 747 
B. C. — (d) Era of the Seleucidm. From the rei^ of Seleucus and nis descendants in 
Syria. The Jews chiefly used this. The Nestonans still compute from it. (Researches 
of Smih and Dwight, ^1. ii. p. 257.) It is usually dated 312 B. C. when Seleucus 
recovered Babylon, 10 years before the real commencement of the kingdom of Syria. 
— (e) Era of Diocletian, This was founded on the persecution of Christians in the 
leign of Diocletian. It was used by Christians until the Christian era was adopted. 
It began 284 A. D.— </) The Mahometan Era or Hegira ; founded on the flight of 
Mahomet ftom Mecca to Medina, A. D. 622. — ig) The Persian Era, or Era of Yezde- 
jerd; founded on the reign of a Persian king, named Yezdejerd, A. D. 632.— -(A) The 
Chsistiak Era; Annus Domini; the year of our Lord. This era is founded on 
the birth of Christ, but chronologers are not agreed as to the year of his birth ; some 
placing it ssven years before the received epoch, others four years. This, however, is 
of no consequence as respects the utility of the era in chronology, because all, who 
idopt the Christian era, agree to call the same year by the same numerical date ; all 
meanmg (e. g.) identically the same year by A. D. 1836. The era began to be used 
about A. D. 360, according to some writers ; but others state that it was invented by 
Dionysus, a monk, A. D. 527. 

Oa At CMtfaa En, lae J. PrimOtif, Leetatw oo HMory, L. xiv.— /. OuO. /oni, Biaterii Xnt DioDTrntOB— O. Ramhtrgtr, l)e 
Ipwto Cfari«iaMe ortu cc avekm— Mnm. Diiwrbitioa on tbe Birth of Christ.— CC lonbMr, CndibUity of ttw Gotpel, Ac. Fkrt L 
WL fl. p^ WL-#krsiMnV AKrawny, bj D, BmMUr^ PhH. 1817. 8 vob. S. i. 46(M». 

fMtpi «■ ibnild BMiitiaii hem the A« 0/ (Ac PrmA lUpubUCy which the raralotioniiii attempted to edabllsh. This wm intro- 
'■od n vnSt vHh a braal fejeetiea ot tfat Soiltetb and of the b«bdomiiMl week, and 1 novd arraogemeot and pedantic Bomei»* 
(ten of (ho moBlho. Tbo twcnlr^eeoiid of Sepiembor wa« fixed u the beginninf of the jrear. The jtax eooahted of twelT* 
■MhefOtiftrdqftMcb; wIMi ware divide^ bo( bj weeki, birt into thiw d«eadb% or peiioda of tan dayi. la this would coa* 

9 f3 


prin bat 180 ih7i,>lM w«r«ailil«d it Hk doMoTtht bat inoatk of Itie yttr, aned eompltmmtarf day$ f and «t ttoAm of emt 
fomMk or biiMxtito ymr, m fiXfA, eiUad Iha day of th€ Jttpuiiie. The epcle of the fiior 7«ar» wu lennad the Franau^ Tte 
three monllw of ▲ u T a m a w«n nuned Viandanioiirtf Brumavt, Frinuiirti thow of W i n I e r, A'terM, Plveiou, yimtom ; thaw 
of S pr in R, Oerminal, Ftoriai, Pnurial ; Ibote of Sumner, Mmtdor^ Tkgrmidory Fntelidar. Tbb in&lcl calendar mu and 
about twhm jtu*. The Greforiaa was rotored Jaarnrj t, 1806. 

^^204. (C) Systems of Arrangcmint and Chronological Tahles. — There is a great 
discrepancy between the various systems of ciironology which have been advocated in 
different nations and at different times. Among the oriental nations there was a strong 
desire for the honor of the earliest antiquity, and hence each carried back its chronolo- 

S'oal dates into the regions of mere fable or absolute falsehood, and the Egvptinns, 
ftbylonians, Hindoos, and Chinese, present a list of events happening hundreds or 
thousands of years before the creation. Such systems need not be particularly noticed 
here. (Cf. P. IV. ^ 21.) 

$ 205. There are two systems, one derived from the Hebrew Scriptures and the 
other from the Septuagint Version, which are highly deserving of the student's atten- 
tion. They differ from each other considerably: that drawn from the Septuagint 
assigns to many events a date much more ancient than that which follows the Hebrew ; 
e. g. the former places the flood some hundred years further from the Christian era, 
and the Creation at least 600 years further from the Flood, than the Utter. There has 
been much discussion among the learned, concerning the respective claims of these two 
systems. We only remark here, that the Hebrew chronology is generally adopted. 

The system of Archbishop Usher is the basis of the principal systems for chronolo- 
gical tables and charts which are commonly used. The system of Usher is in general 
accordance with the evidence drawn from the Hebrew Bible, the Arundelian Marbles, 
and the Chronicon of Eusebius. 

The syntem of Sir Tsam JWtoton has alrfitdy been mentioned, and fome of the methods em- 
ployed by him for fizint; dates. This system assigns many important events, particularlv of 
Grecian history, to periods considerably later than other systems. His chronoioffy was at first 
received with some favor, but is not usually regarded, although Mufvrd adopts it. 

On (hit, lee MHfonPt Rkt Gracce, eh. III. Appaiid.~Cr. SkuAfonti Prof, and Sac. Hitt. CoDn. bk. vi. Pnt—For the tiflea of 
•ome of (he moM iaaportant helpa on (he tabjed of ChroDoloffy, tee P. V. ; 7. 7 (r) ; > 299. 6.— For othen, we refer to Bam^ 
Intro, to Crit Sludjr of Hoij Script, vol. ii. p. 730.— jl labored defence of the Sepducint Chronologj U made by Her. /. /. Jaekton, 
io bis Chronological Jintiquitiet.—Set alio Frtd. Ifotan, on (he antiquity and connec(ion of (he eertf eyclei, and (heir otiliif la 
KtdiDK the diflereneea of cbreoolafiati, in Traru. of Boffol Soc of Littntvrt, rol. iii. Lond 1837.— XotmL Quart, Sn. voL t. p. 4. 
-yf. B. Ctapm, Agreement of the trae Biblical, E^Tpttao, and Chaldean Cbroaologiea. K«ir Uavao, 1830. pp. IS.— Cf. ChniL 
Sptti. Jane, 1837, and Dee. I8SS.— Aftntem, ae dtod P. V. ) OS. • 

^ 206. Tables and charts are among the greatest facilities in the study of history and 
chronology. They bring before the eye, at a glance, what can be presented but gra- 
dually ana slowly by description ; the locality of events and dates on the paper also 
helps to fix them more firmly in the memory. Every student ought to avail himself 
of the aid of a historical and chronological chart, either by purchase or (which is bet- 
ter) by actually forming one himself. • 

) 207. A great variety of plans for charts have been adopted, possessing greater or ]r.M degrees 
of utility .—(a) One of the most simple and obvious plans Is to form two perpendicular columns; 
one for evenu of every kind ranyed promiscuously in order of occurrence ; the other for their cor- 
responding dates. Sometimes a third column is added to this* plan, for Biography. — (ft) Another 
planof similar nature, but improved, is to form several perpendicular coiumnn'; one for dates, 
and each of the otiiers for a class of events: e. g. sovereigns in one, remarlcabie events in an- 
other, battles in another, &c. Such is the plan of Worcester's Charts. Both the plans men- 
tioned may be marked for centuries by horizontal lines.— (e) A third plan Is the contrivance olT a 
sort of tree, whose branches represent nations ; and events are ranged in them according to 
their dates, the earliest at the bottom. Such is the plan of hVdy*» Chiw>nology delineated. Con- 
quests by a nation may, in devices of this kind, be exhibited by one branch receiving others into 
itself, and the origin of new states by branches shooting; out from others.— <<<) A fourth plan is 
marked by the peculiarity of being divided into periods, limited on each side by prominent events. 
Such is Goodrich's Chart.— (r) K fifth plan, worthy of notice, is thai devised by J^mtna tVilUrd, 
called *' Perspective sketch of the course of Empire." It is essentially the Chronological Tree 
inverted ; the earliest events being placed at the top of the chart, and diverging lines being sub- 
stituted instead of the trunk and branches. Light and shade are employed to Indicate the com- 
parative rank and culture of diflerent nations. (fViUard's Atlas. Hartford, 183fi.) 

But it is worthy of remark, that in all these plans there are two grand faults; 1. equal length 
of time is not represented by equal spaces on the chart; 3. duration is represented by perpendi- 
cular lines, while the horizontal line is altogether the most natural and most satisfactory repre- 
sentation. — (/) A sixth plan adopts these two important improvements, with the division into 
periods, and the several columns for different classes of events, allowing, where the scale is 
large enough, each event to be located in Its exact place in the line of time. The chief objection 
to this method is the difficulty of using a scale sufficiently large to include all the important 
t'vents of some periods without Increasing too much the size of the chart, and rendering it in- 
convenient for portable UBe.^(£r) A seventh plan unites geography with the history and chrono- 
logy. This method is exhibited in Priesllet/s ** Specimen of a New Chart of History," given in 
his Lectures on History.- (A) The device of a combination of streams or rivers is employed in a 
recent chart by /. /. Hitchcock, called History made visible, Phil. 1839, 54 inches by 37. 

^ 208. (D) Actiml Dates of the most prominent events. Nothing occasions more per 
plexity and discouragement to the student in classical history, than the difficulty of^ re- 
membering actual dates. Many have found this so great as to give over in despair. 


Bnt, S8 has been repeatedly remarked, accurate chronology is essential to the ntility, 
ti)^ it is no less so to the pleasure, of reading history. And the difficulty coDiplained 
of IS by no means insuperable. 

Various expedients to aid the memory have been invented (}210); bnt on the whole, 
tiw writer knows of none better than to take a glance over the whole field of past time, 
select a few grand events which stand out as landmarks, associate these events with 
their dates, and commit them to memory with perfect exactness, making them as 
familiar as the letters of the alphabet. Any person of common atpacily can do this ; 
aod the student who wishes to \uy any foundation at ail for historical knowledge must 
do at least as much as this. This being done, he i^iil find it comparatively easy to 
locate the various events, which he may read about or learn from time to time, in their 
proper'place between these sjand events whose dates are thus fixed in the memory. 

S 209. VViih these views tne following outline, in which it seemed desirable to include 
modem chronology, is offered to the student, to be perfectly committed to memory. 

Tbe learaer n advised to draw it off on a roll of paper prepared for the purpose ; usinf a boH- 
votal line tu represent the flowing or progress of time. Let thio line fre divided into equal spaeetf 
each representinf an equal length of time; let the datee of the events be disiinctly written 
enctlyat the points in the line vAere they belong according to ibis equal division; and let the 
SKtU also be written direetly above or under the dates. 

BiiEF OuTLiNB. Chronology is Ancient or Modem. Ancient includes the whole time hefort 
Ciriff^ comprehending 40M years. Modem includes tbe whole time since Christ. 

I. Ancient Chronology is divided into two portions by the Flood; Antediluvian ages, the 
portion before the flood, and Postdiluvian ages, the portion after the flood.— The Antediluvian 
ages may be considered as containing only one period ; the Postdiluvian ages as containing e^Jkl 
perioda. Tbe grand events and periods are the following, 
or tbe Antediluvian ages, 

ne one period is from Creation B. C. 4001, 

to Deluob B. C. 2348. 

Of the PottdUuvian ages, the 

In ycriorf, is from Deluge .... to Calliko of Absaham . . B. C. 19S1; 

U fmK/, from Calling of Abraham . . to Escapb of Israelites . . . B.C. 1499; 

U pmod, from Escape of Israelites . . to BoiLDiifoofTEMPLB . . B.C. 1004; 

i ftiperii)^ from Building of Temple . . to Foijmdiiio of Rone . . .B.C. 759; 

! SfA^eiio^ from Founding of Rome . . to Battle of Marathox • . B.C. 490; 

I biperw^fVom Battle of Marathon . to Reign of ALBXARDini . . . B. C. 330; 

I Taperio^ from Reign of Alexander . . to CAPTDBBofCAETHAaB . . B.C. 140; 

I Sdpem^ from Capture of Carthage . . to Comino of Christ. 

11. Mod ex n Chronology is divided into three distinct portions by the Fall of Rome and the 
AB«/ CenetantknofU: Early JigeM^ the portion before the Fall of Rome ; Middle Jiget^ the por- 
tion between the Fall of Rome and the Fall of Constantinople ; Recent JSget^ tbe portion since 
the Fall of Constantinople.— The early ages may be considered as containing tvo periods; the 
niddle ages, JEve periods ; and the recent ages Jive periods. The grand events and periods are 
tbe following. 

Of the Early ages, tbe 
l«tp«ri0rf,lsfromCHBtsT . to tbe Rbiok of Cokstabtibb . . A. D. 306; 

Upffiffd, from Reign of Constantino to Fall of Romb « . . . A. D. 476. 

Of the Middle ages, the 

Iitpen«if,isfromFailofRome • . . to Flight of Mahomet . A. D. 693; 

• UffrieJ, from Flight of Mahomet . to CRowBiNoof Charlbmaonb . A. D. 800; 

» Upcriod, from Crowning of Charlemagne . to Labdirg of William . A. D. 1066; 

4(A ^erwrf, from JLanding of William. . to Overthrow of Sabacbhs . . A. D. 1998; 

** feriody from Overthrow of Saracens , . to Fall of CoNSTAXTuropLi . A. D. 1453. 

Of the Recent ages, the 
^ periei h from Fall of Constantinople . to ABniCATiOB of Chablbs Fiith . A. D. 1556 ; 
U ptriod, from Abdication of Charles 9th . to Rbstobatiob of Chablbs Second A. D. 1660 ; 
i U feried, from Restoration of Charles Sd . to Isdepbndehcb of Ubitev States A. D. 1776; 

Sa^«n0d,from Independence ofCnited States to Downfall of BoBAPABTE A. D. 1819; 

M^«i, from Downfkil of Bonaparte to the Present Time. 

I J^ 110. Bat it is perhaps due to the scholar to mention here some of the expedients, above 

anaded to (| 908), which have been devised to assist in the recollection of dates. We wiH 
fenelly notice three diffMrent systems of artificial memory. 

L Tbe first is that of Dr. Grey, whose Memoria Teehniea has generally met with the most 
nvorable reception. "As this method,*' says Priestley. *'is so easily learned and may be of 
Hch nse in recollecting dates, I think all persons of a liberal education inexcusable, who will 


not take the small degree of paint that Is necessary tn make themselves maf*ter of it.** The ex- 
pedient is to substitute letters for flofures, and form of these letters a syllMblt* or word, and asso- 
ciate It with the name of the persons, the date of whose tiirth, reign, death, or the like, ynu 
wish to remeuilier, or with a prominent term or word connected with an event to be remem- 
bered. The following is Dr. Grey's substitution alphabet^ in which «ach of the ten numerical 
characters has its eitnsonant and its vnwtl or dipk'honff; 1, a fr; 2, « tf; 3, t i; 4,/o; 5, Z «; 6, « sm ; 
7, p oi ; 8, le ri ; 9, n ok ; 0, z y. To remember the date of the founding of Uonie by this system, 
subsiiiute for 752 such letters as will, according to the above alphabet, represent 752; e. g. p« d, 
and join the syllable thus formed to the word Rome, or a part of the word, thus Rom-;Tii<{. I'he 
very oddness and uncouthness of this coinbtnation will sometimes impress it on the memory. To 
remember the date of the Deluge, '2348, we may form the word D^X-etvk-, uf the battle of Mara- 
thon, 490, Marutb-ony, or Mara-/(Ut(t. Where a series of dales of successive events are to be 
fixed in memory, this system recommends the uniting of the barbarous words thus formed in 
Hexameter verses ; which, however, the student must understand, are to be emuitiiited to ms- 
mory ; these are called memorial lines. 

See R. O r ey^i Memoria Ttcknieoj or Method of artifielel Memoty. (With Lowtft Mnemonia.) Loud. 1811 & CL Land, 
quart. Jem. ix. I2S. 

9. The second method is a system of topUai memory, including also the snhstitntion of letters 
for dgures. The principle of the topical method Is to conceive a certain nnuiher of places in a 
room, or in some limited space marked by sensible objects: and conceive these pines as ar- 
ranged in a certain fixed order ; and then whatever successive events or obj^'cis one wishes to 
remember, throw, in imagination, some jrietures of or eoneeminfr them. In their proper order, into 
these conceived places. Such is the principle of F e I n a 1 g I e's JSrt of Memory. By this a fowr- 
lided room is divided into ///y ideal squares; these who wish a more rapacious memory may 
take also a second story having 50 squares more, numbered up to a hundred ; nnd one may go 
on so ascending through as many stories as he chooses. J>rine squares are to be placed on the 
floor of the room, and nine on each of the four walls, thus making forty-five; the other fire on 
the ceiling above : the sqtiares on the floor number from 1 to 9; the square numbered 10 is put 
on the ceiling over the wall supposed to be on your left hand, and the next nine squares from II 
to 19 are on the left hand wall under it ; the square 90 la on the ceiling over the wall opposite In 
front of you, and the next nine from 21 to 20 on that waH under it ; the square 30, and the next 
nine f^om 31 to .^ are put in like manner on the right hand ; and the square 40, and the next 
nine firom 41 to 49 b<>hind you ; the remaining square 50 is placed In the centre of the ceiling. In 
each of these squares a picture of some visible object is located ; e. g. in 1, a puwpi in 2, a swau ; 
in 3^ a man using a spade. This scheme of sqnsres, numbers, and pictures Is first to be camwiued 
to memory. Then if one would remember by aid of the system the date e. g. of the kings of Eng- 
land, he would create In his mind a picture in connection with each one of ihem, throw the«ie 
pictures in Imagination into the squares in the exact order of the regal succession, and associate 
the picture pertaining to the king with the picture fixed in the square to which he falls ; in form- 
ing the new picture two things are important ; It should be so conceived as to have some ca«ual 
or slight association suggesting the name of the king, and suggesting at the same time a word or 
phrase I which is devised by the person along with the ideal picture, and which expresses the 
date according to an alphabet of letters substituted for figures. E. g. to remember the date of 
Henry 7th, it is said the Ideal picture of 7 kens is a good one for the purpose; the square to 
which he Is assigned is 29; the picture fixed in this square (in the engraved illustration of the 
system) is a woman spinning- on a small wheel ; these two pictures then are to be aomehow bvund 
together, and It may he thus, the woman spinning s e e s 7 hens; the next thing Is to form a word 
or phrase indicative of the date; and by the alphabet adopted in this system, ** The oaAraiT* 
is such a phrase ; the remaining step in this process of storage in the memory. Is to hind the 
phrase to the pictures, which may be done by imagining that the wostan spinning sees 7 hens 
on The oak rail.— The following is the substitution alphabet ; 1, fr c ; 2, d/; 3, ^ A ; 4, j A x ; 5, { ; 
tf, mk; 7, yv; 8, r«; 9, to; 0, i0z; and 100, St; 1,000, Tk; 100,000, Y. 

See77taAVto.Mo/JibiKiry,roaiidedeathepriiieiplciof Feinaifte, illiwtnled byeognvin^ Load. 1813. 8. 2d ed. CL 
ZMub^Qurjrt. En. u ebove cited. 

It Is worthy of remark here, that the ancients, particularly the Roman orators, made use of a 
system of topical memory. Quintilian gives an account of a system, in which the variotis parts 
of a spacious mansion are employed somewhat as the several squares in the method of Feinaigle. 
The things to be remembered were connected by association with certain types, and these being 
arranged in order were assigned to the diflTerent parts of the bouse; "they assign,*' says he. 
"the first idea they wish to remember to the portico, the second to the hall ; then they go round 
the inner courts; nor do they only commit these associations to the bedrooms and anterooms, 
but even to the furniture. When they wish to recollect these associations, they recur mentall/ 
to those places in order from the beginning, and regain every sensible type, which they had en- 
trusted to each particular spot, and this type at once suggests the idea connected with it.** 

. 3. The third system is the Efficacious Method of Mr. HaUworth. In this plan a substitution of 
letters for figures is employed. Its peculiarity consists in this, that Instead of forming mere bar- 
barous and unmeaning words, like th&t of Grey, or words artificially associated with some image 
or picture, like that of Feinaigle. a significant sentence is formed, which states the event to be 
remembered, and concludes with a word or phrase that expresses something characteristic of 
the event, and at the same time, when interpreted according to the substitution alphabet^ denotes 
the date. The alphabet of Hail worth is the following ; 1, fr c ; 2, dfi 3,g,h,gh; 4, & Z; 5, m « ; 
6, p, r ; 7, « sA ; 8, e, cA ; 9, « w j, used as consonants ; 0, th ph wh. and also q zy t. In forming 
words the vowels are used just as may be convenient, without having any siffnificancy ; the con- 
sonants alone being considered in expressing a date ; thus eh u reh [cA r cA] signifies 868 ; rr oo p 
itrp"]^ 860. To recollect by this method the date e. g. of the Flood, the following sentence is 
Drmed ; 7*As deluge comes and men die guilty: the phrase die guilty expresses the date, as the 
consonants dgj t represent 2348.— For greater convenience and scope in forming the character- 
istic phrases, the plan admits artudes^ prepositions^ and conjunctions to be used, like the vowels, 
without significancy ; e- g. Jibel fell a saerifics to Cain*s hate and sin: A t s n, 3875.— Mr. Hall- 
worth has taught his system by lectures in different parts of the country, and has published 
several little books in which its principles are explained and applied. 

See T. BaOwortlft EfficMlooi lielhod of eoqoirii^ retaiaiof , ud eommuaicatiiiK liiatorioJ sad ChroBolof icel KDowledsok 


1i«il, VtL-Ma»MKVt Mflmd appliad to OnaniZ Jndmi RMor7.~AI«) to Satni Hhtoir, fcc.-HWof7 of (he VntUd 


%2U. We shall complete our design, in reference to the actual dates of events in 
ancient and classical history, by a rapid glance at the Chronology of the principal states 
of andent times. — We will mention first those whose capitals were in Asia. 'I'he prin- 
cipal Asiatic states or kingdoms were ei^ht ; the Assi/nan; the Jewish; the Trcjan ; 
mLydian; the Phanician; the Ferstan; the Syrian; and the Farthian, 

I. The Assyrian. This is considered as having commenced with the bailding 
of BahvloH by Nimrod, B. C. 2217. The Ist period of its history may be that from 
Nimrod to Ninias, B. C. 1945. 

Id thb period reigned the celebrated qneen StmiramUt mother of Nintas. Under her the em- 
pln sained iti freateei extent ; reaching on the eaat to the sources of the Oxus and the Indus, 
iDclading Persia, Media, and Bactriana : comprising on the west Ethiopia, Egypt, Syria, and 
Alia Hfaior to ilie Mediterranean ; and limited on the north only by Mount Caucasus, and on tlie 
•oath by tbe deseru of Arabia. Generally, however, the Assyrian empire included only the 
tbrec countries in tbe valley of tbe Euphrates and Tigris, via. Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Baby- 
toola. ' 

The 2d period may be that from Ntnias to Sardanapaltjs, who died B. C. 747. 

This long period, of about 1200 years, is involved in great obscurity. During it 33 kings are 
nid to bare reigned. — On the death of Sardanapalus three kingdoms were formed out of the em- 
pire; the jfMynom, with Mtneveh as its capital ; tbe Babylonian^ with Babflon for its capital ; 
tod tbe Jferfian, with Eebatana for its capital. It may be proper, however, to consider tbe 
Anyrian monarchy aa still continuing ; and 

Tbe 3d period may be that from Sardanapalus to Esarhaddon, B. C. 681. 

Doring Ibis period of 66 years, 4 kings reigned in Nineveh, of whom Eaarkadiim waa the last; 
nd 10 kings reigned at Babylon. During this time the Asuyrlan history was intimately con- 
iect«d whb that of the Israelites. In the year B. C. 681, Esarhaddon united togelbei two of the 
ihne kfaigdoma, viz. the Assyrian and Babylonian. 

The 4th and last period extends from Esarhaddon to Cybus the Greats B.C. 536. 

At this time the united kingdom was subjected to Persia.— At the same time, also, Cyrus 
imiied to Persia the kingdom of Media, which had continued ita aeparate existence Arom tbe 
death of Sardanapalus. 

F«ft|CMnl Tinr of tlM Aajrbn bWory ; RaOMt Andnit BMorr, bk. u\.—MmaP» Etasnto of Hhtoiy, wl. I. p. tS. (Ed. 
UA. !8a S fob. ah- Tbe AifiM Unimrmd HiMttry. Load. 1770.S8. 60 tola. 8. OS vola. AteietU.} vol. YA-^PHdrnm, 
Cmattmet ths a aad N. TcituMet (for Uw tine from SndaMpJtii to Cyrni.)— Baratdi, te. in Cory, dt«d P. V. f 2SS.-> 
Bmmt, Biitricd Rtumbw inio ih> Palilja «al Cam— ree of ih> OrthaginJMM^ EthfcipMM, Epptfaat, Ac OxtlS90.9*ok a 

Imd. inm bk /Am, died P. IV. ) ITl.—SainU Cnix, U ruine de Btbjlon, io tbe Man. Jead. huer. vol. ilviti. p. I. For 

Imr^uA Kkewne Air tb« wvtnl ilBlm and onpifH to be mealioMd, we alao refer to Bmwf$ Stetw of Antiqnily, died ) 2IS.CL 
-^ ain JttMi; died P. v. 4 MO. 

IL The Jewish. The history of this nation begins with Abbaham, 6. C. 1921. 
It may be divided into eight periods. The Ist period extends from Abraham to the 
emiaooe into Canaan under Joshua, B. C. 1451. 

Durfttg this period they remained a nomadic nation. 

The 2d period includes the time from Joshua to the death of Samuel, B.C. 1060. 

Dariaf this period the nation was under the irovemroent of the Judges and priests. Samud 
vai the last of the Judges. Saul, the first kin^, was anointed as such some time before Samaers 

The 3d period is from Samuel to the separation of the nation into the two kingdoms 
of Jodah and Israel by the Revolt under Jeroboam, B. C. 975. 

Tbii was the most flourishing period of the Jewish monarchy, marked by tbe reigns of David 
lad Solomon, and by the building of tbe Temple at Jeruaalem, the capital.— Respecting these 
reigns, tee Christ. Spectator, iv. 131 ; v. 538. 

The 4th period may include the history from the Revolt until the Restokation from 
the BebyUmian Captivity^ B. G. 536. 

The two kingdoms continued separate until their destruction by the Babylonians. The ten 
tribci of i:«rae<, whose capiul was Samaria, were carried into captivity by Shalmanazar, B. C. 721; 
the two tribes ntJndak, by Nebuchadneazar, B. C.006. During this time nineteen kings reigned 
OTvr Jodah at Jerusalem. The soventy years of toe captivity are dated from the conquest of 
Jodah by Nebuchadnezzar. 

The 5th period reaches from the Restoration by Cyrus, to the Submission of the 
Jews to Alexander, B.C. 332. 

Daring this period the Jews had continued in a state of at least partial dependence on the 
tbroae of Persia. 

The 6th period is from Alexander to the Re-establishment of an independent 
monarchy under the Maccabees, B. C. 166. 

After tbe death of Alexander and the division of bis empire, made D. C. 901, the Jews wera 
t^aimed by Syria and by Egypt, and exposed to the invasion or oppression of both.— The perse* 


ration of Antioehu Eplpbane* provoked the general revolt wtaicb ted to the re-ettabliihmeiit cf 

The 7th period is from the Maeeabeet until the time of the Raman interference under 
POMPET, B. C. 63. 

During thle period the monarchy was maintained, but with many unhappy distentions. 

The 8th and la«t period is from the first oonqueets oiPompey to the final Destruo 
TioN ofJerttsalem by Titus, A. D. 70. 

ror the Jewtah bbtary i The huiorinl book* oHhtO. TtOMmmL-JoMphut (cf. P. ▼. $ S4S.).— f cmfycr, Hktoira da pOTpl* d« 
Dien, *e. Pw. 1741. 10 vdi. 8.-5iUfuifc, Hiitnire d«t Jaih, Ac. Hay*, 1716. 16 vob. IL— PnVbaux, CooiiMt. of the a and 
N. Tertuieiit. Tlw FreBCb tiaoiUtioD, uid to bo bettor tbao thr £n(ifah oriKina], b ontMed Urirtoin de* Juib ot doi peapiM 
tcMw depaia la dooduoe dca Bofwamm d>biMl ot do Jsda, ke. Amat. 1785. 6 «ola. 9.-J. L. Bautr, Handbach der Gowdiidbl* 
dor Hobr. Nation, Ac. NOn*. 1800. 1 vola. a faloable.— A B Milnuut, Htatoty oftbe Jowa, (Am. od.) N. T. I830i 3 foia. li^ 
Ct«iprajfncr.Aw.Tal.zzULp.854.-.Mkfsiiebi«wCauBonw«alth. TnaA tnmOmumn, by C,£.Stmm. Aad. IflUl ■. 

III. The Trojan. Its origin is involved in darkness and Deibles, but is placed as 
early at least as B. C. 1400. Of its chronology we can only say that the state was 
destroyed by the Greeks in the reign of Priam, about B. C. 1184. 

The history of TVoy contlsts of traditions preserved by the poeto. Cf. P. 11. $ ISi.—Mitford'e 
Greece, ch. C 

TV. The L y d i an. This commenced about 6. C. 1400. Three dynasties of kings 
are said to have reigned, yet little is known of the history until the reign of Cbcesus ; 
and under him the kingdom was destroyed by Ctrus, B. C. 536. 

The capita] was Sardis. The kingdom was in the lime of Crtetut very rich and powerful ; its 
fkte was decided by the battU of Tkjfmbra. 

Tor tbe Lydiaa history ; Tho SnglM Univmal BiMtory, trol. It. aaabpvo dtod.— /mf, on Qm battle of Tbymbn, with a plat^ 
UUw Jfan. dir.«caii.<ktMKr. voL vi. p. 62ft 

v. The Phoenician. This was in existence in the time of David, under a king 
named Abikal, B. C. 1050. The state continued until the Capture of Tyre by Alex- 
ander, B. C. 332. 

PhcBnicia^seemsnottohave formed properly one state, but to have oontained several citie* 
with petty kings or princes, of which Tifre stood at tbe head. 

On tho Pbcnieian hiatorjr ; SonoomaMon, Ac. eC P. V. f 2S9.— Aa, Cyctopnlia, andor Phantcu-Mignol, Sor laa PbaaietoM 
(aeranl diMortalkM), la tbe Jftm. Jtad. Inter. voU. zzziv-xIlL— Tho SngUik Ohio, AiA— Alao, llth «oL of BitrmU Wovta. 
Gott in4. 

VI The Persian. Its history is obscure and its power insignificant until the time 
of Ctrus the elders B. C. 536. We may include the whole history after this date in 
two periods. 

The Ist period extends from Cyrus to Xerxes, who invaded Greece, and was de- 
feated in the fiimous Battle of Salamisy B. C. 480. 

In this period, under Darius Hystaspes, the fhther of Xerxes, the Persian empire attained tta 
greatest extent; reaching to the Indus on tbe east, to the Jaxartes and Mount Caucasus on the 
north, and including Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Libya. The capitals were Babylon, Siisa, 
Ecbatana, and Perse polls (cf. $$ 153, 154, 170), tlie royal court being held sometimes in one and 
sometimes another of these places. 

The 2d period extends from Xerxes to the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alex- 
ander, in the reign of Darius Codomannus, B. C. 331. 

About the middle of this period occurred the expedition of the yonnftr CprvSj described in the 
JttiabatiM of Xenophon ; Cyrus fell in the battle of Cunaxa, B. C. 401.— Alexander completed the 
subjugation of Persia by the victory at JSrbelai B. C. 331. 

For the Pmian hiaiorf ; R<iUn*i Ane. Hiit bk. Iv. and taOawiag—Mittort Elementa, vol. i. p. B8, ed. bofora ciifld.>-Tbo LTim^ 
vtraal Butary, befei* cited, vol. It. and iz.— JBKiMfritu, do repw Penantm. 1691. S.—ffyd*, Rhadi, tc. cited P. V. f 183. 3L— 
Bvrda*t Peraepolii, in hu fTorte.— flbrai, aa above died.— Oro(e/cnd; Ac cited P. IV. § 18. 4.—/. B. fraxir, Hiat. of Penia, m 
Haiiwr^ Fan. Libnrf, No. ljUE.--Sir/.ir0faalm,HiiL of Fknia from the earllfot period, Ac. Lood. I829i Svola. & Zd ed. 

VIT. The Syrian; or the Kingdom tf the Seleucida. This was one of the four 
monarchies formed out of the empire ot Alexander. It was commenced after the 
battle of Ipsus, by Seleucus Nicator, B. C. 301. We may include its history in two 

The Ist period is from Seleucus Nicator to the time of the collision with the Romans 
in the reign of Antiochus the Great, B. C. 190. 

The capital of this kingdom was Antioch. The territory under its sway included the northern 
part of Syria ; all Asia Minor, except Bitbynia ; Armenia, Media, Parthia, Bactriana, India, Per- 
sia, and Che valley of the Euphrates.— Antiochus was brought into a war with tbe Romans espe- 
ciailv by protecting Hannibal. His defeat, in the battle of Magnesia, B. C. 190, deprived him of 
pari of his territories and greatly weakened the kingdom. 


The 2d period extends firom AiUiodkus the Great to the complete ccmqnest of Syria 
by the Romans under Pompey, in the reign of Antiochus Asiaticus, B. C. 69. 

Ib tbe fint ptrt of this period occurred the reTolt of tbe Jews UDder the Haccebeee, B. C. 108, 
ia oomcquence of the persecution of Aniiochut Eplpbanea.— The throne of this kingdom, on ht 
overthrow by the Romans, had been held by twenty-three tucceulve kings, most of them lawfol 
kein of the house of the Seleucidn. 

rWteainiuldi**?; Faai«c,lBperiam9deoeMviB,ctladP.IT.$S8.1.-jyM«,i^^ ri«iB.]75l^ 

Ite OMwMl tfiit atofv citod, «oL Kb of tbt AbcmI. 

Vni. The Parthian; or Kingdom <f the ArModda. The Parthians occupying 
the CQontry on the south-east comer of the Caspian, were subject to Persia when con- 
quered by Alexander. On the division of his empire, they fell to the share of Seleucui 
Ifieator. But under the third kins of Syria they revolted and established an independ- 
ent kingdom under Ajisacss, B. C. 256. 

The Parthians were constantly at war with tbe Syrians, and afterwards with tbe Romans ; 
tat eoald not be conquered. They obtained dominion fVom Armenia to the Indian Ocean, and 
IhmiSfria to the river Indus; including Baetriaaa, Persia, the cooatrles in tbe valley of the 
Eiphrates, and Armenia. Their capital waa SteaiompjflM, 

The Parthian kingdom continued until the revolt of the Persians, who dethroned the 
Ansdds, and established the Amg<iom of Modern Persia, A. D. 223. 

hr fla Ftettiaa Umam VaOmMl^m dtodF. IV. § SS^-a F. JUeftler, HirtoriKb'krMMdMr VvBBch Sbw dl» AmcMsa loii. 

% 212. We vriU notice next the states, whose capitals were in Africa. Of these we 
lisve bat two of im|)ortance ; the Egwtian and the Carthaginian. 

I. The Egyptian. The first kbg named in the Egyptian dynasty is Meites, 
senerally supposed to be the same as Mizraim, son of Ham and grandson of Noah ; 
£e settled in Egypt about B. C. 2200. With this date the real chronology of Egypt 

A high antiquity, in part anrely fkbulous, was assigned to this kingdom by two Egyptian 
works now loot ; one was tbe Old CkmueU, cited by Syncellus (cf. ( 901); the other, tbe work 
of JtfaMtAe, cbed by Eusebius (ef. P. V. ( S38). 

The Ist period in the Egyptian history may be that extending from Menet to the 
Escape of fAe Israeutes, B. C. 1492. 

Of this period profkne history gives us no connected or satisfhctory account. Most that can 
be relied on is to be drawn from the incidental notices found in the Bible. Some chronologers 
M>ce the cclebiated Setottrit at the doee of this period ; some consider him to be tbe Pharaoh 
tkst was drowned in tbe Red Sea. 

The 2d period includes the time from the Exodus to the reign of Psammeticus, B. C. 
670, when the history begins to be authentic. 

No connected history has been preserved of this period, and we are here also much indebted 
for whet we know, to tbe accounti in the Scriptures.— Twelve different governments under 
twelTe different chieft, are said to have been united under (sammeticus. 

Tbe 3d period extends from the time of Psammeticus to the conquest of E^pt by 
the Pekstan king Cambyses, son and successor of Cyrus, B.C. 525.* 

The Egyptian history now becomes more luminous. Herodotus is tbe principal authority. 
The art of writing and the use of the papyrus as a material were now common. 

The 4th period includes the portion of time from Cambysei to the conquest of Egypt 
by Alexander, B. C. 332. 

After the time of Cambyses, Egypt had been made a Persian satrapy, and, with the exception 
of a few instances of revolt. In one of which the throne was partially re-established, had con- 
ttaiued subject to Persia until it now changed masters. 

The 5fh period is frt)m Alexander to the subjection of the country to the Romans, 
Rsulting from the victory of Augustxts in the battle of Actium, B. C. 31. 

Alexander appointed Ptolemy, one of bis generals, governor of Egypt ; and Ptolemy, after the 
death of Alexander, )>ecame king of the country, B. C. 3S3, and commenced the dynasty of the 
Ptolemies, who retained the throne until Cleopatra, associating her fortunes with Antony, lost 
it b^ the incceas of her lover's rival.— Thebes and Memphis had been the capitals in the previous 
penods. In this, Alexandria, founded by Alexander, was made tbe seat of the new coun. — 
EgTpc remained a part of tbe Rooian empire until it was wrested away by tbe Saracens, 

For tta EiTpiMB hMory; JMHiA Aoc RiiL bk. U-JTaralam, at eitad P. V. \ 296.— CkanqNOion It Jtmt, VEgyptt tarn 
lmrhincm,kc Fkr. 1»I4. 2 vote, a (far pariod bdbi* CaaibjMb)-ror tiM pnied BnwAlniBda-, yaOmt, Bbtoria Ptoto 

■nrw, dtod P IV. |9a l^-CkamptlUtn Figtae, Anaalea d« Ufidci, kc Fv. 1819 9 nUt. a Of. M»9ci*i VaiMml 

fi*»7.««lL<«d.N.T. IS04.tS«ota. ia)--Al«>»tlwVfirwMlflMoryt«fa«dl«!, voL Lttdviii.— if. AMMl,Vinr of EfTpt 
-at ITT, ate P. IV. I It; i»l. 8j )BL 

IL The C arthaginian. The chronology of Carthage may be naturally divided 
iaie iA«%e periods. 


The Ist period is from its Foundation hy Dido, B. C. 860, to the beginniiig of the 
wart €f Syracuse in the time of the Syracusan king Gelon, B. C. 480. 

In this period ibe foUowiDC poists are worthy of notiee : (a) the crtfi* a/fJki eiff Csrdbi^ by 
a Tyrian colony under Dido, in wlioae story much fable is mingled : (b) the pmrsuitg qf ike jtMpte; 
commercial, like tboee of tbe PbCDolciane ; they had intercourse by sea with Britain and Guinea, 
by caravans with tbe interior of Africa, and through Egypt with the eastern world ; (c) their 
conqiU0i$; their commercial pursuits led them to seek possession of the islands and coasts of the 
Mediterranean, and they gained Sardinia, Corsica, tbe Baleares, also tbe Canary Isles and 
Madeira In the Atlantic, and many places in Spain, and the northern coast of Africa ; tbe chief 
conquests were effected by Ma^o, and his sons and grandsons; (d) the form of fovtmmnu; it 
was a republic, but of a surongly aristocratic character; the executive consisting of two chief 
magistrates called Suffetea^ and tbe legislative consisting of a SenAte of select grandees, and an 
Aooombly of tbe people ; as at Rome, there was a continual strife between a popular and an 
aristocratic party; (e)the rovomuo; its sources were, 1. tributes ft-om the subject citiee and 
sutes or uibes ; 3. customs paid on goods at Carthage and all the poru ; 3. proceeds of tbe nines 
In Spain. 

The 3d period extends from the beginning of the wars with GeUm of Syracuse to the 
beginning of the contests with Rome in tbe First Puiric War, B. C. 264. 

Tbe principal thing whieh marks the history of this period. Is the long continued struggle to 
obtain complete possession of Sicily. The Carthaginians and Byracusans were involved In 
almost constant wars. 

The 3d period is from the Jirst war with the Romans to the final DESTRUcnon of 
GasTHA0B, fi. C. 146. 

Tbe contests between Rome and Cartbage grew out of mutual ambition. Sicily, which bech 
desired to own, furnished the occasion.— There were three wars called Punie ; each disastrons 
to Carthage. The first lasted 23 years. Tbe second was marked by the bold invasion and 
splendid victories of Hannibal ; ended by tbe battle of Zama, B. C. 232. Tbe third lasted only 
about three years, aitd terminated in tbe entire destruction of the state and city. Carthage had 
existed about 700 years. 

Pot the Cartta^nlaD htalenr ; AoD^i ADe.Hial.bk. M-^Btitdrklk, De RipoUiai OnltaisinieBiiaD. 1684.— Aotr, m dlel 
■bove.^Tt« Unbmml Airtory, tol. xv. ofite AadMt-AKlvB^i BitL of CsrtkH*. LbmL 107. viik a nap. 

^ 213. The ancient states which were seated in Europe remain to be mentioned. 
Without naming singly the various minor states, our object in this sketch will be ac- 
complished by a gUnce at the Chronology of Greece ana Borne. 

I. Of Greece. The whole extent of time to be considered is 15 or 1600 years, 
from the permanent settlements in Greece to her final reduction to a Roman province. 
This whole space may be very conveniently and happily presented by a division into 
six successive jKrimis, each liinited by distinguished events, and characterized by pro- 
minent circumstances. 

1. The 1st period comprehends the whole history from the Jkmm cf citnlixalion to 
the Tkojait War, 1184 fi. C, and from its pecuhar characteristic may be denomi- 
nated fabulous, , 

Much which is related in the accounts of this period must be rejected as idle fiction ; 
yet a few importont events mav be selected and authenticated. — Civilization had its 
first impulse in the arrival of colonists from Egypt and Phoanicia, who laid the founda- 
tions of some of the principal cities, as Argos and Sicvon about 1800 years B. C. Lit- 
tle advancement was made, however, until, after the lapse of more than two centuries, 
other colonies were planted, at Athens by Cecrops ana at Thebes by Cadmus, about 
the time of Moses (P. IV. ^ 34). Between this time and the Trojan war considerable 
progress must have been made in cultivation. 

We find some of the peculiar institutions of the Greeks originating in this period ; 
particularly the oracles at Delphi and Dodona, the mysteries at Eleusb, and the four 
sacred games^ the court of Areopagus at Athens, and the celebrated Amphictyonic 
CounciK — The arts and sciences hkewise received considerable attention. Letters bad 
been introduced by Cadmus. Astronomy was sufficiently studied to enable Chiron to 
furnish the Argonauts with an artificial sphere exhibiting the constellations. The ac- 
counts of the siege of Thebes and that of Troy show that progress had been made in 
the various arts pertaining to war. — ^But the whole history of the period exhibits that 
singular mixture of barbarism with cultivation, of savage customs with chivalrous 
adventures, which marks what is called an heroic age. 

2. The 2d period includes a much shorter space of time, extending from the Tn^an 
war to the time when the regal form of government was abolished, about 1050 
B. C. From the most important and characteristic circumstances it may be called the 
period of colonization. 

The first governments of Greece were small monarchies, and they continued such 
without encountering peculiar difficulties until after the Trojan war. Soon after this 
we find the country mvolved in frital civil wars, in which the people, under a number 

p. !• 8TATE8 OF KimOPB. GREECE. 73 

•f pettychieftsiiis hostile to each other, suffered extremely from calamity and oppras* 
lion. These evils seem to have led to the change in the form of Government, and the 
sabsdtQtion of the jMpviar instead of the regal system. The same evils also probably 
eoDiribated to the spirit of emigration, wmch so strikingly marks the period. The 
emigrants who sooght foreign settlements are distinguished as of three separate classes. 
The eariiest were the JEolians, who removed from the Peloponnesas to the north- 
weitem shores of Asia Minor and founded several cities, of which Smjnma was the 
Biindpal The second were the lonians, who went from Attica (originally called 
Ionia), and planted themselves in Asia Minor, south of the Cohans, where Ephesos 
was one of their chief cities. The third were the Dorians, who migrated to Italy and 
Sdly, and founded numerous flourishing settlements. Syracuse in Sicily became the 
most important. — In the period of colonization we notice the origin of the four princi- 
pal diaieeU in the Greek language. (Cf. P. V. ^ 4.) 

3. The 3d period comprehends the space (of five hundred and fifty years) from the 
tUUiom of monarchy to the Bfiaiiriruio cftke Persian Wak, about 500 B. C. 

Id this period two of the Grecian states are chiefly conspicuous, Athens and Sparta ; 
and from the special attention of these states to provide themselves with a suitable 
political constitution and civil code, this portion of the history may be designated as 
the period of Iowb, 

Sparta found in Lycnrgns her lawgiver. His institutions gave a permanent cast to 
her character, and were not abolished until the last ages of Greece. — Many years 
later, Athena received her constitution from the hands of Solon, who executed the 
task unsuccesdully attempted by Draco. (Cf. P. V. $ 167; P. III. %% 8, 9.y-The 
other principal incidents in the history of this period are the repeated wars of Sparta 
vith her neighbors the Meesenians, and the usurpation of Pisistratus and the fiate of 
his sons at Athena. — ^In the war Sparta at last was completely triumphant, hut suf- 
fered much from the devoted skill and patriotism of Aristomenes, the Messenian 
general. It was in this struggle that the Spartans were so much indebted to the lame 
poetof Athens, Tyrtsus. (Cf. P. V. ^ 53.) 

In the verv time of Solon, Pisistratus contrived to obtain at Athens a sort of regal 
authority, which he transmitted to his two sons. The father used his power to pro- 
mote the glory and welfare of the state. Of the soits one was assassinated at a public 
festival, and the other, being subsequently expelled, fled to Asia, and sought revenge 
by mstigating the Persians to invade his native country. 

4. The 4th period extends from the beginning to the Close of the Persiait War, 
160 B. C, a space of almost 50 years. To this age the Greeks ever af^er looked 
back with pride, and from its history orators of every nation have drawn their favorite 
examples of valor and patriotism. The Persian invasion called forth the highest 
energies of the people, and gave an astonishing impulse to Grecian mind. It may 
properly be called the period of military glory. 

The design of subjugating Greece originated in the ambition of Darius the Persian 
ting, the second in succession from Cyrus the Great. He found a pretext and occa- 
sion for the attempt in a revolt of his Ureek subjects in Asia Minor, in which Sardis, 
the capital of Lvdia, was pillaged and burnt. The war was carried on by three suc- 
cessive kings, Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes, but on neither of them aid it confer 
any glorjr; while the battles of Marathon, Thermopylce, Salamis, Mycale, and Platsa, 
secured immortal honor to the Greeks.— A succession of splendid names adorns the 
historv of Athens during this period. Miltiades, Themistocles, Aristides, Cimon, and 
Pericles, acted distinguished parts in the brilliant scene. Sparta also justly gloried 
in the self-sacrifice ofLieonidas and his three hundred brave companions. — The period 
of the Persian war was the age of the highest elevation of the national character of tho 
Greeks. Before it, theio existed little union comparatively between the different 
ataies, and it was not till Athens had alone and successfully resisted the strength of 
Persia at the battle of Marathon, that other states were aroused to effort against the 
common enemy. In the confederation which followed, Sparta was the nommal head, 
but the talents, which actually controlled the public affairs, were found in the states- 
men of Athens. To Athens, therefore, the supremacy was necessarily transferred, 
and before the close of the war she stood, as it were, the mistress of Greece. 

5. The 5th period includes the portion from the close of the Persian war to the 
SuTREMACT of Philip, B. C. 337. At the beginning of this period the general affaire 
of Greece were in a highly prosperous condition, and Athens was unrivaled in wealth 
and magnificence under the influence of Pericles. — ^But a spirit of luxurious refine- 

t soon took the place of the disinteres'ed patriotism of the preceding age, and thi> 
10 G 


manners of all classes became signally marked by corruption and licentiousness. This 
may be designated as the period of luxury. 

The history of the period presents several subiects of prominent interest. — One of 
these is the protracted war between Athens ana Sparta, termed the Feloponnesian. 
Pericles was still in power when it commenced, but he soon fell a victim to tne terrible 
plagae which desolated Athens. The unprincipled Cleon and the rash Alcibiades suc- 
cessively gained the predominant influence. The war was continued Mdth slight in- 
termissions and various successes for nearly thirty years, and was ended by the battle 
of ^eos Potamos, B. C. 405, in which Lysander, the Spartan king and general, gained 
a final victory over the Athenians. By this event Athens lost her supremacy in 
Greece, and was deprived even of her own liberties. Her walls were thrown down, 
and a government of thirty tyrants imposed upon her citizens. To this, however, the 
Athenians submhted but a few years. In 401 B. C. the Thirty were expelled. 

The same year was remarkable for two other events. The nrst was the accusation 
of Socrates f one of the greatest and the best men of which paganism can boast. The trial 
for some reason was delayed several years, but the result was utterly disgraceful to 
the city and to all concerned (cf. P. V . ^ 171). The other memorable event wna the 
expedition of Cyrus ike younger^ the satrap oi Lydia, against his brother, the kiiig of 
Persia. Ten thousand Greeks accompamed him in this enterprise. The march tirom 
Sardis to the Euphrates, the fatal battle of Cunaza, and the labors and dangers of the 
10,000 in returning to their homes, are recorded b^ Xenophon with beautmil nmpli- 
city. — The assistance which the Greeks jgave in this revolt of Cyrus, involved them 
in another war with Persia. Sparta hod, by the result of the Peloponnesian war, 
gained the supremacy in Greece, and the other states, especially Athens, Thebes, 
ArgoB, and Corinth, refused to aid her in the struggle which followed. They even 
united in a lea^e against her, and Athens furnished the commander to whom the 
Persians were mdebted for the almost entire destruction of the Spartan fleet. This 
war was terminated by a treatv, B. C. 387, which weakened and humbled Sparta, 
and was alike dishonorable to all the Greeks. 

The two states which had for ages been pre-eminent in Greece, Athens and Sparta, 
were now both depressed, and opportunity was afforded for a third to seek the as- 
cendancy. This for a short time was secured to Thebes, chiefly by the talents of two 
distinguished citizens, Pelopidas and Epaminondas. — ^But a war with Sparta shortly 
consummated her glory and exhausted ner strength ; she gained a brilliant victory In 
the final battle of Mantinea, 363 B. C, but was in the same instant ruined by the 
death of her general Epaminondas. — The successive downfall of three principal states, 
Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, and the jealousies and dissensions connected therewith, 
reduced Greece to a miserable condition. The general corruption and licentiousness, 
already mentioned, increased the degradation. In a few years we find the Grecian 
states embroiled in the Phocian or Sacred war, B. C. 357. (Cf. P. III. ^ 72.) Thia 
commenced in the jealousies between the Thebans and the Phocians. The Spartans 
and the Athenians, and ere long the Macedonians, became involved in it. Shortly 
after this contest was terminated, a new Sacred war arose, called the Amphissian ; in 
which the council of Amphictyons appointed PhiTip, king of Macedon, as general and 
leader of their confederacy. Amid such dissensions, the ambitious Philip eagerly seized 
a favorable moment for entering the Grecian territories. At Athens the single voice of 
Demosthenes was lifted to warn the Greeks of his ultimate intentions, and to rouse 
them to united resistance. A feeble alliance with Thebes was efiected, but in vain. 
The battle of Cheronea, B. C. 337, made Phihp the master of Greece. 

6. The 6th period extends from the supremacy of PAtZtp, gained by the battle of 
ChaPTonea, to the Capture of Corinth, 146 B. C. By the disastrous defeat at Chs- 
ronea the genuine fire of the Grecian spirit was extinguished, and the subsequent his- 
tory exhibits Uttle else than the steps by which the country was reduced toa dependent 
province. We may therefore denominate this the period of decline and fdU. 

Alexander, who succeeded his father Philip as kin^ of Macedon, and autocrat of 
Greece, cast a sort of glory on the first yeara of this period by his extensive conquests. 
Those, who love to trace the course of conquerora, will follow with interest his march 
from the Hellespont to the Granicus, to Issus, to Tyre, to the Nile, to the desert of 
Libya, to the Euphrates, and the Indus ; but every reader will regret his follies at Per- 
sepolis and be disgusted by his beastly life and death at Babylon.— For twenty years 
sifter Alexander's death the vast empire he had formed was agitated by the quarrels 
among his generals. Bjr the battle of Ipsus in Phrygia, B*. C. 301, these contests were 
terminated, and the empire was then divided into four kingdoms, one comprising Ma- 
cedonia and Greece ; a second Thrace and Bithynia ; a third Egypt, Libya, Arabia, 
Palestine, and Coilosyria ; and a fourth called the kingdom of Syria, including all the 
rest of Asia, even to the Indus. 

To the firat of these the Grecian states belonged. Patriotic individuals sought to 


! their countiymen to cut off the Macedonian yoke ; bat jealoiuy between the 
states and the univeiaai corruption of morals rendered their ejLertions fruitless. All 
that is really honorable and memorable in the proper afiairs of the Greeks at this 
period, is found in the history of the Achaean league. — The Achaean league was origi- 
nally a confederacy between twelve small cities of Achaia, established very early, 
when the Grecian states first assumed the popular instead of the regal form. It took 
scarcely any part in the perpetual conflicts between the other republics, and was neutral 
even in the Peloponnesian war. 

The Macedonian kings had dissolved it, but it was revived about 280 B.C. Subse- 
ooently it was enlargeiT and Corinth became the head and capital. Under the presi- 
oencv of Philopcemen, B.C. 200 to 180, it rose so high in power and reputation, that 
its aioance was sought by some of the governments oi Asia. Had the other states at 
this time risen above the foul and mean spirit of envy, the independence of Greece 
might probably haye been restored. But unhappily the Romans were requested by 
one of the states to aid them against the Macedonians. The Romans gladly embraced 
the opportunity, and shortly alter this a Roman general led as a captive to grace his 
tiinniph the last king of Macedon, 167 B. C. 

Nothing but the Achaean league now preserved southern Greece from falling an in* 
ttant prey to Roman ambition. The remaining vigor of the confederacy averted this 
destiny for twenty years; then it came, under the pretext of just punishment for insult 
uponKoman ambassadors. The legions of Rome poured upon Achaia, Corinth waa 
taken, and with all its wealth and splcpdor committed to the flames and consumed to 
ashes. This completed the subjugation of the country, which became of course a 
pfWiMCB oj xfoffie. 

Itepnidpil bd|«utbectad7ori]MOracbalililonr»raiiiai(ioiMd,F.V.|7.T.(d).-Agoed ri«^ 
tapnnd«rfitii)aa(OoldiBitlAI7Moryo/OrMet,ae. FliikML lfia& ISL-A mliMbU tatl4Mak ud guide to da^er NMrafe ; 
X AI.M»M,Sialn(if AaftqaJty, tnariatad ftvn Omna by Q. Baner^t, NovtfaunpL in& &^Forth«kter poiodao/ Oi» 
■■M»o»y;/.Oa»<, Hilt. ofOwCT from ic ciw i r i B ctAtonadgtiU the aialwliita^ IjmL VISL A.—BnOm- 

lH^G0dikM»der.AchUrawiihniBaBiin. L|S. 1782. 

% 214. II. Rome. The history of Rome extends through a space of more than 1200 
yean; which may be divided, like the Grecian history, into nx periods. 

1. The 1st period mcludes the time from the Buildino of the Cmr, B. C. 752, to 
the Expulsion of Tarquin, B. C. 509. It may be called the Period of the Kingn, or 
9t Begal Power. 

The Roman historians have left a particular account of this period, begimung with 
the very founders of the dtv, Romulus and Remus, whose descent is traced from 
£neas the hero of Virgil. But manv have doubted whether this portion of the Roman 
history is entitled to much credit, ana some have even contended that it is altogether 
frbulous. (P. V. ^ 510.) — Seven kings are said to have reigned (P. III. i^ 193, 240). 
One of the most important events of this period, was a change in the constitution 
eifccted by the sixth king, Servius TuUius, introducing the Comitia Centuriata. He 
divided the citizens into classes, and subdivided the classes into centuries, making a 
much larger number of centuries in the richer classes than in the poorer. (P. III. i 252.) 
—The reign of the second kinjgr, Numa, is remembered, on account of his influence on 
the aflairs of religion ; as he instituted many of the religious ceremonies and several 
classes of priests. — During the period of the kings, 244 years, the Roman territory was 
of very hmited extent, and the people were onen involved in war with the several 
atates m their immediate ▼icinity. Tarquin the Proud, the last king, was engaged in 
the siege of an enemy's city only sixteen miles from Rome, when his son committed 
the outrage upon the person of Lucretia, which led to thd banishment of the &mi]y and 
the overthrow of the regal government. 

2. The 2d period extends from the expulsion ef the Kings to the time when the Pu- 
BEiAKS were admitted to the Offices of state, about 300 B. C. At the beginning of 
thb period the government was a thorough aristocracy, but at the close of it had be- 
eome a full democracy. It included over 200 years, and may be designated as th« 
period of the Plebeian and Patrician contests, or of Party strife. 

Two consnb, chosen annually, first took the place of the king, and exercised almost 
predsely the same power. All ofBces of state were forbidden to the Plebeians or com- 
moo people, and filled exclusively by Patricians or descendants from the Senators or 
Patree.— The firat step in the undermining of the aristocracy was the Valerian Law, 
which allowed a citizen condemned to a disgraceful punishment to appeal from the 
magiatrate to the people. Under the protection of this law, the people, discontented 
with their poverty and hardships, ere long refused to enrol their names in the levies, 
which the wars with the neighboring states demanded. This difficulty led the Patri* 
Qtns to invent a new office ; that of Dictator (P. III. ^ 248). But the dissatisfaction 


of the Plebeimiis was not to be thua removed. They united with the army and with* 
drew to Mt. Sacer, B. C. 493. Reconciliation was effected by creating tiie office of 
TrUmnei, who were to be choeen annually from the Plebeians, and to poasees the power 
of a negative upon the decrees of the Consuls and even the Senate. (P. II [. $ 345.}— 
This arrangement only led to new dissensions, the Tribunes generally making it their 
object to oppose the Consuls and the Senate, and the Plebeian interest gradually en- 
croaching upon the Patrician. — ^In a few years another fimdamental change was eflected. 
The important business of state had, from the time of king Servius Tullius, beea 
transacted at the Comitia Centnriataj or assemblies voting by eenturie$> It was now, 
B. C. 471, decided that such business might be transacteid in the Comiiia TrUmta, or 
assemblies voting by TribeSf in which the Plebeians held the control. 

The next office created at Rome seems to have originated in the jealousy between 
the two parties, the Patricians opposing, and the Plebeians ftivoring it. This was the 
Deoemvirate, B. C. 451, which superwded both consuls and tribunes, but continued 
only three years, and then the two other offices were restored. — ^In a few years the 
people made another advance, the Senate conceding, that sis military tribunes, three 
ratrician and three Plebeian, might be substituted instead of the two consuls. — ^Another 
office was created during this period, the censorship ; two Censors being appointed to 
take the census of the people every five years, andf to watch over the pubUc morals.— 
But this office does not appear to have originated in party animosity ; nor had it 
any influence in heaUng tlie disBensiona between the higher and lower orders (cil 
P. III. ^247). 

One ^rand obiect with the Plebeians yet remained unaccomplished. They were 
not eligible to tne more important offices of the state, and to remove this disabihty 
they now bent all their energies. The struggle continued for many years, and occa- 
sioned much unhappy disturbance, bat termmated in their complete success ; as they 
Sined admission to the consulship, the censorship, and finally to the priesthood, and 
us obtained a virtual equality with the Patricians about B. C. 300. 

During this period, so harassed by internal contests, Rome was engaged in fre- 
quent wars. Three of them are most noticeable. The firat was with the Etrurians 
under king Porsenna, shortly after the expulsion of Tarquin, " a war fertile in exploit, 
of romanuc heroism." — ^The second was with the city Veii, a proud rival of Rome. I 
was at last taken by Camillus, B. C. 390, after a siege of ten yeare.— The last wa. 
with the Gauls, who invaded Italv under Brennus, and are said to have taken Rom. 
and burned it to the ground, B. C. 385. Camillus, who had been forced by the cla 
mors of the populace to go into returement, unexpectedly returned, and put to speedy 
flight the barbarian conquerors. 

3. The 3d period in the Roman history extends firom the final InusipA tf the PU> 
hetMu to the Caftttbe of Carthage, B. C. 146. 

Rome had hitherto been distracted with intestine feuds and dissensions, and ha< 
extended her dominion over but a small extent of territory. The admission of Pie ' 
beians to all the high offices of trust and distinction promoted the consolidatbn am 
strength of the republic, and the career of conquest was soon commenced. This ma) 
be remembered as the period of the Funic Wars, or of Foreign Conquests. 

The first important conquest was that of the southern part of Italy, which resulted 
from the war with the Samnites. Southern Italy was settled by Grecian coloniea 
(^ 50), and contained at this time several cities, flourishing, wealthjr, and refined by' 
letters and the arts. On their invitation Pyrrhus, the kin^ of Epirus, passed over 
from Greece with a large army and a train oi elephants to aid them a«unst the Ro- 
mans, and wss for a time successful, but finally, being totally defeated at the battle 
of Beneventum, B. C. 274, fled precipitately to nis own dominions. The allied etatea 
and cities immediately submitted to Rome, who thus became mistress of Italy. 

She now began to look abroad for acquisitions, and the island Sicily became an 
object of desire. The pursuit of this object brought Rome into contact with Carthage, 
which was now flourishing and powerful. The Carthaginians had settlements in 
Sicily, and desired as well as the Romans the dominion of the whole island. Hence 
sprang the first of the three Punic Wars. Sicily was chieflv settled bv Greek colo- 
nies. These colonies preferred independence, but, situateci between tlome on one 
side and Carthage on the other, were in no condition to resist both, and had only the 
alternative of joining one against the other. They chose the side of the Romans in 
the first Punic war, which began B. C. 264, and was ended B. C. 241, by a treaty 
exceedingly humiliating to Carthage. Sicily was made a Roman province, yet Syra- 
cuse, the principal city, was allowed to retain an independent government. — ^The 
tragic story of Regulus belongs to the first Punic war. 

After a peace of twenty-three years, the second Punic war began in the siege of 
Saguntum in Spain, by Hannibal, B. C. 218. Having taken this city, Hannibal 
crosBcd the Pyrenees and the Alps, and marched down upon Italy with a victorious 


ttmT. The Romans were defeated in three engagementa before the memorable 

battle of Caonc, in which they were completely conquered, and 40,000 of their troops 

kft dead oo the field. But after the battle of Camue the Cartha^rimans gained no ad- 

TULtiges. A king of Macedon came to their aid in vain. — ^Scipio, a Roman general, 

having conquered Spain, passed over to Africa and carried the war to the very walls 

of Carthage. Hannibal was recalled from Italy to defend the city, but was utterly 

defeated by Sdpio m the battle of Zama, B. C. 202, by which the second Punic war 

ended even more disastrously than the first. In this war Syracuse in Sicily took part 

viih the Carthaginians, and was on that account besieged by the Romans. It was 

ably defended by the scientific genius of Archimedes, but at length taken by Marcel- 

Ids, and made a part of the province of Sicily, B.C. 212. 

The result of the second Pimic war may be considered as the occasion which ear- 
ned the Roman arms into Asia. Hannibal, after the battle of Zama, fled to the pro- 
tection of Antiochus, king of Syria. This led to a war which compelled the king to 
cede to the Romans nearly the whole of Asia Minor, B. C. 190. — The interference 
of the king of Macedon in the second Punic war also furnished the ground for a war 
with him, which was the first step towards the conquest of Greece. A few vears 
after,the Romansy on the pretence of aiding the ^tollans, subjected Macedonia, B. C. 
167. The Achiean league preserved the southern portions of the country a little 
longer; but in twenty years these likewise fell under the dominion of Rome by the 
capture of Coiinth, B. C. 146. 

Carthage fell the same year vfiih Corinth. The Romans had waged a third Punic 
war, when the Carthaginians were greatly weakened by an unfortunate struggle with 
the Numidian& The third Punic war continued but about three years, ana termi- 
nated m the entire destruction of Carthage, under circumstances of aggravated cruelty 
and faithlessness on the part of the Romans. 

4. The fourth period extends from the Capture of Carthage and Corinth to the 
catabfiflhment of the Imperial Govbbniisnt by the battle of Actium, B. C. 31. 
Boring this whole time the Roman history is a continued tale of domestic disturb- 
ances. This may justly, therefore, be termed the period of the CivU Wan. 

The very commencement of the period is marked by the disturbances which erew 
out of the attempts of the two Gracchi. They successively endeavored to check the 
powin? corruption of the Senate, and to relieve the circumstances of the people ; but 
hothfeU victims to their own zeal and the hatred of their enemies, Tibenus 133, and 
Caittfl 121 B. C. Some have ascribed their efforts to ardent patriotism ; others to 
Jnere ambition. (Cf. Niebuhr's Rome, cited P. V. ^ 299. 7.) Not lone after the fall of 
Grecehu9 arose the Social war, by which the states of Italy demanaed and obtained 
oTRome the rights of citizenship, 6. C. 90.^-Scarcely was this ended, when the Ro- 
nttis beean again to inabrue their hands m each otner's blood in the fierce war of 
SvUa ana Menus, rival leaders in the republic. Two horrible massacres signalized 
this contention. Sylla finally triumphed, and was made perpetual dictator, yet re- 
Bgned his power at the end of four Vears, B. C. 78. The death of Sylla is soon fol- 
hwed bv the fiamous conspiracy of Cataline, detected and subdued by the vigilance of 
CJeero, B. C. 62. 

Still Rome was distracted by parties, headed by ambitious men. — The first trium- 
rirate, a temporary coalition between Pompey, Grassus, and CsBsar, repressed the 
flames of discord for a few years. Ponipey had already added Syria to the Roman 
poiMSsions; Caesar soon added Gaul. Crassus lost his life in an attempt to conquer 
Partlna, B. C. 53. The death of Crassus broke the bond which held Caesar and 
Pompey together, and they hastened to determine in the field of battle who should be 
BBster of Rome. The contest was decided in the plains of Pharsalus in Thessaly, 
by the entire defeat of Pompey, B. C. 48. Pompey fled to Egypt, but was beheaded 
the instant he landed on the snore. For five years Caesar held the supreme power at 
Home, but was assassinated in the senate, by a company of conspirators headed by 
Bnitus and Cassius, B. C. 43. 

A second triumvirate was now formed, on the pretext of avenging; this murder, be- 
tween Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius, each aspinng to the power of Cssar. A horrid 
proscription sealed in blood this compact. A war with the party of the conspirators 
necessarily followed, and the battle of Philippi, B. C. 42, put an end to the hopes of 
Bmtos and Cassius, at the head of this party. Octavius, who was the nephew of 
Cesar, easily effected the removal of one member of the triumvirate, Lepidus, a man of 
feeble talents and insignificant character. His other colleague, Antony, infatuated by 
Vwe for Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, soon furnished a pretext for open hostility, and the 
fiite of battle again decided who should be the master of Rome. The armament of 
Antony and Cleopatra was wholly defeased by Octavius at Actium, B. C. 31. This 
battle subjected Egypt to Rome, and Rome, with all her possessions, to the power 
of Octavius, by whom the imperial government was finally established. 



The Roman history, from the fall of Carthage to the battle of Actiam, presents but 
a melancholy pictuie, a blood-stained record ot sedition, conspiracy, and civil war. 

5. We may include in a 5th period the time from the establishment of the Imperial 
GevemmetU to the reign of Cojcstahtine, A. D. 306. As Christianity was introduced 
into the world in this period, and was opposed until the end of it by the Roman govern- 
ment, we may designate it as the period of the Pagan Emperon, 

The reign of Augustus, the name taken by the first Emperor Octavius, has become 
proverbial for an age flourishing in peace, Uterature, and the arts. It is distinguished, 
also, for the birth of our Savior; as the next reign, that of Tiberius, is, for his cruci- 
fixion and death. — The four reigns succeeding, viz. those of Tiberius, Califfula, Clau- 
dius, and Nero, are chiefly memorable for the tyranny of the emperors, ana the profli- 
gacy of their families and favorites. 

On the death of Nero, A. D. 69, follows a year of dissension and bloodshed, in which 
Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, successively gained the empire and lost their lives. — ^The 
Flavian fiimily, Vespasian and his two sons, Titus and Domitian, next in order receive 
the supreme power. Titus is celebrate as the final conqueror of the Jews, whose 
obstinacy provoked him to rase their city to the ground, an event exactly fulfilling the 
predictions of Christ. His reign is memorable for the eruption of Vesuvius, which 
buried the cities Herculaneum and Pompeii in ruins. Domitian, the last emperor of the 
family, provokes his own assassination, A. D. 96. 

Passing the reigns of the feeble Nerva, the martial Trajan, and the peaceful Adrian, 
we arrive at a brilliant age in the imperial history, the age of the Antonines, extending 
from A. D. 13S to 180, a space of about forty years. Their reigns appear in the midst 
of the general sterility ana desolation of the imperial history like the verdant oasis in 
the desert. Literature and the arts of peace revived under their benign influence. 

After the death of Marcus, A. D. 180, there follows a whole century of disorder, 
profligacy, conspiracy and assassination. The army assumes the absolute disposal of 
the imperial crown, which is even sold at public auction to the highest bidder. Within 
the last fifty years of the time, nearly fifty emperors are successively proclaimed, and 
deposed or murdered. — ^In the year 284, Diocletian commenced his reign, and attempted 
a new system of administration. The empire was divided into four departments or 
provinces, and three princes were associated with him, in the government. This sys- 
tem only laid the foundation for rivalship and contention in a new form, and in a kw 
years Maxentius and Constantine, sons of two of the princes associated with Diocletian, 
appealed to the sword to decide upon their respective claims to the imperial purple. 
The former fell in the battle, and Constantine secured the throne. 

This period is memorable in the history of Christianity. Under the Pagan Emperors, 
those who embraced the gospel were constantly exposed to persecution and euflering. 
Ten special persecutions are recorded and described, the first under Nero, A. D. 64, 
and the last under Diocletian, commencing A. D. 303, and continuing ten years, unto 
A. D. 313. But, notwithstanding these repeated eflbrts to hinder the progress of the 
gospel, it was spread during this period throughout the whole Roman Empire. 

6. The 6th period includes the remainder of the Roman history, extending from the 
reign of Constantine to the Fall of Some, when captured by the Heruli, A. D. 476. 
The reign of Constantine the Great imparts splendor to the commencement of thia 
period. He embraced the Christian iaith himself, and patronized it in the empire, as 
did also titost of his successors ; on which account this may be called the period of the 
Christian Emperors. 

