(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

-NRLF 




B 14 ED3 3=13 






ifl 








.1JCEL 



jflBR^RY 

UNIVERSITY OF 

CALIFORNIA J 



ESE LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

^^CX^-, , 188, 

Shelf No. 




\ttUM 



, j^ ' 




' ;**., 



' : . * 















MANUAL 



OF 



CONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 
*, ^v" 

IUNIVEKSIT 

BY GEORGE W. TRYON, JR. 

;o:;r,^:;vATo:i OF THE COXCHOLOGICAL SECTION OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL 
SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



VOL. VI. 

CONID^, PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. I9TH & RACE STS. 

1884. 







Wm. P. Kildare, Printer, 721* & 736 Sansom St., Phila. 






{UNIVERSITY] 

\ 

MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY 



FAMILY CONID^E. 

Teeth subulate, in two series, on a tubular prolongation of the 
retractile proboscis, and with a bundle of sharp subulate teeth 
at the extremity ; head with a produced tubular veil ; tentacles 
subulate ; eyes on bulgings of the outer side of the tentacles ; 
mantle enclosed, with an elongated siphon in front; foot simple, 
long and narrow, with a conspicuous aquiferous pore on the 
middle of the anterior part of the sole. 

Operculum unguiform, with apical nucleus. 

Shell inversely conical, with narrow aperture the length of the 
body-whorl, the lip sharp, usually excavated at the hind-part, 
where it joins the suture; epidermis thin and smooth or longi- 
tudinally or spirally ridged, sometimes tufted. 

The great family of Cones, well-characterized by peculiarities 
both of dentition and shell, are principally inhabitants of equa- 
torial seas. Haunting the holes and fissures of rocks, and the 
labyrinths of coral-reefs, they lead a predatory life, boring into 
the shells of other mollusks, and sucking the juices from their 
bodies. 

Until recently the classification of Conidce given by Messrs. 
H. and A. Adams in their Genera of Recent Mollusca has been 
generally adopted. This classification is given in Structural and 
Systematic Conchology, ii, p. 187, and need not be reproduced 
here. The genera and subgenera are extremely artificial and 
insufficient for the purpose of arranging a large collection, inas- 
much as many of the systematic characters fail to discriminate 
groups when extensive series are compared. Dr. Weinkauff has 
recently (Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Gesell., i, 1874) arranged the 
Cones into sections, each named for a characteristic species, 



4 CONlD-dE. 

around which is grouped other similar species. In this arrange- 
ment, pattern of coloring takes high rank, and the groupings 
indicate species which may have had a common ancestry. That 
this classification is in many respects faulty cannot be denied, 
but it appears on the whole to be better than that of the Messrs. 
Adams. 

A number of beautifully illustrated monographs of Conus 
have been published : 

Sowerby. Conchological Illustrations. 137 colored figures. 

Sowerby. Thesaurus Conclry riorum (and Supplement), vol. iii. 
450 species ; the plates containing about 650 figures. 

Reeve. Conehologica Iconica (and Supplement). 337 species. 

Kiener. Coquilles Vivantes. 324 species, 111 plates. 

Weinkauff. In Kiister's Continuation of Martini and Chem- 
nitz's Conchylien Cabinet (completed 1875). 411 species, 71 
colored plates. 

Weinkauff s Catalogue of Conus, published in 1874, contains 
the names of 352 species, distributed into 17 groups or sec- 
tions : 

1. Marmorei (C. marmoreus. Linn.). 2. Literati (C. literatus, 
Linn.). 3. Figulini (G. figulinus, Linn.). 4. Arenati (C. are- 
natus, Hwass). 5. Mures (C. ?nws, Hwass). 6. Varii ^ C. varius^ 
Linn.). 7. Ammirales ( C. ammiralis, Linn.). 8. Capitanei (C. 
capitaneus^IjiiiTi.}. 9. Yirgines (C. virgo, Linn.). 10. Dauci 
( G. daucus, Hwass). 11. Magi ( C. magus, Linn.). 12. Achatini 
(C. achatinus, ChemnA 13. Asperi (C. a*per, Lam.). 14. 
Terebri ( C. terebra, Born). 15. Bulbi (C. bulbus, Reeve). 16. 
Tulipae (C. tulipa, Linn.). 17. Texti (C. textile, Linn.). 

The Cones are very variable in some of their characters, such 
as the tuberculation of the spire and body-whorl, strire, colors 
and the pattern of coloring ; so that the synonymy is very ditli- 
cult to arrange satisfactorily. A number of species have been 
characterized since the date of the last-named publication, but 
on the other hand several species considered distinct by Dr. 
WcMiikauff I have been obliged to consolidate, so that in the 
following pages, arranged mainly in accordance with his cata- 
logue, the number of admitted species will not be found to vary 
materially from his enumeration. 



CONTD^E. 5 

The family, as herein restricted, includes the single genus 
Conns. There are no extinct genera. 

GOSAVIA, Stoliczka, described as a member of the family, I 
have described 'and figured as a subgenus of Yoluta (Man., iv. 
78). 

CONORBIS, Swainson, which may be subgenerically distinct, is 
described and figured in Struct, and Syst. Conch., ii, 188, t. 58, 
f. 50. It is an eocene group. 

About 100 fossil species of Conus have been described; they 
are extensively distributed, and first appear in cretaceous strata. 

Dr. Weinkauff has added to his Systematic Catalogue of 
Conus, extensive tables of geographical distribution in which 
the species found in each province are separately enumerated 
and named. The distribution may be summarized as follows : 

1. European Province, 1 sp. 2. West African, 27 sp. 3. East 
American Province, 32 sp. 4. So. African, 22 sp. 5. West 
American (Xorth, Central and South), 30 sp. 6. East African 
(including Madagascar and Red Sea), 81 sp. 7. South Asiatic, 7G 
sp. 8. East Asiatic (including Philippines and Sandwich Is.), 
133 sp. 9. Australian, 113 sp. 

There are, of course, many duplications in these numbers; 
the distribution of man} T single forms throughout the sixth to 
ninth provinces, as above defined, indicates that for Conus (and 
for many other carnivorous gastropods) these divisions have no 
real existence. 

Mr. Arthur Adams, in his delightful natural history notes, in 
the Narrative of the Voyage of the Samarang, writes : 

u The animal of Conus aulicus has the proboscis beautifully 
varied with red and white, and there is a square and very minute 
operculum on the dorsal surface of the hinder part of the foot. 
Its bite produces a vcnoraed wound, accompanied by acute 
pain, and making a small, deep, triangular mark, which is suc- 
ceeded by a watery vesicle. At the little island of Meyo, one of 
the Moluccas, near Ternate, Sir Edward Belcher was bitten by 
one of these Cones, which suddenly exserted its proboscis as he 
took it out of the water with his hand, and he compared the 
sensation he experienced to that produced by the burning of 
phosphorus under the skin. The instrument which inflicted the 
wound, in this instance, I conceive, must have been the tongue, 



O CONIDJE. 

which in these mollusks is long, and armed with two ranges of 
sharp pointed teeth. 

" The Cones become more numerous and varied in their colors, 
as we approach the equatorial seas, and they form bright and 
beautiful ornaments to the shores of tropical islands. They seem 
to prefer obscure holes in the rocks, where they lead a predatory 
life, boring into the substance of the shells of other mollusks, 
for the purpose of sucking the juice from their bodies. They 
crawl but slowly, and usually with their tentacles extended in a 
straight line before them. They are very timid , and shrink within 
their shells quickly on the approach of danger. Some affect 
deep water, and one was dredged by us in the Sunda Straits, in 
thirty fathoms; and another, the Conns T/ialassiarchus, at 
Sooloo, in about forty fathoms." 

" The proboscis in its retracted state, as seen in the animal 
preserved in spirits, is short, broad, conical, annulate, prominent, 
in the base of the tubular veil, with a roundish, central mouth. 
Instead of having any elongated lingual band covered with short 
transparent teeth, like the rest of the Proboscidifera and Ros- 
trifera, it has a fleshy tube with a bundle of subulate barbed 
teeth directed towards the mouth ; this tube is prolonged behind 
and below at right-angles with its upper part and mouth into an 
elongated, fleshy, attenuated subulate tube, containing with its 
hinder edge two series of similar subulate red barbed teeth, 
directed from the aperture* towards the apex of the tube. (A 
single tooth, greatly magnified, of (7. Hebrseus, Linn., is repre- 
sented in Structural and Systematic Conchology, t. 10, f. 5.) 

" The teeth are implanted by a distinct root into the substance 
of the tube ; those near the upper or oral part of the tube are 
placed rather irregularly in two parallel rows, but those nearer 
the tip are more crowded, and the lines gradually diverge from 
each other. 

" I shall not attempt to describe the manner in which these 
teeth are brought into action, as I have only seen them in the 
preserved specimen ; but those nearest the mouth are probably 
used to pierce the animal, which is held fast by the contraction 
of the veil, as described by Adanson. The organization and 
structure of the mouth is so unlike that of the other Probosci- 
difera and Rostrifera, where the teeth are placed on a lingual 



CONUS. 7 

band and used to rasp the food, being replaced by others as soon 
as those in action are injured by use, that I am inclined to form 
the Cones into a third suborder, which may be called Toxifera ; 
and it. is probable that the Pleurotomidae, which are described 
by Loven as having similar subulate teeth in two series, should 
be placed in the same suborder, as they appear to differ from the 
Cones chiefty in the veil being truncated and not produced round 
the base of the proboscis." Dr. J. E. GRAY, Ann. and Mag. 
K H.,xii, 1853, p. 177. 

An operculum normally exists in all the groups of Conus 
(probably in all the species), but it is so very small relative to 
the size of the shell as to have generally escaped observation, 
and is very seldom preserved in collections. It is corneous, 
narrowly elongated, with apical nucleus, and the impression of 
the muscular attachment varies from one-half to two-thirds of 
the inner surface. The opercula of a number of species of Cones 
are figured and described by Crosse and Marie, in Journal de 
Conchyl., 1874. 

Operculum of C. textile, Linn. (PI. 29, figs. 92, 93). 

Sections of the shell of Conus, showing the structure and plan 
of growth, are figured in Structural and Systematic Conchology, 
i, PI. 1, figs. 6, 7, 8. The anatomy of Conus tulipa, Linn., is 
illustrated and described in the same work, i, PI. 15, fig. 80. 

Genus CONUS, Linn. 

Shell thick, obconic, whorls enrolled upon themselves, the spire 
short, smooth or tuberculated ; aperture elongated, narrow, the 
margins parallel, truncated at the base ; the outer lip with a 
slight sutural sinus. 

Section I. MARMOREI. 

Conus (typical) of Morch and H. and A. Adams. Coronaxis, 
Swainson. Rhombus, Montfort. 

C. MARMOREUS, Linn. PL 1, figs. 1-5. 

White or light pink-white, with chocolate or chestnut reticula- 
tions, so arranged as to expose the white in rounded triangular 
large spots ; aperture white or light pink. Length, 4-5 inches. 
Indian Ocean, Japan, Australia, Polynesia, etc. 

The barbed teeth of this species inflict severe wounds. 



CONUS. 

Tar. BANDANUS, Hwass. PI. 1, fig. 2. 

The triangular white markings are more crowded than in the 
typical form ; the colored markings form two irregular bands. 

Philippines, New Caledonia, Banda, etc. 

Var. CROSSEANUS, Bernardi. PI. 1, fig. 3. 

The chocolate reticulations heavier and closer. 

New Caledonia. 
Tar. NIGRESCENS, Sowb. PI. 1 , fig. 4. 

Surface nearly entirely covered by the chocolate markings. 
Intermediate states of coloring are quite common, so that the 
division into varieties is arbitrar} 7 . 

Tar. PS KUDOM, \RMOREUS, Desh. PL 1, fig. 5. 

Shell regularly grooved throughout, spire rather more elevated, 
not tuberculated, last whorl somewhat convex on the sides. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen, and at most only a variety 
of C. marmoreus. 

C. NOCTURNUS, Hwass. PI. 1, figs. 6, 7. 

Pattern of markings essentially the same as in C. marmoreus, 
but the chocolate-color coalesces into two broad irregular bands 
within which the triangular w r hite spots appear only occasionally. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Ceylon, Java, Mauritius, Moluccas, Viti Isles, etc. 

In C. Deburghise, Sowb. (fig. 7), the surface is sometimes 
granular in revolving lines, and the nodules are compressed. 

C. ARANEOSUS, Hwass. PI. 1, figs. 8-10. 

Shell very closely reticulated with white and light chestnut, 
the white spots crowded and irregular in size, the chestnut lines 
forming two interrupted, irregular bands. 

Length, 2 5-4 inches. Ceylon, Philippines, Moluccas. 

Dr. Weinkauff has adopted the name C. peplum, Chemnitz, for 
this species, but that author only happened to be binomial in 
this instance, many of his other Cones being designated by a 
descriptive phrase ; I therefore prefer to retain the better known, 
if later name given by Hwass. This species is in part the (7. 
arachnoideus of Gmelin. 



CONUS. 

Yar. NICOBARICUS, Hwass. PI. 1, fig. 9. 

Reticulating lines chocolate-color, the two bands usually better 
denned. 

Ceylon, Nicobar Isles, 
Yar. VIDUA, Reeve. PI. 1, tig. 10. 

Yery like variety Nicobaricus, the bands not so well outlined 
usually, and having scattered triangular white spots upon them. 

Philippines. 

In this species, as in C. marmoreus, the varieties are entirety 
arbitrary. 

C. IMPEBIALIS, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 11-13. 

Shell yellowish white, with numerous interrupted revolving 
lines and spots of dark brown and two irregular light brown 
bands. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Ceylon, Java to New Caledonia and Viti Is ! es. 

Yar. FUSCATUS, Lam. PI. 1, fig. 13. 

The light brown coloring extends in clouds and irregular 
markings over the surface, so that the bands can scarcely be 
defined. 

Zanzibar, Mozambique, Philippines, etc. 
Yar. VIRIDULUS, Lam. 

The coloring is olive-brown, irregularly but somewhat longi- 
tudinally disposed, with more or less indication of two bands. 

Zanzibar. 
C. RECLUZIANUS, Bernardi. PL 1, fig. 14. 

Yellowish white, with irregular broad yellowish brown bands 
and spots. Length, 58 mill. 

Yellow Sea. 

Only a single specimen occurred, which is possibly faded in 
coloring. 

C. ZONATUS, Hwass. PI. 1, fig. 15. 

Purple ash, with narrow chestnut revolving lines and white 
spots, the latter frequently irregularly coalescing. 

Length, 2-3 inches. Ceylon, Nicobar Isles. 

C. MARCHIONATUS, Hinds. PL 2, fig. 16 ; PL 27, fig. 3. 

Yellowish or light brown, with large white rounded triangular 
spots. Length, 1-1*5 inches. Marquesas Islands. 



10 CONUS. 

Pattern of coloring very like C. marmoreus, but lighter ; the 
shell is immediately distinguished by the want of the coronal of 
tubercles and its usually small size. Mr. Melville, of Prestwich, 
near Manchester, England, who possesses a remarkable collec- 
tion of Cones, has sent me a colored drawing of a gigantic 
specimen in his collection, 2*25 inches in length; he proposes to 
call it var. eudoxus (PL 27, fig. 3). 

Section II. LITERATI. 
Lithoconus (ex parte), Morch. 

C. LITERATUS^ Linn. PI. 2, figs, 11-19. 

Shell white, with usually two or three broad light yellow or 
orange-brown bands, marked with revolving series of large and 
small dark chocolate or nearly black, round, square or triangular 
spots ; these spots are frequently elongated longitudinally, and 
sometimes partially coalesce so as to form interrupted longi- 
tudinal stripes ; base of shell often tinged with chocolate. 

Length, 3-5-5 inches. 

Zanzibar, Ceylon, Java, Singapore, New Caledonia, Viti Is. 

C. Gruneri, Reeve (fig. 18), from the island of Java, appears 
to be a young shell without any distinguishable characters. 

Yar. MILLEPUNCTATUS, Lam. PL 2, fig. 19. 

Said to differ from C. literatus in the spots being smaller and 
much more numerous, and in the absence of the yellow bands. 
It is connected by intermediate stages with the typical literatus. 

C. C(ELATUS, A. Adams. PL 2, fig. 20. 

Shell small, with revolving grooves, which are longitudinally 
striate ; spire minutely coronate, the apex acutely elevated ; 

white, widely reticulated with orange. Length, 16 mill. 

China. 
I am not acquainted with this species. 

C. PLANAXIS, Deshayes. PL 2, fig. 21. 

Yellowish, encircled by narrow, more or less interrupted 
chestnut lines, chocolate-tinged at the base. Length, 19 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

An unsatisfactory species, being evidently described from a 
very young shell. 



CONUS. 11 

C. MUSICUS, Hwass. PI. 2, figs 22, 23. 

Whitish, with light ash-violet broad bands and narrow revol- 
ving lines of chocolate, broken up into short lines and spots ; 
spire often slightly coronate, rayed with chocolate. 

Length, 15-25 mill. 

Philippines, Australia, Solomon's Is., New Caledonia. 

C. Mighelsi, Kiener (fig. 23), is a synonym. 

C. EBURNEUS, Hwass. PI. 2, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell white, usually with two or three light yellowish bands, 
marked with very dark chocolate revolving spots. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Ceylon to Viti .Islands. 

Much smaller and more swollen in outline than C. literatus, 
lower part of the bod} r -whorl distinctly grooved, spire with two 
impressed revolving lines, spots smaller than in C. literatus. C. 
polyglotta, A. Ad. (fig. 25), varies slightly in the disposition of 
the coloring. 

C. TESSELLATUS, Born. Plate 2, figs. 26, 2t. 

Shell white, with reddish orange spots and short lines in 
revolving series, and forming by crowding together two irregular 
bands ; base stained with light violet. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 
Red Sea, Ceylon, Mozambique, Mauritius, 

Philippines, New Caledonia, Polynesia. 

Has the same revolving sculpture at base and on the spire as 
C. eburneus ; the difference is in coloring only. 

C. crassus, Sowb. (fig. 27), is shorter and more ventricose, but 
can scarcety claim varietal rank. Viti Islands. 

C. BAYLEI, Jousseaume. PI. 2, fig. 28. 

White, with light brown spots disposed in revolving series 
and indistinctly forming bands ; base of shell and spire without 
revolving grooves, Length, 32 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Distinguished from C. tessellatus by the smooth surface. 

C. SUTURATUS, Reeve. PI. 2, figs. 29, 29 a. 

Shell yellowish or pink-white, with broad light brown bands ; 
spire and base sulcate. Length, 28 mill. 

North Australia. 



12 CONUS. 

Reeve's original description and figure were made from a dead, 
faded and depauperate shell (fig. 29). 

C. PROTEUS, Hwass. PL 2, figs. 30-35 ; PL 3, fig. 36. 

Shell white, with revolving series of spots and irregular or 
cloud-like markings of orange, chestnut or chocolate, often form- 
ing interrupted bands ; base grooved, spire with a single broad 
sulcus. Length, 1-5-2-5 inches. 

West Indies, Florida. 

Dr. Weinkauff has distinguished C. leoninus, Chemn., not 
Hwass, said to come from the East Indies, but it does not 
appear to me to be different ; C. leoninus of Hwass (fig. 31) is 
certainly the same. C. spurius, Gmelin, of authors (fig. 32) 
may also be placed here confidently, but the original description 
must remain a doubtful identification. C. ochraceus, Lam. (fig. 
33 , if correctly identified by Reeve and Sowerby, and C. brevi- 
culits, Sowb., are also synonyms ; and C. armillatus, C. B. Ad., 
is a young shell. 

Tar. BICOLOR, Sowb. PL 2, fig. 34. 

Shell shorter and wider at the spire than the usual form. 

West Africa. 
Yar. PAPILIONACEUS, Hwass. PL 2, fig. 35. 

Spire generally more depressed than in the t} r pical form, the 
revolving rows of spots of smaller size, closer and more numerous. 
Length, 2-2-5 inches. 

Senegal; Canaries; St. Thomas, West Indies (Swift}. 
Merges into the type by insensible gradations. 

Yar. SIAMENSIS, Hwass. PL 3, fig. 36. 

Distinguished from var. papilionaceus by having more numer- 
ous narrow articulated fillets. The locality indicated by the 
name is exceedingly doubtful. 

C. FLAMMEUS, Lam. PL 3, fig. 37. 

Yellowish white, flamed and spotted with chestnut, the flames 
usually longitudinally disposed, forming revolving bands, the 
spots in revolving series. Length, 2-2'75 inches. 

Wn.tt Coast of Africa; Honduras (Dyson), 

This is the C. Lorenzianus of Chemnitz, and very probably 
only a variety of C. Froteu*, Ilwass. 



CON US. 13 

C. CHARACTERISTICS (Chemii.), Auct. PL 3, figs. 38, 39. 

White, irregularly longitudinally flamed, forming two (or 
sometimes three) interrupted broad bands ; body-whorl some- 
what inflated, rdunded at the upper part, striate below ; spire" 
striate. Length, 2 inches. 

West Africa, West Indies (authors) ; Borneo. 

The West Indies are not confirmed as locality by any of the 
local collectors. " Borneo " is upon the label of specimens 
before me, purchased from a London dealer. Deshayes, in the 
second edition of Lamarck, admits the identity with this of 
Lamarck's C. quaestor and C. muscosus, the latter being not adult. 
C. Paulinae, Kiener, is also a synonym, according to Dr. Wein- 
k a u if, and from the description of the unfigured G. Manoni, 
Nevill (Indian Ocean), I am inclined to place it here also. 

C. SUCCINCTUS, A. Ad. PL 3, fig. 40. 

Light rose-colored, with two revolving lines of chestnut dots. 
Length, 2T mill. 

Natal, South Africa. 
C. AMBIGUUS, Reeve. PL 3, figs. 41, 42. 

Whitish, with obscure, light brown,- bands, and longitudinal 
streaks ; spire ornamented with arched brownish spots. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

West Africa. 

Reeve says : " There is always a doubtful character about 
shells exhibiting faint indications of color ; I have not, however, 
succeeded in referring this to any species hitherto described." 
G. griseus, Kiener (fig. 42), is a synonym. 

C. TROCHULUS, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 43 a. 

Shell white, with usually a violet tinge, interior of aperture 
light violet. Length, 1 '25-1*5 inches. 

Cape Verd Islands. 
C. CUNEIFORMIS, Smith. PL 3, fig. 43. 

White, faintty tinted with purple, spire, particularly towards 
the apex, stained with pale brown ; interior of aperture light 
violet ; spire with three or four fine spiral striae ; body-whorl 
with revolving grooves, which become obsolete upon its upper 
third. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 



14 CONUS. 

Distinguished from G. trochulus by its narrower, straighter 
form, the sulcated body-whorl and striated spire. 

C. CYANOSTOMA, A. Ad. PL 3, fig. 44. 

Shell doubly striated on the spire, with revolving striae 
towards the base ; ash-color, with longitudinal, brown markings, 

aperture violaceous. Length, 1 inch. 

West Africa. 

May perhaps = C. trochulus, Reeve, as suggested by Wein- 
kautf, but none of my specimens of the latter species have striae 
on the spire, and they are all white, as in all the published figures. 

C. CLARUS, E. A. Smith. 

Shell abbreviately turbinate, rosy white, sulcate towards the 
base; spire depressed-conical, striate; angle of body-whorl 
carinated; aperture light rosaceous. Length, 27 mill. 

West Australia. 

An unfigured species, represented by a single specimen in the 
British Museum. It is said to somewhat resemble C. cyanostoma, 
A. Adams, but is narrower. 

C. FRTGIDUS, Reeve. Plate 3, fig. 45. 

Shell pale straw-color, violaceous at base and apex; spire 
three-grooved, revolving striae on the lower part of the body- 
whorl, which become granulose towards the base. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

A species having no well-marked characters. 

C. VENULATUS, Hwass. PL o, figs. 46-50. 

Color varying from light chestnut to dark chocolate, with 
indistinct darker revolving lines, irregularly marbled throughout 
with white ; spire and lower part of body-whorl striate. 

Length, 1*25-2 inches. 

West Coast of Africa. 

The synonyms are C. nivosus, Lam. (fig. 47), and C. ateralbus, 
Kiener. Dr. Weinkauff considers C. unifasciatus, Kiener, a 
juvenile of the species, but does not state his reasons; the 
figure is so different that I cannot agree to place the species 
here. 



CONUS. 15 

Var. NIVIFER, Brod. PI. 3, figs. 48, 49. 

The revolving lines of color are more distinct, with less of 
the white maculation. 

Var. CROTCHII, Reeve. PI. 3, fig. 50. 

Shell smooth, striated at base and on the spire ; white, very 
closely encircled throughout with fine thread-like burnt-brown 
lines, sometimes interrupted with a few snow-white spots, spire 
with the edge of the last whorl spotted with brown. 

Saldana Bay, So. Africa; W. Africa. 

Reeve describes this as a species, distinguishing it from C. 
venulatus by the striate spire ; but the spire is distinctly striate 
in a large proportion of the specimens (some are smooth) of C. 
venulatus before me. 

C. GENUANUS, Hwass. PL 3, fig. 51. 

Shell pink-brown or violaceous brown, with revolving narrow 
lines of alternate white and chocolate quadrangular spots and 
dashes, these lines being usually alternately larger and smaller. 
The surface is usually smooth, but sometimes the lines are 
slightly elevated ; spire smooth. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

Senegal, Guinea, Moluccas. 

C. PROMETHEUS, Hwass. PL 3, fig. 52. 

Shell narrow, rather thin, spire sulcate; white, variegated 
with numerous lines of short dashes and spots of light chestnut. 

Length, 3-9 inches. 

E. Africa, Madagascar, Senegal (Mus. Acad. Nat. Sciences). 

This is the largest of the Cones, and is of very light build, 
considering its size. A magnificent series is before me, including 
the individual measuring nine inches in length, and which were 
brought to Philadelphia by a vessel trading to the Gaboon region. 
The smaller specimens approach too closely to C. papilionaceus. 

C. FERGUSONI, Sowb. PL 4, fig. 52 a. 

White, under a brown epidermis, lightly striulate transversely ; 
shell heavy, with slightly channeled spire. Length, 5'75 inches. 

Panama (Ferguson). 

This species, which I have not seen, appears very like a faded 
specimen of the last. The locality rests upon the original 



16 CONUS. 

description ; none other of the numerous Panama collections 
published include any similar shell. 

O. OMAICUS, Hwass. PL 4, fig. 53. 

Shell narrow, whitish, encircled by numerous Hues of square 
spots and dashes of orange-brown, often forming two or three 
broad bands by their approximation. Length, 2-2*75 inches. 

Ins. Oma, Banda Group; Amboina. 

Section III. FIGULINI. 
Dendroconus, Swain son, Morch. 
C. BETULINUS, Linn. PL 4, figs. 54, 55. 

Shell yellow or orange-br^own, with revolving series of spots, 
and short lines of chocolate upon narrow white bands, spire 
radiated with chocolate ; base of shell strongly grooved. 
Length, 2*5-4 inches. 
E. Africa, Isle of Bourbon, Ceylon, Java, China, Philippines. 

Yar. SURATENSIS, Hwass. PL 4, fig. 55. 

Spots more numerous ; the more rugose growth-lines cause 
them to be rather regularly interrupted, so that the}^ form longi- 
tudinal as well as revolving series. 

Philippines. 
C. GLAUCUS, Hwass. PL 4, fig. 56. 

Bluish ash or very light chocolate, with usually a lighter 
narrow central band, and numerous short chocolate lines in 
revolving series, spire broadly radiated with chocolate. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Sumatra,, Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. 

Resembles C. betulinus, var. Suratensis, but may be distin- 
guished mainly by its color. 

C. FIGULINUS, Linn. PL 4, figs. 57, 58 ; PL 27, fig. 1. 

Chestnut-color, encircled by numerous narrow chocolate lines, 
spire chocolate-colored. Length, 2-3*5 inches. 

Ceylon, Java, Philippines, New Caledonia. 

The body-whorl is occasionally narrowly light-banded in the 
middle. 

Yar. LOROISI, Kiener. PL 4, fig. 58. 

Shell larger, with more depressed spire than usual in fiyulinus; 



CONUS. 17 

ash or chocolate cream-color, generally with an obscure light 
central band, sometimes with more or less obscure chestnut 
revolving lines, but generally these are absent; spire often 
radiately streaked with chestnut. 

This variety is almost intermediate between the typical C. 
figulimis and G. glaucus, Hwass. 

Yar. CHYTREUS, Melvill. PI. 27, fig. 1. 

Shell small, slightly turbinated, brown, encircled with unevenly 
placed, thick, dark red-brown lines, aperture narrow, spire some- 
what rounded. Length, -63 inch. Smaller and with thicker and 
more irregular color-lines than the t} T pe ; aperture narrower. 

C. QUERCINUS, Hwass. PL 4, fig. 59. 

Shell lemon-yellow, with numerous fine, rather close, chestnut 
revolving lines ; spire rather elevated, with concave outline, the 
shoulder of the body-whorl obtiisel} r angulated. 

Length, 2-4 inches. ^ 

Red Sea, E. Africa, Mauritius, Ceylon, Philippines, 

Viti Islands, Sandwich Islands. 

The revolving lines are much finer and closer than in the pre- 
ceding species of this group ; the form of the spire is also 
different. Ir? old specimens the revolving lines become 
obsolete ; the shell in this state has received the name of C. 
ponderosus, Beck. 

C. PYRIFORMIS, Reeve. PI. 4, figs. GO, 61. 

Shell light flesh-color, the spire gently acuminate, the earlier 
whorls tuberculated, body-whorl p} r riform, the outline concave 
below, with revolving striae towards the base. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

West Columbia, Panama, etc. 

C. patricius, Hinds (fig. 61), is the young of this species. 

G. CALIFORNICUS, Hinds. PI. 4, figs. 62, 63. 

Shell smooth, with convexly elevated spire, which is some- 
times striate, and pyriform body-whorl, rounded or slightly 
angulated at the shoulder, and striated towards the base ; light 
olive-brown, with or without obscure chestnut reticulations and 
maculations, sometimes light- or dark-spotted on the shoulder, 
2 



18 CONUS. 

usually invested with a rather thin brown epidermis ; aperture 
more or less tinged with chocolate. Length, 25-33 mill. 

California. 
C. dealbatus, A. Ad. (fig. 63), is a synonym. 

C. UNIFASCIATUS, Kicner. PI. 4, fig. 65. 

Shell the general form of C. Calif ornicus; chocolate, with a 
rather broad yellowish brown band just below the shoulder. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Dr. Weinkaiiff makes this a juvenile of C. venulatus, Hwass, 
but it does not appear to me to be closely allied to that species, 
either in form or coloring ; on the contrary, its resemblance to 
C. Californicus is so grea that I feel nearly certain that it 
should be united with that species. 

C. SCALPTUS, Reeve. PL 4, fig. 64. 

Shell turbinated, rather solid, polished, grooved towards the 
base ; whitish, with numerous hair-like, light brown, revolving 
lines ; spire spirally striated, rather elevated, with sharp apex, 
variegated with chestnut-color. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Dr. Weinkauff gives California as locality, but this must be 
considered very doubtful, as the numerous collectors on that 
coast have not yet discovered it. 

Section IV. ARENATI. 
Puncticulis, Swains., Morch. 
C. ARENATUS, Hwass. PL 4, fig. 66 ; PL 21, fig. 2. 

Shell stoutly turbinated, coronated on the spire ; white, 
sprinkled in a waved longitudinal manner with very small, close 
brown dots, sometimes forming indistinct bands ; aperture 
usually light flesh-color. Length, 2 inches. 
Jted Sea, E. Africa, Ceylon, Philippines, N. Caledonia, Viti Isles. 

Vnr. MESOKATHAROS, Melvill. PL 21, fig. 2. 

Middle portion of body-whorl unspotted. 
'C. OBESUS, Hwass. PL 4, fig. 67. 

Shell obsolete!}" coronated with tubercles, body-whorl some- 
what convex, stout ; white or veiy pale yellow or blush, faintly 



CONUS. 19 

clouded, with numerous small chestnut or chocolate spots and 
short lines, often forming dark clouds, so placed as to make 
interrupted, revolving bands. Length, 2-2'75 inches. 

Ceylon, Java. 

C. PULICARIUS, Hwass. PL 4, fig. 68 ; PI. 5, fig. -69. 

Shell white, the spire tubercuiated, covered by dark chocolate 
or nearly black spots, which sometimes by their juxtaposition 
indicate two bands ; epidermis, as in the other species of the 
group, very thin, translucent. Length, l'5-2*5 inches. 

Japan, New Guinea, New Caledonia to Central Polynesia. 

C.fustigatus, Hwass (fig. 68), includes the varieties in which 
the spots are larger and less numerous. 

C. YAUTIERI, Kiener. PI. 5, fig. 10. 

Spire tuberculate, sides of bodj^-whorl nearly direct ; white, 
with chestnut spots, overlaid here and there by lighter chestnut 
clouds. Length, 33 mill. 

N. Caledonia, Marquesas Islands. 

C. STERCUS-MUSCARUM, Linn. PI. 5, fig. 71. 

Shell with somewhat convex sides, a rather short, conical 
spire, which is broadly channeled, and acutely angulated 
shoulder ; white with numerous revolving lines of chocolate and 
opaque white spots, and chocolate or chestnut cloudings forming 
interrupted broad bands ; spire darkly maculated and spotted ; 
aperture tinged more or less with flesh-color. Length, 2 inches. 
Ceylon, Java, Philippines, N. Australia. 

Section Y. MURES. 
Coronaxis, Morch, not Swainson. 

C. MUS, Hwass. PI. 5, figs. 72, 73. 

Shell with tubercuiated spire, the body-whorl covered by nar- 
row, raised revolving striae ; ash-white, longitudinally streaked 
and maculated with chestnut, the tubercles of the spire white, 
and usually a white band below the middle of the body-whorl ; 
aperture chestnut-colored, with a central white band. 

Length, 1-1-75 inches. 

West Indies, Florida. 



20 CONUS. 

Yar. ROSEUS, Lam. PL 5, fig. 73. 

Shell usually larger, rosy-, or purple-, or even yellowish-brown, 
with white tubercles and a distinct white band below the middle 
of the bod} T -whorl ; the striae are often punctate with chestnut, 
and the spire is spotted with chestnut between the tubercles ; 
aperture rosy or chestnut-color with a central white band. 

Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

C. PUNCTATUS (Chemn.), Auct. PI. 5, fig. 74. 

Shell yellowish pink or light yellowish brown, with (usually) 
raised revolving lines closely marked with red or chestnut dots, 
indistinctly white-banded on the middle, and often at the shoul- 
der of the body-whorl ; spire with revolving striae and brown 
mac illations which often extend irregularly down the body- 
whoii. Length, 1*5-2-25 inches. 

West Africa, Ceylon, Moluccas, West Indies (Swift coll.). 

C. HEBR^EUS, Linn. PI. 5, figs. 75-77 ; PL 27, fig. 13. 

Shell white, sometimes rose-tinted, with three or four revolving- 
bands composed of irregular longitudinal dark chocolate or 
nearly black markings ; these markings also ornament the 
slightly coronated spire; aperture white with clouded bands 
corresponding with the exterior markings ; surface more or less 
striate throughout, but striae more prominent towards the dark 
stained base. Length, 1-1*75 inches. 

Ceylon, E. Africa, Mauritius, Japan, 

Philippines, New Caledonia to Viti Is., etc. 

C. sphacelatits,Sovfl). (fig. 76), is considered by Dr. Weinkauff, 
the juvenile of this species ; that it is a very young shell is evi- 
dent, but I am by no means convinced that it is properly placed 
here; Mr. Melvill, who possesses the type specimen, considers 
it a distinct species. 

Yin-. VERMICTJLATUS, Hwass. PL 5, fig. 77. 

The black markings are more continuous, so as usually to 
cover the length of the shell except an irregular white central 
band ; sometimes those markings are impressed so that the 
intervening white spaces project gramilously or tuberculately 
above the surface; occasionally also the entire surface becomes 
dark chocolate with the exception of the white band, and a white 



CONUS. 21 

spot here and there. Not so large as the type, rarely exceeding 
an inch in length. 

C. MACULIFERUS, Sowb. PI. 5, fig. 78. 

Shell wide, with short spire, slightly coronate; yellowish white 
w r ith two revolving series of irregular longitudinal chestnut 
markings, which are sometimes partially connected one with 
another in each series. Length, 30 mill. 

Red Sea. 
C. BALTEATUS, Sowb. PI. 5, figs. 79-81. 

Shell olive-brown or brown violaceous, with a more or less 
irregular white band below the middle, and another one below 
the tuberculated spire ; interior of aperture tinged with violet. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Nicobar Islands, Mauritius. 

C. pigmentatus, Adams and Reeve (fig. 80), and C. cernicits, 
H. Adams (fig. 81), are synon}^ms. In the latter, and sometimes 
also in the former, the painting is more or less obscurely macu- 
lated with white, but the specimens before me sufficiently indi- 
cate the identity of these species. 

C. ENCAUSTUS, Kiener. PL 5, figs. 82, 83. 

Spire depressed, grooved and coronated with tubercles, body- 
whorl with distant punctured grooves, more strongly and closely 
grooved towards the base; clouded with chocolate- and ash-color, 
and encircled with numerous chocolate and white spots in lines ; 
aperture purplish. Length, 1'25 mill. 

Marquesas Islands. 

C. pr&text us, Reeve (fig. 83), is a synonym. 

C. MILTARIS, Hwass. PL 5, figs. 84-90 ; PL 27, fig. 12. 

Shell with spire more or less raised, striate or sometimes nearly 
smooth, with or without tubercles; bocty-whorl striate, the stride 
usually grannlous towards the base, and sometimes throughout ; 
yellowish or light chestnut or grayish, variously clouded with 
darker chestnut or olive, often irregularly light-banded at the 
middle, and below the spire, and encircled with chestnut spots 
on the strife ; interior chocolate, with a central white band. 

Length, '75-1-25 inches. 

lied Sea to Isle of Bourbon and Natal, 

and to Sandwich and Galapagos Islands. 



22 CON us. 

A species of wide distribution, and apparently everywhere 
common. There is considerable variation in the height and cor- 
onation of the spire, as well as in the color and pattern of the 
markings, and the consequence has been the description of 
several species, which the large series of specimens before me 
compels me to unite. C. minimus of Linnaeus has been identi- 
fied with members of this group, but, as pointed out by Dr. 
Weinkauff, erroneously. The latter author has made C. minimus 
C. achatinus. Hanley did not find any shell labeled minimus 
in the Linnean collection. The synonyms include G. tiaratus, 
Brod. (fig. 85 j, C. fulgetrum, Sowb. (fig. 86), C. scaber, Kiener 
(fig. 87), and C. coronatus, Dillw. 

Tar. ABBREVIATUS, Nuttall. PI. 5, fig. 89. 

The spots are more distant and somewhat more regularly 
disposed. 

Sandwich Island*. 

C. BarbadensiSj Hwass (not Reeve), is probably identical, and 
does not inhabit the West Indies. 

Tar. ARISTOPHANES, Duclos. PI. 5, fig. 90. 

Shell violaceous gray, somewhat clouded with pink-white, the 
revolving lines milk-white, interrupted by chestnut short dashes 
and spots. 

Red Sea, Philippines, Polynesia. 
C. BACCATUS, Sowb. PI. 6, fig. 92. 

Shell minutely decussated, with regular rows of conspicuous 
granules ; whitish, with large orange blotches arranged in three 
bands ; spire-whorls concave, nearly smooth ; body-whorl with a 
biangulate shoulder. Length, 23 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a unique specimen in the collection of Dr. 
Prevost, of Alenon. 

C. REFLECTUS, Sowb. PI. 6, fig. 91. 

Shell pear-shaped, anteriorly granulated, otherwise smooth, 
very minutely coronated, spire closely grooved ; whitish, with 
two broad bands of rose-color clouded with brown. 

Length, 25 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen. 



CONUS. 



23 



C. T^NIATUS, Hwass. PL 6, fig. 93. 

Shell indistinctly zoned alternately with pale violaceous and 
white, vividly encircled with fillets of dark chocolate and white 
articulations ; spire obsoletely coronated. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Red Sea, Ceylon, China. 

Very close to C. genuanus in general appearance, but the 
articulations are more regular in size and position, the spire is 
slightly tuberculate. 

C. CEYLONENSIS, Hwass. PL 6, figs. 94-100. 

Shell coronated, with rather depressed spire, granular striate 
towards the base ; white, variously marbled with chestnut, often 
obscurely white-banded at the upper part and below the middle 
of the body-whorl, base tinged with violet. 
Length, -t5-'9 inch. 

Red Sea, Ceylon, West Africa, Mauritius, Australia, 

New Caledonia, Polynesia to Sandwich Is., 

Mazatlan, Cape St. Lucas. 
C. mix, Brod. (fig. 95), and C. pusillus, Gould, are synonyms. 

Yar. ACUTUS, Sowb. PL 6, fig. 96. 

Spire more elevated, shell smaller. 

Ceylon. 
Var. PUSILLUS (Chemn.\ Auct. PL 6, fig. 97. 

Shell white with revolving rows of chestnut spots. Varies 
from Ceylonensis in the same way that var. abbreviatus does 
from miliaris. 

Var. TENUISULCATUS, Sowb. PL 6, fig. 98. 

Lower half of the body-whorl finely sulcate ; white marbled 
with light chestnut, with two darker ba'nds, which are flecked 
with white ; base and aperture violaceous. 

Mauritius. 
Var. SPONSALIS, Chemn. PL 6, fig. 99. 

Body-whorl somewhat convex on the sides, wide at the shoul- 
der, which is somewhat rounded ; yellowish white, with a few 
chestnut or red zigzag longitudinal markings, forming an inter- 
rupted broad superior, and often a narrower inferior band ; base 
violaceous. 

Philippines, New Caledonia, Polynesia. 



24 CONUS. 

This is possibly a distinct species ; in which case the preceding 
and following varieties should be placed with it. 

Var. NANUS, Brod. PI. 6, fig. 100. 

Shell usually smaller than the type, white, under a thin, liirht 
3 T ellowish brown epidermis, obsoletely maculated or occasionally 
spotted with chestnut, base violaceous. 

Polynesia, Australia.. 
C. SPECIOSUS, Sowb. PI. 6, fig. 1. 

Spire minutely crenulated ; irregularly marbled with chestnut 
and white. Length, *8 inch. Locality unknown. 

Is probably a juvenile shell; differs from C. Ceylonensis in 
the base being without violet tint. 

C. COUDERTI, Bernardi. PI. 6, fig. 2. 

Spire not crenulated, marbled with chestnut and white, 
obscurely indicating three bands. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Closely related to the foregoing species ; if identical, as sur- 
mised by Dr. Weinkauff, Sowerby 's name will become a synonym. 

C. RUTILUS, Menke. PL 6, fig. 3. 

Shell thin, somewhat inflated, slightly coronated, surface 
covered by close, nearly obsolete revolving stria3 ; brown or 
brick-red, either unspotted or with faint darker dots in revolving 
series. Length, *5 inch. 

Australia, Tasmania. 

C. Macleaijanus and C. Tasmanicus, Tenison- Woods, are syn- 
onyms. 

C. SMITHI, Angas. PL 6, fig. 4. 

Shell not coronated, spirally grooved towards the base ; straw- 
color or pink, clouded with pale chestnut, with (sometimes 
obsolete) revolving lines of chestnut and white articulations, 
and a faint white band; spire maculated with chestnut. 

Length, -5 inch. 

Botany Bay (Brazier) ; Port Stephens, Australia (Cox\ 

Is perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. 

C. PONTIFICALIS, Lam. PL 6, fig. 5. 

Spire couvexly elevated and tuberculated, whole surface 
covered by very fine minutely punctured revolving lines ; epi- 



CONUS. 25 

dermis yellowish olive, very thin, usually persistent in a very 
broad band upon the body-whorl, but absent from narrow 
shoulder and basal bands, which, with the spire, are white. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Tasmania. 

Section YI. YARII. 

CoronaxiS) Stephanoconus and LeptoconuK, in part. 
C. AURANTIUS, Hwass. PI. 6, figs. 6, 7. 

Shell with elevated, tuberculated spire; surface irregularly 
clouded with chestnut or orange and white, and minutely marked 
with interrupted narrow brown or orange revolving lines, more 
or less broken up into articulations ; upon the lower half of the 
body-whorl these lines become striae, and are distantly, minutely 
granular. Length, T5-2 inches. 

Philippines, Molucca*, Neiv Caledonia. 

A narrow shell, with more conical spire than the common West 
Indian species, C. nebulosus. G. leucostictus, Grnel., includes 
several species ; Sowerby*s identification of it may be placed 
here. 

C. VARIUS, Linn. PL 6, figs. 8-10. 

White, marbled with orange, rose, chestnut or chocolate, with 
sometimes revolving lines of spots ; spire with rather small 
tubercles, basal half of body-whorl with revolving grooves, 
upper half of body -whorl with revolving rows of tubercles, which 
become more distinct towards the spire. Length, 25-40 mill. 

Australia, New Caledonia, Philippines, Moluccas. 

The synonyms include C. interruptus, Mawe (fig. 10) = C. 
pulchellus, Sowb., not Swains., = C. Hwassi, A. Ad. 

C. SUPERSCRIPTS, Sowb. PL 6, fig. 11. 

Shell smooth, strongly grooved anteriorly ; whitish tinged 
with blue, irregularly ornamented with large yellowish blotches, 
and encircled by numerous narrow bands composed of letter-like 
spots ; spire grooved, maculated ; aperture tinged with purplish 
brown. Length, 27 mill. 

Madagascar. 

Described from a single specimen in the collection of the 
Marchioness Paulucci, Florence. 



26 CONUS. 

C. BCETICUS, Reeve. PL 6, figs. 12-14. 

Spire striate, slightly tuberculate, body-whorl granular, striate 
towards the base ; white, marbled with chestnut or chocolate, 
with revolving rows of chestnut spots. Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Philippines, Moluccas. 

C. rivularis, Reeve (fig. 13), in which the granules extend 
more or less over the entire surface, may be considered a synonym 
or slight varietj 11 , the variation being in the direction of the pre- 
ceding species. C. albomaculatus, Sowb. (fig. 14), is a similar 
shell, and has priority of publication, but I am not positive as 
to its identity with hoeticus. 

C. MURICULATUS, Sowb. PL 6, fig. 15. 

Shell with straight sides, and short conical spire, the shoulder 
sharply angulated and tuberculated ; body-whorl strongly striate 
towards the base, encircled throughout with lines of granules ; 
white, violet-tinged towards the base, with two light chestnut or 
yellowish brown, broad, irregular and somewhat indistinct bands. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 
C. PLUMBEUS, Reeve. PL 7, figs. 16, IT. 

Shell violaceous, more or less marbled with chestnut, and more 
or less granular on the body-whorl ; spire convex^ conical, 
tuberculated ; aperture violaceous. Length, 1 inch. 

South Africa. 

C. liratus, Reeve, is a juvenile of this species. It is closely 
related to C. muriculalus. 

C. MOLUCCENSIS (Chemn.), Auct. PL T, figs. 18, 19. 

Shell coronated ; yellowish white, marbled and streaked with 
chestnut, with minute revolving lines of granules .which are 
often somewhat articulated red-brown and white. 

Length, 1*6 inches. 

Moluccas. 

The synonyms are C. Stain forthii, Reeve, and C. proximus, 
Sowb. (PL 1, fig. 19); the latter less granulate and apparently 
not fully grown. 

C. MAGELLANICUS, Hwass. PL 7, figs. 20-23 

Shell smooth, with distant revolving striae, the upper ones 
nearly obsolete ; spire concavely depressed, with raised apex and 



CONUS. 27 

somewhat tuberculate ; yellowish with a band of irregular white 
blotches dotted and shaded with chestnut in the centre, and 
smaller ones at the upper part and base ; apex pink. 
Length, 1 inch. 

West Indies 1 

Dr. Weinkauff quotes several West Indian Islands as locali- 
ties for this species, but it is not in the Swift collection of W. I. 
shells, nor does it occur in Mr. Krebs' catalogue. Possibly it is 
a variation -of C. nebulosus, Linn. 

C. specionissimu.8, Reeve (fig. 21), is a variet} r , according to 
Dr. "Weinkauff, and C. Lube.ckianus, Bernard! (fig. 22), is a pale 
example of it. Sowerby considers C. cidaris, Kiener (fig. 23), 
another variety. 

C. CARDINALIS, Hwass. PI. 7, fig. 24. 

Spire tuberculated ; body-whorl encircled by lines of granules ; 
yellowish pink or scarlet-pink, with an irregular central white 
band, which is occasionally spotted with brown. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Lesser Antilles, Venezuela ? 
C. DIANTHUS, Sowb. PL 7, fig. 25. 

Shell rather abbreviately conical, pale pink, with irregular 
patches of orange ; with rather distant revolving ridges and 
faint longitudinal striae, undulating across the ribs and forming 
thereon minute scales; last whorl obscurely coronated; aperture 
pink within. Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. ARCHON, Brod. PI. 7, figs. 26-29. 

Spire concavely elevated, not coronated ; body-whorl smooth, 
slightly striate below ; irregularly marbled with chestnut and 
white, with equidistant chestnut revolving lines bearing white 
spots. Length, 1*5-2*75 inches. 

West Coast of Central America. 

C. castaneus, Kiener (fig. 27), is a synonym. 

Yar. GRANARIUS, Kiener. PI. 7, fig. 29. 

The white spots upon the revolving lines are granularly 
elevated. 

C. sanguineus, Kiener (fig. 28), is a similar shell. 



28 CONUS. 

C. LAMBERTI, Souverbie. PI. 7, fig. 30. 

Shell smooth; orange-brown, with large subtriangular white 
patches, mostly arranged so as to indicate three broad bands. 

Length, 107 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
C. NEBULOSUS, Solander. PI. 7, figs. 31-34. 

Spire concavely elevated, tuberculate, closely striate ; nebu- 
lously painted with orange-brown, chestnut or chocolate and 
white, the latter forming usually an interrupted and irregular 
central band, besides being miscellaneously disposed on other 
parts of the surface ; encircled by close narrow brown lines, 
which are sometimes slightly raised. Length, l*5-2'25 inches. 
West Indies and the adjoining shores of N. and S. America. 

The variations of this beautiful species in the shades and pat- 
tern of coloring are almost endless. It is the C. leucostictus^ 
Gmelin, of Crosse, and includes also the C. Barbadcnsis. of 
Reeve, not Hwass, C. solidus, Chemn., and C. cedo-nulli, Hwass 
(figs. 32-34). The latter has usually been considered a distinct 
species, but its characters of narrower shoulder and spotted 
lines have no distinctive value. 

C. TAYLORIANUS, E. A. Smith. PL 7, fig. 35. 

Spire coronate, body-whorl with punctate revolving grooves ; 
very dark chocolate, with a few white patches. 

Length, 20 mill. 

Australia ? 
C. BBUNNEUS, Gray. PL 7, figs. 36, 37. 

Spire short conical, tuberculate; chestnut-brown, lineated with 
chocolate, with sometimes longitudinal white macnlations form- 
ing a broad central interrupted band, and a few additional 
maculations on other portions of the surface ; base subgranularly 
striate. Length, 1'75 inches. 

W. Coast of Cent. America, Galapagos Is. 

Rather closely related to varieties of C. nebulosux. The uni- 
formly brown-colored specimens = C. diadema, Sowb. (fig. 3(5). 

C. GLADIATOR, Brod. PL 8. fig. 38. 

Spire rather depressed, tuberculate and striate; chocolate- 
brown, variegated with white, disposed in longitudinal streaks, 
with an irregular white band, and more or less distinct revolving 



CONUS. 29 

lines of darker brown ; interior white or tinged with chocolate ; 
epidermis fibrous. Length, 1/25-1/75 inches. 

West Coast of Cent. America. 
Too closely allied to C. brunneus. 

C. SUFFUSUS, Sowb. PL 8, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell tuberculate on the spire, entire surface with revolving- 
fine striae, becoming faint or obsolete above ; rosy, more or less 
faintly three- or four-banded with light chestnut; epidermis thin, 
light olivaceous. Length, 2-25 inches. 

New Caledonia. 

Crosse's var. Noumeensix (fig. 40) can be united with the 
typical suffusus, its distinctive character being slight. 

C. PRINCEPS, Linn. PL 8, figs. 41-43. 

Shell with low, distantly but distinctly tuberculated spire, and 
direct sides, slightly striate at the base; yellowish brown, orange 
or pink, sometimes without markings, but usually with irregular 
longitudinal chestnut or chocolate strigations most of which are 
continuous from spire to base, and varying from fine and close 
to heavier and more distant markings ; interior yellow or pink ; 
epidermis dark brown, fibrous, with distant revolving series of 
tufted spots. Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

West Coast of Central America. 

The broad-striped state is C. regius, Chemn. (fig. 42) ; that 
with the stripes obsolete, C. lineolatux, Val. (fig. 43). 

Section VI I. AMMIRALES. 
Leptoconu8,Wdrcb. Rhizoconus, Morch, pars. 
C. AMMIR.ALLS, Liijii. PL 8, figs. 44-46. 

Chestnut-color with darker revolving lines, and upper, basal 
and one or two approximate bands, finely reticulated with yellow 
on a white ground ; this pattern is overlaid with large, irregularly 
disposed triangular white spots. Length, 2 - 5 inches. 

Madagascar, Ceylon, Mauritius, East Indies, 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 

C. archithalassus, Dillw. (fig. 45), is a variety with coronated 
spire ; in another variety figured by Kiener (fig. 46), the revolving 
lines are elevated into granules. 



30 CONUS. 

C. NOBILIS, Linn. PL 8, figs. 4T-49. 

Spire depressed, with sulcate and finely striate volutions, 
shoulder-angle sharp ; yellowish brown or chestnut, with close 
revolving lines of numerous small chestnut spots, whole surface 
irregularly overlaid by triangular large white spots. 

Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Philippines, Moluccas, Andaman Is. 

C. cordigerus, Sowb. (fig. 48), and G. victor, Brod. (fig. 49), are 
synonyms. 

C. TIIALASSIARCHUS, Gray. PL 8, figs. 50, 51. 

Spire depressed and nearly smooth, with a sharp angle ; white, 
longitudinally and angularly reticulated with chestnut lines, 
chocolate-tinted at the base ; sometimes with an irregular central 
white band covered by revolving lines of spots, and occasionally 
with yellowish bands above and below the latter and similarly 

spotted. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Philippines, Eed Sea (Jickeli). 

C. castrensis, Grould, has priority of publication, but as that 
name has not obtained currency, it is, perhaps, best not to 
revive it. 

C. AMADIS (Martini), Auct. PL 8, fig. 52. 

Spire striate, channeled, concavely elevated, sharp-pointed, 
shoulder-angle sharp ; lower part of body-whorl punctured- 
grooved; orange-brown to chocolate-colored, thickly covered 
with lar^e and small subtriangular white spots, which by their 
varied disposition sometimes form a white central band, or dark 
bands ^bove and below the centre the latter occasionally bearing 
articulated revolving lines. Length, 2*5-3'5 inches. 

Ceylon, Java, New Caledonia, Polynesia. 

C. WEINKAUFFII, Lobbecke. PL 8, fig. 53. 

Spire gradate ; body-whorl striate towards the base ; whitish, 
encircled by numerous alternate rows of large and small oblong 
chocolate blotches. Length, 80 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
C. COXENI, Brazier. PL 9, fig. 58. 

Shell fusiform, thick, heavy, with twenty deep, spiral punctated 



CONUS. 3 1 

lines below, and three at the shoulder-angle ; marked with brown 
flames and white and brown dots in revolving series. 
Length, 1-25 inches. 

Moreton Bay, Australia. 

C. ACUMINATUS, Hwass. PL 8, fig. 54 ; PL 9, fig. 55. 

Spire channeled, concavely elevated ; yellowish or pink-white, 
with a network of chestnut or chocolate; sometimes indistinctly 
banded, with lines of spots on the bands; aperture generally 
rose-tinted. Length, 1'5-1'75 inches. 

Red Sea. 

Besides being smaller, the pattern of coloring on this shell 
differs from that of C. Amadis by being reticulated rather than 
triangularly spotted. C. insigms, Sowb., is a synonym. 

Yar. CUNEATUS, Sowb. PL 9, fig. 55. 

Shell not reticulated ; pink-white, with two pale yellow bands 
and a very few chestnut spots on the body-whorl and spire ; 
aperture rosy. At first sight appears distinct. Jickeli has 
figured it as a variety, in his paper on the Cones of the Red Sea. 

C. SCHECH, Jickeli. PL 9, fig. 56. 

Shell narrow; yellowish, reticulated with chestnut or choco- 
late, with two broad, spotted dark bands. Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Eed Sea. 

Is perhaps only an extreme variety of C. acuminatus, Hwass. 
It is the C. Neptunus of Kiener (not Reeve), and is figured by 
Sowerby as a variety of C. Amadis. 

C. NODULOSUS, Sowb. PL 9, fig. 59. 

Shell with elevated, channeled spire ; yellowish, delicately and 
openly reticulated with chestnut ; aperture roseate. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Australia (Taylor collection). 

The locality is very doubtful, as is also the claim of the shell 
to recognition as a species distinct from C. acuminatus. 

C. LUCTIFICUS, Reeve. PL 9, fig. 60. 

Spire rather elevated, channeled ; body-whorl with straight 
sides, closely grooved towards the base ; whitish, stained and 
longitudinally streaked with reddish brown, and encircled with 



32 CONUS. 

interrupted fillets of a darker brown, leaving a whitish hand 
around the centre and along the upper margin; spire tessellated. 

Length, 37 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Dr. Weinkauff supposes this to be a variety of C. acuminatus, 
Hwass ; it appears to me to be too close to C. monile, Hwass. 

C. BIFASCIATUS. Sowb. PI. 9, fig. 61. 

Shell rosy white, with a chestnut band on the spire, one above 
the middle and another at the base of the body-whorl. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

An obscure species, only known by Sowerby's figure and A. 
Adams' description of C./asciatus (preoccupied). 

C. SPICULUM, Reeve. PL 9, fig. 62. 

Shell narrowly fusiform, with greatly elevated spire ; body- 
whorl ridged at the base ; whitish, with a few chestnut spots. 

Length. 1 inch. 

Philippines. 

Said hy Reeve to differ from the young of C. generalis ; it is, 
however, undoubtedly a young shell. Several specimens occurred 
to C uming, dredged at 25 fathoms. 

C. SUBCAUINATUS, Sowb. PL 9, fig. 63. 

Shell smooth, silicate towards the base ; white, tinted with 
very light purple, with brown, angulated longitudinal flames, 
interrupted by a central white band ; a variety has two wide 
bands, ornamented with interrupted revolving lines. 

Length, 40 mill. 

Nicobar Ides. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

C. FULGURANS, Hwass. PL 9, figs. 65, 66. 

Shell ovately conical, rather solid, spire broadly channeled, 
base distantly grooved ; white, with rust-brown flexuous longi- 
tudinal flames, and a white central band, with revolving row of 
spots. Length, 40 mill. 

Moluccas j N. Australia (Brazier). 

Dr. Weinkauff makes C. eximius, Reeve (fig. 66), = the young 
of this species. 



CON US. oo 

C. MALACCANUS, Hwass. PL 9, fig. 64. 

Spire slightly convex, apex elevated, flatly channeled ; base 

snlcate ; white, doubly banded with pale orange-red, the lower 

band being the wider, variegated between the bands by chestnut 
longitudinal lines and clouds, and occasional revolving series of 
short lines the latter often bordering the bands also. 

Length, 2'5 inches. 

Ceylon, Nicobar Is., Malacca. 

Nearly the same pattern of coloring as in C. generalis, but 
differing in the revolving short lines. 

C. DELESSERTIANUS, Reclnz. PL 9, fig. 67. 

Shell with concavely elevated, sulcated spire, body-whorl 
grooved towards the base; yellowish white, three-banded with 
orange-brown, spotted and flamed with chestnut. 

Length, 2'3 inches. 

Isl. of Socotra, E. Africa. 

Somewhat peculiar in its elevated spire and acuminated body, 
whorl. 

C. CENTURIO, Born. PL 9, fig. 68. 

Whorls of the rather low spire with shallow sulcus, body-whorl 
grooved towards the base; yellowish brown, two-banded with 
white, the whole surface overlaid with longitudinal flames and 
short streaks and zigzags of chestnut-color ; spire chestnut- 
flamed. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Went Indies, Venezuela, Guiana. 

C. ANABATIIRUM, Crosse. PL 9. fig. G9. 

Spire elevated, gradate, body-whorl grooved towards the base; 
pale yellowish brown, with a central white band and scattered 
white maculations, obscureLy encircled by lines of light chestnut 
spots. Length, 1 inch. 

Hob. unknown (Crosse) ; Mauritius (Weinkauff). 

C. ARTICULATUS, Sowb. PL 9, fig. 70. 

Chestnut-colored, with revolving lines articulated with choco- 
late and white, a central white band and another below the angle 
of the spire. Length, 18 mill. 

Mauritius. 

Dr. Weinkauff ma^es this a synonym of the preceding species. 



34 CONUS. 

C. TEGULATUS, Sowerby. PI. 9, fig. 71. 

Shell rather narrow, with concavely elevated spire ; body- 
whorl distantly sulcate throughout, between the sulci planilirate ; 
white, with chestnut linear spots arranged in longitudinal flam- 
mules, giving a tessellated appearance, and forming two obscure 
bands. Length, 21 mill. 

China Sea. 
C. MACABRE, Bernardi. PI. 9, fig. 12. 

Orange-brown, with fine, close, faint chestnut revolving lines, a 
white band on the middle and another at the shoulder of the 
body-whorl, both marked or bordered by irregular chestnut 
blotches. Length, 40 mill. 

Mauritius. 
C. MONILE, Hwass. PI. 9, fig. 73. 

Spire nearly plane, with raised apex, chestnut-flamed ; body- 
whorl closely striate below, and generally chestnut-stained at 
the base ; white, with oblique flames, spots and short lines of 
chestnut arranged in revolving series. 

Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Ceylon, Java, Philippines. 

C. GENERALIS, Linn. PL 9, fig. 74 ; PL 27, fig. 4. 

Spire rather plane, with acuminate, raised apex; orange-brown 
to chocolate, irregularly white-banded at the shoulder, in the 
middle, and at the base, the bands overlaid with zigzag or irreg- 
ular chocolate-colored markings. Length, 2'5 inches. 
Red Sea, Ceylon, Isle of Bourbon, E. Africa, 

E. Indies, Philippines, N. Caledonia. 
C. spiroglossus, Desh. (fig. 4), is a juvenile of this species. 

. MALDIVUS, Hwass. PL 9, fig. 75 ; PL 10, fig. 76. 

Shell encircled by distant revolving lines of small spots ; 
sometimes irregularly clouded with white, not forming bands ; 
at other times irregularly banded. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Eed Sea, Ceylon, Mas/car ene and Maldiue Is. 

Is possibly only a variety of C. generalis. 

C. TRAVERSIANUS, Smith. PL 10, fig. 86. 

Shell narrow, distantly sulcate, the upper sulci nearly obsolete ; 
pale pink, with two broad orange-red bands, and with revolving 



CONUS. 

lines of red and white articulations ; aperture rose-colored ; spire 
grooved, dotted with red and white at th^ sutures. 

Length, 43 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. BAYANI, Jousseaume. PI. 10, fig. 87. 

White, with longitudinal streaks and clouds of light chestnut, 
forming two interrupted broad bands', .upon which are vestiges 
of a few narrow revolving lines of chocolate. Length, 55 mill. 

? Isle of Bourbon. 
C. GUESTIERI, Lorois. PI. 10, fig. 88. 

Shell with distant revolving grooves ; orange-brown, with a 
narrow central band of white maculations ; spire tessellated, 

striate. Length, 14 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
Probably a young shell. 

C. VOLUMINALIS, Hinds. PI. 10, figs. 77, 78. 

Shell whitish or yellowish white, usually faintly lined with 
yellow or light chestnut, with two bands of irregular longitudinal 

light chestnut blotches. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Malacca. 
Var. FLORIDULUS, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 78. 

Rosy white, the bands more continuous, base violet-tinted. 
C. LORENZIANUS, Chemn. PI. 10, fig. 79. 

Shell pinkish white, longitudinally interruptedly strigate with 
chestnut, forming, by the regular breaks, numerous revolving 
zones. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

West Indies (Weinkauff). 

The locality given for this species is very uncertain. 

C. VIRGATUS, Reeve. PL 10, figs. 80-82. 

Shell pinkish white, rather narrow, continuously but irregu- 
larly longitudinally strigate with chestnut. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

W. Coast of Central America. 

This is the C. Lorenzianus and C. zebra of Reeve's Iconica. 
C. Cunringii, Reeve, in part (fig. 81), and C. sanguinolentus, 
Reeve (fig. 82), are varieties in which the longitudinal striga- 
tions are obsolete, or nearly so. 

C. SCALARIS, Yalenc. PI. 10, fig. 83. 

Spire elevated, gradate, maculated with chestnut ; body-whorl 



36 CONUS. ' 

somewhat acuminate below; yellowish white with brown-chestnut 

longitudinal strigations, scarcely interrupted for a narrow central 
white band, and replaced towards the base by a few revolving 
rows of chestnut markings. Length, 3 inches. 

Panama to Gulf of California. 

C. FLAVESCENS, Gray. PI. 10, fig. 84. 

Shell smooth, grooved towards the base ; yellowish, variegated 
with large irregular white blotches, arranged mostly just below 
the shoulder-angle, and below the middle of the body-whorl, so 
as to form two interrupted bands. Length, '75-1 inch. 

So. Australia? Ceylon 1 ? 
C. LARGILLIERTI, Kiener. PI. 10, fig. 85. 

Spire rather elevated, maculated ; light chestnut, with darker 
revolving lines of spots, and usually a white central band. 

Length, 1 25-l'T5 inches. 

Yucatan. 

This is the C. Japonicus, Brng., according to Mr. Sowerby, 
but Kiener's identification of that undetermined species is quite 
different. 

C. PEALIT, Green. PL 10, figs. 89-92. 

Spire conically elevated ; body-whorl grooved on the lower 
half; yellowish, maculated with chestnut, with numerous white 
and chestnut dots arranged in revolving lines ; spire sparingly 
strigate with chestnut, the strigations give the appearance of 
depressions upon the sharp angle of the body-whorl, so that at 
first sight this appears as though coronated. 

Length, '75-1 25 inches. 

Florida, Bahamas. 

C. Stearnsii, Conrad (fig. 91), and C. candidus, Kiener (fig. 
92), are synonyms. 

C. LEMNISCATUS, ReCVC. PI. 10, fig. 93. 

Shell with slightly contracted sides ; spire acuminated with 
strong growth-lines; body-whorl delicately ridged throughout ; 
whitish, maculated with chestnut, and every alternate ridge 
chestnut-spotted. Length, 1*5 inches. 

]]<i!>itdt in//,-/ 

C. urifjifteifHS, Sowerby, was described sixteen] years later from 
the same specimen. 



CONUS. 37 

C. CLERTT, Reeve. PL 10, fig. 94. 

Shell finely rtclged throughout ; white, variegated with choco- 
late longitudinal, flammules and streaks. Length, 1'25 inches* 

Brazil, Venezuela, West Indies. 

C. MINUTUS, Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 95 a. 

Shell flesh-color, with two approximate, central brown bands. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Island of St. Vincent, West Indies. 

This is a very young shell, and should not have been described 
as a distinct species, as its adult state is very probably known 
under another name. 

C. EMARGINATUS, Reeve. PL 10, figs. 95, 96. 

Shell with conically elevated, channeled spire; body-whorl 
grooved below, its sides concave ; white, longitudinally streaked 
and flamed with chocolate. Length, 45 mill. 

Venezuela to Brazil. 

Very probably equals C. Clerii, from which it differs mainly 
in the want of striae on the upper portion of the body-whorl, 
and its somewhat more concave sides. C. lentiginosus, Reeve 
(fig. 96), is considered a variety by Dr. Weinkauif. 

C. VILLEPINI, Bernardi and Fischer. PL 10, fig. 97. 

Shell smooth, with sharply angled shoulder, grooved towards 
the base, and striate spire ; yellowish white, with chocolate 
mac illations forming three obscure bands. Length, 30 mill. 

Marie Galante, West Indies. 

Is possibly a variety of C. emarginatus. 

C. REGULARIS, Sowb. PL 11, figs. 98-2. 

Shell white or yellowish white, with chestnut-chocolate macu- 
lations and spots, variously arranged in revolving series ; some- 
times the ground-color of the shell is chestnut, with dark 
chocolate markings and chocolate aperture ; spire somewhat 
concavely elevated, with acute apex ; epidermis thin, smooth, 
translucent. Length, l'5-2*5 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan, Guaymas. 

One of the most characteristic species of the West Coast of 
Mexico. Its synonyms include C. dispar, Sowb. (fig. 2), C. 
incur viiSj Kiener (fig. 100), and G. anyulatus, A. Ad. (fig. l\ 



38 CONUS. 

C. SELECTUS, A. Adams. PL 11, fig. 3. 

Shell thin, encircled by brown punctate lines, ^contracted and 
sulcate at the base, slightly swollen at the sides, acutely angulate 
at the spire. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

A species of doubtful validity, not very different from the 
following. 

C. FLORIDANUS, Gabb. PI. 11, figs. 4, 5. 

Spire elevated, somewhat tabulate ; body-whorl with straight 
sides, grooved towards the base ; yellowish white, mottled and 
streaked with chestnut, with an obscure central white band, and 
another narrower one at the shoulder, between the bands often 
encircled with rows of brown spots. Length, 1-4-2 inches. 

Florida, Bahamas. 

C. Floridensis, Sowb. (fig. 5), is a synonym. 

C. SIEBOLDII, "Reeve. PI. 11, figs. 6, T. 

Spire rather elevated, the sutures sharply carinate ; body- 
whorl narrow, grooved below; white, with a few central 
chestnut blotches. Length, 2 inches. 

Japan, China. 

C. rarimaculatus, Sowb. (fig. 7), is probably the young of 
this species. 

C. PAPILLARIS, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 11, fig. 8. 

Spire elevated, somewhat tabulate, finely tuberculated ; white, 
longitudinally streaked in a clouded manner with orange-brown. 

Length, 1'75 inches. 

Borneo. 
C. GRADATULUS, Sowb. PL 9, fig. 57. 

Spire elevated, gradate, with channeled whorls; body-whorl 
roseate ; with three series of longitudinal maculations of 
chestnut-color, forming interrupted bands ; aperture ros}^ 

Length, 1*75 inches. 

Agulhas Ba,nk, So. Africa. 

Described b}' Sowerby as C. turritus, a name preoccupied by 
Lamarck for a fossil species. 

C. OPTABILIS, A. Ad. PL 11, fig. 9. 

Spire elevated, slightly gradate, body-whorl slightly grooved 
towards the base ; color uniform roseate. Length, *8 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 



CONUS. 39 

A doubtful species ; it may possibly = the preceding, but is 
proportionally stouter. 

C. MAZEI, Desk. PI. 11, fig. 10. 

Shell long and narrow, with striated, conical spire, and smooth 
body-whorl, at base distantly punctate-striate ; yellowish white, 
with rather distant rows of chestnut spots. Length, 60 mill. 

Martinique ; deep sea. 

A remarkable species, of which a single specimen was obtained 
as above. 

Section VIII. CAPITANET. 
Rhizoconus, pars, Morch. 

C. SUMATRENSIS, Hwass. PL 11, figs. 11, 12. 

Spire usually somewhat convex, striate, white, broadly flamed 
with chocolate; body-whorl white or yellowish brown, with 
irregular chocolate longitudinal strigations ; partially interrupted 
so as to form a central white band. Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Red Sea ; ? Sumatra. 

Var. NEMOCANUS, Hwass. Plate 11, fig. 12. 

The longitudinal markings are less defined, broader, and give 
a darker shade to the shell. 

Red Sea, E. Indies, Mauritius, Philippines, N. Caledonia. 

C. badius, Kiener, and C. Isevigatus, Sowb. (in part), are syn- 
onymous. 

C. VEXILLUM, Gmelin. PI. 11, figs. 12 a, 13, 14. 

Shell large and rather thin ; spire striate ; yellowish or chestnut- 
color, with an irregular white central band, sometimes obso- 
lete, and occasionally another interrupted band at the shoulder ; 
spire variegated with white and chestnut broad flames, the latter 
often overlaying also the lighter chestnut of the bod} -whorl. 

Length, 3-4*5 inches. 

E. Africa, Ceylon, Java, Philippines, 

N. Caledonia, Samoan Isles. 

This species includes C. laevigatus, Sowb., pars (fig. 13), and 
possibly C. Robillardi, Bern. (fig. 14) ; the latter a young shell. 



40 CONUS. 

C. CONGO LOR, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 15. 

Spire striate ; entire surface uniform cinnamon-brown color, 
encircled on the body-whorl by narrow brown lines. 

Length, 2 inches. 

. Indi a, China. 

Perhaps only a variety of the preceding species. 

C. MUTABILTS (Chemn.), Auct. PI. 12, figs. 19, 20. 

Shell somewhat swollen above, spire striate ; light yellowish 
brown, variegated b % y darker strigations, and faint revolving- 
lines or rows of spots, often indistinctly lighter-banded in the 
middle. Length, T75-2-5 inches. 

Red Sea, E. Indies, China. 

C. hyaena, Reeve, not Hwass (fig. 20). is a synonym. 

C. MILES, Linn. PI. 11, fig. 16 ; PL 27, fig. 11. 

Spire obsoletely tuberculate or smooth ; rather depressed ; 
body-whorl spirally ridged at the base ; yellowish white, with 
close narrow thread-like longitudinal chestnut strigations, inter- 
rupted by a chocolate revolving band above the middle, base 
stained chocolate ; aperture banded, chocolate and white. 
Length, 2-4 inches. 

E. Africa, Ceylon, Japan, Philippines, 

N. Caledonia, Central Polynesia. 

C. CAPITANEUS, Linn. PL 12, figs. 21-24 ; PL 11, figs. It, 18. 

Spire low, striate, flamed with chocolate and white ; body- 
whorl yellowish, or orange-brown, encircled by rows of chestnut 
dots, usually stained chocolate at the base, there is a central 
white band, with chocolate hierogtyphic markings on either side, 
and a shoulder-band, crossed by chocolate smaller longitudinal 
markings ; aperture chocolate, with a white band. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Ceylon, Philippines, Australia, N. Caledonia, 

Polynesia, Mauritius. 

Var. MUSTELINUS, Hwass. PL 11, figs. 17,18 ; PL 12, figs. 23, 24 ; 

PL 21, figs. 5, 6. 

The border-markings of the bands reduced to spots, the other 
revolving spots of the typical form absent. Clearly connected 
with the type by intermediate states. 



CON US. 41 

C. citrinus, Kiener (fig. 18), and C. sulphuraius, Kiener (fig. 
17), are half-grown and young specimens; C. tennis, Sowb. (PI. 
27, fig. 5), is another young shell, but differing in color. 

Var. CECILIA, Chenu. PL 12, fig. 24 : PL 27, fig. 6. 

Shell colored like the type, but encircled with punctations 
impressed in lines. 

C. classiarius, Kiener (PL 12, fig. 24), is probably identical. 

C. RATTUS, Hwass. PL 12, figs. 25-27. 

Shell yellowish brown or ash-color, often with fine close chest- 
nut revolving lines, with large white spots and maculations 
usually forming an interrupted central band and another at the 
shoulder. Length, 1'25-1'75 inches. 

Eed Sea, Ceylon, New Caledonia, Tahiti, etc. 

C. Taheitensis, Hwass (fig. 26), is a color-variety of this spe- 
cies, and C. viridis, Sowb. (fig. 27), is an unusually colored 
juvenile. 

C. SEMIVELATUS, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 29. 

Shell plum-color, indistinctly light-banded in the middle and 
on the shoulder; aperture purple. Length, 16 mill. 

Red Sea. 
C. LISCIIKEANUS, Weinkauff. PL 12, fig. 28. 

Whorls of the spire with shallow channel, body-whorl smooth, 
striate at the base; sulphur-yellow, without ornamentation except 
maculations on the spire ; aperture white. Length, 52 mill. 

Japan. 

Resembles C. mutabilis, Chemn., but is immediately distin- 
guished by its channeled spire. 

C. CLASSIAIUUS, Hwass. PL 12, figs. 30-34. 

Shell olive-brown, or ash-color, with a white central band, and 
usually another obsolete one below the shoulder-angle, encircled 
by numerous chestnut and white articulated lines ; spire macu- 
lated with chestnut ; aperture light chocolate with central white 
band. Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Red Sea. 

C. Blainmllei, Kiener, and C. splendidulus, Sowb. (fig. 31), are 
identical, and C. Ruppellii, Reeve (fig. 32), and C. adastus, Sowb. 
'(fig. 33), are young shells. " 



42 CONUS. 

Var. PAZII, Bernardi. PI. 12, fig. 34. 

Shell whitish, with irregular orange-brown longitudinal macu- 
lations, interrupted to form a white band at the shoulder, another 
at the middle, and a third at the base of the body-whorl; every- 
where encircled with small spots in revolving series. 

C. TRIGONUS, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 35. 

Somew r hat triangularly ovate, grooved at the base ; spire 
depressed, five-grooved, sharp at the apex; white, stained and 
banded with reddish brown, and encircled with numerous narrow 
delicately articulated filaments ; spire tessellated. 

Length, 1'25 inches. 

Philippines. 
C. AUREOLUS, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 36. 

Spire rather depressed, with sharp apex, body-whorl striate 
below ; yellowish, with light chestnut spots in revolving series. 

Length, '15-1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

The specimen of largest dimension is before me ; it agrees 
perfectly with Sowerby's figure, and certainly is not fully grown. 

C. COFFEA, Gmelin. PL 12, figs. 37-39. 

Shell yellowish brown, white-banded in the middle and less 
distinctly so at the shoulder and base of the body-whorl ; these 
bands are sometimes maculated, like the spire, with chestnut, 
and there are, on the darker portions, occasional faint chestnut 
revolving lines. Length, 2 inches. 

Red Sea, East Africa, Malacca. 

Closely united in characters with G. rattus, of which it may 
be only a variety ; partakes also of the characters of C. classia- 
rius, and less distinctly of G. capitaneus. It is not unlikely that 
these species, with G. mustelinus, will need to be united when 
we become better acquainted with the variations of the Cones. 
C. excavatus, Sowb. (fig. 38), and C. incarnatus, Reeve (fig. 39), 
are respectively fine and pale-colored varieties of G. coffea. 

C. TURBINATUS, Sowb. PL 12, fig. 40. 

Shell yellowish brown, with several narrow, lighter bands; 
grooved towards the base. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 



CONUS. 



43 



C. VITTATUS, Lam. PL 13, figs. 41-44. 

Shell pink-brown, maculated or strigatecl longitudinally with 
light chestnut, with chestnut-dotted revolving striae, and a ceritrai- 
white, chestnut maculated band ; spire convex maculated with 
chestnut. Length, 2 inches. 

Panama, Real Llejos. 

C. Cumingii, Reeve, in part (fig. 42), said to have been col- 
lected by Mr. Cuming at the Philippine Islands, appears to be 
synonymous. 

Yar. ORION, Brod. PL 13, figs. 43, 44. 

Shell broader and more angular at the shoulder, spire not 
convex ; color dark brown, with similar maculated white bands, 
and rather continuous revolving lines of darker brown. C. Heno- 
quei, Bernardi (fig. 44), is probably identical. 

Section IX. VIRGINES. 
Lithoconus, pars, Mo'rch. 

C. YIRGO, Linn. PL 13, figs. 45, 46. 

Shell solid, rounded below the shoulder-angle, spire flatly 
convex, slightly striate throughout, more distinctly at the base ; 
pale yellowish brown, tinged with violet at the base. 

Length, 2-5-3'5 inches. 

Red Sea, E. Africa, Ceylon, Philippines, 

New Caledonia, Polynesia,. 

The shells figured by Reeve, Weinkauff and Sowerby for C. 
pastinaca, Lam., are probably worn specimens of this species. 
C. pastinaca is a doubtful species, the specimens in the 
Lamarckian collection at Geneva including, besides the above 
form, others lined like C. quercinus. 

Yar. GOSLING, Crosse. PL 13, fig. 46. 

Spire nearly plane, body-whorl a little swollen below, and 
twisted so as to form a very oblique slight columellar fold. 

New Caledonia. 



44 CONUS. 

C. EMACIATUS, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 4f. 

Shell narrow, with depressed conical spire, ridged-striate 
throughout ; light yellow, violet-stained at the base. 

Length, 1-5 inches. 

Java, Philippines, Australia, N. Caledonia, Polynesia. 

Distinguished by its narrower form and raised striae. 

C. FLAVIDUS, Lam. PL 13, figs. 48-50. 

Shell yellowish to orange-brown, with an obscure lighter band 
below the shoulder and in the middle, encircled by ridged striae, 
sometimes nearly obsolete above, base stained purple ; aperture 
orange or violaceous, with a white central band. 

Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

Red Sea, E. Africa, Ceylon, Java, Australia, 

New Caledonia, Polynesia. 

C. Maltzanianus, Weinkauff (fig. 49), is founded on highly 
colored specimens, with more rounded shoulder, the striae 
rather more distant, sometimes subgranulous. These characters 
are common in some of the Tahitian specimens, but have no 
distinctive value. 

C. mirmillo, Crosse (fig. 50), described from a single specimen 
without locality in the Cumingian collection, is of the same 
general character as C. Maltzanianus. 

Yar. PEASEI, Brazier. 

Spire flat" sides slightly contracted in the middle, lip bright 
orange, stained with violet, epidermis thicker and rougher than 
the type. Described by Pease as C. neglectus, a name preoccu- 
pied by A. Adams. Pease subsequently considered it a mere 
variety of C.Jlamdus. 

C. GLOYNEI, Sowb. PL 13, fig. 51. 

Spire slightly coronate, deeply grooved ; dark chestnut, 
lighter banded at the shoulder and in the middle of the body- 
whorl ; aperture white. Length, 26 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. LOMBEI, Sowerby. PL 13, fig. 52. 

Shell smooth, sulcate anteriorly; reddish brown, maculated 
with white at the shoulder ; aperture purplish. Length, 22 mill. 

Mauritius $ 



CONUS. 45 

C. ^GROTUS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 53. 

Shell oblong, turbinated, rather thick, somewhat rudely^ 
twisted at the base, transversely obsoletely striated in a slightly 
waved manner, irregularly longitudinally marked with lines of 
growth ; spire flatly depressed, minutely obsoletely carinated 
towards the apex ; cream-color, marked with rows of very 
minute pale brown dots, leaving a white band in the centre ; 
base dark livid violet. Length, 2 inches. 

Philippines. 
C. LIVIDUS, Hwass. PL 13, figs. 54-57. ' 

Spire coronated, depressed conical, lower half of body-whorl 
distantly striated, and the striae sparsely granulous ; light 
yellowish or olivaceous to orange-brown, tubercles of the spire 
and a band below the shoulder, as well as a central band on the 
body-whorl, white, base and interior violaceous ; epidermis 
somewhat tufted in distant revolving series. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 
Red Sea to Polynesia, E. Africa, Mauritius. 

Differs from C.Jlavidus in having coronated whorls, a char- 
acter which I fear is not specific. C. citrinus, Gmel. (fig. 55', 
as usually, but perhaps incorrectly, identified, belongs here ; 
Quoy, who describes the animal as bright red, calls it C. 
sanguinolentus. 

Yar. SUGILLATUS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 56. 

Tubercles oblique ; spire-whorls flatly channeled, more or less 
stained brown ; the white bands of the body-whorl more dis- 
tinct, the brown surface more or less resolved into very close, 
faintly brown-spotted lines. 

Yar. CREPUSCULUM, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 57. 

Pale yellow, without white bands, of much lighter growth than 
C. lividits, spire obsoletely finely beaded, aperture white. An 
obscure form. Length, 28 mill. 

C. OBLITUS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 58.' 

Shell narrow, with convexly depressed, tuberculated spire, 
body-whorl striate below ; yellowish olivaceous, indistinctly white- 
banded in the middle, tubercles, and a band below the shoulder 
also white, base and aperture violaceous. 

Length, '9-1-25 inches. 

Philippines. 






46 CONUS. 

Dr. Weinkauff makes this a variety of C. livid-its, but it is 
always smaller, much narrower, somewhat differently colored, 
etc. Described by Mr. Reeve as C. elongatus, but that name 
being preoccupied by Chemnitz, he changed it as above ; subse-. 
quently Crosse, ignorant of the change of name made by Reeve, 
proposed to call the species C. Moreleti. 

C. MOUSSONI, Crosse. PL 13, fig. 59. 

Shell minutety coronated, citron-yellow, rarely maculated 
longitudinally with white; aperture and base of columella white. 

Length, 21 mill. 

Seychelles Isles. 
C. PRYNTANIS, Sowb. PL 13, fig. CO. 

Shell strongly coronate ; brown, with a light central narrow 
band; aperture purplish. Length, 35 mill. 

Galapagos Is. 
C. EVELINA, Sowb. PL 13, fig. 61. 

Shell coronated ; yellowish brown, longitudinally striped with 
darker color, with a central pale band. Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Narrower and less strongly tuberculate on the spire than the 
last species. 

C. PRIMULA, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 62. 

Shell light } r ellowish brown, white around the tubercles, with 
a central band of large oblong cream-white spots. 

Length, 1'25 inches, 

Natal, Australia, Polynesia. 

C. CIBIELI, Kiener. PL 13, fig. 63. 

Shell finely coronated, dark brown, with a central whitish 
band. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

This species remains unrecognized ; it appears to differ from 
C. lividus mainly in the absence of violet coloring at the base. 

C. TABIDUS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 64. 

Shell turbinated, slightly pyriform, thin, every where grooved, 
basal grooves wider and rather deep, the others irregular, very 
fine, waved , white, entire surface peculiarly sculptured with 



CONUS. 47 

longitudinal striae, spire rather obtusely convex, obsoletely coro- 
nated. Length, 34 mill. 

West Africa. 
I am not acquainted with this species. 

C. HEPATICUS, Kiener. PI. 14, fig. 65. 

Shell conically turbinatcd ; spire flat-convex, slightly chan- 
neled ; bocty-whorl grooved towards the base ; white, brown- 
stained at the apex. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

An obscure form, of very doubtful specific value. 

C. ALBICANS, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 66. 

Spire depressed, with raised apex, compressedly tuberculate ; 
body-whorl smooth, grooved towards the base ; white, base 
stained with violet-chestnut. Length, 1*7 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

I have before me two specimens, agreeing perfectly with 
Sowerby's figure. The shell differs in form, thickness and 
coloring from all the varieties of C. lividus. 

C. UNICOLOR, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 67. 

Shell long and narrow, spire convex, distantly tuberculate, 
body-whorl smooth, substriate towards the base ; fawn-color, 
tinged with violet, aperture violaceous. Length, 1/7 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

May possibly be a variety of the preceding species. 

C. DISTANS, Hwass. PL 14, figs. 68, 69. 

Shell yellowish fawn-color, obsoletely banded with white at 
the middle and upper part, sometimes the bands are not contin- 
uous, but consist of irregular oblique markings ; body-whorl 
encircled by obsolete impressed lines, stained with violet-chestnut 
towards the base ; spire low, convex, with rather obtuse rounded 
tubercles ; interior white, stained with light violet. 

Length, 2-4*25 inches. 

Isle of Bourbon, Philippines, N. Caledonia, 

N. Zealand, Tahiti, etc. 



48 CONUS. 

Section X. DAUCT. 
Bhizocomis, ex parte, Morch. 
C. DAUCUS, Hwass. PL 14, figs. 70-72. 

Shell lemon- or orange-brown, grooved towards the base, with 
a pale, sometimes interrupted central band, and encircled 
throughout by rows of small chestnut spots often obsolete ; 
spire sometimes maculated with pale chestnut. 
Length, 1-1*75 inches. 

Went Indies. 

C. pastinaca, Kiener (not Lamarck \ and C. Reevei, Kiener 
(fig. 71), are synonyms. 

Var. ARCHETYPUS, Crosse. PI. 14, fig. 72. 

Spire obsoletely tnberculate, body-whorl irregularly banded 
in the middle and at the shoulder with yellowish pink, surface 
otherwise fulvous with rows of small revolving dots; aperture 
orange-red within. Length, 25 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Sowerby and Weinkauff have made this a variety of C. daucus, 
but I am not at all satisfied of this. 

C. NARCISSUS, Lam. PL 14, fig. 73. 

Shell with rounded shoulder and somewhat convex sides and 
spire, grooved towards the base; yellowish or orange-brown, 
sparsely maculated with white, and with an irregular white band 
below the middle ; spire white, maculated with yellowish brown. 

Length, 1'85 inches. 

Tr<>- Indie?. 

A doubtful species, and scarcely a member of this group, 
having more the form of C. Me<lih'.rran<>n#. 

C. oculatus, Gmelin, is a somewhat similarly formed shell, 
yellowish, with white eyes scattered over the surface. It has 
not been identified, and is possibly an artificially ornamented 
shell. 

C. LITHOGLYPHUS, Mcuschcn. PL 14, figs. 74, 75. 

Spire plane-conical, rather low, body-whorl distantly striate, 
the striffi tuberculate towards the base ; d.-irk chestnut, encircled 



CONUS. 49 

at the shoulder and in the middle by white oblique blotches, 
forming interrupted bands, often dark-stained at the base. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Ceylon, Philippines, New Caledonia,. 

C. lacinulatus, Kiener (fig. 75), is a synonym. 

C. ATTENUATUS, Reeve. PI. 14, fig. 76. 

Shell slenderly turbinated, attenuated towards the base, 
smooth; yellow or light orange-brown, longitudinally orna- 
mented with a very few broad, waved white stripes ; spire 
depressed, sharp-angled, tessellated with light orange-brown, 
apex raised, very sharp-pointed. Length, '75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. SEYCHELLENSIS, G. and H. Nevill. 

Shell like C. lithoglyphus, but constricted in the middle of the 
body-whorl, more attenuated at the base, with the whorls of the 
spire more convex ; color uniform bright orange, here and there 
of a lighter shade, faintly stained with light brown at the extreme 
base. Length 39 mill., diam. 19 mill. 

Seychelles Inlands. 

Not figured. The above is a copy of the original description. 

C. SUTORIANUS, Weinkauff. PL 14, fig. 77. 

Shell coronate, sulcate at the base ; orange-brown with a faint 
light central band ; aperture rosaceous ; lower whorls of the 
spire maculated. Length, 18 mill. 

Mauritius. 
C. PULCHELLUS, Swainson. PL 14, figs. 78-80. 

Shell smooth, rather thin, spire low-conical, w r ith revolving 
striae; usually maculated with chestnut; body-whorl striate 
below; yellowish or light chestnut, with large white blotches 
forming a band at the shoulder and another on the middle, 
encircled by narrow chestnut lines, which are often broken up 
into small dots ; base and aperture usually violaceous. 

Length, 1*75-2 inches. 

Ceylon, Philippines, Australia, N. Caledonia. 

In C. cinctus, Swains, (fig. 79), the narrow chestnut lines are 
continuous, the white blotches and interior of aperture are more 
or less suffused with rose-color. C. connectens, A. Ad. (fig. 80), 
is similar. 
4 



50 CONUS. 

C. PLANORBIS, Born. PI. 14, fig. 81. 

Whorls of spire striate, maculate with chestnut ; body-whorl 
with beaded striae below, orange-brown or chestnut, frequently 
light-banded in the middle, and sometimes at the shoulder also, 
base darker-colored. Length, 1-25-2 inches. 

Mauritius, Ceylon, New Caledonia, Philippines, Polynesia. 

This species is called C. senator, Linn., by Reeve and others, 
but the description in the Systema Naturae shows that the iden- 
tification is wrong. Hanley was not able to identify C. senator 
in the Linnean collection. Sometimes the granular striae cover 
the entire surface. 

C. CIRCUMSIGNATUS, Crosso. PI. 14, fig. 82. 

Shell covered with orange-brown upon the body-whorl except 
at the shoulder, base and centre, where occur irregular bands or 
blotches of white, with narrow articulated lines of chestnut and 
white, sparingly maculated with orange-brown. Length, 30 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Dr. Weinkauff makes this the granular variety of C. 
planorbis; he has evidently mistaken the articulations for 
granulations. 

C. CHENUI, Crosse. PL 14, figs. 83, 84. 

Shell thin, with depressed carinate and striate spire, which is 
yellowish, maculated with brown ; body-whorl striated below, 
yellowish, with two series of longitudinal forked and irregular 
dark brown markings, interrupted in the middle and at the base; 
there are traces of distant narrow brown revolving lines ; 
aperture white. Length, 2 inches. 

New Caledonia. 

In the Journal de Conchyliologie, 1874, Crosse says that this 
species is very close to some varieties of C. planorbis, but its 
system of coloration is more elegant. C. Loebbeckeanus, Weink. 
(fig. 84), appears to me to be only a slight color-variation. 
Finally, C. Chenui is closely related to varieties of the next 
species. 

C. LINEATUS (Chemn.), Auct. PI. 14, fig. 85. 

Shell orange-brown to dark chestnut, finely narrowly lineated 
with a darker color, with white blotches arranged in upper, middle 



CONUS. 51 

and basal bands ; spire striated and maculated ; base of shell 
striated, the strise sometimes granular. Length, l'75-2*25 inches. 
Red Sea, East Africa, Ceylon, Philippines, 

Australia, New Caledonia. 

C. VITULTNUS, Hwass. PL 14, figs. 86, 87 ; PL 15, fig. 88. 

Orange-brown to chocolate, with white longitudinal macula- 
tions disposed in bands at the shoulder and below the middle ; 
lower part of body-whorl with granular strise; spire striate and 
maculate. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

Ceylon to Philippines and Polynesia. 

Is probably only a variety of the preceding species, from which 
it is distinguished by the more longitudinal form of the white 
blotches, and the absence of the close revolving color-lines. 

Yar. CARPENTERI, Crosse. PL 15, fig. 88. 

Chestnut-brown, with continuous yellowish bands at the 
shoulder and middle ; spire maculated with chestnut and white. 

Length, 46 mill. 

New Guinea. 
C. AUGUR, Hwass. PL 15, fig. 89. 

Shell creamy white, encircled by close rows of very small 
chestnut dots, with two bands of irregular brown markings, one 
above, the other below the middle of the body-whorl ; spire 
maculated with brown. Length, 1 '75-2*25 inches. 

Ceylon. 
C. LIGNARIUS, Reeve. PL 15, figs. 90-93. 

Pale brown, with fine close lines of chestnut-brown, and one 
or two paler bands; shoulder somewhat obtuse ; spire concavely 
elevated, with acute apex, uniform pale brown. Length, 2 inches. 

Philippines. 
Var. FURVUS, Reeve. PL 15, figs. 91, 92. 

Revolving lines broken up into minute dots, form somewhat 
narrower, some of the spire-whorls finely beaded. Scarcely a 
variety. C. Cecilei, Kiener (fig. 92), is identical.. 

Yar. FASCIATUS, Kiener. PL 15, fig. 93. 

Lines of dots more distant, whitish, with irregular light brown 
bands above and below the middle, base brown-tinted. 

Length, 2 inches. 



52 CONU8. 

C. MULTILINEATUS, Sowb. PI. 15, fig. 94, 

Shell turbinated, wide-shouldered ; reddish chestnut, light- 
banded in the middle, with numerous lines of close-set chestnut 
dots; spire concavely elevated, tuberculate. Length. 40 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Closely allied to C. lignarius, but differs in its wider form, and 
tuberculated spire. Described from a single specimen. 

C. KOBELTII, Lobbecke. PL 15, fig. 95. 

Shell smooth, spire and base striate ; yellowish brown, with a 
lighter median band. Length, 42 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Perhaps only a variety of C. lignarius. 

Section XI. MAGI. 
Pionoconus and Phasmoconus, Morch. 
C. CONSORS, Sowb. PI. 15, figs. 96-100. 

Spire depressed conical, with shallow channel, and revolving 
striae, sometimes tessellated with chestnut ; body-whorl rather 
narrow, somewhat convex, grooved towards the base, somewhat 
round-shouldered, rather thin; white, yellowish and orange- 
brown, variously clouded and indistinctly banded ; aperture 
white. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Moluccas, Philippines, New Caledonia. 

C. carinatuSj Swainson (fig. 97), is placed here by Dr. Wein- 
kauff, and I agree with him, although Mr. E. A. Smith (Jour. 
Linn. Soc., xii, 535) makes it a synonym of G. magus. C. 
anceps (fig. 98), and G. innexits, A. Ad., as well as C. Daullei, 
Crosse (tig. 99), are synonyms. C. ustulatus, Reeve (fig. 100), 
is considered by Mr. E. A. Smith a synonym of G. magus, but 
1 think it more closely allied to C. conso?*s. 

C. FULVOCINCTUS, Crosse. PI. 15, fig. 1. 

Shell with slight revolving grooves, obsolete above ; yellowish 
white, with a broad superior band of orange-brown; epidermis 
tliin. Length, 3 inches. 

W. Coast of Afr iru. 

C. CONSAXGUINKUS, E. A. Smith. PL 15, fig. 2. 

Shell smooth, spire and base grooved ; yellowish white, banded 



CONUS. 53 

with yellowish brown in the middle, with one or two interrupted 
inferior and narrower bands below, apex pink-tinted. Epidermis 

thick. Length, 3'5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Closely allied to C. fuluocinctus, but not so much attenuated 
at the base, spire less elevated, epidermis thicker, more banded. 

C. MAGUS, Linn. PI. 15, figs. 3-10 ; PL 16, figs. 11-14. 

Spire moderate, striate, body-whorl long and rather cylin- 
drical, closely striate below; white, clouded with bluish ash, 
orange-brown, chestnut or chocolate, everywhere encircled by 
narrow chocolate interrupted lines, often separated into some- 
what distant dots, middle of body-whorl usually irregularly 
fasciate with white ; spire tessellated with chestnut or chocolate. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Madagascar, Borneo, Australia, N. Caledonia, 

Philippines, etc. 

This beautiful and common species is very variable in pattern 
and shade of coloring and embraces a large synonymy. 1 place 
here C. raphanus, Hvvass (fig. 4), C. consul, Boivin (fig. 5), C. 
Indicus, C. Circae, C. fenellus, and G. clandestinus, of Chemnitz, 
G. striolatus, Kiener (fig. 6), G. Borneensis, Sowb., not Ad. and 
Reeve (fig. 7), and G. assimilis, A. Ad. (fig. 8). 

Var. FRAUENFELDI, Crosse. PI. 15, fig. 9. 

Yellowish or cream-color, with a few irregular longitudinal 
chestnut or chocolate markings ; spire sparsely maculated. 

Madagascar. 
Var. ROLLANDI, Bernardi. PI. 16, fig. 11. 

Surface covered by equidistant stride, more prominent at the 
base ; white with irregular longitudinal cloudings of chestnut. 

Var. METOALFET, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 10. 

Shell encircled with granular stride, spotted with orange-brown ; 
there are irregular cloudings of orange-brown, and a central 
white band. 

Var. EPISTOMIUM, Reeve. PI. 16, figs. 12-14. 

Shell rather narrow, thin ; white, irregularly clouded with 
orange-brown, forming an irregular central white band; shoulder 
sharply carinated, spire maculated ; btise grooved or striate. 



54 CON us. 

This variety closely connects C. magus with C. consors. C. 
Tasmania, Sowb. (fig. 13), is a somewhat more highly colored 
specimen of this variety, and C. epistomoides, Weink. (fig. 14), 
differs but little. 

C. PERTUSUS, Hwass. PI. 16, figs. 15-17. 

Spire convex, rather obtuse, body-whorl encircled by distant 
punctate striae ; rosy tinged with yellow and interruptedly 
banded with white blotches below the shoulder and in the middle 
of the body-whorl. Length, 2 inches. 

Madagascar, Mauritius, Philippines, Ins. Annaa, etc. 

C.festivus, Chemn. (fig. 16), = am,abilis, Lam., is synonymous. 
C. inquinatus, Reeve (fig. 17), appears to be merely a darker 
colored specimen, chocolate-brown instead of roseate. 

C. SIMPLEX, Sowb. PI. 16, fig. 18. 

Shell oblong, turbinated, rather thin; white, with longitudinal 
irregular chestnut streaks. Length, 2 inches. 

West and South Africa. 

The spire is more elevated, the body-whorl more cylindrical, 
the color-markings more continuous than in C. spectrum yet it 
may be a variety of that species. C. informis, Dillw., is a 
synonym. 

C. rudis, Chemn., is scarcely determinable from the original 
figures, and neither Sowerby nor Reeve has attempted to 
identify it. Dr. Weinkauff, however, adopts it as a species, and 
refers to it, G. informis, Dillw., C. elongatus, Sowb., Thes. 
(part), f. 241, and C. inquinatus, Reeve all of which differ 
utterly in form from the Chemnitzian figures. 

C. SINDON, Reeve. PL 16, fig. 19. 

Shell somewhat ventricosely turbinated, nearly smooth ; white, 
very thickly decussated with exceedingly fine reddish brown 
lines in such a manner as to form two broad transverse bands ; 
spire rather obtusely convex, apex rose-tinted. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species, of which only a single 
individual is known ; it was described from the cabinet of Mr. 
Adamson, of Newcastle, England, and Dr. Weinkauff, apparently 



CONUS. 55 

mistaking that gentleman's name for Adanson, has supplied the 
locality of West Africa. 

C. MISER, Boivin. PI. 16, fig. 20. 

Shell with convex body-whorl and flattened, striate spire ; yel- 
lowish, without maculations, aperture white, dilated in front. 

Length, 27 mill. 

Cape Verd Is. 
C. MERCATOR, Linn. PL 16, figs. 21-23. 

Shell yellowish or ash-gra} 7 , often faintly longitudinally lined 
with chestnut, with a broad band at the shoulder and a narrower 
one at the middle, of white closely reticulated with chestnut. 

Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

West Indies, West Africa. 

Var. DESIDIOSUS, A. Ad. PI. 16, fig. 23. 

Shell chocolate-brown, the bands of reticulations narrower, 
spire more elevated. 

W. Africa. 
C. CUNEOLUS, Reeve. PL 16, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell shortly turbinated, wide at the shoulder, somewhat 
inflated ; chestnut- or chocolate-brown, with small white macula- 
tions, forming an obscure band at the shoulder, and another 
below the middle, as well as somewhat scattered over the rest of 
the surface, including the convex spire. Length, 1*25 inches. 

West Africa. 

C. balteus, Mawe, is a synonym. 

C. NATALIS, Sowb. PL 16, figs. 26, 27. 

Shell oblong, thin, smooth, angulated at the shoulder, sulcate 
below ; roseate, minutely angularly lineate with brown, and 
bifasciate with large maculations, spire maculate. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Natal. 

Weinkauff makes this a variety of C. mercator, but it appears 
to differ considerably in coloration. Sowerby's smaller figure 
(fig. 27) is supposed to represent a young shell of this species. 

C. OLIVACEUS, Kiener. PL 16, figs. 28-31. 

Shell somewhat top-shaped, with rounded shoulder, sulcate 
towards the base ; obscurely marbled with yellowish olive and 



Ob CON US. 

white, with several darker olivaceous bands ; aperture chocolate 
with two or more narrow white bands. Length, 1'25 inches. 

West Africa. 

G. Taslei, Kiener (fig. 29), and C. luridus, A. Ad., are 33010- 
nyms ; the latter is unfigured. 

Yar. IRREGULARIS, Sowb. PL 16, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell bluish ash, tinged with chestnut at the extremities, with 
two white lines, one at the shoulder, the other near the middle, 
overlaid, when perfectly developed, with white zigzag markings. 

C. INFRENATUS, Reeve. PL 16, figs. 32, 33. 

Shell rosy white, encircled by articulated lines of chestnut 
and white spots; apex pink. Length, 1 inch. 

South Africa. 

C. ROSACEUS (Chemn.), Auct. PL It, figs. 34-39. 

Shell yellow rosy, sometimes indistinctly brown-dotted in 
revolving lines, middle usually light-banded, the band maculated 
with chestnut, spire also maculated ; surface finely striated 
throughout. Length, 1-75 inches. 

South Africa. 

This species is the G. aurora of Lamarck, C. Broderipi, 
Kiener, not Reeve, and G. roseo-tinctus, Sowb (fig. 36). 

Var. TINIANUS, Reeve (not Hwass). PL 11, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell thin, striated towards the base ; reddish chestnut clouded 
with gray, and irregularly ornamented with indistinct fillets of 
articulated white and chestnut ; spire obtusely convex, apex 
rose-tinted. 

C. Loveni, Krauss (fig. 38), is essentially similar. 

Yar. SIGNIFER. Crosse. PL 17, fig. 39. 

Shell finely striated, faintly articulated with chestnut and 
white in revolving lines upon a brown-violet surface ; there are 
a few white maculations on the spire, and the upper and lower 
extremities and middle of the body-whorl. Length, 39 mill. 

Hab. unknown (Cuming coll.). 

C. LAMARCKI, Kiener. PL 17, figs. 40-42. 

Shell somewhat inflated, smooth, seriate at the base ; orange- 



CONUS. 57 

brown, maculated with white, forming two irregular bands, 
besides scattered spots. Length, 1/6 inches. 

South Africa-. 

Distinguished from the typical C. rosa,ceus by its more bulbous 
form, partial absence of striae and the pattern of painting; yet 
connecting pretty closely with that form through some of its 
varieties. C. inflatus (fig. 41) and C. citrinus (fig. 42), both of 
Kiener, are varieties. 

C. BRODERIPII, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 43. 

Shell rather thin, a little inflated, encircled by grooves more 
distinct towards the base, and veiy finely pricked ; veiy pale 
flesh}- white, ornamented between the grooves with blotches of 
light orange-brown; spire grooved, apex pointed; aperture rosy. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Moluccas. 
I am not acquainted with this species. 

C. SPECTRUM, Linn. PL 17, figs. 44-49, 51. 

Shell cylindrically turbinated, thin, somewhat inflated, lower 
part of body-whorl with distant revolving grooves ; white, 
variously painted with chestnut longitudinal irregular streaks, 
usually forming three broad series or bands. 

Length, 1/5-2 inches. 

Mauritius, Java, Moluccas, etc. 

C.pica, Ad. and Reeve (figs. 46, 47), and C. subulatus, Sowb., 
not Kiener (fig. 48), are synonyms. C. collisus, Reeve (fig. 45), 
is a slight variety. 

Var. LICTOR, Boivin. PL 17, fig. 49. 

Whole surface distantly encircled by granular striae. 
Yar. LACTEUS, Lam. PL 17, fig. 51. 

Shell pure white, distantty grooved throughout. More inflated 
than C. parius, Reeve, which it otherwise closely resembles. 

C. DOLIUM, Boivin. PL 17, fig. 50. 

Shell more inflated than G. spectrum; irregularly clouded 
with yellowish brown and white. Length, 36 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
C. ANDAMANENSIS, E. A. Smith. PL 17, fig. 52. 

Yellowish white, irregularly marked with small brown spots 



58 CONUS. 

and lines, covered by a thin, smooth epidermis ; base grooved ; 
spire striate, with radiating brown lines ; aperture white. 
Length, 22-31 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 

C. CONSPERSUS, Reeve. PL It, figs. 53, 54; PL 18, figs. 55, 56; 
PL 21, fig. 7. 

Shell turbinated, slightly inflated, smooth, grooved towards 
the base ; pale yellowish or salmon-color, sprinkled with irreg- 
ular orange-brown spots and longitudinal blotches, sometimes 
with two obsolete lighter bands ; everywhere encircled with very 
fine, close hair-like lines ; spire convex, tessellated with orange- 
brown ; aperture flesh-color. Length, 1*25 1*9 inches. 

Moluccas. 

This species is scarcely distinguishable from C. spectrum. C. 
Verreauxii, Kiener (fig. 54), C. stillatus, Reeve (fig. 55), and 
possibly C. inflatus, Sowb. (PL 27, fig. 7), are syno^^ms. The 
latter does not much resemble this species, and remains uniden- 
tified, but Sowerby has himself suggested its place here. 

Yar. DAPHNE, Boivin. PL 18, fig. 56. 

Shell orange-color or orange-brown, including the aperture, 
without markings, except variations of shading. 

C. CINEREUS, Hwass. PL 18, figs. 57-61. 

Cylindrically ovate, with moderate, smooth spire, body-whorl 
encircled below by distant grooves ; clouded with olivaceous, 
ashy blue and chestnut-brown, with revolving lines articulated 
of chestnut and white spots ; aperture brown-stained. 

Length, 1-75 inches. 

Philippines, Australia. 

C. zebra, Lam. (not of Reeve or Sowb.), and C. Gabrieli, 
Kiener (fig. 58), are synonyms. 

Yar. STRATURATUS, Sowb. PL 18, fig. 59. 

With interrupted longitudinal chestnut markings forming 
bands upon an ash-blue ground. 

Borneo. 
Yar. BERNARDII, Kiener. PL 18, fig. 60. 

Fulvous chestnut, with a few scattered white spots and 
chestnut revolving lines. 



CONUS. 59 

Var. POLITUS, Weinkauff. PI. 18. fig. 61. 

Yellowish brown, with revolving lines of chestnut and white- 
articulations, and three distant, narrow white bands marked 

with chestnut. Length, 39 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. TRIBUNUS, Crosse. PL 20, fig. 20. 

Shell smooth, grooved below; orange -brown, indistinctly 
light-banded in the middle, longitudinally strigate with choco- 
late ; aperture light violaceous. Length, 30 mill. 

Coast of California (Crosse). 

The locality given for this species needs confirmation. 

C. ALBOSPIRA, E. A. Smith. PI. 18, fig. 62. 

Spire concavely elevated, lirate, white, with flesh-colored apex; 
body-whorl angulate above, striate, the striae becoming stronger 
and subgranular below; white with longitudinal olive stripes 
forming three bands by their somewhat regular interruption ; 
aperture lilac-white. Length, 27*5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Mr. Smith compares this to C. siraturatus, Sowb. (= cinereuK, 
Hwass , but I think it is more nearly related to C. rosaceus, 
Chemn., and that it maj' prove to be a very light -colored 
variety of that species. 

C. NISUS (Chemn.), Auct. PL 18, figs. 63-68. 

Shell somewhat swollen, distantly sulcate below, otherwise 
smooth ; white, encircled bj- chestnut spots, clouds, and oblique 
and triangular markings ; spire maculated. 

Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Philippines, Moluccas. 

With this species may be united C. zebra, Sowb. (fig. 65 \ C. 
Blanfordianus, Crosse (fig. 66), C. alveolus, Sowb. (fig. 64), C. 
stigmaticus, A. Ad. (fig. 67), C.'stramineus. Lam., and C. cocceun, 
Kiener (fig. 68). 

C. SUBMARGINATUS, Sowb. PL 18, figs. 69, 70. 

Shell narrow, with raised carinate spire, body-whorl attenuate 
and closely sulcate in front ; yellowish white, aperture rosy. 

Length, -85 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 



60 CONUS. 

An obscure species. C. suturatus, Kiener,not Reeve (fig. TO), 
appears to be identical. 

C. RADIATUS, Gmelin. PI. 18, figs. 71-73. 

Shell pale j-ellowish to pale chestnut, often longitudinally 
indistinctly marked with deeper coloring; spire striate, lower 
part of bod}^whorl distantly sulcate. Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 

Philippines, Polynesia. 

