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Full text of "Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata"

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SCIENCES 
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SECOND SERIES: PULMONATA. 



MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHOLOGY 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

CONSERVATOR OF THE CoNrHOLOGTCAi, SECTION ov THB ACADEMY OP NATURAL 
SCIENCKS OF PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. III. 

HELICID^:-VOL. I. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Cor. 19th Sf Race Sts. 

1887. 



IAITH 

SCtENCtt 
LIBRARY 






, 







WM. P. KILDARE, PKINTER, 734 AND 736 SANSQM STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 



FAMILY HELIGIDM. 

Shell spiral, elongated, bulimiform, turbinifo*m, trochiform, 
depressed, lenticular, or planorbiform, usually thicker than in 
the Zonitidae, and also less transparent than in that family ; the 
aperture either edentulous or armed with teeth, the lip usually 
reflected. 

Animal capable of complete retraction within the shell, the 
tail without mucous gland or projection ; mouth always pro- 
vided with a jaw, which is striate, ribbed, sulcate or plicate, 
sometimes composed of several imbricating pieces; radula com- 
posed of many transverse horizontal series of teeth, the centrals 
tricuspidate, about the size of the laterals, laterals bicuspid, or 
tricuspid with the interior cusp obsolete, marginals usually 
wider than high, shortVwHh two or three small cusps (Struct, 
and Syst. Conch., i, t. 13, f. 59). 

As to the shell of the heliciform groups it is usually readily 
distinguished from Zonitidse by the reflected lip of the aperture, 
which is a character distinguishing most of the larger and most 
important sections or groups, but this difference disappears in 
the Patulae, for example, in which the lip is simple and the shell 
thinner; however, the Patulse are commonly darker in color, 
often with characteristic chestnut markings, and more rugosely 
sculptured surface than most Zonitidae. 

In the soft parts the most obvious distinction is the want of 
a caudal mucous pore in the Helices, and their possessing a 
sculptured jaw. Typically, there is a distinction in the denti- 
tion, although in some species the lateral teeth of Helices take 
on a pseud ozonitoid appearance ; even in such cases the extreme 
marginals in Helix remajn short and very obtuse. 

The family thus outlined comprises several thousand species, 
most of the land-snails, in fact ; including not only the numerous 
groups of Helix proper, but those of Bulimus, Partula, etc., as 
well. As the consideration of the species will occupy the pages 

(3) 



4 HELICID.E. 

of some volumes of this work several of them for Helix alone 
the usual synopsis of genera is omitted (it may be found in 
Structural and Systematic Conch ology, iii, 28-58), and I proceed 
at once to the consideration of the 

Genus HELIX, Linnaeus. 

Shell of variable form, orbicular, convex, planorboid, trochi- 
form, subturricqlated or short bulimiform (monstrosities sinis- 
tral, or with whorls more or less uncoiled), smooth, rugose, 
striate, ribbed, tuberculate, sometimes pilose, often variegated 
in color ; the aperture oblique, oval or semilunar, with or 
without teeth on the interior of the lip, or parietal wall or colu- 
mella; the lip usually reflected, sometimes internally thickened, 
sometimes simple and sharp ; umbilicus varying from covered 
to widely open. 

No more precise diagnosis can be given of a genus in which 
the conchological features vary so much as they do in Helix. 
Albers, Beck, Swainson, Ferussac, the brothers Adams, PfeifFer, 
and many others, have proposed a great number of groups rank- 
ing from sections merely, to genera, but which agree in pos v 
sessing but little individuality in a systematic, although highly 
important in a developmental aspect. In fact, the species in 
these groups very generally indicate more strongly here than in 
any other branch of Conchology, both by their general facies 
and by the territory peopled by them, their common ancestry. 
This is possibly the effect of a more recent appearance and a 
more rapid development than in the marine groups of moliusks, 
the extinct forms extending no further back than the cretaceous 
period in Europe and the somewhat later Laramie in the United 
States, and altogether very few in number, whilst the number of 
species now living is not far from four thousand ; indeed, it is 
not improbable that much of the differentiation has taken place 
within the historic period. 

The number of species of Helix, although considerably reduced 
in late years by the elimination of the genera comprised in the 
family Zonitidse, still remains so large that further disintegra- 
tion would be very desirable, were it practicable ; unfortunately, 
no divisions have been proposed having the distinctive charac- 
ters usually assigned to genera and subgenera. As a mere" 




5 

convenience, the names of these ancestral-geographical groups 
might be used in a generic sense, if only we could cease to apply 
the name Helix to the whole of them. 

Considering the above circumstances, I propose to use the 
generic and subgeneric divisions which have been formed under 
Helix as Sections only, and those sections which have certain 
common relationships as composing Groups, the latter as well 
as the former, although in a larger sense, indicating common 
ancestry and distribution. In a general way these groups will 
advance from those in which the characters most resemble the 
Zonitidae towards what has been usually accepted as the typical 
or ideal Helix, and thence towards the next-coming genus 
Bulimus. As I have stated that the characters distinguishing 
these sections and groups have but little systematic value, it will 
be readily understood that they are not readily expressible ; 
hence no useful S3~nopsis or comparative table of them is possible, 
and I shall simply take them up in succession in proceeding 
immediately with the descriptions of the species. 

Group 1. SAGDA, Beck, 183?. 

Shell subperforate, or im perforate, globosely conoidal or de- 
pressed, diaphanous; whorls narrow, aperture with interior 
revolving lamellae, peristome simple, sharp. Jaw oxygnathus. 

Jamaica. 
Section SAGDA (sensu stricto). 

Shell subimperforate, globosely conoidal ; spire more or less 
elevated, with obtuse apex ; eight or nine narrow whorls, the last 
flattened at the base, excavated around the umbilical region ; 
with internal revolving lamellae ; columella short, oblique, dilated 
at the base ; aperture obliquely semilunar, peristome simple. 
Epistyla, Swainson, 1840, is a synonym. 

Section HYALOSAGDA, Albers, 1860. 

Shell scarcely perforated, depressed, hyaline, thin; whorls 
5-7, narrow, the last excavated at the base ; aperture obliquely 
lunar (with or without a basal lamella); peristome acute, colu- 
mellar margin scarcely dilated, slightly reflexed, more depressed, 
but with the same narrow whorls as in the typical section ; most 
of the species have no internal lamella. 



6 HELIX. 

(Section SAGDA, Beck, 1837). 
H. ALLTGANS, C.,B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 1-3. 

Imperforate, globosely conoidal, white, under a brownish- 
yellow epidermis, incremental striae regular, stronger on the 
spire than on the body-whorl ; whorls 8, narrow, aperture with a 

deep-seated strong basal lamella. Diam. 1-5J5 inches. 

Jamaica. 

The synonyms are H. epistylium, Pfr. (not M tiller), H. alveo- 
lata, Beck ? 

H. EPISTYLIOIDES, Per. PI. 1, fig. 4. 

Solid, imperforate, obliquely costate, white, under a corneous 
yellow epidermis ; whorls 9, the last scarcely wider than the 
others, obsoletely angulated, aperture with an evanescent deep- 
seated revolving basal lamella. Diam. 1 inch. 

Jamaica. 

H. al>veolata,j\m., Beck, is referred here by Pfeiffer. 

H. CONNECTENS, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, fig. 5. 

Imperforate, hemispherical, white under a corneous epidermis, 
somewhat rugosely sculptured by incremental striae ; whorls 9, 
very narrow, a little convex, the last slightly convex below, 
concave in the umbilical region ; aperture rather narrow, trans- 
verse, the basal lamella strong, acute, deep-seated. Diam. 1 inch. 

Jamaica. 
H. JAYANA, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 6, T. 

Imperforate, conoidal, smoothish, lightly striulate, white under 
a corneous epidermis, spire conoidal, obtuse ; whorls 9j, flattened, 
the last subangulated, base deeply excavated ; coluinella short, 
somewhat oblique, basal lamella deep-seated. Diam. 1 inch. 

Jamaica. 

This is H. Cookiana of Pfr. (not Gmel.),in part, H. alligans, 
Reeve (fig. 7). 

H. AUSTRALIS, Chemn. PI. 1, fig. 8. 

Imperforate, solid, obliquely striate above, light yellowish 
corneous, spire somewhat acute, suture impressed, margined ; 
whorls 8, a little convex, slowly increasing, periphery very 
obsoletely angulated, base more lightly striated, globose, 
impressed in the middle, aperture almost vertical, with an 



HELIX. 7 

interrupted basal lamella, columella slanting, callously thick- 
ened. Diam. 22 mill. 

Jamaica. 

This is H. Foremaniana, Pfr. (not Adams) ; H. Cookiana, 
Gmel. ; H. conica, Swains., and H. epistylium, Dillw. 

H. ALVEARE, Pfr. PI. 1, fig. 9. 

Imperforate, solid, obliquely striate, white under the hirsute 
fulvous epidermis ; whorls 10, narrow, the last obsoletely 
angulate near the base ; aperture with a deep-seated basal 
lamella, the columella with a subspiral lamella, scarcely visible 
without. Diam. 1 inch. 

Jamaica. 
H. FOREMANIANA, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, fig. 10. 

Imperforate, somewhat solid, smoothly striate, alabastrine; 
whorls 7, a little convex, the last globose, base not impressed ; 
a strong nodiform tooth on the columella, and an acute elevated 
lamella (with rarely a second smaller one) on the base of the 
aperture. Diam. 18-5 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. TRIPTYCHA, Shllttl. PI. 1, fig. 11. 

Imperforate, globulose, thin, scarcely striulate, shining, 
diaphanous, alabastrine ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, suture 
submargined, last whorl inflated, periphery subangulated, base 
scarcely impressed, colnmella twisted, truncate at base, callously 
dentate, basal margin with an acute entering lamella, and a 
smaller one near the columella. Diam. 14 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. SPICULOSA, Shnttlew. PI. 1, fig. 12. 

Imperforate, campanulately semiglobose, solid, Hghly striate, 
whitish under a deciduous yellowish epidermis ; whorls 8, a 
little convex, apex subacute, last whorl obsoletely angulated, 
base excavated in the middle, columella callousty dentate, 
aperture with a revolving basal lamella, scarcely reaching the 
margin. Diam. 14 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. TORREFACTA, C. B. Ad. PI. 1, fig. 13. 

Imperforate, somewhat solid ; whorls 9, a little convex, the 
earlier ones elegantly striate, the later ones smoothish, the last 
with subangulate periphery, and scarcely impressed base ; 



8 HELIX. 

columella somewhat straightly descending, twisted, thickened, 
aperture wide, with a strong basal lamella. Diam. 16 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. PILA, C. B. Adams. PL 1, fig. 14. 

Imperforate, thin, smooth (very minutely lightly decussated), 
diaphanous, whitish, suture deep ; whorls 6^, convex, the last 
globose, base not impressed ; columella short, subvertical, den- 
tately dilated ; aperture widely lunar, with an acute elevated 
lamella below the middle of the base. Diam. 12 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. LAMELLIFERA, C. B. Ad. PL 1, fig. 15. 

Imperforate, striated, the yellowish corneous epidermis sub- 
pustulose ; whorls 5J-6, a little convex, moderately increasing, 
the last more convex, with scarcely impressed base ; columella 
oblique, callously thickened, aperture obliquely lunar, base with 
a median lamella, evanescent in front. Diam. 10 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. BLANDTI, Weinland. PL 1, figs. 16, IT. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, scarcely striulate, 
whitish ; whorls 6, narrow, very slowly increasing, the last a 
little compressed on the sides, base convex, a little excavated in 
the middle ; aperture vertical, widely lunar, with an interrupted 
or continuous spiral basal lamina, and nodular columella. 

Diam. 4 mill. Port au Prince, Haiti. 

Section HYALOSAGDA, Albers, 1860. 

H. OSCULANS, C. B. Ad. PL 1, figs. 18, 19. 

Imperforate, depressed, thin, striulate, shining, pellucid, 
hyaline-white ; spire very short, convex, suture smooth, sub- 
margined ; whorls 6-J, scarcely convex, base subexcavated ; 
aperture obliquely lunar, columellar margin subcallous, nearly 
horizontal, basal lamella strong, conspicuous. Diam. 13 mill. 

Jamaica. 
Yar. DELAMINATA, Adams MS. The lamella absent. 

H. HALDEMANIANA, C. B. Adams. PL 1, figs. 20-22. 

Imperforate, striulate, thin, shining, pale greenish or corneous, 
hyaline, spire very obtuse, suture margined; whorls T, scarcely 
convex, base deeply excavated in the middle. Diam. 13 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. arboreoides, Adams, is a synonym. 



HELTX. 9 

H. SIMILIS, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 23, 24. 

Perforate, depressed, rather thin, somewhat distantly striulate, 
shining, diaphanous, whitish, spire scarcely convex, the apex 
submucronate ; whorls 6, narrow, slightly convex, the last later- 
ally subcompressed, base a little excavated. Diam. 13 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. HOLLANDI, C. B. Adams. PL 1, figs. 25, 26. 

Differs from the preceding species in the whorls being more 

depressed, base plane, aperture wider. Diam. 11 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. AMBIGUA, C. B. Adams. PI. 1, figs. 27, 28. 

Differs from H. similis in having a more elevated spire, colu- 
mella less oblique, anterior part of the lip directly transverse, 
umbilicus smaller. Suture deeper than in H. similis or H. Halde- 
maniana, between which this shell is in most characters inter- 
mediate. Diam. 1T5 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. BREVIS, C. B. Adams. PL 1, fig. 29. 

Narrowly umbilicated, depressed, subdiscoidal, thin, smooth, 
shining, whitish ; spire scarcely convex ; whorls 4J; flattened, 
slowly increasing, the last depressed, base subplanulate. 

Diam. 3*75 mill. 

Jamaica, 
H. CIRCUMFIRMATA, Eedfield. PL 1, fig. 30. 

Umbilicated, conoidally depressed, thin, lightly obliquely 
striated ; fulvous corneous, with irregular light chestnut striga- 
tions ; suture impressed ; whorls 7 J, slowly increasing, the last 
with angulated periphery and more convex base ; aperture with 
an acute white spiral lamina below the periphery, visible through 
the shell, columella with a spiral callus. Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Bermuda. 
H. DISCREPANS, Pfr. 

Differs from the preceding species in being more solid, the 
spire less elevated, the peripheral carina more acute, a basal 
interior carina reaching the margin of the aperture, and the 
columella subdentate within near its insertion. Diam. 10-25 mill. 

Bermuda. 
Un figured. 



10 HELIX. 

Group II. LEUCOCHROA, Beck, 1837. 

Shell imperforate to moderately umbilicated, globose or de- 
pressly globose, thick, white, or dull-colored, cretaceous ; whorls 
about five, usually with more or less angulated periphery, the 
last slightly descending in front; peristome simple, thickened, 
columella callously dilated, often covering the umbilicus. Jaw 
oxygnathous. Circum-Mediterranean Region. H. CANDIDISSIMA, 
Drap. 

The synonyms are Calcarina, Moquin-Tandon, 1845, and 
Iberus (in part), H. and A. Adams, 1855. 

Section LEUCOCHROA (sensu stricto). 

Aperture broadly lunar, rounded, often with a small outer 
angle, corresponding with the peripheral carina. 

Section MIMA, Westerlnnd, 1866. 

Aperture very angular, much thickened within, especially 
above, where it develops two strong tubercles or tooth-like pro- 
jections subconfluent into one, narrowing the mouth. 

On account of the ribless jaw of H. candidissima, and for 
other peculiarities, Dr. von Martens classed this group with the 
Zonitidse. The investigations of Binney have shown that H. 
Boissieri, also a Leucochroa, has a ribbed jaw and the dentition 
of Helix. The heavjr shells, and absence of a mucous pore are 
characters which serve to confirm the classification here adopted. 

(Section LEUCOCHROA, sensu stricto.) 
H. CANDIDISSIMA, Drap. PI. 2, figs. 31-35. 

Subimperforate, globose, solid, cretaceous ; whorls 5, rather 
flattened, the upper ones carinate above the suture, carina after- 
wards becoming evanescent, the last deflected in front ; peris- 
tome subpatulous, thickened within. Diam. 16-25 mill. 

Southern France, Italy, Algiers. 
Var. RIMOSA, Jan. Fig. 34. 

Subcarinate, umbilicus rimose. Diam. 20 mill. 
H. depressa, Miihlf., is a synonym. 

Yar. HIEROCHUNTINA, Boissieri. Fig. 35. 



LIB) 
i 
TJNIVI 

\s^ Q 

HELIX. 11 

H. B^TICA, Rossmassler. PI. 2, figs. 36, 37. 

Globose, solid, whitish ash-color; whorls 5^, very slowly in- 
creasing, the upper ones carious-rugulose, the penultimate about 
as broad as the last, the last more or less angulated on the 
periphery, rounded in front; aperture widely lunar, angulated 
exteriorly, peristome internally sublabiate. Diam. 25 mill. 

Spain, Morocco, Algiers. 
Yar. ALEXANDRINA, Fagot. 

Smaller, conical bullet-shaped, penultimate whorl viewed from 
above appearing broader than the last one. Diam. 14-15 mill. 

Near Alexandria, Egypt. 
H. THAYACA, Bourg. PI. 2, fig. 38. 

Imperforate, opaque, solid, finely striated, brownish oliva- 
ceous ; whorls 6, periphery obtusely angulated. Diam. 27 mill. 

Constantine, Algiers. 
H. TITANODOLEMA, Pechaud. 

An unfigured species from the same locality as the above, but 
white, the wftorls more drawn out, the base more swollen, the 
last whorl suddenly deflected anteriorly. 

H. OTTHTANA, Forbes. PI. 2, figs. 39-44. 

Umbilicated, carinate, striate, white, suture subcrenulated ; 
whorls 5, planulate, the last scarcely deflected in front. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

A Igiers. 
Yar. JEANNOTIANA, Terver. Figs. 41, 42. 

More depressed and smaller, umbilicus open, periphery sharply 
carinated. 

H. piestius. Bourg., is a synonym. 

Yar. CHIONODISCUS, Pfr. Figs. 43, 44. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, con vexly depressed above, periphery 
with a strong wavy carina, becoming obsolete towards the aper- 
ture ; whorls 5, the last abruptly deflected in front. 

Diam. 26 mill. 

Bourguignat has distinguished two forms of this Yar. under 
the names of oxygira and depressa. 

Yar. SPEIRONOMALA, Bourg. 

Larger, much more compressed and sharply keeled, the umbil- 
icus open and rather broad, lip drawn down or overhanging 
above. 



12 BELT*. 

H. ARGIA, Bourg. PL 2, figs. 45, 46. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, shell solid, cretaceous, shining, 
irregularly striulate and obsoletely malleated ; whorls 6, slowly 
increasing, sharply keeled, the keel becoming less strong or 

finally obsolete on the last whorl. Diam. 23 mill. 

Bona, Algiers. 

Probably only another variety of the last species. 

H. FJMBRTATA, Bourg. PI. 2, figs. 4f, 48. 

Covered perforate, subglobose, solid, cretaceous, subplanulate 
above ; whorls 5, a little flattened, the first smooth, the following 
subcarious, narrowly fimbriately carinated, the last deflected in 
front, rounded, periphery obsolete!} 7 subangulated. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Palestine, Mesopotamia. 
Yar. ILLICITA, Mousson. 

Whorls slightly convex, suture incised, not carinately margined 
above, sculpture indistinct, carina evanescent anteriorly, margin 
of insertion callous, subthickened. 

Yar. MYOPA, Westerl. 

Shell smaller, globosely contracted; suture well impressed, 
tuberculately erose ; aperture rounded, peristome thicker. 
Diam. 12 mill. 

Yar. VARICOSULA, Westerl. 

Entire upper surface regularly finely granulated, periphery 
with a keel and the trace of another above it. 

H. PROPHETARUM, Bourg. PI. 2, figs. 49, 50. 

Covered perforate, depressed, solid, striulate, cretaceous, 
white, suture impressed ; whorls 4^, flattened or slightly convex, 
the last very obsoletely angulated, rounded in front, shortly and 
suddenly deflected. Diam. 16 mill. 

Palestine. 

Yar. /? is more depressed, the last whorl obscurely bicarinate, 
flattened below; Yar. y is less depressed, last whorl subrotund, 
more convex below, peripheral extremities joined by a stronger 
callus. 



HELIX. 13 

H. CARIOSULA, Mich. PL 2, figs. 51, 52. 

Subimperforate, carinate, globosely convex above, carious, 
somewhat flattened below, soiled white, with a tubercularly 
eroded filiform sutnral carina ; whorls 5, somewhat flattened; 
upper margin of aperture subdeflected. Diam. 18 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. MAYRANI, Gassies. PI. 2, figs. 53-55. 

Imperforate, carinate, gr arm lately crispate under the rusty 
epidermis, flatter below, flesh white, with a filiform peripheral 
carina, evanescent in front ; whorls 5-6, convex, the last with 
radiating striae above, suture profound. Diam. 19-20 mill. 

Algiers. 
Var. SUBCARIOSULA, Bourg. Fig. 55. 

Granulations stronger, base less swollen, keel sharper. 
H. Kobeltiana, Debeaux, is a synonym. 

Yar. DEBEAUXI, Kobelt. 

Globosely trochoidal, calcareous, soiled white ; whorls very 
distinctly crenated at the suture, tuberculosely rugose, the last 
whorl obsoletely angulated, smoother and shining below, base 
convex, excavated around the umbilical region. 

H. OCTINILLA, Bourg. 

Umbilicus covered or rimate, turbinately convex above, 
planulate below, whitish, strongly rugose above ; whorls 5^, 
strongly tuberculate at the suture, carinate below, the last 
compressedly carinate, the base subtumid, radiately plicately 
striate. Diam. 17-22 mill, alt. 10-12 mill. 

Or an, Algiers. 

Unfigured. 

H. cariosula, var. vetula, Westerl., is a synonym. 

H. CARIOSA, Olivier. PL 2, figs. 56-59. 

Umbilicated, carinated, convex, white, rough, crispately 
rugulose ; whorls 5, the last scarcely deflected in front, angu- 
lated around the wide, deep umbilicus. Diam. 18 mill. 

Syria. 
Var. NAZARENSIS, Mouss. 

Half bullet-shaped, swollen, the last whorl angulated only at 
the periphery, upper surface thickly grained. 



14 HELIX. 

Var. CRASSOCARINA, Mouss. 

With strong carinse at the periphery and surrounding the 
umbilicus. 

Yar. AMPHTCYRTA, Bourg. Figs. 58, 59. 

More flattened, compressed, last whorl not descending in 
front, aperture more angular, subtetragonal, last whorl strongly 
bicarinate, umbilicus widely conical. 



*** 



Canary Islands Species, doubtfully referred here. 
H. ULTIMA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 60-62. 

Umbilicated perspectively, cretaceous, substriated, with more 
or less oblique granulations, white, apex grayish corneous, 
suture linear ; whorls 6,slightl3^ convex, the upper ones crenately 
carinated,the last not descending in front, more convex, obtusely 
carinated or angulated on the periphery, narrowly rounded at 
the umbilicus; peristome straight, acute. Diam. 14 mill. 

Ins. Fiter te vent ura, Canary Islands. 

H. PRESSA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 63-65. 

More depressed than the preceding species, the granular striae 
smaller, the umbilicus wider. Perhaps only a variety. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. 

H. ACCOLA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 66, 67. 

Umbilicated, cretaceous, striulate, with minute rugae or 
granulations, white, suture subimpressed ; whorls 5^, a little 
convex, the upper ones obtusely nodulously carinate, the last 
not descending in front, periphery obtusely angulated or 
carinated, somewhat flattened below, narrowly rounded at the 
umbilicus. Diam. 9 mill. 

Fuerteventura, Canary Islands. 

H. HISPANICA, Westerlund (unfigured). Spain. 

Section MIMA, Westerlund, 1886. 
H. BOISSIERI, Charpentier. PL 2, figs. 68, 69. 

Covered perforate, thick, irregularly striated, a little shining, 
cretaceous, white ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last deflected 



HELIX. 15 

anteriorly ; aperture with thick lip, projecting internally above 
in two thick, subconfluent tubercles. Diam. 25 mill. 

Arabia Petrasa, Judea. 
Bourguignat has described a var. ZONATA. 

H. FILIA, Mousson. PL 2, figs. 70, 71. 

Imperforate, rather solid, striulate, shining, white ; whorls 4, 
a little convex, the last subdepressed, rounded, constricted and 
deflected in front; aperture with a parietal tubercle at the junc- 
tion of the upper lip, lip irregular, profoundly sinuous. 

Diam. 17 mill. Palestine. 

Group III. PATULA, Held, 1837. 

Shell umbilicated, discoidal, turbinated or trochiform, rugose 
or strongly striated, usually horn-colored, frequently strigated, 
maculated or banded with chestnut ; whorls gradually enlarging, 
lip of the aperture simple, sharp ; jaws smooth or slightly striated , 
with a more or less marked median projection. There are several 
hundred species; distribution universal. The synonymy includes 
Delomphalus, Agassiz, 1837 ; Euryompliala, Herm., 1846, and 
Discus (in part), Ads., 1855. 

The following sections have been proposed : 

Section Discus, Fitzinger, 1833. 

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, periphery rounded. 

This is the typical division, of which H. ROTUNDATA, Mull., may 
be considered an example. The species inhabit Europe, the 
United States, Polynesia, etc. 

Subsection PUNCTUM, Morse, 1864. 

Shell minute, orbicularly depressed, umbilicus usually moder- 
ate or narrow, surface costate or strongly striated. Jaw com- 
posed of distinct quadrate overlapping plates, or imbricately 
folded. Type H. PYGM^EA, Drap. Europe. 

I place in this group, as synonyms, Patulastra, Pfr., 1878, and 
Carthaea and Phryxgnathus, Hutton. 

Subsection PLANOGYRA, Morse, 1864. 

Shell minute, perfectly flat above, umbilicus moderate; whorls 
very convex, the last one sharply ribbed. H. ASTERISCUS, Morse. 
United States. 



16 HELIX. 

Subsection GONIODISCUS, Fitzinger, 1833. 

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, periphery angulated. 
Type H. SOLARIA, Menke. Europe. 

Subsection AMPHIDOXA, Albers, 1850. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, depressed, plane above, convex 
below, with close, rounded volutions and impressed sutures ; last 
whorl narrow ; aperture slightly oblique, rounded lunate ; peris- 
tome simple, acute, margins joined. Type II. MARMORELLA, Pfr. 
Ins. Juan Fernandez. 

Stephanoda, Albers, 1830, may be placed here as a synonym. 

Subsection MACROCYCLOIDES, Martens, 1867. 

Shell depressed, shining, striate, hyaline, base slightly exca- 
vated, showing all the whorls, peristome acute, the margins 
somewhat approaching. Type H. OBSCURATA, Adams and Reeve. 
East Indies. 
Subsection TRICHODISCUS, Strebel and Pfeffer, 1819. 

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated, banded, beset with fine 
bristle-bearing warts; peristome a little expanded. Type H. 
COACTILIATA, Fer. Mexico, Central America. 

Subsection THYSANOPHORA, Strebel and Pfeffer. 

Shell flat or subconical, widely umbilicated, brown, with longi- 
tudinal plaits and rows of epidermal fringes ; aperture simple. 
Type H. IMPURA, Pfr. Mexico. 

Subsection PYRAMIDULA, Fitzinger, 1833. 

Shell pyramidal, minute, costate or strongly striate, umbilicus 
moderate or narrow. 

Microconus, Strebel, 1880, appears to be synonymous. 
Type H. RUPESTRIS, Drap. Europe. 

Subsection ACANTHINULA, Beck, 1846. 

Shell perforate, globosely turbinated, with a brownish, pli- 
cately ribbed, often aculeate epidermis; whorls 4-5; aperture 
rounded, peristome thin, somewhat expanded, its extremities 
approaching. 

The buccal plate is transversely and longitudinally striate, its 
edge slightly indented, with a middle projection. Viviparous, 
containing embryos in various stages of development at the 



HELIX. IT 

same time. H. ACULEATA, Mull. Europe. The United States 
and West Indies also have representatives. 
Zoogenites, Morse, 1864, is a synonym. 

Section ANGUISPIRA, Morse, 1864. 

Shell large, striate or finely ribbed, depressed-turbinate, horn 
color, striped or banded with brown, umbilicus moderate. H. 
ALTERNATA, Say. United States. 

Section ENDODONTA, Albers, 1850. 

Usually depressed, with moderate or wide umbilicus, rounded 
or carinated periphery, aperture with parietal or lip lamellae, or 
both, surface usually costate or rugosely striate, brownish or 
radiatingly variegated with yellowish and chestnut. H. HUA- 
HEINENSIS, Pfr. Mostly Polynesian. 

Pitys, H. and A. Adams, 1855, is a synonym. Mr. Garrett 
attempts to divide the species into two groups, Endodonta and 
Pitys ; there being differences in the periphery, umbilicus, 
number and situation of the teeth, etc. I at first endeavored to 
make a somewhat similar arrangement of the species, corres- 
ponding with those of the edentulate Patulae, but have not 
succeeded ; and in grouping the species I have recurred to 
Pfeiffer's artificial arrangement, as on the whole the most useful. 

Subsection LAOMA, Gray, 1849. 

Shell conical or trochiform, scarcely perforate, smooth, pellu- 
cid, shining ; whorls flattened, the last carinated, base plane ; 
aperture squarely depressed, lamellate, lip simple. H. LEIMONIAS, 
Gray. New Zealand. 

Actinaria, Pfr., 1855, may be united with this, as a synonym. 

Section LIBERA, Garrett, 1881. 

Shell small, widely umbilicated, but the umbilicus (in adults) 
strongly constricted below, so as to form a pouch-like cavity 
within ; whorls 7-9, costulate or striate, periphery usually angu- 
lated, rarely rounded ; peristome simple ; parietal region with 
one or two, and the palate with two or three internal laminae, 
columella emarginate and furnished with a spiral fold. H. FRA- 
TERCULA, Pease. Polynesia. 

These animals are remarkable for their habit of ovipositing 
2 



18 HELIX. 

into the cavernous umbilicus of their shells ; this umbilicus is 
constricted with the formation of the last two whorls, and the 
eggs and young are sometimes still more effectually retained by 
a temporary shelly plate which partially covers the opening. 

Section TROCIIOMORPHA, Albers, 1850. 

Subperforated to umbilicated, trochiform, with more or less 
obtuse apex ; whorls somewhat flattened, the last with a carinated 
periphery, and planulate base ; aperture depressed, oblique, peris- 
tome simple. 

A large group, the metropolis of which is central Polynesia, 
but some of the species are East Indian. Trochomorplioides 
and Ganesella, Nevill, are scarcely distinguishable. 

Liocystis^ Morch, contains a species having a sigmoid colu- 
mella. I have followed Pfeiffer in including it here. 

Subsection NIGRITELLA, Albers, 1860. 

Includes the t}^pical forms of Trocliomorpha, as distinguished 
from the following subsections. 

Subsection VIDENA, H. and A. Adams, 1852. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, discoidal, carinated at the periphery, 
flat or somewhat elevated above, flatly convex below ; aperture 
widely subtriangular, the peristorne simple, sharp or slightly 
thickened. Mostly Polynesian and Australasian. H. ACUTI- 
MARGO, Pfr. Philippines. 

Subsection THYSANOTA, Albers, 1860. 

Narrowly umbilicated, trochiform, thin ; whorls, scarcely con- 
vex, base carinated, with rigid hairs ; aperture angularly lunar, 
lip simple, acute, columellar margin slightly expanded. H. 
GUERINI, Pfr. India. 

The New Zealand group Thera, Hutton, appears to be iden- 
tical. 

Subsection PARARHYTIDA, Ancey. 

Narrowly umbilicated, conical-discoidal, obliquely plicately 
striate, thin, diaphanous, periphery acutely carinated. H. DIO- 
TYODES, Pfr. New Caledonia. 




HELIX. 19 



Subsection POECILOZONITES, Sandberger, 1884. 

Narrowly umbilicated, conoidally lenticular, with acutely 
angulated periphery; aperture subtrapezoidal, lip simple, thick- 
ened within, columella short, vertical. H. BERMUDENSIS, Pfr. 
Bermuda. 

Section MICROPHYSA, Albers, 1860. 

Shell nmbilicated, turbinately or globosely depressed, thin, 
striulate, scarcely shining, usually light yellowish ; whorls 4-5, 
slightly convex, slowly increasing ; aperture rounded-lunate, 
peristome thin, the margins converging. H. BOOTHIANA, Pfr. 
West Indies. 

Subsection PELTA, Albers, 1860. 

Shell imperforate, depressed, lenticular, thin, with concentric 
lines, acutely carinate ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last with 
convex base, impressed in the middle ; aperture subrhombic, 
peristome simple, acute. H. SPIRULATA, Pfr. Central America. 

Section PELLA, Albers, 1860. 

Shell imperforate or perforate, depressed orbicular, thin, 
striate, or plicate-striate ; whorls 5, slightly convex; aperture 
Innately rounded, peristome simple, acute; columellar lip sub- 
vertical, dilated above. H. BISCULPTA, Benson. South Africa. 
Phasis, Albers, 1850, proposed for a single Cape species, may 
be added. 

Group III. PATULA, Held, 1837. 

Section Discus, Fitzinger, 1833. 
H. ROTUNDATA, Miiller. PI. 3, figs. 72-76. 

Pers^ectively nmbilicated, depressed, yellowish corneous, 
maculated with chestnut, lightly costulate-striate, spire convex; 
whorls (H, planulate, the last obtusely subangulate on the 
periphery. Diam. 8 mill. 

Middle and Northern Europe. 
H. radiata, Da Costa, is a synonym. 

Yar. TURTONI, Fleming. 

Spire much depressed, upper surface plane. 
Yar. ALBINA, Fer. Figs. 75, 76. 

Shell whitish or greenish white, without rays. An albino. 



20 HELIX. 

Var. PALLIDA, Baudon. 

Whitish, the yellowish flammules faint. 

Var. SCALARIS, Fer. 

Whorls exserted. A monstrosity. 

Yar. GLOBOSA, Fried. 

H. PEBSPECTIVA, Say. PI. 3, figs. 77-79. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, very slightly convex 
above, excavated below, thin, reddish corneous, regularly 
costulate ; whorls 6^, slightly convex, slowly increasing. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

U. S. (Middle, Western and Southern States). 

North of Maryland it does not occur east of the Appalachian 
chain. 

It is Helix patula, Desh. 

H. RUDERATA, Studer. PI. 3, figs. 80-84. 

Perspectively umbilicated, depressed, yellowish corneous, 
finely costulate-striate, spire a little convex; whorls 4-5, the 
last with rounded periphery. Diam. 6-8 mill. 

Northern and Middle Europe, United States, Northern Asia. 

The synonyms are : H. rotundata ft Nilss ; H. umbilicus, 
Marklin; H.striatella, Anthony (figs. 82-84); H.perspectiua,~Fer. 

Yar. ALBIDA, Westerl. 

Shell greenish white. Northern Sweden, Norway. 

Yar. GORTSCHANA, Mousson. 

A little more depressed, thin, costulse not so close and less 
distinct. 

Russian Transcaucasia. 
Yar. OPULENS, Westerl und. 

Globosely convex, densely costulate, widely concavely um- 
bilicated; whorls convex, the last obtusely angulated, suture 
deep. Diam. 7, alt. 5 mill. 

Behring^s Island. 
H. PAUPER, Gould. PI. 3, figs. 85, 86. 

Discoidal, reddish brown, incremental striae costulate ; whorls 
4^, a little convex, with deep suture. Diam. 7'5 mill. 

Kamtschatka ; Jesso, Japan. 
Umbilicus narrower than in H. ruder ata ; but certainly very 



HELIX. 21 

closely allied to that species. The earlier described H. flocculus, 
Morelet, is probably the young of this species. 

H. CRONKHEITEI, Newcomb. PL 3, figs. 87, 88. 

Subdepressed, a little convex above, costulate striate, yellow- 
ish corneous ; whorls 4, suture wide and deep, almost channeled, 
umbilicus large, perspective. Diam. 5 mill. 

Oregon, Alaska. 

More elevated, striae stronger, suture deeper than in H. 
ruderata ; of which it is very probably a mere variety. 

H. HORNII, Gabb. PI. 3, figs. 89, 90. 

Openly umbilicated, depressed, brownish, minutely obliquely 
striate, and (rarely) sparsely hairy ; whorls 4J, the spire whorls 
subplanulate, the last rapidty descending, suture deep ; umbilicus 
about one-third the total diameter, indistinctly perspective. 

Diam. 4 mill. Arizona. 

According to Mr. Ancey this species occurs also in Honduras. 

H. FRIVALDSKYANA, Rossmassler. PI. 3, figs. 91-93. 

Perspective^ umbilicated, lenticularly depressed, obtusely 
carinated, yellowish white, lightly costulate-striate ; whorls 5, 
convex. Diam. 9 mill. 

Eoumelia. 

Is H. convexa, Fer. 

H. ABIETANA, Bourg. PI. 4, figs. 45-47. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, translucent, corneous, 
flamed with fulvous, strongly costulate; whorls 6, convex, slowly 
increasing, suture deep, last whorl with obtusely subangulated 
periphery, not descending in front. Diam. 5 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. ARROUXT, Bourguignat. PI. 4, fig. 56-58. 

Openly umbilicated, depressed, fragile, subpellucid, thinly 
striulate ; fulvous chestnut, maculated with whitish, apex 
shining, blackish ; whorls 5J, a little convex, suture well im- 
pressed, last whorl obscurely subangulated, base convex. 

Diam. 6 mill. 

Berytus, Syria. 
H. CONCINNA, Lowe. PI. 3, figs. 94-96. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, scarcely shining, light 
greenish corneous, closely plicate-cost ulate above, suture mod- 



22 HELIX. 

erate ; whorls 7J, very slowly increasing, a little convex, the 
last subcarinate above, not descending in front, base more con- 
vex, smoothish ; aperture somewhat obliquely lunar, margins 

approaching. Diam. 8 mill. 

Hierro, Canary Is. 
H. HERMANNI, Pfr. PI. 3, figs. 100, 1. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, closely costulate above, a little 
shining, diaphanous, corneous; whorls 4^, a little convex, slowly 
increasing, the last narrow, more slightly costulate on the base ; 
umbilicus conical ; aperture subvertical, rounded-lunar, margins 
approaching. Diam. 2 mill. 

Mirador, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

H. AMANCAENSIS, Hidalgo. PL 3, figs. 2, 3. 

Widely, profoundly umbilicated, thin, very closely covered by 
hair-like costulations, brownish corneous, spire subplanate, 
suture profound ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, convex, narrow, 
the last scarcely wider than the penultimate. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Near Lima, Peru. 
H. HUMILIS, Button. PL 3, figs. 4-6. 

Widely, profoundly umbilicated, striulate, diaphanous, a little 
shining, brownish corneous ; whorls 5, rounded, periphery sub- 
angulated. Diam. 3'3 mill. 

Landour, Eastern India. 
H. COMA, Gray. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely costulate, ribs dis- 
tant, straight, about nine in the tenth of an inch ; pale brown 
with bands of reddish brown, periphery rounded. 

Diam. 5'5 mill. 

New Zealand. 

H. lau, Pfr., is a synonym. Unfigured : the H. coma, of Pfr., 
being a different species, referred to H. lucetta. 

H. LUCETTA, Hutton. PL 3, figs. 7-9. 

Ribs rather distant, about fifteen in the tenth of an inch, 
spire convex, more elevated than in the last species, periphery 
obscurely angled ; pale brown obscurely spotted. Diam. 7 mill. 

New Zealand. 
H. coma, of Pfr., not Gray. 

The animal is white, the peduncles purplish, and a band on 
each side of the head slightly speckled with purple. 



HELIX. 23 

H. VARICOSA, Pfr. PL 3, fig. 10. 

Umbilicus moderate, spire slightly elevated, varicosely angu- 
lated by distant costae, not shining, fuscous ; whorls 4^-5, a 
little flattened, base somewhat flattened. Diam. 3*5 mill. 

New Zealand. 

H. GAMMA, Pfr. PI. 3, fig. 11. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, very closely 
costulate-striate (about 30 in the tenth of an inch), diaphanous; 
light corneous, nebulously marked with chestnut; whorls 5, a 
little convex, slowly increasing, the last more convex below. 

Diam. 3 mill. 

New Zealand. 

H. buccinella, Reeve, is a synonym. 

H. ANGUICULUS, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 13. 

Umbilicated, subdiscoidal, brownish with remote chestnut 
strigations, ribs about 33 in the tenth of an inch ; whorls 5, 
rounded. Diam. 2-5 mill. 

New Zealand. 

Is H. theta, Pfr. MS. 

H. TAPIRINA, Hutton. 

Ribs about 18 in the tenth of an inch, horny brown, obscurely 
banded with chestnut. Diam. 5 mill. 

New Zealand. 

More closely ribbed than H. coma, with which Hutton at first 
identified it. .Unflgured. 

H. ZETA, Pfr. PL 3, fig. 14. 

Widely umbilicated, subdiscoidal, somewhat solid, closely 
plicate, about 23 in the tenth of an inch, not shining, light yel- 
lowish, tessellated with large chestnut maculations, spire plane, 
subimmevsed in the middle, suture profound ; whorls 5^, very 
narrow, convex, the base more lightly plicate. Length, 3'6 mill. 

New Zealand. 
H. infecta, Reeve, is a synonym. 

H. EGESTA, Gray. PL 3, fig. 15. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, regularly spirally sulcate, 
with distant radiating ribs ; reddish brown, sometimes mottled 
with yellowish ; whorls 5^, convex, the last narrow, often a little 
depressed in front. Diam. 4*3 mill. New Zealand. 



24 HELIX. 

H. ETA, Pfr. PI. 3, Hg. 12. 

Rather widely umbilicated, depressed, silky, yellowish white, 
ribs very close, about 40 in the tenth of an inch, suture impressed ; 
whorls 4, barely convex, the last wider, depressed. Diam. 3 mill. 

New Zealand. 

H. corniculum, Reeve, is a synonym. 

H. DIEMENENSIS, Cox. PI. 3, figs. 16-18. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, translucid, with a number of some- 
what prominent subarcuate costulations, not shining, yellowish, 
radiately ornamented with chestnut strigations ; whorls 4 J, slowly 
increasing, a little convex, the last rounded at the periphery. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Tasmania. 

This has been suspected to be a variety of the New Zealand 
H. coma, Pfr. not Gray = H. lucetta, Hutton. Mr. Petterd 
reduces the following Tasmanian species to synonyms of this : 
H. Thomsoni, H. Daveyensis, H. Atkinsoni, H. Camillas, and H. 
Wellingtonensis, Cox (figs. 17, 18). 

H. CUPREA, Cox. PI. 3, figs. 21, 22. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, copper-colored, shining, suture 
wide ; whorls 4^-5, moderately increasing, the last with rounded 
periphery, closely, lightly striate above and below, a little de- 
flected in front. Diam, 2-5 mill. 

King George's Sound, Australia. 

H. SATURNI, Cox. PI. 3, fig. 23. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, discoidal, subconcave 
above, everywhere costulate, reddish corneous, a little shining ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last tumid, spire subimmersed, suture 
deep. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

H. costulata, Cox, is a synonym. 

H. BRAZIERI, Cox. PI. 4, figs. 24, 25. 

Umbilicus perspective, very wide, plano-discoidal, thin, lightly, 
very closely costulate, the interstices decussated by slight lines, 
ash-color, with chestnut lines and strigations, spire plane, suture 
deep; whorls 5, regularly increasing, the last rounded, costulate 
below as above. Diam. 3'3 mill. 

Cook's River, Sydney, Australia. 



HELIX. 25 

H. LIRATA, Cox. PI. 4, figs. 26, 27. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, plano-discoidal, regularly 
strongly costate, chestnut corneous ; whorls 3^, the last rounded, 
spire subimmersed, suture profoundly impressed. Diam. 3 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 
H. STROUDENSIS, Cox. PL 4, figs. 28, 29. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, thinly costulately striate, con- 
vex, suture impressed, brownish ; whorls 5, spire truncate. 

Diam. 3 mill. Stroud, Port Stephens, Australia.* 

H. PEXA, Cox. PL 4, figs. 30, 31. 

Widely umbilicated, almost discoidal, thin, translucent, regu- 
larly, closely, arcuately costate, costse appearing as though in 
pairs, light j^ellowish corneous, spire plane, suture moderate; 
whorls 4, convex, the last narrow, rounded. Diam. 2 mill. 

Greystanes, N. So. Wales. 
H. COCHLTDIUM, Cox. PI 4, figs. 32, 33. 

Umbilicus wide, scarcely narrower at the bottom, shell thin, 
translucent, dull vitreous, with numerous thin, elevated, curved 
riblets, the interstices lightly, very minutely granulate and 
lineate ; white ; whorls 4-J, convex, spire plane, last whorl narrow, 
rounded, a little inflated and plicate below. Diam. 2*25 mill. 

Clarence JRiver, Australia. 

More strongly sculptured than H. pexa. 

H. BELLI, Cox. PL 4, fig. 36. 

Widely and perspectively umbilicated, discoidal, depressed 
and subconcave, regularly costellate, reddish chestnut color, a 
little shining ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last tumid, suture 
deeply impressed. Diam. 1-75 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 
H. COLLISI, Brazier. PL 5, figs. 79, 80. 

Widely umbilicated, shining, yellowish corneous, lightly 
striate above, smooth below, suture strong impressed ; whorls 
5, regularly increasing, convex, narrow, the last a little descend- 
ing, excavated around the umbilicus. Diam. 1'75 mill. 

Ml. Wellington, Tasmania. 

Described as H. minima, Cox, preoccupied by H. Adams for 
a Mauritian species. 



26 HELIX. 

H. DECRETA, Gassies. PI. 4, figs. 34, 35. 

Widely umbilicated, lenticular, lightly striate, light corneous 
unicolored under a yellowish brown epidermis, scarcely shining; 
whorls 5', convex, the last slightly descending, suture linear. 

Diam. 2 mill. New Caledonia. 

H. SUBCOACTA, Gassies. PI. 4, figs. 48, 49. 

Widely umbilicated, striulate, reddish brown, epidermis some- 
what wrinkled, hairy; whorls 5, regularly enlarging, the last 
scarcely descending, suture deep. Diam. 3 mill. 

Ins. Art, N. Caledonia. 
H. LAMBERT:, Gassies. PI. 4, figs. 37, 38. 

Yery widely umbilicated, depressed, subplane above, thin, 
pellucid, shining corneous, suture deep, surface longitudinally 
and spirally striated; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, rounded, the 
last not descending in front, aperture brownish. Diam. 8 mill. 

Near Noumea, N. Caledonia. 
H. INCULTA, Gassies. PI. 4, fig. 51. 

Umbilicated, lenticular, subcarinate, a little convex, thin, 
transversely flexuosely strigate, obscurely olivaceous under the 
epidermis ; whorls 3^-4^, rapidly increasing, the last descending, 
depressed above the middle, convex at base ; margins of peris- 
tome joined by a thin parietal callus. Diam. 6 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
H. RUSTICULA, Gassies. PI. 16, figs. 71, 72. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, strongly, obliquely, lamellarly 
striated, reddish corneous or dark reddish; whorls 6, the last 
depressed, the suture deep, carinated. Diam. 8 mill. 

Isle of Pines, New Caledonia. 
H. MELALEUCARUM, Gassies. PL 4, fig. 50. 

Narrowly umbilicated, convex, flexuosely striated, dirty 
chestnut-color, apex yellowish, spire turbinate, suture profound; 
whorls 4, convex, regularly increasing, the last descending, per- 
iphery subcarinated, base flattened. Diam. 6'25 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
H. DEMANI, Tapparone-Canefri. PI. 4, figs, 39-41. 

Widely umbilicated, subobliquely closely costulate, corneous, 
subpellucid, spire almost immersed ; whorls 4, regularly enlarg- 



HELIX. 27 

ing, with very deep suture, last whorl not descending in front, 
peripher}' very obtusely subangulated. Diam. 1/25 mill. 

Ins. Aru, New Guinea. 
H. CALDWELLT, Barclay. PI. 4, figs. 42-44. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, arcuately costulate, fulvous cor- 
neous, waxy ; whorls 5^, with deep suture, the last depressed, 
base convex ; columella sinuous. Diam. 9 mill. 

Mauritius. 

This is mentioned in Yol. ii. 27, as an imfigured species of 
Erepta. I now supply a figure of H. Paulus, Morelet, which 
proves to be synonymous. It is a true Patula. 

H. PRINCEI, Liardet. PL 5, fig. 83 a. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, dark horn-color, lighter 
below ; whorls 3, costulate, suture deeply impressed ; aperture 
round. Diam. 3-4 mill. 

Tauiunni, Viti Is. 

" This is the only Yitian shell I have seen resembling any 
of the Australian Helices.'' LIARDET. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

H. CARPETANA, Hidalgo. Near San Ildefonso, Spain. 

H. OMALISINA, Bourg. France. 

H. TENUisTRiATA, Biniiey. . Tennessee. 

This species has never been identified. 

H. LEPTA, Westerlund. Nangasaki, Japan. 

H. REINIANA, Pfr. Bermuda. 

H. SQUARROSA, Gould. Japan. 

H. SCUTULATA, Shuttl. Teneriffe. 

H. GARACHICOENSIS, Wollaston. Madeira. 

H. B1ANCA, H. TIMANDRA, H. JESSICA, H. SYLVIA, Hlltton. 

New Zealand. 

H. BARRENENSIS, H. MIMOSA, Petterd. Tasmania. 

H. SUBRUGOSA, Brazier. Hobart Toivn, Tasmania. 

H. SPALDINGI, and Yar. CARINATA, Brazier. N. Australia. 

H. FORNICATA, Gould. Sandwich Islands. 

In the Corrigenda to the Mollusca of the Wilkes Exploring 
Expedition, Dr. Gould states that the only specimen was lost, 
and H. Tongana, Quoy, figured by the artist for this species. 
H. NEWTONI, Nevill. Mauritius. 



28 HELIX. 

Subsection PLANOGYRA, Morse, 1864. 
H. ASTERISCUS, Morse. PI. 4, fig. 52. 

Orbicular, somewhat depressed, brownish; whorls 4, well- 
rounded, crossed by 25-30 thin, transparent, prominent, reclined 
ribs, the interstices lightly striate, spire not elevated, suture 
deep ; umbilicus moderate, showing all the whorls. 
Diam. 1*5 mill. 

State of Maine ; N. of Lake Superior ; 

Tacoma, Washington Terr. 

Subsection PUNCTUM, Morse, 1864. 

I. European Species. 

It is very doubtful whether this group should be separated at 
all from Discus. Certain of the species possess a distinctive 
character in the jaw, but this organ has not been examined in 
many of the forms included by Pfeiffer in his undescribed sec- 
tion Patulastra, which is, at least typically, the equivalent of 
Punctum. I have retained the species as assigned to the group 
by Pfeiffer, but many of them are certainly typical Discus, and 
conchologically there is no gap between the groups. 

IT. MICROPLEUROS, Paget. PI. 6, figs 19-21. 

Minute, openly umbilicated, somewhat flattened above, convex 
below, shining, subpellucid, corneous or amber-colored, costate ; 
whorls 4, a little convex, with impressed suture, last whorl 
dilated. Diam. 2 mill. 

Southern France ; Sardinia. 

H. tenuicostata, Shuttleworth, 1848 (= H. Shuttleworthi, Ser- 
vain), from the last named country, is a synonym. 

H. ELACHIA, Bourguignat. PI. 6, figs. 22-24. 

Yery minute, umbilicated, planate above, convex below, pel- 
lucid, hyaline, light corneous, elegantly costate ; whorls 3J, 
rapidly increasing, with impressed suture, last whorl slightly 
descending in front, periphery subangulated, obscurely subcari- 
nated around the umbilicus. Diam. 1'5 mill. 

Angers, France. 
H. DEBEAUXTANA, Bourg. PI. 6, figs. 31-33. 

Narrowly, deeply umbilicated, subpellucid, a little shining, 
corneous, with whitish flammules on the earlier whorls, sharply 



o 

lfNIV 




HELIX. 29 



striulate ; whorls 4, a little convex, regularly and rapidly increas- 
ing. Diaru. 2 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. POUPILLIERI, Bourg. PL 6, figs. 40-42. 

Deeply umbilicated, shining, subpellucid, corneous, becoming 
orange-brown in the last whorl, elegantly obliquely lamellarly 
costate ; whorls 4-5, convex, rapidly increasing, with well im- 
pressed suture, last whorl a little deflected downwards, rounded. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. PYGM^A, Draparnaud. PI. 6, figs. 28-30. 

Very minute, openly umbilicated, brownish corneous, slightly 
shining, minutely striulate ; whorls 3^-4, regularly slowly in- 
creasing, with well impressed suture, periphery rounded ; aper- 
ture widely lunar. Diam. 1*75-2 mill. 

Europe, United States. 

The synonyms of this well-known species are H. minuta, 
Studer ; H. Kirbii, Shepp. ; H. Taranti, Benzo ; ? H. De- 
shayesii, Calcara (Sicily; perhaps a juvenile), and H. minutis- 
ima, Lea, the type of Morse's genus Punctum, inhabiting the 
northern portion of the United States. 

H. AUCAPITATNEANA, Bourg. PL 6, figs. 34-36. 

Small, perviously umbilicated, corneous, translucent, obliquely 
striulate, particularly above ; whorls 4J-5, scarcely convex 
above, rapidly enlarging, with well-impressed suture, the last 
whorl dilated, obsoletely angulated on the periphery, very slightly 
descending at the aperture. Diam. 2 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. SORORCULA, Benoit. PL 6, figs. 46, 47. 

Umbilicated, whitish fulvous, closely costulate, opaque ; whorls 
4, slightly convex, the last a little descending in front, not 
dilated ; aperture a little oblique, the margins approaching. 

Diam. 3 '5 mill. Sicily. 

II. MASSOTI, Bourg. PL 6. figs. 25-27. 

Widely umbilicated, almost flattened above, subpellucid, 
slightly shining, light corneous, smooth, scarcely striulate ; 
whorls 4J, convex, slowly regularly enlarging, with channeled 
suture, the last slightly descending in front. Diam. 1-5 mill. 

Eoussillon and Catalonia. 



30 HELIX 

H. SCHWERZENBACHII, Calcara. PI. 6, figs. 43-45. 

Minute orbicular, thin, pellucid, glabrous, horny fulvous, 
widely umbilicated ; whorls 3, convex, the last large, inflated. 

Diam. 0'66 mill. 

Sicily. 
Probably a juvenile. 

H. SUDENSIS, Pfr. PL 6, figs. 37-39. 

Perspective^ umbilicated, yellowish corneous, with thread- 
like costulations ; whorls 6, narrow, the last not descending, 
suture deep; peristome flexuously repand, columellar margin 

subpatulous. Diam. 7 '5 mill. 

Candia. 
H. BALMET, Potiez et Michaud. PL 6, figs. 48-50. 

Openly umbilicated, elegantly costate-striate, brownish yellow ; 
whorls 6, convex, slowly enlarging, aperture subvertical, lunar. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Sicily. 

This is H. flavescws, Parr., H. striolata, Phil., H. Teresas, 
Benoit,and H.flamda, Ziegler. The Marchioness Paulucci has 
recently examined the type of this species and finds it to be a 
true species equaling and anterior in publication to H. flamda, 
Ziegler, but the shell which Pfeifler and other authors have 
called H. Balmei, and which Shuttleworth has figured under 
that name in his " Notitiae-," is a Hyalina, and can stand as 
Hyalina Balmei, Shuttlew. 

H. ERBELII, Roth. PL 6, figs. 51, 52. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, closely costulate, diapha- 
nous, yellowish corneous, paler below; whorls 5 J, convex, slowly 
increasing, the last not descending, periphery rounded. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Isle of Rhodes. 
H. HAUFFENI, F. Schmidt. PL 22, figs. 15, 16. 

Rather widely umbilicated, elegantly costulate, subdiaphanous, 
yellowish white ; whorls 4^-5, convex, the last narrow, not 
descending. Diam. 3'25 mill. 

Caverns in Carniola. 

This has been made the type of a new subgenus Spelseodixcus, 
Brusina ; the animal is entirely blind, the visual organs absent. 



HELIX. 31 

Un figured Species. 

H. ARANEA, Parreyss. Sicily. 

H. SIMONIANA, Bourg. So. France. 

H LEUERI, Bottger. Transcaucasia. 

H. BALATONICA, Servain. Lake Balaton, Hungary. 

H. LETESSIERIANA, Bourg. Algeria. 

H. CAROT^E, Bourg. Tuscany. 

H. PRONOE, Servain. Tuscany. 

H. SERVAINI, Bourg. France. 

H. NEMESIANA, Bourg. Maritime Alps. 

II. Atlantic Species. 

H PUTRESCENS, Lowe. PL 6, figs. 53-55. 

Perspectively umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely striulate, 
shining, dark brown; whorls 5|-6, a little convex. 

Diam. 9-9'5 mill. 

Ins. Palina. 

Probably belongs in Discus. 

H. PUSILLA, Lowe. PI. 6, figs. 56-58, 64-68. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, brownish, distantly, membranously 
costate above, suture distinctly impressed ; whorls 3J, a little 
convex, last, whorl not descending, base smooth ; aperture 
subcircular. Diam. 2 mill. 

Madeira, Teneriffe, etc. 

H. hypocrita, Dohrn, and H. servilis, Shuttl. (figs. 64-66), are 



II. LUSEANA, Paiva. PL 6, figs. 59, 60. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, shining, pale oliva- 
ceous yellow, with regular incurved radiating striae ; whorls 4-4 J, 
tumid, gradately increasing, the last not carinate, not deflected 
anteriorly, periphery obsoletely angulated. Diam. 2:5 mill. 

Madeira. 

Has been considered a variety of H. pusilla, Lowe ; differs in 
the umbilicus. 

H. TEXTILIS, Shuttleworth. PL 6, figs. 61-63. 

Moderately perspectively umbilicated, rather solid, obliquely 
closely costulate ; yellowish corneous, here and there maculated 
with brown, suture deep; whorls 7, convex, slowly enlarging, 



32 HELIX. 

the last not descending, periphery rounded, base more flattened, 
lightly striate ; margins of aperture approaching. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Ins. Palma. 
Probably a true Discus. 

H. PARVULA, Rang (unfigured). Cape Verd. 

III. East African Species. 
H. CRYOPHILA, Martens. PL 7, figs. 67-70. 

Openly umbilicated, distinctly, subdistantly costulate above, 
lightly striate below, corneous, diaphanous, shining ; whorls 3^, 
convex, the last one slightly deflected in front ; aperture diag- 
onal, subcircular. Diam. 2 mill. 

Abyssinia. 

H. ABYSSTNICA, Jickeli. PL 7, figs. 71-74. 

Perviously umbilicated, somewhat solid, opaque, brownish, 
obliquely, strongly, closely costulate-striate ; whorls 4, a little 
convex, slowly and regularly enlarging, suture rather deep, last 
whorl narrow, not deflected in front ; aperture oblique, widely 

lunar. Length, 25 mill. 

Abyssinia, 

First described by Martens as H. riuularis, a name preoccu- 
pied by Krauss. 

IY. Asiatic Species. 

H. EUOMPHALUS, Blanford. PL 7, figs. 75-77. 

Moderately umbilicated, fulvous corneous, thin, obliquely 
striate, suture impressed ; whorls 4. rounded, the last somewhat 
narrow, scarcely descending ; margins of periphery distant. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

Nilgiri Mts., India. 

H. BIANCONII, Deshayes. PL 7, figs. 78, 79. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, pellucid, fuscous corneous ; whorls 
5, narrow, convex, with deep linear suture, regularly thinly 
striated, last whorl double width, below less strongly striate ; 
extremities of peristome distant. Diam. 5 mill. 

Sytshuan, China. 

Should be placed in Discus, perhaps. 



HELIX. 33 

H. NEHERENSIS, Benson. PI. 7, figs. 80, 81. 

Narrowly, perspectively umbilicated, obliquely striulate, de- 
cussated above and below by very close scarcely impressed con- 
centric lines, suture subchanneled ; whorls 5, a little convex, 
the last rounded at the periphery, convex below, excavated 
around the umbilicus; margins of peristome joined by a thin, 
minutely granulated callus. Diam. 5 mill. 

Mahabaleshwar, Western India. , 

The figures, which are copied from Conch. Indica, appear to 
represent a Byalina rather than a Patula. Perhaps the striae 
are not sufficiently indicated. 

H. ARTIFICIOSA, Benson. PI. 7, fig. 82. 

Narrowly umbilicated, a little shining, above with close revolv- 
ing lirae and sulcations, decussated by oblique costulations, below 
with remoter Iira3 and radiating striae, light corneous, suture 
deep ; whorls 6j, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last sub- 
angulate above, convex below ; peristome slightly sinuated, right 
margin crenulate. Diam. 14 mill. 

Tenasserim, Burmah. 

Does not belong in this group. 

H. FRITILLATA, Benson. PI. 22, figs. 17-19. 

Perspectively umbilicated, arcuately costulate-striate, decus- 
sated by impressed close spiral striae above, the interstices con- 
spicuously quadrately granular, smoother and polished below, 
light corneous, suture profound ; whorls 6, narrow, slowly enlarg- 
ing, convex, the last scarcely descending anteriorly, more convex 
below, and excavated around the umbilicus ; peristome externally 
margined below, extremities remote. Diam. 13 mill. 

Pegu. 
H. QUADRISPIRA, Martens. PI. 7, figs. 83-85. 

Widely perspectively umbilicated, subangulate, closely some- 
what obliquely costulate, grayish white, a little shining ; whorls 
4, slightly convex ; rapidly increasing, with deep suture, last 
whorl subangulated, descending in front, more convex below; 
margins of peristome approaching. Diam. 5*5 mill. 

Ceram, Moluccas. 
Probably a Discus. 

H. NAGPORENSIS, Pfr. (unfigured). Nagpore, India. 

3 



34 HELIX. 

Y. Australasian Species. 

H. MOBTI, Cox. PL 7, figs. 81, 88. 

Widely, profoundly umbilicated, brownish, rugosety coState, 
the interstices very minutely, lightly, decussately striate-punc- 
tulate, somewhat solid ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last rounded. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

Sydney, Australia. 

H. paradoxa, Cox, is a synonym. This and several following 
species belong to Discus. 

H. HOBARTI, Cox. PL 7, figs. 89, 90. 

Openly, deeply umbilicated, dark brown, closely regularly 
costate; whorls 4J, rounded, base convex; aperture almost 
circular, the margins approximating, the columellar not everted. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Hobart, Tasmania. 
Allied to the preceding species. 

H. TASMANIA, Cox. PL 7, figs. 91, 92. 

Largely deeply umbilicated, thin, regularly, strongly costate, 
alternately dark chestnut and pallid ; whorls 5, planulate towards 
the suture, the last slightly descending in front, base convex ; 
margins of aperture somewhat approaching, the columellar 
margin not dilated. Diam. 3 mill. 

Mt. Wellington, Tasmania. 

H. STELLATA, Brazier. PL 7, figs, 93, 94. 

Deeply, perspectively umbilicated, chestnut-colored, not shin- 
ing, everywhere regularly, lightly costate, suture narrow and 
deep ; whorls 4^, rounded, the last slightly descending in front. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

Mt. Wellington, Tasmania. 

H. similis, Cox (not Adams), is a synonym. 

H. RETIPORA, Cox. PL 7, figs. 95, 96. 

Perforate, closely costulately striate, decussated by very minute 
concentric lines, rather solid, somewhat shining, reddish corne- 
ous, lighter colored below, suture moderately impressed ; whorls 
4, plano-convex, the last not descending, convex below ; aperture 
oblique, almost rounded-lunate. Diam. 5 mill. 

Flinders Range , Australia. 



HELIX. 35 

H. MELBOURNENSTS, Cox. PI. 7, figs. 97-99. 

Shell subumbilicated, regular^ lightl} r striate, converging 
towards the umbilicus ; fuscous, paler below, suture impressed ; 
whorls 4J, rounded ; aperture Innately rounded, margins of 
peristome converging, columellar lip widely reflected. 

Diam. 5 mill. 

Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

H. VORTICELLA, H. Adams. PI. 7, figs. 100, 1. 

Openly perspectively umbilicated, thin, obliquely very closely 
costulate-striate. fulvous, suture distinct ; whorls 4-J, convex, the 
last not descending, subdepressed above ; margins of aperture 
approaching, right margin subsinuated. Diam. 2'25 mill. 

Mauritius. 
H. TEXTRIX, Pfr. PI. 7, figs. 2-4. 

Conically umbilicated, thin, striulate and rather distantly 
arcuately plicate, diaphanous, scarcely shining, light corneous, 
with angular chestnut lines ; whorls 5, a little flattened, the last 
depressed, periphery subangulate, not descending anteriorly, 
base more convex. Diam. 8 mill. 

Lord Howe's Island, New Hebrides. 

H. AULOCOSPIRA, Pfr. PI. 7, fig. 86. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, irregularly lightly malleate, regu- 
larly sulcated by impressed concentric lines, yellowish corneous ; 
whorls 4-|, depressed, rapidly increasing, the last not descending. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

New Hebrides. 

Not a member' of this group. 

H. CONFINIS, Gassies. PI. 7, figs. 7, 8. 

Umbilicus moderate, shell obliquely lamelliformly striate, fer- 
ruginous chestnut-color, suture impressed ; whorls 4, gradately 
enlarging, the last subdilated, base scarcely convex. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
H. SUBTERSA, Gassies. PL 7, figs. 5, 6. 

Rather narrowly, deeply umbilicated, lamelliformly striated, 
brownish, suture impressed ; whorls 4J, the last descending. 
Diam. 2 mill. 

Noumea, Lifou, New Caledonia. 



36 HELIX. 

H. CALLIOPE, Crosse. PL T, figs. 9, 10. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, with subflexuous, minute, 
rather distant costulations, yellowish white with longitudinal 
markings of dark brown, suture impressed ; whorls 5, rather 
flattened, the last not descending, depressed, the base subplanu- 
late. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
H. VETULA, Gassies. PI. T, figs. 11, 12. 

Rather widely umbilicated, rather thin, very closely costulate- 
plicate above, radiately striate below, brownish corneous, suture 
deep ; whorls almost 6, convex, slowly increasing, the last scarcely 
wider, not descending; margins of aperture remote. Diam. 4 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
H. RHIZOPHORARUM, Gassies. PI. Y, figs. 16, 17. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, regularly strongly striated, 
light corneous ; whorls 6, constricted, regularly increasing, the 
last not descending, rounded below. Diam. 5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

More elevated and less strongly striate than H. vetula ; differ- 
ing also in color and caducous epidermis. This, and other New 
Caledonian species, would be more appropriately placed in 
Discus. 

H. TASLEI, Crosse. .PL 7, figs. 13-15. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, subtranslucent, a little 
shining, with light, arcuate, rather distant plications, light ful- 
vous corneous, suture impressed ; whorls 4, rather flattened, 
base planate; aperture similarly colored, margins joined by a 
very thin callus. Diam. 3*5 mill. 

Near Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. LANGLEYANA, H. PETTERDI, H. ARCHITECTONICA, H. ASSIMILIS, 

H. LUCKMANII, H. CURACO^), all of Brazier. Tasmania. 

H. MATHIUN^E, Petterd. Tasmania. 

H. STANLEYENSIS, Petterd. (H. Petterdiana, Taylor, not Brazier). 

Tasmania. 

H. FERNSHAWENSIS, Petterd. Tasmania. 

H. IGNAVA, Pfr. New Hebrides. 



HELIX. 37 



, Hutton ) 
H. KIVI, Gray. PI. 21, figs. 8-10. 

Imperforate, white, radiately tessellate with purple-chestnut 
above, obliquely closely striate ; whorls 6, somewhat flattened, 
the last subangulated, base convex, smoothish. Diam. 10 mill. 

New Zealand. 
H. irradiata, Gould (figs. 9, 10), is a synonym. 

(PHRTXGNATHUS, Hutton.) 
H. MARI.E, Gray. PI. 21, fig. 11. 

Imperforate, rather thin, striulate, oily-shining, greenish cor- 
neous, with obscure narrow brownish strigations, suture mar- 
gined ; whorls 5J, somewhat flattened, acutely carinated, base 

convex. Diam. 6-5 mill. 

New Zealand. 
H. iimbraculum, Pfr., is a synonym. 

H. REGULARIS, Pfr. PL 21, fig. 12. 

Subcovered perforate, thin, very minutely striate, pellucid, 
oily-shining, yellowish corneous, suture scarcely impressed ; 
whorls 6, subpUme, slowly increasing, the last not descending, 
acutely carinated, base somewhat flattened. Diam. 3 mill. 

New Zealand. 
H. ERIGONE, Gray. PL 21, fig. 13. 

Perforate, thin, smooth, pellucid, fulvous, obsoletely red 
flamed, suture impressed ; whorls 6-7, slightly convex, the last 
carinate. not descending, base scarcely more convex. 

Diam. 2'5 mill. New Zealand. 

H. Heldiana, Pfr., is a synonym. 

H. GLABRIUSCULA, Pfr. PL 21, fig. 14. 

Perforate, thin, smooth, pellucid, shining, yellowish, angu- 
lately lineated with chestnut ; whorls 5J, slightly convex, the 
last not descending, base, a little flattened. Diam. 35 mill. 

New Zealand. 
Unfigured Species. 

H. ARIEL, H. MARGTNATA, H. CELIA (H. falua of Hutton, not 
PfeifTer), H. PHRYNIA, H. TITANIA, H. HAASTI, all of Hutton. 

New Zealand. 
Hutton adds H. CONELLA, Pfr.; H. SCIADIUM, Pfr., and H. 



38 HELIX. 

FATUA, Pfr. The latter I have included in Conulus. These are 
all New Zealand species. 

VI. Polynesian Species. 

H. RADIELLA, Pfr. PI. 8, fig. 18. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, every where closely costulate, 
corneous, with undulating radiating chestnut strigations, broader 
at the periphery ; whorls 5^, a little convex, the last subangu- 

lated ; the base a little flattened. Diam. 4-75 mill. 

Ins. Opara. 

H. pardalina, Desh., and H. undulata, Fer., are synonyms. 

H. FILIOLA, Fer. PL 8, figs. 19-21. 

Ver}' widely umbilicated, radiately striate-plicate, reddish 
chestnut ; whorls convex, narrow, striae furcate at the umbilicus. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Inn. Tonga. 
H. GRADATA, Gould. PI. 8, figs. 22-24. 

Planorboid, umbilicated, thin, shining, brownish-green, varie- 
gated radiately with yellow ; whorls 5, closely obliquely striated,- 
decussated by interrupted spiral striae, last whorl subangulated, 
deflected towards the aperture, suture channeled, base angulated 

at the umbilicus. Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Tongataboo. 
H. TIARA, Mighels. PI. 8, figs. 25-27. 

Widely conically umbilicated, rather thin, arcuately striated 
above, a little shining, yellowish, with lightning-like chestnut 
strigations ; whorls 6, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last 
rather narrow, not descending, base scarcely striate ; aperture 
subopaline, peristome margins approximating. Diam. 12 mill. 

Ins. Kauai, Sandwich Is. 
H. MODICELLA, Fe>. PI. 8, figs. 28-32. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, closely costulate, yellowish, 
strigated tessellately with chestnut ; whorls 5, convex, periphery 
rounded, suture well impressed ; aperture obliquely subcircular. 

Diam. 3 mill. 

Tahiti, Kermandec, Ellice Is. 

The synonyms are H. Atiensis, Pease, and H. vicaria, Mous- 
son (figs. 31, 32). 




HELIX. ' 39 



Yar. VICINALIS, Mousson. 

Whorls more rounded, costulate but thin ; whitish with macu- 
lations and flames of chestnut. 

H. LAMELLICOSTA, Garrett.' PI. 8, figs. 33, 34. 

Widely umbilicated, orbicular, thin, subpellucid, brown or 
fulvous brown, unicolored or tessellated with deeper brown, 
radiately, rather distantly, lamelliformly costate, suture deeply 
impressed; whorls 4, convex, slowly and regularly increasing, 
the last not descending in front, periphery rounded. 

Diam. 3 mill. 

Society Islands. 
H. TENUICOSTATA, Garrett. PL 8, figs. 35-37. 

Perspectively umbilicated, thin, pellucid, a little shining, light 
corneous, not variegated, laminately costate, the ribs thin, rather 
close, oblique, slightly sinuous, continued on the base, interstices 
lightly, closely striate, suture deep ; whorls 4, plano-convex, 
rapidly enlarging, base convex. Diam. 4-5 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 
H. OANALIS, Garrett. PI. 8, figs. 38-40. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, slightly 
shining, brownish corneous, with darker strigations, closely, 
obliquely, sinuously costate, suture deeply channeled ; whorls 5, 
somewhat convex, the last a little deflected anteriorly, base 
rounded. Diam. 6 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 
H. PROXIMA, Garrett. PL 8, figs. 41-43. 

Deeply moderately umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, closely, 
sinuously, obliquely, rudely striated, yellowish corneous (rarely 
ashy), with widely luniform chestnut tessellations above and 
radiating striae below, suture deep ; whorls 4J, convex, rather 
rapidly increasing, the last a little planulate and declining above, 
base convex ; peristome sinuous, upper margin receding. 

Diam. 3*5 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 
H. RUDIS, Garrett. PL 8, figs. 44-46. 

Moderately, deeply umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, lightly 
laminately costate, costse rude, sinuous, more or less irregular, 
or partially deficient, the interstices very lightly finely striated 
corneous, occasionally brownish or blackish brown, with or 



40 HELIX. 

without chestnut radiations, suture channeled ; whorls 4J, a 
little convex, rather rapidly increasing, the last a little deflected 
in front, base convex. Diam. 3J mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 

H. DECORTICATA, Garrett. PL 8, figs. 47-50. 

Moderately, deeply umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, ash-colored 
under a brownish corneous epidermis, decorticated in adults, 
rarely strigated with chestnut, arcuately costate, the interstices 
very lightly striated, suture channeled ; whorls 5, convex, 
slowly increasing, the last deflected above, rounded below, 
periphery obsoletely angulated. Diam. 4 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 

H. Otarese, Garrett (fig. 50), is a synonym. It is smaller than 
H. canalis, umbilicus less open, ribs larger, rougher and more 
distant; sutural line also less profound, and color different. 

H. HARVEYENSIS, Garrett. PI. 8, figs. 51-53. 

Moderately, deeply umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, greenish 
ash color, arcuately tessellated with chestnut, densely finely 
plicate-striate, striae oblique, sinuous, less distinct on the base, 
suture channeled ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, the last obtusely 
angulated, deflected above, convex below. Diam. 4-5 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 

In shape and markings it is very closely allied to H. comple- 
mentaria, a Samoa species, but quite different in the style of 
sculpture. 

H. YOUNGI, Garrett. PI. 8, figs. 54-56. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, thin, shining, subpellucid, 
uniform dark brown, closely, obliquely, arcuately, plicately 
striate, more slightly below, suture channeled ; whorls 4j, 
convex, rapidly increasing, the last deflected above, convex 
below. Diam. 4 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 

H. COMPLEMENTARIA, MOUSSOU. PI. 8, fig. 5t. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, rugose, striate-costulate, with 
curved-back radiations of white and grayish corneous, suture 
subimpressed ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, the last not descend- 



HELIX. 41 

ing. oblique, obtusely subangulated, flatly rounded below; 
right margin of peristome subincurved. Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Upolu. 
H. ADPOSITA, Mousson. PL 8, figs. 58, 59. 

Narrowly umbilieated, thinly, unequally, but acutely obliquely 
plicate-striate, corneous, suture impressed ; whorls 4^, moder- 
ately increasing, somewhat convex, slightly, narrowly tumid 
above, the last a little larger, not descending, a little flattened. 

Diam. 3'5 mill. 

Onealttj Viti Is. 
H. INERMIS, Mousson. PI. 8, figs. 60, 61. 

Moderately umbilicated, equally, thinly, striate-costulate, 
chestnut corneous; whorls 4, moderately increasing, slightly 
convex, the last not descending, a little flattened in the middle. 

Diam. 2'6 mill. 

Lomma-Lomma and Vanua-Balavo, Vili Is. 

H. OUALANENSIS, Pease. PI. 8, figs. 62-64. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, translucent, flat above, periphery 
rounded ; whorls 3-4, rapidly increasing, with subrngose, thin, 
radiating striae, lightly concentrically striated, the last with 
rounded base ; ashy yellow, with angulated and flexuous, oblique 
chestnut strigations and lines. Diam. 5 mill. Oualan Isl. 



Un figured Species. 

H. PLANOSPIRA, Garrett. Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 

H. MINUTALIS, Fer. Tahiti? 

VII. West Indian and South American Species. 
H. INAGUENSTS, Weinland. PI. 8, figs. 67, 68. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, thin, whitish (dead?), irregu- 
larly striulate ; whorls 4^, planulate, slowly increasing, the last 
not descending, base convex. Diam. 3'5 mill. 

Little Inagua. 
H. COSTELLATA, d'Orbigny. PI. 8, fig. 69. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, not shining, with very close, thin, 
equal, subdistant costulations, brownish, suture rather deep ; 
whorls 5, convex, regularly increasing, the last a little wider 
than the penultimate, rounded, not descending in front. 

Diam. 4 mill. Paraguay. 



42 HELIX. 

H. LTRATA, Couthouy. PI. 9, figs. 72-74. 

Umbilicated, brownish corneous ; whorls 4, closely lirate, 
suture subchanneled. Diam. 5 mill. 

Tierra del Fuego. 
H. COPPINGERI, Smith. PI. 8, figs. 70, 71. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, closely costate, the interstices 
with microscopical spiral lines, pale luteous, suture deep ; whorls 
3J, slowly enlarging. Diam. 1/6 mill. 

Patagonia. 
H. MAGELLANICA, Smith. PI. 9, figs. 75-77. 

Umbilicus wider than in the preceding species, body-whorl 
narrower beneath, but broaden above ; whorls only 2^, more 
rapidly increasing, the riblets finer, more slender and numerous, 
no spiral sculpture. Diam. 1-6 mill. 

Patagonia. 
H. EXCISA, Pfr. PI. 9, fig. 78. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, closety arcuately costulated, 
diaphanous, light yellowish, suture impressed; whorls 4, a little 
convex, slowly enlarging, the last not descending, subdepressed, 
base narrower ; aperture small. Diam. 4%5 mill. 

Santa Ana, New Granada. 
H. BRYOPHILA, Phil. PI. 9, figs. 79, 80, 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, thin, shining, with close, elevated, 
thin, radiating striae; light corneous, suture deep; whorls 4^, 
convex, slowly increasing, the last a little wider than the penul- 
timate. Diam. 2-5 mill. 

Chili. 
H. CHILTENSIS, Miihlfeldt. PI. 9, figs. 81-83. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, brownish corneous, 
slightly rugose and very minutely granulated ; whorls 4, convex; 

aperture subcircular. Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Chili. 
H. EPIDERMIA, Anton. PI. 9, figs. 84-86. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, brownish, obliquely longitudin- 
ally costulate ; whorls 5, moderately increasing, a little convex. 
Diam. 5 mill. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 

According to Deshayes the costulations are subineuibrana- 
ceous and the interstices are thinly striated. 



HELIX. 43 

This species is very closely related to H. costellata, d'Orb., 
and may be the same. 

Un figured Species. 

H. BATESI, Pfr. Upper Amazon. 

H. HOLMBERGII, Dohring. Argentine Republic. 

H. STELZNERIANA', H. STROBELTANA, H. GERMAINI, H. JUNGER- 
MANNIARUM, H. PAZii (H. Minviellei, Phil., named in error 
for Dr. Paz Membiela, not JVlinvielle), H. CORTICARIA, H. 

MUSCICOLA, H EXIGUA, H. HYPOPHIXEA, H. CoiQUECANA, all 

of Philippi. Chili. 

Subsection GONIODISCUS, Fitzinger, 1833. 
H. BRYANTI, Harper. v PI. 4, figs. 69, 70. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, nearly flat above, excavated 
below; whorls 5, gradually increasing, regularly ribbed, outer 
whorl bicarinate, surface between the carinoe striate, base ribbed 
as above ; color light brown, translucent. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Black Mts., N. Carolina. 

Is related to H. perspectiva in somewhat same fashion as H. 
C umber landiana is to H. alternata. 

H. SOLARIA, Menke. PL 4, figs. 53-55. 

Very widely umbilicated, lenticular, flattened above, excavated 
below, thin, cost u lately striate; corneous maculated with chest- 
nut; periphery acutely carinated; whorls 6|, slowly increasing. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Carinthia, Austria, Northern Italy, St. Jean de Luz. 

It is H. perspectiva, Miihlf.; H. Meyerlei, Jan., and H. rotun- 
data, var. depressa, Fer. 

H. ENGONATA, Shuttleworth. PI. 4, figs. 59-61. 

Very widely perspectively umbilicated, depressed, somewhat 
solid, plicate-costulate above, scarcely shining, chestnut colored, 
suture moderately impressed ; whorls 6 J, slowly increasing, 
periphery acutely carinated, base striate, acutely angulated 
around the umbilicus. Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe. 
Yar. PALLiDtOR, Mousson. 

Maculated with horn-color, umbilicus defined by an obtuse 
angle. 



44 HELIX. 

H. SEMIPLTCATA, Pfr. PI. 4, figS. 62, 63. 

Very widely umbilicated,subdiscoidal, somewhat solid, plicate 
above, light corneous, maculated with chestnut; whorls 7, very 
narrow, a little convex, periphery carinate, base convex, smooth- 
ish. Diam. 65 mill. 

7ns. Madeira. 

H. Gueriniana, Lowe, is a synonym. 

H. CALATHOIDES, Paiva. PL 3, figs. 97-99. 

Yery widely, perspectively urnbilicated, obsoletely or obtusely 

angulate or carinate, rather solid, with strong costae above, 

ending at the angle, smoothish on the base, suture very distinct; 

whorls 7-8, a little convex, slowly increasing. Diam. 7-8 mill. 

(Subfossil). Inn. Bugio, near Madeira. 

Closely allied to the foregoing species. 

H. RETEXTA, Shuttleworth. PI. 4, figs. 64-66. 

Umbilicated, depressed, rather thin, closely subarcuately cos- 
tate above, chestnut color with paler maculations ; apex more or 
less depressed ; whorls 6, convex, narrow, subequal, periphery 
angulated, base shining, smoothish, umbilicus very wide. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Palma, Canaries. 
H. CORTICOLA, Cox. PI. 5, figs. 71, 72. 

Openly umbilicated, a little shining, irregularly strongly cos- 
tulate, fulvous chestnut color, with radiating lighter lines ; 
whorls 5, slopingly convex, periphery obtusely carinated, the 
carina obsolete at the mouth, base smoothish, with slight obso- 
lete spiral lines. Diam. 8 mill. 

Richmond River, Australia. 
H. MUCOSA, Cox. PI. 5, figs. 73, 74. 

Widely, perspectively umbHicated, subdiscoidal, irregularly 
closely rugosely striated, rather solid, glimmering, apex sub- 
immersed ; whorls 4-J, slowly increasing, a little convex, the last 
deflected in front, periphery obsoletely carinate, base convex, 
less roughly striated than above. Diam. 8 mill. 

Clarence River, New South Wales. 

H. MUCOIDES, Stephens. PI. 5, figs. 75, 76. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, somewhat shining, irregu- 
larly corrugately striate, translucent, yellowish horn-color, 



HELIX. 45 

suture impressed ; whorls 4j, rounded, gradually increasing, the 
last flat above, obtusely keeled, base roughly striate, with micro- 
scopic spiral lines. Diam. 3 mill. 

Victoria, Australia. 
H. FABREFACTA, Pease. PI. 5, figs. 81, 82. 

Very widely umbilicated, sublenticular, a little solid, subarcu- 
ately striate, soiled white irregularly radiated and maculated 
with brown ; whorls 6-7, slowly enlarging, plane or a little con- 
cave at the carina, the penultimate exserted, the last acutely 
carinated, scarcely descending, planate below the periphery. 

Diam. 7 '5 mill. Ins. Raiatea. 

In a natural arrangement this would be classified with H. 
fiuta, Pease, in Endodonta, although the mouth is unarmed. 

H. OPAOANA, Gassies. PI. 5, figs. 77, 78. 

Widely umbilicated, obliquely and concentrically striated, 
reddish corneous, suture moderate; whorls 6, regularly increasing, 
the last depressed, periphery obtusely angulated, umbilicus 
carinated. Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Art and Balade, N. Caledonia. 

H. DISPERSA, Gassies. PL 16, figs. 73, 74. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, obliquely regularly striated, 
brownish, shining, suture deep, subcarinated ; whorls 5, regularly 
increasing, carinate on the periphery. Diam. 5 mill. 

Isle of Pines, New Caledonia. 
H. MELIT.E, Gassies. PI. 16, figs. 75, 76. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, acutely lamellated, the lamellae 
silvery hirsute at the carina, chestnut-colored ; whorls 4, a little 
convex, rapidly increasing, the last wide, scarcely descending, 
periphery carinated, suture deep, channeled. Diam. 3 mill. 

Ins. Art, N. Caledonia. 
H. TRTCHOCOMA, Crosse. PL 16, fig. 77. 

Widely umbilicated, subobliquely corrugately striated, chest- 
nut colored, marbled with white, under a laciniated brownish 
epidermis, suture impressed ; whorls 5, planate, the last scarcely 
descending, acutely carinated, base subinflated, a little convex, 
obtusely carinated around the umbilicus; aperture chestnut 
colored, shining. Diam. 8 mill. 