One of the most important events of his reign, and one which had a great influence 
on the subsequent afiau-s of Rome, was the removal of the Government to a new seat. 
He selected Byzantium for his capital, and thither removed with his court, giving it the 
name of Constantinople, which it still bears. He left his empire to five princes, three 
sons and two nephews : the youngest son, Constaniius, soon grasps the whole, A. D. 
360. By the death of^ Constantius, his cousin Julian received the purple, which he 
was already on his march firom Gaul to seize by force. l*he reign of Julian, styled the 
Apostate, is memorable for his artful and persevering attempts to destroy the Christian 
religion, and his unsuccessful efforts to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem, with the ex- 
press purpose of casting discredit on the predictions of ther Bible. 

From the death of Julian, A. D. 363, to the reign of Theodosius the Great, A. D. 
379, the history presents little that is important to be noticed, except the jealousies 
between the eastern and western portions of the Empire, which grew out of the re- 
moval of the court to Constantinople. Theodosius was the last emperor who ruled 
over both. In 395 he died, leaving to his sons Arcadius and Honorius separately the 
east and the west. — From this time the Eastern portion remained distinct, and its his- 
tory no longer belongs to that of Rome. 


The Western portion languishes under ten successive emperors, who ore scarcely 
able to defend themselves against the repeated attacks of barbarian invaders. At length, 
under Au^tulus, the 11th from Theodosius, Rome is taken by Odoacer, leader of 
the Henh, and the history of ancient Rome is terminated, A. D. 476. 

The whole of the period from Constantine to Augustulus is marked by the continued 
inroads of barbarous hordes from the north and the east But the greatest annoyance 
was suffered in the latter part of the time, from three tribes, under three celebrated 
leadeis; the Goths, under Alaric; the Vandals, under Genseric; and the Huns, 
Qoder Attila ; the two former of which actually carried their victorious arms to Rome 
itself (A. D. 410 and 455), and laid prostrate at their feet the haughty mistress of the 
worid; and the latter was persuaded to turn back his forces (A. D. 453) only by igno- 
ble concessions and immense gifts. 

^ 215. It may be proper to add here, that the Eastern Empire, called also the Greek 
Empire, was sustained under various fortunes, for a period of almost 1000 years after the 
OYcnhrow of the Western. After the fi^l of Rome nearly sixty difierent emperors had 
oocopiedthe throne at Constantinople, when, A. D. 1202, that city was taken by the 
oufiiiden from France and Venice. By this event the Greek emperors were forced to 
establish their court at Nicaea in Asia Minor. After the lapse of sixty years, their 
fonner capital was recovered : and, subsequently to this, eight different emperors held 
the sceptre there ; although the empire was gradually reduced in strength and extent, 
nmil it consisted of but a little corner of Europe. Its existence was probnged to A. D. 
1453, when Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks, who have retained it to 
the ptesent day. 

IWAepriKipd warfeiMtlNRoaMB bMM7,m p. V. f 190. 7.— We Motira bars m Tillable, JTcb fV«Mr TyJM IMwml 
IBtmf, lM.HHLSTO)fc&— TtenwlMtf iiiuickBtbMM7wiUderheadnaliseaboft«m Bi(laBAI«<lvf on tttSliid^ 

PART 11. 






$ 1. Among the early nations of antiquity, before the art of writing had come 
mto general use, tradition was the only mode of preserving and spreading the 
koowledffe of remarkable events. Many circumstances contributed to give to 
earlv traditions a fabulous character. The love of the marrellous, a natural 
teadeucy of the mind to employ symbolical and allegorical images to express 
ideas for which no definite words have been appropriated, and a disposition to 
euloffize and exaggerate the exploits of ancestors, all conspired to load history 
and fact with a mass of fiction, so that it became impossible for later inquirers 
to distingnish accurately between the true and false. 

i 3. Traditions of this sort the Greeks distinguished from authentic history 
by the name oimythi (fiv^ft^ and they termed their contents or the matter of 
them, as well as the knowledge or study of them, mythology (j^v^oxoyux). 
Mythology, however, was not with them, as in modem times, a distinct branch 
of study. The term is now used appropriately for that branch of knowledge 
which considers the notions and stories, particularly among the Greeks and 
Romans, respecting gods and demigods, their pretended origin, their actions, 
names, attributes, worship, images, and symbolical representations. It is often 
employed also in a wider sense, including the religions fables of all ages and 
nations, and thus is made synonymous with the history of fable, 

y 3. It is important to distinguish the point of view in which these m3rtholo« 
logical narratives were contemplated by the ancients, from that in which we are 
to regard them. To the former they were closely connected with their national 
history and their religious faith, were indeed parts of them ; to us they are only 
moDoments and evidences of the state of culture of the human mind, if we view 
them philosophically. They exhibit the reflections, upon nature and deity, of 
men guided by sense and imagination, afifected much by external appearances, 
and mistaking physical effects for independent or voluntary powers. But they 
afibid much valuable and even necessary aid in understanding the Greek and 
Roman authors, especially the poets, and in judging of ancient opinions, usages, 
and art. 

$ 4. The traditions of mythology, in passing down through many centuries, 
were multiplied and augmented, and experienced various changes in respect to 
their general dress, aim, and application. Originally they consisted in part of 
actnal occurrences, in part of arbitrary fiction, springing from fear, reverence, 
gratitude, patriotism, credulity and love of the marvelous, or duplicity, cun- 
ning, and ambition. They were, it is probable, sometimes of native origin, but 
niore frequently were introduced from foreign sources, by settlers and other- 
wise. By the poets they were woven into epic song ; hy early philosophers 
they were clothed in mystery and allegory ; and by the later interpreted in 
diveiB conflicting ways ; while artists found in them an ample range of subjects 
for the chisel and the pencil. 

{5. Some of the modern writers on Greek and Roman mythology have 
inerely stated the fables as reported among the ancients. Others' have, in addi- 
tion, sought to trace them to their origin, either by making conjectures of alle- 
gorical, historical, and physical meanings in the stories, or deducing them from 
the events of early ages recorded in the Bible. But as these traoitions arose 
in various ways, and often accidentally, there will of course be error in every 
Byitem which attempts to refer them all to one common source and purpose. 


^ 5 «. The foundation of very mtmy of th« fictions of mythology u hiid in the idest 
which arose from the simplicity and inezjierience of the first ecesj conversant only 
-with objects of sense ; viz. that every thing in nature was endued with an appropriate 
activity and spontaneity Uke that in man. In connequenoe of this idea, wherever an 
unusual appearance or Rsency was observed, it was ascribed to a distinct being or 
existence operating directly or immediately. This creation of personal existences out 

M«ii7 of lb* pocMB itoriM an iufnteoljiolvad bjr nfcnlBr tb«r orlgta to •yabolicdl or allOBorinl dMcripUan of pbyncil prii»* 
ciptfltaBdehuifM. CL P. IV. f 4I.-0B lbs viM oTIdolAtnr, w« nCer to fUv. Origia of ftgu Idobliy. I^nmL 1816. 3 voli. 4. 
Cf. alio Stad^sni; 8m. ■>< PraC HM. bk. V. j-3aH<r, dtod S 12. 1. (a).-8oo nfei^^ 

The followinn remarks, on the sonrcei or/abU^ are from the TVaiti iu Etudes ofRM*. Tbey 
were translated by Mr. fVeUhiiton N, TVIsr, who has eonsented lo their insertion here. 

1. '' One source of Fable is the pervenion or alteration of facts in Sacred History i 
and, indeed, this is its earliest and principal source. The family of Noah, perfectly 
instructed bv him in religious matters, preserved for considerable time the worship of 
the true Goa in all its purity. But when, after the fruitless attempt to build the tower 
of Babel, the members of this family were separated and scattered over difierent 
countries, diversity of lanj^nage and abode was soon followed by a change of worship. 
Truth, which had been hitherto intrusted to the single channel of oral communication, 
subject to a thousand variations, and which had not yet become fixed by the use of 
'writing, that sure guardian of facts, became obscured bv an infinite number of fables, 
the latter of which greatly increased the darkness in which the more ancient had en- 
veloped it. — The tradition of great principles and great events has been preserved 
among all nations ; not, indeed, without some mixture of fiction, but yet with traces 
of truth, marked and easy to be recoernized ; a certain proof that these nations had a 
common origin. Hence the notion, difiused among all people, of a sovereign God, all- 
powerful, the Ruler and Creator of the universe : and consequently the necessity of 
external worship by means of ceremonies and sacrifices. Hence the uniform and 
general assent to certain great facts ; the creation of man by an immediate exertion of 
Divine power ; his state of felicity and innocence, distinguished as the golden age, in 
which the earth, without being moistened by the sweat of his brow or cultivated by 
painful labor, yielded him all ner fruit in rich abundance ; the fall of the same man, 
the source of all his woe, followed by a deluge of crim6, which brought on one of 
water ; the human race saved by an ark, which rested upon a mountain ; and after- 
wards the propagation of the human race from one man and his three sons. — But the 
detail of particuhr actions, being less important, and for that reason less known, was 
soon altered bv the introduction of fables and fictions, as may be clearly seen in the 
family of Noan itself. The historical fact that he was the father of three sons, and 
that their descendants after the flood were dispersed into three different parts of the 
earth, has given rise to the fiible of Satum» whose three sons, if we may believe the 
poets, shared between them the empire of the world." 

Oo Nf«nl of the poiati abore nRMlad bj UtAVm, tba pvfMi mrtbolofr tihtbili Mrikiaf eolBrldf aeti wiib fkcte In $uni hUtaif. 
ThcM an pointed oat by anonl writan; we mentioa pftrtienlirlj OnliuB, Do ToriUto Ral. CLr'.at (L. L e. 17.)— JQi la na tp-. Bit 
toira de U Ftblo ODnfarfa avoc I'Hatoiie Saintai Imt ITSI.— Aite', Hone Moaaioa.— CoByar, /aetuna on Seriptaro FWth Bd ad. 
Load. lBn.-Stmingflmr$ Orif laea a»am.^Ct. ATouriM, Biatory of Biadoataa. Load. 182a 8 Tola. 4. (bk. i.) 

2. "A eeamd source of Fable was furnished b]r the minietru of aneeU in human 
affairs. God had associated the angels with his spiritual nature, nis inteUigence and his 
immortality ; and he was farther (^Bsirous of associating them with his providence in 
the' government of the world, as well in the departments of nature and the elements, 
as in reference to the conduct of men. The Scriptures speak of angels, who, armed 
with their glittering swords, ravage all Egvpt, destroy by pestilence in Jerusalem an 
innuorierable multitude of people, and entirely extirpate the army of an impious prince. 
Mention is made of an an^el, the prince and protector of the Persian empire : of 
another, nrince of the Grecian empire ; and of the Archangel Michael, prince of the 
people of God (J)an. x. 20, 21). The visible ministration ofangels is as ancient as the 
world, as we learn from the Cbenibim stationed at the gate of the terrestrial paradise 
10 guard its entrance. — Noah and the other patriarchs were perfectly instructed in this 
truth, which to them had an intense interest: and thev took pains, no doubt, to instruct 
their families on a subject of such importance; but these by degrees losing the more 
pure and spiritual notions of a divinity concealed and invisible, attended only to the 
agents through whom they received their blessings and punishments. Hence it is 
that men formed the idea of gods, some of whom preside over the fruits of the earth, 
others over rivers, some over war and others over peace, and so of all the rest ; of 
gods whose power and agency were confined to certain countries and nations, and who 
were themselves under the dominion of the supreme God. 

3. ^* A third source of Fable may be in a native principle deeply fixed in the minds 
of all people ; this is the persuasion which has always prevailed, cha'. Prctid^gnce pre 


nie$ over oIZ kuman events great and email, and that each, without exception, expe- 
liences his attention and care. But men, frightened by the immense detail to which the 
Divine Beinf must condescend, have felt bound to relieve him, by giving to each of a 
namb4t of Cities some panicuhir,* appropriate, personal duty ; Singulis rebus propria 
ditpertientes offida numinum. The oversight of the whole field would devolve too 
many concerns upon a singly deity; the soil was intrusted to one, the mountains to 
another, the hiJls to a third, and ihe valleys to another still. St. Augustin ids Civitate 
2>n\ iv. 8) recounts a dozen different deities, all occupied upon a stalk of grain, of which 
each, according to his office, takes a special care at di6erent times, from the first mo- 
ment that the seed is cast into the ground, until the erain is perfectly ripened .-;-Beside8 
the crowd of deities destined to penorm the inconsicwrable duties of such affairs, there 
were others which were regarded as of a hieher grade, because supposed to take a 
mote noble part in the government of the world." 
The Domber of god« admitted in the Greek mytholofy was immense. If we may take Hesiod'a 

iMttmony for authority. Re sayi tker$ art 30,000 god» on earth, fuar^Uans of men. 

Warbarton (in ihe work cited P. IV. ( IS. 3) contends that the tables respecting mi 
whkh are recorded by ancient authors, bad their origin in the common belief or the doctrine of 

. , sis; and the latter be affirms to have been a " method of explaining the ways of 
Prarklance, which, as they were seen to be unequal here, were supposed to be rectified here- 
after;" thus, be saya, mstsmpsyekosis naturally suggested vutamorphosis ; "as the way of pa- 
Blshing in another state was by a transmigration of the eoul ; so in this, it was by a transforma- 
tion of the bodp.'' 

4. "A fourth source of Fable was the corruption of the human hearty which ever 
strives to authorize its crimes and passions. The more important and renowned of 
these gods are the very ones whom Fable has most disparaged and defamed by attri- 
batiiig to them crimes the most shameful and debauchery the most detestable, murders, 
adulteries, incests. And thus it is that the human heart has been ready to multiply, 
distort, and pervert the fictions of mythology, for the purpose of palliating and excusmg 
practices the most vicious and frightful by tfie example of the gods themselves. There 
18 no conduct so disgraceful, that it has not been authorized and even consecrated by 
the worship which was rendered to certain deities. In the solemnities of the mother 
of the gods, for instance, songs were sung at which the mother of a comedian would 
have blushed ; and Scipio Nasica, who was chosen by the senate as the most virtuous 
man in the republic, to go and receive her statue, would have been much grieved that 
his own motner shoula have been made a goddess to take the place and honors of 

5. " I do not propose to introduce here all the sources from which Fable takes its 
rise, but merely to point out some of those best understood. And as a fifth source, 
we may refer to a natural sentiment of admiration or gratitude, which leads men to 
associate the idea o^ something like divinity with all that which particularly attracts 
their attention, that which is nearly related to them, or which seems to procure for them 
some advantage. Such are the sun, the moon,,and the stars; such are parents in view 
of their children, and children in that of their parents ; persons who have either in- 
vented or improved arts useful to the human family ; heroes who have distinsuished 
themselves in war by an exhibition of extraordinary courage, or have cleared the land 
of robbers, enemies to public repose ; in short such are all who, by some virtue or 
b^ some illustrious action, rise conspicuous above the common level of mankind. It 
will be readily perceived without further notice that history, profane as well as sacred, 
has given rise to all those demigods and heroes whom Fable nas located in the heavens, 
by associating, with the person and under the name of a sinele individual, actions 
widely separated in respect to time, place, and person."— Cf. P. v. ^ 222. 4. 

% 6. The advantages of an ac(|uaintance with mythology are many. One of 
the most important, aside from its aid in reference to ancient philosophy, re- 
ligion, and history, is the better understanding it enables one to obtain of the 
Greek and Roman writers and of the works of their artists. It is obviously ne- 
oeseary to the cultivation of classical learning, which is of such acknowledged 
importance in modem education. — Cf. P. IV. $ 29. 

^ On the benefits of studying the ancient mythology we add an extract from Eollin, as 
died under the last section. 

1. '* It apprizes us how much we are indebted to Jesus Christ the Savior, who has 
lescoed us nom the power of darkness and introduced us into the wonderful light of 
the Gospel. Before his time, what was the real character of men ? Even the wisest 
and most npiieht men, those celebrated philosophers, those great politicians, those 
Tsaowned legislators of Greece, those grave senators of Rome? In a word, what 
were all the nations of the world, the most polished and the most enlightened ? Fable 
informs us. They were the blind worshipers of some demon, and nowed the knee 
before gods of gold, silver, and marble. They offered incense and prayers to statues. 
deaf and mute. They recognized, as ^ods, animals, reptiles, and even plants. They 
did not blush to adore an adulterous Mars, a prostituted Venus, an mcestuous Juno, a 



Jupiter blackened by every kind of crime, and worthy for that reason to hold the first 
rank among the gods. — See what our fathers were, and what we ourselves should 
have been, bad not the li^ht of the Gospel dissipated our darkness. Each story in 
Fable, every circumstance m the life of the gods, ought at once to fill us with cohfiision; 
admiration, and gratitude. 

2. *' Another advantage from the study of Fable is«that, by discovering to us the 
absurd ceremonies and impious majcims of Paganism, it may inspire us with new 
respect for the majesty of the Christian religion, and for the sanctity of its morals. 
Ecclesiastical history informs us, that a Christian bishops, in order to render idolajtry 
odious in the minds of the faithful, brought forth to the light and exposed before the 
eyes of the public, all which was found in the interior of a temple that had been 
demohshed ; bones of men, limbs of infants immolated to demons, and many other ves- 
tiges of the sacrilegious worship, which pagans render to their deities. This is nearly the 
etiect which the stud^ of Fable must produce on the mind of everv sensible person ; and 
this is the use to which it has been put by the holy Fathers and all the defenders of 
the Christian religion. The great work of St. Augusiin, entitled *The City of God, 
which has conferred such honor upon the Church, is at the same time a proof of what 

1 now advance, and a perfect model of the manner in which profane studies ought to 
be sanctified." 

• ThiibbbepwM7:i«opka»oflIaaiilra; mpedliv vIioib, m JAviioBlli TraMkUoa of Modiein, L SOS. 

We would here refer to a very able and Intereitiag treatise by THoluek^ on T%e nature and morui 
infivence of Heaihtnism among the Greeks and Romane. — "Whosoever," says Tholuck, "stands on 
a loAy mountain thould look not merely st the gold which the morning suit pours on the grsM 
and flowers at hit feet, but be should sometimes also look behind him into the deep valley where 
the shadows still rest, that he may the more sensibly feel that that sun is indeed a sun. Thus it 
is also salutary for the dlHciples of Christ, at limes, from the kingdom of light to cast forth a 
glance over the dark stage, where men play their part in lonely gloom, without a Bavior, with- 
out a God !" 

8m a tniuUtioa of Tbblndi't TraatiM by ?n>t. Anavon, ta BibL RtpeiiUry^ vol. ii. 

3. '' Still another benefit of very great importance may be realized in the imder- 
standing of authors, either in Greek, Latin, or even French, in reading which a per- 
son is often stopped short if ignorant of mythology. I speak not of poets merely, 
whose natural language is Fable ; it is often employed also by orators, and it fur- 
nishes them frequently with the happiest illustrations, and with strains the most 
sprightly and eloquent. Such, for example, among manv others, is that drawn from 
tne story of Medea, in the speech of Cicero {Pro Leg. Manil. sect. 9), upon the sub- 
ject of Af ithridates, king of Pontus. 

4. *' There is another class of works, whose meaning and beauty are illustrated by 
a knowledge of Fable ; viz. paintings, coins, statues, and the like. These are so 
many enigmas to persons ignorant of mythology, which is often the only key to their 
interpretation." It should be added, that mythology, at the same tmie, itself re- 
ceives new light from the study of such remains or iinitations of ancient art, so that 
these two branches of classical pursuits reciprocally aid each other. 

§ 7. Greece having been settled by colonies from several eastern countries, 
and having derived her religious notions particularly from Egyptians and PhoB- 
nicians, the orig\p of inost of the Greek deities is to be sought in the religious 
history of those countries and nations. But many changes took place, and 
this original derivation was greatly obscured through the vanity of the Greeks, 
who wished to claim for themselves and ancestors the merit of their whole re- 
ligious system. This motive led them to confound the history and alter the 
names of the primitive gods. 

Some traditions may have come from India. There are certainly many points of 
resemblance between the mythology of Greece and that of India. 

Am Kart Ritta; Die VorlMlle Enropiiseter VoUwrfnehlchteB mr H«rodolw mm den KankMW and u dfn GcBtadan dct Paehii. 
Bariio, ISSa 8. Ct. JDmnerfy, u cited § 12. S. (f). Alio Moan ind Mauriet, u then cited. Aho the Worka of So- Wm. Jorm, 

cited § <& 4. On the influ»nca ot the FhCBoidana, kc. on the enriy caltare of tbe Oreeki, cf. P. IV. § 40-42 ; P. V. § 12. Ob 

the cfaADga enccoiiTclj wroufht In tbe njtlialocy of tbe Oreeki, Maiffo, voL 111. p. 1-9, at cited $ 12. S. (a). 

§ 8. The religious system of the Romans ^ves clearer evidence of its Gre- 
cian descent, being in scarcely any part of it a native growth, but borrowed 
chiefly from the Greek colonies in Italy. Yet the Romans likewise changed, 
not only in many cases the names of the gods, but also the fictions of ueir 
story, and the rites of their worship. They also derived some notions and 
usages from the Etrurians. (Cf. P. IV. J 109.) All the religious conceptions 
and institutions of the Romans were closely interwoven with their civil policy, 
and on this account exhibited some peculiarities, particularly in their system 
of auspices, auguries, and various omens. We fina therefore in Roman my tho- 

p. n. iMTRODVcnoN. 87 

logy nnQch which ihe Greek had not, and much which was borrowed from it, 
bat altered and as it were molded anew. 

. $ 9. Thus the general division or classification of the ^ods was not the same 
with both nations. The Greeks made a three-fold division into Superior godt^ 
lienor god$^ and Demigod» or heroes ; the Romans a twofold^ into gods Supe^ 
rwr and Inferior {Dit majorum et minorutn gentium). Their first class the 
Romans distinguished as Contentea and Seleeti j their second class, which in- 
cluded demigods or heroes, they also distinguished as Jndigetes and Semones. 

1. In the Roman classification the CoiuerUe^, so called because they were supposed 
to form the great council (oon*etUiefUe$) of heaven, consisted of twdve, 6 males and 6 
females; Jupiter, Neptune, Apollo, Mars, Mercury, Vulcan; Juno, Minerva, Ceres, 
Diana, Venus, Vesta. These were the great celestial gods. — The Sdecti were nearly 
equal to them in rank, and consisted of eight, Saturn, Pluto or Orcus, Bacchus, Ja- 
nus, Sol, Genius, Rhea, and Luna. These (the ContentcM and the Seleeti) were called 
DH majorum gentium, and all the rest Dii tninorum gentium, in Allusion to the division 
of the senators ipatres). 

2. The Indi^eta, called also Adtcrivtitiij were heroes ranked among the gods on 
account of their merits, and included particularly Hercules, Castor or Pollux, and 
Qttirinus or Romulus. — Th^ Semones included those deities that presided over parti- 
cular objects ; as Pan, god of shepherds, Flora, goddess of flowers, dtc. — Besides 
these there were among the Dii minorum gentium a numerous class of misceUanei, 
iocloding the virtues and vices, and other objects, personified ; and also a number 
called dii peregrini, foreign gods introduced at Rome from abroad, or at least tole- 
rated, although perhaps worsmped chiefly by foreigners residing in the city. 

3 (. The gods were likewise classed according to their supposed residence. When 
thus classed, four divisions were made of them ; the ceUslial gods (cf. ^ 11) $ the ter- 
restrial ; the marine ; the infernal. 

The Consentes in the Roman division corresponded to the class which the Greeks, 
when denominating the gods by their residence, termed the Celestial and Olympian, 
hMpcMOi, 6Xi,twtoi ; whicn were also called hi ittydXoi ^sdt, and hi i<MiKa. 3sdt. The 
Athenians had an altar consecrated to these collectively, fiaitis r»» StoSstca. 

4t. The gods are sometimes arranged according to their descent in the fabulous 
genealogies. But the genealogy of several of the gods is given variously by different 
poets ami fabulists. 

The earliest Greek tbeogony was that of Orpheus (cf. P. V. $ 48). Tn Homer (cf. P. V. $ 50) 
an traces of a secood theorooy, wbirb has been ascribed to Pronapides, said to have been the 
yrecepior of Homer. Next is the regular scheme of Healod (cf. P. V. ^ 51) in bis poem entitled 
Tk »9 g 99 M . P«na of a fourth system are wrniiitbt by Aristophanes (cf. P. V. } 05) Into his comedy 
of the CUfud*. A partlA theogony is mingled by Ovid (P. V. (304) with his Cosmogony. Cicero 
(cf. P. V. ( 468) in his treatise on the nature of the gods gives the genealogy of some.— See ( 13. 1. 
A gaMlopGiI isbk, sceotdinc to JSKvuxT* TAccfony, ii appcDded to Coote't Hniod (cL P. V. { 51. 4}.— A feoealof ieal Chart of 
Mj/iUtgt m fiffca in oar FUte, phbSO. 

$10. Bot the differences in the systems of the two nations need not essen- 
tially affect a scientific treatment of the subject of their mythology. For the 
principal deities of each were common to both, and it will contribute to brevity 
aitd comprehensiveness to include them all in one system of classification, 
pointing oat what may be peculiar in each case as it occnrs. It is therefore 
proposed to consider the gods of the Greek and Roman mythology in four 
classes; vix. (1) Superior Gods^ (S) Inferior Gods, (3) J^ihieal Beings^ whose 
history is intimately connected with that of the gods, and (4) Heroes, 

In the first class will be noticed the twelve Consentes, or great celestial gods, and 
also, Janus, Saturn, Rhea, Pluto, and Bacchus. — In the second will be mentioned 
Uranos or Ccelus, Sol, Luim, Aurora, Noz, Iris, .£olus, Pan, Latona, Themis, iEs- 
ctdapius, Plutus, and Fama. Here belong also numerous deities of the Romans 
which were not common to them and the Greeks. — The third class comprehends the 
Titans and Giants, Tritons, Sirens, Nymphs, Muses, Graces, Fates, r uries, Genii, 
Lares, Satyrs, and the like. — Under the fouHh and last fall the names of Perseus, 
Hercules, Theseus, and various others, whose achievements led to their deification. 

$ 11. It may he proper to remark here, that ihe ideas entertained by the 
Greeks and Romans respecting the nature of Divinity, were exceedingly im- 
perfect. A being possessing powers of body and mind superior to those of 
man, especially superior might, mainly answered to their notions of a god. 
The saperiority which they ascribed to their deities consisted chiefly in freedom 
from bodily decay, a sort of immortal youth, ability to move with wonderful 
cslenty, to appear and disappear at pleasure with a noble and beautiful form. 


and to exert an immediate influence upon the condition of mortals. In thead 
respects, however, their power was limited, according to the general opinion, 
being controlled by an eternal and immutable relation of things, termed fate or 
destiny, • 

'* The ancient Greeks believed their godi to l>e of the same shftpe and form as theniselves, but 
•f far greater beautv, strength, and dignity. They also regarded them as being of much larger 
size than men ; for in those times great size was esteemed a perfection both in man and woman, 
and consequently was supposed to be an attribute of their divinities, to whom they ascribed ail 
perfections. A fluid named Ichor supplied the place of blood in tlie veins of the gods They were 
not capable of death, but they might be wounded or otherwise Injured. They could malie them- 
selves visible or invisible to men as they pleased, and assume the forms of men or of animals as 
it suited their fancy. Like men, they stood in daily need of food and sleep. The meat of the 
gods was called Ambrosia (dii^povta), their drink NecUr (clxrap). The gods, when they c&mo 
among men, often partook or their food and hospitality. 

**Like mankind, the gods were divided into two sexes; namely, gods and goddesses. They 
married and had children, Just like mortals. Often a god became enamored ofa mortal woman, 
or a goddess was smitten with the charms of a handsome youth ; and these love-tales form a 
large portion of Grecian mythology. 

" To make the resemblance between gods and men more complete, the Greeks ascribed to their 
deities all human passions, both good and evil. They were capable of love, friendship, grati-> 
tude, and all the benevolent affections ; on the other hand, they were frequently envious. Jealous, 
and revengeful. They were particularly careful to exact all due respect and attention from man- 
kind, whom they reouired to honor them with temples, prayers, costly sacrifices, splendid pro- 
cessions, and rich sifts; and they severely punished Insult or iftglect. 

" The abode of the gods, as described by the more ancient Grecian poets, such ss Homer and 
Hesiod, was on the summit of the snow-clad mountains of Olympus in Thessaly. A gate of 
clouds, kept by the goddesses named the Seasons, unfolded its valves to permit the passage of 
the Celestials to earth, or to receive them on their return. The city of the gods, as we may term 
it, was regulated on the same principles as a Grecian city of the heroic aees. The inhabitants, 
who were all the kindred or the wives and children of the king of the gods, had their separate 
dwellings; but all, when summoned, repaired to the palace of Jupiter, whither also came, when 
called, those deities whose usual abode was the earth, the waters, or the under wnrld. It was 
also in the great hall of the palace of the Olympian king that the gods feasted each day on am- 
brosia and nectar ; which last precious beverage was handed round by the lovely goddess Hel»e 
( KoiUA), — maid-servants being the usual attendants at meals in the houses of the Grecian princes 
in early times. Here they conversed of the affairs of heaven and earth ; and as they quaffed 
their nectar, Apollo, the god of music, delighted them with the tones of his lyre, to which the 
Muses sang in responsive strains. When the sun was set, the gods retired to sleep in their 
respective dwellings. 

" The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon, who drove each day In their chariots drawn by celestial 
Bteeda through the air, gave light to the gods as well as men." iKeigktUy^ p. 14-17.) 

^ 12 1. Before proceeding to notice more particularly the classes specified, we will, 
in accordance with our general plan in other parts of this work, present some references 
to the sources of information on the subject ; alluding first to ancient authorities, and 
then giving the titles to more modern worlis. 

1 «. Almost all the Greek and Roman potts make use of, or at least touch upon, mythological 
subjects ; although these are not by aiiv means treated in the same manner in the different kinds 
of poetry, epic, lyric, dramatic, and didactic. We have properly mythic poetry in the Theogony 
of Hesiod and the Cassandra of Lycophron (P. V. ( 67), the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and in two 
poems of Claudlan, the Gigantomachy, and the Rape of Proserpine (P. V. ( 366).— Many histtt- 
riant have introduced into their narratives faiythnlogical traditions, without presenting them, 
however, as fully entitled to credence, while Jhey have also recorded much that appertained to 
the worship of the gods and to works of art connected with mythology. Herodotus, Diodorus, 
Strabo, Pausanias, and the elder Pliny, may be mentioned patiicularly.— There were also ancient 
writers who made mythology their theme, or treated the subject more at length ; as, among the 
Greeks, JipoUodorut, Conon, Nephtuticn^ Partkenius^ AnUninnSj Xi^sroiis, Palapktutt Hermcli- 
dM, Phumutut (P. V. $ 281 ss) ; among the Romans, Hyginu* and FtUfftntiut (P. V. $ d02 ss). 
Notices on this subject are found also In the works of some of the early writers of the church, 
and also in the notes of most of the Greek scholiasts. 

3 m. Of the numerous modern works on Mythology, some treat the subject more at large, others 
more compendiously ; some present the subject In an alphabetical order; there are also works 
accompanied with plates and drawings for illustration. 

(a) The folloiriiic art hom of tb* worki which go into mora 
foil details on the wbola labjeet, or oa particular parla. 

LU. Ong. GyraUi, Uietorla Dm. Geatil. SyBtafmala zvii. 
Baa. 1M8L fd. Alao in hia Opjk Omu. (ad. /. /amiut). LagL 
Bat 1606. IbL 

Fine, Cartvri, te hnacinl dcfli del de«li asttcU. Lioo. 1681. 4. 
Alao in Latin, Lugd. 1561. 4. oA. rapr. 

Haialit ComitiM MyOulogia a. Ezplicatknia Fabnlanmi Ubri 
X Oen. 16SI. 8. 

Gtrh. I romha, Da tbeologia Gcntill et phjaMogia chrktlaaa, 
a. da originB et pnpeaao idolatria libri CC Inal. 1668. foL 

Jnt Auito', U mrtbokigie et lea bUca eipliqnto par Phb- 
tan. Ffer. 1798-10. 8 ?oia. 12. In Gennan, witti additioH by 
J..d.SdUccelaiMi/.jr.&ftr0eUL LPB.17S6-66. Svola. 8. In 
EasIiab,Jtanicr,M]rtbolouonto ADcimta. Lood. 1730. 4tq1b. & 

JL Mttfo, STBtea of Mytbelogy. Fhilad. I8I& 4 vola. 8. 

F. QrauBu'i Synbolik und Mjrtbol<«ie der Allen Volker, beaoB* 
dcra der Gricebeo. Lps. 18I9-2I. 4 Bde. 8. Sd unpmved ad. 
oomiBeoced 1836b— Saaic (abridged) by G. B.MoHr. Lpt. 1822. a 

Ch. A. LobiA, AflaofdiaaMia, tive de Theologia myiticaOnf 
oorum caoaia. Beciaiontii (Konlngabeiig), 18S9. 2 fois 8. op> 
poaing aome of Uw viewa of Creazer: it haa been highly eia» 

/. H. Few, Antbymbolik. Stntlg. 1824. 8. 

Q. Hermamn^ De Mytbologla GnMorum uliquSaibiia. 1817. 

Q. ilcmumn and F. Cnumr^ Briaia abar Homer nnd Heripdaa. 
Hcidelb. 1818. & 

a. Sarmami, Briefe Obw dai Womn und die BebaBdhns dar 
MyOwingie. Lpi. ISIS. 8. 

/.^UTomi^f MythokciedflrGncdND. Lps. 1166. S-Obr 




pa Bia«lk,liOe.SBdek8.,-llyiMm,I*UittaeoadarallMla 
ltalB|ikiloia|iU«allcrVolfcw. Tttb. 1811. B. 

X L, BH4f VttumKlbu^m •htt d. MjrtbM d. bOTOhDlmi 
1Ukw4.altWcit,«onaclicbd.arMch. Frayb. IBIL «. 

£ a JIUtar, nwiiff—"* n OMT wiwiwehiftliehBB If f> 

JWtaHm. HTlfaolaciH. Beri. 1820. 8 foh. & 

& X £. libUfr, Ftoatattca dm AltetbiuM, oder Snnml. 
Bif(kS«EadcriielleiMB,Ba(B«r,*e. Lpz. ITOB-BO. 6 Bde. 8. 

W« uy add /. AryoMl't Mew SyMB of Mytbolosy. Loud. 

i)lVM«,OiigiBedelovl«CaltetL Fkr. 18B2. 7 veb. & 

JL P. £iii^,lM|air7 iiilB Ow ^Bbolieal Lu«aa«e of Anctet 
iitud Mytbokvr, ia diOarent No*, of the OurimZ /onmal. 

CbtaK 4i Gdriin, Le Monde FruDitif. Far. 1774-87. 9 fOb. 4. 
■^ielH fabio, mditiocie, lymbob, and laagofe. 

Otdgmma, Reliipoea da rAaltqaite. Far. IS6-8a 4 vda. 8 

GMtanf, Dela RalicioB. Far. IBM-Sl. S tdIb. & 
(t) Mora coaqMsdioM treatata, or MaBaala. 

C T. Amur, MylboVvie dcr GriadMB uad ROner (ed. Icoe- 
MO. BerL IMO. 8. wiih platiiL 

Jt a ArmMn, HaMlbQdi der Mytfaalofie ana Homer and 
VmtL tmi. 1787-9S. Smb. &->By iafiic» Mytholofie der 
6rii*Ba,f&rdie«beni KlaeHD, te. BerL 1801. 8 rait. 8L 

£AMv«8, Odttoricheee, oder nyfhol. Dtehtaogn der Alten. 
lad. 199. 8. wiifa plaMi. Abo tnod. by C. T. JAg^, N. York, 
m IL with pbtea. Snm wwk in Eocliak, Mythological 
rHtofofGfeekeaadBomam. 12ido. 

tt. ihmtec^ Abrbe eiaer MyOnlosie fftr Kflmtler. Bert. 


CABNfi(ar^6raDdrtaeenTerleiaB«ai aber die Mylbolo- 
|ia> DraaL I808L S^By eemc, Anullbea oder Moeum d. 
Kwtaiylhalepe aied MML AlterthafnAaode. I^eipa. 1821. 

r. FMer, Mylbolosie dcr Gnecben uad Italbeben Tolker. 


Ai*ei0 Teele, Tte FkadnoB; eotfUiai^ Ibe MytboIograJ 
ifttwaf thtOmkiaad Boonoh Mhed. Lood. 1831. & with 

M^EIcMBhofMythdlecy. Load. I83S. 18. verybrief. 

C C Mtoway, RoeMB AatiqBitiaa awl AnciBBt Mytbokgy. 

r.I24Aa|i,Myth.ofGTCeM*Ikl7. Sd. cd. Loud. 189& 8. 
(4 Dtdioaaneeer Mytholagy. 

JL Bdwidk,MythalectacbcB Lcsiooa (ed. /./. ftAwoAc). L|». 

K F.X AOaAiNeaee aiythoL WOrterbocfa (ed. f. Q. Kbvfh)., 8 eoh. 8. 

JC Ph. Jfbrib, Mytbol. Werterbneb fttr ScbOler. Bert. 1817. 8. 

LQ.Ondmr,Wmabueh in allUa«iflehaD Mytholcsie and 
Iriigiaa. Weiaa. 1810. S eota. & 

*. C Cknpe, UctiocMalre abn(e de la hhl». Fkr. 1818. 12. 

jy. JM; Dktienalre de h lUUe, oa Mytholo|ie Omqoe, 
iJfiae, EcjftieBaik Cdl^iM, PerMaiw^ lUieoDe, Cblooiiei fte. 
hr.WLlTCla. . 

Wtai. Oiiedl, A Mythotofical Dietionary, ta. (Extnetad 
fesX »jmPt Haw Syetam or Aaalysb of AaeieDl Mytbolo* 
irJ Lead. 1788. 8. 

M^MewFaalbeDa. Load. ITW. S vola. 4. 

fl fi faj i Att i MHierfigMt, flie part eattUed Aatiqait^ Vytho- 
e|ia^CtooMlD|l^*e,wMchpartcaaateof6nda.4. Fkr. 
1188, « 

B f y ^Mi UnlBMdk, pallia jU^OelorftMb FU-. t89L 

(d) The fallowiac werk< oontaia plalea illaatratiDC Ihe iiib> 
jeeta of mytboloiy, aeeoBDpaaied with explaaationi. 

Bernard <k Jfeuf/bucon, L'Aotlqaiid expliquja et npfeaSBlfe 
•a fifuiek Far. 1719. 10 v(4«. ia », foL Stipplea. Far. 1784. 
6 Tob. bl. Tranbled into Eniciiih by JDaotcf Humphnytk 
Load. 1731. 6 vola. fol. with Sapplemeot, 2 voSa. fol. 
JoaA «0fi AwidrvC, looootof b deoruia. Narnb. 1890i fbL 
Sptna'* Polymetia, or aa inquiry ooooeroiDC the agreeaaeat 
between the woika of the Boman poela and the naaaiiia of the 
ancient artbta. Lond. 1747. foL 1756. loL 
La 7bm/ib da Maaa^ a aaperb folio. 
D. Bbrdbn, The Uagea, raiigieaa, civil, kc, of the AMiailto. 
Lend. 4 rOa. a 

JL Biftj BiUertmch Rlr Mytbolosie^ Aichielogie uad KuMb 
BerL 1H»-I8. 2 vob. 4. 

A, L. MitUtit Galerie myiboleglqae, ou Retueil dea maim- 
meoa poor aerviT a l*e(ode de la aaytholegie, de l*hbtoire de 
VMtty fcc. Fu-. 1811. 2 veb. 8. ooatainiac oorreet pictnrca of 
aboal 800 aacieat BMnnaienb.— 'ftaaab Geroi. by Julian. 

jL bl i^rttMaia, Der Olymp, oder Mythologie der fgyptor, 
Griechen and ROnwr. Beri. 1837. 8. 6lh ed. 

(«) The impreaaioaa on ancient genaa are of mnch aarviee in 
ili«atntii« mylbobigy, lo wbJeh part of the aobjcet betong the 
follewing war*a: 

JL C. Kinumg, Vemch ebier myfbologbeheB Daklyliofhek 
tl» Sdidler. Lpc. 1781. 8. (with 190 aeat hnpreMiooa of ea 
giaved genu.) 

r. r. Soth'M mytbolociacbe Daktyliolbek. NOrab. 1806 (wUh 
90 inpreaaed modeb of engraTed alooea). 

AIM Upperft Daktyliotheli (F. IV. ( 210)b One (hooaaad oi 
hb inprtaatooi bekng to nytboloKy. 

The genia of which Wtdpnaood andBnMey have given imita • 
tioDS, pertain, many of theoi, to mythology ; aa aiao thoea ol 
TuMtu (P. IT. § 210). 

(/) Here we may name Ukewbe aoiae wwfca on Ihe Mylfaa- 
logy of other nationa beaidea the Oreeka aad Booiaaa. 
Mooret Hindoo Pantheon. 

JMorir, Ueber die raligiAae Bildung der Hindoa. Lpi. I8R. 

Anncdy, Bcanrehea into Ihe Natan and AflSnity of Aacknt 
and Hindoo Mythology. QU AMiatie lUHordm, 
Mauriei, Indian Antiqaitiea Load. 1806. 7 volt. BL 
mviFfl Viewof the Hbtory, Utentaie, and Raligioa of the 

JTonig. MarOn, Htat and Antiqoitlea of Eaatem ladb. Lond. 
1838. 3 vob. BL with MNaa good pbtea Uluatratiag Hindoo my 

C. CoUmm; Mylhoiagy of the Hbidaa. Load. 1988. 4. 
with pltfea. 

JSOgv, Fantheoa Chinob (or Paxallel between tbe religioai 
wonhip of the Groeka and the Cbiam}. Fkr. 18ia 4. Ct Chut 

/. C. Fridiard, Aaalyeb of Egyptba Mythology ; in whkk 
the eaperatitioH of tbe aneia..* Egypliana era compared with 
thoee of the Indiana and other natiooaot antiquity. Load. 1819. 8L 
abo 1889, with prelimiaary eaaay by ran SeUegtlf aad plalea. 
^ymViWOrterimchderSeaadmaviaBMythoiogie. Copenb. 
ISIflL 12. 

£Dwto,My(hblo|yaadBilcaoriheBritbhDTiuda. Load. 

1809. & 

/. M. AnOb, Skzoo Mythology. Cf. BOL Jbpot. xl. 847. 

Tor aome lemaiti on the reaemblanee of tbe mytboiogy of tbe 

Bliddie Agea to die Claaaleal, cf. AfiTor^ Frtface to fVafUmS 

I HbL Eng. Foetryy voL L p. 25mL ed. Lood. 1884. 




l.^-Mythologieal History of the Superior Gods, 

i 13.* The Divinities which we include in the class denominated Superior 
Gmb, are the following : Saturn, Kpovo(, Xpovo;, Salumus; Janus; Rhea or 
Ctbele, *P£o, *P«'tt, Yiv^i\fi\ Jupiter, Ziv%\ Juno, "Hpa; Neptune, IIo«c5wv 
Ne^unuit Pldto, nxovf «v ; Apollo, 'Aytox^xw; Diana, "Apfs^tj; Minerva, 
HoMii^; Mars, *A^i\ Venus, *A4>po5iV«7; Vulcan, "Htatotoj, Fulcanusf 
Mebcort, *EpfMJi, Mcrcurius ; Bacchus, Atovvoo; ; Ceres, £iTifiritr,p ; Vesta, 

$ 14. (I) Saturn. This was one of the most ancient of the gods, called 
Ckronos by the Greeks and ScUurnus by the Romans. He was said to be the 
son of Uranot and Titasa^ i. e. the heavens and ike earth, and to have possessed 
the first government of the universe. His wife was Mhea, who was bis sister. 
Satom and his five brethren were called Titans, probably from their motlier; 
Rhea and her five sisters likewise Titanides. Saturn seized upon the govern- 
ment of the universe by his superiority over his father and brothers; yet 
pledged himself to rear no male children ; accordingly he is represented as de- 
vounng his sons as soon as bom. 

$ 15. But this fate, three of them, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, escaped, 
throaghthe artifice of Rhea their mother, who g|ave him stones to devour in* 
stead of the children at their birth. Jupiter aided Saturn in recovering bis 
throne, after he had been driven from it by his brothers the Titans and bound iti 
Tartarus. Bat soon he made war himself upon Saturn, and seized the govern- 
ment. According to Roman fiction, Saturn now fied to Italy (thence called 
Salumia\ and acquired great honor by teaching arts and morals to the people. 
Under him was the so-called golden age, which the Greek poets assigned to 
the reign of Saturn and described as singularly happy. Probably an idea of 
the perfection and fecundity of nature, when just newly created, is the basis 
of this story. 

At. Opi. ct Di. n. tse —9^. £«. vlii. 319.— Od. Metun. i. 8S-112. 

$ 16. From the Greek name of this god, which is the word signifying time 
(zpo»o$), he has been considered as designed to personify time, and the first 
cause of the visible world. His Latin name also, as well as the story of his 
devouring his children, seems to have some reference to the idea of time, as 
satiated only by the destruction of what it has produced. 

1 u. This name, however, may have been given from the idea of fertilitv or produc- 
tiveness, as he is said to have taught agriculture and the use of seeds. The word Sa- 

t%Twu is derived firom Satur, signifying fullt natiated, and also fertile. Saturn is 

termed Salor^ Vitixaior, Faleifer (bearing a sickle or scythe), Sterculinus or Stercuiius 
(baring taught the fertilizing uses of manure), Canus and Leucanthes (XsvKavBiit), 

3. &iine have traced the fables respecting Saturn to the history of Noah. See 
Tooke's Pantheon, Pt. ii. ch. L ^ 5. — " Saturn was not unknown to the ancient Ger- 
mans, among whom he was worshiped by the name of Seatur ; who is described as 
standing on a fish with a wheel in one hand, and in the other a vessel of water filled 
with fruits and flowers.'* HolwelVt Diet, cited $ 12. 2 (c). 

$ 17. It was once customary to offer to Saturn human sacrifices, particularly 
among the Carthaginians, the Gauls, and the Pelasgic inhabitants of Italy.—* 
His principal temples among the Greek were at Olympia, and at Drepanum in 
Sicily. The temple of Saturn in Rome served also the purpose of a treasury, 
in memorial, perhaps, of the general security and the community of goods in 

the Satnmian or golden age. The chief festival of this deity was the Saiur' 

fiaUa of the Romans, which was, like the Peloria (Il£>Aopui>) of the Thessalians, 
devoted to freedom, mirth, and indiscriminate hospitality. 

I. The custom of sacrificing children to Saturn seems to identify him whb Jlf0<oeA, the I^ceni- 
ciaa idol, to whom tbe apostate Israelites sacrificed tiieir offspring. 

Sm JUbi, BiU. litk. 1 211.— iKocL Kc, u. 14— Ubrtn, uid /rcrci. Dm vicUoiea banaJjiei, JAm. Aai. buv. Toh. L ud 
>i&-OHpaof haBuaacrifico. Cbuf. Joum. ziv. MS. zviL IOC 

2«. Saturn was represented by the figure of an old man having a scythe or sickle 
m one hand, and often in the other a serpent with m tail in its mouth in the form of a 
circle, both emblems of time. There are, however, but few ancient monuments of 
this deity. 



3. lo oar Plate X. fig. 1, he appears in a sitting posture, with a sort of sickle in one 
hand. In the Sup. Plate 3, he appears with the scythe, a long beard, and wings. — 
Bt is also thus described : *' a decrepit old man, with a lon^ beard and hoary head ; 
his shoulders are bowed like an arch, his jaws hollow and tnin, his cheeks sunk $ his 
nose is flat, his forehead full of furrows, and his chin turned up ; his right hand holds 
a nisty scythe, and his left a child, which he is about to devour." 

i 18. (3) Janus. He was one of the Superior Gods of the Romans. They 
reDiesent him as of Thessalian origin, and as reigning over the earliest and so- 
called aboriginal inhabitants of Italy, in the time of Saturn. It was to Janus 
that Saturn fled, and under them was the goldtn age, a period of uninterrupted 
peaet. To Janus, therefore, Romulus dedicated that celebrated temple, which 
was always open in time of war, and was closed with much solemnity, when- 
ever there was general peace in the Roi!ban empire ; a thing which happened 
bat diiee times during 724 years from the building of the city (cf. P. I. $ 60). 
From this deity the month of January was named, and the nrst day of the 
Dionth was sacred to him. 

1. He was considered as the inventor of locks, doors, and gates, which are thence 
called jamta. His name was applied to structures which were sometimes erected on 
the Roman roads where four roads divided ; a sort of gateway with an arch opening 
in each of the directions, and called a Janus. He was termed Fathety and sometimes 
God ^ rait. In sacri^ces, prayers were first offered to Janus, and oblations were 
made tooim, as being the door of access to the gods. — His original name was Vjanus 
oiDuanis, which some have derived from die»j day. He is called the Sun, and was 
the Sun-god or God of the Year, of the original inliabitants of Italy. The story of his 
friendly receotion of Saturn is by some explained as referring to the agreement be- 
tween the ola inhabitants of Latium and the unmigrating Pelasgi to worship the two 
gods in common. — Janus was not received among the gods of the Greeks. 

2 b. He is represented with a double, and sometimes with a quadruple face ; hence 
the epithets Bicepa, Bifrons, Quadrifront. He is also called Fatulciut, Clusiug, Con^ 
smw, CuMtoBy and CUniger. 

3. The representation with two faces in Plate XI. fie. 8, and in Sup. Plate 3, gives 
taa appearance on a number of consular coins. In Pmte VII., on his temple, he ap- 
Dears with four ^es. It is worthy of notice that the Brahma of the Hindoos is repre- 
sented with four heads. See Plate XII.^— >/antM is also represented with a key in 
sne hand and a rod in the other, with 12 altars beneath his feet, supposed by some to 
refer to the 12 months of the vear. His statue erected by Numa is said to have had 
its fingers so composed as to eognify 365, the number of days in a year. 

$19. (3) Rhba or Ctbele. The common name of the wife and sister of 
Sataxn, was JSAeo or Opi. Yet the history and worship of Cybele were afler- 
vards so entirely interwoven with those of'^Rhea, that both were considered the 
same person, and although Rhea was said to be the daughter of Earth, were 
each taken for Croia or 7W/tM, and often called Fesia, and the great mother of 
godi. The origin of Rhea belongs to the earliest periods of mythical story, 
and hence the confusion in the accounts which are given of her. 

Ctbele, properly speaking, lived later; and was, according to tradition, a 
daoghter of Meon a king of Phrygia and Lydia ; or according to others, in an 
allegorical sense, the daughter of Protogonus. Her invention of various musical 
iostniments, and her love for Mt/i, a Phrygian youth, whose death rendered 
her frantic, are the most prominent circmnstances of her history. 

(htf, FM. 4. S2S.-CMiaii«, dc At. «t Bar. 

Besides the names above mentioned, she was called Mater Dyndymena, Bere- 
cynthia, and Idsea, Fessinuntia, and Bona Dea, 

i 20. That this goddess was a personification of the earth as inhabited and 
fioitfal, is snpposea from the manner in which she was represented. 

In. Her image was generally a robust woman, far advanced in pregnancy, with a 
tarreted mural crown on her head. Often she was borne in a chariot drawn by Uons ; 
aometimes she rested upon a lion. 

2. On gems, she is seen in a car drawn by lions, holding in her hand a tambourine. 
Such b her appearance, Plate X. fijz. 2, taken from Monifaucon. In the Sup. Plate 
3, she sits in a chair, with keys in her right hand, attended by lions. — She was also 
6>nDed with many breasts, with a key or Keys in her hand, sometimes a sceptre, and 
freqaeuily with two lions under her arms. In Sup. Plate 5, is a remarkable repre- 
sentation, given by Monifaucon (Ant. Ex. 1. p. 18). Cf. P. lY. % 156. 2. 


A fffure In uWvet with some parm plated with fntd, and the whole elepnntly flniahed, repr«- 
MOting CybtU, was found at Macun (aiicieui Matiseo) on the Saone, in 17<M. 

Thb mt imUUlMd by Camd Cm^tt$i, voL viL pi. 7l.->JnU«i « Umpnm.— Jtanicr, rar Im •taton de CyWa, fa tte Mm. 
Jead. Mnr. voL v. |iu 241. 

$ 21. Her worship was especially cultivated in Phrygria, bnt spread thenoe 
throagh Asia. The celebration of her f^^stivals was exceedingly tomultuoos, 
as her priests (called Corybanies or Gallic and the chief one Jrcht'gallus) went 
about with clamorous music and singing, acting like madmen and filling the 
air with the mingled noise of shrieks, bowlings, drums, tabrets, bucklers and 

1 «. The removal of her image from Pessinus to Rome, and the establishment of 
her worship in the latter city, was a remarkable event. The festival called Megalesia 
(from it€yaXii, the grent mother) was maintained in her honor. 

Im. HbL & 10, II, kA^ydL Ma*. 8. 16. 

2. The place called Pettinus was said to have derived its name from UcotTv, to fall. 
because it was the spot upon which the ima^e of this goddess fell, being like the fabled 
AncUe and Palladium sent down from Jupiter. 

At her festival, the MegaUsia, Roman matrons danced before her altar ; the ma- 
gistrates assisted in robes of purple ; a ereat concourse of people and strangers usually 
assembled, and Phrygian priests bore the image of the goddess through the streets of 
the city. The festival called HUaria was celebrated in a similar manner, and attended 
with many indecencies. 

3. There appears to be a itrong resemblance between Cybcle and Proerirt, the goddets of 
nature ainonf the Hindoos. The latter la represented as drawn by lions, and her festival is 
attended with the beating of drums. 

Sn Moorf$ Hindoo Flutbeoii.— Cotemont Mylholoffr el (he RiuloM. 

$ 22. (4) Jupiter. The highest and most powerful amonfif the gods was 
called by the Greeks Zev$, by the Romans Jupiter, It would seem, that by 
this god was originally represented nature in general ; afterwards, the superior 
atmosphere f and finally the supreme existence. Many tales of the early history 
of Crete were incorporated among the traditions respecting him. He was a son 
of Saturn and Rhea, educated in Crete. He robbed his Father of his kin?doiny 
and shared it with his two brethren, so that Neptune received the seaj Pluto 
the infernal world, and himself the earth and heavens. The giants, sons of 
the earth, disputed the possession of his kingdom with him, and attempted to 
scale Olympus, but he aefeated them with thunderbolts forged by the Cyclops. 

Enraged by the corruption and wickedness of men, he destroyed the whole 

-nee by a vast delage, from whic> Deucalion and Pyrrha alone escaped. The 
supposed date of this flood is not far from 1500 years B. C. 

OpM, M«(&m. i. 151, WL^OaudianU Qlgu^tammeO^ CT. P. V. f SML 

$ 23. The ordinary residence of Jupiter was upon Olympus, a mountain of 
Thessaly, which the poets, on account of the constant serenity of its summit, 
represented as a suitable place for the abode of the gods. (Cf. § 11.)— His 
first wife was MbUs^ whom he destroyed, because it was foretold him, that she 
would bear a child that would deprive him of the kingdom. Afterwards the 
goddess Minerva was produced from his head. By his second wife, UtemiM^ 
be begat the Horse and the ParetB, — ^The third and most celebrated was Juno^ 
by whom he had his sons Mars and Vulcan.—- Tradition, particularly the tales 
respecting metamorphoses, relate numerous amors of Jupiter ; e. g. with Eu- 
ropa', Danae, Leda, Latona, Maia, Alcmena, Semele*, and Io\ Apollo, Mer^ 
cury, Hercules, Pereeus, Diana, Proserpina, and many other gods and demigods 
were called the children of Jupiter. The name of son or daughter of Jupiter, 
however, was often employed merely to designate superior dignity and rank, 
and not intended to imply literal relationship. 

i Ovid, M«UiB. ii. «86. ^t n. Ui. B». • Ik i. flSS. 

$ 24. The worship of Jupiter was universally spread, and numerous temples 
were erected to his honor. The largest and the most celebrated in Greece was 
that in Olympia in Elis, remarkable for its own magnificence, and for its colossal 
statue of Jupiter wrought by Phidias, and for the Olympic games held in its 
vicinity every fifth year. His oracle in the grove of oaks at Dodona was 
renowned (cf. P. HI. $ 71), and considered the most ancient in Greece. — ^In 
fioroe the Capitol was specially dedicated to him, and he had in that city many 

p. n. SUPERIOR 60D8. J17FITE11. JUNO. 05 

I». Japiter is generally repreflented as sitting upon a throne^ with a thanderbolt in 
bis right hand, and in his left a long scepter resembling a spear ; and the eaele, sacred 
to him, standing near, or, as in some monuments, resting at his feet with extended 
wings. , . . n,f 

2. The representation in the Sup. Plate 2 correroonds to the aboTe description.— The 
Mgle sometimes is perched upon his scepter. Jupiter is also spoken of as wearing 
"^Iden shoes and an embroidered cloak adorned with various flowers and figures of 
animals.'* — In the Sup. Plate 1 we have his appearance in a noble statue^from Spence's 
Poly me tis -In thestatue at Elis (see PI. XI. fig. 3) he is presented as *' sitting oi)on 
his throne, bis left hand holding a scepter, his rignt extending victory to the Olympian 
conqoerors, his head crowned with oUve, and his pallium decorated with birds, beasts, 
tod flowers. The four corners of the throne were dancing victories, each supported by 
a sphinx tearing in pieces a Theban youth." 

Oi IteOTiqma iiatiii, M nnnm't Lact |k Sr, M dtad p. IV. { in.~QMfr. * gH<iK^ 

3. As Jupiter Ammon, he was represented as having the horns of a ram. Such 
vasthe statue at his temple in Libya (cf. P. III. ^ 71). Thus he appears in the Sup. 
Pbte 29. On ceremonial occasions, and when the oracle was consulted, this statue, 
sparkling with precious stones, was borne in a gilded barge on the shoulders of twenty- 
WBT priests moving (it was pretended) just where the god impelled them, followed by a 
troop of women smging hymns. 

But the most singular representation is that given in the Sup. Plate 10, exhibiting 
Jupiter Pluvialis, as found in a bas-relief at Rome, designed to commemorate his in- 
lerpodtioQ in sending rain on a certain occasion. 

$25. This god receiyed a multitude of names and titles derired from circum- 
stanees of his history, or the places of his worship. 

1 s. The Greeks termed him Zct)(, and applied to him various epithets, as the Idaan 
(i'Uar«f), Olympie C^Xvit9tK6i)^ Dodonaan {^ui<'>i'oros)^ thunderer {fepavinos\ deliverer 
(ik»e/pi»{), hmiiabU ((^"'^O* jn^nisher of the perjured (S/wriof), &c. The Romans 
styled hhn O^tmus Maximv», CavitolinuB, Stator, Diespiter^ Feretriut, &c. As the 
aveoger of crime, he was called also Vtjovis or Vedius ; yet some consider these as 
Dvnes of another distinct divinity : and others take them for names of Pluto. 

2. Among the epithets appliea by the Greeks were also the following ; from his 
seoding rain^ ipiSpiost vinos, M^eXi^ycplrifs, dp9iys09is; from his darting thunder, dart- 
p«nr%i, ^porrai0f, TetnriKipav¥ot ; from his protection of suppliants, Waioj, iKtrfvtot. The 
Romans also called him sometimes Inventor, Elicius, Latialis, Sponsor, Victor, Plu- 
swKi.— His Latin name Jupiter is from Z<« Uartp, Z beine changed into J. From Z«»« 
(ia Doric ^IHs and JEolic ^^t) came also probably the Latin Veu9. The word is by 
some supposed to be of eastern origin ; others say it is applied to this deity as the source 
of life from ^^«. 

3. Very discordant opinions have been maintained respecting the meaning of the 
various fiables about Jupiter. It is evident, that attributes drawn fi^m many different 
personages and probably eastern deities were associated with his name, in the descent 
of mythological traditions from one generation to another. When the different tales 
are united, they form a very incongruous mixture, combining historic narrative, poetic 
omamem, and philosophical allegory. 

1 ^ Ififftam /mm, with much fngenuAy and leamfnf , has attempted to show that the Greeks 
•Ml RoBMiu emboiHad in their Jupiter the special atirlbutes which the Hindoos aserlbe dlttlne- 
iNely 10 the three divinliioe oflheir famoue triad, named Bvkmio^ VUknut and Siva. In eeeen- 
tial atlribntes, Brahma is aald to be the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Siva the destroyer 
and re-prodoeer. Eiieh of these olBcea la ascribed to Jupiter in the classical Abies, according to 
Sir William.-'The Hindoo deities are given in our Plate All. as usually seen in Bengal : Brahma 
viih four faces and four hands, holding a spoon, a rosary, a portion of a Veda or Hindoo sacred 
book, and a vessel of the water of ablution ; Vishnu with four hands, in one of which is a sort 
of ring or diacQS, which to said to send out flames of fire when twirled on his finger, nnd in the 
ethers a shell ased for a trumpet, a sort of club, and a lotus ; Siva, having a trident in one hand 
asd B rope in another for binding offenders, with serpenu for his ear-rings, and a string of humaia 
heads for bis necklace. He has a third in his forehead. 

h is worthy of notice, that the Hindoo fables represent Vuhnu as assuming difiTerent forms oy 
ncccsslve incarnations, in the exercise of his attributes as preserver. Ten incarnations, ot 
Jtmian, are specially designated. These are represented by the ten engravings in our Plate 
IIIL ** All the Avatars are painted with gemmed Ethiopian, or Parthian, coronets ; with rays 
cBcirding their beads ; Jeweto In their ears ; two necklaces, one straight and one pendant on 
their bosoms with dropping gems ; garlands of many-colored flowers, or collars of pearls, hang- 
tagdown below their watots; loose mantles of golden ttosue or dyed silk, embroidered on their 
hoM with flowers, elegantly thrown over one shoulder ; with bracelets on one arm and on each 
irrisi : they are naked to the watots, and uniformly with dark azure flesh ; but their skirts are 
bright yellow, the color of the curious periearpium in the centre of the water-lily ; tbev are 
iemettoses drawn with that flower in one hand ; a radiated elliptical ring, used as a missile 
veapnn, in a second ; the sacred shell, or left-handed buccinum, in a third ; and a mace or bat* 
tls-aze, in a fourth." Nine of these Incarnations the Hindoo tales describe as having Blread> 
eccorred. The ttnik Is to take place at some future period, when Vishnu will descend f^oui 
beavsD on a whUe winged horse, and will introdoce on earth a golden ace of virtue and peace.— 
hiliould be rensarked In thto eonnection, that CrukiM to celebrated in Hindoo mythology as am 


Incarnate deity. Accordini to Sir Wm. Jonee, be fe contidered dietinct from all the Jtvatcrg • 
these bad only a portion of the divinity ; ** while Criskna was the person of FUkvu kiwu$tf in 
hnman form." In the Hindoo pictures, CrUkna sometimes appears among the Avatars ; he it 
** more splendidtv decorated than any of them, and wears a rich garland of sylvan flowers as low 
as hip ankles, which are adorned with strings of pearls." 

Bee Sir K^/mM^ on the fodi or Gfwec,ll»i7,a«klladu,ia hit IKHt and Z^f« by iMdT^^ Load 1107. IBtoIil 8. 

(vol. 01. p. 8ia>--CC JiMiliy^i^fwt c/fto J. ACtonmbfar Flor. Mek, Noh IL and rU. »^^ 

$ 36. (5) Juno. The wife and sister of Jupiter, daughter of Saturn and 
Rhea, and as wife of Jupiter mistress of gods and men, was called by the 
Greeks "Hpa, and by the Romans Juno» Her birthplace was assigned by the 
Greeks to Arsos, or the island Samoa, and to other spots in Greece, although 
her story and her worship were rather of Phcenician origin. The chief pecu- 
liarities of her character were love of power, and jealousy ; the latter passion 
was constantly inflamed and fed by Jupiter^s infidelity.— In consequence of this 
jealousy she wrought seyeral metamorphoses, as in the case or Calisto* and 
Galanthis'. Hence also her wrath a^inst lo* and Seme]e^ and her ill-will 
towards the Trojans because Paris denied her the prize of beauty in the contest 
with Pallas and Venus. By her jealousy she often aroused the anger of Ja- 
piter, who once, according to Homer*s representation^ suspended her in the air 
oy a golden chain. Ixion*s love for her was punished by Jupiter with ever- 
lasting torture, he being bound to a wheel constantly revolving. 

> (hii, Metem. IL 474. ^ lb. ix. a08L > A. i. BU, « Ih. UL 180 ■ Ili^, zv. IS, la 

$ 27. The worship of Juno was far spread, and the number of her temples 
and festivals was very great. Her- worship was especially cultivated in Ar^oe, 
Samoa, Sparta, Mycente, and Carthage, cities wnich committed themselvea 
particularly to her protection. In Elis were games, every fifth year, sacred te 
tier, called *Hpcua. This was the name also of her great festival celebrated al 
Argos and other places, which was likewise called ixa^ofifiota, because it was 
customary on the occasion to sacrifice a hecatomb of oxen at the temple of the 
goddess. There was a similar festival at Rome, called Junonia and Junono' 
lia, •— .^ From her, tutelary angels or guardians of females were called among 
the Romans Jutumea, The Roman women took their oaths in her name, as 
the men did in the name of Jiipiter. Both Greeks and Romans honored her as 
the protectress of marria^. — ^The Romans dedicated to her the month of Jtme^ 
named' after her.^She is often described by the poets as the Qtieen of goda 

I OM, Tut vL IL 

1. Juno had a great varietv of names; as Argiva^ Cingula, Egeria, Juga (Lvyta)^ 
Ludnia or Lucitutt Moneta, Nuptialia (Va^iikta)^ OjpigenarPifpulonia, SotpUaf Unxia, 

2 «. Her daughters were H^^ goddess of youth ; and Ililhviay who presided OTer 
births. Her messenger and servant was Irig, the goddesa of the rainbow. 

1. Hebe was employed to hand round the nectar at the feaata of the godi. Ber office of cup- 
bearer aAerwards f^ll to Ganymedea. When Hereulea wai admitted to Olympui, Hebe became 
hia 8poase.^lD fig. 4, Pi. XIV. ahe la represented aa pouriuc out the nectar, with the bird of Jove 
by her elde.— In the beautiful deaign presented in the Sup. Plate?, she la also aeen pouring oui 
the drink of the goda. 

$ 28. The ancient artists endeavored to exhibit the haughtiness and jealousy 
of Juno in their representations of ber. Among the symbols of her attributee, 
the most remarkable was the peacock, held as sacred to her; and found by her 
side in many figures. Sometimes her chariot is drawn by two peacocks. She 
was frequently represented by Roman artists upon their coins, which, howoTer, 
often contain the Empresses exhibited as Junos. 

1. She is usually represented as a grave, majestic matron ; usually with a sceptre in 
her hand, and a veil on her head and a crown decked with flowers; sometimes she 
has a spear ii) her hand, or a patera, or vessel for sacrifices. The peacock is some- 
times at her feet. Thus she appears in our Plate XI. fig. 1. In the Sup. Plate 2, ?ire 
seen two peacocks and the chariot, with Iris flying above. — ^Homer exhibits her in a 
chariot adorned with gems, having wheels with brazen spokes and naves of silver, and 
horses with reins of gold. But generally she is represented as driawn by peacoc&a in 
a golden chariot. 

2. The fables respecting Juno are interpreted difl*erently according to the meaiiing^ 
attached to those respectmg Jupiter. When Jupiter is considered as typifying, or 



alle^orically represonting, the active productive power in nature, Juno is the passive. 
Their quarrels are then explained as physical allegories. 

$ 39. (6^ Nbptunb. The goTemment of the waters of the earth was, in the 
divisioQ of authority already mentioBed ($ 23), assigned to the brother of Ju- 
piter, called IIo0ei5wir, or Nspiune. The idea of a god ruling the waters arose 
from the surprise of the first obsenrers of the power of that element ; even be- 
fore Neptune, Oeeantu, son of the heayens and the earth, and husband of Thetis, 
was honored as god of the sea. Oceanus was, according to Hesiod, one of the 
Titans, and was considered as ruler of the exterior waters encompassing the 
earth, while the interior seas and rivers were assigned to Neptune. 

1. ▲ Btatu« dug up at Rome about the siiteenlh century, repreaenia Oceanus aa an old man 
sitting on the wavei of the sea, with a sceptre in bis band, and a sea-monster by bin. On aa 
ancient gem he is represented in a similar manner. In our Plate XLIII. be appears in a recuai- 
bent posture. 

2 tt. The wife of Neptune was Amphitrite, a daug;hter of Nereus or Oceanus ana 
Doris. He obtained Amphitrite by the aid of a dolphin, and in return honored the fish 
with a place among the constellations. The prinapal sons of Neptune were Triton, 
Phorcus, Proteus, and Glaucua. The chief characteristics <i$ these minor deities of 
the sea were the power of divination and ability to change their forms at pleasure. The 
daughters of Nereus and Doris were the so-called N'ereides, or sea-nymphs, fifty in 
number. They belonged to the train of Neptune and were subservient to his will. 

$30. The principal exploits and merits ascribed to Neptune are, the assist- 
ance rendered to his brother Jupiter against the Titans ; the building of the 
walls and ramparts of Troy ; the creation and taming of the horse ; the rais- 
ing of the island Delos out of the sea ; and the destruction of Hippol vtus by 
a monster from the deep. He was feared also as the author of earthquakes and 
deluges, which he caused or checked at pleasure by his trident. The fol- 
lowing are some of his many names and epithets ; 'Ao^MtXtof, upholding the 
earth ; X(Kslx^<^i earth-shaker ; "iHrcnoi^ Petrsew, Qmtus, 

1. Various etymologies have been given of the name IIoireiASr and Neptune. The 
latter is by some derived from JVm&o, because the water covers or conceals the earth ; 
the former from 'o9$ and Sita, as Neptune binds the feet, that ia, man cannot walk on 
the water. But such speculatione cannot be relied on.^— -The government and pro- 
tection of ships was committed to him. He also presided over the horse, which was 
sacred to him, and over horse-races; at the festival of the ConstuUia ail horses were 
allowed to rest from labor. 

2 «. The Greeks seemed to have derived the worship of this god not from E^ypt, 
but Iiib3ra. He was honored particularly in cities situated near the coasts, as presiamg 
over their navigation. Thus at Nisyrus, on the isthmus of Corinth, he had a cele- 
brated temple, and aUo on the promontory of TsBnarus. Of his temples at Rome, the 
most noted was that in the ninth district (cf. P. I. $ 54), containing a suite of pictures 
representing the Argonautic voyage. The victims usually sacrificed to Neptune were 
horses and bulls. In honor of him the Greeks maintained the Isthmian Games, and the 
Romans the Neptunalia and the Constudiai which were afterwards, from the place of 
celebration, called Ludi Cireenses. 

$ 31. His figure upon remaining monuments is in accordance with the dignity 
ascribed to him, commanding and majestic, with a front calm and serene even 
in anger. In his hand he commonly holds the trident, or a long antique sceptre, 
with three tines, \|rith which he makes the earth tremble and throws the waters 
into commotion. He is often described as moving upon the waters, drawn in 
a ehariot by dolphins or war-horses, and surrounded by a retinue of attendants. 

