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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

BERKELEY 



INIV, 
CAi 



\ I j 

OF 
IA / 



REESE LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 




<A 



,s-/Vw.v No 



' No. . EARTH 

SCIENCE- 



MANUAL 



OP 



CONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W. TR YON, JR. 

(Axv.-.ui-.VATois, C.F ',-.:;: ( V^VTIOLOOTCAT, Sr.r-riox OF 'I-T- ArLvnvAfv OB- NATURAL 



UNIVERSITY, 




MARGINELLID^l, OLIVID^E, 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Aiithor, 

AQADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. I9TH & RACE STS. 

1883. 






EARTH 

seiiN 

UBRARY 




WM. P. KILDARE PRINTER, 734 & 733 SAN5OM ST., PHILA. 



THE three extensive families of mollusks monographed in this 
volume of the Manual of Conchology, include several of the 
most beautiful of the marine genera. The material upon the 
study of which I have based my text is unusually ample, enabling 
me to make numerous satisfactory adjustments of the synonymy, 
and to illustrate many variations in addition to the typical forms 
of the species. It is hoped that the figures will enable naturalists 
to identify their specimens with facility and certainty. Excep- 
tion has been taken to some of the figures heretofore published 
in this work, on the ground that they are uncharacteristic in 
drawing and coloring : these illustrations are faithful copies of 
the original (or tj-pical) figures, such as I almost invariably give, 
if published; and they are supplemented, whenever it is possible 
to do so, by better illustrations of the same species. 

The next volume of the Manual will be devoted to the im- 
portant group of the Toxifera including Cancellaria, Terebra, 
Conus, Pleurotoma. Towards its completion 1 again ask the 
kindly aid of authors and collectors, who may possess unfigured 
or critical species. 

January, 1883. G. W. T., JR. 



See what a lovely shell, 
Small and pure as a pearl, 
Lying close to my foot, 
Frail, but a work divine, 
Made so fairly well 
With delicate spire and whorl. 
How exquisitely minute, 
A miracle of design I 

What is it? a learned man 
Could give it a clumsy name. 
Let him name it who can, 
The beauty would be the same. 

TENNYSON. 



Oh what an endless work have I in hand, 
To count the sea's abundant progeny ! 

SPENCER. 



UNIVERSITY 




MANUAL OF CONOHOLOGY 



Family MARGINELLID J3. 

Animal having tentacles arising close together, the eyes on the 
lower portion or near the middle of the tentacles ; mantle with 
expanded side-lobes, covering the back of the shell, as in Cyprsea; 
siphon elongate, simple at base ; foot large, truncate in front, 
produced behind. Operculnm usually none. 

Shell porcellanous, polished, usually smooth, or with longi- 
tudinal ribs ; spire short or immersed, body-whorl ample ; aper- 
ture nearly the length of the shell, the outer lip usually with 
thickened margin, smooth or dentated within, the inner lip with 
several distinct plaits on the columella. 

Dentition. In possessing rhachidian teeth, without laterals, 
the lingual armature of Marginella resembles that of Voluta, 
whilst the shape of the plate and its dentated edge are very 
similar to that of Mitridse ; lateral teeth being added, however, 
in the latter family. A single species of Erato (the only one 
examined), possesses laterals like Trivia in Cyprseidae, and upon 
this ground the genus has been placed in that family b}* some 
systematists (fl. 2, fig. 7). 

The expanded mantle-lobes, covering the shell which thus 
receives a polished surface, and is devoid of epidermis immedi- 
ately suggest relationship with the cowries ^ Cyprsea), but more 
particularly with the Olives and Ancillaria, on the one side ; 
whilst the presence and position of the columellar plaits, as well 
as the form of many of the species, on the other side, approxi- 
mates the family to Mitra and Voluta. 

Stimpson created a family Cystiscidae for a little Marginella- 
like shell dredged by him near the Cape of Good Hope. The 
animal has an elongated, narrow foot ; the head is oblong. 



depressed, bifurcated in front to form short, triangular, flattened 
and horizontal tentacles, and the eyes are at the lateral margins 
of the head a little behind the bases of these tentacles ; nientum 
as broad as the head, but not extending beyond the tips of the 
tentacles. The dentition (PI. :2, fig. 11) is essentially that of 
Marginella. Notwithstanding these differences of the animal, 
I agree with Mr. Redfield, who has included Cystiscus Capensis in 
his "Catalogue of Marginella." It is very probable that when more 
specimens of the soft parts shall have been examined the result 
will be the discovery of many divergences from the structure 
of the larger species which have furnished the family diagnosis. 
Besides the Cystixcu*. other instances of variation from the 
normal type of Marginellidae have been recently recorded. M. 
de Maltzan has collected at Goree, coast of Senegambia, several 
specimens of Marginella glabella containing the animal. Some 
of these are provided with a well-developed operculum, whilst 
others (as diagnosed for the family) have none.* Messrs. Crosse 
and Fischer having examined the lingual dentition of one of 
these operculated individuals, were surprised to find it differ 
from that of all other Marginellae hitherto known, in possessing 
lateral teeth, resembling Buccinum.f Maltzan has proposed a 
new genus. Pseudom&rginella, for the operculated shells ; which 
he supposes to inhabit rocky shores, whilst the others live on 
sand, at 15 to 30 fathoms ; although the evidence he presents of 
this difference of habit is insufficient. Two Pseudomarginellse 
are described, one of which has an unguiculate operculum, that 
of the other being lamellar, like Purpura ; they both possess a 
narrow foot, with a small gland, and in one of them the tentacles 
are short and broad, in the other short and roynd. All these 
characters differ much from the broad foot, with large u land and 
the long tentacles of the typical Marginella yet the shells are 
indistinguishable from that of the typical M. glabella. 

Messrs. H. and A. Adams, in their " Genera of Recent Mol- 
lusca," include the genus Pachybathron, Gaskoin, in this family, 
but its closer relationship with Cassidida? is very evident. The 



:: On the irregularity of development of opercula in Volutlmrpa, see this 
Manual, vol. iii, p. 198. 

v Jrmr. de Copih , 3d ser., xx, 375, 1880. 



ERATO. 7 

genus Ringicula, Deshayes, has also been thought to resemble 
Marginella in its shell, but this resemblance is a superficial one 
only, and recent studies of the animal have confirmed its con- 
chological approximation to Actseon.* 

Synopsis of Genera. 

ERATO, Risso. Shell obovate, polished ; spire short, conical, distinct ; 
aperture linear ; outer lip without varix, but thickened towards the 
middle, denticulate within ; columella with distinct plaits at the fore- 
part. Dentition,f PI. 2, fig. 7. 

Subgenus ERATOPSIS, Hoernes and Auinger. Shell granular-tuberculate, 
with a longitudinal sulcus on the back of the body- whorl as in Trivia. 

MARGINELLA, Lamarck. Shell ovately oblong to subcylindrical. 
smooth, polished, sometimes longitudinally ribbed ; spire short, conical 
or concealed ; aperture narrow, elongated, obtuse or truncated in front ; 
columella plicate ; outer lip with a thick marginal varix, its inner 
margin smooth or crenulated. Dentition, PI. 2, figs. 8, 10. 

Subgenus VOLVARIA, Lam. Shell subcylindrical, spire very short or 
concealed ; outer lip of aperture without varix or thickening. Dentition, 
PI. 2, fig. 9. 

The type of Volvaria is F. buttoides, Lam., an eocene fossil of France 
and Belgium (Plate 8, fig. 28). 

(ienus EKATO. Ri>so. 

The few recent species comprised in this group, were approx- 
imated to Cypraea, Valuta, Columbella and Marginella by 
ancient authors ; and in proposing their new genus Eratopsis, 
Messrs. Hoernes and Auinger remark upon the close resemblance 
of its species to the Trivia, or more properly Pustularia group 
of Cypraeidae. The only animal of the genus that has been 
figured is that of the European species E. laevis (PL 4, fig. 40) ; 



* Fischer, Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., xviii, 113 ; Watson, Ibid., 312. 


f I figure the dentition of Erato callosa, Ad. and Reeve, the only 
species which has been examined. It is entirely unlike the normal type 
of Marginella, and approximates closely to that of Cyprwa. A form of 
Marginella glabella has, however, been recently discovered to possess 
lateral teeth (ante p. G . Troschel has made serious mistakes in the identi- 
fication of species of which he gives the dentition, and it is possible that 
this is another. It will, [ think, be necessary to have more evidence before 
allowing the position* of Erato to be determined by the dentition. Con- 
chologically it is certainly closely allied to Trivia in the Cypneidse 



3 ERATO. 

it is very like Ct/prtra. in external appearance, even to the tila- 
mentous processes of the mantle-lobes, and it is evident that the 
growth of these processes has caused an inequality in the applied 
surface of the lobes, sometimes forming pustules on the shell in 
Eratopnis, in precisely the same manner as in the Pustularia 
group of Cypraea. Reeve remarks in the introduction of the 
" Monograph of Erato " (Conchologia Iconica), that in Erato, 
unlike Marginella, the columella is not plaited from an early 
stage of growth, but that the denticulations are added at 
maturity ; in other words, the}^ are denticulations and not true 
plaits. If this were so, it would be another character in common 
with Cypraea, but my observation leads me to the conclusion 
that it is not entirely true. I find the plaits on the columella 
in young specimens of several species, but in addition, there is 
developed on the inner lip, in the adults only, a series of dentic- 
ulations like Cypr&a, and at the same period changes sometimes 
occur in the appearance of the plaits caused by the deposition 
of calcareous matter upon and between them, so that these come 
to resemble the denticulations situated above them. Undoubtedly 
Erato, through Eratojisis, conchologically connects Marginella 
with the Trivia group of Cypraea ; the balance of characters 
seems to indicate a rather closer relationship, on the whole, with 
Marginella but if future investigations shall show that the 
species of Erato really possess the dentition assigned to the 
group, then it would perhaps be better to remove it to the 
Triviinae. 

Erato occurs fossilized in the miocene and pliocene deposits 
of Europe and America, and a single species has been reported 
from the eocene of Texas : species have been recently charac- 
terized from the eocene and miocene of South Australia and 
Tasmania. 

Tijpirnl or Smooth /S/wr/Vx. 

K. L. \CUKVMA, Gray. PI. 4. figs. :}-2, :\-. 

Whitish, the lip faintly roseate, usually obscurely three-banded 
with rose-color. Length, 5 mill. 

Jnpftn (Dr. Siebold,;. AnttroUn (Gray). 
E. ntilci.fr.ra, Reeve, non Gray (fig. 37), may be synonymous. 



ERATO. 9 

E. GUTTULA, Sowb. PI. 4, figs. 33, 34. 

Rosy white or ash-color, obscurely fasciate ; narrower and 

more pyriform than E. lachryma. Length, 5 mill. 

Mauritius. 
Dr. Weinkauff considers this a Marginella. 

E. SANDWICENSIS, Pease. PL 4, fig. 35. 

Pale rosy white, two-banded ; narrower and thinner than E. 
yuttula, the bands distinct, the lip narrower and not so elevated. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Sandwich Isles. 
E. PELLUCIDA, Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 36. 

Pyriformly globose, transparent white, shining ; whorls slop- 
ingly angled round the upper part ; aperture narrow, lip swollen, 
varicose. Length, 3 mill. 

Bombay, 

Is probably a young shell, and may = E. Sandwicemis. 

E. CALLOSA, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 4, figs. 38, 39; PI. 2, fig. T. 

Yellowish or rosy white ; whorls swollen around the upper 
part ; aperture-margin thick, running up the spire. 

Length, T mill. 

China Sea ; Japan (Lischke). 

E. L^EVIS, Donovan. PI. 4, figs. 40, 41. 

Whitish, or tinged with yellow or roseate ; more angular and 
not so thick as E. callosa, and the outer lip is not so elevated or 
angular above. Length, 8 mill. 

Great Britain, sandy ground from 12 to 85 fathoms. 

Mediterranean, on coral and madrepore, 8 to 55 fms. 

Plentiful in the European tertiaries. 

Jeffre}^ cites a var. oblonga, pure white, more elongated, and 
compressed in front. The animal, says this author, is very 
lively and active, a great beauty, and b}^ no means bashful. 
When on the march it carries the branchial tube in an upturned 
position. One pair, having crawled out of the water in a glass 
jar, coupled for seven or eight hours. 

E. MAUGERI^E, Gray. PL 4, figs. 42, 43. 

Gray or livid, polished; smaller, wider and more angular 
above than E. Iferitt. Length, 5-6 mill. 

West Indies ; foss 1 in the tertiary of England. 



10 ERA TO. 

/,'. ( 'i/jtraeoides, C. B. Adams, an unfignred species, is prob- 
ably identical. 

E. ANGISTOMA, Sowb. PL 4, fig. 44. 

Swollen, smooth, brownish white. Length, 4 mill. 

East Indies (Reeve); Philippines (Cuming). 

The posterior elevation of the outer lip forming an angle at 
its extremity nearly as high as the spire, is a distinguishing 
feature of this little species. 

E. MINUTA, Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 45. 

Subglobose, transparent, glassy, white. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Philippine*. 

Dr. Weinkauff thinks it may be the young of the preceding 
species. 

E. GALLINACEA, Hinds. PL 4, fig. 46. 

Pyriform, callous and angulated posteriori}', produced and 
beaked anteriorly ; lip stoutly swollen, conspicuously produced 
and sinuate at its posterior extremity ; white or brownish yellow, 
sometimes with a superior, irregular band. Length, 6 mill. 

Philippines ; New Guinea; Torres Sts., Australia. 

Named from its fancied resemblance to a trussed hen. 

E. ANGULIFERA, Sowb. PL 4, fig. 47. 

Shorter, wider, more obtuse than E. yallinacea ; mouth 
straight and linear, outer lip very broad and thick, its posterior 

elevation less pointed than in gallinacea. Length, 2 mill. 

Borneo. 
E. COLUMBELLA, Menke. PL 4, fig. 48. 

Broadly pyriform, lip elevated behind above the spire ; yel- 
lowish red or roseate. Length, 7 "5 mill. 

Mazatlan to Santa Barbara, Cal. 

E. marginata, Morch, found at 100 fathoms at Bocorones I., 
near Panama, is probably a synonym ; and I suppose that the 
shell described by Carpenter as E. Mauyerise var. Panamensis is 
its exact equivalent. Neither of these species has been figured. 

E. VITELLINA, Hinds. PL 4, fig. 49. 

Obesely ovate, aperture rather wide ; dark red, lighter on the 
thickened lip-margin. Length, 12 mill. 

Acapulco to Southern California. 

The largest species of the genus. 



ERATOPSIS. 1 1 

Fubgduis Eratopsis, Ha>rnes and Auingcr. 

This group, founded for fossils of the Austrian tertiary, will 
include several recent species. The first and largest species 
which I refer to it, is also the most doubtful one, for of the- 
many specimens of E. scabriuscula before me, nearly all are 
smooth and polished, without a trace of a sulcus ; yet others 
correspond with the figured examples in the various monographs 
in having it. 

E. SCABRIUSCULA, Gray. PL 4, fig. 56. 

Oval, -rather narrow, with elevated spire; ash-pink; surface 
smooth and polished, or minutely granulate, with or without an 
obscure dorsal sulcus. Length, 10 mill. 

W. Coast Central America to Mazatlan. 

E. SULCIFERA, Gray. PI. 4, fig. 51. 

An obscure species, strikingly like the preceding, and said by 
Gray to come from Cape of Good Hope. Reeve has figured for 
it a specimen of E. lachryma, Gray, and gives Philippines as 
locality, whilst the figure in Sowerby's Thesaurus represents an 
entirely different form, said to occur at Panama. 

E. CORRUGATA, Hinds. PL 4, fig. 52. 

Minute, white, very finely granulated, sulcus distinct. 
Length, 4 mill. 

Philippines, 8 fathoms, sandy mud (Cuming) ; 

Port Jackson, Australia (AngasV 
E. NANA, Duclos. PL 4, fig. 53. 

. Like E. corrugata, but narrower, with finer granulations. 
Length, 4 mill. 

Red Sea (McAndrew) ; Paumotus (Pease). 

E. SCHMELTZIANA, Crosse. PL 4, figs. 54, 55. 

Narrower than E. nana; tinged with ash or rose, base of 

aperture red-tipped. Length, 3*5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

Undetermined and Spurious Species. 
E. VENTRICOSA, Gray. Not figured nor recognized. 
E. PELLUCIDA, Tenison-Woods. = Marginella. 

Reeve has preoccupied the specific name in Erato. 



12 MARGINELLA. 

E. BIMACULATA, Tnte. South Australia. 

Pale primrose-yellow to yellowish white, with rufous-red 
around the extremity of the anterior canal and on the callous 
border of the hinder part of the aperture. Closely resembles 
E. angulifera, Reeve; but differs in color and in having a less 
angular and inflated body-whorl. Unfigured. 

E. LACTEA, Hutton (= Marginella formicula, Lam.). New Zealand. 
E. PRAYENSIS, Rochbrune. Cape Verd Islands. 

Shell triangular, narrow in front, very thick, with obtuse spire ; 
aperture narrow ; lip reflected, very finely denticulated ; col- 
umella straight, sinuous in front ; color greenish. Length, 5 mill. 

The figure of this species arrived too late for insertion in my 
plates. 

(r nuf MARGINELLA, Lamarck. 

The Marginellas are tropical and subtropical in distribution, 
a large proportion of the species inhabiting the Caribbean, West 
African and Indo-Pacific provinces. A species occurs doubt- 
fully in the cretaceous ; but in the eocene formation the genus is 
well represented, and from that and subsequent formations at 
least seventy-five fossil species have been characterized ; from 
the United States, Europe and Australia. 

A number of monographs and catalogues of the species have 
been published in recent times ; the most important are : 

KIENER. Coquilles vivantes, 1834. A monograph including 56 
species, with colored figures. 

SOWERBY. Thesaurus Conchyliorum, i, 1846. Contains descrip- 
tions and figures of 108 species. 9 

PETIT DE LA SAUSSAYE. Journal de Conchyliologie, ii, 1851. A 
list of 146 species, systematically arranged. 

H. AND A. ADAMS. Genera of Recent Mollusca, i, 190, 1853. 
The species are divided among a number of subgenera, under 
which they are alphabetically enumerated, numbering 159. 

REEVE. Conchologia Iconica, xv, 1865. Descriptions and 
figures of 159 species. 



MARGINELLA. 13 

JOHN H. REDFIELD. Catalogue and synonymy of Marginellidae. 
American Journal of Conchology, vi, 1870. The species are 
alphabetically arranged, with the synonymy and bibliography 
fully indicated. 211 valid species are enumerated. This may 
be considered the first catalogue constructed from the modern 
scientific standpoint. It is prepared with evident care and 
thoroughness, and is the result of many years' study of these 
interesting shells. The two monographies which have since 
appeared, were both written in ignorance of Mr. Redfield's 
labors ; a circumstance which has greatly impaired their value, 
besides causing some additional synonyms. 

JOUSSEATJME. Monograph ; in Guerin's Revue et Magasin de 
Zoologie, 1875. 269 species are shortly characterized and 
arranged under subgenera. There are no illustrations, except 
of new species. 

H. C. WEINKAUFF. In the Systematisches Conchilien-Cabinet 
of Kiister, 1878. 229 species are described and carefully 
figured ; many of the species described as new by Dr. Jous- 
seaume being relegated to the synonymy. 

The present monograph admits as valid 230 recent species, 
some of which, however, being unfigured, cannot be satisfactorily 
determined. So far as localities are known, they have the fol- 
lowing distribution : 

Caribbean, 60 species; Mediterranean, 5 ; West African, 45 
South African, 11; Indo-Pacific, 38; Australo-Zealandic, 34; 
Polynesian, 10; California!! and Panamic, 14. 

Systematists commenced at an early date to divide up the 
Marginellas into genera and subgenera. Lamarck, in 1801, 
established Volvaria for a fossil species of cylindrical form, with 
sharp outer lip ; -subsequently, he included recent species of 
similar form, but in which the outer lip is slightly thickened. 
For these, Schumacher, in 1817, proposed Hyalina. Finally 
H. and A. Adams adopt Volvaria as a generic term, including 
one recent species, V.pallida, and for the cylindrical Marginellas 
with thickened lip they use the subgeneric name Volvarina, 
Hinds. 

Besides Hyalina, Schumacher separated under the name of 



14 MARCH NELL A. 

Persicula, those volutiform species having a depressed or sunken 
spire. 

Swainson, in 1840, founded a classification upon slight differ- 
ences in the form of the species ; extremely unsatisfactory because 
the change of form in the series is gradual. His genera are 
Volutella, Perxicula, Gibber ula and Glabella. 

In 1844, Hinds divided the species into two groups : Phseno- 
spira, with elevated spire; Cryptospira, with hidden spire. The 
first corresponds with Marginella as restricted by Schumacher, 
the second with that author's Persicula. H. and A. Adams, 
however, have adopted Cryptospira as a subgenus of Marginella, 
with nearly obsolete spire, and last whorl gibbous posteriorly ; 
following it, they place the genus Persicula, with depressed 
spire. 

Petit, in 1851, divided Marginella into three sections : 

1 . With spire more or less elevated. 

2. With spire depressed or hidden, sometimes umbilicated. 

3. Columbelliform species, connecting with the genus Erato. 

Gray, in 1857, admitted three genera: 1. Porcellana (= Mar- 
ginella) \ 2. Closia, for M. sarda, and not differing essentially 
from 3, Persicula. 

Messrs. H. and A. Adams, in their " Genera of Recent Mol- 
lusca," admit three genera : 

Marginella, with the subgenera Glabella, Prunum, Volutella, 
and Cryptospira. 

Persicula, with the subgenus Gibberula. 

Volvaria, with the subgenus Volvarina. 

J. H. Redfield, in 1810, writes: "As to the numerous 
subgenera which have been proposed for species of this genus, 
they seem to me to be neither useful nor well grounded. In a 
series of two or three hundred species it is easy to select a few 
salient forms for subgeneric t}^pes, but much less easy to allot 
all the intermediate species to their proper places under such 
types. All the proposed subgenera are founded on the greater 
or less prominence of the spire, and on the degree of the 
thickening or reflection of the outer lip. A very slight difference 
of the plane of development is aty that is involved in the former 
character, and.all students of the great family Helicidse under- 
stand well how little generic value attaches to either character. 



MARGINELLA. 15 

An evidence of the invalidity of these distinctions is furnished 
in the inconsistencies of the catalogues in which they have been 
employed. The lingual dentition, when fully studied in a 
sufficient number of species, may yet guide us to proper groups ; 
but even of this I am less hopeful than formerly." Mr. Redfield 
adopts Volvaria, Lamarck ; but for fossil species only. 

Jousseaume, in 1875, made thirteen generic divisions of the 
Lamarckian genus, viz. : Marginella<, Egouvna, Volvarina , 
tierrata, Cryptospira, Gibberula, Granula, Bullata-, Closia, 
Persicula, Volvaria, Balanetta, Canalispira. Weinkauff, in 
1878, found that the distribution of species into the above 
groups as made by Jousseaume was very unfortunate. In his 
own monograph he has not attempted any grouping according 
to the relationships of the species, but has presented them 
almost at haphazard ; nevertheless in an Appendix he also 
proposes a classification. He thinks that the presence of a basal 
sinus in the aperture-margin, in many of the species, affords a 
good character, and accordingly presents the following scheme : 

Division I. Species with basal sinus. 
ISection 1. True Marginellas. 
Group a. (Marginella. H, & A Ad.). M. glabella, Linn. 

" b. (Glabella, H. & A. Ad.). M. faba, L. M. muscaria, Lam. 
c. (Eratoidea, Weiuk. == Marginella and Egojiena, Jouss. 

parti m). 

. With crenated lip. M. margarita, Kiener. . 
R With smooth lip. M. australis, Hinds. 
v (= Serrala, Jouss. ex parte). M. serrata, Gask. 
Section 2. (Persicula, Gray). 
Group a. (SuUatapa,Ttim, Jouss.). M. cornea, Lam., M. clandestina, 

Brocc., M. ovulum, Sowb. 
" b. (Persicula, Auct.). M. persicula, L. M. interrupta, Lam., 

M- chrysomelina, Redf. 
" C- (Gibberula}. M. miliaria, Linn. 
R (Granula, Jouss.). M. mitmta, Pfr. 
Section 3. Species with more or less apparent basal sinus, connecting the 

first and second divisions. 
Group a. (Closia, Gray). M. Largillierli, Kiener. M. sarda, Kr. 

b. (Cryptospira, Adams, Jouss. ex parte). M. quinqueplicata, 

Lam. M. eleyans, Gmel. 

c, (Volutella, H. and A. Adams, Bullyta partim, Jouss.). M. 
buttata, Born, M. dactylus, Lam. 



1<> MAR.QINELLA. 

Dicision II. Species without basal sinus. 

Section 1. (Prunum, Adams, Egouena, Jouss. for most part). 
Group a. (Labiatce). M. labiata, Kiener, M. oblonga, Swn. 
" b. (GuttatcB). M. guttata, Dillw. M. apicina, Mke. 
" c. (Marginatce). M. marginata, Born, M. prunum, Gmel. 
Section 2. 
Group a. ( Volvaria, H. and A. Ad.). M. pallida, Linn. 

" b. (Cdnalispira, Jouss. '. M. Olivellaformis, Jouss. 
Sections. ( Volvarina, H. and A. Ad., and Ballanetta, Jouss.). M. 
triticea, Lam., M. zonata, Kiener, M. cylindrical, tSowb. 

Weinkauff,in 1880, published an excellent synonymic catalogue 
of tbe genus, in the Jahrbiicher der Deutsch. Mai. Gesell. ; 
arranged as above. 

In addition to the names enumerated above, Mr. T. A. Conrad 
has proposed three fossil groups, neither of which he has char- 
acterized. 

Porcellanella. Type P. bella. Miocene. The species was 
not described until 1868, six years after the name was cited in 
connection with Porcellanella, and then it was placed under 
Prunum, so that Conrad abandoned this group. 

Micrjospira, Conrad. Proposed as a subgenus of Voluh'1/.a, 
Swainson, the type being M. aviformis, a miocene species, pre- 
senting no generic characters to distinguish it from numerous 
recent Marginellas. (M. ow/brraix, Conrad. Manual, vol. iv, 
t. 3, f. 42.) 

BulliopsiS) Conrad. Type, B. cretacea, Conr. (PI. 3, fig. 29). 

The only objection to Weinkauff 's arrangement of the species 
is that the basal sinus is more or less apparent in the species, so 
that they form no sharply defined groups : on the other hand 
he has the advantage over Jousseaume, Adams, etc., in clearly 
recognizing their artificial nature and subordinate value, by using 
the terms division, section and group instead of genus and sub- 
genus. The. number of species in the genus is so large that it is 
convenient to group them as nearly as possible in accordance 
with characters which appear to be common to several of the 
forms, and for this purpose I shall use some of the systematic 
term- heretofore proposed,, assigning to them no value, however, 
except that of mere convenience. 



MARGINKhLA. 1.7 

Typical Group of M. glabella. 

M. GLABELLA, Linn. PI. 5, figs. 57, 58. 

Polished, reddish or reddish brown, darker at the suture, with 
irregular flecks of opaque white ; lip yellowish brown. 

Length, 1-52 inches. 

West Coast of Africa ; Canary Islands. 

Fossil in the upper tertiary of Italy. One of the most beau- 
tiful species of Marginella ; occasionally the shell occurs 
reversed. With this species are to be united Pseudomarginella 
platypus and leptopus, Carriere (ante p. 6). 

M. POUCHETI, Petit. PI. 5, fig. 59. 

Color varying from that of M. glabella to chestnut-brown, 
without the white flecks ; as in that species, there are obscure 
indications of two bands of darker color. Length, 1 inch. 

Senegal. 
Possibly only a variety of M. glabella. 

M. IRRORATA, Menke. PL 5, fig. 60. 

Pink or yellowish, closely marked by zig-zag lines of minute 
white spots. Length, '75-1 inch. 

West Africa. 

This also is possibly only a variety of M. glabella, but is 
smaller, less ventricose, the spire more drawn out, the spots 
much more numerous and closer, almost forming lines of zig-zag 
longitudinal direction. 

M. LABIATA, Val. PL 5, tig. 61. 

Rosy white, sometimes very faintly banded ; lip-margin ex- 
teriorly orange. Length, 1-1-2 inches. 

Campeachy, Yucatan, Brazil. 

M. PYRULATA, Redfield. PL 5, fig. 69. 

Like M. labiata, but more elongated, spire more produced. 

Length, I'l inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described by Sowerby as M. obesa, a name preoccupied by 
Redfield, who changed it as above. The species has not been 
identified with any living Marginella, since it was described, 
and I agree with Mr. Redfield that it is possibly a fossil form. 



IX MARUINKLLA. 

M. GOODALLLI, Sowb. PI. 5, fig. <>:>. 

Very ventricose, obtusely angulated behind ; yellowish brown. 

with a few large, rounded, whitish spots. Length, 1 inch. 

Senegal. 
M. AURANTTA, Lam. PI. 5, fig. 63. 

Orange-red, darker at the sutures, where it is painted with 
short white streaks ; surface irregularly mottled with white, 
often forming an interrupted band of very irregular large white 
spots in the middle. Length, -8-'9 inch. 

W. Africa, and Cape Verd Is. 

Narrower than M. irrorata, yet in one specimen before me the 
zig-zag painting of that species is partially repeated. 

M. PYRUM, Ginelin. PL 5, figs. 70, 71. 

Body-whorl with an obtuse shoulder; white, irregularly marked 
with gray or pink blotches, which are longitudinally shaded on 
one side by chestnut or chocolate color ; outer margin of lip 
marked by a series of brown dots. Length, 1 '25-1 '5 inches. 

Senegal. 

M. intermedia, Sowb. (fig. 71), is probably a white or bleached 
specimen of this species ; it is probably Kiener's var. alba of 
nnbccul-ata the name by which Lamarck designated M.pyrum. 

M. MOSAICA, Sowb. PI. 5, fig. 72. 

Shell white, with faint zig-zag longitudinal stripes of gray, 
over which are about nine revolving series of short square spots. 

Length, 1 inch. 

West Africa. 

Very closely allied to M. pyrum, and may be only a variety 
of it, differing in the spots added to the painting of that species. 

M. ROSEA, Lam. Pit 5, figs. 73, 74, 75. 

Smaller than J/. pi/rum, the shoulder obscure ; sometimes 
similarly painted, but the spots and shading smaller and more 
numerous; occasionally the ground color is grayish pink, upon 
which the spots are white, with chocolate shndings ; spire and 
shoulder frequently darker in color; lip-margin marked outside 
with a series of brown spots. Length, -9-1 '1 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

A critical species ; perhaps only a small var. of the preceding. 
I am unable to to separate M. piperata. Hinds (fig. 74), from it. 



GLABELLA. 




)RJ^ 



M. albocincta, Sowb. (fig. 15), described from a single specimen 
in the Taylor collection, is also a synonym. 

Reeve says of it : "I have no good opinion of this species. 
It appears to be a variety of M. piper ata, in which a white band 
is formed by an accidental absence of coloring matter." Another 
synonym is probably the unfigured M. lineato-labrum, Gaskoin. 

M. FDLMINATA, Kiener. PI. 5, fig. 78. 

Whitish, with brown, zig-zag longitudinal painting. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Bahia, Brazil. 
I have not seen a specimen of this species. 

M. PETITIT, Duval. PI. 5, figs. 76, 77. 

White, longitudinally blotched and reticulated with orange- 
red or lilac, and numerously speckled with minute brown dots; 
body-whorl very obscurely shouldered. Length, 1-1'25 inches. 

Senegal ; Cape of Good Hope. 

M. Newcombii, Reeve (fig. 77), appears to be synonymous ; it 
is said on Cuming's authority to come from L'Agulhas Bank, 
Cape of Good Hope. 

M. HELMATINA, Rang. PI. 5, tigs. 79, 80. 

White, very minutely, irregularly speckled with light reddish 
brown, with two narrow bands of chestnut spots. 

Length, '7-1 *4 inches. 

West Africa. 

Narrower and less shouldered than the preceding species. M. 
Gumingiana, Petit (fig. 80), is merely a larger, finer shell of 
similar form and painting. 

Section Glabella, Swainson. 

Yolutiform ; spire more or less conic, well developed, usually 
longitudinally plaited aboilt the shoulder of the body-whorl ; 
pillar with distinct basal plaits ; lip thick, toothed or crenate, 
rarely smooth within. 

M. BIFASCIATA, Lam. PI. 6, figs. 81, 82. 

White, more or less clouded with light brown or purple-gray, 
covered with small, close dflts, usually in revolving series. 

Length, -9-1-25 inches. 

Gape Blanco to Gambia, W. Africa. 



20 GLABELLA. 

The light-colored varieties (fig. 82) have been called M. are- 
naria by Morch. 

M. OBTUSA, Sowb. PL 6, figs. 83, 84. 

Shell wide, with short conical spire ; nearly the entire surface 
covered with longitudinal obtuse ribs ; white with revolving 
series of light chestnut spots and broader bands of the same 
color upon the shoulder and near the anterior extremity ; lip 
thickly spotted. Length, '75 1 '3 inches. 

Habitat unknown, probably W. Africa. 

The long ribs, rather a peculiar feature in the genus, are not 
shown in Sowerby's figure, although indicated in his description. 
M. mirabilis, Barclay (fig. 84), is a finely grown specimen. 

M. ADANSONI, Kiener. PI. 6, figs. 85, 86. 

Light yellowish or orange-brown, with zig-zag longitudinal 
shadings, and irregular longitudinal narrow dark brown lines. 

Length, '9-1/25 inches. 

Senegal and Gambia, West Africa. 

M. Bellii, Sowb. (fig. 86), described from a single specimen, 
and remaining unique, is probably a dwarfed individual of this 
species. 

M. DAVISIANA, Marrat. 

Shell like M. Bellii, Sowb., but much smaller, thicker, narrower, 
and lighter-colored , longitudinal lines distant ; lip crenulated 

within, thickened, without, columella four-plicate. 

West Africa. 
Unfigured. 

M. NODATA, Hinds. PI. 6, fig. 87. 

Yellowish brown or grayish, with undulated, thin, dark choco- 
late longitudinal stripes, studded at intervals by spots forming 
revolving series. No ribs. Length, 1 inch. 

Cape Blanco, W. Africa; in sand at 12-15 fathoms. 

Closely allied to the following species and only distinguished 
from it by the spots. 

M. CLERYI, Petit. PL 6, fig. 88. 

Shell smooth ; light yellowish or white, with faint gray bands, 
and longitudinal, undulated chocolate stripes. Length, *9 inch. 

West Africa. 



GLABELLA. 2 1 

M. LIMBATA, Lam. PL 6, fig. 89. 

Pale fawn-color, with undulating longitudinal pink lines ; not 
ribbed ; outer margin of lip marked by groups of transverse 

chocolate-colored spots. Length, '9-1*1 inches. 

W. Africa. 

Crosse describes a variety with more numerous pink lines, and 
another in which they are less numerous and more zig-zag in 
direction. 

M. LITURATA, Menke. 

An unfigured species, less ovate than M. limbata, with the 
angulated longitudinal lines broken up into spots. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Australia. 
M. ORNATA, Redfield. PL 6, fig. 90. 

Smooth ; rose or gray, with lighter bands, upon which are 
chocolate lines and spots ; outer margin of lip also spotted. 

W. Africa. 

Described by Reeve as M. rittata, a name preoccupied by 
Edwards for a fossil species, Redfield changed the name in 
1870 for M. ornata ; subsequently Jousseaume, ignorant of 
Redfield 's catalogue, called it M. serpentina. 

M. FAB A, Linn. PL 6, fig. 91. 

Shell grayish buff, with seven to nine revolving series of distant 
chestnut or chocolate spots ; shoulder ribbed. 

Length, '8-1 '1 inches, 

Senegambia. 

M. Isevilabris, Jousseaumfe (unfigured), is probably synony- 
mous with this species. 

M. PSEUDOFABA, Sowb. PL (), fig. 92. 

Larger, with more angulated shoulder and more prominent 
costse than M. faba, which it resembles in coloring ; it has a 
turriculated spire, and is narrow in front, resembling a Strombus 
in shape. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Gambia, West Africa. 
M. SPLENDENS, Reeve. PL 6, fig. 93. 

Closely longitudinally ridged ; light yellowish brown, with 
three revolving series of curved chestnut spots, and numerous 

minute dots. Length. *8-*9 inch. 

West Africa. 



22 GLABELLA. 

Petit changed the name of this species to M. Reeveana, because 
splendens had been previously used by Grateloup for a fossil 
species ; but as that shell proved to be synonymous with M. 
eburnea, Lam., a still earlier name, I restore splendens. 

M. GUJLLAINI, Petit. PI. 6, fig. 94. 

Longitudinally plicate ; light violaceous, with revolving series 
of square brown spots. Length, 18 mill. 

Abd-el Goury, near Red Sea. 
M. MUSICA, Hinds. PL 6, fig. 95. 

Yellowish or light gray, with a few narrow revolving brown 
bands, between which are undulated grayish markings. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Cape Blanco, W. Africa; 12 to 15 fathoms. 

M. Tyermani, Marrat, an unfigured species, appears from the 
description to be closely allied to, if not identical with M. muxica. 

M. DIADOCHUS, Ad. and Reeve. PL 6, figs, 96, 97. 

Pale ash-color, tinged with orange, with black revolving lines. 
Length, 1 inch. 

Straits of Sunda (Ad. and Reeve) ; W. Africa (Marrat). 
Spire more elevated than in M. musica. 

M. BELCHERI, Hinds. PL 6, tigs. 98, 99. 

Yellowish brown, delicately penciled throughout, but espec- 
ially in the middle, with longitudinal brown markings, forming 
revolving bands. Length, '8 inch. 

Cape Blanco,- W. Africa ; 12 to 15 fathoms. 

The spire is more elevated than in M. musica, and the pattern 
of painting is different ; yet the two are very closely allied. 

M. VEXILLUM, Redfield. PL 6, fig. 100. 

Yellowish, with broad and narrow purple-chestnut revolving 
bands ; lip-margin spotted with chestnut. Length, -75 inch. 

Cape Palmas, W. Africa. 

M. HARP^FORMIS, Beck. PL 6, fig 1. 

Fulvous white, sometimes faintly banded with ash, with rows 
of minute brown dots, and occasionally interrupted superior and 

inferior brown bands. Length. *7-'-8 inch. 

.. .. Senegal, W. Africa. 



GLARELLA. '2X 

M. FORMICULA, Lam. PI. 6, figs. 2, 3. 

Yellowish white, tops of ribs and lip-margin ivory-white. 

Length, '5-'6 inch. 

So. Australia, Tasmania. 

M. muscaria, Lam. (fig. 3), is somewhat larger, the lip thicker, 
the inner lip callous and the spire and back of the shell also 
callously thickened, so that the ribs become obsolete or hidden, 
but the series before me affords indubitable evidence that it is 
merely a heavy, older state of M. formicula. Erato lactea, 
Hutton, is identical. 

M. TURBINATA, Sowb. PL 7, figs. 4, 5. 

Yellowish white, slightty plicate on the shoulder of the bod} r - 
whorl, plicae sometimes obsolete. Length, '35-'4 inch. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

M. Volutiformis, Reeve (fig. 5 , is a smooth variation of this 
species, apparently. 

M. CYPRyEoiDES, Tenison-Woods. 

White, smooth, spire hidden by the produced and thickened 
outer lip. Length, 6 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Smaller than M. Volutiformis, and destitute of plaits on the 
shoulder. Unfigured. I have not seen this species, and there- 
fore cannot place it with confidence. The name was used long 
since by Anton for a shell which has never been identified. 

M. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. PL 7, fig. 6. 

Translucent, milk-white, suture callous. Length, 9-10 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Is longer and narrower than M. tits binata, witji a much more 
elevated spire, and no trace of ribs. 

M. OPALINA, Stearns. PL 7, fig. 7. 

Smooth, polished, light or dark amber-colored, sometimes 
obscurely darker banded ; lip-margin internally crenated, strongly 
notched above. Length, 3 '5-4 mill. 

Tampa Bay, Florida. 

Found on the under side of bunches of oyster-shells, near 
low-water mark. 



24 ULABKLLA. 

M. AUREOCINCTA, Stearns. PI. 7, fig. 8. 

Smooth, sutures enameled, spire acutely elevated; white, with 
two amber-colored bands. Length, '16 inch. 

Long Key, W. Coast of Florida. 

Figured from the unique specimen kindly loaned to me by Mr. 
Stearns. 

M. DEFORMIS, Nevill. PL 7, fig. 9. 

White, with two spiral chestnut bands. Length, 4-5 mill. 

Ceylon. 

Resembles M. picturata, Nevill, from Mauritius in form, but 
differs in coloring. 

M. NEVILLI, Jousseanme. PL 7, figs. 15, 16. 

White, smooth, shining. Length, 4 mill. 

Is. of Bourbon ; Mauritius. 

The name adopted is substituted by Jousseaume for M. incon- 
spicua, Nevill, not Sowerby. I add M. Lantzi, Jousseaume (fig. 
16), which appears to be a younger state of the same species. 
The form is so nearly like that of M. picturata, Nevill (fig. 17), 
from Mauritius also, that I think it probable it will prove to be 
an unpainted state' of that species. 

M. FUSIFORMIS, Hinds. PL 7, figs. 10-12. 

White, slightly angulated posteriori}^. Length, 4 mill. 
Straits of Malacca, in mud, at 17 fathoms (Hinds); 

/. Bourbon (Deshayes). 

M. inflexa, Sowb. (fig. 11), described without locality, is very 
probably synonymous, and I agree with Dr. Weinkauff that M. 
unilineata, Jousseaume, founded on the shell figured by Reeve 
for M. fusiformis (fig. 12), and which differs from the type in 
possessing an inferior revolving brown band, cannot be distin- 
guished, except, perhaps, as a variety. 

M. HJEMATITA, Kiener. PL 7, figs. 13, 14. 

Smooth, or very slightly pitted, light lilac-red. 

Length, -35-'4 inch. 

Porto Rico, West Indies. 

M. electrum, Reeve (fig. 14), is founded on a faded specimen, 
in which the lip is worn smooth ; I have similar specimens in 
the collection of M, hsematita before me. 



(JLAHKLLA. 25 

M. FESTIVA, Kiener. PI. 7, tig. 18. 

Whitish, mottled irregularly with fulvous, and encircled by 

three rose-colored bands. Length, '5 inch. 

East Africa (Reeve). 
M. PICTUKATA, Nevill. PI. 7, fig. 17. 

Cone-shaped, smooth ; light chestnut, with two white zones 

maculated with chestnut. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Mauritius. 
M. SCRIPTA, Hinds. ' PL 7, fig. 19. 

Yellowish white, with zig-zag longitudinal brown lines, and 
two bands of distant brown spots. Leng'th, 7*5 mill. 

Straits of Macassar, in coarse sand, 11 to 15 

fathoms ( Belcher); Madagascar (Petit). 

M. LIFOUANA, Crosse. PI. 7, fig. 20. 

Yellowish white, sparingly longitudinally strigate with flex- 

uous brown lines. Length, 4'5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Is possibly a young, and not well-marked specimen of M. 
scripta. 

M. LUCIA, Jousseaume. PL 7, fig. 21. 

Spire scarcely apparent, the lip advanced upon it ; white, with 
undulating longitudinal brown lines. Length, 3 mill. 

Cape Verd Islands. 

Very like M. Lifouana in coloring, but having less prominent 
spire. 

M. MARGARITA, Kiener. PL 7, figs. 22, 23. 

White ; columellar plaits and lip-denticulations conspicuous. 

Length, 6-7 mill. 

West Indies. 

This species is not found in the East Indies or India, as stated 
by Kiener and most European monographers. M. Candida, 
Sowb. (fig. 23), is synonymous. 

M. STRIATA, Sowb. PL 7, figs. 24-26. 

Whitish ; volutiform, longitudinally finely folded or striated ; 
columellar plaits ami lip-crenulations very prominent. 

Length, 4-5 mill. 

West Indies ; Brazil. 
M. xulcata, d'Qrb. (fig. 25), is probably the same species, or 

4 



(SLABELLA. 



at most a variety, and M. xccJari*. .Foims. (fig. 2(5), is also 
synonymous. 

M. CHAPERT, Jonsseaume. PI. 7, fig. 27. 

Vitreous white, or cream-color. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
A very doubtful species. 

M. PUMILA, Redfield. PI. 7, fig. 28. 

Pallid corneous. Length, 5 mill. 

Port Louis Harbor, Mauritius. 

Described by A. Adams as M. pusilla, a name preoccupied by 
Edwards for a fossil species. Jousseaume, in ignorance of the 
substitution made by lied field, proposed for it the name M. 
Borbonica. 

M. SERRATA, Gaskoin. PI. 7, fig. 31. 

White; columella four-plaited, lip closely denticulated. 

Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Mauritius. 

M. SCINTELLA, Jousseaume. 

An unfignred species, from an unknown Iocalit3 r , and referred 
by its author to his genus or group Serrata, which includes M. 
serrala, Gaskoin. In the absence of authentic figures or speci- 
mens, it is not determinable. , 

M. OSTERT, Jousseaume. PL 7, fig. 32. 

White ; columella four-plaited, lip minutely denticulated. 

Length, 3'8 mill. 

Ifabitat unknown. 

* Lip not denticulated. 

M. TRANSLUCIDA, Sowb. PI. 7, figs. 29, 30 ; PI. 8, fig. ;?:>. 

White. Length, 7 -5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

M. Strangei, Angas (fig. 30), Is evidently a synonym, and I 
place here also M. pyijinn-a, Sowb. (fig. 35), described without 
locality, from a single specimen in the Bell collection. It is the 
M. attenuata, Reeve, of Weinkauff, and has also been sent to me 
by Australian collectors under that name, but Reeve's species 
is entirely different and does not belong in the same group. 



GLABELLA. 27 

M. AUSTRALIS, Hinds. PL 7, figs. 33, 34 ; PL 8, fig. 30. 

White to orange-brown ; lip and interior of aperture orange 
or yellowish. Length, 6-7 '5 mill. 

N. W. Australia ; New South Wales. 

M. Metcalfei, Angas (fig. 34), and M. ochracea, Angas (fig. 
36), are juveniles of this species. Redfield and Weinkauff have 
placed as a synonym here M. oryza (= debiUs), Pease ; but that 
species has a crennlated lip. 

M. VITREA, Hinds. PL 8, tig. 37. 

Milk-white; much more angular and conical than M. mar- 
garita, Kiener. Length, 6 mill. 

W. Coa*t of Africa. 

M. INCONSPICUA, Sowb. PL 8, fig. 3H. 
Milk-white. Length, 6 mill. 

]!>>/ Indies (Coll. Pliilad. Acad.). 

M. SAULI.E, Sowb. PL 8, fig 39. 

Pallid fulvous, with two red revolving lines. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Cupe Verd Is. (Weinkauff). 
M. EVANIDA, Sowb. PL 8, fig. 40. 
Milk-white. Length, 6 mill. 

Lower Guinea Beuguela (Weinkauff). 

Dr. Weinkauft' suspects that this will prove identical with M. 
Saulise. 

M. SUAVIS, Souverbie. PL 8, fig. 41. 

Opaline white, with three red-brown bands, the middle one 
broad, the others narro^w. Length, 3 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
M. NEGLECT A, Sowb. PL 8, figs. 42, 43. 

Reddish yellow, three-banded, with red spots. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope ; Isle of Bourbon (Deshayes). 

The above is the description of M. rufula, Gaskoin. M. 
neglecta, Sowb. (fig. 42), which* is described as pallid fulvous, 
faintly trifasciate, length 6 mill., appears to me to be the 
same species, and has priority. Jousseaume supposed Reeve's 
figure of M. neylwta to differ specifically from Sowerby's shell, 
and calls the former M. ifjnota. I am not able to separate 
them. - 



28 PRUNUM. 

Serf ion Prunum (Ma tini). Adams. 

Shell smooth, oval, spire slightly prominent ; outer lip thick, 
unarmed, inner lip frequently forming a callous deposit; color 
light gray or yellowish gray, usuall}- without distinct bands or 
spots ; exterior lip-margin sometimes orange-brown. 

M. MARGIN ATA, Born. PL 8, figs. 44-51. 

Occasionally very obscurely two-banded ; callous deposit on 
inner lip wide and thick, so that viewed from the back the shell 
appears margined all round, like a Cyprsea. Length, 1 inch. 
Senegal, West Africa ; West Indies ; Brazil. 

M. marginata is a West African species which, like many 
others from that locality, reappears in the West Indies, where 
it has received the name of M. cincta, Kiener (fig. 46). The last 
has hitherto been considered distinct, but I find no characters 
by which to separate it. I am compelled to add to the synonymy 
as a minor variety, the West India M. Storeria, Couthouy (fig. 
4f ), a name applied to the smaller and usually j^ounger specimens 
of M. cincta, and in which the color is sometimes darker; also 
M. amygdala, Kiener (fig. 51), which, coming from West Africa, 
is similarly related to M. marginata. M. crdttstldbrvm , Reeve (fig. 
48), M. Saulcyana, Petit (fig. 49), M. Loroisi, Bernard* (fig. 50), 
are also synonyms. Apparently M. marginata, like the West 
Indian M. prunum, occurs on the West Coast of America also; 
at least, I have before me specimens said to come from Panama 
(Haagensen) and San Bias (Duff). 

M. CURTA, Sowb. PL 8, fig. 52. 

Light grayish brown, strigate with white longitudinally, or 
obsoletely narrowly banded with white ; lip-margin externally 
marked with orange, lip and callus white, interior of aperture 

orange-color. Length, '85-1 inch. 

West Coast of South America. 

\ darker-colored, thinner, more swollen shell than the 
preceding species; peculiar in' its strigations, appearing as 
though scratched. 

M. J.ABROSA, Redfield. PL 8, figs. 53, 54. 

Yellowish white, lip-margin and callus white. 
Length, 10-12 mill. 



PRUNUM. 29 

First described by Sowerl\y as M. crassilflbrum, a name pre- 
occupied by both Lea and Conrad for fossil species, and therefore 
changed as above ; subsequently Jousseaume, ignorant of 
Redfield's work, called it M. Leai. Dr. Weinkauff confounds 
M. crassilabrum , Sowerby, with M. crassilabrum, Reeve the 
latter a synonym of M. marginata, Born. 

M. GIBBOSA, Jousseaume. PI. 8, figs, 55, 56. 

More gibbous than M. labroxa, the columella with six or seven 

plications. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Differs somewhat in form from the last species, and in having 
more than four colnmellar folds t yet, I doubt its distinctness. 

M. KEENII, Marrat, PI. 8, fig. 5T. 

Color orange-buff', somewhat translucent ; columella four- 
plaited ; outer lip thickened, smooth within. Length, 12 mill. 

So. Africa. 

I am unacquainted with this species. 

M. PULCHRA, Gray. PL 5, figs. 61, 68. 

Yellowish flesh-color, with two narrow faint red bands. 

Length, 1 inch. 

West Indies. 

Larger than M. Olivaeformis^ the aperture conspicuously 
channeled behind, the bands of color narrower and more 
regular. Appears to connect the foregoing W. African group 
with that of M. prunum, of the West Indies. M. Honduf&ifensis, 
Reeve (fig. 68), is a juvenile shell. 

M. PRUNUM, Gmelin. PI. 8, figs. 58-61 ; PI. 9, fig. 62. 

Light olivaceous or yellowish white, sometimes very faint!}' 
banded ; lip-margin usually bordered exteriorly with orange, lip 
and columella white, interior chestnut-brown. 

Length, 1-T5 inches. 

Wes f Indies ; Panama; Sierra Leone? ; Brazil. 

With this species 1 unite M. mpotilla, Hinds, from Panama 
(fig. 62); M. Burchardi, Dunker (fig. 60), locality unknown; 
and M. Martini, Petit ifig. 61), from Rio Janeiro. The original 
figure of M. sapotilla, which I have copied, represents a young 
shell ; similar dark-colored specimens' of this age occur among 



30 CRYPTOSPIRA. 

West Indian shells ; the full-grown shells from Panama being 
precisely like the West Indian specimens figured (figs. 58-59). 

Section Cryptospira, Hinds. 

Shell swollen, smooth, spire very short, nearly concealed ; 
columella five- or six-plaited ; outer lip thickened, smooth within ; 
color gray or yellowish olivaceous, usually without bands, 
sometimes interruptedly banded or strigate. Nearly related 
to Priinum, but differs in having a shorter spire, less callous 
deposit and more columellar teeth or plaits. 

M. QUINQUEPLICATA, Lain. PI. 9, figs. 63-66. 

Light olivaceous or slate-color ; lip and interior white or 
tinged with yellow. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Bay of Bengal, Malacca, Sumatra. 
Var. HAINESII, Petit (fig. 66). 

Shell callously thickened throughout. 

M. encaustica, Reeve (fig. 65), is considered by Weinkauff a 
very young shell of M. quinqueplicata ; I think this veiy 'probable, 
the additional columellar folds, and the numerous lip-den tic ula- 
tions being probably evanescent juvenile characters. I am 
helped to this conclusion by the fact that other juvenile forms 
exhibit similar characters. 

M. ELEGANS, Gmelin. PL 9, figs. 67-10, 82 ; PI. 2, fig. 8. 

Gray, copiously banded with dark iron-gray, the bands 
composed of close longitudinal strigations ; lip and lower part 
of columella orange-brown. Length, 1-1 '75 inches. 

Nicobar Is. ; Moluccas. 

With this species I unite as synonyms, M. strigata, Dillwyn 
(figs. 68, 69), a variety in which the strigations become undulated ; 
M. Bur char di, Reeve (not Dunker) = M. Loebbeckeana, Wein- 
kaulf (fig. 70) a colorless variety, to which belong M. glauca 
and M. Marchi of Jousseaume. 

M. RUBENS, Martens. PL 13, fig. 39. 

Shell ovate, corneous, margin of the lip pallid orange ; colu- 
mellar plications three, parietal plications two. 

Length, 19 mill. 

E. Coast of Patagonia, 60 fathoms. 
Closely allied to M. glauca, Jousseaume. in form, but differs in 



CRYPTOSPIRA. 31 

tint and in having a thickened lip-margin, and in the second 
plication being more unlike the lower one. 

M. TRICINCTA, Hinds. PL 9, figs. 71, 72. 

Ash-color, very obscurely triple-banded with chestnut. 

Length, -9 inch. 

Straits of Macassar, coarse sand, at 11 fathoms (Belcher). 

The bands are usually more visible within the aperture, being 
almost or entirely obscured by the gray callous coating. M. im- 
mersa, Reeve (fig. 72), is a synonym. 

M. TRAILLTI, Reeve. PI. 9, fig. 73. 

Yellowish white, lip thickly reflected, eolumella five-plaited. 

Length, *55 inch. 

Malacca. 

Dr. Weinkauff thinks this is probably the young of M. Loeb- 
beckeana (= elegans), but it seems to be much more cylindrical 
than that species. It is in the Cumingian collection. 

M. SEXPLICATA, D tinker. PI. 9, fig. 74. 

Grayish, inconspicuously longitudinally strigate, eolumella 
six-plaited. Length, -5 inch. 

Japan. 

Described by Sowb. in 1870 as M. obtusa, a specific name pre- 
occupied by himself in 1846, and therefore changed to xexpli- 
cata by D linker in 1871, and to grisea by Jousseaume in 1875. 

M. ODORICYI, Bernardi. PL 9, fig. 75. 

White, with broad yellow bands, which are longitudinally 
strigate with orange-brown ; interior of aperture orange. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen in a worn condition. 

M. BERNARDII, Largill. PL 9, fig. 76. 

Fulvous ash, longitudinally streaked with grayish brown ; 
eolumella six-plaited. Length, 20 mill. 

China Sea. 
M. OLIVELLA, Reeve. PL 9, figs. 77, 83. 

Inflated above, glassy white ; eolumella four- to five-plaited. 
Length, 10 mill. 

N. S. Walts, Australia. 



32 CKYPTOSPIKA. 

The upper fold of the columella is minute, sometimes not 
present, and this shell, as well as the next, are referred to the 
present section with some doubt. 

M. PR^ECALLOSA, Higgins. 

An unfigured species, yellowish white, linearly strigate, and 
with two distant bands ; colnmella five-plaited, lip callously 
reflected, flexuously plicate within. Length, 25 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. OBLONGA, Swainson. PL 9, figs. 78-80. 

Flesh-color, obscurely broadly banded with a darker tint, and 
bearing two chestnut spots on the outer lip ; sometimes slightly 

necked with white. Length, '8-1 inch. 

Bahamas and Yucatan. 

Is more attenuated than the next species, which it neverthe- 
less so closely resembles in its occasional flecked coloration and 
in having the two spots on the lip, as to suggest community of 
origin. Mr. Red field has proposed the names M. amabilis (fig. 
79), and M. rostrata (fig. 8(P, for what appear to me to be only 
slight variations of this species : the latter has been indepen- 
dently described by Jousseaume as M. canella. 

M. GUTTATA, Dillwyn. PL 9, fig. 81. 

Flesh-colored, obscurel}* broadly banded with a darker tint 
over which are irregular snow-white flecks ; outer lip and base 
bearing from two to five brown spots or short stripes. 

Length, -65-'9 inch. 

West Indies, Florida, Beaufort, N. Carolina. 

See remarks on preceding species. 

M. NIVOSA, Hinds. PL 10, figs. 84, 85. 

Pale flesh-color, obsoletely banded, with narrow longitudinal 
strigations and fleckings of white ; lip without spots. 

Length, *5-'75 inch. 

West Indies. 

With this must be united M. pruinosa, Hinds (fig. 85), and 
M. nivea, C. B. Adams the latter an unfigured species, founded 
on small specimens. M. punctidata, Petit, is an unfigured species 
from Senegal, which has not been identified heretofore ; the 
description agrees well enough with nivosa. If it could be posi- 
tively identified it would have priority over nivosa. 



CRYPT08PIRA. 33 

M. OLIV^EFORMIS, Kieuer. PI. 5, figs. 64-66. 

Rather narrow, flesh-color, obscurely two- or three-banded, and 
occasionally longitudinally mottled with a darker tint. 

Length, *6 inch. 

Senegal. 

I agree with Weinkauff that M. laeta, Jousseaume (fig. 65), is 
scarcely more than a fine, small example of this species. M. 
Hindsiana, Petit (fig. 66), proposed instead of*M. constricta, 
Hinds, a name preoccupied by Conrad for a fossil species, is 
probably a synonym. 

M. CARNEA, Storer. PL 10, fig. 86. 

Orange-red, with a median narrow white band ; lip and callus 
white. Length, 'T5 inch. 

West Indies, Florida, Beaufort, N. Carolina. 

This very distinct species has been misunderstood by the 
European monographers, who have all confounded it with forms 
of M. oblonga, Swains. 

M. ROSCIDA, Redfield. PI. 10, fig. 88. 

Yellowish flesh-color, flecked with white, tending to become 
longitudinally white-streaked below the suture ; lip marked \)y 
two distant chestnut spots, with usually a third at its junction 

with the spire. Length, -6 inch. 

North and South Carolina. 

Is very nearly related to the next species, but the spire is 
more developed, the shoulder more distinctly angular, and has 
the white spots of which M. apicina is destitute. It is a critical 
species and may prove to be only a variety of M. apicina. 

M. APICINA, Menke. PL 10, figs. 89, 90. 

Pure white, bluish, purple, pinkish or yellowish white, or 
orange-yellow, faintly darker banded, with two, three or four 
chestnut spots on the margin of the outer lip sometimes obso- 
lete. Length, -4--6 inch. 

West Indies, Florida, Bahamas. 

The pure white variety has been described by Jousseaume as 
M. virginea. 

M. PELLUCIDA, Pfeiffer. PL 10, fig. 91. 

Thin, diaphanous, orange-brown, sometimes faintly banded 



34 (11YPTOSPIRA. 

with a darker tint ; lip narrowly margined externally with 
orange-red. Length, '5 inch. 

West Indies, Bahamas. 

Has the form of M. apicina, but differs remarkably in its 
diaphanous texture. 

M. NITIDA, Hinds. PI. 10, figs. 92, 93. 

Thin, pellucid, amber-color ; more cylindrical than M.pellucida, 
with the spire more produced. Length, *45 inch. 

Tampa Bay, Fla. 

M. nitida was described without locality, but both description 
and figure so entirely correspond with 717. succinea, Conrad (fig. 
93), that I cannot doubt their identity. M. succinea is figured 
from the author's type. 

M. WALLACEI, Jousseaume. PI. 10, figs. 94, 95. 

Orange-brown with a central white zone ; columella obliquely 
four-plaited ; lip white, thickened and margined, minutely arid 
irregularly dentate within. Length, 12 mill. 

Locality not certain, probably West Indies. 

The minute lip-denticulations, if permanent, separate this 
species widely from its nearest allies in form and coloring ; 
otherwise it is very like a small M. carnea. 

M. CANTHARUS, Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 96. 

Transparent horny, rather solid, obscurely banded ; lip thick- 
ened, opaque white. Length, 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. CAPENSIS, Dunker. PI. 10, fig. 97. 

White, tinged or obscurely banded with very light orange- 
brown. Length, 12 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
Of rather inflated growth. 

M. PAXILLUS, Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 98. 

White or tinged with orange-brown ; spire somewhat exserted, 
body-whorl rather swollen above, attenuated below ; lip thickened, 
smooth, flexuous ; columella four-plaited. Length, 8-9 mill. 
Off Florida (Pourtales) ; West Coast of Florida ( Jewett). 

Described by Reeve without locality. 

M. REDFIELDII, Tryon. PL 10, fig. 99. 

Smooth, polished, white or yellowish ; narrow, spire drawn 



CRYPTOSPIRA. 35 

out, body-whorl attenuated below ; lip flexuous, smooth, not 
much thickened externally, not thickened within ; columella 
obliquely four-plaited. Length, 8 mill. 

Dredged off Florida (Pourtales). 

Of same general type as M. paxillus, but proportionally much 
narrower, with the spire exserted. 

M. ANNULATA, Reeve. PL 10, fig. 100. 

Rather solid, yellowish white, brown-margined below the 
sutures; body-whorl gibbously angled above; lip thickened, 
flexuous, columella four-plaited. Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. TRIPLICATA, Gaskoin. PL 10, figs. 1, 2. 

Tumid pear-shaped, fleshy white, shining; spire small; lip 
thickly margined ; columella triplicate. Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines. 
A very characteristic, cowry-shaped species. 

Section Volutelia, Swui f<>n. 

Bulliform, ovate-oblong; spire depressed; pillar with four 
oblique plaits at the fore-part, lip smooth within. 

M. BULLATA, Born. PL 10, figs. 3, 4. 

Pale buflf, sometimes very indistinctly banded with a darker 
tint ; reddish brown within the aperture. 

Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Bahia, Brazil. 

. This is the largest species of the genus and a veritable giant 
among Marginellas. A pale lemon-colored variet^y has been 

called M. Cuvieri, Desh. (fig. 4). 


M. ANGUSTATA, Sowb. PL 10, fig. 5. 

White, covered by interrupted chocolate or chestnut revolving 
lines, some of them approximating into bands. 

Length, '7- 1*25 inches. 

Indian Ocean ; Australia. 
M. BLANDA, Hinds. PL 10, fig. 6. 

Orange-brown, outside and inside ; obsoletely fasciated. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Cape Blanco, W. Africa, 12-15 fathoms. 



36 PERSICULA. 

M. DACTYLUS, Lam. PI. 10, fig. 7. 

Pale fawn-color, without and in the interior. 

Length, 1-1 inches. 

Hong-Kong, China; Hinds. 

Is more cylindrical than M. blanda, and has five columellar 
plaits. 

M. ELLIPTICA, Redfield. PI. 10, fig, 8. 

White, or very faintly yellowish banded. Length, 9'5 mill. 

Ins. Fanning, Polynesia. 

Described by Mr. Pease as M. elongata, a name preoccupied by 
Bellardi for a fossil species. 

Section Pers'cula, Schumacher. 

Shell bulliforin, spire depressed or sunken ; usually banded 
or spotted ; aperture long, the outer lip generally denticulated 
within, with a posterior channel, inner lip with a callosity 
posteriorly, four plaits anteriorly, with smaller ones behind 
them, becoming obsolete. 

M. CORNEA, Lam. PL 10, fig. 9. 

Fulvous flesh-color, obsoletely darker banded, lip and callus 

lighter. Length, *8-l inch. 

West Africa. 
. M. PERSICULA, Linn. PI. 10, fig. 10. 

Fulvous white, copiously spotted with orange-red or chestnut. 

Length, -75--9 inch. 

Senegambia, Cape Verd Is. 

M. CINGULATA, Dillw. PL 10, fig. 11. 

Fulvous white, with conspicuous zig-zag chestnut revolving- 
lines. Length, *7-*9 inch. , 

W. Africa, Canaries, Cape Verd Is. 

In some specimens before me the revolving lines have broken 
up into spots ; so that, distant as the two patterns of painting 
normally appear, this and the preceding may prove to be 
varieties of a single species. 

M. MULTILINE ATA, Sowb. PL 10, fig. 12. 

Yellowish, with close-set chestnut revolving lines. 

Length, *5 inch. 

Belize, Honduras, 



PERSICULA. 37 

M. PORCELLANA, Gmelin. PI. 10, fig. 13. 

Whitish, tesselated with close-set rows of chestnut quadran- 
gular spots. Length, '65 inch. 

Venezuela. 
M. KIENERIANA, Petit. PL 10, fig. 14. 

Fawn to chestnut-color, with four white bands, on which are 
distant chocolate spots. Length, -5-'75 inch. 

Laguayra, Venezuela. 
M. CALCULUS, Redfield. PL 10, fig. 15. 

Whitish, tesselated with rows of chestnut spots, shaded with 
white, and forming longitudinal zig-zags. Length, '4 inch. 

Grenadines, West Indies. 

This is the M. guttata of Sowerby, not Dillw. or Swains., arid 
the M. maculosa of Reeve, not Kiener. 

M. INTERRUPTE-LINEATA, Mllhlf. PL 11, figS. 16, 17. 

Yellowish white, profusely marked with gray or chestnut spots 
and short lines, in interrupted revolving series. 

Length, -5-'75 inch. 

Liberia, West Indies, Venezuela. 

M. OBESA, Redfield. PL 11, figs. 18, 19. 

Differs from M. inter rupte-li ne ata, in being usually larger, 
more ventricose, the revolving lines sometimes merging into 
spots, and in the outer margin of the lip possessing three spots; 
yet I think it will prove to be only a variety of that species. 

Length, '6-*75 inch. 

Venezuela, Brazil. 
M. IMBRTCATA, Hinds. PL 11, figs. 20, 21. 

Yellowish white, with revolving series of spots and lines of 
chestnut color, usually forming a single darker interrupted band 
on the periphery. Length, '5 inch. 

Acapulco Pacific Coast of Mexico. 

M. Vaidieri, Bernardi (fig. 21), appears to be a young shell 
of this species. 

M. MACULOSA, Kiener. PL 11, figs. 22, 23. 

Yellowish white, with revolving series of light chestnut spots, 
bordered with milk-white ; there are usually two white bands, 
upon which are larger and darker spots. Length, -4--5 inch. 

West. Indies. 

M. muralis, Hinds (fig. 23\ is a sj^nonym. 



38 PERSICULA. 

M. DE BURGHS, A. Adams. PL 11, fig. 24. 

Transparent white, with larger and smaller chestnut spots in 
alternate rows. Length, -4-'5 inch. 

N. W. Coast of Australia. 

I have before me specimens of a pure white variety, from 
Nicol Bay, communicated by John Brazier, Esq. 

M. PULCHELLA, Kiener. PI. 11, fig. 25. 

Yellowish white, with zig-zag longitudinal series of chestnut 
spots and lines, and usually two darker revolving series. 

Length, -35-' 4 inch. 

Sydney, Australia (Authors); Ceylon (Nevill). 

M. PHRYGIA, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 26. 

Shell gibbous ; yellowish, with zig-zag .series of chestnut spots 
and lines, and two or three revolving series of darker color. 

Length, -3-'4 inch. 

Acapulco and Gulf of California. 

Marked like M. pulchella, but not so cylindrical in form. It 
is the M. guttata of Swains., not Dillw., and M. Swainsoniana, 
Petit. 

M. FRUMENTUM, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 27. 

Form and pattern of coloring very like M. phrygia. but the 
shell is slightly more cylindrical, and the zig-zags are usually 
much closer ; the heavier coloring forming the bands, curves in 
an opposite direction. Length, '25-'35 inch. 

Coast of Ecuador (Redfield); W. Coast of South 

America (Weinkauff). 

M. CATENATA, Mont, PL 11, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell whitish, with chain-like revolving series of chestnut and 
milk-white spots. Length, '15-'25 inch. 

West Indies, W. Coast of W. America. 

M. alba, C. B. Adams, is probably founded on a worn specimen 
of this species. Mr. W. H. Ball records the occurrence of M. 
catenata on the West Coast of America at Panama, Cape St. 
Lucas, and also at the Galapagos Is. There are six to ten of the 
revolving chains of spots, and frequently the chestnut-colored 
ones are not apparent, so that the shell is thin, whitish, trans- 
lucent, with milk-white spots. 



PERSH'ULA. 39 

M. PULCHERRIMA, Gaskoin. PI. 11, fig. 30. 

Shell light yellowish, usually with darker bands and four 
revolving rows of brown and milk-white spots. 

Length, -15--25 inch. 

West Indies (Gaskoin); Bahamas (Redfield). 

Has the form of M. catenata, and has frequently been con- 
founded with it. May be distinguished by the faint bands and 
fewer series of revolving spots. 

M. SAG1TTATA, Hillds. PI. 11, fig. 31. 

Yellowish white, with light chestnut sagittate revolving series, 
and interrupted lighter, longitudinal zig-zag markings. 

Length, -25-'35 inch. 

Caribbean; BaJiamas to Brazil ; Australia. 

Has the form of M. catenata and nearly the markings of M. 
phrygia. I have before me specimens collected by J. Brazier 
in King George's Sound, S. W. Australia, which do not differ 
from the normal West Indian form of the species. 

M. CHRYSOMELTNA, Redfield. PI. 11, fig. 32. 

Yellowish white, with regularly spaced subquadrangular brown 
spots in revolving series. Length, '3 inch. 

West Indies. 
M. PACIFICA, Pease. PI. 11, fig. 33. 

Whitish, with four or five rows of arrow-head brown markings. 
Length, 5 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 

Smaller and more cylindrical than M. sagittata, Hinds ; the 
arrow-heads point to the left. 

M. DUBIOSA, Ball. PI. 11, fig. 34. 

Yellowish brown, with uncertain fluctuating white bars, spots 
and streaks, irregularly disposed, with a general tendency to 
elongation in the direction of the lines of growth ; callus above 
the spire marked with a circle of radiating brown dots, with an 
obscure white band outside of them ; a dark brown patch on 
the outer edge of the outer lip. Length, a 3 inch. 

Acapulco, Mexico. 

Described from a single, evidently beach-worn specimen, and 
must be considered a doubtful species. 



40 PKKSKTLA. 

M. OVULUM, So\vb. PI. 11, fig. 35. 

White. Length, '8 mill. 

E. Australia. 
M. OCCULTA, Monterosato. PI. 11, fig. 36. 

Whitish. Length, 2-3 mill. 

Palermo, Sicily. 
M. PISUM, Reeve. PL 11. fig. 37. 

White. Length, 4 mill. 

Australia (Grange). 

It would be difficult to show any good distinctive characters 
between this and M. occulta. It might also be a young M. 
ovulum. 

M. CLANDESTINA, Brocchi. PI. 11, fig. 38 ; PL 2, fig. 10. 

Glassy white, obovate, spire immersed, columella four-plaited, 
outer lip thickened and margined. Length, 3 mill. 

Coast of Portugal; Canary Islands; Mediterranean 

Sea, from Gibraltar to Egypt. Fossil in 

the tertiary of Italy and Sicily. 

M. ISSELI, Nevill. PL 11, fig. 39. 

White, more elongated than M. clandestina, and smaller. 

Length, 1'25 mill. 

Suez (Issel); Coast of Persia, 25 fathoms (Blanford). 

Described by Issel as M. pygmsea, a name preoccupied by 
Sowerby. 

M. ORYZA, Lam. PL 11, fig. 40. 

Whitish, or yellowish white, with a broad central chestnut 

band. Length, 8 mill. 

Senegal; Cape Verd Is. 

Specimens before me, agreeing otherwise with the figures of 
this species, have the spire apparent, although short. There 
are four columellar folds, and in addition a number of trans- 
verse denticulations extending nearly the entire length of the 
inner lip. Remarking the presence of these, not mentioned in 
Lamarck's description, Jousseaume adopts Adanson's name for 
the species and calls it M. xtipon, believing it to differ from M. 
oryza. 

M. DENS, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 41. 

Pear-shaped, opal-white. Length, t mill. 

Borneo. 



A. 41 

M. G-UANCHA, d'Orb. PI. 11, fig-. 42. 

Whitish ; columella four-plaited. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Canary Islands. 
Narrower than M. clandestina, and compressed at the ends. 

M. OVULIFOEMIS, d'Orb. PI. 11, fig. 43. 
White, columella with three plaits. Length, 1-5 mill. 

We t Indie*. 
Possibly an immature shell. 

M. MARGARITULA, Carpenter. 

White, columella with four plaits . very like M. ovuliformis. 
Length, -OSS-'OTS inch. 

Mazatlan, W. Coast of Mexico. 
I have no specimens of this unfigured, very minute species. 

M. PYRIFORMIS, Carpenter. PI. 13, fig. 38. , 

Like M. margaritula, but sometimes tinged with light orange; 
longer and narrower in front; lip (not always) very minutely 
denticulated ; columellar plaits rather acute. Length, 2 mill. 

Monterey to San Diego, Gal. 

M. LEFEVREI, Bernard!. PL 11, fig. 44. 

White or slightly yellowish. Length, 13 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
Section Gibberula, Swainson. 

Shell suboval ; spire slightly prominent ; outer lip posteriorly 
dilated and gibbous, not denticulated. A group of small species 
differing from Persicula in the spire being slightly prominent 
instead of sunken. 

M. MONILIS, Linn. PI. 11, figs. 45, 46. 

Ivory-white ; columella four-plaited ; above the plaits are 
additional denticulations. Length, 10-12 mill. 

West Africa; Red Sea; I. of Socotra. 

The African tribes form necklaces of these shells. For the 
purpose of stringing them a hole is made through the upper 
part of the body-whorl, apparently by rubbing. M. Petit, finding 
the figures of this species in Sowerby's Thesaurus to have a spire 
more projecting than is warranted by Linnaeus' description, and 
the locality of the latter being given as China, separates Sowerby's 
shells as M. Sowerbyana ; uo subsequent authors have recognized 



4'2 G1BBERULA. 

this distinction. A large proportion of the localities given by 
Linnaeus are erroneous. I cannot separate M. Terveriana, Petit 
(fig. 46), from the Island of Socotra and Red Sea. 

M. MILIARIA, Linn. PI. 11, figs. 47, 48. 

White; columella fonr-plaited, with one or two denticulations 

above the plaits. Length, 4*5 mill. 

Mediterranean ; Portugal ; Canary Isles ; Gulf of Suez. 
Is a common fossil in the Upper and Middle Tertiary of 
Southern Europe. Usually the outer lip is smooth, but occa- 
sionally it is very slightly, minutely crenulated. M. Savignyi, 
Issel (fig. 48), from Suez, presents characters so similar in 
description and figure, that I cannot separate it. 

M. CARNEOLA, Petit. PI. 11, fig. 49. 

Pallid carneous, with two darker bands. Length, 8'5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Petit mentions two bands in his description, yet his figure 
only shows a single broad central one. The species has not been 
fully identified ; some authors suspect that it is equivalent to 
and has priority over M. pyrulum, Reeve, the next species ; 
whilst the figure, if correct in representing only one band, is 
more like M. oryza, Lam. 

M. PYRULUM, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 50. 

Yellowish white, spire chestnut-color, with faint upper and 

lower bands. Length, 7 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. (Reeve). 

See remarks under preceding species. The difference between 
this species and those varieties of M. oryza with apparent spire, 
is very slight ; both have the dark colored spire. They will 
possibty prove identical. 

M. INFELIX, Jousseaume. PI. 11, fig. 51. 

Yellowish white ; columella four-plaited. Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Described by Reeve as M. simplex, a name preoccupied by 
Edwards for a fossil species. 

M. ASELLINA, Jousseaume. PI. 12, fig. 52. 

Yellowish white, trifasciate with orange-brown. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Mauritius. 



GIBBERULA. 43 

M. JEWETTII, Carpenter. PL 12, fig. 57. 

Milk-white ; columella four-plaited. Length, 4'5-6 mill. 

Monterey to Santa Barbara, Ual. 

M. STJBTRIGONA, Carpenter. PL 12, fig. 55. 

Like M. Jewettii, but much shorter and wider. 
Length, -14 inch. 

Santa Barbara, Gal. 

M. REGULARIS, Carpenter. PL 12, fig. 56. 

Thin, glassy white or yellowish; narrower than M. Jewettii; 
lip-margin rather thick. Length, -13 inch. 

Monterey to San Diego, Oal.; beach to 20 fms. 

M. LACHRYMA, Reeve. PL 12, figs. 53, 54. 

Pyriformly ovate; glassy white ; columella with four plaits, 
and several denticulations above them. Length, 4 mill. 

Borneo. 

The spire is shorter than in M. in fan a, Reeve, and the outline 
more convex below. M. Crossei, Velain (fig. 54), from the 
vicinity of the Islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam, does not 
appear to differ except in size, being 1'5 mill. ; it is perhaps not 
fully grown. 

M. GLANDJNA, Yelain. PL 12, fig. 58. 

White, columella with two strong plications and three slighter 
ones above them. Length, 2*75 mill. 

Island of St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

Scarcely distinguished from the preceding species by a some- 
what more cylindrical form. 

M. GRANUM, Phil. 

Shell minute, obovate, white, spire shortly conical ; columella 
straight, four-plicate, lip sulcate-striate within. Length, 4 mill. 

Red Sea, near Aden. 

Like M. minvta, Pfr. , but slightly larger; lip strongly 8-10 
sulcate within. Not figured. 

M. MINUTA, Pfr. PL 12, figs. 60-63. 

White, columella four-plaited, lip minutely denticulated within. 
Length, 2-5 mill. 

Mediterranean, Red Sea, West Indies, Florida. Fossil 

in the Fost Pliocene of Southern Europe. ' 



44 GIBBERUL'A. 

M. Lavalleana, d'Orb (fig. 61), from the West Indies and 
Florida, does not appear to differ. The lip is described as 
smooth, and appears to be so in some specimens, but in others, 
in a favorable light and with a good glass, the denticulations or 
ridges can be plainly seen. M. minima, Guilding (fig. 62), is 
also a synonym, although described as having but three columellar 
plaits. I place here M. Sueziensis, Issel (fig. 63), from the Red 
Sea. 

M. LACHRIMULA, Gould. 

An unfigured, white, minute species, with scarcely any 
apparent spire, and lip surpassing it posteriorly; columella 
tour-plaited; lip slightly crenulate within. Length, 1*5 mill. 
Dredged in 400 fms. off the coast of Georgia. 

Said to be distinguished from the allied West Indian species 
by its transparency and ventricose form. 

M. BENSONI, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 64. 

Rather solid, shining white; lip smooth, columella three- 
plaited. Length, 2 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

M. MINOR, C. B. Adams. PI. 12, fig. 65. 

White, columella four- or five-plaited, lip smooth within. 
Length, 3-4 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 
More cylindrical than M. minuta, Pfr. 

M. POLITA, Carpenter. 

Shell like M. minor, but smaller, regularly ovate, scarcely 
produced anteriorly, spire rounded, hardly raised ; parietal callus 
small ; plicae four, nearly equal and conspicuous. 

Length, -034 inch. 

Mazatlan; six specimens on Chama and Spondylus. 

I have not seen this species, which remains unfigured. 

M. TRANSLATA, Redfield. PI. 12, fig. 66. 

White, with three luteous bands ; lip denticulated within. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 

Described by Pease as M. pyriformis* a name preoccupied by 
Carpenter. . 




tt^ A - ^^,._ 

-ORNIA. 

M. ANGASI, Brazier. PI. 12, fig. 67. 

Shell hyaline lacteous ; spire nearly planate ; columella with 
inferior folds ; lip smooth within. Length, 1*75 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

The animal is dark, with a red foot. Appears to be an im- 
mature shell. 

M. POLYODONTA, Velain. PI. 12, fig. 68. 

White, spire almost planate, columella with two plications, 
above which are nine or ten transverse teeth, terminating in a 
stronger tooth above. Length, 2*5 mill. 

L of St. Paul, Indian Ocean. 

Found in compound Ascidians. Appears to be an immature 

shell. 

M. SANDWICENSIS, Pease. PL 12, fig. 69. 

Glossy white, columella usually four-plicate, lip abbreviately 
lirate within. Length, 2*5 mill. 

Fandwfch Is. (Pease); Viti Is. (Garrett). 

Pease's species was not illustrated by him, and the figure of 
it in Reeve's Iconica is very bad. He does not mention the 
interior lirae or denticulations, which are not visible on all the 
specimens. Having types received from Pease and also types 
of Mr. Garrett's M. pygmsea, subsequently published, I do not 
hesitate to declare them identical. 

M. DEBILIS, Pease. 

Shell subpyriform, longitudinally striated, white; aperture 
narrow, contracted ; apex obtuse ; inner lip three-plaited, outer 

lip denticulated within. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Mr. Redfield and Dr. Weinkauff have made this a synonym of 
M. Australis, Hinds ; although the description differs essentially. 
Pease originally published it as M. oryza, but that name being 
preoccupied, he changed it to M. debilis, and at .the same time 
pointed out its distinctive characters from Australia. Dr. 
Jousseaume, ignorant of the change of name made by Pease, 
has proposed for it M. aquseg-utfa. It has not been figured, and 
I have no specimens. 



46 GIBBERULA. 

M. SEMEN, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 71. 

Spire minute, almost immersed; shell dull white; columella 
callous, minutely four-plaited. Length, 4 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Jousseaume changed the name to M. cinerea, because Lea 
had previously used semen for a fossil species ; the latter, how- 
ever, is said to be the young of M. larvata, Conrad. Mr. 
Redfield remarks that this species is very near to M. ouuli- 
formis, Orb. 
M. PULVIS, Jousseaume. PI. 12, fig. 72. 

Yitreous white, with revolving striae ; lip minutely denticulate 

within; columella two-plaited. Length, 1-3 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 
Evidently, as suggested by Dr. Weinkauff, an embryonal shell: 

M. MARIET, Crosse. PI. 12, fig. 73. 

Minute, globosely inflated, spire immersed, columella four- 
plicate. Length, 1 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Is this a juvenile of M. Angasi, Brazier? 

M. ROS, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 74. 

^ white, columella minutely plaited. Length, 4 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
be the equivalent of several other species of this section. 

M. BULBOSA, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 75. 

Opaque white ; columella four-plaited; lip minutely denticu- 1 
lated within. Length, 6 mill. 

Borneo. 
M. CYSTISCUS, Redfield. PL 12, fig. 70 ; PL 2, fig. 11. 

Shell white, columella four-plaited. Length, '14 inch. 

False Bay, Cape of Good Hope; from Gorgonise in 20 fathoms. 

The dentition and shell are like Marginella; but the animal, 
which has short, flattened, triangular, horizontal tentacles, with 
minute dark reddish eyes, behind their bases, differed sufficiently 
to induce Stimpson, who discovered the species, to establish for 
it a new family Cystiscidre, and to call it Cystiscus Capensis. 
Mr. Redfield, very properly, I think, remanded the species to 
Marginella, and the specific name being preoccupied in that 
genus, called it M. cystiscus. The foot of the animal is lemon- 
yellow. 



OLOSIA, VOLVARIA. 47 

Section Closia, Gray. 

Spire involute ; lip thick, usually dentate within ; columella 
heavily incrusted with callus, two lower folds of columella very 
prominent, two superior ones not so prominent ; above them 
there are sometimes deposited a series of false folds or transverse 
ridges as in Gyprasa : which it resembles ; especially its dorsal 
aspect. 

M. LARGILLIERTI, Kiener. PL 12, figs. 77, 78. 

Pale violet fawn-color or yellowish brown, more or less 
obscurely banded and necked with yellowish white. 

Length, *75-l inch. 

Bahia, Brazil. 