Mt. Mou, New Caledonia, 



46 HELIX. 

H. ARCUATA, Pfr. PL 5, fig. 84. 

Umbilicated, thin, pellucid, light corneous, closely regularly 
arcuately plicate; whorls 6, scarcely convex, with serrulate 
carina, compressed around the umbilicus ; aperture wide. 

Diam. 5-5 mill. 

Cagayan, Ins. Luzon. 

Unjigured Species of Goniodiscus. 
H. GORGONARUM, Dohrn. Cape Verd Is. 

H. aluta, Alb., is a synonym. 
H. BOUVIERI, Morelet. Cape Verd Is. 

Probably a var. of H. Gorgonarum, Dohrn. 

H. ELATIOR, A. Adams. Japan. 

H. DEPRESSA, A. Adams. Japan. 

H. HYPTIOCYCLOS, Benson. Ceylon. 

H. MURPHYT and H. URARENSIS, Cox. Australia. 

H. EXAGITANS and H. DEPSTA, Cox. Norfolk I. 

H. KINGI, Brazier. Tasmania. 

H. STEPHENSI, Cox (Syns. H. Du Cani, H. plexus, H. spoilata, 

H. scrupulus, H. Coepta, of Cox ; H. Irvinse, H. Savesi, H. 

Pascoei, H. Floodi, H. Kingi, Brazier, teste R. M. Johnston). 

Tasmania. 

H. OCEANICA, Guillou. Tahiti. 

H. CAPILLATA, Pease. Kauai, Sandwich Is. 

Subsection AMPHIDOXA, Albers, 1850. 

H. MARMORELLA, Pfr. PI. 20, fig. 54. 

Shell perforate, very thin, distantly costulate, pellucid, straw- 
colored with oblique chestnut strigations and maculations ; 
whorls 3, scarcely convex, rapidly enlarging, base a little more 
convex. Diam. 7 mill. 

Ins. Juan Fernandez. 

H. HELICOPHANTOIDES, Pfr. PI. 20, fig. 55. 

Perforate, thin, obliquely, closely costulate-striate, straw-color, 
tessellated and strigate with chestnut ; whorls 3 J, rapidly 
enlarging, the last depressed. Diam. 4'6 mill. 

Ins. Juan Fernandez. 



HELIX. 47 

[Subsection STEPHANODA, Albers, I860.] 
H. ARCTISPIRA, Pfr. PL 5, fig. 85. 

TJmbilicated, depressed, subdiscoidal, closely costate, whitish, 
under a thin brownish epidermis ; whorls 5J, convex, very 
narrow ; umbilicus wide, perspective. Diam. 2*5 mill. 

Ins. Juan Fernandez. 
H. TESSELLATA, Miihlf. PI. 5, fig. 86. 

Moderately umbilicated, discoidal, thin, light corneous, with 
undulating chestnut strigations ; whorls 6-7, flattened, very 
narrow, the last subinflated below. Diam. 4 mill. 

Ins. Juan Fernandez. 
H. contortula, Fer., is a synonym. 

H. SELKIRKT, Smith. PI. 5, fig. 87. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pale, spotted above with red, 
irregularly streaked beneath with a lighter tint, with close-set, 
hair-like striae; whorls 6-7, very narrow, slowly increasing, 
convex, suture narrowly channeled ; last whorl a little constric- 
ted above the middle. Diam. 4 mill. 

Ins. Juan Fernandez. 

Whorls broader, and umbilicus more open than in H. tessellata; 
differs also in the constriction of the last whorl. 

H. QUADRATA, Fe'r. PI. 5, fig. 88. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, very closely slightly 
striated, thin, diaphanous, yellowish, flamed with chestnut and 
with one to three bands ; whorls 5J, somewhat convex, rapidly 
enlarging. Diam. 7 mill. 

Juan Fernandez. 

Yar. ,9. Yellowish, obscurely zoned with reddish brown. 

H. Kingi, Pfr., is a synonym. 

H. CEROIDES, Pfr. PI. 5, fig. 89. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, .very minutely striated, gray- 
waxy, suture rather deep ; whorls 4, slightly convex, slowly 
increasing, the last not descending, rounded. Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Juan Fernandez. 

H. PUSIO, King. (Unfigured ?=quadrata.) Ins. Juan Fernandez. 



48 HELIX. 

*** 
H. HOOKERI, Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 83. 

Narrowly perforate, somewhat solid, striate, with a brownish 
olivaceous epidermis ; whorls 4-4^, convex, moderately increas- 
ing, the last not descending, depressed, rounded. Diam. 7 mill. 

Kerg nelen Island. 
H. DISSIMILTS, d'Orb. PI. 5, fig. 90. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, thin, closely plicatulate above, 
light corneous straw-color, maculated and flamed above with 
chestnut, the space with spiral series of chestnut dots ; whorls 
5^, convex, suture deep. Diam. 11 mill. 

Near Conception, Chili. 

H. histrio, Miihlf., and H. plagiata, Beck, are synonyms. 

H. BINNEYANA, Pfr. PI. 5, fig. 91. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, yellowish corneous, with undu- 
lating chestnut strigations, base obsoletely marbled, irregularly 
plicate, with very close, impressed, spiral lines above, more 
obsolete below; whorls 5, the last narrow, scarcely descending. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Ins Chiloe. 

H. TENUISTRIA, H. ZEBRiNA, Phil. (Unfigured.) Chili. 

H. GRATIOLETI, Hupe. (Unfigured.) Chili. 

Subsection MACROCYCLOIDES, Martens, 1867. 
H. OBSCURATA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 5, figs. 92-94. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, costulate-striate, decus- 
sated by close spiral lines, shining, diaphanous, olivaceous cor- 
neous ; suture deep ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last large ; 
margins of aperture approaching. Diam. 12 mill. 

Borneo. 
H. Arthurii, Pfr., and H. tradita, Reeve, are synonyms. 

H. LUTEA, Martens. PL 5, figs. 95-97. 

Perspectively umbilicated, striulate, shining, yellowish, suture 
rather deep; whorls 3 1-4, somewhat flattened above, periphery 
and base rounded; margins of aperture distant. Diam, 11 mill, 

Ins. Burn, Moluccas. 



HELIX. 49 

H. EUSTROPHES, A. D. Brown. 

Very widely umbilicated, solid, shining, with distant incre- 
mental striae, reddish brown, with yellowish flames; whorls 6, 
plano-convex ; aperture violaceous. Diam. 30 mill. 

Solomon' ' 7s. 
H. VERONICA, Pfr. PL 5, fig. 98. 

Rather widely umbilicated, very minutely radiately striulate, 
at the suture obsoletely spirally striate, pellucid, shining, green- 
ish corneous ; whorls 3J, somewhat flattened, rapidty enlarging, 
the last depressed, not descending in front, periphery rounded ; 
aperture a little oblique, rounded lunate, margins approaching. 

Diam. 12 mill. 7 

Solomon's Is. 

Subsection TRICHODISCUS, Strebel and Pfeffer. 
H. CORDOVANA, Pfeiffer. PL 5, figs 99-1. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, subgranulated and shortly pilose, 
corneous, with two narrow chestnut bands above ; suture deep, 
channeled; whorls 4j, turgid, the last obsoletely sulcate above 
the periphery ; margins of aperture approaching, expanded 
above. Diam. 12'3 mill. 

Cordova, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 
It is H. coactiliata, var. fi, of Crosse and Fischer. 

H. COACTILIATA, Fe'russac. PL 5, fig. 2. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, very minutely granulate-striate, not 
shining ; light corneous, with 3 or 4 narrow chestnut bands ; 
whorls 4, convex, the last subdeflected in front ; aperture 
obliquely subcircular, the margins almost contiguous. 

Diam. 11 mill. Nicaragua; Chiapa, Mexico; Venezuela. 

It is H.fasciata, Nyst; H. Nystiana, Pfr. ; H. quinquestrigata, 
Beck ; H. Par/ceri, Tryon (H. Bridgesi, Tryon, not Newcomb). 

H. SUTDRALIS, Pfr. PL 5, fig. 3. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, lightly, very minutely granulose 
(pilose), brownish corneous; spire plane, subimmersed in the 
middle ; suture deep ; whorls 4, very convex, the last descend- 
ing in front ; aperture obliquely subcircular, margin of aperture 
approaching. Diam. 10 mill. 

Honduras. 

H. coactiliata, var. ?> of Crosse and Fischer, is a synonym, 
4 



50 HELIX. 

H. PRESSULA, Morelet. PL 5, figs. 4, 5. 

Openly umbilicated, thin, translucent, minutely granulose, 
corneous, with a dark brown band ; suture deep ; whorls 4^, 
the last deflected in front, base convex ; aperture obliquely 
lunar, margins approaching. Diam. 10 mill. 

Pacific SJiore of Guatemala. 

H. OAJACENSIS, Koch. PL 5, figs. 6, 7. 

Rather widely umbilicated, obliquely roughly striate, lightly, 
very minutely granular, obtusely carinate, brownish corneous, 
with two yellowish bands, one superior, the other at the carina ; 
whorls 4^, scarcely convex ; aperture Innately subcircular, 
brownish within, with two white bands. Diam. 15 mill. 

Oajaca, Mexico. 

H. OBSITA, Pfr. (unfigured). Mexico. 

Subsection THYSANOPHORA, Strebel and Pfeffer. 
H. IMPURA, Pfr. PL 5, figs. 8-10. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, rugosely costulate, 
slightly spirally striate, corneous, suture deep; whorls 5, the last 
one subdepressed, not descending, base costulately striate. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

H. PALEOSA, Strebel. PL 5, figs. 11-13. 

Shell umbilicated, rather solid, shining, reddish brown, ru- 
gosely costulate, with microscopic spiral lines; whorls 5, the 
last spread out, with flattened base, so that the periphery 
appears indistinctly angulated, and the umbilicus is narrower, 
with steeper walls than in H. impura. Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Forest of Pacho, Mexico. 

H. CONSPURCATELLA, Morelet. PL 5, figs. 14-16. 

Widely umbilicated, scarcely convex above, turgid below, 
membranously striulate, corneous, suture deep ; whorls 3-4, the 
last subdilated in front, angulate above the periphery. 

Diam. 3-5 mill. 

Merida, Yucatan; Guatemala. 



JIELIX. 51 

H. TURBINELLA, Morelet. PI. 5, figs. 17, 18. 

Umbilicus very narrow ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last 
compressed, subangulated, irregularly, subobliquely, rugosely 
striulate, diaphanous, thin, greenish white. Diam. 5 mill. 

Guatemala. 

H. ALMONTEANA, Tristram (unfigured). Guatemala. 

Section PYRAMEDULA, Fitz., 1833. 
H. RUPESTRIS, Drap. PI. 9, figs. 87-90. 

Umbilicated, minutely striated, waxy, brownish corneous ; 
whorls 5, convex, the last not descending; aperture rounded. 
Diam. 3'25 mill. 

Europe. 

It is H. umbilicata, Montagu; H. aliena, Ziegler; H. spirula, 
Villa; H. saxatilis, Hartm.; H. Myrmecidis, Scacchi. 

Yar. TROCHOIDES, Fer. Fig. 90. 

Trochoidal, dark brown, narrower umbilicus. 
Yar. PINII, Adami. 

Larger, pyramidal, striae stronger, suture deeper ; whorls 
more rounded. Diam. 3-4 mill. 

N. Italy. 
H. JAENENSIS, Clessin. PL 9, figs. 91, 92. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, finely striated, brownish corne- 
ous, apex obtuse ; whorls 5-5J, rounded, with deep suture, slowly 
increasing. Diam. 2, alt. 2'5 mill. 

Jaen, Spain. 

Perhaps only an elevated var. of H. rupestris. 

H. ASSARINENSIS, Calcara. PI. 9, fig. 93. 

Umbilicated, fulvous chestnut, maculated with white ; whorls 
5, flatly convex, longitudinally obliquely striated, first two 
smooth. Diam. 6 mill. 

Sicily. 
H. PLACIDA, Shuttleworth. PI. 9, fig. 94. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, diaphanous, waxy, corneous, lightly 
striate ; whorls 5, convex, slowly increasing, the last scarcely 
descending in front. Diam. 3*25 mill. 

7ns. Teneriffe. 



52 HELIX. 

H. IIIEROSOLYMITANA, Bourg. PI. 9, fig. 95. 

Narrowly, scarcely perviously umbilicated, rather thin, slightly 
plicate-striate, scarcely shining., subdiaphanous, fuscous ; whorls 
4, a little convex, the last not descending. Diain. 2'66 mill. 

Jerusalem. 
H. BASCAUDA, Benson. PI. 7, figs. 65, 66. 

Narrowly, profoundly umbilicated, with remote oblique ele- 
vated ribs, flexuous below ; brownish corneous, suture impressed ; 
whorls 6, a little convex, the last not descending, with a thread- 
like carina at the periphery, convex below, subangulated around 
the umbilicus. Diam. 4*5 mill. Khasia Mts., India. 

H. polypleuris, Blanford (fig. 66), from Arakan, is made a 
synonym by Nevill. 

H. ABBADIANA, Bourg. PL 9, figs. 99-1. 

Openly, perviously umbilicated, irregularly densely plicate- 
striate, a little shining, reddish brown; whorls 4, inflated, with 
deep suture, the last convex above and below, scarcely angulated 
at the periphery, not deflected in front ; aperture subcircular. 

Diam. 2 mill. Egypt, Abyssinia. 

H. cryophila, Morelet (non Martens), and H. Brocchii, 
Jickeli, are S3monyms. 

H. BRUCEI, Jickeli. PL 9, figs. 2-4. 

Narrowly umbilicated, opaque, obliquely costulate, grayish 
brown, ribs of the last whorl larger, submembranaceous, the 
interstices lightly longitudinally striate, base with scarcely con- 
spicuous impressed lines ; whorls scarcely 3, subinflated, suture 
deep, the last not deflected, convex below. Diam. 1-6 mill. 

Abyssinia. 
H. AMBLYGONA, Reinhardt. PL 9, figs. 96-98. 

Umbilicated, depressed turbinate, reddish brown, striated, the 
younger shell membranously lamellate ; whorls 4, the last 
slightly deflected, periphery obtusely angulated. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Japan. 

Unfigured and Spurious Species. 

H. HYPOCRITA, Dohrn. Cape Verd Is. 

H. ARENICOLA, Tate. Australia. 

H. CALPIS, Benson. Near Darjiling, Ind. 

Blanford writes: "This species was described from specimens 




HELIX. 53 

collected by myself in 1856. I had but an imperfect knowledge 
of land mollusks at the time, or I should have seen at once,, as 
I did some years afterwards, when re-examining my collection, 
that the shells were all young specimens of Raphaulus Blan- 
fordi (Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 211, 1880). 

(Subsection MICROCONUS, Strebel, 1880.) 
H. WILHELMI, Pfr. PL 9, figs. 5, 6. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed conical, thin, striulate, shining, 
chestnut-brown, suture deep ; whorls 4, tumid, the last narrow, 
not descending. Diam. 3 mill. 

Mirador, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

H. PUNCTUM, Morelet. PL 9, fig. 7. 

Covered perforate, brownish corneous ; whorls 3^, convex ; 
columellar lip reflected on the umbilicus. Diam. 1-66 mill. 

Merida, Yucatan. 
H. JEANNERETI, Pfr. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, very lightly striulate, shining, 
dark brown ; whorls 3J, turgid towards the deep suture, last 
whorl rounded, not descending in front. Diam. 2'33 mill. 

Cuba. 

Unfigured. 

H. PLEUROPHORA, Moricand. PL 9, figs. 8, 9. 

Umbilicated ; whorls 5, convex, elegantly elevately costulate, 
grayish, unicolored or maculated with fulvous. Diam. 3 mill. 

Bahia, Brazil. 

Subsection ACANTHINULA, Beck, 1846. 
H. ACULEATA, Miiller. PL 9, figs. 10-12. 

Perforate, lamelliformly costate, the costse elongately ciliated, 
yellowish corneous ; whorls 4, convex ; peristome membrana- 
ceous, subexpanded, the margins approaching. Diam. 2:5 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonyms are H. spinulosa, Lightfoot ; H. delectabilis, 
Solander ; H. Granatelli, Bivona ; H. terrestris, Da Costa. 

Yar. ALBIDA, Jeffreys. 
Shell white or whitish. 



54 HELIX. 

Yar. SUBI^EVIS, Westerlund. 

Costse obsolete, without ciliae, lip rose-colored. 
H. PERACANTHODA, Bourg. PL 22, figs. 20-22. 

Narrowly perforate, brownish, costate, the costse lamelliform 
on the last whorl and spinously prolonged on the peripher}^ ; 
whorls 4, convex, rapidly enlarging, periphery angulated. 

Alt. 1-5 mill. 

Abyssinia. 

First described by Bourguignat as H. Haffrayi, preoccupied 
by Tapparone-Canefri. 

H. HARPA, Say. PI. 9, figs. 13, 14. 

Subperforate, very thin, slightly striate, distantly plicate, 
pellucid, olivaceous corneous ; whorls 4, convex, the last 
rounded. Alt. 3'5, diam. 2 mill. 

Northern United States, Labrador, Siberia, Sweden, etc. 

The synonyms are Pupa costulata, Mighels, H. Amurensis, 
Gerstf. It is viviparous, and is the type of Morse's genus 
Zoogenetes. 

H. SPINIFERA, Mousson. PI. 9, figs. 15-17. 

Very minutely perforated, rather thin, corneous yellow, pel- 
lucid, with remote lamellate striae, and long membranaceous 
ciliae; whorls 3J, convex, the last not descending, rounded or 
rounded-angular on the periphery, base subtumid around the 
perforation; lip very slightly expanded, the extremities con- 
verging, united by a thin callus. Diam. T75 mill. 

Ins. Palma, Canaries. 
H. LAMELLATA, Jeffreys. PL 9, figs. 18, 19. 

Perforate, beautifully membranously costulate, waxy, cor- 
neous; whorls .5, subequal ; aperture depressed, lunar. 

Diam. 2-3 mill. 

England, Ireland, Sweden. 

It is H. Scarburgensis, Ttirton, and H. seminulum, Rossm. 

H. MONAS, Morelet. PL 9, figs. 20, 21. 

Perviously umbilicated, striolate, waxy, fulvous; whorls 4, 
subequal, convex, laterally compressed, suture profound. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

7ns. San Miguel, Azores. 



HELIX. 55 

H. CvECOiDES, Tate. PI. 9, fig. 22. 

Minutely perforated, a little shining, brownish corneous, with 
equal distant lamellee ; whorls 4, convex, suture profound ; 
aperture almost circular. Diam. 2 5 mill. 

Chontales Forest, Nicaragua. 
H. C^CA, Guppy. PI. 9, fig. 23. 

Scarcely perforate, obliquely costulate, brownish corneous, 
apex smooth, suture deep ; whorls 4, aperture obliquely sub- 
circular, the extremities of the peristome joined by a diffused 
columellar callus. Diam. 2 mill. 

Ins. Trinidad, West Indies. 
H. IERENSIS, Guppy. PI. 9, fig. 24. 

Profoundly umbilicated, somewhat obliquely costulate, brown- 
ish corneous, apex smooth, suture deep; whorls 5, slightly 
carinated. Diam. 3 mill. 

Ins. Trinidad, W. Indies. 
H. BACTRTCOLA, Guppy. PI. 9, fig. 25. 

Perspectively, widely umbilicated, closely radiately costulate, 
brownish corneous; whorls 7, narrow, slowly increasing, the 
last with carinate periphery, apex smooth, shining. Diam. 4 mill. 

Ins. Trinidad, West Indies. 
H. GRANUM, Strebel. PI. 9, figs. 26-28. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, light horn-color, scarcely shining, 
indistinctly costulate; whorls 4, well rounded, with deep suture. 
Diam. 28 mill. 

Mirador, Mexico. 

H. HARPULA, Reinhardt. (Unfigured.) Japan. 

Section ANGUISPIRA, Morse, 1864. 
H. IDAHOENSIS, Newcomb. PI. 10, figs. 29-31. 

Profoundly umbilicated, ashy corneous ; whorls 5, the two first 
smooth or minutely obliquely striate, the others crossed by 
strong, thin, sharp, white costae, from 20 to 26 in the last whorl, 
suture well impressed. Diam. 13-18 mill. 

Idaho. 

Varies considerably in its proportions, some specimens being 
much flatter. Notwithstanding the fact that the sculpture in 



56 HELIX. 

the typical specimens runs in the opposite direction from H. 
Haydeni, H. Hemphilli, H. strigosa, there is considerable evi- 
dence that this is only an extreme form of a series representing 
varietal developments from a common t} T pe. This relationship 
is almost demonstrated by the magnificent suites of specimens 
of these species in the Museum of the Philadelphia Academy. 

H. STRIGOSA, Gould. PL 10, figs. 32-36, 42. 

Umbilicated, moderately solid, irregularly costulately striate, 
scarcely shining, whitish or light yellowish, variegated and 
banded with chestnut; whorls 5, convex, the upper ones often 
carinate-margined, the last rounded or more or less obsoletely 
angulated, shortly descending in front. Diam. 15-25 mill. 

Oregon, Nebraska, Idaho, Utah, etc. 

With this are to be united the usually more elevated and smaller 
form H. Cooperi, W. G. Binney (figs. 35, 36), and H. Bruneri, 
Ancey. Dr. Fischer described some thirty years ago a Helix, 
supposed to be from New Caledonia, which, on account of a 
fancied resemblance to the European H. cespitum, he called H. 
cespitoides. The locality was soon shown to be erroneous, and 
Pfeiffer rather carelessly made it a synonym of H. cespilum. 
Ancey has recently declared it synonymous with H. Cooperi, 
and I agree with him. The figure of it, as published by Dr. 
Fischer, represents a specimen in which the bands have coa- 
lesced so as to give a uniform light chocolate-color, a rather 
frequent variation in the species of Anguispira. 

H. HEMPHILLII, Newcomb. PL 10, figs. 31-39. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, corneous white, with obscure 
brownish lines, transversely rugosely striate; whorls 5, convex 
to planulate above, the last acutely carinated or bicarinated, 
descending in front, the base convex, lightly striated. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Nevada, Colorado. 

The juvenile is acutely carinate, and shortly hirsute. Assum- 
ing H. strigosa to be the parent and normal form, this is almost 
certainly an intermediate between it and H. Haydenii, Gabb,"one 
extreme of the series, as H. Idahoensis, Newcomb, is probably 
the other extreme. 



HELIX. 57 

H. HAYDENII, Gabb. PL 10, figs. 40, 41. 

Widely uinbi Heated, cretaceous, with rough incremental striae 
and strong revolving cords or ridges, suture impressed ; whorls 
5, regularly increasing, the last anterioily deflected. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Weber Canon, Utah. 

When this species was described its resemblance to certain 
Madeira helices was pointed out, and Pfeiffer has since referred 
it to the Madeiran group Craspedaria. That it has the very 
distinct features of that group is apparent ; yet suites of speci- 
mens before me show so conclusively its connection with H. 
strigosa, that I only continue to give it specific rank tempor- 
arily for convenience's sake. 

H. ALTERNATA, Say. PL 10, figs. 43-48. 

Widely umbilicated, moderately solid, obliquely costulate, 
yellowish or whitish, variegated above with chestnut macula- 
tions ; whorls 6, flatly convex, a little tumid at the suture, the 
last rather narrow, not descending, periphery rounded or very 
obtusely subangulated. Diam. 16-25 mill. 

Eastern, Middle and Southern region of the United States. 

This is H. scabra, Lam. ; H. radiata, Gmel. ? H. strongylodes, 
Pfr. ; H. infecta, Parreyss. A unicolored yellowish variety is 
of occasional occurrence; Mr. Bland described a form compara- 
tively smooth, with a somewhat shining, subtranslucent epider- 
mis, as var. Fergusoni. I do not think it entitled to varietal 
distinction. 

Yar. MORDAX, Shuttle worth. Figs. 47, 48. 

Sublenticular, carinated, widely umbilicated, thin, yellowish 
corneous, with interrupted chestnut strigations, remotely flexu- 
oseiy costate ; whorls 5|, flattened. Diam. 18 mill. 

Mountains of No. Carolina. 

This variation, insensibly connected with the parent form, 
points in the direction of H. Cumberlandiana, but the evidence 
for the inclusion of the last-named form is not so conclusive as 
in the parallel variation of H. strigosa (which replaces alter nata 
in the far West) into Ilaydenii. 



58 HELIX. 

H. CUMBERLANDIANA, Lea. PI. 10, figs. 49-51. 

Widely umbilicated, acutely carinate, plicate-costate, light 
corneous, strigate and maculate with chestnut; whorls 5, rather 
flat, subexserted, the last not descending, with a compressed 
crenate carina on the periphery ; aperture oblique, securiform. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Cumberland Mts., E. Tennessee. 

See remarks under the preceding species. 

H. SOLITARIA, Say. PI. 10, figs. 52-55. 

Umbilicated, somewhat solid, diaphanous, closely obliquely 
rugosely striate; yellowish corneous, with two or three chestnut 
bands; whorls 6, convex, with deep suture; aperture white, 
shining, showing the bands through the shell. Diam. 25 mill. 
Interior United States ; valleys of the Mississippi 

Eiver and its northern tributaries. 

The variations include light-colored specimens, without bands, 
and dark specimens caused by the widening and diffusion of the 
bands over the entire surface. H. Kochi, Pfr. (fig. 55), may be 
considered a synonym. 

H. SUBRUDIS, Pfr. PL 10, fig. 56. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, rather rudely ob- 
liquely striate, lightl}- decussated by close spiral striae, opaque, 
whitish, with a wide violaceous brown band at the suture, and 
another, narrow, at the periphery ; whorls 5, a little convex, the 
last narrow, not descending. Diam. 17 '5 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Perhaps a small specimen of the preceding species. 

H. ARECIBENSIS, Pfr. PI. 10, figs. 51-59. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, obliquely striated and obso- 
letely subgranulated by spiral lines, pellucid, wax}' white ; 
whorls 3J, the last not descending, acutely carinated, base con- 
vex. Diam. 17 mill. 

Porto Rico, W. Indies. 

H. DISCOIDES, Lesson. (Unfigured). New Ireland. 

A doubtful species, known only by a very short description. 



HELIX. 59 

Section ENDODONTA, Albers, 1850. 
I. Umbilicated or perforate species. 

A. Lamellae palatal only. 
H. BERLIERI, Crosse. PL 11, figs. 6-2, 63. 

Widely, perspectively urnbilicated, rather thin, lightly longi- 
tudinally' striulate, light corneous, unicolored, suture impressed ; 
whorls 5J, periphery rounded, base flattened; external margin of 
the aperture deeply quadrilirate, showing slightly through the 
whorl. Diam. 2-25 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

H. DISPAR, Brazier. (Unfigured). Mt. Wellington, Tasmania. 

B. Lamellx parietal only. 

a. Ecarinate. 
H. YINCENTINA, Crosse. PI. 11, fig. 64. 

Perviously umbilicated, thin, not striated, dull fulvous corne- 
ous, unicolored, suture impressed ; whorls 5, the first three sub- 
planate, the others a little convex, the last not descending, 
rounded, base subplanate ; aperture with an angular, whitish, 
median parietal lamina. Diam. 2 mill. 

St. Vincent, New Caledonia. 

H. JUGOSA, Mighels. PI. 11, figs. 65-70. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, somewhat closely costulate, 
the interstices minutely spirally striate, diaphanous, brownish ; 
whorls 6, a little convex, the last subdepressed, not descending; 
aperture with a thin parietal lamina. Diam. 8 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 
Yar. RUBIGINOSA, Gould. Figs. 68-70. 

Yellowish corneous, tessellated with chestnut, obliquely 
costate-striate. 

H. HYSTRIX, Mighels. PI. 11, figs. 71-73. 

Widely umbilicated, regularly costulate, yellowish corneous, 
deciduously rigidly hirsute, tessellated with chestnut above ; 
spire plane, subimmersed in the middle ; whorls 5, convex, the 



60 HELIX. 

last descending, base decussated by more or less obsolete lines; 
aperture with two somewhat acute parietal lamella?. 

Diam. 5'75 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 
H. setigera, Gould, is a synonym. 



H. DECUSSATULA, H. PAUCicosTATA (H. filocostata, Pse., is a syno- 
nym), H. DISTANS, Pease. (Unfigured.) Sandwich Islands. 

H. UNILAMELLATA, Garrett. PL 11, figs. 74-76. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, corneous, tessellated and rayed with 
chestnut, obliquely, compressly, closely plicately ribbed, ribs 
finer and closer below; whorls 5, convex, slowly, regularly 
increasing; the last not descending in front, obtusely subangular 
on the periphery, more distinctly so around the umbilicus, suture 
channeled ; parietal region with a single small lamella. 

Diam. 4-5 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook^s Is. 
H. UOTELLTNA, Pease. PL 11, figs. 82, 83. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thinly, radiately, elevately striated, 
rather thin; whorls 5, convex,. the last rounded; parietal wall 
with a single entering lamella ; color alternate strigations of 
chestnut and yellowish. Diam. 2 mill. 

Ins. Aitutake. 
H. coNSiMiLis, Pease. PL 11, figs. 80, 81. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, closely radiatety costellate, 
tessellated with chestnut and yellow above, strigate with chestnut 
below ; whorls 5, 1 convex, suture impressed, periphery rounded ; 
parietal wall with a single lamella. Diam. 4 mill. 

Tahiti, Eaiatea. 
H. AOUTICOSTA, Mousson. PL 11, figs. 60, 61. 

Widely umbilicated, closely arcuately ribbed-striate, corneous, 
with chestnut tessellations, suture deep ; whorls 5, convex, slowly 
increasing, turgid next the suture, last whorl slightly depressed 
above, not descending, base convex ; parietal wall with one, two 
or very rarely three lamellae. Diam. 4- 3 mill. 

Raiatea, Society Islands. 

Larger and more depressed than H. consimilis, the umbilicus 
larger and ribs finer. A uniform whitish horn-colored variety 
occurs. 




HELIX. 61 

H. RURUTUENSIS, Garrett. (Unfigured). Rurrutu, Austral Is. 

b. Carinate. 
H. OBOLUS, Gould. PI. 11, figs. 77-79. 

Rather thin, widely umbilicated, radiately, thinly, irregularly, 
rugo^ely striate, irregularly concentrically sulcate or thinly cos- 
tate ; whorls 7, convex, often angulated, the last with angulated 
periphery ; aperture with a single parietal lamella. Diam. 6 mill. 

7ns. Raiatea, Taheiti. 

H. acetabulum, Pease ; H. celsa, Pease ; H. Bariffi, Garrett, 
and H intermixta, Mousson, are synonyms. 

H. STELLULA, Gould. PL 11, figs. 84-86. 

Widely umbilicated, planulate above, convex below, yellowish, 
maculated with chestnut ; whorls 4, trigonal, with numerous 
elevated acute costse, the periphery carinate ; aperture with 
a parietal lamella. Diam. 5 mill. 

Sandwich Is. 

H. BTNARTA, Pfr. PI. 11, figS. 87, 88. 

Moderately umbilicated, obtusely arcuate^ costate, spirally 
obsoletely striate, corneous, strigate with chestnut, suture 
margined; whorls 5J, somewhat convex, slowly increasing, the 
last not descending, subacutely carinated ; parietal wall with 
two white lamellae, columella obsoletely dentate. Diam. 4'5 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

H. VELATA, Hombr. et Jacq. PI. 11, figs. 89-91. 

Narrowly umbilicated, stnate, grayish corneous; whorls 5J, 
planulate, the last with acutely carinated periphery, base convex, 
smoother; aperture with a compressed, subquadrate parietal 
lamina, basal margin subthickened. Diam. 8 mill. 

Ins. Hogoleu. 
H. HUAHEINENSIS, Pfr. PI. 11, figs. 92-94. 

Widety umbilicated, rather thin, striate, opaque, light cor- 
neous, strigate and maculate with chestnut, apex very minutely 
mucronate, suture linear; whorls 6, somewhat flattened, very 
slowly increasing, the last carinated, not descending in front, 
base subcompressed around the umbilicus ; aperture with a 
single parietal lamella. Diam. 6 mill. 

Huaheine, Society Islands. 

H. aranea, Behn, is a synonym. 



62 tlELTX. 

H. TANE.E, Qarrett. PI. 11, figs. 95-97. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, thin, semipellucid, brown- 
ish horn color, tessellated and rayed with chestnut, distantly, 
somewhat irregularly, obliquely, arcuately, plicately ribbed, 
finer and more crowded on the base ; whorls 6J, convex, slowly 
and regularly increasing, slightly sulcate next the suture, the 
last acutely carinate, flattened above, not descending in front, 
convex beneath, angular around the umbilicus ; parietal region 
with a small spiral lamella. Diam. 4 - 5 mill. 

Society Islands. 

H. janese, Schmeltz and H. Boraborensis, Pease, are synonyms. 

H. FICTA, Pease. PI. 12, figs. 5-7. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, a little solid, whitish, somewhat 
chalk} 7 , radiately strigated and tessellated with chestnut ; whorls 
8, the outer sulcate near the margin, periphery acutely carinate, 
and angulated around the umbilicus ; parietal wall with a spiral 
lamella. Diam. 7 mill. 

Society Islands. 

C. Aperture with both parietal and palatal lamellae. 

a. Ecarinate. 
H. POLYODON, G. W. Sowerby. PL 11, fig. 1. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, closely costate, variegated 
with brown and white, suture impressed ; whorls 8, very narrow, 
a little convex, the last not descending; aperture with two 
lamellae on the parietal wall and two or more within the outer 
lip. Diam. 4'66 mill. 

Ins. St. Helena. 

Pfeiffer has adopted for this species the name H. Helenensis, 
Forbes. 

H. Alexandri^ Forbes, has two or three parietal plicae, and 
eight additional within the lip, yet Pfeiffer considers the two 
identical. H. polyodon, G. W. Sowerby, agrees with Alexandria, 
and was the earliest described of the three species ; admitting 
tha the number of lip lamellae is variable, they may be merged 
in one species, which should bear the oldest name H. polyodon. 

H. CUTTERI, Pfr. (unfigured). St. Helena. 

H. PHILIPPINENSIS, Semper (unfigured). Manilla. 



HELIX. 63 

H. DERBESIANA, Crosse. PI. 11, figs. 2-4. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, with impressed, close, longi- 
tudinal striae, light fulvous corneous ; whorls 4^, moderately 
increasing, the last rounded, base planate, suture impressed ; 
aperture with two parietal lamellae, a shining corneous tooth on 
the base, two within the outer margin. Diam. 1'75 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
H. CONTORTA, Fer. PI. 12, figs. 8-10. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, fragile, striate, slightly pilose, yel- 
lowish, with radiating chestnut-colored flames ; whorls 4^, con- 
vex ; aperture with two parallel parietal lamellae, and five acute 
teeth within the right margin. Diam. 4 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

H. intercarinata, Mighels, is a S3 T non}-m. 



H. HYSTRTCELLA, Pfr. (unfigured). Sandwich Islands. 

H. ANALOGICA, Pease (unfigured). Marquisas. 

H. VERECUNDA, Pease (unfigured). Marquisas. 

H SEXLAMELLATA, Pfr. PI. 12, figS. 11-13. 

Very narrowly perforate, thin, regularly costulate, yellowish, 
tessellated with chestnut-colored maculations; whorls 6, convex, 
narrow, base planulate; aperture with six acute elevated lamellae, 
and some intermediate smaller obsolete ones. Diam. 3 - 25 mill. 

Gambier Islands. 

. H. DECEMPLICATA, MoUSSOn. 

Moderately umbilicated, strongly striate costulate, white or 
giayish with angulated chestnut-colored fasciations ; whorls 
5^-6, moderately increasing, rather narrow, more convex below; 
aperture with ten lamellae, four of them parietal, of which the 
three upper ones are longest, six in the base and palate. 

Diam. 2 mill. 

Ellice Is. 

Unfigured. 

H. MULTILAMELLATA, GaiTCtt. PL 12, figS. 14-16. 

Deeply, widely umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, closely, lightly, 
lamellarly costate, costae slighter and closer below, corneous, 
tessellated with chestnut above only, suture deeply impressed ; 
whorls 6J, convex, turgid above, slowly increasing; aperture 



(U tiELTX. 

with five subequidistant lamellae within the margin, besides two 
on the columella and four on the parietal wall. 

Diam. 3'5 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Islands. 

H. ZEBRINA, Garrett. PL 12, figs. 11-19. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, shining, whitish cor- 
neous, with chestnut tessellations on the spire and flexuous 
stripes on the body-whorl ; whorls 5^, convex, slowly increasing, 
membranously closely ribbed, the interstices under the lens 
elevately striated, suture deeply impressed, aperture with three 
lamellae within the lip and two on the parietal region. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 
H. RAROTONGENSIS, Pease. 

Umbilicated, rather thin, radiately elevately striate, suture 
well impressed ; whorls 5, convex ; aperture with three parietal 
and two basal lamellae ; yellowish, tessellately strigated with 
chestnut. Diam. 3 mill. 

Rarotonga, Cook's Is. 

Unfigured. 

H. PARVIDENS, Pease. PI. 12, figs. 20-22. 

Rather widely deeply umbilicated, with small, close, elevated 
striae, yellowish, tessellated with chestnut ; whorls 5, a little 
convex above, more rounded below, suture well impressed ; 
aperture with two lamellae in the throat, one on the columella, 
and three on the parietal wall. 

Tahiti. 

H. incerta, Mousson, is a synonym. 

H. D^EDALEA, Gould. PI. 12, figs. 23-25. 

Yellowish brown, tessellated with chestnut, with acute, close, 
scabrous costulations ; whorls 6, narrow, rounded below, suture 
impressed ; aperture with nine lamellae, of which four are on 
the parietal wall, one on the columella, two at the base and 
three within the lip. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Ins. Tahiti, Matea. 
H. SUBD^EDALEA, Mousson. PL 12, fig. 26. 

Widely umbilicated, unequally costulate-striate, light cor- 
neous, sometimes with oblique chestnut stripes, suture deep ; 
whorls 5^, slowly increasing, narrow, the last a little ttfmid 




HELIX. 65 

above and below ; aperture minutely seven-plicate, three equal 
ones on the parietal wall, and four smaller and palatal. 
Diam. 3'3 mill. 

Mango, Fiji Is. 

H. MAUPITIENSIS, Garrett. PI. 12, figs. 27-29. 

Narrowly, deeply umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, closely ele- 
vately striated, striae finer below ; yellowish brown, marked with 
dark chestnut tessellations, sometimes becoming zigzag stripes 
on the body-whorl, suture rather deep; whorls 6, rounded, 
slowly increasing, the last one slanting from the shoulder 
towards the base ; aperture with eight lamellae, four palatal, one 
columellar and three parietal. Diam. 3 mill. 

Maupiti /., Society Is. 

H. DE GAGEI. Garrett. 

Closely allied to H. Maupitiensis, but may be distinguished by 
its coarser rib-like striae, more oblique aperture, smaller umbili- 
cus and more depressed body-whorl. The palate has five and 
the parietal wall three revolving lamellae ; corneous or yellowish, 
tessellated and strigated with chestnut. Diam. 3 mill. 

Rurutu, Austral Is. 

Unfigured. 

H. HYSTRICELLOIDES, Mousson. PI. 12, fig. 30. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striate-costulate, radiately marked with 
whitish and grayish corneous strigations, suture acutely im- 
pressed; whorls 02, slowly increasing, subinflated, the last a 
little descending in front, rounded below ; aperture six to eight- 
lamellate, of which three or four are parietal, the first and third 
larger, the fourth inconspicuous, three to five palatal, the middle 
ones largest, the first and last (columellar) smaller. 

Diam. 4*25 mill. 

Ins. Upolu. 
H. GRAFFEI, Mousson. PI. 12, fig. 31. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, acutely biarcuately 
costulate-striate, grayish, with zigzag chestnut strigations; 
whorls 5, slowly increasing, convex, a little tumid towards the 
suture, the last not descending, rounded below ; aperture with 
seven lamellae, two on the middle of the parietal wall, and five 
palatal, whereof the first is smaller. Diam. 5'2 mill. 

Ins. Upolu. 
5 



66 HELIX. 

H. CONSOBRINA, Garrett. PL 12, figs. 43-45. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, with crowded, fine, nearly 
straight membranous riblets ; yellowish horn-color, tessellated 
and striped with reddish brown, suture channeled ; whorls 6, 
very narrow, convex, subangulate next the suture, slowly increas- 
ing, the last not deflected ; parietal region with four (very rarely 
three), palate with from seven to nine laminae, columella with or 
without one. Diam. 3 mill. 

Huaheine, Society Is. 

H. SUBTILIS, Garrett. PL 12, figs. 46-48. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, yellowish corneous, tessellated 
and zigzagged with chestnut, with very thin, not crowded, subbi- 
arcuate riblets, suture channeled ; whorls 5, narrow, rounded, sub- 
angulate near the suture, slowly increasing, periphery rounded, 
base convex ; parietal wall with two, palate with four (rarely 
three or five) laminae. Diam. 3 mill. 

Huaheine Isl. 

H. PUNCTIPERFORATA, Garrett. PL 12, figs. 49-51. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, corneous, tessellated with chest- 
nut, base corn-color, sometimes with chestnut radiations, striae 
close-set, thin, rib-like, smaller and more crowded beneath, suture 
deep; whorls 6, narrow, slowly increasing, not descending in 
front ; parietal region with two (rarely three), palate with four 
or five laminae, one of them columellar ; in addition there are 
parallel raised lines both on the wall of the aperture and palate. 

Diam. 3 mill. 

Moorea, Society Is. 

H. BORABORENSIS, Garrett. PL 12, figs. 52-54. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, corneous, under a light brown epi- 
dermis, tessellated above with chestnut, with or without chestnut 
rays beneath, sculpture of crowded riblets, suture deep; whorls 
7, convex, slowly increasing, the last with obtusely angulated 
periphery, base convex; parietal region with four, palate with 
five or six laminae. Diam. 5 mill. 

Borabora Isl., Society Is. 

b. Carinate Species. 
H. CRETACEA, Garrett. PL 11, figs. 98-100. 

Very broadly umbilicateol, rather solid, finely striated, whitish 
with small, irregular, scattered chestnut spots, suture linear; 



HELIX. 67 

whorls 6 -7, planulate, narrow, slowly increasing, the last two 
slightly concave, periphery carinate, base angulated ; parietal 
wall with a single lamella, and another in the throat between the 
keel and basal angle. Diam. 6 mill. 

Borabora, Society Is. 
H. ficta, Garrett (not of Pease), is a synonym. 

H. LAMELLOSA, Per. PL 12, figs. 32-34. 

Cylindrically, moderately umbilicated, thin, shining, glabrous, 
acutely carinated, yellowish, with chestnut flames and macula- 
tions ; whorls 7, flat, base inflated, angulated around the umbili- 
cus ; aperture with two large parietal lamellae, the others smaller 
one columellar, four basal and one upper. Diam. 7'5 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

H. FRICKI, Pfr. PL 12, figs. 35, 36. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, striate, yellowish corneous, 
with chestnut maculations and strigations, suture margined ; 
whorls 7, plane or a little concave above, the last subdeflected, 
acutely carinated, a little tumid below ; aperture with two long, 
parietal plications, none on the columella, four smaller ones on 
the base, and one superior. Diam. 8 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Differs from H. lamellosa in sculpture, wider umbilicus, and 
want of the columellar lamella; Pease considered them identical. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. CONSTRICTA, H. IRREGULARIS, H. LACERATA, of Semper. 

Ins. Palau. 
H. RUGATA, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

II. Imperforate. 
H. OPARICA, Anton. PL 12, figs. 37-39. 

Subimperforate, thin, costulate-striate, brownish, obsoletely 
maculated with chestnut; whorls 4?-5, narrow, slightly convex; 
aperture with three parietal and four basal lamellae. 
Diam. 3'5 mill. 

Ins. Opara. 

H. ROTULA, Hombr. et Jacq. PL 12, figs. 40-42. 

Imperforate, smooth, light corneous, radiated with chestnut 



68 HELIX. 

above; whorls 4, moderately increasing, the last rounded, not 
descending ; no teeth. Diam. 3'3 mill. 

Ins. Mangareva. 

Perhaps not adult. As there are no teeth, this can scarcely 
be considered a member of the group where it is placed by 
Pfeiffer. 



H. IMPERFORATA, Pease. (Unfigured). Ins. Aitutake. 

H. Aitutakiana, Mousson, is a synonym. 

Subsection LAOMA, Gray, 1849. 

H. LEIMONIAS, Gray. PI. 13, fig. 55. 

Subimperforate, somewhat solid, smooth, shining, pellucid, light 
corneous, maculated with chestnut ; whorls 7, flattened, the last 
acutely carinated, base plane ; aperture with one parietal lamella 
and two in the right margin. Diam. 2*3 ; alt. 2'7. 

New Zealand. 

H. PCECILOSTICTA, Pfr. PI. 13, fig. 56. 

Perforate, thin, closely plicate, fulvous, maculated with chestnut, 
diaphanous, suture margined ; whorls 5J, narrow, a little convex, 
the last carinate, base plane; columella with a single plication, 
aperture otherwise unarmed. Diam. 4 mill. 

New Zealand 

H. B1LAMELLATA, Pfr. PI. 13, fig. 57. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, corneous, regularly plicate; whorls 9, 
carinated, carina exserted, acute, subaculeate, base slightly convex ; 
aperture with a parietal and columellar lamella, the latter stronger. 
Diam. 4, alt. 4'5 mill. 

Ins. Opara. 

It is Pitys Oparana, Beck. 



H. MARINA, and H. NERISSA, Hutton (unfigured). New Zealand. 
(ACTINARIA, Pfr., 1855.) 

H. PIRRIEANA, Pfr. PI. 13, fig. 58. 

Perforate, thin, smooth, scarcely lightly striulate, pellucid, 
corneous, suture margined ; whorls 7-8, slightly convex, very 
narrow, the last carinate, bidentate within the base. 

Diam. 5 mill. 

Koondah Mts., India. 



HELIX. 69 

H. BIDENTICULATA. Benson. PI. 13, fig. 59. 

Perforate, obsoletely radiately striate, whitish, suture impressed, 
whorls 6, narrow, convex, with two slightly elevated spiral lines above, 
the last whorl carinated, convex below ; aperture with two minute 
distant basal teeth, the right one largest, near the margin. 

Diam. 3 mill. 

Nilgherri Mts., India. 

H. DAGHOBA, W. and H. Blanford. PI. 13, fig. 60. 

Narrowly perforate, obliquely striated, spirally sulcate, carinated, 
suture impressed ; whorls 7-8, slowly increasing, subconvex, the 
last not descending, carmate, base convex, smooth ; peristome with 
two basal teeth. Diam. 6 mill. 

Patchamullies and Kalryenmullis Mts., India. 

H. DIPLODOX, Benson. PI. 13, fig. 61. 

Perforate, thin, smooth, a little striulate, whitish under a corneous 
epidermis; whorls 6J, very slightly convex, the last acutely 
carinated, not descending in front, base somewhat convex, in front, 
near the periphery flattened-excavated, becoming suddenly more 
tumid in the middle ; aperture with an obtuse subcolumellar tooth, 
and another sinuated, pliciform one. Diam. 6*5 mill. 

Teria Ghat, Khasi Mts. 

H. INGRAMI, Blanford. PI. 13, figs. 62, 63. 

Imperforate, thin, diaphanous, light corneous, very minutely, 
closely granulately decussate-striate ; suture thread-margined ; 
whorls 6?, flattened, periphery acutely carinated, not descending, 
compressed above and below the carina, base flattened, externally 
decussately striate, umbilical region impressed ; aperture with two 
entering lamellae on the base, the exterior one largest, with a third 
transverse lamella behind it, lip white, somewhat thickened. Diam. 
6-25 mill. 

Pegu. 
Section LIBER A, Garrett, 1881. 

So far as known this peculiar group, containing about a dozen 
species, is peculiar to the Society and Cook's Is. ; in the former 
archipelago, they are confined to Tahiti and Moorea. 

H. CAVERNULA, Hombr. et Jacq. PI, 13, figs. 75-77. 

Discoidal, whorls a little concave above, strongly costate, whitish, 
tessellated with chestnut ; periphery acutely laminately carinated, 



70 HELIX. 

the edge often cut by the costulae so as to be fimbriated, base flatly 
convex, nearly smooth, whitish, a little mottled with chestnut round 
the outer portion ; aperture with one or two parietal lamellae. 

Tahiti (Jacq.), Sandwich Is. (Pease). 

A very distinct species, erroneously referred by Garrett to the 
synonymy of H. coarctata. I have before me two trays of shells 
named H. laminata, Pease, from the " Sandwich Is.," one of them 
from the describer, which undoubtedly represent the same species. 

H. FRATERCULA, Pease. PI. 13, figs. 64-66. 

Somewhat solid, yellowish, umbilicated, with scarcely oblique, 
close, rugose costulations ; whorls 7, excavated in the middle, the 
last with acutely carinated periphery, base plano-convex, closely, 
finely radiately costulate ; umbilicus cavernous, constricted above ; 
lip with two (sometimes three), columella with one, parietal wall with 
one or two revolving lamellae. Diam. 6 mill. 

Rarotonga. 

Described as H. sculptilis, Pease, preoccupied by Bland. 

H. SUBCAVERNULA, Tryon. PL 13, figs. 67-69. 

Umbilicated, somewhat solid, ashy or brownish corneous, here 
and there darker brown, often tessellated with brown above, 
obscurely radiated below ; whorls 7, convex, the last acutely 
carinated, closely obliquely costulate, the interstices minutely 
striate ; umbilicus deeply cavernous with contracted margin ; aper- 
ture with two, rarely three remote lamellae in the throat and two on 
the parietal .region, columella uniplicate, sinuate. Diam. 6 mill. 

JRarotonga, Cook's Is. 

Described by Garrett as H. cavernula, preoccupied by Hombr. et 
Jacq. 

H. TUMULOIDES, Garrett. PL 13, figs. 70, 71. 

Rather thick, whitish to yellowish corneous, tessellated with chestnut 
above, radiately strigate below ; whorls 7, plano-convex, the last angu- 
lated, periphery acutely carinated, obliquely striate, the striae more 
distant and plicate in the upper whorls, suture linear, subcarinately 
margined, base plano-convex ; umbilicus cavernous, constricted ; 
aperture with two median approximate lamellae in the throat, 
columella with a single plication, parietal region with a median 
lamella. Diam. 7 mill. 

JRarotonga, Cook's Is. 




HELIX. 71 

H. JACQUINOTI, Pfr. PI. 13, figs. 72-74. 

Somewhat solid, acutely carinated, closely arcuately costate, 
variegated with white and brown, not shining ; whorls 8, narrow, 
all carinated, carina exserted, toothed with decurrent ribs, base a 
little convex, radiately striate ; umbilicus contracted by a lamina, 
wide within ; aperture with two long parietal, one columellar, and 
three deep-seated basal lamellse. Diam. 9 mill. 

Tahiti. 

It is H. excavata, Hombr. et Jacq., and possibly H. bursatella, 
var. B. Gould. 

H. COARCTATA, Pfr. PL 13. figs. 78-80. 

Distantly arcuately costate, slightly and finely spirally striate, 
brownish, tessellated w r ith chestnut, not shining; whorls 8$, narrow, 
carinated, somewhat scalar, the last receding below the penultimate ; 
base slightly convex, obsoletely radiately costate, more distinctly 
concentrically striate; umbilicus wide, contracted by a lamina 
above ; aperture with two parietal lamella, one on the columella, 
one within the outer wall, and two on the margin of the base. 
Diam. 6'3 mill. 

Ins. Tahiti. 

H. turricula, Hombr. et Jacq. (figs. 79, 80), H. streptaxon, Reeve 
(fig. 78), and H. bursatella, Gld. (in part), are synonyms. H. 
cavernula, Hombr. et Jacq., is erroneously referred here by Garrett. 

H. BURSATELLA, Goilld. PI. 13, fig. 86. 

Solid, rough, carinated, closely arcuately costate above, marbled 
with white and chestnut color, not shining ; whorls 9, very narrow, 
base plane, smoothish, angulated and contracted over the umbilicus; 
aperture 6-7 plicate, two of them parietal, one columellar and three 
or four basal. Diam. 7'6 mill. 

Ins. Tahiti and Eimeo. 

H. turricula, Hombr. et Jacq., has been erroneously referred 
here ; it is a synonym of the preceding species. 

H. RETUNSA, Pease. PL 13, fig. 81. 

Tessellated with chestnut and white above, radiated with flexu- 
ous flames below ; whorls 7, convex, obliquely radiately costulate, 
the riblets subdistant, flexuous, concentrically striated ; umbilicus 
cavernous, constricted at the top ; throat with two revolving 
lamellae, one on the columella, one parietal. Diam. 4 mill. 

Tahiti. 



72 HELIX. 

H. HEYNEMANNI, Pfr. PL 13, fig. 82. 

Somewhat solid, lightly striate, yellowish, maculated and flamed 
with chestnut ; whorls 7, planulate, all carinated and exserted, the 
last compressly carinated, base a little convex, umbilicus ample, 
nearly closed above ; aperture with two parietal, one columellar and 
three or four basal lamellae. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Tahiti. 

H. GREGARIA, Garrett. PL 13, figs. 83, 84. 

Rather solid, not shining, closely, finely, slightly biarcuately 
costellate, more crowded on the base ; whitish, tessellated, and rayed 
with chestnut; whorls 7, narrow, slowly increasing, periphery 
acutely carinated, base somewhat convex ; apertural laminae 5-6, 
two parietal, one columellar, two palatal, and one inconspicuous (or 
absent) above the keel. Diam. 7 mill. 

Moorea, Society Is. 

H. RECEDENS, Garrett. PL 13, fig. 85. 

Rather solid, not shining, with thin, crowded, rough striae, finer 
and closer on the base, yellowish, tessellated and strigate with dark 
chestnut, or all chestnut ; whorls 7, slightly convex, narrow, slowly 
increasing, last one carinated and decidedly deflected from the 
periphery of the penultinate ; apertural laminae 6, two parietal, the 
lower one deep-seated, a stout one on the columella, two on the 
palate and a less conspicuous one above the keel. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Moorea, Society Is. 

Section TROCHOMORPHA, Albers., 1850. 
A. Imperforate. 

H. CONUS, Phil. PL 14, figs. 87, 88. 

Imperforate, acutely carinate, striulate, with about seven undu- 
lating impressed spiral lines above the periphery ; fulvous chestnut, 
with white zones at the carina and suture, base shining ; whorls 8, 
the apex globose, uncolored, the others flattened, base scarcely 
convex, umbilical region excavated, whorl not descending in front ; 
columellar margin thickened, white. Diam. 12*5 mill. 

Java. 

H. CAMPBELLII, Gray. PL 14, fig. 89. 

Imperforate, convex, closely rugosely striate above, lightly decus- 
sated by spiral striae, light brown, with a broad light band above the 
periphery ; whorls 4i, a little flattened, the last angulated, base 



HELIX. 73 

smoothish ; columella short, oblique, somewhat thickened. 
Diam. 19 mill. 

Phillip Isl., Australia. 

Var. ft. Shell fuscous above, chestnut below. 

H. STODDAKTI, Gray. PI. 14, fig. 90. 

Imperforate, solid, slightly rugose, a little shining ; brown, with 
a light band, or yellowish, with a darker band ; whorls 5, a little 
flattened, the last more convex, with angulated periphery. 
Diam. 15 mill. 

Phillip Isl., Australia. 

H. ALTA, Pease. PI. 14,'fig. 91. 

Imperforate, rather thin, yellowish, suture impressed ; whorls 6, 
plano-convex, slightly longitudinally striate, periphery acutely 
angulated, base a little flattened. Diam. 10 mill. 

Ins. Ponape. 

H. RECTANGULA, Pfr. PL 14, figs. 92-94. 

Imperforate, solid, yellowish grey with or without chestnut bands, 
narrow sutural line and basal area ; whorls 6-6?, a little convex, 
the last subrectangularly carinated, base somewhat flattened, sub- 
excavated in the middle ; columella thickened, callously subdentate. 
Diam. 13 mill. 

Marquisas Is. 

H. hapa, Hombr. et Jacq., is a synonym. 

H. LALANNEI, Gassies. PL 14, fig. 96. 

Imperforate, rather solid, obliquely irregularly striate, somewhat 
shining, light yellowish, banded with chestnut at the carinated 
periphery ; whorls 42-5, slightly convex; regularly increasing, the 
last not descending, base subplanate, more shining ; aperture cingu- 
lated with white within. Diam. 8*5 mill. 

Ins. Art, New Caledonia. 

H. PAGODULA, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 95. 

Imperforate, somewhat solid, opaque, striulate and with obsolete 
impressed spiral lines, epidermis deciduous, fulvous; whorls 62, the 
upper ones flat, the 3 last with subelevated compressed, acute 
carina, the last sub receding, base slightly convex. Diam. 15 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 



74 HELIX. 

Unfigured Species. 

H, KJELLERUPII, Morch. Ins. Sambelong, Nicobar. 

H. SUBTURRITULA, G. and H. Nevill. Ins. Make, Seychelles. 

H. CATINUS, Pfr. Admiralty Is. 

B. Perforated to umbilicated. 

a. Periphery carinated. 

H, CHLOROPLAX, Benson. PL 14, figs. 97, 98. 

Perforate, thin, subplicately striated above, striulate below, very 
lightly decussated, translucent, scarcely polished, greenish corneous, 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, a little convex, the 
last angulated above at the periphery, convex below. Diam. 8 mill. 

Simla, Himalayas. 

H. CAPITIUM, Benson. PI. 14, figs. 99, 100. 

Perforate, thin, striulate, not shining, diaphanous, brownish 
corneous, with opaque laciniated white strigations, suture impressed, 
margined ; whorls 5 J, slightly convex, the last scarcely descending 
in front, with a filiform compressed carina, base more convex ;; 
peristome thin, white, right margin shortly expanded, the basal 
subreflected, columella triangularly expanded, partly covering the 
perforation. Diam. 14 mill. 

Eastern India, Surmah, Siam~ 

Var. HARIOLA, Benson. Fig. 100. 

Periphery obtusely angulated ; the white strigations form two> 
wide bands. 

Nevill refers this species to a section Ganesella. 

H. ACRIS, Benson. PI. 14, fig. 1. 

Narrowly umbilicated, obliquely striulate and obsoletely granu- 
lose, very minutely spirally striated below, whitish, suture slightly 
impressed ; whorls 6J, planulate, the last scarcely descending, peri- 
phery acutely carinated ; peristome slightly expanded above and a, 
little reflected below. Diam. 10 mill. 

Teria Ghat, Khasia Mts., India^ 

H. puellula, Bens. MS., is a synonym. Nevill refers this and the 
following species to a section Trochomorphoides. 

H. BRUNII, Morch. PI. 14, fig. 6. 

Scarcely perforated, yellowish rust color, light ashy towards the 
umbilicus, regularly remotely longitudinally striate; whorls 5, a. 



HELIX. 75 

little convex, the last rounded, obsoletely carinated, not descending ; 
lip white, tumid in the middle, reflected, columella sigmoid. 

Diam. 8'5 mill. 

Ins. Little Nicobar* 

The type of the group Liocystis, Morch. 

H. GALEA, Benson. PI. 14, fig. 4. 

Scarcely perforated, obliquely striulate, decussated by very close 
granulose spiral stride, suture slightly impressed, submargined ; 
whorls 7, the last acutely carinate, not descending, planulate below, 
slightly excavated next the carina ; whitish (decorticated). 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Teria Ghat, Burmah* 

H. GALERUS, Benson. PL 14, figs. 2, 3. 

Narrowly, deeply umbilicated, light corneous, very closely 
obliquely striate; decussated by slighter spiral striae, suture im- 
pressed ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, a little convex, the last acutely 
carinate, margined, base slightly convex, angulated obtusely around 
the umbilicus. Diam. 9 mill. 

Ceylon* 

Unfigured Species. 

H. TRIFILOSA, Pfr. Ceylon* 

H. CARYX, Benson. Phie Than, Tenasserim Valley. 

H. CEROCONUS, Pfr. Ins. Labuan. 

H. GYSSERIANA, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 7. 

Perforate, thin, irregularly striulate, diaphanous, corneous ; 
whorls 6, somewhat flattened, the last acutely carinated below the 
middle, base a little convex ; upper margin of peristome shortly 
expanded, basal reflected. Diam. 9 mill. 

Moluccas, Sumatra* 

The previously described H. conulus, Mart, (not Pease), from 
Sumatra is a synonym. Nevill refers this to Trochomorphoides. 

H. ANGULATA, Issel. PL 14, figs. 8-10. 

Covered perforate, fragile, translucent, yellowish corneous, closely 
lightly transversely striate, and slightly obliquely decussated, suture 
moderate ; whorls 6i, a little convex, the last obtusely angulated, 
not descending in front. Diam. 4*5 mill. 

Sarawak, Borneo* 



76 HELIX. 

H. TERNATANA, Guillou. PL 14, figs. 11-14. 

Narrowly umbilicated or perforated, solid, obliquely striated, 
brownish, the carina lighter colored, base somewhat shining; 
whorls 7, the upper ones acutely carinated, the last obtusely angu- 
lated ; peristome simple, thickened at the base. Diam. 20'5 mill. 

Moluccas. 

Var. MAJOR. More depressed, whorls 81 ; diam. 23 mill. 

Yar. MINOR. More elate. Diam. 16 mill. 

H. Batchianensis, Pfr. (fig. 11), is a synonym. The species varies 
greatly in form, as shown by my figures of several of the extremes. 

H. MEMBRANICOSTA, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 15. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, membranously ribbed, slightly 
shining, brownish corneous ; whorls 7, somewhat convex, slowly 
increasing, the last not descending, periphery carinate, base more 
convex. Diam. 11 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 

H. EXALTATA, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 19. 

Perforate, rather thin, minutely decussated by oblique and spiral 
.striae, waxy, whitish, with a superior narrow chestnut band ; whorls 
7, scarcely convex, the last not descending, moderately convex 
below r the peripheral carina. Diam. 15 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 

It is H. Cleryi, Reeve, not Recluz. 

H. BELMOREI, Cox. PL 14, fig. 16. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, opaque, slightly irregularly 
obliquely striated, dark chestnut color; whorls 6, flat, suture 
indistinct, last whorl very acutely carinated, not depressed in front, 
base plane, roughly striate, excavated around the umbilicus. 
Diam. 1 inch. 

Solomon's Is. 

H. FATIGATA, Cox. PL 14, figs. 17, 18. 

Deeply, widely umbilicated, roughly obliquely striate above, 
more finely below, light yellowish brown, base paler ; whorls 6, flat, 
obliquely margined and pinched at the suture, periphery acutely, 
flatly carinated, shining below, excavated around the umbilicus. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 



HELIX. 77 

H. SCYTODES, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 20. 

Moderately umbilicated, thinnish, slightly granularly rugose, 
scarcely shining, brownish corneous, with a chestnut sutural zone ; 
whorls 6-J, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last with an acute 
chestnut carina on the periphery, scarcely descending in front, base 
convex, obsoletely compressed round the umbilicus. Diam. 14 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 

H. Ju ANITA, Angas.. PI. 15, fig. 30. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, rather thin, shining, with irregular, 
close, elevated striae ; dark chestnut, with a narrow yellowish green 
band at the periphery, and another, wider one around the umbili- 
cus; whorls 6J, slightly convex, periphery angulated; lip white, 
slightly expanded. Diam. 12 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 
H. VIRGULATA, Sowb. PI. 22, fig. 23. 

Moderately umbilicated, with strong incremented stride, slightly 
carinate at the periphery, brownish, with a chestnut peripheral 
band ; whorls 5, a little convex ; 'aperture widely lunar, banded 
within, lip slightly patulous, thickened within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

The original figure in the " Zool. of Beechey's Voy." is evidently 
badly drawn, but whether Reeve's figure represents the same species 
must remain somewhat doubtful. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. SERENA, Cox. Solomon's Is. 

H. LE VIEUXI, G. and H. Nevill. Ins. Make, Seychelles. 

H. PAGODULA, Semper. Ins. Palau. 

H. OLEACINA, Semper. PI. 14, figs. 21-23. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, striated, shining, light corneous, 
suture plane, submargined ; whorls 5 -6, slowly increasing, the last 
more convex above, not descending, obtusely carinated, base some- 
what plane ; lip and columella thickened. Diam. 15-18 mill. 

Nermalck, near Cor ore, and Peleliu. 

H. GOULDI, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 24. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, slightly striulate, scarcely 
shining, brownish ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last carinated, 
'subrotund anteriorly, base flatter. Diam. 9'5 mill. 

Philippines. 



78 HELIX. 

H. BERTINIANA, Canefri. PI. 14, figs. 25-27. 

Covered perforate, obliquely irregularly rugosely striate, diaph- 
anous, white, under a thin light corneous epidermis ; whorls 6, 
slightly convex, the last descending in front, periphery obtusely 
carinated, base convex. Diam. 11 mill. 

New Guinea. 
H. PACIFICA, Pfr. PL 14, fig. 28. 

Perforate, thin, pellucid, striulate, corneous ; whorls 6-6 J, a little 
convex, the last acutely carinated, base a little more convex, 
smooth, shining. Diam. 5*5 mill. 

Cocos Isl., Pacific Ocean. 
H. SECURIFORMIS, Desh. PI. 15, fig. 31. 

Subperforate, thin, shining, smooth, acutely angulated at the 
periphery, greenish ; whorls 4?, a little convex, rapidly enlarging, 
the last large, tumid, convex below. Diam. 10 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
H. GONIOMPHALA, Pfr. PI. 15, fig. 34. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, obliquely rugulosely striated, fulvous, 
suture plane, margined ; whorls 6J, flat, slowly enlarging, the last 
more convex above, not descending in front, periphery subcom- 
pressed and acutely carinated, base a little plane, angulated around 
the umbilicus ; base of periphery callously thickened. 

Diam. 20'5 mill. 

Ins. Ponape, Caroline Is. 

H. NIGRITELLA, Pfr, PI. 15, figs. 35-37. 

Moderately umbilicated, a little solid, brownish, under a blackish 
olivaceous epidermis; whorls 5i, nearly flat, slowly enlarging, 
periphery acutely carinated, base more convex. Diam. 14'5 mill. 

Ins. Ponape, Caroline Is. 
Var. OPPRESSA, Pease. 

More depressed, light yellowish, with a brown sutural band, base 
brown, frequently with a marginal yellowish line. Diam. 13 mill. 

H. CONTIGUA, Pease. PI. 15, figs. 38, 39. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, thick, thinly longitudinally striated, 
yellowish, sometimes with a wide chestnut band ; whorls 6-7, con- 
vexly flattened, periphery acutely angulated, suture scarcely im- 
pressed, the base planulate or subconcave, lip thickened. 

Diam. 9, alt. 10 mill. 

Ins. Ponape, Caroline Is. 

It is H. congrua, Pease, not Pfr. 



HELIX. 79 

H. TENTORIOLUM, Gould. PL 15, fig. 32. 

Moderately umbilicated, obliquely finely striated, light greenish, 
with a white carina ; whorls 6, flattened, periphery acutely angu- 
lated, base inclining towards the umbilicus. Diam. 10 mill. 

Ins. Upolu. 

H. TRANSARATA, MoUSSOll. PI. 15, fig. 41. 

Narrowly umbilicated, irregularly rugosely or plicately striated, 
brownish corneus, the plications whitish, suture linear, lightly mar- 
gined above ; whorls 5, moderately enlarging, a little convex, the 
last not descending, with thread-like, acute carina, smoother and 
lighter colored below, slightly convex, sloping into the umbilicus. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Lomma-Lomma, Viti Islands. 

Var. ft is more depressed, light corneous, thinner, and unequally 
rugosely striated, umbilicus wider. 

H. FESSONIA, Angas. PI. 15, fig. 40. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, closely irregularly plicate-striate, 
light brownish, with irregularly interrupted lighter, diaphanous 
strigations, suture pale thread-margined ; whorls 6, a little convex, 
the last not descending, with white carina on the periphery, base flat, 
corneous, with a narrow, brown band at the carina. Diam. 9 mill. 

Kdntavu; Viti Is. 

Perhaps the preceding species. 

H, ENTOMOSTOMA, Hombr. et Jacq. PL 15, figs. 43-45. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striated above, greenish brown ; whorls 
6-j, somewhat flattened, margined, the periphery acutely carinated, 
base more convex ; columellar margin tuberculately thickened ? 
dilated above. Diam. 1 inch. 

Ins. Hogoleu. 

Partakes of the characters of subsection Videna. 

H. TROCHIFORMIS, Fer. PL 15, fig. 42. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, obliquely rugosely striated, chest- 
nut colored or brownish yellow, dark banded, carina yellowish ; 
whorls 6, a little convex, periphery acutely carinated. 

Diam. 16*5 mill. 

Ins. Itaiatea, Tahaa, Taheiti, Moorea. 

H. circwndata, Muhlf., is a synonym. 

H. SUBTROCHIFORMIS, Mousson. PL 15, figs. 46, 47. 

Differs from the last species in being more discoidal, with more 



80 HELIX. 

acute carina, and narrower umbilicus, the irregular incremental 
striae whitish, producing a greyish appearance. 

Samoan Is. 

H. trochiformis, Gould, not Fer., and H. Eurydice, Mousson, not 
Gould, are synonyms. 

Var. ALBOSTRIATA, Mousson. 

Spire brownish black, with imperfect transverse white strigations ; 
base fulvous, with a brown peripheral zone. 

Ins. Kanathia* 

H. ACCURATA, Mousson. PI. 15, fig. 55. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subconcavely conical, strongly irregularly 
striated, violaceous green, suture linear, carinate margined ; whorls 
7, moderately enlarging, flat, the last not descending ; periphery 
acutely compressed, carinated, white, base plane, yellowish at the 
abrupt umbilicus. Diam. 14 mill. 

Viti Levu, Viti Is. 

H. KUSTERI, Pfr. PL 15, figs. 48, 49. 

Subimperforate, solid, striated, chestnut colored, suture margined ; 
whorls 6, slightly convex, the last not descending, periphery 
carinated, base scarcely convex ; base of peristome callously thick- 
ened, columella very short. Diam. 18 mill. 

Caroline Is. 

H. SOLARIUM, Quoy. PL 14, fig. 29 ; PL 15, fig. 33. 

Umbilicated, striate, diaphanous, fulvous ; whorls 7, a little 
exserted, flat, periphery carinate, base planulate, umbilical region 
angulated. Diam. 9 mill. 

New Ireland. 

H. INFRASTRIATA, Smith. PL 15, figs. 53, 54. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, semitransparent, corneous, with fine 
growth lines and microscopic spiral striae ; whorls 6, slightly con- 
vex, the last acutely carinated. Diam. 15 mill. 

Dentrecasteaux 'IsL, Admiralty Group. 

H. SCULPTICARINA, Martens. PL 15, figs. 56-58. 

Narrowly umbilicated, greyish yellow, closely radiately costulate 
above, carina compressed, spirally striate above and below, base 
radiately and spirally striate ; whorls 6, scarcely convex. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

Ins. Salanga. 




HELIX. 81 

Unfigured Species. 

H. SCIADIUM, Pfr. New Zealand. 

H. HERMIA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

H. SANSITUS, Cox. Vanna Lava, Banks Group ; Viti Levu, Viti Is. 
H. CONFERTA, Pfr. Hab. unknown. 

H. CONCENTRICA, Le Guillou. Ins. Vavao, Tonga Is. 

b. Ecarinate species. 
H. YORKENSIS, Pfr. PI. 15, fig, 59. 

Subcovered perforate, thin, striae capillary, waxy, reddish corn- 
eous, suture smooth, simple ; whorls 5, slightly convex, moderately 
enlarging, the last not descending, periphery subangulated, base 
more shining, impressed in the middle ; aperture reddish pearly. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Cape York, Australia. 
H. PARTUNGA, Angas. PI. 15, figs. 60, 61. 

Moderately, profoundly umbilicated, somewhat solid, obliquely 
striate, light corneous, with a broad dark chestnut band, suture 
narrowly margined; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last a little 
descending, the periphery rounded, base convex, brown, or widely 
banded with brown. Diam. 13 mill. 

Russell Isl., Solomon Archipelago. 

H. MELEAGRIS, Pfr. PL 15, fig. 62. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, somewhat remotely striated, 
slightly shining, dark chestnut color above with irregular yellowish 
maculations, and a light peripheral band, base light corneous ; 
whorls 5J, slightly convex, the last a little descending, periphery 
rounded, base convex. Diam. 19 mill. 

Guadalcanar, Solomon's Is. 

According to Mr. E. A. Smith H. sebacea, Pfr. (= H. cerealis v 
Cox = H. Thorpeiana, Brazier), is a pale variety of this species. 

H. SAMOA, Hombr. et Jacq. PI. 15, figs. 64-66. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, yellowish, bilineated with 
brown; whorls 5, convex, the last subangulated, scarcely descend- 
ing, base convex. Diam. 18 mill. 

Ins. Upolu. 
H. TUBER, Mousson. PI. 15, fig. 63. 

Narrowly perforate, striate, waxy, yellowish corneous, narrowly 
bifasciate, suture simple, impressed ; whorls 5?, regularly enlarging, 



82 HELIX. 

convex, the last not descending, periphery rounded, scarcely obtusely 
subangulated, base convex ; peristome sublabiate within, somewhat 
thickened at the base. Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Ins. Upolu. 

Subsection VIDENA, H. and A. Adams, 1852. 
H. PLANORBIS, Lesson. PI. 16, figs. 78-82. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, fragile, yellowish, marbled with olive 
above ; whorls 5, the last acutely carinated. Diam. 15 mill. 

, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Ternate, etc. 

Var. APPROPINQUATA, Mart. Figs. 80-82. 
Distinctly spirally striated above and below. 

Var. LESSONII, Mart. 

Slightly spirally striate below only. 

Var. JAVANICA, Mousson. 
Spiral striae obsolete. 

Var. NUMMUS, Issel. 

A little smaller, depressed, widely umbilicated, obliquely striu- 
late, whorls scarcely planulate, suture margined. Diam. 8-10 mill. 

H. PAVIEI, Morlet. PI. 14, fig. 5. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, corneous, radiately thinly striate, with 
some spiral lines at the base of each whorl ; whorls 7, a little con- 
vex, the last acutely carinated, convex below. Diam. 14 mill. 

Cambodia. 

H. LOMONTI, Brazier. PL 15, figs. 50-52. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, pellucid, light reddish corneous, darker 
banded on the carina, suture narrowly margined ; whorls 5?, the 
last acutely carinated. Diam. 12'5 mill. 

New Guinea. 

JEL BICOLOR, Martens. PI. 16, figs. 83-85. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, shining with fine spiral lines 
above ; chestnut color, with a sutural zone, carina and umbilical 
region whitish ; whorls 5?-6, slightly convex, the last with carinated 
periphery, not descending in front, base subangulated at the 
umbilicus. Diam. 13 mill. 

Sumatra, Borneo. 

H. ZOLLINGERI, Pfr. PI. 16, fig. 86. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, striated, chestnut color, variegated 



HELIX. 83 

with pale markings, diaphanous, a little shining ; whorls 5, scarcely 
convex, the last not descending, acutely carinated, base somewhat 
convex. Diam. 17 mill. 

Java. 

H. CANTORIANA, Benson. PL 16, figs. 87-89. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, obliquely subarcuately striate, 
smoother below, decussated by remote incised spiral lines, brownish 
corneous, translucent, a little shining, suture submargined ; whorls 
5?, a little convex, the last somewhat obtusely carinated, base 
convex. Diam. 10 mill. 

Pulo Penang. 

H. TRICOLOR, Martens. PL 16, figs. 90-92. 

Perspectively umbilicated, obliquely striated, slightly shining, 
corneous green above, with a rather broad chestnut band above the 
carina, carina itself white, base brownish ; whorls 5?, the last 
descending below the carina. Diam. 17*5 mill. 

Ins. Burn, Moluccas. 

H. LARDEA, Martens. PL 16, figs. 93-95. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, slightly shining, light corneous 
yellow ; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last not descending, acutely 
carinated ; peristome white-lipped within. Diam. 14 mill. 

Ins. Ceram, Moluccas. 

Is H. Zollingeri, Mousson, not Pfr. 

H. GORONTALENSIS, Martens. PL 16, figs. 96-98. 

Somewhat widely umbilicated, striulate, shining, thin, brownish ; 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last not deflected, acutely carinated, 
base convex. Diam. 16 mill. 

Celebes. 

H. TIMORENSIS, Martens. PL 16, figs. 99-1. 

Perspectively umbilicated, distinctly arcuately striated, a little 
shining, fulvous corneous ; wiiorls 6, the last very slightly descend 
ing in front. Diam. 16'5 mill. 

Ins. Timor, Penang. 

H. HARTMANNI, Pfr. PL 16, fig. 2. 

Widely umbilicated, distinctly arcuately striated, fuscous, suture 
linear ; whorls 6, planulate, last not descending, periphery acutely 
carinated, base somewhat convex. Diam. 26 mill. 

Ins. Morotai, near Halmahera 



84 HELIX. 

H. BILLEANA, Morch (unfigured). Nicobar Is. 

H. SULCIPES, Morch (unfigured). 

H. SANIS, Benson. PL 16, figs. 3, 4. 

Moderately umbilicated, obliquely subarcuately striulate, sub- 
granose, corneous, suture very slightly impressed, margined ; whorls 
5, subplanulate, the periphery with a compressed carina, a little 
more convex below. Diam. 11 mill. 

Port Blair, Andaman I. 
H. CASTRA, Benson. PL 16, figs. 5-7. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, obliquely sharply striulate, corn- 
eous, suture margined ; whorls 5, planulate, the last very acutely 
carinated, somewhat plane below. Diam. 12 mill. 

Darjiling, Sikkim Himalayas. 

H. PERCOMPRESSA, Blanford. PL 16, figs. 8-10. 

Openly umbilicated, thin, corneous, shining, obliquely arcuately 
striate, suture margined ; whorls 5, convex, periphery very acutely 
carinated, base a little tumid around the umbilicus. Diam. 12 mill. 

Bhamo, Ava. 
H. BENIGNA, Pfr. PL 16, figs. 11, 12. 

Widely umbilicated, rugosely striated, decussated by very close 
minute spiral striae, pellucid, light cinnamon color, suture margined ; 
whorls 6, scarcely convex, slowly enlarging, periphery acutely 
carinated, above the carina slightly channeled, base more convex. 

Diam. 32'5 mill. 

Lao Mts., Cambodia. 
H. SAIGONENSIS, Crosse. PL 17, figs. 13, 14. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, scarcely obliquely striulate^ a little 
shining, corneous, suture margined ; whorls 6, scarcely convex, the 
last not descending, with acute carina, base shining, more convex. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Saigon and Poulo- Condor Z, Cochin China. 

H. SHERMANI, Pfr. PL 17, fig. 15. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, obliquely striated and 
slightly granular, reddish brown, suture margined ; whorls 7, slowly 
enlarging, somewhat flattened, the last not descending, acutely 
carinated, base more convex. Diam. 18 mill. 

Ins. Formosa. 
H. CONOMPHALA, Pfr. PL 17, fig. 16. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, scarcely striulate, light fulvous 
with a brown band above and below, suture linear; whorls 4, 



V 

HELIX. 85 

rapidly enlarging, the last not descending, carina very acute, base 
scarcely more convex. Diam. 26 mill. 

Philippines. 

H. METCALFEI, Pfr. PL 17, figs. 17-23. 

Widely umbilicated, striulate, light or reddish corneous, often 
with a chestnut band next the acute white carina; whorls 6, 
scarcely convex, a little more so beneath the carina. Diam. 21 mill. 

Philippines. 

H. solarioides, Reeve, is a synonym. 

Var. & minor (figs. 20, 21). Yellowish, with a narrow dark 
chestnut band next the carina. Diam. 17 mill. 
H. Boholemis (unfigured) is probably a synonym. 

Var. Y unicolor, Semper (figs. 22, 23). Brownish corneous, with- 
out band. Diam. 15 mill. 

H. EXCLUSA, Fer. PL 17, fig. 24. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striated, marbled, with two or three red 
bands ; whorls 5, the last excavated round the umbilicus. 

Diam. 20 mill. 

New Guinea, Vanikoro. 

H. Vahine, Jacq., is a probable synonym. 

H. ACUTIMARGO, Pfr. PL 17, figs. 25-27. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, obsoletely concentrically 
striated above, light corneous; whorls 6, slowly enlarging, base 
convex. Diam. 16 mill. 

Isle of Negros, Philippines. 

H. RADULA, Pfr. PL 17, figs. 28-30. 

Moderately umbilicated, a little solid, with close incremental 
striae, and rough, acute, prominent concentric lines ; whorls 6, a 
little convex, slowly increasing, base inflated, closely radiately 
costulate-striate. Diam. 21 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 

H. STRIGILIS, Pfr. PL 17, figs. 31, 32. 

Moderately cylindrically umbilicated, thin, pellucid, light 
corneous, closely costulate-striated above, reticulated by concentric 
elevated lines, base more convex, smooth, shining ; whorls 6, nar- 
row, scarcely convex above. Diam. 12 mill. 

Ins. Negros, Philippines. 



00 HELIX. 

H. ALBOCINCTA, Pfr. PI. 17, fig. 36. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, regularly closely striate 
above, waxy, fulvous-corneous; whorls 5?, convex, peripheral 
carina white, base smoothish, with slight concentric lines. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Ins. Negros, Philippines. 

Is H. planorbis. var. of Reeve. 

H. BECKIANA, Pfr. PL 17, figs. 33-35. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, obliquely striate, brownish, 
scarcely shining, suture linear ; whorls 6, somewhat flattened, the 
last deflected, periphery angulated, the angle becoming obsolete at 
the aperture, base flattened. Diam. 22 mill. 

Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 
Var. KIERULFII, Morch. Fig. 35. 

Shell more solid, spire "higher, whorls narrower, carina obtuse, 
umbilicus much smaller, last whorl with slight close longitudinal 
striae, peristome thicker. Diam. 18 mill. 

Ins. Marinduque, Philippines. 

H. CURVILABRUM, Ads. and Reeve. PL 17, fig. 37. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, striate, chestnut color, with a yel- 
low band above the carina ; whorls 5, somewhat flattened, the last 
not descending, periphery acutely carinated, base scarcely more 
convex ; aperture livid, peristome slightly callous. Diam. 13'5 mill. 

Philippines. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. INFANDA, Semper. Ins. Luzon, Philippines. 

H. SPLENDENS, Semper. Ins. Zebu, Philippines. 

H. ELECTRA, Semper. Ins. Palau, Peleliu, etc. 

H. LIZARDENSIS, Pfr. PL 17, figs. 38, 39. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, closely costulate-striate, with a 
thread-like lira next the carina, wax color, suture carinately 
exserted ; whorls somewhat flattened, very slowly increasing, the 
base a little convex, rudely striated. Diam. 7 '5 mill. 

Lizard IsL, Australia. 

H. MORETONENSIS, Pfr. PL 17, fig. 40. 

Perforate, thin, arcuately plicate above, shining, brownish, 
smoothish and whitish below, suture simple, impressed ; whorls 5fc, 



HELIX. 87 

slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last not descending, peri- 
phery rather acutely carinated, base convex; aperture pearly 
within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 

H. HAMILTONI, Cox. PI. 16, figs. 69, 70. 

Moderately umbiliuated, thin, closely subarcuately costulate, the 
interstices very iiarrrowly thread-striate, decussated by slight, very 
minute spiral lines, appearing a little granular, not shining, light 
brownish corneous, suture impressed ; whorls 5, rapidly increasing, 
plano-convex, the last subinflated, the last rounded, not descending. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Evidently not a member of this group where it is placed by 
Pfeiffer. 
H. BISULCATA, Pfr. PI. 17, figs. 41, 42. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, spirally and very minutely 
obliquely striated, shining, yellowish chestnut, suture impressed ; 
whorls 6 , a little convex, the last much wider, periphery obsofetely 
angulated, not descending in front, base plane, a little impressed 
and sulcate in the middle, subcompressed around the umbilicus. 

Diam. 29 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Described as Tasmanian, but Mr. Petterd writes that it is un- 
known there (Jour, of Conch., ii, 95), unless it be possibly a mons- 
trosity of H. Launcestonensis, Reeve. Pfeiffer adds to his description 
the observation that the specimen has a series of callous nodes 
within the aperture, corresponding with the basal sulcus. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. BELLENGERENSIS, Cox. Bellenger River, Australia. 

H. BELLENGENENSIS, Brazier. Bellengen River, " 

The names are slightly diverse, but evidently refer to the same 
locality ; the descriptions and dimensions differ. 
H. HOOKERIANA, Johnston. Tasmania. 

H. TRUCANINI and H. JUNGERMANNI^E, Petterd. Tasmania. 

H. NEGLECTA, Brazier. Tasmania. 

H. SERRATA, H. Adams. PI. 17, figs. 43, 44. 

Widely, profoundly umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, slightly 
shining, with elevated line, light yellowish, suture serrated ; whorls 



88 HELIX. 

6, a little convex, the last with serrated carina, base rounded about 
the umbilicus. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Silhouette IsL, Seychelles. 

H. APIA, Jacquinot. PL 17, figs. 45, 46. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, lightly striate, light 
fulvous, with or without two chestnut bands, suture narrowly mar- 
gined; whorls 5?, scarcely convex, the last not descending, acutely 
carinated, base slightly convex, impressly lineated towards the 
carina. Diam. 17 mill. 

New Hebrides. 