The representations of Neptune are various. Sometimes he stands upright in a 
large sea-shell, holding his trident, and arrayed in a mantle of blue or sea-green ; as in 
our Plate X. fis^. 5. Sometimes he appears treading on the beak of a ship. Often he 
is sitting in a coariot, or a shell with wheels, drawn by sea-horses ; sometimes accom- 
panied by his wife Amphitrite as in Plate XLIII. His image is very frequent on coins 
and medals. He is described as having black hair and blue eyes. 

Ct rirg. 2En. I lU. J7om. 11. xUi. 80. Virg. Sn. i. IBS. Slat lehii. i. 6a-4M JbnteRV, U Cnlte to diviailM dci cuu^ 
b the Mem. Jead. ln$ar. xxl p. 27. 

$ 32 a. (7) Pluto. He was a second brother df Jupiter, and receiyed, as 
his portion in the division of empire, the infernal regions, or the world of shades* 
Under this idea the ancients imagined the existence of regions situated down 
f^ below Uie ear^, and they represented certain distant and desert lands as 


lerring for a path and entrance to the under world. Henee the fictions reipect- 
ing Acheron, Styi, Cocytos, and Phlegethon, as bein^ rivers of Hell. These 
i^oDS below the earth were considered as the residence of departed souls, 
where aAer death they received rewards or punishments according to their con- 
dact upon earth. The place of reward was called Elyaiwn ,- that of punish- 
ment, Thrtarus. 

1. The residence of departed souls was termed by the Greeks S^ii) Hadts. It is im- 
portant to bear in mind tnis fact in reading the passages of the New I'estament, where 
this word occurs. The term, although sometimes rendered grave, and sometimes htUj 
properly signifies the wwldof departed spirittf and includes both the place of happiness 
and the place of misery. Cf. Luke zvL 23. 

It was a part of the office of Mercury to conduct the sbadet of the dead In the region called 
Badu. Hence be is eoinetimee represented as In the act of opening or abutting the doors or 
Btsiofaioiab; aaon the roonunient given in Plate XVIII. fig. 4. and In the Sap. Plate 14. 
TUi figure la given in Taylor's Calmet to illaitrate the eapreasion **Oates pf Had—^* in JHstt. 
XfL 18. 

Olft»iHuli«ar ftotaimAiieibMM:SlM0<,EnfBticidEMgr%*c. Anio. MSa IS. JjpirS*/ >At WgrhM^ T«i. w 
^ ■tw.-.fWimfiff, TSm. la to TivmA rf tim Ootpdi. 

1 Departed ntoruls were adjudged to Elf Hum or to Ttrtarut by the sentence of Minos and 
Vk fellow judges (cf. ) S4), in the fWi of TVuth.—Klfrium is described as adorned with beaaii- 
fai prdena, smiling meadows, and enchanting groTes; where birds ever warble; where the 
river Bridanas winds between banks fringed with laurel, and "divine Lethe'* glides in a quiet 
vaOev i where the air is always pure, and the day serene ; where the blessed liave their de- 
Ught/ul abode.^T^rfuntf is represented as a *' hideous prison of immense depth, surrounded by 
the niry bog;s of Cocytos, and the river Phlegethon which roils with torrents of flames," and 
gsardcd by ** three rows of wslls with braaen gates ;" here the Furies torment their wretched 
Tiettass, and aU the wicked suffer according to their crimes.— Virgil spesks of seven portions in 

the regions of the departed ; Tartarus and Elysium being the sixth and seventh. Although 

ElyBhim waa considared by sll ss the residence of the blessed, its situstion Is vsriously stated ; 
now placed it in the center of the earth, adjoining Tartarus; others placed It in the middle re- 
fioos of the air ; others, in the moon ; others, in the nun ; more commonly, however, the man- 
fioM of the blessed were said to be in the Fortunate Islands, Insula Fitrtunatm (cf P. 1. ^ 183).— 
T^urtsms Is also variously located; Homer places It In the country of the CimoMrians, supposed 
liyiome to have been around Tarteasus In Spain, and by others to have been near Bals in Italy; 
Virgil places the entrance to It, or rather the entrance to Hades, in a cave near lake Avernua in 
Iisly; others place the entrance at the promontory of Tcnarus; others, in Thesprotia.— In the 
San. Plate IS, is s composition designed to repressnt the Tartarus of ancient roythologv. Charon 
la Bis boat, Pluto with his sceptre, and the three Judges appear in the fore-ground, with several 

I awaiting their sentence. The Furies are lashing two criminals Just given over to their 
power; and various offenders are suffering their peculiar punishments as narrated by the posts; 
for which see the history of Prometheus and others, especially Izion and the other offenders 
■eationsd under ^ 34 b. 

Qfe ft» iwmt of the aackoto iwpecdnc Om abito of Ow Hid after imXh, cf. Bomcr, Od. xl-Xttt^i, htoriowiiQiiiM andl 

ft iw WMu b to Mi rtmi^—Cian, B» gBrtwwfa ■wt^ and H m— lii m S t l | iiiMlfc~yirta. Mu. ?L ct TSbtdL EL 1. 1 m STw. 

-0«gR,(M ViisiPb Xa. vL, la tmMimiiaanMa )rorte.-aym, EzcnnuM ia bii tdiUoai of Virgil aad BooMr (cL P. V. $ sa & 

f ML 4)^-a r. mgditadk, DU BomriKb* Theolosia b ilirem ZanminealHUite. M&nbb 184a a—A JWimon^ LTate 

j 7b«iqii^teOKMm.J(»i.M«T.«oLUi.&-ClaM./oHm.ULt76.zL3ia 

(32 «. The chief incident in the history of Pluto is his seizure and abduction of 
lUpn^p^, or Proserpine, who thereby became his wife, and the queen of the lower 
world. She was a daughter of Jupiter and Ceres. The circumstances of this event 
are related fully and poetically by Claudian* and Ovid^, and furnished the ancient artists 
with frequent subjects for their sitill in device and representation^. 

I tknpta PtaHffiBcL. ia. — • Metun. v. S4I • Sm Mmtfrnton, Aoi. Bxpl. T. I. pi. S7-4I.~8m Abo oar FlaUZ. & 

ail fttSofi. Plate 14; iabolh wUeh Ow Mtton aad abdoctiaa ara repraMolad. 

Tbs name of Proserpine was sometimes applied to Diana, when considered as a goddess of the 
lowsr world. Cf. ^ 30. 

( 33 ». Pluto is represented both by poets and artists whh an air%ienBC!ng, terrible, 

•ad inexorable. The hitter usualljr exhibit him upon a throne, with a bifurcated seep 

trs, or a key, in his hand. A rod le sometimes put into his hand instead of his sceptre 

I The device which places upon his head a sort of bushel or measuring- vessel, instead 

j of a crown, is of Egyptian origin, borrowed from the images of Serapis. 

1. He appears crowned with ebony; sometimes with cypress leaves; sometimeit 
' with flowers of narcissus. He is also sometimes represented in the act of bearing off 

Proserpine in a chariot drawn by winged drains; such is the appearance in our Plate 
X. 6^. 3.— In the Sup. Plate II he appears with a long beard, in a sitting posture, rest- 
ing his head on one hand, holding in the other a long sceptre, with Cerberus at his feet. 

l He Is said to have possessed a helmet which rendered its wearer invisible; like the magic 
ring of the Lydian Gyges (cf. Cie. de Off. iU. 0. Merod. i. 8). 

§ 34 a. His worship was universal ; but it was attended with 8j>ecia1 soleiu 
I nities in Bcedtia, particnlarly at Coronea. His temple at Pylos in Messenia 

I waa also oelebrated. The Roman gladiators consecrated themselves to Pluto. 


The Tictims offered to him were usually of a black color. Some of his prin- 
cipal names were Ztv^ stvyioi^ SttramUf Summamuy I^bruiu. 

The Greeks named him UXoirtov as some suppose irom uXoBtos, ufealthy which comes 
from the bowels of (he earth. The Romans gave him (he name Dia, having the same 
sense. He is also called 'Xirfs^ Orctu^ Jupiter infernus, &c. — His chief festival was 
in February, when the Romans offered to him the sacrifices called Februat whence thci 
name of the month. His rites were performed by night or in the dark. The cypress 
was sacred to him, branches of which were carried at funerals. 

§ 34 b. Under the control of Pluto were the three judges of the lower 
world, JIfinos, BhadamanthuSy and JSSacuM, These decided the condition 
of all the spirits brought into Pluto's realms by Charon. Minos held th 
first rank. They were sons of Jupiter. They appear in Grecian history as rea 

1 u. At the entrance to the world of shades, m Pluto*s vestibule, lev the dog Cerhe 
rusj a three- headed monster, that hindered the spirits firom returning to the upper 
world. The most memorable of those represented as punished in Tartarus were Ixion, 
Sisyphus, Tityus, Phiegyas, Tantalus, the Danaides, and the Aloides. 

2. Charon is said to have been the son of Erebus and Nox. His office w(|8 to con- 
duct the souls of the dead in a boat over the rivers Siyz and Acheron to the realms of 
Pluto. As all were obliged to pay to him an obohm, a small piece of money, it was 
customary to place a coin for that purpose under the tongue of the deceased before the 
funeral rites. Such as had not been honored with a funeral were compelled to wander 
on the shore a hundred years before they could be transported. 

In the Sup. Plate 14, ChBron !■ teen littinc In his boat, in the act of receiving the obolus from 
a mortal introduced by Mercury. 

3. The fkble respecting Chanin is borrowed firom the Egyptians, who had the custom of a trial 
and sentence upon their deceased, before allowing them the honors of burial. For this trial all 
were carried across a lalce in a boat, whose helmsman was called Charon. 

Jtolltn, Abc Hfalt. bk. L cIl 8. Md. 8.-^f Oom. Joum. toL xxiii. p. l^—ButkUn du Scieneu HiMtariqua, vo\. iv- p. 352. 

4. There are nnmerous representations on the monuments of Egyptian art which seem to refer 
to this trial or judgment of the soul. It appears to be often symbolized by the figure of a pair of 
scales or balances, as if it were a weiehing uf the soul (xl/vxtiffraaitt); to which there may be an 
allusion Jn the prophet's interpreutlon of the mysteriVms writing on the wall of Belshnitxar'a 
dining-room (Dan. v. 87). In fig. B. of our Plate XVIII. is a representation of this Icind ; in 
which we aee the Egyptian balances, and a number of priesu and allegorical or mythical per- 

This dramng a ndnead from om giw in rb* gnat Fmeb work itjifld Daariflion A PEgyfU, kc ef. T. IV. $ SS:.-Sae Mttn 
d* rinUUutt Claae d'BaMn tf LU, Jtnc vol. t. p. 84. Mir la PaycboitHta, oa pnte dn amct, wilb puilc 

$ 35. (8) Apollo. The earliest and most natural forw of idolatry was the wor- 
ship of the stars, and especially of the sun, whose splendor, lisht, heat, and salutary 
influence upon all nature, were taken as the supernatural and independent powers 
of a deity. Hence the ancient fiction ascribing personality to this luminary, 
which was worshiped by the Egyptians under the name of Horus, by the Per^ 
sians under that of Mithras, by the later Greeks and Romans under that of 
Phosbua (*ot)3of ) and Apollo. The two latter people, however, considered their 
"Hxiof and Sol as a separate divinity, and attached to the history of Apollo 
many circumstances not connected with his original character as the god of 

The worship of the Persian Mithras ("JtRthras Pertidieua*^)^ Is said to have been introduced at 
Rome in the time of Pompey ; alurs being erected with the inscription, Deo Soli invieto MitArm — 
Some of the antique representations of this god are very remarkable. On the engraved stones 
called JSbraxst (cf. P. IV. $ 900), he often appears under the figure of a lion, or of a man with a 
lion's head. In the Sup. Plate 9, are two representations. The first is from a bas-relief found 
at Rome, about lAOO; the image is a man draped below the loins, having two wings on each 
shoulder, with a head partly that of a lion, and a lighted flambeau in each hand; a serpent 
twines around his shoulders and wings, and from his mouth issues a sort of fillet or ribin, 
which in the original monument floats over a blazlnir altar.— The other is fi'om a marble bas- 
relief, found at Rome in a house near the theatre of Pompey; in this Miihras appears a vigorous 
young man, with a turban on his head, his knee resting on a prostrate bull { with one band he 
holds the nostrils, and with the other plunges a dagger (acinaces) Into the neck of the animal ; a 
dog leaps up to catch the falling blood, while another lies near by, apparently barking ; a scor- 
pion adheres to the lower side of the bull, and a slain or sleeping serpent is stretched at bis feel. 
The monument has several accompanying images, some of which are given in the engraving, 
although not in their original place ; two youths appear with flambeaux, that of one being in- 
verted; a man with a radiated head occupies a chariot with four horses leaping in apparent 
fright ; in another chariot is a woman with horns or crescents attached to her head, almost 
thrown out by the stumbling of her horses; denoting doubtless the sun and moon. 

See Mmr/auoon, Anii^. Expl. vol. i. p. 367-9H.— CVomr, SjrmboUk nod MyUiologie, ftc vol. i. p. 3tf «.— Ct SmOh, Ktt 


{ 36. According^ to both Greeks and Romans, Apollo was the son of Jupiter 
sod Latona, bom on the island Delos. He was regarded as the god or the 
sciences and the arts, especially poetry, masic, and medicine. They ascribed 
to him the greatest skill in the use of the bow and arrow, which he proved in 
ktUiDg the serpent Pytho, the sons of Niobe, and the Cyclops. The last 
achievement incensed Jupiter, and he was banished from Olympus. During 
his exile Apollo abode as a shepherd* with Admetus kin^ of Thessaly. He 
also assisted Neptune in raising the walls of Troy, beguiling the toil of the 
laborers with his lyre and songs. His musical contest^ with Pan and Marsyas 
is referred to the same period of his history. — Other memorable circumstances 
in his history are his love for Daphne and her transformation' into a laurel-tree; 
that of Clytie for him and her metamorphosis^ into a sun-flower; hie friendship 
for Hyacinthus^, who was killed by Apollo^s inattention, but changed into the 
flower of that name ; and for Cyparissua, also accidentally slain and changed 
into a tree'; the indiscreet request of his son Phaeton'', to guide his father's 
chariot for one day, and the fatal consequences of the attempt. 

1 0^ Met iL em » Ti. SSL xi. 146 » Met. 1. 458. « i*. 206, 2S6. » x. 168. • x. 106. f 1. 76a 

i 37 a. The worship of Apollo was much celebrated among both Greeks and 
Romans. As the god of inspiration and prophecy, he gave oracles at Didyma, 
Patara, Claros, and other places. His temple ^i Delphi, and the oracle con- 
nected with it, was the most celebrated ; next in fame was that in Argos, and 
the one at Rome on the Palatine hill, built by Augustus and adorned with a 
famous library. The Greeks celebrated in honor of Apollo the Pythian games, 
and the Romans those called ludi dpollinarea and the ludi seculares. The 
laurel and olive, the wolf and hawk, the swan and grasshopper, the raven, 
crow, and cock, were sacred to Apollo. 

1 tt. The following names were applied to Apollo: Ci,nlkius, Delius, Nomiusj Pa^ 
tareut^ Pytkius {UvBioi), Smintheutf Thymbntus, 

2. He had also the following names: Ad^ta;, natay,'Eiri7^Ao(,To{o0tfpos, AXeffreucof ; 
VnUurius, EpiddiuSf Lyciug, Delphinius, DelphicuSy Actiiis. 

i 37b. The image of this god, as expressed by poets and artists, was the 

highest ideal of human beauty, a tall and majestic body, and an immortal 

?oath and vigor. Accordingly he appears on extant monuments with long 

fcair, crowned with laurel, having in his hand a bow and lyre, and a quiver on 

his shoulder, naked, or but lightly clad. The most celebrated monument is the 

marble statue, called the Jpollo Behidere, 

A view of this monument is given In our Plate XLIV. fig. 3, drawn from Wiockelmann. See 
P. IV. ^186. 4. Cf. TibuU.L. \\l Ele. 4. ▼. 37. 

1. "Sometimes he is painted with a crow end a hawk flying over him, a wolf and a 
laorel-tree on one side and a swan and a cock on the other, and under his feet crass- 
hoppers creeping." Sometimes he is exhibited in the midst of the Muses: cf % 103. 
He also appears, with a radiant head, in a chariot drawn by four horses ; thus he is 
seen in our Plate XI. 4. In the Sup. Plate 2 his figure is given as represented on many 
monuments ; here is seen also an altar with a lyre sculptured on it. — A statue of Apollo 
stcwd upon the promontory of Actium, as a mark to mariners, and was seen at a great 
distance at sea. 

l The ttories respecting Apollo reeemble those in the Hindoo mythology respecting Cri»h%a 
who is sometimes painted in company with iifii« damsels, who are whimsically grouped into the 
fcrm of an elephant, on which he sits and plays upon bis flute. Crishna is also frequently repre- 
sented as the destroyer of the great serpent ; in some views he is held in the folds of the serpent 
which Is biting his foot ; in others, her holds the serpent triumphantly in the grasp of his hands* 
and crushes its head beneath his foot. * 

Of. Sir Wm. Jmu^ m dtad § 2S. A^-AtuUit Rman^y vol. tIH.— CaJmcCt Diet kc toL iii. p. SB9 pT ad! CiMriealowB, 1819. 

S 38. (9) Diana. She was a daughter of Jupiter, and was bom of Latona 
on the island Delos, at the same time with Apollo. As fn Apollo the sun was 
ieified and adored ; so was the moon {luna, asXrpnfji) in Diana, who was called 
6y the Greeks 'Apf^fttf. She was also recoj^ised as the goddess of hunting 
or the chase, of which she was passionately fond in her youth. She was like- 
wise viewed sometimes as a goddess of the infernal regions, under the uanie of 
Eecate, As presiding over the chase, she received from Jupiter a bow with 
arrows, and a train of sixty nymphs. — She also obtained from him the grant of 
her petition to live a virgin, and was therefore the goddess of chastity. Hence 



her displeasure at the transgrression of one of her nymphs, CalistoS and her 
transformation of Actaeon' into a stag. The only .one, towards whom she was 
not indifferent, was the shepherd or hunter, Endymion. She slew the nymph 
Chione* from jealousy of her beauty, and the daughters of Niobe* because 
Latona was slighted tfy their mother. 

t 0», M*l. ii. 464 • iii. 194. * Ix. 821. « vi. MS-StS.— Cf. Bom. II. nix.'-Hyg. bb. 9. 

The Btory ofNIobe and her children (cf. $ 81, $ 131), afforded lo pnets and artists a rich subject 
for the einbellishments of fancy. The number of the children is variously slated ; Ilumer fivea 
her six sons and as many daughters; while others say seven, and tmme. even ten. lu the splen- 
did group of statuary called JVtofra and her Children (cf. P. IV. d lb6. 'i), seven sons and seven 
daughters are represented. Mnntfuucon gives an engraving rrom a most beautiful antitque. 

found nt Rome, in which Apollo and Diana appear In the air discharging their arrows upon the 
unhappy fumily; the youngest daughter clings to her mother; a horse Is leaping in f»ry upon 
anothf>r daughter; one son lies dead on the plain ; the other children are in attitudeft uf distress. 

In our Sup. Plate 17, this subject is represented in a eomposiiton, in which Amphlon ts Intro- 
duced, and a concourse of the cltixens of Tbebes.—A person dying by plague or pestilence was 
•aid to be slain, if a mate, by the arrows of Apollo; if a female, by the arrows of Diana. 

Sm Montf. Ant. Exp. ?ol. i. p. lOf .oJHoyo, Mjihaogj, vol. iii. p. 109 m. 

$ 39. Nowhere was the worship of Diana so much regarded, nowhere had 
she a temple so splendid, as at Ephesus. (Cf. P. IV. § 234. 3.) With this 
exception, that in Chersonesus Taurica was the most celebrated, especially 
through the story of Orestes and Iphigenia. Her principal temple at Rome 
was that erected by Servius TuUius on Mount Aventinus. In Rome the festi- 
val of the liidi secularea were sacred to her in conjunction with Apollo, and she 
was particularly honored under the name of Luctfia, as presiding over births. 
In this view she was also called by the Greeks and Romans Ilithyia (<\?i«J^ia), 
although this was the name (cf. § 27) of a distinct divinity. 

1. The poppy was sacred to Diana. The Athenians eacrificed to her goats, or a 
white kid, sometimes a pig or ox. The inliabitants of Taurica offered on her altar 
strangers that were shipwrecked on their coast. 

2 u. Amon^ her names were Fkcebe, Cynthia, Delia, Hecate, Dictynna, AgroUra 
(dyporipa)- 2Vrt)ta (Tptoiiris), from her Statues being placed in crossways as she pre- 
sided over streets; Chitone ix^rtUvti); and Triformis {rpiitopipos), from her threefold 
character as goddess of the moon or month, the chase, and the lower world. 

"Diana is ^lled 7V<formu and Ter/femina: first, because though she is but one goddess, vet 
she has three different names as well as three different offices: In the heavens she Is called 
Luna ; on the earth she is named Diana ; and in hell she is styled Hecate or Proserpina : in th« 
heavens she enlightens everything by her rayn ; on the earth she keeps under all wild beasts by 
her bow and her dart ; and in hell she keeps all the ghosts and spirits in subjection tn her by hel 
power and authority : secondly, because she has, as the poets say, three heads ; the head of a 
horse on the right side, of a dog on the led, and a hnman head in the midst; wheifce come call 
her three-headed or three-fared: thirdly, according to some, because the moon has thr**e phases 
or shapes ; the new moon appears arched with a semi-circle of light; the half-uionn fills a semi- 
circle with light ; and the full moon fills a whole circle or orb with splendor." 

3. Other names or epithets were applied to her: Xox<«'o. tvviiydij iptviKoitof, ioxUipa 
and rofo^^pof. 

§ 40. As goddess of the chase, she is represented in monuments of art, tall 
and nimble, with a light, short, and often flowing costume, her legs bare, her 
feet covered with busKins, with bow and arrows, either alone, or accompanied 
by her nymphs; often with a hound near her: often riding in a chariot drawn 
by two white stag*. 

fn our Plate X. fig. 7, she Is seen in her chariot drawn by stags.— In the Sup. Plate 15, she is 
given as represented in a beautiful statue, supposed to have come from the same hands as the 
Apollo Belvidere. 

1. " Sometimes she appears with wings, holding a lion in one hand, and a panther in 
the other, with a chariot drawn by two heifers, or two horses of different colors." 

2 tf. As the f^oddcss of night, or the moon, she is represented in long robes, with a 
large starred veil, having a torch in her hand and a crescent on her head. 

:3ee Plate XLI.-Cf. Plate XIV. fig. «.— See $ 76, 

3 u. We have figures of the Ephenan Diana, in the Egyptian style, and in Greek 
imitation of it, in which she is exhibited with numerous breasts, and very similar to 
Jsi-g, whereby the fruitfulness of nature seems to have been represented. 

Monifaucon gives several of these figures. One of the roost remarknble is presented in onr 
f^up. Plate 16 ; on the head of the statue is a dmilile mural crown ; a large fesioon is suspended 
from the neck, and within it are two images of Virtnry ; on each arm are two lions; the body 
lapers to the feet like a Hermes, but is divided into four portions, the first of which is occupied 
by numerous breasts, the second by heads of stags, and the third and fourth by heads of oxen. 

i. In the Sup. Plate 13, are tbree views of a statue of Diana Trlfbrmia, from Montfaucon •. 



preflenting the three fluee* sucoesfllvely; the first face on the right with a torch in eaeh hand; 
the next face, with a knife {eultrum) in the right hand, and a whip {JtagMuvi) in the left; the 
third, with a key in the right hand and a lerirant in the left. 

§ 41 a. (lOJ Minerva. Under the name of Afinerva amonjr the Romans and 
of IlaTJiaf and *A^va among the Greeks, ancient fiction personiiied and deified 
the idea of high intelligence and wisdom. She was a daughter of Jupiter, 
sprung from his head. She is said first to have revealed herself near the lake 
Tritonis in Libya, from which circumstance she was called Tritonia, 

I. Some derive this epithet, and the Greek Tpiroy<»«a, from the word rpirw etgni- 
fjring head. 

2. Minerva ia by wome suppoied to have been origini^lly the Egyptian deity worshiped partico^ 
larly at Sals under the naniR of Neith or Netha. Varimis etymologies of the Greek name 'AU^vl 
have been given ; among them is the conjecture wliich derives it fVotn the name of the figypiian 
deity, by inverting the order of the letters ; Netha {vniia).^ being thus changed, would form o&n*. 

$ 41 b. The Greeks ascribed to this goddess the invention of many arts and 
sciences^ which had a great influence on their civilization. She was regarded 
as tnventress of the flute, of embroidery and spinnin^r, the use of the olive, and 
various instruments of war; in short, of most works indicating superior intelli- 
gence or skill. Arachne^s contest with her in working with the needle, and 
consequent despair and transformation are beautifully described bjr Ovid.' 

1 Op. Fattor. iii. 815. a 0». Mettm. vi. 6. 

$ 42. The city of A&ens was consecrated to Minerva, and boasted of receiv- 
insf its name from her. The splendid temple at that place dedicated to her w^as 
called Parthenon,^ in reference to her virgin purity (fcap^'vo;). She had other 
temples, at Ery thrae, Tegea, and Sunium," and several at Rome. Her principal 
festivals among the Greeks were the Panaihenaa^ the greater and the less, and 
among the Romans, Quinqualria, on each of which, games and contests were 
held. The owl was sacred to Minerva, and is ol\en found on her images and 
on the Athenian coins.' 

t Rapsrf ing llw Parthtnm, aae?.l.\ 107. CL P. IV. f 1S4. S. ) U9. ( 84S. I • Ob Om isnaim of tbe toapi* of Snaiam, 

cf. Jm. Quorl. Am. Tol. vi. p. 234. * Sae tba Attic ooia (1v«d In Fliile XL. fif. 6. 

The following is the story respecting the name of the city of Athens:— When Cecrops built 
a new city, Neptune and Minerva contended about its name ; and it was resolved in the assem- 
bly of the gods, that whichsoever of the two deities found out tbe most useful creature to man, 
should give the name to the city. Neptune struck the ground with his trident, and a horse 
issued from the earth. Minerva caused an olive lo spring up. The latter was pronounced tbe 
Bore useful thing, and Minerva therefore gave the city her own name, 'AOnvS. Dr. Clarke 
imagines that this story had its origin from the fact, that the plains of Greece were once covered 
or nearly so with water, which was afterwards removed by evaporation and other causes, and 
thus a cultivable soil was presented to the inhabitants. 

Clarkit Tnveh in nrioui oouotrio, fce. Put IL Met ii. eb. It. 

$ 43. Minerva is usually represented in military armor, with a helmet^ and 
the .^^8, or her peculiar cuirass bearing on it Medusa's head, and with a spear 
and of\en a shield or buckler in her hand. Her helmet is generally ornamented 
with the figure of the owl, but presents various forms. 

1. In our Plate XI. fig. 6, she appears holding in her left hand an image of Victory, 
with her right restingon a round stueld bearing on it a Medusa ; her spear leans on her 
right shoulder ; the iEgis is seen on her breast. In the Sup. Plate 6, she is in a sitting 
posture, with her spear and buckler; the owl appearing at her feet. In the Sup. Plate 
20, the owl appears on one side and a cock on the other ; the .^gis on her breast is 
here very distinct. 

The term «ffi» {ity^i) signifies literallv a roal-§ki%. Homer represents the mgia as a part Af 
the armor of Jupiter, whom he distinguishes by the epithet dcvfoxor ; yet he speaks of Minerva 
as using it (cf. 12. li. 447-449. xviil.t04. xxi.400). 

2 tf . The colossal statue of Minerva, wrought by Phidias, and the Palladium were 
much celebrated; the former on account of the perfection of its workmanship (cf. P. I. 
% 107. P. IV. ^% 160, 161, 179); the latter on account of the superstitious confidence 
placed in it by the Trojans, Greeks, and Romans. 

The PaUadium was a statue of Pallas, with a spear in one hand and a dlstaflT in the other, 
about three cubits high. It was said to have fhllen from heaven into the citadel of Troy or 
Ilium before it was completely built, and that the oracle of Apollo being consulted upon this oc- 
currence, answered, that "the city should be safe so long as thatiuiage remained within it.'* 
"When tbe Greeks besieged Troy, it was therefore thought of the first consequence to obtain thia 
image. Ulysses and Diomedes succeeded in getting it by stealth (Fir. Mn. ii. 169). It was said 
to have been afterwards recovered from Diomedes by ^neas, carried to Italy, and finally lodgec 
ia the temple of Vesta. 

p. n* SUPERIOR 00D8. MARS. VENUS* 105 

3ii. Beade* the names Minerva, Pallaa, and Athena, this goddess was often called 
n«^«f, 'Epyaris, and 'Epy^^^i TloXthi ; ahe is also termed Mtuicaf Fylotia, and very 
often TKawciiwts or Cassia. 

{44. (11) Mars. The god of war and battles was a son of Jupiter and 
Jddo, and educated in Thrace. He was viewed as presiding over rude and 
fierce war, the origin of which was ascribed to him, while Minerva had the 
credit of inventing tactics and the proper military art. -—^-Notwithstanding the 
high idea which Homer gives of the strength and heroism of Mars, he repre- 
aentB him as taken prisoner by Otus and Ephialtes, and wounded by Diome- 
des; it was, however, by the help of Minerva^ Besides these occurrences, his 
amors with Venus and his dispute with Neptune' respecting the son of the 
latter, HaJlirrhotius, who was put to death by Mars, constitute all that is re- 
markable in his history. 

t Jbtt. a. T Sn, M6. • JpMod. liL 14.-i>«uMn. i. 21. 

$4^ a. He was most worshiped in Thrace, where probably the whole con- 
ception of such a js:od originated. He had however temples and priests in most 
of the Grecian cities. 

" Mars was never a favorite deity with the Hellenic tribes of Greece, and his worship 

was oomparatively neglected It is not easy to discover the origin of this deity ; 

be seems to have been derived from the Pelasgi, or some other warlike and barbarous 

tribe, rather than Egypt. He bears a striking resemblance to the northern Odin, and 

probably was the same deity under another name." Tooke's Pantheon, Lond. ed. 1831. 

i 45 b. The Romans regarded him as the father of Romulus, and the founder 

i and protector of their nation.' They erected to him many temples, consecrated 

to him a large public place, the Campus Martina, and a peculiar order of priests, 
the Saiii, who celebrated his festival with music and dancing in solemn pro- 

I cessions. 

' 1. It was a special business of these priests to guard the anrt'Zta, or sacred shields ; 

I respecting which see, P. III. ^ 215.— A very ancient hymn sung in honor of Mars by 

the Horoans is still preserved ; see P. IV. $114. 4. — To Mars was offered the sacrifice 
called SMot€taurilia ; a representation of which, as found in an ancient bas-relief, is 
gire^ io our Plate XXIX. 

2. Several animals were consecrated to Mars ; the horse, for his vigor; the wolf, for 
his fierceness : the do^, for his vigilance. Magpies and vultureaf were aJso offered to 
him on account of their greediness. 

i 46. The ancient artists have represented Mars in full manly vigor, with a 
atrong but agile body, and an air calm and collected, rather than vehement or 
passionate. He commonly appears equipped in armor; sometimes naked; 
I tometimes in the attitude of marching, as Aidra Gradivua, 

1. He is also represented as riding in a chariot drawn b^ furious horses, covered with 
armor and brandishing a spear in his right hand ; thus he is seen in our Plate XI. fig. 7. 
Sometimes Bellona, the goddess of war, bearing in her hand a flaming torch, drives the 
diariot over prosJraie warriors ; such is the representation given in the Sup. Plate 10. 
Someimes he is represented as attended with a horrid retinue ; Clamor, Anger, Dis- 
cord, Fear. '\ error, and Fame. In the Sup. Plate 6, he appears as ready for marching ; 
with his plumed helmet, coat of mail, spear, and shield. 

2. BeB0»€t called by the Greek* 'Ewo), fe eometimea said to be the wifb, aometlroea the lister, 
aid ■ooietiiiies the daughter of Mara. She had a temple at Rome, and before it was a pillar 
called Bellin, over which the herald threw a spear when war was proclaimed. 

3 V. Mars was called *Aftri; by the Greeks ; other names given to him are Odryaiua^ 
Sirpmmma, Enyaliua, ThuriuBj QuirintUf UUor. 

\ { 47. (13) Vbnus. The ideal of the most perfect female beauty, and the 

love awakened by it, was in eastern fiction expressed and personified in an 
I imaginary goddess ; she was called by the Romans Venua, and by the Greeks 

j 'A^^itij. According to the common story, she was bom from the foam (o^poO 

of the sea; in Homer she is presented as a daughter of Jupiter and Dione. 

After her birth she came first to Cy therea, and thence to Cyprus. Many of the 

gods sought her ; but Vulcan obtained her as his spouse. 

1 ». She, however, loved Mars, Mercury, and Adonis especially, although with un- 
requited passion ; the early death of the latter she bitterly lamented. 

I OMrf. Metaft. s. iOT, 717 s.^Jion, Myi oa Uw dMlh of AdoBk-SM aln Tkuaiim, Idyl xt. which b a boratirnl UtU* eooMdy 

CM^W^teMry of .AdoMi j t^OM ■ tald a Alondfte, It fh* tiiae or* CBitival in hM boMT. 


Thfl itorjr reipeetlng Adonis, the joaiif ftrorlte of Vemn, is, that being engeged fn hnniing, 
of which he was excessively fond, he received a mortal wound from a wild boar. At this Venus 
was immoderately grieved, and Proserpina restored him to life on condition of his spending six 
months with Venus and six with herself. It has been explained thus : Adonu^ or MdonaU was 
an oriental title of the sun, signifying Lord; the boar, supposed to have killed him, was tlie em- 
blem of winter, during which the productive powers of nature being snsiiended, Venus was said 
to lament the loss of Adonis until he was restored again to life ; whence both the Syrian and 
Argive women annually mourned his death, and celebrated his renovation.' '—Adonis is supposed 
to be the same deity with the Syrian Tammuz ccf Kitkitl viii. 14).— Lucian (JDc Syria Z>ia) gives 
an account of the festival jfdoRia, held in honor of him at Byblus. Cf. P. III. ^ 77. S. 

2 «. In her contest with Juno and Minerva, Paris awarded to Vemu the priie of 
beauty. Hence her memorable zeal for the interests of the Trojans. 

$ 48. The most celebrated places of her worship were Golgri, Paphos, and 
Amathus, upon the island of Cyprus, which was wholly consecrated to her; 
Cy thera, Cnidos, and Eryx in Sicily ; all situated near the sea, and in delight- 
ful regions. In Rome she was honored as the pretended mother of ^neas, the 
ancestor of the nation, althouj^h her worship was first formally introduced from 
Sicily, in the sixth century after the building of the city. 

1. At Uierapolis, in Syria, was a splendid temple in honor of Venus, under the name of 41s- 
taru or Jitergaii»t the Jitktaroth of the Holy Scriptures. 
Sm iHciois D* Bjria nM.-CC JToyo, Myttaolacy, mI. iL-GiiiMf, tcL HL p. SH. ad. Clttricrt. Mlt.-.CtaML /doniai; Vo, UH. 

2 V. The pigeon or dove, the mjrrtle, and the rose, were especially sacred to the 
goddess of love. 

3. The swan and the sparrow were also sacred to Venus. Her sacrifices were goats 
and swine, with libations of wine, milk, and honey. 

Some have considered the worship of Venus as derived ftrom corrnptlons of the tradiUons re- 
specting the universal dtlugt ; her rising from the sea being a type of the world emerging flposi 
the waves of the flood.— i^ryaac's Mythology.— ^v/weii** Myth. Diet. 

$ 49. The poets and artists of antiouity endeavored in the description and 
representation of Venus to embody the fullest and purest idea of female beauty. 
The most distinguished antique statue of her is the famous Medicean Venus at 

Ba^teerii^ Ihit iMm, «eP. IV. § 116. & 

1. She is represented on coins and gems, and in the descriptions of the poets, in 
various ways ; sometimes she is clothed with a purple mantle glittering with diamonds, 
her head crowned ^th myrtle and roses, nding in a chariot made of ivory, fmely 
carved, painted and snlded, and drawn by swans, doves, or sparrows. Sometimes she 
is attended with the Graces and several Cupids. At one time she appears like a young 
virgin, rising from the sea and riding in a shell ; at another, she holds the shell m her 
hand. In our Plate X. fig. 6, she stands on a wave of the sea, supported by two l*ri- 
tons, with two attendant Cupids. In the Sup. Plate 6, she stands in a shell, with lone 
tresses, drawing a mantle around her. In the celebrated picture by Apelles (of. P. I V. 
i 222). she appears rising from the boeom of the waves and wringing her tresses on her 
BhouJders. In some monumenie she holds one hand before her bosom and with the 
other presses her mantle close about her limbs ; Monifaucon gives a figure very similar 
to this, from a statue formerly in the gallery of Versailles. In the Sup. Plate 7. she is 
seen in a reclining posture, with Cupid resting his elbow on her lap. while the Graces 
are adorning her person, and two doves conduct her car on a cloud. In an ancient paint- 
ing, given m the Sup. Plate 8, she supports in her arms the dying Adonis. In some 
representations she has golden sandals on her feet, and holds before her a brilliant 
mirror. The Sicyonians exhibited her with a poppy in one hand and an apple in the 
other. In Elis she was painted as sitting on a ffoat and treading on a tortoise. — ^She 
usuallv had a belt or gmile called Cettutt in which all kuids of pleasures are said to 
be folded. 

Jfayn^ Qber di* VonMlaafartaa dw VmH^ la hk JntffiMT. Ji^iSte.— Mnuo^ Ikteadl. Bbw die Vmwi, !■ bb VtrmtOm lltap 
wyttoiofi'w*" Q«fgM«anAL 

2 u. Various attributes were given to her, under the difierent characters of Venus 
Urania^ Marina^ Victrix, &.C. She was likewise known under the names Erycina, 
Anadyamene {dvaSvoftcvri)^ Paphirit Idalia. 

3. fler names and epithets were exceedingly numerous ; as, Cmria, n&vitiu^, Cyfke- 
reOt ^tXoiitidfift T^Xwvlyafl^, Verticordia, Erafpa, Acidalia, LiheHina^ Saligenita, 
QaXaatnaf &.C. 

$ 50. The son of this goddess, *Epu;, .imor, or Cupid^ was her common 
companion, and the god of love, which he was supposed to influence by his 
arrows. He is represented with a bow and arrows", often with a burning torch 
jn his hand. He was very frequently exhibited on ancient works of art, and 
10 a great variety of form8^ Often several C upids appear in company . — ^'Avtspuf, 


J who ifl usually considered the god of matoal love, was orig[inslly thu 
god that sTenges despised love. He is sometimes represented as wrestling 
with Cupid. 

•SHovllMeZLff.*. »CtJtoM(HMeHBd§4B.l.-.8eePUteX%.e»aBd9ap.I1«teTaBd9i 

Ik. The attachment of Cupid to Psyche is the chief incident in his history and forms 
one of the moet beautiful allegories oi*^ antiquity. 

The aDefory ia fbund in JtjmlMus (cf. P. V. $ 471. 2). For expoiitions, cf. KHghiUft P- 148, M 
eked }l%% (5) .—Psyche is usually represented with the wings of a butterfly; as in the statue 
{P9fek$ m Urrvr •/ FemM) given in our Sup. Plate 8.— See also Plate XLVII. fig. 5; cf. P. IV. $ 198. 

2. Hymeoeua waa also one of the iroaffinary companions of Venus. He presided 
erer marriage. He was represented as of »ir complexion, crowned with the amaraau 
or iwea matjoram, carrying in one hand a torch and in the other a veil of flame color, 
JDcficatiog tHe blushes oi a virgin. 

In the Sup. Plate 9, Hymenous is seen leading by a chain Cupid and Psyche ; turn an antique 
icalpinre representing their nuptifJs. 

{ 51 . (13) Vulcan. In unenlightened periods, the violent agencies of the 
ehnnents, as well as the appearances of the heavenly luminaries, excited as- 
tmishment and were deified. Traces of the worship of fire are found in the 
earliest times. The Egyptians had their god of fire, from whom the Greeks 
derived the worship of H^cofo;, called by the Romans Fuieanut or Fuiean. 
Fable styles him the son of Jupiter and Juno. On account of his deformity 
his mother thmst him' from Olympus; or, according to another story, Jupiter 
buried him out, because he attempted to help Juno when fastened by the golden 
chain. He fell upon the island Lemnos, afterwards his chief residence, and 
was, according to the later fictions', lamed by his fall. 

ian.azTui.aSS. L«a ^a rol. /Im. Irtoo. U. 87. 

{ 52. To Vulcan was ascribed the invention of all those arts that are coi>- 
nected with the smelting and working of metals by means of fire, which ele- 
ment was considered as subject to him. His helpers and servants in such 
works were the Cyclops, sons of Uranus and Gaia, whose residence also was 
ia Lemnos, and of wnom there are commonly mentioned three, Brontes^ Sit" 

7es, and Pyrakmon. Th^se are to be distinguished from the Sicilian Cyclops 
a later period. 

I. The epithet Cyclopean is applied to certain structures of stone, chiefly walls, in 
vtidi large masses of rough stone are nicely adjusted and fitted together. 

aP.IV.)23l.a, /Vwd,yHiNDir«AMC]Fda|M,Jemi..lcad.iiucr.nUi.97. 

2a. Mount ^tna was represented as the workshop of Vulcan ; so also Lipara, one 
of the .£olian isles, called likewise Vulcanian. — Works requiring peculiar art and 
eitiaordinary strength, especially when metals were employed as materials, were 
called by the poets Vulcan's masterpieces. Among these were the palaces of Pho9bns^ 
of Ifan', and Venus' ; the golden chain of Juno*, the thunderbolts of Jupitei^, the 
crows of Ariadne^, the arms of Achilles'', and of Eneas', &c. 

*<kilhb& fi. k •Stdl.Tbeh. Tii.S8. • CftnidL EpiltaL BoDdr. K Ihr. v.58. « i>lBiiMii. Att. c 90. Lmqb.& 17. 

■ Oh. liiAMb i. SML • Ou. VHt iiL SIS. •* Bam, n. sviO. 46a ■ Firf . £■. viU. 407. 

9. Ynlean is said to have formed, by request of Jupiter, the first woman ; sbe was called Pea- 
iM«, because each of the fods gave her some present or accomplishment. 

hifeiSip, ftm 4, k ■ eo^KHthm dnisMd to ohibit Om smIs MBnUed to bMtow tlwir filbon Om ifiMnB.-8M Oriod; 

$ 53. According to the earlier fictions, Vulcan had for his wife Charis, of 
Adnata; and according to the later, Venus, after Minerva had rejected him. 
Harmonia was his daughter, or the daughter of Mars and Venus. The Giants 
Caeos and Csecolus were called his sons.— He was worshiped particularly in 
Lemnos, and Ibe Vulcanian isles. A temple was dedicated to him upon .£tna. 
At Rome the VukanaUa were celebrated in honor of him, and at Athens the 

1. A calf and a male pig were the principal victims ofiered in sacrifice to him. — Those 
who ibilowed arts and employments requiring the use of fire, especially rendered honor 
and wordiip to Vulcan. '* I'he lion, who in his roaring seems to dart fire firom his 
■loath, was consecrated to Vulcan ; and dogs were set apart to keep his temple." 

2iK. Some of his names are the following: Lemniu9y Muidber, CyUapodcB (n»XXo. 
**i^\ Ampkig}feiM {A^^ty^mts). 

% Some writcn derive the same and story of Yaleaii from Tobal-Caln, mentiooed by Mosea 


(Gen. iv. 93). Gf. HetwM^ Myth. Dtct. The ancfents gave varioai etymotof i«t of the naoie , 

ServiuB lays it was derived from volUanSf because the sparl» of fire fly in the air; the account 
given by Varro is aimilar (see ( S4. 2). 

$ 54. Vulcan was usually represented as engfaged in his work, with hammer 
and pincers in his hands ; sitting more frequently than standing. His lameness 
is not indicated in any existing monuments, although it was in some ancient 

1. Cicero, Rpeaking of one of these statues, says (De Nat. Dcor. i. 30), "We ad- 
mire that Vulcan of Athens, made by Alcamenes; he is standing, cloihed.and appears 
lame without any deformity." — Some of the common representations of this god are 
seen in our Plate X. fig. 4, and Sup. Plate 6. 

2. "That by Vulcan la under»tood^r0, the name itielf discovert, if we believe Vsrro, who says 
that the word Vuleanu* is derived irom the force and violence of Are (Ktticantits, quasi Volica' 
naw, quod igrtU p^ attm volitaiy vel a vi ac vioUntia ipnia)', and therefore he is painted with a 

bine hat, a symbol of the celestial or elementary fire." (Tovkc) »* Vulcan was represented 

covered with sweat, blowing with his nervous arms the fires of his forges. His breast waa 
hairy, and his forehead blackened with smoke. 8oroe represented him lame and deformed, 
holding a hammer in the air ready to strike; while with the other hand he turns with pincers a 
thunderbolt on his anvil (ax^Kur). He appears on some monuments with a long beard, disheveled 
hair, half naked, and a small round cap on his bead, with hammer and pincers in his hand." 
(/.^isp.)— The medals of Lemnos usually bear a representation of Vulcan, with the legend Df 

S. The KprMentfttioM of Vuleu tbow tint the unl\ of laeleDt tfan« wu tamti like (he modern. It wu placed m a lufs Uack 
of wood {jiKn69tT9v) I cf. Horn. Od. viii. ZTi. yirg. JRa. vii. 829.~Ib early tiiMa, it waa nude of bnoie, aa were alio the 
hammer and pincen; cf. Horn. Od. iii. 4Si.—SmUtf$ DicL Ant p. 612. 

§ 56. (14) Mrrcury. The Greeks borrowed the worship of this god from the 
Egyptians, whose Hermes Trismegiiiua is so celebrated in their early history. 
According to the Greek and Roman fables, 'Ep/i^$, M ercurius or Mercury^ was 
the son of Jupiter and Maia. Maia was a daughter of Atlas, found by Jupiter 
in the cave Cyllene in Arcadia, and afterwards with her six sisters nlaced by 
him among the stars, thus forming the constellation named Pleiades from their 
mother Pleione. 

The principal characteristics of Mercury were cunning and dexterity, which 
he exhibited even in his childhood, apd not always in the most praiseworthy 
manner. This appears from the tricks related of him, and from the circum- 
stance, that he was considered as the god not only of mercature, but also of 
theft ; although the latter, in early times was not viewed so much as a crime, 
as an evidence of power and adroitness. Mercury stole the cattle of Admetus 
guarded by Apollo, Apollo's arrows, the girdle of Venus, the pincers of Vul- 
can, &c. 

1 tt. By his flute the guardian of lo, even the hundred-eyed Argus, was lulled to 
sleep. (Ov. Metam. i. 668.) — The principal means of his success in his feats was bis 
eloquence ; this art was ascribed to him in a high degree. He invented also the lyre, 
attaching strings to the shell of the tortoisef and presented it to Apollo. In return 
Apollo gave him the celebrated wand {caduceus), the origin of which is variously stated ; 
its efficacy was potent in calming the passions and stilhng contention. Mercurv carried 
this rod as the messenger of the gods, and employed it to awaken dreams, and to con- 
duct the shades of the dead to the lower world ; tor he was called to offices and labors 
in that world, as well as on earth and in Olympus. 

S The eadueeiu was a rod with wings at on€ end, and entwined by two serpents in the form 
of equal semicircles. Originally it was nothing more than a rod adorned with green leaves, and 
wiilta skillfully tied knot as the symbol of traffic. In a later age these decorations were changed 
by the poets into serpents and wings. Vnrinus interpretations of the meaning of it have been 
.given. Prudence is generally supposed to be represented by the two serpents, and the wings are 
the symbol of diligence : both necessary in the pursuit of business and commerce, which Mer- 
cury patronlzeil." 
Ob ibe nylbolngiat chancier of Mereuiy, Clan. Jaurwd, ivi. S!4.— JSMIifV* Amalllm, i. iOL-SBtHgar^ Vaa«i«n, IL S7. 

§ 56 a. Mercury is usually represented as a slender youth, holding his wand, 
almost always in motion, either flying or rapidly marching, wearing a winged 
hat (^petasus)^ and winged sandals {lalaria). Sometimes he holds a purse in 
his hand, as the god of commerce ; sometimes a tortoise appears by him in 
reference to his invention of the lyre. The cock was sacred to bim, and appears 
sometimes as an attribute in the images of Mercury. 

1. In our Plate XI. fig. 2, we have a common representation of Mercury flying ; and 
another similar, in the Sup. Plate 2. — In the Sup. Plate 7, he is seen attending on 
Jupiter and Juno.^In our Plate XVIII. flg. 4, and in the Sup. Plate 14 (illustrations 


nmed Door of Hell and Charon), he appears in his office of conductor of the shades 
of the dead. Cf. ^32a. 1. 

2 u. The monuments called Hemus (see P. IV. ^ 164) were originally statues of 
Mercury, They had their origin when art was in a very imperfect slate, but were 
afterwards retained, and were used to represent other gods and memorable men. 

$ 56 b. The worship of Mercury was very common among Egyptians, Greeks, 
and Romans, and many temples were consecrated to him. At Rome there was 
a particular festival {faium Msrcaiorum) held for the expiation of merchants, 
io honor of Mercury. 

1. At thb festival, held in the middle of the da^, the votaries sacrificed to him a sow 
or a calf, and offered especially the tongues of animals, and sprinkling themselves with 
water, prayed to him to forgive all their artful measures or falsehoods m pursuit of gain. 

2 «. The more common epithets apptied to Mercury are CyUeniut, Atlantiddeg, Alu, 
Aeoritus (dyopato^), Cadueifer. 

'3. Other common epithets are 'ApytttpArnK^ it&crtapf and hitryds; he is also termed 
i^,crafiy; Kspctao^, as presiding over weahh; rpur^Xos, because his statues were placed 
wheire three ways met. 

S 57. (15) Bacchus. The Greeks and the Romans worshiped the inventor 
and god of wine, ander the name of Bacchus, Bax;tof ; the former also called 
him ^iwvaof. In the fictions of both, he was the son of .Tupiter and Semt le, 
a daaghter of Cadmos. In answer to her request, Jupiter appeared to her in 
his full majesty and divinity, the fiery splendor of which caused her death.* 
Jopiter saved alive the infant Bacchus not yet bom, and carried him in his own 
thigh until the proper time of his birth. Hence, according to some etymolo- 
gists, the poets called him dc^pa/u/3o(, as having been twice bom ; a name 
which was afterwards given to the irregular hymns' snng at his festivals. 

1 08. Ifat. m. MO. « Of. p. V. § 22. p. iii. ) 77. 8. 

$ 58. The ancients ascribed to Bacchus manifold offices, and related a multi- 
tude of achievements as performed by him. Especially was he celebrated for 
his advancement of morals, legislation, and commerce; for the culture of the 
nne and the rearing of bees ; and for his military expeditions and success^ 
particularly in India. He was universally worshiped as a god, and a miracle- 
worker, except in Scythia. 

1 «. The power ascribed to him is illustrated in the story respecting Midas, king of 
Phrygia, who restored to Bacchus his nurse and preceptor Silenus, and received as a 
compensation the fatal attribute of turning into gold ' every thing he touched. — Some 
of the remarkable incidents of his story are, changing the Tyrrhenian sailors into doU 
phins^; his residence upon the island Naxos, where he found Ariadne, forsaken by 
Tfaeseos, and espoused her, but likewise forsook her, and after her death placed her 
crown among the stars?; his descent to Hades in order to convey his mother Semele 
back to Olympus, where she was deified under the name of Thyone. 

i Omdy Sbna. zk tSb ' Met UL esO. a rnt Ui. 45a 

1 Bicebot ta alao imid to have traveled into India with an army composed of men and women, 
The achievements of diflTerent peraonagee are douMIeas ascribed to him. Diodorus Sicalua aaya 
tbat tttere were three who bore tbia name. Cicero aaya there were five. 

3 ». He is called by various names ; LyasuSp Thyoneus, Evan, Nyctelius, Bassareus, 
Tkriambus, Thyrsiger (cf. Ov. Met. iv. 11), Liber, Bimater, &.c. 

J 59. The worship of Bacchus, originating very early in tne East, probably 
in India, was among the earliest and most general practiced in the Grecian or 
Roman territories. Pentheus and Lycurgus, who refused to participate in it, 
were punished with death ; and the daughters of Minyas and Orchomenos, for 
the same reason, were changed into bats. Thebes, Nysa, Mount Cithseron. 
Naxoe, and Alea in Arcadia, were renowned for their festivals in honor of 

Baeehas ^Fhe vine and ivy and the panther were especially sacred to him. 

Goats were usoally offered in sacrifice to him, because they are particularly 
injurious to the vine. 

I. The (hcopkoria, EpQaniaf Apaturia, Ambrosia, and Ascolia, are named as 
festivals of this god. 

2 B. The most eminfent of his festivals were the Trieterica and the Dionysia (see P. 
ni. ^ 77. 3), in which his military enterprises were commemorated. These celebra- 
tioas at length became wild and licentious orgies, and were finally on that account 
abolished (cf. Liv. zxxix. 8, as.) in Rome by the senate, in the year of the city 568. 

Ob «• «nnh9 of BMcbna, Ma fVmt^ L» Onllt da BMbm^ Man. .teiA rtM«r. vpL zxHI. p. M2.-a. #. Ctnom-, DiOByni^iu 


i m I f Awd. fc BOTrn aMiMc oriiMwm cwh. BMUb. I8O81 4.-Alk» takmte mt te Colt* d« BMdM. hilL 

3. In MvenI poinu the story and worship of Bacr hui rMemble those of the Erv|Ktian Osf ris. 
There is also iboughi to be a ttriklnK resemblance between Bacchus and the Sehiva of India (cf. 

Rhode^ as cited $ 13). Sir H'm. J»nes (as cited i S». 4), considers Bacchus and the Hindoo lUma 

to be the same. **The first poft of the llindooe," says he, ''was the great Valmie, and his Rm- 
■MMs is an epic poem on the same subject, which in unity of action, magnificence of imagery, 
and elegance of stvie, far surpasses the learned and elaborate work of ^Nonnus entitled ZHauf' 
s%at4t (cf. P. V. ) 76), half of which, or twenty-four books, 1 pt'rusfd with great eagerness when 
I was very young, and shouUI have traveled to the conclusion of it. If other pursuits had not 
engaged me. 1 shall never have leisure to compare the Dionynadc* with the itdsiaysm bat am 
confident that an accurate comparison of the two poems would prove DwnysM and AoMa to have 
been the same person." 

4. It b wortlijr of ranrfc, tint the afeomiaatkai of ibe Dioapiae ftttiTsb an to thk dty i>raclk^ at lb* tanple of Ja| 
BiMkMlaB. This fod has two aMMalfndvak^ Atttwomcalted ll«flv>ib«al.biaian«B, ^'abiockoT wood, litviaicafrigbtM 
*!■(• painted Mack, wllb a dMiaodad nMWtb of a Moody color,* ia bRMgbt oat of tbe lemplo in f ofipoaB array and placfrf on a ats- 
pMdooi or riuDf bigfa like a tower, wUeh rarii 00 low wheeU and li drawn by tbo crowd oT votariet, atiovlod wilb flafi aad 
bunen, amid Ow MMod of nnMical inalnnMnii and ttie aboMi oT an \mmgm» nMltitadoof pUfrinM aMoblcd bam vnrlovi n^ 
Aalaat ngioos. la onr Bale XIII a. ii a reprtaoototion of tbii oataM o ny ; tbe borM^wbicb appear allached to ibe ear, aMwootaL 
Tbo car k eovtrad witb iodocent tgan* painted all orer IL At iatamla tbe car is atoppad, and tbe priaato aad boyi coanortod with 
the Icnpte randcr wonbip byoNeeaeaenia aad Ufdvioa acttowto pleaaa tbe |od,aa tbcy Bay,aad eaoaa bim toao**.— Sot Iffcr ^ 
Viow eflbn Bcligion, *b of tbe Bwdeoa. 

$ 60. The ancient representations of Bacchus are much more dignified than 
those with which the later artists were accustomed to degrade him. By the 
poets and artists of antiquity he was exhibited as a handsome agreeable boy, 
just on the border of youth, with a form more resembling a female, than that 
of Mercury or Apollo, and with a joyful look. Of no other eod have we a greater 
number or variety of representations, in statues, bas-reliefs, and ^ms, than of 
Bacchus with his train, Silenus, the Fauns and Satyrs, and Bacchanals. 

1. Among the various representations of this god, we sometimes find him with 
swollen cheeks, and a bloated body. He is crowned with ivj^ and vine leaves, having 
in his hand a (Ayr«tM, tm iron-heaoed javelin, encircled with ivy or vine leaves ; as in 
our Plate H. fig. 8, where he appears also as a handsome youth, holding a wine-ctip in 
one hand, and attended by a panther. In the Sup. Plate 15, he is a youth holding the 
thyrsus and leaning upon a column, with a tiger at bis feet. Sometimes he appears an 
infant, holding a tnyrsus and cluster of grapes with a horn. Sometimes he is on the 
shoulders of Fan, or in the arms of Silenus. On the celebrated gem (cf. P. IV. ^ 21 1) 
which is given in our Plate XL VIII. , he appears a bloated young man, borne by Satyrs 
and also attended by Cupids and Bacchanals. Sometimes he is in a chariot, drawn 
by tigers, leopai^s, or panthers, surrounded by his retinue of Satyrs and Bacchae, and 
followed by old Silenus on an ass. 

Ibr varioa otber raprMatalioo^ aeo Jf«nf/miCDn, Aatiq. Ezpl. ?oL 1. Plain 141-167. 

t. In our Plate XLVIII. we bave also a representation of SUeimt, as given from an anliqae by 
Montfaucon ; recumbent on tbe hide of a panther, with one band resting on a skin AiU of wine, 
and tbe other on an inverted goblet.— An image of Bilenus is mentioned by Pliny (fiigt. JfkL 
xzzvi. 5), as existing in the marble quarry of Paros, said to be tbe work of nature. There is 
now in the same quarry a curious bns-relicf, of which tbe image of Silenus forms a part. Dr. 
Clarke supposes this image to have been a 2u««« nature^ and the other pieces now in the baa- 
relief to have been added to it by sculpture. " It represents a festival of Silfinus. Tbe demigod 
Is figured in tbe upper part of it as a corpulent drunkaril, with ass's eari, accompanied by laugh- 
ing satyrs and dancing girls. A female figure is represented sitting with a fox sleeping in lier 
lap. A warrior Is also introduced, wearing a Phrygian bonnet [see Plate XXII. fig. n and el. 
There are twenty-nine figures ; and below is this inscription: AAAMA£ O^PTZlIi: NTM4>A]2:/' 

$ 61. (16) Ceres. However useful the planting '£ the vine might be, agri- 
culture in genera] was much more so, and formed one of the earliest and most 
common pursuits of men. The observation of its importance and of the pro- 
ductiveness of nature occasioned the conception of a particular divinity, to 
whom its discovery and improvement were ascribed. The usual name for this 
divinity was ^r^tlr^'tvlp among the Greeks, and Certt with the Romans. She 
was considered as one of the most ancient of the goddesses, and was called a 
daughter of Saturn and sister of Jupiter. Her native place was Enna, situated 
in a fertile region of Sicily. 

In this country she is said to have first taught men to cultivate grain, and to 
instruct them in all the labors pertaining to it. To her is ascribed also the 
establishing of laws, and the regulation of civil society. Afterwards she im- 
parted her favors to other lands, and the people of Aitica particularly boasted 
* of her protection, and her instruction in agriculture and the use of the plough. 
8he associated Triptolemus with her as a companion in her travels, and sent 



him over the earth, to teach husbandry, and thereby raised him to the rank of 
a god. 

8m Hoifiir, Rtbb to Cerai.-'CMtf, FuL iv. 607-ML Metam. ▼. ett-ON. 

§ 62, The seizure and abduction of her daughter Proserpine by Pluto has 
been already mentioned ($ 33 u). Ceres sought for her with a burning torch 
everywhere, and thus diffused universally a knowledge of agriculture and good 
morals. She at length discovered that Pluto had borne her to his realms, sup- 
plicated Jupiter for Tier deliverance, and received a favorable answer, on con- 
dition that Proserpine had tasted of no fruit of the infernal world. But she 
had just tasted oi the pomegranate, and therefore received her freedom and 
liberty to return to this world only for half the year. 

OoM, Mttam. iv. ia^-Oaudian, De Rapta PKMcrpiUB. CC P. V. § 386. 

1 u. To the history of Ceres belong also the following mythical circumstances; her 
changing herself into a horse and into one of the Furies, to escape the pursuit of Nep- 
tune ,- her transformation of Lyncus into a lynx on account oi his perfidy* ; and her 
punishment of Erysichthon, who had violated a grove sacred to her, by afflicting him 
with insatiable hunger^, so that he devoured at last his own limbs. 

1 Oe. Mat. V. 649. • lb. vUL TaSw-CoAtm. Bjnn. la Cw. *. 29.— Sw Enmti^t Ezeunu, io hit ad. of Caninadrai (dtod 

P. V. ( 7a 2). vol. 1. p. 962. 

2 u. Ceres bore several names and epithets, as Ai^cu, earito^Spof^ Ztnii ; and Eleu$inta, 
Erinnyttt &c. 

3. I'he name ^iirrrnp is by some derived from Hi for y»l and /«»?T?»p, signifying mother- 

8«e KnighCi Enqalry ioto tha tynbcH. Laag . kc CtoM. Joun^ 

$ 63. One of the most celebrated festivals of this goddess was the Qtsfio^pia, 
which was maintained in many Grecian cities, especially in Athens, in honor 
of her as having taught the use of laws. Still more celebrated, however, were 
the Eleusinian Mysteries^ which were likewise sacred to Ceres, and which were 
of two sorts, the greater and the less, the latter held annually, the former only 
every fifth year. Besides these, the Greeks and Romans honored her with 
several festivals before and after harvests, e. g. the Upor^poaiOi and the *AXua, 
the Ctrealia and the Amharvalia, 

On tba Beuiinian Mysteriea, aaa P. III. S Tf. 4. P. IV. \ AX.—WMimUm, in hit Dintu Legation of Mota.-J. Jfnxmt, Elan- 
ainia. Lnipl. Bat. 1619. 4.-Ak7i|« Croix, Becherehaa hialor. at erit. rar let Mytiarai {Silo, it Saey ed.) Pir. I9t7. S fola. 6.— 
OinMn#, Eoai war let myttana d'Elanaia. SL Manb. 1815. $,^Baufam9iU», in tba Htm. Acad. buer. xiL 8S.-Claa». Jowm. 
till. S8S. ziv. 16S. sv. 117. 

On tha Ttumopharia, tea DuthtO^ at died F. V. § 65. 9. On tba JimbarvaXiOf ct P. HI. § 819. 

1. Among the ceremonies in her worship were the sacrificing of a pregnant sow, and 
the burning of a fox {vulpium combugtio). ** A fox was burnt to death at her sacred 
rites, with torches tied round it ; because a fox wrapt round with stubble and hay set on 
fire, being let go by a boy, once burnt the growing corn of the people of CarseoH, a 
town of tlio ^qui, as the foxes of Samson did the standing com of the Philistines." 

or. Ovid, FatL iv. 68l.-Jti(ffM n. 4.-aa»toal Journal, vL iOS. 

9. The rufnt of the flimous temple of Ceres at Eleuelfl, where the Mytteries were celebrated, 
were conapicuous when Dr. Clarke vlaiied the spot. He found alto a friigmeni of a colosRar 
statue of the goddess ' among the muldering vestiges of her once splendid sanctuary. With 
great exertion that traveler procured the removal or the statue, in order to its being transported 
to England. 

See aarke-i Tnvela, Put ii. tact. 8. cb. \9.^Land. Quart. JUv. zvii. 202. 

$ 64. The symbolical accompaniments to the image of Ceres are ears of 
com, and the poppy, her usual ornament. She is often exhibited with a torch 
in her hand, to signify her search after Proserpine. 

In some representations she appears a tall and maiestic lady with a garland on her 
Itead composed of ears of com. a lighted torch in one nand, and a cluster of poppies and 
ears of corn in the other. Thus she appears in our Plate XI. fig. 5, and m the Sup. 
Plate 15. She also appears as a country woman mounted upon the back of an ox, 
carrying a basket and a hoe. Sometimes she was represented as in a chariot drawn 
by winged dragons. Her associate I'riptolemus also appears occupying her chariot 
iOv. Met. V. 646). 

$ 65. (17) Vesta. The ideas conceived in the Greek and Roman fables respect- 
ing the earth as a person and goddess were exceedingly numerous and various. 
Besides Gaia, Titsea or Tellus, who represented the earth taken in a general 
tense, they inragined Cybele to denote the earth as inhabited and cultivate^ : 

p. n. INFERIOR O0D8. C(SLUS. 113 

Ceres more particular] j signified the fertility of the soil ; and the name of 
Vala or 'Esrux was employed to represent the earth as warmed by internal 
beat. The latter goddess also represented civil union and domestic happiness, 
being sopposed to preside over the household hearth. She was called the 
dao^ter of Saturn and Rhea, and said to have first taught men the use of fire. 

1». Jupiter guarantied her vow of perpetual celibacy {Ov. Fast. iv. 249), and 
fiuted to her the first oblations in all sacrifices. 

2. She is sometimes termed Vesta the younger, to distinguish her from Cybele (^19), 
who is also called Vesta the elder. Vesia the younger is the same with Ignis or fire. 

{ 66. The establishment of family habitations was ascribed to Vesta, and for 
this, altars were usually erected to her in the interior or front of all houses. 
The same was done in the buildings termed npvt'aycta, which were usually 
found in the Greek cities near (heir center; that at Athens (P. I. § 115) was 
the most famous. More rarely were temples raised for her. in her temple at 
Some the celebrated Palladium was supposed to be kept. 

The temple of Vesta erected by Numa at Rome was round, and without any image 
of the goddess. It still exists. Cf. P. I. ^ 60. 

{67 a. She was represented in a long robe, wearing a veil, bearing in her 
hud a lamp, or sacrifical vase. It is, however, more frequently a priesteta of 
Veaia that is thus represented. 

' In Plate XI. fig. 10, firom a medal given by Motiifaucon, we bave incb a repreBentatlon. In 
Uie Sap. Plate 3, Vesta is seen at reiifesentnd In a beautiful statue mentioned by Montfancon 
(Vol. L p. 64}.— Vesta is sometimes exhibited holding in one band a Javelin or a Palladium ; 
■oaetiases also with a drum in one band and an image of Victory in the other. 

( 67 «. Her priestesses among the Greeks were widows. But those among the Ro- 
mans under the name of VestaUs, the vestal virgins, were much more celebrated ; the 
mother of Romulus having belonged to the order, although their first regular institution 
IB Bscrib&l to Numa. (Cf P. IIlT ^ 218.) Their principal duty was to watch and keep 
thve the toeredjire of Vesta, and guard the Palladium (cf. % 43). Their rigid seclusion was 
rewarded by various privileges, and a peculiar sacredness was attached to their persons. 

1. Tbe extinction of the fire of Vesta was supposed to forbode sadden and terrible disasters, 
aid if it ever bappnned, alf business was at once interrupted until expiation bad been made witli 
great ceremony. Negligence on the part of the virgins was severely punished. The fire waa 
every jear renewed or replaced, on tbe Calends of March, by fire produced from the rays of tbe 

1 !o oar Plate XXVIII. is a representation of a priestess of Vesta, holding a pan of fire. In 
tkenne Plate is seen a Vestal holding the cribrum or sieve ; f^om a staiue in honor of the Ves- 
ui Tttoeia, who is said to have vindicated her innocence by bringing water in a sieve from tbe 
TilKr. Cf. VaL Max. viii. S. 

te VfHa aad ibfl Vcsteb ; £wy, L Vy—PhtUarch, Life of Ndiim.— CZom. Joum. zv. 12S, 257. zrl. n^Nadal, RMoira dai 
V"t^ ia Oie Man. it VAead. da hua. vol. iv. p. 161, 237.— L^ut, de Vwta, in hit frorto.->Diqmy, La naniere doot In 
■dnnlbHnient le/m iMTC, fee. in the Jfon. A^ /n«r. xxzv. p. 885^ 

H.-^Myihobgical HUlory cf the Inferior Gods, 

% 68. The divinities included in the class, which are here denominated Inferior god», 
are CobIob or 'Ovpardf ; Sol or "HXioj ; Luna or "LtKipnt ; Aurora or IK)? ; Nox or Wf ; 
InB.'W; ^oius or A&Xsf; Pan, U.a»\ Latona or A^nS; Themis ore^i?; ^scula- 
pios or ' AnrXjpridf ; Plutus or nXotfroy; Fortuua orT6x»?» and Fama ox^fifui; which 
were all common to the Greeks and Romans. But to this class are also to be referred 
aeveral divinities, which were peculiar to the Greeks as distinguished from the Romans ; 
aod also several, which were peculiar to the Romans as distinguished from the Greeks 

$69. (n CtBlus, Although this god was considered as one of the most 
ancient and the father of Saturn, yet not much importance was attached to his 
worshineither among the Greeks or Romans. His wife was the goddess of the 
earth, 'ntsea or Gaia ; their offspring were the Titans, the Cyelopa, and the Gm- 
timam. Through fear that these sons would deprive him of his kingdom, he 
precipitated them all to Tartarus, whence they were liberated, however, by the 
aid of Saturn, who himself usurped his father's throne. Venus and the Furies 
were called daughters of Uranus, or Coelus. 

^76 a. Tbe fictions respecting this god perhaps had some foundation in the history 
IS k2 


of early nations. According to the account of Dlodonis', Uraniw would seem to hartt 
been a king of the Atlantides^ the founder of their civilization, and the author of manj 
useful inventions. Among other things he wan a diligent observer of the heavenly 
bodies, and became able to announce beforehand many of their changes. Admiration 
of such knowledge mi^ht lead lo his dci6ra:ion. Perhaps it might orcasion the use of hia 
name (O^payds) to signify the heavens. The idea, however, of a deity thus called, ap- 
pears to have been very ancient. 

t Sw Diod. Sie. iii. 6«. v. 44. « Tbs AlteiiUdM wm m pMpI* of Atria, liviaf mw Ml. Itba. 

$ 71. (3) Sol, Although the Greeks and RomaBS worshiped Apollo as the 
god and dispenser of light, and in view of this attribute named him Phcebus, 
yet they conceived another distinct divinity, distinguished from Apollo espe- 
cially in the tarlier fables^ under the literal name applied to designate the sun, 
▼iz. Sol or "Hvto^. These words, therefore, were employed to express not only 
the actual body in the heavens, but also a supposed being having a separate 
and personal existence. In the Homeric Hymn addressed to Helius, he is 
called the son of Hyperion and Euryphaessa. Eos and Selene are called his 
sisters. Many circumstances, which are mentioned as pertaining to him, are 
also related of Phoebus or Apollo, when considered as the god of the sun. 

See Otid, MaUnarph. ii. 

§ 72 a. The early prevalence of Sun-worship, which was one of the first and 
most natural forms of idolatry, renders it probable, that the worship of this ^nd 
was early introduced into Greece. Many temples were consecrated to Helms. 
The island Rhodes in particular was sacred to him, where was erected his 
celebrated colossal statue. Among the Romans his worship was organized 
with special solemnities by Heliogabalus, who had been a priest of the same 
god in Syria, and afterwards erected a temple to his honor at Rome. 

