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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

PLATB 1. 











MANUAL 



OF 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 









WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF TTIR SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W.(jRYON)jR. 

<'ON*H:VAT<>U >K TIIE < '.'XcHor.o.;: . r.MV rP N 

.".n\. 



vcn ,. rv. 
NASSID, TURBINELLiO/ii, VOLUTION, MITRID.xE. 






PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL ECIENCES. COR. I9TH & PA^ 
1882. 








EARTH 

SCIENCE* 
LIBRARY 




WM. P. KILOARE, PRINTER, 734 AND 736 SANSOM STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



THE Fourth Volume of the Manual of Conchology contains 
monographs of four important families, embracing genera of 
which many representatives are included in the cabinet of everv 
collector of marine shells. It is hoped that it will be found 
useful in facilitating the identification of specimens, as well as 
in correcting the hitherto very confused synonymy. 

The kind offices of many correspondents in furnishing speci- 
mens (particularly imfigurcd types), drawings and information 
concerning the species, are again gratefully acknowledged ; and 
I am equally indebted to others for their endeavors to promote 
the sale of the Manual. I shall endeavor to deserve and recom- 
pense this active interest in behalf of the work by making it 
as thorough as circumstances will permit. 

G. W. T., Ju. 

January, 1882. 






The Almighty Maker lias throughout 
Discriminated each from each, by strokes 
And touches of his hand with so much art 
Diversified, that two were never found 
Twins at all points. 

COWl'EJ 



To ask or search I blame thee not ; for Nature 

Is as the book of God before thee set, 

Wherein to read his wondrous works. 

But what created mind can comprehend 

Their number, or 1 the wisdom infinite 

That brought them forth, but hid their causes deep. 

MILTON. 



UNIVERSIT7 




MANUAL OF CONCHOLOQY 



Family NASSID^B. 

Shell ovntc, spire u-ually elongated, base oi' aperture a notch 
or short recurved canal, inner lip usually callous. Operculum 
corneous, ovate, nucleus apical, margins plain or serrated. 
Animal having two small processes or tails at its posterior 
extremity. Lingual teeth arched, pectinated; the uncini with a 
basal horn, and occasionally intermediate serrations: -the denti- 
tion is illustrated on Plate 3. 

A few fossil species are known, commencing with the Eocene. 

Si/nopais of Genera. 

NORTH I A, Gray. Shell elongated, turritod, polished ; spire elevated, 
acuminated, whorls depressed and sloping at their upper part ; aperture 
shorter than the spire ; outer lip with the margin serrated. Dentition 
unknown. 

TRUNCARIA, Ads. and Reeve. Shell acuminately oblong, thick ; suture 
of the spire channelled ; aperture anteriorly dilated, posteriorly sub- 
cmarginated ; columella arcuated, abruptly truncated in front, with a 
single anterior fold. Dentition unknown. 

BCLLIA, Gray. Shell ovate or turrited ; spire more or less acuminated, 
sutures enamelled ; inner lip excavated in the middle, callous poster- 
iorly ; aperture oval, moderate. Operculum fusiform, nucleus apical. 
Dentition, PI. 3, fig. 20. 

Subgenus BucciNANors, d'Orb. Shell with the whorls somewhat angu- 
lated, and with a rounded or nodulous band next the sutures. 

Subgenus PSEDDOSTROMBDS, Klein. Shell elongated, smooth, without 
epidermis, last whorl ventricosc ; spire acuminate; aperture o 
columella arched, smooth or transversely striated, outer lip thin. No 
enamel round the sutures. Dentition, PI. o, fig. 21. 






o NA88IDJE. 

Subgenus ADINUS, H. and A. Adams. Shell subulate, spirally striated ; 
columella abmptly truncated afc base ; inner lip corrugated, with a 
callosity at hind part ; outer lip grooved internally, externally margin- 
ated. 

NASSA, Lam. Shell ovate, ventricose, body whorl variously sculptured ; 
aperture ovate, with a short, reflected, truncated, anterior canal ; 
inner lip smooth, often widely spread over with enamel, with a posterior 
callosity or blunt dentiform plait ; outer lip dentated, internally 
crenulated. Margin of operculum serrated or entire. Dentition, PI. 3, 
figs. 22 to 25.* 

The following "snbgenera." may be, retained as convenient 
group designations, although the species, varying much in their 
sculpture cannot always be positively assigned. 

Subgenus ARCULARIA, Link. Body whorl gibbous on the back; spire 
produced ; callus of inner lip greatly extended and covering the spire. 

Subgenus NAYTIA, H. and A. Adams. Shell smooth ; aperture -with a 
channel at the hind part continued up the spire. 

Snbgenus ALECTRION, Montf. Spire elevated, whorls glabrous, polished 
or papillary ; inner lip spreading ; outer lip denticulate, not variced 
externally, 

Subgenus ZEUXIS, II. and A. Adams. Spire elevated, smooth, or longi- 
tudinally plicate, polished ; inner lip with the callus defined, or some- 
what spreading ; outer lip externally variced, sometimes dentate 
anteriorly.f 

Subgenus ACICTTLINA, H. and A.Adams. Shell turrited, polished, smooth 
or longitudinally plicate : inner lip with the callus sharp, straight, 
defined ; outer lip produced in the middle, variced externally. 
^/Subgenus PHRONTIS, H. and A. Adams. Spire elevated, acuminate, 
whorls ribbed or nodulose, distinctly shouldered ; inner lip smooth, with 
an extended, thickened callus, outer lip with an external varix. 



:: ' Messrs. IT. and A. Adams in their "Genera of Recent Mollusca," 
have made a Genus Amycla in Columbeflidae, and included in it some 
species which are decidedly Nassids ; the dentition of one of these errone- 
ously placed species, N. (Bucc.) cornicula, Olivi (PI. 3, fig. 24), has been 
figured by Troschel as a type of that of the genus Amycla, which he has 
accordingly removed to Nassidse. 

f NASSODONTA, H. Adams. Shell oval ; spire short, last whorl sulcate 
anteriorly ; aperture sinuated in front, canaliculate behind ; columella 
callous, plicate anteriorly ; lip acute, thickened and dentate within, with 
an anterior marginal denticulation. Operculum and animal unknown. I 
have included the single species in Zeuxis. 



NASSIIbE. . 7 

K Snbgenus HEBKA, IT. and A. Adams-. Whorls spi nose, muri* ated or sharply 
tubercular ; inner lip with the callus defined ; outer lip with a marginal 
varix, when adult. 

/Snbgeuus HIMA, Leach. Spire elevated, whorls cancellated ; inner lip 

with a rugose callus, callus defined ; outer lip with a marginal varix. 
Submenus XIOTHA, H. and A. Adams. Shell cassidifbrm ; spire short, 
whorls granulated or cancellated ; inner lip with the callus very large 
and spreading ; outer lip crenate, not variced externally. 

.jenus TRITIA, Risso. Spire elevated, whorls reticulated; inner lip 
smooth, with the callus moderate; outer lip simple, not variced. :: ~ 
Subgenus ILYANASSA, Stimpson. Shell dark olive brown, reticulated, 
outer lip without varix, striate within, columella covered with a 
spreading callus. Operculum with entire (not serrated) margin. 
Animal having a broad foot, not bifurcated behind as in Nassa. Den- 
tition, PI. 3, fig. 25. 

XERITULA, Plancus. Shell ovate, depressed, avis distorted ;- spire 
flattened, oblique, whorls smooth ; aperture depressed ; columella 
smooth ; inner lip callous, spread over the body whorl, outer lip reflect ><!, 
not denticulate or striated. Dentition, PI. 3, fig. 20. 

DESMOULEA, Gray. Shell ovate-globose, covered with a downy 
epidermis ; spire short, conical, apex papillary ; whorls depressed ; 
aperture ovate ; inner lip thickened, with a ridge posteriorly ; outer 
lip contracted, thickened externally, plicated internally. Dentition 
unknown. 

Fossil Genera and Subgenera.. 

Subgenus MOLOPOPHORUS, Gabb. 1 iS. G. of Bullia). Short, robust, 
spire moderately elevated, suture bordered by a more or less distinct 
cari ua. Surface longitudinally ribbed or striate. Aperture obtuse behind, 
and very slightly notched ; outer lip simple, inner lip very slightly in- 
crusted, sinuous, anterior notch small, but distinctly defined. 
B/STKIATA, Gabb. PI. 3, fig. 27. Cretaceous, California. 

Genus PTYCHOSALPINX, Gill. Shell ovate, buccinoid, whorls regu- 
larly rounded and ventricose ; spire moderate (about as long as the 
aperture), furnished with equal revolving linear ridges, siphonal canal 
very short, very obliquely twisted and concurrent with the siphonal 



: II. and A. Adams have also a subgenus Uzita, but its characters are 
not different from those of Tritia, whilst its species are, many of them, 
evidently better placed in other groups : a large number of them, for 
instance, possess the marginal varix, the absence of which is one. of the 
characters of the group. Uzita can be advantageously dispensed with. 






NORTH! A. 

fascicle ; aperture rhombo-ovate, oblong ; lajjrum entire, not sinuous, 
smooth within ; columella inversely sigmoidal, concave near the middle, 
with a very thin callous deposit and with a revolving linear plait in front. 

Tertiary, United States and Fru/. 

Dr. Gill refers his genus to the family Buccinidae, but I agree with the 
late Mr. Conrad that his description indicates ('as do the types cited) 



P. ALTILIS, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 28. Miocene, Virginia. 

P. SCALASPIRA, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 29. Miocene, Virginia. 

Subgenus PARANASSA, Conrad. Differs from PtycJwsalpinx in the 
submargin of the labrum being slightly thickened within and striate ; 
si phonal canal shorter. Eocene, Miocene, America and Europe. 

P. GRANIFERA, Conr.* PI. 3, fig. 30. Virginia. 

Subgenus TRITIARIA, Conrad. Elongated, subturrited, labrum not 
thickened within. This does not seem to differ generically from the true 
Nassas ; it has very little resemblance to Ptychosalpinx. 
T. PERALTA, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 31 . Miocene, Virginia. 

[BuLLioPSis, Conrad. Placed by its author at first as a subgenus of 
Nassa, it was subsequently removed by him to Melanopsidae. It has some 
resemblance to Bullia. ] 

Ucmis NORTHIA, Gray. 

The animal of this genus is unknown, but the operculum has 
been figured by H. and A. Adams, in their " Genera." The 
shell is in its general aspect much closer to Pnxionella in the 
family Terebridse than to the getiera with which it is here (and 
has been heretofore) associated ; the variceal thickening at or 
near the outer lip, is however, a feature which does not obtain in 
the Terebridse. Pusionella, moreover, has a concentric oper- 
culum, with its nucleus near the middle of the inner margin. 
Perhaps the figured operculum of Northia is abnormal; 
it has that appearance. I think that if these shells had not 
been assigned to the Nassidse or to any other family, I would 
have placed them in Terebrida? : as it is, I prefer to allow them 
to remain here, rather than possibly complicate the subject In- 
changing their position. 



* As one of the two specimens of the type of Paranassa is striate 
within the aperture, while the other is smooth, probably the distinction 
from Ptycfiosalpinx will not hold good. 



TRUNCARTA. 9 

X. SERRATA, Dufrcsne. PI. 5, figs. 50, 51. 

Livid olive, becoming chestnut-colored on the spire ; a hump- 
like projection often occurs parallel with and just behind the 
margin of the outer lip. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Panama; St. Elena, W. Col. 

Gray's name Bucciinun Northise, has priority, but has not 
been adopted. Deshayos called it B. pristi* because Dufresne's 
name was preoccupied in Burcimnn for a fossil species an ob- 
jection which has no force since the shell has been dismembered 
from that genus. 

X. ALBOPUNCTATA, Adams and Reeve. PI.. 5, fig. 52. 

Light yellowish, minutely punctate with opaque white, apex 

rosaceous. Length, *8 inch. 

Philippines. 
X. RISSOIDES, Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 53. 

Whitish, with clouded yellow streaks. Length, *9 inch. 

Philippines. 

First described as a Pleurotoma. The specimen figured shows 
a single rib or varix on the body whorl. Adams remarks that 
N. albopunctata is closely allied to this species : I think it 
probable that the}'' are identical. 

Genus TRUNCARIA, A. lams and Reeve. 

This genus is founded on a singular shell discovered during 
the voyage of the " Samarang," and is principally characterized 
by the abrupt truncature of its columella, and by its anteriorly 
dilated aperture. 

T. FILOSA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 54. 

Yellowish brown, maculated with two or three series of chestnut- 
brown spots. Length, 1-1 inches. 

China Sea. 
T. AUSTRALIS, Angas. PI. 5, fig. 55. 

Moderately solid, shining ; the two apical whorls thin and 
papillose, the rest somewhat distantly and flatly longitudinally 
plicate on the upper portion, the plica? crossed with fine im. 
cd lines, the middle of the last whorl smooth, with a few 
impressed lines near the base ; sutures grooved. Pale brown, 
columellar callus white. Length, 7 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 



10 TJULTJA. 

T. RUGATA, Reeve/ PI. 5, fig. 5(>. 

Whitish or light brown. Length, 1*1 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The pertinence of this species to the genus is very doubtful. 
I have not seen a specimen of it. 

T. MODESTA, Powis. PI. 5, fig. 57. 

Yellowish, longitudinally strigate or maculate or nearly 
covered with chestnut-brown, with a white central band. 

Length, '8-1 inch. 

Panama. 

Quite as closely related to Etilhria as to the type of this 
genus. 

T. SULCATA, Kiener. . PI. 5, fig. 58. 

Yellowish white, under a rufous epidermis. Length, 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
T. EURYTOIDES, Carpenter. 

White, with a revolving series of brown maculations on the 
periphery; sometimes the base is brown, or the whole surface 
brown spotted ; with about twenty longitudinal riblets, becom- 
ing evanescent towards the aperture ; aperture subquadrate, lip 
scarcely thickened, striate finely within, colnmella abruptly 

truncate. Length, *3 inch. 

Cape St. Lucan, Lower California. 

Has not been figured hitherto, and the specimen before me 
(an author's type) is not in good condition for illustration. 
Very probably the species is not a Truncaria,&t all; its size 
indicates close relationship with Columbella. 

T. TRIFASOTATA, A. Ad. This name is given in the " Genera of 
Recent Mollnsca," but I have not found a description of it. 

Genus BULLIA, (Jniy. 

Animal without eyes ; tentacles long and slender. Foot enor- 
mousty expanded, and bifid behind in the typical species. Then- 
is no operculum. 

Bullia (restricted sense) has a raised band of enamel round tlie 
sutures of the. whorls as in Ancillaria. The animal has the 
faculty, according to M. Quoy, of absorbing, through the pores of 
its foot, a great quantity of water, which it ejects when disturbed. 



: 



BULLIA. 11 

in various directions'; it is caught by baiting linos with. bits of 
flesh. The genus is oriental, mostly So. African in distribution, 
and reminds one of the Arctic genus Volutharpa (vol. iii, ]>. 107). 

II. and A. Adams separate a genus Pseudostrombus on account 
of the want of the sntnral band of enamel, and the foot of the 
animal being simple instead of bifid behind; but as in Nassa, 
the difference in the animal is not certainly to be regarded as 
generic; and as to the shell, there is no sharp line of division 
between species with and those without enamelled sutures the 
globose species generally showing the most of it and the 
narrower ones less. Nevertheless it will be convenient to group 
together the narrow species as a subgenus. 

. In Woodward's ''Manual of the Mollusca," 1lu.ll in is erro- 
neously made a synonym of Anaida.r, Roissy, a fossil form of 

ncillaria. 



Typical. 

B. L^EVISSIMA, Gmel. PI. 5, iig. 50. 

Yellowish white to brownish red ; smooth and polished. 

Length, 2'5-3 inches. 

(J<tpe of Good Hope. 
1>. WLOBULOSA, Kiener. PI. 5, fig. 60. 

Spire shorter, whorls slightly contracted above the middle, 
suture but slightly, or not at all enamelled. Length, 2*5 inches. 

ILilntat unknoirn. 

I doubt whether this is more than a variety of J>. 



B. DEFORM is, King. PI. 5, fig. (U. 

Yellowish brown, obscurely brown banded. 
Length, 22-33 mill. 

Mouth of the Rio de la Plata; Rio Negro, South America. 

15. TENUIS, PI. 5, fig. K2. 

Thin, yellowish white, one or two revolving grooves just 
below the suture and a number on the lower half of the body 

whorl. Length, 1*75 inches. 

JLiliita t unku otn, . 
B. CALLOSA, Gray. PI. 5. tig. <>8. 

Yellowish gray, sutuml and columellar callosities generally 

chestnut-brown. Length, 1*25-1 *5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 



12 BULLIA. 

Remarkable for its callous deposit upon the columella, which 
sometimes is so thick as to give the shell a distorted appearance, 
producing an angle or hump on the periphery. 

B. MAURITIANA, Gray. PI. 5, figs. 64, 65. 

Yellowish white, deeper yellow within the aperture; the callous 
sutural band frequently opaque white. Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Mauritius ; Madagascar. 

B. Mauritiana was not figured by Gray, and his description is 
so unsatisfactory that the recognition of the species must rest 
upon the illustration in Reeve's Iconica. With this, there is no 
doubt that B. Grayi, Reeve (fig. 65), is identical. The babylonic 
spire, strong sutural band of enamel, and distant revolving 
incised lines distinguish this species. 

B. SEMIPLICATA, Gray. PI. 5, fig. 66. 

Whitish or yellowish, sometimes encircled by two broad, faint, 

brown bands. Length, 1 '25-1*5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

This has very much the form of the preceding species, but 
the revolving incised lines are absent, and instead, the spire, :ind 
frequently the upper portion of the body whorl are longitudinally 
plicate. 

B. DIGITALIS, Meuschen. PL 5, figs. 67-69, 72. 

Cream-color to yellowish white, sometimes darker around the 
suture ; orange-yellow within the aperture. Smooth, with obsolet e 
spiral impressed lines near the base. In very large individuals 
the whorls are somewhat plicately wrinkled next the suture. 

Length, 1-5-2-5 inches. 

South Africa. 

B. rhodostoma, Gray (fig. 69), is somewhat stouter than the 
typical form, and B. semiusta. Reeve (fig. 68), is a mere color 
variety. 

Var. NATALENSIS, Krauss. 

Whorls shortly plicate at the suture. 

The figure (fig. 72) represents a young specimen, but this 
plicate condition persists, frequently, in the adults. I have one 
before me, measuring 2'5 inches. t 



HrCVlNANOl'S. I.. 

B. PKRSICA, E. A. Smith. PI. 5, fig. 70. 

Greyish, or lavender-color; spirally silicate, somewhat grsni- 
ulous next below the suture. Length, 1 inch. 

Buafiirc, Per ni fin- (lu-lf. 
B. SULCATA, Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 71. 

Lavender or lead-color, rather solid; whorls closely, concen- 
trically grooved. 

Habitat unknown. 

B. SEMIFLAMMEA, lleCVC. PI. 5, fig. 75. 

Yellowish white, lower half of whorls with longitudinal chest- 

Kit flames. Length, 1*25 inches. 
Cape of Good Hope. 
Subgcnus Buocinanops, d'Oib. 

Embraces three species from the Southern parts of the Coast 
of South America. The}' are of rude growth, usually with a 
flattened shoulder below the sufures. 

B. COCHLIDIUM, Kiener. PI. 5, fig. 73; PL 6, tigs. 76-81. 

Yellowish white, sometimes with two obscure bunds of longi- 
tudinally disposed chestnut-brown flames; whorls soinetiines 
decidedly shouldered, and the shoulder defined by a somewhat 
corded ridge. Length, 1-5-3 inches. 

Brazil to Patagonia ; on the Pacific Ooast, north to Peru. 

I do not agree with Deshayes and Reeve that Kiencr's species 
is different from that of Chemnitz, and therefore I do iio^dopt 
Deshayes' name B. gradata: still, as Chemnitz was not a binom- 
inal writer I cannot cite him as authority for the species. The 
fact is that B. cochlidium is of rude, frequent!}' distorted growth, 
and a collection of specimens exhibits many forms. The figure 
of cochlidium given by Reeve, as exhibiting the type of the 
species is but slightly shouldered, and large as it is, is not adult 
(fig. 76); Kiener's figure is also given (fig. 73). B. gradata , 
Desh., is represented by figure 77, from Reeve's Iconica, B. 
Lamarckii, Kiener (fig. 78), is another form which is scarcely 
shouldered, and other intermediate forms are shown in B. Pa,ij- 
tense, Yal. (fig. 79), and B. squalida, King (fig. 80). A remark- 
ably distorted shell, called by Gmelin BUG. labyrinth um (fig. 81), 
very probably belongs here. 






14- PSEU DOST ROME US. 

B. ANNULATA, Lam. PI. 5, fig. 74. 

Yellowish white, columella white. Length, 1'5 inches. 

Narrower than the preceding species, and covered with 
revolving- stria?; yet it may be only a variety of it. 

B. ARMATA, Gray. PI. 6, figs. 82, 83. 

Yellowish white, with two broad, faint, chestnut bands. 

Length, 1-2 inches. 

Rio NcgrOj Patinjonitt. 

This species is considered by d'Orbigny merely a spinose 
variety of B. cochlidium. 

Submenus Pseudostrombus, Klein. 

Leiodomus Swainson, cannot be distinguished as a subgenus, 
the distinctive characters gradually merging in those of Ftwttdo- 



B. TURRITA, Gray. PL 6, fig. 84. 

Shell smooth, very finely plaited at the sutures; white, some- 
times obscurely brown-flamed on the lower part of the body 

whorl. Length, 1-25 1 '5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Very like the next species, but is somewhat longer and 
narrower, with more convex whorls ; the plications shorter, only 
occupying a small portion of even the spiral whorls, fainter, not 
decussated by revolving striae. 

B. MELANOJDES, Desh. PL 6, figs. 85, 86. 

Upper whorls crossed by well-marked plications, body whorl 
sometimes only plicate on the upper part; revolving stria' 
decussate the plications of the spire. Color, yellowish white. 
sometimes with a chocolate-colored narrow band near the sutures 
and a broader one at the base, or whole surface clouded or covered 
with chocolate. Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Cochin China ; Mozambique. 

B. Mctzambiceii&ix, E. A. Smith (fig. 86), is described from a 
well-grown specimen of the dark-colored variety. 

B. GRANULOSA, Lam. PL 6, fig. 91. 

Chestnut or chocolate, sometimes obscurely banded on the 
periphery, with a double row of bead-like nodules revolving 
below the suture. Length, 1 inch. 

Gabon Coast, W. Africa. 



; 



PSEUDOSTROMBIS. 15 

Kiener, who figures this species as Burr, rittatum, Linn., eon- 
founds with it B. melatwidt, :i shell from the opposite const of 
Africa, and quite distinct, judging from the specimens before me. 
Lamarck considered it a Terebra, a genus to which this shell is 
closely assimilated by its usually very narrow form, polished 
surface and sculpture. 

B. POLTTA, Lam. PI. f>, tigs. 88, 89. 

("ream-color, yellowish brown or livid olive, with frequently a 
very indistinct darker band near the suture; whorls of the apex 
plicate, rest smooth and polished. Length, 1-1 '25 inches. 

Senegal. 

It. ritrea, Reeve (iig. 80), is synonymous. 



P>. KURRACRENBIS, Angas. PI. P>, Iig. 90. 

White, tinged with rose-color on the upper whorls. 

Length, I '75 inches. 

Kurradd, Scinde, N. W. 
Only the type specimen known. 

15. VITTATA, Linn. PL 0, figs. 87, 92. 

Yellowish or lilac-white, or bluish or brown; sometimes the 
spire is clouded bluish whilst the rest of the shell is light colored. 
Sutural plications defined by an incised revolving line and some- 
times cut in two by another line. Length, 1'5-1'75 inches. 

Ceylon ; Zanzibar. 

B. livida, Reeve (fig. 92), is only one of the many slight vari- 
ations which can be readily traced to the typical form. This 
species occasionally develops a varix on the outer lip, and speci- 
mens are before me in which a former varix is persistent. 

B. TAHETTENSIS, Gmelin. PL 6, fig. 93. 

Spirally ridged, ridges finely granose, two or three ridges next 
the suture more distant than the rest; yellowish, maculate with 
orange-brown, interior of aperture brown stained. 

Length, 1/75 inches. 

TaJieiti. 

A very rare species, and the only one having its pattern of 
sculpture. The figure in Chemnitz is evidently poorly drawn, 
and there can be no doubt that the British Museum specimen, 
figured by Reeve, is a better representation of the species, as it 
more nearly approaches a specimen now before me. 






1 AD1NUS. 

B. BELANGERI, Kiener. PI. 6, figs. 94, 95. 

Whorls smooth, polished, with distant revolving grooves which 
are most apparent at the suture, and base of the body whorl ; 
yellowish, with waved longitudinal faint chestnut lines. 

Length, '9-1 '4 inches. 

Aracan. Ceylon. 

P>. polita, Desh. (fig. 95), is this species, figured from a laded 
specimen. 

B. DILUTA, Krauss. PL 6, figs. 96, 97. 

Whorls with revolving stria 1 ; whitish, lower part of body 
whorl longitudinally flamed with chestnut-brown ; columella 

truncate at base. Length, 1 inch. 

Natal, So. Africa. 

Painted like B. semifiammea, Reeve, but immediately disting- 
uished from that species by its narrow Tere&ra-like form and 
truncate columella. This last character suggests the succeeding 
species which, however, is peculiar in having a thickened lip, 
minutely dentate within. It is possible that they are identical, 
and that B. dilata has a thin, unarmed lip because the specimens 
are not adult. Yon Martens has described a var. mediol&vix 
(fig. 97), in which the revolving grooves do not occur on the 
middle of the body whorl a character of no importance. 

Submenus Adinus, II. a id A. Adam?. 

B. TRUNCATA, Reeve. PI. 6, fig. 98. 

Yellowish white; whorls striated above and at base. 

Length, 1*25-1*5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The characters of this species are those of the subgenus. It 
is probably So. African. See remarks under preceding species. 

Unidentified and Doubtful Species. 

B. ELONGATULA, Anton. Habitat unknown. 

B. ICTERICA, Solander. H. and A. Adams' Genera. 

B. OSSEUM, Menke. The type specimen is lost. 
B. VELATA, Gould This is undoubtedly a Nassa gaudiosa. 
B. TAMSIANA, Dunker. Guinea, W. Africa. 

B. CUMINGIANA, Duiikei Habitat unknown. 

B. ELEGANS, Dunker. Habitat unknown. 

B. LYMNEANA, A. Ad. = Volutliarpa. 



NASSA. 17 

NASSA., I, MIII. 

II. and A. Adams in their kk Genera of Uo"ent Mollusca" have 
enumerated 210 species of Xassa; Reeve's Monograph in the 
"Conchologia Iconica" conttiins 182 accepted species and 13 
synonyms, = 195 names in all. The present monograph includes 
;")!).") specific names, of which 131 only are accepted as i>oo<l 
species, :>(J4 are relegated to the synonymy of these, and 100 arc 
undetermined for want of illustrations or specimens. The dis- 
tribution of the genus is world-wide, except that no specimens 
exist in the icy seas near the poles where they appear to be 
replaced by the Bnccinnms. They occur principally in the waters 
of tropical and subtropical latitudes. 

The fossil species are few in number, commencing with the 
Eocene formation. For some of the American fossils Mr. T. A. 
Conrad has proposed distinct generic names, but their separation 
from Xassa is scarcely advisable. 

The animal of Xassa has a broad head, and a foot qnadrately 
expanded in front, with the corners often pointed, whilst behind 
it bifurcates and is prolonged frequently into two subulate tails. 
The operculum is usually serrate on the margin but is sometimes 
plain. The Xassre are very active, and not at all shy when kept 
in confinement. They may be occasionally seen floating with 
the foot upwards. They are predaceous, feeding on other mol- 
Insks, the shells of which they bore. I have frequently seen the 
shells of the American species themselves bored, the hole being 
of such a size as to suggest cannibalism. Perhaps the avenger 
of their misdeeds is a beautiful and very active hermit crab 
which disports itself in the Nassa's shell, immense multitudes 
being seen at low tide in the water near the shore line. Whether 
begged, borrowed, stolen, or lawfully captured by the red right 
claw, it is certain that, at Atlantic Chy, Xew Jersey, the hermit 
inhabits a vast majority of the specimens of Nassa occurring to 
the collector. Although roost of the species are littoral, a few 
have been collected at considerable depths; the undescribed N. 
brychia, Watson, was dredged at (>20 fathoms by the " Challenger 
Expedition." Some of them have been observed to spring 
up and throw themselves over on being suddenly disturbed. 
Usually they glide along the surface of the mud, leaving a track 
indicating their line of inarch, at the end of which is a small 
3 



18 NASSA. 

round pellet; under this the creature conceals itself. The fry 
twist and twirl about by means of their ciliated lobes. N. 
imitabilis is an article of food in Italy. The generic name is 
that of a narrow-necked wicker basket used for catching fish, 
and in such a basket, lobster pots, etc., the Nassa itself is 
frequently caught, attracted thither by odors savory. 

Naxsa, reticulata is said to be very destructive in the oyster 
pares of Arcachon (S. of France). It is so numerous that a 
single tide has yielded 14,600 specimens within a space of 40 
French hectares (= about 100 acres). The adult Nassa will 
bore through the shell of an oyster three years old, within eight 
hours ; but the young shells are far more destructive because 
they select the tender shells of the very young oysters, some- 
times piercing fifteen or twenty in succession before their 
hunger is satisfied. An oyster a month old is destroyed in a 
half hour.* 

One of the best students of the genus JVas.sa is undoubtedly 
Mr. F. P. Marrat, of the Liverpool Museum, f Imbued with 
extreme development views he has, unfortunately, adopted the 
principle in his scientific work that, the variations of species 
being illimitable species in fact, as usually defined, being non- 
existant, the naturalist may apply a specific name for each 
modification of form, sculpture or coloration ; a principle the 
absurdity of which must be apparent when it is considered that, 
no two shells being exactly alike, it will admit of the description 
of every individual specimen as a " new form/' Mr. Marrat has, 
however, fully demonstrated the insufficiency of distinctions 
based on sculpture in a number of species of the genus ; a result 
most confusing to the systematic, and which leaves the validity 
of many forms described from single or few specimens very 
questionable. I am tempted to make some extracts from Mr. 
Marrat 's latest paper,J the subject of variation being sufficiently 
important in a general sense to justify me in devoting a few 
lines to its illustration in this particular genus. 



* Soubeiran, Bull. Soc. d'Acclimatation, 2 Ser., iii, 3, 1860. 

f "On the variation of sculpture exhibited in the shells of the genus 
Nassa." " On forty proposed new forms in the genus Nassa," etc. 

J " On the Varieties of the Shells belonging 1 to the genus Nassa." 



NASSA. 1 9 

" The study of varieties in the genus JVassa," says Mr. Marrat, 

" IIMS achieved one great object it has taught us the whole 
details of the plan on which the external ornamentation of shells 
has been elaborated. The whole of the variation, from the 
smooth shell to the most elaborately-sculptured examples, is 
plainly to be seen as effected through almost imperceptible 
gradations. 

. "Variation through the whole kingdom of Nature is the rule 
and not the exception. It is the prejudice exhibited by Scientists 
against so much that is clear and distinct, that creates the con- 
tusion. If studied as it exists, the whole group is manifestly 
developed, step by step, and we see the wisdom, power and 
'lie licence of the Maker. 

"The greater part of the works on Natural History are 
itten in the closets of the authors, who both theorise and 
py to a large extent; but, unfortunately, they copy errors as 

as tacts. 

" The study of variation has opened up a subject so vast in 
its dimensions that the mind almost shrinks from the task of 
estimating it. In every direction variation extends, in every 
way variation seems to ramify, until we gaze and wonder if 
there be any end. 

" Instead of 200 species, at least 3000 varieties are before me, 
and the end appears nearly as far on" as ever. Taking a careful 
survey of the shells under consideration, and noting more par- 
ticularly the common forms and the changes presented by them, 
we are enabled to form an estimate of the enormous number 
likely to be met with, if we persevere in our work of collecting 
varieties. 

." Species are and have been made by men in their ignorance. 
Had they known the alliances, it would have been impossible 
for them to have committed such mistakes as are to be found iu 
conchologieal books. Species have been and still are the 
ultimatum of scientists. It appears to me that they have an 
instinctive horror of the nameless. Lamarck described the 
A"a.s.sr/ tiiibxjt'uioxa from shells that were subspinous, not then 
knowing that there were cariuated, costatetl, muricated, and 
smooth varieties of it. At least six good (?) species have 
emerged from the varieties of Lamarck's shell : N. bjrata , 






20 NASSA. 

Marrat, is the lyrate form ; JV. tricarinata, Lam., is the carinated 
form; N. wulpta, Marrat, is another; JV. sistroides, Nevill, N. 
trinodosa, Smith, and N. corticata, A. Ad. Another variety 
occurs, showing a close affinity with the N. muricata, Quoy and 
Graim., and the shell figured in Reeve's Conchologia Iconica as 
the N. vibex, Say, is a spiny form. Some of the shells from 
Ceylon are very closely connected with varieties of the N. 
Gruneri, D linker, and others with smoother ribs to the JV. Jack- 
soniana, Quoy and Gaim. 

" We may name these shells and describe them as distinct, but 
they will not be so after we have finished; on the contrary, we 
may adopt another plan and name them varieties, but the same 
objection continues; the variety we have named as coming from 
any locality will be found to differ from the shells brought up 
from the same ground by the next haul of the dredge. It is a 
very disagreeable task to be compelled to state that the starting- 
point of the systematist, upon which the whole- fabric is built 
up, is wrong, and the whole of the deductions drawn from this 
source are erroneous; nevertheless I am compelled to utter that 
which I believe to be strictly and unquestionably true. I can- 
not expect that conchologists who are totally unacquainted with 
the materials upon which I have based my deductions, will 
coincide with my views. If they had obtained a knowledg- 
the whole of the figured or described species of Xassa, they 
could not by this plan follow the intricate passages revealed by 
the study of variation. It is not by an intimate knowledge of 
the described species that these facts are elicited, but it depends 
upon a knowledge of the innumerable intermediate forms which 
diverge from them in every direction as to how these deductions 
are to be drawn. 

" In a long series of forms, commencing with shells represent- 
ing the largest specimens in the genus, these can be traced with 
unerring certainty into others, forming the smallest examples 
known to exist; again, the broadest varieties can just as easily 
be connected with others that are the narrowest examples in the 
group; and every grade of difference throughout the long lines 
of progressive variation is distinctly seen. In the case of the 
shells having smooth forms, such as A". f/m.s, Linn., the varieties 
may not be all smooth specimens, but they may vary into costate 



lilt' 

dot 



NASSA. 21 

and even cancellated examples. Again, instead ot'tluMV being a. 
uniform thickness observable, one set will be almost transparent, 
or thin and hyaline, and another thick and quite opaque. The 
sculpturing is in many cases confined to the upper whorls, but 
we find shells in which the pattern is commenced on the top, 
gradually spreading in successive development until it covers 
the whole shell; in one case it may form smooth un sculptured 
ribs, or in another it may diverge into any of the forms of 
sculpture we meet with in other groups of shells. The tip of 
the spire may be of the same color as the remaining portion of the 
shell, or it may vary into almost every shade of pink, rufous, 
rown, purple, or almost black. 

" From these observations taken from the shells, and not 
intended to support or illustrate any theoiy, it is very easy to 
that instead of a fixedness in the characters used for the 
extermination of species, exactly the opposite appears to be the 
case; the specimens presenting such an amount of variation in 
every direction that it becomes absolutely impossible to ailix 
any set of characters to them that will lead to their future 
recognition. 

" The greater part of the shells figured and described as new 
species have for their recommendation to our notice a single 
specimen, and that often in bad condition. Men are so anxious 
to, have their names appended to something new that every other 
consideration is overlooked by them. They cannot wait until 
sufficient evidence is produced either to confirm their opinions 
or show them that the characters they had given were incorrect, 
but down it goes on to paper, and there it remains/' 

What a commentary on this and preceding paragraphs is the 
printing of numerous new names and descriptions, in the very 
pamphlet from which these brave extracts are made ! These 
new species, alas ! are Hot even figured, no dimensions are given, 
and in many cases no locality. The descriptions are prefaced 
by the remark u What are the shells described in the following 
pages? My answer is, I do not know. The amount of knowl- 
edge is confined to the single specimens (!) in most instances 
and to three or four at most in any case. At present these 
shells appear to me to be distinct, simply l>ecause of my igno- 
rance of all their alliances, but that this should be the real 






22 



NA8SA. 



state of the case is exceedingly improbable if not absolutely 
impossible." 

Mr. Marrat's dilemma is that, whilst disbelieving in species, 
he cannot pursue his work without naming and describing specie*. 
It would be impossible to give a full descriptive portraiture of 
an object every time it is referred to, in order that the writer's 
conception of it and that of the reader shall agree ; therefore we 
adopt a conventional system the binomial nomenclature to recall 
certain characters by the use of two names. I think, however, 
that it is a logical deduction from the views expressed by Mr. 
Marrat that his species should not possess such salient characters 
as those proposed by authors who believe more or less in the 
doctrine of the persistence of form: if the latter species do not 
present very strong claims for recognition, the former may be 
supposed to present no claims whatever, unless we agree that 
each individual specimen in the genus shall receive a distinct 
specific name. If there be only one species in the genus Naxxa, 
as opined by Mr. Marrat, science still requires names for those 
groups which normally present recognizable distinctive Huir- 
arcters; without a nomenclature and a system, however arbitrary 
and unnatural, the publication of the results of scientific research 
would be impossible. The doctrine of unalterable uniformity in 
specific characters is overthrown, but a wise conservatism will, 
let us hope, cause conchologists to refrain from naming and 
describing every individual specimen: at least, gentlemen, do 
not overwhelm our ancient and tottering barriers with your 
logical deluge, until we, who have so carefully erected and 
guarded them, shall have retired from conchological pursuits. 
Aprex nous le deluge, if you please ! 

Typical Species. 
X. MUTABILIS, Linn. PI. 7, figs. 1-3. 

Light brown, with somewhat undulated longitudinal darker 
markings, generally confluent into a darker interrupted band nl 
the sutures. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea, 4 to 10 fathoms ; W. Const of Africa ; 
Canary Isles, Fossil in the miocene of 8. Europe. 

Upon the embryology of this species see Bobretsky, in Archiv 
fiir Mikros. Anat., xiii, 97. 



\.ASS A. '2:\ 

A'. rj't'ilferi. Phil. (PI. 11, iig. U4), has been referred to this 
species as a variety by Marrat and others; I do not think, how- 
ever, that it can be placed in the same group at all, as all its 
affinities are with 



N. TENUIS, E. A. Smith. PL 7, figs. 4, 5. 

Yellowish white, mottled with yellowish brown, darker at the 

suture. Length, 20 mill. 

Jti.pun ; China. 

This species was described by Lischke as A 7 . Japonira, after- 
wards changed to N. balleata, on account of the previous use of 
the first name by Mr. A. Adams. N. balteata being preoccupied 
by Pease. Mr. E. A. Smith has referred the species to his N. 
t( j nuin, which was originally described without reference to these 
relationships. Mr. Smith also refers the N. Japontca, Adams, 
here, doubtfully, the type having disappeared from the Cuming- 
ian collection. I fear I must add to this confusion by doubting 
the identity of Mr. Smith's species with bafteata, Lischke, 
although it appears to correspond well with Adams' description 
of ,Ta.}>(t)rira. 

,N. xufllata, Gould (not figured), appears from the description 
to be identical. 

The species is very closely allied to N. mnff/l>i.lix, L. 

X. L^EVIGATA, Marrat. PI. 7, fig. (5. 

Yellowish white, with darker strigations, which tend to mass 
into revolving bands in some specimens. The suture is some- 

times noduled. Length, - 75 inch. 

China. 

The spire is more elevated, the shell more solid than the last 
species; the coloration and polished surface allies it to the 
mufabilia group. 

X. CORONATA, Brug. PL 7, figs 7, 8. 

White, olive or chestnut; with usually a white median zone 
on the dark varieties or a darker zone on the light colored 
specimens. Length, 1-1-2 inches. 

Madagascar, J<ir<i, Philippines, cfr. 

t.\. ttroiini,, Phil. (fig. 8), is not distinct. 



24 ARCULARIA. 

N. ARCULARIA, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 9, 10. 

Light colored with dark zone, or dark with a light zone ; shoulder 
noduled, with usually a rib-like fold arising from each nodule. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Philippines, Viti Ixles. 

N. laticostata , Marrat (not figured), is probably this species, 
not adult. 

N. SULCIFERA, A. Ad. PL 7, fig. 11. 

Ash-color, banded with white, longitudinally subplicated, 

transversely ridged. Length, 1*25 inches. 

Algoa Bay. 

Probably only a variety of N. arcularia: the single specimen 
known is abnormal in its appearance, and it is therefore not easy 
to assign to it a definite place in the synonymy. 

N. PULL A, Linn. PL 1, figs. 12-14. 

The plications are much closer and more numerous than in 
N. arcularia ; an incised revolving line separates the shoulder 
extremity of these ribs, forming a row of nodules ; additional 
incised lines cross the entire surface, but are most conspicuous 
on the spire, and lower portion of the body whorl. 

Length, 1-1 '35 inches. 

Red fiea, Java, Philippines. 

N Rumjjkii, Hombr. and Jacq. (fig. 13), is synonymous. That 
N. pulla is itself identical with N. arcularia, is demonstrable from 
the series of specimens before me. 

In N. plicata, Bolt., the longitudinal ribs are less and the 
revolving lines more prominent ; another similar variation of 
sculpture has received the name N. Deshayesii, Homb. and 
Jacq. (fig. 14). 

Subge-m* Arcularia, Link. 
N. QIBBOSULA, Linn. PL 7, figs. 15-1*7. 

Light yellowish or ash-color, banded, flecked, or blotched 
with white or darker shades ; edge of callus frequently defined 
on both sides of the back by an orange-colored line ; callus 
whitish ; within the aperture yellowish. Length, '75 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea. 



ARCULARIA. 25 

A r . circumcincta, A. Ad. (tig. 17), is founded on specimens 
showing the onmge-bordered callus. It was erroneously reported 
from the lied Sea, but has been found at Alexandria and on the 
Syrian Const. 

X. KRAUSSIANA, Dunker. PI. '7, figs. 18, 19. 

Yellowish brown, indistinctly dark banded ; callus yellowish 
or orange. Length, '4-'5 inch. 

South. Africa. 
N. orbiculata, A. Ad. (fig. 19), is identical. 

X. THKRSITKS. Brug. PL 7, figs. 20-23. 

Ash, yellowish or brown, sometimes mottled, with usually a 
light central band. Ribs usually obsolete on the mouth side of 
dorsal hump. Length, -6--85 inch. 

Indian Ocean, Hong Kong, Manilla, Australia. 

N. bimaculoxa, A. Ad. (fig. 22), represents a stumpy specimen 
of this species. It was described as from the Philippine Islands, 
and Mr. E. A. Smith reports it from Andaman Islands, " sand- 
banks, at k)w tide; very active animal." N. dorstuma, A. Ad. 
(fig. 23), from Philippines, is evidently a monstrosity ; besides, 
the shell looks as if it had been roasted : it is probably a 
synonym. 

X. LEPTospiRA, A. Ad. PI. 7, figs. 24-28. 

Yellowish ash-color, longitudinally rather closely plicated ; 
callus yellowish, wide spread. Length, '75 inch. 

llo Ilo, Isle of Panay, Philippine* (on mud banks, at low 

water, Turning); Japan; Ascension InL (Pease*. 

This may be considered on the one hand as a less-developed 
form of N, The,rsit?.$,im the other as connected with N.foveolata, 
N. /lYvwo/x, etc., in which the sculpture and general appearance 
are similar, but the callus is not spreading. I unite with it N. 
graci'liti, Pease (tig. 25), N. btlliila, A. Ad. (tig. 26), N. labida, 
Reeve (fig. 27 ), and X. /Vr.sav/ . Martens (fig. 28). N. Deshayvsiana, 
Issel, has been considered the equivalent of N. Perxica, von 
Martens, by several excellent conchologists : very probably it is 
so, but it is tuberculate, shouldered, without spreading cnllus, 
and typically is no. closer to A r . Perxica than are most of the 
nodulous species. 
4 



2f) ARfULARlA. 

M. JONAST, D linker. PI. 8, figs. 29-32. 

Whitish, yellowish or ash-color, usually chestnut at the suture 
and base, with sometimes a central chestnut band. Spire and 
upper portion of body whorl ribbed, sometimes cut into nodules 

below the suture. Length, '4-'6 inch. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

N. Burchardi, Dimker (fig. 30), is in every respect typical. 
N. labecula, A. Ad. (fig. 31), and N. nan a, A. Ad. (fig. 32), are 
evidently the same species. 

N. CALLOSA, A. Ad. PL 8> figs. 33, 4. 

Very broadly gibbous when adult, with wide-spreading, thick 
margined callus'; ribs small, distant, sometimes cancellated and 
nodulous ; white, three banded with chestnut or suffused with 
with olive. Length, -4--5 inch. 

P?iil : ppines, in sandy mud at seven fathoms ; Indian Ocean. 

This may be only a variety of the preceding species, from 
which it is distinguished principally by form and sculpture. N. 
faUoxpira, A. Ad. (fig. 34 , is synonymous. 

N. CANCELLATA, A. Ad. PI. 8, fig. 35. 

Light brown, maculated with darker brown. Length, '6 inch. 

Philippine*, 
The type is said to be rather thin and semitransparent. 

N. MANGELIOIDES, Reeve. PL 8, fig. 36. 

Solid, dark ash-color; whorls tuberculated at the upper part, 
tubercles here and there prolonged into ribs, interstices cancel- 
lated. Length, *5 inch. 

.Port Jack*on< Auttralw (Angns . 

May be only a more solid growth of A r . ranrallato. 

X. ULOBOSA, Quoy. PL 8, figs. 3T, 38. 

Longitudinally finely plicated, crossed by revolving stria 1 : 
yellowish white, tinged or nearly covered with chocolate, with 
frequently a white central band. Length, '5-*65 inch. 

New Ireland, Viti Isles. 

N. clathrata, Kiener (fig. 38-, is the same. 

X. GRANIFERA, Kiener. PL 8, figs. 39-41. 

White or yellowish, tuberculate. Length, -G--9 inch. 

Philippines to Central Polynesia ; Isle of Bourbon. 



NAYTIA, ALECTKION. 27 



Mr. Marrat considers his .V. nodiilonfi. probably a deep-water 
form of A', granifera: it is not figured. N. ohlit/na. Ilombr. 
and Jacq. (fig. 40), N. obliqua, Pease (unfigured),and N. 
Desh. (tig. 41) are synonyms. 



us Naytia 11. and A. Adams. 
N. GLABUATA, 8owl>. PI. 8. figs. 42. 4. % >. 

Light fawn-color, highly polished, with sometimes, traces of 

ribs ut the sutures. Leiiirtli, 'S-MJ inch. 

IF. CoaM of Afrifi. 

Described doubtfully as a Strombit*. N. oUiqna, Kiener (iig. 
), is ji synonym. 

(JRANA, Lam. PL 8. fig. 44. 
Yellowish white, brown spotted at the sutures, mul with inter- 

rupted revolving brown lines. Length, *4 inch. 

Mediterro uean ^c-<i . 

li^iMiu^ Alectrion, Monrf. 
N. (jLA\s, Linn. PI. 8. figs. 45-49, 52-54. 

Yellowish white, clouded with yellowish brown, encircled with 
equidistant, narrow, chestnut-colored lines. 

Length, l'5-2 inches. 

Japan, Philippines, Australia. 

This is the largest species in the genus : it cither varies much, 
however, in size and proportion, or else the following forms 
should be considered distinct. As they all .possess the revolv- 
ing dark-colored lines, I prefer to consider them as simple dwarf 
varieties. 

Var. LATA. Tryon. Fig. 4C>. 

Broadly ovate, approaching A r . mutabilix, L. in form. 

Length, '2'2 mill. 

Three specimens, without locality, in the Museum of the 
Philadelphia Academy. 

Var. ELKGAXS. Kiener. Figs. 47- Hi. 

AVhorls inconspicuously shouldered beneath the sutures. 
Besides the revolving brown lines the surface is clouded or 
striped longitudinally, and revolving series of quadrangular 
spots frequently occur upon the shoulder and middle of the 

-horl. Length, 22-27 mill. 

tio. 



28 ALECTRION. 

A smaller, more gracefully formed shell than the type, and 
typically sufficiently distinct, but varies much. Kiener's figure 
is a poor one (fig. 47), and that which Reeve has given, as well 
as his description, refers to a N. taenia, Gmel. The following 
are synonyms: N. rufula, Reeve (tig. 48), and N. npirata, A. 
Ad. (fig. 49). 

Var. SUTURALIS, Lain. Figs. 52-54. 

Shoulder coronated by a row of tubercles. 

Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Philippines, Australia, New Caledonia. 

Fig. 54 represents the typical form, whilst iig. 53 shows a. 
variety with the tubercles almost obsolete, passing into v:ir. 
elegant . N. intermedia, Dunker (fig. 52) is an equivalent form, 
and N. bucculenta, Marrat, an unfigured species, may also be 
placed here. 

N. HIRTA, Kiener. PI. 8, figs. 50. 51, 55-59. 

Light yellowish or orange-brown, with usually a pale central 

band. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Australia, Polynesia, Indian Ocean . 
The undoubted synonyms of this species are N. VitiensiK, 
Hombr. et Jaeq. (tig. 57), N. titoliczkana, Nevill (tig. 58), N. 
costata, A. Ad. (fig. 50) and N. crenulata, Reeve, not Brug. (fig. 
56). N. crenulata, Brug. is not to be identified positively, but 
looks more like N.-arcidaria than the present species. N. hirta 
probably runs into the next species, N. moni/e. N. riodifera, 
Powis (fig. 55), is not a satisfactorily determined form ; if the 
figure which I copy from Reeve is correct, it appears to be a 
very broad, short, large specimen of N. hirta, connecting with 
N. pulla, Linn. The localities of N. nodifera, " Panama and 
Galapagos," are almost certainly incorrect. N. bifaria, Baird 
(fig. 59) is, I think, a stumpy variety. 

N. MONILE, Kiener. PL 9, figs. 60-68. 

Yellowish or ash color, with a rather broad darker central 
band, and sometimes narrower ones above and below it. Surface 
beautifully polished, ribs more fiexuous than in .V. hirta; a 
double row of nodules below the suture, caused by an impressed 
line on the sloping shoulder. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Australia,, Central Polynesia. 



ALECTIUON. 29 

This species is, typic:illy, readily distinguished 1'rom i\ r . hirta, 
but appears to approach the latter through varieties. The 
oldest name given to it is possibly N. hepah'cn, Mont., wh 
nred a similar species in error as British, but it is well known as 
monile, and no useful purpose will be subserved iii'Nchangm"; its 
name. N. lachrywu&a, Reeve (rig-. 62) and X. ptnipcrafa^ (J,uoy 
= N. bullata, Marr. (tig. 61), are synonyms, and N. Jarkso nianti, 
Quoy (figs. 63, 64) is a dwarf race, from Australia a, well- 
marked variety. N. mucronata, A. Ad. (fig. 67), is a variety in 
which the ribs are partially separated into granules, ami X. dix- 
torta, A. Ad. (fig. 68), is a monstrosity, apparently of this 
species. N. corticafa, A. Ad. (fig. 66), appears to var. Jar/,- 
soniana, as docs also* X. acufico$tata : Montr, (fig. 65), and A'. 
Taxman ira.. Woods (nnfigured). 

X. OBESA, G. and II. Nevill. 

Shell thick, shining; brown indistinctly and minutely mottle<l 
with white, irregularly stained near the suture wit.li a, darker 
shade of brown; two rows of more or less granulose ridges 
immediately beneath the suture, columella with a moderately 
large, white callosity, slightly rugose, aperture ridged near its 

margin. Length, 22 mill. 

'ch. 
Yar. CEYLONICA, G. and II. Xevill. 

More acuminate, less globose, suture more distinct; longi- 
tudinal ribs on the antepenultimate whorl more or less obsolete. 

Length, 19 mill. 

Ceylon and Pcnany. 

Has the coloration but not the fragility of N. iimhilrilix, di tier- 
ing also in being sculptured. Thickness, sculpture, and particu- 
larly the double row of granules beneath the suture indicate 
intimate relationship with N. monile. 

X. scALAKis, A. Ad. PI. II, figs. 69, 70. 

Pale yellowish, obscurely banded with reddish brown. 
Length, 1-3 inches. 

Isle of Corrigidor, Philippines, in coarse sand at seven 

fathoms. Ou m i n< . 

Appears to partake of the characters of A", monile and N. 
papillosa. N. crenidata, Kiener, not Brug. (fig. 70), and N. cren- 
ellifera, A. Ad. (fig. 75), seem to be the same species. 






30 



ZEUX1S. 



N. SIQUUORENSIS, A. Ad. PL 9, figs. 72, 73. 
Yellowish white, three banded with chestnut. 
Length, '7-1 inch. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Central Polynesia. 

A narrower form than any .of the preceding, and connecting 
undoubtedly with N. scalaris, A. Ad. Except the one below 
the coronal of tubercles around the suture, the revolving lines 
are only apparent towards the base of the shell. N. caelata, A. 
Ad. (fig. 73) appears to be the same. 

X. PAPJLL0.8A, Linn. PL 9, figs. 74, 71. 

Whitish, more or less blotched with yellowish brown, spire 
usually pink tipped. Length, l-25-2'25 inches. 

Philippine Islands, Central Polynesia. 

N seminodoxa, A. Ad. (fig. 71), may connect this form with 
the last, and through it, with N. monile. 

Suhgenus Zeuxis, H. and A. Ad. 

With this group is united Telasco^ H. and A. Adams, the 
characters by which those authors distinguish them being, in 
some cases at least, dependent upon the age of the specimens ; 
juvenile forms belonging to Telasco, adult to Zeuxis. To be 
sure, none of the subgeneric groups have sufficient claims to 
distinctness, but in this case I am utterly unable to distinguish 
them. Messrs. Adams give as characters of Telasco, " inner lip 
spreading, outer lip simple, acute ; " but many well-grown 
species have the inner lip with well-defined margin to the callus, 
and all of them, when adult, have a thickened or externally 
variced outer lip, dentate within. Zeuxis is said to be " covered 
with an epidermis," but in most of the species referred to it, 
there is certainly no epidermis. For N. elegant, Reeve, Messrs. 
Adams make a subgentis Zaphon, but as I consider that shell u 
synonym of N. tsenia, GmeL, the t3^pe of Zeiur.is, of course 
Zaphon becomes a synonym. 

N. T^)NIA, GmeL PL 9, figs. 76-82. 

Chocolate or chestnut brown, with usually a central, narrow, 
light band ; spire whorls ribbed, bod}^ whorl vary ing from 
.smooth to plicate-ribbed. Length, 1*25 1*15 inches. 

Ceylon, Singapore, Australia, Polynesia. 



ZEUXIS. 31 

The habitat " West Indies/' given by Reeve, is erroneous. MS 
is also that of " Chili,'' in Kiener. A goodly number of species 
may be referred to this form with some confidence: They arc 
N. plicata. Pease (preoccupied) = = N. appro.rimatd, Pse.. A 7 . 
ftixca, Hombr. et Jacq. (tig-. 78), N. mitral i.x, A. Ad. (fin-. 79), N. 
badia. A. Ad. (fig. 81), N. ciiinomomen, A. Ad. (tig;. 80). In 
N. elegans, Reeve, not Kiener (fig. 82). the style of painting 
varies considerably from the type, but I have before me a 
similarly painted specimen, which is undoubtedly a N. hrnia. 

X. CANALTCULATA, Lam. PI. 9, tigs. 83-86. 

Ash-olive, sometimes faintly two banded with chestnut ; 
sutures channeled and frequently crenulate ; upper whorls 
closely ribbed, ribs sometimes apparent on the back of the body 

whorl. Length, 1*1-1*5 inches. 

Philippine Island*, Polynesia. 

N. Iwriti (Chemn.), H. and A. Adams (fig. 86) is a synonym. 

X. STOLIDA, A. Adams. PI. 10, fig. 87. 

Bluish-ash, sparingly blotched or banded with yellow and 

brown. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Hubitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen, which is evidently of ab- 
normal growth. 

X. UNiroLORATA, Kiener. PI. 10. figs. 88, 89, 90. 

Livid ash-color, sometimes stained or banded with brown ; 
aperture chocolate-colored within. Length, 1-1*3 inches. 

Moluccas, Australia, Neio Zealand. 

A Bullia-\\\t species, normally very distinct, yet undoubtedly 
closely connected by transition forms with N. canalicidata and 
N. taenia. N. unicolor, Hombr. and Jacq., is identical; the 
figure which I give (fig. 89) probably represents a similar shell 
to that which Gmelin called N. trifasciata. N. rutilaitx, Keeve 
(fig. 90), and probably N> </Iat/ra< Dunker, an nnfigured species, 
belong here. 

X. VAHiriFEiiA, A. Adams. PI. 10, fig. 1)1. 

Whitish, with two brown bands ; whorls crossed occasionally 

by a varix. Length, 1 inch. 

'Japan. 



2 ZEUXIS. 

Has the appearance of an Epidroniun (Tritonidse), but wants 
the produced canal of that group. The production of true 
varices is certainly not a characteristic of the genus Naxm, yet 
the species has been collected often enough to show that it is 
not an abnormal condition: it is strange that Messrs. Adams 
did not make a new genus for it. 

N. CUVIERI, Payr. PI. 10, figs. 92-97. 

Yellowish white, usually mottled with chestnut, with a darker 
line beneath the suture, and frequently, a chestnut central band. 
Length, *4-'75 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic Coast of Spain, Portugal; 

Madeira ; ( 'anary Isles. 

This pretty little species is the victim of an immense syn- 
onymy, and of much uncertainty as to nomenclature. It is 
frequently referred to as N. variabilis, Phil., and as.jV. Feruxaaci, 
Payr. ; less frequently as N. nnifasciata, Lam., N. nitidula, 
Linn., N. coatulata, Ren., and a dozen other names. As regards 
the Linnean name, the specimen bearing it in the Linnean col- 
lection has been identified with this species, but the only figure 
cited in the description is that of a Cohcmbella. The descrip- 
tion itself will suit almost anything. N. Maderensia, Reeve 
(fig. 97), differs only in the numerous revolving, interrupted, 
chestnut lines, which, faintly seen in many Mediterranean speci- 
mens, here become more prominent. 

N. SEMIPLICATA, A. Ad. PL 10, fig. 98. 

Yellowish, encircled by two chocolate bands. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Chusftn. 
N. TERETIUSCULA, A. Ad., PL 10, fig. 99. 

Yellowish or ash-olive, with a narrow red revolving line. 

Length, '6 inch. 

Eastern Seas. 

The locality is very indefinite, and the figure, notwithstanding 
the red line, is very suggestive of N. exilis. 

N. EXILIS, Powis. PL 10, figs. 100-102. 

Ash-olive, with a central white band. Length, '4-* 7 inch. 

Panama, Viti Isles, Solomon Is., Peru. 



ZEUXIS. 38 

The synonyms are N. Panamensis, C. B. Ad., N. Fontainei, 
d'Orb. (tig. 102). and N. moexta, Hinds (fig. 101). I give the 
locality Viti Islands on the authority of Mr. A. Garrett, and 
Solomon Is. on that of Mr. John Brazier, who personally col- 
lected it at those pla< 

A". Fontaine i. d'Orb. (fig. 102), from the Coast of Peru, is 
larger than the Panama specimens of exilis, yet immature ; of 
its identity there can be no doubt ; form, sculpture and colora- 
tion being the same. 

X. COMPLAXATA, Powis. PI. 10, figs. 105-107. 

Olive or ash. with M yellow band above the periphery. Ob- 
liquely granosely ribbed, ribs and granules frequently obsolete 
on middle and lower portions of the body whorl. Aperture 
dark within, but showing the light band. Length. '5 inch. 

W. Columbia, Panama. 

Proportionally wider than N. e.?://i>, but with the same colora- 
tion, its form being intermediate between that species and N. 
te<i>ila, Reeve. N. sccibriuscula, C. B. Ad., and N. Wilsoni, C. 
B. Ad. (fig. 106), are synonym^. Possibly N. gemma, Phil. (fig. 
107), may also belong here, as suggested by Mr. Mnrrat. 

X. CAI-KNSK. Dunker. PL 10, figs. 108-110. 

Yellowish or white, with a brown band. Length. 't)5 inch. 

Soiilh Africa. 
X. /mlchella. A. Ad. (fig. 110), is a variety. 

X. <<ASTA, Gould. PL 10, fig. 103. 

Whitish, with a subsutural and a central brown band. 

Length, *4 inch. 

Pacific Islands. 

Evidently immature, and the figure, rather inaccurate. It is a 
doubtful species, and is only inserted here because Gould 
remarks upon its resemblance i> A", ('nn'rri. 

X. IsAKELLEt. d'Orb. PL 10, fig. 104. 

White, ribs, evanescent on the body whorl. Animal white, 
active in its movements. Length, 5 mill. 

Rocks ; San Bias, Patagonia. 
Probably not a Nasaa. 






34 ZEUXIS. 

N. FOYEOLATA, Dunkor. PI. 10, fig. 111. 

Ash-colored; longitudinally finely ribbed, interstices cancel- 
lated. Length, '7 inch. 

Hal. unknown. 

The figure is rather wider than the usual form of 'N. leptovpira, 
and shows' a narrow, defined columella-callus ; nevertheless, I 
strongly suspect that this is only an immature form of that 
species. 

N. PLANICOSTATA, A. Adams. PL 10. iig. 112. 

Ash-colored, closely and finely flat-ribbed, ribs sometimes 
obsolete on the body whorl. Length, 20 mill. 

Payta, Peru; under stones at low water. Gaming. 

N. SPARTA, Marratt. PL 10, fig. 113.. 

Light ash-color, fasciate witli fulvous, purplish within. 

Length, *5 inch. 

W. Coast- of So. America. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

N. GAUDIOSA, Hinds. PL 10, figs. 114-120; PL 11, figs. 121-124. 
126-132. 

Spire usually acuminate, ribbed, sutures crenulate or smooth, 
body whorl generally smooth. Whitish, yellow, rufous, choco- 
late, with frequently distant, narrow red revolving lines and 
irregular broad bands ; maculate or closely punctate with 
darker markings ; sometimes unicolored. The form varies from 
elongated to broad ovate, frequently constricted at the upper 
part of each whorl. Length, *75-l inch. 

Straits of Malacca, Philippines, Polynesia/, Sandwich Islands, 

Guinea Coast, W. Africa. 

A solid, smooth, usually gaudily painted species, varying very 
much in form and coloration. A large number of these variations 
have received ~ specific names, but I do not find in any of them 
really distinctive characters. N. sertula, A. Ad. (fig. 116), and 
N. semisulcata, Dunker (fig. 117), have the typical coloration, 
and the latter possesses the distant red revolving lines, which 
so frequently form the groundwork of the ornamentation. In 
N. zonalis, A. Ad. (fig. 118), the three brown bands which are 
obscurely marked in N. sertula, become well colored. Another 



ggtncre. 



modification of tin? handed form is .V. xnri'int'tci, A. Ad. (tic;. 
110). N. MorraHi. K. A. Smith (fig. 120), is n small form in which 
the sutures are maculate; the colored. revolving lines -a re present 
in the specimens before me, but in the darker colored ones are 
much obscured by the* coloration. In N. punctaln. A. Ad. (fig. 
121), the sutural painting is retained, but the shell is so clouded 
with dark chocolate-color as to obscure the other markings. N. 
f-ontpta, A. Ad. (fig-. 122), is similar, whilst the inkiest specimens 
have been called 2V. rrh.ta. Gould (figs. 123, 125), and N. li/<-fn- 
O.SY/, A. Ad. (fig. 126). X. lenticiinosa, A. Ad. (fig. 127), has been 
proposed for shells allied to punctata, dark in color, with sutural 
crenulation> and red revolving lines. N. ii<uxh>lina, Gould, and 
.V. ferruginea, Mai-rat. both mifigured, are also probably syn- 
onyms. A light colored or nearly white variety, with the 
revolving brown lines and brown maculations, has been called by 
Gould N. Uhiriini (fig. 128). and by D nnker X. i.-ofurnu- (tig. 
129). To these may be added also X. wnai-nt-d, Marrat (tig. 
130). from Whydah. Coast of Guinea, W. Africa; and X. pal- 
litlttiu. A. Ad. (fig. 131), a faded specimen from Malacca, and 
which equals X. -nit'-ann. A. Ad. (tig. 132), a similarly faded 
specimen from the Philippines. A', /lui-a,. Marrat, habitat un- 
known. and X. polita. Marrat. from Mauritius, both uniigured, 
are, judging from the descriptions, at least very closely related 
to A'. 'j(indivi$u. X. flandi'itlina, A. Ad., an uniigured Japanese 
species, may also be placed here until a figure may perhaps fur- 
nish the distinctive characters which cannot be found in the 
description. 

X. IMCTA, Dunker. PI. 11, figs. 133-142. 

Shell broadly ovate, very smooth and polished ; spire short. 
conic, first finely, then distantly, undulately plicate; ; body whorl 
narrowly round-shouldered above, sometimes obsoletely tuber-- 
dilate on the shoulder, incisely striate near the base. Color 
everywhere minutely flecked with brown or ash and white, with 
sometimes narrow brown revolving lines. Length. -(>-'8 inch. 

Philippines, Mauritius, Australia, Central Polynesia, 

Cape Verd Is. 

It is with considerable hesitation that I allow this to stand as 
a distinct species from the preceding, with which it has much in 






common. It has man}' synonyms: N. filutui, GrMy (fig. 134), 
N. graphiterdi Beck (fig. 135), N. Reeveana, Dunker (fig. 13rt), 
.V. dispar,.A. Ad. (fig. 137s & lurida, Gould (fig. 138V X. 
musiva, Gould (fig. 139), as well as probably the the following 
unfigured species, N. Kienvri, Anton, N: obliquata, A. Ad., X. 
plicatula, Dunker. 

The three following species appear to me to be mere varieties 
of N. picta, perhaps connecting it with N. gaudiosa: 
Yar. MARMOREA, A. Ad. Fig. 140. 

Whitish, marbled with yellowish brown, the maculations some- 
times disposed in two or three bands. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, sandy mud, at 25 fathoms. Cumiiig. 
Var. ALGIDA, Reeve. Fig. 141. 

Livid olive, blotched with white, and painted longitudinally 

with waved brown streaks. Length, 1 inch. 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 
Var. BICALLOSA, E. A. Smith. Fig. 1 42. 

Whitish, livid at the sutures. Length, 1 inch. 

West Australia, Swan River, Cape Natal. 

The double tubercular callus at the base of the columella is 
not unfrequently developed in very hc*ivy specimens of other 
species, and is an individual rather than specific character. 
N. CONSPERSA, Phil. PI. 11, figs. 143, 144. 

Shell very small, smooth, thick ; yellowish or white, maculate 
with chocqlate, forming on the body whorl two irregular bands. 

Length, -4--5 inch. 

Canary Islands. 

Does not differ essentially from N. picta, except by its much 
smaller size and heavier structure : it may well be a dwarf form 
of that species. N. Pfeifferi, Phil. (fig. 144), is synonymous. 
Several authors have recognized this shell as N. glaberrima, 
Gmel., but the description is indefinite, and the figures referred 
to are unrecognizable. 
N. HALDEMANI, Dunker. PI. 11, figs. 145, 146. 

Whitish, marbled with yellowish brown or chestnut zebra-like 
markings, smooth and polished, initial whorls longitudinally 
plicate, base of body whorl with revolving impressed lines. 

Length, -5 inch. 

East Indies. 



ZKl'XIS. 37 

Besides the typical figure, I give a drawing of one of four 
specimens in the Museum of the Philadelphia Academy, which 
I identify with this species (fig. 146). 






X. iNSKiNis, H. Adams. PI. 11, fig. 147. 

Smooth, yellowish brown, with three revolving bands of chest- 

nut maculations. Length, 11 mill. 

River Feiho, China. 

Said to have been found in company w r ith Velorita, and there- 
fore possibly a brackish-water species. Mr. Adams has proposed 
for this shell the generic name Nassodonta, and refers it to the 
family Buccinida?. The generic character is the development 
of a tubercle within the thickened margin of the lip, and rather 
above the periphery a position in which, according to experi- 
ence, such a feature ought to be regarded as abnormal. It is 
just possible that this shell is a Melanian. 



N. CORXICULUM, Olivi. PI. 11, tigs. 148-150; pi. 12, figs. 

151-153. 

Upper whorls finel}' plicate or smooth, three last whorls 
smooth, impressed revolving lines on base, or sometimes entire 
surface of body whorl. A very thin horny epidermis covers 
fresh specimens. Yellowish or reddish brown, with usually, a 
pale central band ; sometimes maculated with white and brown 
at, the sutures, sometimes finely maculated over the entire sur- 
face, with red-brown, sometimes trifasciate. or the bands broken 
up into maculations. Salmon-colored within the aperture. 
Length. -5-' 7 5 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Coasts of Southern Europe, 

and Northern Africa. 

A protean species, which, together with N. conspersa, Messrs. 
Adams have referred to Amycla in Columbellidae : the shell, 
animal and dentition, are decidedly Xassoid, however. N. semi- 
striata, Broccfri (fig. 150), a fossil form, is considered distinct 
by some of the best European conchologists, and N. trifaxciata, 
A. Ad. (unfigured), is made one of its synonyms ; whilst N. 
Gallandiana, Fischer (fig. 152), is regarded as a variety of it. 
I am not able to separate these from cornict.di.im. X. Tinei, 
Marav. (fig. 153), is also doubtfully referred to cornicaluin: it 
is immature, possibly distorted in growth ; and perhaps badly 






88 ACICULTNA. 

figured. N. quercina, Marrat, published without figure, locality 
or dimensions, is stated by Marrat to be " nearly allied to that 
very variable shell N. corniculum, Olivi, and may be only a 
variety of it." 
N. INSCULPTA, Carpenter. PL 12, fig. 154. 

Shell with close revolving striae, upper whorls of spire slightly 
costate longitudinally ; light yellowish brown, interruptedly 

fasciate or marked with chestnut. Length, '75 inch. 

Catalina Island, Gal. -40 fathoms. 

I owe to the kindness of Mr. R. E. C. Stearns, the opportunity 
of illustrating this rare and hitherto urifigured species. 

Subgenus Aciculina, H. and A. Ad. 

The characters "outer lip produced % in, the middle, variced 
externally," do not hold good for all the species : in fact, Aden- 
Una differs from Zeuxis only in the species being longer in pro- 
portion to their width still^ it will be convenient to retain it. 

X. ANTHRACINA, GaiTett. PI. 12, fig. 155. 

Smooth, with fine revolving impressed lines. Black or black- 
ish brown, with a light brown line on the upper part of the body 

whorl ; aperture brown within. Length, 7 mill. 

Viti Isles. 
Only two specimens obtained, of which one (the type figured ) 

is in the Museum of the Philadelphia Academy. Somewhat 
resembles a Planaxis, but is a true Nassa. 
N. GLABRATA, A. Ad. PI. 12, figs. 156, 157. 

Smooth, pupiform', slightly costate at the apex, with fine 
revolving striae on the body whorl. Olive brown, sometimes 

banded with ash-color. Length, *5-'6 inch. 

Philippine** Aracan, Solomon lilandt 

I have unicolored specimens before me. and specimens h,-i\ v, 
been collected with from one to three bands. JV". Piipinoide**, 
Reeve (for N. striata, A. Ad., preoccupied), is a synonym (fig. 
157). 
N. MACULATA, A. Ad. PL 12. figs. 158, 159. 

Polished, with sometimes slight indications of rounded ribs 
and revolving basal striations. Whitish, longitudinally macu- 
lated with chestnut, frequently disposed in two revolving- series 

or interrupted bands, Length, .*5 inch. 

Philippines. 



: 



PHRONTIS. 39 

X. w'tlata. A. Ad. (fig. 159), is a synonym. 

X. S.EROTINA, A. Ad. PI. 12, fig. 160. 

Yellowish brown, shining, lighter at the sutures. 

Length, -5-'7 inch. 

Australia, Cape of Good Hope. 

X. LABIATA, A. Ad. PI. 12. figs. 161, 162. 

Yellowish brown or ash-color, obscurely light banded in the 

middle. Length, *7 inch. 

Malacca. 

X. Terebroides, Reeve (fig. 162), is a synonym, the flexuous 
sinus of the upper end of the lip figured in N. labiata, being 
othing but an individual variation. 

. ELATA, Gould. PL 11, fig. 125. 

Whorls eight, flattened, turrited, with a marginal line near the 
suture ; six upper ones with distant, acute folds ; penultimate 
and upper half of body whorl smooth ; lower part of the latter 
with half-a-dozen regular, deeply impressed, revolving striae. 

Length, '7 inch. 

Africa. 

I am not acquainted with the species. 

Submenus Phrontis, H. and A. Adams. 

X. IATKOSTOMA. Brod. and Sowb. PI. 12, figs. 163-165. 

Olive brown or ash-color, sometimes with a broad black or 
narrow white band; lip and expanded callus orange. 
Length, '0-1 *2 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

N. luleoxfoma, Kiener (fig. 163), is a synonym: its locality is 
erroneously given ' Senegal." X. xanthostoma, Gray (fig. 165), 
is also svnonvmous. 

X. TI:<;I J.A. Reeve. PL 12. figs. 166, 167. 

Ash-color, usually lighter below the sutures and on the 
nodules, with a light band just below the nodulous shoulder ; 
aperture dark within, but showing the whitish band ; lip and 
columella callus white. Length, -5--75 inch. 

Galapagos; Panama (Cuming); Mazatlan; Southern Coast 

of California. 



40 PHRONTIS. 

The name adopted for this species is not the earliest one, but 
it is too well established to be superseded without disadvantage 
to science, especially as N. glauca, C. B. Ad. (fig. 167), which 
has a year's priority of publication, is not positively identified. 
Several Pacific Islands and East Indian species have been sup- 
posed by Carpenter, Marrat, Pease and others to be identical, 
but though resembling tegula in sculpture, the painting in all 
these is different. 

N. ANNELLIFERA, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 168. 

Yellowish, encircled by bands of brown, thread-like lines. 

Length, '7 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
I know nothing about this species. 

N. SANCT^-HELEN.E, A. Adams. PL 12, fig. 169. 

White, interruptedly banded with red. Length, -3 inch. 

St. Helena, in sandy mud, at 20 fathoms. Cuming. 
Said to resemble N. ambigua, Mont. 

N. OBTUSATA, A. Ad. PL 12, fig. HO. 

Whitish, filleted with red spots or interruptedly banded. 

Length, *65 inch. 

7. of Ticao, Philippines (in coral sand, at 7 fathoms. -Cuming). 

" Chiefly distinguished," says Reeve, " by the obtuse, widely 
separated character of the ribs, and the fine-ridged sculpture of 
the interstices." I have before me a series of specimens said 
to come from the Straits of Malacca, which correspond well 
with the figure of this species. They are heavier, larger and 
more quadrate in form, yet closely resembling the West Indian 
N. ambigua. 

X. FISSILABRIS, A. Ad. PL 12, figs. 171-173, 179. 

Ash-colored, faintly light banded, or whitish and interruptedly 

red-banded. Length, -fi-'To inch. 

Philippines. 

The, posterior channel of the aperture, may have been more 
developed than usual in the type of this species, but it is a 
character which pervades most of the species of this group. N. 
nodicostata, A. Ad. (fig. 172), N. crenolirata, A. Ad. (fig. 179), 
and N. Stearnsiana (Garrett), Marrat, are equivalent forms the 



PHRONTIS. 41 

latter being iinligured and undeseribed. A'. (ilbt(>iuu'tata, Reeve 
(fig. 173), said to have taint white-dotted bands, but which are 
not shown by the figure, can scarcely be different. 

X. TIARULA, Kiener. PI. 12, figs. 174-178. 

Ribs lew, rounded, prominent ; whorls broadly shouldered 
and frequently tuberculated on the shoulder. White, with a 
single central, or several interrupted, narrow, brown bands. 
Length. ,")-(> inch. 

Solomon 9 * 7*., Philippines, ? Madagascar, Kiener. 
This is a more quadrate, solid, smaller form than the pre- 
ceding. It, as well as some of its synonyms, has been referred 
*X. fef/ula. Reeve, by such experienced students as Pease, 
rpenter, Marrat : I think, however, that the form and colora- 
n and difference of habitat, will justify a separation. I add 
Kiener's figure (fig. 174) one by Reeve, in which the ribs are 
obsolete (fig. 175). X. coronula, A. Ad. (fig. 176), N. delicata, 
A. Ad. (fig. 177), are synonyms. N. trinodom, K. A. Smith 
(fig. 178), from Solomon's Is., is probably a variety of this 
species, although it has partly the features of A r . x//h*j)innxa. 
Lam. 

X. CINCTELLA, Gould. PI. 13, figs. 180-1 8i>. 

Shoulder rounded, ribs narrow, strongly laticed by revolving- 
lines. White, with sometimes a narrow median brown band. 

Length. -45 -M> inch. 

Philippine*, Central Polynesia, 

N. clathratnld. A. Ad. (fig. 1 82 \ is synonymous. \. chirtvlla, 
A. Ad. (fig. 1S1 ), from St. Helena, is very close, if not identical. 

X. NKiRA, Honibr. et .Jacq. PI. 13. figs. 1S3-1S7. 

Dark chocolate-color within and without, with usually a light 

band. Length. -('& inch. 

Philippines. 

With this I unite X Urafa. Marrat. whicn 1 figure from an 
author's type tig. 184 . JV. D4'shnye#iana,, issel (tig. 18.")*. in 
which the ribs, especially round the upper part of the body 
whorl, are more or less nodulous. X. Kcalfirinn. Marrat (fig. 180). 
I am inclined to believe that .V. Xou*.-Zealandit. Reeve (fig. 
IT), is nierelv a varietv. 



li? PHRONTIS. 

X. CRASSA. Koch. PI. 1/5. t'm's. ISX-iOO. 

Yellowish or irreyish, witli usually a superior white band. 
Yery thick, rilis rather small, broken into i>T:inule*. 

Length, '(>-'~~\ inch. 

(.'Jn'iKi, Viti Ifil.ex. 

Fiir. 1X8 is a copy of the type, said to conic from China, hut 
that locality is doubtful : the more usual form of the species is 
that of 1ii>-. ISO. A', xf.iit'ixulrvfft.. Hombr. et Jacq. (lisr. '1 0(1). is a 
synonym. The specie* is remarkable lor 1 he ponderous thick- 
ness of well-uTown individuals. 

X. MK;A, 15ni<r. PI. i:J. lio- s . 191-1!):}. 

Obliquely costate, costa- sio-moid, with close revolving stria- 
which are fVe(|iiently obsolete on the body whorl except its 
lower part. Ye.Jlowish or orange-red, banded: or sometimes 
pfirti-colored on the body whorl, the lower portion beino- darkej-. 

Len11i, '5-' 7 inch. 

West Africa. 

Fio-. I()L J represents an elongated variety, and (i^. 1 0;> is X. 
<>hli<jHi>j>l /<(//<! . I) linker. 

X. AMBIOUA, Afont. PI. 1:-}. tio-s. 104-107. LM:-J. 

XarroAvly shouldered, ribs ]>retty elose. crossed ;ts wcii as the 
interstices by line revol vini> - lines. White or yellowish, o-ciierally 
hnndecl. spotted or maculated with brown. Length. '4 -'.">;"> inch. 
Wist Indie*, \Ve*f (Jotint of Africa. - Dunker. 

First described by Montajrn as a British species, and occa- 
sionally found on the western shores of Europe, but its 
occurrence is Adventitious. Its more scalariform spire, finer 
sculpture, color, absence of the strong nodules, and narrow. 
defined columella callus will serve to distinguish it from A', 
r/fo'.r. Say. The synonyms are X. Anlilld.rinti (I'm'. 104). N. 
Candei. (fijr. 10.")) and X. //o/<>.-/,</-/ (lio-. MM;), all of d'Orb.. and 
all immature shells, of different . ftges ; and A', at-uta. Say (li<j. 
107 }, probably. .V. rnnxcnad. Ravenal. is very poorly described 
from a single specimen found in a tish at (Miarleston. S. r. It 
is jirobably this s]>ecies. 

X. VIBKX, Say. PI. 13. ii<r s . 198--207. 

Spire tnrrited. ano-ulatod by a nodulous scries on each whorl, 
body with a rather broad, sloping' shoulder, the- border of which 



IIEBRA. -1" 

i> defined by nodules ; ribs not close-. frequently broken into 
nodules by the revolving stria' ; eolumclla callus ral her widely 
spread. Usually olive, chocolate or nearly black, li.-ht h:mded 
<>n the periphery nnd flecked with revolving chestnut si 
sometimes the shell is nearly white, nnd then. Avhilst retaining 
tlie red spots, the band is also red, or absent. 
Length. MI--S inch. 

J/idft-8 ; Atlitntn' Couxl of the Untied Miffs. itnrtlunnrd 
to Chesapeake Bay : 



2 

c-ol 
bot 

;::; 



Say's type was a stunted specimen, and is badly figured (tig. 

*). Reeve's figure represents n very different species, a juven- 
ile A'. ftnl)*/, inoMt, Lam.. from the I > hilii)j)ines ; but \. Anf/llnntni , 
'hil. (lio-s. IDJU^OI . aixl X. Stwmii, I'hil. (I'm-. -20--' . will o-ivc a 

r rejiresentation of tlie usual ranuc of the species in size and 
color. J/. texwllnia. IJeeve ( iio-. -1(\\\ , N.Jiiiu, Kceve ( li^-. 204 . 
both described without locality, and A', dnixculuis, lleeve (iir. 
). from Si. Thomas. \V. I., are also synonyms. A'. /'"relt'Hxrft. 
kin s (fig. 206), is supposed by its author to j>ossess distin- 
guishing characters in its proportions, sculpture and color, but 
it is well within the r:mv of vai'iation of A', rihr.r, in all these 
particulars : it is ibund, tliou^h I'arely. at New Haven. ( 1 onn.. 
and near Salem, Mass., and may have been carried there with 
southern oysters. X. fmnrimahilit. Marrat. an unh't>-ured specie^ 
from \;iss.-ui (Bahamas y). is ;dso a probable synonym. A'. /><>fi/- 
</<>,)rrfr/. J,;un. (lig. :><)7). is certainly very closely allied to A'. 
nibex ; it has been misunderstood by Heeve. who has tiu'iired for 
it a very different species, and Kiener has confounded with it A'. 
tTacksoniana, (^uoy. a var. of JY. nunuli'. Kiener. m 



Siib-um.- Hebra, II. a^il A. Adum.-. 

1 retain this group after modifying the original diagnosis, 
which only applies to immature specimens. The muricated or 
spinose ornamentation forms a convenient separation from 
/'hroiifift, and the columella callus is also more defined, but the 
spire is not elevated " more than usual, nor is the outer lip 
without varix or denticulatiops, when mature. 

N. SLBSPINOSA, Lam. PI. i:j. figs. Jus ~'2\'>. 

Spiny, nodulous, the nodules generally forming three promi- 
nent revolving series on the body-whorl, but sometimes subor- 



44 JIEBRA. 

dinated to the longitudinal ribs. Ash-color to dark chocolate, 
mostly light banded between the spiral rows of tubercles. 

Length, 'O-'T iiu-li. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, New Zealand, Central Polynesia. 
A'. vtbe.r. Reeve, not Say (tig. 209). is tin elongated, immature 
shell of this species: to which I refer also, A. yeniculata. A. 
Ad. (tig. 210), and A r . xixtroidtia, G. and H. Nevill (tig. 211). 
A". Kcalpta. Marrat (tig. 212 . is described as passing into A 7 . 
on the one hand and A". rorticata on the other. 