H. EUDORA, Angas. PI. 17, figs. 47, 48. 

Bather widely, deeply umbilicated, somewhat solid, irregularly, 
obliquely, closely and sharply striate, light chestnut colored ; whorls 
6, a little convex, the last with carinated periphery, not descend- 
ing, base convex ; aperture violaceous, peristome white. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

New Georgia. 

H. SEMICONVEXA, Pfr. PI. 17, fig. 49. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, minutely striated, waxy 
shining, chestnut colored, suture impressed, distinctly margined ; 
whorls 4?, a little convex, the last not descending, periphery with 
compressed carina, base inflated ; aperture bluish. Diam. 14 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 

H. MATURA, Pfeiffer. PI. 17, fig. 50. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thinnish, striulate, dark chestnut 
colored, suture carinated; whorls 51, hardly convex, the last 
slightly deflected in front, peripheral carina acute, base a little 
convex, obsoletely angulated around the umbilicus; lip white, 
widely thickened within the base, almost dentate. Diam. 20 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 

H. RHODA, Angas. PI. 17, figs. 51, 52. 

Moderately, deeply umbilicated, rather solid, finely, obliquely, 
irregularly striated, fulvous brown, with pale, diaphanous, oblique 
stripe-like spots, a suffused brown band below the suture, a darker, 
narrower one above it, and a narrow dark band on either side of 
the keeled periphery; whorls 6, suture narrowly margined, last 
whorl not descending ; lip white, slightly expanded and subreflexed, 
basal portion a little thickened. Diam. 20 mill. 

San Christoval, Solomon's Is. 



HELIX. 89 

H. DEIOPEIA, Angas. PL 17, figs. 53, 54. 

Profoundly umbilicated, rather thin, lightly, irregularly, ob- 
liquely striated, suture narrowly margined ; whorls 6, slightly 
convex, the upper ones brownish, the last blackish, with oblique 
light, diaphanous strigations, not descending, carinate, base sub- 
planate ; lip light corneous, margins approaching, the basal margin 
a little thickened, sinuous and subreflected. Diam. 8 mill. 

Solomon's Is. 

H. MERZIANA, Pfr. PL 18, fig. 55. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, slightly rugulosely 
striated above, brownish, strigated and marbled with yellowish, 
suture impressed, margined ; whorls 5?, a little convex, the last 
acutely carinated, not descending in front, base flattened, minutely 
radiately striate, yellowish, with a chestnut band at the carina ; 
aperture iridescent. Diam. 23 mill. 

San Christoval, Solomon's Is. 

H. SANCTJE-ANN.E, Smith. PL 18, figs. 56-58. 

Narrowly, deeply umbilicated, acutely keeled, light yellowish 
brown, sometimes with a few pale radiating streaks on the upper 
surface, with oblique growth-lines ; whorls 5, rather slowly increas- 
ing, slightly convex, depressed and margined above the suture, last 
whorl not descending, compressed at the keel; aperture flesh- 
tinted, basal margin a little thickened, periphery with a thin callus. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Santa Anna, Solomon's Islands. 

H. XIPHIAS, Pfr. PL 18, figs. 59-61. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, obliquely striated, 
whitish corneous, with four narrow chestnut bands, carina white, 
suture carinated ; w r horls 5, slightly convex, slowly enlarging, the 
last not descending, acutely carinated ; base of aperture nodulously 
callous. Diam. 18 mill. 

Admiralty Islands. 

Var. /9. A little smaller, brownish, bands obsolete. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. PAPUA, Lesson. New Guinea. 

H. GASSIEST, Pfr. New Hebrides. 

H. ZENOBIA, Pfr. New Georgia. 



90 HELIX. 

H. HOWINSUL^E, Cox. Lord Howe's IsL 

H. CRUSTULUM, Cox. Solomon's Is. 

H. CROUANII, Le Guillou. Solomon's Is, 

H. HENSCHEI, Pfr. Solomon's Is. 

H. NAVIGATORUM, Pfr. PL 18, fig. 62. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, obliquely striated, reddish 
grey, under a shining purplish brown epidermis, suture margined ; 
whorls 5, a little convex, gradually enlarging, the last not descend- 
ing, with compressed peripheral carina, base more convex. 

Diam. 18*5 mill. 

Navigator's Is. 

H. LUTEO-CORNEA, Pfr. PI. 18, fig. 63. 

Somewhat narrowly umbilicated, solid, thread-striate, waxy, 
yellowish corneous, suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, slowly 
increasing, the last not descending in front, periphery angulated, 
base subconvex; aperture whitish., Diam. 18 mill. 

Navigator's Is. 

H. APPROXIMATA, Guillou. PI. 18, ngs. 64-67. 

Umbilicated, rather solid, striulate, very obscurely granular, not 
shining, brownish, variegated with ashy yellow, suture linear; 
whorls 6-7, flattened, the last not descending, acutely carinated, 
carina separated from the scarcely convex base by an impressed 
line ; base of peristome callously thickened. Diam. 14*5 mill. 

Caroline Is. 

Eichler (Sitzb. Berlin, 144, 1880) has recently called attention to 
discrepancies between Guillou's description of this species and the 
shell identified with it by Reeve, Pfeiffer, Kiister, etc. 

Var. MARMOROSA, Hombr. et Jacq. Figs. 66, 67. 

Smaller, lighter colored, similarly variegated, carina less acute, 
occasionally margined by chestnut bands. Diam. 14 mill. 

H. EURYDICE, Gould. PI. 18, figs. 68-70. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, thin, light greenish with chestnut 
colored revolving lines above and below ; whorls 5-6, scarcely .con- 
vex, the last very acutely carinated, base planulate. Diam. 16 mill. 

Tonga Tabou, Vavao. 



HELIX. 91 

H. TUMULUS, Gould. PI. 18, figs. 71-73. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, roughly subobliquely striated, 
yellowish ; whorls 6-7, a little convex, with angulated periphery,, 
compressed towards the aperture. Diam. 10 mill. 

Viti Is, 
H. ABROCHROA, Crosse. PI. 18, figs. 74, 75. 

Very widely umbilicated, thin, diaphanous, a little shining, 
smoothish, scarcely obliquely striulate, yellowish corneous, suture 
margined ; whorls 5, moderately increasing, the last not descending, 
very acutely carinated, base somewhat convex, angulated around 
the umbilicus. Diam. 10 mill. 

Ins. Viti-Levu.. 
Var. PSEUDOPLANORBIS, Mousson. 

Spire higher, base more flattened and umbilicus narrower. 

H. CRESSIDA, Gould. PL 18, figs. 76-78. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, solid, closely, sharply striated r 
shining, with coalescing fasciations of chestnut and yellowish green ; 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last acutely carinated, base sub- 
planulate. Diam. 17*5 mill. 

Ins. Samoa, Tahiti, Eaiatea. 

H. FALLENS, Pease. PL 18, fig. 79. 

Umbilicus narrow, shell rather solid, obliquely roughly striated,, 
scarcely shining, yellowish white, with two submedian reddish 
chestnut bands, the lower one wider, suture with narrow margin ; 
whorls 6, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last not deflected 
in front, the acute keel whitish. Diam. 16 mill. 

Tahiti and Moorea, Society Islands. 

Pease described it as a variety of H. trochiformis, Fer. Garrett 
considers it distinct (Jour. Philad. Acad., ix, 25). Varieties have 
wide median bands, or pale honey yellow with narrow, often mar- 
ginal bands, or uniform whitish or yellowish-white, or dark chestnut 
color, with white keel and suture. 

H. SWAINSONI. Pfr. PL 18, fig. 80. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, subarcuately rugosely 
striated, greenish fulvous, with two chestnut lines ; whorls 5,. 
depressed, the last acutely carinated. Diam. 16 mill. 

Tahiti; feleliu, 

H. exclusa, H. scuta and H. lenta, Pease, are synonyms, the two- 
latter are MSS. names. 



92 HELIX. 

H. ASSIMILIS, Garrett. PL 18, fig. 84. 

Moderately urabilicated, rather solid, subpellucid, finely ob- 
liquely striate, greenish horn color with two narrow chestnut bands, 
suture with a narrow pale margin; whorls 52-6, upper ones con- 
vex, lower ones subplanulate, narrow, slowly increasing, last one 
with compressed, rugose peripheral carina. Diam. 15 mill. 

Huahine, Society Islands. 

Smaller with more flattened whorls and more excavated umbilical 
region than H. pattern ; the bands always narrow, and differing in 
color. The obliquely arched columella will separate it from H. 
trochiformis. 

H. LATIMARGINATA, Smith. PL 18, figs. 81-83. 

Deeply, narrowly umbilicated, dull pale brownish ; whorls 5, 
.slowly increasing, the last broadly marginate above the suture, with 
oblique growth-lines, periphery sharply carinated. Diam. 15 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

H. TAVINNIENSIS, Garrett. PL 18, fig. 85. 

Rather widely perspectively umbilicated, somewhat thin, sub- 
pellucid, a little shining, obliquely striated ; brownish yellow, with 
narrow chestnut bands above and below, suture white-margined, 
carina white ; whorls 5, the last not descending, acutely carinated. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Tavinni Isl., Viti Group. 

H. TROILUS, Gould. PL 18, figs. 89, 90. 

Rather widely umbilicated, solid, closely rugosely striated, shining, 
chestnut-fulvous or yellowish, bifasciate with chestnut, suture mar- 
gined; whorls 5J, convex, moderately increasing, the last not 
descending, base slightly convex, with slight spiral lines ; aperture 
pearly within. 

Ins. Samoa. 

H. LUDERSI, Pfr. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat thin, obliquely striulate, 
corneous white, with narrow, equal, chestnut bands, suture white- 
margined ; whorls 5, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, the last 
not descending, periphery with an acute white carina, base slightly 
oonvex, shining. Diam. 19 mill. 

Ins. Ovalan, Viti Group. 



HELIX. 9& 

Var. CORALLINA, Mousson. 

Shell smaller, thinnish, carina more acute, light colored without 
or with one or two bands. Diam. 13 mill. 

Neither type nor variety have been figured. 

H. RUDIUSCULA, Pfr. PI. 18, fig. 86. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, thin, irregularly rudely rugose- 
striate, corneous brown ; whorls 5, subplanulate, regularly increas- 
ing, the last not descending in front, periphery carinated. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown* 

H. HIDALGOIANA, Crosse. PL 18, figs. 87, 88. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, subtranslucid, with rude, close 
impressed, oblique striae, light cinnamon-chestnut color, suture 
margined ; whorls 6, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, the last 
acutely carinated, base more convex, shining, obsoletely striate ; 
aperture livid, subpearly. Diam. 25 mill. 

Hob. Oceania (loc. unknown). 

Unfigured Species. 

H. ALATA, Pfr. Sandwich Islands. 

H. DEPRESSIFORMIS, Pease. Tahiti. 

H. PROSTRATA, Pease. Is. of Central Pacific. 

H. PLANISSIMA, Pfr. Hob. unknown. 

H. GUILLOUI, Pfr. (H. Valenciennesii, Guill. not Eyd.). 

Hob. unknown. 

Subsection THYSANOTA, Albers, 1860. 
H. GUERINI, Pfr. PI. 18, figs. 95, 96. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, trochiform, epidermis rugose, 
brownish ; whorls 7?, scarcely convex, periphery carinated, closely 
ciliated, base slightly convex. Diam. 16 mill. 

Nilgherri Mts., India. 
H. HYBA, Benson. PI. 18, figs. 91, 92. 

Deeply, somewhat openly umbilicated, subtrochiform, closely, 
roughly, obliquely plicate above, decussated by very fine spiral 
striae, smoother and somewhat shining and very minutely granulated 
below, epidermis brownish corneous, suture lightly impressed, mar- 
gined ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, scarcely convex, the last not 
descending, peripheral carina margined. Diam. 14 mill. 

Sub-Himalayan Hills, India. 



94 HELIX. 

H. Tandianensis, Theobald, has been considered a synonym, but 
Theobald says that the animal has a mucous pore with overhanging 
spur, which would make it a Zonites. It has not been figured 
(Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 46, 1881). 

H. CRINIGERA, Benson. PI. 18, figs. 93, 94. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, somewhat thin, closely membranously 
costulate, corneous, suture margined, with a subexserted ciliate 
carina; whorls 6z, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, with one 
(rarely several) spiral lirse near the suture, last whorl not descend- 
ing, periphery ciliately carinated, base a little more convex. 

Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Nilgherri Mis., India. 

H. TABIDA, Pfr. PI. 19, figs. 97, 98. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, turbinate, somewhat solid, closely 
rugosely striated, epidermis deciduous, brownish ; whorls 8, very 
slowly increasing, scarcely convex, the last not descending, periphery 
subangulated, convex above, flattened below. Diam. 17'5 mill. 

Nilgherri Mts., India. 

Like H. Guerini and H. crinigera but larger and not carinated. 

H. MACROPLEURIS, Benson. PI. 19, fig. 99. 

Narrowly umbilicated, minutely, obliquely, arcuately striated, 
with remote, elevated curved ribs above, decorticated, whitish, a 
little shining, apex papillary, suture carinate-margined ; whorls 8, a 
little convex, the last not descending, with a thread-like peripheral 
carina, base flattened, a little more convex towards the aperture, 
and angulate around the umbilicus. Diam. 5 mill. 

Near Darjiling, India. 

H. MERA, Keeve. PI. 19, fig. 100. 

Scarcely umbilicated, depressed orbicular, corneous, subdia- 
phanous, arcuately, rugosely striated, epidermis very thin, oliva- 
ceous ; whorls 5, periphery acutely carinated, convexly tumid 
helow. Diam. 27 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
H. ALPHA, Pfr. PL 19, fig. 1. 

Moderately umbilicated, obliquely striulate and distantly lamel- 
lately costate, variegated with yellowish and brownish strigations ; 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last not descending, acutely den- 






fe tlNITEm,. 

HELIX. 95 

tately ciliately carinate, base flattened, subangulated around the 
umbilicus. Diam. 4*3 mill. 

New Zealand. 
H. stipulata, Reeve, is a synonym. 

H. BETA, Pfr. PL 19, fig. 2. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, arcuately plicate, fulvous, with wide 
chestnut maculations, suture margined ; whorls 7, the last sub- 
receding, not descending, carina ciliated. Diam. 3*3 mill. 

New Zealand. 

H. barbatula, Reeve, is a synonym. 

Notwithstanding differences of size and proportions, number of 
whorls, etc., Hutton unites this species to the foregoing : they con- 
stitute his genus THERA. 

H. CORYS, Benson (unfigured). Darjiling, India. 

Subsection PARARHYTIDA, Ancey. 
H. DIOTYODES, Pfr. PL 19, fig. 3. 

Narrowly umbilicated, obliquely plicately striate, rather thin, 
diaphanous, light corneous, reticulated finely with brown, with 
chestnut maculations at the suture and carina ; whorls 7, scarcely 
convex, the last not descending, periphery acutely carinate, not 
hairy. Diam. 27 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
Tar. MAJOR. Whorls 7$, diam. 35'5 mill. 

H. MOUENSIS, Crosse. PL 19, figs. 4-6. 

Umbilicated, obliquely striulate, subdiaphanous, brownish corn- 
eous, closely reticulated with chestnut, with numerous, wide, dark 
chestnut maculations at the suture, suture submargined, carina 
articulated with corneous and chestnut, base reticulated with chest- 
nut maculations confluent into oblique radiating zones around the 
umbilicus ; whorls 6, flattened, the last not descending in front, 
carina acute ; aperture livid white, shining. Diam. 17 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Said to differ from the preceding species by its more lenticular 
form, less elevated spire, flatness and coloring. It will probably 
prove identical, or at most a variety. 

Subsection POECILOZONITES, Sandberger, 1884. 
H. BERMUDENSIS, Pfr. PL 19, figs. 7-10. 

Narrowly umbilicated, conoidally lenticular, rather thin, rugu- 
.losely striate, periphery carinated ; light yellowish brown, marbled 



96 HELIX. 

more or less obsoletely with fulvous, with usually a chestnut band! 
extending narrowly above and broadly below the periphery (some- 
times absent) ; whorls 7, scarcely convex ; aperture subtrapezoidal, 
lip simply thickened within, columella short, vertical, forming an 
angle with the basal margin. Diam. 2'3 mill. 

Bermuda* 

Section MICROPHYSA, Albers, 1860. 
H. PORTORICENSIS, Pfr. PL 19, figs. 11, 12. 

Perforate, thin, diaphanous, corneous, closely striated ; whorls 5 y 
a little convex, suture deep, last whorl marked by several spiral 
strise. Diam. 10 mill. 

Porto Rico, W. I. 

H. DESIDERATA, Pfr. PL 19, fig. 13. 

Perforate, thin, striulate, whitish (when living corneous or 
hyaline ?), suture deep ; whorls 6, convex, subequal, the last should- 
ered, much higher than wide, not descending in front, base convex. 

Diam. 4'3 mill. 

Haiti. 
H. TURBINIFORMIS, Pfr. PL 19, fig. 14. 

Perforate, obliquely striulate, corneous white ; whorls 5, convex, 
a little exserted. Diam. 7 mill. 

Cuba, Jamaica. 

H. subpyramidalis, Ads., is a synonym ; H. McNabiana, Chitty, 
probably another. 

H. ANTHONIANA, Adams. PL 19, fig. 15. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, striulate, shining, whitish under a 
deciduous fulvescent epidermis; whorls 6, convex, the last not 
descending, base subplanulate. Diam. 10 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. VIRESCENS, Pfr. PL 22, figs. 51-53. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, slightly striulate, light 
greenish yellow, suture impressed ; whorls 6, a little convex, the last 
not descending, base somewhat flattened. Diam. 13*5 mill. 

Haiti. 
H. TRANSLUCENS, Gundl. PL 22, figs. 54-56. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, striulate, translucent, yellowish 
white ; whorls 62, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last not 
descending, base inflated. Diam. 7 mill. 

Eastern Cuba. 



HELIX. 97 

H. BOOTHIANA, Pfr. PI. 19, fig. 16. 

Narrowly umbilicated, hyaline, very minutely striated ; whorls 5, 
convex. Diam. 5*67 mill. 

Cuba. 

H. Lavalleana, d'Orb. (figures, but not description), is a synonym. 

Var. VITRINA, Adams. 
Larger. Diam. 8 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. MUSICOLA, Shuttleworth. PI. 8, fig. 66. 

Narrowly, subcovered umbilicated, very thinly, obliquely, sharply 
costulate, the interstices striulate, chestnut corneous, epidermis 
deciduous ; whorls 4J, convex, the last rounded. Diam. 9 mill. 

Porto Rico. 

A larger variety has a narrow white peripheral band. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

H. EUCLASTA, Shuttleworth. PL 8, fig. 65. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, thin, waxy, with close, hair-like 
striae, brownish corneous, suture impressed ; whorls 4, scarcely 
convex, moderately increasing, the last not descending, periphery 
obsoletely angulated, subexcavated around the umbilicus. 

Diam. 12'5 mill. 

St. Thomas, Cuba. 

H. Swifti, Pfr., is a synonym. 

A variety, with the spire a little more elevated, occurs in Porto 
Rico. 

H. MONTETAURINA, Pfr. PL 19, figs. 17-19. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, striulate, pellucid, whitish hyaline, 
suture subchanneled ; whorls 6, very narrow, convex, the last not 
descending, base more convex. Diam. 4*67 mill. 

Cuba. 

H. ELATIOR, Weinland and Martens. PL 19, figs. 20-22. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat roughly striulate, corneous 
hyaline; whorls 5J, convex, slowly increasing, the last a little 
turgid, not descending. Diam. 5 mill. 

Haiti. 
H. ANGUSTISPIRA. Adams. PL 19, fig. 23. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, smoothish, diaphanous, corneous 
white; whorls 5, convex, very narrow, the last not descending in 
front, compressed on the sides. Diam. 3*67 mill. 

Jamaica. 
7 



98 HELIX. 

H. FUSCULA, Adams. PI. 19, fig. 24. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, scarcely shining, fuscous ; whorls 
4, convex, the last somewhat narrow, not descending. Diam. 3 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. VORTEX, Pfr. PI. 19, figs. 25-28. 

Narrowly umbilicated, hyaline, obsoletely striated ; whorls 5, a 
little convex, narrow, the last subangulate, sometimes a little 
deviating. Diam. 6 mill. 
Cuba, St. Croix, Jamaica, Porto Rico, Bermuda, Barbados, Florida. 

Gould described it from the last locality as H. selenina; it is also 
H. otellina, Riise, MSB., and H. bracteola, Fer. (fig. 28), from 
Martinique, may probably be added, as indicated by Bland. 

H. ALVEUS, Adams. PI. 19, fig. 29. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, with very slight, unequal, incre- 
mental striae, translucent, whitish, suture deep ; last whorl narrow, 
periphery obsoletely angulated. Diam. 7'5 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. PERAFFINIS, Adams. PI. 19, fig. 30. 

Umbilicated, striulate, hyaline; whorls 6, convex, the last 
rounded, base flatter. Diam. 8 mill. 

Jamaica. 

Adams considered it intermediate between H. Boothiana and H. 
vortex. 

H. SUBAQUILA, Shuttl. PI. 19, fig. 31. 

Narrowly umbilicated, very slightly striulate, light corneous or 
whitish, a little shining ; whorls 4, gradually increasing, convex, 
the last rounded-inflated, suture deep. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Porto Rico, Vieque, St. Thomas. 

With fewer whorls than H. peraffinis, and wider umbilicus than 
JET. Boothiana, the spire more depressed than in either. 

H. SPRETA, Adams. PI. 19, fig. 32. 

Umbilicus rather narrow, light corneous, translucent, smooth ; 
whorls 5, convex, shouldered, suture rather deep, last whorl 
rounded. Diam. 6.25 mill. 

Jamaica. 

Var. ERRANS, Adams. 

Whorls less shouldered, umbilical region somewhat thickened, 
opaque. 



HELIX. 99 

This species has a spire somewhat depressed as in H. peraffinis, 
with the convex base of H. Boothiana, the umbilicus w r ider than 
the latter and the aperture not so high but narrower than in 
peraffinis. The shell figured is not fully grown. 

H. INCONSPICUA, Adams. PI. 19, fig. 33. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, thin, subhyaline, suture deep ; 
whorls 4i, a little convex, the last not descending, base inflated, 
subcompressed towards the umbilicus. Diam. 4*3 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. BREVIOR, Adams. PI. 19, fig. 34. 

Moderately umbilicated, diaphanous, whitish; whorls 4?-5, 
scarcely convex, the last not descending. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Jamaica. 

H. depressa, Adams, is a synonym. 

H. SINCERA, Adams. PI. 19, fig. 35. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, striulate, waxy, white ; whorls 4 , 
somewhat convex, the last narrow. Diam. 4 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. UMBRATILIS, Guppy. PI. 19, fig. 36. 

Deeply umbilicated, distinctly, regularly striated, diaphanous, 
corneous or whitish ; whorls 5 -6, slowly increasing. 

Diam. 1*5 mill. 

Trinidad, W. I. 
H. IMMUXDA, Adams. PI. 19, figs. 37, 38. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, irregularly costulate-striate, scarcely 
shining, diaphanous, light corneous or greenish, suture deep ; 
whorls 5?, convex, tumid at the suture, the last scarcely des- 
cending, periphery obsoletely angulated. Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. RUFULA, Pfr. PI. 19, fig. 39. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, closely costulate, diaphanous, a little 
shining, brownish, suture impressed ; whorls 4J, a little convex, the 
last not descending, base a little flattened. Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Jamaica. 
H. DIMINUTA, Adams. PI. 19, figs. 40, 41. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, rather closely plicately ribbed, dia- 
phanous, greenish- or corneous-white, suture 'deep ; whorls 4, con- 
vex, subequal, the last not descending, base somewhat flattened. 

Diam. 3 mill. 

Jamaica, Grenada. 



100 HELIX. 

H. PERDEPRESSA, Adams. PL 19, fig. 42. 

Widely umbilicated, striulate, diaphanous, corneous-white, spire 
flat, apex immersed, suture deep ; whorls 4, convex, slowly increas- 
ing, the last descending in front, periphery subangulated, base 
inflated. Diam. 5 mill. 

Jamaica* 

H. CYCLOSTOMOIDES, Pfr. PI. 19, figs. 43, 44. 

Widely umbilicated, scarcely convex above, concave below, 
smooth, hyaline ; whorls 4, slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the 
last depressed, with obsoletely angulated periphery ; aperture sub- 
circular. Diam. 4 mill. 

Cuba. 

H. PTYCHODES, Pfr. PI. 19, fig. 45. 

Moderately umbilicated, much depressed, discoidal, very thin, 
arcuately plicate, hyaline under a thin, deciduous, fuscous epider- 
mis; whorls 4s-5, the base scarcely more convex. Diam. 10'3 mill. 

Jamaica* 
H. TICHOSTOMA, Pfr. PI. 19, fig. 46. 

Widely umbilicated, hyaline, shining, thinly striated ; whorls 5, 
somewhat flattened above, narrow, the last much wider ; aperture 
with the penultimate whorl partly halved by a horizontal lamina. 

Diam. 6 mill. 

Cuba. 

H. lamellina, Newcomb, MSS., is a synonym. 

H. STIGMATICA, Pfr. PI. 22, figs. 24-26. 

Umbilicated, thin, yellowish corneous, diaphanous, very min- 
utely hispid-granulate; spire flat; whorls 4J, convex, the last a 
little descending, rounded ; lip very slightly expanded. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Cuba* 

H. VELUTINA, Lam. PL 22, figs. 30-32. 

Perforate, thin, very minutely subreticulately striate, the epider- 
mis sublamellate, waxy, shining, velvety but not pilose, suture deep ; 
whorls 5, convex, slowly increasing, the last not descending, with 
subplanulate base. Diam. 13 mill. 

r , Porto Rico* 

H. SUAVIS, Gundlach. PL 22, figs. 33-35. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, minutely granulate and very shortly 
pilose, light brownish, spire immersed in the middle; whorls 



HELIX. 101 

scarcely 5, convex, the last rounded, deflected in front ; aperture 
auriform-lunar, margins converging, a little expanded. 

Diam. 15-16 mill. 

Cuba. 
H. RARIPILA, Morelet. PI. 22, figs. 27-29. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, subdiaphanous, corneous, with short, 
soft hairs ; whorls 4?, a little convex, the last rounded, not descend- 
ing, very slightly constricted at the aperture ; aperture scarcely 
oblique, the margins approaching, columella subangularly descend- 
ing. Diam. 7-8 mill. 

Cuba. 

It is H. stigmatica, var. of Poey. 

H. DEBILIS, Pfr. PI. 22, figs. 36-38. 

Umbilicated, very thin, light corneous, with close thread-like 
oblique striae ; whorls 4, a little convex ; aperture large, subcircular, 
lip thin, acute. Diam. 9*6 mill. 

Cuba, Porto Rico. 

IsH.fragilis,~Pfr. 

H. SIGMOIDES, Morelet. PI. 22, figs. 57-59. 

Narrowly perforate, whitish corneous, thin, shortly pilose, spire 
involute, aperture immersed, suture deep ; whorls 4, convex, the 
last rapidly enlarging, tumid, a little flattened laterally. 

Guatemala. 

H. vitrinoides, Tristram, an unfigured species; is referred here by 
Pfeiffer. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. GRACILIS, Poey. Cuba. 

H. PELLUCIDA, Ads. (= H. INVASA, Pfr.). Jamaica. 

H. HILUM, Weinl. and Mart. Haiti. 

H. HYPOLEPTA, Shuttlew. St. Thomas, W. I. 

H. ALICEA, Guppy. Trinidad. 
H. GYROPLATYS, Dohrn. Antioquia, N. Granada. 

H. INGERSOLLII, Bland. PI. 20, figs. 47, 48. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, translucent, rather smooth, white, 
spire plane, apex subimmersed, suture impressed; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last not descending, more 
convex on the base. Diam. 4 mill. 

Southwestern Colorado, U. S. 



102 HELIX. 

H. LANSINGI, Bland. PI. 20, figs. 49, 50. 

Imperforate, smooth above, substriate below, brownish corneous, 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last not descend- 
ing, periphery obsoletely angulated, base more convex, excavated 
around the umbilicus; outer lip of aperture thickened, with an 

obsoletely denticular lamella. Diam. 3 mill. 

Astoria, Oregon. 

This with the following species forms the group ANCEYIA, 
Pilsbry (Prwtina, Ancey, preoccupied in Vermes). It is character- 
ized by aculeate marginal teeth and ribbed jaw with a hyaline, 
Conulus-like, imperforate shell. 
H. STEARNSII, Bland. PI. 20, figs. 51, 52. 

Like H. Lansingi but larger, more elevated, and more distinctly 
striated ; aperture without lamella. Diam. 4 mill. 

Astoria, Oregon, Washington Terr., Alaska. 
H. EPSILON, Pfr. PI, 20, fig. 53. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, obliquely, closely plicate above, 
smoothish below, light corneous; whorls 3J, a little convex, the 
last not descending. Diam. 1'75 mill. 

New Zealand. 

H. caput-spinulcK, Reeve, is a synonym. 

H. CATJSIA, Benson. PI. 15, figs. 67, 68. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, obliquely striulate, with very minute, 
close spiral slight lines, a little shining, yellowish corneous, paler 
below, suture impressed, submargined ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, 
periphery rounded. Diam. 7 mill. 

Phie Than, Tenasserim. 

H. BERTHOLDIANA, Pfr. PI. 4, figs. 67, 68. 

Narrowly umbilicated, conoidally lenticular, thin, closely radi- 
ately striate, scabrous (juvenile hairy), diaphanous, corneous brown . 
whorls 5, scarcely convex, regularly increasing, the last with angu- 
lated periphery, a little convex below. Diam. 8'5 mill. 

Is. S. Antao and S. Vicente, Cape Verd Archip. 



H, CAMPBELLICA, Filhol (unfigured). New Zealand. 

H. PUMILA, Hutton (unfigured). New Zealand. 

Subsection PELIA, Albers, 1860. 
H. SPIRULATA, Pfr. PI. 20, fig. 56. 

Imperforate, very slightly striate, with concentric elevated lines y 
thin, fulvous ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, periphery compressly 



HELIX. 103 

carinated, base scarcely convex, impressed in the middle. 

Real Llejos, Central America. 

Section PELLA, Albers, 1860. 

H. TROTTERIANA, Benson. PL 20, fig. $7. 

Imperforate, very thin, translucent, obsoletely plicatulate, 
greenish corneous, apex smooth, reddish ; whorls 4, slightly convex, 
the last not descending; columellar margin filiform, subvertical, 
slightly arcuate, entering, white. Diam. 19'5 mill. 

Uitenhage, So. Africa. 

H. NATALENSIS, Pfr. PI. 20, fig. 58. 

Imperforate, thin, smooth, subdiaphanous, corneous whitish, with 
irregular brownish radiating lines ; whorls 4, scarcely convex, the 
last inflated ; columella subvertical, filiform, profoundly entering, 
interior fulvous, shining. Diam. 12 mill. 

Natal, So. Africa. 

H. COTYLEDONIS, Benson. PL 20, fig. 59. 

Imperforate, thin, rather smooth, diaphanous, brownish corneous, 
opaquely widely white-zoned ; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last 
not descending, convex below, rudely radiately subplicate, with two 
narrow bands ; columella tuberculately callous above. 

Simon's Say, Cape of Good Hope. 

H. PINGUIS, Krauss. PL 20, fig. 60. 

Perforate, thin, pellucid, smooth, shining, brownish corneous 
above, paler beneath ; whorls 5 J, convex, slowly increasing, base 
subplanulate, impressed in the middle. Diam. 8 mill. 

Natal, So. Africa. 

H. CAPENSIS, Pfr. PL 20, fig. 61. 

Perforate, thin, opaque, a little shining, white, dotted with 
blackish, obsoletely brown rayed ; whorls 4?, scarcely convex ; 
interior fulvous. Diam. 9 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. irrorata, Ziegl. MSS., and H. littoricola, Benson, MSS., are 
synonyms. 

H. AUSTRALIS, Menke. PL 20, fig. 62. 

Narrowly umbilicated, smooth, obsoletely striated, whitish with 
obsolete ashy radiating maculations and interrupted bands ; whorls 
5, rapidly increasing. Diam. 4 mill. 

f Swan River, Australia. 



104 HELIX. 

H. UITENHAGENSIS, Krauss. PL 20, fig. 63. 

Perforate, striulate, white, with brownish dots, apex papillary ; 
whorls 6, scarcely convex, the last inflated ; interior brownish. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Differs from H. Capensis in size, papillary spire, whorls less con- 
vex, base more inflated. 

H. PALUDICOLA, Benson. PI. 20, fig. 64. 

Perforate, thin, striulate, opaque white, with translucent spots 
and purplish brown broken bands ; whorls 5-5 , convex, the last 
inflated, purple brown towards the aperture or all over ; aperture 
brownish. Diam. 5*5 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. DARNAUDI, Pfr. PL 20, figs. 65, 66 ; PL 22, figs. 39-41. 

Perforate, thin, rugosely striate, corneous, with opaque white 
bands ; whorls about 5, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, the last 
not descending, rounded. Diam. 8 mill. 

Sennaar, Africa. 

H. Isseli, Jickeli, is a synonym. 

Var. HEUGLINI, Martens. PL 22, figs. 39-41. 

Umbilicus wider, with fleckings of opaque brownish yellow above; 
and narrow pellucid fasciations below. 

Southern Abyssinia. 

H. d'HERicouRTiANA, Bourg. PL 20, figs. 67, 68. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subpellucid, a little shining, corneous, 
smooth at first, then striulate, last whorl coarsely striulate ; whorls 
5, a little convex, the last with subangulate periphery, base a little 
more convex, slightly tumid around the umbilicus. Diam. 9 mill. 

Choa, Ethiopia. 

H. LEJEANIANA, Bourg. PL 22, figs. 42, 43. 

Very narrowly perforate, almost covered, fragile, diaphanous, 
shining, closely striate, subplicate on the last whorl, with very 
minute spiral lines ; corneous, with a rather opaque white peripheral 
band ; whorls 6, convex, regularly, rather rapidly increasing, the 
last descending in front. Diam. 15 mill. 

Abyssinia. 

Is H. Darnaudi, Jickeli, in part. 




HELIX. T^ 105 



H. ACHILLI, Bourg. PL 22, figs. 44-46. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, subopaque, finely striated, whitish, with 
numerous, narrow corneous bands ; whorls 6, somewhat convex, 
moderately increasing, the last rounded, a little descending in front. 

Diam. 16 mill. 



H. ISSELI, Morelet. PI. 20, figs. 69, 70. 

Narrowly umbilicated, pellucid, brownish corneous, closely 
strigate and opaquely multifasciate ; whorls 5-5, convex, suture 
deep, last whorl inflated, narrow. Diam. 15-18 mill. 

Bogos, Abyssinia. 

Var. MIJJOR. Less striate, brownish corneous, unicolor or sparsely 
zoned. 

H. ZANGUEBARICA, Craven. PI. 22, figs. 60-62. 

Conically turbinate, perforate, transparent, smooth, dark brown ; 
whorls 4j-5, convex, perforate. Diam. 3 mill. 

Magila, and Zanzibar Island, E. Africa. 

Perhaps this should have been included in the Zonitidse, as a 
Conulus. 



H. ^ENEA, Krauss. PI. 20, fig. 71. 

Perforate, slightly, very closely costulate, thin, diaphanous, 
brownish corneous, with a bronze lustre ; whorls 4, a little convex, 
rapidly increasing ; columella dilated above into a triangular 
blade. Diam. 9'5-12 mill. 

Natal, So. Africa. 
H. BISCULPTA, Benson. PL 20, fig. 72. 

Perforate, translucent, but little shining, brownish above, 
corneous below, vertically striate and plicate, decussated by spiral 
strise, suture deep ; whorls 4J, convex, slowly increasing, .the last 
not descending, rounded, more convex below ; columella triangu- 
larly dilated above. Diam. '1 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
H. PLANTI, Pfr. PL 20, fig. 73. 

Perforate, thin, membranously costulate, and long haired, diaph- 
anous, corneous; whorls 5fc, scarcely convex, slowly increasing, the 
last not descending, subplane above, obsoletely angulated, base 
convex ; columella dilated above. Diam. 10 mill. 

Natal, So. Africa. 

By a typographical error this species was first described as H. 
Platti. 



106 HELIX. 

H. LOVENI, Krauss. PL 20, fig. 74. 

Perforate, thin, with regular distant elevated striae, and very 
close decussating, spiral lines, corneous, pellucid, epidermis hirsute, 
spire subpapillary ; whorls 5, somewhat flattened, the last carinate 
above, base convex. Diam. 10 mill. 

So. Africa, 

H. KNYSNAENSIS, Pfr. PL 20, fig. 75. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, ribbed-striate, waxy,, 
corneous olivaceous ; whorls 4, a little convex, the last inflated, base 
smoothish, shining ; aperture pearly, columella dilated above. 

Diam. 24 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope* 

H. PERPLICATA, Benson. PL 20, fig. 76. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, corneous, subdiaphanous, rather 
distantly obliquely plicate, the interstices longitudinally striated, 
suture impressed : whorls 5-5 i, slightly convex, slowly increasing, 
the last slightly depressed, not descending, more convex below. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. MICROSCOPICA, Krauss. PL 20, figs. 77, 78. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, striulate, thin, pellucid, light 
corneous ; whorls 4, convex, the last not descending, base somewhat 
flattened. Diam. 1:15 mill. 

So. Africa. 

H. DUMETICOLA, Benson. PL 20, fig. 79. 

Somewhat widely umbilicated, thin, costulately striate above, 
smoother below, corneous white, under a caducous yellowish, pol- 
ished epidermis, suture impressed ; whorls 3?-4, slightly convex, 
the last rapidly increasing, subdepressed, base convex. 

Diam. 11 '5 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. COSMIA, Pfr. PL 20, fig. 80. 

Openly, deeply umbilicated, thin, rugosely subplicate, translucent, 
a little shining, waxy, greenish corneous; whorls 4, sub plane, 
rapidly increasing, the last dilated in front, not descending. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Near Camp's Bay, Cape of Good Hope. 

Is H. munda, Bens, not Ads., and H. cerea, Pfr. not Gould. 



HELIX. 107 

H. PETROBIA, Benson. PI. 20, fig. 81. 

Urnbilicated, diaphanous, slightly shining, obliquely, unequally,, 
subdistantly plicate, the interstices slightly longitudinally striate, 
light corneous, suture lightly impressed ; whorls 4J-5, a little con- 
vex, slowly increasing, the last obtusely angulated above, more 
convex below, and angularly compressed around the umbilicus. 

Diam. 6 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope* 
H. RARIPLICATA, Benson. PI. 20, fig. 82. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, corneous, with curved subdistant 
plications, suture deep ; whorls 4, the last narrow, not descending. 

Diam. 4'25. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
H. SABULETORUM, Benson. PI. 20, fig. 83. 

Rather widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, very closely striate, 
with distant curved riblets, not shining, light corneous, suture deep; 
whorls 43-5, slowly increasing, convex, the last rounded. 

Diam. 4'25 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
H. VORTICIALIS, Benson. PL 20, fig. 84. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, brownish corneous, spire a little 
concave, closely radiately plicate, suture deep ; whorls 4, narrow, 
convex, the penultimate prominent, last not descending, compressed 
on the sides, convex below. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
H. RIVULARIS, Krauss. PI. 20, figs. 85-87. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, closely costulate, waxy, pellucid,, 
corneous brown ; whorls 4, slightly convex, slowly increasing ; the 
last not descending, base convex. Diam. 8*5 mill. 

Natal, So. Africa. 

H. AFRICA, Krauss. PI. 20, fig. 88. 

Perforate, thin, with rough, close incremental strise, slightly 
decussated by very close spiral lines, opaque, whitish, under a yel- 
lowish corneous epidermis, apex papillary; whorls 5, scarcely 
convex, the last subangulated above, base convex; lip thinly 
labiate within. Diam. 9 mill. 

So. Africa. 

H. HARTVIGIANA, Pfr. PI. 20, figs. 89-91. 

Subcovered umbilicated, rather thin, corded-costulate, with very 
close intermediate striae, subpellucid, dark brown, shining ; whorls 



108 HELIX. 

5, convex, the last not descending, inflated ; aperture subpearly, 
base of lip slightly thickened. Diam. 17 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. TOLLINI, Albers. PL 21, figs. 92-94. . 

Covered subperforate, thinly striated, very lightly decussated by 
spiral strise, a little shining, diaphanous, brownish corneous, suture 
impressed, submargined ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last rounded, 
not descending. Diam. 12-14 mill. 

Table Mt., Cape of Good Hope. 

H. MENKEANA, Pfr. PL 21, fig. 98. 

Perforate, depressed, more convex below, somewhat thin, smooth, 
white, with 1-5 brown bands, the upper one wide, epidermis light 
corneous, diaphanous, suture moderately impressed ; whorls 4, 
scarcely convex, rapidly enlarging. Diam. 18 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. SYMMETRICA, Craven. PL 21, fig. 99. 

Imperforate, vitreous, semitransparent, light olive green, dull 
glossy below and within the aperture, with growth lines and faint 
spiral strise ; whorls 4, convex, the last equalling the others in 
breadth, suture rather deep. Diam. 16 mill. 

Leydenburg, Transvaal, So. Africa. 

H. CYCLARIA, Morelet. PL 21, figs. 95-97. 

Subperforate, thin, regularly costulate-striate, shining, light 
fulvous, suture subchanneled ; whorls 5J, somewhat convex, the 
earlier ones slowly increasing, the last tumid, narrow, with dilated 
and convex base. Diam. 22 mill. 

Mauritius. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. CONDENMOYI, Ncvill. Mauritius. 

H. PISOLINA, Gould. Cape of Good Hope. 

H. HUDSONI^, H. OMPHALION, H. CHARYBDIS, H. BROWNINGII, 
H. PRIONACRIS, Benson. Cape of Good Hope. 

H. AFRICJE, Brown. Great Brakke, So. Africa. 

H. CONGELLANA, and H. ROSERI, Krauss. Cape of Good Hope. 



HELIX. 109 

Group IV. MACROCYCLIS, Beck, 1837. 
Shell large, rather solid, widely umbilicated, depressed, the last 
whorl declining towards the aperture ; aperture round-oval, peri- 
stome simple, the extremities approaching, and the lower somewhat 
reflected. H. LAXATA, Fer. Chili. 

Section GLYPTOSTOMA, Bland and Binney, 1873. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, rather solid, rugosely striate ; 
whorls 6, the last depressed-globose, not deflected at the aperture ; 
aperture obliquely subcircular, peristome simple, acute, thickened 
within, its extremities approaching, columellar lip scarcely 
reflected. H. NEWBERRYANA, W. G. Binney. 

California. 

Group IV. MACROCYCLIS, Beck, 1837. 
H. LAXATA, Fer. PI. 21, figs. 100-2. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, very closely rugulose-striate, fulvous 
brown, the base shining fulvous-green, decussated by very minute 
spiral lines ; whorls 4-i-5, slightly convex, rapidly enlarging, the 
last wide, depressed, descending in front ; aperture pearly. 

Diam. 45 mill. 

Chili. 

H. Peruviana, Lam., H. Deshayesii, Anton, and If. eincinnus* 
Reeve, are synonyms. 
Var. BANKSII, Cuming. Figs, 1, 2. 

Larger : diam. 60 mill. 

This is var. maxima of Pfr. The juv. is H. umbilicata, Anton. 
The unfigured H. Gayi, Hupe", may also be a juvenile, as surmised 
by Philippi. 



*** 



The following Australian species are included by Pfeiffer : their 
pertinence is questionable. 
H. FRANKLANDIENSIS, Forbes. PI. 21, fig. 3. 

Rather widely, conically umbilicated, somewhat solid, distinctly 
arcuately striated, very shining, fulvous yellow, with some irregular 
deeper stripes ; whorls nearly 5, somewhat flattened, the last a little 
dilated, subdepressed, not descending ; aperture pearly. 

Diam. 26 mill. 

Lizard Is., Australia. 
H. HARRIETTS, Cox. PI. 21, figs. 4, 5. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, light yellowish brown, with 
irregular dark strigations, roughly striated above, smooth below ; 



110 HELIX. 

whorls 4, somewhat rapidly increasing, flattened above, convex 
below, the last obsoletely angulated, not depressed. Diam. 13 mill. 

Richmond River, Australia. 
Similar to juvenile specimens of H. Franklandiensis. 

H. KAMSAYI, Cox. PL 3, figs. 19, 20. 

Widely umbilicated, subdiscoidal, rugosely striate, under a 
smooth olivaceous epidermis ; whorls 4 -5, rapidly increasing, the 
last rounded on the periphery, a little deflected in front ; aperture 
large, horizontal, bluish white. Diam. 32*5 mill. 

Richmond River, Australia. 

Section GLYPTOSTOMA, Bland and Binney, 1873. 

H. NEWBERRYANA, W. G. Binney. PI. 21, figs. 6, 7. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, lightly granularly decussated by 
incremental and spiral striae, whitish, under a blackish or reddish 
brown epidermis; whorls 6, a little convex, regularly increasing, 
the last subdepressly rounded, scarcely descending in front ; aper- 
ture pearly white, lip subcallous within. Diam. 35 mill. 

California. 



Group V. ANCHISTOMA (Klein.), H. and A. Adams, 1855. 

Shell depressed, corneous, with aperture usually dentate or 
plicate, lip contracted and reflected, usually widely or moderately 
umbilicated, sometimes imperforate. Jaw odontognathous (oxy- 
gnathus in Ophiogyra). 

Mostly American and European ; Ophiogyra is Asiatic. 

Section I. GONOSTOMA, Held, 1837. 

Shell umbilicated, orbicularly depressed, narrow- whorled, often 
hirsute ; whorls 5-7, slowly increasing ; aperture oblique, narrowly 
lunar, more or less insinuated or tooth-like within, the peristome 
reflected and labiate, parietal wall unarmed. 

European. 
Subsection I. DREPANOSTOMA, Porro, 1836. 

Nautiliform, last whorl largely enveloping; aperture vertical, 
falciform, peristome callous. H. NAUTILIFORMIS, Porro. 

So. Europe. 
Ammonitella, Cooper, 1868, is a synonym. 

Subsection II. TRIGONOSTOMA, Fitzinger, 1833. 

Shell depressed or plane above, periphery rounded, axis umbili- 



HELIX. Ill 

cated, aperture oblique, more or less trilobed, the peristome callous, 
insinuated or dentate. H. OBVOLUTA, Mull. 

Europe. 

Helicodonta, Risso, 1826, Vortex, Beck, 1837, and Euphemia, 
Leach (teste Beck), 1844, are synonyms. 

.Subsection III. CARACOLINA, Ehrenb, 1831. 

Shell depressed, lenticular, the periphery obtusely angulated to 
acutely carinated, aperture narrow, oblique, somewhat basal, with 
or without teeth on the lip. H. LENS, Fer. 

Europe. 

Section II. POLYGYRA, Say, 1817. 

Widely or moderately umbilicated, orbicular-planate, usually 
obliquely costulate-striate ; whorls slowly increasing, the last con- 
stricted behind the aperture, shortly descending ; aperture subreni- 
form or irregularly sinuated, peristome narrowly reflected, callous, 
sometimes dentate within, the parietal wall often with a triangular 
callus, connecting with the peristome, and more or less tooth-like. 
H. AURICULATA, Say. 

United States. 

Subsection I. POLYGYRATIA. Gray, 1847. 

Shell discoidal, plane above, concave below; whorls numerous, 
narrow, all equally visible above and below, the last descending in 
front ; aperture oblique, Innately rounded, the peristome margined, 
shortly reflected, interior unarmed. H. POLYGYRATA, Born. 

So. America. 

Ophiogyra, Albers (in part), 1850, Systrophia, Pfr., 1855, and 
Mierophyura, Ancey, are synonyms. 

:Subsection II, POLYGYRA, Say (sensu stricto). 

Widely umbilicated, planorboid, many whorled, whorls narrow, 
ribbed above, periphery angulate ; aperture small, trigonal, with a 
Y-shaped parietal tooth, joining the lip-extremities. H. CEREOLUS, 
.Muhlf. 

So. U. S. and West Indies. 

Subsection III. POLYGYRELLA, Bland, 1869. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, ribbed above ; whorls 7-8, nar- 
row, the last deflected at the aperture ; aperture subvertical, the 
margins joined by a parietal triangular tooth, interior with two 



112 HELIX. 

rows of three teeth each, visible through the base. H. POLYGY- 
RELLA, Bland and Cooper. 

Idaho,, U. S., etc. 
Adelodonta, Ancey, is a synonym. 

Subsection IV. D^EDALOCHILA, Beck, 1837. 

Globosely depressed, costulate above, periphery angulated, base 
convex, showing more than one sometimes two whorls ; lip ear- 
shaped, the internal teeth with corresponding exterior constrictions,, 
the extremities of the lip joined by a parietal V-shaped callus. H. 
AURICULATA, Say. 

/So. United States, Mexico, etc. 

Subsection V. SCULPTARIA, Pfr, 1885. 

Discoidal, widely umbilicated, periphery carmate, last whorl a 
little solute at. the aperture; peristome continuous, lip reflected, 
with three deep lip teeth and one entering parietal lamina. H. 
SCULPTURATA, Gray. 

W. Africa. 

Section III. STROBILA, Morse, 1864. 

Shell umbilicated, globosely conic, obliquely ribbed, smoother 
below ; aperture Innately rounded, peristome thickened, reflected, 
the parietal wall and base of last whorl each with two or more 
entering revolving laminae. H. LAEYRINTHICA, Say. 

United States, West Indies. 

Section IV. STENOTREMA, Rafinesque, 1819. 

Shell small, often hirsute, the aperture basal, extending from the 
periphery to the axis, parietal wall with a long lamellar tooth, lip 
broad, usually with a central internal notch, umbilicus usually 
closed, sometimes open. 

Within the aperture, and near the axis, is an accessory column 
or pillar, probably assisting the animal in retiring within its shelL 
H. HIRSUTA, Say. 

United States. 

Stenostoma, Raf., 1831, is a synonym. 

Section V. TRIODOPSIS, Rafinesque, 1819. 

Shell of moderate size, depressed globose ; the aperture trilobate 
on account of denticles on the superior and inferior parts of the lip 
and on the parietal wall ; umbilicus closed or open. 



HELIX. 113 

Subsection I. TRIODOPSIS (sensu stricto). 

Umbilicus open, lip teeth small, subequal. H. TRIDENTATA, Say. 

United States. 

Subsection II. ISOGNOMONOSTOMA, Fitzinger, 1833. 

Umbilicus closed, parietal tooth often larger, blade shaped, 
epidermis sometimes hirsute. H. INFLECTA, Say. 

United States, Europe. 

Helieodonta, Moquin Tandon, 1855, is a synonym. 

Subsection III. XOLOTREMA, Rafinesque, 1819. 

Umbilicus closed, aperture with a lamellar curved parietal tooth, 
a long lamellar tooth on the basal part of the lip, and frequently a 
small denticle on its upper part. H. PALLIATA, Say. 

United States. 

Subsection IV. METODONTIA, Mollendorff, 1883. 

Narrowly umbilicated, or nearly covered, lip dentately thickened 
within, parietal wall also dentate. 

H. HEMIPLEURIS, Moll. China. 

Section VI. MESODON, Rafinesque, 1819. 

Shell rather large, depressed globose, usually light horn color, 
the aperture with a white reflected lip, lip with or without a single 
basal tooth, parietal wall with or without a small denticle, umbilicus 
open or closed. 

Subsection I. MESODON (restricted). 

Shell subglobose or orbicularly depressed ; the lip sometimes 
slightly dentately thickened at the base ; parietal tooth, when 
present, small ; umbilicus partially or completely closed by an 
expansion of the lip. 

H. ALBOLABRIS, Say. United States. 

Aplodon, Raf., 1819, and Patera, Albers, 1850, are synonyms. 

Subsection II. ULOSTOMA, Albers, 1850. 

Shell large, globosely depressed, aperture semicircular, the lip 
tuberculately toothed at the base, umbilicus open. 

H. SAYI, Binney, United 'States. 

Section VII. ATOPA, Albers, 1850. 

Often sinistral, planorbiform, flattened above, whorls more con- 
vex below, widely umbilicated, the last whorl more or less compressed 
and deflected in front, aperture oblique or subhorizontal, the lip 



114 HELIX. 

thickened and revolute, interior usually more or less constricted by 
lamellar teeth, situated far within, but visible through the wall of 
the shell when held against the light, parietal wall generally with 
lamellae, one of which is large and visible, the others deep-seated. 
Subsection I. ATOPA (restricted). 

Parietal lamellae entering, simple, aperture sometimes entirely 
unarmed. H. ERRONEA, Albers. 

So. Asiatic. 

Corilla, H. and A. Adams, 1855, is a synonym. 

Subsection II. PLECTOPYLIS, Benson, 1860. 

Aperture with one or more deep seated perpendicular lamellae on 
the parietal wall, in addition to the entering parietal and palatal 
lamellae. H. PLECTOSTOMA, Benson. 

India, China. 

Major Godwin Austen, whose synopsis of the Indian species is 
followed in these pages remarks (Zool. Proc., 611, 1874) : 

" It seems difficult to account for the use of the extremely con- 
tracted form of the last whorl, as seen so largely and intricately 
developed in this group of the Helicidae." 

"When breaking up a number of shells to expose the barriers, 
and ascertain if their characters were constant, I was greatly inter- 
ested to find in two instances the presence of small insects that had 
become fixed between the sets of teeth ; it has occurred to me that 
this is a probable solution, and perhaps one of the uses which the 
barriers serve, and to this end have been developed." 

" Insect life swarms in the forests where the shells are found ; 
and it is quite possible that certain kinds of beetles, ants, or even 
leeches, prey upon the mollusca, and that those possessing such bars 
to their predatory visits, supplemented by the mucous secretion 
which the animal could at once exude, would have the best chance 
of surviving." 

As stated above, it is necessary to break away the wall of the 
.shell to discover the structure of the lamellae, the strong entering 
parietal one being alone visible from the mouth. 



Group V. ANCHISTOMA, Ads., 1855. 

Section GONOSTOMA, Held, 1837. 
Subsection DREPANOSTOMA, Porro, 1836. 
H. NAUTILIFORMIS, Porro. PI. 23, figs. 63-65. 

Perspectively umbilicated, corneous, hispid, spire immersed ; 
whorls 5, narrow, scarcely conspicuous at first, the last whorl large, 




HELIX. 115 



partially involving the others ; lip reddish brown, reflected, aper- 
ture narrowly lunar. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Northern Italy. 
It is Chloritis drepanostoma, Beck. 

H. YATESI, Cooper. PL 23, figs. 66-68. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, translucent, glabrous, corneous, with 
minute incremental lines; whorls 6J, the spire depressed, the last 
whorl conically subcompressed above, rounded below; aperture 
narrowly vertical, the lip obtusely thickened. Diam. 8 mill. 

Cave City, California. 

Subsection TRIGONOSTOMA, Fitz., 1833. ' 

European Species. 

H. ANGYGYRA, Ziegler. PI. 23, figs. 69-71. 

Umbilicated, concave above, plane below, light corneous, very min- 
utely punctulate and striulate ; whorls 6, convex, the last compressed, 
gibbous in front and suddenly deflected ; peristome white-lipped. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Italy, Switzerland, Tyrol. 

H. Stent&ii, Partsch, is a synonym. 

H. OBVOLUTA, Miiller. PI. 23, figs. 72-74. 

Umbilicated, flattened above and below, opaque, brownish, 
velvety; whorls 6, narrow, slightly convex, the spire concave, 
penultimate whorl a little prominent, the last compressed, scarcely 
descending in front, scrobiculate ; aperture obtusely triangular, the 
right and basal margins each with an obtuse tooth, lip reflected. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Northern and Middle Europe. 

The synonyms are H. trigonophora, Lam., H. bilabiata, Olivi, H. 
holosericea, Gmel. 

Var. BOSNIACA, Bottger. 

Aperture larger, wider, scarcely trisinuate, lip well reflected, not 
scrobiculate externally. Diam. 12*5 mill. 

Bosnia. 

Var. PALLIDA, Moquin-Tandon. 
Shell light colored. 

France. 
Vars. MAJOR and MINOR, Locard. France. 



116 HELIX. 

H. HOLOSERICA, Studer. PI. 23, figs. 75-77. 

Umbilicated, orbicular, depressed, convex below, corneous, thin ; 
whorls 4, flattened, the last anteriorly constricted and scrobiculate ; 
aperture trisinuate, the peristome wide, regularly reflected, biden- 
tate within. Diam. 11-13 mill. 

Alps of Switzerland , Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Silesia. 
H. diodonstoma, Bourg., is a synonym. 

Var. PLURIDENTATA, Pollonera. 

Aperture quadridentate, the two supplementary teeth are, one in 
the superior angle, the other smaller and more external, in the 
inferior angle of the columella. 

PiedmonL 

H. TRIARIA, Frivaldsky. PI. 23, figs. 78-80. 

Perspectively umbilicated, corneous, elegantly costulate, spire 
convex, a little obtuse ; whorls 6, somewhat convex, slowly enlarg- 
ing, the last angulated above, attenuated below ; aperture sinuous, 
lip reflected, bidentate within. Diam. 5 mill. 

Transylvania. 

It is H. Ocskayi, Stentz. 

Var. TRINODIS, Kimak. Fig. 80. 

Aperture with three teeth; two on the outer lip, one on the 
parietal wall. 

Var. Transsylvanica, Hazay, is a synonym. 

Var. TRIADIS, Kimak. 

More conical, with narrower umbilicus, finer sculpture, aperture 
without teeth or reflected lip. 
Var. TATRICA, Hazay. 

Lip narrow, whitish, unidentate. 

H. DIODONTA, Muhlfeldt. PL 23, figs. 81-83. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, minutely granularly striate, 
brownish corneous; whorls 4 J, scarcely convex, the last subcari- 
nate, deflected in front, constricted at the aperture and impressed 
above ; peristome reflected, reddish with two teeth within on the 
upper and basal portions. Diam. 11*5 mill. 

Transylvania, Servia. 

H. QUADRASI, Hidalgo. PI. 23, figs. 84-87. 

Widely, perspectiyely umbilicated, thin, granularly hirsute with 
very short hairs, corneous ; whorls 5, a little convex, narrow, the 



HELIX. 117 

last not descending in front, subconstricted behind the aperture ; 
peristome subsinuated, expanded, the margins joined by a semi- 
circular reflected lamina. Diam. 5 mill. 

Near Valencia, Spain. 

H. VALLISNIERI, Stefani. (Unfigured.) Central Italy. 

Chinese Species. 
H. BICONCAVA, Hende. PL 23, figs. 9-11. 

Widely umbilicated, rufous, longitudinally striated, with long 
hairs ; whorls 5, narrow, convex, the last laterally compressed, and 
much deflected at the aperture ; aperture obliquely diagonal, peris- 
tome a little thickened, reflected, basal margin sinuous. 
Diam. 9 mill. 

China. 

H. SUBOVOLUTA, Ancey (unfigured). Inkiapo. 



Subsection CARACOLINA, Ehrenb., 1831. 
European Species. 

*Ecarinate. 
H. LUSITANICA, Pfr. PI. 23, figs. 88-90. 

Umbilicated, discoidal, brownish, somewhat obliquely closely 
costulate, spire plane ; whorls 5, the last much wider than the 
preceding, not descending in front ; aperture lunar, the lip white, 
angularly reflected, dextral margin sinuous, columellar arcuate. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Portugal. 
H. GYRIA, Roth. PI. 23, figs, 91-93. 

Moderately umbilicated, depressed, concave above, rather thin, 
distinctly striulate, somewhat shining, corneous ; whorls 7, convex, 
narrow, the last compressed, scarcely descending in front, base 
smoothly convex, subangulated around the umbilicus; peristome 

shortly reflected, whitish. Diam. 14 mill. 

Caria, Lycia. 
H. CORCYRENSIS, Partsch. PI. 23, figs. 94-96. 

Openly umbilicated, costulate-striate above, corneous, hispid; 
whorls 7, a little convex, narrow, the last obtusely angulated above, 
gibbous and deflected in front, convex below ; peristome flexuous, 
white-lipped, reflected. Diam. 11 mill. 

Corfu, Cephalonia, Epirus, etc. 

H. contorta and H. tersa, Ziegler, and H. ambliostoma, Parr., are 
synonyms. 



118 HELIX. 

Var. CEPHALONICA, Mouss. 

Smaller aperture, narrower, falciform, margins of periphery 
joined by a thin parietal callus. 

Cephalonia. 

Var. OCTOGYRATA, Mouss. 

Larger, a little convex above, whorls 7 -8, the last rounded. 
Diam. 14 mill. 

Lesina, Dalmatia; Prevesa, Greece. 

Var. CANALIFERA, Anton. 

Spire more elate, last whorl more angulated above, aperture 
narrower, peristome thick, defined by an exterior channel. 

Turkey. 

Var. GIRVA, Friv. 

Shell small, aperture coarctate, lip thicker. 

Epirus; Albania. 

H. BARBATA, Fer. PI. 23, figs. 97-99. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, rather thin, costulate-striate above, 
shortly pilose, brownish corneous; whorls 6, slightly convex, 
slowly increasing, the last obsoletely angulated above, shortly 
descending anteriorly, base convex, lightly radiately striate ; aper- 
ture diagonally subauriform, lip flexuous, narrowly expanded 
above, reflected below, dilated over the umbilicus. Diam. 13 milL 

Candia, Balkan. 

H. TARNIERI, Morelet. PI. 23, figs. 100-2. 

Moderately umbilicated, subdiscoidal, brownish corneous, closely 
costulately striate ; whorls 7, a little convex, narrow, spire scarcely 
emersed, last whorl obtusely angular above, not deflected ; aperture 
obliquely lunar, depressed, the margin callous, angularly reflected. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Tangiers. 

H. BOSC.E, Hidalgo. PI. 23, figs. 3-5. 

Narrowly umbilicated, lenticular, rather thin, closely arcuately 
striate above, brownish corneous ; whorls 6, slowly enlarging, the 
last obtusely angulated above, not descending anteriorly, constricted 
below towards the aperture, base convex, smoothish, flattened at 
the umbilicus ; peristome whitish or flesh color, the upper margin 
very shortly expanded, the basal reflected. Diam. 11 mill. 

Puebla de Rugat and Valentia, Spain. 



HELIX. 119 

* * Carinate species. 
H. LEXTICULA, Fer. PI. 23, figs. 6-8. 

Umbilicated, lenticular, carinate, very lightly costulate-striate, 
opaque, brownish corneous; whorls 5, a little convex, the last 
scarcely descending in front; peristome flexuous, simple and 
straight above. Diam. 8*5 mill. 
Southern Europe, Northern Africa eastward to Egypt, Teneriffe, 

Madeira. 

It is perhaps H. ferruginea, Risso. 

Var. MAJOR, Mousson. 

More depressed, spire flattened, umbilicus a little wider, carina 
subacute, suture margined above. Diam. 9-10 mill. 

Var. VIRILIS, Mousson. 

Thicker and heavier, with stronger costulations, crossing the 
base also, carina subcrenulate ; peristome a little reflected and 
thickened, lipped within, upper margin protracted, more thickened. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

I. Fuerteventura. 

If. subtilis, Lowe, is a synonym. 

Var. ANNAI, Paladilhe. 

Discoidal, striate rather than costulate, last whorl obtusely angu- 
lated, aperture less angular, peristome less flexuous, columellar lip 
not thickened as in the type. 

Morocco. 
H. LENS, Ferussac. PI. 14, figs. 12-14. 

Openly umbilicated, lenticular, sharply carinate, costulate-striate 
above, very, rarely pilose, brownish corneous ; whorls 7, subequal, 
planulate ; peristome white, the upper margin simple, straight, the 
dextral and basal reflected, with a punctiform callus at the superior 
insertion. Diam. 13 mill. 

Morea and the Grecian Islands. 

H. barbata, Desh., is a synonym. 

Var. LENTIFORMIS, Ziegler. 

Smaller, with narrower umbilicus, and more obtuse carina. 

Attica. 

Var. PILIGERA, Blanc. 

Eubcea. 

Var. CALLOJUNCTA, Blanc. 

Lepanto. 



120 HELIX. 

Var. ALIOSTOMA, Westerl. 

More narrowly umbilicated, shining, distantly arcuately costate, 
peristome slightly reflected. Diam. 13 mill. 

Corfu. 

H. LENTICULARIS, Morelet. PI. 24, figs. 15-17. 

Umbilicated, lenticular, acutely carinated, costulately striate 
above, fulvous corneous ; whorls 7, slowly enlarging, the last com- 
pressed at the carina, spire scarcely elevated; peristome simple 
above, the base white, thickened, reflected. Diam. 17 mill. 

Fez, Tangiers, N. Africa. 

H. BARBULA, Charp. PI. 24, figs. 18-20. 

Openly umbilicated, lenticular, carinate, corneous, closely lightly 
costulate; whorls 6, flattened, the last constricted in front, not 
descending; aperture Innately insinuate; peristome flexuous, re- 
flected at the base, white lipped and two- toothed. Diam. 11 mill. 

Portugal, Azores. 

It is H. bituberculata, Fer. (teste Morelet), H. Guerini, Anton, 
H. holosericea, Graells. 

H. CALPEANA, Morelet. PI. 24, figs. 21-23. 

Narrowly umbilicated, lenticular, acutely carinated, thinly costu- 
late-striate, fulvous corneous; whorls 7, flattened, narrow, sub- 
equal, base convex ; aperture narrow, peristome simple and straight 
above, sinuous and reflected below. Diam. 11 mill. 

Gibraltar. 

It is H. finitima, Fer. 

H. MAROCCANA, Morelet. PL 24, figs. 24-26. 

Umbilicated, acutely carinated on all the whorls, thin, subpel- 
lucid, lightly costulate-striate, brownish corneous ; whorls 8, narrow; 
lip white. Diam. 17-18 mill. 

Tetuan, Morocco. 

H. TURRIPLANA, Morelet. PI. 24, figs. 29-31. 

Umbilicated, solid, granularly scabrous, corneous ; whorls 6-6 , 
exserted, carinate, subchanneled at the suture, last whorl scarcely 
descending in front, base a little convex, sulcate, deeply biscrobi- 
culate toward the aperture ; aperture rostrate at the carina ; peris- 
tome white-lipped, joined by a callus, superiorly expanded, basally 
bidentate. Diam. 15 mill. 

Portugal. 



HELIX. 121 

H. TLEMCENENSIS, Bourg. PI. 24, figs. 35-37. 

Perforate, scarcely convex above, lightly acutely striated, thin, 
fragile, corneous, subpellucid ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, rounded 
below, peristome subangulated ; exterior margin of aperture uni- 
dentate, basal margin planulate or arcuate, lip white, lightly 
reflected. Diam. 8 mill. 

Tlemeen, Algiers. 

H. Pechaudi, Bourg. (unfigured), is probably a variety. 

H. RANGIANA, Fer. PL 24, figs. 32-34. 

Openly umbilicated, lenticular, acutely carinated, corneous, 
closely radiately striate ; whorls 6?, a little convex ; peristome 
simple, sinuated above, uncinately recurved at the carina, basal 
margin thickened, reflected, unidentate, scrobiculate externally. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Pyrenees. 

H. CONSTRICTA, Boube. PL 24, figs. 38-40. 

Umbilicated, rather thin, closely arcuately costulate, brownish, 
not shining; whorls 5i, slightly convex, slowly increasing, the last 
obsoletely angulated above, inflated below, not descending in front, 
constricted below at the aperture; umbilicus narrow; peristome 
whitish, its margins connected by a parietal lamina, upper margin 
sinuated, expanded, basal margin narrowly reflected. 

Diam. 6.75 mill. 

Basque provinces, Spain. 

H. Pittorrii, Dupuy, is a synonym. 

H. BUVINIERI, Michaud. PL 24, figs. 43-45. 

Umbilicus closed, shell light corneous, regularly, elegantly, dis- 
tantly sulcate ; whorls 8, moderately increasing, the last subcarinate, 
convex and very lightly striate below; aperture compressed, ob- 
tusely dentate below, peristome margined within, reflected, rosy 
white. Diam. 10 mill. 

Asturia. 

H. Asturica, Pfr., is a synonym. 

H. GOUGETI, Terver. PL 24, figs. 46-48. 

Somewhat covered perforate, corneous, costulate-striate ; whorls 
7, very narrow, a little convex, the base more convex, striulate ; 
peristome shortly reflected, white callused within, basal margin 
slightly curved, unidentate. Diam. 9 mill. 

Algiers; Asturia. 



122 .' . HELIX. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. SUPRACOSTATA, Kobelt. Tetuan, Morocco. 

H. CAMERANI, Lessona. Piedmont, Italy. 

H. LENTINA, Martens. Turkestan. 

Canarian Species. 

H. HISPIDULA, Lamarck. PL 25, fig. 70. 

Narrowly umbilicated, carinate, sharply striulate, somewhat 
hispid, brownish corneous ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last not 
descending, the carina obtuse, not compressed or serrulate, base 
narrowly rounded at the umbilicus; aperture oblique, the upper 
margin of the peristome straight, basal margin a little thickened,, 
reflected. Diam. 10 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe and Gomera. 
Var. SUBHISPIDULA, Mousson. 

A little more depressed and fragile, lighter colored, almost with- 
out hairs, distinctly plicate-striate at the periphery, the carina. 
more acute. 

Var. BERTHELOTI, Fer. 

Openly umbilicated, subopaque, brownish- or greyish-corneous, 
with oblique thin crispate-plicate striae, hairy, whitish below, carina 
not acute. Diam. 13 mill. 

H. AFFICTA, Fer. PI. 24, figs. 52-54. 

Narrowly umbilicated, light corneous with a somewhat acute 
white carina, obliquely striate, sometimes a little scaly, suture 
superficial, submargined above the carina ; whorls 6, slowly increas- 
ing, almost flat, at first hairy-scaly, afterwards striate, last whorl 
not descending, declining above, carina smoothish, compressed ; 
base conically plane, strongly striate in front, angulated at the 
white umbilicus; peristome thin, a little reflected, the margins 
joined by a thin lamina, upper margin straight, exterior and basal 
margins white, subreflected. Diam. 13 mill. 

Ins. Palma, Teneriffe. 

H. PLANARIA, Mousson. PI. 24, figs. 58-60. 

Flattened, subpellucid, the carina very acute, whitish ; whorls 
and suture all plane, regularly striate, not scaly; base planely 
conical, obtusely angulate at the moderate white umbilicus. 

Ins. Teneriffe and Palma. 

Pfeiffer considered this a variety of the preceding species. 




HELIX. 125- 



H. DISCOBOLUS, Shuttleworth. PI. 24, figs. 41, 42. 

Narrowly, profoundly umbilicated, discoidal, much depressed,, 
very acutely carinate, somewhat solid, strongly plicate-costulate, 
corneous ; whorls 6, flat, compressed, with impressed line above the 
carina, not descending in front, base obtusely angulated around the 
umbilicus; peristome acute, upper margin straight, the basal a 
little reflected, the columellar thickened, with a small tubercle. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Canary Islands.. 

It is H. afficta, Orb., not Fer. 

H. FORTUNATA, Shuttlew. PL 24, figs. 55-57. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, scarcely shining, very closely irregu- 
larly striate, corneous brown ; whorls 5, almost flat, with a more 
or less distinct impressed peripheral line, last whorl a little wider 
than the penultimate, carinate, subdjlated and scarcely descending 
in front, base more convex ; lip subexpanded, acute above, curved, 
reflected and a little thickened below. Diam. 14 mill. 

Teneriffe.. 

H. PTHONERA, Mabille. PL 38, figs. 7-9. 

Umbilicated, solid, costulate, dull reddish corneous, with very 
caducous short hairs, subgranular ; whorls 6, a little convex, regu- 
larly increasing, with well-impressed suture, periphery angulated ; 
peristome a little thickened and reflected, margins converging, 
joined by a thin parietal lamina. Diam. 7'5-8 mill. 

Teneriffe.. 

H. EVERIA, Mabille. PL 38, figs. 4-6. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, striate, with caducous short hairs, 
yellowish brown ; whorls 5, the last rapidly increasing, suture nar- 
rowly impressed, periphery obtusely angulated ; peristome a little 
reflected, sublabiate with white, partly covering the umbilicus. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Teneriffe. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

H. MARCIDA, Shuttlew. / Canary Islands. 

H. CRISPO-LANATA, Wollaston. Ins. Palma. 

H. BEATA, Wollaston. Fuertoventura. 

H. GOMER^E, Wollaston. Ins. Gomera. 



124 HELIX. 

Chinese species. 
H. DIPLOMPHALA, Mollendorff. PL 25, figs. 61-63. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, obliquely striulate, corneous, hirsute 
in transverse series, spire concave ; whorls 6 -7, a little convex, 
narrow, the last laterally compressed and shortly deflected at the 
aperture ; peristome slightly reflected, sinuate, extremities joined 
by a slight parietal callus. Diam. 11 mill. 

China. 

H. BINODATA, Mollendorff. PI. 25, figs. 64-66. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, corneous ; whorls 6, subplan- 
ate, periphery angulated, last whorl deflected at the aperture, 
umbilical region defined by an obtuse angle ; peristome expanded, 
a little reflected, white, trisinuate within, with a superior and a 
basal tooth. Diam. 7 mill. 

a* China. 



*** 



H. ACANTHINULA, Crosse. PI. 25, fig. 71. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, not shining, with irregu- 
lar, close, oblique, rugulose striae, olivaceous under a blackish 
epidermis ; whorls 3 J, flattened, the penultimate obsoletely carinated, 
the last not descending, tricarinate, with short, distant fringes; 
aperture olivaceous, peristome simple. Diam. 4*5 mill. 

Noumea, N. Caledonia. 

Placed in this group by Pfeiifer, but does not well agree with its 
characters. 

Section II. POLYGYRA, Say, 1817. 
Subsection I. POLYGYRATIA, Gray, 1847. 
H. POLYGYRATA, Born. PI. 25, figs. 72-74. 

Very widely umbilicated, plane above, excavated below, solid, 
iStriate, subdecussated by minute concentric lines, greenish yellow, 
with a wide brownish band above ; whorls 9, the last descending in 
front ; lip white, shortly reflected. Diam. 46 mill. 

Brazil. 

Var. CHARYBDIS, Morch. 

Whorls 7, wider, umbilicus deeper and narrower. Diam. 38 mill. 

H. STENOGYRA, Pfr. PI. 25, figs. 75-80. 

Very widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely arcuately 
striated, a little shining, diaphanous, light corneous, spire subim- 



HELIX. 125 

mersed ; whorls 10?, narrow, slightly convex, the last much wider, 
subdepressed, scarcely descending in front, all wider below ; umbili- 
cus more than half the diameter of the base ; aperture subdiagonal, 
the lip scarcely expanded, white margined within. Diam. 25 milL 

Moyobamba, Peru* 

H. decagyra, Martens, and H. helieycloides, Pfr. (figs. 78-80), are 
synonyms ; the latter a minor variety. 

H. HELIGMOIDEA, Orbigny. PL 25, figs. 81-83. 

Very widely umbilicated, smooth, yellowish corneous ; whorls 9, 
slightly convex ; aperture obliquely semioval, sinuous, peristome 
shortly reflected, dentate within, the extremities connected by a 
dentiform callus. Diam. 13 mill. 

Guayaquil, Columbia. 

H. CALCULINA, Pfr. PL 25, figs. 84-86. 

Very widely umbilicated, thin, striulate, yellowish corneous, 
obsoletely strigate with chestnut ; whorls 8, convex, very narrow, 
the last not descending, superiorly and basally subangulated ; lip 
simple, straight. Diam. 10 mill. 

Hob. unknown^ 

First described as H. calculus, Pfr., a name preoccupied by Lowe. 

H. POLYCYCLA, Morelet. PL 25, figs. 87-89. 

Very widely umbilicated, closely striate, slightly shining, light 
corneous; whorls 7, convex, with deep suture, slowly increasing; 
aperture diagonal, obliquely semilunar, lip simple, straight, sinuate 
above. Diam. 15 mill. 

Peru. 

H. TORTILIS, Morelet. PL 25, figs. 90-92. 

Very widely umbilicated, thin, diaphanous, light corneous, 
slightly shining; whorls 7, slightly convex, narrow, with deep 
sdture; aperture obliquely rounded-lunar, lip straight, shortly 
rounded above. Diam. 11 mill. 

Urubamba, Peru. 

H. DECAGYRA, Phil. PL 25, figs. 93-95. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, scarcely striated, spire nearly plane, or 
slightly convex, yellowish corneous; whorls 11, narrow, the last 
depressed at the aperture ; aperture somewhat oblique, the lip thin 
acute. Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Peru. 



126 HELIX. 

H. GYRELLA, Morelet. PL 25, figs. 96-98. 

Very widely umbilicated, thin, closely covered by hair-like 
.strise above and below, livid corneous, base paler; whorls 5, 
slightly convex, with deep suture, the last depressed, not descending 
in front ; aperture scarcely oblique, rounded, the lip simple, 
-straight, Diam. 10 mill. 

Urubamba, Peru. 

H. PSEUDO-PLANORBIS, Lubomirski. PL 26, figs. 1-3. 

Very widely umbilicated, planorboid, closely obliquely striated, 
epidermis light yellowish brown, suture deep ; whorls 6-7, the last 
not descending; peristome simple. Diam. 16'5 mill. 

Pujupe, Peru, 10,000 ft. alt. 

H. WALLISIANA, Mousson. PL 26, figs. 19-21. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, striate, diaphanous, yellowish corneous, 
suture well impressed ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, convex, the last 
scarcely wider, not descending, declining above near the aperture ; 
"base more convex; aperture obliquely lunar, with a deep-seated 
basal lamella, lip straight, obtuse, margins joined by a thin 
lamella. Diam. 11 mill. 

i f Central America. 

H. POLLODONTA, Orb. PL 26, figs. 4-6. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely plicate, greenish 
corneous ; whorls 7, slightly convex, the last dilated and deflected 
in front ; aperture oblique, lip unidentate, the tooth continued and 
connected with four others one-fourth of a whorl within, lip thick- 
ened and reflected below. Diam. 9 mill. 

Bolivia. 

H. ENTODONTA, Pfr. PL 26, fig. 9. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, densely striated, pellucid, 
whitish hyaline ; whorls 7, convex, very narrow, the last irregular, 
flattened in front, with three interior teeth, dilated, scarcely 
descending ; aperture diagonally ear-shaped, the margin shortly 
reflected, flexuous. Diam. 6*5 mill. 

Cuenca, Equador. 

H. HELICYCLOIDES, Orbigny. PL 26, figs. 10-12. 

Very widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, obliquely striulate, 
subdiaphanous, shining, greyish yellow; whorls 10, convex, very 
narrow, the last of double width, descending in front, with a flat 



HELIX. 127 

cicatrix near the aperture ; aperture obliquely subtriangular, lip 
shortly reflected, the margins distant, subdepressed above, no inter- 
nal teeth. Diam. 13-20 mill. 

jR. Maranon, Columbia ; Bolivia. 

H. SYSTROPHA, Albers. PI. 26, figs. 22-24. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, striulate, scarcely shining, corneous ; 
whorls 12, convex, very narrow, the last whorl a little wider, 
scarcely descending in front, base inflated ; aperture diagonal, 
lunar, the lip very shortly reflected. Diam. 13*5 mill. 

R. Maranon, Columbia. 

H. ORTONI, Crosse. PI. 26, figs. 14, 15. 

Very widely umbilicated, smoothish, obsoletely obliquely striu- 
late, light yellowish corneous, suture deep ; whorls 9, a little con- 
vex, the last suddenly descending; aperture obliquely semioval, 
-subsinuous, lip white, slightly thickened, shortly reflected, slightly 
scrobiculate without, unidentate within. Diam. 16 mill. 

Equador. 

H. REYREI, Souverbie. PI. 26, fig. 13. 

Widely umbilicated, yellowish corneous, closely obliquely costu- 
late ; whorls 5, a little convex, periphery subangulate, the last 
whorl gibbous in front ; aperture diagonal, reniform, deeply four- 
tuberculated, lip shortly reflected, the margins joined by a trigonal 
dentiform callus. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Gruayaquil. 
*** 
H. MACGREGORI, Cox. PI. 26, figs. 7, 8. 

Very widely umbilicated, plane above, widely excavated below, 
light yellowish brown ; whorls 1011, slowly increasing, roughly 
striate, last whorl with carinate periphery, convex base, and a little 
dilated and reflected anteriorly, suture margined ; aperture some- 
what obliquely rounded-ovate, lip slightly thickened, not reflected. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

New Ireland. 

H. MULTISPIRATA, Hombr. et Jacq. PI. 26, figs. 16-18. 

Umbilicated, smooth, greyish corneous, spire plane ; whorls 6, 
convex, narrow, the last not descending, rounded ; aperture lunate, 
with straight margin, basally a little thickened. Diam. 3*5 mill. 

Ins. Vavao. 



128 HELIX. 

H. MICROPHIS, Crosse. PI. 26, figs. 25, 26. 

Planorbiform, very widely umbilicated, longitudinally striate r 
olivaceous corneous, suture impressed ; whorls 4, narrow, the last 
descending in front ; aperture auriform, narrow, whitish, peristome 
continuous, white, thick, the parietal callus rising into a central 
tooth. Length, 13'4 mill. 

Noumea, New Caledonia* 

An aberrant form for which Mr. Ancey has recently proposed a 
sectional name, Microphyura. 

H. RAFFRAYI, Tapparone-Canefri. PI; 26, figs. 99, 100. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, showing all the whorls, shell conical 
above, whorls flat, periphery sharply angulated, base convex ; lon- 
gitudinally striate, diaphanous ; ashy corneous, the carina fulvous ; 
whorls 10?, the last deflected and subconstricted at the aperture ; 
aperture obliquely subquadrangular, periphery expanded, the mar- 
gins joined by a parietal callus. Diam. 10 mill. 

New Guinea. 



Unfigured Species. 

H. PLATYGYRA, Albers. It. Mar anon, Columbia. 

H. STENOSTREPTA, Pfr. Tarapoto, Andes of Peru. 

Subsection II, POLYGYRA, Say, 1817. 

H. CHEILOSTROPHA, Orbigny. PI. 26, figs. 32-34. 

Widely umbilicated, closely plicate, brownish ; whorls 6?-7, 
moderately convex, the last dilated in front and scarcely deflected ; 
aperture a little oblique, trisinuately lunar, lip shortly reflected, 
bidentate within, with a large tongue-like lamina joining its extremi- 
ties. Diam. 8 mill. 

Sta. Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. 

H. CEREOLUS, Muhlfeldt. PI. 26, figs. 27-31 ; PI. 27, figs. 35-42. 

Umbilicated, subdiscoidal, showing the whorls above and below, 
obliquely striate, whitish or light corneous, sometimes with radiat- 
ing, opaque white maculations; whorls 5-12, narrow, the last 
scarcely descending, with obtusely angulated periphery; aperture 
diagonal, reniform, peristome thickened, lip angularly reflected, the 
margins joined by a triangular tooth-like parietal callus, parietal 
wall often with a deep seated lamina. Diam. 9-15 mill. 

Georgia, Florida Louisiana, Bermuda, Bahamas. 




129 

A species inhabiting the neighborhood of the sea, and very 
variable in its growth, so as to have given rise to several synonyms. 
These several forms have been critically discriminated by supposed 
characters which simply merge together when large series of 
specimens are compared. To Dr. Dall belongs the merit of having 
first published this fact. He writes: 

"The shell generally has from five to seven well-marked whorls ; 
but under especially favorable conditions, as near the walls of Fort 
Marion, at Saint Augustine, it may have ten or twelve. The number 
exhibited on the base is absolutely inconstant when specimens from 
various localities are compared. Only by breaking into the last 
whorl can it be determined whether the parietal lamina exists. In 
specimens labelled septemvolva by Mr. Binney I have found it and 
it is often absent in what is otherwise typical cereolus. The soft 
parts in all are very uniform." 

The synonyms are H. septemvolva, Say, (figs. 27-29), H. volvoxis, 
Parreyss, (fig. 35), H. microdonta, Desh. (figs. 36-38), H. plana, 
Dunker, H. Carpenteriana, Bland^(figs- 39, 40), H. Febigeri, Bland, 
(figs. 41, 42), If. delitescens, Shuttl. H. polygyrata, Pfr. H. eheilodon, 
"Say," Pfr. H. planorbula, Lam. 

H. PALUDOSA, Pfr. PL 27, figs. 43-45. 

Umbilicated, brownish corneous, thin, shining, obliquely costulate 
above, substriate below; whorls 5, periphery subangulated, base 
more convex; aperture obliquely lunar, peristome reflected, sublabiate 
within, parietal wall with a small tooth, sometimes absent. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Cuba. 

It is H. lingulata, Fer., H. Ramonis, Orb., H. Bardenflehtii, 
Villa. 



H. LUNDII, Morch (unfigured). Brazil. 

Subsection III, POLYGYRELLA, Bland. 1869. 

H. POLYGYRELLA, Bland and Cooper. PL 27, figs 46-49. 

Widely umbilicated, shining, translucent, yellowish corneous, 
costulate above, the ribs becoming obsolete at the aperture, base 
smoothish ; whorls 7-8, somewhat convex, slowly increasing, the last 
shortly deflected in front, with radiating series of three teeth, remote 
from the aperture and from each other, and visible through the 
9 



130 HELIX. 

base; peristorae depressed above, white, simple, the extremities 
joined by a triangular parietal tooth. Diam. 12 mill. 

Idaho. 
Subsection IV, D^EDALOCHILA, Beck. 1837. 