Of his splendid temple at Heliopnlis or Baalbec in Pvria, said to bave been erected by Aaloal- 
nas Phis, interesting rentains still exist. Cf. P. 1. $ 166. 

$ 72 h, Sol or Helius is represented usually in a juvenile form, entirely 
clothed, and having his head surrounded w^ith rays, and attended by the Horae, 
and the Seasons. He is sometimes riding in a chariot drawn by four horses, 
which bear distinct names. 

1. Melius is represented on coins of the Rhodians by the head of a young man 
crowned with rays ; a specimen is seen in our Plate XIV. tig. 1- — A view of the colossal 
statue of Helius erected at Rhodes is given in Plate VI. I'his was reckoned among 
the seven wonders. 

3 The seven wonders of the world were, 1. The statue of the 8nn at Rhodes, 70 cnbhs hi^h, placed 
across the harbor so that a large vessel could sail between iis legs; 3. The Mausoleum, nr sepulchre 
of Mauftolus, king of Carta, built of marble, above 400 feet in compass, snrroundrd with 36 beautiftti 
columns(P.III. $ 187.);3. The statue of Jupiter in Olynipia by Phidias (cf. P. I V. ( 170); 4. The tem- 
ple of Diana at Ephesns, with 127 pillars, 60 feet in heii;ht, with a splendid imaee of the goddi*ss ; 
5. The walls of Babylon built by Bemiramia, 50 or 80 l>et wide, and 60 miles in circuit {,RoUin*M 
Anc. llist. bk. iii. cb. 1); 6. The pyramids of Egypt; 7. The palace of Cyrus. 

$ 73. (3^ lAtna. She was the daughter of Hyperion and Theia, and was 
called Xcxri^ by the Greeks, being distinct in name, descent, and story from 
Diana or Aptf/tc(, who was, however, taken as goddess of the moon. To 
Luna was ascribed great influence in relation to the birth of men. Patidia was 
said to be a daughter of Luna and Jupiter or Saturn*. In common with her 
brother Helias, Luna seems to have been especially worshiped by the Atlan* 

« Of. Bomer^ B jmn to Luna. 

1 ». Both the Greeks and Ronnans consecrated sppropriate temples to her, although 
the worship of Diana as the goddess of the moon was much more prevalent among 
them. She was represented like Diana in this character, as a goddess riding in a chariot 
through the skies, wiih the stars as her attendants. 

2. She is represented on coins by the bust of a fiiir young woman with a crescent on 
her head ; as seen in Plate XiV. fig. 3. 

$ 74, (4) ^Aurora, A sister of Luna, of the same parents, was the goddess 
of the morning or day-dawn; styled by the Greeks 'EcSj or *H/tcpa; by the 
Romans, Aurora, By others she is said to have been the daughter of the giant 
Pallas, and therefore called Pallantias. Orion and Tithonus were her prin- 
cipal lovers, and Lucifer and Memnon her most distinguished sons. The latter 


is memorable for the honors paid to him in Egypt, and for his famous vocal 

statue at Thebes. 

1. The itatue of Memnnn is utipposed to be one of those existing nt the present day Amonf the 
rnins ofanckent Thebea, neiir the place now called Medinel Abnu. A part of the body of it in said 
to be now in the British Musenni. It is called by the Arabians Salamat^ the statue which bids 
fnod morning, a name evidently originating in a belief of ihe ancient and common tradition ; 
whkb was, thai this statae uit<^red sounds at the rising of the sun, when it shmie upon it. The 
mtoe is corered with inscriptions by persons declaring that th^* had heard its voice at the 
risinf of the sun.— Mr. fVUkinson Btatf>s, from experiment actually made by himself, that if a per- 
son in the lap of this colossus, whirh is in a silting postnre, give it a blow with a hammer, it will 
caui« a sound to a person standing at its foot as if from an instrument of brass. 

Sh /. & WOkiiuan, oa the centrivame by wbieh ihe ■lataae of Memnon wu Buide vocal ; in lb« TraruatUmu of tlu Jloyai 
badf ef jUeroitffe, vol. ii. Lood. |{04.— If. Lttroimt, Imcriptiom Grecqim et JUtioa da Colown de MeraaoB, fte , in MnM 
Ttmtaetkmt, vol. iii. IakL IbS7.— Jmar. Quart. Rmtto, No. ix. 

2u, Ccphaliis was insensible to the love of Aurora towards him, although she seized 
Mid bore him away from his beloved Procris, whom, after his return to her, he had the 
misfortuiie to kill through an accident occasioned by her jealousy.— The early death 
of a youth was frequently called in poetic language, a seizure or Ihtft by Aurora 

Gk dKMfy of CqtfeAlsa, tM Otid; MMub. viL 91,768. 

{ 75. This goddess was considered as the harbinger of the sun and of the 
day, and was sometimes called by the literal name of the latter among the 
Greeks, *Hftcpa. By the poets she is represented as a beautiful young woman, 
whose chariot was drawn by white or light red horses, and wno opened the 

Cls of the Sua with rosy fingers. Homer designates her by the epithet 

She is deBcribed as rising from the ocean in a saffron robe (rpowwArXoy), in a roee- 
cok)red chariot, and scattenng the dew upon the flowers. She was called the mother 
of the stars and of the winds. 

In the Sup. Plate 10, she is beautifully represented as driving in her chariot, accom- 
puued by the Hours, and a flying Cupid whh a torch in his hand. 

i 76. (5) Nox. The night was personified in ancient fable and placed among 
the divinities as a daughter of Chaos. On account of this early origin she is 
called, in the Orphic Hymns, the mother of gods and men. Generally, how- 
ever, she is an allegorical rather than a mythological personage; and in such a 
sense, sUep, deaik^ areams, ihe furies^ &c. are called her children. 

1 U A black cock was the offering commonly presented to her. A black sheep was 
slw ofiered to her as mother of the Furies. 

2 v. According to the descriptions of poets, and in some representations by art, she 
it exhibited as enveloped in a long dark robe, with her head covered with a veil spangled 
with mars. Sometimes she has black wings, or is drawn in a chariot by two horses with 
t retiDue of stars. 

3. Paasanias describes a statue of Nox, holding in her right hand a white child, and 
a black child in her left, representing sleep and death ; thus she appears in our Plate 
XXXVI. She has also been described as a woman with her face veiled in black, 
oowDed with poppies, and in a chariot drawn by owls and bats. In fig. 2 of Plate 
aIV., drawn from an ancient engraved gem, she holds a veil over her head, and three 
>tsn appear above it. In plate aLI. she makes a more splendid appearance with a 
ailge spangled veil, and a torch inverted ; thus she is painted in an ancient illuminated 

1 77. (6) /rt>. By the name of ^Ipt; was designated among the Greeks the 
niobbw, as personified and imaginea a goddess. Her father was said to be 
Thaomas, and her mother Electra, one of the daughters of Oceanus. Her 
residence was near the throne of Juno, whose commands she bore as messenger 
^ the rest of the gods and to mortals. Sometimes, bat rarely, she was Jupiter's 
OKssenger, and was employed even by other deities. 

1. Being the messenger of Juno, she was not unfrequently sent on errands of strife 
and disced ; whence some have thought her name derived from fp«f , strife. Others 
deriTe n from hpta, to tpcak or declare. 

2v. She had also sometimes in reference to dying females an office, which was 
tBoally assi^ed to Proserpine, to cut off their hair, and thereby eflect their dissolution. 
Vvg. ^n. IV. 693. 704. The rainbow was the path by which she descended from 
Olynupus and returned thither. 

3. She is represented with wings having the various colors of the rainbow, and often 
appears sitting behind Jimo as waiting to execute her commands. In the Sup. Plate 


20, she appears descending on a cloud. In the Sup. Plats 7, she is seen with Mercury 
and Hebe, attending on Jupiter and Juno. 

$ 78. (7) JEolus. Under the name of uEolus both Greeks and Romans 
worshiped a god and ruler of winds and storms. He was called the son of 
Jupiter, sometimes of Neptune, and by others, of Hippotes, an ancient lord of 
the Lipari Isles. From Jupiter he received his authority over the winds, which 
had previously been formed into mythical persons, and were known by the 
names Zephyrus, Boreas, Notus, and Eurus, and were afterwards considered 
the servants of Molus, 

I u. He held them imprisoned in a cave of an island in the Mediterranean sea, and 
let them loose only to further his own designs or those of others, in awakening storms, 
tiurricanes and lluods. (CI. Horn. Odvss. x. 1. — Virfr. Mn. i. 5*2 j He is ubually de- 
scribed by the poets as virtuous, upright, and friendly to strangers. 

2. The name JEolus is thought to have come from aiSXas, changeable. — The island 
where jEolus is said to have reigned was Strongyie (Irpo/yvX)}), so caile<l on account of 
its round figure, the modern Slrambclu 

Sm ffcym, Excura. ad JSn. L 5I.-Cr. Pliny, N. H. Hi. 8. 

3. In the (*up. Pkte 19, are two engravinira marked as reprenpntatione of JSolne. In one, a 
vtgnrouii man lupporiiiic bimaeirin the air by wingii ia blowing into a aliell trunipist like aTruon, 
while hia ahort mantle ia waving in the wind ; Ihia is from a baa-relief on an altar, fntmd nenr 
Nettuno in Italy, with the inarripiion Jtra Fentarum ; and it prnbabty ia merely the repreaenta- 
tion of one of the winds, perhapi Kurua ; cf. ^ 108 b — In the other, we have a frasrmeni of a 
square atone, which origin.illy contained in baa-relief a representation of the circle of the Zodiac 
with its twelve aigna, which were actilptiired within the circle ; on the outer edjte of the circle 
appear the buata of Jupiter, Diana, Mercury, and Venus; in the corner ia the bualof a man with 
winga on the forehead, blowing with inflated cheeka, wliich probably representa one of the four 
principal wlnd«, the other cornera of the piece having bad each a wind repreaented In it. 

8m JfoHlJiniom, Anliq. Ezpl. vol. I. plale ecniv. 

J 79. (8) Pan, One of the most singular of the inferior ^ods, was Pur, 
whose worship was universally regrarded. He was the god of shepherds and 
herdsmen, of groves and fields, and whatever pertained to rural aflfairs. His 
worship was probably derived from the Egyptians. He was said to be the son 
of Mercury and Dryope; but his genealogy was variously stated. His favorite 
residence was in the woods and mountains of Arcadia. From his love to 
Syrinx, who was changed into a reed^ he formed his shepherd-pipe out of seven 
reeds, and called it by her name. His pride in this invention led him into his 
unlucky contest with Apollo'. He also invented a war-trumpet, whose sound 
was terrific to the foe ; a circumstance* which gave rise to the phrase, panic 
fear or terror {ytavixw ^Hfia). 

t Oo. Motam. i. S62. « Jb. z. 146. > PauMon. Fboe. e. 28. 

$ 80. Pan was originally, among the Egyptians, worshiped in the form of a 
goat, and under the name of Mendes^ In Greece, Arcadia was especially 
sacred to him, and here he is said to have given oracles on Mount Lycaeus. 
His festivals, called Avxata by the Greeks, were introduced by Evander among 
the Romans, and by them called Lupercalia*. Goats, honey, and milk were 
the usual offerings to Pan. 

> Htnd. U. 4a ^ 0«. FuL ik St, 867. 

1 ». His Greek name n&v, signifying the whole or all, had reference to the circum- 
stance that he was considered the god of all the natural world ; or, according to others, 
it was derived from a-uw {to ft'eil), and referred to his patronage of shepherds and their 
flocks. The Romans called him likewise Inuus, Lupercus, Mtsnalius, and Lyccus. 

S. **The flgtire of Pan (cf. Sil Iial. xiii. $36) it a rude aymbol of the univeree, and be appears 
to have been originally a peranniflcatloa of the Jlnima Mundi, or terrestrial soul, by which some 
ancient nations beli«?ed that the entire uaiverse was directed.**--Tbis god does not appear in 
the poems of Homer or Hesiod. 

3 tt. His imago was generally human only in part, having commonly the form of a 
satyr, with ears sharp-pointed and standing erect, with short horns, a flat nose, a body 
covered with hair or spotted, and the feet and legs of a goat. 

4. Such is his image in Plate XIV . fig. 4, and in Sup. Plate 15 ; in both of which he has 
in one hand a crooked staff and in the other a pipe of reeds, and an amphora lies beside 
him. In some representations, his head was crowned with pine, which was sacred 
to him. 

$ 81. (9) Latona, She was called Am-w by the Greeks, and held a distin- 
guished place as mother of Apollo and Diana, and on this account was oflen 
ranked among the superior deities. She was daughter of Coeus or Polus and 


Phoebe, and one of the objects of Jupiter^s love. The iealoasy and anger of 
Jono was excited against her, and she adjared the goddess of earth to allow 
Latona no place to bring forth her offspring. Neptune, however, granted the 
island Delos for the purpose. Bat here she found no sure asylum, and fled to 
Ljcia, where^ she was hindered from quenching her thirst at a lake by some 
peasants. These offenders were in return changed into frogs. — StiU more 
severe was her vengeance in the case of Niobe", a daughter of Tantalus and 
wife of Amphion kin? of Thebes. Niobe slighted the <nvinity of Latona, and 
the latter engaged both her children, Apollo and Diana, to avenge her; they, by 
their arrows, slew the seven sons and seven daughters of Niobe, who by grief 
was changed into stone. 

i 8*3. This goddess was honored particularly in Lycia, on the island Delos, 
at Athens, and in many of the Grecian cities. In Crete a festival was sacred 
to her, called *Ex5v(ita. 

1 H. Latona is sometimes spoken of as the goddess of night ; and il is possible that 
her name originated in this idea, derived from X^^u, to be concealed^ as nature was 
buried in profound darkness before the birth of the Sun and Moon or Apollo and Diana. 

2. She is usually represented as a large and comely woman with a black veil, so 
psintedf or in engraved gems expressed by a dark-colored vein in the stone. 

$ 83. (10) Th^mu. The goddess of justice (Oi/ic^) was one of the most 
eelebrated of the TitanitUs, or daughters of Uranus and Tka?a. To her is 
ascribed the first uttering of oracles, and also the first introduction of sacrifices 
ioto Greece. She had by Jupiter three daughters, Aix);, *EvH>/ua, and *£tp^, 
which were commonly called the Haras ("Qmu), who are represented by the 
poets in various lights, but particularly as goddesses presiding over the division 
and distribution of time ($ 105). Astraea also was by some called a daughter 
of Themis. 

1 u. Attraa was likewise a goddess of justice, or rather of property ; and, according 
to Ovid's account (Met. i. 149), was the last of the divinities to quit the earth. She 
was placed among the constellations of the Zodiac under the name of Virgo, anciently 
called Erigone. 

1 Aftm, wtio accordini; to some wni tbe daughter of Titan and Aurora, was represented 
(tf. AuL 0«IL Noet. Alt. xiv. 4) aa a Tirgln with a atern countenance, holding in one hand a pair 
of baiancea, and in tbe other a sword or aeepier or a long rod or spear ; thua aha appears in Uie 
Sop. Plate 18, drawn from an engraved gem. 

3 u. There was still another goddess, Nemesis^ Ni/ovK, who was supposed to judge 
respectiiig moral actions, and to exer^ae vengeance towards unrighteousness. She was 
called Adrastia sometimes, from the circumstance that Adrastus first erected a temple 
to her, and also Rhamnnsia fi-om having a temple at Rhamnus in the territory of Attica. 

4 At her temple in Bhamnaa wae a large and beautiful atiitue, ranked among the best works 
of Pbidiaa— In Plate XXX VI. are two repreaentations of Nemeaia, from ancient gems; in each 
the wheel appears at her feet ; in one ahe baa wings, and holds in one band a branch with a 
ribia aitached ; in the other representation aba holds a rod or acepter. 

L p. 21S. 

$84. (11) Mtcuhpiut, In proportion as men in the early ages were igno- 
rant of the efficacy and use oi remedies for disease, there was the greater ad- 
miration of those who were distinguished in the art of healin?, and the greater 
readiness to deify them. Hence the deification of iEscuTapius, who was 
viewed as the god of Medicine, and said to be the son of Apollo and the nymph 
Coconis^ Hygeia, the goddess of health, was called bis daughter, and two 
celebrated physicians belonging to the age of the Trojan war, Machaon and 
Podalirius, were called his sons, and honored like him after their death. iEs- 
colapios was killed with a thunderbolt by Jupiter, at the request of Pluto. His 
most celebrated grove and temple was at Epidaurus*, where he was worshiped 
Qoder the form of a serpent. 

<<^MiteB.iL0O1. >0*.llet.n 822. 

1. The raina of the temple at Epidanrus are still visible at the place now called Jcro, pro> 
venneed 7«r», a corruption perhaps of 'Updv {taera mdts). There weie at this ancient aeat of 
the god of health medical springs and welU^ which may yet be traced. 

CUn^i Tntd^ put ii. Met. 2. eh. ZT.—fravl, Colic nsda a fMatiapiiu, in the Mem. dead. huer. xil. 28. 

2 v. The serpent was usually attached as a symbol to the image of this god, either 
free or wound about a staff, expressing the idea of health, or prudence and foresight. 


8. In Plate XIV. fig. 0, JEseuUpiuw boldi in one hand a round vaie or patera, from which a 
■erpent ie eating. In the Bup. Plate SI, he ii seen aR presented in an ancient statue delineated 
in Montfaucon i on his led is the trunic of a tree, aronnd which the serpent winds ; on his right 
■lands TeUMpkoms^ who was said to be a son uf iiSsculapius, and was considered as the god of 
convalescents; Telesphorus appears here, as in all representations of bim, in a robe covering 
his arms and whole body, with a hood upon bis head. JSsculapius and Telesphorus appear to- 
gether thus on a coin of Caracalla. 

4. Hygeia may be considered as the same with the Roman goddesi of healthy Silus. 
The Romans honored Salus with a temple and festivals. One of the city-gates, being 
Dear her temple, was called Porta Salutarut. She was represented with a bowl in 
her right hand and a serpent in her left. Her altar had a serpent twining round it and 
lifting his head upon it. 

In Bup. Plate SI, we have a representation of Hyftia from a beantiAiI statue ; she sits on a 
rock, with one hand raised aud holding a scepter, and the other holding a bowl, towards which 
a large serpent Ui advancing his head over her lap. 

$ 85. (12) Plulun. The god of riches, IIXovro(, was probably of allegrorical 
rather t^ian mythical origin, since his name io Greek is but the common term 
for wealth. ' His father, according to the fable, was Jasion, a son of Jupiter by 
Electra, and his mother was Ceres, who gave him birth in a beautiful region in 
Crete. Jupiter, as it was alleprorically represented, deprived him of sight, and 
his usual residence was low beneath the earth.-* By some Plutus is considered 
as the same personage as Pluto^ ruler of the world of spirits, and this may 
have been the case. 

1 u. It is not known by what figure he was visibly represented. Pausanias barely 
remarks, that in the temple of Fortune at Thebes, he appeared in the form ot an infant 
in the arms of that goddess, and at Athens the goddess of Peace held him as an infant 
in her arms. 

2. " Plutus was blind and lame, injudicious, and mighty timorous. He is lame, be- 
cause large estates come slowly. He is fearful and timorous, because rich men watch 
their treasures with a great deal of fear and care." 

§ 86. (13) Fortune, Of a like allegorical character was the goddess of /br- 
tune^ Tvxri% Fortuna, to whom was ascribed the distribution and the superin- 
tendence of prosperity and adversity in general. Among the Greeks she had 
temples at Elis, Connth, and Smyrna; and in Italy, before the building of 
Rome, she was honored at Antium, and especially at Prteneste. The Romans 
made her worship in general very splendid, and gave her various epithets ori- 
ffinatinff from different occasions; as Fortuua Publica, Equestris, Bona, Blanda, 
Virgo, Virilis, Muliebris, &c. 

1 tt. In the temple at Antium were two statues of Fortune, which were consulted as 
oracles, and g[ave answer bj^ winks and nods of the head, or by means of the lot. 
Similar divinations were practiced also at Prsneste, where her temple was one of the 
richest and most celebrated. 

Sm AbroM, Odw, 1. 1, od. SS. (Ad FortonUBJ—Cf. P. IIL 1 282. 

2. •' The goddess of Fortune is represented on ancient monuments with a horn of 
plenty and sometimes two in her hands. She is blindfolded, and generally holds a 
wheel in her hand as an emblem of her inconstancy. Sometimes she appears with 
wings, and treads upon the prow of a ship, and holds a rudder in her hands." 

Her Image in Plate XIV. fig. 9, is taken from an Imperial coin ; in her left hand is a born of 
plenty ; her right rests upon « rudder : a wheel Is behind her. In the Sup. Plate 18, she appears 
without the wheel, with the images or the sun and moon on her head. 

§ 87. (14) Fame, The goddess styled ^r/^j?, or Fama^ was also of allego- 
rical origin. Virgil calls her the youngest daughter of Earth, who gave birth 
to this child, in revenge for the overthrow of her sons, the Giants; in order 
that she might divulge universally the scandalous conduct of Jupiter and the 
other gods. She had a place in the Greek Theogony, and was honored with a 
temple at Athens. She was viewed as the author and spreader of reports both 
good and bad. 

1 u. The poets represented her as having wings, alwavs awake, always flying about, 
accompanied by vain fear, groundless joy, falsehood and credulity. 

or. Virg. JBd. ir. 173.— O0. Met. zil. m.-Stat. Thelk Hi. 426. 

%. In the Sup. Plate 18, is a representation of Fame with her wings extended as Just ready to 
fly, with her finger pointing upwards. 

% 88. (15) V^fieM peculiar to the Greeks. Athough generally the same deities wer« 
common to the Greeks and Romans, each nation had some peculiar to itself. These 
must be included in the class of Inferior Gods, Those peculiar to the Greeks were 


\m nomeroQs and important than those pecuh'ar to the Romans ; and nearly all of them 
may be reduced under one or other of the four fbllowine divisions. 

L Places, rivers, mountainSt &c., personified. Almost every important city was 
converted into a goddess, whose iroase was placed on its coins. Almost every river and 
Mream also was made into a god, of whom some fabulous tale was related; thus Al- 
^heuslasaid to have pursued the nymph Arethusa from Greece to Sicily. 

2. Eminent personages deified. The most important of the deities belonging to this 
division would come under the class denominated Heroes ; ahhough many of them are 
seidom if ever thus classed, as Orpheus, Homer, Trophonius, &c. ; besides many of 
later times. 

3. Virraes and vices perponified. The Greeks did not carry such personifications so 
fiff as the Romans ; yet ima^nary deities were thus formed, and altars were erected to 
them in Athens and other cities. Some deified among the Greeks are not distinctly 
Darned among the Romans ; e. g. Chance^ 'Avnuaria ; Voracity ^ *Ai&nipayia ; LiuU 
ooder the name <^ Kfrm-ru, Cotytto^ a notorious prostitute. 

4. Particular pursuits and conditions of life ascribed to some guardian spirit. Thus, 
'E^y«j^ designated a goddess of weaving, disiinct from Minerva, to whom this term is 
uplied. 'I<v«b), the goddess of wor, nearly corresponded to the Roman BelUma ; and 
Km^, the god of feasting, and Mufiof, the god of jesting, are recognized in the Latin 
ComuM and Momus. 

^ 89. (16) Deities^pecttliar to the Remans. These may be arranged under the fol- 
knrinff divisions : 

1. Places, rivers, &c., personified. — 2. Pursuits and conditions of life ascribed to 
goaidian spirits. — 3. Eminent persons, especially emperors, deified.— 4. Virtues and 
▼ices personified. — 5. Foreign dieiiies introduced. 

% 90. Of the first division, Roma and T i b e r are the principal. Roma was honored 
by the Romans with temples, sacrifices, and annual festivals, and is one of the most 
common figures on their medals. 

la Plate II. is a aplendid repreientatlon of the foddeas Roma, from a painting formerly belong- 
Inf tothe Barberfni family. — In the anme Plate ia given also a repreientatlon of the Tiber aa a 
|mL— For eimilar representationa of Italif, Judea, the Danvbe, &.C., aee PI. XLII.; cf. P. lY. j 139 3. 

^ 51. In the second, various rural deities are particulariv to be noticed. 

la. Terminus. In order to express and render still more sacred the rights of 
property and the obligations of fixed boundaries in landed possessions, the Romans in- 
vented a eod^who hM it for his peculiar province to guard and protect them, oalled Ter- 
wthms. His statue, in the form of those called Herma^, was employed usually to mark 
the Hmits of fields. Numa first introduced this usage, and ordained a particular festi- 
nl, the Terminalia, which was celebrated in the month of February by the occupants 
and proprietors of contiguous lands^. Upon these occasions ofierings were presented to 
the god on the boundaries or separating lines. He had a temple on the 'I'arpeian rock. 
"-Oftentimes the statues of other eods, particularly the rural, were placed in the form 
of Herme, to mark the limits of landed property, and Jupiter himself was sometimes 
represented under the name of Terminus, or received the epithet Terminalis. 

>§ia4.8: — ^« or. ovm, fm. u. ass. 

2 a. Priapus. The Romans ranked Priapus among the deities whose province 
was the protection of fields and cultivated grounds. His image was usually placed in 
gardens (Hor. 1. i. sat. 8), which were considered as more particularly his care. 

iBMgcs of Priapaa were aometlmaa worn aa a sort of amulet (ftueinum) to guard agalnat evil 
tbarms, and hung upon the doora of housea and gardena. The god whoae ppecial province it 
was to protect from the charm of the evil eye waa named Faseinui.—PUn. Hiat. Nat. zix. 4. 
xxiv. 4.— See P. 111. ( 927. 3. 

Prlapua la iitoally repreaented with a human fkce and the eara of a goat ; he haa a alckle or 
aeyibe to prune the treea and eat down the corn, and a chih to keep offthlevea ; hia body tejrmi- 
aatee ia a atiapeleaa trunk.— An aaa waa generally aacrlflced to him. 

Repreeeniationa of Priapna are given in Plate XLV. and In the Sup. Plate 93. In the latter, 
with an eitended arm he holds a bell in hia hand, la the former, which ia from a large anaglyph 
or baa-relief given by Montfaucon afler Boiaaard, we may observe the rites practiced at the fea- 
tfval of this god. Il la celebrated by women ; two priestesses are close by the statue, one of 
whom is pouring water or some other liquid upon the image from a bottle ; four othera are 
•agMad In sacrificing an aaa ; behind the animal stand two oihera in peculiar costume, one 
knUiag apparently a siMtrnm, the other a bowl or round vase ; on the left of the statue are two 
wom«n playlne on the double ttbia, and othera hearing hnaketa of fruit and flowera and vessels 
of wine ; on the right are two playing on the tympanum, one dreased like a bacchanal with a 
cbild on her neck, and others with their otTeringa of fruit, flowers, and wine. 

3«. Vertumnus. Under this name an old Italian prince, who probably intro- 
duced the art of gardening, was honored after death as a god. The Romans considered 
him as specially presiding over the fruit of trees. His wife was Pomona, one of the 
Bimadryads (cf. i 101), a goddess of gardens and fruits, whose love he gained at last 
after changing himself into many forms, from which circumstance his name (Ov. Met. 
xiv. 623) was derived. This goddess is represented on some monuments of ancient 
art, and is designated by a basket of fruit placed near or borne by her. 

** Venamnaa ia generally repreaented aa a young man, crowned with flowers, covered up to 


the WBist, and holding in bis right hand fruit, and a crown of plenty in the left."— In the Supi 
Plate 93, the horn !• In his tefl band, and the fruit in his right; he is fully draped, with the head 
and leg of a swine hanging from his shoulder. This may be supposed to correspond to his statue 
mentioned by ricero (.Ferr. i.) and by Horace {Epis. 90) as standing in a street of Rome. 

In ttie same Plate is a representailon of Pomona^ from an ancient monument; she is without 
drapery, holding a flower In one hand and a melon In the otiier, resting against the trunk of a 
tree, from which a bastcei of fruit Is suspended. 

4 u. Flora. The RomanB had also a particular goddeea of blossoms and iIow\.T8, 
whom they worshiped under the name of Flora. She is said lo have been the same as 
the Grecian nympti Cldoris; although others maintain, that she was originally but a 
Roman courtezan. But this goddess seems not to have been wholly unknown to the 
Greeks, since Pliny (N. H. xxxvi. 5) spooks of a siatue of her made by Praxiteles. 
8he was represented as very youthful, and richly adorned with flowers. She had a 
festival and games at Rome, celebrated {Ov. Fast. v. 283) in the month of April, called 
Floralia; they presented scenes of unbounded licentiousness. 

The indecency of this festival was checked on one occasion by the presence of Oato, who choae 
however to retire rather than witness It {Valtr. Max. ii. 10). By some the festival la said to 
have been instituted in honor of an infamous woman by the name of Flora. 

In our Plate XIV. tig. 5, Flora is represented with a garland of flowers on her bead, and a 
horn of plenty on her left arm; aa she appears in several antiques. In 8up. Plate 23, she la 
given from a beautiful statue, once' at Rome, and copied by Le Brun ; not however ideuiioal 
with the celebrated Flon Famest (cf. P. IV. $ 186. 11). ^ 

5 tf . F e r o n i a. Another goddess of fruits, nurseries, and groves, among the Ro- 
mans, was Feronia. She had a very rich temple on Mount Soracte, where also was a 
grove specially sacred to her. She was honored as the patroness of enfranchised slaves 
(r. III. ^ 324), who ordinarily received their Uberty in ner temple. It was pretended 
that the real votaries of this goddess could walk unhurt on burning coals. Her name 
was derived according to some from a town, called Feronia, near Mt. Soracte : accord- 
ing to others, from the idea of her bringing relief (Jero) to the slave ; or from that of 
her producing trees, or causing them to bear fruit. 

6ii. Pales. Another goddess of the same class, was Pales (from pahvlum)^ to 
whom was assigned the care of pasturage and the feeding of flocks. In her honor a 
rural festival {Ov. Fast. iv. 721) was held in the month of April, called Pa/ilia or 

On the festival of Pales the shepherds placed little beapa of straw in a particular order and at 
a certain distance; then they danced and leaped over them; then they purified the sheep and 
the rest of, the cattle with the fume of rosemary, laurel, sulphur, and the like. The design was 
to appease the goddess, that she might drive away the wolves, and to prevent the diseases Inci- 
dent to cattle. Milk, and wafers made of millet, were offered to her, that she might render the 
pastures fruiiftil. Pales la represented aa an old lady, surrounded by shepherds. 

7. Numerous other rurai god* and goddeueg of inferior character were recognized 
by the Romans. Among the minor rural goddesses, we find Bubana, having the care 
of oxen; Seia or Segelia, having the care of seed planted hi the earth ; Hippona^yre" 
siding over horses; OoUina^ goddess of hills; VaUotiia, empress of the valleys; itun- 
cina, the goddess of weeding ; Volusia, with several other goddesses, who watch over 
the corn in its successive steps to maturity (cf. ^ 5. 3) ; Mellonui the goddess who in- 
vented the art of making honey. Among the male deities of the same class, we frod 
Oeeator^ the god of harrowing ; Stereutiu$t the inventor of manuring ; and FUumnus, 
the inventor of the art of kneading and baking bread. 

^ 92 u. In the latter period of the Republic and during the first ages of the Empire, 
the Roman system of divinities was greatly augmented. Almost every profession and 
employment and condition in life had its tutelar god or gods, whose names tnus became 
innumerable, but who never obtamed a universal worsnip. For a knowledge of these, 
we are mainly indebted to the writings of the Christian Fathers, especially Augustinus 
('ie Civitale Dei, 1. iv.), against polytheism. To this class belong, for example, BeUona, 
the goddess of war, corresponding in some degree to 'Erou among the Greeks (^ 46) ; 
JutumOf the goddess of succor ; Anculi and AnculcB, deities presiding over servants ; 
Vacuna, goddess of leisure; Strenua, goddess of diligence; Lavema, goddess of 
theft; Cunina, goddess of cradles, &,c, 

Diteast* were exalted Into deities. Fekria (fever), e. g. had her altars and temple, and was 
worshiped that she might not hurt; and %o of others of this 8pecies.-~Jlfe;»Ai<4« was goddess of 
noxious exhalations. Tae. Hist. 111. S3. 

^ 93. Here we should mention Victoria, a deity of much consideration at Rome. 
The hall of the senate was adorned by her altar, and a statue in which she appears as 
"a majestic female, standing on a globe, with flowing garments, expanded wmgs, and 
a crown of laurel in her out-stretched hand.** The senators were sworn on the altar 
of this goddess to observe the laws of the empire. A contest arose between the pagans 
and the Christians on this subject, the latter finally effecting the removal of this altar 
of Victory. 

8m Pmdmliui, Idven. SymnMrluiiB, ell P. V. ( 387. 

Tn our Plate XIV. fig. 10, and in the Sup. PUte 18, Victory is saen as represented in the statue 
mentioned above. 



94 «. D 6 i f i e d Emperors. To the gods already mentioned, we may add thoae 
which were constituted by the apotheosis of the emperors and their fayontes. Thus 
a Cesar, an Augustus, a Claudius, an Antinous, and others, were elevated to the 
rank of gods. Sometimes this was done in their lifetime by the vilest adulation, bat 
more frequently after death, in order to flatter their descendants. 

It wouM probably be as proper Co rank the deified emperors (cf. $ 1S3) In the fourth class of 
oar divlilon. They ihould be mentioiied in tbia plaee, howevefi as l>eloDging etricUy to the 
number of the Roman divinities. In distinction from Greek. 

^ 96 ». Virtues andVices. The poets were accustomed to give a personal re- 
presentation to abstract ideas, especially to moral qualities, to virtues ana vices : and 
m this way originated a multitude of divinities purely alkgoncal, which were, how- 
ever, sometimes mingled with the mythological, and were honored with temples, 
rites, and significant images and symbols. Such were Virtual Honor^ Pietoa, /«- 
viditty FrauBt and the like. 

Virhu was worshiped in the habit of an elderly woman sitting on a sqnare stone.— The ten- 

ge of J79«or stood close by that of Virtus, and was approached by it. The priests sacrificed to 
onor with bare heads. 

The temple of Fidet (good foitb) stood near the Capitol. The priests la sacrificing to ber 
covered their hands and heads with a white cloth. Her symbol was a white dog, or two bands 
Joined, and sometimes two virgins shaking hands. 

The temple of Sjms (hope) was in the herb-market. Her Image is on some of the coins. She 
Is in the form of a woman standing, with ber left band holding lighily the skins of ber garments, 
and in her right a plate, with a sort of cup on it (kshioned to the likeness of a flower ; with this 
laacription, Spss P. E. Similar to this is ber appearance in Plate XIV. fig. 8, drawn from a 
medal of Titus. 

A temple to PiHat was dedicated in the place where that woman lived who ftd with the milk 
of ber own breasts ber mother in prison. Cf. PUn. N. H. vii. c. SO. 

Coi»e0rdU bad many altars. Her image held a bowl in the right hand, and a horn of plenty In 
the left. Huch is her appearance, sitting on a chair of suie, in Plate XIV. fig. 11, taken from a 
consular coin. Her symliol was two hands joined together and a pomegranate. 

In the later periods of Rome, Pax had a very magnificent temple in the Forum, finished by 
Vespasian. The goddess nf peace or security is often represented on Imperial coins. In Plate 
XlV. fig. 19, from a coin of Titus, she appears as a woman resting on a coluun, with a spike of 
wheat in the left hand, and a scepter like the wand of Mercury in the right, held over a tripod. 

Frmu* was represented with a human face and a serpent's body ; in the end of her tail was a 
scorpion's sting. 

Inftidia is described as a meager skeleton, dwelling In a dark and gloomy cave, and feeding on 
snakes. Oe. Meum. 11. 7t)l. 

^ 96. Foreign Gods. It is proper to notice here some Egyptian deities, whose 
worship was partially introduced at Kome. 

1. Osiris. He is said to have been the son of Jupiter by Niobe, and to have ruled 
first over the Argives, and afterwards, leaving them, to have become an illusiriotia 
king of the Egyptians. His wife was Isis, who is by many said to be the same with 
thelo, daughter of Inachus, who was according to the febles changed by Jupiter into 
a cow. Osiris was at length slain by Typhon, and his corpse concealed in a chest and 
thrown into the Nile. Isis, after much search, by the aid of keen-scented dogs found 
the body, and placed it in a monument on an island near Memphis. The Egyptians 
paid divine honor to his memory, and chose the ox to represent nim, because as some 
say a large ox appeared to them after the body of Osiris was interred, or according to 
otners, tocause Osiris had instructed them in agriculture. 

Osiris was generally Represented with a cap on his bead like a mitre, with two horns ; be held 
a stick in his left hand, and in bis right a whip with three thonga. Sometimes be appears with 
the head of a hawk. 

In the Sup. Plate 80, are two engravings marked as representations of Osiris. The first Is ac- 
cording to a colossal statue, dug up at Rome, and taken by some for an Isis. The second is from 
another sculpture, and shows the hawk's head. In Plate XV. he is seen in a sitting posture.— 
Cf. Monffawumy Ant. Exp. vol. S. p. 376, S90.— The image of a Aawik with a Teseel on iu head, and 
that of the Uu with a serpent In its bill, have been taken by sooie as eroUema of Osiris; see 
Plate VIII. 

2. Isis. She was the wife of Osiris. lo after her metamorphosis is said, after 
wandering over the earth, to have come to the banks of the Nile, and there she wae 
restored to the form of a woman. She reigned after her husband's murder, and was 
deified by the Egyptians. The cow was employed as her symbol, but more commonly 
the siatrum. 

Isis is often represented as holding a globe in her hand, with a vessel full of ears of com. Her 
body sometimes appears enveloped in a sort of net. On some monuments she holds in her lap a 
child, her son Honu. who Is also ranked among the deities of Egypt. 

In tjie Sup. Plate 90, she is seen holding her son, on whose head is a cap surmounted by a 
globe ; her own head Is formed into that of a cow, with a hawk on the forehead, surmounted by 
a singular cap. In Plate XV. she is seen aa represented on the igiac Tli^is. In the same Plate 
Horus is given as found on that Table. 

8oM]mT«eeiNidtrHlOrir<taDdM*Mtc|iramliaK ttemaailtbeBooa. TlMir •Iwy b ty olhm vtnrt4 h eorT«|Mdi^ 
to ttatf of Vaim and Adoak. (Of. KuStWt Eoqaiiy, ao-SoM rcHnbhnen baw bM psintad oat ImIwc«> bit and te, a daily 
if tha Bindooa, and INm, a foddM wonblpad aoMiv ttN Borf bani tnlm of Eurapa (cL 2^ 

The Egyptians had numerous festivals which were connected with the fiibles xe- 


waecdng leaa and Onris. The chief festival adopted by the Romans was termed the 
Ina ; which lasted nine days, and was attended with such licentiousness as to be at 
length proliibited by the senate. 

The Iriae Table is a curioui monument, which receives its name from its being supposed to 
represent the mysteries of Isis. The original was obtained at Rome, A. D 1525, and came after 
•DOM time into the cabinet of the duke of Mantua, where it remained untii the pillage of that 
dty, A. D. 1630; it is said to be now (1839) in the royal gallery at Turin. It is described as a 
tablet of rnpper or bronze, '* almost four feet long, and of-pretty near the same breadth ;" and 
** covered with silver mosaic, skilfully inlaid;'* "the ground-work being a black enamel." It 
Is divided into three equal compartments by two horizontal lines of hieroglyphics ; the middle 
compartment being subdivided by two perpendicular lines of hieroglyphics into three comiiart- 
nenls, a larger one in the center, and a smaller one at each side of it. The five compartments 
thus formed are crowded with figures, with hieroglyphics interspersed. The whole is surrounded 
by a border, also crowded with figures and hieroglyphics. The engravings in our Plate XV. are 
all drawn from this Table. In that Plate Isis is given as seen in the center of the Table, sitting 
la a splendid gate-way. 

A Cm capavmg of flw whol* Titble with Moe expUuiaUos, it civ«B bf Mmtfauton, AnL Expl. wL iL p. 340, m dted § 12. 8 (d). 
-II H fiKD »J«o i* Cnylut, BMaeil d« Antiqult^s vol. Tii. p. 34, eitad P. m. § IS. 2.— CL Skudtforri, Saer. and Praf. Hist. Con 
NL TuL— £iu9d. Jnuri. w>1. viL 89L^ JCsyo, MjtbdOQr, toL iL 82. 

Among the most remarkable ruins discovered at Pompeii, is a Tltmple of Ms, The columns 
which surrounded it are almost entirely preserved. The temple itself was entirely built of brick, 
and on the outside covered with a very solid stucco. It had the form of a square, and was not 
covered, but was surrounded by a covered gallery, which was supported by columns, and served 
for a shelter In had weather. **In this temple have been found all the instruments which apper- 
tain to the religious ceremonies, and even the skeletons of the priests, who had been surprised 
and burled by the shower of cinders in the middle of the occupations of their ministry. Their 
vestments, the cinders and coals on the altars, the candelabra, lamps, sistrums, the vases which 
contained the lustral water, paters employed in the libations, a kind of kettle to preferve the 
hitestines of the victims, cushions on which thev placed the statue of the goddess Isis when they 
olTered sacrifices to her, the attributes of the divinity with which the temple was adorned, ^., 
are still shown. Many of these vases have the figure of an ibis, of a hippopotamus, of a lotus ; 
and what renders them still more important, they were found exactly in the situation In which 
they were used, so that there can now be no doubt as to their reality and their use. The walla 
of the temple were adorned with paintings, relating to the worship of the goddess ; there were 
figures of priests in the costume of their order : their vestments were of white linen, the heads 
of the ofllciating priests were shaved, their feet covered with a fine thin lace, through which the 
nnscles might be distinguished." Stuart, Diet, of Architecture, article Pompeiu 

3. Arts. This is the name of the ox in which Osiris was supposed to reside, rather 
than a distinct deity. The ox thus honored was known by certain marks ; his body 
was all black, excepting a square spot of white on his forehead, and a white crescent 
or sort of half-moon on nis nght sicfe ; on his back was the figare of an eagle ; under 
his tongue a s<m of knot resembling a beetle {cantharus) ; and two sorts of hair upon 
his tall. This ox was permitted to live twenty -five years. His body was then em- 
balmed, placed in a chest, or yjopi^^ and buried with many solemnities. A season of 
moumine then followed, until a new Apis, or ox properly marked, was brought to 
B^L— it is a curious fact that Belzoni, who succeeded in finding an entrance into the 
second of the great pyramids of Egypt, found in the comer of a large and high cham- 
ber in the interior of the pyramid a ^opis, which, on being carefully opened, presented 
the bones of an ox. 

MirETTS is the name of the sacred ox consecrated to the Sun, and worshiped espe- 
cially at Heliopolis. He is described as being white. 

In Plate XT. are two representations, from the Isiac Table, supposed to be .^pU and Mvnis; 
each is attended by two priests ; under the head of each is a standard supporting something, 
perhaps tfae eating-trough of the sacred animal. 

Ot Land. Quart. Am. xix. 201.— Ainier. LX>rig. d« evlte que 1m Egyptleai rendoient am uionaz, ia Ibe Ifem. Jkad. huer, 
& Ur-Aim Aoneteni, Oct uumu mpretea a Eg^pte^ in (be Mem. ^ Ix. 20.— /Vieftord, u dted ) 12. 2 ( f). 

4. Serapis. This was one of the Egyptian deities, considered by some to be the 
lame wit h Osiris. Magnificent temples, generally called Serapeaj were erected to him 
at Memphis, Canopus, and Alexandria. I'aciius relates a marvelous tale of the re- 
moval of an effiffy of this god from Sinope, on the southern shore of the Pontus Euxi- 
ntLs. to Alexandria. The worship of the god existed, however, in Egypt at a much 
earlier period. The mysteries of Serapis were introduced at Rome under the em- 
perors, but soon abolished on account of their Ucentiousness. — Some derive the name 
Irom Ypoii and 'An;, as having signified at first merely the cheat or box in which the 
body of Api» was deposited. 

In the Sup. Plate 34, we have a very remarkable statue of Serapis; resembling as to the form 
of the body that of Cybele in 8up. Plate 5, and that of Dfana Ephesla in Sup. Plato 16; around 
the body twines a huge serpent, witose tail is grasped in the hand of Serapis, while the head 
appears'at his feet ; on the portions between the folds of the serpent are various figures of per- 
sons and animals.— In the Snp. Plate 25, we have another, more in the Roman style; Serapis 
sits. In foil drapery, with sandals on his feet ; one arm raised in earnest action ; given by Mont- 
<k«con as belnneine to the ehbinet of Pauvel. In the same Plate is another representation from 
an .ahrmxas (ef. P. IV. ^ 200. 2) ; he holds a spear In his right hand, and points upward with the 

other; a Cerberus stands at his side. In all these Images we notice the thee and t>eard of a 

Japiter, and also the caUUkus or basket on the head which is the mark of Serapis. 


It bu bHB npiiOMd by naw, tad tta* DoHoB b adoptad by Dr. B. D. OsrkC) (M 
flnttbe wiooi Icfoida oonaeeted with Uw wonbip of fth god ffmr oot of tb« Uatoryer Ibat paMareb.— Cf. rowtiu^deThadoetB 
GMliU. iBMt. ISO.-CiOTftt, Tksvaiik r. iL McL & cb. fi. 

5. Akctbis. This was another dehy connected in- fable with Osiris. He was said 
to be the son of Osiris, and to have accompanied Isis in her search after her husband. 
He is represented as having the head of a dog. He is also called Hermanubi* ; or, as 
others say, the latter is the nanae of another deity of a similar character. 

He appeara to be represented in the monument exhibited in our Plate XVIII. 6g. B. Ct 
^ 34. S..— In tlie Sup. Plate 37, we have Images of Anubis. The flrst ia from a piece of marble 
Bculpture f iven by Montf&ucon f^om Boimard ; he standi with one foot on a crocodile, bolding 
In his left band a eaduetu$t and in the right a abort rod attached to a globe ; by his head on on( 
side is a palmteaf, on tbe other a laurel -branch ; on his right is seen also the head of Serapia, 
and on his left that of Apis, from which circumstance the inscription on the original monument, 
6EOf AAEA^OI, is supposed to designate Serapis, Apis, and Anubis. Tbe other image in tbia 
Plate is drawn from an engraved gem ; presenting Anubis with tbe Roman coat of mail and a 
bow and arrow. 

CYRocEPnALiTs Is bf Bome considered to be the aama as Anabla; but this name In Egyptian 
mythology merely designatea the dog as converted into a divinity. Tbe term Cynoeepkali is ap* 
plied by Greek writers to a race of beings aaid to exist in Asia {Diod. Sie. 111. 34). The image in 
Sup. Plate V7, ia given by Montfattcon, under tbe name of CnxopUkeeutt as being tbe monkey- 
god of Egypt. 

iELVBUs designates the cat, aa deified by the Egyptians, and especially honored at Bubaatis ; 
whence the name Diama Bubastis, applied to the aame animal. Their imagea are given in 
Sup. Plate 97. 

6. Harfocrates. He is supposed to be the same as Horns, son of Isis, and was 
worshiped as the god o( Silence. He was much honored among the Romans, who 
placed his statues at the entrance of their temples. He was usually represented in 
the figure of a boy, crowned with an Egyptian mitre, wliich ended at the points as it 
were in two buds ; in his left hand he hela a horn of plenty, while a finger of his right 
hand was fixed upon his lips to command silence and secrecy. 

CC PotpHvy, Cavo of Nynpbl {cL P. V. S iMk 2}.— CZow. /oum. Ui. 142.«-ifons«s^ RcciMil 6m Antiqiiitfa. Fkr. IH>«. 4. 

In Plate XLVII. fig. 1, from an wfffrraxoj, we have Harpocratea sitting on the loius flower; cf. P. 
IV. $ 108. In tbe Sup. Plate 25, tbe first Image of Harpocratea preaenta him with a aingular 
head-covering, from which a large horn descends below tbe shoulder. Tbe second is remark- 
able, because be has the wing of Mercury, the panther-akin of Bacchus, the owl of Minerva, ibe 
bound of Diana, tbe serpent of JSaculapius, together with tbe horn of plenty. 

7. Canopus. He is said to have been the pilot or admiral of the fleet of Osiris in 
his expedition to India. In the Egyptian mythology he seems to be the god of the 
waters of the Nile. 

Nearly all the representations of him are formed by tbe bead of a person or Aiiroal appearing 
at the top of one of those vaaes in which the Egyptians kept the waters of that river; tbe body 
of the vaae ia frequently covered with bleroglypbica. Two such repreaentations are given in 
our Plate VIII. 

III. — Mythical Beings^ ivhoae history is intimately connected with thai of the 


$ 97. (1) Titans and Giants. The enterprises of the Titans are celebrated in 
the ancient fables of the Greeks. They have already been mentioned in the 
account of Saturn ($ 14), to whom they were brothers, being generally con- 
sidered as sons of Uranus or Coelus and Titaea. The oldest was called Titan, 
and from him, or their mother, they derived their common name. The preva- 
lent tradition assigned to Uranus five sons besides Saturn, viz. Hyperion, Cceus^ 
Japelus, CriuSf and Oeeanusj and likewise five daughters besides Rhea, wife 
of^ Saturn, viz. lYiemis, Mnemosyne, Thya, PhoBbe, and Tethys, c^WeA ^Filanides* 
On account of their rebellion against Uranus, in which however Saturn and 
Oceanus took no part, the Titans Were hurled by their father down to Tartarus, 
whence they were set free by the aid of Saturn. With Saturn also they after- 
wards contested the throne, but unsuccessfully. The Cyclops, mentioned in 
speaking of Vulcan ($ 52), may be considered as belonging to the Titans. 

The number of the Tirans is given variously ; Apollodorus mentions 13, Hy^inus 6, 
The number of 45 is stated by some. The name of one of them, Japeivs, is strik- 
ingly similar to Japhct, mentioned in the Bible, whose descendants peopled Europe c 
and it is remarkably that in the Greek traditions Japetus is called the father of man 
land. Some have considered the I'itans as the descendants of Gomer, the son of 


t|^-_ jKsrisvr!:-^ 


Japbei^ — They have also been supposed to be the Cushites, or descendants of Cush', 
ind the builders of the tower of Babel. — Others think them merely personiiications 
of the elements' ; and suppose their fabled war with their father Ccelus, or against 
Saturn, an allegorical representation of a war of the elements. 

Hesiod's Battle of the Titans is often named as a remarkable specimen of subhmitv. 
It will be interesting to compare* it with Homer's Battle of the Gods, and Milton^s 
MtU of the AftgeU. 

I a Farm, Aattqalt. dw Cdta. ^ AysnC. AiMlfh of Ancieikt Mytholoor. s CL Armam, Bri«fe QbCT dm Wtam dor 

Mjtbologie. * Camftn Bom. IL a. 6im. At. Tbeof. 674 » if iS. Fuad. Lert, W. 

5 98. The GianU were a distinct class, although their name (ybyof, from ytj 
aod yitci) desi^ates them as sons of Earth, or Gaia, who gare them birth, after 
the defeat of the Titans by Jupiter, and out of vengeance against him. The 
most famous of them were Enceladua^ Hakyoneus^ Typhoriy JEgeon, Ephialles^ 
and Otus, According to the common description, they had bodies of extra- 
ordinary size and strength, some of them with a hundred hands, and with 
dragon^s feet, or serpents instead of legs. Their most celebrated undertaking 
was the storming of Olympus^ the residence of Jupiter and the other gods. 
Id order to scale this summit, they heaped mountain upon mountain, as (Eta, 
Pelion, Ossa, and others. But Jupiter smote them with his thunderbolts, 
precipitated some of them to Tartarus, and buried others beneath the moun- 
tains. Typhon or Typhoeus, for instance, he pressed down with the weight of 
^tna', under which, according to the fable, the giant constantly strives to lift 
himself up, and pours from his mouth torrents of flame. 

> 09. M«C». i. 161. ^ Ob. Met. v. S4&— ClatMi Oigutoaiacb.-PttH{. Fyth. 1 91.— Man. dt rTnttHut, Cfauw i>HitL « UL 

Jm. voL vfi. ML flwbintiirealto|oriqMdcionitiBaDM,*e.— JBaiiio>,iu>Tjrpboi^InUie JAm-<faid. toL iiL p. 1I& 

1. JEgeon or Briareus was another ^ant, eminent in the contest, with fifty heads 
and a hundred hands. He hurled against Jupiter a hundred huge rocks at a single 
throw; but Jupiter bound him also under ^tna, with a hundred chains. — This storj 
of Uie war between the Giants and Jupiter is also explained by some as an allegon- 
cal representation of some great struggle in nature which took place in early times. 
This contest is to be distinguished from that of the Titans, who, although often con- 
founded with the Giants, were a distinct class. 

2. Orion is by some also placed amon^ the giants as a son of Gaia or Terra ; yet 
the more common fable ascribes his orimn to the joint agency of Jupiter, Mercury, 
and Neptune j according to which some derive his name from the Greek word dvpov 
iurina). He was ranked among the attendants of Diana, and after his death his name 
was given to a constellation. 

Sttf^menp-, ncHwl 1 117 (f).— ikfbitftminl, Lahb. d*Orioo, ia Am Jftm. .louL /natr. ziv. 1& attanptinf to ibew & oop> 
BMf ioB of (lie fabl* vith the ■tory of baae lb* ton of Abratem. 

3. The Fy/iuM of the anclentt were fabulous beinfrs, of very dlminotive size, supposed by 
•one to dwell in Egypt and Ethiopia ; by others, in Thrace and S'cythia ; and by others, in India. 

a On M«L vi. KL— /Vn. Hirt. NaL viL 2.— fisyiM, on Bom. n. iii. 9^Hitren, Iden, wl. i. as dtmi P. IV. § IT1 -Jfattt- 
Jhm,ia Qw JmaiMdte ^oy^fw, vol. i. p. »&.— Aoiiiff-, Lea Pygnte, in the Man. Jtmd. Inter. voL ▼. |k 101.— Colmet, aa dtaJ 
P.LHttk ««LUi.p.liau-^H^.ZtiMrcJiM,D«PrginaBia.Ctli«pia. KIL 1724. 4. 

$ 99. Tritons and Sirent, TViton has already been mentioned (§ 29) as a 
son of Neptune and Amphitrite. From him, as most famous, the other various 
deities of the sea derived the name of Tritons. They were represented, like 
him, as half man and half fish, with the whole body covered with scales. 
They osaally formed the retinue of Neptune, whose approach Triton himself 
annoonced by blowing his horn, which was a large conch or sea shell. 

A Triton is osaally represented with the form of a roan in the upper part, and the form of a 
flih In the lower. Bometlmes the head of the fish Is also retained ; as in the Sup. Plate 19, fVom 
a Kiilpture given by Hontfaucon ; where Triton is seen beiarlni? perhaps a Nereid, or more pro- 
iaMy Kemu Marina^ since the fifure at the right appears to be a Cupid. In Plate XLIII. Triton 
ii aoBoancing with his born the approach of Neptune.— Cf. Ov. Met. 1. 233,—Virg. JEn. x. 900. 

There were other minor divinities of the sea under Neptune ; but Triton seems to 
have had the pre-eminence, and under Neptune a sort of control among them. Phor- 
cus, Proteus, and Glaucus have been already mentioned (^ 29). Nereus was ranked 
among them as a son of Oceanus, and the father of the Nereides. Ino and her son 
Palaemon or Melicertes, are also said to have been admitted by Neptune as gods of 
his retinue. Pakemon is thought to be the same with PortumnuSf whom the Romans 
worshiped as the guardian of harbors. 

i 100. The Sirem were a sort of sea-goddesses, sai^ by some to be two in 
number, by others, three, and even four. Homer mentions but two', and de* 
flcribes them as virgins, dwelling upon an island, and detaining with them every 



Toyager, who was allured thither by their captivatincr music. They would 
have decoyed even Ulysses, on his return to Ithaca, but were not permitted. — 
By others they were described as daughters of the river-pod Achelous, and 
companions of Proserpine, after whose seizure they were changfpd into birds', 
that they might fly in search of her. In an unhappy contest with the Muses 
in singing, they lost their wings as a punishment of their emulation. Others 
make them sea-nymphs, with a form similar to that of the Tritons, with the 
laces of women and the bodies of flying fish. The artists generally represent 
them as virgins, either not at all disfigured, or appearing partly as birds. 

1 Horn. Od. xii. 30. lOl ^ Ov. MeL v. 860. 

Their fabled residence was placed by some on an island near cape Pelorus in Sicily: 
by others, on the islands or rocks called Sirennusae, not far from the promontory of 
Surrentum on the coast of Iialy. — Various explanations of the fable of the Sirens have 
been given. It is commonly considered as signifying the dangers of indulgence in 

J 101. (3) Nymphs, The Nymphs of ancient fiction were viewed as holding 
a sort of intermediate place between men and gods, as to the duration of life; 
not being absolutely immortal, yet living a vast length of time. Oceanus was 
considered as their common father, although the descent of difl*erent nymphs is 
given differently. Their usual residence was in grottoes or water-caves, from 
which circumstance they received their name, Nv/i^ku. Their particular ofiSces 
were different, and they were distinguished by various names according to the 
several objects of their patronage, or the regions in which they chiefly resided. 

1 u. Thus there were the reader, or nymphs of the mountains ; Naiadeg, Nereides 
(cf. ^ 29), and Potamidef, nymphs of the fountains, seas, and rivers ; Dryadet and 
Hamadryades, nymphs of the woods ; Najxra, nymphs of the vales, &c. The Dryads 
were distinguished from the Hamadryads ('"ifta (V«>ff) in this, that the latter were 'sup- 
posed to be attached to some particular tree, along with which they came into being, 
lived and died ; while the former had the care of the woods and trees in general. 

2. Places consecrated to these imaginary beings were called No/i^aia. Such was 
the celebrated spot in the vicinity of Apollonia, famous for its oracle and the fire which 
was Been to issue constantly from the ground (jPZm. Nat. Hist. xxiv. 7). Such was 
the place and building at Rome which was called Nym-pha:nm, adorned with statues 
of the nymphs, and abounding, it is said, with fountains and waterfalls. Festivals 
were held in honor of the nymphs, whose number has been stated as above 3000. 

Sm Fofitoiii, Lb Calto d« divlnitti da oral, in Mtm. Aoad. Inter, xii. 27.— CC Lend. Qmat. Jtv. zvil. 1*2. 

They were generally represented ai yonnir and beautifiit virgini, partially covered with a Teil 
or thin cloth, ttenring in their hanris vaees of water, or ■hellii, leaves, ar prass, or havinp some- 
thinff as a symbol of their appropriate offices. The several gods are represented, more nr less 
frequently, as attended by nymphs of some class or other; especially Neptunp, Diana, and Bac- 
chus. Under the term of nymphs, were anmetimes included the imaginary spirits that guided 
the heavenly sphi>res and constellations, and dispensed the influences of the stars ; ihp nyropha 

being distrihutpd by some mythnlogists into three classes, those of the sky, the laitd, and the sea. 
In Plate XLIII. Nymphs are seen accompanying Neptune and Atnphitrite —In the Sup. Plate 
19, we have a Nereid upon a sea-monster which seems to consist of the lower pan of a fish united 

with the heads of two horses, whirh she guides by reins ; one horse has two flns nr wings instead 
of the two fore feet ; from a gem of Maffi;!. In some representations, the Nereid appears a woman 
with the lower part of the body in the form of a fish, thus exhibiting the tneriMattf. 

§ 102. (4) MiLses. The ancients were not content with having in their fic- 
tions a god of science and a goddess of wisdom in general ; but assigned to 
particular branches of knowledge and art their appropriate tutelary spirits or 
guardian divinities, whom they called Muses^ Movoat, and considered as the 
daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. They were nine in number, according 
to the common account, with Greek names, as follows : Kxciw {I2iuftrioua\ 
KoXXtoTti; {Fair-voice), Mil-fiofiivri {Sinpifig), e>uUta {(ray), *Epatu» {Lfn-ing), 
'Evtipftrj (Wisll-pleasing), Tify^i%Qpfi {Dance-loving), IloXv/ivta {Songful), znA 
'Ovpovca {Celestial). 

The Romans termed them Camttnm. They were frequently called by common names, derived 
from places sacred to them, or from other circumstances, as Pieridss, from Pieria, ^vnidcs. Belt' 
coniadest Parnassidest Hippoerenidest Castalideji, Slc. 

^ 103 M. In order to represent the Muses ns excelling in their several arts, espe- 
cially in music and song, the poets imagined various contests held by them ; as, for 
example, with the Sirens, ana the daughters of Pierua', in which the Muses always 
gainer the prize. I'hey were dcBcribcd as remaining virgins, and as bein^ imder the 
mstruction and protection of Apollo. Their usual residence was Mt. Uehcon, where 


waa the fountain Hippocrene, and Mt. ParnassuSf where was the fountain Castalia; 
the former in Bceotia; the latter near Delphi* in Phocis. Mt. Pindus and Mt. Pier«i8 
in Thessaly were also sacred to the Muses. Particular temples were also consecrated 
to ihem among the Greeks and the Romans. Festivals in their honor were instituted 
in several parts of Greece^, esoecially among the Thespians. The Macedonians 
obser\'ed a lestiYal for Jupiter ana the ]VIuses, which was continued nine days. 

1 09 MfC T. SGOl 4 Sn View of Delphi and Parmsrat forming the FnstkpiMt to tbii Muii»l. * Sea Meyru, d« Mmr. 

idvwm, ejoiq. orig. «l eanii \m Commmt. Sec ng. OoUing. toL vUL 

The Maaea are osaally represented as virgins wUb ornamented dresses, and crowned with 
palms or laurels. " According to the best authorities, Clio, History, holds In her band a half- 
opened scroll ; Melpomene, Tragfdy, is veiled, and leans upon a pillar, holding in her left hand 
a tragic mask ; Thalia, Comedy^ holds in one hand a comic mask, in the other a staff resembling 
a litttus or atigur's wand ; EuTftape, Mtuie, holds two flutes or pipes ; TEarsiCMuaa, the Dane*, 
is represented in a dancing attitude, and plays upon a seven-sirinped lyre ; Eeato, Jimatary 
Pttry, holds a nine-siringed instrument; Calliope, Rpie Poetry, has a roll of parchment in her 
band, and sometimes a straisht trumpet or tuba ; Urahia, Aurorumy, holds in her left band a 
gtobe; in her riKht a rod, with which she appears lo point out some object to the beholder: 
Polyhtm^iia, FAoquenet and Imitation, places the fore-fini^er of the right hand upon her mouth, 
or else bears a scroll in her band.*' {Jtntkon** Lemp.) — Generally accnrdnnt with this descrip- 
tioQ, yet in some respects different, are the figures in our Plate XXXIX. ; where the Muses are 
represented as seen In the statues belonging to the collection of Christina queen of Sweden, and 
described by Maffei. — A valuable monument, to guide the critic and artist in distinguishing the 
Mases, is a bas-relief on a sarcophagus in the Capiioline gallery at Rome, ia which the nine are 

"The Musea are often painted with their hands Joined dancing in a ring; in the middle of 
Ihem sits Apollo, their commander and prince. The pencil of nature described them in that 
manner upon the agate which Pyrrhus, who made war upon the Romans, wore in a ring; for in 
it was a representation of the nine mases, and Apollo holding a harp ; and these figures were 
not delineated by art iPlin. L. xzxvii. c. 1), but by the spontaneous handy-work of nature." 
{TMte's Paoth.) 

r« nnoa rrpfneo^tiam of lbs Mimi^ Me Jfon//«ieon, Ant Exp. vol. i. platce 66-62.— JIfiuaim Pio-C3anmtmumy voL L 
plita 17-aa vol. iv. pUlei 14. I& 

$ 104. (5) The Graces and the Hours. To the retinue of Venus belonared 
the Graces, Xapfr-rc$, Graiias^ servants and companions of the goddess, diffusing 
charms and gladness. They were said to be daughters of Jupiter and Enry- 
nome, or accordiojr to others of Bacchus and Venus herself, and were three m 
namber, 'Ay?uxta {Sjplendor), e>axtta {Pleasure), and 'Ev^poavvr^ (Av)* They 
were honored especially in Greece, and had temples in the principal cities. 
Altars were often erected to them in the temples of other gods, especially Mer- 
cury, Venus, and the Muses. 

I «. They are frequently represented on ancient monuments as beautiful young virgins, com- 
noaly in a'group, holding each other by the band, and without drapery. 

1 Thus they appear in the Sup. Plate 8, a representation wMch yflry nearly resembles what 
is seen on two beautiful antique engraved gems, given by Ogle, Ani.T:\p. Plates 47, 48. In the 
Bap. Plate 7, the Graces are employed in adorning Venus. An antique painting found, with 
other pieces, at Rome, in a vault near the Colissum, in 1G68, exhibits tbem dancing, with slight 

Cl Find. (Hjmp. xn.—Marua, Abb. Qbv dis HoraB nod OnsieD, in bit U^thoL Vwrniekuu—Mamieut war la Gneo, In tbs 
ikn. dbrJoiA da Inaer. iii. a 

i 105. The florae, ^Clpai, were the goddesses of Time, presiding especially 
over the seasons and the hours of the day, and were considered as the daughters 
and Servants of Jupiter. They came at length to be viewed as tutelary patrons 
of beauty, order, and regularity, in reference to which Themis was said to be 
their mother. They were named Mvofua, Atxi;, Etp^. 

The Graces, Hours, and Muses, are all supposed by some wrifers to have had 
originally a reference to the stars and seasons, and to have afterwards lost their astro- 
nomical attributes, when moral ideas and qualities became more prominent in the 
Greek system of fictions. 

The Hours are usually represented as dancing, with short vestments, and garlands of palm- 
leaf. and all of tbe same age. In some monuments of later periods, /our Hours appear, corre- 
sponding to the four seasons.— In tbe 8up. Plate 10, tbe Hours are represented by four virginn 
attending Aumra. 

In representing the seasons, the Romans used the masculine gender; thos in onr Plate IX. 
which exhibits them as sculptured on the Arch of Severus, we see four lads or young men, each 
with winffs, and appropriate symbols of Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. The Romans 
also personified the Months, usually representing them by male figures. 

C£ Wimduimmm, HM. da I'Art, I. if. cfa. S. f a.-Mont/nteon, Ant Exp. Soppl. vol. i. p. 22 a. Hera he <ivc« alto, Ptarw 
f>M, frem LuBfaaciM, MKravtnffi of ttm rqireaeoWioiM of Ibe month* ai baatirully depicted in & muncript bdooiinf io the Imps' 
rid tabarj ttViema i Febnary alou k rrpreaentod by a feaiaJe. 

f 106. ((>) The Fates, The very common poetic representation of human 
life uader the figurative idea of spinning a thread, gave rise to the notion of th 


Faies^ called MoTpot by the Greeks ; by the Romans, Parts* They were three 
sisters, daughters of Night, whom Jupiter permitted to decide the fortune and 
especially the duration of mortal life. ' One of them Clotho (KxtoJ^w), attached 
the thread; the second, Lachesta {Adxf'Jif), spun it; and the third, jltropot 
CAtpoftof), cut it off, when the end of life arrived. They were viewed as in- 
exorable, and ranked among the inferior divinities of the lower world. Their 
worship was not very general. 

Tbe Parcc were generally represented ai three old women, with chaplets made of wool and 
interwoven with the flowers of the Narcissus, wearing long robes, and einpioy*-d in their worka : 
Clotho with a distaff; Lachesis having near her sometimes several spindles : and Atropos hold- 
ing a pair of scissors. Such is their appearance in the Sup. Plate 14, which is uot copied from 
any ancient monument, but designed after the description of the poets. 

8m CmlnO. EpitlMi. I'd at Tlwt v. 90b.^Ma!imh Atthaadl. f. Pknca. u hk MyUuL rermidmu-Buiimt ter ks FUqao, ta 
tha Hem. Jtad. tuer. vol. iv. 64& 

$ 107. (7) The FurieB and Harpies, Among the divinities of the lower 
world were three daughters of Acheron and Night, or of Pluto and Proserpine, 
whose office it was to torment the guilty in Tartarus, and often to inflict ven- 
geance upon the living. The Greeks called them ^EpCvwii, Furies i and also 
by a sort of euphemism, or from design to propitiate them, KififvCSti, signify- 
ing kindly disposed i the Romans styled them Furise, Their names were 
Tisiphone (from W<rif and ^o$), whose particular work was to originate fatal 
epidemics and contagion ; J9IeetOj (from aXT^xf os), to whom was ascribed the 
devastations and cruelties of war; and Megsera (from /tcyaipw), the author of 
insanity and murders. Temples were consecratt^d to them among both the 
Greeks and the Romans, and among the latter a festival also, if we may con- 
sider the Furinalia as appropriated to them and not to a separate goddess Fu- 
rina, as some suppose. 

1«. They were represented with vipers twining among their hair, usnally with frightful coun- 
tenances, in dark and bloody robes, and holding the torch of discord or vengeance. 

S. Bee the Sup. Plate 14, where they are seen In drapery, with the serpent locks and scorpioa 

. _ 1 " '^ ■ ■ '"•«" 

their whip*. 

whips with which the artists represented them. On two vases in tbe Hamiiion collection tbev 
have serpenU in their hair. In the Sup. Plate 13, they are introduced as lashing a criminal with 

Ct Firg. Owg. iii. 6St. Xo. vii. S4I, 416. sll MS.-O0. Met iv. 474.->Cr. C JL BSttigtr, FariraoHuiaa im TkaMnpicI nd 
aqf d. Hldtrerkca d. tXi. Qriwhen ; mw vthmA, Uiit«nttGbai«. Waiin. 1801. 8.— Jtaita', nr la Fuitai, ia tbe Mm. Mtd. hua 
Tol. T. p. S4. 

$ 108 a. The fable of the Harpies, "ApTtvuu, seems to have had reference 
originally to the rapidity and violence of the whirlwind, which suddenly seizes 
and beare off whatever it strikes. Their names were Jello (from atXAa, siorm\ 
Celseno (fiom aceXao^^, dark), and Ocyptta (from Ctxvnitviu flying rapidly), ail 
indicative of the source of the fiction. 

They appear to have been conesdered, sometimes, at least, as the goddesses of storms, and so 
were called 66cXXai {Horn. Od. xz. 66). They were said to be daughters of Neptune and Terra, 
and to dwell in islands of the sea, on the borders of the lower world, and in the vicinity of the 
Furiea, to whom they sometimes bore off the victims they seized. 

They are represented as having the faces of virgins, and the bodies of vultures, with feet and 
bands armed with claws, and sometimes as with the tails of serpents. Bee the Sup. Plate 14. 

nrg. Ma. iiLSia-8M Feu, Myttioloc. Bricfeu Shiltf. I8S7. 3 vols. 12.~L* Oere (in tlw Bibliolhtqu* Vnieindk, vol. i. p. )4D 
■nppoMi thB Harpiei to b« BMraijr keuM$ ; a cmjactpra which OiUon Mcm lo approw (Hnm. Emp. vol. ii. p. 71. ed. N. T. 102). 

