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Full text of "Manual of conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species"

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LIBRARY SCliNCES 



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MANUAL 



OF 



ONCHOLOGY; 



STRUCTURAL AND SYSTEMATIC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE SPECIES. 



BY GEORGE W, TRYON, JR. 

CONSERVATOR OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OF THB ACADEMY OF NATURAL 
SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 

j& ^ 

&-- 

VOL. VII. 

; ^T;,, Li* " ' >4 :>> 
TEREBKID^E, CANCELLARTID^, STROMBiD^E, CYPR^ID^E, 

OVULID^E, CASSIDID^E, DOLIIDJE. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
Published by the Author, 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES, COR. I9TH & RACE STS. 

1885. 



UBRAKT 




y 



Wm. P. Kildare, Printer, 734 $ 736 Sansom St., Phila. 



MANUAL OF CONCHOLOGY. 




FAMILY TEREBEID^E. 



Shell long, solid, narrow, many-whorled, whorls flattened, 
suture superficial; the aperture small, notched in front, columella 
without plaits. Operculum horny, annular, with apical nucleus. 

Animal having the foot rounded in front, elongated behind ; 
head rather large, with short, small tentacles furnished with eyes 
at their tips ; between the tentacles extends anteriorly a rather 
long cylindrical trunk. Teeth subulate, arcuate, in two lateral 
rows (1-0-1); PL 12, fig. 40. 

The family is now restricted^ the Single genus Terebra (auger- 
shells), including about 170 living species ; the genus Pusionella, 
formerly referred to Terebridae, being now included in the Pleuro- 
tomidae. Troschel, however (Gebiss der Schnecken, ii, 28 ), found 
so much difference in the mouth-parts of the few species of Tere- 
bridae examined by him, that he would have separated them into 
three families, notwithstanding the close relationship of their 
shells, had he not been deterred by the paucity of material for 
study. His three types are as follows : 

1. The mouth-mass at the end of the proboscis furnished with 
arrow-like teeth, as in Conus, and a poison-gland. 

Hastula cserulescens. 

2. No teeth, no venom-gland. Acus muscaria. 

3. The mouth contains a true radula, supported by a lingual 
cartilage, with two rows of side-teeth ; no venom-gland. 

Myurella duplicate,. PI. 12, fig. 40. 

Finally in examining a specimen of T. subulata (representative 
of the restricted group Terebra), Troschel only obtained negative 
results ; seeing no teeth, although the poison-gland was present. 



About 25 fossil species are known, commencing with the 
Eocene. Conrad's genera Pyramitra, Caelatura and Terebri- 
fusus, referred by him to Terebridse, are not members of the 

group* 

The geographical distribution of Terebra is tropical and sub- 
tropical, and the species appear to be inhabitants of shallow 
water principally ; indeed, none have occurred, so far, at great 
depths. 

Gray, in 1834 (Zool. Proceedings, 59), enumerates 42 species, 
excluding those subsequently referred to Bullia ; half of these 
were first described in his paper. He thus groups them : 

I. Whorls with a posterior spiral sulcus, inner lip thin, con- 
cave. 30 species. 

II. Whorls with posterior spiral sulcus, inner lip thickened, 
subelevated. 7 species. 

III. Whorls without posterior sulcus. 5 species. 

Kiener's monograph in his " Coquilles vivantes," contains 35 
species. 

Hinds described many species in the Zoological Proceedings 
for 1843, and he monographed the genus in Sowerby's Thesaurus 
Conchyliorum (i, p. 141 bis to 190, PI. 41 to 45) ; enumerating 
and figuring 109 species. 

Hinds remarks that " The only sectional division of the genus 
that has been attempted, is that of Mr. Gray in the above Pro- 
ceedings. This division is three-fold ; the two first of these 
depend on the presence of the peculiar girdling or division of 
the whorls, and which is very conspicuous in many species, but 
practically I fail to carry it out in detail. Some species also 
are so excessively variable in this character, that M. Kiener has 
described T. castanea as having girdled whorls, but has figured 
it without them. The latter writer has not attempted any 
grouping of the species in his monograph, and as he has done so 
in most cases, we may venture to infer that he did not see room 
for it here. 

" It cannot be denied that among the numerous species are 
several shells which, taken by themselves, would furnish good 
grounds for sectional or even subgeneric divisions. And if we 
take T. maculata as the proper generic type, then T. lanceata, 



TEREBRID^E. 5 

T. armillata and T. commaculata, seem to offer strong points of 
difference, and good grounds for sectional heads. But, with every 
wish to establish some such divisions, I have found it impracti- 
cable so to group the species that there shall be little or no doubt 
which section they belong to ; and unless this object is attained, 
I do not see any use in a division ; science would not be bene- 
fitted merely by selecting the salient points and strong grounds 
of the exceptions, and leaving the crowd to follow as they may." 

H. and A. Adams, in their " Genera of Recent Mollusca," 
include in the family Terebridse the two subfamilies Terebrinae 
and Pusionellinse (the shells composing the latter are now con- 
sidered a group of the family Pleurotomidse). 

They divide the subfamily Terebrinse into two genera : 

Acus, Humphrey. Animal with eyes on the tips of the ten- 
tacles. Whorls without posterior band; aperture emarginate 
anteriorly, not produced into a canal ; columella simple, incurved, 
not tortuous ; outer lip simple, acute, without anterior sinus. 

A. maculata. Linn. 

TEREBRA, Adanson. Eyes at the outer bases of the tentacles. 
Whorls with spiral groove forming a posterior band ; aperture 
very small, canaliculated ; columella tortuous ; outer lip anteriorly 
sinuous. T. babylonia, Lam. 

These characters of the shell shade off into each other by 
gradual transitions, so that they afford no good grounds of divi- 
sion, and the position of the eyes is at the tips of the tentacles 
in all the species that have been examined. The eyes were 
erroneously figured by Quoy and Gaimard, in T. KubulaM, at the 
base of the tentacles, and this supposed peculiarity Messrs. 
Adams have made one of the points of distinction between their 
two genera. In the figure of the animal of T. subulata, in Gould's 
Moll. U. S. Expl. Exped., the eyes are correctly placed. 

In the genus Acus, Messrs. Adams' have the following sub- 
genera : 

ABRETIA, H. and A. Adams. Whorls longitudinally ribbed ; 
columella simple, straight, produced. A. cerethina, Lam. 

HASTULA, H. and A. Adams. Whorls smooth ; columella 
simple, straight, produced anteriorly. A. albula, Menke. 

EURYTA, H. and A. Adams. Turreted, subfusiform, smooth ; 
whorls nodosely plicate, the last rather ventricose ; columella 



6 TEREBRID^E. 

spirally twisted, forming a false umbilicus, pervious to the apex 
of the spire, much produced anteriorly; aperture somewhat 
effuse. A. aciculata, Lam. 

Under Terebra, they admit the subgenus : 

MYURELLA, Hinds. Whorls furnished posteriorly with a tuber- 
culated zone, anteriorly transversely sculptured, or, very rarely, 
smooth ; columella tortuous and produced anteriorly. 

T. affinis, Gray. 

To complete the group of subgenera proposed in Terebridae, I 
here add : 

IMPAGES, Smith. Shell subulate, whorls entire, more or less 
longitudinally striate or punctate, suture indistinctly separated, 
with a narrow callous band above it. This name is substituted 
for LeiodomuSj Gray, not Swainson ; Swainson's group belonging 
to Bullia. The character usually (but not always) obtains in 
the typical T. caerulescens, but in the other species quoted by 
Mr. Smith as members of this group it is mostly absent. 

M. Deshayes, in 1857, described a number of new species in 
the "Journal de Conchyliologie," and in J859 he published, in 
Zool. Proc. London, "A General Review of the Genus Terebra, 
and a Description of New Species." Excluding doubtful and 
unidentified forms, 221 species are enumerated, of which 90 are 
described by this author. 

In the systematic arrangement of the species Deshayes mainly 
follows H. and A. Adams, thus (I add characteristic examples) : 

First Division. (Acus, Humphrey.) 

A. Shell buccinoid. (S. G. EURYTA, Ad.). T. aciculata; Lam. 

B. Shell elongated, subulate. T. Senegalensis, Lam. 
G. Shell subulate, whorls flattened, usually striate at the suture. 

a. Aperture narrow. 

1. Finely striate at the suture. T. cuspidata, Hinds. 

2. Plications continuous from whorl to whorl. 

T. concinna. Desh. 

b. Aperture dilated at the base. 

1. Whorls smooth or finely striate. T. cxrulescens, Lam. 

2. Plications continuous from whorl to whorl. 

T. strigilata, Linn. 



TEREBRID.E. 7 

D. Shell having the aperture oblong, narrow, the whorls numer- 
ous, grooved, plicated or cancellated. (MYURELLA, Hinds.) 
a. A spiral groove nearly equally dividing the whorls. 

T. duplicata, Lam. 
6. Sutural portion (or band) narrow. T. dislocata^ Say. 

Second Division. (TEREBRA, Adams.) 
(No subdivisions). T.oculata, Lam. 

Reeve, who monographed Terebra in 1860, in his " Concho- 
logia Iconica," admits 155 species ; a considerable reduction on 
the number enumerated by Deshayes, nearly half of whose 
species are here made synonyms, after examining their types in 
the Cumingian Collection. Mr. Reeve says : " M. Deshayes was 
induced to undertake the investigation of the genus under circum- 
stances hardly favorable to the proper discrimination of the 
species. Specimens were transmitted to him in Paris, from the 
Cumingian Collection, and his means of comparison with the 
types of Mr. Hinds' species being necessarily limited, many 
that were already named were described by him as new, and 
many were described by him as new that a more extended series 
of specimens would have shown to be merely varieties. Out of 
221 species cited by Deshayes, in his recent memoir, I have 
before me the original types and series of types of 214. All 
the figures of this monograph are drawn from the types them- 
selves, and no subsequently described species is quoted as a 
synonym, except as resulting from an actual comparison with 
the types." Mr. Reeve's monograph is certainly worked up 
with more than usual care and judgment ; nevertheless, he has 
made some erroneous identifications, as will be apparent in the 
course of the following pages. 

In the present monograph, notwithstanding the additional 
species described and figured since 1860, the synonymy is much 
enlarged, and the admitted species reduced to about 120; exclu- 
sive of about 50 species, described but not figured, and there- 
fore not susceptible of identification. 

Agreeing with Mr. Hinds that the species of Terebra cannot 
be advantageously divided into subgenera (with the exception 
of Euryta), 1 have essayed a classification by sections and sub- 



g TEREBRA. 

sections which will perhaps assist in grouping the species, 
although the presence of transitional forms makes the bounda- 
ries rather vague. 

Genus TEREBRA, Adanson. 

A. Whorls smooth, with or without a smooth sutural band, 

defined by a sulcus. 

B. Shell with plicate or tuberculate band below the sutures, 

defined by a sulcus. 
* Whorls plicate. 
** Whorls smooth. 

*** Cylindrically many-whorled ; whorls with revolving 
sculpture, with or without less prominent longitu- 
dinal striae. 

C. No sutural band ; whorls closely plicate or striate next the 

suture, elsewhere plicate or smooth. 

Subgenus EURYTA, Adams. 



Genus TEREBRA, Adanson. 

A. Whorls smooth, with or without a smooth sutural band defined 

by a sulcus. 

T. CRENULATA. Linn. PI. 1, figs. 1, 2, 6. 

Whorls obtusely noduled below the sutures ; carneous cream- 
color, streaked with chestnut irregular lines between the nodules, 
and with three revolving rows of small chestnut spots below, 
two of which appear on the spire-whorls. Length, 3-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean Central Polynesia. 

T.fimbriata, Deshayes (fig. 2) is a variety only, retaining the 
juvenile characters shown by the upper whorls of this and other 
smooth species of Terebra, namely, longitudinal plications and 
a strongly marked sutural band. T. interlineata, Desh. (fig. 6), 
is another example of the long persistence of juvenile characters, 
and may be equally referred here. 

T. TIARELLA, Desh. PI. 12, figs. 38, 39. 

First few whorls plicate, the rest smooth, with spiral impressed 
striae, sutural margin a little swollen and conspicuously nodu- 
lous; fulvous fawn or chocolate-colored. Length, 28-33 mill. 

Cape of Good 



TEREBRA. <) 

T. DIMIDIATA, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 13, 4. 

Reddish orange, banded with oblong spots on a white ground, 
sutural band orange-red ; upper whorls longitudinally plicate, 
lower ones smooth. Length, 3-5-5 inches. 

Singapore, Philippines, Central Polynesia. 

T. splendens, Desh. (fig. 4), from the China Sea, appears to be 
a small variety, the figure being natural size. 

T. MACULATA, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 9, 10. 

Flesh-white, broadly banded with fawn-color, the bands often 
broken up into oblong, close markings, with a band of longitu- 
dinal black-purple strigations next the sutures, and below it a 
second much smaller band of spots or hieroglyphic markings ; 
early whorls often longitudinally plicate ; balance smooth. 

Length, 4'5-6'5 inches. 

Moluccas, Australia, Philippines Central Polynesia. 

Sometimes a spiral impressed line divides off' as a sutural 
band, the upper row of strigations. 

The Polynesians eat the animal, and use the shell shaped to a 
chisel in making canoes. 

T. MUSCARIA, Lam. PI. 1, fig. 12. 

Yellowish white, with a row of oblong bright chestnut spots 
on a sutural band, and two (on the body-whorl three) similar 
rows below it ; the spots are smaller and more widely separated 
than in the preceding species, and the form of the shell is nar- 
rower. Length, 3-6 inches. 

Japan, Philippines Central Polynesia. 

Mr. Tapparone-Canefri's variety callichloros is founded on a 
narrow, brightly colored specimen figured by Quoy in the Voy. 
Astrolabe ; there is no good reason for giving it a name. 

T. CONSORS, Hinds. PL 3, figs. 32-34. 

Shell smooth, the sutural band distinct and obsoletely plicate ; 
whitish, with light chestnut obliquely longitudinal flames, inter- 
rupted on the periphery of the last whorl, below which they 
sometimes coalesce into a broad revolving band. 

Length, 2*75 inches. Society Islands. 

T. uirginea, Desh. (fig. 33), and T. glabra, Desh. (fig. 34), are 
both described from worn specimens in which the coloring is no 



1 TEREBRA. 

longer very apparent, although Reeve has discovered traces of 
it upon the types. 

T. SUBULATA, Linn. PI. 1, fig. 3 ; PI. 3, fig. 35. 

Light flesh-color or yellowish, with two spiral series (on the 
last whorl three), of quadrangular distant chestnut or chocolate 
spots ; upper whorls longitudinally plicate, and with a sutural 
band ; in the later whorls this band is lost, but sometimes the 
whorls are somewhat swollen just beneath the sutures, although 
the impressed line defining the band is obsolete ; surface smooth, 
or with impressed (sometimes minutely punctate) revolving 
lines. Length, 4-6 inches. 

Japan, Moluccas, Philippines, Society Islands, etc. 

Yar. CONSOBRINA, Desh. PI. 3, fig. 35. 

More conically subulate than the type, with the spots smaller, 
the surface distantly encircled by punctate grooves, a sutural 
band slightly indicated. 

Red Sea. 
Barely distinguishable as a variety. 

T. TIGRINA, Gmelin. PI. 1, fig. 11. 

Shell white, with a single row of chestnut spots just above the 
sutures, two rows on the last whorl, of which the lower one, 
near the base, is smaller; surface smooth, an unornamented 
band below the sutures is defined by an impressed line. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Sandwich Islands, Central Polynesia. 

Reeve's locality, West Indies, is erroneous. 

T. OCULATA, Lam. PI. 2, fig. 20 ; PI. 3, fig. 36. 

Orange-brown, with a row of large white spots just below the 
sutures, and a second row below the middle of the body-whorl 
whorls somewhat constricted in the middle. 

Length, 3*5-5 inches. 

Moluccas Viti Islands. 

According to Reeve, who has seen the type, T. nebulosa 
Lorois (fig. 36), is the young of the species ; the name being pre- 
occupied, Deshayes changed it to T. Loroisii 



TEREBRA. ] I 

T. ARGUS, Hinds. PL 2, fig. 24. 

Earlier whorls with a sutural band ; whitish, with three rows 
of regularly disposed oval light fawn-colored spots, four rows on 
the body-whorl. Length, 3-4-5 inches. Marquesas, Tahiti. 

This is T. nebulosa, Kiener, not Sowerby. 

T. ROBUSTA, Hinds. PI. 2, figs. 16, 17, 25. 

Shell stout, with rugose growth-lines, earlier whorls plicate 
and with a sutural band ; whitish, with longitudinal chestnut 
flammules, interrupted by a central white line so as to form two 
spiral series, with an additional basal series on the body-whorl. 

Length, 4-5'5 inches. W. Coast of Central America. 

T. Loroisi, Guerin (not Desh.) = this species, and T. incom- 
parabilis, Desh., is probably a 3'oung individual. T. lingualis, 
Hinds (fig. 17), is also not fully grown, and is a narrow variety 
in which the juvenile characters persist longer than usual. T. 
insignis, Desh. (fig. 25) = it. 

T. CHLORATA, Lam. PI. 11, fig. 21. 

Shell smooth, whorls somewhat flattened, finely crenate towards 
the apex, sutural band defined by a superficial groove ; yellowish 
white, with longitudinal splashes of milky chocolate on and below 
the band, and two interrupted bands of spots of the same color 
upon the body-whorl. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Malacca, Seychelles, Mauritius, Sandwich Is. 

T. Knorri, Gray, is a synonym. 

T. ALBIDA, Gray. PI. 12, fig. 29. 

Whorls smooth, with a sutural band separated by a narrow 
depression ; ivory-white, sometimes faintly stained with rust- 
color. Length, 2 inches. Australia. 

T. FLAMMEA, Lamarck. PI. 2, fig. 26. 

Shell somewhat more slender than the preceding species, the 
oblique growth-lines ridge-like ; usualty a shallow broad groove 
in the middle of the whorls ; with occasional impressed spiral 
lines, of which one which divides the space above the central 
groove is more prominent ; j^ellowish white, interruptedly stri- 
gate with chestnut, often forming two interrupted bands on the 
spire whorls and three on the body-whorl. 

Length, 3'5-5 inches. Indian Ocean, China Sea, Madagascar. 



12 TEREBRA. 

T. ORNATA, Gray. PL 2, fig. 28. 

Shell stout, sutures crenulated towards the apex, with a well- 
defined sutural band ; yellowish white, with three spiral series of 
regular chestnut spots, four on the body-whorl. 

Length, 4'5 inches. 

Galapagos Is. 
T. FORMOSA, Desh. PI. 2, fig. 27. 

Shell rather slender, with a somewhat swollen sutural band 
not clearly separated from the whorls by an impressed line ; 
upper whorls longitudinally plicate ; yellowish white, with small 
chestnut spots on the band, and larger longitudinal markings 
below it, a third inferior series on the body-whorl. 

Length, 2'75 inches. 

Panama. 

Described from a single specimen, and is possibly a young 
variety of T. robusta. 

T. STRIGATA, Sowb. PI. 2, fig. 29. 

Whorls divided by a median groove, the upper ones plicate; 
yellowish white, longitudinally striped with chestnut. 

Length, 3*5-5 5 inches. 

Panama, Realejo. 

Reeve gives Philippines (Gaming) and Moluccas as additional 
localities which need confirmation. It is T. elongata, Wood, 
T. zebra, Kiener, and T. flammea. Lesson. 

T. CERETHINA, Lam. PL 2, fig. 30, 14. 

Upper whorls densely plicate, lower ones becoming smooth, 
with a sutural band bounded by an indistinct impressed line ; 
flesh-white, rather closely longitudinally strigate with flesh-color 
or orange, crossed by several distant narrow revolving lines of 
the same color. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Philippines to Society Is. 

T. pulchra, Hinds (fig. 14), is a synonym. 

T. LANCEATA, Linn. PL 11, fig. 10. 

Whorls smooth, flattened, a little swollen below the sutures, 
earlier whorls plicated ; white, crossed by narrow chestnut longi- 
tudinal streaks, interrupted at the periphery of the body-whorl 
by a white band. Length, 2-2-5 mill. 

Taheiti, Moluccas, Mauritius. 



TEREBRA. 13 

T. PENICILLATA, Hinds. PI. 11, fig. 11. 

Stouter with more convex whorls than the preceding species, 
the longitudinal chestnut lines crowded, much more numerous 
than in T. lanceata. Length, 2 inches. 

Seychelles, Mauritius. 

Kiener figured both this and the succeeding varieties as T. 
lanceata, and von Martens, in his " Conchology of Mauritius," has 
recently so considered them : my material does not support this 
view ; yet their substantial identity is not improbable. 

Yar. VENOSA, Hinds. PI. 11, figs. 12, 13. 

White, banded with light chocolate, with chestnut longitudinal 
lines ; first whorls plicate, the others smooth, divided at the 
upper part by a row of punctures ; sometimes all the whorls are 
plicate. Length, 1-1-5 inches. Indian Ocean. 

Reeve remarks that " when plicately ribbed throughout, the 
shell, like the granulated varieties of Cones, is smaller than when 
it is smooth." One of these small, plicated shells has been 
described by Deshayes as T. Crossei (fig. 13). When the shell 
is plicate upon the lower whorls it appears to be the result of the 
impression of the chestnut streaks, which form the interstices of 
the plicae. 

T. BRAZIERI, Angas. PL 11. fig. 14. 

Narrow, smooth, first whorls plicate, the others somewhat 
tumid or very shortly obsoletely plicate below the sutures ; 
whitish, promiscuously longitudinally veined with chestnut, the 
strigations more numerous on the upper part of the whorls ; 
body-whorl with a white band on the peripher} T , and below it a 
row of chestnut spots, sometimes coalescing into a chestnut 

band. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

New South Wales, Tasmania. 
This is, perhaps, a variety of T. lanceata. 

T. ciRCUMCiNCTA, Deshayes. PL 11, figs. 8, 9. 

White, with a few irregular yellowish streaks ; whorls flatly 
convex, with four to six equidistant, pricked, linear revolving 
grooves. Length, 40 mill. 

Red Sea (Deshayes); Port Curtis, Australia (Stutchbury;. 

Reef e's figure (fig. 9) does not agree well with his description, 
nor with the figure given by Deshayes. 



j^ TEREBRA. 

B. Shell with plicate or tuberculate band below the sutures, 
defined by a sulcus. 

* Whorls plicate. 

T. AFFINIS, Gray. PI. 2, figs. 22, 18. 

Whorls with distinct subsutural band, covered with flat longi- 
tudinal ribs, separated by narrow impressed, often punctate lines ; 
flesh-color, sparingly mottled with light chocolate or chestnut 
oblong markings and with a few distant revolving lines of the 
same color. Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 

Philippines, Seychelles, Viti Isles. 

It is T. eburnea, Hinds (fig. 18), T. striata, Quoy, T. pertusa, 
Kiener, var. 
T. VARIEGATA, Gray. PL 2, figs. 15, 19, 21, 23; PL 1, figs. 5, 7, 

8; PL 3, figs. 31,37,38. 

-Spirally grooved, more or less longitudinally plicate on the 
upper, sometimes on all the whorls, sometimes becoming granular 
at the intersections of the sculpture, a swollen callous band below 
the sutures ; whitish, marked with chestnut between the plica- 
tions of the band, strigated with chestnut below it, with a 
central white band on the body-whorl, beneath which is a second 
series of strigations. Length, 2*5-3'25 inches. 

Mazatlan, Guaymas, Lower and Southern California, 

Panama, Galapagos Is., China, Sea, W. Africa. 
T. armillata, Hinds (figs. 21,23), T. Hupei, Lorois (fig. 5), 
T. aspera, Hinds (fig. 7), T. Petiveriana, Desh. (fig. 31), and T. 
glauca, Hinds (fig. 19), are synonyms. The following unfigured 
species, described by P. P. Carpenter, and which are smaller than 
the type, being but little over an inch in length, may constitute 
a minor variety. They occur at Mazatlan and extend northwards 
to Southern California : T. albocincta, T. Hindsi, T. subnodosa, 
T. rufocinerea; T. simplex, from Sta. Barbara and S. Pedro, Cal. 
Yery probably the more northern distribution of this form of an 
essentially tropical genus will account for the smaller size of the* 
specimens occurring on the California Coast ; they are precisely 
like T. variegata of the same size and number of whorls, but 
seem not to grow larger. 

To the above numerous synonyms from the West Coast of 
America are to be added T. albicostata, Adams and Reeve (fig. 



TEREBRA. 1 o 

8), from China Sea, and T. Africana, Gray, T. intertincta, Hinds 
(tig. 37), and T. marginata, Desh. (fig. 38), from West Africa. 
There can be little doubt of the identity of these species with 
T. variegata, and of the extensive distribution thus indicated it 
is paralleled in other species of the genus as will be seen 
hereafter. 

T. GOULDI, Desh. PL 3, fig. 39. 

Whorls with a subsutural, nodulous band, closely longitu- 
dinally plicate below it ; yellowish white, two-banded with very 
pale chestnut, three bands on the body-whorl. 

Length, 2-5 inches. Sandwich Islands. 

T. aciculina, Kiener, var. (t. 7, f. 13 a), is probably a young 
shell of this species. 

T. CONCINNA, Desh. PI. 12, figs. 31, 32. 

Longitudinally finely plicated throughout, with a suturai band 
defined by a groove ; yellowish flesh-cplor, the ribs lighter, with 
a row of chestnut spots below the suture. Length, 40 mill. 

Japan. 

T. Dillwyni, Desh. (fig. 32), is a synonj^m. Reeve erro- 
neously made T. concinna a synonym of T. strigilata, Linn., 
and Pease changed the name to T. divisa on account of Euccinum 
concinnum, Dillwyn. 

T. MARMORATA, Desh. PI. 12, fig. 34. 

Longitudinally plicate, pricked in spiral series in the inter- 
stices, the upper and more profound row indicating a suturul 
band ; whitish, somewhat tessellated with large chestnut blotches, 
darker-spotted on the suturai margin, with a white band on the 
periphery of the body-whorl. Length, 1 '25-1*5 inches. 

Port Curtis, Australia (Stutchbury). 

T. BADIA, Desh. PI. 3, fig. 40. 

Chocolate-colored, including the interior; longitudinally pli- 
cated, including a subsutural band, body-whorl somewhat ven- 
tricose, with several spiral granular striae on the lower part. 

Length, 2'5 mill. 

China. 

It is T. castanea, Hinds, not Kiener; altered by Deshayes as 
above, and by Reeve to T. ligneola. 



16 TEREBRA. 

T. SENEGALENSIS, Lam. PL 3, figs. 41-45 ; PL 12, fig. 33. 

Shell with a subsutnral band, surface varying from nearly 
smooth, showing only longitudinal flexuous growth-stria?, to 
longitudinally plicate; yellowish white, more or less inter- 
ruptedly three-banded with pale or dark chestnut or chocolate, 
four or five bands on the body-whorl; sometimes the darker 
coloring suffuses the entire surface. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Senegal, etc., West Africa. 

It is T. striatula, Lam., T. fu.scomacula.ta, Sowb. ; probably 
T. pugio, Gmel., T. f estiva, Desh. (fig. 45), T. speciosa, Desh. 
T. raphanula, Lam. (PL 12, fig. 33), said to occur at Amboina, 
has the markings somewhat tessellately arranged ; a good series 
of specimens easily connect it with the typical coloring. 

T. CINGULA, Kiener. PL 12, figs. 2T, 28. 

First whorls plicately ridged, the rest smooth, with a more or 
less defined sutural band ; light fawn-color, encircled by two or 
three rows of chestnut blotches, forming interrupted bands. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Senegal (Kiener) ; St. Christopher, W. I. (Miller). 

Closely allied to, and perhaps only a variety of, the preceding 
species. It is T. fatua, Hinds (fig. 28), the latter being simply 
more faded in coloring. 

T. PURA, Deshayes. PL 12, fig. 30. 

Whitish, shining; obsoletely banded at the suture by an 
impressed groove, obliquely longitudinally plaited, plaits rather 
distant, thin, gradually fading towards the aperture. 

Length, 2*5 inches. 

m Zanzibar. 

T. TROCHLEA, Desh. PL 12, fig. 35. 

Longitudinally plicate, a depressed sutural band separated by 
a broad, profound sulcus, from the rest of the whorl, which is 
convex, this band is nodulous, the nodules becoming evanescent 
on the last whorl; maculate and flammulate with chestnut and 
white. Length, 65 mill. 

T. DUSSUMIERI, Kiener. PL 3, figs. 46-48. 

Closely narrowly longitudinally plicate, the ridges becoming 
partially obsolete on a subsutnral band; pale chestnut with a 



TEREBRA. 17 

white band below the middle of the whorls, and whitish on and 
just below the band. Length, 3-4 inches. 

China, Japan. 

Too close!}' allied to T. duplicata, Lam. The white band, 
however, is rather broader, the plications narrower, sharp-edged 
and partially obsolete on the band which is somewhat concave. 
T. evoluta, Deshayes (fig. 47), described from a single specimen 
in the Cumingian Collection, appears to be only a slight varia- 
tion of the typical form ; another variety is T. Bernardii, Desh. 
(fig. 48). 

T. DUPLICATA, Linn. PL 4, figs. 49-51. 

Flatly longitudinally ribbed, divided by an impressed line 
below the sutures, forming a sutural band ; grayish or blush- 
white to chestnut or chocolate, with a single narrow median 
white band. Length, 2'5-3*5 inches. 

Moluccas, Singapore, Zanzibar, Madagascar, 

China to Viti Islands, etc. 
T. Eee^ei, Deshaj'es (fig. 50;, is a colorless example. 

Yar. JJAMARCKII, Kiener. Fig. 51. 

The white band filleted with chestnut or purplish spots in a 
single somewhat distant series. 

T. ANOMALA, Gray. PL 12, fig. 36. 

Smooth, polished, whorls plicate above, divided by an im- 
pressed, punctate line near the suture; cinereous or fawn-color, 
lighter on the sutural band, with a whitish band on the periphery. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

Singapore, 7 fms. (Cum ing). 

Reeve confounded this species with the shell which he erro- 
neously refers to aciculina, Lam., and which must stand as 
wirulina, Reeve Lamarck's shell being a synonym of T. 
dnerea, Born. The -present species is readily distinguished by 
its sutural band. 

T. SPECTABILIS, Hinds. PL 4, figs. 52-57. 

Ribs distant, thin, subnodulous above and below a deep 
groove which divides oft' a sutural band ; leaden or chestnut- 



I g TEREBRA. 

brown, usually nearly white on the sutural band, and with a 
central white band on the body-whorl. Length, 1-25-2 inches. 
Guinea (Humphreys); Sumatra (Cuming); 

Tasmania (Woods). 

T. Jukesii, Desh. (fig. 54), appears to me to be a synonym; 
as are also T. addita, Desh. (fig. 55), T. geminata, Desh. (unfig- 
ured), probably T. Kieneri, De^h. (fig. 56), and T. gracilis, 
Reeve, not Gray (fig. 57). 
T. LONGISCATA, Desh. PI. 4, fig. 58. 

With a sutural band defined by a groove, strongly plicately 
ribbed, the ribs rather angular, the interstices with elevated 
revolving striae ; livid fuscous gray. Length, 27 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming). 
T. USTULATA, Desh. PI. 4, fig. 59. 

Sutural band depressed, longitudinally ribbed ; pale chestnut 
or whitish, the depressed band and lower half of the body-whorl 
darker brown. Length, 32-38 mill. Tasmania. 

In coloring and form somewhat like the next species. 

T. GEMMULATA, Kiener. PI. 4, figs. 61, 62. 

Shell longitudinally, narrowly, distantly plicate, plicae curved, 
terminating in nodules below the groove of the sutural band, 
the band also bearing a single row of nodules ; yellowish white, 
the lower row of nodules white, with a rather broad white band 
on the middle of the body-whorl, below which the whorl is 
smooth and chestnut-colored. Length, 45 mill. Chili. 

Reeve, who saw the original specimen of the unfigured T. 
Chilensis, Desh., adds it to the synonymy. Yery probably T. 
Patagonia, d'Orb. (fig. 62), should be added as a colorless 
specimen. 

T. DISLOCATA, Say. PI. 4, figs. 63-67, 69 ; PI. 12, fig. 31. 

Longitudinally plicate, spirally grooved ; sometimes the 
grooves are only perceptible between the plicae, in others they 
decussate the latter into granules ; sutural band nodulous ; colu- 
mella recurved, ridged ; gray, brownish white or light yellowish, 
with usually a white-banded periphery. Length, 25-35 mill. 

North Carolina to West Indies. 

The certain synonyms are T. rudis, Gray (fig. 69), T. Petiti. 



TEREBRA. 19 

Kiener (fig. 64), and T. Souleyeti, Desh. (fig. 65). I think it 
probable that T. larvaeformis, Hinds (figs. 66, 67), of the West 
Coast of Central America, should also be here referred ; I cannot 
detect any specific differences. T. Sowerbyana, Desh. (PL 12, 
fig. 31), from West Africa, appears to be also identical. 

T. MARIESI, E. A. Smith. PL 4, fig. 68. 

Longitudinally costate, with traces of spiral lines, the costse 
ending in tubercles below the also tuberculate sutural band ; 
yellowish brown, variegated with reddish brown. 

Length, 45 mill. 

Japan . 

Very closely allied to the preceding species, but narrower. 
The aperture appears to be imperfect in the specimen figured. 

T. JEFFREYSII, E. A. Smith. PL 4, fig. 60. 

Longitudinal riblets about 20, fine, oblique, decussated by 
spiral striae, about 5 on a whorl, the two uppermost strife widest 
apart forming two nodulous bands next the suture ; yellowish, 
dotted with light brown between the two series of nodules, and 
streaked with the same color beneath, body-whorl with a pale 

central zone. Length, 25 mill. 

Japan. 

This, the preceding and following species, should probably 
be united. 

T. SUBTEXTILIS, Smith. PL 4, fig. 70. 

White ; with about twenty costse, and ten spiral strise, three 
of the latter upon the nodulous sutural band. Length, 37 mill. 

Japan. 

See remarks under preceding species. 

T. BIFRONS, Hinds. PL 4, fig. 71. 

Fawn-brown, obscurely rufous-banded ; whorls somewhat con- 
vex, encircled with four rows of pale granules, last whorl many- 
grained ; sutural band only faintly indicated by a concavity, 

instead of a groove. Length, 2 inches, 

Japan. 

T. AMCENA, Deshayes. PL 5, fig. 73. 

Turreted, rather narrow ; yellowish, with red spots on the 



2Q TEREBRA. 

sutural band ; longitudinally closely plicate, spirally linearly 
grooved, the sutural band separated by a pricked groove. 

Length, 35 mill. 

China (Desh.) ; A 7 . Caledonia (Brazier). 

T. BLANDA, Desh. PI. 5, fig. 72. 

Shell transparent white, dotted with chestnut on the sutural 
band, apex purple; no revolving sculpture; aperture somewhat 

fusiformly produced below. Length, 30 mill. 

Japan. 
T. PULCHELLA, Deshayes. PI. 5, fig. 74. 

Light yellowish brown, stained with rust-color, with a white 
peripheral band; whorls concave, arcuately plaited, without 
spiral striae, subsutural groove crenate. Length, 43 mill. 

China. 
T. TEXTILIS, Hinds. PL 5, figs. 75, 76. 

Yellowish white ; closely plicated, with fine spiral lines, with 
two bands of plicae below the suture. Length, 35 mill. 

Japan ; Sts. Macassar ; Sandwich Islands. 
T. nodularis, Desh. (fig. 76), is a synonym. 

T. CCELATA, Adams and Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 77. 

Surface sharply granulated by longitudinal and spiral sculp- 
ture ; transparent white. Length, 41 mill. 

China. 

Has the form of the preceding species, from which it is, per- 
haps, insufficiently distinguished by the non-development of the 
inferior band of tubercles. 

T. TORQUATA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 78. 

Longitudinal plicae narrow, raised, interstices spirally striate- 
latticed ; next the suture are two nodulous bands, separated by 
a sulcus, the periphery is subangulated and slightly nodulous on 
the angle, between this and the sutural band the surface is some- 
what concave ; fawn-colored, the sculpture lighter, a white band 
below the periphery. Length, 44 mill. * 

Japan. 
A very distinct, beautiful species. 

T. BICINCTA, Hinds. PI. 5, fig. 79. 

White ; with thin longitudinal plicae, and no spiral sculpture ; 



TEREBRA. 21 

sutural band tuberculate, and with the plicae below it cut into a 
couple of revolving rows of tubercles. Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 
Described from a unique specimen in the Cumingian Collection. 

T. COPULA, Hinds. PL 5, fig. 80. 

Chestnut or olive-brown, plications paler, sutural band with 
oblique chestnut spots ; no revolving sculpture ; periphery with 
two indistinct narrow white bands. Length, 35 mill. 

Guinea. 
T. EXIGUA, Desh. PL 5, fig. 89. 

Shell chestnut or chocolate-brown, strongly latticed by close 
sculpture ; sutural band distinctly marked ; aperture rather pro- 
duced below. Length, 15-18 mill. 

E. Coast of Australia; Andaman Is. 

T. VENILTA, Tenison-Woods. PL 5, fig. 88. 

Yellowish white, zoned with a pale chestnut line ; whorls sub- 
coronate, with narrow oblique curved plications, and more or 
less indistinct fine spiral striae. ; subsutural area divided by a 
punctate groove. Length, 42 mill. 

Port Jackson, N. S. Wales. 

T. ROSEATA, Adams and Reeve. PL 5, fig. 90. 

Interstices of the ribs linearly grooved, sutural band defined 
by a punctate groove ; columella laminated, twisted ; rose-color. 

Length, 28 mill. 

Soolo and China Sea. 
T. SWAINSONI, Deshayes. PL 5, fig. 81. 

Light roseate, nearly white on the sutural band, the interstices 
of the ribs smooth, or obscurely striate, polished. 

Length, 20-32 mill. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Possibly identical with the preceding species. Pease has 
described a variety inflexa. The same author has described 
(but not figured) a T. sulcata, which he sa} r s may prove to be a 
distant form of T. Swainsoni. 

m 

T. ELATA, Hinds. PL 5, fig. 82. 

Spirally linearly grooved between the longitudinal plications, 
the beaded sutural band separated by a well-impressed groove ; 



22 TEREBRA. 

chestnut-white or brownish white, with a darker band below the 
periphery. Length, 23 mill. 

Panama and Bay of Montija, Cent. Am. 

T. CANCELLATA, Quoy. PI. 5, figs. 83, 84, 86 ; PI. 6, figs. 92-97, 
100-3, 6. 

Yellowish white, orange, chestnut or chocolate-color, the nodu- 
lous sutural band white, often with a white band below the 
periphery; plications close, rounded, curved, the narrow inter- 
stices closely striate ; margins of aperture as well as the interior 
often stained with a darker color. Length, 44 mill. 

Moluccas, Philippines, Viti Isles, Sandwich Isles. 

M. Deshayes, supposing that the figure in the Thes. Conch, 
(fig. 83) does not represent this species, has called it T. undatella. 
T. livida, Reeve (fig. 86), appears to me to be a form of this species ; 
it comes from the Philippines. T. subangulata, Desh. (fig. 92), 
described from a single specimen, also probably belongs here. 

A slight variety is T. columellaris, Hinds (fig. 93), of which 
T. areolata, Adams and Reeve (fig. 94) is probably a synonym 
as stated by Reeve, although Deshayes considers the two forms 
distinct. 

I add as synonyms T. flavescens, Desh. (fig. 95) ; T. approxi- 
mata, Desh. (fig. 96), which has ruder coarser sculpture, and is a 
stouter shell ; T.flava, Gray (fig. 6), an immature shell ; T. lutes- 
cens, E. A. Smith (fig. 97), founded on Sowerby's figure of T. 
flava in the Thes. Conch., which Mr. Smith considers specifically 
distinct from the figure in Reeve's Iconica; T. puncticulata, 
Desh. (fig. 100) ; T. Peasei, Deshayes (unfigured) ; T. Hindsi, 
Desh. (fig. 1) ; T. Bruguieri, Desh. (fig. 2) ; and T. difficilis, 
Desh. (fig. 3.) 

T. UNDULATA, Gray. PI. 6, figs. 4, 8. 

Ribs rather large, rounded, close, with spiral stria* on the 
narrow interstices, sutural band well-marked, forming a slight, 
nodulous shoulder to the whorls ; yellowish or orange, the inter- 
stices deeper-colored, appearing as though longitudinally stri- 
gate, band white, sometimes white-banded on the periphery ; 
aperture rather narrow, the lips often stained with orange-red. 

Length, 41 mill. Viti Is i ands ^ p hi li ppines . 

Perhaps a variety of the preceding. T. picta, Hinds (fig. 8), 



TEREBRA. 23 

is probably a synonym. T. cinctella, Desh., an unfigured spe- 
cies, is added by Reeve. 

T. PERTUSA, Born. PL 6, figs. 5, 7. 

Longitudinally finely plicate, interstices punctate spirally; 
orange-brown, the interstices of the tubercles on the sutural 
band chocolate. Length, 3 inches. 

Darnley Isl., Australia. 

T. Bermonti, Lorois (fig. 7), is a synonym. It is said to in- 
habit Tahiti. 

T. NEBULOSA, Sowb. PI. 6, fig. 9. 

Longitudinal ribs rounded obtuse, close, curved, interstices 
spirally grooved, sutural band defined by a punctate groove; 
longitudinally clouded with reddish orange and white, with a 
white band on the periphery. Length, 3 inches. Zanzibar. 

T. ALVEOLATA, Hinds. PI. 5, fig. 87. 

Longitudinal plicre curved, the interstices spirally striate ; 
flesh-color, stained with orange-brown, with a row of alternate 
chestnut and white spots on the sutural band, and another on 
the white-banded periphery. Length, 31 mill. 

Straits of Malacca ; Japan. 
Var. GOTOENSIS, Smith. PI. 5, figs. 85, 91. 

Sculpture said to be finer than in T. alveolata, the band on the 
periphery unspotted. From Japan. It is very doubtful whether 
to these forms ought not to be united T. amcena, Desh. 

T. POLYGYRATA, Desh. PL 7, fig. 10. 

Closely ribbed, interstices linearly grooved, sutural band de- 
fined by a pricked groove ; fulvous orange, white at the sutures, 
with a white band on the periphery. Length, 13 mill. 

Philippines (Cuming) ; Japan (Smith). 

A small shell with numerous whorls, perhaps not distinct from 
T. cancellata. 

T. POLYGONIA, Reeve. PL 7, fig. 15. 

Strongly varicosely ribbed, ribs rather distant, interstices 
concave, spirally linearly grooved, sutural band distinct ; fulvous 
brown. Length, 10 mill. 

Hab. unknown (Taylor Coll.). 

I am not acquainted with this species. 



24 TEREBRA. 

T. RADULA, Hinds. PL 7, fig. 17. 

Sutural band and whorls strongly tuberculated by decussating 
sculpture ; reddish chestnut, white at the suture, with a white 
periphery-band. Length, 40 mill. 

Puerto Portrero, W. Coast of Central America, 

13 fms. (Cuming). 
Described from a unique specimen in the Cuiuingian Collection. 

T. VARICOSA, Hinds. PI. T, fig. 12. 

Varicosely distantly ribbed, interstices striately grooved ; 
whorls convex, constricted around the upper part, sutural band 
smooth or tuberculate ; olive-brown, chocolate or white, banded on 
the periphery. Length, 28 mill. 

Gulf of Papagayo, W. Coast of Central America, 

mud, at 23 fms. (Hinds). 
T. TUBERCULOSA, Hinds. PI. 7, fig. 31. 

Shell rather thin, transparent ash, livid purple towards the 
apex, obscurely red-spotted next the suture ; whorls slopingly 
flattened, conspicuously tuberculate on the sutural band, then 
smooth, and finally longitudinally tuberculated, forming an 
anguiated periphery. Length, 2 inches. 

Panama (Cuming) ; San Bias (Hinds). 
T. PLICATA, Gray. PI. 7, fig. 20. 

Yellowish flesh-color; whorls slopingly flattened, the last 
swollen, longitudinally thinly plicated, spirally very finely 
prickly-grooved, sutural band distinct. Length, 2 inches. 

Guayaquil, 7 fms., sandy mud (Cuming). 

Appears to be distinguished chiefly by its stout form. 

T. SPECILLATA, Hinds. PI. 7, fig. 18. 

Latticed by longitudinal and spiral sculpture, whitish, with a 
few large chestnut maculations ; sutural margin irregularly 
chestnut-spotted. Length, 2 inches. 

San Bias, W. Coaxt of Mexico. 

Very closely allied to T. dislocata, Say, and to T. cancellata, 
Quoy, which are possibly identical. 

T. CONSPERSA, Hinds. PI. 7, fig. 13. 

Whitish, irregularly chestnut-spotted on the sutural band, 



TEREBRA. 25 

and chestnut-banded at the base ; plications thin, the interstices 
closely striate spirally. Length, 1 inch. -Philippines. 

T. FICTILIS, Hinds. PL 7, figs. 14, 11. 

Whitish, purple-ash below the periphery, the latter appearing 
as a narrow band at the base of the spire-whorls. 

Length, 15 mill. Australia. 

A beautiful little species, well distinguished by its contrasted 
coloring. T. bicolor, Angas (fig. 11;, is a synonym. 

T. TAYLORI, Reeve. PI. 7, fig. 22. 

Rather stout towards the base, purple ash-color, livid, 
obscurely banded ; sutural band yellowish. Length, 26 mill. 

Torres Straits, Australia. 

The form is swollen below, resembling the preceding species. 

T. MORBIDA, Reeve. PI. 7, fig. 23. 

Stoutly, closely plicate, the sutural band broadly defined by 
a groove ; purplish flesh-color, encircled by faint red spots. 

Length, 15 mill. Hab. unknown. 

The spots do not appear upon Reeve's figure. The type speci- 
men was in the Taylor Collection. 

T. BREVICULA, Desh. PL 7, fig. 24. 

Sutural band swollen, scarcely crenatecl, defined by a broad 
concave depression, below it the body-whorl is slopingly convex, 
somewhat angulated on the periphery, where it is somewhat 
distantly plicately tuberculated ; lead-color, white-banded at the 
suture and on the periphery, the latter filleted with chestnut on 
both margins. Length, 23 mill. Tasmania. 

T. PROTEXTA, Conrad. PL 6, fig. 98. 

Whorls rather convex, with curved, sharp, numerous small 
plications, the interstices smooth or very minutely spirally 
striate, a sutural band is sometimes obscure^ indicated, but is 
usually absent; chocolate, or dark brownish white, chocolate 
within the aperture. Length, 18-25 mill. 

West Coast of Florida. 
T. CONCAVA, Say. PL 7, figs. 25, 26. 

Shell white ; with a prominent row of nodules below the 
suture, and a less prominent row above it, the last forming a 



26 TEREBRA. 

peripheral row on the last whorl ; between these two the surface 
is concave, obsoletely ribbed and finely spirally striated. 

Length, 20 mill. So - Carolina. 

T. frigata, Hinds (fig. 26), is probably a synonym ; it is 
ascribed to Africa (Gray), and Galapagos Is. (Cuming) : both 
localities need confirmation. 

** Whorls smooth. 

T. CORRUGATA, Lam. PL 7, figs. 21, 28, 32. 

Fulvous cream or ash-color, with two or three bands of chest- 
nut spots ; sutural band often lighter-colored, with small chestnut 
spots, tuberculate. Length, 2'25-3 inches. 

Loanda, W. Africa. 

The synonyms are T. regina, Desh. (fig. 28), T. bitorquata, 
Desh. (fig. 32', and T. punctata, Gray. 

T. TESSELLATA, Gray. PL 7, figs. 27, 19. 

Shell whitish, with two rows of oblong chestnut or chocolate 
spots ; whorls concavely flattened, decussated by fine ridges, the 
spiral ones stronger, suture bordered by two tuberculated bands. 

Length, 35 mill. Marquesas (Hinds). 

The description is drawn up from T. ligata, Hinds (fig. 19), 
which appears to be the typical form. T. tessellata, Gray, no 
locality, is from a single specimen in the British Museum ; the 
whorls are said to be smooth, but the resemblance to Hinds' 
species, over which it has priority of description, is striking. 
T. DECORATA, Desh. PL 7, fig. 16. 

Whitish, with two series (on the body-whorl three) of chest- 
nut quadrangular spots; whorls smooth, longitudinally striated, 
marginal band tuberculated. Length, 28 mill. 

Pidang, Sumatra. 

Reeve figures this species under the name of T. tessellata, 
Gray, which has a double band of tubercles. 
T. HISTRIO, Desh. PL 7, fig. 29. 

Yellowish, with waved longitudinal chestnut stripes, interrupted 

at the periphery ; longitudinally striate, the stria becoming pli- 
cations upon the sutural band, where the surface is variegated 
with chestnut lines. Length, 45 mill. H ab. unknown 



TEREBRA. 27 

*** Cylindrically many whorled, whorls with revolving sculp- 
ture, with or without less prominent longitudinal stride. 

T. MYUROS, Lam. PI. 7, fig. 30. 

Whorls flattened, closely scabrously latticed with striae, the 
revolving striae much the most prominent, above with two 
obliquely plicate sutural bands, the inferior one of which is 
often more or less obsolete ; light yellowish brown, usually lon- 
gitudinally striped with broad chestnut maculations. 

Length, 4-5 inches. 

Moluccas, New Ireland. 

This may be T. strigilata, Gmel., in part, and is possibly also 
T. commaculata, Gmel. T. scabrella, Lam,, is undoubtedly a 
synonym. 

T. PRETIOSA, Reeve. PI. 8, figs. 33, 34. 

Whorls convexly flattened, arcuately striated by growth-lines, 
the interstices latticed, double-banded and tuberculated below 
the suture ; yellowish, with broad chestnut longitudinal blotches. 

Length, 5'5 inches. 

China* 

I think that T. lima, Deshayes (fig. 34), from same locality, is 
identical. 

T. CINGULIFERA, Lam. PI. 8, figs. 35-38. 

Shell smooth, distantly spirally superficial!}' grooved, grooves 
often minutely punctate, the upper groove a little deeper, indi- 
cating a sutural band, upon which the growth-lines become 
oblique and subplicate ; yellowish flesh-color. 

Length, 3*25 inches. 

Philippines, New Ireland, Viti Islands, China. 

The synonyms are T. Chinensis, Desh. (unfigured), T. colum- 
naris, Desh. (unfigured), T.pallida, Desh. (fig. 36), T. crenifera, 
Desh. (unfigured), T. punctatostriata, Gray (unfigured), and T. 
punctulata, Sowb. (unfigured). T. Isevigata, Gra}- (fig. 37), is a 
rather narrow form, and T. obsoleta, Desh. (fig. 38), is a wider 
specimen than usual, with a very faint indication of a brown 
band near the base. 

T. TRICOLOR, Sowb. PI. 8, fig. 39. 

Shell smooth, yellowish flesh-color with three distant orange- 



28 TEREBR\. 

red revolving lines, one of them defining a sutnral band, which 

is often white. Length, 2 inches. 

Friendly Islands. 

Closely related to both the preceding and following species- 
winch may need to be united when we know more about them. 
T. tseniolata, Quoy, is a synonym. 

T. BABYLONIA, Lamarck. PL 8, figs. 40, 41. 

Flesh-red, overlaid more or less with white ; smooth or spirally 
striated, with distant grooves, becoming closer at the base of 
the body-whorl, the grooves often darker - colored ; aperture 

orange-brown. Length, 2'5 inches. 

China, Viti Islands. 

T. Deshayesii, Reeve (fig. 41), is a synonym. 

T. STRAMINEA, Gray. PI. 8, figs. 42-45, 47, 48. 

Yellowish brown or livid ash-color, the upper sutural band 
generally lighter -colored ; surface crossed by revolving grooves 
and striae, the latter sometimes granulated by the intersection 
of growth-lines, the former rather distant; with two sutural 
bands, the upper one swollen, the inferior one much smaller, and 
both covered by oblique plications. Length, 2-5 inches. 

Philippines, China. 

Will probably prove to be a variety of the preceding species. 
It is T. Babylonia, var., of Kiener, T. circinata, Desh. (fig. 44), 
T. acuta, Desh. (fig 45), and T. monilis, Quoy (figs. 47, 48). 

T. CUMINGII, Desh. PI. 8, fig. 49. 

Sharply granosely cancellated throughout, with two tubercu- 
lated bands next the suture, the lower one much the smallest ; 
straw-colored. Length, 3'75 inches. 

China. 
Probably only a variety of the preceding species. 

T. FENESTRATA, Hinds. PI. 8, fig. 46. 

Strongly latticed throughout, with a crenated sutural baud ; 
transparent fulvous or fulvous brown. Length, 35 mill. 

Ifab. unknown. 

This shell does not appear to have any marked specific char- 
acter. 



TEREBRA. 29 

T. L ; JBBECKEANA, D linker. PL 8, fig. 50. 

Whitish, tinged with light yellowish brown, with a wide, faint 
band of the latter color ; subgranose by rather faint intersecting 
striae ; sutural band slightly separated by a groove. 

Length, 75 mill. Japan. 

T. SUCCINEA, Hinds. PL 8, fig. 51. 

Whorls doubly banded below the suture, orange-red with two 
distant rows of small chestnut spots ; closely arcuately wrinkled. 

Length, 3*75 inches. 

Philippines. 

Dr. von Martens (Mauritius, 231) makes this a synonym of T. 
monilis, Quoy, to which it does not appear to me to be very 
closely related. 

T. FORTUNEI, Deshayes. PL 8, fig. 52. 

White, with slightly convex whorls, strongly longitudinally 
ribbed, the interstices latticed with spiral ridges, sutures deep, 
below them a band indicated by a pricked spiral groove. 

Length, 69 mill. 

China Sea. 
A unique shell in the Cumingian Collection. 

T. SEROTINA, Ads. and lleeve. PL 8, fig. 53. 

Light brown, whorls spirally striately ridged, with two bands 
of nodules below the suture, the upper band the largest. 

Length, 2 inches. Japan. 

T. FUNTCULATA, Hinds. PL 9, fig. 60. 

Shell light chestnut-brown, sharply and closely spirally ridged, 
the two ridges nearest the suture wider. Length, 2 inches. 

Marquesas Islands (Curning). 

T. Archimedis, Desh. (unfigured), is a synonym according to 
Reeve. 

T. ALBOMARGINATA, Desll. PL 9, fig. 54. 

Whorls flat, bright orange, upper part white, divided by a 
groove, each side of which is crenated, below the groove spirally 
ridged, the interstices pricked. Length, 1*75 inches. 

China. 
T. EXIMTA, Desh. PL 9, fig. 55. 

Yellowish white, the sutural band dotted with orange-chestnut 



30 TEEEBRA. 

and somewhat noduled ; below the band are three granular ridges 
with pricked interstices ; lower part of body-whorl striate. 

Length, 1-75 inches. 

Hab. unknown. 

Described from a unique specimen. 

T. AMANDA, Hinds. PI. 9, fig. 61. 

Orange-colored, with two white bands of tubercles below the 
suture, balance of the surface punctate, grooved. Length, 1 inch. 

Straits of Macassar. 

Described from two immature specimens. Perhaps = T. stra- 
minea, Gray. 
T. TRTSERIATA, Gray. PL 9, figs. 56, 57. 

Fulvous white or straw-color, narrow, whorls numerous, flatly 
concave, spirally ridged, sometimes decussated by longitudinal 
sculpture, with two bands of nodules below the suture, and a 
single smaller row on the periphery of the last whorl. 

Length, 2-4 inches. 

Philippines (Cuming), Port Curtis, Australia (Stutchbury). 

The latter locality is for T. prselonga, Desh. (fig. 57), which 
does not appear to me to differ. 

C. No sutural band, closely striate or plicate next the suture; 
balance of whorl smooth or plicate. 

T. C^RULESCENS, Lam. PI. 10, figs. 75-77 ; PL 9, fig. 66. 

Shell smooth, without infra-sutural band, but usually with a 
narrow callous deposit forming a more or less defined band above 
the narrow sutural groove; whitish, spotted or clouded with 
chocolate below the suture, the clouds sometimes forming a wide 
band, or covering the upper half of the body- whorl, or even 
extending to the base ; when well covered with chocolate there 
is often a lighter band upon the periphery. 

Length, 1-5-2-5 inches. 

Australia; Philippines; Polynesia; Mauritius ; Red Sea. 

The whorls are flattened, and scarcely impressed at the sutures. 
This species is the type of Mr. E. A. Smith's subgenus Impages, 
characterized by the callous deposit above the sutures ; but this 
peculiarity is not even constant in this species, and is rare or not 



TEREBRA. 



8. 



developed in the other species which Mr. Smith refers to 
group. 

It is T. niveum and T f edentulum, of Gmelin, T. bifasciatum, 
Dillw., T.fusca, Martyn (in part), T. Otaiens'is, Lesson, T.hecti- 
cum, Linn, (teste Hanley). Von Martens calls Kiener's fig. 12 d 
var. fl&mmulata ; another variety is T. nimbosa, Hinds, from the 
Red^Sea (fig. 66). 

T. CINEREA, Born. PI. 9, figs. 67, 58, 59, 62-65, 68-74; PI. 10, 
fig. 78. 

Shell smooth, but closely, minutely longitudinally plicated 
beneath the sutures ; yellowish ash-color, lighter upon the sutural 
plications where there are sometimes light chestnut spots 
arranged in a single series, usually faintly whitish-banded at the 
periphery ; aperture light chestnut-color, showing the light band. 

Length, l'5-2'25 inches. 

W. Africa, West Indies, Japan, Philippines, Polynesia. 

The distribution of this species is nearly world-wide in warm 
seas. I have endeavored in vain to find distinguishing charac- 
teristics for the species which, under various names have been 
assigned to distant localities, but I am compelled to follow Reeve 
in classing them all as synonyms. This large synonymy includes 
T. Jamaicensis, C. B. Ad. (fig. 58); T. strigilata, var., Gmel. : 
T. stylata, Hinds (fig. 59), from Philippines ; T. laurina, Hinds 
(fig. 63), from W. Africa ; T. castanea, Kiener (fig. 68), also from 
W. Africa ; T. aciculina, Lam. (not of Reeve or Hinds) ; T. mi- 
cans, Hinds (fig. 64 j, Reeve, in part some of his figures repre- 
senting T. cuspidata, Hinds ; T. Adansoni, Desh. (unfigured, but; 
said by Reeve, who saw the type, to = micans) ; T. apicina, 
Desh. (fig. 69), from Singapore ; T. dispar, Desh. (fig. 70) ; T. 
Philippiana, Desh. (fig. 62), Philippines ; T. bacillus, Desh. (figs. 
65, 71), Sandwich Isles, and T. lactea, Desh. (fig. 72), a colorless 
state of the same ; T. acuminata, Gr&y (fig. 73) ; T. Salleana, 
Deshayes (fig. 78), Mexico, Haiti; and T. parva, Baird (fig. 74), 
from New Caledonia. The figure of the last-named species does 
not show the superior plications, but the text describes them. 

Var. CUSPJDATA, Hinds. PI. 10, figs. 80, 79. 

Whitish or tinged with light yellow, the light band on the 



32 TEREBRA. 

periphery scarcely distinguishable, but below it a narrow 
chestnut band. ^ ^^ Q/ ^.^ 

T. Traillii, Desh. (fig. 79), from the Indian Ocean, is a very 
similar shell, and may connect this variety with the type. 
T. ACICULINA, Reeve. PL 10, figs. 81, 82. 

Shell evenly plicate, the plicaB small, short, or usually covering 
the entire shell ; aperture peculiarly broadly dilated at the base ; 
usually chocolate or ash-color, white-banded at the suture, and 
on the periphery of the body-whorl, the interstices of the plica- 
tions reddish chestnut on the margins of the bands, as if fasci- 
culated ; sometimes the general color is pale, almost white, 
deepened here and there, especially below the peripheral white 
band, so as to appear like a colored band ; interior chestnut-red, 
white-banded. Length, 1*5 inch. 

Singapore, Manilla, Marquesas, Sandwich Ides. 

Usually distinguished by color, longer plications, broad base, 
smaller size, from the preceding species. Reeve has figured and 
described it as T. aciculina, Lam., but Mr. E. A. Smith has 
shown that Lamarck's species is really T. cinerea, Born. Hinds, 
on the other hand, has referred the present species to T. cinerea, 
for which he figures it. Mr. Smith has thought fit to impose a 
new name, T. confusa, which appears to me to be quite unnec- 
essary, as, even if the name aciculina cannot be used, as of 
Reeve, not Lamarck, there is another, older name given to the 
species, T. inconstans, Hinds (fig. 82). I prefer to retain aci- 
culina, because the species is universally known under that 
name. The unfigured T. Matheroniana, Desh., was referred by 
Reeve, in his Iconica, both to this species and to T. strigilata, 
but in his index he removes it from the synonymy of the latter. 
Pease considers it a synonym of strigilata, and not of aciculina, 
and Smith believes it to be a distinct species. In the absence 
of a figure, I have no means of arriving at a judgment upon the 
matter, further than that the description appears to apply best 
to T. stricjilata. T. anomala, Gray, was here referred by Reeve, 
but it differs in having a sutural band, defined by a groove. 
T. LUCTUOSA, Hinds. PI. 10, fig. 83. 

Shell narrowly subulate, smooth, with fine spiral stride under 



TEREBRA. 33 

the lens, puckered at the sutures into close, small longitudinal 
plications ; deep chocolate-colored, including the interior of the 
aperture. Length, 1-25-1-75 inches. 

Gulf of Nicoya to Mazatlan, W. Coast of N. America. 

Reeve makes this a synonj'm of T. cinerea, Born ; but it is 

more subulate, the color uniform, the plications smaller, closer, 

longer and more waved. None of the specimens before rne 

show any bands. 

T. STRIGILATA, Linn. PL 10, figs. 84. 85, 88. 

Shell highly polished, regularly flatly longitudinally plicate, 
the plicae usually extending below the middle of the body-whorl ; 
fawn or ash-color, white-banded at the suture, with a row of 
square chestnut spots on the band ; body-whorl white-banded at 
the periphery and darker-colored below the band ; aperture 
rather narrowed below ; chestnut, with a median white band. 

Length, 1/25-1 '7 5 inches. 

Polynesia, Sandwich Islands. 

A narrower, more cylindrical species than T. cinerea^ from 
which it differs also in its regular, longer, coarser plications, and 
brighter coloring. It has several synonyms : T. strigilata 
(striatula) , Kiener, in part, T. Argenvillei, Desh. (unfigured), 
T. acumen, Desh. (unfigured), T. modesta, Desh. (unfigured), 
mouth of the Indus; all made S3'nonyms by Reeve, who 
examined the types ; T. concinna, Dillwyn (not Deshayes), 
T. Verreauxi, Desh. (fig. 85), T. Mather oniana, Deshayes (see 
remarks p. 32). T. lepida. Hinds (fig. 88), must also be added, 
although Hinds thought it sufficiently distinguished b}^ the 
absence of a white sutural band, and by its sharper plications. 

T. LAUTA, Pease. PL 10, fig. 91. 

Stibcylindrical, longitudinally, straight!}' plicate, the plicae 
regular, sharp, extending across the whorls, the interstices with 
a single row of punctures near the suture ; leaden gray to 
orange-brown, polished, banded with yellow, bearing a row of 
chestnut spots at the suture, with a pale peripheral band, 
beneath which the body-whorl is chestnut-colored. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Figured from a t3 7 pe-specimen. It may be only a strong 
3 



34 TEREBRA. 

variety of T. strigilata, but has sharp plications and the line of 
punctures which indicate a sutural space, although no division 
is defined upon the ribs. 

lo 

T. HASTATA, Gmelin. PI. 10, fig. 87 ; PI. ^ fig. 86 ; PI. 10, figs. 
89, 90, 94, 95, 92. 

Elongately cylindrical, somewhat acuminated towards the 
apex; closely plicated, forming crenulated sutures, the plicae 
sometimes on the upper part of the whorls only, sometimes 
covering the whorls to the base; whitish, two- or three-banded 
with fawn-color to orange-brown, the bands sometimes broken 
up into large blotches ; the entire surface occasionally uniform 
orange-brown. Length, 1-1*2 inches. 

West Indies; Wext Africa. 

T. costata, Menke (unfigured) is a synonym ; as is also the 
West African T. Knockeri, Smith (fig. 86.) 

Yar. ALBULA, Menke. PI. 10, figs. 89, 90, 94, 95. 

Shell narrower in proportion to its length, more subulate, the 
plications short. 

Australia, Philippines, Straits of Malacca. 

As the specimens usually occur this variety presents sufficient 
distinctness of form for specific rank, but sometimes the West 
Indian shells are found exactly like it. Reeve, who does not 
even make a varietal distinction, includes also the unfigured T. 
crassula, T. biparlita, and T. incolor of Deshayes, and as he has 
examined the types, he is probably correct. T. casta, Hinds 
(fig. 90", and T. mera, Hinds (figs. 94, 95) are synonyms. 

Var. SOLIDA, Deshayes. PL 10, fig. 92. 

The plications are described as only indicated by impressed 
striae on the last whorl, which is encircled by three translucently 
yellowish lines. 

Japan. 

Reeve adds that the shell is tessellately enameled throughout 
with square opaque white blotches on a fawn-cream color surface ; 
which appears to me to be but an exaggerated way of describing 
the characteristics exhibited by the figure. 



TEREBRA. 35 

T. NiTiDA, Hinds. PI. 10, figs. 93, 96. 

Shell narrowly subulate, whitish or fawn-color, coarsely plicate, 
the plicae narrow, the interstices with a single row of punctures 
below the sutures. Length, 1 inch. 

Marquesas Is. Australia. 

T. plicatella, Desh. (fig. 96), is a synonym. 

T. CALTGINOSA, Desh. PL 10, fig. 97. 

Shell slender, varicosely ribbed ; dark chocolate. 

Length, 1'25 inches. 

Philippines. 

Founded on a single specimen in the Cumingian Collection. 
It may = the preceding, but punctured interspaces are neither 
figured nor described. 

Dr. von Martens refers here the unfigured T. Kirki, Hutton, 
of Xew Zealand. 

T. VIOLASCENS, Hinds. PI. 10, fig. 98. 

Slenderly 'turreted. whorls flatly convex, obliquely flexnosely 
plicated ; spirally striate in the interstices, suture rather deeply 
impressed; whitish, pale violaceous or yellowish, brown-stained 
at the suture. Length, *83 inch. 

Philippines. 

Reeve remarks that Hinds' original figure in the "Thesaurus" 
is inaccurate, representing a sutural band of which there are no 
indications on any of the specimens. 

T. TANTILLA, E. A. Smith. PI. 11, fig. 4. 

Longitudinally arcuately ribbed, subtuberculate at the sutures; 
yellowish, with a sutural chestnut band, and another on the 

periphery of the last whorl. Length, 6'5 mill. 

Japan. 

Mr. Smith makes his T. pumilio (unfigured) a synonym of the 
above. It appears to me to be too closely related to the next 
species. 

T. TENERA, Hinds. PI. 10, fig. 99. 

Distantly, strongly varicosely ribbed, interstices concave, 
shining; yellowish brov.n, chestnut-banded at the sutures and 

on the periphery. Length, 8 mill. 

Ceylon, Straits of Malacca. 



36 TEREBRA. 

T. TRISTIS, Deshayes. PL 10, fig. 100. 

Whorls convex, plicately ribbed ; yellowish white with a chest- 
nut band at the suture, and another at the periphery. 

Length, 18 mill. 

Japan. 

The unfigured T. Antarctica. Smith, is referred here by Mr. 
Gillies, who makes it a New Zealand shell ; he also adds to the 
synonymy T. Kirki, Button which Dr. von Martens refers to 
T. caliginosa, Reeve. 

T. ASSIMTLIS, Angas. PI. 11, fig. 1. 

Whorls somewhat convex, broadly arcuately ribbed, ribs 
ceasing at the periphery of the last whorl; yellowish brown, 
chestnut-banded at the suture, lower part of body-whorl chestnut. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 
T. PYGM.EA, Hinds. PL 11, fig. 2. 

Shell- solid, closely ribbed ; yellowish brown, chestnut-banded 
at the sutures and on the periphery. Length, 7 mill. 

Straits of Malacca, 17 fathoms, mud (Hinds). 

T. NANA, Deshayes. PL 11, fig. 3. 

Yellowish white, with two interrupted bands of chestnut 
spots, one of them visible on the spire, distant^- ribbed, the ribs 
gradually disappearing. Length, 10 mill. 

Mouth of the Indus. 
T. METCALFEI, Reeve. PL 11, fig. 5. 

Shell cylindrically oblong, whitish, faintly tinged with pale 
white-dotted orange flames, red-dotted at the sutural margin ; 
whorls convex, the first ribbed, ribs soon fading. 

Length, 12 mill. 

West Indies ? 

Described from a single specimen collected by Rev. L. Guilding. 

T. OBESA, Hinds. PL 11, fig. 6. 

Cylindrically subulate, whorls convex, the first ribbed, ribs 
soon disappearing ; shining white, with longitudinal orange 
blotches, interrupted by a white band on the p . M ery. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 



TEREBRA. 37 

T. PLUMBEA, Quoy. PI. 11, fig. 7. 

Longitudinal^ plicate, plications straight ; fawn or lead-color, 
white-banded at the suture; sometimes a white band at the 
periphery of the last whorl, below which the color is darker. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Moluccas, Philippines, China, Australia. 

The unfigured T. Bourguignati, Desh., is referred here by 
Reeve. 

T. LISCHKEANA, Bunker. PI. 12, fig. 22. 

Distantly costate throughout, with an obsolete sutural band, 
barely defined by a narrow sulcus, and punctations in the inter- 
stices of the ribs ; yellowish, banded with chestnut. 

Length, 34 mill. 

Japan. 

Connects this group with those species having a sutural band, 
and is evidently closely related to T. plumbea, etc. 

Subgenus EURYTA, H. and A. Adams. 

T. ACICULATA, Lam. PI. 11, figs. 15-17. 

Spire and upper part of body-whorl plicate and shelving, 
usually doubly nodose, the two rows separated by a sulcus on 
the middle of the shelf, sometimes the lower row of nodules are 
developed into spines, lower part of body-whorl with revolving 
striae ; white, or broadly or narrowly banded with chocolate, or 
uniform chocolate, or with close zigzag longitudinal markings. 

Length, '75-1 inch. 

Mazatlan, Cape St. Lucas, Panama, West Indies, 

? W. Coast of Africa, ? Mediterranean Sea. 
The American localities are certain, but the several records of 
Mediterranean specimens refer to beach-worn shells, and it is 
probable that they were introduced accidentally, and that the 
species does not live there. The figures will show how variable 
the shell is in its sculpture and coloring. It is by no means 
certain that it is really the species intended by Lamarck, although 
it is thus generally identified ; neither is its generic position 



38 TEREBRA. 

fixed; as von Martens remarks (Don BI'MO.. 21) it may very 
well be a Columbella. 

It is Bucc. pulchellum, Calcara ; Mitra Liunei, Eichwald ; 
Bucc. Linnei, Payr. ; T. Cosentini, Phil. ; T. nodosoplicata, 
Dunker. 

T. FULGURATA, Phil. PI. 11, figs. 18-20. 

Narrowly fusiform, spire acuminated, whorls plicate above, 
but not shouldered, with lightly marked, rather distant spiral 
stria? ; whitish, with zigzag longitudinal chestnut lines. 

Length, 14 mill. 

Mazallan, Acapulco, L. California. 

T. arguta, Gould, and T. rustwa, Hinds (figs. 19, 20), are 
synonyms ; the coloring of the latter is often seen in the species, 
as well as orange-brown and even clear white without markings. 
Another usual state has the upper half of the whorls white, the 
lower half of the body-whorl only showing the lightning-streaks 
or' chestnut. 

T. NASSOIDES, Hinds. PI. 12, fig. 23. 

Whorls varicosely ribbed, spirally minutely striated ; pinkish 
ash, banded with lead-color, margin below the suture white. 

Length, 13'5 mill. 

Red Sea (Lord Mountnorris). 

Appears to be closely allied to the preceding species. I have 
not seen it. 

T. TRILINEATA, Adams and Angas. PL 12, fig. 24. 

Thin, slender, with long, narrow aperture, distantly plicate 
and encircled with thread-like lines ; yellowish white, with lon- 
gitudinal pale undulating chestnut markings, a series of chest- 
nut spots near the suture, and on the body-whorl three revolving- 
chestnut lines, one of which appears also on the spire. 

Length, 14 mill. 

New South Wales , Australia. 

T. ANGASI, Try on. PI. 12, figs. 25, 26. 

Olivelliform, with small, rather close plications, disappearing 
on the upper part of the body-whorl ; whitish, shining, with three 



TEREBRA. 39 

fulvous bands upon which are longitudinal light chestnut zigzag 
markings. Length, 10-12 mill. 

Rapid Bay, So. Australia ; N. S. Wales. 

Described by Adams and Angas under the name of Euryta 
pulchella, preoccupied in Terebra by Deshayes. T. Brazieri, 
Angas (fig. 26), appears to be only a slightly differently colored 
specimen. Angas has himself preoccupied this specific name in 
Terebra. 



Un figured and Undetermined Species of Terebra. 

BUCCTNUM ACUS, Gmel. (Acus SARTORIA, Martini) ; B. SUCCINC- 
TUM, Gmel. ; B. OBLIQUUM, Gmel. : B. CHALYB^EUM, Gmel. ; B. 
SINUATUM, Linn. ; B. PROXIMATUM. Linn. ; B. HECTICUM, Gmel. ; 
B. GEMINUM, Linn. ; B. MONILE, Linn. ; B. MURINUM, Linn. (= 
Triton ?). Most of these are Terebrse, but indeterminable. 

T. ELEGANS, Kiister ; T. COSTATA, Kiister ; T. SANDWIZENSIS(?). 
T. LINEOLATA, Sowb. ; T. GRANULOSA, Lam. ; T. POLITA, Gray ; 
T. BUCCINULUM, Desh. ; T. BUCCINOJDEA, Blainv. ; T. LINEOLATA, 
Chemii., are all species of Bullia. 

T. NUBECULATA, Sowb. ; T. CANCELLATA, Gray ; T. ALBA, Gray. 

The following are described (but not figured) by Mr. E. A. 
Smith : 

T. FUSCOBASIS, T. MACANDREWI, T. PERSICA, T. PELLYI, T. TRI- 
CINCTA, T. COGNATA, T. FUScociNCTA (all from the Persian Gulf}] 
T. RUFOPUNCTATA (Hab. unknown) ; T. BATHYRAPHE, T. ALBOZO- 

NATA, T. MELANACME, T. JAPONICA, T. GRANULOSA (= T. PUSTU- 

LOSA), T. ADAMSI (all from Japan) ; T. BRASILIENSIS (Eio Janeiro)-, 
T. AUSTRALIS and T. TURRITA (N. Australia) ; T. CAPENSIS ( Cape 
of Good Hope); T. MIRANDA (Malacca); T. MACGILLIVRAYI (N. 
Guinea ;; T. FEJIENSIS and T. PAUCISTRIATA (Fiji Islands); T. 
BELCHERI = GUAYAQUILENSIS (Guayaquil) ; T. GRAYI (for T. GRA- 
CILIS, Gray), T. CONCOLOR, T. CONTRACTA, T. SIMILIS (habitats 
unknown). 

\V. II. Pease has described : 

T. SUFFUSA, T. SCULPTIL1S, T. ROSACEA, T. ASSIM1LIS ( = T. CON- 

TKJUA), T. PROPINQUA, T. COSTELLIFERA (all Sandwich Islands). 



40 TEREBRA. 

T. DUNKERI, T)esli. ( T. eburnea, Dunker, not Hinds), Hab.? 
T. CONTINUA, Desh., Hab.? Reeve's figure does not correspond 
with the description. 

T. BELCHERI, Phil. ; T. SUBDIVISA, Phil. ; T. DECUSSATA, Phil. 
(hab. unknown). 

T. TUBEROSA, Hinds, Hab.? The figure appears to represent a 

Cerithium with imperfect aperture. 

T. BEDDOMEI, Petterd. Tasmania. 

T. BIPARTITA, Gould (Hakodadi) ; T. PROLIXA, Gld. (China). 
T. L^EVIS, Gray. Worn and indeterminable. 
T. PACHYZONA, Morch. Real Llejos. 

T. LAURETAN^E, Tenison-Woods. Port Jackson, Australia. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

TEREBRID^. 



PAGE. 

Abretia, H. and A. Adams. Genera Recent Moll., i, 225, 

1853, 5 

Aciculata (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., x, p. 175, . . 37 
Aciculatum (Buccinum), Gmelin, p. 3503, No. 145. 

= Terebra cerithina, Lam. 
Aciculina (Terebra), var., Kien. Ic., pi. 7, f. 13 a. 

= T. Gouldii, ... 15 

Aciculina (Terebra), Lam. (not Reeve or Hinds). An. s. Yert., 

vii, 287. = T. cinerea, Born, 31 

Aciculina (Terebra), Reeve (not Lam.) Con. Ic., xii, f. 121 

d, var. c. and f. ........ 32 

Acumen (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 287. 

= T. strigilata, Linn. . 33 

Acuminata (Terebra), Gray. Reeve, Icon., f. 143. 

= T. cinerea, Born, . . . . . . .31 

Acus, Humphrey. Mus. Calonn., 1797. = Subula, Schum. 5 
Acus (Buccinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3502, No. 141, . 39 
Acuta (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 100, pi. iv, 

f. 4-5. = T. straminea, Gray, 28 

Adamsii (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

xi, p. 264, 39 

Adansonii (Terebra). Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 291. 

= T. cinerea, Born, . . . . . . . .31 

Addita (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1859, p. 293. 

= T. spectabilis, Hinds . .18 

Affinis (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 60, . 14 
Africana (Terebra). Gray. Griffiths' ed. Cuv,, t. 23, f. 5. 

= T. variegata, Gray, . . . . . . .15 

Alba (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 60, . 39 
Albicostata (Terebra), Adams and Reeve. Zool. Yoy. 

Samar., p. 30, pi. 10, f. 21 (1848). = T. variegata, Gray, 14 
Albida (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 63, .11 
Albocincta (Myurella), Carpt. Cat. Maz. Moll., p. 384, No. 

450. = Terebra variegata, Gray, . . . . .14 
Albomarginata (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 

314, 29 



42 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Albozonata (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, 

415; 1877, xix, p. 226, . .... 39 

Albula (Terebra), Menke. Moll. Nov. Holl., p. 30. 

= T. hastata, Gmelin, var. ...... 34 

Alveolata (Terebra ), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 151 23 

Amanda (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 154 30 

Amoena (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1859, p. 297, 19 

Angasi (Terebra), Try on, 38 



Anomala (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 62, 



17 



Antarctica (Abretia), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

xi, 270, 1873 ; Gillies, Trans. N. Zeal. Inst., xiv, 169. 

== T. tristis, Desh 36 

Apicina (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 284. 

= T. cinerea, Born, . 31 

Approximata (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 

299. = T. cancellata, Quoy, .22 

.Archimedis (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 

314. = T. funiculata, Hinds, 29 

Areolata (Terebra), Adams and Reeve. Voy. Samar., p. 

30, pi. x, f. 23. = T. columellaris, Hinds, . . . 22 
Areolrttns (Vertagus), Link. Reeve, C. Ic., t. iii, f. 9. 

= Terebra muscaria, Lam. 
Argenvillei (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 286. 

= T. strigilat-i, Linn. 33 

Ar<rus (Terebra', Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 160, . 11 
Arirnta (Terebra), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 

330. = T. fulgurata, Phil 38 

Armillata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 154. 

= T. variegata, Gray, . . . . . . .14 

Aspera (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 154, 

=r T. variegata, Gray, . . . . . . .14 

Assimilis (Terebra) Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 3, pi. 

13, f. 8, 36 

Assimilis (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 67, 

1869. == T. contigua, Pease. Am. J. Conch., vii, p. 20, 39 
Australe (Buccinum), Sowb. Gray, Zool. Proc., 168, 1843. 

= Bullia Tahitensis, Gmel. Man., vol. iv. 
Australia (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

xi, p. 264, . .... 39 

Babylonia, var. (Terebra), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. 14, f. 35 a. 

= T. straminea, Gray, . . . . . .28 

Babylonia (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vol. x, p. 243, 2S 
Bacillus (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 285. 

= T. cinerea, Born, . . . . . . . .31 

Badia (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 300, . 15 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 43 

PAGE. 

Bathyrhaphe (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

xv, 415, 1875; 1877, xix, p. 226, . . . .39 

Beddomei (Terebra), Petterd. Jour, of Conch., iv, 142, 

1884, . . . 40 

Belcheri (Terebra), Philippi. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851, p. 123, . 40 
Belchen (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

xi, p. 267. = M. Gnayaquilensis, Smith. . . .39 

Bermonti (Terebra), Lorois. J. C., 2d ser., ii, 389, 1857. 

= T. pertusa, Born. ..... . 23 

Bernardii (Terebra), Desh. Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 84, 

pi. iv, f. 10. = T. Dussumieri, Kien 17 

Bicincta (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843. p. 150, 20 
Bicolor (Acus), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. HI, pi. 

13, f. 7. = T. fictilis, Hinds, 25 

Bifasciatuin (Buccinum), Dillwyn. Cat., ii, p. 651, No. 155. 

= Terebra caerulescens, . . . . . .31 

Bifrons (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 155, 19 
Bipartita (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 284. 

= T. hastate, Gmelin, 34 

Bipartita (Terebra), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., vol. vii, p. 330 40 
Bitorquata (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 313. 

= T. eorrugata, Lam. ....... 26 

Blanda (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 298, . 20 
Bourguignati (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 

288. = T. plumbea, Quoy and Gaimard, . . 37 

Brasiliensis (Abretia^ E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1873, xi, p. 271 39 

Brazieri (Baryta), Angas. Proc. Z. S., 1875, p. 390, t. xlv, 

f. 5, 5 a 39 

Brazieri (Terebra), Angas. Zool. Proc., 1871, p. 16, pi. 1, 

f. 15, 13 

Brevicula (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1852, p. 296, 25 
Bruguieri (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 297. 

= T. cancellatn, Quoy 22 

Buccinoidea (Terebra), Blainville. Desh., Zool. Proc., 316, 

1859. = Bullia, Manual, iv, 39 

Buccinulum (Terebra s Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 92, pi. 

v, f. 12. = Bullia turrita, Gray. Manual, iv, 14, . . 39 

Crelata (Terebra), Adams and Reeve. Moll. Yoy. Samar., 

30, pi. x, f. 22, . . 20 

Cailatura, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 28, ... 4 

Caerulescens (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, p. 245, . 30 

Caliginosa (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 287, 35 
Callichloros (Terebra muscaria, var.), Tapparone-Canefri. 

Ann. Mus. Civ. Genoa, viii, 326, 9 



44 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Cancellata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 62, 39 
Cancellata (Terebra), Quoy and Gaimard. Voy. de 1'Ast. 

Moll., vol. ii, 471, pi. 36, f. 27-28, . . 22 

Candidum (Buccinum), Born. Mus., p. 263, t. 10, f. 8. 

= Terebra crenulata, Linn. ...... 8 

Capensis (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H , 1873, 

xi, p. 269, 39 

Carnea (Terebra), Perry, v. 16, f. 1. = T. dimidiata, Linn. 9 
Casta (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 156. 

= T. hastata, Gmelin, var. albula, . . . . .34 
Castanea (Terebra), Hinds (not Kien.). Thes. Con., i, p. 