H. ANILIS, Gabb. PL 27, figs. 50, 51. 

Narrowly, rimately umbilicated, very lightly, minutely striulate, 
white, suture impressed; whorls 4J, somewhat convex, the last a 
little descending and scarcely constricted anteriorly, base planate ; 
aperture obliquely subhorizontal, peristome reflected, white, the 
extremities joined by a parietal tooth, basal margin scarcely tuber- 
culate, outer margin edentulous. Diani. 13 mill. 

Guaymas, Mexico. 

H. HELICTOMPHALA, Pfr. PI, 27, figS. 52-54. 

Umbilicated, solid, a little shining, obliquely costulate-striate r 
light yellowish corneous; whorls 5-5 , somewhat convex, the last 
subdeflected in front, subcarinated above the middle, with inflated 
base and constricted and scrobiculate at the aperture; peristome 
white, angularly reflected, extremities distant, connected by a thin 
parietal callus, there is a parietal tooth, with another on the basal 
and outer margin. Diam. 9-12 mill. 

Chiapa, Mexico. 
H. HARFORDIANA, Cooper. PI. 27, figs. 55-57. 

Widely umbilicated, smooth, translucent, yellowish corneous; 
whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last anteriorly shortly deflected; 
peristome depressed above, white, thickened, the extremities joined 
by a parietal callus, bearing a triangular tooth, the outer and basal 
margins each bear a tooth. Diam. 10 mill. 

"Big Trees," Gal. 
H. NOTATA, Poey. PL 27, figs. 58-61. 

Umbilicated, thin, slightly granulated, diaphanous, corneous brown ; 
whorls 5J, a little convex, the last obsoletely angulated above, with 
more convex base, shortly deflected anteriorly ; aperture diagonal, 
sinuously lunar; peristome angulately reflected, margins joined by 
a subtriangular tooth, outer margin with two hook-like teeth, basal 
with one obtuse tooth. Diam. 10 mill. 

Cuba. 

H. Johannis, Poey (not Mort.) is a synonym. 
H. FASTIGANS, L. W. Say. PL 27, figs. 62-65. 

Convex beneath, nearly plane above; whorls 6, ribbed above, 
smooth beneath, periphery sharply carinated, brownish; aperture 






UNI 



3HBS^ 
HELIX. 131 

lunate, the extremities of the margins connected by a V-shaped 
tooth, upper lip tooth compressed, transverse, remote, lower lip-tooth 
compressed, marginal, both marked externally by pits. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Tennessee. 

It is H. fatigiata, Say, H. fastigiata, DeKay. 

H. TROOSTIANA, Lea. PL 27, figs. 66-68; PI. 28, fig. 88. 

Differs from H. fastigans by its less prominent carina, the rib-like 
stride being well-developed on the base, and its parietal tooth more 
quadrangular; spire slightly, convexly elevated; corneous, when 
fresh, minutely hirsute. Diam. 6 mill. 

Tennessee. 

Is Iff. plicata, Binney (not Say) in part. 

H. HAZARDI, Bland. PL 27, figs. 69-71. 

Depressed above, convex below; whorls 5, narrow, ribbed above 
and below, periphery not angular; aperture subreniform lip- 
extremities connected by a V-shaped parietal tooth, lip teeth deep- 
seated, the lower one the largest and partly obscuring the upper 
one, which is situated farther in; externally scrobiculate opposite 
these teeth ; epidermis brown, sparingly hirsute. Diam. 7 mill. 

Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama. 

For H. plicata, Say, preoccupied. 

H. LEPORINA, Gould. PL 27, figs. 72-74. 

Shell small, lenticular, slightly hairy, minutely striate, spire 
convex, depressed; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last sub angulate 
at the periphery, base convex, umbilicus nearly covered, its region 
excavated ; aperture lunate, lip incumbent, reflexed, with a central 
sinus, the sides of which are formed by two teeth, parietal tooth 
V-shaped ; chestnut colored, lip sometimes roseate. Diam. 5 mill. 
Georgia to Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois, Arkansas, Mississippi, 

H. PUSTULA, Fer. PL 27, fig. 75. 

Small, depressed, lightly striate; whorls 4, subangulate on the 
periphery, more convex below it, deflected at the aperture ; aperture 
with a V-shaped parietal tooth, and two tubercular teeth margining 
a central notch ; umbilicus small and deep, with a groove revolving 
within it, corresponding with a lamina on the basal part of the 
interior of the shell ; reddish brown, with short hairs. 

Diam. 5 mill. 

Texas, Georgia, Florida. 



132 HELIX. 

Distinguished from the next species by its narrower umbilicus, 
with its groove and internal lamina ; the latter is only to be seen by 
breaking the whorl. 

H. PUSTULOIDES, Bland. PI. 27, figs. 76-78. 

Widely and deeply umbilicated, thin, delicately striated, horn 
color, slightly hirsute; whorls 4J, narrow, subangular at the 
periphery, constricted and suddenly deflected at the aperture; 
aperture lunate, with a lamelliform parietal tooth joined to the 
upper extremity of the lip by a sharp callus, outer lip reflected, 
thickened within, with two internal teeth and a deep notch between 
them. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Alabama, Georgia. 
H. ARIADNE, Pfr. PL 27, figs. 79-81. 

Shell white, finely ribbed above, smooth beneath ; whorls 5, with 
impressed suture; body whorl deflected, much constricted and 
scrobiculate behind the aperture ; aperture small, lip thick, much 
expanded, its extremities joined by an irregular V-shaped tooth ; lip 
with two stout basal folds converging within, while behind them is 
a perpendicular broad lamina almost closing the mouth; base 
convex, showing more than one whorl with a rounded umbilical 
groove terminating in a minute central perforation. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

H. UNGUIFERA, Mousson. PI. 27, figs. 82, 83. 

Arcuately rimate, somewhat solid, diaphanous, lightly costulate, 
whitish (denudated), suture subimpressed ; whorls 5?, a little convex, 
the last shortly descending, bicompressed and subconstricted in 
front, base smooth, subangulated at the umbilicus; peristome shortly 
reflected, the margins converging, with a V-shaped parietal tooth, 
two entering basal teeth, the exterior larger, and two teeth within 
the outer margin. Diam. 12 mill. 

Mazatlan. 

Allied to the preceding species, but is distinguished from it and 
the others .of the group by the lower tooth of the outer lip, which is 
elevated into a sharp projection. 

H. DYSONI, Shuttlew. PI. 28, figs. 88-91. 

Rather widely umbilicated, shining, brownish corneous, subpiicate 
above, striulate below; whorls 5-5 , a little convex, the last scarcely 
descending in front and subangulated on the periphery, base convex, 



HELIX. 133 

constricted towards the aperture ; aperture tridentate, one entering, 
oblique, compressed tooth on the parietal wall, two submarginal 
teeth within the whitish reflected lip. Diam. 9 mill. 

Honduras. 

H. OPPILATA, Morelet. PI. 27, figs. 84, 85. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thinly striate, subpellucid, somew r hat 
shining, light corneous, suture deep; whorls 5-5 J, a little convex, 
slowly enlarging, the last suddenly deflected in front, constricted 
towards the aperture, base inflated; aperture diagonal, lunate-cir- 
cular externally, ringent within, ear-shaped, whitish corneous, the 
parietal wall with a V-shaped tooth, basal with another tooth, outer 
wall w r ith a third, wider, and forked. Diam. 7-8*66 mill. 

Yucatan. 

H. DORFEUILLEANA, Lea. PI. 27, figs. 86, 87. 

Obtusely conical above, periphery slightly angulated ; whorls 6, 
with well-impressed suture, ribbed, smoother below, deflected in 
front, constricted but not scrobiculate behind the aperture; 
extremities of the lip joined by a parietal callus forming a quadrate 
tooth, far within, behind the parietal tooth, are two rounded tubercles, 
one superior, the other basal ; base showing 1 1 whorls and a minute 
perforation; whitish. Diam. 7'5 mill. 

Kentucky, Tennessee. 

H. IMPLICATA, Beck. PI. 28, figs. 92-94. 

Widely, perviously umbilicated, obliquely striulate, light corneous 
or whitish ; whorls 5, slowly increasing, somewhat convex, the last 
obtusely angulated, deflected in front and constricted behind the 
aperture; peristome shortly reflected, the margins joined by a 
parietal callus forming a triangular tooth, lip with two equal, sub- 
approximate teeth. Diam. 8 mill. 

Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

H. PLAGIOGLOSSA, Pfr. PI. 28. figs. 95-97. 

Narrowly, perviously umbilicated, solid, arcuately striulate, 
scarcely shining, fulvous corneous, suture impressed; whorls 5, the 
last descending in front, constricted below, base more convex; 
peristome whitish, margins distant but slightly converging, connected 
by a parietal callus bearing an oblique tongue-like tooth, base with 
two approximate nodiform teeth. Diam. 9 mill. 

Oajaca, Mexico. 



134 HELIX. 

H. COULONI, Shuttleworth. PL 28, fig. 98. 

Narrowly, perviously umbilicated, sharply striulate, light corneous; 
whorls 6, somewhat convex, slowly increasing, the last gibbously 
constricted at the aperture and suddenly deflected ; peristome white, 
reflected, parietal wall with a pliciform tooth, the external part 
with a strong tooth, the basal with a smaller one. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Vera Cruz. Mexico. 

H. ACUTEDENTATA, Binney. PI. 28, figs. 99-4. 

Shell whitish, smooth; whorls 6, very convex, suture distinct; 
body whorl inflated, oblique, deflected at the aperture and scrobicu- 
late behind the lip; aperture small, ringent, lip-extremities joined 
by a broad angular parietal tooth ; there are three lip-teeth, one on 
the basal margin, erect and short, the other two are farther within 
and form slight elongated horizontal laminae, marked by pits on 
the outer whorl. Diam. 14 mill. 

Near Mazatlan, Mexico. 
Var. LOISA, Binney. Figs. 2-4. 

A little higher, the aperture with five teeth, . the basal margin 
unequally bidentate, other teeth as in the type. 

H. BEHRII, Gabb. PI. 28, figs. 5-7. 

Shell planorboid, coarsely ridged above, striate below ; whorls 5, 
convex, subangular at the periphery, very much deflected in front 
and constricted behind the aperture ; umbilicus broad, with a minute 
central perforation ; aperture rounded, lip expanding, its extremities 
approaching and connected by a large V-shaped parietal tooth, there 
are also a large marginal basal tooth and a smaller tubercle on the 
middle of the outer margin. Diam. 15 mill. 

Guaymas, Mexico. 

H. JACKSONI, Bland. PL 28, figs. 8-11. 

Depressed, striate, smooth beneath, narrowly umbilicated ; whorls 
8, slightly convex, deflected in front, and contracted behind the lip ; 
aperture oblique, lunate, lip thick, briefly reflected, its extremities 
joined by a V-shaped parietal tooth, basal margin with a strong 
oblique sinuous fold, right margin with a deeply seated tooth ; dark 
brown, shining, lip brownish. Diam. 7 mill. 

Fort Gibson, Indian Territory; Springfield, Mo.; Arkansas. 

H. HIPPOCREPIS, Pfr. PL 28, figs. 12, 13. 

Shell solid, opaque, depressed, with flattened spire and impressed 
suture; whorls 5? scarcely convex above, abruptly deflected in 



HELIX. 135 

front and constricted behind the lip, periphery angulated ; umbilicus 
expanded and grooved, with a minute central perforation; aperture 
extending from the periphery to the umbilicus, somewhat ear-shaped, 
lip white, expanded, its extremities connected by a V-shaped parietal 
tooth, the two laminae of which run far within the shell, upper 
portion of the lip with an entering angle, basal portion callous and 
reflected. Diam. 12 mill. 

New Braunfels, Texas. 

H. MOOREANA, W. G. Binney. PI. 28, figs. 16, 14, 15. 

Depressed, carinated, white, strongly s'triate above and nearly 
smooth beneath; spire somewhat raised, suture deep; whorls 6, the 
last much deflected at the aperture, umbilicus exhibiting 1 J whorls; 
aperture semi-oval, lip broad, heavy, but slightly reflected, with 
two marginal teeth of which one is basal and the other sub-basal, 
parietal tooth large, rhomboidal. Diam. 10 mill. 

Texas. 

Var. THOLUS, W. G. Binney. Figs. 14, 15. 

Umbilicus wider, showing 2 whorls, lip narrower, tooth of outer 
lip situated higher. 

H. TEXASIANA, Moricand. PI. 28, figs. 17-19. 

Orbicular-depressed, rather solid, ridged above, smooth below, 
suture moderately impressed: whorls 5, slightly convex above, 
periphery subangular, deflected in front, base convex; aperture 
crescentic, the lip-margins joined by a large V-shaped parietal tooth, 
outer lip with two closely placed denticles, with a pit between them ; 
umbilicus minutely perforate ; pale horn color. 

Texas, Mexico. 

H. Tamaulipasensis, Lea, is a synonym. 

H. TRIODONTOIDES, Bland. PL 28, fig. 20. 

Perforate, orbicular, depressed, thin, subpellucid, obsoletely striate 
above, smooth beneath; whorls 5, somewhat convex, deflected in 
front, subangulate on the periphery, and very convex below ; aperture 
obliquely lunate, the extremities of the reflected lip connected on 
the body whorl by a V-shaped tooth, the lip having two small teeth, 
far apart, one on the outer margin of the aperture, the other on the 
base ; pale horn color. Diam. 9'5 mill. 

Toxas. 

More delicate, not as distinctly ribbed, more elevated than 
H. Texasiana-, the teeth also are smaller, and farther apart. 



136 HELIX. 

H. HINDSII, Pfr. PI. 28, figs. 24-26. 

Depressed, orbicular, narrowly umbilicated, finely striated, diaph- 
anous, shining, spire somewhat conical; whorls 5, slightly convex 
above, more convex below, deflected at the aperture and constricted 
behind it; aperture lunate, lip slightly reflected, its extremities united 
on the parietal wall by a callus and a V-shaped tooth, the lip has two 
basal teeth, and another on the right margin ; light corneous. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Texas, Mexico. 

H. BICRURIS, Pfr. PL 28, figs. 21-23. 

Kimately umbilicated, thin, striulate, yellowish corneous, slightly 
shining, suture submargined; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last 
scarcely deflected in front, base more convex, subconstricted behind 
the aperture ; aperture with a two-pronged parietal tooth, two teeth 
on the basal and one on the superior margin, lip white, shortly 
reflected. Diam. 9 mill. 

Mexico. 
H. VENTROSULA, Pfr. PL 28, fig. 27, 

Minutely perforated, thin, shining, suture well impressed ; whorls 
5, but little convex and finely striate above, very convex and 
smooth beneath, periphery subangulated, last whorl much constricted 
behind the aperture; aperture with a V-shaped parietal tooth, two 
white basal teeth and a large subtriangular lamella within the outer 
margin; horn color. Diam. 8-11 mill. 

Texas and Mexico. 
H. AVARA, Say. PL 28, figs. 28-30. 

Whorls 5, hirsute, slightly convex and coarsely . ribbed above, 
convex below, and ribbed only for a short distance behind the 
aperture, the balance of the base being nearly smooth ; base without 
groove, showing a little more than one whorl, and with a minute 
perforation; aperture with reflected lip, the extremities joined by a 
parietal callus bearing a large V-shaped tooth, the base has an 
oblique tooth, the right side a lamella, which is submarginal. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Florida, Louisiana. 
H. ESPILOCA, Ravenel. PL 28, figs. 31-33. 

Whorls 5, thin, costulate above, periphery subangulated, base 
convex and finely striated, last whorl a little deflected in froirt and 
constricted behind the aperture; base showing H whorls, the 
umbilical region bounded by an angle; margin of aperture con- 









HELIX. 137 

tinuous, the parietal tooth linguiform, the upper lip tooth hook- 
shaped at its lower termination, the basal tooth oblique ; horn color, 
shortly hirsute. Diam. 8 mill. 

Sullivan's Island, So. Carolina; Georgia; New Orleans; Texas. 

H. POSTELLTANA, Bland. PI. 29, figs. 34-36. 

Whorls 5, costulate above, finely striate below, periphery sub- 
angular; aperture auriform, much contracted, the margins joined by 
a large, linguiform, entering tooth, right margin with a deep-seated 
lamella terminating below in a hook, basal margin with a promi- 
nent oblique lamella extending to the edge of the lip; brownish 
horn color, thin, pellucid, lip white. Diam. 9*5 mill. 

Georgia, So. Car., Fla. 

H. ATJRIFORMIS, Bland. PL 29, figs. 37-39. 

Whorls 5 5-6, with moderate suture, ribbed-striate above, periphery 
subangular, base convex and smooth, last whorl slightly deflected in 
front and constricted behind the ear-shaped lip ; base showing nearly 
two whorls with a deep groove revolving on their inner side and a 
minute perforation; peristome continuous and expanded, parietal 
tooth linguiform, with two lip teeth, of which the upper one is a 
submarginal perpendicular lamella, and the basal one an oblique 
fold; whitish or brownish horn color. Diam. 10 mill. 

Georgia, Alabama, Texas. 

H. UVULIFERA, Shuttle worth. PL 29, figs. 40-41. 

Whorls 5, with close ribs extending entirely across the base, which 
is convex, periphery subangulated, last whorl deflected in front, and 
scrobiculate behind the aperture ; aperture oblique, much contracted 
by teeth, with the lip very much expanded, parietal tooth quadrately 
linguiform, extending into the aperture, the upper lip-tooth situated 
far within, the basal tooth an oblique plica; umbilical region sub- 
carinate; horn color. Diam. 12 mill. 

Florida, Texas. 

H. florulifera, Reeve is a synonym. 

H. AURICULATA, Say. PL 29, figs. 42, 43. 

Whorls 5, costulate above and below, periphery slightly angulated, 
last whorl suddenly deflected to the aperture, and very strongly 
scrobiculate behind the middle of the right margin and also at the 
base ; aperture oblique, auriform, the parietal tooth large, irregular, 
projecting inwards and upwards, right margin with a perpendicular 



138 HELIX. 

lamella, basal margin twisted into a large oblique tooth; base 
showing 1 whorls, the umbilical region bounded by a carina. 

Diam. 13-15 mill. 

Florida. 
Var. MICROFORMIS, Dall. 

Smaller, more closely whirled, umbilicus smaller and less per- 
spective. Diam. 12 mill. 

H. CHIAPENSIS, Pfr. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, striated, shining, whitish 
corneous, with a brownish band at the suture ; whorls 62, somewhat 
convex, the last deflected in front and turgid above, constricted 
below, base inflated ; aperture large, diagonal, sinuately lunar, with 
a small, thin, parietal tooth, peristome white, shortly reflected, 
margins approaching, with a superior descending tooth, and an 
obsolete denticle on the base. Diam. 1O5 mill. 

Chiapa, Mexico. 

Unfigured. 

Subsection V, SCULPTARIA, Pfr. 1855. 

H. SCULPTURATA, Gray. PI. 25, figs. 69, 67, 68 ; PL 24, figs. 27, 28. 

Widely umbilicated, closely costulate, the interstices reticulately 
striate, whitish, spire planulate ; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last 
constricted in front on the base; aperture circular, with an entering 
parietal lamella and two teeth on the right margin, peristome 
subexpanded above, reflected below. Diam. 8 mill. 

Damara, So. Africa. 
Var. COLLARIS, Pfr. PL 24, figs. 27, 28. 

This form has 4? whorls with channeled suture, the last acutely, 
crenately carinate, solute in front, corneous white. 

Var. DAMARENSIS, H. Adams, figs. 67, 68. 

Very closely covered with capillary striae, whitish fulvous above, 
whitish below, with a light fulvous band on the periphery, the 
whorls are 6, the last suddenly decending in front, the periphery 
ribbed-carinated, the aperture has the parietal lamina and three 
obtuse lip teeth. 

Section III. STROBILA, Morse, 1864. 
H. LABYRINTHICA, Say. PL 29, figs. 44-48. 

Obtuse conic, yellowish brown; whorls 6, closely ribbed above, 
more slightly so below, suture well impressed; lip thickened, somewhat 
reflected, with two revolving laminse upon the base, not visible from 



HELIX. 139 

the aperture, but seen through the shell, upon the parietal wall are 
three revolving laminae, and upon the columella another; base 
flattened, umbilicus small, impressed. Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Maine to Maryland, Florida, Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, 
Western States, Mexico. 

The last locality is for H. Strebeli, Pfr. (fig. 48) which is now 
generally considered a synonym. 

Var. MORSEI, Dall. 

Differs from the type in wanting the costse, the whorls being only 
lightly striate, rather flat and appressed, with the basal periphery 
particularly angular and the umbilicus slightly smaller. 

Porto Cabello, Venezuela. 

H. HUBBARDI, A. D. Brown. PL 29, figs. 49-52. 

Depressed, thin, striate above, smooth beneath, brownish ; whorls 
5, witli two parietal revolving laminae, and two, more deep-seated, 
on the outer whorl ; umbilicus rather wide ; lip slightly reflected. 
Diam. 2-25 mill. 

Georgia, Florida, Indianola, Texas; Jamaica. 

H. Vendryesiana Gloyne (figs. 51, 52) from the last-named locality, 
is a synonym. 

*** 

* 

H. LEIODA, Hutton. (Unfigured). New Zealand. 

Section IV. STENOTREMA, Kafinesque, 1819. 
'The shells brought together under the genus Stenotrema of 
Kafinesque are readily arranged in four groups: First, the group 
including Eavardsi and barbigera characterized by the extraordinary 
development of the epidermal hairs. Second that formed by spinosa, 
and Edgariana equally well characterized by the sharp periphery 
of the body whorl and the prostrate epidermal hairs. Third the 
group containing hirsuta, stenotrema, labrosa, and maxillata, in 
which the epidermal processes are shorter, and the surface is more 
tuberculate. Fourth, the group containing monodon, fraterna, Leaii, 
and germana. Among themselves the species in each group are 
united more or less closely, those of the monodon group being 
usually regarded as varieties of that shell, with the exception of 
H. germana, which Mr. Binney finds to be related to Stenotrema by 
its jaw and dentition, and more nearly to Mesodon by its shell; 
a prominent character of which is the want of the internal tubercle. 



140 HELIX. 

The writer may here record his opinion that H. Leaii is also a valid 
species if other species are to be left to stand on characters which 
seem to be far less well defined. 

The hirsute group is next in this regard, and when the varieties 
of hirsuta and stenotrema, above mentioned are taken into considera- 
tion, the blending of the species into varietal forms is pretty well 
assured in one or two cases. 

It seems that the Edvardsi group and the spinosa group, of but' 
two species each, though well enough characterized to be distinguished 
as separate divisions of this genus, may be united with the hirsute 
group by several characters of greater or less importance. It is not 
pretended that this grouping is of any systematic value, whatever ; 
but it will serve to call attention to the relations which the species 
of this singular genus bear to each other, and to their nearest allies 
in other genera, the genus gradually shading into Mesodon as 
represented by H. columbiana, Lea, through H. germana, Gould. 
A. G. Wetherby. (Journal of the Cincinnati Soc. of Nat. Hist. 
1880, Vol. Ill, pages 35, 36). 

H. HIRSUTA, Say. PI. 29, figs. 53-55. 

Shell hirsute, subglobose, spire convex, elevated, suture deep;, 
whorls 5, convex, periphery subangulated, base well-rounded, 
umbilicus covered; aperture narrowly transverse, partly filled by 
the lamelliform parietal tooth, outer lip with a triangular notch 
upon its basal portion. Diam. 6 mill. 

New England, Middle and Western States. 

H. STENOTREMA, Fer. PI. 29, figs. 56-58. 

Subglobose, depressed, spire conically convex, suture well- 
impressed; whorls 5, narrow, slowly increasing, subangulated on 
the periphery, more convex below, slightly impressed in the umbilical 
region, finely striate and hirsute ; aperture narrow, transverse, sub- 
basal, partly closed by a long, lamelliform parietal tooth, t^ie narrow, 
depressed outer lip is reflected close upon the whorl, wich a small 
triangular notch in its centre ; chestnut brown, lips white or pink. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Western and Southern States.. 

Larger and less globose than H. hirsuta, but with a smaller and 
more central lip notch ; the large parietal tooth is regularly"*bow- 
shaped over its edge in this species, instead of sinuous and abruptly 
terminated as in H. hirsuta 



HELIX. 141 

H. MAXILLATA, Gould. PI. 29, figs. 59-61. 

Globose, with conically convex spire, subangular on the periphery 
and more convex below; whorls 5, narrow; aperture transverse, 
nearly filled by a long, laminar parietal tooth, lip closely appressed, 
narrow, without notch, with a lamina behind its margin, and scarcely 
visible <>n account of the parietal tooth being in front of it; umbilicus 
covered; light chestnut color. Diam. 6 mill. 

Tennessee, Georgia. 
H. EDVARDSII, Bland. PL 29, fig. b'2. 

Rather thin, imperforate, angulate on the periphery, the angle 
becoming- obsolete towards the aperture; whorls 5, narrow, slowly 
increasing, hirsute, base very convex, slightly indented in the 
middle, with impressed spiral lines under the epidermis ; aperture 
narrow, transverse, with a narrow, slightly curved, parietal tooth, 
upper margin of the lip scarcely reflected, basal portion slightly 
reflected, and appressed partly to the body whorl, with a tooth-like 
callus within and an almost obsolete central notch ; dark brown. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Mts. in Virginia. 

Differs from H. hirsuta in its more angulated periphery and less 
distinct lip-notch. 
H. LABROSA, Bland. PL 29, figs. 63-65. 

Imperforate, lenticular, periphery carinated, solid, finely obliquely 
striate, epidermis thin, with prostrate hairs when fresh; whorls 52, 
narrow, slowly enlarging, the last deflected, and constricted behind 
the lip; aperture transverse, narrow, ear-shaped, extremities of the 
lip connected by a callus and a long blade-shaped parietal tooth, 
lip with a wide and deep central notch ; dark brown. 

Length 12'5 mill. 

Arkansas, Alabama, Tennessee. 

H. EDGARIANA, Lea. PL 29, figs. 66, 67. 

Somewhat lenticular, spire depressed trochiform, suture distinct; 
whorls 5, flattened above, periphery carinate, base convex, imper- 
forate ; aperture narrowly transverse, outer lip notched in the middle^ 
parietal wall with a long blade-shaped tooth ; dark brown, hairy 
when fresh. Diam. 10 mill. 

Cumberland Mts., Tennessee. 

H. SPINOSA, Lea. PL 29, figs. 68-70. 

Lenticular, depressed conical above, suture slight ; whorls 6, flat 
above, acutely carinated at the periphery, convex below, slowly 



142 HELIX. 

increasing, covered with prostrate hairs in fresh specimens; aperture 
very narrow, lip slightly reflected and thickened, slightly incised in 
the middle, parietal tooth long, narrow, projecting, extending from 
the axis to the angle of the lip above; umbilical region indented; 
dark chestnut color. Diam. 14 mill. 
Mts. in East Tennessee and northern parts of Georgia and Alabama. 

The carina of each whorl slightly projects at the suture, Young 
shells are widely umbilicated, with hairs covering the surface and 
projecting around the periphery like a fringe. 

H. BARBIGERA, Redfield. PL 29, figs. 71-73. 

Somewhat lenticular, sharply carinated, the carinse of the spire- 
whorls overlapping at the suture, spire convexly conical; whorls 51, 
narrow, flattened, base convex; aperture narrow, transverse, lip 
reflected, not dentate or incised, covering the axis, parietal lamina 
long; dark horn color, epidermis striate, hirsute, forming cilise on 
the periphery. Diam. 10 mill. 

N. W. Georgia. 

Like the other carinate Stenotremse, this is a mountain species. 
It is readily distinguished from its allies by the absence of a lip 
notch. 

H. MONODON, Rackett. PI. 29, figs. 74-78. 

Whorls 5, narrow, convex, finely striate, hirsute or covered by 
the scars of hairs, deeply grooved behind the reflected lip ; aperture 
transverse, with a long, oblique parietal tooth; base very convex, 
much impressed round the deep, narrow, more or less open 
umbilicus. Diam. 7-10 mill. 

Inhabits the whole United States, east of the Rocky Mountains* 

It is H. convexa, Raf. 

Var. LEAH, Ward. Fig. 78. 

More convex, generally smaller, with more open umbilicus. 

Var. FRATERNA, Say. Fig. 77. 
Smaller, umbilicus closed. 

Var. CINCTA, Lewis. 

More flattened, periphery obsoletely or slightly carinated, usually 
with a brown peripheral band. 

Mts. of Western N. Carolina. 



HELIX. 143 

H. GERMANA, Gould. PI. 29, figs. 79-81. 

Solid, iinperforate, whorls 5, narrow, subangular at the periphery, 
very convex below ; aperture narrowly transverse, parietal wall with 
a long blade-shaped tooth ; horn color, with a few scattered hairs. 

Diam. 7*5 mill. 

Oregon. 

The base is more convex than in H. monodon, and is not indented 
around the axis. 

Section V. TRIODOPSIS, Kafinesque, 1819. 
Subsection I. TRIODOPSIS, (sensu stricto). 

H. TRIDENTATA, Say. PI. 29, figs. 82-84. 

Whorls 5-6, a little convex, obliquely ridged-striate, aperture 
trilobate, lip widely reflected with a small marginal tooth on the 
upper and another on the basal portion, parietal wall with an oblique 
tooth, base convex, umbilicus open and deep ; yellowish horn color, 
lip milk white. Diam. 13-23 mill. 

Canada, United States east of the Rocky Mts. 

Triodopsis lunula, Raf. teste Fer., is a synonym. 

Generally larger than the next species, with more depressed form 
and much smaller teeth. 

H.. FALLAX, Say. PI. 29, figs. 85-87. 

Whorls 5, moderately convex, obliquely ridged-striate ; aperture 
trilobate, the parietal lamelliform tooth large and oblique, the lip 
teeth large and flattened, the upper one deflected into the aperture ;. 
base moderately convex, umbilicus open ; light horn color, lip white. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

United States, east of Rocky Mountains. 

Dr. Binney included this species in H. tridentata, as a variety ; 
it differs in its smaller size, more elevated spire and larger teeth. 

H. LEVETTEI, Bland. PI. 29, figs. 88, 89. 

Umbilicated, thin, shining, translucent, irregularly, slightly, 
obliquely striated, suture impressed ; whorls 7, the last a little deflec- 
ted at the aperture, behind which it is constricted, obsoletely spirally 
striated ; aperture with a transverse parietal tooth, an obtuse mar- 
ginal tooth on the right side, and two transverse basal teeth, the 
upper one larger, peristome pale chestnut colored, its margins joined 
by a slight callus. 

Near Santa Fe, New Mexico. 



144 HELIX. 

H. VULTUOSA, Gould. PI. 30, figs. 91-93. 

Rather solid, closely delicately striate, suture well impressed; 
whorls 5?, convex, slowly increasing, the last subangular, deflected 
at the aperture, well rounded below, with moderate umbilicus; 
aperture lunate, its outline somewhat sinuous, parietal tooth broadly 
lamelliform, oblique, joined to the lip below, lower lip tooth small, 
upper one expanded and reflected ; dark horn color. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Texas, Arkansas. 
Var. HENRIETTA, Mazyck. Fig. 93. 

Aperture more triangular, peristome much thickened, but scarcely 
reflected, the parietal wall with an obtuse denticle, and a long 
lamelliform tooth, the internal teeth deep-seated, umbilicus wider, 
surface with pits behind the aperture. 

Texas. 
H. COPEI, Wetherby. PI. 30, figs. 2-4. 

Larger, and of lighter texture, with stronger growth-lines than If. 
vultuosa, Gould. The lip is also more broadly reflected below, with 
a sharper central angle, umbilicus wider, wall of aperture with an 
acute carina, behind which is a double tooth, right margin with a 
single small tooth, parietal wall with a curved lamella. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Hardin Co. Texas. 

May be only a variety of H. vultuosa. 

H. CBAGINI, Call. PI. 30, figs. 100, 1. 

Narrowly umbilicated, shining, striate, smoother below, reddish 
horn color, with yellowish blotches, marking the position of former 
peristomes; whorls 5, convex, body whorl rapidly enlarging; aperture 
with a short, strong, straight or scarcely curved parietal tooth, 
peristome white, with a heavy callous deposit, a stout triangular 
tooth on the right margin and a somewhat transverse tooth on the 
basal margin, fulcrum-deposit some distance within the aperture. 

Diam. 8*5 mill. 

Neosho Co., Kansas. 

H. HOPETONENSIS, Shuttlew. PI. 30, figs. 94, 95. 

Thin, ribbed-striate ; whorls 5, somewhat convex, more convex 
below, constricted behind the aperture ; aperture trilobate, parietal 
tooth sharp, lip teeth small; narrowly umbilicated; light horn color. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

A coast species, So. Carolina to Florida. 




HELIX. 145 



H. INTROFERENS, Bland. PI. 30, figs. 96-98. 

Thm, with rib-like strips, yellowish horn color, whorls 5-6, some- 
what rounded, the last descending, constricted behind the lip, with 
exterior pits marking the position of the teeth, periphery subangular; 
parietal tooth oblique, lamelliform, basal lip tooth submarginal with 
a strong white tubercle behind it, upper lip tooth transverse ; base 
convex, grooved within the open umbilicus. Diam. 11-15 mill. 

North Carolina, Philadelphia, Pa. (small form). 

Distinguished by its narrow, grooved umbilicus and tubercular 
basal tooth. 

H. VAN NOSTRANDI, Bland. PL 30, fig. 99. 

More decidedly costate, more convex at the base, with smaller 
umbilicus and without the internal tubercle of H. introferens; but 
may be only a variety of that species. Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Aiken, So. Carolina. 

H. LORICATA, Gould. PI. 30, figs. 5-8. 

Whorls 5, convex, thin, obliquely striate, fresh specimens hispid, 
much contracted behind the lip, dark horn color; aperture trans- 
versely trilobate, the very oblique parietal tooth quite small, the 
two lip teeth scarcely distinct ; base very convex, umbilicus narrow 
and deep, slightly contracted by the lip. Diam. 6-8 mill. 

California. 

H. Lecontei, Lea is a synonym. 

H. MULLAXI, Bland and Cooper. PL 30, figs. 9-12. 

Irregularly striate, shining, with a thin epidermis, covered with 
minute spiral lines and tubercles (scars of hairs); whorls 6, convex, 
much constricted behind the aperture, smoother on the base ; aperture 
trilobate, the parietal tooth small, linguiform, lower lip tooth 
lamelliform, upper one small, sometimes obsolete; umbilicus moderate, 
partially covered by the lip; dark horn color. Diam. 13'5 mill. 

Oregon, Washington Terr. 

Mr. Binney formerly considered this indentical with H. devia, 
Gould ; I agree with him that it is probably distinct, although they 
approach closely in some specimens. 

H. SANBURNI, W. G. Binney. PL 38, figs. 100, 1. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, sparsely hirsute, scarcely striate, 
yellowish horn-colored; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last hardly 
descending, convex beneath ; aperture trilobed, with a heavy, promi- 
10 



146 HELIX. 

nent, blunt parietal tooth, peristome white, thickened, broad, almost 
covering the umbilicus, with a large squarely truncated denticle on 
its right margin and a stout, bluntly pointed one on its base. 
Diam. 11 mill. 

Kingston, Northern Idaho. 

H. SALMONENSIS, Tryon. PI. 38, figs. 96, 97. 

Umbilicated, thin, shining sparsely hirsute, greenish horn-colored, 
growth- wrinkles not prominent ; whorls 4 J, hardly convex, the last 
scarcely descending and deeply grooved behind the peristome, base 
slightly convex; aperture very oblique, trilobed, with a small parietal 
tooth, peristome narrow, scarcely reflected, bearing two distant, 
slightly developed denticles. Diam. 8*5 mill. 

Salmon River, Idaho. 

Described by W. G. Binney as Triodopsis Harfordiana, the 
specific name preoccupied in the section Polygyra. 

H. BINOMINATA, Tryon. PI. 38, figs. 98, 99. 

Imperforate, coarsely, slightly wrinkled, russet colored, sparsely 
hirsute; whorls 5J, convex, the last globose, slightly descending; 
aperture very oblique, lunate, with a short, narrow, somew r hat 
curving parietal tooth, peristome white, broad, thickened, revolute, 
usually quite concealing the umbilicus, bearing on its basal margin 
an elongated, lamellar, tooth-like process. Diam. 17 mill. 

Kingston, Northern Idaho. 

Described by W. G. Binney under the preoccupied name of 
H. Hemphilli. 

H. YUCATANEA, Morelat. PI. 30, fig. 13. 

Depressed above, but quite convex below the angular periphery ; 
whorls 5, obliquely ridged above, striate below, constricted behind 
the reflected lip; aperture trilobate, parietal tooth very oblique, 
nearly V-shaped, with a lip tooth opposite, and a smaller erect basal 
one ; umbilicus rather wide and deep ; light horn color. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Yucatan. 

Subsection II, ISOGNOMONOSTOMA, Fitzinger. 1833. 

H. INFLECTA, Say. PI. 30, figs. 14-16, 16a, 16b. 

Whorls 5, minutely obliquely striate, sometimes hirsute,-yery 
much contracted behind the lip ; aperture trilobate, parietal tooth 
almost transverse, large and blade-shaped, basal lip tooth a small 



HELIX. 147 

upright tubercle, upper lip tooth in the middle of the outer lip, 
larger and inflected ; lip covering the umbilicus ; light horn color. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Western Pennsylvania to Michigan, Southwards to Texas. 

H. clausa, Raf. is a synonym. 

H. RUGELI, Shuttlew. PL 30, figs. 20, 21. 

Whorls 51, narrow, rather smooth, the last very much contracted 
in the centre behind the lip ; aperture small, with a prominent, bent, 
oblique parietal tooth, a small upright, tubercular basal tooth, and 
an upper lip tooth, lamellar, farther within the aperture ; base 
convex, with covered umbilicus ; light horn color. 

Diam. 10-13 mill. 

Tennessee, No. Carolina. 

Easily distinguished from H. inflecta by its deep-seated upper 
lip-tooth. 

H. PERSONATA, Lam. PI. 30, figs. 25-27. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, corneous, opaque, pubescent; whorls 
5, a little convex, the last constricted in front; aperture angularly 
trisinuate, lip widely reflected, bidentate, the extremities almost 
joined by a tongue-shaped parietal tooth. Diam. 11 mill. 

Middle Europe^ 

H. isognomostomos, Gmel. (in part) is a synonym. 

H. SUBPERSONATA, Middendorff. PI. 30, figs. 17-19. 

Covered perforate, opaque, pubescent ; whorls 5, scarcely convex, 
the last gibbous above at the aperture, laterally slightly constricted ; 
lip reflected, callous within, bidentate, the teeth minute, equal,, 
parietal wall with a tongue-shaped oblique tooth. 
Diam. 7 mill. 

Siberia.. 
Subsection III, XOLOTREMA, Raf. 1819. 

H. PALLIATA, Say. PL 30, figs. 30-32. 

Imperforate, light to dark horn color or brownish, with elevated 
oblique ribs, epidermis rugose, with close, minute, hispid prominences; 
whorls 5, not very convex, with subamgulated periphery; aperture 
trilobate, parietal tooth large, oblique, the basal tooth blade-shaped. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

Appalachian Mts. and westward, Vermont to Tennessee and Iowa. 

H. denotata, Fer., H. notata, Desh. and H. Carolinensis, Lea. are 
synonyms. 



148 HELIX. 

H. OBSTRICTA, Say. Tl. 30, figs. 22-24. 

Imperforate, pale to dark brown, acutely carinated, the carina 
visible on all except the apical whorls, with distant, sharp, oblique 
costse, fringing the edge of the carina in crossing it, and frequently, 
slight, close spiral lines; whorls 5, depressed-convex above, more 
convex below ; aperture trilobate, with widely reflected lip, parietal 
tooth strong, oblique, upper lip tooth small, basal tooth long, blade- 
like. Diam. 22 mill. 

Western and Southern United States. 

Differs from the preceding in its strong carina and in not being 
hispid. 

H. helicoides, Lea is a synonym. 

H. APPRESSA, Say. PL 30, figs. 28, 29. 

Imperforate, yellowish horn color, obliquely costulate above, 
smooth beneath; whorls 5, slightly convex, the periphery sub- 
angulate, constricted behind the widely reflected lip; aperture 
trilobate, with a long, oblique parietal tooth, a lamellar basal and 
a small upper lip tooth, the latter sometimes obsolete. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Mostly West of the Appalachian Mountains, extending from New 
York to Georgia and Illinois; also Wilmington, N. C. etc. 
Smaller, and without the hispid surface of H. palliata. 
H. linguifera, Fer. is a synonym. 

#** 

H. ELEVATA, Say. PL 31, figs. 57-69. 

Imperforate, thick, finely obliquely striated, yellowish horn color, 
suture well-impressed ; whorls nearly 7, convex, slowly increasing, 
body-whorl large and well-rounded ; aperture somewhat triangular, 
contracted by the lip, which is thickened, but not very broadly 
reflected, and covers the umbilicus ; a long lamellar tooth is on the 
base of the lip, and the parietal wall has a. stout tooth curving 
inwards above. Diam. 23 mill. 

W. New York to West Virginia, and westward to Wisconsin and 
Missouri. 

Mr. W. G. Binney has Wisconsin specimens remarkable fo:% the 
presence of chestnut bands on the periphery. H. Knoxvilliana, Fer. 
and H. Tennesseensis, Lea are synonyms, the latter a juvenile, 




HELIX. 149 



H. CLARKII, Lea. PI. 31, figs. 60-62. 

Imperforate, moderately thick, finely striated, suture moderate, 
reddish corneous ; whorls 7, convex, slowly increasing, body whorl 
well rounded; aperture subtriangular, the lip reflected and thickened. 
with a long lamellar tooth on the. base, and a strong curved tooth 
on the parietal wall. Diam. 14 mill. 

Cherokee Co., N. Carolina. 

Almost a pigmy elevata, but with less convex whorls. 

Subsection IV, METODONTIA, Mollendorff, 1883. 

H. HEMIPLEURIS, Moll. PI. 30, figs. 33, 34. 

Perforation nearly covered, somewhat solid, plicate above, almost 
smooth below, white with a brown peripheral band, and a wider one at 
the suture; whorls 7, periphery subangulated ; aperture with two 
approximating parietal teeth, lip with a callus ridge rising into two 
triangular teeth. Diam. 9 mill. 

Prov. Hubai, China. 

H. Molineri, Gredler is a young shell perhaps of this species, 
perhaps of H. Huaiensis. 

H. YANTAIENSIS, Crosse and Debeaux. PL 30, figs. 35, 36, 40, 41. 

Perforation nearly covered, rather thin, subtranslucent, very finely 
striated, yellowish corneous ; whorls 5, the last slightly compressed 
towards the aperture, not descending; peristome white, a little 
reflected, parietal wall with two small teeth, lip-teeth remote, small, 
without callous connection. Diam. 8 mill. 

Yantai, Prov. Chantong, China. 

This is the type of Mr. Ancey's new group Tetrodontina, which 
may be considered a synonym of Metodontia. 

Var. TETRODON, Mollendorff Figs. 40, 41. 

Smaller and more elevated than the type, the lip teeth connected 
by a callous ridge. Diam. 6*5 mill. 

Kalgan, China. 
H. HOUAIENSIS, Crosse. PI. 30, figs. 37-39. 

Umbilicus narrow, defined by an angle, white with an obsolete 
sutural and a peripheral brown band; whorls 7, narrow, the last 
not descending; peristome with broad internal callus, rising into 
two triangular teeth, parietal wall with two minute teeth. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Cheou-tcheou, China. 



150 HELIX. 

Wants the superior plications of H. hemipleuris, and differs also 
in being larger, with a more distinct umbilicus. 
H. obstructa, Heude (not Fer.) is a synonym. 

Section VI, MESODON, Rafinesque, 1819. 
Subsection I, MESODON (restricted). 

H. MAJOR, Binney. PI. 31, fig. 42. 

Imperforate, yellowish horn color, stout, covered by close oblique 
striae, suture w T ell-impressed ; whorls 6, convex, body whorl very 
slightly declining ; lip thick, wide, covering the umbilicus, with a 
sub-toothlike elevation on the base. Diam. 44 mill. 

Tennessee to Georgia and Alabama,; a mountain species. 

Coarser, larger, more globose than If. albolabris, yet perhaps only 
a local variety of it. 

H. ANDREWSII, Binney. PI. 31, figs. 43-45. 

Imperforate, globose, delicately striate, with microscopic revolving 
striae, horn color, whorls 6, convex, the last greatly swollen; peristome 
white, thickened, slightly reflected, the extremities not approaching. 

Diam. 25 mill. 

Mountains of North Carolina and Georgia. 

A supposed variety of this species (fig. 45) is figured by Mr. 
Binney, which I would refer to H. major, yet its dentition and 
genitalia are said to be the same as in H. Andrewsii. As in 
H. albolabris, it sometimes occurs with a parietal tooth. 

H. ALBOLABRIS, Say. PL 31, figs. 46-48. 

Imperforate, moderately thick, closely obliquely striate, with 
crowded, slightly impressed spiral lines, yellowish horn color; 
whorls 5-6, flattened convex, the body whorl a little deflected at 
the aperture and contracted behind the lip ; lip white, widely reflec- 
ted, dilated over the umbilicus. Diam. 25 milL 

Canada to So. Carolina, westward to Arkansas and Nebraska. 

Var. D EXT AT A. 

Parietal wall with a slight denticle. This variety has the aperture 
of H. thyroides, but may be distinguished by its imperforate axis. 

H. MULTILINEATA, Say. PI. 31, figs. 49-51. 

Imperforate, closely, obliquely striate, with deep suture, yellowish 
horn color, with more or less numerous spiral chestnut bands of 



HELIX. 151 

varying width, sometimes uniform chestnut color ; whorls 5-6, very 
convex, the last considerably deflected *at the aperture; lip white, 
narrowly reflected, dilated into the umbilicus. Diam. 25 mill. 

Western and Northwestern United States. 

H. PENNSYLVANICA, Green. PL 31, figs. 52-54, 

Imperforate, turbinately subglobose, rather thick, closely obliquely 
striate, suture distinct, bright horn color; whorls 6, convex; aperture 
subtriangular, lip white, narrowly reflected, slightly thickened 
internally at the base ; umbilical region indented. 

Diam. 13-18 mill. 

Western Pennsylvania to Illinois. 

More turbinate, with more triangular aperture than the next 
species. 

H. MITCHELLIANA, Lea. PL 31, figs. 55, 56. 

Imperforate, subglobose, moderately thick, translucent, finely 
striate, shining, yellowish horn color, suture not deep ; whorls 5, the 
last well-rounded, contracted behind the lip above, but the groove 
becoming indistinct towards the base; aperture rounded, lip 
white, narrowly reflected; base very convex. Diam. 15 mill. 

Virginia, No. Carolina, Ohio, Kentucky. 

H. CHBISTYI, Bland. PL 31, figs. 63, 64. 

Imperforate, depressed, solid, with close, oblique, rib-like striae, 
dark horn color; whorls 4J, somewhat convex, descending in front, 
periphery a little angular, base convex, excavated in the middle; 
aperture with a strong parietal tooth. Diam. 10 mill. 

J/fx. Cherokee Co., N. Carolina; Georgia; E. Tennessee. 

H. EXOLETA, Binney. PL 32, figs. 65-67. 

Ventricose, suborbicular, whorls 5-6, heavy, suture well-marked, 
body whorl large and convex; aperture rounded, lip reflected, 
parietal "wall toothed ; umbilicus covered by the extremities of the 
lip ; light horn color. Diam. 25 mill. 

Western N. York to Georgia, and westward to Missouri. 

It is H. zaleta, Say, of Binney. 

H. WHEATLEYI, Bland. PL 32, figs. 68, 69. 

Imperforate, thin, closely ribbed-striate, with microscopic gran- 
ulations, hirsute; whorls 5i convex, the last well rounded, slightly 
depressed and constricted at the aperture, base cpnvex, umbilical 



152 HELIX. 

region excavated ; aperture obliquely lunate, with a parietal tooth ; 
reddish horn colored, the lip often rosaceous. Diam. 14 mill. 

Mts. in Western N. Carolina, and Georgia. 

This, and jET. Columbiana of the Pacific region are the only hirsute 
species of Mesodon. 

H. DENTIFERA, Binney. PI. 32, figs. 70-72. 

Depressed, spire flatly convex, base well-rounded; whorls 5 y 
delicately striate, suture distinct, but not deeply impressed ; aperture 
wide, lip broadly reflected and covering the umbilicus, parietal wall 
armed with a prominent tooth ; yellowish horn color. 

Diam. 19 mill. 
Maine to North Carolina, westward to Ohio; a mountain species. 

H. WETHEBBYI, Bland. PI. 32, figs. 73, 74. 

Imperforate, thin, granulately striate, pale horn-color, hirsute; 
whorls 5, the last suddenly deflected, periphery subangulate ; parietal 
wall with a linguiform tooth, peristome dilated over the umbilicus. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Kentucky, Tennessee, N. Carolina; a mountain species. 

H. ROMERI, Pir. PI. 32, fig. 75. 

Depressed, rather thin, semitransparent, closely, faintly striate y 
suture slightly impressed, horn colored; whorls 5, somewhat convex,, 
the last obtusely angulated on the periphery, scarcely descending in 
front; aperture obliquely lunate, lip thickened, hardly expanded 
above, well-reflected below, partially (or rarely, entirely) closing 
the umbilicus, parietal wall generally with a well-developed tooth. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Texas. 
H. DIVESTA, Gould. PI. 32, figs. 76, 77. 

Moderately thick, coarsely obliquely striated, suture well marked; 
whorls 6, the last with subangulate periphery; base convex, umbilical 
region excavated but covered; aperture lunate, very oblique, lip 
white, broadly reflected, horizontal at base, its outer portion flexuous; 
dingy horn color. Diam. 18 mill. 

Washington Springs, Arkansas ; Mississippi* 

First described by Gould as H. abjeeta, a name preoccupied by 
Lowe. 

H. THYROIDES, Say. PI. 32, figs. 97-99, 78-80. 

Thin, regularly, closely, obliquely striate, suture moderate ; whorls 
5, convex, the last large, well-rounded, slightly declining at the aper- 



HELIX. 153 

ture, behind which it is a little constricted; aperture obliquely 
semilunar, lip white, moderately reflected, parietal wall with a slight 
tooth, sometimes obsolete or undeveloped; umbilicus open but partially 
circumscribed by the lip ; uniform light horn or straw color. 
Diam. 25 mill. 

United States, east of the Rocky Mts* 

Var. BUCCULENTA, Gould. Figs. 78-80. 

Smaller, more globular, darker (often reddish horn-color), with 
less open umbilicus. Diam. 16 mill. 

In the Southern Atlantic and Gulf States, Eastern Pennsylvania, 
New York etc. this form largely replaces the typical thyroides. 
Of late years it has been considered a distinct species, but Mr. W. G. 
Binney in his last work reunites it with thyroides ; perhaps properly. 

H. rufa, DeKay is a synonym. 

H. CLAUSA, Say. PL 32, figs. 81-83. 

Subglobose, moderately thick, with fine oblique striae, spire convex,, 
with distinct suture; whorls 5, convex, the last large, contracted 
behind the lip, base very convex; aperture rounded, lip white, 
narrowly reflected, nearly covering the umbilicus ; light yellowish 
brown, shining. Diam. 13-15 mill. 

Middle Western United States, Great Lakes to Mississippi and 
Alabama. 

H. Ingallsiana, Shuttlew. is a synonym. 

H. DOWNIEANA, Bland. PL 32, figs. 84, 85. 

Subglobose, thin, subpellucid, with obsolete rib-like striae, and 
crowded minute revolving lines; spire depressed conical, suture 
moderate; whorls 5, convex, the last tumid, scarcely descending, 
constricted behind the lip; aperture obliquely lunate, lip whiter 
narrowly reflected, nearly covering the umbilicus; base convex 
greenish horn color. Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Franklin Co. Tenn; Whitley Co. Kentucky. 

H. LAWI, Lewis. PL 32, figs. 86, 87. 

Narrowly umbilicated, delicately striate, horn colored ; whorls 4, 
the last descending and deeply constricted behind the peristome; 
parietal wall with a linguiform tooth. Diam. 6 mill. 

North Carolina, Georgia, W. Tennessee. 



154 HELIX. 

H. JEJUNA, Say. PL 32, figs. 88-90. 

Perforate, nearly smooth, corneous ; whorls 5, the last large, with 
convex base; peristome narrow, white, with a deep external groove 
behind it, no teeth. Diam. 8 mill. 

Florida, Southern Georgia, Mobile, Ala. 

H. Mobilliana, Lea is a synonym. 

H. COLTJMBIANA, Lea. PI. 32, figs. 91-95. 

Depressed orbicular, closely hirsute, spire depressed conical, 
suture well impressed ; whorls 6, the last rapidly increasing, very 
convex, deeply constricted behind the lip and descending in front ; 
aperture narrowly lunate, lip white, widely reflected, partly covering 
the umbilicus; base very convex; yellowish horn color. 

Alaska, Oregon, California. 

This species sometimes developes a strong parietal tooth. H. labiosa, 
Gould is a form of this species with very circular aperture and 
widely reflected peristome. H. armigera, Ancey is another variety 
more globose below and more densely hirsute than the typical form, 
the peristome narrow, much less developed, parietal tooth usually 
present. 

H. DEVIA, Gould. PL 32, fig. 96. 

Orbicularly depressed, rather thick, strongly obliquely striate; 
spire convex, suture moderately impressed ; whorls 6, the last well- 
rounded; aperture obliquely and transversely lunate, with a widely 
reflected white lip, which is somewhat toothed at the. base, and 
impinges on the open umbilicus, parietal tooth trigonal, oblique, 
quite large ; dark horn color, nearly brown. Diam. 20 mill. 

Oregon. 

H. Baskervillei, Pfr. is a synonym. 

H. PTYCHOPHORA, A. D. Brown. PL 38, figs. 2, 3. 

Shell with almost concealed umbilicus, with distant coarse 
striae, thick, dull russet color; whorls 5, convex, the last swollen 
below, rapidly descending in front; aperture oblique, subcircular, 
peristome white, thick, narrow, reflected, with a basal thickening, 
scarcely toot-h-like, parietal wall with a thin callus. 

Diam. 19 mill. 

Montana, Idaho, Oregon. 

Var. MAJOR. With six full whorls, the umbilicus less concealed. 
Diam. 22 mill. 



HELIX. 155 

This shell was formerly considered by Mr. Binney a small variety 
of Arionta Townsendiana, but he now places it in Mesodon. The 
.surface has not the revolving striae and malleatious of the Ariontse. 

Subsection II. ULOSTOMA, Albers. 1850. 

H. PROFUNDA, Say. PL 33, figs. 3, 4. 

Whorls 5-6, convex, strongly obliquely striate, with well-impressed 
suture; aperture subcircular, lip large, white, its extremities con- 
verging, with an obtuse tubercular tooth on the basal edge ; base 
convex, umbilicus large, profound ; light horn colpr, usually broadly 
banded with chestnut above, with numerous narroAV bands on the 
base, sometimes without bands. Diam. 28 mill. 

Middle and Western United States, west of the Appalachian Mts., 
South to Mississippi. 

H. Richardi, Fer. is a synonym: H. bulbina, Desh., is probably a 
juvenile. 

H. SAYI, Binney. PL 33, figs. 6-8, 5. 

Orbicularly depressed, whorls 5-6, thin, regularly obliquely 
striate ; aperture suborbicular, lip white, narrowly reflected, tuber- 
cularly dentate on the base, parietal wall toothed; umbilicus 
moderate, deep ; pale horn color, without bands. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

A Northern Species, inhabiting Mountains and elevated districts, 
Maine to Illinois, southward to Pennsylvania. 
It is H. diodonta, Say, not Muhlf. 

Yar. CHILHOWEENSIS, Lewis. PL 33, fig. 5. 

Shell much larger, with smaller or more rudimentary teeth, lip 
more widely reflected on the base. Diam. 1*4 inches. 

Mts. of N. Carolina, and E. Tennessee. 

***. 

H. USAMBARICA, Craven. PL 32, figs. 100-2. 

Umbilicated, closely, flexuously lirate, brown above, lighter colored 
below, glossy ; whorls 6, the last not descending ; lip thickened and 
slightly reflected, aperture pale purplish white. Diam. 1 in. 

Usambara Country, Eastern Africa. 

Geographically widely sundered from this group ; of which it can 
scarcelv be a member. The author writes that it "has more the 



156 HELIX. 

appearance of some of the North American forms than of the 
African." 

Section VII, ATOPA, Albers, 1850. 
Subsection I, ATOPA, (restricted). 

H. CHAKPENTIERI, Pfr. PL 33, figs. 9, 10. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, obliquely costulate, scarcely 
shining, greenish corneous; whorls 5, slowly increasing, moderately 
convex, the last rounded, descending in front; aperture nearly 
horizontal, whitish within, unarmed, lip widely expanded and 
reflected, margins converging. Diam. 27*5 mill. 

Ceylon. 

H. PETTOS, Martens. PI. 34, figs. 36-38. 

Very widely umbilicated, closely granulosely striate, light fuscous; 
whorls 8, narrow, the last angulate above, rounded below, a little 
descending in front ; aperture diagonal, with continuous, thickened, 
shortly expanded lip, separated above from the parietal wall only 
by a small sinus. Diam. 14 mill. 

Himalaya Mts. India. 

H. RIVOLII, Deshayes. PL 33, figs. 11, 12. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, obliquely costulate above, 
striate below, shining, greenish brown, spire immersed, but the apex 
a little raised; whorls 5, convex, the last dilated, tubiform and 
deflected in front; aperture rather oblique, with three parietal 
laminae, of which the middle one is strong, curved, elongate and the 
others small and deeper, there are also three subequal (sometimes a 
fourth smaller) deep-seated palatal teeth. Diam. 24 mill. 

* Ceylon. 

If. earabinata, Fer. is a synonym. 

H. HUMBERTI, Brot. PL 33, figs. 22, 23. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, somewhat solid, costulate-striate 
above, scarcely striate below, shining, olive-brown ; whorls 5, scarcely 
convex, the last descending in front; aperture oblique, obtusely 
heart-shaped, with a strong central parietal lamella, and a short 
deep-seated palatal one not visible exteriorly, margins of the light 
olivaceous-brown peristome joined by an elevated callus, subdehtate 
above, with a four-sided tooth below. Diam. 25 mill. 

Ceylon* 



HELIX. 157 

H. ANAX, Benson. PL 33, figs. 16-18. 

Widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, obliquely costulate-striate 
above, striate below, a little shining, dark chestnut color, lighter 
below; whorls 5, convex, the last dilated, and deflected in front; 
aperture suboblique, rounded oblong, with two parietal lamella, the 
upper one long, entering, sinuate, the low r er one shorter, deeper, 
obliquely sinuate, with three rather deep, parallel palatal teeth, lip 
extremities joined by a white callus, inferior margins with a sub- 
dentate thickening. Diam. 23 mill. 

Mts., Travancove, India. 
H. ERRONEA, Albers. PI. 33, figs. 19-21. 

Widely umbilicated, irregularly revolving, rather solid, costulate 
striate above and chestnut color, dark olivaceous, shining, shining 
and scarcely striate below; whorls 5, scarcely convex, the last some- 
what gibbous opposite the aperture, tumid and slightly descending 
in front, inflated below; aperture with three parietal lamellae, of 
which the middle one is elongate, strong, the others deeper and 
scarcely visible, palate with three deep, flexuous lamellae, the middle 
one conspicuous, the others visible through the shell, lip white, callus 
shortly reflected, upper and columellar margin subdentately 
thickened. Diam. 24 mill. 

Ceylon. 

Is H. Rivolii, Pfr. in part. 

H. ODONTOPHORA, Benson. PI. 33, figs. 24-26. 

Widely umbilicated, rather solid, chestnut color, or brownish 
yellow, obliquely, thinly, costulate-striate above, concave, striate and 
shining below ; whorls 4, somewhat convex, the last more convex in 
front, dilately deflected in front, inflated below ; aperture with two 
parietal lamella?, the upper one curved, the lower shorter, and deeper 
seated, palatal teeth four, semilunar or sinuate, visible from the 
aperture and through the shell, peristome purplish white or chestnut, 
callous, shortly reflected, upper and lower margins subdentately 

thickened. Diam. 22-26 mill. 

Ceylon; Mts., 4500 ft. alt. 

H. PULVINARIS, Gould. PI. 33, figs. 29-31. 

Very widely umbilicated, obliquely striate, yellowish brown; 
whorls 6, scarcely convex above, the last obtusely biangulate, 
deflected but not dilated in -front; aperture oblique, elliptically 
lunate, lip expanded, with nine teeth in the throat. 

Diam. 15-18 mill. 

Hong Kong and Canton, China. 



158 HELIX. 

H. MULTISPIEA, Mollendorff. PL 33, figs. 27, 28. 

Dextral, thin, subpellucid, yellowish corneous, a little shining,, 
perspectively umbilicated, obtusely angulated, closely striated above, 
smoother below; whorls 7, the last scarcely dilated, very shortly 
descending ; palate with seven short parallel lamellae, with a strong 
transverse lamina on the parietal wall. Diam. 8-11 mill. 

Prov. Hunan, China. 

H. FIMIBRIOSA, Martens. PI. 34, figs. 41-43; 32-35. 

Perspectively umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, reddish brown, an- 
gulated, lamellately rugose above, becoming ciliated on the periphery, 
base smooth; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last inflated below, 
with a yellowish band ; palate with five parrellel lamellae below the 
periphery and one very short one above it, and a strong lunar lamina 
on the parietal Avail. Diam. 13*5-15 mill. 

Prov. Hunan, China. 

Var. EMcmiENs, Gredler. PI. 34, figs. 32-35. 

Smaller, with obtuse carina, base without white band, lip narrower, 

Diam. V-8 mill. 

Is H.fimbriosa, Hende (in part) not Martens. 

Var. NANA, Mollendorff. 

Smaller than Var. emoriens, the last whorl with more acute 
peripheral angle. Diam. 6 mill. 

H. CUTISCULPTA, Mollendorff. PL 34, figs. 39, 40. 

Perspectively umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, corneous, angulated, 
rugosely striate, decussated by spiral lines above, the periphery 
distantly laciniated, base striated; whorls 7, slowly increasing, the 
last not dilated, nor descending; palate with five short parallel 
lamellae, with a dilated and thickened parietal lamina. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Prov. Fudshien, China. 

H. DIPTYCHIA, Mollendorff. PL 34, figs. 46-48. 

Perspectively umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, yellowish, angulated, 
with distant membranous ribs, extended across the base as well as 
top, and prominent on the peripheral angle, above granulated and 
spirally lineated between the costse, interstices smooth below, whorls 
66^, the last not descending; palate with five short paralled lamellae, 
and sometimes a sixth, very short, at the suture, parietal wallr-with 
two approximate vertical lamellae. Diam. 6*5 mill 

Prov. Guidshoit, China. 



HELIX. 159 

H. STENOCHILA, Mollendorff. 

Perspectively umbilicated, costulate striate, decussated by rugulose 
spiral lines, brownish corneous; whorls 7, the last shortly reflected 
in front, the periphery obtusely angulated ; palate with five short 
lamellse, parietal Avail with a strong vertical lamina and five small 
teeth in front of it. Diam. 8'5 mill. 

Badung, Prov. Hubei, China. 

Differs from the next species in being smaller, with more numerous 
whorls, in the sculpture being alike above and below, and the 
absence of peripheral fimbria3. 

H. MURATA, Heude. PI. 33, figs. 13-15. 

Widely umbilicated, opaque above, pellucid below, brownish, with 
rugose striae above, fimbriated on the peripheral angle; whorls 5J, 
palate with four principal short lamellae, with small denticles above 
and below, parietal wall with a vertical lamina and five teeth in 
front of it. 

Tclienkeou, China. 

Subsection II, PLECTOPYLIS, Benson, 1860. 

H. SERICA, Austen. PI. 34, figs. 49-52. 

Dextral, openly umbilicated, light corneous brown, with oblique 
narrow bands above, epidermis thin; whorls 7, narrow, the last 
descending in front ; lip white, reflected, continued on the parietal 
wall, aperture with six palatal teeth, a third of a whorl within, the 
upper small, a bifurcate lamella on the parietal wall. 

Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Burrail Mis., India. 
H. OGLEI, Austen. PI. 36, figs. 29-31. 

-Dextral, widely umbilicated, pale brown, with close-set sienna 
brown markings crossing the whorls, epidermis thick, rough, some- 
what nacreous ; whorls 8, the last slightly descending towards the 
oblique aperture ; peristome slightly reflected, white, continued by 
a slight parietal callus, there is a single vertical parietal lamina, 
with buttress-like supports on the posterior side above and below, 
palatal teeth six, the sixth longer, double. Diam. 16 mill. 

Near Sadiya, Assam. 

H. PINACIS. Benson. PI. 34, figs. 53-55. 

Sinistral, widely umbilicated, roughly, obliquely plicate-striate 
above, with close spiral line, below with flexuous oblique, decussated 



160 HELIX. 

by spiral striae, corneous, under a dark scabrous epidermis ; whorls 
7 2, narrow, slowly increasing, the last shortly descending in front, 
subcarinate above, the carina hispid in young specimens, convex 
below, compressed around the conical umbilicus; lip reflected, 
whitish, its extremities joined by a parietal callus, aperture with a 
simple vertical and no horizontal parietal lamella, and six palatal 
plicae. Diam. 14 mill. 

Sikkim region, Himalayas, India. 

H. MUNIPURENSIS, Austen. PL 34, figs. 56-58. 

Dextral, widely and deeply umbilicated, thick, light ochraceous 
brown, distantly maculated above; whorls 7, flat, the last constricted 
behind the aperture and scarcely descending; peristome white, 
slightly reflected, the margins joined by a parietal callus, a vertical 
parietal lamella, a third of a volution from the mouth, palatal 
teeth 7. Diam. 11 mill. 

Munipur, India; alt. 3000-4000 ft. 

H. LAOMONTANA, Pfr. PL 34, figs. 60-62. 

Very widely umbilicated, solid, closely striate, brownish ; whorls 
6 J, scarcely striate, slowly increasing, periphery rounded, subdilated 
and deflected in front, base strongly striate in front; peristome, 
"whitish, thickened, a little reflected, its margins joined by a parietal 
callus; palatal plicse simple, parietal wall with a simple vertical 
lamina and no horizontal ones. Diam. 32 mill. 

Lao Mts., Cambodia. 

H. MACROMPHALUS, W. Blanford. PL 34, figs. 65-68. 

Sinistral, widely umbilicated, rather thin, light corneous, with 
incremental curved plicse, decussated by spiral lirae, at the periphery 
and below striulate, almost smooth, with a few spiral striae around 
the umbilicus; whorls 41-52, flattened, narrow, the last scarcely 
wider, subangulate above, slightly descending in front; peristome 
"whitish, a little thickened and reflected, the converging margins 
joined by a thin callus, a vertical parietal plica and biseriate, dupli- 
cate palatal plicae. Diam. 6*5 mill. 

Kliasi Mts. and near Darjiling, India. 

H. PLECTOSTOMA, Benson. PL 34, figs. 69, 70. 

Sinistral, moderately umbilicated, whitish, under a deciduous 
corneous epidermis; whorls 6, radiately plicate, decussated by close 
elevated spiral lines, the last angulated above, with a few elevated 



HELIX. 161 

lines below the angle; parietal vertical lamina with transverse 
adjuncts above and below, palatal plicae biseriate. Diam. 9 mill. 

Darjiling and Khasi Mts., India. 
It is If. prodigium, Bens. Mss. in British Museum. 

H. ANDERSONI, W. Blanford. PI. 34, fig. 71; PI. 35, figs. 74, 75. 
Dextral, very widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, whitish, under 
a heavy brownish epidermis, fringed at the periphery, below the 
epidermis decussated by radiating and spiral striae, the latter obsolete 
on the base; whorls 72-8, narrow, flattened above, somewhat convex 
below, compressed around the umbilicus, the last angulated above, 
constricted and slightly descending in front ; peristome white, ex- 
panded, parietal lamina vertical, stout, the duplicate palatal plicae 
biserial, callously connected. Diarn. 26 mill. 

Bliamo, in Ava; Hoetone, in Yunan. 

H. CLATHRATULA, Pfr. PL 34, figs. 72, 73. 

Widely umbilicated, acutely carinated, clathrate above by distinct 
ribs and elevated spiral lirae, barely shining, horn colored; \vhorl 
5, subequal, scarcely convex, base radiately striated, subinflated 
around the umbilicus, lip simple, acute; parietal lamina vertical,, 
palatal plicae biseriate, the posterior series strong, oblique. 

Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Ceylon* 

H. puteolus, Benson is # synonym. 

H. RETIFERA, Pfr. PL 34, figs. 63, 64. 

Moderately umbilicated, plicate-striate, with several elevated spiral 
lines, carinated, diaphanous, slightly shining, light horn color; whorls 
6, somewhat flattened, base subplane, striate; lip simply acute; 
parietal plica strong, vertical, simple, palatal plicae biseriate, the 
posterior series strong, vertical. Diam. 7 mill. 

Nilgherri Mts., India* 

H. NAGAENSIS, Austen. PL 35, figs. 78, 79. 

Sinistral, widely umbilicated, yellowish brown, epidermis thick r 
rudely striated; whorls 7, flattened, narrow, the last descending in 
front ; lip somewhat thickened, white, reflected, the margins joined 
by a thick parietal callus, slightly incised at the junction; parietal 
lamina strong, vertical, with a long horizontal lamina behind it, 
with six palatal lamellae. Diam. 12 mill. 

Prow, Naga hills, India. 
11 



162 HELIX. 

H. PSEUDOPHIS, W. Blanford. PI. 35. figs. 80, 81. 

Sinistral, widely umbilicated, rather thin, light ochraceous; whorls 
7, the last constricted behind the aperture and suddenly deflected; 
peristome reflected, the extremities joined by an elevated, curved 
callus, slightly incised above and below, vertical parietal lamina 
giving out a posterior horizontal extension, with an additional long 
horizontal lamina above and a shorter one below, six palatal plicae. 

Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Thayatmyo, Pegu. 

H. BRAHYDISCUS, Austen. PI. 36, figs. 32-34. 

Dextral, with wide, shallow umbilicus, rather thick, dull umber 
brown, epidermis thick, with cloth-like texture, ribbed, in young, 
fresh shells the upper outer margin has a close, regular, epidermal 
fringe; whorls 7, the last rather flat on the side and angular above, 
descending at the very oblique aperture ; peristome strongly reflected, 
thickened, white, the margins connected by a well-raised ridge, 
notched above and below, from the upper middle portion of this 
proceeds a long horizontal lamella towards the vertical parietal 
lamina, but terminates and then is again developed, becoming 
thicker and higher as it approaches the latter, from the lower end 
of the vertical lamina proceeds a short lamella towards the aperture, 
and a very short, slight, free lamina is just below the vertical 
barriers, six simple palatal teeth. Diam. 22 mill. 

Mdulmein, Tenasserim, etc. 

H. PERARCTA, Blanford. PL 35, figs. 91-95. 

Sinistral, widely umbilicated, rather thin, white, sinuously trans- 
versely striate, obsoletely decussated; whorls 6, convex above and 
on the periphery, subcompressed and suddenly deflected at the 
aperture ; peristome white, connected by a parietal curved callus, 
with median vertical lamina, a strong transverse one above, a longer, 
narrower transverse one below, and one or two behind it-, seven 
palatal plicae. Diam. 11 mill. 

' Ava. 

H. SHANENSIS, Stoliczka. PL 36, figs. 10, 11. 

Whorls 6J, obliquely, and obsoletely concentrically striate, 
periphery rounded, suture margined ; light brown ; arrangement of 
parietal laminae similar to H. perarcta. Diam. 21 mill. 

Burmah. 




to 

HELIX. . 168 

H. trilamellaris, Austen is a synonym, according to its author 
(Jour. As. Soc. xlviii, 2). 

H. BRACHYPLECTA, Benson. PI. 35, figs. 76, 77, 82, 83. 

Dextral, widely umbilicated, with minute curved striae, obsoletely 
decussated by very minute spiral stride, opaque, dull reddish chestnut, 
the apex amber colored, lighter colored below; whorls 6, a little 
convex, slowly increasing, the last rounded, and subangulated 
above near the suture, descending in front; aperture somewhat 
ear-shaped, purplish, the peristome a little expanded, brownish, the 
remotely converging margins joined by a callus ; vertical laminae 
two, with a short horizontal lamina, six palatal plicae. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

Moulmein, Burmah. 

H. FEDDENI, Blanford. PI. 35, figs. 84-87. 

Siuistral, very widely umbilicated, thin, whitish, irregularly 
obliquely sculptured; whorls 6i-7, narrow, a little convex above, 
the last much broader, the periphery and base rounded, abruptly 
deflected in front; peristome somewhat thickened and expanded, 
the margins joined by a rib, vertical laminae two connected above 
and below by horizontal lamina?, with paralled free laminae above and 
below these. Diam. 16 mill. 

Near Prome, India. 

H. SHIROIENSIS, Austen. P4. 35, fig. 90. 

Sinistral, openly umbilicated, thin, brownish, minutely striated ; 
whorls 6, the last rounded, acutely compressed and descending at 
the aperture ; peristome white, continuous, reflexed, vertical lamina 
with a short horizontal support below, with a free lamella below 
this, and a longer and shorter lamella above them, four horizontal 
palatal teeth, with a double notched vertical tooth between the 
third and fourth. Diam. 7*5 mill. 

Shiroifurar, N. E. of Munipur, India; alt. 8000-9000 ft. 

H. LEIOPHIS, Benson. PL 35, figs. 88,. 89. 

Sinistral, widely umbilicated, rather thin, with oblique, curved 
rugose striae, decussated by a few spiral lines ; whitish, under a scaly 
brownish horn-colored epidermis; whorls 5MH, narrow, the last 
angulated above the periphery, deflected in front, base rounded; 
palatal plica double, parietal horizontal laminae two additional to 
the lower free one. Diam. 11-14 mill. 

Near Thyet-Mio. 



164 HELIX. 

H. REFUGA, Gould. PL 35, figs. 1, 2. 

Sinistral widely umbilicated, somewhat solid, minutely obliquely 
rugose and concentrically striated above, white, under a yellowish 
corneous deciduous epidermis; whorls 6i, narrow, shining, the last 
deflected in front, base subangulate, concave; peristome shortly, 
abruptly reflected, callous, white, the margins joined by sigmoid 
parietal, callus, disposition of teeth as in the preceding species. 

Diam. 17'5 mill. 

JBurmah. 

Var. BEXTRORHA, Austen. Fig. 2. 

H. KARENORUM, Blanford. PI. 35, figs. 96-100. 

Sinistral, rather widely umbilicated, solid, white, with somewhat 
irregular light chestnut strigations, decussated by sinuous transverse 
and spiral striae; epidermis thin, corneous; suture somewhat narrowly 
margined ; whorls 6, narrow, the last angulated above the periphery, 
rounded below, deflected and slightly compressed at the aperture ; 
lip white, reflected, the margins joined ; parietal and palatal processes 
both compound, a single horizontal parietal lamina in addition to 
the lower free one. Diam. 13 mill. 

Pegu. 

H. BRAHMA, Austen. PL 36, figs. 35-37. 

Sinistral, moderately umbilicated, ochraceous-brown, finely regular- 
ly striated; whorls 7, the last angular above and rounded below, a little 
compressed behind the aperture and hardly descending; peristome 
slightly reflected and thickened, white, connected by a parietal 
callus, parietal vertical lamina strong, with a short horizontal 
lamella at the lower end, above this are two other parallel short, 
and usually free lamellae, there is a very thin, thread like lower free 
lamella extending to the peristome and uniting with the parietal 
callus, palatal plicae in two rows, the outer one of four rather large 
plications, behind it, another row of fourteen minute, tooth-like 
processes. Diam. 9 mill. 

Brahmakhund, Eastern Assam; alt. 1000 ft. 

H. CYCLASPIS, Benson. PL 35, fig. 9. 

Sinistral, widely umbilicated, smooth, finally obliquely rugate 
above, brownish, suture margined ; whorls 7-1, slowly increasing, the 
last not descending, acutely compressed-carinate, base convex, 
subangulate around the umbilicus; peristome* expanded, reflected, 



HELIX. 165 

the margins joined by a parietal callus; armature similar to H. 
Karenorum. 

Near Moulmein, Tenasserim. 

H. eatinus, Benson (not of Pfeiffer) is a synonym. 

H. ACHATINA, Gray. PL 35, figs. 3-5, 7, 8. 

Sinistral, very widely umbilicated, smooth, reddish brown above, 
maculated and flamed with whitish, base pale; whorls 6, the last 
subcom pressed on the sides, suddenly deflected in front; peristome 
brownish, the margins joined by a prominent parietal callus, teeth 
of the aperture similar in arrangement to H. Karenorum, but with 
.an additional horizontal parietal lamina. 

Burmah. 

H. repercussa of Gould, is a synonym. 

H. ANGUINA, Gould. PL 35, fig. 6. 

Smooth, sinistral, chestnut color, radiated below; whorls 5i, the 
last subangulated at the periphery, dentition of aperture similar to 
last species. Diam. 1 inch. 

Tavoy, Burmah. 
HL INVIA, Heude. PL 3(>, figs. 17-20. 

Dextral, whorls 52, with impressed suture, vitreous shining, the 
last not undulated but laterally compressed, a little descending; 
a}>erture with four palatal pHcse, and one smaller close to the 
umbilicus, vertical parietal lamina strong. Diam. 16 mill. 

Tchenkeou, China. 

The armature is not fully described or figured by the author of 
this species. 

H. SCHISTOPTYCHIA, Mollend. PL 36, figs. 21, 22. 

Dextral, decussately costulately striate above, smooth below, 
brownish corneous; whorls 61, the last laterally compressed, with 
obtusely angulated periphery, deflected anteriorly; parietal wall with 
a vertical lamina, crossed by a horizontal short one at its extremities, 
palate with two series of five plicae. Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Prov. Hunan, China. 

H. LAMINIFERA, Mollend. PL 36, figs. 23, 24. 

Dextral, costulate-striate and spirally lineated above, smooth 
below; whorls 7, the last with acutely angulated, laciniated 
periphery ; parietal vertical lamina, with a short transverse lamella, 
palatal plicae 6, short, in a single series. Diam. 14 mill. 

Prov. Hubai, China. 



166 HELIX. 

H. RESERATA, Heude. PL 36, figs. 38-41, 

Dextral, obliquely costulate, smoother below, periphery angulated 
and laciniated; whorls 6, the last descending; peristome subcon- 
tinuous, vertical lamina with small denticles in front of it, palate 
with four lamellae, and a smaller tooth near the umbilicus. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Tehenkeou, China. 

H. SCHLUMBERGERI, Morlet. PL 36, figs. 25-28. 

Dextral, shining, brownish, with close coarse striae above, crossed 
by slight spiral lines, smooth below ; whorls 7, subcarinated above, 
subangulate below, the last not descending anteriorly ; aperture with 
the usual parietal entering plicae, and a deep-seated large vertical 
lamina, and another much smaller transverse one, palatal teeth six, 
minute. Diam. 26 mill. 

Tonkin. 

H. BIFORIS, Heude. PL 36, figs. 12-16. 

Dextral, whorls 61, slowly increasing, the last deflected in front, 
brownish, spirally plicately striate, the angulate<i periphery lacin- 
iated; parietal vertical laminae two, joined above and below by 
transverse ridges, with a free transverse lamina below, palate with 
four teeth, and a smaller one close to the umbilicus. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

China. 

Unfigured Species. 

H. JUGATORIA, Ancey. China. 

H. REVOLTJTA, Pfr. Andaman Is. 

Group VI, VALLONIA, Risso. 1826. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, minute, diaphanous; whorls 4, or 
less ; aperture obliquely subcircular, with a white reflected peristome, 
the margins converging. 

H. PULLCHELLA, Muller. The few species occur in the temperate 
and colder countries of the northern hemisphere. The type inhabits 
North America, Europe, and Northern Asia, and has been exten- 
sively spread by commerce in other countries. 

The principal synonyms are Zurama, Leach, Amplexux, Brown, 
Chilostoma, Fitz. (in part), Glaphyra, Albers and Lucena, Moquin- 
Tandon. 



HELIX. 167 

Group VII, HELICELLA, Ferussac. 1819. 

Shell generally umbilicated, the peristome simple or slightly 
expanded, usually thickened on its inner margin, rarely dentate 
Distribution nearly universal, but mostly European. 

Section I FRUTICICOLA, Held. 1837. 

Umbilicate or perforate, depressed-globose, often pilose; whorls 
5-7, a little convex; aperture widely lunar or Innately rounded, 
peristome acute, shortly expanded, a little thickened within, basal 

margin reflected. 

Mostly European. 

The synonymy includes Hygromia, Risso, Bradybcsna, Beck, 

Hygromanes (Fer.) Gray. 

Subsection I, PET ASIA, Moquin Tandon. 1855. 

Narrowly perforate, turbinately globose ; whorls 6-8, narrow, the 
last not descending ; aperture obliquely lunate, peristome patulous 
or subreflected, labiate and bidentate within. H. BIDENS, Chemn. 

Europe. 

Dibothrion, Pfeiffer is a synonym. 

Subsection II, TROCHISCUS, Held. 1837. 

Basal lip lamellarly thickened within. H. edentula, Drap. 

Europe. 

Subsection III, TRICHIA, Hartmann. 1840. 

Depressed, narrow whorled, usually pilose, columellar margin 

callous. H. HISPIDA, Linn. 

Europe. 
Bradybcena, Stabile, is a synonym. 

Subsection IV. ZENOBIA, Gray, 1821. 

Conoidal, perforate, smooth, translucent, peristome simple. 

H. GLABELLA, Drap. 

Europe. 

Subsection V. MONACHA, Hartmann. 1840. 

Conical, perforate, smooth, translucent, peristome labiate and 

subreflected. H. INCARNATA, Miill. 

Europe. 

Subsection VI, CARTHUSIANA, Kobelt. 1871. 

Perforate, subglobose-depressed, inflated, corneous white, trans- 
lucent, peristome distinctly labiate. H. CARTUSIANA, Miill. 

Europe. 



168 HELIX. 

Subsection VII, NUMMULINA, Kobelt. 1871. 

Lenticular, with carinate periphery, costulate-striate. H. NUMMUS, 
Ehrenb. 

Syria, Caucasus. 

Subsection VIII, EULOTA, Hartmann. 1842. 
Inflated, subglobose. H. FRUTICUM, Mull. 

Europe 
The typical group of Fruticicola. 

Theba, Risso. (in part) is a synonym. 

Subsection IX. DORCASIA, Gray, 1845. 

Moderately umbilicated, globosely turbinate, or depressed globose, 
rugosely striate; whorls 4-5, the last large, inflated, more or less 
depressed in front ; aperture lunately ovate, the peristome thickened, 
subreflected or expanded, columellar margin dilated, reflected. 
H. GLOBULUS, Miill. 

Cape of Good Hope, Southern Asia etc. 

Galaxias, Beck, may be included : it has priority, but is preoc- 
cupied in fishes. 

Subsection X, SATSUMA, A. Ad. 1868. 

Conoidal, base more or less flattened, basal portion of periphery 
nearly straight. H. JAPONICA, Pfr. 

Japan, China. 

Fruticotrochus, Kobelt is a synonym. 

Subsection XI, HISPIDELLA, Lowe. 1852. 
Surface hispid. H. NUBIGENA, Lowe. 

Canary Is. 
Subsection XII, CILIELLA, Mousson, 1872. 

Corneous, somewhat lenticular, granular piliferous, filamentously 
carinate. H. LEPROSA, Shuttl. 

Canary Is. 
Section II, XEROPHILA, Held. 1837. 

Umbilicated, or rimately perforate, turbinately or globosely 
depressed, calcareous, usually banded, the apex corneous; whorls 5-6, 
slowly increasing ; aperture lunately rounded or subcircular, peristome 
acute, labiate within. 

Mostly European. 
Subsection I, EUPARYPHA, Hartmann. 1840. 

Perforate, depressed globose, usually banded; whorls 5, the last 



HELIX. 169 

inflated, aperture dilated-lunar, labiate within, the columellar 
margin reflected. H. PISANA, Mull. 

Mostly European, but with representatives in Southern and Lower 
California. 

Subsection II, HELIOMANES, Moquin Tandon. 1855. 

Globose, opaque whitish, with bands of darker color; aperture 
semilunar. H. VARIABILIS, Drap. 

Mostly European. 

Subsection III, HELICELLA, Moquin Tandon. 1855. 

Moderately or rather widely umbilicated, whitish, opaque ; aper- 
ture semilunar, peristome usually labiate within. H. CESPITUM, 
Drap. 

Mostly European. 

Subsection IV, JACOSTA, Moquin Tandon. 1855. 

Shell opaque, glabrous, whitish; umbilicated sublenticular, with 
carinate periphery, aperture oval, peristome labiate. H. EXPLANATA, 
Mull. 

Europe, N. Africa, Caucasia. 

Crenea, Albers (in part). 

Additional subsections of Fruticicola will be included in the 
succeeding volume of the Manual. 

Group VII, VALLONIA, Risso. 1826. 

H. PULCHELLA, Muller. PI. 38, figs. 10-15. 

Umbilicated, subdepressed, whitish or greenish white, shining, 
smooth ; whorls 3 J a little dilated but not deflected in front; aperture, 
subcircular, lip reflected, white, margins approaching. 

Diam.-3 mill. 