Reeve described and figured this species under the name of 
C. Martinianus; he has also called a smaller white variety C. 
parius (fig. 72); the specimens before me prove' its specific 
identity with radial us. The white variety is frequently covered 
by a smooth olivaceous epidermis ; in which state it is C. 
Gubbse, Kiener (fig. 73). 

C. CONTUSUS, Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 74. 

Shell somewhat cylindrically ovate, rather thin, smooth, with 
three or four distant grooves at the base, spire finely double- 
grooved, rude at the sutures, apex very sharp ; ochraceous, 
stained with ash-blue. Length, 1'25 inches. 

Moluccas. 

Whether this species will be found to reveal any design in the 
coloring, it is impossible to foresee from the single worn 
specimen. 

C. OCHROLEUCUS, Gmelin. PL 18, fig. 75. 

Shell long and narrow, distantly grooved towards the base ; 
yellowish brown, variously shaded, with a rather indistinct 
median lighter band ; aperture white ; spire striate, maculated 
with yellowish brown and white. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Australia, New Caledonia, Viti Islands. 

C. IODOSTOMA, Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 76. 

Shell thin, narrow, somewhat inflated; spire finely grooved, 
apex sharp ; body-whorl striate towards the base ; violet-white, 
clouded with chestnut, with revolving lines of chestnut spots. 

Length, 40 mill. 

Philippines. 

C. LIENARDT, Crosse and Bernard!. PL 18, fig. 77 ; PL 19, figs. 

78, 79. 
Spire raised, carinated, slightly striate; bod3'-whorl distantly 



CONUS. 61 

grooved below ; yellowish brown, variously longitudinally covered 
with zigzag chestnut or chocolate markings ; sometimes almost 
or quite covered with chocolate. Length, 1'75 inches. 

New Caledonia. 
Distinguished by its sharp shoulder and coloration. 

C. MACEI, Crosse. PL 19, fig. 80. 

Shell rather thin, smooth under a thin epidermis ; whitish, 
with chestnut longitudinal flames ; base of body-whorl finely 
sulcate ; aperture pale violaceous. Length, 38 mill. 

Vizagapatam (Madras), India. 

C. TIMORENSIS, Hwass. PI. 19, fig. 81. 

Shell smooth, striate towards the base; rosy white, with 
orange-rose clouds and distant revolving series of spots. 

Length, 1'5 inches. 

Timor, Flores, etc. 
C. JANUS, Hwass. PL 19, fig. 82. 

Spire concavely elevated, striate; body-whorl narrow, with 
rounded shoulder, aikl t distantly sulcate below; whitish or 
yellowish, indistinctly three-banded by yellowish brown or 
chestnut longitudinal markings ; spire maculated. 

Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Cochin China, Philippines. 

C. JICKELTT, Weinkauff. PL 19, fig. 83. 

Shell white, with chocolate, irregular, longitudinal markings, 
and quadrangular spots in revolving series. Length. 2 inches. 

Red Sea. 

Very closely allied to the preceding species, of which it may 
be only a variety. 

C. INSCRTPTUS, Reeve. PL 19, figs. 84, 85. 

Shell rather solid, smooth, grooved towards the base; ash- 
white, with dark chestnut hieroglyphic characters, interrupted 
by revolving series of spots in the middle and at the base. 

Length, 1*4 inches. 

Red Sea, Seychelles. 

C. Keatii, Sowb. (fig. 85), varies slightly in the disposition of 
the color-markings. The species has a sharper shoulder than 
C. Janus, but is too closely allied to that species. 



62 CONUS. 

C. ERYTHR^ENSIS, Beck. PL 1 9, figs. 86-89. 

Shell small, smooth, striate below; 3^ellowish white, with 
revolving rows of quadrangular chestnut spots, sometimes 
partly clouded over, so as to form bands of chestnut clouds ; 
spire maculate. Length, -8-1-2 inches. 

Eed Sea. 

C. induratus, Reeve (fig. 86), a 3 7 oung shell, C. piperatus, Reeve 
(fig. 87), C. quadrato-mac ulatus, Sowb. (fig. 88), and C. concinnus, 
Sowb., Jr. (fig. 89), not Sowb., Sen. or Brod., == C. sapphirostoma, 
Weinkauff,are all synonyms ; besides several unfigured and less 
known species. 

C. PUNCTICULATUS, Hwass. PL 19, figs. 90-96. 

Shell rather broad-shouldered and somewhat swollen above, 
slightly contracted and grooved towards the base ; whitish, 
encircled by numerous lines of close, small chestnut spots, and 
often clouded longitudinally with light violaceous or chestnut, 
forming three obscure bands ; aperture white or violaceous. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

West Columbia, northwards to Cerros 7x7., 

L. California, West Indies. 

A wider shell, with smaller, much more numerous spots than 
C. Erytlirseensis. C. perplexas, Sowb. (fig. 91), C. piistulatus, 
Kiener (fig. 92), and C. papiUosus, Kiener (fig. 93), are synonyms; 
the latter two are pustulate on the revolving lines. 

The West Indian C. pygmaeus, Reeve, = C. pusio, Sowb. 
(fig. 94), = C. Ihiuali, Bern (fig. 95), presents no distinctive 
features. C. Hanleyi, Sowb. (fig. 96), said to inhabit the Medi- 
terranean Sea (?), is very similar. 

C. COLUMBA, Hwass. PL 19, figs. 97, 98. 

Shell white, under a very thin light brown epidermis; shoulder 
angulated ; body-whorl deeply distantly grooved towards the 
base ; sometimes there are a few longitudinal brown mnrkings 
above the grooves. Length, '75-' 9 inch. 

West Indies. 
C. ANGAST, Tryon. PL 19, fig. 99. 

Shell rosy or yellowish white, ornamented witli rows of small 
distant square or elongated irregular brownish yellow spots, those 
in the centre larger and more varied in shape, forming a sort of 






CONUS. 63 

band ; sculptured all over with rows of minute, close-set, oblong 
punctures, more numerous and distinct towards the base, which 
is encircled by a number of narrow elevated ridges ; spire striate: 

Length, 20 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Described by Angas as C. Mrtcalfei, a name preoccupied by 
Reeve. 

C. INTERRUPTUS, Brod. PL 27, fig. 8 ; PL 19, figs. 100-2 ; PL 20, 
figs. 3-5, 21. 

Shell long and narrow, with smooth elevated spire, body-whorl 
striate towards the base, the stride sometimes minutely granular; 
whitish, largely covered by longitudinal chocolate clouds, encir- 
cled by numerous lines of minute chestnut spots; spire nearly 
covered by chestnut or chocolate flam mules. 

Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 
West Coast of Central America to Mazatlan, Cape Si. Lucas. 

Occasional!} 7 the entire body-whorl is covered with impressed 
or raised striae, the latter smooth or granular. There are a 
number of synonyms, none of them differing much from the 
typical shells. These are C. maliogani, Reeve (figs. 1, 2), 
C. Ximenes, Gray (fig. 100), C. monilifer, Brod-. (fig. 3), C. tor- 
natus, Brod. (fig. 4), C. Pliilippii, Kiener (fig. 5). 

C. arcuatus, Brod. and Sowb., although differing much in form, 
is still possibly an extreme variety of this species ; and I am 
inclined to refer here also C. catenatus, Sowb. (fig. 21). 

Section XII. ActfATiNi. 
i C/ielyconus, Morch. 

C. CATUS, Hwass. PL 20, figs. 6-10. 

Shell bulbous, with convex, striate spire ; bod} r -whorl striate, 

the striae rounded, usually obsolete above, granular below, olive, 

chestnut-, chocolate- or pink-brown, variously marbled and 

flecked with white, often faintly white-banded below the middle. 

Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Pied Sea, Mauritius, Java, China, 

New Caledonia, Polynesia. 

C. equeSj Brug. (fig. 10), is probably a S3^nonym ; the species 
is only known by the figure of which I give a copy. 



64 CONUS. 

Viir. NIGROPUNCTATUS, Sowb. PI. 20, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell colored as above and encircled by series of chocolate- 
colored dots. C. Adansoni, Reeve (fig. 9), is S3 T nonymous. 

C. ACHATINUS (Chemn.), Auct. PL 20, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell bulbous, with somewhat elevated, striate spire; body- 
whorl with rounded, sometimes granular striae below ; marbled 
with pinkish or purplish white and olivaceous-brown, under a 
light brown, thin epidermis, everywhere encircled by close-set 
narroAv brown lines, which are usually broken up into brown and 
white articulations. Length, 2-3 inches. 

India, China, Australia, Solomon's Islands. 

C. SUPERSTRTATUS, Sowb. PL 20, fig. 13. 

Shell oblong, fuscous, obscurely nebulous, snlcate above and 
below, smooth in the middle, with a median white band, macu- 
lated with fuscous; spire depressed, striated, maculated. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

An obscure species, only known through Sowerby's figure and 
short description. 

C. MONACHUS, Linn. PL 20, fig. 14. 

Shell a little inflated, distantly grooved below ; spire striate, 
somewhat convex ; w r hite, longitudinally marbled and flecked 
with dull blue or purple. Length, 2 inches. 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 

Narrower at the shoulder, thinner, usually without the dotted 
revolving lines of C. achatinus, although a few such lines are 
sometimes vaguely apparent. 

Weinkauff considers C. asximilis, A. Ad., a S3 T nonym of this 
species. I have referred it to C. magus. 

C. PURPURASCENS, Brod. PL 20, figs. 15-17 ; PL 27, fig. 9. 

Shell broad-shouldered, with rude, striate spire ; striate below, 
and the string sometimes slightly granular ; clouded with white or 
violaceous and brown or olive, with close lines of chestnut and 
white minute articulations ; sometimes irregularly white-banded 
in the middle. Length, 2--3 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

Weinkauff makes C. neglect us, A. Ad. (fig. 10), the juvenile of 



' A 

UNIVERSITY) 

CONUS. V &, + .65 

this species. C. Luzonicus, Sowb., not Hwass^ftg, 16a), and C. 
comptus, Gould (PL 27, fig. 9), are synonyms. 

Yar. REGALITATUS, Sowb. PL 20, fig. 17. 

Shell more completely covered with dark color, so as to 
obscure the articulated lines ; but little of the lighter markings 
is visible beyond an interrupted central band. 

C. TESTUDINARIUS (Mart.), Auct. PL 20, fig. 18. 

Whitish, more or less stained with blue or purple, and clouded 
with chocolate, irregularly white-banded in the middle ; spire 
and base striate. Length, 2*5-3*5 inches. 

West Indies, Cape Verd Is., West Coast of Africa. 

Allied to C.parpurascens, but not so broadly shouldered, with 
higher spire. C. aspersus, Sowb., and C. Portoricanus, Hwass, 
are synonyms. 

C. FULMEN, Reeve. PL 20, fig. 19. 

Shell somewhat elongately ovate, smooth, slightly grooved 
towards the base ; pale rose-purple, white round the middle ; 
longitudinally marked with two or three very prominent, broad, 
waved, purple-brown streaks ; spire obtusely convex, variegated 
with purple-brown, apex rose-tinted. Length, 2-3 inches. 

China, Japan, Philippines. 

Narrower, with higher spire, than the allied species. C. 
modestus, Sowb., is supposed bj r Sowerb}^ (Thes. Conch., Index) 
to be a young shell of this species. 

C. HY^NA, Hwass. PL 20, fig. 22. 

Shell turbinate, rather angulate at the shoulder ; spire and 
base striate ; pinkish or violaceous white, with broad, chestnut, 
longitudinal flames. Length, 1*75 inches. West Africa,. 

C. GTJINAICUS, Hwass. PI. 20, figs. 23, 24. 

Shell inflated, rather thin, spire and lower portion of body- 
whorl striate ; chestnut or olivaceous, with usually two bands of 
irregular white cloudings, and scattered white spots; aperture 
chocolate-color, faintly white-banded in the middle. 

I Length, 2 inches. 
West Coast of Africa. 
tt is a more bulbous species, with shorter spire, than C. Medi- 
' 



66 CON us. 

terraneus, but very close in coloring, and may be only a rather 
distant variety of that species. 

C. MEDITERRANEUS, Hwass. PI. 20, fig. 26 ; PL 21, figs. 25-31. 

Shell yellowish brown, pink-brown or olivaceous ; sometimes 
chocolate-brown, very closely nebulously spotted and reticulated ; 
and sometimes interrupted-lined with chestnut, with a narrow, 
light band below the middle ; spire elevated, rudely gradate, 
maculated; interior light chocolate, with a light band. 

Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

Mediterranean, Portugal, West Africa. 

C. hybridus, Kiener, C. Franciscanus, Hwass (fig. 26), a dark- 
colored variety, and numerous other names have been applied to 
varieties of this species, recent and fossil. 

Var. ADANSONI, Lam. PL 21, fig. 21-29. 

Shell more cylindrical. 

West Africa. 

C. Jamaicensis, Sowb. (fig. 28), and C. Bruguieri, Kiener 
(fig. 27), are synonyms. C. Tamsianus, Dunker (fig. 29), 
appears to be a younger shell. 

Yar. CCERULESCENS (Chemn.), Auct. PL 21, figs. 30, 31. 

Shell more conical, with broader shoulder and shorter spire. 

West Africa. 
C. aemulus, Reeve (fig. 31), is a synonym. 

C. ALTISPIRATUS, Sowb. PL 21, fig. 32. 

Shell fusiform, with much elevated spire, and narrow body- 
whorl, sulcate below ; white, apex pink-tinted. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

Agulhas Bank, So. Africa. 

C. CASTUS, Reeve. PL 21, fig. 33. 

Shell turbinated, a little inflated, smooth ; yellow, encircled by 
a few faint, very finely black-dotted lines, at irregular distances ; 
spire smooth, apex rose-tinted. Length, -75 inch. 

Red Sea (Sowerby). 

A doubtful species. 

C. MADURENSIS, Hwass. PL 21, fig. 34. 

Shell yellowish or chestnut-brown, with an irregular light band 



CONUS. 67 

on the middle, and another above it, which are bordered with 
chestnut markings ; spire maculated. Length, *9 inch. 

Java. 
C. BORBONICUS, H. Adams. PL 21, fig. 35. 

Shell narrow, smooth, with elevated spire, slightly nodulous ; 
body-whorl striated below ; yellowish rose, with a central white 
band and numerous interrupted chestnut lines. Length, 12 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 

Undoubtedly an immature shell. 

C. CORALLINUS, Kieuer. PI. 21, figs. 36, 37. 

Shell narrow, with elevated spire ; yellowish, with a central 
white band Bordered with chestnut spots, spire maculated with 
chestnut. Length, 1 inch. Habitat unknown. 

C. insequalis, Reeve (fig. 37), has a somewhat wider shoulder^ 
but is otherwise so closely allied that I think Dr. Weinkauff is 
right in considering it a variety only. 

C. DILECTUS, Gould. PI. 21, fig. 38. 

Shell acutely conical ; spire concavely elevated, carinated and 
striated ; color dingy white, everywhere covered with minute 
reticulations of pale rusty lines, with a series behind the middle 
and another at the anterior third of the last whorl, of several 
large lunate or triangular white spots, alternating with dark fer- 
ruginous spots ; and there is the same alternation on the shoulder 
of the last whorl ; around its anterior portion are six or eight 
grooves ; interior flesh-colored. Length, 12 mill. 

Fiji Islands. 
C. NITIDUS, Reeve. PI. 21, fig. 39. 

Yellowish, apex pink, bod}r-whorl with an irregular central 

white band, and narrow chestnut lines, often broken up into spots. 

Length, *75 inch. Philippines. 

C. APLUSTRE, Reeve. PI. 21, figs. 40, 41. 

Shell rather stoutly turbinated, smooth, thin, somewhat inflated, 
striate towards the base ; 3^ellowish white, with irregular yellowish 
brown or ash faint bands, and lines of white and chestnut artic- 
ulations ; spire depressed, apex pointed. 
Length, 1*25-1 *4 inches. 

Cape Good Hope (Sowerby), Australia (Brazier), 

New Zealand (Hutton). 



68 CONUS. 

C. Zealandicus , Hutton, and (7. multicatenatus, Sowb. (fig. 41), 
are synonyms the latter more richly colored than typical 
examples. 

C. PICTUS, Reeve. PI. 21, figs. 42-44. 

Chestnut-colored, with two or three pink bands, and a few 
narrow lines, ornamented with reddish or chestnut spots ; spire 
maculated. Length, '75-1-4 inches. 

South and East Africa. 

C.jaspideus, Kiener, not Gmelin = C. Danieli, Crosse (fig. 
43), and C. stimulus, Reeve (fig. 44), are synonyms. 

C. PAUPERCULUS, Sowb. PL 21, fig. 45. 

. Shell narrow, thin, olivaceous, with a flesh-colored central band, 
and numerous revolving series of small chestnut spots. 
Length, 1 inch. 

South Africa; Japan (Danker). 

C. LAUTUS, Reeve. PL 21, fig. 46. 

Shell yellowish, the spire, a central band, and base marked 
longitudinally with chestnut, rest of body-whorl with revolving 
lines of chestnut spots. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

May be a variety of the preceding species. 

C. ELONGATUS (Chemn.), Auct. PL 21, fig. 47. 

Shell yellowish brown, longitudinally streaked with chestnut 
or chocolate, light-banded in the middle, and occasionally with 
several lines of chocolate spots ; spire maculated. 

Length, 2 inches. 

South Africa, Mozambique. 

C. Mozambicensis, Hwass, is a synonym. 

C. GAFFER, Krauss. PL 21, figs. 48-51. 

Shell narrow, with convex spire, rosy or dark brown, with a 
light central band, the lighter-colored varieties with revolving 
lines of brown spots. Length, 11-5 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Much resembles C. pictus, Reeve, and may be a variety of 
that species, but is narrower, with more convex spire ; the lighter- 
colored shells are painted very like C. pictus. C. gilvus, Reeve 
(fig. 50), and probably C. sector, Crosse (fig. 51), are synonyms. 



CONUS. 69 

C. ROSSITERI, Brazier. 

Shell turbinated, thin, shining, transversely finely striated 
under the lens, longitudinally blotched with chestnut-brown, white 
and light blue ; spire slightly convex, apex pointed ; whorls seven 
to eight, upper edge of basal whorl splashed with white arrow- 
shaped spots, alternating with dark square chestnut spots ; very 
finely striated between the sutures, a dark interrupted chestnut 
band across the centre of the shell, below the band faint whitish 
spots ; base ridged, tipped with white, with a dark red band above 
the white ; lip thin, slightly flexuous, edged with brown ; interior 
of aperture white and brown. Length, *66 inch. 

Botany Bay, N. S. Wales. 

The above is the full description of this unfigured species ; it 
is probably an immature shell. I have not seen it. 

C. ALGOENSIS, Sowb. PI. '22, fig. 52. 

Shell thin, smooth, chestnut-brown, with one or two bands of 
longitudinal white markings ; spire articulated with white and 
brown. Length, 1 inch. 

Algoa Bay, So. Africa. 
C. FUCATUS, Reeve. PI. 22, fig. 53. 

Shell conically turbinated, smooth or obsoletely peculiarly 
indented, ridged at the base ; spire conspicuously striately 
grooved, intermediate ridges granulated, apex raised, sharp j ash- 
olive, spire marbled with white. Length, *8 inch. 

Philippines. 
C. LACHRYMOSUS, Reeve. PI. 22, fig. 54. 

Oblong-conical, slightly ventricose, rather thin, smooth, con- 
tracted and ridged towards the base ; spire striately grooved, 
sharp at the apex ; fulvous orange, encircled by interrupted lines 
of darker color, white in the middle and on the upper edge, 
painted longitudinally with promiscuously waved orange-brown 
streaks, spire stained and variegated with the same color. 

Length^ 1/25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

A doubtful species, described from the Cumingian collection. 

C. ANEMONE, Lamarck. PI. 22, figs. 55-61. 

Shell very variable in form, short and robust, with short spire, 
or longer and more slender, with elevated spire ; spire and body- 






70 CONUS. 

whorl closely encircled throughout with close ridged striae ; white, 
longitudinally nebulously or reticulately painted with chestnut 
or chocolate, with an irregular central white band; aperture 
chocolate-tinged and white-banded in the middle. 

Length, l'25-2'25 inches. 

Borneo, Philippines, Australia, New Caledonia. 

The peculiar ridged striae form the most constant character of 
this species. The synonyms are rather numerous, as the form is 
very inconstant; they include C. maculatus, Sowb. (fig. 56), a 
short, broad shell, possibly 0. ardisiacus, Kiener, C. Novse- 
Hollandise, A. Ad. (fig. 5t), C. Jukesii, Reeve (fig. 58), another 
short-spired and broad-shouldered form, C. Cabrifi, Bernard! 
(fig. 59), and C. compressus, Sowb. (fig. 60), an immature shell. 

C. anemone is related to C. rosaceus, Chemn., in its striae and 
the usual form of the spire and body-whorl, and it is possible 
that they are specifically identical, although differing in the 
pattern of coloring. 

C. COCCEUS, Reeve. PL 22, figs. 62, 63. 

Shell turbinated, rather stout towards the upper part, a little 
rounded, transversely very finely ridged, interstices between the 
ridges slightly pricked ; white delicately filleted with small 
irregular pale scarlet spots ; spire obtusely convex. 

Length, 1*2-1 '5 inches. 

Australia, Philippines. 

G. decrepitus, Kiener (fig. 63), appears to be a color- variety, 
as determined by Reeve, Sowerby and Weinkauff. 

C. CERINUS, Reeve. PI. 22, fig. 64. 

Shell somewhat stoutly ovate, rather thick, smooth, base pecu- 
liarly granosely ridged, spire three-grooved ; white, conspicuously 
painted with interrupted lineated chestnut blotches, apex pink. 

Length, 1/15 inches. 

Philippines. 
C. YAYSSETIANUS, Crosse. PI. 22, fig. 65. 

Shell finely coronated ; body-whorl closely striated, chestnut- 
brown, with white maculations at the middle and ^less distinctly) 
on the shoulder; aperture chestnut within. Length, 14 mill. 

New Caledonia. 



CONUS. 7 1 

C. CARNALIS, Sowb. PI. 22, fig. 66, 

Shell obsoletely striate, slightly ridged towards the base ; 
light pink, with two broad yellowish brown bands; spire also 
tinged with yellowish brown. Length, 50 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
. MELVILLI, Sowb. PI. 22, fig. 67. 

Shell abbreviately subcylindrical, solid, obtusely angulated, 
smooth, crenate-sulcate in front ; grayish white, with cinnamon- 
brown longitudinal clouds, and undulating revolving lines, the 
interstices with some curved longitudinal lines ; spire obtuse, 
strigate with brown ; aperture brown-tinted. Length, 20 mill. 

Key West, Florida (J. C. Melvill). 

I am not acquainted with this species, of which a single speci- 
men was obtained at the above locality. 



SECTION XIII. 
Gylindrella pars, Hermes pars. 
C. KIENERI, Reeve. PL 22, figs. 68, 69. 

Shell somewhat fusiformly turbinated. slightly recurved at the 
base, transversely grooved throughout, grooves rather distant, 
pricked ; spire striately grooved ; livid ash-color, variegated in 
a banded, interrupted style with chestnut, sprinkled towards 
the base with opaque white flakes, spire conspicuously spotted 
with chestnut, interior of the aperture livid purple. 
Length, 1'15 inches. 

Madagascar (Weinkauff). 

The synonyms are G. nisus, Kiener, C. roseus, Kiener, and G. 
latifasciatus, Sowb. (fig. 69). 

C. SUBULATUS, Kiener. PI. 22, fig. 70. 

Shell narrow, with concavely elevated spire, carinated at the 
sutures; body-whorl regularly distantly grooved throughout; 
white, often with longitudinal chestnut strigations, interrupted 
so as to form three broad bands. Length, 1'25 1*75 inches. 

Philippines. 
C. PRETIOSUS, G. and H. Nevill. 

Resembles G. subulatus, from which it can be distinguished by 
its more pyriform, elegantly produced shape, by its being nearly 



72 CONUS. 

perfectly smooth (on the under side only, on two-thirds of the 
last whorl, are unusually distant, impressed grooves to be traced, 
and even these are almost obsolete) ; white, throughout closely 
dashed with wavy, brown, slightly pinkish splashes ; these mark- 
ings are somewhat larger and more distinct on the spire, and 
also form two irregular bands on the body-whorl; apex very 
sharp, spire much produced, composed of fourteen whorls, 
acutely angled in the middle, above this angle spirally striated, 
striae numerous, near the apex very slightly granular ; interior 
of the aperture a beautiful pink, white near the margin ; epider- 
mis thin, smoothish, compact. L. 60, diam. 25, L. apert. 48 mill. 

Andaman Isles. 

The above is a copy of the original description of this un- 
figured species, from the single specimen. 

C. NEPTUNUS, Reeve. PL 22, fig. 71. 

Shell narrow, with concavely elevated spire and sharp apex, 
body-whorl distantly grooved towards the base; flesh-color, every- 
where veined and clouded with reddish chestnut flexuous lines 
and spots ; aperture rosy white. Length, 1/75 inches. 

Philippines. 
C. NEPTUNOIDES, E. A. Smith. PL 22, fig. 72. 

Shell somewhat wider at the shoulder and spire less striate 
than in G. Neptunus ; yellowish white, with irregular chestnut 
lines or large reticulations, forming two ill-defined broad bands ; 
aperture rosy white. Length, 45 mill. 

Australia. 

The pattern of coloring is more open and less completely covers 
the shell, the markings are narrower and better defined than in 
G. Neptunus. 

C. MUCRONATUS, Reeve. PL 22, figs. 73, 74 ; PL 23, fig. 75. 

Shell acuminately turbinated, attenuated towards the base, with 
revolving grooves throughout, grooves crossed by revolving 
striae ; whitish, somewhat clouded with pale brown, spire spotted 
with brown. Length, 1-1 '25 inches. 

Philippines. 

The spire is sometimes obsoletely coronated. G. alabaster, 
Ads. and Reeve (fig. 74), is a synonym. Reeve figures it and 
refers to the Moll. Voy, Samarang, but it is not described in that 




NIVEK?!TY 

work, as it was probably ascertained to be a synonym in time to 
publication. I place here also : 



prevent publication. I ph 

Var. ORBITATUS, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 75. 

Bidges flat, the grooves between them pricked and striated ; 
whitish, variegated with burnt brown; spire acuminated, apex 
raised and sharp. 

C. PLANILIRATUS, Sowb. PL 23, fig. 76. 

Spire maculated with chestnut, spirally striate, minutely can- 
cellate ; body-whorl distantly grooved, yellowish white, maculated 
with chestnut spots, forming obscure bands. Length, 22 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

C. AUSTRALIS (Cbemn.), Auct. PI. 23, figs. 77, 78. 

Shell distantly channeled throughout, the interstices usually 
plane, sometimes minutely granular; channels narrow, longi- 
tudinally striated ; spire much elevated, acuminated, striate, 
sometimes obscurely minutely coronated; yellowish brown, with 
light chestnut longitudinal short irregular lines, and clouds of 
the same color forming; three obscure interrupted bands. 

Length, 2-3'5 inches. 

Australia, Moluccas. 

C. laterculus, Sowb. (fig. 78), is a young shell of this species. 

C. STRIGATUS, Hwass. PI. 23, fig. 79. 

Shell elongately turbinated, somewhat cylindrical, whitish, 
encircled throughout with a number of interrupted, close-set, 
cinnamon-brown stripes, and palely variegated with oblong- 
blotches of the same color ; spire convexly raised. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

A doubtful species, and possibly not the one intended by the 
original description. 

C. SULCATUS, Hwass. PI. 23, figs. 79a-81. 

Shell with revolving grooves crossed by longitudinal striae, the 
intermediate ridges flat or rounded, smooth ; spire short, cari- 
nated, striate, sometimes with distant compressed tubercles ; 
light yellowish brown, or whitish. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

China, Singapore. 



74 CONUS. 

Var. UNDULATUS, Sowb. PI. 23, fig. 80. 

Middle and lower part of body-whorl distantly, narrowly 
grooved, upper part smooth; spire with compressed tubercles. 

Var. BOCKT, Sowb. PI. 23, fig. 81. 

Angle of body-whorl more rounded than in the type, with the 
tubercles larger and better defined ; upper part of body-whorl 
nearly smooth, lower half slightly granularly costate. 

Amboina. 
C. GRANIFER, Reeve. PL 23, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell somewhat fusiform, conical, granose throughout, ridged 
at the base, spire slightly channeled, finely coronated at the edge ; 
white, tinged with light brown at the base and apex. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines. 
C. EXARATUS, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 84. 

Shell narrow, grooved throughout ; grooves regular, rather 
broad, interstices very finely cancellated with striae ; pale bluish 
purple, ornamented with a very few small, scattered, rusty, white 
clouded spots ; spire acuminated. Length, '8 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Dr. Weinkauff suggests that this is an uncoronated variety of 
the preceding species. 

C. PULCHER, A. Ad. PL 23, fig. 85. 

Shell sulcate throughout ; brown, obscurely light-banded in the 
middle, encircled by lines of brown and white articulations ; spire 
coronated. Length, *9 inch. 

New Caledonia. 

Possibly a young variety of C. sulcatus, Hwass. 

C. SULCIFERUS, A. Adams. PL 23, fig. 86. 

Shell oblong, distantly sulcate, the interspaces flat ; uniform 
dark brown ; spire minutely beaded. Length, *9 inch. 

New Ireland, New Caledonia. 

Perhaps a young C. sulcatus, Hwass. 

C. CANCELLATUS, Lam. PL 23, figs. 87-89. 

Shell pear-shaped, broad and angulated at the shoulder, con- 
tracted towards the base ; body-whorl closely sulcate throughout, 
the sulci striate, intervening ridges rounded ; spire carinate, 



CONUS. 75 

concavely elevated, with acute apex, striate ; whitish, obscurely 
doubly banded with clouds of light chestnut, and spire macu- 
lated with the same. Length, 1'4 inches. 

China, Philippines, Australia, Tahiti? 

C. praecellens, A. Ad. (fig. 88), is a not fully mature specimen, 
and C. turriculatus, Sowb. (fig. 89), is still younger. 

C. ACULEJFORMIS, Reeve. PI. 23, figs. 90-94. 

Narrow, with elevated spire ; encircled with equidistant punc- 
tate grooves, and flat interspaces ; white, with light chestnut spots 
and two interrupted broad bands of chestnut cloudings. 

Length, 1-1*5 inches. 

Australia, Philippines, China. 

C. vimineus, Reeve (fig. 91), C. insculptus, Kiener (fig. 93), 
C. longurionis, Kiener (fig. 94), and C. gracilis, Sowb. (fig. 92), 
appear to be very nearly identical ; they can scarcely be classed 
as varieties. 

C. D'OBBIGNYI, Audouin. PI. 23, figs. 95, 96. 

Spire elevated, closely striated, coronated; bod3'-whorl con- 
tracted below, encircled with punctured channels ; yellowish 
white, clouded and spotted with light chestnut, and forming 
three interrupted bands. Length, T5-2-25 inches. 

China, Japan, Philippines. 

The synonymy includes C.planicostatus, Sowb., and C. gemmu- 
latus, Sowb. (fig. 96), the latter a young shell. 

C. ARMIGER, Crosse. PI. 24, fig. 97. 

Spire elevated, with compressed tubercles at the sutures ; body- 
whorl encircled by tuberculated striae ; yellowish white. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Has much the appearance of the foregoing species. It is sup- 
posed to be a fossil. First described by Kiener as C. crenulatus, 
a name preoccupied by Deshayes, and therefore altered as above 
by Mr. H. Crosse. 

C. ARCUATUS, Brod. and Sowb. PI. 24, fig. 98. 

Shell broadly and angularly shouldered, spire concavely ele- 
vated, apex acute, body-whorl somewhat contracted below, with 
revolving striae, sometimes obsolete above ; white, marbled or 



7fi CON US. 

streaked with chestnut, the coloring usually interrupted by the 
revolving sculpture so as form revolving series of spots. 

Length, 1-25-1/75 inches. 

Mazatlan, West Coast of Mexico. 

Very probably C. scalaris, Val. (PL 27, fig. 10), is an overgrown 
specimen of this species, with the spire gradate, and abnormally 
produced. 

C. UNDATUS, Kiener. PL 24, figs. 99, 100, 1, 2. 

Shell strongly spirally striate ; yellowish brown, marbled with 
chestnut, which is interrupted by the revolving sculpture so as 
to form many short, close lines of color. Length, 35 mill. 

Fiji Islands (Sowb.), China. 

C. subaequalis, Sowb. (fig. 100), a young shell, C. Sowerbyi, 
Reeve (fig. 1), and C. cingulatus, Reeve, not Lamarck (fig. 2), 
are synonyms. 

C. CINGULATUS, Lam. PL 24, figs. 3, 4. 

Shell with nearly direct sides, body-whorl sulcate below ; 3'eJ- 
lowish, striped longitudinally with chestnut, with close series of 
revolving chestnut spots. Length, 1/85 inches. 

Philippines. 

Very closely allied to C. undo.tus, Kr., and possibly a variety 
of that species ; both of them are too closely related to C. arcu- 
atus, Brod. and Sowb. C. Sinensis, Sowb. (fig. 4), is a synonym. 

C. ACUTANGULUS, Hwass. PL 24, fig. 5. 

Shell with concavely elevated spire, carinate and usualty 
minutely tuberculate at the sutures ; body-whorl encircled by 
punctate grooves; white, clouded with light chestnut, with usually 
an ill-defined central white band. Length, '5-1 inch. 

Philippines. 

Is very probably the young of C. cancellatus, Lam. The West 
Indian species usually known to American collectors under this 
name, I refer to C. verrucosus, Hwass. 

C. COMMODUS, A. Ad. 

Shell elongately turbinated, narrow, smooth, base obliquely 
sulcate ; white, under a fulvous epidermis ; spire elevated, con 







vexly acute, variegated with light fulvous; apex 
body-whorl acute and carinated behind. 

Habitat unknown (Mus. Gruner). 
An unfigured species ; no dimensions given. 

C. WILMERI, Sowb. PI. 24, fig. 6. 

Shell fusiform, pale brown, transversely ribbed, ribs strong, 
rounded, smooth, equal in width to the interstices, which are 
crossed with thread-like striae ; spire very elevated, whorls eleven, 
flatly sloping, with three deep-cut spiral grooves, keeled at the 
angle, a spiral cord against the suture ; last whorl with the upper 
angle acutely keeled, sides sloping, and attenuated towards the 
base ; aperture narrow ; lip slightly sinuated at the upper 
extremity. Length, 21 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 

Much narrower than C. acutangulus, with a very elevated spire. 
Possibly a young shell of a form of 0. d'Orbignyi. 

C. TENUISULCATUS, Sowb. PL 24, fig. 7. 

Body-whorl narrowly distantly sulcate ; white, three-fasciate 
with large, light brown spots. Length, *75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

An immature shell, which does not appear to possess any 
remarkable distinctive characters ; is closely allied to C. rarimac- 
ulatus, described in the same paper and figured on the same plate 
\)y Sowerby. 

C. TRISTIS, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 8. 

Shell smooth, grooved towards the base, spire concavely raised, 
striated, finely nodulous, nodules of the last whorl obsolete ; 
white. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

The figure appears to be that of a dead specimen which has lost 
its color through bleaching. 

C. BORNEENSIS, Ad. and Reeve. PL 24. 

Spire elevated, whorls channeled, carinate, lower part of body- 
whorl distantly sulcate ; white, blotched here and there on the 
body and spire with chestnut. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Borneo, Australia. 

Perhaps too closely related to C. undatus, Kiener. C. acuti- 



78 CONUS. 

marginatus, Sowb. (fig. 10), and C. Lizardensis, Crosse (fig. 11), 
are referred as synonyms to this species by Dr. Weinkauff ; they 
are both young shells. 

C. VERRUCOSUS, Hwass. PL 24, figs. 12-18. 

Spire raised, smooth, slightly gradate, sometimes obsoletely 
tuberculate ; body-whorl distantly, narrowly sulcate ; spaces 
between the sulci plane, sometimes smooth, usually tuberculated ; 
yellowish white, irregularly clouded with orange or chestnut. 

Length, '75-1-2 inches. 

W. Coast of Africa, West Indies. 

The smoother form of this species is usualty known under the 
name of acutangulus, Hwass which is a Philippine Islands shell, 
differing in its smaller size, want of tubercles and punctured sul- 
cations. C. echinulatus, Kiener (fig. 13), C. nodiferus, Kiener 
(fig. 15), C. sticticus, A. Ad. (fig. 14), C. Mindanus, Hwass (fig. 
16), C. cretaceus, Kiener (fig. 17), C. anaglypticus, Crosse (fig. 
18), and possibly C. elventinus, Duclos, are synonyms. 

C. CORRUGATUS, Sowb. PI. 24, fig. 19. 

Shell closely sulcate, the interstices raised, rounded and more 
or less granular ; light chestnut, spotted with dark chestnut, with 
a median lighter band. Length, *75 inch. 

China (specimen from Sowerby), 

A more slender and much more finely sculptured shell than 
C. verrucosus, with the edges of the spire-whorls neatly spotted 
with brown. 

C. PAPALIS, Weinkauff. PI. 24, fig. 20. 

Shell fusiformly turbinated, swollen at the shoulder, encircled 
throughout with fine, equidistant ridges ; spire proportionally 
large, elevated, strongly coronated, white ; body-whorl olive-ash, 
marked below by small oblong-square white flakes. 

Length, -5 inch. 

Philippines. 

Undoubtedly a very young shell. It was described by Reeve 
under the name of C. coronatus, preoccupied by Dillwyn for 
another species. Is it a young C. pontificalis ? 



CONUS. 7 9 

C, SEMISULCATUS, Sowb. PI. 24, fig. 21. 

Spire concavely acuminate, the whorls near the apex minutely 
beaded ; body-whorl distantly sulcate below ; chestnut-brown* _ 

Length, *85 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 



C. CALEDONICUS, Hwass. PI. 25, fig. 22. 

Orange, encircled by numerous thread-like chestnut lines, the 
lower of which are very finely granulated; spire somewhat acu- 
minated, obsoletely coronated. Length, 2'25 inches. 

New Caledonia (Capt. Cook). 

Described from a specimen obtained during Capt. Cook's voyage 
around the world, and not identified with any subsequently dis- 
covered specimens. The original of my figure was drawn from 
what is believed to be the type specimen, forming part of the 
Delessert (Geneva) collection. 

Section XI V. TEREBRI. 
Hermes (Montf.), Morch, pars. 
C. NUCLEUS, Reeve. PI. 25, fig. 23. 

Shell with fine revolving striae ; orange-brown, with an irregular 
white band, and spots ; aperture violaceous. Length, '9 inch. 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 
Possibly only a variety of the next species. 

C. LUTEUS, Brod. PI. 25, figs. 24, 25. 

Shell yellow, pink or purplish, encircled by chestnut lines 
which are mostly broken up into chestnut and white articulations, 
an irregular white band below the middle ; aperture purplish, 
with a central white band. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Island of Annaa. 
C. GLANS, Hwass. PL 25, figs. 26-28. 

Shell encircled throughout with coarse or fine strise, which are 
sometimes granular; violaceous or brown, with a few lighter 
spots on the spire, and usually a light irregular band below the 
middle of the body-whorl ; aperture violaceous. 

Length, 1 l'T5 inches. 

Philippines, Australia, N. Caledonia, Polynesia. 

C. tenuistriatus, Sowb. (fig. 28), is a synonym. 



80 CONUS. 

C. SCABRIUSCULUS, Chemn. PI. 25, fig. 29. 

Shell striate throughout, sometimes minutely granular ; chest- 
nut or chocolate-color, with large white maculations on spire and 
below the shoulder, as well as around the middle of the body- 
whorl ; base of body-whorl tinged with purple ; aperture tinged 
with purple. Length, 11*5 inches. 

Caroline Is., Philippines, Australia, N. Caledonia. 

C.fabula, Sowb., is a synonym. 

C. TENDINEUS, Hwass. PI. 25, fig. 30. 

Shell striate, sometimes granular throughout ; violaceous 
chestnut, under an olive-brown thin epidermis, with large oblong 
white spots, arranged in two series on the body-whorl, one series 
below the shoulder, the other below the middle, base also white 
or violaceous ; aperture tinged with violet. 

Length, 2-2'5 inches. I. Bourbon, Mauritius, Annaa. 

C. TEREBRA, Born. PI. 25, figs. 31-33. 

Shell striated throughout ; pale yellowish or ash-color, indis- 
tinctly two-banded, often somewhat tinged with violet at the 
base ; aperture white or slightty violaceous. 
Length, l'T5-4 inches. 

Red Sea, Nicobar Is., Ceylon, Isl. of Bourbon, 
Philippines, N. Australia, New Caledonia, 

Fiji Islands. 

C. ccelebs, Hinds (fig. 32), is a young specimen, and C. Thomasi, 
Sowb. (fig. 33), differs only in the spire being somewhat shorter 
than usual. 

C. CAILLIAUDI, Kiener. PI. 25, fig. 34. 

Shell narrow, smooth, with low spire and undulated or slightly 
tuberculated shoulder; yellowish, encircled throughout by narrow 
chestnut lines. Length, 2 inches. Habitat unknown. 

C. NUSSATELLA, Linn. PI. 25, fig. 35. 

Shell closely striated, the striae minutely granular; yellowish 
white, clouded irregularly with orange-brown or light purple- 
brown, with numerous chestnut spots on the striaB. 
Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 

Eed Sea, E. Africa, Ceylon, Java, Philippines, 

N. Australia, N. Caledonia, Polynesia 



CONUS. 81 

C. TENELLUS (Chemn.), Auct. PI. 25, tig. 36. 

Shell narrow, cylindrical, encircled by minutely granose striae; 
whitish, broadly three-banded by oblong longitudinal clouds of 
orange-brown, the interstices brown-spotted. Length, 1-75 inches. 

Australia. 

This is the G. artoptus, Sowb., and C. spectabilis, A. Ad. 

C. CLAVUS, Linn. PI. 25, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell cylindrical, with revolving stria? throughout ; two-banded 
with orange-brown and covered with large and small reticulating 
lines of the same color ; spire convex, maculated. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Java, Philippines, New Caledonia, Polynesia. 

Related by its coloring to the textile group. 

Yar. DACTYLOSUS, Kiener. PI. 25, fig. 38. 

Shell narrower, the reticulated pattern much smaller and more 
uniform in the size of the meshes, interrupted by three or four 
broad, uniform orange-brown bands. 

C. CIRCUMCISUS, Born. PL 25, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell thin, striated throughout ; yellowish or violaceous white ; 
clouded. with chestnut, with distant revolving series of chestnut 
spots and short lines, most conspicuous on two irregular lighter 
bands. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Philippines. 

This species is also well-known under the name of C. dux, 
Hwass, given to it several years later. G. Du Saveli, H. Adams 
(fig. 40), from Mauritius, is a beautifully colored variety. 

C. BRAZIEET, Sowb. PL 25, fig. 41. 

Shell rather solid, with revolving striae throughout ; whitish, 
tinged with pale rose-pink, with two broad, light yellowish browH 
bands, sprinkled here and there with a few very minute brown 
spots ; spire conspicuous^ marked with dark brown blotches. 

Length, 75 mill. 

Solomon Islands (Brazier). 

Closely allied to the preceding species. 

C. GRANULATUS, Linn. PL 25, figs. 42, 43. 

Shell regularly grooved throughout the body-whorl, the inter- 
6 



82 CONUS. 

stices plane or granular ; spire striate, often gradate ; orange-red, 
raised portions with very narrow chestnut revolving lines, white- 
clouded, especially in the middle, forming an irregular band, which 
is mottled and bordered with chestnut ; interior rosy. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

West Indies. 

C. verulosus, Hwass. (fig. 43) = C. fusus, Gmel., appears to 
be only a worn state of this species, devoid of color. 

C. COCCINEUS, Gmelin. PI. 25, fig. 44. 

Shell thin, with somewhat convex sides, encircled by striae, 
which are often minutely granular ; spire moderate, sometimes 
gradate, striate, obsoletely coronated ; orange pink, with a white 
central band, variegated with dark brown spots and blotches ; 
spire usually maculated. Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 

This shell is equally well known as C. Solandri, Brod. 

C. FILAMENTOSUS, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 45. 

Shell oblong-conical, obtusely angled at the upper part, slightly 
inflated, smooth, encircled throughout with narrow distant 
grooves ; spire striate, with raised, sharp apex ; whitish, profusely 
clouded with yellowish orange; here and there scarlet-tinged, 
and closely encircled throughout with very fine thread-like lines 
of a darker color. Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

There are about five of the color-lines between each groove. I 
am not acquainted with this species. 

C. NIMBOSUS, Hwass. PI. 26, fig. 46. 

Rosy or violaceous white, with two faint chestnut bands, 
closely encircled by lines of small chocolate dots ; body-whorl 
with close revolving grooves. Length, 1*45 inches. 

Ceylon. 
C. AURISIACUS, Linn. PI. 26, fig. 47. 

Shell with slight revolving ridges, sometimes granulated below ; 
spire channeled and striate ; pink-white, with deeper-colored bands, 
distantly encircled by lines of short dashes and dots of chocolate ; 
spire with conspicuous chocolate markings. Length, 2 inches. 

Moluccas. 






CONUS. 83 

C. BARTHELEMYI, Bernard!. PL 26, fig. 48. 

Shell covered with fine undulating striae ; orange-red, with a 
central white band, upon and in the neighborhood of which are 
a few chocolate spots ; spire whitish, maculated with chocolate. 

Length, 3'75 inches. 

Ghagos Isl. 

Dr. Weinkauff makes this a variety of C. aurisiacus. 

C. CYLINDRACEUS, Brod. and Sowb. PL 26, figs. 49, 50. 

Shell with fine revolving striae, somewhat granulous towards 
the base ; chestnut, longitudinally streaked with white, with fre- 
quently an upper and lower band of white maculations. 

Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Society Islands; New Caledonia. 

C. MITRATUS, Hwass. PL 26, figs. 51, 52. 

Shell covered with granulated revolving striae; white, encircled 
near the shoulder, on the middle and base by large chestnut 
maculations, forming three interrupted bands ; spire maculated 
with brown. Length, 28 mill. 

Isl. Bourbon, Philippines, New Caledonia. 

This shell much resembles in form Dibaphus edendulus, one of 
the Mitridae. 

C. Pupaeformis, Sowb. (fig. 52), described as a variety, is 
identical. 

C. CREBRISULCATUS, Sowb. PL 26, fig. 53. 

Shell red, sulcats, with smooth, elevated spire, beaded at the 
angles. Length, 15 mill. 

Sandwich Islands (Weinkauff). 

C. TRAILLII, A. Ad. PL 26, fig. 54. 

Shell finely sulcated, yellowish white, with two broad bands of 
tessellated chocolate spots. Length, 12 mill. 

Malacca. 
C. PUNCTURATUS, Hwass. PL 26, fig. 55. 

Shell cancellated with longitudinal and revolving lines, pale 
ash-color ; spire striated, obsoletely coronated, spotted with 
brown, apex rose-tinted. Length, 10 mill. 

Australia. 



84 CONUS. 

Section XY. BULBI. 
Conella, Swainson. 

C. AFEICANUS, Kiener. PL 26, figs. 56-62. 

Shell turbinated, obtusely inflated above ; chestnut or choco- 
late color, with white maculations, forming an irregular broad 
central band ; spire maculated. Length, 1-25 inches. 

Guinea, West Africa. 
Var. BULBUS, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 5T. 

Shell longitudinally irregularly striped with chocolate and 
white. 

Yar. DUPONTI, Kiener. PI. 26, fig. 58. 

Shell shorter and broader, with irregular chestnut and white 
maculations. 

Yar. GRAYI, Reeve. PI. 26, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell gray or ashy blue, ornamented with large, waved choco- 
late spots, generally arranged so as to form two bands ; aperture 
Violaceous. Length, 1 inch. 

? Australia (Brazier) ; L. Guinea (Dunker). 

G. obtusus, Kiener (fig. 60), is a synonym. 

Yar. GUTTATUS, Kiener. PI. 26, fig. 61. 

Shell yellowish brown, with irregular small chocolate blotches, 
and a few small spots in revolving series. 

Yar. VARIEGATUS, Kiener. PI. 26, fig. 62. 

Yellowish brown or chestnut-color, maculated with brown on 
the shoulder, with numerous fine chocolate revolving lines often 
broken up into spots. 

C. ZEBROIDES, Kiener. PI. 26, fig. 62 a. 

Shell yellowish brown, longitudinally, irregularly striped with 
chestnut, extending over the spire. Length, 4*7 mill. 

Australia. 

No locality is given by Kiener for this species, but G. Cooki, 
Brazier (unfigured), described from Botany Bay, New South 
Wales, a shell 20 mill, in length, appears to be a younger speci- 
men of the same species. 



CONUS. 85 

C. CONCINNULUS, Crosse. PL 26, fig. 63. 
. White, with chestnut waved longitudinal markings. 

Length, *75 inch. Gulf of California. 

The specific name is substituted for C. concinnus, Brod., pre- 
occupied by Sowerby, sen. I am not acquainted with the species. 

C. ATRAMENTOSUS, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 64. 

Shell encircled by finely pricked grooves ; chestnut-color with 
generally a few white spots on the shoulder, and white-tinted at 
the base. Length, 12 mill. 

Philippines, New Caledonia, Sandwich Is. 

C. fusiformis = C. parvus, Pease, an unfigured species from 
the Sandwich Islands, is identical ; I have authentic specimens 
before me. 

C. HIEROGLYPHICUS, Duclos. PI. 26, fig. 65. 

Shell cylindrically ovate, ashy violet-color, ornamented with 
two bands of peculiarly sinuated white spots ; with revolving 
series of pale granules ; spire convexly acute, variegated ; base 
striated. Length, '85 inch. 

? West Indies. 
C. LUGUBKIS, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 66. 

Shell finely striated, rudely ridged at the base, ridges few and 
distant, spire conspicuously grooved ; chocolate-black, obscurely 
reticulated here and there with numerous aggregated small white 
spots. Length, -75 inch. West Africa. 

C. hieroglyphicus, var. Kiener, is identical. 

Section XVI. TULIPS. 
Nubecula, Klein (in part). 
C. STRIATUS, Linn. PI. 26, fig. 67. 

Shell irregularly clouded with pink-white and chestnut or 
chocolate, with fine close revolving striae, forming the darker 
ground-color by close colored lines ; spire tessellated with chest- 
nut or chocolate and white, its whorls slightly channeled, cari- 
nate and striate. Length, 2-5-3'5 inches. 

Red Sea, East Africa, Ceylon, Philippines, 

Australia, New Caledonia^ Viti Islands. 
C. terminus, Kiener (not Lamarck), is identical. 



86 CONUS. 

C. GUBERNATOR, Hwass. PI. 26, figs. 68, 69. 

Whorls of the spire oarinate, channeled and striate, tessellated 
with chestnut ; body-whorl pink-white, longitudinally clouded 
with chestnut or chocolate, often obscurely two-banded ; several 
distant sulci towards the base. Length, 2*5-4 inches. 
East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Ceylon, 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 

C. terminus, Lam. (fig. 69), is described as having a less 
rounded shoulder, is narrower, etc. ; but in the series before me 
the transition forms make a series of stages so complete that I 
cannot separate C. terminus even as a variety. 

C. BOIVINI, Kiener. PI. 28, fig. 70. 

Spire depressed, channeled ; bod3^-whorl with equidistant 
revolving punctured grooves, obsolete in the middle ; yellowish 
white, with two light brown bands, and a few hieroglyphic mark- 
ings. Length, 2-5 inches. 

East Africa (Weinkauff). 

C. MELANCHOLICUS, Lam. PI. 28, fig. 71. 

Shell elongated, rather cylindrical, cancellated with exceedingly 
fine striae ; orange-red, with a band of white spots at the shoulder 
and another below the middle of the body-whorl ; spire smooth 
and sharp, spirally striated, variegated with orange-red. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

The type specimen remains unique. 

C. RHODODENDRON (Couthouy), Jay. PL 28, fig. 72. 

Spire depressed, channeled and striate ; body-whorl grooved 
above and below, smooth in the middle ; rosy white, with 
numerous small triangular chestnut spots and three bands of 
violaceous and chestnut clouds and reticulations. 

Length, 1-75-2-25 inches. 

Australia, New Guinea, Polynesia. 

Perhaps the most beautiful species of the genus. C. cingulatus, 
Sowb. (not Lamarck), is a synonym, and C. discrepans, Sowb., 
a dead, colorless shell, not adult, but with the same form and 
grooving, is referred here by Dr. Weinkauff. 
C. FLOCCATUS, Sowb. PI. 2*8, figs. 73, 74. 

Shell oblong, subcylindrical, solid, granosely silicate below; 



CONUS. 87 

light purplish, with longitudinal flames and revolving bands of 
chestnut, and lines of angulate white spots. 

Length, 2*5 inches. 

Philippines. 

C. Magdalense, Kiener (fig. 74), is a pale variety. 

C. JULII, Lie'nard. PI. 28, figs. 75, 76. 

Shell white, upper part of body-whorl, spire and interior, 
tinged with pink, body-whorl with longitudinal chestnut striga- 
tions, forming two irregular bands. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Mauritius. 

This is perhaps only a variety of C. floccatus ; the figure 
which Kiener gives under that name (fig. 76), appearing to be 
somewhat intermediate in its characters. 

C. BULLATUS, Linn. PI. 28, fig. 77. 

Shell inflated, thin, grooved below ; white, clouded with 
orange-red and chestnut, forming two ill-defined bands, with 
indistinct revolving rows of white and chestnut articulations ; 
aperture pink. Length, l'5-2'5 inches. 

Philippines, N. Caledonia. 

It is the C. Tinianus of Kiener, not Kiister. 

C. CERVUS, Lam. PL 28, figs. 78, 79. 

Shell large, cylindrically inflated, thin, pale rosy yellow, 
encircled by lines and bands of chestnut and white spots, and 
hieroglyphic markings. Length, 4*25 inches. 

Moluccas. 

Allied to C. bullatus, but much larger and differently fasciated, 
yet it may prove to be only a gigantic variety of that species. 

Var. CUVIERI, Crosse. 

Shell smaller, pale fawn-color, with a few large white blotches ; 
especially about the middle, and numerous close revolving lines 
of chestnut spots. Length, 2 inches. 

Red Sea, Australia. 

The name was substituted by Crosse for G. Deshayesii, Reeve, 
preoccupied for a fossil species. 

C. TULIPA, Linn. PL 28, figs. 80, 81. 

Shell variegated with violet and white, clouded with chestnut, 



88 CONUS. 

with numerous revolving rows of minute chestnut and white 
articulations; interior violaceous. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 
East Africa, Bed Sea, Ceylon, Philippines, 

New' Caledonia, Polynesia. 
The synonymy includes C.floridus, Sowb. (fig. 81). 

C. VIOLACEUS, Reeve. PL 28, figs. 82, 83. 

Shell subcylindrical, violaceous, with chestnut blotches, form- 
ing three interrupted bands, and faint lines of minute chestnut 
and white articulations. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Philippines, Id. Annaa, etc. 

With this I unite C. obscurus, Reeve (fig. 83), and C. geo- 
graphuSj var. of Sowb. It differs from young shells of C. tulipa 
in its more cylindrical form and in having three bands. 

C. GEOGRAPHUS, Linn. PL 28, fig. 84 ; PL 29, fig. 85. 

Shell thin, cjdindrically inflated, with thread-like revolving 
striae, usually nearly obsolete except at the base ; spire striated 
and coronated ; pink or violaceous white, clouded and coarsely 
reticulated with chestnut or chocolate, usually forming two very 
irregular bands ; aperture violaceous white. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

E. Africa, Eed Sea, Ceylon, Philippines, 

N. Caledonia, Polynesia. 
Yar. MAPPA, Crosse. PL 29, fig. 85. 

Shell smaller, more cylindrical, rose-color, marked as in the 
typical form ; base of body-whorl obsolete^ grooved. The 
name was substituted by Crosse for C. intermedius, Reeve ; the 
latter being preoccupied by Lamarck for a fossil species. 

Section XVII. TEXTI. 
Cylinder, Montf. Textilia. Swains. 
C. AUREUS, Hwass. PL 29, fig. 86. 

Shell subcylindrical, with fine revolving striae ; orange-brown, 
very finely reticulated with chestnut, with larger subtriangular 
spots of white, aggregated into masses and bands at the shoulder, 
middle and base ; there are usually a number of longitudinal 
streaks of che'stnut running over the orange-brown reticulated 
spaces. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

Moluccas, Philippines, New Caledonia. 



ffUffTl 

CONUS. 

^ 

C. PAULUCCT^E, Sowerby. PL 29, fig. 87. 

Shell elongated, rather solid, obsoletely striated, very obtusely 
angulated behind and attenuated to the front; whitish, with 
broad interrupted bands of orange, longitudinally streaked with 
chestnut-brown, intersected by a net work of triangular orange 
lines ; spire pyramidal, whorls faintly spirally grooved ; aperture 
narrow, white. Length, 2'25 inches. 

Mauritius. 

The form is more tapering and surface smoother than C. 
aureus. It is perhaps a variety of the next species. 

C. PYRAMIDALIS, Lam. PL 29, figs. 88, 89. 

Shell smooth, conical, finely striated at the base ; violaceous 
or flesh-color, covered by chestnut or chocolate reticulations, 
and doubly banded. Length, 1-75 inches. Australia. 

This species is not well understood ; with some of the figures 
illustrating it ; C. Pauluccise seems to be very closely allied, whilst 
Reeve's conception of it is a shell approaching G. textile. 
C. convolutus, Sowb. (fig. 89), appears to differ only in its more 
vivid coloring. 

C. GLORIA-MARIS, Hwass. PL 29, fig. 90 

White, finely reticulated with orange-brown lines, enclosing 
triangular spaces, with three interrupted bands of chestnut 
hieroglyphic markings. Length, 3-5 inches. 

Philippines. 

A magnificent and very rare species. 

C. RETIFER, Menke. PL 29, fig. 91. 

Shell pear-shaped, with revolving striae ; reticulated orange- 
brown with large and small triangular white patches, and zigzag 
longitudinal chocolate markings, mostly interrupted so as to 
form one or two bands ; interior light violaceous. 

Length, 1 1/75 inches. 

Philippines to Sa,ndwich Islands. 

Equally well known under Sowerby 's name of C. solidus. Its 
nearest ally is C. verriculum, Reeve, a stumpy variety of C. 
textile. 

C. TEXTILE, Linn. PL 29, figs. 92-99 ; PL 30, figs. 100-7. 

Shell yellowish brown, with undulating longitudinal lines of 



90 CONUS. 

chocolate, interrupted by triangular white spaces ; these last are 
irregularly disposed, but crowded at the shoulder, base and 
middle so as to form bands ; spire similarly marked ; aperture 
white. Length, 2'5-3 5 inches. 

Mauritius, Red Sea, Ceylon, Japan, Philippines, 

Australasia, Viti Islands, etc. 

The synonymy includes G. vicarius, Lam. (fig. 95), G. scriptus, 
Sowb. (fig. 96), in which the reticulations cover most of the 
surface. 

Yar. TELATUS, Reeve. PL 29, figs. 91, 98. 

The triangular reticulations much finer than in the type. In 
a specimen before me the usual three bands are each divided 
into two, with narrow intervening spaces. Another slight modi- 
fication of pattern of coloring is C. tigrinus, Sowb. (fig. 98). 

Yar. VERRICULUM, Reeve. PL 29, fig. 99. 

Shell shorter and proportional^ wider than the type ; the 
triangular white markings are usually larger and cover more of 
the surface. Approaches the preceding species, C. retifer. 

Yar. EUETRIOS, Sowb. PL 30, fig. ] 00. 

Shell finely reticulated with chocolate lines over the white 
surface, as to cause it to appear a uniform chocolate-color at a 
distance, crossed by three broad bands of darker color. 

Approaches C. Elisse, Kiener. 

Yar. ARCHIEPISCOPUS, Hwass. PL 30, figs. 1-3. 

Shell smaller than the type, with much smaller reticulations, 
more completely covering the surface. Connected with textile 
by intermediate stages. (7. canonicus, Hwass. (fig. 2), does not 
appear to be essentially different, and C. rubescens, Bonnet, and 
C. Madagascariensis, Sowb. (fig, 3), may also be placed here. 

Yar. CONDEXSUS, Sowb. PL 30, fig. 4. 

Shell narrower than the type, connecting with C. auratus. 

Yar. LEGATUS, Lam. PL 30, fig. 5. 

Shell small and rather narrow, with strong longitudinal choc- 
olate markings over the reticulations. This is essentially a 
young state of G. canonicus, above, into which it passes with 
growth. 



CONUS. 91 

Yar. VICTORIA, Reeve. PL 30, fig. 6. 

Differs from the type in the reticulations being mostly smaller, 
arid light-colored, contrasting strongly with the bands of very 
dark chocolate longitudinal stripes, and in being more or less 

overlaid with violaceous clouds. 

Australia. 
Var. COMPLANATUS, Sowb. PL 30, fig. 7. 

Shell more inflated than C. Victoria, with much shorter spire, 
the reticulations more delicate, the bands much lighter in color. 
This shell, also from Australia, probably passes into the form 
Victories. 

C. PREVOSTI, Sowb. PL 30, fig. 8. 

Shell narrow, sulcate below ; orange, obscurely fasciated with 
chestnut, and finely reticulated with narrow orange lines ; spire 
with two striae. Length, 40 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

C. CONCATENATES, Kiener. PL 30, fig. 9. 

White, very openly reticulated with orange-red lines. 

Length, 35 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

An unrecognized form, which may prove to be a variety of 
C. textile. 

C. DALLI, Stearns. PL 30, fig. 10. 

Spire indistinctly grooved ; body-whorl obscurely spirally 
ribbed below ; yellowish brown, with reddish brown longitudinal 
stripes, interrupted by four revolving bands of white spots, and 
occasional white spots on the darker surface ; interior rosy pink. 

Length, 2-15-2-35 inches. 

Gulf of California. 

Closety allied to C. textile, but the spire has a convex outline, 
the interior is roseate, the spots are smaller, etc. The distribu- 
tion of C. textile is entirely different ; yet this may be only a 
variety. 

C. LUCIDUS, Mawe. PL 30, fig. 11. 

Shell white, encircled by equidistant narrow chestnut lines, 
which are connected longitudinally by semicircular lines some- 



92 CONUS. 

times crowded, but usually distant, forming series of open 
reticulations ; spire fasciculated with chestnut. 
Length, 1-5-2-35 inches. 

Isle of La Plata, W. Coast of Central America. 

C. ABBAS, Hwass. PI. 30, figs. 12-14. 

Shell white, very finely reticulated with narrow orange-brown 
lines, with a broad central and often narrower upper and lower 
bands of darker color bearing occasional longitudinal chocolate 
stripes. Length, 1-5-2*5 inches. 

E. Africa, Ceylon, Philippines, New Caledonia. 

Yery closely allied to C. textile, but the shell is smaller, the 
reticulations much smaller, the longitudinal streaks rarely 
apparent, and the dark bands of abbas occupy about the same 
positions as the lightest markings of textile. 

Yar. PANNICULUS, Lam. PI. 30, figs. 13, 14. 

Body-whorl with four bands of fine reticulations, and three 
bands bearing longitudinal chocolate stripes. C. corbula, Sowb. 
(fig. 14), is very similar in its markings. 

C. ELIS^E, Kiener. PL 30, fig. 15. 

Shell white, so closely finely longitudinally lined and reticulated 
with chocolate, as to appear like a chocolate surface with innumer- 
able white specks, with two or three broad darker bands. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Madagascar. 
C. CROCATUS, Lam. PI. 31, figs. 16, 17. 

Shell saffron-yellow, with a few scattered small white triangu- 
lar spots ; spire tessellated with chestnut. Length, 2*75 inches. 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 

C. EACEMOSUS, Sowb. PL 31, fig. 18. 

Shell rather solid, smooth, with convex spire ; brownish orange- 
color, with obscure revolving lines sparingly articulated with 
white, and clusters of white triangular spots, mostly disposed in 
three bands. Length, 2-15 inches. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Yery doubtfully distinct from the following species. 

C. OMARIA, Hwass. PL 31, figs. 19-28. 

Shell varying from orange-brown to chocolate-color, covered 



CONUS. 93 

by minute white spots, and overlaid by larger white triangular 
spots, sometimes forming bands at the shoulder, middle and 
base. Length. 2^3 inches. 

Red Sea, Ceylon, Philippines, Australia, Polynesia. 
With this species I am compelled to unite G. pennaceus, Born 
(figs. 20, 21), C. prselatus, Hwass (fig. 22), C. episcopus, Hwass 
(figs. 23, 24), C. rubigmosus, Hwass (fig. 25), G. magnificus, 
Reeve (fig. 26), and G. stellatus, Kiener (fig. 2*7), the latter a 
juvenile. 

Yar. COLUBRINUS, Lam. PL 31, fig. 28. 

Shell rather narrower, marked like C. textile, with longitudinal 
chocolate streaks, the triangular white spots fewer and smaller. 

C. AULTCUS, Linn. PL 31, figs. 29, 30. 

Shell rather narrow, with elevated spire; chocolate-brown, 
covered by elevated close revolving lines of darker color ; sur- 
face irregularly overlaid by subtriangular white spots, some of 
which are very large. Length, 3'5-5'5 inches. 

Mauritius, Ceylon, Philippines, N. Caledonia, 

Viti Isles, etc. 

Distinguished by its form and revolving raised lines, and the 
absence of white articulations. 

C. AUBATUS, Lam. (fig. 30), is distinguished only by a redder 
color and occasional minute white spots on ,the revolving striae ; 
it is scarcely entitled to a varietal name. 



Undetermined and Spurious Species. 

The following names, mostly of long standing, have not been 
identified with any of the species by either of the monographers. 
The descriptions are usually insufficient, and the references to 
the plates (sometimes the figures themselves) perplexing. 
C. PUSIO, Lam. ; C. JASEIDEUS, Gmel. ; C. INSULARIS, Gmel. ; G. 

LEOPARDUS, Meusch. ; C. FUSIFORMIS, Lam. ; C. LAMELLOSUS, 

Brug. ; C. ZIGZAG, Muhlf. ; C. NIGER, Jay. 

C. SINENSIS, Gmel. (JAn artificially colored specimen. Yon 
Martens.) 



94 CONUS. 

C. LUTEUS, Quoy. Yoy. Astrol. (Scarcely a Cone. Sowerby.) 

The single specimen recorded by Quoy was lost. 
C. MAURUS, Gray. Australia. 

C. OCELLATUS, Gmel. (? Artificially colored. Yon Martens.) 
C. CINCTUS, Yal. Acapulco. 

C. MAMILLARIS, Green. (The figure unrecognizable.) Florida. 

The following recently described, but unfigured species, I am 
unable to locate. 

C. CARMELI, T.-Woods. Tasmania. 

C. SOPKLE, Brazier. Solomon's Islands. 

C. PURUS, Pease. Polynesia. 



Errata. 

Page 12. After " C. Lorenzianus, Chemn.," add Sowerby r in 
part. 

Page 38. After " C. yradatulus " read Weinkauff instead of 
Sowerby. 



INDEX AND SYNONOMY. 



COMICS. 



PAGE. 



Abbas (Conus"), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 750, . 92 
Abbreviates (Conus), Nuttall, Mss. Reeve, Icon., f. 86. . 22 

= C. miliaris, Hwass., var. 
Achates (Conus), Meuschen. E. A. Smith, Jour. Linn. Soc. 

xii, 536. = C. monachus, Linn. 

Achatinus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, pi. 142, f. 131 7. 64 
Aculeiformis (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 176. 75 
Acuminatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

268, ..... 31 

Acutangulus (Conus), Chemn. Conch., xi, pi. 182, f. 1772, 

1773, .... ... 76, 78 

Acutimarginatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Suppl., f. 640, 641. 

= C. Borneensis, Ad. and Reeve, var. . . . .78 
Acutus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 119, fig. 142. 

= C. Ceylonensis, Hwass, var 23 

Adamsoni (Conus), Gray, Mss. Brit. Mus., Reeve, Icon., f. 22. 

= C. rhododendron, Couth. 
Adansoni (Conus), Lam. An., s. Yert. vii, p. 502. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass, var .66 

Adansoni (Conus), Reeve, Icon., f. 190, 193. 

= C. nigropunctatus, Sowb. . . . ... .64 

Adriaticus (Conus), Chiereghini. Crosse, Gruerin's Mag., 

203,1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Adustus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 204, fig. 403. 

= C. classiarius, Hwass, juv. ...... 41 

Aegrotus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. v., Sup,, f. 250. . 45 
Aemulus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 179. 

= C. coerulescens, Chemn. ...... 66 

Afflnis (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3391. 

= C, circumcisus, Born. 

Africanus (Conus), Kien. Sp. gen. Conch., 260, pi. 104, f. 2. 84 
Africanus (Conus), Meusch. Sowb., Thes. Index. 

= C. tseniatus, Hwass. 
Agrestis (Conus), Spengl. Morch, Kierulf Cat., p. 31. 

= C. figulinus, L., var. Loroisi. 

(95) 



96 INDEX AND SYNONOMY. 

Alabaster (Conus), Ad. and Reeve. Reeve, Icon. Suppl., t. 

6, f. 257, 72 

Albicans (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., iii, No. 13, f. 98, . 74 
Albomaculatus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 2. 

= C. bo3ticus, Reeve, var. ...... 26 

Albospira (Conus), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1880, p. 

480, pi. xlviii, f . 4 59 

Algoensis (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, . . 69 
Altispiratus (Conus), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1873, pi. 15, f. 4, 

p. 146, . . 66 

Alveolus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 11. 

= C. nisus, Chemn. . . - 59 

Amabilis (Conus), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 503. 

= C. pertusus, Hwass, ....... 54 

Amadis (Conus) Martini. Conch. Cab., ii, p. 290, pi. 58, f. 

642, 643, 30, 31 

Amadis (Conus), Sowb., var. Thes. Conch., t. 8, f. 171. 

= C, schech., Jeck. 
Amazonicus (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Gruerin's Mag., 203, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Ambiguus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 177, 13 
Ammiralis (Conus) Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gmel. Ed.), p. 3378, 29 
Anabathrum, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 9, f. 4, 1865, . 33 
Anaglypticus (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1 865, p. 314, 

pi. 11, f. 8-8 a. =? C. verrucosus, Hwass, . . 78 

Anceps (Conus), A. J\.d. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 119. 

= C. consors, Sowb. ........ 52 

Andamanensis (Conus), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1878, p. 

804, pi. 50, f. 1-1 a, . 

Anemone (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 479, . . 69 
Angasi (Conus), Tryon, ....... 62 

Angulatus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 118. 

= C. regularis, Sowb 37 

Aplustre (Conus), Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 171, . 67 
Arachnoideus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3388 (part). 

= C. araneosus, Hwass, . . . . . .8 

Araneosus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth.Ver.,i, pi. 2, p. 612, 8 
Arausiensis (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cat. 

= C. daucus, Hwass. 
Archetypus (Conus ^ Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, pi. 10, 

f. 7, p. 313. = C. daucus, Hwass, . . 48 

Archiepiscopus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Method, vers., i, pt. 

2, p. 747, = C. textile, Linn., var 90 

Archithalassus (Conus), Dillw. Desc. Cat., i, 374. 

= C. ammiralis, Linn., var. . . . . . .29 

Archon (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool, Soc., 1833, p. 54, . 27 






INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 97 

Arcuatus (Conus), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 

379, . . 75, 63 

Arcuatus (Conus) Gray. Zool. Beechey. Toy., p. 119. 

= C. emarginatus, Reeve. 
Ardisiacus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv.,p. 316, pi. 108, f. 1. 

? =^ C. anemone, Lam .70 

Arenatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. ver., i, pt. 2, p. 621, 18 
Aristophanes (Conus), Duclos. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 63, 

f. 81, 82. = C. miliaris, Hwass, var 22 

Armiger (Conus;, Crosse. Guerin's Mag., 205, 1858, . . 75 
Armillatus (Conus), C. B. Ad. Contr. to Conch., p. 59. 

= C. Proteus, Hwass, ....... 12 

Articulatus (Conus) Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1873, pi. 15, f. 3, 

p. 145, .... . . 33 

Artoptus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 35. 

= C. tenellus, Chem., Sow. Thes. Index, . . .81 

Asper (Conus), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 467. 

= C. sulcatus, Hwass. 
Aspersus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., fig. 16. 

= C. testudinarius, Martini. ...... 65 

Assimilis (Conus), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 118, 1853. 

= C. magus, Linn. . 53, 64 

Ateralbus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 313, pi. cviii, f. 4 

and 4 a. = C. venulatus, Hwass, . . . . .14 
Atramentosus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., pi. vii, f. 

265, 85 

Attenuatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 180, 49 
Augur (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 685, . 51 
Aulicus (Conus;, Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, p. 1171, . 93 
Aurantius ( Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 606, 25 
Auratus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 516. 

= C. aulicus, Linn. ........ 93 

Aureolus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 395. 

Aureus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 742, . 88 

Auricomus (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., 742, t. 346, f. 3. 

= C. clavus, Linn. 
Auricomus (Conus), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 167. 

= C. aureus, Hwass. 

Aurisiacus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1170, . . 82, 83 
Aurora (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 500. 

= C. rosaceus, Chemn .56 

Australis (Conus), Chemn. Conch., xi, pi. 183, f. 1774, 1775. 73 

Baccatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1876, p. 753, pi. 

Ixxv, f. 5, . 22 

Badius (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 89, pi. xxxiii, f. 3. 

= C nemocanus, Hwass, . . . . . . .39 

7 



98 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Baltcattis (Co^us), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 58, ... 21 
Balteus (Conus), Mawe. Wood, Index Test. Suppl., t. 3, f. 

5, 1856. = C. cuneolus, Reeve, . . . . .55 
Bandanus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth., i, pt. 2, p. 611. 

= C. marmorens, Linn., var 8 

Barbadensis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

632. ? = C. miliaris, Hwass, var. abbreviatus, . . 22 
Barbadensis (Conus), Reeve (not Hwass). Icon., f. 47. 

= C. nebulosus, Solander, , 28 

Barthelemyi (Conus), Bernard!. J. de Conch., 1861, p. 285 ; 

1862, p. 46, pi. i, f. 12. = C. aurisaicus, Linn. . . 83 
Bayani (Conus), Jousseaume. Rev. Zool., xxiii (2), p. 200, 

1872, pi. xviii, f. 1, . . .35 

Baylei (Conus), Jousseaume. Rev. Zool., xxiii (2), p. 198, 

pi. xviii, f. 2, 1872, .11 

Bernardi (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., p. 220, pi. 100, f. 2. 

= C. cinereus, Hwass, var 58 

Betulinus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gmelin), p. 3383, . 16 
Bicolor (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., fig. 18. 

= C. Proteus, Hwass, 12 

Bifasciatus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3392. 

= C. centurio, Born. 

Bifasciatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 186, f. 302, . 32 
Biliosus (Conus), Bolt. Crosse, Mag. Zool., 205, 1858. 

= C. piperatus, Reeve. 
Blainvillii (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 358, pi. cxi, f. 1. 

= C. classiarius, Hwass, 41 

Blainvillei (Conus), Yign. Desc. *= C. ammiralis, Linn. 
Blanfordianus (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1867, pi. 

2, f. l,p. 66. = C. nisus, Chemn. . . . . .69 

Bocki (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 636, pi. Ivi, 

f. 7. = C. sulcatus, Hwass, var 74 

Bceticus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 174, . 26 
Boivinii (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 64, . . .86 
Borbonicus (Conus), H. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1868, p. 

288, pi. xxvii,f. 1, . .67 

Borneensis (Conus), Ad. and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Sam., p. 18, 

pi. v, f. 8, ' . .77 

Borneensis (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Suppl., 439, f. 648. 

= C magus, Linn. ... .... 53 

Brazieri (Conus), Sowb. Jour, of Conch., iii, 1881, p. 234, 

pi. l,f. 9, . . 81 

Breviusculus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. Illust., f. 55, list. 

= C. Proteus, Hwass, 12 

Broderipi (Conus), Kien. (non Reeve). Icon., t. 71, f. 2. 

C. rosaceus, Chemn. ....... 56 

Broderipii (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 179. 57 






INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 99 

Bruguieri (Conus), Kiener. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass, . 66 
Brunneus (Conus), Gray. Wood's Index Test. Suppl., t. 3, 

f. 1, . . . . 28 

Bulbus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 171. 

= C. Africanus, Kiener, var. . . . . . .84 

Bullatus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, 1172, . . 87 
Bullatus var. (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 24. 

= C. cervus, Lam. . . . . . . . .87 

Buxeus (Conus), Link. Mus. Rostock, Crosse, Rev. Zool., 

205, 1858. = C. quercinus, Hwass. 
Buxeus (Conus), Reeve. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1843, p. 180. 

= C. lignaris, Reeve, var. furvus. 

Cabriti (Conus), Bernardi. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 377, pi. xiii, 

f. 2. = C. anemone, Lam. 

Caffer (Conus i, Krauss. Siidafr. Moll., 131, t. 6, f. 24, . 68 
Cailliaudi (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 55, f. 5, . . 80 
Caledonicus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

634, . 79 

Californicus (Conus), Hinds. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1844, . . 17 
Canaliculatus (Conus), Chemn. Conch., ii, pi. 181, f. 1748, 

1749. = C. Malaccanus, Hwass. 

Cancellatus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 500, . 74 
Candidus (Conus), Born. Index Test. Mus. Caes. 

= C. marmoreus, Linn. 
Candidus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 214, pi. xcvii, f. 1. 

= C. Pealii, Green, ... . 3d 

Canonicus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 749. 

= C. textile, Linn., var 90 

Capitaneus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, figs. 1764, 

1765. = C. rattus, Hwass. 

Capitaneus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gm. Ed.), p. 3376. 40 
Capitaneus senex (Conus), Chem. Conch. Cab., xi, t. 183, 

f. 1786, 1787. == C. classiaiius, Hwass. 
Carnalis (Conus), Sowb. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1878, p. 796, pi. 

xlviii, f. 2, 77 

Cardinalis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 632, 27 
Carinatus (Conus), Swains. Zool. 111., 1st ser., pi. 112. 

= C. consors, Sowb. ........ 52 

Carmeli (Conus), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1876, 

p. 134, 94 

Carpenter! (Conus), Crosse. J. de Conch., 1865, pi. 9, f. 1. 

= C. vitulinus, Hwass., var. ...... 51 

Castaneus (Conus), Kien. Coq. Yiv., pi. civ, f. 3, p. 209. 

= C. Archon., Brod., var. .27 

Cassis (Conus), Meusch. Crosse, Rev. Zool., 205, 1858. 

= C^ acuminatus, Hwass. 



100 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Castrensis (Conns), Gould. Cover Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., iv, 
No. 1, Jan., 1842; Pro. Bost. Soc. N. H,, i, p. 138, 1843. 

= C. thalassiarchus. Gray, '. . . . . .30 

Castus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 180, . 66 
Catenatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1878, p. 796, 

. pi. xlviii, f. 3, 63 

Catus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 707, . 63 
Catus (Conus), Issel (non Brug.) Mai. Mar Rosso, p. 

142. = Yar. nigropunctatus, Sowb. 
Cecilei (Conus), Kien. Coq. Viv., pi. xcviii, f. 4, and pi, 

cvii, f. 3. =5 C. lignarius, Reeve, var. . . . .51 
Cecilise (Conus), Chemn. Crosse, Jour, Conch., t. vii, pi. 

14, f. 5, p. 381, 1859. = C. capitaneus, Linn., var. . . 41 
Cedo-nulli (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., 602, t. 316, f. 1-9. 

= C. nebulosus, Hwass. . . . . . . .28 

Centurio (Conus), Born. Mus., pi. 7, f. 10, . . .33 

Cerinus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. iii, f. 283, . 70 
Cernicus (Conus), H.Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1869, p. 272, 

pi. xix, f. 1. = Yar. C. balteatus, Sowb. . . .21 

Cervus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Yert., vii, p. 510, . . 87 
Cervus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 94. 

= Yar. Cuvieri, Crosse. 
Ceylonensis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

636, . . 23 

Ceylonicus (Conus), Chemn. Conch., x, 67, pi. 142, f. 1318. 

=^ C. obesus, Hwass. 
Chaldaeus (Conus), Bolt. Mus. Sowb. Thes. Conch., Index. 

= C. vermiculatus, Lam. 
Characteristics (Conus), Chemn. Conch., xi, p. 54, pi. 182, 

f. 1760, 1761, . . . . . . . . .13 

Chelyconus, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 69, 1852. 

= S. G. Leptoconus, H. and A. Adams. 
Chemnitzii (Conus), Dill. Desc. Cat. 

= C. capitaneus, var. Linn. Crosse, Rev. Zool., 1858, 203. 
Chenui (Conus), Crosse. Rev. Zool., 120, 1858, Jour. Conch., 

vi, p. 381, pi. xi, f. 3, 4, 1858, . . 50 

Chessoideus (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 203, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Chytreus (Conus), Melvill 17 

Cibieli (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 242, pi. cvii, f. 2, . 46 
Cidaris (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 57, pi. Ixiii, f. 1 and 1 a. 

= C. Magellanicus, Hwass., var. .... . 27 

Cinctus (Conus), Swain. Zool. Illust., i ser., ii, t. 110. 

= pulchellus, Swain. 49 

Cinctus (Conus), Yal. Humboldt, Recueil d'Orbs., ii, 337. 94 
Cinereus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. rers., i, pt. 2, p. 673. 58 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 101 

Cinereus (Conus), Poll. Test. Sicil.,iii, t. 45, f. 7. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Cinereus (Conus), var. Sowb. 111. Conch., f. 43. 

= C. nisus, Chemn. 
Cingulum (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 33T8. 

? = C. quercinus, Brug. 

Gingulatus (Conus), Lam. An. sans. Yert., vii, p. 482, . 76 
Cingulatns (Conus), Reeve. Icon., f. 158. 

= C. undatus, Kiener, ....... 76 

Cingulatus (Conus), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 34, Conch. 

111., 108. = C. rhododendron, Couth 86 

Circse (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, f. 1778, 1779. 

= C. magus, Linn. . . . . . . .53 

Circumcisus (Conns), Born. Test, Mus. Cses., 163, 1780, . 81 
Circumsignatus (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, p. 

Sll,pLl6,'C 4, 50 

Citrinus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3389. 

= C. livid us, Hwass, ....... 45 

Citrinus (Conus), Kiener. Iconog., t. 78, f. 4. 

= C. raustellinus, Hwass, 41 

Citrinus Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 248, pi. 59, f. 6, . 5T 
Clandestinus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, f. 1296. 

C. magus, Linn. ........ 53 

Clarus (Conus), Smith. Ann. Mag., N. H., 1881, viii, 442, . 14 
Classiarius (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

705, 41 

Classiarius (Conus), Kiener. Iconog., t. 63, f. 3. 

= C. capitaneus, Linn., var. ...... 41 

Clavus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gm.), p. 3390, . . 81 
Clerii (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 175, . 37 
Clodianus (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 203, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Cocceus (Conus), Kiener. Iconog., t. 107, f. 1. 

= C. nisus, Chemn., var. ....... 59 

Cocceus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 174, . 7Q 
Coccineus (Conus), GmeL Syst. Nat., 3390, . . . 82 

Ccelatus, A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 117, 1853, . 1Q 

Coelebs (Conus), Hinds. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1843, p. 256. 

= C. terebra. Born, ........ 8Q 

Coelinae (Conus), Crosse. Obs. sur. 1. gen. Conus, 1, in Rev. 

Zool., 1858, pi. 2, f. 1, p. 117, . . .43 

Coerulescens (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi } f. 1762-3. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass, var. . . . . .66 

Coarulescens (Conus), Lam. Anim. sans Yert., xii, 501. 

= C. cinereus, Hwass. 

Coffea (Conus), Gmelin. $yst. Nat., 338, .... 42 
Collisus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Supp., 2, pi. viii, f. 273, 57 



102 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Colubrinus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 517. 

= C. omaria, Hwass, var. ...... 93 

Colubrinus (Conus), Reeve. Icon., f. 123. 

= C. rubiginosus, Hwass. 

Columba (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 709. 62 
Columba. var. c. (Conus), Lam. Enc. Meth., pi. 331, f. 3. 

= C. radiatus, Gmel., var. parius. 

Commodus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 117, 76 
Complanatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Suppl., 441, f. 650, 651. 

= C. textile, Linn., var. ....... 91 

Compressus (Conus) Sowb. Thes. Conch., Suppl., 404, f. 

602-603. = C. anemone, Lam .70 

Comptus (Conus), Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 119. 

= C. castus, Reeve. 
Comptus (Conus), Old. Mex. and Cal. Shells, 14, t. 14, f. 

123. = C. purpurascens, Brod. . . . v . .65 
Conarius, Dum. Zool. Anal., 166, 1806. = Conus, Linn. 
Concatenatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv.,p. 362, pi. 110, f. 1, 91 
Concolor (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 59, . . 40 

Concinnulus (Conus), Crosse. Obs. sur le genre Conus, 23, 85 
Concinnus (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= C. concinnulus, Crosse. Rev. Zool., 1858, p. 205. 
Concinnus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Suppl., 438, f. 646. 

= C. sapphirostoma, Weink. ...... 62 

Condensus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., Suppl., 417, f. 622. 

= C. textile, Linn., var 90 

Conella, Swainson, 84 

Connectens (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1854, p. 136. 

= C. pulchellus, Swains. . . . . . . .49 

Conorbis, Swainson. Malacol., 149, 312, 1840, ... 5 
Consanguineus (Conus), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1880, p. 478, pi. 48, f. 1, .... . . 52 

Censors (Conus), Sow. Conch. 111., p. 42, . . . .52 

Conspersus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 180, 58 
Consul (Conus), Boivin. Jour, de Conch., xii, 33, t. 1, f 5, 

6, 1864. = C. magus, Linn. ... . . 53 

Contusus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. ii, f. 276, 60 
Conulus, Rafinesque. Anal. Nat., 145, 1815. 

= Conus, Linn. 

Conus, Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, x, 712, 1758, ... 7 
Convolutus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch , 380, fig. 564, . 89 
Cooki (Conus), Brazier. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1870, p. 109, . 84 
Corallinus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 246, ph Ixxiii, f. 2, 67 
Corbula (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 365, fig. 573. 

= C. abbas, Linn., var 92 

Cordigera (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Sup., 437, f. 468, pi. 21. 

= C, nobilis, Linn. ........ 30 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 103 

Coronatus (Conus), Dillw. Desc. Cat., i, 143. 

= C. miliaris, Hwass, . . . . . .22 
Coronatus (Conus), Reeve. Icon. Suppl., t. 7, f. 263, t. 9, 

263 a. = C. papalis, Weink. ...... 78- 

Coronaxis, Swainson. Malacol., 147, 311, 1840, . . 19, 25 
Corrugatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 257, 

pi. xxii, f. 7, ... . 78 

Cosmographia (Conus), Martin. Univ. Concli., iv, pi. 125. 

E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 506. 

= C. monachus, Linn. 
Costatus (Conus), Chemn. Conch., ii, t. 181, f. 1745 and 

1747. = C. sulcatus, Hwass. 
Couderti (Conus), Bernard!. Jour. Conch., t. 8, pi. 4, f. 

314, 1860, .... ... .24 

Coxeni (Conus), Brazier. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, p. 34, pi. 

iv, f. 10, 30 

Crassus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 203, fs. 254, 255. 

== C. tessellatus, Born, var. . . . . . .11 

Crebrisulcatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 173, fig. 321, 83 
Crenulatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 355, pi. cix, f. 1. 

= C. armiger, Crosse, 75 

Crepusculum (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 178. 

= C. lividus, Hwass, var. ...... 45 

Cretaceus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. xcix, f. 1. 

= C. verrucosus, Hwass, 78 

Creteus ( Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 203, 1858. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Crocatus (Conus), Lam. Anim. sans Yert., vii, p. 503, . 92 
Crosseanus (Conus), Bernard!. Jour. Conch., 1861, p. 168, 

pi. vi, f. 3 and 4. Jour. Conch., 336, 1874. Jour. Conch., 

168, t. 3, f. 3, 1878. = C. marmoreus, Linn., var. . . 8 
Crotchii (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. vi, f. 254, 15 
CryptoconUs, Koenen, 1867. = Conorbis, Swains. 
Cucullus, Bolt. Mus., 1798. = Conus, Linn. 
Cumingii (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., pi. viii, f. 277. 

= C. virgatus, Reeve, var. ...... 35 

Cumingii (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Supp., pi. iii, f. 282. 

?== C. vittatus, Lam .43 

Cuneatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1873, pi. 15, f. 

5, p. 146. = C. acuminatus, Hwass, var. . . .31 

Cuneiformis (Conus), Smith. Quart. Jour. Conch., i, p. 202, 

1876, 13 

Cuneolus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. 3ool. Soc., 1813, p. 173, . 55 
Cuvieri (Conus), Crosse. Obs. sur le genre Cone, 12. 

= C. cervus, Lam., var. ....... 87 

Cyanostoma (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 116, 14 
Cylinder, Montfort, Conch. Syst. ii, 390, 1810, . . . 88 



104 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Cvlindraceus (Conus), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., v, p. 

"51, t. 40, f. 5, 83 

Cylindrella, Swainson. Malacol., 311, 1840, . . .71 

Dactylosus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. xcvii, f. 2. 

= C. clavus, Linn., var. ....... 81 

Dalli (Conus), Stearns. Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S., v, p. 78, pi. 

l,f- 1, 91 

Danielli (Conus), Crosse. Guerin's Mag., 205, 1858. 

= C. pictus, Reeve, 68 

Daphne (Conus), Boivin. Jour, de Conch., 1864, pi. i, f. 7-8. 

= C. conspersus, Reeve, var. ...... 58 

Daucus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 651, . 48 
Daullei (Conus), Crosse. Rev. Zool., 1858, pi. 2, f. 2, p. 119. 

= C. consors> Sowb. ....... 52 

Dealbatus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 117. 

= C. Californicus, Hinds, .18 

Deburghiae (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 7, f. 6, 7. 

= C. nocturnus, Hwass, var. ...... 8 

Decrepitus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 265, pi. xcix, f. 4. 

= C. cocceus, Reeve, ....... 70 

Delessertianus (Conus), Recluz. Mag. de Zool., 1843, pi. 72, 33 
Dendroconus, Swainson. Malacol., 311, 1840, . . .16 
Deshayesii (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 168. 

= C cervus, Lam., var. ....... 87 

Desidiosus, (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 119. 

= C. mercator, Linn., var. . . . . ' . .55 

Diadema (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 19. 

= C. brunneus, Gray, 28 

Dianthus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1882, p. 118, pi. 

T,f.4, .... 27 

"Dibaphus, Philippi. = Mitridae, Manual, iv, p. 109. 
Dilectus (Conus), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., iii, p. 

172 ; Moll. Wilkes Exped., 287, f. 367, .... 67 
Dilwynii (Conus), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1843. 

== C. Erythraeensis, Beck. 
Discrepans (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., fig. 28. 

= C. rhododendron, Couth 86 

Dispar (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 57. 

= C. regularis, Sowb. ....... 37 

Distans (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 634, 47 
Dolium (Conus), Boivin. Jour, de Conch., 1864, 36, pi. i, 

f. 3-4. = C. spectrum, Linn., var. . . . . .57 

D'Orbignyi (Conus), Audouin, . . . . .75, 77 

Duplicatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Index. 

= C. Australis, Chemn. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 105 

Dupontii (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. Ixi, f. 2. 

= C. Africanus, Kiener, var. . . . . .84 

Du Saveli (Conus), H. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1872, pi. 3, f. 

17, p. 12. = C. circumcisus, Born, var. . . .87 

Duvali (Conus), Born. Jour, de Conch., 1862, pi. 13, f. 3, p. 

404. = C. pygmaeus, Reeve, ...... 62 

Dux (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pi. 2, p. 732. 

= C. circumcisus, Born, 81 

Eburneus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pi. 2, p. 640, 11 
Echinulatns (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. cv, f. 2. 

= C. verrucosus, Hwass, ...... 78 

Edentulus (Conus), Reeve. 

= Dibaphus Philippii. Crosse, vol. iv, p. 109. 
Elisse (Conus), Kiener. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 44, f. 1-la, . 92 

Elisae (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 3306. 

= C. pennaceus, Born. 
Elongatus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t, 144, fig. a, f. 

J. K 68 

Elongatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 170. 

= C. oblitus, Reeve, ..'..... 46 

Elventinus (Conus), Duel. Mag. de Zool., 1833, pi. 19. 

? = C. verrucosus, Hwass, ...... 78 

Emaciatus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. v, f. 248, 44 
Emargiriatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, . 37 
Encaustus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 54, pi. xiv, f. 2, . 21 
Epaphus (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 203, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Epaticus (Conus), Renier. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 203, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Episcopus (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., 748. 

= C. omaria, Hwass, 93 

Epistomioides (Conus), Weink. Chemn., Ed. Nouv., pi. 57, 

f. 6, 7. = C. magus, Linn., var. . . . . 54 
Epistomium (Conus), Meusch. Crosse, Rev. Zool., 205, 1858. 

= C. vexillum, Gmel. 
Epistomium (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 174. 

= C. magus, Linn., var. ...... 53 

Eques (Conus), Brug. Diet., 97. = C. catus, Hwass, . 63 
Ermineus (Conus), Born. Index Mus. COBS. 

= C. lithoglyphus, Meusch. 
Erosus (Conus), Renier. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 203, 1858. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Erythrseensis (Conus), Beck. Lam., Edit, ii, xi, 141, . 62' 

Eudoxus (Conus), Melvill. = C. marchionatus, Hinds, var. 10 
Euetrios (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1882, p. 120, pi. 

v, f. 6. = C. textile, var., Linn 90 



106 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Evelynae (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1882, p. 117, 

pi. v, f. 2, .46 

Exaratus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 171, . 74 
Excavatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Suppl., 411, f. 616. 

= C. coffea, Gm 42 

Exiguus (Conus), Lam. Ann. Mus., No. 43. 

? = C. varius, L., young. 
Eximius (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., pi. vi, f. 256. 

= C. fulgurans, Hwass (juv.), . . ... 32 

Fabula (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 5. 

= C. scabriusculus, Chemn. . . . . . .80 

Fasciatus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 119. 

= C. bifasciatus, Sow .32 

Fasciatus (Conus), Kiener. Coq. viv., p. 311, pi. cix, f. 2. 

= C. lignarius, var. ........ 51 

Fasciatus (Conus), Mart. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 20, f. 487- 

489. = C. ochroleucus, Gmelin. 
Fenellus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, f. 1782, 1783. 

= C. magus, Linn. . , 53 

Fenestrata (Oliva), Martyn. Univ. Conch. 

= C. (Conus) tendineus, Hwass. 
Fergusoni (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, pi. 15, f. 

1, p. 145, 15 

Ferrugatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 19, 1834. 

= C. cingulatus, var., Lam. 
Ferruginous (Conus), var., Brug. Reeve, Icon. 

= C. planorbis, Born. 
Festivus (Conus), Chemn. xi, f. 1770, 1771. 

= C. pertusus, Hwass, 54 

Figulinus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gm.), p. 3384, . . 16 
Filamentosus (Conus), Reeve. Conch., Ic., pi. vi, Suppl., f. 

260, 82 

Flammeus (Conus), Lam. Edit. Desh., xi, 76, . . . 12 
Flavescens (Conus), Gray. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 68, . . 36 
Flavidus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 468, . .44 
Floccatus (Conus), var. Kiener, t. 106, f. 3. 

= C. Julii, Lienard. 

Floccatus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 112, . . . 86 
Floridanus (Conus), Gabb. A. J. C., vol. iv, p. 195, pi. 15, 

f. 4, 1868, 38 

Floridensis (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, pi. 22, 

f. 11. == C. Floridanus, Gabb, . . .38 

Floridulus (Conus), Ad. and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Sam., p. 18, 

pi. 5, f. 9. = C. voluminalis, Hinds, var. . . .35 

Floridus (Conns), Sowb. Thes. Conch., Sp. 345, x. 

= C. tulipa, Linn , 88 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 107 

Fluctifer (Conus), Dillw. Desc. Cat., 1, 382. 

= C. Prometheus, Hwass. 
Fortis (Conus), Renter. Crosse. Guerin's Mag., 204, 1858. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Franciscanus (Monachus), Chemn. Conch., ii, pi. 142, f. 

1319, 1320. = Conus cinereus, Hwass. 
Franciscanus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

698. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass, . . . . 66 

Frauenfeldi (Conus), Crosse. Jour.de Conch., 1865, pi. 10, 

f. 1, la. = C. magus, Linn., var. . . . . .53 

Frigidus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic.,i,Supp.,pl. iii, f. 284, 14 
Fucatus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. vii, f. 271, 69 
Fulgetrum (Conus), Sowb. Conch. III., fig. 32, Proc. Zool. 

Soc., 1841. = C. miliaris, Hwass, . . . . .22 
Fulgurans (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

687, . . ' . .32 

Fulmen (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, . . 65 
Fumigatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pi. 2, p. 

704. = C. coftea, Gmel. 
Fulmineus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3388. 

? = C. fulgurans, Hwass. 
Fulvocinctus (Conus), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 1872, p. 214; 

1873, p. 248, pi. xi, f. 5, 52 

Furvus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. 

= C. lignarius, var. . . . . . . . .51 

Fuscatus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 446. 

= C. imperialis, Linn., var. ...... 9 

Fusifofmis (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., Edit. Desh., xi, 

92, 93 

Fusiibrmis (Conus), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 398. 

= C. parvus, Pease. A. J. C., iv, p. 126, 1868, . . 85 
Fustigatus (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., t. 320, f. 1. 

= C. pulicarius, Hwass, ....... 19 

Fusus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3390. 

= C. granulatus, Linn. ....... 82 

Gabrieli (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv.,p. 315, pi. Ixxiv, f. 4. 

= C. cinereus, Hwass, 58 

Geminus (Conus), Bolt. Mus. Crosse, Rev. Zool., 205, 1858. 

= C. taeniatus, Hwass. 
Gemmnlatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 257, 

pi. xxii, f. 8. = C. Orbignyi, And 75 

Generalis (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1166, , . .34 
Genuanus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gmelin.), p. 3381, . 15 
Geographus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, xii, 1172, . 88 
Geographus, var. (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 26. 

= C. violaceus, Reeve. 



108 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Gilvus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic: Suppl., pi. vi, f. 255. 

= C. caffer, Krauss, ........ 68 

Gladiator (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, . . -3S 2 
Glans (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 725, . 79 
Glaucus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gmel. Ed.), p. 3382, . 16 
Gloria-maris (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., 752, t. 347, f. 7. 89 
Gloynei (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 637, pi. 

Ivi, f. 5, 44 

Gosavia, Stoliczka. Sitz. Wien. Ac., Hi, 1865. 

= Volutidse, Manual, iv, 78. 
Gracilis (Conus), Mawe. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Index. 

= C. Timorensis, Hwass 75 

Gracilis (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Index. 

= ,C. australis, Chemn. 
Gracilis (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, p. 125, pi. 

xxiv, f. 6. = C. acnleiformis, Reeve. 

Gradatulus (Conus\ Weinkauff. Kiister, 356, t. 66, f. 5, 38, 94 
Gradatus (Conus), Gray. MSS., Brit. Mus., Sowb., Thes. 

Index. = C. scalaris, Yal. 
Granarius (Conus), Kien. Coq., viv., p. 215, pi. xcviii, f. 1. 

= C. archon, Brod., var 27 

Grandis (Conus), Sowb. Index, Thes. Conch. 

= C. spurius, Gm. 

Granifer (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., pi. vii, f. 272, . 74 
Granulatus (Conus, Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, xii, 1270, . 81 
Granulosus (Conus), Bolt. Crosse, Rev. Zool., 205, 1858. 

= C. varius, Linn. 

Grayi (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 179, .84 
Griseus (Conus , Kien. Coq. viv., p. 114, pi. Ixiii, f. 2. 

= C. ambiguus, Reeve, ....... 13 

Gross! (Conus), Marav. Atti della Soc. Ital. des Sc. Nat. 

= C. Mediterranean, Hwass. 
Gruneri (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 175. 

= C. literatus, Linn. ........ 10 

Gubbse (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. civ, f. 1. 

= C. radiatus, Gmel., var. . . . . . .60 

Gubernator (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

727, pi. 340, f. 4-6, . . .86 

Guestieri (Conus), Lorois. Jour. Conch., 1860, t.viii, pi. 12, 

f. 5, p. 329, .35 

Guinaicus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., 1, pt. 2, p. 697, 65 
Guttatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 259, pi. cv, f. 4. 

= C. Africanus, Kiener, ....... 84 

Hamilli (Conus). Crosse. Guerin's Mag. Zool., 205, 1858. 
= C. Erythraeensis, Beck. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 109 

Hanleyi (Corius\ Sowb. Thes. Conch., 160, figs. 399, 400. 

= C. puncticulatus, Hwass, . . . . . .62 

Hebraeus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., Ed. x, p. 715, . . 20 
Henoquei (Conus), Bernard!. Jour. Conch., 1860, viii, pi. 

13, f. 4, p. 380. ?. == C. vittatus, var., Orion, . . 43 

Hepaticus (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 9*7, f. 3, . . 47 
Herillus (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 204, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Hermes, Monttbrt. Conch. Syst., ii, 398, 1810. 

= Genus of Conidse, H. and A. Adams, . . . 71, 79 
Hieroglyphicus (Conus), Duel. Mag. de Zool., 1833, pi. 23, 85 
Hieroglyphicus, var. (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 103, 

f. 3. = C. lugubris, Reeve. 
Hwassii (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 118. 

= C. varius, Linn. ........ 25 

Hyaena (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 656, 

pi. 327, f. 5 and 7, 65 

Hyaena (Conus), Reeve. Icon. Suppl., 275. 

= C. mutabilis, Chemn. ....... 40 

Hyaena (Conus), Reeve (not Hwass). Conch. Icon., f. 133. 

= C. punctatus, Chemn. 
Hybridus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 256, pi. Ixxxiii, f. 1. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass, ...... 66 

Ignobilis (Conus), Oliv. Zool. Adriat., 133. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Imperialis (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gm)., p. 3374, . 9 

Insequalis (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., vii, f. 270. 

= C. corallinus, Kien., var. . . . . . .67 

Incariatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 174. 

= C. coffea, Gm 42 

Incurvus (Conus), Kien. Iconog., t. 97, f. 4. 

= C. regularis, Brod. 37 

Indicus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, f. 1295. 

= C. magus, Linn. ........ 53 

Induratus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. vii, f. 268. 

= C. Erythraeensis, Beck, 62 

Inflatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. 71, f. 3. 

= C. Lamarcki, Kien. ....... 57 

Inflatus (Conns), Sowb. Conch. 111., fig. 41. 

. ?= C. conspersus, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 463, 464, . 58 

Informis (Conus , Dillw. Desc. Cat., i, 431. 

? = C. simplex, Sowb. ....... 54 

Informis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., pt. ii, p. 699. 

Unidentified. 
Informis (Conus), Reeve (not Hwass). Conch. Icon., f. 24. 

= C. simplex, Sowb. 



110 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Infrenatus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, Suppl.,pl. Hi, f. 285. 56 
Innexus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 118. 

= C. censors, Sowb. ....... 52 

Inquinatus, Reeve. Conch. Ic. SuppL, v, f. 251. 

= C. pertusus, Hwass, . . . . . . .54 

Inscriptus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 171, 61 
Insculptus (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 99, f. 2. 

= C. aculeiformis, Reeve, 75 

Insignis (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 17. 

= C. acuminatus, Hwass. ...... 31 

Insularis (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat, 3389, . . 93 

Intermedius (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 169. 

= C. geographus, Linn., var. Mappa, 88 

Interruptus (Conus), Brod. and Sowb. Zoo. Jour., iv, p. 379, 

1829, 63 

Interruptus (Conus), Mawe. Conch., 1828. 

== C. varius, Linn 25 

lodostoma (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 170, 60 
Irregularis (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 418, 419. 

= C. olivaceus, Kien,, var. ...... 56 

Istriensis (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 204, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Jamaicensis (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., t. 343, f. 7. 

? = var. C. Mediterraneus, Hwass, 66 

Janus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i,pt. 2, p. 670, pi. 

336, f. 5, 6, . . ... 61 

Japonicus (Conus), Brug. Encyc. Meth., t. 330, f. 3. 

? = C. Largillierti, Kiener. 
Japonicus (Conus), Brug. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 110. 

= C. Largillierti, Kiener, 36 

Jaspideus (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 55, f. 2. 

= C. pictus, Reeve, ....... 68 

Jaspideus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3387, ... 93 
Jaspis (Conus), Salis. Reise, 363. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Jickelii (Conus), Weink. Kiister, 206, t. 32, f. 11, 12, . 61 
Jukesii ( Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, Suppl., pi. ii, fig. 278. 

= C. anemone, Lam. 70 

Julii (Conus), Lienard. Jour, de Conch., 1870, p. 304 ; 1871, 

pi. l,f. 6, 87 

Keatii (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 298, fig. 479. 

= C. inscriptus, Reeve, ....... 61 

Kieneri (Conus), Crosse. Guerin's Mag., 204, 1858. 

= C. cocceus, Reeve. 
Kieneri (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. ix, Sup., f. 282, . 71 



Kobelti (Conus) Lobbecke. Jahr. Deutsch. Mai. 
p. 189, t. 4, f. 4, 5, 1882, . 




OF THE 
INDEX AND SYNONYMY. V HI 

V 



Lachrymosus (Conus \ Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., vi, f. 258', 69 
Lacinulatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 312, pi. cviii, f. 2. 

= C. lithoglyphus, Meusch. . . ... 49 

Lacteus (Conus), Lamk. An. sans Vert.,vii, 481. 

= C. spectrum, Linn., var. 
Lacteus (Conus), Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch , f. 473. 

= C. radiatus, Gmel. 
Lacteus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. 

= C. spectrum, Linn. . . . . . . .51 

Lsetus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3391. 

= C. grannlatus, Linn. 
Lsevigatus (Conus), pars., Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 207. 

= C. vexillum, Gmel. ....... 39 

Lsevigatns (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 149, 150. 

= C. nemocanus, Hwass, ....... 39 

Lsevis (Conus), Crosse. Guerin's Mag. Zool., 205, 1858. 

For C. Isevigatus, Sowb., not Defrance (fossil). 
Laevis (Conus), Mart. Conch. Cab., ii, t. 52, f. 572. 

= C. tendineus, Hwnss. 

Lamarckii (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 240, pi. Ixxxiii. f. 4, 56 
Lamberti (Conns), Sowb. Jour, de Conch., 1877, p. 71, pi. 

i, f. 1 and pi. ii, f. 7, ........ 28 

Lamellosus (Conus), Brug. Diet., No. 36, . . . .93 

Lapidus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab. 

= Conus zonatus, Hwass. 

Largilliertii (Conus), Kien. Icon. Coq. viv., pi. 98, f. 3, . 36 
Laterculatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc^ 1870, p. 255, 

pi. xxii, f. 3. = C. australis, Chemn. . . . 73 

Latifasciatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 304, fig. 485. 

= C. Kieneri, Reeve, . . . . . . .71 

Lautus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 179, . 68 
Legatus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 523. 

= C. canonicus, Hwass, var. ...... 90 

Lemniscatus ( Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. v, f. 246, 36 
Lentiginosus (Conus), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1843. 

= C. emarginatus, Reeve, var. ...... 37 

Leoninus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 683, 

pi. 334, f. 5, 6. '= C. Proteus, Hwass, . . 12 

Leoninus minutus (Conus), Chemn. Weinkauff, Cat. No. 

212. = C. Erythraeensis, Beck. 
Leopardus (Conus), Dillw. Desc. Cat., i, 364. 

= C. Sumatrensis, Hwass. 
Leopardus (Conus), Meusch. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Index, . 93 



112 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Leo scandens (Conus), Chemn. Conch., x, pi. 140, f. 1300. 

? = C. inscriptus, Reeve. 
Leptoconus, Swainson. Malacol, 312, 1840. 

= Genus of Conidse, H. and A. Adams, . . .25, 29 
Leucostictus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3388, ... 25 
Leucostictus (Conus), Gmelin. Crosse, Rev. Zool., 206, 

1858. = C. nebulosus, Sol 28 

Lictor (Conus), Boivin. Jour, de Conch., 1864, 36, pi. i, 

figs. 1 and 2. = C. spectrum, Linn., var. . . .51 
Lienardi (Conus), Crosse and Berdardi. Jour. Conch., ix, 

p. 49, pi. i, f. 2, 1861,. .... 60 

Lignarius (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, . . SS5 
Lineatus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, pi. 138, f. 1285, 50 
Lineolatus (Conus), Valen. Voy. Humboldt, Zool., 337. 

= C. princeps, Linn. ....... 29 

Liratus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 181. 

= C. plumbeus, Reeve, . . . . . . .26 

Lischkeanus(Conus),Weink. Chemn. Ed. Nouv.,pl.36,f. 2,3, 41 
Listeri (Conus), Renier. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 204, 1858. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Literatus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gm.), p. 3375, . . 10 
Lithoconus, Morch. Yoldi, Cat., 66, 1853, ... 10, 43 
Lithoglyphus (Conus), Meuschen. Enc. Meth. ver., i, p. 2, 

p. 692, 48 

Lividus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, 60, t. 183, f. 1776, 

1777. = C. cinereus, Hwass. 

Lividus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 630, . 45 
Lividus (Conus), var. Sowb. Reeve, Icon., sp. 286. 

= C. mus, Hwass, var. roseus. 
Lizardensis (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, pi. 9, 

f. 5. = C. Bofneensis, Ad. and Reeve, . . . .18 
Loebbeckeanus (Conus), Weink. Chemn. Ed. Nouv., pi. 36, 

f. 3, 4. = C. Chenui, Crosse, 50 

Lombei (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 637, pi. 

Ivi, f. 6, ....... 44 

Longurionis (Conus), Kiener. Coq. viv., p. 308, pi. xcii, f. 6. 

= C. aculeiformis, Reeve, ....... 75 

Lorenzianus (Conus), Chemnitz. Conch. Cab., f. 1754, 1755 ; 

Sowerby, Thes. Conch., f. 430, . . ... 35 

Lorenzianus (Conus), Chemn. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., f. 

217. = C. flammeus, Lam 12, 94 

Lorenzianus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 152. 

= C. virgatus, Reeve, 35 

Loroisi (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 91, pi. Ixv, f. 1. 

= C. figulinus, Linn., var. . . . . . .16 

Loveni (Conus), Krauss. Siidafrikan. Moll., p. 131, t. vi, 

f. 25. = C. Lamarcki, Kien '56 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 113 

Lubeckianus (Conus), Bernard!. Jour. Conch., t. ix, p. 169. 

= C. Magellanicus, Hwass, var. . . . . .27 

Lucidus (Conus), Mawe. Conch., 90, 91 

Luctiferus (Conus), Reeve. Weinkauff, Cat. No. 88. 

= C. luctificus, Reeve, ....... 31 

Luctificus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, Supp., pi. ii, f. 280, 31 
Lugubris (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Supp., pi. ix, f. 279, 85 
Luridus (Conns), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 118. 