N. MLRICATA, Quoy and Gaimard. PI, 14, tigs. 214-218. 

'Whitish or yellowish, with narrow bands or blotches of chest- 

nut or chocolate. 

Indian Ocean, Madagascar, New Ireland, Polynesia. 

Mr. Marrat considers this a variety of A", xubxpinosa, Lam., 
and he is probably correct yet the less developed shoulder. 
more swollen periphery, more numerous, smaller and decidedly 
prickly tubercles, as well as lighter color, constitute characters 
deserving of recognition, I think. With it are to be united AV 
horrida, Bunker (tig. 216), N. Gruneri, Reeve (tig. 217), and A*. 
curta, Gould (fig. 218). 

N. GRUNERI, Dunker. PI. 14, tigs. 219-222. 

White or yellowish, sometimes obscurely banded or spotted. 

Length, *65-'8 inch. 

Philippines. 

Distinguished by its regular, close sculpture of bead-like 
tubercles, forming both longitudinal and revolving series. The 
synonyms are N. hispida, A. Ad. (tig. 220), A'. Web'jei, Petit 
(tig. 221), said- to come from West Coast of Africa (doubtful), 
and A", acinom, Gould (tig. 222). 
N. ECHINATA, A. Ad. PI. 14. tigs. 223, 224. 

Yellowish white, longitudinally flecked with brown. 

Length, *T inch. 

Philippines, China, Andaman Isles. 

This pupa-like species is a form rather unusual in the genus : 
it may be only a scalariform monstrosity of A^. muricata. I 
have not seen specimens of it. Those from the Andamans are 
said to be proportionally shorter than the type. A\ noddlifera, 
Phil. (tig. 224 ,, is probably the same species : it is said to come 
from China. If identical, it will have priority. 



HI MA. I.) 

Sul.gerius Hima, Leach. 
X. STOLATA, (iinol. PI. 14, fig. 225. 

Whitish or yellowish, with a broad chocolate band on the 
periphery, and usually a narrower, subsntural one. 

Length. '75-1 iiu-h. 

Indian Ocean. 
X. PAGODA. Keeve. PI. 14. tigs. 22<>-228. 

Whitish or yellowish, stained or obscurely banded with brown. 
Length, -8-1-2 inches. 

Galapagos Is., Panama to Mazatlan. 

Kiener's N.decu8*afa(flg.%%1)i& synonymous, and his locality 
" W. Coast of Africa," as well MS that given by Reeve for 
deuui<#at(i " Brisbane Water. E. Australia.'' are both erroneous. 
X. ti.Hf/nliJ't'ni. A. Ad. (tig. 228 '.is a juvenile shell; it comes 
from Galapagos (at ten fathoms i, on the authority of Cuming. 
X. ca/<e*r<j))x, C. H. Ad., and A', aruta. Carpenter (not Say), both 
uu figured, are evidently the same species. 

X. TRITONIFOKMIS, Kiener. PL 14, figs. 221>, 230. 

Yellowish, ash-color, or light brown ; coluroella-callua and li}> 
white. Length. 1 inch. 

Philippines, on mud flats Cuming ; Corisco Bay Marrat . 

X. fitm-dfn. A. Ad. (fig. 230), is probably the same species. 

X. MYRISTICA. Hinds. PI. 14, figs. 231. 232. 

Light brown, the revolving ridges darker, sometimes dark- 
spotted below the sutures. Length. 1 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Notwithstanding the greater prominence of the revolving - 
ridges, more undulating longitudinal sculpture. and more rugose 
columella. I doubt the distinctness of this from M. Trilon,- 
forwiix. 

Var. RI;F<UXKATA. Marrat. Fig. 232. 

Whitish or yellowish, stained or lineated with brown. 
Length. '9 inch. 

Ph&ippiiw. 

It is the .V. polygonata of Reeve (not Lamarck), and differs 
trom the typical X. myristica only in being shorter and broader. 



46 III MA. 

X. SCABRIUSCULA, Powis. PI. 14, figs. 233-235. 

Brownish, or usually ash-color, with a superior white band, 
which is occasionally visible on the spire; revolving lines some- 
times chestnut-brown. Length, '6-'75 inch. 



A 7 , .vollaria, Gould (iig. 234), and N. Stimpgowana, (\ J3. Ad. 
(tig. 235), appear to be equivalent forms. 

X. NODATA, Hinds. PL 14, tig. 23(5. 

Yellowish brown, with one or two faint chocolate b:mds. 

Length, '8 inch. 

Stntits of Ma!" 

N. FASCIATA, Lam. PI. 14, tigs. 23-7, 238. 

Whitish, with a central chestnut band, tinged with chestnut 

at the base. Length, '65-'9 inch. 

Kont'i Auxirf'lid. 

The whole surface of this species is beautifully granulated. 

X. FESTIVA, Powis. PI. 14, tigs. 23<>-242. 

Longitudinal ribs coarsely latticed by strong, close, rounded, 
revolving riblets. Whitish, interstices of riblets chestnut or 
chocolate color; columella and lip white. Length. '7-*85 incii. 

Japan.. 

N. f estiva is said to have been dredged by Cumin g ut Panama 
and St. Elena (in sandy mud at six to ten fathoms \, but 1 am 
not aware that either locality has been confirmed. The next 
species (N. dentifera, Powis) is a native of those regions, but is 
constantly distinguished by being thinner, more swollen, and 
dark chocolate color within and without. The Japanese habitat 
is undoubted. The synonyms- are JV. Urata, Punker (fig. 240), 
N. dealbaia, A. Ad. (fig. 241 i.a somewhat narrower form, usual ly 
white, with a central brown band it might perhaps be dis- 
tinguished as a variety, and N. nriitidcntalr*. K. A. Smith (fig. 
842). 
X. DENTIFERA, Powis. PL 14, figs. 243-24,3. 

Chocolate-brown within and without, with occasionally an 
obscure lighter central band. Length. -7--85 inch. 

Panama to. Callao. Peru. 

N. unidentata, Powis (fig, 244), is an immature shell, and a 
still younger one is N. Tzchudii, Troschel (fig. 245 \ To t 



HI MA. 47 

M nonvins should probably be added A', corpulenta, Q. P. Ad. 

( mitio-ured ). from Panama. 

X. AiJvssiroi, A. A. Ad. PI. 15. tiir. 255. 

Dirty white. sli-litly bead-inaru'ined at the sutures. 

Length. ;>:> iueli. 

1*1 1' of Holml, Tluliftitincx, in clayey ground, tit 

sixty fathoms Ouming. 
I do not know this species. 

X. PAUPERA, Gould. Pi. i:.. HO-S. 24H-250. 

Elevated, narrow, whorls rounded, closely costatc. and with 
fine revol vino- lines ; aperture small. rounded. White or yellowish, 
sometimes fasciated with brown, or marbled, or with the lower 
of the body-whorl brown. Length. *35 '5 inch. 

. Jupnn, Auxti 'nil Pt>hjn<xi. 

Ditl'ers from the Xass;e ])recedin^ it in this "roup by its pupi- 
forin shape and comparatively small body-whorl and mouth. 
The spire is sometimes much cxsertcd. causing very deep 
sutures. The variable painting-, etc.. lias caused a very larire 
synonymy, namely- X. }>l<>h<><'iii<i , Gould ( nntiii'iired), N. tmcros- 
. I'ease (I'm. ^47), .V. H niftim-lalf! and X. tt/n'irifla, Pease 
X. balteata, Pease (lio-. -_>4S). .V. <h>mn>,*thw. (jould (im- 
). A', fi'tiffi-fiilim. l>unker ((!. i4D). is a stouter form, 
whieli may possibly be identical with the next, species. X. 
Samoensis, Duuker MS., and A', hitcnlti, K. A. Smith (tii>-. 250). 
from Japan, described from a single dead specimen, are vei'y 
])robal)ly synonyms. 

X. Tiii.MJA. Souverbie. 1*1. ir>. li^'s. 251. 252. 

Yellowish brown, sometimes mottled with chestnut, and 
spotted on the varix of the lip. 

New Caledonia, S. Australia. 

With this I unite A". romiHirfri. Anij-as, of which I am able to 
irive a iiiiure from a sj)ecimen (liu 1 . 252) : it is the Australian rep- 
resentative of the European A. inrrnsxutn. 

X. DKNTICULATA. \. Ad. PL 15. iii>'. 254. 

Yellowish, banded and blotched with chestnut. 
Leu o-th. !> inch. 

' Mediterranean Sea. 

A rjire form, confounded by several authors with A T . <:luthrata. 
Born ( -.-. limaffi. Auct. ). 



48 HIMA. 

X. PERTTREMIA, Tenison-Woods. PI. 18, fig. 571. 
Milky white, subpellucid, shining-. Length, 7 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
N. CONCENTRICA, Marrat. PL 15, fig. 260. 

Greyish, with two brown bands ; beaded at the sutures, closely 
ribbed, impressed with revolving lines at the base. 

Length, *65 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

A doubtful species founded upon a figure in Reeve's Icoiiiea 
intended for N. conchina, Powis which it is not. 

N. RISSOIDES, Marrat. PI. 15, fig. 253. 

Shell white. Length, '55 inch. 

Jfabitat unknown. 

Much more slender than the typical N. pa,upera, yet I doubt 
its distinctness. I have before me a single specimen which is 
just intermediate between the two forms. 

N. EXIMIA, H. Adams. PI. 15, fig. 257. 

Cancellated by very close, small longitudinal and revolving 
lines; light yellowish brown, with three pale brown revolving 

bands. Length. 8 mill. 

JYV/r Hebrides ; Viti Islands A. Gam 

Still more pupiform than ^V. paupera, and smaller, with much 
finer sculpture. N. pusi-lla, Marrat, an nnfigured species from 
Singapore, is probably (judging from the description) identical. 

N. CONCINNA, Powis. PI. 15, figs. 250, 258-259. 

Closely cancellated, with an 'impressed line at the suture, 
dividing oft' a single row of granules. -Length, '(tf-'H inch. 

Polynesia ; Australia. 

In form, sculpture and coloring like the preceding species, but 
differing greatly in bulk. X. crebrilinedta, Hombr. and Jacq. 
(fig. 258), and probably X. pulchr.rrima, Marrat (fig. 259). are 
synonyms. 

N. INTERLIRATA, E. A. Smith. PL 15, fig. 201. 

With spiral line in the interstices ol the longitudinal riblets. 
Dark brown, blackish beneath the sutures. Length. C>-5 mill. 

$au Christ.it ml, Solomon 



HIMA. 49 

N. NUCLEOLUS, Phil. PI. 15, fig. 262, 

Whitish, brown at suture and base, with usually a brown 
central band. Length. 5-fi-5 mill. 

Mazatlan ; Acapulco W. M. Gabb. 

This is one of the few Mazatlaii species unknown to Carpen- 
ter ; it is a very distinct and pretty form. 

X. INCRASSATA, Strom. PI. 15, figs. 263-266. 

Brownish white, usually obscurely maculate or banded with 
brown ; whorls with or without a slight shoulder ; shell broad 
to elongated ovate; occasionally (in some specimens) with a 
varix crossing the whorl; lip varix strong, usually with three 
rown spots. Length, -45--(> inch. 

Iceland, and North Europe to Azores, Mediterranean. 
Fossil, widely distributed in European tertiary and quaternary 
posits. Owing to the great variability of this species, it has 
eived numerous names: one of these forms, indeed, is usually 
para ted by some of the best European conchologists, and it 
ill be as well, perhaps, to designate it as var. pygmaea, although 
the immense series of specimens before me compels me to agree 
with Dr. von Martens, that it has no real claim to specific dis- 
tinctness. 

Var. PYGMJEA, Lam. Fig. 265. 

Shell narrower and more finely sculptured ; whorls rounded, 
not augulated above ; spire proportionately longer. 

A", iiwrassata is a very active mollusk. and now and then 
changes its crawling position by leisurely floating with its foot 
upwards. It often gets into lobster and whelk pots. The spawn 
cases are solitary, yellowish, and shaped like a round flask, witli 
a. small neck or opening at the top. 

X. ROSACKA, Keeve. PI. 15, fig. 267. 

Deep rose-color, black edged at the base, lip white. 

Length, S-5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
May be a variety of N. incra^ntn. 

X. PROMPT A. Marrat. 

Ovately conical, highly polished, pale yellowish white, with 
two reddish-purple dotted bands, one in the centre of the body- 



50 HIMA. 

whorl, the other near the canal at the base, whorls rather flattened, 
ribbed to the base in front and not more than half-way down 
behind, raised into blnnt nodules at the sutures, aperture semi- 
lunate, columella thickened but not spreading, tubercular, outer 
lip very thick, with a thin edge near the aperture ; throat with 
rather strong- and somewhat distant ridges, canal very short, 
stained on each side of the base with brown. This may be only 
a variety of that interminable shell, N. incrassata, Mull., but I 
have not seen any varieties that are likely to connect them. 

The above is Marrat's description ; no figure, dimensions or 
locality. 
N. ALBA, Say. 

Shell white. L. -45, lat. '3 inch. 

Southern Coast of E. Florida, West Indies. 

The sculpture of this species is said to be similar to that of 
N. invraaxata, with which Say compares it. It has not been 
identified by later investigators. Unfigured. 

N. TENELLA, Reeve. PI. 15, figs. 268, 273. 

Semitransparent orange, tinged with rose towards the apex, 
transversely grooved, longitudinally flexuously ribbed, aperture 
small, columella callous, lip thickly varicose, vnrix white. 

Length, -5 inch. 

Cascaes Bay, Portugal. 

Possibly a variety of N. incrassata, vnr. pt/ytnara, which it- 
appears to connect with the next species. 

N. CochmensiK, Thorpe, appears to be an unpublished species, 
although alluded to by Mr. Marrat ; specimens under that name 
received from Mr. Sylvan us Hanley, are before me they do not 
differ essentially from the figure of N. ienella, Reeve. -The 
description of N. aryentea. Marrat (fig. 273 s from W. Africa, 
agrees very well with .N. ten ell a. 
N. DESHAYESIT, Drouet. PI. 15, fig. 209. 

Violaceous, with brown revolving, lines. Length, 15 mill. 

A 2 ore*. 
See remark under preceding species. 

N. VERSICOLOR. C. B. Ad. PI. 15. figs. 270-272, 275. 

Yellowish brown, lower part of body-whorl and sutures 
usually chestnut-colored. Length, 13 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlon. 



NTOTIIA. 51 

The ribs are few. vat her broadly rounded, color variable. A. 
proximo, and A", utriata (fig. 271), of C.. B. Ad., A T . rufocincfo, 
A. Ad. (fig. -272), N. vrebrintriata, Carpenter (iinfigured), :md 
N. Lwndrci. Fulin (fig. 275). :iro synonyms. 

X. siNfsK.HKA. A. Ad. PI. 15. figs. 274, 276-278. 

Whitish, stained or filleted with red-brown ; ribs slightly 
granulated at the sutures, lips varicose, simmted at the lower 

part. Length, '5 inch. 

Philippines, Mauritius. 

The lip-sinus is not, probably, distinctive. G. and II. Nevill 
figure a variety cenrica (fig. 27<>) from Mauritius. N.fraudulenta, 
Ma rr. (fig. 277 :, from Philippines, and N. rribrn-ria, Ma IT. (fig. 
27S ', habitat unknown, are. judging from figures and descrip- 
tions, at least very closely related. 

Siil>i inns Kiotha. 11. and A. Adams. 

The difference between this group and Aleclrion. is very slight, 
yet its retention will possibly facilitate the classification of the 
specie's ; it includes those shells having a reticulated or cancel- 
lated surface in consequence of the longitudinal and revolving 
sculpture being about equally prominent, whereas in Alecfrion 
either the whorls are smooth or the longitudinal ribs are much 
more prominent than the revolving stride. In both, the inner lip- 
callus is spread over the body-whorl, and the outer lip is with- 
out external varix. 

N. ALBESCENS, D unker. PI. 10, figs. 279-28o. 

White or yellowish, sometimes with faintly marked ash- 
colored 1 lands, which are chocolate-colored within the white 
aperture : first whorls usually dark ash-color. 
Length. 15-20 mill. 

Japan, Philippines* Polynesia^ Au&trali&j 

Mozambique, Andaman hlcx. 

The typical form of this species is easily recognized by its 
faint bands and dark apex; of this type is X. hu-olor, Hombr. et 
Jacq. (fig. 280). There is a gradual variation from this to the 
next species, so that it is difficult to decide where the one should 
end and the other commence ; among these varieties are A 7 . 
fenestrafa. Marr. (fig. 281). a somewhat more ovate form, the 



52 MOTH A. 

mime proposed for N. IsabeHei. Reeve, not Orb.. A'. Keenii, 
Marr., which I figure from an author's specimen (lig. 282). A>. 
yemmuliffirn . A. Ad. (tig. 283). 

X. SPLEXDIDULA, D linker. PI. 16, iigs. 284-287. 

While, shining, sharply granose by the crossing of the longi- 
tudinal ribs by deeply incised lines; occasionally marbled with 
light chestnut, or spotted with the same next the suture ; suture 
deeply channeled. Length. -6-- 7 5 inch. 

Philippine*, Malicca, Polynesia. 

Very close to N. albescent, and perhaps only a variety of that 
species; the tubercles are more sharp-set , the revolving lines 
more distant and regularly spaced not occasionally approxi- 
mating in pairs as in albescens. The synonyms are X. seri- 
tranosa, Dkr. (fig. 285). N. ra-vida.* A. Ad. (tig. 286), and ,V. 
densigranqta, Reeve (tig. 287). 

N. nivoxa, Mai-rat, and X. rrixpata, Marrat, are unligured 
species compared by the author to this form. 

X. PAUPERATA, Lain. PI. 16, tigs. 288-291. 

Banded with chestnut on the periphery and at the base of the 
body-whorl, columella and lip-margin sometimes tinged with 
chestnut. Ribs becoming evanescent below the middle of the 
body-whorl, cut into tubercles by the revolving lines, a row of 
these tubercles below the suture, more prominent and separated 
from the rest by a sulcus. Length, -5-'75 inch. 

8. Australia, Tanrn> 

A', hjrella. Beck (tig. 289), is a white or bleached specimen of 
this species, not in good condition, and I think that N. multi- 
granosa. Dunker (fig. 290). is the juvenile, and N.caperata, Phil, 
(fig. 271), a pigmy adult of the same species. 

X. SORDIDA, A. Ad. PI. 16, fig. 292. 

Yellowish, obscurely banded with light brown. 

Length, -65 inch. 

Philippine*. 

The suture is somewhat channeled, the ribs rather sharp, the 
revolving impressed lines rather faint. This, as well as the 
following species may be only varietal forms of N. albescent 



NIOTHA. >;; 

X. CANDENS, Hinds. PI. 16, figs. 293, 294. 

Yellowish white, marbled or fasciate with chestnut ; a row of 
granules below the suture, and close, prickly granulations cover- 
ing the whorls, caused by the incised revolving lines. 

Length, *7-'9 inch. 

Marquesas M<*. 
X. CREMATA, Hinds. PI. IK, tigs. 295-300. 

The whorls are usually channeled below the sutures so as to 
separate a single row of nodules, and the close ribs arc crossed 
by closer revolving incised lines. The color is yellowish or 
whitish, banded or irregularly marbled with brown or ash color. 

Length, *75-l inch. 

Sts. "/ Malttci'a, Philippines^ Polynesia. 

The taller spire, beaded line beneath the suture, prominence 
of the longitudinal sculpture, etc., are the distinctive features of 
this species which connects undoubtedly with N. albescent on 
the one hand, and with conrin.na on the other. Hinds' shell is 
not adult (fig. 295). and does not exhibit the usual appearance 
of the species so well as does N. Quoyi, Hombr. (fig. 296), or JV. 
frag urn, Hombr. (fig. 297). 

Var. MARGARITIFERA. Dunker. Figs. 298-300. 

The longitudinal ribs are narrower, sharp edged, the revolving 
sculpture coarse, obsolete in the middle of the body-whorl. 
Besides the brown or chocolate bands or blotches, the surface is 
numerously spotted ou the sides of the small tubercles with 
chestnut-brown. N. rr.nuata, Dunker (fig. 299^, N. costellifera 
A. Ad. (fig. 300), are synonyms. 

X. KTEXERT. Desh. PI. 16. figs. 301-303. 

Longitudinal ribs prominent, upper margin of each whorl 
tuberculated, incised revolving lines faint except towards the 
base, where they cut up the ribs into tubercles ; white with 
chocolate or chestnut superior and median bands ; surface some- 
what polished. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Singapore, Polynesia, Tale of Bourbon. 

The more prominent, less decussated longitudinal sculpture is 
the chief distinction from N. cremata. Hinds, the incised re- 
volving lines from N. mpnile, Kiener which it most nearly 



54 NIOTHA. 

resembles in its coloring and polished surface. That a series 
could be arranged to show the gradual transition from one to 
the other of these species, although arranged in different groups, 
cannot be doubted. The synonyms are N. margimdata, Reeve 
not Lam. (fig. 301), called .V. Kieneri by Deshayes, N. mar- 
garitifera, Reeve, not Dunker (fig. 302), and .V. Isabe llei, Reeve, 
not d'Orb. (fig. 303). 

N. LIVESCENS, Phil. PL 16, fig. 304. 

Yellowish, clouded with light chestnut. Length, -8-- 9 inch. 

India, Chinese Sea, Philippines. 

This species has the form of albescens, with the revolving 
sculpture of cremata and ribs of concinna. 

N. PUSIO, A. Ad. PL 16, fig. 305. 

Fulvous, variegated and spotted with brown. 

Length, -28 inch. 

Luzon, Philippines, in coarse sand, at six fathoms Cuming. 

This shell is globosely oval, with fine ribs and rather incon- 
spicuous revolving striae. 

N. MULTICOSTATA, A. Ad. PI. 1 6, tig, 306. 

White, variegated with pale red; revolving striae obsolete. 

Length, '7 inch. 

Philippines, coarse sand, at four fathoms Cuming. 

Proportionally longer, the ribs rather coarser, yet possibly an 
older example of N. pusio. 

N. VEKRUCOSA, A. Ad. PL 16, fig. 307. 

Yellowish, clouded with reddish brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Philipp'mes. 

The tubercles are larger and more decidedly warty than in the 
succeeding species, the sutural channel is deeper, the spire more 
conical : } r et it possibly is only an intermediate form, between 
xtigmaria and gemmulata. 

N. STIGMARIA, A. Ad. PL 16, tigs. 308-310. 

Whitish or yellowish, more or less clouded and marked with 
brown. Sculpture forming flat, somewhat square-shaped gran- 
ules, those forming a row around the deep (but not wide) suture, 
somewhat larger. Length, *75-l inch. 

Philippines, Malacca, Indian Ocean. 



TRITIA. f>f> 

With this I unite A. ,-rcm(ita, Reeve, not Hinds = N. qaad- 
Alarrat (iig. 309), and JV. rrtrrona, A. Ad., not J. Sowb. = 
A'. Adamsiana, Marrat (fig. 310). 

X. CuMiNim, A. Ad. PI. 17, fig. 311. 

Ovate, rather ventricose, solid, suture flatly channeled. 
White, stahied with faint chestnut-color. Length, 1 inch. 

China. 

Distinguished by the swollen character of the whorls yet 
probably only an intermediate form between the last and next 
species. 

X. (JKMMULATA, Lam. PL 17, figs. 312-315. 

Yellowish white, stained and spotted with chestnut ; suture 

flatly channeled. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Sts. of Sunda. 

N. clathrata, Lam., Encyc. Meth. (fig. 313), N. conoidalis, 
Desh. (fig. 315), and N. variegata, A. Ad. (fig. 314), are syn- 
onyms. 

Fubgenus Tritia, Ri.-s<>. 

Distinguished from Niotha by its narrow callus, }^et some of 
the last species in that group form a passage into this. Caesia, 
H. and A. Adams, lias no distinctive character, and must merge 
into Tritia as a synonym. Schizopyga, Conrad, founded on a 
miocene species (S. Calif ornira. PL 3, fig. 32), probably equiva- 
lent to A", pp.rpiiitpiix. Hinds, is also a synonym. 

* We*f Co<ixt of America. 
X. FOSSATA, Gould. PL 17, figs. 316-318. 

Light yellowish brown, interior of aperture and columella 
dee]) orange, the sharp, raised, revolving ribs of the interior 
white. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Coast of California* 

A magnificent and peculiar species, not to be mistaken for any 
other, and the largest in the genus. N. elegans, Reeve (fig. 317), 
very fairly represents it, the figure and description of Gould 
(fig. 31 G) being from a form more ventricose than usual, and not 
adult. A T . elegans being preoccupied by J. Sowerby for a fossil 
species. Adams changed the name to N. Reevei which falls 
before Gould's prior name. To this synonymy is to be added 
N. Morhti, Crosse (fig. 318'. 



50 TRITIA. 

X. PERPINGUIS, Hinds. PI. 17, fig. 319. 

Yellowish white, obscurely marked or banded with chestnut. 

Length, -T5--9 inch. 

California. 

Fossil specimens occur much larger, and varying considerably 
from the typical form ; some of them approaching a small N. 
fossata in size and latitude. P. P. Carpenter considers X. in- 
terstriata, Conrad, a fossil equivalent which is somewhat doubt- 
ful. Schizopyga Calif or nir-a^ Conrad, is probably identical : it 
is from the miocene. 



X. MENDiCA, Gould. PL 17. fio-s. 320-323. 

Yellowish to reddish brown. Length. *5-'7 inch. 

Pugefs Sou Ml to San Diego, Cal. 

X. Woodwardi, Forbes (fig. 321), and ' X. Gibbesii, Cooper, are 
synonyms of this species ; which is the Wrst Coast analogue of 
N. trivittata, Say. 

Yar. COOPERI, Forbes. Figs. 322,^323. 

This is typically very distinct, with its seven or eight distant, 
prominent, shouldered ribs, but specimens are not rare which, 
commencing with the numerous ribs of N. mendica, suppress 
alternate ones and increase the prominence of those remaining 
on the body-whorl. There are also specimens intermediate in 
form and number of longitudinal ribs, and even some in which 
the ribs are obsolete on the body-whorl. As it is generally 
reeooTii/A'd as a distinct species, it may be convenient to retain 
its 11 nine MS n variety. 

N. UAYJ, Kiener. PI. 17, figs. 324, 325. 

Yellowish brown to chestnut-color ; longitudinal sculpture 
usually the most prominent, but sometimes obsolete ; a row of 
bead-like granules usually, next below the sutures. 

Length, 15-18 mill. 

W. Coast of So. America, ( 1 hiU, Pern. 

X. rubricata, Gould (fig. 325), is a synonym. 

X. COPPINGERI, E. A. Smith. PL 18, fig. 372. 

Whitish, with a broad purplish-brown band at the top of the 
whorls, and two others on the last, the upper one around the 



TR1TIA. 57 

middle, and the other somewhat below ; aperture bluish white, 
showing the external banding. Length, 13'5 mill. 

Patagonia. 
X. T^NIOLATA, Phil. PI. 18, fig. 373. 

Yellowish brown, tipped with chocolate on the nodules. 

Length, 11-U; mill. 

Chonos 1*1. and So. Patagonia. 
Is not -V. ( 1 oj>]jin</t ri the sained 

' Japan, l'//i!>j>pi//e,,i, Ln,di<in Oct-an, W. Africa. 
X. NIVEA, A. Ad. PI. 17, lig. :!2r>. 

White, solid. Length. I inch. 

Philippine*. 
Very like N. rrfirulafa. Linn., of Europe. 

X. MUNIERIANA. Orosse. PL 17, tig. 331. 

White, with a scarcely appnrent pale brown revolving band. 

Length. 1 (> mill. 

So. Australia. 

X. SIGMATA, Danker. PL 17, figs. 327, 32S. 

Yellowish brown, with a pale central bnnd. Length, "4 inch. 

Africa. 

"Very like 'N. inrrnt^ntci, but without the external lip-vnrix. 
N. reyitlnris, Kiister (rig. 328), is probably the same. 

X. TURJJIXKA, Gould. V\. 17, ilg. 32i). 

Shell white. Length. '.) inch. 

Afi 

1 am not acuiuainted with this species. The precise locality 
is unknown. 

X. KOISSYI. Deshayes. PI. 17, tigs. 330. 33i>. 

Whitish, rntlier thin ; clathrate. Length. 15 mill. 

[:.ixt Indie*. 

N. flonu'nulfi. Tapparone-Cflnefri (fig. 332). does not. appear to 
differ. 
X. PUMILIO, E. A. Smith. PL 17, fig. 333. 

Whitish corneous. Length. 3 '5 mill. 

WydnJt, W. Aj . 

Is this really distinct from the preceding species-' At uny 
rate the shell is so decidedly immature that it ought not to have 
been described. 



58 TRITIA. 

X. KociiiANA. Dunkcr. PI. 17, fig. 334. 

Yellowish white, variegated with chestnut. Length, 3-4 mill. 

T tilde />V///, SV>. Afi'if.ti. 
Another immature and doubtful species. 

N. PLICATELLA, A. Afl. PL 17, fig. 335. 

Yellowish, stained with light brown or ash. Length, 1 inch. 

Wallwich Bay, So. Africa. ^ 
Very closely allied to the European .V. reJiculnta. 

* * '- Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean SV^. 
N. CLATIIRATA, Born. PI. 17, figs. 33(5-339. 

Shell turreted, rather thin, suture flatly, narrowly channeled, 
whitish, irregularly yellow-banded in the middle; a deep sulous 
at the base of the body-whorl. Length. '9-1 '25 inch. 

Mediterranean Xea ; M<nlcira ; Canar 

Seldom found living, but extensively distributed as a mioccnc 
and pliocene fossil. It is a very variable form, and Weinkautf 
even suspects that X. ntifla, Lamarck, will prove to be a variety 
which is not unlikely. The oldest name used for the species 
is that which I have adopted, and it has the advantage of being 
binomial, whilst the later and generally adopted name. ,V. 
limata. Chemnitz, is only a portion of the phrase given in that 
work. N*pri#matica, Brocchi (fig. 337), and X. defiant. Dujar- 
din are synonyms among the fossil specimens. Mr. Marrat 
figures for N. turrita, A. Ad. (fig. 338), a shell which is certainly 
identical with this species. X. Hcalttriformix, Val. (fig. 889), is 

not adult. 

i 

N. RETICULATA, Linn. PL 18, (igs. 840-845. 

Yellowish white, light chestnut or chocolate-color ; sculpture 
varying considerably, but the longitudinal ribs arc usually the 
most prominent, flexuous, distant, or numerous and close: occa- 
sionally the suture is beaded so as to resemble A', monile. 
Kiener Length, '75-l'25 inch. 

Kit-rope, from Norway to the Med-itri'r(irn>(i.n. 

Fossil, from the miocene throughout Europe. 

Jeffreys * says : At .the recess of each tide this mollusk 
buries itself in the sand in a slanting position, its lurking-place 



* Brit. Conch., iv, 848. 



TRTTIA. -SO 

being betrayed by a little hillock. It also gets into lobster-pots 
for the sake of the bait. Bouchard-Chantereaux attributes to this 
ns well as t<> other whelks, the habit of picrcinir and devouring bi- 
valves. According to M. Lespe's. X. refici/lafo is preyed upon by a 
parasitic Trcmafode ( (Icrcarin ttari/ffahi) which infests its liver. 
IN spawn eases are deposited on the leaves of %i.n*l< j r(i and on 
various other things which are left dry only at springtides ; the 
capsules nre arranged in rows, and so closely that they overlie 
each other "like the brass scales of the cheek-band of a hussar' 1 
(Johnston). They are compressed pouches, each of the si/e of 
a larjre spangle, supported on a very short stalk, with a small 
opening 1 at the top to allow the fry to escape. Mr. Peach des- 
cribed and figured the capsules in the Reports of two (V>rnish 
ocieties for 1843 and 1844 ; and he has given us some amusing 
particulars of the fry. These behaved themselves like the fry 
of other gastropods, skipping about and whirling round by 
means of their ciliated lobes, apparently in a state of pleasura- 
ble excitement : but it seems that the exercise was compulsory, 
or necessary to prevent the attacks of a swarm of infusoria, 
which made short work of any tired or feeble infant AWx-/. 

Mr. Jeffreys has named X. nili<iti (tig. .'540) a shell which he 
says is as distinct from A", rc.lictilulii as N. ij<jni;t(t is from .V. 
iurrdxititlti, and he states that he has not seen any intermediate 
forms. He states that mtida IB found only in brackish water 
and on muddy bottoms. A specimen among a number dredged 
by him in Roach River, had two eyes on the right hand tentacle; 
the eyes were smaller than usual, and close together. I agree 
with Moreh and Yon Martens that ni-titla is merely a variety of 
N. reticulafd. Mr. Jeffreys cites A', reticulata from Japan;* the 
identity of the Japanese shell must be supposed to be in the 
sens- in which Mr. Marrat would regard it yet I can admit it 
also. -if it be considered necessary to prove an immense distri- 
bution for 'the species. A 7 . r< j ti<-nl(it<i . figured by Quoy and 
(laimard in the Toy. of the Astrolabe, is no', this species how- 
ever, but probably A". <T<'tfffn. var. mn r<jn n'fij'crti. A curious, 
thin, swollen form from the Baltic is known as A. c(i/i<;>]]fitfi , 
(Miemn (.figs. 84:-i-:ur. ;-. 



Jour. Liun. Soc.. xii, 107. 



60 TLYANASSA. 

N. TRIVITTATA, Say. PL 18, fig. 346. 

White or yellowish white, sometimes faintly marked by three 
revolving light brown bands. Suture channeled, with usually a 
bead-like row of small tubercles below. it, and separated from the 
cancellated and tuberculated surface by a slight impressed line. 

Length, '7-*9 inch. 

Massachusetts to Florida. 

The animal is whitish, sparsely clotted with pale lilac ; foot 
slightly bifid behind with two erect subulate processes. Very 
active. Comes out of the sand towards low-water mark, in a 
minute or two after the water passes over them. On most 
specimens the bands on the shell are either obsolete or so faintly 
marked as to escape hurried observation. 



s IlyanaSSa, Stiiup.-on. 

The generic characters proposed by Stimpson include an 
operculum without serrated margin, arid the animal without 
posterior bifurcation. Although the operculum is usually 
crenated in Nasm, Mr. Marrat has enumerated a dozen species 
in which it has been observed to have plain margins, or nearly 
so ; and Dr. Von Martens states* that the European N. reticulatu- 
is found in the mud-flats of the Venetian lagunes with the oper- 
culum plain on one side and somewhat serrated on the other, 
and that the end of the foot is but slightly notched in these 
specimens instead of being deeply bifurcated. Under these cir- 
cumstances, it becomes very doubtful whether the group 
Tlyanassa ought to stand. I have concluded to retain it pro- 
visionally as a subgenus, especially as it may include several 
species conveniently separable from Tritia by having dark- 
colored shells. 

N. OBSOLETA, Say. PI. 18, figs. 347-349. 

Chocolate-brown or olive, with occasionally a faint, lighter 
colored central band ; deep chocolate within the aperture, with 
a central white band. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Massachusetts to Florida. - 

The animal is variously mottled with slate color, the tentacula 
are suddenly diminished above the eyes, and become bristle-like. 



* Zool. Record, ii. 244. 



TLYANASSA. W 

Its movements are very active, and it Collects in numbers about 
dead era bs and other marine animals, on which it feeds. Inhabits 
all our muddy shores, preferring situations not exposed to the 
surf of the open sea; such as inlets and extended tlats which 
are drained at low tide. It is found abundantly at the. con- 
fluence of fresh and salt water, where the taste is merely 
brackish. X<> shell of equal size is so abundant on the whole 
Atlantic shore. Specimens from Florida vary only in being 
smaller, more olivaceous, and by having a, thick, broad callus 
over the pillar. The younger shells are most likely to be col- 
lected, because the old ones become very much eroded and 
defaced, and a greenish mould-like plant vegetates abundantly 
upon them. Very few, therefore, of the shells usually collected, 
have the lines on the interior of the outer lip. Kiener's figure 
(fig. 348 , N. o/n-tefnrnifs, represents a young shell * The ova- 
capsules art 1 laid during April and May, are of transparent 
corneous texture, singly attached to the inside surface of a valve 
of Jfriffra. or the inner face of the nidus of Natica ; they are 
deposited in vast numbers, completely covering the object to 
which they are attached and crowded together promiscuously 
(fig. 349).' 

N. MKLANIOIDES. Reeve. PI. 18, tig. 350. 

Smooth, thread-margined around the upper part, striated near 
the apex, last whorl grooved at the base. Thin, dark olive, 
interior purple-black. Length, '85 inch. 

If'U'cfon Bay, Australia. - Strange. 

Reeve remarks : This species, like S. obnolr.ta, has a charac- 
teristic fresh-water aspect like that of a Mflan-ia. I have not- 
seen it. 

N. NIGELLA. Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 851. 

Dark brown, without and within, lip with an exterior varix. 

Length, -4 inch. 

New Zealand. 
X. NITEA, Pease. PI 18, fig. 352. 

Dark chocolate; closely reticulated ; lip with exterior varix. 
Length, 12 mill. 



<Tould, Invert. Mass., Binney's edit., '->'V2. 



f>2 NASSA. 

More pupaeform and apparently with much closer, finer sculp- 
ture than N. nigella, yet they may very possibly be identical. I 
do not hesitate to place these species in this group, although 
they possess an exterior lip-varix, since otherwise, the relation- 
ship is sufficiently apparent. 

Undetermined Species of Nassa. 

BUCCINUM FLORIDANUM, Lesson. Acapulco. 

" Is the South Sea representative of B. Cuvieri of authors." 
N. GEMMELLARI, Biondi, ? Mediterranean. 

Is exotic, and perhaps = N. trivittata, Say. 
N. TRTCARINATA, Lam. Hab. unknown. 

Not recognized by Kiener, Desh^es or subsequent authors. 

N. NISOTA, Potiez et Michaud. Senegal. 

N. OANCELLARTA, Potiez et Michaud. European Seas. . 

N. SEMINULUM, Tapp. Can. Papuan Isles. 

N". VITREA, Gray. Sierra L*one. 

N. ATTENUATA, Gray. Pacific Ocean. 

N. COSTULATA and IS". MARMORATA, Anton. Hab. unknown. 

N. FRIGENS, Yon Martens. W. Coast of Africa. 

Dredged at a depth exceeding 150 fathoms (precise depth not- 
mentioned) ; resembles N. trivittata, Say, somewhat, but more 
fragile. Owing to the depth of water it has the appearance of 
the Arctic mollusca. The species of Nassa are decidedly littoral 
in habit, so that this is an extraordinary exception, and raises 
the question whether the species is really a Nassa. 

N. NITIDULA and N. CANDIDISSIMA, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

N. GEMMULOSA, C. B. Ad. (Very young shell.) Panama. 

N. LIMN^FORMIS, N. HfiRRMANNSENI, N. HANLEYANA, X. RUFA, 

N. SCULPTA, N. DARWINI, N. FORBESII, Dunker ; all without 
locality. N. VARTANS, Dunker, Japan. 

N. VITREA, N. ACUTIMARGO ( China), N. AFRUM (Aden, Madagascar}, 
N. BICOLOR, N. BIRMANIOA (Burmah), N. CHINENSIS (Loo Choo 
Isles) , N. CORRUSCANS (Bali IsL), N. LIMICOLA ( China) , N. RTNGENS, 
X. PINGUIS (Bali Isl.), X. QUISQUILIARUM (China), N. SINARUM 
(China), N. L^TUM, all of Philippi. 



NA88A. 63 



N. RKATA (LOO C/100 /*.), N. QUANTILA (S7. ,$'? O'x /*//), X. 

KKPOSTA (Sydney. X. N. If. ?), N. PEDICULIXA (//<>/? f/ Kony), N. 
OI>TATA (,sy /,/{',/, X N. If.). X. SPURCA (67. ,SV//(o V Say), X. PLT- 
CATELLA (British .Htirnwh), all of Gould. 

Most of tin* above fire from the collections of the North 
Pacific (U.S.) Exploring Expedition: they have not been figured, 
and the type specimens were destroyed in the great Chicago lire. 
Some of them might be identified with other described species, 
bnt it is better not to do so. I think, under the circu instances. 

N. NODICINCTA (GaJapafiox />-.), N. CORRUGATA (Eastern St'a*), 
N". AI-STRALIS (Australia), N. ORENTCOSTATA. N. srrrrLA, all of 
Arthur Adams. 

N. FUSCOLINKATA, E. A. Smith. Japan. 

N. (C^siA; SIMPLEX. E. A. Smith. Uruguay. 

The following forty "species'' are described (but not figured) 
by Mr. F. P. Marrat. who does not believe in species. I take 
them, with great pleasure, at his own valuation, for I cannot 
afford to expend iny time over diagnoses which should never 
have been written by a gentleman holding such opinions as Mr. 
Marrat does, as lo the instability of every specific character. 
Theoretically. Mr. MarratJ relegates all the Nassae to one specific 
form; practically, he describes such individuals of that form as 
he likes to name; and if every other collector should adopt his 
views and be equally industrious, we should eventually have 
every individual specimen of the genus bearing a distinct specific 
name: moreover each collector would possess the sole specimens 
of his own species. Xo locality is given with most of the 
descriptions. 

X. NODOSA (Malacca), X'. PICTURATA, N. ACUMINATA, N. LYR.E- 
FORMIS ! China ^ X. GRANULOSA, X T . LACTEA, X T . GRATA (Canton , 

X. C^ERULEA, N.TABESCEXS, N.CRASSICOSTATA ( Bombay >,N.LAUTA 

Malacca), X. QUINQUECOSTATA. X. HANLEYANA (Dunker has pre- 
occupied the name , X. PARVA, X. SINENSIS ' Chi .u Sna* . X. 

OBLOXGA. X. RUGOSA, X. S>IITHII. X". C'LARA, X T . HARPULARIA, X. 

ABYSSINICA (Abyssinia . X'. ROTUXDICOSTATA, X T . BELLA, X. ACU- 

TAXGULA, X. UNDATA. X. PR^ECALLOSA, X. MULTIL1NEATA (South 

America). X. VINCTA, X. PUR A ( W. Indies). X'. MINOR (Knbenda. 



64 NERITULA. 

IV. Africa , X. KLONJATA= X. ORIENS (China Sea* , X. LVCIDA 
(Keeling* Z*Z.), X. JvrrnopicA ( Kabenda, W. Africa . X. IN- 
GENDA. 
The following species are mentioned by name only in Marrat's 

u Varieties of Xassa,' 1 and I presume tliat they have not been 

described. 

X. XIVIFER, X. IXTKllSTIXOTA, X. C.'OKlU'i JATA. X. KKCKD1VA (' 

ds). 

In the " Varieties I find the following specific names attributed 
to other authors, but which do not appear to l.ave Ic-en described: 
X. Lixr.oi.ATA, Phil.: X. PUSIOLA, Bunker ( V KLA, 

AVatson (Arnboiiiii : X. AGAIKTA. Watson i L<> 
LATA, Thorpe (China); X. BRYCIITA, AVatson (( . 020 

fathoms); X. SPILUS, Watson (Bain /*/., T<>,T< N. BABY- 

LON ICA, Watson; X. BIBALTEATA, P< : X. 

R8A, Carp, (innnitrm. Cnrp.: x : X. GAMI.KA. ("lark; X. rox- 
FERTA, Martens. 

<ipnn5 NEEITULA, I'laiv 

In Xt>rit>ila the last whorl is depressed and extends over the 

penultimate whorl, nearly covering- and concealing th- lich 

equently appears very obtuse. The animal has a bifid tail, 

and operculum similar to Nawi. Risso's name- has 

ily us(Ml for this group. H. and A. 

gen; loma was originally placed next to Ni-ritiila. in t 

'' subsequently they removed it to the .Rotollin;' 



X. XKHJTKA. Linu. PI. 18, figs. . ,r>.>-;j,y;. :->5t). 

Shell smooth and polished; fulvous minutely speckle*! with 

-iuut-bro\vn. with usually darker and larger ma. 
ing a sutural hand and another upon the periphery: the cal! 
flattened columella, yellowish stained with brown, is spread out 
in circular form covering the inferior surface to the periphery. 

Diam.. *o inch. 

The shell. JIMS very much the appearance of a Rot>>llti. f being 
transversely flattened into a disk-like form. X. //' 
a synonym; 1 figure two examples of it to show the young and 
half-grown states of tne species (figs. 355. 356). 



UNIVERSITY 




UKSMOULEA. 



N. i-KLU <<n>A, Risso. PI. 18, fig. 360. 

Hyaline, with opaque white spots and callus; frequently brown- 
spotted around the suture, and sometimes on the periphery. 

Plain., -25--35 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Weinkauff considers this var. minor of N. neritea, but the 
coloration is decidedly different as \vell as the size being smaller. 

X. KAMIESCHI, Chemn. PL 18, tigs. 357, 358. 

Brown, with a white sutural and peripheral band, callosity 
rosy-brown. Last whorl enveloping a portion of the spire, which 
only shows three minute whorls, and has a sharp point. 

Black Sea. 

<i>nus DESMOULEA, Gray. 

Desmoulea is remarkable for its obtuse apex and solid growth, 
much resembling some species of Cassididse; when in fine con- 
dition, the shell is clothed with a velvety epidermis, but most 
cabinet specimens are denuded of this. The animal is unfortu- 
nately unknown, and therefore the systematic position of the 
genus remains somewhat uncertain for, whilst some species 
connect closely with Nassa, the revolving sculpture, globose 
form, sunken suture and mouth of others are suggestive of 
Semicassis. 

D. ABBREVIATA, Gmelin. PL 18, fig. 361. 

Yellowish white, With chestnut-colored spots and strigations. 

Lengt-ti, 1-1*5 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Differs from all the other species in its distant incised revolv- 
ing lines. 

D. PINGUIS, A. Adams. PL 18, figs. 302-364. 

Yellowish and white, variegated, with alternate white and 
yellowish brown irregular spots around the suture; revolving 
sculpture close and fine raised lines. Length, 1 inch. 

Senegal, Japan. 

The latter locality is assigned for D. crass*, A. Ad. (fig. 364), 
which Reeve changed to Nassa ponderosa,tkQ former name being 
preoccupied in Nassa. D. pulchra, Gray, the type of his genus is 



GG TURBINELLID^E. 

very probably this species, but has never been figured, and 
remains unidentified. 

D. RETUSA, Lam. PI. 18, figs. 365-367. 

Marbled with chestnut and white, or blush-pink, sometimes 
obscurely banded with spots around the suture and on the 

periphery. Length, 1 inch. 

Liberia. 

D. Tryoni, Crosse (fig. 361), is described from a remarkably 
thickened specimen, with a copious callous deposit on the colu- 
mella, but it does not afford any varietal characters. 

D. JAPONICA, A. Adams. PL 18, fig. 368. 

Light fulvous, ornamented with brown longitudinal flames and 
spots variegated with white, especially around the suture. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Japcwi. 

The pertinence of this species, as well as of those which 
follow, to the group, is somewhat doubtful, as they have the 
form of Nassa, including its pyramidal spire. 

D. PYRAMIDALIS, A. Adams. PL 18, fig. 369. 

Yellowish brown, apex violet-tinged. Length, '85 inch. 

Port Elizabeth, 80. Africa Marrat. 

D. RINGENS, A. Adams. PL 18, fig. 370. 

Brownish orange. Length, *! inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

A singular species which unites the sculpture of Nassa with 
the mouth of Desmoulea the latter even exaggerated in its 
characters. 

Family TURBINELLID^E. 

This group includes a few ponderous tropical species, allied 
in the characters of the mouth, and in general form and orna- 
mentation to the Peristerniinse (see vol. iii, p. T9), on the one 
hand, whilst in size they approach the Volutidse. The plications 
on the middle of the pillar are rather distant, narrow, high, and 
transverse, whilst in Fasciolariinse they are situated lower, are 
not so prominent, and oblique in direction. The epidermis is 
frequently persistent. 



TURBINELLA. 6t 

The animal (of Vatu-m) is -slow-moving, timid and inactive, 
shrinking quickly within the shell on the slightest alarm. The 
operculum is ovate, acute, with an apical nucleus; it is very 
thick, claw-like, and partially free at the hind part. The denti- 
tion resembles somewhat that of the Buccinidse, differing in the 
lateral teeth; it differs widely from the Nassidse, and quite as 
much from that of the Fasciolariinae or Peristerniinae. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Genus TURBINELLA.. Lam. Thick, obconic, smooth, last whorl 
large ; spire obtuse, apex papillary ; aperture oblong, narrow ; canal lon<j 
and straight ; columella with several strong, transverse plaits in the 
middle ; outer lip thin, simple. Animal unknown. 

Subgenus CABICELLA, Conrad. Columella-folds decreasing in size from 
above, as in Mitra, base canaliculate and not emarginate. The above 
characterization is somewhat vague, but the small group of fossils referred 
to it may be said to resemble Tarbinella in essential characters, the 
difference being that the folds are situated lower down on the pillar, and 
that the shell is thinner.* 
C. PR^JTENUIS, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 35. Eocene, Claiborne, Alabama. 

Genus VASUM, Bolten. Shell oval, oblong, solid, tubercular or 
spinose, with spinose fascicles below ; spire short, apex not papillary ; 
aperture oblong ; canal short, somewhat recurved ; columella with several 
transverse folds in the middle ; outer lip thickened and sinuous. Denti- 
tion, PI. 2, fig. 1. 

(mius TURBINELLA, Lam. 

I adopt Lamarck's generic name in preference to that of 
Mazza, Klein, because the latter included several groups, and 
was only -limited to its present signification by Messrs. H. and 
A. Adams, whilst the former author cites as his sole type a species 
which possesses the distinctive characters now assigned to the 
genus. The difference between the shells of Turbinella and 
Vasum is not such as to indicate any differential characters in 
the animals (unfortunately that of Twrbinella is unknown) and 
the separation of these genera is merely a matter of convenience 



* Conrad has formed a genus Mazzalina (uncharacterized), for a 
Claiborne fossil, which seems to have suggested to him the recent genus 
Mazza (- Turbinella). The type is, I believe, more nearly related to 
Lagena from which it does not appear to have any differential characters 
I see vol. iii, p. '-2'M). 



68 TURBINELLA. 

to the systeinatist. The dentition of Imbricaria, Schum. , a group 
of Mitridae, differs radically from the type of that family and 
approaches closely to Turbinella that is, if Troschel has cor- 
rectly identified the mollusk examined by him ; but the species 
are so essentially Mitrse in other characters that to separate them 
from that family would be very inexpedient. 

T. PYRUM, Linn. PI. 19, figs. 1-3, 5-T. 

Whitish or 3^ellowish white, under a thick, light olive epidermis j 
sometimes irregularly sprinkled with chestnut-colored spots; 
interior of aperture and columella yellowish to orange-brown. 

Length, 4-7 inches. 

Ceylon. 

T. rapa, Gmel. (fig. 5), = gravis, Dillw., = clavata, Wagn., = 
napus, Lam. (fig. 3), is distinguished by most authors on account 
of its more swollen growth and absence of spots, but the 
distinction does not hold good, the shell becoming more swollen 
and less spotted with increase in size; like our Virginia Deer 
the spotted coat is a juvenile condition of which, however, 
traces sometimes remain, or rather recur, in the adult shell. I 
figure a very curious planorboid monstrosity (figs. 6, 7), existing 
in the Museum of the University of Ghent. 

The shankh or chank is the sacred shell of the Hindus, and 
the national emblem of the Kingdom of Travancore. The god 
Vishnu is represented as carrying a chank shell in one hand and 
a chakra in the other. 

The Hindus believe that unless they worshiped this shell at 
the commencement of every worship or prayer, their offerings 
would not be accepted. The first incarnation of Vishnu, called 
Machhavatar (which literally means transformation into a fish), 
was undertaken for destroying Sharikhasura (the giant chank 
shell), in order to regain the Vedas, he having stolen them and 
taken refuge under the ocean. 

The fishery for these shells is principally carried on in the 
Gulf of Manaar, in the vicinity of Ceylon, and on the coast of 
Coromandel, at Travancore, Tuticorin, and other places, the 
shells being brought up by divers in about two or three fathoms of 
water. Those taken with the animal in, and called green chanks. 



TURBINELLA. 01) 

from having the epidermis on, are most in demand. The white 
chanks, or dead shells thrown upon the beach by strong tides, 
having lost their enamel, are scarcely worth the cost of freight 
to Calcutta. The number obtained varies considerably in differ- 
ent years, according to the weather and the success attending the 
divers. Frequently four or five millions of these shells are 
shipped in a year from the Gulf of Manaar. In some years the 
value of the rough shells, as imported into Madras and Calcutta, 
reaches ten to fifteen thousand pounds sterling. A few hundreds 
are occasionally imported into Calcutta from the Arabian and 
Persian Gulfs. The chank fishery of Ceylon at one time employed 
six hundred divers, and yielded a revenue to the island govern- 
ment of 4000 per annum for licenses. The fishery is now free. 

These shells are often used as oil vessels or lamps in Indian 
temples, for which purpose they are carved and sculptured or 
otherwise ornamented. A reversed chank is so highty prized for 
its rarity as sometimes to sell in Calcutta for its weight in gold, 
or at from forty to fifty pounds sterling. In Ceylon, also, the 
reversed variety is held sacred by the priests, who administer 
medicine by it. This shell, from its weight and smoothness, is 
used in Dacca for calendering or glazing cotton, and in "Nepal 
for giving a polished surface to paper. 

The principal demand for these shells is for making bangles 
or armlets and anklets, and the manufacture is still almost con- 
fined to Dacca. The shell is cut or sliced into segments of 
circles, or narrow rings of various sizes, by a rude semicircular 
saw, the hands and toes being both actively employed in the 
operation (PL 3, fig. 34 \ Some of these bangles, worn by the 
Hindoo women, are beautiful!}' painted, gilded and ornamented 
with gems. 

The shell rings are coated inside with plaster to smooth the 
roughness. Filagree-bordered edges of plaster are also added ; 
patterns and devices of red, blue and gold are figured on them, and 
they are further ornamented with silver or gold tinsel, spangles, 
small colored glass beads, etc. The larger bracelets, formed 
of many segments, are made to open to admit the hand, by 
two spiral pins, w r hich unscrew and let out the piece (PI. 3, 
fig. 33). These bangles are not removed at death, and hence 



70 TURBINELLA. 

there is a continual demand for them, many wearing several, 
both on the legs and arms.* 

In India, China and Siam the chank shell is highly prized, 
especialty a sinistral variety found on the coasts of Tranquebar 
and Ceylon, and *made use of by the Cingalese in some of their 
most sacred rites. Such reversed shells are held in special ven- 
eration in China, where great prices are given for them. They 
are kept in the pagodas by the priests, and are not only employed 
by them on certain special occasions as the sacred vessels from 
which they administer medicine to the sick; but it is in one of these 
sinistrorsal turbinellas that the consecrated oil is kept with which 
the emperor is anointed at his coronation. These shells are 
often curiously ornamented with elaborate carvings. The tur- 
binella is so extensively emploj^ed in ornamental manufactures 
in the East Indies that upwards of four million shells have been 
exported in a single year from Ce3 T lon to the ports of Calcutta 
and Madras; these are chiefly emplo} r ed in making armlets and 
anklets, which are often highly ornamented and are known by 
the name of bangles. The mamillary apex of the shell is made 
into a button or bead; the latter are called krantahs, and neck- 
laces of these are so commonly worn by the Sepoys in the East 
India service as almost to be deemed a regular part of their 
uniform. f 

T. OVOIDEA, Keiner. PI. 19, fig. 4 

Whorls smooth or obsoletely striated ; pinkish white, under a 
thin, smooth, horny epidermis. Length, 4-6 inches. 

Bahia, Coast of Brazil. 

Occurs numerously in the miocene of Santo Domingo, West 
Indies. 

T. SCOLYMUS, Gmelin. PI. 20, fig. 8. 

Yellowish white, under a thin, fibrous, olive epidermis; colu- 
mella and interior flesh-pink. Length, 8-10 inches. 

Bahia, Brazil; West Indies? 

The largest species in the genus and one of the largest of uni- 
valve mollusca. Fine specimens occur in the miocene of Santo 



* Simmonds' Commercial Products of the Sea, 288. 
v Wilson, Canad. Nat., iii, 400, 1858. 



VASUM. 71 

Domingo, and the West Indies is given as habitat in tho " < 1 on- 
divlien Cabinet," but the species does not occur in the Swift 
Collection, and I think there is no other authority for this 
locality. The young shell is so covered with nodules and revolv- 
ing ribs as to be readily mistaken for another species. The 
revolving sculpture disappears and the nodules become fewer 
and more prominent with advancing age. This and the next 
species do not fall completely within the generic characters of 
Turbinella; the sculpture and nodules indicate a transition to 
Vasum, but they have not the elaborate ornamentation of the 
latter genus particularly its spinose fasciole. 

T. rusus, Sowb. PI. 20, fig. 9. 

White, covered with a thick, fibrous epidermis tufted in rows. 

Length, 7 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The tufting occurs upon the distant revolving riblets. It is 
possible that this is a specimen of T. scolymus, in which the 
development of the tubercles has been partially arrested. 

(K'nus VA.SQM, Bolten. 

Y. MURIATICUM, Born. PI. 20, figs. it^H ; PL 21, fig. 19. 

White, covered with a rather thick, fibrous brown epidermis ; 
columella tinged with rose-color. Length, 3'5-5*5 inches. 

West Indies; Panama; Mazatlan. 

Reeve attempts to distinguish V. csestus, Brod. (fig. 12), from 
the Bay of Caraccas, by its having broader furrows, larger 
tubercles and only four instead of five plaits on the columella, 
but these characters vary considerably in the numerous speci- 
mens before me. The fifth plait is merely an incipient one 
which sometimes occurs between the normal upper plait and the 
next one below it. The West Coast specimens which I have 
examined are all four-plaited, and this corresponds with Carpen- 
ter's remark upon them in his li Mazatlan Catalogue." I think 
that T. Crosseana, Souv. (fig. 19), described from a single 
specimen, the locality of which was doubtful, is probably only a 
worn individual of this species. 

V. RHINOCEROS, Gmelin. PL 21, figs. 13, 14. 

Variegated, whitish and chestnut -brown ; columella and 



72 VASUM. 

interior of shell brown or pink; columellar plaits three in 
number. Length, 2'5-3 inches. 

Zanzibar; Carthagena, N. O.; BaMa, Brazil. 

V. Cassidiforme, Yal. (fig. 14), is merely a more perfect 
growth of this species, the revolving sculpture being squamous. 
The expansion of the posterior part of the aperture, that of the 
columellar callus, the more distant nodes on the shoulder of the 
body-whorl serve to distinguish this from the preceding species. 

Y. CBRAMICUM, Linn. PL 20, fig. 10 ; PI. 21, figs. 15, 18. 

Yellowish white and black, variegated, stained and irregularly 
banded ; outer lip usually black-bordered within. 

Length, 3*5-6 inches. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

V. armatum, Brod. (fig. 10), is the juvenile of this species, and 
V. vexillulum, Reeve (fig. 15), is a still younger state. 

Y. IMPERIALS, Reeve. PL 21, fig. 23. 

Whitish, scorched with brown, tubercles blackish ; interior 
white, columella stained with rich purple-brown. 

Length, 3*5 inches. 

Philippines, on the reefs. Cuming. 

The upper spines are more luxuriantly foliaceous than in 
F. ceramicum, and the spire shorter; in form, this shell appears 
to connect the latter with V. cornigerum. Turbinella tubigera. 
Anton, an un figured species, may be the same. 

Y. TURBINELLUM, Linn. PI. 21, figs. 16, 20-22. 

Yellowish white and chestnut-black, stained and obscurely 
banded ; aperture yellowish white, border of lip black-spotted. 

Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Red Sea, Moluccas, Philippines, Mauritius, Central Polynesia. 

A rather smaller, but proportionately heavier, shell than 
F. ceramic um, with a much shorter spire. 

Messrs. Adams and Reeve* state that the animal crawls with 
difficulty, appearing to labor under the weight of its heavy shell 
as the tortoise does with its carapace. Turbinella variolaria, 
Lam. (fig. 16), is a very young individual of this species, as 
demonstrated by a series of specimens before me. 



* Yoy. Samarang, 48. 



VOLUTION. 73 

V. < APITKLLUM, Linn. PI. 19, fig. 25 ; PI. 21, fig. 24. 
Yi'llowish white, or light brown. Length, 2-3 inches. 

West Indie*. 

V. milt's, Lam. (fig. 25), is a depauperate shell, not adult. 
V. (iLOBULiis, Lam. PI. 21, fig. 17. 

Yellowish brown, the revolving ribs whitish; interior of 
aperture and columella flesh-pink. Length, 1'25-1'75 inches. 

W. Africa; West Indies. 

Family YOLUTID^E. 

The shells of this family are conspicuous and showy, and 
many of them rare ; like the Cypraeidse and Conidae, the acqui- 
sition of fine collections is frequently deemed worthy the 
expenditure of much time and money, and information upon the 
classification and determination of the species is eagerty sought. 
The consequences of this state of things are a large number of 
so-called species erected out of mere individual variations and a 
succession of classifications, each vying with the other in com- 
plexity. Neither the anatomy of the animals nor the differences 
between the shells justify the numerous generic divisions which 
have been proposed, and I gladly follo\v one of the latest as well 
as the most judicious of systematists,Mr. H. Crosse, in reducing 
most of them to mere groups within the genus Yoluta. H. and 
A. Adams included a classification of Yolutidtv in their wk Genera 
of Recent Mollnsca," Yol. 1, 1853. They were shortly followed 
by Dr. J. E. Gray, in " Zool. proceedings, 1 ' 1855, " Catalogue of 
the British Museum," xxvii, 1855, and " Guide to the Mollusca," 
1857. The latter was partiall}' adopted, and partially adapted 
to their former system by Messrs. Adams, in the "Appendix" 
to their work, published in 1858. Crosse's arrangement of the 
Yolutes was published in "Journal de Conchyliologie," 3 ser. vi, 
105, 18G6; and xi, 203, 1871. Finally, Mr. Win. M. Gabb 
published a modified version of Dr. Gray's system, including, 
however, the fossil genera, omitted by his predecessors. (Proc. 
Philad. Acad., 286, 187(5.) 

Two subfamilies have been made by Gray, Gill and others, 
based primarilj' upon differences in the lingual dentition. One 
of them, containing the genera Amoria and Volutimitra of Gray, 
10 



74 VOLUTID^E. 

is instituted upon the examination of the dentition of a single 
species in each of these genera. That of Amoria Turneri, Gray, 
has been supposed by some conchologists to be an error on the 
part of that very able but exceedingly hasty and careless 
observer, as it appears to correspond very closely with that of a 
nudibranchiate mollusk, Favorinus albus, Alder and Hancock.* 
The dentition of Volutimitra Grcenlandica is similar, but with 
the addition of lateral teeth. We are not willing to remove a 
number of tropical species heretofore classed in this genus along 
with this single boreal one, from the Mitridae to the Yolutidae, 
merely upon the evidence of the armature of this one species. 
The shell of Volutimitra has no intimate relationship with 
Voluta, but it is essentially a Mitrid. Gray included a consid- 
erable number of species of Marginellidse in his subfamily 
Volutimitrina, but these were excluded by H. and A. Adams. 
It remains to specify an entirely different type of dentition, as 
discovered by Dr. P. Fischer in Valuta musica, which approaches 
that of species of Marginellidae. It is evident that such diversity 
in the few tongues examined must be fatal to the classification 
of the group upon this character, until we shall have determined 
the dentition of every species before assigning to it a definitive 
position. Fischer thus tabulates the dentition of the family, as 
far as known : 

f 1. Tooth tricuspid, with large lateral points. 
Cymbium, Melo, Voluta, Lyria. (PI. 2, 
figs. 2, 3,4, 7.) 

1. Formula : 1 0. \ 2. Tooth unicuspid, with concave base. 

Amoria. (PI. 2, fig. 5.) 
3. Tooth multicuspid, very transverse. 
[ Voluta musica. (PI. 2, fig. 6.) 

2. Formula : 1 1 1. Volutimitra. (PI. 2, fig. 8.) 

This last form I place in Mitridae, as explained above. 

Volutes are rarely collected with their animals, except when 
they are accidentally thrown ashore after a storm. They have 
therefore been said to live in the depths of the sea. The reason 
they are not found is that, like the Naticae,they bury themselves 
under the surface as soon as the water falls and the sand is left 



* Morch, Jour, de Conch., xv, 241, 1867. 



VOLUTION. 75 

dry by the tide; they are only to be procured by digging for 
them, or when a violent storm disturbs the sand and throws 
them on the beach.* 

The above remark is upon Australian species, but those of the 
southern extremity of South America are also found numerously 
in shallow water, feeding on Mytilus, etc.; nevertheless other 
species have been dredged from great depths, as V. papillosa at 
1900 fathoms. 

The cavity of the nucleus in a cut specimen of the shell of 
V. vespertilio is nearly entirely filled with an amber-colored 
pellucid calcareous deposit ; and the whole of the rest of the 
cavity is lined with a thick glossy deposit. In a cut specimen 
of V. Hebraea (the nucleus of which is destroyed) the cavity of 
the upper whorl is quite filled with a white glossy deposit, and a 
similar deposit lines the whole of the inner cavity of the shell.f 

Synopsi.v of Genera. 

* No operculum. (An operculum in V. musica.) 

CYMBIUM, Klein. Shell oval-oblong, ventricose, thin; spire short, 
nucleus large, globular, forming an obtuse papillary apex; whorls few, 
forming a flat edge around the nucleus; aperture oblong, wide; colu- 
mella with several oblique plaits; outer lip thin, simple. Dentition, 
PI. 2, fig. 2. 

MELO, Humphrey. Shell large, subovate, ventricose, thin; spire short, 
apex obtuse, papillary, persistent; whorls smooth, the last posteriorly 
coronated; aperture oblong, wide; columella with several oblique plaits, 
the anterior the largest; outer lip simple, acute, obliquely truncate in 
front. Dentition, PI. 2, fig. 3. 

VOLUTA, Linn. Shell ovate or subconical, thick, solid; spire usually 
short; shoulder of whorls usually angulated, sometimes nodose or 
spinous; aperture generally rather narrow; columella with a callous 
deposit and plaited; lip generally thickened, sometimes sub reflected. 
Dentition, PL 2, figs. 4-6. 

* * With operculum. 

[VoLUTOLYRiA, Crosse. Shell with the obconic form of Valuta, 
longitudinally plicate; columella numerously plaited; operculate. 

Unites the form and solidity of Valuta with the smaller size and 



* Dr. J. E. Gray, Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 310, 1868. 
tGray, Beechey's Voy., 134. 



76 VULUTID^E, 

numerons plaits of Lyria. Differs from Valuta in possessing an oper- 
culum, and in dentition. I am unable to follow Mr. Crosse in this 
separation from Valuta, for several reasons: 

1st. The dentition of only a single species ( V. muxica} of the Volutes 
with numerous columellar plaits has been examined, and there are 
others, V. Hebraa, for instance, which cannot be separated concho- 
logically from V. musica, but the dentition of which is unknown. 

2d. The assumed type of dentition of Valuta rests upon the examina- 
tion of only three or four among the numerous species of the genus it 
may differ widely in some of the others 

3d. The presence of an operculum is proven in V. musica, but its 
absence is not proven in most of the Volutes, although we know it to be 
absent in several of them. The presence or absence of an operculum 
has but little value in the classification of some groups; indeed it is well 
developed or absent in the same species occasionally, as in Volutharpa, 
etc. 

4th. If we assume V. Hebrcea and V. nirescens to be, with V. musica, 
Volutolyriae, what shall we do with the groups Harpula and Fulgorari.i, 
which form the passage into the Volutes with few plaits ? 

5tb. If we adopt Valuta, Linn, or even the restricted Valuta of Gray, 
in either case V. musica is the type, and if a new name is required it is 
for those species the characters of which are different from V. musica. ] 

LYRIA, Gray. Shell ovately fusiform, solid; spire acuminate; whorls 
longitudinally ribbed; aperture ovate, rather narrow; columella with 
numerous transverse plaits; outer lip simple, acute. Dentition, PI. 2, 
fig. 7. 

The species are smaller than in Valuta, and Mitraeform, connecting 
with the genus Mitra. 

MICROVOLUTA, Angas. Shell small, ovately fusiform, solid, smooth, 
shining; spire as long as the aperture, apex papillary; whorls simple; 
aperture narrowly ovate; columella with four strong transverse plaits, 
the anterior one the smallest; outer lip thin, simple, slightly contracted 
at the base; base rounded, spout-shaped, with a rlexuous bend upwards 
towards the columella, which is a little thickened and reflected below 
the plaits. 

The above description is drawn up from the only known species, and 
probably many of its characters are of slight importance. The animal 
is unfortunately unknown. 

Fossil Genera. 

The following groups are enumerated by W. M. Gabb. They should 
probably all be considered as subgeneric under Valuta rather than as 
distinct genera. 



VOLUTID^;. 77 

VOLUTODERMA, Gabb. Shape similar to Fulgorariui, which it also 
resembles more or less in surface sculpture; apex not papillate; inner 
lip marked by from three to five well marked folds, not very oblique, 
and of pretty uniform size. This is a group of shells characteristic of 
the cretaceous rocks and perhaps peculiar to them. They aix all 
somewhat slender, and are marked by longitudinal ribs; the columella 
is always straight or nearly so, and the folds are as isolated and distinct 
as those of Turbinella. But the most strongly distinguishing character 
is the entire absence of the irregularly rounded mass at the apex of the 
shell, one of the best characters of Fulgoraria. Cretaceous of United 
States, Europe and India. 

V. NAVARROENSIS, Gabb. PI. 4, fig. 44. California. 

VOLUTOMORPHA, Gabb. Shell elongate, fusiform; whorls cancellated 
by longitudinal and revolving ribs; columella with one very oblique 
fold, and sometimes one or more smaller secondary folds. 

V. CONRADI, Gabb. PL 4, fig. 45. A cast. Cretaceous, New Jersey. 

ROSTELLITES, Conrad. Narrow, subulate, with elongated spire, 
numerous subequal plaits on the columella, and the outer lip somewhat 
expanded anteriorly. 

R. TEX AN A, Conr. PI. 4, fig. 4G. Cretaceous, Texas. 

VOLUTIFUSUS, Conrad. Fusiform; body- whorl finely striated or 
smooth, with the exception of the shoulder, which is sometimes 
tuberculated; columella plaited, folds two to three, sometimes very 
prominent, oblique; apex papillated; initial whorl acute, subspiral, 
narrow; beak produced, recurved or sinuous.* Miocene of Europe and 
America. 

V. TYPDS, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 36. North Carolina. 

ATHLETA, Conrad. Ovate, Voluta- shaped; spire short, acute; columella 
with plaits as in Voluta; a callus projecting on the shoulder, and 
covering a portion of the spire. Cretaceous, Miocene of Europe. 

A. TUOMEYI, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 37. Mississippi. 

LEtODERMA, Conrad. Shell largely covered with enamel; with very 
oblique columellar folds; outer lip somewhat emarginate on the upper 
part to its junction with the body-whorl' base deeply emarginate. 

L. LEIODERMA, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 38. Cretaceous, Mississippi. 

PTYCHORIS, Gabb. Differs from Athleta in the want of the charac- 
teristic callus, in being subglobular instead of subfusiform and 
angulated, with very oblique folds on the anterior part of the columella. 

P. PURPURIFORMIS, Forbes. PI. 4, fig. 47. Cretaceous, India. 

* I am by no means convinced that Volutifusus should be separated 
from Scaphella. Gabb. 



78 CYMB1UM. 

[FicULOPSis, Stoliczka, referred by him to the Volutidas, is a Ficus with 
the addition of columellar folds. I agree with Mr. Gabb in including 
it in the Ficulidse = Pyrulidse.] 

PLEIOPTYGMA, Conrad. Subfusiform; aperture long; col umella with 
very oblique plaits, numerous, alternated in size, or irregular; the 
largest being the second one from above. 

P. CAROLINENSIS, Conrad. PL 4, fig. 48. Miocene, 80. Carolina. 

CRYPTOCHORDA, Morch. Shell smooth, Volutiform, enameled; 
columelia without plications. Tertiary. Seems to connect Valuta 
with Harpa. 

C. STKOMBOIDES, Gmel. PL 4 fig. 47. Tertiary, France. 

[OTOCHEILUS, Conrad. An uncharacterized genus placed by its author 
in Volutidse. The type is lost, but the second species, 0. Miesissippt- 
ensis, Conrad, has been referred by Prof. Heilprin to Cythara in 
Pleurotomidse - to which determination I agree,] 

GOSAVIA, Stoliczka. Shell convolute, spire turbinated, last whorl 
inversely conical 5 aperture narrowly elongate, base emarginate; lip 
sinuate at the suture; columelia plicated, anterior plicse strongest. 
Cretaceous, Europe and India. 

Stoliczka refers this genus to ConidaB, as he does also doubtfully 
Imbricaria and Cylindra, which he considers closely related. The two 
latter are known to be in no way closely related to Conus, and Gosavia 
possesses every characteristic of a Volute; indeed I cannot separate it 
readily from such forms as V. musica. 

G. INDICA, Stol. PL 4, fig. 49. India. 

Genus CYMBIUM, Klein. 

The animal is large compared to the size of the shell, when 
expanded* The foot partially covers the shell, which is sunk 
into its substance. There is no operculum, Ovoviviparous; the 
young when born being of a large size and covered with a shell 
with a large irregular callous apex, They leave the parent when 
they have attained a length of about an inch ; the brood appear- 
ing to consist of four or five individuals. Adanson observes 
that the high winds of April cast the " yet " up in such vast 
quantities as sometimes to cover the shore ; the natives of 
Senegal using them as food, The species are limited in distri- 
bution ; one being an inhabitant of the Mediterranean Sea, the 
others of the West Coast of Africa. 

Cymbium is separated from Melo by its flat or slightly 



CYMBIUM. 7') 

channeled shoulder and want of coronal spines. When fresh, 
the epidermis- is more or less covered by a thin gla/c deposited 
by the enveloping mantle. 

Gray, Reeve and Sowerby have published monographs of this 
genus; the two latter with illustrations. For the figures of 
Cymbium, Melo and Valuta, in the present work, I am mainly 
indebted to Sowerby 's Thesaurus ; they are usually much reduced 
in size, but the dimensions of the species are indicated in my text. 

(\ PROBOSCIDALE, Lam. PL 22, figs. 1-4. 

Yellowish brown, or light salmon-color ; epidermis very thin, 
brown, over which the mantle of the animal deposits a thin glaze; 
columellar plaits four in the adult, of w r hich the last is small. 

Length, 1 inch to a foot or more. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

C.porcinum, Lam. (figs. 3, 4) is the young of this species, 
having only two columellar plaits, and the ends of the shell not 
so attenuately contracted ; it has generally been distinguished as 
a species with some doubt, but the specimens before me afford 
good evidence of the gradual evolution of proboscidale from por- 
cinum. Between the glaze and the epidermis particles of sand 
and even small organic bodies are frequently imprisoned ; the 
former giving the surface a minutely pustulate appearance, 

C. RUBIGIMOSUM, Swains. PI. 22, fig. 6. 

There is some little difference of form between this and the 
last species, but I scarcely think them distinct. It was referred 
to Australia by Sowerby, and misunderstood and made a synonym 
of C. cymbium (not of Linn) by Dr. Gray = C. cisium, Lam. 
Its true locality is N. W. Coast of Africa. Length, 4-5 inches. 

C. CISIUM, Lam. PI. 22, figs. 5, 7, 8. 

Shell light yellowish brown, elegantly marbled with chestnut. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

W. Africa. 

Gray and others have referred C. cymbium, L., to this species, 
but the evidence given by Mr. Reeve that the true C. cymbium 
= C. proboscidale is pretty conclusive.* C. yracile, Brod, 
(figs. 5,8), appears to be a form of this shell. 

* Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser. vii, 271. 



80 

C. NEPTDNI, Gmel. PL 22, figs. 9-12 ; PI. 1, fig". 3. 

Yellowish or reddish brown. Length, 6-10 inches. 

W. Africa. 

C. Tritonis, Brod. (fig. 10), is a synonym. The shell when 
young and in good condition, is frequently mottled with lighter 
and darker brown, and this color-variety has received the name 
of C. Navicula, Gmel. C. patulum, Brod. (fig. 11), is another 
synonj^m. I figure, actual size, a quite young individual, with 
protruding spire (fig. 12) which afterwards becomes immersed in 
the succeeding whorls. 

C. OLLA, Linn. PL 22, fig. 13. 

Pale fulvous. Columella two-plaited. Length, 3'5-5 inches. 
Southern Spanish shores of the Mediterranean, 

N. W. A/rich, Portugal, Canaries. 

Genus MELO, Humph re}'. 

The apex of the shell is spiral, regular, very different from the 
shapeless apex of Cymbium. The distribution of Melo is exclu- 
sively tropical and exotic, ranging from the Indian Ocean to 
Australia. Messrs. Adams state that the animal of this genus, like 
Cymbium, is ovoviviparous, the young ones being arranged in 
the oviduct of the female in a long string, without egg-shells. 

* Spire covered or enclosed, unarmed. 
M. INDICA, Gmelin. PL 23, fig. 14. 

Lemon-yellow to orange-color, with two or three revolving- 
zones of tessellated spots ; sometimes without spots when large. 
Epidermis very thin, light olive, not often seen on cabinet 

specimens. Length, 6-9 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 

* * Spire exposed, not produced, surrounded by decumbent spines. 
M. TESSELLATA, Lam. PL 23, figs. 15, 16. 

Yellowish or orange, under a light olive epidermis, with or 
without two or three revolving zones of brown tessellations. 
Length, 6 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 

The species of coronated Melos are very hard to separate, and 



Reev( 
so-cal 



MELO. 81 

in fact, the number and direction of the spines vary so in differ- 
ent species that the distinction appears very arbitrary. 

* * * Spire exposed, not produced, spines erect, spreading. 
M. ^ETHIOPICA, Linn. PL 23, figs. 1*7-21. 

Yellowish or orange; generally maculated and tessellated 
with chestnut, usually in revolving zones. Length, 6-12 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Manilla, Japan. 

In deference to the opinion of the British conchologists, the 
following " species " may retain their names as stages of variation 
in the form, coloration and development of spines. It is easy 
to point out from the numerous excellent illustrations given by 
eeve and Sowerby, how these authors differ in estimating these 
led species, and how even some of their figures refute their 
arguments for distinctness. 

Var. EEGIA, Schubert. Fig. 18. 

Yellowish brown, with zones of white blotches. 
Yar. NAUTICA, Linn. PL 23, fig. 19. 

Spines close-set, converging towards the apex (also towards 
M. tessellata, very decidedly). Length, 6-8 inches. 

Yar. BRODERIPII, Gray. PL 23, figs. 20-21. 

Spines very numerous, small. Length, 8-14 inches. 

M. DIADEMA, Lam. PL 23, figs. 22-28. 

Yariable in proportions but generally more narrow than M. 
JEthiopica ; spines few and long. Yellowish, marked with 
chestnut, frequently forming two interrupted zones connected 
by irregular or zigzag markings. Epidermis thin, light olive. 

Length, 6-13 inches. 

Indian Ocean; Australia. 

Its narrower coronal, and the few long spines composing it are 
the best distinctive characters from M. jEthiopica. As in that 
species I include here as varieties, several forms which have 
been heretofore considered distinct. M. armata, Lam. (figs. 24, 
25), is a synonym. 

Yar. DUCALIS, Lam. 

This, and its synonym M. umbilicata, Brod. (fig. 26), are more 
11 



82 VOLUTA. 

elaborately painted than the type, the inter-zonal markings form- 
ing an elaborate network of chestnut-brown veins. 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 

I am unable to separate from this variet} T the shell described 
by Dr. J. E. Gray as M. Georginse. Mr. Reeve speaks in a 
knowing manner of " a separate system of characters in M. 
ducale and M. Georginse" distinguishing the*m from diadema, 
but he neglects to point out these distinctions. 

Yar. MILTONIS, Gray. Fig. 28. 

Shell more cylindrical, consequently showing more of the 

spire. 

Swan River, Australia. 

Genus VOLUTA, Linn. 

The animal is essentially like those of Cymbium and Melo, 
but the mantle is not usually so greatly expanded, nor is the 
foot proportionally so large. 

This genus is oviparous, at least the South American species 
are so, and M. Duhant-Cilly has given us some interesting par- 
ticulars concerning them.* He noticed the Yolutes in clear 
shallow water in Magellan's Straits, and, with the aid of natives, 
procured specimens which nearly all grasped dead shells of 
Venus exalbida, a common bivalve of that locality. Upon ex- 
amining these shells they were found to contain within the cavity 
of one of the valves, a round, slightly convex membrane, com- 
parable for size and transparency with a watch-glass. The 
contents appeared to be merely a milky fluid in some cases, but 
in others, the egg having advanced further in development, three 
or four small, but perfectly formed Yolutes could be seen swim- 
ming in the fluid, which had become transparent. D'Orbigny 
also "I" collected large numbers of these eggs, and in the month of 
February saw the j^oung Yolutes, four of five in number, in each. 
The containing membrane, which becomes corneous, he describes 
as 80 to 100 millimetres in length, more than half the size of the 
animal which lays it, and he conjectures that it expands after 
coming into contact with the water. 



* Revue Zoologique, 167, 1840. f Voy. Am. Merid., 424. 



VOLUTA. 83 

Voluta of Linnaeus, Lamarck, and other old authors, com- 
prised many species of other genera, but in restricting it more 
and more, until the advanced school of conchologists have left 
to it but a couple of species, the citation of Linnaeus as its author 
has generally been retained. Mr. H. Crosse has, however, 
eliminated from the genus thus restricted, the F. musica, which 
is the first actual Voluta in Linnaeus' list (after a crowd of 
Auriculae, Columbell8e,Marginellae, Mitrids). In compensation, 
he has reduced the numerous genera of H. and A. Adams, and 
Gray, to sections, retaining Voluta in something like the same 
comprehensive sense as that in which we use Helix, Fissurella, 
Pleurotoma and other old generic names. These " sections " are 
rather circumscribed geographically, yet the range of the entire 
genus is very great, including the Indian Ocean, Japan, Alaska, 
Australia, Eastern Polynesia, Atlantic coasts of Southern South 
America, to West Indies, Southern Africa, etc. No species 
exists in the seas of Europe, although they were numerous 
during the tertiary epoch ; F. abyssicola, an African species, is 
the sole surviving representative of the group to which most of 
these small tertiary species belonged. Australia is the metropolis 
of the Volutes, and, as M. Crosse remarks, a triangle the res- 
pective points of which shall include Ceylon, Japan and New 
Zealand will cover the habitats of about 80 per cent, of the 
species. 

Sect. 1. Voluta (typical), Gray. 

Longitudinally plicate, plicae becoming prominent on the 
shoulder, colum'ella with four or five principal plaits, and several 
smaller ones. Operculum (of F. musica) fusoid, narrowly 
elongated, with terminal nucleus. 

V. MUSICA, Linn. PI. 24, figs. 29-34, 38. 

Color generally pale yellowish or brownish, punctate, strigate 
and clouded with chestnut and other colors, with three revolving, 
more or less distinct bands of distant, parallel, fuscous lines, 
crossed by strigations ; these bands are bordered by a row of 
dark spots, and the space between these rows is finely punctate 
with chestnut ; outer lip dark chocolate, or chestnut-spotted. 

Length, 2-4 inches. 

West Indies. 