Europe, Madeira, Northern Asia, United States, China and Japan 
(introd.), Australia (introd.), 

The principal synonyms are H. paludosa, Walker, H. nitidula, 
Studer, H. crystallina, Dillw., H. Potua, Chier., H. rosalia, Risso, 
H. minuta, Say (fig. 13). 

Var. COSTATA, Miiller. Figs. 14, 15. 

Membranously costate. 

The synonymy includes H. crenella, Montg; and H. Alexandras, 
Cox (fig. 12), Australia. 



170 HELIX. 

Var ASIATICA, Nevill. 

Larger than Var. costata, and more distinctly subangulated on 
the base, around the umbilicus. 

Eastern Turkestan. 
Var. LADACENSIS, Nevill. 

Umbilicus finer, with closer, finer sculpture than Var. costata, 
aperture higher and more expanded, columella less oblique, base 
scarcely at all angular around the umbilicus, spire flatter, suture 
more excavated. Diam. 3*25 mill. 

Eastern Turkestan, Western Thibet, 

Nevill describes this as a doubtfully distinct species. 

H. TENUILABRIS, Braun. PI. 38, figs. 16, 17. 

Differs from H. pulchella in having a higher spire, sometimes 
with acute apex, whorls 4, the last scarcely dilated in front, peris- 
tome very shortly reflected, the aperture lower, etc. 

Diam. 2'5-2'75 mill. 

Sweden, Arctic Europe. 

H. adela, Westerl, is a synonym. 

H. PULCHELLULA, Heude. PI. 38, figs. 18-20. 

Whitish, rather widely umbilicated, conspicuously plicate-striate ; 
whorls 3, the last rapidly enlarging, a little descending in front : 
peristome reflected, the extremities approaching. 

Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Shanghai and Mts. of Ningkonofou, China* 

The oblique aperture, and wide umbilicus will distinguish it. 



H. TENERA and H. PATENS, Reinh. Unfigured. 

Group VII. HELICELLA, Fer. 1819. 

Section I. FRUTICICOLA, Held. 1837. 
Subsection I. PETASIA, Moquin-Tandon. 1855. 

H. BIDENS, Chemn. PI. 38, figs. 21-23, 27-29. 

Covered perforate, corneous with a pellucid or light colored 
peripheral band; elegantly costulate-striate above; whorls 6-7,. 
scarcely convex; aperture white or red lipped, the basal margin 
bidentate within, with corresponding external pits. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

France, Germany, Sweden, etc.. 

H. bidentata, Gmel., H. fulva, Beck, are synonyms. 



HELIX. 171 

Var. DIODON, Parr. Figs. 27-29. 
Shell larger, somewhat more globose. 

Eastern Europe.. 
H. dibothrion, Friv. is a synonym. 

H. BICALLOSA, Frivaldsky. PI. 38, fig. 24. 

Umbilicus nearly covered, shell thin, striulate, shining, reddish 
corneous ; whorls 8, a little convex, slowly increasing, the last sub- 
angulate and white banded on the periphery, scarcely descending 
in front ; peristome acute, simple above, basally shortly reflected, 
with a broad basal interior callus produced into two teeth, and ex- 
terior scrobiculation. Diam. 10 mill. 

Siberia. 
Subsection TROCHISCUS, Held. 1837. 

H. COBRESIANA, Alten. PI. 38, figs. 25, 26, 44. 

Perforate, corneous, pubescent ; whorls 6, the last with whitish 
peripheral band; lip thickened, labiate within, with a basal tooth. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Middle Europe. 

H. unidentata, Drap., H. monodon, Fer. H. ventricosa, Jan, H. 
unidens, Ziegl., H. Villce, Miihlf. are synonyms. 

Var. ALPESTRIS, Clessin. 

Small, spire depressed, last whorl moderately carinated, more 
convex below. 

TyroL 

Var. ANODONTA, Tschapak. Fig. 44. 

Tooth not developed. 

Styria.. 

H. EDENTULA, Drap. PL 38, figs. 31-33. 

Subperforate, somewhat solid, granularly striate, subpilose, cor- 
neous ; whorls 6, convex, slowly increasing, the last scarcely descend- 
ing in front, whitish banded, base flattened ; peristome labiate within, 
callously dilated on the base. Diam. 8 mill. 

Middle Europe. 

The synonyms are H. depilata, Drap., H. liminifera, Held. 

H. LEUCOZONA, Ziegler. PL 38, figs. 34, 35. 

Perforate, light reddish brown, with a pellucid peripheral band, 
lightly striated ; whorls 5-6, a little convex, the last not descending ; 
peristome scarcely patulous, white-lipped, basal margin strict. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Northern Italy, Southern Austria.. 



172 HELIX. 

H. crassilabris Muhlf. and H. rutilans and H. coaduxata Ziegl. 
are synonyms. 

Var. OVIRENSIS, Rossm. Fig. 34. 

Smaller, darker, with a more distinct peripheral band, very 
slightly hispid. 

Carinthia; Bergamo, Italy. 
Var. DOLOPIDA, Jan. 

Narrowly umbilicated. 

Var. HETEROMORPHA, Westerl. 

Subcovered perforate, turbinate, striate; whorls 7i, convex. 
Diam. 11 mill. 

Carinthia. 



H. BOURYI, de Morgan. PI. 38, figs. 36-38. 

Narrowly umbilicated, turbinate, smooth; whorls 5-6, base a 
little flattened ; peristome slightly reflected. Diam. 3 mill. 

Perak. 

The specimens were dead, and white ; the color when living is 
uncertain. 

Subsection III. TRICHIA, Hartman. 1840. 
European Species. 

H. HISPIDA, Linn. PL 38, figs. 39-42. 

Moderately umbilicated, corneous, scarcely shining, shortly his- 
pid, whorls 5-6, slightly convex, narrow ; peristome patulous, white 
or pink lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Northern and Middle Europe ; Nova Scotia, Massachusetts (introd.) 

The synonymy includes H. sericea, C. Pfeiffer, H. hispidula, Jan, 
H. glabella, C. Pfeiffer, H. Prevostiana, Risso. The shell varies in 
height of spire, diameter, etc., and the coloring from whitish to red- 
dish-brown, and these differences have been expressed in a number 
of varietal names, Sisfusca, pallida, albina, conica, nitida, etc., and 
the following : 

Var. HISPIDOSA, Mouss. 

Smaller, less depressed, basal margin of aperture well-curved, not 
thickened. Diam. 6-7, alt. 4 mill. 

Central Europe, Transcaucasia. 






HELtX. 173 

Var. PRATENSIS, Baudon. 
Var. SUBCCELATA, Lessona. 

Shell more depressed, spire low. 

Susa, Piedmont. 
Var. RIPULARUM, Lessona. 

Whorls more convex than the type, umbilicus slightly wider. 

Var. VULGARIS, Lessona. 

Spire convexly elevated; very close to the type. 

Var. TROCHIFORMIS, Lessona. 

Turbinately elevated ; umbilicus narrower. 

Var. HEMISPH^RICA, Lessona. 

Spire convexly depressed, about as high as the type, whorls more 
oblique. 

Var. SUBPLEBEIA, Lessona. 

Spire conical, moderately elevated, umbilicus narrow ; corneous, 
slightly marked with alternate chestnut and white markings. 

Var. NANA, Jeffreys. 

Small, depressed, the umbilicus wider and lip stronger. 

Diam. 5*4 mill. 

Monstrosities with scalariform spire and with reversed whorls 
have been observed. 

H. VILLERSII, Malzine. PL 38, figs. 45-47. 

Openly umbilicated, form of H. hispida, but more depressed, milk 
white, diaphanous, incremental striae slight lout distinct ; whorls 4?. 

Diam. 7-8 mill. 

Abbaye de Villers, Belgium. 

H. CONCINNA, Jeffreys. PI. 38, fig. 34 (lower figure). 

Widely umbilicated, light corneous or yellowish ash color, often 
with dull reddish strigations and a pale peripheral band, with scat- 
tered short, caducous hairs ; whorls 6-7, slightly convex, with deep 
suture ; peristome patulous, with an interior white callus. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Northern Europe. 

Some authors consider this a variety of If. hispida. 

Var. GYRATUS, Westerl. 

Shell brownish or ferruginous, much depressed, whorls very slowly 
increasing. 

Sweden. 



174 HELIX. 

H. DEPILATA, C. Pfeiffer. PL 39, figs. 54-56. 

Narrowly umbilicated, corneous, shining, striate, smooth above 
(hairs caducous), occasionally sparsely hairy below ; whorls 6, nar- 
row, the last obsoletely angular on the periphery, where it has a 
pellucid band ; peristome white-lipped within. Diam. 8 mill. 

France, Northern Germany, Sweden, Russia f 

Is H. concinna, Dupuy (not Jeffreys), H. serieea, Var. Gysser, 
and H. liberta, Westerl. 

H. GLOBUS, Lessona. PL 39, fig. 57. 

Corneous, globose, with a faint peripheral carina, on which is a 
clear band, finely striated ; umbilicus less open than in H. hispida ; 
aperture semi-lunar ; the base more convex than in hispida. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Turin. 
H. CRENOPHILA, Pfeiffer. PL 39, figs. 58-60. 

Perforate, shining, diaphanous, corneous, striulate ; whorls 5i, 
convex, regularly increasing, the last a little descending towards 
the aperture ; peristome chestnut colored, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Near Constantinople; Beirut, in Syria. 
H. MUSCICOLA, Bourg. (not Phil.) is a synonym. 

Var. MERSSIK/E, Mousson. 

A little larger, more depressed, reddish corneous, with subpilose 
points, perforation very minute. Diam. 9 mill. 

Merssina. 

H. OVULARIS, Bourg. PL 39, figs. 61-63. 

Scarcely perforate, more globose than the preceding species, shin- 
ing, diaphanous, corneous, elegantly costulate-striate ; whorls 52-6, 
convex, regularly increasing, the last suddenly descending towards 
the aperture, suture deep ; peristome brownish, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Near Adrianople, Turkey. 

H. PLEBEIA, Drap. PL 39, figs. 64, 65. 

Narrowly umbilicated, hairy, corneous, with a whitish pellucid 
peripheral band ; whorls 6, slightly convex ; peristome white-lipped 
within. Diam. 14 mill. 

Carniola, Jura Mountains, Greece-/ 

H. lurida, H. separanda, and H. pterididea of Ziegler are syno- 
nyms. 



HELIX. 175 

A variety minor occurs in Carniola; shell opaque, thinner. 
Diam. 1O5 mill. 

H. CCELATA, Studer. PL 39, figs. 73, 74. 

Widely umbilicated, lightly striate, (the juvenile densely pilose), 
thin, light corneous, diaphanous; whorls 6, very slowly increasing, 
flattened above, the last more convex below, subaugulated around 
the umbilicus, the periphery obsoletely angulated, and with indica- 
tions of a whitish band ; peristonie with interior white callus. 

Diam. 9'5 mill. 

Germany. 

Pfeifter considered it a variety of H. rufescens, Pennant. 
H. RUFESCENS, Pennant. PI. 39, figs. 66-68. 

Umbilicated, striulate, light brownish ; whorls 6, a little convex, 
the last with obtuse peripheral angle bearing a whitish band, not 
deflected in front ; peristome patulous, remotely white-lipped within. 

Diam. 11-14 mill. 

Middle and Northern Europe, Siberia, Canada (introd). 

H. glabella, Puton (= H. putonii, Clessin), H. Pascali, Mabille, 
( H. submontana, Mabille), H. circinnata, Studer, H. clandestina, 
Hartm. H. Altenana, Klees, H. corrugata, Hartm., H. turturum, 
Gmel. are synonyms. Clessin has Vars. rufa, alba and subcarinata. 

H. Clessini, Weinl. is also a synonym. 

Var. DANUBIALIS, Clessin. 

Subconic, subpellucid, whitish or light corneous, spire a little 
late ; whorls 6, rounded, the last without peripheral angle, with a 
lighter band, umbilicus wide. Diam. 10 11 '5 mill. 

Banks oj the Danube. 

H. erecta, Hartm., and H. Galiziensis, Jeniss? are synonyms. 

H. MONTANA, Studer. PL 39, figs. 69, 71. 

Larger and more depressed than the preceding species, whorls 
more convex with deeper suture, periphery rounded, umbilicus 
wider, dark brownish. Diam. 14 mill. 

Germany, France, etc. 

Pfeiffer considered this a variety of H. rufescens. H. drcinnata, 
Rossm. (in part), H. striolata, C. Pfr., and If. rufina, Parr., are 
synonyms. 
Var. GRATTANOPOLITANA, Rambur. Fig. 71. 

More depressed than the type, with rounder whorls and more 
sunken spire, but acute apex, sometimes with one or two light bands 



176 HELIX. 

below, otherwise light corneous or brownish, almost smooth or with 
sparse caducous hairs. 

Near Grenoble, France, 
Is H. glabella, Gras. 

H. UMBROSA, Partsch. PL 39, figs. 75-78. 

Kather widely umbilicated, thin, pellucid, corneous or yellowish 
white, slightly granulated; whorls 5, somewhat convex, the last ob- 
tusely arigulated on the periphery, scarcely deflected in front ; peri- 
stome simple, expanded, very thinly labiate within. Diam. 13 milL 

Germany, Austria, Transylvania* 

H. BECASIS, Rambur. PI. 39, figs. 79, 80. 

Openly umbilicated, depressed, thin, pellucid, thinly hispid, green- 
ish or brownish, irregularly plicate-striate above ; whorls 4 J, convex, 
slowly increasing, with deep suture, periphery rounded ; peristome 
simple, thin, margins subapproximating. Diam. 6-8 mill. 

Near Mi. Canigou, France* 

H. CEDRETORUM, Debeaux. PI. 39, figs. 81, 82. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, yellowish brown, subopaque, very 
thinly striate, with sparse white hairs; whorls 5, subplane, apex 
yellowish, shining, suture deep; peristome white-margined within. 

Diam. 12 mill. , 

Kabylaea* 

H. FILICINA, Schmidt. PI. 39, figs. 83, 84. 

Perforate, pellucid, purplish corneous, with very short, sparse 
hairs ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last with whitish peripheral 
band ; peristome rosy-lipped within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Carniola* 

Var. NUDATA, Westerl. 

A little larger, lip obsolete, umbilicus slightly larger, no hairs. 

Bosnia. 

H. PIETRUSKYANA, Parreyss. PI. 39, figs. 85, 86. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, corneous, hispid, apex obsoletely 
mucronate; whorls 5, convex, the last obsoletely angulated, descending 
in front, suture profound ; peristome simple, acute, scarcely sublabiate 
within, margins approaching. Diam. 9 mill. 

Hungary. 

H. villosula, Ziegler is a synonym. 




HELIX. 177 

H. VILLOSA, Drap. PI. 39, figs. 87-89 ; PL 38, figs. 51-53. 

Moderately umbilicated, opaque, thin, hairy, yellowish corneous, 
striate ; whorls 5 J, convex, the last not deflected ; peristome sub- 
patulous, with a wide, thin, white callus within. Diam. 14 mill. 

France, Southern Germany, Northern Italy. 

H. pilosa, Alten is a synonym. 

Var. PHOROCH^ETICA, Bourg. Figs, 51-53. 

Smaller, thinner, more strongly costulate, with shorter hairs ; the 
whorls less convex above, aperture proportionally larger, the lip- 
extremities more distant, lip not thickened within ; umbilicus very 
narrow. 

Grande Chartreuse. 

H. ARPATSCHAIANA, Mousson. PL 39, figs. 90, 91. 

Narrowly umbilicated, irregularly striate, very minutely granu- 
lar, dark corneous ; whorls over 5, a little convex, slowly increasing, 
the last scarcely descending in front, with an obsolete peripheral 
angle, more convex, smoother and lighter colored below ; periphery 
scarcely expanded, white-lipped within. Diam. 14 mill. 

Arpatschai, Valley of the Araxes. 

The shell which Martens has described and figured as a variety 
of this species, under the name Var. Sewanica, is a synonym of 
H. pisiformis, Pfeiffer. 

H. DUSSERTIANA, Bourg. PL 39, figs. 95-97. 

Deeply perforate, convex above, compressed below, sparsely his- 
pid, fragile, pellucid, striate- costulate, spire convex, apex minute, 
shining, obtuse, smooth ; whorls 5, convex, slowly increasing, with 
well-impressed suture, last whorl obscurely sub-angulated, not de- 
scending in front ; peristome simple, acute, the margins joined by a 
callus. Diam. 7*25 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. ALSIA, Bourg. PL 39, figs. 98-100. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather plane above, sub-translucent, not 
shining below ; light yellowish corneous, strongly striu\ate, a little 
malleate, with long whitish hairs, which are very caducous ; whorls 
6, with deep suture, the last a little flattened above, convex below ; 
peristome simple, acute, slightly labiate within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. SORDULENTA, Morelet. PL 39, figs. 1, 2. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, a little turgid below, 
dull soiled corneous, with short hairs ; whorls 5, convex, with deep 
12 



178 HELIX. 

suture ; the last whorl dilated in front ; aperture circular, the lip 
acute, margins converging. Diam. 7 mill. 

Algiers, Tunis. 
H. GRANULATA, Alder. PI. 39, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6. 

Perforate, light corneous or pale yellowish, often whitish below, 
sub-hyaline, thin, closely hairy, or granular when the hairs have 
fallen ; whorls 5-6, convex, rapidly increasing, the last rounded ; 
peristome acute, 'thinly white-lipped within, columellar lip shortly 
reflected, partly covering the perforation. Diam. 7-8 mill. 

Northern and Middle Europe. 

H. globularis, Jeffreys, and H. sericea, Kossm. (ex parte) are 
synonyms. 

Var. RUBIGINOSA, Schmidt. Figs. 5, 6. 

Umbilicus minute, deep, color corneous-brown or reddish-yellow, 
with a white band, distantly, minutely pilose. Diam. 5-5'5 mill. 

H. badiella, Ziegl., is a synonym. 

Var. EPIROTICA, Mouss. 

Perforate, rosaceous or light yellowish, pellucid, thin, epidermis 
fugacious, not pilose, with minute punctations. 

Greece. 
H. SERICEA, Drap. PI. 39, figs. 7, 8. 

Depressed globose, a little shining, reddish brown, pilose, or show- 
ing a few hairs, or nearly smooth ; whorls 5-5 , convex, rapidly 
increasing, the last .rounded, with a light peripheral band ; umbili- 
cus narrow, partly covered by the reflected columellar lip. 

Diam. 6-7 mill. 

Northern and Central Europe, Russia, Caucasus. 

H. piligera, Ziegl., is a synonym. Milachevich has indicated a 
Var. Gerstfeltiana. 

Var. EXPANSA, Clessin. 

A little shining, white, under the thin yellowish corneous, pilose 
epidermis, whorls 5, the last without band, dilated, suture deep; 
peristome acute, not lipped within. Diam. 7 mill. 

Bavaria. 
Var. CORNEOLA, Clessin. 

Globose, thin, scarcely diaphanous, yellowish or brownish-cor- 
neous, epidermis shortly hairy; whorls 5-5 , slowly increasing, 
the periphery rounded, suture deep. Diam. 5*5-6'5 mill. 

Bavarian and Swiss Alps. 



HELIX. 179 

Var. DUBIA, Clessin. 

Light corneous or brownish, last whorl less dilated than in the 
type, with wide umbilicus. Diam. 8 mill. 

Near Innsbruck, Tyrol 
H. SEGUSINA, Lessona. PI. 39, fig. 72. 

Corneous, transparent, distinctly sub-carinate and fasciate; 
whorls 5, rapidly increasing ; lip a little reflected close to the 
very small umbilicus. Diam. 8 mill. 

Piedmont. 

H. DIECKMANNI, Mousson. PI. 63, fig. 70. 

Umbilicated, thinly striate, not hairy, pellucid, orange brown ; 
whorls 5, moderately increasing, the last a little descending, base 
convex, less striated ; lip acute, slightly reflected, a little thickened 
within, the basal portion obliquely descending, white, subdenti- 
formly thickened. Diam. 10 mill. 

Valley of the Amour River. 

H. PARLATORIS, Bivona. PL 40, figs. 39, 40. 

Moderately umbilicated, corneous, hairy ; whorls 4, flattened 
above, spire babylonic, last whorl not descending in front, base 
more convex ; peristome simple, acute, margins approximating. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Sicily. 
H. MARTORELLI, Bourg. PI, 40, figs. 41-43. 

Narrowly umbilicated, dark corneous, somewhat pellucid, shortly 
pilose, apex obtuse, somewhat paler ; whorls 4J-5, obtusely sub-an- 
gular, a little compressed above, with impressed suture, slightly 
descending in front, well-rounded below; periphery very slightly 
labiate within, its extremities connected by a thin callus. 

Diam. 6 mill. 

Near Barcelona, Spain. 

H. CHNOODIA, Bourg. PL 40, figs. 53-55. 

Widely umbilicated, slightly diaphanous, not shining, corneous, 
lighter below, striulate, with inconspicuous minute hairs ; whorls 5, 
with impressed suture, the last large, rounded, scarcely descending 
in front ; peristome acute, margins converging, connected by a 
very thin parietal callus. Diam. 7. mill. 

Algiers, Tunis. 
H. LASIA, Bourg. PL 40, figs. 47-49. 

Moderately umbilicated. depressed above, turgidly convex be- 
low, a little diaphanous, not shining, hairy and striate, dark corne- 



180 HELIX. 

ous ; whorls 5, a little convex above but flattened, last whorl large, 
scarcely descending in front, periphery obtusely angulated, base 
convex ; peristome simple, acute, extremities approaching, con- 
nected by a very thin callus. Diam. 7 mill. 

Algiers, Tunis. 

H. MALASPIN^E, Bourg. PL 40, figs. 59, 60. 

Perforate, subpellucid, somewhat hispid, rugose, chestnut color, 
with faint whitish strigations ; whorls 5, convex, with deep suture, 
last whorl a little angulate on the periphery, slightly descending in 
front ; peristome acute, margins approximating. Diam. 6 mill. 

Tunis. 

H. TENIETENSIS, Bourg. PI. 40, figs. 56-58. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, strongly striated, shortly 
pilose, uniform corneous or obscurely flamed, and zonulate below, 
apex lighter ; whorls 5, slightly convex, with impressed suture, the 
last not descending ; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 7 mill. 

Algiers. 
H. LANUGINOSA. Boissy. PL 40, figs. 50, 51. 

Perforate, yellowish corneous, hispid, opaque ; whorls 5, a little 
flattened ; peristome subpatulous, acute, slightly labiate within. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Majorca; Algiers. 

H. flava, Terver, and H. roseotincta, Forbes, are synonyms. 

H. CORSICA, Shuttl. PL 40, fig. 61 ; PL 41, figs. 92-94. 

Narrowly perforate, striate, slightly subhispid, obscurely angu- 
lated, thin, subpellucid, brownish or yellowish corneous, not shin- 
ing ; whorls 5, regularly enlarging ; peristome acute, simple, colu- 
mellar lip half covering the perforation. Diam. 15 mill. 

Corsica, Sardinia. 

H. REVELATA, Fer. PL 41, figs. 80-82, 89-91. 

Perforate, depressed globose, thin, diaphanous, shining, greenish 
corneous, slightly striate and subcorrugated, with short, sparse, 
rather rigid hairs ; whorls 4, convex, rapidly enlarging, the last 
inflated. Diam. 7 mill. 

France, Guernsey, Jersey. 

Var. OCCIDENTALIS, Recluz. Figs. 89-91. 

Rimately perforate, greenish yellow, sometimes with two brown 
zones, rugulosely striate, hispid; whorls 4^-5, convex, the last 



HELIX. 181 

dilated, with convex base, suture well impressed ; aperture white ; 
peristome acute, slightly expanded, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Portugal. 

H. Ponentina, Morelet and H. Lisbonensis, Pfr., are synonyms ; 
to which may possibly be added H. martigena, Fer. 

H. SALMURINA, Servain. PI. 41, figs. 83-85. 

Narr6wly perforate, turbinate, striate ; whorls 4, rapidly enlarg- 
ing ; with well-impressed suture ; peristome simple, the columellar 
portion reflected. Diam. 6 mill. 

Southern France, Spain. 

Confounded by Michaud with H. revelata, but has a higher 
spire, etc. 

H. PTYLOTA, Bourg. PI. 41, fig. 79. 

Scarcely perforate, pellucid, fragile, greenish brown, irregularly 
striate, with short whitish hairs ; whorls 4, a little convex, rapidly 
enlarging, the last scarcely descending at the aperture, peristome 
acute, simple. Diam. 5*5 mill. 

Brittany. 

H. ACLEOCHROA, Bourg. 'PI. 41, figs. 76-78. 

Perforate, pellucid, shining, sharply striulate, light corneous, 
with an obscure lighter peripheral zone ; whorls 6, moderately 
enlarging, the last large, suddenly descending at the aperture; 
peristome slightly white-lipped within, extremities approximating. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Algiers. 

H. MOQUINIANA, Kaym, PL 41, figs. 71, 72 ; 98-100. 

Perforate, thin, slightly granulate (scars of hairs?), pellucid, red- 
dish corneous; whorls 5, slightly convex, the last with subangu- 
late periphery, scarcely descending anteriorly; peristome simple, 
acute, slightly rosy-lipped within. Diam. 9*5-1 2'5 mill. 

Near Constantine, Algiers. 

Var. FRADINIANA, Bourg. Figs. 98-100. 

Larger, more elevated, whorls more slowly enlarging, perforation 
wider, last whorl distinctly descending in front. 

H. PERLEVIS, Shuttlew. PI. 41, figs. 4-6. 

Very narrowly perforate, globose, striulate, with scarcely visible, 
sparse, very evanescent minute hairs, very thin, pellucid, light 



182 HELIX. 

corneous, a little shining; whorls 6, convex, the last inflated; 
peristome acute, with a very thin internal lip, columellar margin 
partly covering the perforation. Diam. 14 mill. 

Corsica and Sardinia. 
H. PSATUROCHCETA, Bourg. PL 41, figs. 2, 3. 

Scarcely perforate, pellucid, fragile, light yellowish, darker at 
the aperture, with caducous, dense, short hairs, thinly striulate, 
the adult a little malleate ; whorls 6, moderately enlarging , peris- 
tome simple, acute, nearly covering the perforation. 
Diam. 9 mill. 

Brittany. 
Oriental Species. 

H. HUNGERFORDIANA, Nevill. PI: 40, figs. 27, 28. 

Moderately umbilicated, very thin and fragile, light yellowish 
corneous, with deciduous very short hairs ; whorls 5, slightly con- 
vex, with impressed suture, the last large, inflated, shortly descend- 
ing in front ; aperture rounded lunar, peristome thin, slightly ex- 
panded, sinuous below. Diam. 18 mill. 

Formosa. 
H. SUBMISSA, Deshayes. PI. 39, figs. 9, 10. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, fragile, subpellucid, yellowish cor- 
neous, spire subplane, rugosely striate, granular, shortly pilose ; 
whorls 6, a little convex, the last expanding in front, periphery 
obtusely angulated ; aperture subcircular, oblique, whitish, submar- 
gined within. Diam. 15 mill. 

Thibet. 
H. STJBECHINATA, Desh. PI. 39, figs, 11, 12. 

Widely umbilicated, depressed, subdiscoidal, corneous, epidermis 
stiffly hirsute, spire obtuse, conoidal ; whorls 6, narrow, slowly in- 
creasing, convex, suture deep, periphery rounded ; aperture small, 
obliquely circular, whitish, peristome thin, a little expanded. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Moupin, Thibet. 

H. TCHEFOUENSIS, Crosse and Debeaux. PI. 40, figs. 13, 14. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, rather thin, pellucid, brown- 
ish corneous, very shortly hispid ; whorls 4J, a little convex, the 
last descending in front, periphery rounded ; peristome patulous, 
subreflected, yellowish corneous, margins approaching. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Tchefou, Northern China. 

Is H. Munieriana, Cr. et Deb. (not Deshayes.) 



HELIX. 183 

H. PUBERULA, Heude. PL 40, figs. 18-20. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, greenish brown, slightly hairy; 
whorls 5, the last inflated ; peristome expanded, simple, extremities 
joined by a callous. Diam. 18 mill. 

Tchenkeou, China. 

H. HORRIPILOSELLA, Heude. PI. 40, figs. 21-23. 

Eather widely umbilicated, brownish, with scattered hairs; 
whorls 4, narrow, very slowly increasing ; peristome acute, reddish, 
a little callous within. Diam. 7 mill. 

Tchenkeou, China. 

H. NAUTARUM, Heude. PL 52, figs. 2-4. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, plicate-striate, with rather long 
hairs, brownish red; whorls 5, convex, suture deep, slowly in- 
creasing, the last convex, thick, angulated, descending in front; 
peristome thin, dilated, a little reflected. Diam. 10 mill. 

Houang tcheou-fou, China. 

H. REBELLIS, Heude. PL 40, figs. 24-26. 

Widely umbilicated, plicately striate, fuscous; whorls 4$, nar- 
row, very slowly increasing, the last suddenly descending anteriorly; 
aperture subcircular, peristome simple, acute, extremities nearly 
joining. Diam. 10 mill. 

Tchenkeou, China. 

Related to H. submissa, Desh. but with wider umbilicus, nar- 
rower whorls, less dilated aperture. Appears devoid of hairs. 

H. LEUCOCHEILUS, Cox. PL 40, figs. 15-17. 

Rather widely umbilicated, stout, pellucid, a little shining, obso- 
letely radiately striate, and occasionally minutely granulated, light 
yellowish brown or light chestnut colored, with a chestnut band 
above the carina, another at the suture, and the umbilicus sur- 
rounded by a wide chestnut zone ; whorls 5, planulate, the last ob- 
tusely carinated ; lip expanded, reflected, white, right margin sim- 
ple, columella slightly bisinuated. Diam. 16 mill. 

Clarence River, Australia. 

Described as H. Marice, Cox, preoccupied. 
Var. /?. Reddish chestnut, without bands. 

H. PORTERI, COX. 

Profoundly umbilicated, a little tumid, thin, reddish, obsoletely 
plicate-striate, very minutely granulated, closely, very shortly pilose; 



184 HELIX. 

whorls 4, a little convex, the last tumid, constricted at the aper- 
ture; peristome thin, expanded, subreflected, white within, half 
covering the umbilicus. Diam. 17 mill. 

Clarence and Richmond Rivers, Australia. 

H. MUTICA, Morelet. PI. 40, figs. 29-31. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, brownish, scarcely striate ; whorls 
nearly 5, slightly convex, the last narrow, suture deep ; peristome 
thin, acute, extremities distant. Diam. 6 mill. 

Ins. Mayotte. 
H. RADIOLATA, Morelet. PL 40, figs. 33, 34. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, lightly costulate-striate, a little 
shining, fulvous horny ; whorls 4 J, narrow, with subchanneled 
suture, the last whorl rounded ; peristome acute, simple, extremities 
connected by a thin parietal callus. Diam. 3 mill. 

Ins. Mayotte. 
H. SMIRUENSIS, Mousson. PL 40, figs. 44-46. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, diaphanous, very minutely, irreg- 
ularly pilose; light greyish; whorls 4, rather slowly increasing, 
more convex below, periphery obtusely angulated ; peristome acute, 
margins remote. Diam. 6 mill. 

Java. 
^*^ American Species. 

H. PUBESCENS, Pfr. PL 40, fig. 32. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, thin, smoothly, shortly pilose, diaph- 
anous, yellowish ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last rounded, higher 
than wide, not descending in front; lip simple, the columellar 
margin shortly reflected above. Diam. 11 mill. 

Haiti. 

H. SUMICHRASTI, Crosse and Fischer. PL 40, figs. 37, 38. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, subtranslucent, with numerous 
subdistant, longitudinal scales and short setae, suture deep ; whorls 
4, slowly increasing, the last descending in front, with an obtuse 
angle above, base a little flattened ; aperture brownish- white, peris- 
tome reflected, margins converging, joined by a strong parietal cal- 
lus. Diam. 16 mill. 

Huallaga, Mexico. 

Unfigured and doubtful species of Trichia. 

H. VENDEANA, Letourn. Vendee, France. 

H. GOOSSENSI, Mabille. France. 



HELIX. 185 

H. TUMESCENS, Westerl. Sweden. 

H. AXONANA, H. SAPOROSA, H. SUBMONTANA, H. MATRONICA, 
H. BELLO VAGINA, all of Mabille. France. 

H. ATAXIACA, Fagot. France. 

H. VENDOPERANENSIS, H.' VOCONTIANA, H. BOURNIANA, H. ELA- 

VERANA, H. STENELIGMA, H. CHONOMPHALA, H. MICROGYRA, H. 
CULARENSIS, H. HISPIDELLA, H. VENETORUM, H. VILLULA, all 

of Bourguignat. France. 

H. DUBISIANA, H. TJRBANA, Coutagne. France. 

H. HYPSELLINA, Pons d'Hauterive. France. 

H. SCIRAIA, H. APORATA, H. MABARA, Bourg. 

Croatia, Carniola, etc. 

H. UMBROSELLA, Jouss. Salzburg, Austria.. 

H. BOFILLIANA, Servain. Catalonia. 

H. ERJAVECI, Brusina. Croatia. 

H. SAVINELLA, Servain. Zenica. 

H. DENSECOSTULATA, Retowski. Crimea. 

H. SUBBADIELLA, Bourg. France. 

H. LATINIACENSIS, Bourg. France. 

H. COTTIANA, H. SALASSIA, H. PEGORARII, Pollonera. Piedmont. 
H. LUBOMIRSKII, Slosarski. So. Russia. 

H. TUMESCENS, Westerl. Sweden. 

H. BIELZI, Schmidt. Transylvania. 

H. BIELZI, var. BOSNENSIS, Moll. Bosnia. 

H. TRANSSYLVANICA, Bielz. . Transylvania. 

H. KUSMICI, Clessin. Cattaro. 

H. GLISCHRA, H. PERSORDIDA, H. RYPA, Letourn, et Bourg. 

Tunis. 

H. MENDICARIA, Pfr. Tunis. 

H. ZARITOSA, Berthier. Tunis. 

H. POLYTRICHIA, Ancey. Tlemcen. 

H. LONGIPILA, MOUSSON. Morocco. 

H. APH^EA, and H. BERBRUGGERIANA, Letourn. Algiers. 

H. STUXBERGI, Westerl. (H. sericea, Schrenck), ' Siberia. 

H. SEMIHISPIDA, Ancey. Inkiapo, Central China. 

H. SZECHENYII, Ancey. China. 

H. CONCINNA, A. Ad. (preocc. by Jeffreys). Japan* 

H. PROBA, A. Ad. Japan. 

H. ADRIANA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

H. SALVINI, Tristram. Vera Paz, Guatemala. 



186 HELIX. 

Subsection IV. ZENOBIA, Gray. 1821. 

H. GLABELLA, Drap. PL 40, figs. 62-68, 73-75. 

Narrowly umbilicated, glabrous, shining, corneous; whorls 5-5 J, 
a little flattened above, the last obsoletely angulated, with a light 
peripheral line, subdeflected in front ; peristome simple, acute, sub- 
labiate within. Diam. 9*5 mill. 

France, Germany. 

Var. TELONENSIS, Mittre. Figs. 63-65 ; 66-68 ; 73-75. 

Thin, corneous, pellucid, very slightly striate; spire more depressed 
than in the type, with wider umbilicus. Diam. 8 mill. 

Southern France. 

H. lavandalce, Bourg. (figs. 66-68), and H. Moutonii, Mittre 
(Figs. 73-75) are identical, Nevill has described a Var. crassilabris. 
The unfigured H. diczga, H. gelida, H. concreia, H. Druentina and H. 
crinoida, of Bourg. have all been referred to this variety. 

H. FUSCA, Montagu. PI. 41 figs. 69, 70. 

Imperforate, very thin, pellucid,, corneous, shining, rugosely 
striate above, smooth below; whorls 5, a little convex, the last 
obsoletely angulated ; peristome simple, acute, columella very short,, 
subvertical. "Diam. 9 mill. . v 

England, Ireland, France. 

H. subrufescens, Mill, is a synonym. 

H. CINCTELLA, Drap. PL 41, figs. 20, 21. 

Subperforate, shining, very lightly striate, thin, yellowish with 
an opaque white peripheral line; whorls 5 -6, somewhat flattened 
above, the last angulate; peristome simple, acute, basal margin a 
little reflected. Diam. 12 mill. 

Central Europe.. 

H. Ranzanij Orsini, has been referred to this species. 

*** 

H. PALLIDULA, Pfeiffer. PL 41, figs. 95-97. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, closely striate, light corneous,, 
whorls 5, a little convex, the last with obscurely angular periphery; 
peristome simple, acute, sublabiate within, Diam. 10 mill. 

Chill 
H. PRUINOSA, Pfeiffer. PL 41, figs. 86-88. 

Perforate, thin; obliquely closely filose-striate, diaphanous, rufous, 



HELIX. 187 

glaucous, suture deep ; whorls 4, convex, the last rounded, scarcely 
descending; peristome thin, its extremities approaching. 
Diam. 11 mill. 

Haiti. 
Unftgured species of Zenobia. 

H. ASTENIA, H. ABEBARICA, H. DELACOURI, H. EUCLASTOLENA, 

H. GAUBEFFROYI, H. ISCHNIA, all of Mabille. Corsica. 

H. LANGSDORFFI, Milliere. Maritime Alps, France. 

H. COTINOPHILA, Bourg. Near Toulon, France. 

H. MONTIVAGA, Westerl. Portugal. 

H. SAXIVAGA, Maltzan. Portugal. 

H. DESPECTA, A. Ad? Japan. 

Subsection V. MONACHA, Hartmann, 1840. 

H. CILIATA, Venetz. PL 41 figs. 7-9. 

Perforate, corneous, opaque, rugosely striate ; whorls 415, flat- 
tened, the last with a carinated and ciliated periphery; peristome a 
little reflected, with a slight brownish lip within. 

Diam. 8'5 mill. 

France, Switzerland, Tyrol. 

It is H. hirsuta, Jan, H. biformis, Beck, H. folliculata, Risso. 

Var. /?. Major: Diam. 10*5 mill. 

H. REIN.E, Benoit. PL 41, figs. 13-15. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, subdiaphanous, corneous, some- 
times with a few hairs, spire a little exserted ; whorls 4, planulate 
above, the last with subcarinated periphery and convex base; 
peristome simple, acute, margins approaching. 

Diam. 6'5 mill. 

. Sicily. 

H. INCARNATA, Miiller. PL 41, figs. 16, 17. 

Perforate, thin, opaque, reddish brown, with a bloom, and a 
pellucid band, very minutely granulated, whorls 6, a little convex, 
the last deflected in front, periphery obsoletely angulated ; peristome 
acute, subreflected, rufous exteriorly, with a reddish interior lip not 
attaining the margin. Diam. 16 mill. 

France, Germany, Switzerland, etc. 

H. sylvestris, Hartm. and H. rubra, Chier. are synonyms, and 
H. sericea, Mull, is probably a juvenile. 

Var. TECTA, Ziegler. 

Smaller, umbilicus nearly covered. 



188 HELIX. 

Var. WELEBITANA, Stentz. 

More solid, opaque, basal margin of aperture straighter. 

Var. MONODON, Villa. 

Columellar margin unidentate, more globose and turrited than 
the type. 

Switzerland. 

H. armata, Stabile is identical. 

H. JURINIANA, Bourg. PL 41, figs. 10-12. 

Narrowly perforate, subpellucid, dull, corneous or fulvous corn- 
eous, subcostulate above, striulate below; whorls 62, the last with 
,subcarinate periphery, which is sometimes lighter colored or whitish ; 
peristome simple, acute, with white lip within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Aix-les Sains. 

H. VICINA, Rossmassler. PL 42, figs. 27, 28. 

Subperforate, yellowish corneous, with a pellucid peripheral zone, 
.slightly granulate ; whorls 6, scarcely convex above, the last shortly 
descending in front, base convex, impressed in the mjddle ; peristome 
patulous, white-lipped within. Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Carpathian Mountains. 

It is H. Carpatica, Friv., and H. tecta, A. Schmidt. 

H. HIBEENA, Benoit. PL 41, figs. 18, 19. 

Perforation covered, thin subpellucid, yellowish corneous, very 
.shortly pilose, and slightly striate; whorls 5, subplanulate above, 
periphery subangulated, body whorl scarcely descending in front, 
base convex ; peristome subpatulous, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Sicily. 

Var. VULCANICA, Platanica. 

More yellowish, periphery rounded, peristome rosy, marked with 
brown exteriorly. 

H. CONSONA, Ziegler. PL 42, figs. 29, 30. 

Perforation nearly covered, pellucid, slightly striate, a little shin- 
ing, yellowish corneous, with a peripheral pellucid zone ; whorls 5, a 
little convex, the last scarcely descending at the aperture ; peristome 
.acute, white-lipped within, margins remote. Diam. 14'5 mill, 

Sicily. 

H. ursula, Fer. is a probable synonym. 



HELIX. 189 1 

H. BIDINENSIS, Cafici. PI. 42, figs. 22, 23. 

Differs from the last species in being larger, conoidally globose, 
with more convex whorls, and the pellucid zone obsolete or wanting, 
last whorl descending at the aperture, peristome strongly lipped! 
within. 

Sicily. 

H. FAIDHERBIANA, Bourg. PL 42, figs. 24-26. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, subpellucid, reddish corneous above, a 
lighter shade below, rugulosely or squamosely striate; whorls 6, 
scarcely convex above, with impressed suture, the last with angula- 
ted periphery, and slightly descending in front ; peristome sharp. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Algiers. 

H. LIMBATA, Drap. PI. 42, figs. 33, 34. 

Perforation nearly covered, very lightly striate, pellucid, yellow- 
ish corneous, the angulated periphery with an opaque white band ; 
whorls 6, the last not descending in front; peristome slightly ex- 
panded, slightly labiate within. Diam. 15 mill. 

France. 

H. REDTENBACHERI, Zelebor. PI. 42, figs. 35, 36. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, closely striate, shining, light corn- 
eous ; whorls nearly 6, rounded, the last deflected in front ; peristome 
strongly white-lipped within, margins converging, slightly expand- 
ing, reflected at the base, the columellar lip expanded. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Ins. Syra* 

H. NICOSIANA, Mousson. PI. 42, figs. 31, 32. 

Umbilicated, thin, opaque, brownish, light-banded, striate, and 
closely granulate; whorls 5?, periphery subangulated, body whorl 
deflected in front ; peristome simple, a little expanded, whitish, thin- 
lipped within, extremities approaching, columellar margin widely 
reflected. Diam. 12 mill. 

Ins. Cyprus* 

Mousson has described a Var. PALLIDA, subdepressed, pallid, 
minutely subgranulate, fragile, subpellucid. 

H. BECCARII, Jickeli. PL 42, figs. 40-42. 

Perforate, brownish corneous, opaque, ciliate; whorls 5, with 
deep suture, periphery angulated, with longer hairs, descending at 



190 HELIX. 

the aperture, base convex ; peristome obtuse, dilated, subreflected, 
callous-lipped within. Diam. 7 '8 mill. 

Bogos, Abyssina. 
Is H. tiliata, Morelet, not Venetz. 

H. PILIFERA, Martens. PI. 42, figs. 43-45. 

Umbilicus moderate, shell plicate-striate, with a few short hairs, 
chestnut colored ; whorls 5, rather flattened above, at first with an- 
gulated periphery, the last with the angle vanishing and descend- 
ing towards the aperture ; peristome simple, dilated on the eolum- 
lla. Diam. 14' 5 mill. 

Abyssinia. 
H. COMBESIANA, Bourg. PL 42, figs. 46-48. 

Striae strong, plicate, with long hairs between them, arising from 
tubercular bases ; pale brown, with a yellowish line on the suban- 
gular periphery. 

Abyssinia. 

This is H. pili/era of Jickeli, but not of Martens, nor of Morelet. 

H. HERBINI, Bourg. PL 42, figs. 49-51. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, subpellucid, not shining, plicate-striate, 
with close short hairs in the intervals, chestnut colored; whorls 5-6, 
convex, slowly increasing, the last rounded ; peristome acute, mar- 
gins remote, joined by an inconspicuous callus. Diam. 10 mill. 

Abyssinia. 

H. GALINIERIANA, Bourg. PL 42, figs. 52-54. 

Very narrowly perforate, rather thin, subpellucid, slightly shin- 
ing, chestnut colored, plicate, with hairs between the plicae ; w r horls 
5, the last rounded ; peristome acute, margins joined by a callus. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Abyssinia. 
H. FERRETIANA, Bourg. PL 42, figs. 37-39. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, diaphanous, shining, elegantly obliquely 
striulate, corneous, with a whitish or translucent zone, sometimes 
two or three zones, which are often interrupted ; whorls 5, periphery 
angulated, more convex below ; peristome simple, acute. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Abyssinia. 

*** 

H. VILIS, Pfeifler. PL 42, fig. 58. 

Umbilicated, rather thin, granularly striate, corneous; whorls 
5, scarcely convex above, rapidly enlarging, the last deflected in 




HELIX. 191 



front, periphery obsoletely subangulated, base convex; peristome 
strongly labiate within. Diam. 1 1 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

H. PULVISCULUM, Issel. PI. 42, figs. 55-57. 

Scarcely perforate, fragile, translucent, obliquely striulate, yel- 
lowish corneous ; whorls 4, convex, with deep suture, the last 
.slightly descending at the aperture ; peristome acute. 

Diam. 1-3 mill. 

Borneo. 

More like a Conulus than a Monacha in form and size. 

Unfigured Species of Monacha. 

H. S1LANICA, H. VEPRIUM, H. GlJEVARRIANA, H. ODECA, H. HYLO- 

NOMIA, H. TASSYI, H. SUBLIMBATA, Bourg. France. 

H. DELOMPHALA, Ancey. Cartagena. 

H. CRISPULATA, Mousson. Jerusalem. 

H. CRASPEDOCHEILA, H. COLLINSONT, H. COMMODA, A. Ad. 

Japan. 
Subsection VI, CARTHUSIAN A, Kobelt, 1871. 

H. OLIVIERI, Fer. PI. 42, figs. 59, 60-64. 

Almost imperforate, thin, pellucid, whitish, with a light brown 
band ; whorls 5-6, slightly convex ; peristome acute, white-lipped 
within. Diam. 15 mill. 

Turkey, Corfu, Sicily, Dalmatia. 

H. cincta, Hartm., and H. dilucida, Zglr. are synonyms, and 
Paulucci has figured two forms, major (fig. 61) and nana (fig. 62.) 

Var. PARUMCINCTA, Parr. 

More depressed, corneous, with a white zone at the suture, and a 
narrow one on the periphery. 

Var. OCELLATA, Parr. Fig. 63. 

Spire corneous, last whorl white, with a peripheral corneous line, 
and pellucid scattered dots. 

Var. JENENSIS, Benoit. 
Smaller, diam. 12 mill. 

Var. RUFESCENS, Platanica. 

Brownish, with distinct white bands, peristome red-lipped within, 
brown-lined exteriorly. 



192 HELIX. 

Var. BICINCTA, Benoit. Fig. 64. 

Thin, subpellucid, rugulosely striated, brownish corneous, with 
two milk-white bands. Diam. 15 mill. 

Sicily. 

H. Rizzce, Aradas, is a synonym. 

Var. CRIBRATA, Westerl. 

Polished, bluish, with two light brownish bands, with radiating 
striae at the suture and umbilicus. 

Athens. 

H. PIRAJNEA, Benoit. PL 42, figs. 65, 66. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, shining, subpellucid, rugulosely striate, 
yellowish corneous or flesh color, spire exserted ; whorls 6, rapidly 
enlarging, the last descending in front ; peristome acute, white-lipped 
within. Diam 18 mill. 

Sicily. 
H. CANTIANA, Montagu. PI. 42, figs. 67-69. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, striate, yellowish corneous ; 
whorls 5J-6, slightly convex, rapidly enlarging, the last inflated, 
not descending ; peristome acute, labiate within. Diam. 21 mill. 

Western and Central Europe. 

It is H. carthusiana, Drap, not Mull., H. pallida, Jeffreys, and 
perhaps H. crepuscular is, Gmel. 

Var. SEMIRUFA, Colbeau. 
Last whorl brownish. 

Var. ANCON^;, Issel. 

With a white peripheral band, peristome pinkish or yellowish 
brown. 

Northern Italy, Elba, etc- 

Var. DIRPHICA, Blanc. Figs. 70-74. 

Irregularly, somewhat malleately striate, shining, light yellowish 
brown, with peripheral and sutural white bands, and yellowish 
white variciform strigations, apex brown, peristome white-lipped. 

Greece. 
Var. RUBELLA, Risso. 

Rugulosely malleate, subglobose, reddish anteriorly. 

Var. CAMPANICA, Paulucci. Figs. 72-74. 

Spire more depressed than in var. rubella, last whorl flattened 
above, more inflated below, umbilicus wider. 



HELIX. 193 

Var. MESSENICA, Blanc. Kalamata, Greece. 

H. HAUSSKNECHTI, Bottger. PI. 43, figs. 75-77. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, yellowish corneous, white at the 
suture, rarely brownish, always with a broad white peripheral band; 
whorls 5i, slowly increasing, with impressed suture, the last suban- 
gulate, a little descending in front ; aperture widely white-lipped 
within. Diam. 11*5-13 mill. 

Mt. Pindi, Thessaly ; alt. 6000 feet. 

H. SARRIENSIS, Martorel and Pena. PI. 43, figs. 78-80. 

Scarcely umbilicated, smooth, striate, thin, shining ; whorls 5 J, 
moderately increasing, white, tinged with brown, the last with 
rounded periphery, scarcely descending at the aperture ; lip mar- 
gined with brown, with a white internal callus. Diam. 16 mill. 

Pyrenees. 
H. DIURNA, Bourg. PL 43, figs. 81, 82. 

Narrowly perforate, finely striate, solid, subopaque, whitish with 
dark gray strigations ; whorls 6-7, a little flattened above, the last 
not carinate, convex below; peristome a little expanded, reflected 
towards the umbilicus, strongly labiate within. Diam. 11 mill. 

Lyons, France. 
H. CARASCALOIDES, Bourg. PI. 43, figs. 83-85. 

Narrowly perforate, somewhat solid, lightly, irregularly malleately 
rugose, diaphanous, yellowish-or corneous- white ; whorls 6 -7, a 
little convex, the last rounded, scarcely descending in front ; peris- 
tome acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 18*5-20 mill. 

Gallipoli, Turkey. 

H. FREQUENS, Mousson. PL 43, figs. 86, 87. 

Narrowly perforate, somewhat solid, striate, subpellucid, shining, 
dark corneous; whorls 6, the last scarcely descending in front; 
aperture light corneous, peristome white-lipped within. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Turkey. 

Mousson has described a var. cornea, darker colored, more convex, 
with 7 convex whorls. 

H. CEMENELEA, Kisso. PL 43, figs. 88-92. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thinly, regularly striulate, thin, pellucid, 
white or yellowish white; whorls 6-7, with well-impressed suture; 
peristome acute, brownish, white lipped within. 

Southern France. 
13 



194 HELIX. 

Perhaps only a variety of H. Cantiana, with which it has usually 
been united. Another name for it is If. Gallopr ovine ialis, Dupuy. 

Var. CHERSONESICA, Kobelt. Figs. 89, 90. 

Shell more solid, spire more elate, peristome white-lipped. 

Sebastopol, Crimea. 
H. PUTONIANA, Mabille. PL 43, figs. 93, 94. 

Narrowly umbilicated, convex above, swollen below, indistinctly, 
finely striate, moderately solid, somewhat shining, subtransparent, 
pale reddish corneous; whorls 6-7, with well-marked suture; peris- 
tome with a thin interior white callus. Diam. 12 mill. 

Alluvion of the Rhone, So. France. 

H. SIMPLICITA, Parreyss. PL 43, figs. 95, 96. 

Scarcely perforate; somewhat solid, striulate, lightly malleated, 
yellowish white ; whorls 6, a little convex, the last a little deflected 
in front ; peristome acute, strongly white-lipped within. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Apennines. 

H. BERYTENSIS, Fer. PL 43, figs. 97, 98 99. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, subpellucid, fulvous, very minutely 
granulated; whorls 5J, the last large, obsoletely angulated on the 
periphery, where it sometimes bears an obscure pale band ; peristome 
simple, labiate within. Diam. 16 mill. 

Syria. 

Bourguignat enumerates varieties or forms cornea, leucozona, and 
subgranulata. 

Var. RACHIODIA, Bourg. PL 43, fig. 99. 

More globose, greenish yellow, irregularly plicate and elegantly 
granularly decussated. Diam. 12 mill. 

Asia Minor. 

H. granulata Roth, (not Quoy), was the original name of this 
variety. 

H. FOUROUSI, Bourg. PL 43, figs. 100-2. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, slightly translucent, not 
shining, yellowish green, irregularly substriulate, subplicate at the 
sifture, very elegantly granularly decussated; whorls 6, rapidly 
increasing, the last large, rounded, descending at the aperture; 
aperture white, peristome white-lipped within, the margins jpined 
by a thin, diaphanous, parietal callus. Diam. 17 mill. 

Berytus, Syria. 



HELIX. 195 

H. SCHUBERTI, Roth. PL 43, figs. 3-5 ; PI. 44, figs. 8, 9. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, obliquely striate, shining, pellucid, 
yellowish corneous; whorls 6, the last a little inflated, deflected in 
front ; peristome angu lately expanded, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 18'5 mill. 

Caria, Greece. 
Var. RISSOANA, Pfr. Fig. 5. 

Last whorl obsoletely angulated, with a light zone, peristomal 
lip reddish. 

If. frutis, Parr, is a synonym. 

Var. CIRCASSICA, Charp. Figs. 8, 9. 

Widely rugosely striate, subopaque, yellowish fawn color or 
corneous; whorls 7, the last a little descending anteriorly, obtusely 
angular, with a pallid dorsal zone, convex below ; peristome acute, 
thinly labiate within, columellar lip widely reflected, thickened. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Russian Transcaucasia. 

H. Colchica, Bayer is a synonym. 

H. TALISCHANA, Martens. PI. 44, figs. 10, 11. 

Perforate, thin, closely plicately striate and minutely granular, 
brownish corneous; whorls 6, the last rounded, descending in front; 
peristome pallid, slightly expanded, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Lenkoran, province of Talisch, S. W. Coast of Caspian Sea. 

H. CARTHUSIANA, Muller. PL 44, figs. 12, 13. 

Perforate, minutely striate, pellucid, corneous white, apex mam- 
illate; whorls 51, scarcely convex, the last a little deflected in front; 
peristome acute, subexpanded, reddish, labiate within. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonymy includes H. nitida, Chemn., H. Gibbsii, Leach, 
H. Gypsii, Fer., H. bimarginata, Gray., H. claustralis, Ziegler, H. 
convexa, Arad., H. lucernalis and H. gilvina, Zglr. H. lucina, H. 
subnodulosa and H. terrestris, -Chier., H. (var.) Arvensis, Pini. 
(Belgiojoso, Italy). 
Var. RUFILABRIS, Jeffreys. 

Globosely depressed, polished, whorls slowly increasing ; aperture 
rounded lunate, margin reddish brown, with narrow, high interior 
callus. Diam. 8-10 mill. A small form is 7 mill. diam. 

Is Var. minor, Drap. 



196 HELIX. 

Var. EPISEMA, Bourg. Spain, Bosnia, Hungary. 

Var. ARCHIMEDEA, Benoit. 

Light flesh color, subopaque, striate, body whorl scarcely des- 
cending in front; peristome acute, red-lipped within. 

Sicily. 
Var. LEUCOLOMA, Stabile. 

Small, lip entirely white. Var. albolabiata, Baudon, is identical. 

Var. RADIATA, Westerl. 

Depressed, porcellanous, with translucent rays; aperture horizon- 
tal, basal margin strict, peristome entirely white. 

Viareggio, Italy. 

H. PSEUDOSERICEA, Benoit. PI. 44, figs. 14-15. 

Perforate, thin, subpellucid, a little shining, substriate, brownish 
corneous, with very short inconspicuous bristles ; whorls 5, the last 
subangulated ; peristome patulous, brownish-lipped within. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Sicily. 
H. OBSTRUCTA, Fer. PI. 44, figs. 16-18. 

Narrowly perforate, smooth, subpellucid, corneous white ; whorls 
4?, the last subdeviating, whitish towards the aperture, margin 
reddish ; peristome simple, white-lipped within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Egypt, Tripoli, Syria. 

It is H. obstrusa, Fer. (error typ.) and H. adpressula, Friv. 

H. SUBOBSTRUCTA, Bourg. PI. 44, figs. 19-21. 

Narrowly perforate, diaphanous, smooth or very slightly striate, 
brownish white or light reddish or bluish corneous ; whorls 6, a 
little convex, regularly increasing, with impressed suture, the last 
suddenly deflected towards the aperture ; peristome reddish, acute, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Anatolia. 

H. GREGARIA, Ziegler. PI. 44, figs. 22, 23. 

Imperforate, or subrimate, striulate, a little shining, subpellucid, 
yellowish corneous or brownish, not banded; whorls 6, a little con- 
vex, the last descending in front; peristome scarcely patulous, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Sicily. 

It is H. Syriaca, Var. ft. of Pfeiffer, H. onychina, Var., Ross- 
massler., and H. occulta, Bivona. 



HELIX. 197 

H. SYRIACA, Ehrenberg. PI. 44, figs. 24-26. 

Subimperforate, greyish, subpellucid, with usually two white 
opaque bands, a little shining, very minutely rugulose ; whorls 5, 
somewhat flattened, the last scarcely descending in front, peristome 
subpatulous, brownish, white-lipped within. Diam. 12*5 mill. 

Syria, Egypt, Algiers, 

It is H. incolata, Ziegler, and H. onychina, Rossm. in part. 

H. ROTHI, Pfr. PI. 44, figs. 27-30. 

Subcovered perforate, opaque, soiled white, bifasciate, upper 
band narrow, brownish, lower one wider, diluted and pellucid ; 
whorls 6, the last scarcely descending ; peristome acute, white- 
lipped within. Diam. 13*5 mill. 

Syra. 
Var. DRAXLERI, Zelebor. PL 44, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell more globose, aperture smaller, umbilicus covered. 

H. PISIFORMIS, Pfr. PI. 44, figs. 31-33 ; pi. 39, figs. 92-94. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely striulate, striae more 
distinct at the suture, yellowish corneous, with an opaque white 
band ; whorls 5 J, a little convex, the penultimate subcarinated, the 
last subdescending in front ; peristome acute, subexpanded, re- 
motely strongly white-lipped -within. Diam. 11 mill. 

Caucasus. 

H. Arpatschaiana, Mart, (not Mousson), Var. Sewanica, Mart. 
(PI. 39, figs. 92-94) may be here referred. 

H. GLOBULA, Krynicki. PI. 44, figs. 34-36. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, pellucid, scarcely shining; irregularly 
striulate, yellowish corneous ; whorls 7, rounded, the last scarcely 
descending in front ; peristome acute, with a thin, elevated, internal 
line. Diam. 8-10 mill. 

Caucasus. 

More globose than the preceding species, but may be a variety 
of it. 

H. PSEUDOGLOBULA, Mousson. PL 44, figs. 37, 38. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, unequally striulate, lightly, 
very minutely rugulose, scarcely shining, brownish corneous ; whorls 
5, the last very slightly descending in front ; obtusely angulated, 
whitish towards the aperture ; peristome strongly labiate within. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Transcaucasia. 



198 HELIX. 

H. CRUZYI, Bourg. PI. 44, figs. 39-41. 

Rimate, diaphanous, whitish corneous, scarcely striulate ; whorls 
6, convex, the last scarcely descending anteriorly; peristome white- 
lipped within. Diam. 7 mill. 

Sebastopol, Crimea. 

H. ROKNIACA, Bourg. PL 44, figs. 42, 43. 

Profoundly perforate, conical above, compressed below, subpellu- 
cid, shining, fragile, elegantly striate, corneous, lighter at the 
aperture, with whitish flames around the suture; whorls 6, slowly 
increasing, last not descending, with distinct peripheral angle, 
vanishing towards the aperture; peristome white-lipped within, 
margins joined by a thin parietal callus. Diam. 10 mill. 

Roknia, prov. Constantine, A Igiers. 



H. VILL^, Desh. PL 44, fig. 44. 

Imperforate, thin, fragile, hyaline, white, thinly striate; whorls 
nearly 7, narrow, slowly increasing, with deep suture; peristome 
simple, acute, shortly reflected, white within. Diam. 8 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
Unfigured Species of Carthusiana. 

H. DAPHNICA, and var. FLAVIDA, Platania. Sicily. 

H. IADOLA, H. VlNTIENSIS, H. INNOXIA, H. LEPTOMPHALA, all of 

Bourguignat. France. 

H. LAMALONENSIS, Reynes. France. 

H. OUSTEREA, H. MONEREBIA, Mabille. Corsica. 

H. CANTIANIFORMIS, Bourg. Folkestone-, Boulogne. 

H. DELACOURTI, Mabille. France. 

H. LANGSDORFFI, Milliere. France. 

H. COTINOPHILA, Bourg. France. 

H. CARMELITA, Tristram, Palestine. 

H. ENCY^, H. ETJSCEPIA, Bourg. Lake Balaton, Hungary. 

H. LAMALOUENSIS, Bourg. France. 

H. RUSICADENSIS, Letourn. Tunis, Algiers. 

H. LENABARIA, and H. NICAISIANA, Letourn. Kabylcea. 

H. SAMSUNENSIS, Zelebor. Samsun, Asia Minor. 

H. SCHOTTI, Zelebor. Syria. 

H. PACHNODES, H. HOLOTRICHA, Bottger. Caucasus. 

H. FLAVEOLA, Krynicki. G&qrgia. 

H. SOLITUDINIS, Bourg. Heliopolis, Syria. 

H. CHOLA, Pechaud. Tunis. 



HELIX. 199 

H. CHEFFANA, Bourg. Tunis. 

H. ACORTA, Letourn. et Bourg. Tunis. 

Subsection VII. NUMMULINA, Kobelt. 1871. 

H. NUMMUS, Ehrenb. PI. 44, figs. 45, 46. 

Narrowly umbilicated, pellucid, yellowish brown, with whitish 
strise; whorls 5?, the last with acutely carinated periphery; lip 
thin, subreflected. Diain. 17 mill. 

Syria. 

The synonyms are H. Hedenborgi, Pfr., and H. oxygyra, Boiss. 

H. PROMETHEUS, Bottger. PI. 44, figs. 47-49. 

Larger than H. nummus, with much larger umbilicus, base not 
rugosely striate, very obsoletely granulated, distinctly descending 
at the aperture, peristome sublabiate with white within. 
I)iam. 17-5-20-5 mill. 

Caucasus. 
H. SPIROXIA, Bourg. PI. 44, figs. 50, 51. 

Subperforate, not shining, subpellucid, striate above and below, 
with spiral, subpilose epidermal lines, corneous, carina whitish, 
rugose, subcrenulated ; whorls 6, rapidly increasing, suture linear, 
last whorl shortly descending in front; lip callously thickened 
within. Diam. 1-4 mill. 

Alexandretta, Syria. 

H. GENEZARETHANA, Mousson. PI. 44, figs. 52, 53. 

Moderately umbilicated, thickly membranaceous, subpellucid, 
smooth, striate, very minutely and elegantly granular, fulvous or 
paler, not shining, suture linear; whorls 5?, the last not descending, 
base inflated round the umbilicus ; peristome simple, lower margin 
thinly expanded, labiate within, columella broadly reflected. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

Tiberias, Palestine. 
H. Tiberana, Mouss. is a synonym. 

~H. JASONIS, Dubois. PI. 45, figs. 54, 55. 

Widely umbilicated, rather thin, strongly costulate-striate, the 
interstices very minutely granular, subdiaphanous, light-corneous, 
or whitish, suture plane, thread-like; whorls 6, periphery strongly 
carinated, carina subcrenate, last whorl scarcely descending in front ; 
peristome not labiate, reflected below. Diam. 24 mill. 

Mingrelia. 



200 HELIX. 

H. DOUMETI, Bourg. (Unfigured). Tunis. 

Subsection VIII, EULOTA, Hartmann. 1842. 

H. INCHOATA, Morelet. PL 45, fig. 56. 

Perforate, thin, striulate, rugulose at the suture, diaphanous, 
yellowish corneous or brownish, scarcely shining, last whorl with a 
chestnut band; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last inflated, 
scarcely descending in front ; peristome thin, slightly labiate within, 
margins distant, columella strongly reflected. Diam. 20 mill. 

Portugal. 
H. FRUTICUM, Miiller. PI. 45, figs. 57-59. 

Moderately umbilicated, globose, shining, opaque, obsoletely 
striate, whitish, yellowish, rosy or reddish brown, sometimes with a 
chestnut band ; whorls 5-6, the last with inflated base ; peristome 
subpatulous, sublabiate. Diam. 21 mill. 

Sweden, Germany, France, Switzerland. 

H. carduelis, Keibisch, H. terrestris, Gmel., H. cinerea, Poir., 
H. Lua, Chier. are synonyms. 

Var. ANDERSONI, Clessin. Fig. 59. 

Smaller, globose, solid, with more depressed spire and suture less 
impressed. Diam. 17-18 mill. 

Northern Sweden. 

Var. UNIFASCIATA, Bottger. 

Elevated, shining, yellowish, with a chestnut band, with percep- 
tible spiral sculpture, peristome white-lipped within. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Caucasus. 

H. FRUTICOLA, Krynicki. PL 45, figs. 60, 61. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, striate, whitish ; whorls 
7, the last deflected in front ; peristome acute, narrowly white-lipped 
within, columella strongly reflected. Diam. 17 mill. 

Crimea. 

H. SCHRENCKII, Middend. PL 56, figs. 62, 63. 

Kather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat thin, striate, lightly 
decussated, diaphanous, corneous white, with a chestnut band; 
whorls 6, the last not descending; peristome lightly labiate within. 

Diam. 23 mill. 

Siberia, Russia. 

H. Siberica, Friv., is a synonym. 




201 
H. ARISTATA, Krynicki. PI. 45, figs. 64, 65. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, pellucid, shortly hispid, striate and 
occasionally granular, brownish corneous, with a whitish band ; 
whorls 7, planulate ; peristome patulous, subreflected, interiorly 
margined. Diam. 9 mill. 

Caucasus. 
H. EUAGES, Bottger. PI. 45, figs. 66-68. 

Moderately umbilicated, subpellucid, reddish brown, strongly 
costulate, the interstices very minutely granular, suture very deep ; 
whorls 62, the last descending in front, obsoletely angulated ; peris- 
tome a little expanded, rosy-lipped within. Diam. 16'5 mill. 

Caucasus. 
Var. DEPRESSA, Bottger. 

More depressed, with stronger keel, and more oval aperture. 
Diam. 16'5 mill. 

H. SEPTEMGYRATA, MoilSSOIl. PL 45, fig. 69. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, fragile, pellucid, strongly striate 
above, more lightly striate below, shining, dark brown, with a 
whitish band ; whorls 7, slowly increasing, the last a little descend- 
ing in front, with convex base, very minutely spirally lined around 
the umbilicus; peristome acute. Diam. 16 mill. 

Transcaucasia. 
H. FLAVOLIMBATA, Bottger. PL 45, figs. 70-72. 

Smaller, more depressed than the last species, very narrowly per- 
forate; whorls 6, the last angulated; olivaceous, with a whitish 
band, here and there radiated with yellow, with a yellowish line 
behind the aperture, strongly striate above, obsoletely so below, 
with spiral lines on the base; whorls 6-6?, the last scarcely de- 
scending, periphery angulated ; peristome expanded, lipped within. 

Diam. 12'5-14 mill. 

Transcaucasia. 

H. NORDENSKIOLDI, Westrl. PL 45, figs. 76-78. 

Moderately umbilicated, globose or globose depressed, pellucid, 
smooth, rarely sparsely short haired, shining, yellowish red, upper 
whorls reddish brown, with a white band, closely costulate above 
and below ; whorls 6 J-7, the last not descending in front, obtusely 
subangulated ; periphery thinly, widely sublabiate. 

Diam. 12-14 mill. 

Jenissei, Siberia 



202 HELIX. 

H. rufescens, Schrenck is a synonym. 
H. HELVOLA, Friv. PL 45, figs. 73-75. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, rugulosely striated, decuss- 
ated by very minute spiral lines, scarcely shining, corneous, with a 
chestnut band margined below with white ;' whorls 6 J, slowly in- 
creasing, the last not descending, with subangulate periphery ; lip 
slightly expanded, a little margined within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Siberia. 
H. STRIGELLA, Drap. PL 45, figs. 79-83. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, corneous, with a whitish band, 
fugaciously pubescent ; whorls 5^-6, somewhat flattened, the last 
descending in front ; periphery remotely labiate. Diam. 15 mill. 

Middle Europe, Caucasus. 

The synonyms are H. sylvestris, Alt., H. Altenana, Gartn., H. 
fruticosa, Parr., H. cornea, Hartm., H. piligera, Andrz., H. vitri- 
nosa, ZiegL, H. conspurcata, Nilss. (Juv.), If. hexagyra, Mtihlf.,, 
H.peregra, Parr. 
Var. MOLDAVIA, Clessin. 

Larger, thicker, brownish corneous, flattened, slightly striate; 
whorls', 7, slowly increasing ; peristome expanded ; umbilicus wide, 
perspective. Diam. 18*5 mill. 
Var. COLLINIANA, Bourg. Figs. 81-83. 

Umbilicus wider, infundibuliform, aperture smaller, whorls 
well-rounded, more slowly increasing. Diam. 15 mill. 

Sweden, Norway. 
H. RUSCINICA, Bourg. PL 46, figs. 90-92. 

Moderately umbilicated, finely striate, epidermis with vestiges of 
hairy scales, yellowish brown with a transparent peripheral band ; 
whorls 5, well-rounded, moderately increasing, periphery subangu- 
lated, last whorl descending in front ; peristome slightly expanded. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Pyrenees. 
H. APENNINA, Miihlf. PL 45, figs. 84-87. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, very lightly spirally lineolate 
and foveate, whitish corneous, becoming brownish anteriority ; 
whorls 6, convex, slowly increasing, the last rounded, slightly de- 
scending in front ; lip thin, with a remote white internal callus. 

Diam. 16'5-19 mill. 

'Apennine Mts. Italy. 



HELIX. 203 

Var. EUBCEICA, Kobelt. PI. 43, figs. 6, 7. Mts., Greece. 

H. MARTENSIANA, Tiberi. PL 45, figs. 88, 89. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, rugulosely striate, subgranulate, 
bluish corneous or pale fulvous ; whorls 6, convex, slowly en- 
larging, with impressed suture, the last whorl wider, planulate 
above, subinflated below, scarcely descending in front; peristome 
acute, brown-lipped within, subexpanded. Diam. 21 mill. 

Mts. Italy. 

H. lavata, Tiberi is a synonym. Very probably this is only a 
variety of If. Appennina. 

H. SUBORBICULARIS, Martens. PI. 46, figs. 93-95. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, very lightly spirally lineolate, 
polished, greyish white, apex blackish ; whorls 6, sloAvly increasing, 
the last rounded, scarcely descending ; peristome white-lipped within. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Apennine Mts. 

H. ORSINII, Porro. PL 46. figs. 96-3. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, lightly striate, whitish 
above, with a rather broad yellowish or brownish band, below yel- 
lowish or brown ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last narrow, 
scarcely descending in front ; peristome acute, slightly margined. 

Diam. 15-18 mill. 

Italy, Sicily.. 

H. ochrdcea, Ziegler is a synonym. 

Var. MAJELLJE, Kobelt. Figs. 99-1. Abruzzi, Italy.. 

Var. PiCvENA, Tiberi. Figs. 2, 3. Abruzzi, Italy. 

H. PARREYSSI, Pfr. PL 46, figs. 4-6. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, granularly striate, 
reddish corneous, with two wide white bands, one at the suture, the 
other at the periphery ; whorls 5 J, slowly increasing, the last roun- 
ded, shortly descending in front, base more distinctly granular;, 
peristome a little expanded, white-lipped within, basal margin 
obsoletely dentate. Diam. 10-15 mill. 

Apruti, Italy. 

H. modesta, Parr, is a synonym. This species is too closely 
allied to H. Orsinii, Porro. 



204 HELIX. 

H. ALPHABUCELLIANA, Paulucci. PL 46, figs. 7-9. 

Kather narrowly umbilicated, striulate, light chestnut color, 
whitish at the suture and on the periphery ; whorls 7, the last large, 
slightly descending in front ; aperture fulvous within. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Abruzzi, Italy. 

H. RUFISPIRA, Martens. PI. 46, figs. 10-16. 

Rather narrowly umbilcated, unequally rugulose-striate above, 
more closely striulate below, yellowish white, a little shining; 
whorls 5-5 J, with superficial suture, the last a little descending in 
front, with subangulate periphery, the angle becoming evanescent 
towards the aperture, with a white band, base convex ; peristome 
acute, white-margined within, extremities approaching. 

Diam. 14-18 mill. 

Sarafschan, and in Alpine mountains, Turkestan. 

Var. ALBIDORSALIS, Mouss. Figs. 14-16. 

More depressed with stronger peripheral angle with a half whorl 
additional, narrower umbilicus, and stronger, white banding. 

Kuldscha, Central Asia. 

H. BRIGANTINA, Mengo. PI. 46, figs. 17, 18. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, yellowish corneous ; whorls 5, slightly 
convex, the last a little descending, peristome acute. 

Braganza, Portugal. 

Unfigured Species of Eulota. 

H. SOCCALIANA, Letourn. Corfu. 

H. CAPUSI, Villeserre. Turkestan. 

H. PANTANELLII, Stefani (H. strigella, Pautanelli, not Drap.), 

Italy. 

H. HIRCI, Clessin. Croatia. 

H. BRIANDI, H. GUERETINI, H. DUBREUILI, H. EUCYJE, H. Eus- 
CEPI^E, H. RENOUFI, H.FUEREDENSIS, H. BAKONYCA, H. PLAT- 
TENICA, Servain. Lake Balaton, Hungary. 

H. BOURGUIGNATI, Pfr. (H. fruticola, Bourg.) Crimea. 

H. CAIDIS, Ancey. Algiers. 

H. EUCESTELLA, H. MICROSPILA, Bourg. Tu.llS. 

H. URBARANA, Pechaud. Tunis. 

H. EUCANA, Hagenmiiller. Tunis. 



HELIX. 205 

H. HADRUMETORUM, H. ENTARA, H. MAYETI, H. VALERYANA, 

H. EUMONA, H. PACHESTHA, H. CHARMESIANA, H. BlLLOT- 

TIANA, H. MAXULANA, Letourn. et Bourg. Tunis. 

H. MOSELLICA, H. AlJBINIANA, H. LiEMONIA, H. DuMORUM, H. 
SEPARICA, H. VELLAVORUM, H. LEPIDOPHORA, H. BUXETORUM, 

H. NEMETUMA, H. CUSSETENSIS, and H. CEYSSONI, Bourg. 

France. 

Subsection IX, DORCASIA, Gray. 1845. 

H. RUBENS, Martens. PL 46, figs. 19-24. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, strongly striated, decussated 
by slight but conspicuous spiral lines, scarcely shining, brownish 
corneous, with a white peripheral band ; whorls 6, a little convex, 
slowly increasing, the last descending a little at the periphery; 
peristome slightly labiate within. Diam. 16.5 mill. 

Sarafschan, Turkestan. 
Var. CONCOLOR, Martens. Fig. 21. 

White band evanescent. 

Var. FINSCHIANA, Martens. Fig. 22. 
Subglobose, last whorl lighter colored. 

Var. ZEILIANA, Martens. Fig. 23. 
Light colored, spire more produced. 

Var. REGELIANA, Martens. Fig. 24. 
Shell depressed, whitish. 

H. PH^EOZONA, Martens. PI. 46, figs. 25, 26. 

Narrowly umbilicated, roughly striate, with close, slight, spiral 
lines, white, with a chestnut baud; whorls 5, the last scarcely des- 
cending in front, base convex ; peristome slightly thickened. 

Diam. 15-16 mill. 

Kokand, Turkestan. 

H. SIMILARIS, Fer. PI. 46, figs. 27-30 ; PL 47, figs. 33-37. 

Narrowly umbilicated, slightly striate, diaphanous, light corneous, 
with, or (more usually) without a chestnut band, spire more or less 
elevated ; whorls 5, slightly convex, lip white, reflected. 

Bengal, China, Mauritius, Seychelles, Brazil, Buenos Ayres, West 
Indies, Natal, Sandwich Is. etc. 

This species inhabits the coffee tree, and commerce has spread it 
all over the world, wherever coffee is cultivated. Its synonyms 



"206 HELIX. 

include H. translucens, King, JET. Woodiana, Lea, H. squalida, 
Ziegl., IT. addita, Fer. H. epixantha, Pfr. (fig. 30), from China, is 
regarded by Martens and others, as a juvenile. 

Var. STIMPSONI, Pfr. PL 47, fig. 33. 

Narrowly unibilicated, somewhat solid, closely striulate, shining, 
brownish corneous; whorls 5, moderately increasing, the last not 
descending, turgid, periphery obsoletely angulated, base more dis- 
tinctly striate ; peristome white, shortly reflected, columellar lip 
nearly perpendicular. Diana. 15 mill. 

Japan. 
H. genulabris, Mart, is a synonym. 

Var. ARCASIANA, Crosse and Debeaux. PI. 47, figs. 36, 37. 

Scarcely perforate, not thick, a little shining, with thin, irregular, 
oblique striae, milk white ; whorls 6, moderately increasing, the last 
not descending, base inflated, excavated around the umbilicus; 
peristome white, reflected. Diam. 16 mill. 

Shanghai, China. 
Var. BOKBONICA, Desh. PI. 47, figs. 34, 35. 

Narrowly umbilicatad, depressed, irregularly, obsoletely striated, 
yellowish corneous with a brown band; whorls 6, the last cylindrical; 
peristome expanded, white. Diam. 12-15 mill. 

Ins. Bourbon. 
H. CESTUS, Benson. PI. 47, figs. 31, 32. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, distinctly striated and very obsoletely 
granulated, light corneous, with a peripheral chestnut band ; whorls 
5, the last scarcely descending in front, periphery subangulated ; 
peristome simple, thin, slightly expanded. Diam. 15 mill. 

Bengal. 

This may also be a variety of H. similaris. 

H. HONGKONGIENSIS, Desh. PL 47, figs. 38, 39. 

Narrowly unibilicated, thin, pellucid, whitish or yellowish-, with 
a chestnut peripheral line, irregularly striate; whorls 5 J, convex, 
slowly enlarging, the last cylindrical; lip narrow, white, a little 
thickened within. Diam. 16 mill. 

Hongkong, China. 

Probably another variety of If. similaris. 

H. OBSCURA, Desh. PL 47, figs. 41, 42. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, pellucid, irregularly thinly striated, 
dark reddish ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, with superficial suture, 



HELIX. 207 

base convex; aperture reddish, with a whitish margin, scarcely 
expanded or thickened within. Diam. 15 mill. 

Hong Kong, China. 
This is also suspected to be a variety of H. similaris. 

H. STRIATISSIMA, Desh. PI. 47, figs. 42, 43, 

Narrowly perforate, thin, fragile, pellucid, yellowish, minutely 
plicate, crossed by microscopic spiral lines; whorls 5fc, the last 
much larger, very obtusely angulated on the periphery ; lip thin, a 
little reflected. Diam, 15 mill. 

Hong Kong, China. 
H. NUCLEUS, Desh. PI. 47, fig. 44. 

Narrowly umbilicated, corneous, pellucid, yellowish, irregularly 
striate, suture well-impressed ; whorls 6, convex, narrow, the last a 
little depressed in front ; lip thickened, reflected, white. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Shanghai, China. 

Perhaps a variety of H. similaris, Fer. 

H. ARUNDINETORUM, Heutfe. PL 47, figs. 45, 46. 

Narrowly umbilicated, fragile, pellucid, fulvous, rarely with a 
light rufous peripheral band, minutely spirally striate; whorls 5, 
the last rapidly enlarging, not descending, periphery obsoletely 
angulated ; lip. narrow, scarcely reflected, reddish or white. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

River Yangtze, China. 
H. GBAMINUM, Heude. PL 47, fig. 47. 

Narrowly umbilicated, corneous or flavous, sometimes with a 
chestnut band, spirally minutely or strongly striate ; whorls 6, 
convex, slowly increasing, the last obsoletely angulated ; aperture 
white, lip scarcely thickened, slightly reflected. Diam. 18 mill. 

River Yangtze, China. 

H. STRAMINEA, Heude. PL 47, figs. 48, 49. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, whitish or yellowish, some- 
times with a chestnut band, minutely spirally striate; whorls 5J, 
convex, with deep suture, last whorl laterally convex, flattened 
below, descending in front; peristome subreflected.. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Yangtze River, China. 

H. CREMATA, Heude. PL 47, figs. 52, 53. 

Narrowly umbilicated, yellowish, with a narrow chestnut band, 
very minutely spirally striate, suture superficial ; whorls 4-5, convex, 



208 HELIX. 

the last scarcely descending, obtusely angulated ; peristome white, a 
little expanded. Diam. 19 mill. 

Ouyuan, China. 
H. FORTUNEI, Pfr. PI. 47, figs. 50, 51. 

Sinistral, narrowly umbilicated, thin, whitish, shining, with 
usually a chestnut band, closely, minutely, obliquely striate ; whorls 
5, the last convex, scarcely descending; peristome white, thickened 
reflected. Diam. 16-21 mill. 

Shanghai, China. 

Von Martens and others have suspected this to be a reversed 
H. similaris, 

Var. MERIDIONALIS, Mollend. Fig. 51. 

Yellowish corneous, without band, globosely conical, whorls some- 
what flattened. Diam. 17 mill. 

H. UNCOPILA, Heude. PI. 47, fig. 56. 

Sinistral, thin, yellowish, with a chestnut band, spirally striate, 
with oblique lines of short hairs, suture rather deep; whorls 5, 
rather rapidly increasing, the last inflated, obsoletely angulated, 
anteriorly scarcely descending; peristome subthickened, white or 
reddish, expanded. Diam. 21 mill. 

River Yangtze, Onina. 
H. LUTOSA, Desh. PI. 47, figs. 54, 55. 

Narrowly umbilicated, whitish, under a black pigmental epider- 
mis, opaque, suture deep; whorls 5, narrow, convex, slowly increasing, 
the last a little larger, with convex base ; aperture white, peristome 
expanded, thickened within. Diam. 7 mill. 

Pekin, China. 

H. FASCIOLA, Drap. PL 47, figs. 57-59. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, diaphanous, whitish corneous with a 
narrow chestnut band; whorls 51, the last scarcely angulated; 
peristome white, thickened. Diam. 15 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Described as a French species, but has not been recognized, 

H. DICHROA, Pfr. PI. 47, figs. 63, 64. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, obliquely striated, lightly decussated 
by close spiral striae, diaphanous, with numerous, interrupted, white, 
opaque spiral lines; whorls 6, the last deflected in front, base 
convex; lip thin, a little expanded above, shortly reflected belov. . 

Diam. 15*5 mill. 

Shanghai, China. 



HELIX. 209 

H. MAACKII, Gerstfeldt. PL 47, figs. 60-62: PL 48, figs. 65-67. 

More or less perforate or narrowly umbilicated, thin, translucent, 
distinctly obliquely striate or subplicate, scarcely shining, yellowish 
brown, with three chestnut bands, suture moderate ; whorls 6-7 ; lip 
a little reflected, thickened within. Diam. 30 mill. 

Amur country, L. Poiang, China. 

Var. CONRAUXIANA, Heude. Figs. 62, 65, 66. 
Shell more depressed, with larger umbilicus. 

This=var. depressa, of Pfr. (Figs. 65, 66). 
Var. UNIZONALIS, H. Adams. Fig. 67. 

Whorls less convex, the last larger, with a single peripheral 
band. 

H. Kiangsinensis, Martens, is a synonym. 

H. BILLEANA, Heude. PL 48, figs. 68-70. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, closely and strongly obliquely 
striate, fulvous, with three chestnut bands ; whorls 5, the last large, 
slightly descending in front, convex below; peristome scarcely 
reflected, thickened within. Diam. 27 mill. 

Kiuntcheou, China. 

Perhaps only a variety of H. Maaclcii. 

H. WEYRICHI, Schrenck. PL 48, figs. 71, 72. 

Umbilicus narrow, partly covered, a little solid, obliquely striate 
or subplicate, decussated by spiral lines, yellowish white or greenish 
yellow, with a chestnut band, opaque ; whorls 5-6, the last ventri- 
cose; lip acute, subreflected, with a white rim within. 

Diam. 28 mill. 

Sachalien IsL 

H. TOURANNENSIS, Souleyet. PL 48, figs. 73, 74, 77. 

Narrowly umbilicated, distinctly, closely striated, greyish yellow, 
subdiaphanous ; whorls 6, the last with inflated base; peristome 
pinkish, a littJe expanded, white lipped within. Diam. 15 mill. 

Cochin China, Macao, Burmah. 

H. globula, Lea. H. clusilis, Val. and H. Solus, Benson, (fig. 77.) 
are synonyms. 

Var. RHODOSTOMA, Moll. 
Peristome rosy or purple. 
14 



210 HELIX. 

H. RUPPELLI, Pesh. PL 48, figs. 75, 76. 

Narrowly perforate, with slight quincunx puncticulations and 
irregular oblique striae, shining, dark chestnut color, suture chan- 
neled; whorls 5, periphery obtusely angulated; aperture bright 
chestnut, lip narrow, reflected; reddish. Diam. 21 mill. 