M. ovum, Reeve (fig. 78\ is only an unpainted, probably faded, 
state of this species. 

M. LILACINA, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 80. 

Flesh-white, stained with pale lilac, with an indistinct broad 
central band. Length, '9 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. SARDA, Kiener. PI. 12, figs. 81-83. 

Whitish, faintly three-banded with violet; lip tinged exteriorly 
with yellowish brown. Length, '65 inch. 

Ceylon, Mauritius. 

M. Manceli, Jousseaume (fig. 83), appears to be identical with 
this species. 

M. QUADRILINEATA, Gaskohl. PI. 12, fig. 79. 

Ash-gray, with four distant, dark revolving lines. 

Length, -8 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. CONTAMINATA, Gaskoin. 

This unfigured and unrecognized species, without assigned 
habitat and undeterminable, appears to belong* in this group. 

Subgenus Volvaria, Lam. 

Shell subcylindrical ; spire very short or sunken ; aperture 
narrow, anteriorly dilated ; columella sinuous in front, subflexuous, 
obliquely truncated, and with four oblique plaits ; outer lip 
slightly thickened without, or with only a slight marginal varix. 

A single recent species, M. pallida, is very similar to the fossil 



4S VOLVAKIA. 

forms for which Lamarck originally proposed the genus ; in all 
the other recent species the lip becomes more or less thickened 
with a slight varix. 

I figure the fossil form V. bidloides, Lam. (PL 3, fig. 28), 
from the Middle Eocene of France and Belgium. 

M. PALLIDA, Linn. PI. 12, fig. 84. 

White or yellowish, sometimes obscurely banded in the centre. 

Length, G-'T inch. 

West Indie*. 
M. LUCIDA, Marrat. PI. 12, fig. 85. 

White, lip slightl}' thickened ; spire obsolete. 

Length, '35 inch. 

Natal, So. Africa. 
M. COMPRESSA, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 86. 

Shining white, glassy, spire very short. Length, '4 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Dr. Weinkauff supposes this to be possibly a young shell of 
M.-pallida, but the lip is too much thickened ; I am very doubtful 
whether either this or M. lucida is distinct from M. lactea, 
Kiener. 

M. MUSTELINA, Angas. PI. 12, fig. 87. 

Light brown, with two yellowish bands, bordered with darker 
brown in series of spots. Length, 5 mill. 

Port Jackson; Botany Buy, Australia. 

This is possibly synonymous with M. obscura, Reeve a 
s-pecies of which I have no specimens. There is some resemblance 
in the coloring and form. 

M. FAUNA, Sowb. PI. 12, figs. 88-90. 

Pinkish or yellowish white, or pure white ; stouter than the 

preceding species. Length, -35-'45 inch. 

West Indies. 

With this may probably be united M. alabaster, Reeve (fig. 
89 , and M. diaphana, Kiister, not Kiener (fig. 90). 

M. OLIVELL.EFORMIS, Jousseaume. PL 12, fig. 91. 

White, sutures canaliculate, columella four-plicate, lip toothed 

within. Length, - 4 mill. 

Habitat unkjiown. 



VOLVAIUA. 49 

The channeled suture is the distinguishing feature of this 
species for which Dr. WeinkaufF has proposed the subgeneric 
name Canalispira. 

M. ZONATA, Kiener. PL 12, figs. 92-94. 

Thin, whitish, either very broadly banded, or lineated above 
and below with fulvous orange. Length, *3 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope; Madagascar; West Indies. 

In M. zonata (fig. 92), the coloring nearly covers the body- 
whorl in a single band ; and with this variety corresponds M. 
Dunkeri, Krauss. In M. bilineata, Krauss (figs. 93, 94), the 
shell is white, bilineated with chestnut. Sometimes the broad 
band is present, with the deeper colored lineations defining its 
margins, and in one specimen before me the band is visible on a 
portion of the whorl only, but the lineations are present. 

M. PUELLA, Gould. 

Resembles M. zonata, but is much larger, with no traces of 
bands. The animal is very active, of a pale lemon-color, with 
blotches of flake-white and very numerous crimson points ; 
margin of mantle dark chocolate. Length, 12 mill. 

/Simon's Biy, 80. Africa, 18 fathoms, gravelly bottom. 

Unfigured. 

M. MICANS, Petit. PL 13, fig. 95. 

Whitish, with two broad bands of chestnut. Length, 8 mill. 

Abd-el- Gouri E. Coast of Africa. 

M. LACTEA, Kiener. PL 13, figs. 9*8, 99. 

White or cream-colored, columella four-plicate. 

Length, 8 mill. 

West Indies*. 

M.affinis, Reeve (fig. 99), appears to be this species, Reeve 
having figured the next species for lactea. M. abbreviata, C. B. 
Adams, is also probably a synonym. 

M. SUBTRIPLICATA, Orb. PL 13, fig. 100. 

White or cream-color, more cylindrical than M. lactea, with 
more produced spire, columella three-plaited, shell larger. 

Length, 10 mill. 

West Indies. 



50 YOLVARIA. 

M. MEXICANA, Jousseaume. PI. 13, fig. 1. 
Rather solid, opaque white, with four very obscure bands, 

columelia four-plaited. Length, 7 mill. 

Mexico . 

Possibly a variety of M. lactea, Kiener. I am not acquainted 
with the species. 

M. A VENA, Valenc. PL 13, figs. 2-5, 8. 

White or yellowish white, with three broad bands of brownish 

yellow ; columelia four-plaited. Length, '45-'6 inch. 

West Indies. 
Var. BEYERLEANA, Bernardi (figs. 3, 8). 

White or rosy-white, with the bands of rose-color ; it is clearly 
connected by intermediate shades with the type. Some of these 
intermediate states are M. livida, Reeve (fig. 4), M. ejfulgens, 
Reeve, and M. gu Mulct, Reeve (fig. 5 . 

Var. AVENELLA, Dall. 

Shell exceedingly variable in proportions ; spire short, obtuse, 
sometimes almost suppressed ; color light yellow or yellowish 
white, with a faint white line bordering the suture ; general 
outline elongated ovate ; aperture long, narrow behind (where 
the outer lip is thickened and a little inflected \ wider in front 
(where it is thin), and a little flaring at its (widest) anterior 
termination; columelia with four subequal folds, all rather 
oblique; outer lip simple, thickened behind, where the line of 
callus may extend to the suture or fall considerably short of it ; 
slightly concave in the middle, where its edge is even turned in 
a little ; scarcely, if at all, produced forward ; whorls not at all 
or very slightly shouldered, three or four in number. In the 
form with the short rounded spire, the outer lip is straight, not 
inflected, and more evenly thickened along its whole length ; the 
anterior end of the aperture has the outer lip obliquely cut off, 
and not flaring. The whole form is more evenly ovate-cylindrical. 
The measurements of the long- and short-spired specimens are 
respectively as follows: Lon. of shell, 12 - and 9*5; of whorl, 
10'25 and 9'0 ; of aperture, 9'5 and 8*25. Max. lat. of shell, 5'0 
and 3'75 ; lat. of aperture at middle part, TO and TO mm. 
Off Cape 8an Antonio, 1002 fins.; Station 5, 229 and 

152 fms ; Station 2, 805 f thorns, Guiibbrnn. 



VOL V ARIA. 51 

Notwithstanding the differences above indicated by extreme 
specimens, the shells appear to grade into one another and to 
approach very closely the old M. avena of Valenciennes, of 
which indeed this may be but an abyssal race ; but of the latter 
I have no typical specimens, and it is described as having color- 
bands. In view of the great number of closely allied forms of 
this group, without such specimens it would be rash to consolidate. 

Another form with the spire almost lost (from Yucatan Strait, 
640 fms., and Station 2, 805 fms.), of a yellowish white tinge, 
strongly resembles d'Orbigny's M. triplicala, which I take to 
have been founded on an abnormal specimen, and might be 
thought a pale race of Volvarina varia, but I am not at all sure 
that it is not an extreme form of the preceding. 

I quote Mr. Ball's description of the above varieties in full, as 
they are unfigured, and are deep-sea forms; they are doubtless 
varieties only, as suspected by Mr. Dall. 

M. PATAGONICA, Martens. PI. 13, fig. 40. 

White, with two wide light rosy bands ; columella with four 
plications, the lower the strongest. Length, 18 mill. 

East Coast of Patagonia 60 fathoms. 

M. PHILIPPINARUM, Redfield. PI. 13, tig. 6; PI. 2, fig. 9. 

Yellowish white, with three rather broad darker bands ; 
columella four-plaited. Length, -5-'65 inch. 

Philippines. 

M. EXILIS, Gmelin. PL 13, tigs. 7,9, 10,11,96,97; PI. 12, fig. 59. 

Yellowish white, without bands, or three-banded with light 
chestnut. Length, 10 mill. 

W. Africa, Mogadore to Senegal; West Indies. 

A more ventricose, shorter species than some of those which 
precede it. It is the M. triticea of Lamarck (fig. 7), M. monilis 
of Wood, not Linn. M. epigrus, Reeve (fig. 9), is supposed by 
Mr. Redfield to be the young of this species. M. tribalteata, 
Reeve (fig. 11), and M.fusca, Sowb, (figs. 96, 97) a West Indian 
shell, are synonyms. I am inclined to place here, as a not fully 
grown shell, M. Benguelensis, Jouss. (PI. 12, fig. 59 ; PI. 13, fig. 
10), from Benguela. M. Jousseaumi, Rochbrune, from the Cape 
Verd Islands, is also a synonym. 



52 VOLVARIA. 

M. MEDIOCTNCTA,E. A. Smith. PL 13, figs. 12, 13. 

White, with two broad light chestnut bands ; columella four- 
plaited. Length, 6 '5 mill. 

Cape Verd Is. 

The coloring is above and below the middle, covering the 
body-whorl except a central white zone. M. Bouvieri,Jousse&ume 
(fig. 13), is a synonym. 

M. RUBELLA, C. B. Adams. PL 13, figs. 14, 15. 

Rosy white, with three faint rose-colored bands ; columella 

four-plaited. Length, 8-11 mill. 

Jamaica and St. Thomas, W. I. 

M. navicella, Reeve (fig. 15), is a synonym. 

M. T^NTATA, Sowb. PL 13, figs. 16, 17. 

Whitish or 3 r ellowish white, with sutural, median and basal 
bands of yellowish brown, and a narrower band of the same 
color between the last two ; sometimes the coloring is roseate, 
and occasionally a pair of proximate narrow lines take the 
place of a broad band. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Cape Verd Is ; West Indies. 

Very like M. avena, YaL, and may be only a variety of that 
species ; its distinctive characters being a shorter spire and the 
additional narrow band. M. Verdensis, E. A. Smith (fig. '17 , is 
identical with this species. 

M. CESSACI, Rochbrune. 

Elliptical, shining, thick ; spire short, conical, obtuse ; aperture 
long and narrow, a little dilated above ; lip thick ; columella 
four-plaited ; wine-red with a livid band at the top of the whorl. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Hab. Cape Verd Island*. 

Seerns to be very closely allied to M. tseniala. The work 
containing the figure of this species, arrived too late to have it 
illustrated in the Manual. 

M. OBSCURA, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 22. 

Yellowish white, faintly four-banded, the bands terminating 
in spots on the margin of the lip. Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown* 



VOL V ARIA. 53 

M. SECALINA, Phil. PL .13, figs. 18-21. 

Yellowish or brownish white, more or less obscurely three- 
banded. Length, 10 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
M. Galamelij Jousseaume (fig. 18), from Algiers, is made a 

synonym by Dr. Weinkauff, who has quoted it as an example of 
his var. bizonata. The banding, however, is more or less visible 
on all specimens, and his variety is not entitled to be so con- 
sidered. M. rufescens*, Reeve vfig. 19 , is another probable 
synonym. M. Lienardi, Jousseaume, said to come from Mauri- 
tius, and Isle of Bourbon, is founded on two of Sowerby's 
figures of this species. 

M.INFANS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 23. 

Transparent white, mostty encircled by two faint brown lines; 

columella four-plaited. Length, 5 mill. 

Singapore; Tasmania. 

Erato pellucida, Tenison-Woods, from the latter locality, is an 
unfigured species, but the description as well as specimens before 
me agree very well with M. infant*. 

M. ATTENUATA, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 24. 

Yellowish white, body-whorl slightly attenuated below, lip 
nexuous, columella obliquely four-plaited. Length, 8 mill. 

Sydney, New South Wales. 

This is the M. translucida of Weinkauff and of some Austra- 
lian collectors ; the true translucida is a very different species. 

M. HETEROZONA, Jousseaume. ' PL 13, fig. 25. 

Vitreous white, with an obsolete central brown band. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. CYLINDRICA, Sowb. PL 13, fig. 2(i. 

Yellowish white, with broad and narrow darker bands, irreg- 
ular in number ; columella three-plaited. Length, 6-T mill. 

St. Thomas, West Indies. 
M. PEASII, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 27. 

Milk-white, very obscurely three-banded with fulvous. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Kingsmill Is., Polynesia. 

This species has been unfortunate in its names : it was first 
described by Pease as M. cylindrica. but as that name was preoc- 



>4 VOLVAR1A. 

cupied by Sowerby, Reeve changed it as above, and Pease subse- 
quently, unaware that Reeve had already proposed a substitute, 
called it M. polita a name which was already used by Carpenter. 

M. PAUMOTENSIS, Pease. PI. 13, fig. 28. 

White, with three very faint yellowish bands ; columella three- 
plaited. Length, 5 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
M. CALEDONICA, Jousseaume. PI. 13, fig. 31. 

White, very obscurely bifasciate with yellowish brown ; col- 
umella three-plaited. Length, 7 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

I have not seen a specimen of this shell, but the figure is so 
close to M. Paumotensis, Pease, that I suspect it will prove to 
be synonymous with that species. 

M. CORUSCA, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 29. 

Transparent, horny, livid, very faintly two-banded with chest- 
nut ; columella four-plaited. Length, 5 mill. 

Singapore. 
M. BAZINI, Jousseaume. PI. 13, fig. 30. 

Vitreous white, subpellucid, with a fuscous line above ; col- 
iimella four-plaited. Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
A species of very doubtful distinctness. 

M. SORDIDA, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 32. 

Dull white ; columella three-plaited. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This, like the last, may be identified with several different 
species. 

M. BULLULA, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 33. 

Transparent white, glassy ; columella four-plaited. 

Length, 6 mill. 

.Borneo. 

It is difficult to say wherein M. Paumotenxis, Pease, differs 
from this species. 

M. FASCFATA, Sowb. PL 13, fig 34. 

Yellowish white, banded with light brown, edged with darker 
brown, forming spots on the margin of the lip ; columella strongly 
four-plaited. Length, f mill. 

Locality unknown. 



VOL V ART A. 55 

Jousseaume changed the name to M. rubrofasciata, on account 
of Persicula fasciata, Schum., which is a synonym of M. per- 
sicula, Linn. I have no authentic specimen of this species ; it 
needs to be compared with M. mastelina, Angas. 

M. BAYLEI, Jousseaume. PI. 13, fig. 35. 

Bulliform, opaque ; luteous white ; columella three-plaited. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Locality unknown. 
M. GRACILIS, C. B. Adams. PL 13, fig. 36. 

White, three-banded with chestnut. Length, 6*5 mill. 

West Indies. 

Prof. Adams did not illustrate his species, but the description 
so completely agrees with Reeve's figure of M. bibalteata, that I 
think Mr. Redfield is correct in making the latter a synonym. 

M. ALBOLINEATA, d'Orb. PL 13, fig. 37. 

White, more or less broadly three-banded with bright chest- 
nut ; sometimes the bands are so broad that the shell appears 
to be chestnut-colored with two white bands. Length, 6-t mill. 

West Indies, Lower California. 

M. Delessertiana, Recluz, an unfigured species, said to come 
from Mauritius, resembles this species, but cannot be positively 
identified with it. The shell which Weinknuff figures for M. 
Dele user tiana, and which comes from Guadeloupe, W. I., is a 
M. albolineata. This is the M. varia, Sowerby, of Carpenter and 
Cali fora ian conchologists. Carpenter says that it is not to be 
distinguished from some West Indian specimens of M. varia, but 
the fact is that M.varia is made up of two veiy distinct forms, 
namely M. albolineata, Orb., and M. avena, Val. the latter has 
not been found on the West Coast of America. 

Unfigured and Undetermined Species. 

M. TENERA and M. INTERMEDIA of Menke. 

M. ASPHARI, Theobald. Undescribed. 

M. MICROSCOPICA, Tapparone-Canefri. Papuan Isles. 

M. TRIDENTATA, M. SUBBULBOSA, M. ALB1DA, M. CYMBALUM, M. DEN- 

TICULATA, Tate. All from South Australia. 

M. VITTATA (name preoccupied" 1 , M. ALBESCENS, Hutton. 

Both from New Zealand. 
M. TANTILLA and M. LEPIDA, Gould. China Sea. 



;>'> VOL V Alt I A. 

M. SEMINULA, Gould. Cape of Good Hope. 

M. SPILOTA, Ravenel MS. Southern Coast United States. 

M. ALLPORTI, M. MINUTISSIMA, M. STANISLAUS, Tcnison- Woods. 

Tasmania. 

M. PALLIDULA and M. FULGENS, Danker. Upolu. 

M. MORCHII, Redfield (M. coniformis, March, preoccupied). 

Puntas Arenas, W. Co. Central America. 

M. ALBANY ANA, Gaskoin. Albany, E. Coast of Africa. 

M. QUADRIFASCIATA (Kabenda, W. Co. Africa), M. NANA, 

M. PERLA, M. CALLOSA (Red Sea), AJarrat. 

M. WARRENII, Marrat. A two-banded shell, 20 mill. long. Col- 
lected by Capt. Warren in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or if 
the latitude and longitude are correctly given upon the 
adjacent Canadian territory. It is safe to say that no such 
species lives in that vicinity or within some hundreds of rniles 
of it. 

M. CHEMNITZII, Dillwyn. Bleached specimen. 

M. ANNA, Jousseaume. New Caledonia. 



M. WATSONI, Dall. 

Shell short, stout, white or yellowish white, polished, five- 
whorled ; suture marked under the glaze with a darker trans- 
lucent line ; apex obtuse ; in adults the nucleus is obscured by 
the glaze, in young specimens it presents no differences from 
the rest of the shell ; last whorl shouldered roundly, forming a 
rounded angle at the posterior part of the outer lip ; aperture 
narrow, labrum and labium nearly parallel ; pillar with four 
clearly cut folds, the anterior continued around the margin of 
the canal, slightly flaring, to join the outer lip ; the latter slightly 
thickened iitside, with about a dozen rounded denticulations, 
outwardly little or not at all reflected, joining the body behind 
at an acute angle. Long, of shell, 9'5; of last whorl, 8-0; of 
aperture, 7'5. Lat. of shell, 6*0; of aperture, 1*5 mm. 

OS Havana, 480 fms.; Station 2, 805 fms.; Bed of the Gulf 

Stream (Pourtales), 447 fms.; Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 

This species resembles M. ritrea, Hinds, from West Africa, 
in general shape, but that species is smaller and has the outer 
lip not denticulated. M. Watsoni has the facies of a deep-water 
shell, and does not appear to agree exactly with ny I find 
figured (Dall). 



YUIA'AKTA. 57 

M. FUSINA, Dall. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, with the spire nearly as long as the 
aperture, polished waxen white, five-whorled ; whorls of the 
spire well marked and rotundate though covered with a trans- 
parent glaze ; suture distinct ; apex rounded ; lines of growth 
perceptible under the glaze, especially near the suture on the 
last whorl ; aperture short, lunate, with no posterior angle in 
the outer lip, which gently rounds to the body-whorl before and 
behind ; outer lip a little thickened inside, simple, not reflected ; 
folds four, the two anterior ones very oblique and close together ; 
canal not flaring, short, and not twisted backward. Long, of 
shell, 8-0 ; of last whorl, 6*0 ; of aperture, 4'5. Max. lat., 4*0 ; 

lat. of aperture, 1-5 mm. 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 

This has somewhat the shape of Marginella nodata, in a gen- 
eral way, but is more evenly fusiform, and quite peculiar in its 
even taper, which does not seem to be ascribed to any other 
species (Dall). 

M. SEMINULA, Dall. 

This species differs from the last by its proportionally shorter 
spire containing one less whorl ; by the less distinctly marked 
suture ; by the shouldering of the last whorl which angulates 
the outer lip in adult specimens, the lip in this vicinity being 
generally much thickened and slightly reflected, somewhat pro- 
duced in the middle, and thinning towards the distinctly flaring 
canal ; the columellar folds are more evenly separated and the 
canal is slightly recurved. In other respects it resembles M. 
fusina. Long, of shell, 7*0 ; of last whorl, 5*62 ; of aperture, 
5'12. Lat. of shell, 3*5 ; of aperture, 1'25 mm. 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 

There is some variation in size and in the way in which the 
outer lip is thickened in different individuals. The shape is not 
far. from that of M.f estiva. The measurements are of the largest 
of several specimens (Dall). 

M. YUCATECANA, Dall. 

Shell with three and a half to four whorls, smaller than the 
last and the adult specimens proportionally more slender and of a 



.~>X Yni.YAHIA. 

distinctly different shape ; but some of the younger specimens 
of M. tteminnla, before they have put on the lip-callus audits 
angulation, appear much more similar, and suggest that the 
range of variation may be wide enough to cover both. The 
present form, with a proportionately shorter spire and longer 
and wider aperture, hns an evenly rounded outer lip and body- 
whorl ; which recalls M.fusina. Its chief differences from M. 
#<>minnla consist in those features which accompany the should- 
ering of the whorls and the thickening of the outer lip, which in 
this form seems to be always evenly rounded, arched forward, 
and hardly thickened ; it is slightly but distinctly reflected, and 
the canal is slightly recurved. Long, of shell, 5'62 ; of last 
whorl, 50; of aperture, 4'0. Lat. of shell, 3'0 ; of aperture, 
1-37 mm. 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 
M. TORTICULA, Dall. 

Shell slender, shining, grayish waxen white, of about five 
whorls ; spire roundly pointed, slender, covered in the adult with 
a complete coat of translucent glaze almost obscuring the sutures ; 
last whorl somewhat appressed between the junction of the outer 
lip and the suture ; turns somewhat laxly coiled ; surface per- 
fectly smooth ; axis laterally curved, with the convexity to the 
left, so that the spire and the canal both point to right of a 
straight line when the shell is in its natural position ; aperture 
long and narrow ; columella with four very oblique folds, of 
which the one behind the anterior fold is a little the most 
prominent ; outer lip simple, not reflected, slightly thickened, and 
produced posteriorly, inwardly convex and externally concave 
in correspondence with the bent axis ; aperture widest anteriorly, 
making the canal very open ; no callus on the body-whorl, which 
is joined by the outer lip at an exceedingly acute angle. Long, 
of shell, 11-5; of last whorl, 9*75 ; of aperture, 8'0 ; Max. lat. of 
shell, 3'75 ; medium lat. of aperture, 1-0 mm. 

Station, 5, Lat. 241 5', Long. 764fl'.5, in 220 and 

152 fms., soft coral ooze, West Indies. 

The only shells normally arcuated in this manner which occur 
to me are some species of Eulimn. The twist gives the shell a 
very peculiar and highly characteristic appearance (Dall). 



OLIVID.^, OLIVINyE. 51) 

Family OLIYID^E. 

Animal with a recurved siphon, and voluminous foot, its lobes 
usually reflexed over the sides of the shell, and fissured on each 
side in front. Dentition l-l-l,the rhachidian teeth broad, the 
laterals versatile. Operculum corneous, small, present or wanting. 

Shell brilliantly colored, porcellanous, without epidermis, the 
columellar lip, sutures and spire more or less covered with a 
callous deposit ; outer lip simple, aperture obliquely notched 
below. 

Subfamily Olivinae. Head and tentacles more or less con- 
cealed ; mantle with a tapering lobe in front, and an appendage 
behind which reposes in the channeled suture. 

The operculum is present in Oliurlla, absent in Oliva. 

Shell solid, smooth, subcylindrical ; sutures channeled; inner 
lip more or less plicate anteriorly. Several figures of the animals 
of Oliva are given on PL 1 ; also the animal without its shell, 
PI. 3, fig. 31 ; anatomy, PL 3, fig. 21. For explanation of the 
latter see Reference to Plates. 

Subfamily Ancillariinse. Head concealed ; eyes none ; tenta- 
cles rudimentary ; mantle with a tapering lobe in front ; foot 
voluminous, bifid behind, shield-grooved on the upper surface, 
side-lobes not much produced. 

Operculum small, ovate, acute, sometimes entirely wanting. 

Shell usually polished ; sutures covered by callus ; whorls 
smooth ; aperture effuse, the columella variously grooved and 
twisted in front. 

Subfamily Harpinse. Head and tentacles exposed ; eyes con- 
spicuous ; mantle simple, enclosed, without a tapering appendage 
in front ; foot large, flat, not reflexed on the sides of the shell. 

No operculum. 

Shell large, ventricose, longitudinally ribbed ; columellar lip 
without anterior plications or grooves. 

Subfamily OLIVINAE. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

OLIVELLA, Swainson. 

Animal without tentacles or eyes ; mantle with a large frontal lobe ; 
foot not very voluminous, truncate behind, the shield narrow, the side- 
lobes small and acute. Operculum horny, thin, half ovate, with apical 



60 OLIVJN^E. 

nucleus. Shell oliviform, polished ; spire produced, acute, suture canal- 
iculated ; aperture narrow behind, enlarged anteriorly ; coluraella plicated 
in front, callous posteriorly. Dentition, PI. 12, fig. 14. 

OLIVA, Brug. 

Tentacles enlarged at the base ; mantle with a posterior filament lodged 
in the channeled suture of the spire ; foot long and acuminate behind, 
shield with the side-lobes tapering, acute, small. Operculum none. Shell 
oblong, subcylindrical, polished ; spire short, conic ; suture canaliculated ; 
aperture long and narrow, anteriorly widely notched ; < olumella obliquely 
plicate, sulcate or striate in front, posteriorly callous ; outer lip simple. 
Dentition, PI. 2, fig. 12. 

Subgenus LAMPRODOMA, Swainson. 

Spire acuminate, elevated, suture canaliculated ; inner lip simple poste- 
riorly, but regularly numerously plicate anteriorly, the plicae more 
transverse than in the typical group. 

Subgenus CALLIANAX, H. and A. Adams. 

Shell swollen, ovate, with short conical spire and channeled sutures ; 
aperture wide, effuse in front ; inner lip with a very thicTc, defined callus, 
and a few, frequently indistinct, anterior plaits. 

Subgenus AGARONIA, Gray. 

Shell thin, oliviform, but a little effuse anteriorly ; spire acuminate, 
suture channeled ; aperture rather wide, effuse anteriorly ; columella not 
thickened posteriorly, tumid, with a few oblique plaits in front, Operculum 
distinct. Tortoliva, Conrad ; T. Texana, Cour. (PI. 3, fig. 30), is a synonym 
of Agaronia. It is an eocene fossil from Texas. Dentition, PI. 2, fig. 13. 

Subgenus OLIVANCILLAUIA, d'Orbigny. 

Head and tentacles concealed; mantle with a large, thick, fleshy 
appendage behind, partly covering the spire ; foot very voluminous, 
truncate posteriorly, shield with the side-lobes very large and rounded. 
Operculum present, small, half ovate, with subapical nucleus. 

Shell smooth, wide oblong, last whorl swollen ; spire very short, the 
suture not canaliculated to the apex ; aperture rather large and wide, 
inner lip somewhat tortuous, with a large callosity behind, incurved in 
the middle, and two or three ooli-que anterior plaits. 

The last three subgenera appear to connect the typical Olives with the 
Ancillariaa, in a regular series of stages of both animal and shell, as well 
as in the presence 01 an operculum. 

PLOCHEL^BA, Gabb 

Shell olive-shaped, suture nearly obsolete as in Ancillaria ; aperture 
linear, deeply and obliquely notched at the base, as in Dibaphus ; outer 
lip thickened internally in the middle ; inner lip callous and having 
several transverse folds, of which the upper are the smallest; columella 
strongly recurved at the base. P. crassilabra, Gabb. PI. 3, fig. 22, 
Tertiary, W. 



ANCILLARIIN.E, HARPING. 61 

Subfamily ANCILLARIIN^E. 

MONOPTYGMA, Lea. 

Shell with elevated spire and callous columella, the latter with a 
snbcentral conical tooth like callous projection. M, Alabamiensis, Lea 
(PL 3, fig. 23 >, Eocene, Alabama. 

AKCILLARIA, Lam. 

Shell oblong or subcylinarical, thick and smooth in the typical species ; 
body- whorl usually swollen, sutures covered by enamel ; aperture broadly 
effuse below ; columella typically not umbilicated, with a few oblique 
anterior plaits. The revolving basal groove ends occasionally in a slight 
anterior labral projection or tooth. The shell may be distinguished from 
the Olives by the spire being covered with callus in the former, whilst in 
the latter the suture is canaliculate. Ancillopsis, Conrad (A. scamba, PI. 
3, fig. 26 ; A. altile, PL 3, fig. 27), is a synonym of AncMaria. The types are 
eocene fossils from Alabama, Dentition, PI. 2, figs. 15, 16. 

Subgenus OLIVULA, Conrad. 

Shell decussated by distinct, close longitudinal and revolving striae ; 
spire covered by a longitudinally striate callous deposit, forming a raised 
band upon the suture of the body-whorl ; aperture posteriorly channeled. 
Fossil only. 0. staminea, Conr., Eocene, Ala. iPl. 3, figs. 24, 25). 

Subgenus ANOLACIA. Gray. 

Shell oblong-ovate, thin ; body-whorl swollen, irregularly covered wuh 
slight revolving striae ; spire very s! ort, callous. 

The thinness of the shell, form of body-whorl and short shouldered 
spire remind one of the genus Cymba. 

Subgenus DJPSACCUS, Klein. 

Shell solid, polished ; columellar lip twisted, separated from the body- 
whorl by a tortuous fissure, opening into the umbilicus above ; outer lip 
with a slight tooth in front. 

Subfamily HARPIN.K. 

HARP A, Lam. 

Shell oval, the body-whorl very vetitricose ; spire very short, with acute 
apex ; whorls longitudinally plicated at intervals, the plications ending 
in isharp points on the shoulder ; aperture oblong, large, broadly emargi- 
nate below ; columella without folds. No operculum. Dentition, PL 
2, fig. 17. 

The figure, copied from Troschel, is from a young Harpa only an inch 
in length, and the lingual ribbon is in this genus very minute compared 
with the size of the animal. Troschel was not able to see any lateral 
teeth, but Macdonald, who only observed them towards the posterior 
extremity, records that they are very similar to those of Olira. Other 
observers have not found a trace of lingual armature, and it is possibly 
only developed in the young animal. 



(12 OLIVIN.E. 

Subfamily OLIYIN^E. 

Four illustrated monographies of the Olives have been pub- 
lished. The earliest one is that of Duclos, forming part of 
Chenu's " Illustrations Conchyliologiques ;" next followed Reeve, 
in the " Conchologica Iconica," vol. vi, issued in 1851. In 1870-tl 
F. P. Marrat contributed an elaborate monograph to Sowerby 's 
"Thesaurus Conchyliorum," beautifully illustrated by Mr. 
Sowerby. Mr. Marrat, who does not believe in species, has, 
unfortunately , in this group as in Nassa, illustrated his views by 
naming and describing a number of forms which certainly are 
not species. Sowerby, in the reference to Plate 1, says : " Mr. 
Marrat 's intention is rather to produce evidence than to decide 
upon the value of specific differences. In his study of affinities, 
he has been led to register, and nominally to admit, as species 
many forms which will perhaps appear to readers, as they do to 
the editor, quite undistinguishable." The latest and best mono- 
graph is that of Dr. H. G- Weinkauff, completed in 1878, and 
forming a portion of Kiister's " Conchy lien Cabinet." Dr. Wein- 
kauff also published a systematic catalogue of the species, in the 
" Jahrbiicher der Deutsch. Malak. (resell., " in which he attempts 
to arrange the species in accordance with their natural affinities 
and to separate them into groups which appear to possess some 
value. I have mainly followed this catalogue in the present 
monography ; adding, however, a number of specific names 
overlooked by Weinkauff'. 

H. and A. Adams and Dr. J. E. Gray have 'both proposed 
elaborate series of genera and snbgenera of the Olivinae ; most 
of them, whilst serving to separate specified types, failing en- 
tirely to furnish distinctive characters for other species which 
are intermediate in form. Such names will be registered in my 
synonymic index, scarcely requiring more particular mention 
here. I have reversed the usual order of succession of the 
groups by commencing with the smallest species of the Olives, 
and proceeding through the Ancillariae to the Harp-shells : my 
motive for this is to place next in succession to the Marginellae 
those shells which, in size at least, most nearly approach them. 

The Olives are exclusively tropical animals. 



OLIVELLA. ()3 

A number of fossil species have been described ; they com- 
mence in the Eocene period. 

The mantle of the Olive is small, its edges applied to the 
margin of the aperture, and terminating in a posterior filament 
which, coiling in the channeled suture of the spire, appears to 
be useful in keeping the mantle in place. The sides of the foot 
are wide and reflected more or less on each side over the back 
of the shell. As in some other mollusks having similarly formed 
shells, the animal possesses the power of absorbing away the 
earlier volutions in order to make space for its growth ; it also 
protects the at first very thin embryonal whorls by internal cal- 
cification, so that the extreme tip of the spire becomes solid. 

At Mauritius, Olives are fished with a line having three or 
four strings attached, each baited with pieces of fish. This line 
is thrown into the sea and allowed to remain until the mollusks 
have become well settled to their feast, and then drawn in. The 
Polynesian Islanders use the smaller species extensively for the 
manufacture of ornaments such as bracelets, girdles, etc., 
piercing them at the spire and then stringing them. They 
prefer pure white shells for this purpose, and cause the colored 
markings to disappear by application of heat. Mr. John Brazier, 
of Sydney, Xew South Wales, has recent^ sent me specimens of 
the beautiful 0. A iixtralis, thus treated by the natives of Xew 
Guinea they might readily be mistaken for a distinct species. 

Oliwlla Uplicata, Sby., appears to have been used as money 
by the Californian Indians, under the name of col-col, and is 
still manufactured into necklaces by them.* 

Genus OLIVELLA, Swa ; nson. 

Ohvella is distinguished from Oliva by the small size of its 
shell and more produced spire, by the presence of a large, thin, 
horny operculum, and the want of eyes. Dr. Paul Fischer has 
recently attempted to show that another distinction arises from 
the absorption of the internal whorls of the shell, in the Olirella, 
as in Auricula, this absorption not taking place in the typical 
Olives ; however, in 0. reticularis I have found the interior walls 
absorbed away so that veiy little of their substance remains, 



Steams, Am. Natuialist, xi, 344. 



l')4 OI.IVKLLA. 

and I presume that it will prove to be the fact that all shells 
with close volutions are similarly absorbed internally. 

The Olivelhxj affect sandy localities, burying themselves 
beneath the surface, upon which they leave no trace. D'Orbigny 
has observed 0. Trhuelcharia suddenly expand the lobes of its 
foot, and using them to beat the water like the wings of the 
pteropods, shoot rapidly through the element. 

I follow Weinkauff in considering Lamprodoma and CalHanax 
subgenera of Oliva, but I cannot follow him in dividing what is 
left of OlivrUa into three groups characterized by the extent 
:ind thickness of the columellar callus ; that character being 
decidedly of gradual development through the series of species. 

O. VERREAUXT, Ducros. PI. 14, fig. 41, 42. 

Purplish white or yellowish white, with distant, longitudinal, 

zigzag purple stripes. Length, 5-7 mill. 

Wi'*t Indie* 
The spire is more produced than in the usual form of 0. 

nitidula, the stripes are larger and more distant, there are no 
traces of bands and it has not the fasciculated markings at the 
suture and base so common in nitidula ; still, it is possibly a 
variety of that protean species. It is the 0. mutica of Reeve, in 
part, and probably 0. mica, Duclos (fig. 42) ; the latter name 
has priority, but the identification is not certain. 

O. MUTICA, Say. PI. 14, figs. 43-55. 

White, yellowish, bluish ash or deep chocolate, when very 
dark, the color results from the coalescence of three bands of 
chocolate-brown, which appear upon the lighter colored, typical 
specimens ; these bands vary in width, the centre one being 
usually. the broadest; sometimes they are all so broad as to 
appear to be the ground-color, the narrow interspaces forming 
two white bands. The spire is produced. Length, 10-16 mill. 

North Carolina to West Indies. 

With the typical form I unite 0. pusilla, Marrat (figs. 45, 46), 
and 0. rufifasciata, Reeve (fig. 47). 

Var. NITIDULA, Dillwyn. Figs. 48-55. 

Spire shorter, shell comparatively wider, bands very faint or 
obsolete; yellowish or pink-brown with a chocolate or chestnut 
band at the suture and another bordering the fasciole ; these 



OF TBE '* A 

UNIVERSITY 




bands, in fine specimens, give rise to or^Etrak lip Tflfo fascicles 
of brown stripes, which are either short, or connected in a zig- 
zag manner over the body-whorl. Length, 10 mill. 

South Carolina to Brazil. 

Ordinarily the distinction of form and coloring serves perfectly 
to distinguish this from the typical form, yet there occur, although 
not plentifully, intermediate shells. The stumpy shape of 0. 
nitidula is accompanied by a heavy deposit of callus on the colu- 
mella, which does not occur in the typical form : very probably 
this difference in growth is due to the surroundings of the mollusk. 
There is great variation in the development of denticles upon 
the columella in both forms, these being few or obsolete in some 
specimens and very numerous in others, occupying nearly the 
whole length of the inner lip. The following appear to be syno- 
nyms of the variety : O. zigzag, Duclos (figs. 50, 51), 0. fimbriata, 
Reeve (fig. 52), 0. micula, Marrat (fig. 53), 0. miliola, d'Orb. 
(fig. 54), which appears to be the young, and 0. strigata, Reeve 
(fig. 55). 

0. MANDARINA, Duclos. PI. 14, figS. 56, 5t. 

Spire rather elevated, inner lip with a strong callous deposit 
above, extending upwards to the spire ; yellowish white, painted 
with zigzag longitudinal brown stripes, sometimes spotted or 

fasciculated below the suture. Length, 10 mill. 

China. 

I am not acquainted with this species ; it appears to be nearly 
allied to the preceding, but of more solid build. The locality 
has not been confirmed, and the more recent monographs have 
simply copied Duclos. 0. Tunguina, Duclos (fig. 57), is evidently 
a synonym, but Marrat has erroneously identified with it a 
specimen of the typical 0. mutica. 

O. ROSALINA, Duclos. PI. 14, figs. 58-60. 

Shell flesh-color with distant zigzag brown markings ; colu- 
mella tinged with rose-color. Length, Y mill. 

West Indies. 

I am unacquainted with this species, which, except in its 
columella being colored, does not seem to differ from 0. Verreauxi, 
Ducros. 0. Sowerbyij Ducros (fig. 59), and 0. Volutelloides , 
Marrat (fig. 60), are synonyms. 



66 OLIVELLA. 

O. PETIOLITA, Duclos. PI. 14, figs. 61-63. 

Yellowish white, fasciculated and reticulated with chestnut- 
color, and with a narrow chestnut revolving band upon the 
fasciole. Length 12-18 mill. 

West Coast of America, from Panama to Mazatlan. 

Much resembles large specimens of 0. mutica, Say, var. 
nitidula, from the West Indies ; but the markings in the typical 
specimens are irregularly reticulated instead of zigzag. I unite 
with it O.intorta, Carpenter (fig. 62), and 0. mica, Marrat, not 
Duclos (fig. 63). 

Yar. AUREOCINCTA, Carp. 

Having an orange zone beneath the suture, appearing purplish 
within the aperture. 

This zone is probably made up of fasciculations worn yellowish 
on a beach-rolled specimen. I have not seen an authentic 
example of it and it has not been figured. 

O. TERGINA, DUCIOS. PI. 14, fig. 67. 

Marked like Q.petiolita, but more vividly ; distinguished from 
it by its swollen, blunt spire, and by being somewhat more effuse 

at the base.. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Acapulco, Mazatlan. 

O. PLANA, Marrat. PL 14, fig. 64. 

Shell white, solid, with a heavy callous deposit on the inner 

lip. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This may be a white variety of the last species, perhaps ; it 
has no distinctive characters and might readily enter several 
species. 

O. ESTHER, Duclos. PL 14, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell heavy, with short spire, and strong callus on the upper 
part of the columella. Yellowish white, fasciculated with chest- 
nut at the suture, with a chestnut band upon the fasciole, and 
minute longitudinal zigzag markings of the same color upon the 

body-whorl. Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

A shorter, heavier form than O.petiolita, judging from the 
figure, yet doubtfully distinct : the shells usually known under 



OLIVELLA. 67 

this name are certainly 0. pe.tiolita. 0. columba, Duclos (fig. 
66), may be considered an uncolored variety of this species. 

0. ZONALIS, Lam. PL 15, fig. 69. 

White, with three chestnut revolving bands, about same width 

as the interspaces. Length, 5-6 mill. 

Mazatlan. 

0. zanoeta, Duclos (fig. 69), appears to be a larger specimen or 
magnified figure of this species. 

0. COLUMELLARIS, Sowb. PI. 15, figs. 70-73. 

Acuminately ovate, the spire exserted, base broadly effused ; 
columellar lip with heavy callus extending to the top of the 
body-whorl; commencing at the suture are a number of close, 
fine, longitudinal striae, which extend longitudinally to near the 
centre of the body-whorl, where they become obsolete, and the 
rest of the whorl is polished ; spire and fasciole white, body- 
whorl almost covered by three broad chestnut or plum-colored 
bands, the two dividing interspaces of yellowish white being 
quite narrow. Length, 1-15 mill. 

Payta, Peru, in floe sand at low water (Cuming); 

W. Columbia; Panama. 

0. semistriata, Gray (fig. 71), 0. att^nuata, Reeve (fig. 72), and 
0. affinis, Marrat (fig. 73), are synonyms. 

0. NIVEA, Gmelin. PI. 15, figs. 74-88. 

Acuminately oblong, the spire much exserted ; body-whorl 
fasciculated with pink at the suture and at the border of the 
broad fasciole, with pink maculations, more or less distinct 
upon the intermediate surface. Length, *6-*9 inch. 

Bahamas ; West Indies ; Brazil. . 

Distinguished from 0. mutica, Say, by its larger size, more 
elevated spire, and (usually) maculated instead of zigzag mark- 
ings. The synonymy is enormous, including 0. eburnea, Lam., 
0. parvula, Mart. (fig. 75), 0. oryza, Lam. (founded on immature, 
colorless examples), 0. Guildingi, Reeve (fig. 76), 0. monilifera, 
Reeve (fig. 77), 0. pulchella, Reeve (fig. 78), 0. dea'lbata, Reeve 
(fig. 79), 0. rubra, Marrat (fig. 80), 0. fulgida, Reeve (fig. 81), 
0. inconspicua, Marrat (fig. 82), 0. Reevei, Ducros (fig. 83), 
0. diadocus, Ads. and Reeve (fig. 84), 0. cuneata, Marr. (fig. 85), 
having a more than usually produced spire, 0. scurra, Marr. 



<)8 OLTVELLA. 

(fig. 86), with two revolving series of maculations, often seen 
upon immature specimens, 0. myriadina, Marrat, not Duclos 
(fig. 87), 0. miliacea, Marrat (fig. 88), and 0. lactea, Marrat. 

0. MYRIADINA, DueloS. PI. 15, fig. 90. 

Spire prominent, showing six whorls ; pure white. 

Length, 3-4 mill. 

Panama, 

This is the smallest of the Olivellas, yet the number of whorls 
and form of the shell indicate maturity. Duclos gives no locality, 
but I venture to identify with his species the unfigured 0. incon- 
spicudi C. B. Ad., from Panama; a species which has been mis- 
understood by Marrat and Kiister as has also been myriadina. 

0. JASPIDEA, Gmelin. PL 15, figs. 91-94. 

Yellowish white, closely fasciculated with dark chestnut at the 
sutures, and frequently above the fasciole also ; intermediate 
surface closely reticulated and punctated, fasciole strigated with 

bright chestnut. Length, 12-18 mill. 

West Indies. 

0. piperita, Marr. (figs. 93, 94), is based on water-worn 
specimens. 

O. TEHUELCHANA, d'Orb. PI. 15, figs. 95-97 ; PL 16, fig, 1 ; PL 1, 

fig. 6. 
Pellucid white, with an opaque zone at the suture. 

Length, 12-15 mill. 

San Bias, Patagonia. 

With this I unite 0. bullula, Reeve (fig. 1), said to be West 
Indian, and 0. pur a. Reeve (fig. 97). 

O. FLORALIA, Duclos. PL 15, fig. 98 ; PL 16, figs. 99, 100, 2,3. 

Shell narrow, with acuminated spire ; spire yellowish- or 
chestnut-tipped, body-whorl w r hite, or with nearly obsolete, 
distant chestnut zigzag markings. Length, 8-10 mill. 

West Indies. 

Distinguished from 0. jaspidea and 0. nivea by its narrow 
form and elongated spire. It is the 0. oryza of Duclos, not 
Lamarck, and 0. alba (fig. 98), and 0. elongata (figs. 99, 100), 
of Marrat. 



OLIVELLA. 09 

O. LEPTA, Duclos. PI. 16, figs. 4-11 ; PL IT, fig. 52. 

Narrow, with elongated spire ; a narrow chestnut line or row 
of spots beneath the suture, a more distinct interrupted line at 
the margin of the fasciole, and the intermediate space with 
zigzag longitudinal lines, base of shell chestnut. 

Length, 8 mill. 

China Sea; Japan; Philippines. 

With this species I include 0. consobrina, Lischke (unfigured), 
0. fabula, Marrat (figs. 5, 6 , 0. lanceolata, Rve. (figs. T, 8), 0. 
pulicaria, Marrat (fig. 9), 0. exilis, Marr. (fig. 10), O.fulgurata, 
Ad. and Reeve (fig. 11), and 0. pellucida, Rve. (fig. 52). 

0. FORTUNEI, Adams. PI. 16, figs. 12-15. 

Widely fusiform, maculated or covered with zigzag longitu- 
dinal chestnut markings, fasciculated at the sutures. 

Length, 8 mill. 

China; Japan. 

Yery similar to the last species in markings, but differing in 
form. I can see no good reason to separate 0. pulchra, Marr. 
(fig. 14), a species described without locality, and I agree with 
Weinkauff that the unfigured 0. signata, Lischke, is also very 
closely allied. Perhaps 0. spreta, Gould, may belong here ; the 
author never figured it and the type, I suppose, was destroyed 
by fire, in Chicago ; I give a figure which E. A. Smith identifies 
with this species (fig. 15). 

0. LEUCOZONIAS, Gray. PI. 16, figs. 16, IT. 

Orange-yellow, with zigzag chestnut lines and maculations, a 
white band at the suture, spotted with chestnut, and another 
white band below the middle of the shell. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Senegal. 
0. ANAZORA, Duclos. PI. 16, figs 19-23. 

Markings similar to those of the two preceding species, with 
a form about intermediate between them. I am not able to give 
any better distinction than the very different locality; indeed, 
the probability is that the future conchologist, with specimens 
from more numerous stations, will be able to reduce the number 
of species of Olivella to a very few, each of them presenting 
certain types of variation in form and coloring. 

Length, 8-13 mill. 

Xipixapi, W. Columbia; Acapulco; Mazatlan. 



70 OLIVELLA. 

With this I unite 0. pull a, Marr. (fig. 19), 0. versicolor, Marr. 
(figs. 20, 21), 0. compta, Marr. (fig. 22). 0. Capensis, Sowb. (fig. 
23), said to come from the Cape of Good Hope, can only be 
separated by its doubtful locality. 

O. PUELCHANA, d'Orbiguy. PL 16, figs. 24, 25 ; PI. 1, fig. 1. 

Yiolet-brown, more or less maculated, with a narrow white 
band above the brown-tinted fasciole, and a wider band, macu- 
lated with brown, below the suture ; aperture dark-colored 
within. Length, 12-15 mill. 

San Bias, Patagonia (d'Orb) ; Carthagena, Centr. Am.? (Reeve). 

I fear that this is no more than an extreme color-variet} r of 
the preceding species. 0. cyanea, Reeve, is a synonym, not 
differing in any respect. 

O. UNDATELLA, Lam. PL 16, fig. 18 ; PL It, figs. 35-38 ; PL 33, 

fig. 31. 

Ash-gray, with zigzag chestnut markings, distinct or obsolete, 
but forming two well-marked revolving bands by the color 
becoming more emphasized ; a yellow band marked with chestnut 
beneath the sutures ; fasciole yellowish, strigated with chestnut ; 
interior and base of columella chocolate-colored. 

Length, -5-'8 inch. 

Panama t Mazatlan. 

The above description is that of the typical coloration, but the 
variation in color and markings is so great that it is wonderful 
that a number of species have not been separated from it. One 
of the principal variations is a pure white, with indefinite 
cloudings, maculations or zigzags of chocolate ; another white, 
with pink longitudinal zigzag markings, etc. Fig. 31 represents 
0. nedulina, Duclos. 

0. ORACiLis, Brod. and Sowb. PL 16, fig. 26 ; PL It, fig. 2t. 

Shell rather slender, with elevated spire, and somewhat effuse 
below ; yellowish fawn, with light chestnut zigzag markings and 

maculations. Length, '7-'9 inch. 

Mazatlan; Lower California. 

Distinguished from 0. Anazora, which inhabits the same 
region, by its more slender form, elevated spire, greater size and 
lighter color. 0. t^nu^s^ Marrat (fig. 27), is probably a juvenile 
of this species, 



OL1VELLA. 7 \ 

O. B^TICA, Carpenter. PL 17, figs. 28-31, 34. 

Spire moderately elevated, sharp-pointed, body-whorl oval; 
red-brown or gray, fasciculated upon a white band at the suture ; 
body-whorl maculated or with zigzag markings, and sometimes 
a white central band, fasciole white, tip of spire frequently dark- 
tinted. Length, *75-l inch. 

Coast of California. 

W. M. Gabb identifies this species with the post-pliocene 
0. Pedroana, Conrad (fig. 30), which would have priority, if 
identical ; a still earlier published name is 0. alectona, Duclos 
(fig. 34), but I am not convinced that it is the same species. 
0. nota, Marrat (fig. 31), said to come from Vancouver's Island, 
may be referred to the present species with more confidence. 
0. bsetica, is a larger, somewhat more swollen form than 
0. Anazora, but not very different. 

0. BAMA, Mawe. PI. 17, fig. 39. 

Spire and fasciole j^ellowish white, the former ash-tipped, the 
latter sometimes bearing a band of chestnut maculations, body- 
whorl long-fasciculated at the suture and closely reticulated over 
the balance of the surface ; interior of aperture and columella 

violet. Length, *6-l inch. 

Guaymas, Mazatlan. 

This may prove to be a very solid variety of 0. bsetica, Carp., 
yet possesses distinctive characters in its solidity, shorter spire 
and violet aperture. 

O. PULCHELLA, DucloS. Pl.\17, fig. 40. 

A solid shell, sparingly marked with zigzag brown lines, and 
maculate below the suture. Length, *18 mill. 

Cape Blanco, W. Africa. 

A doubtful species from a doubtful locality. Weinkauff 
considers it identical with 0. leucozonias, Gray, with which it 
appears to me to have but little in common. To me it looks 
more like a worn specimen of 0. dama. 

0. EXQUISITA, Angas. PI. 17, figs. 32, 33, 41. 

Brownish yellow, with three rows of rather distant irregular 
chestnut maculations, connected by undulating longitudinal 
lines, which cover the fasciole. Length, 8-12 mill. 

N. S. Wales, Australia. 



72 

I think it almost certain that 0. Brazieri, Angas (fig. 41), is 
merely a larger, less distinctly marked variety of the same 
species. 

0. TRITICEA, Duclos. PL 17, figs. 42-44. 

Yellowish white, with three revolving rows of chestnut-brown 
maculations. Length, 10 mill. 

New Guinea (Duclos); Port Jackson, Australia, 

5 fathoms (Ad. and Ang.). 
0. pardalis, Adams and Angas (fig. 44), is a synonym. 

0. LEUCOZONA, Ad and Ang. PI. 17, fig. 45. 

Yellowish brown, longitudinally reticulated with chestnut, 
with a bluish white band above the fasciole, tinged with chestnut 

at the base. Length, 15 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia, 6 fathoms. 

Besides the difference in painting, this species has a longer 
spire and is larger than 0. triticea. 

O. NYMPHA, Ad. and Angas. PL 17, fig. 46. 

Spire elevated ; semipellucid white, with an opaque white band 
at the suture. Length, 10 mill. 

Port Stephens, N. 8. Wales, 5 fathoms (Angas); Mauritius 

(B. 8. Lyman); Sydney, N. S Wales, 25 fms. (Brazier). 

O. SIMPLEX, Pease, PL 17, figs. 47, 48. 

Pure white, shining. Length, 4-5 mill. 

Upolu and Tongataboo^ Polynesia. 
0. nitens, Dunker (fig. 48), is a synonym. 

O. AUSTRALIS, Tenison-Woods. Australia. 

I have not seen the description of this species. It is unfigured. 

Genus OLIVA, Brug. 
Subgenus Lamprodoma, Swainsnn. 

I commence with this small group rather than with the typical 
Olives, because it appears to connect the latter with Olivella. 

Seven species are enumerated by Weinkauff, and one only of 
these has the characteristic numerous transverse ridges on the 
fasciole ; the others may be referred to Olivella. 0. volutella is 
found in vast numbers over many acres on the sandy beach west 
of the city of Panama; most numerous where the beach has a 



OLIVA. * 73 

gentle slope midway between high- and low-water mark. Some 
time after the retreat of the tide, it is found crawling about with 
much vivacity on the wet sand. The shell, while the animal is 
moving, is wholly covered with the foot-lobes, and these are 
entirely concealed with a thick coat of sand. When the first 
w r ave of the returning tide strikes them, washing off their coat 
of sand, they instantly bury themselves.* 

0. VOLUTELLA, Lam. PI. It, figs. 49-51. 

Yellowish, bluish gray, chestnut- or chocolate-colored ; the 
spire and fasciole often }^ellowish and the body-whorl darker- 
colored ; the latter sometimes faintly marked with longitudinal 
zigzag strigations ; interior of aperture yellowish to chocolate- 

brown. Length, '15-1 '25 inches. 

Panama to Gulf of California. 

0. rasamola, Duclos (fig. 51), and 0. selasia, Duclos, are syn- 
onyms ; the latter founded on a water-worn specimen. 

(Jenus OLIVA. (Typical.} 

The Olives form a very distinct group of mollusks, partaking 
in the form, and porcellanous coating of their shells, in the 
character of Cypraea on one side and the Volutes on the other 
side. Like most shells enveloped in the voluminous foot of the 
animal, the Oliva has no epidermis, and to the same circumstance 
is to be attributed the want of an operculum. The shell has an 
under layer with different pattern of coloring, but this is never 
exposed, unless in worn specimens, or else artificially by the aid 
of acids ; hence it is evident that, unlike the Cyprsea, which 
changes its pattern upon becoming mature, the two layers in 
Oliva are simultaneously produced at all stages of its growth. 

The Olives are tropical in distribution, the species usually 
being somewhat restricted in geographical area. They live on 
sandy flats, burrowing under the surface as the tide retires ; 
they are very active, moving with considerable quickness. 

Many of the species are immediately recognized by peculiar, 
unvarying patterns of coloring ; others, again, vary so greatly 
in this respect that it is almost impossible to define them satis- 
factorily. 



* Adams, Ann. N. Y. Lye., 281, 1852. 
10 



74 OLIVA. 

O. PORPHYRIA, Linn. PL 18. fig. 53. 

Flesh-color, angularly marked with some large, and many 
small, crowded, deep chestnut lines ; fasciole tinged with violet, 
with chestnut maculations ; interior of aperture and columella 

yellowish flesh-color. Length, 4 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

Sometimes very faintly, broadly two- or three-banded with 
bluish ash. 

0. SPLENDIDULA, Sowb. PI. 18, fig. 54. 

Flesh-color, with two broad, interrupted brown bands composed 
of triangular markings and reticulations, the intermediate surface 
covered with fainter maculations and spots ; base tinged with 
violet, interior yellowish flesh-color. Length, 2 inches. 

Panama. 
O. PERUVIANA, Lam. PI. 18, figs. 55 T 58. 

Shell thick, gibbous, with sometimes a slightly angulated 
shoulder; flesh-color, covered with numerous chestnut spots, 
disposed to coalesce into close zigzag longitudinal markings, 
or into larger and more distant zigzags ; sometimes the markings 
are entirely absent, in others the entire surface is more or less 

covered with chestnut. Length, 2 inches. 

Peru aod Chili. 

O. EPISCOPALIS, Lam. PL 18, figs. 59, 60 ; PL 19 r figs. 61-63. 

White, with chestnut spots and maculations having ash-colored 
shadings, and sometimes indistinct ashy bands ; interior of 
aperture deep violet. Length, 1*5 -2*25 inches. 

Indian Ocean; N. Australia; N. Caledonia to Central Pacific. 

Constantly distinguished by its violet interior. 0. lugubris, 
Lam. (fig. 60), is a dark-colored variety ; 0. quersolina (fig. 59), 
and 0. atalina, Duclos (fig. 62), are pale or faded specimens. 
0. fulva, Marrat (fig. 63), is pink with light red spots and 
indistinct bands, roseate within the aperture: I agree with Dr. 
Weinkauff that it is probably only a variation of 0. epitcopalis. 

O. GUTTATA, Lam; PL 19, figs. 64-67. 

Cream- to flesh-color, with large or small bluish ash-colored 
spots varying to chestnut or shaded with both colors ; suture 



OLIVA. 75 

and fascicle spotted or streaked with chocolate or violet ; interior 
of aperture orange-red. Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 

Indian Ocean, China, Philippines, Polynesia, Madagascar, Zanzibar. 

0. cruenta, Sol., and 0. emicator, Meusch., have priority over 
0. guttata, but the latter name is so well known that it seems 
inadvisable to change it. 0. mantichora, Duel. (fig. 67), is a 
monstrous condition of this species, not uncommon among 
Olives. 

0. RUFULA, Duclos. PI. 20, fig. 79. 

Fawn-colored, crossed diagonally or transversely by dark 
chestnut bands formed by the coalescence of trigonal markings ; 
aperture white within. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Moluccas. 

0. TNFLATA, Lam. PL 19, figs. 68-70 ; PI. 20, figs. 71-76. 

Shell swollen, becoming gibbous in the middle in old specimens, 
the spire partially sunken below the edge of the body-whorl, the 
latter produced behind, with a heavy callous deposit ; outer lip 
sometimes enormously thickened ; fasciole with a heavy callous 
ridge, independent of the columellar plaits ; color white or 
yellowish, more or less dotted, blotched or banded, or lightning- 
streaked with brown-orange, chestnut, chocolate or bluish ash, 
sometimes variegated with two or three colors at once, sometimes 
almost or entirely covered with dark color, occasionally pure 
white ; aperture white within. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Red Sea; Ceylon; E. Africa; Madagascar; Seychelles. 

The variability of this species in coloring is exceedingly great. 
When old, the best characters are derived from the inflated form, 
sunken spire, callous thickenings and columellar ridge; but less 
developed specimens are so close to some of the succeeding 
species that their distinction appears to be somewhat doubtful. 

0. lacertina, Quoy (figs. 75, 76), is a somewhat peculiarly 
colored young shell of this species ; I have a similar specimen 
before me. 

0. TIGRINA, Lam. PL 20, figs. 77, 78, 80. 

Light yellowish or ash-color, profusely marked with small blue- 
gray spots, occasionally coalescing into short zigzags ; aperture 
and columella white within. Length, 1-75-2-25 inches. 

Ceylon; Java; Philippines; East Africa. 



7C> OL1VA. 

The markings are similar to varieties of the preceding- species, 
from which it is somewhat doubtfully distinguished by its less 
inflated form, spire not so much sunken, fascicle without the 
callous ridge, etc. As in infiata, the color varies, but not so 
frequently, perhaps; I figure a dark-hued specimen (fig. 78). 
0. glandiformis, Marr. (fig. 80), is at least identical as to the 
figure I copy ; the two additional figures given by Marrat appear 
to be more similar to 0. elegans, Lam. 

O. ELEGANS, Lam. PI. 20, figs. 81-83 ; PI. 21, figs. 84-88. 

Shell olive, or brownish yellow, closely covered with zigzag 
lines or punctations, or both, varying from chocolate to nearly 
black, and frequently shaded with orange, and bluish ash ; some- 
times there is an overlaid darker series of crowded zigzags 
forming two irregular bands, or even almost covering the shell ; 
fasciole tinged with saffron-color. Length, 1*5 1*75 inches. 

Indian Ocean to Central Polynesia. 

Generally smaller, darker-colored and not so much inflated as 
0. tiyrina, but I have hesitated long whether to treat it as a 
synonym of that species or as distinct ; its characteristics are 
certainly insufficient. I am compelled to place here as synonyms 
several so-called species which have heretofore been considered 
distinct, but the large number of specimens before me covers 
every grade of variation between them ; the tinted fasciole 
appears to be a feature common to all. These synonyms are 
0. flava, Marr. (fig. 83), 0. infrenata, Marr. (fig. 84), and 
0. Hemiltona, Duclos (fig. 85). 

Var. TRICOLOR, Lam. Figs. 8B-88. 

The zigzag painting is more or less broken up into spots, and 
is blue, olive or chocolate shaded with orange, disposed upon a 
light ground. This has usually been considered a distinct 
species, but is connected with the type by insensible gradations. 
0. tringa, Duclos (fig. 88), is probably the young state. 

0. CALOSOMA, Duclos. PI. 21, fig. 89. 

Pure white, or with slight indications of three bands composed 
of occasional triangular brown markings. Length, 27 mill. 

China. 



OL1VA. 77 

O. AVELLANA, Lam. PI. 21, fig. 90. 

White, with short triangular reddish markings, forming two 
interrupted bands; aperture white within. Length, 30-40 mill 

New Guinea. 
0. LECOQUIANA, Ducros. PI. 21, figs. 92, 93 ; PL 33, fig. 30. 

Shell marked and banded with chocolate-colored triangular 
markings, as in 0. elegans, the fasciole similarly stained with 
saffron-color ; form somewhat more bulbous ; interior of aperture 
violaceous. Length, 35 mill. 

China 

The colored aperture is the best distinctive character. 0. 
x/w/h's, Marrat (fig. 92), appears to be a minor form of this 
species; and 0. calosoma, Marr., not Duclos (fig. 30), is a still 
smaller form; 0. stellata, Duel. (fig. 93), may also probably be 
referred here. 

0. BULBIFORMIS, Duclos. PL 21, figs. 94-96. 

Shell short and very bulbous, colored as in 0. elegans externally, 
but the interior of the aperture chocolate-brown, or violaceous 
brown. Length, 30 mill. 

Solomon Is.; Moluccas. 

The form is typically very distinct from all species related in 
external coloring, 3'et I fear that it will be found to graduate 
into the preceding species. 

O. FUNEBRALIS, Lam. PL 21, figs. 97-99 ; PL 22, figs. 100-5. 

Shell rather more cylindrical than the preceding species, with 
the usual color-markings of the group. It differs insufficiently 
from 0. Lecoquiana in the lower band of the fasciole being deeply 
strigated with chocolate ; aperture white or slightly bluish or 
chocolate within. Length, 1-1 '8 inches. 

Ceylon; Moluccas; New Guinea; Viti Islands. 

0. leucostoma, Duclos (figs. 98, 99;,0. in ornata, Mar rat (fig. 100), 
0. propinqua, Marrat (fig. 1) and 0. /^m,Marr. (fig. 2), probably, 
are synonyms. 

Yar. DACTYLIOLA, Duclos. Figs. 3-5. 

Shell smaller, more regularly marked with zigzag lines and 
spots. Length, -8-1 inch. 

To this form may be united 0. picta, Reeve (fig. 4), and probably 
0. Nanda, Marr. (fig. 5). 



78 OLTVA. 

O. MUSTELLINA, Lam. PI. 22, figs. 6-14. 

Cylindrical, the aperture long and narrow, the spire very short, 
sharp-pointed; pale yellowish, covered with light chestnut ful- 
gurations, interior deep violet. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Singapore ; Japan. 

Distinguished at once by its cylindrical form, light coloring, 
and violet interior. The following ma}^ be considered synony- 
mous, being mostly slight variations in form, or dead and faded 
specimens: 0. caroliniana, Duclos (fig. 7), 0. anguxtata, Marr. 
(fig. 8), 0. Isevis, Marr. (fig. 9 , probably, 0. scitula, Marr. (fig. 10), 
0. grata, Marr. (fig. 11), 0. Pacifica, Marr. (fig. 12), 0. arctata, 
Marr. (fig. 13), and 0. cana, Marr. (fig. 14). Possibly 0. neostina, 
Marrat, not Duclos, and 0. Jay ana, Ducros, also belong here. 

O. NEOSTINA, Duclos. PI. 22, figs. 15-20. 

Somewhat less cylindrical than 0. mustellina and larger ; color 
varying from light yellowish white to chocolate, the lighter 
varieties with zigzag brown lines ; aperture white or slightly 
bluish within. Length, 1 '25-1 '5 inches. 

Australia; New Guinea. 

This bears some resemblance to the preceding, and is more 
closely related to the following species, of which it may possibly 
be a minor variety. I am not at all satisfied as to its claim to 
distinctness. 0. Octauia, Duclos (fig. 15), is usually considered 
synonymous. 

O. MAURA, Lam. PI, 23, figs. 21-26 ; PL 1, fig. 5 ; PL 34, fig. 54. 

Light olivaceous, orange-brown, chestnut or chocolate, some- 
times nearly black, often more or less distinctly banded with 
lines of different shades of the same color, the lighter-colored 
specimens especially, frequently marked with chestnut zigzag 
lines and spots ; interior of aperture and columella white ; fasciole 
mostly colored with the prevailing tint. 

Length, l'75-2'25 inches. 

Indo^Pacific and Austro- Pacific Provinces. 

One of the commonest and most variable species of the genus. 
It may be distinguished from Q. tigrina, which it often resembles 
greatly in painting, by its larger siz.e and more cylindrical form. 
Fig. 26 represents 0. Ma.cleaya, Puclos, 



OLIVA. 79 

0. SANGUINOLENTA, Lam. PL 23, figs. 27-29 ; PL 24, figs. 30,33. 

Cylindrically oblong, with short, partly sunken spire ; cream- 
color or light olive, covered with very numerous, generally minute 
and close zigzag chocolate lines and reticulations, and which 
often form a subsutural and a median band ; interior of aperture 
fleshy white ; columella and fasciole richly marked with orange- 
red. Length, 1-75-2-25 inches. 

Mauritius, Indian Ocean, Philippines, New Caledonia. 

The form is the same as in O. maura, but the very close, minute 
pattern of coloring and brilliant columella will distinguish it. 
0. evania, Duclos (fig. 29), is a synonym, and 0. pindamella, 
Duclos (fig. 33), is believed to be a young, rubbed specimen of 
this species. 0. Keeni, Marrat (fig. 30), partakes of the characters 
of the next species, but its closest relationship is with 0. san- 
guinolenta. 

0. IRISANS, Lam. PL 24, figs. 31, 32, 34-42 ; PL 25, figs. 43-49 ; 
PL 26, figs. 50-54 ; PL 27, figs. 55-60; PL 1, fig. 3. 

Shell flesh-colored, orange-brown or chocolate, with zigzag 
brown lines, shaded with ash and orange, and faintly or inter- 
ruptedly two-banded ; fasciole slightly tinged with orange ; interior 
of aperture white or flesh-color or faintly bluish. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Mauritius, Ceylon, Java, Philippines, Australia, Polynesia. 

Reeve, Marrat and Weinkauff have distinguished a number of 
species which I am compelled to treat as synonyms, because the 
large suite of specimens before me shows that these are partly 
merely transition forms and parti}' distinctions based on size 
only. A rather narrow cylindrical and small variety has been 
selected for 0. irisanx (figs. 34-36), and a larger growth, not so 
cylindrical, for 0. zeilanica. Lam. (fig. 37), with which 0. Phi- 
lantha, Duclos (fig. 38), is synonymous ; 0. galeola, Duclos (fig. 
39), is also a synonym. 

Yar. CONCINNA, Marrat. Figs. 40-45. 

A somewhat smaller shell than 0. irisans, differing principally 
in the interior of the aperture being blue or violet. With this 
variet}*- must be united 0. cylindracea (fig. 42), 0. clara, (fig. 
43), O. lignaria, (fig. 44), and O. ornata (fig. 45), all of Marrat. 



80 OLIVA. 

Yar. TREMULINA, Lam. Figs. 46-52. 

This shows the same range of variation in color as the typical 
irisans, and only differs in its greater size and solidity. 

Length, 3'5-4 inches. 

The synonyms are 0. nobilis, Reeve (fig. 48), 0. tenebrosa, 
Marr. (fig. 49), O.fumosa, Marr. (fig. 50), and 0. olympiad ina, 
Duclos = 0. pica, Lam. (figs. 51, 52). 

Yar. ERYTHROSTOMA, Lam. PI. 1, fig. 3 ; PL 26, figs. 53, 54 ; PL 
27, figs. 55-58; PL 34, fig. 53. 

Shell cream- or flesh-color, with violet or red zigzag longitu- 
dinal lines, which are A r ery irregular and rather distant, and 
frequently shaded with orange ; there are two bluish violet 
interrupted bands ; interior of aperture bright orange-red. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Ordinarily the coloring of this form is sufficiently distinctive, 
so that I hesitated whether to give it specific or varietal rank ; 
I am induced to favor the latter because a number of specimens 
are before me which are intermediate between this and the last 
variety : thus, some have the external coloration of erythrostoma, 
more or less, with the aperture white within, others are colored 
like tremulina (some of them uniform dark chocolate), with the 
aperture varying from the faintest blush to deep orange-red. 

The sj'iionyms are 0. magnifica, Ducros = 0. tremulina (in 
part^, Marrat (fig. 54), 0. azemula, Duclos (fig. 55), 0. mazaris, 
Duclos (fig. 56), 0. sylvia, Duclos (figs. 57, 58), and 0. ponderosa, 
Duclos (PL 34, fig. 53), a thick-growing form. 

Yar. TEXTILINA, Lam. PL 27, figs. 59, 60. 

Cream-colored, very light yellowish or pink, closely reticulated 
by zigzag chestnut markings, usually forming a superior and a 
median band of darker reticulations ; aperture white or light 
flesh-color. Length, 2-3 inches. 

This is also typically a very distinct shell, in its close 
reticulated pattern and in the bands being formed of darker 
reticulations and not of markings confluent into blotches ; yet 
in some specimens these blotches appear, and in others they 
spread more and more so as to form a complete series from the 
type to the uniformly chocolate-colored shell ; on the other hand. 



OLIVA. 81 

the reticulations become lighter, verging on pink, more sparse, 
and so merge into erythrostoma. In describing one of the 
varieties of this protean species, Weinkauff predicted that they 
would some day all " be placed in one basket ;" this I have been 
compelled to do ; but I have still retained as varietal the names 
of the principal forms. 

0. ARANEOSA, Lam. PL 27, figs. 61, 62; PL 28, figs. 63-74; PL 
29, figs. 75-83. 

Oval-cylindrical, a little constricted around the upper part of 
the body-whorl, and sometimes with a faintly angulated shoulder ; 
the spire prominent ; cream-color, overlaid with a closely reticu- 
lated pattern of brick-red to chocolate, and fasciculations of the 
same color at the sutures ; interior cream-white or lightly tinted 
blue or chocolate. Length, 1 '5-2*25 inches. 

Panama to Cape St. Lucas L. Gal. 

Is a larger, heavier, less cylindrical species than 0. reticularis 
of the West Indies of which it is the West Coast representative: 
the two are very probably of common derivation. The figures 
cited by Lamarck well represent this species which is better 
known under the name of 0. Melcliersi, Menke. Weinkauff 
having restored the Lamarckian name, I follow him, but would 
otherwise have hesitated to drop a well-known designation in 
favor of one which is in fact almost unknown. The other 
synonyms are 0. oblonga, Marr. (fig. 63), 0. Pindarina, Duclos 
(fig. 64), 0. subangulata, Phil. (fig. 65), an angulated form, 0. 
fuscata, Marr. (fig. 66), a dark variety, 0. oriola, Duclos (fig. 67), 
which is somewhat lighter than fuscata, 0. liarpularia, Lam. 
(fig. 68), described from a worn shell, 0. intertincta, Carpenter 
(fig. 69), a juvenile, and 0. violacea, Marrat (fig. 70). 

Var. VENULATA, Lam. Figs. 71-73. 

Shell shorter, more swollen around the upper part ; spire 
shorter ; painting usually darker, the reticulated pattern more 
or less broken up into nebulous spots. The synonyms are 0. 
punctata, Marr. (fig. 72), and 0. Pindarina, Marr., not Duclos 
(fig. 73). 

Var. JULIETTE, Duclos. PL 29, figs. 74-82 ; PL 21, fig. 91. 

Shell very bulbous, with short spire ; thick. Length, 2 inches. 
11 



82 OLIVA. 

Typical examples are so different in form from 0. araneosa, 
while the painting is more nebulous, that they would readily be 
distinguished as a species, but intermediate specimens are not 
wanting. This form also has several synonyms : 0. Timorensis, 
Duclos (figs. 15, 76), said to come from Timor which is evidently 
an erroneous habitat ; one of these specimens is dark colored, 
resembling 0. Cicmingii, Reeve (fig. 77), which must also be 
considered a synonym. 0. Mariae, Ducros (fig. 78), is a small 
specimen apparently, of this species ; Kuster figures a larger 
shell under the same name (PL 21, fig. 91); 0. obesina, Duclos 
(fig. 79), 0. porcea, Marrat (fig. 80) and 0. graphica, Marr. (fig. 81), 
are also to be placed here ; and I am inclined to include 0. truncata, 
Marr. fig. 82), although it is said to come from the Cape of Good 
Hope. I believe this habitat to be erroneous ; moreover a 
specimen received from Mr. Marrat is undoubtedly a young 
Juliette. 
Var. POLPASTA, Duclos. Fig. 83. 

Light olive, the reticulations broken up into nebulous spots 
and occasional arrow-head markings ; the fasciculations at the 
sutures spread from centres at regular distances, between which 
the shell is colored yellowish white. Length, 1 '25-1*75 inches. 

The form is much like var. Juliettse, from which it is to be 
distinguished by its smaller size, darker color, and especially 
by its gay alternation of white spaces and fan-like chocolate 
fasciculations at the sutures which are none of them stable 
characters. 

O. ANGULATA, Lam. PL 29, fig. 84. 

Ovate, ventricose, very thick, angularly swollen above the 
middle; ash-white mottled and spotted with olive and gray, 
and with occasional chestnut transverse streaks and zigzag 
markings; lip and columella flesh-pink. Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Panama to Quay mas. 

The young shell is not angulated, and approximates to the 
last species in form, and somewhat in exterior coloring, but 
may be distinguished at once by the color of the columella and 
interior. 
0. SCRIPTA, Lam. PL 30, fig. 85. 

Cylindrically oblong, spire rather short, columellar plaits 



OLIVA. 83 

numerous ; yellowish brown, with pale chestnut zigzag markings 
and reticulations, and two bands of interrupted dark chestnut 
hieroglyphic figures ; bluish white within the aperture. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

China, Australia. 

0. FUSIFORMIS, Lam. PI. 30, figs. 86-89 ; PL 34, fig. 56. 

Shell thick, oval, swollen posterior^, the spire prominent ; 
white, with longitudinal zigzag chestnut figures, sometimes two 
banded, and sometimes the chestnut-color nearly covers the 
shell by the coalescence of the markings ; white within the 
aperture. Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

West Indies*. 

With this are to be united 0. obesina, Duel., O. Aldinia, 
Duclos (fig. 88), O. onisca, Duel. (fig. 87), 0. mercatoria, Marr. 
(fig. 56) at least in part (one of his figures resembles 0. reti- 
cularis more closely), 0. bullata, Marr. (fig. 89), and 0. reclusa, 
Marr., the last two not fully grown. 

O. RETICULARIS, Lam. PL 30, figs. 90-95; PL 31, figs. 96-4; 
PL 34, fig. 57. 

White, with pink or chestnut zigzag longitudinal markings, 
and fasciculations of the same color around the suture ; some- 
times there are faint bands, and occasionally the whole surface 
is more or less covered with chestnut ; aperture white. 

Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

Florida, West Indies. 

Among the synonyms may be cited 0. ustulata. Lam. (fig. 92), 
O. tisiphona, Ducios (figs. 93, 57), 0. memnonia, Duel. (fig. 94), 
O. Sowerbyi, Marrat (fig. 95), O.figura, Marr. (fig. 96), 0. Bewleyi. 
Marr. (fig. 97), 0. Jamaicensis, Marr. (fig. 98), 0. hepatica, Marr. 
(not Lam.) = 0. bifasciataiWemk&uff (fig. 99), O.formosa, Marr. 
(fig. 100), 0. nivosa, Marr. (fig. 1). The white variety of the last 
is equivalent to 0. olorinella, Duclos (fig. 2), which Weinkauff has 
erroneously made a synonym of 0. ispidula, Linn. 0. brunnea, 
Marrat (fig. 3), is said to come from Borneo, but I have before 
me undoubted West Indian specimens precisely like it ; 0. oriola, 
Duel. (fig. 4), is nearly equivalent to the last. 

O. LITTERATA, Lam. PL 31, figs. 5-7. 

Shell gradually attenuated at each end, with produced spire ; 



84 OL1VA. 

over the usual zigzag markings, reticulations and sutural fascic- 
ulations, are two bands of hieroglyphic characters, which are 
usually well marked. Length, l'5-2'5 inches. 

Beaufort, North Carolina to Florida; 

West Indies; Bahia, Brazil. 

The attenuation of the posterior part of the shell, distin- 
guishes this from 0. reticularis,w\th which some of its varieties 
are nevertheless too closely allied ; the same character and 
greater size distinguish it from 0. scripta, Lam., which has very 
similar painting. 0. circinnata, Marr. (fig. 6), is one of the 
connecting forms referred to above. 0. multiplicata, Reeve 
(fig. 7), is probably also a synonym. 

O. STAINFORTHII, Reeve. PL 31, fig. 8. 

White, faintly sprinkled with gray-shaded reddish dots, and 
marked with a very few blackish blotches disposed in two bands, 
unspotted next the- sutures, columella and interior of aperture 

ivory-white. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

A very doubtful species, resting solely on the type specimen 
from which the colors have probably been worn off. 

O. HIEROGLYPHIC A, Reeve. PI. 31, fig. 9. 

Ivory-white, encircled by three rows of pale brown hiero- 
glyphic markings. Length, '6 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
A doubtful species. 

0. POLITA, Marrat. PI. 32, fig. 10. 

Yellowish, with white and chestnut maculations ; pallid viola- 
ceous within the aperture. Length, 20 mill. 

West Indies. 

Weinkauff thinks that this is perhaps a young 0. litterata, 
but it appears to me to differ greatly from that species, both in 
form and markings. I have not seen specimens. It may be a 
variet} r of the next species. 

O. FLAMMULATA, Lam. PI. 32, fig. 11 ; PI. 34, fig. 55. 

Yellowish white, with reticulations and angular markings of 
chestnut-brown, and occasional white maculations; interior of 
aperture whitish or tinged with purple. Length, '9-1*5 inches. 

West Africa, Senegal, (Jape Blanco. 



OL1VA. 85 

O. DUCLOSI, Reeve. PI. 32, figs. 12-1?. 

Shell with close reticulations and triangular markings of 
chestnut, with narrow, interrupted sutural and median bands, 
aperture yellowish brown. Length, '9-1*25 inches. 

* . C7tina, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Polynesia. 

0. flammulata, Lam., is too closely allied to varieties of this 
species ; I have hesitated to separate them. 0. lentiginosa, 
Reeve (fig. 14), is merely a lighter-colored specimen ; 0. esodina, 
Duel. (fig. 15) and 0. Natalia, Duel. (fig. 16), are also synonyms, 
and I suppose that 0. Sandwichensis, Pease (fig. It), may also 
be added. This is the 0. jaspidea, Duclos (not Olivella jaspidea, 
of Gmelin), under which name it is as generally known as that 
of Reeve. 

0. THOMASI, Crosse. PL 32, fig. 18. 

Heavy, oblong, with rather short spire ; flesh-color, obscurely 
two-zoned, numerously punctate, maculated with chestnut at the 
suture ; yellowish white, obscurely bifasciate within the aperture. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Tahiti. 

Is possibly a variety of 0. flammulata, judging from the 
figures and description. 

0. AUSTRALIS, Duclos. PL 32, figs. 19-20. 

Spire elevated ; white or yellowish, with light chestnut or 
purple-ash zigzag lines ; interior of aperture white, maculated 
with purple near the margin. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Australia, New Guinea. 

Mr. John Brazier informs me that the natives of New Guinea 
place these shells on red-hot ashes, which discharges the coloring, 
leaving them entirely white ; in which condition they are strung 
to make neck-ornaments and girdles. 0. caldania, Duclos (fig. 
20) is a synonym. 
0. PAXILLUS, Reeve. PL 32, figs. 21-23. 

Shell thick, stout, cone-shaped, with a high spire ; white, with 
triangular brown markings, forming interrupted bands, and spots 
beneath the sutures and on the fasciole ; interior of aperture 
sometimes two or three banded. Length, '85-1*1 inches. 

Japan, Philippines, Australia. 

The form of this species is its best characteristic. 0. ozodona, 



86 OL1VA. 

Duclos (fig. 22), and 0. nitidula, Duclos, not Gmelin (fig. 23), 
are to be united with it. 

O. PANNICULATA, Duclos. PL 32, figs. 24, 25. 

White, with faint longitudinal zigzags, and interrupted narrow 
bands at the suture and below the middle. Length, -75 ftich. 

Madagascar. 
O. ANIOMINA, Duclos. PL 32, figs. 26, 27. 

Yellowish white, with chestnut-red zigzags and nebulous 

markings. Length, '75-1*1 inches. 

Japan. 

0. rufopicta, Weinkauff (fig. 27), appears to be the same 
species. 

O. KALEONTINA, Duclos. PL 32, fig. 28. 

Purple-fawn, interruptedly spotted and variegated with reddish 
chestnut, with oblong spots beneath the sutures ; columella and 
interior of the aperture purplish white. Length, 33 mill. 

Bay of Guayaquil and Galapagos Is.; 6 to 12 fms. Cuming. 

0. BRODERIPII, Ducros. PL 33, fig. 33. 

Shell rather convex, with short spire ; yellowish brown, closely 
reticulated with chestnut ; aperture chocolate-brown within. 

Length, 30 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

A doubtful species, supposed to differ from 0. ispidula in its 
wider form and more convex sides. 

O. PYGM^EA, Reeve. PL 32, fig. 29. 

Orange-yellow, clouded and dotted with red-brown ; columella 
and interior of aperture white. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Except in the color of the interior, it resembles 0. ispidula: 
it is a doubtful species. 

O. ISPIDULA, Linn. PL 33, figs. 34-43, 29, 38. 

White, ash, yellow, brown, chestnut or chocolate-colored, 

without markings, or with nebulous spots, zigzag lines or 

reticulations, often with a band near the top of the body-whorl ; 

columella white ; interior chocolate-colored. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Fiji Islands^ etc. 

It is impossible to enumerate the shades and patterns of 



CALLTANAX. 87 

coloring of this species ; its chocolate-colored interior is its most 
characteristic feature, whilst the form is also tolerably constant. 
Banded varieties may be recognized by the band being on the 
upper part of the whorl, but not attaining the suture. There are 
several synonyms, as follows : 0. flaveola, Duel. (fig. 40), 0. 
variabilis, Gray, 0. Candida, Lam. (fig. 41), tigridella, Duclos 
(figs. 42, 29, 28), 0. egira, Duel. (fig. 43). 

O. SIDELIA, Duel. PI. 33, figs. 27, 44-50. 

Yellowish or orange-color, sometimes without markings, but 
usually with more or less regular narrow zigzags of chestnut, 
and occasionally with clouds of the same color ; interior of 
aperture bluish white to violet-red. Length, -7-'9 inch. 

China, Philippines, New Guinea, Viti Is., Madagascar. 