161, pi. 43, f. 59. = T. badia, Desh/ . . . 15 

Castanea (Terebra), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. 7, f. 14. 

= T. cseruleseens, Lam. ....... 31 

Cerithina (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., v, vii, p. 288, . 12 
Chalybeum (Buccinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3504, No. 

158, 39 

Chalybeus (Terebra), Martini. Conch. Cab. 

= T. duplicata, Linn 17 

Chilensis (Terebra), Desh. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1859, p. 295. 

= T. gemmulata, Kien. ....... 18 

Chinensis (Terebra), Desh. Zool. Proc., 309, 1859. 

= T. cingulifera, Lam. ....... 27 

Chlorata (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vol. x, p. 246, . 11 
Cinctella (Terebra), Desh. Zool. Proc., 305, 1859. 

= T. undulata, Gray, 23 

Cinerea (Terebra), Born. Mus. Yind., p. 267, pi. 10, f. 11 

and 1^, 31 

Cinerea (Terebra), Hinds (not Born). Thes. Conch., i, pi. 

45, f. 130. = T aciculina, Reeve, 32 

Cingula (Terebra), Kiener. Ic. coq. viv., p. 28, pi. 8, fig. 16, 16 
Cingulifera (Terebra), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., x, p. 247, . 27 
Circinata (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 99, pi. iv, 

f. 6-7. = T. straminea, Gray, 28 

Circumcincta (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 77, 

pi. iii, fig. 9, 13 

Cognata (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

xix, p. 229, 39 

Columellaris (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

151. = T. cancellata, Quoy, var 22 

Columnaris (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 310. 

= T. cingulifera, Lam. . . . . . . .27 

Commaculifera (Terebra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3502. 

= T. myuros, Lam. ........ 27 

Concava (Terebra), Say. Jour. Phila. Acad., v, 207, 1826, 25 
Concinna (Terebra), Desh. J. C., 1857, p. 99, pi. 3, f. 10, . 15 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 45 

PAGB. 

Concinnum (Buccinum). Dillwyn. Cat., p. 647. 

= Terebra stri'ilata, Linn. ...... 33 

Concolor (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

xi, p. 265, 39 

Confusa (Terebra), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, p. 229, 

xix. = T. aciculhm, Reeve, ...... 32 

Consobrina (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 308. 

= T. subulata, Linn .10 

Censors (Terebra', Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 150. 9 
Conspersa (Terebraj, Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 153, . 24 
Contigua (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, p. 20, . 39 
Continua (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 286, 40 
Contracts (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1873, xi, p. 268, 39 

Copula (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 151, . 21 
Corrugata, var. junior (Terebra), Kien. Ic. coq., p. 25, 

note, pi. 13, f. 31 a. = T. bitorquata, Desh. . . .26 
Corrugata (Terebra), Lam. Auim. s. Vert., x, p. 244, . 26 
Cosentini (Terebra), Phil. Euum. Moll. Sicil., i, p. 227, pi. 

ll,f. 29. = T. aciculata, Lam 38 

Costata (Terebra \ Kiister. Desh., Zool. Proc., 317, 1859, 39 
Costata (Terebra), Menke. Syn. Mus., p. 84. 

= T. hastata, Gmelin, 34 

Costellifera ( Terebra j, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 66, 

1869, 39 

Crassula (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 282. 

= T. hastata, Gmeliu, 34 

Crenifera (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 298. 

= T. cingulifera, Lain. ....... 27 

Crenulata (Terebra), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1205, . . 8 

Crossei (Terebra), Dtsh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 289. 

= T. venosa, Hinds, 13 

Cumingii (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1859, p. 311 ; 

Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 66, pi. iii, f. 1, . . . .28 
Cuspidata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 157. 

= T. cinerea, Born, var. . . . . . . .31 

Decorata (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 75, pi. 

iv, f. 13, 26 

Decussata (Terebra), Philippi. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851, p. 124, 40 
Deshayesii (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 45, 1860. 

= f . Babylonia, Lam 28 

Difflcilis (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 304. 

= T. cancellata, Quoy, 22 

Dillwynii (Terebra), Desh. Zool. Proc., 279, 1859. 

= T. concinna, Desh. .....*. 15 



46 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Dimidiata (Terebra), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1206, ... 9 
Dislocata (Terebra), Say. Jour. Ac. N. S. Phil., ii, p. 236, 18 
Dispar (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 284. 

= T. cinerea, Born, ........ 31 

Divisa (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 124, 1868, 15 
Dunkeri (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p, 285, . 40 
Duplicata (Terebra), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1206, . . . 17 
Duplicata, var. /9 (Terebra), Gmelin, p. 3501. 

= T. pertusa, Born. 
Dussumieri (Terebra), Kien. Icon. coq. viv., p. 31, pi. 8, 

f. 17, .16 

Eburnea (Terebra), Dunker. Zeit. f. Mai., 1853, p. 96. 

= T. Dunkeri, Desh. 40 

Eburnea (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 153. 

= T. affinis, Gray, 14 

Edentulum (Buccinum), Gmelin, p. 3505, No. 155. 

= Terebra cserulescens, Lam. ...... 31 

Elata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 156, . 21 
Elegans (Terebra), Kiister. Chemn., 2d ed., p. 31. Desh., 

Zool. Proc., 317, 1859, 39 

Elongata (Terebra), Wood. Index Suppl. (pi. 13, f. 25?). 

=; T. strigata, Sow. ... .... 12 

Euryta, H. and A. Adams. Genera Recent Moll., i, 225, 

1853, 5, 37 

Evoluta (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 292. 

= T. Dussumieri, Kiener, 17 

Exigua (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 301, . 21 
Eximia (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 314, . 29 

Fatua (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 150. 

= T. cingula, Kien. 16 

Faval, Adanson. Hist. Nat. Senegal. 

= Terebra Senegalensis, Lam. . . . . . .16 

Fejiensis (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

xi, p. 266, 39 

Felinum (Buccinum), Dillwyn. Cat. Shells, p. 644. 

= Terebra tigrina, Gmelin, ...... 10 

Fenestrata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 153, 28 
Ferruginenm (Buccinum), Born. Mus., p. 263, t. 10, f. 7. 

= Terebra dimidia'ta, Linn. ...... 9 

Festiva (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 74, pi. iii, 

f. 4. = T. Senegalensis, Lam 16 

Fictilis (Terebra), Hinds. Thes. Conch., pi. 45, f. 109, 110, 25 
Fimbriata (Terebra), Desh. Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 71, 

pi. 5, f. 1. = T. crenulata, Linn 8 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 47 

PAOK. 

Flammea (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., x, p. 239, . .11 
Flammca (Terebra), Lesson. 111. de Zool., t. 48. 

= T. strigata, Sowb 12 

PlammulaU (Terebra), Martens. Mauritius, 1880, p. 230, 

pi. 20, f. 5. = T. caerulescens, Lam., var. . . .31 
Flava (Terebra),. Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 60. 

= T. cancellata, Quoy, 22 

Flavescens (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 299. 

= T. cancellata. Quoy, 22 

Formosa (Terebra), Desh. Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 65, pi. 

iii, fig. 6. ... .... .12 

Fortunei (Terebra), Desh. Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 79, pi. 

iv, f. 1 29 

Frigata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 162. 

=V concava, Say, 26 

Fulgurata (Terebra), Phil. Zeit. fur Mai., 1846, p. 53, and 

1^47, p. 181, 38 

Funiculata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 153, 29 
Fusca (Limax), Martyn (part). Univ. Conch., iv, pi. 121, f. 

on left. = Terebra cserulescens, Lam 37 

Fusca (Terebra), Perry. Conchology, t. 16, f. 3. 

= T. subulata, Linn. ....... 10 

Fuscobasis (Myurella), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, xix, 

p. 227, .' 39 

Fuscocincta (Myurella), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

xix, p. 228, . 39 

Fuscomaculata (Terebra), Sowb. Tank. Cat., p. 23. 

= T. Senegalensis, Lam. . . . . . . . 16 

Geminata (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 296. 

= T. spectabilis, Hinds, 18 

Geminum (Buccinum), Linn. Mantissa, 550. Undeter- 
mined, .......... 39 

Gemmulata (Terebra). Kiener. Ic. coq. viv., p. 15, pi. 5, f. 
11 and 11 a, . . ' . . . ... .18 

Glabra (Terebra), Deshayes. Jour. Conch., 1857, pi. v, f. 13, 
p. 101. = T. consors, Hinds, . . . . - . .9 

Glauca (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 150. 

= T. variegata, Gray, 14 

Gotoensis (Terebra), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 183, 
pi. xix, f. 1 and la. = T. alveolata, Hinds, var. . . 23 

Gouldi (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 278, . 15 

Gracilis (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1834, p. 61. 

= T. Grayi, Smith, . . . . . .39 

Gracilis (Terebra), Reeve (not Gray). Conch. Icon., f. 131. 
= T. spectabilis, Hinds, 18 



48 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Granulosa (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., v. vii, p. 291. 

= Bullia, Manual, iv, . .39 

Granulosa (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1873, p. 2(18 (xi). == Terebra pustnlosa, Smith, . . 39 
Grayi (Terebra), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, xix, p. 227, 39 
Guayaquilensis (Myurella), Smith. P. Z. S., 1880, p. 481, . 39 
Guttatum (Epitonium), Bolten. Mus. Bolt. 

= Terebra oculata, Lam. . . . . . . .10 

Hastata (Terebra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3502, . . 34 
Hastula, H. and A. Adams. Genera Recent Moll., i, 225, 

1853, 5 

Hecticum (Buccinum), Chemn. (not Linn). 

= Terebra dimidiata, Linn. ...... 9 

Hecticum (Buccinum), Gmelin. Desh., Zool. Proc., 318, 

1859. Undetermined, 39 

Hecticum (Buccinum), Linn. Hanley, Linn. Conch., 260. 

= Terebra caerulescens, Lam. . . . . . .31 

Hindsi (T. Myurella), Carpt. Cat. Maz. Moll., p. 385, No. 

451. = Terebra variegata, Gray, . . . 14 

Hindsi (Terebra), Desh. (not Carpt.). Jour. Conch., 1857, 

p. 81, pi. v, f. 5. = T. cancellata, Quoy, . . . '. 22 
Histrio (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 308; 

Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 7K, pi. iv, f. 11, . , .26 

Hupci (Terebra), Lorois. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., ii, p. 388 

(1857), pi. xii, f. 1. = T. variegata, Gray, . . 14 

Impages, E. A. Smith. Ann. and Mag., xi, 1873, p, 263, . 6 
Incomparabilis (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 

307. = T. robusta, Hinds, 11 

Incolor (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 283. 

= T. hastata, Gmelin, 34 

Inconstans (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 156. 

= T. aciculina, Lam. 32 

Inflexa (Terebra Swainsoni, var.),- Pease. A. J. C., v, pp. 

64, 86, . . 21 

Insignis (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 70, pi. iii, 

fig. 2. = T. lingualis. Hinds, . .... 11 

Interlineata (Terebra), Desh. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1859, p. 277. 

= T. crenulata, Linn. ....... 8 

Intertincta (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 155. 

= T. variegata, Gray, 14 

Jamaicensis (Terebra), C. B. Adams. Contr. Conch., p. 58. 

= T. cinerea, Born, ........ 31 

Japonica (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

xi, p. 265, 39 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 49 

PAGE. 

Jeffreys!! (Terebra), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 184, 
pi. xix, f. 2, 19 

Jukesii (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 185*7, p. 95, pi. vi, 
f. 9. = T. spectabilis, Hinds, 18 

Kieneri (Terebra), Desh. Pro. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 294. 

= T. spectabilis, Hinds, ....... 18 

Kirki (Terebra), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., 27; 

Manual, Moll. N. Zeal., 42. = T. caliginosa, Reeve. 

= T. tristis, Desh. Gillies, Trans, N. Zeal. Inst., xiv. 169. 35, 36 
Knockeri (Terebra), E. A. Smith. P. Z S., 1871, p. 730, t. 

75, f. 7. = T. hastata, Gmel 34 

Knorri (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 59. 

= T. chlorata, Lam 11 

Lactea (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 285. 

= T. cinerea, Born, ........ 31 

Laevigata (Terebra), Gray. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1834, p. 61. 

= T. cingulifera, Lam., var. ...... 27 

Laevis (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 61 ; Desh., 

Zool. Proc , 1859, 318, 40 

Lamarckii (Terebra), Kien. Ic. coq. viv., p. 30, t. 9, f. 19. 

== T. duplicate, Linn. ....... 17 

Lanceata (Terebra), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. 10, f. 22 b. 

T. venosa, Hinds, 13 

Lanceata (Terebra), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1206. . . .12 
Lanceolata (Terebra), Lam. Gray in Zool. Proc., 63, 1834. 

Undetermined. 
Larvaeformis (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool, Soc., 1843, 155. 

= T. dislocata, Say, 19 

Lauretanse (Terebra), Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 

ii, 262, 40 

Laurina (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 152. 

= T. cinerea, Born, 31 

Lauta (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 66, 1869, 33 
Leiodomus, Gray (not Swainson). Synopsis Brit. Museum. 

= Impages, Smith, ........ 30 

Lepida (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 158. 

= T. strigilata, Linn. 33 

Ligata (Terebra). Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 153. 

= T. tessellata, Gray 26 

Ligneola (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 25. 

= T. badia, Desh 15 

Lima (Terebra), Desh, Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 69, pi. iii, 

fig. 2, 27 



50 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Lineolata (Terebra), Chenm,, iv, t. 155, f. 1463; Wood, 

Index Suppl. (P. Z. S , 1843, p. 168). 

= Bullia vittata, Manual, iv, . . . . .39 

Lineolata (Terebra), Sow. Tank. Cat. App., p. 23. 

= Bullia Bellangeri, Kr., Manual, iv, . . . .39 
Lingualis (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 153. 

= T. robusta, Hinds, var. ...... 11 

Linnei (Mitra), Eichwald. Fauna Casp.-Caucas., 245. 

= Terebra aciculata, Lam. . .... 38 

Linnei (Buccinum), Payraudeau. Cat. Mol. Isl. Corse, 1826, 

p. 161, pi. 8, f. 10, 11, 12. Terebra aciculata, Lam. . 38 

Lischkeana (Terebra), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, p. 74, . 37 

Livida (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 116, 1860. 

= T. cancellata, Quoy, var. ...... 22 

Loebbeckeana (Terebra), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, p. 74, . 29 
Longiscata (Terebra). Desh. Proc., Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 294, 18 
Loroisii (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 313. 

= T. oculata, Lam. ........ 10 

Loroisii (Terebra), Guer. Mag. de Zool., 1854, p. 218, pi. 4, 

f. 5. = T. robusta, Hinds, . . . . . .11 

Luctuosa (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 157, 32 
Lutescens (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag., xi, 1873, 

p. 263. = T. cancellata, Quoy, 22 

Macgillivrayi (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1873, xi, p. 267, 39 

MacAndrewii (Terebra), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

xix, p. 228, . . . 39 

Maculata, var. f) (Terebra), Gmelin, p. 3499, No. 130. 

= T. chlorata, Lam. . . . . . . . .11 

Maculata (Terebra), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1205, ... 9 
Maculata (Terebra), Perry. Conchology, t. 16, f. 2. 

= T. crenulata, Linn. 9 

Marginata (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 86, pi. 

iv, f. 8. = T. variegata, Gray, . . . . .15 

Mariesi Terebra), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1880, p. 

480, pi. xlviii, f. 5, 19 

Marmorata (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 279, 15 
Matheroniana (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 

287. = T. aciculina, Lam., Reeve, Icon. = T. strigi- 

lata, Linn., Pease, Am. J. C., iv, p. 123. Good, sp., 

Smith, Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, p. 263, ... 32, 33 
Melanacme (Terebra), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1875, 415 ; 

1877, xix, p. 224, 39 

Mera (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 158. 

= T. hastata, Gmelin, var. albula, . .- . . .34 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 51 

PAGE. 

Metcalfei (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 139, 1860, . . 36 
Micans (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 181. 

= T. cinerea, Born 31 

Miranda (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

p. 267, 39 

Modesta (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 288. 

= T. strigilata, Linn. 33 

Monile (Buccinum), Linn. Mantissa, 550. Undetermined, 39 
Monilis (Terebra), Quoy and Gaim. Yoy. de 1'Astrol., ii, 

p. 467, pi. 36, f. 21 and 22, .28 

Morbida (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 133, 1860, . . 25 
Murinum (Buccinum), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1206. 

Undetermined, ......... 39 

Muscaria, var. (Terebra), Kien. Coq. viv., pi. 3, f. 4 b. 

= T. tigrina, Gmelin, 10 

Muscaria (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., vol. x, p. 241, . 9 

Myurella, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., i, 171, 1844, . . 56 

My uros "(Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., x, p. 247, . . 27 

Nana (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 291, . 3.6 

Nassoides (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 158, 38 
Nebulosa (Terebra), Kien. (not Sow.). Ic. coq. viv., 23, t. 

10, f. 22. = T. Argus, Hinds, 17 

Nebulosa (Terebra), Lorois. Jour. Conch., 1858, p. 90, pi. 

1, f. 4. = T. Loroisii, Deshayes, 10 

Nebulosa (Terebra), Sowerby. Tank. Cat. App., p. 25, . 23 
Nimbosa (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 151. 

= T. cserulescens, Lam., var. . . . . . .31 

Nitida (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 152, . 35 
Niveum (Buccinum), Gmelin. Linn., ed xiii, p. 3504. 

= Terebra cserulescens, Lam. ...... 31 

Nodosoplicata (Terebra), Dunk. Zeit. f. Mai., 1853, p. 110. 

= T. aciculata, Lam. ....... 38 

Nodularis (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 296. 

= T. textilis, Hinds, . . . . . . .20 

Nubeculata (Terebra), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 25. 

Desh., Zool. Proc., 319, 1859, ... . . 39 

Obesa (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 158, . 36 

Obliquuin (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3504, No. 157, 39 
Obsoleta (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 310. 

= T. cingulifera, Lam., var., ...... 27 

Oculata (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Yert , x, p. 242, . . 10 

Ornata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 62 r . 12 
Ornatum (Buccinum), Martyn. Univ. Conch. 

= Terebra oculata, Lam. . . . . . . .10 



52 INDEX ANr SYNONYMY. 

PAGB. 

Otaitensis (Terebra), Lesson. Yoy. Coq., i\ pt. 1, p. 407. 

= Yar. of T. caerulescens. Lam. ..... 131 

Pachyzona (Terebra), Morch. Mai. Blatt., vii, p. 105, . 40 
Pallida (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 87, pi. iv, 

f. 3. = T. cingulifera, Lam. . . . . 27 

Parva (Terebra), Baird. Cruise Curaoa, Brenchley, 435, 

pi. 37, f. 5-0. == T. cinerea, Born, ... .31 

Patagonica (Terebra), d'Orb. Yoy. Amer. mer.. pi. 62, f. 1. 

= T. gemmulata, Kien 18 

Paucistriata (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 

1873, xi, p. 269, 39 

Peasii (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 302. 

= T. cancellata, Quoy, 22 

Pellyi (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

xix, p. 226 39 

Penicillata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 157, 13 
Persica (Terebra), E. A, Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1877, 

xix, p. 225, 39 

Pertusa (Terebra), Born. Mus., p. 267, pi. 10, f. 13, . . 23 
Pertusa (Terebra), Kien. Ic. coq. viv. var., t. 11, f. 24 b. 

= T. affinis, Gray, 14 

Pertusa (Terebra), Kien. (part). Ic. coq. viv. var., t. 11, 

f. 24 c. = T. cancellata, Quoy, 22 

Petitii (Terebra), Kien. Coq. viv., p. 37, t, 13, f. 32. 

= T. dislocata, Say, 18 

Petiveriana (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, pi. v, f. 

10, p. 85. = T. variegata, Gray, 14 

Philippiana (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 289. 

= T. cinerea, Born, ........ 31 

Picta (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 156. 

= T. undulata, Gray, 22 

Plicata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 61, . 24 
Plicatella (Terebra). Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 96, pi. 

iii, f. 5. = T. nitida, Hinds, ... . 35 

Plumbea (Terebra), Quoy and Gaimard. Moll. Yoy. Astr., 

p. 470, pi. 36, f. 29, 30, . 37 

Polita (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc,, 1834, p. 63. 

= Bullia, Manual, iv, 39 

Polygonia (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 154, 1860, . . 23 
Polygyrata (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 301, 23 
Ptrolonga (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 315. 

= T. triseriata, Gray, 30 

Pretiosa (Terebra), Reeve. Pro. Zoo. Soc., 1842, p. 200, . 27 
Prolixa (Terebra), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, p. 

330, 40 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 53 

PAGE. 

Propinqna (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 66, 

1869, .39 

Protexta (Terebra). Conrad. Proc. Philad. Aead., iii, 26, 

1843, 25 

Proximatum (Buccinum), Linn. Gray, Zool. Proc., 168, 

1843. Undetermined, .39 

Pugio (Buccinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3505, No. 163. 

= Terebra Senegalensis ? (young), . . . . .16 
Pulchella (Euryta), Ad. and Ang. " Zool. Proc., 1863, p. 418, 

pi. 37, f. 14. = T. Angasi, Try on, 39 

Pulchella (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 94, pi. v, 

f. 4, . .... . . 20 

Pulchellum (Buccinum), Calcara. Cenni Moll. Sicil., t. 4, 

f. 33. = Terebra aciculata, Lam. . . . . .37 

Pulchra (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 151. 

= T. cerithina, Lam. 12 

Pumilio (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, xi, 

p. 269. = T. tantilla, Smith, 35 

Punctata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 61. 

= T. corrugata, Lam 26 

Punctatostriata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, 

p. 61. = T. cingulifera, Lam. ...... 27 

Puncticulata (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 

280. = T. cancellata, Quoy, 22 

Punctulata (Terebra), Sowb, Tank. Cat. App., p. 24. 

= T. cingulifera, Lam. ....... 27 

Pura (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 82, pi. v, f. 8, 16 
Pustulosa (Terebra), E. A. Smith. P. Z. S., 1879, p. 185, . 39 
Pygmsea (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 158, 36 
Pyramitra, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 28, 1865, . . 4 

Radula (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 155. . 24 
Raphanula (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., x, p. 246, 

= T. Senegalensis, Lam. 16 

Reevei (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 88, pi. iv, f. 

14. = T. duplicata, Linn 17 

Regina (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 67, pi. iii, 

f. 7. = T. corrugata, Lam 26 

Robusta (Terebra). Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 149, 11 
Rosacea (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 65, 1869, 39 
Roseata (Terebra), Adams ;ir<l Reeve. Moll. Voy. Sam., 

p. 30, pi. x, fig. 24, .21 

Rudis (Terebra), Grny. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 60. 

. = T. dislocata, Say, . 18 

Rufocinerea (Terebra), Carpenter. Mazat. Cat., 386. 

= T. variegata, Gray, . ..... 14 



54 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Rufopunctata (Hastula), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., xix, p. 

229, 1877, 39 

Rustica (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 158. 

= T. fulgurata, Phil 38 

Salleana (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 287. 

= T. cinerea, Born, ........ 31 

Sandwizensis (Terebra) ? Hinds. Thes. Conch., 186, . 39 
Sartoria (Acus), Martini, t. 4, f. 1451. 

= Buccinum acus, Gmel. ....... 39 

Scabrella (Terebra), Lam. An. s. Yert., 2d ed., x, p. 248. 

Note. = T. myuros, Lam 27 

Sculptilis (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 65, 

1869, .39 

Senegalensis (Terebra), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., x, p. 244, . 16 
Serotina (Terebra), Adams and Reeve. Moll. Yoy. Samar., 

p. 30, pi. 10, f. 20, 29 

Similis (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, xi, 

p. 265, . . . 39 

Simplex (Myurella), Carpenter. Ann. Mag., 1865, xv, p. 

395, 14 

Sinuatum (Buccinum), Linn. Gray, Zool. Proc., 168, 1843. 

Undetermined, . 39 

Solida (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 78, pi. iii, f. 

11. == T. hastata, Gmel., var -34 

Souleyeti (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 303. 

= T. dislocata, Say, . . . . . . .19 

Sowerbyana (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 93, 

pi. iii, fig. 8. = T. dislocata, Say, 19 

Specillata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 155, 24 
Speciosa (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 279. 

= T. Senegalensis, Lam. . . . . . . .16 

Spectabilis (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 150, 17 
Spicatus (Limax), Martyn. Univ. Conch., 1784, pi. 121. 

= Terebra duplicata, Linn. . . . . . .17 

Splendens (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 73, pi. v, 

fig. 11. = T. dimidiata, Linn. 9 

Straminea (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 62, . 28 
Striata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 60. 

= T. Babylonia, Lam 28 

Striata (Terebra), Quoy (not Basterot). Yoy. de 1'Astr., p. 

468, t. 36, f. 23, 24. '= T. affinis, Gray. . . . . 14 
Striatula (Terebra), Kien. Ic. coq. viv. 

= T. strigilata, Linn. . . . .33 

Striatula (Terebra), Lam. Anim, sans Yert., v. vii, p. 288. 

= T. Senegalensis, Lam. . . . . . . .16 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 55 

PAGB. 

Strigata (Terebra), Sowerby. Tank. Cat. App., p. 25, . 12 
Strigilata (Terebra), var., Kiener. Ic. viv., p. 29, f. 18 a, 6, c. 

= T. aciculina, Reeve, ....... 32 

Strigilata (Terebra), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1206, . . . 33 
Strigilatum (Bucciimm), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 

= Terebra myuros, Lam. ....... 27 

Strigilatum, var. (Buccinum), Gmel., p. 3501. 

. = Terebra cinerea, Born, ....... 31 

Stylata (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 152. 

T. cinerea, Born, 31 

Subangulata (Terebra), Desk. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 300. 

= T. cancellata, Quoy, ....... 22 

Subdivisa (Terebra), Philippi. Zeit. f. Mai., 1851, p 96, . 40 
Subnodosa (Myurella), Carpt. Cat. Maz. Moll., p. 386, No. 

452. = Terebra variegata, Gray, . . . . .14 
Subtextilis (Terebra), Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, p. 185, 

t. xix, f. 3, . 19 

Subula, Schumacher. Essai nov. Gen., 233, 1817. 

= Acus, Humphrey, ........ 5 

Subulata (Terebra), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1205, ... 10 
Subulata (Terebra), Linn. Enc. Meth. 

= T. muscaria, Lam. 9 

Succinctum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3502, . . 39 
Succinea (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 149, 29 
Suffusa (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v. p. 65, 1869, 39 
Sulcata (Terebra), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., v, p. 67. 

? = T. Swainsoni, Desh., var. . . . . . .21 

Swainsoni (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 299, 21 

Taeniolata (Terebra), Quoy. Toy. de 1'Astrol., p. 466, t. 36, 

f. 25, 26. = T. tricolor, Sow 28 

Tahitensis (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 63. 

= Bullia Tahitensis, Gmel. Manual, vol. iv, . . . 39 
Tantilla (Terebra), E. A. Smith Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 1873, 

xi, p. 270. Proc Zool. Soc., 185, 1879. .... 35 
Taylori (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 124, 1860, . . 25 
Tenera (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 158, . 35 
Terebra, Adanson. Hist. Nat. Senegal, 49, 1757, . 5, 3 

Terebrarius, Dum. Zool. Anal., 166, 1806. 

r=r/Ferebra, Adanson, ....... 3 

Terebrifusus, Conr. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 28, 1865, . . 4 
Terebrum, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 430, 1810. 

= Terebra, Adanson, ....... 3 

Tessellata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 61, . 26 
Teasel lata (Terebra), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 88, 1860. 

= T. decorata, Desh 26 



56 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PACK. 

Textilis (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 156, . 20 
Tiarella (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 91, pi. v, 

fig. 7, 8 

Tigrina (Terebra), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 2G02, . .10 

Torquata (Terebra), Adams and Reeve. Moll. Yoy. Sam., 

30, pi. 10, f. 13, . . 20 

Trajana (Acus columna), Humphreys. Mus. Calonn., p. 31, 

No. 865. = Terebra maculata, Linn 9 

Traillii (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 285. 

= T. cinerea, Born, var. . . . . . .32 

Tricincta (Terebra), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1817, 

p. 225, xix, ' . . .39 

Tricolor (Terebra), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 24, . . 27 
Trilineata (Euryta), Ad. and Ang. P. Z. S., 1863, p. 418, 

pi. xxxvii, f. 13, . . 38 

Triseriata (Terebra), Gray. Proo. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 61, . 30 
Tristis (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 306, . 36 
Trochlea (Terebra), Desh. Jour, de Conch., 1857, p. 89, pi. 

v, fig. 6, 16 

Tuberculosa (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 154, 24 
Tuberosa (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 152 ; 

Thes. Conch., 183, t. 45, f. 99, 40 

Turrita (Myurella), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 1873, 

p. 266 (xi), . . .40 

Undata (Terebra), Defrance. Diet, des Scien. Nat. 

= T. pertusa, Born, . .23 

TJndatella (Terebra), Desh. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 300. 

= T. cancellata, Quoy and Gaimard, . . . .22 
Undulata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 60, . 22 
Ustulata (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 97, pi. iii, 

f. 12, .18 

Yaria (Terebra), Meuschen. Mus. Gronov. 

= T. oculata, Lam. . . . . . . . .10 

Yaricosa (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 152, 24 
Yaricosum (Buccinum), Gmelin, p. 3505, No. 165. 

= Terebra crenulata, var., Linn 8 

Yariegata (Terebra), Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1834, p. 61, . 14 
Yarium (Buccinum), Martyn. Univ. Conch. 

= Terebra subulata, Linn. 10 

Yenilia (Terebra), Woods. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 

1879, vol. iv, p. 23, pi. 4, f. 2 and 2 a 21 

Yenosa (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 157. 

= T. penicillata, Hds., var 13 

Yerreauxi (Terebra), Desh. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 95, pi. 

v, f. 3. = T. strigilata, Linn 33 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 57 

PAQB. 

Yiolascens (Terebra), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 184B, p. 154, 35 
Yiro-inea (Terebra), Deshayes. Jour. Conch., 1857, p. 83, 

pi. iv, f. 12. = T. censors, Hinds, . . . . .9 
Yittata (Terebra), Lam. Enc. Meth., pi. 402, f. 4 a-b. 

= Bullia, Manual, vol. iv, 39 

Zebra (Terebra), Kien. Ic. coq. viv., p. 5, pi. 3, fig. 5. 

= T. strigata, Sowb., 12 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



TEREBRID^. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAQB. 

1. Terebra crenulata, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 18, . 8 

2. Terebra fimbriata, Desh. (= crenulata). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 5, f. 1, 8 

3. Terebra subulata, Lara. Thes. Conch., f. 39, . . 10 

4. Terebra splendens, Desh. (= dimidiata). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 5, f. 11, . ... 9 

5. Terebra Hupei, Lorois (= variegata). Ibid., t. 12, f. 1, 14 

6. Terebra inteiiineata, Desh. (= crenulata}. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 51, . . . . . . .8 

7. Terebra aspera, Hinds (= variegata). Thes. Conch., 

f. 44, .... 14 

8. Terebra albicostata, Ad. and Reeve (variegata). Yoy. 

Samarang, t. 10. f. 21, 14 

9. Terebra maculata, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 33, .9 

10. Terebra maculata, Linn. Kiener, Terebra, t. 1. f. 1, . 9 

11. Terebra tigrina, Grael. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 30, . 10 

12. Terebra muscaria, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 41, . . 9 

13. Terebra dimidiata, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 8, . .9 

PLATE 2. 

14. Terebra pulchra, Hinds (== cerethina). Thes. Conch., 

f. 129, 12 

15. Terebra variegata, Gray. Thes. Conch., f. 53, . . 14 
IB. Terebra robusta. Hinds. Ibid., f. 35, . . .11 

17. Terebra lingualis, Hinds (= robusta). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 15, 11 

18. Terebra eburnea, Hinds (=affinis). Thes. Conch., f. 123, 14 



58 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



19. Terebra glauca, Hinds (= variegata). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 85, 14 

20. Terebra oculata, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 31, . 10 

21. 23. Terebra armillata, Hinds (== variegata). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 72, 6, a, . . . . . .14 

22. Terebra affmis, Gray. Thes., f. 78, .... 14 

24. Terebra Argus, Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 64, . . 11 

25. Terebra insignis, Desh. (= robusta). Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 3, f. 2, 11 

26. Terebra flammea, Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 36, . .11 

27. Terebra formosa, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 49, . . 12 

28. Terebra ornata, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 14, . 12 

29. Terebra strigata, Sowb. Thes., f. 10, . . . . 12 

30. Terebra cerethina, Kiener. Iconog., t. 11, f. 25, .12 

PLATE 3. 

31. Terebra Petiveriana, Desh. (= variegata). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 5, f. 10, 14 

32. Terebra consors, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 26, . 9 

33. Terebra virginea, Desh. (= consors). Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 4, f. 12, 9 

34. Terebra glabra, Desh. (= consors). Ibid,, t. 5, f. 13, 9 

35. Terebra consobrina, Desh. (= subulata, var.). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 23, . 10 

36. Terebra nebulosa, Lorois (= oculata). Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser., Hi, t. 1, f. 4, 10 

37. Terebra intertincta, Hinds ( variegata). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 81, . 14 

38. Terebra marginata, Desh. (== variegata). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 4, f. 8, . . . . . 14 

39. Terebra Gouldi, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 24, . 15 

40. Terebra ligneola (= badia). Reeve, Icon., f. 25, . 15 
41-44. Terebra Senegalensis, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 12-15, 16 

45. Terebra festiva, Desh. (= Senegalensis). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 3, f. 4, 16 

46. Terebra Dussumieri, Kiener. Sowb., Thes., f. 9, . 16 

47. Terebra evoluta, Desh. ( Dussumieri). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 55, 16 

48. Terebra Bernardii, Desh. (Dussumieri). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 56, 16 

PLATE 4. 

49. Terebra duplicata, Linn. Reeve, Terebra, f. 3 a, . 17 

50. Terebra Reevei, Desh. (= duplicata). Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 4, f. 14, 17 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 59 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

51. Terebra dnplicata, var. Lamarcki. Reeve, Terebra, 

f. 36, 17 

52, 53. Terebra spectabilis, Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 88, 89, 17 

54. Terebra Jukesii, Desh. (= spectabilis). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 97, 17 

55. Terebra addita, Desh. (= spectabilis). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 94, 17 

56. Terebra Kieneri, Desh. (= spectabilis). Reeve, Terebra, 

f. 110, .... .... 17 

57. Terebra gracilis, Reeve (= spectabilis). Reeve, Terebra, 

f. 131, 17 

58. Terebra longiscata, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 103, . . 18 

59. Terebra ustulata. Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser,, ii, 

t. 3, f. 12, 18 

60. Terebra Jeffreysii, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 2, 1879, 19 

61. Terebra gemmulata, Kiener. Sowb., Thes., f. 92, . 18 

62. Terebra Patagonica, d'Orb. (= gemmulata). Yoy. 

Am. Merid.,t. 62, f. 1, 18 

63. Terebra dislocata, Say. Reeve, Icon., f. 32, . .18 

64. Terebra Petiti, Kiener (= dislocata). Kiener, Terebra, 

t. 13, f. 32, 18 

65. Terebra Souleyeti, Desh. (= dislocata). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 78, 18 

66. 67. Terebra larvaeformis, Hinds (= dislocata). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 47,46, 18 

68. Terebra Mariesi, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 48, f. 5, 

1880, 19 

69. Terebra rudis, Gray (= dislocata). Sowb., Thes., f. 60, 18 

70. Terebra subtextilis, Smith. Zool. Proc., 1. 19, f. 3, 1879, 19 

71. Terebra bifrons, Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 57, . . 19 

PLATE 5. 

72. Terebra blanda, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 117, . . 20 

73. Terebra amoena, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 80, . .19 

74. Terebra pulchella, Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 

5, f. 4, 20 

75. Terebra textilis. Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 130, . . 20 

76. Terebra nodularis, Desh. (= textilis). Reeve, Terebra, 

f. 105, 20 

77. Terebra cselata, Ads. and Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 64, 20 

78. Terebra torquata, Ads. and Reeve. Yoy. Samarang, 

t. 10, f. 13, 20 

79. Terebra bicincta. Hinds. Sowb., Thes.. f. 72, . . 20 

80. Terebra copula, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 926, 

81. Terebra Swainsoni, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 118, . .21 

82. Terebra elata, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 128, . . 21 



60 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

83. Terebra cancellata, Quoy. Thes. Conch., f. 80, . . 22 

84. Terebra cancellata, Quoy. Reeve, Terebra, f. 58 6, . 22 

85. 91. Terebra Gotoensis, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 19, 

f. la, 1,1879, . . 23 

86. Terebra livida, Reeve ( cancellata). Icon., f. 116, . 22 

87. Terebra alveolata, Hinds. Sowb., Thes., f. 120, . . 23 

88. Terebra venilia, Tenison-Woods. Specimen, . . 21 

89. Terebra exigua, Desh. Reeve, Icon., t. xxvi, f. 84, . 21 

90. Terebra roseata, Ads. and Reeve. Reeve, Icon., f. 104, 21 

PLATE 6. 

92. Terebra subangulata, Desh. (== cancellata). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 87, 22 

93. Terebra columellaris, Hinds (= cancellata, var.). Rve., 

Icon., f. 113. . 22 

94. Terebra areolata, Ads. and Rve. ( cancellata, var.). 

Yoy. Samarang, t. 10, f. 23, . . -. . . 22 

95. Terebra flavescens, Desh. ( = cancellata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 59, . .22 

96. Terebra approximata, Desh. (= cancellata). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 83 , .22 

97. Terebra lutescens. Smith (= cancellata). Thes. Conch., 

f. 75, . ..- 22 

98. Terebra protexta, Conrad. Specimen, . . .25 

99. Terebra plumbea, Quoy. Conch. Icon., f. -Ill, . . 37 
100. Terebra puncticulata, Desh. (== cancellata). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 99, ...... 22 

1. Terebra Hindsii, Desh. (= cancellata). Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 5, f. 5, 22 

2. Terebra Bruguieri, Desh. (= cancellata). Rve., f. 82, . 22 

3. Terebra difficilis, Desh. (= cancellata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 86, . 22 

4. Terebra nndulata, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 84, . 22 

5. Terebra pertusa, Born. Sowb., Thes., f. 43, . . 23 

6. Terebra flava, Gray (= cancellata). Conch. Icon., f. 126. 22 

7. Terebra Bermondii, Lorois (== pertusa). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 12, f. 2, . ;',_. . . 23 

8. Terebra picta, Hinds (= undulata). Conch. Icon., f. 

1126, 22 

9. Terebra nebulosa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 51, . . 23 

PLATE 7. 

10. Terebra polygyrata, Desh. Conch. Icon., f. 146, . 23 

11. Terebra bicolor, Angas (= fictilis). Zool. Proc., 1. 13, 

f. 7, 1867, 24 

12. Terebra varicosa, Hinds. Conch. Icon., f. 120, . . 24 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 61 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

13. Terebra conspersa, Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 74, . . 24 

14. Terebra fictilis, Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 109, . . 24 

15. Terebra poly gonia, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 154, . 23 

16. Terebra decorata, Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., ii, 

t. 4, f. 13, .26 

It. Terebra radula, Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 95, . . 24 

18. Terebra specillata. Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 116, . . 24 

19. Terebra ligata, Hinds (= tessellata). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 118, 26 

20. Terebra plicata, Gray. Thes., f. 61, . . . . 24 

21. Terebra corrugata, Lam. Thes. Conch., f. 62, . . 26 

22. Terebra Taylori, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 124, . . 25 

23. Terebra morbida, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 133, . . 25 

24. Terebra brevicula, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 119, . . 25 

25. Terebra concava, Say. Specimen, . . . .25 

26. Terebra frigata, Hinds ( concava). Thes. Conch., 

f. 71, . . .25 

27. Terebra tessellata, Gray. Thes. Conch., f. 124, . . 26 

28. Terebra regina, Desh. (= corrugata). Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser.,ii, t. 3, f. 7, . 26 

29. Terebra histrio, Desh. Ibid., t. 4, f. 11, . . 26 

30. Terebra myuros, Lam. Sowb., Thes., f. 37, . . 27 

31. Terebra tuberculosa, Hinds. Conch. Icon., f. 61, . 24 

32. Terebra corrugata, var. bitorquata, Desh. Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 13, f. 31 a, 26 

PLATE 8. 

33. Terebra pretiosa, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 30 a, . . 27 

34. Terebra lima, Desh. (= pretiosa, Rve.). Jour de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 4, f. 2, 27 

35. Terebra cingulifera, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 24, 27 

36. Terebra pallid a, Desh. (= cingulifera). Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 4, f. 3, . . . ' . . . .27 

37. Terebra laevigata, Gray (= cingulifera). Thes. Conch., 

f. 93, 27 

38. Terebra obsoleta, Desh. (= cingulifera). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 107, .27 

39. Terebra tricolor, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 82, . . 27 

40. Terebra babylonica, Lam. Sowb., Tlies. Conch., f. 67, 28 

41. Terebra Deshayesii, Reeve (== babylonica). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 45, . . . . ' . . . .28 

42. 43. Terebra straminea, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 22, 23, 28 

44. Terebra circinata, Desh. (=straminea). Jour.de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 4, f. 6, . . . . . .28 

45. Terebra acuta, Desh. (= straminea). Ibid., t. 4, f. 4, . 28 



62 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE, 

46. Terebra fenestrata, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 114, . . 28 

47, 48. Terebra monilis, Quoy (= straminea). Thes. 

Conch., f. 65, 66, 28 

49. Terebra Cumingii, Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., ii, 

t. 3, f. 1, . . .28 

50. Terebra Lobbeckiano , Dunker. Moll. Mar. Japon., t. 5, 

f. 17, . . 29 

51. Terebra succinea, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 40, . 29 

52. Terebra Fortunei, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 53, . . 29 

53. Terebra serotina, Ads. and Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 66, 29 

PLATE 9. 

54. Terebra albomarginata, Desh. Conch. Icon., f. 65, . 29 

55. Terebra eximia, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 106, . 29 

56. Terebra triseriata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 119, 30 

57. Terebra praelonga, Desh. (= triseriata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 28, 30 

58. Terebra Jamaicensis, C. B. Ad. (= cinerea). Specimen, 31 

59. Terebra stylata. Hinds (= cinerea). Thes. Conch., f. 79, 31 

60. Terebra funiculata, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 63, 29 

61. Terebra amanda, Hinds. Thes. Conch., f. 100, . . 30 

62. Terebra Philippiana, Desh. ( cinerea). Conch. Icon., 

f. 153, 31 

63. Terebra laurina, Hinds (= cinerea). Thes. Conch., 

f. 27, . . .31 

64. Terebra micans, Hinds (= cinerea). Thes. Conch., 

f. 125, . . 31 

65. Terebra bacillus, Desh. (= cinerea). Conch. Icon., f. 

134 a, 31 

66. Terebra nimbosa, Hinds (= caerulescens, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 37, . . 30 

67. Terebra cinerea, Born. Reeve, Conch., Icon., f. 35, . 31 

68. Terebra castanea, Kiener ( cinerea, var.). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 7, f. 14, . . . . . .31 

69. Terebra apicina, Desh. ( cinerea). Conch. Icon., f. 

136 a, 31 

70. Terebra dispar, Desh. (= cinerea). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 137, 31 

71. Terebra bacillus, Desh. ( cinerea). Reeve, Icon., f. 

134 6, 31 

72. Terebra lactea, Desh. (= cinerea). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 134 c, 31 

73. Terebra acuminata, Gray (= cinerea). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 143, 31 

74. Terebra parva, Baird (=-. cinereaX Yoy. Cura9oa, t. 

37, f. 6, . . . . '. . . . . 31 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 63 
PLATE 10. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

75-71. Terebra caerulescens, Lam. Kiener, Icon., t. 6, f. 12, 30 

78. Terebra Salleana, Desk. (= cinerea). Conch. Icon., 

f. 129, . .31 

79. Terebra Traillii, Desh. (= cinerea, var. cuspidata). 

Conch. Icon., f. 142, 31 

80. Terebra cuspidata, Hinds (= cinerea, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 128, ... .... 31 

81. Terebra cinerea, Hinds (= aciculina). Thes. Conch., 

f. 130, 32 

82. Terebra inconstans, Hinds ( aciculina). Conch. 

Icon., f. 121 6, 32 

83. Terebra luctuosa, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 121, 32 

84. Terebra strigilata, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 122, 33 

85. Terebra Yerreauxi, Desh. (= strigilata). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 5, f. 3, . . ' . . .33 

86. Terebra Knocked, Smith (= hastata). Zool. Proc., 

t. 75, f. 7, 1871 34 

87. Terebra hastata, Gmelin. Sowb., Thes., f. 87, . . 34 

88. Terebra lepida, Hinds (= strigilata). Sowb., Thes., f. 

102, 33 

89. Terebra albula, Menke (= hastata, var.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 126, . 34 

90. Terebra casta, Hinds (= hastata, var.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 84, . . 34 

91. Terebra lauta, Pease. Specimen, . .33 

92. Terebra solida, Desh. (= hastata, var.). Jour, de 

Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 3, f. 11, 34 

93. Terebra nitida, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 103, . 35 

94. 95. Terebra mera, Hinds (= hastata, var.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 108, 114, 34 

96. Terebra plicatella, Desh. (= nitidaV Jour, de Conch., 

2d ser., ii, t. 3, f. 5, .35 

97. Terebra caliginosa, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 100, 35 

98. Terebra violascens, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 125, 35 

99. Terebra tenera, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 148, . 35 
100. Terebra tristis, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 102, . 36 

PLATE 11. 

1. Terebra assimilis, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1867, t. 13, f. 8, 36 

2. Terebra pygnuea, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 149, 36 

3. Terebra nana, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 138. . 36 

4. Terebra tantilla, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 19, f. 4, 1879, . 35 

5. Terebra Metcalfei, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 139, . . 36 

6. Terebra obesa, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 140, . 36 

7. Terebra plumbea, Quoy. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 70, . 37 



64 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

8. Terebra circumcincta, Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., 

ii, t. 3, f. 9, 13 

9. Terebra circumcincta, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. TO, 13 

10. Terebra lanceata, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 52, . 12 

11. Terebra penicillata, Hinds. Reeve, Icon., f. 98, . . 13 
12- Terebra venosa, Hinds (= penicillata). Reeve, Icon., 

f. 95 6, .... . . 13 

13. Terebra Crossei, Desh. (= venosa). Conch. Icon., f. 

95 a, . . 13 

14. Terebra Brazieri, Angas. Zool. Proc., 1871, t. 1, f. 15, 13 

15. Terebra aciculata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 150, . . 31 

16. 17. Terebra Cosentini, Phil. (= aciculata). Reeve, 

Icon., f. 152 a, 6, 37 

18. Terebra fulgurata, Phil. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 151, . 38 

19, 20. .Terebra rustica, Hinds (= fulgurata). Conch. 

Icon., f. 147 a, b, . . . . . . 38 

21. Terebra chlorata, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 11, . .11 

PLATE 12. 

22. Terebra Lischkeana,Dunker. Moll. Mar. Jap., t. 5, f. 14, 37 

23. Terebra nassoicles, Reeve., Conch. Icon., f. 144, . . 38 

24. Terebra trilineata, Ad. and Angas. Zool. Proc., t. 37, 

f. 13, 1863, . . ., 38 

25. Terebra pulcbella, Ad, and Angas (= Angasi). Ibid., 

t. 37, f. 14, 38 

26. Terebra Brazieri, Angas (= pulchella). Zool. Proc., 

t. 45, f. 5, 1875, . ....... 38 

27. Terebra cingnla, Kiener. Iconog., t. 8, f. 16, . . 16 
2x Terebra fatua, Hinds (== cingula). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 28, . . . . . . . .16 

29. Terebra albida, Gray. Thes. Conch., f. 56, . . . 11 

30. Terebra pnra, Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 5, f. 8, 16 

31. Terebra Sowerbyana, Desh. ( dislocata). Conch. 

Icon., f. 63, 18 

32. Terebra Dillwynii, Desh. (=concinha). Conch. Icon., 

f. 74, 15 

33. Terebra raphanula, Lam. (= Senegalensis). Conch. 

Icon., f. 77, .16 

34. Terebra marmorata, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 91 6, . . 15 

35. Terebra trochlea, Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., ii, 

t. 5, f. 6, .16 

36. Terebra anomala, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 97, . 17 

37. Terebra concinna, Desh. Jour, de Conch., 2d ser., ii, t. 

3, f. 10, . . . . . ' . . .15 

38. 39. Terebra tiarella, Desh. Reeve, Icon., f. 109 a, 6, . 8 
40. Terebra duplicata, var. Lamarckii. Dentition. Troschel, 

Gebiss, ii, pt. i, f. 2, f. 13, 3 



FAMILY CANCELLARIIDjE. 

In the "Structural and Systematic Conchology," ii, 180, I 
have given diagnoses of the family, of the genera Cancellaria 
and Admete, and of the several subgenera. The latter, as far 
as the recent groups are concerned, are the same as given by 
H. arid A. Adams in their " Genera of Recent Mollusfca," a 
classification mainly original with those authors. Several fossil 
subgenera are also described and illustrated in my above-named 
work, and need not be reproduced here; among the present 
illustrations, however, will be found one of a lingual tooth of 
Admete, as a type of the dentition of the family (PI. 7). 

As is frequently the case with the subgenera of Messrs. 
Adams, the study of extensive suites of species of Cancellariidse 
proves these to possess little value for classification. Dr. Paul 
Fischer in his excellent u Manuel de Conchyliologie " has recog- 
jiized this fact, and has reduced several of these subgenera of 
Messrs. Adams to the rank of sections. 

Fischer proposes the following classification : 

Subgenus CANCELLARIA, s. stricto. Shell cancellated, aper- 
ture oval, canal very short ; columellar plications nearty central, 
strong, oblique (G. cancellata, Linn.). 

Sections, I. EUCLIA. Shell smooth (G. solida, Sowb.). II. 
NARONA. Shell cancellated, basal canal rather long (C. Milrae- 
formis, Sowb.). III. MASSYLA. Shell fusiform, retracted in 
front ( C. corrugata, Hinds). 

Subgenus MERFCA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval, whorls 
reticulated; aperture oval, lip not contracted in front, columella 
obliquely truncate at the base, imperforate (C. melanostoma, 
Sowb.). The subgenus APHERA only differs by its thicker lip 
and more spreading columellar callosity (G. tessellata, Sowb.). 

Subgenus TRIGONOSTOMA, Blainv. Shell widely umbilicated, 
whorls angulated, aperture trigonal, lip not contracted in front 
(C. trigonoxtoma, Desh.\ The genus Turbinopsis, Conrad, 
differs from Trigonostoma in having a single basal plication of 
the columella. 

5 (65) 



66 CANCELLARIA. 

Subgenus ADMETE, Kroyer. Shell oval, thin, diaphanous, with 
epidermis, spire sharp, last whorl slightly ventricose ; aperture 
oval, feebly sinuated in front, columella obliquely truncate, sub- 
plicate in front, lip sharp (A. viridula, Fabr.). 

Subgenus ADMETOPSIS, Meek. Anterior plication of the colu- 
mella more elevated than the posterior one ; lip thick ; shell 
otherwise resembling Aclmete (A. gregaria, Meek). 

In the present work I have ranged all the groups under one 
genus Cancellaria, regarding Admete as the only recent sub- 
genus. The typical Cancellarise are thus classified : 

Section CANCELLARIA (= S. G. Cancellaria and Merica of 
Fischer). 

Subsections EUCLTA ; MERICA (including Massyla and Aphera); 
NARONA. 

Section TRIGONOSTOMA (= S. G. Trigonostoma of Fischer). 

Descriptions of the animals of Cancellaria ' Spengleriana, 
C. cancellata, and Admete viridula, will be found under those 
species in my text. 

Seventy-eight recent species are enumerated by Messrs. 
Adams; thirty by Kiener (Coq. vivantes) ; sixty-eight by 
Sowerby (Thesaurus Conchyliorum) ; eighty-three by Reeve 
(Conchologica Iconica) ; Crosse (" Etude sur le genre Cancel 
Claire," Jour, de Conch., 220, 1861) has ninety-three recent and 
eighty-one fossil species. Kobelt has commenced a monograph 
of the genus in Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet ; only a few pages 
and figures have as yet appeared. 

One hundred and seventy-four specific names enter into the 
present work, of which seventy-seven are recognized as valid 
species, twenty-three are classed as doubtful and unidentified ; 
the balance are considered synonyms. 

Genus CANCELLARIA. Lam. 
Section CANCELLARIA, . stricto. 

C. CASSIDIFORMIS, Sowb. PI. 1, fig. 1. 

Orange-fulvous or flesh-color, often indistinctly light-banded 
on the middle of the body-whorl. Length, 1 '5-2*5 inches. 

Panama to Gulf of Mexico. 



CANCELLARTA. 67 

C. SPENGLERTANA, Desh. PI. 1, figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Whorls spirally linearly grooved ; yellow-brown, tinged with 
chestnut, particularly on the shoulder, body-whorl often light- 
banded in the middle. Length, r.5-2'25 inches. 

China, Japan, Philippines, Australia. 

The synonyms are C. Tritonis, Sowb. (fig. 3), and C. undu- 
lata, Sowb. (figs. 4, 5). The latter has usually been considered 
a distinct species, but in a series of specimens the differential 
characters merge. 

The animal is thus described by Mr. Arthur Adams : u Tenta- 
cles broad, flat, triangularly subulate, wide apart, separated by 
the base of the retractile proboscis. The eyes are small and 
black, and are placed on slight tubercles at the outer bases of 
the tentacles. The mantle is furnished with a small siphonal 
fold. The foot is large, flat, truncate in front, with short side- 
angles, and acuminate and produced behind. 

" The tentacles of this species are rendered dark nearly as far 
as the eyes by close-set small red-brown dots ; the siphonal fold 
of the mantle is sparsely spotted with the same ; both dorsum 
and sole of the foot are reticulate with red-brown lines, and 
dotted with the same color. 

" The animal is very shy, rarely showing more than the tips 
of the tentacles beyond the front edge of the shell. It has the 
power of considerably extending the fore part of the foot, 
using it as an exploring organ " (Ann. Mag. N. Hist., 3d ser., 
xiii, 143). 

C. BUCCINOIDES, Sowb. PI. 1, figs. 6-8. 

Flesh-color to dark chocolate, frequently white-banded on the 
middle of the body-whorl ; rudely decussated by longitudinal 
and spiral ribs, the intersections often nodulous. 

Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

West Coast of Central America. 

C. CORROSA, Reeve. PI. 1 , fig. 9. 

Whorls latticed by longitudinal and spiral ridges, the inter- 
sections prickly, narrowly umbilicated. Light fulvous. 

Length, 23 mill. China Seas. 

This wae originally described by Adams as C. clathrata, a 
name preoccupied by Lamarck. 



68 CANCELLARIA. 

C. NODULIFERA, Sowb. PI. 1, fig. 10, 11. 

Yellowish or orange-brown, often with a narrow white band 
towards the base; plaits very small. Length, l'75-2 inches. 

Japan. 
This is C. imperialis^ Michelin (fig. 11). 

C. CUMINGIANA, Petit. PI. 1, fig. 12 ; PI. 2, fig. 13. 

Orange-brown; undulately obsoletely thick-ribbed longitu- 
dinally, spirally ridged and grooved. Length, 1 -25-1 '7 5 inches. 

Payta, Peru. 

An interesting dwarf form with thick shell is figured by 
Crosse (fig. 13) ; it apparently connects this with the next 
species. 

C. OBTUSA, Desh. PI. 2, fig. 14. 

Longitudinally somewhat obsoletely plicate, regularly spirally 
grooved and ridged ; yellowish fawn-color. Length, 28 mill. 

Nab. unknown. 

The unique specimen formed part of the Cumingian Collec- 
tion. Morch has evidently mistaken its characters in referring 
it to C. solida, Sowb. See remark under preceding species. 

C. SEMPERIANA, Crosse. PI. 2, fig. 15. 

Flesh-brown, faintly light banded at the periphery and base ; 
the longitudinal costse small, distant and somewhat irregular. 

. Length, 37 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

Crosse compares it to C. undulata (== Spengleriana, var.), but 
it appears to be sufficiently distinct. 

C. GRANOSA, Sowb. PI. 2, fig. 16. 

Slightly shouldered, clathrate and granose ; orange-fawn to 
chestnut-color. Length, 34 mill. 

Southeast and South Coast of Australia. 

C. OBESA, Sowb. PI. 2, figs. 17-19. 

Whorls spirally flat-ribbed and grooved, the sculpture fading 
out on the body-whorl of adult shells, the earlier whorls decus- 



CANCELLARTA. 69 

sated by fine longitudinal ribs ; columellar plaits very prominent ; 
orange-brown, often indistinctly bifasciate with a lighter tint. 
Length, 1-5-2-25 inches. 

West Coast of Central America, northwards 

to Gulf of California. 

The synonyms are C. ovata, Sowb. (fig. 18), and C. acuminata, 
Sowb. (fig. 19). The latter figure shows a more exserted spire, 
but there are intermediate forms connecting the three. 

C. URCEOLATA, Hinds. PI. 2, tig. 20. 

Slightly, narrowly shouldered ; fulvous straw-color to orange- 
brown. Length, 34 mill. 

West Coast of Central America to Mazatlan. 

Appears to differ from the preceding species mainly bv the 
development of fold-like ribs, which traverse the. body-whorl as 
well as the spire. 

C. CANDIDA, Sowb. PL 2, fig. 21. 

Whorls slightly round-shouldered at the suture ; yellowish 
white. Length, 32 mill. 

Polynesia. 

C. AUSTRALIS, Sowb. PL 2, tig. 22. 

# 
Whorls rounded, decussated by close-set oblique longitudinal 

ribs, and spiral ridges ; plaits three, moderate ; yellowish white. 
Length, 23 mill. 

New South Wales. 
C. ALBIDA, Hinds. PL 2, fig. 23. 

Whorls slantingly shouldered, reticulated by corded ridges; 
whitish ; columella with the two superior plaits prominent. 
Length, 31 mill. 

West Coast of Central America. 

C. GEMMULATA, Sowb. PL 2, fig. 24. 

Globosely ovate, solid, whorls scarcely angulated above ; plaits 
three, subequal, moderate ; whitish. Length, 1 inch. 

West Coast of Central America. 

C. RETICULATA, Linn. PL 2, figs. 25, 26. 

Whorls spirally grooved and ribbed, the ribs low, flat, alter- 
nately narrower and wider, crossed by less prominent obliquely 
longitudinal ribs, sometimes forming obtuse granulations at the 



70 CANCELLARIA. 

intersections; sometimes the longitudinal ribs are more distant, 
or give place to undulations, which are more prominent near the 
suture ; plaits two, strong, raised, narrow ; yellowish white, 
banded and variegated with rust-brown. Length, l'5-2'5 inches. 

West Indies, Florida. 

I think that G. Eburnaeformis, Reeve (fig. 26), described 
without locality, is only a rather smooth form of this species. 

C. DECUSSATA, Sowb. PI. 2, figs. 27, 28. 

Cancellated by narrow, prominent, corded ridges ; columella 
with three moderate plaits ; fawn-color to reddish brown. 

Length 1*5 inches. 

West Coabt of Central America. 

C. ventricosa, Hinds (fig. 28) is a synonym. 

C. INDENTATA, Sowb. PI. 2, fig. 29 ; PL 3, figs. 30, 32. 

Somewhat squarely oblong, narrowly shouldered, scarcely 
umbilicated, latticed by longitudinal and spiral narrow, raised 
ridges ; plaits two, prominent ; deep orange-brown. 

Length, 1*25 inches. 

Panama. 

C. cremata, Hinds (fig. 29), appears to be a variety; Reeve 
has described it or a similar form as C. affinis (tig. 32). This 
latter agrees well with the description of an unfigtired species 
described also under the name of C. affinis, by Prof. C. B. 
Adams, and obtained by him at Panama. 

C. GRAYI, Tryon. PI. 3, fig. 33. 

Spire exserted ; rudely decussated with rough ridges and 
spiral striae ; reddish brown, the body-whorl obscurely two- 
banded with white ; columella with three moderately strong 
plaits. Length, 1*75 inches. 

Baclayon, Island of Bohol, Philippines ; 

17 fms. (Cuming). 

Confounded by Sowerby with C. asperella, Lamarck, an error 
repeated by Reeve. I have named it after Dr. ,T. E. Gray, one 
of the earlier monographers of the genus Cancellaria. 

C. CANCELLATA, Linn. PL 3, fig. 34. 

Cancellated bj' distant, narrow, prominent ribs, occasionally 
varicose, and thread-like spiral ridges ; whitish, with two chest- 




CANCELLARIA. 

nut bands on the body-whorl, one of which is frequei 
visible on the spire. Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea ; W. Coast of Africa. 

Weinkauff (Jour, de Conch., iii ser., iv, 13), gives some inter- 
esting particulars of the habits and appearance of this animal. 
He says that it lives upon a sandy bottom, almost completely 
deprived of marine plants, although Deshayes supposed it to be 
phytophagous ; it was mostly obtained at a depth of 25 to 30 
feet, although some were found in shallower water. The animal 
can develop itself until the head and neck are as long as the 
shell, and the foot longer. Its movements are slow. A quantity 
of fine sand adheres to the foot, so that when the animal retires 
into its shell the aperture appears as though filled with sand, 
The exterior of the shell is also covered with fine sand, requiring 
a brush to remove it, and indicating possibly a burrowing habit. 

C. SIMILIS, Sowb. PL 3, fig. 35. 

Very narrowly umbilicated ; strongly, narrowly, distantly 
ridged, cancellated by spiral closer ridges ; occasionally varicose ; 
whitish, tinged with chestnut, usually imperfectly narrowly two- 
banded with chestnut. Length, 1-1'25 inches. 

Senegal. 

A thicker, more globose and smaller species than the pre- 
ceding, of which it is made a synonym by Weinkauff (Conch. 
Mittelm.,ii, 171). 

C. PULCHRA, Sowb. PL 3, fig. 36. 

Umbilicus wide,; shell slightly shouldered and coronated, 
spinosely cancellated ; whitish, banded and lineated with chest- 
nut. Length, 1*25 inches. 

St. Elena, W. Columbia (sandy, 8-10 fms.), Cuming. 

C. CHRYSOSTOMA, Sowb. PL 3, figs. 38, 37, 39. 

Whorls but slightly angled above, rudely decussated by thick 
ribs and revolving ridges ; whitish, sparingly dotted and lineated 
with chestnut ; the umbilical ridge bears a single series of 
chestnut spots, and the narrow shoulder is sometimes chestnut- 
tinged; columella, and sometimes the margin of the outer lip, 
orange-color. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Panama and St. Elena, Cent. America. 



72 CANCELLARIA. 

Var. H^EMASTOMA, Sowb. Figs. 37, 39. 

Rudely angled above, with regular distant thick rounded ribs, 
decussated by spiral ridges ; }<ellowish white, blotched and 
banded with chestnut ; columella and margin of aperture 
orange-red. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Galapagos Is. (sandy, 10-16 fms.), Cuming. 

The ribs are smaller and more distant tlnn in the t}*pical 
shell. Some specimens are entirely white. 

C. RUGOSA, Lam. PI. 3, fig. 40. 

Solid, imperforate, whorls obtusely angled above ; distantly 
ribbed, and spirally ridged; pale straw-color or whitish, tinged 
with light chestnut, especially on the shoulder, and sometimes 
chestnut-banded ; columella spreading, white. 

Length, -75-1 inch. 

West Indies. 

The locality "China," given by Reeve and others, is erroneous. 

C. UNALASHKENSTS, Dall. PL 3, fig. 41. 

Whorls 6, somewhat turreted, with strong revolving ridges, 
decussated on the spire, and upper portion of the body-whorl 
by longitudinal riblets, the intersections of the riblets and 
ridges nodulous ; white, with traces of a nut-brown epidermis. 

Length, '75 inch. . 

Unalashka, Aleutian Is. (30-60 fins., stony mud). 

C. CIRCUMCINCTA, Dall. PL 3, fig. 42. 

Whorls 6, thin and delicate, slightly shouldered, crossed by 
very faint irregular longitudinal riblets, most evident on the 
apical whorls, and .evanescent on the body-whorl, sculptured 
with strong revolving ridges, slightly granulated on the upper 
whorls ; outer lip thin and delicate, the sculpture of the exterior 
showing through ; columella with two or three very faint plicae ; 
rose-pink, strongest on the ridges. Length, '82 inch. 

Popoff Strait, Shumagin Islands (10 fms., stony mud). 

Perhaps would be better referred to the S. G. Admete. 

C. TURRITA, Sowb. PL 3, fig. 43. 

Slightly shouldered ; columella with three small folds ; flesh- 
color. Length, 28 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 



CANCKLLARIA. 73 

C. PARVA, Philippi. PI. 3, tig. 44. 

Subimpeiforate, columella biplicate, outer lip plicate within ; 
white (bleached). Length, 11 mill. 

Coast of Atacama, Chili. 
C. MINIMA, Reeve. PL 3, fig. 45. 

Obliquely ribbed, ribs obtusely noduled at the upper part, 
interstices neatly cancellated, columella obsoletety two-plaited ; 
white, sometimes brownish. Length, 4*5 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
C. PUSILLA, H. Adams. PL 3. fig. 46. 

Whorls 5, whitish ; longitudinally obtusely nodulosely plicate, 
with remote spiral threads ; aperture scarcely canaliculate below ; 
outer lip lirate within, columella with two plicae. 

Length, 6 mill. 

Canary Islands. 

I have not seen the species ; the figure scarcely represents a 
typical Cancellaria. 

C. JAPONICA, E. A. Smith. PL 3, fig. 47. 

White, thickish; whorls 7, divided by a deep suture, longitu- 
dinally 13-ribbed and spirally lirate, 6 or 7 lirae on the penulti- 
mate and 12 on the last whorl ; columella with two small plaits. 

Length, 12 mill. 

Japan. 

Subsection EUCLIA, H. and A. Adams. 

C. SOLIDA, Sowb. PL 3, figs. 48, 49. 

Imperforate, solid, smooth, earlier whorls decussately ridged, 
body-whorl broadly shallow-grooved below ; columella with two 
somewhat prominent plaits ; orange-fawn color, interior white. 

Length, 1'25-1'5 inches. 

Panama, Heal Llejos, Central America. 

It is C. obtusa of Kiener, not Lamarck. C. bulbulus, Sowb. 
(fig. 49), appears to me to be a not fully developed large 
specimen. 

C. PYRUM, Adams and Reeve. PL 3, fig. 50. 

Solid, imperforate, spire very short, slightly immersed, strongly 
cancellated, last whorl smooth, striated at the base; columella 
broadly callous above, granosely wrinkled at the base, plaits three, 



74 CANCELLARIA. 

the uppermost sharp and prominent; fulvous brown, lighter 
within the aperture. Length, 1/5 inches. 

China Sea. 

I have not seen this species, but the figure is too close to C. 
bulbulus. 

C. LACTEA, Desh. PI. 3, fig. 51. 

White, smooth, thin, translucent, columella three-plaited ; 
cream-colored. Length, 22 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 
C. L^VIGATA, Sowb. PL 3, fig. 52. 

Rather solid, whorls narrowly obtusely angled at the upper 
part, obsoletely plicate on the spire and angle, otherwise smooth ; 
whitish, obscurely tinged with flesh-brown, blotched with chest- 
nut on the shoulder ; plaits three, prominent. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. New South Wales. 

Possibly identical with the preceding species. 

Subsection MERICA, H. and A. Adams. 

C. ASPERELLA, Lam. PI. 4, figs. 53, 50-52, 54 ; PI. 3, fig. 53. 

Thick, imperforate, everywhere granosely reticulated, very 
narrowly angulated at the suture ; whitish, banded with orange- 
brown or entirely brown or chocolate-colored ; columella three- 
plaited. Length, -1/25-1/75 inches. 

China, Japan, Philippines. 

A variety of this species was first described by Sowerby as 
C. elegans (fig. 53), a name preoccupied by Deshayes for a fossil 
species of the Paris basin, and therefore changed by Crosse to 
C. Reeueana ; however, C. Sinensis, Reeve (fig. 50), representing 
a not fully developed shell, has priority over the latter name. 
Kobelt has described vars. subsinensis (fig. 51), with less im- 
pressed suture, and laticosta (fig. 52), with more distant ribs 
and umbilical region more strongly defined. Another variety, 
connecting the form Sinensis with the type is G. melanostoma, 
Sowb. (fig. 54). 

C. BIFASCIATA, Desh. PL 4, fig. 55. 

Whorls very narrowly shouldered, densely decussated ; orange- 
brown, with two whitish bands. Length, 1'25 1/5 inches. 

Straits of Macassar. 



CANCELLAR1A. 75 

C. PURPURIFORMJS, Yal. PI. 4, fig. 56. 

Longitudinally obsoletely plicate, spirally linearly grooved ; 
brownish white. Length, *75 inch. 

Ha b. unknown. 
C. CORRUGATA, Hinds. PI. 4, fig. 57. 

Oblong pear-shaped, imperforate, longitudinally obsoletely 
wrinkled, decussated with spiral impressed lines ; aperture 
ridged within, columella two-plaited ; fulvous olive. 

Length, 22 mill. 

Buy f Guayaquil. 

This is the type of the S. G. Massyla, H. and A. Adams, but 
it may as well go in this group, the distinctive characters being 
of little value. 

C. TESSELLATA, Sowb. PI. 4, figs. 58-60. 

Whorls granosely decussated; whitish, banded and sometimes 
tessellated with chestnut. Length, 1 inch. 

West Coast of Central America, 7-10 fms., sandy 

mud (Cuming); La Paz, Gulf of California (Stearns). 

The type of S. G. Aphera, H. and A. Adams, but having no 

good characters by which to separate it from the present group. 

Subsection NARONA, H. and A. Adams. 

C. CLAVATULA, Sowb. PL 4, fig. 61. 

Obtusely longitudinally ribbed, here and there irregularly 
varicose, spirally striated ; columella two-plaited ; chestnut- 
color, narrowly white-banded at the shoulder angle and on the 
middle of the body-whorl. Length, 25-35 mill. 

Panama. 
C. UNIPLICATA, Sowb. PI. 4, figs. 62, 63. 

Spire turreted, whorls concavely shouldered, closely decus- 
sated by nodulous ridges, the spiral ones forming a serrated 
outer lip ; coluraella one- or obscurely two-plaited ; chestnut or 
chocolate-color, interior purplish chocolate. 

Length, 1 '25 1*75 inches. 

Panama. 

C. Mitrxformis, Sowb. (fig. 62), is identical; Mr. Crosse 
changed its name to C. Sowerbyi, because the former name is 
preoccupied by Brocchi for a fossil species. 



76 CANCELLARIA. 

C. T^NIATA, Sowb. PI. 4, fig. 64. 

Turreted, whorls narrowly, flatly shouldered, longitudinally 
narrowly ribbed, faintly spirally ridged ; colurnella two-plaited ; 
reddish brown, with darker spiral lines. Length, 15-20 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Scarcely a member of the group. 

C. ELATA, Hinds. PI. 4, fig. 65. 

Strongly ribbed, spirally ridged; columella three-plaited; 
brownish yellow. Length, 16 mill. 

Panama (30 fms.), Hinds. 
C. COOPERI, Gabb. PL 4, fig. 66. 

Shell turreted, with shouldered whorls, the angle of the 
shoulder slightty coronated by the terminations of narrow, 
distant longitudinal ribs, the interstices closely spirally striate ; 
columellar plications small ; yellowish brown, darker on the 
shoulder, with rather regular narrow spiral chestnut lines. 

Length, 2*5 to nearly 4 inches. 

Monterey and San Diego, Gal. 

The largest species of the genus. It is perhaps identical with 
C. taeniata, Sowb.; that is, supposing the latter to be a young 
specimen. I owe to R. E. C. Stearns, Esq., the opportunity of 
figuring the type. He has also sent me a drawing of a very large 
specimen in the Hermann Collection, San Francisco. 

C. MACROSPIRA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 67. 

Occasionally varicose, decussately finely ridged, suture exca- 
vated ; whitish, semipellucid. Length,. 1 inch. 

Borneo ; China Sea. 
C. CORONATA, Scacchi. PL 4, fig. 68. 

Turreted, excavated below the suture, longitudinally distantly 
costate, ribs projecting at the shoulder angle, spirally striate. 

Length, '75 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Described as a fossil species, but recently recorded by Dr. J. 
Gwyn Jeffreys as living in the Mediterranean. C. varicosa, 
Phil., is a synonym. 

C. ANGASI, Crosse. PL 4, fig. 69. 

Imperforate, thin, subscalariform, flat-shouldered, with a carina 
at the angle, another carina below the middle of the body-whorl, 



CANCELLARIA. 77 

narrowly distantly longitudinally ribbed, spiralty striate ; lip not 
lirate within, columella biplicate ; whitish. Length, 15 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

Section TRIGONOSTOMA, Blainville. 

C. PISCATORTA, Gmelin. PI. 4, fig. 70. 

Coarsely reticulated by longitudinal and spiral ridges and 
prickly at the interstices, shoulder smooth ; white tinged with 
light chestnut or brown, and usually showing a central white 
band ; interior of aperture orange-brown, with the white band. 

Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

West Coast of Africa. 

A peculiarity of this species is the single plait situated about 
the middle of the inner lip. It is C. nodulosa, Lam. 

C. SPIRATA, Lam. PL 4, fig. 71 ; PI. 5, fig. 72. 

Whorls deeply excavated around the suture, smooth, longitu- 
dinally ribbed near the apex, superficially spirally grooved on 
the body-whorl ; aperture closely ridged within, columella with 
three plaits; light yellowish brown or yellowish white with a 
band or orange-brown spots encircling the shoulder angle. 

Length, 1 inch, 

So. Australia, Tasmania. 

C. excavata, Sowb. (fig. 72), is a light-colored variety. The 
species has much the form of a miniature Eburna Australis. 

C. FOVEOLATA, Sowb. PI. 5, figs. 73, 74. 

Turriculated, whorls slantingly excavated at the sutures, 
forming a sharp keel, smooth, or distantly obsoletely longitu- 
dinally ribbed ; flesh-brown, blotched with orange-brown about 
the keel, sometimes with an interrupted light central chestnut 
band ; sometimes lineated with chestnut. Length, 12-20 mill. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
C. SEMIDISJUNCTA, Sowb. PI. 5, fig. 75. 

Broadly umbilicated, the excavation defined by a sharp angle, 
whorls broadly excavately angled at the suture ; spirally ridged 
and grooved, the ridges and grooves divided by striae, obsoletely 
distantly longitudinally ribbed ; columella two-plaited ; yellowish 



78 CANCELLARIA. 

white, tinged with light chestnut, especially upon the ribs 
which thus become more apparent. Length, -75-1 inch. 
Cagayan, Isl. of Mindanao, Philippines, 

sandy mud, 25 fms. (Cuming). 

C. TUBERCULOSA, Sowb. PI. 5, figs. 76-78. 

Deeply umbilicated, concavely shouldered around the suture, 
which is coronated with blunt tubercles at the angle, below it 
are two or three somewhat equidistant spiral rows of tubercles, 
with spiral striae in the interspaces ; columella obliquely pro- 
duced below, with two small plaits ; yellowish white, tubercles 
often tinged with chestnut, forming somewhat interrupted 
narrow bands. Length, 1/25 1'5 inches. 

Iquiqui, Peru, 7 fms. (Cuming) ; Gulf of Nicoya, 

Central America, 12 fms. (Cuming). 

The latter locality is that of G. bullata, Sowb. (fig. 78), which 
is certainly a synonym. 

C. TRIGONOSTOMA, Lam. PL 5, fig. 79. 

Scalariform, the angles of the shoulder and of the wide 
umbilical excavation both spinose, obsoletely longitudinally 
ribbed, spirally ridged; flesh-color, sometimes lineated with 
chestnut. Length, 35 mill. 

? Ceylon; ? Moluccas. 

A very rare shell, first described by Lamarck as a Delphinula. 

C. GONIOSTOMA, Sowerby. PL 5, figs. 80-85. 

Excavately shouldered, widely umbilicated, distantly strongly 
ribbed, the ribs crossing the shoulder to the suture, rather 
coarsely spirally ridged, the intersections often bluntly nodose ; 
aperture ridged within, columella two- or obscurely three- 
plaited ; yellow, yellowish brown, or light chocolate-color, inter- 
ruptedly lineated spirally with chestnut. Length, 1-1-4 inches. 
West Coast of Central America, northward to Mazatlan. 

The following are synonyms: C. brevis, Sowb. (fig. 82), a 
small, worn specimen ; C. costata, Gray =C. rigida, Sowb. (figs. 
83-85), said to come from the mouth of the Gambia, by 
Sowerby, but referred by Reeve, on the authority of Cuming, 
to Puerto Portrero, Central America. 



CANCELLARIA. 79 

C. BICOLOR, Hinds. PI. 5, fig. 86 ; PI. 6, figs. 89, 90. 

Shouldered, longitudinally distantly costate, crossed at regular 
distances by slightly elevated lines; aperture ridged within, 
columella triplicate ; umbilicus large ; yellowish white, banded 
or clouded or nearly covered with chestnut or chocolate. 

Straits of Macassar (Hinds) ; Philippines (Cuming). 

Hinds' figure (fig. 86) represents a shell only half an inch 
long, yet in his description he states that the species is larger 
than C. rigida, Sowb. The figures given by Reeve and Sowerby 
are much larger than that of Hinds, and may not represent the 
same species. Hinds' figure much resembles C. costifera, Sowb. ; 
the others are nearly related to C. goniostoma, Sowb. 

C. STIMPSONII, Calkins. PI. 5, fig. 87. 

Whorls shouldered, the angle nodulous, surface below it 
covered with irregular nodules, which do not appear to be 
developed in the lines of longitudinal ribs, but rather from 
revolving sculpture ; columella with two plaits, whitish. 

Length, 17 mill. 

Cape Sable, Florida (Calkins). 

C. ANTIQUATA, Hinds. PI. 5, fig. 88. 

Broadly excavated below the suture, widely and deeply um- 
bilicated, keeled and spinose at the shoulder and umbilicus ; the 
spines being the terminations of sharply plicate ribs ; otherwise 
smooth; columella rather obsoletely biplicate; blush or yellowish 
white. Length, -75 inch. 

New Guinea, 22 fms., coarse sand (Hinds). 

S. SCALARINA, Lam. PL 6, fig. 91. 

Umbilicated, distantly ribbed, spirally finely striate ; yellowish 
white, more or less clouded with light chestnut, with frequently 
a central white band. Length, 1-1/25 inches. 

Isle of France. 

Sowerby and Reeve have figured the next species for this. 

C. THOMASIANA, Crosse. Pi. 6, figs. 92-94. 

Scarcely umbilicated, turreted, whorls excavated at the suture, 
border sharply spinosely keeled, obliqueh r , narrowly, distantly 



80 CANCELLARIA. 

ribbed ; columellar plaits three, small ; fulvous fawn-color, with 
a central white band. Length, 28 mill. 

? West Indies ; China ; Japan. 

This is the C. scalarina of Sowerby and Reeve ; its West 
Indian locality is very doubtful, and I think it not unlikely that 
it will prove to be a variety of C. scalarina after all. C. Man- 
gelioides, Reeve (fig. 94), is a depauperate shell which may well 
be referred here; if identical, its name will have precedence. 
Another synonym is C. Bocageana, Crosse and Debeaux (fig. 
92), a Chinese species, which Lischke considers identical. 

C. SCALARIFORMTS, Lam. PI. 6, fig. 95. 

Narrowly umbilicated, flat shouldered, distantly narrowly 
ribbed, the ribs crossing the shoulder, closely spirally striate ; 
columella two-plaited ; chestnut ash-color. Length, 1 inch. 

East Indies. 

This species is omitted from the monographs of Sowerby and 
Reeve. Kiener thinks that Sowerby's C. coxtifera and C. 
articularis are varieties of it ; to these might be added several 
others, if the species were well determined which I am afraid 
it is not. 

C. CRTSPATA, Sowb. PI. 6, fig. 96. 

Imperforate, whorls narrowly angled above, obliquely longi- 
tudinally thick-ribbed, ribs projecting at the shoulder angle, 
decussated with spiral striae ; whitish, with chestnut-brown bands 
and lines. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines (Cuming); Red Sea (Tapparone-Canefri). 

Allied to the next species, from which it is chiefly distin- 
guished by its very thick ribs and want of umbilicus. 

C. CRENIFERA, Sowb. PI. 6, figs. 97-99. 

Deeply umbilicated, whorls flatly excavated at the suture, 
obliquely ribbed, the ribs spinosely hooked above the shoulder 
angle, spirally crenately ridged ; columella three-plaited, aper- 
ture ridged within ; livid fawn-color or yellowish white, often 
white-banded in the middle. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines; Indian Archipelago. 

This and several other allied species are probably only 
varieties of C. scalarina, Lam. C. lamellosa, Hinds (fig. 98) 



CANCELLARIA. 81 

and C. serrata, Reeve (fig. 99), are 83-110113-1118. The latter name 
being preoccupied b3' Bronn fora fossil species, Semper changed 
it to C. Grossei. 

C. HYSTRIX, Reeve. PI. 6, fig. 100. 

Imperforate, globosely ovate, whorls narrowly shouldered, 
obliquely, longitudinally, closely ribbed, ribs erect, narrow, 
prickly serrated l>v spiral lines, shoulder angle spiny; whitish, 
faintty tinged with livid brown ; columellar plaits three; irregu- 
lar, interior of aperture red-lined. Length, 1 inch. 

Mauritius. 
C. OBLTQUATA, Lam. PL 6, fig. 1. 

Globosety ovate, ventricose, narrowly deeply umbilicated ; 
whorls excavately shouldered, obliquely thinly ribbed, the ribs 
slightly prickly at the shoulder angle, spirally elevately striated, 
the intersections slightly nodulous ; yellowish white, stained and 
spotted with chestnut. Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, Zanzibar. 

This shell probably passes into C. scalala, Sowb., a form with 
more exserted spire ; Sowerby's figure 82, intended for C. obli- 
quata, represents one of these transition forms. 

C. SCALATA, Sowb. PI. 6, figs. 3-9 ; PL t, fig. 11. 

Narrowly umbilicated, excavately shouldered, nodulous 
throughout b3 r the intersection of longitudinal close ribs and 
spiral elevated lines ; yellowish white to chestnut-color. 

Length, 1-1*25 inches. 

Red Sea, Ceylon, Mauritius, Moluccas, New Caledonia. 

Differs (not sufficiently) in form principal^, from the pre- 
ceding species, the body-whorl being less ventricose and the spire 
longer. C. textilis, Kiener (fig. 3), C. articular is, Sowb. (fig. 4), 
C. contabulata, Sowb. (fig. 5), C. puxilla, Sowb. = young C. 
contabulata (fig. 6), G. Forestieri, Montr, (fig. 7), and C. Rou- 
yeyroni, Souv. (fig. 11), from New Caledonia, are synonyms. 
C. Montrouzieri, Souverb. (fig. 8), is mainly distinguished from 
the last named, by the shoulder being biplanate and carinate at 
the angle ; I believe it to be a merely accidental variety ; it is 
also New Caledonian. C. tenuis, A. Adams (fig. 9), appears to 
be founded on a not fully grown individual of the normal form. 



82 CANCELLAHTA. 

C. WILMERT, Sowb. PI. 7, fig. 10. 

Turrictilated, the shoulder narrowly excavated, nodosely closely 
cancellated ; columella triplicate dark chestnut-color, faintly 
banded with white on the middle of the body-whorl. 