Moupin, Eastern Thibet. 

H. ARGILLACEA, Fer. PI. 48, figs. 78, 79. 

Perforate, thin, diaphanous, brownish corneous, suture moderate; 
whorls 4J, the last inflated, suddenly deflected in front; peristome 
widely expanded, shortly reflected. Diam. 20-22 mill. 

Ins. Timor, Flores. 

H. cyclostomopsis, Lea. is a synonym. 

H. RADICICOLA, Benson. PL 48, fig. 85. 

Perforate, thin, striulate, translucent, greenish corneous; whorls 
4i, the last obsoletely angulated, shortly descending in front; 
aperture diagonally subquadrate; lip thin, acute, shortly expanded. 

Diam. 12 mill. 

Himalayas, India. 

H. ELATIOR, Martens. PL 52, figs. 14, 15. 

Subcovered perforate, striulate and malleate, a little shining, 
light greenish yellow, with two wide chestnut bands; whorls 5, the 
last rounded, slightly descending in front; lip thickened, white, 
shortly reflected, nearly covering the umbilicus. Diam. 15'5 mill. 

Himalayas. 

H. BRARDIANA, Pfr. PL 52, fig. 97. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, striate, pellucid, fulvous, with irreg- 
ular yellowish opaque maculations ; whorls 5, the last not descending 
in front, periphery obtusely angulated; peristome simple, thin, expan- 
ded. Diam. 14 mill. 

Ins. Bourbon. 

H. TRANSVERSALIS, Mousson. PL 48,, figs. 80, 81. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, subdiaphanous, white under a 
fugacious thin epidermis, sometimes with a superior corneous band ; 
whorls 4?, rapidly increasing, the last deflected in front, more 
convex below, angulated around the umbilicus; peristome sublabiate, 
reflected, distinctly constricted exteriorly. Diam. 10-14 mill. 

Ins. Bali, and Madura. 




HELIX. 211 

H. DESPECTA, Gray. PL 48, fig. 86. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, rugosely striate, yellowish brown; 
spire a little elate, with deep suture; whorls 5, convex, the last 
inflated; lip simple, a little thickened within. Diam. 22 mill. 

? Loo Choo Is. 
H. CRASSULA, Phil. PI. 48, figs. 90-92. 

Narrowly umbilicated, scarcely striulate, epidermis yellowish, 
with short hairs in quincunx order, suture deep ; whorls 5, the last 
inflated below and slightly ungulate round the umbilicus, distinctly 
descending in front ; lip rosy Avhite, thickened, reflected. 

Diam. 16'6-18 mill. 

Java, Sumatra. 

H. Storiana, Mousson. is a synonym. 

H. CRYPTOPILA, Mousson. PL 48, figs. 87-89. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid", obliquely striate and 
punctate, with a deciduous, very short pile, subdiaphanous, greyish 
corneous, suture linear; whorls 4i, the last carinate, shortly des- 
cending in front, inflated below and subangulated around the 
umbilicus; aperture diagonal, peristome simple, upper margin shortly 
expanded, basal narrowly reflected. Diam. 18 mill. 

Ins. Rakata. 
Var. HELICINOIDES, Mouss. 

Shell smaller, with a light peripheral band. Diam. 12*7 mill. 

Java. 
H. ZOROASTER, Theobald. PL 48, fig. 93. ' 

Umbilicated, minutely striate, corneous, with usually a peripheral 
chestnut band, whorls 5 ; last obtusely angulate on the periphery ; 
peristome thin, a little reflected. Diam. 15 mill. 

Between Ava. and Prome. 

H. SCALPTURITA, Benson. PL 48, fig. 94. 

Umbilicus narrow, striulate, closely spirally striate, a little shining, 
whitish, light brown on the apex and towards the aperture, often 
with a chestnut band ; whorls 5, the last rounded, a little descending 
in front; peristome thin, somewhat expanded. Diam. 22 mill. 

Ava. 
H. EVERETTI, H. Adams. PL 49, fig. 95. 

Umbilicated, lightly plicate-striate above, inconspicuously gran- 
ulated, light fulvous, under a thin epidermis of the same color, with 
a peripheral chestnut band; whorls 4, convex, the base obtusely 



212 HELIX. 

angulated around the umbilicus; peristome expanded and narrowly 
reflected. Diam. 13 mill. 

Sarawak, Borneo. 
H. TOMENTOSA, Pfr. PL 49, fig. 96. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, somewhat hairy, cinnamon color; 
whorls 5, rapidly enlarging, the last not descending, base convex, 
compressed around the umbilicus ; aperture lighter colored, shining, 
peristome red-lipped within, expanded and somewhat reflected, 
angulated at the base. Diam. 16 mill. 

Sarawak, Borneo. 
H. MENDAX, Martens. PL 49, figs. 97-99. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, corneous fulvous; whorls 3, a 
little excavated at the suture, the last deflected in front, subangula- 
ted on the periphery, base convex, with an angle around the 
umbilicus; peristome thin, reflected. Diam. 11 mill. 

Atapupu, Ins. Timor. 

H. BACTRIANA, Hutton. PL 49, figs. 13, 14. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely rugosely striate and 
punctulate above, smoother below, a little shining, whitish corneous; 
whorls 6, moderately increasing, the last convex, scarcely descending 
at the aperture; aperture diagonal, peristome a little expanded, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 14 mill. 

Candahar, India. 
H. MIGHELSIANA, Pfr. PL 49, figs. 6, 7. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, closely plicate, obsoletely spirally 
striated, chestnut color or yellowish brown ; whorls 5, the last ven- 
tricose, slightly descending in front, compressed around the umbilicus; 
peristome simple, strongly white-lipped within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Ins. Mindanao. 
H. FODIENS, Pfr. PL 49, figs. 8, 9. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, diaphanous, closely obliquely 
plicate, sometimes lightly decussated by spiral lines, brownish 
corneous; whorls 5 2, the last with subangulated periphery; aperture 
flesh color, shining, peristome subexpanded, sublabiate within. 

Diam. 21 mill. 

Ins. Luzon and Siquijor, Philippines. 

H. NAUTILOIDES, Val. PL 52, figs. 89-91. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, pellucid, smooth, yellowish corneous; 
whorls 4, rapidly increasing, the last large, wide, convex ; peristome 
simple, acute, white lipped below. Diam. 21 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 



HELIX. 213 

**# 

South African Species. 

H. ROSACEA, Miiller. PL 49, fig. 100. 

Narrowly umbilicated, partly covered, solid, obliquely striate, 
scarcely shining, yellowish- or rosy-white or clouded with grey; 
whorls 5, convex, the last large, inflated, minutely rugosely malleate, 
scarcely descending in front, base convex ; aperture rosy, peristome 
similarly colored, thick, expanded or re volute, extremities joined 
by a brownish violaceous callus. Diam. 45 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
It is H. globulus, Var. p. of Pfr. 

H. GLOBULUS, Miiller. PL 49, fig. 1. 

Subcovered umbilicated, rather thin, striulate, bluish gray, spire 
becoming brownish purple towards the apex; whorls 4J, the last 
inflated, lightly malleated, a little descending in front, compressed 
round the umbilicus ; aperture brownish purple, shining, peristome 
shortly reflected, rubicund, with a darker parietal callus connecting 
its margins. Diam. 27 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. lucana. Lam. (not Miill.) and H. rosacea, Jonas are synonyms. 

H. LUCANA, Miiller. PL 49, fig. 2. 

Umbilicated, subpellucid, shining, brownish yellow above, su- 
ture and base white; whorls 5, the upper ones planulate, the last 
large, convex, peristome thick, reflected, margins callously joined. 

Diam. 30 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

H. lucena, Gmelin is a synonym. 

H. BULBUS, Menke. PL 49, figs. 10-12. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, irregularly rugosely striate, with a 
few impressed spiral lines, white; whorls 4J, oliquely flattened, the 
last scarcely descending, periphery rounded, base convex ; peristome 
simple, subrefleQted below, thickened within. Diam. 26 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
H. ALEXANDRA Gray. PL 49, fig. 6. 

Rimately perforate, light fulvous or whitish, minutely costulate- 
striate above, smooth below; whorls 5, convex, the last inflated, 
suddenly deflected in front, base deviating, forming the rimate 
umbilicus; aperture subcircular, peristome continuous, expanded 
and reflected. Diam. 32 mill. 

Damara, Africa. 



214 HELIX. 

H. VOTIVA, Crosse. PI. 49, figs. 4, 5. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subtranslucent, a little shining, thinly, 
subobliquely striate, yellowish straw color, with two dark chestnut 
bands on the penultimate, three on the last whorl ; whorls 4, rather 
flattened, the last anteriorly descending, scarcely angulated at the 
periphery ; aperture whitish, showing the bands, peristome white, 
the extremities closely approaching. Diam. 26 mill. 

Madagascar. 

H. CANESCENS, Ads. and Keeve. PL 50, figs. 39-41, 

Subcovered perforate, somewhat solid, striate, obsoletely decus- 
sated, greyish white, with a median corneous-pellucid spiral line, or 
several interrupted lines and bands of maculations, apex corneous; 
whorls 5, the last gradually descending in front; aperture bluish, 
peristome acute, sublabiate within, columellar margin oblique, 
callously tuberculated. Diam. 20 mill. 

Africa. 

The rather indefinite locality has not been verified; the figure 
and description given by Keeve (fig. 41.) are suspiciously close to 
the Western American group to which belong H. Icevis, H. Veatchi 
and If. Pandoras] Kiister's figures (figs. 39, 40) appear very 
different. 

*** . 
Australian Species. 

H. L^ESA, Reeve. PL 49, fig. 15. 

Narrowly umbilicated, plicate-striate and minutely granulated, 
livid greenish, purple-tinted ; whorls 5-6, convex, the last a little 
deflected in front; lip expanded, reflected, widely dilated at the 
umbilicus. Diam. 25 mill. 

Hunter River, Australia. 

H. EXPEDITIONS, Cox. PL 49, fig. 19. 

Umbilicated, thin, transparent, yellowish brown, shining, rudely 
striated; whorls 5 2-6, the last large, inflated, descending in front; 
aperture pale violaceous, peristome simple, white. Diam. 26 mill. 

Tropical Australia. 

H. FUNICULATA, Pfr. PL 49, fig. 16. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, rugosely granulated, a little snin- 
ing, chestnut color, with a peripheral white band, suture subchan- 



HELIX. 215 

neled; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last angulated, descending 
in front, base convex, subcompressed around the umbilicus; lip 
simple, shortly reflected below. Diam. 29 mill. 

Torres Sts., Australia. 

H. PLECTILIS, Benson. PI. 49, figs. 18, 17. 

Subcovered perforate, brownish Avhite, opaque, with strong angul- 
arly flexuous, oblique rugosities, becoming smoother below ; whorls 
4, the last deflected in front, periphery obtusely angulated ; aperture 
subcircular, peristome expanded, a little reflected, margins approach- 
ing and connected by a parietal callus, columellar lip expanded, 
more or less covering the umbilicus. Diam. 14'5 mill. 

Shark's Bay, W. Australia. 
H. paleata, Reeve (fig. 17), is a synonym. 

H. TORULUS, Fer. 

Subperforate, globular, white, smooth, with a chestnut band; 
whorls 6, convex, narrow, base inflated; aperture rather small, 
rounded-lunar, lip simple, white, upper margin subexpanded, basal 
dilated, reflected; partly covering the umbilicus. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Australia. 
H. DURALENSIS, Cox. PL 50, figs. 20, 21. 

Umbilicated, a little solid, rudely costate, especially at the suture, 
and very minutely granulated, dark chestnut color or yellowish, 
paler below; whorls 5, the last carinated, a little descending in 
front; aperture pale rosy, lip slightly reflected. Diam. 20 mill. 

Dural, New South Wales. 

H. DUNKIENSIS, Forbes. PI. 50, figs. 23, 22, 24. 

Moderately umbilicated, striated and minutely granulated, light 
fulvous; whorls 5J, slowly increasing, rugulose at the suture, last 
whorl not descending, periphery subangulated, base inflated, sub- 
compressed round the umbilicus ; lip white, shortly expanded. 

Diam. 25 mill. 

Dunk Isl. N. Australia. 

Forbes' figure (fig. 22) represents a young shell. 

H. PRUNUM, Fer. PL 50, figs. 25, 26. 

Umbilicated, fulvous or chestnut color, sometimes with a dark 
chestnut peripheral line, obliquely striate and obsoletely granular; 



216 HELIX. 

whorls 6, the last inflated, a little descending in front; aperture 
reddish, shining, lip white, shortly expanded. Diam. 30 mill. 

Australia. 
H. argillacea, Gray and H. pelodes, Pfr. are synonyms. 

H. CAILLETI, Crosse. PI. 50, figs. 27, 28. 

Scarcely rimate, rather thick, rugulosely striate and very thinly 
subgranose, dark chestnut color; whorls 6, convex, the last inflated, 
obscurely angulated, descending in front, subcompressed round the 
umbilical region; aperture pale violaceous, peristome same color, 
shortly expanded and reflected. Diam. 32 mill. 

? Oceanica. 

The particular locality is unknown. 

Var. /5. Paler, greenish yellow, thinner, peristome whitish. 
Diam. 28 mill. 

H. MABILLEI, Crosse. PL 50, fig. 29. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, pellucid, rugosely striate, light 
brownish ; whorls 5, convex, the last inflated, subangulated, descend- 
ing in front, shining and greenish yellow on the base, subcompressed 
around the umbilicus; aperture bluish, peristome white, dilated 
above, margins joined by a shining callus. Diam. 24 mill. 

f Oceanica. 

Var. /?. Peristome violaceous, scarcely impinging on the umbilicus, 
surrounded with chestnut color. 

Possibly this is identical with the preceding species. 

H. COXENI, Cox. PI. 50, fig. 30. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, translucent, yellowish 
brown, with undulating irregular striae and subrecurved hairs ; 
whorls 5 J, the last rapidly increasing, inflated, a little descending 
in front : lip expanded, its extremities joined by a thin callus. 

Diam. 24 mill. 

Whitsunday Isl. Queensland, Australia. 

H. PLICULOSA, Pfr. PL 50, fig. 31. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, closely plicate-striate above, 
diaphanous, a little shining, reddish corneous ; whorls 4 J, periphery 
subangulate, rounded and scarcely descending in front, base in- 
flated, subcompressed around the umbilicus ; peristome wluiish, 
a little expanded. Diam. 16 mill. 

"Drayton Range" N. Australia- 



HELIX. 217 

H. ARIDORUM, Cox. PL 50, figs. 34, 35. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, a little shining, rugosely 
striate, very lightly granular, smoother below, greenish corneous ; 
whorls 4, the last large, tumid ; lip thin, shortly reflected, partly 
covering the umbilicus. Diam. 14 mill. 

Clarence River, Australia. 
H. LUTACEA, Pfr. PI. 50, figs. 32, 33. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, striulate, decussated by very close 
spiral striae, a little shining, brownish yellow ; whorls 4J, moder- 
ately increasing, the last very obsoletely angulated, scarcely de- 
scending in front; peristome strongly white-lipped, expanded, re- 
flected below. Diam. 23 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

H. BREVIPILA, Pfr. PI. 50, figs. 34-36. 

Widely umbilicated, with short rigid hairs, in quincunx order, 
not shining, dark brownish ; whorls scarcely 5, a little convex, the 
last rounded, subdeflected in front, angularly compressed around 
the umbilicus; aperture shining, lip thin, chestnut color, shortly 
expanded, margins approaching. Diam. 18 mill. 

Cape York. 

Originally described from a young specimen (fig. 36). 
Unfigured and doubt/ul species of Doreasia. 

H. ASSIMILARIS, H. FUCHSI, and H. MILIARIA, Gredler. China. 
H. OCCULTA, Ptr. Ins. Aru. 

H. CERINA, Mor. Madagascar. 

H. LIVERPOOLENSIS, Brazier. New South Wales. 

H. CARCHARIAS, Pfr. Shark's Bay, Australia. 

H. BLACKALLI, H. BENNETTI, Brazier. Queensland, Australia. 
H. MURINA, Pfr. Admiralty Islands, N. Australia. 

H. ORPHANA, Heude. China. 

It is hard to determine whether this is one of the Zonitidce or an 
ungrown Doreasia. 

Subsection X, SATSUMA. A. Ad. 1868. 

H. PAPILLIFORMIS, Kobelt. PI. 51, fig. 47. 

Scarcely rimate, thin, irregularly striulate, glimmering, greyish 
yellow, with a peripheral chestnut line ; whorls 6, the last slightly 
descending at the suture; peristome simple, a little expanded, 
almost entirely covering the umbilicus. Diam. 23, alt. 27 mill. 

Ins. Nippon, Japan. 



218 HELIX. 

H. LARGILLIERTI Phil. PL, 50, figs. 45, 46. 

Perforate, thin, smoothish, diaphanous, whitish, whorls 5i, the 
last with obsoletely angulated periphery; peristome simple, right 
margin shortly expanded, basal a little thickened, sometimes with a 
peripheral chestnut band, showing in the suture. 

Diam. 22 mill. 

Loo Choo Is. 

H. immaculata, Ads. and Reeve is a synonym. 

H. JAPONICA, Pfr. PI. 51, figs. 48-51, 52. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, striate, corneous yellow, with a 
light-margined pale chestnut peripheral line; whorls 5 J, the last 
with carinated periphery, scarcely descending in front ; peristome 
thin, shortly expanded, callously thickened on the middle of the 
basal margin. Diam. 18 mill. 

Japan* 

H. vitracea, Fer. is possibly identical. 

H. ALBIDA, A. Adams. PI. 51, fig. 53. 

Subcovered perforate, thin, lightly obliquely striate, and spirally, 
very thinly striulate, whitish ; whorls 6, subplanate, the last carin- 
ated, not descending in front, a little constricted behind the aper- 
ture ; peristome thin, expanded, dextral margin flexuous. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Taiwan, Formosa. 

H. CONOSPIRA, Pfr. PI. 51, figs. 54, 55. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, striulate, a little shining, 
light corneous; whorls 5M>, the last rounded, scarcely descending; 
peristome thin, whitish, a little expanded. Diam. 7'5-8'5 mill. 

Japan. 

H. TABUENSIS, Ancey. PL 51, figs. 60-62. 

Narrowly umbilicated, obliquely striate, decussated by close, fine 
spiral striae, yellowish corneous, usually with a pale peripheral 
band; whorls 7, the last with obtusely angulated periphery, and 
flattened base ; peristome expanded, reflected. Diam. 16 mill. 

Tabu-Sima, Japan, 

H. patruelis, H. Ad., (not Angas) is a synonym. 

H. SPHINCTOSTOMA, A. Adams. PL 51, figs. 64-67. 

Narrowly perforate, obliquely striate, yellowish corneous, some- 
times with a peripheral band ; whorls 6, the last rounded, con- 



HELIX. 21 & 

stricter! at the aperture ; peristome white-lipped, expanded and re- 
flected. Diam. 12 mill. 

Tago, Japan. 

H. CARDIOSTOMA, Kobelt. PL 51, figs. 56, 57. 

Imperforate, thin, obliquely stimulate, with spiral lines, yellowish 
corneous ; whorls 5, the last a little flattened ; slightly descending, 
rounded at the periphery, constricted at the aperture ; peristome 
slightly thickened, scarcely expanded. Diana. 1.4*5 mill. 

Kioto, Japan. 

H. HILGENDORFFI, Kobelt. PL 65, figs. 58, 59. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, striulate, corneous, sometimes 
white zoned at the periphery ; whorls 6, ihe last a little descend- 
ing in front ; peristome subexpanded, shortly reflected. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Japan. 

H. VERRUCOSA, Reinh. PL 51, figs. 69-71. 

Narrowly perforate, obliquely striate, granular, greyish brown ; 
whorls 5i>, the last obtusely angulated, base convex; peristome 
acute, margins joined by a thin callus. Diam. 5'5 mill. 

Near Yeddo, Japan. 

H. MACROCYCLOIDES, Kobelt. PL 51, figs. 72, 73. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, lightly striulate, corneous 
white, suture deep; whorls 6, narrow, slowly enlarging, the last 
subinflated, a little deflected in front; peristome white-lipped,, 
expanded. Diam. 17 mill. 

Japan. 

H. GOODWIXI, Smith. PL 51, figs. 76, 77. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, light corneous, translucent, with 
thin incremental striae, and nearly obsolete, minute spiral striae; 
whorls 5-1-6, the last subangulated, a little descending in front;, 
peristome thin, slightly expanded, Diam. 11'5 mill. 

Japan.. 

H. CONULINA. Mart. PL 51, figs. 74, 75. 

Perforate, brownish corneous, thin, striulate, yellowish white ;; 
whorls 5, the last obtusely angulated and deflected in front ; peris- 
tome thin, sublabiate below, scarcely reflected. Diam. 7 mill. 

Japan. 



220 HELIX. 

H. LISCHKEANA, Kobelt. PL 51, figs. 78, 79. 

Perforate, thin, subpellucid, thinly obliquely striulate, slightly, 
very minutely granular, horny white, with a chestnut band ; whorls 
5, the last subcompressed but not angulated, descending in front ; 
peristome thin, slightly labiate within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Japan. 
H. CALLIZONA, Crosse. PI. 51, fig. 63. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subarcuately striate, irregularly subrugose, 
with numerous, close, decussating spiral lines, yellowish white, with 
a subbasal chestnut band, suture rather irregular, impressed; whorls 
5, the last scarcely descending, the periphery obsoletely angulated; 
aperture white, showing the basal zone, simple, a Hi tie thickened 
within. Diam. 22 mill. 

Japan. 
H. FULVICANS, H. Adams. PI. 51, fig. 68. 

Umbilicated, somewhat thin, lightly striate, decussated by very 
thin spiral lirse, shortly pilose, light fulvous; whorls 6, the last 
rather acutely carinated, descending in front, base more convex; 
peristome thin, expanded, subsinuous below. Diam. 11 mill. 

Tamsui, Formosa. 

H. COREANICA, Ads. and Reeve. PL 52, figs. 83-85. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, irregularly rugosely 
striate, reddish corneous, bifasciate with white above; whorls 5J, the 
last dilated and rounded, scarcely descending in front; aperture 
shining, peristome simple, acute, rosy lipped within. 

Diam. 19 mill. 

Corea. 

H. LEPKOSULA, Heude. PL 51, figs. 80-82. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, color? (denuded of epidermis), 
whorls 5, rather narrow, the last obscurely angulated, descending 
at the aperture, peristome expanded, acute, thickened within. 

Diam. 26 mill. 

China. 

H. IMPROVISA, Heude. PL 52, fig. 88. 

Narrowly umbilicated, brownish, with three bands, the middle 
one dark, the others light, darker around the umbilicus ; whorls 5, 
the last obsoletely angulated, rugulosely striate ; peristome expanded, 
acute. Diam. 20 mill. 

Tchenkeou, China. 



HELIX. 221 

H. LATRUNCULORTJM, Heude. PI. 52, fig. 86. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rugulosely spirally striate, fulvous; whorls 
5, the last obscurely angulated, inflated below. Diam. 20 mill. 

Tchenkeou, China. 
H. PLETHORICA, Crosse. PI. 52, fig. 87. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, diaphanous, striate-costulate, 
yellowish straw-color; whorls 5, the last with obsoletely angulated 
periphery ; aperture whitish, peristome simple, white. 

Diam. 14'5 mill. 

Hob. unknown- 
H. BREVIBARBIS, Pfr. PL 52, figs. 92, 93, 1. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, diaphanous, corneous white, 
with a peripheral chestnut line, irregularly striate, subdecussated 
by close spiral lines ; whorls 6-1, the last not descending, with carin- 
ated periphery bearing short bristles, base more convex ; lip 
white, expanded above, reflected below. Diam. 14 mill. 

Northern China. 

H. THORACICA, Heude. PL 52, figs. 94-96. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, fragile, with thin longitudinal 
series of minute scales, brownish fulvous ; whorls 7, subplanulate, 
slowly increasing, the last slightly descending in front, convex be- 
low ; peristome simple, slightly expanded, white. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Kiuntcheou, China. 

H. SQUAMOSELLA, Heude. PL 52, figs. 98-100. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, fragile, squamose in spiral lines ; 
whorls 6J, the last not descending, acutely angulated, angle vanish- 
ing towards the aperture; peristome scarcely thickened, slightly 
deflected. Diam. 11 mill. 

Nanking, China. 

H. MICACEA, Heude. PL 52, figs. 5-7. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, fragile, diaphanous,, obliquely striu- 
late, whitish ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last obtusely angu- 
lated, subplane around the umbilicus, a little deflected in front ; 
peristome thin, slightly reflected. Diam. 11 mill. 

NganMng, China. 

H. PHYLLOPHAGA, Heude. PL 52, figs. 8-10. 

Perforate, striulate, with caducous short hairs, fulvous; whorls 
5, with deep suture, and slowly increasing, the last obtusely angulated, 



222 HELIX. 

not deflected in front, convex below; peristome simple, a little 
thickened. Diam. 6 mill. 

Nanking, China. 
H. DORMITANS, Heude. PL 52, figs. 11-13. 

Perforate, pellucid, striulate, with short, caducous hairs; whorls 
5, narrow, slowly increasing, the last obtusely angulated, not des- 
cending at the aperture, base convex; peristome sub-simple. 
Diam. 6 mill. 

L. Hongtse, China. 

H. ARBUSTICOLA, Deshayes. PL 50, figs. 42, 43. 

Moderately umbilicated, irregularly striate, striae stronger at the 
suture, light chestnut color, with obscure whitish strigse and macula- 
tions ; whorls 6, narrow, the last a little deflected in front ; aperture 
white, margin thin, slightly expanded above, more strongly below. 

Diam. 24 mill. 

Moupin, Eastern Thibet. 

*** 

H. BULIMINOIDES, Heude. PL 52, figs. 18, 19. 
H. PSEUDOBULIMINUS, Heude. PL 52, figs. 16, 17. 
H. BULIMINUS, Heude. PL 52, fig. 20. 
H. TAIVANICA, Mollend. PL 52, fig. 21. 

Distinguished conchologists have placed these Chinese species in 
the present group, but after having figured them, I concluded that 
they belonged, the first two, more probably to Turricula, the last 
two to Cochlieella ; they will consequently be described in the next 
volume. 

Unfigured species 

H. PECULIARIS, H. GIBBOSA, and H. SEROTINA, A. Ad. Japan. 
H. SPH^RULATA, Reinh. Japan. 

H. GRADATA, Mollend. Corea. 

H. EUMENES, Westerl. Japan. 

H. SCHOMBURGIANA, Moll. (H. trochulus, Moll, not Ads.) 

China. 
H. BIZONA, and H. SQUAMULINA, Gredler. China. 

Subsection XI, HISPIDELLA, Lowe. 1852. 

H. HORRIPILA, Morelet and Drouet, PL 52, figs. 22-24. 

Narrowly perforate, thin subdiaphanous, closely, very minutely 
striate, decussated by spiral lines, with short, erect, decurrent hairs, 



HELIX. 223 

reddish brown, with a yellowish band; whorls 5?, the last obtusely 
angulated; lip simple, thin. Diam. 9 mill. 

Azores. 
H. ARMITAGEANA, Lowe. PL 52, fig. 25. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, rugulose, shortly pilose, pellucid, oliva- 
ceous corneous, with one or two obsolete darker bands; whorls 4J, 
the last not descending, periphery subangulated, base a little more 
convex ; peristome a little expanded, sublabiate within. 

Diam. 7*5 mill. 

Madeira. 
H. PAVIDA, Mousson. PI. 53, figs. 28, 29. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, subpellucid, corneous to 
brownish black, maculated or punctulated with opaque yellow; 
whorls 4 ; peristome simple, thin, acute. Diam. 5 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe, Palma. 

H. nubigena, Lowe is a synonym. 



H. DEFLORATA, Lowe, Unfigured. Madeira. 

Subsection XII, CILIELLA, Mousson. 1872. 

H. LEPROSA, Shuttlew. PI. 53, figs. 33-35. 

Sub-covered perforate, thin, obliquely costulate-striate, with min- 
ute granules or very fugacious membranaceous scales, reddish corn- 
eous ; whorls 5, the last a little descending, with obtusely angulated 
periphery ; peristome slightly expanded and reflected. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe. 
H. LANOSA, Mousson. PI. 53, figs. 30-32. 

Very narrowly perforate, rather thin, obliquely plicate-striate, 
not granular or rugulose, closely pilose, pellucid, corneous brown ; 
whorls 5, the last slightly descending anteriorly, periphery rounded 
angular, base rounded, smoothish, without hairs ; peristome sim- 
ple, shortly expanded, white, basal portion reflected. 

Diam. 9'5 mill. 

Canary Is. 



Section II, XEROPHILA, Held. 1837. 
Subsection I, EUPARYPHA, Hartmann. 1840. 

H. SEETZENI, Koch. PI. 53, figs. 26, 27. 

Very narrowly perforate, rather solid, striate, chalky white; 



224 HELIX. 

whorls 5 J, the last ventricose, a little descending ; aperture white, 
peristome acute, lipped within. Diam. 19'5 mill. 

Syria. 
Occasionally banded. H. Sabcea, Boiss. is a synonym. 

H. PISANA, Miill. PL 53, figs. 36-40 ; 41, 42. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, somewhat shining, striulate, very 
lightly spirally lineate, yellowish white, variously lineate and 
banded continuously or interruptedly with chestnut ; whorls 5, 
the last slightly descending in front, rounded ; peristome acute, 
rosy lipped within. Diam. 18 mill. 

Mediterranean Region, Canary Is., Madeira* 

The synonyms of this common, beautiful species are H. eingenda? 
Montf.; H. zonaria, Penn., H. rhodostoma, Drap., If. petholata, OL, 
H. Damascena, Parr., H. albina, Ziegl., and H. lineolata, H. Silis, 
H. Eridana and H. Porrina, Chiereg. H. leucas, Linn., is believed 
to be a juvenile of this species, and H. Pisanopsis, Orb., said to be 
Cuban, but not found there, is probably another. 

Var. ALBORANENSIS, Webb and Berth. Figs. 41, 42. 

Smaller, more globose, perforation minute but distinct, unicol- 
ored or with numerous lines, or marbled. 

Canary Is. 

Var. ANONYMA, Westerl. Civita Vecchia. 

Var. SARDOA, Zglr. 

Smaller, umbilicus nearly closed, with continuous and interrupted 
bands. Diam. 12-13 mill. 

Sardinia. 
Var. GEMINATA, Mouss. 

Imperforate, or nearly so, somewhat solid, subcalcareous, not 
shining, with acute striae, crossed by distant spiral lines, whitish 
with continuous, or radiatingly interrupted or punctate spiral red- 
dish or violet-grey lines. Diam. 20 mill. 

Canary Is. 

H. MACANDREWIANA, Pfr. PL 53, fig. '43. 

Imperforate, rather solid, decussated by incremental, and closer 
spiral striae, light rosy, with dark spiral lines ; whorls 4, the last 
inflated, scarcely descending in front, base rosy, unicolored ; aperture 
wine colored, columella purplish, peristome simple. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Salvage Isl., near Madeira. 

H. ustulata, Lowe is a synonym. 




225 

H. GRASSETI, Tarnier. PL 53, figs. 44, 45. 

Subcovered perforate, striate, decussated, whitish with greyish 
brown continuous or interrupted lines; whorls 44, the last not des- 
cending in front, periphery obtusely angulated, base more convex ; 
aperture greyish, peristome simple, acute, with a slight whitish 
interior callus. Diam. 16 mill. 

Ins. Grand Canary. 

H. planata, Webb and Berth, is a synonym. It is probably, 
like its predecessors, only a variety of H. Pisana, 

H. PISANOPSIS, Servain. PI. 53, figs. 49, 50. 

The work in which this species is described is not accessible to 
me ; the figures refer to the variety. 

Portugal. 
Var. AEGUSA, Kobelt. 

Very narrowly perforate, solid, chalky, white or variously con- 
tinuously or interruptedly banded with chestnut ; w r horls 6, slowly 
increasing, the last inflated, scarcely descending in front ; aperture 
purplish, showing the bands, peristome reddish, with orange lip. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Western Sicily. 

H. HIEROPHANTA, Mabille. PL 53, figs. 46, 47. . 

Subimperforate, solid, opaque, dull striate, yellowish white, with 
dark chocolate lines in spiral and radiating series, and spiral bands, 
apex chocolate ; whorls 445, rapidly enlarging, the last large, 
rounded angular, not descending, convex below; peristome acute, 
remotely labiate within. Diam. 16 mill. 

Ins. Teneriffe. 

Belongs to the group of H. Pisana, but is more globose. 

H. DECORATA, Pfr. PL 53, figs. 51, 52. 

Subperforate, thin, striulate, whitish, with interrupted chestnut 
lines, sometimes confluent ; whorls 4 J, convex, the last descending ; 
aperture brownish, peristome scarcely lipped within, columellar 
margin membranaceous, dilated, strongly reflected. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

H. DEHNEI, Kossm. PL 53, figs. 58-61. 

Imperforate, somewhat solid, slightly decussated, whitish, rosy or 
yellowish, generally with one or two, or several continuous yellow- 
15 



226 HELIX. 

ish brown bands, the upper one usually widest, sometimes the bands 
are obsolete ; whorls 5, the last descending anteriorly, the periph- 
ery obtusely angulated and base inflated ; aperture rosy, peristome 
simple, dilated, red-lipped within, columella dilated, reflected-ap- 
pressed. Diam. 18 mill. 

Western Morocco. 

If. epiglottidea, Beck is a synonym. 
Var. ERYTHRONIXIA, Bourg. Morocco. 

H. IMPUGNATA, Mousson. PI. 53, figs. 53, 54. 

Subcovered perforate, rugulosely striate, decussated by slighter 
spiral lines, opaque, whitish, with numerous spiral, continuous or 
interrupted brownish grey or brownish lines and dots, suture super- 
ficial, thread-margined above; whorls 5, the last not descending, 
periphery somewhat serrulate-carinate ; peristome simple, widely, 
thinly lipped within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Ins. Lanzarote, Canaries. 
H. f estiva, Lowe, Mss. belongs here. 

Var. SUBGEMINATA, Mousson. 

Whorls rounded-angular, striae a little scabrous, with a few wide 
spiral sulci. 

H. PLANATA, Chemn. PI. 54, figs, 62, 63 ; PL 53, figs. 55-57. 

Scarcely perforate, somewhat* solid, closely undulately striate, 
lightly decussated, whitish, unicolored or variously banded with 
chestnut, bands sometimes interrupted ; whorls 4, the last acutely 
carinated, not descending in front, base turgid ; aperture whitish, 
peristome acute, lipped within. Diam. 20 mill. 

North Africa, Spain, Canaries. 

H. Jielicella, Wood, H. calliostoma, Ad. and Reeve, and H. arie- 
tina, Rossm. are synonyms. ' 

Var. ERYTHROSTOMA, Phil. Figs. 55-57. 

Aperture flesh-red, carina not much compressed, lower. 

H. SUBDENTATA, Fer. PI. 54, figs. 74-76. 

Covered perforate, solid, striulate, very minutely decussated, 
white, often with numerous brown spiral lines ; whorls 5, the last 
rounded, descending in front, base convex ; aperture rosy, parietal 



HELIX. 227 

wall unidentate, peristome simple, expanded, strongly labiate with- 
in, margins joined by a brownish callus. Diani. 19 mill. 

Persia f 

H. subcarinata, Menke and H. Cince, Klett are synonyms ; the 
latter a juvenile. 

H. CALOPSIS, Bourg. PL 54, figs. 66-68. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, subopaque, shining, striate, 
whitish, with 10 unequal chocolate bands, variegated with white, 
two superior and eight inferior ; whorls 6, subplanulate, carinate, 
carina following the suture, rapidly increasing, the last dilated, 
turgid below; peristome acute, white lipped within. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Algiers. 

H. PISANIFORMIS, Bourg. PI. 54, figs. 64, 65. 

Subglobose, strongly striate ; whorls rounded, the last much de- 
flected at -the aperture, with three chestuut bands, of which the 
lower one is narrow; aperture obliquely oval, peristome simple, 
thickened within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Pays Cotnalis, E. Africa. 

I am inclined to believe the following three species only forms of 
the above ; at least, the four reveal a common ancestry. 

H. COMALIANA, Bourg. PL 54, figs. 69-71. 

. Narrowly perforate, depressed above, convex below, subopaque, 
rather solid, striulate, and submalleate towards the aperture, white, 
with three chestnut zones; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, the last 
large ; peristome slightly expanded, labiate within. 
Diam. 17 mill. 

Pays Comalis, E. Africa. 

H. TIANI, (Revoil) Bourg. PL 54, figs. 72, 73. 

Narrowly perforate, convex above, more convex below, subopaque, 
rather solid, strongly sharply striate and obscurely malleate ; whit- 
ish, or with 3 or 4 chestnut zones ; whorls 4i, the last large, rounded, 
descending in front ; peristome a little expanded, thickened within, 
aperture yellowish. Diam. 18 mill. 

Pays Comalis, E. Africa. 

H. TOHENICA, Bourg. PL 54, figs. 77-79. 

Scarcely rimate, equally convex above and below, solid, opaque, 
ponderous, striulate, somewhat submalleate, white, with three chest- 



228 HELIX. 

nut bands ; whorls 5, convex, rapidly enlarging, the last large, sub- 
ventricose, slightly descending, base angulated round the umbilicus, 
peristome thickened, obtuse, a little expanded. 
Diam. 21 mill. 

Pays Comalis, E. Africa. 

*** 

H. ABEOLATA, Sowb. PI. 54, fig. 80. 

Perforate, striate, a little shining, whitish, variously ornamented 
with interrupted spiral lines ; whorls 5, the last scarcely descend- 
ing ; aperture light brownish, peristome acute, sublabiate with- 
in, columellar margin dentately thickened. 

Diam. 26 mill. * 

Lower Califoania. 

H. PANDORA, Forbes. PL 54, figs. 85, 86. 

Subcovered perforate, rather thin, ruguloss, very minutely con- 
centrically striated, violet brown above, sometimes with chestnut 
bands, whitish or ash color below ; whorls 5, the last inflated, scarce- 
ly descending in front ; peristome scarcely expanding, sublabiate 
within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Lower California. 

H. damascenus, Gould is a synonym. 

H. LEVIS, Pfr. PL 54, figs. 81-83. 

Perforate, thin, smooth, obliquely striate, obsoletely granulated, 
whitish, with serial spots or bands of pellucid corneous ; whorls 5, 
the last inflated ; aperture whitish or fulvous, peristome acute, sub- 
labiate within, columellar margin dilated above, strongly reflected, 
often dentate. Diam. 16 mill. 

Lower California. 

Fig. 81 is a copy of a figure given by Mr. W. G. Binney as rep- 
resenting a variety of H. areolata ; it appears to me to be a form of 
H. levis. 

H. VEATCHII, Newcomb. PL 54, fig. 84. 

Subcovered perforate, rather thin, obliquely striate, slightly 
spirally corrugated, yellowish white, with numerous, interrupted 
chestnut bands ; whorls 6, the last rather large, declining towards 
the aperture ; lip a little expanded, slightly thickened within, colu- 
mellar margin often subdentate. Diam. 23 mill. 

Lower California. 



HELIX. 229 

H. TRYONI. Newcomb. PL 54, fig. 87. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, thick, with incremental and spiral 
striae, violet-ash color above, yellowish white or brownish white 
below ; whorls 6, the last descending ; peristome scarcely expanded, 
callous within, columella callous, obsoletely unidentate. 

Diam. 1 in. 

Sta. Barbara, and San Nicolas Is. California. 

Unftgured species of Euparypha. 

H. MENTONENSIS, Sidebotham. (Between H. Pisana and H. vir- 

gata.) Mentone. 

H. NAUDIERI, Bourg. France. 

H. EUSAKCA, Ancey. So. Italy. 

H. EUSARCOM^EA, Ancey. Minorca. 

H. AMBUSTA, Ancey. Algiers. 

H. PISANELLA, Mabille. Canary Is. 

H. ANTONTANA, Rochebrune. St. Antoine, France. 

H. OERTZENI, H. HIERAPETRANA, Maltzan. Crete. 

H. DOUMETI, H. STEREOLENA, H. AciSANA, Bourg. Tunis. 

H. OCCONELLA, H. CLOSSURA, H. ELITHIA, H. ARBANA, H. IONS- 
TOMA, H. IANTHINOSTOMA, H. AMETHYSTA, H. DjERBANICA, 

H. ZITANENSIS, H. SALEMENSIS, H. GERGISENSIS, H. CARPIEN- 
sis, H. HAMADANICA, H. ENICA, and H, IDIA, Letourn. et 
Bourg. Tunis. 

H. CHAMBARDI, Letourn. Italy, Istria, Egypt, Tunis. 

H. -SUBPISANA, Bourg. Tunis, Spain, Istria. 

H. LENOLEUCA, Bourg. Egypt, Syria. 

H. AGAROI, H. OLIVARESI, Servain. Spain. 

H. DERMOI, Servain. Spain, Morocco, Tunis. 

H, BYRS^E, H. RADESIANA, Mares. Tunis. 

H. LEVESQUEI, Berthier. Algiers, Tunis. 

H. COUTURIERI, Bourg. Algiers. 

H. THINOPHILA, Bourg. Egypt. 

H. J)O:NATII, Berthier. Italy, Spain, Tunis, Syria. 

H. CUTTATI, Bourg. Spain, Provence, Istria. 

H. MOUROI, Servain. Spain, Provence. 

H. PISANELLA, Servain. Spain, Provence, Algiers, Tuni*. 

Most of the above names appear to characterize individual rather 

than specific differences ; whether the minute subdivisions instituted 

by the "new French school" of Conchologists w r ill eventually win 

their way to general acceptance, is very doubtful. 



230 HELIX. 

Subsection II, HELIOMANES. Moquin-Tandon, 1855. 

H. VARIABILIS, Drap. PL 54, figs. 88-92 ; PI. 55, figs. 93-95, 2. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, smooth, whitish or yellowish, 
unicolored or variously ornamented with interrupted chestnut 
bands ; whorls 5-6, the last slightly descending in front ; aperture 
often brownish white, peristoine acute, brown lipped within. 

Diam. 12-19 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonyms are numerous: H. striata, Brard, H. zonaria, Don. 
H. subalbida, Poir. H. obsoleta, and H. maculosa, Ziegl., H. monili- 
fera, Menke, H. Burdigalensis, Grat., H. elegans, Brown?, H. dis- 
juncta, Turton ? H. Istriensis, Ziegl. H. virgata, Montg. (Fig. 2.), 
and var. subalbida, Poiret. 

Var. TURBINATA, Cafici. PI. 55, fig. 95. 
Shell with spire greatly elevated. 

Sicily. 
H. DANIELI, Bourg. PI. 55, figs. 96-98. 

Narrowly umbilicated, chalky, opaque, whitish, regularly costu- 
late-striate ; whorls 7, convex, regularly increasing; peristome 
simple, acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Brittany. 

H. EUPHORCA, Bourg. PI. 55, figs. 99-1 ; PL 57, figs. 18-20. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, white, chalky, irregularly substriate, 
obscurely malleate, apex black ; whorls 6, slightly convex above, 
rapidly increasing, the last ventricosely rounded ; peristome acute, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Algeria; Dep. Herault, France. 

H. JICKELII, Nevill. PL 55, figs. 3, 4. 

Perforate, rather thin, irregularly striate, strise, becoming rib- 
like about the suture ; whitish, with chestnut bands, suture linear 
impressed ; whorls 6, slowly enlarging, the last subinflated, oblique- 
ly dilated, slightly descending in front ; peristome acute, with inte- 
rior callus. Diam. 16 mill. 

Abyssinia. 

Is included by Ancey in his new group Lejeania. 

H. HYDRUNTINA, Blanc. PL 55, figs. 5, 6. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, irregularly striate," chalky white, 



HELIX. 231 

without bands ; whorls nearly 6, slowly enlarging, the last a little 
inflated, descending in front ; peristome acute, labiate within. 
Diam. 17 mill. 

Otranto. 

H. EUXIXA, Clessin. PI. 55, figs. 7-9. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, yellowish white, with inter- 
rupted chestnut bands, obsoletely, irregularly striulate; whorls 6, 
slowly increasing, rounded ; peristome acute, rosy-lipped within. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Crimea. 

H. LUTEATA, Parr. PI. 55, figs. 10-13. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely striate, yellowish 
or white, unicolored, or with continuous or interrupted fulvous or 
chestnut bands ; whorls 5J, the last descending in front, dilated 
peristome simple, fulvous, thickened within. Diam. 16 mill. 

Portugal. 

H. ACCOMPSIA, Bourg. PL 55, figs. 16, 17. 

Narrowly umbilicated, solid, chalky, white, shining, nearly smooth, 
apex fulvous ; whorls 7, a little convex, with impressed suture, last 
whorl dilated, rounded ; peristome simple, acute, slightly margined 
within. Diam. 22 mill. 

Algiers, Tunis. 

H. CHALCIDICA, Blanc. PI. 55, figs, 14, 15. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rugosely striate, chalky white* with a few 
black dots, apex brownish black; whorls 6, the penultimate protrud- 
ing, the last descending in front, base somewhat flattened ; peristome 
simple, obtuse, slightly rosy-lipped within. Diam. 16 mill. 

Chalcis, Eubcea. 
H. SUBROSTRATA, Fer. PI. 55, figs. 18, 21. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, solid, closely, sharply striate, white, 
unicolored or narrowly banded, apex shining, corneous; whorls 6-6 , 
slowly increasing, the last not deflected anteriorly ; peristome acute, 
labiate within. Diam. 18 mill. t 

Spain, Algeria. 

H. CHORETA, Bourg. PI. 55, figs. 22-26. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, chalky, white, with two interrupted 
zones of chocolate color, strongly striate on the last whorl, apex, 
black; whorls 6, convex, regularly increasing, the last rounded 



232 HELIX. 

descending at the aperture; peristome simple, acute, white-lipped 
within, columellar and basal margins slightly patulous. 
Diam. 12 mill. 

Algiers. 

H. SIMULATA, Fer. PI. 55, figs. 27-29. 

Narrowly umbilicated, regularly costate-striate, whitish or greyish, 
with or without chestnut or chocolate, more or less interrupted 
bands ; whorls 5 ; peristome acute, labiate within. Diam. 13 mill. 

Syria, Egypt. 
? H. striaiula, Beck is a synonym. 

H. CAMERATA, Mousson. PL 56, figs. 30, 31. 

Perforate, rather thin, smoothish, lightly striate, whitish, marbled 
with yellowish brown or chestnut, with an interrupted dorsal band, 
and narrow indistinct ones on the base ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, 
the last declining, obsoletely angular, with rounded base ; peristome 
simple, widely but thinly labiate within. Diam. 15 rnilL. 

Mogador, Morocco. 
H. COLOMESIANA, Bourg. PL 56, figs. 32-34. 

Kather narrowly umbilicated, solid, chalky, not shining, whitish, 
or with interrupted light chestnut zones, or with rare, obsolete 
variable maculations, costulate-striate, apex black ; whorls 6, a little 
convex, slowly regularly increasing, with impressed suture, last 
whorl narrow, rounded, slightly deflected above; peristome acute, 
white-or yellowish-lipped within. Diam. 18 mill. 

Algiers. 

According to Morelet and others this is a synonym of H. caperata, 
var. Mogadorensis, Lowe, the latter having a carinated periphery 
which is supposed to indicate juvenility. I am not satisfied with 
this approximation. See Journ. de Conch. 35. 1880. 

H. PELLUCENS, Shuttlew. PL 56, figs. 35, 36, 

Perforate, thin, closely obliquely striate, diaphanous, fulvous, with 
darker more or less interrupted bands and lines; whorls 6, the last 
not descending, base ventricose ; peristome acute, sublabiate within. 

Diam. 12.7 mill. 

Corsica. 

H. PARVA, Parr. PL 56, figs. 37, 38. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, striulate, a little shining, brownish 
yellow, apex corneous; whorls 5$, the last with a white subangukted 
periphery ; peristome acute, labiate within. Diam. 9'6 mill. 

Sardinia. 



HELIX. 233 

H. RUFOLABRIS, Benoit. PI. 56, figs. 39, 40. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, solid, irregularly striate, a little shin- 
ing, white, apex blackish corneous; whorls 5, the last inflated, 
yellowish in front, not descending; peristome simple, strongly chestnut 
lipped within. Diam. 11 mill. 

Sicily* 
H. HAMILCARIS, Kobelt. PL 56, figs. 43-45. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, striulate, yellowish white, 
with dark brown bands, interrupted and confluent above, apex 
corneous; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last subdilated, rounded, 
scarcely descending in front, somewhat flattened below ; peristome 
acute, brown margined within, with a strong, bright orange callus. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Mte. Pellegrino, Sicily. 
H. BENOITI, Cafici. PL 56, figs. 46-48. 

Rather widely umbilicated, striulate, white or light yellowish,, 
with continuous or interrupted chestnut bands, apex chestnut colored; 
whorls 6J, the last depressed above, dilated, descending in front; 
peristome simple, acute, white lipped within. Diam. 14-16 mill. 

Sicily. 
H. MOESTA, Parr. PL 56, figs. 49-51, 52-54. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, striulate, white, variously interrup- 
tedly fasciate with chocolate, apex corneous; whorls 6, slowly 
increasing, the last scarcely descending in front, base subplanate; 
peristome simple, acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 15 mill. 

ML Pellegrino, near Palermo, Sicily. 

Pfeiffer considered this a [variety of H. variabilis; it appears to be 
sufficiently distinct. 

Var. LUCTUOSA, Cafici, Figs. 52-54. 

Shell more depressed, with less convex whorls, banding more 
interrupted, and narrower. 

H. ARADASII, Pirajno. PL 56, figs. 58-60; 55-57. 

Perforate, somewhat thin, striate, whitish or brownish, sometimes 
unicolored, mostly interruptedly and continuously multifasciate 
with chestnut ; whorls 6, the last large, narrow, scarcely descending; 
peristome simple, acute, white or chestnut lipped within. 

Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Sicily. 
H. filograna, Villa may be referred to this species. 



234 HELIX. 

Var. SUBPROFUGA, Stabile. Figs. 55-57. 

Perforate, subglobose, or depressed globose, regularly striate, last 
whorl large, tumid, obsoletely angulated ; peristome thinly white- 
lipped. Diam. 9-9*5 mill. 

Piedmont, Naples. 
H. TURBINATA, Jan. PL 56, figs. 77, 78. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, minutely striate, white, variegated by 
clouds and bands of chestnut' whorls 5J, the last inflated; peristome 
simple, labiate within. Diam. 11/5 mill. 

Syra, Crete. 

H. cyclostomoidds, Porro and H. pilula, Mouss. are synonyms. 

H. CANDIOTA, Frival. PL 56, Figs. 73, 74. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, striulate, not shining, whitish, radiately 
.strigated with chestnut, sometimes with a median spiral band; 
whorls 6, rather convex, the last rounded, subinflated, descending 
in front; peristome simple, acute, with -one or two interior lips, 
visible through the shell. Diam. 10 mill. 

Candia, Syra. 

H. AGREABILIS, Ziegler. PL 56, figs. 71, 72. 

Perforate, slightly striulate, almost smooth, shining, white, with 
narrow chestnut bands, apex black; whorls 6, slowly increasing, 
with impressed suture, last whorl dilated, rounded, slightly descend- 
ing in front; peristome simple, white-lipped. Diam. 11 mill. 

Ins. Corfu. 

Often referred to the synonymy of H. variabilw. 

H. ARCUATA, Ziegler. PL 56, figs. 81,<82. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, lightly striate, shining, 
white, with distinct dark chestnut bands ; whorls 5, the last sub- 
dilated, not descending in front; peristome simple, acute, strongly 
labiate within. Diam. 11 mill. 

Corfu. 

Is a very doubtful species : has been referred to H. maritima. 

H. CYRENAICA, Martens. PL 56, figs. 63-66. 

Perforate, rather thin, minutely rugosely striate, whitish, punctate 
or maculate with chestnut, rarely radiate, apex dark, last whorl 
more or less chestnut color with a few lighter strigations ; whorls 
4-5, convex, the last inflated; peristome thin, acute, chestnut 
color, white-lipped within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Bengazi, in Barlca, N. Africa. 



HELIX. 235 

H. VARIEGATA, Frivaldszky. PL 56, figs. 75, 76. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, striulate, white, with brownish strigse 
and maculations, apex black; whorls 5?, scarcely convex, slowly 
increasing, the last a little dilated, subdepressed, not descending at 
the aperture; peristome acute, distinctly labiate within. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Epirus. 
Var. PUSTULOSA, Parr. 

Thicker, smoother, light yellowish, the strigse and maculations 
indistinct. 

Near Constantinople. 

H. MARITIMA, Drap. PI. 56, figs. 67-70, 41, 42. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, thinly striate, opaque, 
white, fasciate with chestnut or greyish, interrupted, maculated or 
punctate above, numerous and subcontinuous below; whorls 5?-6, 
narrow, the last descending a little at the aperture, convex below ; 
peristome simple, acute, with a pink or chestnut interior callus. 

Diam. 8-16 mill. 

France, Italy, Canary Is. etc. 

Is H. lineaia, Olivi., H. pseudenhalia, Bourg. (figs. 41,42), IT. 
Canariensis, Shuttl. (= simulata, Webb and Berth. ?), and H. 
herbicola, Shuttl. (figs. 13, 14); the three latter Canarian. 

H. LAUTA, Lowe. PL 56, figs. 61, 62. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, white, with obsolete or 
obscure narrow, interrupted, chestnut bands, a little shining, very 
closely striate; whorls 5, the last rounded, scarcely descending; 
peristome acute, labiate within. 

Diam. 11-14 mill. 

France, 'Algiers, Greece. 

Erroneously referred by Lowe to Porto Sancto, Madeiran 
Archipelago. H. submaritima, Desm. is a synonym. 

H. MAURITANIA, Bourg. PL 57, figs. 85-89. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, strongly striate, occasionally s'ub- 
lamellar; yellowish white, variously interruptedly zoned and 
maculated with chestnut; whorls 7, the last ventricose, rounded, a 
little descending in front; aperture white, peristome simple, acute, 
remotely white-lipped within. Diam. 20-25 mill. 

Algeria. 



236 HELIX. 

H. DURIEURI, Moquin Tandon. PI. 56, figs. 79. 80. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, brownish white, faintly several 
banded, apex corneous ; whorls 5, the last ventricose ; aperture sub- 
labiate within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Algeria. 
H. BERLIERI, Morelet. PI. 56, figs. 83, 84. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, rugosely striate, variegated whitish 
and corneous; whorls 5, the last ventricose; peristome simple, 
labiate within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Algeria. 

H. lacertarum, Bourg, is possibly identical. 
t 

H. DJEBBARICA, Bourg. PL 57, figs. 90-92. 

Perforate, solid, opaque, lightly but sharply costulate, chalky, 
whitish, with more or less fulvous radiating flames above, and four 
to six interrupted bands below ; whorls 5J, the last obtusely carin- 
ate, (evanescent towards the aperture,) slightly descending in front ; 
peristome simple, acute, red-lipped within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Near Or an, Algeria. 
H. MODICA, Morelet. PI. 57, fig. 93. 

Perforate, somewhat solid, obsoletely rugosely striate, whitish, 
unicolored or fasciate and rarely variegated with chestnut, apex 
blackish corneous; whorls 5-5 ?, exserted planulate, the last obtuse- 
ly angulated and often thread-margined on the periphery ; per- 
istome acute, labiate within. Diam 7 mill. 

Algeria. 

H. COTTYI, Morelet. PI. 57, figs. 96, 97. 

Moderately umbilicated, irregularly costulate, white, interrupt- 
edly fasciate and towards the apex variegated with corneous ; 
whorls 6, the last a little dilated; peristome acute, scarcely la- 
biate within. Diam 11-15 mill. 

Morocco. 

H. CISTORUM, Morelet. PI. 57, figs. 94, 95. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, closely plicately striate, ashy 
corneous, marbled with whitish, with an interrupted chestnut zone 
on 'the periphery and others, continuous, on the base ; whorls 6 y 
somewhat flattened, turgid at the suture, the last depressed, not 
descending in front, periphery obsoletely angulated ; peristome 
simple, acute, scarcely labiate within. 

Diam 12 mill. , 

Prov. Alemtejo, Portugal. 



HELIX. 237 

H. SEMENOWI, Martens. PL 57, figs. 99-1, 2. 

Narrowly uinbilicated, solid, violaceous white, not banded ; 
whorls 5, tumid, the last scarcely descending, narrow ; peristome 
simple, obtuse, thickened within. 

Diam. 10*5 mill. 

Tliianschan Mts. Turkestan. 

Var. DEPRESSA, Mousson, (fig. 2.) 

H. DENDROPHILA, Mabille. PL 57, figs. 5, 6. 

Narrowly uinbilicated, rather solid, opaque, white or yellowish 
with chestnut bands, apex purple, surface very closely striated ; 
whorls 6-6 J, somew T hat convex, rapidly increasing, with distinct 
suture, the last larger, obsoletely angulated ; peristome acute, 
remotely lipped within. Diam. 10-14 mill. 

Grand Canary Is. 
H. AGLAOMETA, Mabille. PL 57, figs. 15-17. 

Perforate, solid, opaque, a little shining, irregularly densely 
striate, greyish brown, with subinterrupted dark bands and cor- 
neous maculations, apex yellowish ; whorls 5-6, rapidly enlarging, 
the last dilated towards the aperture, not descending; peristome 
acute, slightly thickened within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Grand Canary I. 

H. LANCEROTTENSIS. Webb and Berth. PL 57, figs. 9-12. 

Subcovered perforate, rather solid, striulate, white, with inter- 
rupted chestnut bands, apex blackish ; whorls 6, the last inflated, 
scarcely descending anteriorly ; peristome simple, labiate, sometimes 
bilabiate within. Diam. 7*75 mill. 

Ins. Lancerotte, Canaries. 

Vars. Webbii and BertJieloti are smaller, the former with nar- 
rower, the latter with wider umbilicus. 

Var. ADOPT ATA, Mousson. PL 57, figs. 11, 12. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat thin, striulate, distinctly striate, 
fasciate and maculate with light corneous and white ; whorls 4J, 
subtumid at the suture, the last not descending nor inflated, obso- 
letely angulated ; peristome simple, acute. 

Diam. 6*5 mill. 

Ins. Gomera, Canaries. 

H. ORBIGNYI, Webb and Berthelot. PL 57, fig. 98. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, irregularly more or less rugosely or 
plicosely striate, whitish, clouded, maculated or fasciate with cor- 



238 HELIX. 

neous, epidermis fugacious, with oblique series of hairs in young 
specimens, suture deep, subincised ; whorls 4J-5, the last not de- 
scending ; peristome simple, acute. 
Diani. 8 mill. 

Canary Islands. 

Wollaston considers this a variety of the preceding species. 
H. Orotavana, Tarnier is a synonym. 

Var. MITIGATA, Mousson. 

A little more globose, thin, last whorl subinflated, thinly striate, 
subcorneous, with a few stride, and a whitish dorsal band, hairs 
distinct, peristome labiate within. 

Var. CALCAREA, Mousson. 

Smaller, somewhat solid, strongly striate, with a few corneous 
striae above and spiral lines and zones beneath. 

Diam. 6-6'5 mill. 

Unfigured species of Heliomanes. 

H. SALENTINA, Blanc. (H. variabilis, Terver, H. lauta (pars) Lo- 
card.) France. 

H. SlTIFIENSIS, H. JUSIANA, H. GRANNONENSIS, H. ASTATA, Bourg. 



H. MENDOZ^E, H. OGIACA, H. BLASI, H. MENDRANOI, Servain. 

Tunis. 

H. AGNA, H. FCEDATA, H. ZERGUANA, Hagenmuller. Tunis. 

H. DIDYMOPSIS, Fagot. France. 

H. PHILOXERA, Cafici. Sicily. 

H. COMBUSTA, H. PR^EVALENS, H. PETR.EA, H. BARIA, H. LAPI- 

DOSA, H. CALCARINA, H. ARDEKs, Ancey. Algiers. 

H. UNGERI, Zelebor. Asia Minor, Cyprus. 

H. PHTHIOTA, H. PASTORELLA, H. MESOSTOMA, Westcrl. 

Greece. 

H. ADEMATA, H. AVENioNENsis, Bourg. France. 

H. CASTROIANA, Servain. France. 

H. TASSYANA, H. MABIDA, Fagot. France. 

H. PROPRIA, Galland. France. 

H. KABYLIANA, Debeaux. Kahykea. 

H. HELLENICA, Bourg. Egypt. 

H, ALIBRANDI, H. ANXURINA, Rigacci. Italy. 



HELIX. 239 

H. PANURGA, H. AMOMA, H. MAHDURINA, H. MONEREA, H. CHI- 

OIDEA, H. SPILMENTI, H. CATAROTA, H. CATAROTELLA, Bourg. 

Tunis. 
H. EUPHORCELLA, Pechaud. Tunis. 

H. ESNORCA, H. EUPHORCOPSIS, H. ET^MA, H. NYA, H. LATASTEI. 
H. METICULOSA, H. LATASTEOPSIS, H. PHCEBEIA, H. CATJD,EFAO 

TA, Letourn. et Bourg. Tunis. 

H. ASPILA, Bourg. Algiers. 

H. ACOMPSELLA, Ancey. Algiers. 

H. CORXARIA, Berthier. Rhodes. 

H, HERACLEANA, Bourg. Crete. 

H. XESTUOSA, Berthier. Tunis. 

H. CANA, H. LEUCESTHA, H. CERTA, H. LEUCOPHORA, H. INGENUA, 
H. ACELA, H. EULABA, H. SlTISIENSIS, H. ORETA, H. ANE- 
PHELA, H. PEDIAXA, H. CASSERTANA, H. FERA, H. HOLA, 
H. MISARA, H. DEXIA, H. NEFTANA, Bourg. Tunis. 

H. FERIANICA, H. TACAPIACA, H. TABARKANA, H. UNA, H. 
TEBOURBANA, H. THERA, H. VAFELLA, H. PSAMM^ECELLA, 
H. PSAMMATH^EA, H. DiLORicATA, Letourn. et Bourg. 

Tunis. 

H. PEDIANOPSIS, H. VIVIDA, Hagenmiiller. Tunis. 

H. THERELLA, Berthier. Tunis. 

H. TRITONIDES, Jus. Tunis. 

H. PRIVATA, Galland. Tunis. 

H. MICROMPHALUS, Letourn. Tunis. 

The remarks made upon the unfigured species of the preceding 
group (p. 229) will apply equally well here. Besides the above, a 
number of species from other countries are incidentally referred to 
in Letourneux and Bourguignat's Prodr. Mai. Tunisie, the descrip- 
tions of many of which have not yet been published. 

Subsection III, HELICELLA, Moquin Tandon. 1855. 

H. CRETICA, Fer. PL 57, figs. 7, 8. 

Moderately umbilicated, obliquely striulate, dirty white, with 
various interrupted chestnut bands ; whorls 6, peristome acute, thinly 
labiate within. Diam, 16 mill. 

Candia, Rhodes. 
Var. LITTORALIS, Mousson. 

Smaller, less distinctly striate, variegated with gray, base a little 
more convex. 

Cyprus. 



240 HELIX. 

H. CAUTA, Westerl. PL 57, figs. 3, 4. 

Moderately umbilicated, regularly striulate above, the last whorl 
rugose, dirty white, unicolored or black dotted, occasionally obso- 
letely, and very rarely distinctly chestnut banded; whorls 6, the last 
descending in front ; peristome acute, thinly white-lipped within. 

Diam. 16-20 mill. 

Athens, Greece. 

Very probably a variety of H. Cretica, Fer. 

H. PIRATARUM, Kobelt. PI. 57, figs. 21-23, 24, 25. 

Bather riarrowly umbilicated, solid, chalky, irregularly striulate, 
white, usually variously chestnut banded and strigate, apex black; 
whorls 6, the last dilated, slightly deflected in front; peristome 
simple, with porcellanous inner lip. Diam. 1 in. 

Algiers. 
Var. MINOR. 

Shell smaller, more globose. 

H. DEVAUXII, Debeaux. PL 58, figs. 29-31. 

Narrowly umbilicated, stout, strongly striate, whitish, with five 
interrupted chestnut bands, spire maculated with chestnut; body 
whorl with obtusely angulated periphery; peristome with strong 
white internal lip. Diam. 12 mill. 

Kabylcea. 

Bourgingnat considers this identical with H. mcesta, Parreyss. 

H. VESTALIS, Parreyss. PL 57, figs. 26-28. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, white, shining, sometimes chestnut 
banded; whorls. 5-5 i, the last wide; peristome simple, a little 
lipped-within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Egypt, Syria. 

H. mirabilis, Parr, has been referred to this species, as well as H. 
palmarum and Alexandrina, Parr, and H. striata, Ehrenb. 

Var. RADIOLATA, Mousson. 

H. TERVERII, Mich. PL 58, figs. 32-34. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, regularly striate, a little 
shining; whitish, chestnut color or greyish, variously punctate, 
maculated or banded with grey or dark chestnut, apex corneous; 
whorls 6, the last subangulated above; peristome acute, labiate, 
sometimes bilabiate within. Diam. 13 mill. 

France, Algiers. 

It is J31 cisalpina, Jan. Mss. 




HELIX. 241 

H. PHARI,, Fagot. PL 58, figs. 37, 38. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, with conical spire, strongly striate; 
yellowish, interruptedly banded with chestnut. Diam. 12 mill. 

Trieste. 
H. ADOLFI, Pfr. PL 58, figs. 41-44. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather solid, closely costulate-striate, 
white, interruptedly or subcontinuously banded with chestnut or 
ferruginous; whorls 6, the last narrow, not descending; peristome 
simple, whitish-or chestnut-lipped within. Diam. 20-25 mill. 

Almeria, Spain. 

H. Terverii of Rossmassler, not Mich. 

H. STIPABUM, Rossm. PL 58, figs. 45-48. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, chalky, with close, sharp striae, 
rarely maculosely striate with chestnut ; whorls 6, slowly enlarging, 
the last turgid, subdescending in front, periphery subangulated ; 
peristome simple, acute, remotely white-lipped within. 

Diam. 20 mill. 

Almeria, Spain. 
H. FINITIMA, Morelet. PL 58, figs. 39, 40. 

Moderately umbilicated, chalky, costulate or occasionally striate, 
whitish or greyish fulvous, sometimes banded; whorls 6, convex, 
the last not descending, carinate, the carina often crenulated ; peris- 
tome simple, remotely labiate within. Diam. 19 mill. 

Morocco. 
H. ARIGONIS, Rossm. PL 58, figs. 51-54. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, with thread-like costulse above, 
shining, yellowish, variegated and banded with chestnut; w r horls 6, 
narrow, the last subdepressed at the suture ; peristome simple, white- 
lipped within. Diam. 22 mill. 

Spain. 

H. CESPITUM, Drap. PL 58, figs. 55-57; PL 59, figs. 58, 59. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, white, usually numerously, more 
or- less interruptedly banded with chestnut, sometimes unicolored ; 
whorls 6, the last large, narrow, scarcely descending in front; per- 
istome acute, white lipped within. Diam. 20-25 mill. 

France, Spain, Italy, Sicily etc. 

The synonymy includes H. varians and H. fasciata, Risso, H. 
carnina, Chiereg., ? H. fasciolata, Poir., H. Eurythmia, Hartm., and 

probably H. cespitoides, Fischer, said to come from New Caledonia. 
16 



242 ^ HELIX. 

Var. INTRODUCTA, Ziegler. Fig. 59. 

Depressed, faintly banded, or yellowish without band, umbilicus 
wider. 

N. Italy, Grasse, France. 
Var. DISMASTHIA, Nevill. 

Depressed, rather solid, whorls 7, scarcely convex, last whorl com- 
pressed, scarcely descending, umbilicus narrower. 

Mentone, and near Genoa. 
Var. ALTICOLA, Nevill. 

More elevated, ^thinner, widely umbilicated; whorls 7, convex, 
the last globosely rounded, tumid at base. 
Diam. 27'5, alt. 18 mill. 

Mts. Mentone. 

Var. AMORICANA, Bourg. Fig. 57. 

Spire conical, composed of slowly increasing whorls, the last 
whorl more rapidly increasing, slowly descending, aperture more 
oblique, umbilicus narrower, peristome more strongly lipped. 

Depts. Morbihan and Alpes-Maritimes, France. 

H. INTERPRES, Westerl. PI. 58, figs. 35, 36. 

Rather widely umbilicated, solid, a little shining, yellowish white, 
unicolored or variously, interruptedly banded with chestnut, regu- 
larly, thinly striate above, last whorl closely spirally lineated; 
whorls 6-6 J, the last a little dilated, descending in front ; peris- 
tome simple, acute, remotely white-lipped within. 

Diam. 17-21 mill. 

Eubcea, Greece. 

H. EREMOPHILA, Boissier. PL 58, figs. 49, 50; PI. 59, figs. 68-70. 
Moderately umbilicated. somewhat solid, irregularly striulate, 
chalky white, suture linear f whorls 4?-5, flattened above, the last 
narrow, scarcely descending anteriorly, periphery subangular; 
aperture yellowish-brown, becoming white towards the margin, 
peristome simple, thinly lipped within. Diam. 1 inch. 

Syria, Desert of SinaL 

H. cremnophila, Boiss. (err. typ.). 

Var. AMUNENSIS, Martens. Figs. 68-70. 

Somewhat smaller, with narrower umbilicus, orange-yellow. 

Desert of Egypt. 



HELIX. 243 

H. ERKELII, Kobelt. PI. 59, figs. 65-67. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, striulate, solid, white, with more or 
less obsolete chestnut bands, apex corneous; whorls 5, somewhat 
rapidly enlarging, the last subdivided, flattened above, slightly de- 
scending in front; periphery simple, acute, white-lipped within, 
aperture brownish. Diam. 22-24 mill. 

Egypt. 

H. GLOBULOIDEA, Terver. PI. 59, figs. 71-73. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, irregularly striate, shining, 
unicolored to multifasciate with chestnut, apex corneous; whorls 6, 
the last large, not descending, in front, base convex ; peristome 
simple, sublabiate within. Diam. 20-25 mill. 

Algeria. 

H. cespitum, var. Algeriana, Grat. and H. arenarum, Bourg. 
(figured), are synonyms. 

H. ENHALIA, Bourg. PI. 59, figs. 76-78. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thinly, irregularly striate, white, often 
banded with chestnut ; whorls 5-6 slowly enlarging, convex, with 
deep suture, last whorl inflated, rounded; aperture circular, peristome 
acute, slightly margined within. Diam. 7-9 mill. 

St. Jean de Luz. 

H. ericetorum, Var. minor, Moquin-Tandon, and H. arenosa, 
Dupuy, not Ziegl. are synonyms. 

H. XEGLECTA, Drap. PI. 59, figs. 60, 61. 

Moderately umbilicated, whitish, more or less banded with chest- 
nut ; whorls 5, convex, the last not deflected anteriorly ; peristome 
simple, brownish lipped within. Diam. 14 mill. 

France, Germany, Northern Italy, Spain. 

H. divorum, Hartrn. is a synonym. 

Var. FAGOTI, Westerl. 

Openly umbilicated, spire conical, last whorl obsoletely angulated, 
aperture oval, margins distant. 

Villafranca. 
Var. SUBXEGLECTA, Bourg. 

Spire more elate, shell more cretaceous, more solid, umbilicus 
narrower. 

So. France. 
H. ERICETELLA, Jouss. PI. 59, figs. 62-64. 

Widely umbilicated, thinly, remotely irregularly striate, whitish 
or ash colored, often continuously or interruptedly banded; whorls 



244 HELIX. 

6-7, a little convex, slowly increasing; peristome scarcely labiate 

within. Diam. 22 mill. 

France. 
It is H. ericetorum, Dupuy. 

H. JOPPENSIS, Roth. PI. 59, figs. 89, 90. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, solid, spire distinctly striate, body 
whorl smoother, whitish, sometimes chestnut rayed at the suture, or 
with dark spiral lines, apex corneous; whorls 5^-6, moderately 
increasing, the last not deflected; aperture fulvous, white-lipped 
within the peristome. Diam. 14 mill. 

Syria. 
Var. MULTINOTATA, Mouss. 

More depressed, rugulosely striate, with spiral lines on the periph- 
ery and maculations at the suture, variously serially punctate. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Var. SUBKRYNICKIANA, MOUSS. 

Less convex above, striae slighter, sutural maculations pallid, 
spiral zones subcontinuous. 

H. CANDICANS, Ziegler. PL 59, figs. 74, 75, 81-85, 91, 92. 

Moderately umbilicated, striulate, shining, white, sometimes with 
light chestnut revolving lines, and apex ; whorls 5, convex, the last 
not descending; peristome simple, slightly labiate within. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Germany, Austria, Hungary, L. Como. 

The synonyms include H. Candida, Porro, H. arenosa, Zglr. H. 
<ericetorum, Stein, H. spirula, Parr. 

Var. HOMOLEUCA, Parr. 
Spire subplane. 

Var. DoBRUDSCH^E, Parr. Figs. 91, 92. 

White, without band, last whorl descending in front. 

Dobudscha. 

Var. PULLULA, Parr. Figs. 84, 85. 
.Smaller, aperture more oblique,. 

Roumania. 
Var. OBVIA, Ziegler. Figs 81-83. 

Rather widely umbilicated, subplane, striate, smoothish. 

Austria. 

Clessin has a Var. Kroli, with more elevated spire, shell smaller. 
Diam. 12 mill. 



HELIX. 245 

H. AMMONIS, Schmidt, PI. 60, figs. 93-96; PL 59, figs. 86-88. 

Moderately umbilicated, whitish, banded; last whorl slightly 
descending in front, aperture rounded, with chestnut or violaceous 
callus within the upper lip. Diam. 15-20 mill. 

Northern Italy, Dalmatia. 

H. candicans, De Betta and Mart, is a synonym. Marchioness 
Paulucci writes that it is almost impossible to separate this species 
from H. neglecta. The umbilicus is narrower than in the typical 
ericetorum, but I suspect that it will prove to be only a variety of 
that species. 

Var. DISCREPANS, Tiberi. Figs. 86-88. 

Widely umbilicated, smooth, scarcely striulate, shining, whitish, 
not banded ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last narrow, de- 
scending in front, aperture oblique, chestnut within ; peristome 
simple, acute, remotely labiate. Diam. 24 mill. 

Abruzzi, Ancona, Italy. 

H. ERICETORUM, Miill. PI. 60, figs. 97-99. 

Widely umbilicated, striulate, scarcely shining, whitish or pale 
brownish, concolored or variously banded with corneous or chest- 
nut, apex chestnut colored ; whorls 5-6, somewhat flattened, 
deflected in front ; peristome simple, slightly labiate within. 

Diam. 15-18 mill. 

France, Germany, Sweden, etc. 

The synonymy includes H. trochlearis, and H. obvia, Andrz., 
H. Kusteri, Held, H. Itala, Linn.? H. media, Gmel.? H. dubia > 
Hartm. H. zonaria, Schranck. 

Var. DEVIANS, Westerl. 

Very widely umbilicated, depressed; whorls 6, the last dilated 
and deflected at the aperture. 

Agen, France', Saalfeld, Germany. 

H. erica, DaCosta, H. umbilicaris, Ol., and H. obliterata, Hartm. 
are synonyms. 

Var. ALBELLA, Penn. 

H. VULGARISSJMA, Schlafli. PI. 59, figs. 79, 80. 

Perhaps a variety of H. ericetorum] sometimes yellowish, but 
mostly white, more or less interruptedly chestnut banded, last whorl 
not descending in front. 

Varna. 



246 HELIX. 

H. ABERRANS, Mousson. PI. 60, figs, 2-4. 

Widely umbilicated, solid, shining, scarcely striulate, opaque, 
white, rather indistinctly marbled, and rarely punctulate with grey; 
whorls 5, the last wider, not descending in front, rounded ; peristome 
strongly white-lipped within. Diam. 15 mill. 

Turkey, Asia Minor, Kurdistan, Merssina. 

H. GYROIDES, Parr. PI. 60, figs. 5-7. 

Moderately umbilicated, solid, rugosely striate, chalky white, 
unicolored, sutura rather deep ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, the last 
scarcely wider, rounded, base flattened; peristome simple, acute, 

labiate within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Croatia. 
H. HOMOLEUCA. Sabljar, is a variety. 

H. VUKOTINOVICI, Hire. PL 60, figs. 13, 14. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, striulate, chalky white, 
unicolored, or here and there maculate and strigate with chestnut- 
corneous; whorls 5, apex black, last whorl scarcely dilated, narrow, 
slightly descending in front; peristome acute, simple, chestnut- 
margined, with a strong internal lip. . Diam. 12 mill. 

Croatia. 

H. Liburnica, Stossich is a synonym. 

H. LEMOINEI, Debeaux. PI. 60, figs. 11, 12. 

Narrowly umbilicated, closely costulate striate, more distinctly 
towards the aperture, chalky white, with four or five broad chestnut 
bands ; whorls 6, the last narrow, a little deflected in front, costula- 
tions becoming more prominent and subtuberculated on the periphery; 
peristome simple, obtuse. Diam. 16 mill. 

Algeria. 

H. PAMPELONENSIS, A. Schmidt. PI. 60, figs. 8-10. 

Bather widely umbilicated, somewhat thin, smoothly striulate; 
fulvous white, usually with a chestnut band above, and obsolete 
narrower zones on the base, apex corneous; whorls 6i; peristome 
simple, acute, slightly white-lipped within. Diam. 21-22 mill. 

Pampelona, Spain. 

H. DEJECTA, Jan. PL 60, figs. 100, 1. . 

Has usually been considered a variety of H. candicans or H. 
ericetorum. It is more elevated than the latter, smaller, chalky 
white, with or without a narrow band, umbilicus narrower. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Tauria. 



HELIX. 247 

Kobelt makes it a distinct species, but Westerlund places it in 
the synonymy of H. candicans. 

H. DERBENTINA, Andrz. PL 60, figs. 24, 25, 15-17. 

Widely umbilicated, solid, lightly striulate, whitish, unicolored 
or with interrupted chestnut bands, apex corneous, suture impressed; 
whorls 6, convex, rather rapidly enlarging, the last slightly descend- 
ing in front ; aperture white, peristome white-lipped within. 

Diam. 18 mill. 

Caucasus, Crimea, Asia Minor. 
Var. ISOMERIA, Friv. 

More depressed, whorls less inflated, umbilicus a little larger. 

Var. ARMENIACA, Bayer. 

More depressed and dilated, with scarcely prominent apex, with 
sutural maculations confluent in an irregular band, umbilicus wider. 

Var. SUPRAZONATA, Mouss. 

Smaller, somewhat depressed, with a dorsal and a sutural zone, 
aud numerous inferior spiral lines. 

Var. SUBERRANS, Mouss. 

Smaller, a little more depressed, umbilicus deviately dilated, 
whitish; obscure yellowish maculations beneath the suture, base 
variously painted with fulvous spiral lines. 

Merssina. 

Var. CAUCASICA, Parr. Figs. 15-17. 

Spire variable, somewhat elevated or depressed, white, without 
bands. 

Caucasus. 
H. KRYNICKIT, Andrz. PL 60, figs. 18-21. 

Narrowly umbilicated, striulate, shining, white, variously orna- 
mented by interrupted or continuous chestnut bands, apex corneous; 
whorls 5 2-6, the last inflated, sub-deviating in front; peristome 
acute, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Crimea, and shores of the Caspian Sea. 

H. Babondubii, Parr, and H. Theodosice, Clessin are synonyms, 
and probably H. radiolata, Mousson is also identical; it was formerly 
referred to H. vestalis, Parr, as a variety. 

Var. CANDAHARICA, Pfr. PL 60, figs. 22, 23. 

Moderately umbilicated, obliquely striulate, a little shining, 
brownish white, with narrow, maculosely interrupted chestnut and 



248 HELIX. 

chocolate bands, apex corneous; whorls 5*, the last not descending 
in front; peristome acute, subremotely labiate within. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Candahar. 
H. DAUTEZI, Kobelt. PI. 60, figs. 26-28. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, irregularly striu- 
late, yellowish white to fulvous, with a median white band, and 
other chestnut bands, elegantly radiately maculated above, apex 
black; whorls 6,* slowly enlarging, with a white sutural line, last 
whorl subinflated, slightly descending in front; aperture showing 
the exterior markings, peristome acute, chestnut margined, remotely 
white lipped within. Diam. 17*5 mill. 

Algesiras, Gibraltar. 

H. INSTABILIS, Ziegler. PI. 60, figs. 29-35 ; PL 61, figs. 39-47, 55, 56. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate-rugose, solid, whitish, often radia- 
ted and obsoletely interruptedly fasciate with chestnut; whorls 5, 
convex, slowly increasing, the last narrow, scarcely descending in 
front ; peristome simple, acute, margins approaching. 

Diam. 11-14 mill. 

Galicia, Transylvania, Crimea. 

A very variable species. According to madame Paulucci, who 
has made a special study of the species, H. Leopolitana, Andrz. H. 
Spadce, Calc. (figs. 44-47). H. nubigena, Charp, (figs. 55, 56). H. 
bathyomphala, Charp. (figs. 39-43). If. destituta, Charp. (figs. 34, 
35), H. ocellus, Villa, H. nubila, Charp., and H. discrepans, Tiberi 
are synonyms. 

Var. GR^CA, Martens. 

Depressed, white or yellowish white, unicolored or banded below, 
thinly striate, last whorl obsoletely angulated, not descending ; peris- 
tome scarcely labiate within. 

Greece. 

H. Iphigenice, Dubois, said to come from Tauria, may be a 
synonym. 

Var. BAKOWSKYANA, Clessin. Figs. 31-33. 

Smaller, rather depressed, strongly, irregularly striate, unicolored 
or fasciate ; whorls 5-6, rounded ; aperture rounded. 

Diam. 13 mill. 

Galicia* 



HELIX. 249 

Var. SPIRULA, Zelebor. 

Globosely depressed, spire conoidal, whitish with black dots, or a 
narrow light brown band and brown dots; last whorl narrowly 
convex, descending. 

Dobrudscha. 
H. DRAGORICHI, Zelebor. PI. 60, figs. 36-38. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, solid, striate, a little shining, white, 
apex corneous; whorls 5, the last dilated, scarcely descending; 
peristome strongly white-lipped within. Diam. 16 mill. 

Samsun, Asia Minor 

H. SPH^RITA, Hartm. PI. 61, figs. 50, 51. 

Moderately umbilicated, striate, white, more or less interruptedly 
fasciate with chestnut, suture deep; whorls 6; peristome acute, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 18-22 mill. 

Near Or an, Algiers. 

H. ORANENSIS, Morelet. PI. 61, figs. 57-59. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, closely striate, whitish, with chest- 
nut bands, more or less inaculosely interrupted ; whorls 9, somewhat 
flattened, with superficial suture, the last whorl scarcely deflected in 
front, base convex; peristome simple, somewhat obtuse, labiate 
within. Diam. 14-16 mill. 

Or an, Algiers. 

Pfeifler suspected H. Colomesiana, Bourg. (p. 232) to be identical, 
and a synonym of this species. 

H. ILLIBATA, Parreyss. PI. 61, figs. 60, 61. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, striulate, whitish or fulvous, seriately 
variegated with chestnut ; whorls 5, somewhat flattened, moderately 
increasing, last whorl scarcely descending anteriorly, carinated, 
base convex ; peristome acute, chestnut-lipped within. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Algeria. 
H. PAPILLATA, Pfr. PI. 61, fig. 68. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, irregularly striate, opaque, 
whitish, nebulously strigate, maculate and banded with chestnut, 
apex papillary; whorls 5, the last slightly descending; peristome 
simple, acute. Diam. 23 mill. 

Hob. unknown* 

H. FEDTSCHENKOI, Martens. PI. 61, figs. 52-54. 

Rather widely umbilicated, lightly striated, whitish ; whorls 4>, 



250 HELIX. 

flattened, the last rounded, rather narrow, a little descending in 
front; peristome simple, acute. Diana. 15 mill. 

Sarafschan, Turkestan. 

H. EBUSITANA, Hidalgo. PI. 61, figs. 48, 49. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, with very close thread- 
like strise, corneous, with chestnut bands, and irregular opaque 
white maculations, spire very obtuse, or plane ; whorls 6, flattened, 
the last anteriorly deflected, base convex, smoothish about the um- 
bilicus ; peristome simple, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 16 mill. 

Ins. Ebuso, Balearic Is. 

H. STOLICZKANA, Nevill. PL 61, figs. 62-64. 

Moderately umbilicated, irregularly striate above, striae obsolete 
below, white, with two chestnut bands, apex brown ; whorls 5 J, 
.suture distinct ; peristome slightly thickened within. 

Diam. 16'5 mill. 

Yarkand. 

A small variety, about half-size, not quite so flat, the bands obso- 
lete, occurred at Tangitar. 

H. HAMACENICA, Raffray. PI. 61, figs. 65-67. 

Narrowly umbilicated, obliquely striulate, solid, chalky, white, 
apex corneous ; whorls 6, slowly increasing, with impressed suture, 
the last whorl rounded, subcompressed, slowly descending above ; 
peristome simple, acute, labiate within, margins approximating, 
joined by a thin callus. Diam. 15 mill. 

Hamacen, Abyssinia. 
H. SUBNIVELLIANA, Bourg. PI. 61, figs. 69-71. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, subpellucid but chalky, 
.strongly striate, white, the apex blackish or brownish ; whorls 6, 
at first slowly increasing, the last whorl rapidly, suture impressed, 
last whorl rounded, not descending ; peristome acute, not thickened 
within, margins joined by an inconspicuous callus. 