I unite here, under the oldest name, a number of species here- 
tofore considered distinct ; the dark unspotted variety being the 
0. volvaroides, Duel. (fig. 45), and immature specimens (one of 
which is partly covered with chestnut), the 0. sidelia, Duel. 
(figs. 44, 27). The mature painted shells are : 0. athenia. Duel. 
(fig. 46) == 0. mucronata, Marr. (fig. 47), 0. lepida, Duel. (fig. 
48), 0. todosina, Duel. (fig. 49), and 0. faba, Marr. (fig 50). 

0. TESSELLATA, Lam. PL 33, fig. 51. 

Creamy white to yellowish brown, with irregular distant ash- 
and chestnut-shaded spots covering the surface ; interior, and 
columella deep violet. Length, 1 inch. 

Maldives, Java, Philippines, Australia, New Caledonia. 

0. CARNEOLA, Gmelin. PI. 33, fig. 52. 

White, banded with rich orange-color, the bands usualty a 
broad one above and below and a narrow one in the middle, 
color sometimes shading into red, violet or olive ; fasciole and 
aperture white, Length, -7-*9 inch. 

Java, Philippines, New Caledonia, Central Polynesia. 



Subgenus Callianax, U. an 1 A. 

0. BIPLTCATA, Sowb. PI. 34, fig. 58. 

Bluish gray, sometimes light brownish or olivaceous, fasciole 
and interior of aperture violaceous ; columella biplicate at the 

base. Length, -75-1-25 inches. 

California. 



88 AGARONTA. 

O. ORBTGNYI, Marrat. PL 34, fig. 59. 

Purple-brown, with two narrow revolving white bands below 
the middle; interior of aperture orange-red. Length, '9 inch. 

Patagonia. 
Subgenus Agaronia, Gra> . 

O. HIATULA, Gmelin. PI. 34, figs. 60-61 ; PI. 35, figs. 68-70; 

PL 36, fig. 26. 

Shell thin, with raised spire and large aperture, somewhat 
dilated below ; columellar folds very oblique ; cream-color, light 
brown or olivaceous, frequently nebulously painted or zigzagged 
longitudinally with brown ; the fasciole lighter or darker colored, 
without markings; the interior va^ing from cream-color to 
chocolate, sometimes showing the external markings. 

Length, 1 '5-2*5 inches. 

West Coast of Africa; Panama to Mazatlan. 

The occurrence of this species numerously at these two distant 
points has much bothered conchologists ; the W. African speci- 
mens were called 0. hiatula, and the W. American specimens, 
supposed to differ somewhat in form, have been distinguished as 
0. testacea, Lam. P. P. Carpenter, in his monograph of Mazatlan 
shells, acknowledges that specimens from both localities vary . 
considerably in form and are in this respect indistinguishable, 
but he attempts to make differential characters in the coloring 
of the fasciole, and tinting of the plications; in both which 
respects specimens before me, with undoubtedly correct habitats, 
completely contravene his assertions ; indeed I have Mazatlan 
specimens, received from Carpente'r himself, which fully exhibit 
the features which he believes to be peculiar to the W. African 
form, whilst Gambian specimens show the W. American colorings. 
Figs. 60-63 show 0. hiatula and fig. 65 0. testacea, Lam. 

Other synonyms are: 0. pallida, Swains, (fig. 64), 0. nitellina, 
Duclos (fig. 26), 0. Steerix, Reeve (fig. 68 ', 0. cincta, Reeve (fig. 
70", a juvenile banded variety, 0. indusiaca, Reeve (fig. 66), 
erroneously said to inhabit the mouth of the River Indus, and 
0. Ancillarioides, Reeve (fig. 69). 0. Lamarckii, Swainson, and 
0. propatula, Conrad, are so completely typical, that copies of 
their respective figures would serve no useful purpose. 

0. ACUMINATA, Lam. PL 35, figs. 71-80 ; PL 1, fig. 4. 

Yellowish, fawn, or ash-gray, irregularly marked with zigzags 



AGARONIA. 89 

and maculations, or faintly nebulous, the markings being nearly 
obsolete ; suture sometimes with fasciculations, frequently 
reduced to a row of spots, still more frequently unspotted ; 
fasciole and fasciolar band yellowish or fawn-color, sometimes 
with faint, close, orange-red strigations ; columella white ; interior 
of aperture white, maculated with chestnut on the lip-border. 

Length, l'5-3 inches. 

Senegal, Gambia, Java, Philippines, Australia. 

Dr. Weinkauff complains that his predecessors in attempting 
to separate 0. acuminata and 0. subulata, have mistaken them 
one for the other, and he has taken the trouble to unravel the 
intricate synonymy, in order to thoroughly distinguish the two 
species. Having carefully examined their respective characters 
both in descriptions, figures and specimens, I am convinced that 
no good reason exists for treating them as distinct, and that 
several additional " species " must likewise be added to the 
synonymy. Fig. 11 represents 0. subulata, Lam., as defined by 
Weinkauff; it appears more slender, with more elevated spire 
than some of the figures representing 0. acuminata, but every 
intermediate form may be selected from the specimens before 
me. I place here 0. modesta, Reeve (fig. 77), a young shell, 0. 
annotata, Marr. (fig. 78), and 0. carita, Marr, (figs. 79, 80), also 
juveniles, and 0. Bartlielemyi, Ducros (fig. 76, \ 

O. LABUANENSIS, Marrat. PI. 35, fig. 81. 

Yellowish white to orange-color, with an orange-red or brown 
broad band covering the lower half of the body-whorl, sutures 

fasciculated with brown. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Borneo. 

This may be only a variety of 0. nebulosa, yet I think it has 
as good claims to specific distinction as most of the species. 

O. LIGNEOLA, Reeve. PI. 35, fig. 82. 

Cone-shaped ; chestnut, the fasciole lighter, with chestnut 
markings, columella white, aperture bluish. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species ; Marrat has omitted it, 
and Weinkauff has copied Reeve's figure and description. 

O. NEBULOSA, Lam. PI. 35, figs. 83, 84. 

Subcylindrical, spire moderately elevated ; cream-color, with 
12 



90 OLIVANCILLARIA. 

zigzag ash or olive lines, merging into reticulations ; fasciole 
orange-brown, mottled with chestnut. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Ceylon; Australia f; W. Africa. 

This species has been confounded with 0. gibbosa, Born, and 
has been supposed to be the young of that species ; the young 
gibbosa, however, is much more inflated, and may be readily 
separated from nebulosa of the same size ; the coloring is the 
same in both species. 0. intricata, Marrat (fig. 84) is a 
synonym. 

O. GIBBOSA, Born. PI. 36, figs. 85-8Y. 

Shell heavy, gibbous, the columella callous, especially the 
upper part; spire also callously thickened ; cream-colored, body- 
whorl with zigzags and reticulations varying from ash-gray to 
orange and chocolate ; fasciole yellowish, maculated with brown ; 
columella and interior of aperture whitish. 

Length, 1-5-2-5 inches. 

Ceylon; W. Africa. 

Like Olivancillaria in form, but the sutured channel remains 
distinct on all the whorls of the spire. 

Subgenus Olivancillaria, d'Orb. 

0. BRASILIANA, Lam. PL 36, fig. 88 ; PI. 1, fig. 2. 

Fulvous fawn, streaked with white, with, short transverse gray 
hair-lines ; spire callous, fasciole and interior of aperture orange- 
brown. Length, 2-2-5 inches. 

Brazil, La Plata, Patagonia. 

The body-whorl has sometimes obscure brownish fasciculations 
below the suture. 

O. DESHAYESIANA, Ducros. PL 86, figs. 89, 90. 

Shell smaller, more swollen above than 0. Brasiliana, and 
with a proportionally heavier posterior callus. Color same as 

in 0. Brasiliana Length, 1 inch. 

Brazil. 

The form of this shell is nearly intermediate between the last 
and the next species; it is much smaller than either, yet appears 
to be mature. 0. ovata, Marr. (fig. 90), is synonymous. 

O. AURICULARIA, Lam. PL 36, figs. 91-^4. 

Brown or lead-color, sometimes, in the young shell with zigzag 



MONOPTYGMA. 91 

faint brown markings ; fasciole and interior of aperture yellowish 
brown to chocolate. Length, 1 -5-1 '75 inches. 

Brazil to Patagonia; W. Africa. 

The young shell is much narrower in form, the contorted 
expanded lip and heavy columellar callus indicating the adult 
condition. 0. aquatilis, Reeve (fig. 93), and 0. contortuplicata, 
Reeve (fig. 94), are both young shells; 0. claneophila, Duclos 
(fig. 92) = the adult form. 

0. NANA, Lam. PI. 36, figs. 96-100. 

Conical, the upper fourth part of the body-whorl overlaid with 
a yellowish callus, the fasciole also yellowish and obscurely 
maculated, rest of body-whorl cream-color with chestnut longi- 
tudinal fulgurations, often broken up into nebulous spots ; 
columella white, interior of aperture exhibiting the external 
colors through the shell. Length, '75 inch. 

Gabon, W. Africa; So. Africa; Madagascar. 

The West Indies have been cited as habitat for this species, 
I think erroneously. 0. zenospira, Duel. (fig. 79^ 
punctala, Duclos (figs. 98, 99), are synonyms. 

iTy 

Subfamily ANCILLARIIN^E. 

Genus MONOPIYGMA, Lea. 

Several systematists have confounded this genus with Mon- 
optygma, Gray an entirely different group. The type, although 
a very small shell, perfectly exhibits the generic characters, but 
Lea's second species belongs to Actaeonidae. Chilotygma, H. 
and A. Adams, must, according to the description, become a 
synonym ; but it may well be doubted whether its only species 
and specimen (therefore the only recent species of Monoptygma), 
is not a monstrosity. 

M. ALABAMIENSIS, Lea.' (PI. 3, fig. 23.) Fossil. 

Eocene, Alabama. 
M. EXIGUA, Sowb. PI. 37, tig. 1. 

Yellowish white, very shining, callous ; callously ridged on 
the body-whorl. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This specimen formed part of the Cumingian collection. 




92 ANCILLARY A. 

(Jeriu* ANCILLARIA, Lain. 

The animal of Ancillaria is voluminous, covering the entire 
shell with the exception of the spire. The head, which is 
entirely concealed by the reflected portions of the foot, consists 
of a short cylindrical, inflated, annulated proboscis, above which 
is a semilunar veil formed by the dilatation and union of the 
tentacles ; there is no indication of eyes. The mantle is pro- 
duced anteriorly into a long siphon. The foot is large and 
bursiform, the side-edges being greatly extended and reflected 
over the shell, meeting in the middle on the back. As in Oliva, 
it is deeply fissured anteriorly, forming a semilunar disk before 
the head, divided by a deep longitudinal groove into two lateral, 
triangular lobes, acuminated transversely ; posteriorly it is 
bilobed, and is either without an operculum, or is provided with 
a thin, horny unguiform one, with apical nucleus, semilunar 
growth-lines, and an oval muscular impression. 

The Ancillariae resemble the Olives in their habits, dwelling 
among the smooth sands in which they frequently bury them- 
selves. They crawl with a quick, sliding motion, and as they 
glide briskly along, the shell is enveloped in the alar expansions 
of the foot, which overlap each other slightly in the middle, and 
extending considerably beyond the spire, form posteriorly a 
loose, open sack ; anterior to these lobes the tubular cylindrical 
siphon is visible, directed upwards and backwards, and even 
laid flat upon the back. 

The AncillarijB have been monographed by Sowerby in the 
Thesaurus Conchyliorum, b} r Reeve in Conchologia Iconica, 
and by Weinkauff in Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet. The last 
authority enumerates forty-six species, some of which he con- 
siders doubtful. A very careful consideration of these forms 
has induced me to reduce the number of species considerably. 
They are tropical animals, the typical group inhabiting the Red 
Sea, Indian Ocean, Australia, Japan, etc. ; one species only 
occurring in American waters, in the Caribbean province. The 
earliest fossils are from the eocene strata of the United States 
and Europe ; they are few in number, and the genus, never 
numerous in species, appears to have reached its maximum 
development at the present time. 

Ancillaria is, through Olivancellaria, very closely connected 



t 
ANCILLARIA. 93 

with the Olives, and in its frequently horned outer lip it also 
reminds one of Pseudoliva, and Eburna (Zemira) australis. 

I have merged in Ancillaria several subgeneric groups of H. 
and A. Adams and others, which do not appear to me to possess 
substantial distinctive characters. 

A. CINNAMOMEA, Lam. PL 37, figs. 2-17. 

Yellowish white, with obscure revolving bands and longitudinal 
strigations of light reddish brown, or without markings, and 
ranging from flesh-color to cinnamon and dark chocolate ; 
occasionally a revolving sutaus terminates in a slight horn on 
the outer lip ; the folded columella is white, the interior of the 
aperture nearly corresponding with the outer surface in color. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Zanzibar. 

I unite here several so-called species. A. cinnamomea is not 
quite adult, and more frequently exhibits the lip-tooth than the 
adult, heavily-callused A..ventricosa, Lam. (fig. 3). A. variegata, 
Sowb. (fig. 4), is the light, banded form described above, and A. 
fulva, Swn. (fig. 5) has similar painting. Other synonyms are : 
A. albifasciata, Swn. (fig. 6 , A. albisulcata, Sowb. (fig. 7), in 
which the impressed groove is white, a character without 
constancy, A. achatina, Kiener (fig. 8), A. striolata, Sowb. (fig. 
9 N , a juvenile, A. castanea, Sowb. (fig. 10\ A. ovalis, Sowb. (fig. 
11), another juvenile, A. Desliayesii, A. Ad. (fig. 12), A. crassa, 
Sowb. (fig. 13), A. sarda, Reeve (fig. 14), A. contum, Reeve (fig. 
15), apparently a worn specimen, A. eburnea, Desh. (fig. 16), A. 
Tronsoni, Sowb. (fig. 17). 

A. ACUMINATA, Sowb. PL 37, figs. 18-20. 

Yellowish brown, lighter at the sutures and on the border of 
the fasciole, the latter being darker brown, columella white. 

Length, 1 '25-1 '5 inches. 

Red Sea, Zanzibar. 

The narrower form is the only, and perhaps not sufficient 
distinction between this and the preceding species. A. lineolata, 
A. Ad. (fig. 19), and probably A. oryza. Reeve (fig. 20), are 
synonyms. 

A. MARMORATA, Reeve. PL 2, figs. 21, 22. 

Whitish, faintly streaked and mottled with fulvous flesh-color, 



94 ANC1LLARTA. 

brown-tinged at the suture and above the fasciole, columellar 

plaits brown. Length, '75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

A. fasciata, Reeve (fig. 22), appears to be the same species. It 
may be the young of A. marginata, Lam., from which the brown 
columella appears to be the principal distinctive character. 

37 
A. AMPLA, Gmelin. PI. #, figs. 23, 24. 

Cylindrically oblong, acuminated above t inflated below, rather 
thin ; white, often orange-tinted on the spire. 
Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Red Sea, Ceylon, Mauritius, Philippines. 

A. cylindrica, Sowb. (fig. 24), is the young. 

A. RUBIGINOSA, Swainson. PL 37, fig. 25 ; PI. 38, figs. 26, 27. 

Cinnamon-brown, with an enameled lighter band at the suture, 
and a shallow impressed one above the fasciole. 

Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Japan, China, Malacca, Madagascar. 

A. mamillata, Hinds (fig. 26), and A. albo-callosa, Lischke (fig. 
27), are synonyms. 

A. AUSTRALIS, Sowb. PI. 38, figs. 28-33. 

Lead-color or violet-brown, spire and upper portion of body- 
whorl, as well as the fasciole enveloped in a yellowish callus, 
marbled with chestnut. Length, '75-1-75 inches. 

Australia, Neio Zealand, Tasmania, Cape. 

This is a shorter species than A. rubiginosa; yet I separate it 
with hesitation. A. pyramidalis, Reeve (fig. 29), and A. tricolor, 
Gray (fig. 30), a juvenile, A. mucronata, Sowb. (fig. 31), probably, 
and possibly A. obtusa, Swains, (figs. 32, 33), from the Cape of 
Good Hope, are synonyms. 

A. MONTROUZIERI, Souverbie. PI. 38, fig. 34. 

Pinkish white, or light fawn-color, the spire and an upper 
band of the body-whorl invested with a thick flesh-colored or 
slightly brownish callus ; sometimes the spire and fasciole are 
pure white ; operculum oblong, rather large and thin. 

Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

New C(ile<lnnia. 



ANCILLARIA. 95 

A. ANGUSTATA, Sowb. PI. 38, fig. 35. 

Narrowly cylindrical, transparent fawn-color, callosity and 
fasciole shining orange-brown, edged with white. Length, 12 mill. 

China. 

Possibly the young of A. rubiginosa, Sw., or of a similar 
species. 

A. BULLIOIDES, Reeve. PL 38, fig. 36. 

Delicate fawn-color, callosity broad, opaque, white. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Perhaps a young shell of A. rubiginosa. The type specimen 
only is known, and its peculiarly long spire might be an indi- 
vidual variation of growth. 

A. CINGULATA, Sowb. PI. 38, figs. 3T, 38. 

Shell thin, whitish, yellowish or pale cinnamon-color, with a 
white sutural band, and a revolving brown band above and on 

the fasciole. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

JV. Australia, China ? 

Distinguished from A. rubiginosa by its thin substance and 
inferior dark band. 0. similis, Sowb. (fig. 38), is probably a 
faded variety. * 

A. TANKERVILLET, Swainson. PL 38, fig. 39 ; PL 39, fig. 40. 

Fusiformly oblong, moderately ventricose, yellowish white to 
orange-yellow, darker about the sutures and on the fasciole. 

Length, 2'25-3*75 inches. 

West Indies. 

The only species inhabiting the Western Hemisphere. I am 
not able to separate 0. Vernedei, Sowb. (fig. 40), described from 
a single specimen, and doubtfully referred to China Seas as its 
habitat. Specimens of A. Tankervillei before me agree exactly 
with the figure of Vernedei, except that the latter is larger. 

A. SINENSIS, Sowb. PL 39, figs. 41-43. 

Transparent white, the callosity opaque white. Length, *8 inch. 

Japan, China, Australia. 

A juvenile shell, and ver} T probably equivalent to A. rubiginosa, 
Swn. A. Nova-Zelandica, Sowb. (fig. 42), is a synonym, and I 
suppose that A. inornata, E. A. Smith (fig. 43), may also be 
placed here. 



96 ANOLACIA, DIPSACCUS. 

A. MARGINATA, Lam. PL 39, figs. 44-48. 

Yellowish or gray, a white band below the sutures, maculated 
with orange-brown, a row of maculations above, and another on 

the fasciole. Length, 1 -5-1 '75 inches. 

Australia, Tasmania. 

A. monilifera, Reeve (fig. 45), A, lineata, Kiener (fig. 46), A. 
oblonga, Sowb. (fig. 47) and A. obesa, Sowb. (fig. 48), are all 
young shells of A. marginaia, as the specimens before me exhibit 
all these variations in form. The last-named is said to occur 
also at the Cape of Good Hope. 

A. ELONGATA, Gray. PL 39, fig. 49. 

Thin, white, sutural band ivory-white, columella not plaited. 

Length, 2*25 inches. 

Torres Straits, N. Australia. 

A. DIMIDIATA, Sowb. PL 39, fig. 50. 

Rather thin, transparent white, sutural band, which is very 

broad, opaque white. Length, -9 inch. 

Red Sea. 

I am not acquainted with this species ; it looks as though it 
might be the young of A. elongata, Gray. 

C~~ Subgenus Anolacia, Gray. 

A. MAURITIAN A, Sowb. PL 39, figs. 51-53. 

Shell ovate, thin, spire depressed, bod3Mvhorl shouldered, 
aperture wide, columella scarcely plaited, outer surface closely 
but lightly covered with revolving striae ; yellowish white to 
orange-brown. Length, 1 '75-2*25 inches. 

Madagascar, Mauritius, Australia. 

This is the A. torosa, Meuschen, according to Sowerby, a name 
under which it is quite as well known as the one I have adopted. 
A. scaphella, Sowb. (fig. 52), and A. aperta, Sowb. (fig. 53), are 
miniature shells of this species. 

Subgenus Dipsaccus, Klein. 
A. GLABRATA, Linn. PL 39, fig. 54. 

Yellowish white to orange, white-bordered at the sutures and 
on the supra-fasciolar groove, columella and callus white. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

West Indies. 



HARP A. 97 

A. LIENARDI, Bernard!. PL 39, figs. 55, 56. 

Light 3^ellow to deep orange, basal groove white ; columelhi, 
callus and interior white. Length, 1*25-2 inches. ' 

Pernambuco, Brazil. 

Proportionally much wider, with shorter spire than A. glabrata, 
yet I suspect that it is a mere variety of that species'. 

A. BALTEATA, Swfiinsoii. PI. 39, fig. 57. 

Yellowish white to orange-yellow, whorls angularly belted 
around the upper part, basal groove broad, whitish. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Ceylon. 

The locality appears to be undoubted, and all the specimens 
I have seen are alike, yet it seems to be abnormal in -its posterior 
angulation, and to resemble otherwise a stunted A. ylabrata. 

Subfamily HAllPIN.E. 
Genus HARPA, Lam. 

The animals of Harpa have a very large foot, with the front 
crescent-shaped, and divided by deep lateral fissures from the 
posterior part. Unable to withdraw completely within their 
shell, they are said, when irritated, to have the power of spon- 
taneously detaching a portion of this foot. They are variegated 
with beautiful colors, and crawl with vivacity. Tropical, inhabit- 
ing Mauritius, Philippines, Ceylon, Polynesia, West Coast of 
America, but unknown on the tropical Atlantic coasts of 
America. 

There are a few fossil species. Eocene, . 

Harpa has been monographed by Reeve, Kiener, Sowerby and 
recently by Dr. Aug. Sutor. The latter enumerates sixteen 
species, which I have reduced to nine. Like Strombus, Harpa 
appears to be a completed genus, no new forms rewarding the 
industry of modern investigators and explorers. 

H. COSTATA, Linn. PI. 40, fig. 58. 

Shell with thirty or more close-set ribs, pointed at the top; 
white, zoned with flesh-color or light chestnut ; apex rose-tinted ; 
interior of aperture yellowish, middle and upper part of inner 
lip stained with brown. Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Mauritius. 
13 



98 HARPA. 

Tlie shell called var. Gruneri, Maltz., is not essentially 
different. 

H. VENTRICOSA, Lam. PI. 40, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell with about twelve to fifteen rather broadly-flattened ribs 
which are crossed by a number of rather broad light-chestnut 
revolving bands, separated by narrow white bands; interstices 
of the ribs Wide, marked with chestnut and white arranged in 
semicircles, or festooned ; aperture pinkish or yellowish white 
within, showing the exterior painting ; columetta blotched with 
chocolate. Length, 2-5-3-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Zanzibar, Mauritius, Philippines, Viti Islands. 

H. CONOIDALIS, Lam. PI. 40, figs. 61-64. 

Spire more elevated and shoulder of body-whorl more sloping 
than in the preceding species ; the intercostal paint ing is simi- 
larly festooned, but usually not so distinctly, the revolving 
bands on the ribs are defined either on the shoulder only, or 
occasionally elsewhere, or throughout by dark chocolate borders. 

Length, 2-5-3-5 inches. 

ImUxn Ocf.tni., r/u!/p/>i)ic*, Mnni'itius. 

Dr. Sutor, as well as Sowerby and Reeve have attempted to 
distinguish other species here, by characters that are poor 
enough even in their figures, but which possess no claims what- 
ever when a large suite of specimens are examined ; it is even 
dillicult in some cases to separate this shell from //. ri'Hfriroxd. 
In //. (irln-uldris. Lam. (fig. (J2>, the dark bands are well defined 
throughout, in //. li<j<ihi, Menke ~- itdhlimii. Mart. (fig. (51), they 
are less fre(|uent, and in the typical //. c<>n<>i<l<il i*. Lam. (fig. (>:). 
they are usually only occasionally visible on or towards the 
shoulder. The latte; variety approaches near to //. /v////-/ro.sv/. 
//. xlriahila, A. Ad. (fig. (54 >, is a juvenile shell. 

II. CRENATA, Swains. I'l. 40, fig. f)f). 

Ribs distant , tliin, low, not reflected, interstices festooned with 
light yellowish brown and white. Length, L ; .'J inches. 



Uesides t.lie narrow ribs, the coloring is much less vivid than 
in the preceding oriental species. 



HARP A. 99 

II. IIOSKA, Lam. PI. 40, fig's. 66, 67. 

Kibs tint, irregular, sometimes very broad, sometimes narrow; 
ribs b.-indecl. interstices festooned, with three interrupted bands 
of rose-red blotches. Length, l'75-2'75 inches. 

Guinea, Sencyal. 
II. NOBILIS, Lam. PI. 41, lig. 68. 

Ovate, rather ventricose, grayish pink, painted between the 
ribs with chestnut and white articulations or festoons, and three 
interrupted bands of purple-crimson blotches; ribs rather wide, 
crossed by bands of black narrow lines. Length, l-fo-2'5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Viti Islands. 

Distinguished at once from JL. rosea by the revolving black 
lines on the ribs. 

II. MINOK, I Mm. PL 41, Jigs. 69-72, 78. 

Shell ovately oblong, obtusely angulated above; gray festooned 
wit h chocolate and white ; ribs moderately narrow, rather distant, 
crossed by black lines, usually arranged in pairs. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Indian Ocean, So. Africa, Madayaxcar, Viti Tsles. 

//. r/v/s.sY/, Phil. (fig. 70), and //. xolidnla, A. Ad. (lig. 71 ), arc 
synonyms; and I think that H. riryindlix. Gray (fig. 78), will 
prove to be a faded or albino specimen of this species. 

II. <!RAciLis, Brod. and So\vb. PL 41, (ig. 73. 

Shell elongately oblong, slender, thin, translucent; whitish 
delicately festooned with rose-color or rosy brown; ribs rather 
narrow, without spines -at the shoulder, crossed by thread-like 
rose or chestnut lines, usually in pairs. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Polynesia. 

Distinguished at once In' its form, thinness and rosy tinge. 

II. STRIATA, Lam. PL 41, tigs. 74-77. 

Shell inflated, the ribs narrow, low, not reflected, remote or 
crowded, the interstices lightly festooned with chestnut on a light 
yellowish ground ; whole surface covered with revolving close 

striso. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Mauritius. 
H. cancellata (Chenm.), Sowb. (fig. 75), and H. Cabritii, 



100 COLUMBELLTDJE. 

Fischer (figs. 7(5, 7*7), are synonyms. Dr. Sutor attempts to 
distinguish these species, but his distinctive characters of 
coloring and sculpture are individual only, and not varietal or 
specific. 

Family COLUMBELLID^E. 

Shell small, usually covered by an epidermis, ovate or oblong, 
sometimes Strombiform, anteriorly notched or produced into a 
short canal, which is open ; inner lip anteriorly tubercled, outer 
lip incurved in the middle, and usually thickened and crenulated 
on its inner margin. Animal : head elongated ; eyes near the 
outer bases of the tentacles ; foot anteriorly produced. Oper- 
culum corneous; lamellar, with the nucleus basal or near the 
centre of the outer margin. The lingual dentition of the group 
is peculiar and readily distinguishable from that of all other 
Gastropods ; its features persist with but little variation of detail 
through all the subdivisions of the family of which examples 
have been examined, except Engina. In the section Amycla, 
Messrs. H. and A. Adams have included species such as A. 
corniculum, Olivi, which are true Nassse, and the dentition of 
this species has been hastily assumed to be that of the whole 
group of Amycla. Other species, placed by H. and A. Adams 
in the group Engina, undoubtedly belong to the group Sistruni 
in Ricinula (see Manual, ii). The lingual of a single but typical 
species of Engina has been figured by Morch (Manual, vol. iii, 
t. 27, f. 36); it differs greatly from the Columbellifonn type of 
dentition, and the genus has accordingly been classified by 
Troschel in Photinre. The shell of Engina is distinctly Colinn- 
belloid, however, and the difference of dentition need not deter 
us from placing it in Columbellidae since in Marginella glabclla 
(this vol., p. 6), distinct types of dentition occur in the same 
species. 

A number of classifications of the species of Oolumbellidae 
have been proposed. II. and A. Adams 1m ye adopted several 
groups first characterized by Swainson, and have instituted some 
others ; they are mostly of little systematic value, being founded 
on slight differences in the form, etc., of the shell differences 
which do not persist throughout all the species assigned to them 



COLUMBELLID^E. 101 

respectively. On the contrary, it is only necessary to examine 
a large series of these species to become convinced that in most 
cases these groups are connected by intermediate forms. Whilst 
I cannot adopt them as subgenera on account of this want of 
persistence of distinctive characters, yet such is the multiplicity 
of species that retained as names of groups they may still serve 
n useful purpose. Bellardi* has divided the fossil Columbellas 
of Piedmont into groups designated as Nassiform, Mitriform, 
Fusiform, etc., but I think the named groups of Messrs. Adams 
preferable. Mo'rchf proposes the following classification : 

1. PYGM^BA, Humphrey. 

Subgenera, 1. NITIDELLA, Swn. 2. ALIA, Ad. 

2. PYRENE, Bolten. 

Subgenera, 1. ATILIA, Ad. 2. PYRENE, Bolt. 3. CONELLA, Swn. 
4. DIBAPHUS, Phil. ( IMitridae). 

3. MlTRELLA, RisSO. 

Subgenera, t. ASPYRIS, Ad. 2. ANACHIS, Ad. 3. STROMBINA, Morch. 

He excludes Engina, on account of the dentition. The types 
of Pygnuea, cited by him are typical species of Columbella, and 
therefore Pygma?a may be considered a synonym 

I am only able to recognize a few genera, of which the principal 
are Columbella, Engina and Columbellina the latter with some 
doubt as to its characters being of generic value ; all the other 
groups that have been proposed I place as Sections. 

The tamil} T has been monographed by Duclos, in Chemvs 
Illustrations Conchyliologiques ; by Kiener, Coquilles Vivantes ; 
by Sowerby, Thesaurus Conchyliorum, vol. 1, 1847 ; and by Reeve, 
Conchologia Iconica, 1859. Since the latter date no revision or 
catalogue of the species has appeared, whilst the number of 
specific names has increased three times, or from 250 to about 
750 nominal species. A large proportion of these five hundred 
additional descriptions are unaccompanied by figures, so that 
the labor of arranging the mass of material has been immense. 
1 cannot hope to have determined the synonymy correctly in all 
cases: I have done the best I could with the material at hand. 



* Mem. Acad. Turin., x, 225, 1849. 

f Jour, de Conchyl., 2d ser., iii, 260, 1858, 



102 



COLUMBELLA, Lam. Shell Strombiform, fusiform or obovate ; smooth 
or longitudinally or transversely ribbed or striate ; inner lip excavated 
in the middle, crenulated or denticulated in front ; outer lip usually 
inflected, thickened within and crenulated in the middle. 

COLUMBELLA (restricted). Shell Strombiform, with short spire. Den- 
tition, PI. 2, tig. 18. 

NITIDKLLA, Swainson. Shell oval, smooth, with elevated spire ; 
aperture somewhat effuse below ; columella with two small anterior 
plications ; outer lip somewhat thickened. 

ALIA, H. and A. Adams. Shell thin, smooth, with moderate spire ; 
aperture oval ; inner lip finely crenulated, outer lip thick, not callous 
in the middle, striate within. 

MITRELLA, Risso. Shell Mitriform, smooth, with moderate spire ; 
columella smooth or with a lew anterior rugosities ; outer lip smooth 
or crenulated within. 

ATILIA, H. and A. Adams. Shell fusiform, smooth or longitudinally 
plicate ; spire elevated, sharp ; last whorl suddenly narrowed into a 
beak or short canal in front. 

ANACHIS, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval-fusiform, longitudinally 
ribbed, spire elevated; last whorl not narrowed in front; aperture 
narrow ; collumella straight ; outer lip nearly straight, crenulated 
within. Dentition, PI. 2, fig. 20. 

SKMINELLA, Pease. Shell very small, fusiform, longitudinally costate, 
usually decussated ; lip slightly emarginate above, lirate or denticulate 
within. 

MITROPSIS, Pease. Shell fusiform, more or less costate or plicate 
longitudinally; aperture narrow; lip dentate within, sinuated above; 
columella callous, plicate. 

Perhaps not distinct from Seminella. 

CONIPEA, Swainson. Shell oval, Mitriform, smooth, with moderately 
elevated, convex spire ; inner lip reflected in front ; outer lip incurved 
and thickened in the middle, and crenulated within. 

MIOTA, Reeve. Shell coniform, with short, conic spire; aperture 
narrow ; outer lip nearly straight, crenulated within. 

STROMBINA, Morch. Shell fusiform, turriculated ; spire elevated, 
sharp ; whorls gibbous, nodulous; inner lip with a rather thick callus ; 
outer lip thick, sinuous behind ; anterior canal well formed. Dentition, 
PI. 2, fig. 19. 

^Esopus, Gould. Shell fusiform, gibbous, broadly truncate in front ; 
aperture lunate, with a posterior callus on the body ; columella smooth, 
vitreous ; suture abnormally arcuate near the aperture. 



COLUMBELLA. 103 

ALCIRA, H. Adams. Shell fusiform, thin, spire produced ; whorls trans- 
versely striated ; aperture ovate ; colurnella truncate, with a single 
oblique fold anteriorly; outer lip thin, smooth internally, posteriorly 
expanded, and with the anterior margin crenulated. Differs from the 
other groups in its expanded lip, which is not thickened, and from most 
others in the columellar fold. 

ENGINA, Gray. Shell ovate-conic ; spire sharp ; with longitudinal 
nodulous ribs, decussated by revolving lines or riblets ; aperture narrow, 
with several oblique plications in front ; outer lip thickened, internally 
toothed, gibbous and grooved posteriorly. Dentition, Manual, iii, 
t. 27, f 36. 

PUSIOSTOMA, Swainson. Shell ovate ; inner lip convex between the 
granular teeth ; outer lip internally greatly thickened and toothed in 
the middle.. 

COLUMBELLINA, d'Orb. Shell Strombiform, oval, thick, ventricose, 
ribbed; aperture narrow, ilexuous, narrowed in the middle, ending 
posteriorly in a prolonged lateral canal ; outer lip much thickened and 
smooth within. (Mostly fossil.) C. ornata, d'Orb. (PI. 42, f. 3). Cre- 
taceous, France. 

COLUMBELLAltlA, Hollo. Shell long-oval, Buccii.ifonn, body-whorl 
rather infla'ed, spire moderate : surface nodulous, caused by decussating 
sculpture : aperture wide below ; outer lip rounded, not inflected in the 
middle, with strong revolving libs within; columellar callus thin, 
showing the sculpture of the body-whorl. C. i-ni-dllind, Quenst. (PI. 
42, fig. 4). U. Jura, Europe. 

AMPHISSA, II. and A. Adnms. Shell Bucciniform, longitudinally ribbed; 
spire elevated ; aperture ratl.er wide, enlarging below, and terminating 
in a wide anterior sinus ; inner lip callous, plicate below .; outer lip not 
thickened on the margin, plicate within. Dentition, PI. 42, fig. 2. 

(it-mis COLUMBELLA, Lamarck. 

These? beautiful little mollusks, very numerous in species ami 
in individuals, are widely distributed, occurring in all parts of 
the world, both in cold and torrid elimates; although most 
numerous in tropical waters. They are found crawling on the 
surface of sand-Hats in shallow water, or living- on stony 
beaches, where, they sometimes con<>Te<> - :it(> about and under 
stones in considerable numbers. 

Very few descriptions of the living animal have been made, 
and even li-ures of it arc not numerous. 

The few fossil forms of (Jolnmliella are comparatively recent, 



104 COLTJMBELLA. 

the Cretaceous and Jurassic columbelloid shells belonging to 
distinct genera. 

Section 1. Columbella (fypical). 

Shell strombiform, smooth, with short spire. 
C. STROMBIFORM is, Lam. PI. 42, figs. 5-10. 

Shell strombiform, the body-whorl much swollen around the 
upper part and somewhat produced at the posterior end of the 
aperture; chestnut-color, with the spire and middle and lower 
portion of the body-whorl minutely white-spotted ; sometimes 
the spots coalesce into zigzag white markings ; there are also 
usually a few irregular large white spots on the shoulder or 
middle of the body-whorl ; interior usually white, sometimes 
orange-tinted ; epidermis thick, shaggy, longitudinally striated, 
frequently decussated posteriorly or throughout by revolving 
striae ; operculum very variable in form, the initial point usually 
terminal and basal but occasionally even subcentral, or marginal 
at the centre of its length. Length, '831*4 inches. 

West Coast of Central America to Mazatlan; Gulf of California. 

With this species is to be united C. major, Sowerby (figs. (J-S), 
which Carpenter and others have suspected to be a variety, having 
dots instead of the zigzag white markings and the spiral sculpture 
of the epidermis on the shoulder only, instead of all over; neither 
these, nor the other inferior distinctive characters given, hold 
good when a large series of specimens is examined. Fig. 8 
represents a smaller, but adult shell ; it is a minor race, which, 
as in so many of the species of mollusks usually accompanies 
the normal-sized individuals. Other synonyms are C. gibbosa, 
Duclos (tig. 9), C. Bridgesi, Reeve (tig. 10), not full grown. 

C. PAYTENSIS, Lesson. PL 42, figs. 11-14. 

Whorls broadly channeled below the sutures: chestnut-brown, 
minutely dotted with white throughout. Length, 1-1 '15 inches. 

Payta, Peru; Chili. 

This may possibly be a variety only, of the preceding species ; 
the sutural channel is strongly marked, however, in the numerous 
specimens before me. G. spurca, Sowb., C. runtira, Sowb. 
Genera of Shells (fig. 14), and C. Paytalida, Duclos (fig. 13), are 
synonyms. 



COLUMBELLA. 105 

C. CA8TANEA, Sowb. PI. 42, fig. 15. 

Shell with n. shallow channel around the suture, defined by an 
angled or almost ribbed shoulder; lower half of body-whorl 
contracted ; chestnut-brown, spotted with white, aperture tinged 
with orange within. Length, -85 inch. 

Galapagos Is.; W. Coast of Central America. 

1 have considerable doubt whether this is not a variety only 
of the preceding species ; it is considerably smaller, more 
contracted, with more defined shoulder, and colored interior. 

(\ FASCIATA, Sowb. PI. 42, figs. 16-18. 

Shell large and thick, oval, slightly shouldered ; brown, spotted 
with white, the spots sometimes merging into irregular zigzag 
longitudinal markings, occasionally obscurely white-banded at 
the suture and periphery ; teeth of cblnmella and outer lip 
sometimes tinted with red. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Java. 

This species is not so gibbous as those which precede it, and 
has heavier teeth ; the spire is also more convexly elevated. C. 
Javacensis, Gaskoin (fig. 18), is probably a faded specimen of 
fasciata. 
C. FUSCATA, Sowb. PI. 42, figs. 19-21. 

Shell smooth, oval ; chestnut-dotted and spotted irregularly 
with white, and with white, triangular sutural markings, con- 
tinued on the spire; epidermis light olive, very thin, smooth, 
translucent; aperture light purple. Length, *75-'9 inch. 

Galapagos Is.; West Coast of Central America to 

Cape St. Lucas, L. California; Mazatlan. 

The synonyms are G. meleagris, Ihiclos (fig. 20), C. nodalina, 
Duclos (fig. 21), a specimen with epidermis, and C. pallescens, 
Wimmer. 

C. SONSONATENSIS, Moi'ch. 

Like C. fuscata, Sowb., but narrower, with shorter spire, suture 
obsoletely margined, earlier whorls costellate, lip thickened and 
flattened, witli seven teeth, columella five-sulcate. 

Length, 8'25 mill. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

A doubtful species, described from a single specimen, and not 
figured. 
14 



106 COLUMBELLA. 

C. LABIOSA, Sowb. PI. 43, figs. 22, 23. 

Epidermis very thin, smooth, translucent, olivaceous; under 
which the shell is ash-color, with numerous narrow chestnut 
revolving lines; lip and colnmella white, the lip with plate-like 
expansion internally. Length, '8-1 inch. 

>7. Elcnti, ]Y. Columbia (Cuming). 

C. renilia, Duclos (fig. 23), is a synonym. 

C. H^EMASTOMA, Sowb. PL 43, fig. 24. 

Shaded chestnut and chocolate-color, with white blotches 
which are usually arranged as broad zigzag markings on the 
shoulder, and similar ones at the base of the body-whorl, the 
latter often coalescing to cover the entire basal portion of the 
shell ; aperture orange-color. Length. 1 inch. 

Galapagos Is.; Panama to Gulf of California. 

C. FESTIVA, Kiener. PL 43, fig. 25. 

Shell smooth; white around the sutures, then spotted and 
streaked longitudinally with white and chocolate ; aperture white. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Acapulco to Gape St. Lucas, L. California. 

C. PHASINOLA, Duclos. PL 43, fig. 26. 

Shell with revolving rounded ribs, often decussated by longi- 
tudinal sculpture, so as to become tuberculated ; chestnut-brown, 
the tubercles whitish; lips orange. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat iinknotm. 
C. MERCATORIA, Linn. PL 43, figs. 28-33. 

Shell with small rounded revolving ribs, separated by narrow 
grooves; sometimes unicolored, pink or yellowish, usualh' longi- 
tudinally maculated with orange or chocolate and while, and 
with or without chocolate articulations forming one or two bands ; 
aperture white or slightly yellowish. Length, MJ-'S inch. 

West Jmlit'x, Florida. 

A common species, very variable in painting, but, pretty con- 
stant in form and sculpture; it occurs on sandy bottoms in from 
two to four feet water. The synonyms are numerous, including 
a large, coarsely ribbed form, called by Sowerby ('. rndix (fig. 
31). Keeve has figured this form under the name of C. Peleei, 
Kiener, and has given for locality the Philippine Islands 
undoubtedly an error. The true C. Peleei, Kiener (fig. 32), is, on 



COLUMBELLA. 10 1 

the contrary, a rather small form, thin, but with rugose growth- 
lines decussating the surface a not unusual variety. Other 
synonyms are C. zulmis, Duclos (fig. 33), G. affinis, Risso, G. 
incubitantes, Martini, G. Gualteriana, Risso? 

C. DYSONI, Reeve. PL 44, fig. 57. 

Shell fusiformly conical, yellowish white, painted with waved 
stripes of red-brown spots, spire short, sharp, whorls strongly 
spirally grooved throughout; aperture elongated, lip flatly 
thickened, denticulated within. Length, 16 mill. 

Honduras (Dyson). 

I think this will prove to be a G. mercatoria, of somewhat 
unusual form and not adult. 

C. RUSTICA, Linn. PI. 43, tigs. 34-49; PL 44, figs. 50-56. 

Shell variable in shape, sometimes short, with broad body- 
whorl, sometimes narrower, with spire and lower part of body- 
whorl produced; smooth, or slightly spirally striated ; white to 
orange-color, stained with chestnut or chocolate, forming spots, 
longitudinal zigzags :md blotches, frequently light banded and 
fasciculated with chestnut next below the -suture; lip white, 
yellowish or flesh-color, the interstices of the dent iculat ions 
chocolate-color. Length, '5-1 '1 inches. 

West Indies, West Africa, Gape Verd Is., Southern Europe, 

Mediterranean Sea. 

One of the most variable of shells. The shorter, broad forms 
are often very close in shape and coloring to G. mercatoria, but 
are always distinguishable by the smooth surface, and the dark 
interstices of the lip-teeth. 

The synonymy is enormous, including: G. sponyiarum, Duclos 
(fig. 39) ; C. Azoricctj Drouet (fig. 40) ; G. aureola, Duclos (fig. 
41) and G. tumida, Reeve, not Duclos (fig. 42); G. striata, 
Duclos (figs. 43, 44) ; G. cornea, Kiener (fig. 45) ; G. luteola, Kiener 
(fig. 46); G.fustigata, Kiener (fig. 47); C. modesta, Kiener (fig. 
48); G. ambigua, Kiener (fig. 49); C. vestalia, Duclos (fig. 50); 
C. simpronia, Duclos (fig. 51); G. nucleus, Kiener (fig. 52); 
G. rasolia, Duclos ? (fig. 53) ; besides a number of unfigured 
species, including probably G. Adansoni and C. rufa, Menke, 
from the Cape Verd Islands. C. reticulata, Lam. (fig. 54), said 
to come from Brazil, has some characters in common with G. 



108 COLUMBELLA. 

mercatoria, but is probably a synonym of rustica. I suppose 
that G. xiphiteUu, Duclos (fig. 55), and G. .ripliitella, Reeve (fig. 
56), may both be placed here, although they are very different 
shells in form. 

C. ANACTEOLA, Duclos. PI. 44, fig. 58. 

Shell smooth, the lower part with revolving stria 1 ; color 
chocolate-brown varied with white, somewhat longitudinally 

disposed. Length, I'l inches. 

Habit Hi nnknoicn. 

This species has not been described ; there are only the figures 
and name in Duclos' monograph. It resembles the stouter, short 
forms of G. rustica, somewhat, but is a larger shell. 

C. MARMOREA, Brasilia. 

Shell small, ovately subturbinate, smooth, shining, with 
flattened whorls ; aperture dilated at the base, sublinear, longer 
than the spire; lip but little thickened within, nodulose ; colu- 
mella with two tubercles; color marbled with fulvous and white, 
with a white, maculated band at the suture. 

L. 10, diam. 5 mill. 

Dalmatia. 

An unfigured species, related to C. rustica, and possibly a 
young individual of that protean species. 

C. PARDALINA, Lam. PL 44, figs. 59-74; PL 45, fig. 75. 

Shell oval, smooth, with moderate, somewhat convex spire ; 
white, tessellated or longitudinally fiexuosely striped with chest- 
nut or chocolate, with frequent!}" a white band, similarly tessel- 
lated at the suture. Length, '75-1 inch. 

New &outh Wales; N. W. Australia; New Caledonia; 

I'kilippinea; Japan; f'ct/lou. 

The synonyms are: G.vulpecula, Sowb. (tig. 61); C. quintilia, 
Duclos (figs. 62, 63); G. fabula, Sowb. (fig. 64); G. Japonica, 
Reeve (fig. 65); C. zopilla, Duclos (fig. 0(5). 

Var. TYLERI, Gray. PL 44, figs. 67-74; PL 45, fig. 75. 

Only d lifers by having a more produced spire, and is readily 
united with the typical form by such synonyms as ('. xayena, 
Reeve (fig. 69 ', Japan. Other longer forms are (}. ohm-urn, Sowb. 
(fig. 70); G. palmer ina, Duclos (fig. 71); G. lacfescens,$ouv. (fig. 



COLUMBELLA. 109 

72), New Caledonia; C. fabula, var., Reeve (fig. 13); G. pado- 
noxta, Duclos (fig. 14); G. anitis, Duclos (fig. 15). 

C. FULdURANS, Lam. PI. 45, tigs. 10, 11. 

Shell thick, short ovate, with indistinct revolving striae, and a 
very thin, transparent yellowish epidermis; usually very dark 
chocolate, nearly black, sometimes chestnut, and marked by a 
few longitudinal zigzag white streaks; aperture tinged with 
purple. Length, *15-'9 inch. 

Philippines^ tfvlomouSs Is., N. E. Australia, New Guinea, etc. 

Var. PUNCTATA, Lam. (Fig. 11.) 

The white streaks are more or less completely broken up into 
spots. 

C. PELOTINA, Duclos. PI. 45, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell short ovate, thick, smooth, with faint spiral stria 1 on the 
lower portion of the bcxty-whorl ; irregularly clouded with orange 

and yellowish white. Length, '65 inch. 

Hal) it at mi-known. 

Figured and named but not described by Duclos. It appears 
to be a faded and discolored shell; not unlikely a C . pardalina. 
G. virc/inea, Duclos (fig. 19), is very probably a still more faded 
individual of the same species. 

C. TURTURINA, Lain. PL 45, figs. 80-82. 

Shell short and thick, subglobose, the shoulder of the body- 
whorl swollen, with revolving stria-* interiorly ; white, variegated 
with clouds or zigzags of yellowish brown ; columella and teeth 
of outer lip often stained with violet. Length, -5-'f)5 inch. 

Philippines, Viti Islands, Sandwich Islands, etc. 

The yellowish markings are often absent. G. Sand wichen sis ^ 
Pease, and G. palumbina, Gould, are synonyms. I think that G. 
ii, Crosse (fig. 82), may also be referred here. 



C. SULCATA, Duclos. PI. 45, fig. 83. 

This is evidently an abnormal growth, and its character, a 
sulcation on the shoulder, will be sought in vain among shells in 
normal condition. It is impossible to identify it with certainty. 
The color is a shading of flesh-color and light yellow. 

Length, -7 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 



110 COLUMBELLA. 

C. VERSICOLOR, Sowerby. PI. 45, figs. 84-96. 

Shell ovate, with moderate spire, the whorls swollen at the 
shoulder, beneath which the body-whorl is more or less con- 
stricted, .shoulder sometimes sparsely, obsoletely tuberculated ; 
yellowish, white, with zigzag chestnut or chocolate close longitu- 
dinal niarkyigs, often shaded with white ; on the middle of the 
body-whorl these markings are often broken up into numerous 
small punctations ; aperture white within ; columella tuberculate, 
with two prominent teeth in the middle. Length, -5-'75 inch. 
Indian Ocean; Japan; Philippines; Australia; Polynesia. 

The oldest name for this species is C. scripta, Lam., but 
Linnaeus had previously used this name for a well-recognized 
Mediterranean species. C. bidentata, Menke (fig. 87), is also a 
synonym, and ver} T probably C. variegata, Menke. The latter 
name would have priority if it could be satisfactorily identified. 
The synonymy will include C. araneosa, Kiener (fig. 88), C. 
coronata, Duclos (fig. 89), C. athadona, Duclos (figs. 90, 91), C. 
tigrina, Duclos (figs. 92, 93), C. aspersa, Sowb. (tig. 94), C. niv<>*a 
(fig. 95) and C. pertitsa (fig. 96), Reeve, the two last erroneously 
ascribed to Guatemala in the original descriptions. 

C. VARTANS, Sowb. PI. 45, figs. 97-2 ; PI. 46, figs. 3-6. 

Shell ovate, with short spire ; smooth, or with fine revolving 
stria 1 ; shoulder tuberculated ; with longitudinal ribs more or less 
prominent, sometimes extending the entire length of the shell, 
usually becoming obsolete towards the middle, and occasionally 
not developed at all. Color, white and chestnut or chocolate in 
alternate revolving bands, the latter usually broken up into short 
irregular longitudinal markings; sometimes the bands are not 
present, and the entire shell is covered witli alternate chestnut 
and white zigzag longitudinal stripes; base of the colnmella 
stained dark chocolate; aperture white within. 

Length, -35-'4 inch. 

Viti, Galapayox and Sandwich Islands. Acapulco? 

l^hiUppines, New Guinea-. 

This species is smaller, more tuberculate, and in the banded 
specimens differently colored from the preceding one ; the colored 
base of the coluniella is also M good distinguishing character 
The figure from Reeve's Iconica (fig. 99), shows a ribbed state 



COLUMBELLA. Ill 

of the species, a form which Sowerby has described us C. pcecila 
(tigs. 100, 1), from the Philippines. C. spectrur^^Qf^eg. 2), 
C. nana, Mich. (tig. 3), C. pallida, 
(tig. 5), and C. lysiska, Duclos (tig. 0), 

C. SOUVERBIEI, Crosse. PI. 40, tig. 8. U ' ^ E R S I T 7" 

Shell ovate, with short spire ; slight^ n< 
and covered by revolving strife ; white, 
irregular chocolate spots, forming two broad bands on the body- 
whorl, and chestnut punctations at the suture; violaceous within 

the aperture. Length, 8'5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Closely allied to C. variant, but differing in being less tuber' 
ciliated, in coloring, in the absence of the dark basal spot, etc. 

C. miLiA, Duclos. PL 40, tig. 7. 

Shell thick, ovate, round-shouldered, with obsolete revolving 
ribs ; white, with zigzag chestnut markings. Length, '1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Figured and named, but not described ; I am unable to 
identity it. 

C. PALLIOA, Philippi. 

Shell oblong-fusiform, with revolving stria 1 ; white, with a single 
chestnut bund, composed of maculations ; aperture violaceous 
within. Length, '5 inch. 

Mazatlan. 

This species, described twenty-live years ago, but never figured, 
remains unrecognized. Carpenter, who so thoroughly studied 
the mollusca of Mazatlan, and of the West Coast of North 
America, could make nothing of it. Philippi compares it with 
C. azora, Duclos, which, he says, it resembles in form but differs 
in being one- instead of three-banded. 

C. SCAIJ'TA, Reeve. PI. 40, lig. <). 

Shell ovate, transparent golden yellow, marked transversely 
with sharply angular pale lines; spire short; whorls longitudi- 
nally plicately ribbed; aperture small, oblong, sinuous; lip 
thickened, notched at the upper part, denticulated within. 

Length, '25 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 



112 COLUMBELLA. 

C. HUMEROSA, Carpenter. 

Shell small, turreted, with elevated spire, distant rounded longi- 
tudinal ribs and sharp revolving striae ; white with fuscous lines 

or maculations. Length, -26 inch. 

Acapulw. 

Said to possess the sculpture of Rhizocheilus and the tall spire 
of AnachiSj yet to belong, apparently, to the restricted typical 
genus. Unfigured, and unknown to me. 

C. BOIVINT, Kiener. PI. 46, figs. 10, 11. 

Shoulder of whorls nodulous, with sometimes a second row of 
smaller nodules on the body-whorl, lower part with revolving 
striae ; dark chocolate, nearly black, covered by minute white 
spots ; aperture white, the lips stained with chocolate. 

Length, -75-1 inch. 

West Coast of Central America. 

C. Sowerbyi, Duclos (tig. 11), appears to be a not fully grown 
specimen of this species. 

C. DECUSSATA, Sowb. PI. 46, fig. 12. 

Shell oblong, thick, white, marbled with brown ; spire turreted ; 
whorls five, rather swollen, decussately sculptured into numerous 

tubercles; aperture whitish. Length, 17 mill. 

Australia. 
C. CHLOROSTOMA, Sowb. PI. 46, fig. 13. 

Shell yellowish white, with chestnut bands spotted with black 
on the ribs; interior orange-brown. Length, 16 mill. 

I/ttftft'tf itn.kiHHrn. 
Published by Sowerby many years a^o, and not since identified. 

C. MITKATA, Menke. PI. 46, tig. 14. 

Longitudinally ribbed, interstices towards Hie base latticed; 
yellowish, with two broad chocolate bands. Length, 10-15 mill.? 

Australia, 

\ am not acquainted with this species. 

C. DUCLOSIANA, Sowb. PI. 46, fig. If). 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, obsoletely striate; dark brown, 
with obsolete b.-inds under a dusky epidermis; a pertn re viola- 
ceous or brown. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Malacca, Java, Philippines. 



NITIDELLA. 113 

Section II. Nitidella, Swain?. 

Shell oval, smooth, with elevated spire ; aperture somewhat 
effuse below; columella with two small anterior plications ; outer 
lip somewhat thickened. 

C. L^VIGATA, Linn. PI. 46, figs. 16-21. 

Shell thin, ovate, somewhat ventricose, smooth, shining, under 
a thin epidermis ; white, with coarse or fine longitudinal, brown 
zigzag lines, often broken up into spots and maculations ; the 
suture is often maculated with white, and there is frequently a 
band of chocolate spots on the periphery, and visible on the 

spire-whorls. Length, *t-'8 inch. 

West Indies. 

There are two well-marked types of coloration in this common 
species, with intermediate stages : in one, the shell is covered 
by alternate irregular longitudinal markings of white and 
chestnut, the suture is not maculated, there is no band on the 
periphery ; in the other, the longitudinal lines are so close and 
fine as to nearly cover the shell with a chestnut-color, and are 
often broken up into spots and maculations ; upon this back- 
ground are white inaculations at the suture, and a row of chocolate 
spots on the periphery. The synonyms are C. alaperdicis, 
Reeve (fig. 18), C. concinna, Sowb. (fig. 19), and possibly (7. 
faleonta (fig. 20), and C. helvia (fig. 21), Duclos the two last 
being undescribed but figured and named. 

C. LIVESCENS, Reeve. PI. 46, fig. 22. 

Shell ovately turbinated, rather solid ; spire sharp, finely 
ribbed towards the apex ; whorls rather stout, convex, smooth ; 
orange-brown, shining, bluish, marbled with white clots ; columella 
lipped, aperture rather small, purplish, lip thickened, slightly 
contracted in the middle, denticulated within. Length, '5 inch. 
Philippines (Cuming) ; Sandwich Is. (von Martens). 

I have not seen this species, but Reeve's figure is very sug- 
gestive of C. Isevigata. 

C. NITIDA, Lam. PI. 46, fig. 23. 

Shell narrowly oblong, compressed, smooth, shining ; irregu- 

15 



134 NITIDELLA. 

larly marbled and spotted with white and yellow, chestnut or 
chocolate-color ; apex of spire often violet. Length, *6-'8 inch. 

West Indies, on coral in 2-3 feet water. 
It is the C. nitidula of Sowerby, but scarcely of Linnaeus. 

C. BRODERIPII, Sowerby. PI. 46, figs. 24-20. 

Shell narrowly oblong, with rather elevated spire, smooth, 
shining ; yello wish white, with longitudinal chestnut reticulations ; 
aperture white; outer lip broadly notched above. 

Length, '4 inch. 

Philippines. 
C. strigata, Reeve (fig. 26). appears to = this species. 

C. FLOCCATA, Reeve. PL 46, fig. 27. 

Shell cylindrically ovate, inflated, subtransparent, reticulated 
with orange, promiscuously flaked with opaque white ; spire 
rather obtuse, whorls convex, smooth ; aperture rather small, 

columella excavated, lip simple. Length, 13 mill. 

Cape Colony. 
I do not know this species. 

C. KRAUSSI, Sowb. PI. 46, figs. 28, 29. 

Shell obsoletely longitudinally plicate, the plicae distant ; 
aperture broad, lip simple ; white with longitudinal waved 
chestnut lines. Length, 7 mill. 

.\ntal, So. Africa. 

In shape and painting resembles C. Broderipii, Sowb., but 
differs in sculpture. In C. cerealis, Menke (fig. 29), the ribs are 
better developed, but I do not believe that it is a distinct species. 

C. LEUCOSTOMA, Gaskoin. PI. 46, fig. 30. 

Shell smooth, acuminately ovate; upper half of body-whorl 
and spire reticulated with orange-brown, lower half of body, 
aperture and a sutural band, white. Length, 9 mill. 

ll/iltitdl unknown. 
C. BACCATA, Gaskoin. PL 46, fig. 31. 

Shell ovate, smooth, shining, with elevated spire; white, tes- 
sellated with chestnut, the tessellations usually forming one to 
three bands on the body-whorl. .Length, 6 mill. 

Central America, Gulf of California, Cape St. Lucas. 

C. DICHROA, Sowb. PL 46, tigs. 32, 33. 

Shell smooth, narrow, with elongated spire ; color alternate 



NITIDELLA. 115 

irregular broad longitudinal stripes of white and chestnut or 
chocolate, sometimes nearly covered by the darker colors, which 
also stain the interior. Length, 6-7 mill. 

West Indies. 
C. Schrammi, Petit (fig. 33), is a synonym. 

C. PUSILLA, Sowb. PL 46, fig 34. 

Shell smooth, with elongated spire ; yellowish white, with 
longitudinal flexuose stripes of chestnut, and sometimes bands 
of spots of the same color. Length, 4 mill. 

West Indies. 
C. ELEUANS, Dall. 

Shell subulate, acutely pointed, smooth, polished, solid ; yel- 
lowish, with white dots on the spire and upper portion of body- 
whorl, and longitudinal fluctuating chestnut stripes. 

Length, -28 inch. 

Panama. 

Described from a single specimen and unfigured. The name 
is preoccupied b}^ Sowerby for a species of the section Strombina. 

C. MILLEPUNCTATA, Carpenter. 

Shell small, livid, shining, with elevated spire, somewhat 
flattened whorls and distinct suture ; nuclear whorls smooth, 
subsequent ones obsoletely radiately lirulate, the last smooth ; 
maculate and minutely punctate with orange-color arranged in 
quincunx ; a white band at the suture ; aperture subquadrate ; 
outer lip thickened, six-dentate within ; inner lip lirulate at the 
base. Length, -3 inch. 

Cape St. Lucas. 

Unfigured, and unknown to me. 

C. DENSILINEATA, Carpenter. 

Form of the last species, but with flattened whorls and indis- 
tinct suture; livid, with close orange-brown longitudinal divari- 
cating lines. Length, -25 inch. 

Cape St. Lucas. 

Unfigured. Probably a mere variation of the preceding 
species. 

C. VITIENSIS, Bunker. Viti Islands. 

C. PLICATULA, Dunker. Viti Islands. 

The above species are referred to Nitidella ; they are unfigured. 
and I have not seen them. 



116 ALIA. 

Section III. Alia, H. and A. Adams. 

Shell thin, smooth, with moderate spire ; aperture oval ; inner 
lip finely crenulated, outer lip thick, not callous in the middle, 
striate within. 

C. CARINATA, Hinds. PI. 47, figs. 35-31). 

Shell smooth ; fulvous, encircled by two or three bands of 
chestnut and white Hocked spots; base of shell and apex of 
spire stained with chocolate; inner margin of the outer lip 
frequently similarly colored. Length, 7*5-10 mill. 

Cape St Lucas, L. Gal. to Sitki'i. 

The above is the description of the larger, smooth, northern 
variety, called by Gould C. gattsapata (lig. 37): these are not 
carinate, but pass by imperceptible stages into the smaller C. 
Californiana, Gaskoin, the subcarinate C. Hindsii, Reeve (fig. 
38), the stumpy, strongly carinate C. carinata, (figs. 35, 36) and 
the equally small, but more graceful, and scarcely carinate C. 
Gouldi, Carpenter. I have selected from these names that of 
the earliest published, but with some misgiving because it 
describes a state of the species which must be regarded as 
abnormal ; I have been partly influenced to do this because Mr. 
W. H. Dall similarly arranged the synonymy of the species ten 
years -since. C. Gouldi is said to differ in its operculum, but the 
opercnlum is known to vary in other species of Columbella from 
fusoid to purpuroid. C. eollaris, Reeve (fig. 39), is probably a 
large example of the carinate form. 

C. UNIFASCIATA, Sowerby. PI. 47, figs, 40-44. 

Shell ovate, smooth, with revolving stria' at the base of the 
body-whorl ; chocolate, with or without a lighter band on the 
periphery ; chocolate or chestnut-color within the aperture. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Galapagos Islands; Coast of Peru and Chili; Magellan's Straits. 

C. unicolor, Sowb. (fig. 41), the unfigured C. uniioiniii.s, Gray, 
and C. sordida, d'Orb. (fig. 42), are synonyms. C. castanea, 
Gould (fig. 43), is also evidently the same species ; it is said to 
have been obtained by the Wilkes Exploring Kxpedition at Rio 
Janeiro, but as the expedition visited the West Coast of South 
America also, it is probable that the locality given may be incor- 



MITRELLA. 117 

rect. I have specimens of the original lot before me ; they do 
not differ from unifazciata. The very short description given 
by Lamarck of his C. unifasciaU* leaves little doubt that it WHH 
intended for this species : it is said to have come from the Isle of 
France, and has never been identified positively. I include also 
C. ebenum, Phil., an un figured species from Magellan's Straits. 

C. ELECTROIDES, Reeve. PI. 47, fig. 44. 

Shell ovate, smooth, rather thin ; reddish fulvous, articulated 
with white next the sutures. Length, 13 mill. 

Bay of Guayaquil. 
C. INFUMATA, Crosse. PI. 47, fig. 45. 

Shell ovate-elongate, rather thick, smooth, not shining ; 
chestnut-brown, with scarcely visible white maculations next 
the suture. Length, 12 mill. 

So. Australia. 

Section IV. Mitrella, Ri?so 

Shell mitriform, smooth, with moderate spire; columella smooth 
or with a few anterior rugosities ; outer lip smooth or crenulated 
within. I unite with this group Astyris and Amycla (in part) of 
H. and A. Adams. The principal species of the latter are true 
Nax*&< and are described in vol. iv, 36, 37. 

( 1 . IDALINA, Duclos. PI. 47, figs. 46, 47. 

Shell smooth, polished, yellowish or rosy white, apex pink, 
with a row of opaque white spots on the periphery, sqmetimes 
shaded, and occasionally reappearing at the sutures of the upper 
whorls. Length, 8* mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. (Swift). 

Under a glass, the shell is sometimes covered with smooth, 
rounded longitudinal ribs ; the outer lip appears to be smooth 
within. C. gulttirosa, Duclos (fig. 47), is a larger shell according 
to the figure given, but does not otherwise differ from a faded 
state of C. idalina. 

C. MOLECULINA, Duclos. PL 47, figs. 48, 49. 

Shell white, with an open network of chestnut, and darker 
chestnut curved markings near the suture, defining a sutural 
band ; sometimes the surface is covered with chocolate, except 
the sutural space and the defining markings. 

Habitat unknown. 



118 MITRELLA. 

The dark-surfaced species included in the above description is 
C. denticulata, Duclos (fig. 49) ; the form of the shell and pattern 
of coloration leave not a doubt of its identity with C. moleculina. 
I feel almost assured of the identity of these shells with C. ida- 
lina, although I find none among the numerous specimens of that 
shell before me, showing their coloration. 

C. REEVEI, Carpenter. PL 47, fig. 50. 

Shell with fine revolving linear grooves ; white more or less 
clouded or spotted with chestnut-brown, often forming a revolving 
row of spots below the suture, or brown with white spots below 
the suture ; interior of outer lip very faintly plicate. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Guacomayo to Cape St. Lucas, Gal. 

First described by Carpenter as C. Santa- Barbarensis, and 
subsequently changed as above, because the species is of more 
tropical distribution, and is believed not to approach Santa- 
Barbara, Cal. 

C. IONIDA, Duclos. PI. 47, fig. 51. 

Shell uniform pale rose or orange, the spire and upper portion 
of the body with rounded longitudinal ribs, the lower portion of 
the body-whorl with revolving lines ; outer lip dentate within. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Although comparatively large the original figures of this 
species appear to indicate juvenility. The form of the shell 
scarcely permits its arrangement in this group, recalling that of 
the typical Columbellaa, but the dentition of the outer lip is 
different, and in the sculpture there is some analogy with 6'. 
idalina. . 

C. IRRORATA, Reeve. PI. 47, tig. 5*2. 

Shell acuminately oblong, smooth, spire acicular, whorls convex, 
the last groove-striated at the base ; yellowish, finely dotted 
with orange throughout, and encircled beneath the sutures with 
orange-shaded, snow-white spots; aperture ovate, lip denticulated 
within. Length, 15 mill. 

Australia (Mus. Cuming), Taxman ia (Woods). 

C. ACICULA, Reeve. PL 47, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell subulate, slender, solid, variegated throughout with minute 



MITRELLA. 119 

brown flames and opaque white ; spire sharp ; whorls seven, flatly 
convex; aperture small, lip thickened, denticulated within. 

Length, 19 mill. 

California (Mus. C timing). 

This locality has not been verified by Californian collectors, 
and I do not know that the species has been recognized by con- 
chologists generally : I am unacquainted with it. G. vexillum^ 
Reeve (fig. 54), appears to be a state of this species in which 
the flames are replaced by irregular longitudinal strigations ; it 
is said to come from the Gulf of California, and is equally 
unknown to me. 

C. LIGULA, Duclos. PL 47, fig. 55. 

Shell oblong, acuminated, smooth ; whitish, yellowish, stone- 
color, etc., with three marbled or closely reticulated bands of 
chestnut or slate-color, sometimes interspersed with white spots, 
sometimes the bands are confluent, covering the whole surface 
or nearly all; aperture white, the outer lip plicate within, slightly 
notched and shouldered posteriorly. Length, *8-l inch. 

riiilippines, Solomon's and Viti Islands. 

One of the most beautiful of the species and varying infinitely 
in the shades and disposition of the colors. 

C. INDICA, Reeve. PL 47. fig. 56. 

Shell with revolving grooves ; white, with two series of revolving 
oblique chocolate spots ; lip thickened, denticulated within. 

Length, 11 mill. 

India (Cuming) . 
C. IMPOLITA, Sowb. PL 47, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell elongately turret ed, spire plicately ribbed towards the 
apex ; whorls flatly convex, fulvous chestnut, encircled above 
with a white band ; aperture small, denticulated within. 

Habitat unknown- 

This species was described from a single worn specimen in the 
Cumingian collection. From this specimen, presumably, the two 
very different illustrations in Sowerby (fig. 57) and Reeve (fig. 
58) were drawn. Sowerby figures and describes a shell w^ith 
smooth spire-whorls. 

0. VITTATA, Reeve. PL 47, fig. 59. 

Shell acicular, fulvous, encircled with a single, superior, broad 



120 



MITRELLA. 



chestnut band ; whorls flatly convex, smooth ; aperture small, lip 
simple. Length, 7-9 mill. 

Iba, Province of Zambales, Luzon, Philippines (Cuming). 
I have before me two specimens said to come from Australia 
which perfectly agree with the above shell except that the outer 
lip is toothed within ; if they are of this species, they connect 
it with C. impolite. 

C. TNTEXTA, Gaskoin. PL 47, figs. 60-02. 

Shell acicular, smooth, with revolving stria? at the base ; white, 
longitudinally strigated and spotted with dark chestnut or choco- 
late ; outer lip smooth, or slightly plicate within. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Darnley fsl., Torres Sts., N. Australia (Brazier). 
The synonymy includes C. fusillus, Reeve (fig. 61) and C. 
crepusculum, Reeve (fig. 62). 

C. ACHATINA, Sowb. PI. 47, figs. 63, 64. 

Shell smooth ; yellowish white, marbled and longitudinally 
flamed with chestnut ; whorls six, flatty convex, the body-whorl 
with basal revolving striae ; aperture brownish or violaceous, 
outer lip thickened and dentate within. Length, '8 inch. 

Swan River, Australia. 

Sowerby's figure (fig. 63), which is decollated, is from an indi- 
vidual with more convex whorls than that represented by the 
(probably enlarged) figure in Reeve (fig. 64). 

C. LINCOLNENSTS, Reeve. PI. 48, fig, 65. 

Shell smooth, shining, striate at the base; spire long, sharp 
pointed; whorls flattened; yellowish white, covered by a network 
of chestnut, sometimes sparsely, and frequentty so close as to 
cause the surface to appear a uniform chestnut-color; aperture 
chestnut or violaceous within, the outer lip interiorly dentate. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Australia, Tasmania. 

This is a common species ; and may be a small variety of C. 
achatina from which it hardly ditlrrs in form, and hut little in 
coloring. 

C. MENKEANA, Reeve. PL 48, fig. 66. 

Narrowly acuminated, smooth, fulvous, encircled sometimes 
by an interrupted red band on the periphery, and another below 



MITRELLA. 121 

the suture; aperture short, wide below, with truncated canal ; lip 
slightly notched above, faintly denticulated within. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Australia. 

The spots on the bands are frequently arrow-shaped. 
C. BELLA, Reeve. PI. 48, lig. 67. 

Shell fusiformly pyramidal, with long pointed spire, and rather 
flat whorls, separated by a well-marked suture; yellowish white, 
with chestnut longitudinal flames, a light band at the suture, 
with chestnut fasciculations, another light band on the periphery, 

bordered with chestnut spots. Length, 13 mill. 

China. 
C. BLANDA, Sowb. PI. 48, flgs. 68, 69. 

Shell ovately pyramidal, smooth, polished, slightly striate at 
the base ; outer lip shouldered and obscurely sinuate above, 
usually barely dentate within ; white, with narrow, longitudinal, 
zigzag chestnut lines, w r hich become darker at the suture, and 
especially on the back of the shell ; interior whitish. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Africa (Solaiider). 

C. adiostina, Duclos (lig. 69), a figured but undescribed species, 
ignored by subsequent monographers, appears to me to approxi- 
mate to this form. 

C. ALBINA, Kiener. PL 48, figs. 70, 71. 

Shell oblong, smooth ; body-whorl slightly shouldered at the 
suture, where it is sometimes rudely plicate on the back, base 
smooth or sparsely striate; outer lip much thickened, and dentate 
within; whitish, variously spotted, marbled or banded with 
chestnut, yellow or slate-color ; aperture white or yellowish. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming), Viti Isles (Garrett). 

C. MARGARITA, Reeve. PI. 48, fig. 72. 

Shell ovate, stout, with obtuse spire, smooth, somewhat swollen 
and wrinkled beneath the suture; yellowish white, with chestnut 
and opaque white maculations, sometimes obscurely banded and 
usually with a row of small chestnut spots defining a white or 

maculated subsutural band. Length, 10 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Related to C. albino,, but smaller, stouter, spire more obtuse, etc. 
16 



3 22 MITRELLA. 

C. CRIBRARIA, Lam. PI. 48, figs. 73-77. 

Shell oblong-pyramidal, the apex usually truncated ; reticulated 
with chestnut or chocolate and white, sometimes obscurely light- 
banded below the periphery ; usually, the chocolate color predomi- 
nates, so that the white appears upon it as a series of regularly 
disposed round white spots ; interior of aperture white, in adults, 
the outer lip dentate within. Length, '7 inch. 

West Indies, Mazatlan to Cape St. Lucas, Panama, 

Galapagos, Goree, West Africa, Ascension Isl. 

There can be no doubt of the large distribution of this species 
indicated by the above localities. The Seas of Java and Philip- 
pines have been also cited, but not with the same certainty as 
the others. The species appears to be equally common in the 
West Indies and in the subtropical waters of the West Coast of 
N. America. Gmelin's name, Valuta ocellata, has priority, but 
the species is so well known as C. cribraria that it would be 
inadvisable to change it. 

C. ar<7M,s*,d'Orb (fig. 76), appears to be the juvenile state. Buc. 
parvulum, Bunker (fig. 77), is a synonym. 

C. DELICATA, Reeve. PL 48, fig. 78. 

Shell smooth and shining; yellowish white with a delicate close 
network of orange-red lines ; lip slightty sinuated above, denticu- 
lated within. Length, 13 mill. 

Guatemala. 

Is perhaps only a variety of C. cribraria. 

C. CERVINETTA, Carpenter. 

The typical form was described from M single specimen -27 
inch long, the var. obsoleta from a juvenile and adult, the latter 
of which is '19 inch long. The pattern of coloring is said to be 
like C. cribraria, but the spire is supposed to present distinctive 
features. 

Mazatlan. 

Not figured. 

C. DALLI, E. A. Smith. 

Shell fusiformly ovate, yellowish white, reticulaU'd with pnlc 
brown, the interstices being of irregular shapes and sizes or in 
other words, it is pale brown, closely spotted irregularly with 
yellowish white; epidermis very thin; apex eroded, remaining 



MITRELLA. 123 

whorls 6, flattish or scarcely convex, smooth, separated by a deep 
suture, giving the spire a slightly turreted aspect ; last whorl 
feebly angular at the middle, contracted inferioiiy, and striated 
around the extremity ; aperture pale lilac within, occupying about 
three-sevenths of the entire length ; outer lip arcuate, thickened, 
especially at the upper part ; thin at the margin, and armed 
within the mouth with about 7 elongated tubercles ; columella 
arched above, oblique at the base, with indications of one or two 
tubercles below the middle, covered with a thin whitish callosity ; 
basal canal a little recurved. 

L. 14, cliam. 5'33 mill. ; aperture 6 long, 2*5 broad. 

Vancouver's Island. 

This species is broader than C. cribraria, has a less acuminated 
and more turreted spire, and the color is much paler ; the outer 
lip, too, does not exhibit nearly so distinct a superior sinus and 
the last whorl is more contracted at the base, forming more of 
a distinct basal canal with the lower extremity of the- labrum. 

The above is the full description of this unflgured species. 
The distinctive characters from C. cribraria do not appear to be 
very well marked, and the habitat given perhaps needs verifi- 
cation. 

C. D^DALA, H. Adams. 

Shell narrow, elongate ; pallid luteous, reticulated with chestnut 
and maculated with the same color at the suture ; outer lip sinuated 
behind, not dentate. Length, 5 mill. 

New Hebrides. 

I have not seen this species ; the description much resembles a 
small, well-covered C. cribraria. 

C. OBLITA, Reeve. PI. 48, fig. 78. 

Shell minutely spirally striated throughout ; transparent white, 
with longitudinal orange-brown streaks ; aperture small, the colu- 
mella excavated, the outer lip simple. Length, 8 mill. 

Peru. 
C. VELATA, Reeve. PI. 48, fig. 79. 

Shell ovate, smooth, shining; very densely reticulated with 
chestnut, whorls rather flattened ; aperture small, lip denticulated 
within, slightly siuuated at the upper part. 

Habitat unknown. 



1 24 MITRELLA. 

A smooth shell, of simple growth, veiled, as it were, with a 
very close network painting of dark chestnut. 

I reproduce Reeve's description and figure ; the type was in 
the Taylor collection. It looks very much like a well-covered 
specimen of C. cribraria. 

C. FLEXUOSA, Lam. PL 48, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell oblong, thick, smooth; whitish, with longitudinal chestnut- 
colored, flexiious lines ; spire acuminated, volutions seven, (some- 
times) furnished with a single row of small tubercles ; aperture 
oblong-ovate, white within ; internal teeth of the outer lip few 

and distant. Length, 18 mill. 

Isle of France. 

This is a very doubtfully identified species. Sowerb}^ states 
that the only specimen he has seen w r as obtained from the 
Lamarckian collection by Mr. Cuming, and was tuberculated as 
above described : on the other hand the specimen figured by 
Kiener (fig. 81), as from the Lamarckian collection is smooth, and 
differs in other respects from Sowerby's example. The figures 
in Sowerby (fig. 82) and Reeve are so close to C. Australis, 
Gaskoin, as to strongly indicate specific identity in which case, 
Lamarck's species would, of course, have 



(!. EMARGINATA, Reeve. PL 48, fig. 84. 

Shell ovate, rat her stout, shining; whitish, banded mid blotched 
with red-brown net work, spirally bilineated towards the apex; 
spire rather short, sharp, whorls ribbed near the apex. then 
smooth ; aperture small, lip conspicuously notched at the upper 
part, strongly denticulated within. Length, 10 mi?l. 



This shell, in the Cumingian collection, is said to be like C. 
/Hilch.eUa ( elegantula) but more solid and more strongly 
colored, with a more than usual ema ruination of the lip. 

C. MICANS, Pease. PL 48, fig. 85. 

Shell smooth, polished, slightly striate at the base; spire- 
whorls flattened, apex acute; light purple, under tine chestnut 
streaks and reticulations, the sutures generally marked with a 
row of narrow white lines ; aperture light purple within ; outer 

lip dentate. 

Paumotus Isles (Pease); Viti Isles (Garrett). 



MITRELLA. 125 

Apparently closely allied to the preceding species, but has 
smooth spire-whorls, and somewhat different coloring. 

C. BROOKEI, Reeve. PL 48, fig. 86. 

Shell fusiform, narrow, somewhat curved, smooth, linearly 
grooved at the base ; yellowish, densely waved with chestnut 
streaks, stained darker at the base ; aperture narrow, lip denticu- 
lated within. 

Sarawak, Borneo (Mus. Taylor). 

I am not acquainted with this species ; the figure resembles 
the smooth variety of C. zebra, Gray, except that the spire is 
longer. 

C. SEMICONVEXA, Lam. PL 48, figs. 87-93. 

Shell rather thick, smooth, striated at base ; pale, longitudinally 
flamed and reticulated with red-brown ; aperture roseate within ; 
outer lip strongly dentate. Length, 8-18 mill. 

S. Australia, Tasmania. 

Varies considerably in form and coloring. 

With this are to be placed as synonyms G. rosacea, Reeve (fig. 
89). and C. saccharata, Reeve ( fig. 90), short and long specimens 
which have lost their overlying reticulated pattern of chestnut 
spots jind Hames. (..'. lntea, Quoy dig. 91), from Tonga-Taboo, 
is an unrecognized species, which may. perhaps be a worn C. 
xc.ni/co/irexa; veiy likely C. polUa, Reeve (fig. 92), described 
from a single specimen in the Taylor collection, and without 
habitat, is also a synonym. C. miltostoma, Tenison-Woods, was 
described from a small specimen, six millimetres long; I have 
specimens (fig. 93) agreeing essentially with this description 
and eight mill, in length, strongly resembling C. rosacea, above ; 
the two may constitute a minor variety, perhaps. 

C. PICTA, Reeve. PL 48, fig. 94. 

Shell ovate, rather thick, spire somewhat obtuse, smooth ; 
reticulately flamed with chocolate and white ; aperture rather 
small, narrow ; lip thickened, denticulated within. 

Length, 13-5 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Mus. Cuming). 

I think this will prove to be a color-variation of the last 
species. 



126 MTTRELLA. 

C. TICAONIS, Sowerby. PL 48, fig. 95. 

Shell ovate, turgid in the middle, with moderate spire, spirally 
striated; longitudinally marbled with pale yellowish and chestnut ; 
outer lip thickened externally, its edge thin, with a few small 
denticles within. Length, 11 mill. 

L Ticao, Philippines; at 7 fathoms in sandy mud (H. Cuming). 

" A bright, richly painted shell, rather more attenuately 
restricted at the base than is usual in this genus." Reeve. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

C. DICTUA, Tenison-Woods. PI. 48, fig. 96. 

Shell small, narrowly ovate, with acute spire, shining ; closely 
angularly reticulated with yellow and brown, forming acute zigzag 
markings of equal width ; aperture ovate, wide in front. 

Length, 9 mill. 

JV. Tasmania. 

The form is like a very small C. semiconvexa ; there are no 
spots or cloudings of any kind. The species has not been here- 
tofore figured ; I am able to give an illustration from a specimen 
kindly communicated to me by Mr. C. E. Beddome of Hobart 
Town. 

C. AUSTRALIS, Gaskoin. PI. 49, figs. 97, 98. 

Shell fusiformly oblong, fulvous reticulated and blotched with 
chestnut, sometimes with an obscure covered broad white band at 
the suture and a narrower one below the periphery ; body-whorl 
contracted below, with revolving stria 1 ; outer lip usually dentic- 
ulated within. Length, 15-18 mill. 

New South Wales, Australia. 

It is found under stones, at low tide, in company with G. 
semiconvexa; from which it is distinguished by its anterior con- 
traction and (in fresh specimens) by its epidermal frill below the 
sutures. Sometimes the entire body-whorl is obscurely striate. 
The variability of the species is shown by the second figure. 

C. AUSTRINA, Gaskoin. PI. 49, fig. 99. 

Shell smooth, ivory-white, shining, with a broad red or rosy 
band on the periphery; lip notched above, strongly dentated 

within. Length, 13 mill. 

Australia. 
C. ANNULATA, Reeve. PL 49, fig. 100. 

Shell smooth, ivory-white, with a conspicuous narrow chestnut 



MITRELLA. 127 

revolving line, appearing on the spire-whorls ; outer lip faintly 
sinuated above, denticulate within. Length, 13 mill. 

Australia. 

The form is the same as in C. austrina, the only difference 
being in the position and width of the colored band. I think 
that they will prove to be identical, and that both are described 
from worn specimens which have lost a more superficial coloring. 

C. ARANEOSA, Gould. 

Shell, form of C.austrina, but reticulated and maculated with 
fulvous and white ; aperture violet-tinted. Length, 10 mill. 

Kagosima B<iy and China Coast (Stimpson). 

Not figured. The types were, I suppose, destroyed in the great 
Chicago fire. 

C. BUCCINOIDES, Sowb. PI. 49, fig. 1. 

Shell deep chocolate, nearly black, usually with a row of white 
spots on the periphery, and sometimes a less conspicuous similar 
row at the suture ; aperture dark within. Length, 18 mill. 

Peru; under stones at low water (Cuming). 

C. AVENA, Reeve. PI. 49, fig. 2. 

Shell smooth, shining, striated below ; reticulated, flamed and 
spotted with orange-chestnut and white ; aperture violet-tinted, 

denticulated within. Length, 13 mill. 

Buffalo, Cape Colony. 
C. TENUK, Gaskoin. PI. 49, fig. 3. 

Shell thin, with acuminated spire and inflated body-whorl, 
smooth, striated below ; whitish, with bold flames and zigzag 
lines of orange-brown ; aperture purplish, expanded below; outer 
lip thin, without teeth, sinuated posteriorly. Length, 14 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. PULLA, Gaskoin. PI. 49, figs. 4-7. 