Length, 11 mill. 

Andaman Islands. 

Has a longer spire than the preceding species. 

C. COSTIFERA, Sowerby. PI. 7, figs. 12, 13. 

Umbilicus narrow, whorls somewhat flatly shouldered, the 
angle bluntly spinose ; ribs elevated, compressed ; distant revolv- 
ing sculpture faint or obsolete ; columella triplicate ; yellowish 
brown to chocolate-colored, with narrow red revolving lines. 

Length, -5-1 inch. 

Philippines, New Caledonia. 

The painting and wide spaces between the ribs, and want of 
prominent spiral sculpture are the distinctive features of this 
species. C. Souverbiei, Crosse (fig. 13), is a S3 T nonym ; it comes 
from New Caledonia. 

C. LAMBERTI, Souverbie. PL 7, fig. 14. 

Umbilicus moderate, ribs distant, spirally subcostulate ; dirty 
white. Length, 13 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

The umbilicus and spiral sculpture are more developed than 
in C. costifera, to which the species is very closely allied. The 
specimens before me, as well as those from which the original 
description was made, are not in a fresh state. 

C. NITIDA, A. Adams. PL 7, fig. 16. 

Superficially umbilicated, narrowly angled at the suture, ribs 
compressed and very prominent, sharp, with the interstices 
smooth ; fleshy white. Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines. 
C. VERREAUXII, Kiener. PL 7, fig. 15, 17. 

Narrowly, deeply umbilicated, obtusely angled near the suture, 
rudely nodosely ribbed, and spirally ridged ; orange-brown. 
Length, 11 mill. 

Habitat unknown. 

C. coctilis, Reeve (fig. 17) appears to be the same species, not 
fully grown. 



OANGELLARIA. 83 

C. LlTTORlN^EFORMIS, Sowb. PI. 17, fig. 18. 

Rather thin, deeply umbilicated, whorls narrowly tingled 
above, thinly decussately striated throughout. Length, 1 inch. 

Ceylon. 
C. SEMIPELLLCIDA, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 7, figs. 19, 20. 

Ovately ventricose, rather thin, minutely umbilicated, suture 
deeply impressed, whorls somewhat round-shouldered, longi- 
tudinally obliquely plicate, spirally finely ridged ; aperture ovate, 
attenuated at the base, smooth within, columella three-plaited ; 
fulvous, subpellucid. Length. 12-15 mill. 

Soeloo Sea. 

The plications are sometimes more or less obsolete on the 
back ; it appears to form a passage to Admete. 

C. FUNICULATA, Hinds. PI. 7, figs. 21, 22. 

Umbilicated, excavated at the suture, round-shouldered ; ribs 
compressed, distant, crossed by delicate spiral ridges and alter- 
nate raised lines ; transparent white, tinged with orange-brown. 

Length, '75 inch. 

? Magdalena Bay, L. California; 

sandy mud, 7 fms. (Hinds). 

A single specimen is reported to have been obtained at the 
above locality, which, as well as the following, may be erroneous. 
C. lyrata, Ads. and Reeve (fig. 22), to which Mr. Arthur Adams 
assigns the locality, China Sea, is evidently the same species. 



Unfigured and Unidentified tipecies of Cancellaria. 

C. TASMANICA, Tenison-Woods. Tasmania. 
C. TRAILLI, Button. New Zealand. 
C. MITROIDES, Fischer (Mus. Demidoff). Hab. unknown. 
C. MULTIPLICATA, Lesson, Hah. unknown. 
C. NASSA, Roissy. Hab. unknown. 
C. ASPERULA, Desh. Hab. unknown. 
C. DECUSSATA, Nyst. Hab. unknown. 
This species is probably poorly figured ; it has been over- 
looked by previous monographers. Possibly it equals C. 
bifasciata, Desh. 



84 ADMETE. 

C. PYGM^EA, C. B. Adams. Panama. 
C. CANDEI, d'0rb.= Phos Guadeloupensis, Petit (Manual, iii, 219). 

C. TENERA, Phil Hab. unknown. 

C. MODESTA, Carpenter. Vancouver's Island. 

C. IMBRICATA, Watson. Off Cape of Good Hope. 

C. FISCHERI, A. Adams. Strait of Corea. 

C. CRENULATA, A. Adams. China Sea. 

Subgenus ADMETE, Kroyer. 

C. viRiDULA, Fabr. PI. 7, figs. 23-28. 

Very thin, whitish, yellowish or greenish white, or very light 
brown, suture rather deeply impressed, whorls rounded, 
wrinkled costate above, encircled throughout with equidistant 
raised lines ; columella obliquely truncate and minutely triplicate, 
outer lip smooth within. 

Length, 12-15 mill. (var. grandis, 15-30 mill). 
Massachusetts Bay, Maine, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 

Labrador, Iceland,, Arctic Norway, White Sea, 

Spitzbergen, Behring's Strait, N. Japan. 

A circumpolar species, inhabiting from shore to 690 fathoms 
(dredged). It is extinct in the British seas. 

Jeffreys thus describes the animal : 

"Body milk-white; head furnished with a long and promi- 
nent veil ; tentacles contractile, thread-shaped, rather long and 
slender, smooth, with blunt tips, diverging at an angle of 45 ; 
eyes placed on the top of short stalks, at the outer base of the 
tentacles, with which the eye stalks are united; foot large, 
triangular and long, squarish and double-edged in front, and 
bluntly pointed behind, edges uneven ; pallial fold (lining the 
basal groove of the shell) very short and thick. No operculum. 
Active ; crawls out of the water. It emits a greenish liquid on 
being touched with a camel's-hair brush." 

It is G. subangulosa of Wood's " Crag Mollusca;" C. crispa. 
Moller; C. Buccinoides, Couthouy (=C. Coulliouyi, Jay); C. 
costellifera, Sowb. 

Like many other circumboreal species, the shell varies con- 



ADMETE. 85 

siderably in its characters; two forms of it have been described 
as varieties by Leche. 

Var. UNDATA, Leche (fig. 27). 

Yar. L^EVIOR, Leche (fig. 28 = var. grandis^Morch). 

Yar. ELONGATA, Leche (fig. 25). 

Yar. DISTINCTA, Leche (fig. 26). 

C. ARCTICA, MiddendorflT. PI. 7, fig. 29. 

AVhorls encircled by rounded ribs, the interstices with close 
zigzag longitudinal striae. Length, 30 mill. 

Behring^s Strait. 
C. TABULATA, Sowb. PL 7, fig. 30. 

Whorls narrowly tabulate, granular from decussating ribs; 
white, under a brownish epidermis ; columella minutely plicate. 
Length, 22 mill. 

Arctic Ocean. 

C. LIMNJEIFORMIS, E. A. Smith. PI. 7, fig. 31. 

Smooth, thin, diaphanous, whorls 3. Length, 2'5 mill. 

Kerguelen Island. 

Mr. Smith writes of this species that it has the appearance of 
a minute Limnaea with the columella truncated a little below the 
middle. "Although this is a very curious form for an Admete, 
I am not acquainted with any other genus which it more resem- 
bles. The character of the truncation of the columella is similar, 
and the absence of an operculum is also congeneric. From the 
fewness of the whorls and the thinness of the shell it may be 
conjectured to be but the young of some larger species. This 
may be the case, but at present I am unable to identify it as the 
fry of any genus with which I am acquainted." 



Un figured Species. 

C. BOREALIS, A. Adams. Melville Inland. 

C. AUSTRALTS and C. SCHYTIIEI, Philippi. St. of Magellan. 

C. COST AT A, Calcara. Sicily. 

C. OVATA and GLOBULARIS, E. A. Smith. Japan. 

C. UNDATOCOSTATA, Verkruzeh. Arctic Norway. 

C. SPECULARIS and C. CARINATA, Watson. Kerguelen Is. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



CANCELLARIID^. 



Abnormis (Cancellaria), Gray. Adams, Gen., i, p. 278, 

Morch, Moll. Spitzbcrgen, No. 35. 

? = Admete viridula, var. grandis. . . . . .84 

Acuminata (Cancellaria \ Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 

53. = C. obesa, Sowb. ...<.. .69 

Admete, Kroyer. Moller, Naturhist. Tidskr, iv, 88 ; Index 

Moll. Groenl., 1842. = S. G. of Cancellaria, . . 66, 84 
Admetopsis, Meek. Ann. Hep. Geol. Surv. Terr., 509, 

1873. = Section of Admete, 65 

Aflinis (Cancellaria), C. B. Adams. Panama Shells, 132, 

1852. ? = C. indentata, Sowb .70 

Affinis (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 39. 1856. 

= C. indentata, Sowb 70 

Albida (Cancellaria), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 47, 69 
Angasi (Cancellaria), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., iii, 

p. 64, pi. ii, f. 8, 1863, . .... 76 

Antiquata (Cancellaria), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sulphur, p. 43, 

p. 12, f. 17 and 18, .. . 79 

Aphera, EL and A. Adams. Genera, i, 277, 1853. = Merica, 65, 75 
Arctica (Cancellaria), Midd. Bitr. v, ii, pi. 9, f. 11. 12 and L5. 

(= Trichotropis, Ball. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. vii, 525, 1885), 85 
Articularis (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., sp. 34, f. 32. 

= C. sealata, Sowb. .81 

Asperella (Cancellaria), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., ix, p. 402, . 74 
Asperella, var. (Cancellaria), Desh. in Lam., Hist. Nat. 

ed. 2, Bd. ix, p. 402, (not Lam.) = C. Sinensis, Reeve, . 74 
Asperella (Cancellaria), Sowb. (not Lam.) Thes. Conch., f. 

38. = C. Grayi, Try on, 70 

Asperula (Csuicellaria)', Desh. Enc. Meth., p. 187, No. 17, 83 
Australia (Cancellaria), Philippi. Mai. Blatt., 1857, p. 164, 

Crosse, J. C., 3d ser. iii, p. 68, . . . . . .85 

Australis (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. Ill:, sp. 24, f. 23, . 69 

Bicolor (Cancellaria), Hinds. Voy. Sulph. Moll., p. 43, pi. 

12, f. 13, 14, . 79 

Bifasciata (Cancellaria), Desh. Enc. Meth. Vers., ii, p. 

181, . 74,83 

(86) 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 87 

PAGE. 

Bocageana (Caricellaria), Crosse and Debeaux. J. C., 1863, 

p. 63, 77, 263. = C. Thomasiana, Crosse, . . .80 
Borealis (Cancellaria), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, 

p. 122, 85 

Brevis (Cancellaria), Sowerby. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, f. 

52. = C. goniostoma, Sowb. ...... 78 

Baccinoides (Cancellaria), Couthouy. Bost. J. Nat. Hist., 

ii, p. 105, pi. 3, f. 3. = C. viridula. Fab 84 

Buccinoides (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, 

p. 54, 67 

Bulbulus (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool Soc., 1832, p. 55, 

= C. solida, Sowb. ........ 73 

Bullata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1832, p. 51. 

= C. tuberculosa, Sowb 78 

Cancellaria. Lam. Prodr., 1799, 65 

Cancellata (Cancellaria), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1191, 70 
Candei (Cancellaria), d'Orb. Moll. Cuba, ii, p. 129, t. 21, 

f. 23-25. = Phos, ... 84 

Candida (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., sp. 2, f. 1 . .69 
Carinata (Cancellaria), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 

327, ... 85 

Cassidiformis (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, 

p. 53, . . . . 66 

Chrysostoma (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool Soc., 1832, 

p. 54,. . . 71 

Circumcincta (Cancellaria), Dall. Proc. Cal. Ac., v, p. 59, 

pi. ii. f. 2, . . . . . . . . . 72 

Clathrata (Cancellaria), Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 

123. = C. corrosa, Reeve, 67 

Clavatula (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., Ih32, p. 

52, . , 75 

Coctilis (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 79, 1856. 

= C. Verreauxii, Kiener, 82 

Contabulata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 28. 

= C. scalata, Sowb. . . . . . . . .81 

Cooperii (Cancellaria), Gabb. Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S., vol. iii, 

p. 186, .... .76 

Coronata (Cancellaria), Scacchi. Notiz., 34, t. 1, f. 15, . 76 
Corrosa (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 64, 1856, . . 67 
Corrugata (Cancellaria), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc , 1843, p. 

48, ....... . .75 

Costata (Cancellaria), Calcara. Aradas and Benoit, Conch. 

viv. marina, 259, ........ 85 

Costata ^Cancellaria), Gray. Sowb., Conch. 111., f. 42. 

= C. ooniostoma, Sowb. ....... 78 



88 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAOK. 

Costellifera (Canceilaria), Sowb. Hancock, Ann. and Mag., 

1864. = C. viridola, Fab 84 

Costifera (Canceilaria?, Sowerby. Conch. 111., sp. 33, f. 

31, 80, 82 

Couthouyi (Canceilaria), Jay. Catalogue, 1839. 

= C. viridula, Fab. 84 

Cremata (Canceilaria), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 

48. = C. indentata, Sowb : 70 

Crenifera (Canceilaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., fig. 29, . . 80 
Crenulata (Canceilaria \ A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, 

p. 124, ... 84 

Crispa (Admete), Moller. Ind Moll. Grcenl., p. 15. 

= Canceilaria viridula, Fab. ...... 84 

Crispa (Canceilaria), Sowb. Conch. Illus., p. 12, f. 30. 

= C. crispata, Sowb. 80 

Crispata (Canceilaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., pi. 96, f. 89, . 80 
Crossei (Cnncellaria), Semper. Palseont. (Jntersuch., 91; 

Crosse, Jour, de Conch., 3d ser. iii, 61. 

= C. crenifera, Sowb. ....... 81 

Cumingiana (Canceilaria), Petit. Guer. Mag. Zool. . . 68 
Cumingii (Canceilaria), Sowb. Adams, Gen., vol. i, p. 271. 

? C. Cumingiana, Petit, 68 

Decussata (Canceilaria^, Nyst. BuN. Ac. Brux., 1838, v, p. 

115, pi. i, f. 5, . . . . . .83 

Distincta (Admete viridula, var.), Leche. K. Sv. Vet. Akad. 

Handl., xvi, 48, . 85 

Eburngeformis (Canceilaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 21, 1856. 

= C. reticulata, Linn. ....... 70 

Elata (Canceilaria), Hinds. Moll. Yoy. Sulph., p. 42, pi. 

12, f. 3 and 4, 76 

Elegans (Canceilaria), Sowb. Gen. Shells, f. 3. 

= C. asperella, Lam. ........ 74 

Elongata ( Admete viridula, var.), Leche. K. Sv. Vet. Akad. 

Handl., xvi, 48, 85 

Euclia, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 277, 1853. 

= Subsection of Canceilaria, ..... 65, 73 
Excavata (Canceilaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, p. 137- 

= C. spirata, Lam 77 

Fischeri (Canceilaria). A. Adams. Ann. Mag., 1860, 3d 
ser., vol. v, p. 411, . . . . . . .84 

Forestieri (Canceilaria), Montr. J. C., 3d ser., iii, 161, t. 5, 
f. 7, 1863. = C. scalata, 81 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 89 

PAGE. 

Foveolata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, p. 

137, 77 

Funiculata (Cancellaria), Hinds. Voy. Sulph., p. 43, pi. 12, 

f. 5 and 6, 83 

Gemraulata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 

55, 69 

Globularis (Admete), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

4th ser., xv, p. 426, . . .... 85 

Goniostoma (Cancellaria), Sowerby. Proc. Zool. Soc. ,1832, 

p. 51, . 78 

Grandis (Admete viridula, var.), Morch. Moll. Spitzbergen, 

Xo. 35, . . . ' 84 

Granosa (Cancellaria), Angas. Zool. Proc., 208, 1867. 

= C. undulata, Sowb. Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 

viii, 226 67 

Granosa (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 16 and 17, . 68 
Grayi (Cancellaria), Tryon, 70 

Haemastoma (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, 

f. 54. = C. chrysostoma, Sowb., var 72 

Hystrix (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 67, 1856, . . 81 

Imbricata (Cancellaria), Watson. Linn. Soc. Jour. Zool., 

xvi, p. 325. . . 84 

Imperialis (Cancellaria), Michelin. Guer. Mag., pi. 16, 1832. 

= C. nodnlifera, Sowb 68 

Indentata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 

54, .... 70 

Indentata, var. (Cancellaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 80. 

= C. affinis, Reeve, .70 

Japonica (Cancellaria), E. A. Smith. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, 
p. 216. pi. xx, f. 54, . . t 73 

Lactea (Cancellaria), Desh. Encyc. Meth., p. 180, . . 74 

Lrevigata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 24, . . 74 
Lrcvior (Admete viridula, var.), Leche. K. Sv. Vet. Akad. 

Handl., xvi, 48, .... ... 85 

Lamberti (Cancellaria), Souv. J. C., iii ser., x, 428, 1870, 82 
Lamellosa (Cancellaria), Hinds. Voy. Sulph. Moll., p. 43, 

pi. 12, f. 15 and 16. = C. crenifera, Sowb., . . . 80 
Laticosta, var. (Cancellaria), Kobelt. K lister, t, taf. 2, f. 

7-9. = Yar. C. Sinensis, Reeve, . . ." .74 



90 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Limnaeiformis (Admetc), E. A. Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc., 

vol. 168, p. 172, pi. 9, f. 4, .85 

Littorinseformis (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 14, . 83 
Lyrata (Cancellaria), Adams and Reeve. Voy. Samar., 42, 
pi. x, f. 4. = C. funiculata, Hinds, ., . . . .83 

Macrospira (Cancellaria), Adams and Reeve. Voy. Sama- 

rang, pi. 10, f. 2, . 76 

Mangellioides (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 69, 1856. 

? = C, Thomasiana, Crosse, 80 

Massyla, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 278, 1853. 

= *Merica 65, 75 

Melanostoma (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1845, 

p. 137. = C. asperella, Lam., var. . . . . .74 

Merica, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 277, 1853. 

= Subsection of Cancellaria, ..... 65, 74 
Middendorffiana (Admete), Dall. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

vii, 525, 1885. Proposed for A. viridula of Middendorff 

(Mai. Ross.), not Fab. 

Minima (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 77, 1856, . . 73 
Mitrseformis (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, 

p. 51. = C. uniplicata, Sowb. . . . . .75 

Mitroides (Cancellaria), Fischer. Mus. Demidofl', . . 83 
Modesta (Cancellaria), Carpenter. Ann. Mag. N. H., 3d 

ser., xv, p. 32, .... .84 

Montrouzieri (Cancellaria), Souv. J. C., iii ser., p. 163, 

1863, t. 5, f. 8. = C. scalata, Sowb. . . . .81 

Multiphcata (Cancellaria), Lesson. Rev. Zool. Cuv. Soc., 

1841, p. 37, ...... .83 

Narona, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 277, 1853. 

= Subsection of Cancellaria 65, 75 

Nassa (Cancellaria), Roissy. Buffon, Moll., v. 6, p. 13, No. 3 

(Seba., 53, f. 42), . . 83 

Nitida (Cancellaria), A. Adams.' Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 

123, 82 

Nodosa (Nassa), Martini. = Cancellaria piscatoria, Gmelin, 77 
Nodulifera (Cancellaria), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 15, 

1825, .68 

Nodulosa (Cancellaria), Lam. Anim. s. Vert., vii, 113. 

= C. piscatoria, Gmelin, . . . . . . .77 

Obesa (Cancellaria), Sowb, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 52, . 68 
Obliquata (Cancellaria), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., ix, p. 408, . 81 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 91 



PAGE. 

Oblonga (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. Tank. Cat. App., p. 

15. = C. bifasciata, Desh. ...... 74 

Obtusa (Cancellaria), Desh. Enc. Meth. Yers., vol. ii, p. 1ST, 68 
Obtusa (Cancellaria), Kiener (non Lam.). Iconog., t. 3, 

f. 2. = C. solida, Sowb 73 

Ovata (Admete), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xv, 

426, 1875, .85 

Grata (Cancellaria), Menke. Zeit. Mai., 181, 1850. 

? = C. urceolata, Hinds 69 

Ovata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Sec.. 1832, f. 53. 

= C. obesa, Sowb . .69 

Parva (Cancellaria), Philippi. Reise Wueste Atacama, p. 

187, pi. vii, f. 18, 1860, 73 

Piscatoria ^Cancellaria), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3496, No. 

116, 77 

Pulchra (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 50, 71 
Purpuriformis (Cancellaria), Valenciennes. Kiener, Iconog., 

pi. 7,f. 4, 75 

PtisUla (Cancellaria), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1869. p. 

274, pi. xix, f. 12, 73 

Pusilla (Cancellaria), Sowb. Thes., pi. 93, f. 19. 

= C. contabnlata, Sowb. (young), . . . . .81 
Pygmaea (Cancellaria), C. B. Adams. Pan. Shells, No. 160, 84 
Pyrum (Cancellaria), Adams and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

pi. x, f. 1C, . 73 

Reeveana (Cancellaria), Crosse. Jour. Conch., ix, p. 237, 

1861. = C. asperella, Lam 74 

Reticulata (Cancellaria), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th eel., p. 1190, 69 
Rigida (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 53. 

= C. goniostoma, Sowb. . . . . , . .78 

Rosea (Cancellaria), Beck. Sowb., Thes., 453. 

= C. obliquata, Lam. . . . . . . .81 

Rougeyroni (Cancellaria), Souv. J. C.,3d ser., x, 427, 1870. 

= C. scalata, Sowb 81 

Rugosa (Cancellaria), Lam. Anim. s. Yert., ix, p. 408, . 72 

Scabriculus (Murex), Linn. = Cancellaria cancellata, Linn. 70 
Scalare (Buccinurn), Gmelin. S\st. Nat. 

= Canceilaria scalarina, Lam. ...... 80 

Scalariformis (Cancellaria), Lam. Anim. sans Yert., vii, 113, 80 

Scalarina (Cancellaria), Lam. .Anim. s. Yert., ix, p. 403, . 79 
Scalarina (dancellaria), Sowb. et Reeve (non Lam.). 

= C. Thomasiana, Crosse, 80 



92 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

* 

PAGE. 

Scalata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 27, . . .81 
Schythei (Cancellaria), Philippi. Mai. Blatt., 1857, p. 164, 85 
Semidisjuncta (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, 

p. 137, . . 77 

Semipellucida (Cancellaria), Adams et Reeve. Voy. Samar. 

Moll., p. 42, pi. 10. f. 3, .... 83 

Semperiana (Cancellaria), Crosse. J. C., 3d ser., iii, p. 65, 

pi. ii, f. 7, 1863,. ... . ... 68 

Serrata (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 63, 1856. 

= C. Crossei, Semper 81 

Similaris (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 10. 

= C. similis, Sowb. ........ 71 

Similis (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., No. 42, f. 38, . 71 
Siriensis (Cancellaria), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 35, 1856. 

= C. asperella, Lam., var. 74 

Solida (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 52, . 73 
Souverbiei (Cancellaria), Crosse. Jour, de Conch, 272, t. 9, 

f. 5, 1868. = C. costifera, Sowb 82 

Sowerbyi (Cancellaria), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 3d ser., i, 

242. = C. uniplicata, Sowb. .... . . 75 

Specularis (Cancellaria), Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xvi, p. 

325, 85 

Spengleriana (Cancellaria), Desh. Enc. Meth. Yers., vol. 

ii, p. 185, -67 

Spirata i Cancellaria), Lam, An. s. Yert., ix, p. 408, . . 77 
Stimpsonii (Cancellaria), Calkins. Proc. Daven. Ac. N. S., 

1878, p. 250, pi. 8, f. 4-5, 79 

Striata (Galea), Klein. = Cancellaria reticulata, Linn. . 69 
Subangnlosa (Cancellaria), Wood. Crag Moll., i, p. 66, t. 

vii, i'. 20. = C. viridula, Fab .84 

Subsinensis (Cancellaria), Kobelt. Kiister, Can. 7, Taf. 2, 

f. 3. = Yar. of C. Sinensis, Reeve, . . . .74 

Tabulata (Admete), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, 128, pi. 

24, f. 3, .85 

Tgeniata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, p. 137, 76 
Tasmanica (Cancellaria), T. Woods. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 

1875, p. 150, . . 83 

Tenera (Cancellaria), Phil. . Menke, Zeit., 1848, p. 24, No. 

94, 84 

Tennis (Cancellaria), A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1855, p. 

123. = C. scalata, Sowb. 81 

Tessellata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 51, 75 
Textilis (Cancellaria^, Kiener. Coq. Yiv., pi. 7, f. 1. 

== C. scalata, Sowb 81 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 93 

PAGE. 

Thomasiana (Cancellaria), Crosse. Jour. Conch., vol. ix, p. 

231,1861, 79 

Trailli (Cancellaria), Hutton. Marine Moll. N. Zeal., p. 26, 83 
Trigonostoma, Blainv. Manuel de Malacol., 1825. 

= Section of Cancellaria, ...... 65,17 

Trigonostoma (Cancellaria), Lam. An. s. Vert , ix, p. 88, . 78 
Tritonis (Cancellaria), Sowb. Conch. 111., f. 15. 

= C. Spengleriana, Desh 67 

Ttiberculata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., pi. 457. 

= C. tuberculosa, Sowb. . . . . . . .78 

Tuberculosa (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, 

p. 51, . . . . . . 78 

Turbinopsis, Conrad. Jour. Acad. Nat. So., n. s., iv, 289, 

1860, 65 

Turrita (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1873, p. 721, 

t. lix, f. 12, .72 

Unalashkensis (Cancellaria). Dall. Proc. Cal. Ac., v, p. 58, 

pi. ii, f. 1, . . 72 

Undata (Admete viridula, var.), Leche. Kongl. Sv. Yet. 

Akad. Hand., Bd. 16, No. 2, p. 47. 

= Cancellaria viridula, Fab., var. . . . . .85 

Undato-costata (Admete), Verkriizen. Jahrb., ii, p. 237, 85 
Undulata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, p. 

136. Brazier, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, viii, 226. 

= C. Spengleriana, Desh. ....... 67 

Uniplicata (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, . 75 
Urceolata (Cancellaria), Hinds. Voy. Sulph. Moll., 41. pi. 

12, f. 7-8, . . . ' . 69 

Varicosa (Cancellaria), Phil. Moll. Sicil., i, 201, 1836; ii, 
177,1844. = C. coronata, Sc 76 

Yentricosa (Cancellaria), Hinds. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1843, p. 
47. = C. decusata, Sowb. ...... 70 

Yerreauxii, (Cancellaria) Kiener. Iconog, pi. 8, f. 3, . . 82 

Viridula (Cancellaria), O. Fab. Fauna Grounl., 402 ; Jeffreys, 
Ann. Mag. N. H., xix, 322, 1877, . . . . .84 

Wilmeri (Cancellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, p. 637, 
pi. Ivi, f. 2, . 82 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



CANCELLARIID^. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE PAGE. 

1. Cancellaria Cassidiformis, Sowb. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 15, 66 

2. Cancellaria Spengleriana, Desh. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 29, . . . 67 

3. Cancellaria Tritonis, Sowb. (= Spengieriana). Thes. 

Conch., f. 15, 67 

4. 5. Cancellaria undulata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 12,79, 67 
6, 7. Cancellaria Bnccinoides, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 10, 

11 . .67 

8. Cancellaria Bnccinoides, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

t. 18, f. 15 d, 67 

9. Cancellaria corrosa, Reeve, Reeve, Icon., f. 64 6, . 67 

10. Cancellaria nodulifera, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 57, . 68 

11. Cancellaria imperialis, Michelin (= nodnlifera). Gne- 

riii's Magazine, t. 16, 1832, 68 

12. Cancellaria Cnmingiana, Petit. Reeve, Icon., f. 1 a, . 68 

PLATE 2. 

13. Cancellaria Cnmingiana, Petit. Jonr. de Conch., xi, 

t. 2, f. 9, 68 

14. Cancellaria obtnsa, Desh. Conch. Icon., f. 37 a, . . 68 

15. Cancellaria Semperiana, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xi, 

t. 2, f. 7, ... . .68 

16. Cancellaria granosa, Sowb. Sowb., Conch. Illust., f. 17, 68 

17. Cancellaria obesa, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 7, . 68 

18. Cancellaria ovata, Sowb. (= obesa). Thes. Conch., f. 2, 69 

19. Cancellaria acuminata, Sowb. (=obea). Thes. Conch., 

f. 1, . . 69 

20. Cancellaria nrceolata, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 23 6, ... .69 

21. Cancellaria Candida, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 46 6, 69 

22. Cancellaria australis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 73, . 69 

23. Cancellaria albida, Hinds, Reeve, Conch. Icon.,f. 45 fr, 69 

24. Cancellaria gemmnlata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 48ft, . , 69 

(94) 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 95 

FIGURE. VAGK. 

25. Cancellaria reticulata, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 17, ' . 69 

26. Cancellaria E burn ae form is, Rve. (= reticulata). Conch. 

Icon.,f. 21 a, . '.70 

27. Cancellaria decussata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 22 a, , . .70 

28. Cancellaria ventricosa, Hinds (== decussata) Reeve. 

Conch. Icon., f. 47 a, . . . . . .70 

29. Cancellaria cremata, Hinds (= indentata). Thes. 

Conch., f. 80, 70 



PLATE 3. 

30. Cancellaria indentata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 41 6, 70 

32. Cancellaria affinis, Reeve (= indentata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 39 a. . . -TO 

33. Cancellaria asperella, Sowb. (= Grayi). Thes. Conch., 

f. 38, ' . . .70 

34. Cancellaria cancellata, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 136, ... .... 70 

35. Cancellaria similis, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 10 6, 71 

36. Cancellaria pulchra, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 41, . . 71 

37. 39. Cancellaria hsemastoma, Sowb. (= chrysostoma, 

var.). Thes. Conch., f. 55, 53, .... 72 

38. Cancellaria chrysostoma, Sowb. Thes Conch., -f. 39, . 71 

40. Cancellaria rugosa. Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 44, 72 

41. Cancellaria Unalashkensis, Dall. Calif. Proc., v, t. 2, f. 1, 72 

42. Cancellaria circumcincta, Dall. Calif. Proc., v, t. 2, f. 2, 72 

43. Cancellaria turrita, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 69, f. 12, 1873, 72 

44. Cancellaria parva, Phil. Philippi, Reise Atacama, 

t. 7,f. 18, . . . 73 

45. Cancellaria minima, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 77 a, 73 

46. Cancellaria pusilla, A. Ad. Zool. Proc., 1. 19, f. 12, 1869, 73 

47. Cancellaria Japonica, Smith. Zool. Proc., t. 20, f. 54, 

1879, .73 

48. Cancellaria solida, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 4, .73 

49. Cancellaria bullmlus, Sowb. (= solida). Thes. Conch., 

f. 64, ... . . 73 

50. Cancellaria pvrum, Ads. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

t. 10, f. 16," . . 73 

51. Cancellaria lactea, Desh. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 82, . 74 

52. Cancellaria Irevigata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 34 a, . .74 

53. Cancellaria elegans, Sowb. (= Sinensis). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 12" .74 



96 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGUBK. "LATE 4. 

50. Cancellaria Sinensis, Reeve (= asperella, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 356, ... .74 

51. Cancellaria subsinensis (= Sinensis, var.). Kiister, 

Monog., t. 2, f. 3, . . . . . . 74 

52. Cancellaria laticosta (= Sinensis, var.). Kiister, t. 2, 

f . 7 74 

53. Cancellaria asperella, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 74, 74 

54. Cancellaria melanostoma. Sowb. (= asperella, var.). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 26 6, . .74 

55. Cancellaria oblonga, Sowb. (== bifasciata). Thes. 

Conch., f. 25, . . ... .74 

56. Cancellaria Purpuriformis, Val. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 766, 75 

57. Cancellaria corrugata, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

726, .... . . .75 

58. 59. Cancellaria tessellata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 70 a, 6, 75 

60. Cancellaria tessellata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 32, . 75 

61. Cancellaria clavatula, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

526,'. . ... . . 75 

62. 63. Cancellaria Mitraeformis, Sowb. (= uniplicata). 

Thes. Conch,, f. 24, 35, . . . . . . 75 

64. Cancellaria taeniata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 75, . . 76 

65. Cancellaria elata. Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, t. 12, f. 4, . 76 

66. Cancellaria Cooperi, Gabb. Specimen, . . .76 

67. Cancellaria macrospira, Adams and Reeve. Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 50 6, . . . . 76 

68. Cancellaria coronata, Scacchi. Philippi, Moll. Sicil., ii, 

t. 25, f. 27, .76 

69. Cancellaria Angasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 2, f. 

8, 1863, . 76 

70. Cancellaria piscatoria, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

33, . 77 

71. Cancellaria spirata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,f. 56 , 77 

PLATE 5. 

72. Cancellaria excavata, Sowb. ( = spirata). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 53 a, . .77 

73. Cancellaria foveolata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

71 a, . . 77 

74. Cancellaria foveolata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 30, . 77 

75. Cancellaria semidisjuncta, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 63, 77 

76. Cancellaria tuberculosa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 52, . 78 

77. Cancellaria tuberculosa, Sowb. Kiener, Iconog., t. 1, 

,f. 2, .78 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 97 

FIOURB. PAGE. 

78. Cancellaria bullata, Sowb. (= tuberculosa). Thes. 

Conch., f. 56, .78 

79. Cancellaria trigonostoma, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon.. 

f. 51 6, .... .... 78 

80. Can.-ellaria goniostoma, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 40, . 78 

81. Cancellaria goniostoma, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., f. 32 a, . 78 

82. Cancellaria brevis, Sowb. (= goniostoma \ Thes. 

Conch., f. 21, ... .... 78 

83. 84. Cancellaria costata, Grajr ( goniostoma). Thes. 

Conch. ,f. 61, 60, 78 

85. Cancellaria rigida, Sowb. (= goniostoma). Conch. 

Icon., f. 336, 78 

86. Cancellaria bicolor, Hinds. Yoy. Sulphur, t. 12, f. 14, 79 

87. Cancellaria Stimpsoni. Calkins, Shells of Florida, . 79 

88. Cancellaria antiquata, Hinds. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,f. 

74ft, 79 

PLATE 6. 

89. 90. Cancellaria bicolor, Hinds. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

49, 50, . . . 79 

91. Cancellaria scalarina, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 5, f. 3, 79 

92. Cancellaria scalarina, Sowb. (= Thomasiana^. Conch. 

Icon., f. 256, 79 

93. Cancellaria Bocageana,C. &D. (= Thomasiana). Jour. 

de Conch., t. 9, f. 3, 1863, 79 

94. Cancellaria Mangelioides, Reeve (= Thomasiana). 

Conch. Icon., f. 69 6, . . . . . .79 

95. Cancellaria scalariformis, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 5, 

f . 4 80 

96. Cancellaria crispata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 43 6, 80 

97. Cancellaria crenifera, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 84, . 80 

98. Cancellaria lamellosa, Hinds ( crenifera). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 65 6, 80 

98. Cancellaria serrata, Reeve (= crenifera). Conch. 

Icon., f. 63 a, 80 

100. Cancellaria hystrix, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 67 6, . 81 

1. Cancellaria obliquata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

61 a, 81 

2. Cancellaria scalata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 19 a, 81 

3. Cancellaria textilis, Kiener (= scalata) Ibid., f. 286, 81 

4. Cancellaria articnlaris, Sowb. (= scalata . Thes. 

Conch., f. 91, . 81 

5. Cancellaria contabulata, Sowb. (= scalata). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 42 a, .... .81 

6. Cancellaria pusilla, Sowb. (= scalata. juv.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 19, .. 81 

7 



98 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FI0URR. PAGE. 

7. Cancellaria Forestieri, Souverb. (= scalata). Jour.de 

Conch,, t. 5, f. 7, 1863, . ... 81 

8. Cancellaria Montrouzieri, Souverb. (= scalata). Ibid., 

t. 5, f. 8, .81 

9. Cancellaria tennis, A. Ad. (= scalata). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 75 a, 81 

PLATE 7'. 

10 Cancellaria Wilmeri,Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 56, f. 2, 1881, 82 

11. Cancellaria Rougeyroni, Souverb. (= scalata). Jour. 

de Conch , t. 14* f. 1, 1870, 81 

12. Cancellaria costifera, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 66, . 82 

13. Cancellaria Souverbiei, Crosse (= costifera). Jour. 

de Conch., t. 9, f. 5, 1868, . .82 

14. Cancellaria Laraberti, Souverb. Jour, de Conch., t. 14, 

f. 2, 1870, . 82 

15. Cancellaria Yerreauxi, Kiener. Conch. Icon., f. 596, 82 

16. Cancellaria nitida, Ads. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 78 6, 82 

17. Cancellaria coctilis, Reeve (= Verreauxi). Ibid., f. 

796, 82 

18. Cancellaria Littoriniformis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 62 6, . 83 

19. 20. Cancellaria seraipellucida. Ibid., f. 73 a, 6, . 

21. Cancellaria funiculata, Hinds. Yoy. Sulphur., 1. 12, f. 6, 83 

22. Cancellaria lyrata, Ad. and Reeve (= funiculata). 

Voy. Sanuirang, t. 10, f. 4, . ... 84 

23. Admete viridula, Fabr. Reeve, Cancellaria, f. 85, - 84 

24. Admete Couthouyi, Jay (= viridula). Ibid., f. 86, . 84 

25. Admete viridula, var. elongata. Leche, K. Vet. Aktid. 

Handl., xvi, t. 1, f. 13 a, . 

26. Admete viridula, var. distincta. Leche, Ibid., 1. 1, f. 14a, 84 

27. Admete viridula, var. undata. Middendorff, Beitr. 

Mai. Ross., t. 10, f. 4, ... 85 

28. Admete viridula, var. laevior, Leche. Middendorff, 

Ibid., t. 10, f. 2, . 85 

29. Admete arctica, Middendorff. Middendorff, Ibid., t. 9, 

f. 12, . 85 

30. Admete tabulata, Sowb. Zool. Proc., t. 24, f. 3, 1875, 85 

31. Admete Lymn<Teiformis, Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc., 

clxviii, t. 9, f. 4, 85 

32. Admete viridula, Fabr. H. and A. Adams, Genera, 

t. 29, f. 5, . ' . . .85 

33. Admete crispa (== viridula). Fischer. Man. de Conch., 

p. 595, . . . . . . . .65 



FAMILY STROMBIDjE. 

Shell itn perforate, usually solid, with turriculated spire, and 
more or less dilated or winged lip; the lip frequently digitated, 
with usually a sinus near the base for the protrusion of the head 
of the animal ; aperture mostly canaliculated at each extremity, 
the columella callous, without plaits. Operculum corneous, 
small, generally unguiculatc, sometimes oval, with apical nucleus. 

Animal with sessile or pedunculated eyes, slender tentacles, 
contractile annulated proboscis, short siphon, varying foot. 
Dentition taenioglossate. 

Corresponds with the family Alata of Lamarck. 

Subfamilies. 

Subfamily STROMBIN^E. Animal furnished with large eyes, 
placed on thick cylindrical peduncles; the iris highly colored, 
often in concentric zones, tentacles slender, rising from the 
middle of the eye-peduncles; foot narrow, adapted for leaping 
rather than walking; siphon very short, not extending beyond 
the anterior canal of the shell ; mantle with an extension laying 
in the posterior canal; penis long, narrow, with a hook-like or 
bifurcated extremity. Dentition. Central tooth multicuspid, 
short; Literals, one on each side, sub trigonal, with crenulated 
margins; marginals falciform, narrow, sharp-pointed, with finely 
denticulated margin (PI. 1, fig. 1). 

Shell with expanded, entire, or shortl}' digitated lip, with an 
anterior marginal sinus, and usually a posterior prolongation; 
aperture canaliculated anteriorly and posteriorly. Operculum 
narrow, unguiculate. 

Subfamily AroRRHAiN^E. Eyes small, sessile at the outer 
bases of the narrow, subulated tentacles; foot rather small, 
oblong, adapted for walking. Operculum suboval. Dentition : 
central tooth subquadrangular. the edge multicuspid ; laterals 
transverse, with entire margins ; marginals elongated, narrow, 
curved, shnrp, with entire margins (PI. 11, fig. 25). 

Shell with turriculated spire, the lip much dilated, usually 
digitated, with an incomplete canal or notch in front. 

(99) 



100 STROM BID^E. 

Differs from Strombiiise in the form and adaptation of the 
foot and in the dentition; the shell differs in the absence (in 
most of the genera) of a labial sinus, but is closely related with 
the Pterocera of the Strombirise, and a little remotely with the 
Cerithiidse. 

Subfamily STRUTHIOLARIIN^E. Tentacles slender, rather short, 
with the eyes on short pedicels at their external bases ; foot 
oval, adapted for swimming ; proboscis long ; siphon scarcely 
perceptible. Operculum shortly unguiculate. Dentition: 5-M-1-5; 
central tooth subquadrangular, with multicuspid edge, the 
laterals oblong, multicuspid; marginals falciform, sharp, narrow, 
with crenulated margins (PI. 12, fig. 42). 

Shell bucciniform, the aperture angular, shortly subcanalicu- 
lated below; lip thickened, sinuous, entire; columella thickened, 
polished, subtruncate below. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

The Strombidse abound in fossil forms, some of them of very 
bizarre appearance ; as these are all described and illustrated in 
the u Structural and Systematic Conchology," they will be 
simply named here, with references to that work. 

Subfamily StromlnntK. 
Genus STROMBUS, Linn.. 1758. 

Shell ovate, turretecl or subfusiform, often tuberculated or 
spinose, imperforate, covered by a thin, horny epidermis, solid ; 
aperture long, narrow, emarginate or with a short canal in front, 
canaliculated or channeled posteriorly; outer lip usually dilated, 
thickened, often lobed, with a sinus near the front ; columellar 
lip simple, callous. Operculum narrowly unguiculate, the margins 
denticulated, or rugose. In the young, the lip of the shell is 
not expanded, so that it appears something like a Conus. 

Section I. STROMBUS (sensu stricto}. Lip with entire margin, 
widely expanded, not prolonged upon the spire behind ; inner 
lip not restricted or defined. S. gigas, Linn. 

Section II. EUPROTOMUS, Gill, em., 1869. Lip widely expanded, 
ascending the spire, the outer margin folded in and thickened, 
the posterior margin subdigitate or plain. 8. lacimatus, Chemn. 



STROMBIDJE. 101 

Section III. MONODACTYLUS, Klein, 1753. Lip with a pos- 
terior, narrow, much produced lobe. S. Pacificus, Swainson. 

Section IV. GALLINULA, Klein, 1753. Lip somewhat dilated, 
not digitate, frequently- descending the spire behind ; inner lip 
restricted, defined. S. succinctus, Linn. 

Section V. CANARIUM, Schum., 1817. -Lip not dilated, pos- 
terior canal short or obsolete. S. urceus, Linn. 

Section VI. CONOMUREX, Bayle, 1884. .Shell cone-shaped, 
with short spire, aperture narrow, with subparallel lips, the 
outer lip not dilated. S. Luhuanns, Linn. 

Section VII. ONCOMA. Mayer, 187(5. Fossil, Eocene of Europe. 
S. and S. Conch., ii, 190. 

Subgenus PUGNELLUS, Conrac^ 1860. 

Fossil only, Cretaceous U. S. S. and S. Conchology, ii, 190, t. 
60, f. 71, 72. 

Section GYMNARUS, Gabb, 1868. Fossil. S. and S. Conch., ii, 
190, t. 60, f. 73. 

Subgenus PEREIR^EA, Crosse, 1867. 

Fossil only. Miocene of Spain and Portugal. S. and S. 
Conch., ii. 1&4, t. 60, f. 87. 

Genus PTEROCERA, Lamarck, 1799. 

Outer edge of the mantle digitated. Operculum as in Strom- 
bus. Shell ovate, spire turriculated, aperture narrow, elongated, 
outer lip much expanded, tubularl}- digitate, with a sinus near the 
base, a long, straight or curved anterior canal, and a posterior 
canal ascending and sometimes surpassing the spire. 

The young shell, like Strombus, is coniform, with the outer lip 
straight and simple; the claws or digitations being gradually 
formed with the growth of the shell. At first they are short, 
open canals, and afterwards close and become solid. 

Section I. PTEROCERA (sensu stric.to}. Anterior canal straight 
or curved to the right, posterior canal ascending the spire. 

Subsection I. (Heptadactylus, Klein). Lips smooth, digi- 
tations not numerous. P. lambis, Linn. 

Subsection II. (MiHipes, Klein). Lips rugose or corru- 
gated, digitations more numerous. P. scorpio, Linn. 



102 STROMBID^. 

Section II. HARPAGO, Klein, 1753: Anterior and posterior 
canals both curved to the left, the latter at first crossing the shell 
transversely. P. rugosa, Sowb. 

Subgenus PHYLLOCHEILUS, Gabb, 1868. 

(Melaptera, Piette, 1876). Fossil only. S. and S. Conch., ii, 
191, t. 60, f. 74. 

Subgenus HARPAGODES, Gill, 1869. 
Jurassic and Cretaceous. S. and S. Conch. ,ii, 195, t. 60, f. 93. 

Genus ROSTELLARIA, Lamarck, 1799. 

Animal similar to Strombus. Operculum not serrated on the 
edge. Shell fusifonn with elevated spire, whorls numerous, 
smooth, or slightly ribbed; aperture continued into a narrow, 
usually long, straight or slightly curved anterior canal, and a 
shorter posterior canal ascending the spire, outer lip thickened, 
not much expanded, shortly digitated in the typical group. The 
(restricted) Rostellarias belong to the present epoch or extend 
at most only into the more recent tertiaries ; but a number of 
fossil groups are usually considered as belonging to the genus. 
J?. curia, Sowb. 

? Section MITR^EFUSUS, Bcllardi, 1871. Miocene. Structural 
and Syst. Conch., ii, 128, t. 47, f. 80. This has been considered 
a member of the family Fusidae, but Dr. Fischer calls attention 
to its close resemblance to a young Rostellaria. 

Subgenus RIMELLA, Agassiz, 1840. 

Shell cancellated, anterior canal short, posterior canal rather 
long, applied to the spire ; lip but little dilated, usually rugose, 
and having an exterior rib, not digitated. R. crispata, Sowb. 

The few recent species belong to the Philippine Island fauna ; 
there are also Cretaceous and Tertiary species. 

? Section ISOPLEURA, Meek, 1864. A cretaceous group, having 
no posterior canal, and perhaps not belonging to this family. S. 
and S. Conchology, ii, 192, t. 60, f. 76. 

? Section STROMBOLARTA, Gregorio, 1880. An eocene fossil 
which seems to possess the essential characters of Isopleura ; it 



STROMBID^E. 103 

is ribbed longitudinally, occasionally varicose, and without pos- 
terior canal. R. crucis, Bayan. 

Section CYCLOMOLOPS, Gabb, 1868. Eocene. S. and S. Conch., 
ii, 192, t. 60, f. 77. 

Subgenns HIPPOCHRENES, Montfort, 1810. 

Eocene of Europe and America. S. and S. Conch., ii, 191, t. 
60, f. 75. 

Section ORTHAULAX, Gabb, 1873. Tertiary. S. and S. Conch., 
ii, 192. 

Section LEIORHINUS, Gabb, 1860. Eocene, Ala. S. and S. 
Conch., ii, 191, t. 60, f. 92. 

Section CALYPTROPHORUS, Conrad, 1857. Eocene, U.S.; Cre- 
taceous, India. S. and S. Conch., ii, 192, t. 60, f. 78. 

Snbgenus PTERODONTA, d'Orbigny, 1851. 
Cretaceous. S. and S. Conchology, ii, 190, t. 88, f. 56. 

Genus TEREBELLUM, Klein, 1753. 

Anterior part of foot very small, posterior part oval, com- 
pressed ; eyes on the ends of peduncles; no tentacles; siphon 
rudimentary; mantle with a posterior filiform appendage, laying 
in the sutural canal. Operculum small, narrow, digitated. 

Shell elongate, subc}'lindrical, spire rather short, apex obtuse ; 
aperture narrow, broadly notched in front ; lip simple, columella 
truncated. 

Section I. TEREBELLUM (sensu stricto}. Shell smooth, spire 
rather short, with channeled suture. T. xubulatum, Linn. 

Section II. TEREBELLOPSIS, Leymerie, 1844. Nummulitic. S. 
and S. Conch., ii, 193, t. 60, f. 81. 

Section III. SERAPHS, Montfort, 1810. Spire concealed under 
a callous covering. Eocene. T. convohitum, Lam. 

Section IV. MAURYNA, Gregorio, 1880. Surface longitudinally 
folded. Nummulitic. T. plicatum, d'Arch. 

Subfamily Aporrhainae. 
Genus APORRHAIS, Dillwyn, 1823. 

Shell fusiform, spire turreted, with a short canal in front, and 
a posterior canal running up the spire ; outer lip of adult expanded. 



104 STROMBID^E. 

thickened, and 2-3 digitated, the digitations continued as carinse 
on the back of the shell. A. pcs-pelecani , Lam. 4 recent species, 
N. Atlantic Ocean ; fossil, Jurassic . 

Section I. APORRHAIS (sensu stricto). Lip bi- or tri-digitate, 
posterior digitation canaliform, running up the spire, the ex- 
tremity free. 

Section II. ARRHOGES, Gabb, 1868. Shell with expanded, 
simple lip, with a posterior, obtuse, lobe-l ; ke extension, the 
anterior sinus nearly obsolete ; anterior canal short and obtuse ; 
posterior canal very short. A. accident alis, Beck. 

Section III. GONIOCHILA, Gabb, 1868 (Alipes, Conrad, 1865, 
without description). Eocene. S. and S. Conch., ii, 193, t. 60, 
f. 82. 

Section IV. CERATOSIPHON, Gill, 1870. Cretaceous. S. and 
S. Conch., ii, 196, t. 60, f. 94. 

Section V. CYPHOSOLENUS, Piette. 1876. Jurassic. L. c., ii, 
193. 

Section VI. TESSAROLAX, Gabb, 1864. Cretaceous. L. c., ii, 
195, t. 60, f. 89. 

Section VII. PTEROCERELLA, Meek. Cretaceous. L.c.,ii, 195, 
t. 60, f. 90. 

Section VIII. LISPODESTHES, White, 1875. Cretaceous. L. c., 
ii, 194, t. 60, f. 86. 

Section IX. HELICAULAX, Gabb, 1868. Cretaceous. L. c., ii, 
194,,t, 60, f. 85. 

Section X. DIMORPHOSOMA, Gardner, 1875. Cretaceous. L. c., 
ii, 194. 

Section XI. MONOCYPHUS, Piette, 1876. Lip palmated, widely 
separated from the spire and canal, with an anterior sinus ; 
anterior canal short. Jurassic. A. camellus, Piette. (Brachy- 
stoma, Gardner, 1876, appears to be founded on an imperfect 
Aporrhais, having a very long spire. B. angulare, Seeley. Gault). 

Genus DIARTEMA, Piette, 1864. 

Shell Ranelliform, with continuous varices on each side of the 
spire ; lip thick, dilated with a simple or slightly undulating 
margin, and a slight anterior sinus ; anterior canal short, straight, 
posterior canal small. Jurassic. 



STROMBID^:. 105 

Section CYPHOTIFER, Piette, 1876. Jurassic. S. and S. Conch., 
ii, 195. 

Genus ALARJ^\., Morris and Lycett, 1850. 

Jurassic. S. and S. Conch., ii, 105, t. CO, f. 91. 

Section I. ALARIA (sensu stricto). Varicose. 

Section II. DICROLOMA, Gabb, 168. No varices, lip two- or 
three-digitate. Jurassic, Cretaceous. S. and S. Conch., ii. 194, 
t. 60, f. 88. 

Section III. ANCHURA, Conrad, 1860. L. c., ii, 194, t. 60, f. 84. 

Subgenus DIEMPTERUS, Piette, 1876. 
Jurassic. Structural and Syst. Conchology, ii, 195. 

Subgenus SPINIGERA, d'Orb., 1850. 
Jurassic. Structural and Syst. Conch., ii. 192, t. 60, f. 79, 80. 

Subfamily Struthiolariinse. 
Genus STRUTHIOLARIA, Lam., 1812. 

Animal with the outer mantle-margin simple, tentacles cylin- 
drical ; eye pedicels short, adnate with the tentacles externally ; 
foot broad and short. Operculum short, claw-shaped, with an 
apical projection. 

Shell imperforate, oval oblong ; spire turreted ; aperture trun- 
cated in front; lip entire, thickened, sinuous, prominent in the 
middle, inner lip callous, expanded. Southern Seas. S. nodulosa, 
Mart. 

Section I. STRUTHIOLARIA (sensu stricto). 

Section II. PELICARIA, Gray, 1857. Spire of adult covered 
with enamel ; outer lip sinuous, thin. S. scutulata, Mart. 

Section III. LOXOTREMA, Gabb, 1878. S. and S. Conch., ii, 
196, t. 60, f. 95. 

? Section IV. DOLOPHANES, Gabb, 1872. L. c., ii, 196. 



106 STROMBUS. 

Subfamily Strombin as. 

Genus STROMBUS, Linn., 1758. 

The Strombs are powerful, active mollusks, having extraor- 
dinary visual powers for gastropods, the eyes being large, with 
the iris usually colored in concentric zones. Their foot is not 
adapted for ordinary locomotion, but enables the animal to 
progress in a series of awkward leaps, and even to right itself 
by a somersault if placed on its back. The strong teeth and 
thick quadrangular corneous jaws indicate carnivorous habits, 
yet the animal is supposed to feed only on dead flesh. 

Upon the eyes of Strombus, see an excellent paper by Dr. 
Paul Fischer, Jour, de Conch., 213, 1861. 

They usually inhabit shallow waters, and occur plentifully. 
The distribution is tropical, and rather restricted for some of 
the species, whilst others have a very extensive range as 
might be expected for the whole group considering that the 
larva is a free swimming animal provided with six ciliated arms 
(Macdonald, Linn. Trans., xxiii, 72). 

Strombus has existed since cretaceous times, and is repre- 
sented as late as the quarternary of the Mediterranean region, 
although not now living in that sea. The fossil forms belonging 
to the family far exceed in number those now existing, besides 
showing a variability contrasting with the fixed and readily dis- 
tinguished characters of most of the recent species. 

Strombus gigas, the largest species is still eaten at the island 
of Barbadoes, and numerous ancient weapons and implements 
made from its shell have been dug up on that island and else- 
where. It is a common mantel, hearth and garden ornament in 
the coast portions of the United States. In England it is 
extensively used in the manufacture of the finer kinds of porce- 
lain ; 300,000 have been imported into Liverpool in one year, 
chiefly for this purpose. It sometimes produces a beautiful 
pink pearl ; but in jewelry it is principally used for carving into 
cameos for brooches, a purpose for which it is well fitted by the 
different colored layers of which its shell is composed. 

" The perfect development of the large, fine, pedunculated 
eyes of Strombus, together with its very elongated, powerful, 
muscular foot and body, and claw-shaped, stout, jagged, horny 



RTROMBUS. 107 

operculum, constitute it one of the most active and intelligent 
of mollusks. It is, in fact, a most sprightly and energetic 
animal, and often served to amuse me by its extraordinary 
leaps and endeavors to escape, planting firmly its powerful 
narrow operculum against any resisting substance, insinuating 
it under the edge of its shell, and by a vigorous effort, throwing 
itself forwards, carrying its great heavy shell with it, and 
rolling along in a series of jumps, in a most singular and 
grotesque manner " (Arthur Adams, Narrative Voij. Samarang, 
11,493). 

The classification herein adopted for the subfamily differs but 
little from that of Messrs. Adams' Genera of Recent Mollusca. 
The fossil groups have been carefully studied b}^ the late Wm. 
M. Gabb, in his "Attempt at a Revision of the families Strom- 
bidse and Aporrhaidae,'' published in the American Journal 
of Conchology, 1868. 

The monographs of the recent species of Strombus include 
the magnificent folio, " Illustrations Conchyliologiques " of 
Chenu, Reeve's " Iconica," Kiener's " Coquilles Vivantes," 
Sowerby's "Thesaurus," and Kiister's " Conchylien Cabinet." 
Reeve's monograph, the most recent of these, was published in 
1851, and contains 56 species. That the thirty-three years 
since that period, usually so prolific in conchological discovery, 
have failed to add materially to the number of species, is a 
significant fact, taken in connection with the ancient history of 
the family. 

Section I. STROMBUS (srnsu stricto). 

S. GIGAS, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 2-4. 

Epidermis light yellowish brown, beneath which the color is 
fawn-white, interior polished, rose-color. Length, 9-12 inches. 
West Indies, Florida, N. South America. 

Chisels and other implements manufactured of this shell are 
found in the Florida shell-mounds. It lives in 2-3 fathoms 
water, on sand ; eats Sphaerococcus confer voides, Agard. The 
young shell (fig. 4) is S. lucifer, Linn. 

S. GOLIATH, Chemn. PI. 1, fig. 5. 

Whorls spirally grooved in double rows, plicate^ tubercled 



108 STROMBUS. 

round the upper part, tubercles rounded, obtuse ; orange- 
brown, aperture similar in color, becoming deeper within. 

Length, 8-10 inches. 

West Indies. 

A rare shell, closely related to, perhaps a variety of S. gigas. 

S. GALEATUS, Swainson. PL 1, fig. 6. 

Yellowish white, under an olive-brown epidermis ; aperture 
whitish, the lip and columella tinged with orange-brown. 

Length, 8-10 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan, Acapulco. 

It is S. galea, Wood, and S. crenatus, Sowb. 

S. COSTATUS, Gmelin. PI. 1, figs. 7, 8. 

Indistinctly banded and marbled with chestnut and white 
under a yellowish-brown epidermis ; aperture whitish, tinged 
with light orange or pink. Length, 5-6 inches. 

West Indies. 

Better known under the subsequently published name of S. 
accipritrinuSj Lam. S. inermis, Swains, (fig. 8), is merely a 
state of the species with less-developed spines. S. latus, Ginel. 
(dilatatus, Lam., not Swains.) is probably the same form. 

S. BUBONTUS, Lam. PI. 2, fig. 11. 

Spire with coarse impressed spiral striae, shortly tuberculate 
at the sutures ; body-whorl with a shoulder-row of short spines 
or tubercles, with usually two somewhat obsolete inferior rows 
of knobs, and coarse revolving riblets ; orange-brown or pink- 
brown, marbled with white, under a brown epidermis, aperture 
white, tinged with light brown on the lips and columella. 

Length, 4 inches. 

Senegal and Cape Verd Island*. 

It is S. fasciatus, Gmelin, not Born, /S. coronatus, Defrance. 
It is a fossil of the Mediterranean region. 

S. INTEGER, Swainson. PI. 2, fig. 12. 

Shell ventricose, solid, white; spire elongated, conical ; last 
whorl nodulose behind ; lip thick, rounded, white. 

The above is the original description, and reference is made to 
Lister, pi. 856. This represents an immature shell, rather diffi- 
cult to identify, and which all the monographers have agreed to 



STROMBUS. 109 

consider a doubtful species. Prof. Morch, however, considers it 
a good species and says : " In 1869 I obtained from Mr. Lan- 
dauer at Frankfurt, a specimen from a French collection marked 
' &. inermis, Florides,' exactly corresponding to Lister's figure. 
It is the only one I recollect to have seen." Mai. Blatt., 
xxiv, 17 
S. PUGILIS, Linn. PI. 2, figs. 13-15 ; PL 1, figs. 9, 10. 

Spire and lower part of body-whorl spirally striate, the spire- 
whorls and shoulder of body-whorl sharply spinose ; deep 
orange-brown, covered by a thin epidermis, with an indistinct 
median lighter band ; aperture and wide columellar callus 
orange or carnelian-red, or sometimes purple towards the base 
of the lip. Length, 8 inches. 

So. Carolina West Indies, Brazil. 

There are varieties with the spines horizontally (fig. 14) and 
vertically (fig. 15) compressed. 

Var. ALATCS, Gmelin. Figs. 9, 10. 

Spire nodulous, not spinose, body-whorl also without spines, 
the shoulder indistinctly nodulous or smooth ; color yellowish 
white and dark chestnut, marbled or disposed in zigzags, some- 
times light-banded in the middle ; epidermis thin, aperture and 
columella deep orange to ear u el i an, more or less tinged with 
dark purple. 

The above describes a typical example of this variety, and its 
characters are usually sufficiently permanent for its distinction, 
even as a species ; but intermediates between it and S. pugilin 
so completely connect the two, that those who have had the best 
opportunities for studying them, consider them synonymous. 
S. pyrulatus, Lam. (fig. 10), is identical with S. alatus. S. dubius, 
Sowb. (fig. 16) is a young shell. 

S. GRACILIOR, Sowb. PI. 2, fig. 17. 

Pale yellowish or orange, with a thin epidermis, sometimes 
faintly white-banded in the middle; aperture whitish, or pink- 
white, the lip often margined with orange. Length, 3 inches. 

Panama to Mozatlan ; La Paz^ L. California. 

Lighter in color, thinner, smoother ( scarcely striate on the 
spire), with closer, smaller, shorter spines than S. pugilis; yet 
evidently derived from the same parent stock. 



110 STROMBUS. 

S. CANARIUM, Linn. PI. 2, figs. 18-20 ; PI. 3, fig. 21. 

Densely longitudinally marked with zigzag alternate white 
and chestnut lines ; aperture white. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines. 

It is S. VanicorensiSi Quoy. 

Var. ISABELLA, Lam. Figs. 20, 21. 

Yellowish or orange-brown, not lineated ; sometimes obscurely 
doubly broad-banded with light chocolate. 

The banded state is S. tseniata, Quoy (fig. 21). Occasionally 
a specimen occurs combining the coloring of type and variety. 

S. GRANULATUS, Gray. PI. 3, fig. 22. 

Spire-whorls each with a single, body-whorl with three rows 
of nodules ; white, with interrupted zigzag markings and macu- 
la tions of chestnut, aperture white, the outer lip granulated 
within the margin, inner lip yellowish brown. Length, 3'5 inches. 

Panama to Mazatlan ; Galapagos Is. 

Section II. EUPROTOMUS, Gill. 
S. LENTIGINOSUS, Linn. PI. 3, figs. 23, 24. 

White, maculated and coarsely reticulated with chocolate, 
chestnut or grayish brown, often with several indistinct bands 
of spots ; aperture yellowish white, often blush-red or orange- 
brown farther within, outer lip smooth, much thickened on 
the edge and crossed by broad yellowish brown or chestnut 
bands. Length., 3-4 inches. 

Philippines, New Caledonia to Viti Islands; Zanzibar. 

Not the most characteristic species of the section, but I 
commence with it because of its relationship in form with 
S. granulatus which I have placed at the end of Section I. 

S. PAPILIO (Chemn.), Dillwyn. PL 3, fig. 25. 

Shell noduled throughout in revolving rows, and coarsely 
spirally striate and granose, strongly tuberculated on the 
shoulder and spire ; whitish, blotched and lineated with chest- 
nut; columella carnelian-tinted; aperture purplish or nearly 
black with revolving, irregular, close narrow threads ; outer lip 
thick-margined, with chestnut broad cross-bands. 

Length, 2-3 inches. Philippines ; Zanzibar. 

It is S. exustus, Swainson, and S. adustus. Swainson, of Reeve. 



8TROMBU8. 1 1 1 

S. LACINIATUS (Chemn.), Dillwyn. PI. 3, fig. 26. 

Whitish, marbled in a zigzag manner with chestnut, indis- 
tinctly ligl it-banded beneath the markings ; margin of outer lip 
thickened, crossed by broad chestnut bands; aperture yellowish 
or orange-white, becoming rich dark crimson within. 

Length, 4 inches. 

Moluccas, Philippines, New Caledonia to Viti Islands. 

S. cristatus, Lam., is a synonym. 

S. LATISSIMUS, Linn. PI. 3, fig. 27. 

Orange-brown, irregularty longitudinally strigate with chest- 
nut, with white maculations, forming several revolving bands ; 
aperture flesh-white ; outer lip broadly inflected with orange- 
brown bands crossing the margin. Length, 6-8 inches. 

Amboina, Japan, Philippines, Viti Is. 

S. alata, Schum., is a synonym. 

S. PONDEROSUS, Phil. PI. 3, fig. 28. 

Obsoletely spirally ribbed and striate, nearty smooth, spire 
nodulous ; whitish, variously longitudinally shaded, striped and 
spotted with chestnut, and tinted with light violaceous, espe- 
cially on the callous expansion of the inner lip; aperture and 
eolumc'lla pale carnelian, inflected margin of outer lip broadly 
chestnut-banded. Length, 5-6 inches. 

New Caledonia (Brazier); Society Islands (Schmeltz). 

S. Ther sites, Gray, is a synonym. 

S. TAURUS, Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 34. 

Yellowish white, maculated and strigated in a zigzag manner 
with yellowish chestnut, expansion of columellar lip bright 
orange-brown, interior of aperture purple-tinted, margin of 
outer lip with light chestnut square spots. Length, 3*5 inches. 

Admiralty Islands. 

" This remarkable shell," says Reeve, " is curiously inter- 
mediate in its generic characters between Strombus and Ptero- 
cera. In detail of pattern and sculpture it resembles S. laciniatus, 
but there is a large central oblique tubercle on the back, and the 
lip is thickened into two very large or-tuse oblong tubercles, the 
npper part being produced into two decided Pterocera claws. 



112 STROMBUS. 

one of which is prolonged in a curved manner to the extent of 
an inch and a half. , The specimen has rather the appearance of 
being malformed ; but notwithstanding this seeming irregularity 
of growth, there is no doubt whatever of its being specifically 
distinct from any hitherto 



Section III. MONODACTYLUS, Klein. MAA*JM~VW* 

Laxu^k /&*> 
S. PERUVIANUS, Swainson. PL 3, fig. 29. 

Whorls spirally ribbed, obtusely angled and tuberculated on 
the shoulder, middle tubercle on the back very prominent ; 
yellowish chestnut, sometimes a little tessellated, aperture and 
columella yellowish or orange-brown, deepening in the interior 
to a deep orange-red. Length, 5-7 inches. 

Peru to W. Columbia,. 

In old specimens the interior of the outer lip is often radiately 
ridged. 

S. TRICORNIS, Lam. PI. 3, figs. 30, 31. 

Nearly smooth, very obsoletely spirally ribbed, the shoulder and 
spire tuberculated, dorsal tubercle of body-whorl long, laterally 
compressed, very prominent, two other dorsal tubercles also 
somewhat enlarged ; whitish closely irregularly lineated with 
orange-chestnut; aperture blush-white or rosy. 

Length, 4'5 inches. 

Red Sea, Isle of Bourbon, Seychelles, Philippines. 

Is a smaller, lighter species than the preceding, with the lip 
more narrowty produced into a lobe behind, interior always 
smooth, spire longer, aperture light violaceous instead of orange- 
red. It is not West Indian, as supposed by Sowerby. It is S. 
orientalis, Johnston, and S. pertinax, Duclos. 

S. BITUBERCULATUS, Lam. PL 4, figs. 32, 33. 

Grayish white, marbled and banded with chestnut or chocolate, 
aperture yellowish white, deepening to rose-color. 

Length, 3 inches. 

West Indies; N. South America. 

It is S. lobatus, Swainson, S. quadratics, Perry,, S. raninus, 
Gmelin. The lattei ; name has priori t}', of course, but I prefer 
to retain the name under which the species has become so well- 
known. 



8TROMBUS. 113 

S. GALLUS, Linn. PI. 4, figs. 35, 36. 

Yellowish white, clouded and maculated with chestnut ; aper- 
ture whitish, more or less tinged with orange-brown. 

Length. 4-6 inches. 

West Indies. 

Reeve and some earlier authors have given the Red Sea as 
locality for this species, which is an error; probably originally 
caused by confounding it with S. tricornis. 

S. AURIS-DJAN.E, Linn. PL 4, figs. 37, 38. 

Shell varying from nearly smooth to roughly nodulous, the 
nodules developed here and there upon revolving rounded ribs, 
spire-whorls and upper part of body-whorl angulated and nodose 
on the angle, callus of the inner lip far-spreading, sometimes 
mounting the spire to near its apex, interior of outer lip with 
posterior radiating ridges ; orange-brown or light chestnut, 
speckled and marbled with white, polished ; lip and columella 
callus whitish, more or less tinged and deepening within the aper- 
ture to bright carnelian. Length, 3 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Philippines to Society Islands. 

The synonyms include S. Lamarckii, Gray; S. guttatus, 
Martini ; S. striatogranosus, Morch. Attempts have been made 
to separate the smoother form as S. guttatus, Mart., but any con- 
siderable collection embracing specimens from several localities 
will demonstrate its identity with the more nodose forms. 

Var. MELANOSTOMUS, Swainson. Fig. 38. 

Shell tinged with black or burnt chocolate color, on the margin 
of the lip. and its posterior lobe, and on the posterior part (or 
sometimes covering the whole) of the columellar callus. 

S. PACIFICUS, Swainson. PI. 4, figs. 39, 40. 

Shell with revolving rounded ribs and nodules, and angulated 
whorls, nodulous on the angle, as in the preceding species 
which it also resembles in exterior coloration, but the spire is 
longer, more convex, and the body-whorl narrower. The aper- 
ture differs in the lip being radiately ridged throughout instead 
of at the posterior end only ; in the typical form the interior and 
8 



114 STROMBUS. 

columella-callus are yellowish, or ochre-brown, darker between 
the radiating ridges, tinged on the callus with dark chocolate. 
Length, 3 inches. 

Japan, Australia, Society Islands. 

This is S. Novse-Zelandise, Chemn., S. acutus, Perry, S. aratrum, 
Morch, S. Chemnitzii, Pfr. 

Yar. AUSTRALIS, Sowb. Fig. 40. 

Barely distinguishable by its usually shorter lobe, the inter- 
stices of the lip ridges not darker colored, and the margin of 
the lip as well as part of the columellar callus painted_ deep 
chocolate. 

Section IV. GALLINULA, Klein.' 1 A/WM** 

S. VITTATUS, Linn. PI. 4, figs. 41-44. 

Body-whorl usually smooth, sometimes rudely longitudinally 
plicate in continuation of the ribs of the spire ; there is a smooth 
sutural band, more or less defined \)y a groove below it ; whitish 
clouded or reticulated with light yellowish or chestnut, often 
with several revolving bands of darker reticulations ; aperture 
white. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Indian Ocean, China, Philippines. 

S. turritus, Lam. (fig. 43), is a slender form, with the spire 
more drawn out, and the lip not so much expanded ; S. sulcatus, 
Chemn. (fig. 44) is probabty only a malformed specimen of this 
species. 

S. LISTERI, Th. Gray. PI. 4, fig. 45. 

Differs from the preceding species in the lobe-like posterior 
expansion of the lip and its large anterior sinus, in the inner 
face of the lip being smooth instead of radiately ridged, in the 
absence of the sutural band, and in its much larger size. 

Length, 6 inches. 

Ceylon. 

It may be a monstrosity of S. vittatus, but until we have 
further evidence on the subject it had better be regarded as a 
distinct species. It was known to Lister, who figured it (PI. 
855) nearly two centuries before Sowerby's publication of it as 
S. mirabilis, in 1870. Gray's description of it in 1852, although 
in a periodical of wide circulation, appears to have been entirely 
overlooked. 



STROMBUS. 1 1 5 

XsJ^UFQR 
S. CAMPBELLI, Gray. PI. 5, fig. 46. 

Resembling S. vittatus in coloration, but with shorter spire, 
the sutural band closely plicate, instead of smooth as in vittatus; 
body-whorl smooth, except the revolving grooves at the base. 

Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

North and East Australia. 

Perhaps only a variety of S. vittatu*. 

S. DILATATUS, Swainson. PI. 5, fig. 47. 

Spire finely longitudinally plicate, all the whorls with close 
spiral striae, no sutural band, interior of lip radiately ridged; 
yellowish brown or light chestnut, with somewhat obscure 
whitish maculations, and narrow bands, interstices of the ribs 
on the inside of the lip, dark chestnut or purplish. 

Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Zanzibar, New Caledonia, Japan. 

Reeve changed the name to S. Swainsoni, on account of S. 
dilatatus, Lam. but the latter is a synonym of S. bubinius, 
Linn. The shell figured by Lischke for S. Japonicus appears to 
me to = this species. 

S. JAPONICUS, Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 48. 

Longitudinally finely ribbed towards the apex, everywhere 
closely regularly spirally grooved, upper part of whorls slant- 
ingly concave, with the angle obscurely nodose; whitish, 
stained and variegated with chestnut, encircled with narrow 
white zones sagittately marked with chestnut; interior white, 
lip radiately ridged. Length, 2-25 inches. 

Japan. 

Closely allied to the preceding species, but is narrower, with 
longer spire, the whorls are concavely shouldered, etc. 

S. COLUMBA, Lamarck. PI. 5, figs. 49, 50. 

Closely spirally grooved, spire longitudinally closely ribbed, 
whorls concavely, slantingly shouldered, the angle tuberculated ; 
variegated and banded with orange-brown and white, columella 
and interior of outer lip both closely ridged, and stained deep 
chestnut. Length, 2 inches. 

? Red Sea, Zanzibar, Philippines, Pelew Is. 

Differs from S. dilatatus by its ridged inner lip, angulated. 



116 STROMBUS. 

nodulous whorls, by the outer lip being more produced behind, 
with a narrow, deep sinus anteriorly. S. orosminus, Duclos 
(fig. 50), is a variet3^ with uncolored aperture. 

S. LABIOSUS, Gray. PI. 5, fig. 51. 

Spire closely longitudinally ribbed, whorls subangulated and 
nodose at the angle, everywhere closely spiral^ grooved, lip 
strongly winged, and excavated above, ascending the spire but 
little, radiately ridged within, inner lip smooth ; yellowish 
brown, interior white, interstices of ridges within the lip often 
deep chestnut. Length, 2 inches. 

Australia, Philippines. 
S. DEFORMIS, Gray. PL 5, fig. 52. 

Sculpture same as in preceding species, the shell thinner, the 
lip not so lobular behind, and decidedly ascending the spire; 
coloring as usual in this group, marbled and tessellated with 
orange-brown and white, with faint, marbled bands. 

Length, 2-2 '5 inches. 

Eed Sea, Philippines, Australia. 

Notwithstanding the differences above pointed out, I have 
some doubts of the distinctness of this and the preceding species. 

S. MARQINATUS, Linn. PL 5, figs. 53, 54. 

Distinguished at once by its short, conical spire and sharply 
angulated whorls, the angle closely minutely nodulous, the 
whorls everywhere spirally grooved, interior of outer lip 
ridged ; marbled with orange-chestnut and white, with some 
narrow white bands covered by chestnut markings, aperture 
white. Length, 2 inches. 

China, Philippines, Formosa. 

S. robustus, Sowb. (fig. 54), is a synonym. 

S. EPIDROMIS, Linn. PL 5. fig. 55. 


Body-whorl smooth, spirally grooved below ; yellowish white, 

minutely marbled and freckled with light orange-brown ; aper- 
ture smooth within, white. Length, 2*5-3 inches. 

China, Philippines, New Caledonia. 
S. SUCCINCTUS, Linn. PL 6, figs. 56, 57. 

Upper part of spire minutely longitudinally plicate, spirally 
closely grooved, body-whorl smooth, spirally grooved towards 



STROMBUS. 117 

the base, with a hump or nodule on the back, near the suture; 
yellowish white and orange-brown in longitudinal irregular 
zigzag lines, with several narrow white bands crossed by brown 
markings, interior white, radiately ridged within the outer lip. 
Length, 2 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines. 
Tar. SEPTIMUS, Duclos. Fig. 57. 

Spire more exserted, showing a closely nodulous angle on the 
whorls, body-whorl less distinctly or not at all humped on the 
back, lip more expanded at the shoulder. 

S. FUSIFORMIS, Sowb. PI. 6, fig. 58. 

Smooth, spirally grooved at base and behind the outer lip, 
spire occasionally varicose, narrow ty margined below the suture; 
inner lip callous, narrow, ridged across, interior of outer lip 
radiately ridged ; lip exteriorty thickened, scarcely expanded ; 
interrupted ly marbled and banded with orange-brown and white, 
aperture white or tinged with dark chestnut. 

Length, 1*5 inches. 

? Red Sea, Australia. 
S. VARIABILIS, Swainson. PL 6, figs. 59-61. 

Spire plicate, the whorls angulated and nodose on the angle, 
the plicae on the body-whorl short, body-whorl narrowly grooved 
at the base, lip smooth within ; white, or yellowish with orange- 
chestnut zigzag markings, and four narrow white bands, also 
crossed by the markings, or } T ellowish white, with chestnut 
bands, aperture white, columellar lip sometimes with a central 
chocolate blotch. Length, 2 inches. 

Zanzibar, Philippines, Australia, Samoa Is., etc. 

S. athenius, Duclos (fig. 61), is a synonym. 

S. MINIMUS, Linn PI. 6, fig. 62. 

External coloring and sculpture same as in the preceding 
species, but usually smaller, the inner lip narrow, thickly cal- 
lous, running up the spire as far as the outer lip, from which it 
is separated by a narrow channel ; interior white, deepening 
within to golden yellow. Length, T25-l;5 inches. 

Philippines, Viii Is. 

I have considerable doubt whether the distinctive characters 
are sufficiently reliable to separate this from the preceding species. 



118 STROMBUS. 

S. SIBBALDI, Sowb. PL 6, figs. 63, 64. 

Whorls angulated, spirally grooved, angle nodulous, concave 
above Jt, body-whorl swollen, lips of aperture ridged; zigzagged 
with orange-brown over a yellowish surface and lighter bands, 
aperture white, the columellar lip partially stained deep chest- 
nut. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 

S. deformis, Kiener (in part) and Duclos (fig. 64), to which 
Tapparone-Canefri has given the name of S. Kieneri, is a 
synonym. 

Section V. CANARIUM, Schum., 1817. 

S. URCEUS, Linn. PI. 6, figs. 65-67. 

Shell smooth, with tuberculated shoulder-angle, narrowly 
spirally grooved at the base ; whitish or yellowish, banded and 
speckled with chestnut, often tinged with chocolate at the base ; 
interior of outer lip (and often the upper part of the callous 
narrow inner lip) radiately ridged ; lip, aperture and columella 
deep orange-brown, or chestnut, or more usually deep chocolate 
or black. Length, l*75-2'5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, Australia. 

This i S. ustulatum, Schum., S. incisus. Wood, S. anatellus, 
Duclos (fig. 67). 

S. DENTATUS, Linn. PI. 6, figs. 68-70 ; PI. 7, figs. 67-72. 

Whorls strongly plicate, the plicae usually becoming obsolete 
about the middle of the body-whorl, forming tubercles where 
they cross the angle of the shoulder ; closely spirally striate, 
but the striae usually obsolete about the middle of the body- 
whorl ; columellar lip narrowly callous and with the interior of 
the outer lip radiately ridged; whitish to }^ellowish brown, 
generally speckled and banded with gray, light olive, orange or 
chestnut; columellar lip and interior orange-brown to purple- 
chocolate. Length, 1-5 inches. 

Red Sea to Philippines, 

New Caledonia Viti Islands, Mauritius. 

The sculpture, like the coloring varies; sometimes the body 
whorl is smooth below the strong shoulder-tubercles, sometimes 
theae are not so strong, and continue below as flexuous plica- 



STROMBU8. 119 

tions and these plications are distant or close, varying in 
number. 

S. plicatus, Lam. (PI. 7, fig. 70), and S. olydius, Duclos (PI. 
6, fig. 68), arc synonyms. 

The difference between this species and S. urceus is so slight, 
and there is so much variation in the shells, that it is very 
doubtful whether their separation can be maintained ; several 
distinguished modern conehologists have united them. 

Yar. ERYTHRINUS, Chemn* Figs. 69, 71. 

Shell smaller and narrower, tUe spire generallj' more exserted ; 
the swollen outer border of the aperture is usually darker than 
the rest of the exterior surface. Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Red Sea, Australia. 

S. elegans, Sowb. (fig. 71), is a synonym of this variety. 

Yar. RUGOSUS, Sowb. Fig. 72. 

Ribs and spiral sculpture both strong, extending over the 
body-whorl, which is rugose throughout. 

Corea to Polynesia. 

S. corrugatus, Ads. and Reeve, is a synonym. 

Yar. PULCHELLUS, Reeve. Fig. 70. 

Shell wider, the outer lip well expanded, particularly behind, 
forming a rather broad shoulder ; surface very rugose, usually 
with a second inferior band of small tubercles on the body-whorl. 

Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Philippines. 
L. FLORIDUS, Lam. PI. 7, figs. 73-76, 80, 83. 

Whorls smooth or obsoletely spirally striate, grooved at the 
base of the bod3 r -whorl ; spire short, composed of round- 
shouldered whorls, obtusely tuberculate; body-whorl with usually 
only two or three compressed tubercles on the back, at the 
shoulder, columella and interior closely ridged ; white and 
yellowish, brown or chocolate variegated in interrupted bands ? 
maculations and spots ; aperture and columellar lip white, with 
the ridges colored pink or chocolate. Length, 1-1 '5 inches. 

Zanzibar, Japan, Australia to Vili Islands. 

Sometimes the surface color is almost entirely yellowish 
brown, chestnut or chocolate. 

The synonyms are S. Jfammeus (Link), Morch, S. mutabilis, 



120 STROMBUS. 

Swainson, S. flosculosus, Morch, 8. gibberulus, Meuschen (not 
Linn.), and S. epimellus, Duclos (figs. 80, 83), the latter some- 
what singularly marked with color. 

S. H^MASTOMA, Sowb. PI. 7, fig. 78. 

Closely longitudinally ribbed throughout, and occasionally 
varicose, shoulder tuberculated, closely spirally striated, aperture 
and columella ridged ; pinkish or yellowish white, indistinctly 
maculated, columellar lip and interior deep orange-red or 
chestnut. Length, 15-18 mill. 

Mauritius. 
S. HELLII, Rousseau. PI. 7, fig. 79. 

Broadly oval, regularly ribbed, crossed by spiral stride, 
columellar lip and interior closely ridged ; yellowish brown, 
interior and columeila purplish. Length, 1 inch. 

Zanzibar. 

Reeve supposed this to be a possible variet^y or monstrosity 
of S. hsemastoma. 

S. SCALARIFORM1S, Duclos. PI. 7, fig. 81. 

Sculptured and colored like the preceding species, but differing 
widely in form. Length, 23 mill. 

China. 

I know nothing about this or the preceding species, except 
from the original descriptions and figures. 

S. FASCIATUS, Born. PL 7, figs. 82, 77. 

Whorls nearly smooth, sharply tuberculated at the shoulder ; 
whitish, often delicately freckled with pale yellowish brown, 
with revolving rows of dark chestnut or chocolate sagittate 
characters; interior orange-red. Length, l - 5-2'25 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines? 

The synonymy includes S. polyfascialm, Chemn., S. Persicus, 
Swainson, S. xubulatus, Herbst, S. flavigula. Meuschen, and 
S. lineatus, Lam. S. ismarius, Duclos (fig. 77), appears to be 
a specimen (perhaps old and worn) in which the markings are 
indistinct. 

S. MACULATUS, Ntittall. ' Pi'.' 7. fig- '84. 

Shell smooth, slightly finely spirally striate on the spire and 
upper part of bod3 r -whorl, the latter narrowly grooved at the 
base ; white clouded and maculated with chestnut and chocolate, 



STROMBU8. 1 2 1 

or yellow or orange-brown, maculated with darker shades, and 
with a maculated white band ; aperture white. 

Length, -75-1-25 inches. 

Sandwich , Paumoius and Friendly Islands. 