$ 108 b. (8) The Venti or Winds. It has been already remarked (^ 78) that the 
four principal winds were at an early period converted into mythical personases. 
Among both Greeks and Romans they gained the rank of deities. The Venli, 'A>^ 
fiMt were eight ; Evpo;, Eurus, South-east ; 'AirqXi&mif, SubsolanuSf East ; Kaixtof, CtBcias, 
AquUoj North-east ; Bop/of , Boreas^ North ; 2>i>v, Cotias, North-west ; Ze^po; , Zephy- 
ruSf Occiiens, West ; NtfTCf, Notus^ Auster, South ; At»//, Libs, Africus, South-west. 

Little is handed down to ua respecting the worship paid to the winds. An altar dedicated to 
them was found near Netiuno (ciT. $ 78. 3). Pausanias speaks of one erected at the foot of a 
mountain near Asopus, where annual sacrifices were offered to them at night. Tbe most re- 
markable monument peruining to these gods is the Temple nr Tower of the eight Winds at 
Athens, still existing; said to have been erected about B. C. IdO; a view of it is given in Plate 
XXI. fig. 9; see also P. I. \ 110. 

On each of the eight sides of this tower is represented one of the winds; £«nr«, as a young man 
ilying freely and vigorously ; StLbaolamLB^ a young man holding fruit in tbe fold of his mantle ; 
jff^uo, a venerable man with a beard, holding a dish of olives ; Borftu, with boots* on his legs, 
mufSing his face in a cloak, and flying eagerly ; Corvs^ also with boots and cloak, and holding in 
his hands an inverted vase of water; ZepAvriM, a youth with naked breast, and carrying flowers; 
JVetiw, an old man with gloomy faca ; 4frtcus, also with melancholy looks and heavy winga 


la onr Sap. Plau SO, Zepkfrua m leen aapported in the air. In compftny with Flora or Chloria, 
to whom he is said to have been married. 

Sm IbofiM Ln. Tot L«L M editad by Autoy, toL IL p. lUS.-Uakft TopegfWft^ «t AXbum.-3toatfuiean, AaL Etp. 

i 109. (9) Th« Ikemons or Gmii, and Manes. In the earliest mythologies 
we find traces of a sort ofjprotecting deities, or spiritual guardians of men, 
called c^iiLoviu or Genii. They were supposed to be always present with the 
persons under their care, and to direct their conduct, and control in great mea- 
sure their destiny, having received this power as a gift from Jupiter. Bad dee- 
moos, however, as well as good, were imagined to exist, and some maintained, 
that every person had one of each class attendant upon him. 

From the notion of an attending genius arose the proverbial expressions, indulgere 
geuio and defraudare genio, signii ying simply to gratify or deny one's 9elf. 

The damons of classical mylbologv must not be confounded with the fallen spirits 
revealed in the Holy Scriptures, and represented as possessing men in the time of 

Sm FanMT, Emjr oo DrgwaiacL— Ltttan to Cfaaimi^ on lUlen Splii^ bjr Camonteua. BoilOD, 1S&— CL Brcwtiim, LIf hk 
MJ>iilD»irfCbnrtlin Lift. p. 37ft. N. York, 1897. 12. « 

$110. The Manes were a similar class of beings. Although often spoken 
of 88 the spirits or souls of the departed, they seem more commonly to have 
been considered as guardians of the deceased, whose office was to watch over 
their graves, and hinder any disturbance of their tranquillity. They were sub- 
ordinate to the authority of Pluto, on which account he is styled Summanus, 
Some describe a goddess, named Mania^ as their mother. 

1 ». The Romans designated by the name oi Lemur es, or Larva^ such spirits of the 
dead as wandered about m restlessness, disturbing the peace of men, issuing from the 
graves as apparitions to terrify the beholders. 

1 In Plate XXXVI. we have oae (kce of a square sepulchral monament found at Brlzia, on 
wbkb two Jiane* are represented, each with winga and an Inverted torch ; a representation not 
naconnon on such structures. 

iHJfinK'k Aba. Oberd. GwioidCT Utn. VaVm MfOL Vkn.Sinuin, Diii^ nr 1« LMnam, Mmi.JUad.Imr. voL L-Olk 
Am. t. tfL—Sum, EiaWluc ia SonH alls 0«ehicblfl. BwL 1888. IS. 

$ 111. (10) The Lares and Penates. The system of tutelary spirits was 
canried further by the Romans than by the Greeks. The former assigned to 
each dwelling and family its ^ardian deities, which were called Lares and 
Pennies. The Lares were said to be sons of Mercury and Lara, or Larunda« 
dangfater of Almon. They received a variety of epithets or by-names, accord- 
ing to the particular object, over which they were in different cases supposed to 
preside, as/omi/toret, eompitaks^ viales^ pateUarti, jmbHei, privaii. 

1 V. They were especially considered, however, as presiding over houses, and had 
m every house their proper sanctuary (lararium) and altar. T^ey seem to have been 
viewed as the spirits of the departed ancestors, the fathers and forefathers of the 
family, who sought the welfare of their descendants. 

1 Public festivals were held in their honor, called CMtpiteUa, which were made very Joyfbl 
eceaflkins; the slaves of the family shared liberty and equality with their masters, as on the 

The dAf was bacred to the Lares, and an ima^e of this animal was placed by their stataesw 
These itaiues were sometimes clothed in the skins, and even formed in the shape, of doga. 

r. B t mrU, Di«L 4to Laritatt. U cat Zirieav. 1816. &— JfUOfr, m cited $ 112. 

$113. The Pennies were also domestic or household gods, but they were not 
properly speaking a distinct class by themselves, because the master of the 
dwelling was allowed to select any deity according to his pleasure, to watch 
over his family affairs, or preside over particular parts of them. Accordingly 
Jupiter and others of the superior gods were not unfrequently invoked in this 
capacity. The gods who presided over particular families, were sometimes 
styled parvi Penates. While those that presided over cities or provinces were 
styled pairtt or ;w5/tW Penates. Adulation sometimes elevated to the rank of 
Penates even living persons; especially emperors. 

The Lares and the^ Penates are often confounded, but were not the same. "The Penates 
were oricinalty gods, the powers of nature personified; the mysterious action of which pro- 
duces and upholds whatever is necessary to life, to the common good, to the prosperity of fkml 
lies; whatever, in fine, the human species cannot bestow on itself. The Lares were orlfinally 
Ihemselves human beinfs, who, beeomlnff pure spirits after death, loyed still to hover round the 
dwelliae tbey once inhabited ; to watch over lu safety, and to guard it as the Ikitbfiil dog does 


the poaMmioDs of hta maiter. They keep off danger (torn without, while the Penatea, reaidiag 
In the Interior of the dwellinf, pour bleaainga upon ita inmates.** (Jintk. Lemp.) 

A number of smalt bronze statuea, representing Roman Penatett were found the last century 
at Exeter, in England. 

Cf. Pvg. Ma. li. 717. iiu I48.-I&yn<, Eicon, ix. «d Vlif. Xa. M.—T. HmpO, Dim. d« dlb Ltillm, m eltad \ 111.— Jtfttlkr, 
de dih Rom. Lwifau et PfenktibiH. Hafnia, 1811. B. — For a notice^ wi(b pUlai, of the lUlaei feood at Exctar, mb ttnJrdm^' 
toffii^ (cited P. nr. i & S), toL vL puUidied 1786. 

$ 113. (11) Sleep^ Dreamsy znd Death, Among the imaginary beings sup- 
posed to exert an influence over the condition of mortals, "TTtvoi, *Ovcipo^ and 
edva/toi, gained a personification, being called brothers, sons of Nox or night, 
and ranked among the deities of the lower world. 

1 V. The residence of Sleep, Tmwr, Somnus^ was said to be in Cimmeria, on account 
of the perpetual darkness which tradition ascribed to that region ; and the poppv, on 
account of its soporific quatities, was his common symbol. He is represented as hold- 
ing in his hand a lisht inverted and about to be extingiiished. 

The last symbol was also employed in representing i^avarof^ or Death, who was 
often placed beside his brother Sleep on sepulchral monuments, and appeared in a 
similar bodily form, and not a mere jiaked skeleton, as in modern art. When death 
was the result of violence, or circumstances of a disgusting character, the Greeks ex- 

Sressed it by the word tdfp, and they fancied a sort of beings called KHpef, who caused 
eath and sucked the blood. The Romans made a similar distinction between mor$ 
and lethum, 

9. In the representation of Som«««, given in our Plate XXXVI., he ts a young man tying on the 
ground asleep, with one arm on the neckc of a lion, and holding the capsnie of a poppy. 'ITUMm- 
Co«, or Death, stands by him with a scythe and wings, in a rube bespangled whb stars, as he la 
seen In some paintings. 

The Romans Imagined death as a goddess, Murt. The poets described her as roving about 
with open mouth, furious and ravenous, with lilacic robes and darlc wings. 8he is not often 
found represented on existing monuments of art ; in one supposed to represent her, a small 
figure In brass, she appears as a skeleton, silting on the ground with one hand on an urn. 

Ct Ob. Met xi. 502, 634, Mk^Lmhti*! Untenoebnuf, wic die Allen d. Tod gebildeL Berl. 1709. 4.— Se^d^V Abb. la hk 
Zentmrteo BUUtern. Tb. 8. 273.— ^Mno, Polymelia, cited P. IV. § 151. 

3. The god ofdreamg was *Ov€ipot {Horn. II. ii. 56), more commonly called Mop^f^, 
from the various imaees or forms (jtofx^fi) presented in dreaming. Morj>heu» is some- 
times considered as Uie ^od of sleep, but was more properly his minister; Phobeior 
{po0rfnap), sometimes considered as the god of dreams, was another minister of Som- 
dus, and Phantatus (^avruso)) another. 

CC ThBory ttfDmuntt ftc, illnrtntad by the hmmI nuufcable drauH vMoidcd lo Rntory. Land. 1808. 12. 

5 114. (12) The Satyrs and Fauns. The idea of gods of the forests and 
woods, with a form partly of men and partly of beasts, took its rise in the ear- 
liest ages either from the custom of wearing skins of animals for clothing, or 
in a design to represent symbolically the condition of roan in the semi-barbaroos 
or half-savage state. The Satyrs of the Greeks and the Fnut}S of the Romans, 
in their representation, differed from the ordinary human form only in having a 
buck's tail, with erect pointed ears. There were others called Panes, which 
had also the goat's feet, and more of the general appearance of the brute. 

1 u. The Fauns were represented as older than the Satyrs, who, when they became 
old, were called Sileni. Yet the Romans rojprescnted the Satyrs more like beasts, 
and as having the goat's feet. The Satyrs, Fauns, Panes, and Sileni, all belonged to 
the retinue of Bacchus (^ 60). 

2 tf. The name of Fauni was of Italian origin, derived from a national god Faunus, 
who was son of Picus (kinj^ of the Latins) and the nymph Canens (Oo. Mel. ziv. 
320, 336), and whose wife Fauna was also honored as a goddess. 

See Hiyn^t Abb. von Uatenebied. swiichen Fun. Set. Silea. nod Fitncn, In bit Samm;. Jint. JufMxt. Fonnd alio in IVtneft. 

Anoim, Hieloln de I'Art (cited P. IV. ( S2) vol. L p. 880. Ueter Fknn. StL Pkn. sod Silaen. Bert. 1180-91. 8.--reM, Mjth. 


$ 115. (13) The Gorgons. Three imaginarv sisters, daughters of Phorcys and 
Cete, were termed Topyrfvep, from their frightful aspect. Their heads were said to be 
covered with vipers instead of hair, with teeth as long as the tusks of a boar, and so 
terrific a look as to turn every beholder into stone. They are described as having the 
head, neck, and breasts of women, while the rest of the body was in ihe form of a 
serpent. According to some they had but one eye and one tooth, common to them 
all, which they were obliged to use in turn. Their names were Stheno, Euryale, and 
Mediiga. Medusa is saia to have been slain by Perseus, who cut off her head, while 
they were in the act of exchanging the eye. 

They are sometimes ranked, with the Furies, among the infernal deities. But their 
residence is variously assigned ; some placing them m a distant part of the western 


oeean, others in Lybia (cf. P. I. ^ 179), and others in Scythia. Some have ex- 
plained the §ab\e as referring to a warlike race of women, like the Amazons. Others 
nippose it to have had some reference to the moon as a dark body, which is said also 
to hare been called Fopy^yioy, from the face believed to be seen in it. 

^ 116. (14) The Amazont. The Amazons were no doubt mythical beings, al- 
tboagh said to be a race of warlike women, who hved near the river Thermcxion in 
Cap^ocia. A nation of them was also located in Africa. They are said to have 
borat off their right breast, that they might use the bow and javehn with more skill 
and force ; and hence theijr name, 'A/ia>;dver, from a and /<a^. They are mentioned in 
the Iliad (iii. 189. vL 186) and called cbmdveipai. 

Various explanations of the fable are given. Some consider it as having a connec- 
tioD ori^aliy with the worship of the moon. Several statues of Amazons were 
placed m the temple of Diana at Ephesus (Plin. N. Hist, xxxiv. 8) , and may have 
represented some of her imaginary attendants, or some of her own attributes. 

A tgw niiiiitirin «o Ammbh. bet hniag inr ara^ h tBan in flw arariM of Blephtata.— In oar Sup. Plato 82, an AaHfloo b 

lif WMl iii l wiib Imt bow and qaivar of Known. TlndltioiM mpeetiag a i»oa of AmaTona ai« aaid to bo lUU earaBt in tbo 

i^oBorCaiiaHB. CC.Aiin&A«LNaULp.3M. On tbe Amaxu^ mo Owuni'* STiaboUk. 

^ 117. This seems to be the place for noticing more particularly several Mofuierg, 
winch are exhibited in the tales of ancient mythology. 

(a) The Muutaur was said to be half man and half bull. The story is, that Minos, 
Idog of Crete, refused to sacrifice to Neptune a beautiful white bull, which was de- 
minded by the god. The angry ^^od showed his displeasure bv causing Pasiphae, the 
wife of Mmos, to defile herseOf with this bull, throug^h ^e aid of Dseaalus, and give 
birth to the monster. Minos confined the Minotaur m the famous labyrinth. Here 
the monster devoured the seven young men and the seven maidens annually required 
from the Athenians by Minos. 

Thoeofl, by tbe aid of tbe king'a daaghter, Ariadne, aiew the Minotaur and escaped tbe laby- 
riath (cf. $ 1»). 

(6) The ChwuBra was said to be composed of a dragon, goat, and lion united : the 
Bwidle of the body was that of a goat, the hinder parts those of a dragon, the fore 
parts those of a lion ; and it had the heads of all three, and was continually vomiting 
forth flames. This monster lived in Lycia, in the reisn of Jobates, king of that 
country. This king, wishing to punish Bellerophon in order to gratify his son-in-law 
Pfstus, sends him against the Chimsera ; but Bellerophon, by the aid of Minerva, 
and the winged horse Pegasus, instead of perishing himself, destroyed the monster. 

TbM aUo a bf aoow aoppoHd to nferto avoteaak nomtain en tbe Lycian eoMk-4co OorfaV Travda, pt i'u laet iL ch. 8. 
t«Qi. iiL p. 81L od. N. Tork, lSl6).~i*iin. N. Hiat ▼. n^Bmia-f anl Frmtt on Bdleropbon, in ttw Mem. Aead. tuv. vli. 


if) The Centauri were said to be half men and half horses. Some make them the 
offspring of Ixion and the cloud ; others refer their origin to the bestiality of Centau- 
n», the son of Apollo. Thejr were said to dwell in Thessaly. The principal inci- 
dents related of them are their rude attempts upon the women at the marriage of 
Piriihous and Hippodamia, and the consequent battle with the Lapithss, who drove 
them into Arcadia. Here they were afterwards chiefly destroyed by Hercules. (Ov. 
Met. jJL 530.) — Some have imagined this fable to allude to the draining of the low 
parts of Thessaly, as the horse is in general symbolical of water. 

lia^M Inqafar, ftb in tto Ouk /0MnM2.-Ci: Mif/ar^ elk L aecb ai--^Aii^^ 


(d) Creryon was a monster said to be the offspring of Chrysaor and Callirhoe, and 
to have three bodies and three heads. His residence was in the island of Gades, 
where his numerous flocks were kept by the herdsman Eurythion, and guarded by 
a two-headed dog called Orthos. 

Tbe destruction of tlite montter formed one of the twelve labora of Hercnlea (^ 123). 

(«) The Hydra was a monstrous serpent in the lake Lerna, with numerous heads, 
nine according to the common account. When one of these heads was cut o^, an- 
other or two others immediately grew in its place, unless the blood of the wound was 
stopped by fire. 

The deetrnction of the Hydra wae another lalior amffned to Hercalee, which he accompliibea 
by tbe aid of lolant, who applied lighted brands or a heated iron as each head was removed, 
liw arrows at Uercales, being dipped In the Hydra's blood, caused incurable wounds. 

(/) Pegasus was not so much a monster as a prodigy, being a winged horse said to 
have sprung from the blood, which fell on the ground when Perseus cut off the head 
of Medusa. He fixed his residence on mount Helicon, where he opened the fountain 
called Hippoerene (tnmt and tpriM?). He was a favorite of the muses, and is called " the 
muses* horse." The horse, having come into the possession of Bellerophon, enablea 
him to overcome the Chimsra. Afterwards Pegasus, under an impulse from Jupiter, 


»hrew off Bellerophon to wander on the earth, and himself ascended to a place among 
the stars. 

^ M(nvli« li gi««a bjr WlackridMimor • bawMifnl ta^fdiaf in whits miU«, repnMnUi« BdlaoplMB ud hfam; th* 
orifinl, prcMT* Hi in liw pnlMe of Spadn it Bone, ii oT Iba Minnl linL— Sm trmAdnmnn, UkL dc I'Att. vol. U. ^ 02. iit. 281. 
— CC Frantma; Unaosimplne ou Tnita ElanntKire d^Artianoml* Fw. 1818. a eooUinins Ui« nadcot fabki rapedii^ Um 

(f) CerheruM was the fabled do^ of Pluto (^ 34), stationed as centinel at the entrance 
of Hades. He is generally descnbed as having three heads, sometimes as having fifty. 
Snakes covered his bodjr instead of hair. None from tlie world of the Uving could past 
him but by appeasing him with a certain cake, composed of medicated and soporific 
ingredients. ( Virg. JEn. vi. 420.) 

To seize and bring up this monster was assifned to Hercules as cue of fais labors. 

{h) SofUa and CkartfbdtM are the names, the former of a rock on the Italian shore, in 
the strait between SicUy and the main land, and the latter of a whirlpool or strong eddv 
over against it on the Sicilian side. The ancients connected a fabulous storjr with eaco 
name. — Scylla was originally a beautiful woman, but was changed by Circe into a 
monster, the parts below her waist becoming a number of dogs incessantly barking, 
while she had twelve feet and hands, and six heads with three rows of teeth. Tenified 
at this metamorphosis, she threw herself into the sea, and was changed into the rocks 
which bear her name.— ^harybdis was a greedy woman, who stole the oxen of Her- 
cules, and for that ofience was turned into tne gulf or whirlpool above mentioned. 

. a. rb-gO, £n. UL tnm-Orid, IMnn. li? . 9L-fnpat. liL I t.^Byginmj hh. Itt. 

(t) The Sphinx was the ofispring of Orthos and Chimaera, or of Typhon and Echidna ; 
a monster having the head and breasts of a woman, the body of a dog, the tail of a 
serpent, the wing;s of a bird, the paws of a lion, with a human voice. This monster 
infested the neighborhood of Thebes, proposing enigmas and devouring the inhabitants 
who could not explain them. At lensth one of the enigmas, in which she demanded 
what animal it was which walked on ^ur legs in the morning, two at noon, ai»d three 
at night, was solved by CEdipus : he said that the animal was man, who in the morning 
of li» creeps upon his hanas and feet, in middle age walks erect, and in the evening 
of his days uses a staff. On hearing this solution, the Sphinx instantly destroyed 

Id Plate Vin. are given two image* of the Sphinx. One it without wings ; having a pecaliar 
Egyptian head-dreee ; from a scnlptured monument given by Boiward. The other la ft-on an 
engraved gem, given by Haffel ; having the caUthnt on her head, and the tUtrum in her paw. 

BapraHntatioM of Iba Spbinx are vary eomnMn ■nteai Egyptian wminBaata. A fcry eelebntled cdoMd sMua of a Spbioz jd 
nmaiM near tba pjrnfliidi. II ia eat in tba lolld loek, and ii 195 tat u langtli.— Clarke'* TAfcIa, pL U. Met. 2. ch. *.-DatonH 
Tnnb (vol. L p. 60. Lmd. l8(M)^l4Md. QiMrt. Aeo. xiz. IBS, 408 » 

(k) Tlie Oriffon iVp^tf/) waa an imaginary animal, said to be produced from a lion and an 
eagle, and auppoaed to watch over roinea of gold and whatever waa hidden. Its image Is aome- 
timea found on ancient medals ; the upper part resembling an eagle, the lower part a lion. 

Ct F<rTa,EeI.vlii. tl^B^vdatUit iii. 116.— Aiity, Hiii. NaL z. 49i-^ F. Onfm von rtUtam, Von den Oreifn der Altea. 
. 1796. a 

(0 In the Greek mythology Tifpkon is ranked among the Giants ; by some considered to be the 
same as Tgflutug (cf. ^ 06); by others diatlngulshed from him; said to have been produced trota 
the earth by Juno's, striking it ; described as having a hundred heads like those of a dragon.— 
In Egyptian mythology the monster called T^pkou holds an Important place, being considered aa 
the cause of all evil, *uhe Egyptian devil.'* (Fbtbrokt.) He la described and repreaented in va- 
rioua ways ; aometlmaa as with a hundred dragon heads ; sometimes as a wolf; someiimea as a 
crocodile, and as uniting the tail of a erocodUe with the head and fore-legs of the hippopotamus, 
as seen in our Plate Vlil. 

IV. -^Mythical EUtory af the fferoe$, 

$ 118. In Grecian story three periods are distinguished even b j the'ancients : 
the unknown, odi^xov, of which no historical monuments remained to make known 
the state of society ; the fabuioiu, uv^ttxov, of which the accounts left are mingled 
with manifold fictions ; and the hUioricaly latoptieov, of which a genuine and 
trustworthy history is recorded. The first extends to the deluge of Deacalion, 
the second to the introduction of the Olympiad into chronology, and the third 
through the subsequent times. To the second of these periods belonged the 
Heroes, as they are called, and it is on that account often styled the heroic age. 
These personages are supposed to have possessed extraordinary powers of b(3y 
and mind, and distinguished merit is ascribed to them as having founded cities 


or eoQiitries, improYed their manners and morals, or otherwise exalted or de- 
lended them. 

$ 119. Grateful sensibility to the merits of ancestors and progenitors was a 
most common cause of the sort of deification with which these heroes were 
publicly honored after death ; and the disposition towards this grateful remem- 
brapce was quickened and sustained by oral traditions respecting their deeds, 
which were much adorned and exaggerated by the poets. Hence it came^ that 
most of the heroes were at last viewed as sons of gods, and often of Jupiter 
himself. The veneration for the heroes was however less sacred and less uni- 
versal than the worship of the ^ods. To the latter, important festivals were 
established, regular priests ordained, appropriate temples erected, and public 
solemn sacrifices offered. The heroes, on the other hand, received only an 
annual commemoration at their tombs, or in the vicinity, when offerings and 
libations were presented to them. Sometimes, ho'vever, the respect paid them 
exceeded these limits, and they were exalted to the rank and honors of the 
gods. The introd action of solemnities in memory of heroes is ascribed to 

Ct Vkf. Oa. iu. 901.-Sallter, In tb« BUL de VJead. lu buer. vol. It. ^ 899L 

$ 190. The heroes of the Greeks were of different ranks. Some were viewed 
as a sort of household deities, such as ailer their mortal existence watched over 
their families and friends and were honored and worshiped only by them. 
Others, whose services while they lived were of a more extended character, 
were worshiped by whole states and tribes, as demi-gods, and sometimes had 
their appropriate festivals and mysteries, and even temples and priests. To 
such was ascribed a more general superintendence of human affairs. It is the 
latter class that we are here to notice particularly, as they were the most illus- 
trious, and their worship was not limited to the Greeks, out was adopted also 
among the Romans. Of these only the principal can be mentioned, in doing 
which the order of time will be followed. 

$ 121. The GianU and Titans ($ 97) might correctly be ranked among the 
Heroes, and regarded as the most ancient. To the same class, too, belong 
/nocAus, founder of the kingdom of Argos ; his son Phoroneta^ to whom various 
merits were ascribed ; aud Ogyges^ a kins of Boeotia, memorable from the flood 
which occurred in his reign. This rank also was enjoyed, especially among 
their respective people and tribes, by Cecrnpa, founder of the Attic state ; Detp^ 
tttHon^ a Fhessalian prince, who with his wife Pyrrha escaped the general flood 
that happened in his times ; Ampkidyon^ author of the celebrated council or 
confederation of the early Grecian states ; Cadmus^ who came from Phcenicia 
to Greece, and contributed so much to enlighten and improve the people (cf. P. 
IV. $34; />aiiafw, to whom the kingdom of Argos was indebted for its advance- 
ment; BcUerophon^ who was said to have destroyed the monster Chimera, and 
to have performed other exploits; Jfe/ops, kin^ in Elis, from whom Pelopon- 
nesus took its name, as his descendants occupied that peninsula ; and the two 
princes of Crete by the name of Mfios, one celebrated as a lawgiver, the other 
as a warrior. 

antwritmafswicaii^lteexidtteearhroiainfidiabbyttenmaoriCiaoi.'-^ GOttioff. ISO^ 9 vob. 8L 

$ 133. PcRSBUs was one of the most distinguished of the early heroes. He 
was the son of Jupiter and Danae, educated by Polydectus on the island Se- 
riphus. His chiet exploit was the destruction of the gorgon Medusa, whose 
head he struck off with a sword given to him by Vulcan. From the blood 
that fell, sprang the winged horse regasus, on which Perseus afterwards passed 
OTer many lands. 

1 «. Of his subsequent achievements, the most remarkable were his changing king 
Atlas into a high rock or mountain, by means of Medusa's head, and his deliverance 
of Andromeda, when bound and exposed to be devoured by the sea-monster. In con- 
nection with the latter adventure he also changed into stone Phineus, who contended 
with him for the possession of Andromeda. He inflicted the same afterwards upon 
Polydectea for ill treatment towards Danae. To Perseus is ascribed the invention of 
the discos or quoit, with which he inadvertently occasioned the death of his grandfother 
Aoiaija. Finally he founded the kingdom of Mycene. After kis aasasamation by 



Megapenthes, he wag placed anions me constellations, and several temples wefe 
erected to hinii besides a monument oet ween Argos and Mycenae. (Cf. Ov. Meu ir. 
603. V. 1-350.) 

% The fables respecting Peraeua are by some considered as a modification of the story of the 
Persian Mithras (cf ( 33), and a piece of ancient sculpture on one of the gates of the citadel 
of Myc«ii« has been thought to confirm the analogy .—CmiMr, Synibolik.^G«<i, Itinerary of 

3. Atlas, whom on account of his refusing hospitality to Perseus, the latter is said 
to have changed into a mountain, is described as the son of Japeius and the king of 
Maurcianio. He owned numerous flocks of sheep and beautiful gardens abounding 
with citrons and oranges. His seven daughters, renowned for beauty and wisdom, 
were called Atlantides from their father, and Hesperides from their mother Hesperia. 
The gardens called the gardens of the Hesperides were said to be guarded by a dread- 
ful dragon that never slept. The name of Atlas was given to the chain of mountains 
in that part of Africa, and to the ocean on the west. Whether from reference to the 
height of those mountains or to the astronomical researches of the king, Atlas is said 
to nave supported the heavens ; and accordingly artists have represented him as bear- 
ing an immense sphere on his shoulders. 

TbmlMNiMDiiitlwSap.PlatoS2. OBmiMnoBaiiMatibB«CBl«ilii«p>«|aotidlaaiimtIar irajr; tocfttiM,MbMid,h*aMiA 
AUm of hw banleo.-C& OgUf AnL Ezpl. plats >&. 

$ 123. Of all the Grecian heroes, no one obtained such celebrity as Her- 
cules, son of Jupiter and Alcmena. Wonderful strength was ascribed to him 
even in his infantile j^ears. Earystheas king of Mjcenas imposed upon him 
many difficult enterprises, which be carried through with success; particularly 
those, which are called the iwehe labon of Hercules. These were : to kill the 
Nemaean lion ; to destroy the LemoBan hydra ; to catch alire the Stag with 
golden boms ; to catch the Eryroanthean boar ; to cleanse the stables of An- 
gias ; to exterminate the birds of lake Stymphaiis ; to bring alive the wild ball 
of Crete ; to seize the horses of Diomedes ; to obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, 
queen of the Amazons ; to destroy the monster Geryon ; to plunder the garden 
of He8peri4es, guarded by a sleepless dragon ; and to bring from the infernal 
world the three-headed dog Cerberus. 

Th«se various exploits were often made the theme of description and allusion In the poets. 
The first is deuiled in the S5th Idyl of Theocritus. The twelve labors are described in IS versen 
In the 3d Chiliad of Ttet%*» (cf. P. V. \ 81).— The story of Hercules strangling the serpents while 
an infknt is given in the S4th Idyl of Theocritus. 

% 124 ti. Many other exploits were ascribed to him, by which he gave proof of his ex- 
traordinary strength, and exhibited himself as an avenger and deliverer ot the oppressed. 
Such were, his slaying the robber Cacos, so much dreaded in Italy ; the deliverance of 
Prometheus, bound to a rock ; the kilhng of Busiris and Anteus ; the contest with 
Achelous ; and the rescue of Alceste from the infernal world. Less honorable was his 
love of Omphale queen of Lydia, by which he sank into the most unworthy effemi- 
nacy. His last achievement was the destruction of the centaur Nessus. Nessus dyinff 
gave his poisoned tunic to Dejanira ; flercules afterwards receiving it from her, and 
putting it on, became so diseased that he cast himself in' despair upon a fiineral pile on 
mount (Eta. 

The worship of Hercules soon became uniTersal, and temples were erected to his 
honor, numerous and magnificent. He received a great many surnames and epitheta 
from his exploits and firom the places of his worship. Hercules and his labors anbrdad 
the artists of ancient times abundant materials to exercise their ingenuity in devices, and 
they very often employed them. 

Two of ths nKMt edcbntod aaliqM ilatiMi npreMOt HareolM ; tbe SnarM^ or BtranleM Mvidere, and tba ArcMto Aomm : eL 
F. IV. f 186.6,7. TlwbMcrMpnHBtotaiBlMBiivapMbisdah,uitwMoartarhitlaben. AviowoT llliKifmiBPIatoZLIT. 
fif . A, eopied from WlKkflloMOB. As «t|niTinf of (ba Mine it Bites in tta 8ap. FklB tt Tho oUiar nproHBliUoa is Ikii FtaM 
•liowt the iDbnt HercolM arnsgliiig tbo Mfpoiit ; fnm an MtiqM •eulptara. 

For other prlodpol npraMnletfon of Hntulaa, mo IfoiW/teMsn, lab Eipl. T. i. pi. 10. 141, and 0{rM Aat Eipl. 5a Sl>40.— 
Soe aho Laur. Bqctri, Horealea Etbaiooram, ai. var aitfiq. nliqaiii driiaeatai. Col. March. 1TO8. iol.— ibyna Not. ad ApolMor. 
p. 325 -7. OwrlUft FnpmDt. d. arduBol. Abbaadl. Qh. Rmalok Mafd. ISOa A.— Ph. Atfrmoim, Qbar d. Myfboi d« Hanklak 
Bari. 1810. %.^Dwpui$, Oric. do loM 1« coll. *ol. Il.-Rcaprcfii« tho anciaat wrilon oa (he Mjrthol. of BorcalM,wo JfllOof^ Bkt. 
and Antiq. of Dor. Raea. Ozf. 188& toL i. p. 683. 

Anoog the variooa lolotloM of tha lUny of Horcalai, fhara b aao whkli yttj iogaaieoriy appliai iho aceoaat of hii twdvo kboca 
to the pa«a«e of the na through the twelTC Mgae of the Zodiac. A view of thia b sitcb ia JbUhonU Lenprieie. 

$ 125. Theseus, a son of ^gens and ifithra, or according to others a son of 
Neptune, was excited by the renown of Hercules, to engage in enterprises the 
most hazardous, and he successfully accomplished them. Among these was 
the extermination of a multitude of robbers and assa^ms that infested Greece, 
and especially the destruction of the Minotaur a terrible monster of Crete, tc 

p. n. HEROS8. JA80N. CAiTOR ▲ND POLLUX. 135 

irltieh the Athenians had preTiously been compelled to send seven male yonth 
tod as many young Timns annually, to be devoured by him. By the help of 
Ariadne, a daughter of Minos, Theseus was enabled to trace the winding or the 
labyrinth, in which the monster had his abode, and put him to death. Ariadne 
accompanied him on his return to Athens, bat he ungratefully deserted her on 
the island of Nazos. 

f 126 tt. The other principal exploits of Theseus were his descent to the lower world 
with his friend Pirithous, his victory over the Amazons (^ 116), whose queen Hippolvta 
>hecame li^ vrife, and the assistance he gave Adrastus, kin^ of Argos, asainst the The- 
baa prince Creon. Great praise was awarded to him for improving the legislation and 
the whole morals of Athens and Attica ; and yet he was for some time an exile. The 
manner of his death is variously related, but it seems by all accounts to have been 
caused by violence. 

'llie honor paid to him was accompanied with unusual solemnities ; a superb temple 

was coDsecrated to him at Athens, and a festival was established called Omua, held on 

the eighth day of every month, with games, and a regular sacrifice termed OyMiiw. 

I Provifiton was made at the public expense to enable the poor to share in the festivities 

I of this occasion. 

I Ct Ad. a FtC. Tkn^Dkd. Sic L. It. c 61.-0i>. Mettm. vH. 404 ; tIU. ISB ; zU. SIO^Jfir/orA Greeoa^ eb. L ifet S^rot 

t fiiv of the tnpte of TfacMu, we Pbte XXL fi( a. 

i 127. Jason and the ArgonauU. One of the most celebrated enterprises of 
die heroic ages, one which forms a memorable epoch in the Grecian history, a 
sort of separation-point between the fabulous and the authentic, was the Argo- 
Bsatic expedition. This was a voyage from Greece to Colchis in order to obtain 
the golden fleece, conducted by Jason, the son of £son, king of Thessaly. 
The ondertaking was imposed upon him by his nnde Pelias. He invited the 
most illustrious heroes of Greece to unite in the expedition, and among those 
who Joined him were Hereule$, Castor and Pollux^ Peleus, Pirithous, and 7V- 
ttiit. The vessel built for the purpose was named Argo, which after various 
adverse events arrived at ^a, the capital of Colchis, .^etes was then king of 
Colchis, and promised to Jason the golden fleece only on certain most difficult 

i 128. Althoogh Jason fulfilled these conditions, yet ^i^etes was unwilling 
to permit him to take the desired booty, and sought to slay Jason and his com- 
panions. This purpose was betrayed by Medea, the king^s daughter, by whose 
assistance and magical art Jason slew the dragon that guarded the fleece, and 
aaized the treasure. He immediately fled, accompanied by Medea, but was pur- 
saed By her father. Medea put to death her brother Absyrtus, cut his corpse 
into pieces and strewed them in the way, in order to stop her flaither's pursuit. 
Jason was aderwards faithless to her, and married Creusa, or, as others name 
her, Glauce, a daughter of Creon, king of Corinth. Medea took vengeance by 
caoaing the death of Creusa and also of the children she had herself bom to 
Jason. After death Jason received the worship bestowed on heroes, and had a 
temple at Abdera. 

Btoli* poena m lh« AffM. Ewpmk by Orpkim, JtpcOoidmMadiiu, and FaUrka Flmm. (C£ P. V. H^S. n,tn.}-auil^, 
« ■« ArvM. BapmL ra JAm. A VJkud. du btaar. vol iv. p. 64; xii. 183; xfv. AL—Btgmi Not ad Apdlodor. fi IH.-^ F, 
rmttui,wKUtLtitmrdmAitomm,lna»Mmi.4trhtHiiut,C\^f9 d. fttouw Jfer. « M. vol. if. 

Varioos expUnationi have been put upon the itory of the Argonauts. One writer thinks the 
foUen ile«ce wai the raw tUk nf the East. S*ger, FanlheoD Chinola.— Another thinks the phrase 
aroM CroB the babii of collecting gold, washed down from the mountaina, by putting sheepekina 
ia the channel of the icreams. Mitford^ ch. 1. eect. 3. — JBryaat (Anal. Anc Myth.) coneidera the 
whole ftory as a tradition of the flood. 

{ 129. Castor and Pollux, who were among the Argonauts, were twin sons 
of Jupiter and Leda, and brothers to Helena. On account of their descent, 
they were called Dioaeuri (^coirxovpoc), although, according to some. Castor 
was the son of Tyndarus, the husband of Leda. Castor distinguished himself 
in the management of horses, and Pollux in boxing and wrestling. The last 
exploit of the Dioscuri was their contest with Lynceus and his brother Idas. 
Castor was slain by Lynceus, and Lynceus by Pollux : and as Idas was about 
to avsDse the death of his brother, Ju|)iter smote him with lightning. — Pollux 
obtained from Jupiter the honors of deification and immortality in conjunction 
with bis brother Castor. Both were placed among the constellations and re- 
pieaented by the Gremini or twins in the zodiac. Both the Greeks and the 


Romans coDsecrated temples to them, and they were especially inToked and 
worshiped by mariners. 

1. They were said to be placed among the marine gods, from haying cleared the 
Hellespont and the neighbohns; seas from pirates. I'hey were invoked as 'Av6r|moc, 
avertert of evil : and while lambs were aacrinced to them.—Tbe Romans honored ihem 
especially for services supposed to be received from them in pressing dangers, as in the 
battle with the Latins near lake Regillus. 1'hev constantly swore by their names ; the 
oath used by the women was JEcaalar^ or by the temple of Castor ; that of the men 
was JEdepoU or by the temple of Pollux. 

H<priwfcrtBM of CMtor tmi Wto m fcyrf pmkafcriy tm 9am»m iii di i— iH A §m n|i i— «H i n> ,<imwii titm » hijff 
gm |i«« by MdM, ii MB In mv Bap. rUM 81. 

2. The festival called Dioscurin (dum(o6pia) was in honor of these brothers, celebrated 
especially by the Spartans. On this occasion the gifts of Bacchus were very freelv 
shared. It was amidst the drinking at the feast in honor of Castor and Pollux, which 
Alexander held in Bactra, that he madly slew his devoied friend Clitus.— This festival 
is supposed by some to have had the same origin as the famous mysteries of the Cabirt, 
which were celebrated particularly at Samothrace, and were thought to have great effi- 
cacy in protecting from shipwreck and storms. 

Aa •Dcieat itmehm aow nirii A Sklooici, wMeh m appoMd to bait tan a Cabirlan T»pl« : tm Plata V.--CC O. 8. Htw^ 
Mjratariai of tta Cabiri. Ort 1801 8 votai a-Awtt, Uf Cabini, b tbc Mtm. Acad. Jmtv. vol. iz*u. p. B 

♦ 130 u. Heroet of the Thbban War. In the early history of Greece, the war of 
Thebes, which is dated upwards of 1200 years before Christ, is much celebrated. 
Without relating its incidents we shall here only name some of the principal heroes of 
the time. Among these were Etiocles and Polynices, the two sons of (Edipus, king 
of Thebes, whose own private story was so tmgical. The war arose from the dissen- 
sion of these brothers, who slew each other in a single combat, and were afterwards 
honored as demigods. Several famous chiefs, as Capanetu, Tydeut^ Hippomedon, 
ParthefwjHBUt, united with Adnistus, king of Argos and father-in-law of Polynices, to 
take part in the war. The events connected with it funiished the poets with matter 
for numerous tragedies. — The second enterprise aeainst Thebes, ten years later, was 
more fortunate in its issue, but less celebrated. It was undertaken by the sons and 
descendants of those slain in the first war, and was therefore termed the war of the 
'Fjniyovot. The most illustrious of these were Alcmeeon, Thersander, Polydorus, and 

The Tbebftn war wai one of the favorite themes of ancient poeti. JImHmaeknM of Colophon, 
a Greek poet, and contemporary with ChoerlluB, wrote a poem In twenty-fdiir books on the sub- 
ject ; the fragments have been collected. Cf. P. V. $ 10.— The poem of the Latin poet Scottiw is 
still extant. Cf. P. V. ( 378. 

Ct Paitt. is. 86.-.«tpoUod. L Z.-Dv)d. \t.-Oaim, Hhfi. Grwcc, ch. i^XU^MIflyt Mjrtbokto- 

) 131. Whilst the Thebans and the Arg ives were Involved in contention and calamity, TattU^ 
Iiu, and his descendants the TantulidtBt were equally afflicted by various misfortunes, ticcasioned 
by the impietr of this prince, who was said to be a son of Jupiter, and reigned in Lydia. Being 
of immortal descent, be was honored with a visit from the gods durinK an excursion they made 
upon earth. In order to prove the divinity and power of his guests, he served up among other 
meats the limbs of his son Pat^ups, whom he had cruelly murdered. The gods perceived bis 

Serfldious barbarity, and refused to touch the dish ; but Ceres, whom the recent loss of ber 
aughter had rendered inattentive and melancholy, ate one of the shoulders. In compassion to 
the fkte of the young prince, Jupiter restored him to life ; and instertd of the shoulder which 
Ceres had devoured, substituted one of ivory, which possessed the property of healing by its 
touch all kinds of diseases. 

As a punishment for his cruelty, Tantalns was condemned In hell Ot M) vvith an insatiable 
hunser and thirst in the midst of abundance.— lie had a daughter Niobe, who fell a sacrifice to 
her intolerable vanity. She was married to Ampbion, a prince of Thebes in fioBotia ; and having 
a great number of children, she had the temerity to treat Latona, who had only two, with over- 
bearing arrogance. Provoked at this insolence, Latona applied to Apollo and Diana, who (^ 38) 
destroyed all her boasted ofTspring except Chlnris (cf ^ 38). Niobe, after the death of her 
children, returned to Lydta, and ended her days near Mt. Sipyius ; according to the fables, she 
was so shocked at hnr misfortune, that she was changed Into a rock. *' On Mt. Sipyius, accord- 
ing to Pausanias, was to be seen a rock which from a distance resembled a woman in deep me- 
lancholy, though near at hand it had not the most remote resemblance to one.** 

Pblom quitted Phrygia and repaired to Eiis, where he became enamored of Hippodamia, the 
daughter of king OSnoinaus; but this monarch, having been informed that he should perish by the 
band of his son-in-law, determined to marry his daughter to him only who could outrun him in 
the chariot-race ; and those who entered the li«t were to f .rfell their lives if conquered. Un- 
daunted at this condition, Pelops boldly undertook the combat, and to secure his success, he 
previously bribed Myrliles, the charioteer of CEnomaus, who disposed tlie axle-tree of the cha- 
riot in such a manner as to break it on tlie course ; and the unfortunate king, being thrown to 
the ground, killed himself QSnomaus thus left his kingdom and his daughter to Pelops, who 
acquired great celebrity, and gave his name to the peninsula in the southern part of Greece. 
Pelops, after death, received divine honors. He had an altar in the grove Allis at Olympia, and 
was much revered, even above other heroes (Find. Oiymp. i. 146. Pautan. v. 13). His descend- 
ants were called Pelopids. His two sons, Alreus and Thyestes, were celebrated for their mutual 
hatred and crimes. But his two grandsons, Agamemnon and Menelaus, the Jitrid^t acquired a 
more honorable renown. 


% I3S «. Heroes of the TsoJAzr Wae. Of all the ware of Grecian stonr, nono is 
more iamoiis than that of Troy, which waa the first military campaign of the Greeks 
oat of the limits of their own country. The immediate occasion of it was the seizure 
of Heleo, wife of Menelaus, king of Lacedsmon, by Paris, son of Priam, king of 
Tnf. The siege continued, according to the common account, including the prepara- 
tioD and marches, ten years, with vanous successes and disasters, until at last the Greeks 
became masters of the city by strataf^m. The chiefs who were engaged in this enter- 
priie acquired the highest renown m Greece, and the poetry of Homer has secured 
tlieir eyerlasting remembrance. The chief commander was A^amemnon^ and the more 
illastrioaa of the heroes with him were AekitteSt Ulyetes, Dumedee, Menelaue, Ajax 
ion of Telamont and Ajax son of OUeuej Jdomeneue, and Nestor, On the side of the 
Trmns, Hector^ JSneas, and Antenor were among the most celebrated. 

The war of Troy was not more memorable in itself than for its consequences. It 
paTc a new spring to Grecian culture (cf P. IV. ^ 40). The arts of war were greatly 
unproved. Numerous and important civil revolutions took place in most of the states. 
But all this pertains to authentic history rather than to mythic tales. 

%»m(fmd, ch. L MSL C-OOUar, di. L flL-Ooi. Joum, v. 14, I& tL IK. ix. 606, 6M. svW. UI^-OkoiMilir, BJitofT oT 
Tnj. S«f«facDMigiraBiBP.V.f«l7.~,Brywa (in » ni— tHUBB <m Ow wir of lyoy. Load. ITWl 4) im imiitBiMwl thit 
ai «fe>b ly* • a Mm fclA^ ■»! Hat tbm anw w« uqr nek waft 

% 133. Although the personages specially called Heroes in Grecian story belonged to 
the period termed the keroie age (cf. ^ 118) ; yet linder our fourth division of the subject 
of Mythology (cf. ^ 10) will properly foil the names of a multitude of personages of 
later periods, including Romans as well as Greeks, who after their death were deified 
JD the country where they lived, or had become renowned (cf. ^ 88. 2, and 89. 3) for 
memorable attainments or achievements. Merely to have been a king or ruler was 
enffioent to secure deification among a people fond of the pageantry of superatition. 
This servile and impious adulation was particularly practiced by the Asiauc Greeks 
towards the successors of Alexander. Mere governors of provinces were sometimes thus 
honored. After the Roman imperial power was established, it became a regular cus- 
tom (cf. ^ 94) to deify the emperors. 

The Ronan aenate made it their baatneos by ■olemn decree to place every deceased emperor 
in tbe nonber of ibe gods, and tbe ceremoniefl of bis Apoiheoaia were united with ibose of bis 
AmeraL But aa tb« actiona of each one were now foithAilly recorded by history, it was impos- 
sible to eonnact with the deified name sacb fabulona and mvsterions tales as to give the divini- 
ties, tbaa established by law, much hold upon tbe popular melinia. The list of imperial demi- 
Cods, therefore, is of comparatively little Importance in a view of the ancient mythology. 
nhdaSeMkn or Ik* OTiivwa, it k my liMy, fan riw to lb« tetf(^iw<<en ^nMi^ piMtlead br tte 
fceWIMMnii'g Unw fw Bo-a, *o<rlK tbe ewdbfity betwea Pbpwy and Ffnkm. Load. 17». 4. OthMLIttLa.- 
ilasbhJnaltaiMOMirapte. Lo^ 116&. » folh a-Ct OiUoit, DkL aad Fkll, a& eh. liL 
■ attaadiiv (ta ApotbMMii, or OphmovI^ Ma P. lU. f ML 

18 m9 


Gods of the Greeks and Romans, as classed in the preceding Sketch. 

L Superior aods. 

2, Inforlor Ooda. 

3. Mythical Beincs. 




8««»l Ood. 






pcraliar lo 
lb* GfMka 











> Ergane 











8n«nl Godi 











































Palei, ice. 



4. Deified Heroes. 
















of the 



and the 





The Gods as dossed hy the Greeks. 

Superior Oods^ eeUtd 

MeydXot OtoL 
Jupiter Juno 
Neptune Ceres 
Apollo Diana 

Mercury Minerva 
Mars Veata 

Vulcan Venus 

Inferior Ooit, taOod oimpl^ 6co2, siul 

oometimea Aal/tovts. 
Saturn Aurora T*«^ytblr»i B.. 

Bacchus Themis 
iEolus Luna 

JEsculapiua Nox 
Helius or Iris 
Sol Hebe 

above; Tiuu, 

to tb« Onalu 

Pluto Tyche mhufBll into 

Pan Latona tb« ciui of Do- 

Plutus Nemesis 


Demigods, eaUed 'BpitBtou 

Ban Ml laa* Tba TtMbaa Haraaa 
cbaa, FmciM. aiw— 
and all named Capaoens 

tJSSL'™"' Tydeus 
Heitw. Poiynices 

HnvaboKMM. Thersander, fce. 

timei Sabim, 

Baecbm, So- Tba lVq}aD Eonm 

ItM, and ofber are— 

lodi are pot. A gamemnon 
AJax, 4kc. 

The Gods as classed by the Somans. 

Dii Majomm (Jentinin. 
I. ConMnUs. X StUetL 

Jupiter Saturn 

Neptune Pluto 

Apollo Sol 

Mercury Janus 

Mars Bacchus 

Vulcan Genius 

Juno Rhea 

Ceres Luna 

Dii Mlnorvm Oentlam. 

1. Sentones, 

imcuiar ob- 


JSolus, &c. 


Ooda mealiar 
to ibe RoBBBa 
Hera alao tba 
Mythical B» 

S. Miseaianrij 
I or 









Victoria, &c 

8. Peregrini. 
Goda froiB Mbar 

miioHi u 

Sera pis 
Canopus, Jcc. 

4. Iniigeteo, 


Romulus or 
Quirinus, iae, 

Alao deified Enp^ 

Gods of the Greeks and Romans , as classed according to supposed Residence. 

Jupiter Venns 
Apollo Vesta 
Mercury Aurora 
Mars Iris 

Vulcan Hebe 
Cupid Psyche 

Hymenens Horn 
Juno Seasons 

Minerva Graces 
Diana Muses 

Hie Mima aooMliaiai rank- 
ed with Om Tenertiial. 

Terra Pomona 

Cybele Pales 
Cerest Feronia 
Saturnt Pan 
Janusi Bileni|S 
Bacchus^ Satyrs 
Terminus Fauns 
Vertumnus Lares 
Priapus Nymphs 
Flora Penates,&e. 

> Buied aometlnea with ttia 

Oceanus Tethys 
Neptune Amphitrlte 
£oius Matuta 


Ino or 

Porlumnus Sirens 
Nereus Nereids 
Triton Scylla 
Glaucus Charybdis 

Pluto Proser- 
Charon pine 
Minos Nemesis 
Rhada- Mors 
manthus Manes 
^acus Nenlai 
Cerberus Parca 
Nox Furies 





^ ^ •.,! « 1 »»,.-.-- I. • I' 




$ 1. GusGiA is by some supposed to have derived its name from Graieus, a 
Mm of Thessalus, his descenaants being called Graiei, rpatxoi. The Graici^ 
howeyer, were ooly a single tribe of the inhabitants, some of whom planted 
themselves in Italy. The country originally seems to have had no common 
name, comprehendinff properly all its tribes. Grtecia was a name used by the 
Konans, not by the mhabitants themselves. It was called by them Hellas, 
from Hellen, a son of Deucalion, and also Achaia, Pel as^a, Ionia; and the 
people were called by the ancient writers Achseans, Argivi, Danai, Hellenes, 
Pdasgians, and lonians. These names of the country and the oecnpante, 
however, were not employed always in a uniform sense, but seem to have re- 
ferred in their general application chiefly to the more important colonies or com- 
munities, which originally occupied and peopled the land. 

$2/. Greece, in Uie most comprehensive sense of the term, was bounded on 
three sides by ^e Mediterranean sea, parts of which were distinguished by the 
names of ^gean, Cretan, Ionian, and Adriatic ; and on the nonh extended to 
the chain of mountains called Orbelus (cf. P. I. $ 77) separating it from Maesia. 
Taken in this extent, it is naturally divided into four parts ; Macedonia; Thes- 
salia and Epims ; Hellas; and Peloponnesus (cf. P. 1. $ 76). Taken in a more 
limited sense, excluding Macedonia, it was sometimes divided into two parts ; 
Gnecia Propria (includmg Thessalia and Epirus, and Hellas^ ; and the Pelo- 
ponnesus. In the most limited sense, however, it inclodea merely Hellas, 
which is perhaps usually meant by the restrictive phrase Grecia Propria. The 
name of Greeks was also applied to the inhabitants of Grecian colonies in 
Ana, in Italy, and in Africa. 

% 3. It may be well to mention the principal cities which were distinguished 
for their power and cultiyation. These were Athens, in Attica; Sparta or La- 
cedcmon, in Laconia ; Argos, Myceme, and Corinth, in the territory of Argolis; 
Thebes, in Bceotia ; Megalopolis, in Arcadia. The more eminent foreign or 
colonial cities of the Greeks were the following ; Miletus and Ephesus in 
Ionia; Mitylene, Chios, Samoa, and Rhodus, in the islands near Asia Minor; 
Byzantium on the Thracian coast ; Corcyra on the island of that name ; Ta- 
rentam, Sybaris, and Locri in Sonthem Italy ; Syracuse, Agrigentum, Gela, 
and Leontium in Sicily ; Sy rene in Africa. In later times Alexandria in Egypt, 
Antioeh in Syria, and Seleucis in Chaldea on the Tigris, were considered as 
Grecian cities. 

$ 4. The form of govenmient in Greece underwent, in the course of its his- 
tory, three remarkable changes. In the earliest heroic ages, the several tribes 
or communities obeyed petty princes or chiefs of their own choice. Subse- 
qvently fiuman^tes properly so called were established in Sicyon, Argos, Attica, 
Tbeb^ Arcadia, Thessaly, Corinth, Lacedemon, Elis, iEtolia, ^gialea, or 
Achaia. But the Greeks were in the most flourishing condition during the 
time of the two republics of Athens and Sparta. — ^The Achaean and Etolian 
league, the kingdom of Epirus, and the political constitution of ttie Greeks in 
Asb Minor, are also very valuable portions of the Grecian history. 

S 5. The first inhabitants of Greece, who probably came from Thrace and 
who were followed next by the Pelasgi (cf. P. IV. $ 33, 34) and the Hellenes, 
lived in a very rude state, without any commercial relations or even common 
laws. They practiced upon each other constant robbery and violence, and 


142 ORECIAN ANTiairmEs. 

were exposed to frequent attacks from the occupants of the neighboring islands. 
Colonies from Egypt, Phcenicia, and Asia Minor, gave the first impulse to their 
culture, which was aided by the com mencement of the navigation. The famous 
Argonautic expedition was one of the most memorable exploits in the naviga* 
tion of this early period, occurring about eighty years before the Trojan war. 
About fifty years before the same, the first formal state constitution was adopted, 
in Crete, under the direction of Minos; not with the perfection, however, 
which was secured at Athens, through the influence of Cecrops, and after him 
Theseus. The people of Attica were the first to adopt a more peaceful, quiet, 
and frugal mode of life ; and this example influenced the inhabitants of other 
regions to renounce their irregular habits and predatory excursions. 

$ 6. Hereby was occasioned a more free intercourse between the difierent 
people of Greece, and a greater union in regard to objects of common interest, 
particularly in reference to murders and depredations. A proof of this was 
given by the fact of so many states joining to avenge the injuries of Menelans 
(committed against him by Paris in the seduction of Helen) and carrying on 
to«rether the war agsunst Troy. This war became a means of the further 
advanoement of Grecian culture (ef. P. IV. $ 40), although it was also the 
occasion of many troubles and revolutions among the states at home, and thus 
led to the migration of many Greeks to neighboring islands and to Asia. Fi- 
nally they became weary of wars and tumult, began to love peace, law, and 
social ease, and united in adopting public solemnities and religious rites, and 
maintaining social and civil order. 

$ 7. Hitherto the form of government had been chieJy of a military charac- 
ter ; the chieftain who commanded in war was the civil head of his people; but 
now a more monarchical form was assumed. Soon however the kings abused 
their power, and by their tyranny forced their subjects to throw oflf the yoke. 
Love of liberty then became the ruling passion of the Greeks, and the very 
name of king was odious. It was this spirit which gave rise to a state of 
things in which the Greeks sustained an eminence surpassing all other nations. 
Throuffh the mutual assistance rendered each other in acquiring independence, 
the jealottsies and discords which had previously reij^ned were in ^reat measure 
allayed. Amphictyon, third king of Athens, had united several of the states in 
a sort of confederacy (cf. $ 105), and this compact afterwards became much 
more close and strong. An excess of population in this period of tranquillity 
and prosperity was prevented by sending out various colonies to Italy, Asia, 
and Africa. 

§ 8. Among the free states, Sparta or Lacedseraon enjoyed first the advantages 
of a rigid and at the same time salutary system of laws, which however in 
some particulars evinced the imperfect culture of the age. Lycurgus, B. C. 
about 820, the authdrof this code, had previously made himself acquainted with 
the manners and institutions of the Cretans and Egyptians. Without intro- 
ducing any violent changes, or even abolishing in form the existing twofold 
regal office, he placed the relations of rulers, magistrates, and people, in a new 
and improved attitude. His morals and precepts, which were in part very 
severe, tended, as did his whole political system, to form a brave, constant, and 
warlike people, and thus cause them to be feared and respected. His design 
was accomplished, and Sparta acquired in these respects a high pre-eminence 
over the other states. 

Sae/.jr.F.MnMDvS|am,«i«VerMdisnBrklBni« d. Godiiehf e aad VerftMoaff dieta Stoulb Lripi. I800-ia)& S TIl SL 
_Cr. rcfercaoa giTW P. V. f 7. 7(il). 

$ 9. Next to Sparta, Athens became distinguished. Being advanced in 
culture by the legislation of Solon, B. C. about 594, and subsequently acquir- 
ing glory and power from the defeat of the Persians at Marathon, she became 
more and more jealous of the superiority of Sparta. This jealousy led to mu- 
tual animosities and finally to the well known Peloponnesian war, which was 
carried on for eight-and-twenty years (from 431 to 404 B. C.) between Athens 
and Sparta, and in which almost all the other states of Greece took part on one 
side or the other. Sparta finally was triumphant, but her glory did not endure 
}ong after this. Athens rose far higher in political and literary character, and 

p. m. XNTBODUcnoN. 148 

became the rendence of refined mamiMrs, useful knowledge, and culliTated taste 
in the arts. 

Wm. Tmni^ FoUHai Hiitorj •! Attmm.'-'Tmm. hilo Oanpu. Ldpii ITH. 8L— JOkmten LtUtn, or Ibe cphtohir eonts* 
|o«hM»ef aaiffMlor fhckii«flf Penia,nsi4fa« atAOMm dariiif tiM FMopooBMiM ww. hmL 1?Ml tvota. |.-»TnM iato 
GoK. bf F. Ante, Ldpc IflOa-AiIIMr, Rke ud hit oT AliMi»^--Cf. P. V. § 7. 7 (d). 

$ 10. The progress and decline of culture in Greece we are to notice more 
particularly in the Archeology of Literature (P. IV. $ 33s8. 6188.), and here 
It is only necessary to allude to the causes, which conspired to render Greece 
60 eminent in this respect. Some of the causes were, besides the highly pro- 
pitious climate of the land, its numerous population, whose very necessities as 
well as mutual emulation excited and fostered a spiritof activity and invention; 
its enjoyment of an encouraging and ennobling liberty ; its commercial inter- 
coaxse, and the general prosperity which resulted. These, with other favorable 
circumstances, raised the Greeks to a nation which is even to the present day 
one of the most remarkable in history, and whose works in literature and art 
are still valued as our best models. 

$11. Hence our diligent attention is properly bestowed on the antiquities of 
the Greeks, by which we become acquainted with their religious, civil, military, 
sad domestic institutions and customs. The general utility of such knowledge, 
especiallv as an aid in the investigation of history, language, criticism, mytho- 
loey, and art, commends the study of antiquities to every one, who engages at 
alTu classical pursuits. It adds to the interest and value of Greek antiquities, 
that, among all the vafious objects of knowledge, the language, literature, re- 
ligion, history, and whole genius of the Greeks, hold so high a place in point 
of relative importance* Some acquaintance with what is denominated their 
Jhiiquitia is essential to enable us to enter much into these subjects, to com- 
prehend well their spirit and character, or to contemplate the various mona- 
ments of their literature and art in a definite and correct view. 

On the utility of the study of classical antiquities, we introduce the following re* 
BMrka, abridged, from BoUin (as cited P. II. $ 5u.)~"To a certain extent, this study 
ii indispensable for all who make pretensions to education. Without it, there are 
anmltiiude of expressions, allusions, and comparisons which they cannot understand; 
without it, it is scarcely possible to advance a step even in reading history, without 
being arrested by difficulties which a tolerable knowledge of antiquity would readily 
solve. Like all other studies, when carried too far, it threatens with its dangers. 
There is sometimes connected with it, a sort of learning, abstruse and badly con- 
ducted, which is occupied only on questions equally vain and perplexing, which on 
eveiv subject searches for that which is least known and most difficult to be compre- 
henoed. Seneca (de firev. Vit. c. 14) more than once complains that this vitiated 
uiste, which originated with the Greeks, had passed over lo the Romans. Juvenal 
also (L. iii. Sat. 7) ridicules the corrupt taste of his contemporaries, who reouired that 
a preceptor should be able to reply without preparation to a thousand abeurd and ridi- 
coloos questions. It is to know very little of tne worth of time, and grossly to mis- 
■poly one's talents and exertions, to occupy them in the study of things obscure and 
ffifficnlt and at the same time, as Cicero says (Off. L. i. n. 19), unnecessary and some- 
tines even vain and frivolous. Good sense will lead the studisnt carefully to shun this 
danger. He will remember the sentiment of Quintilian (L. i. c. 8), that it is a foolish 
and pitiable vanity, which pridee itself in knowing upon every subject all that inferior 
writers have said ; that such an occupation consumes unprofitably the time and strength 
which ought to be reserved for better things ; and that of all the eminent qualifications 
of a good teacher, that of knowing how to oe ignorant of certain things is by no means 
the least. 

After these precautions, we cannot too highly recommend the study of antiquities 
either to students or teachers. High attainments in this very comprehensive branch 
of learning ought to be the aim of every youth, who proposes to pursue important 
studies himsell, or to direct those of others. The extent or difficulty of t lie work 
sboold dishearten no one. By devoting every day a fixed portion of time to the read- 
i^ of ancient authors, intellectual riches will be amassed, little by little, which will 
afterwards be a source of astonishment even to the possessors themselves. It is only 
necessary to make the commencement, to employ tmie profitably, and to note down 
<^6ervauons in order and with accuracy. 

Most of the topics connected with antiquities mi^ht be embraced under seven or eight 
heads : religion ; political government ; war ; navigation ; monuments and public cdi- 
nees ; games, combats, shows ; arts and sciences ; the customs of common life, such 
u pertaiB to repasts, dress, dtc. Under each of these divisions are included many 



•abdiviBionfl. For example, under the head of religion are comprised the gods, priestif 
temples, vases, fiimiture, instruments employed in different religious ceremonies, sacri* 
fioes, feasts, vows and oblations, oracles and omens ; and so of the other beads.** 

amE.K. MSUmmtr, Udmt Fhilolaci^ AltBrOMmwkMMdwfV ud AttarHnnMiwliam. Far Stndireada. J^a. lOT. & pp. 88. 
■jcath«atodyof Atkpiitiw. OiL ITOL a— /'Uttnir, wdtad( !•<• S«— SMtboP. IV. !»{ aad woiki dMra 

$ 13. The soarees of Greek anti^nitiea are io part the claaaical writers, and 
especially the hiatorianB, more particularly such of them as give details of the 
whole constitution of Grecian societj, the manners, customs, and modes of 
thinking and feeling. Among the classical writers, the poets also must be 
considered as sources of information on this subject, especially the epic poets, 
whose narrations, notwithstanding their fictitious ornaments, have somd truth 
for a basis, and whose representations give much insight into the character and 
views of the people of the times. But another important source is found in 
the remaining monuments of art; inscriptions, coins, statues, bas-reliefs, gems, 
and vessels of various kinds. These, being sensible objects, give us a more 
distinct and complete conception of many points than could possibly be gained 
from mere verbal descriptions, and are, moreover, of great value as illustrations 
of beauty and taste. 

^ 13 V. Various modem writers have collected from these sources scattered items of 
information, and arranged them methodically for the benefit of those who wish to gain 
a knowledge of antiquities, and apply it to tne study of Greek literature. Other wniera 
have investigated particular topics m a more full and extended manner. 

L FbruaeeoBBtofwwrfca of both kinds, MS 
/. X IhMettBiUbcnphia utiqawk. (Stad. atop. P. tAafff 
hmam.) Bimb. 1780. 4. ctp. iL 
MMft BcKhnibuoc te, fee. wbkk k cHad bibir (T^ L 

JD«H BfeDdboeh dvphitoW. BodMfeaada (Bd. tl. p. SU). 
CC Aflw*t lllf. TbHtH JUm. 

MmtriPi BiblkilbMa Hbtorica, id. Sd, m dtMl P. V. { 84a 
•BOBMntn tlw mrltan M JnitfttOiM. 

8. Tte moit importknt eoll«etioo of puticulw trMttan on 
OfMk AatiquitiM h Jae. Omumii ThMona Anttqaitiliia 
Omeuwb Log. lUL I80T-ITCB. IS voh. fel. Vm. ITH. As 
aeoMal of the ooBtfBli it gfran in Iht work of /UKetiM,JiHt 
dlid.— A BWM of taluM* miter rtlatiiic to rarioM bruclMi oT 
Oiwk AatiqaitiAi, with iltwmiiom taka froni uetMt noan- 
■WB(% ii ftMud in MM/nuMsA Aotiq. Bipliq. dted P. IL 
§ lS.B(d). An abridcaMBl of Ibii in Qtmn, faf /. /. AKA, 
wM poltliriied Nanku 1107. til. with 100 pl*lM.-W« nMy nwo. 
Son hm «lM CniliM, Reeoail d« Aati9«itifc Fkr. I7V7. 7 fok 4. 
cooliininc Egyptian and ottwr aatiqaltfai, with aaftaTintk— 
AkBk J*. .«. nnid, Antiqriidi BtMqnai^ Oracqnaii, •( BomJn. 
ftr. 1787. (tola. 4. 

a AUMMK tba hart Uanoali and CoBpcnda on tba ad>Jeel 

Amt*. nokH Aali4iuitat«ni Bowiknram LM It. (od. EL 
ante) Afgnt. I74S. 9. 

fy.Awt,AtHckAn11qaItiM. Sfbod. Load. 1885i 4. 

/a AH. i)E<^, Libri It. Aniiq. GfMana. Lpn. 1708. 4. 

LmnA 3ct, Antiq. OnaeaniM, pnedpM AlUoanm, DoKrip* 
Ito bmrn (with oba. ot Ltumr and Zmmku). I41& 1787. 9. 
(Eng. txtm. by Sloekdala) Lond. 1772. & 

aSf. Baoeraunp, Antiq. OfManoi, piadpua Altieanin, Do* 
•Oiplle tmrh. Log. BaL 174a 9. 

P.RJLNaich, B.«eknib«^dai blaaaclHn,|at«ndimiidMn, 
•itdieban, potitiKbeo, kricgwiiban nnd wiMHehafllichaa Tit- 
alandMd.OTiedMn,fte. (foftgCMlEt fon /nff^tacO Er£ i7Oi-l80a 
S tola, a with a 4th ToL by JHU^ Erl 1806. Ct C/oia. 
/mm. T. 10. 

P. r. A. ffUadk (WM), Entwnrf dv Orioeb. AlteithOflMr. 
Altanb. 1791. 8. 

L. Sdiaaf, AntiqnHUn and ArcUokgio dar Griachaa and 
RBoMr. (Mn In hii Eneyd. dar Ck» AlttflhnnakV Mafdab. 


/. HMnmmt Aralwokgk GtMa, or tha Aatlqaitki of 
Load. 1887. a 

/. Px4Ur, Arehaologk Gneca, or tba Antiqolttaa of OrnaeaL 
Oxf. 168B. 8 Tola. 8 —Sana woit, ad. O. Dunter. Ediirik 1880. 
~w|ihaddttiawand«melkaibydfi«ttoii. N. Tatk, 1888^ 81 
-wHh nolai, nnpip *& by /. Ba^d. OU«g. 1887. It. vainnbk^ 
itaaa wtnk in Gaman, with addllkoa by J. /. JtenOHlk. Halla. 
17T7-7a 8 rak. a 

A CMapandina of Gnckn Anriqnltka by C ft nwrt win. 
Beat. 1881. IS. 

Abriai dar Ofkeh. nnd RBm. AHarthOmar, von Ckr, FiU£, 
BamOm. Skndal, 1881. 18. (ymf briaf). 

4. Tte fcUowii« at* not daaignad hr mmmH kit eaMah 
highly iniaratii« pktnrM of Otaeian aniiqaHy. 

/. Joe. JterfMwny, Voyaga da JCQsa Aaaehank an Gnen. ad 
SimaC Fkr. 18Sa 7 Tok 12 -Ei^l. iraad. by IT. M m umm U 
Land. ISOa CM. P. V. \ l6aL-U Gam. with noka by /. & 
JkMr. Barl. 1788. 7 mk a 

/. A HoftmrnmH VcrMch ainar KnItaifaKhkhk im 
TanMhoHten Vdkanctenan Oriachnknda. LnBfD,»96aBl 

/. D. LtdJtmrt, Inqniiy Into tha CivH, Moral, and Bdigkv 
laalltatiaw oT Alhon, te. with tha Topogfapby, and Changr» 
phyofAltka— dAthi TnariatedframthaOMnaor^a 
JdUOr. Lond. 1848. a 

Tha JrJknion Ii(l«*, eitad I a 

a Tha kOowi^ work* abo nay btt flonHritod with ad«a»- 

Tiana. into E^ (BlMoriaa AnSqaitwa of Greaea) OiC 1887. 

NOrt Eaiyi on (ha Inrtitnttoao of tba Oradca. 

OiBtci' DiwMifaa on tha Mannan of tba Graaka. 

W. JWkcr, Charidai ; Blldar altgriccbiKbar Sitlcn. £p& I94& 
8 Tok a with pktah A work illaatfariag tba private Iii> of fhn 

C. fivmaim, Antiqoiktnn Laonricanm libaiU It. ISnk^ 
1841. 4. 

/. MaUM, BadMrdm rar ki Mcean, l«a Ufagaa, rriigkos, 
drile, at mililairai, dca Aaeiem Peupka. Par. 1808. S vola. ^ 

H. Bam, The PuUk and PHvala lib of tha andcnt TTiiiia 
Lond. 188a a 


CO. JfUlfar'rHidary and Antiqaitka of tha Doric Raea 1h>. 
byiir.7V«/iidandO.C.Ln0i«. OsL ISSa 8 vak. 8; 
inn. JhMe, aiato of 8od«y in tba ifa of BoMT. 




X amk, ^Mhhiwiillw^ to AHNoer. (Ttrariatod lato 
tiCli*)PaUieEaaan7arAthnu Land. 1828. S rals. H 

Lmtta^ Cabioat Eaerefep. So. striL ■»! lu. <0b Alts 
MuMfiKfwn, fee ofGnektiMl Bonua.) 

IdViir, I/Apicaltaie Aadaatt te GraOL I^r. 1830. 8. 

D. a. fTaH, Jcwnh, Omatil, ud Ckaicd ABtiquitifli ; eoD- 
Iniiv aalnlka of flie Scrtptara ■ad Clanieai Reeonte, fram 
OrlMii Mrat*. Cub. 180. 8. (eC Bame, bL to Stud. 8. 