Diam. 15 mill. 

Hamacen, Abyssinia. 

Unfigured species oj Helicella. 

H. SANTORINA, H. THEKASINA, H. FOUQUEI, H. NOMECHOSI, 

Letourneux. Ins. Santorin, Greece. 

H. SUSPECTA, Westerl. Crete. 

H. AMBIELIANA, Charp. France. 



HELIX. 251 

H. ODARSENSIS, H. HERBATICA, H. MONTGISCARDIANA, H. SALA- 
UMICA, H. LERSIANA, Fagot. France. 

H. HERIPENSIS, H. SOLACIACA, H. THUILLIERI, H. LOROGLOSS- 
ICOLA, Mabille. France. 

H. INGOI, H. PALUMBOI, Cafici. Palermo. 

H. TREPIDULA, H. ALLUVIOXUM, H. DA SiLv^;, Servain. 

France. 

H. DANTEI, (H. Pantenelli, Bourg. a syn.) H. VELAVIANA, H. TRI 

PHERA, H. PlSANORUM, H. LINARA, H. XALONICA, H. LATH- 
RyEA, H. MISARA, H. MARONIANA, H. ENHALIA, Bourg. 

France. 

H. ARENIVAGA, H. NAUTINICA, H. SUBULIVAGA, Mabille. 

France. 

H. BATHYTERA, Blanc (H. sphceriomphala, Bourg.) Greece. 

H. XERA, Hagenmiiller. France. 

H. BONALDAI, Adami. Italy. 

H. CYZICENSIS, Galland. France. 

H. NAUTICA, H. IDANICA, H. ACTIELCA, Locard. France. 

H. ILICIS, Florence. France. 

H. SUBERIS, H. EVENOSI, Bourg. So. France. 

H. EUTHYMEAXA, Locard. Mentone. 

H. MEGASTOMA, Bourg. Balearic Is. 

H. LIEURANENSIS, Bourg. (H. fasciolata, Locard, pars.), 

France, Spain. 

H. CARHUZACI, H. ACOSMETA, H. VIRGULTORUM, H. MORBIHANA, 
H. TARDYI, Bourg. France. 

H. MONTANDONI, Clessin. Dobrudscha. 

H. NIKITAI, Clessin. Montenegro. 

H. RENOUFI, H. SYNEROSA, Servain. Hungary. 

H. BATHYTEROPSIS, Ancey. Zenica. 

H. FEDTSCHENKOPSIS, H. RENEANA, Ancey. Turkestan. 

H. HEYNEMANNI, Kobelt. Tetuan. 

H. DESGODINSI, Ancey. Thibet. 

Subsection IV, JACOSTA, Moquin Tandon. 1855. 

H. FILIMARGO, Ziegler. PL 61, figs. 73-75, 72. 

Widely umbilicated, substriate, chalky white, rarely fasciate ; 
whorls 5, flattened above, rounded below, periphery with a thread- 
like carina, evanescent in the fully grown individual; peristome 
simple, acute, remotely labiate within. Diam. 14-20 mill. 

Crimea. 



252 HELIX. 

It is H. tauriea, Partsch and H. chersonesica, Miihlf. The first 
figures represent the state of the shell as usually found in collec- 
tions ; it is only recently that Clessin (Mai. Blatt. N. S. VI. 46) 
has made known the fact that these are juveniles, and that in the 
adult (fig. 72) the carina has nearly vanished. 

H. RETOWSKII, Clessin. PI. 61, figs. 76-78. 

More strongly striate, with higher spire and narrower umbilicus 
than the preceding species. Diain. 13 mill. 

Crimea* 

H. CRENIMARGO, Kryn. PI. 62, figs. 3, 4. 

Narrowly umbilicated, closely, sharply striate, white, with a 
superior corneous band, and several narrower ones below ; whorls 
4J, the last subtumid above, convex below, periphery crenulately 
carinated ; peristome acute, sublabiate within. 
. Diam. 8 mill. 

Caucasus, 

H. Piatigorskiensis, Bayer is a synonym. 

Var. OBTUSIOR, Mousson. 

Carina less crenulated, no superior band, inferior lines grey- 
ish. 

H. CORRUGATA, Gmel. PL 61, figs. 79-81. 

Kather widely umbilicated, costulate, whitish, with chestnut 
spiral lines below ; whorls 4 J-5, tumid above, convex below, 
periphery with a crenulated carina; peristome acute, chestnut 
lipped within. Diam. 13'5 mill. 

Italy, Sicily. 

It is If. rugosa, Lam. H. Groyana, Fer., and H. Gargottce, 
Phil. 

H. PR^CLARA, Cafici. PL 62, figs. 86-88. 

Narrowly umbilicated, yellowish, with three or four chestnut 
bands, one of them above the periphery, costulate; whorls 5, 
carinate at the suture, the last with a crenulated carina, becoming 
evanescent towards the aperture, flattened above, turgidly convex 
below ; aperture white-lipped within. Diam. 8 mill. 

Sicily. 

H. DORMIENS, Benoit. PL 62, figs. 89-91. 

Moderately umbilicated, costulate-striate, whitish, with chestnut 
strigations above, multifasciate with chestnut below, spire subele- 



HELIX. 253 

vated, pyramidal ; whorls 6,. subplanulate above, convex below, 
periphery carinate ; peristome acute, white-lipped within. 
Diam. 13 mill. 

Ins. Maretimo, Sicily. 

Var. UNICOLOR, Benoit. 

Whitish, sometimes the inferior bands obsolete. 

Var. RUGULOSA, Benoit. 

Chestnut white, with distant, serial, chestnut maculations 
above, without markings below ; costulately rugose. 

H. TINEANA, Benoit. PL 62, figs. 92-94. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, closely, minutely costulate, dirty 
white, unicolored or chestnut banded ; whorls 5, subplane, the last 
a little tumid above, convex below ; scarcely descending in front, 
periphery carinate, carina vanishing towards the aperture, suture 
margined ; peristome acute, chestnut-lipped within. 

Diam. 12'5 mill. 

Sicily. 

Var. KOBELTIANA, Westerl. 

Narrowly umbilicated, globosely depressed, spire conoidal, obtuse, 
reddish brown, umbilical region yellowish corneous, with a median 
white band, white at the suture ; aperture thinly white-lipped. 

H. TRISTRAMI, Pfr. PL 62, figs. 95-97. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, obliquely plicate-striate, opaque, 
dirty white, obsoletely variegated with corneous; whorls 5, flattened, 
convex below, periphery crenulately carinate ; peristome acute, sub- 
labiate within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Tunis. 
H. ARIANENSIS, Bourg. PL 62, figs. 98-100. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, carinate, convex above and below, 
solid, chalky, rugose, costate, greyish, somewhat obscurely interrup- 
tedly banded with chocolate; whorls 5, slowly increasing, the last 
shortly descending at the aperture ; aperture deeply labiate. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Tunis. 
H. SPRATTI, Pfr. PL 61, figs. 82, 83. 

Rather widely umbilicated, closely costulate, dirty white or 
brownish, with darker bands ; whorls 5, turgid above, base convex, 



254 HELIX. 

periphery denticulately carinate; peristome acute, white-lipped 
within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Malta. 
H. Schembriana, Benoit is a synonym. 

Var. SIDERITES, Friv. 

Pyramidal, rugose, moderately umbilicated, convex below, white, 
sometimes with chestnut maculations above, bifasciate with chestnut 
below; whorls 4?, the last descending, with a dentate carina. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Syra. 
H. GROVESIANA, Paulucci. PL 61, figs. 84, 85. 

Rather widely umbilicated, solid, cretaceous white, closely costu- 
late-striate, suture slightly crenulated; whorls 5, a little turgid above, 
convex below, carina compressed, crenulated; simple, white-lipped 
within. Diam. 9*5 mill. 

Abruzzi, Italy. 

With higher spire, finer striae and smaller umbilicus than in 
H. Spratti. 

H. ROZETI, Mich. PL 62, figs. 26-28. 

Narrowly umbilicated, costulate-striate, dirty white, marbled and 
interruptedly banded with chestnut; whorls 5, subplanulate,, the 
last not descending, base convex, periphery carinate; peristome 
acute, white-lipped within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Majorca, Sicily, Morea, Algiers. 

It is H. amanda, Rossm., H. Boissyi, Terver, H. limbata, Phil., 
and ? H. striatula, Linn. 

H. USTICENSIS, Calcara. PL 62, figs. 29-31. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather thin, obliquely costulate-striate, 
opaque, white, with interrupted chestnut bands, suture linear; 
whorls 5i, flattened above, base convex, almost cylindrically com- 
pressed around the umbilicus, periphery carinate; peristome acute, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 14'5 mill. 

Ins. Ustica, Sicily. 

H. HENONIANA, Bourg. PL 62, figs. 17-19. 

Narrowly umbilicated, subpellucid, costulate-striate, corneous, 
flamed with reddish or grey above, with four somewhat interrupted 
bands below ; whorls 6, carinate, flat above, a little convex below, 
periphery acutely carinated; peristome acute. 

Diam. 17 mill. 

Kabylcza. 



HELIX. 255 

Differs from H. Eozeti in size, closer and more regular strise, 
more acute carina, flatter whorls, the last not descending, peristome 
not labiate, umbilicus narrower. 

H. LACOSTEAXA, Morlet. PL 62, fig. 5. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, arcuately plicate-striate, whitish, 
with nebulous chestnut maculations; whorls 6?, suture subcrenulated, 
margined, last whorl with a sharp carina, flattened above, more 
convex below, scarcely descending at the aperture ; peristome simple, 
acute. Diam. 22 mill. 

Chott-Djerid, Djebel-Aidoudi. 

H. BRONDELI, Bourg. PL 62, figs. 20-22. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat fragile, diaphanous, costulate; 
whorls 5, convex, with well-impressed suture, the last subtumid 
above, convex below, crenulately carinated, peristome acute, not 
labiate. Diam. 11 mill. 

Algeria. 

H. KOUVIERIANA, Bourg. PL 62, figs. 14-16. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat thin, subpellucid, corneous, 
sometimes subflammulate above, strongly striate ; whorls 6, slowly 
increasing, scarcely convex above, convex below, descending a little 
at the aperture, periphery obtusely carinated, carina vanishing in 
front ; peristome simple, acute. Diam. 10 mill. 

Kabylma. 

H. EXPLANATA, Mull. PL 62, figs. 11-13. 

Eather widely umbilicated, lightly striate, yellowish white or 
fulvous, smoothish, subplane above; whorls 5, with compressed 
carina, convex below, slightly descending in front ; peristome acute, 
white-lipped within. Diam. 12-17 mill. 

France, Algiers. 

H. albella, Drap. is a synonym. H. maculata, Mull, is doubtfully 
identified as a juvenile. 

H. MORAGTJESI, Kobelt. PL 62, figs. 9, 10. 

Widely umbilicated, plane above, somewhat solid, whitish or 
very obsoletely chestnut banded, strongly, obliquely costulate, with 
intervening striae; whorls 5J, carina crenulated, base convex, indis- 
tinctly cristate around the umbilicus; peristome acute, white-lipped 
within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Ins. Palma, Balearic Archip. 



256 HELIX. 

Has recently been referred to H. explanata as a ribbed variety 
(Jour, de Conch. 104, 1887), but has a half whorl additional to that 
.species, although smaller. 

H. IDIA, Bourg. et Letourn. PL 62, figs. 23-25. 

Widely uinbilicated, irregularly, flexuously costulate; whorls 4, 
with carinated suture, last whorl very sharply carinated, carina 
blade-like, umbilical region defined by a sharp angle. 

Diam. 14 mill. 

Tunis. 
H. DEPRESSULA, Parreyss. PI. 62, figs. 6-8. 

Widely umbilicated, rugosely striate, yellowish white ; whorls 6, 
carinated, subplanate above, last whorl whith compressed, crenula- 
ted carina, scarcely descending in front, base convex; peristome 
acute, labiate within. Diam. 20 mill. 

Algeria. 

H. SIGENSIS, Kobelt. PI. 62, figs..l, 2. 

Widely umbilicated, plane above, someAvhat solid, chalky white, 
or with inferior -chestnut bands; whorls 5, striate-costulate, with 
irregularly carinate suture, last whorl slightly descending in front, 
the compressed peripheral carina white-crenulated, base inflated, 
with whitish ribs, more distinct than above ; peristome acute, labiate 
within. Diam. 17 mill. 

Or an, Algiers, near Nemours, at the old Portus Sigensis. 

H. Jolyana, Bourg., has been referred here. 

H. CATOCYPHIA, Bourg. PI. 63, figs. 26-28. 

Rimately perforate, whitish, chalky, striate; whorls 4, rapidly 
increasing, planate above, the last acutely carinated, not descending, 
base convex ; peristome acute, labiate within, parietal wall with a 
tubercle. Diam. 10 mill. 

Chateau d'lf, near Marseilles, France. 

H. SETUBALENSIS, Pfr. PI. 63, figs. 29. 30. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely lamellarly costate, 
opaque, fulvous white; whorls 5 2, planulate, exserted, serrulately 
carinated, the last not descending, base convex; peristome acute, 
labiate within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Near Setubal, Portugal; Alicante, Spain. 

H. serrula, Morel, is a synonym. 




HELIX. 257 

H, BARCELOI, Hidalgo. PL 63, figs. 36-38. 

Widely umbilicated, with close rib-like striae, carinated at the 
suture and periphery, where the carina is minutely crenulated, 
whitish. Diam. 10 mill. 

Alicante. 

H. MONTSERRATENSIS, Hidalgo. PL 63, figs. 31-33. 

Narrowly umbilicated, nearly opaque, not shining, somewhat 
solid, closely irregularly costulate-striate, whitish, or yellowish 
grey, often with an interrupted chestnut band above the carina ; 
whorls 5J, flattened, rather slowly increasing, the last deflected in 
front, carinate at the periphery, convex below; peristome acute, 
widely white-lipped within. Diam. 13 mill. 

Montserrat, Spain. 

H. PRIETOI, Hidalgo. PL 63, figs. 34. 35. 

Moderately umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely costulate, riblets 
somewhat obtuse, irregular, obliquely curved above, subflexuous 
below, here and th^re shorter or bifurcate, opaque, fulvous white, 
or ferruginous, sometimes with one to four interrupted bands ; 
whorls 5-5 , a little convex, the last descending in front, cren- 
ulately carinated, . base convex ; peristome acute, white-lipped 
within. Diam. 10 mill. 

Malorca, Balearic Is. 

It is H. Setubalensis, Dohrn and Heynemann, not Pfr. 

H. PONSII, Hidalgo. PL 63, figs. 41, 42. 

Moderately umbilicated, obliquely costulate, bifurcate on the 
base, yellowish, maculated and banded with chestnut ; whorls 6, 
slightly convex, suture carinate, the last whorl slightly dilated, 
carina compressed, with white crenulations, base convex, obtusely 
cristate around the umbilicus ; peristome acute, white-lipped within. 

Diam. 11 mill. 

Minorca and Cabrera, Balearic Is. 

H. POLLENZENSIS, Hidalgo. PL 63, figs. 43, 44. 

Moderately umbilicated, rather thin, pellucid, closely costulate, 
here and there shorter and bifurcate below, fulvous corneous, with 
obscure bands below, opaque-whitish at the umbilicus ; whorls 6, 
flattened above, the last not descending, convex below, obtusely 
angulated round the umbilicus ; peristome acute, scarcely thickened 
within. Diam. 12 mill. 

Majorca, Pollenza, Balearic Is. 



258 HELIX. 

H. HOMEYERI, Dohrn and Heynemann. PL 63, figs. 39, 40. 

Widely umbilicated, striate, bluish white, banded and macu- 
lated with chestnut ; whorls 5, flattened above, the last descending 
in front, peripheral carina crenulated, base flatly convex, angu- 
lated round the umbilicus ; peristome simple, labiate within. 

Diam. 12 mill/ 

Ins. Malorca, Balearic Archip. 

H. FRATER, Dohrn and Heynemann. PL 63, figs. 54, 55. 

Differs from the preceding in being narrowly umbilicated, base 
convex, without umbilical angle. 

Balearic Isles. 

H. NYELII, Mittre. PL 63, figs. 45, 46. 

Rather narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, closely, lightly 
costulate, whitish or yellowish corneous, seriately maculated with 
chestnut above, usually banded below; whorls 5, the last subde- 
flected in front, periphery subcrenulately carinated, base convex ; 
peristome labiate within. Diam. 11 '5 mill. 

Minorca. 

H. CAROLI, Dohrn and Heynemann. PL 63, figs. 47-50. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, rugosely costulate above, smoother 
ibelow, corneous white, banded with chestnut; whorls 5, slightly 
convex, slowly increasing, the last scarcely descending in front, 
periphery obsoletely angulated ; peristome simple, white lipped 
within. Diam. 9 mill. 

Balearic Is. 

H. MAJORICENSIS, Dohrn and Heynemann. PL 63, figs. 56-58. 

Moderately umbilicated, costulate, greyish yellow, maculated 
and bandad with chestnut; whorls 5, the last descending ante- 
riorly, periphery carinated, base convex; peristome simple above, 
.thickened and shortly reflected below. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Palma and Malorca, Balearic Is. 

H. CARBONS, Hidalgo. PL 63, figs. 51-53. 

Moderately umbilicated, thin, striate, shortly ciliated ; brownish 
corneous, with a few chestnut maculations, sometimes alternately 
disposed at the suture; whorls 5, flattened, the last descending 
anteriorly, periphery crenately carinated, convex below, umbili- 
cus whitish ; peristome simple, white, sublabiate below. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Mahon, Ins. Minorca. 



HELIX. 259 

H. LEDERERI, Pfr. PL 63, figs. 61-63. 

Narrowly umbilicated, closely obliquely costulate, opaque, cal- 
careous white; whorls 5, rather narrow, flat, exserted, all cren- 
ulately carinated, the last not descending, base convex ; peristome 
simple, scarcely labiate within. Diam. 10'5 mill. 

Cyprus, Syria, Egypt, Tripoli. 

H. Syrensis, Bourg. is a synonym. 

Var. REGULARIS, Koth. 

Spire depressed, not gradate, regular, less convex below. 

Palestine. 

H. CISTERNASI, Hidalgo. PL 63, figs. 59, 60. 

Narrowly umbilicated, somewhat solid, subopaque, very closely 
costulate-striate above, smoother below; whorls 6i, slowly in- 
creasing, the last deflected in front, periphery obtusely angulated, 
base convex ; peristome white, slightly expanded, strongly-lipped 
within. Diam. 15 mill. 

Ins. Sta. Eulalia (/wee), and Bosca. 

H. CAVANN.E, Paulucci. PL 63, figs. 64, 65. 

Narrowly umbilicated, rather solid, chalky, striate, whitish 
grey, with greyish fulvous punctations, apex corneous; whorls 5-6, 
slightly convex, the last with a thread-like carina, descending at 
the aperture, and with rounded base ; aperture white-lipped within. 

Diam. 7 mill. 

Mts. Central Italy. 

Var. SCISSA, Paulucci. 

Flatter, umbilicus wider, carina obsolete. 

Unfigured species of Jacosta. 

H. SYROSINA, Bourg. Isl. Syra. 

H. CALLOSA, Anton. Hob. unknown. 

H. CONOPSIS, Morelet. Morocco. 

H. ADELAIDE, Pfeifier. Australia. 

H. AMPHICONUS, H. EUPHJEODES, H. SPHAKIOTA, H. SlDERENSIS, 

all of Maltzan. Crete. 

H. SIPHNICA, Libya. 

H. MICROMPHALUS, H. SEMANNi, Letourn. Algiers. 

H. HARIOTIANA, Bourg. Balearic Is. 

H. GRAJA, Westeii. Greece. 

H. NUMMULIFORMIS, Ketowski. Crimea. 



260 HELIX. 

H. HYPERCONICA, Bourg. Kabylwa. 

H. TELLICA, Bourg. Cape Caxine, Mitidjah. 

H. PONSONBYI, Kobelt. Or an, Algeria. 

H. HAMUD^E, Kobelt. Tunis. 

H. HIERICA, Bourg. Ins. Maritime, Sicily. 

H. MULTIFARIA, Ziegler. Cyprus. 

H. MELOSINA, Bourg. Milo, Grecian Archipelago. 

H. SOLIELLETI, Bourg. Sahara. 

H MILASCHEWITSCHI, Retowski. Crimea. 

H. PLEURISCHURA, H. CHONOMPHALA, Bourg. Sicily. 

H. HYPERPLAT^EA, Servain. Tunis. 

H. (LELESTIS, H. BARRATTEI, H. SLONGINA, H. ARTARA, H. BUREL- 

LA, H. KHANGETINA, H. CONICULA, H. CALLISTODERMA, H. 

ENFIDANA, H. ZEUGITANA, H. TINIFORMIS, H. MENZELENSIS, 

H. SALIVOSA, H. ROZETOPSIS, H. AMMEDERANA, H. HAID- 
RANA, H. BIRTA, H. FRATISIANA, H. TAFERMICA, H. MEZES- 
SARIA, H. ZlTANICA, H. LOTOPHAGORUM, H. MENINXICA, 

H. MESEMBRICA, H. BONDRIESA, all of Letourn. and Bourg. 

Tunis. 

H. TAUCHONIANA, H. MORINI, H. CHTHAMATOLENA, H. Tisso- 
TIANA, H. SAGETI, H. PLEURABDOTA, H. CACISTA, H. SYNTELA, 

H. NOCTUELLA, H. AXIOTHEATA, H. BARDOENSIS, all of Bourg. 

Tunis. 

H. PARTHENIA, H. VAGANENSIS, H. PERLUTOSA, H. ARTONILLA, 

H. ASTON ARA, Hageu miiller . Tunis. 

H. MEMBRONICA, H. HALiA, H. IRRITA, Berthier. Tunis. 

APPENDIX. 

A paper has come into my hands entitled "Collections for a 
Monograph of Tasmanian Land Shells, by W. Legrand, Hobartown, 
Tasmania, 1871." It contains a number of descriptions of Helices, 
mostly by Dr. Cox, and is illustrated by two lithographic plates. 
The printing is very roughly done, on one side of the leaf only, 
like proof-sheets. Pfeiffer did not cite this paper, in any of the 
volumes of his "Monog. Heliceorum," nor is it quoted in any 
European publication, to my knowledge. I do not know whether 
the paper was put into circulation or not, in any case its distribution 
must have been very limited ; hence I quote and figure its species 
with some hesitation. 



HELIX. 261 

CHAROPA (Vol. II, p. 208). 

H. CCESUS, Cox, PL 37, figs. 42, 43. 

Deeply, narrowly umbilicated, thin, light reddish brown; whorls 
5, convex, the last slightly depressed in front, base convex, umbili- 
cal region excavated, surface with slightly irregular growth-lines ; 
peristome simple, margins approximating. Diam. 4 mill. 

Tasmania. 

H. HELICE, Cox. (Unfigured). Tasmania. 

MICROCYSTIS, (Vol. II, p. 112). 

H. TRANQUILA, Cox. PL 37, figs. 44, 45. 

Deeply, narrowly umbilicated, thin, transparent, pale olivaceous 
brown, coarsely striated; whorls 5 J, gradually increasing, the last 
slightly descending anteriorly ; aperture diagonal, peristome simple, 
margins approximating. Diam. 9 mill. 

Tasmania. 
H. (EHYSSOTA), MIXTA, Cox. PL 37, figs. 58, 59. 

Deeply, narrowly umbilicated, thin, transparent, shining, coarsely 
striated, yellowish brown, or light olivaceous brown; whorls 5, 
gradually increasing, flatly slanting towards the suture; peristome 
simple, thin, margins very slightly approaching. 
Diam. 6 mill. 

Tasmania. 
Unfigured Species. 

H. (VIDENA) DuCANi, H. (PARYPHANTA?) VITRIN^EFORMIS, 
H. (VIDENA) QU^ESTIOSA, of Cox. Tasmania. 

CONULUS (Vol. II, p. 172). 

H. PARVISSIMA, Cox. PL 37, figs. 48, 49. 

Narrowly umbilicated, transparent, thin, pale yellowish brown, 
smooth, shining, whorls 5z, convex, gradually enlarging, the last 
not descending in front; peristome simple, thin. Diam. T25 mill. 

Tasmania. 

LEUCOCHROA (p. 10). 
H. B^ETICA, Rossm. p. 11. 

Var. TUNETANA, Letourn. et Bourg. 

Shell finely striate above, not shagreened, peristome not thickened, 
carinal thread not well defined. 

Tunit. 



262 HELIX. 

H. SAHARICA, Debeaux. (unfigured). Or an, Algiers. 

H. BOSSIERI, Charp. H. FILIA, Mousson. 

Mr.Ancey has just published a new group SPHI^CTEROCHILA for 
these species ; his name will not stand, being a synonym of Mima, 
Westerl. 1886. 'V- 

Discus, (p. 19). 
H. RUDERATA, Studer (p. 20). 

Var. ANGULOSA, Mousson. PI. 63, fig. 69. 
Periphery obtusely angulated. 

Amour Basin, 
H. STOKESI, E. A. Smith. PI. 22, figs. 48-50. 

'Closely resembles H. coma, Gray (p. 22), but is more narrowly 
umbilicated, just a trifle more finely lirate, and has the body whorl 
roundly angulated above the middle, 

New Zealand. 



H. GANODA, Mabille. (unfigured). Canary Is. 

H. HELVA, Cox. " New Hebrides. 

H. STEPHENSI, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 74-76. , , 

Deeply, narrowly umbilicated, thin, transparent, dull brownish 
yellow; whorls 5, the last rather inflated, not descending, coarsely 
widely costulate, the interstices finely striate. Diam. 7'5 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Seep. 46. : ; 

H. PLEXUS, Cox. PL 37, figs. 77, 78. 

Deeply, narrowly umbilicated, thin, dull pale horny brown, 
irregularly widely costulate, the interstices finely transversely striate ; 
whorls 5, the last deflected in front, base smoother; margins of 
peristome joined by a rather thick callus. Diam. 6 mill. 

Tasmania. 

See p. 46. 

H. POSITURA, Cox. PL 37, figs. 79, 80. 

Very narrowly umbilicated, thin, dull chestnut brown color, with 
strong, widely separated costse, less marked below ; whorls 4, grad- 
ually increasing, the last expanded, subcarinated, not depressed in 
front. Diam. 6 mill. 

Tasmania. 



HELIX. 263 

H. COEPTA, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 64, 65. 

Rather widely umbilicated, thin, coarsely costulate, the ribs dis- 
tant, running into the umbilicus below ; whorls 4, the last rapidly 
increasing, not descending in front, suture impressed. 

Diam. 3'3 mill. 

Tasmania. 

See p. 46. 

H. DUBITANS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 81, 82. 

Broadly umbilicated, thin, dark chestnut colored, coarsely costu- 
late above, more closely and finely striate and shining below, faintly 
decussated about the umbilicus; whorls 4? rapidly increasing, sub- 
angular. Diam. 12 mill. 

Tasmania. 
H. AGNEWI, Cox. PL 37, figs. 83, 84. 

Widely, deeply umbilicated, very finely striated, horny brown 
color; whorls 4, convex, slanting towards the deeply impressed 
suture, gradually increasing, the last not depressed in front. 

Diam. 4*5 mill. Tasmania. 

H. VIGENS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 60, 61. 

With broad, shallow umbilicus, closely, sharply costulate, pale 
yellowish horn color; whorls 4, gradually increasing, rounded, 
with deep suture, the last not descending in front. 

Diam. 3*5 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Said to be badly figured. 

H. JULIFORMIS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 85, 86. 

With open, funnel-like umbilicus, yellowish, with regular broad 
chestnut rays, with close, hair-like riblets ; whorls 5, flatly slanting, 
the periphery appearing as if crenated, last whorl not descending. 

Diam. 3'5 mill. 

Tasmania. 

First given in the same work under the preoccupied name of 
H. Gouldiana. 

?PUNCTUM (p. 28). 

H. ALLPORTI, Legrand. PI. 37. figs. 52, 53. 

Narrowly perforate, thin, dark chestnut color , whorls 5, slightly 
convex, the last relatively larger and subangular above the middle, 
scarcely descending in front, base inflated, suture impressed ; aper- 



264 HELIX. 

ture oblique, irregularly ovate, inclined to be contracted, peristome 
simple, margins converging, columellar margin almost covering the 
umbilicus. Diam. 8 mill. 

.: Tasmania. 

H. (CAM^ENA) ME-DIANUS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 46, 47. 

Perforate, thin, transparent, reddish brown, with rather fine 
growth-lines; whorls 5J, the last conspicuously keeled and inflated, 
base excavated around the umbilicus. Diam. 10 mill. 

Tasmania. 
H. AUSTRINUS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 56, 57. 

Narrowly umbilicated, light olive green, coarsely striated; 
whorls 5i, the last much inflated, descending in front, base convex. 

Diam. 9 mill. 

Tasmania. 

H. OCCULTUS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 50,. 51. 

Rather widely umbilicated, smooth, thin, shining, horn color; 
whorls 4, gradually increasing, rounded, laterally flattened, suture 
excavated, last whorl not descending in front. 

Diam. 2'5 inch. 

Tasmania. 
H. (VIDENA) RUGA, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 93-95. 

Widely, perspectively umbilicated, rather thin, yellowish corneous 
or dark olive, shining below ; whorls 4, rapidly increasing, with 
coarse rib-like striae above, smooth below, last whorl much dilated 
and slightly depressed in front. Diam. 9 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Closely related to H. bombycina and H. Sindairi, but smaller* 
rounder, and destitute of band. 

H. (RHYSSOTA) HALLI, Cox. PL 37, figs. 54, 55. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, very finely striated, pale yellowish 
brown ; whorls 4-5, regularly increasing, rounded, with deep 
.suture. Diam. 1'5 mill. 

Tasmania. 

H. (RHYSSOTA) TRAJECTURA, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 68, 69. 

Narrowly umbilicated, thin, transparent, not shining, pale brown, 
with irregular coarse growth -striae ; whorls 5J, the last dispropor- 
tionally large and subcarinated ; columellar lip widely dilated 
and reflected, half covering the umbilicus. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Tasmania. 



HELIX. 265 

H. MARCHIAN,E,,COX. PI. 37, figs. 66, 67. 

Broadly, perspectively umbilicated, thin, translucent, glossy, 
pale horny yellow, irregularly finely striated throughout and 
with irregular transverse horny streaks ; whorls 4-5, convex, 
very slowly increasing, suture wide and rather deep, last whorl 
.scarcely descending in front. Diara. 5 mill. 

Tasmania. 

H. KAMSGATENSIS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 72, 73. 

Narrowly umbilicated, finely regularly costulate, reddish horn 
color; whorls 5, gradually increasing, rather flatly compressed 
laterally, rounded above, suture deeply impressed. 

Diam. 6'5 mill. 

Tasmania 

H. (PARYPHANTA) FULGETRUM, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 70, 71. 

Very widely umbilicated, thin, translucent, irregularly finely 
striated, pale horny yellow; whorls 3 -4, flatly slanting, rapidly 
increasing, last whorl proportionally much distended, not descend- 
ing in front, suture deeply impressed and finely margined. 

Diam. 2'5 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Allied to the Australian H. splendidula, Pfr. 

H. FUSCO-RADIATA, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 62, 63. 

Widely umbilicated, thin, smooth, shining, pale horny yellow, 
ornamented with irregular broad light-brown rays, with growth 
striae; whorls 4, gradually increasing, rounded, suture deeply 
excavated, umbilicus with steep walls. 

Diam. 3*3 mill. 

Tasmania. 

GONIODISCUS (p. 43). 

H. DAVEYENSIS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 87, 88. 

Broadly, deeply umbilicated, thin, opaque, light brown, with 
regular, widely separated costse, the interstices finely transversely 
.striated ; whorls 6, flat above, base more convex, the umbilical 
region defined by an angle, into which the sculpture enters. 

Diam. 10 mill. 

Tasmania. 
See p. 24. 



266 HELIX. 

H. ATKINSONI, Cox. PL 37, figs. 89, 90. 

Broadly, perspectively umbilicated, thin, dull brown, with broad 
rays, less marked below, with coarse, widely separated riblets, 
and finely striated interstices; whorls 5?, very slowly increasing, 
rather flat above, ^convex below, umbilical periphery angulated. 

Diam. 8 mill. 

Tasmania. 
See p. 24. 

H. KINGSTONENSIS, Cox. PI. 37, figs. 91, 92. 

Broadly, deeply umbilicated, pale horny yellow, with fine raised 
striae ; whorls 5, gradually increasing, suture deep, last whorl not 
depresssed in front ; peristome margins joined by a rather thick 
parietal callus. Diam. 2*7 mill. 

Tasmania. 

H. COSTULATA, Mollendorff. PL 63, figs. 66-68. 

Widely umbilicated, discoidal, with close, arcuate riblets, horny 
fulvous ; whorls 4, somewhat convex, with deep suture, the last 
whorl with acute carina, and angulate round the umbilicus. 

Diam. 4 mill. 

Corea. 

H. SEMIPLICATA, Pfr. (p. 44). 

Mr. Ancey cites this species as the type of a new group ATLAN- 

TICA. 

Unfyured species of Patula. 

H. MARGATENSIS, H. SPECTRA, H. OFFICERI, H. VEXANDA, all of 

Cox. Tasmania- 

H. IRREGULARIS, Mousson (unfigured). Viti Is* 

ANGUISPIRA, (p. 55). 

Mr. W. G. Binney, in his Second Supplement to the fifth volume 
of the "Terrestrial Mollasks" etc. (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. XIII. 
Dec. 1886), has treated H. Idahoensis, Cooperi, Hemphilli and 
Haydeni as varieties of H. strigosa. (See also this work, pp. 55-57). 
Mr. Binney has described and figured varieties Binneyi, Newcombii, 
multicostata, Gouldi, albofasciata and eastanea of Hemphill, connect- 
ing Idahoensis with strigosa; var. Utahensis, Hemphill, of the 
Cooperi form, and varieties Oquirrhensis, Gabbiana and Wasatchemis, 
Hemphill, of the Saydeni-Hemphilli-strigosa series. In the strict 
use of the term these are not varieties but merely selected specimens 



HELIX. 267 

from a continuous series ; but they serve admirably to illustrate one 
of the most remakable instances of the specific variability of mollusks, 
known to science. 

? TROCHOMORPHA, (p. 72). 

H. SWETTENHAMI, H. THIEROTI, H. HARDOUINI, H. LAHATENSIS, 

De Morgan. (Unfigured). Perak* 

H. PLANOCONUS, Mousson. (Unfigured). Viti Is. 

H. THEMIS, H. KANTAVUENSIS, Garrett. (Unfigured). Viti Is. 

H. CORALLINA, Mousson, (p. 93). 

Mr. Garrett considers this a distinct species from H. Ludersi, Pfiv 

VIDENA, (p. 82). 

H. SPLENDENS, Semper, (p. 86). Philippine Is- 

Figured in Journ. de Conch. 94. 1887. 

H. SIBUYANICA, Hidalgo. Philippine Is. 

H. LOOCENSIS, Hidalgo. Philippine Js- 

H. ACUTIMARGO, Pfr. (p. 85). Philippine Is. 

Hidalgo makes H. radula and H. alboeincta, Pfr. and H. curvilas- 
brum, Ads. and Reeve synonyms of this species. 

PCECILOZONITES, (p. 95). 

For this group Mr. Ancey has recently proposed a new name,. 
BERMUDIA, the type being H. Bermudensis, Pfr. 

PELLA, (p. 104). 

Mr. C. F. Ancey has established a new group LEJEANIA, for 
such species as H. Darnaudi, Pfr. H. Isseliana, H. Jickeli, Nevill, 
H. Lejeaniana, Bourg. etc. (p. 104), inhabiting the Mountains of 
Abyssinia and Sennaar. 

SHELDONIA, Ancey. 1887. 

Has been proposed for a South African group including H. 
Trotteriana, H. Natalensis, H. cotyledonis. 

TRIGONOSTOMA, (p. 117). 

H. BICONCAVA, Heude. 

On account of the previously published H. biconcava, Pfr. 
(Manual, I, 130), Crosse has changed this name to H. Outangensis; 
but as Pfeiffer's species is an Elsea and not a Helix, Heude's name 
can be retained. 



268 HELIX. 

CARACOLINA, (p. 117). 

H. BERTHELOTI, Fer. (p. 122). 
Add Plate 24, figs. 49-51. 

H. KEYREI, Souverb. (p. 127). 

Ancey has made this the type of a new group, ENTODINA. 

POLYGYRATIA, (p. 124). 

H. MACGREGORI, Cox. (p. 127). 

This species has been made the type of a new genus (CoxiA) by 
Mr. C. F. Ancey. 

TRICHIA, (p. 172). 

H. BOURNIANA, Bourg. PI. 38, figs. 48-50. 

Moderately umbilicated, fragile, glabrous, diaphanous, shining, 
sharply striate, subcostulate towards the suture, fulvous; whorls 6, 
convex, regularly slowly increasing, suture impressed; peristome 
acute, not thickened. Diam. 9 mill. 

Grande Chartreuse. 

H. PORTERI, Cox, (p. 183). Add PI. 40, figs. 35, 36. 
DORCASIA, (p. 205). 

H. ALEXANDRA Gray, (p. 213). Refer to PL 49, fig. 3, instead of 
fig. 6. 



INDEX TO GENERA Etc, 



CONTAINED IN THIS VOLUME. 



The Index and Synonymy of the species of Helix will be pul> 
lished on the completion of the monograph. 



Acanthinula, 16, 53. 
Actinaria=Laoma, 17, 68. 
Adelodonta^Polygyrella, 112. 
Ammonitella Drepanostoma, 

110. 

Amphidoxa, 16, 46. 
Anceyia, 102. 
Anchistoma, 110, 114. 
Anguispira, 17, 55, 266. 
Aplodon Mesodon, 113. 
Atlantica, 266. 
Atopa, 113, 156. 
Beramdia, 267. 

Bradyboena=:Fruticicola, 167. 
Bradyboena=Trichia, 167. 
Calcarina=Leucochroa, 10. 
Camsena, 264. 
Caracolina, 111, 117, 268. 
Carthaea=Punctum, 15, 37. 
Carthusiana, 167, 191. 
Charopa, 261. 
Ciliella, 168, 223. 
Conulus, 261. 
Gorilla^ Atopa, 114. 
Coxia, 268. 
Crenea=Jacosta, 169. 
Daedalochila, 112, 130. 
Delomphalus Patula, 15. 
Dibothrion^Petasia,, 167. 
Discus, 15, 19, 262. 
Dorcasia, 168, 205, 268. 
Drepanostoma, 110, 114. 
Endodonta, 17, 59. 
Entodina, 268. 
Epistyla=Sagda, 5. 
Eulota, 168, 200. 
Euparypha, 168, 223. 



Euphemia=Trigonostoma, 111. 
Euryomphala=Patula, 15. 
Fruticicola, 167, 170. 
Fruticotrochus Satsuma, 168. 
Galaxias=;Dorcasia, 168. 
Ganesella=Trochomorpha, 18, 74. 
Glyptostoma, 109, 110. 
Goniodiscus, 16, 43, 265. 
Gonostoma, 110, 114. 
Helicella, 169, 170, 239. 
Helicodonta=Isognomonostoma, 

113. 

Helicodonta=Trigonostoma, 111. 
Heliomanes, 169, 230. 
Hispidella, 168, 222. 
Hyalosagda, 5. 

Hygromanes Fruticicola, 167. 
Hygromia Fruticicola, 167. 
Iberus=Leucochroa, 10. 
Isognomonostoma, 113, 146. 
Jacosta, 169, 251. 
Laoma, 17, 68. 
Lejeania, 230, 267. 
Leucochroa, 10, 261. 
Libera, 17, 69. 

Liocystis Trochomorpha, 18, 75. 
Macrocyclis, 109. 
Macrocycloides, 16, 48. 
Mesodon, 113, 150. 
Metodontia, 113, 149. 
Microconus Pyramidula, 16, 53. 
Microcystis, 261. 
Microphysa, 19, 96. 
Microphyura=Polygyratia, 111, 
Mima, 10. 
Monacha, 167, 187. 
Nigritella, 18, 72. 
(269) 



270 INDEX 'TO GENERA. 

]STummulina, 168, 199. Sphincterochila, 262. 
Ophiogyra=Polygyratia, 111. Stenostoma=Stenotrema, 112. 

Pararhytida, 18, 95. Stenotrema, 112, 139. 

Paryphanta, 261, 265. Stephanoda=Amphidoxa, 16, 47. 

Patera=Mesodosi, 113. Strobila, 112, 138. 

Patula, 15, 19, 266. Systrophia=Polygyratia, 111, 

Patulastra Punctum, 15. Tetrodontina=Metodontia, 149. 

Pelia, 19, 102. Theba, 168. 

Pella, 19, 103, 267. Thera^Thysanota, 18, 95. 

Petasia, 167, 170. Thysanophora, 16, 50. 

Phasis=Pella, 19. Thysanota, 18, 93. 
Phryxgnathus^Punctum, 15, 37.Trichia, 167, 172, 268. 

Pitys=Endodonta, 17. Trichodiscus, 16, 49. 

Planogyra, 15, 28. Trigonostoma, 110, 115, 267. 

Plectopylis, 114, 159. Triodopsis, 112, 143. 

Poecilozonites, 19, 95, 267. Trochiscus, 167, 171. 

Polygyra, 111, 124, 128. Trochomorpha, 18, 72, 267. 

Polygyratia, Hl> 124, 268. Trochomorphoides Trochomor- 

Polygyrella, 111, 129. pha, 18. 

Pristina=Anceyia, 102. Ulostoma, 113, 155. 

Punctum, 15, 28, 263. Vallonia, 166, 169. 

Pyramidula, 16, 51. Videna, 18, 82, 264, 267. 

Khyssota, 261, 264. Vortex==Trigonostoma, 111. 

Sagda, 5. Xerophila, 168, 223. 

Satsuma, 168, 217. Xolotrema, 113, 147. 

Sculptaria, 112, 138. Zenobia, 167, 186. 

Sheldonia, 267, Zoogenites=Acanthinula, 17, 54. 
Spelseodiscus Punctum, 30. 



' UNIVERSITY ^ 

^ 

^****- -** 

REFERENCE TO PLATES, 



HELICID/E, Vol. I. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. Sagda epistylium, Pfr. (= alligans, Ads.) Reeve, Icon. 

f. 314, 6 

2, 3. Sagda epistylium, Pfr. (= alligans, Ads.) Kiister, 

Conch. Cab. t. 100, f. 38, 40, 6 

4. Sagda epistylioides, Fer. Ibid. t. 100, f. 43, . . .6 

5. Sagda connectens, Adams. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 312, . 6 

6. Sagda Cookiana, Pfr. (= Jayana, Ads). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 100, f. 37, 6 

7. Sagda alligans, Rve. (== Jayana, Ads.) Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. f. 311, b. 6 

8. Sagda Foremaniana, Pfr. (== australis, Chemn.) Ibid. 

f. 310, 6 

9. Sagda alveare, Pfr. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 108, f. 32, 33, . 7 

10. Sagda Foremaniana, Ads. Specimen. .... 7 

11. Sagda triptycha, Shuttl. ' " .... 7 

12. Sagda spiciilosa, Shuttl. .... 7 

13. Sagda torrefacta, Adams. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 309, . 7 

14. Sagda pila, Ads. Ibid. f. 322, 8 

15. Sagda lamellifera, Ads. Ibid. f. 318 8 

16. 17. Sagda Blandii, Weinl. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. vii, t. 12, 

f. 23, 8 

18, 19. Hyalosagda osculans, Ads. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 

154, f. 12, . 8 

:20-22. Hyalosagda Haldemaniana, Ads. Ibid, i, t. 28, f. 14, 

15, 17, . . . . 8 

23, 24. Hyalosagda similis, Ads. Ibid, ii, t. 127. f. 31, 33, . 9 

25, 26. Hyalosagda Hollandi, Ads. Ibid, ii, t. 127, f. 29, 30, 9 

27, 28. Hyalosagda ambigua, Ads. Ibid, ii, t. 166, f. 6, 7, . 9 

29. Hyalosagda brevis, Ads. Reeve, conch. Icon. f. 341, . 9 

50. Hyalosagda circumnrmata, Redneld. Ibid. f. 1319, . 9 

PLATE 2. 

31, 32. Leucochroa candidissima, Drap. Rossmassler, Iconog. 

iii, f. 814, 10 

33. Leucochroa cadidissima, Drap. Ibid, ii, f. 560, . . 10 

34. Leucochroa cadidissima, Var. rimosa, Jan. Ibid, i, f. 367, 10 
55. Leucochroa cadidissima, Var. hierochuntina, Boiss. 10 

Specimen. . . ' . . . , . . .10 
(271) 



272 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

36, 37. Leucochroa bsetica, Rossm. Rossmassler, Iconog. iii, 

f. 812, 80, 11 

38. Leucochroa Thayaca, Bourg. Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 38, 

f. 15, . v 11 

39, 40. Leucochroa Otthiana, Forbes. ' Rossmassler, Iconog. v. 

f. 1277, . .11 

41, 42. Leucochroa Jeannotiana, Terver. Ibid, ii, f. 564, . 11 
43, 44. Leucochroa chionodiscus, Pfr. Ibid, v, f. 1278, . 11 
45, 46. Leucochroa argia, Bourg. Ibid, v, f. 1280, . .12 
47, 48. Leucochroa fimbriata, Bourg. Ibid, v, f. 1288, . 12 
49, 50. Leucochroa prophetarum, Bourg. Ibid, v, f. 1284. 12 
51, 52. Leucochroa cariosula, Mich. Ibid, i, f. 368, . . 13 
53, 54. Lencochroa Mayrani, Gassies. Moll. Algerie. i, t. 6. 

f. 19, . . . . 13 

55. Leucochroa Mayrani, Var. subcariosula, Bourg. Ibid, i, 

t. 6,f. 22, . . . . 13 

56, 57. Leucochroa cariosa, Oliv. Rossmassler, Iconog. v, 

f. 1285, . 13 

58, 59. Leucochroa amphicyrta, Bourg, (= cariosa, Var.) 

Ibid, v, f. 1286, . 14 

60-62. Leucochroa ultima, Mousson. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 

119, f. 34-36, . . v- 14 

63-65. Leucochroa pressa, Mousson. Ibid, iv, 1. 119, f. 37-39, 14 
66, 67. Leucochroa accola, Mousson. Ibid, iv, t. 119, f. 40, 

41, , . 14 

68, 69. Leucochroa Boissieri, Charp. Rossmassler, Iconog. 

v, f. 1281, 14 

70, 71, Leucochroa filia, Mousson. Ibid, v, f. 1283, . . 15 

PLATE 3. 

72, 73. Patula rotundata, Mull. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll, 

t. 119, f. 6, 7 19 

74. Patula rotundata,, Mull. Ibid. t. GGG. f. 2. . . .19 

75, .76, Patula rotundata, Var. albina Fer. Hist. Moll, iv, t. 

79, f. 3 , .... 19 

77-79. Patula perspectiva, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll. iii. t. 

30, f.l . . .20 

80, 81. Patula ruderata, Studer. Rossmassler, Iconog. ii, f. 

455, 20 

82-84. Patula striatella, Anth. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 30, 

f. 2, 20 

85, 86, Patula pauper, Gould. Binney, Manual, f. 187, . 20 

87, 88. Patula Cronkheitei, Newcomb. Ibid. f. 30, . . 21 
89, 90. Patula Hornii, Gabb. Ibid. f. 159, . . . .21 

91-93. Patula Frivaldskyana, Rossm. Iconog. ii, f. 691, . 21 
9496. Patula concinna, Lowe. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 129, f. 

45-47, 21 

97-99. Patula calathoides, Paiva. Moll. Mader. t. 2, f. 4, . 44 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 273 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

100-1. Patula Hermann!, Pfr. Crosse & Fischer, Mexico. 

t. 10, f. 4, 22 

2, 3 . Patula Amacaensis, Hidalgo. Journ. de Conch, t. 6, f. 3, 

1870 ' 22 

4-6, Patula humilis, Hutton. Conch. Ind. t. 61, f. 4-6, . 22 
7-9, Patula coma, Pfr. not Gray ( lucetta, Hutton). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab. t. 155, f. 37-39, 22 

10. Patula varicosa, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 824, . . .23 

11. Patula buccinella, Rve. (=gamma, Pfr.). Ibid. f. 821, . 23 

12. Patula corniculum, Rve. (=eta, Pfr.). Ibid: f. 826, . 24 

13. Patula anguicula, Reeve. Ibid. f. 22, . . . 23 

14. Patula infecta, Rve. ,(=zeta, Pf r .). Ibid. f. 808, . . 23 

15. Patula egesta, Gray. Ibid. f. 798, . . . .23 

16. Patula Diemenensis, Cox. Austr. Land Shells, t. 7, f. 6a. 24 

17. 18. Patula Wellingtonensis, Cox. Ibid, t, 7, f, 5, . 24 
19, 20. Patula Ramsayi, Cox. Ibid. t. 18, f. lla, . . .110 
21, 22. Patula cuprea, Cox. Ibid. t. 12, f. 9, . . .24 
23. Patula Saturni, Cox. Ibid. t. 6, f. 11, . . . .24 

PLATE 4. 



\ 



24, 25. Patula Brazieri, Cox. Austr. Land Shells, t. 11, 

f. 18, . . ... . . . . . .24 

26, 27. Patula lirata, Cox. Ibid. t. 11, f. 3, . . 25 

28, 29. Patula Stroudensis, Cox. Ibid. t. 11, f. 1, . . 25 

30, 31. Patula pexa, Cox. Ibid. t. 8, f. 2, . . . . 25 

32, 33. Patula cochlidium, Cox. Ibid. t. 8, f. 1, . . .25 
34, 35. Patula decreta, Gassies. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 3, 

1873, .... 26 

36. Patula Belli, Cox. Austr. Land Shells, t. 6 f. 3, . . 25 

37, 38. Patula Lamberti, Gassies. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 1, 

1873, . ^ . . 26 

39, 41. Patula Demani, Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, xix, 

t. 2, f. 13-15, .26 

42, 44. Patula Paulus, Morel (= Caldwelli). Ser. Conch, ii, 

t. 4, f, 7, 27 

45, 47. Patula Abietana, Bourg. Moll. Algerie, i, 1. 19, f. 17- 

20, ' 21 

48, 49. Patula subcoacta, Gassies. Conch. Nouv. Caled. ii, t. 

l,f. 10, 26 

50. Patula melaleucarum, Gassies. Jour, de Conch, t. 14, f. 7, 

1873, 26 

51. Patula inculta, Gassies. Conch. Nouv. Caled. iii, t. 1, f. 

7, . . .... . . .26 

52. Patula astericus, Morse. Binney, Terr. Moll, iv, t. 77, 

f. 9, . ... 28 

53. 55. Patula solaria, Menke. Rossmassler, Icon, ii, f. 453, 43 
56, 57, 58. Patula Arrouxi, Bourg. Moll. Litig. i, t. 7, f. 

4-6, 21 

18 



274 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

59-61. Patula engonata, Shuttl. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 120, f. 

1-4, . . . . . . . . . .43 

62, 63. Patula semiplicata, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 159, 

f. 25,26, 44 

64-66 Patula retexta, Shuttl. Novit. Conch, iv. 1. 120, f. 6-8, 44 
67, 68. Patula Bertholdiana, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

161, f. 9, 11, . . .... . . .102 

69, 70. Patula Bryanti, Harper. Binney, Manual, f. 277, . 43 

PLATE 5. 

71, 72. Patula corticicola, Cox. Monog. Austr. Land Sh. t. 

7, f. 7, 44 

73, 74. Patula mucosa, Cox. Ibid. t. 11, f. 14, ... 44 
75, 76. Patula mucoides, Stephens. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 

Wales, iii, t. 12, f. 5, 44 

77, 78. Patula Opaoana, Gassies. Conch. Noiiv. Caled. ii, t. 

l,f. 6, 45 

79, 80. Patula minima, Cox. (== Collisi), Austr. Land Shells. 

t. 12, f. 8, 25 

;81, 82. Patula fabrefacta, Pease. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 108, 

f. 30, 31. . , 45 

83. Patula Hookeri, Re.eve. Conch: Icon. f. 1474, . . 48 

83a. Patula Princei, Liardet. Zool. Proc. t. 5, f. 4, 1876, . 27 

84. Patula arcuata, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 169, ... 46 

35. Patula arctispira, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 653, ... 47 

86. Patula tessellata, Miihlf. Ibid. f. 651, . . . .47 

87. Patula Selkirki, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 23, f. 19, b. 1884, 47 

88. Patula quadrata, Fer. Conch. Icon. f. 619, . . . 47 

89. Patula ceroides, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1035, . . . .47 

90. Patula dissimilis, Orb. Ibid. f. 629, . - . . .48 
31. Patula Binneyana, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1230, .... 48 
2-94. Patula Arthurii, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 143, 

f. 23-25, 48 

95-97. Patula lutea, Martens. Preuss. Exped. t. 12, f. 16, . 48 

-98. Patula Veronica, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1028, . . . 49 

.99-1. Patula Cordovana, Pfr. Expl. Sci. Mex. t. 12, f. 4, . 49 

2. Patula coactiliata, Fer. Conch. Icon. f. 595, ... 49 

3. Patula suturalis, Pfr. Ibid. f. 301, . ... .49 

4. 5. Patula pressula, Morelet. Expl. Sci. Mex. t. 12, f. 5, 50 
(.6, 7. Patula Oajacensis, Koch. Kiister. Conch. Cab. ii. t. 

132, f. 3, 4, 50 

8-10. Patula impura, Pfr. Mex. Land conch. Pt. iv, t. 4, 

f. 2, 50 

11-13. Patula paleosa, Strebel. Ibid. Pt. iv, t. 4, f. 3, . . 50 
14-16. Patula conspurcatula, Morelet. Expl. Sci. Mex. t. 12, 

f. 3, 50 

17-18. Patula turbinella, Morelet. Ibid. t. 12, f. 2, . . 51 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 275 

PLATE 6. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

19-21. Patula micropleuras, Paget. Guerin's Mag. t. 18, f. 

9-11,1863, . 28 

22-24. Patula elachia, Bourg. Ibid. t. 18, f. 14-17, 1863, . 28 
25-27. Patula Massoti, Bourg. Moll. Litig. i. t. 5, f. 5, 7. 

8, 29 
28-30. Patula pygmsea, brap. Moll. Alger. i. t. 19, f. 9, 11, 

12 29 

31-33. Patula Debeauxiana, Bourg. Ibid, t.' 19, f. 13-16, 1 28 
34-36. Patula Aucapitainiana, Bourg. Guerin's Mag. i. t. 6, 

f. 6-8. 1863, 29 

37-39. Patula Sudensis, Pfr. Rossmassler, Iconog. iii, f. 901, 30 
40-42. Patula Poupillieri, Bourg. Moll. Alger. i. t. 19, f. 

5-8, , ... 29 

43-45. Patula Schwerzenbachi, Calcara. Benoit. Test. Sicil. 

t. 4, f. 8, 30 

46-47. Patula sororcula, Benoit. Ibid. t. 4, f. 16. . . 29 
48-50. Patula flavida, Zglr. (=Balmei). Rossmassler, Iconog. 

ii.f. 610, 30 

51, 52. Patula Erdeli, Roth. Inaug. Dissert, t. 1, f. 4, 5, . 30 
53-55. Patula putrescens, Lowe. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 119, f. 

48-50, 31 

56-58. Patula pusilla, Lowe. Ktister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 89, f. 

29-31, 31 

59, 60. Patula Luseana, Paiva. Jour, de Conch, t. 11, f. 9, 

1866, 31 

61, 63. Patula textilis, Shuttl. Novit. Conch, iv. t. 119, f. 

42-44, 31 

64-66. Patula servilis, Shuttl. Ibid. iv. t. 120, f. 14-16. . 31 

PLATE 7. 

65. Patula Bascauda, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 16, f. 1, . 52 

66. Patula polypleuros, Blanford. Ibid. t. 16, f. 7, . .52 
67-70. Patula cryophila, Mart. Actes Acad. Curios, xxxvii, 

t.4,f. 17, , 52 

71-74. Patula Abyssmica, Jickeli. Ibid, xxxvii. t. 4, f. 20, . 32 
75-77. Patula euomphalus, Blanf. Conch. Ind. t. 129, f. 

1-3, 32 

78, 79. Patula Bianconii, Desh. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Bull. ix. 

t. 2, f. 25, 26, 32 

80, 81. Patula Neherensis, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 32, f. 5, 6, 33 

82. Patula artificiosa, Benson. Ibid. t. 55, f. 3, . . .33 

3-85. Patula quadrispira, Mart. Preuss. Exped. t. 13, f. 9, 33 

86. Patula auloscospira, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 975, . . 35 

87, 88. Patula Morti, Cox. Austr. Land Shells t. 11, f. 13, . 34 
89, 90. Patula Hobarti, Cox. Ibid. t. 12, f. 11, . . . 34 
91, 92. Patula Tasmanise, Cox. Ibid. t. 12, f. 4, . . .34 



276 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

93, 94. Patula stellata, Brazier. Ibid. t. 12, f. 12, . . 34 

95, 96. Patula retipora, Cox. Ibid, t, 7, f. 8, . . . 34 

97-99. Patula Melbournensis, Cox. Ibid. t. 12, f. 10, . . 34 

100-1. Patula vorticella, H. Ads. Zool. Proc. t. 4, f. 2, 1868, . 35 

2-4. Patula textrix, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 162, f. 14, 

16, 17, .35 

5, 6. Patula subtersa, Gassies. Moll. Nouv. Caled. iii, t. 1, 

f. 14, . . t m . ; . .... 35 

7, 8. Patula confinis, Gassies. Ibid, iii, t. 1, f. 13, . . 35 
9, 10. Patula Calliope, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 1, 

1874, . . . , . . '. . . .36 
11, 12. Patula vetula, Gassies. Conch. Nouv. Caled. i, t. 1, 

f. 13, . . 36 

13-15. Patula Taslei, Crosse. Journ de Conch, t. 4, f. 2, 

1874, ...... ... 36 

16, 17. Patula rhizoporarum, Gassies. Conch. Nouv. Caled. 

ii, t. 1, f. 11, |f , . 36 

PLATE 8. 

18. Patula radiella, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 643, ' . . .38 

19-21. Patula filiola, Fer. Hist. Moll, iv, t. 86, f. 1, . . 38 
22-24. Patula gradata, Gld. Moll. Wilkes Expl. Exped. t. 

3, f. 48, 38 

25-27. Patula tiara, Mighels. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 1. 125, 

f. 9-11, 38 

28-30. Patula modicella, Fer. Hist. Moll, iv, t. 86, f. 3, . 38 
31, 32. Patula vicaria, Mouss. Jour, de Conch, t. 3, f. 2, 

1871, : . . .38 

33, 34. Patula lamellicosta, Garrett. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philad. ix, t. 2, f. 11, 39 

35-37. Patula tenuicostata, Garrett. Am. Jour. Conch, viii, 

t. 19, f.23, 39 

38-40. Patula canalis, Garrett. Ibid, vii, t. 19, f. 17, . .39 

41-43. Patula proxima, Garrett. Ibid, vii, t. 19, f. 24, . . 39 

44-46. Patula rudis, Garrett. Ibid, vii, t. 19, f. 18, . . 39 

47-49. Patula decorticata, Garrett. Ibid. vii. t. 19, f. 19, . 40 
50. Patula Otarese, Garrett. (= decorticata), Ibid, vii, t. 19, 

f. 21, 40 

51-53. Patula Harveyensis, Garrett Ibid, vii, t. 19, f. 20, . 40 

54-66. Patula Youngi, Garrett. Ibid, vii, t. 19, f. 22, . ' . 40 

57, Patula complementaria, Mousson. Jour, de Conch. 1. 14, 

f. 5, 1865, . . . 40 

58, 59. Patula adposita, Mousson. Ibid. t. 7, f. 8, 1870, . 41 
60, 61. Patula inermis, Mousson. Ibid. t. 7, f. 7, 1870, . 41 
62-64. Patula Oualanensis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, ii, t. 

21, f. 7, 41 

65. Patula euclasta, Shuttl. Conch. Icon. f. 1323, . . 9T 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 277 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

66. Patula musicola, Shuttl. Ibid. f. 1830, . . . .97 

67, 68. Patula Inaguensis, Weinl. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. vii, t. 

12,f.22, 41 

69, Patula costellata, d'Orb. Conch, Icon. f. 638. . . 41 

70, 71. Patula Coppingeri, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 4, f. 14, 

1881, 42 

PLATE 9. 

72-74. Patula lirata, Couthouy. Moll. Wilkes Exped. t. 3, 

f. 34, 42 

75-77. Patula Magellanica, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 4, f. 15, 

1881, . . . 42 

78. Patula excisa, Pfr. Conch. Icon, f. 1260, ... 42 
79-80. Patula bryophila, Phil. Hidalgo, Voy. Pacific, t. 2, 

f. 14, 15, 42 

81-83. Patula Chiliensis, Muhlf. Kuster, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

85. f. 17-19, 42 

84-86. Patula epidermia, Anton. Ibid. t. 89, f. 20-23, . 42 

87-89. Patula rupestris, Drap. Rossmassler, Iconog. ii, f. 

534, 51 

90. Patula trochoides, Fer. Hist. Moll. t. 80, f. 3, . . 51 

91, 92. Patula Jaenensis, Clessin. Mai. Blatt. N. S. v. t. 4, 

f. 3, 51 

93. Patula assariensis, Calcara. Benoit. 111. Moll. Sicil. t. 4, 

f. 14, ' . 51 

94. Patula placida, Shuttl. Concl* Icon. f. 917, . . 51 

95. Patula Hierosolymitana, Bourg. Specimen. . . 52 
96-98. Patula amblygona, Reinh. Jahrb. Mai. Gessell. iv, t. 

11, f. 3, 52 

99-1. Patula Brocchii, Jickeli. Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 

xxxvii, t. 4, f. 18, 52 

2-4. Patula Brucei, Jickeli. Ibid, xxxvii, t. 4, f. 19, . . 52 
5-6. Patula Wilhelmi, Pfr. Crosse and Fischer, Mexico, t. 

10, f. 5, 53 

7. Patula punctum, Morelet. Ibid. t. 12, f. 1, . . .53 
8-9. Patula pleurophora, Moricand. Mem. Genev. 3d. suppl. 

t. 5, f. 6, 8, '. 53 

10-12. Patula aculeata, Mull. Rossmassler, Iconog. ii, f. 

536, 53 

13, 14. Patula harpa, Say. Binney, Manual, f. 183, 184, . 54 
15-17. Patula spinifera, Mousson. Novit. Conch, iv. t. 120, 

f. 17-20, 54 

18-19. Patula lamellata, Jeffreys. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll. 1. 117, f. 8, 9, ..'.... 54 
20, 21. Patula monas, Morelet. Moll. Azores, t. 3, f. 5, . 54 
22. Patula csecoides, Tate. Am. Jour. Conch, v. t. 16, f. 

2, 55 



278 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

23. Patula caeca, Guppy. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 163, f. 28, . 55 

24. Patula lerensis, Guppy. Am. Jour. Conch, vi, t. 17, f. 

4, 55 

25. Patula bactricola, Guppy. Ibid, vii, t. 17, f. 5, . . 55 
26-28. Patula granum, Strebel. Mex. Land Conch. Pt. 4, t. 

4,f.l3, .55 

PLATE 10. 

29-31. Patula Idahoensis, Newc. Am. Jour. Conch, ii, t. 1, 

f. 1-3, 55 

32-34. Patula strigosa, Gould. Binney, Terr. Moll. iii. t. 2, 

6a, 56 

35, 36. Patula Cooperi, Binney. Binney Manual, f. 152, 

153, . . .56 

37-39. Patula Hemphilli, Newc. Am. Jour. Conch, v. t. 17, 

f. 4, 56 

40. Patula Haydeni, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch, v. t. 8, f. 1, . 57 

41. Patula Haydeni, Gabb. Binney, Manual, f. 155, . . 57 

42. Patula Strigosa, Gld. Ibid. f. 156. . . . .56 
43-45, Patula alternata, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 25, 57 
42. Patula alternata, Say. Binney, Manual, f. 270, . . 57 
47, 48. Patula alternata, Var. mordax. Binney, Manual, f. 

271, 57 

49-54. Patula Cumberlandiana, Lea. Binney, Terr. Moll. 

iii, t. 26, . . 58 

52-54. Patula solitaria, Say. Ibid, iii, t. 24, ... 58 

55. Patula Kochi, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1120, ... 58 

56. Patula subrudis, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1398, 58 

57-59. Patula Arecibensis, Pfr. Novit. Conch, i, t. 28, f. 

22-24, 58 

PLATE 11. 

60, 61. Patula acuticosta, Mousson. Jour Phila. Acad. ix, 

t. 2, f. 13, . . . . . . ... 60 

62, 63. Patula Berlieri, Crosse. Moll. Nouv. Caled. iii, t. 1, 

f. 18, 59 

64. Patula Vincentina, Crosse. Ibid, ii, t. 8, f. 13, . . 59 
65-67. Patula jugosa, Mighels. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 166, 

f. 19-21, .59 

68-70. Patula rubiginosa, Gld. Moll. Wilkes Expl. Exped. 

t. 4, f. 49, . .59 

71-73. Patula hystrix, Mighels. Ibid. t. 4, f. 52*, . . 59 
74-76. Patula unilamellata, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 

3, f. 67, 1873, . " 60 

77-79. Patula obolus, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Expl. Exped. t. 

4, f. 50, 61 

80, 81. Patula consimilis, Pease. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix, t. 

2. f. 12, . , 60 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 279 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

82, 83. Patula rotellina, Pease. Specimen 60 

84-86. Patula stellula, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped. t. 4, 

f. 52, 61 

87, 88. Patula binaria, Pfr. Specimen 61 

89-91. Patula velata, Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 6, f. 29-31, 61 
92-94. Patula Huaheinensis, Pfr. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix, t. 

2,f.26 ',. . .61 

95-97. Patula Tanese, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 3, f. 

65, 1873, . .62 

98-100. Patula cretacea, Garrett. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix, t. 

2, f. 27, 66 

1. Patula Helenensis, Forbes. Conch. Icon. f. 801, . . 62 
2-4. Patula Derbesiana, Crosse Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 2. 

1879, 63 

PLATE 12. 

5-7. Patula ficta, Pease. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix, t. 2, f. 25, 62 
8-10. Patula contorta, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 100, 

f. 2, 4, 65 

11-13. Patula sexlamillata, Pfr. Ibid, ii, t. 100, f. 45 47, . 65 
14-16. Patula multilamellata, Garrett. Am. Jour. Conch. 

vii. t. 19, f. 25, 65 

17-19. Patula zebrina, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 3, f. 

66, 1873, 64 

20-22. Patula parvidens, Pease. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix. t. 

2, f. 14, . . . . . . . .64 

23-25. Patula dadalea, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped. t. 4, f. 

51, 64 

26. Patula subdsedalea, Mousson. Jour, de Conch, t. 7, f. 6, 

1870, 64 

27-29. Patula Maupiensis, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad. t. 3, 

f. 64, 1873, 65 

30. Patula hystricelloides, Mousson. Jour, de Conch, t. 14, 

f. 6, 1865, 65 

31. Patula Graffei, Mousson. Ibid. t. 14, f. 3, 1869, . . 65 
32-24. Patula lamellosa, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 100, 

f. 6-8, ......... 67 

35, 36. Patula Frickii, Pfr. Zool. Proc. t. 40, f. 3, 1858, . 67 
37-39. Patula Oparica, Anton. Kiister, Conch. Cab ii, t. 

100, f. 17-19, 67 

40-42. Patula rotula, Jacquinot. Voy. Astrol. et. Zel. t. 11, 

f. 1-4, . , . 67 

43-45. Patula consobrina, Garrett. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix. 

t. 2, f. 17, 66 

46-48. Patula subtilis, Garrett. Ibid, ix, t. 2, f. 15, . . 66 

49-51, Patula punctiperforata, Garrett. Ibid, ix, t. 2, f. 16, 66 

52-54. Patula Boraborensis, Garrett. Ibid, ix, t. 2, f. 18, 66 



280 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE. 13. 

FIGUKE. PAGE. 

55. Patula Leimonias, Gray, Conch. Icon. f. 820, . . 68 

56. Patula poecilosticta, Pfr. Ibid. f. 815, .... 68 

57. Patula bilamellata, Pfr. Ibid. f. -646, . . . .68 

58. Patula Pirrieana, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1341, . . . .68 

59. Patula bidenticulata, Benson. Ibid. f. 1184, . . 69 

60. Patula dhagoba, Blanford. Conch. Ind. t. 150, f. 10, . 69 

61. Patula diplodon, Benson. Ibid. t. 60, f. 8, . . .69 

62. 63. Patula Ingrami, Blanford, Ibid. t. 60, f. 9, 10, . 69 
64-66. Palula fratercula,, Pease. Specimen. . . .70 
67-69. Patula cavernula, Garrett. (=Subcavernula, Tryon). 

Am. Jour. Conch, vii, t. 19, f. 10, . . . . 69 

70, 71. Patula tumuloides, Garrett. Ibid, vii, t. 19, f. 15, . 70 
72-74. Patula excavata, Jacq. (=Jacquinoti, Pfr.) Voy. As- 

trol. et. Zel. t. 6, f. 10-12, . . . . . .71 

75-77. Patula cavernula, Jacquinot. Ibid. t. 6, f. 33-36. . 69 

78. Patula streptaxon, Eve. (coarctata, Pfr.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 78, 71 

79, 80. Patula turricula, Jacq. (= coarctata, Pfr.) Voy. 

Astrol. et Zel. t. 6, f. 21, 23, 71 

81. Patula retunsa, Pease. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix, t. 2, f. 8, 71 

82. Patula Heynemanni, Pfr. Ibid, ix, t. 2, f. 9, . . . 72 

83. 84, Patula gregaria, Garrett. Ibid, ix, t. 2, f. 6, . . 72 

85. Patula recedens, Garrett. Ibid, ix, t. 2, f. 7, . . .72 

86. Patula bursatella, Gould. Conch. Icon. f. 635, . . 71 

PLATE 14. 

87. Patula conus, Phil. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 490, . . 72 

88. Patula conus, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 28, f. 7, . 72 

89. Patula Campbelli, Gray. Conch. Icon. f. 438, . . 72 

90. Patula Stoddarti, Gray. Ibid. f. 1451, . . . .73 

91. Patula alta, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iv, t. 12, f. 1, . 73 

92. 93. Patula rectangula, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 28, 

f. 8, 9, 73 

94. Patula rectangula, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 616, ... 73 

95. PatuJa pagodula, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1359a, . . . .73 

96. Patula Lalannei, Gassies. Conch. Nouv. Caled. ii, t. 2, 

f. 6, .73 

97. 98. Patula chloroplax, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 32, f. 1, 4, 74 

99. Patula Capitium, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 14, f. 5, . . 74 

100. Patula hariola, Benson. Ibid. t. 14, f. 6, .. . . 74 

1. Patula acris. Benson. Ibid. t. 54, f. 6, . . . .74 

2, 3. Patula galerus, Benson. Ibid. t. 83, f. 5, 6, . . 75 

4. Patula galea, Benson. Ibid. t. 54, f. 7, . . . . 75 

5. Patula Paivei. Morlet. Jour, de Conch, t. 11, f. 1, 1884. 82 

6. Patula Brunii, Morch. Preuss. Exped. t. 13, f. 15, . 74 

7. Patula Gysseriana, Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 67, f. 5, . 75 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 281 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

810. Patula augulata, Issel. Ann. Mus. Genoa, vi, t. 5, 

f. 5-8, 75 

11. Patula Batchianensis, Pfr. Zool. Proc. t. 2, f. 5, 1861, . 76 

12-14. Patula Ternatana, Guillou. Preuss. Exped. 1. 13, f. 1, 76 

15. Patula membranicosta, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1318, . 76 

16. .Patula Belmorei, Cox, Zool. Proc. t. 52, f. 12, 1871. . 76 

17. 18. Patula fatigata, Cox. Zool. Proc. t. 16, f. 4, 1873, 76 

19. Patula exaltata, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1026, ... 76 

20. Patula scytodes, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1310, . . . .77 
21-23. Patula oleacina, Semper. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 163, 

f. 13-15, 77 

24. Patula Gouldii, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 163, ... 77 
25-27. Patula Bertiniana, Canefri. Ann. Mjus. Genova, xix. 

t. 2, f. 24-26, 78 

28. Patula Pacifica, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 64a, . . 78 

29. Patula solarium, Quoy. Ibid. f. 778, . . . .80 

PLATE 15. 

30. Patula Juanita, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 20, f. 3, 1873, . 77 

31. Patula securiformis. Desh. Hist. Moll. t. 64a, f. 5, . 78 

32. Patula tentoriolum, Gld. Moll. Wilkes Exped. t. 4, f. 

54, 79 

33. Patula solarium, Quoy. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii. t. 87, f. 

24, 80 

34. Patula goniomphala, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1362, . . 78 
35-37. Patula nigritella, Pfr. Kiister. Conch. Cab. ii. t. 94, f. 

1-4, . . . . 78 

38, 39. Patula congrua, Pse. (=contigua, Pse.) Am. Journ. 

Conch, iv. t. 12, f. 3, 4, 78 

40. Patula Fessonia, Angas. Zuol. Proc, t. 48, f. 7, 1869, . 79 

41. Patula transarata, Mousson. Jour, de Conch, t. 7, f. 1, 

1870, . 79 

42. Patula trochiformis, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. t. 13, f. 

8, . .79 

43-45. Patula entomostoma, Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 7, f. 

22-24, 79 

46, 47. Patula subtrochiformis, Mousson. Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. t. 167, f. 24, 25, ....... 79 

48, 49. Patula Kusteri, Pfr. Ibid, ii, t. 92, f. 14, 15, . . 80 
50-52. Patula Lomonti, Brazier. Ann. Mus. Genova. xix. f. 

5-7, .80 

53, 54. Patula infrastriata, Smith. Zool. Proc, t. 22, f.-4, 1884, 80 
55, Patula accurata, Mousson. Jour, de Conch, t. 7, f. 2, 

1870, 80 

56-58. Patula sculpticarina, Martens. Conch. Mittheil. ii. t. 

-25, f. 13-15, . . . . ' . . . .80 

59. Patula Yorkensis, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1372, . . 81 



282 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

60, 61. Patula partunga, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 43, f. 13, 15, 

1867, 81 

62. Patula meleagris, Pfr. Ibid. t. 32, f. 8, 1855, . . 81 

63. Patula tuber, Mousson. Jour, de Conch, t. 14, f. 5, 1869, 81 
64-66. Patula Samoa, Jacquinot. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. t. 4, 

f. 28-30, .'.".'; 81 

67, 68. Patula Causia, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 90, f. 2, 3, . 102 

PLATE 16. 

69, 70. Patula Hamilton!, Cox. Austr. Land Shells, t. 7, f. 

2, 87 

71, 72. Patula rusticula, Gassies. Nouv. Caled. i. t. f. 11, . 26 

73, 74. Patula dispersa, Gassies. Ibid, i, t. i, f. 12, . . 45 

75, 76. Patula Melitse, Gassies. Nouv. Caled. ii, t. 1, f. 9, . 45 

77. Patula trichoma, Crosse. Ibid, ii, t. 2, f. 11, . . . 45 

78, 79. Patula planorbis, Lesson. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

129, f. 16, 17, ... . ... 82 

80, 82. Patula appropinquata, Mart. Preuss. Exped. t. 13, 

f. 8, . . .82 

83-85. Patula bicolor, Martens. Ibid, t, 13, f. 2, . . .82 

86. Patula Zollingeri, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 605, ... 82 
87-89. Patula Cantoriana, Benson. Jour. Asiat. Soc. xiii, t. 

l,f. 13, ... 83 

90-92. Patula tricolor, Mart. Moll. Preuss. Exped. 1. 13, f. 3, 83 
93-95. Patula lardea, Mart. Ibid. t. 13, f. 5, . . .83 
96-98. Patula Gorontalensis, Mart. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 128, 

f. 7, ... 83 

99-1. Patula Timorensis, Mart, Preuss. Exped. t. 13, f. 6, . 83 

2. Patula Hartmanni, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 489, . . 83 

3, 4. Patula sanis, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 83, f. 4, 7, . 84 
5-7. Patula Castra, Benson. Ibid. t. 83, f, 1-3, . . 84 
8-10. Patula percompressa, Blanf. Jour. Asiat. Soc. 1. t. 5, 

f. 22, 84 

11, 12. Patula beiiigna, Pfr. Zool. Proc. t. 36, f. 11, 12, 1862, 84 

PLATE 17. 

13, 14. Patula Saigonensis, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 6, f. 3, 

1867, . . . -..' 84 

15. Patula Shermani, Pfr. Zool. Proc. t. 46, f. 5, 1865, . 84 

16. Patula conomphala, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1019, . . 84 
17-19. Patula Metcalfei, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 97, 

f. 11-12, . . . 85 

20, 21. Patula Metcalfei, Var. minor. Ibid, ii, t. 97, f. 13, 14, 85 
22, 23. Patula Metcalfei, Var. unicolor. Ibid, ii, t. 97, f. 15, 

16, 35 

24. Patula exclusa, Fer. Conch. Icon. f. 1229, . . .85 
25-27. Patula acutimargo, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

97, f. 1-3, . 85 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 283- 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

2- #8-30. Patula radula, Pfr. Ibid, ii, t. 97, f. 4-6, . . 85 

31, 32. Patula strigilis, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 160, . . 85 
33, 34. Patula Beckiana, Pfr. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 93, 

f. 7, 8, 86 

35. Patula Beckiana, (= Kierulfi, Morch.) Icon. f. 145, . 86 

36. Patula planorbis, Var. (= albocincta.) Ibid. f. 153a. . 86 

37. Patula curvilabrum, Ad. & Reeve. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. 

ii, t, 147, f. 18, . 86 

38. 39. Patula Lizardensis, Pfr. Austr. Land Shells, t. 4, 

f. 1, 86 

40. Patula Moretonensis, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1313, . . 87 

41, 42. Patula bisulcata, Pfr. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. ii. t. 161, 

f. 3, 4 87 

43, 44. Patula serrata, H. Adams. Zool. Proc. t. 28, f. 6, 

1868, ....'..... 87 

45, 46. Patula apia, Jacq. Conch. Icon. f. 1402, . . 88 

'47, 48. Patula Eudora, Angas. Zool. Proc. t. 2, f. 8, 1869, . 88 

49. Patula semiconvexa, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1316, . . 88 

50. Patula matura, Pfr. Zool. Proc. t. 31, f. 10, 1856, . 88 

51. 52. Patula rhoda, Angas. Ibid. t. 20, f. 10, 11, 1876, . 88 
53, 54. Patula deiopeia, Angas. Ibid. t. 2, f. 4, 1869, . 89 

PLATE 18. 

55. Patula Merziana, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 971, . . .89 
56-58. Patula Sancta-Anna?, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 36, f. 7, 

1885, 89 

59-61. Patula xiphias, Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 38, f. 6-8, . 89 

62, Patula Navigatorum, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1303, . . 90 

63, Patula luteocornea, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1287. ... 90 

64, 65. Patula approximata, Guillou. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. 

ii, t. 125, f. 5, 6, .90 

66, 67. Patula approximata, var. marmorosa, Jacq. Ibid. t. 

125, f. 7, 8, 90 

68-70. Patula Eurydice, Old. Moll. Wilkes Exped. t. 4, f. 

57, 90 

71-73. Patula tumulus, Gld. Ibid. t. 4, f. 53, ... 91 
74-75. Patula abrochroa, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, f. 2, 

1870, . .91 

76-78. Patula Cressida, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped. t. 4, f. 

56, .91 

79. Patula pallens, Pease. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix, t. 3, f. 

43, 91 

80. Patula Swainsoni, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 607, ... 91 
81-83. Patula latimarginata, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 23, f. 14, 

1884, 92 

84. Patula assimilis, Garrett. Jour. Philad. Acad. ix, t. 3, f. 

44, 92 



284 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

85. Patula Tavinniensis, Garrett. Am. Jour. Conch, vii, t. 

19, f. 10, . . . ... . . .92 

86. Patula rudiuscula, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1331, . . 93 

87. 88. Patula Hidalgoiana, Crosse. Jour, de Conch. 3 ser. 

vi. t. 1, f. 2, 93 

89, 90. Patula Troilus, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped. t. 4, f. 

55, 9/2. 

91, 92. Patula hyba, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 30, f. 2, 3, . 93 

93. Patula crinigera, Benson. Ibid. t. 60, f. 7, . .94 

94. Patula crinigera, Benson. Conch. Icon. f. 746, . 94 

95. 96. Patula Guerini, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii. t. 87, f. 

15,16, . . .... . . . . 93 

PLATE 19. 

97, 98. Patula tabida, Pfr. Novit. Conch, i, t. 12, f. 11, 12, 94 

99. Patula macropleuris, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 87, f. 10, . 94 

100. Patula mera, Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 1428, . . 94 

1. Patula stipulata, Rve. (= alpha, Pfr.) Ibid. f. 813, . 94 

2. Patula beta, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 155, f. 56, . 95 

3. Patula dictyodes, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 423, . . .95 
4^6. Patula Mouensis, Crosse, Jour, de Conch, t. 8, f. 5, 

1868, . . . . . . . . . .95 

7, 8. Patula Bermudensis, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

87, f. 9, 10, -. 95 

9, 10, Patula Bermudensis, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 275, . 95 

11, 12. Patula Portoricensis, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

120, f. 7, 8, . . . ... . . .96 

13. Patula desiderata, Pfr. Msel. Blatt. v. t. 3, f. 9, . . 96 

14. Patula turbiniformis, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cat. ii, t. 99, 

f. 31, 96 

15. Patula Anthonyana, Ads. Conch. Icon. f. 316a. . . 96 

16. Patula Boothiana, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 85, 

f. 15, 97 

17-19. Patula Montetaurina, Pfr. Mai. Blatt. viii, t. 1, f. 

17-20, 97 

20-22. Patula elatior, Weinl. & Mart. Ibid, viii, 1. 1, f. 14-16, 97 

23. Patula angustispira, Ads. Conch. Icon. f. 343a. . . 97 

24. Patula fuscula, Ads. Ibid. f. 348, 98 

25-27. Patula vortex, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 85, f. 

7-9, . 98 

28. Patula bracteola, Fer. (= vortex, Pfr.) Hist. Moll, iv, 86, 

f. 2, . . ;'*. . . . * . .98 

29. Patula alveus, Ads, Conch. Icon. f. 1466, , . . 98 

30. Patula peraffmis, Ads. Ibid. f. 325, . . . .98 

31. Patula subaquila, Shuttl. Ibid, ft 1257, . . . 08 

32. Patula spreta, Ads. Ibid. f. 332, . . . . .98 

33. Patula inconspicua, Ads. Ibid. f. 330, * . .99 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 285 

FIGURE. . ' PAGE. 

34. Patula brevior, Ads. Ibid. f. 338, . . . . .99 

35. Patula sincera, Ads. Ibid. f. 340, 99 

36. Patula umbratilis, Guppy. Am. Jour. Conch, vi, t. 17, 

f. 3, 99 

37. 38. Patula imraunda, Ads. Conch. Icon. f. 30*2, . ! 99 

39. Patula rufula, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1404, 99 

40, 41. Patula diminuta, Ads. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 1. 129, 

f. 54, 55, . 99 

42. Patula perdepressa, Ads. Conch Icon. f. 344, . . 100 

43, 44. Patula cyclostomoides, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 

t. 85, f. 25, 26, 100 

45. Patula ptychodes, Pfr. Reeve, Icon. f. 326, . . .100 

46. Patula tichostoma, Pfr. Ibid. f. 331, . . . .100 

PLATE 20. 

47. 48. Patula Ingersolli, Bland. Binney, Manual, f. 160, . 101 
49, 50. Patula Lansingi, Bland. Ibid. f. 55, ... 102 
51, 52. Patula Stearnsii, Bland. Ibid. f. 57, ... 102 

53. Patula caput-spinulse, Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 818, . 102 

54. Patula marmorella, Pfr. Ibid. f. 649, . . . .46 

55. Patula helicophantoides, Pfr. Ibid. f. 650, ... 46 

56. Patula spirulata, Pfr. Ibid. f. 617, . . . .102 

57. Patula Trotteriana, Benson. Ibid. f. 745, . . .103 

58. Patula Natalensis, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1227, . . . .103 

59. Patula cotyledonis, Benson. Ibid. f. 740, . . . 103 

60. Patula pinguis, Krauss. Ibid. f. 200, . . . .103 

61. Patula Capensis, Pfr. Ibid. f. 202, . . . .103 

62. Patula australis, Menke. Ibid. f. 803 103 

63. Patula Uitenhagensis, Krauss. Ibid. f. 1461, . . 104 

64. Patula paludicola, Benson. Ibid. f. 1179, . . .104 

65. 66. Patula Darnaudi, Pfr. Nov. Act. Acad. Curios. 

xxxvii. t. 4, f. 25, 104 

67, 68. Patula d'Hericourtiana, Bourg. Voy. Choa. f. 8, . 104 
69, 70. Patula Isseli, Morelet. Ann. Mus. Genoa, iii, t. 9, f. 