"Well characterized by its form, swollen posteriorly and not 
tuberculate. 

S. GIBBERULUS, Linn. PI. 8, fig. 85. 

Shell gibbous, smooth, spire occasionally varicose, body-whorl 
grooved at the base ; columella smooth, interior of aperture 
radiatelv striate ; mottled and hieroglyphic-ally marked with 
yellowish brown and white, the markings often arranged in a 
few or numerous interrupted revolving bands ; aperture tinged 
violaceous, scarlet, dark purplish brown, etc. 

Length, 1*5-2-5 inches. 

Zanzibar, Natal, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Mauritius, 

Philippines, Neiv Guinea, Viti Islands, Paumotus,etc. 

The synonymy includes S. MauritianiA, Issel, and var. 
rhodottonius, Morch. 

S. BULBULUS, Sowb. PI. 8, fig. 86. 

Smooth, sulcate at the base ; marbled, freckled and sometimes 
interruptedly banded with chestnut and white, the white often 
tinged with light violaceous, aperture and columella dark purplish 
chocolate. Length, 1-5-1-75 inches. 

Philippines to Viti Islands. 

S. TEREBELLATUS, Sowb. PI. 8, fig. 87. 

Smooth, obsoletely grooved at the base, outer lip radiately 
ridged within ; yellowish white, with clouds and zigzag markings 
of orauge-brown or chestnut, interior ridges chestnut. 

Length, 1 '5-1*75 inches. 

Philippines to Viti Islands. 

S. SAMAR (Chemn.), Dillw. PI. 8, fig. 88. 

Smooth, polished, plicate, obsoletely grooved at the base, 
margin of lip tridentate anteriorly, interior of aperture radiately 
ridged ; marbled and speckled with orange-brown or chestnut 
and white, int?rior tinged with purplish chocolate.:, .'.'..' - . '.. 

Length, 1-75 inches. 

Philippines, Australia, Society Is,, Paumoius Is. 

The S3*uonymy includes S. tr id en tains. Lam., S. Samarensi$, 



122 STROMBUS. 

Reeve. Some authorities identify this species with S. dentatus, 
Linn.; I have otherwise interpreted the latter. 



S. CATLLTAUDT, Jay. Manual, vi, PL 34, fig. 18. 

Shell spirally striate, chocolate-brown, interior of aperture 
tinged with the same color. Length, 40 mill. 

Hob. unknown. 

Probably a young Strombus, although described as A Conus. 
I am not able to identify it. I have figured it in the sixth volume 
of this work, as above. 

Section VI. CONOMUREX, Bayle, 1884. 
S. MAURITIANUS, Lam. PI. 8, figs. 89, 90. 

White, with chestnut or chocolate longitudinal interrupted 
zigzag lines and spots, arranged in revolving bands, aperture 
ridged within, carnelian or rose-red. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

% Mauritius. 

S. cylindricus, Swainson, and S. coniformis, Sowb. (fig. 90), 
are synonyms ; the latter retaining obtuse nodules which gener- 
ally are only seen upon young specimens. 

S. LUHUANUS, Linn. Pi. 8, figs. 91, 92. 

Shell often covered with a dark epidermis, under which the 
markings are the same as in the preceding species, the calumella 
very dark chocolate or nearty black. Length, 2-2-5 inches. 

Philippines, Australia, New Guinea, Viti Is., etc. 

No differences of form which have been pointed out as distin- 
guishing this and the preceding species, hold good when an 
extensive suite is examined ; the only real distinction is the 
narrow black deposit overlaying the columella in S. Luliuanus, 
of which S. Mauritianus never appears to show even a trace. I 
figure a very curious anomalous growth of this shell (fig. 92), 
preserved in the Museum of the University of Ghent. 

S. labrosus and S. Isevilabris of Menke, are synonyms. 



Unidentified Species of Strombus. 

S. TUBERCULARIS, S. PUSILLUS, S. PERUANUS, S. ELATUS, S. CRASSI- 

LABRUM, all of Anton. No locality. 

S. GLABRATUS, Sowb. = Nassa obliqua, Kiener. Manual, iv, 27. 
S.CANCELLATUS, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 



PTEROCERA. 123 

Genus PTEROCERA, Lara., 1799. 

Properly speaking there is only a difference of convenience 
between this species and Strombus ; that is, no important struc- 
tural differences are involved. Pterocera is a stromb having 
the outer lip on the shell prolonged into long digitate processes 
resulting from similar digitatrons of the mantle-margin of the 
animal. Certain of the strombs, those of the section Eupro- 
tomus, for instance, have a tendency to digitation, yet do not 
bridge the gap between the two groups. The Pteroceri as thus 
defined, consist of ten species, rather constant in character, 
confined, as to recent distribution, to the tropical seas of the 
Indo-Pacific, Australian and Polynesian provinces, and not cer- 
tainly found in a fossil state. 

The genus has been carefully reviewed by Prof. Theo. Gill 
(Am. Jour. Conch., v, 120), and I have followed him mainly in the 
synonymy, and descriptions. As will be seen by referring to p. 
101 of this monograph, I have adopted two sections for the genus 
Pterocera; these correspond to genera in Prof. Gill's arrange- 
ment, the last containing two species (S. chiragra and S. rugosa), 
whilst the first is synoptically tabulated by him as follows: 

I. Lips smooth (my Subsection I. Heptadactylus). 

I a. 13ody-whorl tuberculated at the angle. 
Lip reflected ; columella with callus'diffused, P. lambis. 

Lip inflected ; columella with callus stratified, P. crocata. 

I 6. Body-whorl unarmed at angle, P. bryonia. 

II. Lips rugose (my Subsection II. Millipes). 

II a. Intercalary digitations none. 

Posterior digitation with a basal lobe, P. scorpio. 

Posterior digitation simple, P. pseudoscorpio. 

II b. Intercalary digitations developed. 

Posterior digitation simple, P. millepeda. 

Posterior digitution with a basal lobe 

Labml digitations eight ; labial wrinkles very distinct, 

P. ehngata. 
Labral digitations ten ; labral wrinkles faint, P. violacea. 

The Pterocerae have been monographed also by Reeve, Sowerby 
and Kiener. 



124 PTEROCEBA. 

Section I. PTEROCERA (sensu stricto). 

Subsection I. Heptadactylus, Klein. 
P. LAMBIS, Linn. .PL 8, figs. 1-3. 

Angular fasciole or revolving rib carinatecl on spire, on the 
body-whorl provided with two enlarged, compressed tubercles ; 
inner lip with the callus spreading; outer lip with the margin 
(normally) somewhat reflected, with the digitations bending out- 
ward and rather small, and with the antesinual lobe undulated ; 
lips and aperture whitish or yellowish brown, becoming more or 
less sanguineous within. Length, 6-8 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Zanzibar, Philippines, New Guinea, 

Society Islands, etc. 
P. ATJRAN T TIA, Lam. PL 9, fig. 5. 

Angular fasciole carinated on spire, and on the last whorl armed 
with two enlarged tubercles; inner lip with the callus somewhat 
restricted, folded near the aperture ; outer lip with its margin 
somewhat inflected, the digitations successively more recurved, 
and the antesinual lobe tridentate ; lips more or less orange or 
saffron-colored. Length, 5-6 inches. 

Philippine*, Mauritius, etc. 

P.crocala, Link, has priority, but it is unnecessary to displace 
a well-established name in favor of a recently resurrected one, 
published very obscurely. 

P. BRYONIA, Gmelin. PL 8, fig. 4 ; PL 9, fig. 8. 

Angle coronated or tuberculaf ed on spire, unarmed on the last 
whorl ; inner lip with diffused callus, outer lip with erect margin, 
with six moderate digitations, and with the antesinual lobe little 
undulated ; lips whitish or luri'd. Length, 10-15 inches. 
Red Sea, Indian Ocean , Mauritius, Japan, 

Philippines, Australia, Society Islands. 

The synonymy includes P. truncata, Lam., Pi/rula Bengalina, 
Grat. (juvenile), P. Sebae, Yal., and P. Sowerbyi, Morch. Morch 
has distinguished the two latter as species, but they do. not 
present any claim to even varietal rank ; not only is the species 
very variable within its usually recognized limits, but certain 
specimens before me indicate a transition to P. lambis. 



PTEROCERA. 125 

Subsection II. Millipes, Klein, 1753. 
P. SCORPIO, Linn. PI. 9, fig. 6. 

Labrum with a prominent internal transverse white ridge in 
front of the concavity of the dorsal tubercle; laterally inllectcd, 
ribbed between the spines, and with a dentated margin ; the 
spines nodose, and the posterior one auriformly lobed at the left 
base ; aperture oiange-red, the transverse ridges within the outer 
lip and on the inner lip whitish, their interstices purple or nearly 
black. Length, 5-6 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines. 

It is P. nodosa, Swains. 

P. PSEUDOSCORPIO, Lam. PI. 9, fig. 7. 

Labrum with no distinct internal ridge behind, and with the 
concavity of the tubercle mostly in advance of the columellar 
fold; moderately inflected, with single dentiform lobes between 
the angular and median, and median and postsinual digitations ; 
the latter obsolete^ or not at all nodose, and the posterior 
without basal lobe. Color as in .preceding species. 

Length, 6-7*5 inches. Zanzibar. Indian Ocean. 

P. MILLEPEDA, Linn. PL 9, fig. 9. 

Digitations separated by secondary ones intercalated at the 
right margin ; angle armed with four digitations, the uppermost 
(rarely absent) being an intercalated one ; posterior digita- 
tion simple ; laterals, especially the primary, much recurved ; 
wrinkles on the lips moderately developed, interstices not so 
deeply colored as in the preceding species. Length, 5-6 inches. 
Indian Ocean, Mauritius, N. Guinea, Philippines. 

P. ELONGATA, Swainson. PI. 9, fig. 10. 

Angle armed with the three normal digitations ; posterior 
digitation furnished with a lobe at its left base; lateral digita- 
tions straight ; lips with well-developed wrinkles ; color as in 
preceding species. Length, 5-6 inches. 

Indian Ocean. 

P. crocea, Sowb., is a synonym. 

P. -VIOLACEA, Swains. PI. 9, fig. 11. 

Angle armed with three digitations; a posterior and an 



126 PTEROCEBA. 

anterior median fascicle in place of the normal single fascicle ; 
posterior digitation with an elongated lobe at its left base ; 
lateral digitation 8 straight or little curved ; all the digitations 
open, channeled; wrinkles within the labrum prominent, on the 
labium faint, often obsolete anteriorly ; aperture whitish or 
orange-stained, violaceous only within the throat. 
Length, 4-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Zanzibar. 

Undetermined Species. 

P. YOLDII, Morch. Hab. unknown. 

P. ROBUSTA, Swains. Hab. unknown. 

Section II. HARP AGO, Klein, 1753. 

P. CHIRAGRA, Linn. PI. 10, fig. 13. 

Angular fascicle or revolving rib tuberculated, the others 
almost unarmed, the antesinual with a compressed tubercle near 
the base of the digitation ; lips rosaceous, with faint wrinkles ; 
sutural digitation with a canal open at base, the outer border 
being bent outwards and attached above the angle of the body- 
whorl, on which the digitation is chiefly bent and accumbent. 

Length, 6-10 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, N. Caledonia, Polynesia. 

P. Kochii, Freyer, is a synonym. 

P. RUGOSA, Sowerby. PI. 10, fig. 12. 

Revolving fascioles except the sutural and anterior with prom- 
inent tubercles ; lips with very prominent, often white wrinkles 
strongly contrasting with the deep purplish or blackish ground- 
color; basal posterior digitation with its canal closed by the 
reflection of its margins, and accumbent on the middle of the 
spire. Length, 5-7 inches. 

Zanzibar, Society Islands, etc. 

Probably only a variety of the preceding species. It is P. 
chiragra, Lam., in part, and P. arthritica, Morch. 



ROSTELLARIA. 127 

Genus ROSTELLARIA, Lamarck, 1799. 

" Rostellaria has all the habits of the Strombidoe, progressing 
by means of its powerful and elastic foot which it places under 
the shell in a bent position, when suddenly, by a muscular effort, 
it straightens that organ, and rolls and leaps over and over. It 
is, however, far more timid and suspicious than Strombus, which 
has a bold disposition. On the low sandy beach, near the mouth 
of the Lundu River, in Borneo, dead shells of Rostellaria recli- 
rostris are numerous, but generally in very imperfect condition. 
At the small fishing village of Samahitan I inspected a large 
heap of these shells, which the Malays had brought together for 
the purpose of turning them into lime. On inquiring of these 
poor fishermen whether it were possible to obtain them in a living 
state, we were informed that they never procured them in their 
nets, but that they lived in deep water at a considerable distance 
from the shore. The animal of Roxtellaria fissa does not differ 
from that of Strombus, and is of a dull brown color, varied with 
lighter brown. It is, however, one of the most lively among 
mollusks, jumping several inches, and throwing itself about with 
the most astonishing activity. It has none of the extreme 
timidity of the former mentioned species." Arthur Adams, 
Narrat. Vo}'. Samarang, ii, 492. 

R. CURVIROSTRIS, Lam. PI. 10, figs. 14-16 ; PL 11, fig. 26. 

Upper portion of the spire longitudinally plicate, the rest of 
the shell smooth ; lower part of lip-margin, six- or seven-dentate ; 
yellowish brown, aperture white. Length, 6-8 inches. 

Red /Sea, Moluccas. 

R. magna, Schroter, has considerable priority of publication, 
but I decline to depose a very well-known name in its favor. It 
is R. dentula, Perry, R. breviro&tra, Schum., and R.fusus, Gmelin, 
not Linn. 

Var. CURTA, Sowb. Fig. 15. 

The canal straight. 
Var. LUTEOSTOMA, Angas. Fig. 16. 

Aperture golden yellow, lip-margin with five digitations, canal 
curved. 



128 ROSTELLARIA. 

R. FUSUS, Linn. PI. 10, fig. 17 ; PL 11, fig. 21. 

Much more, slender than the preceding species, the spire and 
canal longer, lip-margin toothed throughout, with five or six, 
strong, well-marked short digitations ; yellowish brown, aperture 
white. Length, 6-8 inches. 

China. 

It is R. clavus, Gmel., E. rectirostris , Lam., E. subulata, Scfhnm., 
E. unicornis, Dillw. 

Yar. MELANOCHEILUS, A. Ad. Fig. 21. 

Lip between the digitations, and sometimes the interior of the 
aperture stained purple-black. 

R. POWISII, Petit. PL 11, fig. 22. 

Closely spirally ridged, the interstices longitudinally striate, 
canal short, lip-margin five-toothed, exteriorly thickened, yellow- 
ish, or orange-brown, aperture white. Length, 2-2*5 inches. 

China. 

A somewhat rare shell ; a specimen was sold a few years ago 
for 200 francs (Jour, de Conch., 228, 1877). 

R. FISSA, Dillw. PL 11, fig. 23. 

This shell, figured b}^ Chemnitz, has not been found in any 
European collection, and nothing is known of its locality. It is 
E. Favanni, Pfr., and E. serrata, Perry. 

R. DELICATULA, Nevill. 

Thin, translucent, pale ochraceous brown, lineated on the last 
whorl with four narrow white bands each of which terminates in 
one of the four digitate processes of the lip, canal shorter than 
in the other species, first three or four whorls smooth, the next 
three or four faintly but regularly spirally striated, the striae 
becoming obsolete on the last two whorls, except at the base of 
the body-whorl. L. 76 mill., of canal 6'5 mill. 

Arracan, dredged in deep water. 

Unfigured and unknown to me except by the original descrip- 
tion published four years ago. 

R. MARTINII, Marrat. PL 11, fig. 24. 

Whorls with close punctate revolving striae throughout, bi- 



ROSTELLARIA. 129 

sulcate near the suture ; lip five- or six-dentate ; orange-brown, 
obscurely livid-banded near the suture. Length, 6'25 inches. 

Philippines. 
Two specimens known. 

Subgenus RIMELLA, Agassiz, 1840. 

R. CANCELLATA, Lam. PI. 10, figs. 18, 20. 

Whorls cancellated, occasionally varicose, posterior canal pro- 
duced upon the spire, which it ascends in a curved line, interior 
of outer lip dentate; pale yellowish brown, 'indistinctly banded 
with pale chestnut. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

Philippines. 
R. CRISPATA, Sowb. PI. 10, fig. 19. 

Shell cancellated by rather sharp narrow ribs, and revolving 
riblets, occasionally varicose ; posterior canal short, curved 
strongly to the right ; yellowish white, pale chestnut-banded. 

Length, 1 inch. 

Philippines, China. 

Distinguished from R. cancellata by its more ventricose form, 
and short posterior canal. 

R. SPECIOSA, H. and A. Adams. 

Shell reticulated, more lanceolate than . cancellata, not 
ending anteriorly in a recurved beak, with the varix of the outer 
lip plain externally, and with the posterior canal of the aperture 
faintly developed and only extending as far as the penultimate 
whorl. Length, 1 inch. 

Hob. unknown. 

An unfigured species. Is it R. crispata ? 

R. TYLERI, H. and A. Adams. 

Cancellated, posterior canal extending to the third whorl and 
curved, outer lip corrugately plicate within, with an anterior, 
conspicuous, sharp tooth ; yellowish with four chestnut bands. 

Length, 21 mill. 

China Sea. 

Unfigured. 



130 TEREBELLUM. 

Genus TEREBELLUM, Klein, 1753. 

Mr. Arthur Adams, in his Narrative of the Voyage of the 
" Samarang," makes the following remarks upon this mollusk : 

" In its habits the animal of the Terebellum is exceedingly 
shy and timid, retracting its body into the shell on the slightest 
alarm. It will remain stationary for a long time, moving its 
tentacles about cautiously in every direction, when, suddenly, it 
will roll over with its shell, and continue again perfectly quiet. 
They appear to have all the muscular energy, vivacity, and, 
doubtless, predatory boldness possessed by the Strombi, which 
they also resemble in their perfectly organized eyes, and quick- 
ness of vision. Mr. Cuming informs me that he has seen them 
leap several inches from the ground, exactly as I have seen the 
animal of Strombus gibber-ulu.s. On one occasion, a beautiful 
specimen was lost to the above-mentioned enthusiastic collector, 
by the animal suddenly leaping into the water, as he was holding 
and admiring it in the palm of his hand. Those I kept in con- 
finement died in a few days, and appear to be of a more delicate 
constitution than the hardy Strombus. There appears to be a 
very trifling muscular connection between the animal and its 
shell. 

u From, my observations on the animal of Terebellum, I should 
imagine the spotted variety to be perfectly distinct as a species. 
In this, which may be called T. maculosum, the proboscis is of a 
whitish-brown. color, reddish towards the tip ; the body is of an 
opaque pearly white, the mantle transparent ; the foot semi- 
pellucid white; the ocular peduncles are mottled with dark red, 
and the pupil black. The front of the mantle, edging the anterior 
part of the shell, is colored with a black line, forming its margin. 

" In the common species, T. subulatum, the eye-peduncles are 
punctulatecl with red-brown, as is likewise the upper and under 
part of the fore-portion of the body. The bod^y is opaque pearly 
white, with three large, irregular-shaped red-brown blotches on 
the fore-part. The under surface of the foot is light brown, with 
a white cross-like marking of a deeper brown. Doubtless, when 
the animal of the variety covered with zigzag markings shall 
have been discovered, it will also be found to be specifically 
distinct." 



APORRHAIS. 131 

A difference in the color-markings of the animal has precisely 
the same value as if upon its shell, and the variations of the 
latter, in the present instance, are so unstable as to preclude 
the possibility of separating species, with sufficiently distinctive 
characteristics. The genus has but one recent representative, 
the species described below. It is related to the Strombs 
through Strombus tervbellatus. 

T. SUBULATUM, Lam. PI. 11, figs. 27-30. 

Shell smooth, shining, suture linearly grooved, enamelled ; 
yellowish white, with chestnut or chocolate dots, freckles or 
zigzag lines, often somewhat indistinctly banded. 
Length, 2-3 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Java, China Sea, Philippines, 

New Caledonia, Viti Is., Mauritius. 

It is Bulla terebellum,' Linn., T. punctatum, Chemn., T. macu- 
losum, Ads., etc. 

Subfamily Aporrhainx. 

Genus APORRHAIS, Dillwyn, 1823. 
Section 1. APORRHAIS (sensu stricto}. 

A. PES-PELECANI, Linn. PI. 12, fig. 31. 

Yellowish white to light brown. Length, 2 inches. 

Seas of Europe, Iceland. 

This is the Cochlea pentadactylus of Pliny, Vespertilio spinosa 
of Seba, and R. quadrifidus, Da Costa. Jeffreys says of it (Brit. 
Conch., iv, 251 1 : " Habitat: Coralline zone (occasionally the deep- 
sea zone also) on all our coasts. This common shell has been 
recorded from the upper miocene, pliocene, and almost every 
newer tertiary and quaternary deposit in Europe, from the sea- 
level to 1360 feet above it. It is sl^, slow, and awkward in its 
movements, twisting about its long neck and foot in order to 
gain a creeping posture. Among other fanciful names given to 
this odd-looking shell, are * blobber-lipt Edinburgh whilk ' of 
Petiver, ' ailc de chauve-sauris femelle ' or ' patte d'oye ' of 
D 'A vila, and ' Zamarugola ' of the Venetians, by the poorer class 
of which people the animal was perhaps is still eaten. Ac- 



132 APORRHAIS. 

cording to Mr. Couch, Solaster papposus also reckons it an 
agreeable kind of food ; when the soft portion has been digested, 
the empty shell is rejected, and becomes the habitation of a 
Sipunculus, which narrows the too capacious entrance with 
agglutinated sand. Specimens from deep water are smaller than 
those from the coast. The top of old but living shells which 
had lost their upper story, is sometimes closed by a semispiral 
plug or septum of new shelly matter ; the apex is very seldom 
perfect in full-grown specimens. When the outer lip is complete 
the subsequent growth takes place by adding fresh layers inside, 
so that the age of the individual is probably shown by the 
number of such layers. In immature specimens the commence- 
ment of the pterygoid or wing-like flap of the outer lip is defined 
by a bit of enamel along the mouth, which likewise lines the 
canal at the base as well as the upper process of the flap. Still 
younger specimens, before any sign of the flap appears, have the 
outer lip flexuous, with a wide and deep sinus at the upper part, 
and a long straight canal at the base. In this stage of growth 
they strongly resemble Fusi. The fry form a short cylinder. 
Monstrosities are not uncommon, especially in the shape and 
relative size of the digitated processes ; the basal point, however, 
is always formed like a spear-head." 

According to Morch Chiropteron semilunare of Sars is prob- 
ably the larval stage of Aporrhais. 

A. SERRESIANUS, Michaud. PI. 12, fig. 32. 

Whitish, or light yellowish brown. Differs from the preceding 
species by its long posterior and anterior canals, and by the 
outer lip being three-spined. Length, 2 inches. 

Europe, from Norway to the Mediterranean Sea. 

Perhaps more generally known under the name of A. pes- 
carbonis, Brong., which is, however, a wrong identification, the 
latter being a fossil and different species. Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys 
gave it the name of A. Macandreoe. 

A. SENEGALENSIS, Gray. (Un figured'.) Senegal. 

The (insufficient) description indicates close affinity or identity 
with A. 



STRUTHIQLARIA. 133 

Section II. ARRHOGES, Gabb, 1868. 
A. OCCIDENTALTS, Beck. PL 12, fig. 33. 

The longitudinal ribs of the spire, and absence of tuberculated 
angles on the whorls, as well as the entire but greatly expanded 
lip, will readily distinguish this species. Length, 2-2'5 inches. 

Labrador, Newfoundland. 

Subfamily Struthiolariinae. 
Genus STRUTHIOLARIA, Lam., 1812. 

The synonymy of the few species of this New Zealandic genus 
was very much involved until 1876-7, when the Marchioness 
Paulucci (Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., ii, iii), critically studied them 
and g-ave them essentially the nomenclature which follows. 

Section L STRUTHIOLARIA (. stricto). 
S. PAPULOSA. Marty n. PI. 12, fig. 34. 

Whorls strongly nodose on the angle; yellowish brown, indis- 
tinctly longitudinall} 7 chestnut-striped. Length, 3 inches. 

New Zealand. 

This is Murex stramineus, Gmelin ; S. nodulosa, Lam. ; S. papil- 
/o.sa, Gray ; S. coronarium, Soland. ; S. nodosa, Gray. 

S. VERMIS, Mart. PL 12, figs. 35, 36. 

Shoulder obtuse, obsoletely nodose, suture somewhat ex- 
cavated. Length, 1-75 inches. 

New Zealand. 

The synonyms are S. australis, Gmelin ; S. scutulata, Hutton; 
S. inermis, Sowb. 

Var. CRENULATA, Lam. Fig. 35. 

The sutural channel deeper, the numerous nodules of the 
shoulder-angle small but more distinct. S. canaliculate, Speng., 
is a synonym. 

S. GIGAS, Sowb. PL 12, figs. 37, 38. 

Less sharply angled, the nodules smaller, the suture slightly 
channeled, the striae alternately larger and smaller, the lip more 
solidly thickened than in S. papulosa. Very like a gigantic S. 



134 STRUTHIOLARIA. 

vermis, and appearing to connect that species with S. papulosa. 
These three will probably prove to be varieties only of a single 
species. 

New Zealand. 

S. sulcata, Jonas (fig. 38) is simply an individual having the 
revolving sulci stronger than usual, with the shoulder and its 
nodules almost obsolete. Its locality, China, is; of course erro- 
neous. The specific name has priority over c/igas, but besides 
the fact that it has been overlooked by all the monographers, the 
specimen upon which the description is based, although recog- 
nizable as this species, is not normal in its characters. 

Section II. PELICARIA, Gray, 1857. 

S. SCUTTJLATA, Martyn. PL 12, figs. 39, 40. 

Yellowish fawn-color, longitudinally more or less streaked 
with a darker shade; sutures callous. Length, 1*5-2 inches. 

New Zealand. 

S. oblita, Sowb., is a synonym. 

S. MIRABILIS, Smith. PI. 12, fig. 41. 

Shell thin, white, under a very thin, deciduous olivaceous 
white epidermis, spire and upper part of body-whorl sharply 
cancellate, on the lower part of the body-whorl the longitudinal 

ribs become obsolete. Length, 42 mill. 

Kerguelen Islands. 

Has the aspect of a Buccinum, but the operculum, animal, and 
the dentition especially, show it to be a true Struthiolaria. 
Kerguelen has representatives of other New Zealand genera, 
showing similar variation in being more fragile. S. costulata, 
von Martens, is a synonym ; it was published only about three 
weeks after Mr. Smith's name. 

S. microscopia, Gray. This is a species of Sinusigera. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY, 



STROMBfD/E. 



Accinctus (Strorabus), Born. Mus. Caes. Yind. 

= S. succinctns, Linn 116 

AcMpiter (Strombtis), Dillw. Cat., p. 665. 

= S. accipitrinus, Lam. ....... 108 

A cci pi trin us (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 687. 

= S. costatus, Gmelin, 108 

Acutus (Strombus), Perry. Conch., pi. 12, f. 2. 

= S. Pacificus, Swains. . . . . . . .114 

Adustus (Strombus), Chemn. Conch., x, pi. 156, f. 1487-1404, 

= S. melanostomus. Swains. . . . . . .113 

Adustus (Strombus), Swains. Reeve, Icon., f. 29. 

= S. papilio, Chemn. . . . . . . .110 

Alaria, Morris and Lycett. Moll. Gr. Oolite, i, 1850, . 105 

Alata (Pterocera), Schum. Essai nov. gen., 1817. 

= Strombus latissimus, Linn Ill 

Alatus (Strombus >, Gmelin, p. 3513, No. 14. 

= S. pugilis, Linn., var. ....... 109 

Alipes, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 1865. 

= Gonochila, Gabb, .... ... 104 

Anatellus (Strombus \ Duclos. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 5, 

t. 4, f. 11, 12; t. 21, f. 8, 9. = S. urceus, Linn. . . 118 
Anchura, Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. [2j,iv, 1860, . 105 

Aporrhainae (Subfamily), . . . ". . . .99 
Aporrhais. Dillw. Philos. Trans., ii, 395, 1823, . .103,131 
Aratrum (Monocondylaea), Morch. Cat. Yoldi, p. 62, 

= Strombus Pacificus, Swain. . . . . . .114 

Arrhoges, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch. , iv, 144, 1868, . 104, 133 
Arthritica (Pterocera), Morch. Cat. Yoldi. p. 60. 

= P. rugosa, Sowb 126 

Athenius (Strombus), Duclos. Chenu, Illust. Conch., t. 11, 

f. 1,2. == S. variabilis, Swn. 117 

Anrnntia (Pterocera), Lam. An. s. Vert. (Desh. ed.), ix, 

p. 675, . .124 

Auris-Dianse (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., edit, xii, 1209, 113 

(185) 



136 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGB. 

Australia (Strombus \ Sowb. Thes. Conch., pi. 39, f. 96, 97. 

= S. Pacificus,Swn., var. ....... 114 

Australis (Struthiolaria), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 13th ed., 3542. 

= S. vermis, Marty n. 133 

Bengalina (P3 7 rula), Grat., 1840. = Pterocera bryonia, Gmel. 124 
Bituberculatus i Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 690. 112 
Brachystoma, Gardner. Geol. Mag. [2], iii, 1876, . .104 
Brevirostra (Rostellaria), Sebum. Nouv. Syst., 223, 1817. 
= R. curvirostris, Lam. . . . . . .127 

Bryonia (Pterocera), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3520, . . 124 
Bubonius (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 692, . 108 

Bulbulus (Strombus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842, p. 144. 121 

Cailliaudii (Conus), Jay. Ann. Lye. N. Y., iv, p. 169, pi. x, 

f. Sab, 1846, . 122 

Calyptrophorus, Conrad, 1757. Gabb, Am. Jour. Conch., 

iv, 142, 103 

Cainelus (Strombus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x,t. 155, f. 1478. 

= Pterocera lambis, Linn. . . . . . .124 

Campbelli (Strombus), Gray. Griff. An. Kingd., pi. 25, . 115 
Campbelli (Strombus), Ku'ster. Conch. Cab., 2d ed., p. 69, 

t. 15, f. 2. = S. deformis, Gray, 116 

Canaliculata (Struthiolaria), Spengler. Naturf., 24, 1782. 

= S. crenulata, Lam. 133 

Canarium (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1211, . .110 
Canarium, Sebum. Essai nov. gen., 219, 1817, . . 101, 118 
Cancellata (Rimella), Lam. An. s. Vert. (Desh. ed.), ix, p. 

710, 129 

Cancellatus (Strombus), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1860, p. 398, 122 
Ceratosiphon, Gill. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 139, 1869, . . 104 
Chemnitzii (Strombus), Pfr. Krit. Reg., p. 2. 

= S. Pacificus, Swain 114 

Chenopus, Philippi. Enum. Moll. Sicil., i, 214, 1836. 

= Aporrhais, Dillw. ........ 103 

Chiragra (Pterocera), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1207, 126 
Chiragra (Pterocera), part, Lam. Hist. N., An. s. Vert.,ed. 

2, ix, 675. = P. rugosa, Sowb. . ... 126 

Chiropteron, Sars 132 

Clavus (Strombus), Gmelin. Syst. Nat. 

= Rostellaria fusus, Linn. 128 

Columba (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 702, . .115 
Coniformis (Strombus), Sowb. Thes., t. 7, f. 55-61. 

= S. Mauritianus, var. ....... 278, 122 

Conomurex, Bayle. Fischer, Manuel de Conch., 617. 101, 122 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 137 

PAGE. 

Cornutus (Strombus), Perry. Conch., t. xi, f. 4. 

= S. pugilis, Linn. ........ 109 

Coronarium (Buccinum). Soland. Catal. Portl. Mus. 

= S. papulosa, Mart. . 133 

Coronata (Strombus), Defrance. = S. bubonius, Lam. . 108 
Corrugatus (Strombus), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, 

p. 35, t. 10, f. 19. =S. rugosus, Sowb 119 

Costatus (Strombus), Gmelin, p. 35'20, .... 108 

Costulata (Struthiolaria ), Martens. Ber. Ges. Nat. Freunde, 

Berlin, 1875, p. 66. = S. mirabilis, Smith, . . .134 
Crassilabrum (Strombus), Anton. Yerz., 87, 2820, 1839, .122 
Crenatus (Strombus), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 19. 

= S. galeatus, Swain. 108 

Crenulata (Struthiolaria), Lam. An. s. Yert., vii, p. 148. 

= S. vermis, Mart., var. ....... 133 

Crispata(Rimella),Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 26, pi. 8, f. 62, 63, 129 
Cristatus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Yert., ix, p. 691. 

= S. laciniatus, Ghemn Ill 

Grocata (Pterocera), Link. Yerz. Nat. Sarnml. Rostock? 

= P. aurantia, Lam. ........ 124 

Crocea (Pterocera), Sowb. Thes., t. 11, f. 4. 

= P. elongata, Swain 125 

Cuphotifer, Piette, 1876, 105 

Gurta (Rostellaria), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842. 

= R. curvirostris, Lam., var. ...... 127 

Curvirostris (Rostellaria), Lam. An. s. Yert. (Desh. ed.) 

ix, p. 654, .... 127 

Cyclomolops, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 142, 1868, . 103 
Cylindricus (Strombus), Swain. Zool. 111., pi. 53, f. 1,2. 

= S. Mauritianus, Lam 122 

Cyphosolenus, Piette, 1876, 104 

Cyphotifer, Piette, 1876, . . . 105 

Decumana (Cornuta), Rump. Amb. Rarit, p. 110, t. 35, f. Z>, 

t. 36, f. G. = Pterocera lambis, Linn 124 

Deformis (Strombus), Gray. Griff. An. Kingd., pi. 25, .116 
Deformis (Strombus), Kiener (non Gray\ Ic. Coq., p. 58, 

t. 32, f. 2. = S. Sibbaldi, Sowb 118 

Delicatula (Rostellaria), Geof. Nevill, Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 

1881, 262 * . . . 128 

Dentatus f Strombus), Kien., t. 19, f. 2 (non Wood). 

= S. terebellatus, Sowb. . ... .121 

Dentatus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1213, . . 118 
Dentula (Rostellaria), Perry. Conch., t. 10, f. 3. 

= R. curvirostris, Lam. ....... 127 

Diartema, Piette, 1864, 104 



138 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Dicroloma, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 146, t. 14, f. 16-17, 

1868, .105 

Diempterus, Pictte, 1876, 105 

Dilatatus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 792. 

= S. costatus, Gmel., var. inermis. 108 

Dilatatus (Strombus), Swains. Zool. Illust., . . . 115 
Dimorphosoma, Gardner. Geol. Mao;. [U] 5 ii ? 1875, . . 104 
Dolophanes, Gabb. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc., xv, 234, 1872, 105 
Drepanocheilus, Meek. Check List, Invert. Foss., 35, 1864. 

= Anchura, Con. Gabb, A. J. C., iv, 145, . . .105 
Dubius (Strombus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 9, f. 30. 

= S. alatus, Gmel., juv 109 

Elatus (Strombus). Anton. Yerz., 85, 2799, . . .122 
Elegans (Strombus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 7, f. 43, 48. 

= S. dentatus, L., var. erythrinus, ..... 119 
Elongata (Pterocera), Swains. Ex. Conch. App. p. 32, . 125 
Epidrornis (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1211, . . 116 
Epimellus (Strombus), Duclos. Chemn., p. 3, pi. 16, f. 11, 

12; pi. 22, f. 5, 6. = S. floridus, Lam 120 

Erythrinus (Strombus). Chemn., xi, 146, 1. 195 a, f. 1874-75. 

= S. dentatus, Linn., var. 119 

Euprotomus, Gill. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 131, 1869, . 100, 110 
Expansa (Strombus), Martini. Conch. Cab., iii, p. lll,t. 

79, f. 821. = S. epidromis, Linn. . . . .116 

Exustus (Strombus \ Swain. Zool. 111., i, pi. 134, f. 1. 

= S. papilio, Chemn. . . . .' . . .110 

Fasciatus (Strombus), Born. Mus. Caes. Vind., p. 278, . 120 
Fasciatus (Strombus), Gmel., p. 3510. = S. bubonius, Lam. 108 
Favanni (Rostellaria), Pfeiffer. Crit. Register, 106, 1840. 

= R. fissa, Dillw 128 

Fissa (Rostellaria), Dillw. Desc. Cat., 656, 1815, . . 128 
Fissurella (Rostellaria), Sowb. Thes., pi. 8, f. 64, 65 (non 

Linn.). = Rimella cancellata, Lam. . . . .129 
Flammeus (Strombus), Link. Beschreib. Mus. Rostock, 

1807 ; Morch, Yoldi Cat., pt. i, 63. = S floridus, Lam. .119 
Flavigula (Alata), Meuschen. Mus. Gevers., p. 338. 

= Strombus fasciatus, Born, . . . . . .120 

Floridus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 707, . .119 
Flosculosus (Strombus), Morch. Cat. Conch. Yoldi, part 

1 a, p. 63. = S. floridus, Lam. 119 

Fusiformis (Strombus), Sowb. Thes., pi. 9, f. 91, 92, . .117 
Fusus (Rostellaria), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3506. 

= R. curvirostris, Lam. ....... 127 

Fusus (Rostellaria), Linn. Syst. Nat. (12 ed.), p. 1207, . 128 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 139 

PAGE. 

Galea (Strorabus), Wood. Ind. Test. Supp. Lara., 4, f. 13, 

1828. = S. <raleatus, fe w ain 108 

Galeatus (Strombus), Swain. Phil. Mag., 1823, p. 401, . 108 
Gallinula, Klein. Tent., 56, 1753, . . . .101,114 
Gallus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1209, . . .113 
Gibberulus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1210, . 121 

Gibberulus . Strombus), Meuschen (non Linn.). Mb'rch, 

Yoldi Cat., 63. = S. floridus, Lam 120 

Gigas (Strombus ^, Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1210, . . .107 
Gigas (Struthiolaria), Sowb.' Thes, Conch., pi. 5, f. 17, . 133 
Glabratus ( Strombus \ Sowb. Thes. Conch., pi. 8, f. 66, 67. 

== Nassa obliqna, Kr 122. 

Gladius, Klein. Tent. Ostrac., 59, 1753. 

= Rostellaria, Lam. ........ 102 

Goliath (Strombus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, pi. 195, . 107 
Goniocheila, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 144, 1868, . . 104 
Gracilior (Strombus), Sowb. Tank. Cat., p. 20, . . 109 

Granulatus (Strombus), Gray. Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl., t. 

4, f. 21, . 110 

Guttatus (Strombus), Mart. Conch. Cab., Hi, p. 126, pi. 84, 

f. 840. == S. auris-Dianse, Linn. . . . . ,113 
Gymnarus, Gabb., Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 139, 1868, . . 101 

Hffimastoma (Strombus), Sowb. Thes., pi. 7, f. 51, . .120 
Halia, Risso. Manual, vi. Placed in Struthiolarinae by 

Gabb, A. J. C., iv, 147. 

Harpngo, Klein. Tent. Meth. Ostrac., 1753, p. 79, . 102, 126 
Harpagodes, Gill. Am. Jour. Conch., v, 138, 1869, . .102 
Helicaulax, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 145, t. 14, f. 15, 

1868 104 

Hellii (Strombus), Rousseau. Kien. Iconog., t. 13, f. 2, . 120 
Heptadactylus (Alata), Mart. Conch. Cab., Hi, p. 150, t. 36, 

f. *55, t. 90, f. 884. * = Pterocera lambis, Linn. . . 124 
Heptadactylus, Klein. Ostrac., 99, 1753, . . .101,124 
Hippochrenes, Montf. Conch. Syst., ii, 522, 1810, . . 103 

Incisus (Strombus), Wood. Ind. Test. Supp. 

= S. urceus, Gmel .118 

Inermis (Strombus), Swains. Exot. Conch., p. 36. 

5. costatus, Gin., var. ....... 108 

Inermis (Struthiolaria), Sowb. Thes. Conch., p. 23, pi. 5, 

f. 12, 13 and 19. = S. vermis,Mart. . 133 

Integer (Strombus), Swain. Gray, Desc. Cat., June, 1832, 

p. 2 . .108 

Isabella (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 700. 

= S. canarium, Linn., var. . . . . . .110 



140 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Ismarius (Strombus), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. Illust., 5, t. 

7, f. 1-2. = S. fasciatus. Born, . . . .120 

Isopleura, Meek. Check List Invert. Foss., 36, 1864, . 102 

Japonicus (Strombus), Reeve. Conch. Icon., 42, 1851, . 115 
Japonicus (Strombus), Reeve. Lischke, Jap. Meeresconch. 
Suppl., 30, t. 5, f. 7. = S. dilatatus, Swains. . . .115 

Kieneri (Strombus), Tapparone-Canefri. Ann. Mus. Civ. 

Genoa, viii, 346. = S. Sibbaldi, Sowb 118 

Kochii (Pterocera), Freyer. Sitz. der K. Akad. der Wiss. 

Vien.. xv, p. 22, 1852. = P. chiragra, Linn. . . .126 

Labiosus (Strombus), Gray. Wood, Ind. Test. Suppl., t. 4, lift 
Labrosus (Strombus), Menke. Verzeichniss, No. 1209 ; 

Morch, Mai. Blatt., xviii, 127. S. Luhuanus, L. . .122 
Laciniatus (Strombus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 158, f. 

1506-7 ; Dillwyn, Desc. Cat., ii, 663, . . . .111 
Laevilabris (Strombus), Menke. Syn., p. 71. 

= S. Luhuanus, Linn. ....... 122 

Lamarckii (Strombus , Gray. Sowb. Thes. Conch., 35. 

= S. auris-Dianae, Linn. . . . . . . .113 

Lambis (Pterocera), Linn. Syst. Nat. (12th ed.), p. 1208, . 124 
Latissimus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1211, . . Ill 
Latus (Strombus), Gmel., p. 3520. 

= S. costatus, Gmel., var. inermis, ..... 108 
Leiorhinus, Gabb. Jour. Philada. Acad. [2], iv, 1860, . 103 
Lentiginosus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1208, . . 110 
Lineatus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 708. 

= S. fasciatus, Born, . . . . . . .120 

Lispodesthes, White. Rep. Geol. 100th Merid., iv, 191, 1875, 104 
Listeri (Strombus), T. Gray. Ann. and Mag. N. H., x, p. 

430, 1852, . . .114 

Lituratus (Strombus), Menke. Verzeichniss, No. 1205; 

Morch, Mai. Blatt. xviii, 127. = S. variabilis, Swains. . 117 
Lobatus (Strombus), Swains. Zool. 111., t. 3, pi. 153. 

= S. bituberculatus, Lam. 112 

Longus (Turbo), Jonston. Hist. Nat., t. 11. 

= Rostellaria curvirostris, Lam. . . . . .127 

Loxotrema, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 147, 1868, . . 105 
Lucifer (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., x, n. 414 ; xii, n. 503. 

= S. gigas, Linn. ........ 107 

Luhuanus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1209, . . 122 
Luteostoma (Rostellaria), Angas. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1878, 

p. 313, pi. xviii, f. 8-9. R. curvirostris, Lara., var. . 127 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 141 

PACK. 

Macandreae (Aporrhais), Jeffreys. Brit. Conch., iv, p. 252 ; 

v, t. Ixxx, f. 2. = A. Serresianus, Mich. Jeffre3 r s, 

Proc. Roy. Soc., xxv, 189, 132 

Maculatus(Strombns), Nuttall. Sowb. Thes., pi. 7, f. 53, . 120 
Maculosum (Terebellum), Ad. Narr. Voy. Saraa rang, vol. 

ii, 358. == T. subulatum, Lam 131 

Magna (Rostellaria), Schroter. Conch. Cab.,x, p. 38, 1788. 

= R. curvirostris, Lam. ....... 127 

Marginatus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1209, . .116 
M arm ore us (Murex), Jonston. Hist. Nat., pi. 2, f. 3. 

= Strombus pugilus. Linn. ...... 109 

Martinii (Rostellaria), Marrat. Jour, of Conch., i, p. 244, 

pi. 1 128 

Mauritianus (Strombus), Issel. Malak. Mar. Rosso., p. 130. 

= S. gibberulus, Linn. . . . . . . .121 

Mauritianus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 699, . 122 
Mauryna, Gregorio, 1880. Fischer, Man. de Conch., 673, . 103 
Melanocheilus (Rostellaria), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1854, 

p. 42. = R. fusus, Linn., var 128 

Melanostomus (Strombus), Swains. Ex. Conch., p. 10, t. 

47. = S. auris-Dianas, Linn., var. . . . . .113 

Melnptcra, Piette, 1876. = Phyllocheilus, Gabb, . .102 
Microscopica (Struthiolaria), Gray. Zool. Beechey. Voy., 

p. 108, ' 134 

Millepeda (Pterocera), Linn. Syst. Nat. (12th cd.),p. 1208, 125 
Millipes, Klein. Ostrac., 99, 1753, . . . .101,125 
Minimus (Strombus), Linn. Mantissa., p. 549, . . .117 
Mirabilis (Strombus), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1870, p. 

257, pi. xx i, f. 4. = S. Listeri, Gray, . . . .114 
Mirabilis (Struthiolaria), Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 4th ser., 

xvi, i). 67. 1875 ; Trans. Roy. Soc., 168, p. 170, pi. ix, f. 3, 134 
Mitrafusus, Bellardi. Moll. foss. Piern., 1871, . . .102 

Mouocyphus, Piette, 1876, 104 

Monod'actylus, Klein. Ostrac , 98, 1753, . . .101,112 
Multipes (Pterocera), Desh. Lamarck, id. 2, ix, 677. 

= P. violacea, Swains. . . . . . . .125 

Mutabilis (Strombus), Swain. Zool. Illus., t. 71, f. 1. 

= S. floridus, Lam 119 

Nebulosum ( Terebellum \ Blainv. Dufo., Ann. Sc. Nat., 
1840, p. 178. = T. subulatum, Lam. . . 131 

Xodosa (Pterocera), Swains. Brng., Enc. Meth., pi. 410, 2. 
= P. scorpio, Linn. ........ 125 

Noclosa (Struthiolaria), Gray, in Yates' N. Zeal., p. 308. 
S. papulosa. Mart. . . . . . . .133 



142 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Nodulosa (Struthiolaria"), Lam. An. s. Vert., 2d ed., ix, p. 

534. = S. papulosa, Martyn, 133 

Novre-Zelandiae (Strombus \ Chemn., x, pi. 156, f. 1485- 

1486. S. Pacificus, Swains. 114 

Novem-dactylis instructus (Pterocera), Chem. Conch. Cab., 

x, p. 207, pi. 155, f. 1479-1480. = P. elongata, Swains., 125 

Oblita (Struthiolaria), Sowb. Tank. Cat., App., p. xviii, 

= S..scutulata, Mart. 134 

Occidentalis (Aporrliais), Beck. Mag. de Zoo!., 1836, pi. 72, 133 
Olydius (Strombus), Duclos. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 4, t. 

5, f. 7. = S, dentatus, Linn 119 

Oncoma, Mayer. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, [3], iv, 1876, . 101 
Orientalis (Strombus), Jonston. Nat. Hist., pi. 11, f. 2; 

Chenu, 111. Conch., t. 18, f. 1, 2. = S. tricornis, Lam. . 112 
Orosminus (Strombus), Duclos. Chenu, Conch. Illus., 6, t. 

10, f. 10, 11. = S. columba, Linn. . . . . .115 

Orthaulax, Gabb. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., xv, 234, 1873, 103 

Pacificus (Strombus", Swains. Ex. Conch., p. 10, t. 17, . 113 
Papilio (Strombus), Chemn. Conch. Cab.,x, t. 158, f. 1510 

and 1511 ; Dillwyn., Desc. Cat-, ii, 661. . . . .110 
Papillosa (Struthiolaria), Gray. Guide Moll. B. Mus., p. 76. 

= S. papulosa, Mart. . . . . . . .133 

Papulosa (Struthiolaria), part, Desh. An. s. Vert. 

= S. gigas, Sowb. . . . 133 

Papulosa (Struthiolaria), Martyn. Univ. Conch., 1784, pi. 54, 133 
Pelicaria, Gray. Guide to the Moll. B. Mus., p. 77, 

1857, 105, 134 

Pentadactylus (Cochlea), Pliny. 

= Aporrhais pes-pelicani. Linn. ..... 131 

Perch-sea, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xv, 464, 1867 y . .101 
Perissoptera, Tate. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repertory, 1865. 

= Anchura, Con. Gabb, A. J. C., iv, 145, . * .105 
Persicus (Strombus), Swain. Zool. 111., pi. 53. 

= S. fasciatus, Born. . 120 

Pcrtmax (Strombus), Duclos. Chenu, Illus. Conch., 15, t. 

29, f. 1,2. ='S. tricornis, Lam 112 

Peruanus (? Strombus), Anton. Verz. 85, No. 2810, 1839, 122 
Peruvianus (Strombus), Swain. Zool. Illus., pi. 39. Kobelt, 

50. Reeve, 6. Sow., 110. Kiener, viii and xxxiv, f. 1, var. 112 
Pes-carbonis (Aporrhais), Forbes and Hanley (non Broug.). 

Brit. Moll. = Rostellaria Serressiana, Mich. . . . 132 
Pes-pelicani (Rostellaria), Linn. Syst. Nat. (12th ed.), p. 

1207, .131 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 143 

PAGE. 

Pes-struthiocameli (Murex), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, f. 

1520-1521. = S. papulosa, Martyn, . . . .133 
Phyllocheilus, Gabb. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 140, 1868, . 102 
Platyoptera, Conrad. Proc. Phila. A cad., 257, 1855. 

= Rostellaria, Lam. . . . . . . . .102 

Plicatus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 706, . .119 
Polydactylus (Alata), Mart. Conch. Cat., iii, p. 160, pi. 88, 

f.' 8(11-8(52. = Pterocera millipeda, Linn. . . .125 
Polyfasciatus (Strombus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 155, 

f.* 1483-84. = S. fasciatus, Born 120 

Ponderosns (Strombus), Philippi. Abb. i, taf. 2, 3, . .111 
Powisii (Rostellaria), Petit. Mag. de Zool., 1842, pi. 53, . 128 
Pseudo-scorpio (Pterocera), Lam. An. s Yert. (Desh. ed ), 

ix, p. 674, . . 125 

Pterocera, Lamarck. Prodr., 1799, .... 101, 123 
Pterocerella, Meek. Check List Invert. Foss., 36, 1864, . 104 
Pterodonta, d'Orb. Pal. Franc. Terr. Cret., ii, 320, . .103 
Pujiilis (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1207, . . .109 
Puonellus, Conrad. Jour. Philad. Acad. [2], iv, 1860, . 101 
Pulcliellus (Strombus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 52, 1851. 

= S. dentatus, Linn., var. 119 

PiuictMtum (Terebellum), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, 124. 

= T. siibulatum, Lam. . . . . . . .131 

Purpurascens (Pterocera), Swains. Sowb., Thes., 43. 

= P. violacea, Swains. . . . . . . .125 

Ptisillus (Strombus), Anton. Verz., 86, No. 2812, 1839, . 122 
Pyramis, Bolten. Mus. Bolt., 1798. 

= Strombus, Linn., juv. ....... 100 

Pyrulatus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 696. 

= S. alatus, Gm 109 

Quad rat us (Strombus), Perry. Conch., t. xii, f. 1. 

= S. bituberculatus, Lam. . . . . . .112 

Quadriiidus (Rostellaria), Da Costa. Brit: Shells. 

= Aporrhais pes.pelicani, Linn 131 

Radians (Strombus), Duclos. Chenu, Illust. Conch., 5, t. 

4, f. 15. 16. = S. nrceus, Linn 118 

Rauiuus (Strombus), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3511. 

= S. bituberculatus, Lam. . , . . .112 

Rectirostris (Rostellaria), Lam. An. s. Vert. (Desh. ed.), 

p. 65f>. = R. I us us, Linn. 128 

Rhodostomus (Strombus gibberulus. vnr.), Mb'rch. Decken, 

Reisen, iii, 1, 64. = S. jribberr.lus, Linn. . , . 127 

Rimella, Agassiz. Sowb., Min. Conch, ed. Germ., 137, 1840, 

102, 129 



144 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PA OK. 

Robusta (Pterocera), Swains. Ex. Conch., p. 32, 1833, . 126 
Robustus (Strombus), Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1874, p. 599, 

pi. 72, f. 3, 3 a S. marginatus, Linn 116 

Rostellaria, Lam. Prodr., 1799 102, 127 

Rostellum, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 518, 1810. 

= Rostellaria, Lam., 1799, . , 102 

Rugosa (Pterocera), Sowb. Thes. Conch.. pt.2,t. 11, f. 9, 10, 126 
Rugosns (Strombus), Sowb Tank. Cat. A pp., p. 20. 

= S. dentatns, Linn., var. 119 

Riippellii (Strombus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 13, 1850. 

= S. dentatus, var. erythrinus, . . . . . .119 

Samar (Strombus), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, t. 157, f. 1503 ; 

Dillw. Cat..ii, 674, .,121 

Samarensis (Strombus), Reeve. Conch. Ic., xix, f. 53. 

= S. Samar, Chemn. 121 

Scalariformis (Strombus), Duclos. Mag. Zool., p. 27, t. 27, 

1833 120 

Scorpio (Pterocera), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1208, . 125 
Scutulata (Struthiolaria), Hutton. Cat. Mar. Mol. N. Z., 

Jour, de Conch , 25, 1872. = S. vermis, Martyn, . .133 
Scutulata (Struthiolaria), Martyn. Univ. Conch., pi. 55, . 134 
Sebae (Pterocera^, Valen. Kiener, Iconog., t. 2, t. 4, f. 2. 

= P. bryonia, Gmelin, ....... 124 

Semilunare (Chiropteron), Sars. Beskrivelser og Jag 1835, 

t. 14, f. 38 ; Morch, Ann. Mag. N. H., 1865, xvi, p. 78. 

? Larva of Aporrhais, ....... 132 

Senegalensis (Aporrhais), Gray. Ann. and Mag. N. H., 

1838, i, p. 27, . . 132 

Septimus (Strombus), Duclos. Chenu, 111. Conch., 7, t. 13, 

f. 9, 10; t. 15, f. 11 ; t. 26, f. 2. = S. succinctus, L., var. 117 
Seraphs, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 374, 1810. 

= Terebellum, Klein, Sect 103 

Serrata (Rostellaria), Perry. Conch., t. 11, f. 2. 

= R. fissa, Dillw 128 

Serresianus (Aporrhais), Mich. Bui. Soc. Linn. Bord., 2, p. 

120, f. 3-4. 1828, 132 

Sibbaldi (Strombus), Sowb. Thes., t. 7, f. 10-11. . . 118 
Sloanii (Strombus), Leach. Miscel., pi. 22, f. 1. 

= S. pugilis, Linn., var. . . . . . . . 109 

Sowerbyi (Pterocera), Morch. Jour, de Conch., 1872, p. 131. 

= P. bryonia, Gmel. 124 

Speciosa (kimella), H. and A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, 

p. 428, 129 

Spinigera, d'Orb., 1850. Gabb, A. J. C., iv, 141, . . 105 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 145 

PAGE. 

Spinosa (Vespertilio), Seba. Mas. 

= Rostellaria pes-pelicani, Linn. ..... 131 

Stramineus (Murex)', Gmelin. Linn., Syst. Nat., 13th ed. 

= S. papulosa, Marty n, . . . . . . .133 

Striatogranosus (S trombus), Morch. Martens, Mauritius, 

277. = S. auris-DLanae, Linn. . . . . . .113 

Strombidae (Family), 99 

Strombidea, Swainson. Malacol., HO, 310, 1840. 

= Canarium, Schmn. 101 

Strombinae (Subfamily), 99 

Strombolaria, Gregorio, 1880, 102 

Strombus, Linn. Syst. Nat., 742, 1758, . . .100,106 
Struthiolaria, Lamarck. Extr. d'un Cours, 1812, . 105, 133 
Struthiolariinae, ......... 100 

Subulata (Rostellaria), Schum. Essai Nouv. Syst. 

= R. fusus, Linn. 128 

Subulatum (Terebellum), Lam. An. sans Vert. (edit. Desk.), 

x, 584, .131 

Subulatus (Strombus), Herbst. Hist. Verm., t. 48, f. 8. 

= S. fasciatus, Born. . . . . . .120 

Suceinctus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1212, . .116 
Sulcata (Struthiolaria), Jonas. Arch. f. Nat., 1839, i, p. 342, 

pi. ix, f. 5. = S. gigas, Sowb 134 

Sulcatus (Strombus), Anton. Verz , 85, No. 2798. 

= S. alatus, Gm. . . 109 

Sulcatus (Strombus), Chem. Conch. Cab., xi, t. 195, f. 

1870-71. = S. vittatus, Linn. . . . . . . 114 

Swainsonii ( Strom bus ) f Reeve. Conch. Ic., 28. 

= S. dilatatus, Swain. ....... 115 

Tseniata (Strombus), Quoy. Voy. Astr., ii, t. 51, f. 14-15. 

= S. Isabella, Lam. 110 

Tankervillii (Strombus), Swains. Teste Reeve, Icon., f. 26. 

= S. columba, Lam 115 

Taurus (Strombus), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1857, p. 207, 

t. 37, f. 3, . Ill 

Terebellatus (Strombus), Sowb. Thes., pi. 9, f. 84, 85, . 121 
Terebeliopsis, Leymerie. Bull. Soc. Geol., 1844, . . 103 
Terebellum, Klein. Tent, Ostrac., 38, 1753, . . 103, 130 
Terebellum (Bulla), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1185. 

= Terebellum punctatum, Chemn 131 

Tessarolax, Gabb. Geol. Survey Cal., 1864, . . .104 
Thersites (Strombus), Gray. Sow., Thes., pi. 10, f. 109, 

= S. ponderosus, jPhil Ill 

Tricornis (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 689, . . 112 

10 



146 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAOK. 

Tridactylus, Gardner. Geol. Mag., 1875. 

= Dicroloma, Gabb 105 

.A-^-Tridentatus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 704. 

= S. Samar, Chem . . 120 

Troglodytes (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 703. 

= S. minimus, Linn. . . . . . . . .117 

Truncata (Pterocera), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, p. 195. 

= P. bryonia, Gm 124 

Tubercularis (Strombus), Anton. Yerz., 86, No. 2813, 1839, 122 
Turritus (Strombus), Lam. An. s. Vert., ix, p. 706. 

= Var. S. vittatus, Linn. 114 

Tyleri (Rimella), H. and A. Adams. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863, 

p. 428, . 129 

Undulatus (Strombus), Chemn. Kuster, t. 4 6, f. 3-4. 

= S. alatus, Gm 109 

Unicornis (Strombus), Dillw. Desc. Cat. 

= Rostellaria fusus, Linn. ...... 128 

Urceus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1212, . . .118 
Urceus (Strombus), var. Schreiber's Conch., i, p. 187. 

= S. dentatus, Linn. 118 

Ustulatum (Canarium), Schum. Nouv. Syst., p. 219, 1817. 

= Strombus urceus, Linn. . . . . . .118 

Vanicorensis (Strombus), Quoy. Voy. Astr., t. 51, f. 7-9. 

= S. canarium, Linn. ....... 110 

Variabilis (Strombus), Swains. Zool. 111., i, t. 10, . .117 
Ventricosus (Fusus), Humph. Mus. Calonn., p. 35. 

= Rostellaria curvirostris, Lam. ..... 127 

Vermis (Strnthiolaria), Martyn. Univ. Conch., pi. 53, . 133 
Vermis (Struthiolaria), Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 4. 

= S. gigas, Sowb 133 

Violacea (Pterocera), Swains. Exot. Conch. App., 33, . 125 

.Vittatus (Strombus), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1211, . . 114 

Yoldii (Pterocera), Morch. Yoldi Cat., p. 60, 1852, . . 126 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



STROMBID^E. 



PLATE 1. 
FIGURE PAOE . 

1. Strombus florid us, Lam. Dentition. Fischer, Manuel 

de Conch., f. 428, p. 669, 99 

2. Strombus gigas, Linn. Chenu, Manuel de Conch., i, f. 

1570,. :/.'.. ... 107 

3. Strombus gigas, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 117, . 107 

4. Strombns gigas, juv. Kiener, Icon., t. 33, f. 1, . . 107 

5. Strombus Goliath, Chemn. Sowb., Thes. Conch, f. 118, 107 
fi. Strombus galcatus, Swains. Thes. Conch., f. 114, 108 

7. Strombus accipitrinus, Lam. (= costatus). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 12, 108 

8. Strombus inermis; Swains. (= costatus\ Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 11H 108 

9. Strombus alatus (= pugilis, var.). Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 75, . . . ' . 109 

10. Strombus pyrnlatus, Lam. (= alatus). Thes. Conch., 

f. 72, . 109 

PLATE 2. 

11. Strombus bubonius, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 27, . . 108 

12. Strombus integer, Swains. Lister. Hist. Conch., t. 856, 108 

13. Strombus pugilis, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 74, . .109 

14. Strombus pugilis, Linn. Sowb., Genera, t. 10, f. 2, . 109 

15. Strombus pugilis, Linn. Chenu, Manual, f. 1582, .109 

16. Strombus dubius, Sowb. (= pugilis). Thes. Conch., 

f. 80, 109 

17. Strombus gracilior, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 73, . . 109 

18. Strombus canarium, Linn. Kiener, Icon., t. 29, f. 1 a, 110 

19. Strombus canarium, Linn. Quoy. Voy. Astrol., t. 51, 

f. 10, 110 

20. Strombus Isabella, Lam. (= canarium, var.). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 25, f. 2 110 

(147) 



148 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 3. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

21. Strombtis tseniata, Quoy (= Isabella). Voy. Astrol., 

t. 51, f, 14, 110 

22. Strombus granulatus, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

32a, 110 

23. Strombus lentiginosus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

79, ... ...... 110 

24. Strombus lentiginosus, Linn. Kiener, Icon., t. 18, f. 1, J10 

25. Strombus papilio, Dillw. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 44, . 110 

26. Strombus laciniattis, Dillw. Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 25, 111 

27. Strombus latissimiis, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 112, 111 

28. Strombus Thersites, Gray (=ponderosus, Phil.). Sowb., 

Thes. Conch., f. 109, Ill 

29. Strombus Peruvianus, Lam. Chenu, Manuel, f. 1587, 112 

30. 31. Strombus tricornis, Lam. Kiener, Iconqg., t. 7; 

t. 33, f. 3, . . . . . . . .112 

PLATE 4. 

32. Strombus lobatus, Swn. (= bituberctilatns, Lam ). 

Thes. Conch., f. 76, .... . 112 

33. Strombus bitubenulatus, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 306, 112 

34. Strombus taurus, Reeve. Zool. Proc., t. 37, f. 3, 1857, 111 

35. Strombus gallus, Linn. Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 18, . 1.13 

36. Strombus gallus, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 33, f. 2, . 113 

37. Strombus auris-Dianse, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 88, 113 

38. Strombus melanostoma, Swn. (= auris-Dianse, var.), 

Thes. Conch., f. 89, 113 

39. Strombus Pacificus, Swn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 86, 113 

40. Strombus australis, Sowb. (= Pacificus, Swn.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 97, ... .... 114 

41-43. Strombus vittatus, Linn. Thes. Conch. ,f. 28,29,30, 114 

44. Strombus sulcatus, Chemn. ( vittatus, Linn.). Kiister, 

Monog., t. 13, f. 8, 114 

45. Strombus mirabilis, Sowb. (== Listeri, T. Gray). 

Zool. Proc.. t. 21, f. 4, 1870, . . . . " . 114 

PLATE 5. 

46. Strombus Campbelli, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 45, 115 

47. Strombus Swainsoni, Rve. (= dilatatus, Swn.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 286, . . . . . . . .115 

48. Strombus Japonicus, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 42, . 115 

49. Strombus columba, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 26 6, . . 115 

50. Strombus orosminus, Duclos (= columba). Chenu, 

Conch. Illust., t. 10, f. 11, 115 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 149 

FIOURB. PAGB. 

51. Strombus labiosus, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 50, 116 

52. Strombus deformis, Gray. Conch. Icon., f. 55 6, . .116 

53. Strombus marginatus, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 49, 116 

54. Strombus robustus, Sowb. (= marginatus). Zool. 

Proc., t. 72, f. 5 a, 1874, .116 

55. Strombus epidromis, Linn. Kiener, fconog., t. 26, f. 1, 116 

PLATE 6. 

56. Strombus succinctus, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 43, . 116 

57. Strombus Septimus, Duclos (= succinctus, var.). Chenu, 

Conch. Illust;,, t. 13, f. 9, 117 

58. Strombus fusiformis, Sowb. Kiener, Iconog., t. 28, f. 2, 117 

59. 60. Strombus variabilis, Swn. Reeve, Icon., f. 21 c, a, 117 

61. Strombus athenius, Duclos (= variabilis). Chenu, 

Illust., t. ll,f. 2, 117 

62. Strombus troglodytes, Lam. (= minimus, L.). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 31, f. 2 117 

63 Strombus Sibbaldi, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 48, 118 

64. Strombus deformis, Kiener (= Sibbaldi). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 32, f. 2, . . . , . . . 118 

65, 66. Strombus urceus, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 246, c, . 118 

67. Strombus anatellus, Duel. (= urceus). Chenu, Conch., 

Illust., t. 21, f. 9, 118 

68. Strombus olydius, Duel. ( = dentatus). Chenu, Illust , 

t. 5, f. 7, 118 

69. Strombus Riippelli, Reeve (= erythrinus). Conch. 

Icon., f. 13 a, 119 

70. Strombus pulchellus, Reeve (= dentatus, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 52, .119 

PLATE 7. 

67. Strombus radians, Duel. (= dentatus). Chenu, Conch. 

Illus., t. 4, f. 16, . 118 

68. Strombus dentatus, Linn. Conch. Icon., f. 17, . . 118 

69. Strombus dentatus, Linn. Chenu, Conch. Illus., t. 5, 

f. 6, .... . . 118 

70. Strombus plicatus, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 31, f. 1. . 119 

71. Strombus elegans, Sowb. (erythrinus). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 41 a, . . .119 

72. Strombus corrugatus, Ad. and Reeve (== dentatus, 

var.). Voy. Samarang, t. 10, f. 19, . . .' . 119 

73. Strombus floridus, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 11 a, 119 

74. Strombus floridus, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 32, f. 1, 

1 c, 1 a. 119 



150 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. , PAGE. 

77. Strombus ismarius, Duel. (= fasciatus'). Chenu, Conoh. 

Illust., t. 7, f. 2, . . 120 

78. Strombus ksemastoma, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

56, .... . .120 

79. Strombus hellii. Rousseau. Kiener, Iconog., 1. 13, f. 2, 120 

80. Strombus epimellus, Duel. (=floridus). Chenu, Illus., 

t. 16, f. 12 119 

81. Strombus scalariformis, Duel. Kiener, Iconog., t. 14, f. 3, 120 

82. Strombus fasciatus. Born. Kiener, Iconog., t. 30, f. 1, 120 

83. Strombus epimellus, Duel. (= floridus). Chenu, 

Conch. Illust., t. 22, f. 6, . . . .119 

84. Strombus maculatus, Nuttall. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 23, . . . . . . . . .120 

PLATE 8. 

85. Strombus gibberulus, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 28, f. 1, 121 

86. Strombus bulbulus, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 8 a, 121 

87. Strombus terebellatus, Sowb. Conch. Icon., f. 10 a, . 121 

88. Strombus Samar, Chemn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 53 6, 121 

89. Strombus Mauritianus, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 59, .... 122 

90. Strombus conifonnis, Sowb. (== Mauritianus). Thes. 

Conch., f. 55, 122 

91. Strombus Luhuanus, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 54, . .122 

92. Strombus Luhuanus, monstrosity. Ann. Soc. Mai. 

Belgique, x, t. 2, f. 1 122 



1, 2. Pterocera lambis, Linn. Thes. Conch., f. 5, 7, 
3. Pterocera lambis, Linn., juv. Kiener, Iconog., t. 9 
f. 2, . 



124 
124 



4. Pterocera truncata, Lam. (= bryonia\ Gmel.). Ibid. 

t. l,f. 1, . . 124 

PLATE 9. 

5. Pterocera aurantia, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 7, . . 124 

6. Pterocera scorpio, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 3, . . 125 

7. Pterocera pseudoscorpio, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 4. .125 

8. Pterocera truncata, Lam. (= bryonia), Gmel.). Thes. 

Conch., f. 13, . . ' . . .124 

9. Pterocera millepeda, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 9, f. 1, 125 

10. Pterocera elongata, Swainson. Chenu, Manuel, f. 1617, 125 

11. Pterocera multipes (=violacea, Swn.). Chenu, Manuel, 

f. 1614, 125 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 151 

PLATE 10. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

12. Pterocera chiragra, Chenu (= rugosa, Sowb.), Chenu, 

Mannelif. 1612, 126 

13. Pterocera chiragra, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 12, 126 

14. Rostellaria curvirostris, Lam. Thes. Conch., t. 5, f. 9, 127 

15. Rostellaria curta, Sowb. (= curvirostris, var.). Thes. 

Conch., t. 5, f. 7, 127 

16. Rostellaria luteostoma, Angas (= curvirostris, var.). 

Zool. Proc., t. 18, f. 8, 1878, 127 

17. Rostellaria rectirostris, Lam. ( fusus, Linn). Thes. 

Conch., t. 5, f. 8, .128 

18. Rimella fissurella (= cancellata). Thes. Conch., t. 8, 

f. 65, 129 

19. Rimella crispata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., t. 8, f. 62. . 129 

20. Rimella cancellata, Lam. Reeve, Rostellaria, f. 10 6, 129 

PLATE 11. 

21. Rostellaria rectirostris, var. melanostoma, Sowb. Thes. 

Conch., t. 5,f. 10, 128 

22. Rostellaria Powisii, Petit. Reeve, Icon., f. 4 6, . . 128 

23. Rostellaria Favannii, Pfr. (= fissa, Dillw.). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 3, f. 2 128 

24. Rostellaria Martinii, Marrat. Jour, of Conch., i, t. 1, 128 

25. Aporrhais pes-pelicani, Linn, Troschel, Gebiss,i, t. 17, 

f . 3 99 

26. Rostellaria curvirostris, Lam., juv. Thes. Conch., t. 5, 

f. 11 .127 

27. Terebellum subulatum, Lain. Voy. Samarang,t. 9,f. 6, 131 
28-30. Terebellum subulatum, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 1, b. 

9,f. . . . 131 

PLATE 12. 

31. Aporrhais pes-pelicani, Linn. Reeve, Rostellaria, f. 3 a, 131 

32. Aporrhais pes-carbonis, Rve. (= Serresianus). Ibid., 

f. 1 6, .132 

33. Aporrhais occidentalis, Beck. Ibid., f. 6 6, . . 133 

34. Struthiolaria straminea, Sowb. (= papulosa). Thes. 

Conch., t. 5,f. 18, ... 133 

35. Struthiolaria crenulata, Lam. < = vermis, var.). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 2, f. 3, - 133 

36. Struthiolaria inermis, Sowb. (== vermis). Thes. Conch., 
f. 12, . 

37. Struthiolflria gigaa, Sowb, Thes. Conch., t. 5, f. 17, . 133 



152 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAQB. 

38. Struthiolaria sulcata, Jonas ( gigas). Archiv fiir 

Naturg., t. 9, f. 5, 1839, . .... 134 

39, 40. Struthiolaria oblita, Sowb. (= scutulata). Thes. 

Conch., f. 15, 14, 134 

41. Struthiolaria mirabilis, Smith. Trans. Roy. Soc., 

clxviii, t. 9, f. 3, 134 

42. Struthiolaria costulata, Martens. Fischer, Man. de 

Conch., f. 442, 99 




MONOGRAPH OF THE FAMILY 
Prepared expressly for the " Manual of Conckology," 

BY S. RAYMOND ROBERTS, 

Member of the Concliological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 



FAMILY 

(Cowries.) 

Animal having tentacles usually long and stout, the eyes 
situated on a thickened portion about one-third the distance 
from the base ; mantle produced into two lobes capable of 
covering the shell, and furnished with warts, or forked or 
pointed filaments, sometimes papillose as in Trivia. 

Head obtuse, cylindrical; siphon broad, short, sometimes 
fringed at the edge or bordered with papilla) similar to those 
on the mantle ; foot large, simple, oblong-ovate, in ample folds, 
more or less acuminated at the extremities, sometimes truncate 
in front ; in Trivia it extends posteriorly far beyond the shell 
and terminates obtusely. 

Color of mantle extremely variable ; foot, head and siphon 
usually pale orange. 

Individuals' bisexual ; male organ very large. 

Lingual riband rather long, with seven series of teeth, 
arranged .'H*3, each row being composed of one broad quadrate 
uncinated rachidian tooth flanked on each side by three hooked 
laterals (PI. 15, fig. 8; PI. 20, lig. 41). Jaw corneous (PI. 20, 
fig. 64). 

No operculum. 

Shell ovate, varying from cylindrical to pyriform, sometimes 
ribbed or pustulate, but mostly smooth and possessing a high 
11 (153) 



154 CYFRJEWJE. 

polish and brilliant coloring; spire nearly, if not entirely, 
covered by the body-whorl which envelops it ; aperture nearly 
central, narrow and longitudinal ; lip and columella more or 
less toothed the entire length ; occasionally, but rarely, without 
teeth. 

The young shell differs in being Bulla-shaped ; the columella 
is smooth, the outer lip thin, and the color diffused in bands or 
waved lines. As the animal grows, the lip and columella 
thicken, teeth begin to develop and the shell becomes more 
solid. The two unequal lobes of the mantle extend one from 
either side of the aperture, and meet upon the dorsal surface of 
the shell, producing at the point of contact what is known as 
the " dorsal line " or " sulcus." The function of the mantle is 
to deposit the calcareous substance which forms the richly 
colored enamel of the shell. 

The cowries are shy and move slowly ; they inhabit the warm 
seas of the tropics, though a few species occur farther north, 
notably Trivia Europsea, which has been found on the coast of 
Norway, and is abundant on the shores of Great Britain, 
ranging from the verge of low-water to as deep as fifty fathoms. 
The highest northern station on the west coast of America^ at 
which any representation of the Cypraeidae has been detected, is 
Bodega Head, Cal., in lat. about 38 north (Stearns). 

They feed largely upon coral animals. Those found on some 
of the islands near New South Wales are usually seen lying 
upon deep beds of dead shells of the genus Pectunculus. 
Fossil, the Gyprseidse commenced in the Cretaceous, and have 
augmented in the number of species to the present time. One 
species is reported from the Upper Jurassic of Sicily. From 
the fact that in many species of Cyprsea small shells are found 
fully adult, while larger examples appear less matured, theories 
about casting or dissolving and renewing the shell at different 
periods of the animal's existence have" been advanced by several 
eminent authorities. Bruguiere first expressed this opinion. 
His belief was that the animal left its shell to form a new one, 
after the manner of crabs. Lamarck coincided with this view, 
but Deshayes doubted the ability of the animal to secrete a new 
shell complete in all parts, after it had reached an advanced 
condition of existence, and considered the difference in size was 



155 

due to local influences. In 1844 Lieut. J. B. Hankey, of the 
English Xavy, in a letter to Lovell Reeve, stated that he .sv//>- 
the cowry dissolve its shell and in a short time secrete a thin 
layer of glutinous matter, which in a few days attained the con- 
sistency of shellac, its form being that of the Cymba. In 
consequence of this extreme fragility, he was not able to 
preserve any of the specimens. 

Unfortunately this observer does not say anything regarding 
the interior structure of the renewed shell, neither has there 
been any new light thrown upon this important matter by later 
writers, and the only literature referring to the subject is that 
the substance of which is here given. 

While the statement of Lieut. Hankey is strong evidence. :md 
it is a recognized fact that the cowry, like many other mollusks, 
does dissolve away portions of the interior structure of its shell 
when more room is wanted, yet I am not prepared to fully accept 
his statement, but rather favor the views expressed by Deshayes 
and attribute the difference in size to local causes. Possibly the 
larger shells ma}' be those of the female. 

The cowries are generally the first to attract the attention of 
the amateur, mainly on account of their rich and brilliant 
coloring ; and examples of the commoner species, principally C. 
tigris, manufactured into a great variety of articles, are to be 
found in many households. The natives of the Orient, especially 
those belonging to the South Pacific Islands, use them largely 
for personal adornment. In India the}' are used as trimmings 
to various trappings for elephants and horses. The Cuprsea 
moneta, or money-cowry, sometimes called the " prop shell," 
passes current almost exclusively in some parts of Africa. For 
this purpose many tons have been shipped from the Indian 
Ocean, where the shell occurs abundantly. Mr. John C. Hertz 
has published a memoir in the " Transactions of the Geographical 
Society of Hamburg," on the use and diffusion of the cowry 
shell as a medium of exchange. His father dispatched a vessel 
to the Maldive Islands in 1844, for a cargo of cowries to be sold 
to merchants for use in the West African trade. Xot finding as 
many shells there as they had anticipated, they completed their 
cargo with the larger and less valuable species of Zanzibar, 
where the cowries are burned into lime. Several cargoes of 
cowries were sent annually to Whydah and Lagos, where they 



156 GYTRJEIDJE. 

were exchanged with the slave-traders for the Spanish doubloons 
they received from the sale of slaves. The Hamburg ship- 
captains dispatched this money home from Cape Town. The 
cowry-trade continued to extend as the slave-trade nourished, 
till Brazil took measures to prevent the introduction of African 
slaves. Simultaneously with the extinction of the slave-trade 
began the introduction of palm-oil, and a new trade, in which 
that product took the place of the Spanish doubloons, that 
grew as the use of palm-oil was extended. It flourished greatly 
during the Crimean War, when the Black Sea tallow was excluded 
from the markets. With it also flourished the trade in cowries, 
which thus appears to be connected with so many historical 
events that, considered from that point of view, it may be 
regarded as in some sort a measure of historical development 
a view which received another exemplification in 1852, when 
England blockaded the coast of Dahomey, and the trade in 
cowries was stopped. In 1845 the Sultan of Bornoo reformed 
his currency, and introduced Spanish doubloons in place of the 
cotton-cloth that had hitherto served as money, with cowries, at 
the rate of four thousand to the dollar, for small change. A large 
demand for cowries sprang up, and the trade in them was stim- 
ulated to such an excess that the market was glutted, and it after- 
ward languished for several years. The present demand is quite 
lively. The cowry-shell is used as currency principally in the 
countries near the Niger, except in Ashantee, where gold-dust is 
the medium of exchange. North of Ashantee, gold-dust and the 
gera or cola-nut (Sterculia acuminata) are used with cowries, a 
load of sixty pounds of the nuts being considered equivalent in 
value to about fifteen thousand cowries. The shells have been 
used as a medium of exchange from a high antiquity. Marco 
Polo found them circulating in Yunnan in the thirteenth century; 
and they have been discovered in prehistoric graves in the Baltic 
countries. Dr. Ruschenberger, U. S. N., says they are not used 
as money in the Maldive Islands. 

On the authority of Mr. P. L. Simmonds, in " The Commer- 
cial Products of the Sea," a young wife in Africa costs from 
60,000 to 100,000 shells, while an ordinary one may be had for 
20,000, valuing the shells at about 4000 to the dollar. It is also 
stated that a house built by an English gentleman, in Cuttack, 
was paid for in cowries, sixteen millions being used. 



157 

In order to give some idea of the prices paid for the rarer 
species of Cyprsea, it is reliably stated that the second specimen 
of C. umbilicata sent home by the collector, Mr. Roland Gunii, 
of New South Wales, was sold for 30. Good specimens can now 
be had for about $2.50 each. 

A specimen of C. guttata, of which the Philadelphia Academy 
of Natural Sciences possesses a fine example, was sold at auction 
a few years ago, and cost the purchaser 42. This species is 
still extremely rare. Other species range in price from $2.50 to 
$25.00 each : notwithstanding this, a good collection of the species 
can be obtained at a cost not exceeding $25.00. 

A number of monographs and catalogues of the Cypraeidie have 
been published, the most important being the following : 

Gray. J. E. Zoological Journal, 1824 to 1829. A monograph, 
including 113 species, some of which are figured. 

Descriptive Catalogue of Shells, 1832, in which are enumer- 
ated and described 121 species. 

Sowerby, G. B. Conchological Illustrations, 1837. Colored 
figures of 143 species, a number of which are described. 

Kiener, L. C. Coquilles vivantes (no date). A monograph in- 
cluding 145 species with colored figures. 

Reeve, Lovell. Conchologia Iconica, 1845. Monograph with 
colored figures of 154 species. 

Roberts, S. R. Catalogue and Synonymy of Porcellanidae. Amer. 
Jour. Conchology, v, 1869. 

The species, 197 in all, are alphabetically arranged with the 
synonymy and bibliography fully indicated. The names pro- 
posed by authors prior to Linnaeus, when binomial, are here 
recognized. 

Sowerby, G. B., Jr. Thesaurus Conchyliorum, 1870. Mono- 
graph, including 189 species, with colored figures. 

Weinkauffj H. C. In the Systematisches Conchilien-Cabinet of 
Kiister, 1881, 185 species are described and figured, the notes 
added to some of the descriptions being often quite compre- 
hensive. This author also enumerates the species, with par- 



158 CYPFUEID^E. 

tial synonymy and bibliography in the " Jahrbiicher der 
Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft " for the same 
year. 

According to Woodward, 97 fossil- species have been deter- 
mined. 

The subdivision of the Cyprseidre into groups, is attended 
with considerable difficulty, inasmuch as many of the species 
which appear distinct when the types only of each are compared, 
are found to be closely connected by intermediate forms. For 
instance, take the series of shells of which G. staphylsea and C. 
polita are the extreme examples : 

The former is dark in color, pustulate, and the teeth extend 
entirely over the base of the shell, in the form of ridges, while 
the latter is cream-tinted, perfectly smooth, the teeth being con- 
fined to the margin of the aperture except for a short distance 
at the extremities of the columella, and I do not hesitate to 
place it in the same group with the beautiful C. Listeri, Gray. 
Yet it is possible to connect them. The same may be said of 
many other well-recognized antipodal species. Again, local 
causes have produced variations in well-known species and these 
have received new names, thereby swelling the synonymy. This 
is noticeable in the case of the New Caledonian forms which 
frequently occur rostrate and show a tendency to melanism. 
Quite in contrast is this with the pale coloring exhibited in num- 
erous Sandwich Islands specimens of other well-known species. 
It has been observed that the pale coloring peculiar to the 
shells from the latter locality, is confined to the Cypraeidde. 

Of the New Caledonian forms, over forty species are found 
at Mauritius, and Dr. Jousseaume remarks as a consequence 
that this representation in so widely separated and completely 
isolated localities is not in accordance with the views of the 
advocates of geographical provinces. 

Various classifications have been proposed, the most promi- 
nent being those of Gray, H. and A. Adams, Sowerby, Troschel, 
Weinkauff, and Jousseaume. 

Dr. Gray recognized six genera : Cyprasa, Luponia, Cypriro- 
vula, Trivia, Erato, Ovulum ; subdividing the first into sub- 
genera Cypraea, Aricia, Naria. His descriptions are as follows : 



GYPRJEIDJE. 159 

I. Cypraea. 

Subgenus Cypraea Front of columella broad, deeply 

impressed ; shell mostly smooth. 
Subgenus Aricia Front of columella flat or nearly so, back 

of shell smooth. 
Subgenus Naria Front of columella narrow, dilated into a 

sharp-toothed ridge ; shell smooth. 