84 HARPULA. 

The coloration varies greatly, as does also the degree of de- 
velopment of the plications, causing Lamarck and others, before 
this great variability became known, to describe different forms 
of the species under distinct specific names. These are V. 
thiarella, Lam. (fig. 31) ; 7. Guinaica, Lam. (fig. 32 ) ; 7. carneolata, 
Lam.; 7. laevigatdj Lam.; 7. sulcata, Lam. (fig. 33); and 7. 
polypleura, Crosse (fig. 34) ; the latter being the most distinctive 
of these varietal forms. I add a figure of the animal, with 
operculum (fig. 38); the dentition is also illustrated (PI. 2, fig. 6). 

V. VIRESCENS, Solander. PL 24, figs. 35, 36. 

Light chestnut or ash color, with distant white bands ; fre- 
quently numerous punctations of dark chestnut color are 
scattered over the surface ; outer lip with dark spots. 

Length, 2'5 inches. 

West Coast of Africa. 

7. pusio, Swainson (fig. 36), is a short form of this species, 
the surface in a worn condition. 

Y. HEBR^A, Linn. PL 24, figs. 37, 40. 

Ovate, thick, pale fulvous with undulated angular vein-like 
lines of chocolate color, and sometimes interrupted bands of the 
same. Length, 3'5-4*5 inches. 

West Coast of Africa. Brazil (Niigely !) 

Yar. TURBINATA, Kiener. Fig. 40. 

Darker reddish brown, without the hieroglyphic markings of 
the type-form. 

Sect. 2. Harpula, Swains. 

Shell oval-conic, spire with a papilliform but small summit ; 
columella with larger plaits below, and additional smaller ones 
above, but less numerous than in the preceding section ; exterior 
lip thickened within, sharp without. 

Y. INTERPUNCTA, Martyn. PL 24, fig. 39. 

Flesh-color with numerous revolving series of chestnut linear 
spots, and frequently, under them, two or three series of revolv- 
ing much larger and paler spots, sometimes also with longitudinal 
chestnut streaks. Length, 2-5 -3'5 inches. 

Ceylon ; Indian Ocean. 



= 



FULGORARIA. 85 

Reeve says, " I quite agree with Mr. Sowerby in the propriety 
of abandoning the (earlier Linnaean) name Lapponica given to 
this species, indicating a country and climate in which such 
a mollusk could not by any possibility exist. Instead of inhabit- 
ing the Arctic shores of Lapland, it is a native of the seas of 
tropical India. The error did not, however, originate with 
Linnaeus. The species was known before his time to Dutch 
naturalists, as the Lapphoorn or Lapphoren, signifying the Flap- 
Ear or Dog's-Ear Shell. This seems to have been corrupted into 
Ailee Laponne,Alata Lapponica, Voluta Lappomca,smd. Meuschen 
and Rumphius compounded the name Laplandsche Lapphoorn. 
It only remains a matter of wonder that, whilst Seba described the 
species as an exotic shell from India, the error should have 

mained so long unexplained." 

Y. VEXILLUM, Lam. PI. 31, fig. 153. 

Flesh-color, with distant orange revolving bands, and some- 
times narrower intermediate ones ; occasionally the surface is 
longitudinally clouded with orange in addition to the above 
specific pattern. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 
Sect. 3. Fulgoraria, Schumacher. 

Shell oblong-fusiform ; spire moderately elongated, terminated 
by a papillary summit with the apex lateral, instead of central 
and vertical as usual in spiral shells ; surface plicate longitudin- 
ally, crossed by engraved revolving lines ; columellar plaits six 
or seven, or more ; lip thickened within, its margin slightly 
crenulate. 

The swollen bead-like apex, the initial whorl of which is lateral, 
is a curious feature of this group, which may indicate some 
important difference in the development of the mollusk which is 
so far unknown to science. 

V. RUPESTRIS, Gmelin. PL 24, figs. 41, 42. 

Yellowish flesh-color, with zigzagged longitudinal chestnut 
lines ; interior flesh-color. Length, 3-6 inches. 

China, Japan. 

V. Hamillei, Crosse (fig. 41), is described from a large, yet 
immature specimen of V. rupestris, as indicated by Lischke in 
his work on the Japanese Mollusca. 



86 VESPERTIL1O. 

Sect. 4. Vespertilio, Klein. 

Shell oval-oblong, more or less ventricose. Spire terminated 
by a regularly spiral summit, papilliform, but having an appar- 
ently crenulated nucleus, caused by the presence of numerous 
little tubercles, more or less apparent. Columella four-plaited. 

Y. VESPERTILIO, Linn. PI. 25, figs. 43-49, 52. 

Yellowish flesh-color, covered by an irregular network of 
chestnut brown, which is occasionally confluent into broad 

angulated blotches. Length, 3-5 inches. 

Philippines Moluccas. 

One of the most variable species in form, development of 
spines and folds, and coloring. I figure F. pellis-serpentis. Lam. 
(fig. 46)}! V. mitis, Lam. (fig. 49)yF. serpentina, Lam. (fig. 4T), 
and F. lineolata, Kiister (fig. 52). Also a reversed specimen 
(fig. 45). 

Y. PULCHRA, Sowerby. PL 25, figs. 50, 51. 

Pale flesh-color, with white specks, and small chestnut dots, 
irregularly disposed in three bands. Length, 2*5-3 inches. 

N. and N. E. Australia. 

V. Wisemani, Brazier (fig. 51), is acknowledged by its author 
to be a variety only, of F. pulchra. 

Y. NIVOSA, Lam-. PI. 25, fig. 53. 

Grayish flesh-color, sprinkled with small white specks ; with 
two revolving bands, consisting of longitudinal, subparallel, 
more or less interrupted chestnut-colored lines ; columella and 
aperture saffron-yellow. Length, 2*5-3'5 inches. 

W. Coast of Australia. 
Y. NORRISII, Gray. . PI. 25, fig. 55. 

Grayish brown, flecked with white and less numerously with 
brown ; there are two interrupted bands of darker color, here 
and there marked with longitudinal lines ; the shoulder also is 
darker and strigate with brown ; aperture light chocolate within. 

Length, 2*5-3 inches. 

W. Coast of Australia. 

The markings on the bands frequently assume a somewhat 
irregular checker-board appearance. Dr. Gray described this 
species in 1838, and Sowerby (probably finding a specimen 






AULICA. 87 

labeled, but without authority for the name attached) redescribed 
it under the same name in 1844 ; since then, the species has been 
quoted in all the monographs as well as in Crosse's list as 
Sowerby's, and Gray himself, forgetting that he had described it, 
quotes it as of Sowerby in his British Museum monograph. 

Y. SOPHIA, Gray. PI. 25, fig. 57. 

Yellowish white, with two interrupted darker bands, which 
are bordered on either side by a line of chestnut spots. 

Length, 2*5 inches. 

W. Coast of Australia. 
Perhaps a variety of V. Norrisii. 

Y. RUTILA, Brod. PI. 25, figs. 56, 54. 

Shell variegated, whitish and saffron-red, forming subtrigonal 
blotches, and irregular veins, and usually indicating obscurely 
by their confluence and broadening two revolving bands ; some- 
times slightly tuberculate on the shoulder ; aperture salmon-red 
within. Length, 3-3'5 inches. 

N. E. Coast of Australia ; New Guinea. 

Yar. INNEXA, Reeve. Fig. 54. 

Lighter colored, tuberculate. 

Louisiade Islands, near New Guinea. 

Y. PIPERITA, Sowb. PL 26, fig. 60 ; PI. 27, figs. 75, 76, 78. 

Finely netted and peppered with orange-red on a whitish ground, 
with three interrupted bands of large orange-red spots, and 
columella and interior of aperture same tint. 

Length, 2'5-3 inches. 

Solomon 7s., Woodlark IsL, near New Guinea. 

y V. Ruckeri, Crosse (fig. 75), V. Macgillivrayi, Cox (fig. 76), 
and V. Ceraunia, Crosse (fig. 78), are all mere color-varieties of 
this species. 

Sect. 5. Aulica, H. and A. Adams. 

Agreeing with the preceding section in general form and 
principal characters, the summit of the spire differs in having a 
completely smooth instead of a tuberculated surface. 

Y. AULICA, Sowb. PL 26, figs. 61, 62. 

Flesh-colored, with large salmon-colored clouds, sometimes 



88 AULICA. 

forming three very broad, interrupted bands, sometimes con- 
fluent, irregularly covering most of the surface ; interior flesh- 
yellow. Columellar plaits oblique. Length, 3 -5-4 -5 inches. 

Sooloo Is. 
Y. CATHCARTI^E, Reeve, PI. 21, fig. T9. 

Orange and flesh-white, the former making an irregular zigzag 
or netted pattern, with three bands of dark chocolate spots. 

Length, 3'5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The figure of the type resembles F. piperita except in its 
smooth apex, rather more closely than F. aulica, with which M. 
Crosse compares it. 

Y. DESHAYESII, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 63. 

White or pink, with orange-red irregular clouded markings, 
and a central band whereon they do not appear ; aperture orange- 
color ; columellar plaits much stronger than in F. aulica, and 
nearly transverse. Length, 3-4 inches. 

New Caledonia. 

Y. ROSSINIANA, Bernardi. PL 27, fig. 64. 

Flesh-color, with longitudinal angular markings of chestnut- 
brown. Length, 7 inches. 

New Caledonia. 

The spire is more elevated, the spines less developed than in 
F. imperialist the plaits on the columella are five in number 
(four in imperialis) and more transverse, the outer lip more 
expanded; yet it may be only an extreme variety of that 
species. 

Y. LUTEOSTOMA, Desh. PL 25, fig. 58. 

Shell resembling the last species, but smaller, and having four 
plaits only on the columella which, however, are transverse 
like it, and not oblique as in F. imperialis, The interior of the 
aperture has the orange-coloring of F. Eossiniana. 

Length, 2*5 inches. 

Habitat unknown, 

Certainly very closely allied to the preceding species. 

Y. IMPERIALIS, Lam. PL 26, fig, 65. 

Fulvous, marked with angular, interlacing chestnut lines, 






AUL1CA. 89 

sometimes confluent into trigonal blotches, and occasionally 
forming interrupted bands. Length, 5-8 inches. 

Philippine Inlands. Cuming. 
Y. PUNCTATA, Swains. PI, 27, fig. 80. 

Pale fulvous, with numerous small light chestnut dots, some- 
times confluent into larger spots, forming interrupted bands. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Eastern Australia. 

The figures in Swainson, Sowerby and Reeve represent an 
immature individual, the only one known until ten years ago, 
when the adult was first figured by Dr. Cox. 

Y. HARGREAVESI, Angas. PI. 27, fig. 82. 

Reddish brown, with an indication of two darker bands, 
ornamented with numerous, scattered longitudinal and some- 
what angular blotches of white ; columella and border of lip 
tinged with orange, aperture flesh-color within. Length, 3 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
The specimen described is so far unique. 

Y. BEDNALLI, Brazier. PI. 26, fig. 66. 

Whitish, with four narrow chestnut-colored revolving bands, 
which are connected by angular longitudinal chestnut mark- 
ings ; aperture white within. Length, 3 '3 inches. 

Port Darwin, Torres Sts., N. Australia. 
Y. SCAPHA, Gmelin. PL 26, fig. 68. 

Shell ponderous, smooth, yellowish flesh-color, with zigzag 
longitudinal chestnut markings, sometimes widening into series 
of irregular spots, forming two interrupted bands. 

Length, 3*5-5 inches. 

Singapore, on the reefs. Cuming. 

Y. MAGNIFICA, Lam. PI. 26, fig. 70. 

Rather thin ; pale fulvous, with three broad orange-chestnut 
bands marked with white and fuscous angular spots, inter- 
mediate surface reticulated with pale orange angular lines ; 
columella and interior orange or salmon-color. 

Length, 6-8 inches, or even a foot. 

East Coast of Australia. 

One of the largest species of the genus ; it is found half- 
12 



90 AULTCA. 

burying itself amongst weed and ooze on sandy and muddy flats 
beyond tide-mark. 

Y. JUNONIA, Chemn. PL 26, fig. 67. 

Pale yellowish or whitish, with numerous rather large rounded 
square chestnut-colored spots arranged in revolving series ; 
interior flesh-white. Length, 3'5-4'5 inches. 

East and West Coasts of Florida. 

It is an inhabitant of deep water, and is somewhat rarely 
obtained and highly prized by collectors. Specimens have been 
sold as high as two hundred dollars, but of late years the value 
has greatly decreased in consequence of increased supply. 

Y. DUBIA, Brod. PI. 27, figs. 77, 81. 

The spire is proportionally longer, the spots more sharply 
square than in F. Junonia, the longitudinal ribs, which in that 
species are barely visible upon the first whorl below the embryo- 
nal apex, show traces of their existence as far as or even 
including the body-whorl. F. Junonia is spirally sculptured 
towards the base of the body-whorl, whilst in this species the 
sculpture covers the entire whorl. Length, 3-6 inches. 
Caribbean Sea, off the Southern 

and Western Coasts of Florida. 

This shell was first figured as Fusus tessellatus by Schubert 
and Wagner, and subsequently described by Broderip as F. 
dubia (fig. 81), but the shell was only known in an immature and 
faded condition until Dr. Dohrn in 1879 gave a full description 
with figures of what he supposes to be the adult shells. My 
impression is that it is merely an elongated variety of F. Junonia, 
but the question of identity can only be settled satisfactorily 
when a larger mass of material shall be at the disposal of 
naturalists, than is now available. 

Y. KAUPII, Dunker. PI. 26, fig. 69. 

All the whorls except the embryonal apex are slightly plicate 
below the sutures ; last whorl obtusely angular ; pale yellowish 
red, marbled irregularly with a darker tint. Length, 2*25 inches. 

New Zealand ? 

Probably not mature ; the type is the only specimen known. 






AULICA. 91 

Y. FLAVICANS, Gmelin. PI. 26, fig. 11 ; PI. 27, fig. 84. 

Yellowish gray, fasciculated with brown beneath the sutures ; 
surface marbled, strigated and reticulated with brown. 
Length, 3-3-75 inches. 

N. Australia. 

V. signifer, Brod., is an elongated flavicans, with the lip not 
quite mature. V. Tissotiana, Crosse (fig. 84), is also a variety. 

Y. EXOPTANDA, Sowb. PL 26, fig. 72'. 

Pale rose-orange, densely promiscuously painted throughout 
with sharply waved fine chestnut-red lines ; columella and interior 
of shell orange-color. Length, 4 inches. 

Port Elliott and Port Lincoln, Australia. 

Is V. Hargreavesi, Angas (PL 27, fig. 82), a possible variety 
of this species ? 



Y. AUSTRALIA, Cox. PL 26, fig. 73. 

Reddish orange, with dark chestnut undulated longitudinal 
markings Length, 2*5 inches. 

Bass Straits, Australia. 

The sutures are said to be vitrified, a character of the next 
group, Amoria ; from which it differs in having only four colu- 
mellar plaits. Appears to be rather too closely allied to V. 
exoptanda. Mr. Brazier considers it a variety of V. undulata, 
Lam. 

Y. GRAY.E, Crosse. PL 26, fig. 74. 

Yellowish, with zigzag longitudinal brown lines, increased in 
thickness so as to indicate three interrupted revolving bands. 

Length, 5'5 inches. 

Northwest Coast of Australia. 

Described by Gray as V. Maria-Emma, and the name very 
properly changed by Crosse because not binomial ; and if per- 
mitted to stand in this case, some Spaniard having baptismal 
names enough to fill half a page might have them all immortal- 
ized in a single species. This species is, so to speak, intermediate 
between Aulica and Amoria, for to the nucleus characteristic of 
the first group it unites the system of coloration and suture of 
the second. 



92 AMORIA. 

Y. KINGI, Cox. PI. 27, fig. 86. 

Yellowish flesh-color, with a very few slightly apparent darker 
zigzag lines. Length, 3 inches. 

King's IsL, Bass Straits, Australia. 

Supposed by some conchologists to be a variety of F. undulata, 
Lam., but appears to differ in its proportions, in the convexity 
of the spire-whorls, in having only four columellar plaits, etc. 

Y. MARMORATA, Swainson. PI. 28, fig. 89. 

Slightly coronate ; yellowish flesh-color, with irregular striga- 
tions and angular, flexuous, longitudinal brown lines, faintly 
indicating two revolving bands. Length, 4-5 inches. 

East Coast of Australia. 

Sect. 6. Amoria, Gray. 

Shell fusiform, smooth and polished ; spire conical, with a 
small, more or less pointed nucleus ; sutures slightly callous ; 
columella with five oblique, more or less developed plaits. 

Y. UNDULATA, Lam. PI. 28, figs. 88, 87. 

Pale fulvous, with undulated narrow chestnut, longitudinal 

lines. Length, 3-3*5 inches. 

E., W. and 8. Australia, Tasmania. 

V. Angasi, Sowb. (fig. 81), is only a form of undulata with 
shorter spire. Mr. Brazier thinks that F. Sclateri, V. Kingi, and 
F. Austrahse of Cox, are all mere varieties of this species. 

Y. SCLATERI, Cox. PI. 27, fig. 83. 

Pure white, without markings. Length, 3 inches. 

, Tasmania. 

Perhaps a variety of F. undulata, Lam. 

Y. TURNERI, Gray. PL 2t, fig. 85 ; PI. 30, fig. 123. 

Whitish or flesh-yellow, with longitudinal, somewhat waved 
narrow chestnut lines ; yellowish or light chocolate within the 

aperture. 

N. E. Australia; W. Australia (V. Elliott). 

j F. Ellioti, Sowb. (fig. 123), is not entitled to distinction even 
as a variety, and, together with several varietal names given by 
Gray himself, must merge in the synonymy. 






AMOEIA. !).'> 

Y. VOLVA, Gmelin. PL 28, fig. 90. 

Whitish, with three faint yellowish bands, upon which are a 
few longitudinal, pale orange strigations ; yellowish brown or 
coffee-colored within. Length, 3 inches. 

W. Australia; abundant. 

Certainly very close to V. Turneri. The species was rede- 
scribed by Gray as F. pallida, but he subsequently united it with 
V. Turneri. The patterns of coloration of the two species are 
different, and I find no connecting links. 

Y. MACULATA, Swains. PL 25, fig. 59. 

Obconic, marked with chocolate spots forming two interrupted 
bands on an orange surface ; aperture orange within. 

Length, 2'25 inches. 

East Australia. 

The coloring is more vivid than in F. volva, and the spire is 
shorter, but the species may be only a variety of that shell, to 
which it bears the same relation that F. zebra does to F. 
Turneri. 

Y. ZEBRA, Leach. PL 28, fig. 91. 

White or yellowish, with close-set, narrow somewhat waved 
longitudinal chestnut streaks ; very pale yellow or pink within 

the aperture. Length, r5-l <f T5 inches. 

East Coast of Australia. 

Resembling F. Turneri in coloration, but differing in its 
smaller size, and short, obconic form. 

Y. LOROISI, Yalenciennes. PL 28, fig. 92. 

Light pinkish, with brown zebra-like stripes, columellar plaits 

almost obsolete. Length, 3 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a worn specimen in the Paris Museum. It 
belongs to the same group as F. zebra and Turneri, and may be 
an overgrown specimen of the former. 

Y. CANALICULATA, McCoy. PL 28, fig. 95. 

Whitish, with five revolving rows of chestnut-colored oblong 

spots; suture channeled. Length, l'*75 inches. 

E. Australia. 
F. Harfordi, Cox, described a few months later, is identical. 



94 ALCITHOE. 

V. RETICULATA, Reeve. PI. 28, fig. 93. 

Light fulvous, triangularly marked with chestnut, forming 
three bands on the body-whorl ; yellowish within. 

Length, 3-4 inches. 

W. Australia. 

Y. PR^TEXTA, Reeve. PI. 28, figs. 94, 96. 

Pale fulvous, finely reticulated with chestnut, forming triangu- 
lar spots, and two darker bands. Length, 1*5-? inches. 

North Australia. 

Bears somewhat the same relation to F. reticulata that zebra 
does to Turneri. V. reticulata, Sowb. (fig. #6), is only a well- 
grown specimen of F. prsetexta ; although Sowerby afterwards 
renamed it F. Eeevei. 

Sect. 7. Alcithoe, H. and A. Adams. 

Shell oval-fusiform, spire elongated, terminated by a papilli- 
form summit ; aperture oval-elongated, inner lip covered by a 
callous deposit, outer lip expanded and more or less reflected ; 
columella with four, and more rarely five to seven oblique plicae. 

Y. PACIFICA, Solander. PI. 28, figs. 91-99. 

Yellowish, with zigzag longitudinal chestnut markings, and 
frequently four interrupted revolving bands. 

Length, 3'5-4'5 inches. 

New Zealand. 

The specimens vary much in the development of the shoulder- 
angle and tubercles, both being obsolete in some species. V. 
fusus, Quoy (fig. 98), is the immature shell. 

Yar. GRAOILIS, Swn. (fig. 99), has been distinguished principally 
by its much smaller size, 

Y. KREUSLER^;, Angas. PI. 30, fig. 124. 

Resembles F. Pacifica, but has a longer spire, is narrower, 
and differs in the painting of orange-brown maculations forming 

the three bands. Length, 2 inches. 

So. Australia. 
Y. AMERICANA, Reeve. PI. 28, figs. 100, 101. 

Yellowish white, faintly banded and reticulated with orange- 
brown. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Brazil. 



ALCITHOE. 95 

Only a single specimen known. V. Cleryana, Petit (fig. 101), 
is the young of it. 

Y. FESTIVA, Lam. PI. 30, fig. 125. 

Rosy white, clouded with orange-red, with chestnut spots and 
bands formed of series of longitudinal flexuous chestnut striga- 
tions. There are three prominent oblique plaits at the lower 
part of the columella, and above them a number of oblique 

rugosities. Length, 4-5 inches. 

East Africa. 

One of the rarest of Volutes. The exact locality is unknown. 
D'Orbigny speaks of collecting it on the Patagonian coast, but 
he doubtless refers to V. Magellanica. 

V. AFRICANA, Reeve. PI. 30, fig. 127. 

Orange-brown, with sparse hieroglyphic brown markings 
disposed in bands ; upper part of columella black. 

Length, 2*5 inches. 

E. Africa. 

The type, which formed part of the Cuming collection, is not 
in good condition, so that the pattern of painting is obscure. 
It is closely related to V. f estiva, but appears to differ in its 
greater proportional width and short spire. 

Y. MEGASPIRA, Sowb. PI. 28, fig. 102; PL 30, fig. 132. 

Reddish flesh-color, longitudinally marked with zigzag 
chestnut streaks, sometimes forming three obscure bands. 

Length, 4 inches. 

Japan. 

An elegant smooth species ; rather thin, with the first volution 
of the papillary apex lateral instead of terminal a character 
shared by some of the following species. The animal is a 
common article of food in Japan, yet the shell is rather rare in 
collections. V. lyriformis, Kiener (not Swains.), is apparently 
a variety of this species, although Mr. Crosse has recently 
characterized it under the name of V. Prevostiana (fig. 132). 

V. FUSIFORMIS, Swainson. PI. 28, fig. 103. 

Fulvous or flesh-colored, with irregular, zigzag, longitudinal 
chestnut markings. Length, 6-7 inches. 

Tasmania; So. Australia. 



96 ALOITHOE, 

Y. FULGETRUM, Sowb. PI. 28, figs. 104, 105. 

Yellowish flesh-color, with broad, undulated, longitudinal, 
dark chestnut or chocolate streaks. Length, 4-5'5 inches. 

So. Australia. 

The spire is shorter, the shell is more shouldered, the painting 
is usually much broader than in V. fusiformis. Sometimes the 
markings include a faint, closer reticulation besides the above 
more prominent features, and occasionally bands are indicated. 
V. fulgetrum, in fact, is intermediate between V. fusiformis and 
V.papillosa, and very probably the three are merely diverse 
forms of one species. 

Y. PAPILLOSA, Swn. PI. 28, fig. 106. 

Yery finely reticulated longitudinally with chestnut color on 
an orange-brown surface, with interrupted bands. 

Length, 4-5 inches. 

80. Australia; N. Tasmania. 

Kiener unites, apparently, this species and fusiformis in his 
V. Sowerbyi. Specimens were brought up by the dredge from 
1,900 fathoms, 25 miles off the coast of New South Wales 
(Brazier). 

Yar. MACQTJARIENSIS, Petterd. 

Shell same form and size as typical, but of a more or less 
intense yellow-color throughout, without any markings. It is 
not figured. 

Y. THATCHERI, McCoy. PI, 30, fig. 126. 

Pinkish white, with narrow chestnut reticulations. 
Length, 4-5 inches. 

Bampton Reef, near JV. W. Coast of New Caledonia. 
Appears to be very closely related to V. Pacifica, Sol. 

Y. ROADNIGHT.E, McCoy. PL 30, fig. 128. 

Pale brownish creamy white, with acutely angular zigzag, 
longitudinal, sparse markings of rich, raw-sienna brown. 

Length, 6-4 inches, 

80. Coast of Victoria, Australia. 



CYMBIOLA. 97 

Sect. 8. Cymbiola, Swainson. 

Shell oval, thin, recalling the form of Cymbium. Spire more 
or less elongated, terminated by a slightly irregular, papilliform 
summit. Aperture large, the columellar side covered with a 
slight coat of enamel ; columella usually with four oblique 
plications ; outer lip sharp, occasionally slightly expanded. 
An American, and principally Antarctic group. 

Y. ANCILLA, Solander. PI. 29, fig. 110. 

Yellowish, with faded chestnut, longitudinal, irregular streaks. 

Length, 5-6-5 inches. 

Coast of Patagonia. 

This is the V. Magellanica, of Sowerby, Kiener and Gould, 
who describe the latter species as ancilla ; the latter has an 
excellent figure of the animal. 

Y. STEARNSIT, Dall. PI. 30, fig. 130. 

Livid purple, more or less obscured by an ashy white outer 
layer ; exterior smooth, but not polished ; aperture white and 
livid purple, with a dash of brighter purple at the posterior 
notch, and on the anterior portion of the callus. 

Length, 4'13 inches. 

Alaska ; living from stomach of cod, dead on beach. 

Yery closely related to V. ancilla. 

Y. MAGELLANICA, Lam. PL 29, figs, lot, 108. 

Yellowish white, generally irregularly painted with longitu- 
dinal, zigzag, brown streaks, sometimes interruptedly banded. 

Length, 5-6 inches. 

Patagonia. 
Yar. TUBERCULATA, Swains. 

Whorls with a more pronounced, tuberculate shoulder. 
A wider species than V. ancilla but may possibly be a mere 
variet}' of it. 

Y. BECKII, Brod. PI. 29, fig. 109. 

Yellowish, with chestnut-colored, undulated, longitudinal 

streaks. Length, 11 to 14 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The Philadelphia Academy possesses a specimen of the largest 
13 



98 VOLUTELLA, PSEPH.EA. 

dimension given above. Although the habitat of the species is 
not known, it is very probably Patagonia. 

Y. BRASILIANA, Solander. PL 29, figs. 113, 115, 111; PL 30, 
fig. 131. 

Yentricose, with depressed conical spire ; brownish yellow, 
without markings. Length, 4-6 inches. 

So. America, from mouth of Rio de la Plata to Patagonia. 

V. Ferussaci, Donovan (fig. 131), is almost certainly a worn 
specimen of this species. I have a shell before me, precisely 
the same shape, but with the tubercles slightly indicated on the 
shoulder. V. rudis, Gray (fig. Ill), is usually considered a 
synonym of Ferussaci ; Gray 's figure represents a shell in very 
bad condition. The specimen figured in the Thesaurus corre- 
sponds so little with the description as to indicate a very vivid 
imagination on the part of the colorist of that work. 

Stct. 9. Volutella, d'Orbigny. 

Shell smooth, subcylindrical, with angulated whorls ; spire 
acuminated, polished, and entirely covered by an enamel deposit, 
obliterating the suture-line more or less entirely ; columella with 
three oblique plaits ; lip sharp, not reflected. The development 
of a lobe of the mantle to cover the spire is a peculiarity in this 
animal not shared by the other species of the genus. 

Y. ANGULATA, Swainson. PL 29, figs. 112, 121. 

Pale yellowish ; with longitudinal irregular chestnut lines. 
Length, 4-6 inches. 

Mouth of Rio de la Plata to Patagonia. 

The enamel deposit frequently projects above the spire into a 
beak (fig. 112), but is usually broken off in cabinet specimens. 

Sect 10. Psephsea, Crossc. 

Shell oblong-fusiform, very finely transversely striated and 
furnished with longitudinal ribs, disappearing towards the 
middle of the last whorl. Nucleus ? Columella furnished with 
two principal plicae, above which there are two or three minute 
ones hardly visible; it presents also this peculiarity (in the 
adult shell), that these plicae are situated so far within as to be 
invisible when the shell is placed right in face of the observer. 



AUSOBA. 99 

Internal margin strongly callous ; external lip obtuse and thick- 
ened. 

Y. CONCINNA, Brod. PL 29, fig. 114. 

Yellowish brown, with close-set, undulated, longitudinal 
chestnut lines. Length, 4-5 inches. 

Japan. 

At first sight this shell might appear to be related to V. 
rupestriSj from the same locality, but it differs in several 
respects, and particularly in the character of the plicae. 

Sect. 11. Ausoba, H. and A. Adau s. 

Spire short and obtuse, terminated by a papilliform summit ; 
ist whorl coronated. 

'. CYMBIOLA (Chemn.), Sowb. PI. 29, figs. 118, 119. 

Pale yellowish gray clouded with a darker tint, and pimctntc 
with chestnut ; aperture light chocolate. Length, 3 inches. 

Moluccas. 

The name was changed by Kiener to V. coronata because 
cymbiola had already been used by Lamarck for another species 
an error, as Lamarck had not used the name at all. V. corona, 
Chemn. (fig. 119), is only known by the figure of a juvenile shell 
in that author, copied by Sowerby in his Thesaurus. Mr. Crosse 
believes it to be distinct, but I cannot agree to this, as it appears 
to me to be a faded young cymbiola. The nucleus is supposed 
to be proportionally much larger, but it is really not larger 
than in Kiener's figure of V. coronata. Sowerby says that corona 
having, besides the four principal plica?, several smaller ones 
above them, is a character not shared by cymbiola, yet a charac- 
teristic specimen of the latter, before me, has two very distinct 
smaller plaits above the four principal ones. 

Y. KIRKI, Hutton. 

Widely oval, spire depressed ; last whorl ornamented with a 
small number of blunt tubercles ; columella with four very 
profound plications, the upper part with a thin callous deposit. 
Color yellowish brown. Length 1'75, diam. l'5t inches. 

New Zealand. 

Said to be a Cymbiola ; not figured. Possibly a young shell. 



100 VOLTJTILITHES, VOLUTOCONUS, CALLIPARA. 

Sect. 12. Volutilithes, Swains. 

Shell oval-fusiform, spire elevated, terminated by a pointed 
summit ; whorls cancellated or longitudinally plicate ; mouth 
oval-oblong ; columella with numerous rudimentary or obsolete 
plicse ; lip thin. The group is represented by a single living 
species and numerous tertiary forms. 

Y. ABYSSICOLA, Adams and Reeve. PL 29, fig. 120. 

Fulvous ash-color, encircled by three or four narrow chestnut 

bands. Length, T5 inches, 

Cape of Good Hope, 132 fathoms. 

Only the type specimen known- 

Sect. 13. Volutoconus, Crosse. 

Oblong, subcylindrical, longitudinally and transversely striate ; 
spire short and obtuse, terminated by a rounded summit ; 
columella with four slightly developed teeth ; lip simple, slightly 
inflected in the middle ; base with flexuous striae, 

Y. CONIFORMIS, Cox. PI. 30, fig. 129. 

Yellowish brown, with three broad chestnut bands, and super- 
posed upon the bands and interspaces irregular or triangular 
large and small white spots and blotches. Length, 70 mill. 

N. W. Australia. 

Has the system of coloration so frequently met with in a 
group of Conus. 

e eat. 14. Callipara, Gray. 

Shell oblong, subcylindrical ; spire short, nucleus small ; 
columella with two plications. 

Y. BULLATA, Swainson. PI. 29, fig. 116, 

Fulvous, with chestnut spots and angulated lines, and three 
darker bands of the same. Length, 2 '5 inches, 

Algoa Bay, So. Africa. 

Resembles somewhat Conus bullatus. 

Y. BRAZIERI, Cox. PL 29, fig. lit. 

Yellowish brown, with a wide irregular chestnut band, and 

chestnut markings. Length, I'l inches. 

New South Wales. 

The figure is enlarged. The spire is more sunken than that 
of V. bullata, but it may be only a color-variety of that species. 






AITRINIA, MAMILLANA, LYRIA. 101 

[Sect. 15. Aurinia, H. and A. Adams. 

Shell oval-fusiform ; spire terminated by a large mamillary 
summit ; columella with obsolete, scarcely apparent plications ; 
whorls of the spire finely transversely striated ; lip simple, thin. 
This group was proposed for F. dubia, Brod., known only to 
Messrs. Adams and Crosse from juvenile examples. The species 
is closely related to, if not identical with, V. Junonia, and 
follows that species in this monograph ; Aurinia, consequently, 
will not stand*] 

See'. 15. Mamillana, Crosse. 

Shell widely oval, ventricose, rather thin, intermediate between 
Voluta and Cymbium ; nucleus papilliform, very strongly devel- 
oped, excentric and lateral ; columella with a few oblique plicae ; 
lip thin, 

Y. MAMILLA, Gray. PL 29, fig. 122. 

Yellowish, strigated with brown. Length, 6-8 inches. 

Tasmania; Australia. 

The first whorl of the spire is completely lateral in this 
species, as in F. rupestris* 

Undetermined Species. 

Y. NANA, Anton, Belongs to Vespertilio group. No locality 
given. 

Y. LARGILLIERTIANA, d'Orb. (Related to F. pallida, Gray.) 

Seas of India. 

Y. PUMILIO, Brusina. Dalmatia. 

Not figured. Shell ovate, transversely closely striate ; spire 
very short, apex obtuse ; lip simple, acute ; columella sub- 
uniplicate. I do not know where to place this species ; it is 
certainly not a Voluta* Length, 7-16 mill. 

Y. MOLTKIANA and Y. SPENGLERI AN A, Martini, H. and A. Adams' 
Genera, i, 161. 

<-enus LYRIA, Gray. 

Dr. Paul Fischer, who has studied the anatomy of Lyria 
deliciosa* finds it to be essentially the same as that of Voluta, 

* Jour, de Conch., xv, 355, 1867. 



102 LYBIA. 

except in the presence of an operculum and in the dentition 
(PL 2, fig. 7). The shell, however, presents certain modifica- 
tions from Voluta which, in connection with the operculum, 
suffice for the establishment of a legitimate artificial group, 
which may be characterized by the narrowness of its mouth, the 
predominance in size of the two columellar plications nearest the 
base, and the transverse rugosities covering the inner lip above 
the plications, their comparatively small size and mitriform 
aspect, and the externally thickened lip. The distribution is 
wide, including West Indies, West Coast of Central America, 
East Coast of Africa, Moluccas, Japan, Australia, etc. A few 
fossil species may be here referred ; and notably V. harpula, 
Lam., of the Paris basin. The classification of the species is 
based on that proposed by Mr. H. Crosse.* 

* Shell smooth. 

L. DELICIOSA, Montr. PI. 31, figs. 133-135. 

Pinkish gray, with distant revolving brown lines and inter- 
rupted bands ; spire minutely longitudinally plicate ; base of 
body-whorl with revolving incised lines. Length, 30 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
* * Shell obsoletely or faintly plicate. 

L. NUCLEUS, Lam, PL 31, fig. 136. 

Flesh-brown, here and there dotted and variegated with 
chestnut; lip and varices black-dotted. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

N. E.Australia. 

The spotted varices which occur occasionally upon this shell 
indicate the position of former rest-periods in its growth, being 
the thickened lip, which the animal in resuming growth has 
failed to absorb away. 

L. BEAU-I, Fischer and Bernardi. PL 31, fig. 137. 

Yellowish flesh-color, with revolving chestnut lines, inter- 
rupted between the obsolete costse. Length, 70 mill. 

Marie- Galante, West Indies. 

A rare species. 

* Jour de Conch., 105, 1866. 






LYRIA, 103 

L. CASSIDULA, Reeve. PI. 31, fig. 138. 

Cream or flesh-color, clouded with chestnut and white, with 
interrupted chestnut revolving lines. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Japan. 
L. PUSILLA, Schrenck. PL 31, fig. 139. 

Yellowish chestnut, with a band of red and white spots at the 
suture, surface maculated with rufous ; aperture yellowish chest- 
nut. Length, 9 '5 mill. 

Japan. 

Described as obsoletely plicate, with two plaits near the base 
of the columella ; neither of these features being very apparent 
on the enlarged figure of the species. Possibly a young L. 
cassidula? At any rate the specimen appears to be immature, 
for the description is " labro simplici, recto." 

* * * Longitudinal ribs strongly marked. 
L. DELESSERTTANA, Petit. PL 31, fig. 140. 

Flesh-color with orange-red maculations and bands and chest- 
nut revolving lines. Length, 2-2 '25 inches. 

Madagascar. 
L. LYR^GFORMIS, Swains. PL 31, fig. 141. 

Flesh-color, with revolving, interrupted chestnut lines, and 
blotches of the same arranged in three revolving bands. 

Length, 3'75 inches. 

K. Coast of Africa. 

The figure represents a very different looking shell from L. 
Delessertiana, but intermediate forms occur, and I am very 
doubtful of their distinctness. 

L. COSTATA, Swainson. PL 31, fig, 142. 

Whitish, with orange-red spots and interrupted revolving 
lines. Length, 2 inches. 

Moluccas ; Indian Ocean . 

L. MITR^EFORMIS, Lam. PI, 31, fig. 143. 

Flesh-color or yellowish, with dark chestnut spots and revolv- 
ing lines, the latter sometimes broader so as to form interrupted 
bands. Length, 2 inches. 

Australia, Tasmania, Java, 8. Africa. 

L. costata has a flattened shoulder, upon the angle of which 
the longitudinal ribs terminate in spines ; whilst L. Mitrdeformis 



104 EN^TA. 

has a shelving shoulder merely obtusely angulated ; yet I 
suspect that the two forms are mere varieties of one species. 

L. ARCHERI, Angas. PL 31, fig. 144. 

Yellowish, clouded and lined with chestnut ; lip punctate 
with black, dentate within ; columella with three strong basal 
plicae, and numerous smaller ones above. Length, T33 inches. 

Montserrat, West Indies. 

The form and coloring are very like the preceding species, 
but the dentate lip is an extraordinary feature which may 
distinguish it from all others. The type is the only specimen 
known, and the locality is doubtful. Appears to connect Lyria 
proper with its subgenus Enseta. 

8 ibgnus Enaeta, H. and A. Adam?. 

Exterior lip thickened, inflected and bearing an obtuse tooth 
upon its middle inner margin. 

L. HARPA, Barnes. PI. 31, fig. 145. 

Pale flesh-color or gray, with chestnut or chocolate angular 
spots and maculations, frequently forming faint interrupted 
bands. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

L. CUMINGII, Brod. PI. 31, figs. 146, 141. 

Pale flesh-color, clouded and lined with chestnut. 

Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

W. Coast of Central America, northward to San Bias. 

L. Cylleniformis, Sowb. (fig. 147), appears to be a small shell 
of this species. 

E. PEDERSENII, Yerrill. 

Shell small, rather slender, elongated ; the spire regularly 
conical, acute, about two-thirds the length of the body-whorl ; each 
whorl much flattened below the suture and encircled by a row of 
rounded tubercles ; the body-whorl with low, rounded, longitudinal 
costse below the tubercles. Whole surface finely longitudinally 
sulcated or striated, on the upper whorls also transversely striated. 
Color fulvous brown, specked with bluish white, with an inter- 
rupted band, or spots, of deep brown below the suture, a pale 



MTCROVOLUTA. 105 

band over the tubercles, and another, bordered with brown, 
below the middle of the body-whorl. Length, 1 inch. 

La Paz, Lower California. 

Not figured ; said to be more slender, with the spire more 
acute, smaller tubercles and costae, a more prolonged and 
recurved siphon, and more contracted aperture than L. Cumingii. 
The surface is not smooth and the color is lighter. 

L. GUILDINGII, Sowb. PI. 31, fig. 148. 

Fulvous, with white and darker lines; longitudinally ribbed, 
gmnose at the sutures. Length, *5 inch. 

/. St. Vincent, West Indies. 

I am not acquainted with the species. 

L. GUTTATA, Reeve. PI. 31, fig. 149. 

White, maculated with brown ; longitudinally plicate. 

Length, *5 inch. 

Honduras. 

Possibly identical with the last species ; if so, it will become 
a synonym, G-uildingii having priority of publication. 

L. COLUMBELLA, Sowb. PI. 31, fig. 150. 

Small, oblong, smooth, pallid maculated' with red ; spire 
acuminate, aperture elongate ; lip incurved in the middle ; 
columella very obscurely plicate. Having the form of Colum- 
bella nitida, and showing rather faint plicae on the columella. 

The above is a copy of Sowerby's description and figure. It 
is certainly not a Valuta, and appears more like a Marg^nella. 

Genus MICROVOLTJTA, Angas. 

The deep siphonal notch, and the toothed projection of the 
base of the pillar, so characteristic of the Yolutes, are absent 
in this curious little genus. 

M. AUSTRALIS, Angas. PL 31, figs. 151, 152. 

White, or ornamented with two rows of distant irregular 
chestnut blotches and zigzag lines, Length, 10 mill. 

Port Jackson Heads, Australia, 25 fathoms. Brazier. 
14 



106 MTTRID^. 



Family MITRIDJE. 

The animal has a small, narrow head ; tentacles close together 
at the base; eyes near the base or towards the outer middle of 
the tentacles ; proboscis cylindrical, flexible, very extensible, 
mantle enclosed ; siphon simple at the base ; foot small, 
triangular, usually truncate in front. 

Some of the larger species have no operculum, but it is often 
present, though small and rudimentary, on the foot of the 
smaller species. 

Shell with acute apex, usually well developed spire and plicate 
columella ; for the most part destitute of epidermis, which is 
very thin, smooth and translucent when present. 

Mitra is related on the one hand with Valuta, on the other 
with Marginella ; it is distinguished from the former by its 
columellar plaits, of which the largest are posterior whilst in 
Voluta they are anterior, by its form, and the apex, which 
is never papillary ; from Marginella it is distinguished by its 
much longer spire, less polished surface, generally large size and 
particularly by wanting the thick marginal varix of the lip. 

The dentition of the Mitridse presents several distinct types ; 
so that Troschel and Gill have divided the family upon this 
character. The group Cylindra has the teeth of Marginella 
and is placed near that genus by these authors ; the form of the 
shell also recalls Marginellidse, and although the preponderance 
of characters accords with Mitra, it may be reasonably considered 
a connecting link with Marginella. Volutomitra has been 
placed in Yolutidse on account'of the dentition of V. Grcenlandica, 
the only Arctic species of Mitra, but I have preferred to retain 
it and its congeners in Mitridse, because we know nothing of the 
dentition of the numerous tropical species. Turricula and 
Strigatella are allied by their dentition to the Olividse, and 
Imbricaria to the Turbinellidse. 

Mitra has been divided by H. and A. Adams and others into 
a number of subgenera, whilst Sowerby separates the species 
into thirteen numbered but unnamed sections. The groups are 
certainly not entitled to subgeneric rank, yet I believe that the 
retention of Adams' names for the sections is better than to 



MITRID^E. 107 

designate them merely by numbers. The grouping of the 
species by these two authorities is in many respects widely 
different ; I have carefully compared them together, and with 
the shells, and shall attempt to improve upon both. 

The Mitras have been monographed by Kiister, Kiener, 
Reeve and Sowerby, the work of the latter being by far the 
most recent and complete, embracing nearly five hundred species. 
The " Thesaurus " was published in 1874, and since that date 
some additional species have been described ; there are also a 
number of species obscurely published or which, for some 
other cause, appear to have escaped Mr. Sowerby 's attention, 
so that in all the number of specific names which might 
nominally hold place in the present work would not be far from 
six hundred and fifty. The vast increase ol our knowledge of 
specific variation developed during the past few years has, 
however, induced a decidedly more conservative, and it is 
believed, more philosophic, view of species, than that prevalent 
only six years ago, so that I have been enabled to effect a vast 
reduction in the specific ranks a reduction which will probably 
become still greater as additional material is given to the 
student 'for comparison. 

When irritated, some species of Mitra emit a purple fluid 
having a nauseous odor. 

The genus is at present tropical and subtropical in distribu- 
tion, but few small species being found in the colder latitudes. 
Batli3 T metrically they range from low-water to eighty fathoms, 
the smaller species being usually found along shore-lines. 

About a hundred fossil species have been described, 
commencing with the cretaceous period. * M. G-rcenlandica, at 
present confined to Arctic waters, is found associated with 
M. cornea, a somewhat similar Mediterranean species in the latest 
British Tertiaries. The Mitridae inhabit various stations ; many 
being strictly reef shells, where they lurk in holes and crevices 
under sea-weed, but are most generally concealed under 
stones and blocks of- dead coral. Others burrow in sand or 
sandy mud at various depths ; some delight in stony ground 
inside the reefs, where they remain concealed under clumps of 
coral during the day, and like the sand species are nocturnal in 
their habits. 



108 MITRID-ffi. 

Mr. Andrew Garrett* suggests that the Polynesian shells 
which have been described by H. and A. Adams under the name 
of Thala, as a subgenus of Mitra, are more nearly related to 
Pleurotomidse, the so-called folds of the columella not being 
true plaits, but simply more or less irregular transverse 
rugosities precisely of the same character as those upon certain 
species of Clathurella and Cithara of that family. Two species 
of true Mitrse have, however, been referred to Thala, and 
I have preferred to retain the genus in the Mitridse for the 
present, upon duly weighing the value of its known character- 
istics. Mr. Pease's genus Mitropsis is excluded, being a 
member of the family Columbellidae. Finally, Mitromorpha, 
A. Ad., appears to be more nearly related to the Pleurotomidae, 
several of its species having been described as Daplmellae. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

MITRA, Lamarck. Shell fusiform, thick; spire elevated; aperture 
small, narrow, notched in front; columella transversely, somewhat 
obliquely plicate; outer lip thick, smooth within, not variced 
externally. Dentition, PL 2, figs. 9, 10, 11. 

[VOLUTOMITRA, Gray. Separated from Mitrdon account of the peculiar 
dentition of an Arctic species, K Grcenlandica. Twenty additional 
species have been included in the genus by H. and A. Adams ; they 
are all Mitras in appearance, and the dentition of none has been 
examined except that of V. cornea, which decidedly differs from 
Grcenlandica, and is of the regular Jf&ra-type. Dentition of V. 
Grcenlandica. PI. 2, fig. 8.] 

THALA, H. and A. Adams. Small, narrowly fusiform, sculptured or 
smooth, last whorl attenuated and recurved below; outer lip thickened, 
straight or incurved in the middle, lirate internally, with a slight 
sinus at the hind part. Dentition unknown. 

[STRIGATELLA, Swainson. Shell ovate or Columbelliform, solid; spire 
acuminate; whorls smooth or transversely striated, usually covered 
with an epidermis; inner lip with a callosity at the hind part; outer lip 
usually thickened in the middle, and internally grooved or dentate. 
Dentition unknown.] 



* Catalogue of the Polynesian Mitridffi, in the (English) Journal of 
Conchology, iii. A very valuable paper, from which I have drawn 
largely for these pages. 



MITRA. 109 

ZIERLIANA, Gray. Ovate or Columbelliform, solid; spire short, acute, 
last whorl tumid at the hind part; columella with a posterior callosity; 
outer lip thick, flattened, lirate-dentate within; a sinus or short canal 
posteriorly. Dentition, PI. 2, fig. 12. 

MITROIDEA, Pease. Shell mitriforin, smooth, spire acuminated ; 
aperture narrow, linear; columella with numerous, small oblique plaits, 
narrowed and turned to the left at the base; outer lip thickened, 
peculiarly truncated and recurved at the base. Dentition similar to 
that of Mitra. Macdonald. 

DJBAPHUS, Philippi. Subcylindrical, covered with a thin epidermis, 
transversely sculptured; spire acute; aperture narrow, linear; columella 
without plaits, narrowed and turned to the left at base; outer lip 
thickened, rectilinear, abruptly truncated and recurved at the base. 
Dentition unknown. The unarmed columella is the principal and 
perhaps insufficient distinction for this genus from Mitroidea. 

TURRICULA, Klein. Shell elongated, turreted. longitudinally plicately 
ribbed; spire acuminated; aperture narrow; columella with numerous 
plaits; outer lip internally striated. Dentition, PI. 2, Fg. 13. 

CYLINDRA, Schumacher. Shell oliviform, subcylindrical: spire conical; 
aperture linear; columella straight, with several oblique anterior 
plaits; outer lip thickened, smooth within. Dentition, PI. 2, fig. 15. 

IMBRICARIA, Schumacher. Shell coniform, often covered with an 
epidermis; spire depressed conical, apex mucronate; aperture linear; 
columella straight, with numerous transverse imbricated plaits in the 
middle; outer lip thickened. 

Fossil Genera. 
LAPPARIA, Conrad. Uncharacterized. 

L. DUMOSA, Conrad. PL 3, fig. 43. Eocene, Jackson, Miss. 

FUSIMITRA, Conrad. Uncharacterized. 

F. CELLULIFERA, Conrad. PI. 3, fig. 40. Oligocenej Vicksburg, Miss. 
CONOM1TRA, Conrad. Uncharacterized. 

C. FUSOIDES, Lea. PL 8, fig. 41. Eocene, Claiborne, Ala. 

(Jcnus MITRA, Lri. 

The animal of Mitra has in general a very short foot, straight 
and continuous from side to side in some species, but in others 
notched and produced, with a thickened anterior margin. It is 
commonly narrow and rounded, or acuminated posteriorly, and 
it often bears a very small semitransparent horny operculum, in 



110 MITRA. 

some instances scarcely visible. The siphon is mostly directed 
forward, and the somewhat short, tapering tentacles have the 
eyes either situated about half-way or they are placed on the 
outer side of the base. The head is long and very flat, and the 
tentacles are very close together at their bases. The proboscis 
is rarely exserted when they are crawling and lively, but as they 
become languid after capture it becomes distended with water 
and protrudes considerably. 

The Philippine Islands would seem to harbor the greatest 
number of these elegant and beautiful shells, although a great 
many species were obtained by Mr. Cuming in tropical America. 
They appear to be chiefly confined to the equatorial regions, 
scarcely any being natives of cold climates. The transversely 
ribbed species are frequently found in very deep water, and 
many have been dredged in twenty and thirty fathoms at Sooloo 
and in the China Sea. 

Although M. Quoy has rightly termed the Mitra an " animal 
apathique," the small longitudinally ribbed species crawl about 
pretty briskly over the smooth sand among the low coral islands. 
The Mitra episcopates, probably on account of the small size of 
its locomotive disk, and the ponderous nature of its long shell, 
is, however, a very sluggish mollusk. Some of the Auricula- 
shaped Mitres that live among the Philippines, in the shallow 
pools left by the receding tide, crawl about the stones out of 
the water, in company with Planaxis and Quoyia. The Mitres, 
like many of the large Volutes, prefer, however, to associate 
together, and may be seen in dozens crawling over the sandy 
mud-flats in shallow water, being most active just as the flood- 
tide makes. When the tide recedes, they bury themselves 
superficially in the yielding soil, and are with difficulty discovered. 
Some of the small-ribbed species cover themselves entirely with 
the sandy mud, and in that disguised condition travel about 
with comparative security.* 

Among the Bashu group, and more particularly on the island 
of Ibayat, the natives form very elegant and commodious pipes 
from different species of shells, the columella and septa of the 
convolutions being broken down, and a short ebony stem 



* Arthur Adams, Moll. Voy. Samarang, 26, 27. 



MITRA. HI 

inserted into a hole at the apex of the spire. A pipe of this 
manufacture, in my possession, is formed from the Mitra papalis, 
and I have seen others made out of Mitra episcopal and of 
Cerithium and Terebra.* 

Typical Group. 

Mitriform, thick, spire elevated, apex sharp ; mouth rather 
small and narrow, notched in front ; columella obliquely plicate ; 
lip rather thick, smooth within. 



M., 



* Edge of lip crenated, whorls generally spirally grooved 
and punctured. 






. EPISCOPALIS, Linn. PL 32, fig. 1. 
White, with somewhat quadrangular bright red spots, arranged 
in revolving series. Length, 2*5-6 inches. 

Ceylon, Philippines, Polynesia. 

M. PAPALIS, Linn. PL 32, fig. 2. 

White, spotted and blotched with deep scarlet in revolving 
series. Length, 3-4'5 inches. 

Kingsmill, Caroline and Paumotu Isles. 

Much more rare in Polynesia than M. episcopate, according 
to Mr. Andrew Garrett. 

M. PONTIFICALIS, Lam. PL 32, fig. 3. 

White, with oblong or square red spots in revolving series. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Polynesia. 

Animal creamy white, with opaque white dots. Sometimes 
the shell is encircled with impressed lines, which are deeply 
punctured at intervals. 

M. CARDINALIS, Gmelin. PL 32, fig. 4. 

Whitish, encircled by rows of chestnut-bay spots. 

Length, l't5-2'5 inches. 

Ceylon, Polynesia. 

Usually found in shallow water inside the reefs. Animal 
uniform creamy white. 

* Belcher, Narrative of Voy. of Samarang, ii, 448, 1848. 



112 MITRA. 

M. LAMARCKII, Deshayes. PI. 32, fig. 5. 

A somewhat narrower shell than M. cardinalis, with fewer and 
larger spots, which are longitudinally oblong. 

Length, 2-2'25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

It is possibly a variety of cardinalis in which approximate 
rows of spots have coalesced into larger ones. 

M. VERSICOLOR, Martyn. PI. 32, figs. 6-8. 

Yellowish or brownish white, variegated with chestnut-brown 
blotches and spots, and numerous small white spots edged with 
brown. Length, 2*25 inches. 

Red Sea, Zanzibar, Madagascar, Polynesia. 

The surface is usually ornamented with revolving incised 
lines bearing punctures. Several species have been manufactured 
out of slight variations of color and form ; they can scarcely be 
designated as varieties. Among these are M. nebulosa, Swains. 
teste Reeve (fig. 8) ; it is more clouded than the type, and with- 
out the white spots ; M. nubila, Gmel.,in which the spots become 
longitudinal, and narrowed into stripes ; M. erronea, Dohrn, 
proposed for the shell figured by Kiener as M. versicolor (fig. 
t); and Reeve's figure of M. nebulosa (fig. 8), the true nebulosa 
being, according to Dohrn, figured by Reeve as M. infecta, 
drawn, he says, from the original type of nebulosa in the Cum- 
ingian Collection. To add to the confusion, Arthur Adams, at 
an earlier date, decided also that Reeve's nebulosa was not that 
species, and accordingly renamed it M. propinqua. Finally, the 
shell which Sowerby figures as M. propinqua, A. Ad., is an 
entirely distinct species. 

M. PROPINQUA, Sowerby. PI. 33, fig. 11. 

White, with faded chocolate bands and longitudinal brown 
strigations. Length, 2'8 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Figured by Sowerby for M. propinqua, A. Adams, but no 
such species was ever described, Mr. Adams having given that 
name to Mr. Reeve's M. nebulosa, which he considered different 
from Swainson's. It seems to be a very distinct species. 



MITRA. 113 

M. VARIEGATA, Reeve. PI. 33, figs. 9, 10, 12, 13, 14. 

Whitish, clouded with pale chestnut. Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Red Sea, Mauritius, Philippines. 

The type had an unusually depressed spire, for the species, 
accompanied by a slight angulation on the superior portion of 
the body-whorl. I have before me a specimen exhibiting similar 
divergence from the normal growth, but not quite so marked. 
In young, fresh specimens the spire is almost clathrate, the 
sutures especially being closety plicated ; when the shell becomes 
adult, and somewhat worn, this longitudinal sculpture mostly 
disappears. It is usually a heavier shell, but comes close enough 
to M. versicolor to give rise to doubts of its distinctness ; on the 
other hand it approaches certain species in which the edge of 
the lip is not crenulate, and as it is a certain fact that this 
character also is frequently obliterated with age, there is strong 
probability that eventually several other synonyms will be 
added, besides those which I herewith subjoin : these are M. 
nympha, Reeve (fig. 12), being the normal growth, M. Rossite, 
Reeve (fig. 14), which is a full-grown and somewhat worn 
specimen, and probably M. lacunoxa, Reeve (fig. 13). If the 
latter is the same species, it will have priority over M. variegata. 

M. SANGUINOLENTA, Lam. PL 33, fig. 15. 

Shell encircled by punctate impressed striae. Yellowish red, 
strigate with chestnut and spotted with white. 

Length, 1-25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

This species is known to conchologists only through the type 
figured by Kiener ; Lamarck himself, according to his synonymy, 
appears to have confounded it with M. versicolor. 

M. EXIMIA, A. Adams. PL 33, figs. 16, 17. 

White, clouded with chestnut. Length, 1 inch. 

Mauritius, Ceylon. 

Said to be somewhat clathrate l\y the growth-lines. Is very 
probably only a stunted specimen of M. variegata. M. lacunosa, 
Sowb., not Reeve (fig. 17 ! , is a more advanced stage of growth ; 
it is said to come from Ceylon. 
15 



114 MITRA. 

M. C^ERULEA, Reeve. PL 33, fig. 18. 

Whitish, clouded with bluish gray, with a few chestnut spots 
or strigations arranged in two revolving series, and below the 
suture besides ; orange-brown within the aperture. 

Length, 1-5 inches. 

Viti Islands. Garrett. 

Highly colored as is this species, its form and sculpture are 
so like M. variegata, that I doubt its distinctness. 

M. MAURITIANA, Sowb. PL 33, fig. 19. 

Cancellated by pitted grooves and longitudinal ridges ; white, 
with two broad bands of interrupted brown spots. 

Length, 1-5 inches. Mauritius. 

M. INCISA, Ad. and Reeve. PL 33, figs. 20, 21. 

Whitish, variously clouded with purplish brown, sometimes 
forming two broad bands, variegated sometimes with small 
brown spots and whitish fine zigzag lines. Length, 22 mill. 

China, Andaman Islands. 

Sowerby considers M. Marise, A. Ad. (fig. 21), a synonym, 
but Mr. E. A. Smith attempts to separate it on account of slight 
differences of form. I am satisfied that they are identical, and 
suspect that they are merely the young of a form of M. 
variegata. 

M. SERPENTINA, Lam. PL 33, fig. 22. 

White, indistinctly stained and zoned with orange, longitudi- 
nally painted with waved brown lines shadowed with white; 

aperture yellowish. Length, 1 '5-2*25 inches. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

M. Deshayes remarks that M. variegata, GmeL, having priority 
of publication, should be used in place of serpentina ; the latter 
has, however, become so well established that Reeve has used 
the former name for another recognized species, and under the 
circumstances it is better not to be too strenuous for the main- 
tenance of individual rights. 

M. MARQUESANA, A. Ad. PL 33, fig. 23. 

Color of M. serpentina, but finer sculpture, and much smaller 
size. Length, 23 mill. 

Marquesas Islands. 
Possibly not distinct from M. serpentina. 



MITRA. 115 

M. BOVEI, Kiener. PL 33, fig. 24. 

Turriculated, coronated with small tubercles, and encircled 
with close-set punctured stria?. Ashy white, with two broad 
bands of ashy violet, flaked with numerous small, snow-white 

spots ; brownish within. Length, 2-2'25 inches. 

Bed Sea. 

In young specimens the tubercles are said to be scarcely 
apparent, and it. may be doubted whether J/. c&rulea. Ree\ 
not a non-coronate form of the same species, the painting being 
very similar. 

M. PUXCTICULATA, Lam. PI. 33, fig. 25. 

Whitish, tessellated with yellow, with two broad, irregular 
orange bands, upon which are longitudinal chocolate strigations; 
aperture yellowish within. Whorls coronated, with closely 
punctured revolving incised lines, crossed by rugose lines of 

growth. Length, 1 '5-1 '75 inches. 

Philippines. 

M. SOPHIA, Crosse. PI. 33, fig. 26. 

Yellowish brown, whorls tuberculated at the angle of the 
shoulder, with one or two rows of tubercles below it. 

Length, 43 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

The columella has six plications, whilst that of M. puncticulata 
has but four or five. 

M. CRATITIA. A. Ad. PI. 33, fig. 27. 

Pale yellowish white. Length, 1*6 inches. 

South Africa 
I am not acquainted with this species. 

* * Outer lip not crenulated on its edge, whorls seldom grooved or punctured. 

M. FLOCCATA. Reeve. PL 34, fig. 29. 

Yellowish bay-color, longitudinally flaked with white, lip 

creuated near its base. Length. 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a unique specimen in the late Cumingian 
cabinet. The lip is said to be crenulated near its base, and 
possibly finer examples may be crenulated throughout. It is 
a doubtful species, too close to J/. uariegata. Reeve. 



116 MITRA. 

M. CHALYBEIA, Reeve. PI. 34, fig. 30. 

Whorls smooth, grooved towards the base ; rudely very finely 
crenulated next the sutures ; longitudinally streaked with white 
and ashy blue, transversely indistinctly banded , encircled through- 
out with equidistant reddish brown lines ; columella reddish 
orange, four-plaited. Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Only one specimen known, in the Cumingian collection. 
Probably an individual variation from some well-known type, 
such as M. variegata. 

M. LIMATA, Reeve. PL 34, fig. 33. 

Shell rather thick, polished, transversely grooved throughout, 
grooves punctured ; whitish, encircled by a pale white-flaked 
band. Length, 1 inch. 

Isl. of Bohol, Philippine*.- 

Probably a variety of M. variegata, Reeve. 

M. GUTTATA, Swainson, Pi; 34, fig. 31. 

Yellowish brown, longitudinally mottled with white. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Ceylon. 
M. FERGUSONI, Sowb. PI. 34, fig. 32. 

More volute-shaped than any other species ; it is smooth, solid, 
pale fawn, with fine articulated lines and a little cloud of chest- 
nut ; spire rather short, obtuse; aperture large, with smooth 
outer lip. Length, 1-75 inches. 

Panama. 

I am not acquainted with this species. The authority for the 
locality is not given. 

M. FLORIDA, Gould. PL 34, fig. 35. 

Whitish, clouded with yellowish brown, with numerous 
revolving series of small brown spots ; pinkish white within the 
aperture. Length, 1-75 inches. 

Dr. Gould's type, received from Dr. Edmund Ravenel, of 
Charleston, S. C., is said to have come from Florida ; another 
specimen in the Jay Collection has the habitat Philippine Islands. 
Its characters are intermediate between Mitra and Voluta. My 



MITRA. HI 

figure is from Gould's type, and I can add nothing to the above 
meagre information concerning this curious form. 

M. DESETANGSII, Kiener. PL 34, fig. 34. 

More ventricose and thicker than M. variegata, less strongly 
cancellated on the upper portion of the two last whorls ; with 
three zones of spots upon the last whorl, one of them sutural, 
and the other two separated by a wide very light reddish-brown 

band. Length, 29 mill. 

Mauritius. 

Kiener's description and my figure (copied) are from a dead 
and bleached specimen. Lienard gives the above particulars of 
coloration, and acknowledges its close relationship to M.variegata 
from which, nevertheless he distinguishes it. 

M. CANCELLATA, Kiener. PL 34, fig. 36. 

Whitish, cancellated and pitted. Length, 1/3 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

This shell has been overlooked by subsequent monographers ; 
I can make nothing out of it ; it is evidently in bad condition, 
and only a single specimen is known, in the Massena Collection. 
There is a M. cancellaia, Swainson, a very different species. 

M. HAMILLEI, Petit. PL 34, fig. 3T. 

Brown, marbled and tinted with chestnut and olivaceous, 
finely cancellated by revolving incised lines and close growth- 
lines. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Cape Verd Islands. 

Distinguished by its compressed cylindrical form. A species 
from Moreton Bay sent to the Philadelphia Academy as M. 
cylindrica, Reeve, by Dr. J. C. Cox, of Sydney, N. S. W., 
appears to be identical with the above. 

M. SENEGALENSIS, Reeve. PL 34, fig. 38. 

Livid olive, longitudinally ornamented with a very few white 

flames ; aperture livid chestnut. Length, 1*3 inches. 

Senegal. 

M. GLABRA, Swainson. PL 34, fig. 42. 

Smooth, polished, with slight incised revolving lines ; base 
truncated and a little recurved. Orange-red, encircled by fine 



118 MITRA. 

brown, hair-like lines ; deep orange within the aperture ; epider- 
mis smooth, blackish, seldom present upon cabinet specimens. 

Length, 2-4 inches. 

So. and W. Australia. 

Specimens are not usually over two inches in length. M. 
buccinata, Quoy, described ten years later, is identical. 

M. DECLIVIS, Reeve. PL 34, figs. 39, 41. 

Whorls smooth, with very faintly impressed revolving lines, 
angularly bent around the upper part; ashy flesh to orange- 
color. Length, 2 inches. 

Australia. 

The locality is given by Sowerby ; it was unknown to Reeve, 
whose specimen was in the Korris Collection. The epidermis 
is said to be very black, and there is no trace of the brown 
revolving lines of M. glabra ; still I strongly suspect that this 
will prove to be a deformed specimen of that species. 

M. FULGURITA, Reeve. PI. 34, fig. 43. 

Revolving strise closely punctured ; yellowish bay, slightly 
banded with pale longitudinal streaks. Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

A common enough but characteristic species, of which excel- 
lent specimens are before me. 

M INQUINATA, Reeve. PL 34, figs. 40, 44. 

Whorls encircled by distant, punctate, impressed lines ; 
whitish, tessellated longitudinally with chestnut-brown, some- 
times broken up into quadrangular spots by the revolving 
sculpture. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Japan (M. Wrighti). 

Described from a single specimen without locality. It is 
difficult to point out distinctive characters from the last species, 
and I suspect that they are identical ; M. Wrighti, Crosse (fig. 
44), is evidently the same species as inquinata. 

M. BARBADENSIS, Gmelin. PL 35, figs. 45, 46, 48, 49. 

Yellowish brown, polished, sometimes faintly, narrowly zoned 
with chestnut, flaked here and there with white. 

Length, 1-1-75 inches. 

West Indies, on coral reefs. 

M. tessellata, Kiener (fig. 48), is a short shell of this species, 



Ml TEA. 119 

and M. picta, Reeve (fig. 49), is also a synonym ; Sowerby 
erroneously refers the latter to the Cape of Good Hope. 

M. SIMPLEX, Dunker. PL 35, fig. 50. 

Smooth, slightly striate at base ; chestnut, sometimes sparsely 

flecked with white. Length, 9 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Much smaller and broader than M. Barbadenxis, which it 
appears to resemble. 

M. VARIABILTS, Reeve. PL 35, figs. 4t, 56. 

Yellowish brown, sometimes narrowly lined with chestnut, 
tessellated with white around the suture and periphery, the 
latter sometimes confluent into an irregular broad white band ; 
yellowish brown within the aperture. Length, T5-1-75 inches. 

Torres Straits, Australia. 

Fig. 56 represents Reeve's M. cylindracea. 

M. RUBIGINOSA, Reeve. PL 35, fig. 54. 

White, with large spots or tessellations of yellowish brown ; 
closely punctured in revolving lines. Length, 28-40 mill. 

IsL Ticao, Philippines. 
M. CANCELLATA, Swainson. PL 35, fig. 55. 

Sutures crenulated, whorls cancellated by revolving impressed 
lines and longitudinal raised striae. Light yellowish brown, 
longitudinal^ streaked with white, with three rather indistinct 
bands of interrupted orange spots. Length, 1/T5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a unique Cumingian specimen. 

M. USTULATA, Reeve. PL 35, fig. 51. 

Whitish, maculated with chestnut so as to form interrupted 

bands. Length, 11 '7 inches. 

Viti Islands. Garrett. 

M. IGNOBILIS, Reeve. PL 35, fig. 52. 

Whitish, with interrupted bands of chestnut spots. 

Length, 1-5 inches. 

Philippines. 

Broader than M. ustulata, the revolving sculpture more 
distinct. 



120 MITRA. 

M. CONTRACT A, Swainson. PL 35, fig. 53. 

Yellowish white, clouded with chestnut, engraved with revolv- 
ing striae. Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Red Sea; Philippines; Polynesia. 

The peculiar form of this species will at once distinguish it 
from its neighbors. It is narrower and without the elevated 
ridges of M. chrysostoma, and approaches the genus Mitroidea 
in shape. It has been usually known as M. abbatis, Chemn., but 
he was not a binomial author, so that I have preferred Swainson 's 
later name. 

M. LATRUNCULARIA, Reeve. PI. 35, fig. 59. 

Whitish, obscurely banded, and tessellated with chestnut. 
Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope (Sowerby); Viti Isles (Garrett). 

M. SOLIDA, Reeve. PI. 35, fig. 51. 

Fulvous bay-color, with irregular white spots in a series upon 
the periphery, and another at the suture. Length, 1 8 inches. 

Australia. 
M. PIGRA, A. Ad. PI. 35, figs. 58, 60. 

Olive-brown, tessellated with white around the suture ; aper- 
ture brown within. Length, 1'5 inches. 

Australia, 
M. CALTGINOSA, Reeve. PI. 35, fig. 61. 

Whitish, covered with a black epidermis. Length, 1*4 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. SACERDOTALIS, A. Ad. PI. 35, fig. 62. 

Chestnut-brown, with a light band at the suture and another 
on the periphery, and longitudinal dark chestnut streaks. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Australia. 
M. CHTNENSIS, Gray. PI. 36, figs. 65, 66. 

Pale brown under a brownish black, smooth epidermis ; upper 
whorls and base of body-whorl with revolving striae. 

Length, 2'25-3'5 inches. 

China. 

Sowerby's figure of this species (fig. 65) is much larger than 
the type, and differs in having some obscure darker longitudinal 
streaks and a light sutural line ; it is not very different from M 
sacerdotalis. M. obliqua, Lesson, an unfigured species, is com- 



MITRA. 121 

pared by him with Chinensis ; its distinctive characters do not 
appear to be important. 

M. STRIGATA, Swainson. PL 35, fig. 63. 

Smooth, reddish brown, with lighter longitudinal streaks. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. ROSETTE, Angas. PI. 35, fig. 64. 

Deep orange-brown, longitudinally strigate with white ; with 
distant impressed revolving striae. Length, 1*25 inches. 

So. Australia. 

The whorls are flatter than in the preceding species with 
which nevertheless it may be synonymous. 

M. SWAINSONI, Brod. PI. 36, fig. 68. 

Turreted, with rather deep sutures, smooth, striated towards 
the base ; brownish or dirty white covered with a blackish brown 
epidermis. Length, 3'4-3'6 inches. 

Monte Christi, W. Columbia; sandy mud, 7 fathoms. 

Much larger than the next species, but may prove to be 
identical with it; the shoulder of the whorls, amounting to a 
deformity, is exactly imitated in specimens of M. maura before me. 

M. MAURA, Swainson. PL 36, fig. 6T. 

Dirt}' white or brown, with revolving striae ; covered by a 
smooth black or blackish brown epidermis ; aperture light 

chocolate. Length. l-2'25 inches. 

Peru, northwards to San Diego, Gal. 

This species attains its maximum development upon the 
Peruvian Coast, where it is plentiful, in fissures of rocks at low 
water ; it is much smaller in the waters of California. Gray's 
name, M. orientalis, has priority, but is not adopted because 
geographically misleading. It is the M. Chilensis of Kiener. 
According to d'Orbigny the animal has a narrow foot, is pure 
white, with black eyes. 

M. INDUTA, Sowb. PL 36, fig. TO. 

Very obscurely striated, but strongly grooved towards the 
base ; outer lip thin, arched, very minutely crenulated, smooth 

within ; epidermis blackish brown. Length, 33 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

A doubtful species ; apparently founded on a single specimen. 
16 



122 MITRA. 

M. QUOYI, Desh. PI. 36, fig. 71. 

Shell smooth, with faint impressed revolving striae ; epidermis 

black. Length, 20 mill. 

New Ireland. 

This species, described and figured by Quoy under the name 
of M. nigra, is very different from the previously described M. 
nigra of Chemnitz, and is scarcely equivalent to that figured by 
Reeve ; it is, then, an unidentified species. I give a copy of one 
of the original figures. 

M. ABBREVIATA, Sowb. PL 36, fig. 69. 

Smooth, faintly striate at base ; epidermis black. 

Length, 28 mill. 

New Zealand. 
Name proposed for M. nigra, Reeve (not Chemn. nor Quoy). 

M. NITIDA, A. Ad. PI. 36, fig. 73. 

Smooth, chocolate-brown, with a few impressed revolving 

lines. Length, '5 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
Probably a worn, juvenile specimen. 

M. INFRAFASCIATA, Souverbie. PI. 36, fig. 72. 

Smooth, slightly striate near the base ; brownish black, with a 
yellowish band on the periphery, visible within the brown aper- 
ture. Length, 8-9 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
Two specimens obtained. 

M. FUSCA, Swainson. PI. 36, fig. 75. 

Smooth, very finely striated with punctures near the apex ; 
slightly striate at the base, body-whorl slightly contracted in 
the middle ; epidermis very dark brown, sometimes lighter 
beneath the sutures. Length, 1-1-75 inches. 

Madeira, Atlantic Coast of Portugal and 80. France. 

M. Adansonii, Phil., described as from Gabon, in Guinea, W. 
Africa, appears to agree fairly with this species ; it has not been 
figured nor alluded to by the monographers. 

M. CORNICULA, Linn. PI. 36, figs. 74, 76-81. 

Horny brown ; smooth, impressed striae at the base. 
Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea ; Atlantic Coast of N. Africa. 



MITRA. 123 

Considerable confusion exists in the nomenclature of this 
species, the names of cornicula and cornea having been rather 
loosely applied by different authors ; several of the most recent 
investigators have applied to it that of M. lutescens, Lam., as a 
name about which there can be no doubt ; I agree with Deshayes, 
Reeve, etc., that the name given by Linnaeus may be fitly 
preserved for the species. The form and coloration are certainly 
variable how variable, I am not able to determine. The follow- 
ing, among the large number of synonyms, have been variously 
separated as varieties and even as species, and there are not 
wanting connecting forms even with so typically diverse a species 
as M. ebenus. 

M. Pliilippiana, Forbes (fig. 77), is considered by Weinkauff a 
minor form of var. cornea, Lam. ; it appears to me to be merely 
a young shell without distinctive features. A curious color- 
variety is that figured by Kiener as M. cornicularis, Lam. (fig. 
76). M. graja, Reeve (fig. 78), is from the Isle of Paros, 
Grecian Archipelago ; it is a solid shell and appears to connect 
with 

Var. LACTEA, Lam. (fig. 79). 

Shell smooth, solid, white ; with fine revolving striae. 

Yar. PLUMBEA, Reeve (fig. 80). 

Mitra plumbea, Lam., is usually referred to the smooth form 
of M. ebenus, Linn., but the shell which Reeve and Sowerby have 
figured for plumbea is very different from that species. It is 
nearer to cornicula, but may be entirely distinct, being a larger, 
stouter shell, chestnut-brown covered partially by a plum-like 
bloom. 

Yar. SCHRCETERI, Desh. (fig. 81). 

Pale horny brown, marked with white next the sutures and 
with an irregular central light band. Length, 11 '25 inches. 

Weinkauff* thinks this a West Indian species, but no such 
form is known there. Deshaj^es considers it fully equivalent to 
M. cornicularis, Lain. It connects closely with M. Kieneri, Sowb. 



Bull. Mai. Ital., iii, 75. 



124 MITE A. 

M. INSOLATA, Sowb. PI. 36, fig. 82. 

More pyramidal, and the whorls not gibbous at the suture as 
in M. lactea (= lutescens, var.), White. Length, 1-1 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

An unsatisfactory species. 

M. PETROSA, Sowb. PL 37, fig. 99. 

Thick, white, with slight revolving striae. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
Described from a single specimen in the late Taylor Collection. 

M. KIENERI, Sowb. PI. 36, fig. 86. 

Plum-color, mottled or streaked with dark chestnut, with a 
narrow white band above the periphery, and visible on the spire. 

Length, 1-25 inches. 

Sowerby describes and figures this from a shell which he says 
agrees with Kiener's illustration of M. ebenus, and from which 
species it is perfectly distinct. It appears to me to hold about 
the same relation to M. ebenusth&t Schroeteri does to cornicula, 
and to be as closely related also to Schroeteri; in fact, it seems 
to be a connecting form between cornicula and ebenus. 

M. GRCENLANDICA, Gray. PL 36, fig. 83. 

Whitish, under a corneous epidermis. Length, -5-'85 inch. 

Greenland. 

This is the type of the genus Volutomitra, Gray, separated 
from Mitra on account of possessing an entirely different lingual 
dentition. If it be recognized as a distinct genus on this account, 
it must stand alone, as the twenty species referred to the genus 
by H. and A. Adams are indistinguishable from Mitra by the 
shell, and their dentition is entirely unknown. 

M. EBENUS, Lam. PL 36, figs. 84, 85, 87, 88 ; PL 37, figs. 89, 90. 

Smooth, shining, chocolate-brown ; with a narrow yellowish 
line upon the upper part of the body-whorl, visible on the spire. 

Length, -75-1 inch. 

Mediterranean Rea ; North Atlantic Coast of Africa. 
Var. COSTATA has the shell wrinkled longitudinally, a well-marked 
example being M. Defrancii, Payr. (fig. 88) ; all intermediate 
stages occur to the smooth form. 



MITRA. 125 

Among the synonyms are M. cornicularis, Costa, not Lam. ; 
M. cornicula, Risso, not Linn. ; M. plumbea, Lam., not Reeve 
or Sowb., and M.plicatula and pyramidella, Brocchi two fossil 
forms. 

M. livida. Reeve (fig. 89), habitat unknown, and M. chelonia, 
Reeve (fig. 90), said to come from the Island of Burias, Philip- 
pines, are both referred to M. ebenus by Sowerby. 

M. PATULA, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 91. 

Light corneous, sometimes with a narrow, superior white band; 
surface slightly folded longitudinally, or nearly smooth. 

Length, -5 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
M. WELDII, Tenison-Woods. 

Banded orange and dark brown ; translucent, with faint ribs 

on the upper whorls. Length, 10 mill. 

Tasmania. 

This species has not been figured, and I know nothing 
concerning it. 

M. CAPENSIS, Dunker. PI. 37, figs. 95, 92, 94. 

Yellowish or orange-brown, banded with chocolate on the 
periphery, sometimes with a second band beneath the suture and 
chocolate-tinged at the base. 

Length, *6 inch. 

Natal, South Africa. 

M. vincta (fig. 94), and M. rufocincta (fig. 92), of A. Adams, 
appear to be synonymous. 

M. PICA, Reeve. PI. 37, fig. 96. 

Smooth, dark chocolate, tinged w'ith White below the sutures 
and at the base. Length, '7 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
M. LACHRYMA, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 93. 

Thin, whorls finely longitudinally ribbed at the upper part, 
crossed by revolving obsolete raised striae ; white, with an 
orange-brown blotch at the back, 

Habitat unknown. 

The several foregoing species, from the Cape of Good Hope 
and its vicinity, are all known only from the figured types. 
M. lachryma may well be identical with M. pica. 



126 M1TRA. 

M. FUNEREA, Reeve. PI. 37, figs. 100-103. 

Spire-whorls well rounded, closely longitudinally sculptured, 
decussated by revolving lines ; upper portion of body-whorl 
similarly sculptured, middle smooth or nearly so, base with close 
revolving striae. Chocolate-brown, with a narrow yellow band 
below the shoulder of the whorl. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Isle of Luzon, Philippines ; six fathoms, sandy mud. 

Possibly M. chelonia, Reeve (fig. 90), referred to M. ebenus, 
may be a smooth variety of this species. That it varies consider- 
ably is shown by Sowerby's figure of it (fig. 101). M. bilineata, 
Reeve (fig. 102), and M. analogica, Reeve, not Sowerby (fig. 103), 
both appear to be younger individuals of this species. 

M. AUSTRALIS, Swainson. PL 37, figs. 104, 105. 

Smooth, polished ; brown, with a broad yellowish band stained 
with chestnut. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Van Diemari's Land ; Australia. 

This shell approaches very closely to M. Kieneri, Sowb. If 
Quoy's M. melaleuca (fig. 105) is a synonym, as decided by 
Reeve and Sowerby, then it must be the normal form of the 
species, and Australis a stunted, scalariform monstrosity of it. 

M. LAMBERTI, Souverbie. PL 37, fig. 106. 

Whorls encircled by punctate, impressed striae ; chestnut- 
brown, with a narrow yellowish band on the upper part. 

Length, 1 inch. 

New Caledonia. 

M. POLITA, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 107. 

Upper part of the spire longitudinally plicate, body-whorl 
with revolving striae at base, otherwise smooth and polished ; 
chestnut or ashy brown, with a narrow light band. 

Length, 1'25-1'75 inches. 

Philippines, Ceylon. 

M. CALLOSA, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 108. 

Smooth, striate towards the base ; leaden brown, variegated, 
spotted or obscurely banded with brown. Length, 1-1 inches. 

Philippines. 

Looks like a " telescoped " condition of M. polita, described 
above. 






MITRA. 127 

M. EFFUSA, Swainson. PL 37, fig. 109. 

Uniform dark chestnut, encircled with fine raised ridges. 

Length, 1-25 inches, 

Guacomayo, Central America ; Gallapagos Is. 

M. TESTACEA, Swainson. PI. 37, figs. 110-112. 

Chestnut-brown, with obsolete or deep-cut revolving lines at 
the base. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Kingsmill, Cook's, Society and Paumotus Is. 

That M. Bulimoides, Reeve (fig. Ill), and M. badia, Reeve 
(fig. 112), are both synonyms, I have little doubt; they are 
described without locality. 

M. RHODIA, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 114. 

Smooth, polished, with very fine, obsolete spiral striae, 
becoming more distinct towards the base ; dark olive or 

chestnut-brown. Length, 1 inch. />.<- J. O /<I.M. 

Habitat unknown. 

More narrowly acuminated than the preceding species ; of 
which nevertheless it may be a variety. 

M. CASTANEA, A. Ad. PL 37, fig. 115. 

Chestnut-color ; transversely punctate-striate. Length, * 9 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

" This species most nearly resembles M. badia, Reeve, but the 
whorls are rounded, and it differs in other particulars." The 
white spots on Sowerby's figure (the only illustration of the 
species) are not described : do they represent punctations ? 

M. MELANIANA, Lam. PL 37, figs. 118, 119. 

Dark olive-brown, or dark chestnut, smooth and polished, 
usually with small white spots below the suture. 

Length, 2-2-5 inches. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Sowerby and Reeve call this species M. nigra, Chemn., but 
the figures in that scarcely quotable author do not indicate this 
shell. Reeve gives Isl. of Annaa, Pacific Ocean, as locality, and 
Lamarck quotes Guinea, India and Greenland! all errors. 
Something like M. Chinensis, Gray, but differs in its more flat- 
tened whorls. M. digna, A. Ad. (fig. 119), is synonymous. 



128 MITRA. 

M. SCITA, Tenison-Woods. 

Shell small, ovate, shining, entirely pure deep brown ; spire 
obtusely rounded, apex mamillated, whorls six, smooth, tumid, 
suture finely impressed ; aperture rather wide, brown within, 

lirate, columella triplicate. Length, 8 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Yery distinct from its size, and intense uniform coloring, 
though belonging to the series of which M. badia (= testacea) 
is a large representative. The above is the original description ; 
not figured. 

M. TERESLE, Tenison-Woods. 

Shell oblong-ovate, somewhat thin, shiny, subventricose, 
brown, with two whitish bands ; spire somewhat short, scarcely 
acute, whorls five, smooth, tumid, shining conspicuously, finely 
canaliculate at the suture, aperture ovate, bifasciate within, 

columella triplicate. Length, t-14 mill. 

Tasmania. 