=^ C. olivaceus, Kiener, ....... 56 

Luteus (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, . . .79 
Luteus (Conus), Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 53, f. 23, 24, . 94 
Luzonicus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., fig. 91. 

= C. purpurascens, Brod. ....... 65 

Lynceus (Conus), Solander. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 469. 

= C. nisus, Chemn. 

Macarae (Conus), Bernard!. Jour. Conch., t. vi, pi. ii, f. 2, 

p. 56, 1857, .... .34 

Macei (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, pi. 10, f. 5, 61 
Macleayanus (Conus), F. Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1876, p. 134. = C. rutilus, Menke, . . . 24 

Maculatus (Conus), Sowb. Weinkauff, Cat. No. 245. 

= C. anemone, Lam. ....... 70 

Maculiferus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 23, ... 21 
Maculosus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 3. 

= C. anemone, Lam. 
Madagascariensis (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., fig. 582, 

No. 371. = C. textile, Linn., var 90 

Madurensis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

709, . . 66 

Magdalsenae (Conus), Kiener. Coq. viv.,293, t. 169, f. 4. 

= C. floccatus, Sowb. ....... 87 

Magellanicus (Conus), Hwass. Brug., Enc. Meth., Conus, 

No. 31, pi. 322, f. 3, . . 26 

Magnificus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. 

= C. omaria, Hwass. ....... 93 

Magus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1171, . . .53 

Mahogani (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 169. 

= &. interruptus, Brod. . . . . . . . 63 

Malaccanus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

645, pi. 325, . 33 

Maldivus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 644, 34 
Maltzanianus (Conus), Weink. Chemn., Ed. Nouv., pi. 32, 

f. 3-6. = C. flavidus, Lam. . .... 44 

Mamillaris (Conus), Green. Trans. Albany Inst., i, p. 123, 

pi. 3, f. 5-6, . . 94 

8 



114 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Mappa (Conns), Crosse. Guerin's Mag. Zool., 205, 1858. 

= C. geographus, Linn., var. ...... 88 

Marchionatus (Conns), Hinds. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1843, p. 256, 9 
Marmorata (Papyrus), Chemn. Reeve, Icon. Conus, f. 58. 

= Conns varius, Linn. 

Marmoreus (Conns), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gmelin), 3374, . 1 
Martinianns (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, No. 217. 

= C. radiatus, Gm. ...... % 60 

Masoni (Conus), G. and H. Nevill. Jonr. As. Soc. Beng.* 

(N.S.),xliii, pt. 2, p. 22, 1874. 

? = C. characteristicus, Chemn. ... .13 

Mauritianus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth., pi. 330, f. 9. 

= C. puncticulatns, Hwass. 
Mauritianus (Conus), Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 69, f. 2. 

? = C. puncticulatus, Hwass. 

Maurus (Conus), Gray. App. King's Australia, 486, 1827, 94 
Mazei (Conus), Desh. Jonr. Conch., 1874, p. 54, pi. 1, f. 1, 39 
Mediterraneus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, 

p. 701, . . . .66 

Melvilli (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc,, 1878, p. 795, pi. 

xlviii,f. 1, 71 

Melancholicus (Conus), Lam. An- s.Yert., vii, p. 513, . 86 
Memnonitarum coronatus (Conus) Chemn. Conch. Cab. 

= C. distans, Hwass. 

Mercator (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, xii, 1169, . 55 

Mesokatharos, Melvill. = C. arenatus, var. . . .18 
Metcalfei (Conus), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 173, 

pi, xxvi, f. 13. = C. Angasi, Try on, . . . .63 
Metcalfei (Conus >, Reeve. Proc. Zopl. Soc., 1843, p. 171. 

=== C. magus, Linn., var. 53 

Mighelsi (Conns), Kien. Icon. Coq. viv., pi. ciii, f. 1. 

= C. musicus, Hwass, .... 11 

Miles (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat, p. 1167, ... 40 

Miliaris (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 629, 21 
Millepunctatus (Conns), Chemn. Crosse, Mag. Zool., 205, 

1858. = C. puncticulatus, Hwass. 
Millepunetatus (Conus), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 461. 

= C. literatus. Linn., var. 10 

Mindanus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. ii, p. 711. 

= C. verrucosus, Hwass, ....... 78 

Minimus (Conus , Auct., not Linn. = C. miliaris, Hwass, 22 
Minimus (Conns), Gm. (non Linn.). Syst. Nat., p. 3382. 

= C. achatinus, Chemn. 

Minutus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 179, . 37 
Mirmillo (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, pi. 9,f. 2. 

= C. flavidus, Lam 44 

Miser (Conus), Boivin. Jour, de Conch., xii, 39, t. l,f. 9, 1864, 55 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 115 

Mitratus (Conns), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. ii, p. 632, 83 
Modestus (Conns ), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 19. 

= C. fulmen, Jleeve, . . . . . . . . 5 

Molluccensis (Conus), Chemn. Conch., xi, pi. 183, f. 1780, 

1181, .... 26 

Monachus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat , ii, p. 1168, . . 64 
Monile (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 646, . 34 
Monilifer (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 53, 1833. 

= C. interruptus, Brod 63 

Monstrosus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., 1290, 1291. 

= C. araneosus, Hwass, Monstr. 
Moreleti (Conus), Crosse. Rev. Zool., 205, 1858. 

= C. oblitus, Reeve, . 46 

Moussoni (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, 1865, p. 

299, pi. x, f. 3, . . 46 

Mozambicus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

696. = C elongata, Chemn 68 

Mucronatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 172, 12 
Multicatenatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, p. 

519, pi. xxxii, f. 10, 11. = C. aplustre, Reeve, . . 68 
Multilineatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, p. 126, 

pi. xxiv, f. 5, 52 

Muriculatus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 1, . .26 

Mus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 630, . 19 
Muscosus (Conus), Lam. Edit. Desh., xi, 79. 

= C. characteristicus, Chemn. ...... 13 

Musicus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 629, 11 
Musivus (Conus), Brod. Zool. Proc., No. 54, 1833. 

= C. legatus, Lam. 
Mustelinus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

654, pi. 327, f. 6. = C. capitaneus, var. Hwass, . 40 

Mutabilis (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, p. 52, pi. 182, 

f. 175S, 1759, . .40 

Nanus (Conus), Brod, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 53. 

= C. Ceylonensis, Hwass, var. ...... 24 

Narcissus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 492, . . 48 
Natalis (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 267, figs. 292, 293, . 55 
Nebulosus (Conus), Solander. Brug., Enc. Meth. vers., ii, 

pt. i, p. 607, . . .28 

Neglectus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 117. 

= C. purpurascens, Brod. ....... 64 

Neglectus (Conus), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 398; 

Am. Jour. Conch., v. 87. = C. Peasei, Brazier, . . 44 
Nemocanus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

712. = C. Sumatrensis, Hwass, var, . . . .39 



116 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Neptunoides (Conus), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1880, 

p, 479, pi. xlviii, f. 2, 72 

Neptunus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 133, t. 99, f. 5. 

= C. Schech, Jick., Jahr. Mai. Ges., 2, p. 46, . . . 31 
Neptunus (Conns), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 13, . 72 
Nicobaricus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers.,i, pt. 2, p. 

612. = C. araneosus, Hwass, var. ..... 9 

Niger (Conus), Jay. Catalogue 100, 1839, . , . .93 
Nigrescens (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., Suppl., 413, f. 618 ; 

Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 429, pi. xlix, fig. 2. 

= C. marmoreus, Linn. 
Nigropunctatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 333, f. 342. 

= C. catus. Hwass, var 64 

Nimbosus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 732, 82 
Nisus (Conus), Chenm. Conch. Cab., xi, f. 1784, 5, . .59 
Nisus (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 59, f. 4 (notChemn.). 

= C. Kieneri, Reeve, 

Nitidus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 180, . 67 
Niveus (Conus), Gm. Syst. Nat., 3392. 

= C. marmoreus, Linn. 
Nivifer (Conus), Brod. Zool. Proc., 1833. 

= C. venulatus, Hwass, var. . . . . . .15 

Nivosus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., xi, 73. 

= C. venulatus, Hwass, 14 

Nobilis ( Conus), Linn. (Gmelin) Syst. Nat., 3381, . . 30 
Nocturnus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 611, 8 
Noditerus (Conns), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 228, pi. c, f. 4. 

= C. verrucosus, Hwnss, 78 

Nodulosus (Conus ', Sowb. Thes. Conch. Supp., 429, f. 635, 31 
Noumeensis, var. (Conus), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 1872, p. 155. 

= C. suffusus, var., Sowb. . . . . .29 

Novse-Hollandise (Conns), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, 

p. 119. = C. anemone, Lam. 70 

Nubecula (Conus;, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3396. Unrecognized. 
Nubecula, Klein. Ostrac., 76, 1753, ... .85 

Nucleus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, pi. iii, Supp.,f. 280, 79 
Nussatella (Conns), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1170, . . .80 
Nux (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= C. Ceylonensis, Hwass. ...... 23 

Obesus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth vers., i, pt. 2, p. 623, 18 

Oblitus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., Crit. Anal., 1749, 45 
Obscurus (Conus), Humph. Mss. Reeve, Icon, sp., 82. 

= C. violaceus, Reeve, ....... 88 

Obtusus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 317, pi. cix, f. 3. 

= C. Africanus, Kiener, 84 

Ocellatus (Conns), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3387, ... 94 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 117 

Ochraceus (Conus), Gmelin. Weinkauff, Cat. Conus, No. 

203. = C. ochroleucus, Gmelin. 
Ochraceus (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., Edit. Desh., xi, 67. 

= C. Proteus (discolored), Hwass, . . . .12 

Ochroleucus (Cocus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3391, . . 60 
Oculatus (Conus), Gm. Syst. Nat., 3387, . . . .48 
Olivaceus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 359, pi. cxi, f. 3. 

= C. Taslei, Kien 55 

Olivaceus (Conus), Salis. Reise, 863. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Oltmansianus (Conus), Van Lennep. Cat. Conus, 1876. 

= C. gradatulus, Weinkauff. 
Omaicus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 714, 

pi. 339, f. 3, . . 16 

Omaria (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 743, 92 
Optabilis (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 116, 38 
Orbignyi (Conus), Audouin. Mag. de Zool., Moll., pi. 20, 

1830; 75, 77 

Orbitatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 170. 

= C. mucronatus, Reeve, var. ...... 73 

Orion (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= C. vittatus, Lam., var 43 

Orleanus (Conus), Bolt. Mus. 

= C. lithoglyphus, Meusch. 

Pagodus (Conus), Chemn. Le9ons Elem., pi. 12, f. 2. 

= C. cancellatus, Lam. 
Pallens (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 204, 1858. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Panniculus (Conus), Lam. An. s. Vert, vii, p. 521. 

= C. abbas, Hwass, 92 

Papalis (Conus), Weink. Cat. No. 280, . . .78 

Papilionaceus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, 

p. 665. = C. Proteus, Hwass, var. . . . . .12 

Papillaris (Conus), Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. of Samarang., 

Moll., p. 17, pi. v., f. 7 a-b, . 38 

Papillosus (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 72, f. 4. 

= C. puncticulatus, Hwass, 62 

Parius (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 175. 

= C. radiatus, Gmel., var. ...... 60 

Parvus (Conus), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 126, 1868. 

= C. atramentosus. Reeve, 85 

Pastinaca (Conus), Kiener. Coq. viv., pi. 26, f. 2 (non 

(Lain A = C. daucus, Hwass, . ... 48 

Pastinaca (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 469 ; E. A. 

Smith, Zool. Proc., 731, 1878. ? = C. virgo, Linn. . 34 




118 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Patricius (Conus), Hinds. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1843, p. 256. 

= C. pyriformis, Reeve, . . . . . . .It 

Paulinas (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 314, pi. cviii, f. 3. 

= C. characteristicus, Chemii 13 

Pauluccise (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1876, p. 752, 

pi. Ixxv, f. 3, 89 

JPaupercnlns (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 78, . . 68 

'Pazii (Conus), Bernard!. Jour. Conch., t. vi, pi. ii, f. 1-2. 

p. 385. = C. classiarius, Hwass, var. . . . .42 
Pealii (Conus), Green. Trans. Alb. Inst.,i,p. 123, pi. 3, f. 3, 36 
Peasei (Conus), Brazier. Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, 288. 

= C. flavidus, Lam., var 44 

Pelagicus (Conus), Brocchi. Conch, foss., ii, 289, t. 2, f. 9. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Pellis-hysena (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab , xi, p. 49, pi. 

181, f. 1750, 1751. = C. mutabilis, Chemn. 
Pellis-hysena (Conus), Reeve (not Chemnitz). Icon. Sp., 

133. = C. punctatus, Chemn. 

Pennaceus (Conus), Born. Test. Mus. Caes., t. 7, f. 14, . 93 
Peplum (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 1. 144 c. 

= C. araneosus, Hwass, . . . . . . .8 

Perplexus ( Conus >, Sowb. Thes. Conch., 157, figs. 324, 325. 

= C. puncticulatus, Hwass, . . . . 62 

Pertusus ( Conus\ Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

686, pi. 336, f. 2. . 54 

Petrseus (Ammiralis), Chemn. Conch., x, pi. 140, f. 1298. 

= Conus lithoglyphus, Meuschen. 
Phasmoconus, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 70, 1852. 

= Chelyconus, Morch, . . . -52 

Phegeus (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 204, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Philippi (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 213, pi. xcviii, f. 2. 

C. tornatus, Brod. ..... . 63 

Philippii (Dibaphus , Crosse. Rev. Zool., 1858, pi. 3, f. 1. 

= Mitridaa, vol. iv. 
Pica (Conus), Ad. and Reeve. Mol. Toy. Sam., p. 18, pi. 

5, f. 10. = C. spectrum, Linn. 57 

Pictus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 169, . 68 
Pigmentatus (Conus), Ad. and Reeve. Moll. Voy. Samar., 

p. 18, pi. 5, f. 11. ' = C. balteatus, Sow. . 21 

Pionoconus, Morch. H. and A. Adams, Genera. 

= Chelyconus, Morch, ..... .52 

Piperatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 175. 

= C. Erythraaensis, Beck. ...... 62 

Planaxis (Conus), Desh. Moll. He Reunion, p. 134, pi. xiii, 

f. 11,12, . 10 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 119 

Planicostatus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., 1840. 

= C. Orbignyi. And 75 

Planiliratus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 255, 

pi. xxii, f. 1, 713 

Planorbis (Conns), Born. Test. Mus. Caes., t. 7, f. 13, . 50 
Plumbeus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 178, 26 
Politus (Conus), Bolten. Weinkauff, Conch. Cab., t. 64, 

f. 2, 3. = C. cinereus, Hwass, var. . . . .59 

Polyglotta (Conus), A. Ad. (ubi?). Weinkauff, Cat. 13. 

= C. eburneus, Hwass, 11 

Polyzonias (Conus), Gm. Syst. Nat., 3392. 

= C. planorbis, Born. 
Ponderosus (Conus), Beck. Sowb., Thes. Index. 

= C. quercinus, Hwass, ..... .17 

Pontificalis (Conus), Lain. An. s. Vert, vii, p. 459, 24, 78 

Portoricanus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, 

p. 714. = C. testudinarius, Mart. . . . . .65 

Prsecellens (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 119. 

= C. cancellatus, Lam 75 

Prsefectus (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., 752. 

= C. ochroleucus, Gmelin. 
Prsefectus (Vigiliarum), Mart. Conch., ii, pi. 59, f. 655. 

= Conus centurio, Born. 
Pnelatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 746. 

= C. omaria, Hwass, ....... 93 

Praetextus ( Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, Suppl., pi. ii, f. 277. 

= C. encaustus, Kien. . . . . . . .21 

Pretiosus (Conns), Gr. and H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beng. 

(U. S.), xliii, pt. 2, p. 22, 71 

Prevosti (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 636, pi. 

Ivi, f. 3, 91 

Primula (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., vi, f. 259, . 46 

Princeps (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1167, . . .29 
Proarchithalassus (Conus), Born. Test. Mus. Cses. 

= C. marmoreus, var. bandanas, Hwass. 
Proarchithalassus (Conus), Morch. Sowb., Thes. Conch. 

Index. = C. prgelatus, Hwass. 
Prometheus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

667, 15 

Proteus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 682, 12 
Proximus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 429, 

pi. xlix, f. 1. = C. Moluccensis, Chemn. . . .26 

Pryntanis (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1882, p. 117, 

pi. v, f. 1, . . . 46 

Pseudomarmoreus (Conus), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1875, p. 

223, pi. ix. f. 4. = C. marmoreus, Linn., var. ... 8 



120 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 






Pseudo-Thomae (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 25, f. 

1282, 1283. = C. Proteus, Hwass. 
Pulchellus (Conus), Sowb. (not Swain.). Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1834. = C. varius, Linn 25 

Pulchellus (Conus), Swains. Zool. 111., 1st ser., ii, pi. 65, . 49 
Pulcher (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 117, . 74 
Pulicarius (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i,pt. 2, p. 622, 19 
Punctatus (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, p. 36, pi. 139, 

f. 1294, . .20 

Puncticulis, Swainson. Malacol., 311, 1840. 

= S. G. Conus, L., H. and A. Adams, . . . .18 
Puncticulatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, 

p. 704, .62 

Puncturatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

635, 83 

Pupaeformis (Conus), var. C. mitraeformis, Sowb. Proc. Zool. 

Soc., 1870, p. 256, pi. xxii, f. 2. = C. mitratus, Hwass, . 83 
Purpurascens (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 54, 64 
Purus (Conus), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1862, p. 279, . 94 
Pusillus (Conus), Chemn. (non Lam.). Conch. Cab., ii, p. 

65, pi. 183, f. 1788, 1789. = C. Ceylonensis, Hwass, var., 23 
Pusillus (Conus), Gould. Otia Conch., 187 ; Bost. Jour., vi. 

= C. Ceylonensis. Hwass, ...... 23 

Pusilla (Conus). Pease (olim.). Zool. Proc., 516, 1865. 

= C. parvus, Pease. 

Pusio (Conus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 499, . . .93 
Pusio (Conus), Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 398. 

= C. puncticulatus, Hwass, ...... 62 

PustulaUis (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. ci, f. 2. 

= C. puncticulatus, Hwass, 62 

Pustulosus (Conus), Kien. Sowb., Thes., No. 79. 

= C. puncticulatus, Hwass. 
Pygmaeus (Conns \ Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 179. 

= C. puncticulatus, Hwass, 62 

Pyramidalis (Conus), Kiener, t. 96, f. 2. 

== Yar. convolutus, Sowb. 

Pyramidalis (Conus), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 577, . 89 
Pyriformis (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, pi. xiii, f. 70, 1843, 17 
Pyrula (Conus), Brocchi. Conch, foss., ii, 289, t. 2, f. 8. 

=' C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Quadratomaculatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Sup., 

431, f. 637, 638. = C. Erythraaensis, Beck. 
Quaestor (Conus), Lam. Edit. Desh., xi, 79. 

= C. characteristics, Chemn. . . . . . .13 

Quercinus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 681. 

= C. figulinus, L., var 17 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 121 

Racemosus (Conus), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1873, pi. 59, f. 11, 

p. 721, . . .92 

Radiatus (Conus), Chemn. Mss. Reeve, Icon. Sp., 203. 

= C. scalptus, Reeve. 

Radiatus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3386, ... 60 
Ranunculus (Conus), Hwass. Enc}^. Meth., t. 331, f. 1. 

= C. achatinus, Chemn. 
Raphanus (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., i, 722, t. 341, f. 

2. = C. magus, Linn 53 

Rarimaculatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 

257, pi. xxii, f. 4. = C. Sieboldi, Reeve, . . .38 

Rattus (Conus), Hwass. Diet., No. 89, . . . .41 
Ravus (Conus), Gould. Otia. Conch., 187 ; Bost. Jour., vi. 

= C. Californicus, Hinds. 
Recluzianus (Conus), Bernardi. Jour. Conch., t. iv, p. 148, 

pi. 6, f. 6, 1853, .... .... 9 

Reevei (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 115, pi. xliv, f. 2. 

= C. daucus, Hwass, 48 

Reflectus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1876, p. 754, 

pi. Ixxv, f. 6, 22 

Regalitatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834. 

= C. purpurascens, Brod., var. 65 

Regius (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 138, f. 1276. 

= C. princeps. Linn. ....... 29 

Regularis (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 45, ... 37 
Reticulatus (Conus), Martini. T. 56, f. 619, 620. 

= C. mercator, Linn. 
Reticulatus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 86. 

= C. luciclus, Mawe. 

Retifer (Conus), Menke. Yezeichniss, 1443, . . .89 
Rhizoconus, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 68, 1852. 

= S. G. Leptoconus,H. and A. Adams, . . 29, 39, 48 

Rhododendron (Conus), Couth. Jay, Cat. Shells, 3d Ed., 

t. 7, f. 2, 3, 1839, 86 

Rhombus, Montf. Conch. Syst., ii, 402, 1810. 

= Conus, Linn. . . . . ... . .7 

Rivularis (Conns), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., pi. vi, f. 261. 

= C. boeticus, Reeve, var. 26 

Robillardi (Conus), Bernardi. Jour. Conch., t. vii, p. 182, 

pi. 7. = O. vexillum, Gmel 39 

Rollandi (Conus), Bernardi. Jour. Conch., t. viii, p. 332, 

pi. 12, f. 4, 1860. = C. magus, Linn., var. . . .53 
Rollus, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 395, 1810. 

= Nubecula, Klein. 

Rosaceus (Conus), Chemn. xi, p. 52, t. 181, f. 1756, 1757, 56 
Roseus (Conus), Kien. (not Lam.). Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 107, 

f. 4. = C. Kieneri, Reeve, ...... 71 



122 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Rosens (Conus), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 458. 

= C. mus, Hwass, var. ....... 20 

Roseo-tinctus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Suppl., 405, 

f. 604. = C. rosaceus, Chemn. . . . . .56 

Rossiteri (Conus >, Brazier. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 109, 69 
Rubescens (Conus), Bonnet. Rev. Zool., 1864, p. 282, pi. 

22, f. 6. = Yar. C. cannonicus, Hwass, . . .90 

Rubiginosus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth., 744. 

= C. omaria, Hwass, ....... 93 

Rudis (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 90, t. 144, . . 54 
Ruppellii (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, Suppl., pi. ii, f. 273. 

= C. classiarius, Hwass, juv. ...... 41 

Rusticus (Conus), part. Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 3383. 

= C. cinereus, Hwass. 
Rusticus (Conus), Poli. Test. Sicil., iii, 8, t. 45, f. 3-6. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Rutilus (Conus), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 27, No. 133, 24 

Sagittatus ( Conus \ Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, p. 518, 

pi. xxxii, f. 8, 9. = C. lemniscatus, Reeve, . . .36 
Sanguineus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 356, pi. cxi, f. 2. 

= C. Archon, Brod. 27 

Sanguinolentns (Conus), Quoy. Yoy. Astrol., iii, 90, t. 20, 

f. 18 ; t. 21, f. 4. = C. lividus, Hwass, .... 45 
Sanguinolentus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., pi. viii, 

f. 274. = C. virgatus, Reeve, var. . . 35 

Sapphirostoma (Conus >, Weinkauff. Cat. No. 207. 

= C. Erythraeensis, Beck, . . . . . .62 

Scaber (Conus), Kiener. Coq. viv., p. 351, pi. c, f. 1. 

= C. mili;iris, Hwass, 22 

Scabriusculus (Conus), Chenln Conch., xi, t. clxxxii, f. 

1768-9, . . . . . . . . . .80 

Scalaris (Conus), Yalenc. Humb et Bonpl. Reise, 338, . 35 
Scalaris (Conus), Yal. Kiener, Iconog. 

= C. arcuatus, Brod. 76 

Scalptus (Conus), Reeve. Proc., Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 172, 18 
Scheck (Conus ^,Jickeli. Jahrb. Mai. GeselL, ii, 46, . . 31 
Scitulus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Sup., pi. ix, f. 283. 

= C. pictus, Reeve, .... ... 68 

Scriptus ( Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 357, fig. 563. 

= C. textile, Linn 90 

Secutor (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, 303, pi. 9, 

f. 33. = C. caffer, Krauss, 68 

.Selectus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 121, . 38 
Semistriatus (Conus), Sowb. Weink. Cat., No. 60. 

= C. semisulcatus, Sowb. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 123 

Semisulcatus (Conns), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 257, 

pi. xxii, f. 13, . .79 

Semivelatus (Conns), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1882, p. 118, 

pi. v, f. 3, . . .41 

Senator (Conns), Kien., Reeve, etc., not Linn. 

= C. planorbis, Born, 50 

Senator Conns), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1168. Undetermined. 
Seychellensis (Conns), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. 

Beng. (n. s.), xliii, pt. 2, p. 22. 1874, ... .49 

Siamensis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 662, 

= C. Proteus, Hwass, var. ...... 12 

Sieboldii (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., i, f. 269, 1848, 38 
Signifer (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, 308, pi. 

10, f. 6. = C. rosaceus, Chemn., var. . . . .56 
Simplex (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., sp. 269, f. 199, . 54 
Sindon (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 175, . 54 
Sinensis (Conus), Kiener. Iconog., 143, t. 71, f. 1. 

= C. cingulatus, Larn. 

Sinensis (Conus), G-mel. Syst. Nat., 3394, . . . .93 
Sinensis (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 56. 

= C. Sowerbyi, Reeve, . . . . . . .76 

Smithi (Conus), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 36, pi. v, 

f. 8, 24 

Solandri (Conus), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., v, p. 50, t. 

40, f. 4. = C. coccineus, Gm 82 

Solidus (Conus), Chemn. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Index, 

= C. nebulosus, Sol 28 

Solidus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 76. 

= C. retifer, Menke. 
Sophias (Conus), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., vol. 

i,l>.7, 94 

Sowerbyi (Conus \ Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 77 a, emend. 

= C. undatus, Kien. ........ 76 

SpecioSus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 51, fig. 138, . 24 
Speciosissirnus (Conns), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, Suppl., pi. 

11, f. 274. = C. Magellanicus, Hwass, var. . . .27 
Spectabilis (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 117. 

= C. tenellus, Chemn 81 

Spectrum (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gmel.), p. 3395, . 57 
Spectrum album (Conus), Chemn. Con. Cab., x, pi. 140, f. 

1304. = C. radiatus, Gmel., var., parius. 
Spectrum Sumatrse (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 91, t. 

144. = C. pica, Ad. and Reeve. 
Sphacelatus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 51. 

= C. hebraeus, Linn., var. ....... 20 

Spiculum (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., vii, f. 266, . 32 




124 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Spiroglossus (Conus), Desh. Moll. He Reunion, p. 135, pi. 

xiii, f. 13, 14. = C. generalis, Linn 34 

Splendidulus (Conus), Sowb. Conch. Ill.,f. 53. 

= C. classiarius, Hwass, ....... 41 

Sponsalis (Conus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, pi. 182, f. 1766, 

1767. = C. Ceylonensis, Hwass, var 23 

Spurius (Conus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3396. 

= C. Proteus, Hwass, 12 

Staintbrthii (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, pi. 1, f. 1. 

= C. Moluccensis, Chemn. ...... 26 

Stearnsii (Conus), Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 104, pi. 

10, f. 1,1870. = C. Pealii, Green, . . 36 

Stellatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 225, pi. xcix, f. 3. 

= C. omaria, Hwass, ....... 93 

Stephanoconus, Morch. Yoldi Cat., 65, 1852, . . .25 
Stercus-muscarum (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat. (Gm.), p. 

3385, 19 

Stercutius (Conus), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 204, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Sticticus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 117. 

= C. verrucosus, Hwass, 78 

Stigmaticus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 

119. == C. nisus, Chemn. 59 

Stillatus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., v, f. 247. 

= C. conspersus, Reeve, ....... 58 

Stramineus (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 481. 

= C. nisus, Chemn 59 

Straturatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Suppl. 408, fs. 609-610 ; 

Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, p. 518, pi. xxxii, f. 14. 

= C. cinereus, Hwass, var. . . . . .58 

Striatum (Textile), Chemn. Conch., x, pi. 141, f. 1311. 

= Conus retifer, Menke. 

Striatus (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, xii, 1117, . . 85 
Strigatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers.,i, pt. 2, p. 733, 73 
Striolatus (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 105, f. 1 ; Smith, 

Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 535. = C. magus, Linn. . . 53 
Strombus, Adanson. Hist. Nat., Senegal, 82, 1757. 

= Conus, Linn. 
Subaequalis (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 257, 

pi. xxii, f. 5. = C. Sowerbyi, Reeve, . . . . 76 
Subcarinatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, p. 

518, pi. xxxii, f. 12-13, . . .32 

Submarginatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 

255, pi. xxii, f. 6, 59 

Substriatus (Conus), Link. Crosse, Rev. Zool., 206, 1858. 

= C. acuminatus, Hwass. 
Subulatus (Conus), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 70, f. 2, . . 71 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 125 

Subulatus (Conus), Sowerby (not Kiener). Thes. Conch., 

f. 472. = C. spectrum, Linn. ...... 57 

Succinctus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 118, 13^ 
Suffusus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 255, pi. 

xxii, f. 9, 29 

Sugillatus (Conus), Reeve. Proe. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 177. 

= C. lividus, Hwass, var. ....... 45 

Sulcatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., pt. 2, p. 618, . 73 
Sulciferus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 116, 74 
Sulphuratus (Kiener). Icon. Coq. viv., t. 66, f. 3. 

= C. mustelinus, Hwass, 41 

Sulphureus (Conus), Kien. Sowb., Thes. Index. 

= C. mustelinus, Hwass. 
Sumatrae (Princeps), Chemn. 

= Conus Sumatrensis, Hwass. 

Sumatrensis (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., 655, t. 327, f. 8, 39 
Superscripts (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1876, p. 

753, pi. Ixxv, f. 4, 25 

Superstriatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 328, f. 282, . 64 
Suratensis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers.,i,pt. 2, p. 669. 

= C. betulinus, Linn., var. . . . . . .16 

Sutoreanus (Conus), Weink. Kiister's Conch. Cab., 311, 

t. 56, f. 5, 6, . . .49 

Suturatus (Conus >, Kiener (not Reeve), Icon., t. 88, f. 1. 

= C. submarginatus, Sowb. 
Suturatus (Conns), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 178, 60 

Tabidus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 177, . 46 
Taeniatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 628, 23 
Taheitensis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

713. = C. rattus, Hwass, . . ... 41 

Tamsianus (Conus), Duclos. Sowb., Thes. Index. 

? = C. Tamsianus, Bunker. . 
Tamsianus (Conus), Dunk. Index Moll. Guinea Infer., p. 

28, pi. iv, f. 22, 23. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass, var. . 66 
Taslei i Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 360, pi. ex, f. 3, . . 56 
Tasmania (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Sup., 430, f. 636. 

= C. magus, Linn., var. ....... 54 

Tasmanicus (Conus), Tenison- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasm., 1875, p. 139. = C. rutilus, Menke,. . . .24 
Taylorianus (Conus), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1880, 

p. 480, pi. xlviii, f. 3, . .28 

Tegulatus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 256, 

pi. xxii, f. 12, 34 

Telatus Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pt. 1, f. 270. 

= C. textile, Linn., var. ....... 90 

Tendineus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth., i, pt. 2, p. 733, . 80 



126 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Tenellus (Conns), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, 64, t. 183, f. 

1782, 1783, 81 

Tennis (Conns), Sowb. Thes. Conch., iii, No. 14, f. 314. 

= C. mustelinus. Hwass, . . . . . .41 

Tennistriatus (Conns), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 396, fs. 532, 

533. = C. glans, Hwass, . . . . .79 

Teauisulcatus (Conns), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 256, 

pi. xxii, f. 10, . . 77 

Tenuisulcatus (Conns), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 145, t. 15, f. 2, 

1873. = C. Ceylonensis, Hwass, var 23 

Terebellum (Conns), Mart. Conch., ii, pi. 52, f. 577. 

= C. terebra, Born. 

Terebra (Conns), Born. Test. Mus. Cses., 145, . . .80 
Terebra (Conns), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 81, t. 143, f. 1329. 

= C. nussatella, Linn. 
Teres laevis (Conns), Martini. Con. Cab., ii, p. -233, pi. 53, 

f. 584. = C. radiatus, Gmel. 
^Terminus (Conns), Kiener. Coq. viv., pi. 48, f. 1 d. 

= C. striatus, Linn 85 

Terminus (Conns), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 505. 

= C. gubernator, Hwass, ....... 86 

Tessellatus (Conns), Born. In Mus. Cses., p. 131, . . 11 

Testudinarius (Conns), Martini. Con. Cab., ii, p. 250, pi. 55, 

f. 605, 65 

Textile (Conns), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit..xii, 1171, . . 89 
Textilia, Swainson. Malacol., 311, 1840, . . . .88 
Textilinus (Conns), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 333, pi. ciii, f. 5. 

C. abbas, var., panniculns, Lain. . . . . .87 

Thalassiarchus (Conns), Gray. Sowb., Conch. Illust.,f. 80, 30 
Theliconus, Swains. Malacol., 311, 1840. = Hermes, Montf. 
Thomse (Conns), Gm. Syst. Nat., 3394. 

= C. omaicus, Hwass, ....... 80 

Thomasi (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 635, pi. 

Ivi, f. 4. = C. terebra, Born, var. 
Thuscus (Conns), Chiereg. Crosse, Guerin's Mag., 204, 

1858. = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Tiaratus (Conus), Brod. Zool. Proc., 1833. 

= C. miliaris, Hwass, 22 

Tigrinub (Conus), Sowb, Thes. Conch., 355, fig. 569. 

= C. textile, Linn., var 90 

Timorensis (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers.. i, pt. 2, p. 

731, . '. . .61 

Tinianus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 713. 

= C. bnllatus, Linn. ........ 56 

Tinianus (Conus), Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 61, f. 1. 

= C. bullatus, Linn. 87 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 127 

Tinianus (Conus), Reeve 'not Hwass). Conch. Icon., f. 

236. C. rosaceus, Chemn., var. 
Tornatus (Conus), Brod. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 53. 

= C. interruptus, Brod. 

Traillii (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 121, . 83 
Traversianus (Conus), Smith. Quart. Jour. Conch., i, p. 

107, 34 

Tribunus (Conus), Crosse. J. de Conch., 1865, pi. 10, f. 2, 

p. 312, 59 

Tribunus (Conus), Gm. Syst. Nat., 3377. 

== C. centurio, Born. 

Trig-onus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic. Suppl., pi. iii, f. 286, 42 
Tristis (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 178, . 77 
Trochulus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 177, 13 
Tulipa (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., Edit, x, 717, . . . 87 
Tuliparia, Swainson. Malacol., 311, 1840. 

= Nubecnla, Klein. 

Turbinatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 207, f. 227, 42 
Turricula (Conus), Brocchi. Conch, foss., ii, 289, t. 2, f. 7. 

= C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 
Turriculatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Sup., 435, f. 643, 644. 

= C. cancellatus, Lam. ..... . . 75 

Turritus (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, t. 22, f. 

14. = C. gradatulus, Weink 38 

Undatus (Conus), Kien. Iconog., t. 94, f. 1, . . .76 
Undulatus (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., No. 294, f. 63, . 74 
Unieolor (Conus), Sowb. Cone. Ill , fig. 20, . , . 47 
Unifasciatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. ex, f. 4, . 14,18 
Ustulatus (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 176. 

= C. consors, Sowb. . . . ... . .52 

Utriculus, Schum. Essai Nov. Syst., 203, 1817. 

= Nubecula, Klein. 

Variegatus (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 261, pi. cvi, f. 1, 1 a. 

= C. Africanus, Kiener, var. ...... 84 

Varius (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., ii, p. 1170, . . .25 
Vautieri (Conus), Kiener. Ic. Coq. viv., pi. 100, f. 3, . . 19 
Yayssetianus (Conus), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1872, p. 

154, 349, pi. xvi, f. 1, . . 70 

Ventricosus (Conus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3397. 

? = C. Mediterraneus, Hwass. 

Venulatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers.,i, pt. 2, p. 695, 14 
Yermiculatus (Conus), Lam. An. sans Yert., vii, 452. 

= Yar. C. hebmeus, Linn. ....... 20 

Yerreauxii (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 249, pi. Ix, f. 5. 

= C. conspersus, Reeve, ....... 58 



128 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

Verriculum (Conns), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, No. 208. 

= C. textile, Linn., var. . . . . . .89,90 

Yerrucosus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. ii, p. 

708 78 

Yerulosus (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., i, 719, t. 341, f. 

7. = C, granulatus, Linn. ...... 82 

Yespertinus (Conus), Humph. Sowb., Tankerville C., t. 8, 

f. 2, 3. = C. Timorensis, Hwass. 

Yexillum (Conus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3397, . .39 

Yicarius (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 482. 

= C. textile, Linn. ........ 90 

Yictor (Conus), Broderip. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842, p. 54. 

= C. nobilis, Linn. . . . . . . . .30 

Yictorise (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 172, . 91 
Yidua (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 169. 

= C. araneosus, Hwass, var. ...... 9 

Yillepinii (Conus), Bern and Fisch. Jour. Conch., t. v, pi. 

ix, f. 12, p. 292, 1857, ...... 37 

Yimineus (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. vii, Sup., f. 269. 

= C. aculeiformis, Reeve, ....... 75 

Yinctus (Conus), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 118. 

= C. achatinus, Chemn. 

YiolaceuH (Conus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 176, . 88 
Yirgatus (Conus), Reeve. Icon. Conus, Suppl., 2, . . 35 
Yirgo (Conus), Linn. Syst. Nat., Gm., p. 3376, . .43 

Yiridis (Conus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., 162, fig. 102. 

= C. rattus, Hwass, ........ 41 

Yiridulus (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 446. 

= C. imperialis, Linn., var. ...... 9 

Yittatus (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 470, . . 43 
Yitulinus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 

648, pi. 326, f. 3, 51 

Yoluminalis (Conus), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1844, . 35 

Yoluta, Browne. Nat. Hist., Jamaica, 410. 1756. 

= Conus, Linn. 
Yulpinus (Conus), Hwass. Encyc. Meth., 648. 

= C. planorbis, Born. 

Weinkauffii (Conus), Lobbecke. Jahr. Deutsch. Mai. Ge- 
sel., ix, p. 90, 1882, 30 

Wilmeri (Conus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1882, p. 118, pi. 
v, f. 5, . ' . . . . . . . .77 

Ximenes (Conus), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Yoy., p. 119, 
1839. = C. interruptus, Brod. . . . . . 63 

Zebra (Conus), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 481 ; Kiener, t. 
76, f. 2. = C. cinereus, Hwass, 58 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 129 

Zebra (Conus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 87. 
= C. virgatus, Reeve, ....... 35 

Zebra (Conus), Sowb. Conch. Illust., 43. 

= C. nisus, Chemn. ...... . 59 

Zebroides (Conus), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 257, pi. cv, f. 5, .84 
Zelandicus (Conus), Hutton. Cat. Mar., Moll. N. Z., p. 23. 

= C. aplustre, Reeve. Hutton in litt. . . . . 68 
Zeylanicus (Conus), Wd. Sowb., Thes. Index. 

= C. obesus, Hwass. 

Ziczac (Conus), Muhlfeldt. Sowb., Thes. Index, . . 93 
Zonatus (Conus), Hwass. Enc. Meth. vers., i, pt. 2, p. 613, 9 




REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



CONID^. 
PLATE 1. 

GURE. 

1. Conus marmoreus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 5, . 7 

2. Conus bandanus, Hwass (= marmoreus, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 8, . ..... 8 

3. Conus Crosseanus, Bernard! (= marmoreus, var.). 

Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., i, t. 6, f. 5, . . . . 8 

4. Conus nigrescens, Sowb. (= marmoreus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., t. 287, f. 618, ...... 8 

5. Conus pseudomarmoreus, Desh. (== marmoretfs, var.). 

Jour, de Conch., 1875, t. 9, f. 4, .... 8 

6. Conus nocturnus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 4, .8 

7. Conus Deburghiae, Sowb. (= nocturnus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 6, . ....... 8 

8. Conus arachnoideus, Gmel. (= araneosus, Hwass). 

Thes. Conch., f. 14, . . . . , . .8 

9. Conus Nicobaricus, Hwass (= araneosus, var.), Sowb, 

Thes.,f. 11, ........ 9 

10. Conus vidua, Reeve (= araneosus, var.). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 9, ........... 9 

11. Conus imperialis, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 2, . .9 

12. Conus viridulus, Lam. (= imperialis, vai*.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 1, . ....... 9 

13. Conus fuscatus, Lam. (= imperialis, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 3, ........ 9 

14. Conus Recluzianus, Bernardi. Thes. Conch., f. 14, . 9 

15. Conus zonatus, Hwass. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 38, . $ 
9 



130 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 2. 

FIGUBE. PAE. 

16. Conus marchionatus, Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 172, . 9 

17. Conus literatus, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 156, . . 10 

18. Conus Gruneri, Reeve (= literatus). Conch. Icon., f. 

231, 10 

19. Conus millepunctatus, Lam. ( literatus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 151, 10 

20. Conus ccelatus, A. Adams. Sowb., Thes., f. 107, . 10 

21. Conus planaxis, Desh, Thes. Conch., t. 287, f. 625, . 10 

22. Conus musicus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 113, . 11 

23. Conus Mighelsi, Kiener (= musicus). Coq. viv., t. 

103, f. 1, . 11 

24. Conus eburneus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 247, . .11 

25. Conus polyglotta, A. Ad. (= eburneus). Thes. Conch., 

f, 248, 11 

26. Conus tessellatus, Born. Sowb., Thes., f. 250, . .11 

27. Conus crassus, Sowb. ( tessellatus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 254, ... 11 

28. Conus Baylei, Jousseaume. Mag. de Zool., 1871-2, t. 

18, f. 2, . 11 

29. Conus suturatus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 250, . . 11 
29 a. Conus suturatus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 256, . 11 

30. Conus Proteus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 2196, 12 

31. Conus leoninus, Hwass (= Proteus). Thes. Conch., f. 

232, 12 

32. Conus spurius, Auct. (= Proteus). Thes. Conch., f. 236, 12 

33. Conus ochraceus, Lam. ( Proteus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 432, 12 

34. Conus bicolor, Sowb. (= Proteus, var.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 234, 12 

35. Conus papilionaceus, Hwass (= Proteus, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 233, 12 

PLATE 3. 

86. Conus Siamensis, Hwass (=: Proteus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 352, 12 

87. Conus Lorenzianus, Chemn. (=flammeus, Lam.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 212, . . . .12 

38, 39. Conus characteri&ticus, Chemn. Sowb., Thes., f. 

337, 338, .13 

40. Conus succinctus, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 257, . . 13 

41. Conus ambiguus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 244, . . 13 

42. Conus griseus, Kiener (= ambiguus). Iconographie, 

t. 63, f. 2, 13 

43. Conus cuneiformis, Smith. Quar. Jour. Conch., p. 202, 13 
43 a. Conus trochulus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 246, . 13 




REFERENCE TO PLATES. 131 

TGURE. PAGE. 

44. Conns cj'anostoma, A. Ad. Thes. Conch., f. 304, . 14 

45. Conns frigidus, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl.,t. 3, f. 284, 14 

46. Conns venulatus, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 1956, . . 14 

47. Conns nivosus, Lam, (= venulatus). Kiener, Iconog., 

t. 81, f. Ic, . 14 

48. 49. Conus nivifer, Brod. (= venulatus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 265, 397, . . ... 15 

50. Conus Crotchii, Reeve (venulatus, var.). Thes., . 15 

51. Conus genuanus, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 81, . . 15 

52. Conus Prometheus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 245, . 15 

PLATE 4. 

52 a. Conus Fergusoni, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1873, 1. 15, f. 1, 15 

53. Conus omaicus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 497, . . 16 

54. Conus betulinus, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 244, . . 16 

55. Conus betulinus, var. Suratensis, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., 

f. 246, 16 

56. Conus glaucus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 10, . 16 

57. Conus figulinus, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 28, f. 1 6, . 16 

58. Conus figulinus, var. Loroisii, Kiener. Thes. Conch., 

f. 243, ... 16 

59. Conus quercinus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 240, . . 17 

60. Conus pyriformis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 354, . . 17 

61. Conus patricius, Hinds (= pyriformis). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 63, 17 

62. Conus Californicus, Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 332, . 17 

63. Conus dealbatus, A. Ad. (= Californicus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 103, . .17 

64. Conus scalptus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 203, . . 18 

65. Conus unifasciatus, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 110, f. 4, . 18 

66. Conus arenatus, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 18, . . 18 

67. Conus obesus, Hwass (Ceylonicus, Chemn.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 22, 18 

68. Conus pulicarius, Hwass, var, fustigatus. Hwass, 

Thes. Conch., f. 21, . ... 19 

PLATE 5. 

69. Conus pulicarius, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 20, . . 19 

70. Conus Vautieri, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 100, f. 3, . . 19 

71. Conus stercus-muscarum, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 347, 19 

72. Conus mus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 78, ... 19 

73. Conus roseus,Lam. (= mus, var.). Sowb., Thes., f. 94, 20 

74. Conus punctatus, Chemn. Sowb., Thes., f. 92, . . 20 

75. Conus Hebraeus, Linn. Kiener, Coq. viv., t. 4, f. 2, . 20 

76. Conus sphacelatus, Sowb. (= Hebraeus, juv.). Reeve, 

Ic., f. 26, . . . . . . . . .20 



132 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

77. Conus vermiculatus, Hwass (== Heoraeus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 53, . . .20 

78. Conus maculiferus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 74. . . 21 

79. Conus balteatus, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 88, . 21 

80. Conus pigmentatus, Ad. and Reeve (= balteatus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 101, . . 21 

81. Conus cernicus, H. Adams (= balteatus). Kiister, t. 

42, f. 7, . ' . - 21 

82. Conus encaustus, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 14, f. 2, . . 21 

83. Conus prsetextus, Reeve (= encaustus). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon. Suppl., t. 2, f. 277, 21 

84. Conus miliaris, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 198, . . 21 

85. Conus tiaratus, Brod. (= miliaris). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 80, . . . . . . . .22 

86. Conus fulgetrum, Sowb. (= miliaris \ Thes. Conch., 

f. 69, . .22 

87. Conus scaber, Kiener (= miliaris). Coq. viv., t. 100, 

f. 1, 22 

88. Conus minimus, Linn. (= miliaris). Reeve, Icon., f. 

143 a, . 22 

89. Conus abbreviatus, Nuttall (== miliaris, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 84, 22 

90. Conus Aristophanes, Duclos (= miliaris, var.), Thes. 

Conch., f. 81, ..... . 22 

PLATE 6. 

91. Conus reflectus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1876, t. 75, f. 4, . 22 

92. Conus baccatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1876, t. 75, f. 5, . 22 
"93. Conus taeniatus, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 107, . . 23 

94. Conus Ceylonensis, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 141, . 23 

95. Conus nux, Brod. (= Ceylonensis). Reeve, Icon., f. 

110, . . . . " . . . . . .23 

96. Conus acutus, Sowb. (= Ceylonensis, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 142, . . .' 23 

97. Conus pusillus,' Chemn. ( Ceylonensis, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 144, 23 

98. Conus tenuisulcatus, Sowb. (= Ceylonensis, var.). Zool. 

Proc., 1873, t. 15, f. 2, . ... 23 

99. Conus sponsalis, Chemn. (= Ceylonensis, var.). Rve., 

Icon., f. 109, . . 23 

100. Conus nanus, Brod. (= Ceylonensis, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 144, . . .24 

1. Conus speciosus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 138, . . 24 

2. Conus Couderti, Bernardi. Jour de Conch., 2 ser., iv, 

t. 4, f. 3, . . 24 

3. Conus rutilus, Menkc. Reeve, Icon., i % . 264, . . 24 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 133 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

4. Conus Smithii, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1877, t. 5, f. 8, . 24 

5. Conus pontificalis, Lara. Reeve, Icon., f. 15, . . 24 _ 

6. 7. Conus aurantius, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 35, 36, . 25 
8. 9. Conus varius, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 40, 42, . .25 

10. Conus interruptus, Mawe (= varius). Thes. Conch., 

f. 43, . . . .25 

11. Conus superscriptus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1876, t. 75, 

f.6, . . . .' . . . . . .25 

12. Conus boeticus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 226, . .26 

13. Conus rivularis, Reeve (= boeticus). Conch. Icon. 

Suppl., t. 6,f. 261, ........ 26 

14. Conus albomaculatus, Sow. (= boeticus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 113, ... . . . . .26 

15. Conus muriculatus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 112, . . 26 

PLATE 7. 

16. Conus plumbeus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 253, . . 26 

17. Conus liratus, Reeve (= plumbeus). Conch. Icoii., f. 

268, .... 26 

18. Conus Moluccensis, Chemn. Sowb t , Thes. Conch., f. 46, 26 

19. .Conus proximus, Sowb. (= Moluccensis). Thes. Conch. 

Suppl., f. 619, . . 26 

20. Conus Magellanicus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 7f, . 26 

21. Conus speciosissimus, Reeve (= Magellanicus). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 124, . . . 27 

22. Conus Lubeckianus, Bern. (= Magellanicus). Jour, de 

Conch., 3 ser., 6, f. 7, 27 

23. Conus cidaris, Kiener (= Magellanicus, var.). Coq. 

viv,, t. 63, f. 1, . . . . . . . .27 

24. Conus cardinalis, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 102, . . 27 

25. Conus dianthus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1882, t. 5, f. 4, . 27 

26. Conus Archon, Brod. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 252, . 27 

27. Conus castaneus, Kiener (== Archon). Coq. viv., t. 

104, f. 3, . . .27 

28. Conus sanguineus, Kiener (= Archon, var.). Coq. 

viv., t. Ill, f. 2, . ..... 27 

29. Conus granarius, Kiener (= Archon, var.). Coq. viv., 

t.,98, f. 1, . . . .27 

30. Conus Lamberti, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 1877, t. 

1, f. 1, . . .28 

31. Conus nebulosus, Solander. Thes. Conch., f. 62, . 28 
32-34. Conus cedonulli, Hwass (= nebulosus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 64, 67, 68, . . . . . . . 28 

35. Conus Tajlorianus, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1880, t. 4$, f. 3, 28 

36. Conus diadema, Sowb. (= brunneus\ Thes. Conch., 

f. 47,. . . . . . . . . .28 



134 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

37. Conus brunneus, Gray. Thes. Conch., f. 48, . . 28 

PLATE 8. 

38. Conus gladiator, Brod, Reeve, Icon., f. 127, . . 28 

39. Conus suffusus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1870, t. 22, f. 9, . 29 

40. Conus Nouineensis, Crosse (= suffusus, var.). Jour.de 

Conch., 1872, t. 16, f. 2, 29 

41. Conus princeps, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 36 5, . 29 

42. Conus princeps, Linn., var. regius, Chemn. Reeve, 

Icon., f. 36 a, 29 

43. Conus princeps, Linn., var. lineolatus, Val. Thes. 

Conch., f. 32, 29 

44. Conus ammiralis, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 226, . . 29 

45. Conus archithalassus, Dillw. (= ammiralis.) Thes. 

Conch., f. 24, . . , . . ' . .29 

46. Conus ammiralis, Linn., var. granulatus, Kiener. Coq. 

viv.,t. 21, f. Id, . . . . . . .29 

47. Conus nobilis, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 2 a, . 80 

48. Conus cordigerus, Sowb. (= nobilis). Thes. Conch., 

f. 498, 30 

49. Conus victor, Brod. (= nobilis). Reeve, Icon., f. 5, . 30 

50. 51. Conus thalassiarchus, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 165, 166, 30 

52. Conus Amadis, Mart. Thes. Conch., f. 170, . . 30 

53. Conus Weinkauffii, Lobbecke. Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. 

Gesell., ix, t. 4, f. 3, . 30 

54. Conus acuminatus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 196, . 31 

PLATE 9. 

55. Conus cuneatus, Sowb. (= acuminatus, var.) Zool. 

Proc., 1873, t. 15, f. 5, .... 31 

56. Conus Neptunus, Kiener (= Schech Jickeli). Coq. 

viv., t. 99, f. 5, . . . . . . .31 

57. Conus turritus, Sowb. (= gradatulus, Weink.) Zool. 

Proc., 1870, t. 22, f. 14, 38 

58. Conus Coxeni, Brazier. Zool. Proc., 1875, t. 4, f. 10, 30 

59. Conus nodulosus,Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 288, f. 635, . 31 

60. Conus luctificus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 198, . . 31 

61. Conus bifasciatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 302, . . 32 

62. Conus spiculum, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl, f. 266, . 32 

63. Conus subcarinatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch. Suppl., t. 286, 

f. 615, 32 

64. Conus Malaccanus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 366, . 33 

65. Conus fulgurans, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 202, . . 32 

66. Conus eximius, Reeve (= fulgurans). Thes. Conch., 

f. 201, . .32 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 135 

riGURE. PAGE. 

67. Conus Delessertianus, Reel. Sowb., Thes., f. 365, . 33 

68. Conus centurio, Born. Thes. Condi., f. 367, . . 33 

69. Conus anabathrum, Crosse. Sowb., Thes. Conch., t. 288, 

f. 639, 33 

70. Conus articulatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1873, t. 15, f. 3, 33 

71. Conus tegulatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1870, t. 22, f. 12, 34 

72. Conus Macarse, Bern. Thes. Conch., t. 286, f. 617, , 34 

73. Conus monile, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 178, . . 34 

74. Conus generalis, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 180, . . 34 

75. Conus Maldivus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 183, . . 34 

PLATE 10. 

76. Conus Maldivus, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 182, . . 34 

77. Conus voluminalis, Hinds. Reeve., Conch. Icon., f. 206, 35 

78. Conus floridulus, Ad. and Reeve (= voluminalis, var.) 

Thes., f. 97, .35 

79. Conus Lorenzianus, Chemn. THes. Conch., f, 430, , 35 

80. Conus virgatus. Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 190, . . 35 

81. Conus Cumingii, Reeve (= virgatus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f 193, . ...... 35 

82. Conus sanguinolentus, Reeve (= virgatus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 409, . . . ^ . . . ,35 

83. Conus scalaris, Val. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 192, , 35 

84. Conus flavescens, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 168, , . 36 

85. Conus Largillierti, Kiener. Reeve, Icon. Suppl., t. 2, 

f, 275, .36 

86. Conus Traversianus, Smith. Quar, Jour. Conch., i, 107, 34 

87. Conus Bayani, Jousseaume. Guerin's Magazine, 1872, 

t. 18, f, 1, ... .... 35 

88. Conus Guestieri, Lorois. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iv, 

t. 12, f. 5, 35 

89. 90. Conus Pealii, Green. Thes. Conch., f. 393, 394, . 36 

91. Conus Stearnsii, Conr. (== Pealii), Am. Jour. Conch., 

v, t. 10, f. 1, 36 

92. Conus candidus, Kiener (= Pealii). Coq. viv., t. 97, 

f. 1, . 36 

93. Conus lemniscatus, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., t. 286, f. 608, 36 

94. Conus Clerii, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 229, . . 37 

95. Conus emarginatus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f, 232, . 37 
95 a. Conus minutus, Reeve. Conch. Icon,, f, 259, . . 37 

96. Conus lentiginosus, Reeve (= emarginatus). Conch. 

Icon., f. 245, 37 

97. Conus Villepini, Bern, and Fischer. Thes. Conch., t. 288, 

f. 629, 37 

PLATE 11. 

98. 99. Conus regularis, Sowb. Thee. Conch., f. 208, 209, 37 



136 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



100. Conns incurvus, Brod. (= regularis). Thes. Conch., 

f. 194, . . .37 

1. Conus angulatus, A. Ad. (= regularis). Thes. Conch., 

f. 388, .-..'..... 37 

2. Conus dispar, Sowb. (= regularis \ Thes., Conch. 

f. 195, 37 

3. Conus selectus, A. Ad. Sowb,, Thesaurus, f, 361, . 38 

4. Conus Floridanus, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, t. 15, 

f, 4, ... 38 

5. Conus Floridensis, Sowb. (= Floridanus). Zool. 

Proc., 1870, t. 22, f. 11, 38 

6. Conus Sieboldii, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 369, . . 38 

7. Conus rarimaculatus, Sowb. (= Sieboldii). Zool. Proc., 

1870, t. 22, f. 4, ....... 38 

8. Conus papillaris, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 377, . , 38 

9. Conns optabilis, A. Ad. Sowb. Thes., f. 364, . . 38 

10. Conus Mazei, Desk.' Jour, de Conch., 1874, t. 1, f. 1, . 39 

11. Conus Sumatrensis, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 158, . 39 

12. Conus nemocanus, Hwass (= Sumatrensis, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 153, . .39 

1 2 a. Conus vexillum, Gmel. Thes. Conch., f. 163, . . 39 

13. Conns laevigatus, Sowb. (= vexillum). Thes,, f. 149, 39 

14. Conus Robillardi, Bern. (= vexillum, juv. ?) Jour, de 

Conch., 2 ser.,iii, t. 7, f. 2, 39 

15. Conus concolor, Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 206, , , 40 

16. Conus miles, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 157, . . .40 

17. Conus snlphuratns, Kiener (=mustelinus). Coq.viv., 

t. 66, f. 3, . . . . . . .40 

18. Conns citrinus, Kiener (= mustelinus). Coq. viv., t. 

78, f. 4. . . . . 40 

PLATE 12. 

19. Conus mutabilis, Chemn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 216, 40 

20. Conus hyaena, Reeve (= mutabilis). Thes. Conch., f. 

431, 40 

21. 22. Conus capitaneus. Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 175, 176, 40 

23. Conus mustelinus, Hwass (capitaneus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 160, . .40 

24. Conus classiarius. Kiener (= capitaneus, var.). Kien., 

Iconog., t. 63, f. 3, 40 

25. Conus rattus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 78. . 41 

26. Conus Taheitensis, Hwass (= rattus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 26, 41 

27. Conus viridis, Sowb. (= rattus). Thes. Conch., f. 192, 41 

28. Conus Lischkeanus, Weinkauff'. Kiister, Conch. Cab , 

t. 56, f. 2, 41 




REFERENCE TO PLATES. 137 

FIGURr. PAGE. 

29. Conus serjhelatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 5, f. 3 ? 1882, 41 

30. Conus classiarius, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 213, . . .41 

31. Gonus splendidulus, Sowb. (== classiarius). Thes. 

Conch., f. 211, 41 

32. Conus Riippellii, Reeve (= classiarius). Thes. Conch., 

f. 143, , 41 

33. Conus adustus, Sowb. ( classiarius). Thes. Conch., 

f. 403, . . 41 

34. Conus Fazii, Bern. (= classiarius, var.), Thes. Conch., 

t. 289, f. 649, . .42 

35. Conus trigonus, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl., t. 3, f. 286, 42 

36. Conus aureolus, Sowb. Thes. Conch,, f. 395, . . 42 

37. Conus coffea, Gmel. Thes. Conch., f. 173, . . .42 

38. Conus excavatus, Sowb. ( coffea). Thes. Suppi., t. 

286, f. 616, ... . .42 

39. Conus incarnatus, Reeve (= coffea). Thes. Conch., 

f. 228, 42 

40. Conus turbinatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 227, . . 42 

PLATE 13. 

41. Conus vittatus, Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 274, . . 43 
42.. Conus Cumingii, Reeve (= vittatus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 415, 43 

43. Conus orion, Brod. (= vittatus, var.), Thes. Conch., 

f. 200, 43 

44. Conus Henoquei, Bern. (= vittatus, var.). Jour, de 

Conch., 2 ser., iv, t. 13, f. 4, 43 

45. Conus Virgo, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 167, . . . .43 

46. Conus Cselinse, Crosse (= virgo, var.). Thes. Suppl., 

t. 287, f. 623, .43 

47. Conus emaciatus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 258. . . 44 

48. Conus flavidus. Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 168, . .44 

49. Conus Maltzanianus, Weink. ( flavidus). Reeve, Ic., 

f. 207, . .44 

50. Conus mirmillo, Crosse (== flavidus). Jour, de Conch., 

1865, t. 9, f. 2, . . . . . . . . 44 

51. Conus Gloynei, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1881, t. 56, f. 5, . 44 

52. Conus Lombei, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1881, t. 56, f. 6, . 44 

53. Conus segrotus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 215, . . 45 

54. Conus lividus, Hwass. Sowb , Thes., f. 27, . . 45 

55. Conus citrinus, Gmel. (= lividus). Thes. Conch., f. 70, 45 

56. Conussugillatus, Reeve (= lividus, var.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 50, . 45 

57. Conus crepusculum, Reeve (= lividus). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 57, 45 

58. Conus oblitus, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 37, . . .45 



138 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



59. Conus Moussoni, Crossel Jour, de Conch., 1865, t. 10, 

f. 3, .... 46 

60. Conus pryntanis, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1882, t. 5, f. 1, . 46 

61. Conus Evelinse, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1882, t. 5, f. 2, . 46 

62. Conus primula, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl., t. 6, f. 256, 46 

63. Conus Cibielli, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 107, f. 2, . . 46 

64. Conus tabidus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 243, . . 46 

PLATE 14. 

65. Conus hepaticus, Kiener. Thes. Conch., f. 191, . , 47 

66. Conus albicans, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 98, , ,47 

67. Conus unicolor, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 83, . . 47 
68,69. Conus distans, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 174 a, c, . 47 

70. Conus daucus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 189, , * 48 

71. Conus Reevei, Kiener (=daucus). Thes. Conch. ,f. 188, 48 

72. Conus archetypus, Crosse (= daucus, var.) Jour, de 

Conch., 1865, t. 10, f. 7, . ... 48 

73. Conus narcissus, Lara. Sowb., Thes., f. 436, . . 48 

74. Conus lithoglyphus, Meusch. Thes. Conch., f. 185, . 48 
75- Conns lacinulatus, Kiener (= lithoglyphus). Coq. viv., 

t. 108, f. 2, . . . . ' . . . . 48 

76. Conus attenuatus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 203, . 49 

77. Conus Sutorianus, Weinkauff. Kuster, Conch. Cab., 

t. 56, f. 5, 49 

78. Conus pulchellus, Swains. Thes. Conch., f. 220. . 49 

79. Conus cinctus, Swains. (= pulchellus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 231, ... 49 

80. Conus connectens, A. Ad. (= pulchellus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 230, 49 

81. Conus planorbis, Born. Thes. Conch., f. 491, . . 50 

82. Conus circumsignatus, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, 

t. 10, f. 14, 50 

83. Conus Chenui, Crosse. Sowb., Thes. Suppl., t. 287, 

f. 624, . 50 

84. Conus Lobbeckeanus, Weink. ( Chenui). Kuster, 

Conch. Cab., t. 36, f. 3, . . . . . 50 

85. Conus lineatus, Chemn. Thes. Conch., f. 219, . . 50 

86. 87, Conus vitulinus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 223,224, 51 

PLATE 15. 

88. Conus Carpentcri, Crosse (== vitulinus, var.) Jour. 

de Conch., 1865, t. 9, f. 1, . . . .51 

89. Conus Augur, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 154, . . 51 

90. Conus lignarius, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 269, . . 51 

91. Conus furvus, Reeve ( lignarius). Thes, Conch., 

f. 267, . . -51 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 139 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

92. Conus Cecilei, Kiener (= lignarius). Thes. Conch., 

f. 313, .51 

93. Conus fasciatus, Kiener (= lignarius, var.). Coq. viv., 

t. 109, f. 2, ... .... 51 

94. Conus raultilineatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1875, t. 24, 

f. 5, 52 

95. Conus Kobelti, Lobbecke. Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Gesell., 

ix, t. 4, f. 4, 52 

96. Conus consors, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 492, . , 52 

97. Conus carinatus, Swains. (= consors). Thes. Conch., 

f. 495, 52 

98. Conus anceps, A. Ad. (= consors). Sowb., Thes,, 

f. 493, ,52 

99. Conus Daullei, Crosse (=; consors). Mag. de Zool,, 

1858, t. 2, f. 2 a, 52 

100. Conus ustulatus, Reeve (=5= consors). Thes Conch. 

Suppl.,t. 289, f. 647, , . 52 

1. Conus fulvocinctus, Crosse. Jour, de Conch,, 1873, 

t. 11, f. 5, 52 

2. Conus consanguineus, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 1880, 

t. 48, f. 1, . 52 

3. Conus magus, Linn. Thes. Conch,, f. 513, , , .53 

4. Conus raphanus, Hwass (== magus). Thes. Conch,, 

f. 509, 53 

5. Conus Consul, Boivin (=^= magus). Jour, de Conch., 

3 ser., iv, t. 1, f. 5, 53 

6. Conus striolatus, Kiener (= magus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 328, . . .53 

7. Conus Borneensis, Sowb, (== magus), Thes. Suppl., 

t. 289, f. 648, 53 

8. Conns assimilis, A. Ad, (= magus). Thes. Conch,, 

f. 505, . . .53 

9. Conus Frauenfeldi, Crosse (=?= magus, var.). Thee. 

Conch., f. 525, . . . . . . .53 

10. Conus Metcalfei, Reeve (=magus, var.). Conch. Icon,, 

f. 194, . 53 

PLATE 16. 

11. Conus Rollandi, Bern (= magus, var.). Thes, Conch, 

Suppl., t. 289, f. 652, 53 

12. Conns epistomium, Reeve (== magus, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 227, 53 

13. Conus Tasmanise, Sowb. (= magus, var.). Thes. Suppl., 

t. 288, f. 636, 54 

14. Conus epistomioides, Weink. (= magus, var.). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 51, f. 6, . . , . .54 



140 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

15. Conus pertusus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 213, . . 54 

16. Conus festivus, Cliemn. (= pertusus \ Thes. Conch., 

f. 272, 54 

17. Conus inquinatus, Reeve (= pertusus \ Conch. Icon. 

Suppl.,t. 5, f. 251, 54 

18. Conus simplex, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 199, . . 54 

19. Conus sindon, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 233 a, . . 54 

20. Conus miser, Boivin. Thes. Conch. Suppl., t. 287, f. 630, 55 

21. 22. Conus mercator, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 83 6, a, . 55 

23. Conus desidiosus, A. Ad., (= mercator, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 306, 55 

24, 25. Conus cuneolus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 205 a, &, 55 
26, 27. Conus Natalis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 292, 293, . 55 

28. Conus olivaceus, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. Ill, f. 3, . . 55 

29. Conus Taslei, Kiener (= olivaceus). Coq. viv., 1. 110, 

f. 3, ....... .56 

30,31. Conus irregularis, Sowb. (= olivaceus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 418, 419, 56 

32, 33. Conus infrenatus, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 451, 452, 56 

PLATE 17. 

34, 35. Conus rosaceus, Chemn. Thes. Conch., f. 455, 456, 56 

36. Conus roseotinctus, Sowb. Thes. Suppl., t. 286, f. 604, 56 

37. Conus Tinianus, Reeve (= rosaceus, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 450, . . . . . . . .56 

38. Conus Loveni, Krauss ( rosaceus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 449, . .56 

39. Conus signifer, Crosse (= rosaceus, var.). Jour, de 

Conch., 1865, t. 10, f. 6, . .56 

40. Conus Lamarckii, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 83, f. 4, . . 56 

41. Conus inflatus, Kiener (= Lamarckii). Coq. viv., t. 

71, f. 3, 56 

42. Conus citrinus, ,Kiener (= Lamarckii). Coq. viv., t. 

59, f. 6, . . .56 

43. Conus Broderipii, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 254 6, . 57 

44. Conus spectrum, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 458, . . 57 

45. Conus collisus, Reeve (= spectrum). Thes. Conch., f. 

459, ... .... .57 

46. 47. Conus pica, Ads and Reeve (= spectrum). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 290, 291, 57 

48. Conus subnlatus. Sowb. ( spectrum). Thes. Conch., 

f. 472, . . . . 57 

49. Conus lictor, Boivin. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., iv, t. 1, 

f. 1, . 57 

50. Conus dolium, Boivin. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., iv, t. 

l,f. 4, 75 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 141 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

51. Conus lacteus, Reeve (= spectrum, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 234, 57 

52. Conus Andainanensis, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1878, t. 50, 

f. la, . 57 

53. Conus conspersus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 262, . . 58 

54. Conus Verreauxii, Kiener (= conspersus). Coq. viv., 

t. 60, f. 5, . .58 

PLATE 18. 

55. Conus scillatus, Reeve (= conspersus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 461, 58 

56. Conus daphne, Boivin (= conspersus, var.). Thes. 

Suppl., t. 288, f. 630, . . 58 

57. Conus cinereus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 467, . . 58 

58. Conus Gabrielli, Kiener (= cinereus). Coq. viv.,t. 74, 

f. 4, 58 

59. Conus straturatus, Sowb. (= cinereus, var.). Thes. 

Suppl., t. 286, f. 609, . . 58 

60. Conus Bernard!!, Kiener (= cinereus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 474, 58 

61. Conus politus, Weink. (= cinereus, var.). Kuster, 

Conch. Cab., t. 62, f. 2, 59 

62. Conus albosp.ira, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1880, t. 48, f. 4, 59 

63. 64. Conus nisus, Chemn. Thes. Conch., f. 470, 471, . 59 

65. Conus zebra, Sowb. (= nisus). Thes. Conch., f. 466, . 59 

66. Conus Blanfordianus, Crosse ' (= nisus). Jour, de 

Conch., 1867, t. 2, f. 1, 59 

67. Conus stigmaticus, A. Ad. (== nisus). Thes. Conch., f. 

460, 59 

68. Conus cocceus, Kiener (= nisus). Coq. viv., t. 107, 

f. 1 a, .... ... 59 

69. Conus submarginatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1870, t. 22, f. 6, 59 

70. Conus suturatus, Kiener (= submarginatus). Coq. viv., 

t. 88, f. 1, 60 

71. Conus radiatus, Gmel. Thes. Conch., f. 490, . . 60 

72. Conus parius, Reeve (= radiatus). Thes. Conch., f. 473, 60 

73. Conus Griibbse, Kiener (= radiatus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 475, 60 

74. Conus contusus, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl. ,t. 2, f. 276, 60 

75. Conus praefectus, Hwass (= ochroleucus, Gmel.). 

Reeve, Icon., f. 138, .60 

76. Conus iodostoma, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 159, . . 60 

77. Conus Lienardi, Crosse and Bern. Thes. Suppl., t. 286, 

f. 611, 60 



142 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 19. 

FICJURK. 

78, 79. Conus Lienardi, Crosse and Bern. Thes. Suppl., 

t. 286, f. 612, 613, ,60 

80. Conus Macei, Crosse. Thes. Suppl., t. 287, f. 621, . 61 

81. Conus Timorensis, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. Ill, . 61 

82. Conus Janus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 478, . . 61 

83. Conus Jickeli, Weink. KUster, Conch. Cab., t. 32, f. 11, 61 

84. Conus inscriptus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 164, . . 61 

85. Conus Keatii, Sowb. (= inscriptus). Thes. Conch., 

f.479, .61 

86. Conus induratus, Reeve (= Erythreeensis). Conch. 

Icon. Suppl., t. 7, f. 268, . 

87. Conus piperatus, Reeve (= Erythraeensis). Conch. 

Icon., f. 230, 62 

88. Conns quadrimaculatus, Sowb. (=Erythrgeensis). Thes. 

Conch. Suppl., t. 288, f. 638, . * . .62 

89. Conus concinnus, Sowb. (= Erythrseensis). Thes. 

Suppl., t. 289, f. 646, 

90. Conus puncticulatus, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 116, . 62 

91. Conus perplexus, Sowb. (= puncticulatus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 324, 62 

92. Conus pustulatus, Kiener (= puncticulatus). Coq. viv., 

t. 101, f. 2, .62 

93. Conus papillosus, Kiener (= puncticulatus). Coq. 

viv., t. 12, f. 4, . .62 

94. Conus pusio, Sowb. (= puncticulatus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 398, 62 

95. Conus Duvali, Bern. (= puncticulatus). Jour, de 

Conch., 3 ser., ii, t. 13, f. 3, . . . 62 

96. Conus Hanleyi, Sowb. (= puncticulatus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 399, 62 

97. 98. Conus columba, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 310, 311, 62 
99. Conus Metcalfei, Angas (= Angasi, Tryon). Zool. 

Proc., 1877, t. 26, f. 13, .... .62 

100. Conus Ximenes, Gray (= interruptus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 285, .63 

1, 2. Conus mahogani, Reeve (= interruptus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 283, 284, .63 

PLATE 20. 

3. Conus raonilifer, Brod. (== interruptus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 380, .63 

4. Conus tornatus, Brod. (== interruptus). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 68 .63 

5. Conus Philippii, Kiener (= interruptus). Thes. Conch. 

f. 412, 63 






REFERENCE TO PLATES. 143 

FIGURE. PAOK. 

6, 7. Conus catus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 277, 278, . 63 

8. Conus nigropunctatus, Sowb. (= catus, var.). Thes. 

Conch.*, f. 342, . . ... 63 

9. Conus Adansoni, Lam. (= catus, var.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 286, .... .... 63 

10. Conus eques, Brug. (= catus). Kiener, Iconog., t. 66, 

f. 1, 63 

11, 12. Conus achatinus, Chemn. Thes. Conch., f. 335, 336, 64 

13. Conus superstriatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 282, . 64 

14. Conus monachus, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 122 a, 64 

15. Conus purpurascens, Brod. Thes. Conch., f. 346, . 64 

16. Conus. neglectus, A. Ad. (= purpurascens). Thes. 

Conch., f. 404, 64 

16 a. Conus Luzonicus, Sowb. (= purpurascens). Thes. 

Conch, f. 344, .64 

17. Conus regalitatus, Sowb. (== purpurascens, var.). Thes., 

f. 345, 64 

18. Conus testudinarius, Mart. Sowb., Thes., f. 348, . 65 

19. Conus fulmen, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 351, . . 65 

20. Conus tribunus, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, t. 10, 

f. 2, .59 

21. Conus catenatus, Sowb. (=interruptus). Zool. Proc., 

1878, t. 48, f. 3, 63 

22. Conus hyaena, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 431, . . 65 

23. 24. Conus Guiniacus, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 434, 435,. 65 

26. Conus Franciscanus, Hwass (= Mediterraneus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 315, 66 

PLATE 21. 

25. Conus Mediterraneus, Hwass, Thes. Conch., f. 437, . 66 

27. Conus Bruguieri, Kiener (= Mediterraneus, var). Kien., 

Iconog., t. 56, f. 2, . 66 

28. Conus Jamaicensis, Sowb. (= Mediterraneus, var.). 

Thes. Conch., f. 439, . 66 

29. Conus Tamsianus, Dunker (= Mediterraneus, var.). 

Moll. Guin., t. 4, f. 23, .... 66 

30. Conus cserulescens, Chemn. (== Mediterraneus, var.). 

Thes. Conch., f. 442, 66 

31. Conus semulus, Reeve (= Mediterraneus, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 256 a, 66 

32. Conus altispiratus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1873, t. 15, f. 4, 66 

33. Conus castus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 405, . . 66 

34. Conus Madurensis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 237, . . 66 

35. Conus Borbonicus, H. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1868, t. 28, f. 1, 67 

36. Conus corallinus, Kiener. Iconog., t. 73, f. 2, . 67 



144 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



37. Conus inaequalis, Reeve (= corallinus). Conch. Icon. 

Suppl., t. 7, f. 270, .67 

38. Conus dilectus, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Expl. Exped., 

f. 367, 67 

39. Conus nitidus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 401, . . 67 

40. Conus aplustre, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 448, . . 67 

41. Conus multicatenatus, Sowb. (= aplustre, var.). Thes. 

Suppl., f. 34, 67 

42. Conus pictus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 98, . . . 68 

43. Conus jaspideus, Kiener (= pictus, Reeve). Iconog., 

t. 55, f. 4, 68 

44. Conus scitulus, Reeve (= pictus, Reeve). Conch. Ic. 

Suppl., t. 9, f. 283, .68 

45. Conus pauperculus, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 108, 68 

46. Conus lautus, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 454, . 68 

47. Conus elongatus, Chemn. Thes. Conch., f. 440, . . 68 

48. 49. Conus caft'er, Krauss. Sowb., Thes., f. 446, 447, . 68 

50. Conus gilvus, Reeve (= caffer). Conch. Icon., Suppl., 

t. 6, f. 255, .68 

51. Conus secutor, Crosse (= caffer). Jour, de Conch., 

1865, t. 9, f. 3, .68 

PLATE 22. 

52. Conus Algoensis, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 149, . . 69 

53. Conus fucatus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 308, . . 69 

54. Conus lachrymosus, Reeve. Sowerby, Thes. Conch., f. 

93, 69 

55. Conus anemone, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 340, . . 69 

56. Conus maculatus, Sowb. (= anemone). Thes. Conch., 

f. 296 69 

57. Conus Novse-Hollandise, Lam. (= anemone). Thes. 

Conch,, f. 298, 69 

58. Conus Jukesii, Reeve (= anemone). Conch. Icon. 

Suppl., t. 2, f. 278, . .69 

59. Conus Cabritii, Bern. (= anemone). Thes. Conch. 

Suppl., t. 288, f. 632, ... 69 

60. Conus compressus, Sowb. ( anemone;. Thes. Suppl., 

t. 286, f. 603, . . . . ' . . . .69 

61. Conus anemone, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 339, . ' . 69 

62. Conus cocceus, Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 417, . . 70 

63. Conus decrepitus, Kiener (= cocceus). Iconog., Coq. 

viv., t. 99, f. 4, 70 

64. Conus cerinus. Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 120, . 70 

65. Conus Yayssetianus, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1872, t. 

16, f. 1, 70 

66. Conus carnalis, Sowb. Zool. Proc , 1878, t. 48, f. 2, . 71 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 145 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

67. Conus Melvilli, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1878, t. 48, f. 1, . 71 

68. Conus Kieneri, Reeve. Conch. Icon., Suppl., t. 9, f. 

2826, 71 

69. Conus latifasciatus, Sowb. (= Kieneri). Thes., f. 485, 71 

70. Conus subulatus, Kiener. Reeve, Icon. Suppl., t. 4, f. 

239, 71 

71. Conus Neptunus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 30, . . 72 

72. Conus Neptunoides, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 1880, t. 

48, f. 2, .... .... 72 

73. Conus mucronatus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 204, . 72 

74. Conus alabaster, Ads. and Reeve (= mucronatus). 

Reeve, Icon. Suppl., t. 6, f. 257, . .72 

PLATE 23. 

75. Conus orbitatus, Reeve (= mucronatus, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 156, 73 

76. Conus planiliratus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1870, t. 22, f. 1. 73 

77. Conus australis, Chemn. Sowb., Thes., f. 486, . '. 73 

78. Conus laterculus, Sowb. (= australis). Zool. Proc., 

1870, t. 22, f. 3, .73 

79. Conus strigatus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 248, 73 
79 a. Conus sulcatus, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 30, . . 73 

80. Conus undulatus, Sowb. ( sulcatus, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 63, . . " . . . . .74 

81. Conus Bocki, Sowb. (= sulcatus, var.). Zool. Proc., 

1881, t. 56, f. 7, 74 

82. 83. Conus granifer, Reeve. Sowb., Thes., f. 109, 110, 74 

84. Conus exaratus" Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 238, . . 74 

85. Conus pulcher, A. Ad. Sowb., Thes., f. 121, . . 74 

86. Conus sulciferus, A. Ad. Sowb.. Thes., f. 122, . . 74 

87. Conus cancellatus, Lam. Reeve, Icon. , . .74 

88. Conus praecellens, Ad. (= cancellatus). Thes. Conch,, 

f. 371, 74 

89. Conus turriculatus, Sowb. (= cancellatus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 643, 74 

90. Conus aculeiformis, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 240, . 75 

91. Conus vimineus, Reeve (= aculeiformis). Conch. Ic. 

Suppl., t. 7, f. 269, . .... 75 

92. Conus gracilis, Sowb. (= aculeiformis). Zool. Proc., 

1875, t. 24, f. 6, 75 

93. Conus insculptus, Kiener (= aculeiformis). Coq. viv., 

t. 99, f. 2, 75 

94. Conus longurionis, Kiener (= aculeiformis). Coq. viv., 

t. 92, f. 6, 75 

95/ Conus Orbignyi, And. Sowb., Thes. f. 368, . . 75 
10 



14(5 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGK, 

96. Conus gemmulatus, Sowb. (= Orbignyi). Zool. Proc., 

1870, t. 22, f. 8, . 75 

PLATE 24. 

97. Conus crenulatus, Kiener (= armiger, Crosse). Coq. 

viv.,t. 109, f. 1,. . . . . . .75 

98. Conus arcuatus, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 77 6, . . 75 

99. Conus undatus, Kiener. Coq. viv., t 94, f. 1, . . 76 
100. Conus subaequalis, Sowb. (= undatus). Zool. Proc., 

1870, t. 22, f. 5,. 76 

1. Conus Sowerbyi, Kiener (= undatus). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 77 a, 76 

2. Conus cingulatus, Lam. (== undatus). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 158, . . . . 76 

3. Conus cingulatus, Lam, Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 385, . 76 

4. Conus Sinensis, Sowb. (= cingulatus, Lam.). Conch. 

Illus., f. 56, .76 

5. Conus acutangulus, Hwass. Reeve, Cone. Icon., f. 200, 76 

6. Conus Wilmeri, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1882, t. 5, f. 5, . 77 

7. Conus tenuisulcatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1870, t. 22, 

f. 10, ... . ... 77 

8. Conus tristis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 252, . , .77 

9. Conus Borneensis, Ads. and Reeve. Thes. Conch., f. 

389, 77 

10. Conus acutimarginatus, Sowb. (= Borneensis). Thes. 

Conch. Suppl., f. 640, . 78 

11. Conus Lizardensis, Crosse (= Borneensis). Thes. 

Conch. Suppl., f. 642, . 78 

12. Conus verrucosus, Hwass. Reeve, Icon., f. 201, . . 78 

13. Conus echinulatus, Kiener (= verrucosus). Coq. viv., 

t. 105, f. 2, . . . .78 

14. Conus sticticus, A. Ad. (= verrucosus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 137, . . ... 78 

15. Conus nodiferus, Kiener (= verrucosus). Coq. viv., 

t. 100, f. 4, . . . -78 

16. Conus Mindanus, Hwass (= verrucosus). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 86, ... 78 

17. Conus cretaceus, Kiener (= verrucosus). Coq. viv., 

t. 99, f. 1, . 78 

18. Conus anaglypticus, Crosse (= verrucosus). Sowb., 

Thes. Suppl., f. 606, 78 

19. Conus corrugatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1870, t. 22. f. 7, 78 

20. Conus coronatus, Reeve (= papalis, Weink.) Sowb., 

Thes., f. 136, . . . . . . . ,78 

21. Conus semisulcatus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1870, t. 22, f. 13, ^ 79 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 14*7 

PLATE 25. 

FIGURE. PAOP. 

22. Conus Caledonicus, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 413, . 79 

23. Conus nucleus, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl.,t. 3, f. 280, 79 

24. 25. Conus luteus,Brod. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 544, 545, 79 
26, 27. Conus glans, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f..530, 531, . 79 

28. Conus tenuistriatus, Sowb. (= glans). Thes. Conch., 

f. 533, . . . . ...... .79 

29. Conus scabriusculus, Chemn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 543, . .'-... . . . . .80 

30. Conus tendineus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 534, . . 80 

31. Conus terebra, Born. Sowb., Thes., f. 559, . . 80 

32. Conus coelebs, Hinds (= terebra). Reeve, Icon., f. 64, 80 

33. Conus Thomasi, Sowb. (= terebra). Zool. Proc., 1881, 

t. 56, f. 4 a, . . . . 80 

34. Conus Cailliaudi, Kiener. Iconog., Coq. viv.,t. 55, f. 5, 80 

35. Conus nussatella, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 533, . .80 

36. Conus tenellus, Chemn. Sowb., Thes., f. 556, . . 81 

37. Conus clavus, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 561, . . 81 

38. Conus dactylosus, Kiener (= clavus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 536, . . .81 

39. Conus circumcisus, Born. Sowb., Thes., f. 562, . . 81 

40. Conus Du Saveli, H. Ad. (= circumcisus). Zool. Proc., 81 

1872, t. 3, f. 17, . .... 81 

41. Conus Brazieri, Sowb. Jour, of Conch., iii, t. 1, f. 9, . 81 

42. Conus granulatus, Linn. Tbes. Conch., f. 540, . . 81 

43. Conus verulosus, Hwass (= granulatus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 541, . ....... 82 

44. Conus coccineus, Gmel. Kiener, Coq. viv.,t. 77, f. 3, . 82 

PLATE 26. 

45. Conus filamentosus, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 482, 82 

46. Conus nimbosus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 66, . 82 

47. Conus aurisiacus, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 501, . . 82 

48. Conus Barthelem} r i, Bern. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., ii, 

t. l,f. 12, 83 

49. 50. Conus c3 r lindraceus,Brod. and Sowb. Reeve, Icon., 

f. 84 a, 6, . . .83 

51. Conus mitratus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 100, 83 

52. Conus PupaBformis, Sowb. (= mitratus). Zool. Proc., 

1870, t. 22, f. 2, 83 

53. Conus crebrisulcatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 321, . 83 

54. Conus Traillii, A. Acl. Sowb., Thes., f. 322, . . 83 

55. Conus puncturatus, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 104, . 83 

56. Conus Africanus, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 104, f. 2, . 84 

57. Conus bulbus, Reeve (= Africanus, var. ). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 78, f. 3, 84 



148 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAOB. 

58. Conus Dupontii, Kiener (= Africanus, var.). Iconog., 

t. 61, f. 2, 84 

59. Conns Grayi, Reeve (= Africanus, var.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 258 a, 84 

60. Conus obtusus, Kiener (= Africanus, var.). Iconog., 

t. 109, f. 3, 84 

61. Conus guttatus, Kiener (= Africanus. var.). Iconog., 

t. 105, f. 4, 84 

62. Conus variegatus, Kiener (= Africanus, var.). Iconog. 



t. 106, f. la, 
62 a. Conus zebroides, Kiener. Iconog., t. 105, f. 5, 



84 
84 



63. Conus concinnus, Brod. (= concinnulus, Crosse) 

Reeve, Icon., f. 153, 85 

64. Conus atramentosus, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl., t. 7, 

f. 265, . 85 

65. Conus hieroglyphicus, Duel. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 101 a, 85 

66. Conus lugubris, Reeve. Conch. Icon. Suppl., t. 9, 

f. 279, 85 

67. Conus striatus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 557, . 85 

68. Conus gubernator, Hwass. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 521, 86 

69. Conus terminus, Lam. (= gubernator). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 523, 86 

PLATE 27. 

1. Conus figulinus, Linn., var. chytreus, Melvill. From 

Drawing, 17 

2. Conus arenatus, Hwass, var. mesokatharos, Melvill. 

From Drawing, ....... 18 

3. Conus marchionatus, Hinds, var. eudoxus, Melvill. 

From Drawing, 9 

4. Conus spiroglossus, Desh. (=- generalis . Sowb., Thes. 

Suppl., f. 626, .34 

5. Conus tenuis, Sowb. (= mustelinus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 314, 40 

6. Conus Ceciliae, Chenu (= mustelinus, var.). Jour, de 

Conch., vii, t. 14, f. 9, . . 41 

7. Conus inflatus, Sowb. (= conspersus). Conch. 111., 

f. 41, 58 

8. Conus interruptus, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 125, . . 63 

9. Conus comptus, Gould (=purpurascens). Mex. Shells., 

t. 14, f. 23, ... . .64 

10. Conus ocalaris, Val. (= arcuatus). Kiener, t. 88, f. ft, 76 

11. Conus miles, Linn. Gould, Wilkes Exped., f. 364, . 40 

12. Conus miliaris, Hwass. Gould, Wilkes Exped., f. 362, 21 

13. Conus Hebrseus, Linn. Quoy, Voy. A stool. , t. 52, f. 5, 20 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 149 
PLATE 28. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

70. Conus Boivini, Kiener. Sowb., Thes., f. 496, . . 86 

71. Conus melancholicus, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 547, . 86 

72. Conus rhododendron, Jay. Sowb., Thes., f. 504, . 86 

73. Conus floccatus, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 500, . . 86 

74. Conus Magdalenae, Kiener (= floccatus). Iconog., t. 

69, f. 4, . ... . 87 

75. Conus Julii, Lienard. Jour, de Conch., 1871, t. 1, f. 6, 87 

76. Conus floccatus, Kiener (= Julii). Iconog., 1. 106, f. 3, 87 

77. Conus bullatus, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 550, . . 87 

78. Conus cervus, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 548, . . 87 

79. Conus Deshayesii, Reeve (== cervus, var.). Sowb., 

Thes. Conch., f. 546, 87 

80. Conus tulipa, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 552, . . .87 

81. Conus floridus, Sowb. (= tulipa). Thes. Conch., f. 558, 88 

82. Conus violaceus. Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 241, . . 88 

83. Conus obscurus, Reeve (^ violaceus). Conch. Icon., 

f. 82, 88 

84. Conus geographus, Linn. SoWb., Thes., f. 560, . . 88 

PLATE 29. 

85. Conus intermedius, Reeve (= geographus, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 549, 88 

86. Conus aureus, Hwass. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 196, . 88 

87. Conus Pauluccise, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1876, t. 75, f. 3, 89 

88. Conus pyramidalis, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 85, f. 1, 89 

89. Conus convolutus, Sowb. (= pyramidalisj. Thes., f. 

564, 89 

90. Conus gloria-maris, Hwass. Thes. Conch., f. 586, . 89 

91. Conus solidus, Sowb. (= retifer, Mke.). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 23 6, 89 

92. 93. Conus textile. Linn., Operculum. Jour, de Conch., 

t. 13, f. 2, 1874, 89 

94. Conus textile, Linn. Quoy, Toy. Astrol., t. 53, f. 16, . 89 

95. Conus vicarius, Lam. (=-. textile). Sowb., Thes., f. 565, 90 

96. Conus scriptus, Sowb. (= textile). Thes. Conch., f. 563, 90 

97. Conus telatus, Reeve (= textile, var.). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 584, 90 

98. Conus tigrinus, Sowb. (= textile, var.). Thes., f. 569, 90 

99. Conus verriculum, Reeve (= textile, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 570, 90 

PLATE 30. 

100. Conus euetrios, Sowb. (= textile, var.). Zool. Proc., 

t. 5, f. 6, 1882, . . . . . .90 



150 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. Conus archiepiscopus, Hwass (= textile, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 571, 90 

2. Conus eanonicus, Hwass ( = textile, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 568, . . ... 90 

3. Conus Madagascariensis, Sowb. (== textile, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 582, 90 

4. Conus condensus, Sowb. (= textile, var.). Thes. Suppl., 

t. 287, f. 622, 90 

5. Conus legatus, Lam. (= textile, var.). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 85, . 90 

6. Conus Victoriae, Reeve (= textile, var.) Conch. Icon., 

f. 202 a, . . ... 91 

7. Conus complanatus, Sowb. (= textile, var.) Thes. 

Suppl., t. 289, f. 651, . . . . ' . .91 

8. Conus Prevosti, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1881, t. 56 t f. 3, . 91 

9. Conus concatenatus, Kiener. Coq. viv., t. 110, f. 1, . 91 

10. Conus Dalli, Stearns. Cal. Proc., v, t. 1, f, 1, . . 91 

11. Conus reticulatus, Sowb. (= lucidus, Mawe). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 52, . 91 

12. Conus abbas, Hwass. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 575, . 92 

13. Conus panniculus, Lam. (= abbas, var.) Sowb.. Thes., 

f.574, 92 

14. Conus corbula, Sowb. (= abbas, var.) Thes. Conch., 

f. 573 92 

15. Conus Elizre, Kiener. Iconog., t. 64, f. 1 a, . . 92 

PLATE 31. 

16. 17. Conus crocatus, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 588, 

589, 92 

18. Conus racemosus, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1873, t. 59, f. 11, 92 

19. Conus omaria, Hwass. Sowb., Thes., f. 594, . . 92 

20. 21. Conus pennaceus, Born (= omaria). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 599, 600, 93 

22. Conus prselatus, Hwass (= omaria). Sowb., Thes., f. 595, 93 

23, 24. Conus episcopus, Hwass (== omaria). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 596, 598, 93 

25. Conus rubiginosus, Hwass (= omaria). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 590, 93 

26. Conus magnificus, Reeve (== omaria). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 592, .93 

27. Conus stellatus, Kiener (= omaria). Iconog., t. 99, f. 3, 93 

28. Conus colubrinus, Lam. (= omaria). Kiener, Iconog., 

t. 82, f. 3, . . . . . . . .93 

29. Conus aulicus, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 593, . . 93 

30. Conus auratus, Lam. (= aulicus). Thes. Conch. ,f. 591, 93 



\v 

UNIVERSITY 




FAMILY PLEUtiOTOMID^. 

Shell fusiform, with a more or less produced anterior canal, and 
a slit or sinus of the outer margin of the aperture near the suture. 
Operculum (not always present) corneous, annular, the nucleus 
apical, or subcentral and nearly marginal. 

Animal with widely separated tentacles, the eyes usually at or 
near their base ; mantle generally with a sinus on the right margin 
corresponding with the sinus of the shell ; siphon long. Denti- 
tion : usually there are no central teeth, and the laterals are a 
single one on either side of the lingual band (1-0-1) ; but in 
some groups there is a central tooth, and in others there are 
two laterals. No jaws. 

The dentition, however it varies in minor respects, always pre- 
serves a resemblance to that of the Conidse, Terebridae and Can- 
cellariidae sufficient to include it with these in a great group 
Toxoglossa. The teeth are long, usually subulate, supplied with 
venom from a large gland (PI. 33, fig. 52). 

There is some resemblance in the sinus of the shell between 
Conus and the principal groups of Pleurotomidaa ; and even in 
form, Genotia is connected, through Conorbis, with Conus. On 
the other hand Pusionella seems to form the connecting link 
with Terebra, Halia with Cancellaria, etc. 

In no other group of mollusks is it so difficult to make a satis- 
factory classification as in the Pleurotomidae. The forms are 
exceedingly numerous, and known in many species to be very 
variable in their characters, whilst the material for the recognition 
of most of those described is generally scant} r . Of the figured 
species, a very large proportion were described from single or 
few specimens, and most cabinets, however large, do not possess 
shells which can be certainly identified with these : then there is 
an unusually large proportion (amounting to hundreds) of un- 
figured species, the recognition of which is simply impossible. 

The many generic and subgeneric groups that have been made, 

far from enabling us to arrange the species in something like 

systematic order, only increase the confusion ; for so great is the 

variability of all the characters that nearly allied species have 

11 * (151) 



152 PLEUBOTOMITD^E. 

been constantly separated into different groups ; and of a large 
proportion of the species, the proper relationships have not and 
cannot be worked out from accessible material. In no other 
family of shells have these groups been so hastily proposed or 
with so little data upon which to found them ; yet so generally 
have they been adopted that to destroy ill-founded groups and 
unite the species under the one generic name Pleurotoma, would 
cause such a large duplication of specific names, and consequently 
so much alteration of these latter, that it appears better, in the 
interest of science, to retain some of these genera. 

In the " Structural and Systematic Conchology " I have 
recorded thirty-three groups, sections or subgenera under the 
genus Pleurotoma, and without indicating any difference of rank 
or grade among these ; here I shall be compelled to arrange them 
into subfamilies, genera, subgenera and sections, supplied with 
characters only exhibited by selected typical species, and even 
in these of much inferior importance to those upon which similar 
divisions are founded in most other families of mollusks. The 
three subfamily characters, the presence or absence of an oper- 
culum, and the position of the nucleus when the operculum is 
present, would be far from having similar rank in many other 
families of marine mollusks ; it only needs to refer to the Muricidse, 
Tritonidse, etc., where the position of the nucleus is considered 
of only subgeneric importance ; to the Buccinidse, in one genus 
of which the operculum is indifferently absent or present in the 
same species. This character becomes of still less value to us 
because the operculum has so seldom been preserved that in 
more than half of the species it has neither been figured nor 
described ; and because there are no other characters from which 
that of the operculum can be predicated. 

In " Structural and Systematic Conchology," vol. ii, p. 50, 
will be found Dr. Gray's account of the reproduction of a lost 
portion of an operculum in Pleurotoma babylonica; the operculum 
which normally has an apical nucleus, by this restoration having 
concentric lamellae from the middle. 

The other systematic characters the length of the canal, 
position of the sinus, surface of the embryonic whorls, sculpture, 
etc. are equally unreliable. It is not surprising that in groups 
so vaguely defined the personal equation should be more than 



PLEUROTOMIDJE. 153 

usually apparent in the classification ; so that in studying a 
group of Pleurotoma it is as absolutely necessary to know how 
each author who has described species as of that group, compre- 
hended its characters, as it is to refer to the diagnosis itself. 

The systematic works on the Pleurotomidse are few and very 
incomplete. They include the following monographies : 

Kiener, Iconographie des coquilles vivantes, 27 plates, illus- 
trating 57 species. 

Reeve, Monograph of Pleurotoma. Conchologia Iconica, 369 
species. 

Reeve, Monog. of Mangilia. Conch. Icon., 11 species. 

Weinkauff, in Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet, 172 species. This 
work is in course of publication, but no portion of it has ap- 
peared for a considerable period. 

Dr. Weinkauff has also catalogued the species of some of the 
groups in Jahrbiicher der Deutschen Malak. G-esell., iv, 187 7. 

The principal classifications of the family are those of 
H. and A. Adams, Genera of Recent Mollusca, i, 88, . 1853 
Bellardi, Moll. Tert. du Piemonte, pt. 2, .... 1877 
Weinkauff, Jahrb. Deutsch. Mai. Gesell., iii, 1, . .1876 
Tryon, Structural and Systematic Conchology, ii, 183, . 1883 
Fischer, Manuel de Conchyliologie, 589, .... 1884 

Differing in detail, the three latter are essentially founded upon 
that of Messrs. Adams. 

Living species of Pleurotomidae are found in all seas ; never- 
theless certain groups are restricted in distribution. Pleurotoma 
being tropical and subtropical, Bela boreal, etc. The family is 
geologically modern, but was very numerously represented in 
tertiary beds, particularly those of northern Italy. 

FAMILY PLEUROTOMIDJE. 

Subfamily Pleurotominx. Operculum oval, with terminal 
nucleus. 

Subfamily Clavatulinae. Operculum pyriform, with lateral, 
internal nucleus. 

Subfamity Mangiliinae. No operculum. 



154 PLEtJRO'fOMIDjE. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

I. Pleurotominae. 
Genus PLEUROTOMA, Lamarck, 1799. 

Shell turriculated, fusiform ; spire long, sharp ; aperture ovate, 
the columellar margin smooth, the outer lip with a narrow pro- 
found sinus separated rather distantly from the suture ; canal 
long and narrow, straight, open. 

Animal, foot truncated anteriorly, obtuse posteriorly ; tentacles 
cylindrical, with eyes externally near their base; teeth falciform, 
angulated (1-0-1). Dentition, PL 33, fig. 54. Generally large 
shells variegated with spots. Inhabiting warm seas. Fossil, 

tertiary. 

Subgenus GEMMULA, Weinkauff, 1875. 

Shell spindle-like, canal rather long and narrow, sometimes 
curved ; sinus straight, more or less narrow and long, terminating 
a nodulous peripheral keel ; embryonal whorls three or four, the 
two upper ones smooth, upright, the others longitudinally 
ribbed. 

Consists of a few species having upright embryonal whorls, 
these being inclined in Pleurotoma. 

Genus GENOTIA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Shell narrowly obconic, cancellated, body-whorl gradually 
tapering to a but slightly developed canal ; lip-sinus wide and 
shallow; aperture long and narrow, with subparallel margins. 
Operculum unguiculate. 

Animal resembling Conus. 

The name is derived from Genot, by which Adanson called 
the type species. W. Coast of Africa. 

Pseudotoma, Dolichotoma, Oligotoma and Ronaultia of Bel- 
lardi and Cryptoconus, Koenen, are sections containing European 
tertiary species. Their characters are not important. 

Genus COLUMBARIUM, E. von Martens, 1881. 

Shell fusiform, carinated, spiny ; embryonic tip of the spire 
globular ; aperture short, oval ; sinus of the lip scarcely indicated 
by a slight curve ; canal narrow, very long. W. Australia, China, 
Panama. The group is placed here by von Martens on account 



PLEUROTOMIIXffi. 155 

of the lingual dentition ; conchologically the species belong in 
Fusus. 

Genus ANCISTROSYRINX,Dall, 1881. 

Whorls concave below the suture ; with a wide deep sinus, 
bordered externally by an elevated frill directed backwards. 
Operculum and dentition not described. Only a single species 
known, and its systematic position very uncertain. 

Genus DRILLIA, Gray, 1838. 

Shell turriculated, with longitudinal ribs, and usually revolving 
striae ; last whorl usually short ; spire elevated ; columella with a 
posterior callus ; outer lip thick, but not varicose, nor dentate 
within, flexuous, with a well-marked posterior sinus near (but not 
reaching) the suture, and an anterior constriction or sinuosity ; 
canal short, curved, usually narrow. 

Principally distinguished from Pleurotoma by the smaller size 
and short recurved canal. 

Animal with tentacles approaching at their bases and eyes 
near their extremities. 

Distr. Warm Seas. Fossil, cretaceous, U. S.; miocene, Eur. 
The following, generally regarded as subgenera, will be treated 
as sections in this work : 

Section CRASSISPIRA, Swainson, 1840. Shell somewhat clavi- 
form, tuberculated ; anterior canal very short ; inner lip with a 
thick posterior callus ; outer lip thick within. 

Section CONOPLEURA, Hinds, 1844. Shell coniform; aperture 
narrow, sinuous ; columellar lip callous , canal very short ; outer 
lip sinuous, with a profound lateral sinus. 

Section CLAVUS, Montfort, 1810. Tuberculated or spiny; 
aperture rather large ; outer lip produced below the sinus. 

Section BRACHYTOMA, Swainson, 1840. Shell strombiform ; 
columellar lip rather thick ; outer lip ascending and forming a 
canal-like sinus near the suture. 

Genus SPIROTROPIS, Sars., 1878. 

Shell turriculated, rather thin ; apex obtuse ; whorls carinated, 
sinus profound, distant from the suture. Operculum normal. 
Dentition (PI. 33, fig. 53) very distinct ; formula 1-1-1-1-1. 



156 PLEUROTOMIM. 

Genus BELA (Leach), Gray, 1847. 

Shell usually thin and white, fusiform; spire elongated, 
turreted ; canal short, straight, truncated below ; columella 
simple, flattened ; lip thin, the sinus absent or barely indicated. 
Operculum oval, pyriform, with apical nucleus, 

Foot truncated or bilobed in front, drawn out behind ; ten- 
tacles cylindrical, rather short, the eyes external at the middle 
or three-fourths of their length. Teeth straight ( 1-0-1 ) ; Plate 
33, figs. 55, 52. 

Distr. Northern Seas. 

The following may be considered sections : 

Section TYPHLOMANGILIA, Sars., 1878. Animal blind. 

Section H^EDROPLEURA, Monterosato, 1883. Shell not turricu- 
lated, with a few strong longitudinal ribs. Mediterranean. 

Section ETALLONIA, Desh., 1862. This eocene group is here 
included by Dr. Fischer. I have placed it in the family Aplus- 
tridse (S. and S. Conch., ii, 362). 

Subgenus BELOMITRA, Fischer, 1882. 

Shell elongated, with mammillary apex; aperture oblong; 
lip sinuous, slightly concave towards the suture ; columellar lip 
with several small but strong plications ; canal short. Operculum 
with apical nucleus. 

Genus LACHESIS, Risso, 1826. 

Shell small, strong, turreted, many-whorled, the last whorl 
not very large ; surface sculptured by longitudinal ribs and 
revolving striae ; apex mammillated ; aperture oval ; canal very 
short, straight, not recurved ; outer lip slightly thickened exter- 
nally, crenated within, without apparent sinus. Operculum 
unguiculate. 

Animal with diverging tentacles, short siphon, and short ovate 
foot ; the eyes on stalks connate with, and at half the length of 
the tentacles. 

I retain the above name, although previously used by Daudin 
in reptilia and by Savigny in arachnida. One of its synonyms, 
Nessea, Risso, was also used by Lamarck for a genus of Polyps, 
and by Leach in Crustacea. On these accounts the group has 



PLEUROTOMID.3S, 157 

been recently recliristened Donovania. but it appears unneces- 
sary to make any change. 

Genus BORSONIA, Bellardi, 1846. 

Shell fusiform, spire elevated ; canal well-marked ; columella 
with one or two strong plications ; sinus of the outer lip not 
deep, opening in the infrasutural depression of the body-whorl. 

Abyssal zone, West Indies and Brazil. Fossil, tertiary of 
Europe and America. 

Described from a fossil group having a single coluinellar plait, 
but Cordiera, Rouault (=; Scobinella, Conrad), having two 
plaits, is usually considered identical, as in examples of some 
species one or two plaits appear to be indifferently developed. 

II. Cla,vatulinae. 
Genus CLAYATULA, Lamarck, 1801. 

Shell fusiform, with well-produced spire, the whorls coronated 
with tubercles or short spines at the suture; aperture oval; 
columellar lip smooth, arcuate, callous behind ; outer lip thin, 
arcuated, with the sinus situated below the sutural coronal. 
Operculum semioval, the nucleus about the middle, on the inner 
side. 

Foot large, short, obtuse behind ; eyes placed externally near 
the extremity of the tentacles. Dentition : a small unicuspid 
central tooth with single sharp laterals (1-1-1). 

The species mostly inhabit the west coast of Africa ; they 
also occur in the tertiary of Europe. 

Subgenus PERRONA, Schumacher, 1817 (Tomella, 

Swains., 1840). 

Spire carinated or smooth, whorls not tubercular or spinose ; 
sinus more or less near the suture. 

Subgenus CLIONELLA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell narrowly bucciniform, turriculated, whorls somewhat 
flattened, longitudinally ribbed, having a thick epidermis ; spire 
elevated ; canal scarcely indicated at the broad base of the 
aperture ; lip with a small infrasutural sinus. Operculum with 
lateral nucleus. 



158 PLEUROTOMID^E. 

Foot short, broad, rounded behind ; eyes near the tips of the 
tentacles. Dentition (1-1-1), PL 33, fig. 58. 

Supposed to be a fluviatile species, allied to Melanopsis, which 
it superficially resembles, the marine habitat and family relations 
of Clionella were first pointed out by Stimpson (Am. Jour. Sci., 
3d ser., xxxviii, 48 ; Am. Jour. Conch., i, 62). He unnecessarily 
made a new family, Clionellidse, for it, and for the slightly 
different type of dentition proposed Tomoglossata. 

Genus PUSIONELLA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell fusiform, solid, smooth, shining; whorls numerous ; spire 
sharp ; lip without sinus ; canal short, exteriorly carinated at 
the base ; columella twisted anteriorly. Operculum with lateral 
nucleus. 

Eyes at the external bases of the tentacles. W. Coast of 
Africa. 

The smooth shining whorls and form of the spire resemble 
Terebra, but the body-whorl is proportionally larger and wider 
than in that genus, and more contracted below, and the spire is 
much shorter. Differs from Terebra also in the position of the 
eyes, which are terminal in the latter. It may readily be dis- 
tinguished from Clavatula by its smooth surface and the absence 
of a sinus of the lip. 

Genus SURCULA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Shell turriculated, fusiform ; spire long ; lip-sinus in the 
infrasutural depression above the peripheral carina ; canal long, 
slightly bent. Operculum with medio-lateral nucleus. 

Animal with eyes at the base of the tentacles. Dentition 
(1-0-1), PI. 33, fig. 59. 

Distr. Warm Eastern Seas. 

The tertian groups Clinura, Brocchi (Europe), and Surculites, 
Conrad (United States), may be here included. 

III. Mangiliinse. 
Genus MANGILIA, Risso, 1826. 

Dedicated to the Italian naturalist, Mangili. Not Mangelia, 
as usually written. 

Shell fusiform, imperforate ; aperture oval-elongated, usually 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 1 5 9 

narrow, terminating in a rather short, truncated canal ; lip-sinus 
near the suture. No operculum. 

Foot dilated in front, and attenuated behind ; eyes placed on 
peduncles connate with the tentacles, and at about the middle of 
the latter, and exterior. Teeth hastiform (1-0-1). 

The animal of Mangilia is slow in its movements. It can 
sustain itself at the surface of the water, shell downwards. The 
oviposit consists of membranous hemispherical capsules, having 
a central opening, ordinarily attached to the interior of old 
bivalve shells. Each capsule contains from 200 to 300 eggs 
(Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iv). 

The great number of small species, inhabiting all portions of 
the globe, which have been referred to Mangilia, may be conve- 
niently divided into the following sections ; 

Section MANGILIA (restricted). Shell longitudinally costulate ; 
aperture narrow ; lip varicose ; sinus well marked ; canal short. 

Section CYTHARA, Schum., 1817 (not Klein, 1753 = Harpa. 
Otocheilus, Conr. ; Cytharella, Monteros ; Eucithara, Fischer, 
1883). Shell Colnmbelliform, longitudinally costellated ; spire 
short ; aperture narrow ; outer lip denticulated within ; colu- 
mellar lip striated. 

Section CYTHAROPSIS, A. Adams, 1865 (not Citharopsis, Pease 
= Columbellidae). Whorls of the spire cancellated ; colurnella 
sillonated ; canal curved, elongated. 

Section GLYPHOSTOMA, Gabb, 1872. Shell fusiform ; columellar 
lip plicated throughout ; outer lip thickened, plicate within ; sinus 
profound ; canal long, somewhat bent. 

Founded on a West Indian tertiary fossil, but some living 
species are referred to the group. 

Genus CLATHURELLA, Carpenter, 1857 (Defrancia, Millet, 

1826.) 

Apex mammillary ; sinus varicose, sutural ; columella tubercu- 
lated posterior^, rugose in front ; canal slightly curved. Den- 
tition, PL 33, figs. 56, 57. Defrancia was preoccupied by Bronn 
for a genus of Polyzoa ; but that is said to be a synonym of 
Pelagia, Lamouroux ; so that perhaps it ought to be restored for 
the mollusks. Clathurella appears to differ from Mangilia prin- 
cipally in its more rounded whorls, and cancellated sculpture. 




160 PLEUROTOMID^E. 

It is retained as a genus to prevent the duplication of specific 
names. 

Ditoma and Atoma, Bellardi, are groups found in the Italian 
tertiary which may be here referred. 

Genus DAPHNELLA, Hinds, 1844. 

Shell thin, fragile, oval-fusiform ; whorls convex ; body-whorl 
elongated, surface finely cancellated ; aperture oval ; lip simple, 
not varicose, arcuated ; canal very short. Warm. Seas. 

Small and elegant shells, of slight texture, distinguished by 
their elongated body-whorl, tenuity and sculpture. 

The following may be considered sections of Daphnella : 

Section RAPHITOMA, Bellardi, 1847. Shell small, fusiform, or 
turriculated, with longitudinal sculpture; lip sinuous behind, 
but without well-defined sinus. There are a number of tertiary 
species. 

Section HOMOTOMA, Bellardi, 1875. Whorls canaliculated at 
the suture. Tertiary only. 

Section TERES, Bucq., Dautz. and Dollf., 1882. Shell fusiform ; 
spire long ; sinus profound ; columella straight, obliquety trun- 
cate at the base. 