Shell acuminately oblong, dark chestnut or chocolate-color 
without and within, colurnella whitish or sometimes tessellated 
with chestnut; sometimes the surface is lighter-colored, and then 
it reveals an obscure reticulated pattern with faint spots at the 
suture and on the periphery ; outer lip without teeth. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

C.'nux, Reeve (fig. 5), appears to be merely a somewhat 
stouter example of this species. C. badia, Tenison-Woods (fig. 6), 



128 MITRELLA. 

is also a synonym ; and perhaps C. Roblini of the same author 
(fig. 7) also belongs here. 

C. RUSSELLI, Brazier. PI. 49, lig 8. 

Shell cylindrically oblong, somewhat fusiform, smooth; white, 
encircled with dark orange spots; on the last whorl there are 
two rows of spots, the upper row larger, the lower long and 
reticulated, those above the suture arrow-shaped; outer lip 
smooth within. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Claremont Group, N. E. Australia. 

Described from a single specimen. 

C. TENEBRICA, Reeve. PI. 49, lig. 9. 

Shell smooth, dark fulvous chestnut, obscurely longitudinally 
streaked ; whorls rather flattened ; aperture small, interior dark 

chestnut, lip simple. Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Said to be distinguished from C. palla by its color-stripes and 
by the dark-colored columella. It is a doubtful species. 

C. TENISONI, Tryon. PL 49, fig. 10. 

Shell ovate, sub-biconical, smooth, shining; pale chestnut very 
thickly ornamented with chestnut longitudinal lines, sometimes 
with two revolving bands of white spots; whorls five, somewhat 
flatly tumid, aperture ovate, acute posteriorly, outer lip thickened, 

dentate within. Length, 3 mill. 

Tasmania. 

The revolving hands are not present on the two specimens 
sent to me by Mr. Beddome, one of which I figure. The longitu- 
dinal coloring is so close and fine as to give the whole shell a 
dusky brown appearance, the markings being only distinguishable 
under a lens. Described by Mr. Tenison-Woods as C. minuta, a 
name preoccupied by Gould. 

C. ANGASI, Brazier. PI. 49, fig. 11. 

Shell smooth, yellowish Avith longitudinal flexuous chestnut 
lines, interrupted at the suture and on the periphery by yellowish 
bands with scolloped borders; aperture white, lip dentate within. 

Length, 5 mill. 

South Australia. 

Described by An gas as (1. i ntcrrn ftta , a name preoccupied by 
(iaskoin. Mr. Crosse has united the preceding -species with this, 



MITRELLA. 129 

but upon a comparison of specimens I am not able to arrive at a 
like conclusion. Mr. Andrew Garrett writes to me that C. Vitiensis, 
Dunker, has been referred here b}' one of his English corres- 
pondents. 

C. ZEBRA, Gray. PL 49, figs. 12-14. 

Shell oblong, somewhat pyramidal, either smooth, or the upper 
part of the body-whorl and spire obscurely tuberculately folded, 
striate below ; white with zebra-like longitudinal chestnut mark- 
ings, more or less interrupted or broken up into spots; folds, 
when present, usually colored ; interior slightly violet-tinted ; 
outer lip smooth or barely dentate within. Length, 9-13 mill. 
New Zealand, Japan, Paumotus, Sandwich Islands. 

With this species must be united C. Pacifica, Gask. (fig. 13), 
and C. miser, Sowb. (fig. 14). There can be no doubt of the 
extensive distribution indicated above. 

C. DUNKERT, Tryon. PL 49, fig. 15. 

Shell smooth, ovate-conic, sulcate at the base, apex acute ; 
color variable, rosy or orange, or white, reticulated or undulated, 
banded or maculated with chestnut; aperture light violet or 
white, the lip thickened and dentate; operculum purpuroid. 

Length, 7-13 mill. Japan. 

Very variable in both coloring and form, and referred by 
Dunker, who described it under the name of varians, to the genus 
Amycla. As I do not recognize the generic distinctness of 
Amycla, I am compelled to change the name that of varians 
having been used for a Columbella, many years earlier, by 
Sowerby. 

C. BURCHARDI, Dunker. PL 49, fig. 17. 

Shell smooth, with fine revolving striae, becoming more dis- 
tinct towards the base; lip thickened, slightly sulcate within, 
externally sub varicose ; white, undulated or irregularly maculated 

with chestnut. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Japan. 
C. HANLEYI, Desh. PL 49, fig. 16. 

Shell small, ovate-conic, smooth ; white variegated and 
marbled with chestnut ; aperture white within ; lip thickened 

and quadridentate within. Length, 9 mill. 

I. Bourbon. 




130 



MITRELLA. 



C. COMPTA, Lischke. Japan. 

Described from a single, juvenile specimen, and not figured. 

C. SCRIPTA, Linn. PL 49, figs. 18-21. 

Shell smooth, shining, }^ellowish white, usually marbled or 
broadty longitudinally striped with chestnut or chocolate-color ; 
interior of aperture often yellowish or brownish ; outer lip some- 
what thickened, denticulated within. Length, 10-13 mill. 

Mediterranean, littoral ; fossil in European tertiaries. 

The synonymy of this species is very large, including C. 
corniculata, Lam. (fig. 19), C. Gervillei. Payr. (fig. 20), some- 
times considered a variety, G. Croasiana, Recluz (fig. 21), and 
C. Brisei, Brus. z = var. coccinea, Monterosato. 

C. MARTENSI, Lischke. PI. 49, fig. 22. 

Shell turreted subulate, smooth, under a corneous epidermis ; 
whitish with undulating lines or flames of chestnut, frequently 
forming articulated bands at the suture, and on the middle and 
base of the body-whorl ; lip acute, thickened and dentate within. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Japan. 

Allied in form,and frequently in coloring, to C. scripta, Linn. 

C. LUNATA, Say. PI. 49, fig. 23. 

Whorls six, nearly smooth, with usually a single revolving 
line below the suture, and a few around the base ; suture not 
deeply impressed ; aperture narrow, slightly angulated above, 
and shortly channeled below ; lip simple, dentate within ; color 
reddish brown or yellowish, with one or more series of sublimate 
white spots on the body-whorl; occasionally uniform reddish 
brown, or with sublimate dark markings. Length, 5 mill. 

Massachusetts to Florida. 

Animal pale whitish ; foot linear, nearly as long as the shell, 
acute behind, truncate in front ; proboscis more than half the 
length of the shell, obtuse at tip with a brown annnlation and 
another at the base ; tentacula short, cylindrical, annulate with 
blackish on the middle ; eyes black, at the base of the tentacula. 
G. Wheatleyi, De Kay and G. Gouldiana, Agassiz,are synonyms. 

C. ZONALIS, Linsley. PI. 49, fig. 24. 

Shell small, ovate-conical, longitudinally suhstriMti 1 , fuscous. 



MITRELLA. lol 

often with three white zones ; whorls five, flattened ; aperture 
about half the total length. Animal white. Length, 4'5 mill. 

New England. 

Differs in coloring and form, being more attenuated, and in 
the want of inferior revolving lines from C. lunata which 
attains about the same dimensions. This species is better known 
under the name of G. dissimilia, Stimpson, C. zonalis having 
been described from an immature shell. 

C. DERMESTOIDES, Kiener. PL 49, fig. 25. 

Shell smooth, shining, of five or six whorls, covered with reddish 
ocellations and banded with alternate white and reddish spots 
on the periphery ; outer lip thin, slightly dentate within. 

Length, 8 mill. 

West Indies. 

Kiener gives the Mediterranean Sea as locality, which is an 
error ; as well as Angas' identification of an Australian species 
with it. Reeve's figure scarcely represents the shell! Compare 
with C. moleculina, Duclos. 

C. SPIRANTHA, Ravenel. 

Shell small, ovate-conic; smooth, except at the base, where 
there are a few revolving lines; whorls seven, in mature speci- 
mens, nearly flat, with the suture distinct ; color brown, with a 
series of irregular triangular spots of a dull y ellow ; sometimes 
the general color is dull yellow, with brown waving lines, marking 
off the whorls with the irregular spots; aperture oval, about one- 
third the length of the shell, with a slight recess at the posterior 
angle, and a short canal in front ; brown with a few teeth within 
the outer lip, and a smooth slight callus on the pillar. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Wundo River, 80. Carolina. 

Animal white ; proboscis half the length of the shell ; foot a 
little longer than the shell, narrow, wider in front ; posterior end 
quite narrow but not pointed ; operculum small, on posterior end 
of foot ; head projecting from the foot, with tentacles one-third 
the length of the shell, very delicate, almost hair-like, with small 
black eyes at the base. Animal active, keeping the proboscis in 
constant motion, while the tentacles are little used. 

This shell is like C. lunata, Say, but is narrower in proportion 



132 MITRELLA. 

to its length ; the aperture is shorter and differently shaped, the 
pillar being straighter and the denticnlations of the outer lip 
stronger. The animals differ; the tentacles of G. spirantha are 
delicate and hair-like, while in C. lunata they are rather thick 
for the size of the animal. 

I copy Ravenel's description above in full. It is evidently a 
critical species, and Stimpson considered it a doubtful one. It 
has never been figured, and our specimens (not received from 
Ravenel, although from the vicinity of his locality) are entirely 
too close to C. lunata. 

C. NIVEA, Ravenel. 

Shell small, delicate, elongated-conic, white, immaculate, 
smooth, polished, prettily striated on the outer part of the canal, 
body-whorl longer than the spire, suture distinct, with a white 
revolving line a little below it on the whorls ; pillar covered with 
callus, much hollowed, suddenly becoming straight to form the 
canal ; callus ending in a distinct edge ; outer lip a little thick- 
ened, sparsely denticulated within, the posterior tooth being 
decidedly the most prominent. 

Allied to rosacea, Gould, and lunata, Say. A single specimen 
taken from the stomach of a fish. 

Off Charleston Bar, S. C. 

The above is a copy of the original description. I know 
nothing of the species which is untigured. The specific name is 
preoccupied by Sowerby. 

C. FENESTRATA, C. B. Adams. 

Shell much elongated, ovate conic, subangular on the middle 
of the last whorl ; opaque white around the aperture, with, at the 
summit of the whorls, a spiral opaque white band, which is inter- 
rupted by the angles of an approximate series of brown spots, 
which have the form of the summits of Gothic windows, and in 
which the deep brown of the summit fades in descending to the 
middle of the whorls, where the shell is transparent ; with three 
linear spiral series of alternating white and brown on the middle 
and anterior part of the last whorl ; with spiral striae anteriorly, 
otherwise smooth ; apex acute, spire with nearly rectilinear 
outlines; whorls eight, nearly plane, with a slightly impressed 



MITRELLA. 133 

suture ; aperture obliquely oval ; labrum thickened and well 
excurved, smooth within, sinuate above 

L. -25 inch, of spire -16 inch, diam. -08 inch. 

West Indies. 
(Jnfigured. I have not seen specimens of this species. 

C. DUCLOSIANA, cl'Orb. PI. 50, fig. 26. 

Shell oblong, subfusiform, smooth, striated below ; spire 
elongated, conical, with apex acute, and composed of seven 
flattened whorls; mouth narrow, flexuose, with a thickened, 
internally dentate lip ; Avhite or yellowish white, sometimes 
prettity m;i ciliated with red near the suture. Length, 4 mill. 

West Indies. 

The figure represents a wider shell but with coloring not 
unlike the " Gothic window summits " of the preceding species ; 
the description also indicates a longer spire than shown by the 
figure : so that the two descriptions may possibly be of varieties 
of a single species. Should they prove to be identical Adams' 
name would have priority. The above specific name is preoccu- 
pied by Sowerby. 

C. AVARA, Duclos. PL 50, figs. 27, 28. 

Shell pellucid white, with opaque white spots and an indistinct 
narrow band on the periphery ; columella plicated. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Of course this is a very different shell from C. avara, Say, 
which it is possibty intended to represent, and if a good species 
it must receive a new name. One of the figures, representing 
the back of the shell, has numerous minute brown dots. 

C. TURBIDA, Ducios. PL 50, fig. 29. 

Shell yellowish, longitudinally strigated and reticulated with 
chestnut; columella biplicatc, outer lip dentate within. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Habita t unknown. 

Perhaps identical with the preceding species. 

C. UVANIA, Duclos. PL 50, fig. 30. 

Smooth, with produced spire and apparently channeled suture ; 
outer lip greatly thickened and dentate within, inner lip plicate 
below ; light yellowish brown, with an interrupted band of large 



134 MLTRELLA. 

irregular white spots at the suture, and a similar one on the 

periphery. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

C. ANGELTA, DucloS. PL 50, fig. 31. 

Shell slender, with produced spire, striate at base, otherwise 
smooth ; outer lip with an external varix, numerously toothed 

within ; orange-red, including the interior. 

Habitat unknown. 

No size-marks are given on the plate of Chenu in which this 
species is figured, but there can be no doubt that the figure (as 
well as those of the other species) is considerably magnified. 

C. ORPHIA, Duclos. PI. 50, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell chocolate, with large irregular maculations and smaller 
spots of white, the latter chiefly at the base of the body-whorl. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This, as well as the several preceding and succeeding species, 
figured but not described by Duclos, have not been identified by 
subsequent monographers, and remain unknown. C. ilaira, 
Duclos (fig. 33), is perhaps only an older specimen, having one 
more whorl, measuring 9 mill., and not differing essentially in 
cither form or coloring. 

C. PSILLA, Duclos. PL 50, figs. 34-36. 

Bright chestnut, covered by numerous small white spots, with 
a band at the suture and another on the periphery composed of 

larger square spots. Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Var. PHILODICIA, Duclos. PL 50, figs. 35, 36. 

I suppose that this is a mere color-variety. The ground-color 
is lighter, the spots are present, the sutural band is absent, and 
there is only a slight indication of a light band on the periphery ; 
in one of the specimens figured the spots coalesce into irregular 
longitudinal stripes. 

C. PHILIA, Duclos. PL 50, fig. 37. 

Shell pale yellowish brown, peculiarly clathrate with narrow 
light chestnut lines, heavier at the intersections. 

Length, 4*5 mill. 

Habitat .unknown. 



MITRELLA. 135 

C. JAPIX. Duclos. PI. 50, fig. 38. 

Shell light yellowish brown, with two moderately broad bands 
of reticulated chestnut lines, the upper one reappearing on tire 
spire-whorls. Length, 6 mill. Habitat unknown. 

C. AUBANTIACA, Dall. PI. 50, g. 39. 

Minute, fusiform, smooth, with five slightly rounded whorls ; 
generally orange-yellow, semitranslucent and without markings, 
but occasionally darker, or with zigzag brown lines leaving a 
light central band and light sutural maculations ; outer lip 
slightly sinuated, hardly striate within. L. -18 in. ; lat. '08 in. 
Monterey, CaL, Todas Santos Bay, L. Gal. 

C. TUBEROSA, Carpenter. PI. 50, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell smooth, whorls six, rather flat, the body-whorl having 
an obtusely angulated periphery; nucleus white and smooth, 
flat on the top, not swollen. Length, 7-8 mill. 

Sta. Barbara, San Diego, etc., California. 

Larger than the preceding species, and angulated ; the nucleus 
also differs, that of C. aurantiaca being regularly fusiform. The 
coloring is very variable, varying from white to dark chocolate, 
either uniform or with a light central band and sutural macu- 
lations, and sometimes with nebulous or zigzag markings. 

Var. VARIEGATA, Stearns. Fig. 41. 

Shell usually somewhat more slim than the type, and with 
consequently less angulation of the periphery ; the central light 
band is more or less broken up into white spots, smaller than 
the sutural maculations. 

C. CHRYSALLOIDEA, Carpenter. PI. 50, lig. 42. 

Shell cylindrically oblong, shining, whorls seven, slightly 
rounded, covered with microscopic spiral lines ; yellowish to 
chocolate ; lip scarcely thickened and veiy slightly dentate 
within. Length, 8 mill. Southern Coast of California. 

C. BABBI, Tryon. PI. 50, fig. 43. 

Shell ovate or oblong-cylindrical, thin, transparent, shining, 
very faintly tinged and flamed with orange, apex pink ; aperture 
short, lip rather thickened, notched at the upper part, scarcely 
denticulated. Length, 10 mill. 

dulfof California (Mr. Babh, R ? N\). 



136 MITRELLA. 

Described and figured by Reeve as G. lacfea, Kiener which 
is a very different species, originally figured by Duclos ; I am 
therefore compelled to change the name, and call it after the 
gentleman who collected the Cumingiantype specimen. Although 
revolving struie are neither described nor figured by Reeve, I 
think it not improbable that this will prove to be identical with 
C. chrysalloidea, Cpr. 

C. NASUTA, Menke. 

Ovately fusiform, smooth, with revolving striae at the base; 
spire conically turreted, acuminate ; yellowish-white, with supe- 
rior triangular chestnut-colored maculations and longitudinal 
flexuous lines ; lip thickened and gibbous in front, denticulate 

within. L. 9'8 lin., apert. 5'5 lin., lat. 4 lin. 

Mazatlan. 

An unfigured species, which has not been recognized by Car- 
penter or subsequent students. 

C. MARQUESANA, Gaskoin, PI. 50, figs. 44-47. 

Earlier whorls very faintly minutely costate, balance smooth, 

shining, last one with revolving striae at base ; yellowish white, 

encircled with narrow chestnut lines or sometimes irregularly 

maculated with chestnut, tip of spire rosaceous. Length, 10 mill. 

Polynesia, Viti Is., Paumotus, Borneo, Loo Choo, 

Hong Kong, Neic Caledonia. 

Very variable in coloring, which has occasioned a number of 
synonyms. These are C. teeniata, Ads. and Reeve, not Phil, 
(fig. 46) ; C. li'neolata and decolor, Gould (unfigured), referred 
here \)y Carpenter after an examination of the types; C.flammea, 
Pease (unfigured) ; C. sublaevis, Montr, (fig. 47). 

C. BICINCTA, Gould. 

Shell ovate, small, turreted, thin, smooth, ash-color with two 
fulvous bands ; whorls eight, slightly convex, suture impressed ; 
aperture lunate, lip arcuated, acute, dentate within, columella 
violaceous, with thin callus, and tuberculated anteriorly. 

L. 10, diam. 4+ mill. 

Hong Kong Harbor, 10 fathoms, shelly sand (Stimpson). 

Unfigured, and unknown to me. 

C. AZORA, Duclos. PI. 50, fig. 48. 

Shell wide ovate, spire and upper part of body-whorl longitu- 



MITRELLA. 137 

dinally obscurely ribbed, the ribs usually obsolete, or surface 
sometimes quite smooth; yellowish, flecked with white, especially 
on the ribs or nodules, with three necklace-like rows of small 

chestnut spots. Length, 8-9 mill. 

Seychelles, Mauritius. 

C. albinodulosa, Gaskoin, is a synonym, but the only figure of 
it, in Reeve's Iconica, is not at all characteristic, and resembles 
closely the next species. 

C. LEGRANDI, Tenison-Woods. PI. 51, fig. 49. 

Shell small, subulate, thin, shining chestnut, girdled at the 
suture with a band of snowy spots, shaded with fulvous brown ; 
apex mammillate ; whorls six, elongate, convex, very finely trans- 
versely lined ; aperture elongately ovate ; outer lip thin, simple. 

L. 7*5, diam. 2 mill. Tasmania. 

My figure is drawn from one of the type specimens ; it is a 
smaller, narrower shell than the last species. 

C. XAVIERIANA, Tenison-Woods. PL 51, fig. 50. 

Shell elongated fusiform, smooth, striated at the base ; whorls 
eight, rather flattened ; lip thick, plicate within ; orange-brown, 
conspicuously and broadly maculated with chestnut which under 
the lens is sometimes seen to be flecked with white. 

L. 12, diam. 4 mill. Tasmania. 

Figured from the type specimen, through the kindness of Mr. 
C. E. Beddome of Hobart Town. 

C. ALBA, Petterd. 

Shell attenuately fusiform, shining, white faintly tinged with 
chestnut, regularly transversely striate all over ; whorls six, flatly 
convex ; aperture narrowly ovate, inner portion faintly thickened, 

outer lip thin. L. 7, diam. 3 mill. 

Blackman's Bay, Tasmania. 

Unfigured. " The regular transverse stripe is a character by 
which it can be easily recognized." 

C. CHOAVA, Reeve. PL 51, fig. 51. 

Shell ovate, smooth, yellowish, freckled or longitudinally waved 
with chestnut; lip slightly thickened in the middle and dentate 

within. Length, 6 mill. 

New Zealand. 
C.Jtexuosa, Hutton (unfigured) is a synonym. 

18 



138 M1TRELLA. 

C. PELLUCIDA, Reeve. PI. 51, fig. 52. 

Shell ovate, obliquely expanded towards the base, transparent, 
smooth, spotted and flamed with orange-chestnut ; spire rather 
short, acuminated ; aperture ovate, columella excavated, lip vari- 
cose, purple-stained within, crenated, one-toothed at the upper 

part. Length, 8*5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Has somewhat the form of a Nassa, and is so transparent as 
to show the columella through the shell. 

C. LINEOLATA (Pease), Brazier. PL 51, fig. 53. 

Shell elongately ovate, smooth, shining ; w r hoiis six, the last 
grooved at the base ; columella tridentate, outer lip very slightly 
thickened, smooth or barely dentate within ; openly reticulated 
with fine chestnut lines, with an irregular band of the same color 
encircling the last whorl, and maculated with white ; this band 
appears above the sutur.e on the whorls of the spire ; there is 
also a chestnut band towards the base of the body-whorl. 

Length, 7-9 mill. 

New South Wales, Australia. 

This species was first described by Mr. W. H. Pease as C. macu- 
/osa,a name preoccupied by Sowerby, having been previously con- 
fused by Mr.Angas with C. dermestoides, Kiener,andb}^ Mr. Brazier 
with G. lineata, Pease which, apparently by a slip of the pen, 
he writes lineolata. Pease's description of lineata (I have no 
specimen, and it has not been figured) scarcely covers this form, 
and I therefore give the species the name under which it is so 
well known to Australian collectors. 

C. LTNEATA, PeaSC. 

Shell small, solid, fusiform, turreted, whitish or variously 
marked with reddish brown; spire acute; whorls plano-convex, 
smooth, the last somewhat ventricose, and spirally striated at 
the base ; canal produced ; sutures faintly impressed ; outer lip 
thickened by a stout outer varixand dentated within ; columella 
smooth, strongly arched ; aperture small, tortuous. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Unfigured, and unknown to me. See remarks under pre- 
ceding species. 



MITRE LLA. 139 

C. INSCRIPTA, Brazier. 

Shell somewhat oblong, ovate, smooth, whitish, ornamented 
with a reddish brown network, darker and broader towards the 
centre ; whorls seven, slightly convex, suture impressed, marked 
below with white ovate blotches, then small narrow ones having 
a transverse chestnut line between every alternate one ; spire 
lengthened, apex acute ; aperture long, wide, interior ivory- 
white, columella thickened, varicose on the outside, having three 
prominent little tubercles on the inside, peristome arcuated, 
upper part sinuated, denticulated within, canal short, narrow. 

L. 8, diam. 4 mill. 

North Australia, New Guinea. 

An unfigured species, certainly very closely allied by its mark- 
ings to C. lineolata (Pse.), Brazier. 

C. MARINE, Brazier. 

Shell acicular, club-shaped, smooth, yellowish brown, minutely 
marked with oblong white spots ; whorls nine, flattened ; centre 
of last encircled with a chain of brown and white alternate 
spots, reappearing on the spire contiguous to the suture ; below 
the suture transparent; spire lengthened, apex acute; aperture 
long, narrow, peristome thin, thickened behind, edged with 
brown, interior white, denticulated, sinuated at the upper part, 
columella varicose, canal short, recurved. L. 10, diam. 4 mill. 

Hall Sound, New Guinea. 

One fine living specimen found. Not figured. 

C. PUDICA, Brazier, 

Shell club-shaped, thinnish, variously mottled with brown, 
sometimes having minute white spots, or with white and brown 
flames above and below the suture ; whorls eight, angularly 
spiral, convex, suture slightly tabled, transparent, spire long, 
apex white, acute ; columella curved and varicose at the lower 
part, peristome thin at edge, very much thickened within, having 
from two to three small obtuse teeth, sinuated above, canal short, 
slightly recurved. L. 6, diam. 2 mill. 

Darnley IsL. Torres Sts., Australia, 20 to 30 fms., 

white, sandy bottom (Brazier). 

Unfigured. 



140 M1TRELLA. 

C. L^)TA, Brazier. 

Shell ovate, smooth, acuminated at both ends, fulvous; whorls 
six, spirally angled, slightly convex, transparent white at the 
angle, marbled above and below with dark fulvous lines, some- 
times flexuously waved ; spire short, apex white, rounded ; aper- 
ture narrow, little more than half the whole length, canal narrow, 
slightly recurved, columella smooth, curved, grooved in the 
middle, inner part forming a sharp lip below upper pirt, with 
thin deposit of callus, varicose below on the outside, peristome 
white, thin at edge, gibbous in the middle. L. 4, diam. 1'5 mill. 
Darnley IsL, Torres Sts. With the preceding species. 

Un figured. 

C. FORMOSA, Gaskoin. PI. 51, fig. 54. 

Shell ovate, smooth, shining, pale pink, encircled round the 
middle, and again near the base with faint bands of chestnut 
network; whorls flatly convex; aperture rather small, columella 

excavated, lip simple. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. NUBECULATA, Reeve. PL 51, fig. 55. 

Shell oblong, ovate, smooth, yellowish white, variously mottled 
with orange-brown ; apex violet-tinted, whorls convex; aperture 
small, lip notched at the upper part, prominently toothed within. 

Habitat unknown. 

Rather obscurely clouded in respect of coloring, which inclines 
towards the base to form a fine network. REEVE. 

C. BIFLAMMATA, Reeve. PL 51, figs. 56, 57. 

Shell cylindrically ovate, smooth, shining, whitish, densely 
flamed throughout with orange-brown, spire rather obtuse, whorls 
convex ; aperture small, columella slightly excavated, lip vari- 
cose, faintly notched at the upper part, denticulated within. 

Habitat unknown. 

Encircled with two bands of longitudinal orange-brown flames, 
quite peculiar and uniform in character. REEVE. 

C. YORKENSIS, Crosse. PL 51, fig. 58. 

Shell oblong, acuminated, smooth, striate at base ; white, with 
some pale red longitudinal stripes, under a greenish yellow 
epidermis ; whorls nine, nearly flat ; aperture oblong, slightly 



M1TRELLA. 141 

flexuous and white, columella with some slight granulations, 
outer lip simple, a little thickened, and denticulated within. 

Length, 19 mill. 

York Peninsula, Australia 
A larger shell than C. Tayloriana , Reeve. 

C. ISABELLINA, CrOSSC. PI. 51, fig. 59. 

Shell elongated fusiform, smooth, yellowish brown, under a 
thin epidermis of the same color; aperture pale violet, the outer 
lip with obtuse interior denticulations. L. 8, diam. 3 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. TAYLORIANA, Reeve. PL 51, figs. 60-62. 

Shell solid, ovate, smooth, shining; epidermis smooth, thin, 
greenish yellow ; color of shell white, finely reticulated with 
chestnut and flamed or spotted with chestnut on the spire and 
upper portion of the body-whorl, suture with opaque white and 
chestnut spots ; lip moderately thick, denticulated within. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Southern Australia. 

A somewhat variable shell both in form and coloring, as shown 
by numerous specimens before me. I agree with the Australian 
conchologists that C. albomaculata, Angas (fig. 62) is a synonym. 

C. ALBUGINOSA, Reeve. PL 51, fig. 63. 

Shell ovate, smooth, shining, transparent white, reticulated 
with orange-brown, with a central light band ; whorls flatly 
convex, the last somewhat twisted and grooved ; aperture small, 
lip simple, slightly notched at the upper part. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The type of this species formed part of the Taylor collection. 

C. INTERRUPTA, Gaskoin. PL 51, fig. 64. 

Shell ovate, attenuated at both ends, rather solid, white, 
encircled above and below by bands of crescent-shaped chestnut 
spots ; spire somewhat turreted, whorls encircled by a groove 
round the upper part, the body-whorl deeply grooved towards 
the base ; aperture rather narrow, lip slightly notched at the upper 
part, denticulated within. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Taylor collection). 

C. ABYSSICOLA, Brazier. PL 51, fig. 65. 

Shell oblong, pyramidal, smooth ; whorls eight, flatly convex, 



142 ATILTA. 

round shouldered ; yellowish white, spirally encircled on the 
periphery with yellowish brown broad arrow-shaped markings, the 
points showing to the right, marked as four arrows placed one 
behind the other, opaque between, every alternate space arrow- 
shaped, last whorl below having the markings more numerous 
and close-set ; aperture oblong ovate, white, canal narrow, short, 
peristome thickened in the middle, strongly denticulated within. 

Length, 3'5 mill. 

North Australia, New Guinea (Brazier . 

I figure an example of this elegant little species from one of 
several specimens obligingly communicated by its author. 

C. CINCINNATA, von Martens. PI. 51, fig. 66. 

Shell smooth, oblong, shining, grayish white, with narrow, 
longitudinal undulating chestnut lines, and maculations of 
opaque white, in a double series ; apex rose-violet ; outer lip 

without teeth ? Length, 3 mill. 

Mauritius. 
Probably not adult. 

C. ASOPIS, Duclos. PI. 51, fig. 6t. 

Shell smooth, yellowish, irregularly and openly reticulated by 
light chestnut; lip externally thickened, dentate within; colu- 

mella rugose. 

Habitat unknown. 

The figures of this unrecognized species are evidently greatly 
magnified, but, like all the others upon the same plate there is 
no accompanying size-mark. 

Section V. Atilia,* II. and A. Adams. 

Shell fusiform, smooth or longitudinally plicate ; spire elevated, 
sharp ; last whorl suddenty narrowed into a beak or short canal 
in front. 

C. MINOR, Scaochi. PI. 51, fig. 68. 

Shell sm,ootl}, striated at the base; yellowish brown, more or 
less indistinctly marbled with a darker color, with sometimes a 
light band on the periphery ; outer lip slightly dentate within. 

Length, 9-12 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 
0. NYMPHA, Kiener. PI. 51, fig. 69. 

Shell elongate^, sm,ooth, striate at the base ; yellowish, with 



ATJL1A. 143 

longitudinal chestnut lines ; aperture yellowish within, the outer 
lip stained brown and denticulated on the inner margin. 

Length, 12'5 mill. 

Seychelles Is. 
C. FILICINCTA, Tapparone-Canefri. 

Shell acicular, contracted and striate at the base ; pallid 
fulvous, with longitudinal darker strigations, and a band of 
articulated fulvous and white on the periphery ; aperture narrow, 

fulvous, the outer lip thickened. Length, 9 mill. 

New Guinea. 

Described from a single specimen and not figured. The 
description brings it very close' to C. nympha. 

0. ARTJCULATA, Souverbie. PL 51, fig. 70. 

Shell yellowish, with curved longitudinal darker strigations 
and an articulated band of chestnut and white spots on the 
periphery which is apparent on the spire-whorls ; outer lip 
emarginate above, acute, varicose, externally, dark margined and 

plicate within. Length, 10'5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Only a single specimen obtained. The coloring is very close 
to that of the last species. I suspect that it is only a variety of 
C. nyynpha. 

C. MINDOIIOENSIS, Gaskoin. PI. 51, figs. 71, 72. 

Shell ivory-like, smooth, striate below ; whitish, with narrow 
flexuous zigzag chestnut lines ; lip slightly dentate within. 
Length, 10 mill. 

Puerto Galero, IsL of Mindoro, Philippines, in coarse 

sand, at a depth of about 12 fathoms (Cuming). 

Persian Gulf ( Issel ) . 
C.Doride, Issel (fig. 72) appears to be a synonym. 

C. BACULUS, Reeve. PI. 52, tig. 73. 

Shell solid, with flattened whorls and obtusely angulated 
periphery, below which the body-whorl has revolving striae ; 
whitish filleted and spotted with orange or chestnut, sometimes 
showing a row of spots on the periphery ; outer lip thickened, 

plicate within. 

China Seas; Australia. 
C. PUNGENS, Gould. PI. 52, fig. 74. 

Shell small, lanceolate, polished, with numerous minute longi- 



144 ATIL1A. 

tudinal plications, the lower part of the body-whorl with revolving 
striae ; whitish, marbled with yellowish brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Port Lloyd, Bonin Islands (Stimpsou). 

I give a figure from a specimen in the Philadelphia collection, 
received from Stimpson. 

C. PLUTONIDA, Duclos. PI. 52, fig. 75. 

Shell whitish, with obscure chestnut or slate colored reticula- 
tions. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown^ 

Figured by Duclos, with name, but no description. 

C. PRETRII, Duclos. PL 52, fig. 76. 

Whorls flattened, with deeply impressed sutures, longitudi- 
nally plicate ; white, broadly banded with chestnut, lower part 

of body-whorl chestnut. Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
Figured, but not described by Duclos. 

C. IONTHA, Ravenel. 

Shell fusiform, strong, small, with nine flat, longitudinally 
ribbed whorls, and deeply channeled sutures ; lower part of 
body-whorl with revolving striae, which upon the ribs give place 
to revolving colored lines and clouds ; outer lip considerably 
enlarged, sparsely denticulated within ; aperture small, rather 
wide, the pillar lip much hollowed above, suddenly becoming 
straight to form the canal. Length, 6+ mill. 

Charleston Bar, So. Carolina. 

A single specimen from the stomach of a black-fish. Is very 
probably synonymous with C. Hotessieri, d'Orb., and C. Pretrii, 
Duclos. In the event of their proving identical, the latter name 
must be adopted, having priority of publication. 

C. HOTESSIERI, d'Orb. PL 52, fig. 82. 

Shell oblong, thick, with wide longitudinal plications and 
revolving striae; spire sharp, composed of seven, flat whorls, 
separated by a crenulated suture ; mouth narrow, sinuous, the 
thickened lip six-tuberculate, the columella slightly folded ; 
yellowish white, more or less marked with chestnut. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Guadeloupe, West Indies. 
See remarks under preceding species. 



ATILIA. H5 

C. CONSPERSA, Gask. PI. 52, figs. 77-81. 

Spire and upper part of body-whorl more or less obsoletely 
and distantly plicate ; white, marbled and reticulated with 
chestnut, forming a white band at the suture and another on 
the periphery; body-whorl strongly contracted, with revolving 
striae below ; lip externally varicose, dentate within, the margin 
sinuous behind ; columella conspicuously folded, the upper fold 
largest ; canal recurved. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Philippines, N. E. Australia, New Caledonia, Andaman Is. 

The original figures of G. iodostoma, Gask. (fig. 78), and G. 
puella, Sowb. (fig. 79), are more strongly plicate and darker 
colored than many of the specimens before rue, yet they are 
undoubtedly synonymous with the smooth form of C. conspersa, 
from which the original figure and description of that species 
were made. I add a figure from a specimen (fig. 80) of a nearly 
smooth example, showing a usual state of the species. G. con- 
taminata, Gask. (fig. 81), is to be referred here. 

C. SUGILLATA, Reeve. PI. 52, fig. 86. 

Shell ovate, livid brown or purple, spire turreted, whorls tuber- 
cularly ribbed round the upper part, tubercles white ; aperture 
somewhat squarely ovate, lip slightly varicose, angled at the 
upper part, denticulated within. Length, 12 mill. 

China Seas, Philippines. 

C. SAGITTA, Gaskoin. PL 52, figs. 83-85. 

Shell narrow, smooth, shining ; pale brown, longitudinally 
strigated, maculated or reticulated with chestnut, with usually 
a band on the periphery and sometimes another at the suture, 
articulated with white and chestnut, sometimes sagittiform. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Sandwich Islands, Paumotus, Viti Islands, Solomon's Is. 

This species was described as from Africa and West Indies, 
but these habitats have not been confirmed ; on the other hand 
the description applies closely to a common Polynesian species., 
and this identification is concurred in by a number of concholo- 
gists. The only figure of the species hitherto given is by Reeve ; 
it is a poor representation of the usual state of the shell besides 
being three times its size without any mention of its having 
been enlarged. I give this figure, however (fig. 83). Pease de- 
19 



146 ATILIA. 

scribed it as C. pusilla, and finding that name preoccupied 
changed it to C. fusiformis, which was also preoccupied five or 
six times by different authors. C. galaxids, Reeve (fig. 84), is 
a synonym ; as is also probably C. doliolum, Tapparone, an 
unfigured species from New Guinea. C. Carolines, E. A. Smith, 
from Strong Island, Solomon Archipelago, is exactly equivalent 
to the figure of C. galaxias, Reeve ; my specimens being part of 
the original lot of Carolines. Mr. Smith's figure (fig. 85) does 
not agree with his description. 

C. MERITA, Brazier. 

Shell thin, acicular, much contracted at the base, yellowish 
white ; whorls eight or nine, flattened, minutely tabled at the 
suture, ornamented with roundish opaque white spots, below the 
suture and between the spots two narrow transverse reddish 
yellow lines one above the other ; the lower having longitudinal 
lines of the same color running down, divided with a white band 
on the centre of the last whorl, spire very much lengthened, 
aperture pear-shaped, peristome thin, sinus at upper part, colu- 
mella varicose, canal short, narrow. L. 7, diam. 2'5 mill. 
Darnley Isl., Torres tits., Australia ; 30 fms., white, 

sandy bottom (Brazier). 

The above is a copy of the original description. I have not 
seen the species which is unfigured. 

C. ALABASTRUM, ReCVC. PL 51, fig. 14. 

Shell fusiform, alabaster-white, white banded on the subangu- 
lated periphery, sparingly marked with chestnut blotches. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Reeve). Mauritius (Martens). 

The type formed part of the Taylor collection. It is a very 
doubtful species. Yon Martens has figured a shell from Mauritius 
to which he applies this name with some doubt. 

C. NJVEOMARGINATA, E. A. Smith. PI. 52, fig. 91. 

Shell grayish white, with an opaque white band spotted with 
chestnut at the top of the whorls, and a narrower one around the 
middle of the last whorl, the rest of the surface being marked 
with opaque white in an irregularly closely reticulating manner; 
whorls smooth, the third and fourth costate ; suture deep ; 



ATILTA. 147 

making the spire appear somewhat turreted ; lip externally 
thickened, tubercnlate within, sinuate above. Length, 11 mill. 

Japan. 
Described from a single specimen. 

C. LTSCHKEI, E. A. Smith. PI. 52, fig. 90. 

Shell smooth, third and fourth whorls of the spire strongly 
costate ; last whorl subangulate on the periphery, contracted 
below, with revolving siilci ; outer lip with interior plications 
and an external varix ; dirty white, blotched at intervals with 
chestnut-brown, the blotches extending from suture to suture. 

Length, 11 mill. Japan. 

Allied to C. alabastrum, Reeve, but has more numerous and 
shorter whorls, and differs in coloring. 

C. FUSIFORMIS, d'Orb. PL 52, fig: 88. 

Shell fusiform, smooth, with revolving striae below ; spire 
elongated, sharp ; lip dentate within. Length, 6 mill. 

Jamaica, Martinique. 
C. RORIDA, Reeve. PL 52, fig. 89. 

Shell transparent white, glassy, encircled round the middle 
with a row of milk-white spots ; lip simple. Length, Y mill. 
Lord Hood" s Isl. (found on Avicula margaritifera, in coral 

sand at the depth of six fms.) (Cuniing). Viti Is. (Garrett). 
C. tesxellata, D anker, and C. pellucid a, Pease, are synonyms ; 
neither of them is figured. 

C. SOLIDULA, Reeve. PL 52, tigs. 92, 93. 

Shell fusiform, thick, shining, with sharp-pointed spire; whorls 
encircled by narrow, rather distant grooves, and sometimes the 
body-whorl is slightly plicated on the back, just below the suture ; 
white, longitudinally streaked, marbled or reticulated with 
chestnut, sometimes forming a white band on the periphery ; 
edge of columellar lip defined; outer lip sinuated behind, 
thickened and plicate within ; interior of aperture, tip and base 
of the shell usually pale violet-tinted. Length, 15 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. 

C. HIRUNDO, Gaskoin. PL 52, fig. 94. 

Shell solid, smooth, shining ; whitish, freckled with waved 
orange-brown lines ; outer lip tuberculated and sinuous behind. 

Length, 16 mill. Habitat unknown. 



148 ATILTA. 

In the general form and aperture this species looks something 
like a Strombina. 

C. SUBULATA, Duclos. PI. 52, fig. 96. 

Shell with a long, sharp-pointed spire of eleven flattened 
whorls, the body-whorl striate and produced below into a long 
narrow canal ; aperture long and narrow ; outer lip thickened 
and dentate within ; yellowish white. Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The above description is made up from the original figures, 
one of which I copy. The shell may be a fossil. Sowerby subse- 
quently described a very different species under the same specific 
name. 

C. PLURISULCATA, Reeve. PI. 52, fig. 95. 

Yellowish brown, spirally grooved throughout, aperture sinu- 
ated posteriorly, lip unarmed. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single, worn and perhaps not adult specimen : 
it must be considered a doubtful species. 

C. ARATA, Reeve. PI. 53, fig. 97. 

Shell spirally grooved throughout ; yellowish, variegated with 
red-brown spots ; columella excavated ; lip simple, slightly 

expanded. Length, 14 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

C. OCELLATA, Reeve. PI. 53, fig. 98. 

Shell finely longitudinally plicate, with revolving grooves at 
the base ; whitish, stained and ocellated with orange-brown. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The eye-like points are said to dip at rather distant intervals 
from the sutures. A doubtful species. 

C. PELAGIA, Reeve. PI. 53, fig. 99. 

Shell subulate, the whorls somewhat tubercularly ribbed above, 
forming a turreted spire ; aperture small, lips strongly varicose, 
notched at the upper part, plicate within : white, marbled with 
chestnut, showing a more or less defined white central band, and 
white on the sutural tubercles. Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



ATILIA. 149 

C. MON1L1FERA, Sowb. PI. 53, fig. 100. 

Shell oblong-acuminated, with well-marked sutures and some- 
what rounded whorls ; longitudinally ribbed, crossed and decus- 
sated or tuberculated by revolving riblets ; white, chestnut- 
spotted on the ribs, leaving a central white band ; aperture rather 

narrow, denticulated within. Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies. 
Reeve's figure of this species is very inaccurate. 

C. MANGELIOIDES, Reeve. PL 53, fig. 1. 

Shell fusiform, rather solid, longitudinally strongly ribbed ; 
yellowish, sprinkled with orange-brown spots ; whorls numerous, 
flatly convex, sutures impressed, the last whorl produced into a 
canal ; aperture small, lip varicose, denticulated within. 

Length, 8 mill. 

West Indies. 

I reproduce Reeve's description and figure : the species has 
not been recognized by collectors. I am strongly inclined to 
consider it a worn specimen or a variety of C. monilifera, in 
which the revolving riblets have disappeared or failed to be 
developed. 

C. FULGIDA, Reeve. PL 53, fig. 2. 

Shell rather elongated, transparent white, shining, subangulated 
on the periphery : painted longitudinally with faint waved orange- 
brown streaks ; lips slightly denticulated within. 
Length, 7-8 mill, 

Port Lincoln, Australia (Cuming Coll.). 

Noumea, New Caledonia (Brazier). 

C. LACTEA, Duclos. PL 53, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell smooth, white, striate below ; aperture dentate within. 
Length, 19 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Seychelles Islands. 

Duclos published a figure with name, but no description : his 
specimen was possibly denuded of its coloring. The localities 
are supplied from Kiener's. monograph, although the shell figured 
by Kiener is so different (fig. 4) that it may well be another 
species. 

C. ESSINGTONENSIS, Reeve. PL 53, figs. 5, 6. 

Shell smooth, polished, with revolving grooves below; white, 



150 ATILIA. 

with two narrow chestnut bands, sometimes livid purple without 
bands ; exterior margin of aperture varicose, thickened and 

smooth within. Length, 13 mill. 

IT. Australia. 
C. EXIMIA, Reeve. PL 53, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell smooth, shining, transparent orange, finely reticulated 
with brown, encircled by two bands of opaque, snow-white flakes ; 
whorls rather flat, the last contracted and grooved at the base, 
slightly recurved ; aperture small, lip varicose, slightly notched 

at the upper part. Length, 10 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

C. bicincta, An gas (fig. 8), is a synonym. 
C. EXILIS, Phil. 

Shell small, narrowly fusiform; whorls six or seven, flattened, 
obsoletely longitudinally plicate ; fulvous, with two white bands, 
one of which appears on the spire ; lip slightly inflected and 

thickened in the middle. Length, 4 mill. 

. Red Sea near Aden. 

Not figured. Unknown to me. 

C. PUMILA, Bunker. 

Shell small, elongated, attenuated at both extremities, uni- 
colored, fuscous; whorls six, longitudinally costate, the costse 
covering half the last whorl, which is lirate at the base; columella 
sinuous ; lip slightly thickened, plicate or subdentate within. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Japan. 
L T nfigured. Said to resemble C. exilis, Phil. 

C. SERTULARIARUM, d'Orb. PI. 53, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell elongated, smooth, striate at base, sometimes slightly 
longitudinally folded on the body-whorl; yellowish-white, faintly 
banded with brown, with sutural markings of brown and white, 
alternately; lip thickened, not dentate. Length, 12 mill. 

San Bias, Patagonia. 
C. ELATA, Reeve. PL 53, fig. 11. 

Shell solid, spire produced, whorls rather narrow, longitudinally 
plicately ribbed; white, longitudinally strigated and waved with 
chestnut ; aperture small, columella thinly lipped. 

Length, 19 mill. Habitat unknown. 

Described from a shell in the Cumingian collection. 



ATILIA. 151 

C. CUMINGII, Reeve. PL 53, figs. 12-16. 

Shell elongated, subcylindrical, recurved at the base, upper 
whorls minutely ribbed, all the others covered with close, fine 
spiral striae ; outer lip sinuated above, thickened and dentate 
within ; purplish, with usually tw r o bands of chestnut dots. 

Length, 19 mill. 

Island of Capul, Philippines; Mauritius. 

With this species I unite C. lumbricus, Reeve (fig. 13), from 
the same locality ; it is described as smooth, but the revolving 
striae are represented on the original figure which I have copied ; 
the shell is rosy brown, with an obscure reticulated pattern. C. 
spicula (fig. 14) and C. clausilia, Duclos (fig. 15), are also 
synonyms. 

Yar. ACUS, Reeve. PL 53, fig. 16. 

Shell longitudinally minutely ribbed towards the apex; yellow- 
ish, irregularly longitudinally streaked with orange-brown ; lip 
simple, scarcely denticulated within. Length, 11 mill. 

This shell is from the same locality as the preceding, and is, 
as Reeve sa} r s, of the same general type. 

C. FILOSA, Angas. PL 53, fig. 17. 

Shell elongately fusiform, varying from white to chocolate, the 
lighter-colored specimens often with brown maculations at the 
suture, the darker-colored ones frequently with whitish sutural 
maculations ; w r horls eight, slightly convex, covered by fine 
revolving striae; outer lip slightly thickened externally and 
dentated within. Length, 11 mill. 

New South Wales. 

Described as a species of ^Esopus, Gould ; but the only char- 
acter which it seems to possess in common with that genus is 
the unimportant one of revolving striae. 

C. ATTENUATA, Angas. PL 53, fig. 18. 

Shell smooth, shining, moderately solid; whorls eight, very 
slightly convex, the last striate at the base; outer lip simple, 
arcuate behind, contracted at the base, with an external brown 
varix ; brown, paler beneath the sutures. Length, 9 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
C. NYCTEIS, Duclos. PL 53, figs. 19-21. 

Whorls flattened, white with angular notches of chestnut, or 
^3 




152 ANACIilS. 

uniform white; lip with exterior varix and interior denticula- 

tions. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Figured but not described by Duclos, and not recognized by 
subsequent students. C. Belizana, Duclos (fig. 21), appears to 
be identical. 

C. SPIRATELLA, von Martens. PI. 54, fig. 22. 

Shell small, oblong turreted, distinctly spirally lirate, yellowish 
with nodiform short ribs on the periphery, which are white ; lip 
subsimple, canal open, shortly recurved. Length, 4*5 mill. 

Mauritius. 

C. RUBRA, von Martens. (Unfigured.) E. Coast of Patagonia. 

Described from an imperfect specimen and referred doubtfully 
to Columbella. 

Section VI. Anachis, I', and A. Adam?. 

Shell oval-fusiform, longitudinally strongly ribbed, spire 
elevated ; last whorl not narrowed in front ; aperture narrow ; 
columella straight ; outer lip nearly straight, with a posterior 
sinus, crenulated within. 

C. RUGOSA, Sowb. PL 54, figs. 23-27. 

Shell ovate, tuberculate, plicate or rudely ribbed, the ribs only 
developed on the upper half of the body-whorl, whole surface 
with coarse revolving striae ; white, stone-color or light olivaceous, 
with large chocolate clouds, especially on the back of the body- 
whorl which is sometimes nearly covered with this color. 

Length, 18-22 mill. 

Panama. 

The ordinary appearance of adults of this species is that shown 
by fig. 23 ; sometimes the shell is narrower and less rugose, being 
ribbed rather than tuberculate (fig. 24). 

The synonyms are G. bicolor, Kiener (fig. 25), and, I think, 
C sinuata, Sowerby (figs. 26, 27). The latter has the characters 
of C. rugosa, except that the outer lip has a projecting sinus 
in the middle; it is a remarkable-looking shell and Sowerby 
thinks it " almost generically distinct," yet places it in Anachis. 
Judging from the figure, 1 place it here us a monstrosity of this 
specif*. 



ANACHIS. 153 

C. YOLDINA, Duclos. PI. 54, fig. 48. 

Shell with large rounded ribs, forming an obtuse shoulder to 
the whorls ; lower part of body-whorl with revolving grooves 
and chocolate-color, rest of surface whitish, with a violet band, 
visible on the spire. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Figured but not described, and not since identified ; it is 
possibly an extreme variety of the last species. 

C. COSTELLATA, Sowb. PI. 54, figs. 28-31. 

Shell narrowly longitudinally ribbed, sometimes slightly tuber- 
culate on the shoulder of the body-whorl; yellowish brown closely 
reticulated with chestnut or chocolate, forming an irregular 
darker band above the periphery, and a broader one below it ; 
aperture bluish, and sometimes reticulated within; outer lip 
slightly dentate, sinuous behind. Length, 16-20 mill. 

Mazatlan; Panama; Guatemala (?); Payta, Peru. 

Nearly intermediate in its characters between G. rugosa, Sowb., 
and G. fluctuata, Sowb. C. valida, Reeve (fig. 29), from Gua- 
temala, is described from a worn specimen of this species. C. 
uaricosa, Gaskoin (fig. 30), is also a synonym ; its locality, Payta, 
Peru, is probabty erroneous. I add also C. macrostoma (Anton) 
Reeve (fig. 31), erroneously said to inhabit the coast of California. 

C. FLUCTUATA, Sowb. PI. 54, figs. 32-35. 

Shell wide ovate, with somewhat turreted spire, nodulotisly 
ribbed, ribs sharp, curved on the body-whorl, or sometimes 
obsolete below the shoulder ; white, with close, zigzag chocolate 
markings ; epidermis yellowish, translucent, thin ; outer lip 
broadly sinuous behind, callously thickened, and minutely 

dentate within. Length, 16-21 mill. 

Panama. 

The synonyms are C.fluctuosa, Duclos (fig. 33), G. suturalis, 
Gray (fig. 34), G. costata, Duclos (fig. 35). 

C. CORONATA, Sowb. PL 54, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell yellowish white, sometimes stained with chestnut, with 
zigzag longitudinal dark chestnut or chocolate lines ; upper part 
of whorls coronated, the tubercles sometimes giving rise to short, 
distant longitudinal plications. Length, -5 -'75 inch. 

Panama to Cape St. Lucas. 
20 



154 ANACII1S. 

C. VARIA, Sowb. PI. 54, tigs. 38-41. 

Longitudinally narrow!} 7 ribbed, decussated by revolving lines 
which are often more or less obsolete except towards the base of 
the body-whorl; marbled with chestnut or chocolate and white, 
sometimes almost covered with the darker color, but always 
having a more or less defined central white band, which some- 
times reappears at the sutures of the spire-whorls ; outer lip of 

aperture ribbed within. Length, 1 inch. 

Panama, Mazatlan. 

This appears to be the shell which Carpenter described as 
Anachis (? costellata, var.) pachydermata. C. scalarina, Sowb. 
(fig. 39) is a state of this species in which the whorls are unusually 
shouldered. C. veleda, Duclos (fig. 40), and C. aphonia, Duclos 
(fig. 41), are both synonymous with C. varia, the latter with the 
shouldered variety. 

C. CRUENTATA, Moi'Ch. 

An untigured species, said to generally resemble C. daliola, 
Duclos (= C. varia, Sowb.), but with longer spire, and smaller, 
broader aperture. The characteristic coloring consists of blood- 
red spots, usually upon alternate ribs, some in the interspaces of 
the ribs ; some specimens have- only a single red spot, others arc 
entirely white. Length, 6 mill. 

8onsonate, West Coast of Central America. 

C. LYRATA, Sowb. PL 54. fig. 42. 

Shell sharply longitudinally ribbed, decussated by revolving 
striae, which are frequently obsolete except at the lower part of 
the body-whorl ; yellowish, articulated by two bands of chestnut 
spots appearing on the ribs ; aperture white ; lip sinuated behind, 

plicate within. Length, 18-22 mill. 

Panama. 
C. FULVA, Sowb. PI. 54, fig. 43. 

Shell reddish brown, with distant narrow longitudinal plica- 
tions, fading out at the lower part of the body-whorl, where they 
are replaced by revolving striae. Length, 23 mill. 

Panama, under stones. 

C. TERPSICHORE, Sowb. PI. 54, figs. 44-46. 

Whorls longitudinally ribbed and nodosely shouldered ; ribs 
rather distant and narrow ; white, with revolving bands of 



ANACHIS. 155 

chestnut spots and zigzag markings, more or less interrupted by 
the smooth interstices of the ribs ; aperture white within, the 
outer lip sinuous behind, and plicate within. 

Length, 15-18 mill. 

West Indies. 

C. lineolatq, Kiener 'fig. 45), is a synonym, an<jl I suppose 
that C. Calif ornica, Reeve (fig. 46), a species which does not 
inhabit " California," may also be placed here, if the figure may 
be depended on. 

C. ADELINE, Tryon. PI. 54, fig. 47. 

Shell closely longitudinally ribbed, with revolving striae, 
apparent principally in the interstices of the ribs ; ivory-white, 
shining, with two broad bands of chocolate spots, arranged in 
checker-board fashion, and leaving a central band of white; lip 
with external varix, sinuated behind and dentate within ; aper- 
ture white. Length (decollated), 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Six fine specimens are before me, all of them decollated. The 
nearest ally is- C. Terpsichore, but this shell differs in its more 
numerous, less tuberculated ribs, in the disposition of the color- 
spots and their form. 

C. SUFFUSA, Sowb. PI. 55, fig. 49. 

Shell distantly longitudinally ribbed, with shouldered whorls, 
the ribs sometimes obsolete on the body-whorl, which is striate 
at the base ; white, with longitudinal streaks and spots of 
chestnut, often forming interrupted revolving bands. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Galapagos (Wimmer); Central America (Morch). 

C. NTGRICOSTATA, E. A. Smith. PI. 55, fig. 50. 

Shell subturreted, longitudinally ribbed; epidermis thin, 
yellowish ; shell white, the ribs black, bearing a series of white 
spots a little above the middle of the body-whorl, interstices of 
the ribs with dark, somewhat zigzag lines, revolving lines at the 
base spotted with black ; aperture white within; labrum dentate. 

Length, 12'5 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 
Appears to be very closely allied to C. suffusa, Sowb. 



156 ANACHIS. 

C. TUBERCULATA, Reeve. PI. 55, fig. 51. 

Obliquely ribbed, the ribs tuberculated below the sutures; 
white, with a superior red band; nperture small, lip sinuated 
behind, thickened and denticulated within. Length, 13 mill. 

Hob. unknown (Cumingian Coll.). 

C. RUGULOSA, Sowb. PI. 55, figs. 52, 53. 

Shell oblong-ovate, thick, longitudinally plicately wrinkled, 
and covered with close revolving striae ; yellowish, almost covered 
with chocolate or chestnut irregular markings, made up of very 
close minute dots, forming a light band below the middle of the 
body-whorl; aperture chocolate. Length, 13 mill. 

W. Coast of Central America, Galapagos Is. 

C. CAVEA, Reeve. PI. 55, fig. 54. 

Shell swollen and subangulated on the periphery, tubercularly 
ribbed ; light chestnut or yellowish, the ribs dark colored, aper- 
ture toothed within. Length, 8*5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

May be a small specimen of C. varia, Sowb. 

C. NIGROPUNCTATA, Sowb. 

Shell ovately acuminate ; whorls six, tuberculate below the 
sutures ; longitudinally costate in the middle, the costre decus- 
sated ; white punctate with black. L. 11, diam. 6 mill, 

Lord Hood's Islands (011 Meleagrina). 

This species was not included by Sowerby in his subsequently 
published monograph in the " Thesaurus," and is not mentioned 
by other monographers ; I do not know it. 

C. MULTIVOLUTA, Reeve. PL 55, fig. 55. 

Shell acuminately ovate, longitudinally obscurely white ribbed, 
variegated with two bands of black lines ; spire attenuated ; 
whorls numerous ; aperture rather small, columella contracted, 
grooved, lip simple. Length, 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. ADAMSI, Tryon. PL 55, fig. 56. 

Shell ovate, latticed throughout with longitudinal and revolv- 
ing ribs ; yellowish, faintly red-banded at the upper and lower 
parts of the body-whorl, with a single band on the whorls of the 



ANACHIS. 157 

spire; whorls rounded, the ribs slightly tuberculated above; 
aperture rather small, lip thickened, dentate within. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species ; it w r as figured and 
described by Reeve under the name of C. fenestrata, but that 
name being preoccupied by C. B. Adams, I change it as above. 

C. STRENELLA, Duclos. PL 55, figs. 5f , 58. 

Spire whorls somewhat flattened, shell longitudinally ribbed, 
crossed by revolving stride ; yellowish with chestnut markings 
or nearly uniform chestnut-brown ; columella with tubercles 
below, outer lip toothed within. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. PORCATA, Reeve. PI. 55, fig. 59. 

Shell ovate, spirally ridged throughout, the interstices being 
conspicuously excavated ; white, much stained and spotted with 
purple-red ; whorls convex, sutures excavated ; aperture small, 
denticulated within. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Cumingian Coll.). 

I have not seen this species. 

C. JASPIDEA, Sowb. *P1. 55, fig. 60. 

Shell with longitudinal, rounded plications, usually becoming- 
obsolete towards the middle of the body-whorl, the lower part 
of which is covered by revolving grooves ; there are sometimes 
faint revolving grooves in the interstices of the plications ; yel- 
lowish brown, tinged, especially on the spire, with pink; outer 
lip sinuous behind, more or less dentate and thickened on the 
inner margin. Length, 12 mill. 

Island of Ticao, Philippines, under stones at low water (Cuming\ 

Viti Islands (Godeffroy). 
C. FILAMENTOSA, Duuker. PI. 55, fig. 62. 

Slightly but closely longitudinally ribbed, with revolving 
striae at the base ; outer lip varicosely thickened, smooth within 
sinuate behind, terminating in a short but distinctly constricted 
canal ; yellowish brown, with numerous equidistant narrow 
revolving chestnut lines. Length, 12 mill. 

So. Pacific Ocean. 
C. PULCHELLA, Kiener. PL 55, fig. 63. 

Shell closely ribbed, crossed by close impressed lines, cutting 



158 ANACHTS. 

the ribs into tubercles ; yellowish white, reticulated with light 
chestnut; outer lip scarcely thickened, smooth within. 

Length, 10 mill. Havana, Cuba (Arango). 

Sowerb3 T 's and Reeve's figures of this species do not represent 
it, but the next species. The shell is allied to C. jaspidea in 
form, but is somewhat more slim. Kiener gives (erroneously) 
the Mediterranean Sea as locality for this species. C. plicatulum . 
Dunker, from Venezuela, described thirty years ago and remain- 
ing unfigured and unrecognized, may possibly be this species. 
Many years subsequently, Dunker again used the same specific 
name for another form. 

C. ELEGANTULA, Morch. PL 55, figs. 64, 65. 

Shell pale, shining, flamed and spotted with fulvous orange ; 
Upper whorls longitudinally ribbed, the interstices sometimes 
latticed ; lip sinuous behind, denticulated within. 

Length, 9-12 mill. 

W. Coast Central America, Galapagos Is. 

Figured by Sowerby and Reeve for C. pulchella, Kiener a 
different shell. 

C. VALGA, Gould. PI. 55, fig. 61. 

Small, solid, ovate-lanceolate, somewhat gibbous; whorls nine 
to ten, slightly con vex, the penultimate one disproportionally large 
so as to give the shell a gibbous or distorted form ; with fine 
longitudinal riblets, becoming obsolete on the upper part of the 
body-whorl ; rostrum somewhat elongated ; suture linear, deeply 
impressed; aperture narrow, ribbed within. Pale fawn-color, 

encircled by chestnut lines. L. 12, diam. 5 mill. 

Samoa Islands. 

The above description indicates a shell very like C. jaspidea, 
Sowb., but the figure (which I copy) does not correspond with 
it. I am almost convinced, however, that it =ja,spidea. 

C. ACUTA, Stearns. PI. 55, fig. 66. 

Shell small, slender, acutely fusiform; whorls eight, with 
about fifteen nearly equidistant rounded longitudinal ribs, which 
are absent on the apex and adjoining whorl and become obsolete 
just below the angulated periphery of the body-whorl which 
has distinct basal revolving strife ; sometimes the ribs are sub- 
nodulous; white with revolving sienna lines and blotches, or 



ANACHIS. 159 

light sienna-yellow, with whitish blotches and brown linear 
markings ; aperture white ; the outer lip simple, moderately 
thickened, slightly shouldered and curved above, five to seven 
dentate within. L. *26, diam. '08 in. 

Egmont Key, W. Coast of Florida. 

C. AVARA, Say, PI. 55, figs. 67-71. 

Shell somewhat A^ariable in outline, the spire longer or shorter 
and the body-whorl correspondingly narrower or broader, with 
numerous longitudinal plications, usually extending to about 
the middle of the bod3 T -whorl, and revolving striae, conspicuous 
towards its base, and elsewhere apparent in the interstices of the 
plications ; yellowish white, more or less blotched or reticulated 
irregularly with chestnut or chocolate, sometimes uniform yel- 
lowish white. Length, 13-20 mill. 

Atlantic Coast of the United States ; Tampa Bay, 

Gulf Coast of Florida. 

C. Lafresnayi, Fischer and Bernardi (fig. 68), from the Island 
of Marie Galante, West Indies, and G. similis, Ravenel (fig. 69), 
are S3 r nonyms ; the latter being founded on the long, narrow 
forms. Between these and a stumpy specimen of C. avara, there 
is much difference, but my extensive suites, from every portion 
of our coast exhibit every intermediate form, and show a varia- 
bility as to sculpture and coloring suggestive of a future great 
reduction in the number of admitted species in the genus. C. 
semiplicata, Stearns (figs. 70, 71), from the West Coast of Florida, 
is another long, narrow form, with fewer longitudinal ribs, yel- 
lowish, reticulated with light chestnut. At first sight it appears 
very distinct from the typical avara, but is too close to Ravenel's 
C. similis. I have W. Florida specimens before me which supply 
the intermediate forms. Another probable synonym is C. trans- 
lirata, Ravenel (unfigured), which is elevated conic, with close 
ribs and five equidistant revolving striae on the upper half of 
the body-whorl, and on those of the spire, nodulous at the suture 
and the nodules white. Length, nearly 1 inch. 

C. PHYLTNA, Duclos. PL 55, figs. 72, 73. 

Shell smooth, or flexuously ribbed on the body-whorl only ; 
yellowish, closely reticulated with narrow chestnut lines. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



160 ANACH1S. 

Figured -but not described by Clienu. Appears to be very 
closely related to G. avara, Say. 

C. CLETA, Chenu. PI. 55, fig. 14. 

Shell distantly ribbed, the first whorls of the spire more closely 
and finely ribbed ; yellowish brown, with numerous narrow 

chestnut revolving lines. Length, 13 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This appears (like the last) to be nearty related to C. avara. 

C. MENALETTA, Dliclos. PI. 55, fig. 75. 

Shell distantly but strongly folded ; ash-color with distant 
narrow chestnut revolving lines. Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. PLTCARIA, Montrouzier. PL 56, fig. 16. 

Whorls moderately rounded, closely longitudinally ribbed, 
with revolving striae at the base ; yellowish, reticulated with 
reddish brown ; outer lip dentate within, columella plicate. 

Length, 13 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
Described from a unique specimen. 

C. COSTULATA, Cantraine. PL 56, fig. 11. 

Shell white, sometimes with a yellowish or rosy tinge ; with 
narrow distant longitudinal ribs, and well-impressed sutures; ribs 
becoming evanescent towards the base of the body-whorl ; whole 
surface covered with very close, minute revolving striae ; lip 
scarcely thickened, slightly dentate within. Length, 10 mill. 
Boreal. Norway, England, Nova Scotia, Rhode Island, 
Chesapeake Bay, Sicily. Fossil in the later European 

tertiary, Vienna, Messina, etc. 
Has the usual characteristics of northern shells. 

C. ROSACEA, Gould. PL 56, figs. 18, 19.. 

Shell small, acutely conic, white, tinged with rose-color; whorls 
six, covered with minute spiral lines ; those of the spire finely 
or obsoletely ribbed, sometimes smooth, body-whorl without ribs, 
outer lip sharp, without teeth within. Length, 1*5 mill. 

Norway, Spitzbergen, Greenland, New England. 

American specimens are scarcely at all costate. 

G. DIAPTIANA, Verrill. PL 56, fig. 82. 

Shell thin, delicate, translucent, white, nearly smooth, elon- 
gated, with long tapering acute spire. Whorls eight, broadly 



ANACHIS. 161 

and evenly rounded ; suture somewhat impressed, but not deep, 
frequently narrowly channeled ; surface, except anteriorly and 
on the canal, destitute of spiral lines, and of any indication of 
ribs, but covered with very close, almost microscopic lines of 
growth, which give the surface a dull appearance when dry ; on 
the canal and extending to the anterior part of the body-whorl 
are a number of distinct spiral lines becoming faint opposite the 
middle of the aperture; fine, microscopic spiral striations some- 
times appear on the lower whorls. The nucleus is larger than in 
/4. rosacea, rounded, depressed and spiral, but somewhat mammil- 
lary. The aperture is small, oblong-ovate ; the outer lip is sharp 
at the edge, but in adult shells has a distinct thickening a little 
back from its margin ; the inner surface is usually smooth, but 
in some adult specimens there are four or five small, transversely 
oblong tubercles, back from the margin, and a larger conical 
tubercle at the base of the canal. Columella sigmoid, a little 
excavated in the middle, and with a distinct, raised, spiral fold 
at its inner edge, anteriorly ; canal short, open, very slightly 
curved ; epidermis thin, closely adherent, minutely lamellose 
along the lines of growth, pale greenish gray, or yellowish white. 
Length of one of the largest specimens, 12 mm., breadth 4 mm., 
length of aperture, 5 mm., its breadth 1-8 mm. Stouter and 
shorter examples occur. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, in 65 to 487 fathoms, 1880 and 

1881 (U. S. Fish Commission). Off Chesapeake Bay, 
300 fathoms fCapt. Tanner). Taken at many stations. 

This species resembles G. rosacea, of which I formerly sup- 
posed it to be a deep-water variety. A more careful examination 
of a larger and better series convinces me that the}^ are distinct. 
The present species is a more slender and elongated, and far 
more delicate shell, and is destitute of the impressed spiral lines 
that cover the whorls, both in that species and G. Holbollii, and 
is without any traces of transverse ribs, on the upper whorls. 
The fold on the columella edge and the submarginal thickening 
of the outer lip are also good distinctive marks, but the great 
difference in the nucleus is, perhaps, of still greater importance. 
Fresh specimens, when wet, are so transparent that the internal 
form of the columella can often be seen through the shell. 

The above is Prof. Yerrill's description in full. 
21 



162 ANACHTS. 

C. PURA, Verrill. 

This shell is very abundant in many of our deeper dredgings, 
on muddy bottoms. It resembles the shallow water species, 
C. zonalis (= G. dissimilis, Stirnp.), in form, except that it is 
somewhat shorter and stouter, with the whorls more convex, the 
columella more excavated, the aperture a little wider and the 
canal slightly bent back at the tip, but the shell is translucent 
and glossy, and the color is pure white or pinkish white, except 
near the apex, where it is tinged with pale brown or pink, in 
fresh specimens. The surface is smooth, except slight lines of 
growth and a few faint spiral lines, on the canal anteriorly. The 
nucleus is distinctly larger than in the typical C. zonalis. It is 
probable that this form is a distinct species. 

Off Martha 1 8 Vineyard, 100 to 487 fms., 1880,1881 (U. S. Fish Comm. ) ; 
off Chesapeake Bay, 300 fathoms (Capt. Tanner). Abundant. 

The above is a copy of Prof. Yerrill's description. 

C. YERRILLT, Dall. 

Shell slender, conical, yellowish white, whorls seven ; polished, 
but covered when fresh by a shaggy brown epidermis, which is 
irregularly lamellated ; nucleus naticoid, shining translucent white ; 
ten or twelve close spiral lines on the pillar and basal surface, 
with occasionally microscopical spiral lines on other parts of the 
shell ; longitudinal sculpture consisting in some specimens of 
nine to fourteen plications, stronger at the posterior end on each 
whorl, forming there slight tubercles which form a waved sutural 
line in others the sculpture is fainter, not tuberculate at the 
suture, and becoming evanescent on the larger whorls at a short 
distance in advance of it; pillar stout, a little twisted, and with 
the canal distinctly recurved, with a smooth white callus ; outer 
lip slightly thickened and reflected, somewhat contracted anter- 
iorly to form the short wide canal, and having internally about 
midway between its junction with the body-whorl and the canal 
a single small rounded pustule-shaped callus ; there are no other 
denticles except this, which is invariably present in adult 
specimens. 

L. 9, of last whorl 5, of aperture 3'5 mill. ; max. lat. 3, of 

aperture 1*5 mill. 

Caribbean, 331 to 805 fathoms. 
The above is one of the numerous new species discovered in 



ANACHIS. 163 

187T-79 by the dredgings of the U. S. Coast Survey Steamer 
Blake, and described by Mr. W. H. Dall. He says : " This 
species is most nearly allied to Astyris rosacea, Gould, from 
which the faintly sculptured specimens differ by the smaller 
mouth in proportion to the spire, and the characters of the epi- 
dermis and aperture ; the character of the plications also differs 
from that of A. rosacea. The solitary pustular denticle is a very 
peculiar, and, as far as I am aware, unique feature." Unfigured. 
G. strix, Watson, and its var. subacta, are evidently synonyms : 
the species has not been figured, but the description is sufficient 
to indicate this. 

C. STRICT A, Watson. 

Shell short and dumpy, with a rather high, scalar, blunt spire, a 
short but broadish last whorl, and a small, slightly reverted snout ; 
there are on the last whorl twelve longitudinal ribs, separated 
by furrows three times their width, these ribs increase in number 
rapidly up the spire ; there is a slight tubercular ridge at tlie 
top of the whorls, and obsolete spiral striae below, becoming 
more distinct towards the base of the body-whorl ; color porcel- 
lanous white ; apex blunt, smooth ; whorls six, scarcely convex ; 
mouth small, lip contracted and slightly curved above, with ten 
small teeth within, of which the highest is remote from the top 
and larger than the others ; just at this point is a slight open 
false sinus. L. -25, cliam. -13 ; mouth long -11, broad '06 in. 
Near St. Thomas, W. L, 390 fms., in coral mud. (Challenger Exped.) 
If this should prove to be an older state of the next species, 
it will become a synonj^m thereto. 

C. AMPHISSELLA, Dall. 

Shell small, stout, blunt tipped, yellowish white, of four and a 
half whorls ; nucleus large, white, shining, smooth, of one and a 
half whorls ; sculpture of numerous (on the last whorl twenty-one) 
straight, subequal plications with about equal interspaces, begin- 
ning at the suture, passing clear over the whorl, and fading out 
only when near the canal ; also faint lines of growth ; spiral 
sculpture of numerous equal fine rounded threads (twenty-one 
on the last whorl) with slightly wider interspaces, covering the 
whole shell except the nucleus ; pillar short, stout, a little con- 



164 ANACHIS. 

cave, with a slight callus ; outer lip somewhat thickened, smooth ; 
canal wide, short but distinct ; sutures distinct. L. 4, lat. 2 mill. 

Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 

I am not acquainted with this unfigured and apparently imma- 
ture species. 

C. TEOPHANIA, Duclos. PL 56, fig. 80. 

Shell distantly and rather broadly longitudinally ribbed, with 
revolving striae in the interstices, and at the base of the body- 
whorl ; chestnut, variegated with a darker tint. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This figured but undescribed species has not been recognized. 

C. BUCHHOLZI, von Martens. PL 56, fig. 81. 

Shell turreted, shining, longitudinally folded, cut into nodules 
by an impressed line under the suture ; folds evanescent on the 
body-whorl, which has revolving striae towards the base ; outer 
lip thickened and plicate within ; grayish white with three light 

chestnut bands. Length, 11 mill. 

Guinea, West Africa. 
C. SAGRA, d'Orb. PL 56, figs. 83, 84. 

Shell oval-oblong, shining, very slightly longitudinally plicated 
except the last whorl of the spire, which is smooth, with revolv- 
ing grooves at the base of the body-whorl, spire elongated conic, 
with sharp apex, composed of seven somewhat convex whorls; 
mouth sinuous ; lip thickened, dentate within ; columella with 
two slightly marked plications ; white, tinged with rose-color on 

the spire. Length, 8 mill. 

West Indies. 

The figure represents a smooth shell, but the description is as 
above. I have not seen the species. C. Kieneria, Duel. (fig. 84), 
appears to resemble it very closely, and may be identical ; it has 
not been described. 

C. ELECTONA, Duclos. PL 56, fig. 85. 

Body-whorl smooth, spire closely and finely longitudinally 
ribbed ; white, spire tinged with rose-color ; lip sparsely dentate. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. ENCAUSTICA, Reeve. PL 56, fig. 86. 

Shell oblong, subulate, rather solid, fulvous brown, tessellately 




SEMINELLA. 

blotched with white, spire sharp, sutures impressed, whoi 
longitudinally ribbed, decussated with spiral grooves ; aperture 
rather small, denticulately ridged within. 

Gulf of California (Lieut. Shipley). 

This species has not been recognized by Carpenter nor by 
subsequent naturalists. The locality must be considered doubtful, 
and the figure is possibly a magnified one. 

C. SAINT-PAIRIANA, Caillet. PI. 56, fig. 87. 

Shell elongated, acuminated, solid, reddish rose-color, under a 
light olivaceous epidermis; embryonal whorls smooth, several 
subsequent ones of the spire closely and finely costulate, body- 
whorl without ribs, but with revolving striae below ; aperture 
narrow, the lip with external varix and denticulated within; 
operculum thin, pellucid, corneous, obliquely striated. 

Length, 23 mill. 

Isl. of Marie Galante, West Indies. 
C. CUSPIDATA, Marrat. 

Shell elongated fusiform, attenuated below, spire sharp-pointed ; 
whorls longitudinally costate and transversely sulcate, ribs sub- 
granulated ; pallid gray, or fulvous, maculated with chestnut, 
epidermis dusky ; columella arcuate, labium callous ; aperture 
narrow, lip lirate within. 

West Africa. 

Unfigured. No dimensions given. The description will suit 
several species already well known. 

Section VII. Senrnella, Pease. 

Shell very small, fusiform, longitudinally costate, usually 
decussated ; lip slightly emarginate above, lirate or denticulate 
within. 

Differs from Anachis principally in its minute size. 

C. LACHRYMA, Gask. PI. 56, fig. 48. 

Shell shortly fusiform, attenuated at each extremity ; snow- 
white, faintly stained with orange-brown ; surface entirely can- 
cellated, spire conical, densely grained ; aperture elongated 
narrow, lip notched above. Length, 8 mill. 

Sandwich Islands ; Upolu. 
C. TROGLODYTES, Souverb. PI. 56, fig. 89. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, with equal interstices, and 



166 SEMINELLA. 

revolving striae at the base of the body-whorl, subtranslucent, 
shining, with a lighter band at the sutures and an interrupted 
brown line below it, another light band below the periphery, and 
the basal portion of the body-whorl checkered with brown spots ; 
aperture narrow, the lip minutely denticulated within. 

Length, 3'15 mill. 

New Caledonia; Papua (Tapparone-Canefri) . 

C. PEASEI, von Martens. 

Shell fusiform, minute, attenuated at both ends, longitudinally 
ribbed ; color variable, light brown with transverse lines of a 
darker color encircling the whorls, or with longitudinal undu- 
lating lines, or ornamented with oblong square brown spots, or 
light brown dotted with white. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 
C. CRASSILABRIS, Reeve. PI. 56, fig. 90. 

Shell ovate, finely cancellated ; yellowish, encircled with two 
bands of red-brown arrow-headed marks, purple-spotted at the 
base ; spire rather short, sharp ; aperture small, lip very thick, 

varicose. 

Habitat unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species. The figure is probably 
much enlarged, although it bears no size-mark. 

C. PYGM^A, Sowb. PI. 56, figs. 91, 92. 

Whorls obliquely ribbed above ; white, with three revolving 
rows of chestnut spots, sometimes coalescing into blotches. 

Length, 6 mill. 

West Columbia, Cape St. Lucas. 

C. ATOMELLA, Duclos. PI. 56, fig. 93. 

Shell pure white, longitudinally ribbed ; aperture peculiarly 
contracted by a plate-like thickening of the inner margin of the 

outer lip. Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This shell has not been described. C. ornata, Pease (not 
Ravenel), has been distributed under this name, and Reeve has 
figured for it C. atrata, Gould. 

C. GARRETTI, Tryon. PI. 56, fig. 94. 

Shell rather stoutly fusiform ; spire slender, elongate ; longi- 
tudinal ribs rounded, prominent, contiguous, sometimes becoming 



SEMINELLA. 167 

obsolete on lower part of last whorl ; outer lip denticulate within ; 
ribs white, sometimes banded with white, blotched or spotted 
irregularly with iridescent reddish brown, last whorl ornamented 
with flexuous lines of reddish chestnut. Length, 3 mill. 

Tahiti. 

Varies much in the disposition of its colors, but the opaque- 
white ribs and flexuous lines on the last whorl are constant. 
Described by Mr. Pease as Citharopsis ornata, but as Citharopsis 
is a synonym of Columbella, and as the specific name ornata is 
preoccupied by Ravenel for a post-pliocene species, I make the 
change of name as above. 

C. GBACILIS, Pease. PI. 56, fig. 95. 

Shell slender, elongately fusiform, shining ; longitudinal ribs 
usually rather prominent, sometimes evanescent, interstices 
generally showing revolving striae, lower part of body -whorl 
distinctly striate ; sometimes the ribs are obsolete and the 
revolving striae become prominent over the entire body-whorl ; 
yellowish, sometimes variegated with chestnut, and frequently 
with chestnut spots arranged in a superior band. 

Length, 4-6 mill. Viti Isles. 

Pretty constant in form, but varying in sculpture and coloring. 
Pease described from a not perfectly adult specimen ; Dunker 
described the adult under the name of C.pusiola. A portion of 
the original lot of the latter species is before me. Mr. Garrett 
believes C. pusiola to = C. lachryma, Gaskoin (p. 165\ 

C. T^NIATA, Phil. PI. 56, fig. 96. 

Shell with rounded whorls, and well-impressed suture, spire 
subturreted; tubercularly ribbed beneath the sutures; yellowish 
white with revolving lines and blotches of chestnut ; aperture 
small, lip notched above, denticulate within. Length, 6 mill. 

Mazatlan; Cape St. Lucas. 

G. Gaskoini, Carp., and C. venusta, Reeve (fig. 96), are syno- 
nyms. 

C. KIROSTRA, Duclos. PL 56, fig. 97. 

Shell pure white. Length. 9'5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

I can give no information concerning this shell, which is figured 
but not described ; it may be colorless from bleaching. 



168 SEMINELLA. 

C. ATRAMENTABIA, Sowb. PL 5G, figs. 98, 99; PL 43, fig. 27 ; 
PL 57, fig. 1. 

Shell ventricose, with, sharp-pointed spire, thick, closely 
spirally grooved, longitudinally plicately ribbed, the ribs fading 
towards the lower part ; very dark chocolate, obscurely white 
spotted ; aperture chocolate ; outer lip thickened at the margin 
and dentate within. Length, 8-5-10 mill. 

Galapagos Islands; Gulf of Nicoya, Central America. 

C. lentiginosa, Hinds (t. 43, fig. 27), is synonymous and C. 
pariolida, Duclos (fig. 1), is a specimen in which the longitudinal 
plicae are not developed ; a not unusual form. 

C. NIGRICANS, Sowb. PL 57, fig. 2. 

Shell cancellated by longitudinal ribs and revolving striae, with 
usually a single row of minute granules at the sutures ; aperture 
rather small, lip thickened and denticulated within, conspicuously 
notched behind ; dusky brown or nearly black, sometimes 
obscurely lighter-banded on the middle of the body-whorl, and 
frequently the sutural tubercles form a narrow white band. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Panama, Galapagos. 

C. PARVA, Sowb. PL 57, figs. 3-5. 

Minutely longitudinally ribbed, the interstices with fine 
revolving striae ; yellowish brown, with a chestnut-colored supe- 
rior band, and base. Length, 5-8 mill. 

West Coast Central America. 

The shell figured by Reeve (fig. 3) differs much from the type 
and is apparently not adult. C. pamila, Duclos (fig. 5) appears 
to be synonymous. 

C. SPADICEA, Philippi. PL 57, fig. 6. 

Cylindrically oblong, acuminated at the apex, longitudinally 
ribbed, and decussated by faint revolving striae, slightly tuber- 
culated at the sutures ; dark chocolate, with a narrow white 
band on the periphery, and sutural granules also whitish. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Mazatlan. 

A narrower shell than C. nigricans, with similar sculpture and 
colors. 



SEMINELLA. 169 

C. OBESA, C. B. Ad. PL 57, figs. 7-9, 20. 

Shell ovately ventricose, longitudinally ribbed, a little crimped 
at the sutures, with fine revolving striae, sometimes obsolete 
except towards the base of the body-whorl ; dusky or yellowish, 
chestnut-banded near the suture, and again on the middle or base 
of body-whorl. Length, 5-7 mill. 

West Indies; Mouth of St. John's River, Florida. 

G. cancellata, G-askoin (fig. 8), is founded on a dead, faded 
specimen of this species. Reeve's description of C obesa is very 
bad, and his figure does not correspond with his description 
nor does it represent the species. In C. decipiens, Ad. (fig. 9), 
the ribs are early evanescent on the body-whorl, and the aper- 
ture has a well-defined marginal varix ; it cannot be separated, 
even as a variety. 

C. OSTREICOLA, E. A. Smith. PL 57, fig. 19. 

Minute, subfusiform, blackish brown, longitudinally ribbed, 
ribs slightly nodulous at the upper part ; transversely grooved 
towards the base ; spire acute, rather longer than the mouth ; 
whorls six, sloping, scarcely convex ; nucleus smooth ; last whorl 
somewhat swollen, contracted towards the base ; aperture oblong, 
dark brown within ; lip with a moderate sinus above, denticulated 
within ; canal very short ; columella with a nodulous callosity 

above. L. 4, diam. 2 mill. 

Florida (on Ostrea mrginica). 

Said to be allied to C. nigricans, but I think its closest rela- 
tionships are with C. obexa, Ads. The figure represents a more 
stumpy form than that species, but the description, copied above, 
indicates no differential character. 

C. ATRATA, Gould. PL 57, figs. 10-17. 

Shell plicately ribbed, with revolving striae at base ; lip 
scarcely denticulated within ; dark brown, nearty black, some- 
times with two or three brown bands. Length, 5 mill. 
Hong-Kong Harbor (Stimpson) ; Pt. Jackson, Australia 

(Brazier) ; Aracan (Hanley) ; Viti Islands 

(Garrett) ; New Caledonia (Souverbie). 