The coloring seems very persistent, and therefore the species 
is not easily mistaken. I confess, however, that if this species 
could lose the white bands, and were to have the mouth lirate 
within, I should regard it as a variety of M. scita. I think the 
lirse are not persistent in the latter, and therefore the shell may 
be the same. The above is the original description ; unfigured. 

M. TYPHA, Reeve. PL 3t, figs. 113, 116, 

Encircled by fine striae ; horny, transparent, with a broad, 
rusty brown band. Length, '6 inch. 

Viti Isles; I. of Bohol, Philippines, under stones at low water. 

M. peculiaris, Reeve (fig. 116), appears to be a shouldered 
monstrosity of this species. 

M. FLEXILABRIS, Sowb. PL 37, fig. 98. 

Smooth, with faint spiral striae ; yellow, with two orange- 
brown bands. Length, 13 mill. 

Mauritius. 

More cylindrical and narrower than M. typha, Reeve, and 
differently banded, yet I doubt its distinctness from that species. 



AIDONE. 129 

M. TENUIS, Sowb. PL 37, fig. 117. 

Transparent, horny, with a light fulvous band on the upper 

part of the whorls. Length, '65 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

" Much like M. typha, but more pyramidal." I suspect that 
it is not distinct from that species. 

M. MICANS, Reeve. PL 37, fig. 120. 

Smooth, polished, ivory-white, faintly orange-banded. 
Length, '7 inch. 

Cook's Islands, Polynesia. Garrett. 
Perhaps this also is a form of M. typha. 

M. COOKII, Hanley. PL 37, fig. 121. 

Chestnut-brown, variegated with blue-gray ; delicately striated. 
Length, 1-25 inches. 

Australia. 
I do not know this species. 

M. ALBINA, A. Adams. PL 37, fig. 97. 

Spire and upper part of body-whorl folded longitudinally ; 

white. Length, !! inches. 

Island of Luzon, on the reefs. 
Described from a single specimen in the Cumingian Collection. 

Section Aidone, H. and A. Adams. 

Shell fusiform, smooth, polished, small ; spire acuminate, as 
long as the aperture ; inner lip excavated, with two prominent 
plaits in the middle ; outer lip thin, simple. 

This little Olivella-like form may prove to be generically dis- 
tinct from Mitra. 

M. ALBA, Pease. PL 51, fig. 471. 

White, polished, finely striated. Length, 7*5 milL 

Society and Paumotus Islands. 

Mr. Pease describes the columella as quadriplicate, but his 
specimens now before me have only two distinct plicae, although 
there are slight indications of additional ones, as might be 
expected. 

M. INSIGNIS, A. Ad. 

An unfigured species, referred to Aidone j as its type. It 
comes from Rains' Island. 
17 



130 SWAINSONIA. 

Section Swainsonia, H. and A. Ad. 

Oliviform, smooth, polished, spire nearly as long as the 
aperture. 

M. ZONATA, Marryatt. PL 38, figs. 122, 126. 

Yellowish brown, the lower half of the body-whorl chocolate- 
brown, forming a narrow band on the spire. Length, 2 '5 inches. 
Mediterranean ; deep water, in rocky places. 

Petit, writing in 1869, says : " Cette coquille est le reve et en 
meme temps le desespoir de 1'amateur, Elle n'a 6t6 trouvee,dit-on, 
que deux fois." It has since become more common, and although 
one of the rare species, all doubt as to its being really an inhabi- 
tant of the Mediterranean Sea, has finally been dissipated. It 
has been found at Toulon, on the North African Coast, near 
Catania, in the Gulf of Naples, Leghorn, Sardinia, etc. M. Sant- 
angeli, Maravigna (fig. 126), is founded on a worn example in 
which the colors have faded to white and orange. 

M. CASTA, Lam. PL 38, fig. 123. 

Ivory-white, covered, except a narrow band at the suture and 
another wider one at the base, by a persistent smooth, thin 
chestnut- or olive-brown epidermis. Length, 1-25-2 inches. 
Zanzibar ; Mauritius ; Polynesia, in sandy mud, laminarian zone. 

Cabinet specimens usually preserve the epidermis, but when 
specimens are weathered, they become uniformly polished white. 
Mr. Sowerby makes M. Isevis, A. Ad., an unfigured species, a 
synonym. I have preferred quoting Lamarck for this species 
rather than Chemnitz or Solander,who used the name, less defi- 
nitely, at an earlier date. M. bicolor, Swainson, is the young 
shell of this species. 

M. FILUM, Wood. PL 38, fig. 127. 

White, with a very broad chestnut or olive-brown band, which 
is finely streaked across with white, apex and base black tipped. 

Length, '85 inch. 

Zanzibar. 

Kiener and Deshayes have erroneously identified with this 
species M. bicolor, Swains., which is really the young of M. casta. 
M. affinis, Lesson, an uafigured species from the Gambier Islands, 
may be identical with it. 



SWAINSONIA. 131 

v M. OLIV^FORMIS, Swainson. PI. 38, fig. 131 ; PL 33, fig. 28. 

Whorls encircled by punctate incised lines, which are usually 
obsolete except around the upper part; yellowish or orange, 
apex and base dark blue-black. Length, '65 inch. 

Society Islands, gregarious, in sand inside the reefs. 
M. dactyloidea, Anton (fig. 28), appears to be a young shell of 
this species. 

M. FORMOSA, Pease. PL 38, fig. 128. 

Smooth, polished, transversely regularly punctate-striate ; 
light flesh-color, spotted or striped longitudinally with white, 
aperture yellowish. Length, 14 mill. 

Ascension Isl. 

Allied to M. filum, Wood. 

M. NEWCOMBII, Pease. 

Shell elongate, rather cylindrically fusiform ; spire short, acute ; 
whorls flatly convex, transversely punctate-striate, striae becom- 
ing sometimes obsolete 011 middle of last whorl ; spire and upper 
part of last whorl decussated by longitudinal impressed striae ; 
base distantly grooved and somewhat truncate ; columella five- 
plaited, white, remotely punctured with reddish brown dots, last 
whorl encircled with a broad dark brown band. 

Length 21, diam. 8 mill. 

Sandwich Isles. 

Allied to M. filum, Wood, but somewhat larger. It is un- 
figured, and I have not seen a specimen, but I suspect that it is 
a variety of that species. 

M. FISSURATA, Lam. PL 38, figs. 124, 125. 

Smooth, polished, sometimes partly or wholly encircled with 
distant, slightly impressed revolving lines ; pale pink-gray, with 
a broad obscure darker band, overlaid with a china-crackle pat- 
tern of white lines ; sometimes the band is bordered above by 
brown ocelli, visible above the suture-line of the spire; livid 
within the aperture. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Red Sea ; Mauritius ; Zanzibar. 

M. ocellata, Swainson (fig. 125), is the shell with the dark 
spots ; it is not a distinct variety as these may be detected ob- 
scurely marked on most specimens, and occasionally become 
more or less prominent. 



132 SCABRICOLA. 

M. ZEPHYRINA, Duclos. PI. 38, figs. 129, 130. 

Cylindrical oliviform, with distant, slightly impressed revolv- 
ing lines ; .chestnut-brown, sometimes flecked with white in two 

spiral series. Length, '15-1 inch. 

Mauritius. 

The variety without spots has been called M. Nevilli by Mr. 
Hanley (fig. 130). 

M. EBURNEA, Philippi. TJnfigured. Marquesas Islands. 

Not included in the monographies, and unknown to me. 

Section Scabricola, Swainson. 

Mitre-shaped or pyramidal ; granulated or scabrous. 
M. TESSELLATA, Martyn. PL 38, figs. 139, 136. 

Pale yellow, with chestnut-brown longitudinal flames. 

Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Polynesia ; Zanzibar f 

The longitudinal plications sometimes become obsolete, on 
which state M. terebralis, Lam. (fig. 136), is founded. It is 
doubtful whether the latter form comes from Zanzibar ; at any 
rate, I have before me examples of it from the Paumotus Islands. 
Garrett says that the animal is cream-yellow ; the small triangular 
foot is reddish brown above, and the siphon is varied with a 
lighter shade of the same color. Philippi contends that 
Lamarck's species terebralis is different from the figure bearing 
that name in Reeve, and so calls the latter M. Reevei ; but 
Deshayes, in Lamarck, refers to Kiener's figure, which is the 
same as that of Reeve and Sowerby. 

M. IMPRESSA, Anton. PL 38, fig. 132. 

Yellowish or orange-brown ; sometimes slightly shouldered. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Japan. 

So closely is this related to the M. granulosa,t\i&i, were it not 
for the difference in locality, I would be disposed to consider it 
a variety. 

M. VITELLINA, Gould. PL 38, fig. 134. 

Pale orange, with an imperfect white vitta adjacent to the 
posterior revolving strias, a second at the anterior third of the 



SCABRICOLA. 133 

last whorl, and with the other parts of the shell slightly mottled 
with white, except the sutural portion. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Hab. uncertain ; probably East Indies. 

Narrower than M. impressa, of which, nevertheless, it may be 
only a variety. 

M. GRANULOSA, Lam. PL 38, fig. 138. 

Orange, or sometimes chestnut-brown ; occasionally obscurely 
banded, or with the granules next the suture lighter colored. 

Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

West Indies ; on rocks. 

M. ONISCINA, Lam. PI. 38, fig. 135. 

Chocolate-brown, with a superior white band, and an inferior 

one less distinct. Length, -6-1-2 inches. 

East Indie*. 

An obscure species figured by Kiener, and not recognized by 
subsequent naturalists. 

M. LENS, Wood. PL 38, figs. 133, 137 ; PL 39, figs. 140-142, 144. 

Ashy violet or brownish white, covered with a dark epidermis, 
varying from chocolate to nearly black. Length, 2-2 -5 inches. 
Peru ; Panama ; Mazatlan ; Galapagos Is. 

The dark color and very coarse, rude sculpture of this species 
will readily distinguish it from all others ; there is, besides, on 
well-grown specimens, two rows of very deep punctures, encir- 
cling the middle of the whorls. The Peruvian locality is on the 
authority of d'Orbigny, who has described a young shell as M. 
inca (fig. 140). M. Dupontii, Kiener (fig. 137), is said to come 
from the Red Sea, but I agree with Reeve and Sowerby that it 
is a synonym of M. lens, and the habitat is very doubtful. M. 
lignaria, Reeve (fig. 141), dredged at fourteen fathoms from 
rocky ground, at St. Elena, W. Columbia, is merely a lighter 
colored variety, somewhat narrower than the usual form. M. 
rupicola, Reeve (fig. 144), obtained with the last, and unique in 
the Cumingian Collection, is a M. lens, more shouldered than 
usual ; I have before me shells somewhat like it. M. muricata, 
Swainson (fig. 142), cannot be distinguished from a very usual 
form of young specimens of M. lens ; Cuming obtained it at the 
Galapagos Isles, from sandy mud, at six fathoms. 



1 34 SCABRICOLA. 

M. VULTUOSA, Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 143. 

Orange-brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Isl. of Capul, Philippines (found on the reefs). 
Closely allied to M. impressa, Anton. 

M. NUCLEOLA, Lam. PL 39, figs. 145-141, 151. 

Fulvous yellow, Length, -75-1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

The figures given by Kiener (fig. 145 ), Reeve (fig. 146), and 
Sowerby (fig. 147) for this shell, are so different that they seem 
to represent distinct species. The first, which is presumably 
from the type, if well drawn, has but little affinity with the 
present group ; M. unifascialis, Lam., as figured by Kiener (fig. 
151), certainly appears to be synonymous with it. 

M. SPH^RULATA, Martyn. PI. 39, fig. 149. 

Whitish, yellowish or light brown, variously stained with dark 
chocolate or blackish spots on the granules ; aperture orange. 

Length, 2-2 '5 inches. 

Philippines ; Polynesia. 

M. EBURNOSTOMA, Garrett. 

Creamy white, sparingly mottled with brown. The sculpture 
is almost precisely the same as in M. sphaerulata, but it may be 
at once distinguished from that species by its paler color, more 
slender form and pure white aperture. 

Length 41, diam. 13 mill. 

Paumotus Isles. 

A very rare species, of which two examples were found buried 
in sand in the upper region of the laminarian zone. Its distinct- 
ness from M. sphserulata may well be doubted ; it has not been 
figured. 

M. TEXTURATA, Lam. PL 39, figs. 150, 148. 

Shell variegated with white and rusty brown. 

Length, 1*25-1*5 inches. 

Philippines, Viti Isles. 
Var. LIFOUANA, Crosse. Fig. 148. 

Distinguished from the type by its small size, stumpy form, 
and uniform white coloring. Length, 16 mill. 

Lifou, Loyalty Isles. 



SCABRICOLA. 135 

M. SUCCINCTA, Swainson. Habitat unknown. 

M. SUBTEXTURATA, Garrett. Society Islands. 

Unfigured species, said to be allied to M. texturata. 

M. CRENIFERA, Lam. PL 39, figs. 152, 164, 165. 

Yellowish or pinkish white, with two irregular clouded bands 
of chestnut or chocolate color, or sometimes irregularly macu- 
late ; the whole surface is closely decussated. Length, 2 inches. 
Mauritius, Manilla, Red Sea, Indian Ocean. 

This species is so well-known under its present name that it 
would be injudicious to revive for it the previously given name 
of M. clathrus, Gmelin. M.pretiosa, Reeve (fig. 164), is a young 
shell of this species; M. Antoniae, H. Adams (fig. 165), is 
synonymous with it. 

M. SCABRIUSCULA, Linn. PI. 39, fig. 158. 

Whitish, clouded with chestnut or chocolate-brown, often 
appearing like interrupted spiral series on the revolving ridges. 

Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Philippines ; Viti Islands, sandy stations. 

A stouter species than M. crenifera, the prominent spiral 
ridges alternating with impressed striae, the longitudinal sculp- 
ture subordinate. The animal is diluted white, maculated with 
numerous small opaque white spots. 

M. HELVACEA, Phil. 

An unfigured species, from China, said to be intermediate 
between M. scabriuscula and M. Isabellina. Sowerby does not 
allude to it, although published twenty years before the appear- 
ance of his monograph, and I suppose it may be considered a lost 
species. So much allowance must be made for the personal equa- 
tion in descriptive and distinctive characters that in these days of 
minute distinctions it is rarely worth while to attempt to identify 
unfigured shells, or to reproduce the descriptions for the con- 
founding of students. In nine cases out of ten a description can- 
not be made sufficiently accurate to identify a species positively, 
and in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred it is sufficiently indefi- 
nite to secure a wrong identification from those who attempt to 
fit it to their unnamed species. Conchologists have suffered more 
than enough in endeavoring to acquiesce in the cheaply bought 
glorification of naturalists ; it is full time to inaugurate a reform 



136 SCABRICOLA. 

by ignoring all unfigured species. As my purpose, distinctly 
stated at the outstart, is to include in my monographs all pub- 
lished species, I shall, at least mention them all ; although I 
have been frequently disposed, as in the present case, to allow 
them to remain in the oblivion into which they had sunk, rather 
than bring them again to the notice of science. 

M. PUNCTOLIRATA, A. Ad. 

Described as a Scabricola. Unfigured. From Gotto /s., Japan. 

M. EHRENBERGI, Jickeli. PI. 39, fig. 153. 

Whitish, with two pale rosy bands, appearing within the aper- 
ture. Length, 24 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Described from a single specimen. 

M. HEMPRICHII, Jickeli. PI. 39, fig. 155. 

Yellowish red, with two white bands. Length, 19 mill. 

Rtd Sea. 
Described and figured from a single dead specimen. 

M. ARENACEA, Dunker. PI. 39. fig. 154. 

Very closely and finely reticulated ; yellowish white, clouded 
with chestnut. Length, 35 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. GRACILIS, Reeve. PI. 39, fig. 156. 

White, clouded orange or chestnut and obscurely banded, with 
chestnut or chocolate spots on the granules ; revolving sculpture 
most prominent. Length, 2 inches. 

Me of Ticao, Philippines, sandy mud, at six fathoms. 

Yery much like M. scabriuscula, Linn., but more slim; perhaps 
only a variety of that species. 

M. STRANGEI, Angas. PL 39, fig. 151. 

Rather thin, white, closely spirally ridged, the ridges on the 
last whorl alternately larger and smaller, crossed by very fine 
longitudinal lines. Length, *6 inch. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

M. CITHAROIDEA, Dohrn. PL 39, fig. 160. 

White, with revolving ribs and longitudinal striae. 
Length, 21 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



SCABHICOLA. 137 

This may possibly be an older individual of M. Strangei, 
Angas ; if so, its name should have preference on account of 
priority of publication. 

M. NOEBISII, Reeve. PL 40, fig. 166. 

White, under a black, thin, horny epidermis; surface very 

finely decussated. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a unique specimen, thirty-five years ago ; no 
others have been recorded. 

M. NIVEA, Swainson. PL 40, fig. 167. 

White, with obsolete, rather distant, orange-brown revolving 
lines, and a few scattered brown spots next to suture ; encircled 
with very fine, punctured, impressed striae. Length, 2*75 inches. 

Kl. Annaa, on the reefs. 

M. ISABELLA, Swainson. PL 40, figs. 168, 169; PL 39, figs. 159, 

162. 

Yellowish white, clouded and sometimes indistinctly banded 
with orange-brown ; closety spirally ribbed, more or less clath- 

rate by fine longitudinal lines. Length, 2*5-3*5 inches. 

China. 

Aperture small and narrow, shell contracted to a canal below. 
M. Morclni, A. Ad. (fig. 169), is founded 011 an individual in 
which the spiral sculpture is more, and the longitudinal less 
prominent than in the usual form. M. Herklotsiana, Dohrn, an 
un figured species from Japan, is said to have the longitudinal 
sculpture more prominent than M. Isabella, crossing the spiral 
ribs and cutting them into granules: it is probably not distinct. 
Perhaps this is like M. loricata, Reeve (fig. 162), described without 
locality, and which is very plainly a variety of M. Isabella. I 
find no distinctive characters in M. Peasei, Dohrn (fig. 159), 
described as from Australia, and said by Sowerby to come from 
Sandwich Islands. 

M. HEBES, Reeve. PL 39, fig. 161. 

Whitish or yellowish, slightly shouldered. 

Length, 1-25-1-5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
18 



138 CANCILLA. 

M. FORMOSA, A. Ad. PI. 39, fig. 163. 

Whitish, clouded with chestnut ; slightly round-shouldered. 

Length, 1*4 inches. 

Moluccas. 

I have not seen either this or the preceding species: the 
figures look much alike, and the difference in coloring is of little 
account, but M. formosa appears to have finer sculpture. 

Section Cancilla, Swainson. 

Shell fusiform, slender ; with revolving, linear, elevated ridges, 
and no longitudinal ribs; outer lip thin, not dentate within. 

M. FILARIS, Linn. PI. 40, figs. 174-176, 180. 

Pinkish white or yellowish white, with elevated, narrow, brown, 
beaded ridges. Length, 1'25-1'75 inches. 

Mauritius, Philippines, Polynesia. 

Mr. G-arrett considers M. nexilis, Martyn, a distinct species ; 
it is a shorter, stouter form than the type, but intermediate con- 
ditions are not wanting. Philippi considers M. filosa, Born 
(= filar is, L.), the equivalent of the obese form, and makes of 
the narrow form a var. gracilis, whilst a small race is designated 
as var, Bernardiana. 

Yar. NEXILTS, Martyn. Fig. 174. 
Yar. BERNARDIANA, Phil. Fig. 180. 
Yar* CIRCULATA, Kiener. Fig. 176. 

The ridges are uncolored, sharper, devoid of granules ; in 
some specimens the intermediate revolving strise are most prom- 
inent, others are cancellated between the ridges, and others again 
show mostly the longitudinal inter-costal striae. M. circulata 
has usually been considered a distinct species, but even in the 
coloring of the ribs there is a gradual change from the uncolored 
typical M. circulata to the full-colored M. filaris. 

M. CREBRILINEATA, Sowb. PL 40, fig. 170. 

This little shell resembles filosa (=. filaris), but is narrower, 
and has more numerous and finely beaded ridges. Length, -8 inch. 

Mauritius. 

Probably not distinct from filaris, but I have not seen a 
specimen. 



> 



CANCILLA. 139 

M. TATHN^, Jickeli. PL 40, fig. 178. 

Whitish or yellowish white. Length, 18-20 mill. 

Red Sea. 
I do not know the species ; two specimens were collected. 

-M. SULCATA, Swainson. PI. 40, figs. 171, 177, 182-184. 

Brownish white or light brown, under a chestnut or chocolate 
epidermis. Length, 1-3-25 inches. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

I unite under this, the oldest name, several species agreeing 
with it in color and sculpture but varying somewhat in form and 
considerably in size ; the}^ are all inhabitants of the same region. 
The largest of these is M. gigantea, Swn. (fig. 177), then come 
in order of size, M. Hindsii, Reeve (fig. 182), M. attenuata, Swn. 
(fig. 184), M.funiculata, Reeve (fig. 183). 

M. LINEATA, Swains., PL 40, fig. 172. 

Whitish, longitudinal!}* stained with chestnut, ridges chestnut. 

Length, 1 inch. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

Stouter, with a more acute shoulder than the last species, and 
differently colored ; yet I suspect that it is only a variety of it. 

M. BELCHERI, Hinds. PL 40, fig. 179. 

Whitish, under a dark chocolate epidermis ; sculpture con- 
sisting of flat, broad ribs and narrow, deeply cut intervening 
grooves. Length, 4-5 inches. 

W. Coast of Central America ; in mud, at 17 fathoms. Hinds. 



M. ^GRA, Reeve. PL 40, fig. 181. 

Whitish, clouded with yellowish brown; ridges smooth and 
close, interstices punctured. Length, 1*7 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. PIA, Dohrn. PL 41, fig. 189 ; PL 40, fig. 173. 

Yellowish white. Length, 2'25 inches. 

Australia. 

The locality is somewhat doubtful. M. multilirata, A. Ad. 
(fig. 173), said to be from the China Sea, may possibly be a 
juvenile example of it. 

M. CARNICOLOR, Reeve. PL 40, fig. 185 ; PL 41, figs. 186, 187. 
Whitish to yellowish brown, light pink or white within the 



140 CANCILLA. 

aperture; slightly shouldered, ridges close, with longitudinal 

striae. Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Philippines. 

Approaches too closely to the stouter varieties of M. filaris, 
L., in form and sculpture. M. incarnata, Reeve (fig. 186), and 
M. pura, A. Ad (fig. 187), are synonyms. 

M. STRAMINEA, A. Ad. PL 41, fig. 188. 

Thin, light yellowish white. Length, -9 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

M. FLAMMEA, Quoy. PL 41, figs. 190-193, 195-197, 199, 200. 

White, stained and maculated with orange-brown ; sometimes 
smaller ridges are developed between the principal ones ; longi- 
tudinal striae close, distinct. Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

China, Philippines) Australia, Polynesia, Sandwich Islands. 

This is not the M. flammea figured by Reeve, = Philippina- 
rum. The principal synonyms are M. flammigera, Reeve (fig. 
191), M. interlirata, Reeve (fig. 192), M. tornata, Reeve (fig. 196), 
M. avenacea, Reeve (fig. 193), M. rufilirata, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 
197), M. Novae-Hollandise, Sowb. (fig. 199), M. hystrix, Montr, 
(fig. 200). 

M. ROBOREA, Reeve. PL 41, fig. 201. 

Pyramidal, brown, corded throughout with narrow white ridges, 
columella two-plaited, plaits somewhat indistinct. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Judging from the figure, this little shell is a Latiru* rather 
than Mitra. 

M. DUPLILIRATA, Reeve. PL 41, fig. 202. 

Whitish, longitudinally flamed with reddish brown ; revolving- 
ribs duplicate. Length, 1-15 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

M. ANNTJLATA, Reeve. PL 41, figs. 203, 205-209. 

Yellowish white, spotted, or clouded with chestnut or choco- 
late. Revolving ridges sharp ; with sometimes intermediate 
lirse, and longitudinal striae in the interstices, sometimes smooth. 

Length, '75-1 inch. 

Red Sea, Ceylon, Philippines, New Caledonia, Polynesia. 



CANCILLA. 141 

It has a shorter spire than M.flammea, Quoy. The synonyms 
include M. nitens, Kiener (not of Risso or Blainv.), M. insculpta, 
A. Ad. (fig. 205), M. amcena, A. Ad. (fig. 206), M. Fischeri, 
Souverb. (fig. 201). The latter is nnsculptured between the 
ridges : I have specimens which are plain between some of the 
ridges and well sculptured between others. Equivalent forms are 
M. rosacea, Reeve (fig. 208), and M. acuta, Sowb. (fig. 209). M. 
rufesceiiSjA. Ad., an unfigured species, is probably synonymous 
with annulata. 

M. ACUTILIRATA, Sowb. PI. 41, fig. 204. 

Tnle rose, encircled with angular ridges, painted on the angles 
with interrupted red-brown lines, longitudinally striated between 

[the ridges. Length, 1'4 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

M. PHILIPPINARUM, A. Ad. PI. 41, figs. 210, 211. 

Whorls encircled with rounded ridges, and usually narrow sulci 
between them ; light olive or yellowish white, with irregular 
chestnut or chocolate markings. Length, 1-1-2 inches. 

Andaman Is., Philippines, Polynesia. 

This species was first figured by Reeve, in mistake for M. 
flammea, Quoy. Sowerby also seems to have mistaken it, his 
Philippinarum being an entirely different species ; in consequence 
of this error he has re-described and figured it as M. semiconica 
(fig. 211). 

M. STRIGILLATA, Sowb. PI. 41, fig. 212. 

Whitish, longitudinally flamed with brown. Length, '9 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species ; it seems to be very 
like M. Philippinarum, Ads. 

M. BACILLUM, Lam. PI. 41, fig. 213 ; PI. 58, fig. 692. * 

Grooved towards the base; brown, with longitudinal, white, 

waved streaks. Length, *9 inch. 

Malacca, Australia. 

There is some confusion regarding this species. The figure 
given by Deshaj'es does not correspond well with that in Reeve's 
Iconica. Mr. Sowerby makes bacillum. Reeve, not Lam. = his 
M. strigillata ; but then he figures a shell similar to Reeve's 



142 CANCILLA. 

illustration for bacillum. Deshayes' figure appears to me to be 
very like M. Philippinarum, A. Ad. 

M. PRUINOSA, Reeve. PL 41, fig. 215. 

Pale brown, with short, narrow snow-like streaks, rather irreg- 
ularly descending or striking out from the sutures ; decussately 
engraved with longitudinal and transverse impressed lines. 

Length, '9 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
A doubtful species. 

M. FULGETRUM, Reeve. PL 41, figs. 216, 21?, 198. 

Transversely impressedly grooved, grooves narrow, very 
finely punctured ; reddish chestnut, with conspicuous waved 
longitudinal white streaks. Length, 1 inch. 

Isl. of Burias, Philippines ; under stones at low water ; 

New Caledonia. 
Yar. BOISSACI, Montrouzier (fig. 21*7). 

Has the same sculpture, and differs only in presenting a series 
of quadrangular chestnut spots, appearing like interrupted longi- 
tudinal bands : they are the bands of fulgetrum, in fact, but 
interrupted by the impressed striae. M. Cyri, Dohrn (fig. 198), 
is the same as M. Boissaci. 
M. HANETI, Petit. PL 41, fig. 194. 

Light yellowish. Length, 23 mill. 

Hab. unknown (supposed to be not far from Mazatlan, 

W. Coast of Mexico}. 
M, MALLETI, Petit. PL 42, fig. 218. 

Light chestnut or olive-brown ; longitudinally striated between 

the angular revolving costae. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Possibly only a well-grown, fresh specimen of M. Haneti. 

M. CARINATA, Swainson. PL 42, figs. 219-223, 241. 

Yellowish, olive or chestnut-brown; shoulder of whorls ob- 
tusely or sharply angulated or carinated ; with distant impressed 
revolving striae, sometimes covering a portion only of the body- 
whorl, sometimes altogether obsolete. 

Length, 11*5 inches. 

Cape Verd Isles ; Sierra Leone, W. Coast of Africa. 

M. Senegalensis, Reeve (fig. 221), appears to be a rude, dis- 



CHRYSAME. 143 

torted growth of this species, and M. Gambiana, Dohrn (fig. 
222), a non-shouldered and perhaps the normal form. I figure 
from Sowerby's Thesaurus (fig. 223), a shell called M. Gambiana, 
but which is decidedly of the carinata type. M. astyagis, Dohrn 
(fig. 241), is probably a color variety only. 

M. TELESCOPIUM, Reeve. PI. 42, fig. 225. 

Whorls rudely shouldered, with impressed, punctured revolv- 
ing striae, often partially obsolete ; chestnut-brown, with a 
superior white band, above which the color is lighter. 

Length, '75-1 inch. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines. 

Very similar to the preceding species in form, but differing in 
coloration, etc. It appears to be a monstrosity, yet four speci- 
mens before me all agree closely with the heretofore published 
figures. 

M. M^STA, Reeve. PL 42, fig. 226. 

With revolving impressed striae, yellowish brown to chestnut. 
Length, '85 inch. 

Isle of Corrigidor, Philippines; in coral sand at ten 

fathoms Cuming ; Andaman Islands E. A. Smith. 

This also appears to be a distorted shell : I am not acquainted 
with it. 

M. CINGULATA, A. Ad. Habitat unknown. 

M. SPIRIPUNCTA, Garrett. Viti Islands. 

Both unfigured species, apparently belonging to this section. 

Section Chrysame, H. and A. Adams. 

Shell ovate, spire and aperture usually about equal in length; 
whorls encircled by rounded ribs ; inner lip with a few strong 
transverse plaits ; outer lip with the margin crenate. 

M. CUCUMERINA, Lam. PL 42, figs. 227-229. 

Orange-red, with an interrupted band of white spots, and occa- 
sional white strigations. Length, '75-1*25 inches. 

Polynesia, on reefs. 

Garrett remarks that Paumotus examples, which are much 
larger than obtained elsewhere, are sometimes nearly pure white. 
The animal is whitish with creamy yellow dots, Mr. Pease 



144 CHRYSAME. 

mentions a uniform dark red variety of the shell as occurring; 
at Ralick Island. ^M.fraga, Quoy (fig. 229), may be the young 
of this variet}^ ; it can scarcely be synonymous with M. peregra. 
Reeve, as supposed by Sowerby. 

M. ADAMSONI, Gray. PL 42, figs. 230, 231, 240. 

Longitudinally granulosely plicated, crossed by revolving 
impressed striae. White or yellowish white, clouded with large 
reddish brown or orange-red blotches ; a narrow superior white 
band ; aperture brownish red, lip and columella deeper. 

Length, 1-1*4 inches. 

Philippines ; Mauritius. 

Yery close to M. cucumerina, and may be only a variety of 
that species in which the occasional longitudinal folds become 
regular and rib-like. 

M. Antoni, Kiister (fig. 231), described without locality, from 
an immature shell, appears to be closely related, if not identical ; 
in the latter case it would have priority. 

M. TORNATELLOIDES, Reeve. -PI. 42, fig. 232. / 

Shell encircled by somewhat indistinctly punctured grooves ; 

chestnut or reddish brown, with a white zone and longitudinal 

waved streaks. Length, -5 inch. 

Philippine Islands. 
Evidentty an immature shell ; perhaps a young cucumerina. 

M. CHRYSALIS, Reeve. PL 42, fig. 233. 

Yellowish brown, with an interrupted band of white. - 

Length, -G--85 inch. 

Polynesia ; Bay of Islands, New Zealand. 

Yery closely allied to cucumerina, but differs in its smaller 
size, more compressed form and lighter color. 

M. TURGIDA, Reeve. PL 42, figs. 234, 235. 
Uniform pale luteous. Length, -65-1 inch. 

Philippines; Polynesia. 

^ J/. indentata, Sowb. (fig. 235), is the usual form and size of 
this species, Reeve's type being a specimen of extraordinary size. 

M. PEREGRA, Reeve. PL 42, figs. 236-238, 224. 

Dark red, revolving ridges tuberculate, tubercles white. 
Length, -f5-l inch. Philippines; Polynesia. 



CHRYSAME. 145 

Sowerby considers this species as well as M. nucleola, Lam., 
identical with M. fraga, Qnoy. The latter is apparently the 
young of M. cucumerina ; the former is more like this shell in 
form but has not its markings, and the sculpture appears to be 
different. 

M. porcata, Humph, (fig. 237), appears to be a synonym, and 
M. miniata, Anton (fig. 238), as figured by Kiister can scarcely 
be different. M. spadicea, Dunker (fig. 224), is placed in the 
S}monymy by Garrett ; it is darker and smaller than the 
type, but usually spotted with white on the tubercles, although 
not so represented in the figure, copied from Sowerby. It may 
be considered a variety. 

^* 

M. GRACILIOR, Carpenter. PI. 42, fig. 239. 

Red-brown, with sharp revolving lines, decussated at the upper 
part of the whorls -by longitudinal riblets ; plications of the 
columella inconspicuous. H., -2 inch. 

San Diego, Gal, on kelp-roots in deep water. 

Dr. P. P. Carpenter named but did not describe this minute 
species ; he. referred it to Mitromorpha, a group belonging to the 
family Pleurotomidse. Mr. Henry Hemphill, of San Diego, Cal., 
collected the original lot and it is from one of these that the 
figure is drawn. It is one of several similarly sculptured minute 
species occurring on the California coast. I figure it here to call 
attention to the group, as they may be Mitrids, although most 
probably Pleurotomae. 

M. NUCLEOLA, Lam. PL 3^, figs. 145-147. 

Dark red ; the revolving ribs decussated by longitudinal sculp- 
ture. Length, 1 inch. 

Indian Ocean ? Java ? 

As already mentioned, Sowerby makes this species equivalent 
to M. fraga, Quoy, and M. peregra, Reeve : from the former it 
differs in form, from the latter in color and sculpture. Reeve's 
figure of it is so different from that in Kiener, that I doubt if it 
belongs to the same species. That Kiener's figure is not a good 
one^is self-evident ; still it is the only authentic illustration, and 
I have therefore copied it. 



146 CHRYSAME. 

M. TURBEN, Reeve. PL 42, fig. 242. 

Closely and finely longitudinally ribbed, crossed by revolving 
impressed striae. Orange-yellow. Height, *t5 inch. 

Philippine Islands. 

All the specimens collected by Mr. Guming had the lower part 
of the outer lip absorbed or worn away, as in the figure. 

M. TABANULA, Lam. PI. 42, figs. 243-247. 

Reddish chestnut to chocolate-color ; whorls encircled by ele- 
vated keel-like ridges, varying in number, so that sometimes the 
interstices are as wide as the ridges, on other specimens merely 
narrow deeply engraved lines. Length, '5-* 6 6 inch. 

Andaman Isles ; Philippines ; Polynesia. 

I unite with this species several others, the types of which 
show some differences, but the series of specimens before me 
clearly indicates their indentity. Fig. 243 is the typical taba- 
nula: to which I add M. pediculus, Lam. (fig. 244) ; M. minor, 
Sowb. (fig. 245), and M. rotundilirata, Reeve (fig. 246). M. 
Caledonica, Petit (fig. 24f ), can scarcely be distinguished from 
the short form of tabanula, such as M. pediculus, Lam. 

M. HANLEYI, Sowb. PL 43, fig. 248. 

Yellowish white, Length, '5-*t inch. 

China Seas. 
M. SOLANDRI, Reeve. PL 43, figs. 249-251. 

Light chestnut to chocolate. Length, 1-1 -3 inches. 

Red Sea. 

Reeve's original specimen was probably worn and faded. The 
relative width of ridges and grooves appears to vary as in M. 
tabanula ; in the type (fig. 249), the former are narrower than 
the latter, whilst in Mr. Sowerby's specimen (fig. 250), they are 
more nearly equal ; a dark shell of this stage is M. Ruppellii, 
Reeve (fig. 251) ; finally well-grown specimens have broad, some- 
what flattened ribs = M. planilirata, Reeve. 

M. VEXILLUM, Reeve. PL 43, figs. 253, 254. 

Bright reddish orange, the incised lines which separate the 
rounded, slightly raised revolving ribs, are darker -sometimes 
chestnut-colored. Sometimes the ribs are obsolete, when the 
grooves are scarcely marked, except by the persistent color. 

Length, 1-1-2 inches. Philippines. 



CHRYSAME. 147 

Closely allied to the preceding species. M. crassicostata , 
Sowb. (fig. 254), is evidently the same. 

M. AURANTIA, Gmelin. PI. 43, figs. 255-258. 

Orange to chestnut or light chocolate color, upper part of 
whorl encircled by a white band. Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Mauritius, Philippines, New Zealand, Polynesia. 

M. nanus, Reeve (fig. 257), is a small variety or stunted 
growth, with the revolving ribs usually finer. M. Michelinii, 
Guerin (fig. 258), is a probable synonym; Sowerby's figure of it 
is, however, a M. limbifera. 

M. PROSCISSA, Reeve. PI. 43, figs. 259-262. 

Whitish or yellowish, longitudinally stained with orange- 
brown, sometimes obscurely white-banded in the middle ; inter- 
stices of the revolving ribs cancellate. 

Length, 1'25-1'5 inches. Mauritius, New Caledonia. 

M. rubiginea, A. Ad. (fig. 260), M. carinilirata, Souv. (fig. 
261), and probably M. consolidata, Sowb. (fig. 262), are syno- 
nyms the latter is described from a single specimen, without 
locality. 

M. ORASSA, Swainsoii. PL 43, figs. 263-265 ; PL 44, figs. 270, 272. 

Chestnut or chocolate color, usually white-banded above ; 
whorls faintly striate throughout, striae developing into ribs 
towards the base. Length, '8-1-25 inches. 

Philippines, on reefs, at low water, Polynesia. 

It is easy to connect M. Ticaonica, Reeve (figs. 264, 265,270), 
with this species, and I fear that it is allied too closely with 
aurantia, as well as with other species of the group. Material 
collected especially to show the extent of variation of a species 
rarely comes into the hands of the conchologist, the collector 
usually working with the desire to secure as many species as 
possible. M.jcoeligena, Reeve (fig. 272), is probably a synonym 
of crassa, the only difference being the possession of occasional 
white spots, promiscuously scattered over the surface. 

M. AMBIGUA, Swainson. PL 43, figs. 266, 267, 268. 

Orange-brown, indistinctly white-banded above ; the incised 
.revolving lines are punctate. Length, l'5-2'5 inches. 

Philippines, Viti Isles ; under coral and stones, at low water. 



148 CHRYSAME. 

Var. FULVA, Swainson. Fig. 267. 

Chestnut- or chocolate-brown, with usually an irregular faint 
superior band ; whorls encircled by punctured, engraved lines, 
sometimes with scattered white dots. Length, l'75-2'5 inches. 

Polynesia. 

The animal, according to Garrett, is chestnut-brown, the 
creeping disk white, siphon pale brown, ocular region and tips 
of the tentacles white. 

M. fulva appears to connect with M. ambigua in such a man- 
ner as to have justified Kiener in considering it a S3 r nonym. In 
deference to conchological opinion, I separate it as a variety, the 
typical examples being somewhat different in form from M. 
ambigua. M. attenuata, Reeve (fig. 268), is synonymous. 

M. ADUSTA, Lam. PL 43, fig. 269 ; PL 44, fig. 276. 

Variegated with chestnut- or chocolate-brown and yellowish, 
disposed in longitudinal flames, or nearly uniform brown, lighter 
on the periphery; upper part of the whorls compressed, making 
a sharp, crenulated ridge next the sutures ; the impressed 
revolving lines are rarely punctate. 

Polynesia, under coral, at low water. 

A species which might almost as well be placed with the typi- 
cal Mitrse as here ; analogies of coloration 'and the succession of 
intermediate forms connecting it with the typical Chryxame, 
induce me to prefer for it the present position. 

M. TAHITENSIS, Garrett. 

An unfigured species, evidently allied to M. adusta, of which 
a single specimen, 37 mill, long, was found at Tahiti, Society 
Islands. 

M. FULVESCENS, Swainson. PL 44, fig. 271. 

Pale 3^ellowish brown ; whorls encircled with punctured incised 
lines. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Isle of Annaa, on the reefs. 

M. striata, Gray, is doubtfully referred here by Reeve,, but 
evidently belongs to the genus or group Strigatella. 

-j M. CORONATA, Lam. PL 44, figs. 273-275, 277, 281-283 ; PL 58, 
fig. 687. 

Orange-brown to chocolate, dotted occasionally with white, 



CHRYSAME. 149 

suture crenulations white-tipped, and white spots, sometimes 
confluent into an irregular band, below the sutures ; revolving 
incised lines strongly punctate, sometimes obsolete on the middle 
of the body whorl. Length, 1 '25-1*75 inches. 

Red Sea ; Philippines to Sandwich Isles ; Mauritius. 
M. aurora, Dohrn (tig. 277) is, I think, a synonym, although 
Mr. Garrett considers it distinct ; it is a beautifully bright- 
colored form from Polynesia. M. tiarella, A. Ad. (fig. 275), is 
only a small form of M. coronata, and M. assimilis, Pease (fig. 
281), is a young shell. Pease mentions the want of crenations 
at the sutures as the principal distinction from M. coronata, but 
the specimen sent to me by Mr. Pease shows these sutural 
nodes, and they are minutely white-tipped ; although small, they 
ought not to have escaped his scrutiny. M. marginata, Sowb. 
(fig. 282), described from a single specimen, without locality, is 
probably also a young coronata. M. floridula, Sowb. (fig. 283), 
from Mauritius, has the engraved striae deeper, the punctations 
wider than in the type form ; the consequence is that the inter- 
mediate spaces appear more like revolving, broad ribs. I cannot 
agree with Sowerby that these differences are specific. 

M. DIGITALIS, (Chemn.) Dillw. PI. 44, fig. 278. 

Yellowish, clouded with yellowish brown, sutural nodes white- 
tipped, surface irregularly spotted with white, larger spots, some- 
times forming a more or less interrupted central band ; incised 
striae deeply punctate. Length, 1-5-2' 25 inches. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

M, LUGUBRIS, Swainson. PI. 44, figs. 284-287. 

Reddish chestnut to chocolate color, white beneath the sirtures, 
and sometimes at base ; encircled by impressed, punctured striae 
crossed by close, rough growth-lines ; sutures crenulated. 

Length, -8-1 '4 inches. Polynesia. 

Mr. Garrett thinks M. lacunosa, Reeve (PI. 33, fig. 13), identical, 
but I can scarcely agree to this, as it appears to be totally 
dissimilar in fact to belong to a different group (p. 113). M. 
albofasciata, Sowb. (fig. 286) said, perhaps erroneously, to come 
from So. Africa, appears to be a narrow, somewhat smoother 
form of lugubris. M. coriacea, Reeve (fig. 287) is probably a 
young lugubris. 



150 CHRYSAME. 

M. PICEA, Pease. PL 58, fig. 685 ; PL 44, fig. 288. 

Decussated by longitudinal ribs and revolving striae ; chestnut- 
brown with a superior narrow white band. Length, 7-9 mill. 

Paumotus, Sandwich Islands. 

Sowerby figures a shell (fig. 288), under the same name, but 
without author, which may be a dark, unbanded specimen of 
this species ; if distinct, it must receive a new name. 

M. UZIELLIANA, Crosse. PL 44, fig. 289. 

Uniform yellowish brown ; cancellated. Length, 1 inch. 

f Tahiti. 

Sowerby thinks this may be synonymous with M. lugubris, 
but it seems to have characters of sculpture and color which 
should distinguish it at least until better known to con- 
chologists. 

M. FERRUGINEA, Lam. PL 44, figs. 279, 280, 290. 

Yellowish or whitish, longitudinally stained with chestnut- 
brown, the markings interrupted so as to show a light band on 
the periphery. Length, 1*5-2-25 inches. 

Philippines ; Polynesia, coral reefs ; Mauritius. 

The animal is cinereous or pale luteous and slightly varied 
with reddish brown. M. rubritincta, Reeve (fig. 280), is a short, 
stout form, connecting with ferrugwea, by a series of transi- 
tional forms. M. clara, Sowb. (fig. 290), an immature specimen, 
with a slight shoulder, appears to be merely a slender variety. 

M. PUDICA, Pease. PL 44, figs. 291, 292. 

With revolving ridges and longitudinal striae ; whitish or 
yellowish, variegated with smoky brown. Length, '7-- 9 inch. 

Sandwich Island*. 

With this I unite M. nuxavellana, Dohrn, an unfigured species 
which its author concedes to be a synonym ; also M. subrostrata, 
Sowb. (fig. 292 \ These are all immature shells, and are evidently 
related to M. ferruginea. 

M. CANDIDA, Reeve. PL 44, figs. 293, 294. 

Whitish to chestnut, closely ridged, finely longitudinally 
striated between the ridges. Length, -8 inch. 

La Guayra, So. America. 



CHRYSAME. 151 

Possibly identical with the next species. The locality needs 
confirmation. 

M. CRENATA, Swainson. PL 44, fig. 295. 

Yellowish brown, encircled throughout with rather distant, 
slightly elevated lines. Length, '75 inch. 

Bdy of Xipixapf, W. Columbia ; sandy mud at six fathoms. 

M. LIENARDI, Souverb. PI. 44, fig. 296. 

Whitish, longitudinally flamed with light chestnut. 

Length, '8 inch. 

New Caledonia. 

A much narrower shell than those which precede it. 
M. WILLIAMSI, Newcomb. PL 44, fig. 297. 

Whitish, with longitudinal orange flammules ; finely longitu- 
dinally striate between the revolving ribs. Length, '6 inch. 

? Philippine Islands. 

Described from a unique specimen. 

M. LUCTUOSA, A. Ad. PL 44, fig. 298. 

Brownish, with a white band near the suture ; whorls flattened, 
with revolving lirse, the interstices clathrately punctate. 

China Seas. 

An obscure species, collected by the Samarang expedition 
many years ago. 

M. RUTILA, A. Ad. PL 44, fig. 299. 

Orange-red, sparsely maculated with white, a white band, 
spotted with orange next the suture. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

M. PELLIS-SERPENTIS, Reeve. PL 44, fig. 300 ; PL 45, figs. SOS- 
SOT, 314; PL 58, fig. 690. 

Yellowish brown ; surface decussated by longitudinal and 
revolving ribs. Length, *9-l'25 inches. 

Philippines Mauritius, Polynesia. 

Specimens in which the revolving ribs are most prominent, 
but cut into obtuse granules by the rugose growth-lines, have been 
called M. granata, Reeve (^fig. 690). M. brumalis, Reeve (fig. 
314), and M. microstoma, Sowb. (fig. 303), are narrow forms, with 



152 CHRYSAME. 

the typical sculpture a white variety of these has been distrib- 
uted by the late Mr. Pease as a new species, M. reticulata (fig. 
304) = M. cretacea, Sowb. (fig. 306). Mr. Reeve has called a 
slightly shouldered specimen M. suturata (fig. 305), and M. 
Recluz has figured and described a faded specimen as M. 
Grelloisi (fig. 307). 

M. NASSOIDES, Sowb. PI. 45, fig. 308. 

Shell yellowish white, reticulately sculptured. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

Mauritius. 

A stouter shell than the typical M. pellis-serpentis ; yet it may 
be only a well-grown state of that species. 

M. SEROTINA, A. Ad. PL 45, fig. 309. 

Yellowish, with two obscure darker bands ; surface reticulated. 

Length, '9 inch. 

Marquesas (Adams) ; Mauritius (Sowerby). 

M. DEALBATA, A. Ad. PI. 45, fig. 311. 

White ; whorls planulate, distantly sulcate spiralty, sulci 
evanescent in the middle of the body-whorl. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

M. SEMIFERRUGINEA, Jonas. PI. 45, fig. 310. 

Whorls encircled by narrow, granulated ridges, interstices 
punctured ; yellowish, upper part of body with longitudinal 

chestnut flames. Length, '8 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described thirty-five years ago from a single immature speci- 
men in the Royal Cabinet at Copenhagen ; it remains uncon- 
firmed by additional specimens. 

Unfigured Species. 

M. CINGULATA, Phil. (Related to M. peregra, Rve.) 

Hob. unknown. 

M. P^TELI, Dohrn (Related to M. nanus, Reeve.) N. Africa? 
M. PROPINQUA, Garrett. Society Islands. 

M. PUSTLLA, King. Habitat unknown. 



STRTGATELLA. 1 53 

Section Striga'ella, Swainson. 

This group is very generally recognized as a distinct genus, 
but it will be better to regard it simply as a section of Mitra ; 
indeed no sharp line separates it from many of the species 
ranged under the preceding section ; the principal distinctive 
characters being a more decidedly columbelliform appearance, a 
smooth surface, single color or with brown longitudinal flames 
and maculations. Of the two subgenera heretofore assigned 
here, the first, Mitreola, contains those species which connect 
the typical form with the last section of Mitra; the second, 
Zier liana, includes a number of species having a peculiar 
character of the aperture, and readily distinguishable from the 
other groups. Moreover the species of Strigatella, so-called, 
which possess the dentition differing so widely from Mitra, 
belong to this group Zierliana, which may therefore well be 
separated as a subgenus. Of the group Strigatella as thus 
restricted, the dentition remains unknown. 

M. ACUMINATA, Swainson. PL 45, fig. 312. 

Yellowish, sometimes with a lighter band in the middle, 
frequently invested with a slight epidermis. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines ; Polynesia. 

M. COARCTATA, Swainson. PL 45, fig. 313. 

Yellowish, longitudinally clouded with chestnut. 

Length, -9 inch. 

Isle of Annaa. 

Only distinguishable by its painting from M. acuminata. It 
is very likely a variety. 

M. BRUNNEA, Pease. PL 45, fig. 301. 
Yellowish brown, spire rather obtuse. 

Length, '75-1 '10 inches. 

Polynesia. 
The animal is milk-white. 

M. NIGRICANS, Pease. 

An unfigured species, blackish with a light band, and lead- 
colored aperture. Length, 20 mill. 

Polynesia. 

This species has not been identified by Mr. Garrett. 
20 



154 STRIGATELLA. 

1 M. ASTRICTA, Reeve. PI. 45, figs. 315-318. 

Whitish, under a light olive, smooth epidermis, or yellowish 
obsoletely banded with brown, sometimes sparingly strigate. 

Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Sandwich Islands. 
^ M. Samuelis, Dohrn (fig. 31*7), is identical. 

M. AURICULOIDES, Reeve. PI. 45, fig. 319. 

Chocolate-brown, with a whitish band on the upper part of 
the body-whorl, and sometimes white-dotted. The whole surface 
is encircled with fine punctated, incised lines, which are some- 
times obsolete on the middle of the body. Length, '8-1*1 inches. 

Polynesia. 
M. FASTIGIUM, Reeve. PI. 45, fig. 320. 

Light yellowish brown, faintly banded. Length, -15 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Possibly a variety or faded example of M. auric uloides. I 
am not aware of the existence of any specimens besides the 
type. 

M. MOLLERI, Kiister. PI. 45, fig. 321. 

Whitish, longitudinally flamed with chestnut. 
Length, '66 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

An immature shell, described from a cabinet specimen at 
Gotha ; I shall not attempt its identification. 

j M. LIMBIFERA, Lam. PI. 45, figs. 322-32G. 

Chestnut- or chocolate-brown, usually with white or yellowish 
patches on the upper part of the body-whorl, forming a more or 
less continuous band; frequently with scattered light spots else- 
where ; aperture columbelliform. Length 1-1-6 inches. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

The shells are usually covered by a thin olive-yellow epidermis. 
The animal is rich chestnut-brown with a diluted-white creeping- 
disk. Head slightly varied with white. The peculiar character 
of the outer lip of the shell increases in importance with age ; 
-J M. CfilumbellseformiH, Kiener (figs. 323, 324), being its adult or 
._ aged state. M. striata, Gray (fig. 325), is probably a synonym, 
as is also M. Mitchelini of Sowerby, not Petit (fig. 326). 



r 
t 



STRIGATELLA. 155 

M. MACULOSA, Reeve. PI. 45, figs 327, 328. 

Chestnut color under a deciduous corneous epidermis, a broad 
white band above the middle, and brown revolving lines, punctate 
with white towards the base. Length, 15-21 mill. 

Red Sea, Australia, Polynesia. 

M. Arabica, Dohrn (fig. 338), does not differ. Topically it is 
distinct enough from M. litter ata, but there are varieties which 
certainly approach extreme examples of that species very closely. 

. TRISTIS, Swainson. PI. 45, fig. 329. 
Shell white or light-chocolate, under a persistent, smooth dark 
olivaceous or black-brown epidermis, with a yellowish band at 
the top of the whorls; frequently slightly round-shouldered, and 
rudely folded at the sutures, forming obsolete tubercles ; aper- 
ure chocolate-colored. Length, *75-l'25 inches. 

Galapagos Is. ; Panama to Mazatlan. 

M. CHRYSOSTOMA, Swaiuson. PL 46, figs. 330, 331. 

Whitish or yellowish, tessellated or strigated longitudinally 
with orange-brown or chocolate, interrupted by a white, irregu- 
lar band on the periphery. Length, l'35-2 inches. 

Polynesia, Philippines, Mauritius. 

Kiener has figured this species in error for M. contracta, Swn. 
(= abbatis), and Phillippi, discovering that this figure did not 
represent Swainson 's species, has called it M. Kieneri. 

M. SCUTULATA, Lam. PL 46, figs. 332-33T. 

Chocolate-brow r n, sometimes with merely an. irregular, or 
interrupted yellowish or whitish band below the sutures ; 
sometimes irregular small spots of the same color are on the 
lower portion of the body-whorl ; sometimes these spots unite 
longitudinally into strigations above and below, but always 
leaving a central chocolate space which thus becomes defined 

as a broad bund. Length, 1-1'75 inches, 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

M.amphoreUa, Lam. (fig. 334 \ M. decurtata, Reeve (fig. 335), 
and M. oieacea. Reeve (fig. 336), and M. sertum, Duval (fig. 337), 
are synonyms. 

M. LITTERATA, Lam. PL 46, figs. 338, 339. 

Yellowish or whitish, with irregular, longitudinal chocolate 



156 STRIGATELLA. 

markings, sometimes appearing like rude letters, and interrupted 
more or less by revolving bands. Length, *75-l inch. 

Red Sea, Java, Mauritius, So. Africa, Philippines, Polynesia. 
In many specimens the dark color so predominates as to 
appear to be the ground-color, upon which are superimposed the 
yellowish spots and letters ; I figure a shell which Sowerby has 
called M. maculosa, Reeve (fig. 339) which shows this variety 
pretty well. As already stated, the true maculosa closely 
approaches this form. 

M. PAUPERCULA, Linn. PI. 46, fig. 340. 

Chocolate, with uninterrupted whitish or yellowish longitudi- 
nal strigations. Length, 1-1 '4 inches. 

Red Sea, E. Africa, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Polynesia. 

M. VIRGATA, Reeve. PI. 46, fig. 341. 

Color and markings as in M. paupercula, but distinguished by 
smaller size, more abbreviate, Columbella-like form and conspi- 
cuous revolving grooves at the base of the shell. 

Length, *75-'9 inch. 



Mr. Reeve included two species in his M. virgata, his first 
figure being a species previously described by Lamarck, and 
which immediately follows this description. Some specimens of 
virgata have the Melampus-like form of M. return, but they 
appear to be constantly distinguished by the want of the white 
band and fewer and larger color flames. 

M. RETUSA, Lam. PI. 46, figs. 342-344. 

Surface covered with revolving striae ; dark chocolate, with 
rlne close, thread-like undulating longitudinal yellow or white 
lines, and superiorly a narrow yellow or white revolving band. 

Length, -75-1 inch. 

Polynesia. 

M. virgata, Reeve (fig. 341), in part, is synonymous with M. 
return, and M. capillata, Gould (fig. 344), is probably a juvenile 
of it. 

M. ZEBRA, Garrett. 

An unfigured Polynesian species, the description of which 
accords tolerably with M. virgata. 



ZIERLIANA. 157 

M. TIGRINA, A. Ad. PL 46, figs. 348, 347. 

Glandiniform, with revolving striae ; longitudinally finely 
strigate with chocolate and yellowish or whitish, aperture 
chocolate. Length, 1-8 inches. 

Mauritius. 

A giant edition of M. retusa, but proportionally narrower 
than that species. M. jucunda, Tapparone-Canefri (fig. 347), is 
identical with it. 

M. ANAIS, Lesson. 

An unfigured species from the Gambier Islands. It evidently 
belongs to the present group. 

[. FUSCESCENS, Pease. (Unfigured.) Sandwich Islands. 

Subgenus Zierliana, Gray. 

In the introductory remarks upon the Strigatella section of 
Mitra (p. 153), I have stated the reasons which induce me to 
merge that group in the Mitras and to separate from it Zier- 
liana, which H. and A. Adams and their successors have con- 
sidered as a subgenus of Strigatella. 

M. ZIERVOGELIANA, Gmelin. PL 46, figs. 345, 346, 349, 350. 

Dark chocolate-brown, aperture and columella white or slightly 
tinged with light chocolate. Length, -9-1-1 inches. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

Sometimes the ribs are denuded of epidermis, and give a 
zebra-like coloration to the species. 

Yar. ROBUSTA, Reeve, Fig. 346. 

Not so coarsely sculptured, with less shoulder and somewhat 
higher spire. This is the ordinary Polynesian form. It is 
littoral, under lava stones on rocky coasts. 

Var. WOLDEMARII, Kiener. Pig. 349. 

Still more finely sculptured and with higher spire than var. 
robusta; with which it insensibly connects. 

Yar. SOLIDULA, Reeve. Fig. 350. 

Sculpture fine, lightly impressed, more or less obsolete in the 
middle portion of the body-whorl. The young shell which 



158 ZIERLIANA. 

Quoy described as M. nigra (= M. Quoyi, Desh., p. 122), may 
possibly be intended for this variety. 

M. ^ETHIOPS, Reeve. PI. 46, fig. 351. 

Dark brown or olive-black, finely decussated. Length, 1 inch. 

Solomon's Islands, Philippines. 

Very much narrower than any of the forms of M. Ziervoge- 
liana ; yet it may be only a variety of that species. M. creni- 
plicata, A. Ad. (unfigured) is said by Mr. Sowerby to be a 
synonym. 

M. ANTHRACINA, Reeve. PI. 46, fig. 352. 

Shell covered by a smooth, black epidermis. Length, 1 inch. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines, on reefs at low water. Cuming. 
Differs from M. JEthiops only in the want of sculpture. 

L. CHOAVA, Reeve. PL 46, fig. 353. 

Blackish, smooth. Length, 'f 5 inch. 

Isle of Johanna, Mozambique Channel Hennah. 
I do not know the species ; except in being smooth, it 
resembles closely a juvenile of the typical M. Ziervogeliana. 

M. ALBOMACULATA, A. Ad. PL 46, fig. 354. 

Chocolate-brown, maculated with white next the sutures. 

Length, *5 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
I do not know the species. 

M. COLUMBELLINA, A. Ad. PL 46, fig. 355. 

Variegated with chestnut and white, with obsolete revolving 
lines. 

Hob. unknown. 

Mr. Sowerby 's figure of this species shows a tuberculated 
shoulder, a character not referred to in the original description. 

Undetermined Species of Mitra. 

M. GRANULIFERA, OBLIQUATA, CLAVULUS, CONULARIS, CREBRALIS, of 

Lamarck. 

M. CINEREA, APICATA, Reeve. H. & A. Adams' Genera. 
M. OBSCURA, Button. New Zealand. 

M. FUSOIDES, A. Adams. Sowerby, Thes. Conch. Index. 
M. HANLEYANA, Dunker. Japan. 




THALA. 



M. SEMISTRIATA, Krynicki. Uaspian Sea. 

M. ORDINATA, Pease (ubi) Pastel's Catalogue. 

Sandwich Islands. 

M. SECTILIS, M. PALLIDA, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

M. OBSCURA, Humphrey ; M. MUTELINA, Duclos ; M. GLOBOSA, 

Ghemii. ; 'M. CINCTA, Meuschen. H. & A. Adams' Genera of 

Shells. 
M. TASMANICA, LEGRANDI, SCALARIFORMIS, SEMILIVIDA, FRANCIS- 

CANA, GRANATINA, Tenisoii-Woods. Tasmania. 

M. RUSSA, Gould. China Seas. 

M. SECALINA, Gould. Ousima. 

M. L^TA (China Seas); M. DELICATA (Cape York, Australia); 

M. ASPERULATA, (Australia); M. RETICULATA (Port Essing- 

ton, Australia) ; M. PALLID A (Marquesas) ; M. ( YOLUTOMITRA) 

CINNAMOMEA (Natal); M. PUNCTOSTRIATA (Ceylon). All of 

Arthur Adams. 
M. ANTONI (Sandwich Islands) ; M. GIBBA (New Caledonia) ; M, 

AUTUMNALIS (New Caledonia), of Dohrn. 

M. LEUCOSTOMA, Swainson. No locality. 

M. INTERSCULPTA, Sowerby. . Mauritius. 

M. HUMERALIS, Garrett. Paumotus Is. 

Genus THALA, H. and A. Adams. 

Mr. Garrett remarks * that some of the species included in 
this genus are Pleurotomoid shells ; that the wrinkles or folds on 
the columella are not true plaits, but simply more or less irreg- 
ular transverse rugosities, precisely of the same structure as 
observed in certain species of Clathurella and Cithara. Some of 
the species which he declares should be excluded from Mitridae, 
appear to me to possess the character of the family, whilst in 
others, so minute are the specimens that it is difficult to decide 
whether they have plaits or not the difficulty being enhanced 
by the poor state of preservation of several individuals. M. 
todilla, Mighels is one of the excluded species, yet it possesses 
them, as mentioned by Dr. von Martens. Of course the difficulty 
of deciding is enhanced with those species of which figures only 
are accessible. Unfortunately the animal is unknown ; this is 

* Leeds Jour, of Conch., iii, 2. 



1 60 THALA. 

one of those cases where the dentition would be of much collat- 
eral value. I have preferred to retain all the species in Mitridse 
rather than attempt to divide them upon insufficient data. 

T. FOVEATA, Sowb. PL 47, tig. 356. 

Cancellated, chocolate-brown. Length, -5 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 
T. ROSEATA, A. Ad. PL 47, fig. 357. 

Cancellated, pinkish white. Length, *4 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 
Yery closely allied to T. foveata. 

T. SOLITARIA, C. B. Ad. PL 47, fig. 358. 

Cylindrically fusiform, cancellated, brown. Length, *4 inch. 

Panama. 

A single specimen obtained by the discoverer; I have not 
heard of its being found since. 

T. EXILIS, Reeve. PL 47, fig. 359. 

Yiolet-purple with a darker band ; granosely decussated 
throughout with minute ridges. Length, *66 inch. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines ; under stones at low water. 

T. TODILLA, Mighels. PL 47, fig. 360. 

Whitish or light violet, sometimes obscurely banded or 
spotted ; surface tuberculately cancellated. Length, *35 inch. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Described as a Pleurotoma, the columellar plaits being indis- 
tinct. 

T. MILIUM, Reeve. PL 47, fig. 361. 

Chestnut-brown, cancellated. Length, -35 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 

The figure is somewhat different from that of T. todilla, yet it 
may be that species. 

T. BECURVA, Reeve. PL 47, fig. 362. 

Pinkish or violet, minutely dotted here and there with brown ; 
longitudinally sculptured, tranversely impressly striate. 

Length, -35 inch. 

Island of Capul> Philippines ; under stones at low water. 

Certainly very closely allied to T. todilla. 



THALA. 161 

T. GRATIOSA, Reeve. PI. 47, fig. 363. 

Pink or violet, minutely decussated. Length, *4 inch. 

Galapagos Islands. 
T. MIRIFICA, Reeve. PI. 4T,'fig. 364. 

Pink or light violet, somewhat transparent, sometimes with a 
narrow white zone. Length, -3 inch. 

Philippines. Cuming ; Paumotus. Pease. 

Said to be thinner and more slender, with finer sculpture than 
T. gratiosa, but the specimens before me va,ry so much that it 
would be difficult to separate some of them from the figures of 
that and other species. 

T. CERNICA, Sowb. PI. 47, figs. 365-369. 

Shell rosy orange. Length, '65 inch. 

Mauritius. 

T. angustata, Sowerby (fig. 366), from same locality, presents 
no valid differences, 

Yar. ANGIOSTOMA, Pease. Fig. 367. 

White, shaped like T. mirifica, but larger, with somewhat 
stouter and coarser sculpture. Length, 12 mill. 

Paumotus. 

Yar. FUSUS, Souverbie, figs. 368, 369. 

Slightly stouter than the type, light violet, or pink-white, 
obscurely banded. Length, 10 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

The above are from widely separated localities, and as there 
are slight differences, they may be distinguished as varieties for 
the present. 

T. BREVICULA, Souv. PI. 47, fig. 370. 

Light violet. Length, 7 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

T. ADUMBRATA, SoUV. PI. 47, fig. 371. 



irt}^ white, maculate with chestnut, forming an interrupted 
band. Length, 10 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Distinguished by its cylindrical form and very fine sculpture. 



162 MITROIDEA. 

Unfigured Species. 
T. JACULANDA, Gould. Allied to T. recurva, Reeve, but the 

sculpture is much more delicate. China Seas. 

T. SALTATA, Pease. Polynesia. 

T. EXQUISITA, Garrett. Polynesia. 

T. VIOLACEA, Garrett. Polynesia. 

Genus MITROIDEA, Pease. 

The peculiar tubular and recurved anterior portion of the 
columella, the truncate outer lip, the numerous small columellar 
plaits, the smooth surface and outer lip will distinguish this 
genus upon conchological characters, although the animal and 
its dentition do not differ from Mitra. Mitroidea has four years' 
priority over Mauritia, A. Adams. The two species which H. and 
A. Adams included in their subgenus Mutyca, also belong here. 
If Mutyca had a sufficient diagnosis it would be entitled to 
precedence over Mitroidea on account of priority of publication, 
but its authors only perceived a portion of the characters of the 
group and made it an artificial section of Mitra. Mitroidea is 
closety allied to Dibaphus, but the latter has a shorter spire and 
is without columellar plaits. 

M. MULTIPLICA/TA, Pease. PI. 47, figs. 372, 373. 

White, solid, polished under a thin light olive epidermis, with 
distant brown revolving lines and band-like maculations. 

Length, 1-2 inches. 

Polynesia ; Mauritius 

Mr. Pease's species has never been figured, but the careful 
descriptions by himself and Garrett and the fact that he, like 
Adams, made his species the type of a new genus, leaves no 
doubt that M. Barclayi, H. Adams is synon3^mous with it. 
Dibaphus Lcebbeckeanus, Weinkauff (fig. 373), is the juvenile of 
this species. Sowerby, who does not mention Pease's prior 
name, changed M. Bar clay i to M. Dibaphiformis, on account of 
the alleged prior publication of Mitra Barclayi, Hanley. 

M. ANCILLIDES, Swainson. PI. 47, fig. 374. 

Pale fulvous yellow, or creamy white ; upper whorls minutely 
granulated. Length, 20 mill. 

Paumotus Isles. 



DIBAPHUS. 163 

M. EBURNEA, Garrett. 

Closely allied to M. Ancillides, but may be distinguished by 
its ivory-white color, more contracted base, smaller size and 

more robust form. Length, 12 mill. 

Paumotus Isles. 

I do not know this species ; it has not been figured. 

M. BELLULA, A. Adams. PI. 47, fig. 375. 

White, polished, with revolving striae, upper whorls cancel- 
lated, a necklace-like row of reddish spots near the sutures. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Isle of Capul, Philippines ; on the reefs, low water. 

Described from a young and possibly abnormal specimen ; 
may it not = Ancillidesl 

M. TELUM, Sowb. PI. 47, fig. 376. 

Yellowish brown, lower half of body-whorl darker, smooth. 

Length, 1*1 inches. 

Mauritius. 

I have not seen this species. The figure is very like M. 
multiplicata (Barclayi , which also inhabits Mauritius, but the 
columella does not show so many plications. 

M. INFECTA, Reeve. PI. 47, figs. 377-380. 

Yellowish, marbled with chestnut-brown, sometimes forming 
two interrupted bands ; revolving striae inconspicuous or distinct. 

Length, 1*25-1 '5 inches. 

Mauritius. Paumotus. 

Sowerby says that Reeve's figure is erroneous, as it does not 
show the revolving striae, and he gives another figure (fig. 378), 
which differs somewhat in form and coloring. Reeve's figure is 
probably from a worn specimen Dohrn says, from the original 
specimen of M. nebulosa, Swains. ; but nebulosa, as first figured 
by Reeve, is a very different species and = M. versicolor, 
Martyn. No doubt M. Barclayi, Hanley, not H. Adams, (figs. 
379-380), is a synonym. 

Genus DIBAPHUS, Philippi. 

Differs from Mitroidea in the columella being without plaits. 
It resembles in general form Conus mitratus, as well as, more 
distantly, Strombus terebellatus, and Adams, Crosse, and others 



164 TCRRICULA. 

formerly assigned to it a position between Conus and Mitra. 
The animal was first made known to science by Mr. A. Garrett 
in 1872,* who, after a careful study could not detect any 
difference between it and a Cylindra. On plunging a living 
example in alcohol, the spirit became much discolored, of a fine 
purple, the same as when any other Mitridse are placed in 
spirits. 

D. PHILIPPII, Crosse. PL 47, fig. 381. 

Yellowish brown, or whitish, clouded with chestnut in the 
form of two interrupted irregular bands. Length, 1-1*75 inches. 

Polynesia ; Mauritius. 

The earlier specific name D. edentulus, Swainson, has been 
displaced because the character indicated by it has become 
generic. 

Genus TTJRRICULA, Klein. 

The Turriculse, including the old sections Costellaria and 
Callithea, are sand species ; the section Pusio, however, contains 
reef-dwellers. The group is exclusively tropical and subtropical 
in distribution, its metropolis being Central Polynesia. 

T. BEGINA, Sowb. PI. 48, fig. 382. 

Whitish or gray, with orange bands bordered by narrow 
chocolate-colored stripes. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Moluccas. 
T. T^ENIATA, Lam. PL 48, figs. 383-390. 

Yellowish or orange, with a broad white central band, partly 
visible on the spire, bordered with narrow chocolate bands ; one 
or two additional chocolate bands below, sometimes replaced by 
a single broad one next below the white. 

Length, 1-75-2-75 inches. 

Philippines, Moluccas, Polynesia. 

Has not the sharp angulation of the whorls of T. regina, but 
is otherwise closely allied to that species. T. mttata, Swainson 
(figs. 384-386), does not present any permanently distinctive 
characters, and scarcely merits the name of variety. T. com- 
pressa, Sowb. (fig. 387), is a narrow variety, not adult; like all 
the young of this species the base is reflected more than in the 



Zool. Proc., 843, 



TURRICULA. 165 

adult. T. coccinea, Reeve (fig. 390), is a color-variety in which 
the chocolate bands have disappeared ; Sowerby has figured it 
under the name of T. crocea. Reeve which is a very different 
species. T. Tayloriana, Sowb. (figs. 388, 389) is intermediate 
between T. coccinea and the typical coloration. 

T. DENNISONI, Reeve. PI. 48, fig. 391. 

Yellowish or orange, stained with chocolate between the ribs, 
with a median white zone. Length, 2-25 inches. 

Philippines. Cuming ; Red Sea. Sowerby. 

Sowerby figures a variety of this species which appears to 
connect it too closely with the preceding one of this monograph. 

T. JUCUNDA, Dunker. Plate 48, fig. 398. 

Yellowish or orange brown, with a median, obscure white 

band. Length, 61 mill. 

Saigon. 

There is a thin, deciduous, pallid corneous epidermis. More 
finely sculptured and more regular in growth than the variety of 
T. tseniata represented by coccinea, Reeve, there is nevertheless 
considerable resemblance between them. 

T. ELEGANS, Reeve. PI. 48, fig. 392. 

Whitish or fleshy-brown, encircled with one or more narrow 
chocolate lines. Length, 1*1 inches. 

Phillippines. 
T. SANGUISUGA, Linn. PI. 48, figs. 393-397. 

Yellowish white to ash color, the ribs tipped with scarlet, 
sometimes with one or more chocolate bands, base and apex 
chocolate. Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 

Philippines, Mauritius, Polynesia. 

Mr. Cuming found it in coral sand at low water, at the Philip- 
pines ; Mr. Garrett, in sandy mud, at the Yiti Isles sometimes 
buried to the depth of two feet. The color variations are 
numerous ; two of them have received names. 

Yar. STIGMATARIA, Lam. Figs. 396, 397. 

Lighter colored, with the scarlet spots confined to two 
revolving rows on the body-whorl, one on those of the spire. 

Yar. GRANOSA, Chemn. Fig. 395. 
Light colored, without scarlet spots. 



166 TURRICTJLA. 

T. STAINFORTHII, Reeve. PL 49, figs. 399, 400. 

Whitish, base and apex ashy blue, ribs painted with square 

scarlet spots. Length, 1*25 2-25 inches. 

Philippines. 

The distant, rounded ribs, crossed by close striae, and regular 
painting seem to distinguish this species sufficiently from T. 
sanguisuga. . 

T. MELONGENA, Lam. PL 49, figs. 401, 402, 40T. 

Chocolate or ash and white, in revolving bands and lines of 

variable thickness. Length, l-5-2'5 inches. 

Moluccas, Philippines. 
T. LYRATA, Lam. PL 49, fig. 403. 

Ribs narrow, sharp ; light olive or ash, with narrow dark 
chocolate or blackish revolving bauds. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 
T. CURVILIRATA, Sowb. PL 49, fig. 404. 

Yellowish white, with chestnut or chocolate bands. 

Length, 1*25-1*T5 inches. 

China f 

Distinguished from T. melongena by its curved ribs and 
painting, but may nevertheless be only a variety. 

T. RADIUS, Reeve. PL 49, fig. 406. 

Flesh color or brownish, with a brown band on the periphery. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines ; Indian Ocean. 

T. BALTEOLATA, Reeve. PL 49, fig. 405. 

Spire and upper portion of body-whorl yellowish white, lower 
portion of the latter orange ; a brown band separates the two 
colors, and another one or two are situated inferiorly. 
Length, 2*5 inches. 

Moluccas, Philippines. 
^ T. COSTELLARIS, Lam. PL 49, fig. 408. 

Dark chocolate, with a superior narrow white band, and 
occasionally an obscure, wider, lower one. 
Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Philippines. 
T. PEASET, Garrett. 

An unfigured species from the Yiti Islands, has the coloring 
of T. costellaris,. I do not know it. 



TURRICULA. 167 

T. VULPECULA, Linn. PI. 49, figs 410-413. 

Whitish, obscurely banded with orange, and tipped with dark 
chocolate at the sutures and base ; or orange, with sometimes an 
obscure light band ; or orange with dark chocolate bands, some- 
times covering nearly the entire surface. Shoulder obtuse or 
sharply angulated. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

Moluccas, Philippines, Polynesia. 

A variable species in form, sculpture and coloration. T. 
umbrosa, Sowerby (fig. 414), is said to have the ribs more 
defined than T. vulpecula, and raised into tubercles at the angle 
of the whorls ; I might make several equally good species out of 
the series of vulpecula before me. 

T. CAFFRA, Linn. PL 49, fig. 409 ; PI. 50, fig. 424. 

Dark chocolate, with two or three yellow zones, the upper 
one visible on the spire. Length, 1-75-2-25 inches. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines. 

T. bifasciata, Swainson, has long been recognized as a syno- 
nym; T. zonaliSj Quoy (fig. 424), may be added. This species 
approaches so near to the smoother forms of T. vulpecula, that 
their specific identity is not improbable. 

T. PLICATA, Lam. PI. 50, figs. 420-422. 

Orange-yellow, with narrow superior and inferior brown 
bands, interrupted by the ribs, and a broad central band; whorls 
shouldered, with or without revolving striae. 

Length, 1-5-1-75 inches. 

Philippines. 

Yar. PULLATA, Reeve. Figs. 421, 422. 

Less shouldered, ribs rather closer, revolving striae more 
distinct. 

I use the name plicata, Klein, adopted by Lamarck, in 
preference to plicaria, Linn, the former being so well known, 
that it would be injudicious to displace it. 

T. CINCTELLA, Lam. PI. 50, fig. 423. 

Whitish and gray or lead or yellowish in alternate zones, 
overlaid, on the body-whorl by one or several chestnut-colored 

lines. Length, 1-15-2-25 inches. 

Moluccas, Ceylon. 



168 TURRICULA. 

T. INTERMEDIA, Kiener. PL 50, fig. 430. 

Alternately zoned with ashy or chocolate-brown and white. 

Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Moluccas. 

This species is entirely too intermediate for the satisfactory 
separation of several other forms ; in its smoother varieties it 
approaches very closely to chocolate-banded specimens of T. 
vulpecula; its long, costate varieties are allied to T. costellaris, 
Lam. and T. cinctella; its short, corrugated specimens are too 
near to T. corrugata, Lam. (= T. rugosa, Grmel.). 

T. CORRUGATA, Lam. PL 50, figs. 429, 428, 421. 

Whitish or ash color, banded with chocolate. 

Length, 1-25-1-15 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, New Guinea, Australia. 

It is too late to revive Gmelin's .prior name (rugosa) for this 
species. T. Jukesii, A. Ad. (fig. 428), is founded on juvenile 
Australian specimens. T. fulvolirata, Sowb. (fig. 421), is very 
close, if not identical. 

T. BERTHS, Sowb. PL 49, fig. 417. 

Ash or yellowish, encircled by narrow chocolate bands. 

Length, 32 mill. 

China Sea. 

Appears to hold the same relation to T. corrugata that 
cinctella does to costellaris. 

T. GRUNERI, Reeve. PL 49, figs. 418, 419, 416. 

White, more or less distinctly banded with ash, with a 
superior, and sometimes one or two inferior narrow chestnut 
revolving lines, shell smooth between the longitudinal ribs. 

Length, 15-1-25 inches. 

Ceylon, Philippines, Polynesia. 

Resembles T. Berthse, but is distinguished by wanting its 
revolving striae. T. cinctella, of which it might be suppposed 
to be the young, has the earlier whorls closely ribbed, not 
shouldered. It may be the young of a variety of T. plicata, a 
species from which it is only distinguished by the character of 
its narrow bands. T. modesta, Pease (fig. 419), of which the 
type specimen is now before me is certainly identical ; and so is 
T. Isevicostataj&owb. (fig. 416). 



COSTELLARIA. 169 

T. INTERRUPTA, A. Ad. PI. 50, fig. 426. 

Whitish, interruptedly banded with chocolate. 

Length, 1'4 inches. 

North Australia. 
Differs in form from T. corrugata. 

T. ORNATA, A. Ad. PL 50, fig. 425. 

White with chestnut bands, or dark colored with white bands ; 
revolving striae between the ribs. Length, 1*25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The ribs appear to be closer than in T. corrugala, but I fear 
that it will prove to be a variety of that species. 

Soction Coste'laria, Swainson. 

Shell smaller, with elevated spire, body-whorl anteriorly 
contracted, slightly ventricose in the middle, aperture some- 
times internally striated. 

T. ANGULOSA, Kiister. PI. 50, figs. 432, 431. 

Yellowish white, stained or strigated with brown. 

Length, 1*2-1 *8 inches. 

Philippines, Mauritius, Polynesia. 

T. mirabilix, A. Ad. (fig. 431) is a synonym. 

Mr. Garrett says that Yiti Islands specimens are ashy-slate 
color, with a more or less distinct pale band just beneath the 
sutural angle. 

T. NASUTA, Sowb. PI. 49, fig. 415. 

Subfusiform, white, with thin sinuously curved, rather distant 
ribs, and rather distant spiral striae. Length, *9 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

T. DECORA, Reeve. PI. 50, fig. 434. 

White, with two brown bands. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Ribs more distant than in T. angulosa, but may be a variety 
of it. 

T. SALMONEA, Sowb. PL 50, fig. 433. 

Yellowish white, clouded with salmon color. 
Length, 15 inches. 






Habitat unknown. 
22 



170 COSTELLARIA. 

T. CUMINGII, Reeve. PL 50, figs. 435-439. 

Longitudinal ribs rude, rounded ; crossed by revolving rounded 
riblets, the interstices between the latter deeply impressed except 
where they cross the ribs. Whitish, sometimes spotted with 
brown, and usually brown-banded in the middle. 

Length, 11 '5 inches. 

Ceylon, Philippines, Polynesia, Mauritius. 

Besides a copy of Reeve's type (fig. 435), I give one from 
Sowerby's Thesaurus (fig. 436), which corresponds more nearly 
with the richly-colored specimens lineated with brown, found by 
Mr. Garrett at the Paumotus Isles. With this species must be 
united T. clathrata. Reeve (fig. 438), and T. dimidiate, Sowb. 
(fig. 437), which is now admitted by him to be a synonym. 

T. rugosa, Sowb. (fig. 439), of which only a single specimen is 
known, appears to differ only in the somewhat greater promi- 
nence of the revolving sculpture on the body-whorl. I think it is 
the same species : if it is, then its priority of publication must 
cause the adoption of its name instead of that of Gumingii. 

T. MONTROUZIERI, Souv. PI. 50, fig. 440. 

Yellowish brown, lighter at the angle of the shoulder. 

Length, 1 inch. 

New Caledonia. 
T. LUCIDA, Reeve. PI. 50, fig. 441. 

Ribs swollen at the upper part, transversely elegantly ridged ; 
transparent white. Length, '66 inch. 

Philippines. 
T. NODULIFERA, A. Ad. PI. 50, fig. 442. 

The figure given by Sowerby is white, but Mr. E. A. Smith 
describes a specimen from the Solomon Islands as pale pinkish 
with white ribs, the aperture orange. Length, 11-5 mill. 

It possibly equals T. lucida. 

T. MODESTA, Reeve. PI. 50, fig. 443. 

White, slightly tinged with pink towards the base, aperture 
pink. Length, -8 inch. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines. 

"A very chaste pink-white shell, with a highly relieved latticed 
sculpture." 



COSTELLARIA. 171 

T. PROPINQUA, Garrett. 

An unfigured species resembling T. modesta, Reeve, but more 
contracted at the base, with much smaller and more numerous 
transverse ridges. Length, 15 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
T. CINERACEA, Reeve. PI. 51, figs. 444, 445. 

Ashy gray, with an interrupted white band at the shoulder, 

and white-tinged at the base. Length, '75 inch. 

Philippines. 
T. JUD^ORUM, Dohrn. PI. 51, fig. 446. 

'Orange-brown, ribs and base white. Length, 22 mill. 

Red Sea, Mauritius. 

A longer, narrower shell than T. cineracea, but may be a 
variety of it. 

r T. MILITARIS, Reeve. PI. 51, figs. 447-455. 

Yellowish brown, with a chestnut band. Length, 1 inch. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines. 

Perhaps not distinct from T. angulosa, Kiister, the difference 
being principally in its straighter ribs. 

Yar. ANTONELLI, Dohrn. Fig. 448. 

Chocolate- or chestnut-brown, or dark gray, white-tinged or 

banded above. 

Red Sea, Mauritius, Polynesia.^ 

Specimens sent to me from the Yiti Islands by Mr. Andrew 
Garrett, under the name of T. mutabilis, Reeve, are more slender 
than Sowerby's figure, approaching the form of militaris very 
closely. 

Var. LUBENS, Reeve. Figs. 449-451. 

Yellowish white, tinged with pink at apex and base. 

Philippines. 

T. compta, A. Ad (fig. 450), and T. turricula, A. Ad. (fig. 451), 
are synonyms. 

Yar. COPHINA, Gould. Fig. 453. 

The figure of the type shows a shorter shell than the preced- 
ing, but specimens before me serve to connect it directly with 
var. lubens. A somewhat rounded instead of an angulated 
shoulder is the only difference, and that not constant. To this 
form may be referred the Sandwich Islands species T. bella. 