Section BELLARDIELLA, Fischer, 1883 (Bellardia, Bucq., Dautz. 
and Dollf., 1882, non Mayer, 1870). Form lanceolate, similar to 
that of the true Pleurotomas ; sinus sutural ; canal rather long. 

Section ZAFRA, A. Adams, 1872. Shell acuminately oval, 
tumid in the middle ; whorls longitudinally plicate, the last 
constricted at the base ; aperture linear ; inner lip effuse, its 
margin free; outer lip acute, subsinuous behind, subinflected in 
the middle. 

Seminella, Pease, which has by some been considered identical 
with Zafra, appears to me to be Columbelloid, and I have so 
treated it in vol. v of this work. 

Section THESBIA, Jeffreys, 1867. Shell thin, rather smooth, 
somewhat tumid, with a short spire and irregularly contorted 
apex ; aperture slightly expanded, the outer lip thin, with distinct 
sinus ; canal short ; columella simple. 

Section TARANIS, Jeffreys, 1870. Shell minute, cancellated, 
whorls angulated ; slightly exserted at base ; aperture pyriform ; 
outer lip thin, simple ; sinus obsolete ; canal short. 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 161 

Section PLEUROTOMELLA, Yerrill, 1873. Shell somewhat tur- 
reted ; apical whorls smooth ; the others shouldered and ribbed, 
but with a smootji concave surface above the shoulder ; lip-sinus . 
wide, very deep ; canal short. Animal blind. 

Section MITROMORPHA, A. Adams, 1865. Shell small, Mitri- 
form, with revolving lirse, and sometimes longitudinally plicate; 
columella straight, bearing a number of short plicae or teeth 
upon it ; lip acute, smooth within, scarcely sinuated posteriorly. 
California, Japan. 

This group has sometimes been referred to Mitra (see Manual, 
iv, 145), but the armament of the columella is not always present, 
and when it is, it more resembles a set of small callous deposits 
than revolving plicae. 

Subgenus APHANITOMA, Bellardi, 1815. 

Shell fusiform ; sinus scarcely apparent ; columella nearly 
straight, biplicate ; canal rather short, slightly curved. Tertiary 
only. Europe. 

Genus HALIA, Risso, 1826. 

Shell oval-oblong, ventricose, thin, fragile, shining, smooth; 
spire obtuse ; aperture oval ; columella truncated at the base ; lip 
simple, arcuated, slightly sinuous. 

One living species, Atlantic near Cadiz, and N. W. Africa; 
fossil, a species in the pliocene of N. Italy. 

The classification of this mollusk has a long and interesting 
history, which is given with some detail in a paper by Dr. Paul 
Fischer, entitled " Monographic du genre Halia Risso (Priamus 
Beck)," published in Journal de Conchyl., 2d ser., iii, 141. 
There was great uncertainty until within comparatively recent 
times, as to its habitat whether terrestrial or marine, and the 
animal remained unknown until 1858. Various ancient authors 
classed it successively as a Helix, Buccinum, Bulla, Bulimus, 
Achatina (Lamarck), Cochlicopa (Pfeiffer : Helicidaa). 

In 1838, Deshayes published the genus Priamus, Beck, and 
made it an operculated marine shell between Buccinum and 
Struthiolaria ; and since that period and up to 1858 the shell 
has been generally classed in the neighborhood of the Strombs 
or Buccinidse. 

Hermannsen, in 1846, discovered that Priamus was identical 



162 PLEUROTOMA. 

with a genus described by Risso in 1826, founded upon a 
tertiary fossil long known to science as Bulla helicoides, and 
which he called Halia. 

The animal of Halia possesses a voluminous, much thickened 
foot, oval-oblong, rounded at the extremities ; without operculum ; 
the mantle is well developed, but thin, its free margin finely 
papillary, its left margin partially covering, with a duplicature, 
the columella of the shell ; tentacles very large, conical, flattened ; 
eyes on the tentacles, at about a quarter of their length from the 
base; siphon well developed; dentition (1-0-1), the teeth or 
spinules laid diagonally forward from the unarmed central por- 
tion, to the margin on either side, and the lingual plate being 
very narrow in proportion to its length (PL 33, fig. 51). 

The fragility of the shell and its rare occurrence caused 
Fischer to suppose that it inhabits the tranquil depths of the 
sea, and since his paper the deep-sea explorations have shown 
that his surmise was correct. The length of the proboscis, the 
slight development of lingual armor, and the long intestinal 
canal, indicate an animal phytophagous in habit, or if zoopha- 
gous, living upon fragile organisms, or those partly decomposed. 

I. Pleurotominse. 
Genus PLEUROTOMA, Lam. 

Typical. 
Pictse. Shell brown-spotted on the revolving ribs. 

A. With long, straight canal. 
P. BABYLONIA, Linn. PI. 1, figs, a-c, 1, 2 ; PI. 2, fig. 4. 

Shell with somewhat angular whorls, caused by the greater 
prominence of one of the revolving ribs ; sculpture large revolv- 
ing ribs, with intermediate raised lines ; whitish, with large dark 
brown or nearly black spots upon the ribs. L. 85, diam. 23 mill. 
Philippines, Moluccas, Neiv Guinea, Timor, Mauritius. 
In P. spectabilis, Reeve (fig. 2), the canal is shorter, as is also 
the lip-sinus, and the shell is more or less distinctly fasciate with 
orange-brown, next the sutures, and also upon the lower part of 
the body-whorl. The specimens before me indicate a transition 
from this to the typical form, so that spectabilis can scarcely 
claim varietal rank. P. venusta, Reeve (PI. 2, fig. 4), described 



TLEUROTOMA. 163 

from a unique specimen in the Cumingian collection, from the 
Philippines, is also a synonym. 

P. GARNONSII, Reeve. PL 2, fig. 5. 

Shell narrower than the preceding species, with narrower and 
sharper revolving ribs ; above the sinus these are mostly replaced 
by several revolving raised lines ; whitish or yellowish white, 
with small brown spots on the principal ribs, larger oblique 
brown patches below the sutures, and on the body-whorl near 
the top of the canal the latter are frequently confluent into 
a broad, more or less interrupted band. L. 3 inches, diam. '8 inch. 
Red Sea, East Africa, Mauritius, Java. 

P. babylonia, var. of Kiener = this species. 

P. RAFFRAYI, Tapparone-Canefri. P1..1, fig. 3. 

Shell spotted at the sutures, otherwise ornamented with longi- 
tudinal brown flammules. L. 70, diam. 18 mill. 

New Guinea. 

The spots on the ribs have, in this form, coalesced into longi- 
tudinal stripes. One of my specimens of P. Garnonsii exhibits a 
tendency towards this ornamentation, and I do not think that 
the present species has much claim to recognition. 

P. GRANDIS, Gray. PI. 1, figs." 6, 7. 

Whorls not much angulated, with sculpture of many rather 
small sharp revolving ribs and intermediate raised lines ; 
yellowish white, numerously spotted with chestnut-brown upon 
the larger ribs, the spots often coalescing into irregular longi- 
tudinal stripes. L. 6 inches, diam. 28 mill. 

China Sea, Viti Islands. 

P. crispa, Lam. (fig. 6), can only be considered a j^ounger 
state of this species, and, of course, has priority of description ; 
but Gray's name is so appropriate to the largest species of the 
genus, and is so well-known, that it had better remain undis- 
turbed. 

P. PICTA, Beck. PI. 2, fig. 19 ; PI. 1, fig. 8. 

Shell somewhat more carinated than P. grandis, with less 
numerous ribs, more sparingly painted with brown spots. 
L. 93, diam. 20 mill. 

West Coast of Central America, Gulf of California. 



164 PLEUROTOMA. 

The dimensions are taken from P. Bomber gi, Morch (fig. 8), 
which is merely a larger example of P. picta. 

P. TIQRINA, Lamarck. PL 2, fig. 10. 

Shell with sharply carinated whorls, the carina consisting of 
a pair of narrow ribs; whole surface with close, raised revolving 
lines, of which two or three below the carina are more prominent ; 
whitish, minutely numerously brown-spotted, with usually a row 
of larger spots below the suture. L. 65, diam. 20 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming), Viti Islands (Garrett). 

P. JIOKELII, Weinkauff. PL 2, fig. 11. 

Shell less carinated, with more rounded revolving ribs than 
the preceding species, with large spots at the sutures and smaller 
ones elsewhere, coalescing into longitudinal streaks. 

L. 53, diam. 13 mill. 

Red Sea. 

A species having no strongly marked characters, and perhaps 
only a variety of P. Garnonsii, between which and P. tigrina it 
appears to form a connecting link in its general appearance 
although there are minor points of difference from both of them. 

P. PICTURATA, Weinkauff. PL 2, fig. 12. 

Shell bluntly carinated by a pair of approximated revolving 
ribs, with numerous smaller but unequal ribs ; white, with chestnut 
spots, sometimes coalescing into longitudinal stripes, and a row 
of larger spots at the suture ; the canal is much shorter than in 
any of the preceding species. L. 43, diam. 12-14 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 

Confounded by Reeve with P. variegata, Kiener. 

P. VARIEGATA, Kiener. PL 2, fig. 13. 

Shell scarcely carinated by a single revolving rib, above and 
below which are two revolving threads, and then covering the 
balance of the body-whorl, alternate small ribs and threads, the 
former spotted with chestnut-brown ; canal rather wide, and of 
moderate length. L. 82, diam. 22 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Japan. 

Not so sharply keeled, with shorter, wider canal, and wanting 
the duplicated keel-rib of P. tigrina ; the want of duplication in 



PLEUROTOMA. 165 

the keel-rib, and somewhat larger size and proportionally longer 
canal will distinguish it from the last species. 

P. ALBINA, Lamarck. PI. 2, fig. 14. 

Keel-rib flattened, bearing a row of equidistant, somewhat- 
quadrangular brown spots, the rest of the surface very minutely 
and numerously punctate with brown. L. 58, diam. 15 mill. 

Moluccas. 

The conspicuous painting on the slit-band, contrasted with 
the very minute sprinkling of brown dots elsewhere, is the 
distinguishing characteristic of this species. 

P. GRACILLIMA, Weinkauff. PL 2, fig. 15. 

Shell spirally ribbed, the second rib from the sutures crenu- 
lated,the third prominent; white, sparsely maculated with chest- 
nut. L. 36, diam. 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Distinguished by its narrow, graceful form, and crenulation. 

P. MARMORATA, Lamarck. PI. 2, figs. 16, 16 a, 17. 

Shell rather sharply carinate on the shoulder, encircled by 
narrow small, sharp ribs and intermediate raised lines; white, 
usually thickly maculated in a longitudinal manner with chestnut- 
brown, sometimes minutely punctate with chestnut. 

L. 75, diam. 21 mill. 

Eed Sea, Malacca, Japan, Australia, Polynesia. 

The usual appearance of this species is represented by fig. 16 ; 
occasionally it is spotted, and sometimes it is entirely devoid 
of coloring. P. hastula, Reeve (fig. 17), is the young of this 
species. 

P. PEASEANA, Bunker. PL 2, fig. 18. 

Shell carinate, with a pair of prominent ribs at the suture and 
other less prominent ribs and raised lines throughout ; yellowish, 
flammulate with brown. L. 25, diam. 7 mill. 

Indian Ocean. 

A young shell, which may possibly prove to be identical with 
P. Garnonsii, Reeve. 

P. TJNEDO, Valenciennes. PL 3, fig. 20. 

Shell angularly turreted, with concavely sloping shoulders 
defined by duplicate granular ribs, forming the angle ; every- 



166 PLEUROTOMA. 

where encircled by narrow elevated ribs and striae which are 
often granular or coarsely decussated by rugose growth-lines ; 
white, clouded and spotted with light chestnut. 
L. 66, diam. 23 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Japan. 
P. UNDOSA, Lamarck. PL 3, fig. 21. 

Spire long; convex; carinated, narrowly ribbed throughout, 
the ribs with intermediate raised lines ; canal short ; white, pro- 
fusely maculated longitudinally with chestnut ; aperture purple. 

L. 64, diam. 20 mill. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines. 

The long spire, short canal, profuse maculations and purple 
aperture are the principal features. 

P. GrUERiNii, Duval. Unidentified. Habitat unknown. 

P. LATERCULATA, Sowerby. Unfigured. China Seas. 

P. ALBULA, Hutton. Unfigured. New Zealand. 

B. With short canal. 
P. CINGULIFERA, Lamarck. PL 3, fig. 23. 

Shell rather narrow, with very long spire, and short canal, 
corded with larger and smaller riblets and raised lines, and very 
slightly angulated on each whorl b}" a somewhat larger rib, which 
is occasionally bipartite ; growth-striae sharp, sometimes decus- 
sating the smaller spiral lines ; whitish, very closely and finely 
peppered with chestnut, with chestnut spots on the shoulder-rib. 

L. 53, diam. 16 mill. 

Red Sea, Philippines, to Sandwich Islands. 

P. amicta, E. A. Smith, from the Sandwich Islands, differs 
apparently only in the coloring ; it is unfigured. 

P. ERYTHR^EA, Jickeli. PL 3, fig. 24. 

Revolving riblets more regular, flatter, and proportionally 
larger than in the preceding species, chestnut punctations larger 
and darker-colored, the line of spots on the second rib from the 
suture being particularly conspicuous ; base of aperture violet- 
tinted. L. 22, diam. 8 mill. 

Red Sea. 

Notwithstanding the above distinctive characters, I think this 
will prove to be a synonym of P. cingulifera. 



PLEUROTOMA. 167 

P. ABBREVIATA, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 25. 

Shell rather stout, with a prominent shoulder-keel, composed 
of two approximate ribs, and less prominent revolving ribs and 
lines below it, articulated with dark chestnut; above the keel 
concave, with a strong rounded sutural rib, marked by large dark 
chestnut spots. L. 33, diam. 12-15 mill. 

Red Sea, Mauritius, Philippines, Viti Islands. 

P. USTULATA, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 26. 

Shell short and stout, with channeled sutures and a carination 
composed of a pair of ribs, above and below which the surface is 
irregularly lirulate ; pale burnt-brown, with transverse chestnut 
spots, and darker spots on the keel. L. 32, diam. 13 mill. 

Mauritius. 
P. PHELIPINERI, Tenison-Woods. PL 34, fig. 82. 

Shell elongately fusiform, ovate, turreted, rather solid, shining, 
pale chestnut, at the suture dotted fulvous ; spire conical, a little 
longer than the aperture : whorls nine, convex, sloping, angular 
above and canaliculate, granular at the angle and sutures ; 
spirally lirate and very finely striate lengthwise ; lirae broad, 
rounded ; interstices furnished with two or three lirulse ; apex 
acute, nucleus smooth, rounded ; aperture widely ovate, labrum 
acute, sinus broad and deep, lip reflected, white, throat polished, 
canal short, scarcely recurved. The granules at the angle wide 
and numerous. L. 34, diam. 15 ; long, apert. 15, lat. 8 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Figured from a specimen kindly sent by Mr. C. E. Beddome. 

P. VIRGINEA, Valenciennes. PL 34, fig. 80. 

Shell short, with obtuse canal and spire, with strong revolving 
ribs ; whitish, maculated and spotted with chestnut. 

Length, 19 mill. Japan (Schrenck). 

Peculiar in its stumpy form : it is very different from Clava- 
tula virginea, Beck. 

Cingulatde. 

Shell usually brownish or horn-color, unspotted, with 
strong, sharp revolving ribs. 

A. With long canal. 
P. FAGINA, Ads. and Reeve. PL 3, fig. 22. 

Shell dark chestnut-brown, with close, equal revolving ribs and 
narrower equal grooves, aperture purple. Length, TO mill. 

12 China Sea. 



168 PLEUROTOMA. 

P. CRYPTORRAPHE, Sowb. PL 3, figs. 30, 31. 

Yellowish brown to chestnut-color, with two strong sharp 
keels, and smaller revolving lines, aperture frequently tinged 
with purple. L. 70, diam. 18 mill. Philippines, Moluccas. 

It is the PL bicarinatus of Wood, and P. Woodii of Kiener 
(fig. 31). P. elongata, Gray, is possibly the same. 

P. YIRGO, Lamarck. PI. 3, fig. 32 ; PI. 4, figs. 34, 35, 43. 

Shell ridged and striated, the central ridge forming a carina ; 
usually glossy white, but when covered by its epidermis corneous. 

L. 100, diam. 28 mill. West Indies. 

The above measurement is from an unusual!} 7 large specimen 
before me. PL Antillarum, Crosse (fig. 34), and P. Jelskii, 
Crosse (fig. 35), are younger examples of the same species, the 
slight variations shown by the figures being connected with the 
type form by the series of specimens before me. P. Gruneri, 
Phil. (fig. 43), may also be referred here. 

P. INDICA, Deshayes. PI. 6, figs. 82, 80. 

Shell very like the preceding species, but less distinctly ridged, 
the shoulder-angle being very slight, and the other revolving 
ridges very much smaller and closer; 3' r ellowish brown, some- 
times indistinctly marbled or variegated. L. 80, diam. 22 mill. 

' China. 

With this species I am compelled to unite P. Deshayesii, 
Doumet (fig. 80 J, as I cannot find any good distinctive characters ; 
the carinations being merely a little less prominent in the latter. 

Reeve identifies with P. Deshayesii, P. elongata, Gray, a shell 
described, but not figured, in the Voy. of the Blossom. I can- 
not agree to this, as the description indicates a shell similar to 
P. cryptorraphe , Sowb. 

P. OXYTROPIS, Sowb. PL 4, figs. 38, 39, 37. 

Shell horn-colored, with several sharp keels and numerous 
spiral raised lines, the upper keel the strongest, angulating the 
whorls, the surface concave above it. L. 45, diam. 16 mill. 

Panama (to Gulf of California], Japan, China. 

P. nobilis, Hinds (fig. 39), and probably the unfigured P. albi- 
carinata, Sowb., are synonyms. The keels are lighter-colored 
or nearly white on the top, because denuded of epidermis by 



PLEUROTOMA. 169 

rubbing. P. leucotropis, Adams and Reeve (fig. 37), has no dis- 
tinctive characters except its different distribution, and may also 
be united with this species. Sowerby reports it from Mauritius, 
and its occurrence in tho China Sea is well-established ; on tUe 
other hand the west coast of America localities of P. oxytropis 
need confirmation. 

P. FASCTALIS, Lamarck. PI. 4, fig. 40, 45. 

Shell concavety shouldered, forming a somewhat baby Ionic 
spire, sharply ridged throughout, the two ridges forming the 
shoulder more prominent ; yellowish to brownish, the ridges 
dark chestnut. L. 50, diam. 18 mill. 

Philippines; Red Sea (Issel). 

P. brevicaudata, Reeve (fig. 45), appears to me to be a juvenile 
of this species. 

P. P^TELIANA, Weinkauff. PL 13, fig. 58. 

Whorls ten, slightly excavated above, girdled by prominent 
lira? ; light violet brown, bilineated with white ; aperture purple- 
brown. Length, 30 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
P. LIRATA, Pease. 

Shell fusiform, turreted, keeled all over, keels nearly of the 
same size, and almost equidistant, the keel on the middle of the 
whorls slightly the largest, the intermediate superfices concave, 
interstices between the keels finely striate longitudinally ; sinus 
deep; canal short; white, keels spotted with reddish brown. 

L. 35, diam. 12 mill. Isl. Oahu. 

Is possibly identical with P. Paeteliana, but differs in having 
the keels spotted. I have not seen it, and no figure has been 
published. The specific name is preoccupied. 

B. With short canal. 
P. VIOLACEA, Hinds. PL 4, fig. 42 ; PL 3, figs. 29, 29 a. 

Shell multicarinate, the interstices longitudinally striate ; pale 
violaceous or whitish, sometimes indistinctly fasciated with a 
darker color above ; columella one- or two-plaited ; outer lip 
acute, crenulated, with a slight sinus. L. 24, diani. f mill. 
Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Japan, Philippines, 

New Guinea, New Zealand, Australia. 



170 PLEUROTOMA. 

C. B. Adams changed the name of this species to fieevei 
because he had previously described a shell under the name of 
violacea, but as the latter is a Bela, Hinds' name ma}' stand. 
P. vertebrata, E. A. Smith (figs. 29, 29 a), is probably synony- 
mous. 

P. DECLIVIS, Martens. PL 4, fig. 41. 

Shell multicarinate, the carinae stronger and fewer than in the 
preceding species ; canal somewhat more produced and narrowed ; 
sinus shallow ; columella not plicate ; color light reddish fulvous. 

L. 33, diam. 11 mill. 

Japan. 
P. FILOSA, Marrat. 

Shell acuminately turreted ; whorls convex, with numerous 
prominent revolving carinae, the interstices narrow, obliquely 
longitudinally striated; white, the apex tinged with fuscous; 
canal very short ; sinus ample. (No dimensions.) 

W. Africa. 

A white shell, corded with transverse, thread-like bands. The 
Pl.violacea, Hinds, Pl.crispata, Crist, et Jan., and several others 
are similarly corded and closely allied shells. 

The above is an unfigured species, which I have not seen. 

P. RETUSISPIBATA, E. A. Smith. 

An unfigured species, L. 7'75, diam. 2'5 mill. Habitat unknown ; 
it is said to have for its nearest relative "P. violacea, Hinds, 
from which it differs in form somewhat ; the apex is blunter, and 
there is but a single nodose liration around the middle of each 
whorl, whereas Hinds' species possesses two." Columella with 
two minute plications. 

P. COGNATA, E. A. Smith. 

Unfigured. L. 24, diam. 7 mill. Australia. Differs from P. 
violacea, to which it is closely related in color (being luteous 
white, purple-tinged towards the apex, the carinae white), in the 
number of carinae, twelve, and more produced spire. " It is still 
more nearly allied to P. vallata, Gould, from which it differs only 
in size and the presence of only one plication on the columella, 
whereas P. vallata possesses two. It may be merely the adult 
of the latter species." 



PLEUROTOMA. 171 

P. SPIRALIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 4, fig. 44. 

Shell fusiform, pallid brown, cingulated with carinae, of wMeh 
there are about twelve on the body-whorl, subequal, interstices 
obliquely striate ; aperture narrow, collumella blackish brown ; 
canal very short ; outer Up thin, with a large sinus. 

L. 11, diam. 3 mill. 

WhydaJi, W. Africa. 

" This species belongs to the same group as P. violacea, 
Hinds." Does it differ from the West African P. filosa of the 
same author ? 

P. VALLATA, Gould. 

Shell small, lanceolate, lurid, with ten shouldered and carinate 
whorls, with elevated revolving lines of which there are ten or 
twelve on the body-whorl ; aperture one-third the total length 
of the shell, narrow ; outer lip with a profound, wide sinus ; 
columella smooth. L. 9, diain. 3 mill. 

Near Hong Kong, 10 fathoms, shelly mud (Stimpson). 

Unfigured. Said to be allied to P. violacea, and described as 
a Drillia. 

P. RECIPROCA, Gould. 

Shell small, lanceolate, with ten slightly convex whorls bear- 
ing revolving carinae, of which there are 4-5 on the spire-whorls, 
and 10-12 on the body-whorl; middle carina stronger, inter- 
spaces clathrate ; aperture one-fourth the total length, the sinus 
broad and deep ; the canal short, wide and twisted. 

L. 12, diam. 4 mill. 

Ousima (Stimpson). 

Much like the preceding ; but the color and relative size of 
carinae are different. Unfigured, and unseen by me. 

P. JUBATA, Hinds. PL 4, fig. 46. 

Whorls with several keels, of which the middle one is the 
largest, with a beaded row of granules immediately over it ; 
yellowish brown. L. 25, diam. 11 mill. 

Malacca, China, Australia. 

P.acutigemmata, 1 ^. A. Smith, is an unfigured species, locality 
unknown. The describer says : " It is with considerable hesita- 
tion that I apply a name to this form, on account of its close 



172 PLEUROTOMA. 

relationship with jubata, Hinds. The chief differences are the 
narrower form, larger tubercles and shorter canal." As jubata 
is known to vary considerably in the above characters, acuti- 
gemmata had better be considered a synonym. 

P. EMENDATA, Monterosato. PL 4, fig. 47. 

Shell brown, the spire-whorls with three cingulae and two liraa, 
the last whorl spirally multicingulate and longitudinally lirulate ; 
suture slightly but distinctly incised; aperture white within, 
canal short and wide, sinus wide, between the first and second 
carina. L. 9, diam. 3 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea; Bay of Biscay, at great depths. 

Mr. Jeffreys says this species inhabits the Japanese Seas ; if 
so, some of the foregoing species will probably refer to it. 
Described and figured by Philippi as P. Renieri, Scacchi an 
erroneous identification and name changed by Monterosato, as 
above. 

P. NIPONICA, E. A. Smith. PI. 3, fig. 27. 

Shell light brown, whorls six and a-half, the nucleus large, 
globose, glassy, whorls strongly keeled, and concave above, 
with two or three fine spiral lirae ; also concave below the carina, 
and encircled on the bod3 T -whorl by about ten lirae, becoming 
finer towards the base, the interstices crossed by elevated, 
oblique growth-striae ; slit in the concavity above the principal 
carination ; columella a little prominent in the middle and 
oblique below ; canal short, scarcely recurved. 

L. 7, diam. 2'5 mill. 

Japan. 

The oblique incremental striae are flexuous and turned to the 
right above the carina, and straight, inclined to the left below it. 

P. TRIPORCATA, E. A. Smith. PL 3, fig. 28. 

Shell pale brown or luteons, the nuclear whorl globular, glassy, 
the rest encircled by distinct keels, of which there are three on 
those of the spire, more numerous on the body-whorl; the inter- 
stices each latticed by three or four revolving lines and incre- 
mental striae ; notch deep and wide, above the principal keel. 

L. 14, diam. 4*5 mill. 

Japan. 



GEMMULA. 173 

P. DIFFICILIS, Smith. PL 32, fig. 16. 

About ten rather coarse spiral line on the last whorl^ the 
sinus above the submedian liration; brownish horn-color. 
Length, 7 mill. 

Japan. 
Subgenus GEMMULA, Weinkauff. 

P. SPECIOSA, Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 48. 

Shell crenulately carinate or ribbed, the principal carina, 
forming the angle of the whorls, corded, with a sloping shoulder 
above it ; yellowish white, the ribs ochraceous. 

L. 47, diam. 18 mill. 

China. 
P. CARINATA, Gray. PI. 4, fig. 49. 

Shell closety encircled by sharp ribs and intermediate striae, 
the slit-band a pair of beaded ribs ; suture channeled ; yellowish 
white, chestnut-spotted on the ribs ; fissure wide and deep. 

L. 65, diam. 20 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

P. Kieneri. Doumet, is a S3monym. 

P. GR^FFEI, Weinkauff. PL 4, fig. 50. 

Shell brownish, crenulately carinate or cingulate, the ribs 
lighter-colored, the median carina stronger, with larger crenula- 
tions ; aperture plicate within. L. 20, diam. 6 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
Doubtfully distinct from the next species. 

P. GEMMATA, Hinds. PL 4, figs. 51, 54. 

Shell more slender than the preceding species, with a more 
prominent noduled keel, and spiral lirulse ; yellowish brown, 
the keel usually white, sometimes indistinctly brown-banded 
above and below it. L. 26, diam. 7'5 mill. 

Eed Sea, Japan, Australia (Brazier), 

Viti Islands (Garrett). 

Hinds' locality, Magdalena Bay, Lower California, has not 
been confirmed. P. monilifera, Pease (fig. 52), is perhaps 
somewhat stouter, with shorter spire and canal in the examples 
figured by Weinkauff, but from those before me I am convinced 
that it passes into the typical gemmata. 

P. fusca, Hombron et Jacq. (fig. 53), although figured as of a 



GENOTIA. 



uniform dark chestnut-color, is nevertheless so close in form 
and sculpturing that I think it belongs here ; the Japanese shells 
with light-colored keel referred to fusca by Mr. E. A. Smith are 
certainly identical with P. gemmata. P. amabilis. Jickeli (fig. 54), 
from the Red Sea has a sharper carina than the typical gemmata, 
and may possibly rank as a variety. 

P. ARMILLATA, Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 55. 

Shell pyramidally ovate, somewhat fusiform, whorls keeled, the 
middle keel transversely beaded ; sinus large and deep ; yellowish 
white, brown-banded above the keel. L. 19, diam. 8 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming), Australia (Brazier). 

A stouter, shorter species than P. gemmata, with the tubercles 
transverse instead of longitudinal. 



Unfigured and Unidentified Species of Pleurotoma. 

( The subgeneric group not ascertained.) 
P. GRACILLIMA, Carpenter. Bay of Panama. 

Described from a single specimen, '83 in. long, in the Cuming 
collection. Weinkauff has subsequently used the same specific 
name (p. 165). 
P. CANDIDA, Jonas. H. and A. Adams' Genera, i, 88. 



P. SANCTI-JOANNIS, E. A. Smith. 
P. NELLIE, E. A. Smith. 
P. CEYLONICA, E. A. Smith. 
P. ALBOFASCIATA, E. A. Smith. 
P. MULTISERIATA, E. A. Smith. 

P. ANTIPODUM, E. A. Smith. 



Japan. 

Mauritius. 

Ceylon. 

Sandwich Islands. 
Ceylon, Persian Gulf, 

China Sea. 
New Zealand. 



Genus GENOTIA, H. and A. Adams. 
G. MITR^FORMIS, Wood. PI. 7, figs. 1, 2, 2 a. 

Periphery noduled, above it the shoulder is sloping, slightly 
concave, with revolving lines, lightly marked ; below the periphery 
decussated by close revolving and somewhat curved growth- 
lines ; yellowish or orange-brown. L. 42, diam. 13 mill. 

W. Africa. 



COLUMBARIUM. 175 

Var. PAPALIS, Reeve. Figs. 2, 2 a. 

Shoulder somewhat flatter, nodules more distinct, as are_the 
longitudinal lines or folds, the revolving sculpture scarcely de- 
cussating them and sometimes obsolete ; sometimes indistinctly 

banded. L. 47, diam. 16 mill. 

W. Africa. 

This is merely a more rugged larger growth of G. Mitree- 
formis, and its best claim to a separate name is that it has borne 
one for forty years. 

G. LUHDORFI, Lischke. PL 7, fig. 100. 

Shell yellowish brown ; shoulder concavely flattened, with a 
crenulated margin next the suture, and a tuberculate periphery ; 
surface with spiral, white, distant sulci, and incremental striae ; 

aperture white. L. 71, diam. 26 mill. 

Japan. 

The white revolving sulci on the brownish surface are very 
distinctive in this species. 



G. MITRELLA, Dall. Yucatan Strait, 640 fms. 

G. DIDIMA, Watson. St. Thomas, W. L, 450 fms. 

G. ENGONIA, Watson. Off Inosima, Japan. 

G. ATRACTOIDES, Watson. Philippines. 

The above are all unfigured species, described as Genotiae. 

Genus COLUMBARITJM^v'on Martens. 1 % $ 

Shell fusiform, with the short body-whorl, and long, straight, 
narrow, nearly closed canal of the typical Fusus ; no sinus, 
except a very slight curve of the margin of the shoulder. Teeth 
toxoglossate. 

I feel pretty well satisfied, notwithstanding Schacko's discovery 
of toxoglossate dentition in this group, that I was correct in 
placing the typical species in Fusus ; nevertheless I introduce it 
again here, partly in order to dispose of a form described by von 
Martens and which was published since the issue of the third 
volume of the " Manual." 

C. PAGODA, Lesson. Manual, vol. iii, p. 51, t. 32, f. 86. This 

volume, PI. 7, figs. 98, 97, 99. 

Fusus Japonicus, Gray, Fusus diadema (Lesson), Sowerby 
(PI. 7, fig. 98), and Pleurotoma cedo-nulli, Reeve (fig. 97), are 



176 ANCISTROSYRTNX, DRILLIA. 

synonyms. The latter is probably erroneously assigned to 
Panama, on Cuming's authority ; it is evidently a young shell, and 
that Reeve should have placed it in Pleurotoma is suggestive. 

Japan. 
Yar. SPINICINCTA, von Martens. Fig. 99. 

Chestnut-brown, surface rougher, whorls 9, instead of 7-8, 
spines longer, more numerous, with oblique rows of short spines 
upon the canal. L. 67, diam. (without the spines) 14*5 mill. 

W. Australia. 

Genus ANCISTROSYRINX, Dall, 1881. 

Shell with the posterior surface of the whorls concave, with 
a broad deep sinus, bordered externally by a pectinated elevated 
frill, directed backwards. 

A. ELEGANS, Dall. 

Shell with the canal about the same length as the spire, acutely 
tapering before and behind ; white ; whorls nine, of which two 
are embryonic ; aperture very long and narrow ; anterior surface 
of the whorls everywhere sculptured with even uniform spiral 
rows of rounded nodules beautifully reticulated by the lines of 
growth ; one row about the middle of the whorl slightly elevated 
above the others ; carina fringed with delicate triangular points ; 
posterior surface of the whorls, except for lines of growth, 
smooth, with one row of nodules just inside the carina; canal 
straight, columella not thickened, but somewhat twisted anteri- 
orly, outer lip sharply angulated by the carina. 

L. 27 mill., of which 12 mill, are behind the carinal notch ; 
max. width, 12 mill. ; width of aperture, 4 mill. Defl. 45. 

Florida Reefs (Pourtales) ; off Havana (Agassiz). 

Unfigured. 

Genus DRILLIA, Gray. 

Section BRACHYSTOMA, Swain son. 

A. Alatae. 

^ 

D. STROMBOIDES, Sowerby. PI. 10, fig. 58. 

Shell with a sutural band, and oblique longitudinal ribs below 
the periphery, sculptured by revolving lines, which are some- 
what granular towards the base of the body-whorl ; aperture 



DRILLIA, 177 

somewhat winged ; light yellowish brown, sometimes with a pale 
band. L. 26, ; diam. 9'5 mill. 

Bay of Panama ; five fathoms mud (Cuming). 

D. CASTANEA, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 18 ; PL 34, fig. 87. 

Chestnut-brown ; longitudinally plicate, crossed by revolving 
lines ; outer lip somewhat winged. L. 17, diam. 8 mill. 

Moluccas (WeinkaufF). 

Reeve's figure (fig. 18) is of a specimen not adult ; I add one 
from Weinkauff (fig. 87), which scarcely looks like the same 
species. 

D. BICANALIFERA, Sowb. PI. 12, fig. 27. 

Shell with whorls concave and smooth above the periphery, 
which is angulated, longitudinally ribbed below, ribs small, 
granular, crossed by revolving striae; lip somewhat winged, with 
a broad, rounded posterior sinus and a small anterior one ; light 
yellowish brown. Length, 20 mill. 

Bay of Monti j a, W. Coast of Central America (Cuming). 

D. FLAVIDULA, Lam. PL 10, figs. 56, 57. 

Rather thin, turreted, longitudinally obliquely ribbed, crossed 
by revolving lines ; yellowish white to brown, the lighter-colored 
specimens sometimes indistinctly broadly fasciated with brown. 

L. 65, diam. 20 mill. 

Red Sea, China, Japan. 

D. zonata, Gray (fig. 57), is a synonym. 

D. JEFFREYSII, E. A. Smith. 

Subturreted ; whorls thirteen, concave above, convex below, 
with oblique ribs and revolving lines ; luteous, with maculations 
and dots of purplish brown. L. 37, diam. 11 mill. 

Japan. 

Allied to D. flavidula, but has a shorter aperture, broader 
canal, and distinct spiral striation upon the concave upper por- 
tion of the whorls. Unfigured. 

D. LATISINUATA, E. A. Smith. 

Shell fusiform and turreted ; whorls twelve, excavated above, 
carinated and angulated in the middle, below the angle obliquely 
plicated ; yellowish brown, with white revolving lirse ; canal 
moderately long, slightly curved. L. 50, diam. 35 mill. China. 



178 DRILL! A. 

Allied to D.flavidula, Lam. Upper half of each whorl nearly 
smooth, as the plications extend scarcely beyond the central 
large spiral liration which marks the angulation of the whorls. 
Sometimes, this lira being double, the whorls are less acutely 
angular. Unfigured. 

D. STOLIDA, Hinds. PI. 10, fig. 61. 

Fusiform, smooth, olive- or horn-brown; whorls depressed 
above the periphery, below it with short, whitish tubercular 
ribs ; lip sharp, with broad sinus. L. 41, diam, 15 mill. 

Ayulhas Bank, Cape of Good Hope. 

D. CRENULARIS, Lamarck. PL 10, figs. 64, 63, 66, 69 ; PL 32, 
fig. 38. 

Abbreviately fusiform, upper portion of whorls slightly con- 
cave, periphery with the terminations of somewhat distant 
rounded ribs, separated by about equal interspaces, marked 
below the periphery by revolving lines, and intermediate fine 
striae ; canal very short ; yellowish brown, with sometimes an 
obscure chestnut superior band, occasionally maculated with 
chestnut. L. 40, diam. 14 mill. 

Tranquebar, Bombay, Singapore, Australia. 

Reeve's figure (fig. 64) is not very characteristic, being taken 
from a very narrow, worn specimen ; his D. Tayloriana (fig. 69) 
is a better representative of this narrow form. The typical 
crenularis is well represented by Weinkauff (fig. 38), and with 
it may be united D. Sumatrensis, Petit (fig. 63), and D. Griffithii, 
Gray (fig. 66). 

The species of this group are not readily distinguishable ; the 
last-named form, for example, connecting closely with D. Strom- 
boides, Sowb. 

D. MAJOR, Gray. PL 9, fig. 52. 

Somewhat fusiform, dark brown, transversely marked with 
white lines ; whorls nodulated in the middle, nodules white ; 
aperture oblong, canal a little recurved. L. 43, diam. 19 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The figure indicates a species very distinct in form and 
coloring, yet Reeve says of it : " Very closely allied to the PL 
Griffithii ; indeed some authors would account ft to be a variety 
of that species." Weinkauff makes it a synonym of D. flavidula. 



DRILLIA. 179 

D. GIBBOSA, Born. PI. 9, fig. 54. 

Yellowish white or brownish, usually interruptedly broad-_ 
banded above and below the middle of the last whorl ; spire 
turreted, the whorls with a sutural cord, and smooth, slightly 
concave shoulder, the periphery nodulous with the terminations 
of oblique, longitudinal ribs, which are crossed by strong 
revolving lines ; labium with a very strong projecting superior 
callus ; outer lip winged, with a second small sinus indicated 
towards the base. L. 60, diam. 20 mill. West Indies. 

Allied to D. flavidula, but heavier, with shorter canal, and 
usually differently colored in having the pair of more or less 
interrupted, and mostly faint-colored bands. 

D. ALABASTER, Reeve. PI. 11, fig. 78. 

Shell turreted, snowy white, sometimes faintly rose-tinged; 
longitudinally ribbed, with very fine revolving grooves and 
striae ; somewhat depressed next the suture ; sinus broad. 

Length, 30 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Darnley 7., Australia (Brazier). 

The sculpture is exceedingly delicate, the cross-grooves 
looking as if they had been graved with an etching point. 

D. UMBILTCATA, Gray. PI. 11, figs. 82, 91 ; PI. 8, fig. 24 ; PI. 30, 
fig. 78. 

Shell light yellowish brown or yellowish white ; with promi- 
nent, distant ribs, forming a strongly tuberculate shoulder, and 
revolving striae ; sinus produced upwards ; inner lip thickened 
below, forming with the axis a false umbilicus. 

Length, 1*2 inches. 

Sierra Leone (Gray) ; West Indies (Swift). 

Z). Dunkeri, Weinkauff (PI. 8, fig. 24 , is an immature example 
of this species. D. Saulcydiana, Recluz (fig. 91), varies a little 
in sometimes possessing a broad indistinct central band of light 
chestnut ; the shells are adult, although not so large as the type. 
Of its identity with D. umbilicata there can be no question. 

D. ROSACEA, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 51. 

Longitudinally closely ribbed, with fine revolving striae, con- 
cave and smooth above the periphery ; canal very short, sinus 
broad and large ; rose-colored throughout. Length, 20 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa (Maltzan). 



180 DRTLLIA. 

D. CAGAYANENSIS, Reeve. PI. 11, fig. 79. 

Spire acuminated, whorls strongly angulated at the periphery, 
ribbed below, the ribs crossed by revolving striae, forming low 
tubercles ; sinus wide, ascending ; white. Length, 18 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming). 

Is very probably identical with D. alabaster, Reeve. 

D. VARIABILIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 11, figs. 81, 92. 

Yellowish brown, sometimes irregularly maculated with 
chestnut, with chestnut spots on a narrow band below the 
suture; spire long, turreted ; slightly umbilic.ated ; sinus large, 
ascending. Length, 1*25 inches. Andaman Islands. 

The spire is longer and the color different from D. alabaster, 
Reeve, but it is very likely a variety of that species. 

D. ROBUSTA, Hinds. PL 11, fig. 10. 

Whorls strongly turreted, the spire exserted, periphery angu- 
lated and nodulous, with fine revolving striae ; sinus large, pro- 
duced ; yellowish white. Length, 15 'inch. 

Hong Kong, China, sandy mud, 4-7 fms. (Hinds). 

D. SINUOSA, Gray. PI. 13, fig. 45. 

Shell solid, turreted, with a few prominent longitudinal ribs 
terminating at the periphery, crossed by close, strong striae ; 
aperture broadly cut out below, with up proper canal ; sinus 
large, ascending. White, or brownish with white ribs, or whitish 
indistinctly maculated or centrally banded with light brown. 

Length, -75 inch. Habitat unknown. 

D. UNIMACTJLATA, Sowb. PL 10, fig. 59. 

Shell less solid than D. gibbosa, without sutural band or spiral 
striae, the knobs on the periphery rather short, instead of 
terminating ribs as in D. gibbosa; yellowish brown, spotted with 
chestnut, one large spot on the back of the body-whorl. 

L. 38, diam. 13 mill. Panama. 

Yer} r doubtfully admitted as a distinct species from D. gibbosa. 

D. SOWERBYI, Reeve. PL 10, fig. 67. 

Turreted, with a nodulous sutural band and nodulous periphery, 
the latter terminating longitudinal oblique ribs, which are sharply 
decussated by revolving sculpture ; chestnut-brown. 

L. 44, diam. 14 mill. China ? 



DRILLIA. 181 

This is possibly only a dark-colored, strongly sculptured D. 
gibbosa. It is P. turricula, Sowb., not Montagu, and P. cor^ 
rugataj Sowb., not Kiener. 

D. MAURA, Sowerby. PL 10, fig. 70 ; PL 32, fig 43. 

Shell dark chocolate-color, with oblique longitudinal ribs ; 
nodulous at the crossing of raised revolving lines. 

L. 48, diam. 13 mill. 

West Columbia (Cuming). 

D duplicata, Weinkauff (not Sowerby) (PL 32, fig. 43), is a 
synonym. 

D. MiLiTARis, Hinds. PL 10, fig. 74. 

Acuminately turreted, yellowish white, sometimes stained with 
brown ; whorls decussated with nodulous longitudinal ridges, 
and spiral striae ; upper part of the whorls concave, edged with 
a slightly nodulous keel. L. 43, diam. 12 mill. 

Veragua, W. Coast of America. 

I am not acquainted with this species, but think it probable 
that it is only a light-colored variety of the preceding one. 

D. LANCEOLATA, Reeve. PL 10, fig. 65 ; PL 32, fig. 44. 

Shell orange-brown, the tubercles lighter-colored ; spiral 
striae stronger towards the base of the body-whorl. 

Length, 53 mill. 

Japan. 

Reeve's figure being from a poor and broken specimen, I add 
a much finer one from von Martens (fig. 44). It may be distin- 
guished from its allies mainly by the narrower form. 

D. INTERRUPTA, Lamarck. PL 10, figs. 68, 76. 

Sharply turreted, longitudinally ribbed and spirally striated ; 
yellowish brown, the ribs reddish brown. Length, 30 mill. 

Japan. 

D. seminifera, Gould (fig. 76), is a synonym. 

D. DALLI, Yerrill and Smith. PL 13, fig. 61. 

Color brown of various tints, often deep brown, with one or 
two spiral bands of yellowish brown, and with streaks of light 
brown, or the ribs may be pale yellowish brown, aperture brown 
within, columella whitish in front ; notch deep a little below the 



182 DRILL! A. 

suture, usually constricted or almost closed at the edge of the 
lip, but broadly rounded at the extremity. Length, 19'5 mill. 
Martha's Vineyard, 94 to 146 fms. ; 

off Delaware Bay, 104 fms. 

Animal and operculum not observed ; the generic position is 
therefore very uncertain. It is described simply as a Pleu- 
rotoma. 



Un figured Species. 
D. PYRBH A, Watson. (Related to lanceolata, but more stumpy.) 

Japan. 
D. STERRHA, Watson. N. Australia. 

B. Pusionellseformes. 

These shells are very like Pusionella in form, but differ in the 
surface and in possessing the normal operculum of Pleurotoma ; 
they differ also from the typical Drillise in wanting the callus 
deposit on the upper portion of the labium. Any one who is 
fond of minute divisions of the genera has here a chance to 
distinguish himself by instituting a new subgenus. 

D. INERMIS, Hinds. PI. 12, figs. 43, 40 ; PL 32, fig. 42. 

Pinkish ash-colored under a light olivaceous epidermis, the 

lines of growth, which are sometimes rib-like, oblique and angu- 

lated at the periphery and lighter-colored, so that the interspaces 

appear like angulated lines of chestnut or reddish narrow stripes ; 

N whole surface covered by close revolving incised lines. 

L. 38, diam. 13 mill. 

Southern California, L. California. 

D. penicillata, Carpenter (fig. 40), described from beach-worn 
specimens, ha\ing the same general form as the above, as well 
as its peculiar coloring, was supposed to differ principally in 
having stronger and fewer plications. I can find no good char- 
acters by which to distinguish it. The shell which Weinkauff 
figures for D. inermis is not that species. 

D. INCISA, Carpenter. PL 12, fig. 41. 

Shell in general form like the preceding species, but smaller, 
the whorls somewhat more rounded ; cinereous, with reddish 
chestnut revolving lines. L. 1-13, diam. -4 in. Puget's Sound. 



DRILLIA. 183 

D. CANCELLATA, Carpenter. 

Shell like a young incisa in form, the spire decorticated, four" 
planate whorls remaining, suture distinct, with about twenty 
small longitudinal ribs crossed by close revolving striae, cancel- 
lating the surface, and sometimes the intersections subnodulous. 

Puget's Sound. 

Two specimens found. I an not acquainted with the species ; 
it has not been figured. 

D. EBURNEA, Carpenter. 

Shell turreted, pinkish white, rather thin, smooth, shining; 
spire decollated ; nine normal whorls remaining, planate above, 
appressed above the sutures and medianly concave, with here 
and there obsolete irregular longitudinal ribs, base prolonged, 
with a conspicuous, open canal. L. 1-3, diam. -45 mill. 

Near Gulf of California. 

Easily recognized by its smooth, glossy aspect and French- 
white color ; the notch lying along a broad spiral channel, which 
throws the junction of the whorl as it were up the suture. Un- 
figured and unknown to me. 

D. M(ESTA, Carpenter. PI. 12, fig. 38. 

Shell dark brown under an olivaceous epidermis, with about 
ten curved longitudinal ribs, obsoletely nodulous on the 
periphery, with the whorls usually slightly constricted above it, 
ribs generally obsolete on the body-whorl of adult specimens ; 
suture narrowly corded, noduled and spotted ; aperture choco- 
late within. L. 30, diam. 10 mill. 

Southern California, Lower California. 

D. TOROSA, Carpenter. PL 14, fig. 93. 

Whorls with angulated shoulder bearing nodulous termina- 
tions of about ten short oblique ribs, no spiral sculpture ; burnt- 
brown, under an olivaceous epidermis ; nodules whitish, aperture 
brown. L. -95, diam. '3 inch. 

Southern California. 
Yar. AURANTIA, Carpenter. 

Shell orange-colored, sometimes spirally striate. 
L. -6, diam. -28 inch. 
13 



184 DRILLIA. 

D. EROSA, Schrenck. PI. 12, fig. 39. 

Shell longitudinally ribbed and spirally striated, a narrow 
band at the suture brown, with sometimes a darker band at the 
suture and another at the base. L. 17, diam. 6 mill. 

Gulf of Tartary, Japan. 

D. IMP AGES, Adams and Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 73. 

Shell flexuously, narrowly ribbed or plicate, the plicae extend- 
ing to the suture, but not prominent ; yellowish brown. 

Length, 36 mill. 

China Sea. 

This species has not been recognized by any conchologist 
subsequent to its publication in the Voyage of the Samarang ; 
it is more like Clionella than any other of the group. 

D. NOV^E-ZELANDI^I, Reeve. PL 12, figs. 44, 42. 

Shell spirally sulcate and longitudinally striate, the suture 
slightly impressed, marginate and subcrenulate ; sinus rather 
broad and shallow ; rose-ash color, purple-rose within the aper- 
ture. Length, 1 inch. 

New Zealand. 

First described by Quoy under the name of rosea (fig. 42) 
preoccupied by Sowerby, changed by Deshayes to Quoyi, pre- 
occupied by Desmoulins. 

D. DIGNA, E. A. Smith. 

Shell ovately fusiform, bluish ash under a thin light olivaceous 
epidermis ; whorls nine, slightly convex, with 13-14 oblique 
longitudinal ribs, forming nodules on the periphery ; aperture 
brown, bifasciate with white, the lip thin, white-margined, with 
a small sinus ; columella callous towards the base ; canal rather 

short and wide. L. 26, diam. 9 mill. 

California. 

I am not acquainted with this species ; it is unfigured. 

D. MONTEREYENSIS, Stearns. PL 12, fig. 30. 

Shell similar in form to D. torosa, but smaller, the longitudinal 
nodules and short ribs number 14 to 15 on each whorl, with 
rather coarse inconspicuous revolving striae, there are also 
indistinct puckerings at the suture of the spire-whorls ; dark 



DRILLIA. 185 

brown, the ribs rubbed white ; canal short, sinus of outer lip 
moderate, rather broadly rounded. L. IT, diam. 6 mill. 

Monterey, Cal. 

Described from a single specimen. I have not seen it, but 
judging by the description and figure, it differs from D. torosa 
principally in the greater number of ribs. 

D. HEMPHILLI, Stearns. PL 13, fig. 49. 

Shell small, slender, polished, with a long spire and short 
aperture terminating in a short, broad, open canal ; horn-colored ; 
there are inconspicuous longitudinal ribs on the spire, which 
are obsolete on the body-whorl, and an impressed sutural line. 

L. 6*5, diam. 2*3 inches. 

Todos Santos Bay, L. California. 

Section CLAVUS, Montfort. 

Distinguished by the short, turreted form, broad base, appear- 
ing truncated below, tuberculated periphery and want of spiral 
sculpture. 

D. ECHINATA, Lam. PI. 9, fig. 31. 

Shell whitish, with chestnut longitudinal streaks, forming 
bands interrupted by the ribs, often chestnut-spotted between 
the tubercles. Length, 2 inches. W. Coast of Africa. 

D. AURICULIFERA, Lam. PL 8, fig. 25. 

Shell white, with a broad chestnut band below the periphery ; 
tuberculations of the periphery often long, spinose ; usually a 
revolving row of nodules below the middle of the body-whorl. 

Length, 1 inch. Philippines. 

According to Desires this is the Strombus lividus, Linn., but 
the identification remains doubtful. 

D. EXASPERATA, Reeve. PL 8, fig. 26. 

Shell resembling D. auriculifera in general form and coloring, 
but the tuberculations on the periphery are short and more 
numerous ; the shell is also usually heavier. Length, 21 mill. 

Mauritius (Robillard). 
D. UNIZONALIS, Lamarck. PL 9, figs. 38, 33, 34, 30 ; PL 32, fig. 48. 

Shell nodosely plicate, smooth, or with a few close revolving 
lines at the base ; whitish or yellowish white, the body-whorl 



186 DRILL! A. 

below the periphery chocolate, sometimes with a white band at 
the base ; interior chocolate, with an irregular white superior 
band. Length, 22 mill. 

Viti Islands, Philippines. 

The synonyms are D. vidualoides, Garrett (fig. 33), including 
the larger specimens, usually completely chocolate below the 
periphery; D. vidua, Reeve (= nigrozonata, Weink., fig. 34), 
in which there is an inferior row of very small tubercles, more 
or less apparent. D. vidua, Hinds (fig. 30), which Dr. Weinkauff 
considers a distinct species and refers to the Yoy. Sulphur, 60, 
t. 6, f. 6, for description and figure, is not to be found in that 
work, and does not differ from the vidua of Reeve. I am inclined 
to think P. Beckii of Weinkauff (PI. 32, fig. 48) belongs here, 
whatever may be said of the very obscure species figured by 
Reeve under that name. 

D. BECKII, Reeve. PL 9, fig. 40. 

Shell oblong, cylindrically attenuated, sharp at the apex ; six- 
angled, whorls longitudinally tuberculated at the angles ; the 
entire shell olive-brown except the tubercles, which are white ; 
columella and interior of the mouth brown ; canal very short. 

Length, 22 mill. 

J. Luzon, Philippines. 

If Reeve's figure of this shell is correct, Dr. Weinkauff 's iden- 
tification of it (see D. unizonalis, above) must be erroneous. 

D. PULCHELLA, Reeve. PL 9, figs. 28, 29. 

Pink, with a chestnut band below the periphery, and a chestnut 
line, interrupted by the tubercles. Length, 21 mill. 

Mauritius, Philippines, Cook's Islands. 

I think D. bilineata, Reeve (fig. 29), is identical; it appears 
to differ only in the tuberculations being less sharp and the 
color not so bright, with a brownish tinge. No locality is given 
for D.pulchella in the original description. 

D. UETA, Hinds. PL 9, fig. 32 ; PL 11, fig. 87. 

Shell smooth, polished ; whorls with a strongly tuberculated 
shoulder, the body-whorl with a second inferior row of small, 
sometimes obsolete tubercles; white, banded with brown, the 
band often more or less interrupted. Length, 9-17 mill. 

Sts. of Macassar, New Guinea, Viti Islands. 



DRILLIA. 1 87 

D. formosa, Reeve (PI. 11, fig. 87, double natural size), 
appears to be identical ; it comes from the Philippine Islands. 

D. HEXAGONA, Sowb. PI. 9, fig. 35. 

Shell sharply pyramidal, reddish brown, whorls hexagonal, 
very finely striated, ribbed-tuberculated, the ribs six on each 
whorl ; sinus broad. Length, 23 mill. 

Guacomayo, Central America (Cuming). 

Dr. WeinkaurT's figure of this species is not at all character- 
istic, and resembles D. Beckii, Reeve. 

D. POLYGONALIS, Weinkauff. PI. 9, fig. 45. 

Whorls nine, contracted above, convex on the middle, with 
longitudinal, curved nodulose ribs ; white, with a chestnut band ; 
canal very short, broadly emarginate at the base. 

Length, 14 mill. Zanzibar. 

Said to resemble closely D, unizonalis, but to be much'smaller 
and more slender, with more numerous whorls. 

D. ANGASI, Crosse. PL 9, figs. 37, 36, 

Shell brownish olivaceous, whorls about nine, the embryonal 
whorls smooth, the others with from seven to ten short longitu- 
dinal costse forming a tuberculated shoulder, surface often with 
minute revolving striae ; aperture chestnut-brown. 

Length, 11-13 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia; Tasmania. 

Having received this species from several collectors and con- 
chologists I find considerable variation in the number of ribs 
and in the proportions of the shell, some having a longer spire 
and narrower form even than the figure of D. Angasi, whilst 
others are short and stout, as in the form called by Crosse D. 
Beraudiana (fig. 36) ; sometimes there is a brown band below 
the middle of the body-whorl. 

D. MEDIOCRIS, Deshayes. PI. 9, fig. 41. 

Whorls eleven, nodosely plicate in the middle, the body-whorl 
with revolving striae towards the base ; flesh-brown, with a cen- 
tral interrupted narrow chestnut band, base broadty chestnut- 
banded. Length, 11 mill. 

Isl. of Bourbon. 

Described from a single specimen which I have not seen. 



188 DR1LLIA. 

D. EXIGUA, Hombr. et Jacq. PI. 9, fig. 39. 

Shell not adult, composed of seven whorls, brownish, with 
distant, large white tubercles on the periphery. Length, 10 mill. 

Torres Sts., Australia. 

Described from a single specimen. It may be a young shell 
of the stumpy form of D. Angasi, Orosse. 

D. VITTATA, Reeve. PI, 9, fig. 44. 

Whorls slightly concave above the periphery, which is tuber- 
culate, with two or three inferior rows of smaller tubercles ; 
yellowish white, with a chestnut band occupying the shoulder 
of the whorls. Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines (E. A. Smith). 

Mr. Smith changed the name to P. exquisita, on account of 
Mangilia vittata, Hinds ; but as Mangilia is generally regarded 
as a distinct genus from Drillia, there is no occasion for this. 

D. COCCINATA, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 54 ; PI. 30, fig. 85. 

Whorls smooth or obsoletely striate, concave around the upper 
part, plicately nodose on the periphery ; pink-white, stained with 
rose-color between the nodules, and sometimes below them, 
occasionally faintly banded with rose on the lower part of the 
body-whorl. Length, 12-15 mill. 

West Indies. 

Occasionally the color varies to a pinkish brown, and I have 
before me a pure white variety from Yucatan. D. pulchella, 
Reeve (p. 186), is very closely allied. D. Isevisulcata, Maltzan 
(PI. 30, fig. 85), from West Africa, agrees with this species 
except in its color, which is bluish gray. As only dead shells 
Vere found in mud, they. were possibly discolored. D. rosolina, 
Marrat (unfigured), described below, also needs to be compared 
with coccmata. 

D. EBUR, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 56. 

Shell white, strongly nodulosely plicate, obsoletely spirally 
striate; pure white. Length, 17 mill. 

West Indies. 

Described by Reeve from specimens in the Cumingian col- 
lection, without locality. Some of these are before me, and on 
comparison with shells from St. Thomas and St. Croix, W. I., 
show no differential characters. The nearest species is D. 



DRILLIA. 189 

coccinata, but that shell is more numerously ribbed and more 
slender. 

D. THEA, Dall. PL 34, fig. 1. 

"Whorls eight, ashy olivaceous, covered with a shiny very 
thin epidermis, claret-brown within the aperture; with eleven 
short, oblique, slightly curved ribs, more prominent on the 
periphery and fading away above it; with evanescent spiral 
strife, not always visible, and some stronger raised threads 
towards the base. Length, 15 mill. 

tfarasota Bay, W. Coast of Florida, 

on mud-flats between tides (Hemphill). 

D. IMPRESSA, Hinds. PL 13, fig. 53, magnified. 

Tuberculately ribbed, ribs oblique, interstices transversely 
striated, back of the last whorl smooth; pale flesh-color, ribs 
whitish ; outer lip a little expanded. Length, 9 mill. 

W, Coast Central America. 

A species having no very distinctive characters. 

D. PUDICA, Hinds. PL 13, fig. 55. 

Whorls shortly obliquely ribbed, the ribs obsolete on the 
back of the last whorl, depressed below the sutures ; yellowish 
brown, with a deep reddish chestnut spot on the back of the 
body-whorl; canal rather long. Length, 13 mill. 

West Coast of Central America (Hinds). 

D. FUCATA, Reeve. PL 11, figs. 86, 93. 

Shell obsoletely channeled above the periphery which is not 
prominently angulated ; longitudinal ribs numerous, rounded, 
not prominent, not interrupted on the periphery but continuous 
to the suture; sometimes obsoletely spirally striated ; back of 
body-whorl with a peculiar hump or longitudinal varix ; yellow- 
ish white, banded and maculated with yellowish or orange-brown. 

Length, 21 mill. West Indies. 

D. paria, Reeve (fig. 93), is a synonym ; the characteristic 
broad faint yellowish band is mentioned in the description, 
although not well indicated in the figure. 

D. REGULARIS, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 52 (fig. 1J nat. size). 

Shell somewhat pyramidally ovate ; whorls concave round the 



190 DRILLTA. 

upper part, obliquely regularly ribbed ; sinus broad ; yellowish 
white. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown, 
D. ROSEA, Sowb. PI. 10, fig. 62. 

Strongly plicately noduled, concave around the upper part of 
the whorls ; outer lip somewhat wing-like, with a deep posterior 
sinus and a slight anterior one ; pinkish brown, aperture rosy. 

Length, 26 mill. 

W. Coast of Central America, 
D. ROSOLINA, Marrat. 

Resembles D. rosea, but is obliquely ribbed, closely striated, 
and uniform rose-color. W. Africa, 

Unfigured. No dimensions given. 

D. ACUMINATA, Mighels. PI. 12, fig. 20 ; PL 32, fig. 41. 

Shell with a very slight angle on the periphery, with numerous 
small ribs reaching the suture and terminating at a raised 
revolving line on the lower part of the body-whorl ; below this 
line are sometimes revolving striae ; livid or chocolate-brown, 
with a white band at the suture, ribs white, aperture brown. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Sandwich Islands ; Indian Ocean (Nevill). 

D. MARIEI, Crosse. PI. 13, fig. 73. 

Shell olivaceous brown, smooth, with a pair of narrow brown 
revolving lines below the periphery, body-whorl with one or two 
additional colored lines, situated inferiorly, the base with a few 
revolving striae. Length, 10 mill. New Caledonia. 

D. CLAVATA, Sowb. PL 11, fig. 95. 

Shell with a few strong longitudinal ribs, which surmount the 
angulated periphery and reach the sutures ; no revolving sculp- 
ture ; outer lip thickened, the sinus large and ascending, aperture 
truncate below ; whitish, the ribs slightly stained with flesh-color 

Length, 13 mill. 

Xipixapi, W. Columbia (Cuming). 

D. PICA, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 50. 

Shell thick; whitish, irregularly variegated with a few large 
squarish brown spots; upper portion of whorls smooth, concave, 
below the periphery with numerous narrow ribs ; sinus broad. 

Philippines (Cuming); Mauritius (Robillard). 



DRILLIA. 191 

The following unfigured species are referred by the describers 
to this section of Drillia ; they are all unknown to me, except 
through the preliminary descriptions. 

D. MARMARINA, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 

Obtained by the Challenger Expedition. Said to be allied to 
D. sacra, Reeve which does not belong to this section of the 
genus. 

P. ALBOANGULATA, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

D. SPINOSA, E. A. Smith. (Allied to D. laeta, Hinds.) 

Habitat unknown. 
D. INTERPUNCTA, E. A. Smith. St. Thomas, W. I. 

The description applies pretty well to some individuals of D. 
coccinata, Reeve. 

D. AMANDA, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

D. DIVERSA, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

P. QUADRILIRATA, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

D. INTERSTRIGATA, E. A. Smith. St. Thomas and St. Vincent, W.I. 
P. HOTTENTOTA, E. A. Smith. Port Elizabeth, So. Africa. 

P. CAFFRA, E. A. Smith. South Africa. 

P. COFFEA, E. A. Smith. Philippine Islands. 

P. BELLULA, E. A. Smith. St. Vincent, W. I. 

Section CRASSISPIRA, Swainson. 
D. RUDIS, Sowerby. PI. 14, figs. 85, 90. 

Shoulder of the whorls prominently tuberculated, with smaller 
tubercles below it where the flexuous longitudinal ribs are 
crossed hy coarse revolving lines ; above the shoulder the whorls 
are contracted, and* tuberculated at the sutures; chocolate-brown, 
usually broadly white-banded above the periphery, or the tubercles 
only white, with sometimes a narrow white band near the base. 

Length, 25-35 mill. 

Galapagos Islands (Sowb.) ; Panama to Mazatlan. 

D excentrica, Sowb. (fig. 90), is founded on an abnormal 
specimen, the last whorls somewhat displaced. 

D. DIGITALIS, Reeve. PI. 13, fig. 75. 

Shell dark chocolate, covered by rows of lighter- colored granu- 
lations, caused by the decussation of small flexuous rather 
numerous longitudinal ribs and elevated revolving lines ; aperture 
light chocolate. Length, 20 mill. Philippines, Mauritius. 



192 DRILLTA. 

D. BARKLIENSIS, H. Adams. PL 13, figs. 70, 11, 77. 

Whorls granulated minutely, with a tuberculated shoulder; 
chocolate- or orange-brown, the latter often white-banded above 
the shoulder, and sometimes with an inferior narrow darker 
band ; tubercles, and usually the granules, white. 
, Length, 1 inch. 

Mauritius; Neiv Caledonia (Souverbie). 

D. strigata, Sowb. (fig. 71), is a synonym; as is also D. 
Rougeyroni, Souverb. ^fig. 77), from New Caledonia. 

D. BOTTLE, Valenciennes. PL 13, fig. 74. 

Shell ponderous, dark chestnut or chocolate, with a slight 
shoulder-angle, above which the whorls are slightly concave to a 
sutural band ; below the shoulder with close rude longitudinal 
ribs, sometimes decussated into nodules by the raised revolving 
lines ; towards the base of the body-whorl the latter remain 
prominent, whilst the former have vanished. 

Length, l'75-2'25 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan. 

This species is usually known as D. incrat&ata, Sowb., a name 
which has priority over D. Bottse, but was unfortunately pre- 
viously used by Defrance. 

D. CALLOSA, Valenciennes. PL 13, figs. 63, 68 ; PL 30, fig. 79. 

Shell very solid, with a well-defined shoulder, and sulcate 
space above it; longitudinal ribs low, rounded, closer than in 
the preceding species, the interspaces being very narrow, crossed 
b^y raised revolving lines ; chocolate-colored. 

Length (decollated), 1'75 inches. 

West Coast of Africa. 

Very closely allied to D. Bottae. I think D. carbonaria, Reeve 
(PL 13, fig. 68), is identical, and very likely the next species also. 

D. CONSOCIATA, E. A. Smith. PL 30, fig. 81. 

Whorls doubly carinated at the suture, below which the surface 
is concave to the periphery ; longitudinal ribs six, strong, crossed 
by raised revolving lines ; yellowish brown. Length, 24 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

The color is lighter and the ribs less numerous than in D. 
callosa, yet it is probably only a variation of that species. 



DRILL! A. 193 

D. APPELTI, Weinkauff. PL 10, fig. 75. 

Shell narrower than D. callosa, with more numerous ribs and 
a longer canal ; light ochraceous, indistinctly white-banded. 

Length, 40 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

P. FUSCESCENS, Gray. PL 14. figs. 9f , 98 ; PL 15, fig. 13. 

Shell deep chocolate-brown, the longitudinal ribs separated 
by wider interspaces, crossed by revolving raised lines, forming 
granules, above the periphery smooth and slightly concave, with 
a raised line next the suture. Length, 19 mill. 

West Indies. 

D. solida, Adams, D. cuprea, Reeve (fig. 98), and D. nigres- 
cenSj Gray (PL 15, fig. 13), are synonyms the latter described 
from a small specimen. D. nigrescens, Adams = nigrescens, 
Gray, and has priority of publication over that species, as well 
as fuscexcens : I think it better not to disturb the well-known 
name of the species, as Adams' description was not accompanied 
by a figure, and could not be positively identified until Adams 
himself subsequently pointed out that it was the same shell as 
that figured by Reeve as nigrescens, Gray. 

D. HARPULARIA, Desmoulins. PL 14, fig. 99. 

Chestnut- or chocolate-color, spire more slenderly elongated ; 
canal 'longer and more compressed than the preceding species ; 
the revolving lines do not form granules on the ribs. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Australia. 

Barely distinguishable from the preceding species with the 
aid of the different localit} r . 

D. SCHILINGI, Weinkautf. PL 12, fig. 28. 

Strongly ribbed below the periphery, smooth and concave 
above it, ribs crossed by spiral striae ; yellowish brown, with 
chestnut bands ; canal short and wide, subtruncate. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Zanzibar. 
D. B^TICA, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 26. 

Dark shining chocolate-colored ; ribs prominent!}* pointed at 
the periphery ; sinus broad and large. Length, 18 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



194 DRILLTA. 

D. FLAVESCENS, Reeve. PL 14, fig. 96 ; PL 21, fig. 22. 

Yellowish olive ; sculpture like D.fuscescens, except that there 
is no revolving line below the sutures. Length, 17 mill. 

Wnst Indies. 

The lighter color and want of sutnral line are not very good 
distinguishing characters, and it is probable that this species 
should be united with D. fuscescens. D. affinis, Gray (PL 21, 
fig. 22), appears to be a synonym. 

D. HONDURASENSIS, Reeve. PL 14, fig. 95. 

Whorls nodosely ribbed, with revolving strife, and a smooth 
space below the sutures ; alternately banded with yellow and ash- 
color. Length, 8 mill. 

Honduras (Dyson). 

I am not acquainted with this little species. The figure is 
about double the natural size. 

D. PAXILLUS, Reeve. PL 14, fig. 92. 

Shell short and stout, the spire acuminated at the apex ; whorls 
concave round the top, with a small keel, very closely plicated 
in the middle, interstices between the folds finely striated, ridged 
round the base, sinus large; chocolate-brown. Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Notwithstanding some difference in form and the much smaller 
size I think it very probable that this will prove to be synony- 
mous with D. fuscescens ; the sinus, however, is said to be large, 
whereas in the latter it is very small. 

D. ATERRIMA, Sowerby. PL 14, figs. 78, 79, 80, 83, 84 ; PL 32, 
figs. 45, 46. 

Shell very dark chocolate, with sometimes a narrow white line 
above the periphery, but this is usually absent; spire lengthened 
or short ; whorls rudely prominently keeled on the periphery, 
which is nodulous ; below the keel are a few raised revolving 
lines, occasionally broken up into granules. Length, 15 mill. 

Panama to Gulf of California. 

The great variation in the proportions of this shell has caused 
a number of synonyms to be made, and the confusion has doubt- 
less been increased by the uncharacteristic figure given by Reeve 
(fig. 79). I add better illustrations from Weinkauff's monograph 



DRILLIA. 195 

(PL 32, figs. 45, 46). D. atrior, C. B. Adams, D. discors, Sowb. 
(PL 14, fig. 80), a variety with elevated spire, and strong nodules 
on the periphery, D. Melchersi, Menke (fig. 83), D. rustica, 
Carpenter, and D. zonulata, Reeve (fig. 84), are synonyms. In 
the latter, which ma}' be considered a variety, there is a narrow 
j^ellowMi band, and the revolving ridges are more prominent 
than in the type ; it is PI. cincta, Sowerby, not Lamarck. In 
D. cerithoidea, Carpenter, and its synonym, D. maura, Kiener, 
not Sowerby (PL 14, fig. 78), the spire is somewhat exserted, an 
accidental variation which occasionally obtains in most species 
having a raised spire. 

D. QUADRIFASCIATA, Gray. PL 14, fig. 82. 

Shell pyramidal, whorls encircled with a single keel above and 
below, longitudinally closely ridged in the middle ; keels whitish, 
middle of the whorls bluish brown, ridges whitish; aperture 
small; canal very short. Length, 11 mill. Habitat unknown. 

I am not acquainted with this species. The figure is about 
double the natural size. 

D. PARDALIS, Hinds. PL 14, fig. 81. 

fshell longitudinally ribbed, ribs curved, interstices with fine 
revolving striae ; lip crenulated within ; chocolate-brown, ribs 
conspicuously fulvous yellow. Length, 15 mill. 

Gulf of Nicoya, W. Coast Central America. 

D. LUCTUOSA, Hinds. PL 14, fig. 86. 

Shell solid, dark chocolate-color, with very tine revolving striae, 
scarcely apparent without a glass, and a single row of minute 
tubercles on the periphery, which also appears on the spire- 
whorls ; no longitudinal ribs. 

Mazatlan to San Pedro, Cal. 

The locality " Bay of Guayaquil " given by Hinds, needs con- 
firmation. 

D. scARABvEus, Reeve. PL 14, fig. 87. 

Shell stoutly ovate, spire short, apex raised, smooth, spire 
obsoletel}' hexagonal towards the apex ; dark chestnut-brown, 
last whorl encircled with a narrow yellowish zone ; apex white. 

Length, 11 mill. Honduras (Dyson). 

I do not know this shell. 



196 DRILLIA. 

D. NIGERRIMA, Sowb. PL 14, figs. 91, 89, 88, 94. 

Shell very dark chocolate; whorls longitudinally ribbed, the 
ribs terminating on a nodulous periphery, above which the sur- 
face is smooth and slightly concave, lower portion of body-whorl 
with revolving striae. Length, 22 mill. 

Panama to Mazatlan*. 

D. cornuta, Sowb., is founded upon a specimen in which the 
callous deposit at the top of the aperture is very thick. D. uni- 
color, Sowb. (fig. 89), D. rustica, Sowb. (fig. 88 >, D. tiarella, 
Kiener (PI. 32, fig. 19), D. rugifera, Sowb. (PI. 12, fig. 22), and 
probably D. Hanleyi, Carpenter (described from a single im- 
mature specimen), are identical. 

Yar. HARFORDIANA, Reeve. PL 14, fig. 94. 

Whorls with a narrow yellowish band on the periphery. D. 
obvellata, Carpenter, described from a single young shell, is 
probably equivalent to this variety. 

D. BICOLOR, Sowerby. PL 14, fig. 100. 

Shell chocolate-brown, with a yellowish band just below the 
periphery ; sculpture as in other species of this group. 

Length, 20 mill. Panama; Galapagos Islands. 

D. GRANULOSA, Sowerby. PL 14, fig. 1. 

Whorls concave and smooth above the periphery, ribbed 
below it, ribs crossed by fine granulated revolving lines ; light 
yellowish or pinkish brown. Length, -75 inch. 

Panama, Bay of Montija. 
D. PALLTDA, Sowerby. PL 14, fig. 8. 

Ribs deflected at the periphery but continuous to the suture, 
sharp and rather close, interstices with fine revolving striae ; 
sinus broad and deep ; canal very short, a little recurved ; white. 

Length, 20-30 mill. Panama. 

D. ZEBRA, Lamarck. PL 14, figs. 2, 6, 5, 11, 12, 7, 10; PL 15, 
figs. 15, 18. 

Shell orange-, chestnut- or chocolate-color, the duplicate rows 
of tubercles on the periphery white, with frequently one or two 
inferior white bands on the tubercles of the lower part of the 
body-whorl. Length, 20 mill. West Indies. 

A very common species, referred by Kiener to Mauritius, and 



DRILLIA. 197 

by Weinkauff to E. Africa, possibly through mistaking for it 
poor examples of D. Barkliensis. Weinkauff attempts to .sepa-, 
rate Kiener's figure of D. zebra from that given by Reeve, and 
refers the latter, as a S3 r nonym, to D. ornata, d'Orb. ; but Kiener's 
figure represents the ordinary West Indian form quite .as well as 
does that of Reeve. There are a number of synonyms : D. 
albinodata. Reeve (fig. 5), having the periphery more sharply 
angulated than usual, the figure magnified, D. albocincta, C. B. 
Adams, D. albomaculata , d'Orb. (fig. 11), which E. A. Smith 
changed to D. albopustulata, under the impression that the 
species (above mentioned) described by C. B. Adams, bore the 
same name as d'Orbigny's, D. ornata, d'Orb. (fig. 12), D. zebroides, 
Weinkauff (fig. 15), D. pulchra, Gray (fig. 18, magn. f), D. 
Jayana, C. B. Adams, D. cinerea, Weink. (fig. 10), D. collaris, 
Sowb. (fig. t). 

As will be seen from a comparison of the above figures D. zebra 
is a very variable species; one of its extreme forms may be 
separated as 

Var. LEUCOCYMA, Dall.Tt&. 34, fig. 2. 

Compared with albomaculata, d'Orb., it is more slender, with 
the periphery -angle bearing a pair of close revolving ribs, more 
conspicuous than the rest of the spiral sculpture and tipped 
with white w r here crossing the jongitudinal ribs. 

JT* Sarasota Bay, W. Fla. 

In the typical albomaculata the cdroring is fimilar, but a single 
broader rib revolves at the periphery; in some specimens, how- 
ever, there is a more or less distinct impressed line on the middle 
of the rib, 'so approximating it to this variety. ^ 

D. OSTREARUM, Stearns. PL 34, fig. 19. 

Concavely, rather narrowly shouldered, with a thread-like 
raised line at the suture, closely longitudinally ribbed below the 
periphery, decussated by raised revolving lines ; dingy yellow to 
purplish black. Length, 16 mill. 

W. Coast of Florida (on oysters). 

Figured for the first time, from a specimen in Coll. Acad. 
Philad. 

D. CANCELLATA, Gray. PL 15, fig. 19. 

Whorls keeled at the upper part, transversely very finely 



1 98 DRILLIA. 

ridged, ridges cancellated with longitudinal striae ; aperture 
small ; jet-black, ridges dirty white. Length, 10 mill. 

St. Vincent, W. L (Guilding). 

I do not know this species ; the figure is about double the 
natural size. 

D. DYSONI, Reeve. PI. 14, fig. 3. 

Chestnut-brown, upper part of whorls here and there inter- 
ruptedly white-banded. Length, 21 mill. 

Honduras (Dyson). 

Shell with stronger keel, lighter and more inflated than D- 
fuscescens ; differing also in having a broad sinus and scarcely 
any canal. I have not seen it. 

D. LYSIDIA, Duclos. PI. 14, fig. 4. 

Shell smooth and white above the periphery, below it with 
narrow white ribs upon a rose-red ground, connecting below 
with revolving rows of whits tubercles. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Figured, but not described, as a Columbella. 

D. LAMBERTI, Montrouzier. PL 13, fig. 76. 

Shell yellowish brown, with a central reddish chestnut band, 
filled with a double series of revolving white-tipped tubercles ; 
below this, on the body-whorl, is a second narrower band, bearing 
;i Dingle series of small white tubercles, and a brown line and 
spots at the base. Length 10 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 
D. MUCRONATA, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 14. 

Shell acuminately pyramidal, whorls somewhat obscurely 
plicately ribbed, ribs nodulous, aperture short ; brown, middle 
row of nodules whitish. Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single shell having no well-marked characters ; 
it may be a variety of D. fuscescens. 

D. CLIONELL^EFORMIS, Weinkauff. PI. 15, fig. 16. 

Yellowish, longitudinally plicate, the plicae whitish, closely 
covered by revolving lines ; whorls contracted and unilirate at 
the suture. Length, 22 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



DRILLIA. 199 

D. CANTHARIS, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 22. 

Shell thick, solid, smooth; whorls oblique, nodosely plicated^ 
round the middle ; sinus rather large ; very dark brown, nodules 

whitish. Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines. 

Evidentl} 7 described from a stunted specimen. The figure is 
double the natural size. 

D. NITIDA, Kiener. PL 15, fig. 20. 

Shell ovate, rather stout, smooth, shining ; yellowish, painted 
with brown revolving lines, rose-tinted at the apex ; upper whorls 
of the spire delicately plaited ; lip simple, contracted in the 
middle. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
D. RUBIGINOSA, Hinds. PL 15, fig. 17. 

Whorls six, somewhat rounded, with revolving striae; reddish 
brown. Length 7*5 mill. 

Straits of Malacca, in mud, 17 fms. (Hinds). 

This and the preceding species are aberrant forms of the group 
Crassispira. 

D. MARAVIGN^;, Bivona. PL 8, fig. 12. 

Whorls usually somewhat round-shouldered, shell finely 
flexuously longitudinally plicate, plicae about twenty ; lip usually 
externally varicose, sinus wide ; yellowish- or reddish-brown, 
shining, sometimes banded. Length, 12 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Biscay. 

The synon3 r my includes Fasus semicostatus, Cantraine, PI. 
incrassata, Dujardin, PL crebricostata, Hinds, PL incisa, Reeve 
(figured), PL elegans, Scacchi. 

The following are unfigured species of the Crassispiree, which 
I am unable to arrange. 

D. MICROSTOMA, E. A. Smith. Ceylon. 

D. MELANACME, E. A. Smith (? = young D. zebra). 

St. Vinvent, W. I. 

D. LATIZONATA, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

D. CARIBB^A, E. A. Smith. Cuba. 

D. ATRAMENTOSA, E. A. Smith. (Near P. discors, Sowb.) 

Panama. 
14 



200 DRILLIA. 

D. FLAVOCARINATA, E. A. Smith. (Sculpture like discors.) 

Panama. 

D. NODATA, C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

D. CLIMACOTA, Watson. Tongatabu. 

Section BRILLIA (typical). 

The sections of Drillia are all artificial and unsatisfactory 
this more so than the preceding ones, as it merely includes those 
species which cannot be properly placed under the foregoing 
groups. Some of them resemble the Alatse so closely that they 
might almost as well go into that group, others are only distin- 
guished from the section Clatus by the presence of spiral sculp- 
ture, whilst others again can only be separated from Crassispira 
by arbitrarily fixing the precise degree of solidity necessary to 
enter that group. The great confusion which reigns regarding 
the synonymy and mutual relations of the Pleurotomidse forbids 
an} T thing approaching a definite arrangement of the species at 
present ; indeed the material is absolutely insufficient. My 
present essay towards a natural grouping of the species will, 
I hope, pave the way for better work hereafter. In no other 
group of the family have the results of my studies been so 
unsatisfactory as in the one now to be considered. 

D. SPLENDIDULA, Sowb. PL 10, fig. 72. 

Whorls smooth, longitudinally ribbed below the tuberculate 
periphery, tubercles and ribs slight, the latter curved, and white 
upon a brownish rose-colored surface. Length, 28 mill. 

Galapagos Islands. 
D. SPECTRUM, Reeve. PL 11, fig 83. 

Snowy white, the nodules tinged with light brown ; sinus broad 
and shallow, not produced ; outer lip sharp. 

Length, 17*5 mill. Philippines (Cuming). 

A pale, obliquely ribbed species, rather thin. 

D. PUTILLUS, Reeve. PL 11, figs. 85, 97. 

Yellowish white, chestnut-tinted between the slight longi- 
tudinal ribs ; the tuberculate periphery forms a strong angle on 
the whorls; lip simple, thin, sinus broad and shallow. 
Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines, 15 fathoms, coarse sand (Cuming) ; 

N. Australia (Brazier) ; China Sea (Ads. and Reeve). 



DRILL! A, -201 

D. albicincta, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 97), is a more highly colored 
adult, with, the peripheral row of tubercles whitish ; I find no 
other difference. 

D. REGIA, Beck. PL 11, fig. 80. 

Periphery with a double row of nodules^ the Whorls smooth 
above and granulated below it ; sinus small ; whitish maculated 
with chestnut. Length, 25-35 mill. Amboina, Moluccas. 

D. SINENSIS, Hinds. PI. 11, figs. 84, 94, 5, 6, 9 ; PI. 12, fig. 11. 

Whorls numerous, convex, slightly angulated and noduled on 
the periphery, flexuously longitudinally ribbed below and cancel- 
lated by raised revolving lines ; suture bordered by an obliquely 
nodulous band ; yellowish or flesh-brown, sometimes narrowly 
dark-banded at the suture and base ; interior yellowish. 

Length, 1 inch. 

New Guinea, Straits of Macassar, China Sea (Hinds) ; Philip* 
pines (D unker) ; Japan (Bunker) ; Australia (Angas, Brazier, 
etc.). 

Weinkauff s figure of this species scarcely represents it. The 
synonyms are D. intertincta, E. A. Smith (fig. 94) ; D. Metcalfei, 
Angas (fig. 5); D. consimilis, E. A. Smith (fig. 11); D. Coxi, 
Angas (fig. 6) ; D. spicata, Hinds (fig. 9). 

D. SAORA, Reeve. PI. 11, fig. 89. 

Shell rather solid, somewhat gibbous towards the base ; whorls 
depressed above the nodulous periphery, longitudinally granosely 
ribbed below it, with minute revolving ridges ; canal very short ; 
sinus broad ; yellowish white, the last whorl with a central light 
chestnut band. Length, 1 inch. Habitat unknown. 

Closely allied to the last species in form, but differs in the 
better developed ribs and in coloration. 

D. PERADMIRABILIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 11, fig. 96. 

Yellowish white, stained with brown beneath the suture, brown- 
banded on the middle of the body-whorl, irregularly spotted and 
dotted with a lighter tint-over the rest of the surface, but leaving 
a narrow, plain white zone on the periphery and another just 
below the brown band; whorls obliquely plicated, with close 
revolving lirae finely granulated, and separated by deep-cut striae. 

Length, 23 mill. Japan. 



202 DRILLIA, 

D. INTERMACULATA, E. A. Smith. PL 11, fig. 90. 

Shell shining, subpellucid, white, with four revolving series of 
brownish yellow dots between the ribs on the body-whorl, and 
two on those of the spire ; ribs slight, no revolving striae. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Japan. 
D. FLAVONODULOSA, E. A. Smith. PL 11, fig. 99. 

Solid, pale fleshy white, with two narrow reddish brown bands ; 
coarsely longitudinally ribbed, and spirally lirate, lifee of ir- 
regular sizes, some of them nodulous. Length, 9*5 mill. 

Japan. 
D. JAPONICA, Lischke. PL 11, fig. 88. 

Spire elevated, acute, with a ridge below the sutures; longi- 
tudinal ribs about eight, rounded, oblique, crossed by close 
strong striae, and terminating above on the periphery ; yellowish 
brown with two chestnut bands, or the lower one broader so as 
to cover the lower portion of the body -whorl ; sinus small, but 
rather deep. Length, 1 inch. 

Japan, Hong Kong. 

A fine specimen before me has two decided varices on the body 
and one on the penultimate whorl. The original specimens were 
imperfect and figures have been published by E. A. Smith and 
Weinkauff (figured), the former from a worn and rather unchar- 
acteristic specimen, the latter excellent. Weinkauff considers 
the unfigured D. latifasciata^ Sowb., a s} r nonym. 

D. RARICOSTATA, Smith. PL 11, fig. 2. 

Shell horny brown, the whorls excavated above and somewhat 
margined at the suture, with a few strong, oblique ribs, termi- 
nating above at the periphery, last whorl obliquely grooved at ' 
the base. Length, 10 mill. 

Japan. 
D. LONGISPIRA, E. A. Smith. PL 11, fig. 3. 

Whorls with six longitudinal ribs, oblique y subnodulous on 
the periphery, which they surmount, but do not reach the suture, 
spirally striated ; whitish, with two bands of chestnut spots 
between the ribs on the spire-whorls, and a third band in 
addition upon the lower part of the body-whorl. 

Length, 16'5 mill. 

Japan. 



DRILLIA. 203 

D. HUMILTS, E. A. Smith. PL 11, fig. 4, 

Whorls Strongly excavated above, with granules beneath the 
suture, periphery nodulous, below which are nine oblique longi- 
tudinal ribs, the body-whorl is striate towards the base only; 
yellowish brown, with a rather broad chocolate central band, 
ribs tipped with white. Length, 9 mill. 

Japan. 

Said to resemble a dwarfed D. obliquata, Reeve, but has fewer 
volutions and the apical ones much larger, the form is less robust 
and the coloring is different in detail. 

D. OBLIQUATA, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 1 (*). 

Yellowish brown, within and without, with a narrow lighter 
band on the periphery, and sometimes a row of white dots on 
the ribs a little below the middle of the body-whorl ; a few 
revolving striae at the base. Length, 14 mill. 

Persian Gulf, Ceylon, Singapore, Japan. 

D. SUBOBLTQUATA, Smith. PL 11, fig. 100. 

Shell horny brown, with a narrow white band at the periphery, 
and a second subinterrupted one on the body-whorl below the 
middle. Length, 18 mill. 

Japan. 

More slender than D. obliquata, the upper concave portion of 
the whorls narrower, the costae more numerous, crossed by 
revolving striae (wanting in D. obliquata), the basal canal 
broader. 

D. CANDENS, E. A. Smith. PL 11, fig. 8. 

White, shining, subpellucid ; whorls eight, nuclear smooth, 
normal ones obliquely ribbed, with here and there fine spiral 
striae requiring a glass to make them out ; lower part of body- 
whorl obliquely grooved ; sinus very wide and deep. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 
D. DENSEPLICATA, Dunker. PL 11, fig. 7. 

Shell yellowish brown, the whorls strongly shouldered and 
closely ribbed, crossed by larger and smaller revolving striae; 
lip thick, subsulcate within ; sinus rather deep. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Bass Straits,. 



204 DRILLIA. 

D. OBLIQUICOSTATA, Reeve. PI. 12, fig. 12. 

Longitudinal ribs oblique, narrow, a little waved, obtusely 
pointed on the periphery ; a few revolving stride at the base of 
the body-whorl ; yellowish white, spotted and maculated with 
chestnut. Length, 16 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

A species which evidently has no especial characteristics. 
I am not acquainted with it. 

D. CROCATA, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 13. 

Shell pyramidally oblong, transversely elevately striated, 
longitudinally ribbed, last whorl furnished with a small gibbous 
tubercle, canal very short, aperture short, sinus broad, large ; 
whitish, covered with a saffron-olive epidermis. 

Length, '8 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

This shell is unknown to me, but appears closely related to 
D. Sinentris, Hinds. 

D. AQUATILIS, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 16. 

Shell ovately turreted, solid, spire acuminated, whorls smooth, 
depressed round the upper part, obliquely plicately tubercled ; 
canal very short, sinus large ; ivory-white, painted with bands 
of extremely fine pale horny brown waved lines. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
D. PALLIATA, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 15. 

Shell ovately oblong, whorls rather convex, transverse^ very 
finely closely striated, encircled with a single row of conspicuous 
rather elevated granules; canal very short; whitish, covered 
with a pale fulvous epidermis. Length, 13'5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
D. EXARATA, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 14. 

Shell granose at the intersection of longitudinal and revolving 
sculpture, the granules taking a spiral direction, minutely noduled 
on the periphery ; canal very short, truncated, sinus large ; pale 
fulvous color, brown-dotted between the ribs. 

Length, 13'5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



DRILLIA. 205 

D. VARICOSA, Reeve. Pi. 12, fig. 17. 

Whorls smooth near the suture, longitudinally ribbed below, 
with large rude scattered varices, sinus broad "and rather deepf 
ribs grayish on a darker surface, sometimes entirely brown. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Australia. 

Notwithstanding some differences in the descriptions, I think it 
probable that this species is identical with D. Japonica, Lischke ; 
if so, the latter name will become a synonym. 

D. ALBICOSTATA, Sowb. PI. 13, fig. 57. 

Rose-colored, the longitudinal ribs white, close-set, no spiral 
sculpture ; aperture callous above ; sinus rather deep. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Galapagos Inlands. 

D. SOLOMONENSIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 12, fig. 23. 

Differs from D. varicosa in being narrower, with angulated 
ribs, longer and narrower aperture and canal, and in color, 
having dark brown stripes between the ribs, and a series of 
brown spots on an infrasutural keel. Length, 23 mill. 

Solomon's Isles (Brazier). 

Sometimes slightly varicose. 

I). PYRAMIDATA, Kiener. PL 12, fig. 34 ; PL 13, fig. 67. 

Shell Cerithiiform, strongly corded on the periphery, smooth 
above it, except a narrow granulated sutural band, below with 
oblique slight, ribs and revolving striae ; chocolate, the peripheral 
and sutural nodes whitish ; interior chocolate, with a white band. 

Length, 1 inch. 

W. Africa. 
D. OBELISCUS, Reeve. Pi. 12, fig. 21. 

Shell stouter than the preceding species, lower portion of the 
last whorl granosely ridged ; canal short; sinus large ; whitish, 
covered with a yellowish olive epidermis. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 
I have not seen this species. 

D. WILMERI, E. A. Smith. PL 12, fig. 24. 

Sharply keeled and noduled on the periphery, with revolving 
striae below it, stronger towards the base ; .whitish, stained with 



206 DRILLIA. 

chestnut at the apex and on the lower part of the body-whorl, a 
row of chestnut dots between the nodules of the periphery. 
Length, 16 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 

D. TRAILLT, Hutton. PI. 34, fig. 90 ; PI. 12, fig. 37. 

Spire acute, with broad, shallow, spiral grooves, and promi- 
nent transverse ribs on the central and anterior portions of the 
whorls ; posterior margin, near the suture flat ; aperture oval, 
canal short ; yellowish brown or chestnut-color ; body-whorl 
shorter than the spire. Length, I'l inches. 

Stewart Island, N. Zealand, 24 fms. (Hutton) ; 

New South Wales (Angas). 

Figured from a specimen sent to me by Prof. Hutton. D. 
semula, Angas (PI. 12, fig. 37), is identical. 

D. LAUTA, Pease. PI. 12, fig. 31. 

Periphery nodose, nodules rather prominent, longitudinally 
disposed, surface concave above ; canal short, open ; sinus broad 
and deep ; yellowish chestnut, with a white band on the periphery 
and a red chestnut line running on the middle of it, one or two 
narrow w r hite bands below on the body-whorl, each indistinctly 
narrowly bordered with red chestnut on either side. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Viti and Paumotus Is. 

D. EXILIS, Pease. PI. 15, fig 25 ; PI. 12, fig. 32. 

Whorls nearly plane, longitudinally plicately ribbed, the ribs 
small and close, descending from the sutures ; aperture very 
short ; canal short and open ; reddish chestnut, the ribs whitish, 
with a dark band below the middle of the body-whorl. 

Length, 5*5 mill. 

Viti, Cook's and Paumotus Isles. 

D. pusilla, Garrett (PI. 12, fig. 32), is a synonym. 

D. PYGMJEA, Dunker. PI. 34, fig. 89. 

Shell stouter, the spire shorter, more convex and obtuse than 
in the preceding species, the whorls not constricted above ; 
sculpture and coloring same as in D. exilis. 

Viti Islands. 

Although remarkabty similar to D. exilis, the form will, on 
comparison, readily distinguish it. 



DRILLIA. 201 

D. PAPILLOSA, Garrett. PI. 12, fig. 33. 

Whorls eight, slightly constricted round the upper portion^ 
covered by large rounded granules ; base contracted, spirally 
riclmvd ; canal short, obtuse; sinus large, deep and rounded; 
yellowish white, with three obscure light chestnut bands on the 

body-whorl. Length, 6 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
D. MINUTISSIMA, Garrett. PI. 12, fig. 29. 

Shell minute, solid ; whorls six, the spire moderate, covered 
with close granules formed by revolving lines decussating low 
longitudinal ribs ; aperture truncated below ; sinus large ; red- 
dish brown. Length, 2 mill. 

Viti Islands. 
D. SUBAURTFORMIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 12, fig. 35. 

Whorls well rounded, sometimes slightly angulated on the 
periphery, spire rather long, acute; obliquety longitudinally 
closely costate, crossed by spiral lirae, the intersections becoming 
aubgranulous ; spiral lirse more conspicuous at the base ; lip 
thickened without, lirate or dentate within ; sinus wide ; yellowish 
white, brown-banded at the suture, and lower part of the body- 
whorl similarly colored. Length, 9*5-1 2*5 mill. 

Japan. 
D. TEXTA, Dunker. PI. 9, fig. 42. 

Shell small, with close ribs and revolving striae ; suture pro- 
found ; aperture slightly coarctate, outer lip thickened, sulcate 
within ; sinus wide ; yellowish brown, with a chestnut band below 
the middle of the body- whorl. Length, 8 mill. Japan. 

Perhaps a variety of the preceding species. 

D. FORTILIRATA, E A. Smith. PL 12, fig. 36. 

Whorls twelve, slightly convex, with ten or eleven coarse 
oblique ribs crossed by very prominent spiral lirae, forming com- 
pressed large nodules; below the middle of the body-whorl the 
ribs become evanescent and the spiral sculpture finer and closer; 
sinus small; horny or dirty white, aperture horn-colored, some- 
times slightly lirate within the outer lip. Length, 14 mill. 

Japan. 
D. MOQUINIANA, Montrouzier. PI. 9, fig. 43. 

Shell with flattened whorls, obliquely longitudinally costate, 
the costse fading towards the upper part and base of the body- 



208 DBILLTA. 

whorl, with close revolving lines ; sinus moderate and rounded ; 
canal very short, recurved ; color yellowish white, marked with 
chestnut, and with also scarcely apparent lines of chestnut. 
Length, 12 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
D. TRIPTER, von Maltzan. PL 30, fig. 80. 

Light violaceous ; sinus wide and shallow. Length, 23 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa. 
D. BALLISTA, von Maltzan. PL 30, fig, 90. 

Wax-yellow; narrowly sinuate, sinus pretty deep. 
Length, 18'5 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

D. BUCHANANI, Hutton. 

Shell fusiform, elongated ; spire acute ; periphery angulated, 
above it the whorls are concave and smooth, with a slight ridge 
at the suture, below the angle with oblique ribs and spiral strias; 
aperture oval, canal produced ; bod}^-whorl longer than the spire; 
light rosy, fuscous between the ribs. Length, 21 mill. 

New Zealand. 

First described by Hutton as a tertiary fossil ; afterwards by 

E. A. Smith, from recent specimens, under the name of D. 
maorum. Not figured. 

D. AWAMOAENSIS, Hutton. PL 12, fig. 25. 

Shell small, thin, turreted, j^ellowish white ; whorls eight-and- 
a-half, the first ones smooth and convex, afterwards slightly 
carinated ; longitudinally finely ribbed, and spirally lirate ; upper 
part of whorls not concave ; canal moderate, aperture elongately 
oval, posterior sinus very slight. Length, 13 mill. 

New Zealand. 

Distinguished from D. Buchanani, by the whorls being less 
angulated and without the smooth concave shoulder and the 
suture not margined. First described as a tertiary fossil. 
Figured from a recent specimen sent to me by Prof. Hutton. 

D. PATAGONICLV, d'Orbigny. PI. 13, figs. 46, 4t. 

Shell yellowish brown, first whorls globose, third and follow- 
ing ones Bubangulated, with longitudinal short, fine ribs and close 
revolving striae, the ribs obsolete on the body-whorl ; sinus broad 
and shallow. Length, 1 inch. 

Patagonia. 



DRILLIA. 209 

Martens describes a var. Magellanica, differing only in being 
half the above size. 

D. STUDERTANA, Martens. PI. 13, fig. 48. 

Shell stouter than the preceding species, with shorter body- 
whorl ; the ribs stronger and fewer, evanescent on the bod3^-whorl, 
the revolving lines slighter, scarcely apparent ; canal shorter and 

broader. Length, 22 mill. 

Kerguelen Island. 

J). LOPRESTIANA, Calcara. PI. 13, figs. 66, 59. 

Whorls seven, with revolving carinse, the interstices longitu- 
dinally striate ; sinus wide ; whitish, apex brown-stained. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

i>. crispaia, as figured by Reeve (fig. 59), is a synonym ; as 
well as several other specific names, some of which are for fossils ; 
Tarentini, Phil., Renieri, Scacchi, moniliger, Cantraine, tri- 
cinctum, Calcara, Trecchi, Testa. 

D. KENNICOTTI, Dall. PI. 13, fig. 69. 

Shell solid, white, with traces of thin yellowish epidermis ; 
no longitudinal ribs ; lip deeply excavated below the suture, 
margin thin and sharp ; columella twisted. Length, 21 mill. 

Unga Island, Shumagin Group, Alaska. 

Much resembles PI. declivis, Martens, from Japan. If identi- 
cal, the latter name will become a synonym. 

D. CORTJSCA, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 60. 

Shell rather pyramidal, highly polished ; upper portion of the 
whorls flat, clouded with reddish brown and white, lower portion 
more prominent, encircled with a row of irregular reddish brown 
dots, last whorl encircled with two rows of dots; aperture 
short ; canal very short. Length, '75 inch. 

Philippines (Cuming). 

Two specimens only of this singular shell were obtained ; it 
differs much from the ordinary type of Drillia, the form being 
more like a Daphnella, but it appears to be a thick species. 

D. VEXILLUM, Reeve. PL 13, fig. 72 (f ). 

Shell closely ribbed, and with revolving ridges at the base ; 



210 DRILL I A. 

yellowish, the lower half of the body-whorl, and a narrow lower 
portion of those of the spire chocolate-brown. Length, 11 mill. 

Pt. Jackson, Australia (Angas), 

D. ARATA, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 27 (f ). 

Shell pyramidal, sutures peculiarly excavated ; whorls very 
closely encircled with narrow granulous ridges ; aperture small ; 
yellowish white. Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

The ridges are said to be more granulous towards the apex.. 
I am not acquainted with the species. 

D. PAGODA, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 23. 

Shell pyramidal, whorls depressed at the upper part, slightly 
angled, ribbed at the angle, ribs short, close-set, decussated 
throughout with raised lines ; ashy red, stained with dark red 
spots between the ribs, Up and columella stained with dark red ; 
canal short. Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown, 
D. TURRIS, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 30 (f ). 

Pyramidally acuminated, whorls longitudinally stoutly ribbed, 
transversely very finely ridged, aperture short; olive-brown. 
Length, 8 mill, 

Habitat unknown. 

First described and figured by Reeve under the name of 
Pagoda already used by himself for the preceding species. 

D. DONATA, Hinds. PL 15, fig. 26. 

Whorls eight, rose-colored, ribs small, rather sharp, oblique, 
whitish, fading towards the suture ; back of the last whorl 
smooth ; canal short. Length, 8 mill. 

New Guinea. 
D. FULVA, Hinds. PL 13, fig. 65. 

Shell fulvous ; whorls six, granulous, tubercularly ribbed, , 
angulated at the upper part ; suture with a granulous line. 
Length, 6 mill. 

Straits of Macassar (Hinds). 

D. MINUTA, Tenison-Woods. PL 34, fig. 93. 

Shell minute, fusiform, turreted, elongate, thin ; \-ellowish or 



DRILLIA. 211 

pink of reddish chestnut throughout ; whorls six, convex, spirally 
many-keeled, between the keels thickly and slenderly longitudi- 
nally lirate ; apex of two subinflated whorls which are spirally 
and equally striate ; aperture shorter than the spire, elongately 
ovate, outer lip thin, sinuous, inner lip inconspicuous. 

L. 3, lat, 1 mill. 

Tasmania, 

Figured from a specimen sent to me by Mr. C. E. Beddome. 

Section CONOPLEURA, Hinds. 
D. STKIATA, Hinds. PI. 8, figs. 6, 7. 

Spire turreted, the shoulder of the whorls somewhat tabulate, 
with numerous septa crossing to the sutures, shoulder-angle 
somewhat coronate ; surface finely spirally striate ; sinus broad 
and deep ; Whitish or yellowish. Length, 19 mill. 

New Guinea, 7 fms., mud (Hinds). 

One of Reeve's figures shows a reversed shell, a rarity in this 
genus. 



The following unfigured species ate described as species of 
Drillia : 

D. ZEALANDICA, E. A. Smith. New Zealand 
D. Cheesemani, Hutton, is a synonym. 

D. CHOCOLATUM, E. A. Smith* Japan. 

D. MINDANENSIS, E. A. Smith* Philippines. 

D. ROTUNDICOSTATA, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

D. SUBOCHRACEA, E. A. Smith. China seas (probably). 

D. NODILIRATA, E. A. Smith* Philippines. 

D. ATKINSONI, Tenison-Woods, 1876. Tasmania. 

D. ATKINSONI, E. A. Smith, 1877* Habitat unknown. 

If the last two are both good species, Mr. Smith's specific 
name will need changing. 

D. ANGUSTA, E. A. Smith. China Sea. 

D. MULTILIRATA, E. A. Smith. ? Port Jackson, Aust?\ 

D, INCERTA, E. A. Smith. New Guinea. 



212 DRILLIA. 

D. PRATTII, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

D. EXCAVATA, E. A. Smith. Habitat unknown. 

D. CONCOLOR, E. A. Smith. Moluccas; China. 

D. INCONSTANS, E. A. Smith. Japan. 
D. TUBEROSA, E. A. Smith. (Resembles varicosa, Reeve.) Japan. 

D. GYPSATA, Watson. New Zealand. 

D. BRACHYTONA, Watson. Aru Island. 
D. FLUCTUOSA, Watson. (Allied to Studeriana and Patagonica, 

Martens.) Kerguelen. 

D. BULBACEA, Watson. New Zealand. 

D. SPICEA, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 
D. ULA, Watson. N. E. from N. Zealand. 

D. STIROPHORA, Watson. Near Pernambuco.. 

D. PH^EACRA, Watson. Near Pernambuco. 

D. TMETA, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 

D. INCILIS, Watson. St. Thomas, W I. 

D. EXCULPTA, Watson. St. Thomas, W. I. 

D. THOLOIDES, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 

D. AMELIA, Watson. St. Thomas, W. I. 

D. AGLAOPHANES, Watson. St. Thomas, W. I. 

D. LOPHOESSA, Watson (and var. PLATIA). Pernambuco. 

D. BI COLOR, Gray. Habitat unknown. 

D. CLATHRATA, Gray. Habitat unknown. 

D. SUTURALIS, Gray. Habitat unknown. 

D. EBOREA, Gould. Kikaia Island. 

D. RUFESCENS, D unker. Upolu. 

D. NODIFERA, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

D. NODULOSA, Pease. Polynesia. 

D. L^VIS, Hutton. New Zealand. 

D. MASTERST, Brazier. New Guinea. 
D. SPALDINGI, Brazier. Torres Sts., Australia. 

D. WELDIANA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

D. AGNEWI, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

D. T^ENIATA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

D. TRICARINATA, Tenison-Woods. Port Jackson, Austr. 
D. POLYTORTA, Dall. (413 fins.) Off Cape S. Antonio, Cuba. 

D. NUCLEATA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

D. SUBSIDA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 



SPIROTROPIS, BEL A. 213 

D. EXASPERATA, Ball. (1002 fms.) Off Gape S. Antonio, Cuba. 

D. ? LEUCOMATA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

D. GRATULA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

D. DETECTA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

D. SERGA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

D. SMIRNA, Dall. Off Cape S. Antonio, Cuba. 

D. OLEACINA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

D. HAVANENSIS, Dall. Off Havana ; Yucatan Strait. 

D. YERRILLII, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

D. PERIPLA, Dall. Yucatan Strait. 

D. ELUSIVA, Dall. Yucatan Strait. 

D. MORRA, Dall. Off Havana. 

D. PUNCTATOSTRIATA, Carpenter. Bay of Panama. 

D. APPRESSA, Carpenter. Cape St. Lucas, L. California. 

Genus SPIROTROPIS Sars., 1878. 

S. CARINATA, Philippi. PL 7, figs. 94, 93. 

Shell white, whorls slightly excavated above, angulated and 
carinated on the periphery ; sinus broad, deep and remarkably 
distinct, with the upper edge thickened. Length, '75 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea to Norway. 

Jeffreys thus describes the animal * Body cream-color ; pallial 
tube short ; tentacles cylindrical, short and slender; eyes black, 
small but very distinct, placed on the tops of stalks which are 
united to the tentacles and are one-half their length ; foot pro- 
portionally large, almost equally broad throughout, squarish in 
front, and bluntly pointed behind. 

First described as a Sicilian tertiaiy fossil, and often known 
under the catalogue-name of P. modiolus, Jan. 

Genus BELA (Leach) Gray, 1847. 

Prof. Yerrill has carefully reviewed the American species of 
Bela (Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 457-486), elucidating, as satisfac- 
torily as possible, the synonj^my of this very variable group of 
shells. His connection with the U. S. Fish Commission has 
given him opportunities for the study of their characters, such 
as have been enjoyed by no other naturalist. He says : u Each 



214 BELA. ) 

species of the genus seems to have a longer and a shorter form, 
which often differ decidedly in appearance. This variation, 
which is also seen in many other genera of spiral shells, is prob- 
ably, to a certain extent, sexual ; but it is not entirely so, for 
while the males seem usually to be long-spired, with narrower 
and flatter whorls, I have also found males among the short- 
spired ones. Moreover, there are, evidently, geographical races 
or varieties, as well as irregular individual variations, and pecu- 
liarities due to injuries of various kinds." 

B. SCHANTARICA, Middendorff. PL 34, fig. 76 ; PI. 30, figs. 96, 

97 ; PI. 29, fig. 56 ; PL 33 ; fig. 70. 

Shell whitish or flesh-white, under a livid olivaceous epider- 
mis ; smooth, or with fine spiral striae ; aperture violaceous to 
white. L. 12, diam. 8 mill. 

Norway to Alaska. 

The synonymy is large, including B. gigas (Beck, MS.), Ver- 
kriizen (fig. 97), B. Isevigata, Dall (fig. 96), and I think B. tenui- 
lirata, Dall, described as a variety of B. Isevigata, with revolving 
striae, and afterwards called simplex, by Yerrill, from a specimen 
dredged, in 365 fathoms, off Martha's Vineyard. B. simplex, 
Middendorff (PL 29, fig. 56), shell narrower, with longer spire, 
does not appear to me to present even varietal ditiracters. B. 
Morchi, Leche (PL 33, fig. 70), is another name for B. gigas as 
figured by Verkriizen, whilst for a variety diUering in the more 
produced, curved canal, the typical gigas of Beck, Mb'rch has 
proposed the name gigantea. Mr. Pali's B. laevigata is much 
smaller than the type, with shorter spire, and may constitute a 
geographical race or variety. According to Mr. Dall B. arctica, 

A. Ad., should be added to the synonymy. 

B. BICARINATA, Couthuoy. PL 28, figs. 32-34 ; PL 27, figs. 18, 
26,31. 

Whorls six or seven, the lower ones obtusely, the upper ones 
more acutely carinated, upper whorls with riblets on the subsu- 
tural band, sometimes crossing the carina, becoming obsolete on 
the body-whorl ; fine revolving striae cross the growth-lines, and 
give the shell a finely decussated appearance ; a single revolving 
ridge on the spire below the shoulder-carina, and several, less 






UNIVERSITY 




BELA. 

prominent ones on the penultimate and body-whorl ; chestnut to 
violaceous brown. Length, 8'5-ll mill. 

Cape Cod, Mass., to Greenland; Iceland, 

Norway, Spitzbergen. 

Jeffreys declares the previous species closely allied to this and 
Leche makes them identical specifically. 

B. violacea, Mighels and Adams (figs. 33, 34), differs from the 
typical form only in being a little larger and stouter, with the 
two carinse on the upper whorls less evident ; this is due partly 
to erosion, partly to age ; the perfect young of the species being 
typical, the adults or eroded young of the form violacea. The 
synon3^my includes B. cylindracea, Moller, B. Beckii, Moller, B. 
livida, Moller (PL 27, fig. 26), B. Grcenlandica, Reeve (PL 27, 
fig. 18, J), B brevis, Leche, B. ventricosa, Morch, and B. rugu- 
lata (Moller), Reeve (PL 27, fig. 31). 

B. NOVAJA-SEMLJENSIS, Leche. PL 33, fig. 66. 

Shell yellowish ash-color ; finely and equally decussated by 
longitudinal and revolving lines ; whorls with a narrow shoulder. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Nova Zembla. 

B. PYRAMIDALIS, Strom. PL 30, fig. 92 ; PL 28, figs. 40, 47 ; PL 

27, fig. 30 ; PL 33, fig. 72 ; PL 34, fig. 81. 

Shell with usually a rather high spire, seven or eight tolerably 
convex whorls, scarcely or not at all shouldered, ribs 13 to 16, 
sigmoid, fading out about or above the middle of the body-whorl ; 
there are numerous, fine, close revolving lines, sometimes not 
apparent on the ribs ; pale chestnut-color, when fresh. 
Length, 13 mill. 

Massachusetts to Greenland ; Iceland, Norway, 

Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla. 