Probably C. melanida, Duel. (fig. 11), G. levania, Duclos (fig. 

13), G. atomella, Reeve, not Duclos (fig. 10), and G. pumila, 

Souverb.'(fig. 12), are synonyms. It is a common shell, of wide 

distribution. I am much inclined to include here G. ida, Duclos 

22 



170 SEMINELLA. 

(figs. 14-17). The figures have no size-mark attached, yet there 
can be little doubt that they are greatly magnified ; they include 
shells more varied in color than anything we have been accus- 
tomed to refer to C. atrata, yet among them is one that is per- 
fectly and others that are nearly typical in this respect. 

C. NISITELLA, DucloS. PL 57, fig. 18. 

Yery like the C. ida which I have above referred to C. atrata, 
except in size, being 15 mill, long, according to the size-mark 

accompanying the figure. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. DIGGLESI, Brazier. PI. 56, fig. 100. 

Shell oblong-ovate, thin, glassy, whitish, marked with oblique 
reddish lines, longitudinally narrowly ribbed ; whorls five and 
a half, tabled at the suture ; apex acute, light blue ; aperture 
ear-shaped, half the length of the shell; outer lip minutely 
denticulated within ; columella curved, finely striated, with a 
callus extending to the upper part ; canal short. Length, 3 mill. 
N. E. Coast of Australia, 18 fathoms (Brazier). 

C. GOWLLANDI, Brazier. PL 57, fig. 21. 

Oblong-ovate, rather solid, horny yellow, longitudinally ribbed 
as far as the centre of the last whorl; ribs rounded and smooth, 
interstices smooth, below obliquely striated ; whorls eight, mod- 
erately convex, encircled with a reddish band on the centre of 
the whorls, with two on the last, one in the middle and one below, 
grained at the suture; apex acute, very smooth; aperture ear- 
shaped, short, outer lip thickened, smooth ; columella sinuous, 
coated with callus, upper part with a tooth-like callus spreading 
towards the outer lip ; canal short, straight. Length, 4'5 mill. 
N. E. Australia (under stones); San Cristoval, Solomon's Is. 

C. LENTIGINOSA, Reeve. PL 57, figs. 22, 23. 

Shell elongately ovate, moderately solid, purplish olive, with a 
band of white dots just below the suture, and another encircling 
the middle of the last whorl ; whorls six, strongly and closely 
longitudinally ribbed, the ribs becoming evanescent towards the 
base of the lower whorl, which is transversely grooved ; aperture 
narrowly subquadrate ; canal short, everted and recurved. 

Length. 3*5 mill. 

Port Jackson, under stones at low- water (Angas) ; 

Darnley Is., Torres Sts., Australia (Brazier). 



SEMINELLA. 171 

I include in the synonymy G. Smithi, Angas (fig. 23), from 
which the above description is copied. Mr. Angas changed the 
name of lentiginosa, Reeve, preoccupied by Hinds, to C. Darwini, 
but as Hinds' species is a synonym of C. atramentaria, Sowb., 
Reeve's name can be used. 

C. SPECIOSA, Angas. PI. 57, fig. 24. 

Shell minute, fusiform, thin, subtransparent ; yellowish, orna- 
mented with very fine undulating longitudinal chestnut lines, 
and encircled by two bands of irregular square or crescent-shaped 
opaque white spots, and frequently a narrow, subcentral chestnut 
band ; whorls five, the last longitudinally plicate above, smooth 
below. Length, 3 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Mangelia Atkinsoni, Tenison-Woods, is a synonym. 

C. FULMINEA, Gould. 

Spire and upper part of body-whorl with flexuous plications, 
lower part of bod}- -whorl with revolving striae ; ovate-lanceolate, 
shining, whorls six, convex, ornamented with angulated lines of 
orange and chestnut ; lip simple, slightly thickened behind, 
smooth within and purplish. Length, 7 mill. 

St. Simon's Bay (Stimpsoa). 

The folds are said to be unusually distinct and prominent. I 
am not acquainted with this species. 

C. MINUSCULA, Gould. 

Shell minute, thick, elongate, fuscous; whorls seven, slightly 
convex, with narrow ribs, obsoletely clathrate below ; aperture 
about half the length of the shell, the lip arcuate, acute, granulated 
within. The variety is thinner, horn-colored, with two dark 
revolving threads. L. 4, diam. 1*5 mill. 

Ousima (Stimpson). 

Unknown to me. The types of this, the preceding and 
following species described by Gould are believed to have been 
destroyed by fire at Chicago. 

C. NEBULOSA, Gould. 

Shell small, elongately ovate, turreted, composed of eight 
slightly convex tabulated whorls, with a sutural line and about 
twenty undulations ; variegated with yellow-brown ; the last 



172 SEMINELLA. 

whorl with revolving striae; aperture one-third the length of the 

shell, lunate. L. 6 mill., diam. 2*5 mill. 

China Sea (Stimpson). 

C. MINUTA, Gould. 

Shell minute, ovate, turreted, straw-color, with twelve acute 
longitudinal plications, and revolving striae ; aperture about one- 
third the length of the shell, the lip somewhat gibbous within. 

L. 2-5 diam. 1 mill. 

China Sea (Stimpson). 
C. DORSUOSA, Gould. 

Shell small, elongate, ovately fusiform, shining, waxy with a 
subsutural chestnut band and another at the base ; whorls eight, 
shouldered, somewhat convex, with seven ribs and thin trans- 
verse striae ; aperture lunate with acute lip. 

L. T mill., diam. 3 mill. 

Hong-Kong (Stimpson). 
C. BALTEATA, Gould. 

Shell minute, rhomboidal, elongated, shining, straw-colored, 
banded with chestnut; whorls seven, the three earlier ones 
simple, the rest lirate with a subsutural impressed line, and the 
interstices of the ribs with revolving striae ; aperture narrowly 

lunate, lip simple. L. 4 mill., diam. 2 mill. 

China Sea. 
C. ALTERNATA, Gould. 

Shell minute, elongately ovate, shining ; straw-color, with 
elongated chestnut spots arranged on alternate plications ; whorls 
five, with twelve obtuse plications, and anterior revolving striae; 
aperture short, narrow, lip thickened, crenate within. 

L. 3, diam. 1*5 mill. 

Hong-Kong. 
C. NANA, Dunker. 

Shell small, oblong or nearly biconical, with exserted acute 
spire ; whorls five, longitudinally plicate, the last half the length 
of the shell ; spire white, body-whorl mostly chestnut ; aperture 

narrow, variegated within. Length, 4 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
Unfigured. 

C. ZONATA, Gould. 

Shell minute, fusiform, shining, waxy, with a subsutural chest- 
nut band and a wider basal one ; whorls six, contracted below, 



SEMI NELL A. 113 

with ten to twelve flexuous plications ; aperture narrow, with 

acute, simple lip. L. 3, diam. 2 mill. 

Kagosima (Stimpson). 

Mr. E. A. Smith refers this to the genus Zafra, described as 
one of the Pleurotomidse, but which he thinks belongs to 
Columbellidae. 

C. NEVILLI, Tryon. PL 57, fig. 25. 

Shell long and narrow, with a few narrow longitudinal ribs 
separated by wide interspaces, and indistinct revolving striae ; a 
groove below the suture of the upper whorls, becoming obsolete 
near the last whorl ; outer lip acute, slightly emarginate at the 
top, striated within. Length, 5 mill. 

Mauritius. 

Described by G. and H. Nevill as (7. balteata, a name preoc- 
cupied by Gould. 

C. CLATHRATA, Brazier. 

Shell ovately fusiform, yellowish white, polished, longitudinally 
roundly ribbed, ribs smooth, interstices clathrate ; suture canal- 
iculated, noduled above and below, whorls six, convex, the last 
lower half transversely grooved on the back giving the surface 
a noduled appearance; aperture white, nearly oblong-ovate, 
columella straight, with thin lip, having three white nodules, 
peristome thin at edge, thickened internally, having eight 
tubercles, the second upper one prominent, somewhat lirate, 
sinuate at the upper part, canal short, narrow. 

L. 7, diam. 4 mill. 

Katow, New Guinea, 1 fms., sandy mud bottom (Brazier). 

An unfigured species with which I am unacquainted. 

C. ISOMELLA, Duclos. PI. 57, fig. 26. 

Shell clathrate by longitudinal ribs and revolving striae ; white, 
variegated with orange-brown; lip thickened, smooth within. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This and the several following species have been figured and 
named by Duclos, but not described, nor recognized by subse- 
quent monographers. The present species may possibly be a 
small Pleurotomid. 



174 SEMINELLA. 

C. LINIGERA, Duclos. PI. 57, fig. 27. 

Shell of the general character of the preceding species, but 
narrower, with stronger ribs and slightly dentate within the 

aperture. Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

C. OXYLLIA, Duclos. PL 57, fig. 28. 

Shell broad ovate, spire and upper portion of body-whorl 
strongly ribbed ; with revolving striae below, becoming obsolete 
on the middle and upper portion of the body-whorl ; lip with 
an external varix, strongly dentate within ; yellowish brown 

maculated with chestnut. Length, 5+ mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. ACLEONTA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 31. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, with revolving striae at the base ; 
light chestnut-color ; columella tuberculated, outer lip dentate 

within. Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
Perhaps a variety of C. oxyllia. 

C. CLEDONIDA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 29. 

Shell with tabulated whorls, biangulated on the body-whorl, 
and nodulated on the angle, longitudinally ribbed, crossed by 
impressed striae ; yellowish brown. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. BUMILIA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 30. 

Shell with distant well-rounded whorls, and distant rounded 
ribs crossed by revolving, narrow riblets, contracted into a short 
open canal below ; inner lip slightly plicate, outer lip dentate 
within ; brown, darker on the ribs. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. PROSYMNIA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 32. 

Form and sculpture of the shell very like the preceding 
species ; but the ribs are flatter, the revolving riblets replaced 
by striae or grooves forming smaller tubercles between the inter- 
sections, outer lip more strongly dentate within ; chestnut- 
colored. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

C. ANAIDEA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 33. 

Shell with elevated spire, moderately convex whorls and well- 
impressed sutures; longitudinally ribbed, the ribs becoming 



SEMINELLA. 175 

evanescent towards the middle of the body-whorl ; with fine 
revolving striae, most conspicuous towards the base ; lip thick- 
ened and strongly toothed within ; yellowish white. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
Possibly a fossil, or water-worn if recent. 

C. ORTIGIA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 34. 

Differs but little from C. anaidea, Duclos ; the teeth within 
the outer lip are finer and more numerous. Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. NEPTUNIA, Duclos. PI. 58, fig. 35. 

Shell clathrate by longitudinal and revolving riblets ; aperture 
rather large, the outer lip toothed within ; chocolate-brown. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. ORTONIA, Duclos. PI. 58, fig. 36. 

Shell white, covered by nodules formed by the intersection of 
close longitudinal and spiral sculpture ; aperture slightly toothed 

within. Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
Much resembles C. prosymnia, described above. 

C. SEGESTA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 37. 

Shell ovate-oblong with shouldered whorls, and distant, 
rounded, longitudinal ribs and revolving striae in the interstices, 
becoming continuous towards the base of the body-whorl where 
the ribs are evanescent ; aperture contracted by a columellar 
callus and the outer lip into a short oblique anterior canal; outer 
lip with small teeth on the inner margin ; yellowish with a 
chestnut band covering the shoulder and a narrower, interrupted 
one on the periphery of the last whorl. Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. TESTINA, Duclos. PL 58, fig. 38. 

Shell ovate, with conical spire, last whorl obtusely angulated 
on the periphery, where the longitudinal ribs apparently become 
subnodulous, those of the spire forming nodules above the 
sutures ; grayish or yellowish white, the nodules chocolate or 
blackish; outer lip widely sinuated behind, denticulated within. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



176 SEMINELLA. 

C. STRTATULA, Dunker. PL 58, fig. 39. 

Shell subcylindrical, with acuminated and sharp-pointed spire, 
closely longitudinally plicate, the plicae sometimes becoming 
obsolete towards the middle of the body-whorl, with close 
revolving striae crossing over the ribs, but strongest towards the 
base of the shell ; lip varicosely thickened externally and slightly 
plicate within ; yellowish, with chestnut fascicles at the sutures 
and one or two bands of oblique chestnut spots. 

L. t'5 mill., diam. 2'5 mill. 

Talieiti. 

Described from specimens which formed a portion of the 
original collection of this species. 

C. COSTELLTFERA, Pease. 

Shell oblong-ovate, longitudinally ribbed; ribs about twenty, 
close, compressedly rounded, extending the whole length of the 
whorls, very slightly constricted beneath the sutures ; whorls 
five, plano-convex; aperture rather wide; sinus open, on the 
central third of the lip ; base subtruncate ; canal very short ; 
ribs grayish white : interstices sometimes reddish brown ; last 
whorl partially banded or irregularly painted with reddish 

brown. L. 5, diam. 2 mill. 

Polynesia. 
Unfigured, and unknown to me by specimens. 

C. SULCOSA, Sowb. PI. 58, fig. 40. 

Shell lead-black, with distant, sharp, longitudinal, lighter- 
colored ribs, often appearing continuous from apex to base, 
interstices sometimes showing revolving striae ; aperture choco- 
late, the lip notched behind, minutely denticulate within. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Panama; Annaa and Lord Hood's Islands (Cuming). 

C. MOESTA, C. B Adams. PL 58, fig. 41. 

Shell very dark chocolate-color, obliquely closely ribbed, the 
interstices with revolving striae ; the ribs disappear upon the 
upper portion of the body-whorl and the striae become con- 
tinuous ; lip externally varicose, notched behind $ crenulated 

within. Length, t'5 mill. 

Panama. 

Possibly only a narrow variety of C. mgricans, Sowb. 



SEMINELLA. 1ft 

C. GUATEMALENSIS, Reeve. PL 58, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell wide ovate, closely ribbed, decussated by revolving 
linear grooves ; yellowish white, with a superior band of tessel- 
lated brown spots, and another broader one below the periphery ; 
aperture chocolate, lip dentate within. Length, f'5 mill. 

Guatemala (Reeve) ; Panama (C. B. Adams). 

This is the C. tessellata of C. B. Adams (fig. 43), not Gaskoin. 

G. DIMINUTA, C. B. Adams. PI. 58, fig. 44. 

Shell minute, cancellated by longitudinal ribs and revolving 
striae; yellowish, tinged or maculated with chestnut, with the 
base stained chestnut or chocolate. Length, 8-4 mill. 

Panama (Adams) ; Mazatlan (Carpenter). 

Anachis rufotiri&a, Carp., from the latter locality, is a 
synonym. 

C. PULCHRIOR, C. B. Adams. PL 58, fig. 45. 

Shell thin, subpellucid, smooth; yellowish, with chestnut 
blotches and minute dots arranged in quincunx order, the colors 
fascicled or filleted at the sutures ; lip rather sharp, thickened 
and sinuated behind, with a few granules inside. 

Length, 4'5 mill. 

Panama. 
C. UNDATA, Carpenter. 

Shell small, turreted, the nuclear whorls smooth, tumid, with 
mammillate apex, the others longitudinally ribbed, the ribs nine 
in number, obsolete anteriorly and posteriorly, with distant 
acute spiral lirse ; aperture oval, with a short, straight canal, 
outer lip acute, not lirate within ; color reddish brown, under a 
thin epidermis. L. -44, diam '2 in. 

Catalina Island, Cal. 

Operculum nassoid (?), the only one obtained was broken in 
extracting it. The sculpture consists of elongated knobs swelling 
in the middle ; with spiral lines hanging as it were from pier to 
pier, as in a suspension bridge. 

C. PENICILLATA, Carpenter. PL 58, fig. 46. 

Shell small, Metuloid, turreted, yellowish, more or less marbled 
with chestnut ; nuclear whorls two, helicoid, tumid, with mammil- 
lary apex; normal whorls six, convex, with rounded longitudinal 
23 



178 SEMI NELL A. 

ribs crossed by strong spiral striae ; aperture pyriform, effuse 
below, the lip posteriorly sinuate. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Sta. Barbara, 8. Diego, Catalina /., California, 

shore to ten fathoms. 

Belongs to a small group of narrow elongated species inhab-' 
iting the West Coast of North America. 

C. SUBTUERITA, Carpenter. PI. 58, fig. 47. 

Shell narrow, subcylindrical, consisting of seven moderately 
convex whorls ; with close oblique longitudinal ribs and revolving 
striae in the interstices ; yellowish to chocolate-brown ; aperture 
small, broadly oval, the lip acute and smooth within. 

Length, 4'5 mill. 

Todas Santos Bay, L. California (Hemphill). 
C. TINCTA, Carpenter. 

An unfigured species, small, turreted, white, longitudinally 
costate and spirally striate, tinged with reddish orange on the 
costae ; aperture subquadrate, lip thickened in the middle. 

L. 5 mill., diam. 2 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

The only specimen I have seen of this species, is not in suffi- 
ciently good condition for figuring. It is very narrowly cylin- 
drical, with the aperture very small for the length of the shell. 

C. FUSCOSTRIGATA, Carpenter. 

Shell small, turreted, livid, shining, with a chestnut band ; sub- 
obsoletely longitudinally ten-ribbed. L. -13, diam. -045 in. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

Described from a single specimen, which I have not seen. 
Unfigured. 

C. SERRATA, Carpenter. 

Shell sculptured with undulated, indistinct, longitudinal ribs 
and revolving striae, under a fimbriated epidermis ; fuscous, 
maculated with purple. L. '28 in., diam. -13 in. 

Mazatlan to Cape St. Lucas. 
C. NIGROFUSCA, Carpenter. 

Shell blackish-brown, with subundulated livid lines; whorls 
flattened, with longitudinal ribs, the interstices and base of body- 
whorl spirally striate; lip varicose, sinuated behind, dentate 

within. L. *4, diam. '15 inch. 

Mazatlan. 



SEMINELLA. 179 

C. ALBONODOSA, Carpenter. 

Shell greenish white, maculated and marked with zigzag lines 
of chestnut, and maculated with white below the sutures ; whorls 
flattened, obsoletely costate, and spirally striate towards the 

base ; lip dentate within. L. *13, diam. 063 in. 

Mazatlan. 

The above three minute species remain unfigured ; very few 
specimens occurred. 

C. STEARNSII, Tryon. PI. 58, fig. 48. 

Whorls five, convex; surface white, with fine revolving grooves 
and no ribs ; lip simple, ribbed within. Length, *16 inch. 

Tampa Bay, W. Florida. 

Described by Mr. Stearns under the specific name of Jilosa, 
preoccupied by Angas for an Australian species. 

C. HORDEACEA, PMlippi. 

A minute, unfigured species, longitudinally costate and the 
costse becoming evanescent upon the body-whorl which is striate 
at the base ; orange-brown, with a darker central band ; lip 
thickened and crenate within. 

Red Sea. 

Unidentified by subsequent explorers. 

C. GUILDINGII, Sowb. PI. 58, figs. 49, 50. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, decussated with spiral striae, last 
whorl with subangulated periphery; aperture ovate, sinuous, 
finely denticulated within ; yellowish chestnut to dark chocolate, 
strigate longitudinally with a darker shade of color, with a 
central, irregular white band. Length, 8 mill. 

West Indies. 
C, CATENATA, Sowb. PL 58, figs. 51-55. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, with revolving striae towards the 
base ; ribs sometimes slightly nodulous at the sutures ; aperture 
rather small, columella tuberculate, outer lip denticulated within 
the simple margin ; yellowish or light blush-color, tessellated or 
interruptedly banded with chestnut. Length, 8-9 mill. 

West Indies. 

The typical state of this species shows two bands of spots, 
more or less defined by darker borders, but the coloring is very 
irregular, the bands being usually barely indicated by a closer 



180 MITROPSIS, CONIDEA. 

arrangement of spots and streaks which cover the entire surface. 
The latter state is represented by C. m^rwZa,Dunker (fig. 52), an 
intermediate one by C. costulata, C. B. Ad. Other synonyms 
are C. Antillarum, Reeve (fig. 53), C. scutulata, Reeve (fig. 54), 
C. sparsa, Rve. (fig. 55). 

C. VIRGINEA, Gould. 

Shell minute, rhomboidally fusiform, with fourteen longitudinal 
plications and a few anterior revolving striae ; whorls six, subtab- 
ulate, with an impressed subsutural line ; aperture narrow, the 

lip without teeth. L. 4, diam. 1 mill. 

China Seas (Stimpson). 

Unfigured. The types were probably destroyed in the great 
Chicago fire. 

Section VIII. Mitropsis, Pease. 

The only character in the description by which this group is 
distinguished from Seminella is the plicate columella, yet these 
plications appear in the figure of the only species to be con- 
nected with the external basal grooving ; its distinctness from 
Seminella must be considered doubtful. Pease described it as a 
genus of Mitridse. 

C. PAUMOTENSIS, Tryon. PL 58, fig. 56. 

Shell fusiform, much attenuated at both ends, white, shining, 
spire small, slender ; whorls longitudinally ribbed ; ribs rather 
remote, rounded, descending from the sutures, last whorl gibbous 
on its right side ; transversely finely striate ; sutures widely and 
deeply grooved ; base grooved transversely ; canal recurved, 

columella four-plaited. Length, 1 mill. 

Paumotus. 

" The callosity bordering the inner lip gives it a Columbelloid 
appearance." The above is Pease's description of Mitropsis 
fusiformis : the specific name being preoccupied in Columbella, 
I am forced to change it. 

Section IX. Conidea, Swainson. 

Shell oval, mitriform, smooth, with moderately elevated, 
convex spire ; inner lip reflected in front ; outer lip incurved 
and thickened in the jniddle and crenulate within. 



CONIDEA. 181 

C. OVULATA, Lam. PL 59, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell covered with fine revolving striae ; dark chocolate-color 
irregularly spotted, clouded or strigated with white. 

Length, 12-15 mill. 

West Indies, on pieces of madrepore, stony ground, 

1 to 2 feet water. 

Many specimens are proportionally narrower than my figure ; 
I have also before me a narrow variety (C. ovuloides, C. B. Ad., 
fig. 58), in which the color is light chestnut, the white markings 
usually including an irregular central band. 

C. OBTUSA, Sowb. PL 59, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell oblong-cylindrical, with an obtuse but sharp-pointed 
spire, smooth ; roseate or yellowish with chestnut spots or zigzag 
lines ; sometimes chestnut, with zigzag lines and reticulations of 
yellowish white ; epidermis thin, translucent, finely ridged ; 
interior of aperture violet or purple. Length, 12-16 mill. 

Viti and other Polynesian Islands. 

C. MARMORATA, Gray. PL 59, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell fulvous orange, with irregular white markings. 
Length, 11-14 mill. 

South Australia (Angas); Philippines (Cuming); 

Viti Islands (Garrett). 

Distinguished from the last species at once by its form and 
more simple coloring. 

C. DORMITOR, Sowb. PL 59, fig. 63. 

Shell closely marked by revolving striae ; violaceous, under a 
smooth, semitransparent chestnut epidermis. Length, 8 mill. 

West Indies. 
C. EGERFA, Duclos. PL 59, fig. 64. 

Shell yellowish, clouded with light chestnut ; bodj^-whorl some- 
what folded on the back, beneath the suture, Length, 13 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. TRINGA, Lam. PL 59, figs. 65, 66. 

Oblong, cylindrical, smooth, under a very thin epidermis ; 
white, with chocolate spots and stripes, usually arranged in a 
zigzag longitudinal manner. Length, T-l inch. 

New Caledonia; Viti Islands; Japan. 

A minor variety of this species, the atlults not exceeding 't 



182 CONIDEA. 

inch in length, appears to be a connecting form with G. pardalina, 
var. sagena. Valuta tringa of Linnaeus and of Lamarck's first 
edition is a difficult species to make out ; it has been referred, 
with some justice, to Mitra. In the second edition of Lam., 
Deshayes repeats the original description, including the three- 
plicate columella, but decides that the shell is a Columbella. I do 
not think he had good grounds for this decision, but as the shell 
I herein figure has become known to conchologists under this 
specific name and authority it appears more convenient to con- 
tinue to use them. C. undata, Duclos (fig. 66), is a synonym. 

C. FLAVA, Brug. PL 59, figs. 67-72. 

Shell cylindrically oblong, smooth, with revolving striae towards 
the base, covered by a thin epidermis ; orange-brown to choco- 
late, spotted and blotched with white, interior of aperture 
usually more or less violaceous. Length, *75-l'l inches. 

Indian Ocean, Japan, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Polynesia. 

I figure two well-marked types of coloring in this species ; it 
ts very variable, approaching C. tringa on the one side and G. 
discors on the other, and it is not unlikely that these, as well as 
several other allied species, will eventually be consolidated. G. 
punctata, Sowb. (fig. 69), C. lugubris, Kiener (fig. 70), G. funi- 
culata, Souv. (fig. 71 \ are synonyms. G. rubicundula, Quoy 
(fig. 72), may possibly belong here ; it is unknown to me except 
through the description and (apparently) poor figure. 

C. DISCORS, Gmelin. PI. 59, figs. 73-77. 

Shell obovate, with short, conically convex spire; chestnut- 
colored or orange-red, spotted or interruptedly strigate with 
white, with frequently a few larger white spots and a broad 
orange sutural band ; interior of aperture often violaceous. 

Length, -75-1 inch. 

East Africa, Borneo, Japan, Philippines, New Guinea. 

The synonyms are G. semipunctata, Lam. (fig. 74), G. splendi- 
dula, Sowb. (fig. 75), G. zelina, Duclos, (fig. 7.7). 

C. EUSTOMA, Jousseaume. PI. 59, fig. 78. 

Shell oblong, obesely acuminate, smooth, shining, white macu- 
lated with chestnut ; aperture violet-tinted. Length, 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The figure appears to represent a shell of abnormal growth. 



META, STROMBINA. 183 

Section X. Meta, Reeve. 

Shell coniform, with short, conic spire ; aperture narrow, 
linear ; outer lip nearly straight, crenulated within. 

C. PHILIPPINARUM, Reeve. PI. 59, figs. 79-82 ; PI. 60, figs. 

83-8T. 

Shell white, with longitudinal zigzag lines and spots of 
chestnut, sometimes widened and darkened so as to form an 
interrupted superior revolving band ; aperture usually white 
within. Length, -75-1-1 inches. 

Batavia, Philippines. 

With this species I unite C. epamella, Duclos (fig. 81). The 
following are all probable varieties of C. Philippinarum. 

Var. CONIFORMIS, Sowb. Fig. 82. 

Whorls rather sharply angled at the upper part, the spire 
superficially channeled ; white, closely reticulated with chestnut 

or chocolate. Length, 1*1 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 
Yar. CEDO-NULLI, Reeve. Figs. 83-87. 

Shell chestnut, conspicuously blotched with white, sometimes 
forming a sutural band of alternating white and chestnut spots. 
G. Dupontise, Kiener (fig. 84), and C. macrostoma, Anton (fig. 85) 
appear to be synonyms ; the latter not fully adult. 

Yar. DUBIA, Sowb. Figs. 86, 87. 

Shell orange or rosy orange, sometimes with a central band of 
white and chestnut spots. 

Section XI. Strombina, Mb'rch. 

Shell fusiform, turriculated ; spire elevated, sharp; whorls 
gibbous, nodulous ; inner lip with a rather thick callus ; outer 
lip thick, sinuous behind ; anterior canal well formed. The 
group is characteristic of the warm and tropical seas of the 
West Cc/ast of America. 

C. BICANALIFERA, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 88. 

Shell smooth, spirally grooved at the base; lip expanded and 
margined externally, thickened and finely crenulated within, 
rostrated posteriorly and separated from the bodj^-whorl by a 
deep channel ; pale livid, longitudinally painted with waved 



184 STROMBINA. 

chestnut lines, external lip-margin chestnut, interior of aperture 

pale violaceous. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Panama, Galapagos Is. 

C. GIBBERULA, Sowb. PI. 60, fig. 90 ; PL 63, fig. 71. 

Body-whorl with callous humps on the back and side ; these 
are white, the rest of the surface having a reticulation of chestnut 
lines on a yellowish white surface ; lip varicosely thickened exter- 
nally, smooth or slightly crenulated within. Length, 12-16 mill. 
W. Coast of Central America; Payta, Peru (d'Orb.). 

C. CALLOSIUSCULA, Tapparone-Canefri. 

Shell fusiform, solid, shining, luteo-corneous, marked with 
chestnut, subpellucid ; whorls irregularly longitudinally strigate 
or subcostulate, the last gibbous and callous on the back, sulcate 
at the base; lip thickened and white externally, slightly dentate 

in the middle internally. L. 9, cliam. 3'66 mill. 

Papuan Islands. 

Unfigured. Closely allied to the preceding, but smaller, nar- 
rower, without side callus, etc. 

C. ALBERTISII, Tapparone-Canefri. 

Resembling the preceding species, but larger ; luteo-corneous, 
with an articulated zone of chestnut and white at the suture, and 
two narrower chestnut zones below, marked longitudinally with 
irregular, interrupted chestnut lines. L. 11, diam. 4 mill. 

Papuan Islands. 

Unfigured. Somewhat larger and differently colored from C. 
callosiuscula. 

C. CLAVULUS, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 89. 

Shell yellowish white, with zigzag or reticulated markings of 
chestnut or chocolate ; outer lip externally greatly thickened, 
the posterior canal sometimes in advance of the posterior end, 
this displacement apparently caused by a callous thickening of 
the hind part of the parietal wall. Length, 23 mill. 

Bay of Montija, W. Coast Centr. Am. 17 fms. (Guming). 

Described as a Pleurotoma, but the position of the sinus 
appears to be merely accidentally displaced by the development 
of the callus. I am somewhat doubtful whether this is really 
distinct from the next species. 



STROMBINA. 185 

C. DORSATA, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 91. 

Yellowish white, maculated and closely longitudinally marked 
with flexuous or zigzag chestnut lines ; aperture externally 
callously thickened, with a corresponding thickening on the 
opposite side of the body-whorl, and a hump on its back. 

Length, -8-1-1 inches. 

West Coast of Columbia; Central America. 

C. gibberula, very much resembles this species, but is much 
smaller. 

C. PAVONINA, Hinds. PL 60, figs. 92, 93. 

Shell yellowish white, longitudinally, flexuously striped and 
strigated with chocolate ; striate towards the base, which is 
narrowed and recurved ; lip callously thickened externally, 

denticulate within. Length, 22 mill. 

Panama. 
C. Haneti, Petit (fig. 93), is a synonym. 

C. NIVEA, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 94. 

Whorls strongly plicate, with the interstices and base striate; 

white. Length, 19 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Reeve acknowledges that this is not a very satisfactory species. 
I am inclined to think it a distorted growth of C. pavonina, as 
in that species some of the growth-lines are incipient plications 
and the superior striae are sometimes recognizable with a glass. 
It was probably beach-worn. 

C. BOURJOTIANA, Crosse. PL 60, fig. 95. 

Shell smooth, white, with light chestnut undulated longitudinal 
lines ; aperture light yellowish, white-margined, nearly eden- 
tulous within. Length, 14 mill. 

. Habitat unknown. 

C. PULCHERRIMA, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 96. 

Shell spirally ridged and longitudinally plicated, the spire 
acuminated, with a sharp apex ; yellowish brown, the ridges 
tinged with chestnut; lip thickened, strongly dentate within. 

Length, 23 mill. 

Gulf of Dulce, Central America. 

Described from a single specimen, dredged by Mr. Cuming 
from sandy mud at a depth of ten fathoms. It is remarkably 
distinct from all its congeners. 
24 



186 STROMBINA. 

C. MACULOSA, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 97. 

Whorls tubercularly coronated ; white reticulated with chest- 
nut. Length, 1 inch. 

West Coast of Central America to Cape St. Lucas. 

C. ELEGANS, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 98. 

Shell regularly and somewhat closely longitudinally ribbed, 
with revolving striae towards the base ; yellowish white, longi- 
tudinally marked with chestnut zigzag lines ; aperture white, 
outer lip strongly dentate within. Length, 1'5 inches. 

Guacomayo, W. Co. Central America, in sandy mud. 

C. TURRITA, Sowb. PL 60, figs. 99, 100. 

Shell smooth ; yellowish white, closely reticulated with chest- 
nut, articulated at the suture ; aperture whitish, without teeth. 
Length, 35 mill. 

West Coast of Central America, in coarse gravel and sand 

at 10 fathoms (Cuming). 

Sowerby has figured a pale variety of this species (fig. 100), 
in which the color-markings are sharply angular. 

C. ANGULARIS, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 1. 

Whorls with strong longitudinal ribs, the last one with an 
angulated periphery, below which the ribs become obsolete and 
are replaced by revolving striae ; aperture strongly dentate 
within ; yellowish white, stained with chestnut. Length, 32 mill. 

Panama. 

Described from a single specimen obtained by Mr. Cuming. 
I suspect that several of the species of this group will prove to 
be mere variations of a single type when a sufficient series has 
been obtained to study them properly. 

C. SUBULATA, Sowb. PL 60, fig. 2. 

Whorls with a narrow shoulder defined by a carina, covered 
by revolving striae; lip externally thickened, strongly and 
numerously dentate within ; epidermis yellowish, stained with 
light chestnut. Length, 1-5 inches. Habitat unknown. 

Described many years ago from a single specimen and yet 
remaining unique. The carina indicates abnormal growth. The 
specific name is preoccupied by Duclos for a species which he 
figured without description and which has not been subsequently 
identified. 



STROMBINA. 

C. RECURVA, Sowerby. PL 60, figs. 3, 4 ; PI. 61 , fig. T. 
Shell yellowish white, more or less stained with chestnut. 

Length, 1-1-1-5 inches. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

With this I unite C. lanceolata, Sowb. (fig. 4), and G. fusi- 
formis, Hinds (fig. t),the distinctive characters of those species 
being included in the range of variation exhibited by a large 
series of C. recurva. 

C. TERQUEMI, Jousseaume. PL 61, fig. 8. 

Shell yellowish brown ; whorls eight, the first four rather 
smooth, the others longitudinally costate and spirally striate, 
the last gibbous above, the costae disappearing below the 
shoulder on which they form tubercles ; lip thickened externally, 
bituberculate within. Length, 19 mill. Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen in Dr. Jousseaume's col- 
lection. 

C. PUMTLTO, Reeve. PL 60, fig. 6. 

Shell fusiform, thick, rather gibbous, spire turreted, whorls 
rudely angled and noduled, nodules on the last whorl swollen, 
irregular ; whitish, faintly tinged with orange-brown ; aperture 
narrow, lip thickly varicose, obtusely denticulated within. 

Length, '75 inch. Cumana, Venezuela (Dyson). 

Very closely allied to C. recurva, but of shorter growth, more 
humped, and more irregularly noduled ; and from its habitat 
there is also reason to believe it distinct. The figure represents 
a reversed specimen and it is (except that of G. nivea) the only 
reversed figure that I have noticed. The above description is 
copied from Reeve j the locality is very doubtful. It appears to 
be closely related to G. Terquemi, Jouss., described above. 

Undetermined Species of Golumbella. 

C. DIGITALS, Lesson ; C. CLATHRA, Lesson. Sandwich Islands. 
C. PULICARIS, Lesson. Marquesas Islands. 

C. APTH^EGERA, Lesson. Acapulco. 

C. AMPLA, Lesson. Gambler Islands. 

C. BUCCINOIDES, Lesson. W. Coast of Central America. 

C. NLVEA, CINGULATA, PUSIFORMIS, PURPUROIDES and RETUSA, 

Anton. All without locality. 



188 ALCIRA, jESOPUS, ENGINA. 

Genus ALCIRA, H. Adams. 

The single species of this group is readily distinguished from 
other Columbellae by its somewhat expanded, simple lip and 
oblique columellar fold. 

A. ELEGANS, H. Adams. PI. 61, fig. 9. 

Shell elongate, reddish-brown ; whorls six, slightly convex, 
transversely striated (the striae stronger and more numerous on 
the basal portion of the last whorl), variegated with darker 
markings, and with some lighter spots next the suture; aperture 
equaling the spire in length. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Genus JESOPUS, Gould. 

Shell fusiform, gibbous, widely truncate in front ; aperture 
lunate, with a posterior callus, columella simple, vitreous ; suture 
abnormally arcuate near the aperture. Animal white, entarginate 
anteriorly, obtuse posteriorly, bearing a flabelliform corneous 
operculum ; head small, with short obtuse tentacles ; eyes median, 
external ; siphon broad and very short. The curious curve of 
the suture near the posterior angle of the aperture, as if it had 
been drawn backward, thereby pulling back this angle and 
curving the last whorl downward, is very peculiar. The form 
and aspect of the shell, and the structure of the animal, indicate 
its place to be intermediate between Mitra and Columbella. 

JS&. JAPONICUS, Gould. 

Shell small, with seven somewhat tumid whorls, plicate poste- 
riorly, covered by revolving striae ; last whorl widely truncate, 
oval, three-fifths the length of the shell ; aperture lunate, the lip 
reflected, columella with a wide, vitreous, suberect lamina; 
chestnut-colored, lighter around the sutures. L. 7, diam. 2 mill. 
Kagosima Say, Japan; 5 fms., sandy bottom (Stirapson). 

Unfigured. 

Genus ENGINA, Gray. 

Shell ovate-conic ; spire sharp, with longitudinal nodulous 
ribs, decussated by revolving lines or riblets ; aperture narrow, 
with several oblique plications in front ; outer lip thickened, 
internally toothed, gibbous and grooved posteriorly. 



ENGINA. 189 

E. NODULOSA, Pease. PL 61, fig. 10. 

Shell dark chocolate, encircled by a narrow, white central 
band ; aperture bluish white. Length, 15 mill. 

Ebon .hi., Polynesia. 
E. CAEBONARIA, Reeve. PI. 61, figs. 11-13. 

Shell whitish , crossed by dark chocolate longitudinal tubercular 
ribs ; aperture often salmon-colored. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming); Panama (C. B. Adams); 

Galapagos Is. (Wimmer). 

E.forticostaia, Reeve (tig. 12), and E. crocostoma, Reeve (fig. 
13), are synonyms. 

E. ASTRICTA, Reeve. PI. 61, figs. 14, 15. 

Shell yellowish white, with low rounded longitudinal ribs, and 
close, narrow, dark chestnut revolving riblets. Length, 15 mill. 
Andaman Is. (E. A. Smith); Mauritius (von Martens). 

E. leqcozia, Duclos (fig. 15) appears to be identical. Ricinula 
iostoma, Reeve (Man. II, 188, t. 58, f. 248) is also possibly a 
synonym. 

E. ALVEOLATA, Kiener. PL 61, figs. 16-20. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed, ribs cut into tubercles by revolving 
grooves ; yellowish white, with alternate interrupted revolving 
bands of chocolate and orange, each usually tipping the tubercles 
only, and of the width of two tubercles ; aperture yellowish to 
dark chocolate. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Philippine, Viti, Caroline Is., Australia (Brazier). 

The usual coloration of the species, as described above, is 
represented by E. lauta, Reeve (fig. 18), the figures of E. alveolata 
g^ven by Kiener (figs. 16, 11) being without the orange bands. 
E. alveolata of Reeve, Carpenter, etc., is a very different species. 
Other synonyms are E. histrio, Reeve (fig. 19) and E. trifasciata, 
Reeve (fig. 20) the latter a scarcely distinguishable variety, in 
which the decussation is not so strongly marked as in the 
typical form. 

E. ZEPA, Duclos. PL 61, fig. 21. 

Shell yellowish white, the tuberculations of the longitudinal 
ribs colored by alternate revolving bands of dark chocolate and 

orange. Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



190 ENGINA. 

Figured and namad but not described. It is very much smaller 
than the last species, but otherwise so greatly resembles it that I 
suspect it to be the same. This and the following several species 
figured by Duclos have not been identified by any subsequent 
conchologist. 

E. IODOSIA, Duclos. PL 61, fig. 22. 

Yellowish, with a superior white band, having the width of 
three tubercles on the body-whorl, and of one tubercle on those 

of the spire. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Very like the preceding species in sculpture, but differs in 
coloring and in the aperture. 

E. MONILIFERA, Pease. PL 61, fig. 26. 

Shell covered with close, large, rounded longitudinal ribs, cut 
into large tubercles by revolving grooves ; yellowish brc^wn. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Sandwich Isles (Pease) ; Solomon Is. (Brazier). 

Very probably = E. iodosia, Duclos. Specimens from the 
latter locality are stated by Mr. E. A. Smith to have a median 
purplish band, with three spiral rows of tubercles, yellow, 
including the first, fifth and seventh rows. 

E. TELEA, Duclos. PL 61, fig. 23. 

Gray, with several interrupted dark red revolving lines. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

E. ANAKISIA, Duclos. PL 61, fig. 24. * 

Grayish white, with some dark red spots on the tuberculations. 

Length, 4*5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The outer lip is very peculiarly thickened and sculptured 
otherwise the species much resembles E. te*ea. The spire has 
lost the apex, by erosion, apparently. 

E. EPIDELIA, Duclos. PL 61, fig. 25. 

Gray, with very dark chocolate spots on the rather distant 
ribs, forming three interrupted bands. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



ENG1NA. 191 

E. SATORIDA, Duclos. PL 61, fig. 27. 

Ribs rather distant, prominent, well-rounded ; dark chestnut, 
with numerous narrow, nearly black revolving lines. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
E. NUMICIA, Duclos. PL 62, fig. 28. 

Yellowish brown, with three chocolate bands. Length, 6 mill. 
E. REEVEI, Tryon. PL 62, fig. 29. 

Yellowish white, ribs marked with chocolate,' forming inter- 
rupted revolving bands. Length, 16 mill. 

Panama to Cape St. LucaSj L. Cal., Australia (Brazier). 

Figured by Reeve as Eicinula alveolata, Kiener a very dif- 
ferent species. The Australian habitat is given upon the 
authority of an excellent conchologist. 

E. BELLA, Reeve. PL 62, figs. 30-32. 

Spire conically acuminate, base of aperture contracted, elon- 
gated and recurved ; roseate, with two broad chestnut bands, 
within which the tubercles are lighter. Length, 20 mill. 
Philippines (Cuming); Polynesia (Pease); 

Lord Hood's Isl. (Cuming); Solomon" 1 s Is. (Brazier). 

I include in the synonymy E. recurva, Reeve (tig. 31), and 
E. fragaria, Wood (fig. 32). I have already described and 
figured this species as a Peristernia (vol. iii, 82), but reproduce 
it here, as the generic characters are not very strongly marked, 
and some good conchologists prefer to consider it an Engina. 

E. PULCHRA, Reeve. PL 62, fig. 33. 

Shell gibbous, angularly shouldered, strongly ribbed, crossed 
by revolving riblets ; violet-brown , with a light central band. 

Length, 15-18 mill. Panama, Galapagos Is. 

It is E. Beeveana, C. B. Ad. Mr. Pease writes : * " I have 
received from Dr. P. P. Carpenter a specimen from the Gala- 
pagos Islands, labeled 'Type of (Sistrum) ochrostomaj and also 
one from Cape St. Lucas, described by him as ' oclirostoma, var. 
rufonotataS They differ widely from the Polynesian ochro- 
stoma, Blainv., belonging to another genus Engina. The type 
agrees with the description of Buccinum pulchrum, Reeve, col- 
lected by C timing at the Galapagos Is." 



* Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 116. 



192 ENGINA. 

E. ROSEA, Reeve. PL 62, figs. 34, 35. 

Rose-color zoned with dark chocolate ; aperture rose-color. 

Length, 15-21 mill. 

West Indies; Philippines (Cuming). 

E. Schrammi, Crosse (fig. 35), was described from a small 
specimen 9 mill. long. The West Indian habitat is attested 
by specimens before me from three different islands ; that of the 
Philippines needs confirmation. When the shell becomes water- 
worn, the pink coloring has changed to white, the dark chocolate 
to light chestnut. 

E. RUTILA, Reeve. PL 62, fig. 36. 

Shell grayish pink, with dark chocolate zones. 

Length, 21 mill. Habitat unknown. 

I suspect that this will prove a synonym of the preceding 
species. 

E. DEFORMIS, Reeve. PL 62, fig. 3f. ' 

Alternately banded with reddish yellow and brown. 
Length, 17 mill. Habitat unknown. 

I think this will also prove to be a synonym of E. rosea. 

E. FARINOSA, Gould. PI. 62, fig. 40. 

Distantly longitudinally ribbed, and spirally granularly 
striated ; yellowish brown, with indistinct dusky bands. 

Length, 15 mill. Sandwich Islands. 

Hindsia angicostata, Pease, and Triton elegans, Thompson, 
are synonyms. The latter was said to have been discovered 
living in Dublin Bay, an obvious error. 

E. TURBINELLA, Kiener. PL 62, figs. 38, 39. 

Spire conical, with a row of tubercles above the suture, the 
latter forming an angle on the last whorl, and below it several 
thin raised lines which are sometimes subnodulous ; surface 
between these lines, and on the spire covered with fine revolving 
striae ; dark chocolate, the tubercles, and occasionally the inferior 
nodules white ; aperture usually chocolate, with the teeth white. 

Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies. 

Enyina elegans, Gray, an unfigured species, may almost 
certainly be assigned here. 




ENGINA. 193 

E. CONTRACTA, Reeve. PI. 62, figs. 41, 42. 

Shell yellowish brown, interior of aperture white or rosy, teeth 
white. Length, 13-18 mill. 

Panama and 8t. Elena, W. Columbia, under stones (Cuming). 

I do not find any good distinctive characters in the figure of 
E. acuminata, Reeve (fig. 42). 

E. EXIMIA, Reeve. PI. 62, fig. 43. 

Shell fusiform, spire acuminated, whorls rounded, concentri- 
cally finely ribbed, elegantly cancellated with delicate ridges ; 
yellowish white, ridges brown in zones between the ribs. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Manilla, in coarse sand at 6 fathoms (Cuming). 

The pertinence of this species to Engina may well be doubted. 

E. FUSIFORMIS, Pease. PL 62, fig. 44. 

Shell white or yellowish, the nodules varying from chestnut 
to nearly black, with a central white band, and sometimes others 
at the suture and towards the base ; occasionally the tubercles 
near the base are irregularly variegated black and white ; lips of 
aperture dark-colored. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Rowland IsL, Viti Isles. 

It is a narrower form than E. alveolata, Kiener,but is possibly 
only a variety of that species. I have before me specimens with 
the nodules chestnut-colored and a central white band which I 
suppose to be identical with the unfigured E. albocincta, Pease. 

E. OSELMONTA, Duclos. PL 6% fig. 45. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed ; orange-brown, with darker spots 
forming revolving series. Length, 7 '5 mill. 

Habitat unknown.- 
E. AURANTIA, Duclos. PL 62, fig. 46. 

Surface of shell decussated into close, prominent tubercles ; 
orange-brown. Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
E. GIBBOSA, Garrett. PL 62, fig. 41. 

Shell yellowish brown, gibbous in the middle, constricted 
below ; spire and upper part of bod} T -whorl with distant ribs, 
whole surface covered by prominent revolving line ; aperture 
yellowish within. Length, 8 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

I figure this from one of several specimens obligingly furnished 
25 



194 ENGINA. 

by Mr. Gaqrett. Except in its much smaller size it much 
resembles E. contracta, Reeve. 

E. FUNICULATA, Reeve. PI. 62, figs. 48, 49. 

Shell short, obese, with longitudinal ribs cut into tubercles by 
revolving grooves ; black, interstices of the ribs yellowish. 

Length, 12-15 mill. 

Howland Isl. 

The principal distinctive character appears to be the short, 
obese form. E. or at a ^ Pease (fig. 48), is a synon} 7 m. 

E. LTNEATA, Reeve. PI. 62, figs. 50, 51. 

Shell short, ovate, solid, longitudinally nodosely plicated, white, 
encircled b}^ several lead-black narrow lines. Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines, N. Australia, Viti Isles, etc. 

This is possibly the C. nana of Dillw., which Deshayes con- 
cedes to be the same as C. zonalis. Lam. The figure in Martini 
referred to in the descriptions of these species is not sufficiently 
well-done to banish doubt on the subject. 

Var. MACULATA, Pease (fig. 51), is scarcely entitled to a varietal 
name. 

E. ZONATA, Reeve. PL 63, fig. 52. 

White, with dark chocolate or black bands, sometimes inter- 
rupted by the ribs. Length, 13 mill. 

Galapagos Is. (Cuming); Viti and Paumotus Is. (Garrett); 

Solomon's Is. (Brazier); Aracan (Hanley). 

E. CONCINNA, Reeve. PL 63, fig. 54. 

Longitudinally flatly ribbed, ribs very finely noduled, white, 
conspicuously encircled with brown bands in which the nodules 
are white, edge of the lip orange-red. Length, 15 mill. 

Cagayan, Isl. of Mindanao, Philippines, 

under stones at low water (Cuming). 

Much resembles the preceding species, and is, perhaps, only 
a slim variety of it. 

E. ARMILLATA, Reeve. PL 63, fig. 59. 

With a nodulous keel on the upper part of the whorls, 
nodosely ribbed beneath, interstices smooth ; whitish, the nodules 
alternately white and black in zones, nodules of the keel 

yellowish. 

Isl. of Ticao, Philippines, 



ENGINA. 195 

The ground of coloring, according to Reeve's figure, is dark, 
with a single white band. The figure is evidently magnified, but 
no dimensions are indicated. I think it will prove synonymous 
with E. concinna, Reeve. 

E. PARVA, Pease. PL 63, fig. 55. 

White, encircled by chocolate or black lines upon alternate 
rows of nodules and sometimes interrupted by the interstices ; 
nodules frequently prominently sharp-pointed. Length, 6 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
E. NODICOSTATA, Pease. PL 63, figs. 56, 51. 

Two of the revolving series of tubercles are more prominent 
than the others at the crossings of the longitudinal ribs, so that 
the body-whorl appears somewhat biangulated ; chestnut to 
chocolate-color in the interstices, the nodules white. 

Length, 6 '5-9 mill. 

Paumotus Is. (Pease); Viti Is. (Garrett). 

E. uariabilis, Pease (fig. 57), is certainly a synonym, and I am 
almost persuaded of the identity of the form described by Pease 
from a single specimen as E. striata. 

E. STRIATA, Pease. PL 63, fig. 58. 

Shell somewhat angular in the middle, obsoletely longitudi- 
nally ribbed, encircled by two prominent nodose ribs, somewhat 
compressed, the whole surface deeply and regularly striate 
transversely, forming close-set ribs ; columella straight ; white, 
left side of the longitudinal ribs striped interruptedly with dark 
brown, aperture light purple. Length, 8 mill. 

Paumotu*. 
E. TUBERCULOSA, Pease. PL 63, fig. 60. 

Obsoletely longitudinally ribbed, decussated into tubercles by 
strong revolving grooves ; black, with a median white band. 

Length, 7-9 mill. 

Baker Island. 

The figure is from one of several specimens received from Mr. 
Pease. 

E. PYROSTOMA, Sowb. Panama and Galapagos Is. 

E. MAURA, Sowb. Panama and Galapagos. 

E. LIVIDA, Sowb. Panama. 

The above were described, but not figured, fifty years ago, and 
have escaped subsequent monographers ; they are unknown to me. 



196 PUSIOSTOMA, COLUMBELLINA. 

E. ZONATA, Gray. Atlantic Ocean. 

This is also a lost species. 
E. XANTHOLEUCA, E. A. Smith. PI. 63, fig. 61. 

I figure this Mauritius species, referred by its author to 
Engiua ; my conviction is that it is a Coralliophila, and possibly 
identical with C. coronata. Barclay (vol. ii, 210 t. 66, figs. 373, 
372). 

E. COSTATA, Pease. (Unfigured.) Sandwich Islands. 

? E. (BucciNUM) PHAL^SNA, Lesson. (Unfigured.) Acapulco. 
E. ALTERNATA, Garrett. (Unfigured.) Samoa and Viti Is. 

E. BELLA, Garrett. (Name preoccupied by Reeve. Unfigured.) 

Samoa and Viti Is. 

Subgenus Pusiostoma, Swainson. 

Shell ovate ; inner lip convex between the granular teeth ; outer 
lip internally greatly thickened and toothed in the middle. 

E. MENDICARIA, Linn. PI. 63, figs. 62, 73. 

Shell usually alternately banded with black and yellowish 
brown or white ; aperture dark chocolate ; a variety has a single 
central yellowish band. Length, 18 mill. 

East Indies, Philippines, Australia, Polynesia. 

Genus COLUMBELLINA, d'Orb. 

This group was founded on a fossil species, with which the 
following recent forms appear to agree in their characters. 

C. HARPIFORMIS, Sowb. PL 63, fig. 63. 

Yellowish white, openly irregularly reticulated with chestnut, 
sometimes irregularly marked with chestnut, with a median light 
band ; epidermis thin, rather smooth, translucent, yellowish 
brown, continued over on the face of the greatly thickened outer 

lip. Length, 15 mill. 

Panama. 
C. UNCINATA, Sowerby. PL 63, fig. 64. 

Shell fulvous olive, freckled with pale dots, encircled round 
the upper part with white spots interrupted with red-brown 
lines; aperture violaceous. Length, 11 mill. 

W. Coast Central America to Acapulco. 

The markings, UH minutely described above by Reeve, are 



AMPHISSA. 197 

obscured by the epidermis. This is possibly a not fully grown 
variety of G. Harpiformis. 

C. CITHARA, Reeve. PI. 63, fig. 65. 

Shell somewhat squarely ovate, rather solid, whitish, reticu- 
lated with chestnut, blackish and white-blotched next the sutures, 
spire rather short, whorls plicately ridged around the upper part, 
spirally grooved below ; aperture narrow, lip angularly produced 
and notched at the upper part, finely denticulated within. 
Length, 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
AMPHISSA, II. and A. Adams. 

Shell bucciniform, longitudinally ribbed; spire elevated; aper- 
ture rather wide, enlarging below, and terminating in a wide 
anterior sinus ; inner lip callous, plicate below ; outer lip not 
thickened on the margin, plicate within. Operculum resembling 
that of Buccinum with the addition of a straight spur of callus 
extended towards the centre. Dentition columbelloid. 

A. CORRUGATA, Reeve. PI. 63, fig. 66. 

Shell yellowish brown, sometimes obscurely spotted and 
variegated, white within the aperture. Length, 1 inch. 

Monterey, CaL, to Sitka. 
A. VERSTCOLOR, Dall. PL 63, fig. 67. 

Shell much smaller than A. corrugata, with about half the 
number of longitudinal ribs and revolving striae, namely : from 
14 to 17 ; colors very variable, pink, salmon, livid bluish purple, 
brown and pure white, all plain or variously marked with a net- 
work of white and brown lines, patches, dots, etc. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Monterey to San Francisco, CaL 

Mr. R. E. C. Stearns has described a var. lineata. 

ADDENDA. 
MARGINELLID^E. 

Mr. R. E. C. Stearns gives me the following additional 
localities : 

ERATO MAUGERI^, Gray. Egmont Key, Tampa Bay, W. Coast 
of Florida. 



198 ADDENDA. 

E. COLUMBELLA, Menke, occurs on the California Coast northward 

to Monterey. 
E. VITELLINA, Hinds, has been found northward to within 50 

miles south of San Francisco Bay. 
MARGINELLA SUBTRJGONA, Carp., extends northward to Monterey, 

Gal. 



MARGINELLA LKEBBECKEANA, Weink., is a larger individual of 
Gryptospira glauca, Jouss. 

M. MEDIOCINCTA, Smith. Volvarina JBouvieri,Jouss.,is a synonym. 
M. (GRANULA) SPIRIPLANA, Jousseaume, 1882. 

Shell small, conical, thin, smooth, shining white ; whorls three, 
plane above ; aperture elongate, columella scarcely thickened, 
five-plicate, lip thickened. L. 1-7 mill., diam. 1-4 mill. 

Found in the mass of filaments surrounding the base of 
Euplectella. 

Related to Granula Angasi. 

M. OBLONGA (p. 32). Figured in error, t. 9, f. 77, for M. olivella. 

OLIVIDJE. 
OLIVELLA AUSTRALIS, Tenison-Woods (p. 72). 

Shell turreted, fusiform, spire produced and equalling the 
aperture ; smooth, shining, white, reticulated with fulvous brown, 
and zoned with three white bands ; suture scarcely impressed ; 
aperture narrow', anteriorly dilated ; outer lip thin, acute, colu- 
mella simple. 

Tasmania. 
COLUMBELIJDJS. 

C. MILLEPUNCTATA, Carp. (p. 115), is figured PI. 63, fig. 68. 

C. ALABASTRUM, Reeve (p. 146). Add reference, PI. 52, fig. 87. 

C. SUFFUSA, Sowb. (p. 155). Add reference, PI. 55, fig. 50. 

C. NIGRICOSTATA, E. A. Smith (p. 155). The figure referred to 

does not represent this species, but G. suff'uxa. 
C. ROSACEA, Gould. PI. 56, fig. 78, represents this species, but 

fig. 79 is G. costulata, Cantraine. 



INDEX 

To GENERA AND SPECIES, INCLUDING SYNONYMY. 



PAGE. 

Abbreviata (Marginalia), C. B. Ad. Contrib. Conch., 56, 1850. 

? M. lactea, Kiener. 
Abyssicola (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Linn., Soc. N. S.W., i, p. 232, 1877. 141 

Achatina (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 132, t. 39. f. 126 120 

Achatlna (Ancillaria), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 19, t. 3, f. 4. 

= A. cinnamomea, Lam. 

Acicula (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. x, f. 46, a. b 118 

Acleonta (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 11, f 3 and 4 174 

Acuminata (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 4, f. 66, 67 93 

Acuminata (Ricioula), Rve. Icon. f. 52, 1846 r= Engina contracta, Rve. 
Acuminnta (Columbella), Menke (non Nuttall). Moll. Nov. Holl., No. 

87, p. 20. 3= C. Menkeana, Reeve. 
Acuminata (Columbella), Nuttall. Jay's Cat. Shells, 3d edit., p 89. 

C. rustica, Linn. 
Acuminata (Oliva), Duel , pars. Monogr., 1. 12, f. 3. = 0. nebulosa, Lam. 

Acuminata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 323 88 

Acus (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 31, f. 201, 1859. 

= C. Cumingii, Reeve, var. 

Acuta (Anachis), Stearns. Proc. A N. S., Phila., 1873, p. 345 158 

Acutecostatum (Buccinum), Phil. (1844). = Columbella costulata, Cant. 

Adamsi (Columbella), Tryon 156 

Adansoni (Pseudomarginella), Maltzan. Nachrichtsbl. Deutsch. Mai. 

Gesell., xii, 109, 1880. := M. glabella, Linn. 

Adansoni (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 5, t. 7, f. 27, 1835 20 

Adansoni (Columbella), Menke. Zeit , 1853, p. 74. ? C. rustica, Linn. 

Adelinee (Columbella), Tryon 155 

Adiostina (Columbella), Uuclos. Monogr., pi. 11, f. 9, 10. 

~~ C. blanda, Sowb. 

TEsopus, Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 383, 1860 102, 188 

Affinis (Marginella), Reeve. Icon., f. 13*. 1865. M. lactea, Kiener. 

Affinis (Columbella), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Mer. Moll., p. 205. 

= C. mercatoria, Linn. 
Affinis (Oliva?), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 21, f. 352, 1871. 

= 0. columellaris, Sowb. 

Affinis (Marginella), Beck. = M. oryza. Lam. 
Agaron (Oliva), Adanson. = 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 
Agaronia, Gray. Beechey's Voy. Blossom, 132, 1839. 

= S. G. of Oliva, Brug 60 

Alabaster (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 107, 1865. 

? == M. fauna, Sowb. 

Alabastrum (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 36, f. 232 146, 198 

Ala-perdicis (Columbella), Reeve Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 24, f. 145, 1859. 

= C. Igevigata, Linn. 
Alba (Marginella), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., 56, 1850, 

== M. catenata, Mont. 



200 INDEX. 

PAOK. 

Alba (Oliva), Lam. No. 42; E. M., t, 361, f. 5; Gray, Zool. Proc., 44, 

1858. = 0. reticularis, Lam. 

Alba (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 22, f. 390. := 0. floralia, Duel. 
Alba (Columbella), Petterd. Quar. Jour. Conch., vol. ii, p. 104 (1879)... 137 
Albanyana (Marginella), Gaskoin. Ann. Nat. Hist., 2 ser., xi, 358, 1853. 56 
Albertisii (Columbella), Tap. Can. Ann. Mus. Civico. S. nat. Genoa, 

vol, ix, p. 281, 1877 184 

Albescens (Marginella), Hutton. Jour, de Conch., 22, 1878 55 

Albida (Marginella), Tate. Proc. Philos. Soc. Adelaide, 87, 1878 55 

Albifasciata (Ancillaria), Swainson. Jour. S. C., p. 278. 

A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Albilabris (Marginella), Conrad. Proc. Phil. Acad. N. S., iii, 26. 

? = Melampus. 
Albina (Marginella), Gaskoin. Ann. Nat. Hist., 2d ser., xi, 358, t. 12, 

f. 7, 8, 1853. ;.-: M. turbinata, Sowb. 

Albina (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 34, pi. 13, f. 4 121 

Albinodulosa (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 3. 

C. Azora, Duclos. 

Albisulcata (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Conch. Spec., f. 14-19. 

= A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Albo-callosa (Ancillaria), Lischke. Mai. Bl., xxi, p. 21. 

- A. rubiginosa, Swains. 

Albocincta (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc.. 96, 1846. := M. rosea, Lam. 
Albocincta (Engina), Pease. Proc. Zoo. Soc., 1860, p. 142. 

? E. fusiformis, Pease. 

Albolineata (Marginella), Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 99, t. 20, f. 27-29 55 

Albolineata (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog. (ex parte). 

M. gracilis, C. B. Adams. 

Albomaculata (Columbella), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1867, p. Ill, t, 13, 
f. 6. = C. Tayloriana, Reeve. 

Albonodosa (Columbella), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat, 512, 1857 179 

Albuginosa (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 35, f. 223, 1859 141 

Alcira, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 450, 1860 103, 188 

Aldinia (Oliva), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch , t. 26, f. 6, 7. 

0. fusiformis, Lam. 

Alectona (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 4, bis., f. 15, 16, 1835. 

? 3= 0. baetica, Carp. 

Alia, H. and A. Adams. Genera of Rec. Moll., i, 183, 1853 102, 116 

Allporti (Marginella), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 28, 1875.... 56 

Alternata (Columbella), Gould. Otia, p. 131, Bost. Proc., vii, 1860 172 

Alternata (Engina), Garrett. Pro. Col. Ac. So., iv, p. 203, 1873 196 

Alveolata (Purpura), Kiener. 42, t. 9, f. 23. = Engina 189 

Alveolata (Engina), Kiener. Reeve (Ricinula), Conch. Ic., pi. 4, sp. 23, 

1846. E. Reevei, Try on. 
Amabilis (Marginella), Redfield. Ann. N. Y. Lye., v, 225, 1852. 

^= M. oblonga, Swains. 

Amalda, H.and A. Ad. Gen. of Recent Moll., i, 148, 1853. ^Ancillaria. 
Ambigua (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 11, pi. 2, f. 3. 

= C- rustica, Linn. 

Amoretta (Harpa), Bolten, Morch. := H. minor, Lam. 
Amphisella (Columbella), Dall. Bui. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 91, 1881... 163 

Amphissa, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 111, 1853 103, 197 

Ampla (Ancillaria), Gmelin. Linn. Sys. Nat. ed., xiii, p. 3467 94 

Ampla (Columbella), Lesson. Rev. Zoo. Cuv. Soc., 1842, p. 185 187 

Amycla, H. and A. Adams Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 186, 1853. 
-. Nassa, in part, and MitreUa, Risso. 



INDEX. 201 

PAGE. 

Amygdala (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv , 36, t. 11, f. 1, 1840? 

= M. marginata, Born. 

Anachis, H. and A. Ads. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 184, 1853 102, 152 

Anacteola (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 5, f. 9, 10 108 

Anaidea (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, III. Conch., t. 26, f. 3, 4 174 

Anakisia (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 26, f. 17, 18 190 

Anaulax, Roissy. Moll., v, 430, 1805. =a Ancillaria, Lam. 
Anazola, Gray. Zool. Proc., 40, 1858. = Olivancillaria, d'Orb. 

Anazora (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t. 5, f. 4, 5, 1835 69 

Ancilla, Lamarck, Prodr. 1799, Syst. An., 1801. = Ancillaria. 

Anciilaria, Lamarck. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 305, 1811 61, 92 

Ancillarioides (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 21, f 55, 1850. 

= 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 

Ancillopsis, Conr. An. Jour. Conch., i, 22, 1865. := Ancillaria, Lam. 
Angasi (Marginella), Brazier. Jour, de Conch., 304, 1870 ; 324,1871... 45 

Angasi (Columbella), Brazier. Proc. Zoo. Soc., 1871, p. 322... 128 

Angelia (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t, 14, f. 19, 20 134 

Angicostata (Hindsia), Pease. Zool. Proc., 142, 1860 ; Am. Jour. Conch., 

iv, 109, 1868. = Engina farinosa, Gould. 

Angistoma (Erato), Sowb. Conch. Illust., 51, 1841 10 

Angularis (Columbella), Sowb. Proc. Zoo. Soc.. 1832, p. 118 186 

Angulata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 310 82 

Angulifera (Erato), Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 6, 1865 10 

Angustata (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 63, t. 1, f. 13 95 

Angustata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 10, t. 13, f. 182, 183, 1870. 

= 0. mustellina, Lam! 

Angustata (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 399, t. 77, f. 169, 170, 1846. 35 
Angystoma (Marginella), Gaskoin MSS. = M. triplicata, Gaskoin. 

Aniomina (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., pi. 8, f. 1, 2 86 

Anitis (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 16, f. 15, 16. 

C. pardalis, Lam. 

Anna (Marginella), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., France, vi, 186, 1881. 56 
Annotata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 19, f. 313-315. 

== young of 0. acuminata, Lam. 
Annulata (Oliva), Gmel. = 0. gutlata, Lam. 

Annulata (Marginella), Reeve. Icon., f. 119, 1865 35 

Annulata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, pi. xix, f. 101, 1858... 126 
Anolacia, Gray. Guide Moll. Brit. Mus., 26, 1857. 

= S. G. of Ancillaria, Lam V. 61, 96 

Anolax, Borson. Orittogr. Piem., 25, 1824? = Anaulax, Roissy. 
Antillarum (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30, f. 196, 1859. 

= C. catenata, Sowb. 

Antiqua (Harpa), Chemnitz, f. 1451. = H. conoidalis, Lam. 
Aperta (Ancillaria), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 32. 

= 0. Mauritiana, Sowb. 

Apicina (Marginella), Menke. Syn. Meth. Moll., 87, 1828 33 

Apthffigera (ColumbellaJ, Lesson. Rev. Zoo. Cuv. Soc., 1842, p. 185.. .. 187 
Aquaegutra (Marginella), Jousseaume. Guerin's Mag., 247, 1875. 

= M. debilis, Pease. 
Aquatilis (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 18, f. 30. 

= 0. Auricularia, Lam. 
Araneosa (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 49, pi. 9, f. 4. 

= C. versicolor, Sowb. 

Araneosa (Oliva), Lam. Ann* du Mus., xvi, p. 314 81 

Araneosa (Columbella), Gould. Otia, p. 132; Bost. Proc., vii, 1860 127 

Arata (Columbella). Reeve. Conch. Ic,, xi, pi. 29, f. 185, 1859 148 

26 



202 INDEX. 



Arctata (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 15, f. 229, 230, 1871. 

0. mustellina, Lam. 
Arctata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 15, f. 229, 280, 1871. 

= 0. mustellina, Lam. 
Arenaria (Marginella), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 119, 1852. 

--= M. bifasciata, Lam. 

Argus (Columbella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 138, t. 21, f. 34-36. 
= C. cribrar-ia, Lam. 

Armillata (Engina), Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 47, 1846 194 

Articularis (Harpa), Lam. Hist. Nat , torn., x, p. 132. 
H. conoidalis, Lam. 

Articulata (Columbella), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., iv, p. 271 148 

Asellina (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 80, t. 7, f. 6 42 

Asopis (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu. Ill Conch , t, 14, f. 17, 18 142 

Aspersa (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 123, t. 37, f. 79, 80. 

= C. versicolor, Sowb. 
A&phari (Marginella), Theob. Cat. Shells, Mus. As. Soc. Beng., 30, 1860. 55 

Astricta (Ricinula) Reeve. Icon., f. 30, 1846. = Engina 189 

Astyris, H. and A. Ad. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 187, 1863. Mitrella, Risso. 
Atalina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 10, f. 9, 10. = 0. episcopalis, Lam. 
Athadona (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. i, f. 11, 12. 

= C. versicolor, Sowb. 

Athenia (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t, 26, f. 17, 18, 1835. 
= 0. sidelia, Duclos. 

Atilia, H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec. Moll., i, 184, 1853 102, 142 

Atkinsoni (Mangelia), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tas., 141, 1875. 

Columbella speciosa, Angas. 

Atomella (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 108, 1858. 
= C. atrata, Gould. 

Atomella (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr,, pi. 11, f. ",, 6 166 

Attenuata (Marginella), Reeve. Icon., f 116, 1865. 
Attenuata (Marginella), Weinkauff. Kiister, t. 24, f. 5, 6. 

M. translucida, iSowb 23 

Attenuata (? Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 29, f. 90, a-b, 1850. 
= 0. columellaris, Sowerby. 

Attenuata (Columbella), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1871, p. 14, t. 1, f. 4 151 

Atramentaria (Columbella), Sowerby. Pr. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p. 61 168 

Atrata (Columbella), Gould. Otia, p. 131 ; Bost. Proc., vii, 1860 169 

Aurantia (Marginella), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vii 358,1822 18 

Aurantia (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 7, f. 16, 17 193 

Aurantiaca (Marginella), Defrance. Diet. Sc. Nat., xxix, 143, 1823. 
= M. aurantia, Lain. 

Aurantiaca (Columbella), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 115, 1872 135 

Aureocincta (Marginella), Stearns. Bost. Proc., xv, 22, 1872 24 

Aureocincta (Oliva), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 470. 1857. 

= 0. petiolita, Duel., var. 
Aureola (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 6, f. 17, 18. 

C. rustica, Linn, 

Auricularia (Oliva), d'Orb. Voy. Am. mer., p. 421, t. 59, f. 20-22. 
= 0. Orbignyi, Marrat. 

Auricularia (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 523 90 

Auriculata (Marginella), Menard. Ringicula. 

Aurora (Oliva), Solander, MSS. = 0. carneola, Gmelin. 

Australis (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Spec. Conch., p. 9, t. It Id, jun 94 

Australis (Olivella), Tenison-Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. Vic., xiv, :>, 
1878 72, 198 



INDEX. 203 

PAGE. 

Australia (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc. 1851, p. 5 126 

Australis (, Margin ella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 75,1844 27 

Australis (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 8, f. 3, 4, 1835 86 

Austrina (Columbella), Gaskoin, Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. '9 126 

Avara (Columbella), Say. Jour. Acad. N. Sc., Phila., ii, p. 230, 1822 159 

Avara (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 1, f. 1, 2 133 

Avellana (Marginella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 360, 1822. 

= M. persicula, Linn. 

Avellana (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p, 320 77 

Avena (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i. 391, t, 76, f. 130, 1846. 

= M. Philippinarum, Redfield 50 

Avena (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 25, f. 158, 1859 127 

Avena (Marginella), Valenc. Kiener, Coq. Viv., 17, t. 6, f. 24, 1834. 
Avenacea (Marginella), Desh. Lamarck, 2d edit., x, 455, 1844. 

- M. avena, Valenc. 
Avenella (Marginella), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 73, 1881. 

M. avena, Val. var 60 

Azemula (Oliva), Duclos, Monog., t. 14, f. 2, 1835. 

= 0. erythrostoma, Lam. 
Azona (Marginella), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 37, 1849. =M. cornea, Lam. 

Azora (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 12, f. 3, 4 136 

Azorica (Columbella), Drouet. Moll. Mar. Acores, p. 34. 

= C. rustica, Linn. 

Babbi (Columbella), Tryon 135 

Baccata (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 9 114 

Baculus (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 25, f. 157, 1859. 

Baculus (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 157, 1859 143 

Badia (Columbella), Woods. Pro. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1875, p. 151. 

= C. pulla, Gaskoin. 

Baetica (Oliva), Carpenter. Brit. A^soc. Report, 661, 1863 71 

Balanetta, Jousseaume. Monogr. Margin. Guerin's Mag., 1875. 

= Marginella, Lain. 

Balteata (Voluta), SolanderMSS. = Oliva guttata, Lam., subangular var. 
Balteata (Columbella), Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Ben., 1875, xliv, p. 96, pi. 

8, f. 4. = C. Nevilli, Tryon. 

Balteata (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 180; Bost. Proc., vii, 1860 172 

Balteata (Ancillaria), Swains. Jour. Sc., xviii, p. 284 97 

Barbadensis (Columbella), Petiver. D'Orb. Moll., Cuba, ii, 133. 

= C. rustica, Linn. 
Barthelemyi (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain, Rev. Crit., p. 78, t. 3, fig. 

58, a. b. -- 0. acuminata, Marr. 

Baylei (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 106, t. 8, f. 5, 1875 55 

Bazini (Marginella), Jouss. Monog., 61, t. 7, f. 3 54 

Belcheri (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 73, 1844 22 

Belizana (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 22, f. 9, 10. 

= C. nycteis, Duclos. 

Bella (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 27, f. 172, 1859 m 

Bella (Engina), Reeve (Rincinula). Conch. Ic., sp. 15. 1846 191 

Bella (Engina), Garrett. Proc. Cal. Ac. Sc., iv, p. 203, 1873 196 

Bellangeri (Marginella), Deshayes. In Lamarck, x, 443, 1844. 

= M angustata, Sowb. 
Bellangeri (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 27, t. 9, f. 41, 1834. 

= M. bullata, Born. 
Bellii (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 375, t. 74, f. 28, 29, 1846. 

? = M. Adansoni, Kiener. 



204 INDEX. 



Benguelensis (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 82, t. 8, f. 8. 

= M. exilis, Gmel. 

Beasoni (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 158, 1865 44 

Bernardii (Marginella), Largill. Mag. Zool., t. 116, 1845 31 

Bewleyi (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 4, fig. 44, 1870. 

= U. reticularis, Lnm. 
Beyerleana (Marginella), Bercarcli. Jour, de Conch., iv, 149, t. 5, f. 15, 

16, 1853. = M. avena, Valenc 50 

Bibalteata (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 99, 1865. 

= M. gracilis, C. B. Ad. 
Bicanaliculata (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 11, f. 7, 8. 

C. bicanalifera, Sowb. 

Bicanalifera (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 113 183 

Bicincta (Oliva). Lam. Hist. Nat. Ed. Desh., x, 619. = 0. inflita, Lam. 

Bicincta (Columbella), Gould. Olia, 132, Bost Proc., vii, 1860 136 

Bicincta (Columbella), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1871, p. 14, pi. 1, f. 8. 

= C. eximia, Reeve. 
Bicolor(Coluinbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 46, pi. 16, f. 4. 

=. C. rugosa, Sow. 
Bidentata (Columbella), Menke. Moll Nov. Holl., No. 108, p. 23, 1843. 

= C. versicolor, Sowb. 
Bifasciata (Marginella), Sowb. Tankerville Cat., t. 1, f. 4 (not 3), 1825. 

= M. Adansoni, Kiener 

Bifasciata (Marginella), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 357, 1822 19 

Bifasciata (Oliva), Kiister. Weinkauff, Monog., 38. ^=O. reticularis, Lam. 
Bifasciata (Marginella), Sowb. Tankerville Cat,, t. 2, f. 3 (not 4), 1825. 

= M. faba, Linn. 

Bifasciata (MarginelU), in part, Kiister. Conch. Cab., t. 1, f. 11, 1865. 
= M. Adansoni, Kiener. 

Biflammata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 35. f. 226, 1859 140 

Bilineata (Marginella), Krauss. Sudafr. Moll., 126, t. 6, f. 22, 1848. 
= M. zonata, Kiener. 

Bimaculata (Erato), Tate. Proc. Philos. Soc. Adelaide, 88, 1878... 12 

Biplicata (Oliva), Sowerby. Tank. Cat. App , t. 33 87 

Bivaricosa (Marginella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 358, 1822. 

M. marginata. Born. 
Bizonata (Marginella), Weinkauff. Kiister, 142, 1878. 

= M. secalina, Phil. var. 

Blanda (Marginella), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 46, t. 13, f. 14, 15, 1844 35 

Blanda (Columbella), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., i, p. 137 121 

Blanda (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 15, f. 236, 237, 1871. 

0. funebralis, Lam., var. 

Bobi (Marginella), Blainv. Malacol, t. 30, f. 6, 1827. :.--M. cingulata, Dillw. 

Boiviui (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., pi. 11, f. 5 112 

Borbonica (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 13. M. pumila, Redf. 
Bourjotiana (Columbella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., iii, p. 383, 

pi. xiv, f. 6, 1858 185 

Bouvieri (Marginella), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., i, 208, t. 5, f. 5-7, 

1877. ;= M. mediocincta, Smith. 

Brasiliana (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 322 90 

Brasiliensis (Oliva), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, p. 130, t. 147, figs. 1367, 

1368. = 0. Brasiliana, Lam. 
Brazicri (Oliva), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., Lon., 1877, p. 172, t. 26, f. (>. 

= 0. exquisita, Angas. 

Bridgesii (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. ix, f. 40, a, b, 1858. 
- C. Strombiformis, Lam. 



INDEX. 205 



Brisei (Columbella), Brus. C. scrip'a, Linn. 

Brocchii (Volvaria), Scacchi, Cat 10. - Marginellaclandestina, Brocchf. - 

Broderipi (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Revue crit., p. 62, t. 2, 

f. 39, a, b 86 

Broderipii (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p. 53 114 

Brookei (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Tc., xi, pi. 27, f. 169, 1859 125 

Brunnea (Ancillaria), Schumacher. Nouv. Syst., p. 244. 

== A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Brunnea (Oliva), Marrat. Tires. Conch., t. 4, f. 54, 55 ; t. 6, f. 75, 1870. 

= 0. reticularis, Lam. 

Buccinoides (Columbella), Les. Rev. Zool., 1842, p. 184 187 

Buccinoides (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 114 127 

Buchholzi (Columbella), Martens. Mittheilungen, ii, p. 118, 1881 164 

Bulbiformis (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t. 27, f. 10-13 77 

Bulbosa (Oliva), Martini et Bolten. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 13, f. 184- 

192. = 0. inflala, Lam. 

Bulbosa (Marginata), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 144, 1865.. 46 

Bulltea (Marginella), Cuvier. Regne Anim., 144, t. 52, f. 2, 2 a, 1840? 

= M. angustata, Sowb. 

Bullata (Marginella), Born. Mus. Cses., 218, 1776 35 

Bullata (Marginella), in part. Lam. Ann. sans Vert., vii, 360, 1822. 

= M. angustata, Sowb. 
Bullata, Jousseaume. Monog. Marg. Guerin's Mag., 1875. 

= Marginella, Lam. 
Bullata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 24, f. 448, 1871. 

= 0. fusiformis, Lam. 
Bullata (Marginella), Reichenbach. Conch., 62, t. 37, f. 530, 531, 1842. 

M elegans. Gmel. 
Ballioides (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 10, f. 37, a, b, 1864.... 95 

Bullula (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 139, 1865 54 

Bullula (Oliva). Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 30, f. V 6, a, b. 

= 0. tehuelchana. d'Orb. 
Burchardi (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 3, 1864. 

~ M. elegans, Gmel. 
Burchardi, (Marginella), Dunker. Zeit Mai., 61, 1852. 

= M. prunum, Gmel. 
Burchardti (Columbella), Dunker. Mai. Blatt, xxiv, 67, 1877 129 

Cabrit'i (Harpn). Fischer. Jour. Conch., viii, t. 4, f. 1 and 2. 

= H. striata. Lam. 
Cielata (Marginelli), Montero?ato. Jour, de Conch., xxv, t. 2, f. 3. 

= M. miliaria, Linn. 
Cserulea.(OUva) (Bolton), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 4, f. 48-50. 

(). episcopalis, Lam. 
( serulea (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., Oliva, vol. vi, f. 70, 1850. 

= 0. cyanea, Reeve. 
Cserulea (Voluta) (Mawe), Wood. Ind. Test. Suppl., t, 1, f. 36. 

Oliva volutella, Lam. 
Coerulescens (Marginella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert , vii, 356, 1822. 

= M. prunum, Gmel. 
Caffra (Ancillaria), Forskal. Sowb., Thes. Conch. 

A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Calameli (Marginella), Jousseaume. Guerin's Mag., 202, t. 18, f. 3, 

1871-2. = M. secalina, Phil. 
Calculus (Marginella), Redfield. Am. Jour. Conch., vi, 1870 7 



206 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Caldania (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr. t. 6, f. 3, 4, 1885. 

= 0. Australis, Duclos. 
Caledonica (Marginella), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., i, 267, t, 5, f. 8-10, 

1877 54 

Californiana (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 12. 

= C. carinata, Hinds. 
Californica (< olumbella), Reeve Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 26, f. 165, 1859. 

== C. Terpsichore,. Sowb. 
Callianax, H. and A. Adams. Genera of Recent Moll , i, 146, 185:1. 

= S. G. of Oliva, Brug 60, 87 

Callosa (Oliva), Anton. Verzeichniss, 102. Not identified. 

Callosa (Marginella), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 137, 1870 56 

Callosp. (Erato), Adams and Reeve. Voy. Satnarang, 25, t. 10, f. 32, 1850. ( .) 
Callosiuscula (Columbella), Tap. Can. Ann. Mus. Civico, S. Nat. Genoa, 

ix, p. 280. 1877 ' '. 184 

Calosoma (Oliva), Marrat (not Duclos). Thes. Conch., f. 214, 215, 1871. 

zr= 0. Lecoquiana, Ducros. 

Calosoma (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., xvi, f. 1, 2, 1835 76 

Cana (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch , p. 15, t. 11, f, 152, 1870. 

O. mustellina, Lam. 
Canaliculata (Lolumbella), Menke. Mai. Blatt., xviii. 126. 

= C. splendidula, Sow. 

Canalifera (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 4, f. 9, 10, fossil. 
Canalispira, Jous. Monog. Marginella, 107, 1875. Marginella, Lam. 
Cancellata (Voluta), Schreibers. Conchyl., 118, 1793. 

Marginella elegans, Gmel. 
Cancellata (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851. p. 6. 

= C. obesa, C. B. Ad. 
Cancellata (Harpa), Chem. Sowerby, f. 26, Chem., t. 152, f. 1453. 

= H. striata. Lam. 
Cancellatum (Harpa), young. Wood, Ind. Test., t. 22, f. 50. 

= H. striata, Lam. 

Candida (Ancillaria), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 304. == A. ampla, Gml. 
Candida (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 382, t, 75, f. 86, 87, 1846. 

= M. Margarita, Kiener. 

Candida (Oliva), Lam. Enc. Meth., pi. 360, f. 4. O. ispidula, Linn. 

Canella (Marginella), Jouss. Monog., Guerin's Mag., 202, 1875. 

r M. oblonga, Swains. 

Cantharus (Marginella), Reeve. Icon., f. 110, 1865 34 

Capensis (Cystiscus), Stimpson. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 55, t. 8, f. 2, 1865. 

= Marginella cystiscus, Redf. 

Capeusis ( VlargineUa), Dunker". Krauss, Siidaf. Moll., 125, t, 6, f. 21, 1848. 34 
Capensis (Oliva), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 41, t. 25, f. 469. 

? = 0. Anazora, Duclos. 

Carbonaria (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., f. 22, 1846. Engina 189 

Caribsea (Marginella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba,, ii, 97, t. 20, f. 24-26. 

= M. apicina, Menke. 
Carinata (Columbella), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, Moll., p. 39, pi. 10, f. 15, 

16,1844 116 

Carmione, Gray. Zool. Proc., 39, 185S. Oliva, Brug. 

Carnea (Marginella), Storer. Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., i, 4C>5, t. 9, f. 3, 4, 1837. 33 

Carnea (Marginella), Sowerby (in part). Thes. Conch., i, :>98, t, 76, 

f. 102, 114 (not 1U3), 1846. M. oblonga, Swains. 

Carneola, pars (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 22, f. 60, a. 

= 0. sidelia, Duclos. 
Carneola (Oliva), Gmelin. Gml. Linn., p. 844:1, n. 24.... 87 



INDEX. 201 

PAGE. 