II. Luponia Shell like cowry, but front end of the columellar 
lip crossed by several irregular ridges without any dis- 
tinct marginal one ; internally narrow, flat, shell pear- 
shaped, smooth or ribbed. 

III. Cypraeovula Like cowry, but front end of columella 
covered with regular cross-ribs like rest of base, inter- 
nally produced into an acute toothed ridge, shell pear- 
shaped and ribbed. 
IY. Trivia Like Cypraeovula, but front of columella internally 

concave, ribbed, shell subglobular, cross-ribbed. 
(Erato and Ovulum are now excluded from this family.) 

The Messrs. Adams modified these groups and added others, 
as follows : 

Cypraea, representing the cylindrical forms, with Naria as a 

subgenus. 

Aricia, shells with flattened base. 
Luponia ; Cypraeovula ; Trivia, with Pustularia as a subgenus 

for pustulate forms ; and Epona. 

Under this arrangement, C. carneola would be entitled to a 
place in Aricia as well as in Cypraea. 

Sowerby in " Thesaurus Conchyliorum " makes two divisions : 

A. Cypraea, proper. Columella ending in a lobe and plait. 

B. Cypraea, subgenus Trivia. Columella without distinct lobe 

or plait. 

He attempts to arrange the species in the order of their 
nearest allies. 

Dr. Troschel named two families : Cypraeacea, Triviacea, 
basing his subdivisions upon differences in dentition; but as 
these differences do not agree with those of the general charac- 
ters of the shell, they need not be further considered. The first 



160 

family he subdivided into sections C} T pra3a, Aricia, Pustularia, 
and the last into Trivia and Erato. He further subdivided, 
Cyprsea into Talparia, Tigris, Lyncina and Mauritia ; and 
Aricia into Erronea, Erosaria and Monetaria. Erato having 
been monographed by Mr. Tryon with his " Marginellida*," 
leaves but one section in the second family. 

Weinkauff, in 1881, proposed seven divisions, viz. : Cyprrea, 
Aricia, Luponia, Ocellaria, Pustularia, Epona, Cyproeovula. 
He makes Trivia a subgenus and endeavors to show how these 
subdivisions run into each other. While this arrangement coin- 
cides somewhat with that of Messrs. Adams, the author makes 
the restriction that what are called genera and subgenera, with 
him are simply sections to which he has subjoined the Adams' 
names. 

He very properly remarks that Pustularia is more nearly 
related to Cyprsea than to Trivia ; and follows Sowerby in 
separating Ocellaria, holding that the eye-markings and, still 
more, the impressions upon the sides of the shell are of sufficient 
consequence to allow this group a separate place. 

In a study of the Cypneidae, published in the " Bull, de Soc. 
Zool. France," for 1884, Dr. F. Jousseaume proposes to subdivide 
the family into thirty-six generic groups, twenty-five of which are 
new to science, the remaining eleven being adaptations of those 
of previous authors, as follows : 

Bernaya, Jouss. (Fossil). Type B. (Gyp.) media, Desh. 

Gisortia, Jouss. Types G. (Ovula) gisortiana^sil.; G. (Gyp.) 
mus, Linn. 

Mandolina, Bayle MSS. (Fossil). Type M. (Gyp.) gibbosa, 
Borson. 

Zoila, Jouss. Type Z. (Gyp.) Scotti, Brod. 

Mauxiena, Jouss. Type M. ( Gyp.) Mauritiana, Linn. 

Trona. Jouss. Type T. (Gyp.) stercoraria, Linn. 

Umbilia, Jouss. T> pe U. ( Gyp.) umbilicata, Sowb. 

Vulgusella, Jouss. Type V. (Gyp.) tigris, Linn. G. lynx, 
Linn., is here included. 

Arabica, Jouss. Type A. (Gyp.) Arabica, Linn. 

Cyprsea, Linn. Type Gyp. cervus, Linn. 



161 

Porcellana, Klein. Type P. ( Cyp.) argus, Linn. 

Luria, Jouss. Type L. (Cyp.) lurida, Linn. 

Lnponia, Gray. Type L. (Gyp.) Algoensis, Gray. 

Cypnvovula, Gray. Type G. Capensis, Gray. 

Zonaria, Jouss. Type Z. (Cyp.) zonata, Chem. 

Adusta, Jouss. Type A. (Cyp.) adusta, Chem. = G. onyx, 
Linn. 

Erronea, Troschel. Type E. (Cyp.) errones, Linn. 

Stolida, Jouss. Type S. (Cyp.) stolida, Linn. 

Cribraria, Jouss. Type G. (Cyp.) cribaria, Linn. 

Naria, Gray. Type N. (Cyp.) irrorata, *Sol. 

Basterotia, Bayle MSS. (Fossil). Type B. (Gyp.) leporina, 
Lam. 

Ponda, Jouss. Type P. (Cyp.) achatina, Sol. = ventriculus, 
Lam. 

Monetaria, Troschel. Type M. (Gyp.) moneta, Linn. 

Erosaria, Troschel. Type E. (Gyp.) erosa. Linn. 

Staphyloea, Jouss. Type S. (Cyp.) staphylcea, Linn. 

Tessellata, Jouss. Type T. (Cyp.), tessellata, Swn. 

Ipsa, Jouss. Type 7. (Cyp.) Childreni, Gray. 

Cypraedia Swainson (Fossil). Types C. ( Cyp.) cancellata, Swn.; 
C. Adamsoni, Gray. 

Pustularia, Swainson. Type P. (Gyp.) cicercula, Linn. 

Nuclearia, Jouss. Type N. (Cyp.) nucleus, Linn. 

Jenneria, Jouss. Type J. (Cyp.) pustulata, Lam. 

Pustula, Jouss. Type P. (Cyp.) radians, Lam. 

Triviella, Jouss. Type T. (Cyp.) oniscus, Lam. 

Trivia, Gray. Type T. Europaea. Mont. 

Niveria, Jouss. Type N. ( Trivia) nivea, Gray. 

Trivirostra, Jouss. Type T. ( Trivia) scabriuscula, Gray T. 
oryza, Lam. 

No objection can be raised to any plan of grouping that will 
aid the student in his study of this family, but when it comes to 
giving each group a title, as has been done in this instance, there 
is an unnecessary swelling of the already too large list of generic 
names. 

In my catalogue, published in 1869, I followed the Messrs. 
Adams, with the addition of the genus Gaskoinia, proposed by 



162 

me for a group of shells of which the Gyp. edentula, Gray, is the 
only example at present known. 

With regard to Erato, although its animal possesses much in 
common with that of Trivia, particularly in the dentition (if cor- 
rectly figured), yet I agree with Mr. Tryon that " the balance of 
characters seems to indicate a rather closer relationship " with 
Marginella, where he has placed it. At any rate, the genus is 
already monographed in this work, vol. v, p. 1. 

Besides these, the following fossil genera have been estab- 
lished : Cypraeorbis and Sulcocyprsea, named by Conrad, but not 
described, and Cyprsedia, Swainson. Pseudocassis, Pictet, erro- 
neously referred as a synonym to Gaskoinia, Roberts, in Try on 's 
Structural and S} r stematic Conchology, scarcely belongs to the 
family. 

The following arrangement is suggested after careful study as 
being that best attainable by me, but on account of the great 
variability of form and other characters. I am convinced that no 
scheme of classification can be presented that will positively 
determine the position of all the species. In using the sub- 
generic terms here given, I do not recognize in them any syste- 
matic value except in the case of Trivia, which is sufficiently 
well characterized to entitle it to the position of a subgenus. 

Genus CYPRJ3A, Linn. 

Section I. Shell cylindrical, or nearly so. 
Group A. Not margined. 

* Spotted, teeth brown-tinted. 
** Not spotted, teeth whitish. 

Group B. Margined. 

* Margins not spotted. 

** Margins spotted, teeth small. 
Section II. (Aricia, Gray, pars.) 

Shell ovate, thick, margined with flattened base. 
Group A. Shell smooth. 

* Not spotted. 

** Dorsal surface spotted. 
^*^ Spots extending over the base. 
Group B. Shell sometimes nodose or tuberculated. 



CYPR-ffilD^E. 163 

Section III. (Luponia, Gray, pars.) 

Shell pyriform or pyriformly ovate, usually spotted. 
Group A. Shell smooth, not margined. 

* More or less ventricose or inflated. 
** More or less oblong or sub-pyriform. 

Group B. Shell smooth, margined. 

* Margins not pitted. 

** Margins more or less pitted, dorsal spots usually 

ocellated. 

Group C. (Gaskoinia, Roberts.) Shell smooth, edentulate. 
Group D. (Cypneovula, Gray.) Shell ribbed transversely. 
Group E. (Pustularia, Swn.) Shell pustulate or nodulous. 
Section IV. (Epona, H. and A. Adams.) 

Shell globose, back either smooth or with devated 
tubercles, extremities produced. 

Subgenus TRIVIA, Gray. 

Shell subglobular, cross-ribbed, front of columella internally 
concave, ribbed. 

Group A. Shell generally thin, aperture wide, outer lip narrow, 

margined. 
Group B. Shell thick, usually margined, aperture narrow and 

more or less central. 

a. Having a dorsal impression. 

* Shell white. 

** Shell usually pinkish, spotted. 
** * Shell brownish. 

b. Having no dorsal impression. 

* Shell white. 

** Shell pinkish, sometimes spotted. 
** Shell brown. 

The material of this monograph has been prepared under some 
disadvantages, during the few odd hours of leisure occurring in 
an active mercantile life ; this will explain, if it does not excuse 
its errors and omissions. The author takes this opportunity to 
acknowledge valuable aid rendered by a number of conchological 
friends at home and abroad, while prosecuting this labor of love. 



164 CYPR^EA. 

Genus CYPR^EA, Linn. 
Section I. Shell cylindrical or nearly so. 

Group A. Not margined. 
* Spotted, teeth brown-tinted. 

C. ARGUS, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 1, 2. 

Pale brown, back three-banded, covered with numerous brown 
rings, base ornamented with four large dark chestnut spots, two 
on each side of the aperture. Length, 2'5-4 inches. 

Indian Ocean, New Caledonia, New Hebrides. 

C. CER\US, Linn. PI. 2, figs. 11, 12. 

Shell more or less inflated ; brown, ornamented with numerous 
somewhat small white spots, base usually dark brown. 

Length, 2-6 inches. 

Panama. 

Reported from the West Indies as well as the west coast of 
America, by several authors, but the true locality seems still 
in doubt. Prof. Miirch, while including it in his West Indian 
Cyprseas, says he has seen no specimen with authentic locality. 

The young cervus is transverse^ radiated with four bluish 
lead-colored bands. 

C. EXANTHEMA, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 3, 4, 5 ; PI. 2, figs. 13, 14. 

Differs from the preceding in being less inflated, more elongate 
and solid. It is of heavier growth, the spots are usually larger 
and are ringed. Length, 3-4 inches. 

West Indies, Florida; Panama to Mazatlan (var. cervinetta}. 

One specimen of this shell was found at Fort Macon,N. Caro- 
lina. Previous monographers have generally given this species 
an East Indian habitat; it is decidedly West Indian, while C. 
cervus probably belongs to the West Coast of America. This 
view coincides with that of Prof. Morch. 

C. cervinetta, Kiener (figs. 3, 13, 14) is a small variety, more 
cylindrical and of a deeper hue, the teeth on the coluinella are 
also of a richer dark brown. It belongs to the Panama and 
Mazatlan regions, and appears to be the West Coast representa- 
tive of C. exanthema. 



CYPR.-KA. 165 

C. SCURRA, Chemn. PI. 2, figs. 19, 20, 21. 

Ashy blue, obscurely banded, and covered with an open net- 
work of brown, sides brownish, sprinkled with smoky black 
spots ; teeth fine, aperture narrow. Length, 1*25-2 inches. 

Annaa I.; Australia. 
C. TESTUDINARIA, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 9, 10. 

Milky brown, back clouded and spotted with fulvous and 
chestnut-brown, and profusely sprinkled with minute white 
scurf-like specks, base flesh-colored, teeth white. 

Length, 4-6 inches. 

Ceylon; Neiv Caledonia (rare). 

In the young shell there are several bands of interrupted 
chestnut-brown blotches, more or less obscure ; they begin to 
change iu the second stage of growth, and disappear entirely in 
the third. 

** Not spotted, teeth whitish. 

C. ISABELLA, Linn. PL 1, figs. 6, T. 

Asli3 r fulvous, obscurely three-banded, marked longitudinally 
with inky black dashes, extremities saffron-red, base white, 
teeth very fine and numerous. Length, '75-1*5 inches. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

C. controver sa, Gray, first described as a species, was after- 
wards identified by its author as a variety of Isabella. 

C. LURIDA, Linn. PI. 3, figs. 22, 23. 

Bluish olive, obscurely banded, base whitish, extremities 
stained on each side with a rich blackish-brown blotch. 

Length, 1-2 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Fossil in the conglomerate of Santiago, C. Verd. 

C. PULCHRA, Gray. PI. 2, figs. 17, 18. 

Differs from the above in having a narrower aperture and much 
smaller teeth, which are nearly obsolete and tinted brownish, the 

base is ruddy olive. Length, about 2 inches. 

- Eed Sea. 

This species was first called pulcliella by Dr. Gray, but on 
finding the name preoccupied, he changed it to pulchra. 



166 CYPR^EA. 

C. CINEREA, Gmel. PL 2, figs. 15, 16. 

Ash-brown, sometimes longitudinally painted with jet-black 
dashes, sides flesh-tinged and similarly painted, base cream-white, 
interstices between the teeth generally pinkish flesh-color. 

Length, 1-1 -75 inches. 

West Indies. 

Fossil, common in the Pliocene clay beds of Costa Rica (W. 
M. Gabb). 

C. CLARA, Gask PI. 1, fig. 8. 

Very closely allied to, if not identical with the above. The 
main difference lies in the teeth, which are smaller. 

Length, about l inches. 

Bab.? 
C. REEVEI, Gray. PI. 3, figs. 24, 25. 

Differs from C. cinerea, Gmel., in being bluish lavender in 
color, with the extremities delicately tinted pink. The shells 
usually present an undeveloped appearance. 
Length, about 1*5 inches. 

Swan R., Australia. 
Group B. Margined. 

* Margins not spotted. 
C. CARNEOLA, Linn. PL 3, figs. 26-30. 

Pale flesh-color, ornamented with four, occasionally five, bands 
of a deeper tint ; base and sides pale fulvous; teetli and interstices 
deep purple. Animal red. Length, 1-3 inches. 

Pacific and Indian Oceans. 

This species is extremely variable both in size and shape, and 
some specimens are quite like the group in which the C. arenosa 
has been placed. Mr. Sowerby, in Thes. Conch. Cypneida^, calls 
attention to a variety in which the teeth are not purple-tinted. 
This is probably the G. Loebbeckeana of Weinkauff (figs. 29, 30), 
but Weinkauff says of his species, that in addition to this, there is 
also the absence of the bands of color on the back, whilst 
Sowerby's figure indicates their presence. Very large specimens 
of C. carneola, from the Isle of Pines, have been confounded 
by non-scientific collectors with C. aurantium, Martyn. 

Fossil, the species is common in the clay beds of Costa Rica 
(Gabb). 



CYPR.EA. 167 

C. TALPA, Linn. PL 3, figs. 31-33. 

Pale yellow, obscurely two- or three-banded, extremities, sides 
and base blackish brown ; interstices of the teeth whitish. . The 
animal is black. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Pacific and Indian Oceans. 

The young shell is entirely yellow, with brown-tinged bands ; 
the rich basal coating of dark enamel is the last deposit in its 
formation. 

C. EXUSTA, Sowb. PI. 3, figs. 34, 35. 

Differs from the preceding in being more pyriform, the teeth 
are finer and merely marginal in the outer lip. Its aperture is 
also much narrower. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Eed Sea. 

C. INTERBUPTA, Gray. PL 3, figs. 36, 37 ; PL 4, figs. 38, 39. 

Shell slightly umbilicated, back freckled with olive-green, 
and ornamented with three bands of square dark olive spots, 
sides and base white, teeth small. Length, '5-'75 inch. 

Ceylon. 

C. rhinoceros. Souv. (PL 4, figs. 38, 39), is an abnormal 
variety from New Caledonia, in which there is a callous swelling 
of the anterior terminal deposit. 

C. QUADRIMACULATA, Gray. PL 4, figs. 40, 41, 42. 

Attenuately beaked at each cud, back minute]}' freckled with 
olive-brown, extremities ornamented with a blackish-brown spot 
on each side, base white. Length, about "75 inch. 

Borneo, Indian Ocean. 

C. pallidula, Gask. (fig. 42), is a small variety without the 
spotted beaks. 

** Margins spotted, teeth small. 

C. IRRORATA, Sol. PL 4. figs. 50, 51. 

Pale purplish blue, obscurely banded, copiously sprinkled 
with fulvous-brown spots which are darker in color at the sides, 

mities sometimes spotted light brown. 
Length, about '5 inch. 

Elizabeth /., Paumotus. 



168 CYPR^EA. 

C. GOODALLI, Gray. PI. 4, figs. 43, 44. 

Delicate snowy white, conspicuously stained with a large, 
irregular orange-brown blotch. Length, -5 inch. 

Lord -Hood's /., Paumotus. 

C. FUSCOMACULATA, Pease. PL 20, fig. 47. 

Differs from the preceding in having the extremities painted 
with a large conspicuous dark chestnut-brown spot on each side. 
These are never absent even in specimens most weathered. 

Length, -37-'5 inch. 

/. Apaian. 
C. ADELINE, Roberts. PL 4, figs. 46, 47. 

More depressed than C. Goodalli^nd the canary-colored base is 
more flattened, back bluish. The marginal spots extend some- 
what over the base. Length, -5 inch. 

HabJ 

This shell was described and figured by Sowerby in Thes. 
Conch, as C. fuscomaculata, Gray MSS. Pease having preoccu- 
pied the name, 1 have changed it as above. 

This species seems to be the connecting link between C. 
Goodalli, and C. contaminata. 

C. CONTAMINATA, Gray. PL 4, figs. 48, 49. 

Pale purple, ornamented with a large chestnut blotch, base 
orange, a few of the marginal spots extend over the base. 
Length, -5-*6 inch. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

C. FIMBRIATA, Gmel. PL 5, figs. 7&-7S. 

Pale slate-color, minutely freckled with olive-brown, and orna- 
mented with a brown central band which sometimes appears 
double, and at other times as an indistinct blotch ; extremities 
conspicuously stained with violet, the marginal spots are not 
numerous and extend somewhat over the base, which is whitish. 

Length, -5-1 inch. 

Indian Ocean, Australia, Paumotus, 

A species which is extremely variable in size, but always dis- 
tinguishable by the violet painting of the extremities. The 
young shell is dull pink and the central band is more marked. 



UNI 



,,,, 

N^C 

C. MICROUON, Gray. PI. 5, figs. 74, 75. 

Resembles somewhat the small varieties of C. fimbriata. It is 
however, narrower and the teeth are very minute. The back is 
three-banded, the bands being composed of waved orange-brown 
lines. Length, -4 inch. 

Loyalty I., New Caledonia, Philippines, Mauritius. 

C. MACULA, Adams. PI. 4, figs. 71, 72. 

Shell more pyriform than C. fimbriata, the teeth are coarser, 
the marginal spots are uniformly larger, and the painting of the 
extremities is brownish purple, even in small and worn speci- 
mens. It is closely allied to the larger forms of C. fimbriata. 

Length, '6--9 inch. 

Japan, Australia. 
C. FELTNA, Gmel. PI. 4, figs. 52-55, 59, 60. 

Greenish blue, freckled all over with olive, sid^s and base 
yellowish, spots on the sides large and black, teeth strong. 

Length, '5-*75 inch. Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Var. " a," G. ursellus, Gmel. (figs. 54, 55), is smaller, the base 
is whitish and more flattened. 

Tar. "6," C. fabula, Kiener (figs. 59, 00), shell shortened, 
gibbous, back elevated. 

The animal of C. felina is pale, black-dotted. 

C. HIRUNDO, Linn. PI. 4, figs. 56, 57. " 

The olive freckles of the preceding are here supplanted by 
minute brown dots, and the extremities are painted with blackish- 
brown spots ; base white, teeth conspicuous. 

Length, *6-'8 inch. Xew Caledonia, Australia, Indian 0. 

C. OWENI, Sowb. PL 4, figs, 45, 58, 68-70 ; PI. 5, fig. 73. 

Shell generally broader, and more margined than C. hirundo, 
marginal dots more numerous; the teeth are smaller and extend 
more over the base of the shell. 

From a careful comparison of specimens of this shell with 
those of C. Menkeana, Desh. (PI. 4, figs. 69, 70, from Deshayes ; 
PI. 4. fig. 58 ; PI. 5, fig. 73, from Sowerby), both of which were 
received from Mr. Sowerby, I do not hesitate to place the 
latter as a synonym. The only noticeable difference is in the 
marginal dots, which in Menkeana sometimes run together, 
12 



'170 CYPILEA. 

giving a solid brown appearance. Specimens of C. Oweni, 
received from Mr. J. F. Bailey, of Melbourne, Victoria, are 
rather elongate, yellowish, and have a faded appearance, but 
decorticated shells are fawn-color. 

C. NEGLECTA, Sowb. PI. 4, figs. 61, 62, 63, 66, 67. 

Differs from C. hirundo, in the teeth, which are smaller, more 
numerous, and extend over the base of the shell. The back is 
usually ornamented with a brown blotch. 

Length, *5-*75 inch. Australia, Mauritius. 

C. coffea, Sowb. (figs. 66, 67) is a small variety, the teeth 
of which continue over the dorsal margin of the posterior 
extremity. 

C. CYLINDRICA, Born. PL 5, figs. 79, 80, 81. 

Bluish, freckled with minute fulvous-chestnut specks, and a 
large misshapen central blotch ; extremities painted on each side 
with a conspicuous blackish-chestnut spot; the marginal dots are 
very few in number, and are confined to the left side ; aperture 
anteriorly dilated, outer teeth large, inner line, and elongated 
partially across the base ; teeth and base whitish. 

Length, 1 '2-1*5 inches. 

Ceylon, Australia, New Caledonia. 

C. subcylindrica, Sowb. (fig. 81), is a more ovate variety, with 
teeth less strong, those on the columella being confined to its 
margin ; the marginal dots are nearly obsolete. 

C. TABESCENS, Sol. PI. 5, figs. 82, 83, 84. 

Whitish, freckled with pale j-ellowish brown, three-banded 
with semilunar spots of a little deeper shade. Spire depressed , 
teeth and base whitish. Length, -7-l'5 inches. 

New Caledonia, Loyally Is., Australia. 

C. TEEES, Gmel. PI. 5, figs. 86, 87.- 

The gradation is fine from the more slender forms of C. 
tabescens to this species, but the more sudden bend of the 
aperture, more produced extremities and the increased number 
of teeth are sufficient to distinguish it. Length, -75-'9 inch. 

Ceylon. 

Weinkauff, believing that the C. tabescens of authors is the 
true C. teres, Gmel., has named this species C. subteres. 



CYPRyEA. 171 

C. CAURICA, Linn. PI. 5, figs. 88, 89, 90. 

Whitish, mottled with minute yellowish-brown specks, sides 
whitish to pale orange, ornamented here and there with dark 
conspicuous spots, base orange tinged with gray, teeth very 
strong, whitish, extending partially over the base on each side. 

Length, -D-1'8 inches. 

Indian and Pacific Ocean*. 

A most abundant species, varying from long and rounded 
forms, with thin sides, to those short and depressed, with 
thickened sides. The dorsal surface is frequently ornamented 
with a reddish-brown spot. A blackish-brown variety from 
New Caledonia is the C. obscura, Rossiter. 

C. ORUENTA, Gmel. PL 6, fig. 97. 

Differs from the preceding in the delicate dorsal coloring, 
which is interrupted by more or less distinct white spots of 
unequal size ; the side spots are purple and the interstices of the 
teeth bright red ; the teeth on the columella are usually confined 
more to the margin of the aperture. Length, -8-1-8 inches. 

Indian Ocean, N. S. Wales. 

C. STOLIDA, Linn. PI. 5, figs. 91, 92, 85 ; PI. 6, fig. 7. 

Bluish, painted with minute chestnut dots, with a large brown 
central square spot connected with half-square spots of the 
same color at each corner, base paler blue, teeth and extremities 
dark orange, the teeth extend somewhat over the base, mar- 
ginal dots very small. Length, 1-1-1-5 inches. 

Ceylon, Borneo, Sandwich Is. (?), N. Caledonia. 

C. breridentuta, Sowb. (fig. 85), is a variety in which the 
teeth are short, rounded and fewer in number; the}' are con- 
fined to the margin of the aperture, and are not tinted; the 
dorsal appearance is like incompletely colored specimens of 
stolida. 

C. Crossei, Marie (PI. 6, iig. 7), is another variety in which 
the extremities are greatly produced and curve upward, the 
cent nil spot of the typical stolida is here extended into a band 
and the whole shell has the distorted appearance so peculiar to 
many of the species from New Caledonia. The teeth are large, 
white and extend over the base of the shell. 



172 CYPRjEA. 

C. ERYTHR^ENSIS, Beck. PL 5, figs. 93, 94. 

Differs from C. stolida in the absence of the four corner 
lateral spots, the colorless teeth, the narrower and more 
tapering form, and the uniform smallness of the shell. 

Length, *65-*85 inch. 

Red Sea. 
C. CHRYSALIS, Kien. PL 4, figs. 64, 65. 

Canary, obscurely banded, with extremities tinted deep 
orange, teeth very fine ; no spots or other markings on the 
shell. Length, -65 inch. 

Habitat ? 

Believed to be the young form of some other species. I do not 
know this species, nor can I get any further information than 
that derived from Kiener. 

Section II. (Aricia, Gray, pars) Shell ovate, thick, margined, 
with flattened base. 

Group A. Shell smooth. 
* Not spotted. 

C. VENTRICULUS, Lam. PL 6, figs. 95, 96. 

Shell rather angulated, back bluish white, ornamented with 
four carnelian bands, sides dark chestnut, tinged above with red, 
smoky white beneath, with a number of very fine striae rising on 
the margin ; base livid white. Length, l'8-2'2 inches. 

Annaa /., Pacific 0. 

The younger shell is pale fulvous, encircled with four carnelian 
bands, and the adult is a truly solid mass of enamel. 

C. ARENOSA, Gray. PL 6, figs. 1, 2. 

Base more convex than the preceding, the back has a similar 
ornamentation, but the margins are ash-brown, arenaceously 
striated above, and the base is ivory-white ; teeth fine and 
numerous. Length, 1-1-1-5 inches. 

Annaa /., Central Pacific. 

The young shell is pale brown, with four carnelian bands. 

C. SULCIDENTATA, Gray. PL 6, figs. 3, 4. 

Differs from C. arenosa in the teeth, the interstices of which 
are deeply excavated, the colors are duller and the base is smoky 



CYPR^EA. 173 

white ; some specimens are of a bright yellow color, with the 
bands dark butt'. Length, 1-8 inches. 

Australia, South Seas, Sandwich Is. 

C. TESSELLATA, Swn. PL 6, figs. 5, 6. 

Back yellowish brown, with three broad bands, sides tessellated 
with square brown and white spots, the two upper spots on both 
sides chestnut ; base variegated brown and white, teeth small, 
numerous and tinged orange. Length, 1-2 inches. 

New Zealand, Sandwich Is. (?) 

** Dorsal surface spotted. 
C. MAURITIANA, Linn. PI. 7, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Back humped, brown, covered with light brown or white spots 
of irregular size, sides and base dark brown, almost black ; teeth 
prominent, margin angulated. Length, 2'3-4 inches. 

Samoa, New Caledonia, Borneo, Ceylon. 

The 3'oung shell (fig. 11) is first fulvous-brown, with bands 
of a yellowish hue arranged in waves, later the waves become 
massed, leaving the yellow in triangular flame-like spots ; the 
margins do not thicken and become angulate until after the 
development of the teeth. 

This mollusk must possess great muscular power, for its shell 
is the heaviest and most solid of the genus. 

C. CAPUT-SERPENTIS, Linn. PI. 6, figs. 98-100; PL 23, fig. 59, 

1 1 eddish or blackish brown ; the spots on the back having the 
appearance of snow-white specks of unequal size ; extremities 
tipped with white ; base grayish white, teeth conspicuous, white. 
Length. '95-1-35 inches. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

The young shell (fig. 100) is ashy blue, with a single, rather 
broad central band. A more elongate variety (PL 23, fig. 59) of 
a uniformly darker color and with margins less angular, has been 
wrongly identified by authors as the C. caput-anguis, Phil. Com- 
pared with caput-serpentis, P< s it is smaller in size, and 
the spots are smaller, but specimens labeled caput-anguis and 
sent to the Philada. Acad. Nat. Sciences by Mr. Brazier, who 
collected them at Ballenger River. X. S. \\., are fully as large as 
the typical form. The animal of C. caput-serpentis is brown, 
tentacula red-spotted. 



174 CYPR^EA. 

*** Spots extending over the base. 
C. MAPPA, Linn. PI. 7, figs. 12-14 ; PL 8, fig. 1 7. 

Back violet-brown, arranged in longitudinal lines of a hiero- 
glyphic character, dorsal line whitish and peculiarly branched ; 
sides and base whitish to pink, teeth saffron-red, numerous, and 
confined to the interior of the aperture ; base sometimes orna- 
mented on the columellar side with a violet blotch. 

Length, 2-3-3-4 inches. 

Xcw Caledonia, Java, Indian 0. 

C. nigricans, Montr. (PI. 8, fig. 17), is a rostrate variety from 
New Caledonia, the dorsal surface of which is black. 

Length, 3'85 inches. 

C. ARABICA, Linn. PL 8, figs. 18, 19, 23, 24. 

Back livid brown, with a line ornamentation similar to C. 
mappa, the dorsal line is straight and the spots more numerous, 
those on the sides being dark-brown, base tinged brownish ; teeth 
reddish brown; extremities blackish. Length, 1-6-3 inches. 

Samoa, New Caledonia, Australia, Indian Ocean. 

Young shell bluish, banded with brown waves. Animal black- 
brown, with a yellow edge to the foot. C. ct/la/ifina, Duel. (fig. 
24), is a grayish variety with white spots, improperly credited 
to California. 

An oblong, rostrate, dark-brown or nearly black form, with 
black spots and a whitish base and beaks, found at New Cale- 
donia, has been incorrectly identified as cyhiHtina. For this 
variety I propose the name niger (fig. 23). 

C. RETICULATA, Martyn. PL 8, figs. 20-22. 

Differs from C. Arabica, its nearest ally, in being broader 
and having more thickened sides, the dorsal spots are more 
crowded and sometimes run together, presenting a clouded sur- 
face ; base dull milky-white to bluish, the columellar side orna- 
mented with a dark reddish brown blotch near the middle of 
the shell ; teeth stronger than those of C. Arabica, but similarly 
colored ; aperture wider. Length, 1-4-3 inches. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

This species sometimes very closely resembles the preceding. 
It can, however, be distinguished by the increased number of the 



CYPR.EA. 175 

spots, and the comparative absence of the hieroglyphic markings 
so peculiar to the typical C. Arabica. 

The young shell is very much like that of Arabica. The small 
variety, C. intermedia, Gray (fig. 20), differs in having a 
creamy-white base without the brown blotch, it being ornamented 
instead with numerous small brown spots that extend over the 
margins ; the dorsal spots are much smaller. Length, 11*8 inches. 

By an error of the printer the illustration of fig. 20 is marked 
rj natural size. The figures should be erased. 

* 

C. HISTRIO, Meusch. PI. 8, figs. 25, 26. 

More pyriform than C. reticulata, sides less thickened, base 
white, without the brown-blotch ornamentation. 

Length, 2*5-3 inches. 

Tonga Tabou ; Indian Ocean. 

Although some monographers have placed this with the 
synonomy of C. reticulata, yet I have always been able to sepa- 
rate the two. There is, however, a close relationship between 
Arabica, reticulata and histrio, but not more so than is to be 
found in many other groups belonging to this interesting family. 

C. ARABICULA, Lam. PI. 9, figs. 35, 36. 

Bluish green, very closely reticulately painted with brown; 
margins reddish brown and spotted with black, extremities pro- 
duced angularly, base whitish, teeth fine, deeply cut. 

Length, '9-1 '2 inches. 

Acapulco ; Gulf of California (Stearns). 

C. GEMMULA, Weink. PI. 7, figs. 15, 16. 

Grayish yellow, longitudinally closely lined with chestnut- 
brown ; margins like those of the preceding species. 

Length, about '8 inch. 

Red Sea. 

Weinkauff says of this species that it presents on the dorsal 
surface, the appearance of C. Arabica in miniature, while its 
base resembles arabicula. 

C. STERCORARIA, Linn. PI. 9, figs. 27, 28. 

Greenish blue, the brown spots frequently running together, 



170 . CYPR^EA. 

giving the back a clouded appearance ; sides and base brown ; 
teeth whitish. Length, 1-8-3-2 inches. . 

West Africa. 

Young shell ashy brown, banded. When the shell presents a 
humped appearance on the back, it forms the C. rattus, Lam., 
which can hardly be said to be even a variety, since the young 
shells of stercoraria are all more or less humped. 

C. SCOTTT, Brod. PI. 9, figs. 29, 30. 

Pale ashy blue, clouded with yellowish brown ; sides and base 
very dark brown ; aperture narrow ; teeth small, nearly obsolete 
on the columellar side. Length, 2-8-3*5 inches. 

West Australia. 

A peculiar oblong boat-shaped shell with the extremities pro- 
duced and curved upwards. 

C. TIIERSITES, Gask. PI. 9, figs. 31, 32. 

Shorter and more gibbous than G. Scotti, teeth on the outer 
lip much stronger ; the colors are deeper and the dorsal spots 
are more clouded ; base near the aperture white. 

Length, 2'75-3 inches. 

South Australia. 

Specimens of this richly-colored shell have been found painted 
almost jet-black. 

C. MARGINATA, Cask. PL 9, figs. 33, 34. 

Very light brown, some of the dorsal spots running together, 
giving an irregular lined appearance. Length, 2'25 inches. 

A u sir alia. 

This shell has such an immature look that it is most likely the 
young of C. ther 'sites. It is very rare. 

C. DECIPIENS, E. A. Smith. PI. 10, figs. 39, 40. 

Smaller than C. ther sites, back higher and more humped, 
base flatter and of a rich orange-red color, which extends over 
the sides of the shell ; body-whorl within the aperture, white. 

Length, 2-25 inches. 

North Australia. 
C. VENUSTA, Sowb. PL 10, figs. 44, 45. 

Cream-color with a cinnamon tinge, variegated with rather 
large orange-brown spots of irregular size, and irregularly dis- 



CYPR^EA. 177 

tributed, the cinnamon tinge slightly deeper at the extremities, 
base white ; teeth thick and faint purplish white. 

Length, 3 inches. 

Dampier's 7s., West Australia. 

This shell, which Dr. J. C. Cox has lately published under the 
name C. Thatclieri, was fully described in the Annals and Mag. 
Nat. Hist., xix, 1849, by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, notwithstanding 
the statement in Thes. Conch, that " no publication strictly so- 
called " of C venusta, " can now be proved." The species is very 
rare. 

Group B. Shell sometimes nodose or tuberculated. 
C. MUS, Linn. PL 10, figs. 41, 42, 43. 

Shell oval, marbled with olive-brown, especially near the sides, 
which are but faintl} r margined ; dorsal line pale, and bordered 
with brown spots, which are sometimes scattered over the dorsal 
surface ; posterior extremity ornamented with a large brown 
spot, base ash-brown, teeth brown, nearly obsolete on the* colu- 
mella, which is stained dark brown. Length, 1'25-1'75 inches. 

Atlantic 0., Mediterranean. 

Fossil near Plaisantin. 

The name C. bicornis (fig. 43) lias been suggested for the 
nodose examples. 

Young shell, ventricose, pale ash-brown, and longitudinally 
peculiarly waved. 

C. LEUCOSTOMA, Gask. PI. 10, figs. 37, 38. 

Differs from C. mus in being more solid; the dorsal line is 
branched, and the spots on the sides are more numerous and 
distinct, the base is white and the teeth are nearly obsolete. 

Length, 2 inches. 

Mocha, Arabia. 

C. MONETA, Linn. PI. 10, fig. 40; PI. 11, figs. 51-54; PI. 23, figs. 

00-00. 

Color varying from white to deep yellow, back sometimes 
encircled with a faint orange or red ring, margins very thick, 
base tuberculated to smooth, teeth obtuse. 
Length, -0-1 '5 inches. 

Maldive /s., Australia, Taheiti, Japan. 



178 CYPR^A. 

C. icterina, Lam. (PI. 23, fig. 62), is a smooth, elongate 
variety. 

C. Barthelemyi, Bernard! (PI. 11, figs. 53, 54), is a distorted 
variety from New Caledonia. Length, 1'45 inches. 

C. ethnographica, Rochebr. (PI. 23, fig. 63), is a small tuber- 
culated form, ornamented with a } 7 ellow ring. 

G. mercatorium, Rocliebr. (PI. 10, fig. 40; PI. 11, fig. 52), is 
dirty yellowish, lightly olive-tinted, and not so strongly tuber- 
culated. 

G. atava, Rochebr. (PI. 23, figs. 64, 65), is a small example of 
G. mercatorium. 

G. pleuronectes, Rochebr. (PI. 23, figs. 66, 67), resembles 
somewhat the G. icterina. 

G. vestimenti, Rochebr., is another name for the distorted 
variety Barthelemyi. 

C'. camelorum, Rochebr. (PL 23, fig. 68), is a small smooth 
oval form, which Dr. Rochebrune says he has collected alive in 
large quantities on the West Coast of Africa. 

G. plumaria, Rochebr. (PI. 23, fig. 69), is a narrow-banded 
form, credited to the Sandwich Is. It appears to be a less 
developed ataua. 

Dr. Rochebrune, in a monograph of the mollusks of Cape 
Yerd Is., says he has fished G. moneta alive at Senegal. 

' The species is found fossil in the conglomerate of Santiago, 
C. Verd. 

C. ANNULUS, Linn. PL 11, figs. 57-61 ; PL 23, figs. 70-72. 

Smooth, smoky white ; dorsal surface ornamented with a deep 
orange ring, which encircles a bluish or grayish centre ; teeth 
strong, base smooth. Length, '45-1 - 2 inches. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Fossil in the Tertiary of Southern Europe. Dr. Layard found 
specimens in the ruins of Nimrod, which had the appearance of 
having been used for adornment. 

G. Noumeensis, Marie (fig. 59), is a New Caledonian variety 



CYPR^EA. 179 

having double orange lines on the dorsal surface. Length, 1*2 
inches. 

C. Hamyi, Rochebr. (PI. 23, fig. 70), is a rosy white, yellowish- 
tinted and spotted shell from Zanzibar ; it is probably a small 
a a mi lux. The spots referred to are not shown on the figure 
given by Dr. Rochebrune, but appear- on that of an nidus. 

C. Harmandiana, Rochebr., is well represented by figs. 60, Cl. 

C. Per rieri, Rochebr. (PI. 23, figs. 71 , 72 ), is one of those forms 
connecting annul us with obvelata. 

In the report of the Voyage of the Samarang, Mr. Arthur 
Adams says that while at Singapore, he observed the fry of G. 
annulus (fig. 58) adhering to the mantle and other parts of the 
animal in conglomerated masses of minute transparent shells, 
which, when placed in a watch-glass of salt water, became dis- 
integrated, and detached individuals were observed quitting the 
rest and moving in rapid gyrations by means of two winged 
membranous expansions. When at rest they returned to the 
mass or adhered to the edge of the watch-glass. 

This and the following species are probably only varieties of 
C. moneta, but the differences are usually so well marked that 
they can be easily separated. The museum of the Acad. Nat. 
Sciences of Philadelphia, however, contains a series of these 
shells showing how they pass from one to another in regular 
gradation. 

Dr. Rochebrune, who has studied this group with a view to 
differentiation (Monograph of the genus Monetaria, Bull. Soc. 
Malac., France, 1884). has selected a certain number of these 
transitory forms for specific description, the names of which 
have been given above; it would be easy to multiply them to 
almost any extent. 

C. OBVELATA, Lain. PI. 11, figs. 55, 56. 

Sides thickened and putled out, giving the dorsal surface an 
oval, intrenched appearance; back blue, teeth very strong. 
Length, *G-1 inch. 

New Caledonia, Samoa, Australia. 



180 I CYPR^EA. 

Section III. (Luponia, Gray, pars.} Shell pyriform or pyri- 
formly ovate, usually spotted. 

Group A. Shell smooth, not margined. 

* More or less ventricose or inflated. 
C. AURANTIUM, Martyn. PI. 11, fig. 48. 

Shell unspotted, back, teeth and interstices bright orange, 
base, sides and extremities white. Length, 3*6 inches. 

Fiji Is., Solomon Is., Loyalty Is. 

The large and finely colored specimens come from the Loyalty 
Is., while those from the Fijis are smaller. This species, though 
an old one, is yet quite rare ; good specimens costing about 
$10.00 each. The highest order of dignity among the Friendly 
Islanders, is typified by the permission to wear this shell as an 
ornament. 

C. PRINCEPS. Gray. PL 11, fig. 47. 

Yellowish, tinged with rose-purple, fainter towards the base, 
profusely painted in the middle with waved yellowish-brown 
hieroglyphic markings, clouded on each side with a large rhom- 
boidal dark-clouded blotch ; extremities adorned with three 
irregular concentric brown lines, the middle of which is the 
strongest, on the posterior extremity are several finer light 
brown concentric stride ; sides ornamented with blue and brown 
spots, more or less distinct ; base and teeth white. 

Length, 3'9 inches. 

Persian Gulf, New Guinea. 

Though one of the oldest, this species is still of the greatest 
rarity, and for a long time the British Museum possessed the 
only specimen known to exist. Lately Dr. J. C. Cox, of 
Sydney, N. S. W., has secured a fine example, which he states 
was found on the southern shore of New Guinea. 

C. TIGRIS, Linn. PL 11, figs. 49, 50 ; PL 15, fig. 8, (Dentition). 

Whitish or yellowish, sometimes clouded with chestnut-brown, 
promiscuously painted with rather large blackish blue clouded 
spots ; base white ; teeth large, sometimes bifurcate. 

Length, 2'5-4 3 inches. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Young shell (fig. 50) chestnut to whitish, ornamented with 



CYPR^EA. 181 

interrupted bands or zigzag rusty -brown flashes. In its growth, 
this species exhibits a curious variety in the style of coloring. 
It is first chestnut, the color then breaks up into close-set waved 
blotches, then a coating of white follows, upon which is deposited 
a series of zigzag flames. There is a second layer of white 
enamel which nearly obscures these zigzag markings, and a 
number of dark spots are deposited. These are again over- 
spread by a third white coating intermixed with numerous rich 
black and brown spots. The soft parts adhere so firmly to the 
shell that they cannot be removed until decomposition has taken 
place. 

C. PANTHERINA, Soland. PI. 12, figs. 62, 63. 

Whitish to chestnut-red, profusely adorned with small 
blackish-brown spots, which sometimes run together, sides and 
base whitish, aperture gaping anteriorly, teeth small. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

Red Sea. 

The last coating of enamel is sometimes dark reddish brown. 
Younger shell ashy green, mottled with red and yellow. 

C. UMBILICATA, Sowb. PL 12, figs. 65, 66. 

Differs from the preceding in being more depressed anteriorly, 
the extremities are more produced and beaked, and the aperture 
is more sinuous; spire deeply umbilicated, teeth brownish- 
tinted ; dorsal spots light brown. Length, 3 to 3*6 inches. 

New South Wales. 

Dr. J. C. Cox, in Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. W., for 1879, reported 
an almost pure white variety from Circular Head, X. S. W., for 
which he proposed the varietal name alba. 

C. LEUCODON, Brod. PL 12, figs. 69, 70. 

Reddish or yellowish brown, sprinkled here and there with 
rather large round white spots, base pale brown, marked trans- 
versely with fine striae, teeth white, strong on both sides. 

Length, 3-4 inches. 

Habitat ? 

The only specimen known is in the British Museum. The 
broad teeth and deeply undercut interstices are very like those 
of C. sulcidentata. 



182 CYPR^EA. 

C. VITELLUS, Linn. PL 13, figs. 72, 73. 

Fulvous bay-color sprinkled with snow-white spots of various 
sizes, sides olive-brown, arenaceous, striated, base and teeth 
whitish. Length, l'2-2'7 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Australia, New Caledonia. 

Young shell olive-ash, obscurely banded, unspotted. This 
species is strongly characterized by the sand-like striae of the 
sides. 

C. NIVOSA, Brod. PI. 12, figs. 67, 68. 

Differs from the preceding in its more oblong form, more 
irregular and confused arrangement of spots, and entire 
absence of the sand-like striae ; the teeth and base are yellowish 
white, and the pale brown color of the back extends around the 
sides of the shell. Length, about 2*4 inches. 

Mauritius. 
C. BRODERIPII, Gray. PI. 12, fig. 64. 

Differs from C. nivosa in being more ovate and delicately 
tinted rose-pink. The aperture is wider and the teeth longer. 
Length, 3 inches. 

Madagascar. 
A beautiful species of great rarity. 

C. CAMELOPARDALIS, Perry. PI. 13, fig. 76. 

Differs from C. vitellus in the absence of the sand-like stria} ; 
the interstices between the columellar teeth are stained purple- 
black, the extremities are prominent, and the sides are white 
and sometimes slightly margined. Length, l'7-2 inches. 

Red Sea. 
C. BARCLAYI, Reeve. PL 12, fig. 71 ; PL 13, fig. 82. 

White, profusely ornamented with orange-buff dots^of different 
degrees of tone, extremities and teeth bright orange ; teeth 
strongly developed, those on outer lip extending over the base. 

Length, 1'05 inches. /. Diego Garcia, Mauritius. 

A deep-water species. 

** More or less oblong or subpyriform. 
C. SPADICEA, Swn. PL 13, figs. 78. 

Chestnut-brown, clouded towards the sides with burnt brown, 
sides pinkish white, base and teeth white. Length, 1*3-2 inches. 

Sta. Barbara S. Diego, Gal. 



CYPRA'A. 1 83 

C. ONYX, Linn. PL 13, figs. 77, 79, 80, 81. 

Whitish, with two obscure zones ; extremities, base and sides 
jet-Mack, edged above with orange-brown. Length, 1*1-2 inches. 

Ceylon, Japan, Philippine Is. 

This species presents three distinct varieties of coloring. In 
addition to the above, there are the uniformly orange-cream and 
the chestnut-brown painting, the extremities, base and sides in 
each case being of a deeper shade. 

C. PYRUM, Gmel. PL 13, figs. 83-85. 

Yellowish, four-banded, richly marbled with chestnut-brown, 
sides brownish or deep orange-red, faintly spotted, base and 
extremities orange, teeth whitish. Length, 1-4-2 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Coast of S. Europe and Africa. 

Occurs fossil under the name of C. porcellus, Brocc. 

The C. Petitiana, Crosse and Fischer (figs. 85), credited to 
Senegal, appears to be a dwarfed variety of pi/rum. 

C. PHYSIS, Brocchi. PL 13, figs. 74, 75. 

Differs from the preceding in having a whitish base and more 
minute teeth ; the back is confusedly painted with reddish and 
yellowish dashes. Length, 1-2 inches. 

Sicily. 

Fossil in the Pliocene as C. pyrula, Mich. 

C. LYNX, Linn. PL 14, figs. 86, 87, 98. 

Whitish to brownish, profusely spotted and clouded with 
fulvous-brown and blue, interspersed with unequal dark blackish- 
brown spots ; sides, teeth and base whitish, interstices between 
the teeth bright blood-red. Length, '85-2'4 inches. 

Indian 0., Australia, New Caledonia, Red Sea. 

Young shell white, faintly banded and profusely spotted with 
light brown. 

An extremely variable species, sometimes slightly margined, 
The distorted variety (fig. 98), from New Caledonia, has been 
named C. Cale<l<>ni<-a by Mr. H. Crosse. 

C. ERRONES, Liun. PI. 14, figs. 88, 89, 7. 

Bluish green, faintly banded, freckled with minute light-brown 
specks; sometimes painted in the centre with a large chestnut 
blotch ; anterior extremity occasionally ornamented on each 



184 CYPR^EA. 

side with a brown spot, sides white to yellowish, sometimes 
slightly margined, base whitish. Length, -8-1-35 inches. 

China, Australia, N. Caledonia, Indian 0. 

C. SOPHIA, Brazier. PI. 14, figs. 3, 4. 

Closely allied to C. errones, from which it differs in being bright 
orange between the teeth, base fulvous-yellow. Length, 1 inch. 

San Christoval I. 
C. Coxi, Brazier. PI. 14, figs. 96, 97. 

Light orange-yellow, or cream-color, ornamented with two 
faint yellowish-white bands, teeth thick, yellowish white. 
Length, -83 inch. 

Dupuch's /., N. W. Australia. 
Appears to be a young shell. 

C. SUBVIRIDIS, Reeve. PL 14, figs. 99, 100. 

Differs from C. errones, in being more p3 r riform, and strongly 
umbilicated at the spire. It is sometimes slightly margined. 

Length, 1-4-2-5 inches. 

Australia, New Caledonia. 

The largest specimens are reported from New Caledonia. 

C. PALLIDA, Gray. PL 14, figs. 90, 91. 

Greenish yellow, minutely freckled with brown, sides spotted 
here and there with chestnut, base whitish ; dorsal surface some- 
times ornamented with a chestnut blotch. Length, -8-1 inch. 

Japan. 
C. PULCHELLA, Swn. PL 14, figs. 92, 93. 

Whitish, minutely dotted with fulvous specks, with two bands 
of semilunar blotches, or a large irregular chestnut-brown splash, 
teeth and ridges red. Length, 1*5 inches. 

China. 

An elegant, pear-shaped shell, well characterized by the pecu- 
liar extension of columellar teeth in ridges across the base. 

C. PYRIFORMIS, Gray. PL 14, figs. 5, 6, 94, 95. 

The anterior extremity is not so attenuated as in C. pulchella, 
and the teeth on the outer lip are white ; those on the columella 
are red, but do not extend so far over the base as in C. pulchella. 

Length, 1-3 inches. 

Australia, Borneo, Ceylon. 

The variety Smithi, Sowb. ^(figs. 94, 95), is smaller; the back 



CYPR^EA. 185 

looks like C. macula, but the teeth, which on the inner lip are 
reddish brown, have the peculiar appearance of those of C. pyri- 
forw /s. 

C. WAUvKKi. Gnu. PL 15, figs. 10, 14, 15; PL 17, fig. 68; PL 
14, ligs. 1,2. 

Bluish white, three-banded, freckled with minute yellowish 
In-own specks, sides yellowish, brown-spotted, base and inter- 
stices between the teeth purple-violet, teeth small, those on the 
inner lip numerous. Length, -75-l'2 inches. 

Australia (rare), New Caledonia, New Guinea. 

Mr. John Brazier believes this to be a deep-water species. 

The variety Bregeriana, Crosse (PL 15, figs. 14, 15), has an 
orange-red base and the extremities are spotted, margins 
besprinkled with line white specks, imbedded in the enamel 
similar to those in C. tedudinaria. 

C. amabilis, Jousseaume (PL 14, figs. 1, 2), is a variety, the 
extremities of which are more produced and somewhat recurved, 
the bands are narrower, and the marginal spots fewer in number, 
the purple tinting is confined to the inner lip. Length, '75 inch. 

The figure here given is copied from a drawing kindly com- 
municated by Dr. Jousseaume. 

Group B. - Shell smooth, margined. 
* Margins not pitted. 

C. NIGROPUNCTATA, Gray. PL 15, figs. 18, 19. 

Bluish, freckled with pale fulvous-brown, sides closely dotted 
with black, base yellowish, teeth sharply cut. 

Length, 1-35-1-55 inches. Galapagos Is. 

\\KIUJYI, Kien. PL 15, fig. 9. 

Whitish, obscurely four-banded, closely painted with unequal 
cln-st nut-brown spots, sides and base brownish yellow, sides and 
extremities dotted blackish brown, teeth whitish. 

Length, 1'2-lMJ inches. Gulf of California. 

The C.ferrwjinosa of the same author is an inferior example 
of this species. 

This species has been incorrectly credited to the Gambia R., 
W. Africa, and the Cape Yerd Is. 
13 



186 CYPR^EA. 

C. LENTIGINOSA, Gray. PL 15, figs. 20, 21. 

Bluish white, with three obscure bands of waved blotches, 
freckled with yellowish- or reddish-brown spots, extremities 
blackish brown ; teeth large, somewhat distant ; base whitish. 

Length, 1 -3-1*45 inches. 

Ceylon. 
C. ZONATA, Chemn, PL 15, figs. 22, 23, 11. 

Bluish or greenish, zoned across the middle with more or less 
distinct waved spots, marbled fulvous-brown, sides and base 
smoky brown, spotted with black, extremities painted black on 
both sides; teeth strong. Length, '95-1-3 inches. 

Mouth of the Gambia Eiver. 

G. nebulosa, Kiener (fig. 11), is a variety having a white base ; 
the dorsal surface has a weathered appearance, and the marginal 
spots are pale reddish brown. 

C. PICTA, Gray. PL 15, figs. 30, 31. 

Distinguished from the preceding, to which it is closely allied, 
by its angular form and depressed base ; the teeth are not so 
strong, those on the inner lip being small and confined to the 
inside of the aperture. Length, 1-1-3 inches. 

Gambia; Cape Verd Is. 

C. SANGUINOLENTA, Gmel. PL 15, fig. 16, 17. 

Ashy purple, freckled with olive or light brown, and orna- 
mented with a central brown blotch, sides and base purplish 
white, covered with purple spots ; columellar teeth confined to 
the inside of the aperture. Length, 1 inch. 

Gambia. 
C. XANTHODON, Gray. PL 15, figs. 24, 25. 

Bluish, dotted with minute orange specks, sides orange, 
spotted with brown ; teeth and base fulvous yellow. 

Length, 1*2-1-4 inches. 

Australia. 

Mr. John Brazier believes this to be a deep-water species ; 
some of his specimens are nearly jet-black, with a dark olive 
interior. 

C. PUNCTULATA, Gray. PL 15, figs. 28, 29. 

Pale bluish, freckled with chestnut-brown, sides salmon-yellow, 



CYPR^EA. 187 

sometimes smoky and spotted with blackish brown ; base white ; 
teeth strong. Length, '8-1-2 inches. 

Mazatlan Panama. 
C. UNDATA, Lam. PI. 16, fig. 33. 

Rich plum to chestnut, ornamented with two or more zigzag 
zones of white ; sides and base white, dotted with brown ; 
anterior extremity edged dark chestnut. 

Length, '65-1 '2 inches. 

Philippines, Mauritius. 
C. ZIGZAG, Linn. PL 15, figs. 12, 13. 

Whitish, ornamented with longitudinal zigzag yellow lines, 
sides and base yellow, spotted with reddish brown, the spots 
forming a circle around the posterior extremity. 

Length, '55-1 inch. 

Mozambique, Ceylon. 

There is a variety of this well-known species in which the 
zigzag lines resolve themselves into distinct bands. 

C. LUTEA, Gronovius. PL 16, figs. 35, 36. 

Yellowish or brownish, profusely dotted with brown ; base 
somewhat like that of C. ziczac. Length, '15-1 inch. 

New Caledonia, Australia. 

Younger shell olive-brown, faintly spotted, with two narrow 
milky blue zones. The fully matured shell was named C. 
Humphreysi by Dr. Gray. 

C. ASELLUS, Linn. PL 16, fig. 34. 

Ivory-white, ornamented with three broad bands of reddish or 
chocolafe-brown ; sides and base white. Length, -55-1 inch. 

Australia, Samoa, Red Sea (?). 

The young shell is entirely encircled by the characteristic 
dark bands. 

C. CLANDESTINA, Linn. PL 16, figs. 37-40, 61. 

Pinkish cream to pale bluish, faintly banded, ornamented with 
extremely faint reddish-brown hair-lines, converging here and 
there to a point ; sides and base white ; teeth strong. 

Length, '5-'75 inch. 

Ceylon, Japan, Australia. 

C. Candida, Pease (figs. 39, 40), is a pure white variety. C. 



188 CYPR^A. 

Artuffeli, Jouss. (fig. 61), is apparently another variety, of a 
yellowish-brown color, without the characteristic faint hair-lines. 
Future investigation may prove this to be a distinct species. 

C. SAUL^E, Gask. PL 16, figs. 41, 42. 

Light fawn, dotted with a few small chestnut-brown spots, 
with larger ones on the margin, and a large blotch of the same 
color on the back ; base light reddish yellow to whitish ; beaks 
and interstices between the teeth more or less orange ; teeth 

prominent. Length, -87 inch. 

Bay of Manilla. 

According to Brazier, found .also in the Torres Straits at 6 
fathoms. 

C. GRACILIS, Gask. PL 16, figs. 43, 44. 

Differs from the preceding in being more pyri form, the central 
blotch is wanting, as are also the smaller dorsal spots, the base 
is sparsely dotted with reddish brown, the teeth are finer and 
there is an absence of color between them. Length, *65*85 inch. 

Isl. Bourbon; China Sea (?). 

C. PUNCTATA, Linn. PL 16, figs. 51, 52; PL 15, figs. 26, 27, 32. 

Whitish to cream-color, spotted with brown, teeth and 
extremities golden yellow. Length, -5-'9 inch. 

Isl. Bourbon; Philippines; Borneo. 

C. stercus-muscarum, Lam. (PL 15, figs. 26, 27), is a variety 
having finer spots and smaller teeth, which are colorless, those 
on the inner lip being confined more to the margin of the 
aperture. 

C. trizonata, Sowb. (PL 15, fig. 32), is a more cylindrical 
variety having a zoned appearance. 

C. ANGUSTATA, Gmel. PL 16, figs. 47, 48, 45, 46. 

Yellowish or chocolate-brown, sides whitish, marked with 
large chestnut-brown spots, extremities painted on each side 
with a chestnut-brown spot, base whitish to reddish, teeth small. 

Length, 1-1 '2 inches. 

So. Australia. 

C. Comptoni, Gray (figs. 45, 46), is a variety with a convex, 
pale or nut-brown base. 



CYPR^A. 189 

C. DECLIVIS, Sowb. PI. 16, fig. 53. 

Creamy white, freckled with brownish, giving the shell the 
appearance of having been dusted over with capsicum pepper. 
Marginal spots few in number, dorsal line broad, base similar to 
G. angustata. Length, -9-1-2 inches. 

Portland, Victoria. 

Referring to C. angustata, Dr. Gray says : " When complete, 
the back of the shell is pale whitish brown, with a broad sub- 
central dorsal line, and minutely freckled with brown specks." 
As this description corresponds closely with that of declivis, it 
is quite possible that the two species are identical. 

C. PIPERITA, Soland. PI. 16, figs. 49, 50, 58. 

Pale chestnut-brown, obscurely minutely dotted and orna- 
mented with four narrow interrupted bands, base white, teeth 
small, sides brown-spotted. Length, -65-1 inch. 

Australia. 

The variety bicolor, Gask. (fig. 58), is usually three-banded, 
and presents sometimes a zigzag appearance, occasioned by the 
coalescence of the central bands. Worn shell, pale flesh-color. 

C. PULICARIA, Reeve. PI. 16, figs. 59, 60. 

Differs from the preceding in being more cylindrical, the 
bands are more broken up into spots, and the dots on the back 
are more conspicuous. Length, -65-1 inch. 

Australia. 
C. ALGOENSIS, Gray. PL 16, figs. 56, 51. 

Yellowish, sides and back dotted with reddish brown, base 
white, teeth on outer lip strong, those on inner lip nodular, 
aperture rather wide. Length, 1-1-2 inches. 

Algoa Bay. 
C. FUSCO-DENTATA, Gray. PI. 16, figs. 54, 55. 

Dirty drab, covered with rufous-brown close spots, like those 
on G. errones, but larger, and more suffused ; teeth brown, 
rugose, ridged across the base. Length, 1-4-1-6 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Young shell somewhat ribbed across the back. 

('. siMiLis, Gray. PL 16, figs. 62, 63 ; PL IT, fig. 69. 

Yellowish to rich chestnut-brown, covered with blotches of a 
deeper shade, teeth orange, those on the outer lip strong and 



190 CYPR^EA. 

elongated across the base, the inner ones small and confined 
to the aperture. Length, 1*4-1 '85 inches. 

Gape of Good Hope. 

This shell in a perfect condition is the C. castanea, Higgins 
(PL 17, fig. G9). The specimens usually fourid in collections, 
however, are of a yellowish color and are without any dorsal 
ornamention except around the spire, where it is sometimes 
brownish. 

** Margins more or less pitted, dorsal spots usually ocellated. 
C. CRIBRARIA, Linn. PL 17, figs. 71, 72. 

Yellowish brown, dorsal spots round, white, sides and base 
white, teeth numerous, those on the inner lip confined to the 
interior of the aperture. Length, -7-l'l inches. 

Ceylon, New Caledonia, New Ireland. 

Mr. Rossiter, of New South Wales, reported having obtained 
specimens of a blackish-brown color, showing but few of the white 
spots, and 1*5 inches long. 

Although this species may be said to possess no marginal 
spots, yet out of a large number of specimens examined I have 
found one with a slight indication of their presence. 

C.fallax, E. A. Smith, is an unfigured variety, credited to 
West Australia. It differs from the normal shell in being 
larger, more pyriform, white spots smaller and less clearly 
defined ; they appear to blend into the fawn-color of the dorsum, 
which is paler than in C. cribraria. 

C. CRIBELLUM, Gask. PL 17, figs. 66, 67. 

Smaller and more cylindrical than C. cribraria, extremities 
more obtuse, aperture wider, margins spotted. Length, *7 inch. 

Mauritius. 
C. COXENI, Cox. PL 17, figs. 64, 65. 

Differs from C. cribraria, in the dorsal ornamentation, which 
is in irregular elongated dark chestnut markings, teeth coarser 
and prominently produced a little more than half-way across the 
base. Length, *92 inch. 

Solomon Islands. 
C. ESONTROPIA, Duel. PL 17, figs. 76, 77, 75. 

Yellowish to light brown, spotted with white, margins deli- 



CYPR.EA. 191 

cately dotted with reddish-brown, the dots extending somewhat 
over the base. Length, -70-1 inch. 

Philippines, Sandwich Is. 

Sowerby calls the pale yellow variety from the Sandwich 
Islands C. Peasei (fig. 75). 

C. GASKOINI, Reeve. PI. 17, figs. 73, 74. 

Yellowish, ornamented with small white eyes, encircled with 
pale brown rings, sides dotted with chestnut, base white, teeth 
strong. Length, -6-'8 inch. 

Hab.? 
C. CUMINGI, Gray. PI. 17, fig. 78, 79, 70. 

Differs from the preceding in being more attenuately drawn 
out anteriorly, extremities produced, teeth extremely minute, 
especially those on the inner lip. Length, -4--8 inch. 

Society Is. 

C. compta, Pease (fig. 70), is a variety in which the spots on 
the back are not ocellated, and the dorsal line is flexuose. 

C. BECKI, Gask. PL 17, figs. 86, 87. 

Yellow, spotted with large and small white eyes, the large 
ones pupilled with chestnut, sides dotted with chestnut ; teeth 
small, those on the outer lip strong and tinted with chestnut- 
brown. Length, -5 inch. 

Red Sea, Eben I. ? 
C. MACANDREI, Sowb. PL 17, figs. 88, 89. 

Probably only a variety of the preceding. Length, '7 inch. 

Red Sea. 

C. MARGARITA, Sol. PL 17, figS. 81, 82. 

Pale straw-color, white-spotted, base white unspotted, teeth 
very minute, extending into the aperture near the extremities 
in fine ridges. Length, -4--6 inch. 

Annaa I. 

A very delicate little shell, possessing some few characters 
which belong to Section IV ; its general affinities are here. 

C. GUTTATA, Gray. PL 17, figs. 83, 84. 

Yellowish or reddish brown, sprinkled with white spots of 
various sizes ; the teeth extend across the base and over the 



192 CYPR^EA. 

sides in bright saffron-red ridges which are somewhat irregular, 
and are here and there forked. Length, 2'6 inches. 

New Britain, N. S. Wales (Hobson), Red Sea (Jickeli). 
An extremely rare and beautiful species, of which the Acad. 
Nat. Sciences Philada. possesses a fine specimen, the gift of the 
late Dr. Thos. B. Wilson. 

C. LAMARCKI, Gray. PI. 18, figs. 96, 97. 

Yellow, varying from orange to greenish, profusely covered 
with white spots, the larger of which are sometimes ocellated ; 
sides marked with reddish-brown spots, and the extremities with 
lines ; base white, teeth strong. Length, 1'2-1'T inches. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 
C. MILIARIS, Gmel. PI. IT, fig. 80. 

Differs from the preceding in being narrower, the dorsal spots 
are smaller and never ocellated, and the sides are white. 

Length, 1*2-1 *5 inches. 

Japan, N. S. Wales. 
C. EBURNEA, Barnes. PI. IT, fig. 85. 

Differs from C. Lamarcki, Gray, in being pure ivory-white. 
Length, 1-5-1*9 inches. Philippines. 

C. TURDUS, Lam. PI. 18, fig. 91. 

Whitish, sprinkled with small reddish-brown dots, those on 
the anterior extremity appearing sometimes as dashes, base 
white, and rather flattened . Length, -T-l-5 inches. 

Persian Gulf. 

Sowerby in Thes. Conch. Monog. Cypru-ida.', calls attention to 
an elongated variety for which he suggests the iijimo. pyriformis. 

C. EROSA, Linn. PI. 18, figs. 90, 100, 1. 

Pale bluish to citron-yellow, thickly covered with wfiite specks, 
and sprinkled with ocellated brownish ones; sides white, stained 
in the middle with a square brownish-black spot ; extremities 
ridged with chestnut-brown; teeth strong, outer ones extending 
across the base and frequently over the side, base white, some- 
times spotted and streaked with chestnut-brown. 

Length, '8-1 '8 inches. Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

An abundant and extremely variable species, which sometimes 
occurs very much flattened; the large brownish black square spots 
on the sides are peculiarly characteristic. 



CYPR^A. 193 

C. OCELLATA, Linn. PI. 18, figs. 92, 93. 

Reddish yellow, profusely covered with white spots, some of 
which are ocellated, with black sides and base whitish, dotted 
with brown ; teeth strong, those on outer lip tinged with 
brownish at the base. Length, -6-1-2 inches. 

Ceylon. 

There appear to be two forms of this well-marked species, the 
one broad, with swollen sides, and the other more elongate and 
slender. 

C. LISTERI, Gray. PL 18, figs. 94, 95. 

Pale olive, ornamented with white spots, some of which are 
ringed with brown, sides and base delicately tinted with violet, 
dashed and dotted'with purple, teeth numerous, rather strong. 

Length, '75-1-2 inches. 

Philippines. 
C. PORARIA, Linn. PL 18, figs. 2, 3. 

Brownish purple, ornamented with white spots, most of which 
are encircled with brownish rings, sides and base violet, teeth 
white. Length, -7-'9 inch. 

Fiji Is., Australia, -New Caledonia. 

Some of the specimens from New Caledonia are dark purple, 
and destitute of white spots (Brazier). According to W. H. 
Pease, this species occurs semi-fossil in the Sandwich Islands. 

C. ALBUGINOSA. Mawe. PL 18, figs. 98, 99. 

Differs from the preceding in being more elongate, the extrem- 
ities are rather more produced, and the marginal pittings almost 
obsolete, ne.-trly all the dorsal spots are ocellated, and the base is 
white, violet-tinged at the margin. Length, '8-1 '2 inches. 

Gulf of California. 
('. un'ALLosA, Gray. PL 18, figs. 5, (', 4, 7. 

I'nitonnly reddish sjiHron. back variously clouded and mottled 
with chestnut, extremities furnished with a more or less conspic- 
uous callus, teeth strong. Length, 1 -2-1-4 inches. 

/. St. Vincent, W. I. 

C.. inyloria, Crosse (fig. 4), credited to Africa, is a rather more 
inflated variety, with extremities not quite so produced, and mar- 
gins less pitted, but the general coloring of the shell is similar. 

The var. Aubrey ana, Jouss. (fig. 7), is larger and still more 



194 CYPPUEA. 

inflated, the colors are paler, there is an absence of the pittings, 
and a partial obliteration of the callosities. Length, 1/9 inches. 
By an error of the printer, the illustration of (7. ingloria is 
marked f natural size these figures should have been placed 
beside C. Aubreyana. 

C. HELVOLA, Linn. PL 19, figs. 8, 9. 

Pale bluish or olive-brown, ornamented with white and brown 
spots, sides and base saffron-red, color darker above the edge ; 
extremities violet ; teeth strong, partially elongated across the 
base. Length, '55-1 *1 inches. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Specimens from Mauritius are very deep in color, and the 
extremities are rich purple, while those from the Sandwich 
Islands are often pale yellow, faintly spotted, with a whitish base 
and extremities. Young shell pale bluish, faintly banded, teeth 
brownish. 

C. CITRINA, Gray. PL 19, figs. 10, 11. 

Differs from C. helvola in its more delicate coloring ; the dorsal 
surface is uniformly olive-brown, and the extremities are deep 
orange; teeth fine, numerous. Length, -75-1 inch. 

Ceylon ; Mauritius; N. W. Australia (Bailey). 

C. POLITA, Roberts. PL 19, figs. 12, 13. 

Creamy white, thickly covered with minute white spots, pit- 
tings orange, particularly those on the extremities ; base ivory- 
white, teeth small, more or less tinted with yellowish, those on 
the columellar side confined to the aperture, except for a short 

distance from each end. Length, -55-1 inch. 

Sandwich Islands. 

Younger shell, bright citron ; when the last coating of enamel 
is being deposited it has a half clouded appearance. Closely 
allied to the following. 

C. SEMIPLOTA, Mighels. PL 19, figs. 37, 36, 31. 

Light brown with numerous minute white spots; base tumid, 

white, aperture yellowish, narrow. Length, -3-'4 inch. 

Oahu. 

Mr. Mighels described the immature shell as G. spadix (fig. 
36). G. Ann&, Roberts (fig. 31), is a broad flattened variety, 



CYPR^EA. 1 95 

rather more solid, and of a grayish white color. A little shell 
figured by Sowerby in Thes. Conch., as C. fimbriatula, appears 
to be a fair illustration of C. semiplota. 

C. THOMASI, Crosse. PI. 19, figs. 14, 15. 

Yellowish brown, spotted whitish and brownish, base white ; 
teeth small, those on the columella rather obscure. 

Length, -7 inch. 

Hab.? 
C. SPURCA, Linn. PI. 19, figs. 16, 17. 

Dirty white, clouded and spotted with yellowish brown, pits 
brown, base white to pale yellowish brown ; teeth strong. 

Length, -75-1-25 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea, E. Atlantic 0. 

Fossil in the Pleistocene. This species is reported as occur- 
ring in Australia, but specimens sent to Philadelphia so labeled, 
proved to be G.faveola, Linn., and G. cernica, Sowb. 

C. FLAVEOLA, Linn. PI. 19, figs. 22, 20, 21. 

Yellowish brown, profusely ornamented with white spots of 
various sizes, which sometimes have a bluish cast ; margins 
stained and dotted with blackish brown, base white, teeth some- 
what elongated. Length, -8-1-2 inches. 

Japan, Australia. 

The variety labrolineata, Gask., is of a pale stone-color, with 
teeth smaller and more numerous. No illustration of this variety 
having been given, and not having had the privilege of seeing 
specimens of C. Jlaveola at the time, I was led into the error of 
describing it as C. Helense (figs. 20, 21). 

C. CERNICA, Sowb. PI. 19, figs. 23, 24. 

Yellow, dorsal spots white, numerous, those on the margins 
reddish-brown, extending around the extremities, which, together 
with the base, are white ; outer teeth strong. Length, '75-1 inch. 

Mauritius. 
Closely allied to C.flaveola, Linn. 

C. QANGRANOSA, Soland. PL 19, figs. 18, 19, 25-28. 

Differs from G. Jlaveola, Linn., in having in addition to the 
white dorsal spots, which are very small, occasional brown eyes 



196 CYPB^lA. 

sprinkled over the surface ; the marginal spots are nearly obso- 
lete, and the under side of both extremities is stained orange. 

Length, -6-1 inch. 

Ceylon, China. 

C. Boivini, Kiener (figs. 25, 26), is a milky-white variety with 
white extremities, usually presenting a worn appearance. C. 
Reentsi, Dunker (figs. 27, 28), is another form with the dorsal 
surface lined transversely, and the extremities spotted with 
reddish-brown ; it looks like a young shell. 

Group C. (Gaskoinia, Roberts.) Shell smooth, edentulate. 
C. EDENTULA, Sowb. PL 19, figs. 29, 30. 

Shorter and more inflated than C. Algoensis, from which it is 
distinguished by the absence of teeth. Length, 1 inch. 

Southern Africa. 

Group D. ( Cyproeovula, Gray.) Shell ribbed transversely. 
C. ADAMSONT, Gray. PI. 19, figs. 32, 33. 

White, conspicuously blotched with orange-brown. 
Length, -5--T inch. 

Philippines, I. Bourbon. 

C. CAPENSIS, Gray. PL 19, figs. 34, 35. 

Yellowish or reddish brown, deeply umbilicated, the ridges 
extend over the base of the shell. Length, 1-1-4 inches. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Group E. (Pustularia, Sum.) Shell pustulate or nodulous. T 

C. STAPHYLJEA, Linn. PL 20, figs. 39-44. 

Grayish to brownish, pustules whitish, small, numerous ; 
extremities tipped with reddish brown, base dirty white to 
brown, teeth extended across the base on each side. 

Length, '5-'9 inch. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Young shell usually brown, without pustules. C. interstincta, 
Wood (figs. 42, 43, 44), is a whitish or brownish variety with 
larger and less numerous pustules, which are sometimes partially 
obsolete, the teeth are coarser, darker in color, and do not 
always extend entirely across the base. 



CYPILEA. 19t 

In his description of G. limacina, Lamarck refers to two 
figures, tlie one from Lister being a well-marked C. staphyleea, 
while the other corresponds to C. interstincta. 

C. PUSTULATA, Lam. PI. 20, fig. 45, 46, 52. 

Lead-color, covered with transverse striae, and armed with 
numerous prominent reddish pimples, those in the middle being 
the 1 largest ; base chocolate, teeth extending across the base in 
conspicuous ridges, ribs whitish. Length, '5--0 inch. 

Panama, Mazatlan. 

Younger shell (fig. 52) with the back cancellated but destitute 
of pimples, which do not appear until the teeth have become 
considerably developed. 

C. NUCLEUS, Linn. PI. 20, figs. 48, 49. 

Whitish, nodules dull brown, the lateral ones united together 
by fine ridges. Length, '55- -t l5 inch. 

Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

C. MADAGASCARIENSIS, Gmel. PI. 20, figs. 65, 66 ; PL 19, fig. 38. 

Larger and much more depressed than the preceding, pustules 
larger and less numerous; the ridges on the outer lip are alter- 
nately larger and smaller. Length, 1-1-3 inches. 

Madagascar ; Sandwich Is. (Pease). 

G. granulata, Pease (PI. 19, tig. 38) is a younger example of 
this species ; in it, the basal ridges are fewer, and do not extend 
to the margin, but usually become obsolete as they approach it ; 
in some specimens the dorsal ridges are also wanting. 

Section IV. (Epona, II. and A. Ad.) Shell globose, back either 
smooth or with elevated tubercles, extremities produced. 

C. ANNULATA, Gray. PI. 20, figs. 50, 51. 

Ivory-white, smooth, irregularly painted with round yellow 
spots, encircled with rings of a deeper tint, teeth very minute, 
base white. Length, '6 inch. 

Ma u rit ins, Philippines. 

C. CICERCULA, Linn. PI. 20, figs. 55-58, 61, 62. 

Yellowish, granulose, irregularly blotched with brown, sides 



198 TRIVIA. 

dotted with brown, base conspicuously painted with four chestnut 
spots, teeth usually elongated across the base. 

Length, -5-"9 inch. 

Mauritius, Borneo, New Caledonia. 

This species sometimes presents an unusually humped appear- 
ance, the basal spots being often obsolete and the extremities 
greatly produced ; such shells are mostly whitish and strongly 
granulose, with the dorsal line well marked. 

I can see no reason for separating either C. Lienardi (figs. 57, 
58), or G. tricornis (figs. 61, 62), both of which were described 
by Dr. Jousseaume ; a careful examination of specimens of these 
received from Mauritius, showing scarcety a varietal difference. 

Dr. Jousseaume himself admits that Lienardi is the veritable 
cicercula. 

C. GLOBULUS, Linn. PL 20, figs. 59, (>0. 

Very closely allied to C. cicercula ; the main difference lies in 
its more oblong form ; the dorsal line is absent, as are also the 
granulations and the chestnut spots. Length, *8 inch. 

Mauritius, Borneo, New Caledonia. 

I believe future investigation will prove the identity of this 
with C. cicercula. 

C. CHILDRENI, Gray. PL 20, figs. 53, 54. 

Pale yellowish brown, transversely ribbed throughout, ribs a 
shade darker, extremities carinately winged beneath, teeth 
minute. Length, -5-'6 inch. 

Annaa I., Borneo, New Caledonia. 

This is the only species at present known possessing the 
peculiar winged projections at the base of the extremities. 

Subgenus TRIVIA, Gray. 

Shell subglobular, cross-ribbed, front of columella internally 
concave, ribbed. 

Group A. Shell generally thin, aperture wide, outer lip narrow, 

margined. 

T. ONISCUS, Lam. PL 21, figs. 67, 68. 

Brownish or pinkish flesh-color, base whitish, ribs bifurcated 
or wrinkled, dorsal line broad, smooth, flat. 

Length, '7 5-* 9 inch. Cape of Good Hope. 



TRIVIA. 199 

T. OVULATA. Lam. PL 21, figs. 69, 70. 

Differs from the preceding in being smooth throughout ; the 
teeth on the inner lip are very small. Length, -7-'9 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
T. COSTATA, Gmel. PL 21 , figs. 71,72. 

Differs from G. oniscus in having rather finer ribs, and in the 
absence of a dorsal impression. Length, '6--7 inch. 

West Indies (Krebs), Cape of Good Hope (?) 

This species was described by Gray as T. carnea, and by- 
Wood as G. rosea. 

- T. VESICULARIS, Gask. PL 21, figs. 73, 74. 

Much smaller than G. oniscus, dorsal striae finer, more numer- 
ous and regular ; no dorsal impression. Length, -5 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

Group B. Shell thick, usually margined, aperture narrow and 
more or less central. 

a. Having a dorsal impression. 

* Shell white. 
T. SULCATA, Gask. PL 21, figs. 75, 76. 

Ventricose, ribs coarse, prominent, spire perceptible, inner lip 
ending posteriorly in a sharp edge. Length, -45 inch. 

Manilla. 
T. CICATROSA, Sowb. PL 21, figs. 77, 78. 

Subglobose, outer lip expanded posteriorly, dorsal impression 
short and very deep. Length, '3 inch. 

Hab. (?) 
T. NIVEA, Gray. PL 21, figs. 80, 81. 

Globose, extremities very obtuse, ribs narrow, wrinkled. 

Length, -35-'45 inch. 

West Indies. 

There has been some confusion regarding this species, caused 
partly by the name " nivea " having been first given by Dr. Gray 
to a shell which* was afterwards recognized us a white variety of 
C. turdus. Later he adopted the same name from Solander MSS. 
for what the eminent conchologist Gaskoin, as well as myself, 
believed to be Lamarck's oryza ; but the characters given, and 



200 TRIVIA. 

the different distribution are sufficient to separate the two, and 
I follow later monographers by adopting T. nivea. 
This species is the T. scabriuscula, Kien., not Gray. - 

T. ORYZA, Lam. PL 21, figs. 82, 83, 79. 

Ovate, extremities produced, ribs fine, dorsal impression 
long. Length, '30-'45 inch. 

Sandwich /s., Australia, Philippines. 

Dr. Dunker in " Mai. Blatt." for 1861, refers to a small variety 
from the Red Sea, having only a faint dorsal sulcus. 

T. scabriuscula, Gray (fig. 79) is a variety characterized by 
rather more produced rostrated extremities and a shorter dorsal 
impression. 

T. oryza is as peculiarly East Indian as T. nivea is West 
Indian. 

T. GRANDO, Gask. PI. 21, figs. 86, 87. 

' Smaller and more globose than the preceding, ribs extremely 
fine and delicate, aperture rather wide, spire prominent. 
Length, '26 inch. 

Manilla. 
T. INSECTA, Mighels. PL 21, figs. 84, 85. 

Elongate ovate, subrostrate, ribs very fine, back depressed, 
dorsal sulcus long. Length, -1--2 inch. 

Sandwich Islands, Australia. 
Kiener called this species C. hordacea. 

T. VITREA, Gask. PL 21, figs. 88, 89. 

Globose, aperture rather narrow, and slightly curved inwards, 
ribs coarse, texture pellucid. Length, '25 inch. 

Philippines. 
Weinkauff thinks this species and T. sulcata belong together. 

T. GLOBOSA, Gray. PL 21, figs. 92, 93. 

Round like a pea, aperture very narrow, dorsal impression 
sharply cut and reaching to the extremities. Length, -1--2 inch. 

West Indies ; Sandwich Is.; Australia. 

Described by Kiener as T. pilula and by Mighels as T. 
sphserula. 

Weinkauff separates T. pilula, giving this name to the shell 



TRIVIA. 201 

from the Pacific region, and retains T. globosa for the West 
Indian form, but I have not been able to separate the two. 

T. subrostrata, var. alba, Krebs, is most likely T. globosa; the 
two species are very similar in form. 

T. PAUCILIRATA, Sowb. PI. 21, figs 98, 99. 

Ovate, ribs coarse, dorsal impression conspicuous. 

Length, -25 inch. Hab. (?) 

** Shell usually pinkish, spotted. 
T. PEDICULUS, Linn. PL 21, figs. 94-97. 

Fleshy white marbled with pale brown, especially towards the 
sides, margin ridged, dorsal spots black, ribs coarse, nodular, 
interior of colnmella white. Length, '25-'6o inch. 

Florida, West Indies. 

A species presenting considerable variation. 

T. labiosa, Gask. (fig. 97), is a variety in which the marginal 
ridge is exaggerated ; the ribs are fewer in number and of a 
whitish color, while in T. cimex, H. Owen (fig. 96), there is an 
increased tendency to crenulation in the dorsal ribs, and an 
amalgamation of the dark spots on the right side into one 
blotch. 

Fossil, T. pediculus occurs in the Pliocene clay beds of Costa 
Rica (W. M. Gabb). 

T. SUFFUSA, Gray. PL 21, figs. 1, 2, 100, 

blong ovate, ribs fine, promiscuously variegated and sprinkled 
with brown, extremities pink, base whitish. Length, *3-*5 inch. 

West Indies. 

Described by Duclos, under the name T. Armandina. 

T. pullata, H. Owen (fig. 100), presents the peculiarity of the 
spots being amalgamated into a single tint. 

T. PACIFICA, Gray. PL 21, figs. 3, 4. 

.More attenuated than the preceding, with more produced 
extremities ; the ribs are finer and the dorsal spots alternate on 
each side of the sulcus. Length, -3-'4 inch. 

Gulf of California (Stearns), Acapulco, Galapagos Is. 