Varies considerably in the elevation of the spire and in stout- 
ness, as well as in the development of the ribs. Prof. Verrill 
doubts the identity of B. pleurotomaria , Couthouy (PL 30, fig. 
92) with this species, and considers B. pyramidalis, as figured 
by Sars (PL 28, fig. 40), at any rate different from pleuroto- 
maria; but I find all the forms that have been referred to this 
species by Jeffreys, Leche and others well within the usual 
varietal limits of similar species. I therefore consider the fol- 
15 



216 BELA. 

lowing as additional synonyms : B. semiplicata, Sars (PI. 28, fig. 
47), a varietal name, B. discors, Brown, Fusus rufus, Gould, not 
Montagu (PI. 34, fig. 81), B. Vahli, Moller (PL 27, fig. 30), and 
B. Jenisseensis (PL 33, fig. 72) and Isevior, Let-he, described as 
varieties. 

B. ALASKENSIS, Dall. PL 34, fig. 5. 

Whorls well rounded, slightly shouldered, obliquely ribbed, 
the ribs waved near the suture, and obsolete on the lower half of 
the body-whorl, with very minute, close revolving striae ; reddish 
or purplish brown, under a thin olivaceous epidermis ; aperture 
brown, polished, smooth. Length, -8 inch. 

Alaska. 

Described as a Mangilia, with a doubt as to whether it may 
not be a Bela. Through Mr. Dall's kindness I have examined the 
type, and think it better placed in Bela. 

B. ALEUTICA, Dall. PL 34, fig. 4. 

Shell pure white, narrow, of seven shouldered whorls, bearing 
13 or 14 longitudinal ribs, terminating in a carina at the 
shoulder, with very faint close spiral grooves passing over the 
ribs. Length, '68 inch. 

Alaska. 

Figured from one of the type specimens. Described as a 
Mangilia. 

B. EXPANSA, Sars. PL 29, fig. 52. 

Whorls five, finely decussated ; spire short ; whitish. 
Length, 9 mill. 

Norway. 
Its peculiar form will immediately distinguish it. 

B. EXIGUA, Jeffreys. PL 33, fig. 73. 

Shell rather solid, but translucent, somewhat glossy, milk- 
white ; delicately decussated by close, fine striae ; suture deep ; 
last whorl obtusely shouldered near the mouth. Length, 5 mill. 

Faroe Channel. 

Said to differ from B. tenuicostata, Sars (= the next species), 
by its narrower form, straight longitudinal lines or striae, and 
very blunt spire ; the fissural groove also, is much shallower. 



BELA. 217 

B. DECUSSATA, Couthouy. PI. 29, figs. 55, 60, 65, 69 ; PL 27, figs. 
21, 25 ; PL 28, figs. 35, 36 ; PL 30, fig. 94. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, with a moderate, scarcely tnrreted spire; 
whorls six or seven, round-shouldered ; with about 24 sigmoid 
longitudinal ribs, evanescing about the middle of the body-whorl, 
close revolving striae cross the ribs ; sinus well marked, close to 
the suture ; canal narrowed, but short ; columella nearly straight 
in the middle ; color white, yellowish or pinkish white. 

Length, 9 mill. 

New England, northwards ; Labrador ; 

Greenland; Nova Zembla. 

This is B. scalaris (Vahl) of Reeve (PL 27, fig. 21) afterwards 
changed to B. borealis. B. leucostoma, Reeve (PL 27, fig. 25), 
B. reticulata, Vahl, according to Reeve. 

B. tenuicostata, M. Sars (PL 28, figs. 35, 36), differs only in 
being smaller, with more numerous ribs. Yerrill also describes 
a var. pusilla, having the ribs less prominent and not so much 
bent at the shoulder, giving the shell a smoother appearance. 
Another variety is B. viridula, Moller not of Reeve, and of 
which B. Kobelti, Verkruzen (PL 30, fig. 94), is a synonym; 
it is more strongly ribbed with a better defined shoulder 
than the type, the ribs straighter. B. incisula, Verrill (PL 29, 
fig. 65), appears to me to be no more than a stunted, shouldered 
variety, with straight ribs, approaching B. Kobelti. B. hebes, Ver- 
rill (PL 29, fig. 69). and B. pygmsea, Verrill (PL 29, fig. 60), are 
also varietal forms, having slight distinctive characters, which 
will appear by comparing the figures ; the latter is evidently from 
its small size and fewer whorls a young specimen. B. Trevelyana, 
var. Smithii, Jeffreys, is considered by Verrill a doubtful variety 
of his B. incisula. 

B. PINGELII, Moller. PL 29, fig. 64. 

Shell slender, with elongated spire, and moderately convex 
whorls, with numerous longitudinal, rather straight ribs, excurved 
above, and strong, elevated spiral lines, forming nodules where 
the}*- cross the ribs ; pale chestnut-brown, with the canal and 
columella whitish. Length, 11-12 mill. 

Maine; Greenland; Norway. 

Not unfrequently confounded by authors with the next species, 



218 BELA. 

and perhaps with B. pyramidalis, but readily distinguished by 
its high spire, want of shoulder, and its nodulous surface. 

B. CANCELLATA, Mighels. PL 29, figs. 67, 53 ; PL 28. fig. 46. 

Whorls nine, somewhat convex, narrowly obtusely shouldered ; 
ribs strong, flexuous, with a sigmoid curve at the shoulder,- 
crossed by coarse spiral cinguli ; white, stained rosy or light 
chestnut, or yellowish. Length, 15-20 mill. 

Massachusetts; Greenland; Norway; Nova Zembla. 

Often confounded with allied species, and especially with B. 
Pingelii, above, and with B. pyramidalis, B. harpularia, and B. 
Gouldii. B. pyramidalis has a more slender spire, and the spiral 
sculpture is less developed ; B. harpularia is less elongated, with 
straighter ribs and finer revolving lines ; B. Gouldii has more 
shouldered whorls, nodulous at the angle, straight ribs, and 
longer carnal. It must be confessed that these distinctions are 
rather arbitrary, and that the interests of science would have 
been promoted if many of the so-called species of Bela had not 
been described. B. elegans, Moller (PL 29, fig. 53), and B. angu- 
losa (PL 28, fig. 46) of Sars, may be considered slight variations 
of this species. 

B. SARSII, Yerrill. PL 28, fig. 49. 

This name was proposed for the species figured by Sars for 
B. cancellata. The whorls are obtusely shouldered, the ribs 
fewer and stronger, and nearly straight, crossed by rather distant 
revolving grooves, giving it a coarsely cancellated or tesselated 
subnodulous surface. Length, 10 mill. 

Norway; Labrador t 
B. CINEREA, Moller. PL 28, fig. 48. 

Shell scarcely shouldered, with numerous narrow ribs, and 
many spiral striae ; aperture broadly truncate below. 
Length, 22 mill. 

Greenland, Iceland, Spitzbergen. 
Barely distinguishable from the last species. 

B. DECLIVIS, Love'n. PL 28, fig. 38. 

Shell longer in the spire and narrower, proportionally, than 
B. cinerea, with slightly stronger shoulder, fewer ribs and 



BEL A. 219 

revolving striae, the sculpture cancellated ; aperture broadly 
truncate below. Length, 22 mill. 

Norway, Faroe Islands. 
Yar. augustior, Jeffreys, is said to be narrower and smaller. 

B. OBLTQUA, Sars. PL 28, fig. 50. 

Shell turriculated, with shouldered whorls, the shoulder acute 
and tuberculated by the terminations of thirteen to sixteen nar- 
row oblique ribs, having much wider interspaces which are 
covered b} r revolving striae ; aperture rather short, broadly 
truncate below. Length, 10 mill. 

Norway. 

B. TURRICULA, Montagu. PL 30, fig. 93 ; PL 27, fig. 22 ; PL 28, 
figs. 41, 44, 45 ; PL 29, fig. 57 ; PL 33, fig. 60. 

Shell narro'v, turriculated, the shoulder acute, with the ribs 
strongly projecting above it and then running across to the 
sutures; ribs about sixteen, nearly straight, prominent, crossed 
by very close, rather fine revolving striae ; aperture rather nar- 
row ; canal narrow and produced. Length, 17 mill. 

Europe, Nova Zembla, Greenland. 

B. scalaris, Moller, B. scalaroides, Sars (PL 28, fig. 59), B. 
Woodiana, Moller?, B. harpularia, var. rosea, Sars (PL 28, fig. 
37), are synonyms of the typical form. B. Dowsoni and robusta 
of S. Y. Wood are here referred by Dr. Jeffreys ; and among the 
older names may be cited B. alba, Pennant, B. angularis, Donov., 
and B. discrepans, Brown. B. nobilis, Moller (PL 28, fig. 41), 
and its synonym B. angulata, Morch, designate a variety with 
more strongly marked shoulder on the whorls. B. exarata, 
Moller, and B. harpularia, Sars, not Couth. (PL 28, fig. 45), B. 
rugulata, Sars (PL 33, fig. 60), B. assiwilis, Sars (PL 28, fig. 44), 
and perhaps B. mitrula^Ltoven (PL 29, fig. 57), are synonyms. 

B. HARPULARIA, Couthouy. PL 29, fig. 51. 

Shell slightly round-shouldered, with 17-20 low oblique ribs 
and fine revolving striae ; pale reddish brown or rosy, when fresh, 
frequently yellowish or white. Length, 13-17 mill. 

Long Island Sound to Nova Scotia. 

This species is often confounded with the preceding one, but 
differs in its obtusely rounded shoulder, lower and more numerous 



220 BELA. 

ribs, usually lower spire, finer spiral sculpture, etc. Towards its 
northern limit it becomes rather rare, according to Prof. Yerrill. 
Sars' figure of B. harpularia appears to represent a variety of 
B. turricula. 

B. AMERICANA, Packard. PI. 33, fig. 64; PI. 29, fig. 68. 

Shell thin, inflated, body-whorl rather wide, spire short; 
shoulder strongly defined, with the ribs crossing it ; ribs 13 to 15, 
rather high and narrow, somewhat oblique, with wider inter- 
spaces ; revolving sculpture very distinct on the interspaces, 
less distinct on the ribs ; whitish or yellowish white. 

Length, 18-20 mill. 

Cape Cod to Greenland. ? Norway. 

The shell figured by Sars as B. nobilis, Moller, juv. (fig. 42) 
appears to = this species, but fig. 19 in the Moll. Norv. better 
represents B. turricula. The shell very usually occurs under 
the latter name in American collections, but appears to differ 
sufficiently in its shorter, wider form, thinness, etc. B. turricula 
is essentially European in distribution ; B. Americana, on the 
contrary, American. 

Yar. GOULDII, Yerrill. PL 29, fig. 68. 

Ribs sharper, more produced on the shoulder-angle, no spiral 
lines on the shoulder, those on the middle of the body-whorl 
fewer and more distant than in the typical form. 

Massachusetts to Nova Scotia. 
B. IMPRESSA, Beck. PL 33, fig. 69. 

Shell wide, with short spire, and sloping but rather well- 
defined shoulder ; densely costulate longitudinally, crossed by 
about ten spiral riblets, forming a cancellated surface ; yellowish 
ash-color. Length, 15 mill. 

Spitzbergen ; Nova Zembla. 

B. CONCINNULA, Yerrill. PL 29, fig. 54 ; PL 27, fig. 27. 

Shoulder sloping, the angle not acute ; ribs numerous, often 
20 to 25, crossed by strong spiral lines, forming a nodulous 
surface, including the shoulder; whitish under a pale greenish 
epidermis. Length, 10-1T5 mill. 

New England to Nova Scotia. 

The sloping shoulder, less defined carination, tuberculated 



BELA. 221 

surface and canal distinguish this from B. exarata (a form of B. 
turricula). A var. acuta is described by Prof. Yerrill as having 
a more slender form, with a longer and more acute spire and 
narrower aperture, the whorls more flattened, the nodules on the 
shoulder more prominent and sharper, and the carina higher; 
there are intermediate forms between this and the type. It is 
the B. mitrula of Verrill, not Loven. B. Molleri, Reeve (PI. 27, 
fig. 27), is a rather problematical species, which Petit refers to 
B. Trevelyana, and Jeffreys to B. exarata, Moll. It appears to 
me to agree better with this species ; it is a young shell, the 
figures being about twice its natural size, and its identification 
with B. concinnula is not sufficiently certain to authorize a 
change of name. 

B. TREVELYANA, Turton. PL 33, fig. 65 ; PL 27, fig. 29. 

Shell somewhat thin, ovately fusiform, subventricose ; whorls 
six, slightly planate above the carina ; aperture nearly equally 
contracted above and below; outer lip a little insinuate below 
the shoulder ; surface lightly decussated by inconspicuous longi- 
tudinal plications, evanescent below the middle of the body-whorl, 
and close, fine revolving striae ; whitish. Length, 8-13 mill. 

Europe, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, Boreal America. 

A smaller, more fragile and more delicately sculptured species 
than B. turricula, with shorter spire, and more oval form. The 
synonymy includes B. decussata, Macgill. (PL 27, fig. 29) and 
B. reticulata, Brown. The latter name has priority, but may be 
regarded as obsolete. A variety Smithii, described by Jeffreys, 
is doubtfully referred by Yerrill to B. incisula, Verrill (= 
decussata, Couth, var.). 

B. CONOIDEA, Sars. PI. 29, fig. 61. 

Shell narrow, with long spire ; whorls seven, convex, without 
carina; plications slight, somewhat sigmoid, almost obsolete on 
the body-whorl: everywhere covered with moderately strong 
revolving striae ; white. Length, 15 mill. 

Norway. 
B. LYCIACA, Forbes. PL 27, fig. 28. 

Shell rather shortly fusiform, whorls convex, narrowed at the 
upper part, longitudinally ribbed, with revolving elevated strise, 



222 BELA. 

the alternate ones rather larger ; aperture lanceolately ovate ; 
canal rather long, straight. Length, 6 mill. 

Cape Artimesium, Coast of Asia Minor, 80 fins. (Forbes). 
This species (evidently immature) has not been obtained since. 

B. FIDICULA, Gould. PI. 32, fig. 17. 

Whorls seven, broadly shouldered ; about twenty-four longi- 
tudinal plications, crossed and decussated by more crowded 
delicate revolving lines dirty- white. Length, *45 inch. 

Puget Sound. 
B. SUBLTJTA, Gould. PI. 33, fig. 18 ; PL 34, fig. 75. 

Shell thin, turreted, with elevated spire ; whorls seven or eight, 
slightly round-shouldered ; there are twelve obtuse ribs not quite 
reaching the sutures, the interstices showing evanescent, epi- 
dermal, revolving lines ; pale ash, stained with light yellowish 
brown, tip of beak and interior dark chestnut, with a narrow 
white fascia. Length, 10 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This shell is possibly Patagonian ; it has the peculiar appear- 
ance of the Magellanic molluscan fauna. I think that the Pata- 
gonian B. Cunninghami, Smith (fig. 75), will prove to be a 
synonym. 

Unfigured and undetermined species of Bela. 

B. PLICIFERA, Wood (Crag Mollusca.) This species has, according 
to Leche, been found living. The original figure and descrip- 
tion will apply sufficiently well to a dozen recent forms, and 
the identification of it must therefore be considered very 
doubtful. 

B. EOBUSTA, Packard (fossil). Labrador. 

B. UNDATELLA, Gould. Off Coast of Georgia, 400 fms. 

B. TURGIDA, Gould. Kamtschatka. 

B. BLAKEANA, Dall,and vars. NORMALTS and EXTENSA. 

Caribbean Sea,. 

B. FILIFERA, Dall. Caribbean Sea. 

B. HARVEYI, Verkriizen. Newfoundland. 

B. GILPINI, Verkr. Bay of Fundy. 

B. MULTICOSTATA, Verkr. Bay of Fundy. 



BEL A. 223 

B. UNDATA, Yerkr. Bay of Fundy. 

B. BRACHYSTOMA, Pfeiffer. (Adams' Genera, i, 92). 
B. PULLA, Reeve. (Adams' Genera, i, 92.) 

B. EXCURVATA, Carpenter. Pugefs Sound. 

? B. RUBESCENS, Jeffreys. Holsteiriborg. 

B. JESSOENSIS, E. A. Smith. Japan. 

? B. MITRALIS, Adams and Angas. Port Jackson, Australia. 

? B. AUSTRALIS, Adams and Angas. So. Australia. 

B. WILLEI, Friele. Arctic Ocean. 

B. OVALIS, Friele. Arctic Ocean. 

B. VIRTDULA, Reeve, not Moller (PI. 21, fig. 20.) Greenland. 

Morch considered this a synonym of Columbella Holbolii, 
Beck = rosacea, Gould. See Manual, v, p. 160. 

Section TYPHLOMANGELIA, Sars, 1818. 
B. NIVALIS, Loven. PI. 7, fig. 92. 

Shell turreted, with a long spire; white; whorls ten, the 
periphery tuberculated longitudinally, the ribs which give rise 
to them very short ; covered by close revolving striae ; shoulder 
of the whorls slanting. Length, -85 inch. 

Shetland, Norway. 

Section H^EDROPLEURA, Monterosato, 1883. 
B. SEPTANGULARIS, Montagu. PI. 21, figs. 8, 9 ?; PI. 22, fig. 42. 

Shell subulate, smooth, without shoulder ; longitudinal plicae 
seven or eight, including the varicose lip, short, low, not attaining 
the middle of the body-whorl, but starting from the suture ; 
pinkish white. Length, 14 mill. 

Europe. 

Differs from the true Belas in several particulars, besides distri- 
bution, and has the general appearance of Mangilia ; but must 
be separated from that genus (in our very artificial classification), 
on account of having an operculum. The synonymy includes 
B. costata, Donov., B. secalina, Phil. (PI. 22, fig. 42), a small 
form, and B. Petitii, Maravigna, which = the latter. B. Ginnan- 
iana, Reeve, not Risso (PI. 21, fig. 9), is here referred by 
Forbes and Hanley a very doubtful identification. 



224 BELOMITRA, LACHESIS. 

B. RUFA, Montagu. PI. 32, fig. 35. 

Whorls seven, rather convex, very slightly shouldered ; ribs 
14 or 15, narrower than the interstices ; surface covered with fine 
close revolving striae ; chocolate-brown, the ribs lighter colored. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonymy is enormous, including B. Kieneri, Marav., B. 
chordula, Turton (juv.), B. nigra, Potiez et Mich., B. fusca, B. 
discors, B. castanea and B. discrepant of Brown, and perhaps 
also B. alba and B. minima of the same author. 

Jeffreys distinguishes the following varieties : 
Var. LACTEA. Shell white. 

Yar. SEMICOSTATA. Lower whorls ribless ; shell often larger. 
Yar. UHLIDEANA, Thompson. Shell orange-brown or fawn-color, 

with stronger sculpture. 
Yar. CRANCHII, Brown. Ribs twisted. 

Yar. ANGUSTA. Shell narrower, and slender, with sharp and 
oblique ribs. 

Subgenus BELOMITRA, Fischer, 1882. 
B. PARADOXA. Fischer. 

Shell elongatety fusiform, whitish, whorls eight, the embryonal 
obtuse, mammillate, the others slightly convex, angulately cari- 
nated in the middle, with about twelve subarcuate longitudinal 
ribs, which become evanescent below the middle of the body- 
whorl, and revolving strine ; aperture oblong, narrow ; lip obso- 
letely sinuous behind, smooth within ; columella nearly vertical 
with six or seven oblique narrow plications ; canal short. 

L. 28, diam. 9 ; L. apert. 14 mill. 

Atlantic, 627 metres. 

Locality not given. Unfigured. 

Genus LACHESIS, Risso, 1826. 

L. MINIMA, Montagu. PI. 32, figs. 21, 24 ; PI. 27, fig. 4. 

Shell solid, opaque, rather glossy ; ribs nine or ten, crossed by 
fifteen to twenty broad, flattened spiral ridges on the body-whorl, 
four on the spire whorls ; apex globular, twisted on one side ; 
whorls five to six, rather convex ; outer lip varicose without, 



LACHESIS. 225 

toothed within, without sinus; color usually reddish brown, 
sometimes spotted ; operculum yellowish. Length, 5-8 mill. 

British Channel to Southern Europe, W. Africa. 

The spire is sometimes truncated in live specimens. On the 
Southern Coast of England and the Channel Islands the species 
is common but local, in the laminarian zone, upon rocky and 
stony ground. The animal swims with the foot upwards. 

There is a large synonymy : Fusus turritellatus, Desh., Fusus 
subnigrus, Brown, L. mamillata, Risso (fig. 14), PI. Chauveti, 
and PI. perlatum, Requien, Murex Folineae, Chiaje, granulata, 
Risso, PL multiplicata (Forbes), Reeve (PL 27, fig. 4), BUG. 
Lefebrui, Marav. There are a number of color varieties distin- 
guished by Jeffreys, Monterosato and Tiberi. 

L. VULPECULA, Monterosato. PI. 33, fig. 67. 

Whorls very convex, with deeply impressed sutures, spire 
longer, canal more pronounced, longer than in L. minima, some- 
what recurved, aperture not toothed ; sculpture strong but narrow, 
forming a clathrate surface. Length, 5*3 mill. 

Mediterranean. 

It is L. recondita, Brugnone. 

L. CANDIDISSIMA, Phil. PI. 32, fig. 23, 22. 

Shell of seven whorls, strongly granulated by decussating 
sculpture ; outer lip toothed within ; usually white, sometimes 
yellowish, or with the granulations darker. Length, 10 mill. 

Mediterranean; W. Africa. 

The colored variety referred to above is L. lineolata, Tiberi 
(fig. 22) = L. Massena, Chiaje, not Risso. 

L. FOLINE^E, Phil. PL 32, fig. 25. 

Shell ovate-fusiform, of six rather flattened whorls, with 
shallow longitudinal and revolving grooves, cutting the surface 
into squares ; lip with two remote tubercles ; canal suboblique, 
very short, dilated at the base ; surface fuscous, the sulci fulvous 
or white. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Mediterranean (very rare). 

This is L. areolata, Tiberi, and Fusus granulat us, Calcara. 

L. PELLIS-PHOC^E, Reeve. PL 27, fig. 3. 

Shell with close, fine, longitudinal and revolving lines, lip 



226 LACHESIS. 

dentate within ; chocolate, with usually a narrow lighter or white 
line at the suture. Length, 10 mill. 

St. Thomas, W. I. (Swift.) 

L. JAPONICA, A. Adams. PI. 34, fig. 78. 

Shell with about 20 arcuate longitudinal ribs crossed by rather 
finer striae ; lip somewhat thickened externally, thin and crenu- 
late at the margin, very faintly sinuated near the suture, with 
about ten short fine Urge near the edge internally ; yell< wish 
white with chestnut stains, or entirely chestnut. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 
L. TURQUETI, Velain. PI. 30, fig. 95. 

Longitudinal ribs, rounded, rather coarse, crossed by revolving 
grooves ; aperture narrow, canal very short and open, lip slightly 
thickened, not crenulated within ; yellowish brown. 

Length, 4 mill. 

Isle of St. Paul. Indian Ocean. 

Velain calls attention to the resemblance of this shell to the 
genus Etallonia, formed by Deshayes for eocene species of the 
Paris basin. Deshayes considered Etallonia between Bulla and 
Ringicula, but Mr. Yelain thinks it should rather be referred to 
the Pleurotomidae. 

L. MERIDIONALIS, E. A. Smith. PL 32, fig. 26. 

Whitish, of six convex whorls, turreted ; with coarse longitu- 
dinal ribs, and revolving grooves, the former obsolete on the 
lower half of the body-whorl ; on the periphery, two stronger 
grooves cut the ribs into a single series of tubercles ; two apical 
whorls large and smooth. Length, 4'3 mill. 

Strait of Magellan. 
Un figured Species. 

L. GRANULATISSIMA, Morch. W. Coast Central America. 

L. CRATICULATA, Morch. Same Habitat. 

L. PERLATA, Morch. Same Habitat. 

L. SULCATA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

L. CANDIDISSIMA, C. B. Ad., West Indies, is referred here by H. 
and A. Adams, but is a Mangilia, probably. 



BORSONIA. 227 

Genus BORSONIA, Bellardi, 1846. 

In the fossil Borsonia prima, the shell is fusiform, the lip not 
varicose, the columella with a single plait, high up ; but in some 
fossil species there are indifferently one or two plaits, so that 
Cordiera (= Scobinella) is generally considered synonymous. 
The following recent species, referred to Borsonia, are now 
placed here with some hesitation ; the plications being usually 
more numerous, and the shells otherwise resembling that section 
of Mangilia for which the name Glyphostoma has been proposed. 
Unfortunately, the operculum of none of the species has been 
noticed ; and I really doubt its existence in any of them. My 
conviction is that these forms will all be found to be Glypho- 
stomse, and that the diagnosis of that group will need to be' 
enlarged to include species having several as well as many 
columellar plications. 

B. CRASSI COST ATA, Pease. PL 34, fig. 94. 

Shell fusiform, shining, longitudinally coarsely ribbed, crossed 
by revolving raised striae ; whorls rounded, with well-impressed 
sutures ; aperture narrow ; outer lip denticulated within ; canal 
short, slightly recurved, light yellow or pink. Length, 7 mill. 

Sandwich Islands, Paumotus. 
B. BIFASCIATA, Pease. 

Shell fusiform, shining, longitudinally coarsely ribbed ; crossed 
by coarse raised stride ; whorls rounded at the sutures ; outer 
lip thick, incurved, serrated on the edges at the termination of 
the transverse striae ; canal short and slightly recurved ; color 
white ; two light brown bands on each whorl. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Not figured, and I have no specimens ; the description may 
be compared with B. nigrocincta, Montr. 

B. LUTEA, Pease. 

Shell fusiform, solid, shining; whorls convex, angulated at 
the sutures, longitudinally regularly and closely ribbed, crossed 
by regular transverse ridges ; aperture narrow ; outer lip thick, 
denticulated within ; canal produced and recurved ; light 
yellowish brown. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Unfigured. 



228 CLAVATULA. 

B. NEBULOSA, Pease. 

Shell fusiformly oblong, finely ribbed longitudinally, striated 
transversely, forming regular granules ; sutures slightly angu- 
lated and smooth ; aperture oval ; outer lip slightly incurved 
and serrated on its edge, striated internally ; canal slightly pro- 
duced and incurved ; white, marked with irregular, interrupted, 
longitudinal brown lines. 

Sandivich Islands. 

Unfigured. 

B. GILIBERTI, Souverbie. PI. 25, fig. 58. 

Shell pink, with a central chestnut band ; lip with 7-8 interior 
plications ; columella with 3-4 ascending plications. 

Length, 10 ? mill. 

Lifou Island, N. Caledonia. 

Described from a single specimen. 

B. NIGROCINCTA, Montrouzier. PI. 19, fig. 62. 

Yellowish white, with two narrow dark chestnut lines on the 
body-whorl, the upper one of which appears on the spire ; lip 
with about 5-6 plications within, columella with several (3-4) 
ascending plications, continuations of the revolving sculpture 
of the outer surface. Length, 8-9 mill. 

New Caledonia (Montr.), Andaman Is. (Nevill). 

Unfigured Species. 

B. CORRUGATA, Pease, MS. Carpenter referred this, as a syn- 
onym, to B. nebulosa, Pease ; but Pease says that this is an 
erroneous determination, that B. corrugata is a unique shell 
in his collection. It has not been published. 

B. PUSILLA, Dunker. Upolu. 

B. CEROPLASTA, Watson. St. Thomas, W. Ind. 

B. SILICEA, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 

II. Clavatulinse. 
Genus CLAVATULA, Lamarck, 1801. 

C. LELIEURI, Recluz. PI. 8, fig. 20. 

Shell turreted ; whorls smooth and concave above, with 
revolving raised lines below the bicarinated periphery ; yellowish 
brown, the upper portion of the whorls with large brown 



CLAVATULA. 229 

maculations and a revolving series of small brown spots just 

above the lower carina. Length, 33 mill. 

Senegal^ 
Very doubtfully distinct from the following species. 

C. MURICATA, Lam. PI. 8, figs. 22, 21, 15-19, 27; PL 30, figs. 
77,83. 

Upper portion of whorls smooth and concave, with a sutural 
band of tubercles, sometimes becoming spinose ; the periphery 
angulated, and tuberculate, as well as the body-whorl below it, 
caused by rude curved longitudinal ribs crossed by revolving 
sculpture ; light yellowish brown, sometimes fasciated ; aperture 
occasionally light violaceous, but mostly white. 

Length, 40 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa, South Africa. 

Varies much in form and in the degree of development of the 
tubercles and spines ; the younger and less robust specimens also 
have a somewhat longer canal. I include here several specific 
names heretofore regarded as distinct forms : C. virginea 
(Chemn.), Reeve (fig. 21), is a spineless form, the name of which 
would have priority, if it were binomial ; it is, however, "Murex 
Turris virgineus," which is not admissable. The name which I 
have adopted for the whole series of forms is that one which is 
in most common use, and represents the usual state of the 
species. Other synon3 r ms are Murex mitratus, Wood, Murex 
Turris coronatus, Chemn., Murex clavatulus, Dillw., P. cornea, 
Enc} T c. Meth., C. bimarginata, Lam. (fig. 15), C. diadema, 
Kiener (fig. 18), a younger and thinner shell, perhaps inhabiting 
more quiet localities than the heavier specimens ; G. gravis, 
Hinds (fig. 16), C. sacerdos, Reeve (PL 18, fig. 19; PI. 30, fig. 
77), C. mystica, Reeve (fig. 27), a very similar form to the last. 

Yar. RUBRIFASCIATA, Reeve. PL 8, fig. 17 ; PL 30, fig. 83. 

Shell yellowish brown, banded with bright red and ash-color. 
Appears to be connected with the typical species through C. 
ferruginea, Maltzan (PL 30, fig. 83), described as an entirely 
ferruginous-colored variety of G. rubrifasciata. 

C. IMPERIALIS, Lam. PL 8, fig. 13. 

Shell ovate, short, ventricose, clothed with a thick, dark olive- 
colored epidermis; whorls angulated above, the angle having a 



230 CLAVATULA. 

row of scale-like tubercles ; columella covered with a thick white 
callus ; interior of aperture stained above and below with violet. 
Length, 55 mill. 

Cabenda, W. Coast of Africa ; 5 fms., in soft mud, 

washed down b}^ the waters of the Congo. 
A rare species, from its appearance probably an inhabitant of 
brackish water. 

C. IMPLICATA, Reeve. PL 8, fig. 23. 

Shell pyramidally turreted, whorls depressed around the upper 
part, with revolving rows of nodules below, upper row on the 
periphery -angle, and duplicate ; covered with a thick olivaceous 
epidermis, aperture whitish. Length, 1 inch. 

Habitat unknown. 

Described from a single specimen. Its characteristics appear 
to be the long spire, and double row of tubercles on the shoulder- 
angle. 

C. COLINI, Maltzan. PL 30, fig. 84. 

Rosaceous, with a superior, and an inferior brown band. 

Length, 1 inch. 

W. Africa. 

A narrower form, with longer spire than any other species 
except (7. implicata, from which it may be distinguished b t y its 
carina and more pronounced canal, as well as b}^ color. I doubt 
whether it is really distinct from C. muricata. 

C. OERULEA, Weinkauff. PL 5, figs. 59, 60. 

Shell narrowly turreted, strongly keeled, the keel tuberculated, 
with revolving, sometimes granulous striae below it, the granules 
more apparent at the base ; bluish, the tubercles white, with the 
interstices purplish. Length, 20 mill. 

W. Africa (Maltzan). 

According to Maltzan the shell is white, with two corneous- 
bluish bands. The appearance of the figure, especially of the 
canal, indicates a young shell. 

C. PATRUELIS, E. A. Smith. PL 32, fig. 39. 

Reddish brown, with a white narrow band on the periphery, 
and, on the body-whorl, a second inferior band ; whorls twelve 
and a-half, with obsolete flexuous longitudinal plications, crossed 




W^ JV tf 

PERRONA; 

by revolving lines ; nodulous at the periphery, and less distin< 
so infer iorly. Length, 27 mill. 

Japan. 

I include this species in Clavatula on account of the opercu- 
lum, which has a subcentral nucleus, rather near the inner 
margin. 

C. TEXTILIS, Hinds. Straits of Macassar. 

Shortly diagnosed in Zool. Proc., 1843, but not included with 
the other species in the Moll, of Yoy. Sulphur, nor figured in 
Reeve's Iconica. The species must, therefore, have been either 
mislaid or discovered to have no claim to recognition. Clava- 
tula, according to Hinds, contained numerous species now 
excluded from that group. 

Subgenus PERRONA, Schum., 1817. 

Dr. Fischer has separated Tomella, Swainson, as a subgenus, 
characterized by spire not carinated, sinus wide near the middle 
of the outer lip; type, C.lineata. The position of the sinus in 
that species depends upon the extent of the callosity upon the 
upper part of the inner lip, and the spire is so variable, some 
specimens of undoubted lineata being subcarinate, that I do not 
think the distinction can be maintained. 

C. LINEATA, Lam. PI. 8, figs. 10, 11. 

Shell smooth, body-whorl more or less constricted above, the 
spire sometimes very short, and sometimes long ; whitish or 
yellowish brown, thickly flexuously longitudinally lineated with 
chestnut or chocolate. Length, 1-1'5 inches. 

W. Africa ; Cape of Good Hope. 

C. TAXUS, Chemn. PI. 8, fig. 14; PI. 32, fig. 15. 

Shell yellowish brown, nexuously lineated with chestnut, under 
a thick olivaceous brown epidermis ; whorls constricted above, 
slightly nodulously longitudinally plicate below, and flexuously 
longitudinally striate ; aperture brownish. 

Length, 2'75-4 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
C. OBESA, Reeve. PI. 8, figs. 9, 4. 

Whorls corded below the suture, with a constriction below the 
16 



232 PERRONA. 

cord ; yellowish white, flexuously lineated with chestnut, the 
corded portion white. Length, 40 mill. 

W. Africa. 

Possibly only a heavy shelled variety of C. lineata. I think 
that C. tripartita (Smith), Weinkauff (fig. 4), is synonymous, as 
I have specimens intermediate between the two forms. 

C. SPIRATA, Lam. PL 8, fig. 5. 

Whorls constricted around the upper part, with a rather sharp 
ridge next the suture, and an obtuse angle below the constric- 
tion ; yellowish, mottled and striped with chestnut. 

Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

W. Africa. 
C. PERRON, Chemnitz. 1*1. 8, fig. 8. 

Shell fusiform, turreted, rather smooth^ pale yellow; whorls 
flat, with flexuous longitudinal lines, slightly angulated round 
the upper part, lower portion of the last whorl contracted and 
with several regular, distant revolving ridges ; sinus nearly cen- 
tral. Length, 27 mill. 

W. Africa (Mar rat). 

Is an intermediate form between C. lineata and C. spirata 
which should probably be merged in one species. Chemnitz 
adopted a Dutch name " the perron," for this species, and Reeve 
erroneously supposing it to be in honor of a naturalist, changed 
its form to (7. Perronii. 

C. MONILE, Yal. PL 7, fig. 96. 

Chestnut-brown, with a subsutural band maculated with 
darker chestnut spots ; surface finely decussated with longitu- 
dinal and spiral striae* Length, 1 inch. 

Australia. 

Pleur. monile being preoccupied by Brocchi for a fossil species, 
Desmoulins changed the name to Quoyi ; but the species figured 
under the latter name by Reeve and Weinkauff appears to me to 
be very distinct In the present group the specific name monile 
is not preoccupied ; I therefore restore it. 



C. GRACILIOR, Sowb. (Unfigured.) Habitat unknown. 

C. TUMIDA, Sowb. (Unfigured.) Agulhas Bank, So. Africa. 



CLIONELLA. 233 

Subgenus CLIONELLA, Gray, 1847. 
C. STRIATA, Kiener. PI. 9, fig. 53. 

Shell olive-yellow, longitudinally obliquely ribbed, with fine 
revolving striae, lip simple, sinus broad. Length, 1'5 inches. 

Habitat unknown. 

Schrenck includes this species in his Moll, of Amurl.,but very 
probably, as Weinkauff has pointed out, Crassispira Clionellde- 
formis was mistaken for it. 

C. ROSARIA, Reeve. PI. 9, fig. 51. 

Shell shortly subulate, truncated at the base, whorls plaited, 
smooth, aperture short; bright scarlet-rose, uppermost part of 
the whorls white-zoned. Length, 22 mill. 

So. Africa. 
C. SIGILLATA, Reeve. PI. 9, figs. 47, 48. 

Shell pyramidally ovate, transversely somewhat obscurely 
striated ; whorls channeled around the upper part, faintly 
nodosely, obliquely plicated beneath the channel ; pale reddish 
chestnut, aperture and columella yellowish white. 

Length, 32 mill. 

So. Africa. 
C. SEMICOSTATA, Kiener. PI. 9, fig. 46. 

Whorls with shallow channel above, periphery nodulous by the 
terminations of short, oblique, rather distant ribs ; sinus broad ; 
light yellowish brown. Length, 1-75 inches. 

So. Africa. 
C. SINUATA, Born. PI. 9, fig. 50. 

Whorls with a narrow channel above, the periphery with a row 
of small nodules, terminating short, low, flexuous plicate ribs ; 
pale rusty brown, under a blackish brown epidermis. 

Length, 2 inches. So. Africa. 

Equally well known under its later name of C. Buccinoides, 
Lam. 

C. NUX, Reeve. PI. 9, fig. 49. 

Shell ovate, whorls convex, slightly concave at the upper part, 
last whorl rather gibbous ; canal very short, truncated ; sinus 
rather broad ; reddish chestnut, columella and interior white. 

Length, -75 inch. 

So. Africa. 



234 PUSIONELLA. 

C. RUBINICOLOR, Reeve. PL 9, fig. 55. 

Whorls with a nodulous periphery, and shallow shoulder above 
it ; last whorl with slight revolving striae towards the base ; 
orange-red, nodules whitish. Length, -75 inch. 

Hab. unknown . 

Perhaps does not belong to this group. 



C. BORNII, E. A. Smith. (Unfigured.) Cape of Good Hope. 

0. BIPARTITA, E. A. Smith. (Unfigured). 

Port Elizabeth, So. Africa. 

C. SUBVENTRICOSA, E. A. Smith. (Untigured.) So. Africa. 

C. PLATYSTOMA, E. A. Smith. (Unfigured.) Cape of Good Hope. 
C. KRAUSSII, E. A. Smith. (Unfigured.) Cape of Good Hope. 
C. QUADRUPLEX, Watson. (Unfigured.) 1000 fms. W. of Azores. 

Genus PUSIONELLA, Gray, 1847. 

P. VALIDA, Bunker. PI. 31, figs. 9, 10. 

Shell smooth, ponderous, whorls 11-12, flatly rounded, with 
two or three striae around the upper portion, and several at the 
base of the body-whorl ; light yellowish brown. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Pacific Ocean ? (Dunker). 

This is probably a West African shell as are all the other 
species of the genus, except P. rapulum. I suspect that the 
young shell which Philippi calls Fusus candidus (fig. 10), may 
belong here ; it is W. African. 

P. ACULEIFORMIS, Lam. PL 31 > figs. 2, 3. 

Shell elongated, spire^whorls more or less plicately ribbed, 
sometimes only the upper ones ; body-whorl smooth except at 
the base, where there are revolving grooves ; very light grayish 
yellow, or yellowish brown, or chestnut. Length, 1*75 inches. 

W. Africa. 

P. Catelini, Petit (fig. 3), is a shouldered variety; many of the 
specimens exhibit some shoulder on the whorls. 

P. VULPINA, Born. PL 31, figs. 4-6. 

Shell stouter than the preceding species, no longitudinal ribs, 
upper part of the whorls with two or three engraved revolving 



PUSIONELLA. 235 

lines, and several more at the base of the body-whorl ; otherwise 
smooth and polished, or with microscopic revolving sTrue ; 
chocolate-color, sometimes yellowish or orange-brown. 

Length, 1*6 inches. 

W. Africa. 

This species is equally well known as P. buccinata, Lam. P. 
albocincta, Petit (fig. 6), is a variety with a median white band ; 
P. Recluziana, Petit (fig. 5), is a light-colored variety ; P. grandis, 
A. Ad., an unfigured species, is evidently synonymous with the 
latter. 

P. MILLETI, Petit. PL 31, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell whitish, or yellowish flesh-color, or brown, more or less 
decussated by longitudinal and revolving engraved lines, some- 
times forming granulations especially on the spire ; the revolv- 
ing lines prominent on the body-whorl, where the longitudinal 
ones are usually subobsolete. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

W. Africa. 

P. subgranulata, Petit (fig. 8), is a synonym, as are also prob- 
ably the unfigured P. lirata, A. Ad,, and P. lupinus, Phil. 

P. RAPULUM, Reeve. PI. 31, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell oblong ovate, the whorls compressedly gibbous, forming 
a round shoulder, constricted and with revolving striae towards 
the base ; otherwise smooth, except that the upper whorls of the 
spire are slightly longitudinally plicate; whitish, under a very 
thin, smooth, yellowish brown epidermis, often yellowish brown 
within the aperture ; a heavy, white callous deposit at the upper 
extremity of the inner margin of the aperture. 

Length, 1'5 inches. 

Malacca (Cuming) ; Java (Petit). 

P. Wallaysi, Petit (fig. 12), is a synonym. 
P. NIFAT (Adanson) Bruguiere. PL 31, figs. 13, 14. 

Whorls usually narrowly shouldered above, whitish under a 
light olivaceous, thin epidermis, with several revolving series of 
square chestnut spots ; base constricted, with a few engraved 
striae. Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

W. Africa ; Algiers. 

Weinkauff dredged living specimens off the Algerian coast. 
This is the Buccinum pusio of Born and Gmelin, but not of 



236 SURCULA. 

Linnaeus ; the usual shouldered form is also the P. scalarina, 
Lam. 



P. BECURVIROSTRIS, Marrat (unfigured). W. Africa. 

No dimensions are given. ? = P. aculeiformis. 

Genus SURCULA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

With long canal. 
S. MACULOSA, Sowerby. PL 5, fig. 57. 

Smooth, or with light revolving striae, the shoulder of the 
whorls angulated and defined by a row of tubercles ; flesh- 
colored, light brown, or light purplish, with chestnut macula- 
tions. L. 42, cliam. 13 mill. 

West Columbia to Gulf of California. 

S. BRUNNEOMACULATA, Sowb. PL 10, fig. 71. 

Shell stout, with a more turreted spire and more angulate 
periphery and stronger nodules than ' S. maculosa, the whorls 
also more distinctly spirally striate ; color j^ellowish brown with 
chestnut maculations and interrupted bands. 

? California (Frick). 

Notwithstanding the differences above pointed out, the species 
is evidently so closety allied to S. maculosa, that I have hesitated 
to keep it separate. I scarcely think that Weinkauffs figure 
represents the species. 

S. AUSTRALIS, Roissy. PL 5, fig. 58 ; PL 2, fig. 9. 

Shell yellowish white, encircled. by corded orange-brown ribs, 
with several intermediate striae ; outer lip broadly rounded 
above into the rather shallow sinus. L. 100, diam. 28 mill. 

China Sea, Philippines. 

S. turris, Yal. (fig. 9), is a synonym. 

S. ARCUATA, Reeve. PL 5, fig. 61. 

Shell arcuately fusiform, thin, inflated, rather transparent; 
whorls lined and sharply keeled round the middle, keel painted 
with regular brown spots; lip rounded, separated from the last 
whorl by a broad sinus; canal slender, curved, equaling the 
length of the spire. L. 43, diam. 13 mill. 

Coast of Veragua, Central America (Hinds). 



SUROULA. 237 

S. TORNATA, Dillwyn. PL 5, fig. 62 ; PL 6, fig. 81. 

Shell smooth, ivory-like, lower portion of body-whorl with 
revolving striae, upper portion of the whorls broadly, concavely 
channeled, sinus broad and shallow ; whitish or 3'ellowish, 
flexuously strigated with light brown. L. 80, diam. 26 mill. 

East Indies, Java. 

Generally known as P. Javana, Linn., but that author's 
description is of a ribbed shell which this is not. 

Yar. FULMINATA, Kiener. PL 6, fig. 81. 

Shell smaller, proportionally wider, the revolving striae upon 
the lower part of the bodyrwhorl stronger ; the color variegated 
by strong flexuous longitudinal strigations or maculations. 

L. 48, diam. 17 mill. 

Java. 

Barely distinguishable as a variety. 

S. JAVANA, Linn. PL 5, figs. 63-65. 

Whorls angular and tuberculated in the middle, the tubercles 
developing from more or less indistinct oblique folds or ribs, 
everywhere closely encircled by striae ; light yellowish brown, 
the tubercles lighter. L. 56, diam. 23 mill. 

Java, Malacca, Japan. 

This is perhaps better known as S. nodi/era, Lam., the S. 
Javana of authors (not Linn.) being the preceding species 
S. tornata, Dillwyn. S. Coreanica, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 64), is a 
specimen not fully grown, and S. lurida, Ad. and Reeve (fig. 65), 
is a small, darker hued, banded variety. 

S. TUBERCULATA, Gray. PL 5, figs. 66, 67. 

Whorls angulated, the angle defined by a row of tubercula- 
tions, below them are several rows of granular revolving striae, 
and towards the base the striae are continued but not granular ; 
yellowish, punctate with chestnut. L. 25, diam. 9 mill. 

Hong- Kong, Japan, Java, Australia. 

With this species must be united S. punctata, Reeve (fig. 66). 

S. OLIVACEA, Sowb. PL 5, figs. 69,70; PL 10, fig. 77; PL 34, 

fig. 3. 

Shell with 8-10 coarse, rounded longitudinal ribs, forming a 
knobbed angle on each whorl, where they terminate, encircled 



238 SURCULA. 

by coarse riblets and striae; interior of outer lip generally 
showing revolving striae ; yellowish brown, chestnut or chocolate, 
under a light olivaceous or brownish epidermis, the projecting 
portions of lighter color. Jj. 62, diam. 26 mill. 

Panama to Gulf of California. 

P. funiculata, Val. (fig. 70), and P. duplicata, Sowb. (fig. 77), 
are synonyms. The species is a very common one in the Gulf 
of California and at Mazatlan. Fig. 69, which represents the 
typical olivacea, at first sight would be supposed to be distinct 
from funiculata (fig. 70), and to approach the next species. 
The shoulder is very narrow, so that the angle is not prominent. 
I figure an intermediate form from Weinkauff (PL 34, fig. 3), 
which he calls S. olivacea. 

S. TUBERCULIFERA, Brod. and Sowb. PI. 5, fig, 68 ; PI. 10, fig. 60. 

Whorls well rounded with strong rounded ribs, nodules forming 
a single row on each whorl, with strong revolving striae ; yellowish 
brown, darker banded above arid below the nodules, with some 
additional brown revolving lines below the lowest band. 

L. 63, diam. 22 mill. 

Gulf of California. 

Described from a specimen not fully grown (PI. 5, fig. 68). 
Through the kindness of Mr. R. E. C. Stearns I am enabled to 
give a figure of an adult of this fine species (PI. 10, fig. 60). I 
have a specimen before me uniform yellowish brown, without 
bands. 

S. UNDATIRUGA, Bivona. PI. 5, figs. 71, 72; PL 6, figs. 73, 74. 

Whorls angulated in the middle and nodulous on the angle, 
above it the surface is smooth, below the nodules are continued 
as flexuose wrinkles or ribs, becoming evanescent towards the 
base of the aperture ; yellowish brown, with usually one or two 
darker bands. L. 50, diam. 16 mill. 

Sicily, Algiers, Spain, Teneriffe, W. Coast of Africa. 

This is the S. balteala, Beck, of Kiener (fig. 72), S. corrugata, 
Kiener (fig. 74), and S. tenuis, Gray (fig. 73). Monterosato 
considers corrugata a synonymn, but he separates balteata and 
tenuis as a variety under the name of similis, Bivona. 



SURCULA. 239 

S. KADERLYI, Lischke. PI. 6, fig. 75. 

Whorls subangulated with about twelve oblique, rounded, 
longitudinal ribs below 'the angle, surface decussated by growth- 
lines and small revolving striae ; 3*ellowish white, with orange- 
brown bands on the shoulder, at the base and intermediately 
three in all, the upper one appearing on the spire. 

L. 67, diam. 24 mill, Japan. 

S. PAUPERA, Watson, 

Fusiform, decussated by spiral striae and growth-lines, whorls 
angulated by a revolving row of tubercles, giving rise to short 
longitudinal ribs, about thirteen in number on the body-whorl ; 
spire high, conical, whorls 10-11 ; color buff-brown, under a 
coarse, harsh yellowish epidermis. L. 1*75, diam. -68 in. 

Aru 7s/., 800 fathoms, mud. 

Dredged by the "Challenger" Expedition, and not yet 
figured. It is described as a Drillia. 

S. CLARA, von Martens. PI. 6, figs. 77, 77 a, 

Whorls seven, spirally closely striate, decussated by growth- 
lines, with a strong spiral carina ; sinus short and wide, extending 
from the carina to the suture ; diaphanous white. 

L. 36, diam. 13 mill. 

Patagonia. 
S. CARPENTERIANA, Gabb. PI. 7, fig. 3. 

Shell fusiform, the whorls somewhat flattened, without angle, 
carina or ribs, surface with close revolving lirse, sometimes 
alternating in size ; sinus a mere sigmoid curve of the outer lip; 
aperture scarcely narrowed into a canal below. Brownish orange, 
with broken revolving bands of a light reddish brown ; these 
bands usually occur on the larger liree, and are most closely 
placed on the middle of the shell. L. 73, diam. 26 mill. 

California. 

It is a post-pliocene fossil, of which some specimens, retaining 
the color (and therefore supposed to be recent) have been ob- 
tained on the shore and by dredging. 

S. PERVERSA, Gabb. PL 6, fig. 79. 

Sinistral, elongate, slender, of 11-12 convex whorls, with very 
flexuose growth-striae, and fine spiral lines ; aperture scarcely 



240 SURCULA. 

canaliculate, the outer lip sigmoid ; light reddish brown, under an 
olivaceous epidermis, with a central broad white band, having ill- 
defined edges ; columella and extremities of the shell also white. 
L. 38, diam. 11 mill. 

Catalina Isl., Gal.; Straits of Fuca. 
S. VINOSA, Dall. 

Sinistral, shorter and much less slender than the preceding 
species, with a shorter canal and proportionally much larger 
aperture, finely spirally striate ; uniform deep wine-brown or 
claret-color. 

Aleutian Islands. 
S. STNISTRALIS, Petit. PI. 13. fig. 64. 

Sinistral; ash-brown ; lightly decussately striated ; sinus broad ; 
canal short. Length, 20 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa (Petit). 

S. PLUTEATA, Reeve. PL 6, fig. 18 ; PL 30, fig. 82. 

Shell narrowly fusiform, with elevated, acuminated spire and 
long, narrow, twisted canal ; whorls with a shelf below the 
sutures, and a central revolving carina of small nodules ; horn- 
color, the nodules white ; sinus rather shallow and wide. 

L. 30, diam. 7 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 

Described by Reeve without locality, but I have the same 
species before me, received from the Liverpool Museum, with 
the above habitat, with the MS. name P. mandarina, Smith. 

S. ANNULATA, Reeve. PL 6, fig. 83. 

Shell solid, with elongated spire and well-formed but rather 
short canal ; whorls cingulated throughout. L. 48, diam. 15 mill. 

Habitat ? 
S. CATENA, Reeve. PL 6, fig. 84. 

Shell narrow, elongately fusiform, spire turreted, yellowish 
gray ; whorls very convex in the middle as if suddenly swollen, 
and bearing a row of oblique, white tubercles; lip thin, sinus 
broad ; canal long and straight. L. 58, diam. 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
With short canal. 

S. ASTRICTA, Reeve. PL 6, figs, 85, 86 a ; PL 32, fig. 36. 

Spire often truncate, the tip acuminate when present, whorls 



SURCULA. 241 

spirally ridged ; yellowish white, the superior ridge on each 

whorl articulated with chestnut and white. L. 16, diam. G nrilh 

Isl. Annaa (Cuming) ; Cook's Islands (Garrett). 

This is the S. interrupta of Sowerby, ncH Lamarck; S. modesta 

of Weink., not Sowb. (fig. 86 a). 

S. CINCTA, Lamarck. PI. 6, fig. 86. 

Spire convex in outline, slightly acuminated towards the tip ; 
whorls encircled throughout with tumid ridges ; yellowish brown 
or reddish brown, aperture same color. L. 14, diam. 5'5 mill. 
Heal Llejos (probably erroneous), and Isl. Annaa 

(Cuming); Mauritius (Weinkauff); 

Viti Islands (Garrett). 

This is the S. modesta, Sowb., and the shell described and 
figured under that name by Weinkauff = the preceding species. 

S. BTJUBATA, Reeve. PL 6, fig. 8Y. 

Shell chocolate-brown, encircled by narrow, lighter-colored 
keels, the second keel, which is somewhat stronger than the 
others, often broken up into small tubercles ; interior of aperture 
chocolate-colored. L. 20, diam. 8 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Mauritius (Robillard) ; 

Viti Isles (Garrett); Solomon Islands (Smith). 
Distinguished from the preceding species by its narrower 
form, longer spire, sharper ridges and darker color. 

S. RADULA, Hinds. PI. T, figs. 89, 88, 90. 

Shell dark brown, encircled by ridges of which the one 
defining the shoulder-angle and those below it are granular or 
tuberculate ; the angle-row usually white ; sometimes with 
chestnut bands. L. 18, diam. 6 mill. 

Red Sea, Malacca, Australia. 

S. versicolor, Weink. (fig. 88), is merely a variegated speci- 
men, and S. raduliformis,Wemk. (fig. 90), has the sculpture not 
so strongly developed. I am inclined to think that P. Metcalfei, 
Angas, P. obeliscus, Reeve, P. pyramidata, Val., which I have 
treated under Drillia, will need to be united with this form when 
fuller series shall be available for comparison. 



242 SURCULA. 

S. OWENII, Gray. PI. 7, fig. 91. 

Whorls encircled by a row of compressed tubercles at the 
periphery, and a smaller one beneath the suture ; below the 
periphery granulated by the intersection of fine revolving riblets 
and close curved growth costa* ; cream-brown or nearly white, 
often orange-tinged at the extremity of the spire. 

L. 30, diam. 11 mill. 

Australia. 
S. QUOYI, Reeve. PL 7, fig. 95. 

Shell yellowish brown, with a double row of small, compressed 
nodules on the periphery, above which the surface is slightly 
concave to a subsutural, slightly nodulous band, which is 
regularly square-spotted with chestnut ; lower part of body- 
whorl with revolving, fine ridges and striae. 

L. 28, diam. 12 mill. 

Australia. 

With this species Reeve and Weinkauff unite P. monile, Val. ; 
it appears to me more nearly related to the group Perrona. 



The following species of Surcula have been described by Rev. 
Robert Boog Watson in the " Mollusca of the Challenger 
Expedition." They have not been figured. 

P. STAMINEA, Watson. Kerguelen, Prince Edward IsL, etc. 

P. TRILIX, Watson. Kerguelen and Heard Isl. 

P. LEPTA, Watson. Southern Ocean, Southeast of Australia. 

(Resembles P. clara, von Martens, from Patagonia.) 
P. ROTUND AT A, Watson. Pacific, East of Japan. 

P. GONIODES, Watson. Southeast of La Plata. 

(Resembles in a general way P. circinata, Dall.) 
P. PLEBEIA, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 

(Something like P. nodifera, Lam.) 

P. SYNGENES, Watson. Off St. Thomas, West Indies. 

P. HEMIMERES, Watson. Pernambuco. 

P. ANTERIDION, Watson. Off Gape of Good Hope. 

P. RHYSA, Watson. Pernambuco. 

P. BOLBODES, Watson. Pernambuco. 

P. ISCHNA, Watson. Northeast from New Zealand. 

(Resembles P. emendata, Monterosato, of the Mediterranean.) 




MANGILIA. 



III. Mangiliinae. 
Genus MANGILIA, RissQ, 1826. 

M. VAUQUELINI, Payraudeau. PL 21, figs. 17, 18. 

Shell pale yellowish or almost white, with distant strong ribs ; 
the shoulder with brown dashes or spots, appearing on the ribs 
only ; there is usually, on the body-whorl a central line of spots, 
also on the ribs. Length, 9-12 mill. 

Mediterranean, throughout ; Atlantic Coast 

of Spain, Madeira, Canaries 

The synonymy includes M. rigida, Reeve (fig. 18), M. unifas- 
ciata, Costa (not Deshayes), and Fusus Rossmassleri, Anton. 

Yar. BREVIS, Requien (= nana, Monts.), is smaller and pro- 
portionally shorter than the type. 

M. PACINIANA, Calcara. PL 32, fig. 33. 

Shell with the whorls not shouldered, but ribbed as in the 
preceding species, not striate ; yellowish or whitish, with brown 
revolving lines. Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

This species is also known as M. Sandrii, Brusina. 

M. T^NIATA, Desh. PL 21, fig. 13. 

Shell smooth, with shouldered whorls ; whitish or yellowish 
brown, with narrow brown revolving lines. Length 9 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

M. eburnea, Bivona, is a synonym. 

M. UNIFASCIATA, Deshayes. PL 34, fig. 88. 

Shell white, with a broad brown band above the aperture, 
reappearing on the spire, and another at the base of the body- 
whorl. Length, 7 mill. 

Morea, Algiers. 

Weinkauff (Med. Meeres-Conchyl.) states that this species has 
not been recognized since the publication of the original descrip- 
tion and figure, but he thinks it may be synonymous with 
Raphitoma costulata, Bfainv. ; Monterosato, however, enumerates 
it among his Algerian shells (Jour, de Conch. 1877, 42). 



244 MANGILIA. 

M. BERTRANDI, Payr. PI. 21, fig. 12 ; PL 32, fig. 47. 

Shell chestnut- or chocolate-brown, with usually an indistinct 
central darker band, ribs often white; whorls rounded above, 
without distinct shoulder. Length, 9-14 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

M. cxrulans, Phil., is a synonym. The M. casrulans figured 
b}' Appelius (PL 32, fig. 47), and which Monterosato has named 
M. indistincta, does not appear to differ materially ; it has not 
been described. 

M. COSTATA, Forbes and Hanley. PL 34, fig. 77 ; PL 32, fig. 37. 

Shell with 7 or 8 stout ribs ; whorls without shoulder ; 
spire var} T ing in length ; spire and upper half of the body-whorl 
chestnut- or chocolate-color, lower half of body-whorl light 
yellowish brown, sometimes yellowish brown with darker linea- 
tions. Length, 12 mill. 

Sweden to Mediterranean. 

Mr. Jeffreys says : u The Murex costatus of Pennant is a 
mixture of small shells belonging to different genera." I follow 
him in ascribing the name to Forbes and Hanley who have 
accurately diagnosed the species, rather than to any of those 
earlier authors who used it indefinitely. The P. coarctata, 
Forbes (fig. 37), is merely a larger form of this species, mainly 
northern in distribution. M. pusilla, Reeve, and M. balteata, 
Reeve, are both made synonyms by Forbes and Hanley ; they 
are described without locality, but the former has shouldered 
whorls and too many ribs, and the latter has been identified as 
Australasian by Mr. Brazier, and as West Indian by Mr. Swift. 

M. SICULA, Reeve. PL 21, fig. 10. 

Shell chestnut- or chocolate-brown within and without, with 
narrow brown lines, more conspicuous on the thickened lip, 
which is lighter colored ; whorls rounded, rather gibbous, those 
of the spire obtusely angulated. Length, 12 mill. 

Sicily, Adriatic Sea. 

PL plicatum, Phil., is a juvenile. 

M. MULTILINEOLATA, Deshayes. PL 22, fig. 53. 

Longitudinal ribs rather numerous, close together, curved ; 



MANGILIA. 245 

white, with chestnut, revolving lines, rarely unicolored or 

unifasciate. Length, 7 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

M. ALBIDA, Deshayes. PL 32, fig. 32. s 

Shell white, very slightly round-shouldered, with about ten 
longitudinal ribs, and wider interspaces. Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Monterosato considers this a distinct species, but Weinkaulf 
refers it to M. rugulosa. I have not seen specimens. 

M. RUGULOSA, PhilippL PI. 22, fig. 44. 

Shell whitish to yellowish brown, the whorls round-shouldered 
above, the rude ribs with wider interspaces, crossed by elevated 
revolving lines, some of them much larger than the rest, and 
which are sometimes brown. Length, 6 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea England. 

The distinctive character of this species, if it be one, is the 
series of revolving, minute ridges and striae. M. Stossichiana, 
Brusina, is a synonym, according to Weinkauff. 

M. COMPANYOI, Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf. PI. 33, fig. 62. 

Whorls convex, subangular above, with strong, distant ribs, 
surface covered by extremely fine decurrent striae, visible only 
with the microscope ; yellowish white, with numerous well- 
marked, regular, darker, revolving lines. Length, 7 mill. 

Roussilon, France. 

I have not seen this species ; apparently it possesses but 
slight distinctive characters. 

M. SUBCLATHRATA, Maltzan. PL 30, fig. 87. 

Turreted fusiform, sutures Well impressed ; ribs eleven, decus- 
sated, and rendered nodulous by many undulating spiral riblets ; 
lip thickened, denticulated, sinus small. Length, 6 75 mill. 

Isl. Goree, West Coast of Africa. 

M. STRUCKI, Maltzan. PL 30, fig. 88. 

Turreted fusiform, with produced spire and deep sutures ; 
reddish brown; ribs nine, straight, decussated and rendered 
nodulous by spiral riblets ; sinus nearly obsolete, lips thickened 
and dentate. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Isl. Goree, West Coast of Africa. 



246 MANGILIA. 

M. GOREENSTS, Maltzan, PL 30, fig. 9L 

Shell with about eight smooth costse, and wider interspaces 
covered by revolving striae ; brownish, with the ribs white 
towards the aperture. Length, 8 mill. 

West Coast of Africa. 
M. STELLATA, Stearns. PI. 34, fig. 84. 

Shell turreted, yellowish, tinged more or less with reddish 
brown; whorls seven, angulated above; suture distinct; with 12 or 
13 strong, smooth longitudinal ribs, extending to the extremity 
of the basal volution, which also shows near its termination a 
few revolving lines ; labrum effuse, externally much thickened, 
deeply notched near the suture. L. '35, lat. -14 inch. 

Tampa Bay, W. Florida. 

The lip and columella in most specimens are dark ferruginous 
brown. I may add to the above description that the inter- 
spaces . of the ribs, in one of the specimens before me, are 
covered with fine revolving striae, and that another has a faint 
central band. It has not been figured hitherto, and I therefore 
give an illustration from a specimen from Tampa Bay which 
appears to fairly represent the typical form. 

M. LAQUEATA, Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 30. 

Ribs stout, few, remote ; sinus not very distinct ; dull white. 
Considerably magnified, but no dimensions given. 

West Indies (d'Orbigny). 

The figure shows revolving colored lines, which are not 
mentioned in the description. 

M. LUCTUOSA, d'Orb. PI. 22, fig. 47. 

Whorls very slightly round-shouldered, yellowish brown, with 
about eleven darker longitudinal ribs, the interstices with 
revolving striae ; aperture and lips dark brown. Length, 11 mill. 

Cuba, Guadeloupe. 

I am not acquainted with this species. Mr. E. A. Smith has 
supposed it to be a Drillia, and as the specific name is preoccu- 
pied in -that genus by Hinds, he has changed it to P. Cubensis. 

M. PENTAGONALIS, Gray. PI. 21, fig. 30. 

Shell white, smooth, longitudinally five-ribbed, ribs pointed at 
the shoulder. Length, f> mill. 

St. Vincent, West Indies. 



MANGILIA. 24? 

M. GUARANI, d'Orbigny. PI. 22, fig. 46 ; PL 18, fig. 21. 

Brownish, sometimes with narrow, lighter bands ; ribs promi- 
nent, rounded, crenulating the suture 4 there are elevated 
revolving lines. Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies (Reeve), Brazil (d'Orb.). 

M. obesicostata, Reeve (PI. 18, fig. 21), from the West Indies is 
evidently a synonym. 

M. DYSONI, Reeve. PI. 21, fig. 21. 

Whitish, with two faint bands of orange-brown. Length, 9 mill. 

Honduras (Dyson). 
M. SYMMETEICA, Reeve. PL 21, fig. 40. 

Whorls shouldered ; longitudinally ribbed, the interspaces 
with very fine elevated stride ; yellowish brown, the shoulder 
white. Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Mus. Cuming). 

I can add nothing to the information concerning this species. 

M. BALTEATA, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 11. 

Whorls obtusely slightly angulated in the middle ; ribs few, 
narrow, with wide smooth interspaces ; white, with a median 
chestnut zone. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat? (Reeve), West Indies (Swift). 

Krebs considers M. densestriata, C. B Ad., a doubtful 
synonym ; it is a white shell, without band, ribs 10 to 12, more 
numerous than in the figure of balteata* the interstices very 
finely striate transversely. I am not acquainted with the species, 
but the characters appear to be sufficiently distinctive. Brazier 
identifies an Australian shell with M. balteata. 

M. BADIA, Reeve. PL 21, fig. 41. 

Shell plicately ribbed, transversely strongly plicated; dark 
chestnut-brown. Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat? (Reeve), St. Thomas, W. I. (Krebs). 

According to Krebs, M. crassicostata, C. B. Ad. (an unfigured 
species), is a synonym. 

M. TRILINEATA, C. B. Adams. PL 21, fig. 31 ; PL 18, fig. 36. 
Shell narrowly shouldered, with small, close, numerous longi- 
17 



248 MANGTLIA. 

tudinal ribs and impressed revolving striae ; whitish, with three 
narrow brown bands, one of which appears on the spire-whorls. 

Length, 6 mill. 

West Indies. 

Described and figured by Reeve as M. trifasciata, Gray, a few 
months later than Adams' description. M. costata, Gray (PI. 18, 
fig. 36), is the same species without bands, as first determined 
by Krebs. The latter name being preoccupied by Pennant, Mr. 
E. A. Smith has recently changed it to decora. Krebs thinks 
that M. quadrilineata, Adams (unfigured), also belongs here. 

M. ALBOVITTATA, C. B. Ad. PI. 21, fig. 32. 

Ovately oblong, whorls with narrow shoulder ; longitudinally 
strongly ribbed, ribs close-set, obtuse; white, orange banded. 

Length, 6 mill. 

West Indies. 

Described and figured by Reeve a few months later, under the 
name of M. luteo-fasciata, and without locality. Adams includes 
revolving striae in his diagnosis ; they are not visible on the 
figure. Hutton erroneously identified with this species a New 
Zealand shell, afterwards distinguished as Drillia Sinclairi, 
Smith. 

M. HORNBECKII, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 6f. 

Shell ovate, spire rather short, acute, sutures deep, somewhat 
cavernous, longitudinally ribbed, ribs prominent, transversely 

very minutely striated ; white. Length, 10 mill. 

West Indies. 



The following species, apparently of Mangilia (restricted), 
have been described as West Indian, etc. ; they are unfigured 
and unknown to me. 

M. brevis, M. biconica, M. vicina, M. multilineata (= M. poly- 
zonata, H. and A. Ad.), M. muricoides, M. dubia, M.fusca, 
and M. candidissima, all of C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

M. cinctella, Pfeiffer. Cuba. 

M. millestriata, E. A. Smith. St. Thomas, W. I. 

M. inepta, E. A. Smith. Honduras. 



MANGILIA. 249 

M. hypsela, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 

M. acanthodes, Watson. Bermuda, Azores. 

M. corallina, M. tiara, Watson. Near St. Thomas, W. I. 

M. macra, Watson. Azores. 

M. eritmeta, Watson. Azores. 

M. rufocincta, E. A. Smith. Porto Cavallo, So. America. 

M. ligata, 0. B. Ad., H. and A. Adams, Genera. I have not 
found any description of this species. 

M. INTERLIRATA, Stearns. PI. 22, fig. 56. 

Shell dark reddish brown, solid ; whorls eight, with 8-10 strong 
longitudinal ribs, and 10-12 thread4ike, darker colored revolving 
ribs in the interspaces only ; outer lip simple, somewhat 
thickened. Length, '27 inch. 

Monterey and San Diego, Gal. 
M. HEXAGONA, Gabb. 

Shell small, slender, fusiform ; spire subacute, nuclear whorls 
two, smooth, normal whorls five, slightly subangular and orna- 
mented by six large acute radiating ribs with broad, concave 
interspaces ; besides these, the whole surface is cancellated by 
minute raised lines ; color brownish white, ornamented by a few 
reddish brown revolving bands, one much larger than the rest, 
in the middle of the whorl ; aperture narrow, columella very 
slightly twisted ; outer lip acute, sinus almost obsolete. 

L. -34, lat. -1 ; L. apert. "15 inch. 

Monterey, Gal. (2 specimens). 
M. BELLA, Hinds. PI. 21, fig. 35. 

Shell fusiform, attenuated below, slender, pale yellowish 
brown ; whorls rounded, longitudinally ribbed, crossed with 
white raised lines, banded with darker brown round the upper 
part ; ribs slender, furnished with small scattered granules, 
running into a simple suture ; lip thickened, sinus small, rather 
wide. Length, 16 mill. 

W. Goast of Central America. 

M. STRIOSA, C. B. Adams. PI. 34, fig. 96. 

Shell slender, dingy white, with a rather indistinct narrow 
central brown band on the body-whorl ; longitudinal ribs 10-12, 



250 MANGILIA. 

slender, crossed by close elevated revolving lines; lip rather 
sharp on the edge but thickened behind it by a stout rib. 

Length, -3 inch. 

Panama. 

Not hitherto figured ; my illustration is from a specimen 
which was obtained at Panama, and appears to correspond 
closely with the description. 

M. FOEMICARTA, Sowb. PL 21, fig. 38. 

Shell acuminately oblong, longitudinally strongly ribbed, 
interstices crossed with very fine striae ; pitch-black within and 
without. Length, 8 mill. 

Iquiqui, Peru, under stones (Cuming). 

I am not acquainted with the species above so meagrely 
described. 

M. OBDTNARIA, E. A. Smith. PL 34, fig. 97. 

Shell subturreted, yellowish brown; ribs 10-11, with strong 
revolving striae or lirae, here and there larger ; lip thickened. 

Length, 7*5 mill. 

Chili and Peru. 

This will probably prove identical with the last species. 
Figured from a specimen. 



M. CARPENTERI, Folin. PL 30, fig. 74. 

Fulvous. Length, 4-5 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on Meleagrina. 

M. GODFROIDI, Folin. PL 30, fig. 70. 
Very dark brown. Length, 4 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on Meleagrina. 
M, LEUCOLABRATUM, Folin. PL 30, fig. 72. 

Brown, the upper portion of the whorls light yellowish. 
Length, 3'8 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on Meleagrina. 
M. IMPERFECTUM, Folin. PL 28, fig. 43. 

Reddish brown; sinus very shallow. Length, 4*2 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on Meleagrina. 

M. SULCATA, Carpenter. Unfigured. Described from a single 
broken specimen, 2 inches long. Mazatlan. 



MANGILIA. 25 1 

M. CEREA, Carpenter. A single immature specimen described, 
but not figured. Panama. 

M. LEVIDENSIS, Carpenter. Pugvt Sound and Neah Bay. 

M. ALBOLAQUEATA, Carpenter. From an imperfect, worn speci- 
men ; lip broken. Panama. 

M. HAMATA, Carpenter. Unfigured. Panama. 

M. STELLATA, Morch. Unfigured. W. Coast Central America. 

M. UNDATICOSTATA, Reeve. PI. 21, fig. 34. 

Shell fusiform, whorls slightly shouldered, with longitudinal, 
waved ribs; whitish. Length, 9'5 mill. 

Hab. ? (Reeve) ; Cape York, Australia, and 

N. Guinea (Brazier). 
M. CAVERNOSA, Reeve. PI. 21, fig. 26. 

Shell narrowly shouldered ; ribs oblique, rather narrow ; white, 
the shoulder light chestnut, with sometimes a few chestnut spots 
on the body-whorl. Length, 9-10 mill. 

N. S. Wales (Cox) ; Philippines (CumingX 

M. FUNEBRIS, Reeve. PL 24, figs. 27, 18. 

Shell smooth, the ribs rather solid, obtuse, with wider inter- 
spaces ; yellowish brown, broad banded with chestnut, ribs 
lighter colored than the interstices. Length, 9-11 mill. 

Philippines. 

M. pusilla, Reeve (fig. 18), appears to be identical. 

M. HEXAGONALIS, Reeve. PL 20, figs. 1, 4. 

Shell with six distant longitudinal continuous ribs, and rather 
close revolving strise ; yellowish white. Length, 8 mill. 

Philippines ; N. Australia ; N. Guinea. 

The artificial and unnatural grouping of the Pleurotomidse is 
well illustrated in this species, for M. obeliscus, Reeve (fig. 4), 
which has a toothed aperture, and would therefore belong to 
another section, is nevertheless specifically identical with M. 
hexagonalis. 

M. GRACILENTA, Reeve. PL 23, figs. 98, 88 ; PL 17, fig. 11. 
Shell yellowish white to yellowish brown, very slightly nar- 



252 MANGILIA. 

rowly shouldered, pretty closely longitudinally ribbed, the ribs 
subnodulous, crossed by elevated revolving strise. 

Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines, Japan, N. Australia. 

M. contracta, Reeve (PI. 23, fig. 88), is a smaller specimen of 
the same species ; as is also M. Fusoides, Reeve (PI. 17, fig. 11). 

M. FULVOCINCTA, Nevill. PI. 22, fig. 52. 

Whorls nine, the first four embryonal and colorless, the others 
varicosely seven-ribbed, with microscopic revolving strise ; 
whitish, chestnut banded below the sutures, and also at base of 
body-whorl, and within the aperture. Length, 8 mill. 

India. 
M. ZONATA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 79. 

Shell obscurely shouldered, longitudinally ribbed, ribs smooth, 
descending from the sutures ; white, with a chestnut band at the 
upper part of the aperture. Length, 8 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Solomon Is. (E. A. Smith). 

M. ANGICOSTATA, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 85 ; PI. 32, fig. 49 ; PL 22, 
fig. 69. 

Shell turreted, whorls distinctly shouldered, with a few distant 
small longitudinal ribs, extending to the suture, and much wider 
interspaces ; light yellowish brown to white ; columella chocolate 
tinged, often with a narrow interrupted chocolate central line. 

Length, 18 mill. 

New Caledonia, Viti Isles. 

Described without locality, but there can be little doubt that 
M. melanostoma, Garrett (fig. 49), from the Viti Isles, is iden- 
tical, although Reeve does not mention the dark bordered colu- 
mella. Probably Reeve's figure is magnified. M. scalata, Souverb. 
(PL 22, fig. 69), is a short variety, pure white with the narrow 
band, from New Caledonia. Some of Garrett 's Viti Islands 
specimens are exactly like it. 

M. CLARA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 89. 

Shell smooth, plicately ribbed, round shouldered; purple 
brown, upper part of the whorls whitish. Length, 15 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

The aperture being neither described nor figured, the position 
of this species can only be guessed at. 



MANGILIA. 253 

M. CORNEA, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 99. 

Shell ovate, spire acuminated, horny, semitransparent ; finely 
longitudinally ribbed ; light brown, encircled by a pale zone. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
M. LUTESCENS, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 83. 

Whorls very narrowly obtusely shouldered ; longitudinal ribs 
numerous, small, with revolving striae in the interstices; yel- 
lowish brown. Length, 12 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Described by Reeve under the name of M. fulva, preoccupied 
by Hinds. 

M. LIVIDA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 80. 

Whorls smooth, with narrow flexuous longitudinal ribs ; livid 

flesh-color. Length, 12 mill. 

Philippines, on the reefs (Cuming). 

M. LINEATA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 77. 

Shell obtusely longitudinally ribbed, smooth; fleshy brown, 
with numerous faint revolving lines of darker color. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Sab. unknown (Reeve) ; So. Australia (Angas). 

M. NITENS, Hinds. PL 20, fig. 2. 

Whorls carinately shouldered ; with longitudinal, sharp, oblique 
ribs, pointed on the shoulder-angle, and extending to the suture, 
and revolving striae; flesh-brown. Length, 12 mill. 

N. Australia, New Guinea, Straits of Macassar, 

and Malacca. 
M. OPALUS, Reeve. PL 20, fig. 5. 

Shell with continuous longitudinal distant ribs, the wide inter- 
stices smooth or with revolving striea ; whorls obtusely angulated 
in the middle ; white, the interstices of the ribs sometimes more 
or less stained with brown. Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 

M. PYRAMIS, Hinds. PL 34, fig. 86. 

Shell white, angularly longitudinally sharp ribbed, six-sided, 
with close revolving striae. Length, 12 mill. 

Straits of Macassar (Hinds). 



254 MANGILIA. 

M. PSEUDOCARINATA, Reeve. PI. 20, fig. 3. 

Whorls concavely shouldered, somewhat indistinctly keeled, 
the keel rendered nodulous by the ends of close obliquely longi- 
tudinal ribs, which are short, becoming evanescent about the 
middle of the body-whorl, everywhere with close revolving 
grooves, which are somewhat nodulous ; yellowish brown. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Cuming Collection). 
M. PURA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 76. 

Spire turreted ; whorls slightly, narrowty shouldered ; sutures 
rather deep ; ribs narrow, reaching the sutures, revolving striae 
distant ; yellowish white, with a median row of faint brown spots 
on the back of the body-whorl. Length, 8 mill. 

S. Australia (Angas). 
M. PALLIDA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 78. 

Whorls convex, without shoulder, with about 10-11, strong, 
flexuous ribs extending to the suture ; white. Length, 8 mill. 

Isl. of Ticao, Philippines. 
M. SORDIDA, Reeve. PL 20, fig. 98. 

Whorls angulated in the middle ; longitudinally obliquely 
ribbed, the ribs short, most prominent on the angle ; interstices 
latticed with raised striae which become more prominent towards 
the base of the body-whorl, where the ribs are obsolete ; dull 
white. Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Mus. Metcalfe). 
M. SEMEN, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 86. 

Whorls with rather broad, sloping shoulders, nodulated by the 
ends of short oblique longitudinal plicae, or ribs ; no revolving 
striae ; chestnut-brown, the ribs lighter or whitish. 
Length, 6 mill. 

St. Nicolas, Island of Zebu, Philippines, 

under stones at low-water (Cuming). 
M. VITREA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 95. 

Shell cylindrically elongated, thin, pellucid, glassy, smooth ; 
no longitudinal ribs ; a few revolving grooves at the upper and 
lower part of the body-whorl, the former appearing on the spire 
also ; yellowish white. Length, 6 mill. 

Singapore, and Philippines (Cuming). 
. A species having peculiar characters. 



MANGILIA. 255 

M. CASTANBA, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 84. 

Whorls rounded ; longitudinally ribbed, the interstices wittr 
close revolving striae; chestnut-brown. Length, 11 mill. 

Isle of Burias, Philippines (Cuming). 

Nearly related to M. livida, but the ribs are straighter, the 
canal more slopingly produced, and the surface striate. 

M. ROBUSTICOSTATA, Smith. PL 22, fig. 60. 

Whorls turreted, with strongly angular periphery, and short, 
oblique ribs, about twelve in number; lip thin at edge, but 
thickened externally by one of the ribs ; sinus scarcely dis- 
cernible ; yellowish brown, whitish towards the base of the body- 
whorl and labrum. Length, 6'3 mill. 

Japan. 
M. SPLENDIDA, A. Adams. PL 22, fig. 55. 

Shell somewhat thin, subpellucid, shining, with longitudinal, 
obtuse, unequal, rather weak plicae, and somewhat distant spiral 
lineations ; light brownish, with bands of rather large chestnut 
maculations ; lip acute, but varicose externally. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Japan. 

One of the largest and most distinct species of the group, 
though scarcely of typical character. 

M. COPPINGERI, Smith. PL 22, fig. 58. 

Whorls divided by a deep suture, longitudinally closely 
ribbed, the ribs becoming obsolete on the lower part of the 
body-whorl, where they are replaced by revolving striae, more 
distinct towards the base; aperture small, labrum thickened, 
with a very faint sinus ; chocolate-brown, including the aperture. 

Length, 6*3 mill. 

Patagonia. 
M. COSTULATA, Dunker. PL 22, figs. 62, 70. 

Shell with close, rounded, longitudinal ribs, and obsolete 
revolving striae ; yellowish white, with narrow chestnut revolving 
lines. Length, 8 mill. 

Japan. 

M. Leuckarti, Dunker (fig. 70), is a variety with stronger 
revolving striae, and uniformly brown-colored. 



256 MANGILIA. 

M. DESHAYESII, Bunker. PI. 22, fig. 71. 

Narrowly shouldered, with close, small, longitudinal riblets, 
crossed by revolving elevated striae ; light yellowish brown, the 
thickened lip brown-spotted. Length, 7 mill. 

Japan. 

Very probably identical with the preceding species. 

M. PICTA, Adams and Angas. PL 22, fig. 72. 

Whorls with narrow shoulder ; longitudinal ribs few, slightly 
flexuous, with much wider interspaces covered with revolving 
striae; light yellowish brown, with a broad chocolate band 
beneath the shoulder. Length, 12 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

M. TNSCULPTA, Adams and Angas. PI. 22, fig. 61. 

Closely longitudinally plicate, the ribs forming a slight poste- 
rior shoulder or angle, interstices with revolving lirae ; light 
yellowish brown, darker in the grooves. Length, 6 mill. 

St. Vincents Gulf, So. Australia. 

M. ANGULOSA, E. A. Smith. PL 22, fig. 67. 

Whorls obtusely angulated, with six curved longitudinal ribs, 
and close small revolving striae, distinct only in the interstices ; 
light brown. Length, 5 mill. 

West Africa. 
M. FLAVESCENS, Angas. PL 22, fig. 68. 

Whorls shouldered, the angle pointed with the longitudinal 
ribs ; revolving striae, closer and sharper at the base of the body- 
whorl; yellowish white, sometimes tinged with orange at the 
angle of the whorls and towards the base. Length, 5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
M. PAPILLARIS, Hinds. PL 15, fig. 21. 

Whorls angulated, obsoletely tubercularly ribbed; pinkish 

yellow, edge of the lip tinged with red within. Length, 11 mill. 

Straits of Malacca, 17 fathoms, mud (Hinds). 

A very obscure species, the characters of which are not 
apparent. 

M. DARNLEYENSIS, Brazier. PL 19,, fig. 73. 

Shell pyramidal, slender, six-sided, longitudinally ribbed, 
crossed with raised striae, somewhat rugose, interstices smooth ; 



MANGILTA. 257 

whorls 7 to 8, fattened; outer lip slightly varicose, sinus wide 
and deep ; yellowish brown, lip sometimes black-edged. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Torres Straits, Australia. 

Figured from one of several specimens obligingly commu- 
nicated by Mr. Brazier. 

M. CITHARELLA, Lam. PI. 24, figs. 13, 14. 

Light yellowish brown, or yellowish white, banded narrowly 
and numerously with chestnut. Length, 15-20 mill. 

Solomon's Is., Philippines. 

This is M. striata, Schum. M. lyra, Reeve (fig. 14), is a 
variety with stronger shoulder-angle and ribs. Mr. E. A. Smith 
considers M. funiculata, Reeve, a variety also ; but that species 
has a toothed labrum, and therefore belongs to the section 
Cythara, as very artificially separated from Mangilia ; it may be 
a synonym, nevertheless. 

M. PYGM^EA, Bunker. PL 32, fig. 50. 

Longitudinally plicate, plicae evanescent towards the base of 
the body-whorl ; light brown. Length, 6 mill. 

Japan. 
M. VARICULOSA, Sowb. PI. 16, fig. 60. 

Whorls narrowly shouldered ; longitudinal ribs granose, 
crossed by raised striae ; dark chocolate-brown. 
Length, 13'5 mill. 

Bay of Montija, W. Coast Centr. America. 

M. QUISQUALIS, Hinds. PL 16, fig. 63. 

White, obtusely angulated, smooth above the angle, which is 
nodose by the termination of short longitudinal ribs. 

Length, 11 mill. 

W. Coast Centr. America. 
M. LUCIDA, Nevill. PL 12, fig. 19. 

White, slightly and irregularly marbled with pale brown, 
between the ribs and especially behind the outer lip. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Persian Gulf; Bay of Bengal. 

Allied in general to M. quisqualis, Hinds, but is smaller, with 
transverse striae at the base of the last whorl, with a row of 



258 MANGILIA. 

granules and a deep groove beneath the suture, and with straight 
instead of oblique ribs. Perhaps a Drillia. 

M. ERICEA, Hinds. PI. 16, fig. 71. 

Light brown ; slightly shouldered, the ribs continued to the 
sutures, nodulous below the shoulder, by the crossing of revolv- 
ing lines. Length, 12*5 mill. 

Coast of Veragua. 
M. C^ELATA, Hinds. PI. 16, fig. 67. 

Whorls shouldered, with an elevated revolving line below the 
suture, shortly obliquely ribbed below the shoulder ; dark chest- 
nut, aperture blackish. Length, 6*5 mill. 

Gulf of Fonseca, mud, 20 fms. (Hinds). 

M. CONCENTRICOSTATA, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 48. 

Shell slenderly fusiform, spire acuminated, whorls very closely 
concentrically ribbed, sutures simple ; flesh-tinged brown. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Closely allied to M. variculosa, Sowb., but without the raised 
revolving striae of that species. 

M. MARGARITIFERA, Gray. PL 15, figs. 39, 43. 

Whorls rounded or very slightly shouldered, reticulated by 
longitudinal and revolving fine ribs and lines ; yellowish brown, 
tinged with chestnut, sometimes forming an indistinct central 
band. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

With this species I unite M. dsedala, Reeve (fig. 43), also 
described without locality, but for which Mr. Brazier indicates 
Torres Straits, N. Australia. 

M. CARDINALIS, Reeve. PL 15, fig. 44. 

Obliquely longitudinally plicated, minutely transversely stri- 
ated ; yellowish white, with three narrow chocolate bands. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Isle of Negros, Philippines. 

M. ORASSILABRUM, Reeve. PL 15, figs. 45, 47. 

Shell narrowly shouldered, the shoulder smooth, tubercularly 



MANGILIA. 259 

ribbed beneath, crossed by elevated revolving striae ; yellowish 
brown, variously chocolate banded. Length, 16 mill. 
Isl Ticao, Philippines; Darnley 1st., N. Australia 

(Brazier), Bay of Hakodadi (Schrenck). 

A variety of this species is entirely without the colored 
bands. 

M. ALBICANS, Hinds. PL 16, fig. 57. 

Slightly longitudinally ribbed, the ribs nodose at the sutures, 
with revolving striae towards the base of the body-whorl ; 
whitish, more or less tinged with chestnut. Length, 6 mill. 

Straits of Malacca; mud, 17 fms. (Hinds). 

M. ANQULATA, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 28. 

Whorls sharply angulated, with a few sharp narrow longi- 
tudinal ribs, crossing the shoulder to the suture, no revolving 
striae ; yellowish brown, lineated with pale chestnut. 
Length, 5 mill. 

Bay of Manilla (Cuming) ; Cape York, 

Australia (Brazier). 

M. CINCTA, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 29 ; PL 27, fig. 13. 

TJather narrowly shouldered, the shoulder-angle sharp pointed 
by the ribs, which attain the suture, interstices of the ribs with 
revolving striae ; yellowish brown, with a broad superior darker 

band. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Philippines. 

I unite with this species M. nana, Reeve (PL 27, fig. 13), 
which is not banded. There is not sufficient distinction between 
this and the preceding species. 

M. ORYZA, Hinds. PL 23, fig. 94. 

Shell smooth, shining, with seven prominent plicate ribs ; 
whitish. Length, 12 mill. 

New Guinea. 
M. MACULATA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 72. 

White, with an orange-brown band, interrupted by the ribs, 
and appearing only in the interstices. Length, 10 mill. 
Darnley JsZ., N. Australia (Brazier) ; 

Philippines (Cuming). 



260 MANGILIA. 

M. TENEBROSA, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 70. 

Shell turreted, with narrowly, flatly shouldered whorls and 
deep sutures ; distantly longitudinally ribbed, crossed by 
revolving striae ; dark chestnut-brown without and within. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Philippines. 
M. ABYSSICOLA, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 19. 

Whorls shouldered, the narrow, rather distant longitudinal 
ribs crossing the acute angle of the shoulder to the suture, 
encircled by raised strife ; yellowish brown, with a narrow 
chestnut central band. Length, 7-10 mill. 

Philippines. 
M. ASTRICTA, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 26. 

Whorls convex, without shoulder; longitudinally rather num- 
erously but narrowly ribbed; yellowish, with a narrow interrupted 
central chestnut band, and a still narrower superior one. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. GOODALLTI, Gray. PL 27, fig. 7. 

Whorls with narrow sloping shoulder ; conspicuously narrowly 
ribbed, with wider concave interspaces bearing revolving striae ; 
whitish or yellowish, the striae pale brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Hob. unknown (Reeve) ; N. Australia (Brazier). 

M. PESSULATA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 66. 

Whorls not shouldered, rather fiat : rather numerously flexu- 
ously longitudinally ribbed, the interstices with revolving striae; 
whitish. Length, 1 1 mill. 

Philippines. 
M. CORONATA, Hinds. PL 27, fig. 19. 

Whorls six, shouldered ; plicately ribbed and transversely 
striated, ribs somewhat acuminated at the upper part ; yellowish 
white. Length, 12 mill. 

Straits of Macassar (Hinds). 

M. CELEBENSIS, Hinds. PL 27, fig. 12. 

Shell smooth, plicately ribbed, ribs rather distant ; light 3^0!- 
lowish, brown banded. Length, 12 mill. 

New Guinea. 



MANGILIA. 261 

M. PYRAMIDALIS, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 93. 

Shell pyramidal, slim, whorls with sloping shoulders, with 
narrow ribs reaching the sutures, and much wider interspaces, 
which are transversely striated ; yellowish white. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines. 

Unfigured Exotic Species of Mangilia. 
M. MODICA, E. A. Smith. Japan. 

M. FLEXUOSA, M. MINUTISTRIATA, M. OPALINA, M. PLATYCHEILA, M. 

ACUTANGULARIS, of E. A. Smith. No locality. 

M. PELLYI, E. A. Smith. Persian Gulf. 

M. CALEDONICA, E. A. Smith. New Caledonia. 

M. TRIZONATA, E. A. Smith. Philippines. 

M. FILICINCTA, E. A. Smith. Japan. 

M. LEVUKENSIS, Watson. Fiji Islands. 

M. TRACK YS, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 
M. MEREDITHS, Tenison-Woods. Bass Straits, Tasmania. 

M. SEMIASSA, Gould. Bab. unknown. 

M. TETRAQONA, Gould. China Sea. 

M. LUTEA, Gould. Loochoo Sea. 

?M. MICA, Philippi. Red Sea. 

M. CRASSICOSTATA, Dunker. Viti Isles. 

M. CLAVATA, Sowerby. China Sea. 

M. ANNA, Jousseaume. JV. Caledonia. 

Section CYTHARA, Schumacher. 
M. MARGINELLOIDES, Reeve. PL 24, figs. 22, 17. 

Interstices of the longitudinal ribs either smooth or more or 
less thickly covered with fine revolving striae ; yellowish or ash- 
white, with fine, rather close chestnut revolving lines, sometimes 
interrupted by the ribs, sometimes crossing them, sometimes 
obsolete, shoulder usually tinged with chocolate. 

Length, 10-13 mill. 

Philippines, New Guinea, New Caledonia. 

M. Columbelloides, Reeve (fig. 17), is a synonym. 
M. ANTILLARUM, Reeve. PL 24, fig, 12. 

Shell ribbed, without revolving striae ; yellowish brown, broadly 



262 MANGILIA. 

banded with chocolate and shoulder tinged with the same color. 

Length, 16 mill. 

West Indies (Reeve). 

The locality may be doubted, as it has not been confirmed by 
any other authorities ; its distinctness from the preceding species 
is also doubtful. 

M. RETICULATA, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 10 ; PI. 25, figs. 45, 47. 

Longitudinally plicately ribbed, finely transversely striated ; 
yellowish, broadly two-banded with chocolate or bluish ash, the 
two bands sometimes coalescing into one and covering all except 
the upper portion of the body-whorl. Length, 9-12 mill. 

Philippines, N. Caledonia, Solomon's Is., Viti Isles. 

M. Guestieri, Souverb. (PI. 25, fig. 41), is a synonym, and M. 
Bichardi, Crosse (PI. 25, fig. 45), appears to be a small form, 
without bands. 

M. OBESA, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 11. 

Interstices of the ribs with strong revolving striae ; whitish, 
the shoulder and base of the body-whorl tinged with chocolate, 
with a central rather broad band of the same color. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Philippines, 

Perhaps a variety of the preceding species. Described under 
the name ofvittata, preoccupied by Hinds. 

M. PONDEROSA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 5. 

Numerously narrowly and delicately longitudinally ribbed, 
latticed by revolving striae ; yellowish white, interruptedly nar- 
rowly brown-banded at the slight shoulder, and occasionally 
tinged with brown elsewhere. Length, 16 mill. 

Philippines (C tuning) ; N. Australia (Brazier). 

M. CONOHELICOIDES. Reeve. PL 23, fig. 4. 

Longitudinally many ridged, transversely striate ; yellowish 
white, with sometimes a large orange-brown blotch on the back 
of the body-whorl. Length. 12 mill. 

Philippines, under stones (Cuming). 
M. GRADATA, Nevill. PL 25, fig. 44. 

Ribs narrow, straight, continuing to the base of the body- 
whorl, interstices regularly transversely striated ; columella 



MANGILIA. 263 

almost straighib, slightly rugose above, outer lip nearly straight, 
very thick, regularly rounded ; pure white. Length, 5*75 mill. 

Ceylon, Bombay. 
Possibly a form of the preceding species. 

M. PLANILABROIDES, Tryon. PL 21, fig. 28. 

Shell fusiform, smooth, narrowty, slopingly shouldered; brown 
with a superior white zone. Length, 10 mill. 

Isl. of Ticao, Philippines (Cuming). 

Described by Reeve as M. planilabrum, a name already used 
by him for the following species described as a Pleurotoma. 

M. PLANILABRUM, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 87. 

Shell ovately oblong, reddish brown ; whorls convex, lineated 
spirally, ribbed longitudinally, ribs almost obsolete ; aperture 
oblong, lip flat, red, denticulated within, canal very short. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines (Cuming). 
M. DECUSSATA, Pease. PI. 25, fig. 37. 

Whorls shouldered; longitudinally narrowly ribbed, thebroader 
interspaces with revolving striae ; white. Length, 10 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
M. CITHARA, Gould. PI. 25, fig. 43 ; PL 22, fig. 50. 

Ribs rounded, prominent, the interspaces narrow, with close 
revolving striae ; white, sometimes obscurely chestnut-banded. 
Length, 8-10 mill. 

Fiji Is. (Gould) ; Paumotus Is. (Pease). 

Mr. Pease's M. brevis (PL 22, fig. 50) appears to be a synonym ; 
the type, which is before me, is a specimen not fully grown. 

M. CAPILLACEA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 73. 

Whorls lightly shouldered ; ribs narrow, flexuous, the inter- 
spaces broader, with revolving striae ; light yellowish brown, 
encircled by hair-like brown lines on the summits of the striae. 
Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming); Solomon Is. (E. A. Smith); 

N. Australia (Brazier). 
M. DELACOURIANA, Crosse. PL 25, fig. 32. 

Ribs rounded, narrower than the interspaces, surmounting the 

18 



264 MANGILIA. 

slight shoulder-angle and attaining the suture, revolving striae 
very fine and close ; white, with traces of brown staining. 

Length, 12 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 

Is possibly a variety of the preceding species, from which it 
appears to differ only in the absence of the hair-like brown lines. 

M. STROMBOIDES, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 1. 

Interstices of the ribs with fine revolving striae ; yellowish 
white. Length, 14 mill. 

Philippines (Cum ing), Red Sea (Riippell). 

M. ELEGANS, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 3. 

Interstices of the narrow ribs very beautifully elevately 
striated ; yellowish white, very faintly zoned with brown. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming). 

Perhaps a variety of the preceding species, 

M. BALANSAI, Crosse. PI. 25, fig. 35. 

Yellowish white, the interstices of the ribs chestnut-colored, 

obsoletely chestnut-banded. Length. 19'5 mill. 

Neiv Caledonia. 

Narrower and more numerously ribbed than M. Stromboides, 
Reeve. 

M. DUBIOSA, Nevill. PL 25, fig. 42. 

Doubtfulty distinct from the next species, which is described 
and figured from a young shell. White, with a broad brown 
stain on the back of the last whorl ; ribs narrow, straight, not 
on the shoulder, interstices closely striated. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Andaman Is. ; Mauritius. 
M. CONIFORMIS, Gray. PL 26, fig. 79. 

Shell rather transparent, thin, whitish ; faintly plicate on the 
upper part of the whorls, transversely very faintly striated. 
Length, 9 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Reeve) ; W. Coast of Cent. Am. (Morch). 

M. SOUVERBIEI, Tryon. PL 22, fig. 65. 

Shell minutely tuberculate at the shoulder-angle, and covered 



MANGILIA. 265 

by minute revolving striae; whitish, with a4arge dorsal brownish 
spot or stain. Length, f mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Described by Souverbie as M. coniformis, a name preoccupied 
by Gray, above. 

M. PULCHELLA, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 20. 

Many ribbed, the ribs flexuous, narrow, the interstices very 
faintly reticulated ; yellowish white, with several narrow chestnut 
bands interrupted by the ribs. Length, 12 mill. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines, on the sands (Cuming). 

M. VEXILLUM, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 8. 

Whorls nodulous at the shoulder, with ribs descending from 
the nodules, entire surface of the shell decussately striated, as 
if very finely granulated ; orange-yellow, with a number of 
narrow whitish bands. Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines, under stones (Cuming). 
M. LAMELLATA, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 69. 

Sutures deep, a little cavernous, ribs narrow, erect, lamelli- 
form, somewhat pointed around the sutures, transversely 
strongly distantly striate ; yellowish white, faintly zoned with 
pale brown. Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines, coarse sand, 7 fathoms (Cuming). 

M. REEVEI, Tryon. PL 26, fig. 68. 

Longitudinally plicately ribbed ; ribs crossing the shoulder to 
the suture; yellowish white or light brown, banded with pale 
chocolate, crossed with numerous obscure fine white lines. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming). 

Described by Reeve as Mangilia crassilabrum, but the specific 
name is preoccupied by himself in Pleur. crassilabrum, which is 
also a Mangilia. 

M. INTERRUPTA, Reeve. PI. 23, figs. 74, 75 ; PI. 22, fig. 51. 

Shell nodose at the shoulder, with strong, narrow, rounded 
ribs descending from the nodules ; whitish, with hair-like, 
chocolate, revolving lines between the ribs, sometimes approxi- 
mating into bands. Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines, Sandwich Isl., Mauritius, Abyssinia, Ceylon. 



266 MANGILIA. 

Daphnella bella, Pease (unfigured), and PI. gemmulata, Desh. 
(PL 22. fig. 51), are synonyms. 

M. GIBBOSA, Reeve. PI. 24, figs. 24, 25. 

Whorls nodulous at the shoulder, smooth, ribs slightly 

flexuous ; ashy white, encircled by faint orange-brown lines, 

back stained with pale black at the upper part. Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines, on the reefs (Cuming) ; Swan River, Australia. 

M. Novse-Hollandide, Reeve (fig. 25), appears to be only a 
variation of the main characters of this shell. 

M. CINNAMOMEA, Hinds. PI. 2*7, fig. 17. 

Shouldered, plicately ribbed, transversely obsoletely striated ; 
cinnamon-colored, narrowly white-banded. Length, 13 mill. 

New Guinea, Straits of Macassar, and Malacca. 

M. PELLUCTDA, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 31 ; PI. 22, fig. 63. 

Shell ovate, attenuated at both ends, smooth, transparent, 
shining, longitudinally closely ribbed, whitish, brown at the 
base, sometimes with three narrow, interrupted bands. 
Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Reeve) ; Darnley Isl., 

Australia (Brazier) ; Philippines (Ad. and Reeve). 
M. trivittata, Ad. and Reeve (PL 22, fig. 63), appears to be a 
banded form of this species. 

M. DERELICTA, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 30 ; PL 23, fig. 96. 

Longitudinally strongly ribbed, transversely obsoletely striated ; 
light brown. Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

"A strong ribbed species of ordinary form," says Reeve. I 
do not find any sufficiently distinctive characters in either the 
description or figure of M. Zebuensis, Reeve (PL 23, fig. 96), 
from the Philippines. 

M. APICATA, Gray. PL 15, fig. 32. 

Whorls concavely flattened above a fine keel, nodosely plaited 
beneath, plaits fading away towards the lower part ; transversely 
impressly striated ; pale yellow, reddish at the apex. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



MANGILTA. 267 

% 

M. NEGLECTA, Hinds. PL 15, fig. 35. 

Ribs rounded, approximated, transversely elevately striated; 
rusty brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Gulf of Nicoya, W. Coast of Central America. 
Is quite as nearly related to Clathurella as to Cithara. 

M. ANGELA, Ad. and Angas. PL 25, fig. 34. 

Yellowish white, chocolate-tinted towards the base, aperture 
stained with violet in front. Length, 15 mill. 

Woodlark Isl., Australia. 

M. FUNICULATA, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 16. 

Smooth, ashy brown, the ribs whitish. Length, 16 mill. 

Philippines. 

Mr. E. A. Smith (Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 538), considers this a 
synonym of M. citharella, Lam. This may indeed be the case, 
but if so, we can retain but few of the numerous species of 
Mangilia. It is narrower than that species, and the outer lip is 
toothed, thus placing it in Cythara, whilst M. citharella, having 
a plain lip, is a typical Mangilia. 

M. DORVILLI.E, Gray. PL 16, fig. 65. 

Shell rather thin, narrowly shouldered ; longitudinally plicated, 
with fine revolving striae, more conspicuous towards the base ; 
whitish, with a pale brown three-line zone. Length, 9 mill. 

West Indies. 
M. GRACILTS, Reeve. PL 24, fig. 15. 

Ribs narrow, distant, the interstices with very fine revolving 
striae ; whitish, with a central chestnut zone, and sometimes 
additional chestnut blotches. Length, 13 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Viti Islands (Garrett). 

M. CYLINDRICA, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 92 ; PL 24, fig. 9. 

Slightly shouldered, longitudinally finely ribbed, the ribs 
attaining the suture, transversely elevately striated ; transparent 
white, stained with pale brown, spotted on the shoulder with 
orange-brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Philippines, sandy mud, 25 fms. (Cuming). 



268 MANG1LIA. 

M. FUSIFORMIS, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 2. 

Yellowish white, stained or interruptedly fasciated with orange- 
brown. Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines, coarse sand, 10 fms. (Cuming). 

M. LYRICA, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 21. 

Whorls not shouldered ; lightly longitudinally ribbed, crossed 
by revolving elevated striae ; light brown, indistinctly banded 
with orange-brown. Length, 11 mill. 

Philippines. 

Lightly ribbed, and more attenuated towards the base than 
the allied forms. 

M. TURRICULA, Reeve. PI. 24, fig. 23. 

Sutures deep ; shoulder very narrow ; whorls rather flat ; 
whitish, sometimes with a central brown band, with fine brown 
revolving lines, invisible except with a lens. Length, 12 mill. 

Philippin es , Mauritiu s. 
M. BICOLOR, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 65. 

Interstices of the ribs very finely transversely striated ; whitish 
above, but most of the body-whorl lead-color. 
Length, 11 mill. 

Darnley Isl., N. Australia (Brazier) ; 

Philippin es ( C uming ) . 
The coloring has probably faded from chocolate. 

M. DIGITALIS, Reeve. PI. 2T, fig. 24. 

Shell solid, granosely cancellated, yellowish white, with narrow 
brown sutural and peripheral bands. Length, 7 mill. 

Hdb. unknown (Reeve) ; Solomon Is. (E. A. Smith). 

M. TRITICEA, Kiener. PI. 25, fig. 51 ; PI. 21, fig. 14. 

Longitudinal ribs oblique, transverse striae very fine but 
distinct, inner and outer lips both corrugated ; whitish, with a 
broad central brown band on the back of the body-whorl, which 
when the shell is worn appears as a spot. Length, 10 mill. 

Indian Ocean (Kiener) ; Polynesia ( Pease). 

Pease changed M. triticea, Reeve, to angiostoma, believing the 
species distinct from the Indian Ocean form described and 
figured under the name of triticea by Kiener. I cannot detect 
distinguishing characters, however ; moreover Kiener's locality 



MANGILIA. 269 

may not be true, although if so, it would not make an extraor- 
dinary distribution for the species. 

M. FASCIATA, Gray. PL 26, fig. 74. 

Ribs latticed with conspicuous transverse striae ; yellowish 
white, with a central, narrow, chestnut band. Length, 8'5 mill. 

Africa. 
I know nothing concerning this species. 

M. VITTATA, Hinds. PL 22, fig. 66. 

Closely ribbed, crossed by numerous revolving striae ; yellowish 
brown, fasciate with chestnut. Length, 11 mill. 

Straits of Macassar, 10 fms., coarse sand (Hinds). 

M. EXQUISITA, E. A. Smith. PL 24, fig. 6. 

Narrowly and distantly longitudinally ribbed, transversely 
very finely corded ; whitish, lineated and banded with chestnut. 

Length, 16 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Warrior /., Australia (Brazier). 

This species was figured by Reeve for a specimen in the 
Cumingian collection, under the name of vittata, Hinds (described 
above), but it is evidently a different species. 

M. METULA, Hinds. PL 16, fig. 59. 

Whorls flattened, five in number; obsoletely ribbed, trans- 
versely striated, suture with a raised line; lip inflected in the 
middle; yellowish brown, banded with chestnut. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. RIGIDA, Hinds. PL 16, fig. 64. 

Shoulder undulated at the angle by the longitudinal ribs, 
which are crossed by raised striae ; fulvous. Length, 8 mill. 

Panama. 

Partakes of the characters of Clathurella. Carpenter has 
described (but not figured) a var. fuscoligata, from Cape St. 
Lucas, L. California. I have not seen it. 

M. ASPERA, Hinds. PL 16, fig. 62. 

Shoulder very narrow, longitudinal ribs decussated by raised 
revolving lines ; chocolate-brown, aperture flesh-red. 

Length, 13 mill. 

Guayaquil (Hinds). 



270 MANGILTA. 

M. SUBULA, Reeve. PL 20, fig. 94. 

Closely reticulated with longitudinal and revolving lines, 
with a flatly obtuse keel near the suture, lip-sinus distinct; 
yellowish white, painted with chestnut spots around the guture. 
Length, 15 mill. 

Philippines, coarse sand, 7 fms. (Cnming) ; 

Darnley I., Australia (Brazier). 

M. FAIRBANKI, Nevill. PI. 22, fig. 48. 

Ribs rounded, distant, continuous, crossed by distant revolving 
riblets which swell upon the ribs; leaden brown, stained with a 
darker shade on the outer lip and columella. Length, 6 mill. 

Bombay ; probably also Ceylon, arid Andaman Is. 

Closely allied to M. hexagonalis, Reeve, but differs in the 
dentate aperture, shorter and more open canal, more distant and 
distinct revolving sculpture. 

M. DEBILIS, Pease. PL 25, fig. 33. 

Narrowly angulated at the suture, from which descend about 
ten longitudinal ribs, closely and finely crossed by revolving 
striae ; white, back of body-whorl stained with chestnut. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 

Described as Cythara dsedalea, which name being preoccupied, 
was subsequently changed as above. 

M. HIRSUTUM, Folin. PL 30, fig. 75. 

Yellowish white, the earlier whorls darker. Length, 3-4 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on Meleagrina. 

M. BOAKEI, Nevill. PL 33, fig. 71 ; PL 25, fig. 36. 

Whorls narrowly round-shouldered at the top ; longitudinal 
plicae close, small, rather straight; no revolving striae; pinkish 
white, shining, with a subsutural interrupted chestnut band, and 
another about the top of the aperture, lower half of bodj^-whorl 
pale chestnut ; interior two-banded with chestnut ; lip thickened, 
internally minutely crenulated. Length, 12 mill. 

Ceylon, So. Australia. 

I think that M. bicinctula, Nevill (fig. 71), will prove to be 
identical, and M. bella, Ad. and Angas (PL 25, fig. 36), from 
Rapid Bay, So. Australia, may also be considered a synonym. 



MANGILIA. 2 I 

t 

Unfigured species of Mangilia of the Section Cythara. 

M. INTAMINATA, Gould (China Seas); M. GLAREOSA, Gould (Hong 

Kong ; M. ALBICINCTA, Gould (Loo Ghoo Seas); M. LOTA 

Gould ( China Seas). All collected by Stimpson, 1ST. Pac. 

Expl. Exped., and types destroyed in the great Chicago 

fire. 
M. LABECULA, Gould. Dredged off the Coast of Georgia. May 

belong to Astyris, in Columbellidae. 

M. LANCEOLATA, C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

M. CORONATA, Mighels (Sandwich Islands). Pease thinks this 

may possibly = M. triticea, Reeve. 
M. PAUCICOSTATA, Pease (Tahiti); M. PUSILLA, Pease (Sandwich 

Islands); M. STRIGATA, Pease (Sandwich Islands). 
M. DESALESI and M. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 
M. MAcCoYi, Petterd. (Allied to M Tasmanica.) Tasmania. 
M. SUBTILTS, Watson. Off Pernambuco. 

M. HANLEYI, Dunker. Upolu. 

M. MILIUM, Philippi. China. 

M. SINUATA, Carp. (Panama); M. SUBDIAPHANA, Carp., and M. 

FUSCONOTATA, Carp. (Cape St. Lucas). 

Section GLYPHOSTOMA, Gabb. 

Lienardia, Jousseaume (1884), of which the following species 
is made the type, is a synonym of Glyphostoma. 

M. RUBIDA, Hinds. PI. 15, fig. 34; PL 16, fig. 53; PI. 18, fig. 51. 

Pink outside and inside, the canaliculate sutures often black- 
banded, with frequently a white central band on the body-whorl, 
and a narrow black band below it. Length, 12 mill. 

New Guinea, New Ireland, Mauritius, 

Viti and Cook's Is., New Caledonia. 

Kiener has apparently figured this species for Donovan's 
Murex angulatus, of the British Channel. The synonymy also 
includes M. canaliculata, Pease (PI. 18, fig. 51) = M. Peasei, 
Nevill, M. Bertiniana, Tapparone-Canefri (PI. 16, fig. 53), and 
probably M. exquisita, Nevill. M. Peasei, was proposed instead 
of canaliculata, Pease, preoccupied by Reeve. 



272 MANGILIA. 

M. ROSEOTINCTA, Montrouzier. PL 16, fig. 54. 

Shell larger than the preceding species, more attenuated 
towards the base, spire longer, outer lip not so thick ; rose- 
colored. Length, 19 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Perhaps only a variety of M. rubida. 

M. MARMOROSA, Reeve. PI. 27, fig. 11. 

White, very sparingly spotted with orange-brown. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
M. ISSELT, G. and H. Nevill. PL 25, figs. 40, 48. 

White, with two narrow, interrupted orange bands, one of 
which reappears on the spire. Length (decollated), 7*75 mill. 

Ceylon. 

Yar. Cernica (fig. 48), from Mauritius, is smaller (6*5 mill.), 
and retains the embryonal whorls. 