AbOM Ik. HkL bk. z. Bat tdltioB, New Toik, 18K. 


kWL L(!i.l8n.8. 


A Dami, Dktiomrf of Omk and BonaD JtaMiqaitiM. Lob& 

A Prntif, B«al-EiM7do|*lia to diahdiw lltettliinairto> 
•fOMlnflaa. Btnllf. 1888L ooamianead. 

FoOroU, Eacyclopadia of Aotiqailka, ClMtical aad Madia* 
nl. Load. 189& 3 fda. ^ wiUi plaia.— Abo Load. 184a 
1 Toi. luge 8. 

IFISniMtOieUoMfyarGnakaadltaMBAiiliiiDltba. UuL 
1842. lar|«8l my viUnbl*. 

& Additloiial rafbvncaa on partlcalar lopia iriU ba gtranv 
wtbc topwi occur in tlw bllowinf actkoa. 

i 14. The sabject of antiqaitiee cannot be treated in so strict accordance with 
chronological order as the events of history, because the sources of information 
aie not sufficiently minute. But still in describing the antiquities of a people* 
one should not lose sight of the influence which political revolutions, the pro- 
gress and decline of refinement, and other circumstances, have exerted at suc- 
cessive times upon the constitution, manners, and whole national character and 
social state. Most writers have not been sufficiently mindful of this, and have 
also confined themselves chiefly to the most flourishing of the Grecian states, 
lit. Athens, and so have described Mie, rather than Grecian antiquities. In 
order to avoid this double fault in the present sketch, the antiquities of the ear- 
Hn and less cultivated times will be distinguished from those of a later and 
more enlightened period ; and in speaking of the latter, although Athens was 
tben the most important and most eminent, we shall also notice the constitution 
nid pecaliarities of the other principal states. 

I. — Of the earKer and len euUtvai^d Jge». 

$ 15. It has been already snggested ($ 5, $10), that Greece advanced with 
▼ery rapid step from a state of extreme rudeness m manners and morals to the 
highest dc^pree of refinement The history of this process ihay be divided 
into three distinct periods. The^a^ extends from the onginal state of barba- 
nam to the time of the Trojan war ; this was the period of the peopling of 
Greece : the second extends from the capture of Troy to the time of Solon, the 
period of the rise and formation of the Grecian constitutions and customs : the 
third extends from the age of Solon, to the time when the Greeks lost their 
liberty by subjection to the Macedonians (cf. P. Y. $ 9), the period of their 
greatest perfection and glory. 

Under the present head it is proposed to notice what pertains more partieu- 
larlv to the first and second of the above-mentioned periods ; and the subject 
will be considered in four general branches, viz. religioust civile military ^ and 
domtilic aflfairs. 


i 16. During the rude and unsettled state of society among the Greeks, their 
nli^ion had no fixed or steady form : yet a great part of the popular belief 
originated in these times, which on this account have been called the mythical 
ages or fabulous period. The formation of this early popular faith was aided 
by the general ignorance, the predominance of sensual ideas, and the natural 
tendencies of the mind in an uncultivated state of society (P. II. $ 5u). With 
the progress of social and moral culture, the traditions and fables grew into a 
sort of system, which was retained as a religion of the people, and augmented 
and modified by additions from Egyptian and Phoenician mythology. 

According to common accounts, Greece received new and belter religious 
Dotions from Thrace, by Orpheus, B. C. about 1250 (cf. P. V. § 12, $ 48^ 
19 N 


They were, however, chiefly of Egyptian origin. The worship of animals the 
Greeks never adopted; but they embruced in common with most of the ancient 
nations, the worship of the stars, that early form of idolatry. They also prac- 
ticed the custom of deifying and worshiping men (P. II. § 118), who were 
styled heroes, having distinguished themselves by making new discoveries, 
establishing useful laws, or performing renowned exploits. 

Ob IIm reiif low aflkin of OrMoa, w 0*7 ivAnr to /. O. Lakemachtr, Antiqaitata Oneeorain ncnk Hdintt. 1744. >.— CAr. 
BrUntngii^ ConpendittiD Aaliq. Giac • prehai* ncnram. Fnacof. 1718. ^.—Mitford, Hm. Gnec cfa. U. MCt I.— FjueVr, air 
U relifioa des Graci, in lb* Mem. Aeai. hutr. ? oit. xulv. xur. juxvi. zsxTiii. kad uxiz.— tJnl. Fan Jtaic, Dia. ile OripBC 
•e Prostma IdoUirla et Sapcnliliooaa. AnnL lOM. 4. 

^ 17 tt. Religious study and instruction among the early Greeks was the business of 
their wise men, lawgivers, and poets, who were mostly at the same time priests. I'be 
matter of these was confined cntefly to the dogmas and narratives of Theogony and 
Cosmogony, which were of a mixed character, hibulous and allegorical, but based upon 
some real appearances in nature and man. The various operations of the powers of 
nature and the movements of human passions, were the principal foundation of the 
tales and doctrines of the mythology. The origin of things, their vicissitudes and trans > 
formations, their nature, tendency and effects, were the subjects ; and those were, by 
a lively fancy, changed into supposed or imaginary persons^ to whom words, acrions, 
and appropnate attributes were ascribed. The regular combination or assemblage of 
these in order was called the Theogony, or account of the origin and descent of ih<t 
gods. This constituted the whole theory of religion, which one of the most ancient of 
the Greek poets, Hesiod, reduced to a sort of regular form in his poem styled the 1*lie- 
ogony, and all the principal elements of which Homer interwove in his two epic poemft, 
the Illiad and Odvssey. (Cf P. V. ^ 50, ^ 51.) 

^ 18 u. In the first ages the wise men, and especially the poets, made great exertions 
to imbue the minds of the people with reverence for the gods and respect for their wor* 
ship. On public solemnities, and in great assemblies of the people, thcv were ac- 
customed to adapt their songs to this object. Even when the subject of these songs 
was not the history of the gcxis, nor any point of direct reli^ous instruction, they were 
opened by a prayer to Jupiter, Apollo, or some in.spiring deity. In this way theV fixed 
and strengthened a prevailing faith in the power and providence of the gods, and 
formed the first ideas of right, virtue, and morality, and of future rewards and punish- 
ments. The songs of these poets constituted at first the chief means and subject of 
the instruction of the young. Hence arose on the one hand the great influence of i heir 
poetrjr on the moral culture of the Greeks, and on the other hand the great admiration 
m which the early poets were generalljr held. 

^ 19 M. For an account of the principal Grecian deities, their na^es, rank, history, 
attributes, and mode of worship, we refer to the portion of this work which treats of 
Mythology (P. II). Here we only remark, that the number of the Grecian gods con- 
stantly increased with the progress of time, yet the highest and most distinguished of 
them were introduced and honored in the early ages, and it was chiefly in the class of 
heroes or demigods that this augmentation took place, after the lapse of ihe heroic 
ages, and by means of oral traditions. I'he more extensive the services of these heroes 
were while living, the more general was the reverence for them after death, while 
those, whose beneficial influence had been confined chiefly to a particular city or tribe, 
were deified chiefly by the same, and received a less general homage and worship. 

$ 20. The sacred places, which were specially dedicated to the gods in these 
early ages, were in part, fields and grounds, whose produce was devoted to 
uses connected with religious worship ; partly groves and particular trees, the 
former being commonly planted in a circular form; and partly, at length, iem" 
pks^ which were viewed as the seats and habitations of their respective gods. 
The temples were usually in the cities near the market or place of public busi- 
ness, although they were sometimes erected in the country, and in the conse- 
crated groves. The ground, on which they stood, was usually elevated either 
by nature or art, and their entrance or front was commonly towards the east. 
Some of them were dedicated to a single deity, others to several. It was not 
uncommon to place the name of the god, to whom the temple was sacred, in a 
brief inscription over the entrance. 

§ 21. Originally the interior of the temple was entirely vacant, after the 
Egfyptian manner, even without the imag^ or statue of its god. And in the 
earliest times the image of a god (cf. P. IV. § 156. 2) was nothing but a mere 
stone, which served to represent the deity, and to which ofTerings were brought. 
This was the primary origin of altars. By degrees, these stones came to be 
formed into a human shape, after which it was more common to place statues 


(nyoi/iara) of the ^s in their temples. The posture was sometimes stand- 
ing, sometimes sitting. The material, at first employed, was of no great value, 
bemg stone, wood, or clay. There were, however, in the heroic ages, images 
of the gods of a more costly substance, such as ivory, brass, silver or gold, 
although Homer never exactly describes the material. 

$22. The care of the temples and holy things was intrusted to the priesis 
and prteslesses. The number of these varied in different cases, and depended 
generally upon the rank of the deity, on whose temple and worship they 
attended. The marriage state was not forbidden them, although it became 
afterwards customary to take priestesses mostly from persons unmarried, who 
either were obliged to perpetual celibacy, or remained priestesses only until 
marriage. In some instances the priesthood was hereditary ; but in others it 
was adopted in free choice, or by lot. The residence of the priests was usu- 
ally near the temple, or the consecrated grove, often within the limits of the 
latter. They derived their subsistence from what was offered to the gods, and 
were often in easy circumstances. Generally the office was highly honored in 
the early ages of Greece, and was held, in part at least, by the noblest and 
most distinguished personages, sometimes even by kings. 

$ 23. Some of the principal rifes and sokmniiiet pertaining to the religious 
worship must here be mentioned. Among these were hulraliona (xo^of/toi, 
dvrttf/(ot\ which consisted in the ablution of the body, and a certain purification 
or the clothes, and of sacred utensils. For this purpose salt water was used, 
which was taken from the sea, or prepared by a solution of salt in common 
water. Sulphur and fire were also used on these occasions. These purifica- 
tioQS were considered as especially necessary for those who were defiled by 
murder and blood, and even for the places where such crimes had happened. 
They were oflen ordered for the propitiation of offended deities. 

$24. But prayers and sacrifices were the most essential parts of Grecian 
worship. The former were put up, especially, when some important enterprise 
or undertaking was commenced ; the object of the prayer being to secure a 
happy issue, in case of which very rich gifts were promised to the gods by the 
sappiicant. Both prayers and vows were termed ivx^^* In making them, the 
eyes and hands were raised towards the heavens, or in the temples directed 
towards the images. The posture was sometimes standing, sometimes kneel- 
ing (ywvQ^io^h ywvftsfHv) ; the latter was used especially in case of earnest 
desire or peculiar distress, and often by the whole assembly in common. 

1. Supplicants usually had garlands on their heads and necks, and green boughs of 
olife or laurel (^oXXoi or xXaiot ucriipun) in their hands. In the boughs wool was placed 
vithout tying, and ihey were hence called sometimes arifiuaTa. With these boughs the 
sapplicanta touched the knees, sometimes the cheek, of the statue of the god addressed 
in their pravers. 

2 u. With the prayers were usually joined the libations, or drink offerings, <m>v6&t, 
called also XoijSot, xoai. These consiBied generally of wine, part of which was poured 
out in honor of the gods, and part of it chunk by the worshiper. The wine must be 
pare (axparov), and ofiered in a full cup. Sometimes there were libations of water 
(i^|p6esoK'a). of boney {^wvovieC), of milk {yaKaKT6anoif6a), and of oil {^tKai6txvovia), 

la Plate XX. we have the representation of a prieaten in the act of pouring out the libation ; 
ia thti instance the liquid is poured upon the flame kincped on the altar; also in Plate XX VH. 
fig. C. which is taken from Moaet, Antique Vases. 

S 25. The sacrifices, ^fftot, originally consisted merely of incense, ^oj, or 
some sort of fragrant fumigation, by cedar, citron wood, or the like. In very 
eariy times, the fruits of the earth, in a crude, unprepared state, were offered ; 
and subsequently, cakes, oi/kcu, baked of coarse barley, or meal mixrd with 
salt. It was not until a somewhat later period, that the slaughter of living 
victims was introduced. These victims were selected with great care. At 
first, bullocks, sheep, goats, and swine, were chiefly taken for the purpose. 
Afterwards certain animals became specially sacred as victims appropriate to 
particnlar gods. Sometimes a single victim was sacrificed, sometimes several 
at once, which were often of the same kind of animal, and often also of differ- 
ent kinds. The hecatomb Qxa/tofi^) properly consisted of a hundred bullocks 


or oxen ; yet neither tlie number nor kind of animals was very precisely le* 


The origin of saerifiut if an intereflting and Important theme. Borne flippant and laperflelal 
wriiera aicribe tbeni wholly to m«re superstition and priestcraft. Others attempt In a more 
•erious manner to explain their existence by human origin. Several theories have been pro* 
posed ; one Is, that they were at first ff^flMy a natural expedient for procuring the favor of the 
gods; another, that they were federal ritett drawn f^om men*s eating and drinking together in 
token of friendship, and hence the sacrificial banquet (cf. (97); a third, advanced by Warburton 
(in his Divine Legation of Moses), Is that they were gfmbolietU a«et#M, expressive of gratitude 
in some olTerlngB, and in others, of the acknowledgment of sin and contrition through the death 
of an animal representing the death deserved by the worshiper. But a fourth account, which 
refers them to a divine iascfttceun, is more satisfactory. The Bible represents the Hebrew sacri- 
fices as typical of the death of Christ as the great atoning sacrifice for sinners. (Cf. Ep. to heb. 
ix. and X.) On supposition that God, when he promised a Redeemer to Adam, Instituted some 
menwrial and type, in an animal taerifieey It Is easy to see how by tradition the practice of offering 
■acrifices should be univereal.— The subject is well diacusaed by fV. Magea^ Dissertations on tha 
8criptural Doctrine of Atonement and Sacrifice. N. York, 1813. 8.— Cf. Ji. A, Sykea, Essay on the 
Sacrifices. Lond. 1748. 8. 

$ 26. The altars (fitafwC), on which the sacrifices were presenteilf were erected 
not only in the temples, but often in open places, as on the banks of rivers, 
on mountains, in groYes, and the like. 

The altar seems to have preceded the temple ; and, in the opinion of some, gave rise 
to the temple, as suggested in the following passage. 

'Throughout the whole of the Iliad no mention ocenrs of a temple in Greece, except In the 
second book, evident! v incidental, and the interpolation of some vainlv patriotic Athenian rhap- 
sodlst. The passage indeed might be condemned on the grounds of philological discussion, bai 
it contradicts both the history of art and of religion in that country. In Troy, the temple of 
Minerva appears to have been a mere shrine, in which a statue was Inclosed, and probably. In 
Tenedos, a temple of Apollo is merely alluded to. During the age of Homer, then, the primeval 
altar, common to both Europe and Asia, was the only sacred edifice known. This differed little 
from a common hearth ; the sacrifice being in fact a social rite, the victim, at once an offering to 
heaven, and the food of man, was prepared by roasting ; the first improvement on their simple 
construction appears to have been the addition of a pavement, an obvious means of cleanliness 
and comfort. Yet even this appears to have constituted a distinction not common, since. In par- 
ticular instances, the pavement is mentioned as a peculiar ornament. Subsequently, in order 
to mark In a more conspicuous manner, and with more dignity, the sacred spot, while the ritea 
should be equally exposed to the spectators, an open colonnade was added, inclosing the altar 
and pavement. Thus the roofless temple might be said to be finished ; but whether this prime- 
val structure existed In his native country during the age of Homer does not appear. We 
remark here a very striking resemblance between the ancient places of devotion in Ureece and 
the Druldical temple of the more northern regions. In Act, the aitonishing remains at Stone- 
henge present the best known, and perhaps one of the most stupendous examples ever erected 
of the open temple. This species of religious erection appears to have been co-extensive with 
the spread of the human race, and not, as generally supposed, limited to the northern portion 
of the globe."— ^emeir, Hist, of Sculpture, &c. p. 333, as cited P. IV. $ 160. 

$ 27. Among the eeremoniea connected with offering a sacrifice, was the pre- 
vious washing of the hands ($ 67. 2) and the sprinkling, by the priests, of those 
who were present, with sacred water {zh^^)* 1*h®n was placed upon the 
back and head of ihe victim, in early times, unground barlev, in later times, a 
number of small cakes (^o^tava, 6ta6;tvf a)* oflen meal mixed With honey, wine, 
or oil ; a little hair torn from the forehead of the victim was then thrown upon 
the fire ; next followed the prayer and libation ($ 34. 2) ; then the priest, or the 
»^pv$, smote tlie animal on the head with an ax or club, and cut its throat with 
a sacrificial knife ((t^a/yii)* The blood was received in an appropriate vessel 
(tf^Kftyctov). The victim was then flayed and cut in pieces. The next thing 
was to cover the haunches or thighs (/is^poJ) with caul or fat {xvCaerj)^ and to 
take small pieces from other parts of the animal and place upon them {tifi^ftilv). 
Upon the portions thus prepared, wine was commonly poured, and they were 
then placed on the altar and burned. The rest of the victim was usually 
roasted on spits, and eaten at the sacrificial banquet. Banquets of this kind 
were made especially on the sacred festivals. 

$ 28. Besides the sacrifices properly so called, it was common to bring to 
the gods other gifts and offerings (dJIpa, nva^ftata)* Amon? these, were 
crowns or garlands {(Sti^vo^, ati^os)^ ^i^h which the temples, altars, and sta- 
tues were often adorned, and which were formed of the leaf sacred to the par- 
'acular god to whom they were offered : e. |. of try, for Bacchus ; of ooft, for 
Jupiter. Curtains and vestments iHipirCtxacfiatth ftspovfj/M^a) wrought with 
rich embroidery were brought and placed upon the statues or hung in the tern 


pies. Vessels of gold, siWer, and brass were also offered, and tripods (t-ptrtoS* j) 
especially to Apollo. The spoils of war were often thus consecrated, dxpo^tVio, 
with shields and arms. Frequently the articles dedicated to the gods were 
marked by inscriptions stating the occasion and circumstances of their dedica- 
tion. From the custom here described, arose the great riches of some of the 
Grecian temples. 

The temple of Apollo at Delphi, particularly, became in the course of years pos- 
seseed of immense wealth. 

to JfU/«A HIA Greto^ dk nxTii. Hd. 1 ; du zzxrllL icet I ; ch. uxiz. Met. S.—Bmtenjei Htntu, p. 201, u cited P. V. 
} 7. 8.— Ai FateiMf Lc« richf h du leapl* d« Delplm, in tbe Jfcm. Jead. truer. iiU.78. 

$ 29. In addition to the worship rendered the gods, there was a worship of 
the heroes as demigods (§ 16), which however was neither so general nor 
attended with so much ceremony. These had no festivals, properly speaking, 
bat an annual funeral solemnity (ivaytcj^a), and were viewed as tutelary guar- 
dians of their country, tribe, or family. On these solemnities, the drink offer- 
ings (x^) were in common practice; not only wine was used for the purpose, 
but o&n milk, and even blood. Sometimes victims were slain, and various 
offerings presented, and from these a trophy (t'pOTtacoy) or a funeral pile, was 
constrocted. In some cases, the iBrst fruits of the season were offered. The 
usual place of such solemnities was the tomb of the hero, in whose memory 
they were held, near which it was customary to erect an altar; often also to 
make a pit or hole (^^o$, xaxxo^), which had reference to their dwelling in 
the under world. rCf. P. II. § 32.) 

S 30. Funeral solemnitiea were generally a part of the religions usages of the 
more ancient Greeks. These commenced immediately on the death of an indi- 
vidual, in the formal closing of his eyes {pvyx'Knnv f ovj 64>^X/aoi;j), a ceremony 
usually performed by the nearest kinsman. The corpse was then washed and 
anointed, clothed in a white linen pall and placed on a sort of bier ^xixfpoi/, 
^'pcrpov). Around this the kindred and friends of the deceased raised the 
faneral lament, which was often expressed in song by persons employed for 
the occasion, and accompanied by mournful notes of the flute. The mourners 
also testified their sorrow by plucking off their hair* and casting it upon the 
corpse. These ceremonies were continued, not always the same length of 
time, sometimes three, sometimes seven days, and joften a greater number. 

$ 31. The burning of the corpse was a custom peculiar to the Greeks, as 
the £^ptians and the Persians used to inter their dead. In the earliest times 
intemng was practiced by the Greeks, although Homer Speaks only of 

1 «. After the completion of the bewailings just described, the corpse was borne on 
a bed or bier lo the appointed place, where a funeral pile (it€>^) was erected. Near 
this, faneral sacrifices were slam. Upon the pile were placed various objects, which 
had been particularly valued by the deceased, even animals, and sometimes human 
beings previously put to death. During the burning, the attendants uttered their wail, 
ings and funeral chants. The flame was finally extinguished by pouring on some 
liquid, and the ashes or remaining bones were collected by the nearest relative, and 
deposited in an urn, which was buried in the earth. The place of interment was 
marked by stones and a mound 0(]t^a), on which was commonly raised a pillar (ornXj?), 
or other monument, with an inscnption. The ceremonies were ended with a funeral 
repast {ytxpaUatvov, vtpiUtino*). Sometimes games were celebrated in honor of the 

2. It is stated, that among the Thracians wives were burned on the funeral piles of 
their husbands ; a custom which is still prevalent in India, although the influence of 
Christianity is breaking it up in the portions of the country subject to England. 

$ 32. In speaking of the religious customs of the Greeks, we should notice 
their regard to oracks and to divinations. The most ancient of the oracles was 
that of Dodona ; that of Delphi was still more celebrated, and also of early 
origin. The practice of divination and the interpreting of signs was a business 
of the priests in particular. It was done partly by observing accidental 
occurrences, as the flight of birds, or the breaking of thunder, in both of which 
the right side indicated good fortune, the observer having his face directed to the 
north ; and partly by consulting the entrails of victims. Sneezing was re« 


garded as a favorable prognostic. We may mention also the prophetic inter- 
pretation of dreams, and the belief of the multitude in magic, and in bodily 
metamorphoses, which they supposed to afford various means of aid and pro- 

The religioxisfesiwals were numerous and attended with various ceremonies. 
— But on each of the topics mentioned in this section, we shall speak more 
particularly again. (Cf. §§ 70-77.) 


$ 33. It has been already remarked ($ 5), that the first inhabitants of Greece 
lived in a dispersed state, without civil culture or any social compact. The 
family relations, the authority of the parent over the child, of the husband over 
the wife, exhibited the only traces of government. Phoroneus, a son of Inachus, 
is mentioned as the first author of association for civil purposes. Gradually 
the Greek tribes began to select leaders, who were called kings Q3owjcX«4f)» 
however limited might be the extent of their dominion or authority. Ihe choice 
most generally fell upon such as had rendered to their tribe or country some 
distinguished and meritorious service ; and then the dignity became hereditary, 
a thing rather rare, however, in the earlier ages. Sometimes the choice was 
determined by consulting an oracle, and in such case the authority was viewed 
as the more rightful, and as sanctioned by the gods. 

Ob tba luigcct oT the civil allaira of (be earfy Greeks, we my refer to F. fV. TtltmoMn'i DuetelliiBg der srieehiKh. SUaliverfi^ 
tmgn. LwpB. I8SL ^—MUford, ch. ii. mcL S ; eb. iv. lecL 4.— See § 9S. 

$ 34. The kingly power, in the first ages, was far from being despotic, or 
unlimited ; the leaders and princes being bound by certain laws and usages. 
The principal duties of these chiefs were to command in war, to settle disputes 
between the people, and to take care of the worship of the gods. Valor, love 
of justice, and zeal for religion, were therefore rocKoned among their moat im- 
portant excellences. For their honor and support, a portion of the lands was 
assigned, the cultivation of which they superintended themselves. Certain 
taxes or imposts were also paid to them, which were increased in time of war. 
The signs of their office were the scepter and diadem. The former ((jx^rtf pov) 
was usually of wood, and in length not unlike the lance ; the latter {6idbrifia) 
was a sort of bandeau or head-band, rather than a proper crown. The general 
costume of these kings was distinguished by its richness, and was commonly of 
a purple color. 

In ancient times, one of the tokens of office and rank always was something attached 
to the head ; a wreath, cap, crown, or the like. A metallic crown was common. 
David is said to have had a crown of gold with precious stones, of the weight (meaning 
probably of the value) of a talent (1 Sam. xii. 30). Athenaeus mentions a crown, made 
of 10,000 pieces of gold, placed on the throne of king Ptolemy. 

In oiir Plate XVI. fi^. C, we have a curioui golden crown, which Is mid to have been found 
in lome part of Ireland, in 1G93, about ten feet under ground. Near it in the Plate, fis. a, is an an- 
cient Abyssinian crown ; on the other side, fig. A, is the covering seen on the bead or a conquered 
prince or general upon Egyptian monumenis.— In Plate XXIV. fig. 6, we have ihe JUtel and korm 
worn by governors of provinces in Abyssinia. " A large broad fillet,*' says Bruce, ** was bound 
upon their forehead and tied behind their head. In the middle of this was a conical piece of silver 
about four inches long. It Is called kirn or born, and is worn especially in parades after victo* 
Tie:*'— Bnue, Travels, &c. as cited P. IV. $ 118. I. 

$ 35. The court and retinue of the first kings was very simple and unimpos- 
ing. In war, they usually had by tlieir side a friend, who served as a kind of 
armor-bearer. Both in war and peace, they employed heralds (xijpvxc;) in the 
publication and execution of their orders. The heralds also imposed silence, 
when the chiefs wished to come forward and speak in an assembly. The same 
officers assisted in religious ceremonies, and were present in the forming of 
treaties. — ^The kings also selected councillors, of the most distinguished, ex- 
perienced, and brave of the people ; and in cases of doubt or difficulty, held 
with them consultations and formal assemblies, in which the speaker was 
accustomed to stand and the rest to sit. Both public and private affairs were 
discussed in these assemblies. 

$ 3G. The courts of Justice were in public places; and the whole assembly 


usually presented the form of a circle. The judges sat upon seats or benches 
of stone ; the men selected for the office were such as were much respected on 
account of age and experience. They bore in their hand a scepter or staff. 
The cause was stated orally by the contending parties themselves, and by them 
the wimesses were brought forward. The kings or chiefs presided in th^8e 
jadicial assemblies, sitting on an elevated seat or throne. For a period, equity 
and precedent or usage formed the basis of all decisions ; but afterwards, the 
coarts had for their guide particular laws and statutes, which were first intro- 
doced by Phoroneus, and more extensively by Cecrops. 

$ 37. As the laws in the more ancient times were few and simple, so were , 
the punishments. But few crimes were made capital. Murder was commonly 
punished by banishment, either voluntarily sought by the murderer, or expressly 
decreed by public sentence; its duration, however, was but a year, and even 
this could sometimes be commuted for a fine. The privileges of asylum be- 
longed only to the author of accidental, unintentional homicide. Adultery was 
punished severely, commonly with death. Robbery and theft were very fre- 
quent in the early times of Greece, and originally were not considered as cri- 
minal, while the right of the stronger was admitted, especially if shrewdness 
and cunning were united with the meft. Nothing therefore was aimed at but 
to recover what had been taken, or to inflict vengeance by a corresponding in- 
jarj. Afterwards, however, particular punishments were imposed for these 

$ 38. In as much as the inhabitants of Ci'ete were connected with the Greeks 
by their having a common language, it is important to mention the Cretan laws, 
which were introduced by Minos. They are said to have been the most ancient 
written code, and were afterwards taken by Lycurgus as models. Military 
valor and union among the people seems to have been their great aim ; every 
ordinance of Minos was directed to promote strength of body, and to cultivate 
social attachment between the members of the state. In order to impart greater 
dignity and authority to his laws, he brought them forward as having been re- 
vealed to him by Jupiter. But the moral culture was not greatly advanced by 
institntions having their primary and chief reference to a state of war. 

1 39. In the progress of time, the form of government among the Greeks 
underwent many changes, and at length became wholly democratic. The most 
celebrated of the states were Athens and Sparta. Of these in particular a few 
important circumstances respecting their government in the more early ages are 
here to be mentioned. 

Athens was ori^nally governed by kings. The power of these kings was 
more unrestrained in war than in peace. After the death of Codrus (1068 B.C.), 
it becanae a free state. The chief authority was given to officers styled 
*1rchom, who ruled for life. Thirteen archons of this description succeeded 
each other, all descended from the family of Codrus. After tne time of these 
(753 B. C), the office of Archon ceased to be for life, and was limited to ten 
years, and was held by a single person at a time. After a succession of seven 
Archons of this kind, the office was made annual (684 B. C), and nine Archons 
were appointed to rule jointly, not all, however, of the same rank. — ^The civil 
government experienced changes under Draco, and others still greater under 
the distinguished legislator Solon, and in after times. 

{ 40. Sparta was also originally governed by kings. Enristhenes and Pro- 
eles, the two sons of Aristodemus (one of the Heraclidse that invaded Pelo- 

Eonnesus), reigned jointly, but not harmoniously. Under their descendants the 
ingly office lost much of its authority. Lycurgus, the famous Spartan la\^ 
giver, changed greatly the form of government ; it did not become democratical, 
neither was it, properly speaking, aristocratical. Two kings remained at the 
head, and a senate was established consisting of twenty-eight men, who were 
above sixty years of age. There was also the body of five Ephori, appointed 
annually. The people themselves likewise had some share in the administra- 
tion of the state. Notwithstanding many internal divisions and disturbances, 
this Jtate enjoyed a long period of comparative rest and liberty. This it owed 


very much to the wise regulations of Lyruraus, th«* salutary influence of which 
was aided by the limited territory and mockirntB population uf Lacedaemon. 

§ 41. One of the most effectual means of advancinor ihe Greeks was their 
commerce and the navigation connected with it. In the earliest times, com- 
merce consisted chiefly m barter and reciprocal exchanges of native products, 
the use of gold not being introduced. Afterwards pieces of metal of different 
values were employed. (Cf. P. IV. $ 94.) Navi^tion became more common 
after the Trojan war, and jEgina first turned it to the advantage of commerce. 
Corinth and Rhodes became most distinguished in this respect. The commerce 
. of Athens finally became something considerable; that of Laced«mon on the 
other hand always remained comparatively unimportant. — On the whole, it is 
worthy of remark, that the extension of commerce and maritime intercourse 
had an important influence upon the civil and moral culture of the Grecian 
states. (Cf. P. IV. $ 40.) 

jt. Andtrion, Historical an! Chmoologkal IMoetioB of 111* Origin of CoaioierM^ rraai ttia aulifat Mcoualt ; with Appcadix bf 
CoemU Dubl. 1790. 6 nh. 8. 

** Commerce, in the Homeric ago, appears to have been principnlly in the hands of 
the Phenicians. The carrying>trade of the Mediterranean was early theirs, and Sidon 
was the great seat of manufacture. The Greeks were not without trnilic carried on 
by sea among themselves ; but the profession of merchant had evidently not in Homer's 
time that honorable estimation which yet, according to Plutarch, it acquired at an early 
period in Greece. While it was thought not unbecoming a prince to be a carpenter to 
supply his own wants or luxuries, to be a merchant for gain was held but as a mean 
employment ; a pirate was a more respected character. 

Navigation had been much practiced, long before Homer, in small open vessels, 
nearly such as are still common in the Mediterranean ; and the poet gives no him of 
any late advancement of the art. The seas, indeed, which nearly surrounded Greece, 
are singularly adverse to improvements upon that vast scale whi(*h oceans require, and 
which modern limes have produced. Broken by innumerable heridlands and islands, 
with coasts mostly mountainous,' and in some parts of exiraordlnary height, the Gre- 
cian seas are beyond others subject to sudden and violent storms. These united cir- 
cumstances, which have made the Greeks of all a<re8 excellent boatmen, have contri> 
bated much to prevent them from becoming seamen. The skill and experience of the 
pilot, in the modern sense of the term, are constantly wanted ; the science of the 
navigator is of little avail ; even the compass is comparatively useless in the JEgetin. 
The Mediterranean vessels now, not excepting the French, which are mostlv navigated 
bv Mediterranean sailors, never keep the sea there but with a fair wind. The English 
alone, accustomed in all their surrounding waters to a bolder navigation, commonly 
venture in the Archipelago to work to windward. Sails were used in fair winds in 
Homer's time ; but the art of sailing was extremely imperfect. The mariner's de- 
pendence was Ilia oars, which no vessel was without. For in seas so land-locked, yet 
so tempestuous, the greatest danger was to the stoutest ship. Light vessels, which 
inrilh their oars could creep along the coast, watch the weather, make way in calms, 
uid, on any threatening appearance, find shelter in shoal water or upon an open beach, 
were what Grecian navigation peculiarly reouired. The Phenicians, for their com- 
merce, used deeper ships, accommodated to their more open seas and longer voyages." 


§ 42. Military prowess was esteemed by the earljr Greeks as of the greatest 
merit, and was therefore an object of universal ambition. The first inhabitants 
were distinguished for their warlike inclinations and habits of life, although 
their wars were conducted without much method or discipline. They were 
constantly in arms, not only to defend themselves and their property, but to 
attack and plunder others. Thus they perpetrated violence, murder, and de- 
ifestation in the extreme. It needed but a trifling occasion to excite a general, 
long, and bloody war; the siege of Troy furnishes a striking exam])le. In 
such cases, several chiefs and people, sometimes of very distant provinces, 
dnited as in a common cause. 

Od Oraeian military ■ffiiii*, «• / 7. J7. AM, Einleitimf ia i'n gTi«chitcbM Kriegnlterthamer. Sluttg. ITKX !L a valaaUa 
work OB th« geoeral ratjccL^Aln^ 0. 0. 8. Xttplu, Qber daa KriofiireiMm der Oriecten im faeniKlken ZeltaHw, kc. Bert. 1807. 8. 
d. Clam. /<wm. be 1 1.— C Oubomd^ M&meArm mtlitalrai nr l«i Gract «t rar \m Rooiaioa. I^ Ha7f>, 1758. 4. It eontain ■ 
liaBriatioBof OnoMiicfar(d:F. V. |S1}, aal plaa of mnim ueiat l«ttlM,*e. Ct { 37&>-GanMr, m dl«d ( M^ATiVorA 
likt ch. IL iKL a, 4. 


i 43. The Grecian armies consisted partly of foot-soldiers and in later times 
of horsemen, partly of such as were borne in chariots. The foot-soldiers were 
distinguished as light armed (4tx6&) and heavy armed (o^OtVcu). The Thessa- 
lians were early and especially celebrated for their cavalry {Ittrtsli). Still more 
ancient was the use of war-chariots, which were employeid by the heroes of 
Homer. Two horses, sometimes three, were attached to these chariots ; each 
cootained two warriors, one of whom miided the horses {'^ioxos), while the 
other pointed out the direction {Ttapat^afrji), discharged arrows, hurled missiles 
from a sling, or fought with short arms, and when the action was close sprang 
from the chariot (j^po^). Notwithstanding the inconyenience of these vehicles 
in battle, they were in use for a long time, before cavalry came to be generally 
substitated in their place. 

Iv the 8«p. Plate 10 to seen a war eharlot with three borses and two penona; BeUona acting 
u charioteer, white Jfers to hurling the Javelin. 

i 44. The weapons of the Greek warriors were of two kinds, defensive and 
offennvt. Among the former (obt^liyfrpto, rt^^fjwta) was the helmet {xxfviij, 
xpotvf, 7ccpixcta9uua, xofwi) made of hide or leather and adorned with a crest 
of hair or tufts of feathers (^xo;, Xo<^o$), and attached to the neck b^ a strap 
Ihtvi); the breastplate (^uipal), commonly made of brass, sometimes of 
leather or linen; the girdle (^Jivrf), mostly of brass and encircling the lower 
part of the body ; the greaves (xv^/udcO? of brass or some more precious metal ; 
and the shield {acittii)^ usually round, made of buliock^s hide, and used for the 
protection of the whole body (cf. $ 139). 

I ». The shield was often adorned with figures, but not as much so as Hesiod repre- 
sents the shield of Hercules to have been, and Homer that of Achilles. 

1 Homer's deecriptlon of the shield of Achilles (II. xviil. 478) la considered aa one oflhe finest 
psssages in the Iliad. A delineation and model of the shield was formed by the celebrated artist 
Kaxman, and several casts were made in silver gilt, bronze, and plaster. He brought the whole 
work within a circle of three feet in diameter. It contains upwards of a hundred human figures 
eihibiied in relief. 

a. Aam^ nad. Note*.— Sw QMfr. de Qufauy, Snr h (taeriplioo du faoacljer d* Achilla, fte. fa Iba JAm. rhuL dt rncm» 
CUiu d'lBit (f ULJtnt. voL Iv. p. 102, with a colorBd plato.— Ik Coyliif, Boodian d'Aehilla, d'HercuIa, at d'Enaa^ fee. fa 
fte Mhl JUd. /nw. zxvii. 21— don. Jwm. vi. 8; viii. 408. 

% 45. The (^enaive weapons were, the spear (dopv), commonly made of the 
ash-tree {fiz%i^\ and of different lengths and forme according as it was designed 
for combat more or less close; the sword (^i^i)^ the belt of which hung from 
the shoolders ; the how (r oSov), usually of wood, with a string (ycvpoy) of 
twisted horse-hair or of hide ; the arrows (|3tXi7, 6Mrf a), of light-wood, pointed 
with iron, and winged frtfepwij to$) with feathers ; i\\e javelin (dxow, axovf mw), 
of Tarious lengths and forms ; and the sline (tf^cvSoi^), of an oval shape, with 
two leathern strings attached to its ends, oy means of which anows, stones, 
sod leaden balls (fuyxv/SdvMu) were hurled against the foe. 

The spear used for close combat was called iipn iperrdv ; that for a distance, vaXrdp ; 
the point, termed docjifi and dxtaidi, was always of metal. Aoupo^tfn} was the name given to 
the box or case, in which the spears were deposited when not in use. — The term itx^i also 
deaignates the spear ; the epithet brazen {xa^jno») is usually applied to it. Cf. Ham. II. 

in. 380. The arrows were kept in a quiver (^opfrpo), which, with the bow, was usually 

carried on the back of the shoulders (or' upimv). The quiver had a lid or cover {^mim). 
Cf. Han. L. iv. 116-120. 

Various artietee of ancient armor are seen in onr Plates XVII. and XXII. The bow and quiver 
are fiven in fig. T, and L, of Plate XVII. In this Plate also, fig. Y, Y, we have forms of the 
Grecianjaoetiii ; in O, O, spear-beads ; in the figs, a, a, the long spear; in H, a form of the eluba 
(cf. } 13^ which in various forms were used in early periods ; in fig. A, A, are given forms of 
iht tinh or bBttU-maUet used by the Egyptians, which sometimes had leaden heads with bandies 
four or five feet long ; in fig. 1, 1, we have the Grecian hattle-ax ; in fig. 8, and in the several 
fip. marked C, and those marked D, are forms of the Grecian and Roman $ward; in E, a Daclan 
sword; in tboee marked B, Persian swords.— In Plate XXII. fig. a, ft, e, d, and e, are varieties 
ofhelmeu found in Egyptian remains: /, ^, A, and >, are Persian and Syrian helmets; the 
kings are sometimes represented with crowns of a similar appearance: «, and o, are given as 
Phrygian : I, m, are Grecian, and may represent also the Roman : p, and o, are Dacian : ft, is a 
form quite similar to the latter, said to l>e used also by the Syrians. In fig. r, and on the Gre- 
ciaa warriors, fig. 1, and fig. 7, the tkorax is seen, and the girdle: s, represents a figure found 
{cf.?une*8 Life of Brant, vol. il. p. 55, Appendix) buried in a sitting posture, near the celebrated 
Difhtnn Rnek, in Massachnsetts, with a concave breastplate thirteen inches long, supposed to 
be of cast brass, and a belt of the same material four and a half inches wide, having a reed -like 
appearance ; a brazen arrow-head, t, was found with it. In fig. «, and on the warrior, fig. 7» we 

154 GRECIAN ANTiarrriES. 

■ee the grgaves ; the Bhuld, In flg. 1, 3, 7 ; the tpear in the hands of the Grecian warriora, in Ag. 
1, 2; and of ibtf Peraian, fig. 3: the frov, &c. in (ig. 6, which represents an Egyptian archer. 

§ 46. Most of the weapons of the ancient Greeks were made of brass or 
copper, which seems to have been used earlier than iron (cf. P. IV. § 10), and 
was often nsed after the introduction of iron. For defensive armor, iron was 
afterwards generally preferred. For the cuirass or breastplate, the greaves and 
the shield, tin or lead was sometimes used. To adorn the weapons with gold 
was considered as too extravagant and ostentatious. Yet they endeavored to 
give their armor the highest degree of brightness, not only for the sake of 
Beauty, but to inspire fear in the enemy. On the shield they had a sort of 
field-badge, or military emblem, usually in bas-relief, the image of some god, 
or animal, especially the lion. The horses also were ornamented with much 

Respecting the military anparel little is ascertained. Lycurgus directed the I«acedse- 
monians to clothe their solaiers in scarlet. — The Greek soldiers usually carried their 
own provisiotis, consisting chiefly of salt meat, cheese, oUves, onions, &c. For this 
purpose each one had a vestel made of wicker with a long neck, called yvXiov, Rdin- 
am, p. 349. 

$ 47. In connection with the affairs of war, it is proper to notice the use of 
ships or vessels, which the Greeks in early times employed partly in piracy, 
partly in transporting armies, and partly in actual combat. In later times the 
naval battles of the Greeks were frequent and celebrated. Their first ships 
were long (/iaxpat), and moved by oars. The number of rowers was various, 
oflen very considerable. Originally there was but a single rank on each side ; 
afterwards, as the ship was built higher, another rank of rowers was added ; 
vessels of the latter Kind were called dixpora, those of the former /xoyoxpot'oh 
also fiovripm, xiT^tif, At a later period they were built with three tiers or ranks, 
rpt^pjtf, which continued to be the most common form, although there were 
vessels with four, five, and six tiers, and sometimes even more. 

It was early customary to place upon ships certain images and signs, from 
which they were named. The ship commonly bore the image or statue of some 
god, to whose protection it was especially intrusted. In the capture of a vessel, 
the first object of a victor was to plunder this image, and place it as a trophy 
in his own ship. 

$ 48. The Greeks early practiced in war the forming of regular camps. 
Their compass and extent were such as not only to include the whole army, 
bat also the ships, which after the landing of the troops were drawn upon the 
dry land. It was customary to surround the camp with a wall or ramparts with 
towers and breast-wocks. Before the wall was a fosse or ditch, guarded with 
pointed stakes. For the principal officers separate tents were erected, of 
wooden frames, covered with skins. During the night, sentinels were stationed 
on ffuard, and beacon-fires were kindled. Spies and scouts were sent out from 
Doth parties, when hostile camps were placed against each other. 

" Tents like those now in use seem to have been a late invention. The ancients, on 
desultory expeditions, and in marching through a country, slept with no shelter but 
their cloaks, as our light troops often carry none but a blanket ; when they remained 
long on a spot they nutted. Achilles' tent or hut was built of fir, and thatched with 
reeds { and it seems to have had several apartments. (U. xxiv. 488. ix. 639).'* 

§ 49. The order of battle was either to place the war-chariots in front, and 
the infantry in the rear, or to give the latter the front, and support them by the 
chariots from behind. The whole army was drawn into close array, although 
arranged in distinct divisions. On the commencement of battle they implored 
the aid of the gods, and made vows of grateful returns. Then the generals 
exhorted the soldiers to valor, and proceeded to set an example. The onset 
was usually accompanied with loud shouting and clamor to inspirit each other 
and intimidate the foe. The wounded were healed with care, having nursing 
and medicine ; but the slain of the enemy were left unburied, or their corpses 
even exposed to insult, unless their burial was agreed upon in some express 

^ 50. llie spoils taken in battle consisted partly of arms, which the captoi 



either appropriated to his own use, or dedicated to the gods, and partly in other 
utensils ana precious articles, which, together with their owners, became the 
property of the victor. By means of a ransom, however, the spoils, as well as 
the prisoners, could be redeemed. AAer battle, the remaining booty was often 
divided among the soldiers by lot; the general, however, always received his 
portion first and without lot. Those who had distinguished themselves by valor, 
also received prizes and rewards, by the promises of which the generals often 
stimulated their troops before the action. 

** We find that, so early as Homer's time, the Greeks had improved considerably 
upon that tumultuary warfare alone known to many barbarous nations, who yet hav^ 
prided themselves in the practice of war for successive centuries. Several terms used 
by the poet, together with his description of marches, indicate that orders of battle 
were in his time regularly formed in ranks and files. Steadiness in the soldier, that 
foundation of all those powers which distinguish an army from a mob, and which to 
this day forms the highest praise of the best troops, we find in great perfection in the 
Iliad. * The Grecian phalanges,* says the poet (iv. 427), * marched in close order, the 
leaders directing each his own band. The rest were mute : insomuch that you would say, 
in so great a multitude there was no voice. Such was the silence with which they 
reepeciivel]^ watched for the word of command from their officers.' 

Considering the deficiency of iron, the Grecian troops appear to have been very well 
armed, both for offence ana defence. Their defensive srmor consisted of a helmet, a 
breastplate, and sreaves, all of brass ; and a shield, commonly of bull's hide, but often 
strengthened with brass. The breastplate appears to have met the belt, which was a 
considerable defence to the belly and groin ; and with an appendant skirt guarded also 
the thighs. All together covered the forepart of the soldier from the throat to the ancle ; 
and the shield was a superadded protection for everv part. The bulk of the Grecian 
troops were infantry, thus heavily armed, and formed in close order, many ranks deep. 
Any body, formed m ranks and files, close and deep, without regard to a specific num- 
ber of either ranks or files, were generally termed a phalanx (IL iv. 332. vi. 83). Bat 
the Locrians, under Oilean Ajax, were all light-armed ; bows were their principal 
weapons, and they never engaged in close fight {dyxtnaxot). 

Riding on horseback was yet little practiced, though it appean to have been not un- 
known (II. xiii, 722). Some centuries, however, passed before it was generally applied 
in Greece to military purposes ; the mountainous ruggedness of the country prevented 
any extensive use of cavalry, except amon^ the Toessalians, whose terntory was a 
large plain. [Cf. SalUerj cited ^138.] But in the Homeric armies no chief was with- 
out his chariot, drawn generally by two, sometimes by three horses; and these chariots 
of war make a principal figure in Homer's battles. Nestor, forming the army for action, 
composes the first line of^chariots only. In the second he places that part of the in- 
fantry in which he has least confidence ; and then forms a third line, or reserve, of the 
most approved troops. 

The combat of tne chiefs, so repeatedly described by Homer, advancing to engage 
singly in front of their line of battle, is apt to strike a modern reader with an appesr- 
ance of absurdity perhaps much beyond the reality. Before the use of fire-arms that 
practice was not uncommon, when the art of war was at the greatest perfection. Cesar 
himself gives (De Bell. Gall. v. 43), w^ith evident satisfaction, a very particular account 
of a remarkable advanced combat, in which, not generals indeed, but two centurions 
of his army engaged. The Grecian chiefs of the heroic ago, like the knights of the times 
of chivalry, had armor probably superior to that of the common soldiers ; and this, 
with the additional advantage of superior skill, acquired by assiduous practice amid 
unbounded leisure, would make this skirmishing much less dangerous than on first 
consideration it may appear."— 3/i7/orrf, ch. ii. sect. 3. 

" Another practice common in Homer's time is by no means equally defensible, but 
on the contrary marks great barbarism ; that of stopping in the heat of action to strip 
the slain. Often this paltry passion for possessing the spoil of the enemy superseded 
all other, even the most important and most deeply interesting objects of battle. The 
poet himself (II. v. 48, vi. 67) was not unaware of the danger and inconvenience of the 
practice, and seems even to have aimed at a reformation of it. We find, indeed, in 
Homer's war&re, a remarkable mixture of barbarism with regularity. Though the 
art of forming an army in phalanx was known and commonly practiced, yet the busi- 
ness of a general, in directing its operations, was lost in the passion, or we may call it 
fashion, of the great men to signalize themselves by acts of personal courage and skill 
in arms. Achilles and Hector, the first heroes of the Iliad (xviii. 106, 252), excel only 
in the character of fighting soldiers : as generals and directors of the war they are 
inferior to many. Indeed, while the fate of the battles depended so much on the skir- 
mishing of the chiefs, we cannot wonder that the prejudice should obtain which set the 
able arm, in vulgar estimation, above the able head. But the poet obviously means to 
expose the absurdity and mischievous consequences of that prejudice, where he makes 


Hector (IL xzii. 99), in a late repentance, acknowledge the superior abilities of Polyda* 
mas. Yet Homer's own idea of the duties of an officer, though he possessed very 
eztensiTe and Terv accurate knowledge both of the theory and practice of war of his 
own age, was still very imperfect." — lb. 

$ 51. At the end of war the conquered party either snbmitted wholly to the 
dominion and laws of the conqueror, or a peace was made upon certain con- 
ditions. This was effected through legates, fully commissioned for the purpose. 
In forming a treaty of peace, Tarious ceremonies were observed, partly of a 
religious character. A victim was slain, of which however no meal was made, 
bat its flesh was cast aside; libations were poured out; the parties joined 
hands in pledge of good faith, and called upon the gods as witnesses of their 
covenant, and as avengers of its violation, especially upon Jupiter, whose 
thunderbolts were an object of terror to the perjured. The restoration of plun- 
der was generally a preliminary requisition ; and the conquered party was often 
compelled to pay a sum of money as a fine or indemnification.— -Sometimes the 
whole war was terminated by a single combat, the parties agreeing to abide by 
its issue. 


i 53. Since social life was but gradually introduced in Greece, it is not to be 
expected, that the earliest ages should exhibit much refinement in what pertains 
to domestic affairs. During the heroic ages their mode of living was nearly as 
mde as iheir moral s. Their principal meat was the flesh of cattle, sheep, swine, 
goats, and deer, which they were accustomed to roast. The flesh of birds and 
fish was more seldom used. The most common food was milk, fruit, and vege- 
tables. The first and most common drink was water ; wine, however, was in 
frequent use; but, generally, mingled with water. Large drinking-vessels 
were employed at their repasts* Ordinarily they had two meals a day, at mid- 
day and evening, and in the earlier times it was the Greek custom to sit at 
table, not to recUne. The number of persons at one table was seldom greater 
than ten. 

It was a proverb, ascribed to Theognis (cf. P. V. ^ 31), that the persons at a social 
repast sboald not be less in number than the Graces, nor more than the Muses.— The 
Roman Varro is said to have enjoined this rule, respecting the proper number at a 
repast {Gell. xiii. 11). Adam. 

** Homer mentions three different sorts of seats: (1) ^f^po;, which contained two 
persons, commonly placed for those of mean rank ; (2) ^t«f , on which they sat up- 
light, having under their feet a foorstool termed Bpiitrvs ; (3) KKwiidi, on which they sat 
leaniog a little backwards." Eobinton. — Cf. Horn. Odys. i. 130, 131. 

f 53. Social repasts or banquets were often held, being occasioned by public 

Unities, festivals, religious celebrations, marriages, and the like. Some- 
times they were made at the common expense of the guests (epoyo;, cf. Odvu, 
i. S36) ; such entertainments, however, were viewed as of inferior rank. The 
feasts npon victims offered in sacrifice have been mentioned ($ 27). 

At table the guests sat according to a definite order. The beginning was 
made by washing the hands. In early times a separate board was placed for 
each guest, and his portion of food thus divided to him. Wine was brought 
by youthful attendants, and the guests often drank to each other, and recipro- 
cally ezchan^d cups. Thev endeavored to heighten the joys* of the banquet 
by oonTersation and wit, and also by songs and instrumental music. Cf. P. 
IV. $ 68. 

$ 54. The dress of the early Greeks was longer, and more ample, and more 
eompletely covered the body, than that of later times. Next to the body they 
wore a long robe or frock (;t^'s'iov), which was kept in place by a girdle, and 
over this a cloak (^^^Katva) of thicker materials, to protect against the cold. 
Instead of the latter they sometimes had a mantle (^o(). The women wore 
also long cloaks or over-^rments, called Ttirckot, often richly embroidered and 
ornamented. They likewise covered their heads, while the men seem not to 
have done it in the earlier ages, except that they wore helmets in war. Shoes 
or socks were not used constantly, but only in going out. In war the men 
wore a sort of boot or greaves ($ 44). 



$ 55. For the sake of cleanliness and of bodily strength, the early Greeks 
practiced frequent bathing* and with it united the custom of anointing. In 
bathing they made much use of the sea-water, on account of its purifying and 
strengthening properties. They also had warm baths in their houses. After 
taking the bath they anointed the body with oil ; costly ointments, expressly 
prepared for the purpose, were of later invention. They cultivated in every 
way the growth of the hair, long hair being considered as essential to personal 
beauty and dignity. The color most esteemed was yellowish or light brown. 
They were also pleased with frizzled or curled locks, and employ^ artificial 
means to secure such forms to their hair. 

$ 56. Of the real architecture and arrangement of Greek houses in the earlier 
periods, we do not get an accurate view from the descriptions of Homer, which, 
aside from their poetical character, relate only to the palaces or dwellings of 
distinguished personages. (Of. P. IV. $ 232.) Respecting these we may 
remark, that they were ordinarily surrounded by some kind of a wall, not very 
high; between the wall and the house itself was the forecourt, in which an 
altar usually stood. Then followed a colonnade, a vestibule, and the main 
building or house, often highly ornamented without and within ; although the 
art of building at this time had not reached by far the perfection which Greek 
architecture afterwards attained. In the upper part of the house was the dining- 
hall, the sleeping-room, and the women's apartment The roofs were flat, as 
in oriental countries, and often served as places of resort both by day and by 

$ 57. The Greeks cheerfully received to their houses the stranger, and the 
needy ; and the rites of hospitality were held sacred among them. Jupiter 
himself was considered as the ?od and rewarder of hospitality, and the avenger 
of all violations of its laws, and on that account was styled Hif ^o; (P. II. $ S5). 
They had no public inns (cf. $ 168), but travelers found reception with those 
who stood related to them by ties of hospitality. This relation existed not 
only between particular persons, but also between whole cities and communi- 
ties. Kings and distinguished persons exercised hospitality towards each 
other by a sort of common understanding. The external tokens of a welcome 
reception of guests were joining hands and embracing with a kiss. Sometimes 
this was accompanied with offering the bath and unction. On separating, it 
was common to unite in a friendly repast, and renew their pledge of mutual 
friendship over the wine. Valued gilts were sometimes bestow^ on the de- 
parting gfuest 

$ 58. In speaking of the occupations of the Greeks, agriculture may be firsi 
mentioned. This was their most common pursuit and means of living. Thp 
boundaries of the fields were marked by stones, which served to guard fli^ 
cultivators against mutual encroachments. The culture of the vine and of 
trees was also an object of attention. The raising of cattle was a common 
employment, and a principal source of wealth. These employments were not 
considered in any way degrading or ignoble, but were exercised by persons of 
eminence and even by princes. The hunting of wild beasts should also be 
mentioned here, as practiced in order to secure the flocks and the fields from 
depredation. In the chase they made use of various weapons, as the bow and 
arrow, and the spear, with the help of the dog. Fowling and fishing were 
likewise a frequent employment 

The nets {6iKTva) employed in fowling, hunting, and fishing were made of flax (Xfya) ; 
the meshes ifift^xoi) being of various sizes acoordins to the use intended. In hunting, the 
nets were supported by stakes {ariXuai) and extended in a curve so as partly to surrouiid 
a space into which the animals were driven. Several kinds of fishing nets are men- 
tioned, of which the most common were the d^ff^ninfov {retiaculum) or casting-net, 
and the aayrfini (tragum) seine or sean. 

CUaie dt Lit. a Bmux JtrUy TtA. ▼. p.8Sa 

§ 59. The employments of women consisted partly in the care of the house- 
hold, partly in spinning, weaving, and needle-work, not only for their own 
clothing, but for that of the men also. Grinding, baking, cooking and wash- 
ing, were performed by the women. In generd, the female sex among the 


C^reeks was in a state of ffreat, although not slavish sahjection to the male. 
Hiere was comparatively little intercouise between the sexes. The women 
lived chiefly by themselves in the apartment assigned to them, the Vwtuxiav or 
fvMxfcoir, which was in the interior or upper part of the house ($ 56). Seldom 
were they allowed to go abroad. In later times this close discipline and con- 
finement remained in force, and women shared even less than previously in the 
bttsiness and pleasures of men. 

(h te«cicBlaMfhod ergfiadhig, cf. JfiHifB, Sor 1m bmuIm de monliD mplofMi jmr \mMadtm, la tte Mmn. dt PlmlUut, 
Clait* fOM. tt UL Jne. voL KL |>. 441. 
tefte itaii of femalM. R O. Leiu» GflMbiebt* dtr Weiber in heroiwhen Zeitelter. duo?. I79a 8.— JbicAe/flr<, tn oxBan dei 
I, 3tan.Aad. Inter, vol. xuti. p. 996 — CL \ 181. 

$ 60. Among the most common amusements of the Greeks were music and 
dancing. The former consisted of vocal and instrumental, which were always 
onited ; and it was designed for instruction as well as gratification. Hence 
mosic, although in a more extended sense of the term, was an essential object 
in edocation. (Cf. § L79, and P. IV. $ 63.) The lyre was the stringed in- 
strament the roost in use, and of wind instruments the flute was the most 
common. The former enjoyed the preferencet because it was more easily ac- 
commodated to song, and also left the performer at liberty to use his voice. — 
The snbjects of song were chiefly mythical or historical. Music was most 
generally used at banquets and religious festivals, which were also the most 
common occasions of dancing. With dancing it was customary to join various 
tports aod exercises of the body, as leaping, running, riding, wrestling, and 
the like. 

$ 61. Marriaere and nuptial ceremonies are to be noticed in connection with 
the domestic affairs of the Greeks. The dowry of the daughter was usually 
given by the father. It consisted of female ornaments, a portion of the flocks 
and herds, and the like. There were no degrees of consanguinity forbidden 
in marriage, except that between parents and children; yet it was considered 
as highly censurable for brother and sister to unite. Previously to marriage 
the consent of the parents was to be asked. At the nuptials or wedding, the 
bride was with pomp conducted home by the bridegroom, who had previously, 
according to the common practice, built and made ready a new house. In this 
procession to the house, nuptial torches were borne before the newly married, 
and bridal hymns were sung by a retinue of youths and virgins. Dancin? 
nsoally accompanied the music ; and the whole was followed by a nuptial 
feast A widow seldom contracted a second marriage, although it was not ex- 
pressly forbidden. At leasts it did not take place until five years or more after 
hex widowhood. 

$ 69. Parents of the better class took special care of the edocation of their 
children, both physical aiid moral. The mother was accustomed to nurae her 
own children, and considered herself freed from this duty by no rank or con- 
dition. The aid of others in this respect was sought only in cases of absolute 
necMsity. In subsequent years the children had particular teachers and over- 
seers, who instructed them in bodily exercises, in useful sciences, and in the 
art of war. Cf. P. IV. $ 64, § 71. 

On the other hand, also, children considered it a duty to love, reverence, and 
obey their parents. They rejoiced in a father's benediction, and considered his 
corse an the greatest of evils. They endeavored to repay to parents in old 
age the care experienced by themselves in childhood, a thing, indeed, expressly 
reqaiied by law. They looked upon it as their highest honor, to inflict ven- 
geance on snch as had injured their fathers. 

Oa rapccs paid to oU agB unooK fha aoeianta, cf. Clam. Jctan. iiu I4S, 980; iv. STA On flit uuiMn and monta of tbe 

■riMr^ Adte/M,»eHed |M.— C.i>.£OT0gtie,8Qri«MiBand«OrMi da tampt d*HOMra, in the Jfon. A r/tuWitf. 
Cl&ifl* imaeimeuMae. «C M. voL IL 

i 63. The slaves {6oiaMi) of the Greeks, male and female, were persons that 
had been taken prisoners in war (aLxt^ikuygoi, aydpa/fodoi/), or were purchased 
of others. Slaves of the latter class were not common in early times. The in- 
trodaetion of commerce or trade in slaves is ascribed to the inhabitants of the 
island of Chios, at a later period. The master had an almost unlimited power 


oyer his slaye, extending even to the right of life and death. SometimeB the 
gift of liberty was bestowed. 

Besides the actual slaves there was a class of day laborers, who were accus- 
tomed to let their services for hire (^fes, Ttsxdtfu), especially in the agricul- 
tural and pastoral employments, which were originally so common in Greece. 
A retinue of servants for mere display or luxury was not indulged in during 
the period of which we have thus far been speaking. Cf. § 99. 

11.— Qf the later and morejlounahing j9ge$, 


$ 64. The number of the Grecian divinities increased with the advancement 
of civilization; although the mythology of the Greeks, in its elements, was 
chiefly of early origin, engendered and fostered by the ignorance, superstition, 
and sensuality of the first ages. The mythical fictions were enlarged, the 
modes of representing the gods were varied, the temples, festivals, and sacri- 
fices, and all the solemnities and rites of worship were greatly multiplied. 
The pomp and splendor of their religion became very imposing, especially at 
the period distinguished for the flourishing state of all their aifairs. At that 
time the plastic arts were in a great measure devoted to the representation and 
illustration of religious story, and the ornamenting of relicrious edifices. (Cf. 
P. IV. $ 178, 197, 198, 234.) This circumstance gives additional interest and 
importance to the study of this branch of antiquities. 

§ 65 a. The temples {vaoC^ Upd) were still built in a simple taste, yet in greater 
number and splendor. The interior had commonly two parts, of which the 
innermost was the sanctuary (a^vfov), into which the priest only entered. The 
place where stood the statue or image of the god to whom the temple belonged 
was in the middle of the temple, commonly surrounded by a guard of lattice 
work or the like, and therefore termed ar^xb^. 

Originally the Greeks, like the oriental nations, worshiped on the top of mountaina 
or hills, where the v afterwards first erected their temples. When in the common creed 
the gods were multiplied and assigned to valleys, rivers, &c., as their appropriate pro- 
vinces, temples were built in such spots as were supposed agreeable to the several gods- 
More than one deiiy, however, were sometimes worshiped in the same temple; ibey 
were then called a6waoi or (rwouctrai ; and when they had a common altar, avjt^to^i. 
Different stvlea of architecture were used for different deities; Doric pillars, e. g. lor 
Jupiter or Mars; Ionic, for Bacchus, Apollo, Diana; Corinthian, for Vesia the virgin. 

The temple usually stood in a space inclosed by a fence or wall (Z/nco;, vtpiM^)^ which 
contained, besides ihe temple, often other sacred buildings and a grove ; the whole space 
was called rr^i^p , a term sometimes restricted to the space set apart in the temple for 
the image of the god. 

In the temple, some say at the door, others near the o^vrvf, was placed a vessel of 
stone or brass {-npi^vrnptov) filled with holy water for the purpose of sprinkling those 
admitted to the sacrifices. The part of the temple before the anKo^ was called it^/ir; ; 
that behind it AmtMhitoi. The outer porch was termed irp6im\a or vfovriXata, — There 
also belonged to the temple a treasury (dpxc^w) for preserving its own property, or that 
of others intrusted to it. — The statues and offerings to the gt»ds found in the temples 
have been spoken of ($ 21, 28). Statues called CmnreiH, fallen from Jvpiler, were kept 
in the most sacred part of the temple, and concealed from the sight of all but the 

For other pwHcalui rapectinc Um itnidttre of the templet, mt P. IV. ^ 834. 

§ 65 b. The altars ()3<u/i6t) were placed towards the east, and had various 
fonns, round, square, or oblong. They were ornamented with horns, partly 
that the sacrificial victims might be bound to them, and partly that supplicants 
might lay hold of them, when they fled to the altars for refuge. Perhaps also 
they were considered as a symbol of dignity and power. The names of the 
deities, to whom the altars were sacred, were usually inscribed upon them. 
Altars, as well as temples, were consecrated to their proper use with solemn 
ceremonies, particularly by anointing. 



Different gods had aUarr also of different dimensions ; the altar of Jupiter Olympins 
is said to have been twenty-two feet high. The altars of the terrestrial ^ods were 
lower than those of the celestial. To tlie infernal, sacrifices were made in pita or 
trenches (^ 29) ■ used instead of altars. The nymphs were worshiped in caves (^(i'TpA). 
Altars were formed of various materials; often of earth, or of ashes, as thai at Thebea 
to Apollo Tx66tai\ sometimes of horn, as that at Delos; sometimes of brick; often of 
stone ; some were overlaid with gold (cf J 26). I'hey were either square or rouod ; 
and were often highly ornamentea by sculpture. 

Different forms of altar* are fflven In the 6up. Plate 90, where are teen an altar of Jupiter, 
one of Nepiune, and one of Bacchus. Cf. ) 205. 

§ 66. The practice of appropriating sacred grovet for the honor and service 
of the godfl was also retained in later times. Their agreeable shade, as well 
as the stillness reigning in them, was favorable to pious mediiation. Although 
the use of groves was diminished by the multiplication of cities and villages, 
yet a grove once dedicated to the gods remained forever sacred and inviolable. 
As well as temples and altars, they were safe asylums for offenders, althongh 
this privilege was conferred upon them only by a special consrcntion for the 
purpose, and did not belong to all the places of religious worship as a matter 
of course. The privilege of being such asylums or places of refuse was some- 
times awarded to the statues and tombs of heroes. — Certain portions of land 
and cultivated ground were also assigned to the gods, which were likewise 
called tifuvfj, the fruit of which was employed in offerings, or fell to the share 
of the priests. 

A particular tract of land, situated between Athens and Megarn, was consecrated 
to Ceres and Proserpine, and called 'Op>iV. — Trees were also set apart and with cere- 
mony consecrated to some god {Theoc. Id. xviii. 43). 

The privileges of the sacred temples, as asylaj continued until tht> 'ei^n of Tibe- 
rius Cssar, by whom they were chiefly abolished, or greatly abridged {lac. Ann. iiL 
60-63), on accouiu of the abuse of them by worthless villains. 

Sinum^ Lm ujriat, Mttn. JauL Inter, iii. 35.— A. Mdi/itf MTibology, vol. i. p. 156.~-& /Vfft, Hwtory of the Jiyfum. Jtc in the 
Jtrdmohgia (u cited P. IV. § 243. S), vol. viii. p. I. 

§ 67. The three principal duties of the pries/s (cEp^i;, called also i«povpyot, 
^foupyot, ^rat) were sacrifice, prayer, and instruction. With these were united 
sometimes the declaration and interpretation of oracles. The requisite qualifi- 
cations for the priesthood were a body free from all defects and blemishes 
(ixoxXwpoj x(u d<|>«xr^), lawful birth (yvrjfftoj), and an irreproachable course of 
life. Upon the rank of the god depended the number of the priests, who were 
employed to attend upon him, and who shared each his part of the variouis 
functions of the service. In every place there was one superior priest, if not 
more (dp;^ifpft(, UfioSi^doxaXoi^ ifpo^OFtac), charged with the oversight of the 
religious worship in general {afixispoi<Jvvrj).^^The ofHce of the parasites (;to^>a- 
oitoi) was to collect the grain and fruits designed for sacrifices (ytpooodia 
/icyaXa) into the storehouse appropriated therefor (TtapaaCtMv), — The heralds 
(xTi^xfi) were ranked among the sacred orders, and also the superintendents 
Iviuxopoi) whose business was to cleanse and adorn the temples. 

The clothing of the priests was usually a long white or purple robe, and their 
head was ornamented, especially at sacrifices, with a fillet and a crown of the 
leaf sacred to their particular god. 

In our Plate XXVII. fig. C, is a view of a Grecian priest and priestess, in their robes ; each h:i9 
a thyrsus in one hand, indicating that they are servants of BAcchus, and a vessel in the other. 
The priestess Is pouring a liquid upon the flame of an altar. It is a monumeat fiven in .Vo^m, 
Antique Vases, Altars, &;c. 

1. Priests holding their office by inheritance ($22) were called hi iKykvo^i; those 
who received it by lot, KhtpotmH ; those by election, Aiperol or tpnp^aiiuoi. Some of the 
Atheiiian families, in which the priesthood descended by inheritance were the \l>'ito\. 
rt^at, intrusted with the oversight of the Elusinian mvsteries; Knpwcf?, descendants 
of Ceryx ; the eanXMffjJai, descendants of Thaulon. There was a sacred family at 
Argos also, called 'AwffrwpiiJai. Priestesses {Upaai, dptrmpai, dpxiipetai, \ef>o(^avTi^£i) were 
taken from noble families. Those of Ceres were termed ^ItXunrai ; those of Bacchus, 
BoKxai, Guafef, MamiSes. — Sometimes services connected with the worship of the gods 
were performed by persons not properly belonging to the priesthood (wxwpter^a'oc Hfs 
Ispaa^i'tK) ; as e. g. sacrificers (Icpewwiol), of whom ten are said to have been appointed 
annually at Athens, and who conducted all the usual sacrifices ; keepers of the tem- 
ole and utensils (roo^Xoxcf) ; stewards or treaBurers irofuai ruir Upuy xpi|^T«>y).-*Prie6t8 


who were coiwtantly in attendance on the gods to offer the prayers of the people at 
ncrifices, were called npAroAoi d«5i'. — ^AU who served the ffods were maintained out 
of the sacrifices and offerings. — ^At Athens, those intrusted with the care of religion 
were required to render an account of tbeir doings to certain civil officers appointed 
for the purpose. The 'hpofty^maf seems to have been charged with keeping the sacred 
leoorda. l*he priests had attendants called lep^AntXot. 

Ob •m priMdMof or tha GivdB, «• /. JTrvKw, Der Heltoon Prmlenlut mlt TenDflidi RaeWcbt ant die HiwodaleB. Maiai. 
-aam.Jtmm. zuiz. 35a-.3(iii(aawiJk, Da nakbrn 4m DicQX ft AllMMt. is (be Mtnu Aead. bucr. sriiL 60; szili. 61.— 
r» i w i , ^ It famOkm <■ Hii timn i ii PBi , Jtc ip the JOtm. d* Flmlitut, Clm e 4'iitK. M LA. Jtnu fol. f L 811. 

2. Purification has already been mentioned iS 23) as a rite of great importance 
smong the Greeks. At some of their solemnities, the priests and priestesses were 
obliged \o take an oath, that they were duly purified. Every person attending the 
solemn sacrifices was purified usually by being washed or sprinkled with the water in 
the nptf^ryifiiov (cf. ^ 65 a). This water was consecrated by putting into it a burning 
torch from the altar, or a branch of laurel ii^tpfn) or olive. Purification was also some- 
times made by drawing round the person a sea-onion or squill (virtXXa), or a young 
dog {niXa^ ; sometimes eggs were used for the purpose ; sometimes the blood of a 
pig. Some of the terms employed to designate purifying are mptp^vuv, mptitamoBat^ 
m^'pev, ayrueiv, [XAr/idf , iyvia/df , reXcrhj &.C. — Sometimes m purifications not only the 
haods, but the teet and other parts of the body were washed. 

i 68. The sacrifices had different names according to the occasions of them. 
The tkank-njj'tring {x^^trfi*^) was in recogpnition of some favor received, 
often in fulfilment of some vow made; the sin-offering (txaati^xd) was in order 
to propitiate an offended deity ; the invocation-offering [oAtfitixd) was presented 
in case of seeking some particular favor. There were other particular sacri- 
fices, which were offered in consequence of the specific command of some god. 

The beginning of the sacrifice in later times was made by the libation 
[gkov^^ $ 24. 2) ; then followed the ineense, the burning of something fragrant 
I'^fuofta) ; and at length the tacrifiee itself, properly speaking, or the slaying 
of the victim (Ifptlw), The principal ceremonies have already been mentioned 
($ 87). — Persona who had the right of beinff present at a sacrifice were termed 
i^i^rpMi and those who had not, j^i^rjxoi. The latter were called upon by the 
heralds to retire before the ceremonies commenced. 