T. QUADRIPUNCTATA, Gray. PL 22, figs. 5, 6. 

llotundly ovate, back ornamented with four conspicuous red 
14 



202 TRIVIA. 

dots, two on each side of the dorsal groove, alternating one with 
the other ; ribs fine. Length, '20-'35 inch. 

The T. rotunda, Kiener. West Indies, Florida. 

T. EXIGUA, Gray. PL 22, figs. 9, 10, 17. 

Ovate, .extremities produced, beaked, white, stained and varie- 
gated with bright rose, ribs fine. Length, -15--2 inch. 

Sandwich Islands, New Caledonia. 

A most beautiful little shell, described also by Duclos, as T. 
tremeza, and by Dr. Gould, as T. gemmula. 

T. corrugata, Pease (fig. 11), differs in having fewer and 
stronger ribs ; the pink color is not so persistent, some of the 
specimens being pure white. 

5^*^ Shell brownish. 
T. RADIANS, Lam. PL 22, figs. 13, 14, 11, 12. 

Rotundly ovate, sides dilated, dorsal impression broad, nodose 
on each side, the ribs diverging from the nodules, back stained 
with a dark blotch, base depressed. Length, -65-'8 inch. 

Lower California, Ecuador. 

T. rota, WeinkaufF (figs. 11, 12), is a distant variety with a 
color more diffused and nearer T. Solandri. 

T. SOLANDRI, Gray. PL 22, figs. 15, 16. 

More rounded at the base than the preceding, from which it 
can be easily distinguished by its minute row of outer teeth, 
there being an intermediate one between each of those termi- 
nating the ribs. Length, -55--80 inch. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. Acapulco. 

T. COSTIS-PUNCTATA, Gask. PL 22, figs. 7, 8. 

Closely allied to T. radians. Its color is that of the ordinary 
T. pediculus, the ribs are spotted, and the dorsal groove is 
narrow, the base is rounded. Length, *6 inch. Hob. (?) 

T. CALIFORNIA, Gray. PL 22, figs. 18, 19, 20, 3T. 

Ovate, rather globose ; ribs distant, dorsal impression faint, 
whitish ; teeth whitish. Length, '35-'55 inch. California. 

The animal is vivid orange-scarlet, reddish brown at the end 
of the proboscis. When the mantle is extended over the back 
of the shell its color is neutralized by the purple of the latter. 
T. depauperata, Sowb. (fig. 31), was described from a worn 
specimen. 



TRIVIA. 203 

T. MAUGERI, Gray. PL 22, figs. 23, 24. 

Pyrifonnly ovate, fulvous rose-color, closely ribbed, ribs 
somewhat flexuose, dorsal line narrow, back obscurely stained 
with a large faint brown blotch, right side pink. 

Length, about '7 inch. 

Galapagos Is. 
T. PISUM, Gask. PI. 22, figs. 29, 30. 

Spheroidal, light fawn, ribs large, prominent; aperture rather 
wide, extremities slightly produced, dorsal impression long. 

Length, about -45 inch. 

Ceylon. 
T. SANGUINEA, Gray. PL 22, figs. 21, 22. 

Ovate, purple-brown, back stained in the middle with a blood- 
red spot, whitish at each end, ribs whitish, dorsal impression 
almost obsolete. Length, -35-'5 inch. 

California Ecuador. 

Described by Dufresne as T. lathy rus. 

T. FUSCA, Gray. PL 22, figs. 35, 36. 

Smaller, narrower and more produced than the preceding, 
ribs finer and of the same color as the shell. 

Length, -15--30 inch. Galapagos Is. 

T. SUBROSTRATA, Gray. PL 22, figs. 38, 39. 

Globose, dark chocolate-brown, extremities slightly beaked, 
dorsal line well marked. Length, -15--3 inch. 

West Indies. 

Locality given in Mazatlan Catalogue by Dr. Carpenter is 
improbable. As before stated, the white variety of this species 
mentioned in Krebs' Catalogue is most likely T. globosa, Gray. 

b. Having no dorsal impression. 

* Shell white. 
T. CANDIDULA, Gask. PL 22, figs. 33, 34. 

Globosely ovate, ribs strong, rather conspicuous. 
Length, -25 inch. 

Canary Is., Azores, Spanish Coast (Hidalgo), Mexico. 
Credited also to several Pacific localities, the correctness of 
which is somewhat doubtful. 

This species was almost simultaneously described by Duclos 
as T. olorina, and by Beck as T. approximans. 



204 TRIVIA. 

T. PRODUCTA, Gask. PL 22, figs. 25, 26. 

Ovate, sides a little dilated, extremities peculiarly produced, 
ribs fine. Length, -5 inch. 

Borneo ; Agulhas Bank, S. Africa ; Australia. 

T. PELLUCTDULA, Gask. PL 22, figs. 31, 32. 

Ovate, extremities produced, ribs very fine, aperture narrow 
and nearly straight. Length, '18--3 inch. 

Pacific Ocean. 

T. BREVISSIMA, Sowb. PL 21, figs. 90, 91. 

Differs from T. globosa, which it closely resembles, in having 

no dorsal impression. Length, -2 inch. 

Hab. (?) 

** Shell pinkish, sometimes spotted. 

T. RUBINICOLOR, Gask. PL 22, figs. 27, 28. 

Ovate, extremities obtusely produced and tinged rose-red, 
ribs fine. Length, -25-'4 inch. 

Ceylon, Borneo. 
T. AFFINIS, Marrat. PL 23, figs. 40, 41. 

Oblong-ovate, pale, with indications of color, extremities pro- 
duced, broad, ribs rather coarse. Length, *3 inch. 

Hab. (?) 

The type specimens were found in a dealer's stock of West 
Indian shells, but as no collectors have reported it from that 
locality, and as the shell closely resembles T. Pacifica, except 
in the absence of any dorsal impression, I am inclined to think 
it belongs to a Pacific fauna. 

T. RUBESCENS, Gray. PL 23, figs. 42, 43. 

Globosely ovate, pale pinkish or reddish, ribs fine. 
Length, -3-'4 inch. 

Galapagos I. 
Somewhat of the form of T. candidula, Gask. 

T. FORMOSA, Gask. PL 23, figs. 44-47. 

Globose, thin, rather inflated ; whitish, delicately suffused 
with rose, ribs and teeth numerous, fine. Length, about *5 inch. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

T. multilirata, Sowb. (figs. 46, 47), credited to the Adriatic, 



TRIVIA. 205 

the author says was first figured for T. formosa. It resembles 
a more adult shell than our illustration of the latter, copied 
from Thes. Conch., and is quite likely the same. 

Dr. Weinkauff believes T. formosa to be close to T. Europsea, 
Mont., if not identical. 

T. EUROP^A, Montagu. PI. 23, figs. 48-51. 

Ovate, flesh-color, tinged with fulvous, sparingly spotted with 
brown, closely ribbed, base white. Length, -3-'5 inch. 

Mediterranean Sea to Norway. 

Found fossil to the Miocene, it being common in the Red Crag. 

The fossil form was described as T. sphsericulata by Lam., 
and T. coccinelloides by Sowb. 

While the shell of T. Europsea is plain, the animal presents a 
striking contrast, it being predominantly yellow, brown and 
pink ; the mantle is very large and more or less studded with 
wart-like processes of a pale orange-brown with white or 3 r ellow 
papillae, occasionally variegated by red spots and a few purplish 
blotches. 

It is found on stony and coral ground from low-water mark 
to 100 fathoms. 

According to I)r. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, the northern specimens 
are usually unspotted, while those found south are smaller and 
more frequently spotted. 

T. arctica, Montagu, is the unspotted form ; T. bullata, of the 
same author, represents the young shell (fig. 50). Bulla 
diaphana, -Montagu (fig. 51), is a very young example of the 
same ; so is the Bulla Candida, Macgillivray. The species was 
also described by Lamarck as T. coccinella, and by Sars as T. 
Norvegica, while Risso gave it the name T. Mediterranea. 

The late Chas. Kingsley, Canon of Westminster, in a letter to 
his friend H. P. GoSse, January 3d, 1854, says: "I have seen 
T. Europxa during the last few days suspend itself from the 
under side of low-tide rocks by a glutinous thread an inch or 
more in length, and when in captivity float on the surface by 
means of a similar thread attached to a glutinous bubble." 
(Life of Chas. Kingsley.) 



206 CYPELEID.E. 

T. NAPOLINA, Duclos. PI. 23, fig. 52. 

Much narrower and more produced than the preceding, its 
ribs are rather finer and more convergent ; its color is a dingy 
white, and it has only two spots, one at each end of the dorsum. 

Length, -35-'45 inch. 

Senegal, N. W. Australia. 

Credited also to St. Vincent, Cape Verd, by M. de Cessac. 
Described by Gaskoin as T. obscura. 

T. AUSTEALIS, Lam. PI. 23, figs. 53, 54. 

Oblong-ovate, rather thin, irregularly painted with light brown 
blotches, ribs fine, nearly obsolete on the back, extremities 
tinted with rose, base white. Length, -4--15 inch. 

New South Wales. 

Common at this locality, living in from 10 to 15 fms. 

** Shell brown. 

T. PULEX, Soland. PI. 23, figs. 55, 56. 

Ovate, ribs fine, smooth or obsolete on the back, sides and 
base white. Length, '3 inch. 

Azores, Mediterranean Sea. 
Fossil in the Pleistocene. 

T. PULLA, Gask. PI. 23, figs. 57, 58. 

Ovate, extremities slightly produced, ribs fine. 
Length, -25 inch. 

Galapagos Is., Gulf of California (Stearns). 
Is probably the Trivia mentioned in the Mazatlan Catalogue 
as being T. subrostrata. 



Unidentified Species of Gyprseidae. 

C. CAPUT-ANGUIS, Philippi. 

An unfigured species without known locality, less than one- 
half inch in length, brown between the teeth, and white-spotted 
at the extremities. Said to present a dorsal surface similar to 
G. caput-serpenlis, Linn., which has led authors to incorrectly 
place it in the synonomy of that species. 



CYPFLEID^E. 20f 

C. PARVULA, Philippi. 

Another unfigured species, locality unknown; said to belong 
to the group containing G. fimbriata, Gmel. 

C. CASTANEA, Anderson. 

Shell ovate, ventricose, chestnut-brown, with two wide obscure 
bunds, margins thickened, white spotted with brown, aperture 
at extremities rosy red. 

Hab.? 

C. TRTGONELLA, Dufr. 

Shell oval, a little inflated, aperture narrow, dorsal surface 
crimson-reddish, margin white, spotted with blackish brown. 

New Holland. 
TRIVIA ACUT-IDENTATA, Gask. 

Ovate globular, dull white with a faint dorsal impression, ribs 
rather thick, prominent but not crowded, columellar side more 
gibbous than the outer, teeth more numerous on the lip than on 
the columella. 

Bay of Guayaquil. 

Its nearest ally in shape is T. exigua. 

The original type of this species was accidentally broken by 
Mr. Gaskoin after description, and the fragments preserved in 
the collection of Miss Saul are too incomplete for recognition. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Achatidea (Cypraea), Gray. C. 111., f. 179, 1837. 

= C. physis, Brocchi. 
Achatina (Cypraea), Sol. MSS. Dillw. Cat., i, p. 446, 1817. 

= C. ventriculus, Lain. 
Acicularis (Cypraea), Grael. Syst. Nat., p. 3421, 1790. 

= C. spurca, Linn. 
Acutidentata (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 201, 1835. 

Unidentified, . ' . 207 

Adamsoni (Cypraea), Gray. Desc. Cat. Gyp., p. 7, 1832, . 196 
Adelines (Cypraea), Roberts, . . ... . .168 

Adusta, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 93, 1884, . 161 
Adusta (C} r pr8ea), Ckem. Conch. Cab., x, p. 106, pi. 145, 

f. 1341, 1 7 90. = C. onyx, Linn. 
Affinis (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3420, 1790. 

= C. globnlus, Linn. 
Affinis (Trivia), Marratt (non Gmel.) Ann. Mag. N. II., xx, 

p. 215,1867, . . . 204 

Albella (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 404, 1822. 

= C. caput-serpentis, Linn. 
Albida (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3404, 1790. 

= C. cinerea, Gmel. 
Albuginosa (Cypraea), Mawe. Zool. Jour., i, p. 510, pi. 7, 

12, f. 2, 1824, 193 

Alga (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 23, f. 1, 1811. 

= C. mappa, Linn. 

Algoensis (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 498, 1824, . 189 
Amabilis (Cypraea), Jouss. Le Naturaliste, p. 349, 1881. 

= C. Walkeri, Gray, . . . . . . .185 

Ambigua (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3409. 

= C. tigris, jr., Linn. 
Amethystea (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., 1174, 1767. 

= C. Arabica, Linn. 

Angustata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3421, 1790, . 188 

(208) 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 209 



Anna' (Cyprrea), Roberts. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 250, 

pi. 15, f. 4-6, 1868. = C. semiplota, Migh. . . .104 
Annulata (Cvprrca), Gray. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 88, 1829, . 1 ( .>7 
Annulus (Cypraja), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1179, 1767, . . 178 

Annulus (Cypraea), Linn. Fry of, 179 

Aperta (Trivia), Swn. Zool. jour., iii, p. 571, 1828. 

= C. oniscus, Lain. 
Approximans (Trivial, Beck. Zool. Proc., p. 201, 1835. 

= C. candidula, Gask 203 

Arabica, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 90,1884, 160 
Arabica (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1173,.1767, . .174 
Arabicula (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 399, 1822, 175 
Arctica (Trivia), Sol. MSS. Test. Brit., i, p. 201, 1803. 

= C. Europaea, Mont 205 

Arenosa (Cypraea), Gra}-. Zool. Jour., i, p. 147, pi. 7, 12, 

f. 6, 1824, 166, 172 

A; -us (Cypra>a),Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1173 (12th ed.), 1767, 164 
Argus (Porcellana), Humph. Amb. llarit., pi. 38, f. I), 1705. 

= C. Argus, Linn. 

Aricia, Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 7, 1832, . .159, 162, 172 
Arlequina (Cypraea), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, p. 145, f. 

1346-7, 1790. = C. histrio, Meusch. 
Armandina (Trivia), Duclos. Coq. Viv., p. 140, pi. 46, f. 2. 

= T. suflusa, Gray, 201 

Artuffeli, Jouss. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 81, 1876. 

= C. clandestina, Linn. ....... 188 

Asdli (Porcellana), Humph. Amb. Rarit., t. 39, f. M, 1705. 

= C. asellus, Linn. 

Asellus (Cjpraea), Linn. SysL. Nat., p. 1178, 1767. . . 187 
Atava (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull de Soc. Malac. France, 

p. 83, pi. 1, f. 4, 1884. = C. moneta, Linn. . . .178 
Atheroma (Cyprsea), Meusch. Mus. Gevers, p. 402, 1787. 

= C. cervus, Linn. 
Atomaria (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3412, 1790. 

= C. punctata, Linn, 
Aubreyana ( Cypraea), Jouss. Revue et Mag. Zool., p. 348, 

pi. 18, f. 1-3, 1869. = C. bicallosa, Gray, . . .193 
Aurantium (Cypraea), Martyn. Univ. C., ii, f. 59, 1782, . 180 
Aurora Solandri (Cypraca), Chemn. Conch. Cab., xi, pi. 180, 

f. 1737, 1738, 1795. = C. aurantinm, Mart. 
Australis (Trivia), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 404, 1822, 206 
Autumnalis (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 21. f. 2, 1811. 

= C. mus, Linn. 

Badia (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3414, 1790, uniden- 
tified. 



210 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAOE. 

Bandata (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 20, f. 2, 1811. 

= C. arabica, jr., Linn. 
Barclay! (Cypraea), Reeve. Zool. Proc., p. 208, pi. 38, f. 4, 

1857, .....' 182 

Barthelemyi (Cypraea), Bernardi. Jour, de Conch., p. 48, 

pi. 1, 1861. = C. moneta, Linn. ... .178 

Basterotia, Bayle MSS. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France 1 , ix, p. 

95, 1884, 161 

Becki (Cyprsea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 205, 1835, . .191 
Bernaya, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 88, 1884, 160 
Bicallosa (Cypraea), Gray. C. 111., sp. 50, f. 10, 1837, . . 193 
Bicolor (Cyprsea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 92, 1848. 

= C. piperita, Sol. . . ... 189 

Bicornis (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., Index, 1870. 

= C. mus, Linn. . . . . . . . .177 

Bifasciata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 3405. 

= C. exanthema, Linn. 
Boivini (Cypraaa), Kien. Coq. Yiv., p. 66, pi. 18, f. 2. 

= C. gangraenosa, Sol. . 196 

Bregeriana (Cvprsea), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xvi, p. 277, 

1868; xvii, pi. 1, f. 2, 1869. = C. Walkeri, Gray, . . 185 
Brevidentata (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 30, 

f. 325, 326, 1870. = C. stolida, var. . . . .171 
Brevissima (Trivia), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 168, f. 

523,524, 1870, . .204 

Brocchi (Cypraea), Desh. An. sans Vert., x, p. 575, 1844. 

= C. annulus, fossil. 

Broderipi (Cypraea), Gray. Desc. Cat., p. 3, No. 18, 1832, . 182 
Bullata (Cypraea), Pultney. Test. Brit, i, p. 202. pi. 6, f. 1, 

1803. = Trivia Europaea, Mont. . . '. . .205 

Caledonica (Cypraea), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xvii, p. 41, 
pi. 1, f. 1, 1869. = C. lynx, Linn 183 

California (Trivia), Gray. Zool. Jour., iii, p. 365, 1827, . 202 

Camelopardalis (Cyprsea), Perry. Conch., pi. 19, f. 5, 1811. 182 

Camelorum (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 
p. 86, t. 1, f. 7, 1884. = C. moneta, Linn. . . .178 

Cancellata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3414, 1790. Un- 
identified. 

Candida (Bulla), Macgill. Moll. Aberd., pp. 68, 188, 1843. 
= T. Europaea, Mont 205 

Candida (Cypraea), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 515, 1865. 

= C. clandestina, var. ....... 187 

Candidula (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc,, p. 200, 1835, . 

Capensis (Cypraeovula), Gray. Zool. Jour., iii, p. 573. 1828, 196 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 211 

PAOB. 

Caput-anguis (Cypnea), Philippi. Menke and Pfr., p. 24, 

1849, 173, 206 

Caput-serpentis (Cypnea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1175, 1767, 173 
Carnea (Trivia), Gray. Zool. Jour., iii, p. 569, 1828. 

= Trivia costata, Gmel .199 

Carneola (Cypnea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1174, 1767, . .166 
Carneola (Cypnea), Martyn (non Linn.). Univ. C., pi. 14, 

1782. = C. ventriculus, Lam. 
Carneola (Porcellana), Rumph. Amb. Rarit., pi. 38, f. K, 

1705. C. carneola, Linn. 
Castanea (Cypnea), Anderson. Archiv fiir Nat., ii, p. 271, 

1837. Unidentified 207 

Castanea (Cypnea), Higgins. Zool. Proc., p. 178, pi. 14, f. 

1, 1868. = C. similis, Gray, . . . . . .190 

Caurica (Cypnea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1179, 1767, . .171 
Cauteriata (Cypraea), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, pi. 144, f. 

1332, 1788. = C. stercoraria, Linn. 
Cernica (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 132, f. 

238-240, 1870, ..... .195 

Cervina (Cyprsea), Lam. An. sans Yert., vii, p. 375, 1822. 

C. cervus, Linn. 
Cervinetta (Cyprsea), Kien. Coq. Yiv., p. 74, pi. 6, f. 1, 2. 

= C. exanthema, Linn 164 

Cervus (Cypnea), Linn. Mantissa, p. 548, 1771, . . 164 
Chalcedonia (Cypnea), Perry. Conch., pi. 19, f. 6, 1811. 

= C. helvola, Linn. 

Children! (Cyprsea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 518, 1824, . 198 
Chinensis (Cypnea), Gmel. Syst. Nat. p. 3421, 1790. 

= C. lynx, Linn. 

Chrysalis (Cyprsea), Kien. Coq. Yiv., p. 92, pi. 54, f. 4, . 172 
Chrysostoma (Cypnea), Brazier. 

= C. Sophia, ibid., Proc. Zool. Soc. N. S. W., p. 445, 1880. 
Cicatrosa (Trivia), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 160, f. 

458,459, 1870, 199 

Cicercula (Cyprsea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1181, 1767, . . 197 
Cimex (Trivia), H. Owen. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Cyp., index, 

1870. = T. pediculus, Linn 201 

Cincta (Cypnea), Sol. MSS. Zool. Jour., i, p. 446, 1824. 

= C. cinerea, Gmel. 

Cinerea (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3402, 1790. . . 166 
Cinnamoma3a (Cypraea), Oliv. Zool. Adriat., p. 134. 

= C. pyrum, Gmei. 
Citrina (Cypnea), Gray (non Kiener). Zool. Jour., i, p. 

509, 1824, .194 

Citrina (Cypnea), Kien. (as of Gray). Coq. Yiv., p. 70, pi. 

43, f. 4. = C. helvola, Linn. 



212 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Clandestina (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1177, 1767, . 187 
Clara (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 13, 1851, . . .166 
Coccinella, Leach. Adams' Genera, i, p. 268, 1858. 

= Trivia, Gray. 
Coccinella (Trivia), Lam. An. sans Yert., vii, p. 404, 1822. 

= T. Europaea, Mont. . . . . . . 205 

Coccinelloides (Trivia), Sowb. Min. Conch., t. 378, f. 1. 

= T. Europaea, Mont., fossil, 205 

Ccerula (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 22, f. 8, 1811. 

= C. moneta, Linn. 
Coffea (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Gyp., No. 26, f. 359, 

360, 1870. = C. neglecta. Sowb. . ' . . . .170 
Comma (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 21, f. 5, 1811. 

= C. cribraria, Linn. 
Commixta, Mawe. Wood, Index Supp., f. 11, 1828. 

= C. lutea, Gronov. 
Compta (Cypraea), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 189, pi. 51, f. 1, 

1860. = C. Cumingi, Gray, 191 

Comptoni (Cypraea), Gray. Juke's Yoy., ii, p. 356, t. 1, f. 3, 

1847. = C. angustata, Gray, .188 

Concava (Cypraea), H. Owen. Sowb., Thes. Cyp.,f. 318,319, 

1870. = Distorted C. caurica, Linn. 
Conoidea (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3414, 1790. 

= Oniscia tuberculosa. 
Conspnrcata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3405, 1790. 

= C. stercoraria, Linn. 

Con taminata (Cypraea), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 11, 1832, 168 
Contrastriata (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 20, f. 3, 1811. 

= C. carneola, Linn. 
Controversa (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 144 ; iv, p. 

71. = C. Isabella, Linn 165 

Corrosa (Cypraea), Gron. Zooph., p. 129, 1783. 

= C. caurica, Linn. 
Corrugata (Trivia), Pse. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 95, pi. 

11, f. 14, 15, 1868. = T. exigua, Gray, . . . .202 
Costata (Trivia), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3418, 1790, . . 199 
Costispunctata (Trivia \ Gask. MSS. Sowb. Thes. Cyp., 

No. 148, f. 452, 453, 1870, 202 

Coxeni (Cypraea), Cox. Zool. Proc., p. 568, pi. 48, f. 10, 

1873, 190 

Coxi (Cypraea), Brazier. Zool. Proc., p. 617, pi. 44, f. 3, 

1872, 184 

Crassa (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3421, 1788. 

= C. carneola, Linn. 
Crebricostata (Trivia), Sowb. Thes. Cyp., p. 51, 1870. 

= T. formosa, Gask. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 2l3 

PAGE. 

Cribellum (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 22, 1849, . . 190 
Cnbraria, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool., France, ix, p. 94, 1884, 161 
Cnbraria (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1178, 1767, . . 190 
Crossei (Cypwea), Marie. Jour, de Conch., xvii, p. 16, pi. 

l,f. 3, 1869. = C, stolida, Linn 171 

Cruenta (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3420, 1790, . . 171 
Cumingi (Cypraea), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., No. 41, 1832, 191 
Cylindrica (Gypraea), Born. Mus., p. 184, pi. 8, f. 10, 1780, 170 
Cylindrica (Cyppea), Wood. Cat., pi. 17, f. 17, 1828. 

= C. tabescens, Sol. 

Cypraea, Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1172, 1767, . . . 159, 160 
Cyprreacea (Fam.j, Troschel. Gebiss, i, p. 201, 1863, . 159 

Cypraedia, Swn. Malac., p. 325, 1840. 

= Luponia, Gray, . 161, 162 

Cypraeidae (Fam.), 153 

Cypraeinse (Sub-Fam.), Swn. Malac., 324, 1840. 
Cypraeorbis (Sub-Gen.), Conrad. Amer. Jour. Conch., i, p. 

31,1865 (Fossil), 162 

Cypraeovula, Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 75, 1824, 159. 161, 163, 196 
Cypriarius, Dumesil. Zool. Anal., p. 166, 1806. 

= Cypraea, Linn. 

Dama (Cypraea), Humph. Gal. Cat., No. 118, 1779. 

= C. vitellus, Linn. 
Dama (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 23, f. 3, 1811. 

= C. nivosa, Brod. 
Decipiens (Cypraea), E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., p. 482, pi. 

48, f. 8, 1880, 176 

Declivis (Cypra?a), Sowb. Thes Conch. Cy'p., No. 103, f. 

287, 328*, 329*, 1870, .... . 189 

Dentex (Cypraea), Humph. Cal. Cat., No. 116, 1779. 

= C. canrica, Linn. 
Depauperata (Trivia), Sowb. C. 111., sp. 130, f. 49, 1837. 

= T. Californica, Gray, . . . . . . .202 

Derosa (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3416, 1790. 

= C. caurica, Linn. 
Derosa (Cypraea), Risso. Hist. Nat, de 1'Europe Merid., 

iv, p. 238. = C. helvola, Linn. 
Diaphana (Bulla), Montagu. Test. Brit., p. 205, t. 7, 1. 8, 

1808. = T. Europaea, Mont. . . .205 

Diluculum (Cypraea), Rve. Icon., pi. 14, sp. 65, 1845. 

= C. undata, Lam. 
Dracaena (Cypraja), Born. Mus., p. 189, 1780. 

= C. caurica, Linn. 
Dubia (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3405. 

= C. exanthema, Linn. 



214 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Eburnea (Cypraea), Barnes. Ann. Lye. N. H., i, p. 133, pi. 9, 

f. 2, 1824 .192 

Eburnea (Cypraea\ Konig. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 72, 1828. 

= C. cinerea (Fossil). 

Edentula (Cyprsea), Sowb. C. 111., sp. 102, f. 26*, 1837, . 196 
Eglantina (Cypraea), Duel. Guer. Mag., p. 28, 1833. 
"= C. arabica, Linn. . . . . . . . .174 

Eglantina (Cyprsea), Sowb. (as of Duclos). = C. niger, 

Roberts. = C. arabica, ....... 174 

Elongata (Cypraea), Perry. Coneh., pi. 22, f. 5, 1811. 

= C. caurica, Linn. 
Epona, H. and A. Adams. Genera Recent Mollusca, i, p. 

269, 1858, . 163, 197 

Erato, Risso. Eur. Merid., iv, 1826. Now referred to 

Marginellidae, 162 

Erosa (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat, p. 1179, 1767, . . 192 
Erosaria, Trosch. Gebiss i, p. 210, 1863. 

= Aricia, Gray, 160, 161 

Erronea, Trosch. Gebiss i, p. 210, 1863. 

= Aricia, Gray, 160, 161 

Erronea (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3411, 1790. 

= C. errones, Linn. 

Errones (Cypraea), Linn, Syst. Nat., p. 1178, 1767, . .183 
Erythraea, Barrelier. Icon., 1714. = Cyprasa, Linn. 
Erythraeensis (Cypraea), Beck MSS. Reeve, Icon., pi. 14, 

sp. 63, 1845, ! 172 

Esontropia (Cypraea), Duel. Mag. Zool., p. 26, 1833, . 190 

Ethnographica (Monetaria), Rocheb. Bull. Soc. Malac. 

France, p. 78, pi. 1, f. 2, 1884. = C. moneta, Linn. . 178 
Europaea (Trivia), Montagu. Test. Brit. Supp., p. 88, 

1808, 154, 205 

Exanthema (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1172, 1767, . 164 
Exigua (Trivia), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 15, 1832, . . 202 
Eximia (Cypraea), Sowb. Zool. Proc., p. 124, 1849. Fossil. 

Close to C. umbilicata, Sowb. 
Exusta (Cypraea), Sowb. C. 111., sp. 25, f. 2*, 1837, . .167 

Fabula (Cypraea), Kien. Coq. Yiv., p. 97, pi. 54, f. 3. 

= C. felina, Gmel .169 

Fallax (Cypraea), E. A. Smith. Ann. Mag. N. H., 5th series, 

viii, p. 441. = C. cribraria, Linn. . . . . '190 
Fasciata (Cypraea), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, pi. 144, f. 1334, 

1788. = C. stercoraria, Linn. 
Fasciata (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 22, f. 9, 1811. 

= C. erosa, Linn. 
Felina (Cypraea). Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3412, 1790, . . 169 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 215 

PAGB. 

Feminea (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3409, 1790. 

= C. tigris, Linn. 
Ferruginea (Cypraea), Humph. Gal. Cat., No. 1.13, 1779. 

= C. stolida, Linn. 
Femigiiiosa (Cypraea), Combes' MSS. Zool. Jour., i, 385, 

1824. = C. errones, Linn. 
FuiTuginosa (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst, Nat., p. 3403, 1790. 

= C. erosa, Linn. 
Ferruginosa (Cypraea), Kien. Coq. Yiv., p. 37, pi. 56, f. 3. 

C. Sowerbyi, Kien 185 

Fimbriata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3420, 1790, . 168 
Fimbriatula (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Gyp., No. 138, 

f. 518, 1870. = C. semiplota, Mighels 195 

Flammea (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3408, 1790. 

= C. tigris, Linn. 
Fhiveola (Cypraea), Born, (non Linn.). Mus., p. 190, 1778. 

= C. pyrum, Gmel. 
Flaveola (Cypraea), Lam. (non Linn.). An. sans Vert., vii, 

p. 394, 1822. = C. spurca, Linn. 

Flaveola (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1179, 1767, . . 195 
Formosa i Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p 198,1835, . .204 
Fragilis (Cypraea), Born. Mus., p. 179, pi. 8, f. 6, 1780. 

= C. Mauri tiana, Linn. 
Fragilis (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat, 1175, 1767. 

= C. Arabica, jr., Linn. . 
Friend i (Cypraea), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cvp., p. 5, 1832. 

= C. Scotti, Brod. 
Fuliginosa (Cypraea), Perry, Conch., pi. 22, f. 1. 

= C. Mauritiana, Linn. 
Fulva (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p 3413, 1790. 

= C. pyrum, Gmel. 

Fusca (Trivia), Gray. Desc. Cat. Gyp., p. 15, 1832, . . 203 
Fusco-dentata (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 499, 1824, 189 
Fuscomaculata (Cypraea), Graj- MSS. (non Pease). Sowb., 

Thes. Cyp., No. 90, f. 372, 373, 1870. 

= C. Adelinae, Roberts 168 

Fuscomaculata (Cypraea), Pse. Zool. Proc., p. 515, 1865, . 168 

Gangraenosa (Cypraea), Sol. MSS. Dilw. Cat., i, p. 465, 1817, 195 
Gaskoinia, Roberts. Cat. Porcellanidae, p. 201, Amer. Jour. 

Conch., v, 1869, 161,163, 196 

Gnskoini (Cypraea), Reeve. Zool. Proc.. p. 23, 1846, . . 191 
Gaskoini (Trivia), Roberts. Cat. Porcellanidae, p. 20(5, Am. 

Jour. Conch., v, 1869. = T. sulcata. Gask. 
Gemmosa (Cypr^a), Perry. Conch., pi. 23, f. 5, 1811. 

= C. nucleus, Linn 



216 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Gemmula (Trivia), Gld. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 27, 1845. 

= T. exigua, Gray, . . . ... .202 

Gemmula (Cypraea/, Weink. M. Ch. ed., ii, pi. 1C, f. 1, 9, 

1881, . .175 

Gibba (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3403, 1790. 

= C. stercoraria, Linn. 

Gisortia, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 88, 1884, 160 
Globosa (Trivia), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 14, 1832, . 200 
Globuli (Porcellana), Rumph. Amb. Rarit, pi. 39, f. L, 1705. 

= C. globulus, Linn. 

Globulus (Cypnea), Linn.- Syst. Nat., p. 1181, 1767, . . 198 
Goodali (Cyprsea), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 10, 1832, . 108 
Gracilis (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 93, 1848, . .188 
Grando (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 96, 1848, . . 200 
Grando (Trivia), Duel. Potiez, Gal. des Moll., i, p. 481, 

1838. Fossil. Probably grando, Gask. 
Granulata (Cypraea), Pse. ' Zool. Proc., p. 278, 1862. 

= C. Madagascariensis, Gmel. . . . . . .197 

Granulata (Cypnea), Humph. Cal. Cat., p. 105, 1779. 

= C. staphylsea, Linn. 
Grayi (Cyprsea), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 20, pi. 26, f. 3. 

= C. physis, Brocchi. 
Gnimmulus (Cypraea), Humph. Cal. Cat., No. 112, 1779. 

= C. stercoraria, Linn. 
Guttata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3402, reference to 

Mart. Conch., i, pi. 25, f. 252, 253. = C. guttata, Gray. 
Guttata (Cyprsea), Gmel., p. 3402, reference to Lister, pi. 

676, f. 23. = C. tigris, Linn. 

Guttata (Cypraea), Gray, Zool. Jour., i, p. 511, 1824, 157, 191 
Guttata (Cyprsea), Lam. (non Gray). Ann. du Mus., xv, p. 

453, 1810. == C. pantherimi, Sol. 
Guttata (Porcellana), Rumph. Amb. Rarit., pi. 38, f. A, 

1705. = C. tigris, Linn. 

Hamyi (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Malac. France, p. 

88, t. 2, f. 5, 1884. = C. annulus, Linn 179 

Harmandiana (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Malac. 

France, p. 90, t. 2, f. 4. = C. annulus, Linn. . . 179 

Helena (Cyprsea), Roberts. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 250, 

pi. 15, f. 7, 10, 1868. 

= C. flaveola, Linn., var. labrolineata, Gask. . . .195 
Helvola (Cyprsea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1180, 1767, . . 194 
Hirundo (Cyprsea). Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1178, 1767, . . 169 
Histrio (Cypraea), Meusch. Mus. Gevers, p. 404, 1787, . 175 
Hordacea (Trivia), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 149, pi. 54, f. 5. 

= T. insecta, Mighels, 200 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. , 217 



Humphreys! (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 480, 1824. 
= C. lutea, Gronov ......... 187 

Icterina (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 387, 1822. 

= C. moneta, Linn. ........ 178 

Indica (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p 3412, 1790. 

= C. scurra, Chemn, 
Ingloria (Cypraea), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xxvi, p. 166, 

pi. 3, f. 2, 1878. = C. bicallosa. Gray, . . . .193 
Insecta (Trivia), Mighels. Proc. Boat. Soo., ii, p. 24, 1845, 200 
Intermedia (Cyprsea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 77, 1824. 

== C. reticulata, Mart. . . . . . .175 

Intermedia (Trivia), Kien. Coq. Yiv., pi. 54, f. 1. 

= T. scabriuscula, Gray = T. oryza, Lam. 

Interrupta (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 376, 1824, . 167 
Interstincta, (Cypraea), Wood. Index Supp., pi. 3, f. 9, 1828. 

= C. staphylaea, Linn ........ 196 

Ipsa, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 97, 1884, . 161 
Irescens (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Gyp. Index, 1870. 

= C. macula, Ad. 
Irina (Cypraea), Kien. Coq. Yiv., p. 35, pi. 56, f. 2. 

= C. ni^ropunctata, Gray. 

Irrorata (Cyprsea), Sol. MSS. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 80, 1828, 167 
Isabella (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1177, 1767, . . 165 
Isabella Porcellana), Rumph. Amb. Rarit., pi. 39, f. G, 1705. 

= C. Isabella, Linn. 

Jemieria, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 98, 1884, 161 
Jenningsia (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 19, f, 4, 1811. 
= C. guttata, Gray. 

Kiinthi (Cypraea^, Audouin. Savigny, Desc. de 1'Egypt, ed. 
ii, vol. 22, p. 190, pi. 6, f. 27, 1828. =-C, lurida, Linn. 

Labiolineata (Cypraea), Sowb. (as of Gask.). Thes. Conch. 

Gyp., f. 231, 1870. == C. gangraenosa, Sol. 
Labiosa (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 202, 1835. 

= T. pediculus, Linn ..... . 201 

Labrolineata (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 97, 1848. 

= C. flaveola, Linn. . . . . . .195 

Lacrymalis (Cypraea), Menke. Synop., p. 83, 1828. 

= Trivia pulex, Sol. 
Lactea (Cypraea), Wood. Supp., pi. 3, f. 2. 1838. 

= C. eburnea, Barnes. 
Lamarcki (Cyprsea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 506, 1824, . 192 

15 



218 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Lathyrus (Cypraea), Dufr. Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat., xliii, 

p. 25, 1826. = C. sanguinea, Gray, 203 

Lentiginosa (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 489, pi. 7, 

12, f. 1, 1824, 186 

Leopardalis (Cypraea), Humph. Cat. Call. No. 130, 1179. 

= C. tigris, Linn. 
Leucodon (Cypraea), Brod. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 163, pi. 6, 

1828, . . .181 

Leucogaster (Cypmea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3413, 1790. 

= C. lurida, Linn. 
Leucopis (Cypraea), Shaw. Misc., xv, pi. 619. 

== C. exanthema, Linn. 

Leucostoma (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p, 25, 1843, . 177 
Leiicostoina (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3413, 1790. 

= C. lynx, Linn. 
Lienardi (Cypraea), Jouss. Revue et Mag. Zool., p. 11, pi. 

1, f. 1, 2, 1874. C. cicercula, Linn 198 

Limacina (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 400, 1822. 

= C. staphylaea, Linn 197 

Lineata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3413, 1790. 

= C. ziczac, Linn. 

Listeri (Cypnea), Gray. Zool Jour., i, p. 507, 1824, . . 193 
Livida (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3403, 1790. 

= C. cinerea, Gmel. 
Lrebbeckiana (Cypraea), Weink. M. Oh., ii, p. 82, pi. 24, f. 2, 

3,1881. == C. carneola, Linn 166 

Lota (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1175, 1759. 

= C. spurca, Linn. 

Luponia, Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 12, 1832, 159, 160, 163, 180 
Luria, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 92, 1884, . 161 
Lurida (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1175, 1767, . . 165 
Lutea (Cypraea), Gronov. Zoophylac. fasc., 3, pi. 19, f. 17, 

1781, 187 

Lyncina, Trosch. Gebiss, i, p. 208, 1863. 

= Cypraea, Linn. . . . . . . . .160 

Lynx (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1176, 1767, . 183 

Macandrei (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 129*, 

f. 537, 538, 1870, 191 

Macula (Cypraea), A. Ad. Zool. Proc., p. 206, 1867, . . 169 
Maculata (Cypraea), Barnes. Ann. Lye. N. H., i, p. 132, 1824. 

= C. reticulata, Marty n. 
Maculata (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 389, 1824. 

= C. zonata, Chem. 
Maculata (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 20, f. 5, 1811. 

= C. angustata, Gray. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 219 

PAGE. 

Maculosa (Cypraea), Grnel. Syst. Nat., p. 3412, 1790. 

= C. pyrum, Gmel. 
Madagascariensis (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3419, 

1790, . . 197 

Mandolina, Bayle MSS. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 

89, 1884, . 160 

Mappa (Cyprsea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1173, 1767, . . 174 
Margarita (Cyprsea), Sol. MSS. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 87, 1828, 191 
Marginata (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 91, 1848, . . 176 
Marmorata (Cyprsea), Blainv. Diet. Sci. Nat., xliii, p. 26, 

1826. = C. carneola, Linn. 

Maugeri (Trivia), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 13, 1832, . 203 
Mauritia, Troschel. Gebiss, i, p. 208, 1863. 

= Cyprsea, Linn. . . . . . . . .160 

Mauritiana (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1176, 1767, . 173 
Mauxiena, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 89, 1884, 160 
Mediterranea (Trivia), Risso. Eur. Merid., p. 239, 1826. 

= T. Europaea, Mont. ... . 205 

Melanostoma (Cypraea), Leathes. Tank. Cat. App., p. 31, 

1825. = C. camelopardalis, Perry. 
Menkeana (Cypraea), Desk. Conch. I. Reunion, p. 139, pi. 

13, f. 21, 2-2, 1863. = C. Oweni, Sowb 169 

Mercatorium (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Malac. 

France, p. 80, pi. 1, f. 3, 1884. = C. moneta, Linn. .178 
Miciodon (Cypra-a), Gray. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 71, 1828, . 169 
Miliaris (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3420, 1790, . . 192 
Minima (Cypraea), Dunker. Index Moll., p. 30, pi. 4, f. 5, 

6, 1853. = C. lurida, Linn. 
Misella (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 23, f. 6, 1811. 

= C. ziczac, Linn. 
Modesta (Cyprsea), H. Owen. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 512; 

1870. = C. Menkeana, Desh. = C. Oweni, Sowb. 
Moneta (Cyprasa). Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1178, 1767, . 155, 177 
Monetaria (Subgenus), Troschel. Gebiss, i, p. 212, 1863. 

= Aricia, Gray, 160, 161 

Moniliaris (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Yert.,vii, p. 396, 1822. 

= C. clandestina, Linn. 
Montosa (Porcellana), Humph. Amb. Rarit., p. 114, pi. 38, 

f. B, 1705. C. mappa, Linn. 
Morbillosa (Cyprsea), Sol. MSS. Dillw., Cat., p. 461. 1817. 

= C. cruenta, Gmel. 
Multilirata (Trivia), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., f. 427, 428, 

521,522,1870. = T. formosa, Gask 204 

Mus (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1176, 1767, . . 177 

Napolina (Trivia), Duel. Coq. Viv., p. 144, pi. 53, f. 3, . 206 
Naria, Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 12, 1832, . r . . 159, 161 



220 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Nebulosa (Cypreeft), Gmel. (non Kiener). Syst. Nat., p. 

3413, 1790.' C. stercoraria, Linn. 
Nebulosa (Cypraea), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 63, pi. 32, f. 3. 

= C. zonata, Chem. . 186 

Nebulosa (Cypraea), Sowb. (as of Kien.). Thes. Conch. 

Gyp., f. 354, 355, 1870. 

= C. Petitiana, Crosse and F. = C. pyrum, Gmel., var. 
Neglecta (Cypraea), Sowb. Conch. 111., sp. 66, f. 12*, 1837, 170 
Niger (Cypraea), Roberts = C. eglantina, Sowb. (non 

Duclos^Thes. Conch.,f. 282,283,1870. = C.arabica,Linn., 174 
Nigricans (Cypraea), Montrouzier. Jour, de Conch., p. 220, 

pi. 8, f. 5, pi. 9, f. 3, 1875. = C. mappa, Linn. . 174 

Nigropunctata (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., iv, p. 81, 1828, 185 
Nivea (Cypraea), Gray (non Sol.). Zool. Jour., i, p. 420, 

511, 1824. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 98, 1848. 

= C. turdus, Lam 199 

Nivea (Trivia), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 15, 1832, . . 199 
Nivea (Cypraea), Mawe. Wood, Index Suppl., f. 12, 1828. 

= C. lutea, Gronov. 
Nivea (Cyprsea), Sol. Dillw. Cat, i, p. 466, 1817. 

= Trivia nivea, Gray. 
Niveria (Genus), Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 

100, 1884, .... 161 

Nivosa (Cypraea), Brod. Zool. Jour., iii, p. 84, pi. 4, f. 1, 

1827, 182 

Norvegica (Trivia), Sars. = T. Europaea, Mont. . . 205 
Notata (Cypraea), Gill. Ann. Lye. N. H., vi, p. 255, pi. 9, 

f. 1-3, 1858. == C. macula, Ad. 
Noumeensis (Cypraea), Marie. Jour, de Conch., xvii, p. 18, 

pi. 2, f. 6, 1869. = C. annulus, Linn 178 

Nuclearia (Genus), Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, 

p. 98, 1884, 161 

Nucleus (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1181, 1767, . . 197 
Nymphaea (Cyprrea), Duel. ? = C. onyx, Linn. 

Oblonga (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3416, 1790. 

= C. errones, Linn. 
Obscura (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 94, 1848. 

= T. napolina, Duel 206 

Obscura (Cypraea), Rossiter. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 

p. 821, 1881. = C. caurica. Linn 171 

Obtusa (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 19, f. 1, 1811. 

= C. pantherina, Sol. 

Obvelata (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 401, 1822, 179 
Ocellaria (Section), Weink. Jahrb. Malak., 1881, . . 160 
Ocellata (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1180, 1767, . .193 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 221 

PAGE. 

Ochroleuca (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3413. 

= Ovulum verrucosum, Linn. 
Oculata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3403, 1790. 

= C. cervus, Linn. 
Olivacea (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3408, 1790. 

= C. stercoraria, Linn. 
Olivacea (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 392, 1822. 

= C. errones, Linn. 
Olorina (Cypraea), Duel. Zool. Proc., 1835, p. 201. 

= Trivia candidula, Gask. . .... . . 203 

Oniscus (Trivia), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 103, 1810, . 198 
Onyx (Cyprsea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1177, 1767, . . 183 
Oryza (Trivia), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, p. 104, 1810, . 200 
Otaheitensis (Cypraea), Sch. et Wag., p. 108, pi. 228, f. 

4029-30, 1829. = C. carneola, Linn. 
Ovata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3405, 1790. 

= C. errones, Linn. 
Ovata (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 21, f. 3, 1811. 

= C. turdus, Lam. 

Ovulata (Trivia), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 398, 1822, . 199 
Ovum (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3412, L790. 

= C. errones, Linn. 
Oweni (Cypraea), Sowb. C. 111., sp. 64, f. 12**, 1837, . 169 

Pacifica (Trivia), Gray. Desc, Cat. Cyp., p. 15, 1832, . 201 
Pallida (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 287, 1824, . . 184 
Pallidula (Cyprsea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 97, 1848. 

= C. quadrimaculata, Gray, 167 

Pantherina (Cypraea), Sol. MSS. Dillw. Cat., i, p. 449, 1817, 181 
Pardalina (Cypraea), Dunker. Zeit. fur Malak., p. 126, 1852. 

Probably C. turdus, Lam., var. 
Pardalis (Cypraea), Shaw. Nat. Misc., vi, pi. 193. 

= C. tigris, Linn. 
Parvula (Cypraea), Philippi. Zeit. fur Malak., p. 24, 1849. 

Unidentified 207 

Pancilirata (Trivia), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 175*, f. 

502,526, 1870, ". 201 

Peasei (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 113, f. 

167, 168, 1870. = C. esontropia, Duel. . . . ,191 
Pediculus (Trivia), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1180, 1767, . . 201 
Pediculus (Trivia), Linn, (in part). Syst. Nat., p. 1180, 

1767. = T. oryza, Lam. 
Pediculus (Trivia), Mont. Test. Brit., i, p. 200, 1803. 

= T. Europaea. Mont. 
Pediculus (Cypraea), Rumph. Amb. Rarit., pi. 39, f. P, 

1705. =s Trivia oryza, Lam. 



222 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Pellucidula (Trivia;, Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 23, 1846, . . 204 
Peribolus, Adans. Moll. Hist. Nat. Senegal, 1757. 

= Cypraea, Linn. 
Perrieri (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull. Soc. Malac. France, p. 

92, t. 2,f. 6. = C. annulus, Linn. ...... 179 

Petitiana (Cypraea), Crosse and F. Jour, de Conch., xx, p. 

213, 1872. = C. pyrum, Gmel 183 

Physis (Cypraea), Brocchi (in aet. foss.). Conch, foss. 

Subapp., ii, p. 284, pi. 2, f. 3, 1814, 183 

Picta (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 389, pi. 7, 12, f. 

10, 1824, . . , . . . . . .186 

Picturata (Trivia), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, p. 49, 1877. 

= T. pediculus, Linn. 
Pilula (Trivia), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 151, pi. 54, f. 2. 

= T. globosa, Gray, .200 

Piperita (Cypraea), Sol. MSS. Zool. Jour., i, p. 498, 1824, 189 
Pisum (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 24, 1846, . . .203 
Pleuronectes (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull, de Soc. Malac. 

France, p. 85, t. 1, f. 5, 1884. = C. moneta, Linn. . '. 178 
Plumaria (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull, de Soc. Malac. 

France, p. 87, t. 2, f. 2, 1884. == C. moneta, Linn. . . 178 
Plumbea (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3403, 1790. 

= C, exanthema, Linn. 
Polita (Cypraea), Roberts. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 70, pi. 

15, f. 1-3, 1868, 194 

Ponda, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 95, 1884, . 161 
Poraria (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1180, 1767, . . 193 
Poraria (Cypraea), Mart, (non Linn.) Conch., i, p. 394, pi. 

30, f. 324, 325, 1768. = C. gangrsenosa, Sol. 
Porcellana, Klein. Tenta. Cochel., p. 83, 1753. 

= Cypraea, Linn 161 

Porcellanidae (Family), Roberts. Catalogue in Am. Jour. 

Conch., v, 1869. = Cypraeidae, Linn. 
Porcellus (Cypraea), Broc. Conch. Foss. Subap., ii, p. 283, 

t. 2, f. 2, 1814. = C. pyrum., Gmel., fossil, . . .183 
Princeps (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 75, 1824, . 180 
Producta (Trivia), Gask; Zool. Proc., 1835, p. 200, 1848, . 204 
Pseudo-cassis (Genus), Pictet. Pal. Suisse, ser. iii, pt. 2, 

361, 1863, 162 

Pulchella (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 143, 1824. 

= C. pulchra, Gray, ibid, p. 380, 165 

Pulchella (Cypraea), Swn. Phil. Mag., Ixi, p. 376, 1823, . 184 
Pulchra (Cyprgea), Gray. Zool. Jour.,i, p. 380, pi. 7, 12, f. 9, 165 
Pulex (Trivia), Sol. MSS. Zool. Jour., iii, p. 368, 1827, . 206 
Pulicaria (Cypraea), Reeve. Zool. Proc., p. 23, 1846, . . 189 
Pulla (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., 1846., p. 24; 1848, p. 97, 206 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 223 



Pulla (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3412, 1790. 

= C. onyx, Linn. 
Pnllata (Trivia), H. Owen MSS. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Gyp. 

Index, f. 446, 447, 1870. = T. suffusa, Gray, . . .201 
Punctata (Cypraea), Linn. Mantissa, p. 548, 1771, . . 188 
Punctulata (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 387, 1824,. . 18G 
Punctulata .(Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3404, 1790. 

= C. C3 r lindrica, Linn. 
Purpurascens (Cypraea), Swn. Phil. Mag.,lxi, p. 376, 1823. 

= C. sanguinolenta, Gmel. 
Purpurascens (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3404, 1790. 

= C. cinerea, Gmel. 
Purpurata (Cypraea), Sol. MSS. Dillw. Cat., i, p. 445, 1817. 

= C. sanguinolenta, Gmel. 
Pusilla (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3421, 1790. 

= C. clandestina, Linn. 

Pustularia, Swainson. Malacology, p. 324, 1840, 159,161,163, 196 
Pustulata (Cyprae), Lam. An. du Mus., xv, p. 101, 1810, . 197 
Pusiila, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 99, 1884, . 161 
Pyriformis (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 371, 1824, . 184 
Pyriformis (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., f. 284, 

1880. = C. turdus, Lam 192 

Pyrula (Cypraea), Mich, (non Lam.). Fossil. Mioc. It. Sept., 

p, 329. = C. physis, Broc., fossil, . . . . . 183 
Pyrum (Cypra3a), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3411, 1790, . . 183 

Quadrimaculata (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 376, 1824, 167 
Quadripunctata (Trivia), Gray? Zool. Jour., iii, p. 368, 1827, 201 

Radians (Trivia), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 402, 1822, . 202 
Rattus (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 380, 1822. 

= C. stercoraria, Linn. ..... . 176 

Reentsi (Cypraea), Dkr. Menke and Pfr., 1852, p. 189, and 

Nov. Conch., pi. 9, f. 3, 4, 1858. = C. gangraenosa, Sol., 196 
Reevei (Cypraea), Gray. C. 111., sp. 15*, f. 52, 1837, . . 166 
Regina (Cypraea), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, p. 101, 1788. 

= C. Mauritiana, Linn. 
Regina (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3406, 1790. 

= C. Mauritiana, Linn. 

Reticulata (Cypnea), Martyn. Univ. C., pi. 15, 1782, . 174 
Reticulum (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3407, 1790. 

= C. caput-serpentis, Linn. 
Rhinoceros (Cypraea), Souv. Jour, de Conch., p. 156, pi. 5, 

f. 1, 1865. = C. interrupta, Gray, . . . . . .167 

Rosea (Trivia), Duel. Potiez, Gall, des Moll., p. 477, 1838. 

= T. Australis, Lam. 



224 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Rosea (Cypraea), Wood. Index Supp., pi. 3, f. 15, 1828. 

= Trivia costata, Gmel 199 

Rota (Trivia), Weink. M. Ch., ii, t. 38, f. 13, 16, 1881. 

= T. radians, Lam 202 

Rotunda (Trivia), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 141, pi. 53, f. 2. 

= T. quadripimctata, Gray, . . . . . . 202 

Rubescens (Trivia), Gray. Zool. Proc., p. 185, 1832, . . 204 
Rubiginosa (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3420, 1790. 

= C. stolida, Linn. 

Rubinicolor (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 200, 1835, . 204 
Rufa (Cyprsea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 388, 1822. 

= C. pyrum, Gmel. 
Rufescens (Cypraaa), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3404. 

= C. cinerea, Gmel. 

Salita (Porcellana), Rumph. Arab. Rarit., pi. 38, f. L, 1705. 

= C. vitellus, Linn. 
Sandwichensis (Trivia), Sowb. Thes. Gyp. Index, 1870. 

= T. scabriascula, Gray. 

Sanguinea (Trivia), Gray. Pesc. Cat. Gyp., p. 14, 1832, . 203 
Sanguinolenta (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3406, J790, 186 
Saulse (Cyprsea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 23, 1843, . . 188 
Scabiosa '(Cypraea), Humph. Cat. Call., No. 103, 1779. 

= C. gangraenosa, Sol. 
Scabriuscula (Trivia), Gray. Zool. Jour., iii, p. 364, 1827. 

== T. oryza, Lam. . . . . . . .200 

Scabriuscula (Trivia), Kien. (non Gray). Coq. Viv., pi. 43, 

f. 3. = T. nivea, Gray, 200 

Scottii (Cypraea), Brod. Zool. Jour., v, p. 330, pi. 14, 1831, 176 
Scurra (Cyprsea), Chemn. Conch. Cab , x, p. 103, pi. 144, 

f. 1338,1788, .165 

Semiplota (Cypraea), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 24, 

1848, .... . .194 

Siciliana (Cypraea), Salis. Reisen Neapol., i, p. 364, 1793. 

= C. pyrum, Gmel. 

Similis (Cypraea). Gray. Zool. Miscel., p. 36, . . .189 
Similis (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3421, 1790. 

= C. erosa, Linn. 
Smithi (Cypraea), Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1881, p. 638, pi. 56, 

f. 8. = C. pyriformis, Gray, 184 

Solandri (Trivia). Gray. C. 111., sp. 128, f. 43, 1837, . . 202 
Sophias (Cypraea), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, 

p. 7, 1875, . .184 

Sordida (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 387, 1822. 

= C. cinerea, Gmel. 
Sowerbyi (Cypraaa), Kien. Coq. Viv., p. 38, pi. 7, f. 3, . 185 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 225 

PAGE. 

Sowerbyi (Cypraea), Anton. Yerzeich. der Conch., p. 97, 

1839. = C. carncola. Linn. 
Sowerbyi (Cypraea), Gray. Desc. Cat. Cyp., p. 9, 1832. 

= C. neglecta, Sowb. 

k Spadicea (Cypraea), Swn. Phil. Mag., bri, p. 876, 1823, .182 
Spadix (Cypraea), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 25, 1848. 

= C. semiplota, Mighels, ....... 194 

Sphaerieulata (Trivia), Lam. Ann. du Mus., No. 14, 1810. 

=i T. Europaea, Mont., fossil, ...... 205 

Sphaerula (Trivia), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 24, 1848. 

= T. erlobosa, Gray, . 200 

Spurca (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1179, 1767, . . 195 
Spurca (Cypraea), Linn., var. flaveola, Sowb. Thes. C3 T p., 

f. 121, 1870. = C. Cernica, Sowb., pars. 
Squalina (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3420, 1790. 

= C. l}'nx, Linn. 
Staphylaea, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 96, 

1884, 161 

Staphyhea (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1181, 1767, . 196 
Stellata, (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 22, f. 2, 1811. 

= C. erosa, Linn. 
Stellata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3413, 1790. 

= C. cinerea, Gmel. 
Stellata (Cypraea), Humph. Cal. Cat., No. 107, 1779. 

= C. helvola, Linn. 

Stercoraria (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1174, 1767, . 175 
Stercus-ranscarum (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 

396, 1822. = C. pimctata, Linn 188 

Stolida, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 94, 1884, 161 
Stolida (Cypraea ^, Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3416, 1790. 

= C. caurica, Linn. 

Stolida (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1180, 1767. . . 171 
Striata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3421, 1790. 

Probably C. Staphylaea, Linn. 
Subcylindrica (Cypraea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., No. 21, 

f. 269, 270, 1870. = C. cylindrica, Born. . . .170 
Subflava (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3413, 1790. 

= C. errones, Linn. 
Subfuscula (Cypraea), Marty n. Univ. Conch., pi. 96, 1782. 

= C. vitellus, Linn. 

Subrostrata (Trivia), Gray. Zool. Jour., iii, p. 363, 1827, . 203 
Subrostrata (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 369, 1824. 

Fossil, undetermined. 
Subteres (Cypraea), Weink. M. Ch., ii, pi. 8, f. 4 ; pi. 13, f. 

1,4,1881. = C. teres, Gmel .170 

Subviridis (Cypnea), Rve. Icon., pi. 12, sp. 48, 1845, . 184 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



Succincta (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1177, 1767. 

= C. onyx, Linn. 

Suffusa (Trivia), Gray. Desc. Cat. Gyp., p. 16, 1832, . . 201 
Sulcata (Trivia), Dillw. (non Gask.). Cat., i, p. 466, 1817. 

= T. pediculus, Linn. 

Sulcata (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 95, 1848, . . 199 
Sulcidentata (Cypraea), Gray. Zool. Jour., i, p. 148, 1824, . 172 
Sulcocypraea, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, p. 31, 1865. 

= Cypraeovula, Gray, 162 

Surinamensis, (Cypraea), Perry. Conch., pi. 20, f. 4, 1811. 

= C. nebulosa, Kien. = C. zonata, Chem. 

Tabescens (Cyprsea), Sol. MSS. Dillw. Cat., i. p. 463, 1817, 170 
Talpa (Cypraea), Humph. Cal. Cat., No. 135, 1779. 

= C. testudinaria, Linn. 

Talpa (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1174, 1767, . . 167 
Talpa (Porcellana), Rumph. Amb. Rarit., pi. 38, f. i, 1705. 

= C. talpa, Linn. 

Talparia, Trosch. Gebiss, i, p. 206, 1863, . . . .160 
Teres (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3405, 1790, . . 170 
Teres (Cypraea), Wood. Index (Hanley's ed.), f. 1?, 1856. 

Unidentified. 
Tessellata, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 97, 

1884, .161 

Tessellata (Cypraea), Swn. Zool. Jour., i, p. 150, 1824, . 173 
Testudinaria (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1173, 1767, . 165 
Testudinoea (Cypnea), Perry. Conch., pi. 22, f. 7, 1811. 

= C. testudinaria, Linn. 
Thatcheri (Cypraea), Cox. Zool. Proc., 1869, p. 358, pi. 26, 

f. 1. = C. venusta, Sowb. . . . . . .177 

Thersites (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 90, 1848, . .176 
Thomasi (Cyprsea), Crosse. Jour, de Conch., xiii, p. 57, pi. 

6, f. 3, 1865, 195 

Tigrina (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3404, 1790. 

= C. tigris, Linn. 
Tigrina (Cypraea), Lam. (non Gmel.). An. sans Vert., vii, 

p. 383, 1822. = C. pantherina, Sol. 

Tigris (Subgenus), Trosch. Gebiss, i, p. 207, 1863, . .160 
Tigris (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1176, 1767, . . 180 
Translucens (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3404, 1790. 

= C. cincrea, Gmel. 
Tremeza (Trivia), Duel. Mag. de Zool., pi. 25, 1833. 

= T. exigua, Gray, . . . . . . . .202 

Tricornis (Cypraea), Jouss. Revue et Mag. Zool., p. 9, pi. 

1, f. 3, 4, 1874. == C. cicercula, Linn 198 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 227 

PAGE. 

Trifasciata (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3405, 1790. 

= C. Mauritiana, Linn. 
Trigonella (Cypraea), Dufr. Blainv., Diet. Sci. Nat., xliii, p. 

25, 1826. Unidentified, 207 

Triticea (Trivia), Dufr. Blainv., Diet., xliii, p. 25, 1826. 

= T. costata, Gmel. 
Trivia, Gray. Desc, Cat. Gyp., p. 13, 1832, 159, 161, 163, 198 

Triviacea, troschel. Gebiss, i, 1863, 159 

Triviella, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 99, 1884, 161 
Trivirostra, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 100, 

1884 161 

Trizonata (Cyprsea), Sowb. Thes. Conch. Gyp., No. 951, f. 

361, 362, 1880. = C. punctata, Linn 188 

Trona (Genus), Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 

89, 1884, . . 160 

Turbinata (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3404, 1790. 

= C. Mauritiana, Linn. 
Turdus (Cyprsea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 392, 1822, 192 

Umbilia, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 90, 1884, 160 
Umbilicata (Cypraea), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 30, pi. 7, 

1825, 157, 181 

Undata (Cyprsea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 393, 1822, 187 
Undulata (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3406, 1790. 

= C. Mauritiana, Linn. 
Undulata (Cyprsea), Wood (non Gmel.). Supp., p. S7, pi. 

17, f. 16, 1828. = C. ziczac, Linn. 
Unifasciata (Cyprsea), Mighels. Proc. Bost. Soc., ii, p. 25, 

1848. = C.'fimbriata, Gmel. 
Ursellus (Cyprsea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3411, 1790. 

= C. felina, Gmel 169 V 

Ursellus (Cyprsea), Perry. Conch., pi. 19, f. 2, 1811. 

= C. hirundo, Linn. (?) 

Valentia (Cyprsea), Perry. Conch., pi. 23, f. 2, 1811. 

= C. princeps, Gray. 
Vanelli (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1175, 1767. 

= C. lynx, Linn. 
Variolse (Porcellana), Rumph. Amb. Rarit, pi. 38, f. 0, 

1705. = C. cruenta, Gmel. 
Variolaria (Cypraea), Lam. An. sans Vert., vii, p. 387, 1822. 

= C. cruenta, Gmel. 
Variolosa (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3413. 

= C. pyrum, Gmel. 

Ventriculus (Cypraea), Lam. An. du Mus.,xvi, p. 452, 1810, 172 
Venusta(Cypra3a),Sowb. Ann. Mag. N. H.,xix,p. 346, 1847, 176 



228 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Yenusta (Cypr^aa), Gask. MSS. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Gyp., 

p. 19, 1870. = C. venusta, Sowb. 

Vesicuiaris (Cypraea), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 203, 1835, . 199 
Vestimenti (Monetaria), Rochebr. Bull. Soc.Malac. France, 

p. 81, t. 1, f. 6, 1884. == C. raoneta, Linn. . . .178 
Vinosa (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3421, 1790. 

= C. pantherina, Sol. 

Vitellus (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1176, 1767, . . 182 
Vitrea (Trivia), Gask. Zool. Proc., p. 95, 1848, . . .200 
Vulgusella, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 90, 1884, 160 

Walked (Cypraea), Gray. Desc. Cat., p. 11, 1832, . . 185 
Xanthodon (Cyprsea), Gray. Desc. Cat., p. 10, 1832, . . 186 

Zebra (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1174. 

= C. exanthema, Linn. 

Ziczac (Cypraea), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1177, 1767, . . 187 
Ziczac (Cyprsea), Dillw. (non Linn.). Wood Index (Hanley 

ed.), f. 33, 1856. = < '. undata, Lam. 

Zoila, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 89, 1884, . 160 
Zonaria, Jouss. Bull, de Soc. Zool. France, ix, p. 92, 1884, 161 
Zonaria (Cypraea), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3414, 1788. 

= C. zonata, Chemn. 
Zonata (Cypraea), Chemn. Conch. Cab., x, pi. 145, f. 1342, 

1788, . 186 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



PLATE 1. 

FIGURE. PAOB. 

1, 2. Oypraea Argus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., 14, 15, . 164 

3. Cypraea cervinetta, Kien. (= exanthema). Icon., t. 6, 

f. 2, . 164 

4, 5. Cypraea exanthema. Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 182, 183, 164 

6, 7. Cypraea Isabella. Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Gyp., 

f. 16, 17, . 165 

8. Cypraea Clara, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Gyp., f. 91*, 166 

9, 10. Cypraea testudinaria, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 83, 84, 165 

PLATE 2. 

11, 12. Cypraea cervus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 89*, 

90*, 164 

13, 14. Cypraea cervinetta, Kien. (= exanthema, var.). 

Icon., t. 6, f. 1, . 164 

15, 16. Cyprsea cinerea, Gmel. Sowb., Thes., f. 92*, 93, . 166 
17, 18. Cypneapulchra,Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp.,f. 62, 63, 165 
19, 20, 21. Cypraea scurra, Chem. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

-f. 53,54, 55, 165 

PLATE 3. 

22, 23. Cypraea lurida, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 64, 65, .165 
24, 25. Cyprsea Reevei, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 40, 41, 166 
26, 27,28. Cypraea carneola, Linn. Kien., Icon., t. 37, f. 3, 

t. l,f. 2, . . .166 

29, 30. Cypraea Loebbeckeana, Weinkauff (= carneola). 

Kiister, t. 24, f. 2; 3, 166 

31, 32,33. Cypraaa talpa, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 74, 75, 76, 167 
34, 35. Cyprsea exusta, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 77, 78, . 167 
36, 37. Cypra3ainterrupta,Gray. Sowb., Thes., f.^71, 272, 167 

(229) 



230 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 4. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

38, 39. Cyprsea rhinoceros, Boav. (= interrupts). Jour. 

de Conch., 1866, t. 5, f. 1, 167 

40, 41. C3 7 preea quadrimaculata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 276, 277, 167 

42. Cyprsea pallidula, Gask. (= quadrimaculata).' Sowb., 

Thes.,f. 275, 167 

43, 44. Cyprsea Goodalli, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp.,f. 309, 

310, . . . . ' 168 

45. Cyprsea Ow.eni, Sowb. Specimen, . . . .169 

46, 47. Cyprsea Adelinse, Roberts (=fuscomaculata, Gray, 

non Pease). Sowb., Thes., f. 372, 373, . . .168 
48, 49. Cyprsea contaminata, Gray. Sowb., Thes., f. 331, 

332, . 168 

50, 51. Cypraea irrorata, Soland. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 304, 

305, 167 

52, 53. Cyprsea felina, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 392, 

395, 169 

54, 55. Cypraea ursellus, Gmel. (= felina). Kien., Icon., 

t. 33, f. 4, . . 169 

56, 57. Cyprsea hirundo, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 382, 383, 169 

58. Cyprsea Menkeana, Desh. (= Oweni). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 333. ......... 169 

59, 60. Cyprsea fabula, Kien. (= felina). Icon., t. 54, f. 3, 169 
61, 62, 63. Cyprsea neglecta, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 375, 

377,378, . .170 

64, 65. Cyprsea chrysalis, Kien. Icon., t. 54, f. 4, . .172 
66, 67. Cyprsea coffea, Sowb. (== neglecta). Thes. Conch., 

f. 359, 360, . 170 

68. Cypraea Oweni, Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., f. 367, . 169 

69, 70. Cyprsea Menkeana, Desh. (= Oweni). Conch. I. 

Reunion, t. 13, f. 21, 22, 169 

71, 72. Cyprsea macula, Adams. Sowb., Thes., f. 380, 381, 169 

PLATE 5. 

73. Cyprsea Menkeana, Desh. (= Oweni). Thes. Conch., 

f. 333. (Duplicated figure), 169 

74, 75. Cyprsea microdon, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Cyp., 

f. 385, 386, . .169 

76, 77, 78. Cyprsea fimbriata, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 389, 390, 391, 168 

79, 80. Cypraea cylindrica, Born. Sowb., Thes., f. 266,267, 170 
81. Cyprsea subcylindrica, Sowb. (= cylindrica). Thes. 

Conch., f. 269, . . 170 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 231 

FIGTJRB. PAGE. 

82, 83, 84. Cypraea tabescens, Sol. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f, 261, 263, 2U4, . . . . . 170 

85. Cypraea brevidentata, Sowb. (= stolida). Thes. Gyp., 

f. 326, Hi 

86, 87. Cypraea teres,Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Cyp.,f. 259, 260, 170 
88, 89, 90. Cypraea caurica, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 188/189, 191, 171 

91, 92. Cypraea stolida, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 327, 

328, . . .... 171 

93, 94. Cypraea Erythraeensis, Beck. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 323, 324, . 172 

PLATE 6. 

95, 96. Cypraea ventricnlus, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Cyp.,f. 3, 4, 172 

97. Cypraea cruenta, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 187, . 171 

98, 99, 100. Cypraea caput-serpentis, Linn. Sowb., Thes., 

f., 72, 73, 539, .173 

1, 2. Cypraea, arenosa, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 9, 10, 172 
3, 4. Cypraea sulcidentata, Gray. Sowb., Thes , f. 21, 22, 172 
5, 6. Cypraea tessellata, Swn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 99, 100, 173 

7. Cypraea Crossei, Marie (= stolida). Jour, de Conch., 

1869, t. 1, f. 3, 171 

/ PLATE 7. 

8. Cypraea Mauritiana, Linn. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 48, f. 2, 173 

9. 10. Cypraea Mauritiana, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 51, 52, 173 

11. Cypraea Mauritiana (jr.). Linn. Reeve, Icon.,f. 1 a, . 173 

12, 13, 14. Cypraea mappa, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 26, 

27,28, 174 

15, 16. Cypraea gemmula, Weink. Kiister, M. Ch., t. 16, 

f. 1, . 175 

PLATE 8. 

17. Cypraea nigricans, Mont. (= mappa). Jour, de 

Conch., 1875, t. 9, f. 3, 174 

18,19. Cypraea Arabica, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 60, 61, 174 

20. Cypraea intermedia, Gray (= reticulata), Sowb. Thes. 

Cyp., f. 68 (full size) 175 

21, 22. Cypraea reticulata. Mfirtyn. Thes. Conch., f. 66, 67, 174 

23. Cypraea niger, Roberts (Arabica, var.). Thes. Conch., 

f. 282, .... .... 174 

24. Cypraea eglantina, Duel. (= Arabica). Guer. Mag., 

1833, t. 28, 174 

25. 26. Cypraea histrio, Meusch. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

57,58, 175 



232 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

PLATE 9. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

27, 28. Cypraea stercoraria, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 97, 98, 175 

29, 30. Cypraea Scotti, Brod. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 47, 48, 176 
31,32. Cypraea thersites, Gask. .Thes. Conch., f. 49, 50, . 176 
33, 34. Cypraea marginata, Gask. Thes. Conch., f. 45, 46, 176 
35, 36. Cypraea arable ula, Lam. Reeve, Icon., f. 60 a, 6, . 175 

PLATE 10. 

37, 38. Cypraea leucostoma, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f 

36,37, 177 

39, 40. Cypraea decipiens, E. A. Smith. Zool. Proc., 1880 

t. 48, f. 8, 8 a, 176 

41, 42. Cyprsea mus, Linn. Thes. Conch. Gyp., f. 29, 30, 177 

43. Cypraea bicornis (?== mus), Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 321 177 

44, 45. Cyprsea venusta, Sowb. Zool. Proc., 1869, t. 26 

f. 1, 1 a, . .... . 176 

46. Cyprsea moneta, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 245, . 177 

PLATE 11. 

47. Cypraea princeps, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 2, . 180 

48. Cypraea aurantium, Martyn. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 8, 180 

49. 50. Cypraea tigris, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 12 a, 6, . 180 
51,52. Cypraea moneta, Linn. Sowb., Thes., f. 246, 247, . 177 
53, 54. Cyprsea Barthelemyi, Bern. (== moneta, Linn.). 

Jour, de Conch., 1861, t. 1, f. 3, 4, . . . .178 
55, 56. Cypraea obvelata, Lam. Sowb,, Thes. Gyp., f. 254, 

255, 179 

57. Cypraea annulus, Linn. Voy. Astrolabe, t. 48, f. 14, . 178 
'58. Cypraea annulus (fry). Voy. Samarang, t. 5, f. 4 a, . 179 

59. Cypraea Noumeensis, Marie (= annulus). Jour, de 

Conch., 1869, t. 2, f. 6, 178 

60, 61. Cypraea annulus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 252, 

253, 178 

PLATE 12. 

62, 63. Cypraea pantherina, Sol. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

69, 70, 181 

64. Cypraea Broderipi, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 88, 182 

65, 66. Cypraea umbilicata, Sowb. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 

43, 44, 181 

67, 68. Cypraea nivosa, Brod. Thes. Conch. Gyp., f. 

89, 90, 182 

69, 70. Cypraea leucodon^ Brod. Thes. Conch. Gyp., f. 

19,*20 181 

71. Cypraea Barclay!, Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1857, pi. 38, f. 4,6, 182 



REFEEENCE TO PLATES. 233 

PLATE 13. 
FIGURE. PAGB . 

72, 73. Cyprsea vitellus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 32, 33, 182 
74, 75. Cypraea physis, Brocchi. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f.' 

200, 201, . .183 

76. Cyprsea camelopardalis,JPerry. Thes. Conch., f. 34, . 182 

77. 79, 80, 81. Cypraea onyx. Linn. Thes. Conch. Cyp., f. 

208,212,211,209, .' 183 

78. Cyprsea spadicea, Swn. Thes. Conch. Cyp., f. 82, . 182 

82. Cyprsea Barclayi, Reeve. Zool. Proc., 1857, pi. 38, 

f. 4 a, . . . .182 

83, 84. Cyprsea pyrum, Gmel. Sowb., Thes., f. 202, 203, . 183 

85. Cyprsea Petitiana, C. and F. (= pyrum). Jour, de 

Conch., t. 11, f. 6, 183 

PLATE 14. 

86, 87. Cyprsea lynx, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 86*, 87*, 183 
80, 89, 7. Cyprsea errones, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

15fi, 157, 158, .183 

90, 91. Cyprsea pallida, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 159, 

160, .184 

92, 93. Cyprsea pulchella, Swn. Thes. Conch. Cyp., f. 148, 

149, . . 184 

94, 95. Cyprsea Smithi, Sowb. (= pyriformis, var.). Zool. 

Proc., 1881, f. 8, 184 

96, 97. Cyprsea Coxi, Braz. Zool. Proc., 1872, t. 44, f. 

3, 3 a, . . 184 

98. Cyprsea Caledonica, Crosse (== lynx, var.). Jour, de 

Conch., 18S9, t. 1, f. 1, 183 

99, 100. Cyprsea subviridis, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 177, 178, 184 

1,2. Cyprsea amabilis, Jouss. (=: Walked, var.), From 

sketch by author, 185 

3, 4. Cyprsea Sophise, Brazier. Specimen, . . . 184 
5, 6. Cyprsea pyriformis, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

145, 146, .184 

PLATE 15. 

8. Cyprsea tigris, Linn. Lingual dentition. Trosch., 

Gebiss, t. 17, f. 6, 153 

9. Cyprsea Sowerbyi, Kien. Reeve, Icon., f. 40, . . 185 

10. Cyprsea Walkeri, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 123, . 185 

11. Cvpraea nebulosa, Kiener (= zonata, var.). Sowb., 

"Thes. Cyp.,f. 198, .186 

12. 13. Cyprsea ziczac, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 135, 

136, . 187 

16 



234 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

14, 15. Cypraea Bregeriana, Crosse (= Walkeri, var.). 

J. C., 18G9, t. l,f. 2, . 185 

16,17. Cypraea sanguinolenta, Gmel. Sowb.,Thes. Conch., 

f. 194, 195, . 186 

18, 19. Cypraea nigropunctata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., 

f. 94, 95, . . . . ' . . . ' . 185 

20, 21. Cypraea lentiginosa, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

152, 153, ... 186 

22, 23. Cyprsea zonata, Chem. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

126, 127, 186 

24, 25. Cyprsea xanthodon, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

196, 197, 186 

26, 27. Cypraea stercus-muscarum, Lam. (punctata, var.). 

Sowb., Thes., f. 364, 365, 188 

28, 29. Cypraea punctulata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

154, 155, 186 

30, 31. Cypraea picta, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch. Cyp., 

f. 179, 180, 186 

32. Cypraea trizonata, Sowb. (= punctata, var.). Thes., 

f. 361, . 188 

PLATE 16. 

33. Cypraea undata, Lara. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 131, . 187 

34. Cypraea asellus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 207, . 187 

35. 36. Cypraea lutea, Gronov. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

142, 143, 187 

37, 38. Cypraea clandestina, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

139, 141, 187 

39, 40. Cypraea Candida, Pease (= clandestina). Am. 

Jour. Conch., iv, pi. 11, f. 12, 187 

41, 42. Cypraea Saulae, Gask. Sowb., Thes., f. 85, 86, . 188 
43, 44. Cypraea gracilis, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 315, 

316, . . * . .188 

45, 46. Cypraea Comptoni, Gray (== angustata). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 294, 295, 188 

47, 48. Cypraea angustata, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

296,297, 188 

49, 50. Cyprsea piperita, Sol. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 285, 

286, 189 

51, 52. Cyprsea punctata, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 279, 

280, 188 

53. Cypraea declivis, Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., f. 328*, . 189 

54, 55. Cypraea fuscodentata, Gray. Sowb., Thes., f. 298, 

299, 189 

56, 57. Cypraea Algoensis, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

311,312, 189 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 235 

PIGTTRK. PAGE. 

58. Cypraaa bicolor, Gask. (= piperita). Sowb., Thes. f. 

289, 189 

59, 60. Cypraea pulicaria, Rve. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 290, 

291, . 189 

61. Cypraea Artuffeli, Jouss-. (= clandestina, var.). Sowb., 

Thes., f. 327*, 188 

62, 63. Cypraea similis, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 300, 

301, 189 

PLATE It. 

64, 65. Cypraea Coxeni, Cox. Zool. Proc., 1873, t. 48, f. 10, 190 
66, 67. Cypraea cribellum, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Gyp., f. 1&5, 

166, . . .190 

68. Cypraea Walkeri, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 125, . 185 

69. Cypraea castanea, Higgins (= similis). Zool. Proc., 

1868, t. 14, f. 1, 190 

70. Cypraea compta, Pease (= Cumingi, var.). Zool. 

Proc., 1860, t. 51, f. 1, ... 191 

71. 72. Cypraea cribraria, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

163, 164, 190 

73, 74. Cypraea Gaskoini, Reeve. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

352, 353, .191 

75. Cypraea Peasei, Sowb. (= esontropia). Sowb., Thes., 

f. 167, 191 

76, 77. Cypraea esontropia, Duel. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

169, 170, . .190 

78, 79. Cypraea Cumingi, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

349, 350, 191 

80. Cyprsea miliaris, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 109, . 192 

81, 82. Cypraea margarita, Sol. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 337, 

338, 191 

83,84. Cypraea guttata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

104, 105, 191 

85. Cypraea eburnea, Barnes. Sowb., Thes. Conch. , f . 108, 192 

86, 87". Cyprsea Becki/ Gask. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 341, 

342, 191 

88, 89. Cypraea Macandrei, Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp., 

f. 537, 538, 191 

PLATE 18. 

90, 100, 1. Cypraea erosa, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. Ill, 

112, 115, 192 

91, Cypraea turdus, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 128, . 192 

92, 93. Cypraea ocellata, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

102, 103, ' . -193 



236 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

94, 95. Cypraea Listeri, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

241,242, . . .193 

96, 97. Cypraea Lamarcki, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch. 

Cyp., f. 106, 107, 192 

98, 99. Cypraea albuginosa, Mawe. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 

256, 257, 193 

2, 3. Cypraea poraria, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 236, 

237, 193 

7. Cypraea Atibreyana, Jouss. (= bicallosa), (| natural 

size). Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1869, t. 18, f. 1, . . 193 
5, 6. Cypraea bicallosa, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

220, 221, . . 193 

4. Cj'praea ingloria, Crosse (= bicallosa), full size. Jour. 

de Conch., 1878, t. 3, f. 2 a, 193 

PLATE 19. 

8, 9. Cypraea helvola, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 214, 

215, 194 

10, 11. Cypraea citrina, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 218,- 

219, . 194 

12, 13. Cypraea polita, Roberts. Am. Jour. Conch., 1868, 

t. 15, f. 1,3, 194 

14, 15. Cypraea Thomasi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1865, 

t. 6,f. 3, . . . 195 

16, 17. Cypraea spurca, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f, 118, 

119, 195 

18, 19. Cypraea gangraenosa, Sol. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

234,235, 195 

20, 21. Cypraea Helenae, Roberts ( labrolineata, Gask. 

'flaveola). Am. Jour. Conch., 1868, t. 15, f. 8, 9, 195 

22. Cypraea flaveola, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 95, . . 195 

23, 24. Cypraea Cernica, Sowb. Thes. Conch. Cyp.,f. 239, 

240, . 195 

25, 26. Cypraea Boivini, Kien. (= gangraenosa, Sol.). Coq. 

Yiv., t. 18, f. 2, . 196 

27, 28. Cypraea Reentsi, Dunker (= gangraenosa). Novit. 

Conch., f. 3, 196 

29, 30. Cypraea (Gaskoinia) edentula, Sowb. Reeve, Icon., 

f. 85, . . 196 

31. Cypraea Annae, Roberts (= semiplota). Amer. Jour. 

Conch., 1868, t. 15, f. 4, 194 

32, 33. Cypraea (Cypraeovula) Adamsoni, Gray. Sowb., 

Thes. Cyp., f. 401, 402, .... .196 

34, 35. Cypraea (Cypraeovula) Capensis, Gray. Sowb., 

Thes. Conch., f. 306, 308, . . . . .196 

36. C}^pra3a spadix, Mighels (= semiplota). Specimen, . 194 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 237 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

37. Cypraea semiplota, Mighels. Specimen, . . . 194 

38. Cyprsea (Pustularia) granulata, Pease (= Madagas- 

cariensis). Specimen, . . . . . .197 

PLATE 20. 