172 COSTELLARIA. 

Pease (fig. 452), yellowish white, interruptedly banded or marked 
with light chestnut ; a faded, stumpy specimen of it was called 
T. Wisemanni by Dohrn. 

As there is some diversity of sculpture and coloration in the 
typical shells above enumerated, I have thought it advisable to 
retain their names as varieties, for the sake of those who, less 
well provided with specimens than myself, may not be able to 
convince themselves that they are mere individual stages or local 
races perhaps, of one species. T. cimelium, Reeve (fig. 454), is 
a young shell referable to this species. The shell which Sowerby 
has erroneously determined as T. rorata, Gld. (fig, 455), may 
also be placed here. 

T. INTERSTRIATA, Sowb. PI. 51, fig. 456. 

Longitudinal costae smooth, distant, the interstices with spiral 
striae. White, banded with orange, maculated with chestnut 

between the ribs. Length, 1'15 inches. 

China Seas. 

I have not seen this species, but think it will prove to be a 
variety of T. militaris. 

T. CORBIOULA, Sowb. PI. 51, fig. 457. 

Yellowish white, shaded with yellowish brown, the tubercles 
of the shoulder angle tipped with chestnut, forming a necklace- 
like row ; interior of aperture light yellowish. Ribs and revolv- 
ing riblets both close, forming granules. Length, '8-1 inch. 

Mauritius. 
T. SULUENSIS, Adams and Reeve. PI. 51, fig. 459. 

Yellowish white, spotted with chestnut, forming two inter- 
rupted bands. Length, 1 inch. 

Sooloo Islands. 
T. COLLINSONI, A. Adams. PL 51, figs. 458, 460, 461. 

Whitish, stained with brown at the apex, obscurely banded 
with bluish ash a little below the top of the whorls, and spotted 
irregularly with brown in the same part, generally between the 
costse ; lower half of the last whorl cinereous brown. 

Length, -75-1 inch. 

Japan. 

Differs from T. Suluensis in having a non-turreted spire, finer 
spiral sculpture, a shorter aperture, and in its color. The fore- 



I 



COSTELLAEIA. 173 

going description indicates such close affinity with T. Suluensis, 
however, that I think it would have been more prudent not 
to separate it. T. fusco-apicata (fig. 460) and T. Gotoensis, E. A. 
Smith, (fig. 461), are both synonymous, varying only slightly in 
sculpture and marking from the type. 

T. CRUENTATA, (Chemn.) Reeve. PL 51, figs. 462-466, 468, 469; 

PI. 58, fig. 686. 

Chestnut or chocolate-brown, with a superior narrow white 
band, and occasionally an inferior one. Sometimes lighter 
colored between the band and the suture. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Polynesia.. 
A very variable species, which has received a number of names. 



Var. PROXIMA, Nevill. Figs. 464-466, 468. 

The usual Polynesian form ; when one-banded it has been 
called var. Sandvichensis, Nevill. T. exarata, A. Ad. (fig. 465), 
T. ligata, A. Ad. (fig. 466), and T. uibex, A. Ad. (PL 58, fig. 
686) are synonyms. I think that T. larva, Lam. (fig. 468) may 
also be placed here. 

Var. ARMILLATA, Reeve. Fig. 467. 

A narrow form, with spire drawn out, typically very different 
from cruentata, var. proxima, but connected with it by Poly- 
nesian specimens before me. 

T. SCHOMBURGKII, Angas. PL 51, fig. 470. 

Livid brown, with a broad, pale, suffused band on each whorl, 
and four narrow, dark-brown lines encircling the last whorl, one 
above and three below the band. Length, 10 mill. 

So. Australia. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

T. BUCCINOIDEA, Sowb. PL 51, fig. 467. 

Yellowish white, with a white central band bordered with 

chestnut on each side. Length, 4 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

T. RAWSONI, Morch. 

An unfigured species, from the West Indies, is said to resemble 
T. cruentata. 



174 COSTELLARTA. 

T. FUSCONIGRA, Garrett. 

An unfigured species, dark, brownish black, with a superior 

white spiral line. Length, 18 mill. 

Viti Isles. 

Three dead specimens found. I am not acquainted with it ; 
appears to be closely allied to the preceding species. 

T. SEMIFASCIATA, Lam. PI. 51, figs. 472, 473. 

Yellowish white or ash-gray on the upper part of the whorls, 
darker ash or orange on the lower part, encircled by two or three 
narrow chestnut lines. Length, *75-l'25 inches. 

Red Sea, Philippines, Polynesia. 

T. SEMISCULPTA, Ad. and Reeve. PL 51, fig. 474. 

Ash color tinged with pink, with a light, narrow revolving 

band on the periphery. Length, -9 inch. 

Sooloo Isles, Japan. 

\y T. MUCRONATA, Swainson. PL 51, figs. 475-479; PL 52, figs. 

480-482. 

Whitish or yellowish, stained, spotted or irregularly banded 
with light chestnut. Length, 1-1*25 inch. 

Bed Sea; Polynesia; in sand, inside the reefs, shallow water. 

Mr. Garrett says the animal is a rich brown, irregularly dotted 
with yellow on the back, the creeping disk cinereous, the siphon 
dusky with yellowish spots. 

The shell varies considerably in proportions and in the develop- 
ment of the spinose tubercles; a smoother form is T. concentrica, 
Reeve, (fig. 476). I add as synonyms T. fusiformis, Reeve, not 
Kiener (fig. 477) ; T. obtusispinosa, Sowb. (fig. 478) ; T. ecliinata, 
A. Ad. (fig. 479) ; T. nodilirata, A. Ad. (fig. 480) ; T. fusiformis, 
Chemm. (fig. 481 ] ; a narrow variety, which, through T. Dohrni, 
A. Ad. (fig. 482), approaches T. fusiformis, Kiener. 

T.-VERRUCOSA, Reeve. PL 52, fig. 483. 

Yellowish white, spotted or banded with pale brown. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippine*. 

Closely allied to the preceding species, of which it may prove 
to be a variety. 



COSTELLARTA. 175 

T. FUSIFORMTS, Kiener. PL 52, figs 484, 485, 487-489. 
Yellowish white, spotted or banded with brown. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 

Kiener figured this as fusiformis, Chemnitz, but it does not 
correspond with the illustrations in the Conchylien Cabinet ; the 
latter represent a narrow form of T. mucronata, Swains. T. 
spicata, Rve. (fig. 487) appears to be a synonym. T. turriger, 
Reeve, (fig. 488) and possibly T. armiger, Reeve (fig. 489) are 
also to be placed here. 

T. PURPURATA, Reeve. PI. 52, fig. 490-492. 

Ashy brown, with a conspicuous white zone; interstices of 
the ribs strongly latticed. Length, -75 inch. 

Red Sea ; Philippine*. 

T. daedala, Reeve (fig. 491) and T. cineracea, Reeve (fig. 492) 
are probably synonymous. 

T. FIDICULA, Gould. PL 58, fig. 693. 

Yellowish brown with a central white band ; ribs whitish, 
sometimes a little nodular at the shoulder angle. Length, '75 inch. 
Hob. unknown. Gould ; Red Sea. M' Andrew? 

M'Andrew's identification of a Red Sea form with this species 
is questionable. 

T. OELATA, Reeve. PL 52, figs. 493-495. 

Yellowish or chestnut-brown, with an indistinct lighter band. 

Length, '5-'75 inch. 

Philippines. 

T. sculptilis, Reeve (fig. 494), appears to be the adult. 
Probabty T. mica, Reeve (fig. 495), is a synonym. 

T. INERMIS, Reeve. PL 52, fig. 496. 

Chestnut, with a white band crossed by longitudinal brown 

zigzag lines. Length, '75 inch. 

Philippines; Japan. 
Possibly a smooth variety of T. cselata. 

T. RECTILATERIS, Sowb. PL 52, fig. 497. 

Banded with chestnut and white ; spiral striae between the 

ribs. Length, 1*2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 



176 COSTELLARIA. 

T. RUBELLA, Ad. and Reeve. PL 52, fig. 498. 

Yellowish brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Sooloo Archipelago. 
T. SCITULA, A. Ad. PL 52, fig. 499. 

Yellowish white, sparsely punctate with chestnut. 
Length, '5 inch. China Seas. 

A young shell, the position of which is not readily determin- 
able. 

T. INTERT^ENIATA, Sowb. PL 52, fig. 500. 

Ash color with narrow chestnut bands. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
Possibly T rectilateris, Sowb. 

T. RUSTICA, Reeve. PL 52, fig. 501. 

Whitish, lower part of the shell ash color, with occasional 
brown dots upon the middle of the whorl. Length, *75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

A species having no marked characteristics. 

NI T. DESHAYESII, Reeve. PL 52, figs. 502-507, 486. 

Turreted, with an angle at the shoulder, longitudinal ribs 
small, rounded, interspaces wider, smooth ; white or ash color, 
with chestnut revolving bands, usually tipping the ribs only and 
thus appearing as rows of spots. Length, *75-l inch. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Polynesia. 
First described from a poor specimen, in which the upper 
portions of the ribs only are distinct, and the bands not well 
defined. The shell which Reeve figures as T. rigida, Swainson 
(fig. 504), is synonymous the true rigida being equivalent to 
T.semifasciata, Lam. Other synonyms are T. Michaudi, Crosse 
and Fischer (fig. 505), proposed for T. rigida, Reeve, not 
Swainson, T. Dunkeri, Schmeltz MSS., and T. alauda of Sowb. 
(figs. 506, 507), not Quoy, Voy. Astrol. as quoted by Sowerby 
no such species occurring in that work. I figure also, a variety 
of uniform dark chocolate color. 

T. AMANDA, Reeve. PL 52, fig. 508. 

Ribs crossed by fine revolving striae, a little nodulous next the 
suture ; alternately banded with light chestnut and white. 

Length, *5 inch. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Polynesia. 



COSTELLARIA. 177 

T. FESTIVA, Garrett. 

[Jnfigured. Resembles Desfaiyesii, Reeve. 

Viti Islands. 

T. I'l LCIIKA. (JariVtl. 

Untigurecl. Resembles Deshtty&sii^ Rervr. 

Viti ai ul fruniHiit, lxl<inds. 

T. < ASTA. H. Ad. PI. 52, fig. 509. 

White. Length, '4-' 7 5 inch. 

Red Sea. 

The name being preoccupied in Mitra, Sowerby changed it to 
hastata. 

T. FILISTRIATA, Sowk PI. 52, fig. 514. 

Fulvous, lower part of the body-whorl with pale brown flames. 

Length, '9 inch. 

Habitat unknoim. 

Very prokiltly equivalent to the preceding species. 

T. SUBULATA, Lam. PI. 52, figs. 510, 511. 
Flesh-color clouded with orange-brown. 
Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

Polynesia. 

The shoulder is not always distinctly marked. There is 
frequently a Terebra-like appearance given to this shell by the 
first incised revolving line below the suture, being deeper than 
the others. 

T. MACROSPIRA, A. Ad. PL 59, fig. 512. 

Whitish or yellowish, with rows of chestnut spots. 

Length, 2 inches. 

ILibitat unknoirii.. 

This, like the preceding species, has the aspect of a Terebra, 
but it is stouter than T. subulata. 

T. LINCOLNENSIS, Angas. PL 52, fig. 513. 

Whitish, with irregular longitudinal chestnut llames,:i narrow 
band of interrupted spots on the centre of the whorls, lower 
half of body-whorl chestnut, with a faint hand of reticulated 
brown and white spots in the middle. Length, 7 lines. 

Port Lincoln, So. Australia. 
23 



178 COSTELLARIA. 

T. CATENATA, Swainson. PL 53, fig. 515. 

White, with large irregular chestnut-brown spots, arranged in 

bands. Length, *5 inch. 

Me of An/t<i, Polynesia. 

An obscure shell, probably not adult. 
T. LILACINA, Sowb. PL 53, fig. 516. 

Shell finely decussated ; ash color, lighter at the suture. 

Length, -6 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
T. MARMOREA, A. Ad. PL 53, figs. 517, 518. 

Olivaceous, marked with reddish brown ; longitudinally eostatr . 
costse thick, subnodose above, interstices with revolving striae. 

Length, '5 inch. 

Isle of Negros, Philippines ; coarse sand, ten fathoms. 

Sowerby's two illustrations, the only figures of this species 
heretofore published, and which I cop}-, appear to represent two 
different species. 

T. ARRACANENSIS, Sowb. PL 53, figs. 519. 
Brown, with a median white line, ribs lighter colored. 
Length, '65 inch. 

Arrac0n. 
T. CREBRILIRATA, Reeve. PL 53, figs. 521-526, 530. 

Light chestnut or olive, tops of ribs lighter, with usually a 
narrow central brown band, and a superior white line ; ribs 
narrow, interstices with close revolving striae. 

Length, 1 '25-1 "75 inches. 

Indian Ocean; Japan; Philippines ; Polynesia. 

Reeve hesitated to describe this as a distinct species from his 
M. polita, to which, he says, it bears the same relation that the 
ribbed does to the smooth variety of M. ebenus-, I venture, 
nevertheless, to locate the two species in distinct groups. I do 
this, whilst expecting that Reeve's suspicion of their identity 
will be confirmed, as it is a case paralleled by many others in 
this genus, all pointing to the evanescent nature of the sculpture 
and patterns of coloring. In fact, unless we set up an artificial 
standard for the separation of species, in some genera, we should 
have no species remaining, to speak of. T. rosea, Kiener, not 
Duclos (fig. 522), T. tenuilirata, Sowb. (fig. 523), T. rubricata, 
Reeve (fig. 524), T. subtruncata, Sowb. (fig. 525), T. Layardi, 



COSTELLARIA. 179 

A. Ad. (fig. 520), T. Japonica, A. Ad. (fig. 530), are all syno- 
nyms. 

T. /EHUENSIS, Reeve. PI. 53, figs. 527-529, 520. 

Yellowish white, blotched or spotted irregularly with chestnut. 

Length, 1-25-1 '5 inches. 

Philippines; Polynesia. * 

The synonyms are T. rorata, Gould (fig. 520), T. prsetexta, 
Sowb. (fig. 529). 

T. RUFOMACULATA, Souverbie. PL 53, fig. 531. 

Whitish, with four revolving series of chestnut maculations ; 
intervals of the ribs with punctate revolving striae. 

Length, 1 inch. 

New Caledonia. 

Described and figured from a single specimen. 

T. ACUPICTA, Reeve. PI. 53, figs. 532, 533. 

White, tinged with yellowish or pink, profusely spotted and 
maculated with chestnut or chocolate color. Length, 1*25 inches. 
Red Sea, Andaman Isles, Cochin China, Zanzibar, Mauritius. 

Sowerby figures a variety in which the ribs are less numerous 
but more prominent than in the type. 

T. PUNCTURATA, Sowb. PL 53, fig. 534. 

Pink, maculate and flammulate with reddish brown ; interstices 
of the ribs profoundly punctate. Length, 20 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen. 

T. OBELISCUS, Reeve. PL 53, fig. 535. 

Chestnut-brown, with a central white band, and sometimes an 

inferior narrower one. 

Andaman Islands, Philippines, Viti Islands. 

Reeve's figure is from a faded specimen. G. and H. Nevill 
have described a var. Andamanica, but it has no differential 
characters. It is possible that T. obeliscus is a non-angulated 
form of T. cruentata, Chemn. 

T. MACANDREWI, Sowb. PL 53, fig. 530. 

Fawn color, lighter on the periphery. Length, -0 inch. 

Red Sea. 

A juvenile shell with no distinctive features. It may be a 
young obeliscus. 



180 COSTELLABIA. 

T. FLEXICOSTATA, Garrett. 

An unfigured species, allied to T. obeliscus. Length, -6 inch. 

Polynesia. 
T. RADIX, Sowb. PL 53, fig. 531. 

Like obeliscus, but the costse more distant, curved ; orange- 
brown with a white superior band. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
T. LONGISPIRA, Sowb. PI. 43, fig. 538. 

Fawn-colored, light banded in the middle. Length, '9 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

One of a number of very doubtful specimens, once forming 
part of a private collection, and which, coming into the hands of 
Mr. Sowerby, have been described by him as new species. 

T. ^ETHIOPICA, Jickeli. PI. 53, fig. 539. 

A miserable little young shell, the description of which is of 

advantage to Mr. Jickeli, perhaps. Length, 4 mill. 

Red Sea. 
May be identified with anything. 

T. CRISP A, Garrett. PL 53, fig. 540. 

White or yellowish white, with usually a central darker band ; 
ribs sharp, flexuous, somewhat distant, interstices foveolate, the 
revolving ridges being thread-like and well raised. 

Length, '65-'8 inches. 

Samoa and Viti Isles. 

T. EXASPERATA, Gmelin. PL 53, figs. 541-544 ; PL 54, figs. 545, 
546. 

Whitish or yellowish usually two-banded with chestnut to 
dark chocolate, sometimes colored only on the ribs. 

Length, *75-l inch. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Jar a, Philippines, Polynesia. 

T. are nosa, . Lain. (figs. 545, 540), is a synonym, and not 
entitled to varietal distinction as its typical form is connected 
with exasperata by almost insensible gradations: Reeve's reason 
for retaining it as a species is curious ; he says : " M. Kiener 
regards this species as a variety of the following (exa^peratci), 
but I do not think it expedient to follow his opinion. One-half 
of the established species may be dispensed with were every one 
of two that approximate abandoned upon the discovery of their 
intermediate link." Mr. Garrett gathered thousands of living 



COSTELLARIA. 181 

specimens by digging in clear sand and sandy mud at the Tonga 
and Yiti Isles. All the Mitres of this type bury themselves in 
SMI id and only come to the surface during the night. The shell is 
mimitety granulated by the crossing of the sculpture. The ribs 
vary considerably in size and number, and are sometimes obso- 
lete. The angle on the shoulder is also subject to variation and 
is occasionally very indistinct. The color is white or cinereous, 
and sometimes nearly uniform blackish brown. The ribs are 
frequently lineated with light brown or blackish brown, the lines 
often interrupted so as to form two transverse rows of linear 
spots which gradually merge into the conspicuously banded 
and more closely ribbed variety which represents Lamarck's 
arenosa. T. cadaverosa, Reeve, the description of which follows, 
is possibly a marked variety only of this species. 

T. CADAVEROSA, Reeve. PL 54, figs. 548-554. 

Whitish, with a narrow chestnut or chocolate band, either 
continuous or interrupted by the ribs. Length, -G5--9 inch. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Philippine*, Polynesia. 

The shell is more stumpy, usually smaller, less disposed to 
_u ran illation than T. exasperata, and its single band, when not 
continuous, appears in the interstices of the ribs, unlike the 
interrupted bands of exasperata, which appear on the backs of the 
ribs : I am by no means certain that it is distinct, however. In 
the Polynesian Islands it lives buried in the sand. 

The synonyms are T. Pacifica. Reeve (fig. 550), T. Pharaonis, 
Issel (fossil), T. mutabilis. Reeve (fig. 551), and T. brevicaudata, 
Sowb. (fig. 552). T. Wisemanm, Dohrn, an unfigured species is 
referred to this synonymy by Jickeli,* but I agree with Mr. 
Pease that it agrees better with his T. bella ( militaris). T. 
Appelli. Jickeli (= PJiaraonis, H. Ad., not Issel) is at most a 
variety (fig. 553), and 7'. sitbquadrata, Sowh. (fig. 554), is syn- 
onymous with it. 

T. ASPERRIMA, Dohrn. PI. 54, fig. 547. 

Orange-yellow, white upon the shoulder of the whorls. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



* Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, 37. 



182 PUSTA. 

Described from a specimen in the Hanley collection. Three 
examples, without locality, are also in the collection of the 
Philadelphia Academy. 

T. SPRETA, A. Ad. PL 54, fig. 555. 

Light yellowish brown. Length, '25 inch. 

Japan. 

A juvenile shell. It is not at all probable that it is distinct 
from one of the previously described species : julgin- from the 
figure it could be safely referred to any one of 1m If M, dozen 
species, including the last. 

T. ROSEOCAUDATA, Han ley. PI. 54, fig. 556. 

Light yellowish brown. Length, '2 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Probably a starved, rugose, young specimen of T. cadawrosa. 

T. LATERCULATA, Sowb. PI. 54, fig. 557. 

Yellowish brown, with a central band, bordered on each side 

by a row of brown spots. Length, '7 inch. 

Habitat ///////<>////. 
T. ZELOTYPA, Reeve. PL 54, fig. 558. 

Alternately banded with }^ellowish brown and white. 
Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Section Pusia, Swainson. 

Shell small, ovate, more or less ribbed or nodulous ; spire 
usually -short, convex, with obtuse apex; outer lip sometimes 
thickened. 

T. DERMESTINA, Lam. PL 54, figs. 559-566. 

Chestnut or chocolate-brown more or less spotted with yellow- 
ish white on the ribs, with a superior interrupted white band and 
an inferior narrower one. Length, '75 inch. 

West Indies ; Paumotus ; Sandwich Islands ; Red Sea ? 

The West Indian habitat of this species is established by 
Morch, Krebs, Swift, etc. ; the Paumotus are given on the 
authority of Hugh Cuming ; Mr. Pease reports it from the 
Sandwich Islands, M' Andrew from the Red Sea. Probably the 
latter is a mistaken identification ; but specimens from the two 
oceans are alike and cannot be specifically distinguished. The 



PUSTA. 183 

synonyms are T. cavea. Reeve (tig. 560), reported by Beau from 
Guadeloupe, \V. I..; T. Adamsi,Do\\rn ( lig. 561), described from 
a worn specimen; 7'. i>//l<-Jir/la. Reeve, (fig. 562); T. pisolina, 
Lain, (tig. .")('3) ; T. ansulata, Sowb. (fig. 564); and T. histrio, 
Reeve (lig. ;>C>5), a brilliantly colored form. 

Var. coNSAN(ii;i\KA, Reeve, fig. 566. 

Orange to brown, with a revolving row of white spots, and 
scattered spots on the base and spire. Length, '75 inch. 

It varies considerably in the length of the spire. It is fre- 
quently confounded, says Mr. Garrett, with T. dermestina, with 
which it is very closely allied. 
T. TATEI. Angas. PI. 54, fig. 567. 

Yellowish brown, with two chocolate bands. Length, 3 inches. 

So. Australia. 
T. MICRO/ONIAS, Lam. PI. 54, figs. 568, 569. 

Dark chestnut or chocolate-brown, with a row of white spots 
on the ribs at the periphery, forming an interrupted band or 
necklace; sometimes an inferior narrow band. 

Length, '5-* 7 5 inch. 

West Indies ; Polynesia. 

Morch, Krebs and Swift report it from the West Indies, 
('inning and Garrett from Polynesia ; specimens from both local- 
ities before me are precisely similar. The species is distinguished 
with difficulty from varieties of T. dermestina, and will, I think, 
prove to be S3'nonymous with it. 

T. GEMMATA, Sowb. PI. 58, fig. 688. 

Brown, usually slightly angular above the middle ; ribs distinct 
on and above the angle, becoming obsolete below it ; angle with 

a hand of white spots. Length, 8-10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Three good specimens are before me ; with the general char- 
acter of M. microzonias,ihey have a much narrower form. 

T. I'ARDALis. Kiister. PI. 54, figs. 573-575. 

Yellowish to chocolate-brown, with an interrupted or con- 
tinent white band composed of irregular spots; the tops of the 
longitudinal ribs lighter in color, sometimes white. 

Length, "6 inch. 

Red Sea; Philippines; Mauritius; Polynesia, on coral reefs. 



184 PUSTA. 

Krister described his species from young specimens ; there can 
be no doubt, however, of its identity with the forms subsequently 
characterized by Reeve as T. lauta (fig. 574), and T. leucodesma 
(fig. 575). Reeve's figure of T. pardalis is a Columbella. 

T. MEDCOMACULATA, Sowb. PI. 55, figs. 581, 582. 

Somewhat indistinctly plicately ribbed, ribs smooth, wide, 
close together, interstices with revolving striae ; sculpture alto- 
gether obsolete on the back of the last whorl ; rich chestnut- 
brown, broadly white-banded, with a row of square, regular 
brown spots in the centre of the band. Length, -5 inch. 

Mauritius. 

T. Cernica, Nevill (fig. 582) is a synonym. 

T. PUELLA, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 583. 

Dark chestnut or chocolate with jagged flames or spots of 
white, frequently confluent around the suture Surface polished, 
with obsolete, minute, decussating sculpture. Length, '3-'4 inch. 

West Indies. 

T. TURTURINA, Souverbie. PL 55, fig. 584. 

Smooth, polished, solid, columbelliform, with revolving striae; 
dark chestnut, with small white revolving points or spots. 

Length, *5 inch. 

Loyalty /., New Caledonia. 

Resembles the preceding species, differing in its columbelli- 
form aperture, and the disposition of the spots. 

T. CREMANS, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 585. 

Dark chocolate, with an irregular white band, tending to 
spread longitudinally on the tops of the distant folds or ribs, 
these being sometimes obsolete ; irregularly white-banded near 
the base ; when the shell is fresh, close, very fine spiral lines are 

visible. Length, -5-'6 inch. 

Philippines. 

The figures of Sowerby and Reeve are both taken from smooth 
uncharacteristic specimens. It is near T. pardalis. M. Timo- 
rensis, Dohrn, an unfigured species, from the island of Timor, 
is apparently synonymous. 

T. ALVEOLUS, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 586. 

Longitudinally finely ribbed, base with revolving grooves ; 



PUSIA. 185 

whorls dark chocolate, tessellated with white around the upper 
p:irt, and on the spire. Length, *5 inch. 

Habitat unknown . (Red Sea f ) 

I am not acquainted with the species; it may be a variation 
of T.pardalis. 

T. APERTA, Sowb. PI. 55, fig-. 581. 

Slightly ribbed ; chocolate, with an irregular yellowish band. 

Length, *7 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen in the late Taylor collection. 
T. MILLECOSTATA, Swainson. PI. 55, fig. 588. 

Closely, finely longitudinally ribbed, with impressed revolving 
stria? at the base ; orange yellow to dark chestnut-brown, some- 
times with two interrupted lighter bands. Length, *5 inch. 

Island of Annaa. 

T. LUCULENTA, Reeve. PI. 55, figs. 589-594. 

Short pupjeform, with obtuse apex; or ventricose in the 
body-whorl, with a more or less angulated periphery, and dis- 
tantly irregularly folded or ribbed ; sometimes narrow. Color 
alternate revolving bands of white or light yellowish and dark 
chocolate or black. Length, -5 inch. 

Philippines ; Polynesian Islands, on coral reefs. 

A species of very variable form, and sculptured or smooth ; 
the typical state is pupseform furnished with white bands as 
wide or wider than the black ones (fig. 589) ; a more ventri- 
cose shell with the black bands proportionately wider is T. 
dichroa, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 590) ; a still more ventricose and 
more usual form has been called by Mr. Crosse T. Graeffi (fig. 591); 
it is ribbed, and the white bands are narrow; Sowerby has re- 
described it under the name of T. nigrofasciata (fig. 592). A 
narrower variety of the shell with narrow white bands Mr. 
Sowerbjr calls T. Isemzonata (fig. 593). To complete the 83^11- 
onymy, we may probably add T. tricolor, Montr, (fig. 594) in 
which there are indistinct rufous bands in the middle of the 
white bands ; this is not a constant character, as in a specimen 
sent to me by M. Crosse, the rufous markings are not visible. 
Tapparone-Canefri has changed the name to Montrouzieri, that 
of tricolor being preoccupied. Mr. Garrett remarks of this 
24 



186 PUSIA. 

species that " the}^ are usually found associated with Engina 
mendicaria, which they resemble so closely in shape and color as 
to be easily mistaken for small specimens of the latter species. 
Mr. Crosse's figure, which is slightly enlarged, very correctly 
represents the usual form. They, however, frequently differ in 
being more slender, and the ribs are sometimes nearly obsolete. 
Animal black. The foot is oblong, margined with yellow, slightly 
auriculate in front, and about three-fourths the length of the 
shell. Siphon rather long, irrorated with white. The pale ten- 
tacles are marked by two black zones." 

T. LOTA, Reeve. PL 54, fig. 570. 

Pale reddish orange, variegated with brown. Length, '75 inch. 

Me of Ticao ; Philippines. 

A species of no determinate character, closely allied to or 
identical with T. microzonias, Lam. Sowerby considers it a 
synonym of T. pisolina, Lam., a species which I believe to be 
identical witli T. dermestina. 

T. GLANDIFORMIS, Reeve. PI. 54, fig. 571. 

White, variegated with brown. Length, -5 inch. 

Red Sea ; Indian Ocean. 

Messrs. G. and H. Nevill say that T. dsedala, radius and this 
species are identical, running together through intermediate 
forms ; the types are so different, however, that having no series 
of specimens by which to verify this for myself, I prefer to keep 
them distinct. 

T. CITHABA, Reeve. PI. 55, fig. 599. 

Light purple-brown with a narrow, pale hand. H., '75 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 

T. APPROXIMATA, Pease. 

Shell ovate, turreted ; whorls convexly angulated at the sutures, 
longitudinally ribbed, crossed by impressed striae ; interstices 
punctured ; aperture striated within ; columella four-plaited. 
Color white, banded and blotched irregularly with chestnut- 
brown. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Not figured. Not seen by either Mr. (rarrett or myself. 



: 



PUSIA. 187 

T. BRONNI, Bunker. 

An unfigured species said to be very like T. ylandiformis, 
Reeve, but much larger, narrower, paler in color, and somewhat 
curved before. Length, 20 mill. 

Japan. 
T. KRAUSSI, Dunker. 

An unfigured species, resembling the preceding, somewhat, 
ami also recalling the narrow variety of T. microzonias. It is 
found in the Japanese seas. 

T. CROCATA, Lam. PI. 55, figs. 595-507. 

I\ eddish orange or yellowish brown, with a superior narrow 
white band. Length, '75 1*25 inch. 

Philippines ; Polynesia. 

The type figured by Kiener, fig. 595, is even larger than the 
ize given in Lamarck's description which is, length one and a 
quarter inches. I have some doubt whether the shell usually 
identified with T. crocata, and which is common enough in 
cabinets, is really that species, for it is always much smaller and 
less shouldered sometimes without any superior angle on the 
whorls. If this identification is correct, a large synonymy must 
be added (principally on account of inconstant coloration), 
including T. aureolata. venustula,flavescens. etc. I prefer to let 
rrorata stand as a somewhat doubtful form, and include the 
others under the name of T. aureolata. T. concinna, Reeve (fig. 
597), is a smaller shell, varying only in the interstices of the 
revolving ridges being darker colored. 

T. PYRAMIDALIS, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 598. 

Yellowish or orange-brown, with a white superior zone. 

Length, 1 '25-1 '5 inches. 

Isle of Annaa, Paumotus Group. 

Garrett obtained a specimen which is white with two orange- 
yellow bands. The spire is more elegated and less angular than 
in T. crocata ; the ribs much more curved and more roughly 
tuberculated. This is the aurantia of Swainson, not Gmelin, 
and Garrett proposes to revive that name ; Gmelin's species 
being a true Mitra and Turricula now generally accepted as a 
distinct genus : in common parlance the Turricuhe, however, will 
probably continue to be referred to as Mitrae, so that some con- 
fusion might arise from reinstating T. aurantia. 



188 PUS FA. 

\I T. AUREOLATA, Swainson. PL 55, figs. 600-606. 

Orange-brown, with a small white superior zone, and some- 
times one or more thread-like inferior bands ; sometimes white 
with an orange band below the suture and another at the base. 

Length, *75 inch. 

Philippines ; Polynesia. 

A very variable species in sculpture and coloration, and 
therefore having a large synonymy. I have already, under T. 
crocata, alluded to the fact that that species has usually been 
identified with this ; it remains to figure the crocata of collectors 
(fig. 600), which is a lemon-yellow variety of aureolata, with or 
without a superior thread-like white band. T. multicostata, 
Swains, (fig. 602), and T. crocea, Reeve (fig. 603), are examples 
of shoulderless varieties of the type and of " crocata " respec- 
tively ; they are both somewhat enlarged in the figures. In T. 
venustula, Reeve (fig. 604), the revolving sculpture is darker 
colored ; and in T.flavescens, Reeve (fig. 605), a portion of them 
are so marked, giving the shell a bright, banded appearance. 
T. affinis, Reeve (fig. 606), is also a synonym. 

T. PLICATISSIMA, Schroter. PI. 55, fig. 607. 

Grayish white, apex and base tinged with brown ; two dark 
bands on the bod3^-whorl. Length, 20 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Perhaps a variety of T. aureolata. 

T. RUBRA, Swainson. PL 55, figs. 608, 609. 

Light pink and darker banded, or roseate with a light band, 
sometimes interrupted by dark tints in the interstices of the 

ribs. Length, '25 inch. 

Paumotus ; New Zealand? 

The specimens before me, as well as the figures, show that it 
is not an adult shell. Sowerby's fig. 393 (fig. 608) represents 
the shell described by Garrett as T. exquisita ; it is at most, a 
mere variety. 

T. BICOLOR, Garrett. 

An unfigured species, cinereous with'two rose-colored bands. 
Length, 8 mill. 

Samoa and Paumotus Isles. 

Appears to be closely allied to T. rubra. 



PUSIA. 189 

T. PALTGERA, Sowb. PL 55, fig. 610. 

Yellowish white. interruptedly fasrinte with chestnut. 

Length, '65 inch. 

Hab. unknown. 
T. INFALSTA, Reeve. IM. 55, iig. 576. 

Fleshy straw-color, stained with chestnut. Length, '68 inch. 

1*1. of Ticao, Philippines. 

T. GARRETTII, (J. and U. Xevill. 

Xanie proposed for Mitra assimilis* (Jarrett, not Pease; an 
nn figured species, of a whitish color, with closely set, slightly 
raised deep brown lines. 

Cook* 9, Samoa, and Viti Islands. 

. FORTIPLTCATA. Pease. PL 55, fig. 57V. 
Light chestnut, base ami apex whitish. Length, 8 mill. 
Paumotits Is., in beach sand. 

T. KM i U.K. Selmieltz. PI. 55, fig. 578. 

Reddish chestnut, encircled by two or three narrow yellowish 
bands. Length, 8 mill. 

Pauittotus Is., in beach saiid. 

Described by Mr. Pease as T. plicatula, a name preoccupied 
for a fossil species. 

T. ROSEA, Swainson. PI. 55. fig. 579. 

Purple-rose, tipped with white on the ribs ; sometimes with a 
row of dark spots between the ribs and below the shoulder. 

Length, '5 inch. 

Lord Hood's Island. 
T. niscoLORiA, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 580. 

Alternately banded with white and orange or reddish brown, or 
chocolate. Usually the bands are much darker in color between 
the ribs. Length, *5 65 inch. 

Solomon Is. (Brazier); Philippines (Paetel) ; Viti Is. (Garrett). 

T. AMABILIS, Keeve. PL 56, fig. 611. 

Ashy or pinkish gray, with a broad white superior band, and 
sometimes narrow white revolving lines below it. 

Length, *35-'4 inch. 

Red Sea; Philippines; Polynesia. 

A coral reef species, widely distributed. 



190 PUSIA. 

T. NICOBARICA, Frauenfeld. PI. 56, fig. 612. 

Shell chocolate-brown, aperture also chocolate. H., 16 mill. 

Nicobar Isles. 
T. FICULINA, Lam. PL 56, figs. 613-615. 

Dark chocolate-brown, more or less shouldered and distantly 
longitudinally ribbed, sometimes crossed by revolving striae, 
which become more distinct towards the base ; aperture chocolate 
within. Length, *7 inch. 

Philippines ; Solomon Is. ; Australia ; Galapagos Is. 

I refer to this species T. gausapata, Reeve (fig. 614), from the 
Galapagos, and T. forticostata, Reeve (fig. 615) ; the latter without 
revolving sculpture except at the base. 

T. ZEBRINA, d'Orb. PL 56, figs. 630, 616. 

Smooth, dark chocolate with white longitudinal strigations. 

Length, 10-12 mill. 

Canary Islands. 

The type figured (fig. 630), is a narrower form than that 
depicted by Sowerby ; the latter corresponds very well, however, 
with a specimen before me, which I feel confident belongs to 
this species. 

T. SEMEk, Reeve. PL 56, fig. 618. 

Smooth ; yellowish white and chestnut-brown in alternate 
longitudinal narrow waved lines. Length, '5 inch. 

Philippines ; Polynesia : Sandwich hies. 

I add the localities following the Philippines, believing that T. 
flammulata, Pease, and T. zebrina, Garrett, both unfigured, will 
prove to be synonymous with T. semen. It seems to be closely 
allied to the typical form of T. zebrina, d'Orb., in coloring and 
shape. 

T. PUTILLUS, Pease. PL 56, fig. 617. 

Finely granulated by decussating lines; dark chocolate, with 
a narrow white superior band ; sometimes with a few white spots 
on the upper half of the shell. Length, '4 inch. 

Paumotus and Society Islands. 

T. TRUNCULUS, Sowb. PL 56, fig. 619. 

Polished, ventricose, chestnut-brown. Length, -25 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
Described from a single specimen. 



PUSTA. 191 

T. MURICULATA, Lam. PL 56, fig. 020. 

Orange yellow to dark chestnut, the shoulder and tubercles 

whitish. Length '65 *8 inch. 

Philippines ; Mauritius. 

vT. PATRIABCHALIS, Lam. PI. 56, figs. 621, 622, 625; PI. 58, fig. 689. 
Nodosely ribbed at shoulder of whorls, ribs becoming evanes- 
cent lower down; spirally incised, the striae becoming stronger 
towards the base, and occasionally raised into nodules or riblets ; 
above, they cross the ribs. Color varying from light yellow, 
through orange and red to dark chocolate, the ribs and usually 
upper part of body-whorl and spire white, the base of the shell 
with one or more interrupted white bands, or entirely suffused 
with white. Length, '6 *75 inch. 

Philippines ; Viti Islands. 

T. tuberosa, Reeve (fig. 622) is the }^onng of this species, and 
n. very immature specimen of it appears to be described and 
figured by Kiister as T. elegantula (fig. 625). 

T. PORPHYRKTICA, Reeve. PI. 56, fig. 626. 

Smooth, plicately ribbed, ribs angular, three or four revolving 
grauulous striae at base. Ash, chestnut, etc., with a broad white 
/one around the suture, and narrower ones marking the basal 
stria*, or entire base white. Length, *6 inch. 

Philippines, Viti and Samoa Islands. 

Differs from the preceding species in the longitudinal ribs 
being continuous over the body-whorl, less tuberculate above, 
closer and narrower, in the want of revolving sculpture except 
at the base ; the coloring is essentially the same, and it may be 
only a variety of T. patriarchalis. 

T. OSIDIRIS, Issel. PI. 56, iigs. 627, 628. 

White, with a central chestnut or chocolate band. 

Length, '9 inch. 

Red Sea. 

With longer spire and somewhat different coloring, this is 
very closely allied to the preceding species ; it differs from T. 
cadaverosa by its broader band and want of revolving sculpture, 
but appears to be intermediate between it and porphyretica. T, 
umbonata, Sowb. (fig. 628). is a synonym. 



192 PUSIA. 


T. TUMIDA, Reeve. PI. 56, fig. 629. 

Whorls swollen and angulated around the upper part, the 
angle with a few large nodules ; yellowish white, orange or 
reddish between the nodules and at the base, with a broad 
central chocolate band. Length, 1'5 inch. 

Australia. 

So close to the preceding species that I hesitated about 
separating them. The color is the same, but this shell is wider, 
and the nodules are less numerous and larger, with a decided 
shoulder on the whorls. 

T. INTERRUPTA, Anton. PI. 56, fig. 631. 

Whitish, with interrupted revolving lines of chestnut-brown, 
forming a central band, with traces of an inferior one. 

Length, '4 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Evidently immature. Not included in the genus by either 
Reeve or Sowerby, and I am unacquainted with it. 

T. NODULOSA, Pease. PI. 56, fig. 632. 

White, interruptedly encircled with brown below. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Paumotus. 

Appears to be very closely allied to, if not identical with T. 
interrupta, Anton. 

T. ENCAUSTA, Gould. PI. 56, fig. 633. 

Ash-colored, with eight or nine coarse longitudinal ribs, and 
deeply incised, regular revolving strise of a dusky color. 

Length, -35 inch. 

Fiji Islands. 

A young shell, the affinities of which I cannot make out, 
neither from the original figure and description, nor from an 
authentic specimen before me. 

T. SPECIOSA, Reeve. PI. 56, fig. 634. 

Pinkish white, with a central reddish-brown band, appearing 
only 011 the tops of the regular longitudinal ribs ; a row of spots 
above, and another below it ; aperture pink within. 

Length, '7 inch. 

Philippines, Mauritius, Cook's and Paumotus Is. 




1<K> 

T. I'usio, Pliilippi. 

Longitudinally costate, nodulous above, granular al base, with 
revolving impressed strhx? ; white, with a narrow chestnut central 

band interrupted by the ribs. Length, -35 inch. 

Ifab. unknown. 

An untigured species, omitted by the iconographers, and 
unknown to me except by the short description. 

T. VARIATA, Reeve. PI. 56, fig. 635. 

Yellowish brown with a dark superior band, and a white band 
with dark margins below the middle. Length, '1 inch. 

Paumotus and Viti Islands, coral reefs. 

Animal light brown, spotted with yellowish white. T. frater- 
<-nla, Garrett, is a synonym. 
T. DISCORS, Grandidier. PI. 56, figs. 636, 63?. 

Spire and upper half of the body-whorl lilac or yellowish white, 
periphery with a narrow white band, lower half of body-whorl 

chestnut-brown. Length, '6 inch. 

Caroline Islands (Pease). 

I 4,mite with this species T. glabra, Pease (not Swains.), 
changed by Pease to T. lubrica (fig. 637). The original descrip- 
tion in Kiister has no locality, and the figure is poor, though 
recognizable. 
.T. NODOSA, Swainson. PI. 56, figs. 638-641. 

White, sometimes with a central brown band or row of spots 
interrupted by the tubercles, which cover the entire surface ; 
upper part of body-whorl with close impressed revolving striae ; 
aperture yellowish within. Length, '6--*l5 inch. 

Red Sea, Philippines, China. Polynesia, Mauritius. 

Mr. Garrett mentions a variety occurring at the Paumotus, 
having a slate-colored band articulated with orange-yellow. I 
unite with this species M. tuber culata, Kiener, M.fraga, Kiener 
(tig. 640), not Quoy, M. pinguis, Reeve (fig. 641), which is a 
juvenile, and M. cancellarioides, Anton. 

T. TUSA, Reeve. PL 56, fig. 642. 

Spire and upper portion of body-whorl white, with occasional 
brown spots, lower portion of body-whorl brown. 

Length, '4 inch. Philippines to Sandwich Is. ; Red Sea. 

Animal greenish white, marbled with chocolate-brown. 
25 



194 PUSIA. 

T. SEMITICA, Jickeli. PI. 56, fig. 623. 

Gray, lower half of body-whorl ferruginous. Length, 16 mill. 

Red N '/. 

I only know this species through the original description and 
figure. 

T. FESTA, Reeve. PI. 56, fig. 624. 

White, with a broad central brown band. Length, -5 inch. 

Philippines. 

Closely allied to, or perhaps synonymous with T. tusa, 
Reeve. 

T. PUPULA, Dunker. PI. 57, fig. 643. 

Reddish brown, with a white superior band, appearing on the 

spire. Length, *25 inch. 

Somoan Islands. 

Figured from an authentic specimen, received from the Grodef- 
froy Museum. 

T. ELEGANTULA, D unker. 

Small, white maculated with reddish brown, forming a tessel- 
lated series on the last whorl ; spire elate, whorls slightly 
angulated ; plicated, the interstices with revolving striae. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Samoan Islands. 

Has not been figured and the specimen before me is too 
immature for illustration. 

T. TRICOLOR, Gmelin. PI. 57, figs. 644-646, 651. 

Spire and upper portion of body-whorl distantly ribbed, 
sometimes smooth ; yellowish to chocolate, with a white band, 
and frequently maculated with red-brown or chocolate across or 
on either border of the band ; occasionally a second maculated 
band near the base. Length, -25-'35 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

A very variable little shell, of which T. Savignii, Payr. (fig. 
644), may be considered the typical ribbed form, and T. picta, 
Sandri, T. granum, Forbes (fig. 645), and T. littoralis, Forbes 
(fig. 646), smooth varieties. To these must be added a costate 
variety recently described by Issel, as var. pallida (fig. 651). 
M. Lowei, Dohrn,an unfigured species, from the Canary Islands, 
is probably a synonym. 



PUSIA. 195 

T. SEMICOSTATA, AlltOll. 

Chestnut-brown, blotched with white on the spire. 
Length, -5 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

The sculpture appears to be different from that of T. tricolor: 
it is a doubtful species. 

T. COLUMBELLARIA, Scacchi. PI. 51, figs. 641, 653. 

Yellowish to dark chocolate ; revolving striae becoming obso- 
lete in the middle of the body-whorl ; columella with two plaits. 

Length, -25 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Referred by some authors to the genus Columbella. The 
synonyms are T. obsoleta, Phil. ; T. olivoidea, Cantraine ; T. 
clandestine/,, Forbes (fig. 647) ; T. leontocroma, Brusina ; T. stria- 
tella, Calcara; T. Greci, Phil. (fig. 653), a Sicilian fossil. 

Three little Mitras are published by Brusina without figures : 
M. columbulse, M. striata, and M. typostigma, all from Dal- 
matia ; they are possibly all referable to this species. 

T. SUAVIS, Souverbie. PI. 51, fig. 648. 

Rose-color, with a broad white band margined with chestnut. 
Length, 5 '5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

T. HANLEYI, Dohrn. PI. 51, fig. 654. 

Gray, maculated and banded with chestnut ; closely plicate 
longitudinally, with a median spiral sulcus, tuberculate at base. 

Length, 5 '5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Said to resemble T. Columbellaria, but distinguished by its 
sculpture. 

* 
T. CORALLINA, Reeve. PI. 51, fig. 655. 

Amber or coral-red, ribs whitish. Length, -6 inch. 

Philippines. 

T. PUSTLLA, A. Adams. PI. 51, fig. 649. 
Yellowish white, banded above with orange or pink. 

Length, -5 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 



196 CYLINDRA. 

T. ARTICULATA, Reeve. PI. 57, fig. 656. 

Pale pinkish scarlet, encircled with a small white brown- 
articulated zone. Length, '75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

T. ^MULA, E. A. Smith. PL 57, fig. 650. 

Blackish brown, with a narrow yellow line round the middle 
of the whorls, and yellow at the upper margin, and a second 
line on the last whorl rather below the middle ; clothed with an 
olive epidermis obscuring the coloring ; aperture dark-brown 
with two yellow bands, lirate far within. Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 

Undetermined Species of Turricula. 
T. PYRAMIDALIS, A. Ad. Japan. 

T. CASTANEA, HOYTI, INSTRICTA, L^EVICOSTATA, MODICELLA, LUTEO- 

FUSCA, UNILINEATA, of Garrett. Polynesia. 

T. VIRGINALIS, Lesson. Tahiti. 

T. SEMIPLICATA, Lam. Adams' Genera. Nab. unknown. 

T. ELEGANTULA, Dunker. Samoan Islands. 

T. OLIVACEA, Anton. California. 

T. RUPOFILOSA, E. A. Smith. Solomon Islands. 



Genus CYLINDRA, Schum. 

C. NUCEA, Gronov. PI. 57, fig. 659. 

Smooth, or with obsolete impressed spiral lines towards the 
base. Yellowish white, with olive-black epidermal revolving 
lines^ partly aggregated into two broad, somewhat interrupted 
bands ; under the epidermis are six or eight spiral rows of 
minute punctations,of chestnut color, scarcely visible, but show- 
ing each a terminal dot on the margin of the lip ; aperture 
smooth, rosy white within. Length, l'5-2'5 inches. 

Polynesia. 

The animal is diluted white, foot and siphon margined with 
dashes of black and white. Reeve gives New Zealand as the 
localit} T of the species, which is an error. 



CYLINDRA. 1 97 

VC. DACTYLUS, Linn. PI. 57, figs. 658, 664. 

Spire decussated, body-whorl with sometimes a slight shoulder. 

Whitish, clouded with chestnut-brown ; encircled with distant, 
narrow, closely punctate, incised In-own lines. 

Length, 1'25-1'75 inches. 

Philippines; Polynesia ; sand or sandy mud inside the reefs. 

C. obesa, Reeve, is a specimen covered with its greenish 
epidermis, and C. Potensis, Montr, (fig. 661) is a small, more 
cylindrical variety from New Caledonia. 

C. ORNATA, Schuberth and Wagner. PL 57, fig. 660. 

Thick, white, with close revolving series of red punctae. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

I have copied the poor figure of this species which has been 
passed over by both Reeve and Sowerby. Very probably it = 
C. dactylus. 

C. CRENULATA, Gmelin. PL 57, figs. 662-666. 

Cylindrical, with impressed, closely pitted revolving lines ; 
white, with waved clouds of chestnut-brown, frequently disposed 
in two or more broad interrupted bands of large spots. 

Length, 30-40 mill. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Philippines, Polynesia. 

C. undulosa, Reeve (fig. 664), differs typically in six or eight 
of the revolving lines being colored, and the form is not quite so 
cylindrical ; it is connected by intermediate stages with G. crenu- 
lata. In C. radula, Sowb. (fig. 665), the form, and in some cases 
the coloring, of C. undulosa are preserved, but the growth-lines 
are close and deep, decussating the revolving lines and forming 
numerous little square tubercles at their intersection ; this also 
gradually shades off into the smoother typical form. It is not 
unlikely that this rough form will be found to be a connecting 
link in a chain of variations uniting C. crenulata with C. fenes- 
fru.ffi. C. arctata, Sowb. (fig. 660), is a variety witli more pro- 
duced spire, and two interrupted brown bunds ; it is included in 
the series of specimens before me. 



198 CYLINDRA. 

C. SINENSIS, Reeve. PL 57, figs. 668, 670. 

Brownish white, marked with darker brown or uniform brown ; 

revolving ridges grariose. Length, 1 '5-1*75 inches. 

China. 

Distinguished from C. crenulata by its elaborate sculpture. 
C. lima, Sowerby (fig. 670) appears to be a smaller specimen of 
the same species. 

C. FENESTRATA, Lam. PL 57, figs. 671, 667. 

Thick, rudely folded longitudinally, the ribs sometimes almost 
obsolete ; crossed by regular, rather narrow revolving riblets and 
intervening grooves, the riblets become nodulous on the longi- 
tudinal folds ; color whitish or yellowish, revolving ribs very 
dark chocolate usually, sometimes uncolored. 

Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Philippines ; Polynesia, in sand, inside coral reefs. 

C. glans, Reeve (fig. 667) has the revolving ribs uncolored. 
There can be no doubt of its identity, as in most specimens of 
C. fenestrata a portion of the whorl next the outer lip is pre- 
cisely like glans, and a broken specimen before me has been 
repaired with the orange-brown color characteristic of glans. 

C. PUNCTATA, Swainson. PL 57, fig. 669. 

Olive-brown, whorls encircled with engraved, punctate striae. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

This shell is unknown in collections. 

C. NUX, Sowb. PL 57, fig. 657. 

Orange or chestnut-brown, closely lineated by incised, minutely 
punctured lines and irregularly spotted and clouded with white : 

aperture chestnut within. Length, '75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Mr. Sowerby has figured but not described this species ; it 
appears to be distinct, and a very good specimen is included 
in the Swift Collection in the Museum of the Philadelphia 
Academy. 



1MBKICAR1A. 199 

Conns IMBRICARIA, Schumacher. 

Distinguished l>y its ( 1 onus-like shells, the colnmella with less 
numerous plic:it ions than most of the species of Ct/Hndra. The 
transition between this genus and the latter is gradual, some of 
the species placed in Cylindra, such as C. dactylus, being almost 
cone-shaped. 

I. CONICA, Schumacher. PI. 58, fig. 673. 

Yellowish or ash-color in darker and lighter clouds, encircled 
l>v equidistant narrow brown lines, and mottled by quadrangular 

white spots. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines ; Polynesia. 

Gregarious in sand in sheltered places inside the reefs. It is 
lie Jfitra mannorata of Schuberth and Wagner, and the type of 
Swainson's genus Gomelix. 

I. CROUANI, Crosse. PL 58, fig. 674. 

Violet flesh-color, with irregular longitudinal whitish streaks; 

smooth. Length, 15 mill. 

Gulapagos. 

I. CONULUS, Lam. PL 58, fig. 6?2. 

Smooth, distantly spirally grooved at the base; yellowish 
brown, under a thin olivaceous epidermis, with revolving black- 
ish or brownish lines. Length, 1-1'25 inches. 

Philippines, in mud at the roots of mango trees. 

I. CITRINA, Reeve. PL 58, fig. 675. 

Smooth spire with rows of small tubercles; orange-brown, 
stained with livid chestnut. Length. 1'5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

I. CARBONACEA, Hinds. PL 58, figs. 676, 617. 

Spire smooth, body-whorl with a few engraved revolving lines 
towards the base; black, with traces of darker revolving lines. 

Length, *9 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Possibly equivalent to the preceding species. Very probably 
/. Rollandi, Bernard! (tig. <> 77), described from a. somewhat worn 
specimen, locality unknown, belongs here, although the spire is 
somewhat different. 



200 1MBRICARIA. 

I. PUNCTATA, Swainson. PL 58, figs. 6*79-681. 

Yellowish white, clouded with a darker shade, apex black ; 
body-whorl encircled. with engraved, sometimes minutely punc- 
tured lines. 

Length, -5-'8 inch. 

Society Islands. 

With this species must be united M. conovula, Quoy, partly 
(fig. 681), and M. ossea, Reeve, a name given because Swainson 
had previously given that of punctata to a Mitra; M. truncata, 
Kiener (fig. 680), a poorly figured shell, may also be placed here 
for the present. 

I. LINEATA, Swainson. PI. 58, fig. 678. 

Yellowish, smooth, with revolving chestnut hair-like lines. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Inhabits the South Seas. 

This species has not been recognized by the monographers. 
It is described as smooth, yet I think it is merely a large punctata, 
which it much resembles in the spire and upper part of aperture. 

I. VIRGO, Swainson. PI. 58, fig. 683. 

Yellowish white, apex and base tipped with black-violet, spire 
much depressed, mucronate, upper portion of body r whorl swollen. 

Length, '6 inch. 

Polynesia ? sand at low water. 

Although so bulbous, I cannot help thinking that this will 
prove to be an extreme variation of /. punctata. 

I. YANIKORENSIS, Quoy. PI. 58, figs. 684, 682. 

Encircled by closely punctured striae ; ashy, or reddish gray, 
whitish towards top of body-whorl and on the spire, ornamented 
with numerous minute white spots and streaks, edged with 
chestnut ; aperture chestnut within. Length, '65-'9 inch. 

Philippines ; Polynesia, in sandy mud at low water. 

I find no good reason for the separation from this species of 
I. DeburgMx, Sowb. (fig. 682), recently described from Taheiti. 




INDEX 

To GENERA AND SPECIES, INCLUDING SYNONYMY, 



Abbatis (Voluta Mitra), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, f. 1709, 1710. 
M. contracta, Swainson. 

Abbreviata (Desmoulea), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3478 65 

Abbreviata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 828, 1874 122 

Abyssicola (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 100, 1851 47 

Abyssicola (Voluta), Adams & Reeve. Voy. Samar., 25, t. 7, f. 6 100 

Abyssinica (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 8, 1877 63 

Achatina (Bullia), Lam. An. s. Vert., x, 158. = B. digitalis, Meusch. 
Aciculina, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 121. 

= S. G. of Nassa, Mart 6 

Acinosa (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 154, 1850; Moll. Wilkes' Exped., 

262, f. 329. N. Gruneri, Bunker. 

Acuminata (Mitra), Swains. Zool. 111., 2d ser., t. 128 153 

Aeuminata (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 78, 1880 63 

Acupicta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 76, 1844 179 

Acuta (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 797, t. 48, f. 7, 8, 1878. 

= M. annulata, Reeve. 
Acuta (Nassa), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad., ii, 234, 1822. 

= N. ambigua, Mont. 
Acuta (Nassa), Carpenter (not Say). Mazat. Cat,, 497, 1857. 

= M. pagoda, Rve. 

Acutangula (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 9, 1877 - 63 

Acuticostata (Nassa), Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., iv, 273, t. 10, f. 8, 

1864. = N. monile, Kiener, var. Jacksoniana. 
Acutidentata (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 212, t. 20, f. 46, 1879... 46 

Acutilirata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 129, f. 273, 274, 1874 141 

Acutimargo (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 55, 1851 62 

Adamsi (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 205, 1861. = M. dermestina, Lam. 
Adamsiana (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, No. 1387. 

= N. stigmaria, A. Ad. 

Adamsoni (Mitra), Gray, Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 150, 1844 144 

Adansonii (Mitra), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 155, 1848. Undetermined. 
Adansonii (Mitra), Kiener. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 173. 

== M. Adamsonii, Gray. 

Adinus, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 114. = S. G. of Bullia, Gray 6 

Adumbrata (Mitra), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 379, t. 13, f. 6, 1876 161 

Adusta (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim., vii, 303 148 

JEgra (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 252, 1845 139 

.Euiula (Mitra), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 215, t. 20, f. 52, 1879 194 

^Ethiopica (Turricula), Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, 47, t. ii, f. 9, 1874. 180 
.Ethiopica (Nassa), Marrat. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser., xii, 426, 1873. 64 

JEthiopica (Melo), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1195 81 

^Ethiops (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 324, 1845. 

= M. Woldemarii, Kiener 158 

Affinis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 26, f. 211, 1844. 

= M. aureolata, Swn. 



202 INDEX. 



Affinis (Mitra), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 142, 1842. ? = M. filum, Wood. 

Africana (Voluta), Reeve. Zool. Proc., i, t. 33, f. 3, 4, 1856 95 

Afrum (Bucc.), Phil- Zeit. Mai., 56. 1851 

Agapeta (Nassa), Watson. Marrat, Vars., No. 1337 64 

Aidone, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 172. = Mitra, Lam. 129 

Alauda (Mitra), Quoy. Sowb , Thes. Conch., f. 134, 136, 158, 1874. 

= T. Deshayesii, Reeve. 

Alba (Mitra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., 215, t. 15, f. 8, 1867 129 

Alba (Nassa), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad., v, 212, 1826 50 

Albescens (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 170, 1846; Phil., Abbild. Bucc., 

68, t. 2, f. 15 7 51 

Albicostata (Mitra), C. B. Ad. Cont. Conch., 57, 1850. 

= T. dermestina, Lam. 

Albina (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc, 137, 1851 129 

Albipunctata (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. 144, 1853. = N. fissilabris, A. Ad. 
Albofasciata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 300, 1874. 

M. lugubris, Swn. 

Albomaculata (Mitra), A. Ad. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., f. 449, 1874 158 

Albopunctata (Northia), Adams & Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 33", t. 11, f. 21. 9 
Alcithoe, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 164, 1853. = Voluta, Linn, sect... 94 
Alectrion, Montfort. Conch. Syst.. ii, 566, 1810. = S. G. of Nassa, Mart.. 6 
Algida (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. 145, 1853. = N. picta, Dunker, var.. 36 

Alveolus (Mitra) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 334, 1845 184 

Amabilis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f. 274, 1845 189 

Amanda (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 318, 1845 176 

Ambigua (Mitra), Swains. Zool. 111., 2d ser., t. 30, f. 2 147 

Ambigua (Nassa). Mont. Test. Brit., t. 9, f. 7 42 

Americana (Voluta), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 2, t 33, f. 1, 2, 1856 94 

Amuena (Mitra), A. Ad. ' Zool. Proc., 137, 1851. = M. annulata, Reeve. 

Amoria, Gray. Zool. Proc., 64, 1855. = Voluta, Linn, sect 92 

Amphora (Voluta), Solander. Gray, Zool. Proc., 54, 1855. 

Melo diadema, Lam. 

Amphorella (Mitra), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 316. = M. scutulata, Lam. 
Ampullacea (Bullia), Deshayes. An. s. Vert., x, 293. 

= B. globulosa, Kiener. 

Anais (Mitra), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 142, 1842 157 

Analogica (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 293, 1845. 

? = M. funerea, Reeve. 
Ancilla (Voluta). Kiener. Monog., t. 52. = V. Magellanica, Lam. 

Ancilla (Voluta), Solander. Portl. Cat., No. 1873 97 

Ancilloides (Mitra) Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835 162 

Andamanica (Turricula), G. & H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beng.-, 99, t, 8, 

f, 19, 20, 1875. = T. obeliscus, Rve. 

Angasi (Voluta), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 29. = V. undulata, Lam. 
Angiostoma (Thala), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 216, t. 15, f. 9, 1867. 
= T. cernica, Sowb., var. 

Angulata (Voluta) Swains. Exot. Conch., t. 3, 4 98 

Angulata (Nassa), Thorpe. Marrat, Vars , No. 906 64 

Angulifera (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 109, 1851. . 

= N. pagoda, Reeve. 

Angulosa (Mitra), Kiister. Conch. Cab., t. 12, f. 8, 9 .' 169 

Angustata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 671, 1874. 

M. cernica, Sowb. 
Anna (Voluta), Lesson. Zool. Illust,, 1832. = L. costata, Swains. 

Annellifera (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f, 168, 1853 40 

Annulata (Bullia), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 156 14 



* INDEX. 203 

VAOE. 

Aniuilata (Mitra), Reeve, Conch. Icon., t. IDS. 1814 140 

Aiioinalum (Teinostoma), C. B. Ad. = Rotcllidio. 
Ansulata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 3c8, 1874. 

= T. dermestina, Lam, 

Ainliracina (Mitra), Reeve. U-on.. 1. l:',7. 1814 158 

Anthracina (Nassa), Garrett. Proc'. Tliilad. Ac-ad., >9. t. a, f. 57, 1873. 38 
Antillarum (Nassa), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 1:19, 1818. = N. vibex, Say. 
Antillarum (Nassa), Orb. Moll. Tuba, ii, 141, t. 23, f. 1-3, 185:!. 

= N. ambigua. Mont. 
Antonelli (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 367, 1860. 

= M. militaris, Rve., var. 

Antonue (Mitra), II. Adams. Zool. Proc.. 788, 1870. =M. pretiosa, Reeve. 
Antonii (Mitra;, Kiister. Conch. Cab., 77, t. 14, f. 11-13, 1841. 

? = M. Adamsonii, Gray. 

Antonii (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 368, 1860 159 

Aperta (Bullia), Chemn. Morch, Cat. Yoldi, 76. = B. digitalis, Meusch. 

Aperta (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. b20, 321, 1874 185 

Apicata (Mitra), Reeve. H. & A.Adams' Genera, 1, 179 158 

Appellii (Mitra), Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, 39, 1874. 

= T. cadaverosa, Reeve, var. 

Approximata (Mitra), Pease. Zool. Proc., 146, 1860 186 

Approximata (Nassa), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 282, 272, t. 23, f 3, 

1867. =N. taenia, Gmel. 
Arabica (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 206, t. 26, f. 4 ? 1861. 

= M. maculosa, Reeve. 

Arabica (Voluta), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 52. = V. Pacifica, Soland. 
Arausiaca (Voluta), Solander (ubi?), teste Gray. = V. vexillum, Lam. 

Archeri (Voluta), Angas. Zool. Proc., 55, t. 2, f. 4, 5, 1865 104 

Archiepisccpalis (Mitra), Lam. Anim., vii, 302. 

= M. -cardinalis, Gmelin. 

Arctata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 188, 1874 196 

Arcularia, Link. Rost. Samml., iii, 126, 1807. = S. G. of Nassa, Mart. 6 

Arcularia (Nassa), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1200 24 

Ardeola (Turbinella), Valenc. Observ. 283. = Vasum muricatum, Born. 

Arenacea (Mitra), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 51, 1852 136 

Arenosa (Mitra), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 3-38. 

= Turricula exasperata, Gmelin. 

Areolatum (Bucc.), Tiberi. = Lachesis Lefebvrei, Marav. 
Argentea (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 9, t. 1, f. 21, 1877. 

.' N. tenella. Reeve. 
Armata (Melo), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 376. - M. diadema, Lam. 

Armata (Bullia), Gray. Zool. Beechey Voy. 126, 1839 14 

Armata (Turbinella), Brod. Zool. Proc., 8, 1833. 

= Vasum ceramicum, Linn. 
Armiger (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 288, 1845. 

= T. fusiformis, Kiener. 
Armillata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 315, 1845. 

= T. cruentata, Chemn., var, 

Arracanensis (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 473, 1874 178 

Articulata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 302, 1845 194 

Ascanias (Buccinum), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 173. 

= Nassa incrassata, Strom. 

Asperrima (Mitra), Dohrn. Mai. Blatt, viii, 138, 1862 181 

Asperulata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc , 136, 1851 159 

Asperulum (Buccinum), Phil. Moll. Sicil., 220. = N. incrassata, Strom. 



204 INDEX. 



Assimilis (Turricula), Garrett. Zool. Proc., 841, 1872. 

= M. Garrettii, G. and H. Nevill. 
Assimilis (Mitra), Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., 211, t. 15, f. 1, 1867. 

= M. coronata, Lam., juv. 
Asteriscus (Cyclops), Michaud. Coll. = C. pellucida, Risso. 

Astricta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 188, 1844 154 

Astyagis (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 367, 1860. = M. carinata, Swn., var. 

Athleta, Conrad. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philad., vi, 449, 1853 77 

Attenuata (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 45, 1844. 

= M. ambigua, Swn., var. fulva. 
Attenuata (Mitra), Swains. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835. = M. sulcata, Swn. 

Attenuata (Nassa), Gray. Voy. Blossom, 127, 1839 62 

Auguria (Voluta), Solander. = Cymbium Neptuni, Gmel. 

Aulica (Voluta), Solander, Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., t. 6 87 

Aulica (Voluta), Kiener. Monog., t. 47, f. 1. = V. rutila, Brod. 
Aulica, Gray. H. and A. Adams (partim) Genera i, 160, 1853. 

= Voluta, Linn., sect 87 

Aurantia (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3454 147 

Aurantia (Mitra), Swains. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835. 

^= T. pyramidalis, Reeve. 
Aurantiaca (Mitra), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 330. == M. aurantia, Gmelin. 

Aureolata (Mitra), Swainson MSS. Reeve, Icon.,, f. 209, 1844 188 

Auriculoides (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icgn., f. 228, 1845 ,. 154 

Aurinia, H. and A. Adams' Genera, i, 166, 1853. = Voluta, Linn., sect... 101 
Aurora (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 205, 1861. = M. coronata, Lam. 
Ausoba, H; and A. Adams. Genera i, 160, 1853. = Valuta, Linn., sect... 99 

Australia? (Voluta), Cox. Zool. Proc., 643, t. 52, f. 1, 1871 91 

Australis (Truncaria), Angas. Zool. Proc., 172, t. 26, f. 5, 1877 9 

Australis (Nassa), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 272, 1851.. 63 

Australis (Mitra), Sw?inscn. Zool. Illust., 1st ser., t. 18 126 

Australis (Microvoluta), Angas. Zool. Proc.. 35, L 5, f. 2, 1877 105 

Autumnalis (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 367, 1860 159 

Avenacea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 246, 1845. = M. flammea, Quoy. 

Babylonica (Nassa), Watson. Marrat, Vars. No. 922 64 

Bacillum (Mitra), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 331 141 

Badia (Mitra), Reeve. "Conch. Icon., f. 157, 1844. M. testacea, Swains. 
Badia (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 107, 1851. N. tsenia, Gmel. 
Balteata (Nassa), Lischke. Mai. Blatt, xvi, 107. 1869. 

= N. tenuis, E. A. Smith. 

Balteata (Nassa), Pease. Am. Journ. Conch., v, 70, t. 8, f. 5, 1869 47 

Balteolata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 54, 1844 166 

Barbadensis (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat, 3455 118 

Barclay! (Mitra), Hani. Thes. Conch-., f. 225, 612, 1874. 

= Mitroidea infecta, Reeve. 
Barclayi (Mauritia), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 273, t. 19, f. 5, 1869. 

= Mitroidea multiplicata, Pease. 
Barclayana (Mitra), Robillard. Trans. Roc. Soc. Maurit., iii, 106. 

= M. fulva, Swn., var. 

Beata (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 330, 1860 63 

Beauii (Voluta), Fischer and Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser. i, 296, 

t. 9, f. 1, 2, 1857 102 

Beckii (Voluta), Brod. Zool. Proc., 43, 1847 97 

Bednalli (Voluta), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iii, 81, t. 8. f. 3. 89 
Belangeri (Bullia), Kiener. Coq. Viv^ t. 14, f. 48 16 



IN HEX. 205 

PAGE. 

Belcberi (Mitra), Hinds. Ann. Nat, Hist,, xi, 205; Voy. Sulphur, 40, 

t. 11, f. 1, 2 139 

Bella (Mitra), A. Ad. Sowb.. Thes., f. 377, 1874. = Turricula bells. Pease. 
Bella (Turricula). Tease, /ool Proc., 145, 18GO. 

= T. militaris, Reeve, var. cophina. 

Bella (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa. 9, 1877 '>:; 

Bellula (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 102, 1851. = N. leptospirn, A. Ad. 

Bellula (Mitroidea). A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 138, 1851 163 

Bernardina (Mitra filaris, var.), Phil. Zeit. Mai.. 20, 1850 138 

Bertha (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 797, t. 48, f. 11, 1878 168 

Bibalteata (Nassa), Pease. Marrat, Vars., No. 932 64 

Bicallosa (Nassa), Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 543, t, 30, f. 1, 1876. 

= N. picta, Bunker, var 36 

Bicolor (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. Illust. = M. casta, Lam., juv. 
Bicolor (Nassa), Hombr. and Jacq. Voy. au Pol. sud, 84, t. 21, f. 41, 42, 

1854. = N. albescens, Dunker. 

Bicolor (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit, Mai., 50, 1851 62 

Bicolor (Turricula), Garrett, Jour, of Conch., iii, 38, 1880 , 188 

Bifaria (Nassa), Baird. Curasoa, 436, t. 38, f. 1, 2: Zool. Proc , 187S, 

808, t. 50, f. 7. = N. hirta, Kiener, var. 
Bifasciata (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. Illust,, i, t. 35, ii, t. 88. 

= M. caffra, Lam. 
Bilineata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 294, 1845. 

? = M. funerea, Reeve. 
Bimaculosa (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 102, 1851. 

= N. Thursites, Brug 25 

Biplicata (Mitra), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv. = M. ebenus, Lam. 

Birmanicum (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 57, 1851 62 

Bizonalis (Columbella), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 209. = Mitra litterata, Lam. 
Boissaci (Mitra), Montrouz. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iii, 373, 1859; iv, 

118, 1800. = M. fulgetrum, Reeve, var. 
Bonellii (Nassa), d'Orb. Prodr., iii, 176. = N. mutabilis, Linn. 

Bovei (Mitra). Kiener. Iconog., t. 2, f. 5 115 

Bowerbanki (Buccinum), Michelotti. Foss. Mioc. It., 211. 

= Nassa reticulata, Linn. 

Brasiliana (Voluta), Solander. Portl. Cat., 186, No. %958 <>8 

Brazieri (Voluta), Cox. Zool. Proc., 568, t. 48, f. 8, 1873 100 

Brevicaudata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 359. 
= T. cadaverosa, Reeve. 

Brevicula (Mitra), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 378, t. 13, f. 5, 1876 161 

Broderipi (Voluta), Gray. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3 ser., xiv, 237, 1864. 

= V. Turneri, Gray. 
Broderipii (Melo), Gray. Griffith's Animal Kingdom, Suppl., t. 26. 

= M. /Ethiopica, Linn., var. 

Bronni (Mitra), Dunker. Mai. Blatt, vi, 229, 1860 187 

Bronnii (Nassa), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 137, 1848 ; Abbild., iii, Buc., t. 1, f. 17. 

=s N. coronata, Brug 23 

Brumalis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 280, 1845. 

3= M. pellis-serpentis, Reeve. 
Brunnea (Mitra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 215, 233, t, 15, f. 7, 1867. 153 

Brychia (Nassa), Watson, Marrat, Vars., No. 722 64 

Buccinanops, d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 1841. = S. G. of Bullia, Gray. ...5, l:J 
Buccinata (Mitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 653, t. 45 bis, f. 14, 15. 

=: M. glabra, Swains. 
Buccinoidea (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 411, 1874 173 



206 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Bucculenta (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 79, 1880. 

= N. glans, L., var. suturalis. 
Bulimoides (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 224. 1845. 

= M. testaeea, Swainson. 
Bullata (Nassa), Marrat. NCAV Forms of Nassa, 5, 1877. 

= N. monile, Kiener. 

Bullata (Voluta), Swains. Zool. 111., ii 100 

Bullia, Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t. 37, 1834 5, 10 

Burchardi (Nassa), Dunker. Phil. Abbild., iii, t. 2, f. 14, 1849. 

= N. Jonasi, Dunker 26 

Cadaverosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 161, 1844 181 

Cselata (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 97, 1851. 

= N. Siquijorensis, A. Ad. 

Cselata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 265, 1845 175 

Cseligena (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 227, 1845. 

? = M. crassa, Swainson. 

Cserulea (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 81, 1880 63 

Cserulea (Mitra), Reeve. Coneh. Icon., f. 113, 1844 114 

Csesia, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 120. = S. G. of Nassa, Mart. 
Caestus (Turbinella), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 8, 1833. 

= Vasum muricatum, Born. 

Caffra (Mitra), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit, 12, 1192 167 

Caffra (Voluta), Delle-Chiaje. Poli, iii, 36, t. 46, f. 52. 

Mitra ebenus, Lam. 

Caledonica (Mitra), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iv, 248, t. 7, f. 7, 1853. 

= M. tabanula, Lam. 
Californica (Schizopyga), Conrad. Pac. R. R. Rept., vi, 69, t. 2, f. 1, 

1856. ? = Nassa perpinquis, Hinds. 

Caliginosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 121, 1844 120 

Callipara, Gray. Zool. Proc., 62, 1855. = Voluta, Linn., sect 100 

Callithea, Swainson. Malacol., 320, 1840. = Turricula, Klein 164 

Callosa (Bullia), Gray. Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl 11 

Callosa (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851 26 

Callosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 251, 1845 126 

Callospira (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 102, 1851. = N. callosa, A. Ad. 
Callosum (Bucc.), Dujardln. Mem, Geol., ii, 298, t. 20, f. 5-7. 

Nassa mutabilis, Linn. 

Calmeilii (Nassa), Payr. Moll. Corse., 160, t. 8, f. 7-9. 

= N. corniculum, Olivi. 
Canaliculata (Voluta), McCoy. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser., iv, 34, t. 3, 

f. 1, 2, 140, 1869 93 

Canaliculata (Nassa), Lam. An. sans Vert. (Desh. Edit.), x, 161 31 

Cancellaria (Nassa), Potiez et Mich. Gall, des Moll., 374, t, 32, f. 3, 4... 62 
Cancellaroides (Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 68, 1839. = T. nodosa, Swn. 
Cancellata (Nassa), Chemn. = N. reticulata, Linn. 

Cancellata (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., t. 30, f. 98 117 

Cancellata (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. Illust., 1st ser 119 

Cancellata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 99, 1851 26 

Cancilla, Swainson. Malac., 320, 1840. = Mitra, Lam., section 138 

Candei (Nassa), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 142, t. 23, f. 4-6, 1853. 

= N. ambigua, Mont. 

Candens (Nassa), Hinds. Voy. Sulph., 35, t. 9, f. 6, 7, 1844 53 

Candida (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 328, 1845..... 150 

Candidissima (Nassa), Ad. Bost. Proc., ii, 2, 1845 62 

Canescens (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat. No. 43, 1852. = N. pagoda, Rve. 



INDEX. 207 

PAGE. 

Capense (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit, Mai., 110, 1846 33 

Capensis (Mitra), Dunker. Reeve, Icon., f. 268, 1845 125 

Caperata (Nassa), Phil. Abbild. Bucc., t. 2, f. 18. = N. pauperata, Lam. 
Capillata (Mitra), Gould. Bost, Proc., iii, 171, 1850. = M. retusa, Lam. 

rapitellum (Vasum), Linn. Mus. Ulric., 633 73 

Carbonacea (Imbricaria), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 41, t. 11, f. 9, 10, 1844. 198 
Carbonaria (Mitra), Swains. Bligh Catal. Ex. Conch., App. 

= M. melaniana, Lam. 

Cardinalis (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3458 Ill 

Caricella, Conrad. Tertiary Foss., 44. 1835. = S. G. of Turbinella, Lam. 67 

Carinata (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. 111., 2d ser 142 

Carinata (Fastigiella), Reeve. = Cerithiidae. 

Carinilirata (Mitra), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., xi, 335, 1871 ; 

xii, 49, 1872. = M. proscissa, Reeve. 
Carneolata (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 393. = V. musica, Linn. 

Carnicolor (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 164, 1844 139 

Cassidiforme (Turbinella), Val. Kiener, Monog., 20, t. 9, f. 1. 

= T. rhinoceros, Gmel. 

Cassidula (Voluta), Reeve. Icon., f. 60 103 

Casta (Turricula), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 9, t. 3, f. 2, 1872 177 

Casta (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 304 130 

Casta (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 154, 1850; Moll. Wilkes' Exped., 

261, f. 328 _ 33 

Castanea (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 42, 1880 195 

Castanea (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 140, 1851 127 

Catenata (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835 178 

Cathcartise (Voluta), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 2, t, 33, f. 5, 6, 1856 88 

Cavea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 149. = T. dermestina, Lam. 
Cecillii (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 27, 1848, = Cantharus. 

Ceramicum (Vasum), Linn. Mus. Ulric, 634 72 

Ceraunia (Voluta), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xx, 148, t. 4, f. 1, 1880. 

= V. Riickeri, Crosse, var. 
Cernica (Mitra), G. & H. Nevill. Jour. Asia*, Soc. Beng., 24, t. 1, f. 9, 

1874. = T. mediomaculata, Sowb. 

Cernica (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 670. 1874 161 

Chalybeia (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 59 116 

Chelonia (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 289, 1845. ? = M. ebenus, Lam. 
Chilensis (Mitra), Gray. Kiener, Icon., 26, t. 10, f. 28. 

= M. Maura, Swainson. 

Chinense (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai , 57, 1851 62 

Chinensis (Mitra), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 125, t. 35, f. 2, 1839 120 

Chinensis (Fulgoraria), Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst., 242, 1817. 

= V. rupestris, Gmel. 
Chlorosina (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 392. V. musica, L. 

Choava (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 135, 1844 158 

Chrysalis (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 200, 1844 144 

Chrysame, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 171. ;== Mitra, Lam., section 143 

Chrysostoma (Voluta), Swainson. Exot. Conch., t. 45. 

= V. luteostoma, Desh. 

Chrysostoma (Mitra), Swains. Zool. Proc.. 1836 155 

Cimelium (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 260, 1845. 

= T. militaris, Reeve. 

Cincta (Mitra), Meuschen. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 169 1-7> 

Cinctella (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 110, 1851. 

? = N. cinctella, Gld. 
Cinctella (Mitra), Lam. An. sans Vert, vii, 309 167 



208 INDEX. 



Cinctella (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 154, 1850; Moll. Wilkes' 

Exped., 260, f. 327 41 

Cineracea (Turricula), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 311, 1845 171 

Cineracea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 311, 1845. 

? = M. daedala, Reeve. 

Cinerea (Mitra), Reeve. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 177 158 

Cingenda (Nassa), Marrat. Vars., No. 1451 64 

Cingulata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 136, 1851 143 

Cingulata (Mitra), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 28, 1850 152 

Cinisculus (Nassa), Reeve. Iconog., f. 146, 1853. = N. vibex, Say. 

Cinnamomea (Volutomitra), A, Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, 1854 159 

Cinnamomea (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 107, 1851. = N. taenia, Gmel. 
Circulata (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., t. 5, f. 13. = M. filaris, L., var. 
Circumcincta (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 102, 1851. 

=i N. gibbosula, L. var 25 

Cisium (Cymbium), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 380 79 

Cithara (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 248, 1845 186 

Cithara (Voluta), Solander. Gray, Zool. Proc. 54, 1855. 

= Melo armata, Lam. 

Citharoidea (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 203, 1862 136 

Citrina (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 215, 1834 198 

Clandestina (Nassa), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser., v, 426, 1870. 

? = N. gaudipsa, Hinds. 
Clandestina (Mitra), Forbes. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 263. 

= T. Columbellaria, Sc. 
Clara (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 652, 1874. = M. ferruginea, Lam. 

Clara (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 7, 1877 63 

Clathrata (Nassa), Kiener (not Lam.). Monog., t. 27, f. 108. 

= N. globosa, Quoy 26 

Clathrata (Nassa), Lam. Encyc., t. 394, f. 5. := N. gemmulata, Lam. 

Clathrata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 71, 1844 170 

Clathrata (Nassa), Born. Mus., 261. t. 9, f. 17, 18 , 58 

Clathratula (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 99, 1851. = N. cinctella, Gould. 41 
Clathrus (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3457. = M. crenifera, Lam. 
Clavata (Turbinella), Wagner. Conch. Cab., xii, 99, t. 227, f. 4018. 

T. pyrum, Linn. 

Clavulus (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 338 158 

Cleryana (Voluta), Petit. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., i, 182, t. 6, f. 3, 4, 

1856 ; 3 ser., xix, 5, 1879. = V. Americana, Reeve. 
Coarctata (Nassa), Eichw. Lith., 923. = N. mutabilis. Linn. 

Coarctata (Mitra), Swainson. Reeve, Icon., f. 145, 1844 153 

Coccinea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 49, 1844 165 

Coccinella (Nassa), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 274. = N. incrassata, Strom. 
Cochinensis (Nassa), Thorpe. Marrat, Vars., No. 908. 

Cochlidium (Buccinum), Kiener. Monog., 10 13 

Collaria (Nassa), Gould. C. B. Ad., Panama Shells, 59. 

= N. scabriuscula, Powis. 

Collinsoni (Mitra), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, 200, 1864 172 

Colocynthis (Voluta), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, t. 175, f. 1695, 1696. 

= V. Braziliana, Soland. 
Coloratum (Buccinum), Eichw. Vollh. u. Pod., 122. 

= Nassa reticulata, Linn. 

Columbella (Voluta), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 260, f. 123 105 

Columbellseformis (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., t. 15, f. 46. 

= M. limbifera, Lam. 
Columbellaria (Mitra), Scacchi. Cat., p. 10, f. 13 194 



INDEX. 209 



Columbellaria (Mitra), A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 660. 
= M. Columbellina, A. Ad. 

Columbellina (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 141, 1851 158 

Columbulrc (Mitra), Brusina. Verb. Zool. bot. Gesell. Wien, xv, 14, 18G5. 194 
Compacta (Nassa), Angas. Zool. Proc., 154, 1865. = N. tringa, Souverb. 

Complanata (Nassa), Powis. Zool. Proc., 96, 1835 33 

Compressa (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 50, 133, 1874. 

T. taeniata, Sowb. 

Compta (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, 1851. =T. militaris, Reeve, var. 
Compta (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 107, 1851. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Concentrica (Mitra) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 128, 1844. 

= M. mucronata, Swains. 
Concentrica (Nassa), Marrat. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser., xiii, 71, 1874; 

New Forms, 7 48 

Concinna (Voluta), Brod. Zool. Proc., 43, 1836; Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 

xix, 302, t. 12, f. 7 99 

Concinna (Nansa), Powis. Zool. Proc., 95, 1835 - 48 

Concinna (Nassa), Reeve (not Powis). Icon., f. 82. 

= N. Concentrica, Marr. 
Concinna (Mitra), Reeve. Conch: Icon., f. 203. = T. crocata, Lam. 

Conferta (Nassa), Martens. Marrat, Vars., No. 1463 ; 64 

Conica (Imbricaria), Schum. Essai Nov. Gen., 1817 .' 197 

Coniformis (Voluta), Cox. Jour, de Conch., xix, t. 4, f. 1, 1871 100 

Conoelix, Swainson. Zool 111., t. 24, 1821 ; Malac., 129, 321, 1840. 