Different animals were offered in sacrifice to different gods, as has been mentioned 
m treating of the ancient mythology. One of the principal victims, however, was the 
ox (fi9^) ; hence the term potfdnnTv, to sacrifice oxen : those assistants who slew the 
vinims were called povO&rai. Bulls (ravpoi), sheep {dtus), and goats (atyti) were often 
offered. The bringing of the victims to the altar was expressed by such phrases as 
spvayttif Tti»/7(j^, or napamiUrai ^vaiap roFj fiuftoti ; they Were often brought adorned with 
garlands {(rrifijurra), and were alwajrs required to be free from blemishes (rcXrwO- After 
Die victim was slain and cut in pieces, an inspection of the entrails {(mXaYXPoaiamia) 
was made by the soothsayer ((RrXay:o^«offO(), to ascertain the presages of the future. 

Animals were not demanded as sacrifices from the poor, wno were allowed to offer 
cakes of coane flour (wdroya, n-eXavoi, Wftfiara) ; these were sometimes made in the shape 
of animals. 

It do«« not appear to have been ever an approved custom among the Greeks to offer ho roan 
tacrificee, alibough It wag repeatedly done; cr. P. II. $ 17. Themisioclee is eaid to have sacri- 
ficed to the gods several Persian captives. (PluUireh, Them.) Human victims were sacrificed 
panicolarly to the maaes aad infernal gods.— Cf. LoetantiKs, De Falsa Religions, c. %l.—Eusebiiu^ 
Ftmp. Bvang. iv. 10. 

( 69. It is pertinent tQ notice here the solemn oaths of the Greeks, in which 
they called upon the gods to witness the truth or avenge falsehood or injury. 
Tbej distinguished between the solemn or great oath (6 fuyoi ooxoi) and affir- 
mations in ordinary cases. Jupiter was considered as especially the god and 
guardian of oaths, and avenger of perjury, although oaths were taken in the 
name of other gods also. It was common, e. g., to swear by the twelve great 
superior gods (jm ^wdcxa ^fov$). Sometimes they swore by the gods, iodefi- 
niielj and generally ; and sometimes by inanimate objects, vases, weapons, or 
any article of which they made use. Not unfrequently the oath was in the 
name of living or deceased men, such esnecially as had been highly esteemed 
and loved. The oath was usually joinea with a distinct imprecation of ven- 
fseance on the swearer himself in case of falsehood ; and was sometimes con- 
firmed by a sacrifice, the flesh of which, however, could not be eaten. Severe 
panisbments were decreed against perjury {inu>pxla). Yet the Greeks, espe- 


cially the Thessalians, were reproached for this crime by the ancients. At 
least mutual distrust was characteristic of the conupt Greeks of later times, 
and among the Romans the phrase Grsscafida was synonymous with perfidy. 

Leagues and covenants were confinned by making oaths and slaying sacrifices ; 
hence opKia W/tyeiv signifies to erUer into covenanl. Notwithstanding the great perfi- 
diousness of the Greeks, they considered one who kept his oath {twpKos) as of course 
a pious person {ewtfifK). 'ArrtKii maris signifies honest faith. 

Mamm^ Sur to S«awato dn Aadn, in the Hiit. d* VAcad. 4u Iruer. %6Llp. 191 ; voL It. |>. h— Smith, Diet, of Aalif. 

$ 70. The opinion was rery early entertained, that the ffods honored certain 
men, especially the priests, with a particular intimacy. '1 here were supposed 
to be two modes of revelation ; one immediate, by direct inspiration ; and the 
other mediate or artificial, which was considered as the fruit of prreat knowledge, 
experience, and observation. Oracles {x9''l^'^'h?^o^ fiavtBLo) were of the first 
kind ; and the second kind was divination (/uovnxjj). — From oraeltSj the Greeks 
were accustomed to seek, in important circumstances and undertakings, predic- 
tions of the result (x9*!^f^oi, Xoyta, fjtairttvfMi/ra), It is obvious that they could 
be turned greatly to the advantage of the priests, to whose artifice their exist- 
ence and support are in great measure to be ascribed. The omcular answers 
were not given in any one uniform manner, but sometimes immediately, as was 
pretended, from the gods {x9V^f^^ avf o<j>«vot), sometimes through an interpreter, 
{x^iSfioi vrto^t]tix6i)y or by a pretended dream, or by lot. 

Persons who consulted the oracles were termed ^forptf:n)i, ^etMMi^ xpn^f^ixp^t ; the in- 
terpreters, xptoftoXdyoi. Presents and sacrifices were always requisite belbre consulting 
an oracle, which could be done only on appointed days. 

The question has been nghated, whether the responses uttered fmm the ancient nraelea were 
the mere imposture of priests, or proceeded from the agency of rtatan ma Icing use of their delu- 
sions, yan Dale in a learned treatise urged the former view. Ft/vtttteUe advocated the same 
side. Baltua with much learning maintained the latter view, in agreement with some of the 
Christian Fathers. 

Dr. Clarke (Travels, P. ii. sect. S. ch. xvi.) describes a contrivance, which he supposes was 
designed by the artiflce of the priests in sustain the system of oracles. " We found at the fnot 
of the hill of the Acropolis, one of the most curious uWaU remains yet discovered among tbti 
vestiges of pagan priestcraft ; it was nothing less than on^ nf the eraeuUr ahrinet of Argoi^ 
alluded to by PauintniaM^ laid open to inspection, like the toy a child has brnKen in order thnt he 
may see the contrivance whereby it was made to upeak. A more interesting sight for modf rn 
curiosity can hardly be conceived to exist among the ruins of any Grecian city, in Us original 
state, it'had been a UmjtU; the farliier part from the entrance, where the altar was, being an 
excavation of the rock, and the front and roof constructed with baktd tHea. The altar yet rt* mains, 
and part of the >fc't/« superstructure ; but the most reniHrknltle part of the whole is a vecret sub- 
terraneous passage, terniinaiini; behind the nitar ; its entrance being at a consider tble distance 
toward the right of a person facing the altar; and so cunningly contrived as to have a small 
aperture, easily concealed and level with the surface of the rock. This was barely large enough 
to admit the entrance of a single person; who, having descended into the narrow passnge, might 
creep along until he arrived immediately behind the center of the altar; where, being hid by 
xoine colossal statue or other screen, the sound of hid voice would produce a most imposing 
effect among the humble votaries, prostrate beneat)*, who were listeniiig in silence ttp<in the 
floor of the sanctuary. We amused ourselves for a few minutes by endeavoring to mimic th« 
solemn farce acted upon these occasions ; and as we delivered a mock oracle, or« rotunda^ from 
the cavernous throne of the altar, a reverberation, caused by the sides o( the rock, aflurded a 
tolerable specimen of the *toUl of th* foda,* as it was formerly mado known to the crodiiloue 
votaries of this now forgotten shrine. There were not fewer than ttotntg-fiva of these Juggling 
places in Prloponneava^ and as many In the single province of B^otia • and surely it will never 
again hecom«> a question among learned men, whether the answers In them were given by the 
inspiration of evil spirits, or whether they proceeded from the imposture of priests ; neither can 
it be urged that they ceased at the death of Christ: because Panaapiaa <CorintL c. 24, p. 165, ed 
Kuhnii) bears testimony to tbelr existence at Jlrffoa in the second century." 

See Fan DaU, T)* Onculi* veterum Bihniconim. Aimt. 1700. 4.— A fonlouVe^ tliitnire in Orades. La Hafe, 1*38. 12.- 
/. F. BaUut^ Anwer lo FoDlenUrl Hiiilorj of Onclei; tratnl. frani Uie frfucli. Load. I7ia 2 rolt. 8.— CL SoUm, bk. x. cb. 
(|k 991. vol. I ed. ci'ed ^ li).—BlaekwoodP$ Mifu. fol. ziv. p> 277. 

§ 71. It may be proper to mention some of the most distinguished of the 
ancient oracles. The most ancient was that of Jupiter at Dodona, a city of the 
Molossi, said to have been built by Deucalion. Before this time, however, this 
oracle, of Pelasaic orig[in (cf. P. IV. § 41), seems to have existed in that place. 
There was a grove of oaks, sacred to Jupiter, and superstition ascribed the 
actual exercise of the grift of speech and prophecy to the trees themselves, 
which were thence called fiavrixai 6pv*j. The priests, called arto^rjtai and 
XtTXoin concealed themselves upon and in the trees, when tliey announced the 
pretended declaration of the gods. The sound of a brazen vase, placed near 
the temple, was also imagined to be supernatural. A foiintain in the place was 


likewise celebrated as possessing the wonderful power, not only of extinguish- 
iog a torch, bat of kinoling it again. 

I. The oracles in the grove of Dodona were also said to be delivered by doves, 
which arose from the circumstance that the priestesses, who sometimes announced 
them, were called in the Thessalian language irfXc<ai, and mXeidtk;. There were also 
priests called r4/«(<poi, whose business was to interpret the sounds of the vessel on cer- 
tain occasbns. Two columns stood by the temple ; to one of which the vessel was 
attached ; on the other was a boy with a scourge in his hand ; the ends of the scourge 
consisted of little bones, which being moved by the wind knocked against the metalBc 
▼easel attached to the other column. — From the use of the brazen vessel arose the phrase 
Aafdedpafav ^cc-Wror, applied to talkative persons, — I'he temple is said to have stood ui>on 
an eminence near a fountain.-— In the Sup. plate 28 is a view of Dodona, in which 
many of the allusions to the oracle are represented. 

SWUp, tad Dt »omt, L^Onde da DodoiM, in tb* JMbnk Jkud. huar. toL v. p. 3& xszt. p. 80.— Conki, De oncvlo Dodona*. 
Ortaifef. ISfM. S-Jl Jin»mk, Uebw dn T^obMHinkd tob Dodon. Wim, 1840. 8L-lMa»lz, Dn fiiu^»ti» Onkd dM Zmb 
n DodoHu WQrtxb. 1840. 8. 

Ob lb* tte eC tte inipio, eC PIsiqiMvaii, M dtad P. L § 8T. 

2 tt. Less celebrated was the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, in a desert and almost inac- 
cessible region of Africa, chiefly known by the visit to it made by Alexander the 

3. The site of the temple and oracle of Jupiter Ammon was discovered hy the Eniilish traveler 
Browne in 1793, in the Owi» of Siwa. (Cf. RtnnelVs Qeog. Sytt. of Herod, sect. 31.) Near it 
was the famons fountakm of the sun. The spot was visited by Belzonl in 1818. (Cf. P. I. ^ 179.) 
The roins of the temple indicate an Egyptian origin.— When ibis oracle was consulted, a splen- 
did sutoe of the god was carried in procession by numerous priesu (cf. P. II. \ 84). A view of 
It is given in ibe Sup. Plate 29. 

4. Several other oracles of Jupher are mentioned. Herodotus speaks of four: at Egyptian 
Thebes ; ai Libyan Ammon ; at Dodona ; and at Meroe tn Ethiopia ; and says the one at Thebes 
was the original. Besides these, there was an oracle of Jupiter in Bmotia ; also In Ells at Olym- 
pia ; and one ia Crete, in a cave of Mount Ida. 

$ 73. Apollo, the god to whom inspiration and prophecy were considered to 
belong properly, had numerous oracles. The most renowned was that at 
Delphi, a city of Phocis, where he had also a temple illustrious beyond all 
others on account of its treasures, the abundance and costliness of the ^ifls 
bestowed there. The spot where the answer was given, was called Pythium 
(Ilv^tor), and the priestess, who uttered it, Pythia (Ilv^'a), from the surname 
which Apollo received in consequence of killing the serpent Python (llv^of). 
This spot, or the site of Delphi, was regarded as the centre of the inhabited 
earth (o^c^kiXo; 7^$). According to common tradition this oracle was first dis- 
closed by a flock of goats, which, on approaching an orifice on Mt, Parnassus, 
were seized with singular paroxysms of shivering and jumping. l*he same 
happened to men, who approached this opening. This oracle was very ancient, 
being celebrated more than a hundred years before the Trojan war. 

1. Some derive the names applied to this oracle and the priestess from the word 
Wf^iaOatf to inquire, or leam; but Uvdu) appears to have been originally the name of the 
city of Delphi. — The temple was adorned with statues and oiner splendid works of 
art. Its walls were inscnbed with salutary moral precepts ; among them the cele- 
biaied one r*^i ocavn-A (P. V. ^ 169.) Costly tripods were among the gifts conse- 
crated to Apollo here. One of the most famous was the golden one presented by the 
Greeks after the defeat of Xerxes. This was removed by Constantine and placed in 
the Hippodrome of Constantinople, upon the *' triple heads" of the three braxen ser- 
pents twisted into one pillar. 

Tlie fiilhr ••ill ic«b1m {Gibbon, eb. IT. p 80. vol. ii. V. Torfc, ISB).— Tbe time hndt art aid to bav* beea In good jnwtm- 
doa wteo Cflwtiui^iaoflc wn» taka by Ibe Turk* ; Mibomct II. then nde into tbe HippndroiM and tballerad one of Ibem witb bit 
biSk u ; l«ro were icaaiaiss Id 1700; bat they were Molen about that tina by lome nakiioini da|>redator. (Cf« iMtd. Quart. 
Mm. VL ICl)— Ob tbe origia of tb« Ddphie oracio, d. Mitfvr^i Oraeee, cb. 8. MCt 8. 

2. The great wealth accumulated at Delphi (cf. ^ 28), and the celebrity of the ora- 
cle, and consequent influence possessed by the state which had the chief authority 
over it, occasioned much jealousy among tne Grecian states ; in two instances par- 
ticularly they were involved thereby in actual hostihties, in the wars commonly called 

MMfm^t RmT. itf OrMc*^ ch. xnTfUz1U.>-ni FoJoii, Guarra Saema, In Uie Utm. dead. tnm. vii. SOI. ix. 97. -sii. in. 

$ 73. The tripod (t'piTtovf x^^'t^i9^^^% upon which the priestess sat in utter- 
ing the answers, must he mentioned among the remarkable things pertaining to 
the oracle. It was dedicated to Apollo by the seven wise men of Greece, and 
has been viewed as having a threefold reference, to the past, the present, and 


the future. The ITv^ herself was esteemed as a priestess of peculiar digfuity 
and waa obliged to prepare for the functions of her office by many ceremonies. 
In delivering the oracles, she appeared to be in the most violent ^stasy and 
convulsion. In early times, the oracular response was commonly clothed in 
the form of hexameter verse; often by a poet employed for the purpose. Ori- 
ginally the oracle was consulted but on « single day in the year, in a month of 
the spring, called Bvau>$ or Uvavoi ; afterwards inquiry could be made on a 
certain day of every month. Whoever wished to consult the oracle was re- 
quired to make large presents and offerings, to put on a wreath or crown, and 
to propose his questions mostly in writing, and allow himself to be qualified 
for receiving the answer by many mystic rites. The answer was commonly 
80 enigmatical and ambiguous (puioi, hence Aolta^V that it would apply to any 
result that might happen; and whenever it was clear and definite, the priests 
had informed themselves of all the preliminary circumstances and the proba- 
bilities respecting the issue. — ^The Delphic oracle was suspended at various 
times, and oecame finally silent soon after the death of the emperor Julian. 

Originally, there waa one Pythia (or trp^ns) only at Delphi ; but after the oracle 
became more frequented, the number was increased to Ihrttj chosen from among the 
uneducated inhabitants of Delphi, and bound to the strictest temperance and chafitity. 
They officiated by turns, and sometimes lost their lives in the paroxysms of the in- 
spiration. Those, who pretended to form into sentences their incoherent exclama:ion:«, 
three in number, were called ^po^ai ; who always took care to ascertain previously 
much about the history and characters of those consulting the oracle. The propftftt 
were aided in the sacriilfices and ceremonies, which preceded the placing of the Pythia 
on the tripod, by fve prieats called feioc, wno were under a chief called wiuH^. — ^'Ihe 
KtpufYnrml were guides to those who visited the temple, employed particularly in point- 
ing out to them its curiosities. A great number of persons were required for the va- 
rious services of the temple and oracie.— See the Plate fiicing pagev.j 

On Ihit and* of Apollo, tw HarHon, Ond* de Dripbe% in tba Mtm. Acad. /mar. vol. iiU p. IS9.— C F. Wauv, Ot R«iif i(» 
e( Oneuio Apolllnb Delphiei. Hafb. 18Z7.— £1 D. HUItrnmn, WOrdif «>( da Ddphlietea QnM*. Boom 1897.- IT. G-6ff«, 
nat Delphiaebfl (Jnkd, in Minem poritwchm, ralitiflKn, and! Mttliebm EiofluHi Leips. lUa— & H. Kkaum^ in Bnth und 
Gruter, BjiejrclopUin, ondo- OraM. 

$ 74. There were in Greece various other oracles less celebrated. The more 
important of them were the following: the oracle of Apollo at Didyma, which 
was called also the oracle of the Branchidae ; those of Delos, Abae, Claros, 
Larissa, Tegyne and other minor cities ; where answers were also given from 
Apollo ; the oracle of Trophonius at Lebadea in Bosotia, in a subterranpan 
cave, said to have been the residence of Trophonius, into which inquirers des- 
cended, after performing solemn ceremonies, in order to receive a revelation of 
the future by dreams or oracles ; and the oracle of Amphiaraus in the vicinity 
of Oropus m Attica, where the answers were imparted to the initiated by 
dreams.— The number of the ancient oracles amounted to two hundred and 

1. The oracle ofTV^pA^iUiu Is deecribed chiefly by Paiitanlac (Ix. 37), who sayi he entered 
the cave. The oracle was upon a mouniain, where was a vrnve, temple, and iiatue ofTropbo- 
nine. Within an incloture made of while einnee, upon which were erected obelitks of braM, 
was an artiflcial opening like an oven ; here by a ladder the per«on contuliing the oracle 
descended, carrying in his hands a certain composition of hnncy. On returning, the person was 
required to write down what had been seen or beard. — In Plate XIX. is a representation of this 
oracle —As there was a story that a visitor to the cave never smiled after his return, it became 
common to describe a gloomy person bv saying he had been to the cave of Trophonius ; see an 
amusing application of this, in AddUon't Spectator, No. 550. 

Tha c«n b tiill poiatod o«t to tnvdMi } bIm Ite two fautaia lAwmoiync and ZKAc— Sm CUrke, Twth, kc—PougtuvOU, 
Voyage, fee. voL it. p. 171. 

9. There were numerous oracles of Aselepins or JEsculapfos ; of which the most celebrated 
was at Bpldaurus. Uere the sick sought responses and the recovery of their health by sleeping 
{ineuhmtio) in ibe temple. It was Imagined by F. A. Wolf, that what Is now called a»tiRdi wtae- 
nedrm or Me»m«ri»m was known to the priests t>f those temples where the sick spent one or orare 
nights for the purpose of recovering their bealtb. 

CLF.A. HU/,B«ytnc>ivQ«ciLdMSoBMiiilNdiawa«MdmAltart]mn)tehl»rvmJ^ 

$ 75. The pretended revelation of the future mediately (cf. J 70), or by means 
of some system or art of divination (^lovtcxi}), was effected in various ways. 
The most important was by theomancy (^cofUM/t^eio.), an art possessed by a 
class of persons who were called ^co^vf «i$f and claimed to be under divine 
inspiration. This class comprised ^ru varieties; some were considered as 



inteipreters of the demons by whom they were possessed, and called iaifiovo^ 
igpttm or fiv^iovss ; others were called iv^oyctaatai or Iv^eaus't ixol^ and enjoyed 
only the intimations of some particular divinity ; and others still were termed 
ixara^ixoC, and boasted of high discoveries obtained during a wholly superna- 
tural state of mind, which they sought to render credible by the pretext of a 
long trance, insensibility, or sleep. 

Besides what was termed in general theomancy, there were seTeral methods of 
diyination, of which the foilowinff were the principal. — 1. By dreams,' iv^ipinoXia. The 
Greeks ascribed ver^ much to dreams as supernatural, and viewed them either as 
revelations and warnings from the sods or from demons, or as pictures and images of 
future events. The expounders ofdreams were called dvctfOK^rat^ 6mpoaK6t[M, or <Jwt- 
/•s^Xm. Three varieties of the dream are named ; "XfitifuiTwi^, when a god or spirit 
conversed with one in his sleep ; Spafia. when one saw a vUion of future occurrences ; 
Svci^, in which the future was set forth by types and figures (dXXiryopcffur). Two other 
▼aiieiies are also mentioned, Msywv and ^ivrar^a, but are not considered as affording 
much help in divination ; i^iXnTr, tMoidiw, night-mare, was supposed sometimes to 
indicate the future. Dreams were supposed to be sent firom the jgod of sleep (P. 11. 
^113); and from Jupiter (Ham. II. i. 63). A goddess called Bnzo (fipt^tv^ to tleep) 
was tbou£^t to preside over the interpretation of dreams, and was worshiped particu- 
larly in Delos. Dreams which occurred in the morning were most regarded in 

Sk Jrtemtfviu, I* dtod P. V. \ »I.-Avigiiy, Soncec, Ac in fbe Man.d9pjUad.dnfiuer. nL xxztIU. p. lA^Thaory of 

2. By sacrifices. This waa called Hieromancy (Uponavnla) or Hieroscopy (Upoomvta), 
It comprehended the observations of many particulars connected with the offering of 
a victim, as portending good or ill. One of the principal things was the inspection of 
the entrails, especially the liver (inranNnRnria), and the heart. The fire of sacrifice was 
also noticed {wpofuu^rtta) ; likewise the smoke (troin/o/iavTcta), the wine (dtift^amta), and 
the water {vipoitiumia, miyofuamfa). There were, in short, various kinds or forms of this 
divination according to the different victims or materials of the sacrifices and the dif 
ferent rites ; e. g. toere was dXtvpoftaimiaf by the flower or meal used; Ixfirjoftaimiaf by 
the entrails of ^hes ; dMKKtla, by eggs. 

3. By birds, diuyurruri). Those, who observed and interpreted omens by birds, were 
called ipMaoK&ntf dpviOoitdtmts. Some birds were observed with respect to their flight 
(rwar^wys;) ; others in respect to their sin^ng (aitKoi). Unlucky birds, or those of ill 
omen, were called IfbAatfiM, pernicious t and mtiAtm/ra), hindering from designed under- 
takings, and by similar epithets; among this class were the hawk, the buzzard, and, 
except at Athens, the owl ; the dove and swan, on the other hand, were considered 
as lucky birds ; and the crowing of the cock was auspicious. When the observer of 
the flight of birds waa watching for omens he looked towards the north, and appear- 
ances in the east, which was on his right, were considered as fovorable ; hence the 
use of it^idt, right, to signify fortunate. — Omens were also drawn from insects and 
reptiles, and various anunalis. Toads, serpents, and boars were of ill omen. Bees 
aiid ants were often thought to foretoken good. 

4. By signs in the heavens {SuxrnutTa) and other physical phenomena. Comets, 
eclipses, and earthquakes were all unlucky signs. Thunder and lightning were lucky 
if observed on the right hand ; bmlhilucKy if on the left. To be stnick with thun- 
der [fifovrnr^) was unlucky ; in place«,thus struck, altars were erected and oblations 
made to appease the gods, after which none dared to approach them. 

5. By lots. The two principal modes were those termed onooiiiaimia and xhtpofMimia ; 
in the former little pieces of paper, having fatidical lines (flttxpi) written upon them, 
were drawn from an urn, and were supposed to indicate the prospects of the person 
by or for whom they were drawn out ; m the other, various small articles, as beans 
brack and white, pebbles, dice, and the like, which were all called irXifpoc, and were 
oonsidered as being of different significancy, were drawn from an urn or other vessel. 

-Other modes were fm^i^uamia^ by rods, and ^d^ncamlay by arrows, in which the 
lot was decided by the manner in which they fell from an erect posture or from the 
quiver. Another was by the use of the vivat dyi^utSg, on which certain prophetic 
verses were inscribed, and the fate was indicated by the verse on which the di<;i fell. 

6. By magical arts. These were said to have originated in Persia among the Mag:, 
^iyot. The degree of attention given among the Greeks to these arts (jnpit^a) is 
evinced by a striking fact recorded in the Bible (Acts, zix. 19), which seems to imply 
that a great number of books were composed on the subject. A few only of the 
▼Biious modes need be named ; Mxjpo^avrsfa, mcm^avrtia, and ^nfxpuavnia, in which the 
dead were supposed to appear or speak ; yaarpo^ayrtia, in which demons were ima- 
gined to speak from the bellies of men, or omens were drawn from the appearances 
ef water in the middle part iyiar^) of certain glass vessels surrounded with lighted 
torches : jcnmiaynia, in wnich the performers observed the forms assumed by drops 


of melted wax ; there were numerous other modes. — The dXMttrfnonamta was a sort of 
divination by lot, yet classed among the magical arts ; the letters of the alphabet were 
written in a circle ; a grain of wheat or barley wss laid upon each letter ; a cock was 
placed in the center ; and the desired information was obtained by putting together 
the letters from which the cock picked the grains. — It is proper to mention here some 
of the magical arts, by which mysterious effects were supposed to be wrought ; as, 
o* g'l lnvnoKtiaf in which medicated herbs, minerals, and pe like i<pdpiiaKa) were used i 
and poffxayia, which was a sort of fiiscination or malign influence which certain per- 
sons were supposed to exert. 

Sea Bonamg and Lt Shnd^ ke. m cited § 227.— On dlviaitioa by fta cuy, ef. CIM. lottrn. z. 282. 

7. Finally, divination was also made from various things included under the general 
name of ometu {avtt^Xa). One class of these consisted of such as were drawn irom 
the person himself, as iraX/«t, palpitations of some part of the system : &^vt$oi^ a ringing 
of the ears; rrapfiei, sneezings, &,c. Another class consisted of those drawn from 
objects external to the person; as the meeting of certain objects or animals on the 
road {U6iim ovu/ioXa), or certain occurrences at home (rd dmcKorucdv), Certain words 
were also ominous { such were called irmt^ irXjjJdycf, Muai. The Greeks, especially the 
Athenians, sought to avoid words of ill omen, caretully substituting others, as, e. g. 
'Eofuevldei instead of 'EfMvy^, and ^fXarhs Instead of KXherns, 

On lb* weiMit art of dlTiMtka, m Cieira, 0« DlviattioM^a ITadkMiwU, HirtarfcHl AatSqnltfeii *> citad | l9>^PMtr, 
AitbMt. Gnec Mt. ii. «h. 12-18. 

i 76. The fegiivals formed an important part of the religious worship of the 
Greeks. Their establishment and support was partly for the sake of honoring 
and supplicating the gods, and commemorating persons of merit, and pa^rtly 
for the sake of rest, recreation, union, and harmony of social feeling. Their 
number greatly increased with the multiplication of the gods and the progress 
of luxury and wealth ; the variety and splendor of the accompanying ceremo- 
nies increased in the same proportion. Especially was this the case at Athens. 
They were mostly held at the public expense, the means being drawn from 
various sources. 

See M. a. ffirmomi, Die PMto ton Hellu biiteriKb^pUIonpluKh tewbeilet and warn entMOiel m± ibnm Sim oad Zweek 
CfUatert. Berlio, IHB. 2 Tb. a 

$ 77 U Some of the most important festivals have been mentioned (P. II.) 
in the history of particular gods, under the head of Mythology. A slight 
notice of them here must suffice. The principal out of an almost countless 
multitude, will be named in alphabetical order, and then some particulars added 
respecting a few of these. 

1 u. 'Ayptuyia, a nocturnal festival instituted in honor of Bacchus. 'Aitovta, 

dedicated to Venus and the memory of Adonis.— 'AX w a, to Bacchus and Ceres.— ^ 

'Ar0c9r/?pia, observed at Athens three days, also in honor of Bacchus. 'Ax-a- 

r»6pia, tit Athens, in commemoration of a victory obtained by Melanthus, through 
stratagem, over the BoBOtian king Xanthus, likewise in honor of Bacchus, and other 

?od8. 'A^p96(9ia, a festival of Aphrodite or Venus, particularly on the island of 
)ypru8.-^— Bpaepuvia, sacred to Diana, in Atiica, celebrated every fifth year.— 
Aa^yn^6pia, to Apollo in Boaotia, only every niflth year. A UXia, also to Apollo, 
on the island of Delos, every fifth year.— A miifjpia, sacred to Demeter or Ceres.^^ 
A (Va-o Xc< a, an Athenian lestival, instituted in Honor of Jupiter, as tutelary god of the 
city (rioXid);). — ^A ( » y ^ <r f a, to Dionysus or Bacchus \ a greater and more solemn festi- 
val in the cities ; and a lesser one in the country ; the same that was called by the Ro- 
mans Batxhanalia. There were innumerable forms of this festival. 'E Kardupaia, 

dedicated by the Argives to Juno, to whom they sacrificed a hecatomb on the nrst day 

of this festival. »*b\Bva(yta^ the most celebrated festival of Ceres, a greater and 

smaller, connected with the well known mysteries.— *Epfi a i a, a festival of Mercury, 

in Elis, Arcadia, and Crete.— — 'E^iata, a festival of Diana atEphesus. IJpaiti, a 

festival of Juno at Argos.— 'H ^ a t a t « i a, sacred to Vulcan at Athens, accompanied 
by races with torches. O cg/t o ^dp i a, the festival of legislation in honor of Ceres, at 

Atheu and other Greek cities. yiapw€taf sacred to Jupiter and Apollo, almost 

throughout all Greece, for nine days, A»if «ia, an Arcadian festival in honor of 

Jupiter, instituted by Lycaon. [Bat this term usually designates a festival of Pan 

corresponding to the Roman Lupercal. Cf. P. II. ^ 80.] 'OvKo^Spia, a festival 

of the Athenians instituted by Theseus, and so called from the custom of carrying 
branches about on the occasion.— —nay a 0^vai a, one of the most solemn festivals 
at Athens, dedicated to Minerva. The lesser was celebrated annually ; the greater 
every fifth year. Both were connected with various contests and games.— -ncXcu. 
9 1 a, a Thessalian festival dedicated to Jupiter, having some resemblance to the Sa^ 
iumalin of the Romans.— ^'H pa (a, a general name applied to solemn sacrifices. 



which were bioaght to the gode & the different fieaeons, with a view to Becnre good 

te«aoRCDnptato«ni»m1ionn4 daKriptk»,er.FaMcr, Aithwri.Gr«^ eh. ta-^f. £crtik0>, on cntein GrMk 

ttfhili, is tkc JAr. dftnA imcr. voL jUv. p. 412 ; and jUtIU. p. 2SB. 

2. "The festival called *A6tovia was celebrated in most of the cities of Greece. 
The solemnity continued two days. On the first, certain images or pictures of Adonis 
and Venus were brought (orih with all the pomp and ceremonies used at funerals ; the 
women tore their hair, beat their breasts, ana counterfeited other actions usual in 
lamenting the dead. This lamentation was called AttaviaauAi or aitavia^ and hence d&iM^fav 
ifa sigmfias the same as "^Aioww irXaieiv, to weep for Adonis ; and the songs on this 
occasion were denominated Jk^v(<Sia. With the images were also carried shells filled 
with earth, in which grew several sorts of herbs, particularly lettuces; in memory 
that Adonis was laid out on a bed of lettuces. These were called KT}iro(, wardens ; and 
hence 'AAA'i^ wrfirw were proverbiallv applied to things unfruitful and fading, because 
those herbs were sown only so long before the festival as to be green at that time, and 
were presently cast out into the water. The flutes used on this day were called 
Tiyyp'tt from yiyYpnst the Phcenician name of Adonis ; the music, yf/ypaaitiH ; and the 
songs were called ytyypovr^. The sacrifice was denominated KcSiipa^ because the days 
of mourning were called by that name. The second day was spent in all possible 
demonstrations of joy and merriment ; in memory, that by the favor of Proserpine, 
Venus obtained that Adonis should return to life, and dwell with her one-half of every 
year. This fable is appUed to the sun which produced the vicissitudes of summer and 

a p. IL § 47.~Jteri(r, ColtB d'^ionk, ia On JKm. A rjeoA flhr AiMT. T»L iiU p. 98. 

3. "The ^lov^ffta were sometimes called by the general name of *<Vy<«t which , 
though sometimes applied to the mysteries of other gods, more particularly belonged 
to those of Bacchus. They were also sometimes denominated BacxtTa. They were 
observed at Athens with ffreater splendor, and with more ceremonious superstition, 
than in any other part of Greece ; the years were numbered b^ them ; the chief 
archon had a share m their management ; and the priests who officiated were honored 
with the first seats at public shows. At first, however, they were celebrated without 
splendor, being days set apart for public mirth, and observed only with the following 
ceremonies : — a vessel of wine adorned with a vine branch, was broueht forth ; next 
followed a goat ; then was carried a basket of figs ; and after all, the phalU. — At some 
of them, the worshipers in their garments and actions imitated the poetical fictions 
oonceming Bacchus ; they put on fawns' skins, fine linen, and miters ; carried thyrsi, 
dnuns, pipes, flutes, and rattles ; crowned themselves with garlands of ivy, vine, fir, 
and other trees sacred to Bacchus. Some imitated Silenus, Pan, and the Satyrs, and 
exhibited themselves in comic dresses and antic motions ; some rode upon asses ; and 
others drove goats to the slaughter. In this manner persons of both sexes ran about 
the hills and deserts, dancing ridiculously, personating men deranged in their intel- 
lects, and crying aloud, £^7 Za^oi, Efoi Bduoc'i ^ Taxxic, 'I^/?a<^, or '16 Bauexje. 

The great festival, Awi^ia /KyaXa, was sometimes called doruro, or rA war* Saro, be- 
cause celebrated within the city of Athens, in the beginning of spring, in the month 
"B^nfioXuaw. It was sometimes by way of eminence called Aioviwrfa, because it was 
the most celebrated of all festivals of Bacchus at Athens, and was probably the same 

as Aitfmoiti flp^i^ioTCpci. 

The less, Atoifiaia imcp^i was sometimes called rck kot dYpo^i because it was observed 
in the country. It was a sort of preparation to the former and greater festival, and 
was celebrated in autumn, in the month Uoatiiabv or ToftpXibiv. Some are of opinion, 
that it was the same as ^m/^ia Xjjyaxa, which received its name from Xirva; , a wine- 

There appear to have been four Attic festivals in honor of Bacchus ; the Atov^ia 
nr dyp^t tne A^ata, the 'ApOtarinua, and the ^tovwrta xar &rv. Other festivals in his 
honor are also named. 

la oor Plate XXV. fif .«».we have a Baecbaate dancing with a thyraai in one hand and a wine 
eap In ibe other ; in fig. /, anotlier Bacchante with Bonie musical inttrument in each hand, per- 
haps the enuU. A male reveler is seen on the altar of Bacchus, given in the Sup. Plate SO. 

Ct SrASn, BM. LiltGneqiM, VOL iL p.S,Meitad P. V. §7. a-On faliMkorBMelnis,wet]M P. H. §ft9; P. IV. ^es. i-Sc* 
apaUmg, In ibc AMaoiIL dw BerL Acad. 1811 ; tad A. JSeU, Vom UnlenehMe im AttiMhm LartM, AsUiMlaria, kc. in lb* 
AMuiL dcr B«L Ac I8l9. 

4. "The *EX «« a f via was a solemnity observed by the Celeans and Phhasians 
every fourth year; by the Pheneatse, the Lacediemonians, Parrhasians, and Cretans, 
but more etpeeially by the Athenians ^ every fifth year, at Eleutu^ a borough town of 
Attica. It was the most celebrated solemmty in Greece, and was, therefore, by way of 
eminence, called r6 frarrqfMa, the mysteries, and rtXcrii. It is said by some to have been 
instituted by Ceres herself, when she had supplied the Athenians with com in a time 
of famine. Some say that it was instituted by king Erectheus ; and others, b? 

32 P 


It was diyided into the fiiKfA and luySXa fitMr^ta, lesser and greater mysteries ; and 
then the latter were in honor of Ceres, the former in that of her daughter Proserpine. 
Mutp^ fMrrfj^a, the iesser mysteries, were observed in the month 'Avdumipiiav at Agrs, 
a place near the river Ilissus ; and the fuyaka ^'xmrpia, greater mysteries, were cele- 
brated in the month BoifV/ttoty, at Elcusis, a borough-town of Attica, from which Ceres 
was called Eleusinia. In later ages the lesser lestival was used as a prei)aration to 
the greater, in which they could not be initiated till they had been puritied at the 

About a year after purification at the lesser, they sacrificed a sow to Ceres, and 
were admitted to the greater mysteries, the secret rites of which (with th« exception 
of a few known only to the priests) were openly revealed to them, and hence they 
were called ffopoi and hrSimu, inspectors. Persons of both sexes and of all ages were 
initiated at this solemnity. To neglect the initiation into these mysteries was consi- 
dered a crime of a very neinous nature, and formed a part of the accusation for which 
Socrates was condemned to death.—^AU the Greeks might claim initiation into the 
mysteries ; but the people of every other nation were excluded by an ancient law ; 
and persons convicted of sorcery or of any atrocious crime, and especially if they 
had committed homicide, even though involuntarily, were debarred from these 

The manner of initiation was as follows. The candidates, being crowned with 
myrtle, were admitted by night into a place called (twruOi mfxd;, the mystical temple, 
or fixT7966Kos ioftdf, which was an edifice very capacious (P. II. ^ 63). At their entrance 
they washed their hands in holy water, and at the same time were admonished to 
present themselves with minds pure and undcfiled, without which the external clean- 
ness of the body would not be accepted. After this, the holy mysteries were read to 
them out of a book called ircrpa>/ia, from vtrpa, a stone, because the book was only two 
stones cemented together. Then the priest who initiated them, and who was called 
Upoipdv-nK, proposed to them certain questions, to which they returned answers. Soon 
ajfter, they beheld strange and frightful objects : sometimes the place, in which they 
were, appeared bright and resplenderit with light and radiant fire, and instantly was 
covered with pitchy darkness ; sometimes a hollow sound was heard, and the earth 
seemed to groan beneath their feet. The being present at these sights was called 
awir^iOj intuition. They were then dismissed in these words, Ktfyf , 'O/iR-af. The gar- 
ments in which they were initiated were deemed sacred, and emcacious in averting 
evils and incantations. 

The hierophantes had three assistants : the first was called Mo^xp^^ torch-bearer, to 
whom it was permitted to msft-ry; the second, «n)pyf, the crier; and the third, 6 trl 
0<afif5, from his ministering at the ahar. 'Itpo^rtK is said to have been a type of the 
Great Creator of all things ; iaiovxpSf of the sun ; *fqp»f , of Mercury ; and o ad /^oi^rj, 
of the moon. 

There were also certain public officers whose business consisted in seeing that all 
things were performed according to custom. Of these was ^acriXedf, the kmg, who 
was one of the archons, and who was obliged to ofier prayers and sacrifices at this 
solemnity, and to observe that no indecency or irregularity was committed during the 
festival ; four c«r(^i7rat, curators, who were elected by the people, and ten persons who 
assisted at this and some other solemnities, and who were called Icpoirotoi, from their 
offering sacrifices. 

This festival continued nine days, and from the fifteenth to the twenty-third day of 
the month BotfipofuCw. During this time it was unlawful to arrest any man, or to pre- 
sent any petition ; and they who were found guilty of such practices were fined one 
thousand drachms, or, as others say, put to death. 

On the fourth day of the festival, they made a solemn procession, in which the 
xaXaOiop, holy basket of Ceres, was earned in a consecratea cart, crowds of persona 
shouting as they went, XaFpe, Ai?/i>}rcp (Hail, Ceres). After these, followed certain 
women called irnrro^^i, who carried baskets in which were contained carded wool, 
grains of salt, a serpent, pomegranates, reeds, ivy boughs, a sort of cakes called 
^^aif , poppies, &.C. — The fifth was called 'H twi* Xatardiav itftepa, the torch-day; because, 
the night following, the men and women ran about with torches in their hands. It 
was also customary to dedicate torches to Ceres, and to contend who could present 
the largest ; and this was done in memory of the journey of Ceres, who sought Pro- 
serpine with a torch lighted at the flames of -^tna. — The sixth day was called laicoof, 
from lacchus, the son of Jupiter and Ceres, who with a torch in his hand accompa- 
nied the goddess in her search after Proserpine. His statue, crowned with myrtle, 
and bearing a torch, was carried from the Ceramicus to Eleusis, in a solemn proces- 
aon called loocof.— On the seventh day were sports, in which the victors were re- 
warded with a measure of barley, which was the first grain sown in Eleusis." 

Xabnuom, ArdMBoL OrMa.-OD the Etmainlu MjrrtwiM, Me tbe refamcei Kivaa P. IL ) A— A full aceooat of the GfMk D]r»> 
tmim H ici*«n in limbiaj-Brouwa; Huloira de U CiTiliation, Mor. et Rslif . dn Qnta. 

5. The es9ito<p6pia was a festival in honor of Ceres, sumamed ^nr/io^^poc (Ugifera 
or lawfciver), because she was said to have fiirst taught mankind the use of Uws. It 


was celebrated in many Grecian cities ; by the Spartans, the Thebans in Bceotia, the 
Syracusans in Sicily, and others. — *' But the Athenians observed this festival with the 
ersatest show of devotion ; the worshipers were freeborn women (it being unlawful 
tor any of servile condition to be present), whose husbands were wont to defray the 
charges ; and were obliged to do so, if their wives' portion amounted to three talents. 
These women were assisted by a priest called Ynfftatnr^dpog, because his head was 
adorned with a crown ; and by certain virgins, who were kept under severe discipline, 
being maintained at the public charge in a place called Beaitotpopciov. The women were 
clad m white apparel. — Three days at least were spent in making preparations. Upon 
the eleventh ot Pyanepsion, the women, carrying books upon their heads, wherein 
the laws were contained, went to Eleusis, where the solemnity was kept ; whence 
this day was called 'Avo^, the ascent. Upon the fourteenth the festival began, and 
lasted until the seventeenth. Upon the sixteenth they kept a /a«f , sitting upon the 
ground in token of humiliation ; whence the day was called Ni^onta, a fasi" 

Ct Mto'.Bnrd^ ed. p.STB^maaufl', De ThoBwphorik. WntSil. 1820. %. On the Aits of Um aockali, ice Jtfbrin, I/tJnf* 

JBJtaBH,cliRic*AiicieM,ae.iathelfem.dbr.«aitf.dlwAuer.ToLiY.p.Sa ' 

6. ** The Ilaraffirraia was an Athenian festival in honor of Minerva, the protec- 
tress of Athens. It was first instituted by Erichthonius, who called it *ABnvaia ; and it 
was afterwards revived by Theseus, when be had united into one city all the Athe- 
nian people, and by him was denominated UavtiBfivaia. Some are of opinion that it 
was the same as the Roman Quiruniatria. At first it continued only one day ; but it 
was afterwards prolonged several days, and celebrated with great magnificence. 

There were two solemnities of this name, one of which was called M«y«A« IJova^^yaia, 
the Great Panathensa, and was celebrated once in five years, beginning on the twenty- 
second of Hecatombaeon ; the other was denominated Mtxpd nacad^yam, the Less Pana- 
thensa, and was observed every third year, or, as some think, everv year, beginning 
on the twemieth or twenty-first of Thargelion. In the latter were three games, ma- 
naged by ten presidents who were elected from the ten tribes of Athens, and who con- 
tinued in office four years. On the first day was a race with torches, in which first 
footmen and afterwards horsemen contended, and which was also observed in the 
grnter festival. The second contention was ti>a»ipiai dywv, a gymnastic exercise in 
which the combatants gave proof of their strength or manhood. The place of these 
games was near the river, and was called from the festival UavaBnvaXKdv. The third 
was a musical contention instituted by Pericles ; the subject proposed was the culogium 
of Harmodius and Aristogiton, and also of Thresybulus, who had rescued the repub- 
lic from the yoke of the tyrants by which it was oopressed. The poets also contended 
in four plays, which from their number were called nrpoXoyta. Besides these there was 
a contention at Sunium, in imitation of a sea-fight. (Cf. Herod, viil. 55. — Pausan. i. 27. 
% 2.) The victor in either of these games was rewarded with a vessel of oil and with 
a crown of the olives which grew in the Academy, and which were called fi^piat from 
fi^, death, or from /ccpof, a part. There was Ukewise a dance called Pyrrhicbia, per- 
formed b^ bovs in armor, who represented to the sound of the flute the battle of Mi- 
nerva with tne Titans. No man was permitted to be present at these games in 
dyed garments, under a penahy to be imposed by the'dyuyo^frf^, president of the games. 
Lastly a sumptuous sacrifice was offered, to which every Athenian borough contributed 
an oz ; of the flesh that remauied, a public entertainment was made for the whole 
assembly ; and at this entertainment cups of an unusual size were employed. 

In the greater festival most of the same rites and ceremonies were observed, but 
with greater splendor and magnificence, and the addition of some other matters. In 
particular, at this solemnity was a procession, m which was carried the sacred n-orXop, 
garment of Minerva. This KhrXas was woven by a select number of virdns, who were 
called ifyaanKoi, from ifiyoVf a work, and who were superintended by two of the 
iffii^4p»t, and commenced their employment at the festival XaXxtTaf which was on the 
tlunieth of Pyanepsion. The garment was white, without sleeves, and embroidered 
with gold : upon it were described the achievements of Minerva against the giants, of 
Japiter, of the hAt>es, and of men renowned for valor and great exploits; and hence 
men of courage and bravery were said to be flfioi vnrXov, worthy of being portrayed on 
the garment of Minerva. The ceremonies attending the procession with the vhXoi 
were as follows. In the Ceramicus without the city, was an engine buih for the pur- 
pose in the form of a ship, upon which the irhrXos was hung in the manner of a sail, 
which was put in motion by concealed machinery. The vhrXot was thus conveyed to 
the temple of Ceres Eleusinia, and thence to toe citadel, where it was placed upon 
Minerva*s statue, which was laid on a bed strewed with flowere, and called nXaxti. 
This procession was composed of a great number of persons of both sexes, and of all 
ages ajid conditions. It was led up by old men, and, as some say, by old women, car- 
rying oUve branches in their hands ; and hence they were called ^oXXo^^i^ot, bearere of 
green boughs. After these came middle-aeed men, who, armed with lances and 
Docklen, seemed only to respire war, and who were accompanied b; the uentmi, so- 
jonmen, carrying little boats as emblems of their being foreignera, and therefore 
calied moi^in^dpoi, Mat-bearers. Then followed the women, attended by the sojournen' 


wivea, who were called ^>^cup6potf from carrying water-pota in token of aemtade. These 
*vere followed by young men, who sane hymns in honor of the goddess, and who were 
crowned with millet. Next proceeded select virgins of high rank, whose features, 
shape, and deportment, attracied every eye, and who were called iroior^pot, from their 
carrying baskets, which contained sacred utensils, cakes, and all things necessary for the 
sacrifices. These utensils were in the custody of one who, becaose be was chief ma< 
nager of the public processions, was called dfoct9bapo(. The virgins were attended by 
the sojourners' daughters, who carried umbrellas and folding-chairs, and who were 
thence denominated eKiain^6poi^ umbrella-carriers, and 6i^po^6poif seat-carriers. It is 
probable that the rear was brought up by boys, who walked in coats used at proces- 
sions, and were called itavia^uaH, The necessaries for this and other processions were 
prepared in a public hall erected for that purpose between the Pmean gate and the 
temple of Ceres ; and the management of the whole business belonged to the 99fto^ 
>AKti^ who were appointed to see that the ancient customs were observed. 

Tbe PiiMtluaik pioceHkw b rapraMtad on tha fricn of ibe P»Tt!wM».-9M AuoH, Antiq. of AOmm, dtad P. IV. f MS. I— 
riHonli,SeiilptoradaPhi1haioa,citariP. IV.$190. 4.~A mall bat badniM view of tb* Acnpolb aad the rkattbMMk pfoe»> 
■ion w (iven ia SoyA Fottar. 

On tb« faiival, ef. MabiMom, Inh. OffBe.-Mto'.-Iflid. Quart, am. xlv. 617.-S A. mukr, ItealhaMiea. 

AiDong the monaroents of ancient art still In preservation are ceitain vaees called Panaikatak 
P'attSf as they are supposed from inscriptions on them to have been aoiually emidoyed to eoBtaio 
the sacred oil bestowed upon victors in these games as a part of their prize. 

Seei'.O.ibT>n«tai,oatbePua!beiwicVas«t; io tba TnnMct. of tba Roy. Soe. of Lilmtore, nA. iL p. lOi. Load. l»L--lk 
Cmyhu, Vaaet daot Im aadeM hiaoint wafs daot lai fMi«c% in dia Mem. Atad. Inaer. sxOi. SO. 

§ 78. The great publifi eamei of the Greeks were also a part of their reli^ioas 
customs. They were looked upon as sacred, and were originally established 
in honor of the gods. They were always begun and ended with sacrifices. It 
also entered into their design, and was their effect, to render religion more 
attractive by associatioit with sensible objects, to bring into nearer contact the 
several portions of Greece, and to stimulate and pubHoly reward superior 
talents. — The exercises of these games were of five sorts, and had therefore 
the common name lUvta^Xov, They were running, leaping, wrestling, throW' 
ing the ditetu, and hurling the jaxelin, or boxings which some put in the place 
of the contest with the javelin. 

Sea Jttrtfft, eo then eiefciMa, (la Lnlta dn aiieiew-.Pa«{lat, Orana, niaqua, fte.) is tba JAm. da VJUad. dai /iwer. voL B. 
p. 822 n.-0. P. PkOipp, Oe Pralatblo tim Qainquaitio. Bcri. Itt7. & 

§ 79. The race (fioofioi) was beitween fixed boundaries, the starting-plaoe 
(a^£0i{, i3ax|3b$), ana the goal or end (oxotco;, Wp/ia), on a piece of groond 
measured off for the purpose (avXo$, atddwv), 125 paces in extent The racexs 
were sometimes dad in full armor (oTfXtrodpo/itot). — There were also chariot- 
races and horse-races. 

Those who only ran once over the stadium were called <rraiu>ip6iiin ; those who ran 
over the space doubled (MaoSos), that is, both to the goal and back, were called ^aoXa- 
ip6ltoi ; those who ran over the space twelve times in going and returning, i. e. twenty- 
tour stadia, or according to others only seven stadia (<{6Xccpff), were termed (^Xcqb^/m. 
The goal was sometimes called Kaivrrlip; because, in the jiavAof and the 66)^o(ps, the 
racers turned round it. — The prize (50Xoy, 0pa0tlov) was commonly merely a crown of 
olive, pine, or parsley.-— —The term idXiiTts was appHed to horses which performed in 
the horse-race single. Two horses were also used, upon one of which the per- 
former idyA^mrrK) rode to the goal, and then leaped upon the other. In the chariot- 
race, two, three, four, or more horses were employed to draw the chariot (^a) ; hence 
the terms ^cdpei, ridpcnoi^ mpioipoi, &c. The chariots were sometimes driven over the 
course twelve times (6v(aiaea6p6not). It was an object of emulation among the weal^y 
to send chariots for the race to the public games of Greece. 

Oadoyit, Lea Coanet da Cbetau ct dc Chan dan lea Jeax Olympiquea, in tbe Mem. Acad. buer. viil. S14, 990,* ix. S80L~ 
iiu^trim. da Qutney, Sur la Coune annea at lea oplitodrenea, in Iha Mtm. dt fAuldhrt, CUsaa ^BULttLH. Ane. v6L iv. 
p. 185. with fleam. On the OlfBipie Slorfnim, cC Land. Quart Jto. teL t. p. in. 

$ 80. For the leap (oXjcta) also boundaries were marked, tbe place from which 
(jSfliT'^p), and the place to which {(fxafipia) it was made. This exercise was 
performed sometimes with the hands emp^, but oflener with metallic wei^^ts 
m them, usually of an oval shape (jaxttjpfi), sometimes with weights attached 
to the head or the shoulders. 

The distance leaped over was called itavi». The point to which the performers vreie 
to leap was marked by dig^ng the earth ; hence its name from m^rru. The phnse 
wniiap ^ rft Inafiftbntf applied to signify excess or eittravaganeei was taken from this 


5 81. Wrestling {Ttakij^ xfyta^f^tix^) was commonly performed in a covered 
portico (tvorof), Uie combatants being naked, and makin? the most violent 
exertions to throw each other to the ground. When one had done this with his 
adversary three times (o f pi.'a$a$)» he received the prize. There were two modes 
of this exercise, one in the erect posture (6p^Tid7<jrj), the other in the lying pos- 
toiB in which the parties contended rolling on the sronnd {aifax%tvoHdXf^ and 
o^M^ffc; or aevxtexif). — When wrestling was united with boxing, it was called 
HoTxpaffcoy or Ilafi/idxioi'' 

After the names of the candidates had been announced hy a herald, they were 
matched by lou For this purpose a silver urn was used containing as many balls as 
there were candidates. The same letter was inscribed on two balls, and those who 
drew the same letter were antagonists in the contest. In case of an odd number, he 
who drew the odd lot was called i<t>cif»s, and required to contend with those who con- 
quered. A competitor confessed his defeat by his voice, or by holdingxup his linger; 
hence upe SamXw became nroverbial to signify confess that you are conquered. 

In the stiict wrestling, blows were not allowedf, nor in boxing was it proper for the 
competitor to throw his antagonist ; but in the Pancralium^ both modes were prac- 
ticea by the combatants (irayxpanaoTfiu or nay^axpi). 

$ 83. The quoit or discos (St'ffxo;, 00X0$) was made of stone, brass, or iron, 
of a circular form, and was thrown by means of a thong (xoA^dtov) passing 
through a hole in the centre. He who threw the farthest took the prize. 

1. The discus was about three inches thick and ten or twelve in diameter. Some 
state that the iUncos was of stone, and the oSKt^ of iron ; others that the former was 
careiollv made and polished, the latter a rough mass of iron ; the difference may have 
been wnolly in their form or shape. — The exercise is said to have originated with the 

2«. The hurling the javelin (^f<^ff, cUrdKruris) was practiced ehher with the hand 
alone, or by means of a thong attached to the shaft. 

In Plate XVII. fig. T, is M«a a Javelin with the thong (anMiUim) attached to it. 

$ 83. Boxing {itvytirj) was performed with clenched fists, around which they 
sometimes bound the cestus (^fta;), i. e. a thong or piece of hide loaded with 
iion or l«id. The chief art in this game was to parry the blows of the antago- 
nist, which were usually aimed at the face. 

The combatant was called n^«nK, from ir6f , a fist. The cestus, originally reaching 
00 hudier than the wrist, was afterwards extended to the elbow and sometimes to the 
shoolaer, and at last came to be used both for defence and attack. I'he Ifiavng 
were oif several kinds ; those termed fiecXtxai gave the softest blows ; and the i/tCpfUfices 

Sve the most severe. The exercise was violent and dangerous. The combatants often 
!t thdr lives, and victory was always dear bought. Bruises on the face by blows 
were caUed irJina. 

Betides tbeee ezercleee of bodily strength and agility, there were at the public gnmes of the 
Gneefca conteets in mueie, poetry, and rhetoric, of which menlion ie made in the Archeology of 
Literature <cf. F. IV. ) 116, ( 66). 

§ 84. The four most mnd and solemn games of the Greeks were the Olympic, 
Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean, which were called by way of eminence Sacred 
game* {arfCtvi^ tcpo^). 

The fifst and most distinguished were the Olympic^ named from the place 
Olympia in £lis, and dedicated to the Olympian Jupiter. By some, Jupiter 
was considered as their founder; by others, an earlier Hercules belonging to 
the Idcan Dactyl i; by others, Pelops; by most, Hercules the hero, who was 
the first victor in all the exercises, except in wrestling. They were renewed 
by Ipbitus, a contemporary of Lycurffus, about B. C. 888, and afWrwards by 
Chorcebus, B. C. 776. Afterwards they were an object of special care to the 
people of Elis. Several inspectors (dxvf at, /^dov;^ot) had charge of the ex- 
terwd anangements, under the direction of a chief inspector (d».vtap;t^f). 

1 u. Those who wished to appear as combatants were obliged to spend ten months 
at the Gymnasium in Elts, practicing the games and various preparatory exercises unde* 
the Bistruction of the judfges, who were in the Olympic games especially termed 
*£X>tf««&'ir«j. The order in which they successively engaged in the contests was decided 
by krt. The prize was a crown or wreath of olive (fftfriwj).— Among the Olympic 
victors, Alcibiades was one of the most celebrated ; the names of thirteen others Pm 
dar has preserved to posterity by his Olvmpic odes. Statues were often erected to the 
ocmqaerorB in the grove of Jupiter. Tneir fame was spread the more widely on ao- 




count of the vast multitudes of spectators, that flocked to the games from evenr p«f 
of Greece, and from Asia, Africa, and Sicily. Originally females were not allowed to 

attend. The games were repeated every fifth year, in the month 'E^aroft^auMf, an- 

swering partly to July, and continued five days. They gave rise to the custom of 
reckoning time and dating events by Olympiads. Each Olympiad consisted of four 
years. The first Olympiad is generally considered in chronology as correspondiiig 
with the year 776 B. C. 

2. One judge at first presided over the games; afterwards two; subsequently there 
wore twelve ; then eight, one bom each tnbe of the Eleaoe. The place, where these 
assembled and superintended the preparatory exercises (Trpoyvfiir&r/iara) of the combatants* 
was called 'EXXrivoSucaTov. They took the most solemn oaths to adjudge the prizes im- 

lanially. Although women were strictiv excluded from witnessing these games at 
irst, they were afterwards allowed not only to be present, but even to contend in them. 
Originally the contests all took place in one day ; but at length several days were de- 
voted to them, and sometimes a day to processions and sacnfices and to the banquets 
given to the victors. The Olympic games were celebrated under the Roman empe- 
rors ; but were abolished A. D. 394, in the reign of Theodosius. 

3. Much has been said respecting the various favorable influences which these games 
exerted in Greece. They are said to have promoted peace and harmony between the 
different sections and states, as they drew together spectators from every quarter, who 
thus constituted the great assembly (Ilav^yi^O of Greece. Olympia was in fact called 
vayKoivos x^^a, the common country of all. Hardihood and valor among the soldiery 
are also mentioned as natural eflfects of the various athletic exercises performed at them. 
They could not fail to stimulate to literary exertion, as they furnished poets, historians, 
and orators, with the best opportunities to rehearse their productions. 

SanerofVi B9tnm, p. 19.-0. WatCt Dh*. oa An Oljmpie giBM, In hk TiuhI. of Piodar, dtod P. V. ) Sa S^-Cl Aibtf^ Allf. 

Ttoorlc, daw of artida Pfntfar.-nirluMirf Hbt. flf Oraaoa. Tm mra partkalar aceonti of tba gaaaa, Oiam, Uvhar «• 

AmrdBuat dar OlTspbdMa Splda ; la Ma KUm SdkH/(cn.~£r«iat, Olynpia ote Dantellvi dar groMa OlyBipiifikaa SfMc 
Wian. 183S. 8. 

§ 85. The Pythian games (nv^a) were celebrated upon the Crisssan plains, 
in the vicinity of Delphi, which was once called Pytho from the surname of 
Apollo. The games were sacred to this god, and were a commemoration of 
his victory over the Pythian serpent. They were instituted either by himself, 
or by Amphictyon or Diomedes. Originally they were held at the beginning 
of every ninth year {iwattijfiii)^ af^rwards, like the Olympic, at the beginning 
of every fifth year (^fyfouti^piO. The Pythiad was sometimes nsed as an em 
in chronology, but not commonly ; it appears to have been reckoned from the 
3d }rear of the 49th Olympiad, B. O. 583. As a reward or prize the victors 
received certain apples sacred to Apollo, often also a crown of laurel. 

1 u. The contests appear to have been at first only in musk, and to have been re- 
warded with silver, gold, or somethinpf of value. The song called ntA«^ v^, which 
was performed in these contests, celebrated the victory of Apollo over the serpent ; it 
consisted of five or six distinct portions, which represented so many separate parts and 
steps in the undertaking and achievement. Of the same import was the customary 
solemn dance, composed of five parts. 

2 II. All the exercises in use at the Olympic games were gradually introduced into 
the Pythian. The Amfhietyont had the oversight of them ; to these the candidates 
were required to present themselves. Nine conquerors are especially celebrated in the 
Pythian odes of Pindar. The si>ot where these games were held was a plain between 
Delphi and Cirrha, sacred to Apollo. 

3. The Pythian games were somelimes called KfL^tKtvowiKh iB\a, because tbey were under 
tbe care of the Amphictyons. Tbe particular pereoni appointed to take the overaiirht ortbo 
gamea were called 'EirtucXijr^i ; who also acted as Judgea. Thev were aasiated. In keeplpg 
order, by the itacriyo<p6pot. Tbe Oreek statea aeat, to attend these gaoiea, peraona teraned 
Qs(ap6i and TlvBaierdt. 

§ 86. The yemean games (Nc/tna or NtfUMo.) derived their name from Ne- 
mea, a city in ArgoUs between Cleone and Phlius, in tbe vicinity of which 
they were celebrated. They were held every third year (fpicrt^pfrxm) so as to 
fall on every second and fourth Olympic year. It was never common to oom- 
pute time by Nemeads. The sapenntendents and judges were selected from 
the neighboring cities, Argos, Corinth, and Cleonae, and were persons distin- 
guished particularly for their love of justice. Their dress was black, because 
the games were first instituted as a funeral solemnity (dywy iitfedftoi^ in honor 
of Ophelte8,orAnohemoras; although others state, that they were instituted and 
dedicated to Jupiter by Hercules, after slaying the Nemean lioa. The prize of 


the yietor was a crown of parsley (duyoy). Ten conquerors in tbe Nemean 
games are celebrated by Pindar. 

Sm FilfjfiBH, Lm Jeoz Neecftw, in the Man. Mad. Inter, vol. Dorfii. p. 29l 

$ 87. The Isthmian games (*Io^^(a) were so called from the place of their 
celebration, the Corinthian isthmus, or the neck of land joining Peloponnesus 
with the continent. They were instituted in honor of Melicertes, a son of Ino 
and Athamas, who under the name of Palssmon was received by Neptune into 
the number of sea gods. Others represent Theseus as the founder of the 
ffames, and Neptune as the god to whom they were consecrated. With the 
CofiDthiana, all the other states of Greece (except the Eleans, who were ex- 
cluded by some dreadful execration,) united in celebrating these games. They 
were held at the beginning of every third year (fptsf^/pcxot), and were attended 
with the musical contests as well as those m all the athletic exercises. The 
prize was originally, and also in later times again, a crown of pine ; for a 
period between, it was a crown of dry parsley. The judges were at first 
selected from the Corinthians, afterwards from the Sicyonians. Pindar, in his 
Isthmian odes yet extant, has sung the praise of eight victors, mostly Pancra- 
tiasts, who gained the prize in wrestling and boxing at the same time. 

Ib our Plale XVI. are teen various forms of ancient crowns and garlands. Fig. 8 represents 
tke Istbrnian crown; fig. 9, ihe crown of myrile ; fig. 10, the laurel. 

Solon eetablif bed by a law that every Athenian, who gained a victory at the Isthmian games, 
should also receive firom the public treasury {PltA. Sol.^) a reward of one hundred drachms. — 
The triumphal odes, in which the praises of tbe victors were celebrated, were termed E-pinikia. 

■m Wmrim, ia Om Mm. Jkad. hua-. toL v. ih », SI4.— ZXhwi, io hii edilion of PimUr j d P. V. ( eOl— JErauN^ Die Pyllun, 
MMMta,«BdIMkniaB. CLf88L& 

$ 88. On account of the great estimation in which Athletics were held among 
the Greeks, and their intimate connection with religion and the interests of the 
state, the subject deserves a few additional remarks. 

1 H. In the most general sense, the term included intellectual as well as bodily ex- 
erases, pursued with earnestness and zeal ; but it was commonly used to si^ify those 
more frequent and violent bodilv exercises, which were so much practiced m Greece, 
especially at the eames already aescrihed, and which were viewed as an essential pert 
of education, and constituted a great object of tbe Gymnastic system. Many of those 
who bad enjoyed full instruction therein, made these exercises the mam business of 
their life. Such were called oShput and dytovunSn. I'he teacher of the system or art 
was called yrfvaoHK and fwrdpxw, superintendent of a f«vr^, which was a covered gal- 
lery where the exercises were performed in winter, and was so called from the -noor 
being made smooth and level. Although the Athletce were not strictly in the service 
of the state, yet they received great honor. I'heir whole mode of life was conducted 
whh reference to augmenting their bodily strength, and they submitted to many rigid 
precepts. In most of the exercises they were naked ; in casting the quoit and the jave- 
fin they wore a light covering. By frequent anointing, rubbing, and bathing, they ren- 
dered their bodies more strong and supple. In preparation for a combat, they covered 
themselves with dust or sand, in order that they might take better hokl of each other, 
and avcxd too great perspiration and exhaustion. Generally tbe groimd, or surface of 
the area, on which they exercised, was wet and slippery. 

2 u. Before being permitted to enter this area, they were subjected to an examination 
and a rigid preparation. For this purpose judges ((i^XoO^ai, dytavoOkrai, 'EXXoiD^urai) 
Trexe appointed, whose number was not always the same, who decided concerning the 
I»ize, and excited the combatants by animated exhortations. The rewards of the con- 
ouerors were the applause and admiration of the people, the public proclamation of 
ineir names, the laudatory song of the poet, the crown of victory, statues, solemn pro- 
ceaaions, banquets, and other privileges and advantages. 

Fw tUmnmiA icmaiti oo fhii •abj«ct, ms P. IV. ( (B, § 64.-0. F. A. Hcdiheinur^ Vsrnch efam Sntcsns der Erxiebnag d«r 
GriacbaD, Dea. 178&. 2 roh. 8. a work very iiolnidi-f* oo thh topic and oa Gnekn •dacation geDenlty.— Cf. JaUn't TttM'm on 
GrsMpuka. Norlbaaipt IttS. i.^-Jnur. (fuart. Bn. toL iii. p. I2&— Airctte, Hiatoiic dc« Alhlaia, ia tha Bat. de PJkad. dtf 
Awr. ««L L p. ni.— P. /U«, Da Ba AttalcCka, Ac Li«d. liSS. 4. ; aho ia Oroncvku, *oL viii.-A MbnuriaUt, Da Aria Oyai- 
aatfka. AimL 1872. 4.— F. M, Pudauditu, Da AtblaUiani cv^r^nt la Pulotn OrMoran. Rom. 1756. 4.->f. H, KrwH, 
Thnfemmi odcr wJMcaMb. Dmldlaag der Gynaaalik, AgoakUk, and Folspida der Bdlenen. Haila, 1636. 8. with piatae. 

^ 89. Dramatic representations or theatrical performances, among the Greeks, be- 
Icmged appropriately to religious festivals; and had their origin, in fiict, in religious cere< 
monies, particularly in the rites connected with the worship of Bacchus at Athens ; thiti 
circumstance is more fully noticed in the Archaeology and the History of Greek litera- 
ture : see P. IV . ^ 66. P. V. ^ 36, ^ 37, and 47. Some account of the structure of the 
Gieek theatres is given under the head of Architecture ; see P. IV. ^ 235. Besides 


what is said in the sections referred to, a few rcmftrks may be added properly in this 
place, respecting the machinery and the performers. 

1. In their theatrical exhibitions the Greeks employed various mechanical eotUricances, 
Among these were the following: the QeoXoyitov, a platform concealed by clouds and 
supporting the gods in conversation ; the "Mrixavrj and the Tcpavof, iiisiruments employed 
to bring a ^od or other personage suddenly upon the stage, or wiihdraw him or lift him 
into the skies ; the Aiupat, ropes to enable him to walk apparently in the air; BfovTttov 
and the KepavvovKomToir, contrivances for imitating thunder and lightning. 

2. The number of actors (wnwcfjirai) in the whole of a play was of course various ; but 
no more than three at once appeared on the stage (<rKn>'h) in the pan appropriated to 
speakers (Xovnoy). Although the author of the piece represented was sometimes obUered 
to be one of the actors, yet those who were actors by profession were, as a class, of fow 
character and loose morals. — In order that the voices of the speakers might be aided and 
the sound spread over the whole of the theatre, artificial helps were employed ; among 
these were the brazen vessels (*C"«) resembling bells, which were placed in different 
parts of the structure. — ^In the rude state of the art the features of the actor were con- 
cealed or altered by smearing the face with wine-lees, or by some rude disguise, 
.^schylus (cf. P. V. ^ 39, 61) introduced the regular mask {irpovoxirtTov, pcrsotia) ; which, 
ultimately, was formed of brass or some sonorous metal, or at least had a mouth so 
prepared as to increase the sound of the voice, 'i'here was a vast variety in the form, 
color, and appendages of the masks, so as to represent every age, sex, character, and 
condition ; no less inan twenty-five classes of tragic masks are enumerated by Julius 
Pollux ; six for tdd men ; seven for youn^ men ; three for maU flaws ; five for female 
slaves; and four (or free women. I'he tragic mask often had a great elevation of the head 
and hair (called SyKos) to heighten the stature of the actor; and for the same purpose, the 
traj^c actor wore a very thick-soled boot {KAdapi-os, cft^of). Of comic masks forty*three 
varieties are specified ; nine for old men; ten for tfoung men; seven for nuUe slaves; three 
for old vxfmen ; fourteen for youtig vpomen. The rx>inic mask for the oldest roan waa 
called irajnroy upwroy. Besides all these there were masks appropriate to the satyric drama. 

RflpraMBUtiOM of wvarti aDCinl maikt nny be Mm In our Plato XLIX. cf. P. IV. \ 169. I. See SeMegd, od the Dfwna. Lcct. 

HL— JUbnfO. fliir lea rnuqna dea Anctaiw, io the Mtm. rfe i'Ai«riltil, C 1 1 ■ ■ e ^Biat. tt Lit. 4>ic rol. I VS, vii. S5.— Montr;, 
(OB tue of mMki br loereeiiac Um power of the voice), in fbe Jiitm. dt r/iw(.,CUtta daZiLalAttiix Jrci,Tal. v. fhlB.— See 

3. The Choir (x»p^) was composed of performers wholly distinct from the actors ; 
yet, by its leader, it often took part in the dialogue. The Chorus was maintained at 
vast expense ; one source of which was in the dresses and decorations, which were of 
the most splendid kind. See P. V. ^ 37, and the references there given. 

^ 90. As the theatre was opened at sunrise, or even as soon as day-break, the spec- 
tators assembled very early in order to secure good seats, which, as the edifices were 
built at the public expense, were at first free for every person. In consequence of the 
contest for places, which this occasioned, a law was passed at Athens, under which a 
fee for admission was demanded. This was fixed, for a time at Inast. at two oholi. But 
under the influence of Pericles, another law was also enacted requiring the proper ma- 
gistrate to furnish from the public treasury the amount of this fee to every one who 
applied for it that he might attend a dramatic performance. The money thus used was 
termed Qsoipuca xp^itara, and the magistrate, Ta/ita; rw BuapuctSv. The number of specta- 
tors was often very great (cf. P. IV. ^ 235). Barthelemy has given a vivid description 
of their crowding to the theatre. 