39. 40. Cypraea (Pustularia) staphylsea, Linn. Sowb., 

Thes., f. 228, 229, 196 

41. Cypraea (Pustularia) staphylaea, Linn. Dentition. 

Trosch., Gebiss, i,t. 17, f. 18, 153 

42, 43, 44. Cypraea (Pustularia) interstincta, Wood (= 

staphylsea). Sowb., Thes., f. 223, 224, 227, . . 196 
45, 46. Cypraea (Pustularia) pustulata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp.,f. 396,397, 197 

47. Cyprsea fuscomaculata, Pease. Amer. Jour. Conch., 

1868, t. 11, f. 11, 168 

48, 49. Cypraea (Pustularia) nucleus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 399, 400, . .... 197 

50, 51. Cypraea (Epona) annulata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 
Cyp., f. 339, 340, ....... 197 

52. Cypraea (Pustularia) pustulata, young shell. Sowb. 

Thes. Conch., f. 398, . . 197 

, 53, 54. Cypraea (Epona) Children!, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 403, 404, . . .... 198 

55, 56. Cypraea (Epona) cicercula, Linn. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 345,346, 197 

57, 58. Cypraea (Epona) Lienardi, Jouss. (= C. cicercula). 

Mag. de Zool., 1874, t. 1, f. 1, 2, . . . .198 
59, 60. Cypraea (Epona) globulus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 347, 348 198 

61, 62. Cypraea (Epona) tricornis, Jouss. (== C. cicercula). 

Mag. de Zool., 1874, t. 1, f. 3, 4, . . . .198 

63. Cypraea (Trivia) Europaea, Montagu. Dentition. 

Trosch., Gebiss, i, t. 18, f. 4. 

64. Cypraea (Trivia) Europaea, Montagu. Portion of jaw. 

Trosch., Gebiss, i, t. 18, f. 3, ... .153 

65. 66. Cypraea (Pustularia) Madagascariensis, Grael. 

Sowb., Thes. Cyp., f. 406, 407, 197 

PLATE 21. 

67, 68. Cypraea (Trivia) oniscus, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 416, 417, 198 

69, 70. Cypraea (Trivia) ovulata, Lam. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 410, 411, . 199 

71, 72. Cypraea (Trivia ) costata, Gmel. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 414,415, 199 



238 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

73, 74. Cypraea (Trivia) vesicularis, Gask. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 412, 413, 199 

75, 76. Cypraea (Trivia) sulcata, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 454, 455, 199 

77, 78. Cypraea (Trivia) cicatrosa, Sowb. Thes. Monog. 

Cyp., f 458,459, ... ... 199 

79. Cvpraea (Trivia) scabriuscula, Gray (=oryza). Sowb., 

" Thes. Conch., f. 472, . . . . . . .200 

80, 81. Cypraea (Trivia) nivea, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 468, 4(59, .199 

82, 83. Cypraea (Trivia) oryza, Lam. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 474, 475, 200 

84, 85. Cypraea (Trivia) insecta, Mighels. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 478, 479, 200 

86, 87. Cypraea (Trivia) grando, Gask. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 470,471, 200 

88, 89. Cypraea (Trivia) vitrea, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 456, 457, . . 200 

90, 91. Cypraea (Trivia) brevissima, Sowb. Thes. Conch. 

Cyp., f. 523, 524, 204 

92, 93. Cypraea (Trivia) globosa, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp.. f. 466,467, . . 200 

94, 95. Cypraea (Trivia) pediculus, Linn. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 429,431, ... .201 

96. Cy praea (Trivia )cimex,H. Owen (= pediculus). Sowb., 

Thes. Cyp., f. 436, .201 

97. Cypraea (Trivia) labiosa, Gask. (= pediculus). Sowb., 

Thes. Cyp., f. 435, . . 201 

98. 99. Cypraea (Trivia) paucilirata, Sowb. Thes. Conch. 

Cyp., f. 502, 526, . 201 

100. Cypraea (Trivia) pullata, H. Owen (= suffusa). Sowb., 

Thes. Cyp., f. 446, . 201 

1 , 2. Cypraea (Trivia; suffusa, Gray. Sowb,, Thes. Conch., 

f. 444, 445, . . 201 

3, 4. Cypraea (Trivia) Pacifica, Gray. Sowb., Tbes. Cyp., 

f. '441,442, 201 

PLATE 22. 

5, 6. Cypraea (Trivia) quadripunctata, Gray. Sowb., 

Thes. Conch., f. 460, 461, .... .201 

7, 8. Cypraea (Trivia) costis-punctata, Gask. Sowb., 

Thes. Cyp.. f. 452, 453, 202 

9, 10. Cypraea (Trivia) exigua, Gray. Sowh., Thes. 

Conch., f. 510,511, . . . . . . .202 

11, 12. Cypraea (Trivia) rota, Weink. (= radians). Kiister, 

M. Oh., t. 38, f. 13, 16, . . . . .202 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 239 

FIOURB. PAGE. 

13, 14. Cypraea (Trivia) radians, Lam. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 420, 422, 202 

15. 16. Cypnea (Trivia) Solandri, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp.,f. 418,419, 202 

17. Cyprsea (Trivia) corrugata, Pease (= exigna). Amer. 

Jour. Conch., 1868, t. 11, f. 14, . . . . 202 

18, 19. Cyprsea (Trivia) Californica, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 425,426, 202 

20. Cypraea (Trivia) Californica, Gray. Animal. Am. 

Naturalist, vi, p. 733, f 146, . ' . . . .202 

21, 22. Cypraea (Trivia) sanguinea, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 483, 485, 203 

23, 24. Cypraea (Trivia) Maugeri, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 450,451, 203 

25, 26. Cypraea (Trivia) producta. Gask. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 495,496, 204 

27, 28. Cypraea (Trivia) rubinicolor, Gask. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 500,501, 204 

29, 30. Cypraea (Trivia) pisum, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

448, 449, 203 

31, 32. Cypraea (Trivia) pellucidula, Gask. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 498, 499, 204 

33, 34. Cypraea (Trivia) caudidula, Gask. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 508, 509, 203 

35, 36. Cypraea (Trivia) fusca, Gray. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 487, 488, . . 203 

37. Cypraea (Trivia) depauperata, Sowb. (= Californica). 

Thes. Cyp., f. 423, . . .202 

38, 39. Cypraea (Trivia) subrostrata, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 480, 481, 203 

PLATE 23. 

40, 41. Cypraea (Trivia) affinis, Marratt. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 464, 465, . .... 204 

42, 43. Cyprasa (Trivia) rubescens, Gray. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 506, 507, .204 

44, 45. Cypraea (Trivia) formosa, Gask. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 518*, 519, .204 

46, 47. Cypraea (Trivia) multilirata, Sowb. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 427,521, 204 

48, 49. Cypraea (Trivia) Europaea, Mont. Sowb., Thes. 

Cyp., f. 503,504, .205 

50, 51. Cypraea (Trivia) Europaea, Mont. (Young Shells). 

Sowb., Thes., f. 527, 528, 205 

52. Cypraea (Trivia) napolina, Duel. Sowb., Thes. Conch., 

f. 505, 206 



240 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

53, 54. Cyprsea (Trivia) Australis, Lam. Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 439, 440, 206 

55, 56. Cyprsea (Trivia) pulex, Sol. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 493, 494, 206 

57, 58. Cypraea (Trivia) pulla, Gask. Sowb., Thes. Cyp., 

f. 490, 491, . . . . . ' . . .206 

59. Cypraea, caput-anguis, Phil., of authors (= C. caput- 

serpentis). Specimen, . . . . . . 173 

60, 61. Cyprsea (Monetaria) Harmandiana, Rochebr. 

(= moneta). Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 1, f. 1, . . 177. 

62. Cyprsea ( Monetaria) icterina, Lam. (= moneta). Kiener, 

Icon., t. 34, f. 3, . 178 

63. Cypraea (Monetaria) ethnographica, Rochebr. (= mo- 

neta). Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 1, f. 2, . . .178 

64. 65. Cypraea (Monetaria) atava, Rochebr. (= moneta). 

Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 1, f. 4, . . . .178 

66, 67. Cyprsea (Monetaria) pleuronectes, Rochebr. 

(== moneta \ Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 1, f. 5, . . 178 

68. Cyprsea (Monetaria) camelorum, Rochebr. (= moneta). 

Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 1, f. 7, . . . . 178 

69. Cypraea (Monetaria) plumaria, Rochebr. (= moneta). 

Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 2, f. 2 178 

70. Cypraea (Monetaria) Hamyi, Rochebr. (= annulus). 

Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 2, f. 5, . . . . 179 

71. 72. Cypraea (Monetaria)Perrieri, Rochebr. (=annulus). 

Bull. Soc. Malac. Fr., t. 2, f. 6, . . . .179 



Families Pedicular iidae and Omdidse. 
FAMILY PEDIC ULARIID^E. 

Shell small, limpet-like, irregular, with a short spire which 
becomes concealed with the growth, the surface rad lately ribbed 
when young ; mouth large and wide, subcanaliculated in front, 
the lips irregular, simple in the adult, the inner one callously 
excavated, no operculum. 

Animal with small foot, mantle-margin thickened, not reflected 
over the shell, siphon not produced, eyes sessile at the external 
base of the tentacles. Dentition 3*1 *3, the central tooth sub- 
quadrangular, multicuspidate, the laterals transverse, multi- 
cuspidate, the marginals long and narrow, with three profound 
digitations ; exterior to the marginals is a small supplementary 
plate (PI. 1, fig. 1). 

Young shells have the regular form of Trivia (to which the 
dentition approximates), with a plicate columella and dentate 
lip, but its parasitic habits (on polyps) cause subsequent irregular 
growth, so that its relationships were for a long period very 
uncertain. The dentition fixes its place between Cyprseidae and 
Ovulidte. 

Genus PEDICULARIA, Swainson, 1840. 

Characters, those of the family. Very few species are known, 
but the geographical range of the genus is world-wide in warm 
seas. Fossil, miocene of Sicily. 

The subgenus Dentiora, Pease. 186'2, which is founded on a 
shell three and a half millimetres in length, is probably a juvenile 
Pedicularia ; it is said to be ovate, with subinflected lip, which 
is lirate, the columella plane or excavated, ridged above, com- 
pressed below and sharply dentate, the outer surface spirally 
subgranosely striated. Thy re us, Phil., is a synonym of Pedicu- 
laria. 

FAMILY PEDIGULARIID^. 

Genus PEDICULARIA, Swainson, 1840. 
P. SICULA, Swainson. PI. 1, figs. 2, 3. 

Adult irregular, more or less compressed at the sides, having 
a limpet-like appearance, and modified as to outline by the 
surface upon which it lives ; the spiral lines of the young shell 
17 (241) 



'242 PEDICULARIA. 

are usually persistent on a portion of the back of the adult; 
whitish, tinged with brown within. Length, 10 mill. 

Sicily, Isle of Hyeres, France ; on polyps. 
Thyreus paradoxus, Phil., and probably Gadinia lateralis, 
Requien, are synonyms. 

P. CALIFORNICA, Newcomb. PL 1, fig. 4. 

Depressly globose, crimson-colored, minutely transversely 
striated, above rounded, below broadly rounded ; lip expanded, 
semicircular; columella thick, dilated within, straight ; aperture 
elongately subovate ; extremities broadly notched. 

Length, 10 mill. Southern California, on coral. 

P. JAPONICA, Dall. PI. 1, fig. 5. . 

Elongated, sinuated ; whitish, irregularly suffused with rose- 
pink, apex yellowish pink, interior darker, livid pink; exter- 
nally rather coarsely grooved and striated ; apex somewhat 
mammillated, vertex umbilicated ; columella straight, incon- 
spicuous ; lateral margins much produced, concave, effuse, 
extremities narrow, canaliculate. Length, -5 inch. 

Niphon, Japan, 60 fms., on Gorgonia. 

Is more coarsely striate than P. Pacifica, and umbilicated, also 
differing in color. P. Californica is shorter and more globose, 
with a thicker columella. 

P. PACIFICA, Pease. PI. 1, figs. 6, 7. 

Rather solid, oblong, much contracted in the middle, irregular 
in shape ; radiately ornamented with elevated granulose striae, 
decussated by concentric striae; apex straight, involute, im- 
mersed ; wholly of either reddish, violet, purple or yellowish 
color. Length, 8 mill. Ins. Apaian. 

Smaller than the next species, the apex oblique and not con- 
tracted in the middle. 

P. ELEGANTISSIMA, Desh. PI. 1, figS. 8, 9. 

Ovate oblong, very convex on the back, elegantly transversely 
striate, apex umbilicate ; vivid violaceous. Length, 6 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon, Mauritius. 
P. Lienardi, Robillard, is a synonym. 



P. DECUSSATA, Gould. (Unfigured). Off Coast of Georgia. 

P. ALBIDA, Dall. (Unfigured). West Indies. 

P. (DENTIORA) RUBIDA, Pease. (ITnligiuvd). Sandwich Islands. 



FAMILY OVULID&. 

Shell ruin t I'd closely to the Cypnuidte in general form, but 
diHering in being involute in all stages of growth, whilst the 
Cowries exhibit a short spire when young, which becomes 
involute and more or less concealed by the enlargement of the 
body-whorl with ndvancing age; there is no epidermis, and the 
porcellanons surface is usually smooth (sometimes lightly spirally 
striate), sometimes gibbous, or transversely snbcarinated, whitish 
or not richly colored ; extremities more or less beaked, canalic- 
ulated or emarginated ; aperture the entire length of the shell, 
rather narrow, the inner lip smooth, the outer lip usually toothed 
or plicate, sometimes smooth, inflexed. Operculum none. Animal 
covering the shell with its mantle-lobes after the manner of 
Cyprsea, but the head furnished with a contractile snout rather 
than a retractile proboscis. Dentition 3' 1*3, the central tooth 
being subtiiangular, with several cusps, the laterals falciform, 
with dentate margin, the marginals subflabelliform with finely 
pectinated margins (PI. 1, fig. 10). 

Genus OYULA, Bruguiere, 1789. 

The characters are those of the family. H. and A. Adams, in 
their " Genera of Recent Mollusca," have characterized a few 
genera which it is convenient to retain, giving them the lower 
rank of subgenera, however, as the main tVature distinguishing 
them is the greater or less extension of the rostrated extremities, 
a character of somewhat gradual development through the series. 
The typical group, which .Messrs. Adams have distinguished as 
Amphiperas, Gronov., has a Cyprseiform shell, ovoid, ventricose, 
with but slightly rostrated extremities. The animal has a large 
foot and the mantle-margin is simple. 0. ovum, Linn. 

There are fifty recent species, distributed throughout the world, 
in warm latitudes only. A few cretaceous species have been 
described; all of which, with a single exception (0. antiquata, 
d'Orb., Cret. of India), are either Cyprajas or doubtful. The 
genus is moderately represented in the tertiary. 

The genus Simula, Risso, is characterized by its sharp outer 
lip, and is still retained b}- authors, although, as first shown by 



244 OVULID^E. 

myself (Am. Jour. Conch., i, 95), and afterwards confirmed by 
the late Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys and others, the animal, under 
favorable circumstances, sometimes completes its shell by the 
addition of a thickened lip, when the distinction from the typical 
group disappears. Ordinarily Simnia has the sharp lip and it 
may be considered a case of arrested growth, paralleled by that 
of Planorbis trivolms which only in northern waters takes on 
its expanded lip along with more vigorous growth and larger size. 

Subgenus CYPHOMA, Bolten, 1798. 

Back of shell with a median transverse obtuse ridge, lip 
smoothish or feebly crenulated. 0. gibbosa, Linn. 

Ultimus, Montfort, and Carinea, Swainson, are synonyms. 

Subgenus VOLVA, Bolten, 1798. 

Shell ventricose in the middle, both extremities prolonged into 
canals, aperture narrow, lip inflected and margined exteriorly, 
without teeth, no columellar plication. 

Mantle-margin with glandular tubercles, foot narrow, folded 
lengthwise on itself, adapted for creeping on the narrow, rounded 
branches of gorgonise and corals on which it is supposed to feed. 

Birostra, Swains., and Radius, Montf., are synonyms. 

Subgenus NEOSIMNIA, Fischer, 1884. 

Shell resembling in form the preceding group, but the 
extremities less prolonged, the columella furnished behind with 
an oblique callous plication. The habits of the animal appear to 
be the same as Yolva. 

? Subgenus CRITHE, Gould, 1860. 

Shell ovuliform, rostrated at the extremities, aperture narrow, 
arcuated ; outer lip simple, base with transverse ridges passing 
into the aperture and making teeth on the columellar lip. Animal 
with a long foot, truncate anteriorly, obtuse posteriorly, .tentacles 
broad, short, triangular, with minute eyes at their exterior base. 
Described from a single minute species obtained by Stimpson 
in the China Sea. It is probably a juvenile, and must remain 
a doubtful group until rediscovered the types having been 
destroyed. 



245 

Subgenus CALPURNUS, Montfort. 1810. 

Shell gibbous, subcarinated across the back, with at either 
extremity a dorsal tubercle encircled by a groove, outer lip 
dentate on the margin. 

Animal having a large foot, the mantle not tuberculate and 
covering only a portion of the back of the shell. 

Apparently rather closely related/to Cyprsea, but the dentition 
being unknown, its definite place remains uncertain. 



In addition to the above, the following fossil forms have been 
described : 

TRANSOVULA, Gregorio, 1880. Shell oval, slightly rostrated, 
lip denticulated, columellar margin crenulated. 0. Schefferi, 
Eocene of Sicily. 

DIAMEZA, Deshayes, 1865. Shell elongated, mucronated be- 
hind, lip sharp, aperture oblong, hardly narrowed in front. 0. 
media. Desh. Eocene, Paris basin. Somewhat resembles Tere- 
bellum. 

GISORTIA, Jonsseaume, 1884. Described as a group of Cyprse- 
idse, but placed doubtfully under Ovula by Fischer. It includes 
recent as well as Eocene species, and I think its affinities most 
decidedly with Cyprsea, rather than with Ovula. 

Several monographs of Ovula have been published : 

L. C. Kiener. Coquilles vivantes, 23 species. 

G. B. Sowerby. Thesaurus Conchyliorum, ii, 1855, 48 species. 

Lovell Reeve. Conchologia Iconica, 1865, 66 species. 

H. C. Weinkauff. In Kiister's Conchylien Cabinet, 72 species. 

Also catalogues by : 

S. R. Roberts. Am. Jour. Conch., 1865, 72 species. 

II. C. Weinkauff. Jahrb. Malak. Gesell.. 1882, 66 species. 

The differences between Ovula and Cyprrea are carefully indi- 
cated in a paper by Prof. Theodore Gill, entitled " On the rela- 
tions of the Amphiperasidae," Am. Jour. Conch., vi, 183. 



246 OVULA. 

Genus OVULA, Brug., 178.9. 

Typical Group. 
0. OVUM, Linn. PL 1, figs. 11, 12. 

White, brownish red within the aperture. Length, 2"5-4'5 inches. 
East Africa, Indian Ocean, Japar>, Society Is., etc. 
The animal is blackish, the mantle beset with short filaments. 
It is 0. oviformis, Lam. (fiir. 12) and 0. alba, Schimi. In full 
dress many of the Pacific Islanders are decked out with large 
white Ovulum shells, appended to the waist, elbows, and ankles. 
Throughout the islands inhabited by the crisp-haired Papuan 
race, a large species of Ovulum of a very pure white color, 
resembling porcelain, is employed with great effect by the 
natives in decorating their houses, temples and canoes. Sim- 
monds, Commercial Products of the Sea. 

0. TORTILIS, Marty n. PL 2, figs. 19, 20. 

Smaller and more angularly ventricose than the preceding 
species ; white, the interior of the aperture rose-color. 

Length, 2 inches. Zanzibar, Moluccas, Friendly Is. 

The synonyms are 0. imperialis, Dillw.; 0. columba, Schub. 
and Wagn.; 0. angulosa, Lam.; 0. costellata, Lam.; 0. ovum, 
var. /?, Gmel. 
0. MARGINATA, Sowb. PL 1 , figs. 13, 14, 15; PL 2, figs. 21, 22. 

Rather thin, semitransparent, white, encircled with an orange 
line at the margin, very obscurely decussated, interior milk- 
white. Length, 21-30 mill. Hongkong. 

Described without locality. 0. Sinensis, Sowb. (figs. 21, 22), 
from Hongkong, appears to be merely a larger shell of the same 
species. 0. brevis, Reeve (not Sowerby) and Weinkanff (fig. 15), 
is probably identical ; the back seems to be angulated in this 
latter species, or else lightly marked with narrow bands. 

O. PATULA, Pennant. PL 1, figs. 16-18. 

White, thin, semitransparent, a little produced at the extremi- 
ties, with very fine revolving striae, almost microscopic, lip- 
margin rarely thickened in English specimens, more usually 
thickened and slightly dentate in Mediterranean examples; 
columella with a posterior callous fold when adult. 

Length, 1 inch. Europe. 



OVULA. 247 

Fig. 17 represents the typical 0. i><it"la; iigs. 1(1, 18, the 0. 
Adriatic a, Sowb. Additional synonyms are Bulla virginea, 
Cantr., and Nicaenxis, Risso. 

The typical 0. patula, is the typo of the genus Simnia, Risso, 
a liadl}* characterized group (see p. 243). 

0. LACTKA, Lam. PL 2, figs. 23-28. 

Rather solid, white, back finely transversely ribbed, with 
several more or less distinct angles. Length, 20-25 mill. 
East Africa, Mauritius, Japan, 

Philippines^ N. Caledonia. 

0. semistriata, Pease (figs. 25, 26), from central Polynesia, 
appears to be only a variety having the striae a little stronger, 
obsolete on the middle of the back. The type is a smaller and 
more solid shell, but I have before me authentic specimens 
which are larger, less solid and with the angles of 0. lactea. 

0. cristallina, Kiener (figs. 27, 28), is smaller and narrower 
than the 0. lactea, but may be only a variety thereof. The 
species has 1 not been identified by any author, and the habitat is 
unknown. 

0. PUDICA A. Ad. PL 2, figs. 29-31. 

Pinkish white, smooth ; columella plicate below, callously 
ridged above. Length, 18 mill. 

N. Caledonia. 

0. Caledonica, Crosse (fig. 31), appears to be a synonym. 

0. NUBECULATA, Ad. and Reeve. PL 2, figs. 41, 42. 
Pinkish, with three clouded pink-brown bands. 
Length, 18 mill. 

Isl. of Basilan. 
May be only a banded variety of the preceding species. 

0. PYRIFORMIS, Sowb. PL 2, figs. 43-45. 

Yellowish white or pinkish, with three clouded darker bands, 
extremities a little produced. Length, 21 mill. 

Australia, Japan. 

Distinguished (perhaps not sufficiently) from the preceding 
species by its more pyriform contour and produced extremities. 
Reeve's figure (fig. 45), probably from a worn specimen, has no 
bands. 



248 OVULA. 

0. BREVIS, Sowb. PL 2, figs. 32, 33. 

Thin, globosely inflated', whitish or purplish white, columella 
plicate in front, with a callous ridge behind, and a connecting 
longitudinal deposit. Length, 12 mill. 

Australia. 

The figures given by Reeve and Weinkauff do not represent 
this species, but 0. marginata. 

The shell is somewhat closely related to 0. margarita, Sowb. 

0. MARGARITA, Sowb. PI. 2, figs. 34-40. 

White, extremities somewhat beaked. Length, 10-13 mill. 

Singapore, Japan, Philipjjines, Australia. 

Less inflated, narrower, with more beaked extremities than 
0. brevis. 0. bulla, Ad. and Reeve (figs. 36, 37), is a little 
heavier form, and 0. umbilicata, Sowb. (figs. 38, 39), appears 
to be not quite adult ; they do not seem to have any really dis- 
tinctive characters. 0. ovoidea, H. Ad. (fig. 40 , from the Red 
Sea, is only known by a short description and a figure of the 
base of the shell ; I do not find distinctive characters in either. 

0. BIMACULATA, A. Ad. PL 2, figs. 46, 47. 

Livid white, obsoletely three- banded, back transversely 
striate, extremities of aperture stained with red within. 

Length, 13 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
0. CARNEA, Poiret PL 2, figs. 48-52. 

Yellowish, reddish or violet flesh-color, transversely striated, 
with frequently several angles or planes on the back, extremities 
beaked, somewhat produced, lip thick-margined, finely dentate, 
columella excavated below, with a callous ridge above, extremi- 
ties of aperture often pink-tinged. Length, 12-15 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

0. lactea t and 0. triticea, Costa, are synonyms ; 0. triticea, 
Lam., remains a somewhat doubtful species, the figures a;iven by 
Kiener and Sowerby resembling 0. rhodia, Ads., whilst those 
of Reeve (figs. 51, 52) and Kiister are like carnea. Reeve's figure 
of 0. carnea looks more like 0. rhodia. The locality of 0. 
triticea is supposed to be West Coast of Africa. Punker iden- 
tifies a Japanese shell with it, but he has used Sowerby 's figures 
for comparison. 0. lepida, Dillw., is a synonym of triticea. 



OVULA. 240 

O. RIIODIA, A. Ad. PI. 3, figs. 53, 54. 

Shell rather narrow, produced at the extremities, flesh pink; 
columella excavated below, with a conspicuous white callus 
above, lip whitish. Length, 13 mill. 

Japan. 

See remarks under preceding species. 

0. FRUTICUM, A. Ad. PL 3, figs. 55, 56. 

Shell smooth, broadly banded with pinkish flesh-color, lip 
thick, varicose, extremities rotundately emarginated, columella 
callously ridged above and below, strongly one-plaited. 

Length, 10 mill. 

Malacca. 

I am not acquainted with this species. 

0. PYRULINA, A. Ad. Pi 3, figs. 57, 58. 

Pear-shaped, constricted and produced at the extremities, back 
rather gibbous in the middle ; columella callously ridged above, 
lip moderately plicate ; yellowish- or livid-white. Length, 1 2 mill. 

New Caledonia. 
CONCINNA, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 3, figs. 59, 60, 74. 

Angularly prominently gibbous in the middle, constricted at 
the extremities ; white, or fleshy-white. Length, 9 mill. 

Philippines, Japan. 
0. Gumingii, Morch (fig. 74), is a synonym. 

0. PUNCTATA, Duclos. PI. 3, figs. 61-64, 73. 

Rather solid, transversely striate, whitish, with three rows of 
orange or carneous spots. Length, 10-11 mill. 

China, Japan, Philippines^ Australia, Isl. Bourbon. 
0. alabaster, Reeve (fig. 64), has the spots very faint. 

Var. PULCHELLA. H. Ad. (fig. 73). 

The spots connected longitudinally by waved bands of color. 
One of Sowerby's figures of jwnctata represents this variety. 

Mauritius. 
0. ADAMSI, Reeve. PI. 3, figs. 65, 66. 

Ovate, inflated, whitish ; back rather elevated in the middle, 
transversely incisely striated ; extremities rather obtuse ; lip 



250 OVULA. 

moderately thickened ; aperture curved, rather broad, columella 
scarcely plicated. Length, 8 mill. 

New Caledonia. 

A delicate, rather inflated bubble-shaped shell, elaborately 
sculptured with engraved stride. The foregoing is Reeve's 
diagnosis, the species being unknown to me. It is 0. marginata 
of A. Ad., not Sowerby, and changed by Eeeve as above. 

0. BULLATA, Ad. and Reeve. PI. 3, figs. 67-70. 

Pinkish or purplish or yellowish white, somewhat gibbous on 
the back which is smooth or transversely incisely striated ; lip 
strongly margined, flesh-brown, somewhat squarely produced at 
the extremities. Length, 8 mill. 

Singapore, Japan, New Caledonia. 

0. scitula, Ads. (figs. 69, 70), is a synon} r m. 

0. STRIATULA, Sowerby. PI. 3, figs. 75-80. 

Back strongly angularly gibbous in the middle, attenuately 
produced at the extremities, striate or smooth ; lip strongly 
margined ; pinkish- or yellowish-white. Length, 10 mill. 

Straits of Malacca, Loo Choo Is., Philippines, Japan. 

I unite with this 0. dorsuosum, Hinds (figs. 77, 78), and 
0. dentata, Ad. and Reeve (figs. 79, 80). The following species 
is also probably a synonym. 

0. FRUMENTUM, Sowerby. PL 3, figs. 71, 72. 

Smaller than the preceding, of which it may be a variety ; the 
form is similar, but the back does not show the angle, although 
evidently gibbous. Length, 6 mill. 

Hab. unknown. 
Subgenus CYPHOMA, Bolten, 1798. 

0. GIBBOSA, Linn. PI. 3, figs. 81, 82. 

Rather thick, smooth, polished ; pale straw-color or whitish, 
stained on the sides with fawn-color; extremities obtuse; lip 
callously margined, scarcely dentate. Length, 1-1 '25 inches. 

Florida, West Indies. 

Lamarck probably confounded 0. intermedia, Sowb., with this 
species in giving Brazil as habitat, and Cuming in referring it to 
Panama very likely mistook the next species for it. It is 
0. pharetra of Perry and 0. dorsata, Bolten. 



OVULA. 251 

0. EMARGINATA, Sowl). PL 3, figS. 83, 84. 

Flesh-white or whitish, the ridge sharper than in the preceding 
species and white, lip heavily margined, also white, extremities 
rostrate, narrower. Length, 1 inch. 

Panama. 

The back is often finely transversely striate. 

0. INTERMEDIA, Sowerby. PI. 3, figs. 85, 86. 

Rather solid, smooth, polished, whitish or tinged with yellow- 
ish brown ; hack gibbous, with faint indication of a transverse 
ridge or angle, and often showing a still fainter anterior one; 
extremities narrowly produced ; lip strongly margined, scarcely 
dentate ; columella with a callous posterior plication. 

Length, 1-1-5 inches. 

Brazil, West Indies. 

Smaller specimens show the angle very plainly; sometimes in 
these it is consp : cuously sh-irp. The shell connects this group 
with Xeosimnia in such manner that it is difficult to decide where 
it ought to be placed. 0. oblonga of Martini, and 0. spelta, 
Dillwyn. are synonyms. 

O. OBTUSA, Sowb. PL 3, figs. 87-89. 

Yellowish- or pinkish-white, obtusely angulated on the back, 
extremities produced, lip callously margined. Length, 16 mill. 

China, Japan. 

Something like a miniature 0. intermedia. 0. Indica, Reeve, 
(fig. 89), from Bombay, appears to be a minor form. 

0. TRAILLT, A. Ad. PL 3, figs. 90, 91. 

Flesh-colored, smooth, back strongly angularly gibbous, ex- 
tremities narrowly produced. Length, 11 mill. 

Malacca. 
0. FORMOSA, Adams and Reeve. PL 4, figs. 15, 16. 

Gibbous, slightly angulated across the back. transversely striate, 
purplish orange, the extremities orange-tipped ; aperture narrow, 
but little widened below, the columella callous above, the outer 
lip-margin conspicuously dentate. Length, 12 mill. 

Borneo, Japan. 

0. SEMPERT, WeinkaurT. PL 4, figs. 17, 18; PL 5, fig. 19. 

Purplish yellow or orangefred, the margin orange-red ; back 



252 OVULA. 

angulated above the middle, lip conspicuously dentate, columella 
dentate above. Length, 13 mill. 

Borneo, Viti Isles. 

The aperture is wider below, the angle of the back more pos- 
terior than in the preceding species, of which it may nevertheless 
be only a variety. It is 0. hordacea of Sowerby and Reeve, not 
Lamarck. 

Subgenus VOLVA, Bolten, 1198. 

O. VOLVA, Linn. PI. 4, figs. 94, 95. 

Pinkish or brownish flesh-color, back transversely incisely 
striated, extremities with raised striae, lip thickly margined, 
nearly smooth, interior flesh-colored or brownish. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

China, Philippines, Japan. 

0. LONGIROSTRA, Sowb. PI. 4, figs. 92, 93. 

Yellowish white, moderately gibbously angled in the middle, 
lip callously reflected. Length, l'75-2'5 inches. 

Isl. of Bourbon. 
O. RECURVA, Adams and Reeve. PI. 4, figs. 96, 97. 

White, transversely minutely striated, gibbously angled in 
the middle, lip callously margined. Length, 22 mill. 

China, Japan. 
Possibly a minor variety of 0. longirostra. 

0. GRACILIS, Ads. and Reeve. PI. 4, figs. 98, 99. 

Pale fulvous, maculated with red next the margin of the 
thickened lip. Length, 11 mill. 

East Coast of Borneo. 

0. PHILIPPINARUM, Sowb. PI. 4, figs. 100-9. 

Livid flesh-color, rather thin, thickened margin of lip yellowish 
white. Length, *75-l'25 inches. 

Philippines, Japan, Australia. 

With this species I unite as synonj-ms 0. Carpenteri, D linker 
(fig. 2) ; 0. Angasi, A. Ad. (figs. 3, 4), and 0. depressa, Sowb. 
(fig. 5), with its variety rosea, Rositer, from Australia ; 0. sub- 
reflexa, Ad. and Reeve (figs. 6, 7) ; 0. deflexa, Sowb. (fig. 8), and 
the Japanese 0. Adamsii, Dunkcr (fig. 9), which differs in no 
appreciable degree from Angasi. 



OVULA. 253 

O. BTROSTRIS, Linn. PI. 4, figs. 10-14. 

Reddish flesh-color, sometimes pale-banded in the middle, 
smooth, shining, thickened lip-margin yellowish white. 
Length, 1'5 inches. 

Singapore, Japan, Philippines. 

Larger, and wider in proportion than the last species ; yet I 
doubt their distinctness. The synonymy includes 0. brevirostris, 
Schum.; 0. aperta, Sowb. (fig. 12), a young shell, and 0. rosea, 
A. Ad. (figs. 13, 14). 

0. LANCEOLATA, Sowb. PI. 5, figS. 20, 21. 

Xarrowly compressed, back densely transversely striated, 
extremities rather blunt ; orange-pink ; lip and columella cal- 
lously involute, aperture very narrow. Length, 21 mill. 

Philippines. 
O. COARCTATA, Adams and Reeve. PL 5, fig. 22. 

Elongated, ventricose in the middle, fulvous, back transversely 
minutely striated, extremities contracted, columella rather 

depressed. Length, 7 mill. 

Straits of Sunda. 

This may possibly be a minor variety of the preceding species, 
which it closely resembles in form. 

0. ACICULARIS, Lam. PI. 5, figs. 23-25. 

Yellowish to purplish, thin, smooth, narrow, extremities 
rather bluntly produced, lip thinly margined, with a callous 
margin on the columella. Length, 15 mill. 

West Indies, South Carolina, Florida. 

It is 0. secale of Dillwyn's Catalogue. 

Subgenus NEOSIMNIA, Fischer, 1884. 
O. SOWERBYANA, Weinkauff. PI. 5, figs. 26, 27. 

Somewhat ventricose, short beaked, rosy flesh-color, sometimes 
obscurely banded, rather thin, lip-margin thickened, smoothish, 

yellowish. Length, 1-1-25 inches. 

South Sea. 

This is 0. spelta of Sowerby and Reeve, not Lamarck. 



254 OVULA. 

0. SECALIS, Sowb. PL 5, figs. 28-30. 

Purplish white, extremities rather blunt, lip-margin yellowish 
white. Length, 15 mill. 

Eastern Seas, Friendly Isles. 

The distinction between this and the preceding species is so 
slight that I think they will prove identical. 0. seminulum, 
Sowerby (fig. 30), from Friendly Islands, is a synonym. 

0. BORBONICA, Desh. PI. 5, fig. 31. 

Rosy white, ventricose in the middle, thin, translucent, trans- 
versely striate, aperture very narrow. Length, 7 mill. 

Isle of Bourbon. 
I am not acquainted with this species. 

0. ACUMINATA, Ad. and Reeve. 

Rather stout, yellowish white, lip thickened. Length, 8 mill. 

East Indies, Japan. 
Perhaps a small variety of the preceding species. 

O. SPELTA, Linn. PL 5, figs. 32, 33. 

Whitish or flesh-color, smooth, polished, aperture rather wide 
anteriorly, lip-margin and extremities of shell callously thick- 
ened. Length, 15-20 mill. 

Mediterranean Sea, Canary Is. 

This is not 0. spelta of Sowb. and Reeve (see Sowerbyana, 
above). The synonymy includes 0. kordacea, Costa; 0. pur- 
purea, Risso, and 0. Leathesi of Wood's Crag Mollusca. 

0. HORDACEA, Lamarck. PL 5, figs. 34-38. 

Yellowish red to purplish, smooth, extremities obtuse. 
Length, 12 mill. 

Coast of Africa? Philippines. 

Differs subgenerically from the species which Sowerby and 
Reeve have figured under this name, and which Weinkauff calls 
0. Semperi. O.formicaria, Sowb. (figs. 37, 38), may be included. 

0. UNIPLICATA, Sowb. PL 5, figs. 39-50. 

Yellowish white to purplish, rather thin, transversely very 
minutely incised, or smooth, polished ; narrow, with the extrem- 



OVILA. 255 

ities bluntly produced ; lip narrow margined ; posterior plica- 
tion prominent. Length, 15-18 mill. 

North Carolina to West Indies, Brazil, 

Panama to California (Var.) 

In this species the color of its shell changes to correspond with 
that of the gorgonia on which it feeds, either } r ellowish white or 
purple. The synonymy includes 0. Antillarum, Reeve (tig. 41); 
0. Canadiensis, Morch ; 0. Carolinensis, Morch ; 0. subrostrata, 
Sowb. (fig. 42) ; 0. arcuata, Reeve (fig. 43). The following species 
occurring on the West Coast of America are added, as I can find 
no distinctive characters. It may be remarked, however, that so 
far as I am able to judge from the figures and numerous speci- 
mens, these West Coast representatives are always dark purple 
with a lighter purple lip-margin coloring which somewhat rarely 
obtains with the East Coast individuals ; on this account they may 
be grouped under the best known, but not earliest name, as : 

Var. VARIABILIS, C. B. Adams (fig. 44). 

With this I include 0. Calif ornica, Reeve (fig. 45); 0. aequalis, 
Sowb. (fig. 46), 0. livida, Reeve (fig. 47); 0. rufa, Sowb. (fig. 
4^ ; 0. inflexa, Sowb. (fig. 49), and 0. Loebbeckeana, Weink. 
(fig. 5d), which probably does not come from Vancouver's Island. 

0. AVENA, Sowb. PI. 5, figs. 51-55. 

Light purplish or rosy, wider than the preceding species, the 
extremities shorter, often orange-tipped, lip-margin rosy-white. 
Length, 12-20 mill. 

Panama to Monterey, Gal. 

The synonyms are 0. similis, Sowb. (figs. 52, 53), perhaps 0. 
neglecta, C. B. Ad. (fig. 54), and 0. Vidleri, Sowb. (fig. 55). 

Subgenus CRITHE, Gould, 1860. 

0. ATOMARIA, Gould. 

Very minute, gloss}- white, somewhat acute at the extremities, 
with a delicate groove at the summit ; aperture very narrow, and 
uniformly so ; rostrum short, slightly recurved ; ventral laminae 
directly transverse, about eight in number, as they pass into the 
a pert urc, li'ivino- the appearance of course denticles on the pillar. 



256 OVULA. 

Animal citron-colored, viscera slate-colored, eyes reddish black, 
very small. L. 5 mill., diam. 3 mill. 

China Seas (Stirnpson). 
Unfigured, and the specimens destroyed by fire. 

Subgenus CALPURNUS, Montfort, 1810. 
0. VERRUCOSA, Linn. PL 5, figs. 56-58. 

White, with fine incised transverse striae, extremities rosy 
tipped. Length, 1*25 inches. 

East Africa, Indian Ocean, Philippines, N Caledonia. 



Unfigured and Doubtful Species. 

O. BULLATA. Gould (sp. name preoccupied). Hob. unknown. 

O. ALBA and O. NIGERRIMA, Dufo. Seychelles. 

0. (CYPHOMA) ELONGATA, A. Ad. Japan. 

0. (BIROSTRA) MoCoYi, Tenison-Woods. Australia. 

0. GALLINACEA and 0. CORRUGATA, Hinds. = ERATO, Manual, v, 
10, 11. 



257 



FAMILY DOLIID^E. 

Shell thin, ventricose, ovate or subglobose, spire short, the 
body-whorl very large, with revolving ribs or decussated. No 
opereulum in the adult. 

Animal very large ; the mantle dilated ; head wide, bearing two 
elongated distant tentacles, dilated at the base, and having eyes 
near the base ; proboscis cylindrical, greatly developed, extensi- 
ble and flexible ; foot lobed and dilated in front, with a horizontal 
groove. 

Dentition. Central tooth short, wide, with an elongated 
central and some shorter lateral cusps, lateral and first marginal 
with simple or denticulated margin, sharp-pointed, outer marginal 
tooth sharp, simple (PI. 1, fig. 1). Jaw (PL 1, fig. 2), 

Some species at least, of Macgillivrayia, are known to be the 
larva of Dolium. They have four tentacles, and the foot is pro- 
vided with a float resembling lanthina ; the shell has a thin, 
corneous operculum, afterwards lost. 

The family resembles Cassididse rather closely, but differs by 
the want of varices on the shell 'and the absence of an opercu- 
lum ; but the subgenus Malea of this family, having a ringent 
mouth, has much analogy with C3'prsecassis of the Cassididse, 
which, according to Stutchbury, is equally deprived of an oper- 
culum. The family Oocorythidse, containing a single species, 
may be placed between the two ; it is in shell characters essen- 
tially an operculate Dolinm. Prof. Morch and others place the 
Tritonidie in intimate relation with the foregoing families on 
account of a similar dentition ; and Morch points out that certain 
species of Triton possess the revolving ribs and somewhat of the 
form of Dolium. Oocorys itself is thought by Fischer to be 
somewhat closely allied with Tritonid?. The relations of Triton 
with Murex are also evident. Thus it is that transition forms, 
and complex relationships everywhere baffle the naturalist who 
attempts to classify in a lineal series. The shells are mostly of 
quite large size, and the species are few in number, inhabiting 
warm seas ; fossil, a cretaceous form is known, with some tertiary 
species. 
18 



258 DOLTID^E. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus DOLIUM, Lam., 1801. 

Shell thin, ventricose, globosely oval ; spire short, whorls with 
spiral depressed ribs ; mouth very large, the lip crenulated, sil- 
lonated within, columella canaliculated, anterior end of aperture 
not produced obliquely, widely sillonated. 

About fifteen species occur in the seas of China, Philippines, 
Australia, Mediterranean, West Indies, etc. 

The section Perdix, Montfort, 1810, has been used for the 
separation of species with open umbilicus and (so-called) simple 
lip, but the gradual gradation from this form to those with closed 
umbilicus, and more strongly crenulated lip appears to deprive 
the group of any real value. Another section, Doliopsis (pre- 
occupied by Conrad), has been proposed by Monterosato for a 
single Mediterranean species, imperforate, with expanded den- 
ticulated lip. 

Subgenus DOLIOPSIS, Conrad, 1865. 

The figure of the type has a short canal, and appears inter- 
mediate between Dolium and Pyrula. Two Oregon fossils subse- 
quently referred to the group by Conrad are very similar to 
recent Dolium. 

DOLIOPSIS QTJINQUECOSTA, Conrad (PL 5, fig. 32). Eocene, Miss. 

Subgenus MALEA, Val., 1833, 

Form of Dolium, but the lip thickened, somewhat reflected 
and strongly denticulated the inner lip with two calloused plicate 
prominences. Cadium, Link, 1801, is said to equal this group. 

The animal differs from Dolium by its foot being less dilated 
in front, not angular laterally, and by its branchiae, which are 
nearly equal. 

Genus PYRULA, Lamarck, 1799. 

Shell imperforate, thin, pear-shaped, spirally ribbed, or decus- 
sated, terminating anteriorly in a moderate, open canal ; spire 
very short ; lip thin, smooth on the margin. No operculum. 
Dentition (PL 6, fig. 38). 

Animal with a very large foot, truncated in front, produced 
at the front angles, acuminated behind ; head and neck narrow 



259 

:ni(l long, tentacles Mibulati 1 , with eves at their exterior base ; 
mantle-lobes large, n. fleeted over the shell; siphon very long 
and narrow. 

A few species inhabit the West Indies, Panama, Indian Ocean, 
Philippines, etc. The genus appeared in the cretaceous, and 
became widely spread in the tertiary, remains being found in 
North and South America, Europe and Asia. 

The generic name has been made to include a number of groups, 
such as Hemil'usus, Melongena, etc., which have but little in 
common with the present genus. The type cited by Lamarck is 
Bulla jictin, Linn., which tixes its pertinence to the genus now 
under consideration, and degrades to the synonymy such names 
as Fiats, Klein, Ficula, Swains., and Sycotypus, H. and A. 
Adams, not Browne. 

Mr. Arthur Adams writes : 

" The employment of the dredge gave me an opportunity of 
here first observing the animal of Ficula, which very much 
resembles that of Dolium in the large, thin, flattened foot, 
rounded in front, with two sharp, angular, lateral processes, and 
extended and acuminated behind ; in the long, recurved siphon, 
and slender, tapering tentacula ; in having a long, extensile and 
retractile proboscis ; in the position of the organs of vision ; and 
in the general shape, structure, and lightness of the shell; while 
the singular fact of the mantle covering the sides of the shell, 
would seem to approximate it to Calpurnus, Ovulum, Marginella 
and the Cowries. 

""Although exceedingly timid and sensitive, the Ficula is a 
very lively animal, when observed in its native waters, crawling 
along with considerable velocity, and, owing probably to the 
lightness of its shell, able to ascend with facility the sides of a 
glass vessel, which held it captive. The proboscis is rarely 
exserted when the animal is in motion ; but the long, tapering 
tentacles are stretched out to their full extent, and the siphon is 
directed more frequently forwards than over the back of the 
animal. The animal of Ficula ficoide* is light, marbled violet, 
and the head and tentacles are white ; six white, opaque spots 
are arranged round the upper surface of the edge of the foot ; 
the rest of the body is light delicate pink, with marbled mark- 
ings of a darker pink. 



260 DOLTID.E. 

" In another species which I observed, and of which I also 
made a drawing (the Ficula Isevigata, Reeve), the mantle is 
bright pink, mottled with white and deeper pink, the under 
surface of the ventral disc being of a dark-chocolate color, with 
yellow, scattered spots ; the head and neck are pink, and also 
colored with 3 T ellow spots. 

"The Ficula shells, seen in cabinets, convey but a poor idea of 
these handsome mollusks, observed in the living state, crawling 
rapidly along, bearing their light, elegantly formed shells, easily 
and gracefully, with their siphons erect, their foot expanded, like 
a broad flattened disc, and their bodies ornamented with delicate 
colors, beautifully marbled, and moving their long, flat heads, 
and peering about with their large, black eyes, in a manner 
which is surprising, when one considers the position these 
animals occupy in the scale of creation, arid that but a very 
small share of intelligence is, in general, supposed to be the lot 
of most mollusca." Narrat. Voy. Samarang, ii, 358. 

Subgenus PTYCHOSYCA, Gabb, 1876. 

Shell shaped like Pyrula ; inner lip with one anterior very 
oblique fold. 

P. inornata, Gabb. Cretaceous, Georgia (Fig'd S. & S. Conch., 
t. 62, f. 39). 

Dr. Fischer thinks it allied to Liostoma. 

Subgenus FICULOPSIS, Stoliczka, 1867. 

Pyriform, attenuated in front, inflated behind ; spire very 
short ; surface spirally and transversely striate or costulate ; 
columella thick, angulated, plicate. 

P. Pondicherriensis, Forbes, Cretaceous, So. India (Fig'd S. 
& S. Conch., t. 62, f. 38). 

The family has been monographed by Reeve, Kiener and 
Kiister (Conchylien Cabinet). Kobelt has also published a 
catalogue of the species of Dolium in Jahrb. Mai. Gesell., ii, 263, 
and Hanley another, in Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 491, 1859. 
Sowerby monographed Ficula in the Thesaurus, iv, 1880, and 
Kobelt catalogued it in the Jahrbiicher, 359, 1875, and published 
a monograph in Kiister's Conch. Cab., 1874. 



DOLIl'M. 261 

Genus DOLIUM, Lam., 1801. 
D. GALEA, Linn. PI. 1, fi-. 3. 

Thin, narrowly uinbilicated, spire short, with sunken sutures; 
whorls seven, spirally ribbed, the ribs flatty convex, close-set, 
often with an intervening ridge on the upper portion of the 
whorls; columolla somewhat twisted; pale fulvous, inner margin 
of lip stained with chocolate-brown, upper part of columella and 
the apex of the spire often chocolate also. Length, 8-9 inches. 
Mediterranean Sea, Beaufort, N. (7., to West Indies, Brazil. 

D. tenue, Menke, is the juvenile shell; it is also Buccinum 
olearium, Linn, (not D. olearium,, Brug.). Morch has described 
another juvenile as D. Antillarum. Gregorio has recently 
described three varieties (spirintrorsum,terdina and epidermata) 
from the vicinity of Palermo. 

D. MELANOSTOMA, Jay. PI. 1, figs. 4, 5. 

Ribs about half the number of those of D. galea, and much 

broader, with narrow intervening smaller ridges and grooves; 

fulvous white, columellar callus and a broad interior margin of 

the outer lip both stained dark chocolate-brown. Length, 9 inches. 

Elizabeth Reef, So. Pacific 0. (Brazier); 

Friendly Island* ( J&\) ; Hawaiian Islands (Pease). 

The shell which Reeve (fig. 5) has figured for this species 
appears to be more nearly allied to the preceding, but possibly 
the ribs are variable in number according to the size of the shell. 
Tease saw a specimen 35 inches in circumference, and says that 
those measuring 24 inches are usual. As Brazier refers to 
Reeve's figure it is very likely that he has mistaken the species ; 
as has also Kiister, who copies the figure in Reeve. The true 
melanostoma may = the succeeding species, and if so, has priority 
of publication. 

D. LUTEOSTOMA, Kiister. PI. 1, fig. 6 ; PL 2, fig. 7. 

Bod}^-w r horl with fifteen to eighteen revolving, wide ribs and 
narrow interstices, the latter 1 earing small ribs, paired on the 
upper part of the whorl ; yellowish brown, variegated with 
chestnut maculations ; interior of aperture deep yellowish brown. 

Length, 7-8 inches. 

Japan. 

The description is made from D. Japonicum, Dunker (fig. 7), 



262 DOLIUM. 

which appears to he the usual fresh state of the species. 
Kiister's earlier diagnosis was prepared from a faded or varietal 
form in which the maculations have disappeared or are but 
feebly shown. One of the figures (t. 63, f. 1) given by Kiister 
for D. variegatum, appears to represent this species ; which is 
certainly very closely allied to D. melanostoma. 

D. VARIEGATUM, Lam. PI. 3, figs. 13, 14. 

Umbilicated, whorls 7, the last bearing fifteen to eighteen 
spiral ribs, the interstices nearly as wide, the upper ones bearing 
an intermediate smaller rib ; whitish, maculated with chestnut 
on the ribs, often with one or two ribs more yellowish in color, 
upon which there are no maculations. Spire more elevated, and 
suture less impressed than in the preceding species. 

Length, 4-9 inches. North Australia. 

D. Kieneri, Phil., is a synonym. 

Var. CHINENSE, Dillwyn. Fig. 14. 

Smaller, of lighter structure and more contracted growth, 
most of the interstices of the eighteen to twenty ribs bearing a 
smaller rib. Pine specimens are usually alternately banded 
spirally with light yellow and whitish, the ribs of the latter only 
showing chestnut maculations. 

China. 

This is D. australe of Morch. 

D. OLEARIUM, Brug. PI. 2, figs. 8-11. 

Spirally broadly ribbed, with very narrow, shallow interstices ; 
fulvous chestnut maculated with white ; suture deep. 

Length, 3-5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines. 

A very frequent state of this species has the surface worn so 
that the grooves are indicated more by darker spiral lines than 
by their very shallow depression. 

Var. CUMINGU, Hanley. PI. 2, fig. 9. 

Ribs more numerous and, with the groove, more distinct, 
whorls not so deep-sutured, maculations interrupted with spiral, 

longitudinally lineated bands. 

Philippines. 
Var. DESHAYESII, Reeve. PI. 2, fig. 10. 

Sutmv slightly impressed; pale fulvous chestnut, painted 



DOLTUM. 263 

with bands of rather distant conspicuous white spots, shaded 

with brown. 

Philippines. 

My specimens indicate the pertinence of these forms to D. 
olearium. Bulla canaliculata, Linn., is the young shell, as 
determined by Hanley, from the type. 

Yiir. TESTARDT, Montr. PL 2, fig. 11. 

Ribs about twenty-three, with distinct narrow intermediate 
grooves; pale fulvous, longitudinally clouded with darker color. 

New Caledonia. 
D. ZONATUM, Green. PI. 3, fig. 17. 

Yellowish chestnut-color, ribs with an intermediate ridge, 
which is divided into three ridges between the upper ribs. 

Length, 4-7 inches. 

China. Japan. 

Allied to D. galea, but differs in the intermediate ridges. D. 
crenulatum, Phil., is a synonym. 

D. CROSSEANUM, Monterosato. PI. 2, fig. 12. 

Yellowish brown ; with thirty-six ribs, the interstices with 
from one to three lirse ; lip brownish flesh-color. 

Length, 81 mill. 

Near Palermo, Sicily. 

I cannot count nearly thirty-six ribs on the figure of the 
unique example of this species, and I am very much disposed 
to believe it a synonym of the preceding, and that it has acci- 
dentally become mixed with Mediterranean shells. 

D. FAsciATUM,Brug. PL 3, fig. 10. 

Interstices of the ribs without ridges; white, five-banded 
with chestnut. Length, 4-5 inches. 

Philippines, China, Japan. 

D. sulcosum, Dillw., is a synon3 T m. 

D. COSTATUM, Menke. PL 4, figs. 19-22 ; PL 3, fig. 18. 

Ribs distant, prominent, nine to thirteen or fourteen in 
number, the interstices broader, smooth, or faintly ridged in the 
middle ; yellowish white, flesh-color or brownish. 

Length, 3*5-6 inches. . 

East Indies, Philippines, Mauritius. 



2fi4 DOLIUM. 

It is D. fasciatum, var., of Kiener (fig. 19); D. lactescens, 
Martyn ; D.latesulcatum,'M.a.rt\n\} D.ampullaceum, Phil. (tig. 20). 

Var. MACULATUM, Lam. PI. 4, fig. 21. 

The costee, nine to eleven in number, maculated somewhat 
regularly with chestnut. This has been regarded as a distinct 
species, but a series before me connects the two ; intermediates 
also connect this variety with 

Yar. FIMBRIATUM, Sowerby. PI. 4, fig. 22 ; PI. 3, fig. 18. 

The ribs usually vary in number from twelve to fourteen, 
tessellated with chestnut. The name is derived from the fim- 
briated margin of the outer lip, but this is common to all the 
varieties w r hen fully grown. 

Senegal, Manilla, Japan. 

If these two varieties had not been recognized very generally 
as distinct species, I would not have separated them as even 
varietal forms, as their features want constancy. D. cassis 
(Bolten), Morch; Buccinum dolium, Linn.; D. minjac, Adan- 
son, and D. tessellatum, Encyc. Meth., are names given to the 
two varieties, but not readily assignable to either separately. 
The Senegal locality is given on the authority of Adanson. D. 
Lischkeanum, Kiister (fig. 18 , is a full S3 7 nonyn of var. fimbri- 
atum, as are probably the unfigured D. JReevei, Hanley, and 
possibly D. Favannei (likewise unfigured) of the same author, 
and D. marginatum, Philippi (unfigured). 

D. PERDIX, Linn. PI. 3, fig. 15 ; PI. 4, figs. 23-25. 

Shell thin, inflated, with about twenty low ribs, and rather 
narrow shallow intervening grooves ; fulvous brown or light 
reddish bay, more or less plentifully marked with whitish lunate 
spots or maculations. Length, 5-9 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Polynesia, 

\] r e,sf Africa, West Indies, Brazil. 

There can be no doubt of the immense distribution of this 
species. Dr. Jacob Green, many years ago described a shell as 
D. plumatum which has been supposed to be the West Indian 
D. perdix, and Prof. Morch has called it D. pennatum; it has no 
distinctive features. Other synonyms are Perdix reticulatus, 
Montfort; Dolium mfurn, Bl.iinv. Fischer has described find 



PYRULA. 265 

figured c'mbryonic and young shells, in Jour, de Conch., 147, 
1808 (fig*. 23, 24); they were diagnosed by Prof. C. B. Adams, 
in error, as Heli.r sulphured. 

Subgenus MALEA, Vol., 1833. 
D. POMUM, Linn. PI. 5, fig. 26. 

Ribs low, about twelve in number, with shallow interstices; 
columella plicate, excavated in the middle, lip thickened within 
and plicate ; fulvous bay, clouded and maculated with white. 
Length, 3 inches. 

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Philippines, Society Islands. 
This shell is Cassis labrosa, Martini. 

D. RINGENS, Swainson. PL 5, fig. 27. 

Globose, rather thick, with about sixteen spiral ribs, the 
interstices sometimes obscurely single ridged ; columella plicate, 
excavated in the middle; outer lip wide-margined and dentate; 
light fulvous, obscurely maculated with white when young. 

Length, 4-8 inches. 

Peru, Panama, Mazatlan. 

The synonymy includes D. dentatum, Barnes; D. crasxilabris 
and D. latilabris, Val. ; D. personatum and D. plicosum, Menke. 



Un figured Species of Dolium. 
D. BAIRDII, Verrill and Smith. Dredged living off Martha's 

Vineyard, and off Delaware Bay, U. S. 

D. AMPHORA, Philippi. Hob. unknown. 

D. DUNKERI, Hanley. (Juvenile.) Natal. 

D. ALBUM, Conrad. (Allied to D. perdix.) Nab. unknown. 

Genus PYRULA, Lam., 1799. 
P. RETICULATA, Lam. PI. 5, fig. 28 ; PL 6, fig. 33. 

Cancellated by rather close, sharp, small longitudinal and spiral 
ridges, the latter often alternately larger and smaller; yellowish, 
clouded with light brown, with about five obscure whitish bands 
bearing chestnut maculations. Length, -J'5-3'5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, East Indies, Japan. 

Sowerby has in error figured this species as P. decussata,^Nood. 
It is P.ficoides, Lam. (fig. 28); P. clathrata, Rousseau (fig. 33); 
F.fortinr, Morch (assigned to West Indies in error). 



266 PYRULA. 

P. DECUSSATA, Wood. PI. 6, fig. 34. 

Spiral ribs small, distant, the wide interstices with three or 
four revolving threads, of which the middle one is usually more 
prominent; closely longitudinally ridged, interrupted by the 
spiral ribs; yellowish brown, maculated with chestnut on the 
ribs. Length, 3-5 inches. 

Panama to Cape St. Lucas, L. Gal. 

A common and beautiful species, of which a short, swollen 
variety was described by Sower by as P. ventricosa. Reeve gives 
no habitat, and in the Thesaurus, whvre it is figured in error as 
P. reticulata, it is assigned to the Indian Ocean. 

P. PAPYRATIA, Say. PL 6, fig. 35. 

Shell slimmer than P. reticulata, similarly but more delicately 
sculptured ; brownish white, or blush white, deeper brown within 
the aperture, sometimes faintly longitudinally strigate with yel- 
lowish brown, but always without maculations. 

Length, 3-4 inches. 

Beaufort, N. C., to West Indies. 

A common species on our Southern Coast. It is not figured 
either in Reeve's Iconia or the Thesaurus, but Sowerby figures 
it in his " Genera of Shells " in error for P. reticulata, Lam. It 
is P. gracilis, Phil. 

P. FICUS, Linn. PL 5, fig. 29 ; PL 6, figs. 3(>, 37. 

Abbreviately pyriform, closely, minutely, spirally flat-ribbed, 
longitudinal sculpture minute, scarcely visible; whitish, inter- 
ruptedly maculated and clouded with faint chestnut, interrupted 
by several faint white spiral bands upon which there are darker 
chestnut maculations; interior brownish or purplish. 

Length, 3-4 inches. 

lied Sea, Indian Ocean, Singapore. 

Reeve changed the name to laevigata, because Linnaeus in- 
cluded P. reticulata in his original description. 

Var. PELLUCIDA, Desh. PL 6, fig. 37. 

Orange-brown, with five or six equidistant spiral series of small 
distant chestnut spots, somewhat regularly arranged. 

P DUSSUMTERI, Valeric. PL 5, fig. 30. 

Narrowly pyriform, encircled by numerous small spiral flat- 



OOCORYTHID^E. 267 

topped ridges, and nearly equal interspaces, the latter longitudi- 
nally striate : pule fawn-color, with undulating, longitudinal 
darker streaks. Length, 3-6 inches. 

China. 
P. elongata, Gray, is probably a synonym. 

P. TESSELLATA, Kobelt. PI. 5, fig. 31. 

Pyriform, spire subimmersed, clathrate ; whitish, regularly 
distantly spotted with chestnut in spiral series. 

Length, 1-5-1-75 inches. 

Rosemary Is., Australia. 

A beautiful species, of which a fine series is before me. 



FAMILY OOCORYTHlDjE, Fischer, 1884. 

Shell bucciniform, aperture semioval, lip varicose externally, 
columella obliquely truncate at base. Opercnlum corneous, 
paucispiral. 

Animal with broad head and large, sharp tentacles, no eyes, 
siphon short, foot short and wide, obtuse behind, with an anterior 
marginal excision, branchiae very unequal. Dentition 2*l*l'l*2, 
the central tooth multicuspid. the laterals multicuspid, arcuated, 
the marginals simple and sharp (PL 6, fig. 39). Appears to con- 
nect Dolium with the Linatella group of Triton. 

Genus OOCORYS, Fischer, 1884. 

Characters those of the family. Benthodolium, Yerrill and 
Smith, is a synonym. 

O. SULCATA, Fischer. PI. 6, figs. 42, 40, 41. 

Shell ventricose, thin, spirally closely sculptured, with growth- 
lines crossing both ribs and interspaces ; epidermis thin, brownish- 
yellow, not hairy ; color white and translucent beneath the 
epidermis, inner lip thinly callous. Length, 45 mill. 
Deep Sea, off Southern Coast of Neiv England. 

Off West Africa and Azores, from 1258 to 4000 metres. 
Benthodolium abyssorum, Verrill and Smith (figs. 40, 41), is a 
synonym. 



268 CASSIDID^E. 



FAMILY CASSIDID^. 

Shell solid, sttbglobular or triangular, with short spire ; whorls 
sometimes varicose ; aperture terminating anteriorly in a short, 
recurved canal ; columella callous, spread out, usually plicate ; 
outer lip-margin thickened, dentate within. 

Operculum corneous, concentric, elongated, semilunar, the 
nucleus at the centre of the inner margin (PL 1, fig. 43). 

Animal with large head, eyes at the exterior base of the ten- 
tacles, proboscis cylindrical, extensible, mantle and foot large. 
Dentition (PL 1, fig. 44\ The Cassides are active and voracious, 
living in sandy localities and preying on bivalve mollusks. The 
varices of the shell persist in its interior. 

Synopsis of Genera. 
Genus CASSIS (Klein, 1753), Lamarck, 1799. 

Shell usually rather solid and thick, with the last whorl very 
large, often varicose ; aperture longitudinal, narrow ; outer lip 
with a thickened, reflected margin, and dentate within ; inner lip 
rugosely plicate. On the use of species of Cass'S in cameo cut- 
ting, see Structural and Systematic Conchology, ii, 200. About 
twenty-five species are known, inhabiting warm seas. The genus 
first appeared in the tertiary. 

Section 1. CASSIS (sensu stricto = Goniogalea, Morch, 1857). 

Spire short, mouth narrow, dentate, lip externally margined, 
columella plicate. C. Madagascar iensis, Lam. 

Section II. LEVENIA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell oval, subcylindrical, spire short, conic ; aperture narrow, 
contracted in the middle, columellar lip plicate throughout, outer 
lip without external rib, dentate, inflected above. C. coarctata, 
Gray. 

Section III. CYPR^CASSIS, Stutchbnry, 1837. 

Shell ovate, spire short ; mouth narrow, subcanaliculate behind, 
columella plicate its entire length ; varices none or obsolete. ? No 
operculum. C. rufa, Linn. 

Subgenus SEMICASSTS (Klein, 1753), Morch, 1852. 
Spire moderate, sharp ; shell oval with revolving sulci ; lip 



CASSIDID^E. 269 

reflected, plicate ; coluinella obliquely plicate. C. saburon, 
Adanson. 

Caxsidea, Swains., is reiiTred to this group. 

Section 1. SEMICASSIS (xcnxtt stricto). 

Section II. BEZOARDICA., Schum.. 1817. 

Shell varicose, angular behind, oval, with moderate spire ; 
outer lip often spinously dentated in front. C. glauca, Linn. 
Phalium, Link, is another name for this section. 

Section I IT. CASMARIA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. 

Shell smooth or longitudinally subplicate, spire moderate ; 
inner lip smooth, callous; outer lip margined, smooth or slightly 
crenulated on the inner edge. C. pyrum, Lam. 

Genus CASSIDARIA, Lam., 1812. 

Shell nodulous, not varicose, ovate or oval-oblong, somewhat 
attenuated in front to a moderate, reflected, subascending canal; 
inner lip more or less spread over the body-whorl, tuberculated 
or plicate, outer lip reflected, ribbed, plicate within. Operculum 
corneous, the apex median and marginal, outer edge sinuous. 

Animal similar to Cassis. 

The few species are Mediterranean and West Indian. The 
genus appeared in the cretaceous period, and reached its maxi- 
mum in the tertiary. Murio, Montfort, 1810; Echiriora, Schum., 
1817 ; Galeodaria, Conrad, 1865, and Galeodea, Link, 1807, are 
synonyms. C. echinophora, Linn. 

Subgenus SCONSIA, Gray, 1847. 

Shell oval-fusiform, with revolving stride, and a single longi- 
tudinal varix opposite the aperture; aperture long, canal short 
and slightly reflected ; inner lip regularly plicate ; outer lip 
rather thick, subreflected. plicate within. Animal and operculum 
unknown. A single recent, and some cretaceous and tertiary 
species. C. striata, Lam. 

Genus ONISCIA, Sowerby, 1824. 

Shell cylindrical, with short, conical spire and canal reflected 
at the base, surface tuberculated, mouth linear, lip reflected, 
thickened and plicate within, columella plicate. 

These little shells are known by their transversely ribbed 



270 CASSIS. 

nodulous whorls, and prominent, recurved siphonal canal ; when 
fresh the surface is covered with a fine velvety epidermis. 
Morum, Bolten, 1798 ; Ersina, Gray, and Lambidium, Link, are 
synonyms. 

The few species occur in the West Indies, Galapagos, China, 
etc. It is found in the eocene of Europe and miocene of N. 
America. 

Section I. ONISCIA (sensu stricto). 0. oniscus, Linn. Plesio- 
niscia, Fischer, 1884, should be considered synonymous. 

Section II. ONISCIDIA, Swainson, 1840. *0. cancellata, Sowb. 

Genus PACHYBATHRON, Gaskoin, 1853. 

Shell small, subcylindrical, longitudinally striated ; spire very 
short, but with sharp apex ; aperture narrow, very long, the inner 
lip spread over the body-whorl and transversely plicate, the outer 
lip thickened and denticulated within. 2 sp. West Indies. P. 
marginelloideum, Gask. 

Some conchologists place this group in the family Marginel- 
lidae ; the dentition is unknown. 



Genus CASSIS (Klein, 1753), Lamarck, 1799. 

Section I. CASSIS, sensu stricto. 
C. CORNUTA, Linn. PL 2, fig. 49 ; PI. 1, figs. 45, 46. 

Honey-combed between the revolving ridges, with three spiral 
rows of distant compressed tubercles those of the shoulder the 
most prominent ; yellowish white, more or less tinged with yel- 
lowish brown, varices and belts sometimes brown-spotted ; colu- 
mellar and lip expansion much produced and rounded behind, 
yellowish cream-color, orange-brown within the aperture and 
between the teeth, which are whitish. Length, 8-12 inches. 
Indian Ocean, Tranquebar, Mauritius, Japan, 

Philippines; West Indies. 

Conrad distinguishes the West Indian specimens under the 
name of C- labiata, Chemn., as being more oblong, with the lip 
more widely expanded posteriorly into a flattened plane; the 
suite of specimens before me does not confirm this distinction. 



CASSIS. 271 

Other synonyms tire C. Amboinensis, Petiver, and Buccinum 

hr>' ri rostrum, Petiver. 

C. CAMEO, Stimpson. PI. 2, fig. 50. 

This fine species has the same ground-coloring as C. cornuta, 
but may be recognized at once by the interstices of the teeth and 
ridges on the lip and colnmella being deep chocolate-brown. 
The outer suriace is irregularly spirally ridged like C. cornuta, 
but is not honey-combed. Length, 7-10 inches. 

Beaufort, N. C., to West Indies. 

First described by Lamarck as C. Madagascariensis, but there 
is no evidence that it inhabits oriental waters, 

C. TUBEROSA, Linn. PI. 2, fig. 51. 

Triangularly ovate, spirally ridged, and very closely longitu- 
dinally minutely plicate-striate, with three rows of distant spiral 
tubercles; yellowish brown, thickly marbled and spotted with 
chestnut and chocolate color, enameled face of columella, and 
outer lip flesh-white, the former chocolate between the plicae, 
with a bright chocolate stain in the centre, the latter with choco- 
late transverse blotches. Length, 6-8 inches. 

Beaufort, N. C., to West Indies, Brazil. 

Said to have been collected by Cuming, at the Philippine 
Islands, and I have a specimen before me stated to have been 
obtained in Japan ; yet these eastern localities must be considered 
very doubtful. It is Bucc. striatum, Gronov. ; C. undulata, 
Humph.; C. rotiindata,Periy. 

C FLAMMEA, Linn. PI. 1, figs. 47, 48. 

Oblong-oval, with three or four spiral rows of distant, large, 
obtuse tubercles, spire, and body-whorl, usually at the base only, 
distinctly rudely longitudinally ridged; cream-colored, clouded 
and crescent-marked with chestnut and chocolate; these markings 
are often apparent on the face, which is stained with chocolate 
in the middle and between the ridges, interstices of teeth on the 
outer lip also chocolate-stained, lip sometimes banded across. 

Length, 4-6 inches. 

West Indies. 

This species has also, like some of its predecessors been 
ascribed to East Indian localities probably in error. 



272 CASSIS. 

C. SPINOSA, Gronov. PI. 4, fig. 62. 

Shoulder with small, short, rather close spinous tubercles, 
occasionally slightly indicated in two or three rows on the body- 
whorl, which else is smooth, or marked by rugose growth-lines ; 
above the shoulder are one or two necklace-like rows of small 
tubercles, appearing on the spire-whorls also ; fleshy or orange- 
white, with obscure whitish bands, bearing lunate, shaded choco- 
late spots ; shell rather thin, the columellar callus transparent, 
showing the color-markings beneath it. Length, 4-8 inches. 

West Africa, Australia. 

The synonyms are C. Rumphii, G. tessellata and G. maculosa, 
of Gmelin, and C.fasciata, Brug. 

C. FIMBRIATA, Quoy. PI. 3, fig. 55. 

More strongly longitudinally ridged by growth-lines than the 
preceding species ; it has the same shoulder-row of spines, but 
has none above, whilst below, on the body-whorl are two rows of 
rather prominent rude tubercles ; flesh-white, marbled with light 
chocolate, with several distant rows of interrupted chocolate or 
chestnut lines ; the latter show through the columellar callus, 

and the outer lip is chocolate-banded. Length, 3-4*5 inches. 

Australia. 
C. bicarinata, Jonas, is a synonym. 

Section II. LEVENTA, Gray, 1847. 
C. COARCTATA, Gray. PI. 2, fig. 52. 

Shell with three or four spiral rows of obtuse tubercles, and 
intermediate spiral ridges, which are sometimes broken up into 
granules; whitish, thickly marbled and spotted with chestnut; 
columellar callus thin above, showing the color-markings beneath, 
below stained with orange-brown, as is also the toothed lip-margin. 

Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Galapagos 7s. , Panama. 

Distinguished at once by its outer lip, without external varix 
or expansion, and contracted above. 

Section III. CYPR^ECASSIS, Stutchbmy, 1837. 
C. TENUIS, Gray. PI. 2, fig. 53. 

Rather thin, whorls nodulous on the shoulder, smooth, or 
indistinctly nodose in spiral series below, spirally regularly 



r 



CASSIS. 273 

grooved, groove's usually in pairs, the interstices obsoletely 
longitudinally ridged, strongly so at the base; whitish, thickly 
clouded and streaked with orange-brown or chestnut, often with 
four somewhat obscure bands of brown, with white lunate spots; 
columellar callus transparent above, orange-brown below, lip 
banded across with orange-brown. Length, 3-5 inches. 

Galapagos Is. 

When young, this species has a lip somewhat approximating 
to C. coarctata; when adult it is fully reflected. It is C. Masseuse, 
Kiener. 

C. TESTICULUS, Linn. PL 2, fig. 54 ; PI. 4, fig. 63. 

Shell strongly longitudinally ridged, the ridges cut by regular 
spiral grooves ; flesh-color, spotted with chocolate upon the 
interspaces of the grooves ; columella plicate its whole length, 
outer lip strongly dentate, both yellowish white, the iirst shaded 
with orange-brown below, the latter cross-banded with orange- 
brown, external lip-margin marked with dark chocolate. 

Length, 2-3 inches. 

West Indies. 

C. CHUMENA, Brug. PI. 3, fig. 56. 

Spiral snlcations obsolete, upper part of body-whorl with one 
or two rows of low tubercles. 

West Africa, Cape Verd Is., West Indies. 
Is probably a variety only of C. testiculus. 

C. RUFA, Linn; PL 3, figs. 57, 58. 

Shell cowiy-shaped, very thick, with three or four spiral rows 
of prominent nodules, and incised lines between them, decus- 
sated by longitudinal ridges ; whitish or purplish flesh-color, 
stained and marbled with orange-red or chocolate ; both lips 
very thick, yellowish or salmon-colored, orange-red to chocolate 
in the interstices of the ridges. Length, 5-7 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Japan. 

It is fiuccw'im pennatum and B. ventricosum, of Gmelin; B. 
, of l>orn ; the first and last-named for the juvenile shell. 
19 



274 CASSIS. 

Subgenus SEMICASSIS (Klein, 1153), Morch, 1852. 

Section I. TYPICAL. 
C. SULCOSA, Bruguiere. PI. 4, fig. 64-67 ; PL 3, figs. 59, 01. 

Whorls, usually without varices, but often with rugose or 
tuberculate growth-lines, especially on the spire and upper part 
of body-whorl, equidistantly spirally groved ; yellowish while, 
longitudinally streaked with light chestnut, sometimes the 
streaks are interrupted, forming spiral bands of tessellations; 
columella rugose and granulate, outer lip plicate-dentate, often 
enormously thickened. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea, Portugal, W. Coast of Africa, 

West Indies, Brazil, W. Coast N. America 

from Panama to Guaymas. 

A somewhat variable species as to form and sculpture, giving 
rise to several specific names some of which I have retained in 
n. varietal sense, although these forms grade one into another. 
The typical sulcosa has a somewhat elevated spire, the whorls 
well-rounded above. It, as well as the varieties, occurs at all the 
localities for the species. It is C. undulata and C. gibba, 
Gmelin ; C. decussata, Pennant ; and Brugnonia pulohella, 
Jeffreys, is probably the fry. Possibly Buccinum inalum, B. 
cepa and B. globulus, Bolten, are also synonyms. 

Var. INFLATA, Shaw. PI. 4, fig. 65. 

Somewhat thinner and more inflated than the t}^pe, often 
singly varicose, the lip not so much thickened, coloring more 
generally in tessellations, frequently one-varicose. 

This variety is the usual form of the West Indies, although it 
occasionally occurs in Mediterranean specimens. It is C. gran- 
ulosa, Brug. ; C. tessellata, Pfr. ; C. trifasciata, Gmelin ; C. Isem- 
gata, Menke ; C. cicatricosa, Gronov. ; C. granulata, Born ; C. 
ventricosa, Mart. 

Var. ABBREVIATA, Lam. PI. 3, figs. 61, 59; PI. 4, figs. 66, 67 ; 
PI. 5, fig. 71. 

Spire shorter, the upper part of the whorls nodulous and 
somewhat angular. 

This variety is very characteristic of specimens from the West 
Coast of North America, but it also occurs in the West Indies 



CASSIS. 27f> 

and Europe. It is G. granulosa, var., and G. lactea (fig. 59), 
Kiener; G. injlata, var. /9, of Reeve; G. minuta, Menke ; C. 
biline.ata, Gmelin, and G. <-c))(i<//iadrata, Yal. 

G. recurvirostrum, Wood (figs. 66, 67), said to conic from 
Australia, varies between this variety and var. inflata. 

Var. LEVILABIATA, Gregorio. Unfigured. Mediterranean. 

C. SEMIGRANOSA, Wood. PI. 3, fig. 60. 

Upper portion of whorls granose, lower part obsoletely spi- 
rally grooved, outer lip smooth within, columella obliquely 
plicate below ; whitish or ilesh-color, often stained with fulvous 
rust-color. Length, 2 inches. 

So. Australia, Tasmania. 

C. CANALICULATA, Bruguiere. PI. 5, figs. 72, 73. 

Suture broadly, deeply channeled, whorls without varices, 
spirally engraved, columella plicately ridged below, lip toothed 
within ; whitish or flesh-colored, with four rows of light chest- 
nut tessellations, often obsolete. Length, 1-5-2 inches. 

Ceylon, Philippines. 
C. SABURON, Adanson. PI. 5, figs. 74-78. 

Shell with pretty close, engraved spiral grooves, lip irregu- 
larly dentate within ; columella rugosely ridged below ; flesh or 
brownish white, with four or five spiral rows of square chestnut 
spots, sometimes obsolete. Length, 2 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Coast of Spain to Senegal. 

It is C. pomum, Wagner; G. nucleus, K lister ; C. reticulata, 
Bellardi ; C. striatella and C. incrassala, Grateloup ; C. texta, 
Bronn. ; and C. tlilurri, G. injtnlu and G. sfriata, Serres. 

Var. PI LA, Reeve. PI. 5, fig. 7. r >. 

Appears to differ only in being thinner, and usually smaller. 

China, Philippines, Australia. 
Var. J.vi'ONicA, Reeve. PI. 5, tigs. 76, 77. 

Very like the type, but usually varicose, the interstices of the 
grooves, especially on the spire and upper part of the body- 
whorl somewhat granular. Length, 2-2-5 inches. 

Japan. 

C. Pfeifferi, Hidalgo (fig. 77), is a not unusual form of this 
variety, with somewhat depressed spire and deep suture. 



276 CASSIS. 

Yar. BISULCATA, Schub. et Wagn. PI. 5, fig. 78. 

Thin and swollen like var. pila, with the granular spire of var. 
Japonica, the shoulder of the body-whorl with a couple of strong, 
shallow grooves. 

Philippines. 

Section II. BEZOARDICA, Schum., 1817. 
C. GLAUCA, Linn. PI. 6, figs. 79, 80. 

Whorls sraoothish, malleated, angulated above, the angle de- 
fined by a row of short spines, upper whorls decussated, last 
whorl one-varicose; columella plicately wrinkled below; outer 
lip toothed within, four-spined at the base ; livid glaucous, 
sometimes indistinctly banded, lips cream-color to orange-brown, 
interior light chestnut-color. Length, 3-4 inches. 

Singapore, Philippines. 

This was re-named by Schumacher Bezoardica vulgaris. 

C. CORONULATA, Sowerby. PL 6, fig. 81. 

Smooth, not malleated, spinous processes of the base of the 
lip only faintly indicated; color yellowish flesh, irregularly, 
undulately banded longitudinally, and regularly so spirally with 
light chestnut, the intersections of the bands forming darker- 
colored tessellations. Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Japan, Philippines, Australia. 

Is possibly a well-marked variety only of the last species. 

C. EXARATA, Reeve. PL 6, figs. 82, 83. 

Whorls one -varicose, smooth, regularly spirally grooved, 
slantingty shouldered, shoulder and spire nodulous; whitish, 
with five rows of square chestnut spots. Length, 3 inches. 

Isl. Bourbon (Deshayes). 
C. AREOLA, Linn. PL G, fig. 84. 

Whorls one-varicose, obtusely concavely shouldered, smooth, 
shining, spire decussated, body-whorl with incised lines towards 
the base ; lip toothed within, columella rugosely plicate below ; 
whitish or purplish flesh-color, five-banded with large square- 
lunate chestnut or chocolate spots. Length, 2'5-3'5 inches. 

Indian Ocean, Philippines, N. S. Wales. 
C. STRTGATA, Gmelin. PL 7, fig. 85. 

Whorls encircled throughout, or only at the base by engraved 
lines, one-varicose, striated and decussated on the spire and 



CASSIS. 277 

shoulder of the body-whorl ; yellowish white, with longitudinal 
streaks of chestnut. Length, 3-3'5 inches. 

Moluccas, China, Japan, Philippines. 

The synonyms are C. zebra, Lam. ; G. undata, Desh. ; C. areola, 
v;i r., Brug. ; C. rugosa, Gmelin. 

C. PLICATA, Linn. PI. 7, fig. 86. 

Spire and shoulder of body-whorl decussated, rest of body- 
whorl longitudinally plicate, encircled by engraved lines, usually 
obsolete except towards the base, one-varicose ; whitish, longi- 
tudinally undulately strigate with pale chestnut, the varices with 
chestnut macnlations ; interior chestnut-brown. 

Length, 2'5-3 inches. 

Moluccas. 

It is G. plicaria, Lam.; C.fimbria, G-mel. 

C. DKCUSSATA, Lam. PI. 7, figs. 87, 88. 

Decussated throughout by elevated longitudinal strife, and 
engraved spiral lines, one varicose, the varices spinous on the 
shoulder; yellowish flesh-color, with longitudinal streaks or 
quadrate spots of chestnut. Length, 2 inches. 

Habitat ? 

Tnite.s the coloring of C. areola and C. strigata with the form 
of C.plicata; varies from either in the sculpture, and spinous 
varices, from the two former in form. 

Section III. CASMARIA, II. and A. Adams, 1853. 

C. YIBEX, Linn. PL 7, figs 89-91. 

Shell smooth, without varices, lip four-spined at the base ; 
fleshy ash-color, obscurely banded, and painted longitudinally 
with light chestnut flames continued from darker sutural mark- 
ings; lip tessellated with chocolate externally; sometimes the 
body-whorl is encircled by indistinct series of short chocolate 
lines; interior orange-brown. Length, 2-3 inches. 

Mauritius, Philippines, Society Islands, Paumotus. 

Var. ERINACEA, Linn. PL 7, fig. 90. 

Shell thicker, smaller, with a tuberculate shoulder and plications 
descending below them. 

The synonyms include Buc. nodulosum, Gmel., and B. bianna- 
turn, Dillw. 



278 CASSIS. 

Var. KALOSMODIX, Melvill. PI. 7, fig. 91. 

Smooth as in typical vibex, but without the spines :it the base 
of the outer lip. The shell is obscurely three-banded, with 
numerous longitudinal chestnut stripes, which become darker in 
crossing the bands, and arise from darker sutural flames ; lip 
externally tessellated with brown. Length, 3'75 inches. 

C. TORQUATA, Reeve. PL 7, figs. 92, 93. 

Smaller and wider than G. vibex, the volutions less oblique, 
smooth, without varices ; lip sparsely spinose throughout ; flesh- 
color, with a row of square chestnut spots at the suture and- 
another near the base, back of lip tessellated with chestnut. 

Length, 1-35-1-75 inches. 

Port Jackson, Australia. 

This is perhaps only an extreme variety of 0. vibex ; like that 
species, it lias a spi nose-shouldered variety. 