3, 105 

71. Patula senea, Krauss. Conch. Icon. f. 1320, . . .105 

72. Patula bisculpta, Benson. Ibid. f. 1171, . . .105 

73. Patula Planti, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1325, . . . .105 

74. Patula Loveni, Krauss. Ibid. f. 195, . . .106 

75. Patula Knysnaensis, Pfr. Ibid. f. 403, . . .106 

76. Patula perplicata, Benson. Ibid. f. 1173, ' . . .106 

77. 78. Patula microscopica, Krauss. Sudafr. Moll. t. 4, f.20, 106 

79. Patula dumeticola, Benson. Conch. Icon. f. 1172, . . 106 

80. Patula cosmia, Pfr. fbid. f. 1174, . . . .106 

81. Patula petrobia, Benson. Ibid. f. 1169, . . .107 

82. Patula rariplicata, Benson. Ibid. f. 1183, . . .107 

83. Patula sabuletorum, Benson. Ibid. f. 1180, . . . 107 



286 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

84. Patula vorticialis, Benson. Ibid. f. 1181, . . .107 

85, 87. Patula rivularis, Krauss. Sudafr. Moll. t. 4, 25, . 107 
88. Patula aprica, Krausss. Conch. Icon. f. 201, . . .107 
9-91. Patula Hartwigiana, Pfr. Kuster, Conch. Cab. t. 178, 

f. 10-12, . . 107 

PLATE 21. 
92-94. Patula Tollini, Albers. Kuster, Conch. Cab. t. 178, 

f. 13-15, 108 

95-97. Patula cyclaria, Morelet. Ibid. t. 178, f. 7-9, . . 108 

98. Patula Menkeana, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 591, . . .108 

99. Patula symmetrica, Craven. Zool. Proc. t. 57, f. 2, 1880, 108 
100. Macrocyclis laxata, Fer. Kuster, Conch. Cab. t. 93, f. 11, 109 

1, 2. Macrocyclis Banksii, Cuming. Ibid. t. 93. f. 9, 10, . 109 
3. Macrocyclis Franklandiensis, Forbes. Austr. Land Shells 

t. 3, f. 7, 109 

4, 5. Macrocyclis Harrietts, Cox. Ibid. t. 18, f. 9, . .109 
6, 7. Macrocyclis Newberryana, Binney. Manual, f. 135, . 110 

8. Patula Kivi, Gray. Conch. Icon. f. 794, ... 37 

9, 10. Patula irradiata, Gld. (= Kivi). Moll. Wilkes, Exped. 

t. 5, 65, . / : 37 

11. Patula Marise, Gray. Conch. Icon. f. 804, . . .37 

12. Patula regularis, Pfr. Ibid. f. 1259, .... 37 

13. Patula Erigone, Gray. Ibid. f. 817. . . . .37 

14. Patula glabriuscula, Pfr. Ibid. f. 822, . . . .37 

PLATE 22 

15. 16. Patula Hauffeni, Schmidt. Jour, de Conch, xi, 1. 13, 

f. 4, 1863, 30 

17-19. Patula fritillata, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 86, f. 8-10, 33 
20-22. Patula Kaffrayi, Canefri. Ann. Nat. 6 ser. xv, t. 7, 

f. 21-23, 54 

23. Patula virgulata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1440, . 77 
24-26. Patula stigmatica, Pfr. Kuster, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 95, 

f. 20-22, 100 

27-29. Patula raripila, Morelet. Specimen. . . . 100 

30-32. Patula velutina, Lam. Kuster, Conch. Cab. t. 122, 

f. 7-10, 100 

33-35. Patula suavis, Gundl. Specimen 101 

56-38. Patula fragilis, Pfr. (= debilis, Pfr.) Kuster, Conch. 

Cab. t. 85, f. 10-12, .101 

39-41. Patula Darnaudi, Pfr. (= Heuglini). Mai. Blatt. 

xiii, t. 3, f. 1-4, 104 

42, 43. Patula Darnaudi, Jick. (=Lejeaniana.). Nov. Act. 

Acad. Leop. xxxvii, t. 4, f. 25, b. .... "104 

44-46. Patula Achilli, Bourg. Ann. Sc. Nat. 6 ser. xv, t. 

8, f. 38-40, 105 




P^v 

* 



UNIVERSITY 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 287 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

48-50. Patula Stokesii, Smith. Zool. Proc. t. 23, f. 17, 1884, 
51-53. Patula virescens, Pfr. Specimen, . . . .96 
54-56. Patula translucens, Gundl. Specimen. . . .96 
57-59. Patula sigmoides, Morelet. Crosse & Fischer, Moll. 

Hex. t. 12, f. 6, ........ 101 

60-62. Patula Zanguebarica, Craven. Zool. Proc. t. 22, f. 4, 

1880, ...... .... 105 

PLATE 23. 

63-65. Anchistoma Nautiliformis, Porro. Rossmassler, 

Iconog. ii. f. 613, ....... 114 

66-68. Anchistoma Yatesii, Cooper. Specimen. . . 115 

69-71. Anchistoma angygyra, Ziegler. Kiister, Conch. Cab. 

i, t. 64, f. 16-18, .... ... 115 

72-74. Anchistoma obvoluta, Mull. Forbes and Hanley, 

Brit, Moll. t. 117, f. 1-3, ...... 115 

75-77. Anchistoma holoserica, Studer. Rossmassler, Incog. 

i. f. 20, ......... 116 

78, 79. Anchistoma triaria, Friv. Ibid. ii. f. 611, . . 116 

80. Anchistoma trinodis, Remak. Specimen. . . .116 

81-83. Anchistoma diodonta, Muhlf. Rossmassler, Iconog. 

i, f, 19, . f . ..... 116 

84-87. Anchistoma Quadrasii, Hidalgo. Jour, de Conch, t. 

9, f. 6, 1885, . . . ..... 116 

88-90. Anchistoma Lusitanica, Pfr. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. t. 

18, f. 178-180, ........ 117 

91-93. Anchistoma gyria, Roth. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii. t. 

124, f. 31-33, ' ..... . . .117 

94-"96. Anchistoma contorta, Zlgr. ( Corey rensis). Rossmass- 

ler, Iconog. ii, f. 538, . . . . . .117 

97-99. Anchistoma barbata, Fer Hist. Moll. iii. t. 67, f. 63, 118 
100-2. Anchistoma Tarnieri, Morelet. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. t. 

18, f. 181-183, ........ 118 

3-5. Anchistoma Bosca?, Hidalgo. Ibid. t. 18, f. 184-186, . 118 
6-8. Anchistoma lenticula, Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 66, f. 1, 119 
9-11. Anchistoma biconcava, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

t. 15, f. 6, ........ 117 

PLATE 24. 

12-14. Anchistoma lens, Fer. Rossmassler. Iconog. ii, f. 

450, ..... ..... 119 

15-17. Anchistoma, lenticularis, Morelet. Ibid. v. f. 1409, . 120 
18-20. Anchistoma barbula, Charp. Ibid, ii, f. 451, . 120 

21-23. Anchistoma Calpeana, Morelet. Jour, de Conch, t. 3, 

f. 5, 1880, . . . . ...... 120 

24-26. Anchistoma, Maroccana, Morelet. Ibid, t. 2, f. 3, 

1880, . . ....... 120 



288 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE . 

27, 28. Anchistoma collaris, Pfr. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 117, 

f. 8, 9, ^ ...... . 138 

29-31. Anchistoma turriplana, Morelet Rossmassler, Iconog. 

iii. f. 828, . .120 

32-34. Anchistoma Rangiana, Per. Ibid, ii, f. 537, . .121 
35-37. Anchistoma Tlemcensis, Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 39. 

f. 9, 11,13, . . t 121 

38-40. Anchistoma constricta, Boube"e. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. 

t. 16, f. 152-154, . . ' 121 

41, 42. Anchistoma discobolus, Shuttl. Novit. Conch, iv t. 

123, f. 1,2, 12S 

43-45. Anchistoma Asturica, Pfr. Hidalgo, Cat. Icon. t. 

16, f. 158-160, 121 

46-48. Anchistoma Gougeti, Terver. Rossmassler, Icon, v, 

f.14, 15, 121 

49-51. Anchistoma Bertheloti, d'Orb. Moll. Canaries, t. 2, 

f. 4-6, . 122 

52-54. Anchistoma afficta, Per. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

95, f. 8-10, 122 

55-57. Anchistoma Fortunata, Shuttl. Moll. Canaries, t. 2, 

f. 7-9, T~ . . 123 

58-60. Anchistoma planaria, Mousson. Delessert, Iconog. t. 

26, f. 12, . 122 

PLATE 25. 

61-63. Anchistoma diplomphala, Moll. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

xiii t. 6, f. 3, 124 

64-66. Anchistoma binodata, Moll. Ibid, xiii, t. 6, f. 4, . 124 
% 67,. 68. Anchistoma Damarensis, Ads. Zool. Proc. t. 27. f. 

14, 1870, .138 

69. Anchistoma sculpturata, Gray. Conch. Icon. f. 147, . 138 

70. Anchistoma hispidula, Lam. Ibid. f. 926, . . . 138 

71. Anchistoma acanthinula, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, 

f. 6, 1868, 124 

72-74. Anchistoma polygyrata, Born. Conch. Cab. ii, t. 90, 

f. 1-3, 124 

75-77. Anchistoma stenogyra, Pfr. Novit. Conch, i, t. 25, f. 

20-22, . . 124 

78-80. Anchistoma helicycloides, Pfr. Conch. Cab. ii, 1. 144, 

f. 11-13, . 125 

81-83. Anchistoma heligmoidea, Orb. Voy. Am. merid, t. 

23, f. 1-3, , 125 

84-86. Anchistoma calculina, Pfr. Novit. Conch, i, t. 4, f. 3-5, 125 
87-89. Anchistoma polycycla, Morelet. Ser. Conch, iii, t. 7, 

f. 1, I IT) 

90-92. Anchistoma tortilis, Morelet. Ibid, iii, t. 7, f. 2, .125 
93-95. Anchistoma decagyra, Phil. Novit. Conch, iii, 1. 107, 

f. 18-20, . . .125 

96-98. Anchistoma gyrella, Morelet. Ser. Conch, iii, t. 7, f. 8. 126 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. -289 

PLATE 26. 
FIGURE. PAGE. 

99-100. Anchistoma Kaffrayi, Canefri. Ann. Mus. Geneva. 

xix, t. 5, f. 19, 20, . .... 128 

1-3. Anchistoma pseudoplanorbis, Lubom. Zool. Proc. t. 

55, f. 1-3, 1879, 126 

46. Anchistoma pollodonta, Orb. Voy. Am. merid. t. 23, 

f. 9-11, 127 

7, 8. Anchistoma Macgregori, Cox. Zool Proc. t. 16, f. 4, 

1870, . .127 

9. Anchistoma entodonta, Pfr. Ibid. t. 43, f. 2, 1859, . . 127 
10-12. Anchistoma helicycloides, Orb. Voy. Amer. merid. 

t. 28, f. 1-3, 127 

13. Anchistoma Reyrej, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch, vii, t. 8, 

f. 8. 127 

14, 15. Anchistoma Ortoni, Crosse. Ibid. t. 13, f. 2, 1871, . 127 
16-18. Anchistoma multispirata, Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel. 

t. 11, f. 9-11, . . . . . .127 

19-21. Anchistoma Wallisiana, Mousson. Novit. Conch, iv, 

t. 133, f. 1-3, 126 

22-24. Anchistoma systropha, Albers. Ibid, i, t. 7, f. 9-1 1, 127 
25, 26. Anchistoma microphis, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, 

f. 3, 1868, 128 

27-29. Anchistoma septemvolva, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll. 

iii, t. 38, . . . . " . . . . .128 

30. Anchistoma cereolus, Miihlf. Binney's Manual, p. 370, 128 

31. Anchistoma cereolus, Miihlf. Binney, Terr. Moll, iv, t. 

77, f. 23, 128 

32-34. Anchistoma cheilostropha, Orb. Voy. Amer. merid 

t. 23, f. 5-7, 128 

PLATE 27. 

35. Anchistoma volvoxis, Parreyss. Binuey, Terr. Moll. iv. 

t. 78, f. 17, 128 

36-38. Anchistoma microdonta, Desh. Kuster, Conch. Cab. 

i, t. 66, f. 10-12, 128 

39, 40. Anchistoma Carpenteri, Bland. Binney, Manual, p. 

380, . . . . ' . . " . . .128 

41, 42. Anchistoma Febigeri, Bland. Ibid. p. 381, . 128 

43-45. Anchistoma paludosa, Pfr. Kuster, Conch. Cab. i, t. 

66, f. 7-9, 129 

46-48. Anchistoma polygyrella, Bid. & Cooper.- Specimen. 129 

49. Anchistoma polygyrella, Bid. & Cooper. Binney, Man- 

ual, p. 172, 129 

50, 51. Anchistoma anilis, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch, i, t. 19, 

f. 1, 2, 130 

52-54. Anchistoma helictomphala, Pfr. Crosse & Fischer, 

Mexico, t. 12, f. 10, 130 

19 



290 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

55-57. Anchistoma Harfordiana, Cooper. Am. Jour. Conch. 

v, t. 17, f. 8, . . . . t . . >8 . .130 
58-61. Anchistoma notata, Poey. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 49, f. 

6-9, 130 

62-65. Anchistoma fastigans, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 39, f. 4, . . . 130 

66-68. Anchistoma Tryoniana, Lea. Ibid. t. 39, f. 2, . .131 
69-71. Anchistoma Hazardi, Bland. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, 

t. 5, f. 27. 28, 131 

72-74. Anchistoma leporina. Old. Binney, iii, t. 400, f. 1, 

Manual, >p. 266, . . ,; . . . 

75. Anchistoma pustula, Fer. Binney, Manual, 382, . . 131 
76-78. Anchistoma pustuloides, Bland. Binney, t. 39, f. 3, 

Manual, p. 383, . . . '-. . . . 132 

79-81. Anchistoma Ariadne, Pfr. Crosse & Fischer, Mexico, 

t. 12, f. 8, . . . , 132 

82, 83. Anchistoma unguifera, Mousson. Jour, de Conch, t. 

9, f. 1, 1883, . .132 

84, 85. Anchistoma oppilata, Morel. Crosse & Fischer, 

Mexico, t. 12, f. 11, . . . . . 133 

86, 87. Anchistoma Dorfeuilleana, Lea. Binney, iv, t. 7, f. 

14; Manual, p. 374, . . . . . .133 

PLATE 28. 

88. Anchistoma Troostiana, Lea. Binney, Manual, 269, . 132 
89-91. Anchistoma Dysoni, Shuttl. Kuster, Conch. Cab. t. 

65, f. 25-28, . . 132 

92-94. Anchistoma implicata, Beck. Crosse & Fischer, 

Mexico, t. 12, f. 12, . . . . . . . 133 
95-97 Anchistoma plagioglossa, Pfr. Ibid. t. 12, f. 9, . . 133 
98. Anchistoma Couloni, Shuttl. Strebel, Mex. Land Conch. 

iv, t. 3, f. 4, . . . ; . . -r . . 134 

99-1. Anchistoma acutedentata, Binney. Am. Jour. Conch. 

iii, t. 10, f. 11-13, . . . . . .134 

2-4. Anchistoma Loisa, Binney. Ibid, iii, t. 10, f. 12-14, . 134 

5-7. Anchistoma Behrii, Gabb. Ibid, i, t. 19, f. 5-7, . . 134 

8-11. Anchistoma Jacksoni, Bland. Ibid, ii, t. 21, f. 8, . 134 

12, 13. Anchistoma hippocrepis, Pfr. Binney, Manual, 372, 134 

14, 15. Anchistoma tholus, Binney. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 

10, f. 7, 9, . . . . . . . . 135 

16. Anchistoma Mooreana, Binney. Tryon, Terr. Moll. 1. 10, 

f. 8, . . .135 

17-19 Anchistoma Texasiana, Moric. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 45, f. 1, . . . . . . . . _ . 135 

20 Anchistoma triodontoides, Bland. Binney, Manual, 370, 135 
21-23 Anchistoma bicruris, Pfr. Crosse & Fischer, Mexico, 

t. 12, f. 13, . 136 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 291 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

2426. Anchistoma Hindsii, Pfr. Binney, Terr. Moll, iv, t. 

18, f. 5-8, 136 

27. Anchistoma ventrosula, Pfr. Ibid, iv, t. 77, f. 14, . . 136 
28-30 Anchistoma avara, Say. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 11, f. 

4-6 .136 

31-33. Anchistoma espiloca, Ravenel. Ibid. t. 11, f. 7-9, . 136 

PLATE 29. 

34-36 Anchistoma Postelliana, Bland. Tryon, Terr. Moll. 

t. 11, f. 10-12 137 

37-39 Anchistoma auriformis, Bland. Ibid. t. 11, f. 1-3, . 137 
40, 41. Anchistoma uvulifera, Shuttl. Ibid. t. 11, f. 15, 16, 137 
42, 43, Anchistoma auriculata, Say. Ibid. t. 11, f. 13, 14, . 137 
44-46. Anchistoma labyrinthica, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll. 

iii, t. 17, f. 3, . . . ' . . . . . 138 

47. Anchistoma labyrinthica, Say. Binney, Manual, f. 282, 138 

48. Anchistoma Strebeli, Pfr. Crosse & Fischer, Mexico, t. 

12, f. 7, 139 

49. 50. Anchistoma Hubbardi, Brown, Binney, Manual, p. 

359, . .139 

51, 52. Anchistoma Vendryesiana, Gloyne. Jour, de Conch. 
_ t. 2, f. 7, 1872, ..... . 139 

53-55. Anchistoma hirsuta, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 

42, f. 3, 140 

56-58. Anchistoma stenotrema, Fer. Ibid, iii, t. 42, f. 4, . 140 
59-61. Anchistoma maxillata, Gld. Ibid. t. 40a, f. 2, Man- 
ual, f. 296, 141 

62. Anchistoma Edvardsi, Bland. Specimen. . . . 141 
63-65. Anchistoma labrosa, Bland. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 9, 

25; Binnejr, Man. f. 290 141 

(><), 67. Anchistoma Edgariana, Lea. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 44, 2, . . . . . . . 141 

68-70. Anchistoma spinosa, Lea. Ibid, iii, t. 44, f. 1, . . 141 
71-73. Anchistoma barbigera, Redfield. Specimen. . .. 142 

74-J6. Anchistoma monodon, Rackett. Binney, Terr. Moll. 

iii, t. 41, 142 

77. Anchistoma monodon, var. fraterna, Say. Ibid, iii, t. 41, . 142 

78. Anchistoma monodon, var. Leai, Ward. Specimen. . 142 
79-81. Anchistoma germana, Gld. Tryon. Terr. Moll. t. 9, 

f. 22; Binney, Man. f. 82, . .143 

82-84. Anchistoma tridentata, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 27, 143 

85-87. Anchistoma fallax, Say. Ibid, iii, t. 28, . . . . 143 
88, 89. Anchistoma Levettei, Bland. Binney, Manual, p. 385, 143 

PLATE 30. 

91 1)2. Anchistoma vultuosa, Gould. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 40a, f. 4, 144 



292 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

93. Anchistoma Henriettas, Mazyck. Binney, Manual, p. 

387, . 144 

94, 95. Anchistoma Hopetonensis, Shuttl. Ibid. p. 384, . 144 
96-98. Anchistoma introferens, Bland. Specimen. . . 145 
99. Anchistoma Van Nostrandi, Bland. Binney, Manual p. 

294, 145 

100, 1. Anchistoma Cragini, Call. Bull. Washburn Univ. 

Lab. i, 202, . 144 

2-4. Anchistoma Copei, Wetherby. Specimen. . . .144 

5-8. Anchistoma loricata, Gould. Specimen. . . . 145 

9-12. Anchistoma Mullani, Bid. & Cooper. Binney, Manual, 

p. 119, . . . .... 145 

13. Anchistoma Yucatanea, Morelet. Crosse & Fischer, Mex- 
ico, t. 12, f. 14, .. 146 

14-16. Anchistoma inflecta, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 

45, f. 3, . . . , 146 

16, a, b. Anchistoma inftecta, Say. Ibid, iii, t. 45, f. 2, . 146 
17-19. Anchistoma subpersonata, Middend., Reise. t. 30. f. 

27-29, , . . . .147 

20. Anchistoma Rugeli, Shuttl. Binney, Terr. Moll, iv, 

t, 78, f. 15, 147 

21. Anchistoma Rugeli, Shuttl. Specimen. . . : . 147 
22-24. Anchistoma palliata, (=obstricta). Binney, Terr. 

Moll, iii, t. 15, 148 

25-27. Anchistoma personata, Lam. Moquin Tandon, Moll. 

France, t. 10, f. 34-36, '. 147 

28, 29. Anchistoma appressa, Say. Binney. Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 13, ... . . . . . . .148 

30-32. Anchistoma palliata, Say. Ibid, iii, t. 14, . . 147 

33, 34. Anchistoma hemipleuris, Moll. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

xiii, t. 6, f. 5, . 149 

35, 36. Anchistoma Yangtaiensis, Crosse & Deb. Jour, de 

Conch, t. 12, f. 2, 1864, ...... 149 

37-39. Anchistoma obstructa, Heude, ( Houaiensis, Crosse). 

Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, t. 17, f. 4, . . .149 

40, 41. Anchistoma tetrodon, Mollend. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

viii, t. 1, f. 8, . - . 149 

. PLATE 31. 

42. Anchistoma major, Binney. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 1, 150 
43-45. Anchistoma Andrewsi, Binney. Binney, Manual, p. 

301,302, . . . . . . * . . .150 

46-48. Anchistoma albolabris, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 2/ . . ,150 

49. Anchistoma multilineata, Say. Specimen. . . . 1 50 

50, 51. Anchistoma multilineata, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll. 

iii, t. 3, . . . . ' . . . .150 

52-54. Anchistoma Pennsylvanica, Green. Ibid, iii, t. 7, . 151 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 293 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

55, 56. Anchistoma Mitchelliana, Lea. Tryon, Terr. Moll. 

t. 8, f. 10, 151 

57-59. Anchistoma elevata, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll. t. 9, 148 

60-62. Anchistoma Clarkii. Lea. Specimen. . . . 149 

63, 64. Anchistoma Christyi, Bland. Binney, Manual, p. 308, 151 

PLATE 32. 

65-67. Anchistoma exoleta, Binney. Terr. Moll, iii, t. 10, . 151 
68, 69. Anchistoma Wheatleyi, Bland. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 

7, f. 10, . . ". ...... 151 

70-72. Anchistoma dentifera, Binney. Terr. Moll, iii, t. 12, 152 
73, 74. Anchistoma Wetherbyi, Bland. Binney, Manual, 

313, . 152 

75. Anchistoma Roemeri, Pfr. Tryon, Terr. Moll. t. 8, f. 4, 152 

76, 77. Anchistoma divesta, Gould. Ibid. t. 8, f. 11, . . 152 

78. Anchistoma bucculenta, Gould. Binney, Terr. Moll. t. 

lla, 153 

79, 80. Anchistoma bucculenta, Gould. Binney, Manual, p. 

315, . .153 

81-83. 'Anchistoma clausa, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 4, 153 
84, 85. Anchistoma Downieana, Bland. Tryon ; Terr. Moll. 

t. <s,f. 15, .... .... 153 

86, 87. Anchistoma Lawi, Lewis. Binney, Manual, 317, . 153 
88-90. Anchistoma Mobiliana, Lea. (=jejuna, Say). Binney, 

Terr. Moll, iii, t. 43, f. 2, . 154 

91-93. Anchistoma Columbiana, Lea. Ibid. t. 5, . . 154 

94, 95. Anehistoma Columbiana, Lea. Tryon. Terr. Moll. t. 

M- 12, 13, . 154 

96. Anchistoma devia, Gould. Binney, Terr. Moll. iv. t. 79, 

f. 13, 154 

97-99. Anchistoma thyroides, Say. Ibid, iii, t. 11, . . 
100-2. Anchistoma Usambarica, Craven. Zool. Proc. t. 22, 

f. (>, 1880 . .155 

PLATE 33. 

3, 4. Anchistoma profunda, Say. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, 

t. 22, . . . . , 155 

"">. Anchistoma Chilhoweensis, Lewis. Binney, Manual, 320, 155 
6-8. Anchistoma Sayi, Binney. Binney, Terr. Moll, iii, t. 23, 155 
9. Anchistoma Charpentieri, Pfr. Conch. Ind. t. 14, f. 1, . 156 

10. Anchistoma Churpentieri, Pfr. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 11, 

1864, ........ .156 

11, 12. Anchistoma Rivolii, Desh. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. t. 

160, f. 12, 13, 156 

13-15. Anchistoma murata, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, 

t. 30, f. 1, 159 

16-18. Anchistoma Anax, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 57, f. 1-3, 157 
19-21. Anchistoma erronea, Albers. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, f. 



294 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

7-9, 1864, 157 

22, 23. Anchistoma Humbert!, Brot. Ibid. t. 2, f. 5, 6, 1864, 156 
24-26. Anchistoma odontophora, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 57, 

f. 4-6, . ... . . . . . .157 

27, 28. Anchistoma multispira, Moll. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. x. 

t 12, f. 10, . . 158 

2931. Anchistoma pulvinaris, Gould. Preuss. Exped. t. 14, 

f. 9, . ... . .157 

PLATE 34. 

32-35 Anchistoma fimbriosa, Mart. Var. emoriens. Hist. Nat. 

Emp. Chin. t. 15, f. 5, 158 

36-38. Anchistoma pettos, Martens. Novit. Conch, iii, 1. 101, 

f.7-9, . . 136 

39, 40. Anchistoma cutisculpta, Moll. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

x, t. 12, f. 12, . .... . . . 158 

41-43. Anchistoma fimbriosa, Mart. Ibid, x, t. 12, f. 11, . 158 
44, 45. Anchistoma murata. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, t, 30, 

f. 1, 159 

46-48. Anchistoma diptychia, Moll. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. xi, 

t. 10, f. 17, . ... . 158 

49, 50. Anchistoma serica, Austen. Conch. Ind. t. 132, f. 

8, 9, . .159 

51, 52. Anchistoma serica, Austen. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 73, f. ^ 

5, 1874, . . ... . . .159 

53-55. Anchistoma Pinacris, Benson. Conch. Ind. 1. 13, f. 5, 

t. 84, f. 1, 4, . . 159 

56-58. Anchistoma Munipurensis, Austen, Zool. Proc. t. 73, 

f. 6, 3874 /. . .160 

59. Anchistoma plectostoma, Benson, Conch. Icon. f. 782, . 160 
60-62. Anchistoma Laomontana, Pfr. Novit. Conch, ii, t. 57, 

f.7-9, T . . . .160 

63, 64. Anchistoma retifera, Pfr. Conch. Ind. t. 87, f. 8, 9, 161 
65-67. Anchistoma macromphalus, Blanf. Ibid. t. 83, f. 8-10, 16(f 

68. Anchistoma macromphalus, Blanf. Proc. Zool. Soc. t. 73, 

f. 1, 1874, . . . . , '. . . . . 160 

69, 70. Anchistoma plectostoma, Benson. Ibid. t. 73, f. 2, 

1874, . . .160 

71. Anchistoma Andersoni, Blanford. Ibid. t. 74, f. 9, 1874, 161 

72, 73. Anchistoma clathratula, Pfr. Conch. Ind. t. 132, f. 

1,4, . . . . . ; '. . . . . 161 

PLATE 35. 

74, 75. Anchistoma Andersoni, Blanford. Conch. Ind. 1. 112, 

f. 8, 9, ! 161 

76, 77. Anchistoma brachyplecta, Benson. Zool. Proc. t. 74, 

f. 8, 1874, . . * . . . . . . .163 

78. 79. Anchistoma Nagaensis, Austen. Ibid. t. 73, f. 4, 1874, 161 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 295 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

80, 81. Anchistoma pseudophis, Blanford. Ibid. t. 74, f. 3, 

1874, 162 

82, 83. Anchistoma brachyplecta, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 

57, f. 7, 10, 163 

84. Anchistoma Feddeni, Blanford. Zool. Proc. t. 74, f. 7, 

1874, 163 

85-87. Anchistoma Feddeni, Blanford. Conch. Ind. t. 131, 

f. 1-3, ' . .163 

88. Anchistoma leiophis, Benson. Zool. Proc. t. 74, f. 2, 1874, 163 

89. Anchistoma leiophis, Benson. Conch, Ind. t. 13, f. 8. .163 

90. Anchistoma Shiroiensis, Austen. Conch, Ind. t. 159, f. 7, 163 

91. 92. Anchistoma perarcta, Blanf. Zool. Proc. t. 74, f. 4, 

1874, 162 

93-95. Anchistoma perarcta, Blanf. Novit. Conch, iii, 1. 108, 

f. 13-15, 162 

96, 97. Anchistoma Karenorum, Austen. Zool. Proc. t. 74, 

f. 5, 1871, . . 164 

98-100. Anchistoma Karenorum, Austen. Novit. Conch, iii, 

t. 108, f. 16-18, 164 

1. Anchistoma refuga, Gld. Conch. Icon. f. 436, b. . . 164 

2. Anchistoma refuga, Var. dextrosa. Conch. Ind. 1. 13, f. 9, 164 
3-5. Anchistoma achatina, Gray. Ibid. t. 13, f. 1; t. 57, 

f. 8, 9 165 

6. Anchistoma anguina, Gould. Ibid. t. 13, f, 7, . . 165 

7, 8. Anchistoma achatina, Gray. Zool. Proc. t. 74, f. 6, 

1874, ... 165 

9. Anchistoma cyclaspis, Benson. Conch. Ind. t. 13, f. 10, 165 

PLATE 36. 
10, 11. Anchistoma Shanensis, Stol. Conch. Ind. t. 149, f. 

8, 9, 162 

12-16. Anchistoma biforis, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. t. 

30, f. 2, 166 

17-20. Anchistoma invia, Heude. Ibid. t. 30, f. 4, . . 165 
21, 22. Anchistoma schizoptychia, Mollend. Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell, xiii, t. 6, f. 2, .... . 165 

23, 24. Anchistoma laminifera, Mollend. Ibid, xiii, t. 6, f. 1, 165 
25-28. Anchistoma Schlumbergii, Morlet. Jour, de Conch. 

t. 12, f. 2, 1886, .166 

29-31. Anchistoma Oglei, Austen. Jour. As. Soc. xlviii, t. 1, 

2, 159 

32-34. Anchistoma brachydiscus, Austen. Ibid, xlviii, t. 1, 

f. 1, 162 

35-37. Anchistoma Brahma, Austen. Ibid, xlviii, t. 1, f. 3, . 164 
38-41. Anchistoma reserata, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

t. 30, f. 3, . 166 

PLATE 37. 
42, 43. Charopa coesus, Cox. Legrand's, Monog. Tasm. Land 

Shells, t. 1, f. 4, 261 



296 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

44, 45. Microcystis tranquila, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 3, . . 261 

46, 47. Punctum medianus, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 1, . . 264 

48, 49. Conulus parvissima, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 1, . . 261 

50, 51. Punctum occultus, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 6, . . . 264 

52, 53. Punctum Allporti, Legrand. Ibid. t. 1, f. 2, . . 263 

54, 55. Punctum Halli, Cox; Ibid. t. 2, f. 9, . . . 264 

56, 57. Punctum austrinus, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 3, . . . 264 

58, 59. Microcystis mixta, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 11, . . 261 
60, 61. Discus vigens, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 12, ... 263 

62, 63. Punctum fuscoradiata, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 2, . . 265 

64, 65. Discus coepta, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 13, .> . . 263 

66, 67. Punctum Marchianse, Cox. Ibid. f. 7, . . . 265 

68, 69. Punctum trajectura, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 6, . . 264 

70, 71. Punctum fulgetrum, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 11, . . 265 

72, 73. Punctum Ramsgatensis, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 13, . 265 

74-76. Discus Stephensi, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 8, . ' . .262 

77, 78. Discus plexus, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 10, . . . 262 

79, 80. Discus positura, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 10, . . . 262 

81, 82. Discus dubitans, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 7, . . . 263 

83, 84. Discus Agnewi, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 8, . '. . 263 

85, 86. Discus juliformis, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 14, . . . 263 

87, 88. Goniodiscus Daveyensis, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 4, . . 265- 

89, 90. Goniodiscus Atkinson!, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 12, . . 266 

91, 92. Goniodiscus Kingstonensis, Cox. Ibid. t. 2, f. 5, . 266 

93-95. Punctum ruga, Cox. Ibid. t. 1, f. 5, V .: . .264 

PLATE 38. 

96, 97. Anchistoma Harfordiana (=Salmonensis). Binney, 

Ball. Mus. Comp. Zool. xiii, t. 1, f. 6, 7, ... 146 
98, 99. Anchistoma Hemphilli, ( binominata, Tryon). Ibid. 

t. '1, f. 17, . . 146 

100, 1. Anchistoma Sanburni. Ibid. t. 1, f. 9, . . ..145 
2, 3. Anchistoma ptychophora, A. D. Brown. Ibid. t. 1, f. 

3, 16, . . . . 154 

4-6. Anchistoma everia, Mabille. Nouv. Archives Mus. vii, 

t. 17, f. 13, 123 

7-9. Anchistoma pthonera, Mabille. Ibid, vii, t. 17, f.,16, . 123 
10, 11. Vallonia pulchella, Mull. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. 

Moll.t. 119, f. 9, 10, . . , . . . . 169 

12. Vallonia Alexandra, Cox. Monog. Austr. Land Sh. t. 6, 

f. 1, . . 169 

13. Vallonia minuta, Say. Tryon's, Terr. Moll. t. 7, f. 2, . 169 

14. 15. Vallonia costata, Mu'ller. Moquin Tandon, Moll. 

France, t. 11, f. 32, 33, . . ^ . . . . .169 

16, 17. Vallonia Adela, West. (=tenuilabris, Braun). Wes- 

terl. Mai. Blatt. xxii, t. 2, f. 3, 4, .... 170 

18-20. Vallonia pulchellula, Heude. Hist. Moll. Emp. Chin. 

Pt. 2, 1. 13, f. 17, . , 170 




REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURE. PAGE. 

21-23. Helicella bideus, Chemn. Kiister, Couch. Cab. ii, t. 

99, f. 4-6. ... ..... 170 

24. Helicella bicallosa, Friv. Conch. Icon. f. 1217, . . 171 

25. Helicella Cobresiana, Alten. Rossmassler, Icon, ii, f. 432, 171 

26. Helicella Cobresiana, Alten. Mai. Blatt, xxv, t. 3, f. 13, 171 
27-29. Helicella diodon, Parr. ( bidens, Var.). Rossmassler, 

Icon, ii, f. 431, ..... . . . 171 

30. Helicelia alpestris, Clessin. (Cobresiana, Var.). Mai. 

Blatt. xxv, t. 3, f. 12, ....... 171 

31-33. Helicella edentula, Drap. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

99, f. 13-15, ....... . .171 

34, 35, Helicella, leucozona, Ziegler. Rossmassler, Icon, ii, 

f. 434, 436, . . . - ...... 171 

34. (lower tig.), Helicella, concinna, Jeffreys. Forbes & Han- 

ley, Brit. Moll. 1. 118, f. 3, . . * . . . .173 
36-38. Helicella Bouryi, de Morgan. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 

t. 6, f. 3, 1885, ........ 172 

>9. 40. Helicella hispida, Linn. Rossmassler, Iconog. ii, f. 

426. . ....... 172 

41, 42. Helicella hispida, Linn. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. 

Moll. t. 118, f. 1, 2, ...... . 172 

44. Helicella anodonta, Tschapak. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. vii, 

t. 6, f. 4 ........ . . 171 

45-47. Helicella Villersi, Malzine. Moll. Belg. t. 3, f. 1-3, 173 
4<s-o(). Helicella Bouniiana, Bourg. Moll. Grande Chartr. 

t. 7, f. 15,-17, ..... . 

51-53. Helicella poroclmetica, Bourg. Ibid. t. 6, f. 10-12, . 177 

PLATE 39. 

54-56. Helicella depilata, Pfeiffer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 

t. 98, f. 22-24, . ....... 174 

57. Helicella globus, Lessona. Atti. Acad. Torino, xv. 296, 

t. 7, f. 25, - . . . ..... 174 

58-60. Helicella muscicola, Bourg. Amenites Malacol. i, t. 

9, f. 10-12, ......... 174 

61-63. Helicella ovularis, Bourg. Ibid, i, t. 9, f. 7-9, . . 174 
64, 65. Helicella plebeia, Drap. Moquin Tandon, Moll. Fr. 

t. 17, f. 18, 19, ...... ' . . 174 

66-68. Helicella rufescens, Pennant. Rossmassler, Iconog. ii, 

f. 422, .......... 175 

69. Helicella montana, Studer. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. i, t. 8, 

f. 2, . . . ... ... 175 

70. Helicella rufescens, Pennant. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. 

Moll. t. 118, f. 7, . . . . , . . . 175 

71. Helicella clandestina (=Gratianopolitana). Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell. i, t. 8, f. 3, . . . . . . . 175 

72. Helicella Segusina, Lessona. Atti Acad. Torino, xv, t. 7, 

f. 31, .......... 179 



298 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

73, 74. Helicella coelata, Studer Rossmassler, Iconog, ii, f. 

423, . .175 

75, 76. Helicella umbrosa, Partsch. Ibid, ii, f. 425, . . 176 
77, 78! Helicella umbrosa, Partsch. Ibid, ii, f. 424, . .176 
79, 80. Helicella becasis, Rambur. Jour, de Conch, t. 9, f. 3, 

1869, 176 

81, 82. Helicella cedretorum, Debeaux. Ibid. t. 2, f. 3, 1863, 176 
83, 84. Helicella nlicina, Schmidt. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 

t. 98, f. 31, 32, 176 

85, 86. Helicella Pietruskyana, Parreyss. Ibid, ii, t. 148, f. 

11, 12, . . . * . 176 

87-89. Helicella villosa, Drap. Rossmassler, Icon, ii, f. 421, 177 
90, 91. Helicella Arpatchaiana, Mousson. Jour, de Conch. 

t. 6, f. 4, 1873, .... . - . . . . .177 

92-94. Helicella Sewanica, Mart. (= pisiformis, Pfr.) Mart 

Mittheil. Pt. 1, t. 3, f. 11-13, 177 

95-97. Helicella Dussertiana, Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 38, 

f. 12-14, 177 

98-100. Helicella alsia, Bourg. Moll. Alger. i, 1. 16, f. 21-23, 177 
1, 2. Helicella sordulenta, Morel. Jour, de Conch, ii, t. 9,, 

f. 9, 10, . " . . . . . . . .177 

3. 4. Helicella granulata, Alder. Gray's Turton. t. 3, f. 29, 178 
5. Helicella rubiginosa, Schmidt. Rossmassler, Iconog. ii, 

f. 428, 178 

7, 8. Helicella sericea, Drap. Ibid, ii, f. 429, . .178 

9, 10. Helicella submissa, Desh. Nouv. Arch. Mus. ix, t. 2, 

f. 31, 32, , ; . . . 182 

11, 12. Helicella subechinata, Desh. Ibid, ix, t. 2, f. 19, 20, 182 

PLATE 40. 

13, 14. Helicella Munieriana, Cr. et Deb. Jour, de Conch. 

3, ser. iv, t. 12, f. 5, . .; .."... 182 
15-17. Helicella leucocheilus, Cox. Austr. Land Shells, t. 8, 

f. 7, 183 

18-20. Helicella puberula, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

Pt. 3, t. 29, f. 12. ... . . . . . 183 

21-23. Helicella horripilosella, Heude. Ibid. Pt. 3, t. 29 f. 

13, 183 

24-26. Helicella rebellis, Heude. Ibid. Pt. 3, t. 29, f. 15, . 183 
27, 28. Helicella Hungerfbrdiana, Nevill. Jahrb. xi, t. 7, 

f. 7, . .182 

29-31. Helicella mutica, Morelet. Jour, de Conch. 1. 10, f. 1, 

1881, . .;:., 184 

32. Helicella pubescens, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 328, . . 184 

33, 34. Helicella radiolata, Morel. Jour, de Conch. 1. 10, f. 3, 

1882, 184 

35, 36. Helicella Porteri, Cox. Monog. Austr. Land Sh. t. 3, 

f. 6, . 183 



KEFERENCE TO PLATES. 299 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

37, 38. Helicella Sumichrasti, Cr. et Fisher. Jour, de Conch. 

t. 9,14, 1873, . 184 

39, 40. Helicella parlatoris, Bivona. Rossm. Iconog. ii, f. 

688, 179 

41-43. Helicella Martorelli, Bourg. Guerin's, Mag. t, 15, f. 

14-16, 1870, . 179 

44-46. Helicella Smiruensis, MOUSSOD. Moll. Java. t. 2, f. 10, 184 
47-49. Helicella lasia, Bourg. Moll. Alg. i, t. 18, f. 27-29, 179 
50-51. Helicella lanuginosa, Boissy. Rossm. Iconog. ii, f. 

571, 180 

52. Helicella consona. Ibid, ii, f. 572, . . . . 180 

53-55. Helicella chnoodia, Bourg. Moll. Alg. i. t. 18, f. 

31-33 179 

56-58. Helicella Tenietensis, Bourg. Guerin's Mag. t. 15, 

f. 9-11, 1870, 180 

59, 60. Helicella Malaspinse, Bourg. Mai. Reg. Tunis, f. 10, 

14, . 180 

61. Helicella Corsica, Shuttl. Moq. Tandon. Moll. Fr. t. 16, 

f. 37, 180 

62. Helicella glabella, Drap. Hist. Moll. t. 7, f. 6, . . 186 
63-65. Helicella Telonensis, Mittre. Dupuy, Moll. France, 

t. 9. f. 1, 186 

PLATE 41. 

66-68. Helicella lavendulae, Bourg. Moll. Litig. i, t. 8, f. 1, 

3, 4, 186 

69, 70. Helicella fusca, Mtg. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll. 

t. 119, f. 4, 5, . . . ... . . .186 

71, 72. Helicella Moquiniana, Raym. Jour, de Conch, iv. t. 

3, f. 2, 181 

73-75, Helicella Moutonii, Mittre. Dupuy, Moll. France, t. 

9, f. 2, . . 186 

76-78. Helicella acleochroa, Bourg. Moll. Alger. i, t. 16, f. 

17, 19, 20 181 

79. Helicella ptylota, Bourg. Moll. Bretagne. t. 1. f. 8, . 181 
80-82. Helicella revelata, Fer. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll. 

t. 119, f. 1-3, . . . . . . . .180 

83-85. Helicella revelata, ( Salmurina, Servain). Michand, 

Hist. Complem., t. 15, f. 6-8, 181 

86-88. Helicella pruinosa, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 1. 158, 

f. 19-21, ' 186 

89-91. Helicella occidentalis, Recluz. Rossm. Iconog. iii, f. 

827, 180 

92-94. Helicella Corsica, Shuttl. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. viii, 

t. 3, f. 5, 180 

95-97. Helicella pallidula, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 98. 

f. 13-15, 186 

98-100. Helicella Fradiniana, Bourg. Moll. Alger. i, t. 17, 

f. 22-25, 181 



300 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1-3, Helicella psaturochoeta, Bourg. Moll. Bretagne, t. 1, 

f. 1,2,4, . . 182 

4-6. Helicella perlevis, Shuttl. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital. viii, t. 

3, f. 5, . 181 

7-9. Helicella ciliata, Venetz. Rossm. ii, f. 430, . . .187 
10-12. Helicella Juriniana, Bourg. Mai. Aix-les-Bains, t. 

1, f. 3-5, 188 

13-15. Helicella Reinse, Benoit. Mai. Blatt. iii, t. 2, f. 14-17, 187 
16, 17. Helicella incarnata, Mull. Moq. Tandon. Moll. Fr. 

t. 16, f. 6, 7, 187 

18, 19. Helicella hiberna, Benoit. Benoit, Moll. Sicil. t. 3, 

f. 23, ' 188 

20, 21. Helicella cinctella, Drap. Rossm. Iconog. i, f. 363, . 186 

PLATE 42. 

22, 23. Helicella bidinensis, Cafici. Nat. Sicil. ii, t. 1, f. 2, : 189 
24-26. Helicella Faidherbiana, Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 39, 

f. 1-3, . . , ' ..189 

27, '28. Helicella vicina, Rossmassler. Rossm. Iconog. ii. f. 

689, . ^., . . ' , 188 

29, 30. Helicella consona, Ziegler. Ibid, ii, f. 572, 573, . 188 
31, 32. Helicella Nicosiana, Mousson. Ibid, v, f. 1213, . 189 
33, 34. Helicella limbata, Drap. Ibid, i, f. 362, . . .189 
35, 36. Helicella Redtenbacheri, Zelebor. Ibid, i, t. 5, f. 52, 189 
37-39. Helicella Ferretiana, Bourg. Ann. Sci. Nat. xv, f. 

34-37, .' . . 190 

40-42. Helicella Beccarii, Jickeli. Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. 

xxxvii, t. 4, f. 24, ... . . . . 189 

43-45. Helicella pilifera, Martens. Ann. Mus. Genoa, iii, 

t. 9, f. 11, . . . . . . . , .190 

46-48. Helicella pilifera, ( Combesiana). Nov. Act. Acad. 

Caes. xxxvii, t. 4, f. 22, ... . 190 

49-51. Helicella Herbinii, Bourg, Ann. Sci. Nat. xv, t. 7, 

f. 25-27. . .. . ...... .190 

52-54. Helicella Gallinieriana, Bourg. Ibid, xv, t. 7, f. 

30-33, 190 

55-57. Helicella pulvisculum, Issel. Ann. Mus. Genoa, vi, 

t. 5, f. 24-27, . . . ... ,. . 191 

58. Helicella vilis, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1441, . . .190 

59, 60. Helicella Olivieri, Fer. Rossm. Iconog. i, f. 365, . 196 

61. Helicella Olivieri, forma major. Paulucci, Faune Cala- 

bria, t. 1, f. 6, . , - . . . . . .'191 

62. Helicella Olivieri, forma nana. Ibid. t. 1, f. 7, , 191 

63. Helicella Olivieri, Var. ocellata. Novit. Conch, v, t. 159, 

f. 2, il 

64. Helicella Olivieri, Var. bicincta Benoit. Illust. Sicil. t. 

3, f. 16, .192 

65. 66. Helicella Pirajnea, Benoit. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1205, 192 
67-69. Helicella cantiana, Mtg. Ibid, v, f. 1201-1202, . 192 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 301 

PLATE 43. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

70, 71. Helicella Dirphica, Blanc. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1206, 192 
72-74. Helicella cantiana, Var. Campanica. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital. vii, t. 2, bis. f. 1. . . . , . . .192 
75-77. Helicella Hausknechti. Bottger. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

xiii, t. 2, f. 4, . . " 193 

78-80. Helicella Carthusiana, (=Sarriensis). Hidalgo. Cab. 

Icon. f. 249-251, . . . . . , ' . .193 
81, 82. Helicella diurna, Bourg. Locard, Etude Var. i, t. 

3, f. 11, 12, 193 

83-85. Helicella carascaloides, Bourg. Amen, i, 1. 13, f. 1-3, 193 
86, 87. Helicella frequens, Mouss. Rossm. Icon. v. f. 1204, 193 

88. Helicella carthusiana, (=Galloprovincialis.) Ibid, i, f. 

364, b, .... . 193 

89, 90. Helicella fruticola, (=Chersonesica). Ibid. v,f. 1195, 193 
91, 92. Helicella Galloprovincialis, Var. Cemenelea, Dupuy, 

Moll. France, t. 9, f. 5, 193 

93-, 94. Helicella Putoniana, Mabille, Locard, Etude Var. i, 

t. 3, f. 13, 14, . . 194 

95, 96. Helicella simplicita, Parreyss. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 

1637, .194 

97, 98. Helicella Berytensis, Fer. Ibid, v, f. 1208, . . 194 
99. Helicella granulata, Roth. (=rachiodia). Roth. Coq. Or. 

t. 1, f. 3, 194 

100-2. Helicella Fourousii, Bourg. Moll. Litig. i, t. 6, f. 6-8. 194 
3, 4. Helicella Schuberthi, Roth. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1209, 195 

5. Helicella Rissoana, Pfr. (Schuberthi, Var.) Conch. Icon. 

f. 1073, 195 

6, 7. Helicella Apennina, Var. (=Euboeica.) Rossm. Icon. 

v. f. 1207, .203 

PLATE 44. 

8, 9. Helicella Circassica, Charp. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1386, 195 
10, 11. Helicella Talischana, Martens. Ibid, K S. i, f. 46, . 195 
12, 13. Helicella carthusiana, Miiller. Ibid, i, f. 366, . . 195 
14, 15. Helicella pseudosericea, Benoit. Benoit. Illust. 

Conch. Sicil. t. 3, f. 22, . . . . . 196 

16-18. Helicella obstructa, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 98, 

f. 1-3, . . , ' . 196 

19-21. Helicella subobstructa, Bourg. Amen. Conch, i, t. 9, 

f. 4-6, .196 

22, 23. Helicella onychina, Rossm. (=gregaria, Zieglr.) Rossm. 

Icon, ii, f. 569, . .196 

24-26. Helicella onychina, Rossm. ( Syriaca, Ehr.) Ibid, ii, 

f. 568, , . . ' . .197 

27, 28. Helicella Rothi, Pfr. Ibid. N. 8. i, f. 1633, '. . 197 
29, 30. Helicella Rothi, Var. Draxleri, Zelebor. Ibid. N. S. 

i. f. 1635, 197 



302 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

31-33. Helicella Arpatchiana, Mart. (=pisiformis, Pfr.) Mart. 

Mittheil, t. 3, f, 11-14, . . V . . .197 

34-36. Helicella globula, Kryn. Ibid: t. 3, f. 18-20, . . 197 
37, 38. Helicella pseudoglobula, Mouss. Jour, de Conch, t. 

7, f. 5, 1873, . . . . . . . .197 

39-41. Helicella Cruzyi, Bourg. Amenites, Conch, i, t. 13. - 

f. 4-6, 198 

42, 43. Helicella Rokniaca, Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 38, f. 

5, 6, .......... 198 

44. Helicella Villa, Desh. Fer. Hist. Moll, iv, t. 90, f. 9, . 198 

45, 46. Helicella nummus, Ehrenb. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1214, 199 
47-49. Helicella Prometheus, Bottger. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

x, t. 4, f. 6, . . . .... . . . 199 

50, 51. Helicella spiroxia, Bourg. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1215, . 199 
52, 53. Helicella Genezarethana, Mousson. Ibid, vi, t. 15, 

f. 1530, 199 

PLATE 45. 

54, 55. Helicella Jasonis, Dubois. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1529, 199 

56. Helicella inchoata, Morelet. Ibid, v, f. 1197, . . 200 

57, 58. Helicella fmticum, Muller. Ibid, v, f. 1194, . . 200 

59. Helicella Andersoni, Clessin, ( fruticum). Mai. Blatt. 

xxv, t. 3, f. 2, 200 

60, 61. Helicella fruticola, Kryn. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1195, . 200 
62, 63. Helicella Schrencki, Midd. Ibid, v, f. 1196, . . 200 
64, 65. Helicella aristata, Kryn. Ibid, vi, f. 1625, . . 201 
66-68. Helicella euages, Bottger. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. x, t. 

4,f. 2; t. 6, f. 1, , . . 201 

69. Helicella septemgyrata, Mousson. Rossm. Icon. IS". S. i, 

f. 48, . . 201 

70-72. Helicella flavolimbata, Bottger. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. 

x, t. 5, f. 6, \ 201 

73-75. Helicella helvola, Friv. Martens, Mittheil, i, t. 4, 

7-9, f. .... 202 

76-78. Helicella Nordenskioldi, . Westerl. Ibid, i, t. 4, f. 

14-16, . . . . . r . . . . 201 
79, 80. Helicella strigella, Drap. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 438, . 202 
81-83. Helicella Colliniana, Bourg. Moll. Litig. i, t, 7, f. 1-3, 202 
84-87. Helicella Apennina, Miihlf. Novit. Conch, v, t, 154, 

f. 1-4, 202 

88, 89. Helicella Martensiana, Tiberi. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1198, 203 

- PLATE 46. 

90-92. Helicella strigella, Hid. ( Ruscinica.) Hidalgo, Cat. 

Icon. Esp. f. 237-239. . . . . . . .202 

93-95. Helicella suborbicularis, Martens. Novit, Conch, v, t. 

154, 6-8, . . . ; . Y ,--..',. . . 203 
96-98. Helicella Orsinii, Porro. Rossm, Icon, vi, f/1631, . 203 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 303 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

99-1. Helicella Orsinii, Var. Majellse, Kobelt. Ibid, vi, f. 

1627-1628, 203 

2, 3. Helicella Orsinii Var. Picaena, Tiberi. Ibid, vi, f. 

1630, . . 203 

4-6. Helicella Parreyssi, Pfr. Ibid, v, f. 1211, 1212, . 203 

7-9. Helicella alphabucelliana, Paulucci. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital. vii, t. 2, bis. f. 2, 204 

10-13. Helicella riifispira, Martens. Fedschenko's Reise. t. 

1, f. 7, 204 

14-16. Helicella rufispira, Var, albidorsalis, Mouss. Martens, 

Mittheil. i, t. 4, f. 18-20, 204 

17,18. Helicella brigantina, Mengo. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 

1626, . ... . 204 

19, 20. Helicella rubens, Martens. Fedschenko's Reise. t. 

1, f.6, 205 

21. Helicella rubens, Var. concolor, Martens. Mittheil. i, t. 

4, f. 4, . . . 205 

22. Helicella rubens, Var. Finschiana, Martens. Ibid, i, t. 4, 

f. 2, 205 

23. Helicella rubens, Var. Zeiliana. Martens. Ibid, i, t. 4, 

f. 5, . .... . /205 

24. Helicella rubens, Var. Regeliana, Martens. Ibid, i, t. 4, 

f. 6, 205 

25. 26. Helicella phaeozona, Martens. Fedschenko's Reise. 

t. 1, f. 8, 205, 

27, 28. Helicella similaris, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 60, 

f. 15, 16, 205 

29. Helicella similaris, Fer. Conch. Ind. t. 53, f. 2, . . 205 

30. Helicella epixantha, Pfr. (=similaris). Conch. Icon. f. 

454, b. . 206 

PLATE 47. 

31. 32. Helicella cestus, Benson. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 

60, f. 19, 20, ........ 206 

33. Helicella Stimpsoni, Pfr. (similaris, Var.). Conch. Icon. 

f. 1370, . . . . . . . . .206 

34, 35. Helicella Borbonica, Desh. (similaris, Var.). Moll. 

Reunion, t. 10, f. 9, 10, . . . 206 

36, 37. Helicella Arcasiana, Crosse, Deb. (^similaris, Var.). 

Jour, de Couch. 3 ser. iv, t. 12, f. 4, . . . . 206 
38, 39. Helicella Hongkongiensis, Desh. Nouv. Arch. Mus. 

ix, Bull. t. 3, f. 8, 9, 206 

40, ,41. Helicella obscura, Desh. Ibid: t. 3, f. 11, 12, . . 206 
42, 43. Helicella striatissima, Desh. Ibid, x, t. 1, f. 2, 4, . 207 

44. Helicella nucleus, Desh. Ibid, ix, t. 3, f. 5, . . . 207 

45, 46. Helicella arundinetorum, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. 

Chin, ii, t. 14, f. 7, 207 

47. Helicella graminum, Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 14, f. 8. . . 207 

48, 49. Helicella straminea, Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 16, f. 5, . 207 



304 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

50. Helicella fortune!, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 458, . . .208 

51. Helicella meridionalis, Moll. (=Fortunei, Var.). Jahrb. 

Mai. Gesell. xi, t. 7, f. 5, . . . . . .208 

52. 53. Helicella cremata, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, ii, 

t. 20, f. 15, . . . 207 

54, 55. Helicella lutosa, Desh. Arch. Mus. Bull, ix, t. 3, f. 

19, 20, . . . . . . . . 208 

N 56. Helicella uncopila, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. t. 16, 

f. 6, . . .208 

57-59. Helicella fasciola, Drap. Fer. Hist. Moll, iii, t. 69a. 

f. 1, 208 

60, 61. Helicella Maackii, Gerstf. Mem. Acad. St. Peters. Sav. 

Etr. ix, t. 27, 27a. ... .... 209 

62. Helicella Conrauxiana, Heude. (=Maackii). Hist. Emp. 

Chin, iii, t. 27, f. 18, . . . \ ' . . . 209 

63, 64. Helicella dichroa, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, 1. 109, 

f. 16, 17, .. . . ." . . . . 208 

PLATE 48. 

65, 66. Helicella Maackii, Gerstf. Var. depressa, Pfr. Novit. 

Conch, iii, t. 107, f. 3, 4, . . . . . .209 

67. Helicella Kiangsinensis, Mart. (Maackii, Var.) Ibid. 

iv, t. 134, f. 15, 209 

68, 70. Helicella Billeana. Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

ii, t. 14, f. 3, . 209 

71, 72. Helicella Weyrichi, Schrenck. Eeise. Amurl. t. 26, 

f. 11, 13, 209 

73, 74. Helicella Tourannensis, Soul. Kiister, Conch. Cab. 

i, t. 17, f. 3, 4, . . ... . . .209 

75, 76. Helicella Ruppelli, Desh. Arch. Mus. Bull, ix, t. 2, 

f. 1, 2, ". 210 

77. Helicella bolus, Benson. (^Tourannensis). Conch. Ind. t. 

53, f. 7, 209 

78, 79. Helicella argillacea, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 

58, f. 4, 5, . . ... . . . .210 

80, 81. Helicella transversalis, Mouss. Jour, de Conch. 2d. 

Ser. ii, t. 6, f. 5, 6, . . . . . . .210 

82-84. Helicella Smiruensis. Moll. Java. t. 2, f. 10, . . 184 

85. Helicella radicicola, 'Benson. Conch. Ind. t, 62, f. 10, . 210 

86. Helicella despecta, Gray. Moll. Beechey's, Voy. t. 38, 

f. 5, . . . . . . . . . ^.211 

87-89. Helicella cryptopila, Mouss. Novit. Conch, iv. t. 117, 

f. 10-12, .... . . . . . 211 

90-92. Helicella crassula, Phil. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t, 

114, f. 14-16, 211 

93. Helicella Zoroaster, Theob. Conch. Ind. t. 86, f. 3, . 211 

94. Helicella scalpturita, Benson. Ibid. t. .53, f. 9, . .211 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 305 

PLATE 49. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

95. Helicella Everettii, EL Adams. Zool. Proc. t. 23, f. 11, 

1873, 211 

96. Helicella tomentosa, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1403, . . 212 
97-99. Helicella mendax, Martens. Preuss. Exped. t. 13, 

f. 14, 212 

100. Helicella rosacea, Miiller. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 55, 

f. 7, 213 

1. Helicella globulus, Miiller. Conch. Icon. f. 186, b. . 213 

2. Helicella lucana, Miiller. Ibid. f. 187, b. 213 

3. Helicella Alexandri, Gray. Ibid. f. 1470, . . . 213 

4. 5. Helicella votiva, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, f. 1, 

1871, . 214 

6, 7. Helicella Mighelsiana, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 

152, f. 19, 20, 212 

8, 9. Helicella fodiens, Pfr. Ibid, i, t. 17, f. 1, 2, . . 212 
10-12. Helicella bulbus, Menke. Ibid, ii, t. 122, f. 4-6, . 213 
13, 14. Helicella Bactriana, Hutton. Conch. Ind. t. 130, f. 

1, 4, . . . 212 

15. Helicella laesa, Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 1490, . . . 214 

16. Helicella funiculata, Pfr. Monog. Austr. L, Shells, 1. 11, 

f. 15, 214 

17. Helicella paleata, Reeve (=plectilis). Conch. Icon. f. 

1399 215 

18. Helicella plectilis, Benson. Ibid. f. 1162, . . . 215 

19. Helicella expeditionis, Cox. Monog. Austr. L. Sh. t. 18, 

f. 12, 214 

PLATE 50. 

20 21. Helicella Duralensis, Cox. Austr. Land Sh. t. 8, f. 

8, 215 

22. Helicella Dunkiensis, Forbes. Voy. Rattlesnake, ii, t. 2, 

f. 7, 

23. Helicella Dunkiensis, Forbes. Austr. Land Sh. t. 8, f. 9, 215 

24. Helicella Dunkiensis, Forbes. Conch. Icon. f. 756, . 215 

25. 26. Helicella prunum, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 74, 

f. 11-13, 215 

27, 28. Helicella Cailleti, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, f. 5, 

1866, 216 

29. Helicella Mabillei, Crosse. Ibid. t. 1, f. 6, 1866, . . 216 

30. Helicella Coxeni, Cox. Zool. Proc. t. 3, f. 2, 1871, .. . 216 

31. Helicella pliculosa, Pfr. Austr. Land Sh. t. 9, f. 12, . 216 

32. 33. Helicella lutacea, Pfr. Novit. Conch, i. t. 34, f. 203, . 217 
34, 35. Helicella aridorum, Cox. Austr. Land Sh. t. 11, f. 

16, 217 

36. Helicella brevipila, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii. t. 124, 

f. 28, . . . 217 

37, 38. Helicella brevipila, Pfr. Austr. Land Sh. t. 5, f. 2, 217 

20 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

39, 40. Helicella canescens, Ad. & Reeve. Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. ii, t. 142, f. 3, 4, . . 214 

41. Helicella canescens, Ad. & Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 587, . 222 

42, 43. Helicella arbusticola, Desh. Nouv. Ann. Mus. ix, 

Bulb. t. 2, f. 6, 7, . 218 

44. Helicella immaculata, Ad. & Reeve (= Largillierti). 

Conch. Icon. f. 420, . . . . . . .218 

45, 46. Helicella Largillierti, Phil. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. ii, 

t. 144, f. 20, 21, .... . 218 

PLATE 51. 

47. Helicella papilliformis, Kobelt. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. iii, 

t. 1, f. 1, 217 

48-51. Helicella Japonica, Pfr. Preuss. Exped. t. 14, f. 11, . 217 
52. Helicella Japonica, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. ii, t. 119, f. 

17, 217 

53. Helicella albida, A. Ad. Zool. Proc. t. 27, f. 9, 1870, . 218 
54, 55. Helicella conospira, Pfr. Abhandl. Senkenb. xi, t. 7, 

f. 13, 218 

56, 57. Helicella cardiostoma, Kobelt. Ibid, xi, t. 2, f. 14, . 219 
58, 59. Helicella Hilgendorffi, Kobelt. Ibid, xi, t. 2, f. 9, . 219 
60-62. Helicella patruelis, H. Ad. (= Tabuensis, Ancey). 

Ibid, xi, t. 2, f. 6, . ,; . . . . . 218 

63. Helicella callizona, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 13, f. 3, 

1871, . . . .--- .220 

64-67. Helicella sphinctostoraa, A. Ad. Abhandl. Senkenb. 

xi, t. 2, f. 7, 11,15, . . ".: .... 218 
68. Helicella fulvicans, H. Ad. Zool. Proc. t. 13, f. 2, 1866, 220 
69-71. Helicella verrucosa, Reinh. Abhandl. Senkenb. xi, t. 

1, f. 15, . 219 

72, 73. Helicella macrocycloides, Kobelt. Ibid, xi, t. 2, f. 10, 219 
74, 75. Helicella conulina, Mart. Ibid, xi, t. 7, f. 18, . . 219 
76, 77. Helicella Goodwini, Smith. Ibid, xi, t. 7, f. 17, . 219 
78, 79. Helicella Lischkeana, Kobelt. Ibid, xi, t. 7, f. 16, . 220 
80-82. Helicella leprosula, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

iii, t. 27, f. 15, . 220 

PLATE 52 

83. Helicella Coreanica, Ad. & Reeve. Conch. Icon. f. 447, . 220 
-84, 85. Helicella Coreanica, Ad. & Reeve. Kiister, Conch. 

Cab. ii, t. 143, f. 19, 20, .. . 220 

86. Helicella latrunculorum, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin. 

iii, t. 27, f. 17, ... . 221 

87. Helicella plethorica, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, t. 12, f. 2, 

1869, . ..221 

:88. Helicella improvisa, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, iii, t. 

27, 16, 220 

89-91. Helicella nautiloides, Val. Fer. Hist. Moll. t. 37a, f. 

4, . 212 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 307 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

92, 93. Helicella brevibarbis, Pfr. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, ii, 

t. 14, f. 2, 221 

94-96. Helicella thoracica, Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 16, f. 11, . 221 
97. Helicella Brardiaua, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 604, . . 210 
98-100. Helicella squamosella, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. 

Chin, ii, t. 15, f. 9, 221 

1. Helicella brevibarbis, Pfr. Zool. Proc. t. 43, f. 4, 1859, 221 
2-4. Helicella nautarum, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chin, ii, 

t. 15, f. 10, 183 

5-7. Helicella micacea, Heude. Ibid. ii. t. 16, f. 2, . . 221 
8-10. Helicella phyllophaga, Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 17, f. 2, . 221 
11, 13. Helicella dormitans, Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 17, f. 3, . 222 
14, 15. Helicella elatior, Mart. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 101, f. 

4-6, . 210 

16, 17. Turricula pseudobuliminus, Heude. Hist. Nat. Emp. 

Chin.ii, t. 17,f. 29, 222 

18, 19. Turricula buliminoides, Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 17, f. 6, 30, 222 

20. Cochlicella buliminus, Heude. Ibid, ii, t. 20, f. 20, . 222 

21. Cochlicella incertus, Pfr. (= Taivanica, Moll). Zool. 

Proc. t. 46, f. 1, 1865, .222 

22-24. Helicella horripila, Morel. Drouet. Moll. Acores. t. 
3, f. 4, 222 

25. Helicella Armitageana, Lowe. Conch. Icon. f. 898, . 223 

PLATE 53. 

26, 27. Xerophila Seetzeni, Koch. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1132, 223 
28, 29. Helicella nubigena, Lowe (= pavida). Novit. Conch. 

iv, t. 122, f. 22, 23, 223 

30-32. Helicella lanosa, Mouss. Ibid, iv, t. 122, f. 34-36, . 223 
33-35. Helicella leprosa, Shuttl. Ibid, iv, t. 122, f. 31-33, . 223 
36, 37. Xerophila Pisana, Mull. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 22, 

f. 416, . 224 

38, 39. Xerophila Pisaria, Mull. Ibid, i, t. 37, f. 9-11, . . 224 
40. Xerophila Pisana, Mull. Conch. Icon. f. 987a, . . 224 
41,42. Xerophila Pisana, var. Alboranensis. Kuster, Conch. 

Cab. i, t. 37, f. 1, 2, 224 

43. Xerophila Macandrewiana, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1030, b., 224 

44, 45. Xerophila Grasseti, Tarnier. Novit. Conch, iv. 1. 120, 

f.33,34, ...... . 225 

46, 47. Xerophila hierophanta, Mabille. Nouv. Arch. Mus. 

2 ser. vii, t. 15, f. 16, 17, 225 

48. Xerophila decorata, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 1128, . . 225 

49, 50. Xerophila Pisanopsis, Servain. Rossm. Icon. N. S. i, 

t. 18, f. 143, 225 

51, 52. Xerophila decorata, Pfr. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, t. 36, 

f. 14,15, . 225 

53, 54. Xerophila impugnata, Mousson. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 

120, f. 35, 36, 226 



308 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

55-57. Xerophila planata, Chemn. Var. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 

1136, 1137, 226 

58-61. Xerophila Dehnii, Rossm. Ibid, iv, f. 1138-1140, . 225 

PLATE 54. 

62, 63. Xerophila planata, Chemn. Rossm. Icon, iv, f. 1135, 226 
64, 65. Xerophila Pisaniformis, Bourg. Revoil's Pays Com- 

alis. t. 4, f. 72, 73, 227 

66-68. Xerophila calopsis, Bourg. Moll. Alger. i, t. 32, f. 1-3, 227 
69-71. Xerophila Comaliana, Bourg. Revoil's Pays Com- 

alis. t. 4, f. 67-69, . . . . . ' . .227 
72, 73. Xerophila Tiani, Revoil. Ibid. t. 4, f. 70, 71, . . 227 
74-76. Xerophila subdentata, Fer. Rossm. Iconog. vii, f. 

1979, ...... ... 226 

77-79. Xerophila Tohenica, Bourg. Revoil's Pays Comalis 

t. 4, f. 74-76, 227 

80. Xerophila areolata, Sowb. Tryon's Terr. Moll. t. 6, f. 5, 228 

81. Xerophila areolata (= levis?). Binney, L. & F. W. . 

Shells, f. 311, 228 

82. Xerophila levis, Pfr. Tryon's Terr. Moll. t. 5, f. 21, . 228 

83. Xerophila levis, Pfr. Binney, L. & F. W. Shells, f. 316, 228 

84. Xerophila Veatchii, Newcomb. Tryon's Terr. Moll. t. 6, 

f. 6, 228 

85. Xerophila Pandora, Forbes. Binney, L. & F. W. Shells, 

f. 315, _ . . .228 

86. Xerophila Pandora?, Forbes. Tryon's Terr. Moll. t. 6, f. 8, 228 

87. Xerophila Tryoni, Newcomb. Ibid. t. 6, f. 3, . . . 229 
88-92. Xerophila variabilis, Drap. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1295, 

1296, 1298, '. .230 

PLATE 55. 

93, 94. Xerophila variabilis, Drap. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1297, 

1299, .230 

95. Xerophila variabilis, Var. turbinata, Cafici. Nat. Sicil. 

ii, t. 1, f. 5, 230 

96-98. Xerophila Danieli, Bourg. Moll. Bretagne, t. 1, f. 9- 

11, 230 

99-1. Xerophila euphorca, Bourg. Mai. Alger. i, t.25, f. 21- 

24, .... . 230 

2. Xerophila variabilis, var. virgata, Mtg. Forbes & Han- 

ley, t. 117, f. 10, 230 

3, 4. Xerophila Jickeli, Nevill. Rossm. Icon. N. S. i, f. 136, 230 
5, 6. Xerophila hydruntina, Blanc. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 133, . 230 
7-9. Xerophila Euxina, Clessin. Mai. Blatt. N. S. vi, t. 3, 

f. 12, *J1 

10-13. Xerophila luteata, Parr. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1303- 

1305, 231 

14, 15. Xerophila Chalcidica, Blanc. Ibid, vi, f. 1558, . 231 




REFERENCE TO PLATES. 309 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

16, 17. Xerophila accompsia, Bourg. Ibid, v, f. 1312, . . 231 
18, 19. Xerophila subrostrata, Fer. Kiister, Conch. Cab. i, 

t, 37, f. 15, 16, 231 

20, 21. Xerophila subrostrata, Fer. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1537, 231 
22-26. Xerophila choreta, Bourg. Mai. Alger. i, t. 27, f. 25- 

29, 231 

27-29. Xerophila simulata, Fer. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1539, 

1540, 232 

PLATE 56. 

30, 31. Xerophila camerata, Mousson. Jahrb. Mai. Gessel. 

i, t, 4, f. 1, . 232 

32-34. Xerophila colomesiana, Bourg. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1456, 232 

35, 36. Xerophila pellucens, Shuttl. Ibid, vi, f. 1543, . . 232 
37, 38. Xerophila parva, Parr. Ibid, vi, f. 1548, . . .232 
39, 40. Xerophila rufolabris, Benoit. Ibid, v, f. 1458, . . 233 
41, 42. Xerophila pseudenhalia, Bourg. Moll. Chateau d'lf, 

t. 1, f. 20, 21, 235 

43-45. Xerophila Hamilcaris, Kobelt. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1449, . 233 

46-48. Xerophila Benoiti, Cafici. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 137, 138, . 233 
49-51. Xerophila moesta, Parr. Ibid, v, f. 1446, . . . 233 
52-54. Xerophila moesta, var. luctuosa, Cafici. Nat. Sicil. 

ii, t. 1, f. 3, 233 

55-57. Xerophila subprofuga, Stabile. Paulucci, Faune Ca- 

lab. t. 6, f. 1, . 234 

58-60. Xerophila Aradasii, Pirajno. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1460, 

1461, .233 

61, 62. Xerophila submaritima, Desm. Ibid, ii, f. 575, . 235 
63-66. Xerophila Cyrenaica, Martens. Conch. Mittheil. ii, t. 

31, f. 4-7, 234 

67-70. Xerophila maritima, Drap. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 612, . 235 
71, 72. Xerophila agreabilis, Ziegl. Ibid, vi, f. 1564, . . 234 
73, 74. Xerophila Candiota, Frival. Ibid, vi, f. 1547, . . 234 
75, 76. Xerophila variegata, Friv. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1552, 235 
77, 78. Xerophila turbinata, Jan. Ibid, v, f. 1459, . . 234 
79, 80. Xerophila Durieuri, Moquin-Tandon. Ibid, vi, f. 

1544, 236 

81, 82. Xerophila arcuata, Ziegl. Ibid, vi, f. 1553, . . 234 
83, 84. Xerophila Berlieri, Morelet. Ibid, vi, f. 1545, . . 236 

PLATE 57. 

85-89. Xerophila Mauritanica, Bourg. Rossm. N.S. i, f. 116, 

119, 121, 235 

90-92. Xerophila Djebbarica, Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 39, 

f. 5, 6, 8, . . . . < . . .236 

93. Xerophila modica, Morel. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1550, . 236 



310 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

94, 95. Xerophila cistorum, Morel.. Ibid, vi, f. 1549, . . 236 
96, 97. Xerophila Cottyi, Morel. Jour, de Conch, t. 3, f. 4, 

1880, .236 

98. Xerophila Orbignyi, W. B. Orb. Moll. Canaries, t. 2, f. 

33, 237 

99-1. Xerophila Semenowi, Martens. Conch. Mittheil. i, t. 4, 

f. 10-12, . . v 237 

2. Xerophila Semenowi, var. depressa, Mouss. Ibid, i, t. 4, 

f. 13, 237 

3, 4. Xerophila cauta, Westerl. Rossm. Icon.KS. i, f. 134, 240 
5, 6. Xerophila dendrophila, Mabille. Nouv. Arch. Mus. 

vii, t. 16, f. 4, 5 ; 237 

7, 8. Xerophila Cretica, Fer. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. i, t. 37, 

f. 21, 22, 239 

9, 10, Xerophila Lancerottensis, W. B. Orb. Moll. Canar. t. 

1, f. 24, 25, 237 

11,12. Xerophila Lancerottensis, var. adoptata, Mousson. No- 

vit. Conch, iv, t. 120, f. 40, 41, ;' . . . .237 
13, 14. Xerophila herbicola, Shuttlew. Ibid. iv. 1. 120, f. 37, 

38, . ^_ c . : ' . . -'. . . . .235 
15-17. Xerophila aglaometa, Mabille.' Nouv. Arch. Mus. 

vii, t. 16, f. 11, . . v ' . . . ; . .237 
18-20. Xerophila euphorca, Bourg. Rossm. Icon. N. S. i, t. 

16, f. 123, 124, 230 

21-23. Xerophila piratarum, Kobelt. Ibid. N. S. i, t. 16, f. 

125, 126, . . . V v . . . .240 
24, 25. Xerophila piratarum, var. minor. Nat. Sicil. ii, t. 1, 

f. 6, 240 

26-28. Xerophila vestalis, Parr. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1442, 

1443, . . 240 

PLATE 58. 

29-31. Xerophila Devauxi, Deb. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1448, . 240 
32-34. Xerophila Terveri, Mich. Ibid, ii, f. 565, 566, . . 240 
35, 36. Xerophila interpres, Westerl. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 127, . 242 
37, 38. Xerophila Phari, Fagot. Ibid, i, f. 354b, . . .241 
39, 40. Xerophila finitima, Morelet. Ibid, vii, f. 1978, . . 241 
4144. Xerophila Terveri, Rossm. ( Adolfi). Ibid iii, f. 

816,817,819, .241 

45-48. Xerophila stiparum, Rossm. Ibid. iii. f. 820, 821, . 241 
49, 50. Xerophila eremophila, Boiss. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1293, 242 
51-54. Xerophila Arigonis, Rossm. Ibid, iii, f. 823, 824, . 241 
55, 56. Xerophila cespitum, Drap. Ibid, v, f. 1289, . . 241 

57. Xerophila cespitum, var. Amoricana. Ibid, v, f. 1290, . 242 

PLATE 59. 

58. Xerophila cespitum, Drap. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1291, . 241 

59. Xerophila cespitum, var. introducta. Ibid, v, f. 1292, . 242 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 311 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

60, 61. Xerophila neglecta, Drap. Ibid, i, f. 355, . . 243 
6264. Xerophila ericetorum, Dupuy (= ericetella). Hist. 

Moll. France, t. 13, f. 7, . . . ' . . 243 

65-67. Xerophila Erkeli, Kobelt. Rossm. Icon, vi, f. 1541, 

1542, 243 

6870. Xerophila eremophila, Drap. var. Amunensis. Mart. 

Conch. Mittheil. ii, t. 35, f. 6, 7, 10, . . . . 242 
71-73. Xerophila arenarum, Bourg. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1306, 

1307, . .243 

74, 75. Xerophila candicans, Ziegl. Ibid, ii, f. 519, . . 244 
76-78. Xerophila arenosa, Dupuy ( enhalia). Dupuy, 

Moll. France, t. 13, f. 9, 243 

79, 80. Xerophila candicans, var. (= vulgarissiraa). Rossm. 

Icon, v, f. 1430, 245 

81-83. Xerophila candicans, var. obvia, Zglr. Ibid, v, f. 

1427, 1428, . .244 

84, 85. Xerophila pullula, Parr. (= candicans, var.). Ibid. 

v, f. 1444, ... 244 

86-88. Xerophila discrepans, Tiberi (= Ammonis, var.). 

Ann. Soc. Mai. Belg. xiii, t. 2, f. 2, . . . . 245 
89, 90. Xerophila Joppensis, Roth. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1439, 244 
91, 92. Xerophila Dobrudschse, Parr. ( candicans, var.). 

Ibid, v, f. 1441, 244 

PLATE 60. 

93-96. Xerophila Ammonis, Schmidt. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1423-1425, .245 

97-99. Xerophila ericetorum, Mull. Ibid, v, f. 1431, 1432, . 245 
100, 1. Xerophila dejecta, Jan. Ibid, ii, f. 520, . . .246 
2-4. Xerophila aberrans, Mousson. Ibid, v, f. 1440, . . 246 
5-7. Xerophila gyroides, Parr. Novit. Conch, iv, t. 117, f. 

16, 18, . . 246 

8-10. Xerophila Pampelunensis, Schmidt. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1421, 1422, 246 

11, 12. Xerophila Lemoinei, Debeaux. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 129, 246 
13, 14. Xerophila Vukotinovici, Hire. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 135, 246 
15-17. Xerophila Derbentina, var. Caucasica. Ibid, v, f. 

1433, 1434, . . .247 

18-21. Xerophila Krynicki, Andrz. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 139, 140, 247 
22, 23. Xerophila Candaharica, Pfr. ( == Krynicki, var.). 

Conch. Ind. t. 131, f. 5, 6, . . . . . . 247 

24, 25. Xerophila Derbentina, Andrz. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1435, ,247 

26-28. Xerophila Dautezi, Kobelt. Ibid. N. S. i. f. 141, 142 248 
29, 30. Xerophila instabilis, Ziegler. Rossm. Iconog. ii, f. 

518, .... ..... 248 

31-33. Xerophila instabilis, var. Bakowskyana. Mai. Blatt. 

N. S. i, f. 6, 248 



312 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

.FIGURE. PAGE. 

34-35. Xerophila destituta, Charp. (= instabilis). Rossm. 

Icon, v, f. 1445, ....,... 248 
36-38. Xerophila Dragorichi, Zelebor. Novit. Conch, iii, t. 

108, f. 25, 27, 249 

PLATE 61. 

39-43. Xerophila bathyomphala, Charp. (= instabilis). No- 
vit. Conch, v, t. 155, f. 1-5, 248 

44-47. Xerophila Spadse, Calc. (^instabilis). Ibid, v, 1. 155, 

f. 6, . . 248 

48, 49. Xerophila Ebusitana, Hidalgo. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, 

f. 2, 1869, 250 

50, 51. Xerophila sphaerita, Hartm. Rossm. Icon. vi,f. 1535, 249 
52-54. Xerophila Fedtschenkoi, Martens. Fedtschenkoi, 

Reise. t. 1, f. 9, 249 

55, 56. Xerophila nubigena, Charp. ( instabilis). Rossm. 

Icon, vi, f. 1565, 248 

57-59. Xerophila Oranensis, Morelet. Ibid.vi, f. 1533-1534, 249 
60, 61. Xerophila illibata, Parr. Ibid, ii, f. 567, . . .249 
62-64. Xerophila Stoliczkana, Nevill. Yarkand Exped. f. 

i 10-12, 250 

65-67. Xerophila Hamacenica, Raffray. Ann. Sci. Nat. 6 

ser. xv, t. 8, 41-43, . . . -^ . . .250 
68. Xerophila papillata, Pfr. Conch. Icon. f. 441, . . 249 
69-71. Xerophila subnivel liana, Bourg. Ann. Sci. Nat. 6 

ser. xv, t. 8, f. 44-46, 250 

72. Xerophila filimargo, Ziegl. Mai. Blatt. N. S. vi, t. 3, f. 

13, 252 

73-75. Xerophila Taurica, Partsch. (= filimargo). Rossm. 

Icon, i, f. 358, 251 

76-78. Xerophila Retowskyi, Clessin. Mai. Blatt. N. S. vi, 

t. 3, f. 1, . Ii . . v . . . .252 
79-81. Xerophila Gargottse, Phil. (= corrugata). Rossm. 

Icon, i, f. 357, 252 

82, 83. Xerophila Spratti, Pfr. Ibid, v, f. 1473, . . .253 
84, 85. Xerophila Grovesiana, Paulucci. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 148, 254 

PLATE 62. 

86-88. Xerophila pneelara, Cafici. Nat. Sicil. ii, t, 1, f. 7, 252 

89-91. Xerophila dormiens, Benoit. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1450, 252 

92-94. Xerophila Tineana, Benoit. Ibid, v, f. 1452, . . 253 

95-97. Xerophila Tristrami, Pfr. Mai. Reg. Tunis, f. 28-31, 253 

98-100. Xerophila Arianensis, Bourg. Ibid. f. 22, 24, . . 253 
1, 2. Xerophila Sigensis, Kobelt. Rossm. Icon. N. S. i, t. 

17, f. 131, 256 

3, 4. Xerophila crenimargo, Kryn. Ku'ster, Conch. Cab. i, 

t. 36, f. 8, 9, .252 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 313 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

5. Xerophila Lacosteana, Morlet. Jour, de Conch, t. 12, f. 

5, 1881, 255 

68, Xerophila depressula, Parr. Rossm. Icon, ii, f. 562, . 256 
9, 10. Xerophila Moraguesi, Kobelt. Rossm. K S. i, f. 132, 255 
11-13. Xerophila explanata, Mull. Ibid, ii, f. 539, . . 255 
14-16. Xerophila Rouvieriana, Bourg. Moll. Litig. ii, t. 43, 

f. 4, 5, 7, 255 

17-19. Xerophila Henoniana, Bourg. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 

1454, . 254 

20-22. Xerophila Brondeli, Bourg. Anienites Conch, i, 1. 13, 

f. 7. 9 255 

3-25. Xerophila Idia, Bourg. et Letourn. Ann. Mus. Gen- 
ova, xxii, p. 8, 256 

26-28. Xerophila amanda, Rossm. (=-- Rozeti). Rossm. Icon. 

ii, f. 449, 254 

29-31. Xerophila Usticensis, Calcara. Ibid, v, f. 1451, . 254 

PLATE 63. 

26-28. Xerophila catocyphia, Bourg. Moll. Chateau d'lf, t. 

1, f. 1-3, 256 

29, 30. Xerophila Setubalensis, Pfr. Rossm. Icon. N. S. i, f. 

156, 256 

31-33. Xerophila Moiitseratensis, Hidalgo. Ibid, v, f. 1453, 257 
34, 35. Xerophila Prietoi, Hidalgo. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 150, . 257 
36-38. Xerophila Barceloi, Hidalgo. Ibid, iii, f. 829, . . 257 
39, 40. Xerophila Homeyeri, Dohrn & Heyn. Ibid. N. S. i, 

f. 149, 258 

41, 42. Xerophila Ponsii, Hidalgo. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 152, . 257 
43, 44. Xerophila Pollenzensis, Hidalgo. Ibid. N. S.i,f. 151, 257 
45, 46. Xerophila Nyelli, Mittre. Ibid. N. S. i, f. 154, . . 258 
47-50. Xerophila Caroli, Dohrn & Heyn. Hidalgo, Cat. 

Icon. f. 161, 165, 258 

51-53. Xerophila Cardonse, Hidalgo. Jour, de Conch, t. 12, 

f. 2, 1867, 258 

54, 55. Xerophila frater, Dohrn & Heyn. Rossm. Icon. N. 

S. i, f. 153, 258 

56-58. Xerophila Majoricensis, Dohrn & Heyn. Hidalgo, 

Cat. Icon. f. 276-278 258 

59, 60. Xerophila Cisternasi, Hidalgo. Jour, de Conch, t. 2, 

f. 4, 1883, 259 

61-63. Xerophila Ledereri, Pfr. Rossm. Icon, v, f. 1455, . 259 
64, 65. Xerophila Cavannse, Paulucci. Rossm. Icon. N. S. i, 

f. 147, 259 

66-68. Goniodiscus costulata, Moll. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. xiv, 

t. 2, f. 2, 266 

69. Discus angulosa, Mousson. Jour, de Conch, t. 1, f. 1, 

1887, . . .262 

70. Helicella Dieckmanni, Mousson. Ibid. t. 1, f. 2, 1887, . 179 



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