Carneola (Marginalia), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 50, t..l, f. 14, 1851... 42 
Carolina? (Columbellaj, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, p. 541, pi. 30, f. 9, 

1876. = C. sagitta, Gaskoia. 
Caroliniana (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 19, f. 5-8, 1885. 

= 0. mustellina, Lnm. 

Castanea (Marginella), Dillw. Desc. Cat. ? Columbella. 
Castanea (Columbella), Gould. Pro. Bos. Soc. N. H., iii, p. 170. 

= C. unifasciata, Sowb. 

Castanea (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832. p. 118 105 

Castanea (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Spec. Conch., f. 20-28. 

- A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Catenata (Marginella), Reeve (in part). Conch. Icon., f 72 (not a, b), 

1805., M. pu'cherrima, Gaskoin. 

Catenata (Marginella), Montagu, Test. Brit., 286, t. 6, f. 2, 1803 38 

Catenata (Columbella), Sowb. Pro Zoo. Soc., 18-14. p. 52 179 

Cauta (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 25, t. 20, f. 327, 328. 

= 0. acuminata, Lam, 

Cavea (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 31, f. 203, 1859 156 

Cedo-nulli (Meta), Keeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. i, f. 3, 1859. 

C. Philippinarum, Reeve, var. 
Cerealis (Columbella), Menke. Reeve, Icon., f. 118, 1858. 

= C. Kraussi, Sowb. 

Cervinetta (Columbella). Carp. Ma/at. Cat., 493, 1857 122 

Cessaci (Volvarina), Rochbrune. Bull. Soc. Phil., 1881 ; Nouv. Archives 

du Museum, 2 ser. iv, 292, t. 17, f. 14 52 

Chaperi (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 14, t. 7, f. 1 26 

Chemnitzh (Voluta), Dillw. Desc. Cat. Marginella 56 

Chilotygma, H. and A. Adams. Genera of Rec. Moll., i, 149, 1853. 
Monoptygma, Lea. 

Chlorostoma (Columbella), Sowb. Thes., i, p. 113, pi. 36, f, 17, 18 112 

Choava (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 37, f. 289, 1859 137 

Chrisopsis (Columbella), Duel. Mouogr., pi. 13, f. 5, 6 Fossil. 

Chrysalloidea (Columbella), Carp. Pro. Cal. Ac. Sc., iii, p. 223 135 

Chrysomelina (Marginella), Redf. Ann. N. Y. Lye., iv, 492, t. 17, f. 2, 

1848 39 

Cincinnata (Columbella) von Martens. Mobius, Mauritius, 248, t. 20, f. 

14, 1880 142 

Cincta (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 21, t. 8, f. 32, 1834. 

= M. marginata, Born. 

Cincla (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 20, f. 47, 1850. 0. hiatula, Ginel. 
Cinerea (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 85. = M. semen, Rve. 

Cingulata (Marginella), Dillw. Desc. Cat., 525. 1817 36 

Cingulata (Oliva), Chemn., x, figs. 186'., 1870. 0. gibbosa, Born. 

Cingulata (Columbella), Anton. Verzeichniss, 88, sp. 2850, 1839 187 

Ciugulata (Ancillaria), Sowb. Sre;. Conch., f. 6 95 

Cinnamomea (Ancillaria), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 804 93 

Circinata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 17, fig. 277. 

= 0. litterata, Lam. 

Citharula (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. x, f. 9, 10. 
= C. harpiformis, Sowerby. 

Cithara (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30, f. 230, 1859 197 

Citharopsis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 97, 1808. Seminella, Pease. 
Clandestina (Marginella), Brocchi. Conch. Foss. Subapp., ii, 642, t. 15, 

f. 11, 1814 40 

Clandestina (Mitra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t, 32, f. 253, 1845. 
M. columbellaria, Scacchi, vol. iv, 195. 



208 INDEX. 



Claneophila, Gray. Zoo!. Proc., 39, 1858. = Olivancillaria, d'Orb. 
Claneophila (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 29, f. 8, 9, 1835. 

= 0. auricularia, Lam. 

Clara (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 18, t. 14, f. 199, 200, 1870. 
0. irisans, Lam., var. concinna. 

Clathra (Columbella), Lesson. Rev. Zoo. Cuv. Soc., 1842, p. 184 187 

Clathrata (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, p. 229, i877. 173 
Clausilia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, III. Conch., t. 16, f. 11, 12. 
Clavulus (Columbella or Pleurotoma), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc. 1833, p. 134. 184 
Cledonida (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. Illust., t. 17, f. 17, 18... 174 

Cleryi (Marginella), Petit. Mag. Zool., t. 18, 1836 20 

Cleta (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, II. Conch., t. 15, f. 13, 14 IbO 

Closia, Gray. Guide Moll. Brit. Mus. 36, 1857. .= Marginella, Lam.. .. 47 
Coccinea (Columbella), Monterosato. Nuova Revista, 41, 1875. 

C. scripta, L. var. 

Coccinea (Columbella), Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, 225, 1836. = C. scripta, Linn. 
Ccerulescens (Marginella), var. Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 77, f. 155, 1846. 

? M. Storeria, Couthuoy. 
Collaris (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 26, f. 164, 1859. 

= C. carinata, Hinds. 
Columba (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., t. 3, f. 3, 4, 1835. 

- 0. Esther, Duclos, var. 
Columbellaria (Columbella), Scacchi (1836). = Mitra, vol. iv, 195. 

Columbellaria, Rolle. Sitzb. Akad. Wien, xlii, 266, 1861 103 

Columbella, Lamarck. Prodr. 1799, Syst. An , 75, 1801 102, 103 

Columbella (Erato), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 183, 1847 10, 198 

Columbelliformis (Buccinum), var. B. Grateloup, Atlas, t. 36, f. 34. 

= Columbella scripta. Linn. 

Columbellina, d'Orb. Pal. Franc. Cret,, ii, 347, 1843 103, 196 

Columbellopsis, Bucq. Dautz. et Dollf. Moll. Roussillon, 77, 1882. 

= Atilia, H. and A. Adams. 
Columbus, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 590, 1810. = Columbella, Lam. 

Columellaris ( Oliva), Sowerby. Tank. Cat. App., p. 35, 1825 67 

Compressa (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 130, 1865 48 

Compta (Columbella), Lischke. Mall. Blat., xxi, p. 20, 1873 130 

Compta (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 24, f. 432, 1871. 

= 0. Anazora, Duclos. 

Concinna (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 35, 1846. =? Engina 194 

Concinna (Columbella), Sowerby. Genera of Shells, No. 9. 

C. laevisata, Linn. 

Concinna (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., t, 6, f. 100, 101, 1870. 

= 0. irisans, Lam., var. 
Concinnum (Buccinum), C. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., 1845, Contr. Conch., 55. 

= Oolumbella decipiens, C. B. Ad. 
Conella, H. and A. Adams (not Swainson). Genera, i, 185, 1853. 

= Meta, Reeve. 
Conella, Swainson. Malacol., 312, 1840. := Conidea, Swainson. 

Conidea, Swainson. Malacol., 151, 313, 1840 102, 180 

Coniformis (Meta), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., i, p. 122, p, 37, f. 77, 78. 

= C. Philippinarum, Reeve, var. 
Coniformis (Gibberula), Morch. Mai. Bliitt., 86, 1860. 

= Marginella Morchii, Redfield 56 

Coniformis (Oliva), Philippi. Abb. u. Beschr., xix, 1, f. 5-7. 

= 0. peruviana, Lam. 
Conoidalis (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 325. = 0. jaspidea, Gmel. 



INDEX. 209 



Conoidalis (Marginalia), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 37, t. 12, f. 2, 1840? 

= M. apicina, Menke. 
Conoidalis ( Marginella), Chenu. Man. Conch., i, 197, f. 1046, 1859. 

= M. pellucida, Pfr. 

Conoidalis (Harpa), Lam. Hist. Nat., x, sp. 3 98 

Consobrina (Oliva), Lischke. Mai. Bl., 1871, p. 41. = 0. lepta, Duel. 
Conspersa (Amycla), Phil. Ads. Genera, i, 1 87. = Nassa, Manual, iv, 36. 

Conspersa (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 11 145 

Constricta (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 74, 1844. 

= M. Hindsiana, Petit. 

Contaminata (Marginella), Gask. Zool. Proc., 20, 1849 47 

Contaminata (Columbella), Gask. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 7. 

=-C. conspersa, Gask. 
Contortuplicata (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 20, f, 51. 

= 0. auricularia, Lam. 

Contracta (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon, sp., 32, 1846. = Engina. 
Contusa (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 9, f. 31, a, b, 1864. 

= 0. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Conulus (Murex), Olivi. Zool. Adr., 154, t. 5, f. 1, 2. 

= Columbella scripta, Linn. 

Cornea (Marginella), Lamarck. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 360, 1822 36 

Cornea (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 13, pi. 4, f. 5. 

.== C. rustica, Linn. 

Cornea (Columbella), Payr. Moll. Corse., t. 8, f. 19. = C. scripta, Linn. 
Corniculata (Columbella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., Edit. Deshayes, x, p. 

175. C. scripta, Linn. 
Corniculum (Amycla), Olivi. Ads. Genera, i, 187. 

= Nassa, Manual, iv, 37. 
Coronata (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 8, f. 11, 12, 17, 18, 

= C. versicolor, Sowb. 

Coronata (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 114 158 

Corrugata (Amphissa), Reeve. Buecinum, f. 110, 1846; Dall, Am. Jour. 

Conch., vii, 111, 113 197 

Corrugata (Erato), Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 12, 1865 11 

Corusca (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 243, 1865 54 

Costata (Harpa), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1202 97 

Costata (Columbella), Val. Rec. Obs., ii, 331. ? = C. coronata, Sowb. 

Costata (Engina), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1860, p. 142 196 

Costata (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 12, f. 1, 2. 

= C. fluctuata, Sow. 

Costellata (Columbella), Sowerby. Pr. Zoo. Soc., ii, p. Ill, 1832 153 

CostelliCera (Columbella), Pease. Pro. Zoo Soc., 1862, p. 279 176 

Costulata (Columbella), Cantraine. Diag. au Descr., espec. nouv. Moll., 

p. 20 160, 198 

Costulata (Columbella), C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch., p. 58. 

C. catenata, Sowerby. 
Crassa (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., 60, t. 4, f. 86, 90, 91. 

= A. cinnamomea, Lam. 

Crassa (Harpa), Philippi, Mo'rch, Yoldi Cat., 125. == H. minor, Lam. 
Crassa (Oliva), Martini. O. inrtata, Lam. 

Crassilabra (Plochelsea), Gabb. Proc. Philada. Acad., 1872 60 

Crassilabris (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 27, f. 177, 1859 166 

Crassilabrum (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 96, 1846. 

Mv labrosa, Redfield. 

Crassilabrum (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 92, 1865. 
M. marginata, Born, minor. 
27 



210 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Crenata (Harpa), Swainson. Blight, Cat. App., 5 98 

Crenate-rosea (Harpa), Gray, teste Reeve. Icon. - H. crenata, Swains. 
Crepusculum (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 36, f. 231, a, 1859 

C. intexta, Gaskoin. 

Cribraria (Columbella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert 122 

Crocostoma (Engina), Reeve. Ricinula, f. 40, 1846. 

E. carbonaria, Reeve. 
Crossei (Marginella), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., 109, t. 3, f. 5, 6, 1877. 

? M. lachryma, Reeve. 
Crossiana (Columbella), Recluz. Jour, de Conch., ii, p. 257, t. 7, f, 5, 

(1851). r. scripta, Linn. 
Cruenta (Voluta), Solander. Dillwyn, Cat , i, p. 514. 

Oliva guttata, Lam. 

Cruentata (Anachis), Morch. Mai. Blatt,, vii, p. 95, 1861 154 

Cryptospira, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 1844. Marginella, Lam 30 

Cucumis (in part), Klein. Tent. Ostr., 1753. Marginella, Lam. 
Cumingiana (Marginella), Petit. Rev. Zool., 185, 1841. 

M. helmatina, Rang. 

Cumingii (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Tc., xi, pi. 25, f. 156, 1859 151 

Cumingii (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 11, f. 19, a-b, 1850. 

= 0. araneosa. Lam., var. Juliet tse. 
Cumingii (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 377, t. 74, f. 33-35, 1846. 

= M. Cumingiana, Petit, 

Cuneata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 22, f. 383, 1871. 
- 0. nivea, Gmelin. 

Curta (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 105, 1832 28 

Cuspidata (Columbella), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., i, p. 242, 1877... 165 
Cuvieri (Marginella), Desh. Jouss., Guerin s Mag., 251, 1875. 

M. bullata, Born, v;\v. 
Cyanea (Oliva), Reeve. Icon., f. 70, a, b, Index, 1850. 

0. puelchana, Orb. 

Cylindracea (Bulla), Da Costa. Brit. Conch., 31, t. 2, f. 7, 1778. 

Marginella pallida, Donov. 
Cylindrica (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., p. 17, t, 14, f. 193, 194. 

O. irisans, Lam., var. concinna. 

Cylindrica (Volvaria'i, Brown. Bulla cylindracea, Pennant. 
Cylindrica (Marginella), Pease. Zool. Proc., 244, 1862. 

M. Peasii, Reeve. 

Cylindrica (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch, i, 390, t. 76, f. 134, 1846... 53 
Cylindrica (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t, 2, f. 18, 19. 

A ampla Gmelin, 
Cylindrus, Breyn. Diss. phys., 6, 1732. Oliva, Brug. 

Cymbalum (Marginella), Tate. Proc. Philos. Soc. Adelaide, 86, 1878 ">"> 

Cymbancilla, P. Fischer. Jour de Conch., 33, 1881. Anolacia, Gray. 

Cypnca (Bulla), Dillw. Cat, i, p. 490, vix Linne. 

: Ancillaria cinnamomea, Lam. 
Cyprtuacea (Marginella), Bory. Encyc. Meth., t. 376, f. 6. 

M. cornea, Lam. 
Cypnvoides (Marginella), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 

122, 1877 2:', 

Cypneoides (Erato), C. B. Adams. Bost. Proc., ii, 1, 1845. 

? E. Maugeria?, Gray 10 

Cypneola (Marginella), Sowb. Zool Proc., 67, 18-32. 

Erato scabriuscula, Gray. 
Cypraeola( Voluta), Brocchi. Conch. Subap., ii, 321, t. 4, f. 10, 1814. 

Erato Uevis, Donov. 



iMr) 

INDEX. 211 



Cystiscus, Stimpson. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 55, 1865. = Marginella, Lam. 
Cystiscus (Marginella), Redfield. Cat. Marg., 230, 1870 , 

Dactylidia, H. and A. Adams. Genera of Recent Moll., i, 146, 1853. 

= Olivella, Swains. 
Dactyliola (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 27, f. 5-8, 1835. 

= 0. funebralis, Lam., var. 
Dactyliola. pars (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 27, f. 9. 

= 0. bulbiformis, Duclos. 

Dactylus, Klein. Ostracol., 77, 1753. Oliva, Brug. 
Dactylus, Humphr. Cat. (not Klein). Marginella, Lam. 

Dactylus (Marginella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 360, 18'J2...,, 36 

Dsedala (Columbella), H. Adams. Pr. Zoo. Soc., 1873, p. 205, pi. 23, f. 2. 123 
Dalinla (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 8, f. 7, 8. = C. varians, Sowb. 
Dalli (Columbella), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 5th ser., vol. vi, 

p. 287 (1880) 122 

Dama (Oliva), Mawe. Wood. Ind. test, Suppl., t 5, f. 37 (Voluta) 71 

Darwini (Columbella), Angas. Zool. Proc., 181, 1877. 

== C. lentiginosa, Reeve. 

Davisiana (Marginella), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 205, 1877 20 

Dealbata (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 25, f. 71, 1850. :=0. nivea, Gmel. 

Debilis (Marginella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 22. 1872 45 

De Bui ghias (Marginella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 509, 1863 38 

Decipiens (Columbella), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 58. 

== C. obesa, C. B. Ad. 
Decollata (Columbella), Brusina. Verhandl. zoo.-bot. Ges. Wien, xv, p. 

10, 1865. C. scripta, Linn., var. 
Decolor (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 132. = C. Marquesana, Gask. 

Decussata (Columbella), Sow. Thes. Conch., i, p. 134, pi. 39, f. 133 112 

Deformis (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 44, 1846. = Engina 192 

Deformis (Marginella), Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, 23, 1874 ; 95, t, 

8, f. 12, 1875 24 

Delessertiana (Marginella), Recluz. Rev. Zool., 185, 1841 55 

Delicata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 27, f. 171 122 

Dens (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 120, 1805 40 

Dentilmeata (Nitidella ?), Carp. Am. Nat. Hist,, 1864, p. 48 115 

Denticulata (Marginella), Tate. Proc. Philos. Soc. Adelaide, 87, 1878... 55 
Denticulata (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi 9, f. 3, 4. 

= C. moleculina, Duel. 
Depressa (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Thes., iii, No. 28. = A. Australis, Sow. 

Dermestoides (Columbella), Kiener. Buccinum, p. 52, t. 25, f. 100 131 

Dermestoides (Columbella), Angas. Zool. Proc., 1867, p. 195; Brazier, 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, 231. ;= C. lineolata (Pease), Brazier. 
Deshayesiana (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit., p. 86, t. 3, fig. 

67, a, b, 1857. 90 

Deshayssii (Ancillaria), A. Adams Sowerby, Thes Conch., t, 4, f. 68, 69. 

A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Deshayesii (Columbella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iii, 382, 1859. 

= C. turturina, Lam. 
Diadocus (Oliva?). Adams et Reeve. Marrat, Thes. Conch., No. 206, 1871. 

0. nivea, Gmelin. 
Diadochus (Marginella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 28, t. 7, f. 4, 1860. 22 

Diaphana (Columbella), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 513 160 

Diaphana (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 38, t. 12, f. 3, 1840 ? 
M. pellucida, Pfr. 



212 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Diaphana (Marginella), Kiister. Conch. Cab , t. 4, f. 5, 6. 1865. 
M. fauna, Sowb. 

Dichroa (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p. 50 114 

Dictua (Columbella), Woods. Pro. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1878, p. 34 126 

Digglesi (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1874, p. 671, pi. 83, 

f. ii, 12 ; : .. .. no 

Digitale (Columbella), Lesson. Rev. Zoo. Cuv. Soc., 1842, p. 186 187 

Dimidiata (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Thes Conch., 62, t. 3, f. 55, 56 96 

Diminuta (Columbella), C. B. Adams. Cat. Sh. Panama, p. 85, 1852 177 

Dipsacus, Klein. Ostracol., 36, 1753. S. G. of Ancillaria 61, 96 

Discors (Culumbella), Gmeliu. Syst. nat., p. 3455 182 

Dissirnilis (Columbelln), Stimpson. Pro. Bos. S. N. H., iv, p. 114, 1857. 

= C. zonalis, Liasley. 
Doliolum (Columbella), Tap. Can. Am. Mus. Civic. S. Nat. Genoa, vol. 

ix, 280, 1876. ? C. sagitta, Gask. 
Donovani (Marginella), Kiener. Iconog. Marginella, 16, t. 8, f. 34, 1834. 

= Erato laevis, Donovan. 
Doriae (Columbella), Issel. Moll. Miss. Ital. Persia, p. 11, 1865. 

C. Mindorensis, Gaskoin. 

Dormitcr (Columbella), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., i. p. 143, t. 40, f. 173... 181 

Dorsata (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 120 185 

Dorsuosa (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 130, Bost Proc., vii, 1860 172 

Dubia (Strombus), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., i, pi. 7, fig. 80. 

Columbella Philippinarum, Rve., var. 

Dubiosa (Marginella) Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 103, t, 15, f. 17, 1872. 39 
Duchon (Marginella), Adanson. Jousseaume, Guerin's Mag., 262, 1875. 
M. interrupte-lineata, Muhlf. 

Duclosi (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 19, f. 44 85 

Duclosi, pars (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germ. Rev. Crit., p. 59 (non Reeve). 

O. Stainforthi, Reeve. 

Ducloiiana (Oliva), Jay. Cat., p. 367. = 0. Duclosi, Reeve. 
Duclosiana (Columbella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 136, t. 21, f. 31-30, 

1853 133 

Duclosiana (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 113, t. 36, f. 15-16.. 112 
Dujardinii (Turbinella), Homes (1856). ^Columbella Greci, Phil. 
Dunkeri (Marginella), Krauss. Sudaf. Moll., 126, t. 6, f. 23, 1848. 

M. zonata, Kiener. 

Dunkeri (Columbella), Tryon 129 

Dupontiie (Meta), Kiener. Reeve, Icon., sp. 6, 1859. 

=- C. Philippiuarum, Reeve, var. 
Dysoni (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. xvii, f. 92, 1858 107 

Ebenum (Columbella), Phillrppi. Mai. Blatt., xv, p. 223. 

C. unifasciata, Sowb. 
Eburnea (Ancillaria), Deshayes. Lam. Hist. Nat., 2d ed., x, p. 591. 

= 0. cinnamomea, Lam. 

Eburnea (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus , xvi, p. 326. O. nivea, Gmet. 
Effulgens (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 104, 1805. 

M. avena, Valenc. 

Effusa (Ancillaria). Swains. Jour. Sc., p. 278. A. cinnamomea, Lam. 

Egeria (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, III. Conch., t. 4, f. 19, 20 181 

Egira (Oliva), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 5, f. 24, 25. 

0. ispidula, Linn. 
Egouena, Jousseaume. Monog. Marg., Guerin's Mag., 1ST"). 

Marginella, Lam. 
Elata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 25, f. 155, 1859.... 150 



INDEX. 213 

PAGE. 

Electona (Columbella), Duclos. Monog., pi. 9, f. 11, 12 164 

Electroides (Columbella). Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 72, 1858 117 

Electrum (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 118, 1865. 

= M. hgematita, Kiener. 

Elegant (Marginelli), Gmelin. Syst. Nat,, 3448. 1788 30 

Elegans (Alcira), H Adams. Pro. 7 >ol Soc , 1860, p. 451 188 

Elegans (Engina), Gray. Voy. Blossom, p. 113, Moll., 1830. 

= E. turbinella, Kiener. 
Elegans (Triton), Thompson. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 317, t. 19, f. 1. 

Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iv., 305. Eugina farinosi, Old. 

Elegans (Nitidella), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 116 115 

Elegans (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 114 186 

Elegans (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus. xvi, p. 312 76 

Elegantula (Mitrella), Morch. Mai. Blat;., vii, 94, 1861 158 

Elliptica (Marginella), RedtielJ. Cat. Marg., 232, 1870 36 

Elongata (Volutella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 281, t. 23, f. 23, 1868. 

= Marginella el'iptica, Redf. 

Elongata ( Ancillaria), Gray. App. Voy. Fly., vol. ii, p. 357, t. 1, f. 5... 96 
Elongata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 22, f. 386, 387. 

= 0. floralia, Duclos. 

Emarginata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30, f. 190, 1859 124 

Etneliodina (Oliva), Duclos in Cheriu, 111 Conuh., t. 21, f. 19, 20. 

= 0. episcopalis, Lam. 
Emicator (Oliva), Meuschen. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 5, f. 57-60. 

= 0. guttata, Lam. 
Encaustica (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 148, 1865. 

? = M. quinqueplicata, Larn., juv. 

Encaustica (Columbells), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. xii, 56, 1858 164 

Engina, Gray. Zool. Voy. Beechey, 113, 1839 103, 188 

Epamella (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 5, f. 1-2, 19, 20. 

= C. Philippinarum, Reeve. 

Epidelia (Columbella). Duclos. Chenu, Conch. II., t. 25, f. 17, 18 IV 

Epigrus (Marginella), Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 151, 1865. 

? --: M. exilis, Gmelin. 

Episcopalis (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 313 74 

Era,to, Risso. Hist. Nat. de Nice., iv, 240, 1826 7 

Eratoidea, Weinkauff. Kiister's Conch. Cab., 126, 140, 1878. 

= Marginella, Lam. 
Eratopsis, Hoernes and Auinger. Abhandl. K. K. Geol. Reichs., xii, pt. 

2, 63, 1880 7,11 

Erythrostoma (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 309, n, 3. 

= 0. irisans, Lam., var. 

Esmilota (Oliva) Duclos. Monogr., pi. 4, f. 5, 6, fossil. 
Esodina (Oliva), Duclos in Chenu, t. 16, f. 19, 20. = O.Duclosi, Reeve. 
Es-iingtonensis (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 27, f. 174, 1859. 149 

Esther (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 3, f. 7, 8, 1835 66 

Eustoma (Columbella), Jouss. Bui. Soc. Zoo., i, p. 26(5, pi. v, f. 3-4, 1876. 182 
Evania (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 20, f. 3, 4. O. sanguinolenta. Lam. 

Evanida (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 288, t. 75. f. 69, 1846 27 

Exigua (Ancillaria), Sowb. Sp. Conch. Anc , 6, f. 33, 34, 35. 

Monoptygma 91 

Exigua (Oliva) (Martini), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 33, t. 22, f. 339-401 
----- 0. japidea, Gmelin. 

Exilis (Columbella), Philippi. Menke, Zeit , 1849, p. 23 150 

Exilis (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 25, f. 452. 0. lepta, Duclos. 



214 INDEX. 



Exilis (Voluta), Chiaje. Poll, Test. Sicil., iii, 30, t. 46, f. 35, 36, 1825-6 
Marginella secalina, Phil. 

Exilis (Marginella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3444, 1788 57 

Eximia (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp., 45, 1846 = Engina 193 

Eximia (ColumbelH), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 35, f. 222 150 

Exquisita (Oliva), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc. Lon., 1871, p. 13, 88, t. 1, f. 2. 71 

Faba (Oliva), Marrat. Thes Conch., p. 20, t. 16, f. 238, 239, 1871. 
0. sidelia. Duel. 

Faba (Marginella), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, x, 730, 1758 21 

Faba (Marginella), Chenu. Lecons Elem., t. 17, f. 720, 1847. 

M. pseudofaba, Sowb. 
Faba (Voluta), var. Dillw. Desc. Cat., 528, 1817. 

= Marginella bifasciata, Lam. 
Fabagina (Oliva), Lam. Hist, nat., ed. Deshayes, x, 629. 

= 0. inflata, Lam. 
Fabrei (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit., p. 42, t. 2, f. 8, a, b. 

= (Monstrosity) 0. Maura, Lam. 
FabuH (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 36, t. 23, f. 420, 421. 

= 0; lepta, Duclos. 
Fabula (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 124, t. 38, f. 86, 87. 

- C. pardalis, Lam. 
Faleonta (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. i, f. 5, 6. 

? = C. laevigata, Linn. 

Fallotina (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., pi. 4, f. 7, 8. Fossil. 
Farinosa (Bindsia), Gould. Otia, p. 68, 1846; Moll. Wilkes' Exped., 

255, f. 323 = Engina 192 

Fasciata (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 389, t. 76, f. 142, 1846 54 

Fasciata (Colurnbella), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 25, 1829 105 

Fasciata (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 11, f. 44, a, b, 1864. 

= A. marmorata, Rve. 
Fasciaia (Persicula), H. and A. Adams. Gen. Rec, Moll., i, 193, t. 20, f. 

3, 1858. = Marginella cingulata, Dillw. 

Fauna (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 96, 1846 48 

Fenestrata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 27, f. 175, 1859. 

= C. Adamsi, Tryon. 

Fenestrata (Columbella), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. f 7, 1850.. 132 

Festiva (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 32, t. 10, f. 4, 1840? 25 

Festiva (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 15, pi. 11, f. 4 106 

Figura (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 4, f. 45. = 0. reticularis, Lam. 

Filamentosa (Columbella), Dunker 157 

Filicincta (Columbella), Tapp. Can. Ann. Mus. Civico. S. Nat. Genoa, 

vol. ix, p. 279, 1876 143 

Filosa (Nitidellaj, Stearns. Pro. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 345. 

= C. Stearnsii, Tryon. 

Filosa (Columbella), Dujardin (1835). == C. Greci, Phil. 
Filosus (.E-iopus), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1867, p. Ill, t. 13, f. 6. 

.= Col . lilosa, Angas 151 

Fimbriata (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 29, f. 92 a-d, 1850. 

(). mutica, Say, var. nitidula. 

Flaminea (Columbella), Scacchi. Cat., p. 10. = C. scripta, Linn. 
Flammea, var. (Voluta), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Columbella fulgurans, Lam. 
Flammea (Columbella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 233; Carp. Zool. 

Proc., 516. 1865. = C. Marquesana, Gask. 
Flammulata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 314, n. 17 84 



INDEX. 215 

PAGE. 

Flava (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 11, f. 156, 157, 1870. 

= 0. elegans, Lam. 

Flava (Columbella), Bruguiere. Diet. No. 53 182 

Flaveola (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., t. 6, f. 17-20, 1835. 

0. ispidula, Liiin. 

Flavida (Columbella), Lam. Hist. Nat., ed. ii, x, 268. =C. flava, Brug. 
Flavida (Ancillaria), Schumacher. Nouv. Syst., p. 206. 

= A. glabrata. Linn. 
Flavida (Marginella), Redfield. Ann. N. Y. Lye., iv, 163, t. 10, f. 4, 

1846. M. apicina, Menke. 
Flavus (Oliva), Meusch. 0. pica, Lam. 
Flexuosa (Pyrene). Button. Jour, de Conch., xviii, p. 23, 1878; Man. 

New Zeal. Moll., 61. - C. choava, Reeve. 

Flexuosa (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, p. 175 , 124 

Floccata (Columbella), Reeve Conch. IP., xi, pi. 26, f. 16U, 1859 114 

Floralia (Oliva), Duclos, in Chenu, 111. Conch., p. 6 68 

Fluctuata (Columbella), Sowerby. Pr. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 115 153 

Fluctuata (Marginella), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., 66, 1850. 

= M. sagiltata, Hinds. 
Fluctuosa (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch. Col., t. 13, f. 11, 12. 

== C. fluctuata, Sow. 

Formicula (Marginella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 359, 1822 23 

Formosa (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 11 140 

Formosa (Oliva), .Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 3, f. 28, 29. 

- 0. reticularis, Lam. 
Forticos'ata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 29, 1846. 

Engina carbonana, Rve. 

Fortunei (Oliva), Adams. Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 422, 423, 1871 69 

Fragaria (Voluta), Wood Ind. Test. Sup., pi. 3, f. 27, 1856. 

= Engina bella, Reeve. 

Frumentum (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 57, 1832 38 

Fulgens (Marginella). Dunker. Mai. Blatt, xviii, 153, 1871 56 

Fulgida (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 36, f. 78, a, b, 1850. 

= 0. nivea, Gmel. 

Fulgida (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 28, f. 178, 1859 149 

Fulgurans (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, p. 272 109 

Fulgurata (Oliva), Martens. Mai. Blatt., 1869, 221. 

0. Peruvians, Lam. 

Fulgurata (Oliva), Adams et Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 31, t. 10, f. 12, 

1848. 0. lepta. Duclos. 
Fulminans (Oliva), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, p. 421. =0. maura, Lam. 

Fulminata (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 33, t. 12, f. 1, 1840? 19 

Fulminea (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 131, Bost. Proc., vii, I860 171 

Fulva (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 42, t. 25, f. 471. 

? O. episcopalis, Lam 

Fulva (Columbella), Sowerby. Pr. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 115 154 

Fulva (Ancillaria), Swainson. Jour. Sc., xviii, p. 283. 

= A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Fumosa (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 119, 1870. 

= 0. tremulma, Lam. 

Funebralis (Oliva), Lam. Hist, nat., vii, p. 437 77 

Funiculata (Ensina), Reeve. Conch. Icon., Ricinula, f. 16, 1846 194 

Funiculata (Columbella), iSouverb. Jour. Conch, 1865, p. 157, pi. v, f. 8. 

= C. flava, Brug. 

Fura (Oliva), Reeve. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc., 55, 1858. .= 0. pura, Rv. 
Fusca (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 95, 1846. -_=: M. exilis, Gmelin. 



216 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Fuscata (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 117 105 

Fuscata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 2, f. 20-22. 
0. araneosa, Lam. 

Fuscostrigata (Columbella), Carp. Ann Nat. Hist., 1864, xiv, p. 49 ITS 

Fusiformis (Mitropsis), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 212, 1807. 

= C. Paumotensis, Tryon. 
Fusiformis (Columbella), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, Moll.,t. 10, f. 17, 18. 

C. recurva, Sowb. 
Fusiformis (Columbella), Nuttall. Jay's Cat. Shells, 3d edit., p. 89. 

? C. Guildingii, Sowb. 

Fusiformis (Columbella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 136, t, 21, f. 25-27 147 

Fusiformis (Columbella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 122, 1868. 

= C. sagitta, Gask. 

Fusiformis '(Engina), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1865, p. 513 193 

Fusiformis (Columbella), Anton. Verzeichniss, 88, sp. 2843, 1839 187 

Fusiformis (Voluta), Turton. Conch. Diet., 251, 1819. 

= Erato laevis, Donov. 

Fusiformis (Vlarginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc.,95, 1844 

Fusiformis (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 318 83 

Fusillus (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 36. f. 231, b, 1859. 

= C. intexta, GasK. 

Fusina (Marginella), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 72, 1881 57 

Fustigata (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 20, pi. 5, f. 3. 
C. rustica, Linn. 

Galaxias (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 36, f. 229, 1859. 

= C. pagitta, Gaskoin. 

Galeola (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 28, f. 4, 5, 6, 1835. = 0. irisans, Lam. 
Galeola, Gray. Zool. Proc., 39, 1858. := Oliva, Brug. 

Gallinacea (Erato), Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 7, 1865 10 

Gaml)iensis(Marginrlla),Redfield. Cat. Marginella. = M. amygdala, Kien. 

Garretti (Columbella), Tryon 166 

Garrettii (Cythara). Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc. Lon. 1860, p. 147. 

= C. lachryma, Gask. 

Gaskoini (Anachis), Carp. Mazat. Cat., p. 510. A. tceniata, Phil. 
Gausapata (Columbella), Gould. Pro. Bos. Soc., N. H., iii, p. 170, 1858. 

= C. carinata, Hinds. 

Gemma (Marginella), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 122, 1855. M . festiva, Kien. 
Gervillii (Columbella), Payr. Moll. Corse, t, 18, f. 20 C. scripta, Linn. 
Gibberula, Swainson. Malacol, 323, 1840. Marginella, Lam. 

Gibberula (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 115 184 

Gibbosa (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 50, t. 8, f. 6 29 

Gibbosa (Engina), Garrett. Calif. Proc , iv, 203, 1872 193 

Gibbosa (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 5, f. 5, 6. 

= C. Strombiformis, Lam. 
Gibbosa juv. (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., 1. 19, f. 302, 304, 305, 309, 310. 

- 0. nebulosa, Lam. 

Gibbosa (Oliva), Born. Test. Mus. Cses., p. 215 90 

Gibbosula (Columbella), Broderip. b'Orb, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 430. 

C. gibberula, Sowb. 

Gilvum(Bucc.), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 180, 1847. ? C. coronata, Sowb., var. 
Gilvum ( Buccinum), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 180, 1847. ? C. coronata, Sowb. 

Glabella (Margiuella), Linn. Sytt. nat., edit, x, 730,1758 17 

Glabella (Voluta), var. c . Gmel., Syst. Nat., 3445, 1788. 
Marginella pyrum, Gronov. 



INDEX, 21 1 



Glabella (Voluta), var. e. Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 8444, 1788. 

= Marginella elegans, Gmelin. 

Glabella, Swainson. Malacol, 324, 1840. -.= Marginella, Lam 19 

Glabelloides (Voluta), Humphreys. Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 378. 

=r Marginella irrorata, Menke. 

Glabrata (Ancillaria), Linn. Syst. Nat., xii, ed., p. 1203 96 

Glandiformis (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 12, f. 173, 174 (vix Lam.). 

= U. tigrina, Lam. 
Glandiformis, pars (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., pars, t. 12, f. 175 (non 

173, 174). 0. Lecoquiana, Ducros 

Glandina (Marginella), Velain. Archiv. Zool. Exp., vi, 109, t. 3, f. 3, 4, 

1877 ; 43 

Glandinaria (Olivella), Conrad. Carpenter Rep., p. 193. 

= Oliva biplicata, Sowerby. 
Glans (Marginella), Menke. Syn. Meth., 146, 1836. 

= M prunum, Gmel., var. 
Glauca (Marginella), Jouss. Monog., 71, t. 8, f. 1. = M. elegans, Gmel. 198 

Goodallii (Marginella), Sowb. Tankerville Cat, t. 2, f. 2, 1825 18 

Gouldiana (Columbella), Agassiz, MbS. Stimpson, Shells of N. Eng., 48, 

1851. = C. lunata, Say. 

Gouldii (Nitidella), Carp. Zool. Proc., 208, 1856. = C. carinata, Hinds. 
Gowllandi (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p. 671, pi. 83, 

f. 15, 16 170 

Gracilis (Harpa), Broderip et Sowerby. Zool. Jour., iv, 373 99 

Gracilis (Citharopsis), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 97, 1. 1 l,f. 20, 1867. 167 

Gracilis (Oliva), Broderip et Sowerby. Zoo. Jour., iv, p. 379 70 

Gracilis (Marginella), C. B. Ad. Ann. N. Y. Lye , v, 46, 1851 55 

Grieci (Columbella), Philippi (1844). 

== Mitra Columbellaria, Scacchi, vol. iv, 195. 

Grankella (Oliva), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, p, 310. == 0. textilina, Lam. 
Granula, Jousseaume. Monog. Margin., Guerin's Mag., 1875. 

= Marginella, Lam. 

Granum (Marginella), Kiener. Iconog., 17, t. 8, F. 33, 1835. 
Erato scabriuscula, Gray. 

Granum (Marginell). Phil. Zeit. Mai., 27, 1850.. ..!.. 43 

Graphica (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 6, t, 3, f. 36, 1870. 

= G. araneosa, Lam., var. Juliettae. 
Grata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 41, t. 25, f. 470, 1871. 

= 0. mustellina, Lain. 
Grisea (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 105, 1875. 

= M. sexplicata, Dunker. 

Gruneri (Harpa), Maltz. Jahrb., iv, 1877, t. 4, f. 2. = H. costata, Linn. 
Gualteriana (Columbella), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Mer. Moll., p. 206. 

? = C. mercatoria, Linn. 

Guancba (Marjrinella), Orb. Moll. Canaries, 88, t. 6, f. 32-34, 1834 41 

Guatemalensis (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 31, f. 198, 1859.. 177 

Guttata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 313, n. 14 74 

Guttata (Columbella), Sow. Thes. Conch., p. 131. = C. cribraria, Lam. 
Guttata (Erato), Sowb. Thes. Conch., Hi, 82, f. 29, 30. 

= E. guttula, Sowb. 
Guttata (Marginella), Swainson. Zool. 111., 2d ser., i, t. 44, f. 2, 1829. 

M. phrygia, Sowb 32 

Guttata (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 394, t. 78, f. 208-210, 1846. 

= M. calculus, Redfield. 
Guttata (Marginella), Dillw. Desc. Cat., 526, 1817 32 

28 



218 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Gutturosa (Columbella), Duclos. Monog., pi. 9, f. 9, 10. 

C. idalina, Duclos. 
Guttula (Oliva), Martini (part). Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 12, 165-168. 

= 0. elegans, var. tricolor, Lam. 
Guttula (Marginella). Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 101, 1865. 

= M. avena, Val., var. 
Guttula (Erato), Sovvb. Conch, lllust., f 50, 1841. Weinkauif, Monog. 

in Conch. Cab.. 156 9 

Guilfordia (Columbella), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., 205, t. 7, f. 87, 

1826. = Erato laws, Donov. 
Guildingi (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 28, f. 89, a, b, 1850. 

= O. nivea, Gmelin. 

Guildingii (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 143, t. 40, f. 175, 176... 179 
Guillaini (Marginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 6U, t. 1, f. 13, 1851... 22 

Htiemastoma (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro, Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 116 106 

Hivmatita (Marginalia), Kiener. (Joq. Viv., ii, t. 7, f. 31, 1834 24 

Hainesii (Margiuella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 260, t. 8, f. 5, 6, 1851. 

= M. quinqueplicata, Lam., var. 
Haldemani (Amycla), Dunker, Ads. Genera, i, 187. 

= Nassa. Manual, iv, 36. 
Haliaeti (Columbella), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, p. 356, v, t. 88, f. JJ. 

= C. costulata, Cant. 
Haneti (Columbella), Petit. Jour. Conch., i, 57, t. 3, f. 4, 1850. 2d ser., 

i, 32, 1856. =C. pavonina, Hinds. 
Hanleyi (Columbella), Deshayes. Cat. Moll. Bourbon, 1863, p. 131, pi. 

40, f. 8-10 129 

Harpa (Buccinum), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. xii, p. 12U1. 
= Harpa ventricosa, Lam. 

Harpa, Lam. Prodr., 1799 61, 97 

Harpaeformis (Marginella), Beck. Sowb., Thes. Conch, i, 374, t. 74, f. 78, 

1846 . 22 

Harpalis, Link. Host. Samml., iii, 114, 18U7. := Harpa, Lam. 
Harparia, Rafinesque. Anal. Nat., 1815. = Harpa, Lam. 

Harpiformis (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1882, p. 113 196 

Harpularia (Oliva,) Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, 620. = 0. araueosa, Lam. 
Hebraea (Columbella), Lam. Auim. s. Vert., x, 270. 
= Mitra litterata, Lam. 

Helmatina (Marginella), Rang. Guerin's Mag., t. 5, 1832 19 

Helvia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 1, f. 19, 20. 

? = C. laevigata, Linn. 
Hemiltona (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 19, f. 3, 4, 1835. 

=: 0. elegans, Lam. 
Hepatica (Oliva), Marrat (not Lamarck). Thes. Conch., t. 3, f. 27, 28. 

(non Lam.). ^ 0. reticularis, Lam. 
Hepatica (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi., p. 320. 0. tremulina, Lam. 

Heterozona (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monogr., 62, t. 7, f. 4 53 

Hiatula, Swains. MalacoL, 132, 322, 1840. = Agaronia, Gray. 

lliatula (Oliva), Gmelin, sp. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, p. 3442 88 

Hieroglyphica (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 24, f. OS, !:>() 84 

Hindsiana (.Marginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 54, 1851. 

M. Olivaoformis, Kiener. 
Hindsii (Columbella), Gask. Pro. Zoo. Soc , 1851. C. carinata, Hinds. 

Hirundo (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 12 147 

llititrio (Ricinula), Rve. Icon., sp. 36, 1846. Engina alveolata, Kiener. 
Holbullii (Columbella), Beck, Authors. = C. rosacea, Gould. 



INDEX. 21.9 



Holosericea (Oliva), Martini. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 13, f, 178, 181. 

= 0. tigrina, Lam. 
Hondurasensis (Margtnella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 97, 1865. 

= M. pulchra, Gray. 

Hordeacea (Columbella), Philippi. Menke, Zeit., 1849, p. 23 179 

Hotessieri (Columbella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 138, t. 21, f. 37-39 144 

Humerosa (Columbella), Carp. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1865, p. 281 112 

Hyalina, Schum. Nouv. Syst., 234, 1817. ;= Marginella, Lam. 

Ida (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 14, f. 1-12. 
: C. atrata, Gould. 

Idalina (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 9, f. 5, 6 117 

Idosia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 22, f. 15, 16 190 

Idulia (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 10, f. 3, 4 Ill 

Ignota (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 12. = M. neglecta, Sowb. 
Ilaira (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 15, f. 11, 12. 

? C. orphia, Duclos. 

Imbricata (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 76, 1844 37 

Immersa (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 109, 1865. 

= M. tricincta, Hinds. 
Imperialis (Harpa), Chemnitz. Lam., x, 129. =H. costata, Linn. 

Impolita (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. C., i, p. 132, pi. 39, f. 127 119 

Inconspicua (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 387, t. 75, f. 80, 1846. 
Inconspicua (Oliva), C. B. Adams. Panama Shells, 34. 

= 0. myriadina. Duclos. 
Inconspicua (Oliva), Marrat (not Adams). Thes. Conch., f. 437, 1871. 

0. nivea, Gmelin. 

Inconspicua (Marginella), Nevill. Jour. AH. Soc. Bengal, 23, 1874; 05, t. 

8, f. 10, 11, 1875. := M. Nevilli, Jousseaume 27 

Incrassata (Oliva), Solander. Dillwyn, Descr. Cat., i, p. 516 (Voluta). 

= 0. angulata, Lam. 
Incubitantes (Columbella), Martini Conch. Cab., ii, p. 113. 

C. mercatoria, Lam. 

Indica (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. xiv, No. 66, 1858 119 

Indusica (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 29, f. 43, a, b, 1850. 

-^ 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 

Infans (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 150, 1865 53 

Infelix (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 75 42 

Inflata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 310 75 

Inflexa (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 389, t. 76, f. 150, 1846. 

M. fusiformis, Hinds. 
Infrenata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 12, f. 161, 1870. 

= 0. elegans, Lam. 

Infumata (Columbella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1863, p, 84, pi. 1 117 

Inornata (Ancillaria), Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 217, pi. xx, f. 56. 

A. Sinensis, Sowb. 
Inornata (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., p. 13, t. 11, f. 155, 1870. 

- 0. funebralis, Lam. 
Inscripta (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, p. 230, 1877.. 139 

Intermedia (Marginella), Menke. Svn. Meth., 88, 1828 55 

Intermedia (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 381, t. 74, f . 6 ; t. 76, 

f. 90, 1846. : M. pyrum, Gmel. 
Interrupta (Columbella), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1865, p. 56, t. ii, f. 7, 8. 

= C. Angasi, Brazier. 
Interrupta (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 3 141 



220 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Interrupts (Marginella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 362, 1822. 

= M. interrupte-lineata, Muhlf. 

Interrupte-lineata (Marginella), Muhlf. Berl. Mag., viii, 1818 37 

Intertincta (Oliva), Carpenter. Mazatl. Shells, p. 465, 1857. 
= 0. araneosa, Lam 

Intexta (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 7 120 

Intorta (Oliva), Carpenter. Zool. Proc., 207, 1856, 

= 0. petiolita, Duclos. 
Intricata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 27, t. 21, f. 344, 345, 1871. 

= 0. nebulosa, Lam. 

lodosia (Engina), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. Illust., t. 22, f. 16 190 

lodostoma (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 13. 

= C. coaspersa, Gask. 

lonida (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 7, f. 5-8 118 

lontha (Columbella), Ravenel. Pro. A. N. S. Phila., 1861, p. 42 144 

Iphis (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 13, f. 11, 12. Fossil. 

Irisans (Oliva). Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 312 79 

Irrorata (Marginella), Menke. Syn. Meth., 88, 1828 17 

Irrorata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 25, f. 153 118 

Isabellina (Columbella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., v, 265, 1865; 

vi, 165, t. 7, f . 8 141 

Isomella (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 9, f. 7, 8 173' 

Ispida (Oliva), Link. Marrat, Tnes. Conch., t. 2, f. 15, 16. 

= 0. fusiformis, Lam. 

Ispidula, Gray. Zool. Proc., 140, 1847. = Oliva, Brug. 
Ispidula, pars (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 16, f. 240. 

= O. Broderipi, Ducros de St. Germain. 

Ispidula (Oliva), Linn. Syst. nat., ed. 12, 1188 86 

Ispidula, var. (Voluta), Born. = Oliva flammulata, Lam. 

Ispidula (Voluta), Martini, ii, f. 491, 492. := Oliva guttata, Lam. 

Isseli (Marginella), Nevill. Jour. As. Soc., Bengal, 95, 1875 40 

Jamaicensis (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 6, t. 4, f. 26. 

= 0. reticularis, Lam. 

Japix (Columbella). Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 22, f. 13, 14 135 

Japouica (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. x, f. 45, a, b, 1858. 

= C. pardalina, Lam. 

Japonicus (^Esopus), Gould. Pro. Bost. S. N. H., vii, p. 383, 1860 188 

Jaspidea (Columbella), Sowb. Thes Conch., i, p. 132, pi. 39, f. 125 157 

Jaspidea (Oliva), Gmel. Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, p. 3442 68 

Jaspidea (Oliva), Duclos in Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 9, f. 9, 10. 

0. Duclosi, Reeve. 

Javacensis (Columbella). Gask. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1848. = C. fasciata, Sowb. 
Jayana (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Revue crit., 68, t. 3, f. 44, a, b. 

? 0. mustelina, Lam. 

Jewettii (Marginella), Carp. Zool. Proc., 207, 1856 43 

Jousseaumei (Gibberula), Rochbrune. Bull. Soc., Phil., 1881 ; Nouvelles 

Archives du Museum, 2 ser., iv, 293, t. 17, f 15, 1881. = M.exilis, Gmel. 
Juliettae (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 16, f. 3, 4, 1835. 

= 0. araneosa, Lam., var. 

Kaleontina (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t, 8, f. 7, 8, 1835 86 

Keeni (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 12, f. 164, 1870. 

= 0. sanguinolenta, Lam. 
Keenii (Marginella), Marrat. Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist., 4th ser., vii, 141, 

t. 11, f. 13, 1871 29 



INDEX. 221 



Kieneria (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 25, f. 19, 20. 
? == C. Sagra, d'Orb. 

Kieneriana (Marginella), Petit. Mag. de Zool., t. 110, 1838 37 

Kirostra (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 11, f 1, 2 167 

Kraussi (Columbellaj, Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 144, t. 40, f. 180, 181 114 

Labiata (Marginella), Val. Kiener, Coq. Viv., 35, t. 11, f. 2, 1840? 17 

Labiosa (Columbella), Sowerby. Genera of Shells, No. 9 106 

Labradorensis (Oliva), Bolten. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 11, f. 146-148. 

0. funebralis, Lam. 

Labrosa (Marginella), Redfield. Cat. Marg., 239, 1870 28 

Labuensis (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 25, t. 19, f. 311, 312, 1871.. 89 
Lacertina (Oliva), Quoy. Voy. Uranie et Phys. Zoo., 432, t. 72, f. 4, 5. 

0. innata, Lam. 

Lachrimula (Marginella), Gould. Bost. Proc., viii, 281, 1862 44 

Lachryma (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 159, 1865 43 

Lachryma (Columbella), Gaskoin. Reeve, Icon., f. 125, 1858 165 

Lachryma (Erato), Gray. Descriptive Cat., 17, 1832 8 

Lactea (Columbella), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, 225, 1836. 

C. script*, Linn. 
Lactea (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 81, 135, 1865. 

M. subtriplicata, d'Orb. 

Lacte* (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 42, t. 13, f. 3, ? 1840 49 

Lactea (Oliva), Marr. Thes. Conch., p. 30, f. 376, 1871. 0. nivea, Marr. 

Lactea (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 1, f. 3, 4 149 

Lactea (Columbella), Kiener. Reeve, Conch Ic., xi, pi. xxi, f. 120, 1858. 

= C. Babbi, Tryon. 
Lactea (Erato), Button. Manual of N. Zeal. Mollusca, 63, 1880. 

Margineila formicula, Lam , 12 

Lactescens (Columbella), Souv. Jour, de Concu., 1866, p. 144, pi. 6, f. 5. 

= C. pardalina, Lam. 

Leeta ( Marginella), Jouss. Monog., 44, t. 8, f. 2. = M. Olivseformis, Kien. 
Lseta (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Lin. Soc. N. S. VV , i, p., 232, 1877.... 140 
Luevigata (Pisania), Bivona. Nuove Gen. ^Columbella sciipta, Linn. 

Lievigata (Columbella), Linn. Syst. Nat., 3497 (Gmehn ed.) 113 

Lievilabris (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 21. = M. faba, Linn. 
Lsevis (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 26, t. 20, f. 330, 331, 1871. 
= 0. mustellina, Lam. 

Lsevis (Erato), Donovan. Brh. Shells, v, t. 165, 1803 9 

Lafresnayi (Columbella), Fischer et Bern. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., i, 

357, t. 12, f. 4, 5, 1857. : C. avara, Say. 
Lamarckii (Hiatula), Swainson. Zool. 111., 2d ser., ii, t. 76, fig. 2. 

Oliva hiatula, Gmelin. 

Lamprodoma, Swainson. Malacol, 132, 321, 1840. S. G. of Oliva 60, 72 

Lanceolata (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 116. 

C. recurva, Sowb. 
Lanceolata (Oliva). Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 30, f. 95, a-b, 1850. 

0. lepta, Duclos. 
Lantzi (Marginella), Jouss. Monog., 15, t. 7, f. 5. M. Nevilli, Jouss. 

Largillierti (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv , 43, t. 11, f. 3. ? 1840 47 

Lauta (Engina), Reeve. Ricinula, Conch. Ic., pi. 4, sp. 24, 1846. 

E. alveolata, Kiener. 

Lavalleana (Marginella), Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 20, f. 38. = M. minuta, Pfr. 
Leai (Egouena), Jousseaume. Monogr. Marg., 37. 

= Marginella labrosa, Red field. 
Lecoquiana (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germ. Rev. crit., p. 43, t. 2, f. 20, a-c. 77 



222 INDKX. 



Lefevrei (Marginella), Bernard!. Jour, de Conch., iv, 360, t. 12, f. 11, 

12, 1853 : 41 

Legrandi (Columbella), Woods. Pro. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1875, p. 162 137 

Lentiginosa (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 240, 1859 170 

Lentipinosa (Columbella), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 39, 1844. 

= C. atramentaria, Sowb. 

Lentiginosa (Oliva), Rve. Conch. Tc., 1. 19, f. 45, a-b. = 0. Duclosi, Rve. 
Leontocroma (Murex), Brusina (1866). := Columbella Greci, Phil. 

Lepida (Vlarginella), Gould. Bost Proc., vii, 384, 1860 55 

Lepida (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 13, f. 3, 4. Fossil. 

Lepida (Olfva), Duel. Monogr., t. 25, f. 15-20, 1835. = 0. sidelia, Duel. 

Lepta (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 1, f. 7, 8, 1835 69 

Leptopus (Pseudomarginella), Carriere. Zeit. Wiss. Zool., xxxvii, 99, 1882. 

- Marginella glabella, Linn. 

Leucopluva (Oliva), Lam. Enc. Meth., pi. 363, f. 2. = 0. guttata, Lam. 
Leucophaea (Erato), Gould. Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., vi, 386, t, 14, f. 20, 

1853. = E. columbella, Menke. 
Leucostoma (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t, 27, f. ? 14-16, 1835. 

= 0. funebralis, Lam. 

Leucostoma (Coiumbella), Gaskoin. Pro Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 4 114 

Leucozia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 22, f. 5, 6. 

E. astricta, Reeve. 

Leucozona (Oliva), Adams et Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc. Lon., 1863, p. 422, 

t. 37, f. 23 72 

Leucozonias (Oliva), Gray, in Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 130. (1836) 69 

Levania (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 22, f. 7, 8. 

'.' - C. atrata, Gould. 

Lienardi (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monogr., 67. = M. secalina, Phil. 
Lienardii (Oliva), Bernard!. Jour Conch., 2 ser., iii, p. ?02, pi. x, f. 4, 

1858 . 97 

Lifouana (Marginella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch , 205, 1871 ; 63, t. 2, f. 2, 

1872 23 

Ligata (Harpa) (Menke), Sutor. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., iv, 107, 1877. 

= H. conoidalis, Lam. 

Lignaria (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 14, f. 195, 196, 1870. 
(). irisans, Lam., var. concinna. 

Ligneola (Oliva), Reeve. Conch Ic., t. 21, f. 57, 1850 86 

Ligula (Columbella), Duel. Monogr , pi. 11, f. 11-16 119 

Lilacina (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 402, t. 78, f. 176, 177, It4(5. 47 
Limata (Columbella), Say. H. and A. Adams, Genera, i, 187. 

C. lunata. Say. 

Limbata (Marginella). Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 356, 1822 21 

Lincolnensis (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 29. f. 184, 1859 120 

Lineata (Marginella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert , vii, 361, 1822. 

M. cingulata, Dillw. 

Lineata ( Ancillaria), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 16, t. 3, f. 2. 
= A. marginata, Lam. 

Lineata (Columbella), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc , 1860, p. 399 138 

Lineata (Engina), Reeve. Conch. Ic., Ricinula, pi. 6. sp. 51, 1840 194 

Lineata (Amphissa), Stearns. Cal. Proc., iv, t. 1, f. 8, v, Note at com- 
mencement. Var. of A. versicolor, Dall. 
Lineato labrum (Marginella), Gaskoin. Zool. Proc., 20, 1849. 

M. rosea, Lam. 
Lineolata (Ancillaria), A. Adams. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 271. 

O. acuminata, Sowb. 



INDEX. 223 

PAGE. 

Lineolata (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 57, pi. 13, f. 3. 

= C. Terpsichore. Sowb. 

Lineolata (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 132. = C. Marquesana, Gaek. 
Lineolata (Columbella), Pease. Brazier, Proc. Linn. iSoc. N. S. Wales, 

i, 231, 1877 138 

Lineolata (Oliva), Gray. Zool. in Beechey's Voy., p. 131. 

0. dama, Mawe. 

Linigera (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, Conch, lllust., t 17, f. 13. 14 174 

Linnasi (Buccjnum), Payraudeau. Moll. Cor.-e, 161, t. 8, f. 10-12. 

= Columbella scripta, Linn. 
Lintricula, H. and A. Adams. Genera Recent Moll., i, 141, 1853. 

Olivancillaria, d'Orb. 
Lischkei (Columbella), Smith. Pro. Zoo. Soc , 1879, p. 207, pi. 20, f. 41. 147 

Litterata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 315 83 

Liturata (Marginella), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl.. 28, 1843 21 

Livescens (Columbella), Keeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 24. f. 148, 1859 113 

Livida (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo Soc.. 1832, p. 117 195 

Livida (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 73, 1844. = M. apicina, Menke. 
Livida (Marginella), Rve. Conch. Ic., f. 10', 1865. M.avena, Val. 

Loebbeckeana (Marginella), Weiukautf. Kiister, 33, t. 5, f. 9, 12. 

M. elegaus. Gmelin 198 

Longivaricosa (Marginella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii. 358, 1822. 

M. guttata, Dillw. 
Loroisii (Marginella), Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., v, 291, t. 8, f 6, 7, 

1857. M. marginata, Born, minor. 

Lubrica (Oliva), Solander. == 0. nivea, Gmel 
Lucia (Marginella), Jousseaume. Bull Soc. Zool.. i, 269, t. 5, f. 11-13, 

1877 25 

Lucida (Marginella), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 205, 1877 48 

Lugubris (Columbella), Kien. Coq. Viv., 28, pi. M, f. 2. = C. flava, Brug. 
Lugubris (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 317. 

: 0. episcopalis, Lam. 
Lumbricus (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 29, f. 186, 1859. 

Lunata (Columbella), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad., v, 213, 1826 130 

Lutaria (Oliva), Bolten. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 20, f. 316-318. 

= O. acuminata, Lam. 
Lutea (Columbella), Quoy. Voy. de 1'Astr., pi. 40, f. 23, 24. 

? =0. semiconvexa, Lam. 
Lutea (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 40, t. 24, f 414, 445, 1871. 

? O. funebralis, Lam. 
Luteola (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., p. 12, pi 4, f. 2. 

= C. rustica, Linu. 

Luteola (Oliva), Lam. Anr. du Mus., xvi, p. 323. 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 
Lyra, Griffith. Cuvier's An, Kingdom, xii, 234, 1834. = Harpa, Lam. 

Lyrata (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 114 154 

Lysidia (Columbellaj, Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 26, f. 15, 16. 

Pleurotoma. 
Lysiska (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch,, t. 7, f. 17, 18. 

= C. varians, Sowb. 

Macleaya (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., t 21, f. 18-16. =0. maura, Lam. 
Macrostoma (Columbella), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 87, sp. 2837. Reeve, 

Icon., f. 49. -.C. costellata, Sowb. 
Macrostoma (Conus), Anton. Reeve, Icon. Meta., f. 1, 1859. 

^Columbella Philippinarum, var. cedo-nulli. 
Maculata (Oliva), Duclos. Oliv., t. 15, f. 1-6. _ 0. guttata, Lam. 



224 INDEX. 



Maculata (Ancilla), Schumacher. Nouv. Syst., p. 244. 

== Oliva hiatula, Gmelin. 
Maculata, var. (Columbella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 76, pi. viii, 

fig. 12. Var. of Engina lineata. Reeve. 

Maculosa (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 26, t. 9, f. 40, 1834 37 

Maculosa (Marginella), Rve. Icon., f. 65, 1865. =M. calculus, Redf. 
Maculosa (Oliva), Swain. 0. hiatula. Gmel. 

Maculosa (Columbella), Sowerby. Fr. Zoo. Soc., 1842, f. 116 186 

Maculosa (Columbella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p 22, 1871. 

= C. lineolata (Pse ), Brazier. 

Magna (Marginella), Swain. Blight, Cat, App., 12. == M. bullata, Born. 
Magnifica (Oliva), Ducros. de St. Germain. Revue, p. 30, t. 1, f, 4, a-d. 

0. erythrostoma, Lam. 
Major (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 119. 

= C. Strombiformis, Lam. 
Major, var. (Columbella). Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, 225, 1836. 

= C. scripta, Linn. 
Mamillata (Ancillaria), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, Moll , t. 11, f. 7, 8. 

= A rubiginosa, Swains. 
.Manceli (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., t. 8, f. 4, 1875. 

= M. sarda Kiener 

Mandarina (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., t. 1, f. 19, 20, 1835 56 

Mangelioides (Columbella), Keeve. Conch. Ic , xi, pi. 30, f. 197, 1859.. 149 
Mantichora (Oliva) Duclos in Chenu, Conch. 111., t. 16, f. 7, 8. 

= 0. guttata, Lam. 
Marchii (Marginella), Jouss. Monog., 72, ex parte. M. elegans, Gml. 

Margarita (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 15, t. 9, f. 42, 1834 25 

Margarita (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 27, f. 168, 1859 121 

Margaritula (Marginella), Carpenter. Mazat, Cat., 462, 1857 41 

Marginata (Marginella), Born. Mus., 220, t, 9, f. 5, 6, 1780 28 

Marginata (Volvaria), Bivona. Nuove Gen., 24, t. 3, f. 5, 

Marginella clandestina, Brocchi. 
Marginata (Erato), Morch. Malak. Blatt., vii, 85, 1860. 

= E. columbella, Menke 10 

Marginata (Ancilla), Sowerby. Gen. of sh., f. 1. 

- Ancillaria cinsamomea, Lam. 

Marginata (Voluta), Wood. Index Test. Suppl.,t. 3, f. 8, 1828. 

Marginella bifasciata, Lam. 

Marginata (Ancillaria), Lam. Ann. du. Mus., xvi, p. 304 96 

Marginella, Lamarck. Prodr., 1799, Syst. Anim., 75, 1801 7, 12 

Marginellidse. Redfield. Cat. Coll. Marg., 1851 5 

Marite (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit., p. 50, t. 2, f. 26, a, b. 

() araneosa, Lam., var. Juliettse. 
Maria (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i; p. 230, 1877.. 139 

Mariei (Marginella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 177, t. 5, f. 2, 1867 46 

Marminii (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 4, f. 15, 16. Fossil. 

Marmorata (Columbella), Gray. Beechey's Voy., p. 129, t. 36, f. 11, 1839. 181 

Marmorata (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 9, f. 32, a, b, 1864 93 

Marmorea (Columbella), Brusina. Verhandl. Zoo. Bot., Ges. Wien, p. 9. 

1865 108 

Marmorea (Oliva), Martini. Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 70-72. 

0. flammulata, Lam. 
Marmorea (Columbella), Brusina. Verh. Zool. Bot. Gesell., xv, 9, 1865. 

- 0. scripta, Linn. 

Marquesana (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 8 136 

Martensi (Columbella), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 40, 1871 130 



INDEX. 225 



Martini (Marginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., 367, t. 11, f. 8, 1853. 

= M. prunum, Gmelin. 

Maugeriae (Erato), Gray. Desc. Cat., 17, 1832 9, 197 

Maura (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 311 78 

Maura, pars (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 7, f. 10, a. : O.funebralis, Lam. 

Maura (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 117 195 

Mauritiana (Oliva), Martini. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 10, f. 133-140. 

= 0. Maura, Lam. 

Mauritiana (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Spec. Conch,, p. 3, f. 1, 2, 1830 96 

Mazaris (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., t. 20, f. 7, 8, 1835. 

= 0. erythrostoma, Lam. 
Mediocincta (Marginella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser, xvi, 

201, 1875 52, 198 

Megalostoma (Oliva), Meuschen. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 21, figs. 336- 

340. == 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 

Melanida (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 19, f. 7, 8. 
Melchersi (Oliva), Menke. Zeitschrift fur Mai., 1851, p. 24. 

= 0. araneosa, Lam. 
Meleagris (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 4, f. 15, 16. 

= C. fuscata, Sow. 
Memnonia (Oliva), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. 111., t. 17, f. 19. 20. 

= 0. reticularis, Lam. 

Menaletta (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 15, f. 3, 4 160 

Mendicaria (Columbella), Linn. .Syst. Nat., edit, xti, 1191... 196 

Menkeana (Columbella). Reeve. Conch. Ic., xii, pi. xiv, No. 69, 1858 120 

Mercatoria (Oolumbella), Linn. Syst. Nat., 3446 (Gmelin edit.) 106 

Mercatoria (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 17, f. 268, 269, 1871. 

= 0. fusiformis, Lam. 
Merita (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, p. 231, 1877. 146 

Meta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi., 1859 102, 183 

Metanira (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 18, f. 19, 20. Fossil. 
Metcalfei (Marginella), Angas. Zool. Proc., 173, t. 26, f. 9, 1877. 

= M. Australis, Hinds. 

Mexicana (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monogr., 60, t. 8, f. 9 50 

Mexicana (Harpa), Auct. Reeve, Icon., sp. 9. :== H. crenata, Swainson. 
Mica (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 1, f. 11, 12, 1835. 

? 0. Verreauxi, Ducr. 
Mica (Oliva), Marrat (not Duclos). Thes. Conch., f. 408. 

= 0. petiolita, Duclos. 
Micana, Gray. Zool. Proc., 40, 1858. = Olivella, Swains. 

Micans (Marginella), Petit Jour, de Conch., 48, t. 1, f. 15, 16, 1851 49 

Micans (Columbella), Pease , 124 

Micans (Voluta), Solander MS. Dillwyn, Cat., i, p. 521. 

= Oliva nan a, Lam. 
Microscopica (Marginella), Tapparone-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, 

vii, 1030, 1875 55 

Microspira, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 66, 1868. = Marginella, Lam. 16 
Micula (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 25, f. 468, 1871. 

- 0. mutica, var. nitidula. 

Millepunctata (Columbella), Carp. Ann. N. H., 1864, p. 48 115, 198 

Millepunctata (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 25, f. 1-3. = 0. nana, Lam. 
Miliacea (Volvaria), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 364, 1822. 

Marginella miliaria, Linn. 
Miliacea (Marginella), Var. Kiener, Coq. Viv., 20, t. 6, f. 26,1834. 

= M. oryza, Lam. 

29 



226 INDEX. 



Miliacea (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 39, f. 441, 1871. 
0. nivea. Gmelin. 

Miliaria (Marginella), Lion. Syst. Nat., edit, x, 730, 1758 42 

Miliaria (Voluta), Dillw. Desc. Cat., 524, 1817. 

=: Marginella oryza, Lam. 
Miliola (Oliva), d'Orb. Mol. Cuba, ii, 108, t. 21, f. 20, 22. 

M. mutica, var. nitidula, juv. 

Miltostoma (Columbella), Woods. Pro. Roy. Soc Tas., 1870, p. 134. 
= C. semiconvexa, Lam., var. minor. 

Mindorensis (Columbella), Gaskoin. Reeve, Icon., sp. 193, 1859 143 

Miniata (Oliva), Bolten. - ^0. erythrostoma, Lain. 

Minima (Marginella), Guilding. Sowb., Thes. Conch., i, 388, t. 78, f. 220, 
1846. = M. minuta, Pfr. 

Minor (Mitrella), Scacchi. Conch. Regne Nap., 10, f. 11, 1836 142 

Minor ( Varginella), C. B. Adams. Ann. N. Y. Lye., v, 264, 1852 44 

Minor (Harpa), Lam. X (Nat, His ), p. 133, sp. 7 99 

Minuscula (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 131, Bost. Proc., vii, 1860 171 

Minuta (Marginella), Pfeiffer. Wiegmann's Archiv , i, 259, 1840 43 

Minuta (Columbella), Woods. Pro. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1875, p. 152. 
C. Tenisoni, Tryon. 

Minuta (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 130, Bost. Proc., vii, 1860 172 

Minuta (Erato), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 11,1865 10 

Minutissima (Marginella), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. iSoc. Tasmania, 

27,1875 56 

Mirabilis (Marginella), Barclay. Proc. Zool. Soc., 273, t. 19, f. 6, 1869. 

: M. obtusa, Sowb. 
Miser (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 129, pi. 38, f. 111. 

C. zebra, Gray. 
Mitrseformis (Columbella), King Zoo. Journ. C. cribraria, Lam. 

Mitrata (Columbella), Menke. Moll. Nov. Hollandise, 1843 112 

Mitrella (Voluta), Risso. Hist Nat. Eur. Merid., 1826 
Marginella secalina, Phil. 

Mitrella, Risso Hist. Nat, 247, 1826 102, 117 

Mitreola (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., pi. 4, f. 1, 2, fossil. 

Mitropsis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 211, 1867 102, 180 

Mitrula (Buccinum), Dunker. Philippi Abbild., iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 9. 

Columbella catenata, Sowb. 
Modesta (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 22, pi. 11, f. 2. 

= C rustica, Linn. 

Modesta (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 26, f. 83, a, b, 1850. 
= 0. acuminata, Lam. 

Moesta (Columbella), C. B. Adams. Cat. Shells Panama, p. 94 176 

Moleculina (Columbella), Duclos. Monog., pi. 9, f. 1, 2 117 

Monilifera (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t 10, f. 36, a, b. 
0. marginata, Lam. 

Monilifera (Engina), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1860, p. 142 190 

Monilifera (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p. 53 149 

Monilifera (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 27, f. 84, a, b, 1850. 

= 0. nivea, Gmelin. 

Monilis (Voluta), vn,r. /?, Gmelin. Syst. Nat , 3444, 1788. 
= Marginella oryza, Lam. 

Monilis (Marginella), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, x, 730, 1768 41 

Monilis (Marginella), Wood. Index Test., t. 19, f. 54, 1828. 

M. exilis, Gmelin. 

Monilis (Murex*), Meuschen. Mus. Gevers, 328, 1787. 
= Marginella elegans, Gmel. 



INDEX. 227 

PAGE. 

Monilis (Marginella), Wood. Index Test., t. 19, f. 53, 1828. 
M. pulchella, Kiener. 

Monoptygma, Lea (in part, not Gray). Contrib. Geol., 1833 61, 91 

Montrouzieri (Ancillaria), Sowb. Jour. Conch., viii, p. 207, 324, t. 11, f. 3. 94 

Morchii (Marginella), Redfield. Cat. Marg., 244, 1870 56 

Mosaica (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 381, t. 75, f. 68, 59, 1846. 18 
Mucronata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 17, f. 274-275. 

0. sidelia, Duel. 

Mucronata (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Spec. Conch., p. 8. 

? = A. australis, Sowb. 
Multicostata (Harpa), J. & G. B. Sowerby. Gen. of Shells, f. 1. 

= H. costata, Linn. 

Multilineata (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 96, 1846 3G 

Multiplicata (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 20, f. 52, a, b, 1850. 

0. litterata, Lam. 

Multivoluta (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 26, f. 163, 1859 156 

Muralis (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 76, 1844. 

= M. maculosa, Kiener. 
Musca (Marginella), Defrance. Diet. Sc. Nat., xxix, 143, 1823. 

= M. muscaria, Lam. 
Muscaria (Marginella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 359, 1822. 

= M. formicula, Lam. 
Muscaria (Marginella), Costa. Cat. Test. Sicil., 73, 1829. 

= Erato laevis, Donov. 

Musica (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 73, 1844 22 

Mustellina (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 316 78 

Mustellina (Marginella), Angas. Zool. Proc., 14, 1871, t. 1, f. 5 48 

Mutica (Oliva), Say. Jour. Acad. So., Phila., ii, p. 228, 1822 64 

Mutica, pars (Oliva) (Say), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 3, f. 86, a-b. 

= 0. Verreauxi, Ducros. 
Mygdonia (Oliva), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 6, f. 23, 24. 

= 0. jaspidea, Gmelin. 

Myriadina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 5, f. 1, 2, 1835 68 

Myriadina (Oliva), Marrat (not Duclos). Thes. Conch., f. 440, 1871. 

a 0. nivea, Gmelin 68 

Nablium (Harpa), Martini, f. 1092. := H. conoidalis, Lam. 

Nana (Erato), Duclos. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 18, 1865 11 

Nana (Columbella), Loven. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iv. 

.Thesbia (Pleurotomidee). 

Nana (Columbella), Michaud. Duclos, Monogr., pi. 8, f. 4-6. 
= C. varians, Sowb. 

Nana (Columbella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 157, 1871 172 

Nana (Voluta), Dillwyn. Desc. Cat., i, 536. ? == Engina lineata, Rve. 
Nana (Oliva), var. b, Lam. Ann. du. Mus., xvi, p. 326. 

O. mutica, Say, var. nitidula, Mil. 

Nana (Marginella), Marrat, Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 205, 1877 56 

Nana (Oliva), Lamarck. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 326 91 

Nasioletta (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 13, f. 15, 16. Fossil. 
Nasuta (Columbella), Gmelin. Syst. Nat,, 3455. = C. scripta, Linn. 
Nasuta (Columbella), Gmelin. Brusina, Contr., 67. C. scripta, Linn. 

Nasuta (Columbella), Menke. Zeit., 1850, p. 184 136 

Natalia (Oliva), Duclos, in Chenu, t. 21, f. 17, 18. 0. Duclosi, Reeve. 
Navicella (Marginelia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 20, f. 103, 1865 

= M. rubella, C. B. Ad. 
Naxia (Columbella), Duclos. Monog., pi. 13, f. 1, 2. Fossil. 



228 INDEX. 



Nebulosa (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 130; Bost. Proc., vii, 1882 171 

Nebulosa (Oliva), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, p. 436 89 

Nedulina (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., t. 5, f. 13, 14, 1885. 

= O. undatella, Lam. 
Neglecta (Marginella). Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 390, t. 76, f. 135, 136, 1846. 27 

Neostina (Oliva), Duclos. Monog., t. 19, f. 11-16, 1835 78 

Neptunia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 26, f. 19, 20 175 

Nevilli (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 28 24 

Nevilli (Columbella), Tryon 173 

flfewcombi (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., t. 5, f. 15, a, b, 1864. 

= M. Petltii, Duval. 
Nigellus (Cylindrus), Meuschen. Oliva maura, Lam. 

Nigricans (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p, 52 168 

Nigricostata (Columbella), E. A. Wraith. P. Z. S., 1878, p. 807, pi. 50, 

f. 6 155, 198 

Nigrofusca (Columbella), Carpenter.- Mazat. Cat., 509, 1857 178 

Nigropunctata (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 117 156 

Nisitella (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 7, f. 9, 10 170 

Nitellina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 3, f. 1, 2, 1835. 

= 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 
Nitens (Oliva), Dunker MS. in Mus. Godeffroy's Cat., iv, p. 83, and v, 

p. 117. = 0. simplex, Pease. 

Nitida (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 75, 1844 34 

Nitida (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, p. 271 113 

Mtidella, Swainson. Malacol., 313, 1840 102, 113 

Nitidula (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 10, f. 3, 4. = 0. paxillus, Reeve. 
Nitidula (Oliva), Dillwyn. Desc. Cat., i, p. 521, 1817. 

= 0. nmtica, Say, var..... 64 

Nitidula (Columbella), Sowb. Genera, pi. 40, f. 162. - C. nitida, Lam. 

Nivea (Columbella), Ravenel. Pro. A. N. S. Phila., 1861, p. 43 132 

Nivea (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 139, pi. 39, f. 151 185 

Nivea (Oliva), Gmelin. Linne, Syst. Nat., ed. xiii, p. 3412 67 

Nivea (Columbella), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 87, sp. 2841, 1839 187 

Nivea (Ancillaria), Swainson. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., f. 64, 65. 

= A. balteata, dwainson. 

Nivea (Margiuella), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., 56, 1850. nivosa, Hinds. 
Niveomarginata (Columbella), Smith. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1879, p. 208, t. 20, 

f. 42 146 

Nivosa (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 26, f. 106, 1859. 
= C. versicolor, Sowb. 

Nivosa (Vlarginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 74, 1844 32 

Nivosa (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t, 17, f. 270; t. 25, f 472. 

= O. reticularis, Lam. 

Nobilis (Harpa), Lam. Hist. Nat., x, p. 1^2 99 

Nobilis (Oliva), Rve. Conch. Ic., t. 2, f. 3, 18-">0. 0. tremulina, Lam. 
Nodalina (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 3, f. 5, 6. C. fuscata, Sow. 

Nodata (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 73, 1844 20 

Nodicostata (Columbella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 274, pi. 23, 

f. 8, 1867 195 

Nodulosa (Columbella), Nuttall. Jay, Cat. Shells, 3d edit., p. 90. 

= C. varians, JSowb. 

Nodulosa (Engina), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 71, pi. viii, f. 11, 1870. 189 
Nota (Oliva), Mar. Thes. Conch., t. 23, f. 428, 1871. ;= 0. baetica, Carp. 
Novuezelandica (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 65, t. 3, f. 48, 49. 
= O. Sinensis, Sowb. 



. 229 



Nubeculata (Marginella), Lam. Anitn. s. Vert., vii, 356, 1822. 

M. pyrum, Gronov. 
Nubeculata (Marginella), Guerin. Icon. Regne Anim., i, 33, t. 16, f. K> ? 

= M. rosea, Lam. 

Nubeculata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic.,- xi, pi. 37, f. 234, 1859 140 

Nucleus (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 14, pi. 3, f. 4. 
C. rustica, Linn. 

Numicia (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t, 26, f. 9, 10 191 

Nux (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 35, f. 227, 1859. 

= C. pulla, Gask. 
Nux (Oliva), Wood. Ind. Test. Suppl., t, 4, f. 33. = 0. biplicata, Sowb. 

Nycteis (Columbella). Duel. Chenu, Conch, lllust., t. 17, f. 5-8 151 

Nympha (Columbella). Kiener. Coq. Viv., 33, pi. 10, f. 4 142 

Nympha (Oliva), Adams et Angas. Pro. Zoo. Hoc. Lon., 1863, p. 422.... 72 

Obesa (Columbella), C. B Adams. Pro. Bost, Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, 2, 1845. 169 
Obesa (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 65, t. 3, f 44, 45. 

--= 0. marginal a, L'im. 

Obesa (Marginella), Redfield. Ann. N. Y. Lye., iv, 164, t. 10, f. 5, 1846. 37 
Obesa (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 397, t. 76, f. 91, 92, 1846. 

M. pyrulata, riedfield. 
Obesina (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t. 16, f. 9-11, 1835 (in part). 

= 0. lusiformis, Lam. 
Obesina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 16, f. 9-11, 1835. 

= 0. araneoea, Lam., var. Juliettae. 

Oblita (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic , xi, pi. 31, f. 202, 1859 123 

Oblonga (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Spec. Conch., p. 7, f. 38, 39. 

= 0. marginata, L,am. 

Oblonga (Harpa), Schm. H. minor, Lam. 

Oblonga (Marginella), Swains. Zool. 111., 2 ser., i, t. 44, f. 1, 1829.. ..32, 198 
Oblonga (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t, 2, f. 14, 1870. 

0. araneosa, Lam. 

Obscura (Columbella), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., i, p. 121, t. 37, f. 70, 71. 
C. pardalina, Lam. 

Obscura (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 132, 1865 52 

Obsoleta (Columbella), Carp. Mazat. Cat., 493, 18-~>7. C. cervmetta, var. 

Obtusa (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1839, p. 117 181 

Obtusa (Ancillaria), Swainson. Jour. Sc., xviii, p. 282. 

A. australis, Sowb. 

Obtusa (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 254, 1870. = M. sexplicata, Dkr. 
Obtusa (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 874, t. 74, f. 11, 12, 1846.. 20 
Obtusaria (Oliva), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., x, p. 628. 

= 0. irisans, var. tremulina. 

Occulta (Marginella), Monterosato, Test, nuovi dei mari di Sicilia, 1869. 40 
Ocellata (V r oluta), Gmelin. Syst. Nat , p. 3455. 
- Columbella cribraria, Lam. 

Ocellata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 37, f. 237 148 

Ochracea (Marginella), Angas. Zool. Proc., 14, t. 1, f. 6, 1871. 

= M. australis, Hinds. 
Ochrostoma (Sistrum), var. rufonotatum, Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d 

ser., xiv, 48, 1864. Engina pulchra, Reeve. 

Octavia (Oliva), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch , t. 28, f. 21, 22. 

== 0. neostina, Duclos. 
Odoricyi( Marginella), Bernardi, Jour, de Conch., iii, 59, t. 2, f. 6, 7, 1852. 31 

Oliva, Bruguiere. Encyc. Meth., 1, xv, 1798 60, 72, 73 

Oliva (Voluta), T. Dillw. Recent Shells, 513. = Oliva flammulata, Lam. 



230 INDEX. 



Oliva (Voluta), part, Dillw. B. S., 521, 1817. = Oliva maura, Lam. 
Olivacea (Oliva), Meuschen. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 4, f. 46, 47, 51-53. 
0. reticularis, Lam. 

Olivjeformis (Marginella) Kiener. Coq. Viv., 12, t. 8, f. 36, 1834 33 

Olivancillaria, d'Orb. Voy. Am. Merid., 420, 1839. 

= S. G. of Oliva, Brug 60, 90 

Olivaria, Rafinesque. Anal. Nat., 1815. Oliva, Brug. 

Olivella, Swainson. Elem. Mod. Conch., 1835 59, 63 

Olivella (Marginella), Reeve. Conch Icon., f 140,1865 31. 198 

Olivellaiformis (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 107, t. 7, f. 6, 1875.. 48 
Olivina, d'Orbigny (not Morch). Voy. Ame"r. Merid., 1839. 

Olivella, Swainson. 

Olivoidea (Mitra), Cantraine, 1835. = Columbella Greci, Phil. 
Olivula, Conrad. Foss. Shells, Tert., 25, t. 10, f. 5, 1832. 

S. G. of Ancillaria 61 

Olorinella (01ivella^<Duclos. Monogr., t. 6, f. 15, 16, 1835. 

= 0. reticulari^; Lam. 
Olympiadina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 12, f. 10-12. 

= 0. irisans, Lam., var. tremulina, Lam. 
Onisca (Oliva; , Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 32, f. 7-9. 

= 0. fusiformis, Lam. 
Onychina (Marginella), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 29, t. 10, f. 25, 

1850. = M. Bernardii, Largill. 

Opalina (Marginella), Stearns. Bost. Proc., xv, 21, 1872 23 

Ophonia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 16, f. 5, 6. 
C. varia, Sowb. 

Orbignyi (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 25, f. 458 88 

Oriola (Oliva), Duel. Monog , t. 10. f. 1, 2, 1835. = 0. araneosa, Lam. 
Oriola (Oliva), Lam. Hist. Nat., ed. Deshayes, x, 622. 0. ispidula, Linn. 
Oriola (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t, 10, f. 1, 2, 1835 (in part). 

0. reticularis, Lam. 
Ornata (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., p. 13, t, 7, f. 102, 103, 1870. 

0. irisans, Lam., var. concinna. 
Ornata (Columbella), Ravenel. Proc. Elliott Soc. Nat. Hist., i, p. 281, 

1858. Post-pliocene fossil. 
Ornata (Citharopsis), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 97, pi. 11, f. 19, 

1867. := C. Garretti, Tryon. 

Ornata (Marginella), Redfield. Cat. Marg., 246, 1870 21 

Orphia (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t, 15, f. 1, 2 134 

Ortigia (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 22, f. 1, 2 175 

Ortonia (Columbella), Duel. Cfrenu, 111. Conch., t. 26, f. 13, 14 17") 

Oryza (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 11, f. 43, 1864. 

0. acuminata, Sowb. 

Oryza (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 327. = 0. nivea, Gmel. 
Oryza (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t. 1, f. 9, 10. := 0. floralia, Duclos. 

Oryza (Marginella), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 364, 1822 40 

Oryza (Marginella), Pease. Zool. Proc. 147, 1860. M. debilis, Pease. 