Imbricaria, Schum. 

Conoidalis (Nassa), Desh. Voy. Belang., 433, t. 3, f. 6, 7. 

= N. gemmulata, Lam. 

Conomitra, Conrad. Am. Jour, Conch., i, 25, 1865 109 

Conovula (Mitra), pars, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 45, bis, f. 22. 

= M. olivseformis, Swains. 
Conovula (Mitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 655, t. 45 bis, f. 18-21. 

= Imbricaria punctata, Swn. 
Consanguinea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 241. 

= T. dermestina, Lam., var. 
Consensa (Nassa), Ravenel. Proc. Philad. Acad., 43, 1861. 

? = N. ambigua, Mont. 
Consolidata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 271, 1874. 

= M. proscissa, Reeve. 

Conspersa (Nassa), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 138, 1848 36 

Contracta (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., 24, t. 9, f. 25. M. chrysostoma, Swn. 

Contracts (Mitra), Swains. Zool. Illust., 1 ser. i, t. 18 120 

Conularis (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit, Desh., x, 338 158 

Conulus (Imbricaria), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 329 197 

Conus (Mitra), Reeve. Conch., Icon.,f. 73. = Imbricaria conulus, Lam. 

Cookii (Mitra), Hanley. Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 78, f. 228, 1874 129 

Cooperi (Nassa), Forbes. Zool. Proc., 273, t. 11, f. 4, 1850. 

= N. mendica, Gld., var. 
Cophina (Mitra), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 171, 1850. 

= T. militaris, Reeve, var. 

Coppingeri (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 30. t. 4, f. 7, 1881 56 

Corallina (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 330, 1845 194 

Corbicula (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 258, 1870 172 

Cordieri (Mitra), Marav. Rev. Zool., 325, 1840. = M. ebenus, Lam., var. 
Coriacea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 231, 1845. 

? = M. lugubris, Swn., juv. 

27 



210 INDEX. 



Cornea (Mitra), Lamarck. Ann. duMus., xvii, 241. = M. cornicula, Linn. 

Cornicula (Mitra), Linnaeus. Edit., xii, 1191 122 

Cornicula (Mitra), Kisso. Eur. Merid., iv, 242. = M. ebenus, Lam. 
Cornicularis (Mitra), Lam. Ann. du Mus , xvii, 210. 

= M. cornicula, Linn. 
Cornicularis (Mitra), Costa. Cat. Syst., 73. 

= M. ebenus, Lam., var. costata. 

Corniculum (Nassa). Olivi. Zool. Adriat., 144 37 

Cornigera (Turbinella), Lam. Hist. vii. 105. = Vasum turbinellum, Linn. 
Corona (Voluta), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 142, t. 148, f. 1387, 1388. 

= V. cymbiola, Sowb. 

Coronata (Nassa), Brug. Diet. No. 46; Lam., Edit. Desh., x, 180 23 

Coronata (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim.. vii, 317 148 

Coronata (Voluta), Kiener, t. 41, f. 1. = V. cymbiola, Sowb. 
Coronata (Mitra), Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst., 336, 1817. 

M. crenulata, Gmelin. 
Coronata (Nassa), Lam., var. "Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 32, f. 11, 12. 

= N. monile, Kiener. 

Coronatum (Bucc.), Martyn. Univ. Conch. =V. Hebrsea, Linn. 
Coronula (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 96, 1851. = N. tiarula, Kiener. 
Corpulenta (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat, No. 45, 1852. 

= N. dentifera, Powis. 

Corrugata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 110, 1851 63 

Corrugata (Nassa), Marratt. Vars. of Nassa, Nos. 1298-1300 64 

Corrugata (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim., vii, 308 168 

Corrugata (Mitra), Wood. Index Test. = M. exasperata, Gmelin. 

Corruscans (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 58, 1851 62 

Corticata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1.851. 

= N. monile, var. Jacksoniana. 

Costata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851. = N. hirta, Kiener. 
Costata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 114, 1851. = N. labiata, A. Ad. 
Costata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851. = N. hirta, Kiener. 

Costata (Lyria), Swains. Jour. Sci., 33, 1824 103 

Costellaria, Swainson. MalacoL, 320, 1840. = Turricula, Klein, sect 169 

Costellaris (Mitra), Lamarck. An. sans Vert., vii, 308 166 

Costellifera (Nas-sa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 113, 1851. 

= N. cremata, var. margaritifeia, D. Kr. 

Costulata (Nassa), Renieri. Conch. Adriat. = N. Cuvieri, Payr 52 

Costulata (Nassa), Anton. Verzeichn., 92, 1839 62 

Coturnix (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 59, 1853 ; Novit, Conch., 97, t. 32, 

f. 7, 8. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Crassa (Desmoulea), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 113, 1851. 

= D. pinguis, A. Ad. 

Crassa (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. Illust , 1st ser 147 

Crassa (Nassa), Koch. Phil. Abbild., 43; Buccinum, t. 1, f. 4 42 

Crassicostata (Nassa), Marrat, New Forms of Nassa, 6, 1877. 

= Var. of N. Cuvieri, Payr., 63 

Crassicostata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch. No. 285, f. 387, 1874. 

= M. vexillum, Reeve. 

Cratitia (Mitra), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 132, 1851 115 

Crebralis (Mitra), Lamarck. H. and A. Adams' Genera, i, 170 158 

Crebrilineata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 122, f. 626, 1874 138 

Crebrflineata (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq., Voy. Astrol. et Zel., v, 81, t, 21, 

f. 33, 34, 1853. = N. concinna, Powis. 
Crebrilirata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 92, 1844. 

= M. polita, Reeve, var 178 



LNDBX. 211 

TAGS. 

Crebristriata (Nassa), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 499, 1857. 

= N. versicolor, C. B. Ad. 

Cremans (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 242, 1844 184 

Crernata (Nassa), Reeve (not Hinds). Icon., f. 26. a N. stigmaria, A. Ad. 

( 1 remata (Nassa), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 35, t. 9, f. 8, 9, 1844 53 

Cremata (Mitra), Swainson. Brod. Zool. Proc., 1835 151 

Crenellifera (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851. 

= N. scalaris, A. Ad. 

Crenicostata (Nassa), A. Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 120 03 

Crenifera (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 306 135 

Crenilabris (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 140, 1851. = M. astricta, Rve. 
Crenilirata (Mitra), A. Ad. Thes. Conch., No. 207. = M. .Ethiops, Rve. 
Crenilirata (Mitra), A. Ad. Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 331. 

= M. creniplicata, A. Ad. 

Crenilirata (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc , 100, 1851 40 

Creniplicata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 139, 1851. = M. ^Ethiops, Rve. 

Crenulata (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3452.'. 196 

Crenulata (Mitra), pars, Kiener. Icon., 105, a. = Cylindra Sinensis, Rve. 
Crenulata (Nassa), Kiener. Monog. Bucc., t. 14, f. 49. 

= N. scalaris, iA. Ad. 

Crenulata (Nassa). Brug. Encyc. Meth., t. 394, f. 6. ? = N. arcularia, L. 
Creaulata (Nassa), Reeve (not Brug). Icon. s f. 2. = N. hirta, Kiener. 
Cretacea (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 577, 578, 1874. 

= M. pellis-serpentis, Reeve. 
Cribraria (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 12, t. 1, f. 20, 1877. 

? = N. sinusigera. A. Ad. 

Crispa (Turricula), Garrett. Proc. Cal. Acad., 201, 1872 180 

Crispata (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 14, 1877 52 

Crocata (Mitra), Auct. = T. aureolata, Swainson. 

Crocata (Mitra) Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 307 187 

Crocea (Mitra), Sowb. (not Reeve) Thes. Conch., f. 120. 

= T. teeniata, Lam. 

Crocea (Mitra) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 320, 1845. = T. aureolata, Swn. 
Crosseana (Turbinella), Souverbie. Jour. Conch, 297, 1875 ; 382, t. 13, 

f. 1, 1876. ? = Vasum muricatum, Born. 
Crouani (Imbricaria), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., viii, 274, t. 9, 

f. 8, 1868 197 

Cruentata (Mitra), Chemn. Reeve Icon., f. 126, 1844 173 

Cryptochorda, Mo'rch, Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iii, 43, 1858 78 

Cucumerina (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 332 143 

Cucurbitina (Mitra), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 27, 1850. = M. cucumerina, Lain. 

Cumingiana (Bullia), Dunker Zool. Proc., 355, 1856 16 

Cumingii (Voluta), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., xiv, 237, 1864. 

V. Turneri, Gray. 

Cumingii (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 67, 1844 170 

Cumingii (Voluta), Brod. Zool. Proc., 33, 1832; Sowb., Thes., t. 55, f. 

105-107; Am. Jour. Sci., xlix, 227 104 

Cumingii (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851 55 

Curta (Nassa), Gould. Otia, 69 ; Wilkes' Exp. Moll., 258, f. 326. 

= N. murioata, Quoy. 

Curvilirata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 128, 129, 1874 166 

Cuvieri (Nassa), Payr. Cat. Moll. Corse, t. 8, f. 17, 18, 1824 :-!2 

Cyclocyrtia, Agassiz. Nomen., 1847. =- Neritula, Plancus. 
Cyclonassa, Swains. Malacol., 69, 300, 1840. = Neritula, Plancus. 
Cyclops, Montf. Conch. Syst., ii, 370, 1810. = Neritula, Plancus. 
Cylindra, Schumacher. Essai Nouv. Genera, 236, 1817 109, 195 



212 INDEX. 



Cylindracea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon,, f. 97. = M. variabilis, Reeve. 

Cylindratus (Melo), Brod. 1855. = M. Miltonis, Gray. 

Cylleniformis (Voluta), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 151, 1844; Thes. Conch., 

t. 55, f. 112. 113. = Lyria Cumingii, Brod. 

Cymba, Brod. and Sowb. Genera of Shells, 1826. = Cyrabium, Klein. 
Cymba (Voluta) Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., x, 733. 

===== Cyrabium proboscidale, Lam. 

Cymbiola, Swains. Malacol., 317, 1840 = Voluta, Linn, sect ( .7 

Cymbiola (Voluta), Chemn. Sowb., Tank. Cat., t. 3, f. 1 99 

Cymbium, Montf. Conch". Syst., ii, 554, 1810. = Melo, Humph. 
Cymbium (Cymbium), Gray, Brod. Adams, Sowerby's Thesaurus (not 

Linn). = C. cisium, Lam. 

Cymbium, Klein. Ostrac., 1753; H. & A. Ad. Genera, i, 158 75, 78 

Cynodonta, Sebum. Essai d'un Nouv. Syst., 241, 1817. = Vasum, Bolt. 
Cyri (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 367, 1860. == M. fulgetrum, var. 

Dactyloidea (Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 68, 1839. 

= M. olivaeformis, Swainson. 

Dactylus (Cylindra), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1188 195 

Dtedala (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 281, 1845 175 

Damoni (Voluta), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser.,xiv, 237, 1864. 

= V. Turneri, Gray, 

Darwini (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 95, 1853 62 

Dealbata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 112, 1851. = N. fejtiva, Powis. 

Dealbata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 140, 1851 152 

Deburghise (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 798, t. 48, f. 12, 1878. 

= Imbricaria Vanikorensis, Quoy. 

Declivis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 44 118 

Decora (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 234, 1845 169 

Decurtata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 154, 1844. 

= M. scutulata, Lam. 
Decussata (Nassa), Kiener. Bucc., 109, t. 30, f. 3. = N. pagoda, Rve. 

Ueformis (Bullia), King. Zool. Jour., v, 349 11 

Defrancii (Mitra), Payr. Moll, de Corse, t. 8, f. 21. 

= M. ebenus, Lam., var. costata. 

Delessertiana (Voluta), Petit. Mag. de Zool., t. 57 103 

Delicata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 137, 1851 159 

Delicata (Nassa), Rve. Icon., f. 163, 1853. ==- N. tenella, Rve. 
Delicata (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 99, 1851. = N. tiarula, Kiener. 
Deliciosa (Voluta), Montrouz. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iii, 375, 1859; iv, 121. 102 

Dennisoni (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 14. 1844 165 

Densigranata (Nassa), Reeve. Icon , f. 181, 1854. 

= N. splendidula, Dunker. 

Denticulata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zeol. Proc., 110, 1851 47 

Dentifera (Nassa), Powis. Zool. Proc., 95, 1835 46 

Dermestoideum (Bucc.), Payr. Moll. Corse., 158. = N. corniculum, Olivi. 

Dermestina (Mitra), Lamarck. Ann. du Mus., 76, 1811 182 

Dermestina (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 331, 1860. = N. paupera, Gld. 
Desetaugsii (Mitra), Kiener. Icon., t. 29, f. 94; Lienard, Jour, de Conch., 

3 ser., ix, 226, 1869 117 

Deshayesiana (Nassa), Issel. Moll. Mission Italiana, 9, 1865, t. 1, f. 1, 2. 

= N. nigra, Hombr. et Jacq. 
Deshayesii (Nassa) Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Tel., v, 76, t. 21, f. 

11,12,1853. => N. pulla, Linn. 

Deshayesii (Voluta), Reeve. Zool. Proc.. 73, t. 26, 1854 88 

Deshayesii (Nassa), Drouet. Moll. A9ores, 32, fig. 1858 50 



INDEX. 213 

I'AOK. 

Drshayrsii i.Mitrai. Keevi 1 . Condi. Icon., 1'. 170 17<> 

Desmonlea, (it-ay. /.u>'. Proc., 14.0, 1847 7, 65 

Diadema (Mitra) Swains. Bligh Cat.: Exot. Conch. App. 

== M. puncticulata, Lain. 

Diadema (Melo), Lain. A'aim,, vi, :J7-"> 81 

Dibaphiformis (Mitra), Sowb. Tbe-=. Conch., f. 300, 810, 1874. 

= Mitroidea inultiplicata, Pease. 

Dibaphus. Phil. Wiegm. Archiv., 61, 1847 109,163 

Dichroa (Mitra), Ad. & Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, 27, t. 10, f. 20, 

1848. = T. luculenta, Reeve. 
Dichroma (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 315. 

= M. dichroa, Ad. & Reeve 

Digitalis (Mitra), Chemn. Dillw. Desc. Cat., i, 550 140 

Digitalis (Bullia), Meusch en. Mus. Gevers , 206 12 

Digna fVolutomitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1854. 

= M. melaniana, Lam. 

Diluta (Bull a), Krauss. Siidaf. Moll., 121 16 

Dimidiata (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc , 259, 1870. = T. Cumingii, Reeve. 

Discoloria (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f. 230, 1845 180 

Discors (Mitra), Grandidier. Kuster, Conch. Cab., 131, t. 17 d, f. 4. 
Dispar (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 96, 1851. = N. picta, Dunker. 
Distorta (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 105, 1851. = N. monile, Kr. 
Dohrni (Mitra), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, 2UO, 1864. 

= T. mucrouaia, Swains. 
Dominula (Nassa), Tapparone Cauefri. Voy. Magenta, 10, t. 1, f. 17, 

1 874. = N. Roissyi, Desh. 

Douoriana (Cyclops), Risso. Suppl. 271. = Neritula pellucida, Risso. 
Dorsanum, Gray. Zool. Proc., 130, 1847. = Pseudostrombus, Klein. 
Dorsuosa (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 102, 1851. 

= X. Thersites, Brug 

Dubia (Voluta), Brod. Zool. Jour., iii, 81 t. 3, f. 1 00 

Ducalis (Melo), Lam. Edit. De^h., x, 377. == M. diadema, Lam., var. 
Dufresnii (Voluta), Donov-tn. Nat. Repos., ii, t. 67. 

= V. angulata, Swainson. 

Dujardini (Nassa), Lam. Edit Desh., x. 241. = N. mutabilis, Linn. 
Dunkeri (Mitra) Schmeltz. Cat. Godetfr. Mus., No. 4, 84. 

= Turricula Deshayesii, Reeve. 

Duplilirata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 229, 1845 140 

Dupontii (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog , 43, t. 1 s, f. 30 ; Jickeli, Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell., i, 20. = M. lens, Wood. 

Ebenacea (Nassa), Gemari. Marrat, Vars of Nassa, No. 367. 

= N. mutabilis, L., var. 

Ebenus (Mitra), Lamarck. Ann. du Mus., xvii, No. 58 124 

Eburnea (Mitra), Garrett. Jour, of Conch , iii, 15, 1880. = Mitroidea.. 163 

Eburuea (Mitra), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 20, 1850; 84, 1851 132 

Eburnostoma (Mitra), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 15, 1880 134 

Echinata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 138, 1851. = M. mucronata, Swn. 
Echinata (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 101, 1851 ; Smith, Zool. Proc., 

810, 1878 44 

Edentulus (Dibaphus), Swains. Reeve, Icon. Mitra, sp. 80, 1844. 

= D. Philippii, Crosse. 

Effusa (Mitra), Swainson. Brod. Zool. Proc., 1835 127 

Ehrenbergi (Mitra), Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., 24, t. 2, f. 3, 1874 136 

Eione, Risso. Hist. Nat., iv, 171, 1826. = Arcularia, Link. 



214 INDEX. 



Elata (Nassa), Gould. Bost, Jour. N. Hist., v. 293, t. 24, f. 11, 1845. 

= N. gaudiosa, Hinds 39 

Elegans (Bucc.), Dujardin. Mem. Geol., ii, 298, t. 20, f. 3, 10. 

= Nassa clathrata, Born. 

Elegans (Nassa), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 199, 1842. = N. fossata, Gid. 
Elegans (Nassa), Reeve (not Kiener). Icon., f 10. ? = N. taenia, Gmel. 
Elegans (Bucc.), Costa. Cat. Sist, 80. = Nassa Cuvieri, Payr. 

Elegans (Bullia), Dunker. Proc Zool. Soc., 355. 1856 16 

Elegans (Nassa), Kiener. Monog. Bucc., 56, t. 24, f. 97 27 

Elegans (Mitra). Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 233, 1845 165 

Elegantula (Mitra), Kuster. Conch. Cab., 103, t. 17, f. 6, 8. 

T. patriarchalis, Lam. 

Elegantula (Turricula), Dunker. Mai. Blatt, 154, 1871 193 

Ellioti (Voluta), Sowb. Jour. Conch., 3 ser., iv, 338, 1864, v, 25, t. 3, 

f. 19, 1865. = V. Turner!, Gray. 
Elongata (Voluta), Swains. Exot. Conch., t. 20, 21. 

V. Pacifica Soland., var. 

Elougata (Nassa), Marrat (not Sowerby). Ann. Mag. N. H., 4 ser., xiii, 

70, 1874. = N. oriens, Marr 64 

Elongatulum (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn., 91, 1839. = Bullia 16 

Emeta, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 167, 1853. = Lyria, Gray, sect 104 

Encausta (Mitra), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 172, 1850 192 

Encaustica (Nassa), Brusina. Jour, de Conch., xvii, 233, 1869. 

= N. Cuvieri, Payr. 

Emersa (Nassa), Carp. Brit. Mus., Marr. Vars., No. 1065 64 

Emilue (Turricula), Schmeltz. Cat. Godeff. Mus., No. 5, 119 189 

Episcopalis (Mitra), Linneeus. Edit., xii, 1193 Ill 

Ericea (Mitra), Pease. Zool. Proc., 146, 1860 ; Am. Jour. Conch., v, 85. 

= M. turgida, Reeve. 
Erronea (Mitra), l)ohrn. Mai. Blatt, viii, 134, 1862. 

= M. versicolor, Mart. 
Eurytoides (Truncaria), P. P. Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 

xiv ; 48. 1864 , , 10 

Exarata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 133, 1851. 

= T. cruentata, Chemn. (Reeve), var. 

Exasperata (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst, Nat., 3453 180 

Exigua (Mitra). " Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 298." Catlow Nomencl. 

= M. rubra, Swainson. 

Exilis (Thala), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 313, 1845 160 

Exilis (Nassa), Powis. Zool. Proc., 95, 1835 32 

Eximia (Nassa), H. Adams. Zool. Prdc., 14, t. 3, f. 28, 1872 48 

Eximia (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1851 113 

Exoptanda (Voluta), Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 22, 1849 91 

Exquisita (Thala), Garrett. Cal. Proc., 202, 1872 ; Zool. Proc., 842, 

1872 162 

Exquisita (Turricula), Garrett. Zool. Proc., 842, 1872. 

= T. rubra, Swn., var. 

Fasciata (Nassa), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 172 46 

Fasciata (Voluta), Schub. et Wagn. Conch. Cab., t. 216, f. 3029, 3030. 

= V. scapha, Gmel. 

Fasciata (Mitra), Martyn. Univ. Conch., f. 20. = M. casta, Lam. 
Fasciolata (Nassa), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 272. = N. corniculum, Olivi. 
Fastigiella, Reeve. = Cerithiidae. 
Fastigium (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 221, 1845. 

? = M. auriculoides, Reeve, var 154 



INDEX. 215 



Fenestrata (Cylindra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 328 l'.\< 

Fenestrata (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 10, 1877. 

= N. albescens, Dunker. 

Ferguson! (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 70, 71, 1874 116 

Ferrugata (Mitra), Solander. Dillw., Desc. Cat., 535. 

= M. cucumerina, Lam. 

Ferruginea (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 303 150 

Ferruginea (Mitra), var. b., Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 1305. 

= M. contracta Swainson. 
Ferruginea (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 78, 1880. 

? = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Ferussaci (Nassa), Payr. Moll. Corse, 162, t. 8, f. 15, 16. 

= N. Cuvieri, Payr. 
Ferussaci (Voluta), Donovan. Nat. Rep., ii, 67, 1824. 

= V. Brasiliana, Sol. 

Festa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 303, 1845 193 

Festiva (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 46, 1880 177 

Festiva (Nassa), Powis. Zool. Proc , 95, 1835 46 

Festiva (Voluta), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 404 95 

Festiva (Voluta), d'Orb. (nee Lam.). Voy. 426. = V. Magellanica, Lam. 

Ficulina (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit, Desh., x, 336 190 

Ficulopsis, Stoliczka. Pal. India, ii, 84. = Ficulidse 78 

Fida (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. 88, 1853. = N. vibex, Say. 

Fidicula (Mitra), Gould. Bost, Proc., iii, 170, 1850 175 

Filaris (Mitra), Linn. Mantissa, 548 138 

Filistriata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 402, 1874 177 

Filosa (Nassa), Gray. Reeve Icon., sp 35. = N. picta, Dunker. 

Filosa (Truncaria), Ads & Rve. Voy. Samarang, 33, t. ll, f. 18 9 

Filosa (Mitra), Born. Mus. Cass.. t. 9, f. 9, 10. M. filaris, Linn. 

Filum (Mitra), Wood. Ind. Test, Suppl., t. 3, f. 30 130 

Fischeri (Mitra), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iv, 323, 1860. 

= M. annulata, Reeve. 

Fissilabris (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 99, 1851 40 

Fissurata (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 322 131 

Flammea (Mitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 659, t. 45, f 23-25 140 

Flammea (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 120, 1844. 

= M. Philippinarum, Adams. 

Flammeum (Buccinum), Brug. Dact., No. 32. = Bullia laevissima, Gmel. 
Flamraigera (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 173. = M. flammea, Quoy. 
Flammula (Voluta), Goodall. Wood, Index Test. Suppl., f. 5. 

= V. cymbiola, Sowb. 
Flam.mulata (Turricula), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., 212, 1867. 

= T. semen, Reeve. 
Flava (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 6, 1877. 

? = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Flavescens (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f 207, 1844. 

= M. aureolata, Swn. 

Flavicans (Voluta), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3364 91 

Flexicostata (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 46, 1880 180 

Flexilabris (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 127, t. 24, f. 4, 1875 128 

Flexuosum (Bucc.), Costa. Cat. Syst., 78. = Nassa Cuvieri, Payr. 

Floccata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 16 115 

Florida (Mitra), Gould. Bost. Proc., vi, 13, 1856 116 

Floridanum (Bucc.), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 237, 1842. = Nassa 62 

Floridula (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 267, f. 283, 611. 

= M. coronata, Lam. 



216 INDEX. 



Fluctuata (Voluta), Solander. Gray, Zool. Proc., 64, 1855. 

= V. undulata, Lam. 

Foliosum (Bucc.), Wood. Index Test., t. 22, f. 39. = N. mutabilis, Linn. 
Pontainii (Nassa), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 433, t. 77, f. 5, 6. 

= N. exilis, Powis. 
Foraminata (Mitra), Swains. Brod., Zool. Proc., 194, 1835. 

= M. lens, Wood. 

Forbesii (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit, Mai., 60, 1853 62 

Formosa (Cylindra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., 271, t. 23, f. 1, 18G7 131 

Formosa (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 138, 1851 138 

Forticostata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 238, 1844. 

= T. Ficulina, Lam. 
Fortiplicata (Turricula), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., 213, t. 15 f. 3, 1867. 189 

Fossata (Nassa), Gould. Otia, Conch., 67 55 

Foveata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 213, f. 408, 1874. = Thala. 160 
Foveolata (Mitra), Dunker. Novit. Conch., 46, t 15, f. 5, 6. 

= flammea, Quoy. 

Foveolata (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 63, 1847 34 

Fraga (Vlitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 660, t. 45, bis, f. 28, 29. 

? = M. cucumetina, Lam. 

Fraga (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., t. 27, f. 87. = T. nodosa, Swains. 
Fraga (Mitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 660, t. 45, bis, f. 28, 29. 

? = M. cucumerina, Lam. 
Fragum (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Astrol. et ZeL, v, 83, t. 21, f. 39, 40, 

1854. = N. cremata, Hinds. 

Franciscana (Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 133, 1876. 159 
Fratercula (Turricula), Garrett. Zool Proc., 482, 1872. 

= T. variata, Reeve. 

Fraterculus (Nassa), Dunker. Mai. Blatt, 230, 1850. ? = N. paupera, Gld. 
Fraudulenta (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 8, t. 1, f. 24, 1877. 

= N. sinusigera, A. Ad. 
Fretensis (Nassa) Perkins. Bost. Proc., xiii, 117, 1869. = N. vibex, Say. 

Frigens (Nassa), von Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 134, 1878 62 

Fulgetrum (Voluta), Sowb. Tank. Cat, App., 28, t. 4, f. 5, 1828 96 

Fulgetrum (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 115, 1844 142 

Fulgora (Voluta), Martini. Adams' Genera. = V. rupestris, Gmel. 

Fulgoraria, Schum. Essai Syst., 242, 1817. = Voluta, Lina, sect 85 

Fulgurita (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 61, 1844 118 

Fulminata (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 399. = V. rupestris, Gmelin. 
Fulva (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 395. = V. virescens, Soland., var. 
Fulva (Mitra), Swainsen. Zool. Illust., 2d ser. == M. ambigua, Swn., var. 

Fulyescens (Mitra), Swaiuson. Zool. Proc., 1835 148 

Fulvolirata (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 797, t. 48, f. 9, 10, 1878. 

? =T. corrugata, Lam. 

Funerea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 108, 1874 126 

Funiculata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 122, 1844. 

= M. sulcata, Swainson. 

Fusca (Mitra), Swains. Zool. 111., 2d ser 122 

Fusca (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Astrol. et Tel., v, 74, t. 21, f. 7, 8, 1854. 

= N. tsenia, Gmel. 
Fuscata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 112, 1851. 

= N. Tritoniformis, Kiener. 
Fuscescens (Mitra), Pease. Zool. Proc., 146, 1860; Am. Jour. Conch., 

iii, 233 157 

Fuscoapicata (Mitra), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 214, 1879 173 

Fuscolineata (Nassa), Smith. Ann. Mag., 4 ser., xv, 423, 1875 63 



INDEX. 217 

PAGE. 

Fusconigra (Turricula), Garrett, Jour, of Conch., iii, 47, 1880 174 

Fusiformis (Voluta), Kiener. Monog., 41, t. 49. = V. Beckii, Brod. 
Fusiformis (Mitra), Reeve (nee Kiener.) Conch. Icon., f. 182, 1844. 

M. mucronata, Swains. 

Fusiformis (Mitra), Chemn. Sowb. Thes., f. 384, 1874. 
= T. mucronata, Swains. 

Fusiformis (Voluta), Swains. Bligh Cat. Ap , ( .5 

Fusiformis (Mitra), Kiener. Inconog., t. 29, f. 97 175 

Fusimitra, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 25, 1865 , 109 

Fusoides (Mitra), A. Ad. Index Sowerby's Thesaurus 158 

Fusus (Voluta), Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astrol., t. 44, f. 7, 8. 

= V. Pacifica, Soland, juv. 
Fusus (Mi4ra), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 376, t. 13, f. 3-4, 1876. 

= M. cernica, Sowb., var. 
Fusus (Turbinella), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., 15, 1825 71 

Galilea (Nassa), Clark. Marrat. Varieties, No. 1353 64 

Gallandiana (Nassa), Fischer. Jour. Conch., x, 37, xi, 82, t. 2, f. 6. 

= N. corniculum, Olivi. 
Gambiana (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 206, 1861. = M. carinata, Swn. 

Garrettii (Mitra), G. H. Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 29, 1874 189 

Gaudiosa (Nassa), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 36, t. 9, f. 16, 17, 1844 34 

Gausapata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 317, 1845. = T. ficulina, Lam. 

Gayii (Nassa), Kiener. Bucc., 71, t. 21, f. 79 56 

Gemma (Nassa), Phil. Abbild. Bucc., t. 1, f. 5. ? = N. complanata, Powis. 

Gemmata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp., 334, 1874 183 

Gemmellari (Nassa), Biondi. Atti Accad. Catan., xi, 1855 62 

Gemmulata (Nassa), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 169 55 

Gemmulifera (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 99, 1851 52 

Gemmulosa (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, p. 61 62 

Geuiculata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 100, 1851. 

= N. subspinosa, Lam. 
Georginse (Melo), Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t 34, 183:!. 

M. diadema, Lam., var. ducalis. 

Gibba (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool Proc., 368 1860 159 

Gibberula (Nassa), Marratt. Vars. No. 1205. = N. incrassata, Mull., var. 
Gibbesii (Nassa), Cooper. Pac. R. R. Rept. App., 371. 

= N. mendica, Gould. 

Gibbosula (Nassa), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1201 , 24 

Gibbum (Buccinum), Dillw. Cat., ii, 602. = Nassa mutabilis, L. 
Gigantea (Mitra), Swainson MSS. Reeve, Icon., f. 27, 1844. 

= M. sulcata, Swainson. 
Glabella (Nassa), Marrat (not Sowb.). New Forms of Nassa, t. 1, f. 7. 

= N. laevigata, Marrat. 

Glaberrima (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. Nos. 1203, 1204. = N. incrassata, var. 
Glaberrima (Nassa), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. Bucc. ? = N. conspersa, Phil. 
Glabra (Mitra), Pease (not'Swains.). Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 272, t. 23, 

f. 2, 1867. = M. lubrica, Pease. 
Glabra (Mitra), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 241. == M. cornicula, Linn. 

Glabra (Mitra), Swainson. Exot. Conch., 24, t. 18 117 

Glabrata (Nassa), Sowb. Strombus, Thes. Conch., i, t. 8, f. 66, 67. 

= N. obliqua, Kiener 27 

Glabrata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 114, 1851 38 

Glandiformis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 310, 1845 186 

Glans (Voluta), Gmelin. = Cymbium Neptuni, Gmel, 

28 



218 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Glaus (Nassa), Linn, Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1200 27 

Glans (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 192, 1841. 

= Cylindra fenestrata Lam. 

Glauca (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., 61. 1852. = N. tegula, Reeve. 
Glauca (Nassa), Bunker. Zeit. Mai., 125, 1852. 

? = N. unicolorata, Kiener. 
Globosa (Nassa), Sowerby. Genera of Shells, f. 6. 

= Desmoulea abbrevnta, Gmel. 

Globosa (Mitra), Chemn. H. A. Adams' Genera, i, 171 159 

Globosa (Nassa), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 448, t. 32, f. 25-27 26 

Globulosa (Bullia), d'Orb. (not Kieuer). Voy. Am., 435. 

= B. deformis, King 11 

Globulosa (Bullia), Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 10, f. 33. : 11 

Globulus (Cassis), Menke. Synopsis Moll., No. 806, 1828. 

? := Desmoulea, Lam. 

Globulus (Vasumj, Lam. Hist., vii, 107 73 

Gosavia, Stoliczka. Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, lii, 1865 ; Pal. Indica, ii, 72.. 78 
Gotoensis (Mitra), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 215, t. 20, f. 51, 1879. 

= T. Collinsoni, A. Ad. 

Gracilior (Mitra), Carpenter MSS 145 

Gracilis (Cymba), Brod. Spec. Conch., 7, f. 8. = C. cisium, Lam. 
Gracilis (Voluta), Gray. Griffith's Animal Kingdom, t. 40, f. 4. 

= V. Pacifica, Soland. 

Gracilis (Voluta), Swains. Jour. Sci., xvii, 52. = V. Pacifica, Sol., var. 
Gracilis (Nassa), Pease, Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 273, t. 23, f. 4, 1867. 

= N. leptospira, A. Ad. 

Gracilis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 31, 1844 136 

Gradata (Bullia), Deshayes. Lam., An. s. Vert., x, 186. 

= B. cochlidium, Kiener. 
Grastfei (Mitra), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., vii, 297, 1867. 

= Turricula luculenta, Reeve. 
Graja (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 327. = M. cornicula, Linn. 

Grana (Nassa), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, 274 27 

Granata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 271, 1845. 

= M. pellis-serpentis, Reeve. ** 

Granatina (Mitra), Swains. Tenison-Woods, Proc. Roy. Soc., Tasm., 

133, 1876 159 

Granatina (Mitra), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 310. = M. scabriuscula, Linn. 

Granifera (Nassa), Kiener. Monog., 100, t. 27, f. Ill 26 

Granulatum (Bucc.), Phil., i, 226, i. 11, f. 2. 

= Nassa incrassata, var., pygmsea. . 
Granosa (Mitra), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 151, f. 1442, 1443. 

= T. sanguisuga, Linn., var. 

Granulifera (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 340 158 

Granulosa (Bullia), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 250 14 

Granulosa (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 304 133 

Granulosa (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 80, 1880 63 

Granum (Mitra), Forbes. JSgean Invert., 191, 1843. 

= T. tricolor, Gmel. 
Graphitera (Nassa), Beck. Hombr. et Jacq., Voy. au Pole sud, v, 80, 

t. 21, f. 28, 29, 1853. = N. picta, Dunker. 

Grata (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 81, 1880 63 

Gratiosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch., Icon., f. 277, 1845.... 161 

Gravis (Voluta), Dillwyn. Desc. Cat., i, 569. = Turbinella napus, Lrm. 
Grayae (Voluta), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xix, 287, 1871 91 



INDEX. 219 

PAGK. 

Grayi (Bullia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 7, 1846. = B. Mauritiana. Gray. 
Greci (Columbella), Phil, Moll. Sicil., ii, 194, t. 27, f. 18, 1844. 

== Turricula Columbellaria, Scac. 
Grelloisi (Mitra), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iv, 247, t, 7, f. 8, 1853. 

= M. pellis serpentis, Reeve. 

Grumlandica (Mitra), Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 106, 1844 124 

Gruneri (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 119, 1844 168 

Gruneri (Nassa), Reeve (not Dunker). Icon., sp. 75. 

= N. muricata, Quoy. 

Gruneri (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 171, 1846 44 

Guadaloupensis (Nassa), Petit. = Phos (vol. iii). 

Guildingii (Voluta), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 151, 1844; Thes. Conch , 

t. 55, f. 110, 111 105 

Guinaica (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 393. = V. musica, Linn. 
Gussoni (Bucc.), Calacara. = Nassa Tinei, Marav. 

Guttata (Voluta), Reeve, Icon., f. 56, 1849 105 

Guttata (Mitra), Swainson MSS. Reeve, Icon., f, 69, 1844 116 

Haldemani (Buec.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 62, 1847 36 

Hamillei (Mitra), Petit. Jour, de Conch,, ii, 259, t. 7, f. 9, 1851 117 

Hamillei (Voluta), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 sp., xvii, 115, 178, 1869; 

xviii, t. 1, f. 5 ; t. 2, f. 1, 1870. = V. rupestris, Gmel. 
Haneti (Mitra), Petit. Jour, de Conch., iii, 57, t. 2, f. 11, 1852. 

Hanleyana (Mitra), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 70, 1877 158 

Hanleyana (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 83, 1880 63 

Hanleyanum (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 63, 1847 62 

Hanleyi (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 168, f. 661, 1874 146 

Ilanleyi (Turricula), Dohrn. Mai. Blatt.. viii, 138, 1862 194 

Harfordi (Voluta), Cox. Zool. Proc., 358, t. 26, f. 2, 1869. 

= V. canaliculata, McCoy. 

Hargreavesi (Voluta), Angas. Zool. Proc., 613, t. 42, f. 13, 1872 89 

Harpa (Voluta), Barnes. Ann. N. Y. Lye., i, 139, t. 9, f. 4 104 

Harpa (Harpula), Swains. Exot. Conch. = Voluta costata, Swn. 
Harpoeformis (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 334. 

= M. cruentata, Chemn. 
Harpula, Swains. Malacol., 317. 1840. = Voluta, Linn, sect. 

Harpularia (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 8, 1877 63 

Hastata (Mitra), Sowb, Thes. Conch., f. 620, 632. 

= Turricula casta, H. Adams. 
Haustrum (Voluta), Solander MSS. Gray, Zool. Proc., 54, 1855. 

= Melo te c sellata, Lam. 

Hebes (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 292, 1845 137 

Hebra, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 120. = S. G. of Nassa, Mart. 7 
Hebna (Columbella), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 270. 

= Milra litterata, Lam. 

Hebraa (Voluta), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1194 84 

Helvacea (Mitra), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 84, 1851 135 

Hemprichi (Mitra), Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, 21, t. 2, f. 1, 1874... 136 
Hepatica (Nassa), Mont. Test. Brit., 243. t. 8, f. 1. ? =N. monile, Kiener. 
Herklotsiana (Mitra), Dohrn. Mai. Blatt., viii, 137, 1862. 

? = M. Isabella, Swn. 

Hermannseni (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 63, 1847. = Nassa 62 

Hima, Leach. Gray, Ann. Mag. N. H., xx, 1847. =S. G. of Nassa, Mart. 7 
Hindsii (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 165, 1844. = M. sulcata, Swn. 
Hirta (Nassa), Kiener. Monog., 63, t. 19, f. 72 28 



220 INDEX. 



Hispida (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 101, 1851. =N. Gruneri, Bunker. 
Histrio (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 144, 1844. = T. dermestina, Lam. 
Horrida (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 59, 1847. = N. muricata, Quoy. 
Hotessieri (Nassa), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba., ii, 142, t. 21, f. 40-42, 1853. 

= N. ambigua, Mont. 

Hoyti (Mitra), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 47, 1880 195 

Humeralis (Mitra), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 18, 1880 159 

Hybrida (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., 74, f. 69. = T. intermedia, Kiener. 
Hystrio (Mitra), Montrouzier. Jour, de Conch , 3 ser., ii, 240, 1862. 

= M. flammea, Quoy. 

Icteria (BulHa), Soland. Adams' Genera, 114 16 

Ignea (Voluta), Wood. Index Test. = Turricula subulata, Lam. 

Ignobilis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Ic , f. 152, 1844 119 

Ilyanassa, Stimpson. Am. Jour Coneh., i, 61, 1865. = S. G. of Nassa 7 

Imbricaria, Schumacher. Essai Nouv. Gen., 236, 1817 109, 197 

Immersa (Nassa), Carp. Marrat, Vars., No. 1249. == N. bimaeulosa, A. Ad. 

Imperiale (Vasum), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842 72 

Imperialis (Voluta), Lam. Edit Desh., x, 385 88 

Impressa (Mitra), Reeve (not Anton.) Conch. Ic., f. 130, 1844. 

= T. rubricata, Reeve. 

Impressa (Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 67, 1839 132 

Inca (Mitra), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 427, t. 79, f. 1. = M. lens, Wood. 
Incarnata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 299, 1845. 

= M. carnicolor, Reeve. 

Incisa (Mitra), Ad. & Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, 27, t. 10, f. 31, 1848. 114 
Incisa (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch , iii, 63, 1880. 

= T. Zebuensis, Reeve. 
Incrassata( Nassa), Strom. Kongl. Vid. Selsk. Skr., iv, 369, t. 16, f. 25.... 49 

Indentata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 173, f. 412, 1874...: 144 

Indica (Voluta), Sowb. Thes. Conch. 1, 210, t. 51, f, 68-70. 

= V. interpuncta, Martyn. 

Indica (Melo), Gmel. Syst. Nat, 3467 80 

Induta (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 128, t. 24, f. 9, 1875 121 

Inermis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 273, 1845 ; Zool. Proc., 216, 1879. 175 

Infausta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 326, 1845 189 

Infecta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 75 = M versicolor, Mart 163 

Inflata (Nassa), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 270. N. mutabile, Linn. 
Inflata (Mitra), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv. = M. cornicula, Linn. 
Infrafasciata (Mitra), Souverb. Jour de Conch., 3 ser., v, 155, t. 5, f. 7, 

1865 122 

Innexa (Voluta), Reeve Icon., f. 9, 1849; Brazier. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasmania, 171, 1876. V. rutila, Brod., var. 

Inquinata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 29, 1844 118 

Insculpta (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc. 133, 1851. = M. annulata, Reeve. 

Insculpta (Na-sa), Cpr. Cal. Proc , iii, 223, 1866 38 

Insignis (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 132, 1851 129 

Insignis (Nassodonta), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 445, 1866 37 

Insolata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 77, f. 650, 1874 124 

Instricta (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 48, 1880 -. 195 

Insularis (Voluta), Solander. Portl. Cab. = V. Pacifica, Soland. 
Interlirata (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 545, t. 30, f. 5, 

1876 48 

Interlirata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 70. = M. flammea, Quoy. 
Intermedia (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., t. 22, f. 70 168 



INDEX. 221 

PAGE. 

Intermedia (Nassa), Forbes. Kept JEg. In., v, 140. 

= N. incrassata, Strom. 
Intermedia (Nassa), Bunker Verb. Z. B. Soc. Vienna, xvi, 909, 1886. 

= N. suturalis, Lam. 

Interpuncta (Voluta), Martyn. Univ. Conch., t. 127 84 

Interrupta (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1851 169 

Interrupta (.Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 68, 1839 192 

Intersculpta (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 258, 1870 159 

Interstincta (Nassa), Marratt. Quar. Jour. Conch., Vars. No. 1163 64 

Interstriata (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 259, 1870 172 

Interstriata (Nassa), Conrad. Pac. R. R. Rept., v, t. 6, f. 49, 1856. 

? = N. perpinguis, Hinds. 

Intertreniata (Mitra), Sowb Thes. Conch., f. 154, 1874 176 

Isara, H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 171. Mitra, Lam. 

Isabella (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. Illust., 2d ser 137 

Isabellei (Nassa), Reeve (not Orb.) Icon., f. 47. = N fenestrata, Marrat. 

Isabellei (Nassa), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 423, t. 61, f. 18-21 33 

Italica (Cyclonassa), Issel. Bull. Mai. Ital., ii, 79, t. 4, f. 9-11, 1869. 

C. neritea, Linn. 

Jacksoniana (Nassa), Quoy. Astrolabe, ii, 452, t. 32, f. 28, 29. 

= N. monile, Kiener, var. 

Jacksoniana (Nassa), Kiener. Monog., 64, t. 19, f. 73. = N. monile, Kien. 
Jaculanda (Mitra), Gould. Otia Conch., 129 ; Bost. Proc., vii, 332, 1860. 162 
Jamrachi (Voluta), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., xiv, 236, 1864. 

= V. Turneri, Gray. 
Japonica (Mitra), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, 198, 1864. 

= T. crebrilirata, Reeve. 
Japonica (Nassa), Lischke. Mai. Blatt,, xv, 220. = N. bait eat a, Lischke. 

Japonica (Desmoulea), A. Adams. Zool. Proc, 113, 1851 66 

Japonica (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 110, 1851. 

? = N. tenuis, E. A. Smith. 
Jonasi (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 171, 1846; Phil. Abbild. Bucc., iii, 

66, t. 2, f. 10 26 

Jucunda (Mitra), Tapparone-Canefri. Voy. Magenta, 27, t. 1, f. 3, 1874. 

M. tigrina, A. Ad. 
Jucunda (Mitra), Dunker. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., xix, 212, t, 9, f. 1, 

1879 165 

Judaxmim (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 367, 1860 171 

Jukesii (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 139, 1851. s= T. corrugata, Lam. 
Junonia (Voluta), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, t. 177, f. 1703, 1704 90 

Kamieschi (Cyclops), Chemn. Marr. Conch., i, 165, f. 792-4 65 

Kaupii (Voluta), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., x, 145, 1863 90 

Keeni (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 15, 1877. 

= N. albescens, Dunker, var. 
Kieneri (Buccinum), Anton. Verzeichn., 92, 1830. 

? 1= Nassa picta, Dunker. 
Kieneri (Mitra). Phil. Zeit, Mai., 22, 1850. M. chrysostoma Swn. 

Kieneri (Nassa), Desh. Moll. He Bourbon, 129, 1863 53 

Kieneri (Mitra). Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 429, f. 324, 1874 124 

Kingi (Voluta), Cox. Jour, de Conch., xix, 76, t. 4, f. 2, 1871 92 

Kirki (Voluta), Hutton. N. Zeal. Cab., 18; Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xviii, 

21, 1878 (--= -. V. flavicans, Gmel., teste Hutton in litt.) 99 

Kochiana (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., Ill, 1846 58 

Kraussiana (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., Ill, 1846 25 



222 INDEX. 



Kraussii (Turricula), Bunker. Mall. Jap., 8, 1861 187 

Kreuslerae (Voluta), Angas. Zool. Proc., 55, t 2, f. 3, 1865 94 

Kurrachensis (Bullia), Angas. Zool. Proc., 529, t. 54, f. 6, 1877 15 

Labecula (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851. = N. Jonasi, Dunker. 

Labiata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 114, 1851 39 

Labida (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., 179, 1854. = N. leptospira, A. Ad. 
Labyrinthum (Buccinum), Qmelin. Syst. Nat., 3483. 

? = B. cochlidium, Kiener. 
Lacepedii (Buccinum), Payr. Moll. Corse, t. 7, f. 23, 24. 

= Nassa incrassata, Strom. 
Lachrymosa (Nassa), Reeve. Monog., f. 52, 1853, = N. monile, Kien. 

Lachryma (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 258, 1845 125 

Lactea (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim., vii, o!2. = M. cornicula, Linn. 

Lactea (Nassa), Marratt. Vars. of Nassa, 80, 1880 63 

Lacunosa (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 65. ? = M. variegata, Reeve. 
Lacunosa (Mitra), Sowb. (nee Reeve). Thes., f. 171, 1874. 

= M. eximia, A. Ad. 

Laeta (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1851 159 

Laetum (Buccinum), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 140, 1848 62 

Laevicostata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 139, 1874. 
= T. Gruneri, Reeve. 

Laevicostata (Turricula), Garrett, Jour, of Conch., iii, 50,1880 195 

Lsevigata (Nassa) Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 3, t. 1, f. 7, 1877 23 

Laevigata (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 394. : - V. musica, L. 
Laevigata (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3455. = M. cornicula, Linn. 
Laevigata (Bullia), Mart, Conch. Cab., iv, t. 127, f. 1215, 1216. 

= B. laevissima, Gmel. 

Laevigata (Nassa), Pusch. Pol. Pal., 122, t. 11, f. 8. = N. mutabilis, Linn. 
Laevis (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 132, 1861. = M. casta, Lam. 
Laevis (Mitra), E-ichwald. Zool. RUBS. Pol., 297, t. 5, f. 14. 

= M. ebenus, Lam. 
Laevis (Nassa), Chemn. H. & A. Adams' Genera, t. 12, f. 7. 

= N. canaliculata, Lam. 

Laevissima (Bullia), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3494.^ 11 

Laevissimum (Nassa), Bronn. It. Tert., 25. := N. cornicula, Olivi. 
Laevizonata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch, sp. 314, 1874. 

= T. luculenta, Reeve. 

Lamarckii (Mitra), Deshayes. Encyc. Meth., ii, 448 112 

Lamarckii (Bullia), Kiener, Coq. Viv., t. 3, f. 6. = B. cochlidium, Kiener. 

Lamberti (Mitra), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 284, t.-13, f. 3, 1875 126 

Lapparia, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 24, 1865 109 

Lapponica (Voluta), Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1195. := V. interpuncta, Mart, 

Largilliertiana (Voluta), d'Orb. Rev. Zool., 210, 1841 101 

Larva (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit, Desh., x, 339. = T. cruentata, Chemn. 
Laterculata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 651, 1874. 
Laticostata (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 12, 1877. 

? = N. arcularia, Linn 21 

Latruncularia (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 166, 1844 120 

Lauta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 244, 1844. = M. pardalis Kiister. 

Lauta (Nassa), Marratt. Vars. of Nassa, 82, 1880 63 

Layardi (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1854. = T. crebrilirata, Rve. 
Lecadrei (Nassa), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, 73, t. 6, f. 14, 1867. 

= N. versicolor, C. B. Ad. 
Lefebrei (Bucc.), Maravigna. Rev. Zool., 325, 1840. = Lachesis. 



INDEX. 223 

PAGE. 

Le<rraudi (Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Hoy. Soc. Tasm., 140, 1876; 

34, 1878 169 

Leioderma, Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad , 184, 18t>.") 77 

Leiodonms, Swirus. Malacol., 74, 8(2. 1840. = S. G. of Bullia, Gray. 

Leptospira (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 103, 1851 ^r, 

Lens (Mitra), Wood. Index Test. Suppl., t. 3, f. '28 133 

Lens (Nassa), Chemn. Marrat, Vars., No. 1355. = N. nitidula, Linn. 
Lentiginosa (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 105, 1851. 

= N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Leontocroma (Mitra), Brusina. Contrib. No. 80. 

= M. columbellaria, Scacehi. 

Leucodesma (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 243, 1844. 
= M. pardalis, Kiister. 

Leucostoma (.Mitra). Swains. Sowb., Tank. Cat. App.. 27, 1825 159 

Leucozona (Mitra), Bellardi. Monog., 26. = M. ebenus, Lam. 

Lienardi (Mitra), Sou v. Tbes. Conch., f. 239 151 

Lifouana (Mitra texturata, var.), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xx, 74, 219, 

1872 134 

Ligata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, 1851. 

T. cruentata, Chemn., var. proxima. 

Lignaria (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 64, 1844. = M. lens, Wood. 
Lilacina (Nassa), Gould. Wilkes' Exp. .Moll., 265, f. 336, 1852. 

= N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 

Lilacina (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 634, 1874 178 

Lima (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 181, 1874. 

- Cylindra Sinensis, Reeve. 

Limata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 312 116 

Limata (Nassa), Chemn. Conch Cab., xi, 87, t. 188, f. 1808-9. 

= N. clathrata, Born. 

Limbifera (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 329 154 

Limicola (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 59, 1851 62 

Limmuforrne (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 64. 1847. ? = Nassa (>2 

Lincolnensis (Mitra), Angas. Zool. Proc., 313, t, 18, f. 10, 11, 1878 177 

Lineata (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835 139 

Lineata (Voluta), Leach. Zool. Misc., i, t. 12, f. 2. := V. zebra, Leach. 
Lineata (Nassa), Pult. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 118 = Planaxis. 
Lineatus (Conoelix), Swainson. Zool. 111., 1st ser.,i, t. 24. middle figures, 

1821. = Imbricaria 198 

Lineolata (Nassa), Phil. Marrat, Vars., No. 1356 64 

Lineolata (Planaxis), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 173, f. 136. 

= N. Cuvieri, Payr. 
Lineolata (Voluta), Kiister. Conch. Cab., t. 36, f. 6. 

= V. vespertilio, Linn. 
Lirata (Nassa), Marrat. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser., xiii, 70, 1874. 

N. nigra, Hombr. et Jacq. 
Lirata (Nassa), Dunker. Moll. Jap., t. 1, f. 22 ; Mai. Blatt, 231, 1860. 

= N. festiva, Powis. 

Litterata (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 339 155 

Littoralis (Mitra), Forbes. Rep. .Egean Invert., 190, 1843. 

= T. tricolor, Gmelin. 
Littoralis (Mitra), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv. M. ebenus, Lam. 

Livescens (Nassa), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 135, 1848 54 

Livida (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 134. 

- M. ebenus, Lam., var. costata. 

Livida (Bullia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 10, 1846. = B. vittata, Linn... 15 



224 INDEX. 



Loebbeckeanus (Dibaphus), Weinkauff. Kiister, Pleurotorua, 2, t. A, f. 1. 
Mitroidea maltiplicata, Pease, juv. 

Longispira (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 403, 1874 180 

Loricata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f. 174, 1841. M. Isabella, Swn. 

Loroisi (Voluta), Valenc. Jour, de Conch., xi, 71, t. 1, f. 1, 1863 93 

Lota (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 239, 1845 186 

Lowei (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 203. 1862. ?= T. tricolor, Gmel. 
Lubens (Mitra), Reeve. Conch., Icon., f. 331, 1845. 

T. militaris, Rve., var. 
Lubrica (Mitra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 85, 1868. 

= T. discors, Grandidier. 

Lucida (Mitra), Reeve. Conch., Icon., f. 266, 1845 170 

Lucida (Nassa), Marrat. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, 4 ser.. xiii, 70, 1874 64 

Lucida (Neritula), Ad. & Ang. Zool. Proc., 35, 1864. 

= Callomphala (Trochidse). 
Luctuosa (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 105, 1851. 

? N. gaudiosa, Hinds 151 

Luculenta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 245, 1844 185 

Lugubris (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. 111., 1st ser., t. 66.. 149 

Lugubris (Voluta), Swains. V. flavicans, Gmel. 

Lurida (Nassa), Gld. Bost. Proc., iii, 153, 1849 ; Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. 325. 36 

Lutea (Mitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 650, t, 45, bis, f. 7-9. 

= M. acuminata, Swn. 

Luteofusca (Turricula), Garrett Proc. Zool. Soc., 842, 1872 195 

Luteola (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 212, t. 20, f. 47, 1878. 

? = N. paupera, Gld. 

Luteostoma (Voluta), Deshayes, in Lamarck, x, 409 88 

Luteostoma (Nassa), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, 376, 1829 39 

Luteostoma (Nassa), Kiener. Monog. 110, t. 30, f. 1. 

= N. luteostoma, Brod. and Sowb. 
Lutescens (Mitra), Lamarck. Anc. du Mus., xvii, 210. 

= M. cornicula, Linn, 

Lymnaeana (Bullia), A. Ad. Genera, 113. = Volutharpa, vol, iii 15 

Lyrseformis (Voluta), Swains. Zool. 111., t. 54; Brod., Zool. Jour., iii, 

83, t. 3, f. 3 103 

Lyraaformis (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 79, 1880 63 

Lyraeformis (Voluta), Kiener (nee Brod.). Monog., 35, t, 42, f. 2 

= V. megaspira, var. Prevostiana, Crosse. 

Lyrata (Nassa), Kiener. Monog. Bucc:,38,t.22, f. 88. =Cyllene (vol. iii). 
Lyrata (Voluta), Humph. Sowb., Tank. Cat., 2140. = L. costata, Swn. 

Lyrata (Mitra), Lamarck. An. sans. Vert., vii, 308 166 

Lyrella (Nassa), Beck. Reeve, Icon., f. 95. = N. pauperata, Lam. 

Lyria, Gray. Zool. Proc., 1847; H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 116 76, 101 

Lyriformis (Voluta), Vigors. Kiener, Monog., 35, t. 42, f. 2. 

= V. megaspira, Sowb. 

Macandrewi (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 421, 1874 179 

Macgillivrayi (Voluta), Cox. Zool. Proc., t. 47, f. 9, 1873, 

= V. piperita, Sowb., var. 
Macquariensis (Voluta), Petterd. Jour, of Conch., ii, 343, 1879. 

= V. papillosa, Swn., var. 

Macrospira (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc,, 138, 1851 ... 177 

Macula (Buccinum), Mont. Test, Brit., 241, t. 8, f. 4. 

= Nassa incrassata, Strom. 

Maculata (Voluta), Swains. Exot. Conch., t. 38 93 

Maculata (Nassa), A. Ad ? Zool. Proc., 114, 1861..,,., 38 



INDEX. 225 

PAQE. 

Maouloea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 175 155 

Maculosum (Bucc.), Costa. = Nassa incrassata, Strom. 

Maderensis (Nassa), Reeve. Iconog , f 182, 1854. = N. Cuvieri, Payr. 

Majxta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 323. 1845 143 

Magellanica (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x,' 398 97 

Magellanica (Voluta), Kiener (nee Lam.). Monog., t. 51. 
= V. ancilla, Soland. 

Magnifica (Voluta), Lamarck. Edit, Desh., x, 397 89 

Malabarica (Bullia), Hanley. Adams' Genera, 113. 

= B. melanoides, Desh. 

Malleti (Mitra), Petit, Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 58, t. 2, f. 1, 1853 142 

Mamilla (Cymba), Gray. Sowb., Zool. Proc., 149, 1844; Zool. Proc., 34, 

t. 45, 1859 101 

.Mamillana. Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xix, 308, 1871. = Voluta, Linn., sect, 101 
Mamillata (Planaxis), Risso. Eur. Mer., iv, 178, f. 122. 

= N. reticulata, Linn. 

Mangelioides (Nassa), Reeve. Iconog., f. 152, 1853 26 

Margaritifera (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 60, 1847. 

N. cremata, Hinds, var. 
Margaritifera (Nassa), Reeve (non Dunker). Icon., f. 59. 

= N. Kieneri, Desh. 
Marginata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 311, 1874. 

? M. coronata, Lam,, juv. 

Marginulata (Nassa), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, 278. =N. reticulata, Linn. 
Marginulata (Nassa), Reeve (not Lam.), Icon., f. 43, 50, 51. 

= N. Kieneri, Desh. 

Mariae (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 140, 1851. = M. incisa, Ad. & Rve. 
Maria-Emma (Voluta), Gray. Zool. Proc., 230, t. 48, 1859. 
= V. Grayoe, Crosse. 

Marmorata (Nassa), Anton. Verzeichn., 92, 1839 62 

Marmorata (Voluta), Swains. Exot. Conch., t. 1 92 

Marmorata (Mitra), Swains. Zool. Illust., t. 24. 

= Imbricaria conica, Schum. 
Marmorea (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 106, 1851. 

= Var. of N. picta, Dunker , 36 

Marmorea (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 139, 1851 178 

Marquesana (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 270, 1851 114 

Marratii (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 543, t. 30, f. 4; 

Zool. Proc., 809, t. 50, f. 8, 1878. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Matronalis (Mitra) Schum. Nouv. Syst., 239, 1817. = M. casta, Lam. 

Maura (Mitra), Swains. Zool. Proc., 193, 1835 , 121 

Mauritia, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 273, 1869. = Mitroidea, Pease. 

Mauritiana (Bullia), Gray. Zool. Beechey, p. 226, 1839 12 

Mauritiana (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 2, f. 610, 1874 114 

Mazza, Klein. Ostrac., 62, 1753 ; H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 156. 

= Turbinella, Lam. 

Mazzalina, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 23, 1865. Lagena (vol. iii). 
Media (Mitra), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv. -= M. cornicula, Linn. 
Mediolaris (Bullia), von Mart, Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, 137, t. 6, f. 4. 
- Var. of B. diluta, Krauss, 

Mediomaculata (Mitra), Sowb, Zool. Proc., 255,1870 184 

Mediterranea (Nassa), Risso. Eur. Mer. iv, 170. = N. mutabilis, Linn. 
Megaptygma, Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad., 563, 1862; Gabb. Philad. 

Proc., 292, 1876. = Volutifusus, Conrad. 
Megaspira (Voluta), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 150, 1844 95 

29 



226 INDEX. 



Megaspira (Voluta), Adams. Ann. Mag., June, 1876. = V. Hamillei, Cr. 
Melaleuca (Mitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., ii, 657, t. 45, bis, f. 26, 27. 

? = M. australis, Swn. 

Melaniana (Mitra), Lamarck. Ann. du Mus., 212 127 

Melanioides (Nassa), Rve. Iconog., f. 150, 1853 61 

Melanoides (Bullia), Desh. Voy. Belang., 430, t. 2, f. 3, 4... 14 

Melo (Voluta), Soland. = Melo Indica, Gmel. 

Melo, Humphrey. Mus. Calonn., 1797; Sowerby, Genera, 1827 75, 80 

Melongena (Mitra), Lamarck. An. sans Vert., vii, 309 166 

Mendica (Nassa), Gould. Otia Conch., 70,1849 56 

Mica (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 314, 1845. = T. cselata, Reeve. 

Micans (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 285, 1845 129 

Micans (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 106, 1851. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Michaudi (Turricula), Crosse & Fisher. Jour, de Conch., 337, 1864. 

=.M. Deshayesii, Reeve. 

Microstoma (Nassa), Pease. Zool. Proc., 145, 1860. N. paupera, Gould. 
Microstoma (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch , f. 291, 1874. 

= M. pellis-serpentis, Reeve. 

Microvoluta, Angas. Zool. Proc., 34, 1877 76 

Microzonias (Mitra), Schrenck. Moll. Amurl., 451. 

? = M. Kraussii, Dunker. 

Microzonias (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim., vii, 320 183 

Miga (Nassa), Brug. Diet., No. 41 42 

Militaris (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 236, 1845 171 

Milium (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 257, 1845 160 



Millecostata (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835 185 

^Mitra), La 
(Melo), Gray. Griffith's Animal Kingdom, t. 29. 



Millepora (3 
Miltonis CM 



Lamarck. Ann., No. 5. == M. digitalis (Chemn.), Dillw. 



= M. diadema, Lam , var. 
Miniata (Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 67, 1839. = M. peregra, Reeve. 

Minor (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 14, 1877 63 

Minor (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 167, f. 662, 1874. 

= M. tabanula, Lam 
Minutum (Buccinum), Pennant. Brit. Zool., iv, 122, t. 79. 

= Nassa incrassata, Strom. 
Mirabilis (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 136, 1851. = T. angulosa, Kiister. 

Mirifica (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 278, 1845 161 

Mitch elini (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 259, 1874. 

= M. limbifera, Lam. 
Mitch elinii (Mitra), Guerin. Mag. de Zool., t. 38, 1830. 

= M. aurantia, Gmelin. 
Mitis (Turbinella), Lam. Auim. sans Vert., ix, 382. 

= Vasum capitellum, Linn. 
Mitis (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, .'88. = V. vespertilio, Linn. 

Mitra, Lamarck, Prodr., 1799; Syst,, 74, 1801 108, 109 

Mitraeformis (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 404; Proc. Zool. Soc., 54, 

1864 103 

Mitralis (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 108, 1851 = N. tamia, Gmel. 

Mitraria, Rafinesque. Anal. Nat., 1815. := Mitra. Lam. 

Mitrella, Swainson (not Risso), Elem., 1835 ; Malacol., 129, 321, 1840. 

= Swainsonia, H. & A. Ad. 
Mitreola, Swainson, Elem., 1835 ; Malacol., 129, 320, 1840. 

= Strigatella, Sw. 

Mitroidea, Pease. Zool. Proc., 514, 1865 109, 162 

Mitrolites, Krug. Urw., ii, 431, 1823. = Mitra, Lam. 



INDEX. 227 

PAGE. 

Mitromorpha. A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., xv, 322, 1805. 

= Pleurotomidse. 
Mitropsis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 211, 1867. Columbellidse. 

Modesta (Truncaria). Pow's. Zool Proc., 188*, p. 94 10 

Modesta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 254, 1845 170 

Modesta (Voluta), Wood. Cab. Suppl., f. 24. = V. flavicans, Gmel. 
Modesta (Turricula), Pease (not Rve.) Am. Jour. Conch., 212, t. 15, f. 

0, 1867. ^ T. Gruneri, Reeve. 

Modicella (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 53, 1880 195 

Moesta (Nassa), Hinds. Zool. Voy. Sulphur, 36, t. 9, f. 18, 19, 1844. 

- N. exilis, Powis. 

Molleri (Mitra), Kiister. Conch. Cab.. 109, t, 17a, f. 12-14 154 

Molopophorus, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, 156, 1869. r^ S. G. of Bullia, Gray. 7 

Moltkiana (Voluta), Mart. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 161 101 

Monile (Nassa), Ki-ner. Bucc , 68, t. 11, f. 40 28 

Monilifera (Mitra), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., 57, 1850. 

= T. microzonias. Lam. 
Moniliferum (Bullia), Val. Kiener, Coq. Viv., t. 3, f. 8. 

B. arrnata, Gray. 

Monoceros, Fleming. Brit. An , 342, 1828. = Alectrion, Montf. 
Montrouzieri (Mitra), Tapparone-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Genera, vi, 1874. 

= T. tricolor, Montr. 

Montrouzieri (Mitra), Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 282, t, 13, f. 1, 1875. 170 
M.irchii (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, t. 28, f. 5, 1854. 

M. Isabella, Swn. 

Morleti (Nassa), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xv, 445, 1867. =N. fossata, Gld. 
Morrissii (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 60, 1847. 

= Phos plicopus, Dunker (vol. iii). 

Mozambicensis (Bullia), Smith. Zool. Proc., 719, t. 75, f. 18, 1877 14 

Mucronata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 105, 1851. = N.'monile, Kiener. 

Mucronata (Mitra), Swainson. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,-f. 125, 1844 174 

Mucronata (Melo), Brod. Sowb., 1855. = M. diadema, Lam., var. ducalis. 
Multicostata (Voluta). Brod. Zool. Jour., iii, t. 3, f. 2. 

V. Mitrasformis, Lam. 
Multicostata (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835. 

= T. aureolata, Swn. 

Multicostata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851 54 

Multigranosa (Nassa), Dunk'.r. Zeit. Mai., 61, 1847. 

- N. pauperatn, Lam. 

Multilirata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1851. 

Multilineata (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 11,1877 63 

Multiplicata (. \litroidea), Pease. Zool. Proc., 514, 1865: Garrett in Leeds 

Jour. Conch., iii, 68.. 162 

Munieriana (Nassa), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 345, t. 13, f. 6, 1864 57 

Muricata (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc.. 1835. = M. lens. Wood. 
Muricata (Nassa), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astrol., ii, 450, t, 32, f. 32, 33... 44 
Muricata (Turbinella), Encyc. Meth., t. 431, bis, f. 4. 
= Vasum capitellum, Linn. 

Muricatum (Vasum), Born. Mus. 233 71 

Muriculata (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert. Edit. Desh., x, 333 191 

Musica (Voluta), Linn. Syst, Nat. Edit , xii, 1194 8S 

* Musica, Humphrey. Mus. Galon., 18, 1797; Fischer, Jour, de Conch. 

105, 1879. = Voluta, Linn. 

Musicalis (Voluta), Mart, H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 165. 
= V. virescens, Solander. 



228 INDEX. 



Musiva (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 153, 1850. = N. picta, Bunker. 
Mustelina (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 331, 1860. 

? = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Mutabilis (Mitra), Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 235, 1845. 

= T. cadaverosa, Reeve. 

Mutabilis (Nassa), Linn, Syst. Nat Edit., xii, 1201.... 22 

Mutellina (Mitra), Duclos. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 174 159 

Mutyca, H. & A. Adams' Genera, i. 172. = Mitroidea, Pease. 

Myristica (Nassa), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 36, t. 9, f. 10, 11, 1844 45 

Nana (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 102, 1851. := N. Jonasi, Bunker. 
Nana, Schum (pars.). Nouv. Syst. 225, 1817, = Neritula, Plancus. 

Nana (Voluta), Anton. Verzeichn., 70, 1839 101 

Nanina, Ri?so. Hist. Nat., iv, 1826. = Neritula, Plancus. 
Nanus (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 194, 1844. M. aurantia, Gmel. 
Napus (Turbinella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, 377. = T. pyrum. Linn. 
Nasica (Voluta), Schubert and Wagner, t. 217, f. 3031, 3032. 

= V. angulata, Swains. 

Nassa, Lamarck. Prodr., 71, 1799 .' 6, 17 

Naesodonta, H Adans. Zool. Proc., 445, t. 38, f. 8, 1866. 

? = Zeuxis, H. & A. Adams 6 

Nassoides (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 631, 1874 152 

Nassula (Buccinum), V. Salis. Reise, 367. = Nassa reticulata, Linn. 

Nasuta (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 623, 1874 169 

Natalensis (Bullia), Krauss. Siidaf. Moll., 121, t 6, f. 16. 

= B. digitalis, Meusch., var 12 

Nautica (Melo), Lam. Edit. Besh., x, 374. == M. .Ethiopica, Linn. 
Navicula (Cymba), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3467. = C. Neptuni, Gmel. 
Naytia, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 118. 

= S. G. of Nassa, Mart 6 

Nebularia, Swainson. Malacol., 319, 1840. = Mitra, Lam. 
Nebulosa (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835. 

= M. versicolor, Mart. 
Nebulosa (Mitra), Reeve. Icon., f. 3. = M. erronea, Bohrn. 

Neptuni (Cymbium), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3467 80 

Neritea (Neritula), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1201 64 

Neritula, Plancus. Conch. Min. nob,, 27, 1739 7, 64 

Nevillei (Mitra), Hanley. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 306, 1874. 

= M. zephyrina, Bucl. 

Newcombii (Mitra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 69, 1869 131 

Nexilis (Mitra), Marty n. Univ. Conch., t. 22, = M. filaris, Linn., var. 

Nicobarica (Mitra), Frauenfeld. Voy. Novara, 7, t. 1, f. 5, 1865 190 

Nigella (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. 173, 1854 61 

Nigra (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., v, 78, t. 21, f. 18, 

19, 1853 41 

Nigra (Mitra), Billwyn (not Chemn.). Besc. Cat., i, 553. 

= M. melaniana, Lam. 
Nigra (Mitra), Quoy. Reeve, Conch., Icon , f. 109. 

= M. abbreviata, Sowb. 

Nigra, (Mitra), Quoy. Astrol., ii, 644, t. 45, f. 16-18. =s= M. Quoyi, Besh. 
Nigricans (Strigatella), Pease. Zool. Proc., 514, 1865; Am. Jour. Conch., 

215, 1867 153 

Nigrofasciata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 313, 1874. 

= T. luculenta, Reeve. 
Niotha, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 117. = S. G. of Nassa, Mart. 7 



INDEX. 229 

PAGB. 

Nisotum (Buccinum), Potiez et Michaud. Galerie, i, 378, 1838 62 

Nitons (Mitra), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 241. M. cornicula, Linn. 

Nitens (Mitra), Kiener. Mitra, t. 29, f. 96. M. annulate, Reeve. 

Nitida (Mitra). A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 189, 1851 122 

Nitida (Nassa) Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 349, 18(57. 
N. reticulata, L., var. 

Nitidula (Nassa), Ad. Jay's Catalogue 62 

Nitidulum (Buccinum), Linn. Hanley. = N. Cuvieri, Payr. 

Nivea (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835 137 

Nivea (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 110, 1851 57 

Nivifer (Nassa), Marrat. Vars., No. 1400 64 

Nivosa (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 9, 1877 52 

Nivosa (Voluta), Lam. Edit, Desh., x, 389 86 

Nivosa (Mitra), Swains. Bligh Cat, Exot. Conch. App. 

M. versicolor, Martyn. 

Nobilis (Voluta), Solander. Gray, Zool. Proc., 02 1855. 
V. scapha, Grael. 

Nodata (Nassa), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 36, t. 9, f. 14, 15, 1844 46 

Nodicincta (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 110, 1851 63 

Nodicostata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 99, 1851. = N. fissilabris, A. Ad. 
Nodifera (Nassa), Powis. Zool. Proc.. 95, 1835. ? = N. hirta, Kiener. 
Nodilirata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 136, 1851. 
- T. mucronata, Swains. 

Nodosa (Nassa), Marrat, Vars. of Nassa, 77, 1880 <;:! 

Nodosa (Mitra), Swainson. Philos. Mag.. 401, 1823. 03 

Nodulifera (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool Proc , 140, 1851 ; Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 

550 170 

Nodulifera (Nassa), Phil. Zeit, Mai., 136, 1848; Abbild. Bucc., t, 1, f. 3. 

? = N. echinata, A. Ad. 

Nodulosa (Turricula). Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 214, 1867 192 

Nodulosa (Mitra), var. B, Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3453. 

= M. granulosa, Lain. 
Nodulosa (Nassa), Marrat. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser.. xii, 426, 1873. 

= N. granifera, Kiener. 
Nodulosa (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 396. 

= V. musica, L., var. polypleura. 

Norrisii (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 6, 1844 137 

Norrisii (Voluta), Gray. Jardine's Annals, i, 414, 1838; Sowb., Zool, 

Proc., 150, 1844 86 

Northia, Gray. Zool. Proc., 140, 1847 5 

Northiae (Buccinum), Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t. 36, f. 3. 

= Northia serrata Dufresne. 
Novae-boracense (Nassa), Wood. Index Test. Suppl., t. 4, f. 26. 

N. obsoleta, Say. 

Novte-Hollandiae (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 368, 417, 1874. 

^= M. flammea, Quoy. 

Novae-ZelandiaB (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. 186, 1854. 

? = N. nigra, Hombr. et Jacq., var. 

Nubila (Mitra), Gmel. (var. A). Syst. Nat., 3450. = M. versicolor, Mart 

Nubila (Mitra), Gmel. (var. B). Syst, Nat., 3450. 

M. versicolor, Martyn. 

Nucea (Nassa), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 70, t. 8, f. 7, 1870 61 

Nucea (Cylindra), Gronovius. Zoophylacium, Pt. 3, t. 18, f. 11 195 

Nucleola (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 337 134 

Nucleola (Mitra), Lamarck. Ann., No. 64; Kiener, Iconog., 84, t. 26, 
f. 83 ,. 145 



230 INDEX. 



Nucleolus (Nassa), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 52, 1846 49 

Nucleus (Lyria), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 405 102 

Nux (Cylindra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 187, 1874 197 

Nux-avellana (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 368, 1860; Mai. Blatt., viii, 

137. = M. pudica, Pease. 
Nympha (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 249, 1845. 

= M. variegata, Reeve. 

Obeliscus (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 107, 1844 179 

Obesa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 87, 1844. 

= Cylindra dactylus, Linn. 
Obesa (Nassa 1 ), G. & H. Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 95, t. 5, f. 2, 3, 

1875 '. 29 

Obliqua (Nassa), Pease. Zool. Proc., 513, 1865. N. granifera, Kiener. 
Obliqua (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au Pol sud, v, 84, t. 21, f. 43, 

44, 1854 = N. granifera, Kiener. 

Obliqua (Nassa), Kiener. Monog. Buccin., t. 31, f. 4 27 

Obliqua (Mitra), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 142, 1842 120 

Obliquata (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Desh., x, 339 158 

Obliquata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 105, 1851. 

? = N. picta, Bunker. 
Obliqueplicata (Nassa), Bunker. Zeit. Mai., 61, 1847; Phil., Abbild. 

Bucc.. t. 1, f. 13. = N. miga, Brug. 
Obliquum (Bucc ), Brocchi. Conch, foss., ii, 336, t. 4, f. 16. 

N. mutabilis, Linn. 

Oblonga (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 5 63 

Obscura (Mitra), Humphrey Cat. H. & A. Ad Genera, i, 170 159 

Obscura (Mitra), Hutton. Cat. N. Zeal. Moll., 19; Jour, de Conch., 3 

ser., xviii,21, 1878 158 

Obsoleta (Nassa), Say. Jour, Philad. Acad., ii. 232, 1822 60 

Obsoleta (Mitra), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., 1, 230. 

= M. Columbellaria, Scacchi. 
Obtusispinosa (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 373, 1874. 

= T. mucronata, Swains. 

Obtusata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 100, 1851 40 

Ocellata (Mitra), Swainson. Zool Illust., 2d ser. = M. fissurata, Lam. 
Oleacea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 105, 1844. = M. scutulata, Lam. 

Olivacea (Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 68, 1839 195 

Olivacea (Nassa), Brug. Bict. No. 38. = N. tsenia, Gmel. 

Olivaceum (Bucc.), Belle-Chiaje., t. 47, f. 14, 15. = N. corniculum, Olivi. 

Olivaeformis (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. Illust., 2d ser 131 

Olivaria (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Besh., x, 309. = Cylindra nucea, Gron. 
Olivaria (Mitra), Sowb. Index, Thes. Conch. = Cylindra nucea, Gronov. 
Oliviforme (Buccinum), Kiener, t. 25, f. 99. = N. obsoleta. Say. 
Olivoidea (Mitra), Cantraine. Bull. Acad. Brux., 391, 1835. 

= M. Columbellaria, Scacchi. 
Olla (Cymba), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1196 ; Reeve, Ann. Mag., Nat. Hist., 3 

ser., vii, 273 80 

Onerata (Nassa), Besh. Conch. He Bourbon, 130, t. 12, f. 24, 25, 1863. 

i= N. granifera, Kiener. 

Oniscina (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit. Besh., x, 340 133 

Optata (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 331, 1860 63 

Orbiculata (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc , 102, 1851. 

= N. Kraussiana, Bunker... 25 

Ordinata (Mitra), Pease (ubi). Psetel Cat 159 

Oriens (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. No. 552 , 64 



INDEX. 231 

PAGE. 

Orientalis (Mitra), Gray. Griffith's Animal Kingdom, t. 40, f. 5, 1834. 

= M. Maura, Swainson.- 

Ornata (Mitra), Schub. & Wagn. Conchy 1., t. 225, f. 3098, 3099 195 

Ornata (Mitra), Kiemr. Icon., t. 3, f. 8. = M. Rossiae, Reeve. 

Ornata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1851 169 

Ornata (Nassa), Kiener. Bucc., 80, t. 21, f. 83. = N. stolata, Gmel. 

Osidiris (Mitra), Issel. Mai. Mar Rosso, 263, t. 3, f. 9, 1869 191 

Ossea (Mitra), Reeve. Couch. Icon., f. 219, 1844. 

= Imbricaria punctata, Swn. 

Osseum (Buccinum), Menke. Cat. No. 624; Mai. Blatt, xviii, 126, 1871. 16 
Otocheilus, Conr. Am. Journ. Conch., i, 24, 1865. 

= Cithara (Pleurotornidae.) 78 

Ovoidea (Turbinella), Kiener. Iconog., 7, t. 17, f. 1 70 

Pacifica (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 272. = T. cadaverosa, Reeve. 

Pacifica (Voluta), Soland. Port, Cat., 190 94 

Pseteli (Mitra), Dohrn. Mai. Blatt, vii, 125, 1861 152 

Pagoda (Nassa), Reeve. Icon. Triton, f. 97, 1844 45 

Paligera (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 515, 1874 189 

Pallida (Mitra), Pease. Zool. Proc., 146, 1860 159 

Pallida (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 139, 1851 150 

Pallida (Nassa), Powis. Zool. Proc., 96, 1835 = Phos (vol. iii). 
Pallida (Mitra), Issel. Ann. Mus. Genova, xi, 418, fig. 1, 1878. 

= M. tricolor, Gmel. 
Pallida (Voluta), var., Kiener. Monog., t. 43 f. 12. 

? := V. maculata, Swains. 
Pallida (Voluta), Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t. 30, f. 4, 1834. 

V. volva, Gmel. 

Pallidula (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 106, 1851. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Panamensis (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. No. 51 ; Carpenter, Second 

Report, 179. = N. exilis, Powis. 

Papalis (Mitra), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit , xii, 1194 Ill 

Papillaris (Voluta), Reeve. Icon., f. 10, 1849. = V. papillosa, Swains. 

Papillaris (Voluta), Gmelin. = Cymbium olla, Linn. 

Papillatum (Cymba), Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst., 237. = C. olla, Linn. 

Papillosa (Voluta), Swains. Bligh, Cat. App 96 

Papilloea (Nassa), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1200 30 

Paranassa, Conrad. Am. Journ. Conch., iii, 262, t. 19, f. 6, 1867. 

= S. G. of Ptychosalpinx, Gill 8 

Pardalis (Mitra), Kiister. Conch. Cab.. 105, t. 17, f. 14, 15 183 

Parva (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 83, 1880 63 

Patriarchalis (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 318 191 

Patula (Cymba), Brod. Spec. Conch., 5, f. 2, a, b. Pouton, Zool. Proc., 

375, 1868. = C. Neptuni, Gmel. 

Patula (Mitra). Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 333, 1845 125 

Paucicostata (Nassa), Marrat, New Forms of Nassa, 11, 1877. 

N. vibex, Say. 
Paupera (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 155, 1850 ; Moll. Wilkes' Exp., 

262, f.330 ! 47 

Pauperata (Nassa), Lam. Edit, Desh., x, 183 52 

Paupercula (Mitra), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., 12, 1190 156 

Paupercula (Mitra), Schroeter. Einl., i, 217, 1. 1, f. 11. = M. retusa, Lam. 
Paytense (Bullia), Val. Kiener, Coq. Viv., t. 6, f. 16. 

= B. cochlidium, Kiener. 

Peasei (Mitra). Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 366, 1860. = M. Isabella, Swn. 
Peasei (Turricula) Garrett. Jour of Conch., iii, 57, 1880 166 



232 INDEX. 



Peculiaris (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f, 305, 1865. 

? = M. typha, Reeve. 

Pedersenii (Enseta), Verrill. Am. Jour. Sci., N. 8., xlix, 226, 1870 104 

Pediculina (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 332, 1860 63 

Pediculus (Mitra), Lamarck. Ann. Mus., No. 80. = M. tabanula, Lam. 

Pellis-serpentis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 66, 1844 151 

Pellis-serpentis (Voluta), Lam. Edit, Desh., i, 386 = V. vespertilio, Linn. 

Pellucida (Neritula), Risso. Eur. Merid., 271 65 

Pepo (Voluta), Solander, teste Gray. = Cymbium Neptuni, Gmel. 
Perdicina (Voluta), Schub. et Wagner. = Lyria nucleus, Lam. 

Peregra (Mitra), Reeve. Csnch. Icon., f. 186, 1844 144 

Peritrema (Nassa), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc N. S. Wales, iv, 21, 

t. 4, f. 5, 1879 48 

Perlata (Nassa), Meuschen. = N. granifera, Kiener. 

Perpinguis (Nassa), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 36, t. 9, f. 12, 13 56 

Perronii (Mitra), Lam. Ann., No. 71. = M. aurantia, Gmelin. 

Persica (Bullia), E. Smith. Zool. Proc., 730, t. 46, f. 11, 1878 13 

Persica (Cymba), Mart. = C. Neptuni, Gmel. 

Persica (Nassa), von Martens. Vord. Asiat. Conch., 94, t. 5, f . 47. 

= N. leptospira, A. Ad. 
Pertusa (Mitra), Linn Syst. Nat. Edit., 12, 1193. 

? = M. digitalis (Chemn), Dillw. 
Pertusa (Mitra), Linn. ? Dillw., Desc. Cat., 558. = M. cardinalis, Gmel. 

Petrosa (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 314, 1874 124 

Pfeifferi (Nassa), Phil. Abbild., iii, Buc.. 45, t. 1, f. 7. 

= N. conspersa, Phil. 
Pharaonis (Mitra), GSne". Issel, Mai. Mar. Risso, 119, t, 3, f. 8, 1869. 

= T. cadaverosa, Rve. 
Pharaonis (Mitra), H. Ad. Zool. Proc., 9, t. 3, f. 1, 1872. 

= T. Appelii, Jickeli. 

Philippiana (Mitra), Forbes. JEg. Invert., 191. = M. cornicula, Linn. 
Philippii (Dibaphus), Crosse. Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1860, t. 3, f. l f 1858.. 164 

Philippinarum (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 141, 1851 141 

Philippinarum (Cymba), Mart. = C. olla, Linn. 
Phrontis, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 117. 