Trwoda efA*Mdiani$ (u cited P. V. § IBS. », eh. xi. Cf. ilw «*ii. Ixx.— Itarttricmy, Nonbro dei picoM qa'on r epra w ptoieni ea 
■D joor a Atbeoea, in the iitm. Jkad. Inter, xxxlx. l72.-Oii Greek ihealrlcal oerfcrnttiicns «'• P- V- H 8S-«7.r-LenA Quarl 
Jb». xU. Iia-/. Pmidfit, in the Bibl. Rtpotitory, vol. L of 2d Seriea, p. 448.— JBII^, u died P. V. ^ 86. 



$ 91. Afler what has been already said (§§ 33, ss.) of the original circtim- 
stances and constitution of the Greek states, we may confine ourselves now to 
their characteristics and peculiarities in later times. The account of the various 
changes of their constitution and the consequences thereof belongs to history 
rather than antiquities. The latter, properly considered, will treat chiefly of the 
civil regulations of the most flourishing republic, Athens, without overlooking 
those of the other considerable states, especially the Spartans, who were dis- 
tinguished by many peculiarities from the Athenians, although they had also 
many points of resemblance. 

$ 92. The early political changes at Athens have been mentioned (§ 39), 
Afier the kings, whose power was greatly circumscribed by the chiefs of noble 
families, and of whom Codrus was the seventeenth and last (1068 B. C), the 
(*<hief magistrates were the Aichons. When these became despotic, Draco 


f684 B. C.) introdoced a code of laws, which soon occasioned new troubles by 
uieir seyerity. Recourse was then had to Solon (594 B. C), who abolished 
all the laws of Draco, except the one respecting marder. Solon changed the 
form of soTemment in many points, diminished very much the authority and 
power or the Archons, gave the people a share and voice in judicial inquiries, 
and thus transformed the aristocracy previously existing into a mixed and mo- 
derate democracy. 

OfeteCI«fliaUnarfheAUMBiam,eCO.iHMfeltMi,DeB«poUk>Atbai]«sllvBa. l^. BU. lOS. 4.—C.P.Ltmqui,m]ii 
CHritoHaa d^AlbAiM, io Jfem. ^ rJMiliil, C I a • ■ « to 5efciM« Jfor. <c iU vd. iT.~Z: r J^^ 

iiika StatahvOaaMr. la Ei«IUi tnnri. iBlifled, FtoUtkaJ Aatiqnitla oT OraeM. Qir. ISMw & Aa iaipiofad edltkm of te 
miifmi F^L i> l9m^ W k d t mmM th,mdMil^^K, Ik JfBBmawii, StMlwichtd. AHwUiqBW. Cola. IMO. a 

$ 93. Originally the people had been divided into four iribe$ (4»vXcU), and 
also divided, according to their places of residence, into a number of boroughs 
or wards {^/loi). Each tribe likewise was subdivided into three curia (^por- 
pUu, t^) accoidingto their consanguinity, and each of the curisB into families 
(yfM^, f peaxo^e;)* But Solon divided the citizens according to their wealth 
into four classes ; i. Ugvtaxo6t.ofuSifwoi, those who gathered from their fields 
in moist and dry crops, at least 500 fiiiifivoi, ; 3. ^IrtHtis^ those whose grounds 
yielded 300 fUitfivoi, and who were able to maintain a war-horse (trcrco^ ftoXt- 
futff^o^); 3. Ztvyita*^ those whose lands produced 200 (or 150) fU6itwoif 
and who owned the space of one acre or ^cvyo; ; 4. 0^e;, those who haa any 
less income. All the citizens were admitted to the assembly of the people 
($ 106), but only the first three of the aboVe classes shared in the burdens and 
expenses of the state, and therefore they alone coald receive offices, and from 
them alone the senate (/SovXi;, $ 107) was chosen, which at that time consisted 
of 400. Solon also advanced the authority of the Areopagus ($ 108), as he 
gave it jurisdiction of the most important criminal cases. 

$ 94. Athens remained under these regulations only about thirty-four years. 
Then, even before the death of Solon, Pisistratus became sole master of the 
state, and notwithstanding all opposition, continued such until his death, 528 
B. C. His two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, succeeded him. These were 
soon stripped of their power; Hipparchus being slain by Harmodias, who was 
offended on account of his sister {Thuc, vi. 544) and was aided by his friend 
Aristogiton ; and Hippias being driven into banishment by the people. After 
this, the constitution received a new form under the influence of CUsthenes. 

The number of the tribes (4»v9uu) was now increased to ten. From each of 
these, fifty senators (fiox/Ksvtai) were yearly elected, so that the Senate consisted 
of 500. After this the power of the people was still more increased. Aristides 
effected the abolition of the law of Solon, which excluded from offices the low- 
est of the four classes of citizens. Pericles, with the assistance of Ephialtes, 
deprived the Areopagus of a great portion of its power ; he also occasioned many 
important changes m the constitution, which were gratifying to the lower 
classes, and by which the democracy became less guarded and restrained, and 
the w^ay was opened for the ochlocracy that soon followed. 

$ 95. After various changes in the government, Athens was taken by Ly- 
sander, B. C. 404. The supreme power was then vested in the thirty tyrants, 
who were, however, deprived of their authoritjr after three years, by Thrasy- 
bulus, and banished. In their stead, decemviri (d<xadov;to*) were instituted, 
who likewise abused their power, and were exiled, after the former democracy 
was restored. This form was retained until the death of Alexander the Great, 
when it was overturned by Antipater, and the government vested in a certain 
narober of nobles or chiefs. After the death of Antipater, Cassander committed 
the republic to a lieutenant; and under Demetrius Poliorcetes, it enjoyed again 
freedom and popular power. With some changes, this state of things con- 
tinned until the time of Sylla, who in the Mitbridatic war conquered Athens 
and subjected her to the Romans. The final destruction of the city happened 
towards the end of the fourth century by the hands of Alaric, king of the 

^ 96 (. Athens was the most beautiful and splendid city in Greece. Its circuit was 
•boat one hundred and seventy-eight stadia. Its topography is given more particular!? 


in the Epitome of Claaaical Geography (cf. P. I. H 104-116) ; here we shall only name 
some of the principal buildings and works. One part of it was the citadel, which lay 
upon a steep rock ; this at first constituted the whole city under the name of Cecropia, 
and was afterwards termed Acropolis. The most remarkable buildings on the Acropo- 
lis were the ilporiXata, PrmvyhBa^ the UapBevov^ or temple of Minerva with the famous 
statue of this goddess by Phidias, and the joint temple of Neptune Ereciheus and Mi- 
nerva Polias. In the other portion (which was called the lower city), the temples of 
Vulcan, Venus Urania, Theseus, Jupiter Olympius.andihe Pantheon sacred lo all the 
gods, were among the most remarkable. Of the numerous covered porticos, ihe Pa- 
cile (cf. P. IV. % 74) was the most renowned, and adorned with the most magnificent 
paintings and ornaments. The Odeum, built by Pericles, was devoted to musical and 
literary exercises (cf. P. IV. ^ 235. 3). The name of Ceramicus was given to two 
exicnsive spaces, one within and the other without the city, the former enriched with 
beautiful edifices, the latter used as a burial ground. 1 here were several market 
places (dyopai), with different names according lo their specific uses. The Gymnasia 
also, and the Baths, the S»adium ascribed to Herodes Atticus, the Academy, the Cyno- 
sarges, the Hippodrome, and the Theatres, belong to the remarkable and interesting 
works which adorned the city of Athens. The three harbors, Piraeus, Munychia, 
and Phalerum, should likewise be mentioned. 

For a view of the Parthenon, see Plate XXI. flg. 1 ; In the same Plate, fiff. S, It the temple of 
the Winds ; fig. 3, the temple ofTheveus.— Aviewof the Parthenon tn its ruine as given by Hob- 
hous«, ii seen In the Plate on page433.— For ruin* of the temple of Minerva connected with that 
of Neptune Erectheiis, see the Plate on page 30.— For a plan of Athens, see Plate I. 

§ 97. The inhabitants of Athens and of the whole of Attica were either 
fcouttu, free citizens ; /i*«f otxot, free commoners, resident aliens or sojourners ,• 
or $ot)9u)t, sloDca. The first class was the most respectable; the last, the most 
numerous. The number of resident foreigners, however, was not insigoificant. 
The right of citizenship was, in the flourishing times of the republic, a high 
privilege, which was conferred only upon men of honorable descent and dis- 
tinguished merit, and upon such not without difficulty, since the agreement of 
six thousand citizens was first requisite. Free born Athenians were those whose 
parents were horn at Athens, or at least one of whose parents was bom there ; 
and those of the latter class held a lower rank» and privileges in some respects 
less than the former. 

1 u. By Cecrops the Athenians were divided into four tribes (cf. $ 93) as foIk>ws ; 
1. Kticpmrls, from his own name ; 2. 'Avr^duy; 3. 'Ajrrata; 4. IXapaAia. To each of these 
tribes belonged several districts, boroughs, or wards (<^7/<oi), of which there were at 
length 174 in Attica, and which difiered from each other in various points of manners 
ana customs. The names of the tribes were afterwards changed, and the niunber in 
creased to ten (cf. ^ 94), finally to twelve. 

Ob the AIJ^m of Attica, «• tV. M. Ualie, in the TnntaaUmi 0/ UW Jloyal Jbeirfy qf LOawtun; a fUl MenuBt, with • pol 
uuip.— A compile liit ofibem is givea in WaehuMuWi HiMorkal ABliqnitMb 

2 u. The number of citizens. mXtrat, in the time of Pericles amounted to 14,040 ; 
and in the time of Demetrius Phalereos, according to a census taken by his directioD, 
B. C. 309, the number was 21,000. 

3. From the census of Demetrius, the whole population of Attica, including aliens 
(cf. ^ 99), women, children, and slaves (cf. ^ 99), has been estimated at 5(X),000. 

On the popnlillon of Atliet, we .0OcU'« Public Ceonoaiy of Atbnw.— CUnlm't Fuli, AppaDdiz.-.«fMcr. Quart Jiigiiiar, mk 
Fvaloouioi or Aocicat NitioiH, voL ix. p. l4S.-^tUmU Cnix, 8«r U popnlalim de I'Attiqns, ia th« item. Jhad. Inter. voL idviS. 
p. 147.— Ajid Utronnt, in tba Mm. itPbtttUut, CUitt ttHUt. ct IM. Jne. tol. tL lOS. 

$ 98. The fii'toixot were those foreigners, or persons not natives of Attica, 
who became residents in the city or territory. They took no part in the govern- 
ment, being admitted neither to the assemblies of the people nor to public 
offices, but were subject to all the laws and usages of the land. They were 
obliged to select from the free citizens a patron or guardian {rCftoatdtiji)^ in 
whose name they could manage business and maintain actions in the civil 
courts, and to whom they must tender certain services. Certain services to the 
state were also required of them, besides which an annual tribute (/uci'obxuNr) 
was exacted ; ten or twelve drachms for each man ; and six for each woman 
without sons; mothers with sons that paid being free from the tax. Some- 
times exemption from taxation (dfcxcta) was conferred upon individuals as a 
leward for meritorious services. Demetrius found, by his census, 10,000 of the 
class of foreign residents. 

The term Ih/oi was applied to foreigners remaining in the city or countr7[ for a short 
time only, as distinguished from the foreign residents, although it was sometimes applied 



to the latter ; it. was alao applied reciprocally to persona who were mataally pledged, 
by forixier acquaintance, or in any other way, to treat each other with hospitality. 

If a metic neglected to pay the imposed tax, he was liable to be sold for a slave. 
Diogenes Laertius was actually sold, because he had not the means of paying k; but 
was redeemed by Demetrius. 

Among the services required of the residents was the carrying of a vessel with water, 
Upiat^la, which the married alien women were obliged to perform to the married 
females of Athens in the ^and Panathenaic procession ; the daughters of aliens were 
obliged on the same occasion to render to the Athenian maidens the service of carrying 
parasols (attairi^pCa). See ^ 77. 6. 

Ct £Mnl<Ch)ix,Sur kiMeloeqiiM,ac ialba Jlfan. 4» VJkaLimbtm, lA zWUi. p. in. 

$ 99. The slaves (dotOot) were of different sorts, those belonging to the pub- 
lic {iotffuM Bijftoatoi), and those belonging to private citizens (6txitai). The 
latter were completely in the power of the master, and were often treated with 
great severity. Yet they sometimes purchased freedom by their own earnings, 
or received it by gift as a reward for merit. Public slaves also were oflen set at 
liberty, when they had rendered the state some valuable service. Freedmen 
▼ery seldom, if ever, obtained the rights of citizens, and were still termed 
ifnUMi, In general, the condition of the slaves in Attica, abject and miserable 
as it was, appears to have been in some respects less so, than in other states 
of Greece, especially in Laced semon. The slaves of Attica amounted to 
400,000 in ^e time of Demetrius. 

The term ductnK signifies one liting in the fame house tpith any one ; 6utov6fttt^ signi- 
fies one who overeeea one'e affairs, and is sometimes applied to designate a particular 
slave, since slaves were sometimes intrusted with the omce of stetoanl ; vnrpcnK, sasrd' 
fying primarily a rower, and secondarily an attendant, is also sometimes appliea to 
slaves. Xen. ^em. ii. 10. 

At Athens slaves were not allowed to imitate freemen in the fashion of their dress 
or the cut of their hair; their coats must be with one sleeve only (Inponaoxc^) and the 
hair cut in the servile form (^pil d^dpamicjini). They could not properly bear the names 
of Athenian citizens, but must be called by some foreign or low name. They were 
allowed to bear arms only in extreme cases. The punishments inflicted were severe ; 
for common offences they were whipped (/larrtyiaw) ; for theft or running away they 
were bound to a wheel and beaten (Art rpo\ov) ; for some crimes they were sentenced to 
grind in the mills OcfiAciivcr) ; sometimes they received, upon their forehead or some 
other part, the brand with hot iron (<n-£yfca). In givins testimony in court they were 
also subject to torture 09a<ravof).— >Yet at Athens tne slaves could bring civil actions 
against their masters and others for violation of chastity and for unlawful severity 
(iV?pc(tv tixtj and ducias SiKrf). When greatly oppressed, they could also flee to the temple 

of Theseus, from which it was held as sacrilege to force them. Slaves carried on 

the whole business of the Athenians ; even the poorer citizens depended on them. 
There was a sale of slaves on the flrst day of every month by merchants {dpipmrodsKA' 
virXoi) ; usually announced by a crier standing on what was called the vender's stone 
{rtpoHip \iAs), The price vaned according to their abilities. Many were skillful in the 
elegant arts, and versed in letters ; while others were only qualified to toil in the mines. 

8m JMtcmrar, Gwebkhta sad Zwtuid dar SeUvere^, ftc (Biatory of Slavery ind Vi!lam(« (a Orewe.) Beri. 1788.-01 
jUhaueui, ▼>. (cf. P. V. \ 123).- JtoTiAanfy, GraodriM d«r Oriech. lit p. IM.— JMU. Ayo*. and QuarL Obmrver, No. xvit. p. ISS. 

§ 100. The magistrates at Athens were divided, in reference to the mode of 
their appointment to ofllce, into three classes, the ^{^eipot'oi^fot, the xTLT^purot', 
and the dtpcroc. The first named were chosen by the whole people raising the 
hand ; the second were appointed by lot by the Thesmothetss in the temple of 
Theseus ; and the last were chosen by particular portions of the people, by the 
tribes and the districts, from among their own number. — ^Tbe magistrates were 
reqtiired, on the expiration of their offices, to render an account of their admi- 
nistration to a tribunal, which was constituted by ten accountants (xoytertat) and 
ten directors or judges (iv^ot, called also liBtaatoi). 

In choosing the Archons and other msgistrates by lot, the ordinary method was to 
put the names of the candidates, inscribed on brazen tablets {ynvAKia\ into an urn with 
black and white beans («<>a^i); and those whose tablets were drawn out with white 
beans were elected. 

On the AUtcaian nacMntai, cf. Btemkard, la the Htm. dt VJhad. da Inter, vii. 61.— Of. Jvihu PtOuXj OaoaiMtieni. 

$ 101. The most important magistrates were the Jrehons (ap;t<»^e$). There 
were usually nine Aichons, chosen by lot (x3ii;p(of o»), but subjected to an exa- 


niintioii as to their qualifications, before they were admitted to take the oath 
and enter their office. 

1. The examinations of the Archons waa two fold ; one in the senate called 'Avd- 
<pv«, the other in the forum, called AoKiitoffia, before the Heliaatm {riXtamut ^110^ 
Among the points of eumination were the following: whether their ancestors for three 
generations had been Athenian citizens ; whether they had a competent estate ; and 
whether they were free from bodilv defects (d^is). 

2 «. The^ first of the nine in rank was styled Ardum by way of eminence, h *AfX!^ ; 
sometimes ^Apx^u' ^i'tytf; , because the year was named from him. He attended to the 
domestic affairs of citizens, decided differences which arose between relatives, had the 
care of widows, appointed guardians, and took the oversight of certain festivals and 
solemnities, and aLso of theatres. — The second was called Kingt or archon king, 
ip»t^ ^onXe^. To him were assigned certain duties pertaining tO religious worship, 
which were originally performed by kings exclusively ; he was, m-general, overseer of 
religious affairs. — The third, named JPoUmarch^ noX^op;^, attended to the domestic af- 
fiuxB of strangers and soioumers, ]>erforming the same duties in reference to them, 
which the first archon did for the citizens. In the time of the Persian war, he had an 
important share in managing military affairs. — The six remaining archons were called 
Thamoiihetm (desyioWnii), and were chiefly occupied with legislative affairs ^ they also 
todc cognizance of such judicial matters as did not fall under other jurisdiction. 

3. The three principal archons usually selected each two assistants, called ir^^t, 
aneuoTtj who sat on the bench with the Archons, having been subjected to the same 
examinations with other magistrates, and being required to render in the same way an 
acoonnt {JtiMni) of their office. 

$ 103. Another magistracy at Athens was that of the Ekven^ 6t "EvScxa, ten 
of whom were taken one from each of the ten tribes, and the other was their 
secretary (ypoft/M^rcv;)- They were properly overseers of the prisons, and di- 
rected in the execution of capital punishments. In later times they were also 
called vo/Ao^vXaxe;. — ^These were different from the Phylarehi (4>vXap^ot), who 
were originally the inspectors of the ten tribes, and afterwards command- 
ers in war. The Demarchi (firiuapx^^) performed similar duties in relation to 
the districts {Brjaoc). — ^The Af^ii^ixpz^^ ^^^ ^^^ <^^^^ o^ ^^^ public register (»^v- 
xtA/ui), and made scrutiny in the assemblies, and collected fines of those not 
present. They were six in number ; but were aided by the To^ot'ot, who were 
a son of bailiffs or deputy sheriffs, to the amount of 1000. — The No^o^fiVat 
were also 1000 in number, and were charged with the examination of past 
laws to see if any were injurious or useless, and with some minor matters of 

Besides the magistrates above named, there were many others connected with the 
treasory, the senate and assembly of the people, and the courts of justice ; the most 
iniwrtant of them will be noticed in connection vrith those topics. There were also 
varioQs other public functionaries, who were not, strictly speaking, magistrates, but 
ought perhaps some of them to be named here.— 'The T^rvpc;, oratorsy were ten in 
nnmber, appointed by lot to plead public causes in the senate and assembly ; they were 
sometimes called 9vyi?yopoi, and were a different body from the aivducoi^ who were ap- 
pomted bjr the people.— The UporPctSj ambassadors^ were chosen usually by the peo- 
ple, sometimes by the senate, to treat with foreign states. When sent with full power, 
they were called npu0sU ah-oKparopts ; generally their power was limited (cf % 143). 
They were usually attended by heralds (.Kfipmsss) ; this name however was sometimes 
given to the persons sent on an embassy.— We may also mention the notariest ypafifta- 
-nlf ; besides the great number employed by the various magistrates, there were three pub- 
licly chosen ; one by the assembly of the people, to recite before them ; and two by 
the senate, one to keep the lawsj and the other the records in creneral. The office was 
not at Athens very honorable, and was sometimes held by well educated slaves, called 
' i(cf. ^gs). 

$ 103. The ordinary revenues were of four sorts : 1. Ti}^, rents from public 
domains and other public property, and duties paid on articles of commerce and 
on certain pursuits and pereons ; 2. ^opot, iributes^ or annual payments exacted 
from allied or subjected cities and states ; 3. Ti^^Eiaf a, fines, which all went to 
the public treasury, except the tenth part devoted to the service of Minerva, and 
one fifteenth xppropriated for the other gods and the heroes, that were patrons 
of the city ; 4. Aftfovpyuu iyxvxXtoi, periodical liturgies, or services, in which in* 
dividuals were required, for a time, to perform certain duties or maintain certain 
public establishments at their own expense. — Besides tho ordinary, the neces- 


sities of the state sometinies required an extraordinary leveniie; and than 
special taxes {ito^opai) laid upon citizens and residents formed an important 

Under the rAiy, or rents, we may include the income from the mines ; the most im- 
portant of which were the silver mines of Laurion ; the ore from these was termed 
ipY^irtf ; they were regarded as a grand source of wealth to Athens. 

atBUekh^oa ifafl MIm oT Lauin, ia hto PobUe Ecowaiy. 

Under the 96ftot or tributes, we may include the duty of ten per centum (dwanr, San* 
mrijfHow) imposed on vessels passing from or into the Euxine ; which was exacted at 
Chrysopolis (cf. P. I. ^ 160), which the Athenians fortified for the purpose. 

Under Tiftnuara or fines, must be included the fees or deposits (rpvraveta)^ which were 
demanded of both parties before beginning a suit in court ; these deposits were large 
in proportion to the sum brought into question by the trial. To the same head must be 
referred also the proceeds of confiscated property (ArfiiArparo). 

Under the laturffies {XurovpYiat) were included chiefly three, X^pnyia, yvp.v<^ and 
hniaaii. Those, who rendered the first named service, (xop»?yf^) were required to pay 
the expenses of the whole chorus employed at the public festivals and theatrical exhi* 
bitions (cf. % 89. 3). Those to whom the second was assigned were obliged to furnish 
the oil and the various necessaries for the wrestlers and other combatants in the public 
games. In the third service mentioned, certain persons {Juma-mpei rwv ^cXwy) provided 
entertainment or banquets, on the public festivals, for a whole tribe. — These services 
were alwavs assigned to the most wealthy citizens. In the time of Demosthenes there 
was the following system : each of the ten tribes pointed out 120 of the wealthiest dti- 
sens belonging to it ; the 1200 thus selected were divided imo two portions accordinjr 
to their wealth, the w&in» vMom and the ifnoir v>ff6am ; these two parts were esch formed 
into ten classes or companies, called eviAiiopiji; from the ten uvft^at of the more 
wealthy, 300 of the wealthiest men were selected, who were required to furnish the 
republic with the necessary supplies of money and with the rest of the 1200 to perform all 
extraordinary duties in rotation. If any one of the 300 could name a person more wealthy 
than himself, he was excused. The residents (/i^moi) sometimes performed these 
services. — Besides the ordinary Xttr«i^(ai above mentioned, there were some extraordi- 
nary ; particularly two in a time of war, rpuipafocta and lio^opa. The rptHpapx^i were 
obliged to provide necessaries for the fleet and building of ships. The ito^efiomts were 
required to contribute money according to their ability for different purposes.— The 
manner in which they performed such of these services as were assigned to them, and 
the degree of expense and splendor to which the^ went, became sometimes a subject 
of emulation among the rich and ambitious Athenians. 

On tlM wiiela iBbjeet of tha Athniu mMHiM aad tspMidltn*, we Jhtg. BBdJf$ StatldiaaaMllug dv AllNwr. Mtt II fa 
tebriftm. Bcri. IftlT. B mliw 9. Kvf. Tn^. PuMk Eoonony of Atbm. Lend. 1»L-^C BanvofP$ Utam, ch. fUi.~JC« 
fird, ch. xxi. Met l.^Xmiapham, On tli« R«ftDuei of Alliea (d P. V. f I86L i). 

0BtlwTrimrdi]r,SBcU^UrfcaBdaBQlMrdu8MwmnteAtUMbnSluta. BwL IStfl 

$ 104. The legislative control of the financial concerns belonged to the peo- 
ple, and their administration and management to the senate. But a particular 
ofiicer was at the head of the trea8ury« called tajuuH t^( »om>^( ^po0o5ov, be- 
cause he had charge of the public leTenue, and also tofuof t^i Stota^^cu;, as 
haying charge likewise of the public expenditures. He was chosen by the 
people (x^tfototfia) for four yean. 

1 u. There were many subordinate oflicers in the department of finance. One class 
consisted of such as attended to the collecting of the revenue, and to the previous ar- 
rangements. I'o thu class belonged the mtkHrat, ten in number, one from each tribe, 
hsving the care of whatever the state sold or leased ; the vp6icropes, who received all 
fines imposed ; the hnypoi^is, who assessed the imposts and tributes ; the itayptt^Tg^ 
who enrolled the names of fiimilies and individuals, and assessed to them their part in 
raising an extraordinary revenue ; the iirX«yE7f , who collected the taxes, duties, rents, 
&c. T<Xb}ya( were, properly, not officers, but such persons as took leases of public 
lands or other public property, and paid the rent to the officers.— A second class con- 
sisted of such officers as kept the moneys collected, and distributed them for 
public uses. Of this class were the An6hcnu, ten in number, chosen by lot ; and the 
rafiicu niv apuv xfint^riaif, who had the care of the treasures in the temples (^ 28).— Such 
officers as were empiojed in keeping or examinmg the multifarious accounts of the de- 
partment may be considered as a tnird class, including the y^fiarcff, derktt and 4«^ 
ypaftfiaretSf under-derka, and the dimYpa/peU^ckecking-elerks or attditort. Among the latter 
may be named particularly the dyriypo^c^ riis dtouefintK, controller of the expenditure. 

2. Some of the causes of expenditure from the public treasury should be noted here. 
The public edifieet and other works were built only at a very great expense, and could be 
preserved in order only at a great annual cost. Pericles expended many thousands of 
talents upon works of architecture ia Athens.— ^The fettwalt were another soaroe 


tf expenee; wlwii we oomider their number, and think of the cost of the eecrificial 
nctiiDs and offering, the banquets, the processions {nofural), the theatrical, musical, and 
gymnastic entertainments, and the rich prizes sometimes bestowed, it is obvious that 
unmenae sums must have been expended in maintaining them.-^Much was expended 
also in distributions or donations to tie populace (maM/uu, 6ia66(nis) ; the most important 
expenditure in this way was by the itbi0oMa, or distribution of the oboli to each poor 
citizen as tkeoric money (^ewptirrf, cf. ^ 90). — Means of support for poor and disabled 
citixens ('w^#«to<), and also for children whose feiihers had foUen in battle, were likewise 
fomiabed from the public treasury, and formed another item of expense.^In addition 
to these, we must mention the expenses of the gonertunenty including the salaries of all 
the various magistrates and officers of dinerent grades, and the wages of the senators 
, ouff^ 099Stvmai), and of .those who attended the assembly (/iwrfidy UKXnauumiOi). — The 
•opport of the army and navy required also large sums of money even in time of peace. 
In time of %var, the expenses, not only of this class, but of many others also, must 

have been greatly increased It mav be impossible to form any satisfactory estimate 

of the amount of these various expenditures. The comparative value of the precious 
metals in ancient and modern limes must not be overlooked here, as they were, at least, 
three times as valuable then as now. 

$ 105. Among the public assembHes of the Greeks, which took into consi- 
deration the affairs of the whole state, the council cf the Amphictyons (ffvvodo^ 
A/i^xrvovcdv, A/i^exrvovi,a) is especially worthy of notice. According to com- 
mon opinion, it was first instituted by Amphictyon, son of Deucalion ; accord- 
ing[ to some, by Acrisius, king of Argos. The twelve people or states united in 
this council (ro tCtv *ExxiJywv cwih^wv) used to meet by their delegates, two 
from each city ordinarily, at Thermopylc; from this circumstance the dele- 
gates were called rTi^oTopoH and the council itself JlDXata. Sometimes they 
met at Delphi. They assembled only twice a year, in spring and autumn, 
imless on some extraordinary occasion. The design of the council was to 
adjust and settle public national disputes or difficulties, and the dele^tes had 
fill! power to malce salutary changes and regulations. Some very important 
disputes, as e. ^. between the Plataeans and Lacedaemonians, and between the 
Thebans and Thessalians, were terminated by this diet, which was continued 
to some time in the first century after Christ. 

Some writers have taken a different view of the ori^n and design of this council* 
They ae»rt that the Amphictyons were only an association of persons residing about 
or near Delphi, or some other place ; d^urrvoyct being nearly equivalent to c^urrtove; ; 
and that the assembly was originally held simply for the purpose of mutual gratifica- 
tion and religious festivity, having no precisely definite common object, and being dif- 
ferent from a confederation for mutual defence, or a congress for mutual deliberations. 

1k» bifee view of Amwnfi, la bb Lehrtadit died S 8e.-«niUr ■ that of Snnlt CMc, Dm Aackm GoaTtrMrana IWen* 
Sa. hr. ITMl— The political dnnder ud dMign of the oooadl it maiatained \ff F. W. TiUman% Vtbn den Band der Ampbic 
•yoMB. B«ti ISia B -Cf. ain Ma/ord, Hirt. of Gmce, eb. iii. leet. X-ThMwall, UkL of Greece, c. z. xliii.— Da Faloia, flur 
'rtiA»iiliie«r<«,ia QmMtm.itPJkad.4mhuer.kc Toi.l& p^ 191 • aod ▼. p. 40&— T. leloni, Dbeoane pnC. to hie £</■ </ 

$ 106. Assemhlta of the people (^ixxXijaCai) were very freqaent at Athens, and 
had an important influence. In these the acts of the senate were canvassed, 
laws were proposed and approved or rejected, magistrates appointed, war de- 
clared, and the like. The place where they met was either the market-place 
(ayopo), or a broad space near the mountain called the Fnyx (Ilin)!), or the 
tbeatfe of Bacchns. The ordinary assemblies {ixxXfjauu xvptoc) were held 
monthly on established days; the extraordinary {ix^tj&iat avyx^^t^toi) were 
called on pressing and important emergencies. 

1 «. These meetinga were managed and conducted by the nfo/rifeK, the IX/xy^i, and 
the 'EAwmnK. Before entering upon business, a sacrifice, usually of a young pig, was 
oflered. Then the herald ordered silence, ofiered a prayer to the gods, and stated, on 
the direction of the IV^c^i, the subject to be discussed by the assembly, and tiioae 
above fifty years of age were first invited to speak ; after which any one above thirty, 
of 6ir character had the Uberty. Whatever came before the assembly had already been 
diKVBsed in ihe senate, whose decision upon it iwpo0o6\tvitat ^hi^fui riif 0ovXfis) received 
its full legality only by the vote of the assembly, and was then called emphatically a 
decree, ifi^ur/u. Often, however, a decision of^the senate without the connrmation of 
the assembly was in force for a year ; at least it was so in those cases m which, in 
order to avoid too frequent meetings, the people had granted an independent validity. 

2. The people voted by stretching forth their hands (xet/wrvyfa), and sometimes by a 
* > of bslkiting in which beans («m^i) and stones (i/^O were cast into vessels pm« 


pared for the purpoie (k&Soi), — ^When the business was completed, the UfwrAntf dismissed 
the assembly. 

Sm O. r. SokBmMfi, D» Oonittk ▲flwntaaMDai, lib. IIL Ofypttfnr. 1819. &— JL fTUitoi, Oo lb« Atb«iaB AmeaUJm, is 
amUk't Diet of Aaliq. p. m.-yiritloplian*t, m hit EKisknndintnt, 

$ 107. The senate or higher council (j; ava jSotOiij) consisted, according to the 
arrangements of Clisthenes, of 500 ; and was therefore styled the senate or 
council of the 500 (« /SovXi; tdv ttivtaxoaUaw). In earlier times it consisted of 
400, and in later of 600 members. 

1 u. The 500 were chosen annually by lot, 50 from a tribe, which furnished a ready 
division of the senate into ten egual parts. Each of these divisions, containing 50 
members, took charge of the public business for 35 or 36 days, in an order of rotation 
decided by lot : and the members of the division having this charee at any one period 
was called npuravei; for the time, and the period itselt was called Hfivraifda, The 50 
Upvrdvcts were subdivided into 5 portions of 10 members. These portions attended to 
their business in rotation, each for a pejriod of 7 days, and the members were called 
Up6efpoi for that time, the name being taken from their sitting in the senate as presiding 
officers. From the npsdpoi was elected the 'EirwranTc, who was at their head, and oi 
course at the head of the senate, but held the place only for a single day .^— it was the 
business of the Tlpvr^if to assemble the senate, and propose the subjects of delibera- 
tion. They also conducted the meetings of the people, in which however they only 
presided in connection with nine np6eipot, who were chosen out of the other divisions 
of the senate and had an 'EnurrdrtK at their head. The Upvrdvtti had a common hall, 
where they passed most of their time daily, called the Prytaneum (nporayetoi-'), near the 
senate-house (BovKcTov, and BovXevHiptov). 

2u. The members of the senate expressed their opinions standing, after which the 
votes were taken. They received a arachma ((Jjp^oc^) per day for every day^s attend- 
ance. The power of the senate was very great. 

3. The senate commonly assembled every day, excepting festivals and days consi- 
dered as unlucky. The senators were all required to take what was called the sena- 
torial oath (t<Jv 0ovkiOTiK6i> Spicev) to do nothing contrary to the laws. In voting, they 
cast each a black or white bean into the box or urn (r(JA»f, Kaitam^) prepared "for fhe 
purpose ; if the number of white exceeded that of the black, the decree or resolution 
was affirmed ; otherwise rejected. 

$ 108. No court of justice in Greece was more celebrated than the JJreopo' 
gu8 at Athens. Its name, 'ApetoTtoyof, signifies Hill ff Mars, and was derived 
from the circumstance, that the court was held on a hill so called, near the cita- 
del. Others derive the name from the tradition, that the god Mars was the tirst 
criminal tried before this tribunal. The time of its establishment is uncertain, 
but was very early, before the age of Solon, who did not institute it, but en- 
larged its jurisdiction and power. The members of this body {'Apti07ta/y%ta*) 
were originally the most upright and judicious citizens of every condition, but 
after the modifications made by Solon, only such as had been elected Archons. 
Their office was held for life. All high crimes, as theft, robbery, assassination, 
poisoning, arson, and offences against religion, came before this court, which 
inflicted in such cases death or fines. At first its sittings were only on the last 
three days of each month : but afterwards they were more frequent, and at last 
daily ; they were always in the open air, and at night. 

1 u. The sitting was opened with a sacrifice, upon which both the accuser and the 
accused took an oath witn direful imprecations. Then, either personally or by attor- 
neys, they urged their cause ; but no ornaments of rhetoric, no attempts to move the 
passions, were ever allowed. After this the judges gave their decision by means of 
white or black stones. As the court always sat m the dark, the white pebbles were 
distin^ished by holes bored in them. Two urns were used, one of wood to receive 
the White stones, which were votes to acquit the defendant, and one of brass to re- 
ceive the black, which on the other hand were votes for his condemnation. The sen- 
tence was immediately put in execution. In early times the dignity and purity of this 
tribunal stood very high ; but afterwards its character fell in the general corruption 
of morals. 

2. In their oath (iuoffieta) the plaintiff and defendant swore by the Furies (ox/ivoZ 9m2). 
In tne trial they were placed upon what were called the silver stones {ipyvpovi), the 
plantiff on that of Injury i^pti), and the defendant on that of Impudence {ivaikta), or 
of Innocence {Avairia). — The brazen urn stood in front of the other, and was called S 
IfitrpooBsi/ ; also & K^ptos, because votes cast into it declared the accusation t>alid ; and 
h ^ov^Tov, as it decreed death. The wooden was termed h fcr&tii, h ikvpo^^ or i Aiw>. . 

BMpMtii«t]Mpcbb]««iBduidwkiav,cr.JnMm'fNofctorMt*r,p.71. ODtteAiwpKvud the otter cMrtoeTAtkeB^ 


wmJ.W. mghr. Die AAMlacte Oericblmrfwaac. (Ma. IBS. &-ie B. A MUir, Der AMkIw PMnm. Vtar BOdMr. 
&Ili|i !««. a.-wlUrf Omay«^ VAnof»t», ia the JAm. .frodl /mer. vii. 174. 

$ 109. The 'E^Yiu were also persons of distinguished merit, who constituted 
the court called 'E^ci IIoMuiJ^ from the statue of Minerva Tsaid by some to 
hxwe been brooght from Troy) in the temple, where it was held. Its origin is 
ascribed to Demophoon, a son of Theseus, and by others to Draco, who, if he 
did IMA first institnte it, certainly modified it anew. The judges were fiflyone^ 
selected from noble families, five from each tribe, and one appointed by lot, all 
over fifty years of age. Solon confirmed the powers of this court ; but referred 
to the Areopagus all the more important questions, leaving to the "E^itoM juris- 
dietioD only over homicide, injuries followed by death, and the like. 

There were three other less important courts belonginsto the class which had 
cognizance of aetioru concerning blood {irtl tCtv ^i/bxi^).— The court *ErCb 
^gk^vu^ was held in the temple of Apollo Delphinius, and took cognizance of 
eases where the defendants confessed the fact but pleaded some justification. — ' 
The court *£» npvfeu'eHp was held at the Prytaneum (cf. $ 107) and investi- 
gated cases of deaths by accidents, unknown agents, or persons that had 
escaped.— The court '£y ^pta^toi was held upon the sea-shore in the Piraeus, 
and heard the causes of such criminals as haa fled out of their own country. — 
Id all these courts the *E^tac presided and pronounced the sentence. 

Tke mm^trates called ^XoSmtiXcU are said to have bad toine duty In the court Iv npvrantta ; 
especially in the caaes termed &i rw di^x"**' SUai, in whicti tbe instruoienta of homicide were 
rabJeetHi to trial. In the earliest times there were four of these magistrates ; one perhaps from 
each of tbe foar tribes. 

$ 110. Besides the courts already described, there was another class having 
jurisdiction only in civil cases (iiti tuv Sfifju>ttxiav)^ of which there were six. 
The most important was the *H?icaca. Its name was either from oXm^, mulii" 
tudcj on account of the throng attending it, or from 97'xco;, sun, on account of its 
being held in the open air. The number of its judges {Tjktaatai, dtxodf ac) was 
not uways the same ; the whole number amounted to 6000, who were chosen for 
one year by lot; out of these were taken the number requisite in each particular 
trial or action. The least number that sat was 50 ; sometimes the whole 6000 
were assembled ; the more usual nnmber was 200 or 500. It was the province 
of the ^ctfuo^VoM ($101) to introduce the action into court {haaytw dCxtpr hi 
to ^xaatripiw), and full power was giyen by them to the judges to investigate 
and decide the case. 

1 u. When the accused did not deny the jarisdiction (iropsypa^j^) or rec^uest a delay 
(•ssfM^ia), boih he and the accuser were put under oath. Then the parties deposited 
a sam of money as security (xpin-oyeFa), and proceeded to bring forward the cause. In 
doing this they were limited to a definite time, measured by a water- clock (icXapiifa), 
The decision was given in the same way as in the Areopaeus (^ 108) ; and the de- 
faadant, in case of a sentence of death, was given over to tne ^Eviaca (^ 102), and in 
CMC of fine, to the UpijcTopes or 'EkXoysU (^ 104). If he could not pay the fine, he was 
cast into prison ; and if he died in confinement, not only the disgrace, but the punish- 
ment also, fell upon his soti. 

2. The baiMor deputy employed to summon {fepemaXtXe$ai)tYie defendant before the 
Tkesmothets, or witnesses before the court, was termed xXiTTtop ; sometimes one or 
two of the witnesses whose names were indorsed upon the declaration (X^^f , iyKhiita), 
toffeiher with the plaintiff, were the summoners {Khiriipcs). The oath of the plaintiff 
befofre the opening of the trial was called rrpoojiioaia ; that of the defendant, dvTuimrla ; 
a name Im' both was ittaiaaata. Door-keepers (iriyKXt^) were appointed by a magistrate 
to guard the court from a crowd. The amount of the security money was, as has been 
fainted (i 103), m proportion to the amount at stake in the action. In trivial cases it 
was a drachm, and called vapturr6ats ; the deposit made by one who sued for goods 
confiscated by the state, or for inheritances of^ a certain kind, was termed vapaxaraPo)^, 
If tbe plaintin {ituutuw) failed of proving the indictment (dtrfa) against the defendant 
(^cvyw), he paid a fine called anpcKia, w hile the action (dta^ti) was proceeding or was 
in suspense, a notice of it, inscribed on a brazen tablet, was hung up (JbrnXoOat) in one 
of the moet public places of the city. The witnesses Qtafripss) were all put under a 
solemn oath, which they took together at the altar erected in the court- room. Their 
testimony was called for by the advocates iavvijyopot) as they wanted it in proceeding 
with tbeirpleas.^ 

The office of the judges, Sucaarai, resembled that of our jurymen j* they were 
usually paid three obou a day. They sat upon wooden benches, which were covered 
34 <i3 


with rugs (iJ/iaBia). In addressing them the advocates stood upon eleTations called 
Sfjitara. The number of prosecutions and trials was very great. There were many 
in Athens who seem to have made it their business to discover grounds of accusauon 
against the wealthy. These men gained the name of avKw^avTou, a term which was 
first applied to such as prosecuted persons that exported figs {dtrd n>v evKa ^afwty), a law 
prohibiting such exportation having been enacted at a time when there was a great 
scarcity of that fruit.' 

1 Sm Sir IT. Jm^t Tntue to Ihw (cL P. V. ( 104. S). • 8m /. ftMnfol, Eaqubytale tte PneUM udDH ef Jiirkiam« 

OMGreckaawlRaauuih Load. tTSBk 4 >Cf. JliUArd;Hi«.flfOi«M«,clL jauU.NCt I. 

3. The judicial process was substantially the same in the various courts. — ^The 
five other civil courts besides the Heliaa were those called Ilapd^wnw, Tpiybuw, T4 
Kaivdv, Td M AvKOo, and T6 Mirtxoo. 

• eoai^ iM JAte-.Mdtodf l0a8.--AMiiMRR, Aat Jv. PaU. Onas.— flodiMr, Fmem ud Khge^ 

$ 111. In addition to the ten pablic couTts, there was also a judicial body, 
called U ttaefofoixwfa, conaistinff of forty persons chosen by lot, who held their 
courts successively in the several districts of Attica having cognizance of cases 
iBvhere the sum or value at stake did not exceed ten drachmas. 

There was likewise a body of Jirbitraion, /lifwtijrai, consisting of 440 aged 
men, forty-four from each tribe, holding office for a year, and authorized to 
settle minor controversies within their respective tribes, but subject to appeal. 
These were called xxi/pcdfoc, being chosen by lot. — Disputing parties were 
allowed to choose arbitrators for themselves ; these were called Sia^xaastr^M 
or xo/r* iTtitpojtfiv HiaAtfjtai. Minor causes could not be entered in the superior 
courts, until they had been heard before some court of arbitrators. 

The number of public arbitratora or Siatrrirhi /cXqpejrof stated abore » drawn Arom a pavsa^e 
In Ulplan upon Demoeihenes ; some wriiera have proposed a different reading of the passage so 
as to make the whole number but forty,/our from each tribe.— The private arbitrators were 
sometimes termed SiarrirSii iipe-rdi. 

Chut. Joum. mil. 88a>J£ O. HudwiUktr, Uebv dn 8diiid«iclitar DilMaa in AUmd, aad den PracHi tor dsniMllMB. 
Jmi, 1812. 

$ 113. jSeUons or ntits were divided into two classes; public (Sixot ^i^juocruu, 
xaffjyopCtu)^ such as concerned the whole state ; and private {hixoA td^u, and 
dbxat, simply), which concerned only individuals. Of the former class were the 
following : rpaf^^,an action for the highest crimes, as e. g. murder (4n)m>$), poison 
(tapjMMov), arson (/tvpxata), sacrilege (L(po<s%fkia\ and many others esteemed 
less heinous; ^acyt;, an action for the crime ot embezzling or in someway 
squandering public property; *£i^eb£&$, an action against persons usurping 
prerogatives not belonging to them, or refusing trial although confessing ^uilt; 
Arcaywvri, an action against a criminal taken in the act ; E^ijmi, against a 
criminal found in concealment and there visited by a magistrate ; *Av5poX]^^ 
against such as concealed a murderer, which allowed the relatives of the mur- 
dered person to seize three persons connected with the concealing party and 
retain them until further satisfaction; 'Etaayytxia^ &n action for a public 
offence against the state, or for a breach of trust, or against, the ^tat/tfitai when 
one was dissatisfied with their decisions. — Actions belonging to the class called 
private were far more numerous, and were named according to their various 

Some of the public actions included under the general denomination of ypa^q, and 
not named above, were the following : rpa^itaUnpoMtiaif a wound given by design ; /Sov- 
Xcwri{, conspiracy ; iai^tta^ impiety ; Tcpoioaia^ treachery ; desertion, whether from the 
army, XeunxyTpdnoi', or the fleet, Aforw^awrtoy, or from a particular station, Xw^ordfior; fri- 
volous prosecution, avKo^<urria\ bribery both against the giver, tkrcv/ia;, and against the 
receiver, i(opo&>Kia. 

Some of the private actions or suits were the following : Mtniyopias iiKti^ an action of 
slander ; Tcphvg iiteri, an action for usury ; dtKias Hfcti, an action of battery ; 0>^k, of 
trespass ; xXsiri}; , of theft ; ifxoioitaprvpiovf for perjury. 

$ 113. The kinds of punishment were various, according to the nature and 
decree of the offeiice for which they were inflicted. Of uiose not capital^ the 
following were the principal : (1) Te/ifj/Mtfa, pecuniary ^ne, called also ZfjfUai 
this was sometimes aggravated by corporeal punishment : (3^ *Atvfua^ disgrace^ 
which was of three kinds ; first, the loss of some privilege but not of poeses- 
•ions; second, the loss of the rights of a citizen with confiscation of property; 


third, the loss of all privileges civil and sacred, both by the criminal himself 
and his whole posterity for ever : (3) Aov3t*ta, slavery ; this, however, by So- 
lon's laws, could be inflicted only on freed men, sojourners, and such as had 
been disgraced (attfioi): (4) SfJ-yftara, brand^marks, by a hot iron on the 
forehead or hands, inflicted chiefly on runaway slaves or freedmen : (5) S'f^}^, 
in which the name of the offender and his crime were inscribed on a pillar^ 
exposed to public view : (6) Acer/to;, bonds / 6f which there were several kinds ; 
as the xv^iov (also xxoco^), a wooden collar^ which bent down the head and 
neck ; the x^ini^ a kind of stocks, in which the feet or legs were made fast ; 
the mrt;, a piece of wood to which the offender was bound as to a pillory ; and 
the 'rpo;c6$, a sort of wheel, applied to slaves who were bound to it and tortured : 
(7) ^V7^9 ac(4>vytGh bani^ment^ with confiscation of goods. 

t ft said to have b«6n preferred by the Greek courts to Impritonment. on account 
of the expenae occailoned by the latter. The prison at Athens was termed dtantor^piov, and by 
euphemism, iixtma. Prisons in different reslons were called by different names : in BcBotia, 
there was the 'kvayitalovi at Sparta, the Kcoias: at Cyprus, the Klpafio; ; at Ckirintb, the K(i5( ; 
at Bamos, the Topyvptu 

§ 114. The Ostracism^ dctpaxusfihs^ was not, properly speaking, a judicial 
punishment. It was a banishment for ten years, of such persons as were thought 
to be dangerous to the state. The votes were given by shells, oafpaxa ; each 
man marked upon his.ocr'fpaxoy the name of the person he would banish; if 
the same name was upon tne majority of 6000 shells, the person was sentenced 
to banishment. The most upright and most distinguished citizens fell under 
this sentence ; and the Athenians finally abolished it, as the Syracusans did a 
similar custom among them. The Syracusan punisho^ent was called llef a9Utf- 
/iboij because the name was written on leaves, ^itaxo. 

The ostracism is said by some to have been instituted by Hippias, son of Hlpparchiis ; others 
aay by Clisthenes, B. C. about 510, who was first banished by it. It continued about one hun- 
dred yearn; it was abolished B.C. about 41S, and because it was then degraded by being em- 
ployed on a Tery contemptible person by the name of Hyperlwlus. Among the illustrious Athe- 
aiana who were driven Uom the city by this pernicious custom, were Themistocles, Thucydides, 
Cimon, and Aristides. 

GriiMC L'DMncin, In the Ifm. * rjead. iu huar. ««L ziL p. II& 

$ 115. The punishment of dealh, 0avafo$, was inflicted in several modes; as 
by the sword, H^i^ beheading ; by the rope, Bp6%os, strangling or hanging; by 
poison^ ^dpftaxov, drinking nemlock {x6vtiov) usually; by the precipice, 
Kff7/i»6$, casting from a rock or height ; by the Katartovti^afibi, drowning. 

Other modes of infliciing death were, by the Iravpds, crutifyine, a mode used by 
the Greeks less frequently than by the Romans ; by the cudgels j To/a-ava, or beating, 
in which the malefactor was hun^ on a pole ; by throwing into a pit, Bapa$fȴ, which 
was a noisome hole wnth sharp spikes at the top and bottom (called also 'Opvy/m) ; by 

stoning, Xido^Xla ; and by burning, Hvp. The punishment of death could not be 

bwfaily inflicted upon any citizen of Athens during the absence of the sacred galley 
^ sapoXsp TjNqpw) which was aonaally sent to the island Delos with a solemn sacnflce. 

$ 116. Public rewards and honors were awarded to meritorious persons. 
Among these, were the following; (I) Ilpoedpia, the front or Jirst seat, in tho 
theatres, at the festivals and on all public occasions; (2) 'Eixmv, a statue, 
erected in a public place; (3) "Ztt^wvoi, crowns, conferred by the senate, or the 
people, or by particular tribes and boroughs upon their own members ; theso 
were most frequently a reward for valor and military skill ; (4) *Atiuub, eX' 
empHonfrom taxes, which was of various degrees, but seldom extended to the 
contributions required for war and for the navy ; (5) S^V 9^0i$ Iv npi*ravetcd, 
enUriainmeni in the common hall, called Prytaneum ; originally limited to a 
single day ; but afterwards daily and permanent in the case of some (aUtacroc) ; 
it was an honor bestowed on the most worthy men, sometimes upon whole 
families, and was viewed as a high distinction. After the death of such as 
had received special honors, their children and descendants enjoyed in some 
measure the benefit of the same. These honors were obtained with difliculty 
in the better times of the republic, but became quite common af^rwards, and 
lofit their salutary influence in a stale of corrupted manners. 

$ 117. No people of antiquity was so much celebrated for the wisdom of their 
laws as the Greeks. The first legislation in Greece is ascribed to Ceres and 


Triptoleraus (P. II. $ 61). Afterwards, Theseus, Draco, Solon, Olisthenes, and 
Demetrius Phalereus, were the most disiingruished authors of the laws adopted 
by the Athenians. The number of the Attic laws was constantly increased with 
the changing- circumstances of the state. It was commonly the province of the 
npvfctvfif to propose laws. A proposal adopted in the assembly was called 
either a decree^ -^r^Lijfith w-hen it had only some specific application, or law^ 
vofioi, when its obligation was universal and unchanging. An ordinance of 
Solon required an annual revision of the laws, to ascertain what alterations or 
additions might be necessary. His own laws were inscribed on tables of wood 
(cf. P. IV. § 63). 

1. The term y^^desi^ates what mny be called a constitutional law, or established 
orinciple, as distinguished from a particular enactment ; thus it would be applied e. g. 
to the laws or Draco and Solon, althoush those of Draco were commonly called 
Bfoftii, in distinction from those of Solon called viftoi. The term yiftoi is also sometimes 
used in the sense of Olfiii^ a natural right or social usage or fixed custom. 

2. If one wished to introduce a law, he named it to ihe flpravctt, who brought it 
before the senate (/?«vX^); if the senate approved, it was called a npo/kfv\tnfta ; it was 
written by the npvravu^ upon a tablet, which was fixed up publicly at the statues of the 
'EmJyv/Mi, some days before the meeting of the assembly (ixxXv^ia); from this circum- 
stance, it was also called irptf ypa/i^a. 

It will not eonport with lfa« limit* nf this (kelch to detail pirticuUr AlhcviMi hwi.-Th«w n»y be faond la Sam. Mtt, Lefii 
Ittiec (cf. P. V. \ U. 3), and in the work •ntii)«d JuriipnuUutia Romana U JUiea, T. iii.— Comp. Jo. MevnH Tbemia Atticm 

L. B. 1624. 4.-Sec aln Pvtta't Arcliw>li«ia Grcca, bk. i. cb. uvi. The moat maarkable lawa of the Oiwks fnanlly ara 

•ihibiled by npki in NiitthU BewhicibiiBf , ftc. cited \ ISL 

§ 118. Next to Athens, Lacedapmon was the most flourishing of the Grecian 
states, and its most remarkable antiquities should be briefly noticed (cf. § 40). 
The province in which this city lay bore the same name, but was called also 
Lelegia, (Ebalia, Laconia or Laconica, and was the largest part of the Pelo- 
ponnesus. The city of Lacedemon or Sparta was situated in an unbroken 
plain, on the river Eurotas, and was in early times, according to the direction 
of Lycurgus, without walls. Its soil was fertile, and its internal plan and its 
edifices such as to be respectable, although they did not give a just idea of the 
power and resources of the state. 

On tfae dvil oonitiiatioD of tbia aiale, we naj refar to /. K. F. Jfanto, Spaila, ein Vereveb tar letkUraic der Oeaehieble end 
Verfiuaung dicaea SUiala. Leips. 1800-5. S vola. &— ^tfrek, BeMibraibuDg, Ike. aa ettad ) IS— JfUllr, Htatory and Antiquitiea of 
the Doric Race. TtanaL by Tttfndl and LtwU, Oxf. t830. 8 vah. B.—fV. Drummmd, Re? iew oT the GovaniBieiiti of Sparia 
aul Albena.— C. P. Lmtqm, Sur la Cooalitgllon da Spaila. in tbe Meni. di Plndilut^ CI a • • e dca Scieoeea Mnr. et Pari. voL iii. 

Ob the topofraphj and niiua of Sparta, aee P. L $$ IIS-I89.>-A view of Ibe nodeni tillage JfijCni, ocar ita ute, n fiveu ia tba 
flate OQ page ST. 

$ 119. In Lacedsraon the citizens were of two kinds, such as had received 
the rights of citizenship by inheritance from their parents, and such as had 
acquired them personally. They were together divided into six tribes, of which 
that of the Heraclidae was the first. Each of these was again subdivided into 
five classes, called tojStu, making thirty in all. The presidents or leaders of 
these were called Fipoaxf (u. 

1. The first class of citizens, being of free-born parents, and having complied with 
all the Spartan discipline, were called the a>oioi, or equaU; while the other cla^s were 
termed woiuioveq^ inferion, including freed men and sons of freedmen, and all such 
as had not fully conformed to the Spartan discipline. 

C. F. Htrmann, De conditioBe atqoe orifiae oomm qui HooMBi ap. Laced, appdlati not Marii. IStt. A.'Saim ayOmr, D* 
eauia lorbabB apod Lae«dsinoiiioB agrerom a^ualitalia. Marb. I S34. 

2. The division into six tribes, above referred to, was made by Lycurgus. Some 
state five as the number, not considering the Heraelida as a separate tribe. The 
others were the Ai^vdrat, so called from their residing near the marsh or morass (X(>- v») 
on the north side of the city; the Kvyooo-pcU, so called from their vicinity to a branch 
of mount Taygeius tenned Kvv6eo\>pa {dog' it tail) on account of its figure ; the HiToya- 
rai ; the Mioooarat ; and the Alyt^Sai, who received this name because they resided near 

the tomb of ^geus, Aiyc<5f. Mailer a9serts^ that in every Doric state there were 

three tribes, 'YAXcr?, Ilafi^vXoc, and ^vnav&rai or Ai>f(£ve$; or the HylUan, Dymanatan, 
and Pamphylian; and says, we cannot suppose the existence in Sparta of^any other 
than these eenoine Doric tribes. He represents each of these as divided into ten ut^ai^ 
and adds, that two and probably more, yet not all, of the oi0ai of the HyUmn tribe 
must have been Heraclid<B. Each of the a)/?a( is said to have contained ten rptaxnh^^ 
which were communities comprising thirty families. — There was another division of 
vhe Spartans, into six ^Aoai consisting only of such' as were of a proper age for mili* 


tinr lemee^-^A mibdmaion of tribes into ^p^rptoi, or yonr, or rpimttSi is also mentioned 
•8 DBving prevailed^ in various places. 

itmMWo'.BkLaMAaHui. u dtod f 118. vA U. pb7««L • CC ANnms ArCkwiL Gme. ■ mKktmuth, Hlitor. 


$ 120. It is known that the Spartans were obliged, on the birth of their 
diOdren, to subject them to a close scrutiny as to their vi?or and soundness of 
eoostitation, and to submit it to the decision of the presidents of the cu^w, or 
dam, whether they were suitable to be preserved and raised ; a regulatioo 
designed to prevent a population of weak and sickly citizens. The education 
of the children was treated with the ^atest care. All the citizens not only 
had equal rights, but also a community of goods and privileges. The lands 
were, by the laws of Lycurgus, equally apportioned among them. 

As soon as a child was bom, it was carried to a place called Lesche {Aiaxn) to be 
examined by the elders of the &niily or clan. If disapproved as having an imperfect 

frame or weak constitution, it was cast into a s^lf, called, *AjnOirait near mount Tay- 
fetDs. If approved, a share of the public lands was assigned to it, and it was taken 
back to the father's house and laid on a shield with a spear placed near it. The 

whole educadon was intrusted to the parent until the child reached the age of teven ; 
then the rcjgular public education (jiytayh) commenced. The boys at this age were in- 
rolled in the classes termed Agehs (dyiXat or /Sovoi, herds) ; such as refused this lost 
the rights of citizenship ; none but the immediate heir to the throne was excepted ; 
the ouier sons of the kings were obliged to submit to the correction of the master 
(OoAnKdytf;). The discipline was more strict after the age of twelve. At about sixteen 
they were called nidvat. At eighteen they entered the ^classes termed ifrfffot, and 
about two years after received the appellation of ltp€tfes or ipavs, and were admitted to 
the public banquets. At thirty they were ranked as men, t^fi^tf and were allowed to 
imdertake public offices. 

a MOir, M abem dtcd, ToL iL p. tia. 

$ 121. The slaves among the LacedsBmonians were treated with great craelty 
(cf. $ 99). There appears to have been but one class, viz. the JffehU ^"E^xcoiff f), 
who according to the common account were derived from the maritime town 
Helos C^hoi) captured by the Spartans. Others consider the name as derived 
from the verb hxa, and signifying pruoners. The unhappy Messenians taken 
in the second Messenian war were incorporated among the Helots. 

I u. The Helots were required to cultivate the land, and perform the most laborious 
and dangerous services in war. They were exposed to every sort of abuse, and even 
to (he murderous attack of the youne Spartans, especially in the custom termed 
KJptrma, which was an annual legalized hunt against these degraded subjects. Yet 
some among them, as a reward of distinguished merit, obtained liberty and citizen- 
ship, on occasion of receiving which they were crowned with garlands and led about 
the temples. They then were called hnivtun^t, or d^trat^ or vwan^is. The last epi- 
thet seems to have designated such as enjoyed more of civil rights than the common 
freedmen, whose rank was far below that of the free-bom. The number of slaves m 
this state was very large. 

2. The diperai were a class released probably from all service ; the IpwcTHpts were 
slaves employed only in war ; the iunfoviovadTai served on board the fleet ; the /liOwts, 
ware domestic slaves brought up with the young Spartans and then emancipated. 

3. There was another class of inhabitants in the province of Lacediemon, who al- 
though not slaves«were yet held in a state of subjection by the Spartans. They were 
the natives of towns reduced by the latter to a tributary and dependent state ; they 
were called Periaei (IkpfoMoi). They were engaged in the navy and in the army 
along with Spartan citizens, and sometimes were intrusted with offices : at the battle 
of Platarn there were 10.000 men of this class. 

■■ipKfaiC tha IMcBd Md te Hdok, M JWHOv, vol. IL ^ l7,S0.--€^Pp»m•ias Bar l^Hd^ 
hm. am, S7I. 

$ 132. At the head of government were two kings or leaders (op^^oycf at)* 
who must be certainly descended from the Heraclidie, and must possess an 
onezceptionable exterior. They did not possess the full regal authority {Hofin 
^otfcXKa), but a power limited by the laws, to which they were accustomed 
every month to swear obedience. In war their power was ^eatest. They had 
also the oversight of the worship of the gods, and sometimes performed the 
office of priests. 

In peace their chief civil prerogative was to preside in the senate and propose the 
nbjects for deliberation ; and each could give his vote on any question. In war thft 


Spartan kings had BnUmited command (trparvyit dvmcp&mfy^ and oould even put to 
death without trial (iv ^npd; vSjim). They are said alao to have had in time of war eape* 
cially a body-guard of three hundred of the noblest of the Spartan youths iUmTf) $ 
from this number five were annually selected and employed for one year, under the 
name of dyaBotpYOi^ in missions to other states. Many dissensions n-ew out of the 
double monarchy {iiapxffi. The royal revenue was very great. Cl. MlUler, vol. ji. 
p. 106. 

$ 123. Lycurgus established a senate of 88 men, of blameless character, and 
upwards of 60 years old, which was called ^Fpovtr^a, or yip<avla. The members 
had an equal right of voting with the two kings, and rendered no account of the 
manner of discharging their office. — ^There were also five Ephori (l4>opoi), who had 
an oversight of the whole state, and whose duty required them to assert the 
rights of the people against the kings. They were chosen from amon^ the 
people, without reference to condition. — The Bet^tcuM were a class of offi* 
cers, who were placed over the l^]3o», between the ages of 18 and 20. 

The Ephori enjoyed a power which was called totnipawosf and were not required to 
give any account of their discharge of it ; but they were appointed only for one year. 
Their tribunal (^perw) was in the forum. — The Bei^iaioi were five in number, with a 

sixth as their Tf^$vi, They had the inspection of the gymnastic exercises, called 
rXardyumi, because performed in a spot surrounded with plane trees ; it was their pro- 
vince to decide disputes arising at the gymnasia. They had their tribunal or place of 
council also in the forum. The common name for the council-halls of these and other 
magistrates was cl^ta. 

f 124. The Spartans had other magistrates; as the Nofto^vXaxc;, who saw 
that the laws were maintained and executed ; the Apftodwot, to whom was en- 
trusted the oversight of the women, to observe their lives and manners and direct 
their exercises; the '£/i^9ti7Udpofr, who preserved order and decorum in assemblies 
of the people, and attended in general to the police of the forum or market ; the 
Ilv^ot, four in number, appointed by the kings, and employed to consult oracles ; 
the Ilpoteyot, who were also appointed by the kings, and had charge of the re* 
ception of strangers ; the npo^txot, who had the care of the young kings as 
tutors ; the lI(udovo/iot, whose office was to oversee and manage the boys pu| 
under their care at the age of 7 ; the *Apfto<rt'<u, who were a sort of sherififs in 
the city and province; the IloXf^capj^oc, who under the kin^ superintended the 
afiOairs of war, and also attended to some matters of police in the city ; the 
^Iftfta^petoA, three officers, who commanded each a chosen band of 100 horsemen. 

$ 125. The assemblies (ixadKrjtstait,) of the people were similar to those at 
Athens. In some of them only native citizens or Sparta met; in others there 
were also delegates from the towns and cities belonging to the province Laconia; 
in assemblies of the latter class were discussed all affairs ot common interest 
and importance to the whole stete. Originally the kings and senate had the 
power of convening the assemblies ; it was afterwards vested in the Ephori, 
who also presided in them. The votes were given by utterance of voice {^off 
xai o^ 4^9) 1 and the majority decided by the loudest acclamation, or by a 
subsequent division and counting of the two parties. 

The assembly composed only of the citizens of Sparta was called nurph baeXnvUi, and 
usuallv met once every month. Every citizen capable of bearing arms might attend, 
and, if above the age of thirty, mierht speak. '1 ne meetings were originally in th« 
open air, but at a later period were held m an edifice, called <r«»^, erected for the pur- 
pose. — The other assembly was called simply, or by way of eminence, iKK^niria, It 
consisted of the kings, the senators, the magistrates, and the deputies of Laconia. 

$ 126. The assembly also, which was collected at the public and common 
meals and termed avaai/fla^ ^ci^tVca, and ^odtio, was designed for the purpose 
of speaking upon matters of public importance. 

In this assembly, kings, magistrates, and certain citizens, met together in certain 
halls, where a number of tables were set, for fifteen persons each. No new member 
could be admitted to any table but by the unanimous consent of all belonging to the 
same. Every member contributed to the provisions from his own stores ; a specified 
quantity of barley meal or cakes (/li^ai), wine, cheese, and figs, and a small sum of 
money for meat, was expected from each. A close union was formed between those 
of the same table. The Tegular meal was termed atK>av ; after this was a dessert called 
br&ucXoi/. The men only were admitted ; small children were allowed to sit on stools 
near their Others and receive a half-share without vegetables {dfia/tfiaKervTa) ; the youtU 


and boys ate in other companies. At table they sat or reclined on couches of hard 
oak. The chief dish was tne Uack broth {ji£\ag ^ufidf).^ The Spartans had also another 
kiod of solemn feast, called mrii^ to which foreigners and boys were admitted along 
iriih the citizens.* 

kt««adriakcBll«i tiiiiy*», nada of a Urrj m Mf h a hhII b«a,drM io a tovMa uri but to powdar, of • aoely color, is 
tato a tide bifloMb, ItaBi ibcy Mite and dnok, ban a* nay b« oadBrad ; it b good a( all Ingra of tbo day. bot a^aeiaDf aorBiaf aad 
miibib «ftn to (bat patpoM tbof ntortaia Iboaodvn two or tbroe boon ia caapbt-booHO, wbkfa io Turkey abooad More tbao 
iwa^akbauawniao. S k ikmfid fkalkieU hImA tfctk wmt to nmek bf Oa r«'i^iiiiiii<MH It dfMb Ul bnwwt i* 
til «BKk. ootafcrtofb lb* bniok BMW caaMlb droakeiiDM^ Mir aaj otbv Hittl^ aad b a IwmloM oolntiiMB^ 
Mf." — • MMnmm*a AnhmA. Onoc. p. i».-Ct JtfUhr, 11. B». 

$ 127. Judicial actions were very sammary among the Spartans. Eloouence 
found no place in them ; no advocates were employed ; every one was obliged 
to plead his own cause. There were three distinct jurisdictions, that of the 
kings, the senate, and the Ephori, each of which formed a tribunal for the deci- 
sion of a certain class of questions. The most important (questions, and particu- 
larly all of a capital nature, belonged to the senate. In minor disputes, the par- 
ties were allowed to choose arbitrators for themselves. 

CtjD*iiiMw,bfc. tt. cb. S3di.-€B Iba aulbnitrof Iba E|»borl, JCiiOr, bk.UL eb. vlLj aad bk. 10. ch. tt. (1^ oa AM Spajte 

$ 128. The punishments were various and in part similar to those at Athens. 
The most common mode of inflicting death was by strangling or suffocation. — 
Stealing was pnnished not so much for the theft committed, as for the want of 
shrewdness and dexterity betrayed by the offender in allowing himself to be 

I. Strangling was effected bv means of a rope i0p6xK, ffphXPs) ; it was always done 
in the night and in a room> in the public prison called Aorap. Death was also mflicted 
by casting the malefactor into the pit' called Kai^^ ; this was always done likewise 
by night. Aristomenes the Messenian was cast into this, but survived the fall and 
efected ao escape, which was considered as very wonderful. Besides the punish- 
ments Zitfufl, 'Art/da, and K6^ or KX»tdf, mentioned amone Athenian penalties (cf. 
$ 113), the Spartans? had Moffrfyowcf, tohijmingi which the offender received as he was 
driven through the city, and Kbrrnati^ goading ^ which was a similar punishment. Ba- 
ilment, ^vy^, seems not to have been a regular punishment inflicted by sentence ; 
but vras voluntary, and chosen in order to escape death or infamy (drtftla). 

' lb*iiinn. liiTi Tit -\ H rli ITI ^aCf. TlkMu i. IS4.— i'taM-ir. iai4^^8fraALTiiL~JI^/!Drtf,BM.orOiiaM^ A.i«^ 

ML 4. aC£.Mai^,BM.aaiArt.Dar.«QLii.^nB^ 

2 m. Among the Spartans also various revfards and distinctions were bestowed on 
persons of merit, both while living and after death. 

3. Among the distinctions conferred on the meritorious, the Dpo^, jirti ttat in a 
public assembly, was highly honorable. Much value was attached to the oZtve-enwn, 
t>jum ari^voi^ as a reward for bravery, and to the thongs, BctiXmrc^, with wliich victors 
in the contests were bound. But it was one of the highest honors of the city to be 
elected into the number of the three hundred constitutm& the three chosen bands of 
horsemen (^ 124), termed Affytfi^.— -To commemorate the dead, sutues, cenotaphs 
(asoTB^), and other monuments were erected. 

i 139. The legislation of Sparta had Lycorgus chiefly for its author, and was 
marked by some strong peculiarities. The form of government was distin- 
guished from that of all the oilier states hy its union of monarchical with aristo- 
entka] and democratieal traits. There were in Sparta no written laws ; they 
were transmitted orally from one generation to another; on this account Lycor- 
gns styled them {r^fpa*. They were not numerous, and were chiefly designed 
to promote bravery and hardihood, and hinder all luxury and voluptuousness. 
Although they underwent many alterations in minor points, they retained their 
authority through a period of above 800 years. 

Ctiiliily,Mbaftw»dtod,w»Lltp.W, gM . X My»fl w ,oatb»Fiimyoflha f ■wriwiw ii M (ct P.V.ilW)—'Il» wwtodtoJ 


$ 130. Next to the states of Athens and Sparta, the island of CreU presents a 
constitution the most remarkable. It is here, as has been stated ($ 38), that 
we find the origin of the institutions of Lycurgus. During the republican go- 
vernment which succeeded the monarchical, it was customary to elect ten offi- 
eeis annually as chief magistrates. These were called Cbsmt, x6(ffu», and were 
taken only from particular families. Under them was a Senate, which was con- 
salted only on important questions; it consisted of 38 memhers, who for the 


most part had previously held the office of Cosmi. There was also an order of 
knighis, who were required to keep horses at their own expense for the public 
use, and to serve in time of war. The power of popular assemblies was not 
great ; they usually did nothing but confirm the decrees of the higher authorities. 

CL JUUUar, fol. U. p. 08, OL-Htek, EraU. QfOaiaf. lOS. S fob. t. 

$ 131. The Cretan laws were in general wise, as appears from some traces 
of them found indifferent writers. — Like the Spartans, the citizens of Crete had 
public meals, which they called drdpcra.— Slaves were treated with comparative 

1. " Curiosity \b excited," obaerves Mitford, **by that system of laws which, in an 
age of savage ignorance, violence, and uncertainty among surrounding nations, in- 
forced civil order, and secured civil freedom to the Cretan people ; which was not 
only the particular model of the wonderful polity, so well known to us through the