M. BICLATHRATA, Souverbie. PL 25, fig. 53. 

Yellowish white, with a sutural chestnut band, and two bands 
below it on the body-whorl ; both lips plicate. Length, 2*5 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
M. INTERSTRIATA, E. A. Smith. PL 25, fig. 50. 

Longitudinal ribs ten, thin, oblique, with revolving lines in 
the interspaces; both lips denticulate; whitish, banded with 
dark chocolate at the sutures, and also at the middle and base of 
the body-whorl. Length, 8 mill. 

San Christovalj Solomon Islands. 

" This species has much resemblance to PL biclathrata, Souv., 
and may eventually prove to be but a large variety of it." 

M. ONAGER, Souverbie. PL 25, fig. 46. 

Whitish, with chestnut stripes and bands. Length, 15 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
M. UNILTNEATA, E. A. Smith. PL 25, fig. 52. 

Longitudinally ribbed and transversely striate ; both lips 
denticulate ; yellowish white or light brown, with an interrupted 
white median band margined below with chestnut. 

Length, 15 mill. 

San Christoval, Solomon Islands. 



MANGILIA. % . 273 

M. AMABILIS, G. and H. STevill. PI. 30, fig. 76. 

White, with three double rows of bright brown granules on 
the ribs of the body-whorl, and one double row on those of the 

spire. Length, 7 mill. 

Mauritius. 
M. APICULATA, Montrouzier. PL 19, fig. 50. 

Translucent white, with a row of opaque white spots about 
the middle of the body-whorl. Length, 7 mill. 

New Caledonia (Montr.) ; Ceylon and Andaman Is. (Nevill). 

M. SPURCA, Hinds. PI. 15, fig. 37. 

Yellowish brown, the revolving striae dark brown. 
Length, 22 mill. 

New Guinea and Straits of Malacca (Hinds) ; 

Australia (Brazier, Angas). 
M. CINEREA, Hinds. PI. 15, fig. 38. 

Yellowish brown ; the space above the tuberculated angle 
smooth. Length, 17 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
Ma} 7 be only a form of the preceding species. 

M. CANDIDA, Hinds. PI. 15, fig. 41. 

Ribs rather broad, rounded, the revolving striae only at the 
base ; white. Length, 14 mill. 

Magnetic Island, Coast of Veragua (Hinds). 

M. ARGILLACEA, Hinds. PL 15, fig. 40. 

Brownish yellow ; body-whorl with revolving striae towards 
the base. Length, 14 mill. 

Straits of Malacca, mud, 14 fms. (Hinds) ; 

Darnley Isl., Australia (Brazier). 

I cannot detect any difference between the figure of this species 
and that of M. Candida, and I suspect that, notwithstanding the 
very different localities, they are identical. 

M. MONTROUZIERI, Souverbie. PL 20, fig. 77. 

Orange-brown. Length, 26'5 mill. New Caledonia. 

The largest species of the section. 

M. OBESA, Garrett. PL 19, fig. 64. 

Yellowish brown. Length, 9 mill. Vili Islands. 

The type figured is evidently not adult. 



274 CLATHURELLA. 

M. ALBOVIRGULATA, Souverbie. PL 16, fig. 58. 

The rounded ribs crossed by narrow revolving ridges ; outer 
lip dentate within, inner lip with several oblique grooves ; light 
lilac, with white blotches below the sutures, the spiral sculpture 
also whitish. Length, 14 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Unfigured Species of Glyphostoma. 

M. SOROR (Persian Gulf) ; M. BISERTATA (Hab. ?) ; M. OBTUSICOS- 
TATA (? Japan, Persian Gulf); M. RUBROCINCTA {Fiji Islands); 
M. BATHYRAPHE (Philippines) ; all of Mr. E. A. Smith. 

M. OCELLATA, Jousseaume. Mauritius. 

Section CITHAROPSIS, A. Adams. 
M. CANCELLATA, A. Adams. 

Acuminated above and below, reddish brown, spire and aper- 
ture equal ; whorls convex; longitudinally costellate, transversely 
lirate, closely elegantly cancellate, last whorl produced and 
acuminated below. Japan. 

Unfigured. No dimensions given. 

M. SOLIDA, Reeve. PL 27, fig. 10. 

Solid, very closely granosely latticed throughout ; purplish. 
Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines, sand, 7 fms. (Cuming). 

Genus CLATHURELLA, Carpenter. 
C. INFLATA, Crist, et Jan. PL 32, fig. 30. 

Whorls very convex, with very narrow, curved, distant ribs 
and close fine revolving striae ; yellowish brown. 
Length, 1 inch. , 

Mediterranean Sea (rare in living state). 
C. volutella, Kiener (figured) is a synonym. 

C. STRTA, Calcara. PL 33, fig. 74, 

Whorls convex, with revolving lines, those of the spire only 
with longitudinal rounded ribs. Length, 13 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Described as a fossil, but a few recent fragments have been 
dredged. G. semiplicata, Bonelli, is a synonym. 



OLATHURELLA. 275 

C. TORQUATA, Philippi. PI. 20, fig. 78. 

Rather thin, subdecussate, whorls with sloping shoulders, th^ 
angle set with small tubercles. Length, 1 inch. 

Mediterranean, deep sea. 

Originally described as a fossil from Calabria, but recent 
specimens have been dredged at several localities. It is PL 
recondita, Tiberi. 

C. PURPUREA, Montagu. PI. 18, figs. 40, 41. 

Whorls usually well rounded, clathrate by narrow ribs and 
almost equally strong revolving ridges ; reddish or purplish 
brown, white-zoned below the middle of the body-whorl, the zone 
distinct within the lip. Length, 12-19 mill. 

Europe, Canary Islands. 

Yar. PHILBEBTI, Mich. (fig. 41). Shell dwarf, more solid, fewer 

ribs, often particolored (P. bicolor, Risso). 
Yar. LA Vi-as, Phil. More lengthened and smaller than the type, 

very regularly trellised. It is the var. oblonga of Jeffreys 

and P. corbis, Midland. 
Yar. MAJOR, Monts. Length, 26 mill. 
Yar. ATRA, Monts. Uniform dark chocolate. 
Yar. FLAVIDA, Monts. Light yellowish, a little roseate. 
Yar. ALBIDA, Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf. White. 
Yar. BICOLOR, Risso. Brown with large white spots. 
Yar. LINEOLATA, Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf. A brown line between 

each ridge. 

C. CORDIERI, Payr. PI. 32, fig. 34 ; PL 18, fig. 35 ; PI. 20. fig. 79. 
Ribs and revolving ridges higher and sharper, and not so 
numerous as in the preceding species, the intersections produced, 
prickly, aperture more attenuated into a canal below ; yellowish 
brown, irregularly mottled or streaked with chestnut. 
Length, 13-25 mill. 

Europe. 
Yar. CANCELLATA, Sowb. A large form, with convex whorls; 

white or light purplish with a lighter central band. 
Yar. PUNGENS, Monts. Shell small, thick ; brownish, with white 

blotches. 
Yar. HISTRIX, Jan. Intersections of the sculpture spinose. 



276 CLATHURELLA. 

Yar. RUDIS, Scacchi. Whorls less convex, shell thicker, apex 

more obtuse than the type, sculpture closer, less lamellar, 

canal shorter. Appears to form a connection between this 

species and M. purpurea. 

G. reticulata, Renieri (PL 18, fig. 35), and G. scabra, Jeffreys 

(PI. 20, fig. 79) are synonyms. 

C. CLATHRATA, Marcel de Serres. PL 33, fig. 68 ; PL 16, figs. 

68, 70. 

Conspicuously latticed with coarse sculpture ; aperture large, 
truncate at base ; yellowish white. 

Mediterranean and Adriatic; W. Africa. 

The synonyms include G. rudis, Phil. (fig. 68) ; G. granum, 
Phil. ; G. quadrillum, Dujardin ; G. cancellata, Calcara, and G. 
Delosensis, Reeve (PL 16, figs. 68, 70.) 

C. LEUFROYI, Michaud. PL 18, fig. 33. 

Ribs strong, rounded, not crossing the slightly concave sub- 
sutural area, encircled by very fine stria?, which cross the ribs ; 
yellowish gray, under a thin yellowish brown epidermis of which 
it is usually denuded, variegated by irregular chestnut blotches 
arranged in two broad bands on the body-whorl, and a single 
band on those of the spire. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Europe, Canary Islands. 

Yar. CARNOSULA, Jeffreys. Pale flesh-color. Length, 20-22 mill. 
Yar. ALBIDA, Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf. Uniform whitish. In sponges 
from Barbary. 

C. LINEARIS, Montagu. PL 18, fig. 34. 

Longitudinal ribs rounded, strong, crossed by rather numerous 
revolving lines ; yellowish *ray, the lines chestnut. . 

Length, 9 mill. 

Europe, Canary Islands. 

Animal sluggish, frequently turns on its back and floats at the 
surface of the water, as do the related species. Spawn-cases 
separate, hemispherical, thin, membranous, one-fifth of an inch 
in diameter, with a small oval hole in the centre. They are 
attached at the base to the inside of old bivalve shells and to 
other smooth surfaces. Each capsule contains from 200 to 300 
fry. These are of a brown color and exquisitely reticulated, each 



CLATHURELLA. 277 

having a single whorl, globular, and partially umbilicate, with a 

roundish mouth and an incomplete canal like that of lanthiita.- 

The fry, when in the capsule, are very restless, and gyrate fieely 

by means of their ciliated front lobes. JEFFREYS, Brit. Conch., 

iv, 369. 

Yar. MAJOR, Requien. Nearly double the usual size. 

Yar. BREVIS, Requien. Shell short. 

Yar. ^EQUALIS, Jeffreys. Broader, with more rounded whorls 
and closer, less prominent sculpture than the type ; apex 
yellowish white, colored lines regularly distributed and of 
a paler hue, or altogether wanting. Includes vars. inter- 
media and pallida of Forbes and Hanley. 

Yar. VIOLACEA, Monts. Dark violet. 

Yar. RUBROLINEATA, Monts. Revolving lines red instead of 
chestnut. 

C. CONCINNA, Scacchi. PI. 34, fig. 85. 

Longitudinal ribs rounded, not very prominent, distant, 
revolving lines fine and numerous, canal very short, aperture 
wide, lip rather thick, smooth within, with shallow sinus ; grayish, 
with interrupted bands and lines of chestnut. Length, 13 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Some authors consider this a var. major of the preceding 
species, but it appears to be sufficiently distinct in other respects 

besides that of size. 

*,* 
C. PLICATA, C. B. Ad. PI. 30, fig. 98 ; PI. ^ fig. 92. 

Longitudinal ribs 11-12, prominent, crossed by about the same 
number of strong, thread-like ridges, the intersections sometimes 
produced into nodules ; reddish chocolate, interior dark chocolate. 

Length, 6-8 mill. 

New England to Tampa Bay, West Coast of Florida. 

The shell is only whitish in dead specimens. Prof. Adams 
changed the name to plicosa, because Lamarck described a fossil 
Pleurotoma plicata ; of course, in Clathurella the original name 
can still be used. The synonyms include C. brunnea, Perkins, 
and C. Jewetti, Stearns (PL 48, fig. 92), the latter found on 
oysters at Tampa Bay, Fla. 



278 OLATHURELLA. 

C. CANDIDULA, Reeve. PI. 18, figs. 24, 23, 25. 

Longitudinally plicate, revolving ridges rather distant, con- 
spicuous ; pale straw-color, lip tinged with pink. 

West Indies. 

The figure is said to be highly magnified, but the dimensions 
are not given. 

Yar. D'ORBIGNYI, Reeve (fig. 23). Longitudinal plications 

obsolete. 
Yar. CLATHRATA, Reeve (fig. 25). Light brown, variegated with 

reddish chestnut. 

C. QUADRATA, ReCVC. PL 18, fig. 31. 

Strongly biangulated on the body-whorl ; ribs distant, con- 
spicuous, revolving sculpture fine and close ; whitish or yel- 
lowish ; the interstices of the ribs often chestnut-color. 

Length, 5*5 mill. 

West Indies. 

Described by Reeve without localit^y. His figure is three 
times the size given above, but there are good reasons for sup- 
posing it to be magnified ; among them, is the fact that Prof. C. 

B. Adams obtained a shell in Jamaica which, except for its 
diminutive size, exactly corresponds with Reeve's figure. He 
proposed to call his species M. diminuta, in case it should prove 
distinct. My specimens confirm his suspicion and Krebs' con- 
viction that the two species are identical. 

C. ANGULIFERA, Reeve. PL 18, fig. 22. 

Bodj'-whorl biangulated, the upper and lower parts chestnut, 
the middle yellowish. 

West Indies. 
Dimensions not given, but greatly magnified in the figure. 

C. MONILIFERA, Sowb. PL 14, fig. 9 ; PL 18, fig. 43. 

Shell minutely reticulated ; white, tessellately painted with 
squares, each composed of four short parallel brown lines. 

Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies. 

Described as a Columbella, and included in that genus in the 
" Manual," v, p. 149 ; the figure, however, shows the Pleurotomid 
notch. P. scalpta, Reeve (PL 18, fig. 43), and P. fuscolineata, 
C. B. Ad., are synonyms. 



CLATHURELLA. 279 

C. GUILDINGII, Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 44. 

Whorls slightly concavely shouldered above, nodosely plicated 
beneath, transversely very closely striated ; very dark chocolate 
or blackish, interior same color. Length, 8 mill. 

West Indies. 

C. ANTILLARUM, d'Orbigny. PI. 20, figs. 82, 85, 88. 

Whitish, whorls clathrate, slightly, narrowly shouldered. 

Length, 5-9 mill. 

West Indies. 

I think that C. Lavalleana, d'Orb. (fig. 85), and C. Vespuc- 
ciana, d'Orb. (fig. 88), are synonyms. 

C. CARIB^EA, d'Orb. PL 20, fig. 87. 

Distinctly shouldered, longitudinally costate, encircled by 
thread-like lines ; light yellowish brown or whitish. 

Length, 4 5 mill. 

West Indies. 
C. ELATIOR, d'Orb. PL 20, fig. 84. 

Shell finely clathrate, whitish or light brown. Length, 4 mill. 

West Indies. 
C. RUBRICATA, Reeve. PL 18, fig. 29 ; PL 20, fig. 83. 

Very distantly ribbed, closely transversely striate ; yellowish 
white to chestnut-colored. Length, 6 mill. 

West Indies. 
I think C. Auberiana, d'Orb. (PL 20, fig. 83) is a synonym. 

C. CANDEANA, d'Orb. PL 20, fig. 93. 

Whitish, spire longitudinally plicate, body-whorl without 
sculpture except a few revolving lines at the base. 

Length, 4 mill. 

West Indies. 
C. MACROSTOMA, Reeve. PL 18, fig. 27. 

Whorls convex, spire obtuse : ribs rounded, large, close, oblique, 
vanishing below, aperture very narrow, sinuous ; bluish purple, 
lineated transversely with red. 

West Indies. 

Figure greatly magnified. 

C. OOCIDENTALIS, Reeve. PL 18, fig. 28. 

The close longitudinal ribs are nodosely decussated by narrow 
19 



280 CLATHURELLA. 

revolving ridges ; canal narrow, rather long, curved ; chestnut- 
brown. 

West Indies. 

Dimensions not given, but figure much magnified. 

C. TURBINELLOIDES, Reeve. PI. 18, fig. 26. 

Whorls smooth, longitudinally ribbed, ribs varicose ; whitish, 
banded with chocolate lines, arranged in pairs. 

West Indies. 

No dimensions given, but figure greatly magnified. 

C. INFLEXA, von Martens. PL 20, fig. 95. 

Whorls angulate in the middle, with about nine rounded ribs, 
and numerous revolving striae ; pink-white. Length, 5 mill. 

Tropical Atlantic Ocean. 

Said to be allied to C. Auberiana, d'Orb. A single specimen 
found in the stomach of a fish. 

C. OCCATA, Hinds. PI. 18, fig. 46. 

Shell light yellowish brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Magnetic Island, West Coast of Veragua (Hinds). 

C. MERITA, Hinds. PI. 18, fig. 32. 

Shell shortly plicately ribbed, transversely striated, angulated 

next the suture; yellowish, back of last whorl clouded with 

brown, with a brown line on the shoulder-angle. Length, 12 mill. 

Gulf of Nicoya, Central America (Hinds). 

C. SCULPTA, Hinds. PI. 17, fig. 14. 

Whorls rather flatly convex, ribbed longitudinally, crossed by 
fine revolving lines; ribs rounded, rather compressed, leaving 
off near the suture, outer lip externally varicose ; yellowish, 

banded with light brown. Length, 21 mill. 

Panama. 

Hinds' unique specimen, figured above, was not adult; I add 
the varicose lip from an adult before me. 

C. CANFIELDI, Dall. PL 20, fig. 91. 

Shell narrowly shouldered ; numerous indistinct longitudinal 
plications fade out towards the lower part of the body-whorl, 
about sixteen revolving ridges on the body-whorl, sinus deep ; 



CLATHURELLA. 281 

yellowish white, without bands or with from one to three narrow 

chocolate bands. Length, 8 mill. 

Monterey, Gal. 
C. AFFINIS, Dall. PL 20, fig. 0. 

Strongly ribbed and transversely striated, narrowly shouldered; 
outer lip internally lirate, much thickened, with two strong den- 
ticulations, inner lip with four or five crenulations on the colu- 
mella ; livid purple, with a single white band on the middle of 
the body-whorl, appearing just above the suture of the penulti- 
mate whorl. Length, 6 mill. 

Cape St. Lucas, L. Gal.; San Miguel IsL, So. California. 

C. HAYSIANA, Angas. PL 15, fig 46. 

Whorls angulated, the decussating sculpture forming nodules; 
dull chalky gray, apex and interior of aperture purple. 

Length, 12 mill. 

New South Wales, Australia. 

C. RETICOSA, Adams and Angas. 

Ovately fusiform, fuscous, with a median white band ; whorls 
six, rather flat, with scarcely a sutural angle, reticulated (but not 
nodulous ) by sculpture ; aperture elongately ovate, lip nodosely 
lirate within. L. 12, diam. 5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

" A species very similar in its general character to C. purpurea, 
BL, from the Mediterranean." 

C. TENUILIRATA, Angas. PL 16, fig. 52. 

Shell solid, opaque, pale brown ; longitudinal ribs eight, com- 
pressed, prominent, crossed by narrow, distant erect ridges, 
becoming sharply angular at the intersection, the entire spaces 
between them being very closely and regularly ornamented with 
fine hair-like concentric striae ; outer lip thin-edged, variced, the 
interior with a tubercle next the posterior sinus, which is broad 
and shallow. Length, 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

C. RJSSOIDES, Reeve. PL 27, figs. 8, 9. 

Shell smooth, shining, semitransparent ; first three whorls 
longitudinally plaited, the rest smooth, the last with a varix 
nearly opposite the aperture (accidental ?) columella spirally 



282 CLATHURELLA. 

twisted, lip rather thickened, delicately denticulated within, 
sinus small, distinct; whitish, washed with clouded yellow 
streaks, apex pink. Length, 23 mill. 

Isle of Ticao, Philippines, on the reefs (Cuming\ 
A curious shell, with which I am not acquainted. 

C. GRANULOSISSIMA, Tenison-Woods. PI. 32, fig. 20. 

Shell somewhat like C. sculptilis, but differs in having the fine 
spiral lirse conspicuously granular, about every fourth one being 
larger than the others ; color uniform pale brown ; longitudinal 
ribs very conspicuous ; sinus very faint. Length, 6*5 mill. 

N. Tasmania. 

Figured from a type specimen in the collection of the Royal 
Society of Tasmania. 

C. SCULPTILIS, Angas. PI. 16, fig. 51. 

Moderately solid, pale brown ; whorls seven, rounded, a little 
excavated next the sutures; with about nine rounded ribs, 
between which are numerous fine erect longitudinal striae, which 
become crescent-shaped on the flattened area below the sutures, 
and encircled with numerous concentric, somewhat irregular 
ridges, which are slightly nodulous at the intersections; outer lip 
varicose, slightly silicate within, sinus rather deep. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

C. SCULPTILIOR, Tenison-Woods. PI. 32, fig. 21. 

Differs from the preceding species in being smaller, without 
smooth subsutural space, ribs sixteen, revolving sculpture alter- 
nately larger and smaller, lines of growth not very visible ; 

brownish white. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Figured from a type in Coll. Roy. Soc. of Tasmania. 

C. DEBILIS, Hinds. PI. 17, fig. 10. 

Whorls rounded, without sutural shoulder, ribs small, close, 
extending to the sutures, crossed by revolving striae ; yellowish, 
darker between the ribs. Length, 11 mill. 

New Guinea, Straits of Macassar (Hinds) ; 

Darnley Isl., Australia (Brazier). 



CLATHURELLA. 283 

C. oxYCLATHRUS, Martens. PL 16, fig. 49. 

Whorls clathrate by distant longitudinal and revolving lirae, 
forming nodes at the intersections, interstices finely cancellate ; 
sinus narrow and deep; light yellowish brown. 

Length, 1 inch. 

New Guinea. 
C. CUMINGII, Powis. PI. 26, fig. 76 ; PL 23, fig. 90. 

Ribs slightly nodulous, columella spirally plaited, canal very 
short and slightly recurved ; lip somewhat thin, without external 
varix, sinus small, distinct ; pale orange-brown with small deeper- 
colored spots, the revolving striae white. Length, 34 mill. 

Grimwood's Island ; Philippines. 

C. albibalteata, Reeve (PL 23, f. 90), appears to be a slight 
variation only in coloring and sculpture from the type. 

C. TRITONOIDES, Reeve. PL 23, fig. 91. 

Delicately cancellated with very finely nodulous longitudinal 
ribs and elevated transverse striae ; lip thickened, sinus small ; 
yellowish brown, obscurely banded with white in the middle. 

Length, 23 mill. 

Philippines (C tuning). 

C. FENESTRATA, ReCVC. PL 26, fig. 83. 

Shell thin, pellucid, whorls latticed throughout with rather 
distant superficial ridges, lip simple, sinus rather broad ; trans- 
parent white, faintly stained with orange. Length, 10 mill. 

Philippines, coral sand at 9 fms. (Cuming). 

The Messrs. Adams place this in Daphnella on account of its 
thin lip, a feature which I suppose to be due to juvenility, as the 
shell has the facies of a Clathurella. 

C. OCTANGULA, Dunker. PL 16, fig. 50. 

Shell solid, obtusely shouldered, strongly ribbed, transversely 
sutistriate ; yellowish white, with an interrupted chestnut band. 

Length, 10 mill. 
C. SINCLAIRI, E. A. Smith. PL 34, fig. 91. Japan. 

Spiral striae close, most apparent in the interstices of the ribs ; 
pale brown or purplish brown, with a central pale spiral band. 

Length, 11 mill. 

New Zealand. 

First described by Prof. F. W. Hutton as G. Letourneuxiana, 



284 CLATHURELLA. 

Crosse. Subsequently, ascertaining that it is distinct from that 
species, he named it C. luteofasciata, Reeve from which it is 
also distinct. Mr. Gillies calls it as above. 

C. FUSCOBALTEATA, Smith. PI. 25, fig. 59. 

Yellowish, pale violet or lilac towards the apex, banded with 
light brown, one band at the top of the whorls darker than the 
rest ; ribs about sixteen, crossed by fine lirae ; lip thickened within 
and exteriorly, thin at the extreme edge, smooth interiorly, sinus 

sutural, small. Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 
C. SUBZONATA, Smith. PI. 25, fig. 56. 

Light yellowish brown, more or less distinctly medianly 
banded, with opaque white lines interrupted by dark brown dots 
or short lines, sometimes marked with opaque white streaks just 
beneath the suture, and with a second less apparent transverse 
band around the lower part of the body-whorl ; ribs sixteen, 
crossed by spiral lirae ; lip moderately thickened, smooth within, 

with a small sutural sinus. Length, 17 mill. 

Japan. 

C. CANALICULATA, ReCVC. PL It, fig. 9. 

Ovately turreted, suture of the spire channeled, whorls finely 
latticed with raised striae, sinus large ; whitish. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

A light elegantly formed shell, contracted at the base. 
C. ROBILLARDI, Barclay. PL 16, fig. 55. 

Shell thin, white, with distant, thin, ridge-like ribs, and distant 
revolving lirse, more closely striate at the base. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Mauritius. 
C. BICOLOR, Angas. PL 16, fig. 61. 

Rather solid, light yellowish brown, the sutures, lower half of 
the body-whorl and interior of aperture reddish chestnut ; whorls 
very narrowly, obtusely shouldered; longitudinal ribs close, 
crossed by revolving striae; outer lip thin, denticulated within, 
strongly varicose externally, sinus rather broad and deep. 

Length, 7-12 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

It is possible that Drillia vexillum, Reeve, is identical with 
this species, and if so, that name has priority. 



CLATHURELLA. 285 

C. ALBOCINCTA, Angas. PL 17, fig. 84. 

Moderately solid ; reddish brown, with a rather broad white 
band on the middle of the body-whorl, visible on the spire ; lip 
thickened, dentate within. Length, 5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
C. ZONULATA, Angas. PL 17, fig. 89. 

Rather solid, light brown, banded with ashy gray below the 
sutures and towards the base of the last whorl, encircled with 
rather distant fine brown lines ; longitudinally nodosely plicate, 
transversely closely lirate ; lip thin, varicose, sinus moderate. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

C. RUFOZONATA, Angas. PL 17, fig. 100. 

Shell solid, white, sometimes with a zone of double interrupted 
chestnut lines near the base of the body-whorl, similar markings 
being apparent here and there near the upper portion of the 
whorls ; ribs nodose. Length, 5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

C. PUSTULATA, Angas. PL 17, fig. 85. 

Moderately solid, whorls rounded, white, irregularly longi- 
tudinally flamed with chestnut on the upper whorls, with two 
broad brown bands on the last whorl ; sinus rather broad and 
shallow. Length, 7 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

May be at once recognized by the stout granules at the base 
of the pillar. 

C. MODESTA, Angas. PL 17, fig. 92. 

Solid, fulvous brown; intersections of sculpture nodulous; 
columella with a few strong granulations at the base. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Closely allied to and perhaps identical with G. granulosissima, 
Tenison-Woods. 

C. BRENCHLEYI, Angas. PL 17, fig 93. 

Shell moderately solid, light brown, inclining to ash-color 
towards the apex ; aperture tinged with brown. 

Length, 18 mill. 

N. S. Wales, Australia. 



286 CLATHURELLA. 

C. GBACILISPIRA, E. A Smith. PL 17, fig. 94. 

Light yellowish brown, faintly banded with chestnut between 
the ribs on the upper part of the whorls, and stained with chestnut 
below the middle of the body-whorl. Length, 15 mill. 

Japan. 

More slender, the whorls more convex, the extremities more 
lengthened and attenuated than C. bicolor, Angas. 

C. LETOURNEUXIANA, Crosse. PL 17, figs. 87, 86 ; PL 34, fig. 99. 

Yellowish brown, or light reddish brown. Length, 12 mill. 

New South Wales; Tasmania. 
Yar. LALLEMANTIANA, Crosse. PL 17, fig. 86. 

Two of the revolving lines more prominent, ridge-like. 

G. incrusta, Tenison-Woods (PL 34, fig. 99), is a smaller shell, 
7 mill., with two of the revolving striae more prominent (on the 
body-whorl 8-9), slightly keel-like. I figure it from a specimen 
sent to me by Mr. C. E. Beddome, of Tasmania. I believe it to 
be a S3rnonym of G. Letourneuxiana, var., one of my specimens 
of the latter exhibiting a transition from the normal type with 
equal revolving sculpture to the form with two more prominent 
lines. 
C. PYRAMIDULA, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 20. 

Closely latticed with small numerous flexuous longitudinal ribs 
and revolving striae, a narrow shoulder below the sutures ; body- 
whorl somewhat truncated at the base ; yellowish brown, or 
yellowish white. Length 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown (Reeve); New Guinea (Brazier). 
C. NAGASAKIENSIS, Smith. PI, 19, fig. 71. 

Yellowish brown ; closely sculptured by longitudinal numerous 
ribs and spiral striae ; a very slight concave constriction below 
the sutures ; aperture rather small, light brown within, outer lip 

thin. Length, 17 mill. 

Japan. 
Has the appearance of immaturity. 

C. MUTICA, Hinds. PL 34, fig. 98. 

Not ribbed, transversely striate ; yellowish brown, with longi- 
tudinal chestnut strigations and a median white band, chestnut 
at the base. Length, 15 mill. 

Straits of Malacca, 17 fms., mud (Hinds). 



CLATHURELLA. 28 7 

C. SCALARIS, Hinds. PI. 16, fig. 78. 

Ribs rounded, but narrower than represented by the figure, 
running into the suture,.like the lamellae of Scalaria, closely trans- 
versely striate, whorls convex, with well-impressed sutures; light 
yellowish brown, with a narrow indistinct chestnut zone below 
the' middle of the body-whorl. Length, 9 mill. 

Straits of Macassar, coarse sand, 12 fms. (Hinds). 

C. AMABILIS, Hinds. PI. IT, fig. 6. 

Ribs few, distant, narrow, revolving striae fine and close ; pale 
orange-brown, last whorl with a narrow white band, suture orna- 
mented with white spots. Length, 16 mill. 

Straits of Malacca, 17 fms., mud (Hinds). 

Very closely allied to the preceding species, but larger, with 
less numerous ribs. 

C. NEXA, Reeve*. PI. 16, fig. 69. 

Whorls rounded, plicately ribbed, encircled with fine narrow 
cords, becoming nodulous on crossing the ribs ; lip flattened, 
sinus broad - whitish, stained with chestnut, the cords darker 
chestnut or chocolate. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Viti Islands (Garrett). 

C. PHILIPPINENSIS, Reeve. PL 16, fig. 81. 

Tentricose, rather transparent, white, longitudinally ribbed, 
ribs very delicate, rather compressed, somewhat distant, and 
variously painted with black or chestnut and opaque-white. 

Length, 14 mill. 

Philippines, under stones, at low-water (Cuming). 

I suspect that this will prove to be a color-variety of the pre- 
ceding species. 

C. GRANICOSTATA, Reeve. PI. 16, fig. 80 ; PI. 17, fig. 88. 

Yellowish or blush-brown, with a white band above the middle, 
the nodules darker-colored. Length, 9-13 mill. 

Viti Islands (Garrett) ; Mauritius (Robillard). 
C. rufinodis, Martens (fig. 88), is a synonym. 



288 CLATHURELLA. 

C. METCALFIANA, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 17. 

Shell ovate, rather thick, with close revolving elevated striae, 
longitudinally somewhat obsoletely grooved towards the apex ; 
white, painted with two bands of reddish brown spots. 

Length, 8 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
C. FORAMINATA, Reeve. PI. 17, fig. 7. 

Yery closely latticed with narrow longitudinal and transverse 
striae ; yellowish. Length, 6 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
C. FIMBRIATA, Hinds, PL 16, fig. 82. 

Longitudinally closely , nuinerousjy laminate, the laminee short, 
flexuous, dentate ; lip crenulated, reflected, sinus very small ; 
pale reddish brown, with a central white, narrow band. 

Length, 9 mill. 

New Guinea. 
C. PARVULA, Reeve. PL 16, fig. 72. 

Whorls rather swollen, longitudinally ribbed, transversely 
very minutely ridged ; pale yellowish brown. Length, 6 mill. ? 

Habitat unknown. 

Reeve gives no dimensions, but his figure is probably magnified 
three times as are most of the others upon the same plate. 

C. FOVEOLATA, Reeve. PL 16, fig. 73. 

Reticulated with strong elevated ridges, granose at the inter- 
sections ; white. Length, 5 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

u The interstices of the reticulations are peculiarly deeply 
pitted." 

C. REFLEX A, Reeve. PL 16, fig. 74. 

Shell Triton-shaped, longitudinally ribbed, transversely 
strongly ridged ; aperture rather long, sinuous, lip reflexed, 
denticulated within; whitish, tinged with chestnut between the 
ribs. Length, 7 mill. 

Hab. unknown (Reeve) ; N. Guinea (Brazier). 

C. BILINEATA, Angas. PL 17, fig. 4. 

Whorls angulate above, coarsely longitudinally ribbed and 
transversely ridged, the interstices very finely decussately 
striated ; posterior sinus very shallow ; pale straw-color or light 



CLATHURELLA. 289 

brown, nearly white round the aperture and at the base, with a 
narrow chestnut band just below the suture, and a second 
between the periphery and base of the last whorl. 
Length, 4 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

C. BICARINATA, Pease. PL IT, fig. 90. 

Shell white, decussately striated, the body-whorl with two, the 
spire-whorls with one stout revolving keel, crenulated on the 
edge ; sinus a very narrow deep slit terminating in a round hole, 

Length, 10 mill. 

Islands. 



0. CARINULATA, Souverbie. PL 17, fig. 95. 

Longitudinally obscurely ribbed, and transversely striated, 
ribs disappearing tp. wards the base, where the striae become 
stronger ; body-whorl tricarinate, those of the spire bicarinate, 
caririae nodulous ; whitish, maculated with yellowish chestnut. 

Length, 8 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

C. TRICARTNATA, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 15 ; PL 26, fig. 91. 

Shell finely decussated by raised striae, last whorl three-, 
upper ones one-keeled ; white. Length, 12 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Japan (Dunker). 

Mr. Garrett writes to me that this = the unfigured Purpura 
exilis, Dunker, from the Yiti Islands. See Manual, ii, 176. 
I think M. lactea, Reeve (PL 26, fig. 91). is a larger specimen of 
the same species. 

C. HINDSII, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 12. 

White, faintly variegated with pale brown ; last whorl with 
four distant revolving ridges, the others with two, delicately 
cancellated with numerous compressed smaller ribs. Figure 
slightly magnified. 

Philippines. 
C. PULCHERRIMA, H. Adams. PL 17, fig. 99. 

Clathrate by three revolving ridges, and longitudinal lines ; 
whitish ; whorls four, convex, the last subventricose. 

Length, 7 mill. 

New Hebrides. 



290 CLATHURELLA. 

C. PUNCTICINCTA, Reeve. PI. 16, fig. 79. 

Longitudinally rather obscurely plicated, interstices very 
minutely striated, sinus rather large; whitish, with an inter- 
rupted band of chestnut on the periphery, coloring the interstices 
of the ribs so as to form a circle of spots. Length, 8 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
C. EETUSA, Hinds. PL 16, fig. 83. 

Ribs rounded, close, forming a coronal on the shoulder-angle, 
crossed by revolving striae ; orange-brown, purplish at the apex. 
Length, 8 mill. 

Straits of Macassar, sand at 8 fms. (Hinds). 

C. EXIMIA, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 5. 

Shell with narrow longitudinal lamellae, fimbriated by the 
intersection of revolving sculpture ; sinus rather indistinct, 
canal slightly twisted. Length, 18 mill. 

Philippines, under stones at low-water (Cuming), 

I am not acquainted with this Trophon-like species. The sinus, 
though somewhat indistinct, is fully sufficient, according to 
Reeve, to place it in the Pleurotomidse. 

C. SEMIGRANOSA, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 98. 

Whorls concave round the upper part, nodosely ribbed in the 
middle, granulated beneath ; whitish, encircled round the lower 

part with an orange band. Length, 8 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

C. CAVERNOSA, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 10 ; PL 19, fig. 69. 

Slightly angulated above, longitudinally distantly ribbed, 
latticed with narrow raised revolving ridges, cavernously grooved 
near the base ; chestnut, lighter on the ridges. 

Length, 6-7 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Viti Is. (Garrett). 

C. infrasulcata, Garrett (PL 19, f. 69), is a synonym: the 
figure does not represent the type specimen nearly as well as 
does that of Reeve. 
C. MICANS, Hinds. PL 17, fig. 8. 

Chestnut-color, with small, rather sharp, whitish, oblique ribs, 
fading towards the suture ; back of last whorl smooth ; lip thin, 
acute, smooth within. Length, 8 mill. 

Gulf of Papagayo, mud at 14 fms. (Hinds). 



<pt LIBfl^. 

S V OF THE n ' 
CLATHURELLA. |{J ftl V E R S l 

C. GLUMACBA, Hinds. PL It, fig. 13. V . 

i T T7 



Pale brown, shining, rather strongly shouldered ; ribs short, 
rounded, running into the suture, transversely striated, aperture 
brown. Length, 6 mill. 

New Guinea, mud at 22 fras. (Hinds). 

C. DENTIFERA, Hillds. PI. It, fig. 19. 

Whorls five, ribbed, crossed by revolving lines ; ribs numerous, 
small, narrow, running into the suture; lip crenulated, dilated 
and toothed at the lower part, columella furnished with a tooth 
at the lower part : orange-brown. Length, 13 mill. 

N. Guinea ; Straits of Malacca, mud at 5-lt fms. (Hinds). 

C. MABTBNSI, Nevill. PL 19, fig. 4t. 

Dark brown, the granules lilac-color ; columella twisted in the 
middle, with a few minute denticulations at its edge, violet ; outer 
lip bright brown, with a deep rounded sinus, and four strong 
lilac-colored teeth. Length, 5 mill. 

Ceylon, in sand. 
C. BLANFORDI, Nevill. PL 19, fig. 48. 

Granulate, with an excavated furrow near the base of the body- 
whorl ; lip thickened, with two or three granules, and a rather 
large sinus ; lilac-colored throughout. Length, 5*t5 mill. 

Annesley Bay, Abyssinia; Polynesia. 

C. rosea, D linker, from McKean IsL, Phrenix Group, appears 
to be the same. 

C. POLYNESIENSIS, Reeve. PL It, fig. 3. 

Whorls narrowly obtusely shouldered, longitudinally closely 
ribbed, transversely striated ; lip thickened, sinus large; white. 

Length, 6-8 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
C. REEVEANA, Deshayes. PL 19, figs. 56, 75. 

Surface almost microscopically decussated, the spiral sculpture 
being generally the strongest ; whitish, with light chestnut 
revolving lines, irregularly distributed, approximating or distant. 
Length, t-9 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon, Mauritius, Andaman Is., 

Viti and Paumotus Is. 

G. tumida, Pease (fig. t5), and, according to A. Garrett, the 
unfigured C. concinna, Danker, are synonyms. 



292 CLATHURELLA. 

C. CYCLOPHORA, Desh. PI. 19, fig. 54. 

Obsoletely longitudinally plicate, transversely distinctly 
striate, suture somewhat corded and noduled ; white flamed 
with brown. Length, 7 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon ; Mauritius. 

Appears to be very closely related to the preceding species. 

C. LABIOSA, E. A. Smith. PL 20, fig. 89. 

Obliquely longitudinally costate, transversely sulcate, sulci 
indistinct on the ribs, whorls angulated above ; white, with a 
pellucid zone below the suture. Length, 5 mill. 

Whydah, W. Africa. 
C. SMITHI, Nevill. PL 19, fig. 49. 

Whorls slopingly shouldered above the middle, smooth above 
the angle, closely reticulated and granular below it, longitudinal 
sculpture becoming obsolete towards the base ; sometimes addi- 
tionally keeled just below the suture ; white, tinged with pale 
brown on the columella arid outer lip. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Persian Gulf. 
C. ALBOSTRIGATA, Baird. PL 19, fig. 53. 

Whitish or light yellowish brown, marked on the back of the 
body-whorl with a pure white chalky-looking band, and in some 
instances with an interrupted band of brown. Length, 6 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

C. TINCTA, Reeve. PL 16, figs. 76, 75; PL 17, fig. 96; PL 32, 
fig. 40. 

Longitudinal ribs strong, with revolving riblets reticulating 

them, interstices deep ; sinus broad ; white, interruptedly banded 

above and below with orange-brown spots. Length, 9-12 mill. 

Viii '/., New Caledonia, Paumotus, New Guinea. 

C. albifuniculata, Reeve (fig. 75), is a synonym, and C. rubro- 
guttata, H. Adams (PL 17, fig. 96), which Mr. Garrett writes to 
me the unfigured C. corrugata, Dunker, appears to me to be 
merely a small variety. 

C. FELINA, Hinds. PL 17, fig. 18 ; PL 19, fig. 70; PL 22, fig. 64; 

PL 32, fig. 40. 

Decussated by longitudinal and revolving sculpture, yellowish 
white, with chestnut short longitudinal strigations upon the 



CLATHURELLA. 293 

granules, often upon every alternate rib, interrupted by a central 
white space, and again painted towards the base. 

Length, 8-10 mill. 

New Ireland, Upolu, New Caledonia. 

Reeve's figure (fig. 18) is a very poor one ; that of Hinds (PI. 
32, fig. 40) is better, but neither that, nor the figure of one of the 
synonyms, C. apicalis, Montrouzier (PI. 22, fig. 64), exhibits per- 
fectly the usual arrangement of the coloring ; sometimes this 
coloring is broken up and more or less dispersed over the sur- 
face, and then there is considerable resemblance to the preceding 
species. CL picta, Thinker (unfigured), is probably identical, 
and CL maculosa, Pease (PI. 19, fig. 70), appears to be a small 
variety. 
C. PUNCTTFERA, Garrett. PI. 19, fig. 74. 

Ribs small, narrower than their interstices, ten to eleven on 
the body-whorl, crossed by smaller transverse ridges, the granules 
of intersection light brown, the rest of the shell cinereous; 
sinus rather large, semicircular, lip six-toothed within. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Society, Samoa and Viti Islands. 

This species is allied to the preceding ; the spots on the granu- 
lated ribs are not shown on the figure in which the ribs also 
are too narrow. 

C. PERPLEXA, Nevill. PI. 19, fig/65. 

Uniform ash-color, a shade or two darker in the interstices of 
the ribs and near the apex ; columella, outer margin of the lip 
and interior of the aperture bright chestnut-brown ; outer lip 
very sharp, irregularly undulating, obsoletely granulated just 
within the aperture. Length, 6 mill. 

Bombay, Ceylon. 
C. SINGULARIS, Nevill. PI. 19, fig. 61. 

Faintly and obtusely ribbed, crossed by distant raised lines; 
whorls obtusely angulated at the periphery ; white, in the centre 
of the ribs on the last whorl ornamented with obsolete brown 
spots. Length, 8*5 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 
C. MASONI, Nevill. PL 19, fig. 60. 

Sharply shouldered, white, outer lip granular within. 
Length, 4 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 



294 CLATHURELLA. 

C. ENGIN^EFORMIS, Nevill. PI. 19, fig. 58. 

Openly clathrate, nodulous at the intersections of the sculpture ; 
white, with a single, somewhat irregular yellow band, repeated 
a little below the middle of the last whorl ; some of the granules 
on this band are yellow, whilst others are white. 

Length, 5-5 mill. 

Ceylon. 
C. CONTORTULA, Nevill. PL 19, fig. 55. 

White, with a pink tinge towards the apex. Length, 5'5 mill. 

Ceylon. 
C. OBTUSA, Reeve. PI. 16, fig. 77. 

Obtusely ribbed, transversely finely ridged, sinus broad ; pale 
yellow. Length, 15 mill? 

Habitat unknown. 

No dimensions are given by Reeve. Perhaps his figure is a 
magnified one. 

C. ARMSTRONGI, Nevill. PL 19, fig. 59. 

Distantly and obtusely ribbed, crossed by fine regular striae; 
columella much twisted, with a shining, granulated callosity, 
outer lip very closely minutely granulate just within the aperture, 
sinus remarkably wide, deeply excavated ; chocolate-brown. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Andaman Is. 
C. ARCTATA, Reeve. PL 17, fig. 2. 

Ribs corded with raised striae, lip thickened, peculiarly effused, 
sinus large ; dull white. Length, 7 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Darnley /., N. Australia (Brazier). 

C. D^DALEA, Garrett. PL 19, fig. 66. 

Yellowish white, maculated with small irregular chestnut- 
brown spots, mostly confined to the ribs; whorls slightly tabu- 
lated at the sutures; ribs rounded, compressed, 13-14 on the 
body-whorl, slightly oblique, crossed by small, revolving elevated 
lines, forming granules at the intersections ; sinus deep, outer 
lip varicose, crenulate and shortly lirate within, columella faintly 
rugose with oblique wrinkles. Length, 8 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

The coloration is very like C. felina, Hinds, but this is a 
narrower species. 



CLATHURELLA. 295 

C. BRAZIERI, Angas. PL 17, fig. 98. 

Whorls narrowly shouldered, longitudinally plicate, trans- 
versely finely ridged ; outer lip thin, simple within, sinus wide, 
not very deep ; pale brown, a little darker on the body-whorl and 

at the apex. Length, 6 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Described as a Clathurella,but the thin outer lip might remove 
it from the group unless the diagnosis is from a young shell. 

C. CJELATA, Garrett. PL 20, fig. 99. 

Ribs ten, nodose, crossed by 10-11 revolving ridges, interstices 
scabrous with close, elevated longitudinal strise ; sinus large ; 
cinereous, stained with luteous, nodules whitish and obsoletely 
lineated in the spiral grooves. Length, 6 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

C. GRANOSA, Bunker. PL 19, fig. 72. 

Cinereous, with four or five revolving brown lines on the upper 
whorls and three near the base ; ribs twelve, rather stout, inter- 
stices with small transverse ridges, which form nodules on the 
ribs ; sinus large, rounded, peristome 6-7 toothed within. 

Length, 5 mill. 

Viti and Samoa Islands. 

The figure does not do justice to this species ; it is narrower, 
and the lineations are more prominent. Bunker's species remains 
unfigured, but its identit} r with C. semilineata, Garrett, is 
admitted by the latter in a note to me. 

0. LINEOLATA, Gray. PL 21, fig. 14. 

Somewhat fusiformly oblong, longitudinally obtusely ribbed ; 
whitish, encircled with very fine brown lines. Length, 6 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

" May be known by the fine hair-lines with which it is encircled ; 
the ribs have not that granular appearance represented in the 
figure." The figure does not show the brown lines in fact is 
valueless, so that we can only guess at the probable relationship 
of this to the preceding species. 

20 



296 CLATHURELLA. 

C. SCALARINA, Desh. PI. 19, fig. 52. 

Whitish, with a narrow chestnut or chocolate sutural band, 
and another below the middle of the body-whorl only. 
Length, 6 mill. 

Ceylon and Mauritius (Nevill) ; Isle of 

Bourbon (Deshayes). 

Pease makes this a synonym of C. rugosa, Mighels, but it is 
not nearl} 7 related to that species. 

C. ALBA, Desh. PI. 25, fig. 38. 

White. Length, 4 mill. Me of Bourbon , 

C. RAVA, Hinds. PI. 18, fig. 42. 

Fulvous, the interstices of the ribs and edge of the lip stained 
purple-red ; sinus wide and deep. Length, 12 mill. 

Isl of Mindanao, Philippines (Cuming). 

C. VULTUOSA, Reeve. PI. 15, figs. 33, 36 ; PI. 16, fig. 66. 

Yellowish white or light yellowish brown ; apex sometimes 

rosaceous. Length, 8-10 mill. 

Philippines. 

G. efficta, Reeve (PI. 16, fig. 66), locality unknown, apparently 
belongs here, as well as C. compta, Reeve (PI. 15, fig. 36). 

C. NASSOIDES, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 29. 

Shell thin, as though pellucid, ribs close, obtuse ; horny white, 
banded above and below with reddish brown. Length, 12 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
C. GRAYI, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 31. 

Light chestnut-brown, with two darker bands on the body- 
whorl. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
C. LIRATA, Reeve. PI. 16, fig. 56. 

Shell ornamented with revolving ridges, sinus broad and large; 
yellowish white, edge of the lip stained with deep red within. 
Length, 10 mill. 

Philippines, sandy mud at 7 fms. (Cuming). 

C. LANGUIDA, Reeve. PI. 15, fig. 42. 

Ribs and striae rather distant, nodulous ; sinus large ; whitish, 
stained with reddish brown. Length, 9'5 mill. 

Darnley IsL, N. Australia (Brazier). 



CLATHURELLA. 297 

C. RUGOSA, Mighels. PI. 19, fig. 57. 

Outer lip thickened, toothed, sinus large and rather deep ; 
whitish, with a chestnut band at the suture, obscurely indicated 
on the middle of the body-whorl. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Sandwich Inlands (Mighels and Pease) ; Upolu (Bunker, 

Garrett) ; Ceylon, Mauritius, Bourbon (Nevill). 

Var. CURCULIO, Nevill. 

Ribs twelve, with four revolving keels on the whorls, of which 
the two middle ones are more prominent and spirally striated ; 
two brown lines on the body-whorl, showing within the aperture. 

Length, 8 mill. 
Var. FALLAX, Nevill. 

Ribs nine, the transverse keels less unequal in size, only one 
brown line on the last whorl and within the aperture. 

Length, 4-5 mill. 

According to Mr. Garrett the unfigured Cl. solidula and C. 
cincta, Dunker, are synonyms of rugosa. 

C. FORMOSA, Jeffreys. PI. 33, fig. Cl. 

Sculpture variable, the longitudinal varying from strise to ribs, 
sometimes nodulous ; suture deep, with a sloping infrasutural 
groove ; sinus remarkably deep and broad ; thin, opaque, dark- 
colored. Length, 12'5 mill. 

Europe, North Atlantic ; deep sea. 

C. TESSELLATA, Hinds. PL 15, fig. 24. 

Whorls granular, decussated with longitudinal and spiral lines; 
painted with brown somewhat square spots. Length, 6 mill. 

Straits of Macassar, coarse sand at 10 fms. (Hinds). 

C. LEMNISCATA, Nevill. PI. 15, fig. 28. 

White, with a brown band just below the sutures, and a second 
one below the middle of the body-whorl. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Ceylon, Mauritius. 
C. MALLETI, Recluz. PL 20, figs. 100, 96. 

Rose-red with a median white band ; inner margin of aperture 
with 5-6 closely set teeth. Length, 4 mill. 

Samoa and Viti Islands ( Garrett) ; 

Andaman Is. (Nevill). 
C. pinguis, Garrett (fig. 96), is a synonym. 



298 CLATHURELLA. 

C. PURPURASCENS, Dunker. PI. 20, fig. 90. 

Rose-red to violaceous, with a central white band ; outer lip 
5-6 toothed within. Length, 5 mill. 

Viti Islands. 

A narrower form, with less robust sculpture than C. Malleti. 
It is unfigured, but is admitted by Mr. Garrett to be identical 
with his C. pulchella, over which it has two years' priority of 
publication. 

C. CLANDESTINA, Deshaycs. PI. 19, fig. 67 ; PL 20, fig. 81. 

Minutely granular, light violaceous with two darker bands of 
the same color. Length, 5*5 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon (Desh.) ; Paumotus (Pease) ; 

Viti Is. (Garrett). 
C. violacea, Pease (PL 20, fig. 81), is a synonym. 

C. PURPURATA, Souverbie. PL 20, fig. 76. 

Violaceous or rosy white to purplish, sometimes obscurely 
lighter banded in the middle ; ribs evanescent towards the 
decidedly cons'tricted base of the body-whorl, where the revolv- 
ing sculpture becomes more prominent ; lip much thickened, 
dentate within. Length, 9*5 mill. 

N. Caledonia (Souverbie) ; Viti Is. (Schmeltz) ; 

Paumotus (Garrett). 
The specimens usually have a rounded shoulder on the whorls. 

C. PUMILA, Mighels. PL 19, fig. 68. 

Pinkish white, with an orange-brown band near the sutures, 
and a broader one below the middle of the last whorl. 

Length, 5'5 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

C. reticulata, Garrett, is a synonym. 
C. PRODUCTA, Pease. PL 19, fig. 63. 

Yellowish white ; sinus deep. Length, 6 mill. 

Sandwich Jslands. 

I have not seen this species. The figure appears to represent 
an immature individual. 

C. PUSTULOSA, Folin. PL 30, fig. 73. 

Light fulvous, the pustules tipped with red. Length, 5 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on Meleagrina. 



CLATHURELLA. 299 

C. NODOSA, Folin. PL 30, fig. 71. 

Light fulvous. Length, 4 mill. 

Pacific Ocean, on Meleagrina. 

Un figured or unidentified species of Glathurella. 

0. PUNGENS, Gould, C. ASPERSA, Gould. Hong Kong. 

C. TURRICULA and C. PUNCTATA, Dunker. Upolu. 

C. NEGLECTA, C. B. Ad. (= DESPECTA, H. and A. Ad.). Panama. 

C. PYGM^IA, C. MACULATA, C. MINOR, C. B. Ad. Jamaica. 

C. SECT A, Sowb. China. 

C. RUBICUNDA, Gould (Loo Ghoo)-, C. FILOSA, Gould (Ousima)-, 
C. LACUNOSA, Gould (Hong Kong) ; C. AMPLEXA, Gould, 
(Simon's Bay) ; C. PEREGRINA, Gould (Sydney, N. S. W.\ 

C. HEPTAGONA, C. FUSCOLINEATA, C. FENESTRATA, Punker. Upolu. 

C. STREPTOPHORA (N. Atlantic), C.PACHIA, C. ARANEOSA, C.PUDENS, 

C. PERPAUXILLA, C. CIRCUMVOLUTA, C. CHARTESSA, C. HORMO- 

PHORA (all West Indies), C. PERPARVA (Pernambuco), C. CHYTA 
(Azores^, Watson. 
C. EXILIS, Phil. Red Sea. 

C. HARPA, C. ELEGANS, C. PAUCICOSTATA, C. CYLINDRIQA, C. BRUN- 
NEA, C. FUSCOMACULATA, C. BALTEATA, C. BUCCINOIDES, C. EXTLTS, 

and C. PULCHELLA, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

C. GIBBERA, C. TENELLA, C. CONVEXA, C. TENERA (all Mediter- 
ranean), C. NODULOSA, (Medit., Portugal), C. EXQUISITA (Por- 
tugal), ail of Jeffreys. 

C. SUBGRANOSA (Singapore), C. ALTERNANS (^Ta&. ?),C. RETICULOSA 
(Japan), C. ALBICAUDATA (Persian Gulf), C. PIPERATA 
(Korea), C. MORETONICA (Australia), C. CAPENSIS (S. Africa), 
C. COMMODA (So. Africa), C. ASPERULATA (Japan, Persian 
Gulf), C. TRIFILOSA (Hab.1), all of Edgar A. Smith. 

C. PHILOMENA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 

C. MACLEAYI (Australia), C. TRICOLOR (Australia), C. RAMSAYI 
(New Guinea), C. BARNARDI (Australia), all of Brazier. 

C. PAPUENSIS, Tapparone-Canefri. New Guinea. 

C. HEXAGONA, Pfr. Cuba. 

C. CRYSTALLINA, and C. CONSTRICT A, Gabb. Gatalina Isld., Gal. 

C. INTERCALARIS, and C. SERRATA, Carpenter. Panama. 



300 DAPHNELLA. 

Genus DAPHNELLA, Hinds. 
D. LYMNEIFORMIS, Kiener. PI. 26, figs. 60, 89, 90, 93. 

Whorls with narrow, close, revolving ridges, the earlier ones 
with longitudinal ribs ; white, irregularly maculated with chest- 
nut, often forming longitudinal zigzag markings. 

Length, 14 mill. 

West Indies, Philippines, Australia. 

D. decorata, C. B. Adams, is a synonym, from the West 
Indies, and D. patula, Reeve (tig. 89), another from the Philip- 
pines ; the above widely separated localities appear to be well 
authenticated. Kiener gave the Indian Ocean and Isle of France 
for habitats. 
Yar. FRAGILTS, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 90. 

Shell thin, fragile, transparent, very closely finely reticulated 
throughout with raised lines, the spiral ones the most prominent ; 
white. Length, 23 mill. 

Hab. ? (Reeve) ; Australia (Angas) ; Japan (E. A. Smith). 

Mr. Smith says that the Japanese form is much smaller than 
the type, being 10 mill, long ; I suspect, however, that Reeve's 
figure is magnified. Mr. Smith also unites this with the type, 
but it may better be regarded as a variet} f of it. 
D. CASTA, Hinds. PL 26, fig. 96. 

Shell glassy, spirally grooved, columella twisted ; faintly tinged 
with pink. Length, 13'5 mill. 

Gulf of Nicoya, Central America, 23 fms. mud (Hinds). 
D. VARIEGATA, Carpenter. PL 22, fig. 54. 

Very thin, with nine ribs and almost microscopic revolving 
lines ; yellowish or pinkish horn-color, with one or two narrow 
chestnut bands sometimes interrupted. Length, 8 mill. 

Sta. Barbara, Cal. 

Figured from a specimen, one of the original lot. A variety 
nitens has a chestnut and a white band ; from same locality. 
D. PLUMBEA, Hinds. PL 21, fig. 39. 

Thin, longitudinall} 7 - ribbed ; pale lead-color, narrowly banded 
with chestnut. Length, 13'5 mill. 

Magdalena Bay, L. Cal., 5 fms. (Hinds). 

I suspect that the preceding species will prove to be 
synonymous with tlr's. 



DAPHNELLA. 301 

D. FUSCOLIGATA, Ball. PL 34, fig. 95. 

Strongly sculptured, longitudinally and spirally ; brownish 
white, brown-banded at the suture, and in the middle of the 
body-whorl, the nodulous intersections of the sculpture frequently 
brown-tipped. Length, T-8'5 mill. 

Monterey and San Diego, Gal. 

Figured from a specimen from the latter locality. The strong 
sculpture allies this to Clathurella. 

D. BOHOLENSIS, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 92. 

Shell without longitudinal sculpture except close growth-lines, 
with fine spiral striae, some of which are more prominent than 
the others, forming small acute ridges ; whitish, rather indis- 
tinctly w r aved or streaked with yellowish chestnut. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Viti Is. (Garrett). 

D. HYALINA, Reeve. PL 21, fig. 33 ; PL 26, figs. 82, 86. 

Thin, transparent, longitudinally very minutely and closely 
elevately striated throughout; whitish, encircled by distant 
chestnut lines, sometimes borne on striae. Length, 14 mill. 

HabJ 

Narrower than the preceding species, but may be only a variety 
of it. 

D. VARICIFERA, Pease. PL 25, fig. 39. 

Shell rather light, thin, closely decussated by longitudinal and 
spiral ridges, some of the latter much more prominent ; whorls 
here and there somewhat indistinctly varicose ; white, more or 
less stained and maculated with chestnut. Length, 17 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
D. DELICATA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 80. 

Shell thin, hyaline, very closely and evenly spirally striated ; 
white, with pale chestnut or orange-brown tessellations, inter- 
rupted by a white central band. Length, 13-22 mill. 

Lord Hood's Isl. (Cuming) ; Tahiti (Garrett). 

According to Mr. Garrett the unfigured D. Philippiana, 
Dunker, is the same. 



302 DAPHNELLA. 

D. DELICATULA, Tenison-Woods. PI. 32, fig. 29. 

Shell subdiaphanous, shining ; pale yellow, slenderly and 

irregularly zoned with red lines. Length, 9 mill. 

Tasmania. 

Figured from a type specimen in the museum of the Ro}^al 
Society of Tasmania. 

D. FLAMMEA, Hinds. PL 2S, fig. 78. 

Spirally closely striated, lip minutely crenulated within, sinus 
somewhat obsolete ; whitish, ornamented with waved longitudinal 

chestnut flames. Length, 16 mill. 

New Ireland (Hinds). 
D. ORNATA, Hinds. PL 26, fig. 88. 

Cancellated with decussating striae, sinus rather broad ; pale 
fulvous with two revolving rows of short flames or spots of 
chestnut. Length, 12 mill. 

New Guinea (Hinds) ; Darnley JsZ., N. Australia (Brazier). 

D. MARMORATA, Hinds. PL 26, fig. 95. 

Whorls flatly angulated around the upper part, elegantly can- 
cellated with transverse and longitudinal striae, columella striated 
at the base ; whitish, longitudinally zigzag marbled with chest- 
nut. Length, 8 mill. 

New Guinea (Hinds) ; Darnley /., Australia (Brazier). 

Reeve changed the name to Daphnelloides because of PL mar- 
morata, Lam. ; the latter is, however, a true Pleurotoma. 

D. AUREOLA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 77. 

Thin, transparent, spirally ridged, longitudinally very finely 
closely striated ; lip crenulated within, sinus small, distinct; pale 
golden color. Length, 21* mill. 

Isl. of Luzon, Philippines (CumingX 

"A delicate shell of so bright a hyaline texture that the pillar 
of the lip may be seen throughout." I have doubts of its dis- 
tinctness from D.flammea. 

D. IQNIFLUA, Reeve. PL 20, fig. 6. 

Spirally very closely elevately striated, longitudinally ribbed, 
ribs rather broad, approximated, conspicuous towards the apex, 



DAPHNELLA. 303 

obsolete towards the base ; lip crenulated within, sinus super- 
ficial ; whitish, ornamented with waved fulvous orange flames. 
Length, 14 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
D. SATURATA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 75. 

Granosely reticulated with raised striae ; lip finely crenulated, 
sinus distinct ; deep bright brown within and without, orna- 
mented with rather distant longitudinal white markings, and a 
white band revolving upon the middle of the body-whorl. 
Length, 14 mill. 

IsL of Corrigidor, Philippines, coarse sand, 

7 fms. (C timing). 
D. FUSIFORMIS, Garrett. PL 27, fig. 15. 

Longitudinally ribbed on the spire, ribs obsolete on the body- 
whorl, where there are several minute periodical varices, with 
unequal, more or less crenulated revolving ridges ; lip very finely 
crenulated, sinus small ; white, faintly tinged with yellowish 
brown. Length, 8 mill. 

Paumotus. 

I think it not improbable that this is an extreme form of a 
young Clathurella tricarinata, Reeve. 

D. MILLEGRANA, QaiTett, PL 27, fig. 2. 

Whole surface minutely granularly decussated; lip delicately 
crenulated, sinus large and deep; white, with short transverse 
ferruginous lines and dots. Length, 9 mill. 

Paumotus. 
D. TESSELLATA, Garrett. PL 27, fig. 1. 

Very finely, minutely granularly decussated throughout ; lip 
finely crenulated, sinus large and deep, slightly sinuous also near 
the base ; white, tessellated with three spiral rows of small, sub- 
quadrangular chestnut spots, one row of which appears on the 
spire. Length, 10 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
D. VITREA, Garrett. PL 25, fig. 57. 

Shell thin, vitreous, subpellucid ; whorls eight, obtusely nar- 
rowly shouldered above, covered by fine spiral striae, upper 
whorls longitudinally ribbed, each whorl with two slight period- 
ical varices ; lip finely crenulated, slightly varicose externally, 
sinus large and deep ; white. Length, 8 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 



304 DAPHNELLA. 

D. CRENULATA, Pease. PL 25, fig. 55. 

White, spirally finely ridged, the interstices striated, longitu- 
dinally faintly and obsoletely irregularly ribbed ; sutures bor- 
dered on each side by a crenulated rib, the crenulations connected 
obliquely by a short ridge ; sinus broad and deep. 

Length, 7 mill. 

Central Polynesia. 
D. AXIS, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 85. 

Whorls two-keeled round the tipper part, spirally faintly 
ridged beneath ; sinus very deep ; whitish, somewhat indistinctly 
stained with orange-brown. Length, 23 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming). 
D. CURTA, Pease. PI. 27, fig. 16. 

Strongly decussately granular, white. Length, 4'5 mill. 

Paumotus Is. 
D. INQUINATA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 98. 

Shell spirally ridged, closely longitudinally striated, sinus 
deep ; whitish, stained here and there with orange-brown. 

Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 
D. PLURICARINATA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 81. 

Shell encircled by numerous sharp keels, the interstices lon- 
gitudinally striate, sinus rather large ; whitish, stained with 
streaks of orange-brown. Length, 7*5 mill. 

Philippines. 

Yery closely allied to D. axis, Reeve, but only one-third the 
size of the figure of that species, if the latter be not magnified. 

D. TICAONICA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 84. 

Whorls rather ventricose, spirally irregularly ridged, inter- 
stices between the ridges very minutely latticed, sinus small ; 
whitish, flamed here and there with orange-brown. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Philippines. 

The figure of the above species exhibits some slight peculiar- 
ities, yet 1 suspect that all the forms having similar carinated 
sculpture and flamed coloring should be referred to one species. 



DAPHNELLA. 305 

D. TRIVARTCOSA, Martens. PI. 25, fig. 54. 

Shell with four or five revolving ridges on the body-whorl, 
with intermediate close revolving striae, no longitudinal ribs 
except on the upper whorls of the spire, subcontinuously three- 
varicose ; light yellowish white. Length, 15 mill. 

Mauritius. 
D. VARICOSA, Souverbie. PL 27, fig. 5. 

Shell finely reticulated by growth and revolving striae, with 
larger spiral lirse, crossed by non-continuous varices ; yellowish 
white, with minute white markings on the spiral ridges, and a 
large brown spot on the back of the bod}' -whorl apparent also 
within the aperture. Length, 12 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
D. DENTATA, Souverbie. PI. 25, fig. 41. 

Smooth, with fine spiral striae, more apparent towards the base 
of the body-whorl ; thin, translucent, yellowish white, with 
irregular revolving series of milk-white spots, and a more 
regular subsutural series; lip slightly toothed, sinus narrow, 
shallow, sutural. Length, 31 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

A very distinct, somewhat aberrant form, of which only one 
specimen was obtained. 

D. JEGROTA, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 87. 

Shell thin, finely decussated throughout ; whitish. 
Length, 11 mill. 

Singapore, fine sand, 7 fins. (Cuming). 

D. CREBRIPLICATA, Reeve. PI. 26, fig. 94. 

Shell cancellated by close longitudinal ribs and spiral ridges ; 
white, profusely variegated with rich orange-brown. 
Length, 16 mill. 

Philippines, under stones at low-water (Cuming); 

Port Jackson, Australia (Angas). 

D. REEVEANA, Tryon. PI. 23, fig. 81. 

Narrowly and very distantly longitudinally ribbed, spirally 
finely striate ; fleshy brown, obscurely banded, ribs whitish. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
This is Z>. casta, Reeve, not Hinds. 



306 DAPHNELLA. 

D. OLYRA, Reeve. PL 26, fig. 97. 

Thin, somewhat transparent, spire short; smooth or obsoletely 
striated ; snowy white, apex rose-color. Length, 12 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

This may be a worn specimen of the next species, which, if 
so, will become a synonym. 

D. COMPTA, Ad. and Angas. PI. 25, fig. 49. 

Spire and upper part of body-whorl longitudinally plicate, 
crossed by fine close revolving lines, lip acute, unarmed, widely 
but not deeply sinuous behind ; light yellowish or whitish, 
maculated more or less with chestnut. Length, 12 mill. 

8. Australia, 

Described as a Cithara, and the lip said to be externally 
varicose, but in the specimens before me the lip, although thick 
except on its edge, shows no varix, and none would be anticipated 
on a shell of this character. A shell sent to me from Tasmania 
as representing the unfigured D. varix, Tenison-Woods, appears 
to belong to this species, and judging from the description it 
must be either a synonym or very closely allied. 

D. URNULA, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 97. 

Yentricose, longitudinally ribbed, spirally elevately striated; 
chestnut-brown. Length, 5 mill, 

Habitat unknown. 

"A curious little ventripose shell which seems scarcely to have 
arrived at maturity." 

Unfigured species, probably belonging to Daphnella. 

D. LEUCOPHLEGMA, Dall (Caribbean), D. LIMACINA, Ball (Carib- 
bean [Dall], Martha's Vineyard, Mass. [Yerrill]). 

D. CLATHRATA, Gabb. Catalina Id., Cal. 

D. EFFUSA, Carpenter, h. 3'J. Neeah Bay. 

D. MAGELLANICA, Phil. Straits of Magellan. 

D. CANCELLATA, Hutton. New Zealand. 

D. KINGENSIS, Petterd. King's Id., Bass Straits. 

D. PURA, Gould (Hong Kong) ; D. CONCINNA, Gould (Loo Choo) ; 
D. DELUTA, Gould ( China Seas). 

D. TASMANICA, D. IMMACULATA, D. HARRISONI (Tenison-Woods). 

Tasmania. 



DAPHNELLA. 307 

D. INCINCTA, Watson (Azores) ; D. COMPSA, Watson (Fiji 7s4 - 

D. AULACOESSA, Watson (between Cape York, Australia, and 

Neiv Guinea). 
D. SANDWICENSIS, D. MACULOSA, D. INTERRUPTA, Pease. 

Sandwich Isles. 
D. GEALEI, D. TENUIOLATHRATA, D. TENELLA, Smith. 

Habitat unknown. 
D.BUTLERI, Smith (Philippines)-, D. SUPERCOSTATA, Smith (Japan); 

D. SOUVERBIEI, Smith ( W. Australia) ; D. MACANDREWI, 

Smith (Persian Gulf). 

Section RAPHTTOMA, Bellardi. 

D. NUPERRIMA, Tiberi. PL 22, fig. 49. 

Rather thin, with about twelve distant, small longitudinal 
riblets, crossed by distant raised lines. Length, 12 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, rare. 

It is 1). decussata, Phil., and several authors have also 
referred it to the PI. hispidula, Jan ; but that fossil form has 
the spiral sculpture more prominent. 

D. NEBULA, Montagu. PI. 21, figs. 20, 11 ; PI. 33, fig. 56 ; PL 30, 

fig. 86. 

Longitudinally ribbed, crossed by spiral striae ; sinus broad 
and shallow ; chestnut or horny brown, interior similarly 
colored. Length, 12 mill. 

Norway, Mediterranean, Canary Is., W. Coast of Africa. 
The following forms or varieties have been distinguished : 

Var. GINNANNIA, Risso. Ribs larger and stronger, yet the 
revolving sculpture is well marked. Mostly Mediterranean. 
This is not the P. Ginnannia of Reeve's Iconica. 

Var. L^EVIGATA, Phil. (fig. 11). Elongated, with the ribs not so 
prominent, and sometimes nearly obsolete, the revolving 
striae faint. Reeve's figure, which I have copied, is inac- 
curate, as it ought to show some traces of longitudinal ribs ; 
it is magnified three times. Jeffrey's figure (PL 33, fig. 66) 
represents a transitional form. 

Var. COSTULATA, Risso. Ribs narrower, continuing to the base of 
the body-whorl. 



308 DAPHNELLA. 

Var. ELONGATA, Jeffreys. Elongated, larger than the type. 

Yar. PALLIDA, Monts. Yellowish white. 

Yar. RUFULA, Monts. Reddish chestnut. 

Yar. FASCIATA, Monts. Yellowish, with a chestnut zone. 

(= laevigata). 

Var. MEDIOFASCIATA, Maltzan. PI. 30, fig. 86. 
D. FUSCATA, Desh., is possibly a variety. 

D. BBACHYSTOMA, Phil. PI. 22, fig. 45; PL 21, fig. 21; PL 18, 

fig. 45. 

Slightly, narrowly shouldered, with 7-9 narrow ribs extending 
from the shoulder to the base, and wider interspaces ; whole 
surface covered with revolving striae ; yellowish white, orange 
or occasionally deep reddish brown, paler specimens sometimes 
indistinctly brown-banded below the periphery. 
Length, 6-8 mill. 

Europe. 

The synonym}*- includes D. Cycladensis, Forbes (t. 21, f. 21), 
D. granulifera, Brugn., D. tiarula, Loven, and perhaps D. 
Forbesii, Reeve (PL 18, fig. 45). 

D. TURGIDA, Forbes. PL 21, figs. 25, 29, 7. 

Longitudinal ribs few, strong, rounded, wider than the inter- 
stices, crossed by revolving lines, ribs disappearing towards the 
base of the body-whorl ; chocolate-brown. Length, 7'5 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, W. Africa. 

The synonymy includes D. nana, Scacchi, not Desh. the 
latter a fossil form, D. fortis, Forbes (fig. 29), D. JEgeensis, 
Forbes (fig. 7). 

D. ATTENUATA, Montagu. PL 21, fig. 24. 

Ribs nine, narrow, flexuous, with wider interspaces, spirally 
slightly and finely striate ; pale tawny, the upper part and 
middle of the body-whorl often banded, or the lower half of 
the body-whorl darker -colored, sometimes there are several 
narrow revolving chestnut lines. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Europe, Teneriffe. 

Several authors have referred Murex aciculatus, Lam., to this 
species, but I believe it to be an Ocinebra. D. Villiersii, 



DAPHNELLA. 309 

Michaud, D. gracilis, Scacchi, D. Payraudeauti, Weinkauff (rmt- 
Deshayes), and perhaps D. Bivonse and D. Valenciennesii, 
Maravigna, and D. vulpina, Bivona, are also referred to this 
species. 

D. COSTULATA, Blainv. PI. 21, figs. 19, 23. 

Narrowly but distinctly shouldered, ribs 9-10, crossed by fine 
revolving lines, which are almost microscopic ; buff or pale 
yellow, sometimes with a chestnut band on the periphery, or 
below the suture, or with several narrower bands. 

Length, 12-15 mill. 

Europe, Madeira. 

The synonyms are D. *>triolata, Scacchi (fig. 19), D. Loeviana, 
Forbes (fig. 23), D. Smithii, Forbes, D. elegans, Brown, D. Far- 
ranii, Thompson, and possibly D. fenestrata, Desh., D. Steveni, 
Krynicki, and D. costulata, Cantraine. The latter was supposed 
identical with Columbella Haliseeti, Jeffreys (Manual, v, 160, t. 
56, f. 77), with which opinion that author himself agreed, until 
recently (Zool. Proc., 392, 1883) when he refers it to the present 
species. 

D. SEMICOLON, S. Wood. PI. 4, fig. 56. 

Strongly shouldered, forming a carinated and tuberculated 
periphery, with well-marked sculpture. Length, 10 mill. 

Mediterranean^ Shetland Islands, North Sea. 

Reported in a recent state by Dr. Jeffreys, from the above 
localities, under the name of D. galerita, Phil, (figured), but that 
species, a Sicilian fossil, appears to differ. The figure given by 
Jeffreys corresponds with that of D. semicolon, in Wood's Crag 
Mollusca sufficiently to justify Monterosato in uniting the two 
species. 

D. MINUTA, Forbes. PI. 21, fig. 16. 

Shell strongly ribbed, distantly spirally striate ; reddish brown. 
Length, 5 mill. 

jEgean Sea. 
Perhaps a variety of D. turgida, Forbes. 

D. ABYSSICOLA, Forbes. PI. 21, fig. 15. 

Ribs strong, crossed by rather distant raised striae ; chocolate- 
brown. Length, 4 mill. 

jEgean Sea. 



310 DAPHNELLA. 

D. SENEGALENSIS, Maltzan. PI. 30, fig. 89. 

Shell with ten, straight, subcompressed ribs, finely reticulated; 
spire subturreted, with impressed sutures; lip acute, the sinus 
slightly emarginated ; brownish, lower part of body-whorl } T el- 
lowish white. Length, 5 mill. 

Isl. Goree, W. Coast of Africa. 

D CERTNA, Kurtz and Stimpson. PI. 22, fig. 43 ; PI. 34, fig. 100. 
Yellowish white, columella sometimes tinged with black; sur- 
face covered by very fine revolving lines crossing the ribs. 
Length, 7 mill. 

New England to Tampa Bay, Fla., mostly 

Southern in distribution. 

D. atrostyla, Ball, MS. (PI. 34, fig. 100), is a slight variety, with 
dark columella, from W. Coast of Florida. 

D. CABPENTERT, Yerrill and Smith. PI. 13, fig. 62. 

Scarcely shouldered, with about twelve short flexuous longi- 
tudinal ribs and no spiral sculpture ; white or pale yellow, often 
with darker brownish yellow ribs. Length, 7 mill. 

New England. 
D. ACCINCTA, Montagu. PL 18, fig. 37. 

Shell slightly shouldered, longitudinally obliquely ribbed, very 
closely spirally striated ; white, with sometimes an orange-brown 
band below the periphery. Length, 7 mill. 

West Indies. 

Described by Montagu as British an error repeated b}^ Reeve, 
where D. Forthiensis is assigned to the Frith of Forth. 

D. INTERFOSSA, Carpenter. PL 22, fig. 57. 

Scarcely, very narrowly shouldered, with about fifteen narrow 
longitudinal ribs, separated by wider interspaces, and the same 
number of spiral lirae, forming subquadrangular pits between the 
sculpture ; reddish brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Vancouver's Isl. 

Figured from a small specimen. 

D. FUNEBRALE, Dall. 

Reddish black, slender, acuminate ; whorls 7-8, rather rounded ; 
aperture elongate, narrow, canal short, slightly recurved ; inner 
lip and columella smooth ; sinus almost imperceptible; sculpture 



DAPHNELLA. 311 

of fine rounded grooves, about'fifteen on the body-whorl, sepa- 
rating evenly rounded ridges about twice as broad as the grooves; 
these are crossed by about twelve longitudinal rounded ribs, 
obsolete anteriorly. Length, '46 inch. 

Sitka, Alaska. 

Described from a single specimen and referred to Mangilia 
with doubt. Not figured. 

D. POLITA, Hinds. PI. 20, fig. 97. 

White, polished, angularly ribbed, seven-sided, lip simple, 
sinus small. Length, 16 mill. 

Straits of Macassar, coarse sand, 7 fms. (Hinds). 

D. FULGURANS, Krauss. PL 22, fig. 59. 

With about eleven narrow longitudinal ribs, short on the body- 
whorl, with revolving striss towards the base ; sinus scarcely 
apparent; white, with angular chestnut markings. Length, 6 mill. 
Cape of Good Hope ; in the byssus of Pinna. 

D. ^RUGINOSA, Reeve. PI. 23, fig. 100. 

Longitudinally ribbed, the interstices with very minute spiral 
striae ; yellowish white, with a sutural chestnut line, more or less 
interrupted, a middle line on the body-whorl, interrupted by the 
ribs, below which the whorl is often stained a darker color, and 
sometimes an inferior interrupted chestnut line. Length, 10 mill. 
Hob. unknown (Reeve) ; Indian Ocean ? 

D. PESSULATA, Reeve. PI. 21, figs. 36, 37. 

Ribs more or less distant, crossed by somewhat obsolete spiral 
stride ; lip thin, sinus small ; yellowish or ash-color. 

Length, 12-15 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Australia (Brazier). 

D. VINCENTINA, Crosse. PL 17, fig. 91. 

Ribs narrow, distant, crossed by distant spiral lirae, which 
become more crowded towards the base ; sinus shallow ; light 
yellowish brown. Length, 7 mill. 

Gulf of St. Vincent, Australia. 

D. JACKSONENSIS, Angas. PL 22, fig. 73. 

With somewhat prominent longitudinal ribs, slightly nodulous 
at the angle of the shoulder, the interstices crossed by narrow 



312 DAPHNELLA. 

grooved lines in pairs ; sinus very shallow, pale fulvous yellow. 
Length, 14 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

Unfigured species of the section Eaphitoma. 

D. CALCARATA, Grat. (D. ETRUSCA, Tiberi). Mediterranean Sea. 

Probably exotic, according to Monterosato. 
D. NODULOSA, Jeffreys ; D. FUSIFORMIS, Requien ; both Mediter- 
ranean. 
D. LITHOCOLLETA, D. LiNCTA, Watson. West Indies. 

D. IPARA, D. COMATROPIS, D. BANDELLA, D. ANTONJA, D.'POUR- 
TALESII, D. COLUMBELLA, D. PELAGIA, D. LISSOTROPIS, Dall. 

Caribbean Sea. 
D. TABULATA, D. CREBRicosTATA, D. ANGULATA, Carpenter. 

W. Coast U. S. 

D. DEMPSTA, Gould. China Seas. 

D. ALTERNATA, D. ST. GALL^:,and Yar. BENEuiCTi,Tenison-Woods. 

Tasmania. 

Section BELLARDIELLA, Fischer. 

D. GRACTLIS, Mont. PL 18, fig. 38. 

Whorls very narrowty, concavely shouldered below the sutures, 
with curved longitudinal ribs crossed by fine, close revolving 
striae ; pale 3 T ellowish brown, with a narrow lighter central band, 
sometimes bordered by a chestnut band on the lower side. 

Length, 25 mill. 

Europe, Canary Islands. 

Body white, closely but irregularly speckled with pink and 
flake-white ; pallial tube somewhat extensile, usually short ; head 
bulbous ; tentacles extremely short mere points above the eyes, 
below the eyes they are cylindrical and stout ; eyes proportionally 
large, on long stalks conjoined with the tentacles ; foot rounded 
in front, with small angular corners, pointed behind. 

It is D. emarginata, Donovan ; D. oblonga, Brocchi ; D. Comar- 
mondi, Michaud ; D. suturalis, Bronn ; D. pelorius, Chier. ; D. 
sinuosa, Couch; Z>. Branscombi, Clark; and D.fallax, Forbes 
the two latter juveniles. 



DAPHNELLA. 313 

Section TERES, Bucq., Dautz. et Dollf. 
D. ANCEPS, Eichwald. PI. 18, fig. 39 ; PL 32, fig. 31. 

Shell encircled by spiral ridges, of which there are from 20 to 
25 on the body-whorl, frequently alternately larger and smaller ; 
light yellowish brown, usually irregularly spotted with chestnut, 
forming interrupted longitudinal streaks. Length, 8-15 mill. 

Norway to Mediterranean, Madeira and Canaries. 

Var. CONCOLOR is without the chestnut spots. 

The synonymy includes D. teres, Forbes, a name under which 
it is perhaps more extensively known. Reeve's figure of teres 
(PI. 18, f. 39) being very bad, I add another, from Forbes and 
Hanley (PI. 32, f. 31). Other synonyms are D. La Vise, Calcara ; 
D. borealis, Loven ; D. fusiformis, Requien ; D. polyzonatum, 
Brugnone, and D. Barbieri, Brusina. 

D. AM(ENA. Sars. PL 20, fig. 86. 

Shell thin, pellucid, interstices of the revolving ridges longi- 
tudinally striate, lip-sinus profound ; light brownish. 
Length, 8 mill. 

Arctic Norway. 
Section ZAFRA, A. Adams. 

There appears to be much uncertainty as to the limits of this 
group. Adams himself includes the West Indian minute Clathu- 
relloe discovered by d'Orbigny and figured by Reeve on PL 39 
of the Conch. Icon., although they do not appear to me to pos- 
sess any characters apart from ordinary Clathurellae. As will 
be seen below, there are differences of opinion as to some of the 
other species. 

D. MITR^EFORMIS, A. Adams. 

Whorls six-and-a-half, rather flat, longitudinally ribbed, the 
plicae somewhat distant, oblique ; last whorl constricted in front 
and obliquely sulcate ; white, with an obscure chestnut band at 
the sutures, the last whorl with a narrow chestnut band on the 
periphery, and chestnut-tinted at the base. 

Japan. 
Not figured. 

Columbella zonata, Gould (Manual, v, 172), also unfigured, is 
doubtfully referred here by Mr. E. A. Smith. If identical, it has 
priority of two months in publication. 



314 DAPHNELLA. 

D. SUBVITREA, Smith. PI. 34, fig. 83. 

Ribs about eleven, disappearing a little below the middle of 
the body- whorl, the lower extremity of which is obliquety five or 
six striate, the two or three uppermost striae wider apart than the 
rest ; subpellucid, white, with a thin indistinct brown line, inter- 
rupted by the costae around the lower part of the whorls, and a 
transparent pellucid zone at the top, with a second band or series 
of short flames just below the middle of the last whorl, which is 
stained with brown at the extremity. L. 4, width 1*5 mill. 

Japan. 

Dunker (Index Moll. Mar. Japan, 26) refers this shell to 
Columbella in which I think he is correct. 

D. POLITA, G. and H. Nevill. 

Smooth, white, with two bands of irregular opaque white 
flakes on each whorl, four on the last. Length, 3'5 mill. 

Mauritius. 

Described as a Zafra, but I think it may be referred to Colum- 
bella. If a Pleurotomid the specific name will need to be 
changed. 

D. SEMISCULPTA, G. and H. Nevill. PI. 34, figs. 14, 15. 

Ribs about twice as broad as their interstices (represented as 
narrower on the figures), obsolete on the back of the last whorl, 
which is transversely striated at its base ; outer lip scarcely 
thickened or reflected, not as long as the columella, slightly 
emarginate at junction with the last whorl; horny brown 
throughout. Length, 3 mill. 

Burmah. 

Appears to me to be an Anachis, in Columbellidse, although 
described as a Zafra. 

D. PUPOIDEA, H. Adams. PI. 34, fig. 92. 

Numerously longitudinally ribbed, sinus short and wide ; 
white, with a broad chestnut band below the periphery, and 
tinged with chestnut at the base. Length, 7 mill. 

New Hebrides. 



DAPHNELLA. 315 

Section THESBIA, Jeffreys. 
D. NANA, Loven. PL 32, fig. 28. 

Encircled by numerous punctate impressed lines ; milk-white. 
Length, 6 mill. 

Northern Europe Arctic. 

Dr. Jeffreys (Brit. Conch., iv, 359) refers to this species 
Columbella rosacea, Gould (Manual, v, 160), a shell which does 
not appear to me to be nearly related to it. 

Unfigured Species of Section Thesbia. 
The following are described by Rev. R. Boog Watson : 

D. TRANSLUCIDA (Kerguelen IsL), D. ERITIMA ( Tristao da Gunha), 
D. CORPULENTA (Kerguelen IsL), D. PLATAMODES (ditto), D. 
PAPYRAOEA (ditto), D. PRUINA (Azores), D. MONOCEROS (S. W. 
of Sierra Leone), D. DYSCRITA (St. Thomas, W. L), D. 
BRYCHIA (Lai. 1 47 f N., long. 24 26' W., Mid- Atlantic, 
1850 fms.). 

Section TARANIS, Jeffreys, 1870. 

D. MORCHI, Malm. PL 29, fig. 66. 

Periphery strongly, tubercularly angled, the shoulder above 
it sloping, below the periphery there are several raised cinguli 
forming inferior carinations, crossed throughout by flexuous, 
narrow longitudinal plications ; whitish. Length, 4*5 mill. 
Norway to Mediterranean Sea ; off Newport, R. /., 

365 fms. (Verrill) ; Gulf of Mexico, 805 fms. (Dall). 
It is Pleurotoma demersum, Brugnone (not Bellardi), and 
Bela demersa, Tiberi. 

D. PULCHELLA, Yerrill. PL 29, fig. 63. 

A smaller species than the preceding, not so sharply angu- 
lated, the carinse sharp but not nodulous, those on the body- 
whorl six in number, besides one or two on the canal. 

Length, 2-20 mill. 

Off Martha's Vineyard, 487 fms., one specimen. 

Dr. Dall thinks this may be included in the preceding species, 
as European specimens of D. Morchi sent to him by Dr. Jeffreys 
and Prof. Sars, appear to agree with it pretty well. 



316 DAPHNELLA. 

D. TURRITISPIRA, E. A. Smith (unfigured). Japan. 

D. L^EVISCULPTA, Monterosato (unfigured). Mediterranean Sea. 

Section PLEUBOTOMELLA, Verrill, 1872. 
D. PACKARDII, Verrill. PI. 29, fig. 59. 

Spiral striae faint or strong, the ribs low and narrow ; pale 
yellowish brown or salmon, the nucleus darker. 
Length, 21'5 mill. 

Gulf of Maine (85-110 fms.) ; off Cape Cod, 

Mass. (96 fms.). 
D. AGASSIZII, Yerrill and Smith. PI. 29, fig. 58. 

More solid and rugosely sculptured than the preceding species ; 
sinus wide, rather deep, rounded, a little below the suture ; 
usually white when fresh, sometimes pink or pale yellow, often 
stained with dark ash-gray ; columella often white, but usually 
tinged with brown. Length, 31 mill. 

Off Newport, R. /., and S. of Martha's Vineyard; 

off Delaware Bay, 65 to 500 fms. 

D. PANDIONIS, Verrill. PI. 29, fig. 62. 

Waxy white, tinged with pale orange-brown, with a faint white 
band on the middle of the body-whorl, and another below the 
suture, sometimes stained gray or brown. Length, 43 mill. 

Martha's Vineyard; 238-312 fms. 

D. VERRILLII, Ball (unfigured). 360 fms., Caribbean. 

D. SIGSBEI, Ball (unfigured). 640-1568 fms., Caribbean. 

D. CIRCINATA, Dall. PI. 6, fig. 76. 

Shell slender, elongate, covered with a brownish epidermis ; 
whorls six, evenly rounded, but with a sharp carina, above which 
they are smooth, whilst below it they are grooved, with wider 
interspaces ; notch deep, about one-third of the way from the 
carina to the suture. L. 3 inches, cliam. 1 inch. 

Alaska. 

Described as a Surcula from a dead specimen found on the 
beach at Nateekin Bay, Unalashka. The subsequently described, 
but unfigured PL insignis, Jeffreys, of which ten living specimens 
were obtained by the Vega Expedition in the Siberian Sea, 
appears to be a synonym. These had no operculum ^therefore 



DAPHNELLA. 317 

the species cannot be a Surcula. I place it here temporarily, but 
it is not unlikely that a new group, perhaps a genus, will need to 
be made for it. 

Section MITROMORPHA, A. Ad., 1865. 
D. FILOSA, Carpenter. PI. 25, fig. 63. 

Equally spirally lirate throughout, lip scarcely sinuous, with 
about a dozen minute internal denticles ; purple-black, or choco- 
late-color, without and within. Length, 5-6 mill. 

So. California, Lower California. 

D. ASPERA, Carpenter. PI. 25, figs. 61, 62. 

Spirally lirate and longitudinally closely costulate, the inter- 
sections forming a roughly asperated surface ; reddish brown. 

Length, 3-5 mill. 

S. California, Lower California. 

Var. GRACILIOR, Hemphill. Fig. 62. 

Decussation not so deep, so that the surface is smoother, the 
tuberculation smaller ; sometimes the clathration of the body- 
whorl is only seen on the upper portion, the longitudinal costulse 
becoming obsolete below. Length, 4-5 mill. 
D. EFFUSA, Carpenter. 

Shell graceful, much effused, reddish brown ; whorls narrow, 
elongate, sutures impressed ; spirally striate, decussated by 
growth-lines ; lip thin, scarcely sinuate ; reddish brown. 

L. 15*5 mill, diam. 5*5 mill. 

Neeah Bay, Washington Terr. 

Described from a single broken specimen (not figured \ 

D. LIRATA, A. Adams. 

Shell whitish or light brownish, mitriform, acuminated below, 
spire and aperture of equal length ; normal whorls five, convex, 
transversely lirate, the lirae about equal and equidistant ; aperture 
narrow, columella arcuately truncate, with an anterior incon- 
spicuous plication, lip smooth within, margin crenulated. 

Japan. 

"A variety or allied species has the whorls longitudinally 
plicate, and some of the transverse lirae corrugate or undulated." 
No figure ; dimensions not given. 
D. FLORIDANA, Dall. PI. 34, fig. 12. 

Cancellated by longitudinal and spiral sculpture, the inter- 
sections nodulous, suture distinct, not channeled, outer lip thick, 



318 HALIA. 

lirate posteriorly, inner lip transversely quadruplicate, the pos- 
terior plait strongest ; chocolate-colored. Length, 6 mill. 

Key West, Fla., on the reefs at low-tide. 

I figure this to complete the list of Mitromorpha, although 
Dr. Dall describes it as a Mitra, with a queried reference to 
Mitromorpha. I doubt its pertinence to the group, as it appears 
to me to have the facies of a true Mitra. 



D. DORMITOR, Sowerby. PI. 27, fig. 23. 

Dr. P. P. Carpenter says (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xv, 182, 1865), 
" M. Crosse suggests that Golumbella dormitor, Sby., may be 
congeneric (with Mitromorpha)." I think it is a true Columbella. 

Inhabits Caribbean Sea. 
CRONIA ANOMALA, Angas (Manual, II, Purpurinffi). 

Prof. Tate believes this to be a Mangilia. I cannot agree with 
him. 

Genus HALIA, Risso, 1826. 

H. PRIAMUS, Meuschen. PI. 31, fig. 1. 

Rather thin, smooth ; yellowish brown, sprinkled, except on 
the upper part of the whorls, with distant square or long chestnut 
spots, which sometimes have band-like regularity. 

Length, 3 inches. Bay of Cadiz. 

It is Priamus stercus-pulicum, Chemn., Buccinum ficus, Mar- 
tyn, Priam agathine, Chenu, Bulla helicoides, Brocchi, Achatina 
maculata, Swainson, Helix priapus, Gmelin. 

HALIA FLEMINGIANA, Macgillivray. 

This = fry of Buccinum Dalei, Sowb. (Manual, iii). 
Unidentified and Unfigured Species of Pleurotomidde. 



Of the following" names and descriptions most may be con- 
sidered obsolete, and not worth the trouble of group-division, 
others, of more recent date, I cannot place for want of illustra- 
tions : 

P. TENUIS, P SEMINUDA, P. SUBULATA, P. RUSTICA, P. OBLIQUA, P. 

MENKEI, P. ISABELLA, P. ELONGATA, P. ELONGATULA, P. FUSI- 

FORMIS, P. FERRUGINEA, P. FUNICULUS, P. CHEMNITZII, P. 
CER1THINA, P. CORNEA, P. COCCINEA, P. CURVATA, P. ATRATA, 

all of Anton, and without localities. 



APPENDIX. 319 

P. PERLATA, Lesson. Sandwich Isles. 

P. GRACILIS, Marrat. West Africa. 

PL. SUBULATA, Menke. 

PL. NIVEA, Phil. (Formosa) ; PL. VESTALIS, Phil. (Hob. ?). 

PL. LYRATUM, Pfeiffer (Gmelin). ? = Lyria. 

PL. ADUSTA, Sowb. Monte Christi, W. Columbia. 

CAILLIAUDI (CoNUs), Jay. PI. 34, fig. 13. 

Hob. unknown. 

Looks something like a Conorbis, but is more probably an 
immature Strombus ; notwithstanding its sinus, it can scarcely 
be a Pleurotoma. 

PL. YANCOU VERB N sis (Vancouver's Isl.), PL. ALBATA (Persian 
Gulf)j PL. SEXCOSTATA (Singapore), PL. RUBROAPICATA 
(Japan), of E. A. Smith. 

PL. INSCULPTA, Mighels. Key West, Fla. 

PL. MICANS, PL. CRASSILABRUM, PL. SINUOSA, PL. TODILLA, PL. 

OBNUBILA, PL. CIRCUMSECTA, Mighels. Sandwich Islands. 
PL. AUGUSTS, PL.FUSCOCINCTA, PL. FUSIFORMIS, PL. FLAVOCINCTA, 

PL. ALBOMACULATA, PL. ELATIOR, PL. ALBIDA, PL. ALBELLA, 

C. B. Adams. Jamaica. 

Appendix. 
PLEUROTOMA YEDDOENSIS, Jousseaume. PL 34, fig. Y. 

A Japanese form, recently described and figured, which will, 
I think, prove synonymous with P. grandis. Gray. 

DRILLIA HEMPHILLI, Stearns. Page 185. 
For inches read millimetres. 

DRILLIA MAKIMONOS, Jousseaume. PI. 34, fig. 10. 

Whorls closely spirally sulcate, the interstices slightly striated ; 
white, with large longitudinal yellowish maculations. 

Length, 25 mill. 

Japan. 
D. POULOENSIS, Jousseaume. PL 34, fig. 11. 

Shell brown, spirally lirate ; outer lip crenulate, with a slight 
sinus. Length, 20 mill. Malacca. 

Described from a single specimen. 

D. CLEVEI, Jousseaume. PL 34, fig. 9. 

Shell spirally costate ; white, fasciate with light brown ; outer 



320 APPENDIX. 

lip crenulate, ridged within, with a shallow, wide sinus ; colu- 
mellar lip with a median callosity. Length, 9 mill. 

Ceylon. 
Described from a single specimen. 

D. BELLARDI, Jousseaume. PL 34, fig. 8. 

Shell white, spirally costate ; outer lip crenulated, with a 
shallow sinus near the suture ; columellar lip with a median pli- 
cation. Length, 11 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 

The above three species are, judging from the figures, described 
from immature and imperfect, possibly water-worn specimens, 
so that it is not easy to compare them with previously described 
species. There are a number of spirally ribbed species described 
by Smith and older authors to which these may be approximated, 
but in the absence of material, no definite result is practicable. 
The practice of describing unique and imperfect specimens can- 
not be too strongly condemned. Desire for scientific renown 
will continue to enlarge our synonymy, until some method can 
be devised, by which no man's ambition can possibly be gratified 
in the making of generic and specific names. Although Dr. 
Jousseaume has furnished the text of this sermon, it is not 
intended to signalize him as a principal offender ; much greater 
men in fact the greatest conchologists are equally in fault in 
their desire to write nobis as frequently as possible. 

DRILLIA LIMONITELLA, Dall. PI. 34, fig. 6. 

Small, thin, translucent, lemon-yellow, very faintly narrowly 
brown-banded on the periphery and below it on some specimens, 
the columella also brown-tinged ; whorls turreted, nodulated at 
the periphery by about a dozen ribs, which extend across the 
shoulder to the suture, spiral sculpture very fine and close; outer 
lip slightly thickened, with a distinct, rather broad, shallow 
sinus. Length, 6*75 mill. 

Cedar Keys, Fla., on mud flats between tides (Hemphill). 

COLUMBARIUM PAGODOIDES, Watson. 

This species, recently described as a Fusus, is probably only 
a variety of C. Pagoda, Lesson. It is unfigured. 

Off Sydney, JV. 8. W. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PAGK. 

Abbreviata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 182, 167 

Abyssicola (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 62, 260 
Abyssicola (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Reeve, Icon., sp. 157, 

1844, .... 309 

Acanthodes (Mangilia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc.,xv, 433, 

1881, '.249 

Accincta (Daphnella), Montagu. Test. Brit. Suppl., 114, . 310 
Aculeiformis (Pusionella), Lam. Hist. Nat., Ed. ii, ix, 461, 234 
Acuminata (Drillia), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1848, 

p. 23, .... '. . . 190 

Acuta (Bela), var. of concinnula, Yerrill. Trans. Conn. 

Ac., v, p. 470. = B. concinnula, Yerrill, . . . 221 
Acuta (Pleurotoma), Bellardi (1842). 

= Spirotropis carinata, Phil. 

Acutangulus ( Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 218, 261 
Acuticostata (Mangilia), Opt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 

162. Mazat. Cat., 400 ; 2d Report, 36, 184. 

= M. neglecta, C. B. Adams. 
Acutio-emmata (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. 

N. H., 1877, p. 489. = P. jubata, Hinds. 

Adusta (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc.,jl833, p. 137, 319 
JEgeensis (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

164, 1844. == D. turgida, Forbes, . . . . . 308 
^Egrota (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 117, 305 
Mmula, (Drillia), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 36, pi. 

v, fig. 9. = D. Traillii, Button. 
^Equalis (Plenrotoma), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, p. 369. 

= M. linearis, Mont., var. 277 

^Ernginosa (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 115, 311 

Affinis (Clathurella), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 102; 

Proc. Cal. Acad., v, 62, t. 2, f. 7, 281 

Affinis (Pleurotoma), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon , f. 309, 

1846. = Drillia flavescens, Reeve. 

(321) 



322 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Agassizii (Pleurotoma), Yerrill and Smith. Am. Jour. Arts 

and Sciences., 3d vol., xx, p. 394 316 

Agathine (Priam), Chenu. Conch., f. 903, p. 242 (1847). 

= Halia Priamus, Meuschen. 
Aglaophanes (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., p. 251, 

vol. xvi, 1882, 212 

Agnewi (Drillia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1878, 

p. 36, . . . . : 212 

Alabaster (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 181, 179 
Alaskensis (Bela), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 98, 18U, 216 
Alata (Drillia), H. and A. Adams. Gen. Shells, 90. 

= PL crenularis, Lam. 
Alba (Bela), Brown. Brit. Conch., 7, t. 5, f. 62. 

? = B. rufa, Mont. 224 

Alba (Bela), Pennant. ?= B. turricula, Montagu, . . 219 
Alba (Clathurella), Desh. Moll. Reunion, p 110, pi. xii, f. 

17-18, .... 296 

Albata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 210, 319 
Albella (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 63, 

131, .319 

Albibalteata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 182. =r C. Cumingii, Powis 283 

Albicans (Mangilia), Hinds. Moll. Toy. Sul., p. 23, pi. 7, 

f. 8, 258 

Albicarinata (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 

253. = P. oxytropis, Sowb. 
Albicaudata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

299, 299 

Albicincta (Drillia), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 40, 

t. 10, f. 6. = D. putillus, Reeve. 
Albicincta (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 

340, . . 271 

Albicostata (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 135, 1833, . 205 
Albida (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 

p. 3, 319 

Albida (PL Leufroyi, var.), Bucq., Dautz., Dollf. Moll. 

Roussilon, 96. = P. Leufroyi, Mich 276 

Albida (Mangilia), Deshayes. Exp. Moree, iii, p. 176, t. 19, 

f. 22-24, 245 

Albifuniculata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 6. = P. tincta, Reeve, 

Albina (Pleurotoma), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 96, . .167 
Albinodata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 6, 1846. 

= Drillia zebra, Lam. 
Alboangulata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 206 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 323 

PAGE. 

Albocincta (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871. p. 

18, pi. i, f. 22, . . . 285 

Albocincta (Crassispira), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., ii, p. 3. = D. zebra, Lam. 
Albocinctus (Fusus), Petit. Jour, de Conchyl., ii, 76, t. 1, 

f. 12, 1851. = Pusionella vulpina, Born., var. . . 236 
Albofasciata (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 491, 1877, ... ... 174 

Albolaqueata (Mangilia), Carpenter. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, 

p. 280, .... ... 251 

Albomaculata (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., ii, p. 3, . . . 319 

Albomaculata (Pleurotoma), d'Orb. Sagra. Hist. Cuba, ii, 

176, 1846, pi. xxiv, f. 16-18. = D. zebra, Lamarck. 
Albopustulata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

211. = D. zebra, Lam. 

Albostrigata (Defrancia), Baird. Voy. Curacoa,pl. 37, f. 3, 4, 292 
Albovallosa (Pleurotoma), Carp. Mazat. Shells, p. 396. 

= D. nigerrima, Sowb., var. 
Albovirgulata (Mangilia), Souv. Jour. Conch., 1860, p. 124, 

pi. ii, fig. 12, 274 

Albovittata (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. 

H., 1845, p. 4, 248 

Albula( Pleurotoma), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., p. 12, 166 
Albus (Fusus), Jeffreys, 1849. = Thesbia nana, Loven. 
Aleutica (Bela), Ball. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 99, 1871, 216 
Alternans (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882,298, 299 
Alternata (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1878, 

39, 312 

Amabilis (Cithara), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. 

Beng., 1874, pt. 2, p. 23, pi. i, f. 11, 273 

Amabilis ( Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 40 ; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 21, pi. vii. f. 3, . . . .287 

Amabilis (Pleurotoma), Jickeli, MS. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

25. = P. gemmata, Hinds, var. 

Amanda (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 207, . 191 
Amblia (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 249, 1882, 212 
Americana (Bela), Packard. Mem. Bos. Soc., i, p. 233, pi. 

vii,f. 11, 220 

Amicta (Pleurotoma), E. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, p. 

488. = P. cingulifera, Lam., 166 

Amcena (Defrancia), G. 0. Sars. Friele, Jan Mayen Moll., 

p. 6, ... . . 313 

Amplexa (Clathurella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 

338, 299 



324 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Anceps (Pleurotoma), Eichwald. Naturh. Lith. Volh., 225, 

1830, ... ... ... 313 

Ancistrosyrinx, Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 53, 

1881, 155, 176 

Angasi (Drillia), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., iii, p. 8*7, 

pi. i, f. 5, 1863, 187 

Angela (Cithara), Ad. and Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, 

p. 419, pi. xxxvii, f. 4, . 267 

Angicostata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4, 252 
Angiostoma (Cythara), Pease. Am. J. C., iv, p. 105. 

= M. triticea, Kiener, 268 

Angularis (Bela), Donov. Brit. Shells. 

= B. turricula, Montagu, . . . . . . .219 

Angulata (Daphnella),Cpt Ann. Mag. N.H., 1865, xv,p. 395, 312 
Angulata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64, 259 
Angulata (Pleurotoma), Kiener. Pleur., 74, t. 26, f. 4. 

? = P. rubida, Hinds. 
Angulatus (Bela), Morch. Moll. Grrenl., No. 85. 

= B. turricula, var. nobilis, Moll., . .-'... . . 219 
Angulifera (Clathurella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. xxxix, f. 

360, 278 

Angulifera (Pleur.), Weinkauff. Cat. No. 20. 

= PI. cingulifera, Lam. 
Angulosa (Bela), Sars. Moll. Norv., 227, t. 16, f. 16, 1878. 

= B. cancellata, Mighels, . . 218 

Angulosa (Mangilia), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, 

p. 731, pi. Ixxv, fig. 10, 256 

Angusta (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. IL, 1877, p. 495, 211 
Angustior (Pleurotoma), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. Nat. H., 1877, 

xix, 330. = Var. of B. declivis, Loven, . . .219 

Anna, Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 244, 1826. 

? = Clathurella. 

Anna (Mangilia), Jousseaume. LeNaturaliste, v, 325, 1883, 261 
Annulata (Surcula), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. v, f. 25, 1843, 240 
Anomala (Cronia), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, pi. v, f. 

1 ; Tate, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, v, 131, . . . 318 
Anteridion (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. 'Soc., xv, 

399, 1881, 242 

Antillarum (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 59, 261 
Antillarum ( Pleurotoma), Crosse. Journ. Conch., xiii, pi. i, 

f. 8. = P. Virgo, Lam., 168 

Antillarum (Clathurella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 173, t. 24, 

f. 1-3, 1846, .279 

Antipodum (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 491, 174 

Antonia (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,ix, 59, 312 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 325 

PAGE. 

Aphanitoma, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 2, 241, 

1877. = S. G. of Daphnella, . . 161 

Apicalis (Pleurotoma), Montrouzier. J. de Conch., 1861, p. 

277, pi. xi, f. 6. = C. felina, Hinds, . 293 

Apicata (Pleurotoina), Gray. Reeve, Mangilia, fig. 305, 

pi. xxxiii, .......... 266 

Apiculata (Mangilia), Montrouzier. J. de Conch., 1864, p. 

264, pi. x, f. 2, . . . . . ' . . . . 273 
Appelii (Drillia), Weink. Conch. Cab., sp. 112, pi. xx, f. 5, 193 
Appressa (Drillia), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1864, xiv, 

p. 46, 213 

Aquatilis (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. Ill, 204 
Araneosa (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 462, 

1881, 299 

Arata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 116, . 210 
Arctata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 118, 294 
Arctica (Bela), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 121, 214 
Arcuata (Surcula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. iii, f. 15, 1843, 236 
Areolata (Lachesis), Tiberi. Jour, de C., 1868, p. 73. 

= L. Folinese, Phil 225 

Argillacea (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 

40 ; Moll. Toy. Sul., p. 1$, pi. vi, f. 1, . . 273 

Armillata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. Ill 174 

Armstrongi (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 

1875, pt. 2, p. 93, pi. vii, f. 13, . .294 

Aspera (Mitromorpha), Carpenter. Jour, de Conch., xii, 

146, 1865, ... .... .317 

Aspera (Mangilia), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 19, pi. 6, 

figs. 7, 8 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 40, ..''.. . 269 

Asperrimus ( Fusus), Brown. 111. Conch. Gt. Br., 8, t. 6, f. 2, 

= P. purpureuna, Montg. 

Aspersa (Clathurella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N.H., vii, 338, 299 
Asperulata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

296, . 299 

Assimilis (Bela), G. 0. Sars. Mol. Reg. Arc. Nov., p. 231, 

pi. xxiii, f. 8; pi. viii, f. 17, 1878. = B. turricula, Mont., 219 
Associata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 

300. (Not identified.) 

Astricta (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64, 260 
Astricta (Surcula), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. xii, sp. 98, 1843, 240 
Aterrima (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, . . 194 
Atkinsoni (Drillia), T.-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1875, p. 142, 211 
Atkinsoni (Mangilia), Tenison-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1875, p. 141. 

= Columbella speciosa, Angas, Manual, vol. v. 



326 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Atkinsonii (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., 1877, p. 495, 21 
Atoma, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 2, 324, 1877. 

= Clathurella, Sect., 160 

Atractoides (Pleurotoma), Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

407, 1881, 175 

Atramentosa (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag., N. H., 1861, 211, J 99 
Atrata (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, . . 318 
Atrior (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Panama Shells, p. 138, 

308. = D. aterrima, Sowb. 
Atrostyla (Raphitoma), Dall. MS. 

= D. cerina, Kurtz and Stimpson, var., . . . .310 
Attenuata (Pleurotoma), Montagu. Test. Brit., p. 266, pi. 

9, f. 6, 1803, 308 

Auberiana (Pleurotoma), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 174, t. 24, 

f. 4-6. = C. rubricata, Reeve, 279 

Augustse (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch., p. 61, . 319 
Aulacoessa (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

472, 1881, 307 

Aurantica (Drillia), Carpenter. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., v, 

145, 1865. = D. torosa, Carpenter, var. . 183 

Aureola (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 113, 302 
Auriculitera (Drillia), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 91, . 185 
Australis (Bela), Ad. and Ang. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, p. 420, 223 
Australis (Surcula), Roissy. Buffon, Hist. Nat., . .236 
Awamoaensis (Drillia), Hutton. Cat. Tert. Moll. N. Z., 4, 

1874. Trans. N. Zeal. Inst., xv, 131, . . . .208 
Axis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 3, . 304 



Babylonia, var. (Pleurotoma), Kien., pi. 1, fig. 2. 

= P. Garnonsii, Reeve, ....... 163 

Babylonia (Pleurotoma), Linn., ed. x, p. 754, . . . 162 
Bad'ia (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64, . 247 
Bsetica (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 110, . 193 
Balansai (Cithara), Crosse. Jour. Conch., 1873, p. 65 ; p. 

131, pi. v, fig. 5, 264 

Ballista (Drillia), von Maltzan. Jahrb. Mai. GeselL, 1883, 

p. 119, t. 3, f. 2, 208 

Balteata (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 143, 299 
Balteata (Mangilia), Reeve. Conch. Icon. Mangil., f. 57, 

1846, .247 

Balteata (Pleurotoma), Beck. Kien., Icon., pi. 13, f. 2. 

= P. undatiruga, Bivona, ....... 238 

Bandella (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Com. Zool., ix, 59, 312 
Barbieri (Raphitoma), Brusina (1866). Contr. Faun. Moll. 

Dalm., p. 33. = Pleurotoma anceps, Eich. . . . 313 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 327 

PAGUE. 

Barkliensis (Drillia), H. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1869, t. 

19, f. 3, .... . 192 

Barnard! (Clathurella), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 

i, p. 157, 299 

Bathyraphe (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

305, 274 

Beckii (Bela), Moll. Moll. Groml., p. 14. 

= P. bicarinata, Couth. ....... 215 

Beckii (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842, . . 186 

Beckii (Drillia), Weinkauff, Kiister. = D. unizonalis, Lam. 
Bela, Leach, Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 134, 1847, . . 156, 213 
Bella (Daphnella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 147. 

= Mangilia interrupta, Reeve, ...... 266 

Bella (Mangilia), Ad. and Aug. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, p. 

419, pi. 37, f. 6. = M. Boakei, Nevill. . . . .270 
Bella (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 41, . 249 
Bella (Taranis), Verrill. Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 

71. Probably intended for T. pulchella, Yerrill. 
Bellardia, Bucq.,Dautz. and Dollf. Moll. Roussilon, 85, 1883. 

= Bellardiella, Fischer, 1883. 
Bellardiella, Fischer. Manuel de Conchyl., 593, 1883. 