Oselmonta (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 7, f. 13, 14 193 

Osteri (Marginella), Jousseaume. Mouog , 69. t. 7, f. 7 2*i 

Ostreicola (Columbella), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 119, t, 5, f. 10, 

1882 109 

Othonia (Oliva), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 5, f. 22, 23. 

O. tigrina, Lam. 
Ovalis (Ancillaria), Sow. Thes. Conch., 69, t, 4, f. Si?, S: 1 ,. 

= Young of A. cinnamomea, Lam. 



INDEX. 231 



Ovata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 18, f. 281, 282, 1871. 

= 0. Deshayesiana, Duclos. 
Ovata (Engina), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc. 1865, p. 513. 

= E. funiculata, Reeve. 

Ovulata (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert, vii, p. 295, No. 11 181 

Ovuloides (Meta), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 53. C. ovulata, Lam. 
Ovuliformis (Marginella), Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 101, t. 20, f. 33-35, 1853 ? 41 

Ovulum (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i. 401, t. 78, f. 188, 1846 40 

Ovum (Marginella), Reeve. Couch. Icon., f. 89, 1865. 
M. Largillierti, Kiener. 

Oxillia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, Conch Itlust., t. 17, f. 9. 10 174 

Ozodona (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 5, f. 19, 20. 0. paxillus, Reeve. 

Pachybatron, Gaskoin. Cassididse. 

Pachydermata (Columbella), Carpenter. Ma/at. Cat., 507, 1857. 

= C. varia, Sowb. 

Pacifica ( Vlarginella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 280, t. 23, f. 20, 1868. 39 
Pacifica (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., p. 15, t. 11, f. 151, 1870. 

(). mustellina, Lam. 

Pacifica (Columbella), Gask. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 4. C. zebra, Gray. 
Padonosta (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 6, f. 3, 4. C. pardalis, Lam. 
Pallescens (Columbella), Wimmer. Sitz. A. K. Wiss. Wien, 80, pi. v, p. 481. 

< 1 . fusoata, Sowb. 

Pallinta (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., Ind^x. 0. rubra, Marrat. 

Pallida (Oliva), Marrat. Index, Thes. Conch.. 45. - 0. nivosa, Marrat. 
Pallida (Oliva), Swainson. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 21, f. 841-343. 

0. hiatula, Gmelin. 

Pallida (Bulla). Linn. Syst. Nat, edit, x, 1758. Marginella 48 

Pallida (Columbella), Philippi. Menke, Zeit., 1846, p, 53 Ill 

Pallida (Columbella), Desh. in Lam. Anim. s. Vert., 2 vol., x, p. 278. 

C. varians, Sowb. 

Pallidula (Marginella). Dunker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 153, 1871 56 

Pallidus (Murex), Meuschen. Mus. Gevers., 328, 1787. 

Marginella pyrum, Gronov. 
Palmerina (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, III. Conch., t. 1, f. 15, 16; t. 10, 

f. 16. C. pardalina, Lam. 

Palumbina (Columbella), Gould. Pro. Bos. S. N. H., ii, p. 27. 

C. turturina, Lam. 
Pamila (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 22, f. 11, 12. 

C. parva, Sowb. 
Panamensis (Erato), Carpenter. Zool. Proc., f62, 1856. 

E. columbella, Menke 10 

Panniculata (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 5, f. 15-18, 1835 86 

Pantherina (Oliva), Philippi. Abb., xix, 1, t. 1, f. 1. 0. Juliettse, Duel. 

Pardalina (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert,, x, p. 270 108 

Pardalis (Oliva), Adams et Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc. Lon., 1863, p. 422, 

t. 37, f. 3. = 0. triticea, Duclos. 
Pariolida (Columbella). Duclos. Monogr., pi. 6, f. 1, 2. 

= C. atramentaria, Sowb. 

Paros (Closia), Jouss. Monog. Marg., 92, 1872. = Marginella ovum, Rve. 
Parva (Engina), Pease. Am. Jour Conch., iii, p. 276, pi. 23, f. 11, 1867. 195 

Parva (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p. 52 168 

Parvula (Oliva), Martini. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 22, f. 373, 375. 

. O. nivea, Gmelin. 
Parvulum (Buccinum), Dunk. Zeit. Mai., 64, 1847. Col. cribraria, Lam. 



232 INDEX. 



Parvus (Rhumbus), Lister. H. Conch., t. 725, f. 13 ?, 1685. 
Oliva nivea, Gmelin. 

Patagonica (Marginella), von Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 64, 1881 51 

Patula (Oliva), Sowerby. Tank. Cat. App., p. 33, No. 2331. 

0. auricularia, Lam. 

Paumotensis (Marginella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 281, t. 23, f. 

22, 1868 54 

Paumotensis (Columbella), Tryon 180 

Pavonina ( olumbella). Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulphur, 1. 10, f.19, 20, 1844. 185 

Paxillus (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 133, 1865 34 

Paxillus (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 21, f. 56, a-b, 1850 85 

Paytilida (ColumbeJla), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 5, f. 11, 12. 

C. Paytensis, Lesson. 

Paytensis (Columbella), Lesson. Voy. Coquille, torn, ii, pt. 1, p. 402 104 

Peasei (Columbella), Martens. Don. Bism., p. 23, 1871 166 

Peasii (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 108, 1865.. 53 

Pedroana (Oliva), Conrad. P. R. R. Rep., v, p. 327, pi. 6, f. 61. 
0. baetica, Carp. 

Pelagia (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 37, f. 238, 1859 148 

Peleei (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., pi. 5, f. 2, p. 24. 

= C. mercatoria. Linn. 
Pellicula, Marr. Weinkauff, in Kiister, 123, t. 23, f. 11, 12. 

M. lucida, Marrat. 
Pellonia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., 1. 18, f. 17, 18. Fossil. 

Pellucida (Marginella), Pfeiffer. Wiegmann's Archiv , i, 258, 1840 33 

Pellucida (Marginella), Schum. Nouv. Syst., 234, 1817. 

M. pallida, Donov. 

Pellucida (Erato). Tenison-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 35, 1878. 

? Marginella infans, Reeve 11 

Pellucida (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 27, f. 85, a-b. == 0. lepta, Duel. 
Pellucida (Columbella), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1860, p. 399. 

C. rorida, Reeve. 

Pellucida (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic , xi., pi, 31, f. 199, 1859 138" 

Pellucida (Erato), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 16, 1865 9 

Pelotma (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., -pi. 2, f. 5, 6 109 

Penicillata (Columbella), Carp. Ann. Nat. Hist., 1865, xv, p. 398 177 

Petiolita (Oiiva), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 1, f 21, 22, 1835 66 

Petiolita (Oliva), Gould. Mex. et Cal. shells, No. 15, Carpenter Report, 
p. 231. = 0. bsetica, Carp. 

Petitii (Margined), Duval. Rev. Zool., 279, 1841 19 

Peribolus (in part), Adans. V<ty. Senegal, 75, 1757. = Marginella, Lam. 
Peristera, Rafinesque. Anal. Nat., 1815. := Columbella, Lam. 

Perla (Marginella), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., 1, 136, 1876 56 

Persicula (Voluta), var. B, Linn. Syst. Nat., 12 edit,, 1189, 1769. 

Marginella cingulata, Dillw. 

Persicula (Marginella), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit. x. 730. 1758 36 

Persicula (Mar^inella), Sowb. Conch. Man., f. 438, l&W. 

M. cornea, Lam. 
Persicula (Voluta), var. Schroder. Einleit., i, 211, 1783. 

Marginella guttata, Dillw. 

Persicula, Schum. Nouv. Syst., 235, 1817. Marginella, Lam. 

Pertusa (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 26, f. 161, 18-V.>. 

C. versicolor, Sowb. 

Peruviana (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 317 74 

Pfeifferi (Amycla), Phil. Ads. Genera, i, 187. : Nassa, Manual, iv, 36. 
Phoenospira, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 1844. Marginella, Lam. 



INDEX. 233 

PAGE. 

Phalajna (Buccinum), Lesson. Rev. Cuv., 237, 1842. ? Engina 196 

Phasinola (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 8, f. 13-16 10' 

Philantha (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 20, f. 5, 6, 1835. 

= 0. irisans, Lam. 

Philia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 16, f. 3, 4 134 

Philippinarum (Columbella), Reeve. Pr. Zoo. Soc., 1842, p. 199 183 

Philippinarum (Marginella), Redfield. Ann. N. Y. Lye., iv, 492, t. 17, 

f. 3, 1848 , 51 

Philodicia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 15, f. 7, 8. 

= C. psilla, Duel., var. 
Phrygia (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 394, t. 78, f. 218, 219, 1846. 38 

Phylina (Columbella), Duelos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 15, f. 0, 10 159 

Pica (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 310. 

0. irisans, Lam., var. tremulina, Lam. 

Picata (Columbella), Swains. Treat. Mai., p. 151, f. 17, a, 1840. 

= C. ovulata, Lam. 

Picta (Marginella), Dillw. Desc. Cat., 529, 1817. r M. pyrum, Gronov. 
Picta (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 26, f. 79, 1850. 

= 0. funebralis. Lam., var. 

Picta (Columbella), Reeve. Concb. Ic., xi, pi. 24, f. 146, 1850 125 

Picturata (Marginella), Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beogal, 23, 1874 ; 95, t. 8, 

f. 8, 9, 1875 , 25 

Pindamella (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 33, f. 7, 8. 

0. sanguinolenta, Lam. 

Pindarina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 16, f. 7, 8, 1835. 

-.--: 0. araneosa, Lam. 
Pindarina, pars (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 3, f. 34 (non Duclos). 

0. venulata, Lam. 

Piuguis (Oliva), Solander. Braziliana, Lam. 

Piperita (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 72, 1844. M. rosea, Lam. 
Piperita (Oliva), Marrat. Ihes. Conch , t, 23, f. 402, 403, 1871. 
0. jaspidea, Gmelin. 

Pisum (Marginella). Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 156, 1865 40 

Plana (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 463, 1871 66 

Platypus (Pseudoinarginella), Carriere. Zeit. Wiss. Zool., xxxvii, 99, 1882. 

Marginella glabella, Linn. 
Plicaria (Columbella), Mootr. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., ii, 234, t. 9, f. 

3, 1862 160 

Plicatula (Columbella), Lmnker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 158, 1871 115 

Plicatulum (Columbella), Dunker. Menke, Zeit., 1853, p. 50. 

? C. pulchella, Kiener. 

Plochel^a, Gabb. Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci. Phila., 1872. 

= S. G. of Oliva, Brug 60 

Plumbea (Mavginella), Solander MSS. Dillw., Desc. Cat. Voluta. 
M. prunum, Gmel. 

Plurisulcata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 36, f. 233, 1859 148 

Plutonida (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 16. f. 1, 2 144 

Poecila (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 118, t. 37, f. 51, 52. 

i= C. varians, Sowb. 

Polita (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 10, t. 6, f. 80, 81, 1870 84 

Tolita (Marginella), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 462, 1857 44 

Polita (Marginella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 280, t. 23, f. 19, 1867. 

= M. Peasii, Reeve. 
Polita (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 34, f. 221, 1859. 

? = C. semiconvexa, Lam. 

30 



234 INDEX. 



Politum (Buccinum), Cantr. Bull. Acad. Brux., ii, 392, 1835. 

=;= Columbella minor, Sc. 
Polpasta (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 16, f. 1, 2, 1835. 

= 0. araneosa, Lam., var. 

Polyodonta (Marginella), Velain. Ar. Zoo. Ex., vi, 108, t. 3, f. 1, 2, 1877. 45 
Ponderosa (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 13, f 8, 9, 1835. 

= 0. erythrostoma, Lam. 

Porcata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30, f. 195, 1859 157 

Porcea (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch , p. 6, t. 3, f. 35, 1870. 

= 0. araneosa, Lam., var. Juliettae. 

Porcellana (Marginella), Qmelm. Syst. Nat., 3419, 1788 37 

Porcellana (Voluta), Wood. Index Test., t, 19, f. 58, 1828. 

= Marginella persicula, Linn. 
Porcellana (Voluta)', Perry. Conch., t. 17, f. 2, 1811. 

:= Marginella elegans, Gmel. 

Porcellaua (in part), Adan. Voy. Senegal, 55, 1757. = Marginella, Lam. 
Porcellanella, Conr. Pro. Phil. Acad., 564. 1802 .Marginella, Lam... 16 

Porphyreticus (Cylinder), d'Argenville. = Oliva porphyria, Linn. 

Porphyria (Oliva), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12 edit., 1187 74 

Porphyria, Bolten, Mus., 1798. = Strephona, Browne. 

Porphyria, Miirch. ^ Oliva, Brug. 

Porphyritica. (Oliva) (Martini), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 5, f. 105-110. 

= 0, erythrostoma, Lam., Desh. 
Poucheti (Marginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 46, t. 1, f. 3, 1851 

? = M. glabella, Linn., var 17 

Praecallosa (Marginella), Higgins. Marr., Quar. Jour. Conch., 1, 136, 1876 32 
Prayensis (Erato), Rochbrune. Nouv. Arch. Mus., 2 ser., iv, 294, t. 17, 

f. 16, 1881 12 

Pretrii (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. Ill,, t. 16, f. 7, 8 144 

Procera (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. So., 1832, p. 119. --Cantharus. 
Propatula (Oliva), Conrad. Pro. A. N. S. f hila., iv, p. 156, 1849 ; Jour. 

A. N. S., 2 ser., i, t, 39, f. 7. '.= 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 
Propingua (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 11, f. 141, 142, 1870. 

= 0. funebralis, Lam. 

. Prosymnia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t, 26, f. 7, 8 174 

Pruinosa( Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc , 74, 1844. 
M. nivosa, Hinds. 

Prunum (Marginella), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3446, 1788 29 

Prunum (Voluta), in part, Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3446, 1788. 

= Marginella amygdala, Kiener. 
Prunum (Martini), H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 191. Marginella, Lam. 28 

Pseudofaba (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 96, 1846 21 

Pseudomarginella, Maltzan. Nachrichtsblatt Deutsch. Malak. Gesell., xii, 

108, 1880. 
Pseudo-scripta (Columbella), d'Orb. Prodr., iii, 175. =C. scripta, Linn. 

Psilla (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 15, f. 5, 6 134 

Pterygia, Link. Mus. Rostock. Marginella, Lam. 

Pudica (Columbella), Brazier. Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. VV., i, p. 231, 1877.. 139 

Pudica (Marginella), Gaskoin. Zool. Proc., 18, 1849. 

M chrysomelina, Redf. 
Puelcha (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 4, bis, f. 4-6 (non d'Orb., nee Duclos- 

Chenu). : = 0. tehuelchana, d'Orb. 

Puelchana (Oliva), d'Orb. Voy. Amer., 428, t. 49, f. 13-19 70 

Puella (Marginella), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 385, I860 49 

Puella (Columbella), Sowerby. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 65, 1858. 
C. conspersa, Gask. 



INDEX. 235 

PAGE. 

Pulchella (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 27, t. 9, f. 40, 1834 -88- 

Pulchella (Columbella), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., i, p. 131, t. 39, f. 121, 

122. = C. elegantula, Morch. 

Pulchella (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 5, f. 11, 12, 1835 71 

Pulchella (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 30, f. 98, a, b, 1850. 

= 0. nivea, Gmelin. 
Pulchellum (Buccinum), Kiener. Coq. Viv., t. 18, f. 68. ;= Columbella.. 157 

Pulcherrima (Marginella), Gaskoin. Zool. Proc., 21, 1849 39 

Pulcherrima (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 113 185 

Pulchra (Marginella), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Voy., 135, t. 36, f. 20, 1839. 29 
Pulchra (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 37, t. 24, f. 429, 1871. 

0. i'ortunei, Adams. 

Pulchra (Engina), Reeve. (Buccinum), Conch. Ic., fig. 80, 1846 191 

Pulchrior (Columbella), C. J3. Adams. Cat. Sh. Panama, p. 94, 1852 177 

Pulicaria (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 25, f. 464, 1871. 

= 0. lepta, Duclos. 

Pulicaris (Columbella), Lesson. Rev. Zoo. Cuv. Soc., 1842, p. 185 187 

Pulla (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 23, f. 411, 1871. 

= 0. Anazora, Duclos. 

Pulla (Columbella), Gaskoin, Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 6.. 127 

Pulvis (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 86, t. 7, f. 2 46 

Pumila (Marginella), Redfield. Cat. Marg., 252, 1870 26 

Pumila (Columbella), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 224... 150 

Pumila (Columbella), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 1863, pi. 12, f. 4, p. 

281. =C. atrata, Gould. 

Pumilio (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 24, f. 147, 1859 187 

Punctata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 2, f. 12, 13, 1870. 

= 0. araneosa, var. venulata, Lam. 

Punctata (Columbella), Sowb. Genera of Shells, f. 5. = C. flava, Brug. 
Punctata (Columbella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., x, 273. 

= C. fulgurans, Lam., var. 

Punctatum (Buccinum), Brug. --=. Columbella discors, Gmelin. 
Punctulata (Marginella), Petit. Rev. Zool., 185, 1841. 

? ='M. nivosa, Hinds. 
Punctulata (Columbella), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Mer. Moll., p. 206. 

ss C. rustica, Linn. 

Pungens (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 133, Bost. Proc., vii, 1860 143 

Pura (Columbella), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 515 162 

Pura (Oliva), Beeve. Conch. Ic., t. 30, f. 97, a, b. 

= 0. tehuelchana, d'Orb. 
Purpurascens (Columbella), C. B. Adams. Pro. Bos. S. N. H., vol. 2, 

p. 2. = C. dormitor, Sowerby. 
Purpurata (Oliva), Swains Zool. 111., 2 ser., t. 2, f. 1. 

= 0. dama, Mawe. 

Purpuroides (Columbella), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 88-2852, 1839 187 

Pusilla (Marginella), H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 30d, t. 19, f. 1, 1867. 

= M. pumila, Redfield. 
Pusilla (Dltva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 21, f. 356-358, 1871. 

0. mutica, Say. 

Pusilla (Columbella), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1862, p. 244. 

= C. fusiformis, Pease. 

Pusilla (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, p. 53 115 

Pusiola (Columbella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 157, 1871. 

= C. gracilis, Pease. 

Pusiostoma, Swainson. Malacol., 150, 313, 1840 103, 196 

Pygnuea (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo, Soc., 1832, p. 119....'. 166 



230 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Pygmoea, Humphrey. Mus. Calonn., 28, 1797. Morch, Jour, de Conchy 1., 

2 ser., iii, 255, 1858. Columbella, Lam. 
Pygmsea (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 386, t. 75, f. 78, 79, 1846. 

= M. translucida, Sowb. 
Pygrarea (Marginella), Issel. Mai. Mar. Rosso, 116, 1869. 

= M. Isseli, Nevill. 
Pygmeen (Marginella), Garrett. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., 217, t. 2, f. 

27, 1873. = M. Sandwicensis, Pease. 

Pygmrca (Oliva), Keeve. Conch. Ic., t. 26, f. 75, 1850 86 

Pyramidalis (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 4, f. 11, a, b. 

= A. Australis, Sowerby. 
Pyrene, Bolten. Mus. Calonn., 95, 1798. Ad. Genera, 185, 1853. 

Conidea, Swainson. 
Pyriformis (Marginella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch , iii, 280, t. 23, f. 21, 

1868. M. trans aU, Redfield. 
Pyriformis (Volutella), Carpenter. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., v, 148, 1805. 

-_ Marginella 41 

Pyrostoma ( olumbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 116 195 

Pyrulata (Marginella), Redfield. Ann. N. Y. Lye., iv, 494, 1848 17 

Pyrulum (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 117, 1865 42 

Pyrulus (Murex), Meuschen. Mus. Gevers , 328, 1787. 

= Marginella glabella, Linn, 
Pyrum (Marginella), Gronov. Zooph., 298, 1781 18 

Quadrifasciata (Marginella), Marrat. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser. , xii, 

420, 1873 56 

Quadrilineata (Marginella), Gaskoin. Zool. Proc , 17, 1849 47 

Quersolina (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t. 10, f. 7, 8. _~ 0. episcopalis. Lam. 

Quinqueplicata (Marginella), Lain. Anim. s. Vert,., vii. 356, 1822 30 

Quintilia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 19, f. 13, 14. 
= C. pardalina, Lam. 

Radiata (Marginella), Lam. = Voluta zebra, Leach. 

Ramola, Gray. Zool. Proc., 39, 1858. ~ Lamprodoma, Swainson. 

Rasamola (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t 6, f. 5, 6, 1835. 

= 0. volutella, Lam. 

Rasolia (Columbella), Duel. Monogr., pi. 10. f. 7, 8. C scripta, Linn. 
Reclusa (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 17, f. 264. 

=^= 0. t'usiformis, Lam. 

Recurva (Engina), Reeve. (Ricinula) Conch. Ic., iii, f. 53, 1846. 
E. bella, Reeve. 

Recurva (Columbella), Sowerby. Pr. Zoo. Soc., 1832, f. 115 187 

Redfieldii (Marginella), Tryon 34 

Reeveana (Ricinula), C. B. Ad. Pan. Cat., 102, 1850. 

Engina pulchra, Reeve. 

Reeveana ( Marginella), Petit. Jpur. de Conch., ii, 51, 1851. 
= M. splendens, Reeve. 

Reevei (Engina). Tryon ?.... 191 

Reevei (Columbella), Carpenter. 2d Report, 56 7, 1804 118 

Reevei (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit., p. 104, t. 3, f. 100, 
a, b, 1857. = 0. nivea, Gmel. 

Regularis (Marginella), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist , xv, 398, 1865 I " 

Regulus (Columbella), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 41, 1864. 

C atrata, Gould. 

Reticularis, pars (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit., p. 52. 
0. fusiformis, Lam. 



INDEX. 231 



Reticularis (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 314, No. 16 

Reticularis, pars (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit., p. 52. 

= 0. Cumingi, Reeve. 
Reticularis, var. (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit., p. 52. 

= O. venulata, Lam. 
Reticularis, pars (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr , t. 9, f. 3, 4, 8. 

= 0. araneosa, Lam. 

Reticulata (Oliva), Bolt. = 0. sanguinolenta, Lam. 
Reticulata (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., edit. 2, ix, p. 270. 

C. rustica, Linn. 
Retusa (Volvaria), Brown. = Bulla retusa. 

Retusa (Columbella). Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 88, No. 2847, 1839 187 

Ringens (Oliva), Solander MSS. = 0. hiatula, Gmelin. 

Rivoliana (Harpa), Less. 111. Zoo., t. :-5(5. II. crenata, Swainson. 

Roblini (Columbella,) Woods. Pro. Roy. S.oc. Tas., 1875, p. 151 128 

Rorida (Columbella), Ueeve. Couch. Jc., xi, pi. 28. f. 176, 1859.. 147 

Ros (Marginella), Reeve. Coach. Icon., f. 147, 1865 46 

Rosacea (Columbella), Gould. Am. Jour. Sci.. xxxviii, 197 100, 198 

Rosacea (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. lc., xi, pi. 29, f. 183, 1859. 
- C. semiconvexa, Lam. 

Rosalina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 1. f. 1, 2 65 

Roscida (Marginella), Redfield. Proc. Phila. Acad., 174, I860 33 

Rosea (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 46, 1846. - Engina 192 

Rosea ( Harpa), Lam. Hist. Nat., x, p. 133 99 

Rosea (Harpa), adult, Kiener. T. 5, f. 8, a H. crena'a, Swainson. 

Rosea (Marginella), L->m. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 356, 1822 18 

Rostrata (MargineLa), Redfield. Cat 246,1870. M. oblonga, Swains. 

Rubella (Marginella), (J. B. Ad. Bost. Proc., ii, 1, 1843.... 62 

Rubens (Marginella), von Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 63, 1881 30 

Rubicundula (Columbella), Quoy. Voy. de F Astr., ii, 528, pi. 40, f. 25, 26. 
C. flava, Brug. 

Rubiginosa (Ancillaria), Swainson. Zool. 111., ii, t. 4 94 

Rubra (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 25, f. 459, 460, 1871. 

= 0. nivea, Gmelin. 

Rubra (Columbella), von Martens. Sitzb. Berlin, 76, 1881 152 

Rubrafasciata (Marginella), Jousseaume. Guerin's Mag., 221, 1875. 

= M. fasciat.'i, Sowb. 
Rudis (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch , i, p. 116, t. 36, f. 33-35. 

C. mercatoria, Linn. 

Ruta (Columbella), Menke. Zeit., 1853, p. 75. ? = C. rustica r Linn. 
Rufescens (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 112, 1865. 

M. secalina, Phil. 

Rufifasciata (Oliva), Carpenter. Report, p. 339. (). btetica, Carp. 

Rufifisciata (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 28, f. 88, a, b, 1850. 

: 0. mutica, Say. 
Rufonotatum (Sistrum), Carp. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3 ser., xiv, 48, 1864. 

Engina pulchra, Keeve. 
Rufopicta (Oliva), Weinkauff, in Kiister, 88, t. 23, f. 11, 12. 

= 0. aniomina, Duel. 
Rufotiocta (Columbella), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 511, 1857. 

= C. diminuta, C. B. Ad. 

Rufula (Marginella), Gaskoin. Ann. Nat. Hist., 2 ser., xi, 359, 185:!. 
M. neglecta. Sowb. 

Rufula (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t, 19, f. -', 10, 1835 75 

Rugosa (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 115 152 

Rugulosa (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 133, t. 39, f. 131 156 



238 INDEX. 



Rumilia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. Illust., t. 17, f. 15, 10...... 174 

Russelli (Columbella), Brazier. P. Zoo. Soc., 1874, p. 671, pi. 83, f. 17, 18. 128 

Rustica (Columbella), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1190 107 

Kustica (Columbella), Sowb. Genera, f. 3. = C. Paytensis, Lesson. 

Rutila (Kicinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 49, 1846. = Engina 192 

Saccharata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 29, f. 187, 1859. 

= C. semiconvexa, Lam. 
Sagena (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 26, f. 162. 

= C. pardalis, Lam. 

Sagitta (Columbella), Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 10 145 

Sagittata (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 76, 1844 39 

Sagittata( Marginella), in part, Sowb. Thes., f. 224 (not 223). 

M. pulcherrima, Gaskoin. 

Sagra (Columbella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 137, t. 21, f. 28-30, 1853.. 104 
Saint Pairiana (Columbella), Caillet. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser. , iv, 279, 

t. 11, f. 4, 1864 165 

Sandella, Gray. Guide Moll., Brit. Mus., 26, 1857. := Ancillaria, Lam. 

Sandmcensis (Marginella), Pease. Zool. Proc., 147, 1860 45 

Sandwicensis (Erato), Pease. Zool. Proc., 146, 1860 9 

Sandwichensis (Oliva), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 145. 

0. Duclosi, Reeve, 

Sandwichensis (Columbella), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1861, p. 244. 

= C. turturina, Lam. 

Sanguinolenta (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 316 79 

Santa Barbarensis (Columbella), Carpenter. P. Z. S., 1856, p. 208. 

= C. Reevei, Carpenter. 
Sapotilla (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 74, 1844. = M. prunum, Gmel. 

Sarda (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 30. t. 4, f. 42, 1834 47 

Sarda (Ancillaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 9, f. 33, a, b. 

= A. cinnamomea, Lam. 

Satorida (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 26, f. 1, 2.., 191 

Saulcyana (Marginella), Reeve. Conch, icon., f. 90, 1865. 

= M. cincta, Kiener. 
Saulcyana (Marginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 47, t. 1, f. 11, 1851. 

M. marginata, Born, minor. 

Saulise (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 386, t. 75, f. 68, 1846 27 

Savignyi (Marginella), Issel. Moll. Mar. Rosso, 115, 1839. 

? = M. miliaria, Linn. 
Sbina (Columbella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 32. C. albina, Kiener. 

Scabriuscula (Eraio), Gray. Desc. Cat., 16, 1832 11 

Scalarina (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 116. 

C. varia, Sowb. 
Scalaris (Margioella), Jjusa. Monog., 26, t. 7, f. 9. M. striata, Sowb. 

Scalpta (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 37, f. 235, 1859 Ill 

Scaphella (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., t. 2, f. 37, 38 

= A. Mauritiana, Sowb. 
Scaphula, Swains, (not Benson). Malacol., 132, 322, 1840. 

~ Lentricula, H. and A. Ad. 

Scaphula, Gray. Zool. Proc., 40, 1858. = Callianax, H. and A. Ad. 
Schmeltziana (Erato), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xv, 3U1, t. 11, f. 5, 1867. 11 
Schrammi (Engina), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., iii, 82, 1863. 

-~ E. rosea, Reeve. 
Schrammi (Columbella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., iv, 364, t. 12, f. 3, 4, 

1853. = C. dichroa, Sowb. 
Scintella (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 68 20 



INDEX. 239 

PAGE. 

Scitula (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 9, t. 6, f. 76, 77, 1870. 

= 0. mustellina, Lam. 
Scripta (Columbella). Lam. Hist. Nat., ed. ii, x, 270. 

= C, versicolor, Sowb. 

Scripta (Columbella), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1225 130 

Scripta (Oliva), L^m. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 815 82 

Scripta (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 78, 1844 25 

Scurra (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., p. 31, f. 380, 1871. 

= 0. nivea, Gmelin. 

Scutulata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30 ; f. 191, 1859. 
C. catenata, Sowb. 

Seculina (Marginella), Fhil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 197, t. 27, f. 19, 1844 53 

Segesta (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 26, f. 5, 6 175 

Selasia (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., and in Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 2, f. 19, 20. 

= 0. volutella, Lam. 

Semen (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 145, 1865 46 

Semiconvexa (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, p. 171 125 

Seminella, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 234, 1867 102 

Seminula (Marginella), Gould. Bost. Proc , vii, 384, 1860 ... 56 

Seminula( Marginella), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 72, 1881 57 

Semiplicata (Columbella), Stearns. Pro. A. N. S. Phila , 1873, p. 344. 

.-- C. avara, Say. 
Semipunctata (Columbella), Lam. Kiener, Coq. Viv., pi. 8. 

=C. discors. Gmelin. 
Semistriata (Oliva), Gray. Zool. in Beechey's Voy., p. 136, t. 36, f. 10, 

1839. O. columellaris, Sowb. 
Senegalensis (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 318. 

-= 0. peruviana, Lam. 

Sepulturalis (Oliva), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, p. 401. --0. maura, Lam. 
Sericea (Oliva), Bolten. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 10, f. 131-133. 

= 0. textilina, Lam. 

Serpentina (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 17. = M. ornata, Redf. 
Serrata (Anuchis), Carp. Mazatlan, Cat. Zool. Proc., 273, 1865, p. 509, 

1857 178 

Serrata (Marginella), Gaskoin Zool. Proc., 19, 1849 26 

Serrata, Jousseaume. Monog. Marginella, Guerin's Mag., 1875. 

= Marginella, Lam. 

Sertulariarum (Columbella), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., pi. 61. f. 13-17 150 

Sexplicata (Marginella), Dunker. Cat. Mus. Godeff., 3, 1871 31 

Sidelia (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., 1. 19, f. 1, 2, 1835 87 

Signata (Oliva), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., 1873, p. 20. =0. Fortunei, Adams. 
Simeri (Marginella), var. Jousseaume. Monog., 53. = M. fusca, Sowb. 
Similis (Oliva), Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 14, f. 205-207, 1870. 

0. Lecoquiana, Ducros. 
Similis (Columbella), Ravenel. Pro. A N. S. Phila., 1861, p. 41. 

= C, avara, Say. 
Similis (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch , 64, t. 1, f. 17. 

= A. cingulata, Sowb. 

Similis (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 97, 1846. == M. obesa, Redfield. 
Simplex (Murginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 115, 1865. 

= M. infelix, Jousseaume. 

Simplex (Oliva), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., 1867, p. 281, t. 23, f. 24 72 

Simpronia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 15, f. 19, 20. 

C. rustica, Linn. 
Sinensis (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 3, f. 50, 51 95 



240 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Sinuata (Columbella), Sowb. P. Z. Soc., 1874, p. 600,.pl. 72, f. 3, 3 a. 

? = C. rugosa, Sowb. 
Smith! (Columbella), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1877, p. 172, t, 20, f. 7. 

= C. lentiginosa, Reeve. 

Solidula (Harpa), A. Adams. P. Z. S. L., 1853, p. 173. 
H. minor, Lam. 

Solidula (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 24, f. 141), 1859 147 

Sonsonatensis (Pygmeea), Morch. Jour. Conch., 1859, p. 257 ; Mai. Blatt,, 

vii, 92, 1861 105 

Sordida (Columbella), d'Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., pi. 77, f. 2 ; 3. 

= C. unifasciata, Sowb. 

Sordida (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 137, 865 54 

Souverbiei (Columbella), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 1865, p. 101, pi. v, fig 9. Ill 
Sowerbya.na (Marginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 53, 57, 1831. 

- M. monilis, Linn. 
Sowerbyi (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 114, IIP, 1870. 

-- 0. reticularis, Lam. 
Sowerbyi (Oliva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. Crit., p. 105, t. 3, f. 103, 

a, b f 1857. == 0. rosalina, Duclos. 
Sowerbyi (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 19, f. 5, 6. 

= C. Boivini, Kiener. 

Spadicea (Columbella), Philippi. Zeit. Mai., 1846 168 

Sparella, Gray. Guide Moll. Brit. Mus., 26, 1857. = Ancillaria, Lam. 
Sparsa (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 31, f. 200, 1869. 

C. catenata, Sowb. 
Speciosa (Columbella), Angas. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1877, p. 35, t. v, f. 3...... 171 

Spectrum (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30, f. 194, 1859. 

= C. varians, Sowb. 

Splendens (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Syst,, ii, t. 277, f. 2, 3, 1843 21 

Splendidula (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 120, t. 37, f 65, CO. 
C. discors, Gmel. 

Splendidula (Oliva), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 32, 1825 74 

Spicula (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Coach., t. 16, f. 9, 10. 

= C. Cumingii, Reeve. 

Spilota (Marginella), Ravenel MSS 56 

Spirantha (Columbella), Ravenel. Pro. Elliott Soc., i, p. 281, 1859 131 

Spiratella (Columbella), von Martens. Mobius, Mauritius, 248, t. 20, f. 

12, 1880 152 

Spiriplana (Marginella), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 310, 1882. 198 
Spongiarum (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 3, f. 13-16. 

r= C. rustica, Linn. 

Spreta (Oliva), Gould. Otia, p. 137. ? 0. Fortunei, Adams. 
Spurca (Columbella), Sowerby. Zool. Proc., 113, 1832. 

Stainforthii (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t 19, f. 40, a, b, 1850 84 

Stanislas (Marginella), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 133, 

1876 56 

Stearnsii (Columbella), Tryon 179 

Steeriae (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 18, f. 37, 1850. 

= O. hiatula, Gmelin. 
Stellata (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 8, f. 11, 12. 

? 0. Lecoquiana, Dncros. 
Stipon (Marginella), Jousseaume. Mag. de Zool., 241, 1875. 

= M. oryza, Lam. 
Storeria (Marginella), Couthuoy. Bost. Jour., i, 440, t. 9, f. 1, 2, 183.7, 

= M. marginata, Born, minor. 



INDEX. 241 



Strangei (Marginella), Angas. /ool. Proc., 172, t. 26, f. 8, 1877. 
M. translucida, Sowb. 

Strenella (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 8, f. 1-8 157 

Strephona, Browne. Hist. Jamaica, 408, 1756. = Oliva, Brug. 
Striarella (Murex), Calcara (1841). Columbella Greci, Phil, 

Striata (Harpa), Lam. Hist. Nat., x, p. 133 99 

Striata (Engina), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 275, pi. 23, f. 10, 1867. 195 
Striata (Columbella), Menke. Verzeichn. No. 834, 1828. 

= C. rustica, Linn. 

Striata (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 6, f. 5-8. C. rustica, Linn. 
Striata (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 375, t. 75, f. 81, 82, 1846.. 25 
Striatula (Harpa), A. Adams. P. Z. S. L., 1853, p. 173, t. xx, f. 7 u. 8. 

= Young of H. conoidalis, Lam. 

Striatula (Columbella), Dkr. , Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 155, 1871 176 

Stricta (Columbella), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, 340, 1882 163 

Strigata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 25, f. 154, 1859. 

= C. Broderipii, Sowb. 
Strigata (Oliva), Reeve. Conch. Ic., t. 25, f. 72, a, b, 1850. 

= O. mutica, Say, var. nitidula. 

Strigata (Marginella), Dillw. Desc. Cat., 530, 1817. = M. elegans, Gmel. 
Siriolata (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch. A. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Strix (Columbella), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, 338, 1882. 

= C. Verrilli, ball. 

Strombiformis (Columbella), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, p. 266 104 

Strombina, Morch. Yoldi Cat,, 85, 1852 102, 183 

Suavis (Margineila), Souv. Jour, de Conch., vii, 376, 1859 27 

Subacta (Columbella strix, var.), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, 339, 

1882. = C. Verrilli, ball. 

Subangulata (Oliva), Philippi. Abb., xix, i, 1. 1, f. 2. =c= 0. araneosa, Lam. 
Subbulbosa (Marginella), Tate. Proc. Philos. Soc. Adelaide, 1877-78, 

p. 86 , 55 

Subcserulea (Marginella), Martini. Morch. = M. prunum, Gmel. 
Subcostata (Columbella), C. B. Adams. Krebs' Cat., 30. 

= C. costulata, C. B. Ad. 
Sublaevis (Columbella), Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3d s., iv, p. 270, 1864. 

= C. Marquesana, Gask. 
Subtrigona (Marginella), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xv, 897, 

1865 ; 43. 198 

Subtriplicata (Marginella), Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 99, 1853 49 

Sublurrita (Anachis), Carp. Pro. Cal. Ac. Sc., iii, p. 223 178 

Subulata (Columbella), buclos. Mouogr., pi. 9, f. 15, 16 148 

Subulata (Columbella), Sowerby. Thes. Conch,, i, p. 140, pi. 40, f. 158 

and 159 186 

Subulata (Oliva), Lam. Am. du Mus., xvi, p. 323. = 0. acuminata, Lam. 
Subulati, pars (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 12, f. 7, 1835. 

= 0. nebulosa, Lam. 

Subvitrea (Columbella), Smith. Zool. Proc., 209, 1879. :a Pleurotomi'dge. 
Succinea (Marginella), Conrad. Proc. Phil. Acad., 26, t 1, f. 17, 1846... 34 
Sulziensis (Margiuella), Issel. Mai. Mar. Rosso, 115, 1869. 

= M. minuta, Pfr. 
Suffusa (Columbella), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., i,p. 142, pi. 40, f. 166, 167. 155 

Sugillata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., xi, pi. 29. f. 189, 1859 145 

Sulcata (Marginella), Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 102, t. 21, f. 14-16, 1853. 

? = M. striata, Sowb. 

Sulcata (Columbtlla), Duclos. Monogr., 'pi. 1, f. 13,14..... 109 

Sulcosa (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 118 176 

31 



242 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Sulcifera (Erato), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 14, 1865. 

= E, lachryma, Gray 8 

Sulcifera (Erato). Gray. Desc. Cat., 16, 1832 , 11 

Suturalis (Columbella), Gray. Griffith, Anim. King, pi. 41, f. 6. 

= C, fluctuata, So *b. 
Swainsoniana (.Vlarginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 55, 1851. 

= M. phrygia, Sowb. 

Sylvia (Oliva), Duclos in Chenu, t. 14, f. 10-13. = 0. erythrostoma, Lam . 
Syria (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 23, f. 1, 2. 

= Lagena leuco/onalis, Lam., juv. Manual, iii, 96. 

Tseniata (Columbella), Philippi. Zeit. Mai., 1846 167 

Tseniata (Columbella), Adams and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samar., 34, pi. 11, 

f. 19. == C. Marquesana, Gask. 

Tseniata (Marginella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 96, 1846. 52 

Tamelana (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr.. pi. 13, f. 9, 10. Fossil. 

Tankervillei (Ancillaria), Swainson. Jour. Sc., xviii, p. 283 95 

Tant.illa (Marginella), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 384, 1860 55 

Tasmanica (Marginella), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, 28, 

1875 23 

Tasmanica (Ancillaria) Tenison-Woods. Pr. R. Soc. Tasmania, 1876, 

135. = Var. of A. marginata, Lam. 

Tayloriana (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 36, f. 225, 1859 141 

Tehuelchana (Oliva), d'Orb. Voy. en Am. mer., t. 40, f. 7-12 68 

Telea (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, Conch. Illust., t. 25, f. 13, 14 190 

Tenebrica (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30. f. 204, 1859 128 

Tenebrosa (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 13, f. 177, 1870. 

= 0. tremulina, Lam. 
Tenebrosa (Voluta) (\Iawe), Wood. Ind. Test, Suppl., t, 4, f. 38. 

=; Oliva undatella, Lam. 

Tenera (Vlarginella), Menke, Syn. Meth., 88, 1828 55 

Tenisoni (Columbella), Tryon 128 

Tentoria (Oliva), Link. = Porphyria, Linn. 
Tenuis (Oliva), .Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 22, f, 385. 

= 0. gracilis, Brod. and Sowb. 

Tenuis (Columbella), Gask. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 2 127 

Teophania (Columbella), Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 20, f. 1, 2 164 

Tergina (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t. 2, f. 13-16 66 

Terpsichore (Columbella), Menke. Zeit. Mai, 185, 1851. 

? == C. coronata, Sowb. 

Terpsichore (Columbella), Sowb. Genera Shells, f. 6 154 

Terquemi (Columbella), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zoo., i, p. 265, pi. v, f. 

1, 2, 1876 187 

Terveriana (Marginella), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 49, t. 2, f. 2, 1851. 

= M. monilis. Linn. 

Tessellata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 320, n. 38 87 

Tessellata (Columbella), Dkr. Mai Blatt, xviii, p. 156. 

? C. rorida, Reeve. 
Tessellata (Columbella), C. B. Adams. Cat. Panama Shells, 103, 1852. 

C. Guatemalensis, Reeve. 
Tessellata (Marginella), Sowb. (part). Thes. Conch., t. 5, f. 195. 

M. chrysomelina, Redfield. 
Tessellata (Marginella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 361, 1822. 

- M. porcellana, Gmel. 
Testacea (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 324. = 0. hiatula, Gmel. 



INDEX. 243 

PAGE. 

Test* (Buccinum), Aradas. Descr. delle conch, foss. Gravitelli presso 
Messina, p. 28, 1847. = Columbella costulata, Cant. 

Testina (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 7, f. 11, 12 175 

Testudinalis (Harpa), Auct. Reeve, Icon., sp. 9. = H. crenata, Swains. 
Textilina (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 309, n. 2. 

0. irisans, Lam., var. 

Thomasi (Oliva). Crosse. Jour, de Conch., ix, p. 178, t. 6, f. 3, 4, 1861... 85 

Ticaonis (Columbella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, p. 134 126 

Tigrina (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 1, f. 7-10. 

- C. versicolor, Sowb. 
Tigrioa (Oliva), Meuschen. Marrat. in Thes. Conch., t. 15, f. 222-224. 

= 0. tessellata, Lam. 

Tigrina (Oliva), Lam. Hist, Nat, vii, p. 432 75 

Timora (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 1, f. 4 (non Duclos). 

. 0. angulata, Lain. 
Timorensis (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 17, f. 11-13. 

0. araneosa, Lam., var. Juliettae. 

Tincta (Anachis?), Carp. Ann, Nat. Hist., 1864, xiv, p. 48 178 

Tisophana (Oliva), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. 111., t, 17, f. 17, 18. 

-0. reticularis, Lam. 

Todosina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 25, f. 9, 10. = O. sidelia, Duclos. 
Tornatella (Marginella), Savigny. Moll, de 1' Egypt. ? = Tornatella. 
Torosa (Ancillaria) (Meuschen), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., t. 2, f. 30, 31. 

= A. Mauritiana, Sowerby. 

Torticula (Marginella), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 73, 1881 58 

Tortoliva, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 143, 211, t. 21, f. 4, 1865. 

? = Agaronia, Gray 

Traillii (Marginella), Reeve. Couch. Icon., t. 21, f. 114, 1865 31 

Translata (Marginella), Redfield. Cat. Marg., 259, 1870 44 

Translirata (Columbella), Ravenel. Pro. A. N. S. Phila., 1861, p. 42. 

? == C. avara, Say. 
Translucida (Marginella), Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 376, t. 75, f. 62,63, 1846. 26 

Tremulina (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 310 80 

Tribalteata (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 102, 1863. 

= M. exilis, Gmelin. 

Tricincta (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 76, 1844 31 

Tricolor (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 316 76 

Tricolor (Ancillaria), Gray. App. Voy. Fly, ii, p. 357. 

= Young of A. Australis, Sow. 

Tridentata (Marginella), Tate. Proc. Phila. Soc. Adelaide, 87, 1878 55 

Trifasciata (Lachryma), Humphr. Cat. Erato lachryma, Gray. 
Trifasciata (Ricinula), Reeve. Icon., sp. 41, 1840. 

= Engina alveolata, Kiener. 

Trigidella (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 8, f. 13-16, 1835. 
-0. ispidula, Linne. 

Tringa (Columbella), Lam. Edit. Desh., x, 325 181 

Tringa (Mitra), Costa. Cat. Moll. Sicil., p. 72, No. 5. 

= Columbella rustica, Linn. 
Tringua (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t, 8, f. 5, 6, 1835. 

. 0. elegans, var. tricolor, Lam. 
Triplicata (Marginella), Orb. Moll- Cuba, t. 20, f. 30-32. 

= M. subtriplieata, Orb 35 

Triplicata (Marginella), Gaskoin. Zool. Proc., 19, 1849... 35 

Triticea (Volvaria), var. B, Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 363, 1822. 

-= Marginella secalina, Phil. 
Triticea (Oliva), Duclos, Monogr,, t, 1, f, 5, 6, 1835 ,,..,, w .,, 72 



244 INDEX. 



Triticea (Volvaria), Lamarck. An. sans'Vert., vii, 363, 1822. 

Marginella exilis, Gmelin. 
Triticum (Buccinum), Solander. Wimmer, Sitzb. Acad. Wien, Ixxx, 483. 

- -i: Columbella pulchella, t*ow. (aot Kiener). 
Triumphalis (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr.. pi. 5, f. 15, 16. 

- Cantharus distortus, Gray. Vol. iii, 165. 

Troglodytes (Columbella), Souv. Jour, de Conch., 1866, p. 145, pi vi, f. 4. 165 
Tronsoni (Ancillaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 58, t. 2, f. 20, 21. 

= 0. cinnamomea, Lam. 
Trumbulli (Fusus), Gould. Am. Jour. Sci., vi, 235, f. 7, 184S. 

= Columbella lunata, Say. 

Truncata (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 41, 1870. 
= 0. araneosa, Lam., var. Juliettae. 

Tuberculata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 27, f. 173, 1859 156 

Tuberculo^a (Engina), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1862, p. 243 l'.5 

Tuberosa (Oliva). Bolt. 0. intiata, Lam. 

Tuberosa (Columbella), Carp. Ann. Nat. Hist,, 1865, xv, p. 398 135 

Tumida (Columbella), Reeve (not Duclos). Icon., f. 63, 1858. 

= C. rustics, Linn. 

Tumida (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 13, f. 13, 14. Fossil. 
Tunguina (Oliva), Marrat (not Duclos). Thes. Conch, f. 406, 1871. 

M. mutica. Say. 

Tunquina (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 6, f. 1, 2, 1835. 
I), mandarina, Duclos. 

Turbida (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 2, f. 1-2 133 

Turb : nata (Marginella). Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 385, t. 75, f. 70, 71, 1846. 23 

Turbinella (Riciuula), Kiener. Purpura, 29, t. 9, f. 25. - Engina 192 

Turnbullii (Columbella), Linsl. H. and A. Adams, Genera, i, 187. 
= C. lunata, Say. 

Turriia (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Z'oo. Soc., 1832, p. 115 1 

Turturina (Columbella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., x, p. 273 109 

Tyermani (Marginella), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 136, 1876 22 

Tyleri (Columbella), Gray. Griffith's Cuv. Anim. King. 
= C. pardalina, Lam., var. 

Uncinata (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 114 196 

Undata (Amycla), Carp. MSS. labels (non Carp. Sup. Rep.). 

= Amphissa versicolor, Dall. 

Undata (Amycla), Carp. Pro. Cal. Ac. Sc , iii, p. 159, 1864 177 

Undata (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 4, f o-4. := C. tringa, Lam. 
Undata (Oliva), Lam. Hist. Nat., ed. Deshayes, x, 618. 

= 0. inflata, Lam. 

Undatella (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi., p. 326 70 

Undulata (Marginella), Desh. in Lam., edit. 2, x, 451, 1844. 

M. elegans, Gmel. 
Unicolor (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 119. 

= C. unifasciata, Sowb. 

Unifasciata (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 114 116 

Unifascialis (Columhella), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., p. 273 117 

Unilineata (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monogr., 12. 

M. fusiformis, Hinds, var. 
Unizonalis (Columbella), Gray. Moll. Voy. Blossom, p. 129. 

= C. unifasciata, Sowerby. 
Urceus (Oliva), Bolt. = Brasiliana, Lam. 
Ustulata (Oliva) Lamk. Anim. sans Vert., v, 10, }>. 620. 

= 0. reticularis, Lam. 



INDEX. 245 

PAGE. 

Utriculina, Gray. Zool. Proc., 149, 1847. Olivancillaria, d'Orb. 
Utricutus (Oliva), Gmalin. Lam., Ann. hi Mu3., xvi, p. 323. 

= 0. gibbosa, Born. 

Utriculus, juv (Oliva), Duel. Monogr., t. 17, f. 3,4 -0. nebulosa. Lam. 
Uvania (Oolumbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 10, f. 5, 6 133 

Valentina (Oliva), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 28, f. 23, 24. 

= 0. dactyliola, Duclos. 

Valga (Columbella), Gould. Pro. BJS. Soc. N. H., vol. iii, p. 169 158 

Valida (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic , xi, pi. 24, f. 151, 1859. 

= C. costellata, Sowb. 

Valveta (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi 13, f. 7, 8. Fossil. 
Varia ( \Jarginella), in part, Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, 390, t. 76, f. 137-140, 

1846. = M. avena, Valeuc. 
Varia (Marginella), in part, Sowb. Zool. Proc , 97, 1846. 

M. albilineata, Orb. 
Varia (Cithara), Pease. Pro. Zoo. Soc. Lon., 1860, p. 147. 

- Columbella Peasei, Mart. 

Varia (Columbella), Sowerby. Pro. Zoo. SJC M 1832, p. 116 154 

Variabilis (Oliva), Gray. Zool. Proc., 47, 18-38. = 0. ispidula, Linn. 
Variabilis (Engina), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 275, pi. 23, f. 9, 

1867. C. nodicostata, Pease. 

Variabilis (Persicula), Sebum. Nouv. Syst., 235, 1817. 

- Marginella per-sicula, Linn. 

Varicosa (Colambella) Gaskoin. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1851, p. 5. 

= C costellata, Sowb. 

Variegata (Oliva), Bolt. 0. elegans, Lam., var. tricolor. 

Variegata (Columbella), Meuke. Synopsis, 65, 1830. 

? C. versicolor. Sowb. 
Variegata (Columbella), Stearns. Pro. Cal. Acad. Sc., v, p. 81, pi. i, f. 5. 

= C. tuberosa, Cpr. 

Variegata (Ancillaria), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., t. 4. f. 71. 
0. cinnamoinea, Lam. 

Varians (Columhella), Sowerby. Pr. Zoo. Soc., 1832, p. 118 110 

Varians (Columbella), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., vi, t. 231 ; Moll. Japon., 6; 

Lischke, Suppl.. 55. C. Dunkeri, Tryon. 

Vautiert (Marginella), Bernard!. Jour, de Conch., iv, 68, t. 2, f. 13, 14, 
1853. = M imbricata, Hinds. 

Velata (Columbella) Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 28, f. 182, 1859 123 

Veleda (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, III. Conch., t. 7, f 19, '20. 

= C. varia, Sowb. 
Venilia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. Illust., t. 17, f. 1, 2. 

C. labiosa, Sowb. 

Ventricosa (Oliva). Duclos. Monogr., pi. 4, f 13, 14, 1835. Fossil. 
Ventricosa (Voluta), Dillwyn. Catalog., i, 515. == Oliva inflata, Lam. 

Ventricosa (Erato), Gray. Desc. Cat., 17, 1832 11 

Ventricosa (Ancillaria), Swainson. Teste Sowerby (non Lam.). 

= A. cinnamomea, Lam. 

Ventricosa (Ancillaria), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 304. 
. A. cinnamomea, Lam, 

Ventricosa (Harpa), Lam. Hist. Nat., ed. ii, t. x, p. 130 98 

Ventricosa (Harpa), var. Kiener, p. 6, t. 2, f. 2. H. costata, Linn. 

Ventricosa (Marginella,) Fischer. Mus. Demidoff, iii, 173, 1807. 

= M. quinqueplicita, Lam. 

Venulata (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, t. 313, No. 13. 
= 0. araneosa, Lam. var. 



24<i INDEX. 



Venusta (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. xxii, No. 180, 1858. 

C. toeniata, Phil. 
Venusta (Columbella), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 49, 1844. 

= C. bidentata, Menke. 
Verdensis (Marginella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser., xvi, 

200, 1875. - M. tamiata, Sowb. 

Verrilli (Oolutnbella), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 91, 1881 162 

Vermiculata (Oliva), Lam. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc., 44, 1858. 

O. recticularis, Lam. 
Vermiculata (Marginella), Redfield. Cat. Coll. Marg., 1851 ; Cat. Marg., 

254, 1870. = M. quinqueplicata, Lam. 
Vernedei (Ancillari*), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 1, f. 7. 

? A. Tankervillei, Swains. 
Verreauxi (Oiiva), Ducros de St. Germain. Rev. crit , p. 97, t. 3, f. 86, 

a, b, 1857 64 

Verreauxi (Marginella). Jousseaume. Guerin's Mag., 251, 1875. 

M. angustata, Sowb. 
Versicolor (Oliva), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 22, f. 377, 378, 1871. 

z= 0. Anazora, Duclos. 

Versicolor (Columbella), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1832. p. 119 110 

Versicolor (Amphissa), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 111. 113, 1872 197 

Vescita (Oliva) (Gmelin ubi ?), Marrat. Thes. Conch., t. 78, fig. 280, 1871. 

= 0. auricularia, Lam. 
Vestalia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 15, f. 15, 16. 

= C. rustica, Linn. 

Vexillum (Marginella), Redfield. Ann. N. Y. Lye., v, 224, 1852 22 

Vexillum (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. xii, f. 57, 1858. 

= C. acicula, Reeve. 
Vidua (Oliva), Bolt. = 0. maura, Lam. 
Vimonti (Marginella), Jouss. Guerin's Mag., 186, 1875. 

M. bifasciata, Lam. 
Violacea (Oliva), Marrat. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 29, f. 56. 

= 0. araneosa, Lam. 
Virginalis (Harpa), J. Gray, MSS. Sowb., Thes. Conch., iii, sp. 12. 

? = H. minor, Lam. 
Virginea (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monogr., 31, 1875. 

? =^ M. apicioa, Menke, var. 
Virginea (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 2, f. 15, 16. 

? ^ C. pelotiua, Duel. 

Virginea (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 131 180 

Viridescens (Oliva), Martini. Marrat, Thes. Conch., t. 12, f. 169-172. 

0. sanguinolenta, Lam. 
Vitellina (Erato), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, 46, t. 13, f. 22, 23, 1844.... 10, 198 

Vitensis (Columbella). Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, 156, 1871 115 

Vitrea (Marginella), Hinds. Zool. Proc., 75, 1844 27 

Vittata( Marginella) Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 17, 1864. 
M. ornata, Redfield. 

Vittata (Marginella), Button. Jour, de Conch., 22, 1878 55 

Vittata (Columbella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xi, pi. 30, f. 192, 1859 119 

Vitulina (Erato), H and A. Adams. Genera, i, 190, 1858. 

= E. vitellina, Hinds. 
Voluta (Cypraea), Mont. Test. Brit., 203, t. 6, f. 7, 1803. 

= Erato laevis, Donov. 

Volutella (Ancillaria), Deshayes. Mag. de /ool., Moll., t. HI, 1 1830. 
A, Mauritiana, Sowerby, 



INDEX*. 247 



Volutella, Swainson. Zool. Illust., 2d ser., i, No. 44, 1829. 

= Marginella, Lam. 

Volutella (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 322 7* 3 

Volutelloides (Oliva), Mar. Thes. Conch., t 24, f, 436. =0. rosalina, Duel. 
Volutiformis (Marginella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 131, 1865- 

= M. turbinata, Sowb. 
Volvaria (in part), Lamarck. Syst. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 362, 1822. 

= Marginella, Lam 47 

Volvaria, Lam. Syst. Anim., 93,1801 7 

Volvarina, Hinds. Pro. Zool. Soc., 75, 1844. = Marginella, Lam. 
Volvaroides (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 25, f. 11-14, 1835. 

== 0. cidelia, Duel 
Vulpecula (Columbella), Sowerby. Thes. Conch., pi. 38, f. 93. 

= C. pardalina, Lam. 

Wallace! (Marginella), Jousseaume. Monog., 40, t. 8, f. 7... 34 

Warrenii (Marginella), Marrat. Quar. Jour. Conch., i, 136, 1876 56 

Watsoni (Marginella), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 71, 1881 56 

Wheatleyi (Columbella), DeKay. Moll. N. York, 132, t. 7, f. 162, 1843. 

C. lunata, Say. 

Xantholeuca (Engina), E. A. Smith. Pro. Zool. Soc., 119, t. 5, f. 9, 1882. 196 
Xanthostoma (Marginella), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 1852. Undescribed. 

Xavierana (Columbella), Woods. Pro. R. Soc. Tas., 1876, p. 134 137 

Xiphitella (Columbella), Duclos Monogr., pi. 9, f. 18, 14. 
= C. rustica, Linn. 

Yucatecana (Marginella), Dall. Bull. Ma?. Comp. ZooL, ix, 72, 1881 57 

Yoldina (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 8, f. 9, 10 153 

Yorkensis (Columbella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, p. 55, pi. ii, f. 6. 140 

Zafra, H. Adams. Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist , N. S., vi, 333, 1860. 

= Pleurotomidae. 
Zan eta (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 2, f. 9, 10, 1835. 0. zonalis, Lam. 

Zebra (Columbella), Gray. Sowerby's Thes., i, p. 127, pi. 38, f. 105 129 

Zebra (Oliva), Kiister. Inh. zu Heft, i, and t. 5, f. 5, 6. 

= 0. sanguinolenta, Lam. 

Zeilanica (Oliva), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, p. 436. = 0. irisans. Lam. 
Zelina (Columbella), Duclos. Monogr., pi. 4, f. 5, 6. : C. discors, Gmel. 
Zenopira (Oliva). Duclos. Monogr., t. 3, f. 11, 12, 1835. = 0. nana, Lam. 

Zepa (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 19, f. 9, 10 189 

Zigzag (Oliva), Duclos. Monogr., t. 2, f 1-4, 18^5. 

= mutica. var. nitidula. 
Zonalis (Columbella), Lam. An. sans Vert., x, 274. - C. nana, Dillw. 

Zonalis (Oliva), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 327 67 

Zonalis (Oliva), Menke. 0. undatella, Lam. 

Zonalis (Columbella), Linsley. Gould, Am. Jour. Sci., 2d ser., vi, 236, 

f. 8, 1818... 130 

Zonata (Columbella), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 18oO. 

? = Zafra. in Pleurotomidse 172 

Zonaia (Engina), Reeve. (Ricinula), Conch. Ic., iii, p. 38, 1846 194 

Zonata (Engina). Gray. Moll. Voy. Blossom, p. 113, 1839 196 

Zonata (Marginella), Kiener. Coq. Viv., 41, t. 13, f. 4, 1840? 49 

Zopilla (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 19, f. 11, 12. 

C. pardalis, Lain. 

Zulmis (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 24, f. 21, 22. 

C. mercatoria, Linn. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



Plate 1 (Frontispiece). 

KIOURE. J'AIIK. 

1. Oliva puelchana, Orb. Chenu, Conch. 111., t. 5, f. 7 70 

2. Oliva Brasiliana, Lam. Chenu, Conch. 111., t. 35, f. 5 90 

:!. Oliva erythrostoma, Lam. Cbenu, Conch. III., t. 33, f. 7 80 

4. Oliva subulata, Lam. (= acuminata, Lam.). Chenu, Conch. 111., 

t. 32, f. 1 88 

5. Oliva maura, Lam. Chenu, Conch. 111., t. 34, f. 4 78 

6. Oliva tehuelchana, Orb. Weinkauff, in Kiister, Conch. Cab 68 

Plate 2. 

Lingual Dentition. 

7. Erato callosa, Ad. and Reeve. Troschel, Gebiss der Schnecken t. 

18, f. 5 5, 7, 9 

8. Marginella elegans, Gmel. Troschel, ii, t. 5, f. 6 7, 30 

9. Marginella (Volvaria) Philippinarum, Redfield. Troschel, i', t. 

5, f. 8 7, 51 

10. Marginella (Persicula) clandestina, Brocchi. Troschel, ii, t. 

5, f. 11 7, 40 

11. Marginella (Cystiscus) Capensis, Stimpson. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 

t 8, f. 20 6,46 

12. Oliva irisans, Lam. Troschel, ii, t. 10, f. 7 60 

13. Oliva ( \garonia) hiatula, Lam. Troschel, ii, t. 10, f. 2 60 

14. Oliva (Olivella) mutica, Say. Troschel, ii, t. 10, f. 14 60 

15. Ancillaria ampla, Gmel. Troschel, ii, t. 10, f. 17 61 

16. Ancillaria catfra, Forsk. Troschel, ii, t. 10, f. 15 61 

17. Harpa conoidalis, Lam. Troscbel, ii, t. 10, f. 1 61 

18. Columbella rustica, Lam. Troschel. ii, t, 10, f. 2 102 

19. Columbella (Strombina) gibberula, Sowb. Troscbel, ii, t. 9, f. 10.. 102 

20. Columbella (Anachis) rugosa, Sowb. Troschel, ii, t. 9, f, 9. 102 

Plate 3. 

21. Anatomy of Oliva. , /, mantle ; b, mantle process, laying in the 

sutures of the spire of the shell; r, head lobes; d, siphon ; e, 
mucous glands ; /, kidney ; g, anus ; A, liver ; k, salivary glands ; 
m, branchiae; n, heart Chenu, Conch, lllust., iv, t, 33 59 

22. Plochelsea crassilabra, Gabb. Proc. Pinl. Acad., t, 11, f. 5, 1872... 60 

23. Monoptygma Lymneoides, Conrad ( Alabarniensis, Lea). Corir., 

Tert. Foss., t, 16, f. 6 61, 91 

24,25. Olivula si aminea, Conrad. Conr., Tert. Foss., t, 10, f.6 61 

26. Ancillaria (Ancillopsis) scamba, Conr. Con., Ter. FOB., t. 10, f. 4. 61 

27. Ancillaria (Ancillopsis) altile, Conr. Con., Ter. Fos , t. 10, f. 2. 61 

28. Marginella (Volvaria) bulloides, Lam. Chenu, Manuel, f 1072 7 

29. Marginella (Bull opsis) cretacea, Conrad. Jour. Philada.. Acad., 

2 ser., iv, t. 46, f. 27 16 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 249 

MGL'RK. 1'AGK. 

30. Oliva (Tortoliva) Texana, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, t. 21, f. 4. 59 

31. Oliva sanguinolenta, Lam. Animal. Duclos, Chenu's Conch. Illus., 

t. 25, f. 3 79 

Plate 4. 

32. Erato lachryma, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 219, f. 6.. 8 

33. 34. Erato guttula, Sowb. Thes Conch., t. 219, f. 29, 30 9 

35. Erato Sandwicensis, Pease. Thes. Conch., f. 22 9 

26. Erato pellucicla, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 16 9 

37. Erato sulcifera, Reeve (= lachryma). Conch. Icon., f. 14, b 8 

38, 39. Erato callosa, Ads. and Reeve. Sowb , Thes. Conch., f. 35, 36. 9 

40. Erato Isevis, Donov. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. Moll., t. N. N., f. 8. 7, 9 

41. Erato laevis, Donov. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 39 9 

42. 4o. Erato Maugerige, Gray, Thes. Conch., f. 8, 9 9 

44. Erato angistoma, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 20 10 

45. Erato minuta, Reeve. Conch. Ijon., f. 11 10 

46. Erato gallinacea, Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 34 10 

47. Erato angulifera, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 26 10 

48. Erato columbella, Menke. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 32 10 

49. 50 Erato vitellina, Hinds. Thes., f. 27, 28. 10 

51. Erato sulcilei a, Gray. Sowb., Coach. 111. Cyprsea, f. 46 11 

52. Erato corrugata, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 11 11 

50. Erato nana, Duclos. Sowb., Thes., f. 12 11 

54, 55. Erato Schmeltziana, Crosse Jour, de Conch., t. 11, f.5, 1867. 11 

56. Erato scabriuscula, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 4, a 11 

Plate 5. 

57, 58. Marginella glabella, Linn. Sowb., Thes., i, t. 75, f. 53, 54 17 

59. Marginella Pouched, Petit. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 16, f. 15 17 

60. Marginella irrorata, Menke. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 75, f. 65 17 

61. Marginella labiata, VaK Sowb , Thes. Conch., f. 104.... 17 

62. Marginella Goodallii, Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, t. 74, f. 17 18 

63. Marginella aurantia, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 60 :. 18 

64. Marginella Olivaeformis, Kiener. Sowb., Thes., f. 164 33 

65. Marginella laota, Jousseaume ( Olivteformis). Kiister, t. 19, f. 16. 33 

66. Marginella Hindsiana, Petit (^Olivgeformis). Reeve, Icon., f. 96, b. 33 

67. Marginella pulchra, Gray. Sowb., Thes., f. 152 29 

68. Marginella Hondurasensis, Reeve ( pulchra). Icon., f. 97, b 29 

69 Marginella obesa, Sowb. (= pyrulata, Redf.). Thes. Conch., f. 91. 17 

70. Marginella nubeculata, Lam. (= pyrum, Gron.). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 51 18 

71. Marginella intermedia, Sowb. ( pyrum). Thes., f. 90 18 

72. Marginella mosaica, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 58 18 

73. Marginella rosea, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 14, b 18 

74. Marginella piperita, Hinds (== rosea). Reeve, Icon., f. 11, a 18 

75. Marginella albocincta, Sowb. ( - rosea). Reeve, Icon., f. 95, a... 18 

76. Marginella Petitii, Duval. Reeve, Icon., f. 6, a 19 

77. Marginella Newcombii, Reeve (= Petitii). Icon., f. 15, a 19 

78. Marginella fulminata, Kiener. Monog., t. 12, f. 1 19 

79. Marginella helmatina, Rang. Sowb., Thes., f. 38 19 

80. Marginella Cumingiana, Petit (= helmatina). Sowb., Thes., f. 35. 19 

Plate 6. 

81. Marginella bifasciata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 25, a 19 

82. Marginella bifasciata, Lam Sowb. > Thes. Conch,, f 13 4 .. 19 



250 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGUKK. PAGE. 

83. Marginella obtusa, Sowb. Thes., f. 11 20 

8i. Marginella mirabilis, Barclay (- obtusa). Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 6, 

1869 20 

85. Marginella Adansoni, Kiener. Sowb., Thes., f. 3 20 

86. Marginella Bellii, Sowb. (== Adansonii?). Thes. Conch., f. 29..... 20 

87. Marginella nodata, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 36, a 20 

88. Marginella Cleryi, Petit. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 37, b 20 

89. Marginella- limbata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 19 21 

90. Marginella vittata, Reeve ( ornata, Redfield). Icon., f. 17, c.... 21 

91. Marginella faba, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 1 21 

92. Marginella pseudofaba, Sowb. Tnes. Conch., f. 21 21 

93. Marginella 8 pi en den a, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 23 21 

94. Marginella Guillaini, Petit, Jour, de Conch., ii, t. 1, f. 13 22 

95. Marginella musica Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 37 22 

96 97. Marginella diadochus, Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, t. 7, 

f. 4, a, c 22 

98, 99. Marginella Belcheri, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 25, 26 ... 22 

100. Marginella vexillum, Redfield. Am. Jour. Conch., v, t. 8, f. 2 22 

1. Marginella Harpseformis, Beck. Reeve. Icon., f 31. a 22 

2. Marginella formicula, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 42 23 

3. Marginella muscaria, Lam. (= formicula). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 45 23 

Plate 7. 

4. Marginella turbinata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 122 23 

5. Marginella Volutiformis. Reeve (-== turbinata). Reeve, Icon., 131, b. 23 

6. Marginella Tasmanica, Tenison-Woods. Specimen 23 

7. Marginella opalina, Stearns. Specimen 23 

8. Marginella aureocincta, Stearns. Specimen 24 

9. Marginella deformis, Nevill. Kiister, t. 24, f. 15 14 

10. Marginella fusiformis, Hinds. Sowb, Thes Conch., f. 77 24 

11. Marginella inflexa, Sowb. (-. fusiformis). Thes., f. 132 24 

12. Marginella fusiformis, Hinds ( --. var. unilineata, Jouss.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 79 24 

13. Marginella hsematida, Kiener. Sowb.. Thes. Conch., f. 60 24 

14. Marginella electrum, Reeve (= haematida). Icon., f. 118, b 24 

15. Marginella Nevilli, Jousseaume. Kiister, t, 22, f. 16 24 

16. Marginella Lantzi, Jouss. (= Nevilli). Kiister, t. 18, f. 8 24 

17. Marginella picturata, Nevill. Kiister, t. 22, f. 14 25 

18. Marginella festiva, Kiener. Sowb., Thes., f. 73 25 

19. Marginella scripta, Hinds. Sowb., Thss. Conch., f. 83 2 

20. Marginella Lifouana, Crosse. Kiister, t. 22, f. 10 25 

21. Marginella Lucia, Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool., i, t. 5, f. 12, 1876. 25 

22. Marginella margarita, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 123 25 

23. Marginella Candida, Sowb. (= margarita). Thes. Conch., f. 87 25 

24. Marginella striata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 155, b 25 

25. Marginella sulcata, Orb. (.- striata). Moll. Cuba, t. 21, f. 15 25 

26. Marginella scalaris, Jouss. ( striata). Kiister, t. 18, f. 3 25 

27. Marginella Chaperi, Jouss. Kiister, t. 18, f. 1 26 

28. Marginella pusilla, A. Ad. (= pumila, Redfield). Zool. Proc., t. 19, 

f. 1, 18G7 26 

29. Marginella translucida, Sowb. Thes., f. 62 , 26 

30. Marginella Strangei Angas (= translucida). Zool. Proc., t. 26, 

f. 8, 1877 26 

:il. Marginella serrata, Gaskoin. Reeve, Icon., f. 124, b 26 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 251 

KiOURE. PAGK. 

32. Marginella Osteri, Jouss. Kiister, t. 18, f. 14 26 

33. Marginella Australis, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 65 27 

34. Marginella Metcalfei, Angas (^= Australis). Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 9, 

1877 . . 27 

Plate 8. 

35. Marginella pygmsea, Sowb. ( translucida). Thes., f. 79 26 

36. Marginella ochracea, Angas (^= Australis). Zool. Proc., t. 1, f. 6, 

1871 27 

37. Marginella vitrea, Hinds. Sowb , Thes. Conch., f. 74 27 

38. Marginella inconspicua, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 80 27 

39. Marginella Saulise, Sowb. Tties. Conch., f. 68 27 

40. Marginella evanida, Sowb. Thes., f. 69 27 

41. Marginella suavis, Souverb. Kiister, t. 19, f. 10 27 

42. Marginella neglecta, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 135 27 

43. Marginella rut'ula, Gaskoin ( ^ neglecta). Reeve, Icon., f. 149, b.. 27 

44. 45. Marginella marginata. Born. Reeve, Icon., f. 46, a, b 28 

46. Marginella cincta, Kiener (= marginata). Reeve, f. 44, a 28 

47. Marginella Storeria, Couth. (= marginata). Bost. Jour N. Hist., 

i, t. 9, f. 1 28 

48. Marginella crassilabrum, Reeve (= marginata). Icon., f. 92 28 

49. Marginella Saulcyana, Petit ( marginata). Jour, de Conch., ii, 

t. 1, f. 11 28 

50. Marginella Loroisii, Born ( : marginata). Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., 

i, t. 8, f. 7 28 

51. Marginella amygdala, Kiener (== marginata). Reeve, Icon., f. 43, b. 28 

52. Marginella curta, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f, 23, a 28 

53. 54. Marginella crassilabrum, Sowb. (= labrosa, Redfield). Thes. 

Conch., f. 124, 125 28 

55, 56. Marginella gibbosa, Jousseaume. Kiister, t. 18, f. 10, 11 29 

57. Marginella Keenii, Marrat. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 4 ser., vii, t. 11, 

f. 13 29 

58, 59. Marginella ccerulescens, Lam. (= prunum, Gmel). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 153, 154 29 

60 Marginella Burchardi, Uunk. (= prunum). Novit. Conch., 1. 11,. f. 3. 29 
61. Marginella Martinii, Petit (-^prunum). Jour, de Conch., iv, t. 

11, f. 8 29 

Plate 9. 

fi'2. Marginella sapotilla, Hinds ( prunum). Voy. Sulphur, 1. 13, f. 10. 29 

63. Marginella quinqueplicata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 40, a 30 

64. Marginella quinqueplicata, Lam. Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, t. 45, f. 13. 30 

65. Marginella encaustica, Reeve (.:: quinqueplicata, juv.). Icon., f. 

148, b 30 

66. Marginella quinqueplicata, var. Hainesii, Petit. Jour, de Conch., 

ii, t. 8, f. 5 30 

67. 82. Marginella elegans, Gmel. Reeve, Icon., f. 4, b, 4, c 30 

68. Marginella strigata, Dillw (elegans). Reeve, Icon., f. 5, b 30 

69. Marginella strigata, Dillw. (^elegans). Thes. Conch., f. 148 30 

70. Marginella Burchardi, Reeve (elegans). Conch. Icon., f. 3, b... 30 

71. Marginella tricincta, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 181 31 

72. Marginella immersa, Reeve (= tricincta). Conch. Icon., f. 109... 31 

73. Marginella Traillii, Reeve. Icon., f. 114 31 

74. Marginella sexplicata, Bunker. Kiister, t. 16, f. 7 31 



252 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

KICl 'UK. VAttK. 

75. Marginella odoricyi, Bernard!. Kiister, t, 19, f. 6 

76. Marginella Bernard?!, Largill. Reeve, Icon., f. 38, b 

83. Marginella Olivella, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 140, b 

77. 80. Marginella oblonga, Swainson. Reeve, Icon., f. 51, a 32 

78. Marginella amabilis , Redf. ( - oblonga). Sowb., Thes., f. 114 32 

79. Marginella rostrata. Redf. ( .- oblonga). Sowb., Thes., f. 107 32 

81. Marginella longivaricosa, Lam. ( -.gutiata, Dillw.). Sowb., Thes., 

f.112 32 

Plate 10. 

84. Marginella nivosa, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch , f. 100 32 

85. Marginella pruinosa, Hinds (--nivosa). Sowb., Thes., f. Ill 

86. Marginella carnea, Storer. Sowb., Thes., f. 103 ... 

88. Marginella rosci da, Redf. Tryon, Am. Mar. Conch., f. 90 

89. Marginella apicina, Menke. Sowb., Thes., f. 99 

90. Marginella conoidalis, Lam. ( apicina). Sowb., Thes., f. 94 

91. Marginella diaphana, Kien. (== pellucida, Pfr.). Sowb., Thes., f. 95. >> 

92. Marginella nitida, Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 131 34 

93. Marginella succinea, Conrad (nitida). Specimen 34 

94. 95. Marginella Wallacei, Jouss. Kuster, t. 18, f. 9, 12 34 

96. Marginella cantharus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 110, a 

97. Marginella Cap-nsis, Dunker. Reeve, Icon., f. 113 34 

98. Marginella paxillus. Reeve. Icon., f. 133, a 

99. Marginella Kedtieldii, Tryon. Specimen 

100. Marginella annuluta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 119, b.... 35 

1,2. Marginella triplicata, Gaskoin. Reeve, Icon., f. 126 35 

3. Marginella bullata, Born. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 158 :> >o 

4. Marginella Cuvieri, Desh. (bullata). Sowb., Thes., f. 159 35 

">. Marginella angustata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 169 35 

6. Marginella blanda. Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 167 -^ 

7. Marginella dactylus, Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 187 :>> 6 

8. Marginella elongata, Pease (.-.... elliptica, Redf.). Am. Jour. Conch., 

iii, t.. 23, f. 24 36 

9. Marginella cornea, Lam Reeve, Icon., f. 52, b 36 

10. Marginella persicula, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 190 36 

11. Marginella cingulata, Dillw. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 185 '><'> 

12. Marginella multilineata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 64 :> >r> 

13. Marginella tessellata, Lam. ( porcellana, Gmel). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 197 :!7 

Plate 11. 

14. Marginella Kieneriana, Petit. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 63. a -".7 

15. Marginella maculosa, Reeve ( calculus, Redf.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 65, a 37 

16. 17. Marginella interrupta, Lam. (.-- interrupte-lineata, Muhlf.). 

Sowb., Thes., f. 2 3,205 .".7 

18, 19. Marginella similis, Sowb. ( obesa, Redf.). Thes. Conch., f. 

206, 207 : >~ 

20. Marginella imbricata, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 59, a 37 

21. Marginella Vautieri, Bern. ( imbricata). Jour, de Conch., iv, 

t. 2, f. 13 -'-7 

22. Marginella maculosa, Kiener. Iconog., t. 9, f. 40 37 

23. Marginella muralis, Hinds ( maculosa). Sowb., Thes., f. 217 37 

_M. Marginella DeBurghirc, A. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 68 3S 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 253 

FIGURE. PA OK. 

25. Marginella pulchella, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 66... 38 

26. Marginella phrygia, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 67 8 

27. Marginella frumentum, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon , f. 71 38 

28. Marginella catenata, Mont. Reeve, Icon., f. 73, a 38 

29. Marginella catenata, Mont. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 226 38 

30. Marginella pulcherrima, Gask. Sowb., Thes., f. 224 39 

31. Marginella sagittata, Hinds. Sowb., Thes , f. 223 39 

32. Marginella .chrysomelina, Redfield. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 121... 39 

33. Marginella Pacifica, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 20 39 

34. Marginella dubiosa, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 15, f. 17 39 

35. Marginella ovulum, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 188 40 

36. Marginella occulta, Monts. Kiister, t, 23, f. 15 40 

37. Marginella pisum, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 156 40 

38. Marginella clandestina, Brocchi. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 216 40 

39. Marginella pygmtca, Issel ( Isseli, Nevill). Savigny, Des. Egypt, 

t. 6, f. 26 40 

40. Marginella oryza, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 75, b 40 

41. Margiuella dens, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 120 40 

42. Marginella Guanacha, Orb. Moll. Canaries, t. 6, f. 33 41 

43. Marginella Ovuliformis, Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 20, f. 34 41 

44. Marginella Lefevrei, Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., iv, t. 12, f. 11... 41 

45. Marginella monilis, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 111... 41 

46. Marginella Terveriana, Petit ( monilis). Reeve, Icon., f. 127... 41 

47. Marginella miliaria, Linn. Sowb.. Thes. Conch., f. 230 42 

48. Marginella Savignyi, Issel ( miliaria). Savigny, Desc. Egypt, 

t. 6, f. 18 42 

49. Marginella carneola, Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, t. 1, f. 14 42 

50. Marginella pyrulum, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 117 42 

51. Marginella simplex, Reeve ( infelix, Jouss.). Conch. Ic., f. 115. 42 

Plate 12. 

52. Marginella asellina, Jouss. Kiister, Monog., t. 20, f. 9 42 

53. Marginella lachryma, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 159 43 

54. Marginella Crossei, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper., vi., t. 3, f. 5 43 

5. Marginella subtrigona, Carpenter. Specimen 43 

56. Marginella regularis, Carpenter. Specimen 43 

57. Marginella Jewettii, Carpenter. Reeve, Icon., f. 146 43 

58. Marginella glandina, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper , vi, t. 3, f. 3 43 

59. Marginella Benguelensis, Jouss. ( exilis, Gmel.). Kiister, t. 20, 

f. 13 51 

60. Marginella minuta, Pfr. Philippi, Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 27, f. 23 43 

61. Marginella Lavalleana, Orb. ( minuta). Reeve, Icon , f. 153 43 

62. Marginella minima, Guild ( minuta). Sowb,, Thes. Couch., f. 220. 43 
6:;. Marginella Sueziensis, Issel ( - minuta). Savigny, Desc. Egypt, 

t. (i, f. 17 43 

64. Marginella Bensoni, Reeve. Icon., f. 158 44 

65. Marginella minor, C. B. Ad. Reeve, Icon., f. 152 44 

66. Marginella pyriformis, Pease ( tran^lata, Redf.). Am. Jour. 

Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 21 44 

67. Marginella Angasi, Brazier. Kiister, Monog,, t. 24, f. 14 45 

68. Marginella polyodonta, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exp., vi, t. 3, f. 1 45 

69. Marginella pygmaea, Garrett (= Sandwicensis, Pease). Pro. Phila. 

Acad., t. 2, f. 27, 1873 45 

70. Marginella Capensis, Stimpson (--Cystiscus, Redfield). Am. Jour. 

Conch., i, t. 8, f. 2 4P, 



254 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



71. Marginella semen, Reeve. Conch. Icon,, f. 145 46 

72. Marginella pulvis, Jousseaume. Kiister, Monog. t. 20, f. 1 46 

73. Marginella Mariei, Crosse. Kiister, Monog., t. 24, f. 16 46 

74. Marginella ros, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 147 46 

75. Marginella bulbosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 144 4tf 

77. Marginella Largillierti, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f, 22, b 47 

78. Marginella ovum, Reeve (:^-- Largillierti). Icon., f. 89, a 47 

79. Marginella quadrilineata, Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 48, b 47 

80. Marginella jilacina, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 176 47 

81. 82. Marginella, sarda, Kiener. Sowb., Tbes. Conch., f. 174, 175... 47 

83. Marginella Manceli, Jouss. (= sarda). Kiister, Monog., t. 18, f. 7. 47 

84. Marginella pallida, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 108 48 

85. Marginella pellicula, Marr. ( lucida, Marr.) Kiister, t. 23, f. 12. 

86. Marginella compressa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 180 48 

87. Marginella rnustelina, Angas. Zool. Pro., t. 1, f. 5, 1871 48 

88. Marginella fauna, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 126 48 

89. Marginella alabaster, Reeve (- fauna). Conch. Icon., f. 107 48 

90. Marginella diaphana, Kiister (= fauna). Monog., t. 4, f. 6 48 

91. Marginella Olivellseformis, Jouss Kiister, Monogr., t. 20, f. 11 48 

92. Marginella zonata, Kiener. Iconog., t. 13, f. 4 49 

0:}, 94. Marginella bilineata, Krauss (zonata). Thes. Conch. ,f. 115, 

116 49 

Plate 13. 

95. Marginella micans, Petit. Kiister, Monog., t. 16, f. 13 49 

96, 97. Marginella fusca, Sowb. (= exilis, Gmel.). Thes. Conch., f. 

122, 123 ">1 

98. Marginella lactea, Kiener. Sowb., Then. Conch , f. 143 49 

99. Marginella affinis, Reeve (= lactea). Conch. Icon., f. 136 49 

100. Marginella subtriplicata, Orb. Reeve, Icon., f. 135 49 

1. Marginella Mexicana, Jouss. Kiister, Monog., t. 20, f. 15 50 

2. Marginella varia, Sowb. (= avena, Valenc.). Thes. Conch., f 137. 50 

3. 8. Marginella varia, Sowerby ( avena, var. Beyerleana, Bern.). 