= 8. G. of Nassa, Mart 6 

Pia (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 366, 1860 139 

Pica (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 247, 184'5 *.... 125 

Pica (Mitra), Chemn. Conch Cab., xi, 24, f, 1721, 1722. 

? = M. paupercula, Linn. 

Picea (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 658, 1874 150 

Picea (Strigatella), Pease. Zool. Proc., 146, 1860 150 

Picta (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 172, 1846 35 

Picta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 123, 1844. 

M. Barbadensis, Gmel. 
Picta (Mitra), Danilo et Sandri. Brueina, Verh. Zool. Bot. Wien, xv, 

15, 1865. = M. tricolor, Gmel. 

Picturata (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 78, 1880 63 

Pigra (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 133, 1851 120 

Pingue (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 61, 1851. = Nassa 62 

Pinguis (Desmoulea), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 113, 1851 65 

Pinguis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 304, 1845. 
= T. nodosa, Swains. 

Piperita (Voluta), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 150, 1844 87 

Pisolina (Mitra), Lamarck. = T. dermestina, Lam., var. 



INDEX. 233 

PAOB. 

Planaxis, Risso. Hist. Nat, iv, 172, 1826. =; Tritia, Risso. 
Planilirata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 184. = M. Solandri, Rve. 

Planicostata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 108, 1851 34 

Plebecula (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., 332, 1860. = N. paupera, Gld. 
Plebeja (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 368, 1860; Mai. Blatt, viii, 137, 

1862. = M. latruncularia, Reeve. 

Pleioptygma, Conrad. Proc. Philad. Acad., 563, 1862 78 

Plicaria (Mitra), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., x, 732, 1758. 

= T. plicata, Klein. 

Plicata (Mitra), Klein. Reeve, Icon., f. 56 :... 167 

Plicata (Nassa), Bolt. N. pulla,. Linn. 

Plicata (Nassa), Pease MSS. Carpenter, Z Proc., 516, 1865. 

= N. taenia, Gmel. 
Plicata (Voluta), Dillw. Desc. Cat., i, 563. = V. musica, L., var. sulcata. 

Plicatella (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., viii, 280, 1862 63 

Plicatella (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., iii, 1851 58 

Plicatissima (Mitra), Kiister. Conch. Cab., 119, t. 17 b, f. 11, 12 188 

Plicatula (Mitra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., 1867, t. 15, f. 4. 

= Turr. Emilias, Schmeltz. 
Plieatula (Mitra), Brocchi. Foss. Subap., ii, 318, t. 4, f. 7 ; Petit, Cat. 

Test. Eur., 281. = M. ebenus, Lam. 

Plicatula (Nassa), Dunker. Godeffroy Exped. Cat. N. picta, Dunker. 
Plicosa (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., iii, 1846; Marrat, No. 1309. 

= Phos (vol. iii). 

Plumbea (Mitra), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 332. = M. ebenus, Lam. 
Plumbea (Mitra), Lamarck. Reeve, Icon., f. 156; Sowb., Thes. 

M. cornicula, Linn., var. 

Polita (Mitra) Reeve. Conch., Icon., f. 94, 1844 126 

Polita (Bullia), Gray. Voy. Blossom, 126, 1839. := B. polita, Lam. 
Polita (Bullia), Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, t. 3, f. 1, 2. 

= B. Belangeri, Kiener 16 

Polita (Bullia), Lam. An. s.Vert., x, 162 15 

Polita (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 79, 1880. 

? N. gaudiosa, Hinds. I 

Politum (Teinostoma), A. Ad. = Rotellidse. 
Politum (Bucc.), Bivona. = Nassa cornicula, Olivi. 
Polygonata (Nassa), var., Kiener. Buccin., 92, t. 27, f. 107. 

= N. Jacksoniana, Quoy. 

Polygonata (Nassa), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 184. ? = N. vibex, Say. 
Polygonata (Nassa), Reeve (not Lam.). Icon., f. 123. 

= N. rufolineata. Marrat. 
Polypleura (Voluta), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 163, t. 5, f. 6, 1876. 

V. musica, L., var. 

Polyzonalis (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh , x, 394. = V. virescens, Soland. 
Ponderosa (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. 196, 1854. 

= Desmoulea pinguis, A. Ad. 

Pontificalis (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 300 Ill 

Porcata (Mitra), Humphrey. Reeve, Icon., f. 187, 1844. 

= M. peregra, Reeve. 
Porcina (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 383. 

= Cymbium proboscidale, Lam. 

Porphyretica (Mitra), Keeve. Conch. Icon., f. 195, 1844 191 

Potensis (Mitra), Montrouz. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iii, 374, 1859; iv, 

120, 1866. == Cylindra dactylus, Lam., var. 
Prsecallosa (Nassa), Marrat, New Forms of Nassa, 11, 1877 63 

30 



234 INDEX. 



Prsetexta (Voluta), Reeve. Icon., f. 29, 1849 94 

Prsetexta (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 258, 1870. = T. Zebuensis, Rve. 
Pretiosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 116, 1844. 

= M. crenifera, Lam., juv. 
Prevostiana (Voluta), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xviii. 165, 1878; 

xix, 41, t. 1 ; t. 2, f. 1, 1879 95 

Prismatica (Nassa), Brocchi. Conch, foss., ii, 337, t. 5, f. 7. 

= N. clathrata, Born. 
Prismatica (Nassa), Monterosato. Nuova Revista, 40; Aradas & Benoit, 

292. = N. denticulata, A. Ad. 

Prismatica (Nassa), Monterosato (non Brocchi). = N. renovata, Monts. 
Pristis (Northia), Deshayes. An. s. Vert., x, 192. 
= N. serrata, Dufresne. 

Proboscidale (Cymbium), Lam. An. sans Vert. Edit. Desh., x, 382 79 

Productum (Cymbium), Lowe. Linn., Proc., v, 169, 1860. = C. olla, Linn. 

Prompta (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 77, 1880 49 

Propinqua (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 58, 1880 152 

Propinqua (Mitra), Sowerby (not A. Ad.). Thes , sp. 22, f. 9, 1874 112 

Propinqua (Mitra), Garrett. Jour, of Conch , iii, 22, 1880 171 

Propinqua (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 270, 1851. = M. versicolor, Mart, 112 
Propinqua (Nassa), J. Sowb. Min. Conch. = N corniculum, Oliv. 

Proscissa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 177, 1844 147 

Proxima (Turricula), Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 98, 1875. 

= Var. of T. cruentata, Chemn. 

Proxima (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., No. 52, 1852. 
= N. versicoior, Ad. 

Pruinosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 171, 1844 142 

Psephaea, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xix, 302, 1871. 

= Voluta, Linn., sect 98 

Pseudostrombus, Klein. Ostracol., 35, 1753. = S. G. of Bullia, Gray 6 

Ptychoris, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad., 291, 1876 77 

Ptychosalpinx, Gill. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 153, 1867; Conrad, Am. 

Jour. Conch., iii, 261, 1867 7 

Puella (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 276, 1845 184 

Pugillaris (Turbinella). Lam. Hist., vii, 104. 

= Vasum muricatum, Born. 
Pulchella (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 142, 1844. 

= T. dermestina, Lam. 
Pulchella (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc,, 108, 1851. 

N. Capensis, Krauss, var. 

Pulcherrima (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 10. t, 1, f. 15, 1871. 
? N. concinna, Powis. 

Pulchra (Turricula), Garrett. Jour, of Conch , iii, 56, 1880 177 

Pulchra (Desmoulea), Gray. Ann. Nat. Hist., i, 29, 1838 65 

Pulchra (Voluta), Sowb. Tankerv. Cat., t. 3, f. 2 86 

Pulla (Nassa), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii. 1201 24 

Pullata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 102, 1844. = T. plicata, Klein. 
Pullus (Buccinum), Burrows. Elem., 147, t. 16, f. 4. 

= Nassa gibbosula, Linn. 

Pullus (Buccinum), Pennant. Brit. Zool., t. 72, f. 92. 
= Nassa reticulata, L. 

Pumilio (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 782, t. 75, f 11, 1871 57 

Pumilio (Voluta), Brusina. Verh. Zool. Bot. Vereins, xv, 13, 1865 101 

Punctata (Nassa), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 105, 1851 35 

Punctata (Mitra), Swains. Zool. Illust,, 2d ser 197 



INDEX. 235 

PAGE. 

Punctata (Voluta), Swains. Zool. Illust., i, t. 161 89 

Punctata (Voluta), Kiener. Monog. t. 46, f. 1. = V. flavicans, Gmel. 
Punctatus (Conoelix), Swains. Zool. 111., 1st ser., i, t. 24, f. 3. 

= Imbricaria 198 

Puncticulata (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit., Desh., x, 312, 115 

Puncto-lirata (Mitra), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, 199, 1864 136 

Punctostriata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc .. 134, 1854 159 

Puncturata (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 798, t, 48, f. 5, 1878 179 

Pupinoides (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. 162, 1853. = N. glabrata, A. Ad, 

Pupula (Turricula), Bunker. Cat. Godeff. Mus., No. 4, 84 193 

Pudica (Mitra), Pease. Zool, Proc., 146, 1860 150 

Pura (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 136, 1851. = M. carnicolor, Reeve. 

Pura (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 13, 1877 63 

Purpurata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f. 275 175 

Pusia, Swainson. Malacol., 320, 1840. = Turricula, Klein, sect 182 

Pusilla (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 82, 1880 

Pusilla (Mitra), King. Zool. Journal, v, 349 152 

Pusilla (Turricula), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 141, 1851 194 

Pusilla (Lyria), Schrenck. Bull. St. Petersb., v, 514; Amur. L. Moll., 

445, t. 17, f. 13-15 103 

Pusilla (Mitra), Bivona. Nuove Gen., 23, t. 8, f. 3. = M. tricolor, Gmel. 

Pusio (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 100, 1851 54 

Pusio (Mitra), Phil. Zeit, Mai., 29, 1850; 85, 1851. 

Pusio (V r oluta), Swains. Zool. Illust., t. 181. = V. virescens, Soland. 

Pusiola (Nassa), Dunker. Marrat, Vars. of Nassa, No. 285 64 

Putillus (Turricula), Pease. Zool. Proc., 1865; Am. Jour. Conch., 214, 

t. 15, f. 24, 1867 190 

Pygnuea (Nassa), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, 154. = N. incrassata, Strom., var. 49 
Pygmasa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 268, ; Catlow's Nomenclator. 
M. Capensis, Dunker. 

Pyramidalis (Desmoulea), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 113, 1851 66 

Pyramidalis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 208, 1844 187 

Pyramidella (Mitra), Brocchi. Foss. Subapp., ii, 318, t. 4, f. 5. 

= M. ebenus, Lam. 
Pyramidella (Turricula), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., ix, 297, 

1862 195 

Pyramis (Voluta), Wood. Index Test. = Mitra cancellata, Swains. 
Pyrum (Turbinella), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1195 68 

Quadrata (Nassa), Marr. Vars., No. 1480, 1880. = N. stigmaria, A. Ad. 

Quantula (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 331, 1860 63 

Quercina (Nassa). Marrat, Vars. of Nassa, 80, 1880. 

? = N. cornicula, Olivi. 

Quinquecostata (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 82, 1880 63 

Quisquiliarum (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 62, 1851 62 

Quoyi (Mitra), Deshayes. Lam., Edit., 2, x, 348 122 

Quoyii (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au Pol sud, v, 79, t. 21, f. 20-22, 

1854. := N. cremata, Hinds. 

Radiata (Mitra), Schum. Essai, Nouv. Syst., 238, 1817. 

M. paupercula, Linn. 
Radiata (Marginella), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 436. = Voluta zebra, Leach. 

Radula (Cylindra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 183, 1874 196 

Radius (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 309, 1845; Nevill, Jour. Asiat. 

Soc. Beng., 100, 1875 166 

Radix (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 552, 1874 180 



236 INDEX. 



Ramosa (Melo), Meuschen. H. and A. Adams' Genera. 

= M. diadema, Lam. 

Rapa (Turbinella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3458. = T. pyrum, Linn. 
Rapum, Humph. Mus. Gallon. (Swainson), 1797. = Turbinella, Lam. 
Raricosta (Planaxis), Risso. Eur. Merid., 174, f. 106. 

= N. cornicula, Olivi. 
Ravida (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 97, 1851. := N. splendidula, Dkr. 

Rawsoni (Turricula) Morch. Jour, de Conch., 373, 1876 173 

Reata (Nassa), Gould. Marrat, Vars. of Nassa, No. 830. = N. beata. Gld. 
Recediva (Nassa), Marr. Vars. of Nassa, No. 1463. 

= Var. of N. conferta, Mart 64 

Recdlateris (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 404, 1874.. 175 

Recurva (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 297. 1845 160 

Reeveana (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 62, 1847 ; Phil., Abbild. Bucc., 

t. 2, f. 3. = N. picta, Dunker. 

Reevei (Mitra), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 23, 1450. = M. tessellata, Martyn. 
Reevei (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 109, 1.851. = N. fossata, Gld. 
Reevei (Voluta), Sowb. Thes Conch., 269. := V. praetexta, Reeve. 
Regia (Melo), Brod. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 83, f. 26, 27. 

= M. Broderipii, Gray. 
Regia (Melo), Schub. et Wagn. Conch. Cab., xii, 13, t. 218, f. 3038, 3039. 

= M. ./Ethiopica, Linn, var. 

Regina (Mitra), Sowb. Genera of Shells 164 

Regularis (Nassa), Kiister. Buccinum, 68, t. 12, f. 23, 24. 

= N. signata, Dunker. 
Renovata (Nassa), Monterosato. Enum. e Synon., 43; Bull. Soc., Mai. 

Ital., vi, 259. = N. denticulata, A. Ad. 

Reposta (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 331, 1860 63 

Reticosa (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 97, 1851. = N. stigmaria, A. Ad. 
Reticulata (Mitra), Pease. Thes. Conch., f, 290. 

= M. pellis-serpentis, Keeve. 
Reticulata (Nassa), Quoy (not Linn.) Voy. Astrol., ii, 444, t. 32, f. 16, 

17. =N. cremata, var. margaritifera. 

Reticulata (Nassa), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., x, 740 58 

Reticulata (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 136, 1851 159 

Reticulata (Voluta) Reeve. Zool. Proc., 144, 1843 94 

Reticulata (Voluta), Sowb. (nee Reeve.) Thes. Conch., f. 47, 48. 

== V. Reevei, Sowb. 

Retusa (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 319 156 

Retusa (Desmoulea), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 158 66 

Rhinoceros (Vasum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3458 71 

Rhodia (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 225, 1845 127 

Rhodostoma (Bullia), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 25, 1847. 

= B. digitalis, Meusch. 

Rigida (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. 111., i, t. 29. = T. semifasciata, Lam. 
Rigida (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 169. = T. Deshayesii, Reeve. 

Ringens (Bucc.), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 59, 1851 62 

Ringens (Desmoulea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc , 42, t. 27, f. 6, 1854 66 

Riparia (Planaxis), Risso. Eur. Merid , 75. = N. Cuvieri, Payr. 

Rissoides (Northia), Reeve. Iconica, Pleurotoma, f. Ill 9 

Rissoides (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 14, t. 1, f. 25, 1877 48 

Roadnightae (Voluta), M'Coy. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5, ser. viii, 89, t. 

7, f. 1,2, 1881 96 

Roborea (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 306, 1845 140 

Robusta (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 140. 

= M. Ziervogeliana, Gmel., var. 



INDEX. 237 

PAGE. 

Hoissyi (Nassa), Desh. Voy. Belanger, 482, t, 3, f. 3, 4, 1834 57 

Holland! (Mit-a), Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., iv, 67, t. 2, f. 6, 7, 1853. 

? Imbricaria carbonacea, Hinds. 

Rorata (Turricula), Gould. Sowb. Thes.,f. 240. = T. militaris, Reeve, 
llorata (Mitra), Gould. Bost Proc., iii, 171, 1850. = T. Zebuensis, Reeve. 

Rosacea (Nassa). Reeve. Icon., f. 183, 1854 49 

Rosacea ( Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f 321, 1845. M. annulata, Reeve. 

Rosea (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835 189 

Rosea (Mitra), Kiener. Icon., 83, t. 23, f. 7-!. M. crebrilirata, Reeve. 
Rosea (Mitra), Dticlos. = T. subulata, L-im. 

Roseata (Thala), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 135, 1854 160 

Roseo-caudata (Mitra), Hanley. Sowb.. Thes. Conch., f. 655, 1874 182 

Rosettoo (Mitra), Angas, Zool. Proc., 55. t. 2, f. 6, 1865 121 

Rossi nc (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 198, 1844. = M. variegata, Reeve. 
Rossiniana (Voluta), Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., vii, 377, 1859; viii, 127, 

t. 1, 1860 88 

Rostellit.es, Conrad. Emory's Mex. Bound. Surv. Rept., i, 158, 1855 77 

Rotundicostata (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 8, 1877 63 

Rotundilirata (Mitra) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 178, 1844. 

M. tabanula, Lam. 
Rubella (Mitra), Adams & Reeve. Moll. Voy Samarang, 27, t, 10, f. 30, 

1848 '. v 176 

Rubens (Nassa),* Kiister. Conch. Cab., Bucc., 25, t. 6, f. 7-9. 

= Cantharus (vol. iii). 
Rubigfnea (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, 1854. = M. proscissa, Reeve. 

Rubiginosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f. 68, 1844 Ill) 

Rubiginosa (Mitra), Button. Cat. N. Zeal. Moll. 20; Jour, de Conch., 3 

ser., xviii, 22, 1878. = M. rubra, Reeve. 

Rubiginosum (Cymbium), Swains. Exot. Conch., t. 28 79 

Rubra (Mitra), Swainson. Brod.. Zool. Proc., 1835 188 

Rubra (Nassa), Potiez et Mich. Gall, des Moll., 381, t. 22, f. 17, 18. 

= Lachesis minima 

Rubricata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., Index. = T crebrilirata, Rve. 
Rubricata (Nassa), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc , iii, 155, 1850. 

= N. Gayi, Kiener. 
Rubritincta (Mitra) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 147, 1844. 

M. ferruginea, Lam. 
Riickeri (Voluta), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xv, 144, 1867 ; xvi, 97, t. 1, 

f. 1. = V. piperita, Sowb., var. 

Rudis (Voluta), Gray. Griffith's Cuvier, t. 30, f. 1, 1834. 
V. Ferussaci, Donovan. 

Rufa (Bucc.), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 59. 1847 62 

Rufescens (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 137, 1851. ? = M. annulata, Reeve. 
Ruffina (Mitra), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., 12, 1192 ? == M. crenifera, Lam. 
Ruffina (Voluta) , Linn. Dillw., Desc. Cat., i, 546. ? = Mitra adusta, Lam. 
Rufilirata (Mitra), Ad. & Reeve. Moll. Samarang, 26, t. 10, f. 26, 1848. 

= M. flammea, Quoy. 

llufocincta (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, 1851. = M. Capensis. Dunker. 
Rufocincta (Nassa) A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 106, 1851. 

= N. versicolor, C. B. Ad. 

Rufofilosa (Turricula), E. A Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 518, 1876 195 

Rufolineata (Nassa), Marr. Vars. of Nassa, No. 212. 

= N. myristica. Hinds, var 45 

Rufomaculata (Mitra), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iv, 321, t. 11, 

f. 9, 1860 , 179 



238 INDEX. 



Rufula (Nassa), Reeve (non Kiener). Icon., f. 14, 1853. 

N. glans, L., var. elegans. 

Rufula (Nassa), Kiener. Bucc., 89, t. 24, f. 95. = N. mutabilis, Linn. 
Rufulum (Nassa), Kiener. Bucc., 89, t. 24, f. 95. 

N. mutabilis, Linn. 

Rugata (Truncaria), Reeve. Bucc., f. Ill, 1847 10 

Rugosa (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 5, 1877 63 

Rugosa (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3456. == T. corrugata, Lam. 
Rugosa (Mitra), Swains. Sowerby, Tank. Cat. App., 27, 1825. 

? = T. Cumingii, Reeve. 
Rumphii (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., v, 75, t. 21, f. 

9, 10, 1853. = N. pulla, Linn 24 

Rupestris (Voluta), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3464 ; Lischke, Jap. Meeres 

Conch., Suppl., 59 85 

Rupicola (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 53, 1844. = M. lens, Wood. 
Riippellii (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 179, 1844. 

= M. Solandri, Reeve. 

Russa (Mitra), Gould. Cost. Proc., vii, 332, 1860; Otia, 129 159 

Rustica (Turricula), Sowb. (not Reeve). Thes. Conch., f. 143. 

= T. Deshayesii, Reeve. 

Rustica (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 329, 1845 176 

Rutila (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 137, 1851 151 

Rutila (Voluta), Brod. Zool. Jour., ii, 30, t. 3 87 

Rutilans (Nassa), Reeve. Iconog., f. 147, 1853. 

= N. unicolorata, Kiener. 

Sacerdotalis (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 139, 1851 120 

Salmonea (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 375, 1874 169 

Saltata (Mitra), Pease. Zool. Proc. 512, 1865; Am. Jour. Conch., 216, 

1867. = Thala 162 

Samoenfiis (Nassa), Dunker MS. Marrat, Vars., No. 962. 

. = N. paupera, Gould. 

Samuelis (Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 368, 1860. .= M. astricta, Rve. 

Sanctse- Helena? (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 110, 1851 40 

Sandvichensis (Mitra), G. & H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 99, 1879. 

= M. cruentata, Ch., var. 

Sanguinolenta (Mitra), Lam. Edit. Desh., x. 305 113 

Sanguisuga (Mitra), Linnseus. Syst. Nat. Edit., 12, 1192 165 

Santangeli (Mitra), Maravigna. Guerin's Mag., t. 23, 1840. 

M. zonata, Marryatt. 

Savignii (Mitra), Payraudeau. Moll, de Corse, t. 8, f. 22. 

= M. tricolor, Gmelin. 
Scabra (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 171, 1846; 59, 1847. 

= N. horrida, Punker. 

Scabricola, Swainson. Malaool., 319, 1840. = Mitra, Lam., section 132 

Scabricula (Nassa), Powis. Zool. Proc., 1835 46 

Scabriuscula (Mitra), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th Edit., 1192 135 

Scabriuscula (Mitra), Lamarck (not Linn.). Edit. Desh., x, 310. 

= M. sphaerulata, Martyn. 
Scabriuscula (Nassa), Ad. (not Powis). Panama Cat., No. 53, 1852. 

= N. complanata, Powia. 
Scalariformis (Nassa), Val. Kiener, Bucc., 79, t. 21, f. 80. 

N. clathrata, Born. 

Scalariformis (Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm, 140, 1875. 159 
Scalarina (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 12, t. 1, f. 27, 1877. 

= N. nigra, Hombr. et Jacq. 



INDEX. 239 

PAGE. 

Scalaris (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 108, 1851 29 

Scalpta (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 5. = N. subspinosa, Lam. 

Scapha (Voluta), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3468 89 

Scapha (Voluta), Solander. = Cymbium proboscidalis, Lam 89 

Scapha, Gray (partim., not Klein nor Humph.). Zool. Proc., 131, 1847. 

= Voluta, Linn., sect. Aulica. 
Scaphella, Swains. Gray, Zool. Proc., 141, 1847. 

= Voluta, L., sects. Aulica, Alcithoe, etc. 
Schizopyga, Conr. Pacif. R. R. Rept., vi, t. 2, f. 1, 1856. 

= Tritia, Risso. 

Schomburgki (Mitra), Angas. Zool. Proc., 313, t. 18, f. 12, 13, 1878 173 

Schroeteri (Mitra), Deshayes. Lam., Edit., 2, x, 322. 

= M. cornicula, Lam., var. 

Scita (Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 141, 1875 128 

Scitula (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 138, 1851 , 176 

Scitula (Nassa), A. Ad. Gen., i, 119 63 

Sclateri (Voluta), Cox. Proc. Zool. Soc., 358, t. 26, f. 3, 1869 92 

Scolymus (Turbinella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat,, 3553 70 

Scolymus, Swains. Malacol., 78, 304, 1840. = Vasum, Bolt. 
Scrofa (Voluta), Solander (ubi ?), teste Gray. = V. flavicans, Gmel. 

Sculpta (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 96, 1853 .' 62 

Sculptilis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 290, 1845. = T. cselata, Rve. 

Scutulata (Mitra), Lamarck. An. sans Vert., vii, 3114 155 

Secalina (Mitra), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 120, I860; Otia, 129 159 

Sectilis (Mitra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 271, 1867 159 

Semen (Mitra). Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 256, 1845 190 

Semiconic.i (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 132, f. 619, 1874. 

= M. Philippinarum, A. Ad. 
Semicostata (Nassa), Brocchi. Brusina, Verh. Z. B. Gesell., 12, 1865. 

= N. Cuvieri. Payr. 

Semicostata (Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 68, 1839 193 

Semicostata (Nassa), Brusina. Contr., 66. N. incrassata, Strom. 
Semicostata (Xassa), M*rrat. Var. of Sculpt., 3. 

= Var. of N. monile, Kien. 

Semifasciata (Mitra), Lamarck. Desh., 335 174 

Serniferruginea (Mitra), Jonas. Reeve, Icon., f. 222, 1845 '.... 152 

Semiflammea (Bullm), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 17, 1846 1:5 

Semigranosa (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 170, 1846. 

= N. splendidula, Dkr. 
Semigranulata (Nassa), Dkr. H. and A. Adams' Genera, i, 117. 

? = N. semigranosa, Dunker. 

Semilivida (Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 31, 1877.... 159 
Seminodosa (Nassa), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 104, 1851. 

= N. papillosa, Linn : 30 

Seminulurn (Nassa), Tapparone-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Geneva, vii, 1029, 

1875 62 

Semiplicata (Xassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc.. 107, 1851 32 

Semiplicata (Turricula), Lamarck. H. & A. Ad. Genera, i, 176 195 

Semiplicata (Bullia), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 127, 1839 12 

Semiplicata (Nassa), Dunker (not Adams). Zeit. Mai., 59, 1853. 

= Nassa semisulcata, Dkr. 
Semiplicata (Mitra), Swains. Brod., Zool. Proc., 197, 1835. 

M. microzonias, Lam. 

Semiplicatum (Bucc.), Costa. Cat., 91. Nassa cornicula, Olivi. 
Semisculpta (Mitra), Ad. & Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, 27, t. 10, f. 
28, 1848 174 



240 INDEX. 

PAE. 

. Semistriata (Mitra), Krynicki. Bull. Moscow, ii, 67, 1837 159 

Semistriata (Nassa), Forbes. YEg. Invert., 140. = N. cornicula, Olivi. 
Semistriata (Nassa), Brocchi. Conch, foss., 651, t. 15, f. 15. 

=: N. cornicula, Olivi. 
Semisulcata (Nassa), Bunker. Novit. Conch., 96, t. 32, f. 5, 6. 

= N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Semisulcata (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., v, 81, t. 21, 

f. 30, 32, 1853. = N. crassa, Koch. 

Semitica (Turricula), Jickeli. Jahrb., Mai. Gesell., i, 45, t. 2, f. 8, 1874. 
Semiusta (Bullia), Reeve. Conch Icon., sp. 22, 1847. 

= B. digitalis, Meusch. 

SenegalensH (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 129, 1844 117 

Senticosa (Melo), Bolt. H. & A. Adams' Genera. = M. armata, Lam. 
Sesarma (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 13, t. 1, f. 14, 1877. 

= N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 

S'erotina (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 132, 1851 152 

Serotina (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 108, 1851 39 

Serpentina (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 390. = V. vespertilio, Linn. 

Serpentina (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit, Desh., x, 312 114 

Serrata (Northica), Dufresne. Kiener, Bucc., 23, t. 9, f. 28 9 

Serrata (Nassa), Brocchi. Sub. App. Foss., t, 5, f. 4. 

? = N. reticulata, Linn. 

Sertula (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 107, 1851. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Sertum (Mitra), Duval. Jour, de Conch., iii, 160, t. 7, f. 1, 1852. 

= M. scutulata, Lam. 

Signata (Nassa), Dkr. Zeit. Mai. ,61, 1847 57 

Signifer (Voluta), Brod. Zool. Proc., 232, 1847. = V. flavicans, Gmel. 
Simplex (Nassa), E. A, Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 5 ser. vi, 319, 1880. 63 

Simplex (Mitra), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., Ill, 1846 119 

Sinarum (Nassa), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 63, 1851 62 

Sinensis (Cylindra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 190 b., 1844 196 

Sinensis (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 4 63 

Sinusigera (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 100, 1851 51 

Siquijorensis (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 97, 1851 30 

Sistroidea (Nassa), G. & H. Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xliii, Pt. 

2, t. -1, f. 6, 1874. = N. subpinosa, Lam. 

Smithii (Nassa), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., 1, 204, 1877 63 

Solandri (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 172, 1844 146 

Solida (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 18, 1844; Angas, Zool. Proc., 

194, 1867 120 

Solida (Teinostoma), Smith. Zool. Proc., 737, t. 75, f. 25, 1871. 

= Rotellidse. 
Solidula (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 133, 1844. 

= M. Ziervogeliana, Gmel., var. 
Solitaria (Mitra), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, 44, 1852 ; Carpenter, Zool. 

Proc., 341, 1863. Thala 160 

Sophise (Voluta), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xviii, 431, 1846 87 

Sophioe (Mitra), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., ii, 253, 1862 115 

Sordida (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 97, 1851 52 

Sowerbyi (Voluta), Kiener. Monog., t. 50. = V. papillosa, pars. 
Spadicea (Mitra), Dunker. Sowb., Thes., f. 478, 1874. 
= M. peregra, Reeve, var. 

Sparta (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 11, t. 1, f. 22, 1877 34 

Speciosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 148, 1844 192 

Speciosa (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 100, 1851. 
== Phos plicosus, Krauss (vol. iii). 



ouun: 
Stear 

Stear 



INDEX. 241 

PAGE. 

Speciosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 209, 1844. = M. variata, Reeve. 
Spectabilis (Voluta), Gmelin. Syst, Nat., 3468. = V. ancilla, Soland. 

Spengleriana (Voluta). Mart. H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 161 101 

Sph;i>nil->ta (Mitra), Martyn. Univ. Conch., f. 21 134 

Spicata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 291, 1845. 
= T. fusiformis, Kiener. 

Spilus (Nassa), Watson. Marrat, Vars. No. 772 64 

Spinea (Voluta), Kiister. Conch. Cab., ii, t. 31, f. 3, 4. 

= V. corona, Chemn. 

Spiralis (Voluta). Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3464. = M. exasperata, Gmel. 
Spirata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 106, 1851. 

X. glans, L., var. elegans, Kiener, 

Spiripuncta (Mitra), Garret*. Jour, of Conch., iii, 27, 1880 143 

Splendidula (Nassa), Dunker. Zeit. Mai. 170,1846 52 

Sprela (Nassa), Watson. Marrat, Vars. No. 774 64 

Spreta (Mitra), A. Ad. Jour. Linn. Soc., vii, 201, 1864 182 

Spurca (Nassa), Gould. Bost, Proc., vii, 332, 1860 63 

Squalida (Bullia), King. Zool. Jour., v, 349. = B. cochlidium, Kiener. 
Stainforthii (Mitra). Reeve. P. Z. S., 93. 1841 166 

nsiana (Nassa), Garrett. Marrat, Vars. 89, 1880, 
= N. crenolirata, A. Ad., var. 

tearnsii (V'oluta), Ball. Calif. Proc., N. 270, t. 1, f. 1, 1872 97 

Stigmataria (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim., vii, 311. = T. sanguisuga, L., var, 

Stigmaria, (Nas^a), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 96, 1851 54 

Stimpsoniana (Nassa), C B. Ad. Panama Shells, 72. 
N. scabriuscula, Powis. 

Stolata (Nassa), Gmel. Syst, Nat., 3496 45 

Stoliczkana (Nassa), G. & H. Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 24, t. 1, 
f. 8, 1874. = N. hirta, Kiener. 

Stolid* (Nassa). A Ad. Zool. Proc., 105, 1851 31 

Stragulata (Voluta), Miihlf. = V. zebra. Leach. 

Strangei (Mitra). Angas. Zool. Proc , 110, t. 13, f. 4, 1867 136 

Straminea (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc.. 132,1851 140 

Striata (Xassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 114, 1851. = N. glabrata, A. Ad. 
Striata (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Shells, 289, 1852. 

= N. vers ; color, C. B. Ad. 
StrUta (Mitra), Gray. Beechey's Voy., 135, t. 36, f. 7, 1839. 

M. limbit'era. Lam. 

Striata (Mitra), Brusina. Verb. Zool. Bot. Gesell. Wien, xv, 14, 1865. 194 
Striatella (Mitra), Calcara. = M. Columbellaria, Scacchi. 
Striatula (Mitra), Lam. Edit. Desh., x. 323. M. Barbadensis, Gmelin, 

Strigata (Mitra), Swainson. Rrande's Jour. App., 1824 121 

Strigatella, Swainson. Malacol, 319, 1840 , 108, 153 

Strigillata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 190, 1874 141 

Sturmii (Nassa), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 135, 1848. =z N. vibex. Say. 

Suavis (Mitra), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 183, t. 13, f. 2, 1875 194 

Subdivisa (Mitra). Chemn., part. = T. costellaris, Lain. 
Subdiaphanum (Hucc.), Bivona. = Nassa Cuvieri, Payr. 
Subnodosa (VolnU), Leach. Zool. Misc., i, 24, f. 8. 

V. Magellanica, Lam., var. 

Subplicata (Voluta), Hutton. N. Zeal. Cat,, 18. = V. eracilis, Swn. 
Subquadrata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 485, 18747 

- T. cadaverosa, Rve., var 
Subrostrata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 297, 1874. 

M. pudica, Pease. 

31 



242 INDEX. 

PAGE 

Subspinosa (Nassa), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 173 43 

Subtexturata (Mitra), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 26, 1880 135 

Subtruncata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., iv, sp. 468, f. 405. 

= T. crebrilirata, Rve. 

Subulata (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert,, vii, 313 177 

Subvariabilis (Nassa), d'Orb. Prodr., iii, 83. = N. mutabilis, Linn. 

Succincta (Mitra), Swains. Sowb., Tank. Cat. App., 26, 1825 135 

Succincta (Nasa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 107, 1851. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Sufflata (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 330, 1860. 

= N. tennis, E. A. Smith 23 

Sulcata (Mitra), Swains. Sowb., Tank. Cat. App., 26, 1825 139 

Sulcata (Bullia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 14, t, 4, 1847 13 

Sulcata (Mitra), Menke. Mo'rch, Nachr. Mai. Gesell., v, 70. 

= M. peregra, Reeve. 

Sulcata (Truncaria), Kiener. Buccinum, t. 13, f. 45 10 

Sulcata (Voluta). Lam. Edit. Desh., x. 396. = V. musica, Linn. 

Sulcifera (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 98, 1851 24 

Suluensis (Mitra), Ad. & Rve. Moll. Voy. Samarang, 26. t. 10, f. 27, 1848. 172 
Suluensis (Mitra). Smith (nee Ad. & Rve.). Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist., 425, 

1875. = M. fusco apicata, Smith. 

Suturalis (Nassa), Lam. An. sans Vert., x, 166. N. glans, Linn, var. 
Suturata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 282, 1845. 

-.= M. pellis-serpentis, Reeve. 
Swainsoni (Conoelix). Lesson. Voy. Coquille, ii, Pt. 1, 400, t. 11, f. 5, 

1830. := Imbricaria conica, Schum. 

Swainsoni (Mitra), Broderip. Zool. Proc., 1835 ; 121 

Swainsonia, H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 180. = Mitra, Lam., section 130 



Tabanula (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim., vii, 323 146 

Tabescens (Nassa), Marrat. Vars. of Nassa, 81, 1880 08 

Tsenia (Nassa), Grnel. Syst, Nat,, 3493 30 

Treniata (Mitra), Lamarck. An. sans Vert., vii, 307 164 

Tseniolatum (Buccinum), Phil. Archiv fur Naturg., i, 69, 1845 57 

Tahiteusis (Bullia), Gmel. Syst, Nat,, 3490 16 

Tahiterisis (Mitra), Garrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 30, 1880 148 

Taiusiana (Bullia), Dunker. Moll. Guin., 19, 1853 16 

Tasmanica (Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 139, 1875.. 159 
Tasmanica (Nassa), Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania. 150, 1875. 

? = N. monile, Kiener, var. Jacksoniana. 

Tatei (Mitra), Angas. Zool. Proc., 861, t. 54. f. 8. 1878 183 

Tathnae (Mitra), Jickeli Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, 25, t. 11. f. 4, 1874 139 

Tayloriana (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 125, 153, 1874. 

3= T. teeniata. Lam. 

Tegula (Nassa), Reeve. Icon., f. i 8, 1853 39 

Teinostoma, H. & A. Adams' Genera, i, 132. =c Family Umboniinre. 
Telasco, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Kec. Moll, i, 119. = Zeuxis, H. & A. Ad. 

Telescopium (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 80, 1844 143 

Telum (Mitroidea), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 613, 614, 1874 163 

Tenella (Nassa), Reeve. Icon. Index, 1854 50 

Temulirata (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 407, 1874 178 

Tennis (Bullia), Gaay. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 1, 1846 11 

Tenuis (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 423, 1875; Zool. 

Proc., 211,1879 23 

Tenuis (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 66, f. 327, 1874 .'.'..'.'. 129 



INDEX. 243 

PAGE. 

Terebralis (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1885. 

= T. subulata, Lam. 
Terebralis (Mitra), Lamarck. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 303. 

M. tessellata, Martyn. 

Terebroides (Nassa), Rve. Icon., f. 161, 1853. = N. labiata, A. Ad. 
Teresine (.Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Hoy. Soc. Tasm., 140, 1875; 34, 

1878 128 

Teretiuscula (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 108, 1851 32 

Tessellata (.Mitra), Martyn. Univ. Conch., f. 19 132 

Tessellata (.Mitra), Kiener. Icon., t. 13, f. 42. M. Barbadensis, Gmel. 

Tessellata (Melo), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 377 80 

Tessellata (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. 111., 2d ser. = M. Rossise, Reeve. 
Tessellata (Nassa), Rve. Icon., f. 167, 170, 1853. = N. vibex, Say. 
Tessellaturn (Bucc.), Scacchi. Cat., ii. = Nassa Cuvieri, Payr. 
Tessellatum (Bucc.), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3479. = Nassa mutabilis, Linn. 
Tesscllatum (P.uccinum), Olivi. Zool. Adriatica, 142, 1792. 

N. reticulata, Linn, var. 

'IVssellatus (Fusus), Schubert et Wagner, T. 219, f. 3048, 3049. 
= Voluta dubia, Brod. 

Te.stacea (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Proc., 1835 127 

Textilina (Nassa), Morch. Kreb's Catal. = Phos (vol. iii). 

Texturata (Mitra), Lamarck. Edit, Desh., x, 328 134 

Thatcher! (Voluta), McCoy. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., i, 54, t. 2, f. 1, 18(iS : 

Proc. Zool. Soc., 561, 1869; Jour, de Conch., 38, 1873 JM> 

Thevsites (Nassa), Brug. Encyc. Meth., t. 394, f. 8 25 

Thiurella, Swainson. Malacol. 130, 1840. := Mitra, Lam* 
Thiarella (Voluta), Lam. Edit, Desh., x, 392. = V. musica, Linn. 
Tiara, Swainson. Malacol., 129, 319, 1840. = Turricula, Klein. 
Tiarella (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 133, 1851. = M. coronata, Lam. 

Tiarula (Nassa), Kiener. Bucc., iii, t. 30, f. 4 41 

Ticaonica (Mitra), Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 181, 1844. = M. crassa, Swn. 

Tigrina (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 132, 1851 157 

Tiraorensis (Mitra), Dohrn. Mai. Blatt, 56. 1864. ? = T. crem<ms, Rve. 
Tinei (Nassa), Maravigna. Atti Soc. Groenia, 1841. 

? = Var. of N. cornicula, Olivi. 
Tissotiana (Voluta), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xv, 195, t. 6, f. 1, 1867. 

= V. flavicans, Gmel., var. 
Todilla (Thala), Migh. Bost. Proc., ii, 24, 1845; Pease, Am. Jour. 

Conch., iii, 216, 1867 160 

Tornata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 269, 1845. = M. flammea, Quoy. 

Tornatelloides (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 316. 1845 144 

Torulosa (Mitra), Lam. Edit. Desh , x, 334. := M. exasperata, Gmelin. 
Tranquebarica (Bullia), Bolten. Morch, Cat. Yoldi, 77. 
B. Belangeri, Kiener. 

Tricarinata (Nassa), Lam. Anim., x, 171 62 

Tricolor (Mitra), Montrouzier. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., i, 272, 1861. 
- T. luculenta, Reeve, var. 

Tricolor (Mitra), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3476 l'.'^ 

Trifaseiata (Truncaria), A. Adams. Genera of Recent, Mollusca, i, 11. 10 
Trifasciata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 113, 1851. = N T . cornicula, Olivi. 
Trifasciata (Nassa), Gmel. Syst, Nat,, 3489. ? = N. unicolorata, Kiener. 
Trinpa (Nassafl, Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., iv, 272, t. 10, f. 7, 

1864 47 

Trinodosa (Nassa), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 545, t. 30, f. 2, 

1876. = N. tiarula, Kiener. 



244 INDEX. 



Tristis (Mitra), Swainson. Brod., Zool. Soc. Proc., 134, 1835 155 

Tritia, Risso. Hist. Nat., iv, 172, 1826. = S. G. of Nassa, Mart 7 

Tritiaria, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 21, 1865; Conrad, A. J. C., iii, 

264. = S. G. of Ptychosalpinx, Gill '. 8 

Tritonella, A. Adams. Genera, i, 121. == Hima, Leach. 

Tritoniformis (Nassa), Kiener. Bucc., 108. t. 30, f. 2 45 

Tritonis (Cymba). Brod. Spec. Couch., 5, f. 3, a, b. C. Neptuni, Gmel. 
Tritonium (Bucc.), Blainv. Fanne Franc., 121. 

= Nassa incrassata, var. pygmsea, Lam. 

Trivittata (Nassa), Say. Jour. Phil. Acad., ii, 231, 1822 60 

Truncaria, Adams and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 33, 1848 6 

Truncata (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., t. 30, f. l(Jl. 

? Imbricaria punctata, Swainson. 

Truncata (Hullia), Keeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 15, 1846 16 

Trunculus (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. .,12, 1874 190 

Tryoni (Desmoulea), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xvii, 409, 1869. 

= D. ret usa, Lam. 
Tschudii (Nassa), Troschel. Archiv..Naturg., i, 173, t. 5, f. 4, 18-V2. 

N. dentifera, Powis. 

Tuberculata (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog. Index. = M. nodosa, Swn. 
Tuberculata (Voluta), Swainson. Exot. Conch., ix, t. 6. 

V. Magellanica, Lam., var. 
Tuberculatum (Bucc.), Turton. Diet., 16. 

= Nassa incrassata, var. pygmsea. 
Tuberosn, (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 237, 1844. 

= T. patriarchal is, Lam. 
Tubigera (Turbinella), Anton. Verzeichn., 70, 1839. 

? i= Vasum imperiale, Reeve. 

TumMa (Mitra), Reeve. Couch. Icon., f. 51, 1844 192 

Turben (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f. 213, 1844 , 146 

Turbinata (Voluta). Kiener. Monog , t. 26, f. 2. = V. hebraea, Linn., var. 
Turbinea (Nassa), Gould. Bost. Jour. N. H , v, 292, t. 24, f. 10, 1845... 57 

Turbinella, Lam. Prodr., 73 ; Syst. An., 83, 1801 67 

Turbinella (Vasum), Linn. Mus. Ulric., 634 72 

Turgida (Mitra), Reeve. Conch Icon., f 273, 1845 144 

Turneri (Voluta), Gray Griffith's An. Kingd., t, 40, f. 1 92 

Turricula, Klein. Ostrac., 74, 1753 109, 164 

Turricula (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 139, 1851. 

= T. militaris. Reeve, var. 
Turricula (Nassa), Pease MSS. Carpenter, Zool. Proc., 616, 1865. 

= N. paupera, Gld. 
Turriger (Mitra), Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 262, 1845. 

= T. fusiformis, Kiener. 
Turris, Montf. Conch. Syst., ii, 539, 1810. = Turricula, Klein. 

Turrita (Bullia), Gray. Zool. Beechey Voy., 126, 1839... 14 

Turrita (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 110, 1851. = N. clathrata, Born. 
Turturina (Mitra), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xv, 43, 297, 1875; 3 

ser., xvii, 73, t. 1, f. 2, 1877. 184 

Tusa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 283, 1845 

Typha (Mitra). Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 267, 1845 128 

Typostigma (Mitra), Brusina. Weinkauff, ii, 33 194 

Umbilicata (Melo), Brod. Sowb., Genera of Shells. 

M. diadema, Lam., var. 
Umbonata (Mitra), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 259, 1870. = T. Osidiris, Issel. 



INDEX. 245 

PAGE. 

Umbrosa (Mitra), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 123, 1874. = T. vulpecula, Linn. 

Undata (Nassa), M Mi-rat. New Forms of Nassa, 9, 1877 63 

Undata. (Volut-i), Martyn. Univ. Conch. = V. interpuncta, Mart. 

Urdulata (Volttta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 401 92 

Ui.dulosa (Cyliidni), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. H>2, 1844 196 

Unicincta (Nassa), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad.. v, 211, Ib26. 

'.' Pints QaudeloupensU, Petit (vol. iii). 
Unicolor (Nassa), Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et ZeL, v, 76, t. 21, f. 

13--15, 18 ")'!. = N. unicolorata, Kiener. 

Unicolorata (Nassa), Kiener. Monog. Bucc., 60, t. 19, f. 69 31 

Unidentata (Nassa), Powis. Kilter, Bucc., 24, t. 6, f. 4-6. 

N. dentifera, Powis. 

Unifiscial's (Columbella), Chenu. ~ M auriculoides, Keeve. 
Unif'ascialis (Mitra). Lamarck. Edit. Desh.. x, 337. = M. nucleola, Lam. 
Unifa-cial's (Mitra), Anton. Verzeichn., 68. M. Antonii, Kiister. 

Unifasciata (Voluta), Wood. Index Test. T. Cumingii, Reeve. 
Unifasciata (Nassa), Kien. Bucc , 76, t. 14, f. 50. - N. Cuvieri, Payr. 
Unifasciata . (Cyclonassa), Kisso. = Neritula neritea, Linn. 
Unifasciata '(Nassa), Pease MSS. Carpenter, Zool. Proc., 516, 1865. 
, = N. paupera, Gld. 

Unilinenta ( 1'urricu'a), Garret*. Jour, of Conoh., iii, 60, 1880 195 

Ustulata (Mitva), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 89 r 1844 ... 119 

Uzielliana (Mitra). Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., i, 285, 1861 ; ii, 50, 

1862 150 

Uzita, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec., Moll., i, 120. = S. G. of Nassa, Mart. 7 

Valida (Bullia), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 191, 1852; Novit., 33, t. 10, f. 1, 2. 

= Pusionella. 

Vanikorensis (Mitra), Quoy. Voy. Astrol.. ii, 649, t. 45, bis, f. 5, 6 199 

Variahilis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 95. 1844 119 

Variabilis (Nassa), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, 221. = N. Cuvieri, Payr. 

Varians (Nassa), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., vi, 231, 1860 62 

Variata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 2o9, Index. 

Varicifera (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., H>8, 1851: Smith, Zool. Proc., 

210, 187 31 

Varicosa (Nassa), Turton. Zool. Jour., ii, 365, t. 13, f. 7. 

N. iuc?-assata, var. pygmaea, Lam. 

Variegata (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3457. = M. serpentina, Lam. 
Variegata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 97, 1851. = N. gemmulata, Lam. 

Variegata ( Vlitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. Ill, 1844 113 

Vai-iolaria ( furbinella), Lam. Edit. Desh., ix, 380. 

Vasum turbiuella, Linn. 
Vasum, Bolt. Mus., 1798. Link. Beschreib., iii, 119. 1807; Z. P., 231, 

1851 67, 71 

Velata (Bullia), Gould. Otia Conch., 67 ; Wilkes' Exp., 252, f. 319. 

= Nassa gaudiosa, Flinds 16 

Velicata (Nassa), Meusch. Marrat. = N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Ventricosa (Desmoulea), Lam. H. & A. Ad-ims' Genera. 

= N. mutabilis, Linn. 

Ventricosa (Nassa), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 168. =N mutabilis, Linn. 
Venusta (Nassa), Dkr. Zeit. Mai., 59, 1847. 

= N. cremata, var. margaritifera. 
Venustula (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 204. = M. aureolata, Swn. 

Verrucosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 232, 1845 174 

Verrucosa (Nassa), Gniel. Syst. Nat., 3497. 



246 INDEX. 



Verrucosa (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 97, 1851 54 

Versicolor (Mitra), Martyn. Univ. Conch., f. 23 112 

Versicolor (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat. 66, 1852 50 

Versicolor (Mitra), Kiener. Iconosr., t, 7, f. 18. = M. erronea, Dohrn. 

Vespertilio (Voluta), Linn Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1494 86 

Verpertilio, Klein. Ostrac., 76, 1753. = Voluta, Linn, sect 86 

Vexillulum (Turbinella), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1842. 

= Vasum ceramicum. Linn. 

Vexillum (Mitra), Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 183, 1844 146 

Vexillum (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 402 85 

Vexillum, Bolten. Mus., 1798. = Turricula, Klein. 

Vibex (Nassa), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad , ii, 231, 1822 ; Am. Conch., 

t. 57, f. 2... 42 

Vibex (Nassa), Reeve (not Say). Icon., f. 81. = N. subpinosa, Lam. 
Vibex (Mitra), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, 1851. 
= T. cruentata, Chemn., var. proxima. 

Vincta (Nassa), Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, 12, 1877 63 

Vincta (Mitra), A Ad. Zool. Proc., 134, 1854. = M. Capensis, Dunker. 

Violacea (Thala), Garrett. Cal. Proc., 202, 1872 162 

Virescens (Voluta), Solander. Dillw., Desc. Cat., i, 562 84 

Virgata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 197, b 156 

Virgata (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 197, a. = M. retusa, Lam. 

Virginalis (Mitra), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 143, 1842 195 

Virgo (Imbricaria), Swainson. Zool. Proc., 1835 198 

Vitellina (Mitra), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 170, 1850 132 

Vitiensis (Na-sa), Hombr et Jacq. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., v, 79, t. 21, f. 

23-25, 1853. = N. hirta, Kiener. 

Vitrea (Nassa), Phil. Kritisches Register, No. 2 62 

Vitrea (Nassa), Gray. Am. Nat. Hist., i, 28, 1838 ,, 62 

Vitrea (Bullia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp 20, 1846. B. polita, Lam... 15 
Vittata (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 114, 1851. = N. maculata, A. Ad. 

Vittata (Bullia), Linn. Edit., 12, 1206 15 

Vittata (Mitra), Swainson. Zool. 111., 1st ser. = M. tseniata, Lam. 
Vittatum (Buccinum), Kiener. Monog., 25, t. 9, f. 30 

Bullia granulosa, Lam. 

Vitulina (Voluta), Dillwyn. Desc. Cat., i, 553. = Mitra ferruginea, Lam. 
Votuta, Linn, (emend). Syst. Nat., x, 729; xii, 1186; Gray, Zool. Proc., 

59, 1855 75, 82 

Volutella, d'Orb (nee. Swains.). Voy. Amer., 424, 1840. 

= Voluta, Linn., sect 98 

Volutella, Perry. Conch., t. 26, 1811. = Vasum, Bolt. 

Volutifusus, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., ii, 67, 1866 77 

Volutilithes, Swains. Malacol., 318, 1840. = Voluta, Linn, sect 100 

Volutoconus, Crosse Jour, de Conch , xix, 306, 1871. 

= Voluta, Linn, sect 100 

Volutoderma, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad., 289, 1876 77 

Volutolyria, Crosse Jour, de Couch., 3 ser., xvii, 99, 1877 76 

Volutomitra, Gray. Guide Brit. Mus., 36, 1857. = Mitra, Lam., section ? 108 

Volutomorpha, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad., 290, 1876 77 

Volva (Voluta), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3457 93 

Volvacea (Voluta), Lam. Edit. Desh , x, 403. V. volva, Gmel. 
Volvacea (Voluta), Lam Edit. Desh., x, 403. = V. flavicans, Gmel. 
Vulgatum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3496. := Nassa reticulata, L. 
Vulpecula, Blainv. Diet. Sc. Nat., xxxi, 106, 1824. = Turricula, Klein. 
Vulpecula (Mitra), Linn. Edit., 12, 1193 167 



INDEX. 247 

PAGE. 

Vultuosa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 270, 1845 134 

Webbei (Nassa), Petit. Jour, de Conch., i, 404, t. 13, f. 8, 1850. 

= N. Uruneri, Dunker. 

Weldii (Mitra), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 31, 1877 125 

Williamsii (Mitra), Newcomb. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 163, t. 17, f. 1, 1869. 161 
Wilsoni (Nassa), C. B. Ad. Panama Cat., 67, 1852. 

= M. complan-ita, Powis. 
Wisemani (Voluta), Brazier. Proc. Zool. Soc., 108, 1870; Jour.de 

Conch , 78, t. 5, f. 1, 1871. = V. pulchra, Sowb., var. 
Wisemani .(Mitra), Dohrn. Zool. Proc., 367, 1860. = Turr. bella, Pease. 
Woldemarii (Mitra), Kiener. Iconog., t. 17, f. 55. 

M. Ziervogeliana, Gmel., var. 
Woodwardi (Nassa), Forbes. Zool. Proc., 273, t, 11, f. 3, 1850. 

-- N. mendica, Gould. 
Wrighti (Mitra), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xviii, 57, t. 1, f. 1, 

1878. ^ M. inquinata, Reeve. 

Xanius, Bolten. Mus., 1798; Link, Beschreib., iii, 116, 1807. 

\Uzz;i, Bolt. 
Xantbostoma (Nassa), Gray. Beechey's Voy., t. 36, f. 3. 

N. luteostoma, Brod. and Sowb. 

Yetina, Gray. Zool. Proc., 141. 1847. Cymbium, Klein. 
Yetus, Adamson. Gray, Zool. Proc , 141, 1847; H. & A. Ad. Genera, i, 
138. = Cymbium, Klein. 

Zaphon, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 121. Zeuxis, H. & A. Ad. 

Zebra (Mitra), (iarrett. Jour, of Conch., iii, 35, 1880 156 

Zebra (Mitra), Lamarck. Ann. Mus., 21 5. M. paupercula, Linn. 

Zebra (Voluta), Leach. Zool. Misc., i, t. 12 f. 1 93 

Zebrina (Mitra), Garrett. Zool. Proc., 842, 1872. Turr. semen, Rve. 

Zebrina (Mitra), d'Orbigriy. Moll. Can., 86, t. 6, f. 29-31 190 

Zehuensis (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 73, 1844 179 

Zelotypa (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 325, 1845 182 

Zephyrina (Mitra), Duclos. Sowb., Thes. Conch., No. 29, 1874 132 

Zeux'is, H. & A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 119. 

= S. G. of Nassa, Mart 6, 30 

Ziba. H. & A. Adams. Genera, i, 179. Mitra, Lam. 

Zidona, H. & A. Adams. Genera i, 161, 1853. Volutella, d'Orb. 

Zierliana, Gray. Zool. Proc., 141, 1847. .= Strigatella, Sw., sect. ..109, 157 

Ziervogeliana (Mitra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3457 157 

Zonalis (Mitra), Quoy & Gaim. Voy. Astrol., ii, 654, t. 45 bis, f. 16, 17. 

T. catt'ra, Linn. 

Zonalis (Nassa), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 107, 1851. == N. gaudiosa, Hinds. 
Zonalis (N?issa), Drug. Encyc. Meth. Vers., 271. 

V N. granifera, Kiener. 
Zonsita (Mitra), Marryatt, Linn. Trans., xiii, t. 10, f. 1, 2, 1817; J. B. 

Mill. Gesell., i, 227, t, 11, f. 3, 4 130 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



Plate 1 (Frontispiece). 

FIGURES. PAGE. 

1. Bullia achatina, Lam. (= digitalis, Meusch). Quoy, Voy. Astrol., 

t. 31, f. 17 12 

2. Bullia Isevigata, Mart. (= laevissima, Gm.). Quoy, Voy. Astrol., 

t. 31, f. 14 11 

3. Cymba Neptuni, Gmel. Kiener, Iconog. Voluta, t. 1 80 

Plate 2. 

Lingual Dentition. 

1. Vasum cornigerum, Lam. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, 

t, 8, f.5 67 

2. Cymbium olla, Linn. Troschel, t. 5, f. 1 75 

3. Melo nautica, Lam. Troschel, t. 5, f. 2 a 75 

4. Voluta scapha, Gmelin. Troschel, t. 5, f. 3 75 

5. Amoria Turneri, Gray. Troschel, t. 5, f. 5 75 

6. Voluta musica, Linn. Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 4, 1879 84, 76 

7. Lyria deliciosa, Montrouz. Jour, de Conch., t. 13, f. 7, 1867 102, 76 

8. Volutomitra Groeulandica, Gray. Troschel, t. 5, f. 5b 1' 8 

9. Mitra cornea, Lam. Troschel, t. 6. f. 5 108 

10. Mitra (Nebularia) adusta, Mart. Troschel, t. 6, f. 7 108 

11. Mitra (Chrysame) fraga, Quoy. Troschel, t. 6, f. 8 108 

12. Zierliana Woldemarii, Kiener. Troschel, t. 9, f. 11 109 

13. Turricula corrugata, Lam. Troschel, t, 9, f. 13 109 

14. Imbricaria conica, Schum. Troschel, t, 8, f. 6.... 109 

15. Cylindra nucea, Meusch. Troschel, t. 5, f. 7 109 

16. Marginella elegans, Gmelin. Troschel, t. 5, f. 6. See vol. v. 

17. Volvaria Philippinarum, Redfield. Troschel, t. 5, f. 8. See vol. v. 

18. ' Persicula clandestina, Brocc. Troschel, t. 5, f. 11. See vol. v. 

19. Cystiscus Capensis, Stimpson. Troschel, t. 5, f. 10. See vol. v. 

Plate 3. 

Lingual Dentition. 

20. Bullia rhodostoma, Gray. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t, 8, f. 7 5 

21. Pseud ostrombus vittatus, L Troschel, t, 8, f. 10 5 

22. Nassa arcularia, L. Troschel. t. 8, f. 15 6 

23. Nassa thersites, Brug. Troschel, t. 8, f. 14 6 

24. Nassa cornicula, Olivi. Troschel, t. 8, f. 13 6 

25. Ilyanassa obsoleta, Say. Troschel, t. 8, f. 22 7 

26. Neritula neritea, L. Troschel, t. 8, f. 11 7 

Fossil Genera. 

27. Molopophorus striata, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, t. 26, f. 36 7 

28. Ptychosalpinx altilis, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 153 7 

29. Ptychosalpinx scalaspira, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 19, f. 4. 7 

30. Paranassa granifera, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 19, f. 6 8 

(248) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 249 

I-IGURK. PAOE> 

31 Tritiaria peralta, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 19, f. 5 8 

32. Schizopyga Californica, Conr. Pac. R. R. Rept., vi, t. 2, f. 1 55 

33, 34 Indian Bracelet, made from Turbinella pyrum, and saw u>ed for 

cutting the shell. Simmond's Commercial Products of the Sea 

f. 20, 21 69 

35. Caricella pnettnuis, Conrad. Tert. Fossils, t. 17, f. 1 67 

30. Volutifusus typus, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., ii, t. 3, f. 2 77 

3.7. Athleta Tuomeyi, Conrad. Jour A. N. S. Philad., iv, t. 47, f. 35... 77 

38. Leioderma leioderma, Conr. Jour. A. N S. 1'lnlad., iv, t. 46, f. 32. 77 

39. Crvptochorda Stromboides, Gmel. Sowb. Genera, Bucc., f . 8 78 

40. Fusimitra cellulifera, Conr. Jour. Philad. Acad., 2 ser. i, t. 12, f. 3. 109 

41. Conomitia Fusoides, Lea. Cpntrib. Geol., t. 6, f. 176 109 

42. Voluti'lla (Microspira) oviformis, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, t. 5, 

f. 3. See vol. v. 

43. Lapparia dumosa, Conr. Wailes' Geol. Miss., t. 15, f. 4 109 

Plate 4. 

Fossil Genera. 

44. Volutoderma Navarroensis, Gabb. Pal. Calif., i, t, 19, f. 50 77 

45. Volutomorpha Conradi, Gabb. Jour. Phil. Acad., iv., t. 48, f. 10.... 77 
4ii. Rostellites Texana, Conrad. Emory's Mex. Bound. Surv., i, t. 14, 

f. 2 b 77 

47. Ptychoris Purpuriformis, Forbes. Pal. Indica, ii, t. 8, f. 5 77 

48. Pleioptygma Carolinensis, Conrad. Tuomey & Holmes, Pleioc. Foss. 

S. C., t. 27, f. 9 ' 78 

49. Gossavia Indica Stol. Pal. Indica. ii, t. 6, f. 7 78 

Plate 5. 

50. Northia pristis, Desh. ( serrata). Reeve. Bucc., f 39 9 

51. Noithia serrata, Dufresne. H. & A. Adams' Genera, t. 12, f. 1 a 9 

52. Northia albopunctata, Adams and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 1. 11, f. 21. 9 

53. Northia Rissoides, Reeve. Icon. Pleurotoma fig. Ill 9 

54. Truncaria filosa, Ad. & Reeve. Voy.*Samarang, t. 11, f. 18 9 

55. Truncaria Australia, Angas. Zool. Proc.. t 26, f. 5, 1877 9 

56. Truncaria rugata, Reeve. Icon. Bucc., f. Ill 10 

57. Truncaria modesta, Powis. Reeve, Bucc., f. 19 10 

58. Truncaria sulcata, Kiener. Iconog., Bucc., t. 13, f. 45 10 

59. Bullia Isbvigata, Mart. (= Isevissima, Gm.). Reeve, Bullia, f. 6 11 

60. Bullia globulosa Kiener. Reeve, Icon , f 5 11 

61. Bullia deformis, King. Reeve, Icon., f. 21 11 

O'J. Bullia tenuis, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 1 11 

03. Bullia callosa, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 24 , 11 

64. Bullia Mauritiana, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 12 b 12 

65. Bullia Grayi, Reeve (= Mauritiana) Icon., f. 7 12 

66. Bullia semiplicata, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 18 a 12 

67. Bullia digitalis, Meuschen. Reeve, Icon., t. 4, f. 4 12 

68. Bullia semiusta, Reeve (= digitalis). Icon., f. 22 12 

69. Bullia rhodostoma, Gray ( digitalis). Reeve, Icon., f 25 12 

70. Bullia Persica, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 46, f. 11, 1878 13 

71. Bullia sulcata. Reeve. Conch. Icon . t. 4, f. 14 13 

72. Bullia Natalensis, Krauss (= digitalis, var.). Kiister, t. 14, f. 2.... 12 

73. Bullia cochlidium. Kiener. Iconog. Bucc., t. 6, f. 17 13 

74. Bullia annulata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 13 14 

75. Bullia semiflammea, Reeve, Icon., f, 17 13 

32 



250 REFERENCE 'TO PLATES. 

Plate 6. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

76. Bullia cochlidium, Kiener. Reeve, Bullia, f. 23 13 

77. Bullia gradata, Desh. ( cochlidium). Reeve, Bullia, f. 3 13 

78. Bullia Lamarckii, Kiener (== cochlidium). Iconog., t. 3, f. 6 13 

79. Bullia Paytense, Kiener (= cochlidium). loonog., t. 6, f. 16 13 

80. Bullia squalida, King ( cochlidium). Reeve, f. 26 13 

81. Bullia labyrintbum, Gm. (= cochlidium). Kiister, t. 10, f. 11 13 

82. Bullia armata, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 2 b 14 

83. Bullia moniliferum, Val. (= armata, Gray). Kiener, t. 3, f. 8 14 

84. Bullia turrita. Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 16 14 

85. Bullia Melanoides, Desb. Voy. Belanger, t. 2, f. 3 14 

86. Bullia Mozambicensis, Smith (= Melanoides). Zool. Proc. t, 75, 

f. 18. 1877 14 

87. Bullia vittata, Linn. Reeve, Iconog., f. 9 15 

88. Bullii polita, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 19 15 

89. Bullia vitrea, Reeve (= polita). Conch. Icon., Bullia, f. "20 15 

90. Bullia Kurrachensis, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 54, f. 6, 1877 lo 

91. Bullia vittata, Kiener (= granulosa, Lam.). Iconog., t. 9, f. 30 14 

92. Bullia livida, Reeve (= vittata). Icon., f. 10, b 15 

93. Bullia Taheitensis, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 11 15 

94. Bullia BeUngeri, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 8 b 16 

95. Bullia polita, Desh. (= Belangeri). Voy. Belang., t. 3, f. 1 16 

96. Bullia diluta, Krauss. Kiister, Buccinum, t 14, f. 5 16 

97. Bullia mediolaris (=-- diluta, var.), Von Martens. Jahrb. Mai., 1, 

t. 6, f. 4 16 

98. Bullia truncata, Reeve. Icon., f. 15 16 

Plate 7. 

1. Nassa mutabilis, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 6 b 22 

2. ' Nassa mutabilis, Linn. Poli, Test. Sicil., iii, t. 47, f. 6.. 22 

3. Nassa rufula, Kiener (== mutabilis). Iconog. Bucc., t. 24, f. 95 22 

4. 5. Nassa balteata, Lischke (= tenuis, Smith). Jap. Meeres Conch., 

t, 5, f. 10, 11 A 23 

6. Nassa Isevigata, Marrat. New Forms of Nassa, f. 7 23 

7. Nass-i coronata, Brug. Reeve, Icon., f. 20 c 23 

8. Nassa Bronni, Phil. (= coronata). Reeve, Icon., f. 149 23 

9. 10. Nassa arcularia, Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 32, f. 3, 4, 1 24 

11. Nassa sulcifera, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 24 a 24 

12. Nassa pulla, L'nn. Reeve, Icon., f. 22 b 24 

13. Nassa Rumphii, Hombr. and Jacq. (= pulla). Astrol. et Zel., 

t. 21, f. 9 24 

14. Nassa Deshayesii, Hombr. and Jacq. (= pulla). Astr. etZel., t. 21, 

f. 11 24 

15. 16. Nassa gibbosula, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 64 a, b 24 

17. Nassa circumcincta, A. Ad. (= gibbosula). Reeve, f. 71 a 24 

18. Nassa Kraussiana, Dunker. Krauss, Siidaf. Moll., t. 6, f. 18 25 

19. Nassa orbiculata, A. Ad. ( Kraussiana). Reeve, Icon., f. 154 b... 25 

20. Nassa Thersites, Brug. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 32, f. 22 25 

21. Nassa Thersites, Brug. Reeve, Icon., f. 65 25 

22. Nassa bimaculosa, A. Ad. (= Thersites). Reeve, f. 61 25 

23. Nassa dorsuosa, A. Ad. (= Thersites). Reeve, f. 141, a 25 

24. Nassa leptospira, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 84 25 

25. Nassa gracilis, Pease (= leptospira). Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t 23, 

f. 4.... . 25 



REFERENCE -TO PLATES. 251 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

26. Nassa bellula, A. Ad. ( leptospira). Reeve, Icon., f. 184 25 

27. Nassa labida, Reeve ( leptospira). Icon., f. 17i 25 

28. Nassa Persica, Martens ( leptospira). Vord. As. Conch., t. 5, f. 47. 25 

Plate 8. 

29. Nassa Jonasi, Dunker. Philippi, Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 10 26 

30. Nassa Burchardi, Dunker ( Jonasi). Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 14. 26 

31. Nassa labecula, A. Ad. ( Jonasi). Reeve, Icon., f. 166 26 

32. Nassa nana, A. Ad. (= Jonasi). Reeve, Icon., f. 164 26 

33. Nassa callosa, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 185 a 26 

34. Nassa callospira, A. Ad. ( callosa). Reeve, Icon., f. 66 b 26 

35. Nassa cancellata, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 155 b 26 

36. Nassa Mangelioides, Reeve. Icon., f. 152 b 26 

37. Nassa globosa, Quoy. Voy. Astrol , t. 32, f. 25 26 

38. Nassa clathrata, Kiener (== globosa). Iconog., t. 27, f. 108 26 

39. Nassa granifera, Kiener. Reeve, Iconog., f. 72 26 

40. Nassa obliqua, Hombr. et Jacq. (= granifera). Voy. Astr. et Zel., 

t, 21, f. 44 .... 26 

41. Nassa onorata, Desh. (:_= granifera). He Reunion, t. 12, f. 24 26 

42. Nassa glabrata, Sowb. Thes. Coach., i. t. 8, f. 66 27 

43. Nassa obliqua, Kiener ( glabrata). Iconog., Bucc., t. 31, f. 4 27 

44. Nassa gratia, Lam. Kiener, Bucc., t. 16, f. 58 27 

45. Nassa glans, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 5 27 

46. Nassa plans, var. lata, nob 27 

47. Nassa elegans, Kiener (= glans, var.). Iconog., Bucc., t. 24, f. 97.. 27 

48. Nassa rufula, Reeve (-_ glan?, var. elegans). Icon., f. 14 27 

49. Nassa spirata, A. Ad. (= glans, var. elegans). Icon., f. H b 27 

50. Nassa costata, A. Ad. ( hirta, Kiener). Reeve, Icon., f. 142 28 

51. Nassa hirta, Kiener. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f . 1 28 

52. Nassa intermedia, Dunker (= glans, var. suturalis). Voy. Novara, 

t. 1, f. L> : 27 

53. 54. Nassa suturalis, Lam. (= glans, var.). Reeve, Icon., f. 4, 11... 27 

55. Nassa uodifera, Povvis (= hirta?). Reeve, Icon., f. 23 28 

56. Nassa crenulata, Reeve (= hirta). Icon., f. 2 b 28 

57. Nassa Viiiensis, Hombr. et Jacq. (= hirta). Voy. Astr. et Zel., t. 

21, f. 23 28 

58. Nassa Stoliczkana, Nevill (= hirta). Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, xxiv, 

t. 1, f. 8 28 

59. Nassa bifaria, Baird (= hirta). Voy. Curacea, t. 38, f. 1 28 

Plate 9. 

60. Nassa monile, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 38 28 

61. Nassa pauperata. Lam. (= monile). Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 32, f. 5. 28 

62. Nassa lachrymosa, Reeve (= monile). Icon., f. 52 28 

63. Nassa Jacksoniana, Quoy (= monile, var.). Kiener, t. 19, f. 73.... 28 

64. Nassa Jacksoniana, Quoy (= monile, var.). Voy. Astrol., t. 32, f. 29. 28 

65. Nasga acuticostata, Montr. (= monile, var. Jacksoniana). Jour..de 

Conch., 3 ser. iv, t. 10, f. 8 28 

66. Nassa corticata, A. Ad. (= monile, var. Jacksoniana). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 189 28 

67. Nassa mucronata, A. Ad. (--: monile). Specimen 28 

68. Nassa distorta, A. Ad. (= monile). Reeve, Icon., f. 32 b 28 

69. Nassa scalaris, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 21 29 



252 REFERENCE- TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

70. Nassa crenulata, Kiener (== scalaris) Bucc., t. 14, f. 49 29 

71. Nassa seminodosa, A. Ad. ( papillaris). Reeve, Icon., f. 3 30 

72. Nassa Siquijorensis, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 53 b 30 

73. Nassa caelata, A. Ad. (= Siquijorensis). Reeve, Icon., f. 133 30 

74. Nassa papillosa. Linn. Reeve, f. 12 30 

?;">. Nassa crenellifera, A. Ad. (:=: scalaris). Reeve, f. 49 a 29 

76. Nassa olivacea. Brug (= tsenia, Gmel). Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 32, 

f. 13 30 

77. Nassa olivacea, Brug (= i aenia, Gmel.). Reeve, f. 19 30 

78. Nassa fusca, Hombr. et Jacq. (= tsenia). Astr. et Zel., t, 21, f. 7 ... 30 
7 ( .. Nassa mitralis, A. Ad (= tsenia). Reeve, Icon., f. 128 30 

80. Nassa cinnamomea, A Ad. ( taenia). Reeve, f. 126 30 

81. NassH badia, A. Ad. (= tsenia). Reeve, f. 124 30 

82. Nassa elegans, Reeve (= ttenia). Icon., f. 10 30 

83. Nassa canaliculata, Lam. Kiener, Bucc.. t. 23, f. 89 31 

84. Nassa canaliculata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 18 a . 31 

85. Nassa canaliculata, Lam. Marrat, New Forms, t. I, f. 12 31 

86. Nassa laevis, Chemn. (= canaliculata). H. & A. Adams' Genera, t. 

12, f. 7 31 

Plate 10. 

87. Nnssastolida, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 31 31 

88 Nassa unicolorata, Kiener. Reeve, f. 17 al 

89. Nassa unicolor, Hombr. et Jacq. (=-- unicolorata). Astr. et Zel., t. 

21, f. 15 31 

90. Nassa rutilans, Reeve (= unicolorata). Icon , f. 147 31 

91. Nassa varicifera. A. Ad. Reeve, f. 118 b 31 

92-94. Nassa Cuvieri, Payr. Kieuer, t. 20, f. 74-76 32 

95. Nassa variabilis, Phil. (== Cuvieri). Reeve, Icon., f. 129 a 32 

96. Nassa unifasciata, Kiener (= Cuvieri). Bucc., t. 14, f. 50 32 

97. Na-sa Maderensis, Keeva (-=.= Cuvieri). Icon , f. 182 b 32 

98. Nassa semiplicata. A. Ad. Reeve, f. 78 a 32 

99 Nassa teretiuscula, A. Ad. Reeve, f. 104 b 32 

100. Nassa exilis, Powis. Reeve, f. 101 a 32 

101. Nassa moesta. Hinds (= exilis). Voy. Sulphur, t. 9, f 18 32 

102. Nassa Foi.Uinei, d'Orb. (= exilis). Voy. Am., t. 77, f. 5 32 

103. Nasta casta, Gould. Wilkes' Exp., t. 19, f. 328 33 

104. Nassa Isabellei, d'Orb. Voy. Aiuer., t. 61, f. 19 33 

105. Nas-a complanata, Powis. Reeve, Icon., f. Ill b 33 

106. Nassa Wilsoni, C. B. Ad. (~- compl-inata). Reeve, f. 158 b 33 

107. Nassa gemma, Phil. ( -- complana'a). Abb'.ld. iii, Bucc., t. 1, f. 5.. 33 

108. 109. Massa Capense, Dunker. Kilter, Bucc., t. 12, f. 14, 15 

110. Nassa pulchella, A. Ad. (= Capense). Reeve, Icon., f. 90 a 33 

111. Nassa foveolata, Dunker. Rveve, Icon., f. 83 b 34 

112. Nassa planicostata, A. Ad. Reeve, f. 96 b 34 

113. Nassa sparta, Marrat New Forms, t. 1, f. 22 34 

114. Nassa gaudiosa, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t, 9, f. 17 34 

115. Nassa gaudiosa, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 48 34 

116. Nassa sertula, A. Ad. ( -- gaudio^a). Reeve, f. 89 34 

117. Nassa semisulcata, Dunker (= gaudiosa). Novitates, t. 32, f. 6... 34 

118. Nassa zonalis, A. Ad. ( gaudiosa). Reeve, f. 93 34 

119. Nassa succincta, A. Ad. (= gaudiosa). Reeve, f. 80 b 34 

120. Nassa Marratii, E. A. Smith (= gaudiosa). Zool. Proc., t. 50, f. 8, 

1878..., 34 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 253 

Plate 11. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

121. Nassa punctata, A. Ad. (== gaudiosa). Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 54.. 34 

22. Nassa compta, A. Ad. (= gaudiosa). Reeve, f. 106 a :',4 

123. Nassa velata, Gould (= gaudiosa). Marrat, New Forms, f. 9 34 

124. Nassa velata, Gould (= gaudiosaj. Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. 319, a.. 34 
12"). Nassa elata, Gould. Bost. Jour., v, t. 24, f. 11 39 

126. Nassa luctuosa, A. Ad. (= gaudiosa). Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 109.. 34 

127. Nassa lemiginosa A. Ad. (.= gaudiosa). Reeve, f. 15 34 

128. Nassa lilacina, Gould (= gaudiosa). Wilkes' Exped., f. 336 34 

129. Nassa coturnix, Dunker (= gaudiosa). Novit, Conch., t. 32, f. 8.. 34 

130. Nassa sesarma, Marrat (= gaudiosa). New Forms, f. 14 34 

131. Nassa pallidula, A. Ad. (= gaudiosa). Reeve, f. 108 b 34 

132. Nassa micans, A. Ad. (= gaudiosa). Reeve, f. 140 34 

133. Nassa picta, Dunker. Reeve, Icon., f. 9 36 

134. Nassa filosa, Gray (= picta). Reeve, f. 35 b 35 

135. Nassa graph itera, Beck (= picta). Hombr., Voy. Astrol. et Zel., 

t. 21, f. 29 35 

136. Nassa Reeveana, Dkr. (= picta). Phil., Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 3. 35 

137. Nassa dispar, A. Ad. (= picta). Reeve, f. 45 35 

138. Nassa lurida, Gould (= picta). Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. 325 35 

139. Nassa musica, Gould (= picbt). Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. 324 35 

140. Nassa marmorea, A. Ad ( picta, var.). Reeve, Icon., f. 7 35 

141 Nassa algida, Reeve (=: picta, var.). Icon., f. 145 a 35 

142. Nassa bicallosa, Smith (=:- picta, var.). Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 

t. 30, f. 1 35 

[43. Nassa conspersa, Phil. Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1, f. 6 36 

144. Nassa Pfeitferi, Phil (^conspersa). Ibid., t. 1, f. 7 23,36 

145. Nassa Haldemani, Dunker. Ibid., t, 2. f, 4 36 

146. Nassa Haldemani, Dunker. Specimen 36 

147. Nassa insignis, H. Adams. Zool. Proc , t. 38, f. 8, 1866 37 

148. 149. Nassa fasciolata, Lam. (--cornicula). Kiener, Bucc, t. 17. 

f. 01, 62 37 

150. Nassa semistriata, Brocc. (= cornicula). Conch. Foss., t. 15, 

f. 15 b 37 

Plate 12. 

151. Nassa Calmeilii, Payr. (= cornicula). Moll. Corse., t. 8, f. 7 37 

152. Nasisa Gallandianum, Fischer (= cornicula). Jour, de Conch., xi, 

t 2, f. 6 37 

153. Nassa Tinei. Marav. (= cornicula). Guerin's Mag., t. 24, 1840... 37 

154. Nassa insculpta. Carp. Specimen. 38 

Uo. Nassa anthracina, Garrett. Proc., Philad. Acad., t. 3, f. 57, 1873. 38 

l">ti. Nassa glabrata, A. Ad. Reeve. Icon, f. 157 38 

157. Nassa Pupinoides, Heeve (= glabrata). Icon., f. 162 38 

158. Nassa maculata, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 103 38 

159. Nassa vittata, A. Ad. (~ maculata). Reeve, f. 160 a 38 

160. Nassa serotina, A. Ad, Reeve, Icon. f. 107 39 

161. Nassa labiata, A. Ad. Reeve, f. 159 39 

162. Nassa Terebroides, Reeve (-- : labiata). Icon., f. 161. .. 39 

163. Nassa luteostoma, Kiener. Voy. Bouite, t. 41, f. 5 39 

164. Nassa luteostoma, B. and S. Reeve, Icon., f 63 39 

165. Nassa xanihostoma, Gray (= luteostoma). Zool. Beechey's Voy., 

t, 36, f. 3 39 

166. Nassa tegula, Reeve. Icon., f. 98 39 

167. Nassa glauca, C. B. Ad. (tegula). Reeve, Icon., f. 139 a 39 



254 REFERENCE TO PLATES' 

FIGURE. 

168. Nassa annellifera, Reeve. Icon., f. 168 

169. Nassa Sanctse Helense, A. Ad. Reeve, f. 1886 , 

170. Nassa obtusata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 135 

171. Nassa fissilabris, A. Ad. Reeve, f. 138 

172. Nassa nodicostata, A. Ad. (= fissilabris). Reeve, t. 97 b 

173. Nassa albipunctata, Reeve (= fissilabris. Icon., f. 144 40 

174. Nassa tiarula, Kiener. Icon. Bucc.. t. 30, f. 4 

175. Nassa tiarula, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 92 a 41 

176 Nassa coronula, A. Ad. (= tiarula). Reeve, f. 99 a 41 

177- Nassa delicata, A. Ad. (= tiarula). Reeve, f. 180 b 

178. Nassa trinodosa, Smith (= tiarula). Jour. Linn. Soc , xii, t. 30, f.2. 41 

179. Nassa crenolirata, A. Ad. ( fissilabris). Reeve, Icon., f. 165 40 

Plate 13. 

180. Nassa cinctella, Old. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 327 41 

181. Nassa cinctella, A. Ad. (= cinctella, Gld.). Reeve, Icon., f. 176... 41 

182. Nassa clathratula, A. Ad. (= cinctella). Reeve, f. 125 a 41 

183. Nassa nigra, Hombr. et Ja^q. Voy. Astrol. et Zel., t, 21, f. 18 

184. Nassa lirata, Marrat (== nigra). Specimen 41 

185. Nassa De^hayesiana, Issel (= nigra). Conch. Pers., t. 1, f. 2 41 

186. Nassa scalarina, Marrat (= nigra). New Forms, f. 27 41 

187. Nassa Novae-Zelandiae, Reeve (== nigra, var.). Icon., f. 186 a 41 

188. Nassa crassa, Koch. Phillippi, Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1, f. 4 42 

189. Nassa crassa, Koch. Reeve, Icon., f. 67 42 

190. Nassa semisulcata, H. & J. (= crassa). Voy. Astr. et Zel., t. 

21, f. 30 42 

191. Nassa miga, Brug. Kiener, Bucc., t. 22, f. 87 42 

192. Nassa miga, Brug. Reeve. Icon., f. 86 42 

193. Nassa obliqueplicata, Dunker (= miga). Phil., Abbild iii, Bucc., 

t. 1, f. 13 42 

194. Nassa Antillarum, d'Orb. (= ambigua). Moll. Cuba., t. 23, f. 1... 42 

195. Nassa Candei, d'Orb (= ambigua). Ibid., t. 23, f. 4 42 

196. Nassa Hotessieri, d Orb. (= ambigua). Ibid., t. 21, f. 41 42 

197. Nassa acuta, Say. (= ambigua). Am. Conch., t. 57, f. 3 42 

198. Nassa vibex*, Say. Am. Conch., t. 57, f. 2 42 

199. Nassa Antillarum, Phil. (= vibex). Abbild. iii, Bucc., t 1, f. 2 ... 42 

200. 201. Nassa Antillarum, Phil. (= vibex). Reeve, f. 77, 115 42 

202. Nassa Sturmii, Phil. (= vibex) Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1, f, 1 42 

203. Nassa fida, Reeve (= vibex). Icon., f. 88 42 

204. Nassa tessellata, Reeve (= vibex). Conch. Icon., f. 167 b 42 

205. Nassa cinisculus, Reeve (= vibex). Icon., f. 146 b 42 

206. Nassa Fretensis, Perkins (= vibex). Bost., Proc., xiii, 117 42 

207. Nassa polygonata. Lam. Kiener, t, 29, f. 119 42 

208 Nassa subspinosa, Lam. Kiener, t. 2ti, f. 103 43 

209. Nassa vibex, Reeve ( = subspinosa) Icon., f. 81 43 

210. Nassa geniculata, A. Ad. (= subspinosa). Reeve, Icon., f. 171 43 

211. Nassa sistroidea, Nevill (= subspinosa). Jour. As. Soc. Bengal. 

xliii, t, 1, f. 6 43 

212. Nassa scalpta, Marrat ( subspinosa). New Forms, f. 30 .'. 43 

213. Nassa ambigua, Mont. Reeve, Icon., f. 187 a 42 

Plate 14. 