= Daphnella, Sect , 160, 312 

Bellardii (Oligotoma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

1883, 202, . 320 

Bellaspira, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 261, 1867. 

= Mangilia. 

Bellula (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 209, . 191 
Belomitra, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 1882, p. 275. 

= S. G. of Bela, . . . . . . . 156, 224 

Benedict! (Mangilia St. Gallae, var.), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. 

Soc. Tas., 1876, p. 137, . . 312 

Beraudiana (Pleurotoma), Crosse. 111. Conch. ,xi, p. 88, 1. 1, 

f. 5. = D. Angasi, Crosse. 
Bertiniana (Clathurella), Tap.-Can. Bull. Soc. Zool., Fr. 

iii, 247, pi. vi, f. 7-8. = Var. M. rubida, Hinds, . '.271 
Bertrandi (Mangilia), Payr. Coq. de Corse, p. 144, t. 7, f. 

12-13, . 244 

Bertrandi (Pleurotoma), Philippi. Moll. Sicil., 1, 198, t. 11, 

f. 20, 1836. = M. nebula, Montg. 

Bicanalifera (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, . . 177 
Bicarinata (Bela), Couth. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. Hist., 1, 50, 

1841 ; Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 481, . . .214 
Bicarinata (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1862, p. 

243, 289 

Bicarinatus (Murex), Wood. Ind. Test. Suppl., t, 5, f. 7. 

= Pleurotoma cryptorrhaphe, Sowb, 

22 



328 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Biciiictula (Mangilia), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. B.,xl,pt. 

2, p. 6, pi. i, f. 15. = M. Boakei, Nevill, . . .270 

Biclathrata ( Mangilia \ Souverbie. J. de Conch., 1872, p. 

363; 1873, p. 59, pi. iv. f. 4, 272 

Bicolor (Clatlmrella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 18, 

pi. i, fig. 20, 284 

Bicolor (Drillia), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1838. p. 29, . 212 
Bicolor (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 62, . 268 
Bicolor i Pleurotoma), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 214. 

= P. purpurea, Mont., 275 

Bicolor (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 135, . 196 
Biconica (Mangilia \ C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 65, . 248 
Bifasciata (Borsonia), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1860, p. 143, 227 
Bijubata (Surcula), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 182, 242 
Bilineata (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 

18, pi. i, f. 23, 288 

Bilineata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1845, p. 

113. = D. pulchella, Reeve. 
Bimarginata (Pleurotoma), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 83. 

= Clavatula muricata, Lam., ...... 229 

Bipartita (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 500, 234 

Biseriata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 304, 274 
Bivonse (Pleurotoma), Maravigna. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 

1840. P. attenuata, Mont , 309 

Bivoniana (Pleurotoma), Marav. Rev. Zool., 1840. 

= P. multilineolata, Desh. 

Blakeana (Bela), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 54, 1881, 222 
Blanfordi (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 

1875, pt. 2, p. 92, pi. vii, f. 14, .... .291 

Boakei (Mangilia), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. Ceylon B. R. 

A. S., 1867-70, p. 142, 270 

Boholensis (Pleuvotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1843, 

p. 184, . 301 

Bolbodes (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 402, 

1881, .... 242 

Boothii (Pleurotoma), Smith. Wern. Soc. 98, t. 1, f. 1. 

= P. Leufroyi, Mich. 
Borealis (Mangilia), Loven. Idex. Mol. Lit. Scand., p. 14, 

= Pleurotoma anceps, Eich. . . . . . .313 

Borealis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Icon., Corrections. 

= B. decussata, Couth 217 

Bornii (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 499, 234 

Borsonia, Bellardi. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, x, 30, 1839, 157,227 
Bottae (Drillia , Yak-nc. Kiener, Coq. viv., t. 15, f. 12, . 192 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 329 



Brachystoma (Bela), Pfeiffer. Adams' Genera, i, 92, . . 223 
Brachystoma (Pleurotoma), Phil. Enum. Moll. Sic., ii, p. 

169, pi. 26, f. 10, 1844, . 308 

Brachytoma, Swainson. Malac., 154, 314, 1840. 

= Drillia, Sect. ..... . 155, 176 

Brachytona (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 415, 

1881, ........... 212 

Brazieri (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 187 1, p. 18, 

pi. 1, f. 21, . . . 295 

Branscombi (Pleurotoma), Clark. 

= Juv. P. gracilis, Montagu, ...... 312 

Brenchleyi (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 

37, pi. v, f. 12, . . . . 285 

Brevicaudata ( Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 186. = P. fasciatus, Lam. 
Brevis ( Cithara), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 217, pi. 

15, f. 11. = M. cithara, Gould, ..... 263 
Brevis (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 66, . 248 
Brevis ( Pleurotoma), Leche. Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., 

Bd. 16, No. 2, p. 56. = B. bicarinata, Couth. . . 215 

Brevis (Pleur.), Requien. = Mangilia Vauquelini, Payr. . 243 
Brunnea (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 143, 299 
Brunnea (Pleurotoma), Perkins. Bost. Proc., xiii, 121, 1869. 

= C. plicata, C. B. Adams, . . ... 277 

Brunneomaculata (Surcula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1873, 

p. 720, t. 59, f. 8, ... 206 

Brychia (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 451, 

1881, . . .;' ........ 315 

Buchanan! (Drillia), Button. Cat. Tert. Moll. N. Zeal., 4, 

1873, ..... ...... 208 

Buchanensis (Pleurotoma), Macgill. Moll. Aberd. 

= M. linearis, Mont. 
Buccinatus (Fususi, Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 132. 

= Pusionella vulpina, Born, ...... 235 

Buccinoides (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, 

p. 144, . ....... 299 

Bucoinoides (Pleurotoma), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 94. 

= PI. sinuata, Born ......... 233 

Bulbacea (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 418, 1881, 212 
Butler! (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 303, 307 

Cselata (Clathurella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 
p. 220, pi. 2, f. 34, . . ..... 295 

Cselata (Mangilia), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sul., p. 21, pi. 7, f. 6, 258 
Caerulans (Mangilia), Appelius. Bull. Mai. Ital., ii, 137 ? t. 4, 
f. 1, 1869. = M. indistincta, Monts. 



330 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Caerulans, var. sicula (Pleurotoma), Monterosato. Notizie, 

p. 52. = P. sicula, Reeve. 
Caerulans (Pleurotoma), Phil. Ennm. Moll., ii, p. 168, pi. 

xxvi, f. 4. = P. Bertrandi, Payr., 244 

Caerulea (Pleurotoma), Martens (not Weink.) Conch. 

Mittheil., 107, t. 21, f. 5-9. = PI. pyramidata, Yal. 
Caerulea (Pleurotoma), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 34, pi. vii, 

f. 4-6, 230 

Caffra (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 209, . 191 
Cagayanensis (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4, 180 
Cailliaudi (Conus), Jay. Ann. Lye. N. Y., iv, 169, t. 10, f. 

8, 1846, ... 319 

Calcarata (Pleurotoma), Grat. Monts. Jour. Soc. Sc. Nat. 

Palermo, 105, 1878, 312 

Caledonica (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 

217, 261 

Callosa (Drillia), Yal., MS. Kiener, Coq. viv., 50, t. 18, f. 1, 192 
Canaliculata (Clathurella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 

p. 219, pi. 15, f. 17. = M. rubida, Hinds, . . 271 

Canaliculata (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 6, . 284 

Cancellata (Bela), Mighels and Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., 1841, i, p. 50, 218 

Cancellata (Bela), G. 0. Sars. Moll. Arc. Norv., p. 224, pi. 

xxiii, f. 31 ; pi. viii, f. 9. = B. Sarsii, Yerrill. 
Cancellata (Citharopsis), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, 

xv, p. 323, 274 

Cancellata (Daphnella), Hutton. Jour. Conch., 1878, p. 18, 306 
Cancellata (Drillia), Cpt. Pro. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1865, 

p. 63, 183 

Cancellata (Drillia), Gray. Reeve, Icon., sp. 317, 1846, . 197 
Cancellata (Pleurotoma), Calcara. 

= PL clathrata, De Serres, 276 

Cancellatum (Pleurotoma), Sowb. (non Calc.). Ind. Brit. 

Shells, t. 19, f. 9. = P. Cordieri, Payr. . . . .275 
Candeana (Clathurella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 175, t. 24, f. 

10-12, ... 279 

Candelabrum, Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., v, 1878. 

= Ancistrosyrinx, Dall. 
Candens (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 192, t. 

19, f. 17, . . . 203 

Candida (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 20 ; 

Moll. Yoy. Sul., p. 20, pi. 6, f, 18, 273 

Candida (Pleur.), Jones. H. and A. Adams' Genera, i, 88, 174 
Candida (Pleurotoma), Mke. Ch., 4, 1337-38. 

P. tornata, Dillw. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 331 

_FAGE. 

Candidissima (Lachesis), Phil. Moll. Sic., i, p. 222, t. xi, 

f. 18, ... 225 

Candidissima (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., ii, p. 4, . . 226, 248 

Candidula (Clathurella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 39, f. 358, 

1846, 218 

Candidus (Fusus), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 148, 1848. Abbild. iii, 

117, t. 5, f. 7. ? = Pusionella valida, Dunker, . . . 234 
Canfieldi (Clathurella), Ball. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 101, 

t. 15, f. 9, . . . 280 

Cantharis (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 118, 199 
Capensis (Pleurotoma), Smith. Arm. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 

296, . 299 

Capillacea (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1846, p. 60, 263 
Carbonaria (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 187. = D. callosa, Val. 

Cardinalis (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc. ,1845, p. 115, 258 
Caribsea (Clathurella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 172, t. 23, f. 

32-34, 279 

Caribbsea (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. II., 1882, p. 211, 199 
Carinata (Pleurotoma), Gray. Griff., Cuv. An. King, pi. 23, 173 
Carinata (Spirotropis), Bivona. Gen. Moll., 12 ; Phil. Moll. 

Sicil., t. 26, f. 15, 213 

Carinulata (Clathurella), Souverbie. Jour. Conch., 1875, p. 

289, pi. xiii, f. 6, ... . 289 

Carnosula (PI. Leufroyi, var.), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 

367, 276 

Carpenteri (Pleurotoma), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, p. 53, pi. 

v, f. 12, 250 

Carpenteri- ( Pleurotoma', Yen-ill and Smith. Am. Jour. 

Sc., 3d ser., xx, p. 395, . . . 310 

Carpenteriana (Surcula), Gabb. Proc. 'Cal. Acad. Sci., 183, 

1865. Pal. Cal., ii, 5, t. 1, f. 8, - 239 

Casta (Mangilia), Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64. 

= Daphnella, Reeveana, Tryon, ..... 305 
Casta (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 25, pi. 

7, f. 20, 300 

Castanea (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63, 255 
Castanea (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 112, . 177 
Castaneus < Bela\ Brown. Brit. Shells, 6, t. 5, f. 43, 44. 

= B. rufa, Mont. ... . . 224 

Catelini (Fusus), Petit. Jour, de Conobyl., ii, 75, t. 1, f. 2, 

1851. = Pusionella aculeiformis, Lam 234 

Catena (Surcula), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. v, f. 36, 1843, . 240 
Cathedralis (Candelabrum), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

v, 1878. = Ancistrosyrinx elegans, Dall. 



332 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Caudata (PL reticulatum, var.), Requien. Coq. Corse., 72. 

= C. Cordieri, Fayr. 
Caudicula (Pleurotoma), Chieregh. Brusina, Ipsa Chieregh. 

Conch., 158. = P. Leufroyi, Mich. 

Cavernosa (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 60, 251 
Cavernosa (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 

118, . . 290 

Cedo-nulli (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. p. 

185. = C. Pagoda, Lesson. 
Celebensis (Mangilia), Hinds. Prnc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 46 ; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 26. pi. ix, f. 5, . 260 

Cerea (Mangilia), Carpenter, Ann. Mag. N. H , xv, 1865, 

p. 400, . 251 

Cerinum (Pleurotoma), Kurtz and Stimps. Proc. Bost Soc. 

N. H.,iv, p. 115, . .310 

Cerithina (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, .318 

Cerithoidea (Pleurotoma), Cpr. Mazat. Shells, p. 394. 

= D. aterrima, Sowb. 
Cernica (Cythara), G, and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 1875, 

pt. ii, p. 94, pi. vii, f. 16. = M. Isseli, var., . . 272 

Ceroplasta (Borsonia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 473, 

1881, . . . 228 

Ceylonica (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag. N. 

H., 1877, p. 489, . . ' 174 

Chariessa (Pleurotoma;, Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 458, 

1881, . . . . .299 

Cheesemani (Drillia), Button. Jour, de Conch., 16, 1878. 

= D. Zealandica, Smith. 
Chauveti (Pleurotoma), Req. Coq. de Corse, p. 101. 

= Lachesis minima, Montg., 225 

Chemnitzii (Pleurotoma), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 74, . 318 
Chocolatum (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 492, . .... .211 

Chordula (Murex), Turton. Diet., p. 94. = Juv. Bela rufa, 

Mont., 224 

Chyta^ Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 467, 1881, 299 
Cincta (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt, xviii, p. 161. 

= C. rugosa, Mghels. Garrett, Mss., .... 297 

Cincta (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 65. . 259 
Cincta (Surcula), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 92, . . 242 
Cincta (Pleurotoma), Sowb. (not Lam.). Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1833, p. 136. = D. zonulata, Reeve. 

Cinctella (Mangilia), Pfeif. Arch. f. Nat., 1840, i, p. 258, . 248 
Cinerea (Bela), Moll. Moll. Groenl, p. 13, . . 218 

Cinerea (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 40; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., 18, pi. 6, f. 3 273 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 333 

PAGE. 

Cinerea (Pleurotoma), Weinkauff. Conch. Cab., 126, pi. 23, 

f. 1,3. = D. zebra, Lamarck. 
Cingulifera (Pleurotoma), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, 

p. 94, ... . .166 

Cinnamomea (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 45, . . 266 

Circinata (Pleurotoma), Dall. Proc. Cal. Acad., v, p. 61, 

pi. ii, f. 5, 1873, ... .316 

Circumsecta (Pleurotoma), Mign. Proc. Bost. Soc. N H., 

ii,p. 24, . . . 319 

Circumvoluta (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

465, 1881, . .299 

Cirratum (Pleurotoma), Brugnone (non Bellardi, 1847). 

Mem. Pleur. Foss., 1862, p. 17, f. 9. : = M. Morchi, Malm. 
Cithara (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., iii, 

p. 140, 1849, .263 

Citharella (Mangilia), Lam. Anirn. sans Vert., Edit. Desh., 

ix,407, 257 

Citharopsis, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iv, 97, 1868. 

= Columbellidse. 
Clandestina (Pleurotoma), Desh. Moll. Reunion, p. 110, 

pi. xii, f. 15-16, . 298 

Clara (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 112, . 252 
Clara (Surcula), Martens. Mittheil., i, p. 35, pi. 8, f. 1 a-d. 239 
Clathrata (Clathurella), Marcel de Serres. Geogn. du Midi, 

113, t. 2, f. 7,8, . . 276 

Clathrata (Daphnella), Gabb. Proc. Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc., 1865, 

p. 185, , 306 

Clathrata (Drillia), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. H., i, 1838, p. 28, . 212 
Clathrata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. lc., pi. 39, f. 361. 

= C. candidula, Reeve, var., 278 

Clathurella, Carpenter. Mazatl. Cat. 399, 1857, . . 159, 274 
Clavata (Mangilia), C. B. Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, 

p. 254, . . 261 

Clavata (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 135, . 190 
Clavatulus (Murex), pars. Dillw. Cat., i, p. 713. 

= Pleur. muricata, Lam. 
Clavatulus (Murex), Dillwyn. Cat. ii, p. 713. (Ex-parte.) 

= Pleurotoma taxus, Chemn. 
Clavatula, Lamarck. Syst. An., 84, 1801, . . . 157, 228 

Clavatulinse, 153 

Clavicantha, Swainson. Malac., 155, 314, 1840. 

= Clavatula, Lam. 
Clavulus (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 134. 

= Columbella, Manual, v, 184. 



334 INDEX ANP SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Clavus, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 434, 1810. 

= Drillia, Sect. . 155, 185 

Clevei (Oligotoma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

1883, 200, 319 

Climacota (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn, Soc.,xv, 1881, 428, 200 
Clinura, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, 204, 1877. 

= Surcula, Sect 158 

Clionella, Gray. Zool. Proc., 153, 1847, . . . 157, 233 
Clionellseformis (Drillia), Weinkauff. Conch. Cab., p. 106, 

t. 23, f. 5, 198 

Coarctata (Mangilia), Forbes. Ann. Nat. Hist., v, 107. 

= M. costata, Forbes and Hanley, 244 

Coarctata (Mangilia), Weink. M. M. Conch., ii,p. 125 (non 

Forbes). = M. multilineolata, Desh. 

Coccinata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 118, 188 
Coccinea (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, . . 318 
Cochlespira, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 210, 1865. 

Pleurotoma, Lam. 

Coffea (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 209, . 191 
Cognata (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 490, 170 

Colini (Clavatula), von Maltzan. Jahr. Mai. GeselL, 1883, 

126, t. 3, f. 0, 230 

Collaris (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= D. zebra, Lam. 
Columbarium, Martens. Conch. Mitth., p. 105, t. 21, f. 1-3, 

1881, 154, 175 

Columbella( Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ix, 60, 312 
Columbelloides (Cythara , Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 62. == M. Marginelloides, Reeve, . . . .261 
Comarmondi (Pleurotoma), Mich. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord., 

iii, 263, t. l,f. 6. = P. gracilis, Mont., . .312 

Comatotropis (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

ix, 58, .312 

Commoda (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882,299, 299 
Companyoi (Mangilia), Bncq., Dautz. and Dollf. Moll. 

Roussillon, 108, t. 15, f. 20-22, 1883, . . . .245 
Compsa (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 470, 

1881, 307 

Compta (Cithara), Ad. and Ang. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, p. 

419, pi. xxxvii, f. 5, 306 

Compta (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 118. 

= C. vultuosa, Reeve, ....... 296 

Concentricostata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 

p. 117, 258 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 335 



Concinna (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Zool. Soc. N. H., 1861, 

p. 382, . 306 

Concinna (Pleurotoma^ Dunker. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 

356 ; Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 160. = C. Reeveana, Desh., . 291 
Concinna (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat. Conch. Reg. Neapol., 

1836, p. 12, fig. 18, . . . . 277 

Concinnula (Bela), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Ac., v, p. 468, pi. 

xliii, f. 15 ; pi. Ivii, f. 11, 1882, 220 

Concolor (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 498, ... 212 

Conica (Pleurotoma). Enc. Meth., pi. 439, f. 9 a-b. 

= P. muricata, Lam. . 229 

Coniformis (Cythara), Gray. Moll. Toy. Blossom, p. 119, 264 
Coniformis (Pleurotoma), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 

1875, p. 288, pi. xiii, f. 5. = M. Souverbiei, Tryon, . 265 
Conohelicoides (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 62, .262 

Conoidea (Bela), Sars. Moll. Norv., 236, t. 16, f. 14, 1878, 221 
Conopleura, Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 24, 1844. 

= Drillia, Sect 155, 211 

Consimilis (Pleurotoma), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 

188, t. 19, f. 11. = D. Sinensis, Hinds. 
Consociata (Crassispira), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 496. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell, 1883, 121, t. 3, f. 4, . 192 
Constricta (Clathtirella), Gabb. Proc. Cal. Ac. Nat. Sc., 

1865, p. 184 299 

Contortula (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 

1875, pt. 2, p. 92, pi. vii, f. 12, . ... 294 

Contracta (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

185. Mangilia gracilenta, Reeve, .... 252 
Convexa (Defrancia), Jeffr. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p. 33, 299 
Coppingeri (Mangilia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 

27, pi. iv, f. 2, . . 255 

Coralligena (PL Leufroyi, var.), Monterosato. Enum. e. 

Sinon, 46. = M. Leufroyi, Mich. 
Corallina (Mangilia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 435, 

1881, 249 

Corbis (Pleurotoma), Michaud. Monterosato. Enum. e. 

Sinon, 46. = P. purpureum, Mont. .... 275 

Cordiera, Rouault. Bull. Soc. Geol., v, 1848. 

= Borsonia, Bell 227 

Cordieri (Clathurella), Payr. Moll. Corse., 144, t. 7, f. 11, 275 
Coreanica (Pleurotoma), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

t. 10, f. 8. = P. javana, Linn. 237 

Cornea (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 5, . 253 
Cornea (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, . . 318 



336 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Cornnta (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= D. nigerrima, Sowb, 
Coronata (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 45 : 

Moll. Voy. Sul., p. 26, pi. ix, f. 2, . . . . '. 260 
Coronata (Mangilia), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc., 1845, p. 23, 271 
Coronatus (Murex Turris), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, p. 11 4, 

t. 190, f. 1831 and 1832. = Pleurotoma muricata, Lam. 
Corpulcnta (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv. 

p. 446, 1881, . . . '. 315 

Corrugata (Borsonia), Pease, MSS. Carp. Zool. Proc,, 1865, 

516; Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 232, . . . . .228 
Corrugata (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 159, 

1871. == C. rubrognttata, H. Ad. . . . . . 292 

Corrugata (Pleurotoma), Kien. Coq. viv., t. 9, f. 2. 

= P. undatiruga, Bivona, ...... 238 

Corrugata (Pleurotoma), Sowerby. Zool. Proc., 137, 1833. 

= Drillia Sowerbyi, Reeve. 

Corusca (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 183, . 209 
Costata (Mangilia), Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Moll., iii, 485, 244 
Costata (Pleurotoma), Gray, MSS. Reeve, Icon., sp. 298, 

1846. = M. trilineata, C. B. Ad 248 

Costatum (Pleurotoma), Donovan. Brit. Shells, v, t. 179, 

f. 4. = B. septangularis, Mont. . . 223 

Costulata (Mangilia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 227; xviii, 

p. 165, . 255 

Costulata (Mangilia), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Mer., iv. p. 

219,1826. = D. nebula, Montg 307 

Costulata (Pleurotoma), DeBlainv. Faune Fraii9.,t,4 ,f. 6, 309 
Costulatum (Pleurotoma), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 

? = P. Cordieri, Payr. 
Costulifera (Cithara i, Pse. Carpenter, Proc. Zool. Soc., 516, 

1865. = Cithara ornata, Pse. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 232. 
Coxi (Drillia), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 1 13, pi. 13, 

f. 15. == D. Sinensis, Hinds. 

Cranchiana (Mangilia), Leach. = M. linearis, Mont. 
Cranchii (Pleurotoma), Brown. Brit. Shells, 6, t. 5, f. 5. 

= B. rufa, Mont 224 

Crassicostata (Borsonia), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 

143, 227 

Crassicostata (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 

66, 1850. = M. badia, Reeve, . . ' . . . .247 
Crassicostata (Mangilia), Dunk. Mai. Blatt, xviii, p. 164, . 261 
Crassilabrum (Mangilia ), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 36, 1846, . 265 
Crassilabrum (Pleurotoma), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. 

H., ii. 319 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Crassilabrum (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 135, ... . 258 

Crassispira, Swainson. Malac., 152, 313, 1840. 

= Drillia, Sect. 155, 191 

Craticulata (Defrancia), Olivi (nee Linn.). Chieregh. Conch., 

160. = M. Cordieri, Payr. 

Craticulata (Lachesis), Morch. Mai. Blatter, vii, p. 104, . 226 
Crebricostata (Daphnella), Cpt. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, 

xv, p. 28, 312 

Crebricostata (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 41 ; Reeve, Icon. Pleurotoma, Corrections. 

= D. Maravignae, Bivona. 
Crebriplicata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 3, .... .305 

Crenularis (Drillia), Lara. Anim. sans Yert., vii, p. 92, . 178 
Crenulata (Daphnella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 221, 

pi. 15, fig. 20, . . . . . . . . 304 

Crispa (Pleurotoma), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, p. 95, 1818, 163 
Crispaturn (Pleurotoma), Phil. En. Moll. Sic., i, p. 200 ; ii, 

p. 170, t. 26, f. 12. = D. Loprestiana, Calcara, . . 209 
Crocata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 110, . 204 
Cryptoconus, v. Koenen. Arch. f. Nat., 1880, ii, 211. 

= Genotia, Sect. . . . ... 154 

Cryptorrhaphe (Pleurotoma), Sowb. App. Tank. Cat., p. 14, 168 
Crystallina (Clathurella), Gabb. Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S., 

1865, p. 184, 299 

Cubensis (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882,211. 

= Mangilia luctuosa, d'Orb. . . . . . .246 

Cunningham! (Pleurotoma), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, 

p. 27, pi. iv, f. 1. ?= B. subluta, Gould, . . . .222 
Cuprea (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 187. 

= D. fuscescens, Gray. 
Curculio (Clathurella rugosa, var.), Nevill. Jour. As. Soc., 

1875, 86, ... . . 297 

Curta (Daphnella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p, 221, 

pi. 15, f. 22, ... 304 

Curvata (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeiclmiss, p. 74, . . 318 
Cumingii (Clathurella), Powis. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1835, . 283 
Cycladensis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. xxxii, 

fig. 289, 1845. = D. brachystoma, Phil 308 

Cyclophora (Clatlmrella), Desh. Moll. Reunion, p. Ill, pi. 

xii,f. 19-21,1863, 292 

Cyliudracea (Bela), Moll. Moll. Grcenl., p. 13. 

= B. bicarinnta, Couth 215 

Cylindrica (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 

143, 299 



338 INDEX ANP SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Cylindrica (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 60, 267 
Cyrilli (Raphitoma), Brusina. Contr. Fauna Dalm., 64. 

= M. linearis, Mont. 
Cythara, Schumacher. Essai nov. gen., 245, 1817. 

== Mangilia, Sect. . . . . . . . 159, 261 

Cytharella, Monterosato. = Githara. 

Cytharopsis, A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H.. 1865, xv, 322. 

= Mangilia, Sect. . 159, 274 

Dsedalea (Clathurella), Garrett. Proc. A N. S., 1873, p. 219, 

pi. 2, f. 33, . 294 

Daedalea (Cythara), Pse. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 218, pi. 

15, f. 13, 1867. = C. debilis, Pease, . . . .270 
Daedala (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 6. 

= M. margaritifera, Gray, . . . . . .258 

Dalli (Drilliai, Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. Ac., v, p. 

451, pi. Ivii, f. 1, la, 181 

Daphnella, Hinds. Toy. Sulphur, 25, 1844, . . .160 

Daphnelloides (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi, xxiv, 

f. 206. = P. marmorata, Hinds, 302 

Darnleyensis (Mangilia), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 

Wales, i, 154, 256 

Debilis (Cythara), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch, iv, p. 105, 

18C.8, . * 270 

Debilis (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 39 ; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 17, pi. 5, f. 16 282 

Decora (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 215. 

= M. trilineata, C. B. Ad., . ... 248 

Decorata (Daphnella), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 62. 

= D. Lymneiformis, Kiener, ...... 300 

Declivis (Bela), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., p. 13, . . 218 
Declivis (Pleurotoma), Martens. Conch. Mittheil., i, 39, 

t. 9, f. 2, . ... ... 170 

Decussata (Bela), Couth. Bos. Jour. Nat H., ii, p. 183, pi. 

iv, f. 8, 1839, 217 

Decussata (Mangilia), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 217, 

pi. 15, f. 10, . . 263 

Decussata ( Pleurotoma \ Macgillivray. Moll. Aberdeen, p. 

172. = P. Trevelyana, Turt 221 

Decussata (Pleurotoma), Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 174,, t. 26, f. 

23, 1844. = D. nuperrima, Tiberi, 307 

Defrancia, Millet. Ann. Soc. Linn. Paris, 1826. 

= Clathurella, Carp. . . . .159 

Delacouriana (Cithara), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xvii, p. 177 ; 

xx, p. 66, pi. ii, f. 4, . . 263 

Delicata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 34, f. 310, . 301 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 339 



Delicatula (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 

1878,37, .302 

Delosensis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 40, f. 365. 

= P. clathrata, Marcel, 276 

Deluta (Daphnella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., vii, p. 339, . 306 
Demersa (Bela), Tiberi. Jour. Conch., 1868, p. 179. 

= D. Morchi, Malm .315 

Dempsta (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., vii, p. 340, . 312 
Denseplicata (Pleurotoma), Dunker. Mai. Blat.,xviii,p. 159, 203 
Densestriata (Mangilia), C. B, Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 65. 

? = M. balteata, Reeve, 247 

Dentatum (Pleurotoma), Souvr. Jour. Conch., xvii, p. 418 ; 

xviii, p. 431, pi. xiv, f. 5, 305 

Dentifera (Clathurella), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 23, pi. 

7, f. 14; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 44, . . . . 291 
Derelicta (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64, 266 
Desalesi (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1876, 138, 271 

Deshayesii (Mangilia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 228, . . 256 
Deshayesii (Pleurotoma), Doumet. Mag. de Zool. Moll., 

1840, pi. 1 1. = P. Indica, Desh. 

Despecta (Defrancia), H. and A. Ad. Genera, i, 96, . . 299 
Detecta (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 65, 1881, 213 
Diadema (Fusus), Lesson. Sowb. Thes., iv, pi. 410, fig. 53. 

= Columbarium Pagoda, Lesson. 
Diadema (Pleurotoma;, Kien. Iconog., pi. 8$ f. 2. 

= Clavatula muricata, Lam. ...... 229 

Didyma (Genotia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 404, 1881, 175 
Difficilis (Pleurotoma', Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 187, 

t. 19, f. 8, 173 

Digitalis (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 186, . 191 
Digitalis (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 65, 268 
Digna (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, p. 499, 184 
Diminuta (Pleurotoma \ 0. B. Ad. Conch. Contr., p. 63. 

= P. qiiadrata ? Reeve, 278 

Discors (Bela ), Brown. Brit. Shells, 6, t. 5, f. 6, 7. 

= B. pyramidalis, Strom. . . . . . . .216 

Discors (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Geol. Soc., 1833, p. 137, 

= D. aterrima, Sowb., var. 
Discrepans (Bela), Brown. Brit. Conch., 6, t. 5, f. 49, 50. 

= B. rufa, Mont 224 

Ditoma, Belkrdi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 2, 29, 5, 1877. 

= Clathurella, Sect. 

Diversa (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 18*2, 207, . 191 
Dolichotoma, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 2, p. 229, 

1877. = Genotia, Section, 154 



340 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Donata (Drillia), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sul., p. 22, pi. 7, f. 7 ; 

Proo. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 43, . . . . .210 

Donovania, Bucq., Dautz. and Dollf. Moll. Roussillon, 85, 

1883. = Lachesis, Risso. 
D'Orbignii (Pleurotoma , Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 39, f. 359, 

1846. = C. candidula, Reeve, var. . . . . . 278 

Dormitor (Mitromorpha), Sowb. Carpenter, Ann. Mag., 

182, 1865, 318 

Dorvilliae (Mangilia), Gray. Reeve, Pleurotoma, sp. 249, . 267 
Dowsoni (Pleurotoma \ S. V. Wood. = P. turricula, Mont. 219 
Drillia, Gray. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. i, 1838, p. 28, 155, 176 
Dubia (Mangilia), C. B, Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 

p. 4, 248 

Dubiosa (Cythara), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 1875, 

ii, p. 93, pi. vii, f. 18, . -. 264 

Dunkeri (Pleurotoma), Weinkauff. Kiister's Conch. Cab., 

No. 86, t. 16, f. 2. = D. umbilicata, Gray. 
Duplicata (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. 

= P. olivacea, Sowb 238 

Duplicata (Pleurotoma), Weiukauff (not Sowerby). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 10, f. 9, 11. = Drillia maura/Sowb. 
Dyscrita (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 448, 

'1881, 315 

Dysoni (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4, 198 
Dysoni (Mangilia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 29, . . . 247 

Eborea (Drillia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vol. 7, p. 

337, 212 

Ebur (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 116, . 188 
Eburnea (Drillia), Cpt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, p. 280, . 183 
Eburnea (Pleurotoma), Bivona. Gen. posth., p. 9. 

= M. taeniata, Desh . .243 

Echinata (Drillia), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 91, . 185 
Echinatus (Pleurotoma), Brocc. (not Lamarck). Conch. 

foss. Subap., 423, t. 8, f. 3. = C. Cordieri, Payr. 
Efficta (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 118. 

= C. vultuosa, Reeve, 296 

Effusa (Daphnella), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d 

ser., xv, 29, 1865, 317 

Elatior (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 4, 319 
Elatior (Clathurella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 173, t. 23, f. 

35-37, . 279 

Elegans (Ancistrosyrinx), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

ix, 54, 1881, .176 

Elegans (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 144, 299 
Elegans (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63, . 264 



INEEX AND SYNONYMY. 341 



Elegans (Defrancia), Moll. Moll. Groenl., p. 13. 

= Bela cancellata, Mighels, 218 

Elegans (Murex), Wood. Ind. Test. Supp., pi. 5, f. 8. 

= Pleurotoma fascialis, Lam. 
Elegans (Pleurotoma), Brown. Conch. Gb. Brit. 

= D. costulata, Blainv. . 309 

Elegans (Pleurotoma), Blv. (non Donov.). 

= P. purpureum, Mont. 
Elegans (Pleurotoma), Donovan. Brit. Shells, v, 1. 179, f. 3. 

= M. linearis, Mont. 
Elegans (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat., pi. 26, f. 5. 

= D. Maravignse, Bivona. 
Elegantior (Pleurotoma), S. Wood. 1872. 

= B. elegans, Moll. Jeffreys, Proc. Roy. Soc., xxv, 189. 
Elongata (Pleurotoma), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 73, . . 318 
Elongata (Pleurotoma), Gray. Beechey's Yoy., p. 119. 

? = P. cryptorraphe, Sowb. 

Elongatula (Pleurotoma), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 74, . 318 
Elusiva (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 69, 1881, 213 
Emarginata (Clathurella), Donov. Brit. Shells, v, t. 169, 

f. 2. = D. gracilis, Montagu, ...... 312 

Emendata (Pleurotoma), Monterosato. Conch. St. Yito. 

Jour, de Conch., 1878, 157, 172 

En^inseformis (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. 

Beng., 1875, ii, p. 91, pi. vii, f. 9, 294 

Engonia (Genotia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 405, 1881, 175 
Ericea (Mangilia), Hinds. Yoy. Sulphur Moll., p. 17, pi. 5, 

f. 15, . . . " . . . 258 

Eritima (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 443, 

1881, 315 

Eritmeta (Mangilia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 432, 

1881, . .- 249 

Erosa (Drillia), Schrenck. Amurland Moll., p. 405, t. xvii, 

figs. 5-7, 184 

Erythrrea (Pleurotoma), Jickeli, MS. (Kuster, t. 4, f. 10), 166 
Etallonia, Deshayes. Paris Fossils, 2d edit., 605, 1862, 156, 226 
Etruscum (Pleurotoma), Tiberi. Monterosato, Nuova 

Revista, 42. = PL calcarata, Grat. . . . .312 

Eucheilodon, Gabb. Jour. Acad. Pliilada., 2d ser., iv, 380, 

t. 67, f. 18. = Pleurotoma, Lam. 
Eucithara, Fischer. Man. de Conch., 593, 1884. 

= Cythara, Schum. 
Exarata (B^la), Moll. Moll. Grcenl., p. 12. 

= B. turricula, Mont. . . . . . . .219 

Exarata (Bela), Yen-ill. Pro. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 366 (pars). 

= B. concinnula, Yerrill. 



342 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Exarata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 112, . 204 
Exasperata (Drillia), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 63, 

1881, . 213 

Exasperata (Drillia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. ii, fig. 8, 1843, 185 
Excavata (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 498, 212 

Excentrica (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= D. rudis, Sowb. 
Excurvata (Bela), Opt. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1865, 

p. 63, . 223 

Exigtia (Drillia), Homb. et Jacq. Voy. Astr. et Zel., v, 111, 

t. 25, f. 21, 22, 188 

Exigua (Bela), Jeffreys. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1883, 398, t. 44, 

f. 10, 216 

Exilis (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 144, 299 
Exilis (Drillia), Pease Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 220, pi. 15, 

f. 19, 1867, . .206 

Exilis (Pleurotoma), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 1849, p. 31, . . 299 
Eximia (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 181, 290 
Expansa (Bela), Sars. Moll. Norv., 240, t. 17, f 7, 1878, . 216 
Exquisita (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 

1875, p. 87 (pt. ii). = M. rubida, Hinds, . . . .271 
Exquisita (Defrancia), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag., 33, 1882, . 299 
Exquisita (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 305, 269 
Exsculpta (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 247, 

1882, 212 

Extensa (Bela Blakeana, var .), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., ix, 55, . 222 

Fabagina (Pleurotoma), Adams and Reeve. Weinkauff, 

Cat., p. 4. = P. fagina, Ad. and Reeve. 
Fagina (Pleurotoma), Adams and Reeve. Voy. Sam., p 40, 

t. 9, f. 2a-6, . . . . ' . , .167 

Fairbanki (Mangilia), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. 

Ben., 1875, ii, p. 85, pi. vii, f. 2, 270 

Fallax ( Clathurella rugosa, var.), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. 

Beng., 1875, pt. ii, p. 87, . .... 297 

Fallax (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Rep. JBg. Invert., 139. 

= juv. P. gracilis, Montagu. ...... 312 

Farranii (Pleurotoma), Thomps. Ann. Nat. Hist., xv, 316, 

t. 19, f. 3. = D. costulata, Blainv 309 

Fascialis (Pleurotoma), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 93, . 169 
Fasciata (Cythara), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Mangilia, 

sp. 52, 269 

Felina (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 42; 

Voy. Sulph., t. 7, f. 4, . 292 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 343 



Fenestrata (Clatlmrella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt, xviii, p. 162, 
Fenestrata (Pleurotoma), Desh. Exp. Moree, 177. 

?= D. costulata, Blainv 309 

Fenestrata (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4, 283 
Ferruginea (Clavatula), von Maltzan. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., 

1883, 115, t. 3, f. 8. = 01. muricata, Lam., var. . 229 

Ferruginea (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, . 318 
Ficus (Buccinum), Martyn. Univ. Conch. 

= Halia Priamus, Meuschen. 

Fidicula (Bela), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 142, 1849, . . 222 
Filicincta (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 216, 261 
Filifera (Bela), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 56, 1881, 222 
Filosa (Clathurella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 

338, . 299 

Filosa (Mitromorpha), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d 

ser., xv, 182, 1865, 317 

Filosa (Pleurotoma), Marrat. Quart. Jour. Conch., i, 240, 

1877, UO 

Fimbriata (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

43 ; Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 22, pi. 7, f. 9, . . . . 288 
Flammea (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

42; Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 21, pi. 6, f. 21, . . 302 

Flavescens (Mangilia), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 

37, pi. v. f. 11, . . .-.." 256 

Flavescens Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. Ill, 194 
Flavidula (Drillia), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 92, . 177 
Flavocarinata (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 212, 200 
Flavocincta (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Conch. Contr., p. 63, 319 
Flavo-nodulosa (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 

194, t. 19, f. 21, 202 

Flemingiana (Halia), Macgilliv. Moll. Aberd., p. 189. 

= Buccinum Dalei, Sowb. 318 

Flexuosa (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 214, 261 
Floridana (Mitromorpha), Dall. Proc. Nat. Mus.,vi, 1883, 317 
Fluctuosa (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 416, 1881, 212 
Folinese (Lachesis), Ph. Moll. Sic., ii, 1844, p. 189, t. xxvii, 

f. 10, 225 

Folinese (Murex), Chiaje. Mem., t. xlix, f. 12-14. 

= Lachesis minima, Mont. ...... 225 

Foraminata (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 118, 288 

Forbesii (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 37, f. 339. 

? = D. brachystoma, Phil. 308 

Formicaria (Mangilia), Forbes. JEgean Report, 139, 1844. 

= M. nebula, Montg. 
Formicaria (Mangilia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 139, 250 

23 



344 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Formosa (Clathurella), Jeffreys. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1883, 

397, t. 44, f. 9 297 

Formosa (PL reticulata, var.), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 

371. = M. Cordieri, Payr. 
Formosa (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 36, f. 331 ; 

Reeve, Corrections, Conch. Icon. = D. Iseta, Hinds. 
Forthiensis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 114. = D. accincta, Montg. ..... 310 

Fortilirata (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 194, 

t. 19, f. 22,. . ... 207 

Fortis (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1844. 

= D. turgida, Forbes, 308 

Foveolata (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 5, 288 
Fragilis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. Ill ; 

Smith, Zool. Proc , 198, 1879. = D. Lymneiformis, Kiener, 300 
Fucata (Drillia). Reeve. Proc. Zool Soc., 1845. p. 110, . 189 
Fulgurans (Daphnella), Krauss. Siidafrikan. Moll., p. 109, 

t. vi, f. 11, . . 311 

Fulminata (Pleurotoma), Kiener. Icon., pi. 10, f. 2. 

= P. tornata, Dillw., var 237 

Fulva (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 116. 

= M. lutescens, Reeve, ....... 253 

Fulva (Drillia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 44, . 210 
Fulvocincta (Mangilia), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. 

Beng., 1875, ii, p. 85, pi. vii, f. 1, . 252 

Funebrale (Daphnella), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 100, 

1871, 310 

Funebris (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 62, 251 
Funiculata (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 

60, .... . ... 257, 267 

Funiculata (Pleurotoma), Yal., MSS. Kiener, Iconog.,t. 16, 

f. 1. = P. olivacea, Sowb 238 

Funiculus (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, . 318 
Fusca (Bela), Brown. Brit. Shells, 6, t. 5, f. 3, 4. 

= B. rufa, Mont 224 

Fusca (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 

ii, p. 4, . . . . 248 

Fusca (Pleurotoma), Calcara. = Mangilia Sicula, Reeve. 
Fusca (Pleurotoma), Homb. and Jacq. Vo} 7 . Sud Pol. Zool., 

v, p. Ill, t. 25, f. 19-20. = P. gemmata, Hinds. 
Fuscata (Pleurotoma), Desh. ?= D. nebula, Montg. . .308 
Fuscescens (Drillia), Gray. Reeve, Icon., sp. 125, 1843, . 193 
Fuscobalteata (Clathurella), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

p. 196, pi. xix, f. 26, 284 

Fuscocincta (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Conch. Contr., p. 62, 319 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 345 

PAGE. 

Fuscoligata (Daphnella), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 

100, 1871, 301 

Fuscoligata (Mangilia rigida, var.), Opt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1856, p. 163, 269 

Fuscolineata (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii. p. 162, 299 
Fuscolineata (Daphnella), Smith. Dunker, Jap. Moll., 25. 

= D. fuscobalteata, Smith. 
Fuscolineata (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., 1845, p. 4; Contrib. Conch., p. 54. 

= P. monilifera, Sowb 278 

Fuscomaculata (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, 

p. 144, . 299 

Fusconotata (Cithara), Cpt. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1864, 

xiv, p. 46, 271 

Fusiformis (Cithara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, 268 
Fusiformis (Daphnella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 

1873, p. 229, pi. 3, f. 58, 303 

Fusiformis (Pleurotoma), C. B. Ad. Conch. Contr., p. 64, 319 
Fusiformis (Pleurotoma), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 74, . 318 
Fusiformis (Pleurotoma), Requien. Coq. Corse, Suppl., 

101, No. 524, bis. = P. anceps, Eichw. . . . .313 
Fusoides (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 

6. = M. gracilenta, Reeve, ...... 252 

Galerita (Pleurotoma), Jeffreys (not Phil.). Brit. Conch., 

v, 221, t. 102, f. 6. = P. semicolon, S. Wood. 
Gslerita (Pleurotoma), Philippi. En. Moll. Sic., ii, 172, t. 

26, f. 15, 1844, . ... ... 309 

Garnonsii (Pleurotoma). Reeve, 4, pi. 1, Conch. Ic., 1843, 163 
Garrettii (Cythara), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 147. 

= Columbella lachryma, Gask. Yol. v, 165. 
Gealei (Daphnella), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. Hist,, 1882,302, 307 
Gemmata (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 37, . . 173 

Gemmata (Pleurotoma . MacAndrew Report. 

= P. arnabilis. Jick. 
Gemmula, Weink. Jahr. Mai. Ges., ii, p. 287, 1876. 

= Pleurotoma, Sect. 154, 173 

Gemmulata (Pleurotoma), Desh. Conch. Reunion, p. 107, 

pi. xii, f. 8-10. = Mangilia interrupta, Reeve, . . 266 
Genotia, H. and A. Adams, em. Gen. Rec. Moll, i, 89, 1853. 

154, 174 
Gibbera (Defrancia), Jeffreys, Brit. Assoc. Report, 1873, 

114, 299 

Gibbosa (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, 266 
Gibbosa (Drillia), Born. Test. Mus. Cses., t. 11, f. 12, 13, . 179 



346 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Gigantea (Bela), Morch. Moll. Spitzbergen, No. 33. 

= B. Schantarica, Midd. 
Gigas (Pleurotoma), Beck, MSS. Yerkriisen, Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell., ii, 239, t. 8, f. 6, 7, 1875. 

= Bela Schantarica, Midd. 
Giliberti (Borsonia), Souv. Jcur. Conch., 1874, p. 189, pi. 

vii, fig. 2, . 228 

Gilpini (Bela), Yerkr. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., v, 1878, p. 226, . 222 
Ginnannia (Mangilia), Reeve (not Risso). Mangilia, f. 45. 

? = PI. septangularis, 223 

Ginnannia (Mangilia), Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 220, t. 7, f. 99. 

= D. nebula, Montg .307 

Glareosa (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., vii, p. 340, . 271 
Glumacea (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

44 ; Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 24, pi. vii, f. 15, . . . 291 

Glyphostoraa, W. M. Gabb. Proc. Ic. N. S. Phila., iii, 270, 

pi. xi, f. 4, 1872 ; Semper, Verb. Hamburg, 199, 1875. 

= Mangilia Risso, Sect. ... . 159, 271 

Godfroidi (Pleurotoma), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, p. 54, pi. v, 

f. 12, . .250 

Goniodes (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 394, 

1881, 242 

Goodallii (Mangila), Gray, MSS. Reeve . Mangilia), 58, . 260 
Goreensis (Mangilia), von Maltzan. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., 1883, 

131, t. 3, f. 11 . . 246 

Gouldii (Bela), Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Ac., v, p. 465, pi. Ivii, 

f. 6, 6 a, 1882, .220 

Gracilenta (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 184, 251 
Gracilior (Clavatula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 254, 232 
Gracilior (Mitromorpha), Hemphill, ..... 317 
Gracillima (Pleurotoma), Weink. Conch. Cab., 26, t. 5, f. 

4,5, 1876, 165 

Gracillima (Pleurotoma), Cpt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 164, 174 
Gracilis (Clathurella), Montagu. Test. Brit., 1. 1, p. 267, pi. 

xv, f. 5, 312 

Gracilis (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 60, . 267 
Gracilis (Pleurotoma), Marrat. Jour. Conch., i, 240, . . 319 
Gracilis (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat. Conch., 13, 1836. 

= P. attenuata, Montagu, ....... 309 

Gracilispira (Clathurella), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1879, p. 196, pi. xix, f. 25 286 

Gradata (Cythara), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 1875, 

ii, p. 93, pi. vii, f. 15, . 262 

Grseffei (Pleurotoma), Weink. Jahr., ii, t. 9, f. 9, 10, p. 290, 
1875, .173 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 347 

PAGB. 

Grandis (Plcurotoma), Gray. Griff. Guv. An. Kingd., pi. 

xxiii, f. 1, . . .163 

Grandis (Pusionella), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 73, 1853. 

= P. vulpina, Born, .... ... 235 

Granicostata (Clathurella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. xxxv, 

f. 323, 1846, . . 287 

Granosa (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 162, 1871, 295 
Granulata (Nessea), Risso. Hist., t. iv, p. 223, f. 67, 68. 

= Lachesis minima, Montg. ...... 225 

Granulatissima (Lachesis), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vii, p. 103, 226 
Granulatus (Fusus), Calcara. Ric. Malac., 1839, f. 10. 

= Lachesis Folineee, Phil. . .... 225 

Granuliferum (Pleurotoma), Brugn., 1862. 

= P. brachystoma, Phil. 308 

Granulosa (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 139, . 196 
Granulosissima (Clathurella), T.- Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Tasm., p. 37,1878, ....'.. .282,285 
Granum (Pleurotoma), Philippi. Moll. Sicil., ii, 170. 

= P. clathrata, Marcel, .276 

Gratula (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 64, 1881, 213 
Gravis (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 16, pi. 

v, f. 6, -'."'. . . .229 

Grayi (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 114, 296 
Greenlandica (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. xxxvii, 

f. 343. = B. bicarinata, Conch 215 

Griffithii (Pleurotoma), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 57, 

1843. = D. crenularis, Lam 178 

Gruneri (Pleurotoma), Philippi. Zeit. f. MaL, 1848, p. 12. 

= P. Virgo, Lam. 
Guarani (Mangilia), d'Orb. Moll. Amer. Mer., p. 445, pi. 

Ixxvii, f. 13, 14, 247 

Guerinii (Pleurotoma), Duval. Revue Zool., 1845, p. 212, . 166 
Guestieri (Pleurotoma), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., 1872, 

p. 362 ; 1873, p. 58, pi. iv, f. 3. = M. reticulata, Reeve, 262 
Guildingii (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 116, . .279 

Gypsata (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 413, 1881, 212 

Hsedropleura, Monterosato,Bucq., Dautz. and Dollf. Moll. 

Roussillon, 85, 1883. = Bela, Sect. . . . 156, 223 

Halia, Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. merid., iv, 52, 1826, . 161, 318 
Hamata (Mangilia), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. H., xv, p. 

399, 1865, .251 

Hanleyi (Cithara), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 164, . . 271 
Hanleyi (Drillia), Carp. Mazat. Shells, p. 398. 

= D. rustica, Sowb. 



348 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Harfordiana (Plenrotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 183. = D. nigerrima, Sowb., var., . . . .196 
Harpa (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 144, 299 
Harpula (Pleurotoma), Yalenc., MSS. Kiener, Iconog., 58, 

t. 18, f. 3. = D. harpularia, Desmoulins. 
Harpularia (Bela), Couth. Bos. Jour. N. H., 11, p. 106, pi. 1, 

f. 10, 1838, 219 

Harpularia (Bela), G. O. Sars. Moll. Re. Arct. Norv., p. 

234, pi. 16, f. 17, pi. ix, f. 3a-c, 1878. 

= B. turricula, Montg. . . . . . . .219 

Harpularia (Drillia), Desmoulins. Revis. Pleur., p. 56, . 193 
Harrisoni (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. Victoria, 

xiv, p. 56, 306 

Harveyi (Bela), Verkr. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., v, p. 225, 1878, 222 
Hastula (Pleurotoma \ Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 187. 

= P. marmorata, Lam. ....... 165 

Havanensis (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo., ix, 67, 

1881, ... 213 

Hayesiana (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 

17, pi. i,fig. 17, 281 

Hebes (Bela), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Hi, p. 367. 

= B. decussata, Couth., var. .... . .217 

Helicoides (Bulla), Brocchi. Conch, foss. snbap., t. 1, f. 

9 a and 6, p. 283, 1814. 

= fossil var. of Halia Priam us, Meuschen. 
Hemimeres (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

398, 1881, . 242 

Hemphilli (Drillia), Stearns. Proc. Cal. Ac., v, p. 80, pi. 1, 

f. 3, 185, 319 

Heptagona (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 161, . 299 
Heptagona (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Notizie, 42, t. 1, f. 9. 

= PI. septangularis, Mont. 
Hexagona (Mangilia), Gabb. Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S., 1865, iii, 

p. 185, 249 

Hexagona (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 139, 187 
Hexagonalis (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 118, . . . . .251 

Hexagonum (Pleurotoma), Pfr. Arch. f. Nat., 1840, i, p. 

258, . . . 299 

Hindsii (Clathurella), Ref ve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 186, 289 
Hirsutum (Pleurotoma, Folin. Meleagrinicoles, 59, pi. v, 

f. 18, . . 270 

Histrix (Defrancia), Jan. Bellardi, Mon. Pleur. Fos. Piem., 

<;13, t. 4, f. 14. = C. Cordieri, Payr. . . 275 

Holbolii (Bela), Beck. = Columbella rosacea, Gould. 

Manual, v, . 223 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 349 

PAGE. 
Homotoma, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 2, 264, 

1877. = Daphnella, Sect. . 160 

Hondurasensis (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4, 194 
Hormophora (Pleurotoraa), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

p. 457, 1881, 299 

Hornbeckii (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63, 248 
Hottentota (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 208, 191 
Humilis (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 193, pi. 

19, f. 20, . 203 

Hyalina (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 116, 301 
Hypsela (Mangilia), Watson, Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 433, 

1881, 249 

Igniflua (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 1 13, 302 
Immaculata (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1875, 

p. 142, . ... ... 306 

Impages (Drillia), Adams and Reeve. Zool.Voy. Samarang, 

p. 39, t. 9,f 1 a, 6, . . . 184 

Imperfectum (Pleurotoma), Folin, Meleagrinicoles, p. 60, 

pi. v, f. 17, . v 250 

Imperialis (Clavatula), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, p. 91, . 229 
Implicata (Clavatula), Reeve. P. Z. S., 1845, p. 110, . . 230 
Impressa (Bela), Verrill. Proc.U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 365, 

1880. = B. incisula, Verrill. 
Impressa (Bela), Beck. Morch, Moll. Spitzb., No. 31 ; Ann. 

Soc. Mai. Belg., iv, 21, 1869, 220 

Impressa (Drillia), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sul., p. 21, pi. 6, f. 

23, 24 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 44, .... 189 
Incerta (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, p. 

496, . 211 

Incilis (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 425, . . 212 
Incincta (Pieurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc.,xv, 438, 

1881, 307 

Incisa (Drillia). Opt. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, 

p. 62, . 182 

Incisa (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. 

= D. Maravignse, Bivona. Reeve, Corrections. 
Incisula (Bela), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Ac., v, p. 461, pi. 

xliii. f. 12; pi. Ivii, f. 14. = B. decussata, Couth., var. 217 
Inconstans (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, 

xv, p. 417, . . . - 212 

Incrassata (Pleurotoma), Dujardin. Mem. Geol., ii, p. 292, 

t. 20, f. 28. = D. Maravignse, Bivona. 
Incrassata (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 

138. = D. Bottse, Val 192 



350 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Incrusta (Drillia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1876, 

p. 136. = C. Letourneuxiana, Crosse, .... 286 
Indica (Pleurotoma), Deshayes. Voy. Indes-Orient, p. 421, 

pi. ii,f. 9-10, . ... ... 168 

Indistincta (Mangilia), Monterosato. Nuov. Revista, p. 43; 

Enum. Conch., 107. ? = M. Bertrandi, Payr. . . .244 
Inepta (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H.', 1882, 217, .248 
Inermis (Drillia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 37, . 182 
Inflata (Clathurella), Crist, et Jan. Monts. Nuova Revista, 274 
Inflata (Pleurotoma), PMlippi. Moll. Sicil., i, 197, t. 11, f. 

24. = P. Leufroyi, Michaud. 
Inflexa (Clathurella), Martens. Mittheil., ii r p. 108, pi. 21, 

figs. 10-12, . .280 

Infrasulcata (Clathurella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 

1873, p. 220, pi. 2, f. 35. = C. cavernosa, Reeve, . . 290 
Inquinata (Pleurotoma^, Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 

117, ... 304 

Insculpta (Mangilia), Ad. and Ang. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, 

p. 420, pi. 37, f. 8, . . . 256 

Insculpta (Pleurotoma), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 

i, p. 189, . . 319 

Insignis (Pleurotoma), Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5 

ser., xii, 120, 1883. = PL circinata, Dall, . . .316 
Intaminata (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1861, 

p. 339, . .271 

Intercalaris (Defrancia), Cpt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1*56, p. 163, 299 
Interfossa (Daphnella), Cpt. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, p. 

29, xv, 310 

Interlirata (Mangilia), Stearns. Proc. Cal. Ac., iv, p. 226, 

pi. l,f. 10, . . . . 249 

Intermaculata (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 

193, pi. 19, f. 19, .... ... 202 

Intermedia (M. linearis, var.), Forbes and Hanley, iii, 471. 

= M. linearis, Mont., var. 
Interpunctata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1882, p. 207, . 191 

Interrupta (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, 265 
Interrupta (Daphnella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., I860, p. 

147, .... . . .307 

Interrupta (Drillia), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., vii^ p. 92, . 181 
Interrupta (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= P. astricta, Reeve, ....... 241 

Interstriata (Cythara), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 

p. 538, pi. xxx, f. 11, 1876, 272 

Interstrigata (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 208, 191 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 351 

PAGE. 

Intertincta (Drillia), Edg. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 497 201 

Ipara (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Com. Zool., ix, p. 57, 312 
Isabella (Pleurotoma), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 73, . .318 
Ischna (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 403, 

1881, 242 

Ishnula, Clark. = Bela, Leach. 

Isseli (Cythara), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng, 1875, ii, 
p. 94, pi. vii, p. 17, . . . 272 

Jacksonensis (Daphnella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, 

p. 37. pi. v, tig. 10, 311 

Japonica (Lachesis), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1860, v, p. 

411 ; Zool. Proc., 1879, 198, t. 20, f. 29, . . . . 226 
Japonica (Drillia), Lischke. Mai. Blat., xvi, p. 105 ; Jap. 

Meer. Conch., p. 32, 1869, 202 

Japonicus (Fusus), Gray. = Columbarium Pagoda. 
Javana (Pleupotoma), Kien. and Reeve (not Linn.). 

= P. tornata, Dill .237 

Javana (Surcula), Linn. Ed. xiii, p. 3541, . . . 237 

Jayana (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Contr., p. 61. 

== D. zebra, Lam. 
Jeffreysii (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, xv, p. 

417, 177 

Jelskii (Pleurotoma), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, p. 33, 

pi. i, f. 6, 7. = P. Yirgo, Lam. . ... 168 

Jenisseensis (Pleurotoma', Leche. Kongl. So. Yet. Akad. 

Hand. Bd. 16, No. 2, p. 56. = var. B. pyramidalis, Strom., 216 
Jessoensis (Bela), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, xv, 

p. 419, 223 

Jewetti (Clathurella), Stearns. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 

p. 346, 277 

Jickelii (Pleurotoma), Weinkauff. Conch. Cab., t. 4, f. 2, 3, 

1876, 164 

Jubata (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 37, 171 

Kaderlyi (Surcula), Lischke. Mai. Blat., xix, p. 100, . . 239 
Kennicotti (Drillia), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 102, pi. 

16, f. 2, 1871, ... 209 

Kieneri (Pleurotoma), Doumet. Mag. de Zool. Moll., 1834, 

pi. x. = P. carinata, Gray. 
Kieneri (Pleurotoma), Maravigna. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 

1840. = B. rufa, Mont. . 224 

Kingensis (Daphnella), Petterd. Jour, of Conch., ii,p. 102, 306 
Kobelti (Bela), Yerk. Nach. Mai. Gesell., 1876, p. 17, No. 8. 

= B. decussata, Couth., var 217 



352 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Kraussii (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 
1877, p. 500, . 234 

Labecula (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vol. 8, 

p. 281, 271 

Labiosa (Clathurella), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, p. 731, 

pi. Ixxv, f. 9, 292 

Lachesis, Risso. Hist. Nat. Ear. Merid.,iv,211, 1826, . 156, 224 
Lactea (Defrancia), Moller. Reeve, Icon., sp. 324. 

= Bela Molleri, Reeve. 
Lactea (Pleurotoma \ Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 186. 

= P. tricarinata, Reeve, 289 

Lacunosa ^Clathurella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 

33$, 299 

Laeta (Drillia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 41, . . 186 
Laevigata (Bela), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 98, t. 16, 

f. 7, 1871. = B. Schantarica, Midd. 
Lsevigata (Pleurotoma), Phil. Enum. Mol. Sic., i, p. 199, pi. 

xi, f. 17, ii, 169. = D. nebula, Montg. . . . .307 
Lsevior (Bela), Leche. Kongl. So. Vet. Akad. Hand. Bd. 16, 

No. 2, p. 55. = var. B. pyramidalis. Strom. . . .216 
Lsevis (Drillia), Button. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., p. 12, . 212 
Lsevisculpta (Taranis), Monts. Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., vi, 75, 

1880, . 316 

Lsevisulcata (Crassispira), H. F. von Maltzan. Jahr. Malac. 

Geseli., 1883, 122, t. 3, f. 6. == D. coccinata, Reeve. 
Lallemantiana (Clathurella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, 

p. 423. = C. Letourneuxiana, Crosse, var., t. 11, f. 5, . 286 
Lamberti (Drillia), Montr. Jour, de Conch., 2 ser., iv, 117, 

t. 2, f. 10, 1860, 198 

Lamellata (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 60, 265 
Lanceolata (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 66, 271 
Lanceolata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. Ill, 181 
Lan^uida (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 

lf5, 296 

Laqueata (Mangilia), Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 280, 1846, . 246 
Laterculata (Pleurotoma), G. B. Sowerby. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1870, p. 253, . ... . 166 

Latifasciata (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, 

p. 253 = D. Japonica, Lischke. 
Latisinuata (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 494, 177 

Latizonata (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882,212, 199 
Lauta (Drillia), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 220, pi. 15, 

f. 18, 206 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 353 

PAGB. 

Lavalleana (Pleurotoma), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 174, t. 24, 

f. 7-9. = C. Antillarum, d'Orb. . .279 

La Vise (Fusus , Calcara. Cenno sui Moll, della Sic., 37, t. 

4, f. 20. = Pleurotoma aneeps, Eich. . . . 313 

La Vise (Pleurotoma), Phil. Enum. Mol. Sic., ii, p. 170, pi. 

xxvi, f. 9. = PI. purpureum, Mont., . . 295 

Lefebvrei (Buccinum), Maravig. Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 325. 

= Lachesis minima, Montagu, . . . 225 

Lelieuri (Clavatula), Recluz. Jour. Conch., ii, p. 210 t. 5, 

f. 7, 1851, - 228 

Lemniscata (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. R. A. S., 

Ceylon Branch, 1869. J. A. S. Beng., 1875, ii, p. 92, pi. 

vii', f. 11, 297 

Lepta (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc.,xv, p. 391, 

1881, 242 

Letourneuxiana (Daphnella), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. 

Z. = C. Sinclair!, E. A. Smith, . . 283 

Letourneuxiana (Mangilia), Crosse. Jour, de Couch., 1865, 

p. 425, pi. 11, f. 7, 286 

Leuckarti (Mangilia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 228. 

= M. costulata, Bunker, 255 

Leucocyma (Drillia), Ball. Proc. Nat. Mus., vi, 328, t. 10, 

f. 8, 1883. = D. zebra, Lam., var. 
Leucolabratum (Pleurotoma), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, p. 

55, pi. v, f. 13, . . . . . . 250 

Leucomata (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus, Comp. Zool., ix, 63, 

1881, .213 

Leucophlegma (Daphnella), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

ix, 70, . 306 

Leucostoma (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. xxxi, f. 

278. = B. decussata, Couth. ... .217 

Leucotropis (Pleurotoma), Adams and Reeve. Toy. Sama- 

rang, t. 10, f. 7. =^= P. oxytropis, Sowb. . . 169 

Leufroyi (Pleurotoma), Michaud. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord., 

pi. 2, f. 5 and 6, . . 276 

Levidensis (Mangilia), Cpt. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1865, p. 63 . .251 

Levukensis (Mangilia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 

432, 1881, . . . .261 

Lienardia, Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, viii, xl, 

1884. = Glyphostoma, Uabb, .271 

Ligata (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. H. and A. Adams, Genera, 

i, 100, 249 

Limacina (Daphnella), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 

p. 55, 102, 306 



354 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Limonitella (Drillia), Dall. Proc. Nat. Mus., vi, 329. t. 10, 

f. 10, 1883, ... . 320 

Lincta (Plenrotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 442, 

1881, 312 

Linearis (Clathurella), Montagu. Test. Brit., p. 261, pi. 9, 

f. 4, 276 

Lineata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63, . 253 
Lineata (Pleurotoma), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, p. 93, . 231 
Lineolata (Lachesis), Tiberi. Jour, de Conch., 1868, p. 76, 

pi. v, f. 5, 225 

Lineolata (Clathurella), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 337, 295 
Lirata (Mitromorpha), A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 3d ser., 

xv, 322, 1865, . . 317 

Lirata (Pleurotoma), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 68, 

1868, . . 169 

Lirata (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 117, 296 
Lirata (Pusionella), A. Adams, Zool. Proc., 73, 1853. 

?= P. Milleti, Petit, .235 

Lissotropis (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

ix, 58, . . 312 

Lithocolleta (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

441, 1881, 312 

Livida (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 62, . 253 
Livida (Pleurotoma), Moller. Moll. Groenl.,p. 14. 

= B. bicarinata, Couth. . . . . . 215 

Lividus (Strom bus), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, x, 746. 

? = Pleurotoma auriculifera, Lam. 
Loeviana (Mangilia), Forbes. Reeve, Icon., f. 290, 1845. 

= D. costulata, Blainv 309 

Longispira (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 190, 

pi. 19, f. 14, . .202 

Lophoessa (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 252, 

1882, 212 

Loprestiana (Drillia), Calcara. Nuov. Sp. Conch. Sicil., 7, 

1841 ; Monterosato, II. de Conch., xxii, 278, . . .209 
Lota (Cythara), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 339, 271 
Lucida (Mangilia), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1875, pt. ii, p. 84, pi. viii, f. 15, ... . 257 

Luctuosa (Mangilia), d'Orb. Sagra. Hist. N. Cuba, ii, p. 172, 

1846, pi. xxiii,f. 29-31, 246 

Luctuosa (Drillia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 40, . 195 
Luhdorfi (Genotia), Lischke. Mai. Blatt., xix, p. 100, . 175 
Lupinus (Fusus), Philippi. Abbild., Hi, 118, 1850. 

= Pusionella Milleti, Petit, 235 

Lurida (Pleurotoma), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang 

Moll., p. 40, pi. x, f. 5. == P. Javaria, Linn. . . .237 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 355 

PAGE. 

Lutea (Borsonia), Pease. Zool. Proc., 143, 1860, . . 227 
Lntea (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 340, 261 
Lnteofasciata (Defrancia), Button. Jour, de Conch., It, 

1878. = M. Sinclair}, E. A. Smith. 
Luteo-fasciata (Pleurotoina), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 114. = Mangilia albovittata, C. B. Ad. . . .248 
Lutescens (Mangilia), Reeve. Corrections, Conch. Icon. .253 
Lyciaca (Bela , Forbes, Reeve, Conch. Icon.,sp. 160, 1844, 221 
Lymneiformis (Daphnella), Kiener. Pleurotoma, 62, t. 22, 

f. 3, . . . , , . . . . .300 

Lyra (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc, Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 59. 

= M. citharella, Lam 257 

Lyratum (Pleurotoma), Pfr. (Gm.) Kritisches Register, 

p. vii 319 

Lyrica (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, . 268 
Lysidia (Columbella), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 26, 

f. 15, 16, .... .... 198 

Macandrewi (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

802, 307 

MacCoyi (Cythara), Petterd. Jour, of Conch., ii, p. 103, . 271 
Macgillivrayi (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Contrib., p. 54. 

= Bela Trevelyana, Turton. 
Macleayi (Clathurella), Brazier. Proc, Linn. Soc. N. S. 

Wales,i, 157, 299 

Macra (Mangilia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 437, 1881, 249 
Macrostoma (Clathurella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 39, f. 362, 279 
Maculata (Achatina), Swains. Exotic Conch., p. 27. 

E[alia Priamus, Meuschen, 318 

Maculata (Defrancia), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 62, 299 
Maculata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, 259 
Maculosa (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 

1862, p. 242 ; Am. Jour. Conch., Hi, p. 219, pi. 15, f. 16. 

= C, felina, Hinds, 293 

Maculosa (Daphnella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 148, 307 
Maculosa (Surcula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 135, 236 
Magellanica (Daphnella), Phil. Mai. Blatt, xv, p. 223, . 306 
Magellanica (Drillia Patagonica, var.), Martens. Sitzb. 

Bed., 77, 1881, 208 

Major (Drillia), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 59, . .178 
Makimonos (Oligotoma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. 

France, 1883, 198, t. 10, f. 4, 319 

Malleti (Clathurella), Reel. J. Conch., 1852, p. 254, t. 10, f. 2, 297 
Mamillata (Lachesis), Risso. Hist., t. iv, p. 211, f. 65. 

= L, minima, Montg, ,...,.. 225 



356 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Mandarina (Pleurotoma), Smith. Marrat, Jour, of Conch., 

i, 240. = P. pluteata, Reeve, 240 

Mangilia, Risso, em. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., iv, 219, 1826, 158 
Mangiliella, Bucq., Dautz. and Dollf. Moll. Roussillon, 85, 

1883. = Mangilia, Risso. 

Mangiliinse, 153 

Manrum (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 497. - D. Buchanani, Hutton. 

Maravignae (Pleurotoma), Bivona. Gen. Posth., p. 13, . 199 
Margaritifera (Mangilia), Gray. Reeve, Icon., sp. 354, 1846, 258 
Marginelloides (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 60, . . . 261 

Mariei (Drillia), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xvii, p. 178, 1869; 

Jour. Conch., p. 67, pi. ii, f. 5, 1872, . . . .190 

Marmarina (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 429, 

1881, . 191 

Marmorata (Daphnella), Hinds. Moil. Voy. Sulph., p. 25, 

pi. 7, f. 19 302 

Marmorata (Pleurotoma), Brug. Enc. Meth., t. 439, f. 6. 

= P. tigrina, Lam. 

Marmorata (Pleurotoma), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., vii, p. 95, 165 
Marmorosa (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846. p. 64, 272 
Martensi (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. -S. Beng., 

1875, ii, p. 91, pi. vii, f. 8, 291 

Masoni (Clathurella), Nevill. Jour. As. Soc., 1875, t. 7, f. 7, 293 
Mastersi (Drillia), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 

i, p. 153, 1877, . ... 212 

Massena (Murex), Chiaje (non Risso). Mem., t. xlix, f. 

17-19. = Lachesis candidissima, Phil 225 

Maura (Pleurotoma), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 59, pi. 23, f. 1 

(not Sowb.). = D. aterrima, Sowb. 

Maura (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 134, . 181 
Mediocris (Drillia), Desh. Moll. Reunion, p. 108, pi. xii, f. 

11, 1863, ... 187 

Mediofasciata (Mangilia nebula, var.), von Maltzan. Jahr. 

Mai. Gesell., 1883, t. 3, f. 12, p. 132, = D. nebula, Mtg. 308 
Melanacme (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 213, 199 
Melanostoma (Cithara), Garrett. = M. angicostata, Reeve, 252 
Melatorna, Swainson. Malac., 202, 342, 1840. 

= Clionella, Gray. 
Melchersi (Pleurotoma), Menke. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851, p. 20. 

= D. aterrima, Sowb. 

Menkei (Pleurotoma), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 75, . . 318 
Meredithiae (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tas.^ 1875, p. 

142, 261 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 357 



Meridionalis (Lachesis), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 

28, pi. iv, f. 3, 226 

Merita (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 42 ; 

Voy. Sulphur, 21, t. 6, f. 20, . . .280 

Mesochilostoma, Seely. = Clavatula. 
Metcalfei (Drillia), Angas, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 113, 

pi. 13, f. 16. = D. Sinensis, Hinds. 
Metcalfei (Mangilia), Thorpe. Brit. Mar. Conch., p. xlvi. 

= M. costata, Forbes and Hanley. 
Metcalfei (Pleurotoma), Hanley. Petit, Shells Eur., 152. 

= M. nebula, Montg. 
Metcalfiana (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 114, . . . 288 

Metula (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 44 ; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 23, pi. 7, f. 12, 269 

Mica (Mangilia), Phil. Zeit. f. Mai., 1849, p. 31, . . 261 
Micans (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 43 ; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 22, pi. 7, f. 5, . . . . 290 

Micans (Pleurotoma), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vol. ii, 

p. 23, . . . , 319 

Microstoma (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 210, 199 
Militaris (Drillia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 38, . 181 
Milium (Mangilia), Phil. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851. p. 79, . . 271 
Millegrana (Daphnella), Garrett. Proc. AN. S., Phila., 

1873, p. 230, pi. 3, f. 59, 303 

Millestriata (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Ma^. N. H., 1882,217, 248 
Milleti (Pusionella), Petit. Jour, de Conchyl., ii, 77, t. 1, 

f. 6, 1851, 235 

Mindanensis (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 493, . .211 

Minima (Bela), Brown. Brit. Conch., 6, t. 5, f. 35, 36. 

? = B. rufa, Montg 224 

Minima (Lachesis), Montagu. Test. Brit., tab. viii,f. 2, 1803, 224 
Minor (Defrancia), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 

ii, p. 4, 299 

Minnta (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Reeve, Icon, sp., 158, 1844, 309 
Minuta (Drillia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1876, p. 

136, . 210 

Minutissima (Drillia), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 

p. 218, pi. ii, f. 30, 207 

Minutistriata (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882,213, 261 
Minutum (Pleurotoma), Aradas, 1847. 

= P. anceps, Eich. 

Mitneformis (Genotia), Wood. Index. Test. Sup., pi. v, f. 5, 174 
Mitraeformis (Zafra), A. Adams. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1860, 

vi, p. 332, 313 



358 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Mitralis (Bela), Ad. and Ang. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, p. 420, 223 
Mitrella (Genotia), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 56, 

1881, 175 

Mitromorpha, A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, xv, p. 322. 

= S. G. of Daphnella, 161,317 

Mitrula (Bela), Verrill. Proc. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 366. 

= B. concinnula, var. acuta, Verrill, .... 221 
Mitrula (Pleurotoma), Loven. Sars, Moll. Norv., 233, t. 23, 

f. 9. ? = B. turricula, Monts:. 219 

Mitrus (Murex), Wood. Ind. Test. Sup., pi. v, f. 5. 

= Pleurotoma raurieata, Lam. 
Modesta (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 38, 

pi. v, f. 15, 285 

Modesta (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 136, 1833. 

= P. cincta, Lam. . 242 

Modesta (Pleurotoma). Weinkauff. Kuster, Conch. Cab., 44, 

t. 9, f. 9. = P. astricta, Reeve, 241 

Modica (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 213, . 261 
Modiolus (Pleurotoma), Jan. Cat., p. 10, n. 17, 1832. 

= Spirotropis carinata, Phil .213 

Mcesta (Drillia), Cpr. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 3d ser., xv, 

1865, p. 366, . ... 183 

Molleri (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. xxxv, f. 324, 

1846. ? = B. concinnula, Verrill, 221 

Monastiche (Pleurotoma), Menke, MS. in coll, et litt. 

= P. pulchra, Gray. 
Monile (Clavatula), Valen. Kien., Coq. viv., p. 52, t. 15, 

f . 3 , . 232, 242 

Monilifera (Columbella), Sowb/ Zool. Proc., 1844; Man. 

Conch., v, 149. = Clathurella, . . . . .278 
Monilifera (Turris), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860. p. 398 ; 

Am. Jour. Conch., v, 68, 1870. = P. gemmata, Hinds. 
Moniliger (Pleurotoma), Cantraine. Petit, Cat. Shells Eur., 

154. = D. Loprestiana, Calcara. 
Moniliopsis, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 143, 1865. 

= Drillia. 
Monoceros (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

449, .315 

Montereyensis (Drillia), Stearns. Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S., v, 

p. 80, pi. i,f. 2, .184 

Montrouzieri (Mangilia), Souv. Jour. Conch., 2d ser., iv, 

370 ; 3d ser., i, 275, pi. xi, f. 7, . . 273 

Moquiniana (Drillia), Montr. Jour. Conch., 1874, p. 193, pi. 

vii, f. 5, . . . . . . . . . 207 

Morchi (Pieurotoma), Leche, Kongl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Hand., 

16, ii, p. 57, t. 1, f. 18. = Bela Schantarica, Midd. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 359 

PAGE. 

Morchi (Pleurotoma), Malm. Goteborgs. Yet. o Yitt. Samh. 

HdL, 1863, viii, t. 2, fig. 15, 315 

Moretonica (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

299, 299 

Morra (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 69, 

1881, 213 

Mucronata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4, . 198 
Multicostata (Bela), Yerkr. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., v, p. 227, 

1878 222 

Multilineare (Pleurotoma), Brown. = M. linearis, Mont. 
Multilineata (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., ii, p. 3. = M. polyzonata, H. and A. Ad. . . 248 
Multilineolata (Raphitoma), Brusina. Contr., p. 65. 

= Mangilia ru<rulosa, Phil. 

Multilineolata (Mangilia), Desh. Exp. Moree, pi. 19, f. 46, 244 
Multilirata (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 496, ... .211 

Multiplicata (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Reeve, Conch. Ic., pi. 

40, f. 364. = Lachesis minima, Montg. .... 225 
Multiseriata (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 471, ... . ... 174 

Muricnta (Clavatula), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 91, . . 229 
Muricoides (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch., 65, . 248 
Muricoides (Pleurotoma), Blv. Faune Franc. , iii, t. 4, f. 7. 

= P. linearis, Mont. 
Mutica (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 43; 

Moll. Yoy. Sulph , pi. 7, f. 10, .... .286 

Mystica (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

183. = Clavatula muricata, Lam 229 

Nagasakiensis (Clathurella), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

p. 190, t. 19, f. 13, 286 

Nana (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 65. 

= M. cincta, Reeve, ........ 259 

Nana (Pleurotoma), Monterosato. Nuova Revista, 43. 

= Mangilia Yauquelini, Payr., var. ..... 243 

Nana (Thesbia), Loven. Ind. Moll. Scand., 12, . . . 315 
Nanum (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat., pi. 26, f. 11. 

D. turgida, Forbes, 308 

Nassoides (Pleurotoma), Gray. Reeve, Pleurotoma, sp. 

259, ' 296 

Nebula (Pleurotoma), Montagu, Test. Brit., 267, pi. 16. f. 

6, 1883, ' . 307 

Nebulosa (Borsonia), Pease. Zool. Proc., 143, 1860, . . 228 
Neglecta (Defrancia), C. B. Ad. Panam. Sh., 149, 1852. 

= C. despecta, H. and A. Ad 299 

24 



360 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Neglecta (Mangilia), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sul., p. 20, pi. 6, 

f. 14, 267 

Nellise (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 489, 174 

Ne^sea, Risso. Nat. Hist. Eur. Merid., iv, 223, f. 69, 1826 ; 

Tiberi, Jour, de Conch., 74, 1868. = Lachesis, Risso. 
Netrum, Philippi. Abbild., iii, 118, 1850. 

= Pusionella, Gray. 

Nexa (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 117, 287 
Nifat (Pusionella), Brug. Diet., No. 56, . . . 235 

Nigerrima (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 137, 1833, . 196 
Nigra (Bela), Mich. Gal. Douai., 1, 446, t. 35, f. 5/6. 

= B. rufa, Mont. . . ... 224 

Nigrescens (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. 

N. H., Jan., 1845, p. 3. = D. fuscescens, Gray. 
Nigrescens (Pleurotoma), Gray. Reeve, Icon., sp. 235, 

Nov., 1845. = P. nigrescens (C. B. Ad.). Contr., 54. 
Nigrocincta (Borsonia), Montrouzier. J. de Conch., 1872, 

p. 362, and 1873, pi. iv, fig. 2, p. 56, . . . 228 

Nigrozonata (Pleurotoma), Weinkauff. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

66, t. 13, f. 2. = D. unizonalis, Lamarck. 
Niponica (Pleurotoma), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 

187, t. 19, f. 7, 172 

Nitens (Mangiiia), Cpt. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, xv, p. 394. 

= D. variegata, var., Cpt. ...... 300 

Nitens (Mangilia), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 20, pi. 6, 

f. 17. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 41, .... 253 

Nitida (Drillia), Kiener. Iconog., pi. 27, f. 4, . . . 199 
Niticla (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= P. variculosa, Sowb. 

Nivalis (Bela), Loven. Index Moll. Scand., 14, . . 223 

Nivea (Pleurotoma), Phil. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851, p. 92, . . 319 
Nivea (Turris), Martini. Conch. Vol., iv, 143. 

= Pleurotoma Virgo, Wood. 
Nobilis (Bela), Moll. Moll. Groan., p. 12. 

= B. turricula, var., Mont 219 

Nobilis (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulph., pi. 5, f. 1 

and 2. = P. oxytropis, Sowb. 

Nodata (Drillia), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 64, . 200 
Nodifera (Drillia), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 145, . 212 
Nodifera (Pleurotoma), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, p. 96. 

= P. Javana, Linn. ........ 237 

Nodilirata (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 494, . 211 

Nodosum (Pleurotoma), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, p. 58, pi. 

v, f. 15, 299 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 361 

PAGE. 

Nodulosa (Drillia), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1862, p. 279, 212 
Nodulosa (Raphitoma), Jeffreys. Kept. Brit. Assoc., 113, 

1873, .... 312 

Normalis (Bela Blakeana, var.), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., ix, 54, 1881, 222 

Novge-Hollandiae (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 62, 266 

Novse-Zelandiee (Drillia), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 143, 1843, 184 
Novaja-semljensis (Bela), Leche. Kgl. Sv. Vet. Akad., 

Handlinoar xvi, 2, 53, t. 1, f. 15, 215 

Nucleata (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 62, 

1881, . 212 

Nuperrima (Mangilia), Tiberi. Des. Nuov. Test. Medit., p. 

14, pi. 2, f. 9, 307 

Nux (Clionella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 112, . 233 

Obeliscus (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64. 

= M. hexagonalis, Reeve, ...... 251 

Obeliscus (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 110, 205 
Obesa (Clathurella), Garrett. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1873, p. 221, pi. 2, f. 36, . . 273 

Obesa (Mangilia), Reeve. Conch: Icon., errata, . . 262 

Obesa (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 33, 1843, . 231 
Obesicostata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. xxxix, 

f. 265. == Mangilia Guarani, Orb. . . . .247 

Obliqua (Bela), Sars. Moll. Norv., 226, t. 16, f. 6, 1878, . 219 
Obliqua (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, . . 318 
Obliquata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 115. 

Smith, Zool. Proc., 1879, p. 191, 203 

Obliquicostata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 

110, ... . .... 204 

Oblongus (Murex), Brocchi. Conch, foss. subap., 430, t. 9, 

f. 19. = P. gracilis, Mont 312 

Obnubila (Pleurotoma), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 

1848, p. 24, . 319 

Obtusa (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 6, 294 
Obtusicostata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

304, ... 274 

Obvelata (Drillia), Carpenter. = D. nigerrima, Sowb.,var. 
Occata (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 41, 280 
Occidentalis (Clathurella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 39, f. 357, 279 
Ocellata (Lienardia), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

viii,xl, 1884, 274 

Octangulata (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 234, . 283 
Oleacina (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 66, 

1881, .213 



362 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Oligotoma, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pi. 2, p. 235, 

1877. = Genotia, Section, . . ... . 154 

Olivacea (Surcula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 136, 237 
Olyra (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 112, 306 
Onager (Mangilia), Souverbie. Jour. Conch., 1875, p. 286, 

pi. xiii, f. 4, 272 

Opalina (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 215, . 26L 
Opalus (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 116, . 253 
Ornata (Citharopsis), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 97, 18B*. 

= Columbella Garretti, Try on. Vol. v, 166. 
Ordinaria (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 216, 250 
Ornata (Pleurotoma), d'Orb. Ramon de la Sagra's Cuba, 

ii, p. 171, t. 23, f. 26-28. = D. zebra, Lam. 
Ornata (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Moll. Vo}^. Sulph., p. 25. pi. 

7, f.21, . .302 

Oryza (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 46; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 26, pi. ix, f. 4, . . . 259 

Ostrearum (Drillia), Stearns. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xv, 

p. 22, 1872, 197 

Otocheilus, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i. 24, 1865. 

= Cythara. 
Ovalis (Bela), Friele. Prel. Rept. Moll Norw. Exp., p. 9, 

1876; Jahr. Mai. Ges., 4, 263, 223 

Owenii (Surcula), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 70, 1843, 242 
Oxyclathrus(Clathurella), Martens. Mitth. i,p. 41, pi. 9,f. 1, 283 
Oxytropis (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, . 168 

Pachia (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 460, 

1881, . 299 

Paciniana (Pleurotoma), Calcara. Ricer. Malacol. Palermo, 

1839, p. 7,f. 2, . . 243 

Packardii (Pleurotoma), Verrill. Am. Jour. Sc., v, p. 15, 

1872, 316 

Pseteliana (Pleurotoma), Weinkauff. Conch. Cab., 61, pi. 12, 

f. 7, 8, 169 

Pagoda (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 5. 

= D. turris, Reeve. 
Pagodoides (Fusus), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, 382. 

1882. = Columbarium, 320 

Pagoda (Columbarium), Lesson. 111. Zool., pi. 40, 1831, . 175 
Pagoda (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 1 14, . 210 
Palliata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. Ill, . 204 
Pallida (M. linearis, var.), Forbes and Hanley, iii, 472. 

= M. linearis, Mont., var. 

Pallida (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63, . 254 
Pallida (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 137, . 196 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 363 

PAOK. _ 

Pandionis (Pleurotomella), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

iii, p. 368, 1880, 316 

Papalis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. 

= G. Mitraeformis, Wood, 175 

Papillaris (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 42, 256 
Papillosa (Drillia), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 

p. 218, pi. 2, fig. 29, . ". 207 

Papuensis (Clathurella), Tap.-Can. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., iii, 

p. 247, - 299 

Papyracea (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 

450, 1881, 315 

Paradoxa (Belomitra), Fischer. Jour. Conch., 1882, p. 275, 224 
Pardalis (Drillia), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., 22, pi. 7, f. 

1 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 42, . . 195 

Paria (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 5. 

= D. fucata, Reeve. 
Partita (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 36, f. 330. 

= P. striata, Hinds. 

Parvula (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 115, 288 
Patagonica (Drillia), d'Orb. Moll. Am. Mer., 446, pi. 77, f. 

15, 16 ; Martens, Mittheil., i, 36, t. 8, f. 3, . . . 208 
Patruelis (Clavatula), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., xv, 

p. 419, 1875; Zool. Proc., 188, t. 19, f. 10, 1879, . . 230 
Patula (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 113. 

= D. Lymneiformis, Kiener, ...... 300 

Paucicostata (Cithara), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 

217, 1867, . ... . 271 

Paucicostata (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, 

p. 144, 299 

Paupera (Surcula), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 411, 1881, 239 
Paxillus (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1845. p. 117 . 194 
Payraudeauti (Pleurotoma), Weink. Conch. Mittelm., ii, 

137. = D. attenuata, Mont. . . . . . .309 

Peaseana (Pleurotoma), Dunk. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 158, . 165 
Peasei (Clathurella), Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 1875, 

pt. 2, 87. M. rubida, Hinds, 271 

Pelagia (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,ix, 61, 312 
Pellis-phocae (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 115, . . 225 

Pellucicla (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64, 266 
Pellyi (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 218, . 261 
Pelorius (Pleurotoma), Chiereghini. 

= P. gracilis, Montagu, 312 

Penicillata (Pleurotoma), Cpr. Jl. de Conch, xiii, p. 146, 

1865. = D. inermis, Hinds, 182 



364 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Pentagonalis (Mangilia), Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 

255, 1845, 246 

Peradmirabilis (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool Soc., 1879, p. 

189, t. 19, f. 12, 201 

Peregrina (Clathurella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 

1861,337, . 299 

Peripla (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 68, 1881, 213 
Perlata (Lachesis), Morch. Mai. Blatt.. vii, p. 104, . . 226 
Perlata (Pleurotoma), Lesson. Revue Zool., 1842, p. 143, . 319 
Perlatum (Pleurotoma), Requien. Coq. Corse, p. 75, 101. 

= Lachesis minima, Montg. \ 225 

Perparva (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

469, 1881, ... 299 

Perpauxilla (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

468, 1881, 299 

Perplexa ( Clathurella \ G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 

1875, pt. ii. p. 89, pi. vii, f. 5, 293 

Perron (Murex), Chemn. Conch., x, pi. 164, f. 1573, . . 232 
Perrona, Schumacher. Essai Nov. Syst., 218, 1817. 

= Clavatula, S. G. . . 157, 231 

Perronii (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 183. 

= Clavatula perron, Chemn 232 

Perversa (Surcula), Gabb. Proc. Cal. A. N. S., 1865, p. 183 ; 

Pal. Cal.,ii, 6, t. 1, f. 10, . . . 239 

Pessulata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63, 260 
Pessulata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 185, . . . .... 311 

Petitii (Pleurotoma), Maravigna. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 1840. 

= B. secalina, Phil 223 

Phaeacra (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 423, 1881, 212 
Phallus (Buccinum), Gmelin. Linn., ed. xiii, p. 3503. 

= P. sinuata, Born. 
Philberti (Pleurotoma), Michaud. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord., 

pi. 3, f. 2 and 3. = P. purpureum, Mont. . . .275 
Philipineri (Pleurotoma), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 

1876, p. 136, 167 

Philippiana (Daphnella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt, xviii, p. 164. 

= D. delicata, Reeve, 301 

Philippii (Raphitoma), Weink. M. M. Conch., ii, p. 145. 

= Pleurotoma Sicula, Reeve. 
Philippinensis (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 184, 287 

Philomena (Clathurella), T.-Woods. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1875, 

p. 141, 299 

Pica (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 181, . . 190 
Picta (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 160, . . 293 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 365 



Picta (Mangilia), Ad. and Ang. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 419, 

1863, pi. 37, f. 7, ........ 256 

Picta (Pleurotoma), Beck, MSS. Mus. King. Denmark; 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 16, 1843, ..... 163 
Picturata (Pleurotoma), Weinkauff. Conch. Cab., 73, pi. 2, 

f. 10, pi. 14, f. 1-3, 1876, ....... 164 

Pingelii (Bela), M. Her. Ind. Moll. Grcenl., p. 13, 1842, . 217 
Pinguis (Olathur^lla), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 

p. 221, pi. 2, f. 38. = C. Malleti, Recluz, . . .297 
Piperata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. B., 1882,298, 299 
Planilabroides (Mangilia-), Try on, ..... 263 
Planilabrum (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 

63. = M. planilabroides, Tryon, ..... 263 
Planilabrum (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 182, . . ........ 263 

Platamodes (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

447, 1881, .... ..... 315 

Platia (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, 253, 1882. 

= D. lophoessa, var. 
Platycheila (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

214, ....... . 261 

Platystoma (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 501, .... .... 234 

Plebeia (Pleurotoma) Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 395, . 242 
Pleurotoma, Lamarck. Prodrom., 1799, . . . 154, 162 
Pleurotomaria (Bela), Couth. Bost. Jour. N. H., ii, p. 107, 

pi. 1, f. 9, 1838. = B. pyramidalis, Strom. . . .215 

Pleurotomella, Yerrill. Am. Jour. Sc., 3d ser., v, p. 15, 1873. 

= Daphnella, Sect. . . 161, 316 

Pleurotomidae, ......... 151 

Pleurotominse, ........ 153, 162 

Plicata (Clathurella), C. B. Adams. Bost. Jour. Nat. H., iii, 

p. 318, pi. 3, fig. 6, ..... . 277 

Plicatum (Pleurotoma), Phil. En. Moll. Sic., i, p. 118, t. 9, 

f. 15. = Mangilia Sicula, Reeve, juv ..... 244 
Plicifera (Pleurotoma), Wood. Crag. Moll., i, p. 64, t. vii, 

f. 15 ; Leche. Kongl. Sv. Yet. Akad. Handlingar, Bd. 16, 

No. 2,58, .. . .... 222 

Plicosa (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Contrib., p. 54. 

= C. plicata. C. B. Adams, . . . . . .277 

Plnmbea (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 41, 300 
Pluricarinata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 117, .......... 304 

Pluteata (Surcula), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 183, 240 
Polita (Pleurotoma), Brusina. Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 

1865. = M. nebula, Montg. 



366 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Polita (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 43, 311 
Polita (Zafra), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 

1875, ii,p. 97, pi. viii, f. 5, ...... 314 

Polygonalis iDrillia), Weinkauff. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

119, t.21,f. 7,9, 187 

Polynesiensis (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Z >ol. Soc., 1845, 

p. 119, 291 

Polytorta (Drillia), Pall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 61, 1881, 212 
Polyzonata (Mangilia), H. and A. Ad. Genera, i, . . 248 
Polyzonatum (var. of Pleurotoma minutum), Brugnone. 

Pleur. toss., t. 1, f. 10. = P. auceps, Eich. . . .313 
Ponderosa (Mangilia), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. vi, f. 44, . 262 
Pouloensis(01igotoma),Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

1883, 199 319 

Pourtalesii (Pleurotoma), Pall. Bull. Mus. Com. Zool.,ix, 60, 312 
Prattii (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, p. 498, 212 
Priamus, Beck. Deshayes, Lam. edit., ii, viii, 299, 1838. 

= Halia, Risso. 
Priamus (Halia), Meuschen. Cat. Mus. Gronov., No. 1355, 

1778, 318 

Priapus (Helix), Gmel., p. 3654, No. 198, 1788. 

= Halia Priamus, Meuschen, ...... 318 

Prismatica (Pleurotoma), Brugnone. 

= P. costata, Forbes and Hanley. 

Producta (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 143, 298 
Pruina ( Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 453, 315 
Pseud o-carinata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 115, 254 

Pseudotoma, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 2, p. 209, 

1877. = Genotia, Section, 154 

Pudens (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 461, 

1881, . . 299 

Pudica (Drillia), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph.,p. 20, pi. 6,f. 11, 

12; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 41,' 189 

Pulchella (Clathurella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 

p. 219, pi. 3, f. 32. = C. purpurasceiis, Punker, . . 298 
Pulchella (Clathurella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 18GO, p. 

144, .299 

Pulchella (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, 265 
Pulchella (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. Ill, . 186 
Pulchella (Taranis), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 

368, 1880; Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 487, t. 57, f. 17, . . 315 
Pulcherrima ( Clathurella), H. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1872, 

p. 14, pi. iii, f. 26, 289 

Pulchra (Pleurotoma), Gray. Reeve, Icon., sp. 351, 1846. 

= D. zebra, Lain. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 367 

PAGE. 

Pulla(Bela), Reeve. Adams' Genera, i, 921, . . .228 
Pumila (Pleurotoma), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc., p. 23, 1845, 298 
Punctata (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 103, . 299 
Punctata(Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc.Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 111. 

= P. tuberculata, Gray, . .... 237 

Punctata (Pleurotoma), Schubert et Wagner. Suppl., p. 

155, pi. 234, f. 4103, a, b. = P. tigrina/Lam. 
Punctatostriata (Drillia), Carpenter. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, 

p. 164, 213 

Puncticincta (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 115 290 

Punctifera (Clathurella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 

1873, p. 222, pi. 2, f. 39, 293 

Punsrens (Clavatula), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1861, 

339, 299 

Pungens (Pleurotoma), Monterosato. 

= C. Cordieri, Payr., var. 275 

Pupoidea (Zafra), H. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1872, p. 14, 

pi. iii, f. 27, 314 

Pura (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1861,339, 306 
Pura (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64, . 254 
Purpurascens (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xvii, p. 160, 

1871, . . ... 298 

Purpurata (Pleurotoma), Souv. J. C., 2d ser., iv, 370, 1860 ; 

Sdser., i, 276, pi. 11, f. 8, 1861, 298 

Purpurea (Clathurella), Mont. Test. Brit., 260, t. 9, f. 13, 275 
Pusilla (Bela), var, of B. decussata, Couth. Verrill, Tr. Conn. 

Ac., v,481. 

Pusilla (Borsonia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 163, . .228 
Pusilla (Cythara),. Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 147, . 271 
Pusilla (Drillia), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, p. 219, 

pi. ii, f. 31. = D. exilis, Pease. 
Pusilla (Mangilia), Reeve. Zool. Proc., 63, 1846. 

= M. funebris, Reeve, 251 

Pusillum (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat., p. 13, pi. xxvi, f. 2. 

= Mangilia multilineolata, Desh. 
Pusio (Buccinum), Born. Mus. Caes.,p. 316. 

= Pusionella Nifat, Brug. 235 

Pusionella, Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 137, 1847, . . 158, 234 
Pustulata (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 

38, pl.v,f. 14, . . . 285 

Pustulosum (Pleurotoma), Folin. Meleagrinicoles, p. 56, pi. 

v, f. 1, 298 

Putillus (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 113, . 200 
Pygmaea (Bela), Verrill. Trans. Conn. Ac., v, p. 460, pi. 

Ivii, f. 8. B. decussata, Couth., var 217 



368 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Pygmsea (Clathurella), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 63, 299 

Pygmsea (Drillia), Bunker, 206 

Pygmaea (Mangilia), Dkr. Moll. Japon., t. 1, f. 8, . . 257 
Pyramid alls (Bela), Strom. Nov. Act. Dan., iii, p. 296, f. 22, 215 
Pyramidalis (Mangilia), Reeve Iconica, pi. v, f. 13, . . 261 
Pyramidata '(Drillia), Kiener. Coq. viv., 57, t. 21, f. 3, . 205 
Pyramidatus (Fusus), Brown. Illust. Conch. Gt. Brit, 7, 

t. 5, f. 8, 9, 1827. = Plenrotoma nebula, Montagu. 
Pyramidula (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 115, . . 286 

Pyramis (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 42, 253 
Pyrrha (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 409, 1881, 182 

Quadrata (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 114, 278 
Quadrifasciata (Drillia), Gray. Reeve, Icon., sp. 251, 1845, 195 
Qradrilineata (Defiancia), C. B. Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 

64. ? = M. trilineatR, C. B. Ad. . . . . . 248 

Quadrilirata (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 208, 191 
Quadrillum (Pleurotoma), Dujardin. Mem. Geol., iii, 291, 

t. 20, f. 23. = C. clathrata, Marcel, . . . .276 

Quadruplex (Pleurotoma , Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, 

p. 253, 1882, . . .234 

Quisqualis (Mangilia), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 19, pi. 

vi, f. 5 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 44, . . . . 257 
Quoyi (Pleurotoma', Desh. Lam., 2d ed., ix, p. 346. 

= D. Novae-Zelandiae, Reeve 
Quoyi (Pleurotoma), Desmoulins. Rev. de Pleu., p. 61. 

= P. monile, Val 232 

Quoyi (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Icon , sp. 137, . . 242 

Radula (Surcula), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 16, pi. 5, f. 

9, 62 ; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 16, . . . 242 

Radulaeformis (Pleurotoma), Weink. Conch. Cab., t. 19, 

f. 7, 9. = P. radula, Hinds, . . . . . .242 

Raffrayi (Pleurotoma), Tap.-Can. Bull. Soc Zool. Fr., iii, 

p. 246, pi. vi,f. 1, 1878, . . 163 

Ramsa} r i (Clathurella), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 

Wales,i, 157, .... .... 299 

Raphitoma, Bellardi. Monog. Pleur. Foss., 1847. 

= Daphnella, Sect 160 

Rapulum (Pusionella), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 83, 1846, . 235 
Rarieostata (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 192, 

t. J9,f. 18, 202 

Rava (Clathurella), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 17, pi. 5, 

f. 18, ... 296 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 369 

PAGE, 

Reeiproca (Pleurotoma), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., vii, p. 

336, 1860, .171 

Reclusianus (Fusus), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 77, t. 1, f. 

1, 1851. = Pusionella vulpina, Born. . . . 235 

Recondita (Bela), Tiberi. = Plenrotoma torquata, Phil. . 275 
Recondita (Lachesis), Brug. Misc. Malac., 1873, p. 10, f. 

.15. L vulpecula, Monts 225 

Recurvirostris (Pusionella), Marrat. Quart. Jour, of Conch., 

i, 180, 236 

Reeveana (Daphnella), Tryon, . ... 305 

Reeveana (Pleurotoma), Desh. Moll. Bourbon., 106, pi. xii, 

f. 5-7, 1863, . . .291 

Reevei (Mangilia), Tryon, . .... 265 

Reevei (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Contr., p. 54 (not Bel- 

lardi). = P. violacea, Hinds. 

Reflexa (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1845, p. 114, 288 
Regia (Drillia \Beck. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 75, 1843, . 201 
Regularis (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4, . 189 
Renieri (Pleurotoma), Phil. En. Moll. Sic., ii, t. 26, f. 22, 

1844. = P. emendata, Monterosato. 
Renieri (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Petit, Cat. Shells Eur., 154. 

= D. Loprestiana, Calcara. 
Reticosa (Clathurella), Ad. and Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1863, p. 420, 281 

Reticulata (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, 262 
Reticulata (Bela), Vahl. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 278. 

= B. decussata, Couth. . . . . . . .217 

Reticulata (Mangilia), Renieri. Tav. alf. Conch. Adriat., 

p. 2. = C. Cordieri, Payr 276 

Reticulata (Pleurotoma), Brown. Brit. Shells, 1827. 

= Bela Trevelyana, Turton, 221 

Reticulata (Pleurotoma). Garr. Proc. Cal. Ac., vol. i, p. 102, 

1857. = P. pumila, Migh 298 

Reticulosa (Pleurotoma), "Smith. Ann. Mag. K H., 1882, 

297, . . . 299 

Retusa (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 44 ; 

Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 24, pi. 7, f. 16, . . 290 

Retusispirata (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. 

H., 490, 1877, . .... .170 

Rhysa (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 400, 

1881, . . 242 

Richard! (Cithara), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xvii, p. 177, 

1869) ; p. 65, pi. ii, fig. 3, 1872. = M. reticulata, Reeve. 262 
Rigicla (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63. 

= M. Yauquelini, Payr .243 



370 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Rigida (Man^ilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 45 ; 

Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 24, pi. 7, f. 18, 269 

Rissoides (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 184, 281 

Robillardi (Clathurella), Barcl. H. Ad., P. Z. S. 1869, p. 

272, pi. 19, f. 2, 284 

Robusta (Bela), Packard. Mem. Bost. Soc., i, p. 232, pi. vii, 

f. 12 222 

Robusta (Drillia), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 17, pi. 5, 

f 12, 180 

Robusta (Pieurotoma^ S. Y. Wood. == P. turricula, Mont. 219 
Robusticostata (Mangtlia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

p. 198, t. 19, f. 28, 255 

Rombergi (Pieurotoma), Morch. Jl. de Conch., vi, 28, t. 10, 

f. 6, 1857. = P. picta, Beck, 164 

Rosaeea (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 109, . 179 
Rosaria (Clionella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 3, . 233 
Rosea (Bela), Sars. Moll. Norv., 234, t. 23, f. 10, 1878. 

= B. turricula, Mont 219 

Rosea (Pieurotoma \ Brusina. Yerhand. zoo.-bot. Ges., 

Wien, 1865. = M. linearis, Mont. 
Rosea (Pieurotoma), Quoy. Yoy de 1'Astr., p. 524, pi. 35, 

f. 10, 11. = D. Novae-Zelandise, Reeve. 

Rosea (Clathurella), Dunker. = C. Blanfordi, Nevill, . 291 
Rosea (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 134, . 190 
Roseotincta (Pieurotoma), Montrouzier. Jour, de Conch., 

1872, p. 361 ; 1873, pi. iv, f. 1, 272 

Rosolina (Drillia), Marrat. Jour. Conch., i, 239, . . 190 
Rossmassleri (Fusus), Anton. Yerzeichn., 126. 

? = Pleur. Yauquelini, Pay 243 

Rotundata (Pieurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv,p. 

393, 1881, . . 242 

Rotundicostata (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 493, ' 211 

Rouaultia, Bellardi. Moll. Terz. Piemonte, pt. 2, 223, 1877. 

= Genotia, Sect. ........ 154 

Rougeyroni (Pieurotoma), Souv. Jour. Conch., 1874, p. 

187, pi. vii, f. 1. = D. Barcliensis, H. Adams. 
Rubescens (Bela), Jeffreys. Proc. Roy. Soc., xxv, p. 183, 223 
Rubida (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 40; 

Moll. Yoy. Sulph., 18, pi. 6, f. 6, . . 271 

Rubicunda (Clathurella), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., vii, 

p. 338, 299 

Rubiginosa (Drillia), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 22, pi. 7, 

f. 5; Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 43, . > . . . .199 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 371 



Rubinicolor (Clionella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. Ill, ........ . .234 

Rubricata(Clnthurella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 39,f.321, 1846, 279 
Rubrifasciata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 110, . . . 229 

Rubro-apicata (Pleurotoma , Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

269, ....... ... 319 

Rubrocincta (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1882, 305, ..... . ... 274 

Rubro-guttata (Clathnrella), H. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1872, p. 14, pi. iii, f. 25. = C. tincta, Reeve, . . .292 
Rude (Pleurotoma), Philippi. Moll. Sicil.,i, 199, t. 11, f. 16. 

= C. clathiata, Marcel de Serres, ..... 276 
Rude (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat. Conch., 12, f. 17. 

= C. Cordieri, Payr. . ...... 276 

Rudis (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 134, . 191 
Rufa (Bela), Mont. Test. Brit., 263, ..... 224 

Ruf'escens (Drillia), Dunker. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 159, . 212 
Rufinodis (Pleurotoma), Martens. Mauritius, p. 227, pi. 20, 

f. 2. = G. granicostata, Reeve, ... . 287 

Rnfocincta (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 215, 249 
Rufozonata (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, p. 

38, pi. v, f. 13, . . ..... 285 

Rufus (Fusus), Gould (non MontagA Inv. Mass., ed. i, p. 

290, f. 192. = B. pyramidalis, Strom ..... 216 
Rugifera (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833. 

= D. nigerrima, Sowb. 
Rugosa (Pleurotoma), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc., p. 23, 1845, 

vol. ii, .......... 297 

Rugulata (Bela), Moller, MSS. Sars, Moll. Norv., 230, t. 23, 

f. 6. = B. turricula, Mont ....... 219 

Rugulata (Bela), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 345, 1846. 

= Pleurotoma bicarinata. Couth. ..... 215 

Rugulata (Bela), Verrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 366. 

= B. Gouldii, Yerrill. 
Rugulosa, var. (Pleurotoma), Monterosato. Notizie, p. 52. 

= M. Paciniana, Calcara. 

Rugulosa (Mangilia), Philippi. Enum. Moll., 2, pi. 26, f. 8, 245 
Rustica (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 74, . . 318 
Rustica (Pleurotoma), P. P. Carp. Cat. Prov. (non Sowb.). 

= D. aterrima, Sowb. 
Rustica (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 138, 1833. 

= D. nigerrima, Sowb. 

Sacerdos (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 
110. = Clavatula muricata, Lam ...... 229 



372 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Sacra (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Sop., 1845, p. Ill, . 201 
Sancti Joannis (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. 

H., 1875, xv, p. 416. 
Sandriana (Pleurotoma), Brusina. Contr., p. 65. 

= P. Paciniana, Calcara. 
Sandrii (Rhaphitoma), Brasilia. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges., 1865. 

= M. Paciniana, Calcara, ,...,.. 243 
Sandwicensis (Daphnella), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, 

p. 148, . . 307 

Sarsii (Bela), Yen-ill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 364, 

1880. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 484, . . 218 

Saturata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 

113, . . . . . . . . . . .303 

Saulcydiana (Drillia), Recluz, Jour, de Conch., ii, 209, t. 5, 

f. 6, 1851. = D. umbilicata, Gray, 179 

Scabra.( Pleurotoma), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, 372, .276 

= Pleqrotoma Cordieri, Payr. 
Scabra (Pleurotoma), Sovverby. III. Index Brit. Shells, t. 1 9, 

19, f. 13. = M. linearis, Mont. 

Scacchii (Rhaphitoma , Beliardi. = PI. linearis, Mont. 
Scalarina (Clathurella), Desh. Conch. Isle Reunion, 1863, 

p. 109, . . ... . 296 

Scalarinus (Fusus), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, 133. 

= Pusionella nifat, Bru<*. 
Scalaris (Bella), Pack. Can. Nat. and Geol., 1863. 

= B. Americana, Packard. 
Scalaris (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 39. 

Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 18, pi. 6, f. 2, 287 

Scalaris (Bela), Moil. Moll. Green., p. 12, 1842. 

= B. turricula, Mont 219 

Scalaris (Pleurotoma^, Yahl. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,f. 277. 

= B. decussata. Couth. ....... 217 

Scalaroides (Bela), Sars. Moll. Norv., 231, t. 23, f. 7, 1878. 

= B. turricula, Mont. . . . . . . .219 

Scalata (Pleurotoma), Souverbie. Jour, de Conch., xxii, p. 

192, pi. 7, fig. 4. =M. angicostata, Reeve, . . . 252 
Scalpta (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 5. 

= C. monilifera, Sowb 278 

Scarabseus (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 6, . 195 
Schantarica (Bela),Middendorff. Reise,223, t. 12, f. 17, 19, 

1851, 214 

Schilingi (Drillia), Weink. Conch. Cab., t. 16, f. 7, 9, . 193 
Scobinella, Conrad. Jour. Acad. N. S. Phila., i, 111, 1848. 

= Cordiera, Rouault, ....... 227 

Sculpta (Clathurella), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 39. 

Yoy. Sulphur, 17, t. 5, f. 17, . . . . . . 280 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 313 

PAGE. 

Sculptilior (Clathurella), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1875, p. 38, 282 

Sculptilis (Clathnrella). Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1811, p. 

11, pi. l,fig. 19, ' 282 

Secalina (Pleurotoma), Philippi. Enum. Moll. Sic., 2, pi. 

26, f. 9. = var. of B. septangularis, Mont. . . .223 
Secta (Defrancia), G. B. Sowerby. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1870, 

p. 254, 299 

Semen (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 5, 254 
Semiassa (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 

p. 382, .261 

Semicolon (Pleurotoma), S.Wood. Crag. Moll., 54, t. 5, f. 3, 309 
Semicostata (Clionella), Kiener. Iconog., p. 39, pi. 19, f. 1, 233 
Semicostata (Pleurotoma), pars, Krauss. Sudafr. Moll., p. 

109. = P. sigillata, Reeve. 
Semicostatus (Fusus), Cantraine. Jeffreys, Zool. Proc., 

392, 1883. = D. Maravignae, Bivona. 
Semigranosa (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

p. 5, 290 

Semilineata ( Clathurella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 

1873, p. 221, pi. 2, f. 37. = M. granosa, Bunker. . . 295 
Seminella, Pease. See Manual, v, 102, .... 160 
Seminifera (Drillia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., iii, 

p. 140. = D. interrupta, Lam. 

Seminuda (Pleurotoma 1 , Anton. Yerzeichniss, 73, . ,318 
Semiplicata (Bela), Sars. Moll. Norv., t. 16, f. 4, 

= B. pyramidalis, Strom. . . . . . , .216 

Semiplicatum (Pleurotoma), Bonelli. Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, 

174, t. 26, f. 18. = C. stria, Calc. . . . . 274 

Semisculpta (Zafra), G. and H. Nevill. Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 

1875, ii, p. 97, pi. vii, f. 6, 7, . . . . . . 314 

Senegalensis (Daphnella), von Maltzan. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., 

1883, p. 134, t. 3, f. 15, 310 

Serga (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 65, 1881, 213 
Serrata (Defrancia \ Cpt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 163, . 299 
Septangularis (Bela), Mont. Test. Brit., p. 268, pi. 9, f. 5, . 223 
Sexcostata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

305, 319 

Sicula (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 59, . 244 
Sigillata (Clionella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 40, f. 363, 1846, 233 
Sigsbei (Pleurotoma^ Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 57, 

1881, . . 316 

Silicea (Borsonia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc , xv, 474, 1881, 228 
Similis (Pleurotoma), Bivona. Monterosato, Nuova Revista, 

42. = P. undatiruga, Bivona, var. . . ... . 238 



374 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE 

Simplex (Bela), Yerrill. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 367, 

1880; Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 493. 