Thes. Conch., f. 138, 139 , 50 

4. Marginella livida, Reeve (-avena). Conch. Icon., f. 100 50 

5. Marginella guttula, Reeve (== avena). Conch. Icon., f. 101 50 

6. Marginella Philippinarum, Redtield. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 81... 51 

7. Marginella triticea, Lam. ( . - exilis, Gmel ). Kiener, t. 6, f. 25 51 

9. Marginella epigrus, Reeve (= exilis, juv. ?). Cnnch. Icon., f. 151. 50 

10. Marginella Benguelensis, Jouss. (== exilis). Kiister, t. 20, f. 16... 51 

11. Marginella tribalteata, Reeve (-.- exilis). Conch. Icon., f. 102 51 

12. Marginella mediocincta, Smith. Kiister, Conch, Cab., t. 23, f. 9... 52 

13. Marginella Bouvieri, Jouss. (= mediocincta). Bull. Soc. Zool., i, 

t. 6, f. 6 52 

14. Marginella rubella, C. B. Ad. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 133 52 

15. Marginella navicella, Reeve ( rubella). Conch. Icon , f. 103, b.. 52 

16. Marginella tamiat a, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 129 52 

17. Marginella Verdensis, Smith ( taoniata). Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t, 23, f. 8.. 52 

18. Marginella Calameli, Jouss. (-- secalina). Guerin's Mag., t. 18, 

f. 3, 1871-2 53 

19. Marginella rufescens, Reeve (-- secalina). Conch. Icon., f. 112... .">3 

20. 21. Marginella triticea, Sowb. (= secalina). Thes. Conch., f. 120, 

121 58 

22. Marginella obscura, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 132 52 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 255 

KTGLRK. PAOK. 

23. Marginella infans. Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 150, a ">:; 

24. Marginella attenuata, Reeve Conch. Icon., f. 116 f-8 

25. Marginella heterozona, Jouss. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 20, f. 8 58 

2(5. Marginella cylindrica, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 134 53 

27. Marginella Peasei, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 108, b 53 

28. Margiuella Paumotensis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 22. 54 
21). Marginella corusca, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 143, a 54 

30. Marginella Bazini, .lous-". Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 20, f. 3 54 

31. Marginella Caledonica, Jouss. Bull. Soc Zool., i, t. 6, f. 9 54 

82. Marginella sordida, Reeve. Icon., f. 137 54 

88. Marginella bullula, Keeve. Conch. Icon., f. 139, b 54 

84. Marginella fasciata, Sowb. Thes. Consh., f. 142 54 

85. Marginella Baylei, Jouss. Kiiter, Conch. Cab., t. 18, f. 16 55 

26. Marginella bibalteata, Reeve ( graciln, C. B. Ad.). Conch. lc., 

f. 99 55 

37. Marginella albolineata, Orb Moll. Cuba, t. 20, f. 28 35 

38. Marginella pyriformis, Carpenter. Specimen 41 

81). Marginella rubens, Martens. Conch. Mitth., ii, t. 23, f. 1 30 

40. Marginella PatagonicM, Martens. Conch. Mitth., ii, t. 23, f . 4 51 

Plate 14. 

41 Olivella mutica, Marr. ( Verreauxi, Ducros) Thes. Conch., f. 4. 66 

42. Olivella mica, Duclos ( Verreauxi). Mnnog., t. 1. f. 12 64 

43, 44. Olivella mutica, Say. Weinkauff, in Kiister, t. 36, f. 5, 8 64 

45, 46. Olivella pusilla, Marratf. mutica). Thes Conch., f. 357, 358. 64 

47. Olivella rufi fasciata, Reeve (.-.. mutica). Thes. Conch., f. 449 64 

48, 49. Olivella nitMula, Dillw. (--.. mutica, var.). Weinkauff, in 

Kiister. t, 30, f. 11, 12 64 

5<\ 51. Olivella zigzag, Duclos ( '--.mutica, var. nititula). Monog., t. 

2, f. 1, 1 a 64 

52. Olivella fimbriata, Heeve ( mutica, var. nitidula). Conch. Ic., 

f. 92, b... 64 

53. Olivella micula, Marr. ( mutica, var. nitidula). Thes. Conch., 

f. 468 64 

">4. Olivella miliola, d'Orb. ( mutica, var. nitidula). Moll. Cuba, t. 

21, f. 21 04 

55. Olivella strigata, Reeve (=-- mutica, var. nitidula). Conch. Icon., 

f. 72, a 64 

56. Olivella mandarina. Duclos: Monog., t. 1, f. 20 65 

57. Olivella Tunguina, Dnclos ( mandarina). Monog., t. 6, f. 2 <>."> 

5N. Olivella rosalina, Duclos. Monog., t. 1, f. 2 65 

59. Oliveila Sowerbyi, Ducros ( . rosalina). Rev. Crit., t. 3, f. 103, a. 65 

60. Olivella Volutelloides. Marr. ( : rosalina). The?. Conch., f. 436... 65 

61. Olivella petiolita, Duclos. Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 394 66 

62. Olivella intorta, Carp. ( petiolita). Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 455.. 66 
155. Olivella mica, Marr. ( petiolita). Thes. Conch., f. 408 66 

64. Olivella plana, Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 463 66 

65. Olivella Esther, Duclos, Monog., t, 3, f. 8 66 

66. Olivella columba, Duclos ( Esther). Monog., t. 3, f. 4 66 

67. Olivella tergina, Duclos. Reeve, Ion., f. 80, c 66 

68. Olivella pulchella, Reeve (- :. . nivea, Gmel.). Icon., f. 98 67 

69. Olivella zanoeta, Duclos (--= zonalis). Monog., t. 2, f. 9 67 

70. Olivella columellaris, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 348.. 67 

71. Olivella semistriata, Gray ( columellaris). Thes. Conch., f, 351. 67 

72. Olivella attenuata, Reeve ( columellaris). Conch. Icon., f. 90, b. 67 



250 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



73. Olivella affinis, Marr. (= columellaris). Thes. Conch., f. 352 67 

74. Olivella nivea, Gmel. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 64, a 67 

75. Olivella parvula, zMartini (~ nivea). Marr., Thes. Conch , f. 373. 67 

76. Olivella Guildingii, Reeve fc= nivea). Conch. Icon., f. 89, b 67 

77. Olivella monilifera, Reeve (= nivea). Conch. Icon., f. 84, a 67 

78. Olivella pulchella, Reeve ( nivea). Conch. Icon., f 98, b 67 

79. Olivella dealbata, Reeve ( nivea). Conch. Icon., f. 71 67 

80. Olivella rubra, Marr. ( nivea). Thes. Conch., f. 459 67 

81. Olivella fulgida, Reeve (= nivea). Conch. Icon., f. 78, a 67 

82. Olivella inconspicua, Marr. (== nivea). Thes. Conch., t. 437 67 

83. Olivella Reevei, Ducros (-- nivea). Revue Critique, f. 1003 07 

84. Olivella diadochus, Ad. and Rve. (---= nivea). Marr., Thes. Conch., 

f. 438 67 

85. Olivella cuneata, Marr. (:_ nivea). Marr., Thes. Couch., f. 383... 67 

86. Olivella scurra, Marr. (= nivea). Marr , Thes. Conch., f. 380 67 

87. Olivella myriadina. Marr. (= nivea). Thes. Conch , f. 440 67 

88. Olivella miliacea, Marr. ( nivea). Thes. Conch., f. 441 67 

89. Olivella nivea, Gmelin 67 

90. Olivella myriadina, Duclos. Monog., t. 5, f. 2 68 

91,92. Olivella exigua, Mart, (-- jaspidea, Gmel ). Thes. Conch., 

f. 399, 401 68 

93,94. Olivella piperita, Marr. (^-jaspidea). Thes. Conch., f. 402, 

403 68 

95, 96. Olivella tehuelchana, Orb. Weinkauff, in Kuster, t. 37, f. 14, 

t, C, f. 2.... 68 

97. Olivella pura, Reeve (= tehuelcbana). Conch. Icon., f. 97 68 

98. Olivella alba, Marr. (= floralia, Duel.). Thes. Conch., f. 390 68 

Plate 16. 

99. 100. Olivella elongata, Marr. ( = floralia). Thes. Conch., f. 386, 387. 68 

1. Olivella bullula. Reeve (- tehuelchana, Orb). Icon., f. 96., 68 

2, 3. Olivella floralia, Duclos. Weinkauff, Kiister, t. 36, f. 13, 16 68 

4, Olivella lepta, Duclos. Monog., t. 1, f. 8 69 

5, 6. Olivella fabula, Marr. (= lepta). Thes. Conch., f. 420, 421 69 

7, 8. Olivella lanceolata, Reeve (= lepta). Weinkauff, t. 37, f. 7, 8... 69 

9. Olivella pulicaria, Marr. ( lepta). Thes. Conch., f. 464 69 

10. Olivella exilis, Marr. ( lepta). Thes. Conch., f. 452 69 

11. Olivella fulgurata, Ad. and Reeve (lepta). Marr., Thes Conch., 

f. 425 69 

12. 13. Olivella Fortunei, Ad. Marr., Thes. Conch], f. 422, 423 i>9 

14. Olivella pulchra, Marr. (= Fortunei). Thes. Conch., f. 429 69 

15. Olivella spreta, Gould (-Fortunei?). E. A. Smith, /ool. Proc., 

t. 20, f. 55, 1879 69 

10, 17. Olivella leucozonias, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 67, a, b 69 

18. Olivella undatella, Duclos. Monog., t. 5, f. 5 70 

19. Olivella pulla, Marr. (= Anazora). Thes. Conch., f. 411, 69 

20. 21. Olivella versicolor, Marr. (= Anazora). Thes. Concb., f. 377, 378. 69 

22. Ulivella compta, Marr. ( Anazora). Thes. Conch., f. 432 69 

23. Olivella Capensis, Sowb. ( = Anazora?). Thes. Conch., f. 409 O'.i 

24. 25. Olivella puelcbana, d'Orb. Weinkauff, t. 36, f. 1, 3 70 

26. Olivella gracilis, Brod. and So\vb. Reeve, Icon., f. 46 70 

Plate 17. 

27. Olivella tenuis, Marrat ( gracilis). Thes. Conch., f. 385 70 

28. 29, Olivella btetica, Carp. Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 409, 410 71 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 25 T 

FIGURE. PAGK. 

30. Olivella Pedroana, Conr. ( boetica ?). Pac. R. R. Rept., v, t. 6, 

f.51 71 

31. Olivella nota, Marr. (~ bsetica). Thes. Conch., f. 428 71 

32. 33. Olivella exquisita, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1871, t. 1, f. 2 71 

34. Olivella alectona, Duel. (= beetica). Monog., t. 4, bis, f. 16 71 

35-37. Olivella undatella, Lam. Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 258, 260, 261. 70 

38. Olivella nodulina, Duclos (== undatella). Monog., t. 5, f. 14 70 

39. Olivella dama, Mawe. Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 369 71 

40. Olivella pulchella, Duclos. Monog., t. 5, f. 12 71 

41. Olivella Brazieri, Angas (= exquisita). Zool. Proc., t. 26, f. 6, 1877. 71 
42,43. Olivella triticea, Duclos. Monog., t. 1, f. 5, 6 72 

44. Olivella pardalis, Ad. and Angas (= triticea). Zool. Proc., 1863, 

t. 37, f. 3 72 

45. Olivella leucozona, Ad. and Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 37, f. 23, 1863.. 72 
46 Olivella nympha, Ad. and Ang. Weinkauff, t. 38, f. 10 72 

47. Olivella simplex, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 24 72 

48. Olivella nitens, Dunker ( simplex). Thes. Conch., f. 389 72 

49. 50. Olivella volutella, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 54, b, c 73 

51. Olivella rasamola, Duclos (= volutella). Monog., t. 6, f. 6 73 

52. Olivella pellucida, Reeve (_-r--_ lepta). Conch. Icon., f. 85, b 69 

Plate 18. 

53. Oliva porphyria, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 2, a 74 

54. Oliva splendidula, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 17, b 74 

55-57. Oliva Peruviana, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f 14 ;. 74 

58. Oliva Peruviana, Lam. Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 62 74 

59. Oliva quersolina, Duclos (:- episcopalis). Monog., t. 10, f. 7 74 

60. Oliva episcopalis, var. lugubris. Reeve, Icon., f. 24, a 74 

Plate 19. 

61. Oliva episcopalis, Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 49 74 

62. Oliva atalina, Duclos (= episcopalis). Monog., t. 10, f. 10 74 

63. Oliva fulva, Marr. (?'= episcopalis). Weinkauff, t. 33, f. 7 74 

64-66. Oliva cruenta, Dillw. ( guttata, Lam.). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 30 74 

67. Oliva mantichora, Duel. (-^ guttata, Lam.). Monog., t. 16, f. 8... 74 

68-70. Oliva inflata (Chemn.), Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 31 75 

Plate 20. 

71-74. Oliva inflata (Chemn.), Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 31 75 

75, 76. Oliva lacertina, Quoy (inflata). Voy. Uranie, t. 72, f. 4, 5... 75 

77. Oliva tigrina, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 21, a 75 

78. Oliva holoserica, Mart. ( ^tigrina). Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 178. 75 

79. Oliva rufula, Duclos. Reeve, Icon., f. 50 75 

80. Oliva glandiformis, Marr. (= tigrina). Thes. Conch., f. 175 75 

81. 82. Oliva elegans, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 20, a, c... 76 

83. Oliva flava, Marr. (= elegans). Thes. Conch., f. 156 76 

i 

Plate 21. 

84. Oliva infrenata, Marr. ( elegans). Thes. Conch., f. 161 " 76 

85. Oliva Hemiltona, Duclos. (= elegans). Tbes. Conch., f. 96 76 

86. 87. Oliva tricolor, Lam. (= elegans, var.). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 22, a, b 76 



258 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

88. Oliva tringa, Duclos. (= elegans, var. tricolor). Monog., t. 8, f. 6. 76 

89. Oliva caloioma, Duclos. Kiister, t. 25, f. 9 76 

90. Oliva avellana, Lam. Kiister, t. 23, f. 1 T& 

91. Oliva Marias, Duclos ( araneosa, Lam.). Kiister, t. 23, f. 7 77 

92. Oliva similis, Marrat ( ~ Lecoquiana). Thes. Conch., f. 206 77 

93. Oliva stellata, Duclos (= Lecoquiana, Ducros). Monog., t. 8, f. 12. 77 

94. Oliva bulbiformis, Duclos. Marr., The?. Conch., f. 201 77 

95. 96. Oliva bulbiformis, Duclos. Reeve, Icon., f. 26, b, c 77 

( .7. Oliva maura, Lam. (_.---- funebralis, Lam.). Reeve, Icon., f. 10, a... 77 
98, 99. Oliva leucostoma, Duclos ( funebralis). Thes. Conch., f. 

143, 145 77 

Plate 22. 

100. Oliva inornata, Marr. (funebralis). Thes. Conch., f. 155 77 

J. Oliva propinqua, Marr. (funebralis). Thes. Conch., f. 142 77 

2. Oliva lutea ( funebralis). Thes. Conch., f. 445 77 

3. Oliva dactyliola, Duel, (funebralis, var.). Thes. Conch., f. 208. 77 

4. Oliva picta, Reeve (= funebralis, var. dactyliola). Conch. Icon., 

f. 79 77 

5. Oliva blanda, Marr. (--funebralis, var. dactyliola). Thes. Conch., 

f.237 77 

6. Oliva mustellina, Lam. Marrat, Thes. Concb., f. 273 78 

7. Oliva Caroli niana, Duel, (.= mustellina). Kiister, t. 32, f. 8 78 

8. Oliva angustata, Marr. (mustellina). Thes. Conch., f. 183 78 

9. Oliva laevis, Marrat (--mustellina). Thes. Conch., f. 331 78 

10. Oliva scitula, Marrat . ( mustellina). Thes. Conch., f. 77 78 

11. Oliva grata, Marrat (= mustellina). Thes. Conch., f. 470 78 

12. Oliva Pacifica, Marrat (^ mustellina). Thes. Conch., f. 151 78 

13. Oliva arctata, Marrat (- = mustellina). Thes. Conch., f. 230 78 

14. Oliva cana, Marrat ( mustellina). Thes. Conch., f. 152 78 

1"). Oliva Octavia, Duclos (^ neostina). Chenu, t, 28, f. 22 7S 

16-20. Oliva neostina, Duclos. Monog., t. 19, f. 11, 13, 12, 15, 16 78 

Plate 23. 

21-24. Oliva maura, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 10, b, d, e, f 78 

25, 26. Oliva maura, Lam. Marr., Thes. Conch , f. 137, liO 78 

(Fig. 26 represents 0. Macleaya, Duclos.) 

27, 28. Oliva sanguinolenta, Lam. Reeve, Couch. Icon., f. 25, a, b 79 

29. Oliva evania, Duclos (= sanguinolenta). Thes. Conch., f. 163 79 

Plate 24. 

30. Oliva Keeni, Marrat (-- sanguinolenta). Thes. Conch., f. 164 79 

31. 32. Oliva irisans, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 8, a, d 79 

33. Oliva pintamella, Duel. (--- sanguinolenta). Chenu, t. 35, f. 8 79 

34-36. Oliva irisans, Lam. Kiister, t. 20, f. 1, 7, 8 79 

37. Oliva irisan's, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 8, c 79 

38. Oliva Philantha, Duclos ( irisans). Duclos., t. 20, f. 6 79 

39. Oliva galeola, Duclos (-.-_. irisans). Monog., t. 28, f. 6 79 

40. 41. Oliva concinna, Marr. (^irisans, var.). Thes. Conch , f. 100, 

101 79 

42. Oliva cylindracea, Marr. (. irisans, var.). Thes. Conch., f. 193*.. 79 

Plate 25. 

43. Oliva clara, Marrat (= irisans, var.). Thes. Conch., f. 200 79 

44. Oliva lignaria, Marrat ( irisans, var.). Thes. Conch., f. 196 79 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 259 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

45. Oliva ornata, Marrat (= irisans, var.) Thes. Conch , f. 103 7 

46. Oliva tremulina, Lam. (= irisans, var.). Reeve, Icon., f. 6, b 79 

47. Oliva tremulina, Lam. (^irisans, var.). Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 118. 79 

48. Oliva nobilis, Reeve (= irisans, var. tremulina). Conch. Icon., f. 

3, b 79 

49. Oliva tenebrosa, Marr. (- irisans, var. tremulina). Thes. Conch., 

f. 177 79 

Plate 26. 

50. Oliva fumosa, Marrat (irisans, var. tremulina) Thes. Conch., 

f. 119 79 

51. 52. Oliva Olympiadina, Duclos (- irisans, var. tremulina). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 5, c, e 79 

53. Oliva erythrostoma, Lam. (= irisans, var.). Marr., Thes. Conch., 

f. 105 79 

54. Oliva tremulina, part (~ irisans, var. erythrostoma). Marr., TLes. 

Conch... f. 116 79 

Plate 27. 

55. Oliva azemula, Duclos (= irisans, var. erythrostoma). Monog., 

t. 14, f. 2 79 

56. Oliva mazaris, Duclos (^= irisans, var. erythrostoma). Monog., 

t. 20, f. 8 79 

57. 58. Oliva Sylvia, Duclos (=- irisans, var. erythrostoma). Chenu, 

Conch. 111., t. 14, f. 11, 13 79 

59,60. Oliva textilina, Lam. (irisans, var.). Reeve. Icon., f. 9, a, c.. 79 
61. 62. Oliva Melchersi, Menke ( araneosa, Lam.). Marr., Thes. 

Conch., f. 11,10 81 

Plate 28. 

(53. Oliva oblonga, Marr. (= araneosa). Thes. Conch., f. 14 81 

64. Oliva pindarina, Duclos (---= araneosa). Monog., t. 16, f. 8 81 

65. Oliva subangulata, Phil. (= araneosa). Thes. Conch., f. 3 81 

06. Oliva fuscata, Marr. (= araneosa). Thes. Conch., f. 21 81 

67. Oliva oriola, Duclos (= araneosa). Monog., t. 10, f. 2 81 

68. Oliva harpularia, Lam. (= araneosa). Reeve, Conch. Ic., f. 28, b.. 81 

69. Oliva intertincta, Carp. (-- araneosa). Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 99.. 81 

70. Oliva violacea, Marr. (= araneosa). Thes. Conch., f. 56 81 

71. Oliva venulata, Lam. ( araneosa, var.). Duel., Monog., t. 16, f. 6. 81 

72. Oliva punctata, Marr. ( araneosa, var. venulata). Thes. Conch., 

f. 12 81 

73. Oliva pindarina, Marr. (= araneosa, var. venulata). Thes. Conch., 

f. 34 81 

74. Oliva Julietta), Duclos (= araneosa, var.). Monog., t. 16, f. 4 81 

Plate 29. 

75. 76. Oliva Timorensis, Duclos (= araneosa, var. Juliette). Monog., 

t. 17, f. 12, 13 81 

77. Oliva Cumingii, Reeve ( araneosa, var. Juliettao). Cpnch. Icon., 

f. 192 81 

78. Oliva Maritc, Ducros (- araneosa, var. Juliettae). Reeve, t. 2, 

f. 2t;, .b 81 

79. Oliva obesina, Duclos (= araneosa, var. Juliettae). Monog., t. 16, 

f. 10 , 81 



260 INFERENCE TO PLATES. 



80. Oliva porcea, Marrat (= araneosa, var. Juliettae). Thes. Conch., 

f. 35 81 

81. Oliva graphica, Marr. (= araneosa, var. Juliettse). Thes. Conch., 

f. 36 81 

82. Oliva truncata, Marr. (== araneosa, var.). Thes. Conch., f. 41 81 

83. Oliva polpasta, Duclos (= araneosa, var.). Thes. Conch., f. 43 81 

84. Oliva angulata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Ic., f. 1, a 82 

Plate 30. 

85. Oliva scripts., Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 27 82 

86. Oliva fusiformis, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 11, a 83 

87. Oliva onisca, Duclos (= fusiformis). Chenu, t. 32, f. 8 83 

88. Oliva Aldinia, Duclos (= fusiformis). Chenu, t. 26, f 7... 83 

89. Oliva bullata, Marrat (= fusiformis). Thes. Conch., f. 448 83 

90,91. Oliva reticularis, Lam Thes. Conch., f 47, 53 83 

92. Oliva ustulata, Lam. (= reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 25 83 

93. Oliva tisiphona, Duclos (= reticularis). Cbenu, t. 17, f. 18 83 

94. Oliva memnonia, Duclos (= reticularis). Chenu, t. 17, f. 20 83 

95. Oliva Sowerbyi, Marrat (= reticularis). Thes Conch., f. 114 83 

Plate 31. 

96. Oliva figura, Marrat ( reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 45 83 

97. Oliva Bewleyi, Marrat (= reticularis). The?. Conch., f. 44 83 

98. Oliva Jamaicensis, Marrat (= reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 26 83 

99. Oliva hepatica, Marrat (= reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 27 83 

100. Oliva formosa, Marrat (= reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 29 83 

1. Oliva nivosa, Marrat (- reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 276 83 

2. Oliva olorinella, Duclos (= reticularis). Monog., t. 6, f. 16 83 

3. Oliva brunnea, Marrat ( reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 55 83 

4. Oliva oriola, Duclos ( reticularis). Monog., t. 10, f. 2 83 

5. Oliva litterata, Lam. Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 276 83 

6. Oliva circinnata, Marrat (= litterata). Thes. Conch., f. 277 83 

7. Oliva multiplicata, Reeve (= litterata). Conch. Ic., f. 52, b 83 

8. Oliva Stainforthii, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 40 84 

9. Oliva hieroglyphica, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 68 84 

Plate 32. 

10. Oliva polita, Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 81 84 

11. Oliva marmorea, Mart. (= flammulata, Lam.). Marrat, Thes. 

Conch., f. 71 84 

12. 13. Oliva jaspidea, Duclos (_ Duclosi, Reeve). Marr., Thes. 

, Conch., f. 79, 263 85 

14. Oliva lentiginosa, Reeve (= Duclosi, Reeve). Conch. Ic., f. 45, a. 85 

15. Oliva esodina, Duclos ( Duclosi, Reeve). Chenu, t. 16, f. 20 85 

16. Oliva Natalia, Duclos (= Duclosi, Reeve). Chenu, t. 21, f. 18 85 

17. Oliva Sandwichensis, Pease (= Duclosi, Reeve). Marr., Thes. 

Conch., f. 82 85 

18. Oliva Thomasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., ix, t. 6, f. 4, 1861 85 

!'.. Oliva Australis, Duclos. Monog., t. 8, f. 4 85 

20. Oliva caldania, Duclos (= Australis). Monog., t. 6, f. 4 85 

21. Oliva paxillus, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 56, b 85 

22. Oliva ozodona, Duclos (= paxillus). Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 94.. 85 

23. Oliva nitidula, Duclos. (= paxillus). Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 91.. 85 
24,25. Oliva panniculata, Duclos. Monog., t. 5, f. 17, 18 86 






^ 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 261 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

26. Oliva aniomina, Duclos. Monog , t. 8, f. 2 86 

27. Oliva rufopicta, Weink. ( aniomina). Kiister, t. 23, f. 12 86 

28. Oliva Kaleontina, Duclos. Reeve, Conch. Ic., f. 49 86 

29. Oliva pygmaea, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 75 86 

Plate 33. 

30 Oliva calosoma, Marr. (= Lecoquiana). Thes. Conch 77 

31. Oliva nedulina, Duel. (= undatella). Monog., t. 5, f. 14 70 

32. Oliva Candida, Lam. (: ispidula). Thes. Conch., f. 257 86 

33. Oliva ispidula, pars, Marrat (= Broderipii, Ducr.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 240 86 

34-39. Oliva ispidula, Linn. Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 247, 249, 250, 

251, 253, 254 86 

40. Oliva flaveola, Duclos (-.- ispidula). Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 255... 86 

41. Oliva Candida, Lam. (= ispidula). Thes. Conch., f. 257..., 86 

42. 29, 28. Oliva tigridella, Duclos (= ispidula). Monogr., t. 8, f. 13, 

15, 16 86 

43. Oliva egira, Duclos ( ispidula). Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 5, f. 24... 86 

44. 27. Oliva sidelia, Duclos. Thes. Conch., f. 231, 232 87 

45. Oliva volvaroides, Duclos ( sidelia). Reeve, Icon., f. 59 87 

46. Oliva athenia, Duclos ( sidelia). Monog., t. 26, f. 17 87 

47. Oliva mucronata, Marrat (j= sidelia). Thes. Conch., f. 274 87 

48. Oliva lepida, Duclos (= sidelia). Marr., Thes. Conch , f. 219 87 

49. Oliva todosina, Duclos (= sidelia). Monog , t. 25. f. 10 87 

60. Oliva faba, Marrat (-.= sidelia). Thes. Conch., f. 238 87 

51. Oliva tigrina, Meuschen (= tessellata, Lam.). Thes. Conch., f. 224. 87 

52. Oliva carneola. Gmelin. Reeve, Icon., f. 60, c 87 

Plate 34. 

53. Oliva ponderosa, Duclos (= irisans, Lam.). Thes. Conch., f. 104. 79 

54. Oliva Mauritiana, Mart. ( :.-.- maura, Lam.). Thes. Conch., f. 140... 78 

55. Oliva flammulata, Lam. Duclos, Monog., t. 30, f. 4 84 

56. Oliva mereatoria, Marr. ( fusiformis, Lam.). Thes. Conch., f. 268. 83 

57. Oliva tisiphona, Duel. (= reticularis). Thes. Conch., f. 264 83 

58. Oliva biplicata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 48 87 

59. Oliva Orbignyi, Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 458 88 

60-63. Oliva hiatula, Gmel. Thes. Conch., f. 336-339 88 

64. Oliva pallida, Swains. ( = hiatula). Thes. Conch., f. 343 88 

(>"). Oliva testacea, Lam. ( hiatula). Thes. Conch., f. 334 88 

60. Oliva indusiaca, Reeve (= hiatula). Conch. Icon., f. 43, b 88 

67. Oliva hiatula, Gmel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 5, f. 17 88 

Plate 35. 

68. Oliva Steeriae, Reeve (_ hiatula). Icon., f. 37 88 

69. Oliva Ancillarioides, Reeve (=: hiatula). Weinkauff, Kiister, t. 28, 

f. 11 88 

70. Oliva cincta, Reeve (--.- hiatula). Icon., f. 47, b 88 

71. Oliva acuminata, Lam. Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 319 88 

72-75. Oliva lutaria, Bolt. (= acuminata). Thes. Conch., f. 316-318, 

320 88 

76. Oliva Barthelemyi, Ducr. (= acuminata). Rev. Grit., f. 58, a 88 

77. Oliva modesta, Reeve (- acuminata). Icon., f. 83, a 88 

78. Oliva annotata, Marrat ( acuminata), Thes. Conch , f. 315 88 

79. 80. Oliva cauta, Marrat ( acuminata). Thes. Conch , f. 327, 328. 88 



262 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

81. Oliva Labuanensis, Marrat. Thes. Conch., f. 312 89 

82. Oliva ligneola, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 57 89 

83. Oliva nebulosa, Lam. Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 305 89 

84. Oliva intricata, Marr. (= nebulosa). Thes, Conch., f. 345 89 

Plate 36. 

85-87. Oliva gibbosa, Born. Marrat, Thes. Conch., f. 301, 303, 307... 90 

88. Oliva Braziliana, Lam. Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 13, b 90 

89. Oliva Deshayesiana, Ducros. Rev. Grit., t. 3, f. 67, b 90 

90. Oliva ovata, Marrat (= Deshayesiana). Thes. Conch., f. 282 90 

91. Oliva vesica, Gmel. (== auricularia). Thes. Conch., f. 280 90 

92. Oliva claneophila, Duclos (_ auricularia). Monog., t. 29, f. 8 90 

93. Oliva aquatilis, Reeve ( auricularia). Conch. Icon., f. 38, b 90 

94. Oliva contortuplicata. Reeve ( auricularia). Conch. Icon., f. 51. 90 

96, 100. Oliva micans, Sol. ( nana, Lam.). Marr., Thes. Conch., 

f. 294, 295 90 

97, Oliva zenospira, Duel. (= nana). Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 292 90 

98, 99. Oliva millepunctata, Duclos (= nana). Marr., Thes. Conch., 

f. 299, 300 90 

26. Oliva nitellina, Duel. (= hiatula). Marr., Thes. Conch., f. 347... 88 

Plate 37. 

1. Monoptygma exigua, Sowb. Reeve, Ancillaria, f. 47 91 

2. Ancillaria cinnamomea, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 19, b 93 

3. Ancillaria ventricosa, Lam. (= cinnamomea). Weinkauff, Kuster, 

t. 2, f. 4 93 

4. Ancillaria variegata, Sowb. (= cinnamomea). Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 2, f. 8 98 

5. Ancillaria fulva, Swains. (= cinnamomea). Kiister t. 3, f. 4 9:] 

6. Ancillaria albifasciata, Swains. (= cinnamomea). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 20, b 93 

7. Ancillaria albisulcata, Sowb. (== cinnamomea). Reeve. Conch. 

Icon., f. 22, b 93 

8. Ancillaria achatina, Kiener (= cinnamomea). Iconog., t. 3, f. 4.. 93 

9. Ancillaria striolata, Sowb. ( cinnamomea). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 29 93 

10. Ancillaria castanea, Sowb. (= cinnamomea). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 17, a 93 

11. Ancillaria ovalis, Sowb. (= cinnamomea). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 40 - 03 

12. Ancillaria Deshayesii, A, Ad. (-- cinnamomea). Reeve, Icon., f. 23. 93 

13. Ancillaria crassa, Sowb. (= cinnamomea). Reeve, Conch Icon., 

f. 34 : 93 

14. Ancillaria sarda, Reeve (-. = cinnamomea). Conch. Icon., f. 33, b.. 93 

15. Ancillaria contusa, Reeve ( cinnamomea). Conch. Icon., f. 3, a... 93 

16. Ancillaria eburnea, Desh. (= cinnamomea). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 42 1 93 

17. Ancillaria Tronsoni, Sowb. (= cinnamomea). Reeve, Icon., f. 

30, b , 93 

Ancillaria acuminata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 21, a 93 

T.i. Ancillaria lineolata, A. Ad. ( acuminata). Reeve, Icon., f. 35... 93 

'20. Ancillaria oryza, Reeve ( acuminata). Icon., f. 43 93 

21. Ancillaria marmorata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 32, a 93 

22. Ancillaria fasciata, Reeve ( marmorata). Icon., f. 44, a 93 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 263 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

23. Ancillaria ampla, Gmelin. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 27, a 94 

24. Ancillaria cylindrica, Sowb. ( ampla). Reeve, Icon., f. 40 95 

25. Ancillaria rubiginosa, Swains. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 6, 1) 94 

Plate 38. 

26. Ancillaria mamillata, Hinds ( rubiginqsa), Icon., f. 3, a 94 

27. Ancillaria albocalosa, Lischke (= rubiginosa). Kiister, t. 5, f. 2.. 94 

28. Ancillaria AustralSs, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 7, b 94 

29. Ancillaria pyramidalis, Reeve ( Australis). Icon., f. 11, a 94 

30. Ancillaria tricolor, Gray (= Australis). Reeve, Icon., f. 48 94 

31. Ancillaria mucronata, Sowb. (=z Australis). Reeve, Icon., f. 10, a. 94 

32. 33. Ancillaria obtusa, Swn. ( Australis). Reeve, Couch. Icon., 

f. 6, b. a 94 

34. Ancillaria Montrouzieti, Sowb. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., iv, t. 11, 

f. 3 94 

35. Ancillaria angustata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 45, b 95 

30. Ancillaria Bullioides, Reeve. Icon., f. 37, a... 95 

37. Ancillaria cingulata, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 4, a 95 

38. Ancillaria similis, Sowb. (= cingulata). Kiister, Conch. Cabinet, 95 

t. 8, f.5 V5 

30. Ancillaria Tankervillei, Swn. Reeve, Icon., f. 2, a 95 

Plate 39. 

40. Ancillaria Vernedi, Sowb. (.--= Tankervillei). Reeve, Icon., f. 1, b. 95 

41. Ancillaria Sinensis, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 38, a 95 

42. Ancillaria Nova/elandica, Sowb. (r Sinensis). Reeve, Icon., f. 41. 95 
4.",. Ancillaria ino^nata, E. A. Smith ( = Sinensis). Zool. Proc., t. 20, 

f. 50, 1879 95 

44. Ancillaria marginata, Lain. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 8, b 9G 

4f\ Ancillaria monilifora, Reeve ( marginata). Icon., f. 30, b ( .)0 

46. Ancillaria lineata, Riener ( marginata). Reeve, Icon., f. 25, b.. 96 

47. Ancillaria oblonga, Sowb. ( marginata). Reeve, Icon., f. 24, b... 96 

48. Ancillaria obesa, Sowb. (= marginata). Reeve. Icon., f. 28, b 96 

49. Ancill.-u-ia elongata, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 13, b 96 

50. Ancillaria dimidiata. Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 39, b 96 

51. Ancillaria torosa, Meusch. ( Mauritiana, Sowb.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 14, a 96 

52. Ancillaria scaphella, Sowb. (-- Mauritiana). Reeve, Icon., f. 26, a, 96 
">:>. Ancillaria aperta, Sowb. (= Mauritiana). Reeve, Icon., f. 16, b... 96 

54. Ancillaria glabrata, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 51, b 96 

f>0, 56. Ancillaria Lienardi, Bern. Reeve, Icon., f. 50, b, c 97 

~)7. Ancillaria balteata, Swains. Reeve, Icon., f. 49 97 

Plate 40. 

58. Harpa costata, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., iii. t. 231, f. 5 97 

59, 60. Harpa ventricosa, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 232, f. 20, 22. 98 

61. Harpa ligata, Menke (= conoidalis). Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 232, 

f. 14 98 

62. Harpa articular!?, Lam. ( conoidalis). Sowb., Thes Conch., t. 

231, f. 9 98 

>'-. Harpa nablium, Mart. ( conoidalis). Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 

232, f. 16 98 



264 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

64. Harpa striatula, A. Ad. (= conoidalis). Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 8, 

1853 98 

65. Harpa Rivoliana, Lesson ( crenata, Swains.). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., t. 232, f. 13 98 

66. 67. Harpa rosea, Lam. Sowb., Thes., t. 231, f. 7, 8 99 

Plate 41. 

68. Harpa nobilis, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 231, f. 2 99 

69. Harpa minor, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., i, f. 6, a 99 

70. Harpa crassa, Phil. (= minor). Sowb., Thes., x, t, 233, f. 30 99 

71. Harpa solidula, A. Ad. (= minor). Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 10, 1853. 99 

72. Harpa minor, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrolabe, t. 42, f. 5 99 

73. Harpa gracilis, Brod. and Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 3, a 99 

74. Harpa striata, Lam. Sutor, Jahrbiicher Mai. Gesell., iv, t. 4, f. 3. 99 

75. Harpa cancellata, Chemn. (== striata). Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 

233, f. 26 99 

76. Harpa Cabritii, Fischer (= striata). Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., iv, 

t. 4, f. i : 99 

77. Harpa Cabritii, Fischer (= striata). Sutor, Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., 

iv, t. 4, f. 4 99 

78. Harpa virginalis, Gray ( minor). Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 233, 

f.35 99 

Plate 42. 

2. Amphissa versicolor, Dall. Dentition, Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 

13, f. 2 103 

3. Columbellina ornata, d'Orb. Cretaceous, France 103 

4. Columbellaria corallina, Quenst. U. Jura, Europe 103 

5. Columbella Strombiformis, Lam. Thes. Conch., i, t. 36, f. 2 104 

(j. Columbella major, Sowb. ( Strombiformis). Rve, Icon., xi, f. 7, b. 104 
7, 8. Columbella major, Sowb. (= Strombiformis). Thes. Conch., f. 

4, 6 104 

9. Columbella gibbosa, Duel. (--Strombiformis). Chenu, 111. Conch , 

iv, t, 5, f. 6 104 

10. Columbella Bridges!, Reeve (-^Strombiformis). Icon., f. 40, a 104 

11. Columbella Paytensis, Lesson. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 23, a 104 

12. Columbella Paytensis, Lesson. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 36 104 

1:5. Columbella Paytalida, Duel. (--.- Paytensis). Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 

5, f. 11 104 

14. Columbella rustica, Sowb. (r Paytensis). Genera, olumbella, f. 3. 104 

15. Columbella castanea, Sowb. Thes. Conch , f. 7 105 

16. 17. Columbella fasciata, Sowb. Thes. Conch. , f . 106, 107 105 

18. Columbella Javacensis, Gask. ( fasciata). Reeve, Icon., f. 22, b. 105 

19. Columbella fuscata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 21 , 105 

20. Columbella meleagris, Duel, ( fuscata). Kiener, Icon., t. 3, f. 3.. 105 

21. Columbella nodalina, Duel. ( fuscata). Chenu, t. 3, f. 105 

Plate 43. 

22. Columbella labiosa, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 20, a 106 

23. Colnmbella venilia, Duel, (labiosa). Chenu, t. 17, f. 2 106 

24. Columbella hajmastoma, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 5, a 106 

25. Columbella festiva, Kiener. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 60.... 106 

26. Columbella phasinola, Duclos. Reeve, Icon., f. 70 106 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 265 



27. Columbella lentiginosa, Hinds ( atramentaria, Sowb.). Voy. Sul- 

phur, t. 10, f. 21 : 168 

28. Columbella mercatoria, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 29 106 

29. 30. Columbella mercatoria, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 5, f. 1, 1, b. 106 

31. Columbella rudis, Sowb. (= mercatoria). Thes. Conch., f. 33 106 

32. Columbella Peleei, Kiener (mercatoria). Iconog., t 5, f. 2 106 

33. Columbella zulmis, Duel. (= mercatoria). Chenu, t. 24, f 22 106 

34. 35. Columbella rustica, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 19, 22 107 

36, 37. Columbella rustica, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 211, b, c 107 

38. 1. Columbella rustica, Linn. Kiener, Iconographie, t. 1, f 3, 3, a. 107 

39. Columbella spongiarum, Duel, (^rustica). Chenu, Ill.,t. 3, f. 14. 107 

40. Columbella Azorica, Drouet (rustica). Moll. Scores, t. 1, f. 5... 107 

41. Columbella aureola, Duel. (^ rustica). Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 6, 

f. 18 : 107 

42. Columbella tumida, Reeve (-rustica). Conch. Icon., f. 63, a 107 

43. 44. Columbella striata, Duclos (= rustica). Chenu, 111., t. 6, f. 6, 8. 107 

45. .Columbella cornea, Kiener (rustica). Iconog., t. 4, f. 5 107 

46. Columbella luteola, Kiener (rustica). Iconog., t. 4, f. 2 107 

47. Columbella fu?tigata, Kiener (rustica). Iconog., t. 5, f. 3 107 

48. Columbella modesta, Kiener (= rustica). Coq. Viv., t. 11, f. 2 107 

49. Columbella ambigua, Kiener (= rustica). Coq. Viv., t. 2, f. 3 107 

Plate 44. 

50. Columbella vestalia, Duel, (rustica). Chenu, 111., t. 15, f. 16... 107 

51. Columbella simpronia, Duel. (= rustica). Chenu, 111., t. 15, f. 20. 107 

52. Columbella nucleus, Kiener. ( rustica). Iconog., t. 3, f. 4 107 

53. Columbella rasolia, Duel, (rufctica). Kiener, Iconog., t. 13, f. 1. 107 

54. Columbella reticulata, Lam (= rustica). Reeve, Icon., f. 41, b... 107 

55. Columbella xiphitella. Duel. (= rustica). Chenu, t. 9, f. 14 107 

56. Columbella xiphitella, Duel, (rustica). Reeve, Icon., f. 44, b... 107 

57. Columbella Dysoni, -Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 92 107 

68. Columbella anacteola, Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 5, f. 10 108 

59. Columbella pardalina, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 90 108 

60. Columbella pardalina, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 75, b 108 

61. Columbella vulpecula, Sowb. (= pardalina). Reeve, Icon., f. 80, a. 108 
62,63. Columbella quintilia, Duel, (pardalina). Chenu, t, 19, f. 

13, 14 108 

61. Columbella fabula, Sowb. (pardalina). Thes. Conch., f. 87 108 

65. Columbella Japonica, Reeve (= pardalina). Icon., f. 45, a 108 

66. Columbella /opilla, Duel. (--- pardalina). Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 19, 

f. 12 108 

67,68. Columbella Tyleri, Gray (pardalina, var.). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 88, 89... 108 

69. Columbella sagena, Reeve (= pardalina, var. Tyleri). Icon., f. 162. 108 

70. Columbella obscura, Sowb. (r pardalina, var. Tyleri). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 35, a 108 

71. Columbella palmerina, Duel. (- pardalina, var. Tyleri). Chenu, 

III., t. 10, f. 16 108 

72. Columbella lactescens, Souverb. (pardalina, var. Tyleri). Jour, 

de Conch., 3 ser., vi, t. 6, f. 5 108 

73. Columbella fabula, Sowb., var. (_-.-_ pardalina, var. Tyleri). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 167 108 

74. Columbella padonosta, Duel. (= pardalina, var. Tyleri). Chenu, 

t. 6, f. 4 108 

34 



266 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 45. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

75. Columbella anitis, Duel. ( :-. pardalina, var. Tyleri). Chenu, t. 16, 

f. 16 108 

76. Columbella fulgurans, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 50, a 100 

77. Columbella punctata, Lam. (= fulgurans, var.), Reeve, Icon., f. 

50, c 100 

78. Columbella pelotina, Duel. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 2, f. 6 10* 

70. Columbella virginea, Duel. (? = C. pelotina). Chenu, t. 2, f. 16... 100 

80. Columbella turturina, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Ic., f. 83 100 

81. Columbella turturina, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 38 109 

82. Columbella Deshayesii, Crosse ( turturina). Jour, de Conch., 2d 

ser., iii, t. 14, f. 4 100 

83. Columbella sulcata, Duclos. Chenu, III. Conch., t. 1, f. 14 100 

84. 85. Columbella versicolor, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 41, 45 110 

86. Columbella versicolor, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 51, b 110 

87. Columbella bidentata, Menke (= versicolor). Sowb., Thes., f. 53... 110 

88. Columbella araneosa, Kiener ( versicolor). Icon., t. 0, f. 4 110 

80. Columbella coronata, Duclos ( versicoljr). Chenu, t. 8, f. 18... 110 

90, 01. Columbella atladona, Duel, (^versicolor). Chenu, 1. 1, f. 11, 12. 110 

02, 03. Columbella tigrina, Duclos (= versicolor). Chenu, t. 1, f. 8, 0. 110 

04. Columbella aspersa, Sowb. (~ versicolor). Reeve, Icon., f. 21, b.. 110 

95. Columbella nivosa, Reeve (. versicolor). Conch. Icon., f. 166, b.. 110 

96. Columbella pertusa, Reeve (= versicolor). Icon., f. 161, b 110 

97. 08. Columbella varians, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 48, 40 110 

99. Columbella varians, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 91, b 110 

100, 1. Columbella poecila, Sowb. ( varians). Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 67, a, b : 110 

2 Columbella spectrum, Reeve (= varians). Icon., f. 194 110 

Plate 46. 

3. Columbella nana, Mich. (_ varians). Kiener, Icon., t. 14, f. 4 110 

5. Columbella daliola, Duclos (== varians). Chenu, 111., t. 8, f. 8 110 

6. Columbella lysiska, Duclos (==.- varians). Chenu, 111., t. 7, f. 18 110 

7. Columbella idulia, Duclos. Chenu, 111., t. 10, f. 4 Ill 

8. Columbella Souverbiei, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 9, 1865... Ill 

9. Columbella scalpta, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 235, b .. Ill 

10. Columbella Boivini, Kiener. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 100 112 

11. Columbella Sowerbyi, Duclos (= Boivini). Chenu, 111., t. 10, f. >.. 112 

12. Columbella decussata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 133 ? 112 

13. Columbella chlorostoma, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 210 112 

14. Columbella mitrata, Menke. Reeve, Icon,, f. 84, a 112 

15. Columbella Duclosiana, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 76, a 112 

16. 17. Columbella laevigata, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 53, b, c... 113 

18. Columbella alaperdicis, Reeve (= laavigata). Conch. Ic., f. 145 113 

19. Columbella concinna, Sowb. ( Icevigata). Genera, Columbella, f. 8. 113 

20. Columbella faleonta, Duclos (r= Isevigata?). Chenu, 111., t. 1. f. 6. 113 

21. Columbella helvia, Duclos (= Itcvigata ?). Chenu, 111., t. 1, f. 20.. 113 

22. Columbella livescens, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 148 113 

23. Columbella nitida, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 167 113 

24. 25. Columbella Broderipii, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 178, 170 114 

26. Columbella strigata, Reeve (= Broderipii). Icon., f. 154, b 114 

27. Columbella floccata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 160 114 

28. Columbella Kraussi, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 180 114 

29. Columbella cerealis, Menke (= Kraussi). Reeve, Icon., f. 118 114 

30. Columbella leucostoma, Qaskoin. Reeve, Conch. Ic., f. 220, b 114 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 267 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

31. Columbella baccata, Gaskoin. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 133 114 

32. Columbella dicbroa, Sowb Reeve, Icon., f. 136 ....... 414 

33. Columbella Schrammi, Petit (:= Kraussi). Jour, de Conch., iv, t. 

12, f. 3 114 

34. Columbella pusilla, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 182 115 

Plate 47. 

35. Columbella carinata, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t, 10, f. 16 116 

36. Columbella carinata, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 121 116 

37. Columbella gausapata, Gould ( carinata). Wilkes' Expl. Exped., 116 

f. 337 116 

38. Columbella Hindsii, Gask. ( carinata). Reeve, Icon., f. 143, b.. 116 

39. Columbella collaris, Reeve (= carinata). Reeve, Icon., f. 164 116 

40. Columbella unifasciata, Sowerby. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 107 116 

41. Columbella unicolor, Sowerby ( unifasciata). Reeve, f. 105 116 

42. Columbella sordida, Orb. (=uuifasciata). Voy. Amer., t. 77, f. 2. 116 

43. Columbella castanea, Gould (= unifasciata). Wilkes' Expl. Exped., 

f. 339, a 116 

44. Columbella electroides, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 72 117 

45. Columbella infumata, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 1, f. 3, 1863 117 

46. Columbella idalina, Duclos. Monog., t. 9, f. 6 117 

47. Columbella gutturosa, Duclos (= idalina). Chenu, 111., t. 9, f. 10.. 117 

48. Columbella moleculina, Duclos. Chenu, 111., t. 9, f. 2 117 

49. Columbella denticulata, Duel. (= moleculina). Chenu, 111., t. 9, f. 4. 117 

50. Columbella Santa-Barbarensis, Carp. (= Reevei, Carp.). Reeve, 

Ic., f. 122 118 

51. Columbella ionida, Duclos. Monog., t. 7, f. 6 118 

52. Columbella irrorata, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 153 118 

53. Columbella acicula, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 46, b 118 

54. Columbella vexillum, Reeve (= acicula). Conch. Icon., f. 57, a... 118 

55. Columbella ligula, Duclos. Monog., t. 11, f. 12-16 119 

56. Columbella Indica, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 66 119 

57. Columbella impolita, Sowerby. Thes. Conch., f. 127 119 

58. Columbella impolita, Sowerby. Reeve, Conch. Ic., f. 159 119 

59. Columbella vittata, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 192 119 

60. Columbella intexta, Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 88, a 120 

61. Columbella fusillus, Reeve (= intexta, Gask.). Icon., f. 231, b 120 

62. Columbella crepusculum, Reeve ( intexta, Gask.). Icon., f. 231, a. 120 

63. Columbella achatina, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 126 120 

64. Columbella achatina, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 54, a 120 

Plate 48. 

65. Columbella Lincolnensis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 184, a, b 120 

GO. Columbella Menkeana, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 69 120 

67. Columbella bella, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 172.. 121 

68. Columbella blanda, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f- 103, a 121 

69. Columbella adiostina, Duel. (= blanda). Monogr., t. 11, f. 10 121 

70. Columbella albina, Kiener. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 97, b 121 

71. Columbella albina, Kiener. Kiener, Iconog,, t. 13, f. 4 121 

72. Columbella margarita, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 168 121 

73. Columbella cribraria, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 112 122 

74. Columbella cribraria, Lam. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 30, f. 21 122 

75. Columbella cribraria, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 62 122 

77. Columbella parvulum, Dunker (-_-- cribraria). Pbilippi, Abbild., 

iii, Bucc., t. 2, f. 7 122 



208 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



7S. Columbella delicata, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 171 122 

7'J. Columbella velata, Reeve. Icon., f. 182 123 

80. Columbella oblita, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 202 123 

81. Columbella flexuosa, Lam. Kiener, Iconog. Bucc., t. 26, f. 106.... 124 

82. Columbella flexuosa, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 97 124 

84. Columbella emarginata, Reeve. Icon., f. 190 124 

H5. Columbella micans, Pease. Specimen 124 

86. Columbella Brookei, Reeve. Icon., f. 169, a 125 

87. Columbella semiconvexa, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 103.... 125 

88. Columbella semiconvexa, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 95, b 125 

89. Columbella rosacea, Reeve ( semiconvexa). Icon., f. 183 125 

90. Columbella saccharata, Re^ve ( semiconvexa). Conch. Icon., 

f. 187 125 

91. Columbella lutea, Quoy (? = semiconvexa). Voy. Astrol., t. 40, f. 23. 125 

92. Columbella polita, Reeve (? = semiconvexa). Icon., f. 221 125 

93. Columbell i miltostoma, T. -Woods (= semiconvexa). Specimen.... 125 

94. Columbella picta, Reeve. Conch, icon , f. 146, b 125 

95. Columbella Ticaonis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 132 125 

96. Columbella dictua, Tenison-Woods. Specimen 125 

Plate 49. 

97. 98. Columbella Australis, Gask. Reeve, Icon., f. 78, b ; 188, b,.... 126 
99. Columbella Austrina, Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 100 126 

100. Columbella annulata, Reeve. Icon., f. 101 126 

1. Columbella Buccinoides, Lam. Specimen 127 

2. Columbella avena, ileeve. Conch. Icon., f. 158, b 127 

3. Columbella tenuis, Gask. Reeve, Icon., f. 224...; 127 

4. Columbella pulla, Gask. Reeve, Icon., f. 106. 127 

5. Columbella nux, Reeve (== pulla). Conch., Icon., f. 227 127 

6. Columbella badia, Tenison-Woods (= pulla). Specimen 127 

7. Columbella Roblini, Tenison-Woods. Specimen 127 

8. Columbella Russelli, Brazier. Zool. Proc , t. 83, f. 18, 1874 128 

9. Columbella tenebrica, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 204 128 

10. Columbella Tenisoni, Tryon (-- minuta, Tenison-Woods). Specimen. 128 

11. Columbella interrupta, Angas (= Angasi, Brazier). Zool. Proc., 

t, 2, f. 10, 1865 128 

12. Columbella zebra, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 79. 129 

. 13. Culumbella Pacifica, Gask. (= zebra). Reeve, Icon., f 74 129 

14. Columbella miser, Sowb. ( = zebra). Reeve, Icon., f. 68 129 

15. Columbella varians, Dunker (== Dunkeri, Tryon). Zool. Proc., t. 20, 

f. 44, 1879 129 

16. Columbella Hanleyi, Desh. He Reunion, t. 40, f. 8 129 

17. Columbella Burchardi, Dunker. Index Moll. Japon., t. 4, f. 3 129 

18. 19. Columbella corniculata, Lam. (= scripta). Reeve, Icon., f. 94, 

a, b l;JO 

20. Columbella Gervillei, Payr. ( scripta). Kiener, Buccinum, t. 13, 

f.43 130 

21. Columbella Crosseana, Recluz ( scripta). Jour, de Conch., ii, 

t. 7, f. 5 . 130 

22. Columbella Marten?!, Lischke. Jap. Meeres Conch., ii, t. 5, f. 1, 

2, 4, 6 130 

23. Columbella lunata, Say. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 181, b 130 

24. Columbella dissimilis, Stimp. (= zonalis, LinsL). Gould, Invert. 

Mass., f. 628 .. 130 

25. Columbella dermestoides, Kiener. Iconog. Buccinum, t. 25, f. 100.. 131 






REFERENCE TO PLATES. 269 

Plate 50. 

5TOURE. PAGE. 

26. Colutnbella Duclosiana, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 21, f. 32 .....~m 

27, 28. Columbella avara, Duclos. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 1, f. 1, 2 133 

29. Columbella turbida, Duclos. Cbenu, Illust., t. 2, f. 2 133 

30. Columbella uvania, Duclos. Chenu, Illust,, t, 10, f. 6 133 

31. Cotumbella angelia, Duclos. Chenu, Illust., t. 14, f. 20 134 

32. Columbella orphia, Duclos. Chenu, Illust., t. 15, f. 2 134 

33. Columbella ilaira, Duclos (-_ orphia). Chenu, t. 15, f. 12 134 

34. Columbella psilla, Duclos. Chenu, lilustr., t. 15, f. 6 134 

35. 30. Columbella philodicia, Duel. (--= psilla, var.). Chenu, Illust., 

t. 15, f. 17, 18 134 

37. Columbella philia, Duel. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 16, f. 4 134 

38. Columbella japix, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 22, f. 14 135 

39. Columbella aurantiaca, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 15, f. 13... 135 

40. Columbella tuberosa, Carp. Specimen 135 

41. Columbella variegata, Stearns. (.~ tuberosa, var.). Specimen 135 

42. Columbella chrysalloidea, Carp. Specimen....* 135 

43. Columbella lactea, Kiener ( = Babbi, Tryon). Reeve, Icon., f. 120. 135 

44. 45. Columbella Marquesana, Gask. Reeve, Icon., f. 217, a, b 136 

40. Columbella tceniata, Ads. and Reeve (= Marquesana). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 140 136 

47. Columbella sublgevis, Montr. ( ^ Marquesana). Jour, de Conch., 

3 ser., iv, t, 10, f. 4 136 

48. Columbella Azora, Duel. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 12, f. 4 136 



Plate 51. 

14. Columbella alabastrum, Reeve. Martens, Mobius' Mauritius, t. 20, 

f. 13 146 

49. Columbella Legrandi, Tenison- Woods. Specimen 137 

5'\ Columbella Xavieriana, Tenison- Woods. Specimen 137 

51. Columbella choava, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 239 b 137 

52. Columbella pellucida, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 199 138 

f 1 ?. Columbella lineoiata, Pease. Specimen 138 

54. Columbella formosa, Gaskoin. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 216 140 

55. Columbella nubeculata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 234 140 

56. 57. Columbella binammata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 220, a, b 140 

58. Columbella Yorkensis, Crosse. Jour, de Conch , t 2, f. 6, 1865... 140 

59. Columbella Isabellina, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., vi, t. 7, f. 8. 141 

60. 61. Columbella Tayloriaua, Reeve. Conch. Icon , f. 225, a, b 141 

62. Columbella albomaculata, Angas ( Tayloriana). Zool. Proc., t. 

13, f. 5, 1867 141 

63. Columbella albuginosa, Keeve. Conch. Icon., f. 223, b..... 141 

64. Columbella interrupts, Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 228 141 

65. Columbella abyssicola, Brazier. Specimen 141 

60. Columbella ciucinnata, Martens. Mobius, Mauritius, t. 20, f. 14.. 142 

67. Columbella asopis, Duel. Chenu, Illust, t, 14, f. 18 142 

68. Columbella minor, Scacchi. Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 27, f. 12 1 42 

69. Columbella nympha, Kiener. leonog., t. 10, f. 4 142 

70. Columbella articulata, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., iv, t. 10, 

f. 5 ". 143 

71. Columbella Mindoroens s. Gask. Reeve, Icon., f. 193, a 143 

72. Columbella Dorirc, Issel (= Mindoroensis). Cat. Moll. Miss. Ital. 

m Persia, t, 1, f. 3 143 



210 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

Plate 52. 

FIGURE PAGE. 

73. Columbella baculus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 157 148 

74. Columbella pungens, Gld. Specimen 143 

75. Columbella plutonida, Duclos, Chenu, Illust., t. 16, f. 2 144 

76. Columbella Pretrii, Duclos. Chenu, Illust., t. 16, f. 8 144 

77. Columbella conspersa, Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 99 145 

78. Columbella iodostoma, Gask. (= conspersa). Reeve, f. 218, a 145 

79. Columbella puella, Sowb. ( conspersa). Reeve, Conch., f. 65 145 

80. Columbella puella, Sowb. Specimen 145 

81. Columbella contaminata, Gask. (= conspersa). Reeve, Icon., f. 102. 145 

82. Columbella Hotessieri, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t 21, f. 38 144 

83. Columbella sagitta. Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 180 145 

84. Columbella galaxias, Reeve (= sagitta). Conch. Icon., f. 229, b.. 146 

85. Columbella Carolina, E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, t. 30, f. 9. 146 

86. Columbella sugillata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 189 145 

87. Columbella alabastrum, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 232, b 146 

*8. Columbella fusiformis, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 21, f. 26 147 

89. Columbella rorida, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 176 147 

90. Columbella Lischkei, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 41, 1879... 147 

91. Columbella niveomarginala, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 42, 

1879 146 

92. Columbella solidula, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 149 147 

93. Columbella solidula, Reeve. Specimen 147 

94. Columbella hirundo, Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 219, a 147 

95. Columbella plurisulcata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 233 148 

96. Columbella subulata, Duclos. Monogr., t. 9, f. 16 148 

Plate 53. 

97. Columbella arata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 185 148 

98. Columbella ocellata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 237 148 

99. Columbella pelagia, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 238 148 

100. Columbella monilifera, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 177 149 

1. Columbella Mangelioides, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 197 149 

2. Columbella fulgida, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 178 149 

3. Columbella lactea, Duclos. Chenu, Illust , t. 1, f. 4 149 

4. Columbella lactea, Duclos. Kiener, Iconog., t. 15, f. 4 149 

">, 6. Columbella Essingtonensis, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 174, a, b... 149 

7. Columbella eximia, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 222 150 

8. Columbella bicincta, Angas (.- : eximia). Zool.' Proc., t. 1, f. 3, 

1871 150 

9. 10. Columbella sertulariarum, Orb. Voy. Amer., t. 61, f. 14, 16... 150 

11. Columbella elata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 155 150 

12. Columbella Cumingii, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 156 151 

33. Columbella lumbricus, Reeve (= Cumingii). Conch. Ic., f 186, a.. 151 

14. Columbella spicula, Duclos (== Cumingii). Chenu, 111., t. 16, f. 10. 151 

15. Columbella clausilia, Duclos ( -.- Cumingii). Chenu, t. 16, f. 12 151 

16. Columbella acus, Reeve ( : Cumingii, var.). Icon., f. 201 151 

17. Columbella filosa, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 13, f. 6, 1867 151 

18. Columbella attenuata, Angas. Zool. Proc.. t. 1, f. 4, 1871 151 

19. 20. Columbella nycteis, Duclos. Chenu, 111., t. 17, f. 6, 8 151 

21. Columbella Belizana, Duclos (= nycteis). Chenu, 111., t. 22, f. 10. 151 

Plate 54. 

22. Columbella spiratella, Martens. Mobius, Mauritius, t. 20, f. 12... 152 
28, 24. Columbella rugosa, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 32, a, b 152 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 211 



25. Columbella bicolor, Kiener ( -.-_- rugosa). Icon., t. 16, f. 4 f ~. J_5il_ 

26, 27. Columbella sinuata, Sowb. (. rugosa). /ool. Pro., t. 72, f. 3, 

3, a, 1874 152 

28. Columbella costellata, Sowb. Thes Conch., f. 147 153 

20. Columbella valid*, Reeve (== costellata). Icon., f. 151, b 1">:-J 

30. Columbella varicosa, Gask. (= costellata). Reeve, Ic., f. 31, b 153 

31. Columbella macrostoma, Anton (= costellata). Reeve, Ic., f. 49, b. 153 

32. Columbella fluotuata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 38, a 153 

33. Columbella fluctuosa, Duclos (= fluctuate). Chenu, III., t. 13, f. 11.. 153 

34. Columbella suturalis, Gray (:-- fluctuate). Griffith's Cuvier. Front- 

ispiece, f. 6 153 

35. Columbella costata, Duclos (= fluctuata). Chenu, 111., t, 12, f. 2.. 153 

36. 37. Columbella coronata, Sowb Reeve, Ic., f. 29, a, b 153 

38. Columbella varia, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Ic., f 14. b 154 

39. Columbella scalarina, Sowb. (= varia). Reeve, Ic., f. 11, b 154 

40. Columbella veleda, Duel. (= varia). Chenu, 111., t. 7, f. 20 154 

41. Columbella ophonia, Duel. (= varia). Chenu, 111., t. 16, f. 6 154 

42. Columbella lyrata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 149 154 

43. Columbella fulva, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Ic., f. 55, b 154 

44. Columbella Terpsichore, Sowb. Thes Conch., f. 99 154 

45. Columbella lineolata, Kiener ( i Terpsichore). Icon., t. 13, f. 3... 155 

46. Columbella Californica. Reeve ( : Terpsichore). Icon., f. 165 155 

47. Columbella Adelinic, Tryon. Specimen 155 

48. Columbella Yoldina, Duclos. Checu, 111., t, 8, f. 10 153 



Plate 55. 

49, 50. Columbella suffusa, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 89, 170, 1878 155 

51. Columbella tuberculata, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 173 156 

52. Columbella rugulosa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 131 156 

53. Columbella rugulosa, Sowb. Reeve, Ic., f. 71 156 

54. Columbella cavea, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 203 156 

55. Columbella multivoluta. Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 163 166 

56. Columbella fenestrata, Rve. (-- Adamsi, Tryon). Conch. Ic., f. 175. 156 

57. 58. Columbella strenella, Duclos: Chenu, 111., t. 8, f. 2, 3 157 

59. Columbella porcata. Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 195, b 157 

60. Columbella jaspidea, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Ic.. f. 90 157 

61. Columbella Va'lga, Gould. Wilkes' Exped., f. 338, b 158 

62. Columbella filamentosa. Dunker. Specimen 157 

63. Columbella pulchella, Kiener. Ic Buccinum, t. 18, f. 68 157 

64. 65. Columbella pulchella, Sowb. ( elegantula, Morch). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 86, 87, a 158 

66. Columbella acuta, Stearns. Specimen 158 

67. Columbella avara, Say. Reeve, Icon., f. 73 159 

68. Columbella Lafresnayi (-.- avara). Fischer and Bern , Jour, de 

Conch., 2 ser., i. t, 12, f. 4 159 

69. Columbella similis, Rav. (= avar;i). Am. Mar. Conch., t. 8, f. 64.. 159 

70. Columbella semiplicata, Stearns (= avara). Proc. Phila. Acad., 

1873, f. 1 159 

71. Columbella semiplicata, Stearns (-- avara). Specimen 159 

72. 73. Columbella phylina, Duclos. Chenu, 111., t. 15, f. 9, 10 159 

74. Columbella cleta. Duel. Chenu, 111., t. 15, f. 14 160 

75. Columbella menaletta, Duel. Chenu, 111 , t. 15, f. 4 160 



272 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



Plate 56. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

76. Columbella plicaria, Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., ii, t. 9, f. 8... 160 

77. Columbella costulata, Cantr. (C. Haliaeeti). Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., 

v, t. 88, f. 3 .................. . .................................................. 160 

78. Columbella rosacea, Gould. Invert. Mass., f. 627 ....................... 160 

70. Columbella costulata, Cantraine. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 16, f. 1 ...... 160 

80. Columbella teophauia, Duel. Chenu, 111., t. 20, f. 2 .................... 164 

81. Columbella Bucholzi, von Martens. Conch. Mittheil., t. 23, f. 8... 16t 

82. Columbella diaphana, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 58, f. 2.. 160 

83. Columbella sagra, d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, t. 21, f. 29 ..................... 164 

84. Columbella Kieneria, Duclos (1 = sagra). Chenu, 111., t. 25, f. 20.. 164 



Columbella electona, Duel. Chenu, 111., t. 9, f. 12 ..................... 164 

Columbella encaustica, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 56, b ..................... 164 

Columbella St. Pairaina, Caillet. Jour, de Coneh., 3 ser., iv, t. 11, 



f. 4 



85. 
86. 

87. 

88. 
89. 

90. Columbella crassilabris, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 177, b ............... 166 

91, 92. Columbella pygmasa, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon , f. 128, 129.. 166 



165 
Columbella lachryma, Gask. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 125 ............ 165 

Columbella troglodytes, Souv. Jour, de Conch , 3 ser., vi, t. 6, f. 4. 165 



93. 
94. 
95. 

96. 
97. 
98. 
99. 



Columbella atomella, Duclos. Monog., t, 11, f. 6 ........................ 

Columbella gracilis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch , iv, t. 11, f. 20 ...... 

Columbella ornata, Pease (-= Garretti, Tryon). Am. Jour. Conch., 
iv, t. 11, f. 19 ................................................................... 

Columbella venusta, Reeve (= taeniata, Phil.). Icon., f. 130 ......... 

Columbella kirostra, Duclos. Cheun, Illust., t. 11, f. 2 ............... 

Columbella atramentaria, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 124 .................. 



100. Columbella Digglesi, Brazier. Zool. Proc., t. 83, f. 18, 1874 ......... 170 



Plate 57. 

1. Columbella pariolida, Duclos ( atramentaria). Chenu, Illust., 

t. 6, f. 2 168 

2. Columbella nigricans, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 172 168 

3. Columbella parva, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 113 168 

4. Columbella parva, Reeve Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 170 168 

5. Columbella pamila, Duel. ( parva). Chenu, Illust., t. 22, f. 12... 168 

6. Columbella spadicea, Phil. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 123 168 

7. Columbella obesa, C. B. Ad. Specimen 169 

8. Columbella cancellata, Gask. (obesa). Reeve, Icon., f. 126 169 

9. Columbella dicipiens, Ads. (-- obesa). Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 111. 169 

10. Columbella atomella, Reeve ( .-.-. atrata). Conch. Icon., f. 108 169 

11. Columbella menalida, Duel. ( atrata). Chenu, Illust., t. 19, f. 8. 169 

12. Columbella pumila, Souv. (= atrata). Jour, de Couch , t. 12, f. 4, 

1863 169 

13. Columbella levania, Duel. (? = atrata). Chenu, Illust., t. 22, f. 8. 169 
14-17. Columbella ida, Duel. (i- atrata). Chenu, Illust., t. 14, f. 2, 8, 

10, 12 169 

18. Columbella nisitella, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 7, f. 10 170 

19. Columbella ostreicola, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 10, 1882... 109 

20. Columbella obesa, C. B. Ad. Specimen 169 

21. Columbella Gowllandi, Brazier, /ool. Proc., t. 83, f. 15, 1874 170 

22. Columbella lentiginosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 240 170 

23. Columbella Smithii, Angas (== lentiginosa). Zool. Proc., t, 26, f. 

7, 1877 171 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 2Y3 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

24. Columbella speciosa, Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 3, 1877 .-174 

25. Columbella balteata, Nevill (= Nevilli, Tryon). Jour. Asiatic Soc., 

t. 8, f. 4, 1875 173 

26. Columbella isomella, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 9, f. 8 173 

27. Columbella linigera, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 17, f. 14 174 

28. Columbella oxyllia, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 17, f. 10 174 



Plate 58. 

29. Columbella cledonida, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 17, f. 18 174 

30. Columbella rumilia, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 17, f. 16 174 

31. Columbella acleonta, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 11, f. 4 174 

32. Columbella prosymnia, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 26, f. 8 174 

33. Columbella anaidea, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t, 26, f. 4 174 

34. Columbella ortigia, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 22, f. 2 175 

35. Columbella neptunia, Duel. Chenu, Illust,, t. 26, f. 20 175 

36. Columbella ortonia, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 26, f. 14 175 

37. Columbella segesta, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t, 26, f. 6 175 

38. Columbella testina, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 7, f. 12 , 175 

39. Columbella striatula, Dunker. (Specimen 176 

40. Columbella sulcosa, teowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 132 176 

41. Columbella moesta, Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 131 176 

42. Columbella Guatemalensis, Reeve. Icon., f. 198, b 177 

43. Columbella tessellata, C. B. Ad. ( Guatemalensis) Reeve, Icon., 

f 134 177 

44. Columbella diminuta, C. B. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 115 177 

45. Columbella pulchrior, C. B. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 116 177 

46. Columbella penicillata, Carp. Specimen 177 

47. Columbella subturrita, Carp. Specimen 178 

48. Columbella filosa, Stearns (= Stearnsi, Tryon). Proc. Philad. 

Acad., f. 3, 1873 179 

49. 50. Columbella Guildingii, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 175, 176 179 

51. Columbella catenata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 119, b 179 

52. Columbella mitrula, Dunker (= catenata). Phil., Abbild. iii, 

Bucc., t. 2, f. 9 180 

53. Columbella Antillarum. Reeve (= catenata). Icon., f. 196 180 

54. Columbella scutulata, Reeve (=catena'a). Conch. Icon., f. 191, b. 180 

55. Columbella sparsa, Reeve (catenata). Icon., f. 200, a 180 

56. Columbella fusiformis, Pease (= Paumotensis, Tryon). Am. Jour. 

Conch., iii, t. 15, f. 2 180 



Plate 59. 

57. Columbella ovulata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 209, b 181 

58. Columbella ovuloides, C. B. Ad. (= ovulata). Reeve, Icon. Meta, 

t. 1, f. 2, a 181 

69, 60. Columbella obtusa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 63; Conch. Icon., 

f. 85, b 181 

61. Columbella marmorata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 72 181 

62. Columbella marmorata, Gray. Beechey's Voy., t. 36, f. 11 181 

63. Columbella dormitor, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 173 181 

64. Columbella egeria, Duel. Chenu, Illust.. t. 4, f. 20 181 

65. Columbella tringa, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 24, b 181 

66 Columbella undata, Duclos (= tringa). Chenu, Illust., t. 4, f. 4... 181 

35 



274 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

67, 68. Columbella flava, Brug. Reeve, Icon., f. 27, a, b 182 

69. Columbella punctata, fcowb. (== flava). Genera of Shells, f. 5 182 

70. Columbella lugubris, Kiener (== flava). Kiener, Iconopr., t. 8, f. 2. 182 
71; Columbella funiculata, Souverb. (== flava). Jour, de Conch., t. 5, 

f. 8, 1865 182 

72. Columbella rubicundula, Quoy (= flava). Voy. Astrol., t 40, f '26. 182 

73. Columbella discors, Gmel. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 208, a 182 

74. Columbella semipunctata, Lam. (= discors). Kiener, Iconog., t. 8, 

f. 1 182 

75. 76. Columbella splendidula, Sovyb. (= discors). Reeve, Icon., f. 25, 

a, b 182 

77. Columbella zelina, Duclos (= discors). Chenu, Illust., t. 4, f. 6... 182 

78. Columbella eustoma, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool., i, t. 5, f. 3 182 

79. Columbella Philippinarum, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 207, b.. 183 

80. 81. Columbella epamella, Duclos (= Philippinarum). Chenu, Illust., 

t. 5, f. 2, 20 183 

82. Columbella coniformis, Sowb. (= Philippinarum, var.). Reeve, 

Icon. Meta, f. 4, b 183 



Plate 60. 

83. Columbella cedo-nulli, Reeve (= Philippinarum, var.). Icon. Meta, 

f. 3, b 183 

84. Columbella Dupontioe, Kiener ( Philippinarum, var.). Reeve, 

Meta, f. 8, c 183 

85. Columbella macrostoma, Anton (= Philippinarum, var.). Reeve, 

Meta, f. 1 183 

86. Columbella dubia, Sowb. ( Philippinarum, var.). Reeve, Meta, f. 5. 183 

87. Columbella dubia, Sowb. (= Philippinarum, var.) Thes. Conch., 

f. 75 183 

88. Columbella bicanalifera, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 64, b 183 

89. Columbella clavulus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon. Pleurotoma, vol. i, f. 106.. 184 

90. Columbella gibberula, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 61, b 184 

91. Columbella dorsata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 15, a 185 

92. Columbella pavoniua, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 26, b 185 

93. Columbella Haneti, Petit (=pavonina). Jour, de Conch., i, t. 3, f. 4. 185 

94. Columbella nivea, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 82 185 

95. Columbella Bourjotiana, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 2ser., iii, t. 14, 

f.6 185 

96. Columbella pulcherrima, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 10, a 185 

97. Columbella maculosa, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f 19, b 186 

98. Columbella elegans, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 4, b 186 

99. Columbella turrita, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 2, b 186 

100. Columbella turrita, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 138 186 

1. Columbella angularis, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 1, a 186 

2. Columbella subulata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 212, b .' 186 

3. . Columbella recurva, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 18, a 187 

4. Columbella lanceolata, Sowb. (= recurva). Reeve, Icon., f. 3, a, c.. 187 
6. Columbella pumilio, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 147 187 



Plate 61. 

7. Columbella fusiformis, Hinds ( recurva). Reeve, Icon., f. 17, a.. 187 

8. Columbella Terquemi, Jouss, Bull. Soc. Zool., i, t. 5, f. 1 187 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 275 



9. Alcira elegans, H.Adams. Specimen... .............................. ... 1S8 

10. Engina nodulosa, Pease. Specimen ......................................... 189 

11. Engina carbonaria, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Ricinula, f. 22 ............ 189 

12. Engina forticostata, Reeve (~- carbonaria). Reeve, Ricinula, f. 29 189 

13. Engina crocostoma, Reeve (= carbonaria). Icon. Ricinula, f. 40.. 189 

14. Engina astricta, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Ricinula, f. 30 ................. 189 

15. Engina leucozia, Duclos (= astricta). Chenu, 111., t. 22, f. 6 ........ 189 

16. 17. Engina alveolata, Kiener. Icon. Purpura, t. 9, f. 23 .............. 189 

18. Engina lauta. Reeve (== alveolata). Icon. Ricinula, f. 24 ............ 189 

19. Engina histrio, Reeve (--= alveolata). Icon. Ricinula, f. 36 ........ 189 

20. Engina trifasciata, Reeve (== alveolata). Icon. Ricinula, f. 41 ...... 189 

21. Engina zepa, Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t, 19, f. 10 .................. 189 

22. Engina iodosia, Duclos. Chenu, 111., t. 22, f. 16 ........................ 190 

23. Engina telea. Duclos. Chenu, 111., t, 25, f. 14 ........................... 190 

24. Engina anakisia, Duclos. Chenu, 111., t. 26, f. 18 ....................... 190 

25. Engina epidelia, Duel. Chenu, 111., t. 25, f. 18 .......................... 190 

26. Engina monilifera, Pease. Martens, Don. Bism., t. 1, f. 15 ......... 190 

27. Engina satorida, Duel. Chenu, 111., t. 26, f. 2 ........................... 191 

Plate 62. 

28. Engina numicia, Duel. Chenu, 111., t. 26, f. 10 .......................... 191 

29. Enoina alveolata, Reeve (= Reevei, Trjon). Icon. Ricinula, f. 23. 191 

30. Engina bella, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Ricinula, f. 15 ..................... 191 

31. Engina recurva, Reeve (= bella). Icon. Ricinula, f. 53 .............. 191 

32. Engina fragaria, Wood (= bella). Index Test. Sup., t. 3, f. 27 ..... 191 

33. Engina pulchra, Reeve. Icon. Buccinum, f. 80 .......................... 191 

34. Engina rosea, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 46 .............................. 192 

35. Engina Schrammi, Crosse (= rosea). Jour, de Conch., xi, t. 1, f. 7. 192 

36. Engina rutila, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 49 ....................... . ...... 192 

37. Engina deformis, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 44 ........................... 192 

38. Engina turbinella, Kiener. Icon. Purpura, t. 9, f. 25 .................. 192 

39. Engina turbinella, Kiener. Reeve, Icon. Ricinula, f. 42 .............. 192 

40. Engina farinosa, Gould. Wilkes' Exped.. f. 328 ......................... 192 

41. Engina contracta, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 32 .......................... 193 

42. Engina acuminata, Reeve ( contracta). Ricinula, f. 52 ............ 193 

4:!. Engina eximia, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 45 .............................. 193 

44. Engina fusiformis, Pease. Specimen ....................................... 193 

45. Engina oselmonta, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t, 7, f. 14 ...... ............. 19'> 

46. Engina aurantia, Duel. Chenu, Illust., t. 7, f. 16 ....................... 193 

47. Engina gibbosa, Qarrett. Specimen ......................................... 193 

48. Engina ovata, Pease (= funiculata). Am. Jour. Conch., in, t. 23, 

f. ..................................................................... ! ...... ..... 194 

49. Engina funiculata, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 16 ........................ 194 

50. Engina lineata, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 51 ............................. 194 

51. Engina maculata, Pease (= lineata, var.). Am. Jour. Conch., xv, 

t. 8, f. 12 .......................................... . .............................. 194 

Plate 63. 

52. Engina zonata, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 33 ............................. 194 

53. Engina zonata, Reeve. Specimen ............................................ 194 

54. Engina concinna, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 35 ............. , ............ 194 

I"). Engina parva, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch. ,-iii, t. 23, f. 11 .............. 195 

56. Engina nodicostata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 8 ........ 195 



2t6 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

57. Engina variabilis, Pease (= nodicostata). Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 

t. 23, f. 9 '.. 195 

58. Engina striata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 23, f. 10 195 

59. Engina armillata, Reeve. Icon. Ricinula, f. 47 194 

60. Engina tuberculosa, Pease. Specimen 195 

61. Engina xantholenca, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 9, 1882 196 

62. Engina mendicaria, Linn. Reeve, Ricinula, f. 8 196 

63. Columbellina harpEeformis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 10 196 

64. Columbellina uncinata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 13 196 

65. Columbellina cithara, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Columb., f. 230, a 196 

66. Amphissa corrugata, Reeve. Icon. Buccinum, f. 110.. 197 

67. Amphissa versicolor, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 16, f. 10,.... 197 

68. Columbella millepunctata, Carpenter. Specimen 115 

r.'.i, 70. Columbellaria corallina, Quenst. Sitzb. Wien, xlii, 278, f. 1... 103 

71. Columbella gibberula, Sowb. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 9, f. 10 184 

72. Columbella semipunctata, Lam. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 9, f. 6 182 

73. Engina mendicaria, Linn. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 8, f. 4 196 



OLIVTDJ3. 



PLATE 1 




MARGIN ELLIOT- COLUMBELLID^R. PLATE 2 




11 



10 




17 




12 






13 





16 





18 





20 





19 




15 




MARGINELLHM3. 



OLIVID^J. PLATE 3 




31 



MARGINELLID.E. 



PLATE 4 




32 




37 




41 



33 



34 




38 





39 



56 



42 



43 




46 47 



48 




35 




44 



51 



40 



52 




53 54 55 50 
cv\\ 



MARGINELLIDJS. 



PLATE 5 




80 



MARUINELLID.E. 



PLATE 6 




98 



100 



MARGINELLHUS. 



PLATE 7 





13 



18 




24 



30 



31 



32 



29 

<^ 

34 



MARGINELLIDJE.. 



PLATE 8 




58 



57 



61 



59 



MAEGINELLID.E. 



PLATE 9 




79 



77 81 



MARGINELL1D.E. 



PLATE 10 




84 




85 



86 



88. 



89 



90 




12 



MARGINELLID^B 



PLATE 11 




49- 



47 



MARGINKLLIIXE. 



PLATE 12 




93 94 



; 5 



q.1 









MARGIN KLUDGE 



PLATE 13 



12 13 14 16 




37 39 



24 



OLIVID^E. 



PLATE 14 




OLIYIPJK. 



PLATE 15 




90 89 



OLIVID.E. 



PLATE 16 




99 



I 



100. 






12 



14 






13 



20 




24 




OLIVID^E. 



PLATE 17 




52 



OMVLD/E. 



PLATE 18 




OL1V11XE. 



PLATE 19 




70 



V \ \ ' 



OLIVIDJE. 



PLATE 20 




74 77 



OLIVIDJB. 



PLATE 21 




OLIVID^E. 



PLATE 22. 




OLIVIDJ3. 



PLATE 23 




27 



28 



OLIVID.E. 



PLATE 24 




PLATE 25 




48 



47. 



^ 



v ' 



OLIVIDJB. 



PLATE 26 




OLIVID.K 



PL ATP: 27 




OLIVIDJE, 



PLATE 28 




71 



74 



OLIVID.E. 



PLATE 29 








: 






OLTVID.E. 



PLATE 30 




85. 



OLIVIPJ3. 



PL ATM 31 




O LI VI I) 



PLATE 32 




26 



28. 



27 



25 



-IP 



QLIVID.E. 



I'LATB 3B. 




33 



40 



42 






46 



44 



OLIVIDJE. 



PLATE 34. 




OLIYID.E. 



PLATE 35. 




OLJVrD-E. 



PLATE 36. 




PLATE 37. 




19 20 



25 



ANCILLAKIINJ2. 



PLATE 38. 




36 29 



ANCILLAKIIN^E. 



PLATE 39. 




HARPIDJ3. 



PLATE 40. 




64 



HARPTD./E. 



PLATE 41 




COLUMBKLLJiXE. 



PLATE 42. 







15 



18 



11) 



20 




COLUMBKLLID^l 



PLATE 




COLUMBELLIDvK. 



PLATE 44. 




COLUMBKLLIDJS. 



PLATE 45. 




89 ]00 



COLUM BELLI D.E. 



PLATE 46 



12 18 14 




81 2 






UNIVERSITY 




eOLUMBKLLIDJE. 



PLATE 47. 







y* 



COLUM13K LLID.E. 



"PLATE 48 




COLUMBELLID^S. 



PLATE 49 







97 9g 99 100 





16 17 18 



PLATK 50. 




COLUMBKLLIDJS. 



PLATK 51 



14 



51 




62 



68 






57 





49 50 




54 




56 




64 






55 




59 




60 61 



58 



67 



65 66 



72 70 71 69 



COLCJMBELLID^B. 



PLATE 52. 




73 



74 





89 




COLUMBELLID^. 



PLATE 53 





10 



17 





99 




100 










OOLUMBKLLID.E. 



PLATK o4. 




22 




25 




26 



27 



43 



28 





31 




44 



47 



COLUMBIA LLilKE. 



PLATE 55. 



49 




55 



50 





59 





54 



60 





58 



64 






65 



66 67 



68 69 




72 70 




71 




PLATE 56. 




97 100 



COLUMBELLIDuB. 



PLATE 57, 




23 



OOLTJMBELLID.E. 



PLATE 58. 




COfcUMBELLIDJS. 



PLATE 59. 





57 



.58 59 60 61 






64. 



65 





67 







69 70 71 



72 








73 74 



75 76 77 






79 80 78 ' 81 




82 




l\cP ^ 0* V 




COLUMBELLID.E. 



PLATE 60 





V 



COLUMBELLIDyE. 



PLATE 61. 




COLUMBELLID^E. 



PLATE 62. 




32 




34 



35 




30 





f 



31 




36 



37 




47 50 



49 48 



COLUMBELLLlhE. 



PLATE 63. 



5S 



62 



66 



70 




71 



14 DAY USE 

"O"> si 






U.C.BERKELEY LIBRARIES 







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