214. Nassa muricata, Quoy. Reeve, Icon., Nassa, f. 73, b 44 

215. Nassa muricata, Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 32, f. 32 44 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 255 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

216. Nassa horrida, Dunker ( -muricata). Philippi, Abbild , iii, Bucc., 

t. 2, f. 8 .- 44 

'-'I 7 . Nassa Gruneri, Reeve (= murieata). Icon., f. 75 44 

218. Nassa curta, Gould (= murioita). Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. 326 II 

I'll). Nassa Gruneri, Dunker. Philippi, Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 2 44 

220. Nnssa hispida, A. Ad. i - Gruneri). lleeve, Icon., f. 37, b 44 

221. Nassa Webb i, Petit (= Gruneri). Jour de Conch., i, t. 13, f. 8.. 44 

222. Nassa acinosa, Gld. (= Grurferi). Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. ;]29 11 

223. Nassa echinata, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon , f. 131 44 

224. Nassa nodulifera, Phil. (.= echinata). Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 1, f. 3.. 44 
22"). Nassa ornata. K'ener (---_- stolata, Gniel.). Iconog. Bucc., t. 21, f. 83. 45 

220. Nassa pagoda, Reeve. Conch. Icon., Triton, f. 97 45 

227. Nassa decussata, Kiener (= pagoda). Iconog., Bucc., t. 30, f. 3... 45 

22^. Nassa angulifera, A. Ad. (= pagoda). RtM-ve, Icon., f. 34 45 

22'.. Nassa Tritoniformis. Kiener. Iconog.. Bucc , t. 30, f. 2 45 

2->0. Nassa fuscata, A. Ad. (= Tritoniformis). Reeve, Icon., f. 127 b.. 45 

231. Nassa myristica, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 9, f. 10 45 

232. Nassa rufolineata, Marr. (.-- myristica, var.). Reeve, Icon., f. 123. 45 
'> ;> >. Nassa scabriuscula, Powis. Reeve, Icon., f. 174, b 46 

J34. Nassa collaria, Gould ( scibriuscula), Reeve, Icon., f. 169 a 46 

Nassa Stirapsoniana, C. B. Ad. ( scabriuscula). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 143, a 46 

2:!6. Nassa nodata, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 9, f 15 46 

237. Nassa f .sciata, Lam. Hombr. et Jacq .Voy. Astrol., t. 21, f. 35.... 46 

248. Nassa fasciata, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrol.. t. 32, f. 18 46 

219. Nas<a festiva. Powis. Reeve, Icon., t' 117 46 

240. Nassa lirata, Dunker ( festiva). Moll. Japon., t. 1, f. 22. 46 

241. Nassa dealbata, A. Ad. (= festiva). Reeve, Icon., f. 105 46 

242. Nassa acutidentata, E. A. Smith (= festiva). Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 

46, 1879 46 

243. Nassa dentifera. Powis. Reeve, Icon., f. 130 46 

244. Nassa unideniata, Powis (. dentifera). Kiister, Bucc., t. 6, f. 5.. 46 

245. Nassa Tschudii, Troschel ( dentifera). Archiv Naturg. , t. 5. f. 

4 a, 1852 45 

Plate 15. 

246. Nassa paupera, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 330 47 

247. Nassa microstoma. Pse. ( paupera). Specimen 47 

248. Nassa balteata Pse. (- pan pern). Am. Jour. Conch., v, t. 8, f. 5.. 47 

249. Nassa fraterculus. Dkr. (= paupera?). Moll. Japon, t. 1, f. 15.. 47 

250. Nas.*a luteola, Smith (== paupera). Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 47, 1879. 47 

251. Nas^a tringa, Souv. Jour, de Conch , 3d ser., iv, t. 10, f. 7 47 

252. Nassa compncta, Angas (= tringa). Specimen 47 

2.V!. Xassa Rissoides, Marr. New Forms, t. 1, f. 25 48 

254 Nassa denticulata, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 55 47 

255. Na<si abyssicola, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 175 a 47 

256. Nassa concinna, Powrs. Reeve, Icon., f. 91 48 

257. Nassa eximia, II. Adams. Zool. Proc.. t a, f. 28, 1872 48 

258. Nassa crebrilinenta, Hombr. et Jacq. ( concinna). Voy. Astr. et 

Zel , t. 21, f. 33 48 

259. Nassa pulcherrima, Marr. (= concinna). New Forms, f. 15 48 

260. Nassa concinna, Reeve (= concentrica, Marr.). Icon., f. 82 48 

261. Nassa interlirata, Smith. Linn, Trans., xii, t. 30, f. 5 48 

262. Nassa nucleolus, Phil. Reeve, Icon., f. 178, b 49 

263. 264. Nassa incrassata, Strom. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 11, 

f. 1 ; t. 108, f. 2 49 



256 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

265. Nassa incrassata, var. pygmtei. Ibid., t. 108, f . 5 49 

266. Nassa incrassata, Reeve. Icon. , f . 114 49 

267. Nassa rosacea, Reeve. Icon., f. 183 49 

268. Nassa delicata, Rve. ( teriella). Icon , f. 163 50 

269. Nasa Deshayesii, Drouet. Moll. Azores, f. 4 50 

270. Nassa versicolor, C. B. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 110 50 

271. Nassa striata, C. B. Ad ( versicolor). Reeve, Icon., f. 177 50 

272. Nassa rufocincta, A. Ad (= versicolor). Reeve, Icon., f. 112 50 

273. Nassa argentea, Marr. (? = tenella). New Forms, t. 1, f. 21 50 

274. Nassa sinusigera, A Ad. Reeve, Icon., t'. 113 h 51 

275. Nassa Lecadrei. Folin (= versicolor). Meleagrin, t. 6. t. 14 50 

276. Nassa cernica, Nevills (sinusigera, var.). Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 

t. 1, f. 7, 1874 51 

277. Nassa fraudulenta, Marr. (? = sinusigera). New Forms, f. 24 51 

278. Nassa cribraria, Marr. (? = sinusigera). New Forms, f. 20 51 

Plate 16. 

279. Nassa albescens, Dunker. Reeve, Icon , f. 100 51 

280. Nassa bicolor, Hombr. (= albescens). Voy. Astr. et Zel., t. 21, 

f. 41 51 

281. Nassa Isabellei, Rve. (= Kieneri) Icon., f. 47 51 

2b2. Nassa Keenii, Marr. ( albescens). Specimen 51 

283. Nassa geoimulifera, A. Ad. (= albescens). Reeve, Icon., f. 130 a. 51 

284. Nassa splendidula, Dunker. Phil , Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 16... 5f 

285. Nassa semigranosa, Dunker (= splendidula). Ibid., t. 1 f. 9 a.... 52 

286. Nassa ravida, A. Ad (= splendidula). Reeve, Icon., f. 68 52 

287. Nassa densigranata, Reeve ( splendidula). Icon., f. 181 52 

288. Nassa pauperata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 27 52 

289. Nassa lyrella, Beck (= pauperata). Reeve, Icon., f. 95 52 

290. Nassa multigranosa, Dkr. (= pauperata). Phil., Abbild. iii, Bucc., 

t. 2, f. 13 52 

291. Nassa caperata, Phil. (= pauperata). Ibid , f. 18 52 

292 Nassa sordida, Reeve. Icon., f. 96 52 

293. Nassa candens, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f., 39 b 53 

294. Nassa candens, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 9, f. 7 63 

295. Nassa cremata, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 9, f, 8 53 

296. Nassa Quoyii, Hombr. et Jacq. (== cremata). Voy. Astr. et Zel., 

t. 21, f. 20 53 

297. Nassa fragum, Hombr. et Jacq. (= cremata). Voy Astr. et Zel., 

t. 21, f. 39 ..1 53 

298. Nassa margaritifera, Dunker (= cremata, var.). Phil., Abbild. iii, 

Bucc., t. I, f. 12 53 

299. Nassa venusta, Dunker (= cremata, var. margaritifera). Ibid., 

t. 2, f. 1 53 

300. Nassa costellifera, A. Ad. (= cremata, var. margaritifera). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 58 b 53 

301. Nassa marginulata, Reeve (= Kieneri, Desh.). Icon., f. 51 a...... 53 

302. Nassa margaritifera. Reeve (= Kieneri, Desh.). Icon , f. 59....... 53 

303. Nassa Isabellei, Reeve (= Kieneri, Desh.). Icon., f. 47. See fig. 

281 : ;. f. 53 

304. Nassa livescens. Phil. Lischke, Jap. Meeres' Conch. Suppl., 

t. 4, f.,2 .:.... 54 

305. Nassa pusio, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 172 a 54 

306. Nassa multicostata, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 136 a 54 

307. Nas>sa verrucosa, A, Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 36 54 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 257 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

308. Nassa stigmaria, A. Ad. Reeve, f. 42 b 54 

309. Nassa cremata, Reeve ( stigmaria). Icon., Nassa, f. 26 b 54 

310. Nassa retecosa, A. Ad. ( stigmaria). Icon., f. 28-b 54 

Plate 17. 

oil. Nassa Cumingii, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., Nassa, f. 30 a 55 

312. Nassa gemmulata, Lam. Reeve, f. 29 55 

313. Nassa clathrata, Lam. ( = gemmulata). Encyc. Meth., t. 394, f. 5 b. 55 

314. Nassa variegata, A. Ad. (~ gemmulata). lleeve, Icon., f. 70 55 

315. Nassa conoidalis, Desh, ( gemmulata). Voy. Belanger, t. 3, f. 7. 55 
310. Nassa fossata, Gld. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 321 a 55 

317. Nassa elegans, Reeve (= fossata, Gld.). Conch. Syst., ii, t. 268, f. 3. 55 

318. Nassa Morleti, Crosse (== foasata). Jour, de Conch., xvi, t. 6, f. 3. 55 

319. Nassa perpinguis, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 9, f. 12 56 

320. Nassa mendica, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 331 50 

321. Nassa Woodward!, Forbes (= mendica). Zool. Proc., t. 11, f. 3, 

1850 56 

322. Nassa Cooperi, Forbes (= mendica). Zool. Proc., t. 11, f. 4, 1850. 50 

323. Nassa Cooperi, Forbes (= mendica). Marrat, New Forms, f. 13... 56 

324. Nassa Gayi, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 87 b 56 

325. Nassa rubricata, Gould (== Gayi). Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 332... 56 
32(5. Nassa nivea, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 122 a 57 

327. Nassa signata, Dunker. Philippi, Abbild. iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 17 57 

328. Nassa regularis, Kiister (= signata). Conch. Cab., Bucc., 1. 12, f. 24. 57 

329. Nassa turbinea, Gould. Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., v, t. 24, f. 10 57 

330. Nassa Roissyi, Deshayes. Voy. Belanger, t. 3, f. 3 57 

331. Nassa Munieriana, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser. iv, t. 13, f. 6... 57 

332. Nassa dominula, Tapparone-Canefri (= Roissyi). Voy. Magenta, 

t. 1, f. 17 a 57 

888. Nassa pumilio, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 75, f. 11, 1871 57 

334. Nassa Kochiana, Dunker. Kiister, Bucc., t. 12, f. 12 58 

3: '.">. Nassa plicatella, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 56 b 58 

3,;r>. Nassa clathrata, Born. Museum, t. 19, f. 17 58 

3:17. Nassa prismatica, Brocchi (= clathrata). Conch, foss., ii, t. 5, f. 7. 58 

335. Nassa turrita, A. Ad. (= clathrata). Marrat, New Forms, t. 1, f. 17. 58 

339. Nassa scalariformis, Val. (= clathrata). Kiener, Iconog., t. 

21, f. 80 t 58 

Plate 18. 

340. Nassa nitida, Jeffreys (= reticulata), Brit. Conch., v, t. 87, f. 4... 58 

341. Nassa reticulata, Linn. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 11, f. 3... 58 
H42. Nassa reticulata, Linn. Forbes & Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. 198, f. 2.. 58 
343-345. Nassa cancellata, Chemn. ( reticulata). Meyer & Mobius, 

Kielerbucht, ii, t. 42, f. 3, 8, 13 58 

346. Nassa trivittata. Say. Binney's Edit, of Gould, f. 632 60 

347. Nassa obsoleta, Say. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 79 60 

348. Nassa oliviforme, Kiener (= obsoleta). Iconog , t. 25, f. 99 60 

349. Nassa obsoleta, ova-capsules. Am. Jour. Conch., t. 9, f. 12 60 

350. Nassa Melanoides, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 150 b 61 

351. Nassa nigella, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 173 a 61 

352. Nassa nucea, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, t. 8, f. 7 61 

353-354. Neritula neritea, Linn. Reeve, Nassa, f. 153 64 

355-356. Neritula Italica, Issei ( neritea). Bull. Mai. Ital., ii, t. 4, f. 47. 6 I 

357-358. Neritula Kamieschi, Chenu. Manuel, i, f. 792, 7 ( .3 65 

33 



258 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

359. Neritula neritea, Linn. Reeve, Adams' Genera, t. 12, f. 8 61 

360. Neritula pellucida, Risso. Reeve, Nassa, f. 151 65 

361. Desmoulea abbreviate, Gmelin. Reeve, Icon., Nassa, f. 194 65 

362. Desmoulea pinguis, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., Nassa, f. 193 a 65 

363. Desmoulea pinguis, operculum. H. & A. Adams' Genera, t. 12, 

f. 6, a fir. 

364. Desmoulea ponderosa, Reeve ( pinguis). Icon., Nassa, f. 196.... 65 

365. Desmoulea retusa, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., Bucc., t. 24, f. 94 66 

366. Desmoulea retusa. Reeve Icon., Nassa,. f. 195 b 6(5 

367. Desmoulea Tryoni, Crosse (== retusa). Jour, de Conch., t. 1, f. 3, 

1871 KG 

368. Desmoulea Japoni.ca, A. Ad. Reeve, Nassa, f. 192 66 

369. Desmoulea pyramidalis, A. Ad. Reeve, f. 191 b 66 

370. Desmoulea ringens, A. Ad. Reeve, Nassa, f. 190 66 

371. Nassa peritremia, T, Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, iv, t: 

4, f. 5 48 

372. Nassa Coppingeri, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 4, f. 7, 1881 56 

373. Nassa tseniolata, Phil. Zool. Proc., t. 4, f. 8, 1881 57 

Plate 19. 

1. Turbinella py rum, Linn (Junior). Kiener, Iconog., t. 7 68 

2. Turbinella pyrum, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 15 68 

3. Turbinella napus, Lam. (= pyrum). Kiener, Iconog., t. 6 68 

4. Turbinella ovoidea, Kiener. Reeve, loon., f. 23 70 

5. Turbinella rapa, Gmel. (= pyrum). Kiener, t. 5 68 

6. 7. Turbinella napus, Lam. (= pyrum). Monstr., Ann. Soc. Mai., 

Belg., x, t. 2, f. 4, 5 68 

25. Vasum mitis, Lam. (= capitellum, L.). Kiener, t. 12, f. 2 73 

Plate 20. 

8. Turbinella scolymus, Gmel. Kiener, Iconog., t. 2 70 

9. Turbinella fusus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon , f. 54 71 

10. Vasum armatum, Brod. (= Ceramicum, Linn.). Reeve, Turbinella, 

f. 29 72 

11. Vasum muricatum, Born. Reeve, Icon., f. 35, a 71 

12. Vasum coestus, Brod. (= muricatum). Reeve, Turbinella, f. 34 a... 71 

Plate 21. 

13. Vasum Rhinoceros, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 33 71 

14. Vasum Cassidiforme, Val. (= Rhinoceros). Reeve, f. 32 71 

15. Vasum vexillulum, Reeve (=- Ceramicum). Reeve, f. 31 72 

16. Vasum variolaria, Lam. (= turbinellum, juv.). Kiener, t. 21, f. 1.. 72 

17. Vasum globulus, Lam. Reeve, Turbinella, f. 11: 78 

18. Vasum Ceramicum, Linn. Reeve, f. 46 72 

19. Vasum Crosseana, Souv. (== muricatum). Jour, de Conch., t. 13, f. 

1, 1876 71 

20-22. Vasum cornigerum, Lam. (= turbinellum). Kiener, t. 1 72 

23. Vasum imperiale, Reeve. Icon., Turbinella, f. 28 72 

24. Vasum capitellum, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 30 73 

Plate 22. 

1, 2, Cymba proboscidale, Lam. Sowb., Thesaurus, i, t. 80, f. 22, 27. 79 
3, 4. Cymba porcinum, Lam. ( proboscidale). Sowb., Thes., i, t. 79, 

f. 5; t. 80, f. 20 79 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 2 .V.I 

KKil'KK. 1'AQK. 

6. Cyniba rubiginosum, Swn. Sowb., Thes., t. 80, f. 19 79 

7. Cymba cymbium, Sowb. ( cisium, Lam.). Thes., t. 80, f. 21 79 

5, 8. Cymba gracile, Brod. ( cisium, Lam.). Thes., t. 79, f. 15; t. 

80, f. 24 79 

'.. Cymba Neptuni, Gmel. Thes., t. 79, f. 14 80 

10. Cymba Tritonis, Brod. ( Neptuni). Thes., t. 79, f. 8 80 

11. Cymba patula, Brod, ( Neptuni). Sowb., Thess., t. 79, f. 7 SO 

ll'. Cymba navicula, Gmel. (- Neptuni). Reeve, Cymba, t. 24, f. 15... 80 

13. Cymbia olla, Linn. Sowb., Thes , t. 79, f. 4 ". 80 

Plate 23. 

14. Melo Indica, Gmel. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 81, f. 1 80 

15. 10. Melo tessellata, Lam. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 81, f. 8, 7 80 

17. Melo .Kthiopica, Linn. Sowb., Thes., iii, t. 262, f. 33 81 

18. Melo regia, Sch. & Wagn. (= .Ethiopica, var.). Thes., t. 262, f. 31. 81 

19. Melo nautica, Linn. (= .Ethiopica, var.). Sowr., Thes., i, t. 82, 

f. 11 81 

20. 21. Melo Broderipii, Gray (= .Ethiopica, var.). Sowb., t. 83, f, 

26, 27 81 

22, 23. Melo diadema, Lam. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 82. f. 16, 17 81 

J I. 25. Melo armata, Lam. (= diadema). Sowb., Thes., t. 83, f. 21, 22. 81. 

26. Melo umbilicata, Brod. (= diadema, var.). Sowb., t. 83, f. 30 81 

27. Melo mucronata, Brod. (= diadema, var. ducalis).. Sowb., t. 83, 

f. 23 81 

28. Melo Miltonis, Gray (= diadema, var.). Sowb., t. 83, f. 25 81 

Plate 24. 

29. 30. Voluta musica, Linn. Sowb., Thesaurus, i, t. 49, f. 41, 40 83 

8.1. Voluta thiarella, Lam. (: musica). Sowb., Thes., t. 49, f, 39 83 

32. Voluta Guinaica, Lam. ( musica). Sowb., Thes., t. 49, f. 38 83 

33. Voluta sulcata, Lam. ( musica). Sowb., Thes., t. 53, f. 87 83 

34. Voluta polypleura, Crosse (r= musica, var.). Jour, de Conch., t. 5, 

f. 6, 1876 83 

35. Voluta virescens, Solander. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 52, f. 78 84 

06. Voluta pusio, Swains. ( virescens). Thes., t. 55, f. 119 84 

37. Voluta Hebrrca, Lam. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 54, f. 96 84 

38. Voluta musica, Linn (animal). Fischer, Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 1, 

1879 83 

39. Voluta Indica, Sowb. (.-.- interpuncta, Mart.). Sowb., t. 51, f. 68... 84 

40. Voluta turbinata, Kiener (= Hebrsoa, var.). Iconog., t. 26, f. 2.... 84 

41. Voluta Hamillei, Crosse (= fupestris, Gmel.). Jour, de Conch., t. 

1, f. 5, 1870 85 

42. Voluta fulminata, Lam. (= rupestris). Sowb., Thes., t. 50, f. 51... 85 

Plate 25. 

43. 44. Voluta vespertilio, Linn. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 47, f. 15, 21......... 86 

45. Voluta vespertilio, reversed. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 51, f. 67 86 

46. Voluta pellis-serpentis, Lam. ( vespertilio). Sowb., t. 47, f. 20... 86 

47. Voluta serpentina, Lam. (-. vespertilio). Sowb., t. 47, f. 23 SO 

48. Voluta vespertilio, Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 44, f. 8 86 

4<.t. Voluta mitis, Lam. (= vespertilio). Sowb., t, 47, f, 18 

50. Voluta pulchra, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 54 a 86 



260 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. 

51. Voluta Wisemani, Brazier (= pulchra). Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 1, 

1871 86 

52. Voluta lineolata, Kiister (= vespertilio). Conch. Cab., t. 38, f. 6... 

53. Voluta nivosa, Lara. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 51, f. 64 ! 

54. Voluta innexa, Reeve (= rutila). Sowb., Thes.. iii, t. 261, f. 137... 87 

55. Voluta Norrisii, Gray. Sowb., Thes., i, t, 51, f. 65 86 

56. Voluta rutila, Brod. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 46, f. 6 87 

57. Voluta Sophi ee, Gray. Sowb., Thes., iii, t. 261, f. 132 87 

58. Voluta luteostoma, Desh. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 61, f. 59 

59. Voluta maculata, Swains. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 53, f. 86 93 

Plate 26. 

60. Voluta piperita, Sowb. Thes., i, t. 51, f. 62 87 

61. 62. Voluta aulica, Sol. Sowb., t, 46, f. 10, 11 87 

63. Voluta Deshayesii, Reeve. Sowb., iii, t. 261, f. 134 

64. Voluta Rossiniana, Bernardi. Sowb., Thes., iii, t. 261, f. 135 : 

65. Voluta imperials, Lam. Sowb., i, t. 54, f. 102 88 

66. Voluta Bednalli, Brazier. Zool. Proc., t. 40, f. 1, 1880 89 

67. Voluta Junonia, Chemn. Sowb., i, t. 49, f. 44 90 

68. Voluta scapha, Gmel. Sowb., i, t. 48, f. 35 89 

69. Voluta Kaupi, Dunker. Novit, Conch., t. 22, f. 1 90 

70. Voluta magnifica, Lam. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 54, f. 103 89 

71. Voluta volvacea, Lam. (= flavicans, Gmel.). Sowb., t. 46, f. 3 91 

72. Voluta exoptanda, Sowb. Thes. Conch., iii, t. 261, f. 136 91 

73. Voluta Australia, Cox. Zool. Proc., t. 52, f. 1, 1871 91 

74. Voluta Maria-Emma, Gray (= Grayae, Crosse). Sowb., Thes., iii, 

t. 261, f. 133 91 

Plate 27. 

75. Voluta Riickeri, Crosse (= piperita, var.). Jour de Conch., t. 1, f. 1, 

1868 87 

76. Voluta Macgillivrayi, Cox ( piperita, var.). Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 

9, 1873 87 

77. Voluta dubia, Brod. Jahrbuch Mai. Gesell., vi, t. 4, f. 1 90 

78. Voluta Ceraunia, Crosse (= piperita, var.). Jour, de Conch., t. 4, 

f. 1, 1880 87 

79. Voluta Cathcartitc, Reeve. Zool. Proc., t. 33, f. 6, 1856 88 

80. Voluta punctata, Swains. Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 2, 1871.... 89 

81. Voluta dubia, Brod. (juv.). Sowb., Thes. Conch , i, t. 55, f. 115.... 90 

82. Voluta Hargreavesi, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 42, f. 13, 1872 89 

83. Voluta Sclateri, Cox. Zool. Proc., t. ,26, f. 3, 1869 92 

84. Voluta Tissotiana, Crosse (= flavicans). Jour, de Conch., t. 6, f. 1, 

1867 91 

85. Voluta Turneri, Gray. Sowb., Thes., iii, t. 260, f. 129 92 

86. Voluta Kingi, Cox. Zool. Proc., t. 34, f. 4, 1871 92 

Plate 28. 

87. Voluta Angasi, Sowb. (= undulata, Lam.). Thes. Conch., i, 

t. 48, f. 29 92 

88. Voluta undulata, Lam. Sowb., i, t. 48, f. 28 92 

89. Voluta marmorata, Swn. Sowb., i, t. 46, f. 8 92 

90. Voluta pallida, Gray (= volva, Gmel.). Sowb., i, t. 53, f. 91 93 

91. Voluta zebra, Leach. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 53, f. 83 93 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. *2(\\ 

FIGURE. VAGUS. 

92. Voluta Loroisi, Val. Sowb., Thes., iii.t, 201, f. 188 9:1 

!:!. Voliit.'iprtllida., Gray, var. ( reticulata. Kve.). Sowb., i, t. 68, f. 94. 94 

'.14. Voluia puotextn, Reeve. Conch. Iron., f. 29 b 94 

95. Voluta Ilarfordi, ("ox ( canaliculata, McCoy). Zool. Proc., t. 20, 

f. "2, 1809 93 

9ii. Voluta reticulata, Sowb. ( pnutexta). Thes., i, t 49, f. 47 94 

97. Voluta Pacifica, Soland. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 48, f. 20 94 

9S. Voluta fusus, Quoy ( Pacifica, juv.). Voy. Astrol., t. 44, f. 8.... 91 

99. Voluta gracilis, Swn. ( Pacifica). Thes. Conch., i, t. 55, f. 117.. 91 

100. Voluta Americana, Reeve. Zool. Proc., t. 33, f. 2, 1850 94 

101. Voluta Cleryana, Petit ( Americana). Jour, de Conch., 2 ser, i, 

t. 0, f. 4 91 

102. Voluta megaspira, Sowb. Thes., i, t. 48, f. :{_> 95 

103. Voluta fusiformis, Swains. Sowb., t. 54, f. 100 95 

104. 10"). Voluta fulgetrum, Sowb. Thes., i. t, 48, f. 33, 34 95 

100. Voluta papillosa, Swn. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 48, f. 30 95 

Plate 29. 

107. Voluta ancilla, Sowb. ( Magellanica, Lam.). Thes., i. t. 54, f. 101. 91 

108. Voluta subnodosa, Leach ( Magellanica). Thes., t. 47, f. 24 97 

109. Voluta Beckii, Brod. Sowb., i, t. 54, f. 104... 97 

110. Voluta Magellanica, Sowb. ( ancilla). Thes., t. 54, f. 99 97 

111. Voluta rudis, Gray ( Brasiliana). Thes., t. 40, f. 7. No color. 98 

112. Voluta angulata, Swains. Sowb., t. 47, f. 13 98 

113. Voluta Brasiliana, Soland. Orb., Voy. Am., t. 60, f. 4 9S 

114. A T oluta concinna, Brod. Sowb., t. 51, f. 00 99 

115. Volut i Brasiliana, Sol. Sowb., Thes., i. t, 54, f. 98 98 

110. Voluta bullata, Swains. Sowb., t, 53, f. 88 100 

117. Voluta Brazieri, Cox. Zool. Proc.. t. 48, f. 8, 1873 100 

118. Voluta cymbiola, Sowb., Thes , t. 52, f. 75 9'.) 

119. Voluta corona, Chemn. (-.-.- cymbiola). Sowb., t. 55, f. 120 99 

120. Voluta abyssicola, Ad. & Rve. Sowb., Thes., iii, t. 200, f. 124 100 

121. Voluta angulata, Swains. Orb., Voy. Am., t, 00, f. 2 98 

122. Voluta mamilla, Gray. Sowb., i, t. 50, f. 57 101 

Plate 30. 

123. Voluta Kllioti, Sowb. ( Turneri, Gray). Thes., iii, t, 200, f. 127. 92 

124. Voluta Kreuslcnu Angas. Zool. Proc., l. 2, f. 3, 1805 94 

12"). Voluta festiva, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 28, c 95 

12U. Voluta Thatcberi, McCoy. Jour, de Conch., t. 1, f. 1, 1873 90 

127. Voluta Africana, Reeve. Zool. Proc., t, 33, f. 3, 1856 95 

128. Voluta RoadnighUu, McCoy. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., t. 7, f. 2, 1881. 96 

129. Voluta coniformis, Cox. Jour, de Conch., t. 4, f. 1, 1871 100 

130. Voluta Stearnsii, Dall. Calif. Proc., iv, t. 1, f. 1 97 

131. Voluta Ferussaci, Don. ( Brasiliana). Reeve, Icon., f. 23 98 

132. Voluta Prevostiana, Crosse (= megaspira, var.). Jour, de Conch., 

t. 1, f. 1, 1879 95 

Plate 31. 

133. Lyria deliciosa, Montrouzier. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser.,iv, t. 2, f. 7. 102 

134. 135. Lyria deliciosa, Jour, de Conch., t. 13, f. 3, 4, 1867. a, foot; 

b, siphon, cut open; c, mantle; d, c, branchiae ; g, rectum: /,-, 
appendages of the siphon ; Z, prerectal glands ; m, penis ; n, ten- 
tacles ; o, lateral appendages of the neck ; p, visceral sac 102 



262 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

136. Lyria nucleus, Lam. Reeve, Icon. Voluta, f. 41, b 102 

137. Lyria Beaui, Fischer & Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser. i, t. 9, 

f. 1 102 

138. Lyria cassidula, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., iii, t. 260, f. 130 103 

139. Lyria pusilla, Schrenck. Amur Landes Moll., t, 17, f. 15 103 

140. Lyria Delessertiana, Petit. Sowb., i, t, 52, f. 74 103 

141. Lyria Lyraeformis, Swn. Sowb., i, t. 49, f. 45 103 

142.' Lyria costata, Swains. Sowb., t. 52, f. 71 103 

143. Lyria Mitrreformis, Lam. Sowb., t. 52, f. 82 103 

144. Lyria Archeri, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 2, f. 5, 1865 104 

145. Lyria harpa, Barnes. Sowb., i, t. 55, f. 114 104 

146. Lyria Cumingii, Brod. Sowb., t, 55, f. 105 104 

147. Lyria Cylleniformis, Sowb. (= Cumingii). Thes., t. 55, f. 113 104 

148. Lyria Guildingii, Sowb. Thes., t. 55, f. 110 105 

149. Lyria guttata, Reeve. Icon., f. 56 105 

150. Lyria Columbella, Sowb. Thes., iii, t. 260, f. 123 105 

151. 152. Microvoluta Australis, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 2, 1877 105 

153. Voluta vexillum, Lam. Sowb., Thes., t. 50, f. 54 85 



Plate 32. 

1. Mitra episcopalis, Linn. Kiener. Mitra, t. 1, f. 1 Ill 

2. Mitra papalis, Linn. Sowb., Thesaurus, f. 6 Ill 

3. Mitra pontificalia, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 1 Ill 

4. Mitra cardinalis, Gmel. Sowb., Thes., f. 32 Ill 

5. Mitra Lamarckii, Desh. Sowb., Thes., f. 58 112 

6. Mitra versicolor, Martyn. Sowb., Thes., f. 44 '... 112 

7. Mitra versicolor, Martyn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 7, f. 18 112 

8. Mitra nebulosa, Swains. ( versicolor). Reeve, Icon., f. 3 112 



Plate 33. 

9. Mitra variegata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. Ill 113 

10. Mitra variegata, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 162 .....* 113 

11. Mitra propinqua, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 59 112 

12. Mitra nympha, Reeve (= variegata). Icon., f. 249.... 113 

13. Mitra lacunosa, Reeve (= variegata). Conch. Icon., f. 65 113 

14. Mitra Rossiae, Reeve (= variegata). Sowb., Thes., f. 113 113 

15. Mitra sanguinolenta, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 14, f. 45 113 

16. Mitra eximia, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 266 113 

17. Mitra lacunosa, Sowb. (= eximia). Thes. Conch., f. 171 113 

18. Mitra crcrulea, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 232 114 

19. Mitra Mauritiana, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 610 114 

20. Mitra incisa, Ads. & Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 292 114 

21. Mitra Marias, A. Ad. (= incisa). Smith, Zool. Proc., t. 50, f. 14, 

1878 114 

22. Mitra serpentina, Lam. Sowbi", Thes., f. 73 114 

23. Mitra Marquesana, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 575 114 

24. Mitra Bovei, Kieuer. Sowb., Thes., f. 60 115 

25. Mitra puncticulata, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 9 115 

26. Mitra Sophias, Crosse. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 546 115 

27. Mitra cratitia, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 545 115 

28. Mitra dactyloidea, Anton (= Olivaaformis). Kuster, t. 14, f. 2 131 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 203 

Plate 34. 

KM JUKE. PAOK. 

29. Mitra floccata, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 180 115 

:!(). Mitra chalybeia, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 50 11(5 

31. Mitra guttata, Swains. Sowb., Thes., f. 166 110 

:'.'J. Mitra Ferguson!, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 70 llfi 

".8. Mitra limata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 312 lir, 

34. Mitra Desetangsii, Kiener. Sowb., Thes., f. 18:5 117 

3-~>. Mitra florida, Gould. From type specimen llfi 

30. Mitra cancellata, Kiener. Iconog., t. SO, f. 98 117 

37. Mitra Hamillei, Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, t. 7, f. 0, 1851 117 

88. Mitra Senegalensis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 347 117 

39. Mitra declivis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 272 US 

40. Mitra inquinata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 20 US 

11. Miira declivis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. z72 US 

42. Mitra glabra, Swains. Sowb., Thes., f. 54 117 

43. Mitra fulgurita, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 03 118 

Mitra Wrightii, Crosse (= inquinata). Jour, de Conch., t. 1, f. 1, 

1878 118 
i 



Plate 35. 



. Mitra striatula, Lam. (= Barbadensis, Gmel.). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 07, 374 118 

47. Mitra variabilis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 184 119 

4S. Mitra tessellata, Kiener (= Barbadensis). Iconog., f. 42 118 

49. Mitra picta, Reeve (. Rarbadensis). Conch. Icon., f. 123 US 

50. Mitra simplex, Punker. Krauss, Sudafr. Moll., t. 6, f. 20 1 10 

51. Mitra ustulata, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 227 110 

52. Mitra ignobilis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 110 119 

53. Mitra abbatis, Chemn. (= contracta, Swn.). Reeve, Icon., f. 91 120 

54. Mitra rubiginosa, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 167 119 

55. Mitra cancellata, Swains. Sowb., Thes., f. GO 119 

56. Mitra cylindracea, Reeve (= variabilis). Sowb., Thes., f. 188 119 

57. Mitra solida, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 105 120 

58. GO. Mitra pigra, A. Ad. Sowb , Thes., f. 177, 325 120 

59. Mitra latruncularia, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 166 120 

61. Mitra caliginosa, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 75 120 

62. Mitra sacerdotalis A. Ad. Sowb , Thes., f. 79 120 

63. Mitra strigata, Swains. Sowb., Thes., f. 330 121 

04. Mitra Rosettoe, Angas. Sowb., Thes., f. 330 121 

Plate 36. 

65. Mitra Chinensis, Gray. Sowb , Thes., f. 81 120 

66. Mitra Chinensis, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 36 120 

67. Mitra orientalis, Gray ( = maura, Swn.). Sowb., Thes., f. 40 121 

08. Mitra Swainsoni, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 4 121 

09. Mitra abbreviata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 328 122 

70. Mitra induta, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 24, f. 9, 1875 121 

71. Mitra nigra, Quoy (= Quoyi, Desh.). Voy. Astrol., t. 45, f. 17 122 

72. Mitra infrafasciata, Souv. Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 7, 1865 122 

73. Mitra nitida, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 637 122 

74. Mitra cornicula, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 523 122 

75. Mitra fusca, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 301 122 

76. Mitra cornicularis, Lam. ( cornicula). Kiener, Iconog., t. 12, f. 38. 122 

77. Mitra Philippiana, Forbes (= cornicula). Sowb., Thes., f. 524 122 



264 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

78. Mitra graja, Reeve (= cornicula). Sowb., Thes., f. 525 122 

79. Mitra lactea, Lam. ( cornicula, var.). Sowb., Thes., f. 102 1 

80. Mitra plumbea, Reeve ( cornicula, var,). Conch. Icon., f. 156.... 12'2 

81. Mitra Schroeteri, Desh. (= cornicula, var.). Thes., Conch., f. 529.. 122 

82. Mitra insolata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 650 1 

83. Mitra Groenlandica, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 106 124 

84. 85, 87. Mitra ebenus, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 29, 334, 335... 124 

86. Mitra Kieneri, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 324 , 1 

88. Mitra Defrancii, Payr. (= ebenus, var. costata). Reeve, Icon., f. 159. 124 

Plate 37. 

89. Mitra livida, Reeve (= ebenus, var. costata). Conch. Icon., f. 134 b. 124 

90. Mitra chelonia, Reeve (? = ebenus). Conch. Icon., f. 281) 124 

91. Mitra patula, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 333 125 

92. Mitra rufocincta, A. Ad. (= Capensis). Sowb., Thes., f. 653 125 

93. Mitra lachryma, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 258 125 

94. Mitra vincta, A. Ad. (= Capensis). Sowb., Thes., f. 520 125 

95. Mitra Capensis, Dunker. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 654 125 

96. Mitra pica, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 247 125 

97. Mitra albina, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 547 129 

98. Mitra flexilabris, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t, 24, f. 4, 1875 128 

99. Mitra petrosa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 314 124 

100. Mitra funerea, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 108 126 

101. Mitra funerea, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 114 126 

102. Mitra bilineata, Reeve ( funerea). Conch. Icon., f. 294 126 

103. Mitra analogica, Reeve. Conch., Icon., f. 293 126 

104. Mitra Australis, Swains. Reeve, Icon., f. 118 126 

105. Mitra melaleuca, Quoy (= Australis). Voy. Astrol., t, 45 bis, f. 26. 126 

106. Mitra Lamberti, Souv. Jour, de Conch., t. 13, f. 3, 1875.. 126 

107. Mitra polita, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 94 126 

108. Mitra callosa, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 105 126 

109. Mitra effusa, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 100 127 

110. Mitra testacea, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 98 127 

111. Mitra bulimoides, Reeve (= testacea). Conch. Icon., f. 224 127 

112. Mitra badia, Reeve (== testacea). Sowb , Thes. Conch., f. 181 127 

113. Mitra typha, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 323 128 

114. Mitra rhodia, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 225 127 

115. Mitra castanea, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 205 127 

116. Mitra peculiaris, Reeve (= typha). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 322... 128 

117. Mitra tenuis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 327 129 

118. Mitra nigra, Chemn. (= Melaniana, Lam.). Sowb., Thes., Conch., 

' f. 4 127 

119. Mitra digna, A. Ad. (= Melaniana). Sowb., Thes., f. 115 127 

120. Mitra micans, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 588 129 

121. Mitra Cookii, Hanley. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 228 129 

Plate 38. 

122. Mitra zonata, Marryatt. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 62 130 

123. Mitra casta, Lam. Sowb., Thes Conch, f. 46 i:!0 

124. Mitra fissurata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 90 131 

125. Mitra ocellata. Swains. (= fissurata). Sowb., Thes., f. 85 131 

126. Mitra Sant&ngeli, Marav. ( zonata). Guerin's Mag., t. 23, 1840. 130 

127. Mitra filum, AVood. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 305 130 

128. Mitra formosa, Pease. Am, Jour. Conch, iii, t, 2:>, f. 1 131 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 205 

FTfUTRK PAOK. 

12'.. Milra zephyrina, Duclos. Sowb.. Thes. Conch., f. 308 132 

130. Mitra Nevillei, Hanley ( zephyrina). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 300. 132 

131. Mitra Olivtvformis, Swains, lloeve, Conch. Icon., f. 212 l:'.l 

132. Mitra impressa. Anton. Sowb., Thes., Conch., f. 10G ... .. 132 

13:\ Mitra lens, Wood. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 28 133 

134. Mitra vitellina, Gould. Moll. Wilkes' Exped., f. 352 132 

135. Mitra oniscina, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 25, f. 79 133 

13(1. Mitra terebralis, Lam. ( tessellata. Mart.). Sowb., Thes., f. 94. 132 

137. Mitra Dupontii, Kiener (= lens). Iconog., t. 13, f. 39 133 

13S. Mitra granulosa, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 90 133 

121). Mitra tessellata, Marty n. Sowb., Thes., f . 97 132 

Plate 39. 

140. Mitra Inca, d'Orb. (= lens). Voy. Am. Merid., t. 77, f. 1 133 

141. Mitra lignaria, Reeve (-= lens). Conch. Icon., f. 64 133 

142. Mitra muricata, Swains. (= lens). Sowb., Thes., f. 558 133 

143. Mitra vultuosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 270 134 

144. Mitra rupicola, Reeve (= lens). Conch. Icon., f. 53 133 

145. Mitra nucleola, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 26, f. 83 134 

140. Mitra nucleola, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 226 134 

147. Mitra nucleola, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 397 134 

148. Mitra Lifouana, Crosse (= texturata, var.). Jour, de Conch., t. 

13, f. 5, 1872 134 

149. Mitra sphserulata, Martyn. Sowb., Thes Conch., f. 38 134 

150. Mitra texturata, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 84 134 

151. Mitra unifascialis, Lam. (= nucleola). Kiener, Iconog., t. 26, 

f. 84 * 134 

152. Mitra. crenifera, Lam. Reeve, Conch., Icon., f. 38 135 

153. Mitra Ehrenbergi, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., 1, t. 2, f. 3 136 

154. Mitra arenacea, Dunker. Novit. Conch., t. 10, f. 3 136 

155. Mitra Hemprichii, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, t. 2, f. 1 136 

156. Mitra gracilis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 187 136 

157. Mitra Strangei, Angas. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 289 130 

158. Mitra scabriuscula, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 35 135 

1 V.i. Mitra Peasei, Dohrn (= Isabella). Sowb.. Thes., f. 76 137 

100. Mitra cytharoidea, Dohrn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 567 136 

161. Mitra Hebes, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 230 137 

162. Mitra loricata, Reeve (= Isabella, Swn.). Sowb., Thes., f. 147.... 137 

103. Mitra fqrmosa, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 235 138 

104. Mitra pretiosa, Reeve (= crenifera). Conch. Icon., f. 110... 135 

105. Mitra Antonice, H. Ad. (= crenifera). Thes. Conch., f. 245 135 

Plate 40. 

100. Mitra Norrisii, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 68 137 

107. Mitra nivea, Swains. Sowb., Thes., f. 77 137 

168. Mitra Isabella, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 42 137 

109. Mitra Murchii, A. Ad. (= Isabella). Zool. Proc., t. 28, f. 5, 1854.. 137 

170. Mitra crebrilineata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 626 138 

171. Mitra sulcata, Swains. Reeve, Icon., f. 176 139 

172. Mitra lineata, Swains. Sowb., Thes., f. 554 139 

173. Mitra multilirata, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 556 139 

174. Mitra nexilis, Mart, (= filaris, Linn.). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 83. 138 

175. Mitra filosa, Born. (= filaris, Linn.). Sowb , Thes , f. 82 138 

176. Mitra circulata, Kr. (= filaris, var.). Sowb., Thes., f. 87 138 

34 



266 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

177. Mitra gigantea, Swains. (= sulcata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 95.. 139 

178. Mitra Tathnte, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, t. 2, f. 4 139 

179. Mitra Belcheri, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 80 139 

180. Mitra Bernardiana, Phil. ( filaris, var.). Specimen 138 

181. Mitra segra, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 112 139 

182. Mitra Hindsii, Reeve (= sulcata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 95..... 139 

183. Mitra funiculata, Reeve (= sulcata). Conch. Icon., f. 122 139 

184. Mitra attenuata, Swains. ( sulcata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 194. 139 

185. Mitra carnicolor, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 549 139 

Plate 41. 

186. Mitra incarnati, Reeve ( carnicolor). Sowb., Thes., f. 551 139 

187. Mitra pura, A. Ad. (= carnicolor). Sowb.. Thes., f. 566 139 

188. Mitra straminea, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 561 140 

189. Mitra pia, Dohrn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 550 139 

190. Mitra flammea, Quoy. Sowb., Thes , f. 173 140 

191. Mitra flammigera, Reeve (= flammea). Sowb., Thes., f. 108 140 

192. Mitra interlirata, Reeve (= flammea). Sowb., Thes., f. 369 140 

193. Mitra avenacea, Reeve ( flammea). Conch. Icon., f. 246 140 

194. Mitra Haneti, Petit. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 624 142 

195. Mitra foveolata, Dunker (.-= flammea). Sowb., Thes., f. 371 140 

196. Mitra tornata, Reeve ( flammea). Conch. Icon., f. 269 140 

197. Mitra rufilirata, Ad. & Reeve (= flammea). Sowb., Thes., f. 572.. 140 

198. Mitra Cyri, Dohrn (= fulgetrum). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 576... 142 

199. Mitra Novse Hollands, Sowb. (= flammea). Thes. Conch., f. 368.. 140 

200. Mitra hystrix, Montrouz. (= flammea). Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., ii, 

t. 9, f. 8, 1862 140 

201. Mitra roborea, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 306 140 

202. Mitra duplilirata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 229 140 

203. Mitra annulata, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 92 140 

204. Mitra acutilirata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 274 141 

205. Mitra insculpta. A. Ad. (= annulata). Sowb., Thes., f. 568 140 

206. Mitra amoena, A. Ad. (= annulata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 244. 140 

207. Mitra Fischeri, Souv. (= annulata). Sowb., Thes., f. 573 140 

208. Mitra rosacea, Reeve (= annulata). Conch. Icon., f. 321 140 

209. Mitra acuta, Sowb. (= annulata). Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 7, 1878 140 

210. Mitra flammea, Reeve (= Philippinarum). Conch. Icon., f. 120... 141 

211. Mitra semiconica, Sowb. (= Philippinarum). Thes. Conch., f. 619. 141 

212. Mitra strigillata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 248 141 

213. Mitra bacillum, Lam. Mag. de Zool., t. 7, 1831 141 

214. Mitra Hindsii, Reeve (= sulcata). Thes. Conch , f. 196 139 

215. Mitra pruinosa, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 565 142 

216. Mitra fulgetrum, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 115 152 

217. Mitra Boissaci, Montr. (= fulgetrum). Sowb., Thes., f. 574 142 

Plate 42. 

218. Mitra Malleti, Petit. Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 2,'f. 1 142 

219. 220. Mitra carinata, Swains. Sowb., Thes., f. 246, 247 142 

221. Mitra Senegalensis, Reeve (= carinata). Sowb., Thes., f. 347 142 

222. Mitra Gambiana, Dohrn (= carinta). Novit. Conch., t. 15, f. 11. 142 

223. Mitra Gambiana, Dohrn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 579 142 

224. Mitra spadicea, Dunker (.- peregra). Sowb.,. Thes. Conch , f. 478. 

225. Mitra telescopium, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 304 143 

226. Mitra mocsta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 323 143 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 267 

KKU'llK. 1'AGE. 

"I'll. Mitra cucumerina, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 201 I |:; 

22S. Mitra cucumerina, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 277 1 \'.\ 

22'. i. Mitra traga. Quoy (? cucumerina). Voy. Astrol., t. 45 bis, f. 29. Mo 

2>0. .Mitra Adamsonii, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 627 144 

231. Mitra Antonii, Ktister ( Adamsonii). Conch. Cab., t. 14, f. 12... 144 

2-'!2. TVlitra Tornatelloides, Reeves. Conch. Icon., f. 310 144 

I':;::. Mitra chrysalis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 200 144 

2::i. Mitra turgida, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 273 144 

235. Mitra indentata, Sowb. ( turgida) Thes. Couch., f. 412 144 

236. Mitra peregra, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 186 144 

2:17. Mitra porcata. Humphr. ( peregra). Conch. Icon., f. 187 144 

2:!S. Mitra miniata, Anton ( peregra). Riister, t. 14, f. 9 144 

2-".9. Mitra gracilior, Carpenter. Specimen , 145 

2-10. Mitra Adamsonii, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 150 M-l 

241. Mitra astyagis. Dohrn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 367 , 142 

212. Mitra turben, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 213 1 I'. 

24:;. Mitra tabanula, Lam. Reeve, Iconog., f. 325 146 

I'll. Mitra pediculus, Lam. ( tabanula). Kiener, Iconog., t. 16, f. 53. Mi; 

245. Mitra minor, Sowb. ( tabanula). Thes. Conch., f. 662 Mr, 

246. Mitra rotundilirata, Reeve ( tabanula). Conch. Icon., f. 178 146 

217. Mitra Caledonica, Recluz ( tabanula). Joifr. de Conch. ,iv. t. 7, f. 7. 146 

Plate 43. 

248. Mitra Hanleyi, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 661 ..-. 146 

iM'.t. Mitra Solandri, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 172 lid 

250. Mitra Solandri, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 265 146 

251. Mitra Ruppellii, Reeve ( Solandri). Conch. Icon., f. 179 146 

263. Mitra vexillum, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 270 146 

251. Mitra crassicostata, Sowb ( vexillum, Rve.). Thes. Conch., f. 387. 146 
255, 256. Mitra aurantia, Gmelm. Sowb., Thes Conch., f. 250 147 

257. Mitra nanus, Reeve ( aurantia). Conch. Icon., f 194 147 

258. Mitra Michelini, Gueriu. Mag. de Zool., t. 38, 1830 147 

259. Mitra proscissa, Reeve. Sowb., Thesaurus, f. 282 147 

2C,o. Mitra rubiginea, A. Ad. (.-- proscissa). Thes. Conch., f. 257 147 

261. Mitra carinilirata, Souv. ( proscissa). Jour, de Conch., t. 1, f. 

1, 1872 147 

2H2. Mitra consolidata, Sowb. (? ^ proscissa). Thes. Conch., f. 271.... 147 

26:]. Mitra crassa, Swains. Sowb., Thes, Conch., f. 66 147 

252, 264. Mitra Ticaonica, Reeve (-.-- crassa). Conch. Icon., f. 181 147 

265. Mitra Ticaonica, Reeve (= crassa). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 252.. 147 

266. Mitra ambigua, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 5 147 

267. Mitra fulva, Swains. (=- ambigua, var.). Reeve, Icon., f. 24 147 

26S. Mitra attenuata, Reeve ( fulva). Conch, Icon., f. 45 147 

269. Mitra adusta, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 16 148 

Plate 44. 

270 Mitra Ticaonica, Reeve (= crassa). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 253... 147 

271. Mitra fulvescens, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 452 148 

272. Mitra cocligena Reeve (? == crassa). Sowb., Thes., f. 222 147 

27::. Mitra coronata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 104 a 148 

271. Mitra coronata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 220 148 

275. Mitra tiarella, A. Ad. ( coronata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 56... 148 

276. Mitra adusta, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 17 148 

277. Mitra aurora, Dohrn (= coronata, Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 223... 148 



268 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

KK;UUK. PAGE. 

278. Mitra digitalis, Dillw. Sowb., Thes. Concb.. f. 207 H'.i 

279. Mitra ferruginea, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 15 150 

2SO. Mitra rubritincta, lleeve ( ferruginea). Conch. Icon., f. 147,... 150 

281. Mitra assimilis, Pease (.- - coronata). Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 

t. 15, f. 1 - 148 

282. Mitra marginata, Sowb. (?-. coronata). Thes. Conch., f. 311 148 

28:!. Mitra floridula, Sowb., (= coronata). Thes. Conch , f. 28:5 118 

281,285. Mitra lugubris, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 200. 201 149 

280. Mitra albofasciata, Sowb. (= lugubris). Thes. Conch., f. 300 149 

287. Mitra coriacea, Reeve (= lugubris, juv.). Conch. Econ , f. 231 149 

288. Mitra picea, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 658 150 

289. Mih-a U/ielliana, Crosse. Thes. Conch., f. 455 150 

290. Mitra clara, Sowb. ( ferruginea). Thes., f. 652 150 

291. Mitra pudica, Pease. Sowb , Thes. Conch., f. 296 150 

292. Mitra subrostrata, Sowb. ( pudica). Thes. Conch., f. 297 150 

2',):;, 294. Mitra Candida, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 288, 562 150 

295. Mitra crenata. Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 563 151 

290. Mitra Lienardi, Souverb. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 239 151 

297. Milra Williams!, Newcomb. Am. Jour. Conch., v, t. 17, f. 5 151 

29S. Mitra luctuosa, A. Ad.. Sowb., Thes., f. 229 151 

299. Mitra rutila, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 221 151 

300. Mitra pellis-serpentis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 66 151 



Plate 45. 

301. Mitra brunnea, Pease. Specimen 153 

302. Mitra brumalis, Reeve (= pellis-serpentis). Sowb., Thes., f. 210.. 151 

303. Mitra microstoma, Sowb. (== pellis-serpentis). Thes., f. 291 151 

304. Mitra reticulata, Pease (= pellis-serpentis). Sowb., Thes. f. 290.. 151 

305. Mitra suturata, Reeve (= pellis-serpentis). Conch. Icon., f. 272... 151 

306. Mitra cretacea, Sowb. (== pellis-serpentis). Thes., f. 578 151 

307. Mitra Grelloisi, Recluz (= pellis-serpentis). Jour, de Conch., iv, 

t. 7, f. 8 151 

308. Mitra Nassoides, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 631 152 

309. Mitra serotina, A. Ad., Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 216 152 

310. Mitra semiferruginea, Jonas. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 222 a 152 

311. Mitra dealbata, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 571 152 

312. Mitra acuminata, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 88 153 

313. Mitra coarctata, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., -f. 99 153 

314. Mitra brumalis, Reeve (pellis-serpentis). Sowb., Thes., f. 210 151 

315. Mitra astricta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 188 15.4 

316. 318. Mitra astricta, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 208, 224 154 

317. Mitra Samuelis, Dohrn (= astricta). Novit., t. 15, f. 1 154 

319. Mitra Auriculoides, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 449 154 

320. Mitra fastigium, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 435 154 

321. Mitra Molleri, Kiister. Conch. Cab., t. 17 a, f. 13 154 

322. Mitra limbifera, Lam. Sowb., Thes. f. 262 154 

323. 324. Mitra ColumbellEeformis, Kiener (limbifera). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 255, 256 154 

325. Mitra striata, Gray (= limbifera). Beechey's Voy., t, 36, f. 7 154 

;',2tt. Mitra Mitchelini, Sowb. (= limbifera). Thes. Conch., f. 259 154 

327. Mitra maculosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 175 155 

328. Mitra Arabica, Dohrn (= maculosa). Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 4, 1861. 155 

329. Mitra tristis, Swains. Reeve, Icon., f. 194 155 




REFERENCE TO PLATES. w Jli'J 

Plate 46. 

KKM'IIK. 1'AGE. 

880, 331. Mitra chrysoslomu, Swains. Sowl.., Tlu-s.. I. S, f. 95, '.H) 15ft 

332, 333. M ; tra scutulata, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 430, 431 155 

334. .M lira ainplmrella. Lam. ( scutulata). Sowb., Thes , f. 432 155 

885. Mitra decurtata, Rccvc ( scutulata). Sowb., Thes., f. 460 155 

880. Mitra oleacea, Reeve ( scutulata). Conch. Icon . f. 105 155 

337. Mitra sertum, Duval ( scutulata). Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 7, f. 1. 155 

:'3S. Mitra litterata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 480 155 

389. Mitra maculosa, Reeve ( litterata). Sowb , Thes., f. 442 155 

3-10. Mitra paupercula, Linn. Reeve, Cnch. Icon., f. 84 156 

'Ml. Mitra virgata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 197 b 15b 

3I'J. Mitra re'usa, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 198 150 

3-1,). Mitra virgata, Rt eve ( retusa, Lam.). Conch. Icon., f. 197 a 150 

344. Mitra capillata, Gould (= retusa). Wilkes Exped., f. 351 150 

345. Mitra Ziervogeliana, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 136 167 

340. Mitra robusta, Reeve (-- Ziervogeliana, var.) Icon., f. 140 157 

347. Mitra jucunda ( tigrina). Tapparone-Canefri, Vov. Magenta, 1. 1, 

f. 3'. '. 157 

IS. Mitra tigrina, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes Conch., f. 438 157 

49. .Mitra Woldemarii. Kien (= Ziervogeliana, var.). Iconog., f. 139. 157 

350. Mitra solidula. Reeve ( Ziervogeliana, var.). Conch. Icon., f. 133. 157 

351. Mitra .Kthiops, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 324 158 

352. Mitra anthracina, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 137 158 

353. Mitra choava, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 135...*.. 158 

54. Mitra albomaculata, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 449 158 

355. Mitra Columbellaria, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 660 168 

Plate 47. 

350. Thala foveata, Sowb. Thes. Conch, f. 408 160 

357. Thala roseata, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 604 10o 

35S. Thala solitaria, C. B. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 665 160 

359. Thala exilis, Reeve. 'Sowb., Thes., f. 67 li 100 

300. Thala todilla, Mighels. Sowb.. Thes., f 073 100 

801. Tliala milium, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 251 160 

30 Thala recurva, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 297 160 

503. Thala g'ratiosa, Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 277 161 

804. Thala mirifica, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 278 161 

365. Thala cernica, Sowb. Thes. Conch,, f. 070 161 

36H. Thala augustata, Sowb. (= cernica). Thes. Conch., f. 671 161 

307. Thala angiostoma, Pease (------ cernica, var.). Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 

t. 15, f. 9 161 

368, 369. Thala fusus, Souverb. ( cernica, var.). Jour, de Conch., t. 

13, f. 3, 4, 1876 161 

370. Thala brevicula, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., t. 13. f. 5, 1876 161 

371. Thala adumbrata, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., t. 13, f. 6, 1876 161 

372. Mitroidea Barclayi, Adams (= multiplicata, Pse.). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 310 162 

373. Mitroidea Lo3bbeckianus,Weink. (-- multiplicata). KUster, Pleurot, 

t. a, f. 1 102 

374. Mitroidea Ancillides, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 100 162 

375. Mitroidea bellula, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 593 163 

376. Mitroidea telum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 614 163 

377. Mitroidea infecta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 75 163 

378. Mitroidea infecta, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 007 163 



2 TO REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

379, 380. Mitroidea Barclay!, Hanley (== infecta). Thes. Conch., f. 225, 

612 1W 

381. Dibaphus Philippii, Crosse. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 008 164 

Plate 48. 

382. Turricula regina, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 53 164 

383. Turricula taeniata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 52.. 164 

384. 385. Turricula vittata, Swains. (= tieniata). Keeve, Conch., 

Icon., f. 50, b, c 164 

386. Turricula vittata, Swains. (= tteniata). Sowb., Then. Conch., f. 121. 164 

387. Turricula compressa, Sowb. (= tgeniata). Thes. Conch., f. 50 164 

388. 389. Turricula Tayloriana, Sowb. (= tseniata). Thes. Conch., f. 

125,153 164 

390. Turricula coccinea, Reeve (= taeniata). Conch. Icon., f. 49, 164 

391. Turricula Dennisoni, Reeve. Sowb.. Thes. Conch., f. 61 165 

392. Turricula elegans, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 142 165 

393. Turricula sanguisuga, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 91 165 

394. Turricula sanguisuga, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 99 165 

395. Turricula stigmataria, Lam. (--= sanguisuga, var. granosa). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 47 165 

396. 397. Turricula stigmataria, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 48, 49 165 

398. Turricula jucunda, Dunker. Journal de Conch., t. 9, f. 11, 1879.. 105 

Plate 49. 

399. Turricula Stainforthii, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 13 166 

400. Turricula Stainforthii, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 136 166 

401. 402. Turricula melongena, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 132, 18 166 

403. Turricula lyrata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 46 166 

x 404. Turricula curvilirata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 129 166 

405. Turricula balteolata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 54 166 

406. Turricula radius, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 309 166 

407. Turricula melongena, Lam Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 47 a 166 

408. Turricula costellaris, Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 25 166 

409. Turricula caffra, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 20 167 

410-413. Turricula vulpecula, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 10, 11, 

13, 14 167 

414. Turricula umbrosa, Sowb. (= vulpecula). Thes., f. 123 167 

415. Turricula nasuta, Sowb. Thes , f. 623 169 

416. Turricula Iscvicostata, Sowb. ( Gruneri). Thes. Conch., f. 139... 168 

417. Turricula Berth se. Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 11, 1878 168 

418. Turricula Gruneri, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 131 168 

419. Turricula modesta, Pease ( Gruneri). Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 

15, f. 6 168 

Plate 50. 

420. Turricula plicata, Kiener. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 26 167 

421. Turricula pullata, Reeve (= plicata, var.). Conch. Icon., f, 102... 167 

422. Turricula pullata, Reeve (== plicata, var.). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 43 167 

423. Turricula cinctella, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 63 167 

424. Turricula zonalis, Quoy (= caffra). Voy. Astrol., t. 45 bis, f. 16... 167 

425. Turricula ornata, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 117 169 

426. Turricula interrupta, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 118.. 169 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 271 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

427. Turricula fulvolirata ( : corrugata). Sowb., Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 9, 

1878 169 

428. Turricula Jukesii, A. Ad. (-. = corrugata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 116 , 168 

429. Turricula corrugata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., i. 42 168 

430. Turricula intermedia, Kiener. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 60 168 

431. Turricula mirabilis, A. Ad. (_ angulosa). Sowb., Thes., f. 629... 159 

4:52. Turricula angulosa, Kuster. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 534 169 

433. Turricula salmonea, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 375 169 

4:54. Turricula decora, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 234 169 

435. Turricula Cumingii, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 67 170 

436. Turricula Cumingii, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 503 170 

437. Turricula dimidiata, Sowb. ( Cumingii). Thes. Conch , f. 396... 170 

438. Turricula clathrata, Reeve (= Cumingii). Conch Icon., f. 71 170 

439. Turricula rugosa, Sowb. (?= Cumingii). Reeve, Icon., f. 101 170 

440. Turricula Montrouzieri, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., t. 13, f. 1, 1875. 170 

441. Turricula lucida, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 541 170 

442. Turricula nodulifera, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 530 170 

443. Turricula modesta, Reeve. Conch. Icon.^ f. 254 170 

Plate 51. 

444. 445. Turricula cineracea, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 491, 495. 171 

446. Turricula Judteorum, Dohrn. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, t, 2, f. 7 171 

447. Turricula militaris, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 236 b 171 

448. Turricula Antonelli, Dohrn (= militaris, var.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 586 171 

446. Turricula lubens, Reeve ( militaris, var.). Conch. Icon., f. 331. 171 

450. Turricula compta, A. Ad. (= militaris, var.). Thes. Conch., f. 540. 171 

451. Turricula turricula, A. Ad. ( militaris). Sowb., Thes., f 647,... 171 

452. Turricula bella. Pease ( militaris, var.). . Sowb., Thes., f. 376 171 

453. Turricula cophina, Gould (= militaris, var.). Wilkes' Exped., 

f. 335 171 

454. Turricula cimelium, Reeve (= militaris). Sowb., Thes., f. 643 171 

455. Turricula rorata, Gould (= militaris). Sowb.. Thes. Conch., f. 240. 171 

456. Turricula interstriata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 392 172 

457. Turricula corbicula, Sowb. Tbes. Conch., f. 538 172 

458. Turricula Collinsoni, A. Ad Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 50, 1879 172 

459. Turricula Suluensis, Ad. and Rve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 606 172 

4(10. Turricula fuscoapicata, Smith ( Collinsoni). Zool. Proc., t. 20, 

f. 49, 1879 172 

461. Turricula Gotoensis, E. A. Smith (= Collinsoni). Zool. Proc., t. 20, 172 

f 51, 1879 172 

462, 463. Turricula cruentata, Chemn. Sowb., Thes. Conch , f. 138, 144. 173 

401. Turricula cruentata, var proxima. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 12ft 173 

405. Turricula exarata, A. Ad. (^ cruentata, var.). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 602 173 

466. Turricula ligata, A. Ad. (= cruentata, var.). Sowb., Thes., f. 584. 178 

467. Turricula buccinoidea, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 411 17-. 

468. Turricula larva, Lam. (= cruentata, var.). Kiener, Iconog., t. 26, 

f. 82 173 

469. Turricula armillata, Reeve ( cruentata, var.). Conch. Icon., 

f.315 . 173 

470. Turricula Schomburgki, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 18, f. 12, 1878 17:'. 

471. Turricula alba, Pease. Specimen 129 



272 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

472, 473. Turricula semifasciata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 131 a, b. 174 

474. Turricula semisculpta, Ad. & Rve. Sowb., Thes.. f. 159 174 

475. Turricula mucronata, Swains. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 377 174 

476. Turricula concentrica, Reeve (== mucronata). Conch. Icon., f. 128. 1 

477. Turricula fusiformis, Reeve (= mucronata). Conch. Icon , f. 132 b. 114 

478. Turricula obtusispinosa, Sowb. (= mucronata). Thes. Conch., 

f. 373 174 

479. Turricula ecbinata, A. Ad. (= mucronata). Sowb., Thes., f. 379.. 174 

Plate 52. 

480. Turricula nodilirata, A. Ad. ( mucronata). Sowb., Thes., f. 385. 174 

481. Turricula fusiformis, Chemn. (= mucronata). Sowb., Thes., f. 384. 174 

482. Turricula Dohrnii, A. Ad. (= mucronata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f 131 174 

483. Turricula verrucosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 232 174 

484. 485. Turricula fusiformis, Kiener. Iconog., t. 29, f. 97 175 

486. Turricula rustica, Sowb. (== Deshayesii). Sowb., Thes., f. 143 187 

487. Turricula spicata, Reeve (fusiformis). Sowb, Thes. Conch., 

f. 383 175 

488. Turricula turriger, Reeve (= fusiformis). Conch. Icon., f. 262.... 175 

489. Turricula armiger, Reeve (= fusiformis). Conch. Icon., f. 288 175 

490. Turricula purpurata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 275 175 

491. Turricula clredala, Reeve (= purpurata). Conch. Icon., f. 281 175 

492. Turricula cineracea, Reeve (= purpurata). Conch. Icon., f. 311.. 175 

493. Turricula caelata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 265 175 

494. Turricula sculptilis, Reeve (= caelata). Conch. Icon., f. 290 175 

495. Turricula mica, Reeve (= caelata, var.). Conch. Icon., f. 314 175 

496. Turricula inermis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 279 175 

497. Turricula .rectilateris, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 404 175 

498. Turricula rubella, Ad. and Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 594 170 

499. Turricula scitula, A. -Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 418 176 

500. Turricula intertaeniata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 154 176 

501. Turricula rustica, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 329 176 

502. Turricula Deshayesii, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 170 176 

503. Turricula Deshayesii, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 618 176 

504. Turricula rigida, Reeve (= Deshayesii). Conch. Icon., f. 169 176 

505. Turricula Michaudi, Cr. & Fischer (= Deshayesii). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 157 176 

506. 507. Turricula alauda, Quoy ( Deshayesii). Sowb., Thes., f. 134, 

158 I... 176 

508. Turricula amanda, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 318 176 

509. Turricula casta, H. Adams. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 632 177 

510. 511. Turricula subulata, Lam. Sowb., Thes, Conch., f. 149, 150... 177 

512. Turricula macrospira, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 146 177 

513. Turricula Lincolnensis, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 18, f. 10, 1878 177 

514. Turricula filistriata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 402 , 177 

Plate 53. 

515. Turricula catenata, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 259 178 

516. Turricula lilacina, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 634 178 

517. 518. Turricula marmorea, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 635, 636 178 

519. Turricula Arracanensis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 473 178 

520. Turricula rorata, Gould (= Zebuensis). Moll. Wilkes' Exp., f. 354. 179 

521. Turricula crebrilirata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 92 178 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 27.3 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

522. Turricula rosea, Kiener (= crebrilirata). Iconog., t. 23, f. 73 178 

528. Turricula tenuilirata, Sowb. (= crebrilirata). Thes. Conch., f. 407. 178 

524. Turricula rubricata, Reeve (== crebrilirata). Conch. Icon., f. 130. 178 

525. Turricula subtruncata, Sowb. (= crebrilirata). Thes. Conch., f. 405. 178 
"L'r,. Turricula Layarcli, A. Ad. (= crebrilirata). Sowb., Thes., f. 590.. 178 

527. Turricula Zebuensis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 73 179 

528. Turricula Zebuensis. Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 192 179 

52U. Turricula proetexta, Sowb. (= Zebuensis). Thes. Conch., f. 198... 179 

5:;o. Turricula Japonica, A. Ad. (= crebrilirata). Thes Conch., f. 156. 178 

531. Turricula rufomaculata, Souv, Jour, de Conch., 2ser., iv, t. 11, f. 9. 179 

"> '.!'. 533. Turricula acupicta, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 372, 548.. 179 

534. Turricula puncturata. Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 5, 1878 179 

586. Turricula obeliscus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 127 179 

536. Turricula MacAndrewsi, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 421 179 

,>'.7. Turricula radix, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 552 180 

Turricula longispira, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 403.. 180 

5:','.i. Turricula .Ethiopica, Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., i, t. 2, f. 9 180 

540. Turricula crispa, Garrett. Specimen 180 

541. Turricula exasperata, Gmel. Gould, Moll., Wilkes' Exped., f. 350. 180 
542-544. Turricula exasperata, Gmel. Sowb, Thes. Conch., f. 419, 

424, 425 180 

Plate 54. 

545, 546. Turricula arenosa, Lam. (= exasperata). Sowb., Thes., f. 

322,427 180 

447. Turricula asperima, Dohrn. Dunker, Novit. Conch., t. 15, f. 3 181 

548. Turricula cadaverosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 160 181 

549. Turricula cadaverosa, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 628 181 

550. Turricula Pacifica, Reeve (= cadaverosa). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 388 181 

551. Turricula mutabilis, Reeve (= cadaverosa). Conch. Icon , f. 235. 181 

552. Turricula brevicaudata, Sowb. ( cadaverosa). Thes. Conch., f. 

410 181 

553. Turricula Pharaonis, H. Ad. (= cadaverosa, var.). Zool. Proc., 

t. 3, f. 1, 1872 181 

554. Turricula subquadrata, Sowb. (= cadaverosa, var.). Thes. Conch. 

f 485 , 181 

555. Turricula spreta, A. Ad. Sowby., Thes. Conch., f. 648 182 

556. Turricula roseocaudata, Hanley. Sowb., Thes., f. 655 182 

557. Turricula latercula, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 651 182 

558. Turricula zelotypa, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 510 182 

55'.). Turricula dermestina, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 143 182 

560. Turricula cavea, Reeve (= dermestina). Icon., f. 149 182 

561. Turricula Adamsi, Dohrn (= dermestina). Novit. Conch., t. 15, 

f. 10 182 

562. Turricula pulchella, Reeve (= dermestina). Conch. Icon., f. 142.. 182 

563. Turricula pisolina, Lam. (= dermestina). Kiener, Iconog., f. 90.. 182 

564. Turricula ansulata, Sowb. (= dermestina). Thes. Conch., f. 474... 182 

565. Turricula histrio, Reeve (= dermestina). Conch. Icon., f. 144 182 

o'li'i. Turricula consanguinea, Reeve (= dermestina, var.). Icon., f. 

241 182 

567. Turricula Tatei, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 54, f. 8, 1878 1 

568. Turricula microzonias, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 185 1 

569. Turricula microzonias, Lam., var. Reeve, Icon., f. 202 183 

35 



274 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE; 

570. Turricula lota, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 239 186 

571. Turricula lota, Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 310 186 

573. Turricula pardalis, Kiister. Conch. Cab., t. 17, f 14 183 

574. Turricula lauta, Reeve (= pardalis). Conch. Icon., f. 244 .. 183 

575. Turricula leucodesma, Reeve (= pardalis) Conch. Icon., 243 183 

Plate 55. 

576. Turricula infausta, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 513 189 

577. Turricula fortiplicata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 15, f. 3 189 

578. Turricula plicatula, Pease (= Emiliee, Schm ). Am. Jour. Conch. 

iii, t. 15, f . 4 189 

579. Turricula rosea, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 300 189 

580. Turricula discoloria, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 516 189 

581. Turricula mediomaculata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 472 184 

582. Turricula cernica (= mediomaculata), Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. 

Beng., t. 1, f. 9, 1874 184 

583. Turricula puella, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 276 184 

584. Turricula turturina, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., t. 1, f. 2, 1877 184 

585. Turricula cremans, Reeve. Specimen 184 

586. Turricula alveolus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 334 184 

587. Turricula aperta, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 321 185 

588. Turricula millecostata, Swains Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 301 185 

589. Turricula luculenta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 245 185 

590. Turricula dichroa, Ad. & Rve. (= luculenta). Voy. Samarang, t. 

10, f. 29 185 

591. Turricula Graffei, Crosse (= luculenta). Jour, de Conch., t, 11, 

f. 6, 1867 185 

592. Turricula nigrofasciata, Sowb. (= luculenta). Thes. Conch., f. 468. 185 

593. Turricula lamzonata, Sowb. (= luculenta). Thes. Conch, f. 469.. 185 
494. Turricula tricolor, Montrouz. (= luculenta). Jour, de Conch., t. 

11, f. 2, 1861 185 

595. Turricula crocata, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 27, f. 85 187 

596. Turricula crocata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 206 187 

597. Turricula concinna, Reeve ( crocata). Conch. Icon., f. 203 187 

598. Turricula pyramidalis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 390 187 

599. Turricula cithara, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 248 186 

600. Turricula aureolata, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 210 180 

601. Turricula crocata, Auct. (== aureolata). Specimen 186 

602. Turricula multicostata, Swains. ( aureolata). Reeve, Icon., f. 

J322 185 

603. Turricula crocea, Reeve (== aureolata). Conch. Icon., f. 320 186 

604. Turricula venustula, Reeve (= aureolata). Sowb., Thes., f. 501.. 186 

605. Turricula flavescens, Reeve ( aureolata). Conch. Icon., f. 207... 186 

606. Turricula affiois, Reeve (= aureolata). Conch. Icon., f. 211 186 

607. Turricula plicatissima, Schroter. Kiister, t. 17 b, f. 11 188 

608. 609. Turricula rubra, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 203, 394 188 

-610. Turricula paligera, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 515 189 

Plate 56. 

611. Turricula amabilis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 274 189 

612. Turricula Nicobarica, Frauenf. Voy. Novara, t. 1, f. 5. 190 

613. Turricula ficulina, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f 141 ,.. 190 

614. Turricula gausapata, Reeve (= ficulina). Conch. Icon., f. 317 190 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 275 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

G15. Turricula forticostata, Reeve ( = ficulina). Conch. Icon., f. 238... 190 

616. Turricula zebrina, d'Orb. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 481 190 

617. Turricula putillus, Pease. Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 482 190 

618. Turricula semen, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 256 190 

619. Turricula trunculus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 319 190 

620. Turricula muriculata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 205 191 

621. Turricula patriarchalis, Lam. Reeve, Conch, Icon., f. 146 b 191 

622. Turricula tuberosa, Reeve (= patriarchalis). Conch Icon., f. 

237 a 191 

623. Turricula semitica, J ickeli. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell. i, t. 2, f. 8 194 

624. Turricula fe^ta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 303 194 

625. Turricula elegantula, Kiister (= patriarchalis). Conch. Cab., t. 

17, f. 7 191 

626. Turricula porphyretica, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 195 191 

627. Turricula Osidiris, Issel. Sowb., Thes. Conch , f, 488 191 

628. Turricula umbonata, Sowb. (= Osidiris). Thes., f. 400 191 

629. Turricula tumida, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 65 192 

630. Turricula zebrina, d'Orb. Moll. Canaries, t. 6, f. 31 190 

631. Turricula interrupta, Anton. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 15, f. 2 192 

632. Turricula nodulosa, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 15, f. 5 192 

633. Turricula encausta, Gould. Moll., Wilkes' Exped., f. 356 192 

634. Turricula speciosa, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 415 192 

635. Turricula variata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 209 193 

636. Turricula discors, Grand. Kuster, Conch. Cab., t. 17 d, f. 4 193 

637. Turricula glabra, Pease (== discors). Am. Jour. Conch, iii, t. 23, 

f. 2 193 

638. 639. Turricula nodosa, Swains. Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 269, 268.. 193 

640. Turricula fraga, Kiener ( nodosa). Iconog., t. 27, f. 87 193 

641. Turricula pinguis, Reeve ( nodosa). Conch. Icon., f. 304 193 

642. Turricula tusa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 283 193 

Plate 57. 

643. Turricula pupula, Dunker. Specimen 194 

644. Turricula Savignyi, Payr. (= tricolor, Gmel.). Reeve, Icon., f. 307. 194 

645. Turricula^ranum, Forbes ( tricolor). Reeve, Conch., Icon., 

f. 261 .- 194 

646. Turricula littoralis, Forbes (= tricolor). Reeve, Icon., f. 296 194 

647. Turricula clandestina, Forbes (= Columbellaria). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 6, 641 195 

648. Turricula suavis, Sowerb. Jour, de Conch., t. 13, f. 2, 1875 195 

649. Turricula pusilla, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 644 195 

650. Turricula remula, Smith Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 52, 1879. 196 

651. Turricula pallida, Issel (= tricolor). Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, xi, 

419 194 

652. Turricula Columbellaria, Scacchi. Kuster, Conch. Cat., t. 17 e, f. 19. 195 

653. Turricula Greci, Phil. (= Columbellaria). Moll Sicil., ii, t. 27, 

f. 18 195 

654. Turricula Hanleyi, Dohrn. Novit. Conch., t. 15, f. 7 195 

655. . Turricula corallina, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 330 a 195 

656. Turricula articulata, Reeve. Iconica, f. 302 196 

657. Cylindra nux, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 348 198 

658. Cylindra dactylus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f 346 197 

659. Cylindra nucea, Gronov. Sowb , Thes., f. 360 196 

660. Cylindra ornata, Sch. & Wag. Kuster, Conch. Cat., t. 9, f. 12 197 



2Y6 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

6G1. Cylindra Potensis, Montr. (= dactylus). Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., 

iv, t. 2, f . 2 197 

662, 663. Cylindra crenulata, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 354, 355.. 197 

664. Cylindra undulosa, Reeve (= crenulata). Conch. Icon., f. 102.... 197 

665. Cylindra radula, Sowb. (= crenulata). Thes. Conch., f. 358 197 

666. Cylindra arctata, Sowb. (= crenulata). Thes. Conch., f. 317 197 

667. Cylindra glans, Reeve (= fenestrata). Sowb., Thes., f. 352 198 

668. Cylindra Sinensis, Reeve. Conch Icon., f. 190 b 198 

669. Cylindra punctata, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 168 198 

670. Cylindra lima, Sowb. (= Sinensis). Thes. Conch., f. 353 198 

671. Cylindra fenestrata, Lam. Sowb/, Thes., f. 363 198 

Plate 58. 

672. Imbricaria conus, Reeve ( conulus Lava). Icon., f. 83 199 

673. Imbricaria marmorata, Swn., ( conica Schum). Quoy, Voy. 

Astrol., t. 45 bis, f. 1 199 

674. Imbricaria Crouani, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 9, f. 6, 1868 199 

675. Imbricaria citrina, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 367 199 

676. Imbricaria carbonacea, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 11, f. 10 199 

677. Imbricaria Rollandi, Bern. (==? carbouacea). Jour, de Conch., iv, 

t. 1, f. 7 199 

678. Imbricaria lineata, Swains. Zool. Illust., 1st ser., i 200 

679. Imbricaria ossea, Reeve (= punctata, Swn.). Icon , f. 219 200 

680. Imbricaria truncate, Kiener (?= punctata). Iconog., t. 30, f. 101. 200 

681. Imbricaria conovula, Quoy (= punctata). Voy. Astrol., t. 45 bis, 

f. 19 200 

682. Imbricaria Beburghias, Sowb. ( Vanikorensis). Zool. Proc., t. 

48, f. 12, 1878 200 

683. Imbricaria virgo, Swainson. Sowb., Thes. Conch,, f. 313 200 

684. Imbricaria Vanikorensis, Quoy. Reeve, Icon., f. 220 200 

685. Mitra picea, Pease Specimen 150 

686. Mitra vibex, A. Ad. (= cruentata, var.). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 599 173 

687. Mitra coronata, Sowb. Ibid., f. 217 148 

688. Mitra gemmata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 649 150 

689. Mitra tuberosa, Reeve- (= patriarchalis). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 267 191 

690. Mitra granata, Reeve (=pellis-serpentis). Conch. Icon., f. 271... 151 

691. Mitra modesta, Reeve. Sowb., Thes Conch., f. 539 170 

692. Mitra bacillum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 312 141 

693. Mitra fidicula, Gould. Moll. Wilkes 1 Exped., f. 353 175 




PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



PLATE 2. 



^^ 




PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



PLATE 3. 




36. 



40. 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 



PLATE 4. 




44. 



c 



NAS8IDJE 



PLATK 5. 




74. 



73. 




I 




NASS1D.E 



1'LATK 6. 




95. 06. 97. 98. 



NASSIIUO 



J'LATK 7. 




' 



NASSIDJ3 



PLATK 8. 






NASSIDJ3 



PLATE 9. 



60 




83 



PLATK 10. 







115 116 I If H8 119 



L ATT: 11 




150 



NASSID^E 



PLATE 12. 




NASSIDJ3 



PLATK 13 




196 



197 



198 199 200 



201 




208 



209 210 211 212 213 



NASSIDJ5 



PLATK 14. 




245 



NASSIDvE 



PLATK 15. 






246 



247 



248 



249 



250 




272 273 



274 



275 276 277 278 



NASSIDJB 



I'LATK 16. 




806 



307 



309 



310 



NASSTILE 



PLATK 17. 




NASSHXfi 



I'LATE 18. 




370 



TUUBINELLIP.E. 



1'LATK 19. 




TURBIXELLID.E 



PLATB 20. 




TfTilBINELLIDJS. 



PLATK 21. 




28 




Nil 



VOLUTID.K 



PLATE 22. 




A*; 

AaLtf 



0$' 



VOLUTID.E. 



1'LATK 23, 




26. 



27. 



VOLUTIDJK. 



i'LATK 24. 







VOLUTIDJ-: 



PL ATI; 25. 




VOLUTID.K. 



PLATE 26 




71. 



VOLUTID.E. 



PLATE 27. 




fl-6 






' 



VOLUTID.K. 



PLATK 28, 




106 



VOLUTID.K. 



1'LATK 29. 




TOLUTID.E. 



PLATE 30. 




PLATK 31. 




U 



M1TRID.E. 



PLATE 32. 




.MITKID-K. 



PI, ATK 33. 




I 



MITRID^B. 



I'LATK 34. 




it* 



MITRID,E. 



I'LATK 35. 




61 



MITRIDJS. 



1'LATK 36. 



,-.v 







Kttl 






MITRIDJB. 



1M.ATK 37, 




120 1-21 



M1TRID.E. 



PLATE 38. 




136 



139 



MITRIDJS. 



PLATK 39. 




163 



fii 



PLATK 40. 




MITRID^E. 



PLATE 41. 




216 



21; 



M1TRID.E. 



PL ATI'] 42 




246 



'MITKID.E. 



PLATK 43. 



248 



2.. 4 




260 



MITRID.E. 



PLATK 44. 




21)4 295 296 



MITRIDJ^. 



PLATE 45. 




327 328 329 



M1TRID.E. 



JMiATK 46. 




347 



355 



N1VEKS1TYJ 



MITRIP.E. 



J'LATK 47. 




372 



478 



379 



380 



381 



MITRULE. 



I'LATK 48. 




395 



394 



UNIVERSITY 




MITRID.E. 



PL ATK 49. 




414 



419 



MITIUD.K. 



PLATE 50. 




M1TIUD.E. 



1'LATK 51, 




478 



470 



MITRID^E. 



I' LATH 52. 




508 



509 



510 



MITRIDJC. 



PLATE 53. 




MIT RUM-]. 



PLATE 54. 




MITIUIXE. 



I'LATH 55. 



602 603 




001) 



607 



60S 



coo 



olO 



MITRIIK-E. 



PLATE 56. 




641 



6 12 



MITRID^E. 



1'LATK 57. 




665 



MITRID.E. 



PLATE 58. 




691 



HI.'} 



C92 




2 5 3 1 




U. C. BERKELEY LIBRARIES 



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