= B. Schantarica, Middendorff. 
Simplex (Pleurotoma), Middendorff. Reise, 223, t. 12, f. 

15, 16, 1851. = Bela Schantarica, Midd. 
Sinclair! (Clathurella), Smith, MSS. Gillies, Trans. N. Zeal. 

Inst,, xiv, 170, 283 

Sinensis (Drillia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 38, . 201 
Singularis (Clathurella^, G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 

1875, pt. ii, p. 89, pi. vii, f. 10, ... . 293 
Sinistralis (Surcula), Petit. Guerin's Mag. de Zool., 1839, 

pi. i, . 240 

Sinuata (Cithara), Cpt. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1856, p. 162, . 271 
Sinuata (Clavatula), Born. Test. Mus. Ctes., p. 268, . . 233 
Sinuosa (Drillia), Gray. Reeve, Icon., sp. 307, 1846, . . 180 
Sinuosa (Pleurotoma), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vol. ii, 

p. 23, . , . 319 

Sinuosum f Pleurotoma), Fleming. = P. Leufroyi, Mich. 
Sinuosus 'Pleurotoma) Conch, = P. gracilis, Mont. . .312 
Smirna (Drillin), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 66, 1881, 213 
Smithii, var. of Trevelyana (Bela), Jeff'. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1876, p. 332; Trans Conn. Acad., v, 461. 

?= B.incisula.Verrill, . . . . . .217,221 

Smithi (Clathurella), G. and H. Nevill. J. A. S. Beng., 

1875, pt. ii, p. 88, pi. 8, f. 13, . . . . . 292 

Smithii ^Pleurotoma), Forbes. Ann. Mag., 107, t. 2, f. 14, 

1840. == D. costulata, Blainv 309 

Solida (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 64, . 274 
Solida (Pleurotoma), C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch., p. 61. 

= Drillia fuscescens, Gray. 
Solidula (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 163. 

= C. rugosa, Mighels, 297 

Solomonensis (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 

p. 537, pi. xxx, f. 6, 205 

Sordida (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 117, 254 
Soror (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 303, . 274 
Souverbiei (Mangilia), Try on, ...... 264 

Souverbiei (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

300, ." ... 307 

Sowerbyi (Drillia), Reeve. Corrections in Conch. Icon., . 180 
Spaldingi (Drillia), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, 

p. 153, 212 

Speciosa (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 2, fig. 9, 1843, 173 
Spectabilis (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., i, fig. 6, 1843. 

= P. babylonia, Linn. . . . . . . .162 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 375 

PAGE. 

Spectrum (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 113. 200" 
Spicata (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 17, pi. 

5, f. 13. = D. Sinensis, Hinds. 
Spicea (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 419, 

1881, 212 

Spinicincta (Columbarium), Martens. Mittheil., ii, p. 105, 

t. 21, f. 1-3. = C. Pagoda, Lesson, var. . . .176 

Spinosa (PI. reticnlata, var. , Forbes and Hanley. Brit. Sh., 

t. 113, f. 5. = M. Cordieri, Payr. 
Spinosa (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

p. 206, 191 

Spiralis (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, 

p. 731, pi. 75, f. 8, 171 

Spirata (Pleurotoma), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 93, . . 232 
Spirotropis, Sars. Moll. Norv., 242, 1878, . . 155, 213 

Splendida (Mangilia), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, 

p. 309, pi. 19, f. 24, 255 

Splendidula (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 135, 200 
Spurca (Mangilia), Hinds. Moll. Toy. Sulph., p. 17, pi. 5, 

f. 14, ... 273 

Staminea (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 

388, 1881, 242 

Stellata (Pleurotoma), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vii, p. 103, . 251 
Stellata (Mangilia), Stearns. Proc. Bost. Soc., 1872, xv, 

p. 22, 246 

Stercus pulicum (Priamus), Chemn. 9, pi. 120, fig. 1026-7. 

= Halia Priamus, Meuschen. 

Sterrha (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 426, 1881, 182 
Steveni (Buccinum), Andrj. Krynicki. Bull. Nat. Mos., 1837, 

ii,p.59. =D.costulata,Blainv 309 

St. GallaB (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 

1876, 137, .... ..'... 312 

Stirophora (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn, Soc., xv, 422, 

1881, 212 

Stolida (Drillia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 37, . 178 
Stossiciana (Mangilia), Brusina. J. de Conch., xviii, p. 235. 

= M. rugulorfa, Phil. 245 

Streptophora (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

464, 1881, . 299 

Stria (Clathurella), Calcara. Ric. Mai., 1839, p. 11, f. 5, . 274 
Striata (Clionella , Kiener. Icon., p. 36, pi. 14, f. 2, . . 233 
Striata (Conopleura), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., pi. 7, f. 22, 

23, 211 

Striata (Cythara), Schum. Syst. Yers. Test., p. 245. 

= Mangilia citharella, Lam. . . ... . . 257 

25 



376 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Strigata (Cythara), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1862, p. 242, . 271 
Strigata (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1873, t. 59, f. 9. 

= D. Barkliensis, H. Adams. 
Striolata (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat. Conch. Neapol., 1836. 

= P. costulata, Blainv 309 

Striosa (Mangilia), C.B.Adams. Panama Shells, 147, 1852, 249 
Stromboides (Cythara ), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 63, 264 
Stromboides (Cythara), Val. Carpenter. 

= Pleurotoma triticea, Reeve. 

Stromboides (Drillia), Sowb. Gen. Shells, Pleur., f. 4, . 176 
Strucki (Mangilia), von Maltzan. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., 1883, 

133, t. 3, f. 14, . 245 

Studeriana (Drillia), Martens. Sitzb. Berl., 22, 1878 ; Mitth., 

i, p. 37, pi. 8, f. 2, 209 

Subauriformis (Drillia), Smith. Zool. Proc., 195, 1. 19, f. 23, 

1879, 207 

Snbcaudata (Mangilia), Bivona. = M. multilineolata, Desh. 
Subclathrata (Mangilia), von Maltzan. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., 

1883, 133, t. 3, f. 13, 245 

Subdiaphana (Mangilia), Cpt. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1864, xiv, 

p. 45, . 271 

Subgranosa (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

300, . . . 299 

Subgranulatus (Fusus), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 78, t. 2, 

f. 1, 1851. = Pusionella Milleti, Petit, . . . .235 
Subluta (Bela), Gould. Bost. Proc., iii, 142, 1849, . . 222 
Subnigrus (Fusus), Brown. 111. Conch., t. 5, f. 58, 59. 

= Lachesis minima, Mont. ...... 225 

Subobliquata (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 

191, t. 19, f. 16, . . . 203 

Subochracea (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 

1877, p. 493, 211 

Subsida (Drillia), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, p. 62, 

1881, 212 

Subtilis (Mangilia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 431, 

1881, 271 

Subula (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 113, 270 
Subulata (Pleurotoma), Anton. Verzeichniss, p. 73, . . 318 
Subulata (Pleurotoma), Mke. Syn. Meth., No. 1131, 1830, 319 
Subventricosa (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. 

H., 1877, p. 500, 234 

Subvitrea iDaphnella), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 

209, pi. 20, f. 43, 314 

Subzonata (Daphnella), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 

197, t. 19, f. 27, .284 

Sulcata (Lachesis), Button. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., p. 12, 226 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 377 

ZAGE. 

Sulcata (Mangilia), Carpenter. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, p. 

272, 250 

Sumatrensis (Pleurotoma), Petit. Jour, de Conch., p. 55, 

t. 2, f. 2, 1852. = Drillia crenularis, Lam. . . . 178 
Supercostata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

301, . . . .307 

Surcula, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 88, 1853, . 158, 236 
Surculites, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., 1, 213, 1865. 

= Surcula, Sect. ......... .158 

Suturalis (Defrancia), Moller. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 343. 

= Pleurotoma Groanlandica, Reeve. 

Suturalis (Drillia), Gray. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1838, p. 29, . 212 
Suturalis (Pleurotoma), Bronn. Erg. mei. nat. Reise, ii. 

= P. gracilis, Mont. . 312 

Symmetrica (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, 

'p.. 5, . . .247 

Syngenes (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 396, 242 
Syracusanum (Pleurotoma), Marav. = M. Cordieri, Payr. 

Tabulata (Daphnella), Opt. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, xv, 

p. 29, . .312 

Tamiata (Drillia), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1878, 36, 212 

Tseniata (Mangilia), Desh. Exp. Moree, p. 178, xix, f. 37-39, 243 
Taranis, Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. N. H., 4th ser., v, 447, 1870. 

= Daphnella, Sect 160, 315 

Tarentini (Pleurotoma), Phil. (1844). 

= D. Loprestiana, Calcara. 
Tasmanica < Cithara), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1875, p. 145, .271 

Tasmanica (Daphnella), T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 

1876,138, . 306 

Taxus (Pleurotoma), Chemn. Conch., x, pi. 162, fs. 1550 

and 1551, ... 231 

Tayloriana (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. 40, f. 

366. = D. crenularis, Lam 178 

Tenebrosa (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 62, 260 
Tenella (Defrancia), Jeffr. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, p.' 33, . 299 
Tenella (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 302, 307 
Tenera (Defrancia), Jeffreys. Brit. Assoc. Rept., 114, 1873, 299 
Tenuiclathrata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1882, 301, 307 

Tenuicostata (Pleurotoma), Sars. Yid. Selsk. Forhand, 

1868, p. 259. = var. Bela decussata, Couth. . . .217 
Tenuilirata (Bela), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 98, 

1871. = B. Schantarica, Middendorff. 



378 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Tenuilirata (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, 

p. 17, pi. l,f. 18, . . 281 

Tenuis (Pleurotoma), Anton. Yerzeichniss, p. 73, . . 318 
Tenuis (Pleurotoma), Gray. An. Mag. N. H. 

= P. undatiruga, Bivona, 238 

Teres, Bucq., Dautz. and Dollf. Moll. Roussillon, 85, 1883. 

= Daphnella, Sect 160, 313 

Teres (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1844. 

= P. anceps, Eich 313 

Tessellata (Daphnella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S., 1873, p. 

230, pi. 3, f. 61, 303 

Tessellata (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

44 ; Moll. Voy. Sulph., p. 23, pi. 7, f. 17. 
Tessellata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 4. 

= C. formosa, Reeve, ....... 297 

Tetragona (Mangilia), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., 1881, p. 382, 261 
Texta (Drillia), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., vi, p. 225, . . . 207 
Textilis (Clavatula), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 43, 231 
Thea (Drillia), Dall. Proc. Nat. Mus., vi, 328, t. 10, f. 5, 

1883, 189 

Thesbia, Jeffreys. Sars, Moll. Norv., 221, 1878. 

= Daphnella, Sect .160,315 

Tholoides (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 248, 

1882, 212 

Tiara (Mangilia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 440, 1881, 249 
Tiarella (Pleurotoma), Valen. Kiener,Iconog.,56,t. 23, f. 2. 

= D. rustica, Sowb. 

Tiarula (Pleurotoina), Loven. = P. brachystoma, Phil. . 308 
Ticaonica (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 

116, 304 

Tigrina (Pleurotoma), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, p. 95, . 164 
Tincta (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 5, . 292 
Tmeta (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 424, 1881, . 212 
Todilla (Pleurotoma), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 

p. 24, 319 

Tomella, Swainson, Malae., 115, 314, 1840. 

= Perrona, Schum 157, 231 

Tornata (Surcula), Dillwyn. Cat., ii, p. 715, 1815, . . 237 
Tornatus var. y (Murex), Dillw. Cat., ii, p. 715. 

= Pleurotoma Virgo, Lam. 
Torosa (Drillia), Carpenter. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., v, 

145, 1865, 183 

Torquata (Clathurella), Phil. Moll. Sic., ii, p. 171, t. xxvi, 

f. 14, 1844, 275 

Trachys (Mangilia), T.-Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. Viet., 

xiv, p. 57, 261 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 379 



Trailli (Drillia), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Z., p. 11, 1873 ; 

Man. N. Z. Moll., 42, . ...... 206 

Translucida (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 

444, 1881, .......... 315 

Trecchi ( Pleurotoma), Testa. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iv, 363. 

= PI. anceps, Eichw. 
Trecchi (Pleurotoma), Testa, 1842. Monterosato, Jour, de 

Conch., 1874, 279. = D. Loprestiana, Calcara. 
Trevelliana (Bela), Turton. Mag. N. H., vii, p. 351, 1834; 

Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., iv, 398. = B. Trevelyana, Turton, 221 
Tricarinata (Drillia), T.-Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 

ii, p. 265, .......... 212 

Tricarinata (Clathurella), Yal. Reeve, Icon., f. 121, 1843, . 289 
Tricinctum (Pleurotoma), Brugn. (1862). Monterosato, 

Journ. de Conch., 279, 1874. = D. Loprestiana, Calcara. 
Tricolor (Clathurella), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. 

Wales, i, p. 158, ........ 299 

Tricolor (Pleurotoma\ Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 215. 

= P. linearis, Montagu. 
Trifasciata (Pleurotoma), Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 297, Dec. 

1845. = Mangilia trilineata, Ad ...... 24^7 

Trifilosa (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 297, 299 
Trilineata (Mangilia), C. B. Adams. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 

ii, p. 3, Jan. 1845 ; Contrib. Conch., 55, . . . . 247 
Trilix (Pleurotoma), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, p. 390, 

1881, .......... 242 

Tripartita (Clavatula), E. A. Smith. Weinkauff in Kiister, 

120, t. 26, f. 12, 13. ? = C. obesa, Reeve, . . .232 
Triporcata (Pleurotoma), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

p. 188, t. 19, f. 9, ........ 172 

Tripter (Drillia), von Maltzan. Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., 1883, 

119, t. 3,f. 1, ......... 208 

Triticea (Mangilia), Kien. Ic., pi. 27, f. 3, . . . 268, 271 
Tritonoides (Clathurella), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, 

p. 182, ... ....... 283 

Tritonum (Perronea), Schumacher. Nouv. Syst., p. 218. 

= Pleurotoma perron, Chemn. 

Trivaricosa (Daphnella), Martens. Mauritius, 228, t. 20, f. 1, 305 
Trivittata (Mangilia), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

40, pi. x, f. 9. = M. pellucida, Reeve, . . . .266 
Trizonata (Mangilia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 215, 261 
Tuberculata (Surcula), Gray. Zool. Beech. Voy., p. 120, . 237 
Tuberculifera (Surcula), Brod. and Sowb. Zool. Jour., iv, 

p. 378, 1829, . . ....... 238 

Tuberosa (Drillia), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, xv, p. 418, 212 



380 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Tumida (Clathurella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 218, 

pi. 15, fig. 14, 1867. = C. Reeveana, Desh. . . .291 
Tumida (Clavatula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 253, 232 
Turbinatus (Boletus), Martini. = Pleurotomasinuata,Born. 
Turbinelloides (Clathurella), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 39, f. 

295, 1846, .280 

Turgida (Bela), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., 1861, 7, p. 337, . 222 
Turgida (Pleurotoma), Forbes. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 163, 

1844, 308 

Turqueti (Lachesis), Ch. Yelain. Arch. Zool. Exp., vi, p. 

107, pi. ii, f. 18, 19, 1877, . . 226 

Turricula, Schumacher. Essai Nov. Gen., 217, 1817. 

= Surcula, Ads. 

Turricula (Bela), Mont. Test. Brit., i, p. 262, 1803, . . 219 
Turricula (Clathurella), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xviii, p. 161, . 299 
Turricula (Cythara), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 62, 268 
Turricula (Fusus), Gould. Rep. Inv. Mass., 1st ed., p. 292, 

pi. 13, f. 193. = Bela americana, Packard. 
Turricula (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 

137. = D. Sowerbyi. Reeve. 
Turris, Humphrey, Mus., 1797. Ad. Genera, i, 87, 1853. 

= Pleurotoma, Lamarck. 

Turris (Drillia), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 37, f. 344; Correc- 
tions, Index of Conch. Icon 210 

Turris (Pleurotoma), Yal. Atlas, Toy. Venus, t. 5, f. 3. 

= P. australis, Roissy, ....... 236 

Turritellatus (Fusus), Desh. Exp. Moree, pi. xix, f. 28, 45. 

= Lachesis minima, Mont. ...... 225 

Turritispira (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1882, 

306, . . . 316 

Typhlomangilia, M. Sars, em. Sars, Moll. Norv., 1878. 

= Bela. Sect . . . 156, 223 

Ula (Drillia), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 420, 1881, . 212 
Ulideana (Pleurotoma), Thomps. Ann. Mag. N. H., xv, 316, 

t. 19, f. 2. = B. ruta, Mont., var 224 

Umbilicata (Drillia), Gray, MSS. Ann. Mag. N. H., i, 1838, 

p. 28, 179 

Undata (Bela),Verkr. Jahr. Mai. Gesell., v. p. 229, 1878, . 223 
Undatella (Bela), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1861, viii, 

p. 280, 222 

Undaticostata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 117, .... 251 

Undatiruga (Surcula), Bivona. Gen. posthum., 7, . . 238 
Undosa (Pleurotoma), Lam. An. s. Vert, vii, p. 95, . .166 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 381 

PA8B. 

Undulata (Mangilia), Risso. Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid. 

?= M. Sicula, Reeve. 
Unedo (Pleurotoma), Valenc., MSS. Paris Mus., Kiener, 

Coq. viv., 19, t. 14, f. 1, . . 165 

Unicolor (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. 

= D. nigerrima, Sowb. 
Unifasciata (Mangilia), Desh. Expl. Sci. Morde, t. 19, f. 

22-24, .... 243 

Unifasciata (Pleurotoma), 0. G. Costa (non Desh.). 

= P. Yauquelini, Payr 243 

Unilineata (Cythara), E. A. Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, p. 

538, pi. xxx, f. 13, 1876, 272 

Unimaculata (Drillia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, p. 134, 180 
Unizonalis (Drillia), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 92, . 185 
Urnula (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 114, 306 
Ustulata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. 40, f. 369, 

1846, 167 

Vahlii (Pleurotoma), Moller. Moll. Grcenl., p. 13. 

= B. pyramidalis, Strom. ...... 216 

Yalenciennesii (Pleurotoma), Maravig. 

= D. attenuata, Mont 309 

Yalida (Pusionella), Dunker. Zeit. Mai., 191, 1852 ; Novit. 

Conch., 33, t. 10, f. I, 2, ....... 234 

Yallata (Pleurotoma), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 

p. 336,1860, .... . .171 

Yancouverensis (Pleurotoma), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., vi, 

1880, p. 286, 319 

Yaria (Cithara), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 447. 

= Columbella Peasei, Martens. Manual, vol. v, 166. 
Yariabilis (Drillia), Smith. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1877, xix, 

p. 495, ... . . 180 

Yaricifera (Daphnella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 

221, pi. xv, f. 21, ... .... 301 

Yariegata (Mangilia), Cpt. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, xv, 

p. 394, .... .... 300 

Yariegata (Pleurotoma), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. ix, f. 1, . 164 

Yariegata (Pleurotoma), Philippi. En. Moll. Sic., i, 197, t. 

11, f. 14. = P. purpureum, Mont. 
Yariegata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Icon., pi. i, fig. 2, 

1843. = P. picturata, Weink. 

Yaricosa (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 187, 205 
Yaricosa (Pleurotoma), Sowb. Jour. Conch., 1874, p. 190, 

pi. vii, fig. 3, 305 

Yariculosa (Mangilia), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1833, .257 



382 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Yarix (Daphnella), T.-Woods. Proc, Roy. Soc. Tas., 1876, 

p. 138. ? = D. compta, Ad. and Ang. . . . .306 
Yauquelini (Pletirotoma), Payraudeau. Moll. Cors.,p. 145, 

pi. vii, figs. 14, 15, 243 

Yentricosa (Bela), Morch. Moll. Grcenl., No. 95. 

= B. bicarinata, Couth. ....... 215 

Yenusta (Pleurotoina), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 181, 162 
Yerrillii(Drillia),Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 68, 1881, 213 
Yerrillii (Pleurotoma), Dall. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 

57, 1881, . 316 

Yersicolor (Pleurotoma), Scacchi. Cat. Conch., 12, f. 19. 

= P. purpureum, Mont. 
Yersicolor (Pleurotoma), Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab,, pi. 

xv, f. 8. = P. radula, Hinds, 241 

Yertebralis (Pleurotoma), E. Smith. Weinkauff, Jahrb., iv, 

5, 1877. = PI. violacea, Hinds. 
Yertebrata (Pleurotoma), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1875, xv, p. 416. = P. violacea, Hinds. 
Yespuciana (Clathurella), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, 175, t. 24, 

f. 13-15 . .279 

Yestalis (Pleurotoma), Phil. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851, p. 93, . 319 

Yexillum (Manama), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 59, 265 
Vexillum(Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 115, 209, 284 
Yicina (Mangilia), C. B.Adams. Conch. Contr., p. 66, . 248 
Yidua (Pleurotoma), Hinds (not Reeve). Weinkauff, Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., 65, t. 13, f. 1, 3. = D. unizonalis, Lam. 
Yidua (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 112. 

= D. unizonalis, Lamarck. 
Yidualoides (Drillia), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1873, 

p. 217, pi- 2, f. 28. = D. unizonalis, Lam. 
Yilliersii (Pleurotoma), Michaud. Bull. Soc. Linn. Bord., 

262, t. 1, f. 4, 5, 1826. = P. attenuate, Mont. . . . 308 
Yincentina (Daphnella), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, p. 

422, t. 11, f. 6, 311 

Yinosa (Surcula), Dall. Proc. Cal. Ac., v, p. 253, 1874, . 240 
Yiolacea (Bela), Migh. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1841, vol. i, 

p. 50; Jour. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1842, p. 15, pi. 1, f. 21. 

= B. bicarinata, Couth uoy, . . . . . .215 

Yiolacea (Clathurella), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, p. 218, 

pi. 15, f. 15, 1867. = C. clandestina, Desh. . . .298 
Yiolacea (Pleurotoma), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 16, 

pi. 5, f. 8, . . . . 169 

Yiolaceus (Pleurotoma), Desh. = PI. linearis, Mont. 
Yirgatum (Pleurotoma), Bivona. 

= PL inflata, Cr. et Jan. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 383 

EAGB. 

Yirginea (Pleurotoma), Beck, MSS. Reeve, Icon., f. 32. 

= Clavatula muricata, Lam. ...... 229 

Yirginea (Pleurotoma), Yalenc. Kien. (non Beck), Iconog., 

p. 55, t. xxi, f. 2, . . . 167 

Yirgo (Pleurotoma), Lam. Hist. Nat., vii, p. 94, . . 168 
Yiridula (Bela) Moller. Moll. Grcenl., p. 14. 

= B. decussata, Couth 217 

Yiridula (Pleurotoma), Reeve (not Moller). Conch. Icon., 

f. 306. = Columbella Holbolii, Beck, Manual, v, . . 223 
Yitrea (Daphnella), Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 18*73, 

p. 230, pi. 3, f. 60, 303 

Yitrea (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 118 y . 254 
Yittata (Mangilia), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 45; 

Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 26, pi. ix, f. 3, . . . . 269 
Yittata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 60. 

= M. obesa, Reeve, 262 

Yittata (Mangilia) Reeve (not Hinds). Icon., f. 53. 

= M. exquisita, Smith. 

Yittata (Drillia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, p. 112, . 188 
Yolutella (Pleurotoma), Yal. Kiener, Pleur., 67, t. 25, f. 1. 

= C. inflata, Crist, et Jan 274 

Yulpecula (Lachesis), Monter. Not. Conch. Med., 1872, 

p. 49, ... ... ... 225 

Yulpina (Pleurotoma), Bivona, Benoit. 

? = D. attenuata, Montg 309 

Yulpina (Pusionella), Born. Test. Mus. Cses., 317, t. 11, f. 

10, 11, . 234 

Yultuosa (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 116, 1845, 296 

Wallaysi (Fusus), Petit. Jour, de Conch., ii, 74, t. 1, f. 7, 

1851, 2d ser., i, 35, 1856. = Pusionella rapulum, Reeve, 235 
Weinkauffi (Pleurotoma), Jickeli, MS. Moll. Rothes Meer. 

= P. violacea, Hinds. 
Weldiana (Drillia;, T.-Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1875, 

p. 137, 212 

Willei (Bela), Friele. Prel. Rep. Moll. Norw. Exp., p. 9, 

1876; Jahr. Mai. Ges., iv, 263, 223 

Wilmeri (Drillia), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1878, p. 805, pi. 

50, f. 4, 205 

Woodiana (Bela), Moll. Grcenl., p. 13. 

= B. turricula, Mont. . . . . . . .219 

Woodii (Pleurotoma), Kien. Ic. Coq. viv., p. 12, t. 7, f. 1. 
= P. cryptorrhaphe, Sowb 168 

Yeddoensis (Pleurotoma), Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. 
France,- 1883, 196-, t. 10, f. 7, 319 



384 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



PAGE. 



Zafra, A. Ad. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1860, vi, p. 331. 

= Daphnella, Sect 160, 313 

Zealandica (Drillia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

p. 492; Gillies, Trans. N. Zeal. Inst., xiv, 170, . . .211 
Zebra (Drillia), Lara. Hist. Nat., Ed. Desh., x, p. 177, . 196 
Zebroides (Pleurotoma), Weink. Conch. Cab., p. 108, pi. 

23, f. 8. = D. zebra, Lam. 
Zebuensis (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 65. 

= M. derelicta, Reeve, ....... 266 

Zonale (Pleurotoma), Del. Chiaje. Mem., t. 84, f. 1. 

= P. Leufroyi, Mich. 
Zonata (Columbella), Gould. Otia, 130, Bost. Proc., vii, 

1860; Smith, Zool. Proc., 209, 1879. 

? = Zafra Mitrsefonnis, A. Ad 313 

Zonata (Mangilia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1846, p. 61, . 252 
Zonata ( Pleurotoma), Gray, MSS. Reeve, Icon., sp. 74. 

= D. flavidula, Lam. 
Zonulata (Clathurella), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 

113, pl.xiii, f. 17, 285 

Zonulata (Pleurotoma), Reeve. Conch. Syst., ii, pi. 234, 

f. 10. = D. aterrima, Sowb. 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLEUROTOMID^. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

A. Pleurotoma babylonia, Linn. Quoy, Yoy. Astrol., t. 

35, f. 4, 162 

B, C. Pleurotoma babylonia, operculum. Adams, Genera, 

t. 10, f. la, 6, . . . . . . . 162 

1. Pleurotoma babylonia. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 5, . 162 

2. Pleurotoma spectabilis, Reeve ( babylonia). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 6 a, .162 

3. Pleurotoma Raffrayi, Tapparone-Canefri. Bull. Soc. 

Zool. France, iii, t. 6, f. 1, ... . 163 

6. Pleurotoma crispa, Lam. (== grandis, Gray). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 11 a, .163 

7. Pleurotoma grandis, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 13, 163 

8. Pleurotoma Rombergi, Morch (= picta, Beck). Jour. 

de Conch., 2d ser , ii, t. 10, f. 6, .... 163 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 385 

PLATE 2. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

4. Pleurotoma venusta, Reeve (= babylonia). Icon. , f . 79, 162 

5. Pleurotoma Garnonsi, Reeve Icon., f. 4, . . 163 
9. Surcula turris,Val. (= Australis,Roiss}r). Voy.Yenus, 

t. 5, f. 3, 236 

10. Pleurotoma tigrina, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 3, . 164 

11. Pleurotoma Jickeli, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab.,t. 4, 

. f. 2, . . . 164 

12. Pleurotoma variegata, Reeve (= picturata, Weink.). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 2, . . . . ' . .164 

13. Pleurotoma variegata, Kiener. Kiener, Iconog., t. 9, 

f. 1, 164 

14. Pleurotoma albina, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 77, . . 165 

15. Pleurotoma gracilina, Weink. Kiister, t. 5, f. 5, . . 165 

16. 16 a. Pleurotoma marmorata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 

216, 21 a, ... ... . 165 

17. Pleurotoma hastula, Reeve (= marmorata). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 139, 165 

18. Pleurotoma Peaseana, Dunker. Kiister, t. 15, f. 1-3, . 165 

19. Pleurotoma picta, Beck. Reeve, Icon., f. 16, . . 163 

PLATE 3. 

20. Pleurotoma unedo, Yal. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 12, . 165 

21. Pleurotoma undosa, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 18, . . 166 

22. Pleurotoma fagina, Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

t. 9, f. 2, . .167 

23. Pleurotoma cingnlifera, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 1, .166 

24. Pleurotoma Erythrsea, Jickeli. Kiister, t. 4, f. 10, . 166 

25. Pleurotoma abbreviata, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 86, . 167 

26. Pleurotoma ustulata, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 3696, . 167 

27. Pleurotoma Niponica. E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 1. 19, 

f. 7, 1879, ......... 172 

28. Pleurotoma triporcata, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 9, 

1879, 172 

29. 29 a. Pleurotoma vertebrata, Smith (= violacea, Hds.). 

Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 6, 6 a, 1879, . . . .169 
30 Pleurotoma cryptorraphe, Sowerby. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 7, 168 

31. Pleurotoma Woodii, Kiener (== cryptorraphe). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 7, f. 1, . *. . . . . 168 

32. Pleurotoma Virgo, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 20, . 168 

PLATE 4. 

34. Pleurotoma Antillarum, Crosse (= Virgo, Lam.). Jour. 

de Conch., xiii, t. 1, f. 8, . . . . . -168 



386 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PrGURB. PAGE. 

35. Pleurotoma Jelski, Crosse (= Yirgo, Lam.). Jour, de 

Conch., xiii, t. 1, f. 6, 168 

37. Pleurotoma lencotropis, Ad. and Reeve (= oxytropis). 

Voy. Samarang, t. 10, f. 7, . . . " . .168 

38. Pleurotoma oxytropis, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 176, . 168 

39. Pleurotoma nobilis, Hinds (= oxytropis). Voy. Sul- 

phur, t. 5, f. 1, . . . . . . . 168 

40. Pleurotoma fascialis, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 24 a, . 169 

41. Pleurotoma deciivis, von Martens. Conch. Mittheil., 

t. 9, f. 2, 170 

42. Pleurotoma violacea, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 186, . 169 

43. Pleurotoma Gruneri, Phil. (= Yirgo, Lam.). Kiister, 

t. 14, f. 7, 168 

44. Pleurotoma spiralis, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 75, 

f. 8, 1871, .171 

45. Pleurotoma brevicaudata, Reeve (= fascialis). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 126, 169 

46. Pleurotoma jubata, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 52, . . 171 

47. Pleurotoma Renieri, Phil. (= emendata, Monts.). 

Kiister, t. 13, f. 11, 172 

48. Pleurotoma speciosa, Reeve. Icon., f. 9, . . .173 

49. Pleurotoma carinata, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 56. 173 

50. Pleurotoma Graffei, Weink. Kiister, t. 3, f. 9, . . 173 

51. Pleurotoma gemmata, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 83, . 173 

52. Pleurotoma monilifera, Pease (= gemmata). Kiister, 

t. 15, f. 7, . . 173 

53. Pleurotoma fusca, Hombr. (= gemmata). Astr. Zelee., 

t. 25, f. 19, 173 

54. Pleurotoma amabilis, Jickeli (= gemmata). Kiister, 

t. 6, f. 4, . . . . . . .173 

55. Pleurotoma armillata. Reeve, Icon., f, 176, . . 174 

56. Daphnella galerita, Phil. (== semicolon, Wood). Jef- 

freys, Brit. Conch., t. 102, f. 6, .... 309 

PLATE 5. 

57. Surcula maculosa, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 45, . . 236 

58. Surcula australis, Roissy. Reeve, Icon., f. 14, . . 236 

59. Clavatula caerulea, Weiiik. Kiister, t. 7, f. 4, . . 230 

60. Clavatula caernlea, Weink. Martens, Mittheil., t. 21, f. 5, 230 

61. Surcula arcuata, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 15, . . 236 

62. Surcula tornata, Dillwyn (Javaria, Reeve). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 26, . 237 

63. Surcula Javana, Linn, (nodifera, Lam., Reeve). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 28, 237 

64. Surcula Coreanica, Ad, and Reeve (= Javana). Voy. 

Samarang, t. 10, f. 8, 237 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 387 



FIGURE. 

65. Surcula lurida, Ad. and Reeve (= Javana). Yoy. 

Samarang, t. 10, f. 5, . . . . . . 237 

66. Surcula punctata, Reeve (= tuberculata). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 181, ......... 237 

67. Surcula tuberculata, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 72, . . 237 

68. Surcula tuberculifera, Brod. Reeve, Icon., f. 63, . 238 

69. Surcula olivacea, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 27, . . 237 

70. Surcula funiculata, Val. (= olivacea). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 95, ..... -. . . .237 

71. Surcula undatiruga, Bivona. Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 26, 

f. 13, .... ..... 228 

72. Surcula balteata, Beck (= undatiruga). Kiener,Iconog., 

t. 13, f. 2, ......... 238 

PLATE 6. 

73. Surcula tenuis, Grajr. Conch. Icon., f. 73, . . . 238 

74. Surcula corrugata, Kiener (= undatiruga). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 9,f. 2, ....... 238 

75. Surcula Kaderlyi, Lischke. Kiister, t. 11, f. 5, . . 239 

76. Paphnella circinata, Dall. Calif. Proc., v, t. 2, f. 5, . . 316 

77. 77 a. Surcula clara, Martens. Mittheil., t. 8, f. 1, . 239 

78. Surcula pluteata, Reeve. Icon., f. 101, . . . 240 
t9. Surcula perversa, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii,.t. 1, f. 10, . 239 

80. Pleurotoma Deshayesii, Doumet (= Indica). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 19, ........ 168 

81. Surcula fulminata, Kiener ( =tornata, var.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 37, ........ 237 

82. Pleurotoma Indica, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 142, 168 

83. Surcula annulata, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 35, . . 240 

84. Surcula catena, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 36, . . 240 

85. Surcula astricta, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 98, . . 240 

86. Surcula cincta, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 99, . . . 241 
86 a. Surcula modesta, Sowb. (= astricta). \Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 9, f. 9, ........ 240 

87. Surcula bijubata, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 87, . 241 

PLATE 7. 

88. Surcula versicolor, Weink. (=radula). Kuster,t. 15, f. 8, 241 

89. Surcula raclula, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 223, . . 241 

90. Surcula raduliformis, Weink. (= radula). Kiister, 1. 19, 

f. 7, ...... . . . .241 

91. Surcula Oweni, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 70, . . . 242 

92. Bela nivalis, Lovdn. Jeffreys, Brit. Conch., v,t. 91, f. 4, 223 

93. Spirotropis modiola, Jan. (= carinatum). Jeffreys, 

Brit. Conch., v,t. 102, f. 7, ..... 213 



388 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGK. 

94. Spirotropis carinatnm. Phil. Moll. Sicil.,ii, t. 26, f. 19, 213 

95. Surcula Quoyi, Reeve. Icon., f. 137, . . . . 242 

96. Perona monile, Val. Kiener, Iconog, t. 15, f. 3, . 232 

97. Columbarium cedonulli, Reeve (= pagoda). Reeve, 

Icon., f. Ufa, . 175 

98. Columbarium diadema, Lesson (= pagoda). Sowerby, 

Thes. Conch., iv, t. 410, f. 53, 175 

99. Columbarium spinicincta, Martens (= pagoda, var.). 

Martens, Mittheil., t. 21, f. 1 175 

100. Genotia Luhdorfei, Lischke. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

6, f. 8, 175 

1. Genotia Mitraeformis, Wood. Reeve, Icon., f. 23, . 174 

2. 2 a. Genotia papalis, Reeve (= Mitraeformis, var.). 

Reeve, Icon., f. 22 a, 6, 174 

3. Surcula Carpenteriana, Gabb. Pal. Calif., ii, t. 1, f. 3, 239 

PLATE 8. 

4. Perrona tripartita, Smith (= obesa, Rve.). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab, t. 26, f. 12, 231 

5. Perrona spirata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 44, . . . 232 

6. 7. Drillia partita, Reeve (= striata, Hinds). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 330 a, 6, 211 

8. Perrona Peronii, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 94, . . 232 

9. Perrona obesa, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 29, . . 231 
10, 11. Perrona lineata, Lara. Ibid.,f. 96 a, 6, . . . 231 

12. Drillia incisa, Reeve (= Maravignae, Biv.) Ibid., f. 133, 199 

13. Clavatula imperialis, Lam. Ibid., f. 33, ... 229 

14. Perrona taxus, Chemn. Ibid., f. 25, . . . . 231 

15. Clavatula bimarginata, Lam. (=muricata). Ibid., f. 34, 229 

16. Clavatula gravis, Hinds (= muricata). Ibid., f. 202, . 229 

17. Clavatula rubrifasciata, Reeve (= muricata, var.). Ibid., 

f. 171, 229 

18. Clavatula diadema, Kiener (= muricata). Ibib., f. 46, 229 

19. Clavatula saoerdos, Reeve (== muricata). Ibid., f. 172. 229 

20. Clavatula Lelieuri, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., ii, t. 5, f. 7, 228 

21. Clavatula virginea, Chemn. (= muricata). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 32 229 

22. Clavatula muricata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 31, . . 229 

23. Clavatula implicata, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 170, . 230 

24. Drillia Dunkeri, Weink. (= umbilicata, Gray). Kiister, 

Conch Cab., t. 16, f. 2, 179 

25. Drillia auriculifera, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 69, . . 185 

26. Drillia exasperata, Reeve. Icon., f. 8, . . . 185 

27. Clavatula mystica, Reeve (= muricata). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 107. . . 229 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 389 

PLATE 9. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

28. Drillia pulchella, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 180, . . 186 

29. Drillia bilineata, Reeve (= pulchella). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 225, ... . .186 

30. Drillia vidua, Hinds (= unizonalis, Lam.) Kiister-, 

Conch. Cab., t. 13, f. 1, 185 

31. Drillia echinata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 48, . . . 185 

32. Drillia laeta, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 155, . . .186 

33. Drillia vidualoides, Garrett (= unizonalis, Lam.). Proc. 

Philad. Acad., t. 2, f. 28, 1873, .... 185 

34. Drillia vidua, Reeve (= nigrozonata, Weink.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 192, ... .... 185 

35. Drillia hexagona, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 105, . . 187 

36. Drillia Beraudiana, Crosse (== Angasi, Cr.). Jour, de 

Conch., xi, t. 1, f. 6, . . . . 187 

37. Drillia Angasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xi, t. 1, f. 5, 187 

38. Drillia unizonalis, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 113, . 185 

39. Drillia exigua, Hombr. Yoy. Astr. Zel., t. 25, f. 21, . 188 

40. Drillia Beckii, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 10, . . . 186 

41. Drillia mediocris, Desh. Moll. He Reunion, f. 39, f. 11, 187 

42. Drillia texta, Dunker. Moll. Japon., t. 1, f. 19, . . 207 

43. Drillia Moquiniana, Montr. Jour, de Conch., t. 7, f. 5, 

1874 207 

44. Drillia vittata, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 205, .188 

45. Drillia polygonalis, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 21, 

f. 7, 187 

46. Clionella semicostata, Kiener. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 67, 233 

47. 48. Clionella sigillata, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 363 a, b. 233 

49. Clionella nux, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 185, . . 233 

50. Clionella Buccinoides, Lam. (=sinuata, Born). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 68, 233 

51. Clionella rosaria, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 314, . . 233 

52. Drillia major, Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 59, . . 178 

53. Clionella striata, Kiener. Reeve, Icon , f. 144, . . 233 

54. Drillia gibbosa, Born. Reeve, Icon., f. 30, . . . 179 

55. Clionella rubinicolor, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 184, . 233 

PLATE 10. 

56. Drillia flavidula, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 66, . 177 

57. Drillia zonata, Gray (= flavidula). Ibid., f. 74, . 177 

58. Drillia Stromboides, Sowb. Ibid., f. 71, . . .176 

59. Drillia unimaculata, Sowb. Ibid., f. 42, ... 180 

60. Surcula tuberculifera, Brod. Specimen. . . . 238 

61. Drillia stolida, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 152, . 178 

62. Drillia, rosea, Sowb. Ibid., f. 43, . . . .190 



390 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

63. Drillia Sumatrensis, Petit (= crenularis). Jour, de 

Conch., iii, t. 2, f. 2, 178 

64. Drillia crenularis, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon, f. 54, . 118 

65. Drillia lanceolata, Reeve. Ibid, f. 182, . . .181 

66. Drillia Griffitkii, Gray (= crenularis). Ibid., f. 157, . ITS 
6T. Drillia turricula, Sowb. (= Sowerbyi, Reeve). Ibid., 

f. 49, . . .180 

68. Drillia interrupta, Lam. Ibid., f. 51, . . . .181 

69. Drillia Tayloriana, Reeve (crenularis, Lain.). Ibid., 

f. 366 a, 178 

70. Drillia maura, Sowb. Ibid., f. 47, .... 181 

71. Surcula brunneomaculata, Sowb. Proc, Zool. Soc" 

1873, t. 59, f. 8, 236 

72. Drillia splendidula, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 60, 200 

73. Drillia impages, Ad. and Reeve. Toy. Samarang, t. 9, 

f. 10, . 184 

74. Drillia militaris, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 55, . 181 

75. Drillia Appclii, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 20, 

f. 50, 193 

76. Drillia seminifera, Gould (= interrupta). Moll. Wilkes 

Exped., f. 312, . 181 

7T. Surcula duplicata, Sowb. (= olivacea). Reeve, Icon., 

f. T8, 237 

PLATE 11. 

78. Drillia alabaster, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 65, . 179 

79. Drillia Cagayanensis, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 329, . 180 

80. Drillia regia, Beck. Reeve, Icon., f. 75, . . 201 

81. Drillia variabilis, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1878, t. 50, 

f. 2, 180 

82. Drillia umbilicata, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 97, . 1T9 

83. Drillia spectrum, Reeve. Ibid., f. 222, . . .200 

84. Drillia Sinensis, Hinds. Ibid., f. 153, . . . .201 

85. Drillia putillus, Reeve. Ibid., f. 219, . . . .200 

86. Drillia fucata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 169, . . . .189 

87. Drillia tessellata, Reeve (= formosa, Rve.), f. Ibid., 

f. 331, 186 

88. Drillia Japonica, Lischke. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 19, 

f. 8, 202 

89. Drillia sacra, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 183, . . . 201 

90. Drillia intermaculata, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

t. 19, f. 19, 202 

91. Drillia Saulcydianus, Recluz (= umbilicata). Jour, de 

Conch., ii, t. 5, f. 6, 179 

92. Drillia variabilis, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1878, t. 56, 

f. 3, .180 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 391 

FIGURE. PURE. 

93. Drillia paria, Reeve (= fucata, Reeve). Ic^n., f. 334, 189 

94. Drillia intertincta, Smith (= Sinensis, Hinds). Kiister, 

t. 22, f. 8a, . . 201 

95. Drillia clavata, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 132, . .190 

96. Drillia peradmirabilis, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

t. 19, f. 12, 201 

97. Drillia albicincta, Ad. and Reeve (= putillus). Voy. 

Samarang, t. 10, f. 6, . . . . . 200 

98. Clatburella semigranosa, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 346, 290 

99. Drillia flavonodiilosa, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

t. 19, f. 21, 202 

100. Drillia subobliquata, Smith. Ibid., f. 16, . . .203 

1. Drillia obliquata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 262. . . 203 

2. Drillia raricostata, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 1. 19, 

f. 18, 202 

3. Drillia longispira, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, t. 19, 

f. 14, 202 

4. Drillia humilis, Smith. Ibid., f. 20, . . . . 203 

5. Drillia Metcalfei, Angas (= Sinensis). Proc. Zool. Soc., 

18U7,t. 13, f. 16, . . . . . . . 201 

6. Drillia Coxi, Angas (= Sinensis, Hinds). Ibid., f. 15, 201 , 

7. Drillia denseplicata, Danker. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

23, f. 7, 203 

8. Drillia candens, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, t. 19, 

f. 17, 203 

9. Drillia spicata, Hinds (= Sinensis, Hinds). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 231, 201 

10. Drillia robusta, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 204, . . 180 

PLATE. 12. 

11. Drillia consimilis, Smith (= Sinensis, Hds.). Zool. 

Proc*., 1879, t. 19, f. 11, 201 

12. Drillia obliquicostata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 168, . 204 

13. Drillia crocata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 174, . . . . 204 

14. Drillia exarata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 201, . . . .204 

15. Drillia palliata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 193, . . . .204 

16. Drillia aquatilis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 177, . . . 204 

17. Drillia varicosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 1416, . . . 205 

18. Drillia castanea, Reeve. Ibid., f. 191, .... 177 

19. Mangilia lucida, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., xliv, 

t. 8, f. 15, 257 

20. Drillia acuminata, Mighels. Ibid., f. 14, . . . 190 

21. Drillia obeliscus, Reeve. Icon., f. 175, . . . 205 

22. Drillia rugifera, Sowb. (= nigerrima, Sowb.). Reeve, 

Icon.,f. 127, . 196 

26 



392 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. . PAGE. 

23. Drillia Solomonensis, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, t. 

30, f. 6, 205 

24. Drillia Wilmeri, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1878, t. 50, 

f. 4, 205 

25. Drillia Awamoaensis, Hutton. Specimen, . . . 208 

26. Drillia baetica, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon , f. 167, . 193 

27. Drillia bicanalifera, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 103, . . 177 

28. Drillia Schilling!, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 16, 

f. 7, 193 

29. Drillia minutissima, Garrett. Proc. Phila. Acad., 1873, 

t. 2, f. 30, 207 

30. Drillia Montere} T ensis, Stearns. Proc. Calif. Acad., v, 

t. 1, f. 2, 184 

31. Drillia lauta, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 15, f. 18, 206 

32. Drillia pusilla, Garrett (= D. exilis, Pease). Proc. 

Philad. Acad., 18J3, t. 2, f. 31, 206 

33. Drillia papillosa, Garrett. Ibid., f. 29, . . 207 

34. Drillia pyramidata, Kiener. Reeve, Icon., f. 41, . . 205 

35. Drillia subauriformis, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1879, t. 19, 

f. 23, 207 

36. Drillia fortilirata, Smith. Ibid., f. 22, . . . . 207 

37. Drillia aemula, Angas (= Trailli). Proc. Zool. Soc., 

1877, t. 5, f. 9, 206 

38. Drillia moesta, Carpenter. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 30, 

f. 5, 183 

39. Drillia erosa, Schrenck, f. Amurl. Moll., t. 17, f. 7, . 184 

40. Drillia penicillata, Carpenter (= inermis). Kiister, 

Conch. Cab., t. 28, f. 1, 182 

41. Drillia incisa, Carpenter. Specimen, .... 182 

42. Drillia rosea, Quoy (= Novaezelandise). Voy. Astrol., 

t. 35, f. 10, . ... 184 

43. Drillia inermis, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 64, . . 182 

44. Drillia Novaezelandiae. Reeve, Icon., f. 143, . . 184 

PLATE 13. 

45. Drillia sinuosa, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 307, . 180 

46. Drillia Patagonica, d'Orb. Martens, Mittheil., t. 8, f. 3, 208 

47. Drillia Patagonica, d'Orb. Voy. Amer. Merid., t. 77, 

f. 15, 208 

48. Drillia Studeriana, Martens. Mittheil., t. 8, f. 2, . 209 

49. Drillia Hemphilli, Stearns. Calif. Proc., v, t. 1, f. 3, . 185 

50. Drillia pica, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 61, . . 190 

51. Drillia rosacea, Reeve. Ibid., f. 166, . . . .179 

52. Drillia regukris, Reeve. $. Ibid., f. 326, . . .189 

53. Drillia irnpressa, Hinds. Ibid., f. 200, . . . .189 

54. Drillia coccinata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 299. . . .188 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 393 

FIGURE. .PAGE. 

55. Drillia pudica, Hinds. Ibid., f. 199, . . . .189 

56. Drillia ebur, Reeve. Ibid., f. 275, . . . .188 

57. Drillia albicostata, Sowb. Ibid., f. 62, ... 205 

58. Pleurotoma Pateliana, Weink. Kiister, Conch. Cab., 

t. 12, f. T. 169 

59. Drillia crispata, Reeve (= Loprestiana). Icon., f. 156, 209 

60. Drillia corusca, Reeve. Icon/, f. 89, .... 209 

61. Drillia Dalli, Verrill and Smith. Trans. Conn. Acad., 

v, t. 57, f. 1, 181 

62. Daplmella Carpenteri, Verrill and Smith. Ibid , f. 2, . 310 

63. Drillia callosa, Val. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 104, . 192 

64. Surcula sinistralis, Petit. Ibid., f. 81, . . . 240 

65. Drillia fuiva, Hinds. Ibid.,f. 237, . . . .210 

66. Drillia Loprestiana, Calcara. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

13, f. 8, . . . 209 

67. Drillia pyramidata, Kiener. Kiener, Iconog., t. 21, f. 4, 205 

68. Drillia ctirbonaria, Reeve (= callosa, Val.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 145, ... .... 192 

69. Drillia Kennicotti, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 16, 

f. 2, 209 

70. Drillia Barkliensis, Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1869, t. 

19, f. 3, ... 192 

71. Drillia strigata, Sowb. (= Barkliensis). Proc. Zool. 

Soc., 1873, t. 59, f. 9, 192 

72. Drillia vexillum, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 264, . . 209 

73. Drillia Mariei. Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1872, t. 2, f. 5, 190 

74. Drillia incrassata, Sowb. (=Bottae, ValA Reeve, Icon., 

f. 76, 192 

75. Drillia digitalis, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 138, . .191 

76. Drillia Lamberti, Montr. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., iv, 

t. 2, f. 10, . . 198 

77. Drillia Rougeyroni, Sonverbie (= Barkliensis). Jour. 

de Conch., 1874, t. 7, f. 1, 192 

PLATE 14. 

78. Drillia maura. Kiener (= Cerithoidea, Cpr.). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 23, f . 1 194 

79. Drillia aterrima, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 100, . 194 

80. Drillia discors, Sowb. (= aterrima). Ibid., f. 38, . 194 

81. Drillia pardalis, Hinds. Ibid., f. 196, . . . .195 

82. Drillia quadrifasciata, Gray. Ibid., f. 251, . . . 195 

83. Drillia Melchersi, Menke (= aterrima). Specimen, . 194 

84. Drillia zonulata, Reeve (= aterrima). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 39, 194 

85. Drillia rudis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 53 191 

86. Drillia luctuosa, Hinds. Ibid., f. 149, . . . .195 



394 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

87. Drillia scarabaens, Reeve, f. Ibid., f. 353, . . .195 

88. Drillia rustica, Sowb. (= nigerrima). Ibid. ,f. 91, . 196 

89. Drillia unicolor, Sowb. (= nigerrima). Ibid., f. 92, . 196 

90. Drillia excentrica, Sowb. (== rudis, Sowb.) Ibid., f. 58, 191 

91. Drillia nigerrima, Sowb. Ibid., f. 102, . . . 196 

92. Drillia paxillus, Reeve. Ibid., f. 285 194 

93. Drillia torosa, Carpenter. Specimen, .... 183 

94. Drillia Harfordiana, Reeve (== nigerrima, var.). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon.,f. 93, 194 

95. Drillia Hondurasensis, Reeve. Ibid., 318, . . .194 

96. Drillia flavescens, Reeve. Ibid., f. 178, . . .194 

97. Drillia fuscescens, Gray. Ibid., f. 125, . . . 193 

98. Drillia cuprea, Reeve (= fuscescens, Gray). Ibid., f. 

140, 193 

99. Drillia harpularia, Desmoul. Ibid., f. 124, . . . 193 
100. Drillia bicolor, Sowb. Ibid., f. 40, . . . .196 

1. Drillia granulosa, Sowb. Ibid., f. 90, .... 196 

2. Drillia zebra, Lam. Ibid., f. 135, . . . .196 

3. Drillia Dysoni, Reeve. Ibid., f. 315, . . . .198 

4. Drillia Lysidia, Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch. Colum- 

bella, t. 26, f. 16, 198 

5. Drillia albinodata, Reeve (= zebra, Lam.). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 352 196 

6. Drillia zebra, Lam, Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 23, f. 4, . 196 

7. Drillia collaris, Sowb. (= zebra). Reeve, Icon., f. 120, 196 

8. Drillia pallida, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 134, . .196 

9. Clathurella monilifera, Sowb. Thes. Conch., i, t. 40, f. 

177, 278 

10. Drillia cinerea, Weink. (== zebra). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab., t. 23, f. 1, 196 

11. Drillia albomaculata, Orb. (= zebra). Orb., Moll. Cuba, 

t. 24, f. 16, . 166 

12. Drillia ornata, Orb. (= zebra). Ibid.,t. 23, f. 26, . 196 

PLATE 15. 

13. Drillia nigrescens, Gray (= fuscescens). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 235, 193 

14. Drillia mucronata, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 328, . . 198 

15. Drillia zebroides, Weink. (= zebra). Kiister, Conch. 

Cab.,t. 2:5, f. 8, 1% 

Hi. Drillia Clionellfleformis, Weink. Ibid., t. 23, f. 5, .198 

17. Drillia rubiginosa, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,f. 226, 199 

18. Drillia pulchra, Gray (= zebra). Ibid., f. 351, . . 196 
r.). Drilh'a canccllata, Gray. Ibid., f. 317, . ' . .197 

20. Drillia nitida, Kiener. Ibid., f. 130, . . . .199 

21. Mangilia papillaris, Hinds. Ibid., f. 335, . . . 256 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 395 

FIGURE. 

22. Drillia cantharis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 272, . . .199 

23. Drillia Pagoda, Reeve. Ibid., f. 242 210 

24. Clathurella tessellata, Hinds. Ibid., f. 244, . . .297 

25. Drillia exihs, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 1. 15, f. 1 9, 206 

26. Drillia donata, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 228, 210 

27. Drillia arata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 267, . . . 210 

28. Clathurella lemniscata, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1875, t. 7,f. 11,. . . . . . . 297 

29. Clathurella Nassoides, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 259, 296 

30. Drillia Pagoda, Reeve (= turns, Reeve). Ibid., f. 344, 210 

31. Clathurella Grayi, Reeve. Ibid., f. 232, . . .296 

32. Mangilia apicata, Gray. Ibid., f. 305, . . .266 

33. Clathurella vuituosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 273, . . .296 

34. Mangilia rubida, Hinds. Ibid., f. 220, . . .271 

35. Mangilia neglecta, Hinds. ' Ibid., f. 218, . . .267 

36. Clathurella compta, Reeve ( = vuituosa, Reeve). Ibid., 

f. 292, . . 296 

37. Mangilia spurca, Hinds. Ibid., f 312, . . .' .273 

38. Mangilia cinerea, Hinds. Ibid., f. 195, . . : 273 

39. Mangilia margaritifera, Gray. Ibid., f. 354, . . 258 

40. Mangilia argillacea, Hinds/ Ibid., f. 317, . .. . 273 

41. Mangilia Candida, Hinds. Ibid., f. 221, . . .273 

42. Clathurella languida, Reeve. Ibid., f. 257, . . .296 

43. Mangilia dsedalea, Reeve (= margaritifera). Ibid., 

f. 355, 258 

44. Mangilia cardinalis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 266, . . .258 

45. 47. Mangilia crassilabrum, Reeve. Ibid., f. 118 a, 6, . 258 

46. Clathurella Hayesiana, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1871, t. 1, 

f. 17, 281 

48. Clathurella concentricostata. Reeve, Icon., f. 279, . 258 

PLATE 16. 

49. Clathurella oxyclathrus, Martens. Martens, Mittheil., 

t. 9, f. 1, . . . . . . .283 

50. Clathurella octangula, Dunker. Dunker, Moll. Japon., 

t. l,f. 18, 283 

51. Clathurella sculptilis, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, 

t. l,f. 19, 282 

52. Clathurella tenuilirata, Angas. Ibid., f. 18, . . 281 

53. Mangilia Bertiniana, Tapp.-Canefri (= rubida). Bull. 

Soc. Zool., Hi, t. 6, f. 7, . . ~ . . .271 

54. Mano-ilia roseotincta, Montrouz, Jour, de Conch., 

1873, t. 4, f. 1, 272 

55. Clathurella Robillai-di, Barclay. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1869, 

t. 19. f. 2, 284 



396 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



56. Glathurella lirata, Reeve, Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 281, 296 

57. Mangilia albicans, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 243, 259 

58. Mangilia albovirgulata, Souv. Jour, de Conch., 1860, 

t. 2, f. 12, 274 

59. Mangilia metula, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 238, 269 

60. Mangilia variculosa, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 194, . 257 

61. Clathurella bicolor, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, t. 

1, f. 20, 284 

62. Mangilia aspera, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 224, 269 

63. Mangilia quisqualis, Hinds. Ibid., f. 230, . . . 257 

64. Mangilia rigida, Hinds. Ibid., f. 216, . . . .269 

65. Mangilia Dorvillise, Gray, f . Ibid., f. 249, . . .267 

66. Clathurella efflcta, Reeve (= vultuosa). Ibid., f. 302, 296 

67. Mangilia cfelata, Hinds. Ibid., f. 241, . . .258 
68,70. Clathurella Delosensis, Reeve (=clathrata, Serres). 

Ibid., f. 365 a, 6, 276 

69. Clathurella nexa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 282, . . .287 

71. Mangilia ericea, Hinds. Ibid., f. 188, . . . .258 

72. Clathurella parvula, Reeve. Ibid., f. 254, . . .288 

73. Clathurella foveolata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 342, . . 288 

74. Clathurella reflexa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 252, . . .288 

75. Clathurella albifuniculata, Reeve (= tincta). Ibid., 

f. 350, . . 292 

76. Clathurella tincta, Reeve. Ibid., f. 347, . . .292 

77. Clathurella obtusa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 356, . . . 294 

78. Clathurella scalaris, Hinds. Ibid., f. 233, . . .287 

79. Clathurella puncticincta, 'Reeve. Ibid., f. 258, . .2^0 

80. Clathurella granicostata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 323, . . 287 

81. Clathurella Philippinensis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 109 a, .287 

82. Clathurella fimbriata, Hinds. Ibid., f. 208, . . 288 

83. Clathurella retusa, Hinds. Ibid., f. 234, . . .290 

PLATE 17. 

84. Clathurella albocincta, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1871, 

t. l,f. 22, 285 

85. Clathurella pustulata, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, 

t. 5, f. 14, . . 285 

86. Clathurella Lallamantiana, Crosse (= Letourneuxiana, 

var.). Jour, de Conch., 1865, t. 11, f. 5, . . . 286 

87. Clathurella Letourneuxiana, Crosse. Ibid., f. 7, . 286 

88. Clathurella rufinodis, Martens (= granicostata). Mar- 

tens, Mauritius, t. 20, f. 2, . . . . . 287 

89. Clathurella zonulata, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, 

t. 13, f. 17, 285 

90. Clathurella bicarinata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 

t. 15, f. 23, ... .... 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 397 

FIQUBE. PAOE. 

91. Daphnella Yincentina, Crosse. Jour, de Conch, 1865, 

t. 11, f. 6, 311 

92. Clathurella modesta, Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1877, 

t. 5, f. 15 285 

93. Clathurella Brenchleyi, Angas. Ibid., f. 12, . . 285 

94. Clathurella gracilispira, Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 

t. 19, f. 25, ... . .286 

95. Clathurella carinulata, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 1875, 

t. 13, f. 6, . . 289 

96. Clathurella rubroguttata, H. Ad. (= tincta). Proc. 

Zool. Soc., 1872, t. 3, f. 25, . 292 

97. Borsonia nigrocincta, Montrouz. Jour, de Conch., 

1873, t. 4, f. 2, 228 

98. Clathurella Brazieri, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1871, t. l,f. 21, 295 

99. Clathurella pulcherrima, H. Adams. Zool. Proc., 1872, 

t. 3, f. 26, .... . 289 

100. Clathurella rufozonata, Ans;as. Zool. Proc., 1877, t. 5, 

f. 13, 285 

1. Lachesis multiplicata, Forbes. (Enl. ?) Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 64 &, 225 

2. Clathurella arctata, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 294, 294 

3. Clathurella Polynesiensis, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 304, 291 

4. Clathurella bilineata, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1871, t.l,f. 23, 288 

5. Clathurella eximia, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 82, 290 

6. Clathurella amabilis, Hinds. Ibid., f. 308, . '. . 287 

7. Clathurella foraminata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 301, . .288 

8. Clathurella micans, Hinds. Ibid., f. 227, . . . 290 

9. Clathurella canaliculata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 348, . . 284 

10. Clathurella cavernosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 303 . . 290 

11. Mangilia fusoides, Reeve (= gracilenta). Ibid., f. 349, 252 

12. Clathurella Hindsii, Reeve. Ibid., f. 119, . . .289 

13. Clathurella glumacea, Hinds. Ibid., f. 240, . .291 

14. Clathurella sculpta, Hinds. Ibid., f. 154, . . . 280 

15. Clathurella tricarinata, Val. Ibid., f 121 6, . .289 

16. Clathurella debilis, Hinds. Ibid., f. 187, . . .282 

17. Clathurella Metcalfiana, Reeve. Ibid., f. 229, . .288 

18. Clathurella felina, Hinds. Ibid., f. 80, . . .292 

19. Clathurella dentifera, Hinds. Ibid., f. 236, . . .291 

20. Clathurella pyramidula, Reeve. Ibid., f. 260, . .286 

PLATE 18. 

21. Mangilia obesicostata Reeve (= Guarani). Conch. 

Icon., f. 265, . . 247 

22. Clathurella angulifera, Reeve. Ibid., f. 360, . . 278 

23. Clathurella cTOrbignyi, Reeve (= candidula). Ibid., 

f. 359, . " . ... 278 



398 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE, 

24. Clathurella candidula, Reeve. Ibid., f. 358, . . 278 

25. Clathurella clathrata, Reeve (= candidula). Ibid., f. 361, 278 

26. Clathurella turbinelloides. Reeve. Ibid., f. 295, . . 280 

27. Clathurella macrostoma, Reeve. Ibid., f. 362, . . 279 

28. Clathurella occidental, Reeve. Ibid., f. 357, . . 279 

29. Clathurella rubricata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 321, . . 279 

30. Mario-ilia laqueata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 280, . . . 246 

31. Clathurella quadrata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 253, . . 278 

32. Clathurella merita, Hinds. Ibid., f. 148, . . .280 

33. Clathurella Leufroyi, Mich. Ibid., f. 131, . . .276 

34. Clathurella linearis, Mont. Ibid., f. 296, . . .276 

35. Clathurella reticulata, Ren. (= Cordieri, Payr.). Ibid., 

f. 122, 275 

36. Mana:ilia costata, Gray (= trilineata, Ads.). Ibid., f. 

298, 247 

37. Daphnella Forthinensis, Reeve (= accincta, Montg.). 

Ibid., f. 246, 310 

38. Daphnella gracilis, Mont. Ibid., f. 50, . . .312 

39. Daphnella teres, Forbes (= anceps, Eichw.). Ibid., f. 

161, 312 

40. Clathurella purpurea, Blainv. Ibid., f. 136, . . 275 

41. Clathurella purpurea, var. Philberti. Ibid., f. 129, . 275 

42. Clathurella rava, Hinds. Ibid., f. 250, . . .296 

43. Clathurella scalpta, Reeve (=rmonilifera,Sowb.). Ibid., 

f. 338, . . 278 

44. Clathurella Guildingii, Reeve. Ibid., f. 268, . . 279 

45. Daphnella Forbesii, Reeve (= brachystoma, Phil.). 

Ibid., f. 339, ......... 308 

46. Clathurella occata, Hinds. Ibid., f. 197, . . .280 

PLATE 19. 

47. Clathurella Martensi, Novill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1875, t. 7,f. 8, . . 291 

48. Clathurella Blanfordi, Nevill. Ibid., f. 14, . . . 291 

49. Clathurella Smithii, Nevill. Ibid., t. 8, f. 13, . 292 

50. Mangilia apiculata, Montr. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., 

iv, t. 10, f. 2, 273 

51. Mangilia canaliculata, Pease (= rubida, Hinds). Am. 

Jour. Conch., iii, t. 15, f. 17, 271 

52. Clathurella scalarina, Deshayes. Moll. Reunion, t. 12, 

f. 12, 296 

53. Clathurella albostrigata, Baird. Voy. Curacoa, t. 37, 

f. 3, 292 

54. Clathurella cyclophora, Deshayes. Moll. Reunion, t. 

12, f. 19, . . . 292 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 399 

FIGURE. FAiHS. 

55. Clathurella contortula, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1875, t. 7, f. 12, 294 

56. Clathurella Reeveana, Deshayes. Moll. Reunion, 1. 12, 

f. 5, . 291 

57. Clathurella rtigosa, Migh. Donum.Bism., t. 1, f. 5, . 296 

58. Clathurella Enginoeformis, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. 

Beng., 1875, t. 7, f. 9, 294 

59. Clathurella Armstrong!, Nevill. Ibid., f. 13, . .294 

60. Clathurella Masoni, Nevill. Ibid., f. 7, ... 293 

61. Clathurella singularis, Nevill. Ibid., f. 10, . . . 293 

62. Borsonia nigrocincta, Montr. Ibid., f. 6, . . 228 

63. Clathurella producta, Pease. Donum Bismark, t. 1, 

f. 3, 298 

64. Mangilia obesa, Garrett. Phila. Proc., 1873, t. 2, f. 36, 273 

65. Clathurella perplexa, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1875, t. 7, f. 5, 298 

66. Clathurella dsedalea, Garrett. Proc. A. N. S. Philad., 

1873, t. 2, f. 33, .. . . 294 

67. Clathurella clandestina, Deshayes. Moll. Reunion, t. 

12, f. 15, . . . 298 

68. Clathurella pumila, Mighels. Donum Bism., t. 1, f. 2, 298 

69. Clathurella infrasulcata, Garrett ( cavernosa). Proc. 

A. N. S. Phila., 1873, t. 2, f. 35, . . . . 290 

70. Clathurella maculosa, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 

15, f. 16, . ....... . . .293 

71. Clathurella Nagasakiensis, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1879, 

t. 19,f..l3, . 286 

72. Clathurella semilineata, Garrett (= granosa, Dunker). 

Phila. Proc., 1873, t. 2, f. 37, 295 

73. Clathurella Darnleyensis, Brazier. Specimen, . . 256 

74. Clathurella punctifera, Garrett. Phila. Proc, 1873, t. 

2, f. 39, 293 

75. Clathurella tumida, Pease (= Reeveana, Desh.). Am. 

Jour. Conch., iii, t. 15, f. 14, . . . . . 291 

PLATE 20. 

76. Clathurella, purpurata, Souv. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., 

i, t. 11, f. 8, 298 

77. Mangilia Montrouzieri, Souv. Ibid., f. 7, . . . 273 

78. Clathurella torquata, Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 26, f. 14, 275 

79. Clathurella scabrum, Jeffreys (= Cordieri, Payr.). 

Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., ii, t. 5, f. 9 6, . . 275 

80. Clathurella affinis, Dall. Calif. Proc., v, t. 2, f, 7, . 281 

81. Clathurella violacea, Pease (= clandestina, Desh.). 

Am. Journ. Conch., iii, t. 15, f. 15, . . . .298 

82. Clathurella Antillarum, d'Orb. Cuba, t. 24, f. 2, . 279 



400 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PA OK 

83. Clathurella Auberiana, d'Orb. (= rubricata, Reeve). 

Cuba, t. 24, f. 5, 279 

84. Clathurella elatior, d'Orb. Cuba, t. 23, f. 35, . .279 

85. Clathurella Lavalleana, d'Orb. (= Antillarum). Cuba, 

t.24, f. 7, 279 

86. Daphnella amoena, Sars. Moll. Norv., t. 17, f. 10 a, . 313 

87. Clathurella Caribaea, d'Orb. Cuba, t. 23, f. 32, . .279 

88. Clathurella Vespucciana, d'Orb. (= Antillarum). Cuba, 

t. 24, f. 13, 279 

89. Clathurella labiosa, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1871, t. 75, f. 9, 292 

90. Clathurella pulchella, Garrett (= purpurascens, Dkr.). 

Phila. Proc., 1873, t. 2, f. 32, 298 

91. Clathurella Canfieldi, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, t. 

15, f. 9, . 280 

92. Clathurella Jewetti, Stearns i= plicata, Ads.). Proc. 

Phila. Acad., 1873, p. 346, 277 

93. Clathurella Candeana, d'Orb. Cuba, t. 24, f. 10, . 279 

94. Mangilia subula, Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 211, . . 270 

95. Clathurella inflexa, Martens. Mittheil., t. 21, f. 10, . 280 

96. Clathurella pinguis, Garrett (= Malleti, Recluz). 

Phila. Proc., 1873, t. 2, f. 38, 297 

97. Daphnella polita, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 150, . . 311 

98. Mangilia sordida, Reeve. Icon., f. 286, . . . 254 

99. Clathurella caelata, Garrett. Phila. Proc., 1873, t. 2, 

f. 34, 295 

100. Clathurella Malleti, Recluz. Jour, de Conch., iii, t. 10, 

f. 2, 297 

1. Mangilia hexagonalis, Reeve. Reeve. Icon., f. 293, . 251 

2. Mangilia nitens, Hinds. Ibid., f. 189, .... 253 

3. Mangilia pseudocarinata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 256, . . 254 

4. Mangilia obeliscus, Reeve (= hexagonalis). Ibid., f. 56, 251 

5. Mangilia opalus, Reeve. Ibid., f. 274, . . . 253 

6. Daphnella ignifera, Reeve. Ibid., f. 214, . . .302 

PLATE 21. 

7. Daphnella JEgeensis, Forbes (= turgida, Forbes). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 164, 308 

8. Bela septangularis, Montg. Ibid., f. 322, . . .223 

9. Bela Ginnaniana, Scacchi (? = septangularis). Ibid., 

f. 45, . . . 223 

10. Mangilia Sicula, Reeve. Ibid., f. 1, . . . .244 

11. Daphnella Isevigata, Phil. (= nebula). Ibid., f. 291, . 307 

12. Mangilia Bertram!!, Payr. Ibid., f. 46, . . .244 

13. Mangilia tseniata, Desh. Ibid., f. 351, .... 243 

14. Clathurella lineolata, Gray. Ibid., f. 337, . . .295 

15. Daphnella abyssicola, Forbes. Ibid., f. 157, . . .309 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 401 

PAGE. 

16. Daphnella minuta, Forbes. Ibid., f. 158, . . .309 

17. Mangilia Vauquelini, Payr. Ibid., f. 108, . . 243 

18. Mangilia rigida, Reeve (= Vauquelini). Ibid., f. 40, 243 

19. Daphnella striolata, Scacchi (= costulata, Bl.). Ibid., 

f. 320 309 

20. Daphnella nebula, Mont. Ibid., f. 198, . 307 

21. Daphnella Cycladensis, Forbes (= braehystoma, Phil.). 

Ibid., f. 289 308 

22. Drillia affinis, Gray (= flavescens. Reeve). Ibid., f. 

309, .194 

23. Daphnella Lceviana, Forbes (== costulata, Blainv.). 

Ibid., f. 290, 309 

24. Daphnella attenuata, Mont. Ibid., f. 248, . . . 308 

25. Daphnella turgida, Forbes. Ibid., f. 163, . . .308 

26. Mangilia cavernosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 8, . . . 251 

27. Mangilia Dysoni, Reeve. Ibid., f. 29 247 

28. Mangilia planilabroides, Try on (= planilabrum, Rve.). 

Ibid., f. 43, 263 

29. Daphnella fortis, Forbes (== turgida, Fbs.). Ibid., f. 

165, . .308 

30. Mangilia pentagonalis, Gray. Ibid., f. 255, . . 246 

31. Mangilia trifasciata, Gray (= bilineata, C. B. Ad.). 

Ibid., 1. 297, 247 

32. Mangilia luteofasciata, Reeve (= albovittata, Ad.). 

Ibid., f. 239, ' . .248 

33. Daphnella hyalina, Reeve, Ibid., f. 287, . . .301 

34. Mangilia undaticosta, Reeve. Ibid., f. 284, . .251 

35. Mangilia bella, Hinds. Ibid., f. 146, . . . .249 

36. 37. Daphnella pessulata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 115 a, 6, .311 

38. Mangilia formicaria, Sowb. Ibid., f. 247, . . .250 

39. Daphnella plumbea, Hinds. Ibid., f. lol, . . .300 

40. Mangilia symmetrica, Reeve. Ibid., f. 340, . . 247 

41. Mangilia badia, Reeve. Ibid., f. 60, . . . . 247 

PLATE 22. 

42. Bela secalina, Phil, (septangularis). Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 

26, f. 9, . 223 

43. Daphnella cerina, Kurtz and Stimpson. Shells N. 

Eng., t. 2, f. 2, 310 

44. Mangilia rngulosa, Phil. Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 26, f. 8, . 245 

45. Daphnella braehystoma, Phil. Ibid., f. 10, . . . 308 

46. Mangilia Guarani, d'Orb. Voy. Amer., t. 77, f. 14, . 247 

47. Mangilia luctuosa, d'Orb. Cuba, t. 23, f. 29, . . 246 

48. Mangilia Fairbankii, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1875, t. 7, f. 2, 270 



402 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

49. Daphnella decussata, Phil. (= nuperrima, Tiberi). 

Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 26, f. 23, . . . . 307 

50. Mangilia brevis, Pease ( cithara, Gould). Am. Jour. 

Conch., iii, t. 15, f. 11, . . . . . .263 

51. Mangilia gemmulata, Deshayes (= interrupta, Reeve). 

Moll. Reunion, t. 12, f. 8, 2G5 

52. Mangilia fulvocincta, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 

1875, t. 7,f. 1, . .252 

53. Mangilia multilirieolata, Deshayes. Expl. Moree, 1. 19, 

f. 46 244 

54. Daphnella variegata, Carpenter. Specimen, . . 300 

55. Mangilia splendlda, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1867, t. 19, 

f/24, 255 

56. Mangilia interlirata, Stearns. Cal. Proc., iv, t. 1, f. 10, 248 

57. Daphnella interfossa, Carpenter. Specimen, . . 310 

58. Mangilia Coppingeri, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1881, t. 4, 

f/2, 255 

59. Daphnella fulgurans, Krauss. Sudaf. Moll., t. 6, f. 11, 311 

60. Mangilia robusticostata, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1879, t. 

19, f. 28, . . . . . . . . . .255 

61. Mangilia insculpta, Ad. and Angas. Zool. Proc., 1863, 

t. 37, f. 8, 256 

62. Mangilia costulata, Dunker. Moll. Japon., t. 1, f. 20, . 255 

63. Mano-ilia trivittata, Ad. and Reeve (=,pellucida). Moll. 

Samarang, t. 10, f. 9, 266 

64. Clathurella apicalis, Montr. (= felina, Hinds). Jour. 

de Conch., 3d ser.,i, t. 11, f. 6, 292 

65. Mangilia coniformis, Souverb. (= Souverbiei)_ Jour. 

de Conch., 1875, t. 13, f. 5, 264 

66. Mangilia v'ittata, Hinds. Yoy. Sulph., t. 9, f. 3, . . 269 

67. Mangilia angulosa, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1871, t. 75, 

f. 10, . . . . . . . . .256 

68. Mangilia flavescens, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1877, t. 5, 

f. 11 256 

69. Mangilia scalata, Souverb. (= angicostata). Jour, de 

Conch., 1874, t. 7, f. 4, 252 

70. Mangilia Leuckarti, Dunker (== costulata). Moll. 

Japon., t. 1, f. 1, 255 

71. Mangilia Deshayesii, Dunker. Ibid., t. 1, f. 3, . .256 

72. Mangilia picta, Ad. and Angas. Zool. Proc., 1863, t. 

37, f. 7, 256 

73. Daphnella Jacksonensis, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1877, t. 

5, f. 10, .311 

PLATE 23. 

74. 75. Mangilia interrupta, Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 16 a, &, 265 
76. Mangilia pura, Reeve. Ibid., f. 63, . . . 254 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 403 



77. Mangilia, lineata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 42, . . . . 253 

78. Mangilia pallida, Reeve. Ibid., f. 34, . . 25^ ^ 

79. Mangilia zonala, Reeve. Ibid., f. 15, . . . . 254 

80. Mangilia iivida, Reeve. Ibid., f. 28, .. . 253 

81. Dapimella casta, Hinds. (== Reeveana, Tryon). Ibid., 

f. 55, . ...... . . 305 

82. Mangilia gracilis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 13, v, . 267 

83. Mangilia fulva, Reeve (= lutescens, Reeve). Ibid., 

f. 271, ......... 253 

84. Mangilia castanea, Reeve. Ibid., f. 48, ... 255 

85. Mangilia angicostata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 327, . . .252 

86. Mangilia semen, Reeve. Ibid., f. 333, .... 254 

87. Mangilia plaiiilabrum. Ibid., f. 88, . . . 263 

88. Mangilia contracta, Reeve (= gracilenta). Ibid., 

f. 116, ......... 251 

89. Mangilia clara, Reeve. Ibid. , f . 190, . . . .252 

90. Clathurella albibalteata, Reeve (= Cumingii, Powis). 

Ibid., f. 84, ........ 283 

91. Clathurella Tritonoidcs, Reeve. Ibid., f. 85, . . 283 

92. Mangilia cylindrica, Reeve. Ibid., f. 9 b, . . 267 

93. Mangilia pyramidalis, Reeve. Ibid., t. 5, f. 1.3, . . 261 

94. Mangilia oryza, Hinds. Ibid., f. 37, . . . . 259 

95. Mangilia vitrea, Reeve. Ibid., f. 300, .... 254 

96. Mangilia Zebuensis, Reeve (== derelicta, Rve.). Ibid., 

C, 68, ......... .266 

97. Dapimella urnnla, Reeve. Ibid., f. 245, . . .306 

98. Mangilia gracilenta, Reeve. Ibid. , f . 114, . . .251 

99. Mangilia cornea, Reeve. Ibid., f. 341, . . .253 
100. Dapimella a3ruginosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 261, . . 311 

1. Mangilia Stromboides, Reeve. Ibid., f. 33, . . . 264 

2. Mangilia fnsiformis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 19, ... 268 

3. Mangilia elegans. Reeve. Ibid., f 41, . . . 264 

4. Mangilia conohelicoides, Reeve. Ibid., f. 25, . . 262 

5. Mangilia ponderosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 44, . . . 262 

PLATE 24. 

0. Mangilia vittata, Reeve (= exqnisita, Smith). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 53, ....... 269 

7. Mangilia gracilis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 13 a, ... 267 

8. Mangilia vexillum, Reeve. Ibid., f. 2 a, . . . 265 

9. Mangilia cylindrica, Reeve. Ibid., f. 9 6, . . . 267 

10. Mangilia reticnlata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 17, . . 262 

11. Mangilia balteata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 57, ... 247 

12. Mangilia Antillarum, Reeve. Ibid. , f . 4ft, . . .261 

13. Mangilia c} r tharella, Lam. Ibid., f. 5, . . . . 257 

14. Mangilia lyra, Reeve (= cytharella). Ibid., f. 3, . 257 



404 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

15. Mangilia gracilis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 11 a, . . . 267 

16. Mangilia funiciilata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 7, . . . 267 

17. Mangilia Columbelloides, Reeve ( Marginelloides). 

Ibid., f. 246 261 

18. Man^ilia pusilla, Reeve ( = funebris, Reeve). Ibid., 

f. 50, 251 

19. Mangilia abyssicola, Reeve. Ibid., f. 30 a, . . . 260 

20. Mangilia pulchella, Reeve. Ibid., f. 18 a, . . .265 

21. Mangilia lyrica. Ibid., f. 206, . . . . .268 

22. Mangilia Marginelloides, Reeve. Ibid., f. 6 a, . .261 

23. Mangilia turricula, Reeve. Ibid., f. 53, . . .268 

24. Mangilia tribbosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 21, . . . 266 

25. Mangilia Novae-Hollandiae, Reeve (= gibbosa, Rve.). 

Ibid., f. 27, 266 

26. Mangilia astricta, Reeve. Ibid., f. 59, ... 260 

27. Mangilia funebris, Reeve. Ibid., f. 32, ... 251 

28. Mangilia angulata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 62, ... 259 

29. Mangilia cincta, Reeve. Ibid., f. 69, . . . . 259 

30. Mangilia derelicta, Reeve. Ibid., f. 66, . . . 266 

31. Mangilia pellucida, Reeve. Ibid., f. 61, . . . 266 

PLATE 25. 

32. Mangilia Delacouriana, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1872, 

t. 2, f. 4, 263 

33. Mangilia daedalea, Pease (= debilis, Pse.). Am. Jour. 

Conch , iii, t. 15, f. 13, . . . . . .270 

34. Mangilia angela, Ad. and Angas. Zool. Proc., 1863, 

t. 3, f. 21, 267 

35. Mangilia Balansai, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1873, t. 

5, f. 5, 264 

36. Mangilia bella, Ad. and Angas (= Boakei, Nevill). 

Zool. Proc., 1863, t. 37, f. 6, 270 

37. Mangilia decussata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 

15, f. 10, 263 

38. Clathurella alba, Desh. Moll. Reunion, t. 12, f. 17, .296 

39. Daphnella varicifera, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii., 

t. 15, f. 21. 301 

40. Mangilia Isseli, Nevill. Jour. Bengal, 1875, t. 7, f. 17, 272 

41. Daphnella dentata, Sou verb. Jour, de Conch., xviii, 

t. 14, f. 5, 305 

42. Mangilia dubiosa, Nevill. Jour. Bengal, 1875, t. 7, 

f. 18, 264 

43. Mangilia cithara, Gould. Wilkes Exped. Moll., f. 3 6, 263 

44. Mangilia gradata, Nevill. Jour. Bengal, 1875, t. 7, f. 15, 262 

45. Mangilia Richardi, Crosse (= reticulata, Rve A Jour. 

de Conch., 1872, t. 2, f. 3, 262 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 405 

F GURE. FAOE. 

46. Mangilia onager, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 18*75, t. 

13, f. 4, . . .272 

47. Mangilia Guestieri, Souverb. (= reticulata, Rve.). 

Jour, de Conch., 1873, t. 4, f. 8, . . . . 262 

48. Man^ilia Isseli, var. cernica, Nevill. Jour. Bengal, 

1875, t, 7,f. 16, . . . . 272 

49. Daphnella compta, Ad. and Angas. Zool. Proc., 1863, 

t. 37, f. 5, . . 306 

52. Mangilia unilineata, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, 

t. 30, f. 13, 272 

51. Mangilia triticea, Kiener. Iconog., t. 27, f. 3, . . 268 

50. Mangilia interstriata, Smith. Jour. Linn. Soc., xii, t. 

30, f. 13, ... 272 

53. Mangilia biclathrata, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 1873, 

t. 4, f. 4, 272 

54. Daphnella trivaricosa. Martens. Mauritius, t. 20, f. 1, 305 

55. Daphnella crenulata, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 

15, f. 20, 304 

56. Clathurella subzonata, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1879, t. 19, 

f. 27, 284 

57. Daphnella vitrea, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., 1873, 

t. 3,f. 60, .303 

58. Borsonia Giliberti, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., 1874, t. 

7, f. 2 . . . . .228 

59. Clathurella fuscobalteata, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1879, t. 

19, f. 26, 284 

60. Daphnella Lymneiformis, Kiener. Iconog., t. 22, f. 3, . 300 

61. Daphnella aspera, Carp. Specimen, .... 317 
. 62. Daphnella gracilior, Hemphill. Specimen, . . .317 

63. Daphnella filosa, Carp. Specimen, . . . .317 

PLATE 26. 

64. Mangilia abyssicola, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 30 &, . 260 

65. Mangilia bicolor, Reeve. Ibid., f. 31, . . . . 268 

66. Mangilia pessulata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 38, ... 260 

67. Mangilia Hornbeckii, Reeve. Ibid., f. 47, . . . 248 

68. Mangilia Reevei, Try on (== crassilabrum, Reeve). Ibid., 

f. 36, . . .' 265 

69. Mangilia lamellata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 12, . . . 265 

70. Mangilia tenebrosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 26 a, . . . 260 

71. Mangilia obesa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 14, . . . 262 

72. Mangilia maculata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 22 a, . . 259 

73. Mangilia capillaeea, Reeve. Ibid., f. 10, . . . 263 

74. Mangilia fasciata, Gray. Ibid., f. 52, . . . .269 

75. Daphnella saturata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 213, . . . 303 

76. Clathurella Cumingii, Powis. Ibid., f. 110 a, . . 283 



406 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

77. Daphnella aureola, Reeve. Ibid., f. 212, . . .302 

78. Daphnella flammea, Hinds. Ibid., f. 210, . . .302 

79. Mano-ilia coniformis, Gray. Ibid., f. 67, . . . 264 

80. Daplmella delicata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 310, . . .301 

81. Daplmella pluricarinata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 288, . . 304 

82. Daphnella hyalina, Reeve-. Ibid., f. 280, . . .301 

83. Clathurella fenestrata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 319, . . 283 

84. Daphnella Ticaonica, Reeve. Ibid., f. 270, . . .304 

85. Daphnella axis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 3-11, .... 304 

86. Daphnella hyalina, Reeve. Ibid., f. 269, . . .301 

87. Daphnella aegrota. Reeve. Ibid., f. 276, . . . 305 

88. Daphnella ornata, Hinds. Ibid., f. 209, . . .302 

89. Daphnella patula, Reeve (== Lymneiformis). Ibid., f. 

215, . . . . 300 

90. Daplmella fragilis, Reeve (= Lymneiformis, var.). 

Ibid., f. 179, 300 

91. Clathurella lactea, Reeve (== tricarinata, Rve.). Ibid., 

f. 123o, 289 

92. Daplmella Boholensis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 112 a, . .301 

93. Daphnella Lymnseformis, Kiener. Ibid., f. 325, . . 300 

94. Daphnella crebriplicata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 313, . . 305 

95. Daphnella Daphnelloides, Reeve (=:marmorata, Hinds). 

Ibid., f. 206, 302 

96. Daphnella casta, Hinds. Ibid., f. 336, . . . .300 

97. Daphnella olyra, Reeve. Ibid., f. 207, . . . .306 

98. Daphnella inquinata, Reeve. Ibid., f. 283, . . .304 

PLATE 27. 

1. Daphnella tessellata, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad., t. 3, 

f. 61, 1873, 303 

2. Daphnella millegrana, Garrett. Ibid., t. 3, f. 59, . . 303 

3. Lachesis pellis-phocse, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

263, 225 

4. Lachesis multiplicata, Forbes (= minima). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 364, .224 

5. Daphnella varicosa, Sonverbie. Jour, de Conch., 1874, 

t. 7, f. 3, 305 

6. Pieurotoma clavulus, Sowb. (= Columbella, Manual, v. 

184). Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 106. 

t. Mangilia Goodalli, Gray. Ibid., f. 58, . . . .260 

8, 9. Clathurella Rissoides, Reeve. Ibid., f. Ill a, 6, . 281 

JO. Manp-ilia solida, Reeve. Ibid., f. 64, . . . .274 

11. Mangilia marmorosa, Reeve. Ibid., f. 54, . . . 272 

12. Mangilia Celebensie, Hinds. Ibid., f. 49, . . .260 
l:;. Mangilia nana, Reeve (= cincta, Reeve). Ibid. , f. 71. . 2;V.) 
14. Mangilia triticea, Kiener. Ibid., f. 128, . . . 268 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 401 

FIGURE. i'AGfi. 

15. Daphnella fusiformis, Garrett. Proc. Philad. Acad.,t. 

3, f. 58, 1873, 303 

16. Daphnella curta, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iii, t. 15, 

f. 22, 304 

17. Mangilia cinnamomea, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

39, 266 

18. Bela Groenlandica, Reeve (= B bicarinata, Couth.). 

Ibid., f. 343, 214 

19. Mangilia coronata, Hinds,. Ibid., f. 51, . . .260 

20. Bela viridula, Moll. (= Col. Holbolii, Beck). Ibid., f. 

306, 223 

21. Bela scalaris, Vahl (= decussata). Ibid., f. 277, . 217 

22. Bela turricula, Montg. Ibid., f. 162, . . .219 

23. Daphnella dormitor, Sowb. Sowb., Thes. Conch., i, t. 

40, f, 173, 318 

24. Mangilia digitalis, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 70, . . 268 

25. Bela leucostoma, Reeve (= decussata). Ibid., f. 278, 217 

26. Bela livida, Moll. (= Bela bicarinata, Couth.). Ibid., 

f. 316, . . .214 

27. Bela Molleri, Reeve ( concinnula, Yerrill). Ibid., 

f. 324, . 220 

28. Bela Lyciaca, Forbes. Ibid., f. 160, . . . .221 

29. Bela decussata, Macg. (= Trevelyana). Ibid., f. 159, 221 

30. Bela Vahlii, Moll. (= pyramidalis). Ibid., f. 332, . 215 

31. Bela rugulata, Moll. (= bicarinata). Ibid., f. 345, . 214 

PLATE 28. 

32. Bela bicarinata, Couth. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 16, f. 12, 214 

33. Bela violacea/Mighels (= bicarinata). Ibid., 1. 17, f. 2, 214 

34. Bela violacea, var. levior, Sars (= bicarinata). Ibid., 

t. 17, f. 3, 214 

35. 36. Bela tenuicostata, Sars (= decussata). Ibid.,t. 17, 

f. 16, a, . 217 

37. Bela harpularia, var. rosea, Sars (= turricula). Ibid., 

t. 23, f. 10, 219 

38. Bela declivis, Loven. Ibid., t. 16, f. 10, ... 218 

39. Bela scalaroides, Sars (= turricula). Ibid., t. 23, f. 7, 219 

40. Bela pyramidalis, Strom. Ibid., t. 16, f. 3, . . . 215 

41. Bela nobilis, Moller (= turricula). Ibid., t. 16, f. 19, . 219 

42. Bela nobilis, juv., Sars (= Americana). Ibid., t. 16, 

f. 20, . ..220 

43. Mangilia imperfectum, Folin. Meleagrinicoles, t. 5, 

f. 17, 250 

44. Bela assimilis, Sars (= turricula). Sars, Moll. Norv., 

t. 23, f. 8, 219 

45. Bela harpularia, Sars (= turricula). Ibid., t. 16, f. 17, 219 

27 



408 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIOUBJB. PAGB. 

46. Bela angulosa, Sars (= cancellata, Moll.). Ibid., t. 

16, f. 16, . 218 

47. Bela pyramidalis, var. semiplicata. Ibid., t. 16, f. 4, . 215 

48. Bela cinerea, Moller. Ibid., t. 23, f. 4, ... 218 

49. Bela cancellata, Sars (= Sarsii, Verrill). Ibid., t. 23, 

f. 3, 218 

50. Bela obliqua, Sars. Ibid., t. 16, f. 6, . . . .219 

PLATE 29. 

51. Bela harpularia, Couth. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 43, 

f. 14, 219 

52. Bela expansa, Sars. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 17, f. T, .216 

53. Bela elegans, Moll. (= cancellata). Ibid., t. 16, f. 15, 218 

54. Bela concinnula Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 43, 

f. 15, 220 

55. Bela decussata, Couth. Ibid., t. 43, f. 13, . . . 217 

56. Bela simplex, Middendorff (== Schantarica). Reise, t. 

12, f. 16, . 214 

57. Bela mitrula, Loven (= turricula). Sars, Moll. Norv., 

t. 23, f. 9, . . 219 

58. Pleurotomella Agassizi, Yerrill and Smith. Trans. 

Conn. Acad., v, t. 57, f. 3, 316 

59. Pleurotomella Packardi, Verrill. Ibid., t. 43, f. 9, . 316 

60. Bela pygmsea, Verrill (= decussata). Ibid., t. 57, f. 8, 217 

61. Bela conoidea, Sars. Moll. Norv., t. 16, f. 14, . . 221 

62. Pleurotomella Pandionis, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., 

v, t. 57, f. 4, . . . . 316 

63. Taranis pulchella, Verrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 

57, f. 17, 315 

64. Bela Pingeli, Moller. Ibid., t. 43, f. 16, ... 217 

65. Bela incisula, Verrill (= decussata). Ibid., t. 43, f. 12, 217 

66. Taranis Morchi, Malm. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 17, f. 8, . 315 

67. Bela cancellata, Mighels. Trans. Conn. Acad., v, t. 43, 

f. 10, . . .218 

68. Bela Gouldii, Verrill (= Americana, var.). Ibid., t. 57, 

f. 6, 220 

69. Bela hebes, Verrill (= decussata). Ibid., t. 57, f. 7, . 217 

PLATE 30. 

70. Mangilia Godeffroyi, Folin. Meleagrinicoles, t. 5,f. 12, 250 

71. Clathurella nodosa, Folin. Ibid., t. 5, f. 15, . . 299 

72. Mangilia leucolabratum, Folin. Ibid., t. 5, f. 13, . 250 

73. Clathurella pustulosa, Folin. Ibid., t. 5, f. 14, . . 298 

74. Mangilia Carpenteri, Folin. Ibid., t. 5, f. 11, . . 250 

75. Mangilia hirsutum, Folin. Ibid., t. 5, f. 16, . . 270 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 409 



FIGURE. 

76. Mangilia amabilis, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc., xliii, t. 

l,f. 11, ......... 273 

77. Clavatula sacerdos, Reeve. Jahf. Mai. Gesell., x, t. 3, 

f. 10, .......... 229 

78. Drillia umbilicata, Gray. Ibid., t. 3, f. 5, . . .179 

79. Drillia callosa, Val. Ibid., t. 3, f. 3, . . . .192 

80. Drillia tripter. Maltzan. Ibid., t. 3, f. 1, . . .208 

81. Drillia consociata, Smith. Ibid., t. 3, f. 4, . . .192 

82. Surcula pluteata, Reeve. Ibid., t. 3, f. 7, . . 240 

83. Clavatula ferruginea, Maltzan (= rubrifasciata, Rve.). 

Ibid., t. 3, f. 8, ........ 229 

84. Clavatula Colini, Maltzan. Ibid., t. 3, f. 9, . . . 230 

85. Drillia Isevisulcata, Maltzan (= coccinata, Reeve). 

Ibid., t. 3, f. 6, ........ 188 

86. Daphnella mediofasciata, Maltzan (= nebula, var.). 

Ibid , t, 3, f. 12, ....... 307 

87. Mangilia subclathrata, Maltzan. Ibid., t. 3, f. 13, . 245 

88. Mangila Struckii, Maltzan. Ibid., t. 3, f. 14, . .245 

89. Daphnella Senegalensis, Maltzan. Ibid., t. 3, f. 15, . 310 

90. Drillia ballista, Maltzan. Ibid., t. 3, f. 2, . . . 208 

91. Mangilia Goreensis, Maltzan. Ibid., t. 3, f. 11, . .246 

92. Bela pleurotomaria, Couth. Gould, Invert. Mass., f. 

625, ....... . . .215 

93. Bela turricula, Montg. Ibid., f. 620, . . . .219 

94. Bela Kobelti, Verk. (=decussata). Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., 

iii, t. 4, f. 5, ........ 217 

95. Lachesis Turqueti, Velain. Arch. Zool. Exper., vi, t. 

2, f. 18, ......... 226 

96. Bela Isevigata, Dall. (= Schantarica). Am. Jour. 

Conch., vii, t. 16, f. 7, ... . 214 

97. Bela gigas, Beck (= Schantarica). Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., 

ii, t. 8, f 6? ........ 214 

98. Clathurella plicata, Adams. Gould, Invert. Mass., f. 

619, . ....... 277 

PLATE 31. 

1. Halia Priamus, Meuschen. Reeve, Icon., xiv, fig. 1 d, . 318 

2. Pusionella aculeiformis, Lam. Kiener, Iconog. Fusus, 

t. 29, f. 2, . ....... 234 

3. Pusionella Catelini, Petit (= aculeiformis). Jour, de 

Conch., ii, t. 1, f. 2, . ...... 234 

4. Pusionella buccinatus, Lam (= vulpina, Born.). Kie- 

ner, Iconog. Fusus, t. 8, f. 2, ..... 234 

5. Pusionella Recluziana, Petit (= vulpina). Jour, de 

Conch., ii, t. 1, f. 1, . . . .234 



410 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

MGUOT. 

6. Pusionella albocincta, Petit (= vulpina). Jour, de 

Conch., ii, t. 1, f. 12, 234 

7. Pusionella Milleti, Petit. Jour de Conch., ii, 1. 1, f. 6, ! 235 

8. Pusionella subgranulata, Petit (= Milleti). Jour, de 

Conch., ii, t. 2, f. ], 235 

9. Pusionella valida, Dunker. Novit. Conch., t. 10, f. 1,. 234 

10. Pusionella Candida, Phil. (? = valida). Abbild. iii, 

Fusus, t. 5, f. 7, 234 

11. Pusionella rapnlum, Reeve. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Buc- 

cinum, f. 83, 235 

12. Pusionella. Wallaysii, Petit (= rapulum). Jour, de 

Conch., ii, t. 1,'f. 7 235 

13. 14. Pusionella nifat, Brug. Kiener, Fusus, t. 23, f. 1 

t- 24, f. 2, ' .' I 235 

PLATE 32. 

15. Perrona taxus, Chemn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 10, f. 1, . 231 

16. Pleurotoraa difflcilis, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 19 f . 8 

1879, . . 173 

17. Bela fidicula, Gould. Moll. Wilkes Exped., f. 284, . 222 

18. Bela subluta, Gould. Ibid., f. 286, .... ^22 

19. Drillia tiarella, Kiener (=nigerrima, Sowb.). Iconog., 

t. 3,f. 2, . . . 196 

20. Clathurella granulosissima, Tenison-Woods. Speci- 

men, 282 

21. Lachesis minima, Mont. Jour, de Conch., t. 5, f. 7, 

1868, 224 

22. Lachesis lineolata, Tiberi (= candidissima). Ibid., t. 

5, f. 5, 1868, . 225 

23. Lachesis candidissima, Phil. Ibid., t. 5, f. 4, 18H8, . 225 

24. Lachesis mamillata, Risso (= minima). Ibid., t. 5, 

f. 6, 1868, 224 

25. Lachesis Folinag, Phil. Phil., Moll. Sicil., ii, t. 27, f. 

10, 225 

26. Lachesis meridionalis, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1881, t. 4, 

f- 3, .226 

27. Clathurella sculptilior, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . 282 

28. Daphnella nana, Loven. Forbes and Hanley, Brit. 

Moll.,t. 112, f. 8, 315 

29. Daphnella delicatula, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . 302 

30. Clathurella volutella, Kiener (= inflata). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 25, f. 1, 274 

31. Daphnella teres, Forbes (= anceps, Eichw.). Forbes 

and Hanley, t. 113, f. 2, . . 313 

32. Mangilia albida, Desh. Expl. Moree, t. 19, f. 22, . 245 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 411 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

33. Mangilia Sandriana, Brusina (= Paciniana). Jahrb. 

Mai. Gesell., i, t. 10, f. 5, 243 

34. Clathurella Cordieri, Payr. Payr., Moll. Corse., t. 7. 

f. 11, 275 

35. Bela rufa, Mont. Forbes and Hanley, t. 112, f. 3, . 224 

36. Surcula astricta, Reeve. Weinkauff, Kiister ; t. 9, f. 4, 240 

37. Mangilia coarctata, Forbes and Hanley (= costata). 

Forbes and Hanley, t. 114 a, f. 5, . . . . 244 
38 Drillia crenularis, Lam. Weinkauff, Kiister, t. 10, f. 6. 178 

39. Clavatula patruelis, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 10, 

1879, . .230 

40. Clathurella felina, Hinds. Yoy. Sulphur, t. 7, f. 4, . 292 

41. Drillia acuminata, Migh. Martens, Don. Bism., t. 1, 

f . 1 190 

42. Drillia inermis, Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 5, f. 7, . . 182 

43. Drillia duplicata, Weinkauff (= niaura). Kiister, t. 10, 

f. 9, 181 

44. Drillia lanceolata, Reeve. Martens, Mittheil., t. 8, f. 4 a, 181 

45. 46. Drillia aterrima, Sowb. Weinkauff, Kiister, t. 19, 

f. 1; t. 17, f. 2, 194 

47. Mangilia cserulans, Apellius (= Bertrandi). Bull. Mai. 

Ital., ii, t. 4, f. 1, . . . . . .244 

48. Drillia Beckii , Weink. (= unizonalis). Weinkauff, Kiis- 

ter, t. 13, f. 4, . . 186 

49. Mangilia melanostoma, Garrett ( = angicostata). Proc. 

Philad. Acad., t. 2, f. 40, 1873, . . . > .252 

50. Mangilia pygmaea, Dunker. Moll. Japon., t. 1, f. 8, . 257 

PLATE 33. 

51. Halia Priamus,Meusch. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser.,iii,t. 

5, f. 3, . . - . . . . . . .162 

52. Bela rugulata, Moll. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 8, f. 13 a ; p, 

proboscis ; a, intestine ; r, unciniferous sac, contain- 
ing the radula ; u, poison gland ; 6, its excretory 
canal, 151 

53. Spirotropis carinata, Phil. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 9, f. 11, 155 

54. Pleurotoma babylonia, Linn. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 3, 

f. 12, 154 

55. Bela rugulata, Moll. Sars, Moll. Norv., t. 8, f. 13 c, . 156 

56. 57. Clathurella Leufroyi, Mich. Ibid., t. 8, f. 2 fe, a, . 159 

58. Clionella Buccinoides, Lam. Stinison, Am. Jour. 

Conch., i, t. U, f. 13, 158 

59. Surcula noditera, Lam. Troschel, Gebiss, ii, t. 3, f. 13, 158 

60. Bela rugulata, Moll. (= turricula). Sars, Moll. Norv.,t. 

23, f. 6, . 219 



412 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PACJB 

61. Clathurella formosa, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 44, f. 9, 

1883, 297 

62. Mangilia Companoyi, B.D.D. Moll. Rouss.,t. 15, f. 20, 245 

63. Bela Novaja-Semljensis, Leche. Sven. Handl. , xvi, t. 1, 

f. 15, .215 

64. Bela Americana, Packard. Bost. Memoirs, i, t. 7, f. 11, 220 

65. Bela Trevellyana, Turton. Forbes and Hanley, t. 112, 

f. 2, . .221 

66. Daphnella nebula, Montg., var. laevigata. Jeffreys, 

Brit. Conch., t. 91, f. 3, 307 

67. Lachesis recondita, Brugn. (= vulpecula, Mts.). Brug- 

none, f. 15, 225 

68. Clathurella rude, Phil. (= clathrata, Marcel). Phil., 

Moll. SiciL, i, t. 11, f. 16, ... . 276 

69. Bela impressa, Beck. Leche, Sven. Handl., xvi, t. 1, 

f. 16, 220 

70. Bela Morchi, Leche (= Schantarica). Ibid., t. 1, f. 18, 214 

71. Mangilia bicinctula, Nevill (= Boakei). Jour. As. Soc. 

Beng.,xl, t. l,f. 15 a, 270 

72. Bela Jenisensis, Leche (pyramidalis). Leche, Sven. 

Handl., xvi, t. l,f. 17, 215 

73. Bela exigua, Jeffreys. Zool. Proc., t. 44, f. 10, 1883, . 216 

74. Clathurella semiplicata, Bon. (== stria). Phil, Moll. 

Sicil., ii, t. 26, f. 18, . . 274 

PLATE 34. 

75. Bela Cunninghami, Smith (== subluta\ Zool. Proc., 

t. 4, f. 1, 1881, . .222 

76. Bela Schantarica, Middendorff. Reise, t. 12, f. 18, . 214 

77. Mangilia costata, Forbes and Hanley. Forbes and 

Hanley, t. 114 a, f. 4, 244 

78. Lachesis Japonica, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 29, 1879, 226 

79. Drillia ostrearum, Stearns. Specimen, . . . 197 

80. Pleurotoma virginea, Yal. Kiener, Iconog., t. 21, f. 2, 167 

81. Bela rufa, Gould (= pyramidalis). Gould, Invert. 

Mass., 1st ed., f. 192, . .... 215 

82. Pleurotoma Philipineri, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . 167 

83. Daphnella subvitrea, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 43, 

1879, 314 

84. Mangilia stellata, Stearns. Specimen, . . . 246 

85. Clathurella concinna, , Scacchi. Cat., f. 18, . . .277 

86. Mangilia pyramis, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 147, . . 253 

87. Drillia castanea, Reeve. Weinkauff, Kiister, t. 22, f. 4, 177 

88. Mangilia unifasciata, Desh. Expl. Moree, t. 19, f. 34, 243 

89. Drillia pygmaea, Dunker. Specimen, .... 206 

90. Drillia Traillii, Button. Specimen, .... 206 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 413 

WGUKB. TAQB. 

91. Clathurella Sinclair!, Smith. Specimen, . . .283 

92. Zafra pupoidea, Ad. Zool. Proc., t. 3, f. 27, 1872, . 314 

93. Drillia minuta, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . . 210 

94. Borsonia crassicostata, Pease. Specimen, . . . 227 

95. Daphnella fuscoligata, Dall. Specimen, . . . 301 

96. Mangilia striosa, C. B. Ad. Specimen, . . . 249 

97. Mangilia ordinaria, Smith. Specimen, . . . 250 

98. Clathurella mutica, Hinds. Yoy. Sulphur, t. 7, f. 10, . 286 

99. Clathurella incrusta, Tenison-Woods (= Letourneux- 

iana). Specimen, ....... 286 

100. Daphnella atrostyla, Dall (= cerina, Kurtz and Stimp- 

son, var.). Specimen, 310 

1. Drillia thea, Dall. Specimen, 189 

2. Drillia leucocyma, Dall (= zebra, var.). Specimen, . 197 

3. Surcula olivacea, Sowb. Weinkauff, Conch. Cab., t. 8, 

f. 2, . . . . . . . . .237 

4. Bela Aleutica, Dall. Specimen, ..... 216 

5. Bela Alaskensis, Dall. Specimen, .... 216 

6. Drillia limonitella, Dall. Specimen, .... 320 

7. Pleurotoma Jeddoensis, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

1883, 319 

8. Drillia Bellardi, Jousseaume. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

1883, 320 

9. Drillia Clevei, Jousseaume. Ibid., .... 319 

10. Drillia makimonos, Jousseaume. Ibid., . . .319 

11. Drillia Pouloensis, Jousseaume. Ibid., . . . 319 

12. Mitromorpha Floridana, Dall. Specimen, . . . 317 

13. Conus Cailliaudi, Jay. Ann. N. Y.Lyc., iv, t. 10, f. 8, 319 

14. 15. Daphnella semisculpta, Nevill. Jour. Asiat. Soc., 

t. 8, f. 6,7, 1875, 314 



l 



CONID^E. 



PLATE 2. 




CONIDJE. 



PLATE 3. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 




PLATE 5. 





t ''/?/ 

i/Jr 



CONID^E. 




CONIDvE. 



PLATE 7. 




35 



21 



PLATE 8. 




// 

''UNIVERSITY 



PLATE 9. 




74t 



61 



75 



CONID^E. 



PLATE 10. 




PLATE 11. 




IV-: 




CONIIX-E. 



PLATE 12. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 13. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 14. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 15. 




THE 




CONIDvE. 



PLATE 16. 




Zo 



CONID^E. 



PLATE 17. 




OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 18. 



leu*'*::*/ 

i pr 
{ w* 




76 



PLATE 19. 




UNIVERSITY 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 2O. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 21. 




UNIVERSITY 




CONIIX3E. 



PLATE 22. 




65 



67 




OF TUB 

{[UNIVERSITY. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 23. 




PLATE 24. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 25. 




UNIVERSITY 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 26. 




67 



68 



CONIDJE. 



PLATE 27 t 




UNIVERSITY 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 28. 




PLATE 29. 




CONID^E. 



PLATE 3O. 







100 









or THE 



(UNIVERSITY) 



CONID^E. 



PLATE 31. 





OF THE 



(UNIVERSITY) 



FLEUROTOMroJE. 



PLATE 1. 



i 





OF THE 

((UNIVERSITY 




PLETJROTOMIIXS:. 



PLATE 2. 




16 



FLETJROTOMID^. 



PLATE 3. 




29A. 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 




PLEUROTOMIIxaE. 



PLATE 5. 




70 




OF THE 



ftjKIVEBSITYl 




FLEUROTOMIIXE. 



PLATE 6. 







PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 7. 




PLEUROTOMIIX/E. 



PLATE 8. 




THE 

'UJSTI 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 9. 




51 



55 



FLEUROTOMID-/E. 



FIXATE 10. 




FLEUROTOMIIXE. 



PLATE 11. 




10 



SELIB^ 

or TEE ?/ \ 

WVEKSITY) 

^ A s ^. ^^.? tv. / 



PLETJROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 12. 



11 



17 



i 




FLEUROTOMIDJE. 



PLATE 13. 




71 72 73 



76 77 



OF TBE 

UNIVERSITY 




PLETJROTOMID^. 



PLATE 




79 



81 





84 



78 



80 




578 10 11 12 



FLETJROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 15. 



13 





29 



* 




34 




39 



15 



20 



23 24- 



30 



35 




40 



44- 




45 46 47 



UNIVEESITY 




FLEUROTOMIDJE. 



PLATE 16. 




71 



77 



72 



76 



78 



79 




80 




81 



83 



SE 
OF THE 
7EESIT 
a 




PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE *7. 




80 



PLEUROTOMIDyE. 



PLATE 18. 







f 



22 



23 



24- 








I 

\ 

27 28 29 

j^iie a"b ove figures all enlarged 



31 32 



37 








33 34 35 36 



39 



40 



43 



i 



45 



46 



FUSUROTOMIIxaE. 



PLATE 19. 




PLEXJROTOMID^:. 



PLATE 2O. 



76 



82 



38 







93 




PLETJROTO MHX3E. 



PLATE 21. 




4? I 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 22 





48 



4 



53 



59 




68 69 




PLETJROTOMID^:. 



PLATE 23. 




UNIVERSITY 




PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 24. 




22 



28 29 30 

All figures magnified V 



10 



15 



21 



23 



31 



UNIVERSITY 




FLEUROTOMID^. 



PLATE 25. 




63 



60 



UNIVERSITY 




PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 26. 




93 94- 95 96 97 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 27. 












10 



11 



+ 



13 



15 



* 4 

16 17 



I 



18 



19 






21 






24- 



26 




3 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 28. 




50 



PUEUROTOMIIXE. 



PLATE 29. 




68 



69 



PLETJROTOMIIXaS. 



PLATE 3O. 



85 86 87 90 




92 



93 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 31. 




UNIVERSITY' 




PLEXJROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 32. 




PLEXJROTOMIIXiE 



PLATE 33. 




59 



PLEUROTOMID^E. 



PLATE 34. 




75 




92 



99 




15 



14 DAY USE 

RETURK "-O DESK FROM 



mm 



'* s* *'/&. 

-f^mm , 



^ *b 




053111376 







ra 







/'. 



W* T 

*j 



'T HB ^ ' ? % J %>^ 

^PW '^ 

m&& 



lAff*^,* 1 ii-'.*fli 

SK'.&i*