C. ACHATINA, Lam. PI. 8, figs. 94-98 ; PI. 9, fig. 7. 

Smooth, without vjiric-es ; flesh-colored, longitudinally flamed 
with dark chestnut, often with narrow spiral bands of chestnut 
and white articulations ; lip dentated throughout, or only below, 
externally banded with chocolate. Length, 2'5 inches. 
Cape of Good Hope (Cuming) ; Mauritius; 

Australia, N. Zealand, Philippines. 

C. turgida, Reeve (fig. 95), is a slight variety having a lighter 
shell, and which has not the articulations sometimes found on 
the type. 

Var. PYRUM, Lam. PJ. 8, figs. 96-98 ; PI. 9, fig. 7. 

Smooth, often thick, with a superior line of more or less promi- 
nent nodules ; these, when well developed, sometimes define a 
regular shoulder, and in such cases there are often inferior lines 
of less developed nodules; coloring much as in the type, the 
revolving bands of maculations usually more prominent, the 
longitudinal streaks less so. 

Australia, Mauritius, Natal, Cape Verd Is. (Dunker). 

This holds the same relationship to C. achatina that the var. 
erinacea does to the typical vibex. 

The synonyms are C. paucirugis, Menke (fig. 7); C.zelanica, 
Lam.; C. striata, Hutton, and C. nivea, Brazier (fig. 98), a white 
variety. 



CASSIKAIMA. 279 

C. SOPHIA, Brazier. I'l. 8, lig. 99. 

Globosely inflated, rather solid, tabulately sliouldered, spi- 
rally engraved, more distinctly so at the base ; white, with 
several rows of distant, large chestnut blotches. 

Length, 2'75 inches. 

N. S. Wales, Australia. 
C. GLABRATA, Duiikcr. 1*1. 9, fig. 8. 

Rather thin, without varices, smooth ; white, with rare light 
chestnut flames at the suture. Length, 2*75 inches. 

Zanzibar. 

Appears to be sufficiently distinguished by its narrow form, 
elevated spire, coloring, and especially the absence of brown 
maculations on the lip varix. 



Un figured Species of Cassis. 

C. DOLIATA, Yal. W. Coast Central America. 

C. CORRUGATA, Swauison. Galapagos Is. 

C. NANA, Tenison-Woods. Australia. 

C. THOMSONI, Brazier. N. S. Wales. 

C. UMBIUCATA, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

( 1 . YKXiLLUM, Kiener. = Vexilla (Purpurae). 

C. GLOBULUS, Menke. = Desmoulea. 

C. SCROBICULATA, C. TENUiLABRis, C. MURiCATA, Menke. Java. 

Genus CASSIDARIA, Lam., 1812. 
C. ECIIINOPIIORA, Linn. PL 9, figs. 9-11. 

Globosely ovate, with five or six spiral tuberculated ribs on 
the body-whorl, and two or three smaller spiral ridges between 
each rib ; light fulvous white, more or less stained with rusty 
bi-own ; lip dentate within, and with the columellar callus white, 
interior of aperture rusty brown. Length, 2'5-4*25 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea. 

Varieties occur with two to four rows of tubercles, thus con- 
necting it more closely with C. Tyrrhenes, which has no 
tubercles or, at most, a single superior row and in which the 
revolving riblcts are sulu'qual, numerous and cord-like. 

It is Buccwum ru<jo*uin, Linn, a variety with a single nodose 
band; (7. <l<'prc**a, Phil. (fig. 10), a variety with the prominent 
ribs not tuberculate ; C. tuberculosa, Schum.; C. Tyrrhena, Sowb. 



280 CASS1DA11IA. 

Gcncrti ; B. nodosum, Dillw.; B. strigos-unij Gmi'lin ; Pi/ruld pru- 
vincialis, Martin (fig. 11), is an abnormal form. The opcrciilum 
differs from that of Cassis in not having radiating ridges. 

C. CORONADOI, Crosse. PL <), figs. 12, 13. 

Globose oval, rather thin, with rather close spiral riblets, two 
or three of which are a little more prominent than the others, 
and distantly tuberculate ; yellowish brown, lip, columellar callus 
and interior whitish. Length, 4 inches. 

Matanzas, Cuba. 

A single specimen only is known. Mr. Crosse has described 
it as a Cassis, although recognizing its resemblance to C. echi- 
nophora. 

C. DESHAYESII, Duval. PL 9, fig. 6. 

Ovate ventricose, strongly shouldered, longitudinally plicate, 
spirally sulcate, tuberculate on the shoulder ; violaceous brown, 
with chestnut lines and spots ; spire acute, mucronate ; aperture 
white, lip dentate within, columella rugose above and below. 

Length, 32 mill. 

W. Coast of Africa. 

The unfigured C. acuta, Gray, may be the same species. 

C. TYRRHENA, Lam. PL 10, fig. 14. 

Pear-shaped, thin, regularly corded with ridges with nearly 
equal interstices, sometimes an obscure shoulder is defined by a 
tuberculated ridge, yellowish brown ; lip obsoletely plicate, and 
with the columellar callus, white. Length, 3-5'5 inches. 

Mediterranean Sea,, Atlantic Coast of France and Spain. 

Is supposed by some conchologists to be a variety only of 
C. echinophora. It is Buccinum ochroleucum, Gmel. 

Subgemw* SCONSIA, Gray, 1847. 

C. STRIATA, Lam. PL 10, figs. 15, 16. 

Closely spirally thread-striate, decussated into nodules above 
and on the spire by rugose growth-lines, lip and columella both 
strongly plicate throughout ; whitish or brownish, showing a 
few light chestnut quadrangular spots on the upper part of the 
columellar callus. Length, 2-2'5 inches. West Indies, 

C. Isevigata, Sowb., and C. subl&uigata, Guppy, are fossil 
representatives of this shell. 



oN'IsriA. 281 

G'. (Ird'ji. A. Ad. (fig. 1(5). is said to be thinner and more 
vent ricose, more finely grooved, the spire less acute, outer lip 
not so much thickened and inflexed, and plicate, not eremite 
internally. I suspect that it is a synonym ; and probably the 
next species is at most only a variet} 7 . 

C. BAIUJUDKNSIS, Higgins and Marrat. PI. 10, fig. 17. 

Ovate, light yellowish brown, with longitudinal light chestnut 
flames; indistinctly spirally striate, decussated towards the lip 
and varix. Differs from G. striata in the plications of the inner 
lip being confined to the anterior portion, in the striations, which 
are not crenulated above, and in its flamed color pattern. 

Length, 2 75 inches. 

Isl of Barbuda, W. I. 

A single empt3 T shell dredged in fifteen fathoms. Possibly 
only a variety of G. striata. 

Genus ONISCIA, Sowb., 1824. 
Section 1. ONISCIA, *>r/w strirlo. 

O. ONISCUS, Linn. PI. 10, figs. 18, 19. 

With three spiral, tuberculated ribs, and a number of spiral 
raised lines between them, the ribs cut by revolving impressed 
lines; columellar callus minutely tuberculate, outer lip denticu- 
lated within ; whitish, dotted and spotted with chestnut or choco- 
late, the dots sometimes approaching blue-black, lip white. 

Length, 1-1 '2o inches. 

West Indies. 

0. triseriata, and perhaps 0. quadriseriata, Menke, are syno- 
nyms. 

Yar. LAMARCKI, Desh. PL 10, fig. 19. 

Columellar callus rose-pink, the grannies upon it white, outer 
lip often peppered with chestnut spots. 

It is Cyprs&a conoidea of Scopoli. 

O. TUBEBCULOSA, Sowb. PL 4, figs. 68, 69. 

Whorls encircled by five rows of large blunt tubercles and 
numerous intermediate ridges; columellar lip finely granulated, 
outer lip somewhat contracted in the middle, dentate within ; 



282 ONTSCIA. 

t 

marbled and reticulated with chestnut or chocolate and white, 
interior white or sometimes bright saffron-colored. 

Length, 1-25-1-5 inches. 

Galapagos Js., Mazatlan, La Paz, L. C. 

0. xanthostoma, A. Ad., is a synonym, being the variety with 
yellow aperture. 

0. STROMBIFORMIS, Reeve. PI. 4, fig. 70. 

Spire elevated, pointed, whorls angulated above, encircled by 
numerous narrow nodulous ridges ; columellar lip minutely 
granulated, outer lip ridged within, with a short interrupted rib 
in the interstices ; white, dotted and spotted with chestnut, lips 
white. Length, 22 mill. 

West Indies. 

I have not seen this species. 

Section II. ONISCIDIA, Swainson, 1840. 
O. DENNISONI, Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 20. 

Whorls angulated above, longitudinally compressly plicated, 
crossed and cut into short spines by numerous revolving riblets; 
columellar lip minutely granulated, outer lip irregularly denticu- 
lately ridged ; whitish, obscurely three- or four-banded with 
chestnut, lips orange-red, with the granules and plications 
whitish. Length, 2 inches. 

Guadeloupe, W. I. (Beau). 

I find no other authority for the habitat of this very beautiful 
species. 

O. CANCELLATA, Sowb. PI. 10, fig. 21. 

Whorls rounded above, longitudinally narrowly plicated, 
decussated by regular equidistant revolving riblets, the inter- 
stices spinose ; whitish or brownish white, three-banded with 
light chestnut, aperture white. Length, 1-5-2-5 inches. 

China. 
0. EXQUISITA, Ad. and Reeve. PL 8, fig. 100. 

Whorls shouldered, encircled by rows of papillary tubercles, 
with intervening ridges; whitish, sparingly dotted, and behind 
the lip three-spotted with orange-brown, lips pink, the granules 
and plications white. Length, 1*5 inches. 

Sooloo Sea; Australia. 

0. ponder osa, Hanley (PI. 10, fig. 22), is a synonym. 



283 

of Otiiscia. 

(). (iiiAXDis, A. Ad. (perhaps = exquisita). China Sea. 

(). (MTU AHA, Watson. Ke Inlands, W. of Papua. 

O. LAMAHCKII, Lesson. Australia. 

Genus PACHYBATHRON, Gaskoin, 1853. 
P. CASSIDI FORME, Gaskoin. PI. 8, figs. 1-3. 

White, with three ash-colored bands, longitudinally plicately 
striate, whorls ridged around the suture. Length, G mill. 

7s. of St. Vincent, Bonaire, Cura^oa, West Indies. 

P. MAIKJINELLOIDEUM, Gaskoin. PL 8, figs. 4, 5. 

Yellowish white, with three or four spiral rows of chestnut- 
colored sagittate markings ; whorls smooth at the suture, chest- 
nut margined. Length, 5 mill. 

West Indies. 

In Chen u 's "Manuel" the names of the species illustrated 
have been transposed. 



I1SDEX AND SYNONYMY. 



PEDICULARIID^E, OVULID^E, DOLIID^E, CASSIDIDJ]. 



PAGE. 

Abbreviata (Cassis), Lam. An. s. Yert., x, p. 30. 

= C. sulcosa, Born., var. ....... 274 

Abyssorum (Benthodolium), Verrill and Smith. Trans. 

Conn. Acad., vi, 177, 1884. = Oocorys sulcata, Fischer, 267 
Achatina (Cassis), Lam. An. s. Yert., x, p. 33, . . . 278 
Acicularis (Ovula), Lam. An. du Mus., xvi, p. 102, . . 253 
Acnminata (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. Sam., p. 21, pi. 

6, f. 1, 1850, . . .254 

Acuta (Cassidaria), Gray. Zool. Beechey's Yoy., p. 121, . 280 
Adamsi (Ovula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 24, 1865, . . .249 
Adamsii (Yolva), Dunk. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, p. 75, 1877. 

= C. Philippinarum, Sowb. . . . . . .252 

Adriatica (Ovula), Sowb. Thes., ii, p. 470, pi. 99, f. 13-14. 

= .0. patula, Pennant, ....... 246 

yEqualis (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 174. 

= 0. variabilis, C. B. Ad 255 

Alabaster (Ovula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 23, 1865. 

= O. punctata, Duclos, ....... 249 

Alba (Cassis), Perry. Conch., t. 33, f. 2. = C. flammea, Linn. 
Alba (Ovula), Schum. Nouv. Syst., p. 258, 1817. 

= 0. ovum, Linn 246 

Albida (Pedicularia), Ball. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ix, 39, 

1881, 242 

Album (Dolium), Conrad. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1854, p. 31, 265 
Album (Ovulum), Dufo. Ann. Sci. Nat., 1840, p. 186, . 256 
Amboinensis (Cassis), Petiv. Gaz., t. 151, f. 14. 

= C. cornuta, Linn. . . . . . . .271 

Amphiperas, Gronov. Zooph., 293, 1781. = Ovula, Brug. 
Amphora (Dolium), Phil. Abb., iii, p. 12, . . . .265 

Ampullaceum (Dolium), Phil. Zeit. Mai,, 1845, 147 ; Abbild., 

iii, t. 2, 1849. = D. costatum, Menke, . . . .264 
Angasi (Ovula), A. Ad., MS. Reeve, Conch. Ic., No. 43, 

1865. = O. Philippinarum, Sowb 252 

(284) 



INDEX AND SYNONYM*. 285 

PAGE. 

Ano-nlosa (Ovula), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, 361. 

= 0. tortilis, Mart 246 

Antillarum (Dolium), Morch. Mai. Blatt.. xxiv, p. 41. 

= D. galea, Linn . . .261 

Antillarum (Ovula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 64, 1865. 

= O. nniplicata, Sowb. ....... 255 

Aperta (Ovula), Sowb. Thes., ii, p. 418, pi. 101, f. 106,107. 

= O. birostris, Linn 253 

Arcuata (Ovula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 58, 1865. 

= 0. uniplicata, Sowb. ....... 255 

Areola (Cassidea), var., Brug. = Cassis strigata, Gmel. . 277 
Aivola (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1199, . . 276 
Areolata (Bezoardica), Schum. Nouv. Syst., p. 248, 1817. 

= Cassis areola, Linn. 

Atomaria (Crithe), Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, 385, 1860, . 255 
Australe (Dolium), Morch. Cat. Yoldi. 

= D. Chinense, Dillw 262 

A vena (0 vnla), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc.,1832,p. 173; Conch. 

111., p. 17, . . 255 

Bairdii (Polium\ Verrill and Smith. Am. Jour. Sc., .-id 

ser., xxii, p. 299, 1881 ; Trans. Conn. Acad., v, 515 ; Proc. 

Nat. Mus., 329, 1882, 265 

Barbu<.Unsis (Cassidaria), Higgins and Marrat. Liv. Mus., 

Rep. i, pi. 1, f . 1 ; Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Liverpool, 

xxxi, 411, 281 

Benthoclolium, Yerrill. Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, 177, 1884. 

= Oocorys, Fischer, 267 

Bezoardica, Schum. Essai Nouv. Gen., 248, 1817, . 269, 276 
Biarmatum (Buccinum), Dill. Cat., t. 2. p. 599. 

= Cassis vibex, L., var. erinacea, ..... 277 
Bicarinata (Cassis). Jonas. Arch. f. Naturg., 1839, i, p. 343, 

t. 10, f. 2. = C. fimbriata, Quoy, 272 

Bilineatum (Buccinum), Gmel. P. 3476, No. 23. 

= Cassis sulcosa, Brug., var. ...... 275 

Bimaculata (Ovula), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1854, 131, . 248 
Binovoluta, Schliit, Verz., 24, 1838. = Cyphoma, Bolt. 
Birostra, Swainson. Malacol., 325. 1840. = Radius, Montf. 
Birostris (Ovula), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1182, 1767, . . 253 
Bisulcata (Cassis), Schub. and Wagner. Forts., x t ii, t. 22:5, 

f. 3081,3082. = C. saburon, Adans, var. .' . .276 
Borbonica (Ovula), Desh. Moll. Reunion, p. 136, pi. 13, f. 

18-20, 1863, .254 

Brcvirostris (Ovula), Sclmni. Nouv. Syst., p. 2f>9, 1817. 

= O. birostris, Linn. ....... 253 



286 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Brevirostrum (Buccinum), Petiv. Gaz., t. 151, f. 9. 

= Cassis cornuta, Linn. . . . . . . .271 

Brevis (Ovula), Sowb. Thes., ii, p. 169, pi. 101, f. 70, 71, . 248 
Brevis (Ovula), Reeve. Icon , sp. 5 (not of Sowb.), 1862. 

= 0. marginata, Sowb. 
Brugnonia,' Jeffreys. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., xi, 399, xii, 67, 

1883. ?= Cassis, fry. 
Bulla (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Yoy. Sam., p. 21, pi. 6, f. 5, 

1850. = O. margarita, Sowb 248 

Bullata (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Sam., p. 23, pi. 6, 

f. 13, 1850, ' 250 

Bullata (Ovula), Gould. Proc. Bost. Soc., vii, p. 385, . 256 

Cadium, Link. Rost. Samml., iii, 113, 1807. = Malea,Val. 258 
Caledonica (Ovula), H. Crosse. Jour, de Conch., 1871, p. 

206; 1872, p. 62. = 0. pudica, A. Ad 247 

Californica (Ovula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 50, 1865. 

= 0. variabilis, Ad. . . . 255 

Californica (Pedicularia), Newcomb. Calif. Proc., iii, 121, 

1864; iv, 322, t. 1, f. 9, . . . 242 

Galpurna, Fleming. Brit An., 331, 1828. = Simnia,Risso. 
? Calpurnus, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 638, 1810, . 245, 256 
Cameo (Cassis), Stimps. Sillim., Am. Journ., 1860, p. 443, 271 
Canadiensis (Amphiperas), Morch. Weink., Jahrb. Mai. 

Gesell., 178, 1882. = Ovula uniplicati, Sowb. . . 255 
Canaliculata (Bulla), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x ; Hanley, Proc. 

Zool. Soc., 489, 1859. = Dolium olearium, Brug. . . 263 
Canaliculata (Cassis), Brug. Diet. No. 7, . . . . 275 
Cancellata (Oniscia), Sowb. Genera of Shells, . . 270, 282 
Carinea, Swains. Malacol., 326, 1840. = C3'phoma,Bolten. 
Carnea (Ovula), Poiret. Voy. en Barb., ii, p. 21, 1789, . 248 
Carolinensis (Ovula), Morch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 54, 1877. 

= 0. uniplicata, Sowb. 255 

Carpenteri (Yolva), Dkr. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 75, 1877. 

= 0. Philippinaru-m, Sowb. ...... 252 

Casmaria, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 216, 1853, . 269, 277 
Cassidaria, Lain. Extr. d'un Cours, 1812, . . 268, 269, 279 
Cassidea (Pars), Bruguiere. Encyc. Meth., 1, 414, 1789. 

= Cassis, Lam. 
Cassidea, Link. Rost. Samml., iii, 111, 1807. 

= Cypraecassis, Stutchb. 
Cassidea, Swainson. Malacol., 66, 299, 1840. 

= Semicassis, Mo'rdi, ... ... 209 

Cassidiforme (Pachybathron), Gask. Ann. Mag. N. IT., 

1S53, p. 2, t. 12, f. 1-3, 283 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 287 

PAGE. 

Cassidiformis (Pacbybathron), Chenu. Manuel, f. 1142. 

== P. Margin elloideum, Gask. 
Cassis (Dolium), Bolten. Morch, Cat. Yoldi, p. 111. 

: D. fimbriatum, Sowb 204 

Cassis (Klein, 1753), Lamarck. Prodr., 1799, . .208,270 
Centiquadrata (Cassis), Valen. Voy. Humb. and Bonp., p. 

183, No. 320. = C. sulcosa, var. abbreviata, Lam. . 275 
(Ypa (Bucciuum), Bolt. Mus., No. 372. 

= Cassis sulcosa, Brag. ....... 274 

Cepa (Dolium), Martini. Conch. Cat., iii, p. 401, pi. 117, f. 

1076 and 1077. = D. olearium, Brug. 
Chinense (Dolium), Dillvv. Cat., p. 585. 

= D. variegatum, Lam., var. . . . . . . 262 

Cicatricosa (Cassis). Gronov. Zoopli., Fasc. 3, p. 303; 

Meusch., 1778, n. 1158. = C. sulcosa, Brug. . . .274 
Cithara (Oniscia), B. Watson. Jour. Linn. Soc., xv, 266, . 283 
Clathrata (Ficus), Rousseau. Chenu, 111. Conch, iii, pi. 2, 

f. 3. = Pyrula reticulata, Lam. ..... 265 

Coarctata (Cassis), Gray. Wood, Ind. Test. Supp., t. 4, 

f. 5, .... 268, 272 

Coarctata (0 vula), Ad. and Reeve. V<oy. Samarang, f. 2, p. 

21, pi. 6, . 253 

Coccineus (Calpurnus), Ad. Reeve, Icon., sp. 21. 

= vula concinna, Ad. and Reeve. 
Colnmba (Ovula), Sch. et Wag. Suppl., 40, 43, 40, 44. 

= 0. tortilis, Mart. . 246 

Concinna- (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Yo3 r . Sam., p. 22, pi. 6, 

f. 8, 1850, .249 

Conoidea (Cypnea), Scopoli. Delic. Insubr., 1786, t. 24, f. 3. 

= Oniscia Lamarcki, Desh. ...... 281 

Cornuta (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12. p. 1198, . . 270 

Coronadoi (Cassis), Crosse. Jour. Conch., xii, 1867, p. 64, 

t. iv, v, f . 1 280 

Coronulata (Cassis), Sowb. Tank. Cat. App., p. 20, . . 276 
Corrugata (Cassis), Swainson. Exotic Conchology, p. 35, . 27 ( .) 
Corrugatum (Ovuluni), Hinds. Moll. Voy. Sul., pi. 16, 

f. 5,^6. = Erato. Manual Conch., v, 11, . . .250 
Costatum (Dolium), Menke. Syn. Meth., 1828, . . 263 

Costellata (Ovula), Lam. An. du Mus., xvi, p. 110, 1810. 

= 0. tortilis, Mart 246 

Crassilabris (Dolium), Yal. Humb. and Bonpl., livr. 14. 

= D. ringens. Swains. ....... 265 

Creiiulatum (Dolium), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 1845, p. 148 ; Abb., 

t. l,f. 1. = D. zonatum, Green, . . . . .263 
Cristallina (Ovula), Kien. Coq. viv., 14, pi. iv, f. :j, . . 247 
Critho, Gould. Bost. Proc., vii, .'{84, 1X00, . . . 254, 255 



288 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Crosseanum (Dolium), Allery de Mont. J. C., xvii, p. 228, 

t. 12, f. 1, 1809, 263 

Crumena (Cassis), Brag. Diet, No. 12, . . . .273 
Cumingii (Dolium), Hanley. Reeve, Conch. Icon., sp. 13, 

1849. = D. olearium, Brug., var 262 

Cumingi (Ovula), Morcli. Cat. Kjerulf, p. 30, t. 1, f. 11, 

1850. = 0. concinna, Ad. and Reeve, .... 249 

Cypboma, Bolten. Mas., 1798, 244, 250 

Cypraecassis, Stutchbury. London's Mag. N. H., N. S., 1, 

214, 1837, 268, 272 

Cypraella, Swains. Malacol., 325, 1840. 
= Calpurims, Montf. 

Decussata (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1199, . 277 
Decussata (Pedicularia), Gould. Bost. Proc., v, 126, 1855, 242 
Decussata (Pyrula), Wood. Ind. Test. Supp. . .265,266 
Decussatum (Buccinum), Pennt. Brit. Shells, t. 79, f. 2. 

= Cassis sulcosa, Brug., var. ...... 274 

Deflexa (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, p. 136. 

= 0. Philippinarum, Sowb. ...... 252 

Dennisoni (Oniscia), Ree,ve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842, p. 21, 282 
Dentata (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Sam., p. 21, pi. 6, f. 

4, 1850. =.0. striatula, Sowb 250 

Dentatum (Dolium), Barnes. Ann. N. Y. Lyceum, i, p. 135, 

pi. ix, f. 3. = D. ringens, Swains. ..... 265 

Dentiora, Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 240, 1862. 

= Pedicularia, Swains .241 

Depressa (Cassidaria), Philippi. Enum. Moll. Sic., pt. ii, 

pi. 27, f. 3. = C.echinophora, Linn 279 

Depressa (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1875, p. 128, pi. 

xxiv, f. 1. =0. Philippinarum, Sowb. .... 252 
Deshayesii (Cassidaria), Duval. Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., 1841, 

p. 278; Jour, de Conch., 70, t. 1, f. 9, 1863, . . .280 
Deshayesii (Dolium), Reeve. Conch. lc., sp. 15, 1849. . 262 
Diameza, Deshayes. Foss. bassin de Paris, iii, 572, t. 105, 

f. 9-10, 1865, 245 

Diluvii (Cassis), Serres (fossil). = C. saburon, Ad: . . 275 
Doliata (Cassis), Val. Voy. Humb. and Bonpl., p. 183, 

No. 320, 279 

Doliidtc, 256, 257 

Doliopsis, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 141, 150, 18(55, . 258 

Doliopsis, Monterosato, 1872, 258 

Dolium, Lam. Syst. an., 79, 1801. . . . . 258, 261 
Dolium (Buccinum), Linn. (Morch). = D. maculatum, . 264 
Dorsnta (Cyphoma), Bolt. Mus., p. 15, n. 254. 

= Ovula gihbnsa, Linn. ....... 250 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 289 

PAOK. 

Dorsuosa (Ovula), Hinds. Toy. Sulphur, p. 47, pi. 16, f. 3, 4, 
1844. = 0. striatula, Sowb. . . . . . .250 

Dunkeri (Dolium), Hanley. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 431, 265 
Dnssumieri (Pyrula), Valenciennes. Kien.,Coq. Viv., p. 25, 
pi. 11, ... 266 

Echinophora (Cassidaria), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. x, p. 735, 269 
Echinora, Sebum. Essai nouv. gen., 249, 1817. 

= Cassidaria, Lam . . . 269, 279 

Eleuantissima (Pedicularia), Desh. Moll. Reunion, 50, t. 6, 

f.^23-26, 1863, 242 

Elongata (Ficula), Gray. Zool. Beech., p. 115. 

? = Pyrula Dnssumieri, Val 267 

Elongatum (Cyphoma), A. Ad. Proc. Linn. Soc.,vii, p. 96, 256 
Emarginata (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. C., pt. 1, p. 7, f. 54, 55, 

1830, 251 

Epidermata (Dolium galea, var.), de Gregorio. Bull. Soc. 

Mai. Ital.,x, 115, 1884, 261 

Erinacea (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1199. 

= C. vibex, var. Linn 277 

Ersina, Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 137, 1847. = Oniscia, Sowb. 270 
Exarata (Cassis), Reeve. Conch. Icon., sp. 32, 1848, . . 276 
Exquisita (Oniscia), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 35, 

pi. 5, f. 3 o-&, . . 282 

Fasciata (Cassis), Brug. Diet. No. 14. = C. spinosa, Gronv. 272 
Fasciatum (Dolium), Brug. Diet. No. 5, . . 263 

Fasciatum (Dolium), var., Kien., t. 4, f. 6. 

= D. costatum, Menke. Ku'ster, 2, . . . . . 264 
Favannei (Dolium), Hanley. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1859, p. 430. 

? = D. costatum, Menke, var. fimbriaturn, . . . 264 
Ficoides (Pyrula), Lam. An. s. Vert., vol. ix, p. 511. 

= P. reticnlata, Lnm 2(55 

Ficula, Swainson. Malacol., 85, 307, 1840. = Pyrula, Lam. 259 
Ficulopsis, Stoliczka. Pal. Indica, 84, 1867, . . .260 
Ficus, Klein (in part). Ostrac., 78, 1753. = Pyrula, Lam. 259 
Ficus (Pyrula), Linn. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1184, . . 266 
Fimbria (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat,, p. 3479. 

= Cassis plicata, Linn. ....... 277 

Fimbriata (Cassis), Quoy and Gaim. Voy. Astr , p. 596, 

t. 42, f. 7-8, .272 

Fimbriatum (Dolium), Sowb. Genera, f. 2, . . . 264 
Flammea (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1199; 

Kiener, 2, 271 

Fonnicaria (Ovula), Sowb. Sp. Conch., pt. 1, p. 8, f. 39, 

1830. = 0. hordacea, Lam. . ... 254 

20 



'290 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGK. 

Formosa (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Toy. Sarnarang, p. 22, 

pi. 6, f. 6, 251 

Fortior (Ficus), Mo'rch. Mai. Blatt., xxiv, 43. 

= P. reticulata, Lam 2(55 

Frumentum (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. Conch., pt. 1, p. f , f. 37, 

1830, . 250 

Fruticnm (Ovula), Ad., MS. Reeve, Conch. Ic., No. 16, 

18G5, 249 

Galea (Dolium), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1197, . . 261, 268 
Galeodaria, Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 26, 1865. 

= Cassidaria, Lam 269 

Galeodea (Link), H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 216, 1853. 

= Cassidaria, Lam. ........ 269 

Gallinaceum (Ovulum), Hinds. Voy. Sulphur, p. 47, pi. 16, 

f. 1-2. = Erato. Manual Conch., v, 10, . . .256 
Gibba (Cassis), Gmel. Syst. Nat., 3476, n. 24. 

= C. sulcosa, Brug. ........ 274 

Gibbosa (Ovula), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1183, 1767, . 244, 250 
? Gisortia, Jousseaume Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 88, 1884, 245 
Glabrata (Cassis), Dunk. Menke, Zeit., 1852, p. 62 ; Novit., 

p. 35, t. 11, f. 1,2, ' . . . 279 

Glauca (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat.. 12 ed., p. 1200, . 269, 276 
Globulus (Cassis), Bolt. Mus., 1798, p. 22, n. 371. 

? = C. sulcosa, Brug. ....... 274 

Globulus (Cassis), Menke- Syn., edit. 1, No. 807, 1828. 

= Desmoulea ventricosa, Lam. Mo'rch., Mai. Blatt., 

xviii, 126, 279 

Goniogalea, Mo'rch. Cat. Svensen, 21, 1857. 

= Cassis, Lam. 
Gracilis (Ovula), Ad. and Kct've. Voy. Sam., p. 22, pi. 6, 

f. 11, 1848, 252 

Gracilis (Pyrula), Philippi. Zeits. fur Malak., v, 1848, p. 

97. = P. papyratia, Say, 266 

Grandis (Oniscia), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 185, . 283 
Granulata (Cassis), Born. Index, 1778, p. 239. 

= C. sulcosa, Brug., var. ...... 274 

Granulosa (Cassis), Brug. Diet., No. 5. 

= C. sulcosa, Born, ........ 274 

Granulosa, var. (Cassis), Kien., t. 16, f. 34. 

= C. snlcosa, Born, var. abbreviata, .... 275 

Grayi (Sconsia), A. Adams. Zool. Proc., 136, 1854. 

? = C. striata, Lam. . . . . . . .281 

Hordacea (Ovula), Costa. Arad. et Ben., Moll. Sicil., 303. 
'= 0. spelta, Linn 254 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 291 

PAGE. 

Hordacea (Ovula), Lam. (non Reeve nee Sowb.). Ann. du 
Mus.,xvi,p. 112, 1810, 254 

Hordaceum (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. Conch., p. 10, f. 53. 

== 0. Semperi, Weink. . . ... 252 

Imperials (Ovtilura), Dill. Cat., p. 473, 1815. 

= 0. tortilis, Mart ... 246 

Incrassata (Cassis), Grat. = C. saburon, Ad. . . . 275 
Indica (Ovula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 47, 1865. 

= 0. obtusa, var., Sowb 251 

Intiata (Cassis), p. Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 22 a, b. 

= C. sulcosa, var. abbreviata, Lam. .... 275 

Inflata (Cassis), Serres. (Fossil.) = C. saburon, Ad. 
Innata (Cassis), Shaw. Nat. Misc., v, 22, pi. 959, 1789. 

= C. sulcosa, Born, var. . . . . . . .274 

Inflexum (Ovulum), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 173; 

Conch. 111., p. 18. = 0. variabilis, C. B. Ad. . . .255 
Intermedia (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. Conch., pt. 1, p. 9, f. 32, 

33, . 250, 251 

Japonica (Cassis), Reeve. Conch. Ic., fig. 23, 1848. 

= C. saburon, Adanson, var. ...... 275 

Japonica (Pedicularia), Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 121, 

t. 16, f. 12, 1871, . 242 

Japonicum (Dolium). Dunk. Novit. Conch., t. 35, 36. 

= D. luteostomum, Kiist 261 

Kalosmodix (Cassis), Melvill. Jour, of Conch., vol. iv, 43, 
1883. = C. vibex, Linn., var 278 

Kieneri (Dolium), Phil. Abb. Neuer Conch., iii, p. 36. 

= D. variegata, Lam. . . . . . . . 262 

Labiata (Cassis), Chem. Conch. Cab., xi, p. 71, t. 184, 185 ; 

Conrad, Jour. Acad. Philad., 2d ser., i, 211. 

= C. cornuta, Linn 270 

Labrosa (Cassis), Mart. Conch. Cat., ii, t. 36, f. 370, 371. 

= Dolium pornum, Linn. ....... 265 

Lactea (Bulla), Costa. Arad. et Benoit, Moll. Sicil., 302. 

= Ovula carnea, Poir. ....... 248 

Lactea, (Cassis), Kien. Coq. viv., t. 16, f. 35. 

= C. sulcosa, abbreviata, Lam. ..... 275 

Lactea (Ovula), Lam. An. s. Vert., vii, 368, 1822, . . 247 
Lactescens (Dolium), Mart. Univ. Conch., teste Kobelt, 

Jahrb., ii. 204. = D. costatum, Menke. 
Laevigata (Cassis), Menke. Syn., 1828, p. 87. 

= C. sulcosa, Brug 274 



292 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Lrevigata (Ficula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., pi. i, f. 4. 

= Pyrula ficus, Linn 250 

Laevigata (Sconsia), Sowb. Geol. Jour., vi, p. 47, t. x, f. 2. 

= S. striata, Lam 280 

Lamarckii (Cassidaria), Lesson. Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 212, . 282 
Lamarckii (Oniscia), Desh. An. s. Vert., x, p. 12. 

= Oniscia oniscns, Linn. ....... 281 

Lambidium, Link. Rost. Samml., iii, 112, 1807. 

= Oniscia, Sowb 270 

Lanceolata (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, p. 135, 253 
Lateralis (Gadinia), Requien. Moll. Corse, 39. 

? = Pedicnlaria, Sicula, Swains. ..... 242 

Latesulcatum (Dolinm), Mart. Conch. Cab., iii, p. 396, 

f. 1072, 1082. = D. costatnm, Menke, . . 264 

Latilabris (Dolium), Yal. Humb. and Bonpl., livr. 14. 

= D. ringens, Swain. . . . . . . . 265 

Leathesi (Ovula), Wood. Crag Moll., p. 14, t. 2, f. 1. 

= 0. spelta, Linn., var. ....... 254 

Lepida (Ovula), Dill. Cat., p. 474, 1815. =O. triticea,Lam. 248 
Levenia, Gray. Proc. Zool. Soc., 137, 1847, . . 268, 272 
Levilabiata (Cassis undulata, var.), de Gregorio. Bull. Soc. 

Mai. Ital., x, 113, 1884. = C. sulcosa, Born., var. . . 275 
Lienardi (Pediculnria), Robillard. Trans. Roy. Soc. Maur., 

v, 1871. ? = P. elegantissima, Desh., . . . .242 
Lischkeanum (Dolium), Kiister. Conch. Cab., 71. t. 62, f. 1. 

= D. costatum, var. iimbriatum, Sowb. .... 264 
Livida (Ovula), Reeve. Conch. Ic., 63, 1865. 

= 0. variabilis, C. B. Ad 255 

Loebbeckeana (Ovula), Weink. Kiist., 197, t. 50, f. 6,7, 1881. 

= 0. variabilis, C. B. Ad 255 

Longirostrata (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. C., pt. 1, f. 46, t. 48, 

1830, . 252 

Luteostomum (Dolium), Kiister. Conch. Cab., 66, t. 58, f. 2, 261 

Macgillivrayia, Forbes (in part). Voy. Rattlesnake App., 

383. 1851. = Larval condition of Dolium. 
Maculatum (Dolium), Lam. Anim. sans Vert., Edit. Desh., 

x, p. 140. = D. costatum, Menke, var. .... 264 
Maculosa (Buccinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., iii, 78. 

= Cassis spinosa, Gronov. . . . . . .272 

Madagascariensis (Cassis), Lam. Edit. Desh.,x, p. 20. 

= C. cameo, Stimpson, . . . ... . . 268 

Malea,Valenciennes. Zool. Voy. Humboldt,ii, 324,1833, 258, 265 
Malum (Cassis), Bolt. Mus., p. 222, N. 370. 

= Cassis sulcosa, Brug 274 

Margarita (Ovula), Sowb. Thes., ii, p. 469, pi. 101, f. 93, 94, 248 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 293 

PACK. 

Marginata (Ovula), Ad. (non Sowb.). Proc. Zool. Soc., 1854, 

p 130. = Amphiperas Adamsii, Reeve, . . . 250 

Marginata (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. C.,pt. l,p. 5, f. 15, 16, 1830, 240 
Marginatum (Dolium), Phil. Zeit. Mai., 1845, p. 147. 

= D. fimbriatum, Sowb. '. . . . . . . 204 

Marginelloideum (Pachybathron), Chenu. Man., f. 1141. 
. = P. Cassidiformis, Gask. 
Marginelloideum (Pachybathron), Gask. Ann. and Mag., 

1853, p. 2, t. 12, f. 4-0, . . . 270, 283 

Marmoreum (Dolium), Schroter. Index to Mart. 

= D. oleariuni, Linn. 
Masseme (Cassis), Kien. Iconog, t. S, f. 14. 

== C. tennis, Gray, . . . 273 

McCoyi (Bi rostra), Tenison-Woods. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

Victoria, xiv, 50, 1878, 250 

Melanostoma ( Dolium), Jay Cat., 1839, p. 124, t. 8, 9 ; Brazier, 

Zool. Proc., 585, 1871 ; Pease, Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 23, 201 
Minjac (Dolium), Adanson. Seneg., t. 7, f. 0. 

= D. fimbriatum, Sowb. ....... 204 

Minuta (Cassis), Menke. Syn., 1828 ; Morch, Mai. Blatt., 

xviii, 120. = Young C. sulcosa, var. abbreviata, Lam. . 275 
Morio, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 478, 1810. 

= Cassidaria, Lam. ........ 209 

Morum, Bolten Mus, 1798. = Oniscia, Sowb. . . .270 

Mnricata (Cassis), Menke. Synopsis, 80, 1828, . . .279 

Nana (Cassis), Tenison-Woods. Proc. Linn. S. N. S. W., 

iv,p. 108, 279 

Neglecta (Ovula), C. B. Ad. Ann. Lye. N. H., v, p. 255, 

1850. = 0. avena, Sowb. . . . . . .255 

Neosimnia, Fischer. Manual de Conch , 004, 1884, . 244, 253 
Nicaensis (Ovula), Risso. Eur. Merid, iv, p. 235, f. 150. 

= O. patula, Penn 247 

Nigerinum (Oviilum), Duib. Ann. Sc. Nat., 1840, p. 180, . 250 
Nivea (Cassis), Bra/k-r. Proc Zool. Soc., 1872, p. GIG, pi. 

xliv, f. 1. = C. achatina, var. pyrum, .... 278 
Nodosum (Buccinum), Dillw. Cat. 2, p. 580. nr. 10. 

= Cassidaria echinophora, Lam. ..... 280 

Nodulosum (Buccinum), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3479. 

= Cassis vibcx, Linn., var. erinacea, Linn. . . . 277 
Nodosus (Rhomboides), Petiv. Guzophyl., t. 48, f. 10. 

= Oniscia Strombiformis, Reeve. 
Nubeculata (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Samarang, p. 

23, pi. 0, f. 12, 1850, 247 

Nucleus (Cassis), Kiist. Mart., Ch. ii, t. 52, f. 3, 4. 

= C. saburon, Ad 275 



294 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Oblonga (Bulk), Mart. Conch. Cab,, 1, f. 215, 216. 

= Ovula intermedia, Sowb. ...... 251 

Obtusa (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. Conch., pt. 1, p. 8, f. 34, 1830, 251 
Ochroleucum (Buocinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3477. 

= Cassidaria Tyrrhena, Lam. . * . . . . 280 

Olearium (I)olium), Brug. Diet. No. 1 (non Linn). . . 262 
Olearium (Buccinum), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. xii, p. 1196. 

= Dolium galea, Linn. ....... 201 

Oniscia, Sowb. Genera of Shells, 1824. . . 269, 270, 281 
Oniscidia, Swainson. Mai., 70, 299, 1840. . . . 270, 282 

Oniscus (Oniscia), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1210. . . 270, 281 
Oocorys, Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xxiii, 392, 1884. 267 
Otus, Risso. Hist, i, 122, 1826. = Pyrula, Lam. 
Oviformis (Ovula), Lam. Ann. du Mus., xvi, 110, 1811. 

= 0. ovum, Linn. ........ 246 

Ovoidea (Ovula), H. Ad. Proc. Zool, Soc., 1872, p. 10, t. 3, 

f , 4 248 

Ovula, Brugulere. Enc. Meth., 1, xv, 1789. . . 243, 246 

Ovulidte 243 

Ovulum, Sowerby. Zool. Jour., iv, 145, 1828. 

= Ovula, Brug. 
Ovum (Ovula), var. f), Gmel. Syst. Nat. Ed., xiii, p. 3422. 

= 0. tortilis, Martyn 246 

Ovum (Ovula), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1181, 1767. . 246 

Pachybathron, Gaskoin. Ann. Mag. N. Hist., xi, 356, 

1853 ... 270, 283 

Pacifica (Peducularia), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 516, 1865 ; 

Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 96, 1868. 242 

Papyratia (Pyrula), Say. Jour. Philad. Acad., ii, 238, 1822. 266 
Paradoxus (Thyreus), Philippi. Moll. Sicil., ii, 92, 1844. 

= Pedicularia Sicula, Swains. ... . 242 

Patula (Ovula), Pennant. Biit. Zool., iv, p. 117, pi. 70, f. 

85, 1777 246 

Paucirugis (Cassis), Menke. Moll. Nov. HolL, sp. p. 23, 

No. 107. = C. achatina, var. pyrum. .... 278 
Pedicularia, Swainson. Malacol., 245, 357, 1840, . . 241 
Pellucidus (Ficus), Deshayes. Jour, de Conch., 1856, p. 184, 

pi. 6, f. 1, 2. = Pyrula ficus, var. Linn 266 

Pennata (Cochlea), Rumph., t. 27, f. 6. 

= Dolium perdix, Linn. 
Pennatum (Buccinum), Gmel. Linn., p. 3476, No. 21. 

= Cassis rufa, Linn., juv. 273 

Pennatum (Dolium), Morch. Cat. Yoldi, 2058. 

= D. perdix, Linn 264 

Perdix, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 447, 1810, . . . 258 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 295 

PAGE. 

Perdix (Dolium), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1197, . . .264 
Personatum (Dolium), Mke. Syn., ed. 2, 1830. 

= D. ringens, Swains. . . ..... 265 

Pu-ifleri (Cassis), Hidalgo. Jour. Conch., 1871, p. 226 ; 1872, 

p. 143, t. 7, f. 2. = C. saburon var. Japonica. . . 275 



Phalium, Link. Rost. Sam ml., iii 

= Bezoardica, Schum., 1817. 
Pharctra (Ovula), Perry. Conch. 



112, 1807. 
t. 53, f. 2. 



269 
250 



= 0. gibbosa, Linn. 
Philippinarum (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1848, p. 136, 252 
Pila (Cassis), Reeve. Conch. Ic., sp. 21, 1848. 

== C. saburon, Ad 275 

Plesioniscia, Fischer. Man. de Conch., 660, 1884. 

= Oniscia, Sowb 270 

Plicaria (Cassia, Lain. An. s.Vert., x, 25. = C. plicata, Linn. 277 
Plicata (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1198, . . 277 
Plicosum (Dolium), Mke. Zeit. fur Mai., 1845. 

= D. ringens, Swains. ....... 265 

Plumatum (Dolium), Green. Trans. Alb. Inst., i, 132. 

= D. perdix, Linn 264 

Pomum (Cassis), Wa^n. Conch. Cab. Forts., xii, t. 223, 

f. 3084 and 3085. = C. saburon, Ad 275 

Pomum (Dolium), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1197, . . .265 
Ponderosa (Oniscia), Hanley. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1858, p. 225, 

pi. xlii, f. 9, 10. = O. exquisita, Ad. and Reeve. . . 282 
Provincialis (Pyruln), Martin. Jour, de Conch., ii, p. 249, 

pi. 8, fig. 4, 1851. Abnormal (\issidaria echinophora, 

Linn. 280 

Ptychosyca, Gabb. Proc. Philad. Acad., 294, 1876, . . 260 
Pudica (Ovula), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1854, p. 131, . 247 
Pulchella (Brugnonia), Jeff. Ann. Mag., xi, 399; xii, 67, 

1883. ? = Cassis sulcosa (fry), Brug 274 

Pulchellus (Amphiperas), H. Ad. P. Z. S., 1873, p. 206, 

pi. 23, f. 5. = 0. punctata, Duclos, var. . . .249 

Pullum (Buccinum), Born. Mus. C.V., p. 245. 

= Cassis rufa, Linn., juv. ...... 273 

Punctata (Ovula), Duclos. Mag. de Zool., 1830, p. 7, pi. 7, f. 1, 249 
Purpurea (Ovula), Risso. Kur. Merid., iv, p. 235, 1826. 

= 0. spelta, Linn 254 

Pyriformis (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. C., pt. 1, p. 5, f. 21-23, 

1830, 247 

Pyrula, Lamarck. Prodr., 1799, 258 

Pyrulina (Ovula), Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc.. 1854, p. 131, 249, 265 
Pyrum (Cassis), Lam. An. s. Vert., p. 33. 

= C. pyrum, Lam., var 278 



296 . INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Quadriseriata (Oniscia), Menke. Syn., p. 145. 

? = 0. oniscus, Linn. ....... 281 

Quinquecosta (Doliopsis), Conrad. Am. Jour. Conch., i, 

141, 1865, 258 

Radius, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 626, 1810. 

== Yolva, Bolt 244, 252 

Recurva (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Sam., p. 21, pi. 6, 

f. 3, 1848, 252 

Recurvirostrum (Cassis), Wood. Ind. Test., t. 22, f. 30, . 275 
Reevei (Dolium), Hanley. Zool. Proc., 493, 1859. 

? = D. costatum, Menke., var. fimbriatum, . . . 264 
Reticulata (Cassis), Bell (fossil). = C. saburon, Ad. . 275 
Reticulata (Pyrula), Lam. An. s. Vert., vol. ix, p. 510, . 265 
Reticulata (Pyrula), Sowb. Genera of Shells, f. 1. 

= Pyrula papyratia, Say, . . . . . . 266 

Reticulatus (Perdix), Montf., ii, p. 447. 

= Dolium perdix, Linn. ....... 264 

Rhodia (Ovula), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1854, p. 130, 248, 249 
Ringens (Dolium), Swains. Sowb., Tank. Cat., p. 21, '. 265 
Rosea (Ovula)., A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 130, 1854. 

= 0. birostris, Linn. ....... 253 

Rosea (Ovulum depressum, var.), Rossi ter. Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N. S. W., vii, 323, 1882. = 0. Philippinarum, Sowb. 252 
Rubida (Dentiora), Pease. Proc. Zool. Sot., 240, 1862, . 242 
Rotundata (Cassis), Perry. Conch., t. 33, f. 1. 

= C. tuberosa, Linn. . . . . . . .271 

Rufa (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat, ed. 12, p. 1198, . 268, 273 
Rufa (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1832, p. 173 ; Conch. 

111., p. 17. = 0. variabilis, C. B. Ad 255 

Rufum (Dolium), Blainv. Die. Sc. Nat. livr., p. 503. 

= D. perdix, Linn., var. ....... 264 

Rugosum (Buccinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3476, nr. 127. 

= C. strigata, Gmel. 277 

Rugosum (Buccinum), Linn. Mantissa, 549. 

= Cassidaria echinophora, Linn. . . . . . 279 

Rumphii (Buccinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., 3476. 

= Cassis spinosa, Gronv. ...... 272 

Saburon (Cassis), Adanson. Seneg., t. 7, f. 8, . . . 275 
Scitula (Ovula), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1854, p. 131. 

= 0. bullata, Ad. and Reeve, . . . . . 250 

Sconsia, Gray. Zool. Proc., 137, 1847, . . . 269, 280 
Scrobiculata (Cassis), Menke. Synopsis, 86, 1828, . . 279 
Scymnia, Leach. Risso, 438 ; Adams' Genera. 

= Simnia, Risso. 



INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 297 

PAOE. 

Secale (Bulla), Dill. Cat., i, p. 474, 1815. 

= Ovula acicularis, Lam 253 

Secalis (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. Conch., pt. i, f. 36, 1830, . 254 
Semicassis (Klein, 1753), Morch. Yoldi Cat., 112, 1852, 

268, 269, 274 

Semigranosa (Cassis), Wood. Ind. Test., pi. 4, f. 2, . . 275 
Semiimlum (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. Conch., pt. i, f. 40, p. 8, 

1830. == 0. secalis, Sowb 254 

Semiporcellana, Da Costa. Elem., 176, 297, 1776. 

= Ovulum, Brug. 
Semistriata (Ovula), Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, p. 96, 

pi. 11, f. 16, also P. Z. S., 1862, p. 241. 

= 0. lactea, Lam., var. ....... 247 

Semperi (Ovula), Weink. Kiister, p. 190, t. 48, f. 14, 15, 

1882, 251, 254 

Sicula (Pedicularia), Swainson. Treatise, 245, 1840, . . 241 
Similis (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 136, 1848. 

= 0. avena, Sowb 255 

Simula, Leach. Risso, Hist. Nat., iv, 235, 1826. 

= Ovulum, Brug 243 

Sinensis (Ovula), Sow. P. Z. S., 1874, p. 599, pi. Ixxii, f. 1, . 246 
Sophia (Cassis), Brazier. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1872, p. 617, 

pi. xliv, f. 2, 279 

Sowerbyana (Ovula), Weink. Kiister, 202, t. 51, f. 10-11, 

1881, . . . 253 

Spelta (Bulla), Dill., 2, p. 775, 9, 1815. 

= Ovula intermedia, Sowb. ...... 251 

Spelta (Ovula), Linn. Syst. Nat., p. 1182, 1767, . 254 

Spelta (Ovula), Sowb. (non Linn.). Spec. Conch., p. 2, f. 43. 

1830. = 0. Sowerbyana, Weink 253 

Spinosa (Cassis), Gronov. Zooph., p. 302, t. 19, f. 9, 1781, 272 
Spirintrorsum (Dolium galea, var.), de Gregorio. Bull. Soc. 

Mai. Ital., x, 114, 1884, .... .261 

Striata (Cassidaria), Lam. An. s. Vert., x, p. 10 ; Gabb, 

Proc. Phil. Acad., 361, 1875, . . . . .269,280 
Striata (Cassis) Hutton. Cat. Mar. Moll. N. Zeal., 8. 

= C. p3 r rurn, Lam., juv. ....... 278 

Striata (Cassis), Serres (fossil). = C. saburon, Ad. . . 275 
Striatella (Cassis), Grat. (fossil). = C. saburon, Ad. . 275 
Striatella (Ovula), Sowb. Spec. C., pt. i, p. 7, pi. 38, 1830, 250 
Striatum (Buccinum), Gronov. Zoophyl., p. 302, t. 19, f. 18. 

= Cassis tuberosa. Linn. . . . . . . .271 

Strigata (Cassis), Gmel. Syst. Nat., p. 3477, . . 276 

Strigosum (Buccinum), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3472. 

= Cassidaria echinophora, Lam. ..... 280 



298 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Strombiformis (Oniscia), Reeve. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1842, 

p. 91, 282 

Subleevigata (Sconsia). Guppy. Geol. Jour., xxii, p. 287, 

pi. 19, f. 10. = S. striata, Lam. . . . . 280 

Subreflexa (Ovula), Ad. and Reeve. Voy. Sam., p. 22, pi. 

6, f. 10. = 0. Philippinarum, Sovvb 252 

Subrostrata (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 136, 1848. 

= O. uniplicata, Sowb. 
Sulcuta (Oocorys), Fischer. Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xxiii, 

392, 1884, .' 267 

Sulcosa (Cassis), Brug. Diet., No. 6, 274 

Sulcosum (Buccinum), Dillw. Cat., 2, p. 584, nr. 5. 

= Doliuin fasciatum, Brug. ...... 263 

Sulphurea (Helix), Ad. Contr. Conch., 33, 41, 98. 

= Fry of Dolium perdix, L 265 

Sycotypus, H. and A. Adams. Genera, i, 198, 1853. 

= Pyrula, Lam. ........ 259 

Symnia (Risso), Kiener. Iconog. Ovulum, 24. 

= Simnia, Leach. 
Syninia (Risso), Deshayes. Anim. s. Vert., x, 474, 1844. 

= Simnia, Leach. 

Tardina (Dolium galea, var.), de Gregorio. Bull. Soc. Mai. 

Ital., x, 114, 1884, 261 

Tenue (Dolium), Menke. Syn., ed. ii, p. 143, 1830. 

= D. galea, Linn 261 

Tenuilabris (Cassis), Menke. Synopsis, p. 87, 1828, . . 279 
Tenuis (Cassis), Gray. Wood, Ind. Test. Supp., t. 4, f. 5, . 272 
Tessellata (Cassis), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3476. 

= C. spinosa, Gronv. ....... 272 

Tessellata (Cassis), Pfr. Register, p. viii. 

= C. sulcosa, Born, var. inflata, 274 

Tessellata (Pyrula), Kobelt. Kiister, Conch. Cab. Pyrula, 

t. 2, f. 3, 1874, 267 

Tesellatum (Doliurn). Encycl., t. 403, f . 3 a and b. 

Pars = D. fimbriatum, Sowb. 

Pars = D. maculatum, Lain 264 

Testardi (Doliuin), Montr. Jour. C., 1863, p. 75 and 166, 

t. 5, f. 6. = D. olearium, Linn., var. .... 263 
Testiculus (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1199, . 273 
Texta (Cassis), Bronn. (fossil). = C. saburon, Ad. . . 275 
Thomson! (Cassis), Brazier. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., i, 279 
Thyreus, Philippi. Moll, Sicil., ii, 92, 1844. 

= Pedicularia, Swains. ... . . . . .241 

Torquata (Cassis), Reeve. Conch. Ic., *p. 1, 1848, . . 278 
Tortilis (Ovula), Martyn. Univ. Conch., pi. 60, 1782, . 246 



INDUX AND SYNONYMY. 29$ 

PA OK. 

Trailli (0 vnla), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 222, 1855, . 251 
Tmnsovula, Gregorio, 1880, ... . 245 

Trifasciata (Buccinura), Gmelin. Syst. Nat., p. 3477, nr. 30. 

= Cassis sulcosa, var. inflata, Shaw, .... 274 
Triseriata (Oniscia), Menke. Syn., p. G4. 

= O. oniscus, Linn 281 

Triticea (Bnlla), Costa. Arad. et Benoit, Moll. Sicil., 302. 

= Ovula carnea, Poir. ....... 248 

Triticea (Ovula), Lam. An. du Mus., xvi, p. Ill, 1810, . 248 
Tuberculosa (Cassidaria), Schumacher. Nouv. Syst., p. 

240. = C. echinophora, Brug. 279 

Tuberculosa (Oniscia), Sowb. Gen. Shells, Oniscia, p. 2, . 281 
Tuberosa (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1198, . .271 
Turgida (Cassis), Reeve. Conch. Ic., f. 25, 1848. 

= C. achatina, Lam. . . . . . . . .278 

Tyrrhena (Cassidaria), Lam. An. s. Vert., vol. vii, p. 8, . 280 
Tyrrhena (Cassidaria), Sowb. Gen. Shells, f. 2. 

= C. echinophora, Lam 279 

Ultimus, Montfort. Conch. Syst., ii, 642, 1810. 

= Cvphoma, Bolten. 

Umbilicata (Cassis), Pease. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1800, p. 436, 279 
I'mbilicata (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 135, 1848. 

= 0. margarita, Sowb. ....... 248 

Undata (Cassis), Desh. Lam., Hist. Nat., ed. ii, Bd. 10, 

S. 28, Note. = C. strigata, Gmelin 277 

Undulata (Cassis), Humphr., p. 19, n. 317. 

= C. tuberosa, Linn. . . . . . . . 271 

Undulata (Cassis), Gmel. Syst. Nat. = C. sulcosa, Brug. 274 
rniplieata (Ovula), Sowb. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 135, 1848, . 254 

Variabilis (Ovula), C. B. Ad. Ann. Lye. N. H., v, p. 255, 

1850, 255 

Vuriegatum (Dolium), Kiister. Conch. Cabinet, t. 63, f. 1. 

= D. luteostornum, Kiist. ....... 262 

Vanegiitum (Dolium), Lam. An. s. Vert., edit. Deshayes, x, 

p. 143, 262 

Ventricosum (Buccinum), Gmelin, p. 3476, nr. 25. 

= Cassis rufa, Linn 273 

Ventricosa (Cassis), Mart., 2, 1771, f. 344-45. 

= C. suk-ata, Brug ... 274 

Ventricosa (Ficula), Sowb. Tank. Cat., xvii. 

= Pyrula decussata, Wood 266 

Verrucosa (Ovula), Linn. Syst, Nat., p. 1182, . . .256 
Vexillum (Cassidaria), Kien. Coq. Viv., pi. ii, f. 6. 

= Vexilla vexillum, Chenu, Manuel, ii, 181. . . . 279 



300 INDEX AND SYNONYMY. 

PAGE. 

Yibex (Cassis), Linn. Syst. Nat., ed. 12, p. 1199, . . 277 
Vidleri (Ovulum), Sowb. Proc. Zool. SQC., 1881, p. 038, 

pi. Ivi, f. 1. = 0. avena, Sowb 255 

Virginea (Bulla), Cantraine. = Ovula Adriatica, Sowb. . 247 

Volva, Bolten. Mus., 1798, 244,252 

Volva, Fleming. Hist. Brit. Anim., 331, 1828. 

= Sirania, Risso. 

Volva (Ovula), Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 1182, 1767, . . .252 
Vulgaris (Bezoardica), Schnm. Nouv. Syst., p. 248, 1817. 

= Cassis glauca, L. ........ 276 

Xanthostoma (Oniscia), A. Ad. Proc. Zool. Soc., 1853, p. 174. 
= 0. tuberculosum, Sowb. 282 

Zebra (Cassis), Lam. An. s. Vert., x, p. 28. 

= C. strigata, Gmel 277 

Zelanica (Cassis), Lam. An. s. Vert., x, p. 33. 

= C. pyrum, Lam 278 

Zonatum (Dolium), Green. Trans. Alb. Inst., i, p. 131, pi. 4, 263 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



OVULID^E, DOLIID^E AND 



PLATE 1. 

KHJKKK. 1'AQB. 

1. Pedicularia Sicula, Swainson. Dentition. Fischer's 

Manual, pt. 7, f. 425, 241 

2, 3. Pedicularia Sicula, Swains. Adams' Genera, t. 29, 

f. 3, 3 a, . . . . . . . .241 

4. Pedicularia Californica, Newc. Proc. Cal. Acad., iv, 

t. l,f. 9, . 242 

5. Pedicularia Japonica, Dall. Am. Jour. Conch., vii, 

t. 16, f. 12, . 242 

6. 7. Pedicularia Pacifica, Pease. Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 

t. 11, f. 17, 18, ....... 242 

8, 9. Pedicularia elegantissima, Desh. Moll. Jleunion, 

t. ('., f. 23, 24. 242 

10. vula gibbosa, Linn. Dentition. Fischer's Man. de 

Conch., pt. 7, f. 420, 243 

11. Ovula ovum, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch, f. 2, . . 246 

12. Ovula oviformis, Lam. (= ovum). Kiener, Iconog.,t. 1, 246 

13. 14. Ovula marginata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 9, 10, . 246 

15. Ovula brevis, Rve. (= marginata). Conch. Icon., f. 5 6, 246 

16. 18. Ovula Adriatica, Sowb. (= patula). Thes. Conch., 

f. 13, 14, 247 

17. Ovula patula, Pennant. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 30 a, 246 

PLATE 2. 

19, 20. Ovula tortilis, Martyn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 4, 5, 246 
21, 22. Ovula Sinensis, Sowb. (= marginata). Zool. Proc., 

t. 72, f I, 1874, 246 

23, 24. Ovula lactea, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 1, . 247 

(301) 



302 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

25, 26. O vula semistriata, Pease (= lactea). Am. Jour. 

Conch., iv, t. 11, f. 16, .... . 247 

27, 28. Ovula cristallina, Kiener (= lactea). Kiener, 

Iconog., t. 4, f. 3, 247 

29, 30. Ovula pudica, A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon , f. 6, . 247 

31. Ovula Caledonica, Crosse (= pudica). Jour, de Conch., 

t. 2, f. 1, 1872, 247 

32, 33. Ovula brevis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 70, 71, . 248 
34, 35. Ovula margarita, Sowb. Ibid., f. 93, 94, . . 248 
36, 37. Ovula bulla, Ad. and Rve. (= margarita). Conch. 

Icon., f. 20 .248 

38, 39. Ovula nmbilicata, Sowb. (== margarita). Reeve, 

Ibid., f. 14, .... . . 248 

40. Ovula ovoidea, H. Ad. (= margarita). Zool. Proc., 

t. 3,f. 4, 1872 248 

41,42. Ovula nubeculata, Ad. and Reeve. Conch. Icon., 

f. 12, 247 

43, 44. Ovula pyriformis, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 72, 73, . 247 

45. Ovula pyriformis, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 9 a, 247 

46, 47- Ovula bimaculata, A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., 

f. 11, 248 

48-50. Ovula carnea, Poiret. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

74-76, 248 

51-52. Ovula triticea, Lam. (= carnea). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 51, 52, . 248 

PLATE 3. 

f>:5, 54. Ovula rhodia, A. Ad. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 18 a, 6, 249 
55, 56. Ovula fruticum, A. Ad. Reeve, Ibid., f. 16 a, 6, . 249 
57, 58. Ovula pyrulina, A. Ad. Reeve, Ibid., f. 19 a, 6, . 249 
59, 60. Ovula concinna, Ad. and Reeve. Reeve, Ibid., f. 

21 a, 6, 249 

61-63. Ovula punctata, Duclos. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

90-92, 249 

64. Ovula alabaster, Reeve (== punctata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 23 6, 249 

65, 66. Ovula Adamsi, Reeve. Ibid., f. 24 a, ft, . . 249 
67, 68. Ovula bullata, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 26 a, 6, . 250 
69, 70. Ovula scitula, Adams. (= bullata). Reeve, Ibid., 

f. 29 a, 6, 250 

71, 72. Ovula frumentum, Sowb. Reeve, Ibid., f. 25 a, 6, . 250 

73. Ovula pulchella, H. Ad. (= punctata, var.). Zool. 

Proc., t. 23, f. 5, 1873, 249 

74. Ovula Cumingi, Morch (= concinna). Morch, Cat. 

Kjerulf.,t. l,f. 11, 249 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 303 

FIGUKK. PAGE. 

75, 76. Ovula striatula, Sowerby. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

28 a, 6, 250 

77, 78. Ovula dorsuosum, Hinds. (= striatula). Ibid., f. 

27 a, ft, 250 

79, 80. Ovula dcntata, Ad. and Reeve (= striatula). Ibid., 

f. 36 a, ft, 250 

81, 82. Ovula gibbosa. Linn. Reeve, Ibid., f. 32 a, ft, . 250 

83. 84. Ovula emargirfata, Sowb. Reeve, Ibid.,f. 34 a. ft, . 251 

85, 86. Ovula intermedia, Sowb. Ibid., f. 33 a, ft, . . 2.~>1 

87, 88. Ovula obtusa, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 22, 23, . 251 
89 Ovula Indiea, Reeve (== obtusa, var.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 47ft, 251 

90, 91. Ovula Trailli, A. Ad. Reeve, Ibid., f. 38 a, ft, . 251 

PLATE 4. 
92, 93. Ovula longirostra, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

40 a, c, 252 

1)4,95. Ovula volva, Linn. Thes Conch., f. 67, . . 252 
96, 97. Ovula recurva, Ads. and Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 

54 a, ft, 252 

98, 99. Ovula gracilis, Ads. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 61 a, ft, . 252 
100, 1. Ovula Philippinarum, Sowb. Reeve, Ibid., f. 46 a, ft, 252 
2. Ovula Carpenteri, Du-nker (= Philippinarum). Moll. 

Maris Japon., t. 13, f. 1, 252 

o, 4. Ovula Angasi, A. Ad. (= Philippinarum). Conch. 

Icon., f. 48 a, ft, 252 

5. Ovula depressa, Sowb. (= Philippinarum). Zool. Proc., 

t. 2-1, f. 1, 1875, 252 

6, 7. Ovula subreflexa, Ad. and Reeve (== Philippinarum). 

Conch. Icon., f. 55 a, ft, 252 

8. Ovula deflexa, Sowb. ( =Philippinarum). Ibid., f. 56 ft, 252 

9. Ovula Adamsii, Bunker (= Philippinarum). Moll. Ma- 

ris Japon., t. 13, f. 3, .... 253 

10, 11. Ovula birostris, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon.,f. 45 a, ft, 253 

12. Ovula aperta, Sowb. (= birostris). Thes. Conch., f. 107. 253 

13, 14. Ovula rosea, A. Ad. (= birostris). Reeve, Conch. 

Icon.,f. 44 a, ft, 253 

15, 16. Ovula Formosa, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 39 a, ft, . 251 
17. 18. Ovula hordacea(=Semperi,Weink.). Reeve, Ibid., 

f. 37,o,6, . ... 251 

PLATE 5. 

19. Ovula hordacea (= Semperi, Weink). Thes. Conch., 

f. 112, 251 

20, 21. Ovula lanceolata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

59, a, 6, 253 



304 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

22. Ovula coarctata, Ad. and Reeve. Ibid., f. 57 a, . . 253 

23. Ovula acicularis, Lain. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 43, . 253 

24. 25. Ovula acicularis, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 53 

a, 6, 253 

26. Ovula spelta (= Sowerbyana, Weink.). Ibid., f. 42, 6, 253 

27. Ovula spelta (= Sowerbyana, Weink.). Sowb., Thes. 

Conch., f. 63, 253 

28. 29. Ovula secalis, Sowb. Ibid., f. 26, 27, . . . 254 

30. Ovula seminulum, Sowb. (= secalis). Conch. Icon., f. 

48 a, 254 

31. Ovula Borbonica, Deshayes. Moll. Reunion, t. 13, f. 18, 254 

32. 33. Ovula spelta, Linn. Kiener, Coq. viv., t. 5, f. 4, . 254 
34-36. Ovula hordacea, Lam. Ibid , t. 6, f. 6, . . . 254 
37, 38, Ovula formicaria, Sowb. (= hordacea). Conch. 

Icon.,f. 52 a, 6, 254 

39. Ovula uniplicata, Sowb. Reeve, Ibid., f. 51 a, . . 254 

40. Ovula uniplicata, Sowb. Thes. Conch., f. 31, . . 254 

41. Ovula Antillarum, Reeve (= uniplicata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 64 a, 254 

42. Ovula subrostrata, Sowb. (= uniplicata). Thes. Conch., 

f. 39, . 255 

43. Ovula arcuata, Reeve (= uniplicata). Conch. Icon., 

f. 58 6, 255, . 255 

44. Ovula variabilis, C. B. Ad. (= uniplicata, var.). Kiis- 

ter, Conch. Cab , t. 53, f. 2, . ... . 255 

45. Ovula Californica, Reeve. (= uniplicata, var.). Conch. 

Icon., f. 50 6, 255, 255 

46. Ovula iequalis, Sowb. (= uniplicata, var.). Conch. 111. 

Cypraea, f. 61, . 255 

47. Ovula livida, Reeve (== uniplicata, var.). Conch. Icon., 

f. 63 6, 255 

48. Ovula rufa, Sowb. (= uniplicata, var.). Conch. 111. Cy- 

praea, f. 58, ' . 255 

49. Ovula inflexa, Sowb. ( =uniplicata, var.). Ibid., f. (50, 255 

50. Ovula Lobbeckeana, Weink ( = uniplicata, var.). Kiis- 

ter, Conch. Cab., t. 50, f. 7, 255 

51. Ovula avena, Sowb. Conch. 111. Cyprrea, f. 59, . . 255 

52. Ovula sirailis, Sowb. (= avena). Thes, Couch., f. 29, 255 

53. Ovula similis (= avena). Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 49 a, 255 

54. Ovula neglecta, C. B. Ad. (= avena). Reeve, Ibid., f. 

62 a, . 255 

55. Ovula Vidleri, Sowb. (= avena). Zool. Proc., t. 56, f. 

1, 1881 255 

56. 57. Ovula verrucosa, Linn. Sowb., Thes. Conch., f. 

78, 79, . 25(5 

58. Ovula verrucosa, Linn. Quoy, Yoy. Astrol, t. 47, f. 8, 256 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

D O L I I D 

i 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

1. Dolium perdix, Linn. Dentition. Troschel, Gel 

. 
ix, Linn. Jaw. Ibid., t. 19, f. 1, . . 257 

3. ; a, Linn. Kiener, Iconog.,t. 2, f. 2, . . 261 

4. Dolium i . Jay. ,' ., 3d edit., t. 9, . 261 
Dolium melanostom: e, Conch. Icon., f. 2, 261 

: oiu-h. Cab., t. 58, . . 261 

PL A 

Dolium Japonicum, Dunker (=luteostoma). Dunker, 

Novitates Conch. 261 

Dolium olearium, Br ner, Iconog., t. 1, f. 1 a, . 262 

im Cunr ; um). Conch. Icon., 

f. 3, - - - - 262 

rium, var.). Conch. 

tt., f. 13 tf, ... . .262 

11. Dolium Testardi, Morch (= olearium, var.). Jour, de 

Conch., t, 5, f. 6, 1863, . .262 

iterosato. Ibid., t. 12, f. 1, 

. 263 

PLA; 

>im, Lam. K< rve, Conch. Icon., f. 7 6, 262 
Dolium Chinense, Dilhv. (= variegatum). 

. 

17. L2a, 263 

,rum, var. fhnbri- 
., t. 02, f. 1, . 264 

PJ 

Doliuni ( .i:\tum). 

t. i 

20. Dolium ampull: 1 ", Men! 

Neii- 2113 

21. Dolium >or, 

Icoiio.u'., t. 3, f. 4, 

22. Dolium ' 

Icon., f 



306 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 



FIGURE. PAGE. 

23,24. Dolium perdix, Linn. Embryo and young. Fisci 

Jour, de Conch., t. 6. f. 7, 1863, 
25. Dolium perdix. Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol., t. 41, f. 1, 

PLATE 5. 

2(>. Dolium pomum, Linn3 Reeve, Conch., Icon., f. 6, 

27. Doliurn 

t. 4, f. 7, . 

28. Pyr (= reticulata, Lam.), Ibid., 

. 

29. Pyrula ficus, Linn. Ad: 1!1 g)t. 9, 

Dussumieri, Yal. Reeve, Icon., Ficula, f. 2, . 

llata, Kobelt. K la, t, 2, f. 3, . 27 

32. Doliopsis quinquecosta, Coin -lour. Conch., i, 



t. 10, f. 15, 









33. Pyrula clathrata Rouss. (= roticulata). Chenu, 111. 

Conch., t. 2, f. 3, 

34. Pyrula ventricosa, Sowb. (= decussaata). Kiei; 

Pyrulajt. 12, f. 2, 

35. Pyrula reticulata, Lam. (== papyratia). So^vb., G< 

Shells, Pyrula, f. 

36. Pyrula ficus, Linn. ' So\vb., Thcs. Conch., iv,t. 423, f. 4, 206 

37. Pyrula pellucida, Desh. (-. Jour. deCon< 

ier.,i, t 6, f. 1, . . . 

38. Pyrula licoides, Lam. (= reticulata). Dentition. 

schel, Gebiss Schneck., t. 20, f. 1*2, . . .258 
39-41. Ooeo d Smith (= sulcati 

Trans'. Conn. Acad., vi, t. 31, f. 12, 
42. Oocorys sulcata, .Fischer. Manuel de Co 8, 

36, .267 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 307 

CASSIDID^E. 



PLATE 1. 

'IOURE. PAGE. 

43. Opcrculum of Cassis. Fischer's Manuel, pt. 7, f. 413, . 268 

44. Cassis saburon, Adans. Dentition, Fischer's Manuel, 

pt. 7, f. 412, i>fi8 

45. 46. Cassis cornuta, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 2, f. 3, . 270 
47, 48. Cassis flammea, Linn. Ibid., t. 3, f. 5, . . .271 

PLATE 2. 

40. Cassis cornuta, Linn. Reeve, Icon., f. 2, . . . 270 

50. Cassis cameo, Stimpson. Tryon, Am. Mar. Conch., t. 

8, f. 67, 271 

51. Cassis tuberosa, Linn. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 7, .271 

52. Cassis coarctata, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 14, 272 

53. Cassis tennis, Gray. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 13 c, . 272 

54. Cassis testiculus, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 9, f. 17, 273 

PLATE 3. 

55. Cassis fimbriata, Quoy. Kiener, Iconog., t. 4, f. 6, . 272 
50. Cassis crumena, Brug. Reeve, Icon., f. 10 a, . . 273 
57, 58. Cassis rufa, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 7, f. 12, . 273 

59. Cassis lactea, Kiener (= sulcosa, var. abbreviata). 

Ibid., t. 16, f.35, 274 

60. Cassis semigranosa, Wood. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 3, 275 

61. Cassis abbreviata, Lam. (=sulcosa, Brug.). Ibid.,f. 18a, 274 

PLATE 4. 

62. Cassis spinosa, Gronov. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 96, . 272 

63. Cassis testiculus, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 9, f. 17, . 273 

64. Cassis sulcosa, Brug. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 30, . 274 

65. Cassis inflata, Shaw (= sulcosa, var.). Ibid., f. 22, . 274 

66. 67. Cassis recurvirostrum, Wood (= sulcosa, var.). 

Ibid., f. 16 a, 6, 274 

68, 69. Oniscia tuberculosa, Sowb. Ibid., f. 5 6, . .281 

70. Oniscia Strombiformis, Reeve. Ibid., f. 2, . . . 282 

PLATE 5. 

71. Cassis abbreviata, Lam. (= sulcosa, Br.). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 186, . . . . . .274 

72. Cassis canaliculata, Brug. Ibid., f. 8, . . . . 275 

73. Cassis canaliculata, Brug. Kiener, Iconog., t. 14, f. 28, 275 



308 REFERENCE TO PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAOB. 

74. Cassis saburon, Adans. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 11 a, . 275 

75. Cassis pila, Reeve (= saburon. var.). Ibid., f. 21, .275 

76. Cassis Japonica, Reeve (= saburon, var.). Ibid., f. 23, 275 

77. Cassis Pfeifferi, Hidalgo (= saburon, var.). Jour, de 

Conch., t. T, f. 2, 1872, 275 

78. Cassis bisulcata, Schub. et Wagn. (= saburon, var.). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. (' b, ... 275 

PLATK 0. 

79. Cassis glauca, Linn. Reeve. Conch. Icon.,f. 33, . . 276 

80. Cassis glauca, Linn. Quoy, Voy. Astrol , t. 43, f. 9, , 276 

81. Cassis coronulata, Sowb. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 31, . 276 

82. 83. Cassis exarata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 32, . .276 

84. Cassis areola, Linn. Kiener, Iconog., t. 10, f. 19, . 276 

PLATE 7. 

85. Cassis zebra, Lam. (= strigata). Kiener, Iconog., t. 

10, f. 18, 276 

86. Cassis plicaria, Lam. (= plicata). Ibid., t. 6, f. 11, . 277 

87. 88. Cassis decussata, Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 

46,c-, . 277 

89. Cassis vibex, Linn. Ibid., f. 156, . . . .277 

90. Cassis vibex, var. erinacea, Linn. Ibid., f. 15 d, . 277 

91. Cassis vibex, vnr. kalasmodix, Melvill. Author's 

drawing, . . . 278 

92. 93. Cassis torquata, Reeve. Conch. Icon., f. 1 6, c, . 278 

PLATE 8. 

94. Cassis achatina. Lam. Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 286, . 278 

95. Cassis turgida, Reeve (= achatina). Ibid, f. 25 c, . 278 

96. 97. Cassis pvrum, Lam. (= achatina, var.). Ibid., f. 

29 a, &, , . .278 

98. Cassis nivea, Brazier (= achatina, var. pyrum). Proc. 

Zool. Soc., t. 44, f. 1, 1872, 278 

99. Cassis Sophia, Brazier. Ibid., t. 44, f. 2, 1872, . . 279 
100. Oniscia exquisita, Ad. and Reeve. Reeve, Conch. 

Icon., f. 3, 282 

1-3. Pachybathron Cassidiforme, Gaskoin. Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., t. 12, f. 1-3, 1853, . . . .283 

4, 5. Pachybathron Margin elloideum, Gaskoin. Ibid., t. 

12, f. 4, 0, 1853, 283 



REFERENCE TO PLATES. 309 

PLATE 9. 

FIGURE. PAGB. 

('.. Cassidaria Deshayesii, Duval. Jour, de Conch., t. 1, 

f. 9,180:*. . 280 

7. Cassis paiutiruiyis, Mke. (= achatina, var. pyrum). 

Reeve, Conch. Icon., f. 19 a, . . . ' . .278 

s. Cassis glabrata, Bunker. Novit. Conch., t. 11, f. 1, . 279 

9. Cassidaria echinophora, Linn. Kiener,Iconog.,t. l,f. 2, 279 

10. Cassidaria echinophora, Linn. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 

54, f. 5, 279 

11. Cassidaria provincialis, Martin (= echinophora, mon- 

str.). Jour, de Conch., ii, t. 8, f. 4, . . . 279 

12. 13. Cassidaria Coronadoi, Crosse. Jour, de Conch., t. 

4, f. 1; t. 5, f. 1, 1807, 280 

PLATE 10. 

14. Cassidaria Tyrrhena, Lam. Kiener, Iconog., t. 1, f. 1, 280 

15. Cassidaria striata, Lam. Ibid., t. 2, f. 3, . . .280 

16. Cassidaria Grayi, A. Ad. (= striata, Lam.). Zool. 

Proc., 1854, t. 28, f. 6, 280 

17. Cassidaria ( Barbudensis, Higgins and Marrat. Proc. 

Lit. Philos. Soc. Liverpool, xxxi, t. 1, f. 1, . .281 

18. Oniscia oniscus, Linn. Kiister, Conch. Cab., t. 55, f. 5, 281 

19. Oniscia Lamarckii, Desh. (= oniscus, var.). Reeve, 

Conch. Icon., f. 1, 281 

20. Oniscia Dennisoni, Reeve. Ibid., f. 6, ... 282 

21. Oniscia cancellata. Sowb. Ibid., f. 4, . . . . 282 

22. Oniscia ponderosa, Hanley (=exquisita). Zool. Proc., 

1858, t, 42, f. 10, . " 282 



TEREBRID^E. 



PLATE 1. 




TEREBRID^E. 



PLATE 2. 




26 



^?% >v 

tf&'w ^\ 

Ml 

- m i 







TEREBRIDJE. 



PLATE 3. 




44- 4-6 



TEREBRIDuE. 



PLATE 




06 67 



71 



., 




TEREBRIDvE. PLATE 5. 

4 




73 ,^_ ^^ 

m^m zamM 7Z 

74 ''' 

76 



79 

80 



82 



85 



89 90 91 



TEREBRIDvE. PLATE 6. 




W9 94 

95 




98 
97 



100 




9S 







TEREBRID^E. 



PLATE 7. 




TEREBRID.E. 



PLATE 8. 




TEREBRIDJE. 



PLATE - 



54 



69 




70 



TEREBRID^E 




TEREBRID^E. 



PLATE 11- 








10 



13 





18 




c ; IT? 




TEREBRIDJE. 



PLATE 12. 



I 



25 




29 




CANCELLARHD^E. 



PLATE 1. 







CANCELLARIIDyE. 




29 



CANCELLARIIIX<E. 




\w 




L\ 



CANCELLARIID^E. 




67 



CANCELLARIIE^E. 




CANCELLA RIID^E. 



PLATE 6. 




CANCELLARIID^E. 



PLATE 7. 




10. 




14-. 




12. 



13. 





19 



w 

16. 





24. 




28. 



30. 



STROMBID.E. 



PLATE 1. 




. 



STROMBID^E 




STROMBID^^E. 







il 

PLATE 3. 



#iiTV\ > 

i 



30. 





if 

^ 



% 



24. 







PLATE 4. 







45. 



41. 



44. 



42. 



STROMBID^E 







53. 



STROMBIDJE. 




STROMBID^E. 



PLATE 7. 




STROMBID^E 




STROMBID^E. 




STROMBLDJE. 



PLATE 1O. 




STROMBIDJE. 



PLATE 11. 




STROMBIDJE. 

A 




CYPRJEID^E 




PLATE 2. 




13 



CYPRJEID^E. 




CYPRJEID^E. 



PLATE 4. 




38 



w 

4-0 



.^ 



*-r ^ 

43 44 



I 



45 



W 



4-2 





41 



39 



t/^'^fc > j^ 

ill 3 

'^ ^" CT^ 

^UA^ua ^Br ^!r 



r <MJU<a 

4-6 4-7 



48 ' 49 





93 



PLATE e. 




PLATE 7. 




CYPR^EID^E. 




CYPRJEIDvE. 




31 



CYPR^IDJE. 




PLATE 11. 





70 



CYPR^ETD^E. 



PLATE 13. 




CYPRJEIDJE. 



PLATE 15. 




jo 

PLATE 16. 




59 



62 



PLATE 17. 




CYPR^EID^E. 



PLATE 18. 





35 



PLATE 2O. 




CYPR^EIDvE. 




67 








77 




82 







71 72 




78 




89 




94 95 







69 





84- 85 




90 91 



98 99 




100 



PLATF, 21. 





70 






74- 75 



76 





81 





86 



87 





92 93 





96 



97 



t 




CYPR^EIDvE. 







Ma 

I 



O k : - .. .- 




11 




13 





15 



16 




17 





i) 

25 





20 










29 30 



31 32 





35 36 




PLATE 22. 



t 

9 10 







18 19 





23 





28 





33 





37 



38 



39 



CYPRJETD^E. 



* 

PLATE 23. 



40 4-1 




46 



4-7 42 43 






64- 



65 



/Ik 







68 




PLATE 1. 




^/ 

fc 



OVULID^E. 














PLATE 2. 










I 



37 





44- 







b'i 52 



4-8 




t 

50 









55 56 






74 7 ; 

57 58 




PLATE 3. 




59 60 






A 



53 54 







61 62 






73 



." V, 



67 68 





87 88 



90 91 



OVTJL.ID.aS. 



n 

PLATE 4. 




'1C 



11 



17 18 




- 



CASSIDID^E. 



PLATE 1. 




<&iIFO^ 



CASSIDIDJE. 




CASSIDIIX^E. 




66 



PLATE 5. 







73 




CASSIDID^E. 







84 



83 



PLATE 7. 




TJNH SITY 




CASSIDID^E. 



PLATE 8. 




CASSIDID^E. 



PLATE 9. 




CASSIDID^E. 




PLATE 1. 




DOLIIDJE. 



PLATE 3. 




DOLIID^E. 




DOLIID^E. 



PLATE 5. 







^^^^ 

^ ^^^ 



: 



DOLIID^E. 





39 






r:r 

>; 



14 DAY USE